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An integrated water resource management approach to mitigating water quality and quantity degradation… Allé-Ando, Yapo 2005

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An Integrated Water Resource Management Approach to Mitigating Water Quality and Quantity Degradation in Xalapa, Mexico By Yapo Alle-Ando  B.Ing., Ecole Polytechnique, 2001  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  Master Of Applied Science In THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Civil Engineering).  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A March 2005  © Yapo Alle-Ando, April 2005  Abstract  Population growth in Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, is exerting increasing pressure on the water supplier, C M A S Xalapa, to provide sufficient water of adequate quality. However, the quality of the water sources during the wet season is increasingly degraded with more frequent turbidity peaks of greater intensity. There is also less water available during the dry season. This thesis focuses on Xalapa's main supply source, the Huitzilapan River, as a case study for assessing adequate mitigation measures.  It provides a good  understanding of the water supply issues and stakes for Xalapa.  It also provides a  synthesis of the available information on the Upper Huitzilapan as well as an assessment of the challenges and opportunities facing the implementation of an integrated water resources management approach. In this thesis it is argued that efficient and sustainable solutions to Xalapa's water supply issues should not be uniquely of technical nature but addressed through adequate planning and management. While forest conservation and reforestation of the supply watershed are obvious and suggested solutions for mitigating increased pressure on the water supply to Xalapa, the method proposed in this thesis to achieve this goal is an integrated water resource management (IWRM) approach. It is recommended that a water council be created to implement the I W R M plan and to act as a network for cooperation, knowledge sharing and consensual decision-making.  Keywords: Integrated Management, Water Resources, water supply, watershed, Xalapa, Huitzilapan River.  Table of Content Abstract  '.  :  ii  Table of Content.....  iii  Table of Tables  vi  Table of Figures  vii  List of Acronyms  viii  Acknowledgements  x  1.  Introduction  1  2.  Sustainable Water Management: Concepts, Principles and Framework for Action....3 2.1.  The Concepts  5  2.2.  Conditions for Success  8  2.2.1.  Knowledge  2.2.2.  Human Factor  11  2.2.3.  Institutions  12  2.3.  .'  Guiding Principles for sustainable water management  2.3.1.  Guiding Principles  Framework (process)  2.4.1.  Documentation  2.4.2.  Diagnosis  2.4.3.  Recommendation  17 21 21 .....22 22  3. ' Water supply assessment and demand predictions  4.  13 14  2.3.2. • Key Elements to a sustainable water management framework 2.4.  .9  24  3.1.  Demographic pressure  26  3.2.  Water quantity and distribution capacity  27  3.3.  Water Supply Predictions for Xalapa  30  Study Watershed: the Upper Huitzilapan  36  4.1.  Natural (physical) setting  38  4.2.  Climate  39  4.3.  Soils  41  4.4.  Vegetation Cover and Land Use Changes  42  - iii -  4.5. 5.  6.  48  5.1.  Impact on water yield  49  5.2.  Impact on water quality  51  5.2.1.  Turbidity  52  5.2.2.  Erosion  53  5.2.3.  Consequences of Land Use Changes  55  Water Resources in Xalapa: Challenges and Opportunities  58  Implementing an integrated approach: the challenges  59  6.1.1.  Physical state  59  6.1.2.  Human Factor  60  6.1.3.  Knowledge  62  6.1.4.  Institutions  64  6.2.  8.  .45  Land use changes impacts on water yield and quality  6.1.  7.  Socio-economic situation  Implementing an integrated approach: the opportunities  65  6.2.1.  Physical state  ....66  6.2.2.  Human Factor  66  6.2.3.  Knowledge.....  69  6.2.4.  Institutions....  70  Requirements for Implementing the I W R M Approach  73  7.1.  Planning for sustainable water supply sources  74  7.2.  Facilitate communications, exchanges, knowledge sharing  76  7.3.  Create an information management system  77  7.4.  Generate value  78  7.5.  Education and Capacity Building  80  Suggested Alternative for a Sustainable Water Resources Management in Xalapa.. 83 8.1.  The Xalapa Water Council  84  8.2.  Xalapa Water Council: Vision, Mission and Objectives  8.3.  Guidelines for Setting up the Xalapa Water Council  8.3.1.  Identification of a Project Leader  8.3.2.  Summary description of the supply watersheds  8.3.3.  Preliminary Draft of the Water Council Mandate  - iv -  ....85 88 -.  89 i 89 90  9. 10.  8.3.4.  Search for Community Support and Mission Statement validation  91  8.3.5.  Creation of a Provisional Board of Governor  92  Conclusions: Summary and Future Work Bibliography  93 96  Appendix A - Guiding Principles For Water Management  104  Appendix B - Photographs  109  -v-  Table of Tables  Table 3.1.  Population growth rate of the city of Xalapa, the state of Veracruz and  Mexico  25  Table 3.2. Water Source Intake Flow Capacities  28  Table 3.3. Water demand in Xalapa according to different sources.  32  Table 4.1. Land Uses of the Upstream Catchments of the River La Antigua  44  Table 6.1. Challenges and Opportunities  58  Table 8.1. Example of target stakeholders/agencies or institutions per activity sector and their relative importance  90  - vi -  Table of Figures  Figure 2.1. Schematic view of the building blocks of this thesis  9  Figure 3.1. Historic and predicted population growth for Xalapa and growth rate statistics for Xalapa, the Veracruz State and Mexico Figure 3.2.  26  (a) Xalapa's Major Water Supply Sources Locations and (b) its relative  position in Veracruz and Mexico  29  Figure 3.3. Water Supply Capacity of C M A S Xalapa  30  Figure 3.4. Water Supply Deficit and Percentage of Population affected expressed in terms of the a) average growth rate and the b) 2000 growth rate  34  Figure 4.1. Study watershed: (a) The Upper Huitzilapan (b) and its relative position to Xalapa and in Mexico  37  Figure 4.2. Upper Huitzilapan Watershed: Socio-Demographic Statistics on Population, Literacy and Employment  46  - vn -  List of Acronyms  12years+  Twelve years old and older  15 years+  15 years old and older  18 years+  18 years old and older  BMP  Best Management Practices  CAEV  Comision de Agua del Estado de Veracruz (Veracruz State Water Commission)  CMAS  Comision Municipal de Agua y Saneamiento (municipal commssion . for water and sanitation)  CNA  Comision Nacional de Agua (national water commission)  CONAFOR  Comision Nacional Forestal (National Forest Commission)  DIDEFO  Direction de Management)  FBC  Fraser Basin Council  G R M project  Great Rivers Management project. Original name in French: projet de Gestion des Grands Fleuves.  ha  Hectare.  IAHS  Internation Association of Hydrological Science  INEGI  Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia ... (National Institute of Statistic, Geography and Computer Science)  IWRM  Integrated Water Resources Management  Ips  Liters per seconds  lpd  Litres per day  lpd/capita  Litres per day per person  masl  Meters above sea level  MXN  Mexican Pesos (at the time of the field trip, the exchange rate was approximately 1 USD for 9 M X N or 1 C A D for 12 M X N  NGO  Non-Governmental Organization  NTU  Nephelometric Turbidity Units  PUB  Predictions in Ungauged Basins  RC  Resource Center  Desarrollo  - viii -  Forestal  (Forest  Development  ROBVQ  Regroupement des organisations de bassin versant du Quebec (grouping of Quebec's river basin agencies; translated by the author)  SD  Sustainable Development  SSC  Suspended Sediment Concentration  UN  United Nations  UNDP  United Nations Development Program  WRM  Water Resources Management  WTP  Water Treatment Plant  Xawaco  Xalapa Water Council  - ix -  Acknowledgements I would like to thank and acknowledge my thesis supervisor, Dr. Bernard Laval (Department of Civil Engineering - University of British Columbia (UBC)), for his guidance, open mindedness and continual support throughout the research and writing of this thesis. I would also like to thank and acknowledge the significant contribution of Dr. Barbara Lence (Department of Civil Engineering - U B C ) and Dr. Francois Anctil (Department of Civil Engineering - Universite Laval) for their guidance and support, especially with respect to the Mexican case study.  I would also like to acknowledge the important contribution of a number of individuals in Xalapa, Mexico, without whom this thesis would not have been possible. For their help in understanding the water issues in Xalapa and gathering information for this research, I would like to thank Dr. Ernesto Juarez Loera from the Universidad Veracruzana; Ing. Roberto Angeles Salgado, Ing. David Lozano Laez, In. Andres Lucido Mora, Ing. Isidro Pio, and Ing. Gloria Angelica Jimenez Mora at CMAS-Xalapa; Arq. Joaquim Saucedo, Biol. Rosa Virgen, and Ing. Vladimir Leon Sanchez at H . Ayuntamiento, Medio Ambiente; Ing. Andres de la Rosa Portilla at CONAFOR; Lie. Roberto Cuevas Salmones and Med. Vet. Rafael Bonilla at CMAS-Coatepec; Profesora Liliana Carbajal and Ing. Jose Abelardo Hoyos Ramirez at CEDRO; and Qui. Maria Isela Torres and Ing. Rebecca Tognola Rojas at CNA-Xalapa.  - x-  1. Introduction Xalapa, the capital of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, is located in the foothills of the Sierra Madre mountains, approximately 120 km from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico coast, at 1460 masl or meters above sea level (Gonzalez Hernandez, 2001). It is one of the oldest cities in Mexico being founded during the 14 century. The identity of the th  indigenous founders of Xalapa is not known with certainty . However, it is generally 1  agreed upon that during the 14  th  century, four separate settlements (the Xallitic,  Tecuanapan, Techacapan, and Tlalnecapan) merged into one town named Xallapam, or "spring in the sand", which was later renamed Xalapa. The original name of Xalapa is emblematic of the importance of water for its people then and now. In fact, a survey identified drinking water as the most important service to Xalapenos (Gonzalez, 2001). 2  Fortunately, the state of Veracruz is blessed by one of the most abundant rainfall and available blue water sources in Mexico. There is no shortage of freshwater in the state 3  of Veracruz nor are there any predictions for shortage for the next 20 years.  This  situation is in stark contrast with other areas of Mexico, especially the northern arid states. However, Veracruz State currently faces problems of water supply and sanitation. Many brooks and rivers from the various supply watersheds around Xalapa have disappeared only to return during the rainy season because of land use changes (CMAS, 2002). Additionally, runoff has increased and soils are increasingly exposed to erosion. This is not the result of a drastic climate change in the region as there have been no significant variations in the distribution and quantity of precipitation (CMAS, 2002). Rather it is a consequence of increasingly more land dedicated to agriculture and pasture as well as a reduction of forest cover. These are manmade issues resulting from a lack of appropriate planning in the development, of the region and inadequate. management of land uses. Mitigating deteriorating water quality and decreasing low flows should be  ' Some believe the Totonac were the very first settlers, others have suggested the Toltecas. (More can be found on Xalapa's official website: www.jalapa.gob.mx). Xalapenos is the Spanish term for citizens of Xalapa The term blue water is often used to refer to fresh surface and ground water (Hofwgen, 2004)  2  3  addressed through management changes rather than technical ones. It is therefore urgent to develop programs dedicated to the conservation of the forest cover and management of land use changes (CONAFOR, 2004) as.well as to create a culture of water resources management that is sustainable and efficient. This thesis proposes a new paradigm of integrated management for water resources to be the most appropriate and sustainable approach to mitigate the current water supply issues of Xalapa.  Chapter 2 reviews the (controversial) debate on sustainable development and integrated water resource management (IWRM) without delving in-depth into its analysis . The 4  considerations for a successful implementation of an I W R M approach, its guiding principles and key elements are also presented. They will be used to design a framework for the evaluation of the water supply situation in Xalapa, the analysis of the challenges to implement an I W R M approach, and the recommendation of an alternative solution. Chapters 3 through 5 present the water supply issues and challenges for Xalapa as well as provide information on Xalapa's most important supply watershed and the challenges affecting its development, water quality and water yield.  Chapter 6 assesses the  challenges and opportunities for implementing an integrated management approach and chapter 7 presents the essential actions needed for its implementation in Xalapa. Chapter 8 presents the recommendations for improved and efficient management that addresses the challenges identified in this thesis.  The suggested approach to the current  management of water resources in Xalapa is inspired by successful Canadian experiences in British Columbia and in Quebec. Chapter 9 is a summary of the thesis and of future research that may be undertaken in Xalapa to further develop the local capacity to address the water supply issues in a sustainable way.  The scope of this debate is two-fold, on one hand there is a debate on the definition of sustainability while on the other, its application to water resources in the form of the IWRM approach is also subject to interpretations. The debate in itself is beyond the scope of this thesis. 4  -2-  2. Sustainable Water Management: Concepts, Principles and Framework for Action Many solutions are possible for mitigating the problems of increasing drinking water demand, land use changes and the resulting negative impact on water supply to Xalapa. One common approach is to propose technical solutions based on sound science and engineering practices. For example, Prud'homme and Greis (2002) assessed the Best Management Practices (BMP) developed to reduce non-point source pollution in the southern United States. Sediments were identified as the greatest concern for non-point source pollutant and were most often the result of forest industry practices. As a result, BMPs were established as the cornerstone of the forestry community's approach to eliminate or mitigate the impacts of their operations on the erosion process.  The  recommendations were technical in nature, for example, methods of forestry road design for efficient removal of storm runoff, and improvement of the road networks (Prud'homme and Greis, 2002; Swift, 1998).  A similar approach could be used to mitigate the suspended sediment problem in the water sources used for Xalapa's drinking water supply . However, this could be a short5  sighted approach since the design of BMPs is not the real problem as there already exists one institution, the national forest commission (CONAFOR), that addresses land management practices and soil erosion mitigation measures.  As such, one of their  mandates is to educate and train farmers of upstream catchments on the most appropriate farming practices.  The real problem resides in the decision-making process and the  implementation of sustainable solutions such as reforestation, or forest harvesting.  Internationally water experts have recognized that the scope of environmental issues is much broader than their scientific and technical aspects (Carley and Christie, 2000; Burton, 2001). Environmental issues are "quintessentially political" (Carley and Christie, It was assessed by Bridger (2003a) that the major risk to Xalapa's drinking water was high turbidity events. It will be shown in Chapters 4 and 5 that land uses influence soil erosion, which in turn affects sediment concentration in streams. 5  -3 -  2000) and inextricably linked to economic and social equity issues. They all must be considered together (Meppem and Gill, 1998). In fact, Burton (2001) notes that although hydrological knowledge and other scientific information are important, they are a relatively minor element in the management of water resources since decisions are taken in the political sphere using a political logic. Consequently, results in water management "are often obtained without scientific information and frequently by the political suppression of technical information" . 6  The approach proposed in this thesis to mitigate the water supply issues in Xalapa is grounded  in the new paradigms  developed internationally for water  resource  management. This thesis does not propose ground breaking technical solutions, since one has likely already been devised . Instead, it underlines the need to adopt a new mentality 7  and to demonstrate a more progressive approach regarding water resources issues: an integrated approach based on sound principles of sustainable development (Burton, 2001; Cheret, 2004; Cosgrove and Rijsberman, 2000; Dorcey, 1987, 1991; Falkenmark et al, 1999; Figueres et al, 2003; Guerquin etal, 2003). A new generation of water managers is needed, with new mindsets that can develop and implement innovative policies and practices. [...] Business as usual is no longer a viable option. [...] The future solutions of current and emerging water problems need to span across regions, disciplines and stakeholders, and should be viewed within an intergenerational framework  8  In this chapter, the concepts of sustainable development and integrated water resource management (IWRM) will be developed further. principles will also be presented.  Conditions for success and guiding  They will be used to design a framework for  evaluating, analyzing and recommending alternative solutions to the water" supply issues of the Xalapa case study.  It sets up the basis on which to design a framework for  Author's translation from French In a report on worldwide actions taken to improve the water resource management and water services, the World Water Council has recognized that "For every water problem it seems that someone somewhere has devised [an engineered] solution or is developing one" (Guerquin etal, 2003) Source: Figueres et al. (2003)  6  7  8  -4-  evaluating, analyzing and recommending alternative solutions to the water supply issues of the Xalapa case study.  2.1.  The Concepts  The following is a brief definition and explanation of sustainability and how it is applied to water resources as an IWRM approach.  Sustainable Development  Since the 1992 Rio de Janeiro conference on the environment, the concept of "sustainable development" has become popular.  To most, "development" is often  equated with economic growth and "sustainable" implies the conservation of ecosystems and social considerations such as reducing injustices and the redistribution of wealth. Ultimately, sustainable development is also perceived with respect to duration and the common understanding is that i f development is performed in a sustainable manner, economic growth will be carried on "indefinitely", the environment and ecosystems will be conserved and social inequities will disappear. However, an operational definition of sustainable development is perceived differently depending on the pole considered (economic, environmental or social) as well as one's own viewpoints and perceptions (Dorcey, 1991). A complex issue such as this one is "viewed differently by parties with varied interests" (Meppem and Gill, 1998).  The debate on what sustainable development means and how it can be implemented is not recent. Yet, there is a general lack of agreement around its definition (Meppem and Gill, 9  1998).  The definition most often used, and officially adopted by the U N and other  The debate on the definition of sustainable development is beyond the scope of this study and will not be discussed here. However, it should be mentioned that according to Figueres et al. (2003), the debate is considered ideological. They argue that the conflict is over interests, opinions, or interpretations rather than on the substance of the definition, which refers to the need to reach a balance between the economic, social and environmental interactions. 9  -5-  international development institutions is the one presented in 1987 by Gro Harlem in the Brundtland Commision (WCED, 1987). It defines the concept-of development in broad general terms: Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.  This definition very succinctly captures the essence of a concept that links today's actions with their impact in the future and draws attention to the interdependence of environmental, economic and social systems (Dorcey, 1991). It implies a "directional change by which a system improves through time" (Gallopin, 2003). The success of this definition is due to its general scope and the fact that it appeals to all. In effect, the ambiguity of the W C E D (1987) definition addresses varying interests, viewpoints and perceptions (Meppem and Gill, 1998; Figueres et al, 2003).  The implication of sustainable development for water resource management is not as straightforward due to the debate over the definition itself. However, sustainable water resource  management  should recognize the interdependence  of three  systems  (Environmental, economic, and social) and foster transdisciplinary learning and interdisciplinary interactions.  Water Resource Management  The management of water resources has changed drastically over the past 20 years. Previous management models failed to respond to the combined pressure of an accelerated and increasing demand as well as a constant degradation of the water quality sources for supply systems (Burton, 2001).  In effect, many of the worst cases of  environmental degradation can be explained by human mismanagement rather than environmental and natural phenomenon (Falkenmark et al, 1999; Figueres et al, 2003; Guerquin et al, 2003).  There is a water crisis today. But the crisis is not about having too little water to satisfy our needs. It is a crisis of managing water so badly that billions of people - and the environment - suffer badly.  10  The debate on appropriate management has shifted from a technical approach that relied on engineering capabilities to modify or alter the hydrological cycle to an integrated approach focused on the interconnection between water resources, human behaviour, policies and practices as well as the need to generate cooperation among fragmented disciplines and water uses. In essence, this new paradigm incorporates and integrates the principles of sustainability as it recognizes the interdependence of the three systems elaborated earlier and the need to develop methods - or processes - ensuring long-term viability. Literature concerning the new management methods and an integrated approach abounds. However, in this case, as for the sustainable development debate," there is some consensus on the vision underlining an integrated approach and an obvious lack of agreement concerning its application and implementation. In effect, there is no unique approach that will suit every interest. On the contrary, solutions will emerge from the sharing of diverse experiences. To delve into this debate is beyond the scope of this thesis. Consequently, the major principles of an IWRM will be presented in order to develop an appropriate framework deemed to suit the Xalapa case study.  The  subjectivity of this approach is recognized but necessary and unavoidable. The challenge facing the elaboration of a management framework is to propose a (comprehensive) set of practical principles for implementation (Burton, 2001) and it involves exercising great judgement (Dorcey, 1991).  This innovative integrated approach implies a deliberate move from a fragmented approach where management is usually divided according to activity sectors. The expected change from a traditional approach to an integrated one, much of it difficult, should not be done at once but "is incremental and builds on what already exists" (GWP, 2004) and can be corrective. The I W R M concept is a basin-wide approach emphasising the relationship between - and integration of - water and land uses, water and socio-  10  Source: Cosgrove and Rijsberman (2000)  -7-  economic choices, as well as water and the environment. It is explicitly recognized that river basins are almost never confined within administrative - or geo-political boundaries. The inextricable relationship between water and land uses is also recognized as decisions on land uses will affect water resources and decisions on water resources will affect land uses and the environment (Burton, 2001; Cosgrove and Rijsberman, 2000) . Additionally, decisions on "our economic and social future, currently sectoral and fragmented, affect hydrology and the ecosystems in which we live" (Cosgrove and Rijsberman, 2000).  A s a result, using the river basin as the appropriate scale for  managing water resources has become a "universally agreed upon principle" (Burton, 2001) underlying the I W R M approach.  The I W R M concept also implies that  stakeholders participate and are involved in the decision-making processes, that institutions coordinate their efforts, and that water has an economic value in all its competing uses, and should be recognised as an economic good.  