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Fisheries resource maintenance flows for Pacific salmon Hamilton, Roy Ernest 1978

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FISHERIES RESOURCE MAINTENANCE FLOWS FOR PACIFIC SALMON by ROY ERNEST HAMILTON  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF C I V I L ENGINEERING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s to t h e r e q u i r e d  THE  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH April  ©  COLUMBIA  1978  Roy E r n e s t H a m i l t o n  1978  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  t h a t permission  this  written  thesis  It  for financial  CIVIL  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  t  e  April  thesis  i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n gain s h a l l  ENGINEERING  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  a  f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  permission.  Department o f  D  I agree tha  purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  Columbia,  28. 1-978  Columbia  not be allowed without my  ii  ABSTRACT  The with  instream  phases —  s t a t u t o r y background  uses  i s reviewed.  migration,  f r e s h water  life  spawning,  cycle  o f w a t e r use and t h e c o n f l i c t  Habitat c r i t e r i a  i n c u b a t i o n , and r e a r i n g  o f salmon a r e p r o v i d e d .  Stream  m o r p h o l o g y and h y d r a u l i c s a r e d i s c u s s e d , r e l a t i v e tat  requirements  maintenance and  the f r e s h  niques, and  and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  flows. water  The r e l a t i o n s h i p life  with, e x a m p l e s ,  a new  technique,  itative tages  Fisheries  potential  productivity  based  combination s i o n making. Fisheries  technique  on e i t h e r  of both,  of the  channel  resource  Between w a t e r s h e d  hydrology  i s d e s c r i b e d , and t e c h -  f o r a n a l y s i n g low f l o w s  f o r gaged  Some o f the more r e c e n t m e t h o d o l o g i e s  for  Resource Maintenance Flows a r e reviewed  and  the u t i l i t y  and q u a n t i t a t i v e  of t h i s  levels,  using  —  to salmon h a b i -  of f i s h e r i e s  o f salmon  are given  ungaged w a t e r s h e d s .  establishing  cycle  f o r the s e v e r a l  curve  concept  t o combine  information, i s introduced. are that d e f i n i t e  can be d e t e r m i n e d e m p i r i c a l data  f o r subsequent  A s t e p by s t e p  Resource Maintenance  water management p e r t a i n i n g r e q u i r em en ts- a r e ad dr as s. e d «  Flows,  The a d v a n -  i n c r e m e n t a l v a l u e s of for a series  or e x p e r t  resource  procedure  qual-  of flow  o p i n i o n , or a  e v a l u a t i o n and d e c i -  i s given  for.establishing  and some o f t h e a s p e c t s o f  to r e c o g n i t i o n o f i n s t r e a m  flow  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I. II. III.  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  STATUTORY BACKGROUND  . . . . . . . . . .  5  HABITAT CRITERIA  11  Upstream M i g r a t i o n .  17  Spawning.  19  . . . . . . . .  Incubation. Rearing  ,  f  . . . . . . . .  23  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26  Cover  26  Food  28  General  Rearing  Productivity  30  Downstream M i g r a t i o n IV.  31  STREAM HYDRAULICS.  32  Spawning  32  Spawning  and S u b s u r f a c e  Calculation  Flow  o f P r e f e r r e d Spawning  39 Areas  . . .  Incubation Pool-Riffle Hydraulics  53 Theory  STREAM MORPHOLOGY.  Incubation.  54  of Rearing  Upstream M i g r a t i o n . V.  42  and Food P r o d u c t i o n  . . . .  . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55 56  .: . .  59  IV  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  cont'd PAGE  CHAPTER VI.  HYDROLOGY c o n t ' d Rearing Gaged  .. .  . . . . .  68  .  71  Watersheds  73  U n g a g e d W a t ex shed s VII.  TECHNIQUES AND  Upstream M i g r a t i o n . Spawning,  . . .  80  . . . . . . .  81  . , .  84  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85  Downstream M i g r a t i o n . VIII.  INCREMENTAL ANALYSIS Rearing  83  .  . . . . . . . . . . .  Incubation. Rearing  . . . .  METHODOLOGIES  89  . . . . . .  91  . . .  99  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  104  Spawning Incubation. Upstream IX.  X.  104  .  105  and Downstream M i g r a t i o n  PROCEDURE FOR ESTABLISHING FISHERIES MAINTENANCE FLOWS WATER MANAGEMENT  RESOURCE 1  0  6  1  1  0  CITED  113  GLOSSARY  . . . .  117  APPENDIX  A.  . .  118  APPENDIX  B.  . .  133  APPENDIX  C.  . ..;  137  LITERATURE  V  L I S T OF  TABLES  PAGE  TABLE A I. All All I AIV  Program section  " S t r e a m f low", sample, o u t p u t f o r .a at a s p e c i f i e d flow.  Program " S t r e a m f l o w " , summary t a b l e . Data  sample  c a r d s f o r computer  P a r t i a l l i s t of symbols programe " S t r e a m f l o w " .  output f o r a  program."Streamflow" used  In  computer  BI  Spawning and r e a r i n g f l o w s f o r d e r i v e d from b a s i n p a r a m e t e r s .  salmon,  CI  B a s i n p a r a m e t e r s and 7 - day low f l o w s f o r s e v e r a l r i v e r s on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d .  123 124 125 126 136 141  vi  L I S T OF  FIGURES  FIGURE  PAGE  1.  F r e s h Water  Life  Cycles  2.  Fresh. Water  Life  C y c l e s ; of Sooke  3.  Swimming  4.  R e p o r t e d Spawning D e p t h / V e l o c i t y Sockeye Salmon . . . . . . . .  5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  Speeds  of C a m p b e l l R i v e r  of Salmon.  River  Salmon  Salmon.  Criteria  f o r Pink . . . .  R e p o r t e d Spawning D e p t h / V e l o c i t y and S p r i n g C h i n o o k Salmon  for Fall  Criteria  18  21 22  to A v e r a g e  Velocity 24  R e l a t i o n s h i p of Nose V e l o c i t y to A v e r a g e V e l o c i t y ( C a p i l a n o R i v e r , B r o t h e r s C r e e k and Sooke R i v e r ) . .  25  Benthic  29  Production  11.  Layout of a T y p i c a l  12.  Thalweg  13.  I n t r a g r a v e l F l o w a t a Redd  14.  I n t r a g r a v e l Flow a t a B o u l d e r and n e a r a More Permeable Lens  Profile  Sampler  34  Study S i t e  of Study S i t e  15.  Spawning  16.  D e p t h and V e l o c i t y 150 c . f . s  19_.  16  20  R e p o r t e d Spawning D e p t h / V e l o c i t y C r i t e r i a and Chum Salmon. . . . . . . . . .  R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Nose V e l o c i t y (Nechako R i v e r )  15  f o r Coho and.  A Simple S u b s t r a t e  18.  . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10.  17.  . .  Habitat Related  . 2 (Sooke R i v e r ) .  . . .  and a t a P o o l - r i f f l e .  to Flow  Profiles  35  (Sooke R i v e r )  for Transects  . .  37 40 41  . . .  43  1 to 4 a t 44  Depth, and V e l o c i t y P r o f i l e s f o r T r a n s e c t s 5 to 8 a t 65 c . f . s . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . ... . . .  45  D e p t h and V e l o c i t y 550 c. f . sv .] . .'  46  P r o f i l e s f o r T r a n s e c t s 5 to 8 a t •! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between E n e r g y S l o p e and d i s c h a r g e f o r Oak C r e e k , Oregon ([after M i l h o u s ) . . . . . . . . . .  49  vii  L I S T OF  FIGURES  cont'd  FIGURE 20. 21. 22.  PAGE R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Manning's "n" and D i s c h a r g e f o r Oak C r e e k , Oregon ( a f t e r M i l h o us) • • • •  50  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between C and D i s c h a r g e Oregon ( a f t e r M i l h o u s )  51  Stage-discharge Milhous)..  C u r v e f o r Oak  f o r Oak  Creek, .  C r e e k , Oregon  (after 52  23.  Relationship  Between  Wetted  W i d t h and D i s c h a r g e  24.  Variations  25.  T y p i c a l Hydro graph, f o r Sooke T i m i n g of Salmon. . . . . . .  . .  i n Flow A l o n g Deadman R i v e r .  26.  Variations  27.  Isohyetal  28.  D e f i n i t i o n Diagram E l e c t i v i t y Curves  River  i n Flow A l o n g the Salmon Map  of V a n c o u v e r  60 62  and L i f e C y c l e . . . . . . . River  . . . . .  Island  65 75 77  of a Stream Segment and  Sample 94  29.  Utility  30.  Procedure Outline f o r E s t a b l i s h i n g F i s h e r i e s Resource Maintenance Flows  107  Al  " S t r e a m f l o w " Computer  127  A2  "Pram" S u b r o u t i n e Flow Chart..  131  CI  7-day Low Flow R e c u r r e n c e I n t e r v a l C u r v e s f o r the Benson R i v e r and K o k i s h R i v e r  142  C2  Curves f o r A n a l y s i s  of R e a r i n g  Program  R e l a t i o n s h i p s of the 7-day Low shed P a r a m e t e r X-• • • • • • • •  Habitat.  . .  Flow C h a r t  Flow  to the Water' • • •• • • •  100  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I; would  like  many of the d r a w n i n g s  to thank B i l l  and  diagrams  for this  took a d v a n t a g e  of h i s m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  him p r e p a r e  i s o h y e t a l map  an  C. C. and  criticism The  typing  of V a n c o u v e r  on the. b i o l o g i c a l  the m a n u s c r i p t  and  skill  who  prepared  thesis.  I also  e x p e r t i s e i n having  C&ud)_ Graham gave me  patience  Field,  Island.  much, u s e f u l  advice  content. of Mary Fedosenko  has been much  appreciated.  in  1  CHAPTER  I.  INTRODUCTION  The and as  need  s t r e a m s f o r the the  to e s t a b l i s h fresh, water  p o p u l a t i o n of man,  sources,  increases.  the need  for instream  I n 1976  the  The  Instream  T h e r e has  a l s o been an  American directing Columbia  s e t up  by  there  The  and  Provincial  but  fish  conservationists  who  and  wildlife  want water  terms f a m i l i a r  until Is,  the  In  stream,  more l i c e n s e s  stream  - I f the  i s no the  not  research. in re-  i n the  uses  and  the w a t e r u s e r s agencies,  can  Western  to b u s i n e s s  p a s t , water  have been I s s u e d claims  of  be  "What  a l l the  vari-  the  Federal  and  uses.  A  in  ecothe  industry?".  Provincial  can  and  i s the  expressed  Water A c t  for  have been i s s u e d  been over  than  and  the  recreationists,  licenses  has  British  f o r instream  this  p r o v i s i o n i n the  In  o n l y between  reserved  i n some c a s e s ,  full  direction.  more f r e q u e n t l y i s :  usual  flows.  in this  a l s o between  instream  instream  Collins,  activities  universities  conflict  nomic w o r t h of  There  recognized.  at F o r t  flow  and  U n i v e r s i t y of W a s h i n g t o n a t P u l l m a n i s  that i s a r i s i n g  economic  to grow  the w a t e r r e s o u r c e  Instream  and  rivers  of n a t u r a l r e -  becoming more w i d e l y  agencies  i s a growing  water u s e r s ,  of  in  salmon c o n t i n u e s  increase in research  considerable effort  ous  question  limitation  to c o o r d i n a t e  resource  States.  of  Flow S e r v i c e Group, b a s e d  was  years  life  requirements  his exploitation  uses are  Colorado,  cent  and  flow  be  recorded.  That  satisfied  by  l i c e n s e e s were to  be  the  2  exercised.  I n more r e c e n t y e a r s  some c o g n i z a n c e mains  instream  this  detail.  sidered  thesis  nature,  but, because  an o v e r v i e w  of water  that are r e g u l a r l y  quality  cognized  that p o l l u t i o n  problems a r e i n t e n s i f i e d  which  and oxygen c o n t e n t .  will  affect  fish  I. am n o t p r o v i d i n g a s e c t i o n calculation  of f i s h e r y  values  life  are necessary  the e f f o r t  in establishing  sufficient  to p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e salmon f i s h e r y  study  of the b i o l o g i c a l  the p h y s c i a l  hydrology,  stream  instream  titative  of i n s t r e a m  uncertainties  flow problems  and q u a l i t a t i v e  should  been justify  i t may be  i s a renewable  and p r o v i d i n g t h e flows  are maintained.  of f i s h  associated with  h y d r a u l i c s , and c h a n n e l  To  flows,  f l o w needs f o r f i s h  uncertainties  although  and have  1976).  resource maintenance  s t r e a m s a r e p r o t e c t e d and s u f f i c i e n t  cultuhecause  that  studies (Miller,  p r o v i d i n g i t i s not overharvested  The  of p o l l u t i o n  on e c o n o m i c s ,  f o r some f i s h e r y  salmon  It is re-  i n the s t r e a m .  undertaken  resource,  is diffi-!. behaviour  the s c i e n c e s of  morphology.  I believe  be s o l v e d by u s i n g b o t h  techniques.  con-  by low f l o w  and t h e r e a r e a number o f common s o u r c e s  I f not c o n t r o l l e d  be  i n c l u d e d i n salmon h a b i t a t  turbidity  conditions,  of  a l l aspects  that w i l l  - temperature,  and  taken  o f i t s c o m p l e x i t y and  i t I s n o t p o s s i b l e to c o v e r  The o n l y a s p e c t s  are those  to p r o v i d e  analysis  the  has  f l o w n e e d s , b u t the Water A c t r e -  I. i n t e n d  flow problem;  interdisciplinary in  Comptroller  unchanged. In  the  of i n s t r e a m  t h e Water  The b i o l o g i s t s  quan-  experience  3  or  knowledge,  first the  hand  use  which  local  of t h e u t i l i t y  related  problem  must  can be  included  system  is different  be u n d e r s t o o d  can be f o u n d .  study.  techniques likely  or a n a l y s e s w i l l  to be u n i v e r s a l l y  instream  measurement  and  stream  hydraulics;  the b e s t  The  approach be more  whole to t h e appropri-  or the t y p e of  problem Some  common, but no. one m e t h o d o l o g y  is  the e n g i n e e r i n g  analysis  but  to be  the s e p a r a t i o n  i s not c l e a r .  of v e l o c i t i e s part  a s p e c t s of  and  F o r example,  depths  of water  of t h e e n g i n e e r i n g  consider  of  velocities  and  science depths  the the in a of to be  parameters. In  opment and  fisheries  applicable.  yet, b i o l o g i s t s  biological  provide  be  the b i o l o g i c a l  i s considered  every  s t u d y becomes a c a s e s t u d y .  flow requirements f o r f i s h , from  VIII),  techniques w i l l  have c o n c e n t r a t e d on  engineering  and  i n t h e a n a l y s e s by  to some d e g r e e .  so t h a t  Certain  Each w a t e r s h e d  I  quantified,  i s u n i q u e , and  t h a n o t h e r s f o r the t y p e of w a t e r s h e d  under  will  be r e a d i l y  curve technique (Chapter  river  flow problem  watershed  always  knowledge,  Every  ate  cannot  the f o l l o w i n g  provisions  a backdrop  which  understood.  tat  r e q u i r e m e n t of salmon, w i l l  ing  topics  be c o v e r e d .  I will  o f the Water A c t and  against  be more c l e a r l y  chapters,  of H y d r a u l i c s , This w i l l  lead  Into  Morphology, a discussion  devel-  A c t , to  to i n s t r e a m f l o w s  the l i f e  be. d i s c u s s e d .  Stream  the  the F i s h e r i e s  the a p p r o a c h Next,  describe  needs  Then, and  and  habi-  the engineer-  Hydrology  of. T e c h n i q u e s  will and  4  Methodologies. for  rating  ations  In Chapter  the e f f e c t s  V I I I , some o f t h e e x i s t i n g  o f changes i n f l o w l e v e l s ,  o f t h e s e methods, w i l l  "utility  curve"  methods  and t h e l i m i t -  be d i s c u s s e d ; and t h e u s e o f t h e  (which  combines  quantitative  knowledge) f o r s o l v i n g  problems  i n incremental analysis  developed.  The g e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e  R e s o u r c e M a i n t e n a n c e Flows w i l l lastly, Instream  and  qualitative  f o r Establishment  be g i v e n  i n Chapter  will  of F i s h e r i e s IX and,  some i d e a s on w a t e r r e s o u r c e , management p e r t a i n i n g t o flows  will  be  presented.  be  5  CHAPTER I I STATUTORY  To the  understand  establishment  useful  to review,  certain  Briefly,  the  stream  Under  to have a c c e s s  farms  i n Eastern a small  riparian whether nally the  on t h e r i v e r stream  each r i p a r i a n conflict.  this  has e q u a l  of the r i v e r .  the middle over  -  t h e submerged  land.  narrow r i b b o n s (Redel,  right  1967).  each Each  to the water  R i p a r i a n l a w was who used  origi-  the water i n  right  to i t s  q u a n t i t i e s of water a r e  to m a i n t a i n . owners e x t e n d  They own t h e submerged both  a d j a c e n t to  i s why e a r l y  have an e q u a l  When s i g n i f i c a n t  t h r e a d , and h o l d  i n England,  As i t was a n o n c o n s u m p t i v e u s e  owner c o u l d  of r i p a r i a n  This  or stream  doctrine i s d i f f i c u l t rights  of land  i n long  operators  i t is  p r e r e q u i s i t e to t h e  to and u s e t h e w a t e r .  Canada were s u r v e y e d  with  Canada were  law, as u s e d  i s an a b s o l u t e  to p r o t e c t m i l l  The  rights  and E a s t e r n  o f water  t o t u r n water w h e e l s .  without  diverted  to  States  o r n o t he i s a c t u a l l y . u s i n g i t .  stream  thread"  land)  frontage  developed  associated  of water law.  d o c t r i n e , ownership  owner on a g i v e n  of w a t e r , use  United  this  (riparian  right  with  the development  the R i p a r i a n D o c t r i n e  was a d o p t e d .  