Figure 2.1 shows schematically how to understand this thesis, the following sections and chapters as well as their relationship with each other. In essence, the I W R M guiding principles are the foundation on which this thesis rests. The three conditions for success are the pillars on which an alternative management plan can be successfully developed and implemented.  The final building block is the water council, an appropriate  alternative sustainable management scheme as suggested in Chapter 8.  The following sections discuss the conditions for success of an I W R M plan, the principles on which the framework is made, and the framework itself.  2.2.  Conditions for Success  The I W R M approach is not a magic bullet solving all potential problems.  On the  contrary, it is a process for collaboration and cooperation between private and public institutions as well as with the public (stakeholders).  Consequently, there are three  elements to consider for ensuring a successful management plan: the need for knowledge (and information), the human factor and the institutions.  Figure 2.1. Schematic view of the building blocks of this thesis.  2.2.1.  Knowledge  The need for knowledge in the I W R M approach is essential and varied. According to Burton (2001; translated by the author): The principal underpinning of the IWRM approach is knowledge of the water resources in terms of quality, quantity, uses and the characteristics of the ecosystems in which human activities and natural phenomenon must coexist in a sustainable manner.  Universities and research agencies are the best providers of knowledge as they can generate adequate information through acquiring, analysing and coordinating the primary data necessary for good empirical work (Figueres et ah, 2003).  It is important to differentiate knowledge from data acquisition. Knowledge is defined as "information in use" (IRC, 2004). This definition goes beyond simple data acquisition and considers its purpose.  In other words, it emphasizes the. "human resource  management" (IRC, 2004). Knowledge should be understood in its broadest meaning (Burton, 2001), encompassing  scientific knowledge (incorrectly associated with  "expertise"), popular and traditional knowledge, as well as the expertise of the stakeholders, whether they are water managers, farmers or recreational users. Tapping into non-traditional expertise is highly beneficial in cases where insufficient scientific information could hinder adequate decision making. It was noted by Burton (2001) that "in situations where [scientific] information is incomplete, fragmented  and not  synthesized, a group of skilled managers can establish the adequate assessment of a situation, identify priorities and design a realistic action plan".  In his experience, a  successful I W R M approach does not need an extensive data acquisition process as it relies on adequate knowledge rather than complete and extensive knowledge. He also stresses the importance of qualitative information. Management processes should not be postponed because of a lack of (quantitative) information as "information will always be incomplete" (Burton, 2001; translated by theauthor). On the contrary, managers should have an opportunistic attitude when facing information shortages and take advantage of existing local expertise and knowledge.  It is often the only existing knowledge and  tapping into local authorities when searching for knowledge generally facilitates future cooperation, especially if they have been involved early in the process (Burton, 2001).  The need for information and knowledge must be defined first and then an appropriate data acquisition system can be designed. Too often, an important proportion of limited resources are spent on producing data "that is not linked closely to decision making and [...] that is not used at all" (Burton, 2001). Non-traditional knowledge must also be considered. For example, a directory of key individuals could be created generating a pool of experts that can be tapped into when designing an IWRM plan.  Additionally, information must be easily accessible to stakeholders and knowledge should be shared. Knowledge is considered as a form of power and is not always easily  - 10-  shared, however, sharing is a necessity. There is a great need for "collective memory banks" such as Resource Centres (RC) as they can provide adequate support encouraging "openness and knowledge sharing" (IRC, 2004). The RC should be a focal point where information is shared and easily accessible to all stakeholders as well as providing a network through which individuals can exchange and share knowledge.  2.2.2.  Human Factor  The human component of an I W R M approach is key to its success. In effect, the I W R M is a novel approach to water management that requires substantial changes in the way people think about water (Cheret, 2004; Figueres et al., 2003). It relies on the social adaptive capacity of the communities where the I W R M approach will be implemented as well as the interaction skills of the participants and the presence of "champions" at both political and administrative levels.  The concept of social adaptive capacity refers to "the set of norms and attitudes people have" to accept change (Figueres et al, 2003). This concept has a social component that is the ability and willingness of a community to "absorb" change and to accept the measures to be taken. It also has an intellectual component in the capacity to acquire and process data and information as well as the capacity to'harness technology (Molle, 2003) . 11  At the community level, it is imperative that efforts in building capacity are included in the I W R M plan. In Molle's (2003) study of the development of river basins, it is argued that the adaptive capacity of a society should be considered as a resource and that the lack of it should be considered as a "second-order scarcity, in addition to the physical firstorder [water] scarcity". Education and engaging communities in the elaboration and  In Molle (2003) it is also argued that there is a need for a strong and diverse economy as well as capital availability and institutional capacity to devise measures and to reinforce them. 11  - 11 -  implementation of the I W R M plan through public participation is generally the favoured method to build social capacity.  At the individual level, there is a need to improve the interaction and communication skills between the stakeholders, especially amongst the water specialists^ and decision makers. Knowledge management studies (IRC, 2004) recognized that "most people in organizations obtain their information [and knowledge] from face-to-face meetings or in conversations".  Additionally, managing water resources is increasingly challenging,  complex and requires more cooperation and collaboration from the water specialists and decision makers. Consequently, the nature of the interactions and the way in which they occur are critical to developing a successful I W R M approach.  In a study on the  cooperation in water resource management (Dorcey, 1987) it was assessed that success depended on the "productive interaction of the people involved, their ability to communicate effectively, challenge constructively and bargain successfully".  In fact, many (Biswas, 1996; Burton, 2001; Dorcey, 1987) argue that beyond the political will required to seriously consider and push for the implementation of an I W R M approach, "champions" make the real difference as they have the conviction, energy and will to collaborate and create the necessary partnerships and institutional arrangements. Dorcey (1987) also noted the importance of interaction skills and the substantial impact one person can have in a collaborative process: Equally striking as the effects of these weaknesses in individuals' interaction skills is the impact on the productivity of water resource management of individuals who have good [communication, interactive and negotiation] skills.  2.2.3.  Institutions  Too frequently, management in the water sector is fragmented.  It is usually divided  according to activity sectors. Cooperation between institutions - public and private - is minimal and collaboration between the stakeholders non-existent.  - 12-  Therefore it is  paramount to setup efficient cooperation mechanisms.  "What is often lacking in an  organization is a supportive culture that encourages openness and knowledge sharing" (IRC, 2004). Institutions should be used to manage, foster and facilitate relationships between stakeholders, particularly between water specialists themselves and with decision makers. They should encourage knowledge and information sharing as well as public participation in order to tap into the local expertise, knowledge and experiences. Institutions should also provide mechanisms for resolving conflicts among stakeholders through negotiation and principle-based bargaining.  The creation of a new institution overseeing the integrated management of water resources is not necessary, as it would require a great deal of efforts both administratively and politically to set it up with no real promise of improvements on the ground. It would also necessitate a reorganization of how already existing institutions cooperate and interact. Instead, Burton (2001) suggests focusing on the operations themselves - and their functions - as they are not fulfilled by an individual institution alone but are the result of a "coexistence of competences and initiatives [...] in search of a consensus" by multiple institutions. The implementation of an I W R M approach could be obtained at the very least by regular informal meetings with the stakeholders. However, this approach relies heavily on good will.  Optimally, a structured collaboration, such as Action  Networks (Carley and Christie, 2000), can be implemented between the various institutions. Carley and Christie (2000) have defined the Action Networks approach as a broad partnership of equal players from an eclectic group (voluntary organizations, NGOs, private and public institutions, etc.) that "focuses on the goals of its management and research tasks and engages in a regular, critical review of its progress towards those goals".  2.3.  Guiding Principles for sustainable water management  I W R M is a process oriented approach - rather than an end in itself - with considerations to water-related development issues and problems involving the entire stakeholder  - 13 -  community in a consultative process (GWP, 2004; Meppem and Gill, 1998). It is based on a set of principles that will guide decision-making processes and management practices.  Some principles are general in nature while others are more specific to a  region, organization or culture. As a result, this section presents suggested principles and key elements to integrate in the design of a framework for action that apply to the Xalapa water management issues. In effect, it is important that governing principles be "homegrown" and developed through the participation of the stakeholders (Bakker, 2003). Consequently, guiding principles will differ from one IWRM program to another. Selected examples of diverse guiding principles for water management are included in Appendix A .  2.3.1.  Guiding Principles  The principles developed in this section are considered essential as they are found in most integrated management approaches.  The four general principles suggested here are  paramount for the application of an integrated management approach in Xalapa. They are listed in no particular order. •  A n eco-systemic approach  •  Stakeholder participation  •  Cooperation  •  Consensus-based decision-making  An eco-systemic approach  The eco-systemic approach is also referred to as the holistic approach. This approach considers the ecosystem as a complex open system in which numerous andvery dynamic interrelations exist between different sub-systems - land uses and water quality, for example - sharing a finite amount of water. Consequently, the watershed (also referred to as catchment) is the most appropriate scale for management and decision-making. Humans are an integral part of the basin's ecosystem and depend on it for their  - 14-  livelihood.  Therefore, it is not the basin itself that should be managed but human  activities in the basin (Burton, 2001). Similarly, it is not a resource that is managed but its use, and by extension, the users. As a result, there must be greater emphasis on the integration of science and politics or, in other words, in bringing science and politics together. Emphasis must also be placed on the sustainable use of water.  Stakeholder participation  The search for solutions and their implementation has a greater chance of long-term success i f stakeholders are involved. Stakeholders must be integrated into the decisionmaking process. Users and managers at all levels must have an input (RBA, 1999) in the elaboration, implementation and monitoring of the I W R M plan.  This innovative  principle is essential and central to I W R M approaches and is widely discussed in the literature (Bakker, 2003; Burton, 2001; Carley and Christie, 1999; De Camino, 1999; Falkenmark et al., 1999; Figueres et al., 2003; Guerquin et al., 2003; GWP, 2004; IADB, 1998; UNDP, 2003; R B A , 1999; W C E D , 1987). Decision-making processes relying solely on a top-down approach generally fail to generate adequate local, or "grass-root", 12  enthusiasm and participation for a viable implementation of any I W R M plan. Similarly, approaches relying solely on bottom-up or grass-root initiatives generally fail to generate the political will and institutional momentum needed to implement efficient solutions to water issues. The implementation of an I W R M approach requires the "constructive articulation of [...] top-down approaches [and] bottom-up [...] initiatives" (Gallopin, 2003) that is found through adequate stakeholder participation. parties  with  varying interests  perceive  complex issues  Additionally, since  differently,  stakeholder  participation will ensure that a common understanding of complex issues is obtained through education of all parties involved.  In other words, stakeholder participation  generates a "joint reality" through "mutual learning" (Figueres et al, 2003) hence facilitating the formulation of common objectives for an implementation plan.  Top-down approaches - also referred to as a "command and control management" (Carley and Christie, 1999) - are generally understood as decisions made at the top of a hierarchical decision-making structure and imposed to the rest the structure. Conversely, a bottom-up initiative comes from the -local or "ground level" of such structure and is "pushed up" to the higher management or decision-making authority. 12  - 15 -  Cooperation  Cooperation between relevant institutions is key to the success of the I W R M approach. Interactions between institutions from all relevant sectors must be encouraged and facilitated. Efforts must be made to open communication channels and share information and knowledge between the different institutions, with the stakeholders and the general public in "ways appropriate to differing attitudes, needs and comprehensions of those involved" (Dorcey, 1987). It is also suggested that the chances of successful cooperation are improved when the interaction skills of the participants are improved (Dorcey, 1987).  Consensus-based decision making  Successful cooperation is possible only i f conflict resolution techniques are embedded in the management process. In effect, cooperation between differing sectors, institutions and interests assuredly leads to conflicts of interests and different perceptions.  It is  therefore important to structure interactions and establish a decision-making process that will achieve successful outcomes. There is a need to shift conflict resolution away from a positional bargaining (adversarial in nature) as the decisions taken in such manner will favour a "winner" and be inconvenient to a "loser" in a win-lose situation (Fisher and Ury, 1991). It is increasingly necessary to foster a novel approach that relies less on the legal system, such as arbitration, water rights, mediation, etc., and more on a negotiated approach for coming to mutually acceptable agreements.  The preferred approach increasing the chances of success of the IWRM approach is when conflicts are resolved through principled negotiation and bargaining. Solutions are then obtained from consensus-based decisions made through multi-stakeholder participation. Outcomes of a consensus-based decision making process are more successful and generate better buy-in to projects since they create a "win-win" situation (Fisher and Ury, 1991). Additionally, it helps in creating and fostering better relationships between the stakeholders, which will in turn favour collaboration.  - 16-  2.3.2.  Key Elements  to  a  sustainable  water  management  framework.  In addition to the General Principles developed above there are key elements to consider in the elaboration of an IWRM framework for the Xalapa case study. The key elements presented below were inspired from the outcomes of an international workshop on river basin management held in preparation for the Second World Water Forum. During this workshop experts from all over the world exchanged experiences on sustainable river basin management and identified "lessons" to be learned from these experiences (RBA, 1999).  Not all of the key elements are developed fully since some are relatively  straightforward.  Leadership and political commitment Strong leadership and political commitment are essential to overcome a "traditional" management that is typically "characterised by parochial interests and intractable problems" (RBA, 1999). As noted in Figueres et al. (2003), good water management has "everything to do with skilled and capable water managers". As Biswas (1996) observed, an. institution can become very efficient when it is lead by a good leader , and return to 13  an inefficient one when the leadership changes for an inefficient leader.  Thus,  identifying a project "champion" appropriately and cautiously can increase the chances of success of the project.  Learning from previous experiences It was recognized earlier that "for every water problem it seems that someone somewhere has devised a solution or is developing one" (Guerquin et al, 2003). It is therefore important to learn from past regional, national and international experiences, from the successes as well as the failures. This is especially important i f successful local solutions have already been implemented.  13  Biswas (1996) does not provide a definition of a good leader in his article.  - 17-  Transparency of Process  Corruption is widely recognized as a serious water management problem (Guerquin et al, 2003). As a result, an I W R M initiative could be perceived as an attempt to increase political capital instead of genuinely mitigating water issues.  Hence it is of utmost  importance to design a transparent process that is credible for the stakeholders, that operates with a measure of independence while ensuring accountability to the public and all stakeholders and that operates efficiently and effectively (Dorcey, 1997). Transparency ensures that everyone in the [catchment], even when they don't participate directly, can clearly understand how and why a particular decision was made. Transparency requires that both the information and the process used to make a decision be readily available to the public.  14  Financing  It is important to secure adequate funding from the outset, as this is a complex, difficult and time-consuming process.  It should be one of the first considerations of the  stakeholders. They should all contribute to the funding effort as each has an interest in achieving a successful outcome and will be more accountable to its progress towards sustainability. There are many ways to achieve this. Some methods rely on outside sources, i.e. on a "variety of collaborative partnerships [to bring] substantial additional monetary and in-kind resources" (Dorcey, 1997). Others internalize the cost of providing drinking water of adequate quality, i.e. adjusting the cost of drinking water to its real value (Guerquin et al, 2003). For example, in Coatepec, Mexico, funding is obtained from a combination of raising tariffs (water price) and relying on external sources (Cuevas and Bonilla, 2004 Pers. Comm.; see Section 6.2 of this document).  Long-term capacity building  The ability and capacity of individual stakeholders, entire communities or institutions to accept and adapt to change, and harness new technologies must be developed.. This is generally obtained through training and education at all levels on the three elements of  14  Source: FBC (1997)  - 18-  Capacity Building. .  Hence the necessary emphasis on education for a successful  implementation of any integrated approach.  Building an institutional water memory It is recognized that "water knowledge" should be shared between stakeholders and contribute to "mutual learning" (Figueres et al., 2003). This will create the necessary cohesion for cooperation among institutions and stakeholders. • It also ensures long-term continuity in a changing political and social climate. At the institutional level, insuring continuity is essential in order to avoid "reinventing the wheel" in cases when disruptive events, such as an administration change, occur.  Facilitation and conflict resolution Negotiation and facilitation are key concepts for improving cooperation in water resource management (Dorcey, 1987). Facilitation should be the preferred method for conflict resolution and the preferred decision-making approach should be consensus reached through principled negotiation (Fisher and Ury, 1991). Effective facilitation in conflict situations arising between stakeholders is closely related to the interaction skills of the participants.  Consequently, improving these skill sets should also be a priority.  Facilitators can be chosen from within the stakeholders or from an independent third party. The latter option is perceived to be the most objective. A facilitator's role should be: "to stimulate, organize, and synthesize the thinking of the group so that it can reach consensus. Sometimes an agreement to disagree may be the best that can be attained, but the facilitator .helps the group go as far as it can "  ,6  Clear Mandate To facilitate the implementation of an I W R M plan, the goals and objectives must be clarified in order to limit misunderstandings and aid comprehension. It is important for The term capacity building is recent. It was defined in 1991 during a symposium organized by the UNDP as "having three elements: an enabling environment with appropriate policy and legal frameworks; institutional development, including community participation; and human resources development and strengthening of managerial systems" (Tortajada, 2001). Source: Thomas (1995) 15  16  - 19-  stakeholders to have as clear a vision as possible of "where we are heading and why [and understand] what we wish to accomplish" (dark and Munn, 1986).  Realistic, adaptive plans Management plans must be flexible to adapt to changing circumstances and be responsive to changing needs (RBA, 1999). Flexibility will also enable plans and to evolve with experience.  Prioritization of actions (Zones of intervention) It is important to prioritize the actions that need to be taken. Necessary improvements are identified comparing what should be in place with what is already in place (Nokes and Taylor, 2003) and what can be done. This is a realistic way to allow for improvements to be made immediately when resource limitations (financial or other) do not allow for full implementation of a management plan.  Monitoring and evaluation A monitoring program is key to assessing the success of an I W R M plan. Monitoring and evaluation systems should focus on access to services and the functioning, use and reliability of these services (or systems) instead of on the infrastructure itself (UNDP, 2003). In other words, it should assess how infrastructures are working and i f they are successful at what they were designed to do, rather than measuring if they are working. A good monitoring program needs regular evaluations and follow-up to provide adequate feedback on the implementation of the I W R M plan.  As was explained in the  considerations for success (Chapter 2.2.1.) an ill conceived monitoring program would focus on data collection rather than creating information. Consequently, monitoring programs need not be highly sophisticated or highly technical. They need to be applied to the challenges and conditions of the watershed that are targeted by the implementation of an IWRM plan (Burton, 2001). Additionally, the collected data should also be shared and organized to be easily accessible (user-friendly).  -20-  2.4.  Framework (process)  The framework developed in this thesis was inspired by results from the project "Gestion des Grands Fleuves" (Great Rivers Management or GRM). The nature and essence of this project, as presented in Burton (2001), is transferable to the Xalapa case study since the main objectives of the G R M project were to build capacity and train water managers from the South using management tools and practices developed in the North but adapted to the needs of the South . The chapters of this thesis are structured to further develop 17  the specific aspects of the frameworks phases.  The framework consists of 3 phases: Documentation, Diagnosis and Recommendation. The first phase consists of gathering data to generate information and knowledge. The second phase focuses on understanding the challenges and the opportunities for the development of alternative management plan and the areas of the existing management processes that need to be improved with respect to the management principles developed above. The third phase develops the recommendations for a sustainable water resource management in Xalapa.  2.4.1.  Documentation  In this phase, the synthesis of available information provides the basis for understanding the water supply issues and risks, and designing a management alternative.  Since  available information is the cornerstone of this process complete knowledge of the system studied is not expected. One should be ready to make the best of the available information, even when qualitative, and to tap into local knowledge. However, critical thinking and common "engineering" sense should be used to identify reliable information (Burton, 2001).  It was initially designed for but not restricted to the Francophonie countries (Association of francophone countries). The project started in West Africa before being extended to Southwest Asia and East Africa. 17  -21 -  The documentation phase is developed in three chapters and is aimed at providing an assessment of the water supply availability and demand in Chapter 3, providing information on Xalapa's principal supply watershed in Chapter 4, and providing an understanding of the impact of the land use changes from that watershed on the water yield and quality in Chapter 5.  2.4.2.  Diagnosis  In the documentation phase, the information and knowledge generated relate more to the technical aspects of the system in which an I W R M approach is to be implemented. In this diagnosis phase, the decisions underlying the actions taken and the actions themselves are analyzed. This phase focuses more on socio-economics and political aspects. The end result, or output, is the identification of actions that must be changed or implemented in order to obtain a sustainable management of water resources.  The diagnosis phase is developed in two chapters of this thesis. It is aimed at identifying the challenges and opportunities facing the implementation of an integrated management approach (Chapter 6) and at defining what needs to be changed or implemented (Chapter 7).  2.4.3.  Recommendation  The synthesis of the previous two phases (documentation and diagnosis) lead to a recommendation for implementing change and a suggested alternative for sustainable water resource management. The alternative developed in this phase should incorporate the sustainable and I W R M philosophy as well as the principles outlined in this chapter.  -22-  The recommendation phase is developed in Chapter 8.  It will present the suggested  alternative to current management (or mismanagement) of Xalapa's drinking water sources in the form of a water council.  -23 -  3. Water supply assessment and demand predictions Since the founding of thefirstsettlements in Xalapa, the supply of water was provided by the springs and rivers flowing in and around the city. In the 1950's, as the Macuiltepetl Hills were being populated, water supply was provided by a regulating tank and water pumps. Later it was determined that using the springs of the Cofre de Perote, located at 2950 masl, was the best option for supplying water to Xalapa.  Since then, the  distribution system has relied principally on a gravity fed system, except for few areas at higher elevations that needed pumps. The increasing water demand of the 1980's, partly due to increasing demographic pressure, forced the three levels of government (municipal, state, and federal) to supply Xalapa with water from the neighbouring state of Puebla (Gonzalez Hernandez, 2001).  Consequently, construction of the Huitzilapan-  Xalapa aqueduct and water intake plant began in 1989. A river intake was built on the Huitzilapan River near the municipalities of Quimixtlan and Rafael J. Garcia.  In 1991, a decentralized institution for the management of water was created at the municipal level: the Sistema de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado of Xalapa.. In 1994, this institution became the Comision Municipal de Agua potable y Saneamiento (CMAS). It has adopted the following Mission, and Service Quality Policy (CMAS, 2004;):  Mission  18  To satisfy the necessities and expectations of the users, offer water and services of quality, make the effort to reach to all, thus generate value and contribute to increase the standard of living of our employees, the municipal commission, the communities and the environment.  Service Quality Policy  18  ...We are committed to systematically raising the quality of our processes, products, service and the environment; prevent errors and make a habit of continuously improving, with the aim of satisfying the necessities and expectations of the user.  18  The Mission and Service Quality Policy statement was translated from Spanish by the author.  -24-  Since its creation, C M A S as well as the previous water service institution has been faced with a constant increase in water demand due to a strong population increase coupled with an inadequate use of the available resources (H. Ayuntamiento, 1995). Following the publication of a planning document for Xalapa's water resources in 1995 (H. Ayuntamiento, 1995), substantial changes have occurred.  For example, when the  Huitzilapan-Xalapa project was completed it doubled the water withdrawals from the Huitzilapan river from 500 litres per seconds (Ips) to 1000 Ips (full capacity of installations). In addition, the C M A S Xalapa is in the process of identifying the leaks in their distribution network and replacing old pipes. However, insufficient attention has been placed on the development of what is considered by many (CMAS, 2002; CONAFOR, 2004; Jimenez Mora, 2004 Pers. Comm; De la Rosa et al, 2004 Pers. Comm.) to be the "fabrica de agua", or water factory, i.e. the watersheds and their forest cover. As a result, serious concerns regarding the supply of drinking water in Xalapa remain. In essence, two major stressors can be identified: an increasing demand linked to demographic growth, and a change in the water yield and water quality due to land use changes in the water supply catchments to Xalapa. The first stressor is discussed in this chapter while the land use changes will be discussed in Chapter 5.  Table 3.1. Population growth rate of the city of Xalapa, the state of Veracruz and Mexico. Xalapa  State of Veracruz  Mexico  (in%)  (in%)  (in %)  23  3.1  1950-1960  Z8  '  1960-1970  5.6  3.4  3.3  1970-1980  5.3  3.5  5.4  1980-1990  3.2  1.5  1.2  1990-2000  2.9  1.0  0.7  Average  33  2~S  2?7  Sources: INEG1 2004; 1NEG1 2001; INEGI 1995; INEGI 1990; H.Ayuntamiento, 1995  - 25 -  3.1.  Demographic pressure  The population of Xalapa has been growing constantly over the past 50 years. The city's average growth for this period is significantly greater than the national Mexican and State of Veracruz average. The latter two have tendencies and averages similar to each other. Table 3.1 shows the population growth rate for Xalapa and compares it to the state and national average. Figure 3.1 shows the population growth rates as well as the population increase of Xalapa for the past 50 years and predicts the population for the year 2010 using two growth rates: the 2000 growth rate and the past 50 year average growth rate, which is significantly higher. Since the growth rate has been declining during the past 15 to 20 years it can be expected to eventually reach the national and state averages. Two distinct periods can be identified. The most significant growth occurred during the first  600000 x  500033 +  400000 4c o •B  m 3 0 0 0 0 0 4-  I  204594  2300 30 4122377 10COOO  712S0  54039  1950  1960  1970  1980  Xalapa Population predictions with 2000 growth rate Population predictions with average growth rate  1990 —+—  2303  2010  G r o w t h rate X a l a p a  Growth rate State of V e r a c r u z - • A — Growth rate Mexico •«•«"" Average growth rate for Xalapa ——— Average growth rate for Mexico  Sources: INEGI 2004; INEGI 2001; INEGI 1995; INEGI 1990; H.Ayuntamiento, 1995  Figure 3.1. Historic and predicted population growth for Xalapa and growth rate statistics for Xalapa, the Veracruz State and Mexico.  -26-  period corresponding to the 30 years from 1950 to 1980 with growth rates exceeding 5% during the 1960's and 1970's.  Although population growth has generally increased  across Mexico during this time, the enhanced growth in Xalapa can be explained by a migration from rural areas and by conurbation with the smaller, neighbouring municipalities (H.Ayuntamiento, 1995). The second period, from 1980 to present, is characterized by a significant fall in the population growth rate to values of 3%. It is predicted that by 2010 or shortly thereafter the population in Xalapa will reach the half million.  3.2.  Water quantity and distribution capacity  When construction started on the Huitzilapan-Xalapa aqueduct, it was predicted that the Huitzilapan River would be able to provide the 1000 Ips capacity for which the aqueduct was being built (CNA, 1987a; 1987b) until at least the year 2010. However, the authors of the reports on construction progress (CNA, 1987a) admitted there was insufficient hydrological knowledge and data on the discharge of the river was scarce (translation from Spanish by the author):  In the supplied information, it is not mentioned the basis on which the available discharge for diversion was determined, however it was determined that only some sporadic discharge measurements were made in the months of April and May corresponding at the end of the dry (low water) period. A discharge in the order of 1250 Ips was obtained. In reality, information is scarce but it gives the idea that there will be a discharge of 1000 Ips available.  The maximum water distribution capacity of the distribution network of the C M A S Xalapa, as presented by Bridger (2003a), is summarized in Table 3.2. The distribution capacity varies throughout the year with seasonal meteorological fluctuations. Reliable hydrographs for each water source could not be obtained due to data limitations. Figure 3.2 shows the location of each intake. -27-  Table 3.2. Water Source Intake Flow Capacities  Surface Water  Capacity (Ips)  Huitzilapan River  1000  Medio Pixquiac River  250  Xocoyolapan River  100  Cinco Palos River  100  Groundwater Cofre de Perote Spring  250  E l Castillo Spring  60  Agua Santa Spring  12  Agua Fria Spring  26  Techacapa Spring  5  Source: Bridger (2003a)  The total capacity of the water distribution system is 1833 Ips, with the Huitzilapan River supplying approximately 55%-60% of the entire system.  When this source intake is  reduced to 50% of its capacity (500 Ips) for a long enough period, approximately 25-30% of the Xalapa population can lack water (Pio, 2004 Pers. Comm.). Historical data shows that the distribution system almost never funcions at its total capacity. Figure 3.3 shows the water supply capacity of C M A S Xalapa for the years 1998, 2000, 2001 and 2003. Data from other years was either non-existent or incomplete. The data are referred to as "monthly averages" but were obtained from a few data points taken each month and assumed to be representative of the monthly average.  In the past, the total capacity of the distribution system was less than 1833 Ips. In fact, it is only since 2001 that the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) received 1000 Ips from the Huitzilapan-Xalapa aqueduct . Prior to 2001, it only received and treated 500 Ips. As a 19  19  More details on the distribution system can be found in Bridger (2003a)  -28-  result, the total capacity of the system was of 1333 Ips.  The effective capacity was  approximately 90% of the total capacity. For example, the annual supply average in 1998 and 2000 was approximately 1200 Ips, and in 2001 and 2003 it was approximately 1600 Ips.  Scale 1:250 000  0  a)  10 Km —i  XALAPA (Cab. Mpal)  Cofre de Perote  "Agua S a n t a * Rio Medio Pixquiac* Agua FriaK , . { " " ' Rio Socoyoiapan#" ;  Wk  1  *  Tecnacapa  Rio Cinco Palo It. COATEPEC (Cab. Mpal)  Xalapa  Water Intake plant Los Colibris •'  • Rio Huitzilapan  Mexico Source: Bridger (2003a)  Figure 3.2. (a) Xalapa's Major Water Supply Sources Locations and (b) its relative position in Veracruz and Mexico.  -29-  average 1998  average 2000  average 2001  average 2003  Sources: Bridger (2003b); Pio (2004)  Figure 3.3. Water Supply Capacity of C M A S Xalapa  3.3.  Water Supply Predictions for Xalapa  The discharge history of the different sources supplying Xalapa as well as a history of water supply predictions does not exist and poor data management makes it difficult to perform such a study. As a result, this section is an attempt to quantify historical water supply and to predict the future availability of the resource.  Prior to the construction of the Huitzilapan-Xalapa aqueduct, the city relied on approximately 650 Ips of water supply, 264 Ips of which were from five spring sources with the remaining 386 Ips from five surface water sources (CNA, 1987a). Feasibility studies for construction of the Huitzilapan-Xalapa aqueduct (CNA, 1987a; 1987b) - 30-  estimated Xalapa's population to 289 000 inhabitants requiring a supply of 1000 Ips of drinking water. This corresponded to a supply deficit of 350 Ips affecting 34.6% of the population (i.e. 100 800 people). At the time, the predictions for the year 2010 were that a population of 991 500 inhabitants would require 3440 Ips of drinking water.  The  evaluation of water availability and requirements implied that the water requirement per person was 300 litres per day (lpd/capita). The aqueduct and water diversion from the Huitzilapan, as foreseen by the study would provide an extra 1000 Ips of water to Xalapa, for a total of 1650. This would imply that by 2010, according to the estimations of this document, there would be a deficit of 1790 Ips corresponding to 52% of the population 20  without service from the water distribution system.  The results of the predictions made prior to the construction of the Huitzilapan-Xalapa are alarming. Fortunately, the demographic pressure decreased and the data used to estimate population growth over-represented actual population growth. A 5% population growth rate was used. Although this was the growth rate in effect at the time it rapidly dropped to 3% by 1990, as showed in Figure 3.1.  However, it raises the issue of  providing sufficient quantity of water to Xalapa and planning for future needs.  The  following exercise is an attempt to assess and predict water demand until the year 2010 using current demographic information.  There are currently no data on the water consumption per habitant due to a lack of metering of connections in the distribution system. As a result, available consumption estimates show great variability. The technique used in this research to assess water consumption seems to be widespread and used most often in the literature for Xalapa: It consists of dividing the total quantity of water supplied by the total population supplied. No distinction is made for the type of connection (domestic, commercial, or industrial). The water demand is expressed as a daily consumption per capita.  It is important to note that in the document no additional supply sources, other than the Huitzilapan, were' identified or considered for future use in supplying the city of Xalapa.  - 31 -  The average water demand is estimated to range from as low as 180 - 220 lpd/capita. (Bridger, 2003a) to as high as 300 lpd/capita. (CNA, 1987a; 1987b; H.Ayuntamiento, 1995). Demand varies throughout the year. Low demand occurs during most of the year (July to March).  High demand (March to June) occurs during the low water season  (spring). During the high demand period, temperature is higher than the annual average, precipitation is low and river discharge is at its minimum. High demand is estimated to be approximately 30% higher than during the rest of the year. It was estimated to be 325 lpd/capita. by Ing. Jimenez Mora (2004 Pers. Comm.) and evaluated to be 315 lpd/capita. by Ing. Pio (2004 Pers. Comm.) for the month of March 2004. Table 3.3 summarizes the available data on water demand per person in Xalapa.  Table 3.3. Water demand in Xalapa according to different sources  Low Demand  High Demand  (in lpd/capita)  (in lpd/capita)  Pio (2004)  275  315  Jimenez Mora (2004)  250  325  Bridger (2003a)  180  220  Gonzalez Hernandez (2001)  283  360  H.Ayuntamiento (1995)  307 (one value given)  C A N 1987a, 1987b  300 (one value given)  a  Data obtained from Bridger (2003a) expressed a range of water demand for both the daily  variations and seasonal changes.  The low demand average was estimated to be 269 lpd/capita and the high demand 21  average to be 333 lpd/capita . These estimates will be used to predict the future water needs of Xalapa, assuming no new sources will be added to the distribution system and losses will be the same. These estimates are meant to give a general idea of the future  Data from Bridger (2003a) had to be ignored when calculating the average due to the lack of specification on its meaning and source. 21  -32-  consumption in Xalapa, only to be used as indicators of a trend and not as exact information.  The future water needs of Xalapa are directly related to the population and its growth. As a result, two scenarios have been identified. The first scenario uses the average growth rate of the past 50 years (3.9%) and the second scenario uses the 2000 growth rate (2.9%). Water demand predictions for both the low and high periods of the year are developed from these scenarios.  These predictions use the annual supply capacity  average and are not compared to the monthly supply variations, as shown above (Figure 3.3). As a result, the actual supply deficit is expected to be worse than the estimated supply deficit during the high demand period and less during the low demand period.  Results from the scenarios are used to calculate the water deficit, which is obtained by performing a simple water balance comparing the supplying capacity to the demand. It can also be expressed in terms of the percentage of the population that will lack water. Figure 3.4 shows the water demand deficit (in Ips) for Xalapa and the percentage of the population that is affected by the this deficit. It is important to note here that such a percentage does not take into account the efficiency and coverage of the distribution system. The importance of supplying the city in its entirety was recognized in 1995 by the municipal development and management programme (H.Ayuntamiento, 1995). Since then, studies (Gonzalez Hernandez, 2001; Bridger, 2003 a) have mentioned that the coverage of the distribution system is 90% to 95%. Additionally, work is currently being done to improve the distribution system.  In Figure 3.4, the dashed lines separate three distinct periods. The end of each period corresponds to a peak in the supply deficit and is the result of increased demand due to demographic growth. The beginning of each period shows a minimal deficit due to an increase in the supply capacity corresponding to the development of the supply system in Xalapa. The first period ended in the early 1990's when the Huitzilapan-Xalapa aqueduct construction started and the distribution system supplied 650 Ips, as mentioned earlier.  -33-  600  1990  1995  2000  2005  2010  2005  2010  Predictions using 2 0 0 0 growth rate (2.9%) |  1990  High D e m a n d  1995  2000  Figure 3.4. Water Supply Deficit and Percentage of Population affected expressed in terms of the a) average growth rate and the b) 2000 growth rate  The first part of the aqueduct was completed before 199 5 . It marks the start of the 22  second period. The aqueduct provided an extra 500 Ips. The second and last part of the aqueduct was completed in 2000-2001 and marks the transition to the third period enabling CMAS Xalapa to provide a maximum supply capacity of more than 1800 Ips, as 2 2  The exact date was not obtained but is estimated to be 1994.  - 34-  mentioned earlier. Both scenarios (average population growth rate and 2000 population growth rate) predict a water deficit affecting 4% to 25% of the population during the high demand period for 2005 (Figures 3.4a,b respectively). By 2010, scenario 1 (Figure 3.4a) predicts that C M A S Xalapa will not be able to supply at least 7% of the population yearround. Such a scenario is to be considered the worst-case scenario and would imply a sudden rise in the current population growth. Such a rise could result from increased immigration from the local rural populations as well as from other parts of the country. For both scenarios, the high demand period will be critical for water supply in the coming years.  Strategies have been developed to cope with water scarcity such as rotating  between neighbourhoods during water blackouts ensuring that everyone has access to water during the day .  For many (CONAFOR, 2004; C M A S 2002; Cuevas, Bonilla, 2004 Pers. Comm.; H.Ayuntamiento, 1995; De la Rosa et al, 2004 Pers. Comm.), the deforestation of the upper Antigua River , and the rate at which it is occuring, is a serious concern affecting 24  the supply of water in sufficient quantity and adequate quality for the cities and communities in the region. In fact, greater water scarcity than what has been presented will result from a deteriorating quality of water entering the distribution system and a reduction of the water yield from the watersheds supplying Xalapa. The possible causes for decreasing water quality and yield in Xalapa are discussed in Chapter 5.  Details on the operation of the distribution system can be found in Bridger (2003a). The Huitzilapan River is one sub-catchment upstream of this greater river basin and is one of its first tributaries. More details are available in Chapter 4. 2 4  -35-  4. Study Watershed: the Upper Huitzilapan The Huitzilapan River is located at the origin of the L a Antigua River, itself part of the Hydrologic Region 28 called Rio Papaloapan (CNA, 2001).  The river basin of La  Antigua River is located in the southwest portion of the Gulf of Mexico. It has a surface area of 2827 k m and a population density of almost 100 inhabitants per k m (CNA, 2  2  2001; CONAFOR, 2004). Data from 1996 provides a good idea of its average flows (Betancourt, 2001). The region's hydrology is characterized by 2 distinct flow periods; minimum flows of 13 329 Ips were recorded in the dry season (November-May) and maximum flows of 73 163 Ips were recorded in the rainy season (June-October). In contrast, the flows of the Huitzilapan at the water intake plant range from a minimun of 2150 Ips to a maximum of 7410 maximum. The size of the Upper Huitzilapan catchment 9  9  is estimated to be 138 km with a population density of 135.5 inhabitants per km . The study watershed, as shown in Figure 4.1 was selected with respect to its importance to Xalapa's water supply. It provides close to 60% of Xalapa's drinking water. It is therefore imperative to have a good understanding of this watershed and work towards managing it in a sustainable manner. The water intake plant is situated 70 K m south of Xalapa in the neighbouring state of Puebla. It is named "Los Colibris" and is located at an elevation of approximately 1900 masl  25  near the communities of Quimixtlan and  Rafael Garcia. The river's water comes from several spring sources originating from the massif between the mountains of the Cofre de Perote and Pico de Orizaba, as well as melt runoff from the Pico de Orizaba glacier (Bridger, 2003a; Jimenez Mora, 2004 Pers. Comm.). The study watershed was arbitrarily designated as the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed since the water intake plant Los Colibris is located approximately halfway up the river and separates it into two catchments. Such a name is not (yet) found in literature because no research exists on the Huitzilapan River watershed specifically. However, it  The water intake is close to 500 meters above the water treatment plant. This generates another set of problems such as pressure, as discussed in Bridger (2003 a).  -36-  will be used in this study, as it seems the most appropriate toponym.  This chapter  provides a complete but brief overview of the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment.  Upper Huitzilapan Watershed (Scale 1:50 000) I 1 1 0 1 2 Km  Sources: INEGI, 2002a, 2003a;  Figure 4.1. Study watershed: (a) The Upper Huitzilapan (b) and its relative position to Xalapa and in Mexico  -37-  4.1.  Natural (physical) setting  Historically, the naming of rivers in Mexico has been very "flexible". It is customary to name a river after the village it flows by.  As a result, identifying the Huitzilapan,  Pescados or Antigua Rivers is not a simple task. These three rivers are the same body of water with the Huitzilapan River being the most upstream and the Antigua River flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. Depending on the document, the Huitzilapan River is, when mentioned explicitly, the origin of the Los Pescados or La Antigua Rivers. The naming of rivers in this thesis is consistent with the data obtained from the National Institute for Statistical Geography and Computer Science (INEGI).  