difficulties  of F i s h e r i e s Resource Maintenance Flows  When E a s t e r n settled,  BACKGROUND  water  to the "middle  bed o f t h e r i v e r  rights  and f i s h i n g  6  It doctrine,  being  diminution tion  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t protective  i n q u a l i t y and  of the r i g h t of n a t u r a l quantity",  of the f i s h e r y by m a i n t a i n i n g  inated  were s e t t l e d , a new  water  law was  later,  amounts of w a t e r  some d i s t a n c e  was  p e r s o n who ority.  that  "First  applies  Following  to d a t e o f t h e i r appropriation  tinuously. diverted  of uncontam-  was  a major  Following  s e c o n d main  beneficially  be  was  required need  the l e a d  water  At  law which  The  first  first  pri-  according  p r i n c i p l e o f the  of " b e n e f i c i a l u s e " , w h i c h meant  to use water  Columbia.  users  large  Doctrine,  priority  cancelled  used.  usually The  i n the Western  United  not  or i f be r e -  given  to r i p a r i a n a booming  mining operations.  water  con-  used.  t i m e , m i n i n g was  for placer  for irrigation  3 years),  l i c e n c e could  beneficially  that  more or l e s s  i f the w a t e r was  to 1859. some r e c o g n i t i o n was  in British and  to d i v e r t  in right".  decreasing  The  not b e n e f i c i a l l y  industry  needed  ( a f t e r a set period,  Prior  also  have  is: that  i f n o t a l l t h e water  Canada  M a j o r water  r i g h t on a s t r e a m has  applications.  and used  necessary.  i n time i s f i r s t  applicants  doctrine  and W e s t e r n  the A p p r o p r i a t i o n  His l i c e n c e could  water was  rights  protec-  away from the s t r e a m . . The  f o r a water  a l i c e n s e e had  duced  "without  provides  flows  States  I r r i g a t o r s who  developed i s c a l l e d  established  the  instream  United  were m i n e r s and,  that  implicitly  flow  water. When the W e s t e r n  that  the o l d r i p a r i a n  i n the d r y  There  interior.  S t a t e s , the, a p p r o p r i a t i o n  7  doctrine prior of  was soon a d o p t e d .  appropriation  system  1959 (De Beck 19.67).  Ordinance all  The f i r s t  legislation  i s contained  A further  towards a  i n the Gold  step  was t a k e n  Fields Act  i n t h e Land  o f 1865, and i n 1892 t h e Water P r i v i l e g e A c t wiped o u t  remnants o f r i p a r i a n r i g h t s , as f a r as water u s e was  concerned. The ciably to  changed  include  vision the  time,  that  would  recreational  Federal on  cies,  in  British full  between  government  adjacent  to a stream flow,  pro-  possibly, at and e x t r a c t  and n o t r e q u i r e  Water A c t does n o t r e c o g n i z e f i s h e r y , f o r boating,  instream  or f o r o t h e r  N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t o f 1867 gave t h e F e d -  jurisdiction  retained  over both  and n o n - t i d a l  of the f i s h e r i e s  and P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s .  administrative  tidal-water  and t r o u t ) , came under  because  tidal  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  the F e d e r a l  and o t h e r  the land  This  It i s legally  fishes.  and some o f t h e anadromous s p e c i e s  steelhead partly  i n 1960. a p r o v i s i o n was added  a f f e c t the stream  For convenience,  species  appre-  activities.  government  was s p l i t  likely  f o r the n a t u r a l  The  fisheries.  implemented.  to d i g a w e l l  The p r e s e n t  of water  eral  Water A c t has n o t been  19.39^, a l t h o u g h  has n o t y e t been  a licence. use  since  Columbia  t h e p r i n c i p l e o f l i c e n s i n g ground w a t e r .  present  water  British  o f the p r o p r i e t o r y  and t h e f r e s h , w a t e r s  c o n t r o l over  the s a l m -  The f r e s h w a t e r (game f i s h  th.e j u r i s d i c t i o n  over  spe-  such as  o f t h e Province.,,  r i g h t s which, t h e P r o v i n c e flowing  The  the l a n d s .  had  8  The  B.N.A. A c t  a l w a y s owned by  the  the u n a l i e n a t e d  land  is  of  the p r o p e r t y  Act,  then,  sided  the  Provincial  right  th.e p r o v i n c e  the  of  property  necessary then,  that  Provincial to d a t e , great  the  as  an  of  r e g u l a t i o n of  T h i s has  fisheries  flows  the use  flows The  of water  re-  projects  d e c i s i o n i n 1898  for fisheries, as  f a r as  fisheries.  Act  has  never  could  occurred  I t would  appear,  precedence  and  other  similar  instream  uses  af-  be  over  been s e r i o u s l y  over  that  i t might  the  contested  s o l u t i o n s have been a v a i l a b l e ,  Is  20  (10)  of  w h i c h must be  left  i n the  the  s e c t i o n of m a j o r  Resource Maintenance Flows. with  the w a t e r  but  a  jurisdictional of w a t e r  in  the  States. Section  ery,  the  Federal Fisheries  d e a l of d i s p u t e has  United  (because  the P r o v i n c e ) .  appeal  water) r i g h t s  co-operative  problems over  of  and  licenses.  e s t a b l i s h e d by  Water A c t .  "property"  Even F e d e r a l w a t e r r e s o u r c e  ( l a n d and  f o r the  which  right  control  to be  the P r o v i n c e  over  Crown i n the  water  was  water  F e d e r a l government, i n l e g i s l a t i n g  fect  to  of  the P r o v i n c e .  It the  Crown i n the  e s t a b l i s h e d that  with  require  considered  t.h.e Water A c t  from a s t r e a m . actually  total  In  which  stream  A c t , which a p p l i e s  to m a i n t a i n  to  Clearly,  s e c t i o n 20  implicitly  the  Fisheries  interest  some.cases,  more than  the  the  allows  licensed  n a t u r a l low  topic  total  fish-  of  Fisheries  (10)  conflicts  water d i v e r s i o n  d i v e r s i o n s on flow.  the  a  stream  9  There Comptroller stream the  can  i s at present  use  can  support.  stream  goes d r y  more l i c e n s e s fully  A rule  administration  the number o f l i c e n s e s of  thumb  t h a t has  time,  t h i s may  the Water A c t ,  so,  the  be  in British  i t is clearly  he  Columbia,  to F e d e r a l and will  can  has  public  cancellation with  be  declared  solution  for  from  a  are  to  sell  remains tends  control  environmental "continued  At  use  of  the  pre-  a p p l i c a t i o n s are Agencies.  i f he  The  clauses i n considers  Comp-  licenses,  i t not  to  and the  issued in perpetuity (subject compliance  transfer.  of  uses,  to t r a n s f e r For  the w a t e r licenses  beneficial  with  Even  r e g u l a t i o n s of  though, i n  permanent p r o p e r t y  to m a j o r l i c e n s e e s .  Crown i s to r e t a i n  As  licenses  practice  of water c o n t r o l  instream  interest.  a l l the water  licensing  basts.  if  discretionary  conflicts.  to p l a c e r e s t r i c t i v e  f o r non-use or non  rights  wide  Fisheries  to i s s u e a l i c e n c e ,  Most w a t e r  instream  is:  untenable  consider  a l l licence  Provincial  o f t e n agree  i n the b e s t  this  should  a satisfactory  Comptroller  to some e x t e n t ,  be  theory,  been used  stream  not  the A c t )  given  the  or even d e c i d e  to  a  be. i s s u e d , and  water when making d e c i s i o n s on w a t e r use  troller  Water  standpoint.  power, and  referred  the  to w a t e r d i v e r s i o n s no  Fortunately,  sent  which  due  Although of  criteria  once i n 5 y e a r s  should  recorded.  fisheries  to j u d g e  no  use"  of  the  Crown,  a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount the  and  f u t u r e , i f the  provide  for future  should  be  i s s u e d on  i s one  of  the  a  primary  term  10  principles control  o f water  over  law i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the Crown t o r e t r i e v e  some o f t h e l i c e n s e d  stream  u s e ) by r e v i e w i n g  ducing  them to t h e q u a n t i t i e s t r u l y It  should  be l e f t  principle  licenses  beneficially  t h e d e c i s i o n on j u s t  use".  In o r d e r  This w i l l  to e v a l u a t e  t o have  i n Chapter  VIII.  how much w a t e r on t h e  come down to a  with  some t e c h n i c a l  of various l e v e l s  or r e -  used.  to h i n g e  instream  to the i d e a of i n c r e m e n t a l  It for i n -  and c a n c e l l i n g  i s u l t i m a t e l y going  the i m p o r t a n c e  comes back  developed  (and r e s e r v e  e v a l u a t i o n of a l l water uses,  i t i s necessary  establishing This  i n a stream  considered.  