The naming of the Upper  Huitzilapan River goes one step further than in INEGI's available data, as explained previously.  The Huitzilapan River flows northeast past the water intake Los Colibris towards the town of Barranca Grande where it meets with Resumidero River. Past this confluence, the river flows eastward until it meets with the Los Pescados River near the town of Llano Grande. Downstream of this confluence, the river is named Los Pescados and flows east towards the: coast. Approximately 10 km before reaching the city of Jose Cardel near the coast, the river's course becomes meandering. At the city level, it is met by the Paso de Ovejas River and becomes the La Antigua River, which widens and straightens before reaching the Gulf of Mexico (CNA, 2001; INEGI, 2002).  The size of the study watershed shown in Figure 4.1 is estimated to be 138 km (13800 2  ha). Geographically, it is located between the latitudes North 19°10' - 19°35' and longitudes West 96°16' - 96°17'. Its shape can be represented geometrically by a triangle with the eastern corner being the location of the water intake plant Los Colibris at approximately 1900 mask The southwestern corner is the highest point of the watershed at approximately 3800 masl and the northwestern corner is at approximately 2900 mask  The Upper Huitzilapan watershed sits on a wide ridge between two colossi, the Cofre de Perote (4200 masl) and the Pico de Orizaba (5610 masl). This massif links the mountains -38-  together and defines the regional climate. In effect, it forms an impressive north-south barrier standing at least at 3000 masl, preventing warmer air current from the Gulf of Mexico from reaching the high pain on its west side and forcing precipitation to fall on its eastern slope, as will be discussed in Section 4.2.  The Upper Huitzilapan River  watershed is located entirely on the eastern side of the massif. The topography is rough and presents a multitude of canyons such as the one shown in photo 1 - Appendix B. The slope is generally steep (CNA 2001) since there is no more than 100 km between the massif and the Gulf coast and the massifs lowest peaks are generally above 3000 masl. At the elevations of the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed, the slope gradients in the canyons reach on average 30° to 46° (Betancourt, 2001). Conversely, the Western side of the massif drops rapidly to a Plateau, the Sierra Madre Oriental, at an elevation of approximately 2500 masl. With elevation differences averaging 500-750m, the slopes are not as abrupt as they are on the eastern side and the terrain less rugged.  4.2.  Climate  Micro-regional climate data for the Upper Huitzilapan watershed is not available due to the absence of meteorological stations in the catchment. Information on the watershed's climate can at best be descriptive and general. The following description of the climate was obtained from 3 different sources: Betancourt (2001), C O N A F O R (2004) and Martinez et al. (1989). The latter reference does not reflect recent climatic changes. As a result, the information presented should only be used to obtain a general appreciation of the region's climate.  The climate is classified temperate humid throughout most of the watershed. At higher elevations, i.e. 3000 masl and above, it is classified as cold subhumid . The spring, from March to June, is warm and dry with little wind. The summer, from June to September, is hot and humid with little wind. The fall, from October to November is cold, humid and  The climate classification was obtained from the Koeppen's classification as used in Betancourt (2001) and C O N A F O R (2004).  - 39-  windy. In the winter, from December to March, the weather alternates between dry, cold, windy days and humid, cold, calm ones. The hottest month is May and the coldest one is January.  The two mountains and the massif linking them together constitute a natural barrier for the cold fronts coming from the north as well as the warm and humid trade winds coming from the Gulf of Mexico. The eastern slopes have the most precipitation and fog due to orographic effects. The most abundant rainfalls occur at higher elevations, i.e. between 1000 and 3500 masl, with annual precipitation averages of 800 mm to 2000 mm, occasionally reaching 3000 mm. The situation changes drastically on the western side of the massif with annual precipitation averages of less than 500 mm to 1000 mm. Annual average precipitation is 1800 mm for the lower elevations (approximately 2000 masl) of the Upper Huitzilapan catchment. Precipitation decreases at higher elevations (i.e. 3000 masl and above) with annual averages of about 1200 mm. characterized by abundant rainfall from May to October.  The rainy season is The wettest month is  September with rainfalls of 346.6 mm. The dry season is characterized by very little rainfall, lasting from November to April. The driest month is January with a monthly rainfall of 35.3 mm. During the winter months, condensation of fog on tree cover and drip is an important source of additional water (Munoz Villers, 2004 Pers. Comm.). This is also known as horizontal precipitation.  The average annual temperature of the lower elevations, at approximately 2000 masl, is between 10 - 14°C with minimum and maximum annual average temperatures of 4°C and 18°C, respectively. Temperature decreases with increasing elevation and at 3700 masl the annual average is expected to be between +5 and -2°C. In fact, a freeze/thaw cycle is recorded on an average of 250 days per year for these elevations.  The consequences and direction of climate change have not been discussed here. However, it must be mentioned that evidence of decreasing precipitation was found for the cities of Xalapa and Las Vigas de Ramirez (CONAFOR, 2004). It has been shown that since 1923, precipitation has been reduced by approximately 10 mm per year on  -40-  average.  Although this result cannot be directly applied to the Upper Huitzilapan, it  provides an indication of the regional trend. It also raises the issue of the impact of climate change and the importance of closely monitoring weather patterns and changes.  4.3.  Soils  The soil type of the Upper Huitzilapan is typical of the mountain massif composed of the Cofre de Perote and Pico de Orizaba. depositions during volcanic emissions.  The region's pedogenesis is the result of Therefore, the soil is of volcanic origin and  77  principally composed of andosoil , or at the very least, is the result of the andosolization process (CONAPOR, 2004). It has a high propensity for water retention. Its physicochemical characteristics and particular structure give it the capacity to store up to 533 2  2  litres/m of soil with about 133 litres/m available for vegetation and runoff. The surface layer is predominantly composed of humic andosoils, with an estimated thickness of 0.5 to 3 meters and is enriched by a high organic content (Betancourt, 2001). It is extremely sensitive to compaction and easily loses its structure, becoming vulnerable to erosion. Throughout the higher elevations of the massif, as for the Upper Huitzilapan catchment, there has been a substantial reduction of the forest cover through conversion to pasture and crop fields. As a result, the soil has been exposed to erosion subsequently affecting the water quality of the Huitzilapan and its affluents.  Erosion also affects the people  living in the watershed. For example, agriculture has been intensively practiced in the plains on the west side of the massif in the state of Puebla. The loss of the arable layer by wind erosion is threatening the profitability and existence of agriculture practices (CONAFOR, 2004). This issue is a precursor sign of what could happen in the Upper Huitzilapan catchment and highlights the urgency of reforestation efforts as proposed by CONAFOR.  An andosoil is black soil that is very permeable. This type of soil is the result of an alteration of volcanic rocks, especially ashes, and is characterized by a high content of amorph silica and alum earth gel.  -41 -  The two predominant types of andosoil in the Upper Huitzilapan catchment are humic (dark) and ochre (yellow). The first type is rich in organic matter but generally acidic and poor in nutrients. The latter type has poor organic matter content. It is easy to work, but it is also easily erodible. This soil is generally not considered fertile unless fertilizers and lime are added, which is an unpopular alternative since it is costly (CONAFOR, 2004). The erosion of ochre andosoils produces yellow suspended sediments which are the most difficult to treat at the WTP (Lucido Mora, 2004 Pers. Comm.).  For crops to be financially viable, the use of fertilizers is generally required. However, intensive use of fertilizers can result in land degradation and non-point source pollution for downstream users. Coupled with wind and water erosion, the impact of fertilizers can be potentially disastrous, forcing farmers to search for new productive lands or forego an extensive remediation process. Searching for new productive land is generally preferred and results in the conversion of forestland into new agriculture or pasture fields.  4.4.  Vegetation Cover and Land Use Changes  The vegetation of the Upper Huitzilapan is heterogeneous and diverse due to the great variations in elevations and climate. The resulting landscape is contrasting as it changes within small distances. significantly  disturbed  The region is mainly covered by forests, but has been by  agriculture  activities,  land  husbandry  and  human  establishments (CMAS, 2002). Pine trees mainly populate the forest areas for elevations of 1800 to 2800 masl (elevations of greater rainfalls). Pines can also be found in most watersheds of the region in the elevations of 1500 to 3600 masl. The major species are the Pinus Patula, Pinus Teocote and Pinus Montezumae. The forests in the elevations of 2800 to 3200 masl are generally populated by Oyamels , as they are more resistant to cold weather. For detailed descriptions of the type of forest, refer to C M A S (2002) and C O N A F O R (2004). Oyamels (Abies religiosa) are fir trees that grow almost uniquely in high mountain massifs at an altitude between 2400 to 3600 meters where the cloud cover provides the moisture needed, particularly during the dry season. 2 8  -42-  Land use change in Mexico dates back to when the president, Lazaro Cardenas, launched an important land reform.  During the 1930's he implemented an article of the 1917  Mexican Constitution that, on paper, put an end to the Hacienda era. Haciendas were very large holdings/properties that belonged to a wealthy minority that owned both the land and most of the people (peon) living on it. The best land parcels were cultivated or used for pasture activities and the unused parcels generally remained in their original state. President Cardenas expropriated the owners of the Haciendas and fractioned the land giving it back to the agrarian communities living on it. The Ejidos were created. These are rural communities where land is owned by the government - as a collective property - but the exploitation and benefit of the arable lands benefit individuals and is hereditary. By 1940, the federal government launched a series of major infrastructure projects  such as dams, roads, electricity distribution that favoured commercial  agriculture.  Large-scale agriculture was a successful development strategy and  contributed to the intensification of the deforestation problem. converted from forest to crop fields and later to pasture fields.  Land was mainly To mitigate the  deforestation problem as early as the 1950's, some areas have been declared "ecological parks". Tree cutting was prohibited in these parks, however, in many instances lumber contractors continued to cut trees illegally and fanners continued to convert the land.  No study indexing the various land uses for the Upper Huitzilapan was found during the investigation for this thesis. However, a study from Betancourt (2001) on the upstream catchments of the river L a Antigua covering a greater area (436.8 km ) that includes the Cofre de Perote and its National Park can give an appreciation of the situation in the Upper Huitzilapan. The watershed's area described in the study is adjacent to the Upper Huitzilapan and its elevation range is similar (approximately 1500 to 4200 masl). Table 4.1 displays the different land use's and their coverage ratio for the area studied. The major difference between the Upper Huitzilapan and the area covered by Betancourt's study is the higher proportion of the urban areas and the presence of a National Park. In contrast the Upper Huitzilapan is predominantly rural with only 5 agglomerations of more than 1000 inhabitants. Additionally, the national park referred to in Betancourt's  -43 -  study is considered too small to significantly affect the comparison.  The size of  agricultural and pastoral land combined is approximately 30% in comparison to 58% of forest land.  When removing the surface area covered by urban developments and  protected forests, the land use proportions for the forest cover and the combined agricultural and pasture land become 65% and 35%, respectively. These estimates of land uses can be extrapolated to approximately represent the situation in the Upper Huitzilapan.  Table 4.1. Land Uses of the Upstream Catchments of the River L a Antigua Land Use  covered (in % of total area) 42 15 1 15.2 14.7 11% 1.1% A  Forest for commercial and other uses Forest with no commercial use Protected forests Agriculture Livestock Urban Other  r  e  a  Source: Adapted from Betancourt (2001)  Land dedicated to agriculture is most frequently cultivated with potatoes, corn, beans (the famous Mexican frijol), wheat and oats. Some areas displayed intense signs of erosion as they were located on steep slopes (gradients of 10 to 60%) with highly erodible soil (andosoil) and were deprived of vegetation or abandoned.  This contributes to the  pressure on farmers to "open" new areas for crops. In general, crops were found close to a community. At the higher elevations (above 2500 masl) the major crops encountered were potatoes and in a lesser proportion oats and wheat (CMAS, 2002).  At lower  elevation (under 2500 masl) crops were predominantly corn, alfalfa and cereals such as wheat, oat and rye (CMAS, 2002).  The land used as pasture for husbandry needed open space. It was done on an owner's property, someone else's property or any land that was deemed appropriate. Herders traditionally burned the land to open clearings into forests. This technique was also used to reduce vegetation and favour regrowth of grass hence inhibiting the regeneration of forests. Some trees were left in the clearings to provide shade for the flock during hot -44-  periods. Pasture occurred at a micro-scale on slope gradients of 10 to 75%. Lamb and goats were the most popular livestock animals. Bovines were also common, especially dairy cows, they were raised in a fenced parcel of land with grass cultivated fields and kept in a stable.  4.5.  Socio-economic situation  The socio-economic data used to characterize the catchment were obtained from the National Institute of Statistic, Geography and Computer Science (INEGI, 1973; 1980; 1990a; 1995a; 2000; 2003), unless otherwise stated. The Upper Huitzilapan catchment area expands over three municipalities of the state of Puebla: Chilchotla, Lafragua and Quimixtlan. In total, 30 towns, villages and communities are located in the watershed for a total population of 18,703 inhabitants and a population density of 135.5 Hab/km . The 2  gender distribution of the population is even with 50% men and 50% women.  The  population is composed of 44.5% of mature individuals 18 years and older (18 years+) and 60%o of individuals twelve years old and older (12 years+). The largest community is Rafael J. Garcia with 4104 inhabitants and the smallest one is El Ranchito with only 16 inhabitants. The communities are located between the elevations of 1840 masl (Teapa, near the water Intake Plant) to 2920 masl (Los Capulines). The demographic growth in the watershed followed a similar pattern as Xalapa and the rest of the country. There was a strong population growth during the 1970's and 1980's but it stabilized in the 1990's, as can be seen in Figure 4.2. During the last 35 years, the population in the watershed has more than doubled from 8,207 inhabitants in 1970 to 18,703 in 2000..  The levels of education and literacy are low in the watershed.  Only 56% of the  population aged 15 years old and above (15 years+) can read and write. 41% of the 15 years+ population do not have education . In fact, the average of the successful school 29  years completed is very low at 2.52 years. This is obtained by adding the sum of all the  A n individual without education is defined has not having completed a full school year with' success for any grade except preschool and kindergarden 2 9  -45-  successful school years completed from elementary school until the last school year reached for each individual (15 years+) and dividing it by the total 15 years+ population. However, the situation is better today than it was 25 years ago.  In 1980, the ratio of  literate to illiterate individuals (15 years+) was 3:5. It improved to parity by 1990 (1:1) and was almost reversed by 2000 with a ratio of 5:4.  20000 ,  1970  1975  1980  1985  1990  1995  2000  Figure 4.2. Upper Huitzilapan Watershed: Socio-Demographic Statistics on Population, Literacy and Employment.  The Mexican government nuances its definition of an economically active or inactive individual according to the statistical analysis it performs.  In general, an economically  active individual is someone who has worked or searched for work during a reference period and is 12 years+ of age.  The economically inactive individual is defined as  someone who did not work or search for work during the reference period and for the same age bracket. Only 21.6% of the population is considered economically active while 38.1% are considered economically inactive. population under 12 years old.  The remaining 40% comprises the  O f the population above 12 years of age 64% are  economically inactive, 28% work in the primary sector (agriculture, husbandry, silviculture, hunting and fishing), while 4.3% work in the secondary sector (mining,  -46-  generation and supply of electricity and water, construction or manufacturing industry) and 3.7% work in the tertiary sector (commerce, transports, services or governments). It becomes obvious that a minority of individuals work and support the majority in the communities and that most of the workforce works on the land as farmers, livestock farmers or foresters (hunting and fishing are not commonly practiced activities in the watershed). Figure 4.2 shows that the active population was more significant than its counterpart until the 1980's. By 1990, the situation reversed and by 2000 the active population was reduced to almost half (57%) of the inactive population. This tendency can be partially explained by the efforts of the government to raise the education levels and keep children in school. The type of work has also been changing as the Primary sector has lost importance relative to the Secondary and Tertiary sectors. The number of individuals working in primary activities had been increasing until the 1990's, but in 2000 it decreased. Additionally, there was a constant increase in the population working in the secondary and tertiary sector.  More than half of the workforce (62.3%) works more than 40 hours in a week with 42.8% working between 41 and 48 hours and 19.5% working more than 48 hours. The socio-economic statistics highlight the important relationship the communities have with the land. Any activity or project affecting the way the land is used in the Upper Huitzilapan will impact the communities and any decisions should include them as major stakeholders. The next chapter will highlight the impact of land uses and land use change on the water quality and quantity.  -47-  5. Land use changes impacts on water yield and quality Land use changes are characteristic of growing populations with increasing needs in terms of food production and consumption.  A study commissioned by the Inter-  American Development Bank (De Camino, 1999) predicts that the population in Latin America will grow by 70% between 1990-2030.  Consequently, the need for food  production will increase, as will the number of converters and the deforestation rates. In the De Camino (1999) study, converters were defined as a group of people, or community, "that generates a demand for land best suited to forest cover but is used for other ends that are not interested in forestry, but rather in converting the land use". For example, the same study reported that the surface used for livestock production in Central America increased at a rate of 250% between 1955 and 1975, with most of this increase occurring at the expense of forested areas.  Comparatively, 47.2% of the state of  Veracruz surface area is dedicated to pasture for livestock (Martinez et al, 1989). The total surface area of the State is 7 281 500 ha.  In Mexico, close to half of the Nation's land has been severely affected by human activites when considering the different land uses (Arroyo, 2004). This corresponds to 29% consisting of cultivated land, pasture fields for husbandry and human settlement, and 18% consisting of secondary vegetation . 30  Only 41% of the remaining forest is  primary forest that has not been modified by human interactions (SEMARNAT, 2002). Between 1993 and 2000, deforestation occurred at a rate of 1.58% per year. Conversely, land dedicated to livestock (pasture) and agriculture has expanded at a rate of 4.07%. The rate of land use changes is accelerating since it was much higher in the last decade than during the 1976-1993 period (Arroyo, 2004). Although deforestation depends on economic factors, there is little indication of an economic situation that would favour conservation. When the price of wood is high trees are cut to sell and when prices are low there is no incentive to conserve forests.  Also, a rise in the prices of farming  Secondary vegetation is defined has an area where the biological community has been partially exploited or is recovering. The new vegetation is different from the native one.  -48-  products will encourage expansion of farm or pasture land and result in deforestation. Additionally, during the process of tree cutting, it is estimated that 30% to 50% of adjacent vegetation will get damaged (Arroyo, 2004). In fact, farming activities are considered to be the principal cause of deforestation in the country.  Deforestation is a serious issue affecting Xalapa and neighbouring communities. A decrease in the forest cover in the catchments supplying drinking water to Xalapa is thought to negatively affect its water yield and water quality (H. Ayuntamiento, 1995; C M A S , 2002; De la Rosa et al, 2004 Pers. Comm.). Land use has changed from forests to pasture fields, land husbandry or crop fields (potatoes, beans, corn; CONAFOR, 2004; C M A S 2002). This problem is not a new one. Already in 1984, Hernandez (1984) assessed that the forest area on the Cofre de Perote was decreasing due to anthropogenic activities such as: land conversions to agriculture uses, especially to cultivate potatoes, land husbandry, forest fires, and illegal cutting.  5.1.  Impact on water yield  The topography of the watershed is an important factor in determining its hydrological response to rainfall. The horizontal distance from the water intake to the northern and southern corners is approximately 14 km and 13 km, respectively. The average slope gradients are 7% and 14.5%, respectively. This theoretical representation simplifies a much more complex reality but it gives a good idea of the pronounced steepness of this watershed. In reality, canyons with very steep slopes characterize this catchment. For example, the Huitzilapan River originates from a canyon with slopes of 25% to 40% until it reaches the town of Rafael Garcia.  Such steep slopes usually imply shallower soil depth generating greater and faster overland runoff with much less infiltration than for less inclined surfaces. Vegetation cover plays a vital role in slowing down the runoff and allowing more infiltration resulting in potentially higher soil storage capacity (soil moisture) and better groundwater  -49-  recharge. A reduction of vegetation on steep hills results in less infiltration and more runoff, generating higher peak flows during precipitation events and a lower base flow during droughts. As a result, even though the soil has a large capacity to retain water because of its particular structure and physico-chemical characteristics, many brooks and streams of the Cofre de Perote and Upper Huitzilapan River Catchments have practically disappeared or only flow during the rainy season because of the various land use changes (CMAS 2002; Saucedo et al, 2004 Pers. Comm.).  A watershed the size of the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed (approx. 138 km ) is 2  characterized as a small to medium sized watershed (Cheng, 1989).. Such watersheds are expected to exhibit a lower peak flow, longer time base and slower rise to peak in the event of a big storm occurring in its upper parts. In effect, when heavy precipitation is confined to the higher area of the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed, where vegetation cover is more predominant, the peak flow is lower and the time base slightly longer (Pio, 2004). However, precipitation generally covers the lower elevations (1900 to 3000 masl) where vegetation cover is scarce in some areas due to deforestation and land use changes. The response time is rapid and its hydrological behaviour sometimes seems closer to impervious watersheds. The response time for such events in the Huitzilapan at the Los Colibris water intake plant is approximately two hours for a heavy precipitation event and increased flows last for approximately the same duration as the precipitation event . 31  Such behavior is likely the result of the lack of forest cover, as inferred by' the operators of the water intake plant (Pio, 2004).  Forest cover can also increase the amount of water reaching the ground in environments where fog and clouds are characteristic of the regional climate. It is hypothesized (Harr, 1982; Harr, McCorison, 1979) that trees intercept fog and clouds and condense the moisture into water droplets. The resulting accumulation of water, also referred to as drip, is considered added precipitation. This phenomenon, sometimes called horizontal  It is important to specify at this point that no "hard" hydrological data exist for this area of the watershed. Hydrological knowledge is "soft" and based on the experience of the operators of the "los colibris" water intake plant. 3 1  -50-  precipitation as opposed to vertical precipitation (or rainfall), can be significant in mountainous areas.  Studies conducted in the Bull Run watershed (Western Cascade  mountains, Oregon) have shown that forested areas generated 20 to 30% more precipitation than measured in open logged areas (Harr, 1982).  In the mountainous  regions of the state of Veracruz, Munoz Villers (2004 Pers. Comm.) argues that this phenomenon is particularly substantial due to the important presence of clouds and fog, especially during the dry season.  For example, an individual pine tree of the Pinus  montezumae specie is capable of generating 57.9 litres per hour from fog or clouds (Barradas, 1983; Betancourt, 2001). For the upper catchment of the L a Antigua River watershed, it is estimated that one hectare of forest collects 1500 m of water per year 3  while the land used for cattle only collects 169 m and a deficit 3  land.  32  exists for agricultural  Converting forest land for agricultural purposes and pasture fields is a serious  problem for the future supply of water to Xalapa, especially in the high demand period when flows are low.  The information presented here provides a good start in understanding the Huiztilapan River and its catchment area.  However, the qualitative nature of the information  presented highlights the dire need for "hard" hydrological data and the knowledge required to understand the behaviour of the catchment and the river. Such quantitative scientific knowledge is essential for managers and water professionals as the basis for assessing the consequences of today's decisions on future generations, especially when such decisions concern such a vital service as water supply.  5.2.  Impact on water quality  The presence of sediment in streams is a natural phenomenon resulting from several processes such as erosion, sediment production, transport and in-stream morphological processes (Prud'homme and Greis, 2002). However, it becomes a serious problem when  A deficit is the situation where more water is lost from evapotranspiration and evaporation than can be collected from horizontal precipitation.  - 51 -  erosion occurs at rates above geologic rates. In fact, sediments are considered to be the greatest water pollutant in the U S A and excessive sediment production in stream is considered detrimental to human water consumption (Chang, 2002). This is the case for the C M A S Xalapa water supply system. In Bridger's (2003a) assessment of the supply system it was identified that high suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were the most critical risk affecting the water quality. Consequently, water quality will be defined in terms of the SSC (or turbidity as will be seen later). The WTP receives water of substandard quality, on average, for 110 days per year (equivalent to 30% of the time), mostly in the summer during the rainy season. In Mexico, water quality standards are set at a turbidity level of 5 N T U . 3 3  Turbidity and erosion processes are viewed in more  detail in the following sections. Treatment at the WTP begins when the influent water turbidity levels reach 15 N T U (Bridger, 2003a Pers. Comm.; Pio, 2004 Pers. Comm.; Jimenez Mora, 2004 Pers. Comm., Lucido Mora, 2004 Pers. Comm.; Garrido Mora, 2004 Pers. Comm.). High turbidity events are more frequent during the rainy season or when heavy precipitation follows a somewhat prolonged drought. In Xalapa, high turbidity levels are defined at 600 N T U but it is common to observe turbidity levels of 8000 N T U from the Huitzilapan River, especially during the early heavy rainfalls of the rainy season (Bridger, 2003a; Pio, 2004; Jimenez Mora 2004).  5.2.1.  Turbidity  The Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) is often quantified using turbidity, which is  an optical measurement  using either the backscattering  or light absorbing  characteristics of sediments (Hudson, 2001a). Turbidity is caused by the presence of suspended sediments from various origins: organic and inorganic oxide, metallic hydroxide, clay soils, silts, planktons, microorganisms and dissolved substances ( M E N V , 2004). Turbidity is an important indicator of water quality as it can protect bacteria and  N T U stands for Nephelometric Turbidity Units and is often used to estimate the quality of water in terms of suspended solids.  -52-  viruses from the treatment and disinfection of drinking water. It also is a good vector for the introduction of Giardia and Cryptosporidium cysts in drinking water systems.  The relationship between turbidity and SSC is quite complex. It depends on the grain size distribution, colour, composition of particles, etc. It can also rapidly change with the flow conditions since low flows generally carry fine particles and high flow carry coarser ones. A given rainfall in the catchment of a river will generate runoff, which will allow for the transport of a combination of particles of different size and shape. Consequently, turbidity in the river will generate an optical signature that can be closely related to the suspended particle compositions. However, different particle compositions can generate similar turbidity. As a result, it is important to study the suspended sediment regime and characterize the SSC-turbidity response to rainfall events for a given catchment (Hudson, 2001a; 2001b).  5.2.2. Erosion  Suspended sediment in rivers is the result of soil particles being transported from the catchment area into the river. This natural process is called soil erosion (or simply erosion) and can be accelerated by human activities such as farming or husbandry. The different soil erosion processes can be grouped in two types: wind erosion and water erosion. In arid environments, soil nutrients are lost through wind erosion. As explained by Roose (1996), the effect of wind erosion on agriculture can be devastating, especially in developing countries where subsistence is closely linked to farming or in mountainous regions where steep hillslopes usually imply shallower soil depths. The impact of this process in the pollution of water bodies is negligible when compared to water erosion processes and will not be considered in this study. However, the consequences of wind erosion on farming activities are not negligible. Wind effect in soil erosion is a key factor in the loss of nutrient and agricultural land, impoverishment. This process occurs in the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment even though it is more predominant in the arid high plateaus of the state of Puebla, on the west side of the Pico de Orizaba-Cofre de  - 53 -  Perote Mountain massif. Photo 2 - Appendix B, shows an example of the wind impact on dry agricultural land of the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment.  The terms erosion and soil erosion will be used interchangeably to express water erosion exclusively (unless otherwise specified) since the wind effects on soil erosion are assumed to be an insignificant contributor to turbidity. For the purpose of this research, a brief description of soil erosion is provided in order to establish the importance and relationship between the different land uses and turbidity.  The erosion process starts when soil particles (or aggregates) are detached from the bulk of the soil mass i f sufficient energy is provided to overcome the soil shear strength. Raindrop striking and surface runoff will provide the energy for detachment. Conversely, the organic matter will stabilize the soil structure by binding particles together and adding to its erosion resistance. In general, the impact energy of a raindrop is the major force initiating detachment of soil particles. This energy is proportional to the fall velocity of the raindrop, hence the importance of forest cover. In effect, the canopy or vegetation cover will intercept rainfall and reduce the fall velocity of raindrops. Raindrops usually have maximum energy in the open where they are able to reach terminal velocity. Additionally, rainstorms generally are subjected to wind, which in turn increases the impact energy of a raindrop by increasing the fall velocity (Chang, 2002). Runoff also contributes to particle detachment through the shearing strength of its flow velocity, which is related to its energy. However, this process is not well understood. Detachment by water flow is usually limited to rill areas, gullies and channels (Harrison, 2003). The soil particles, once detached, are carried by the runoff to the river. The transport capacity of sediments by surface runoff depends on the flow velocity, the mass of the particles, the hillslope, the hydraulic radius (approximated by the depth of flow), the surface roughness and the particle transportability (Chang, 2002). In fact, rills, gullies and channels are the principal sediment transport vector because their flow is highly energetic since it is concentrated and turbulent.  - 54-  There is a great dependence of soil erosion on different land uses and hill slope. The soil in the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment is vulnerable to erosion because of very steep slopes that vary from 25% to 46% as mentioned above and cited in Betancourt (2001). Forested areas protect the soil against erosion by acting as a buffer between the soil and rainfall or runoff, thereby reducing the energy available for erosion. Vegetation cover absorbs the kinetic energy of raindrops. The root system, trunks, and vegetation on the ground increases the ground roughness, hence decreasing the runoff energy available for sediment transport and erosion. It also keeps the soil surface porous contributing to a reduction in runoff volumes by increasing the soil absorption rates. Additionally, the root system adds stability and increases the mechanical strength of soil surfaces and protect against mass movements (even at low root density) by increasing soil cohesion and shear strength. Conversely, a reduction of forest cover either through conversion to other uses such as agriculture or through logging and clearcutting affects the response of a catchment to rainfall events. The land uses generating the greatest erosion in the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment include corn and potato agriculture as well as pastoral uses. It can be estimated from Betancourt (2001) that zones of severe erosion cover 27% of the catchment area and that, on average, the soil loss on corn fields is 531 ton/ha/year and on potato fields 373 ton/ha/year.  Hence, consequences such as increased SSC and high  turbidity in streams are highly foreseeable and linkable to the deforestation of the catchment area.  5.2.3. Consequences of Land Use Changes  Turbidity has increased in the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment during the past 15 years because of development in the watershed . Within this time frame, high turbidity 34  levels have been increasing continuously from 1200 N T U to 8000 N T U (Bridger, 2003a; Garrido Mora, 2004 Pers. Comm.), especially during peak rainfall. According to Biol.  Historic water quality data could not be obtained to support this statement. However, the experience and knowledge of the personnel in charge of the water treatment plant and other department at C M A S Xalapa, as well as the collective memory of this organization and other professionals involved with C M A S at some point in time provides a qualitative basis for such statement  -55-  Garrido Mora (2004 Pers. Comm.) the turbidity levels were reaching peaks of 1200 N T U (at most) during the late 1980's and early 1990's. By the mid 1990's, peak turbidity levels of 3500 N T U could be recorded and recently peak turbidity levels reached 7000 to 8000 N T U . It can be safely assumed that this turbidity increase is the result of development in the communities located in the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed. This explanation is widely accepted by the various professionals and academics interviewed by the author in Xalapa. It is also a common problem for developing countries where growing populations are exerting intense pressure on land resources (Dixon et al, 1986). Land uses in the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed have been increasingly changing with the conversion of forests to crop fields (mainly potatoes, corn, and beans) or pasture fields for husbandry and cattle ranching (CMAS 2002; C M A S , 2002; Betancourt, 2001; CONAFOR; 2004). These changes have been creeping up on the mountain slopes as a result of the need for more agricultural or pastoral land. Photo 3 - Appendix B , shows a typical landscape of the catchment near larger communitites.  On many occasions,  especially since the mid-1990s, burning has been used as a technique to clear land and quickly convert it to agricultural fields or partoral land (CONAFOR, 2004; Saucedo et al, 2004 Pers. Comm.). Occasionaly, fires get out of control and burn hectares of forest inadvertently (as is can be seen in photo 4 - Appendix B).  Alvarez Palacios (2004 Pers. Comm.) identifies a relationship between deforestation and demography. In doing so, he shows, using satellite images, the loss of forest cover and the change in vegetation cover in the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment. He suggests that agriculture,- forest practices (tree cutting) and pastures highly favour erosion and also stresses the necessity of implementing reforestation measures.  Although the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed is partly in the neighbouring State of Puebla, the processes affecting its water quality directly impact Xalapa.  The water  quality of the Huitzilapan River is rapidly deteriorating and occasionally reaches proportions that negatively affect Xalapenos. The WTP does not have the capacity to treat all of the SSC originating from the Huitzilapan River during the rainy season (Jimenez Mora, 2004; Lucido Mora, 2004). During events of high turbidity, the C M A S  - 56-  personnel must reduce the WTP capacity and sometimes close the intake at the Los Colibris water intake facility, potentially causing blackouts and water shortages in Xalapa. Additionally, turbidity events from yellow sediments, or ochre andosoils, are the most difficult to treat and can cause "serious headaches''' for the WTP, in the words of Ing. Lucido Mora (2004).  In his thesis, Bridger (2003a) states that undue stress is placed on the intake, transmission system and the WTP when turbidity reaches levels of 600 N T U . Consequences of high turbidity events, as discussed in Bridger (2003a) can be a combination of the following: •  Intake closure for removal of sediment build-up causing pressure problems;  •  Presence of sediments in the distribution system due to reaction time from the moment high turbidity is identified;  •  Sediment build up in transmission pipes;  •  Poor effluent water quality due to human error, WTP failure or breakdown of some equipment;  •  Overloading of the WTP causing process failures;  •  Recirculation of harmful contaminants during backwash recycling.  This list is not an exhaustive rendition of the risks identified by Bridger (2003a).  It  comprises those risks understood to be the most important with respect to high turbidity events.  There is an additional significant problem for Xalapa that is not directly related to the supply of water but is a direct consequence of an increased SSC.  The WTP  sedimentation tanks are cleaned of the accumulated sludge once a year before the rainy season. This operation produces, on average, 320 m /year of sludge that is unloaded in a 3  nearby wetland (Pio, 2004 Pers. Comm.) that almost has reached its full capacity. In addition to the ecological risks associated with filling the wetland, new space will be needed soon to discharge additional sludge.  - 57-  6. Water  Resources  in  Xalapa:  Challenges  and  Opportunities  The challenges and opportunities facing the implementation of an integrated management approach are presented in this chapter. They are the result of an analysis of the socioeconomic and political aspects of the current situation both in Xalapa and in the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed. It is also the logical continuation of the analysis started in Chapter 3. These challenges and opportunities have been classified according to the three conditions for success (human factor, knowledge, institutions) as presented in Chapter 2. A brief and concise overview of the challenges and opportunities is provided in table 6.1 where they are shown side-by-side. The detailed description is provided in Sections 6.1 and 6.2 where they are treated separately.  Table 6.1. Challenges and Opportunities  Challenges  Opportunities  Physical factors (highlights from Chapters 4 and 5) Heterogeneous distribution of water Abundant annual availability of water availability throughout the year Poor water quality in the rainy season Human factor Poor Socio-economic situation in Xalapa and in the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment Low social adaptive capacity Educating and building capacity Changing management mindsets  Better return-on-investment from forest harvesting than agriculture and land husbandry High social adaptive capacity Capacity building Presence of Champions  Knowledge Lack of information management plan and knowledge sharing Knowledge gaps and data scarcity  Recent federal initiatives for sharing statistical and geographical information Presence of academic institutions as partners for generating knowledge  - 58-  Institutions Collaboration beyond administrative Cooperation and political boundaries institutions Fragmented institutions Planning for water supply Continuity of projects (politicization of institutions)  6.1.  efforts  by  some  Implementing an integrated approach; the challenges  The major water supply challenge in Xalapa is planning for future water supply sources and uses. The predicted drinking water scarcity is not due to limited resources, but is the result of management decisions and an increasing demand.  There is little scientific  knowledge on current supply sources (e.g. hydrology, water balance, meteorological data, land use characterization). During the field investigation of this thesis, no studies have been implemented to assess the current situation or identify potential supply sources, no institution has taken the lead into looking for future supply sources and collaboration in that regard was insufficient.  Additionally, concerted efforts to preserve the current  supply sources, their quality and yield, are minimal.  Finally, the growing demand  exacerbates the urgency of finding future supply sources and conserving existing ones in a pristine state. These challenges are developed and presented according to the three conditions for success (human factor, knowledge, institutions) as presented in Chapter 2.  A brief  overview of the natural challenges due to region's climate and physical state is also added to provide a more complete picture of the challenges pertaining to the management of water resources in Xalapa.  6.1.1.  Physical state  Water availability can be a major challenge for adequate supply to Xalapa due to the regional climate. The uneven distribution of rainfall in this mountainous area has a - 59-  considerable impact on the Huitzilapan River hydrograph and water availability during the dry season (November to May) and in particular during the final months of the dry season.  Additionally, the deforestation occurring in the Upper Huitzilapan River  watershed also impacts annual water yield by reducing horizontal precipitation. As was presented in Chapter 5 (Section 5.1), the reduction of tree cover could reduce the amount of water reaching the ground by 20 to 30% (or approximately 1500 m per hectare of 3  deforested land). The combined effects of deforestation and low rainfall can lead to increased water scarcity during the dry season.  During the rainy season, scarcity of high quality water can also be a potentially serious issue.  Deforestation exposes the soil to erosion leading to high concentrations of  sediments in streams and rivers. Agricultural and pastoral practices also exacerbate the problem increasing the soil erodibility. The resulting impact is a substantial increase in soil erosion, especially during the rainy season, and record high turbidity peaks in the Huitzilapan River in recent years. This causes stress on the WTP and the distribution system forcing a reduction or closure of the intake at the Los Colibris water intake plant and potentially causing supply blackouts in Xalapa (Bridger, 2003a; Pio, 2004 Pers. Comm.).  6.1.2.  Human Factor  The economic situation in the Upper-Huitzilapan River watershed is indicative of the importance of the land for the communities therein. Unemployment is high (64%) and the majority of the workforce (78%) is employed in the primary sector (agriculture, land husbandry, silviculture).  In general, the population of the Upper Huitzilapan River  watershed is poor with 76% of the individuals earning a monthly income lower than that recognized by the Mexican government as a monthly minimum income. Additionally, 62%o of the workforce spends more than 40 hours a week at work leaving little time for other types of activities.  - 60-  The dependence on the land for farming and pastoral practices is high as they are the main source of income for the population in the watershed.  This situation can partly  explain the need to convert more forestland to farmland and pasture fields in order to increase revenue.  In general, however, land use change is attributed to a strong  population increase in the catchment as it doubled in the last 30 years. As a result, any change in the use of the land will affect the livelihood of the watershed communities directly. The communities will not likely implement any change in their practices unless they receive benefit from it. For example, reforesting or preserving forestland on their property will not occur since it will most likely be perceived as loss in revenue and time consuming.  The concept of social adaptive capacity was generally defined as the ability and willingness to absorb change and accept the measures to be taken. The communities of the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment will unlikely be willful participants in reforestation and forest conservation efforts, or any other measure that is deemed necessary to mitigate the water quality and quantity issues in the Huitzilapan River, and requires them to substantially change their current practices, unless they see value to it. In this case, "value" should be understood as a financial benefit received either directly from in-kind compensations or indirectly through the significant economical gain of farmers when new agricultural practices or land uses are implemented. Additionally, these communities are not likely able to absorb highly technical or technological solutions unless substantial efforts are spent on education and capacity building within the watershed.  In effect, the average education of the Upper Huitzilapan River  Catchment communities is 2.5 years of schooling with 41% of the population 15 years+ having no education. Additionally, only 55% of the population 15 years+ is literate. As a result, the social adaptive capacity of the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment communities is likely to be low . 35  It is important to note that if provided with adequate financial incentives (and disincentives), the Upper Huitzilapan communities will most likely "accept" mitigation measures and change their practices. This is the point argued in Section 6.2 to demonstrate that the social adaptive capacity of these communities, could also be considered relatively good.  -61 -  Additionally, there is no culture of actively participating in decision-making processes for communities in Mexico. The civil society has no experience in organizational processes and much less in public participation. (Third World Center, 2001). A great deal of effort must be spent in educating and engaging the communities to actively participate as major stakeholders in the management of water resources. As noted in a Third World Center (2001) report on Mexico's water councils, the civil society has little knowledge and understanding of the economic, social and environmental value of water.  