fisheries  that  of "most b e n e f i c i a l  socio-economic being  appears  existing  water  the f u t u r e flow  needs f o r  procedure f o r  of i n s t r e a m  flow.  a n a l y s i s which w i l l  be  11  CHAPTER HABITAT  The n a t u r a l be e v a l u a t e d important 1.  a number  life.  Relating  CRITERIA  stream h a b i t a t  by m e a s u r i n g  to f i s h  III  of parameters  to the c h a n n e l :  bank, c o y e r instream  cover  veg e t a t i o n morphology orientation shade Relating  to the water:  velocity depth chemistry turbidity temperature quality 3.  Relating  to  ([pollution) life:  terrestrial  insects  benthie  invertebrates  aquatic  insects  space  fish found  Some of t h e p a r a m e t e r s a r e :  sub s t r a te  2.  supporting  ( t e r r i t o r l a 111 y ).  life to be  can  12  The  value,  considerably. ship the  For  between  the  stream.  positive vents  On  and  the  rily.  bourhood  a number But  the  stream  tice)? angles  of  the  easiest;  sured  point?  taken  closer  a fish  the v e l o c i t y  from  the  vary  this  such easy  of  bottom  U s u a l l y , depth than  2 feet  feet,  and  apart  to m e a s u r e .  problem  time  of  satisfactoir  surveys.  Veloc-  s e c t i o n , as  deter-  reliable  I t i s dependent at a p a r t i c u l a r (average and  of  flow?  a few  along.a  or more, a p a r t .  species  with  gravel  u s u a l l y are I t may not  not  easily  be  of  time.  sizes i n pracat  right  the mea-  measurements a r e  Measurement  of  distinguish  away from  t r a n s e c t and  neigh-  point in  direction  inches  velocity  on  nose p o s i t i o n  i f the  (as t h e y  some m e t e r s do  What i s the v e l o c i t y  quantity,  measured a c c u r a t e l y  t h i s measurement  the d i r e c t i o n  be  i f i t pre-  as  is a fairly  i n magnitude  t r a n s e c t , and  a r e u s u a l l y 20  negative  may  p r e f e r s i n i t s immediate  Also,  or more, i n d i a m e t e r  What a b o u t  direction.  be  turbidity  i n a cross  to d e t e r m i n e .  accuracy  to the  of  i t v a r i e s with  be  easy  feet  feet,  can  relation-  q u a n t i t y of w a t e r i n  relatively  c a r e f u l meterings,  salmon) w i l l  What i s the 0.2  i t may  Average v e l o c i t y  so  fork length.  are  or  positive  Some p a r a m e t e r s ,  the v e l o c i t y  i s not  0.4  parameters v a r i e s  purposes u s i n g normal hydrometrlc  and  spawning  light.  the v a l u e  of f l o w i n g w a t e r  is different.  quantity.  cover,  the  a r e c o r d i n g gage overcomes  Quantity  mined by  hand,  i s perhaps  enough f o r our ity  other  the  is a direct  depth of water, are  Depth of w a t e r But  there  amount of h a b i t a t and  i f i t provides  velocity,  i n f l u e n c e , of  example,  p e n e t r a t i o n of  course,  or  not  transects velocities  13  in  p o o l s becomes v e r y  racy  difficult  of instruments.  as low v e l o c i t i e s  These l i m i t a t i o n s  They c a n be overcome i n p a r t by h a v i n g veying  and r i v e r  overcome,  high  many water  water  quality  quality  seepage from  parameters;  depth,  that  tanks  velocity,  or l a g o o n s ;  temperature,  over  less  other  we have d e c i d e d less  to have  fields;  to c o n s i d e r  siltatlon),  temper-  Some o f the  by low f l o w s a r e :  l e e c h i n g from  desirable  logging  and t h e p r e s e n c e o f  that  reliance  by o b s e r v e r s  etc., are within  choose  Of c o u r s e ,  parameters  this  habitat  i t may w e l l be  a c c o r d i n g to a l l t h e  i twill  the measurements a r e made, i n a r e a s are confirmed  they w i l l  i s ideal  parameter  the h a b i t a t  oxygen c o n t e n t ,  habitats.  to measure,  obvious  that.if  by t h e f i s h ,  even i f t h e h a b i t a t  greater  by t a k i n g many  i n streams.  preferred  and  c a n a l s o be  a few measurements  (from  c a n be a g g r a v a t e d  r u n o f f , and f e r t i l i z e d  the r a n g e s  other  r a t h e r than  turbidity  I make t h e a s s u m p t i o n  that,  sense,  oxygen a r e t h e most common.  problems septic  urban  livestock  of  They  i s n o t u s u a l , In low f l o w work,  and d i s s o l v e d  debris,  work.  i n sur-  precision. It  ature,  crews e x p e r i e n c e d  in a statistical  measurements o f m o d e r a t e p r e c i s i o n of  a r e not always r e c o g n i z e d .  h y d r a u l i c s do t h e f i e l d  t o some e x t e n t ,  tax the accu-  be a v o i d e d  because  o f some  has n o t been m e a s u r e d . known to' be f r e q u e n t e d  trained  c a n be p l a c e d on such  in fish an  behaviour,  assumption.  parameters  But i f by  fish  much  14  Habitat year  requirements  and phase of t h e salmon's  ations  between  pink,  the f i v e  Upstream m i g r a t i o n  2.  Spawning  3.  Incubation  4.  Rearing  5.  Downstream m i g r a t i o n life  cycle  -  stream  to r e a r .  emerge from  There  are also  Salmon:  coho,  Coho w i l l  the g r a v e l  stay  to r e a r  Chinook  The life  peculiarities  timing  varichinook,  cycle are:  i s shown i n F i g u r e s 1 and  salmon, do n o t r e m a i n  i n t h e spawning  a t t h e end o f t h e " i n c u b a t i o n after  incubation  i n the stream  i n the stream  o t h e r phases cycle  o f each  species.  about  i n a lake.  90 days  of r e a r -  r e a r i n g ) of t h e  to a l l s p e c i e s .  There a r e  Chum and p i n k salmon  reaches  tend  w i d e l y i n a. s y s t e m ,  of streams  close  to t i d e  as f a r as p o s s i b l e  up t h e t r i b u t a r i e s .  in  streams  2 or 3 f e e t  i n width.  Coho  i t seems, t o  They w i l l There  generally water.  endeavoring,  go  or d i t c h e s  Sock-  f o r a year.  spawn i n t h e l o w e r to d i s t r i b u t e  period.  to r e a r  (.that i s , a l l e x c e p t  a r e common  as t h e y  f o r one o r , s o m e t i m e s , two  may move o u t to s e a a f t e r  or they may s t a y  water  of the l i f e  Chum and p i n k go o u t to s e a as soon  eye move o u t o f t h e s t r e a m  years.  phases  1.  Chum , p i n k and s o c k e y e  fresh  cycle.  s p e c i e s of P a c i f i c  f r e s h , water  Typical  ing  life  chum, and s o c k e y e . The  2.  v a r y a c c o r d i n g to t h e time o f  often  spawn  a r e many o t h e r  CHINOOK  /  y!?RATIOlS  / ^ A W N I N G /  INCUBATION  /  REARING  ^ G R A T I O N /  f  COHO  /  MIGRATION  /  {SPAWNING)  /  (INCUBATION)  R E A R I MP  ,  /  t- Y E A R L I N G S M O L T  »  Ml G R A T I O N  Ol  CHUM  PINK  /  ^mQBAl\OH^  AUG  FIGURE I  SEP  SPAWNING  OCT  SPAWNING  ^  /  INCUBATION  INCUBATION  NOV  DEC  ^  JAN  /  FRY MIGRATION  FEB  MAR  FRY MIGRATION  /  ^  APR  MAY  JUN  JUL  FRESH WATER LIFE CYCLES OF CAMPBELL RIVER SALMON  FIGURE 2  FRESHWATER LIFE CYCLES FOR SOOKE RIVER SALMON  CHINOOK  z  Z SEP  UPSTREAM MIGRATION and SPAWNING  OCT  NOV  DEC  z  z  REARING and DOWNSTREAM MIGRATION  INCUBATION  UPSTREAM MIGRATION and SPAWNING  COHO  CHUM  z Z z  UPSTREAM MIGRATION and SPAWNING  INCUBATION  REARING  L  7 YEARLING SMOLT MIGRATION INCUBATION  JAN  FEB  z MAR  | APR  DOWNSTREAM MIGRATION  | MAY  z  | JUN  YEAR  | JUL | AUG  ROUND  RESIDENCE  17  variations  between  the  species,  pending  the  and  size  on  each phase of with  age the  life  emphasis b e i n g  of  and the  fish.  cycle w i l l  placed  on  even w i t h i n  be  the  In  the  described  effects  the  of  species,  following  i n more  de-  pages,  detail,  flow.  UPSTREAM MIGRATION A continuous depth,  and  stream  run.  the  a few  natural  migration. may  be  and/or  The  i f the  passage  swimming  slope  limiting  others,  the  abilities river at  water  water v e l o c i t y  should  depending  be  made as  and  other  their  governs  the  upstream  specific i s less  i s beyond  structions  depends on  condition.  Coh.o may  have, d i f f i c u l t y  the  has  been p r e p a r e d  by  be  ability  species, jump  their  at  reaches  (or f i s h  tired  or  size)  injured  possible.  features  and  to n e g o t i a t e  6 f e e t but  the  f e e t deep  some f l o w s  size  and  of  Shallow  o b s t r u c t i o n s are  passable  The  2 or  may  up-  limits  0.5  species  e a s y f o r them as  and pink  often and  not  associated past  their and  the  ob-  physical  chum  salmon  3 feet.  A d e t a i l e d r e v i e w on tion  fish  morphological  readily  jumping  the  the  and  ([Figure 3)  locations.  than about  width  f o r the  species  be  characteristics.  