They lack  knowledge of the planning and administrative processes of the water sector and have little or no information on the state of their water resources. Consequently, implementing an integrated approach as discussed in Chapter 2 will require educating and building capacity in the communities of the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed.  Population growth in Xalapa is also adding stress to the distribution system since supply, capacity predictions show that there is already a deficit during the high demand period. By 2010, the worse case scenario (Chapter 3.3) predicts a supply deficit during the low demand season. Considering that deforestation in the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed is expected to increase turbidity peaks and decrease low flows, business-as-usual in terms of managing water resources is not a viable option. This clearly highlights the need to preserve existing supply sources in a pristine state and to manage water resources at the basin scale level as recommended in the integrated approach.  However, the  implementation of this approach is expected to be challenging since there is resistance from managers to think and act at the watershed scale. Doing so would require a change in the current management philosophy. For example, the management of C M A S views the Xalapa supply system as beginning at the water intakes and does not consider the supply watersheds, their land uses and consequent impact on water quality and water yield.  6.1.3.  Knowledge  Data acquisition, information management and knowledge sharing is a major challenge in Xalapa. It was assessed during the field research of this work that the challenges reside -62-  partly in the fragmented nature of the water related institutions, partly from the reticent attitude of managers regarding the sharing of information, and partly from a scarcity of available data and information.  The management of water resources in Xalapa is conducted by skilled managers taking full advantage of the available knowledge. As suggested in Chapter 2, it is important for managers to overcome the lack of scientific knowledge and make the best of the available information. However, such an opportunistic attitude should not impede the acquisition of scientific data in accordance with a well-planned and rigorous monitoring program. In Xalapa, data acquisition and monitoring programmes for water quality and water yield are deficient and have lead to a scarcity of available information. As a result, knowledge of the Huitzilapan River and its catchment area is minimal. The national and state water institutions (CNA and C A E V , respectively) are not monitoring the Huitzilapan River as it is considered to be a small tributary of a much bigger river basin. In fact, the closest monitoring station belongs to C N A and is situated 10 km downstream of the Los Colibris water intake in Barranca Grande at the confluence of the Huitzilapan River with the Resumidero River (CNA, 2001). In addition, there are no meteorological stations in the Huitzilapan River watershed.  C M A S is the only institution that directly monitors the  flow of the Huitzilapan River at the Los Colibris intake and indirectly monitors its water quality at the WTP in Xalapa. However, the available information such as historic records of river flows, water quality or turbidity is not readily accessible for C M A S 36  internal use or to the public.  Additionally, there is no information management plan. Although the capacity for data collection exists in the skilled professionals at the C M A S , C N A , University of Veracruz and other institutions, no monitoring plan has been elaborated or implemented, nor has the need for information been defined or recognized. Consequently, the available data are inadequate or insufficient at the very least, and contribute to the situation of data  Records such as daily water quality and turbidity levels in the Huitzilapan exist and are archived in a storage centre but retrieval is almost impossible since documents are not archived in an organized manner. Consequently, only recent data (2001 or more recent) is retrievable and available for consultation.  -63-  scarcity (hydrological, meteorological, vegetation and land uses, etc.) and poor knowledge of the Huitzilapan River and the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed. This issue is also amplified by the fact that knowledge sharing is limited among the various institutions, such as C N A , C A E V and CONAFOR.  As a result, it has detrimental  consequences on the planning for future water supply sources and uses.  6.1.4.  Institutions  Managing the water supply for Xalapa is a complex issue because of the origin of the supply sources. In effect, at least seven of the nine supply sources (Bridger, 2003a) are located outside the municipality's administrative borders and the most important supply source for Xalapa, the Huitzilapan River, is located in the neighbouring state of Puebla. Consequently, the management complexity also becomes a political problem. In the current socio-political context, initiatives mitigating deforestation or managing land uses and water uses in the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed are, for the most part, undertaken by federal institutions such as C O N A F O R because of political issues due to administrative boundaries. In effect, protecting the quality and yield of the Huitzilapan River because of its essential supply role to Xalapa is not a priority for the state of Puebla or the municipalities in the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment . Similarly in Xalapa, 37  decision-makers are very reticent to initiate projects that are outside the municipality's limits, let alone the state limits. The situation is similar for state institutions such as C A E V , as the common perception is that their homologous institution in Puebla should take the initiative in mitigating land use problems. There are no coordinated efforts to consider supply issues or water related issues from a basin scale perspective and to develop solutions at the same scale. Some managers and decision-makers seem to be cautious about this idea and, as a result, influence their institution's perspective on this issue. Since this is one of the four guiding principles of the integrated approach, it can be  On the contrary, priorities are socio-political, which imply that i f help is provided it will be financial assistance or incentives such as increasing revenue by improving crops yield with fertilizers. The impact of these initiatives is detrimental to the water quality of the Huitzilapan River because they do not address the issues of protecting the watershed. 3 7  -64-  expected that implementation will be challenging and that efforts will be needed to educate managers regarding the principles of sustainable management of water resources. We can no longer manage [water] resources in a catchment on a one by one basis, per projects, per sector; with lenders intervening independently of the others in the same basin.  38  The management of water resources is also fragmented.  It is divided according to  activity sectors and cooperation between institutions - whether public or private - is minimal.  Added to the complex political situation described above, this situation  highlights serious challenges for the implementation of an integrated approach.  Additionally, there is no project continuity through the mandate of newly elected political and administrative leaders. In fact, institutions are highly politicized due to the presence of three levels of government in Xalapa (Jimenez Mora, 2004 Pers. Comm.; Saucedo et al., 2004 Pers. Comm.).  A s a result, initiatives usually have a short lifespan of  approximately three years, coinciding with elections and administrative reshuffling. Implementing any IWRM plan is a long-term initiative that must be developed with special considerations for these issues and provide safeguards against it. The challenge will be to generate long-term interest from managers and decision-makers and find champions so that there is sufficient pressure on the political and administrative leaders to ensure a long-term commitment.  6.2.  Implementing an integrated approach: the opportunities  A n integrated approach in Xalapa is not just an idealistic or Utopian management scheme. There are encouraging signs showing lenience towards active collaboration between stakeholders and authorities, towards change in the land uses of the principal supply watershed (i.e. the Upper Huitziliapan River watershed), users' behaviours and practices, and in authorities' approaches to water management. Additionally, the neighbouring city  Source: Burton (2001)  -65-  of Coatepec has developed similar supply issues and challenges.  However, their  approach to mitigating these issues is encouraging and is similar in nature to the I W R M approach proposed in this thesis. The level of collaboration and understanding of the forest cover importance in the supply watersheds is indicative of the feasibility of the I W R M implementation in Xalapa.  These opportunities are favourable for implementing an integrated approach. They are developed and presented below. A brief overview of favourable natural characteristics such as the region's climate is also added to provide a more complete picture of the opportunities pertaining to the management of water resources in Xalapa.  6.2.1.  Physical state  In terms of annual availability, there is no predicted water scarcity in Xalapa's supply watersheds due to abundant annual average rainfall. approximately 1500 mm.  The region's annual average is  The Upper Huitzilapan River watershed's annual average  ranges between 1200 to 1800 mm, depending on the elevation. It can be safely assumed that given adequate storage capacity issues of having enough water for ensuring supply to Xalapa for years to come could be solved - climate change effects not withstanding. However, creating sufficient storage capacity should be considered with care because of the high population density in upstream catchments as well as the effects of high turbidity event during the rainy season on the stored water quality and dam safety.  6.2.2.  Human Factor  The importance of the land for the communities of the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed has been recognized and identified as a challenge for implementing an integrated approach in Section 6.1.2. However, the dependence of these communities on the land for generating income and creating better livelihoods can also be considered as  -66-  an opportunity if changing their land use practices increases revenue and benefits them directly. In fact, one can safely assume that such change is needed and welcomed. As a result, providing adequate incentives for changing the current Upper Huitzilapan land use practices for more sustainable ones where the forest cover is protected, conserved and expanded through reforestation efforts would substantially improve the initial social adaptive capacity assessment of these communities as discussed in Section 6.1.2.  Currently, agricultural practices are not very cost effective. During a visit in Chicholtla, Puebla, with Saucedo et al. (2004) it was estimated that the low profitability and return on investment of potato farms was a clear indication of the need for a change in practices or land uses. The cost for planting potatoes (including fertilizers) is approximately 15000 Mexican Pesos (MXN) per hectare. One hectare would produce approximately 14 Tons of potatoes, generating 8000 M X N for a bad year and 50 000 M X N for a good year. Over a ten-year period, a farmer can expect one good year and, unfortunately, bad years for most of the time. As a result, over a ten year period a farmer will have invested approximately 30 000 M X N more than were generated from their land . The town 39  representative attributed such poor performance to the Puebla state government. It had encouraged large-scale farming in the nearby communities.  They produced a more  competitively priced, whiter and bigger potato . The government had also provided their 40  competitors with the resources for irrigation and fertilization, thus reducing the dependency on the climate leaving the Upper Huitzilapan River farmers in a noncompetitive position. Harvesting trees would be a more profitable option and a serious opportunity for increasing the livelihoods of the Upper Huitzilapan River Catchment communities. However, the transitional costs of migrating from the current agriculture  These numbers are gross estimates and were obtained during the field visit with Saucedo et al. (2004). Farmers who sow corn crops have better return on investments than with potatoes but it still is not a very profitable crop. The topographic and climatic conditions as well as access to proper irrigation favoured the installation of large-scale farming. 4 0  -67-  practices to tree harvesting and the time between reforestation and making profit is a major hurdle for any farmer. Incentives are currently available through C O N A F O R . 41  Additionally, efforts for improving water consumption habits in Xalapa are also being made. Educational workshops on water issues such as conservation, sustainable use and the provenance of water are provided through the C M A S ' Water Culture Department (Jimenez Mora, 2004).  Targeted audiences are mainly the youth as workshops are  generally conducted in schools. Such educational projects could be extended to the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed communities, as they are a good start for building capacity and raising awareness of the importance of preserving existing supply sources in a pristine state.  Lastly, another opportunity for implementing an integrated approach is the presence of champions in key managerial positions.  These leaders understand the interactions  between land uses and water quality as well as the need to act at a watershed scale for preserving and improving the yield and quality of water supply sources. At the municipal level, the management of the city council's Department of the Environment has recognized the importance of reforesting areas of the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed (Saucedo et al, 2004 Pers. Comm.). In 2003, they initiated a first attempt by distributing 50 000 (non-native) trees and involving the Chilchotla authorities and community to plant them. This corresponds to approximately 40 ha. Although this initiative was undertaken with a very limited budget and at a small scale, with no follow up to ensure trees were planted, it has revealed potential champions for the implementation of an integrated approach.  Other potential champions can be found in the personnel of the national  institution C O N A F O R Golfo-Centro, based in Xalapa. They recognize the importance of forests for water resources. This is best expressed in the credo "the forest is a water factory" (De la Rosa et al, 2004 Pers. Comm.; Translated bythe author). Much energy is spent at C O N A F O R  to invovle stakeholders from  mountainous catchments in  At the time of the field investigation and consultations with C O N A F O R professionals, the major incentive programs were P R O D E F O R and P R O D E P L A N . Refer to http://www.conafor.gob.iTix/index.html for details on these and other programs.  4 1  -68-  reforestation efforts and better agricultural and pastoral practices. At the time of the field research, the focus of this effort was principally on the Cofre de Perote Mountain in a zone that did not comprise the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed. However, plans for the near future (late 2004, early 2005) are to expand the efforts to encompass the Pico de Orizaba Mountain and hence to include the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed (De la Rosa et al, 2004 Pers. Comm.).  6.2.3.  Knowledge  It was assessed in Section 6.1.3 that information on the' Upper Huitzilapan River watershed and knowledge sharing was a challenge to the implementation of an integrated approach. However, there are positive signs for change in terms of information gathering and sharing.  For example, the presence of universities, research centres and private  institutions can be viewed as an opportunity to generate additional information through research meanwhile building scientific capacity. Academic centres are also excellent media for knowledge sharing.  Other institutions such as INEGI and C N A are also  involved in gathering information, creating and disseminating knowledge and providing valuable regional and local data that are readily accessible.  In particular, the role of INEGI as a model for information sharing is important. This recent federal initiative provides citizens with access to information and knowledge for any area of Mexico in the form of socio demographic, economic, environmental, scientific and technological statistics as well as cartographies on political borders, fauna and flora, hydrology, edaphology, physiography and geology.  In fact, the socio-  economic information obtained for this thesis was mainly obtained from INEGI.  In terms of water resources, C N A is the federal institution responsible for measurements and operations in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, water quality, establishes the quality standards and delivers water licences.  Until recently, information was not  collected following strategic designs and had "major gaps, was not representative of  -69-  important areas, was often unreliable, suffered from out-of-date or lack of facilities" (Ongley and Barrios Ordo, 1997). However, the major redesign and modernization that was undertaken over the period 1996-2001 has greatly improved C N A ' s water management to better represent the range of issues for which data are needed.  CNA's  new operations have greatly improved data gathering and knowledge sharing. One of the objectives of this new programme is to "make use of surveys and special studies to "fill in" the knowledge base for issue-specific concerns and for basin planning purposes" (Ongley and Barrios Ordo, 1997). Academic institutions and research centres should take this opportunity to create research project partnerships.  Also, the information and  knowledge sharing capabilities of C N A have been greatly enhanced with an interactive information management facility at its water quality headquarters. Similar capabilities exist in regional offices. Consequently, stakeholders searching existing information can contact their regional offices or address requests to C N A headquarters.  Nonetheless, in spite of these efforts from C N A and INEGI, the information generated is not specific to the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed. There is little to no knowledge of the water quality and hydrology of the study watershed as stated in Section 6.1.3. However, the presence of universities, research centres and private institutions could offset and overcome this disparity. Concerted efforts between governmental institutions and universities could lead to the design of research projects to fill the hydrological and water quality knowledge gap for the Upper Huitzilapan. Ultimately, such efforts should be extended to Xalapa's existing and potential supply watersheds.  6.2.4.  Institutions  A few institutions have acknowledged the water supply problems in Xalapa and the need for a better management of this resource.  In their efforts and outlook at possible  solutions, elements of an integrated approach were applied.  -70-  The Environment department of the City Council has recognized the water supply problems facing Xalapa through a report on improvement action for the environment (H.Ayuntamiento, 2003). The report is explicit on the importance of the conserving and reforesting deforested areas in the municipality of Chilchotla, Puebla . It considers the 42  two (complimentary) problems of the increased water demand and the conversion of forest cover in Chilchotla to be a high risk factor for decreases in stream flows, groundwater sources and water quality.  Recognizing that the situation results from  inadequate land use management, they've suggested reforesting the higher areas of Chilchotla with native trees.  To do so, partnerships have been built with other  institutions helping in the reforestation efforts such as C O N A F O R and D I D E F O  43  as well  as with stakeholders from the region such as the local authorities and population. As discussed in Section 6.2.2, a first attempt at this reforestation effort was conducted in 2003 with non-native trees. Ironically, these partnerships did not generate enthusiasm and support from water institutions. C M A S ' contribution was limited to lending trucks and drivers for the transport of trees to Chilchotla.  It is assumed that the explicit  objectives of this initiative (reforestation and land use management) did not appeal to C M A S or C A E V because it did not deal directly with water resources, even though the results would affect the water quality and yield of the Huitzilapan River.  It can be  expected that a partnership formulated differently, with explicit objectives focused on water resources would generate sufficient awareness on the interrelationships of the different activity sectors amongst managers to create collaborative partnerships.  Such partnerships have been created recently in the neighbouring city of Coatepec, Veracruz (see Figure 3.2).  Local authorities became preoccupied by the impact of  deforestation in their supply watersheds, especially during the low flow period when, in June 1998, the drinking water demand equalled the supply capacity of C M A S - Coatepec (Cuevas and Bonilla, 2004 Pers. Comm.): Alerted by this situation, managers consulted  The municipality of Chilchotla is almost entirely within the Upper Huitzilapan watershed and is the most populated. Consequently, it is also the area where human activities such as agriculture, cattle ranching and land husbandry are the most widespread and most significantly affect water yields and quality. DIDEFO, or Direction of Forest Development (translated byauthor), is a Veracruz state institution that is very similar to C O N A F O R in its operations and objectives. 4 3  -71 -  and created partnerships with various institutions and stakeholders including Coatepec City Hall, CONAFOR, the State Government, C N A , residents, business associations and various NGOs in order to develop an adequate solution for Coatepec (Cuevas and Bonilla, 2004 Pers. Comm.). The importance of the tree cover in the supply catchments was recognized and efforts were undertaken to assess the land uses of their supply catchments, reforest them and buy wooded land when necessary. The Fidecoagua was created in 2002 to facilitate this process. Funding was secured from external sources (CONAFOR, local authorities, others) and by raising tariffs.  The local population  responded well to the tariff raise of lMXN/month per residential connection and 2MXN/month per commercial connection (Cuevas and Bonilla, 2004 Pers. Comm.). Additionally, C M A S - Coatepec has purchased, through the Fidecoagua, 154 ha of land in their supply catchments as a method of ensuring its forest protection . 44  The  philosophy behind this experience in Coatepec is similar to the I W R M approach suggested in this thesis.  The total supply watershed area was estimated at 6421 ha (Cuevas and Bonilla, 2004 Pers. Comm.).  - 72-  7. Requirements for Implementing the IWRM Approach From a technical perspective, the main issue for water supply to Xalapa was shown not to be a generalized water scarcity, as could be the case in the northern desert regions of Mexico, but'a seasonal variability that when combined with a growing demand and a decreasing quality can cause serious drinking water deficits in Xalapa. Consequently, it has been shown throughout this thesis that "business as usual" was no longer a viable option and it was essential for Xalapa's growth to plan for the adequate use of existing drinking supply sources and the identification of potential supply sources. In order to ensure a sustainable supply of water to Xalapa, authorities need to be proactively and collaboratively involved with stakeholders in finding alternative solutions. The previous chapter highlighted the challenges and opportunities facing the implementation of an integrated watershed management plan. In this chapter, these issues contribute to the elaboration of necessary implementations for an integrated approach.  Four key elements have been identified {flexibility, transparency, clarity in mandate, secured financing) from those elaborated in Section 2.3.2 to particularly address some of the challenges identified in chapter 6.  Because of the intangible nature of some  challenges - such as a politicization of the decision process or a certain resistance towards cooperation and information sharing - these key elements should be understood as informed suggestions of factors to keep in mind when implementing a sustainable solution. The alternative sustainable solution, an integrated management plan, should be flexible in its application to adapt to changing circumstances, be responsive to changing needs and evolve with experience. It should also be transparent to prevent any form of corruption or its use to increase political capital rather than to genuinely mitigate water supply issues. It must be credible to all stakeholders and transparency can build the trust needed.  