required  the  instream  They may oh  are  sufficient  of  Some, or many, of  factors.  hydraulic  of  i f the  Falls limiting  c o r r i d o r of  deep r e s t i n g p o o l s ,  Problems a r i s e  capability. so  water  Banks  the. s u b j e c t (19-69).  of u p s t r e a m  migra-  18  FIGURE 3  SWIMMING SPEEDS OF SALMON (AVERAGE SIZED ADULTS)  SOCKEYE  COHO CHINOOK  8  12  16  20  24  28  VELOCITY IN FEET/SECOND  LEGEND  III  CRUISING SPEED SUSTAINED SPEED DARTING SPEED  Adapted from Milo C. Bell (1973)  32  36  19  SPAWNING Salmon m i g r a t e the  spawning  their  ground  desired  will dug in  the b o t t o m  tilization,  are  As are: size  velocity  curves  has  area.  days. the  from  interchange.  that  been o b s e r v e d It  on  on  i s now  to be  general practice  have used  side  to a d j u s t t h e i r  rate  data  velocity  F i g u r e s 4 to 6,  spawning  limits which  the  —  depth the  the  inves-  water  of s o c k e y e  than salmon  Columbia. calculate  fish,  streambed.  velocity  pa-  surface  Some of  to measure or  the  dig-  content,  because  spawning  above the  the a v e r a g e  I have had  into  feet  of  fer-  13.  o f the  the F r a s e r R i v e r i n B r i t i s h  Q.4  after  p l a c e i n deeper  Deep w a t e r  a t the nose, p o s i t i o n  salmon i s t a k e n  oxygen  the n a t u r e  took  they  upstream  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  some spawning  because  spawning h a b i t a t  temperature,  the maximum d e p t h  expected.  and  F i g u r e s 4 to 6 summarize  recorded  reach  (nests) are  i s shown i n F i g u r e  c o m p o s i t i o n , and  to  Eggs a r e d e p o s i t e d  subsequent  velocity,  and  Redds  female,  depth,  n o r m a l l y be  their  several  redd  or  or been d e s t r o y e d ,  nearby,  gravel  sense  cannot  obstruction,  i s known, ..:the p r i m a r y  found  investigators  by  olfactory I f they  f a r as  criteria  the v e l o c i t y  shifted  of  of a t y p i c a l  a r e unbounded  tigators would  a period  covered  s u b s u r f a c e water and  their  of a d e p r e s s i o n made by  A profile  substrate  by  of an  spawn i n a n o t h e r ,  i n stages over  rameters  because  spawning a r e a has  generally  ging.  river  where t h e y o r i g i n a t e d .  destination  the o r i g i n a l  up  As  which f o r some  i n the w a t e r  slightly a r e based  column,  to i n c o r p o on  nose  Sot  m  innniiin7rzri^riTCw;aircvnTfiira^ • • • • • • • • •i  u• u• • • • • •1•• m• • • • • • • • • • • m• • • • • m  i4  TT  IJ  10 •  i  t  y  \  i.  • • •• • • • • •• m• •  Ii  y )• RP " 7  c c)  f  > - * b  T 1 J-  5 )•  rl  5  «.  i  \j  \  • 1  in c ,i 1 )Pi Ir b J *i f 7 rC  -.f A\T -1 11" ii li i i j  4 )-  i h n ii  \\  si  1 /i P p Q* .4 lu 11.J !T 0  in CE ij  . 1.  2>  <  s  /  J  1P " i•i \J  f  1  )  ir  l  i I  )  , \  A  1  |  |3 ) * U 1  |  If  1  |  1  c cu  •  < */•  k 9t i  U—  n  ft / If Q  «  V L Lb  I ir  1  rn  f  I  9<b -  s r  =l(P '  BR cir d eiF AY 311 i  )i  vl 1 ^  sr  tf i 1  + i  i  1 i 1  \  1 i  41  1 I  i I  il  j / a IC c  L l If IN it  i* i  i i  "if ) T hn it n  j 1,  •  \  1  -  1  ?< >  L  |( t  >  |  t J  1 \ i  /  1  1  't  u  1  t  \  1  J  ' 1 1  1 Pi  V  Uc l  1  1  7l •\  J  £  1  in e E y39  |  •  \  1  61 C 1.i  r* "V I i Ml k iiv J l .1 »l 1  1 f  n nJ  9 7*  1  1 n  cu  ir  •  -  >  1  n r\ vJ U  «A /  Cfl  / 1Cc  n 9  ••  fy  • 1u  22  r 3 r" nr r T r 1v.. r 1\ 1 L  \  i »  r \i h  Jr  \\  M  vl 1\  \ rl \ 1\  V3  I IT  i FA f C H M 0 c \\ • •  •  lA & 1 1 1 1-  r r  -  k  n 4CILp C j* 1 ie7 11 1 A. K tK ir «J  Si3'  1 I 1 1 r  fii1  1 1  ji ni 1 T; 1  1  A\T • J  \  1  l  S<)  1  •*i \L (IJ Rz  r  S  n  1  1  i\  ill u  T n i  r} A 1\ i A  r  T  1 1  7) ii 1  1 f L LVJ V.>l  I  I  )  rI rr y T 11/ \ / 11 1 \ r J  i >  i  j ; , 11  >1  nl Q 5 Ul J  1 /  ,,  1< ll  -  r'  l\ 9  1  1 n  I or1 1  •2 j  0  1 if 11.  1  t  t\ 1t  1 k  i  Q U  1)1J  1  1  /•  CI •  I  1> sIC  11  / Si  V t L U c 11r  i  4  /  1  93  t T'l\f K ir r LH. l rv 1 ! 1 ir u 1 re  8  7/ PIAllrw n tT • J  sT N c If* 0  ft  4  • •• * •  J  K  b) S<  y  >  1  7* n\ t • G ^1J11 n IE n JZ 71 n IL IT J er 31. t  V  41  X n i n  r 1  rp  /  \  )•  J  \  j V h \ ( It r  |  |  1  | r  \  |  in  1  1  H—  1 \ p1 9 I  V t L c I II  |  r  J  c I  1 r \e  |  r\  uU 1 T  1*'  m f  C1 f/ c  23  velocities. 0.7  of  used  I have found  the a v e r a g e  f o r spawning  tionship with which  velocity,  can  Be  used  p o i n t s i t does  average  If  one  desired,  each  of  the d i a g r a m s  common p o r t i o n , or w e i g h t  and  have the  benthic  An  illustrate  example  a "contoured  near  rela-  i s sparse  a graphical  rating"  this  c o u l d be  The  given  the b o u n d a r i e s  Areas  of  normally  procedure in  velocity.  the d i a g r a m  rating.  of d e p t h s  e x p r e s s i n g nose v e l o c i t y  i n F i g u r e s 4 to 6.  the a r e a s  lowest  ratings.  of  approximately  Although, the d a t a  to o b t a i n a f o r m u l a  and  is  A more a c c u r a t e f u n c t i o n a l  i n F i g u r e 8.  terms of d e p t h  to  the nose v e l o c i t y  w i t h i n the r a n g e  (Figure. 7).  i s suggested  some e r r a t i c  that  applied  c e n t e r , or most  the h i g h e s t  of  the  i n between would  technique  c o u l d be  curves  rating would  have i n t e r m e d i a t e  i s shown i n F i g u r e 9,  for  production.  INCUBATION After only  a few  covered  by  t h e y need 90  days  hatch spaces  simple  the  eggs a r e f e r t i l i z e d  conditions for survival.  g r a v e l which a continuous  alevins  f l o w of w e l l depends on  which, c o n t i n u e  i n the. g r a v e l u n t i l  Become f r e e  b u r i e d they r e q u i r e  They have  does n o t move, they must n o t  ( i n c u b a t i o n time  into  and  swimmers i n the  oxygenated ambient  to r e s i d e  water.  i n the  remain  freeze, After  temperature)  emergen.ce i n March stream.  to  the  and about eggs  interstitial  or A p r i l ,  when  they  24  FIGURE 7  RELATIONSHIP OF NOSE VELOCITY TO AVERAGE VELOCITY (NECHAKO RIVER)  26  REARING The alevins),  time  until  i s known as  but  can  be  few  days  fish  when the  they m i g r a t e  smolts)  as  from  the r e a r i n g  l o n g as  Cpink  and  out  salmon l e a v e  of  phase.  three years  chum).  require suitable  spawning  stream  It is usually  (some eoho) or as  During  habitat,  the  the g r a v e l (as  this  and  (as  one  s h o r t as  growth p e r i o d the  a constant  year  supply  of  a  juvenile food.  Cover An cover,  important  consisting 1.  o f one  Bank  requirement o r more of  d u r i n g the r e a r i n g the  period i s  following:  cover  a)  Streamside  v e g e t a t i o n , overhanging  or  submerged. b) 2.  Undercut  tive  and  a)  Logs and  h)  Submerged  c)  Aquatic  d)  Turbulent  shelter  response  floating  systems.  the  which, c a u s e s  s p e c i e s and ;  the  r u b b l e and  s i z e of  boulders.  water.  f i s h , seek c o v e r  from  debris.  plants.  current.  for security They a l s o  against  have a  of c o v e r the  fish.  over  another,  pred-  photonega-  them to seek shade or c o v e r .  some p r e f e r e n c e f o r one. t y p e the  root  Instrearn cover  Juvenile ators  banks and  There  depending  is on  27  Each j u v e n i l e it ing  forages flow  from  i n each, t e r r i t o r y  other  preferred velocities  0.5  f .p.s.  fish.  Minimum cover  Velocity  0.3  size was  of c h a n g -  of cover i s  or r e s t ,  whether  o r downstream o f a b o u l d e r . zone a r e l e s s foot  trout,  than  or g r e a t e r .  w h i c h have  behav-  that:  Minimum width, o f u n d e r c u t ,  as c)  to h i d e  w i t h i n the cover  to s a l m o n , f o u n d  banks was b)  Some form  f o r the f i s h  (19761, w o r k i n g w i t h  patterns similar  w i t h i n which  change b e c a u s e  and the p r e f e r r e d d e p t h s a r e 0.5 Wesche  a)  a territory  may  i s under a r o o t o r a bank o v e r h a n g  The  ior  defends  The t e r r i t o r y  or c o m p e t i t i o n  necessary it  f o r food.  fish  or  overhanging  feet. o f submerged  boulder  f o r use  3 inches.  i n cover  a r e a was  0.5  f . p . s . or  less. d)  91.6% o f j u v e n i l e s than  A number Pearson  of o t h e r  0.5  p r e f e r r e d water  deeper  feet.  investigators  have s t u d i e d c o v e r ,  e t a l . (1970) and N i c k e l s o n  (.1976).  