Additionally, it should have a clear mandate and well-defined goals and  objectives in order to reduce misunderstandings and facilitate implementation. Finally, sources of funding should be secured early in the process to reduce dependency on externalities such as changing governments and administrations as well as reducing risks  -73-  for projects to be paralyzed due to a lack of funds. Also, since fundraising is a timeconsuming activity, securing funds early will allow energies to be spent fully on the implementation of an IWRM plan.  In addition, addressing the challenges and building on the opportunities identified in the previous chapter has led to the identification of a list of actions for sustainable management of the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed and maintenance of its adequate supply capacity - in quality and quantity. This list should be central to the elaboration of a recommended alternative for managing the watershed as will be discussed in Chapter 8. The five actions are: 1. To plan adequately and efficiently for a sustainable use of water supply sources; 2. To facilitate communications, exchanges, knowledge sharing; 3. To create an information management system; 4. To generate value; and 5. To educate and build capacity.  The following sections provide a detail explanation of each item of the above list.  7.1.  Planning for sustainable water supply sources  The suggested approach to a sustainable and planned use of water resources is the I W R M plan. This alternative to traditional management should generate a change in mindset, provide continuity to projects and initiatives, engage stakeholders into taking responsibility for their resources and establish priorities for managing water-related programs.  The recommended alternative will need a change in the mindset of some stakeholders and the way certain institutions traditionally operate. Implementing an I W R M approach will bring together stakeholders - individuals and institutions - to create solutions and  - 74-  participate in their realizations. This new dynamic in governance should be perceived as a means to better the quality and efficiency of the decision-making process and not as a right or an imposed sharing of powers (Burton, 2001). It requires open mindedness to cooperation and the sharing of ideas, experiences and knowledge.  A new vision of  watershed management should be emerging and traditional top-down processes should be replaced by concerted and consensual decision-making involving local interests and reflecting the diversity of interests and consensus processess.  Stakeholders'  participation  will  ensure  longevity  and  continuity  of  projects.  Vulnerability to political decisions and high turn around of projects will be reduced because rather than depending on a government for finding and implementing solutions, all the parties involved (including governments) are active partners in finding and implementing solutions that take into account social, economic and environmental considerations. This process also provides accountability that makes cancelling a project or changing drastically its outcome difficult.  In addition, the success of the I W R M approach lies in its buy-in from all the stakeholders. Hence, engaging them in the decision-making process and implementation of projects holds them responsible for its success.  It is also part of a philosophical  change identified by Ongley and Barrios Ordoiiez (1997) as an acceptance that the government cannot and should not provide all services to the public. Planning adequately for sustainable water supply sources must make stakeholders responsible for their resource.  Finally, through consultations with the stakeholders, including public and private institutions and governments, priority actions must be identified in order to optimize and simplify the implementation of an IWRM plan (Burton, 2001; Nokes and Taylor, 2003). It is recommended to keep a realistic outlook when identifying the need for improvement by prioritizing actions comparing what should be in place with what is already in place and considering resources limitations.  - 75 -  7.2.  Facilitate communications, exchanges, knowledge sharing  It was mentioned in Chapter 2.2.3 that there is no need to create a new institution to manage water resources.  Instead, the creation of networks through which already  existing institutions can interact is recommended.  Effective management must bring  together institutions, leaders and community members, create communication channels and encourage the sharing of knowledge and information. To be effective, stakeholders, especially decision makers, must recognize the importance  of interaction and  communication skills. When identified, communication disparities should be addressed through training and exchanging experiences with peers. Communication actions and participatory approaches must be built into development programs if their sustainability is to be an important consideration [...] these must be incorporated as integral components of all sustainable development projects.  45  Creating a network is essential to addressing many of the challenges identified in Chapter 6 (e.g. fragmented management, inadequate information management and insufficient knowledge sharing without creating a new institution).  It is recommended that the  overall coordination of the network and the communication and public relation activities be provided independently.  Support services could be provided through a resource  centre, a secretariat or any other form of administrative structure that will ensure effective administration and financial management.  In other words, a physical space is needed  (and recommended) to be used for the logistical aspects of planning, organizing and supporting the network's activities, planning meetings, accumulating information, creating a "collective memory" , and facilitating exchanges of ideas and knowledge. 46  The physical location of this administrative entity can be within -some of the stakeholders' offices. For example, it can be at INEGI, C N A , C M A S , or C O N A F O R ' s existing offices or it could be located in the town hall, as is the case of the Fidecoagua in Coatepec. The Fidecoagua-Coatepec is a great example of a resource centre set up to  Source: Escamila (1997) By having a resource center for easy access to information on the watershed and its land uses, the water quality and flows within the supply system, and most importantly, the network's activities.  4 5  4 6  -76-  coordinate Coatepec's efforts for undertaking to the sustainable management of their supply watersheds and collaborating with upstream communities as well as federal and provincial initiatives such as C O N A F O R and C A E V , respectively (Cuevas and Bonilla, 2004 Pers. Comm.; Fidecoagua, 2004). The Fidecoagua secretariat is located in the town hall premises but remains independent administratively and physically . This is an 47  essential condition to preserving transparency and stakeholders' trust.  7.3.  Create an information management system  The current state of knowledge of the most important river supplying drinking water to Xalapa is poor and an information management system is non-existent. This situation is not exclusive to the Huitzilapan River as it is similar for most of Xalapa's other drinking water supply sources and their catchments. Consequently, it is imperative to tackle these knowledge gaps without spending scarce resources on generating more data than needed. For the Upper Huitzilapan River waterhsed, addressing the current state of knowledge and available information could be undertaken using Weggeman's knowledge value chain (Weggeman, 2004).  First, the information requirements for good management  should be determined as well as the current availability of information.  Then the  information gaps can be identified and monitoring programs can be planned accordingly.  Information management should be people-oriented rather than technology driven (IRC, 2004) implying that another important aspect of the creation of knowledge is sharing information with stakeholders through, for example, local workshops, training, public relation campaigns. The material produced should be adapted, packaged and targeted to its audience. For example, the information disseminated to water professionals will be more scientific in nature contrasting with tools such as workshops or "theatre-forum" that could be used for disseminating knowledge in the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed communities.  This is highly valuable because good governance for water  It has its own private entrance. This revolutionary approach to drama involves the audience in order to better communicate and deliver messages. Traditionally played in the streets of South American slums, it was used to reveal the oppression lived by the people. It is now used as an excellent method to reach and educate rural communities. 4 8  -77-  supply management relies on good decisions and efficient public participation, which in turn requires good information (Bakker, 2003). The use of a resource centre as suggested in Section 7.2 is the preferred method for accumulating and disseminating information because the requirements for the particular case of this study are local and the existing institutions (INEGI and CNA) have a history of gathering and generating more regional information.  Technology can also have a place in generating knowledge, especially at the planning level. Models are particularly popular and increasingly sought after for providing, at a low cost, a general picture of complex systems such as a region's hydrology and landwater relationships with regards to pollution (Merrit et al., 2003). Many models exist. Some require extensive datasets while others are less data intensive. These management tools are ideal for assessing a priori the advantages and consequences of management scenarios.  For ungauged watersheds, the International Association of Hydrological  Sciences (IAHS) has launched a decade on predictions in ungauged basins (PUB 20032012). This initiative is aimed at "formulating and implementing appropriate science programmes [...] in a coordinated manner, towards achieving major advances to make predictions in ungauged basins" (IAHS, 2003). One of its objectives, among others, is to "actively promot[e] capacity building activities [...] in communities where it is needed" (IAHS, 2003). The knowledge generated through this initiative could be very useful for building a model of the Upper Huitzilapan River and thus increasing the information available to managers and stakeholders in Xalapa and supply watershed communities . 49  7.4.  Generate value  Reflecting on some of the challenges and opportunities identified in the previous chapter clearly highlights the need for the initiatives and activities of the I W R M plan to generate value for every stakeholder in order to facilitate implementation and viability.  It is  Additionally, through a partnership with academic centres building such a model would increase the local scientific capapcity and knowledge.  -78-  particularly essential when considering the adaptive capacity of the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed communities, the concerns of water managers in Xalapa and the research efforts of academic centres. In fact, the management of water resources in Xalapa must consider two distinct systems. The first system, the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed, is situated upstream from Xalapa and in a different state. It has a different climatic, social, environmental and economical situation than in Xalapa, the second system. Consequently, the nature of the actions to be taken will have to be adapted to each system. However, in both cases, generating added value will be a requirement for a successful implementation of the IWRM plan. Whether it is in the form of incentives for reforestation and forest conservation or in efforts to make managers and leaders recognize that it is more efficient from a cost point of view to prevent pollution from occurring in the first place (Mehlhorn and Weip\ 2003). The following is some examples of where value can and should be generated by an I W R M plan.  In Upper Huitzilapan River watershed communities, it is important to associate direct financial incentives with reforestation efforts and conserving forests as well as disincentives for malpractices.  The federal government currently provides such  incentives through CONAFOR.  Additionally, indirect financial incentives can be  provided through workshops and training on improved agricultural and pastoral practices that improve crop yield or reduce effort and cost while achieving results similar to those currently obtained.  Some training workshops on land practices are already provided  through CONAFOR.  In Xalapa, managers, local authorities and the general public must realize the value of preserving or improving the quality and yield of the Huitzilapan River before it reaches the treatment plant. Such a perception will require a change in mindsets. It will also add value for commitment to a sustainable development of the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed, to actively participate in generating knowledge, to build local capacity and to collaborate with other institutions. For example, drinking water managers from around the world met during a conference in Germany to look at efficient ways to modernize the management of water quality (FEA, 2003). They explored transferable experiences from  -79-  the food industry to increase the efficiency of delivering water of adequate quality while reducing costs. The experience of the German drinking water sector has shown that it was cost effective for the water supply industry to commit to the sustainable development of their supply watersheds (Mehlhorn and Weip\ 2003). German water suppliers were intensively involved in the monitoring and protection of water bodies.  Similarly, in  Xalapa as in Germany, water suppliers would benefit from getting involved in the development of the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed.  A n efficient solution to the  problems of high turbidity peaks, as explained in the previous chapter , could be to 50  reduce their occurrence and intensity rather than to focus on water treatment. Local authorities should also have a vested interest in promoting regional cooperation. Increased cooperation can be beneficial to other activity sectors.  Among the positive  impacts of cooperation are increased business potential, simplified operations for various departments, increased efficiency of the public service and economies of scale for the water sector. Involving academic centres for what they do best, namely research,  generating  knowledge and training professionals, also adds value to their participation in the integrated management of Xalapa's water resources. In fact, studies (Tortajada, 2001; C N A et al., 2000) have identified a general absence of appropriate multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral approach to water management  in engineering schools curriculum  throughout Mexico. Consequently, active collaboration with local universities and research centres will result in improving their graduates' skills and professional capacity. It will also strengthen and improve the quality of their education and increase their reputation.  7.5.  Education and Capacity Building  Education and capacity building is central to a successful implementation of an integrated management plan (Guerquin et al., 2003; Cosgrove and Rijsberman, 2000). Educational 5 0  High turbidity peaks lead to a reduction of the supply capacity of CMAS.  - 80-  efforts can effectively address some of the most recurrent challenges identified in the previous chapter, which are the lack of management cohesion due to scattered efforts, a fragmented approach and the disparate value put on knowledge and hard information. It is therefore essential to educate stakeholders, managers and relevant government officials on the importance of the sustainable management of water resources, on the why and how stakeholders can contribute and participate to the elaboration of an I W R M plan, on the goals and principles of the integrated approach and on the importance of leadership at every level. Education will also facilitate the implementation of the necessary actions identified in this chapter by highlighting the importance of good water quality, better agricultural practices or participative collaboration, among others.  In addition, education will contribute to build local and regional capacity.  This is  particularly important since a report on water councils in Mexico (Third World Centre, 2001) has outlined the lack of real representation of the civil society in the management of water resources and the elaboration of management alternatives, even though space was specifically created for the civil society to participate through basin-wide water councils. This situation was explained by an institutionalized apathy from local instances and the civil society . 51  Therefore, engaging stakeholders effectively will require  providing them with the tools to do so. In other words, it will be necessary to educate them on the benefits of participation, on the economical, social and environmental value of water as well as on the administrative and planning processes of the water sector. It will also be necessary to provide them with updated information on the situation of water resources in the region.  As mentioned in Chapter 6, the water culture department of C M A S provides educational workshops on water related issues. However, due to its small size , its actions have been 52  limited. It could be expanded to educate and build capacity within the general public on the importance of changing consumption habits, on general concepts such as the water  For details on the reasons for this apathy, please refer to the Third World Center (2001) report. They will not be treated here as this is beyond the scope of this thesis. At the time of the investigation for this thesis, the department was operating with only two individuals. 51  5 2  - 81 -  cycle and threats to Xalapa's drinking water or on the paramount importance of preserving existing supply sources and the costs and benefits associated with it. This initiative should also be used as a stepping-stone to expand its scope to water professionals and decision-makers and contribute to institutional strengthening and development. Such initiatives are greatly needed in Mexico as human resources need to be developed in the areas of water planning and management and in understanding and appreciation of environmental and social issues (Tortajada, 2001).  Finally, it is essential to encourage local leadership and initiatives from individuals or communities since sustainable change is implemented through the efforts of the land users and local initiatives have the greater impacts on regional issues. This was explicitly recognized in the Fraser Basin Council (FBC) charter for sustainability when it stated "communities and their residents have an important role as stewards of the environment [and they should] take responsibility for the well-being of the environment" (FBC, 1997). Examples of stewardship activities include picking up litter, counting and monitoring fish and birds, replanting along stream banks, reporting violations and protecting trees that support wildlife.  The community groups involved received technical assistance and  support from the F B C . The F B C also published reports and newsletters on successful activities.  - 82-  8. Suggested  Alternative for  a  Sustainable Water  Resources Management in Xalapa Throughout this thesis it was argued that the combined pressures of an increasing water demand and a decreasing supply quality and quantity made "business as usual" for managing drinking water supply no longer possible in Xalapa. As a result, a new model for a sustainable management of the resource is essential to ensure the adequate supply of water for Xalapa for current and future generations. The previous chapter suggested a proactive approach (an IWRM) to water management and a list of actions deemed necessary for a successful management directed toward mitigating current water resources issues. In this chapter, the Xalapa Water Council (Xawaco) is proposed as the administrative structure within which the I W R M approach can be implemented. This type of organization is favoured because rather than taking a position on any waterrelated issue, which could become political, it remains an impartial facilitator advocating for sustainable use of water resources and land practices. It brings together stakeholders and government officials in a participative process.  It acts as an action network  53  facilitating communications and exchanges, managing information and knowledge, promoting sustainability and generating value for everyone involved as well as educating and building capacity among the stakeholders and the government officials.  The model for the Xawaco was inspired by the Fraser Basin Council (FBC) because of its "highly adaptive and flexible [structure that] can be applied to almost any watershed in the world" (FBC, 2004). The process for setting it up was inspired by Environment Quebec/ROBVQ's guide for setting up watershed agencies (ROBVQ, 2003). 54  An action network combines the tasks of a resource centre, which is focused mainly on knowledge and information management, and a secretariat, which is focused mainly on administrative and coordination tasks. ROBVQ stands for Regroupement des Organisations de Bassin Versant du Quebec (grouping of Quebec's river basin agencies; translated by the author) 5 4  - 83 -  8.1.  The Xalapa Water Council  The proposed Xalapa Water Council (Xawaco) must be a not-for-profit and nongovernmental organization. It is meant to bring together the civil society, governments, private sector and non-government partners and to facilitate problem solving through participative consultation. As such, it is very important for the Xawaco to represent the diversity of interests and stakeholders concerned with the supply of water to Xalapa and the development of supply watersheds. It is also essential that no particular interest or actors be given a majority representation.  The Council should be composed of a  decision-making body (board of governors) and a management team supporting its activities (the secretariat).  The composition of the board of governors should be  representative of the importance and geographic distribution of the water uses and users. The composition of the secretariat does not need to be representative of the Council's membership since its main objective is administrative efficiency and effectiveness, financial management and logistical support. The secretariat also has the responsibility of setting up and running the resource centre.  Solutions to the water supply issues in Xalapa and the land uses in the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed or any other supply watershed should be realistic, workable and promote sustainability.  In other words, enduring solutions will address complex sustainability  challenges by considering the three interdependent systems (environmental, social and economic) as mentioned in Chapter 2.  The Xawaco is not another new institution and should not be meant to redefine existing laws, standards (e.g. water quality) or management processes and decision-making processes.  It is meant as a network promoting cooperation, building capacity and  broadening the possibilities for collaboration within the current management and decision-making processes. Decisions made by the Council should be by consensus and presented as recommendations to the parties involved. Such a decision-making process requires all participants (stakeholders and government officials alike) to agree to do their  - 84-  part in a good-faith agreement (FBC, 2004).  It binds them and their actions to the  recommendations made by the Council.  The Xawaco should act as an independent and impartial facilitator. It must provide, to all, the forum needed to voice concerns and participate in finding solutions to current conflicts and water-related issues . In order to remain impartial, the Xawaco should not 55  take a position on an issue but advocate for the sustainable use of resources. As a result, although it might occasionally take the lead on projects and initiatives when necessary, it should generally work through partnerships with the parties involved.  8.2.  Xalapa Water Council: Vision, Mission and Objectives  This section presents the author's recommended vision, mission and objectives for the Council. It is important that they be articulated and refined locally by the stakeholders and government officials to produce a detailed vision, mission and explicit references to how each objective can be achieved.  The Charter for Sustainability (FBC, 1997)  developed for the FBC is a good example of the level of detail recommended. Vision  Bring together the relevant stakeholders (individuals, public and private organizations, business  interests,  governments  and communities) to  foster  collaboration, and  partnerships. Promote a good-faith agreement among its membership to commit to do their part to pursue and support the Council's overall intent and objectives. Mission  To facilitate government and non-government collaboration in planning comprehensive, sustainable and integrated solutions to the current and future drinking water supply issues  Public participation in public decisions should be understood as a mean to improve the quality and efficiency of decision-making (Burton, 2001). It should not be perceived as a right in itself, nor as a form of sharing power.  - 85 -  of Xalapa. Act as a catalyst for sustainable development partnerships and stewardship of Xalapa's supply watersheds . 56  Objectives Each objective corresponds to a strategic direction within which actions can be taken to achieve the goals of the Council.  Managing the quality of water resources and planning for future needs Through this objective, it is proposed that comprehensive solutions to the current and future water supply issues are found through an IWRM approach. Sustainable projects 57  and initiatives occur over a long-term basis and engaging stakeholders and governments into taking responsibility for the management of their resources will provide the necessary continuity. This objective can be achieved, in part, by Establishing priorities for managing water-related programs. Promoting the principles of an I W R M approach. Identifying potential supply sources.  .  Encouraging environmental stewardship. Promoting inclusive and cooperative decision making. Promoting transparent and accountable decision making.  Focused interactions through an Action Network An action network will facilitate the implementation of the I W R M approach and principles by bringing together stakeholders and governments. Interactions through the Council will improve the efficiency of this participative decision-making process and strengthen relationships and partnerships. It will facilitate communications, exchanges and improve knowledge by acquiring, managing and sharing information adequately. This objective can be achieved, in part, by This thesis focused on the Upper Huitzilapan watershed issues and used this case study to justify the Xawaco, but the long term vision of the Council should include all the supply watersheds of Xalapa. It was highlighted throughout this thesis that the supply issues facing Xalapa is inadequate supply capacity and sub-standard water quality. 5 6  57  -86-  Creating and fostering communication channels in the form of meetings, consultation tables, discussion forums, workshops for communities and decision-makers, etc. Identifying knowledge gaps and planning for adequate monitoring programs or data gathering in partnership with communities and research centres. Organizing a resource centre for accessible and adequate dissemination of information. Creating a secretariat to plan and manage the Council's initiatives, activities, training sessions and public campaigns in Xalapa as well as in the supply watersheds.  To generate value (from participation to the IWRM) Involvement in the Xalapa water council relies on a good-faith agreement amongst all parties involved and a good understanding of sustainability. Generating value from this participatory process will facilitate the implementation of the I W R M approach and the viability of projects and initiatives. This objective can be achieved through Economic incentives for good land management practices in the supply watersheds. Economic disincentives for poor land management practices in the supply watersheds. Economic disincentives for high consumption of water in Xalapa. Cost savings for water utilities by preserving supply water in pristine quality. Involvement of research centres resulting in increased scientific capacity and graduate qualifications. -  Ensuring adequate supply for future generation and contributing to Xalapa's growth.  To educate and build capacity  Promoting the lifestyle choices that enhance the sustainable development of the supply watersheds and water uses requires everyone involved to understand the impact of their practices.  Educational programs will make the connection between land uses, water  quality, water quantity and sustainability as well as between an integrated approach, community stewardship and improved water management. This objective can be achieved through  - 87•i  -  Interaction and communication skills workshops. Training and workshops on participatory decision-making. Education for sustainability. Technical assistance and training for communities in supply catchments. Public relations events promoting the preservation and creation of forested areas. Assistance and training on the benefits of public participation. Sharing of information on successful initiatives and on those that failed. Public campaign providing updated information of the situation of water resources in the region.  8.3.  Guidelines for Setting up the Xalapa Water Council  Setting up a water council can be a laborious experience. It must be initiated from local will and supported by individuals or groups from the local communities, the private sector, non-government  institutions or government ones.  It requires their active  involvement, financial contribution as well as technical and human resources.  As a caveat to this section, it is important to mention that commitments are often difficult to obtain. The "carrot and stick" method sometimes work but is not recommended. could be more beneficial to use a "trigger event" volunteer participation is no longer adequate.  58  It  accelerating the process when  Burton (2001) recognizes that rational  arguments promoting an integrated approach do not always generate the necessary involvement. As a result, a "trigger event" such as a prolonged water supply black out could exert the pressure needed on reticent actors to adhere to the Council.  This section suggests a five-stage process for effective set-up of the water council.  Trigger events are events that will capture everyone's attention (the civil society and government officials alike), highlight the inadequacies of the current situation and calls for immediate action in searching for alternative solutions such as a severe drought, flood or water supply blackout.  - 88-  8.3.1.  Identification of a Project Leader  Identifying the right leader - or Champion - is essential to the successful creation and viability of the Council . He/she/they must have the capacity to convince stakeholders 59  as well as governments of the importance of creating a water council and the necessity for their active participation.  He/she/they must be credible and well known in the  communities involved in order to facilitate the acceptation and consultation processes as well as helping in finding sources of funding. Consequently, the champion should be identified and selected from the communities involved, be ready to publicly take the initiative to set up the Council and impart credibility to the project.  In this case study, the regional manager of C O N A F O R Region X Golfo Centro has the 60  local credibility required to champion the Xawaco. He is known and respected in Xalapa as well as in the various communities of Xalapa's supply watersheds. He has access to financial resources for initiatives in the watersheds and is familiar with their land use issues.  He has experience working with different levels of government and water  institutions and also has experience in public consultation and participation (CONAFOR, 2004; Cuevas and Bonilla, 2004; De la Rosa et al, 2004).  8.3.2.  Summary description of the supply watersheds  This stage consists of completing a summary description of the supply watersheds and water issues. This stage is necessary for the identification the main factors affecting the drinking water supplied to Xalapa as well as the people and institutions, involved. This is very useful for the identification of the issues that bring people and interests together as well as the ones dividing them. It also helps in formulating initially the mission and objectives. The champion can be an individual or an institution, as long as one individual or a group of individuals are publicly identified as taking the responsibility and initiative for setting up the Water Council. The office is located in Xalapa and it manages region 10 which includes the States of Veracruz and Puebla. 5 9  6 0  - 89-  In the summary description of the study watersheds, it is important to obtain knowledge of the territorial limits of each watershed and a list of the various socio-economic activities and stakeholders involved. Table 8.1 provides an example of the requirements needed.  Additionally, it can be useful to note down the relative importance of each  activity per sector in order to help highlight priority issues (ROBVQ, 2003).  Table 8.1. Example of target stakeholders/agencies or institutions per activity sector and their relative importance. Activity Sector  Target Stakeholder/Agency or Institution  Relative Importance of Activity Sector  Municipal Forestry Agriculture Industrial Environmental Socio-economic Tourism and Recreational activities Cultural Health Populations Others Source: ROBVQ (2003)  The documentation phase of this thesis (Chapters 3, 4 and 5) provides a good description of the most important supply watershed to Xalapa, the Upper Huitzilapan, and can be used for this stage.  As stated earlier, The Xawaco should manage Xalapa's supply  watersheds and their related issues, even though the focus of this thesis was the Upper Huitzilapan.  8.3.3.  Preliminary Draft of the Water Council Mandate  Developing a preliminary draft of the Xawaco structure, mission statement and goals will help in soliciting early support. This draft must contain a description of the major issues  -90-  and stakes, identify problems to be solved and highlight potential ones.  General  questions should also be addressed when preparing the preliminary draft since this document will be used to obtain initial community support and recognition. It should include explanations of the sustainability and I W R M concepts, of the purpose of the Xawaco, and of the impact the water council will have on the communities and their ecosystems. It should also address the reasons why individuals should get involved in the Xawaco and have a brief description of what to expect (the next steps) when they decide to get involved.  The preliminary draft should be developed locally. However, the Diagnosis phase (Chapters 6 and 7) of this thesis as weil as the beginning of this chapter provides sufficient information to outline the preliminary draft.  8.3.4.  Search for Community Support and Mission Statement validation  Once the preliminary draft outlining the Xawaco's structure, mandate and goals is complete, it is necessary to search for support and validation among the communities, governments, individuals, academic institutions and the private sector.  In particular,  recognition and commitment from the major stakeholders and governments is essential. At this stage, support should be obtained on form and not so much on content. It is also important to be prepared to answer all sorts of questions on the Xawaco and its role. It is suggested to use concrete and precise examples to support the answers provided. This stage is crucial for the adoption of the Council as the most appropriate agency to find adequate, sustainable and integrated solutions to the water supply challenges of Xalapa.  The major stakeholders identified during the investigation phase of this case study are: C M A S Xalapa; the municipal government of Xalapa and of the supply watersheds of the major communities involved such as Chilchotla for the Upper Huitzilapan; research centres such as the engineering and biology departments of the University of Veracruz  -91 -  and the Ecology Institute (Institute* de Ecologid); the private sector such as business groups; and the general public from each communities involved.  8.3.5.  Creation of a Provisional Board of Governor  A provisional board of governors must be formed when sufficient support and validation from the communities and governments is obtained. Its principal mandate is to oversee setting up of the Council. This provisional board should be formed "during a public meeting to which all are convened, stakeholders and governments alike" (ROBVQ, 2003; translated bythe author). The provisional board's principal tasks initially are mainly administrative.  It should define a mission, a mandate and objectives for the water  council. It should also set up the secretariat to start planning and coordinating activities. The provisional board is also responsible for setting up and proposing the water council's general rules and regulations, set up a constitution and an operating mode.  The  secretariat's initial work should be focused on training all stakeholders (involved or not) on sustainability concepts and the I W R M approach, on the water resource situation in Xalapa and in participatory involvement and decision-making. It should also set up the resource centre.  A board of governors should be elected when the Xawaco's constitution, mission and objectives have been defined.  - 92-  9. Conclusions: Summary and Future Work This thesis argues that mitigating water supply capacity and quality can be effectively and sustainably achieved through management practices rather than by technical improvements. A n overview of the integrated management approach was presented to address the shortcomings of current water resources management in Xalapa. principles and key elements of this approach were discussed.  Guiding  Considerations for a  successful implementation of the integrated approach were also presented. A framework was developed to gather information and generate knowledge, understand the challenges and opportunities for developing an integrated management plan, and to develop recommendations for a sustainable management of water resources in Xalapa.  Assessing the capacity of Xalapa's water supply system determined that, on average, 1600 Ips of a maximum of 1800 Ips of drinking water was provided to the city. The water demand was estimated at 269 lpd/capita for most of the year and at 333 lpd/capita during the high demand period, which occurred from March to June. With a population of almost 375 000 inhabitants in 2000 and a predicted population of approximately half a million (500 000) people by 2010, the supply deficit for the current and future generations in Xalapa is alarming. By 2010, the worst-case scenario estimates that 7% of the population of the city will face Water scarcity year-round. The best-case scenario predicts water scarcity only during the high demand season, in which case blackouts could affect 17% to 25% of the population.  This assessment highlighted the importance of planning adequately to find new supply sources for Xalapa. Most importantly, it highlighted the importance of ensuring current sources were kept in pristine condition and yielded maximum capacity. The Huitzilapan River was chosen as the case study for this thesis because it contributes to 60% of Xalapa's drinking water.  Its catchment area is named the Upper Huitzilapan River  watershed and is located entirely in the neighbouring state of Puebla. Field investigation and consultation with various managers in Xalapa and in the Upper Huitzilapan  - 93 -  suggested that the river water quality issues are due to land conversion from forest to agriculture fields and pasture ranges.  Since the Upper Huitzilapan River watershed  topography is very rugged with steep slopes, the impact of deforestation on stream water quality is increasing turbidity events and intensity. Local knowledge and observations also revealed a reduction of stream flow.  Field and data investigation as well as consultation with researchers have revealed that approximately 30% of the Upper Huitzilapan's land was used for agriculture and land husbandry. The population density of the watershed is high (135.5 Hab/km ) and most of 2  the work force works in the primary sector. The education levels are generally low and the population is poor. This situation highlights the dependency of the communities on the land and explains the resulting deforestation.  The major water supply challenge in Xalapa was identified as a lack of adequate planning for future water sources and uses. A situation exacerbated by a seasonal variability of water availability combined with growing supply demand and a decreasing source water quality. It was also identified that little knowledge and information existed on current or potential supply sources and that no concerted efforts were made to preserve current supply sources.  Implementing an integrated watershed management plan was suggested to- address these issues.  A list of actions essential to a successful integrated plan was developed.  It  suggested planning adequately and efficiently for a sustainable use of water supply sources; facilitating communications, exchanges and knowledge sharing; creating an information management system; generating value; and educating and build capacity.  A water council for Xalapa was suggested as the most appropriate structure within which an I W R M approach could be implemented.  The Council would facilitate problem  solving through cooperation among existing institutions and building capacity at all levels.  It would promote participatory consultation and consensual decision-making.  The decisions of the Council would be recommended to its members preserving its  - 94-  independency and impartiality. The members would be responsible in front of their peers for implementing the council's recommendations.  Guidelines providing useful guidance  for setting up Xalapa water council were also proposed.  This study provides stakeholders, decision-makers and government officials involved (directly or indirectly) in supplying water to Xalapa the preliminary information to implement an integrated water resource management plan and address supply issues in a concerted manner. Future research project should include the following: •  Performing hydrological analysis of the Huitzilapan River  •  Characterizing the Upper Huitzilapan land uses  •  Developing a model characterizing the impact different land uses have on the water quality and yield to be used as a tool aiding in making enlightened decisions.  •  Creating a user-friendly information management system  •  Estimating of the real cost of water supply deficits.  -95-  10. Bibliography Alvarez Palacios, J.L., 2004. Cambio de uso del suelo asociado al valor de la produccion y empleo rural en la cuenca alta del rio La Antigua. Presentation of final work for thesis defense. 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Retrieved August 14, • 2004 from: http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/Vision/library.shtml R O B V Q , 2003. Guide pour la mise en place d'une organisation de bassin versant au Qubec. Regroupement des organisations de bassin versant du Quebec. Retrieved November 21, 2004 from: www.robvq.qc.ca Roose, E., 1996. Land husbandry: Components and strategy. F A O , Soils bulletin 70. 380 pp. Saucedo, J., Leon Sanchez, V . , Virgen, R., 2004. Director and managers of the environmental department of the Xalapa city council. Personal communication, April 2004 at Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico and Chilchotla, Puebla, Mexico.  - 102-  Swift, L.W. Jr., 1988. Forest access roads: Design, maintenance, and soil loss. In W.T. Swank and D.A. Crossley (eds.) Forest Hydrology and Ecology at Coweeta. Springer Verlag,NY. pp. 312-324 S E M A R N A T , 2002. Informe de la situacion del medio ambiente en Mexico, compendio de estadisticas ambientales. p.31-75. Mexico, D.F., Mexico. Third World Center, 2001. 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Retrieved December 8, 2004 from: www.irc.nl/redir/content/download/9013/136183/file/20040101 -the-km-model.pdf  - 103 -  Appendix A - Guiding Principles For Water Management  - 104-  Table A.1: Selected examples of Guiding Principles for water management  The following table shows a selection of guiding principles (called governance principles in the text) as shown in Bakker (2003). Principles  Source  • Accountability Demonstrating adherence to capital plans for water and sewage infrastructure through publicly available audited financial statements.  •  Responsiveness  Developing a long-term plan to ensure water and sewage system capacity to accommodate nature  Walkerton  Inquiry  issue  on  water  governance  growth.  •  Effectiveness and efficiency  Source: Joe, J., O'Brian, J., Mclntyre, E., For tin,Scheduling water main repairs at the same time as M., and Loudon, M. 2002. Governance and road repairs. • methods of service delivery for water and sewage  •  Transparency  systems.  Commissioned Paper 17, The Walkerton Making results of raw and treated water quality Inquiry. Toronto: Queen's Printer for Ontario. testing publicly available  •  Participation  Soliciting public comments about restructuring options.  •  Respect of rule of law  Ensuring that minimum  chlorine residuals are  maintained in the water distribution system.  Dublin Principles  •  The 1992 International Conference on Water and the Environment in Dublin set out a statement on  Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource,  essential  to sustain  life,  development and the environment.  Water and Sustainable Development, which became known as the "Dublin Principles". The Dublin• Principals have been adopted by  numerous  international, multilateral and bilateral agencies, including the World Bank.  - 105 -  Water development and management should be based on. a participatory approach, involving users,  planners  and policy makers at all levels. •  Women play a central part in the provision,  management  and  safeguarding of water. •  Water has an economic value in all its competing  uses,  and should  be  recognized as an economic good. Agenda 21 (s. 18.9.c) Agenda 21 is a plan of action adopted by more than •  Full public participation  178 governments at the United Nations Conference •  Multi sectoral  on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio in 1992.  Agenda 21 was reaffirmed at the  approach  water  management.  •  Sustainable water use  •  Quality of life  •  Shared  world Summit on Sustainable Development held in  to  Johannesburg in 2002  Federation of Canadian Municipalities  responsibility  (between  governments)  (Policy on municipal infrastructure)  •  Municipal government leadership  •  Adaptability  Conference, June 2002.  •  User pay  http://www. fern, ca/newfcm/iava/frame. htm  •  Maintenance and rehabilitation  •  Continuous improvement  •  Partnerships  •  Mutual Dependence  Source: FCM 2002 Policy  on Municipal  Infrastructure.  FCM Annual  Adopted at  The Charter For Sustainability  of the  Fraser Basin Council  Land, water, air and all living organisms including  humans are integral parts of the ecosystem. The Fraser Basin Council is a not-for-profit, nongovernmental,  charitable organizatioon,  Biodiversity must be conserved. with a  mandate to educate on the need for economic, •  Accountability  environmental and social sustainability of theEach of us is responsible for the social, economic, Fraser Basin  and environmental consequences of our decisions  http://www.fraserbasin.bc.ca  and accountable for our actions.  - 106-  •  Equity-  All communities and regions must have equal opportunities to provide for the social, economic and environmental needs of residents.  •  Integration  Consideration  of  social,  economic  and  environmental costs and benefits must be an integral part of all decision making.  •  Adaptive Approaches  Plans and activities must be adaptable and able to respond to external pressures and changing social values.  •  Coordinated and Cooperative Efforts  Coordinated and cooperative efforts are needed among all governments  and non-government  interests.  •  Open and Informed Decision Making  Open decision making depends on the best available information.  •  Exercising Caution  Caution must be exercised when shaping decisions to avoid making irreversible mistakes.  •  Managing Uncertainty  A lack of certainty should not prevent decisive actions for sustainability.  •  Recognition  There must be recognition of existing rights, agreements and obligations in all decision making.  •  Aboriginal Rights and Title  We recognize that aboriginal nations within the Fraser Basin assert aboriginal rights and title. These rights and title now being defined must be acknowledged and reconciled in a just and fair manner.  - 107-  •  Transition Takes Time  Sustainability is a journey that requires constant feedback, learning and adjustment. In the shortterm, the elements of sustainability may not always be in balance.  - 108-  Appendix B - Photographs  - 109-  Photo 1. Topographical image of the upper catchment of the La Antigua River watershed.  Photo 2. Mini-tornado formed by gusts of wind. This photo shows an example of wind impact on agricultural land.  -110-  Photo 3. Example of the extent of land use changes around the communities of the Upper Huitzilapan River Watershed.  Photo 4. Forest fire in the Upper Huitzilapan River Watershed. When the photo was taken, it had been burning for 2-3 days and is assumed to be the result of a loss of control of a prescribed fire.  - Ill -  

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