including  28  Food Rearing enough and  to i n g e s t ; t h i s  benthic  includes include tion  salmon f e e d  on f a u n a  Includes  terrestrial  i n v e r t e b r a t e s , a broad  some o f t h e i n s e c t s . those  that f a l l  and t h o s e It  into  t h e water  w h i c h have p a r t i s the B e n t h i c  that and  p r e f e r those  i s , a coarse relatively  depth  productivity easier  streambank  life  ever,  c a n be used  by changes  (Figure 9).  alone  vegeta-  c y c l e i n water.  i n flow.  and time  Many  i n a stream.  depths,  However, t h e u s e o f optimum  benthic  c o n s u m i n g , and i s n o t made any  D e p t h and v e l o c i t y  i n conjunction with  I t i s generally considered  of  1:1 w i l l  production level  provide  rises,  when a b a l a n c e riffles,  an optimum  Is reached the pool  food  between  to r i f f l e  total  amount o f s u i t a b l e  field  work may be n e c e s s a r y  a survey  balance  criteria, of p o o l  that a pool  a suitable  and r e a r i n g p r o d u c t i o n .  benthic  in riffles,  shallow  to c a l c u l a t e  ratios. about  which  f o r food  by t h e h i g h l y v a r i a b l e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h may o c c u r to r e a c h  over  i n s e c t s used  c o n d i t i o n s which p r e v a i l  criteria  fauna  (bottom d w e l l i n g ) i n v e r t e b r a t e s ,  velocities  is difficult  reach  water  of a q u a t i c  from  of t h e i r  small  and a q u a t i c i n s e c t s  gravel substrate, r e l a t i v e l y  high  and v e l o c i t y  class  Terrestrial  however, w h i c h a r e most a f f e c t e d invertebrates  and d e t r i t u s  to r i f f l e  to d e t e r m i n e  this  ratio  condition w i l l  and t h e w e t t e d  substrate covered).  riffle  food  t h a t as t h e  the depth, and v e l o c i t y ratio,  how-  between b e n t h i c  I t i s evident producing  to  from  A great  obtain  matrix  width (or d e a l of  optimum c o n d i t i o n .  30  General  Rearing It  productivity twice fish  Productivity i s obvious,  of a s t r e a m  as wide p r o v i d e s and  benthic  insects areas  are  will  twice  to f a l l  twice  suitable cover,  shade,  to a r e a r i n g  s t r a n d i n g and and  Benthic  as n o r m a l l y adapt  By  the  and  amount of  stream;  the  Although  the B e s t  A  stream  width  not  depths necessary, and  terrestrial  parameter  parameter;  the  productive  wetted  single  turBidity,  occurs  of  only But  other water  riffle  i s perrearing is a  so i s quality  sudden changes i n f l o w , may  stream.  rapid  A sudden drop  death  i n nature,  moving w i t h  force rearing  then  compete  ( p r e d a t i o n or  f o r new  are  dislodge  the B e n t h i c  is.  The  Benthic  loss  (wash, o u t ) , and  out  of  territory  suitable.  A  and  By  the  where c o v e r  downstream  drops  territory. and  level  I t i s not  slowly,  fish.  level  They must  increase w i l l  clear  Increase  will  Both  other h a h i t a t  how  Is not  i n Benthic  pa-  also  important  r e e s t a b l i s h , i f there  temporary  level  i n v e r t e b r a t e s can  normal  A sudden water  insects.  and  level  very  sudden i n c r e a s e i n w a t e r  their  community w _ i l l  consumed  fish  i n water  Be  e x p o s u r e ) of  I f the w a t e r  Both  the water.  fish  rameters  Be  or  invertebrates.  will  likely  the  factors.  disruptive  fish  the  a sufficient  Fluctuations,  cause  as  range of v e l o c i t i e s  temperature,  habitat  twice  as w i d e ; e t c .  i t Is- n o t  equal,  the. a q u a t i c h a b i t a t f o r b o t h  into  haps g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d productivity,  things being  i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to i t s w i d t h .  invertebratesj  likely Be  that other  drift  this total will  31  Rearing to  quantify.  single,  easily  quantified but  the  The  for  wetted  amount of  field  I will  a reasonable features  judgement  of  of  the  Giger requirements  the  parameters  field  work  life  cycle  the  best  can  be  undertaken,  q u i c k l y become p r o h i b i t i v e .  a procedure  a l l the field  In  for assessing rearing  q u a n t i f i e d data work, t a k e s  s t r e a m under  of b i o l o g i c a l  Other  amount of  work can  amount of  phase of  i s generally considered  to t h e  describe  which, makes- use  cial  width  q u a n t i f i e d parameter.  in proportion  Chapter V I I I flows  i s the most d i f f i c u l t  study,  and  available,  into  account  uses  the  calls  the  spe-  considered  experts.  CI9-73) and  C o l l i n g s (1974) r e v i e w  In c o n s i d e r a b l e  rearing  detail.  DOWNSTREAM MIGRATION When the undergo a b i o l o g i c a l to  r e a r i n g phase change,  downstream m i g r a t i o n  takes  place  in late  to  called  the  s p r i n g or  sea.  i s complete  flows  occurring during  tion  there  i s seldom a time when f l o w s  in may  a pond, swamp or be  obliged  s t a y up  to  two  reasons  other  to  l a k e and  stay,  years than  time.  swim downstream.  A  i f the  certain  salmon  preparatory  Downstream m i g r a t i o n  e a r l y summer, and  this  young  smoltification,  high  cannot p h y s i c a l l y  the  During are  so  i s promoted downstream  low  that  Sometimes they flows  are  percentage  may  of  by  migra-  the be  smolts trapped  insufficient  or more i n some s t r e a m s , but  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y flows.  usually  they  some s p e c i e s i t may  be  do  for  32  CHAPTER IV STREAM HYDRAULICS  SPAWNING The. h y d r a u l i c for  parameters  spawning a r e depth, and  referred  to i s t h a t  fish.  For  stream  bed.  and  salmon  depths  meaning ferred also icant Hunter  has  f o r spawning conditions  velocities the  size  and  most  important  v e l o c i t y now  generally  nose l e v e l to be  a range  (Figures  appear  The  been f o u n d  Each, s p e c i e s - has  those  on  velocity.  a t the a v e r a g e  this  which  0.4  the  spawning  feet  above  of " p r e f e r r e d "  4 to 6) —  the  depend  not  only  term  ( f o r k l e n g t h ) of the f i s h .  variation in size this that  will  have  s i z e may  to be  on  the  the  velocities "preferred"  most a t t r a c t i v e to the f i s h .  depths  (19.73) s u g g e s t s  of  The  pre-  species,  I f there  is  taken i n t o  be more i m p o r t a n t  but  signifaccount.  than  species. I believe of  i t i s not  practical  r e f i n e m e n t In the measurement  ities  o v e r a spawning g r o u n d ,  ferences bound  a species,  to p r e v a i l 0.4  presence streambed icant  within  of  feet  the spawners  caused  by  because  and  analysis of  a great  of d e p t h s  amount and  veloc-  the v a r i a t i o n s i n p r e -  t h e v a r i a t i o n i n v e l o c i t y which  above a c o a r s e g r a v e l themselves,  the d i g g i n g  e f f e c t on v e l o c i t y  and  to use  and  activity,  patterns.  substrate.  the d i s t u r b a n c e will  also  have  is  The  to  the  signif-  33  The determined  by  amount of  measuring  or more t r a n s e c t s of  streambed  This  be  rienced this  ular  the  may  be  done by  observer.  Each  transect  flow  (Figure  cedures  are  used  to  by  area  velocity  the  10  are  transect for  judgement  shown i n F i g u r e  or  just  to  0.1  above,  the  f t . and  transect  has  a series  of  desirable)  using  Each p o i n t  on  measured  nearly  The the  select  computer at  least  each  surface  (two  a tape  transect by  of  the  spawning. an  expe-  is useful  The  for  Ground  the  procedure  two  separate  the I use  study  0.01  the  ft.  be  by to,  are  taken  After  can  be  flows  each  measured are  bank m a r k e r s .  d e p t h and  distance should  program, which w i l l  elevations  separated  water  marked  pro-  i s t a k e n up  depths  between  depths  across  and  well  where the  and  to  perpendic-  survey  They a r e  topography  three  stream  topographical  elevations  recording  intervals field  or  the  transect.  stretched  Velocities  equal  Regular  surveyed, v e l o c i t i e s  is located  bank m a r k e r .  across  bankfull height.  flows  the  11).  e a c h bank.  water  been  is located  survey  permanent m a r k e r s on  for  or  or  one  purpose.  the  or  of  be  along  transect  d e p t h and  survey  can  intervals  its suitablllity  analysis  sampler  to  for  of  the  for  at  l e n g t h , of  criteria  rated  The  the  During  screen  spawning h a b i t a t  velocity  calculating  satisfied.  substrate  can  d e p t h and  over which  simultaneously gravel  and  "preferred"  on  the  velocity tape  measured  at  are  from  a  equal  stream. i s designed be  sites  presently  to p r o v i d e  data  described.  In known spawning  I  areas  FIGURE 10  A SIMPLE SUBSTRATE  SAMPLER  TSULQUATE RIVER  MINIMUM GRAVEL SIZE - 2mm (.078 inches) MAXIMUM GRAVEL SIZE - 64mm (2.52 inches) MAXIMUM COBBLE SIZE - 256mm (10.07 inches) (AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION) I SQUARE INCH  SOOKE RIVER  FIGURE II  35  LAYOUT OF A TYPICAL STUDY SITE TRANSECT AT RIGHT ANGLE TO STREAM BANK  METERING POINTS  PERMANENT TRANSECT MARKER (eg; spike in tree)  • CHAIN AGE - H - - - J — J — * FROM PERMANENT MARKER  STREAM WIDTH (ft) 0 — »0 10 — 40 40 — 100 100 +  METERING POINTS ALONG TRANSECT jt. EQUALLY SPACED^  SUGGESTED SPACING OF METERING POINTS 1 fl 2 5 10  36  on  the  stream  under  straight,  stable  transects  are  reaches  surveyed  Using (Figures  20  the  covered  By  f o r the  The  flow  i s also  the  calculated  the  flows w i l l the  work;  although  t h e r e can  the  probable caused fle  by  area  be  change  T h i s i s an  the  spawning  conditions  ideal fish  procedure  In spawning  investigators a)  can  The  the  accuracy  and  of  depth.  the  a c h e c k of  the  of s u r f a c e and  site flow  i n flow  subsurface  surface p r o f i l e  on  the  at  along  Sooke R i v e r .  the  in  of  It is  transects i s  g r a v e l upstream emerging  i n a spawning  of  the  rif-  a g a i n down-  area  and  one  sense.  differs  for studying hydraulic  from  the p r o c e d u r e s  as f o l l o w s :  I p l a c e equal weight  on  transect  that  by  area  variation  large variations  I have a d o p t e d  areas  the  spawnable a r e a i s  being  water  situation  at  site.  criteria  of v e l o c i t y  transect.  e n t e r i n g the  four  f l o w under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  unusually  i n stream  in  study  and.depth  average  besides  and  be  T h r e e or  to a r r i v e  a measure of  f o r a study  s u r f a c e water  The  other  a t each  to i n t e r c h a n g e  centerline  should  i n each  (change i n s l o p e of s t r e a m b e d ) and  stream. which  be  an  f o r the  shows the bed  t h a t the  apart  combination  calculations,  t r a n s e c t s due  stream  site  calculated  F i g u r e 12  feet  i s processed right  study  work and  flow.  to 50  t r a n s e c t and  field  between  sites  appropriate velocity  i s done f o r each  calculated  The  i f at a l l p o s s i b l e .  4 to 6). the d a t a  streambed This  investigation.  assuming  the  data  the  from  area  of  each the  used  by  7  -t ti c c f. J V; c  -i i  Ll i  1 1  X s  c  T  i  L.  1J  fF  f  1  L  t 1|  i  y  \  r  I  k t  r  —  I  ....  I  •\  1  f1 0  -< -<0  j  -i 0  < L>  yf  r  /f  «  f  t  u  t  -iR -i0  /  f  ( c^ J J  / ....  -1H  \  i t 1  |l!  u. \ 1  I  o  9)  i)  l«  1  I|  u I < l>I anm •21!m  c ct a-  •  J  L_  •1 nrm L=I  —i  V)  (tn  n  J.  «h  1  I  4  —\—  (  -  >  V•  TP _1  \  1  <  //  r  0>\  k  k  \  1 u 1 <  1  • I;\  \ i' \  J  J  [I7J / FD M C.1 fc3 \ 1 • II 1  \  O  >  u.1 , 1 >  i  9  \  \  ii «i  1  \  \  (  a  in 1  ( \|  <0  •  \  \  «*-  11  <  *  \ CO  i-  «  Q  k  V L  n  r  I  %-  \  i c c>  b cn i1 r  )  t» n1 1H A u 1j - V /  •  3  3 1 13  c)  I  38  streambed  represented  one  foot  wide.  the  data  f o r each  transect  applies  transects.  the t r a n s e c t s  Cover,  First  are not c l o s e  s a y , 5' a p a r t )  assumption.  the  a r e not e q u a l l y  e f f e c t i v e , weight  that  half of a l l ,  together  t h i s i s not l i k e l y  to be a v a l i d transects  transect i s  O t h e r methods assume  way to a d j a c e n t if  by each  Secondly, i f  of the data  spaced the f o r each  transect  would  be d i f f e r e n t , and t h e end  transect  would  have, h a l f  1  calculate  the weight.  t h e f l o w s a t each  to  check a c c u r a c y  of  the h y d r a u l i c  and o b t a i n conditions.  methods make no a l l o w a n c e  transect, a profile Other  f o r subsurface  flows. I place and  emphasis  recommend  three  series  on f i e l d  at least  measurements  two, p r e f e r r a b l y  o f measurements,  at d i f f e r e n t flow range of i n t e r e s t .  l e v e l s t o span t h e f l o w Some o f t h e p r o f i l e  methods p u t g r e a t e r , emphasis c a l c u l a t i o n s and c l a i m using  hydraulic  surveys  control  on computer  sufficient  one f l o w measurement  topographical  i f possible,  accuracy  and a number o f  of t r a n s e c t s a t  points.  39  d)  I choose river  study  sites  i n areas  which are u t i l i z e d  By  Some programs r e q u i r e t h a t taken  at a l l c o n t r o l  transects not.  placing  Spawning  and  of  spawners. t r a n s e c t s Be these  significance  methods s p e c i f y  a random  transects.  are a l i m i t e d  number  of  experiments  areas  of  the  salmon when s e l e c t i n g  stream  They a p p e a r  to have a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a r e a s where  interchange  between  commonly channels, eye  observed  s u r f a c e and  by  or o t h e r  biologists  that  a r e a s where w a t e r  U p w e l l i n g may  be  and  area  Such a p r o c e s s  ( F i g u r e 13b).  surface flow  14.  permeability w h i c h may are  located  boulders an  f o r the  in straight  ( F i g u r e . 14a)  experiment  with  Upwelling  of f l o w  within strata  account  i n a number tends  caused  of l e s s e r fact  runs.  that  by  Freeze by  that  of ways,  Cooper  chum salmon, T a u t z  and  as  in a  riffle  the change i n and  Witherspoon higher 14b),  spawning  Subsurface, flow paths by  sock-  margins.  a l e n s e of  some p r e f e r r e d  been  side  permeability (Figure  have been p l o t t e d  spawning  I t has  to o c c u r  i s indicated  shown i n F i g u r e 12.  (.1967) d e s c r i b e the l i n e s  lake  be-  i s a good  i s u p w e l l i n g , and along  the  f o r spawning.  chum salmon p r e f e r  produced  shown i n F i g u r e s 13  on  there  subsurface flows.  salmon o f t e n choose u p w e l l i n g a r e a s  measured  or  S u b s u r f a c e : Flow There  haviour  of  the  p o i n t s whether  have b i o l o g i c a l  Other  of  areas  around  (1965) . Groot  During (.19.75)  40  INTRAGRAVEL FLOW AT A REDD AND AT A POOL-RIFFLE  3.  (a)  (b)  PROFILE OF A REDD  NATURAL  POOL-RIFFLE  FIGURE 13  41  INTRAGRAVEL FLOW AT A BOULDER AND NEAR A MORE PERMEABLE LENS  (a)  (b)  FIGURE 14  SUBSURFACE FLOW AT A BOULDER  SUBSURFACE FLOW P A T T E R N CAUSED BY A MORE P E R M E A B L E L E N S  42  observed  t h a t they  mediately  downstream o f b o u l d e r s  Calculation  measuring  are n e c e s s a r y puter  addition, levels  i t will  area  takes  work w i t h  care  so t h a t t h e f l o w  can be o b t a i n e d  The will  levels,  program  the: minimum  a number  of these  level  a number  of c a l c u l a t i o n s The com-  calculations.  producing  to be d a t a  amount o f d a t a ,  In  flow  t h e maximum  dependent.  that i s , data  a l a r g e amount o f d a t a  flow  levels  at several transects.  will  be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the amount o f i n p u t The  flume.  (Figure 15).  i s designed  f l o w a t one t r a n s e c t , c r w i t h  the  along  i n t e r p o l a t e , and e x t r a p o l a t e f o r o t h e r  n o t measured  spawning  and v e l o c i t i e s  t o o b t a i n th.e. p r e f e r r e d spawning, a r e a .  program, A p p e n d i x A>  f l o w im-  Areas  depths  t r a n s e c t s a t one o r more f l o w  of u p w e l l i n g  p l a c e d i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l  o f P r e f e r r e d Spawning After  of  p r e f e r r e d the v i c i n i t y  The r e l i a b i l i t y  f o l l o w i n g two a s s u m p t i o n s  It f o r one  for several  of t h e r e s u l t s  data.  were i n c o r p o r a t e d  into  program: 1.  Velocity is  2.  distribution  p r o p o r t i o n a l to water  H y d r a u l i c s a t each pendent  measured v e l o c i t y  profiles  16 to 18) shows- t h a t t h e r e the depth  a transect  depth.  transect are inde-  of other t r a n s e c t s .  These assumptions,  dence w i t h  along  need  along  explaining.  a number  Examination  of t r a n s e c t s ( F i g u r e s  i s an a p p r o x i m a t e d i r e c t  profiles  (_a m i r r o r  of  correspon-  image, a d j u s t e d  to s c a l e ) .  f r F1 JF 1 »•  "1  40  <  n1 I11 ") V A sl 1slV J  c  /  1  A\  f  L  i  \ 1 "3 r \ 1 /i \ r 1\  / I \  i •, \  |  T 11/ \ 1  i  r r  j T B p. (• \ 1r  T r 1V) r  <  /•  \  A v l\  n r T  -\ LJ  it"U w 1  >  r"  Jj  UJ  rr  *+*  T J  "CD"  < 4.  1  pi ii t i\j  c  n  •  ()  l(  J  •\t t\ H)  XI\ / i\KI  fI:iI t)\V -v i  \/  n  ;  >/•  i\ )  \  cf e  v.1  1  44  FIGURE 16  DEPTH AND VELOCITY PROFILES TRANSECTS I TO 4 ( I 5 0 ± c f s ) o  DISTANCE (ft)  45  FIGURE 17  DEPTH AND VELOCITY PROFILES TRANSECTS 5 TO 8 ( 65 ± cfs)  I O  I  10  I  20  I  30  I  40  I  50  I  60  I  70  I  80  I  90  I  t  100  110  I  120  DISTANCE (ft)  -r2  TRANSECT 7 - 63 cfs  2^-  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  100  110  120  -i2  - I \  -O  TRANSECT 6 - 6 9 cfs 30  40  50  60  70  80  90  100  110  120  130  140  -r3  -2  "-•  - I -0  Ot-  TRANSECT 5 - 8 4 cfs  I  30  1  40  1  50  1  60  1  70  _J 80  I  90  I  100  I  110  I  120  I  130  I  140  46  FIGURE 18  47  T h e r e may  be  some j u s t i f i c a t i o n  proportional Manning values  to d e p t h  equation). calculated  however, culated  that  the v a r i a n c e and  due  using  depth  to the 2/3  produces  profiles.  isovels  better  uting  the v e l o c i t y  (Figure to e a c h .  28)  provide  To uniform  case, there w i l l  Sh.en (197 6). d e s c r i b e s transects.  (197 7) has over  Such  account  assumption  extrapolating  still  cal-  remain  currents,  by  treating  applying  f o r o t h e r flow.s...  sections.  " i "  of  distrib-  segments  of the streambed H i s method  n o t been  field  at  may tested.  t h e f l o w i n a s t u d y a r e a i s non i s not c o r r e c t .  established  only  give  Mannings f o r m u l a  calculated. i t has  should  on a way  a t each, t r a n s e c t ,  i s , in effect,  Manning's f o r m u l a i s used  2  a model  the r o u g h n e s s  a p p r o x i m a t i o n , but  or more f l o w s a r e measured relationship  i n the  secondary  to i r r e g u l a r  the t r a n s e c t  the e x t e n t t h a t  (varied),  seen,  a p r o c e d u r e f o r model-  been w o r k i n g  so M a n n i n g ' s n can be  a better  velocity  conditions with stage.  takes into  segment  improvement  channel shapes,  the  I t can be  I n any  as s e p a r a t e " s t r e a m s " and  He  power.  to be  from  18 a r e  i f any  I f i t can be a d a p t e d  Milhous  i n Figure  little  to i r r e g u l a r  for regular  results  the v e l o c i t y  (by i n f e r e n c e  circles  changing h y d r a u l i c  ling  power  small  H s i e h Wen  each  to the 2/3  The  this  velocity  i n assuming  a stage discharge  f o r each  f o r purposes  However, i f two  transect.  of i n t e r p o l a t i n g  or  48  For n and  the  the  friction  efficient,  purpose  of  slope  the  computer  were combined  CA TTTW where 2/3  1.49 n  5 7 2  C =  p  As  will  the  flow  to a g r e a t e r  known to v a r y C,  or  lesser  with  which  degree,  the  ( F i g u r e 19).  discharge  i n c l u d e s both  these  factors,  against discharge  resembles  the  stage  flow.  discharge  s t o r e s the v a l u e s  i n t e r p o l a t e s or  curve  well within  the  closely  accuracy  slope,  be  i n the  ( F i g u r e s 21  of C o b t a i n e d  check  can  i s obtained  by  extrapolates a C value  C a l c u l a t e d flows  certainly  a curve  non-  However, the  is  plotted  i s always  friction  ( F i g u r e 20).  f o r each f l o w which, i s measured  and  co-  S^,  Manning's n i s a l s o  calculated  computer  a single  sj* f—  i n a n a t u r a l channel  change with, d i s c h a r g e  cient,  to form  Manning's  C:  Q =  uniform  program,  with  limits  accurately  field. which  and  When C  closely  22).  processing f o r each  The  field  data,  calculated  the measured needed  coeffi-  flows  for fish  —  habitat  analysis. After lated  i t has  8 show the velocity which  to he  the  average v e l o c i t y  adjusted  relationship  and  depth  spawning  to  the nose v e l o c i t y .  of nose v e l o c i t y ,  ( w i t h i n the  occurs.  in a vertical  v^,  calcu-  Figures  to the  r a n g e of v e l o c i t i e s  is  7  and  average  and  depths i n  49  FIGURE 19  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENERGY SLOPE and DISCHARGE FOR OAK CREEK, OREGON (Adapted from Milhous, 1977)  o  o  o  cP  8  oo °8_ 00  o  08 o o o o o V* o 08 P  8  o  o o  ro o  O o  o J <  5  ' 3dO"IS A9U3N3  o o  o o  50  FIGURE 2 0  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANNING'S " n " and DISCHARGE FOR OAK CREEK, OREGON (Adapted from Milhous, 1977)  fib So  $  CD O „  OO  o  o oo 5° oo co°  8  in 6  o*  fO CM b o* ..U,, S.9NINNVW  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN " c " and DISCHARGE FOR OAK CREEK, OREGON  5.0i  (Adapted from Milhous, 1977)  .« .. G  =  1.49 S 2 n  o O  o  CO  oo oo cn  1.0  0.21  J  I  I I  I  1.0  i  i  J  I i l II  I  I I—L  100  10 DISCHARGE  I  (cfs)  CD C  JO rn  52  FIGURE  STAGE DISCHARGE CURVE FOR OAK CREEK,OREGON  400i  (Adapted from Milhous, 1977)  100  CO <*-  u  UJ O or < X a to o  10  1.0  0.4  1  J  I  0.5  i  i i  1.0  2.0 STAGE  J  (ft)  I  4.0  I I  I  53  INCUBATION Salmon eggs inches and  to  22  inches  the h a t c h e d  flow  i n a redd  below  the  water.  be  anywhere from  streambed.  alevins residing  of o x y g e n a t e d  may  The  i n the  spawners  The  incubating  instinctively  is likely  building  to be  flow  suring  intergravel that  a water  level  that w i l l  t h a t the (and  flow  flow  In v e r y  should  be  cold  gravel.  i n water  level,  and  the  vourable  a l l the  redds  i s about  level the  should  0.6  the  flow  the  a l e v i n s are  I s some e v i d e n c e  cause  intermea-  feet  not  be  flow  (1969) and  spawning choose  water.  i t is reamore t h a n level.  the  0.6  The of  the  incubation  flow.  able  to i n d i c a t e  se'rlous enough the  indi-  i s to  flowing  i t i s p o s s i b l e that  hatching,  Dill  of  with  spawning  spawning  eggs, w i l l  Work done on  Incubation  the  be  redd  required  to 100%  than  which, would  location,  75%  per-  where  The  l a r g e enough to p r e v e n t f r e e z i n g  regions,  greater  There  be  be  the  f o r spawning  should  the  choose  areas  flow.  that  steady  a s s o c i a t e d oxygen exchange  should  i n c u b a t i o n flow  After  kill  the  cover  so  ( F i g u r e 13a).  p r e f e r a b l y l e s s ) below  incubation redds.  and  intergravel  fines  to c a l c u l a t e  the minimum d e p t h  feet  the  flow  i n c u b a t i o n flows  A n o t h e r way  soned  the  i s f u r t h e r ensured  flows.  As  required  process- c l e a n s : out  gravel  cates  the  6  eggs,  gravel, require a  meable g r a v e l In u p w e l l i n g or., p o s s i b l y , d o w n w e l l i n g there  about  to move  through  t h a t a slow  to d r y  out  the  drop redd  a l e v i n s to move to a more f a Bams  (19.69).  54  POOL-RIFFLE THEORY A common m o r p h o l o g i c a l the  pool-riffle  "the  law  that  a natural  the  least  time r a t e  water He  of  time r a t e  river of  riffle  the  chooses  explain  in this  and  lengths  formation  of  way,  the  to  pools- a r e  rate  of  laboratory  greater  than  lengths  the  riffle  be  substrate Bagnold  i n the  derived  pool  —  according  a formula  expressing  w h i c h e x i s t s between g r a i n s , of As  the  repulsive  locity sizes  gradient would  tend  force and  the  square  to b u i l d  i s high  fle  to wash away the  an  area  pattern, f ish.  of  (Figure  coarse,  up  of  at  13b). finer  permeable  shown i n the  or  is proportional  gradient tend  sand  the  figure,  the  of  also than  (1954)  upward  obser-  (1971)  coarser  to B a g n o l d ' s  pool  expendi-  the  shows t h a t  pools.  of  field  Yang  of  and  and  stability. will  that  u n i t mass  energy  , i n the . c o n d i t i o n . . o f i n the  states  so  riffles  riffles  substrate  (which flow  per of  the  theory.  repulsive  force  gravel  i n the  streambed.  to  square  of  the  grain  diameter,  large  riffle  where  The  higher  velocities  at  so  result  particles, with  an  the  the  the  the  substrate  is  (1971) u s e s  expenditure"  I t s course  streams  d e v e l o p s a.wavy p r o f i l e  according  of  of  Yang  expenditure  the  a stream g r a d i e n t  i s minimized;  13b).  energy  p o t e n t i a l energy  shapes B e c a u s e ,  vations,  (Figure  of  system  i s a minimum) to  shows t h a t  ture  configuration  characteristic  net  to  grain  velocity the  intragravel  which, i s a t t r a c t i v e  ve-  rifis flow  spawning  55  The similar  hydraulic conditions.  eggs and of  i n the  digging  tions ter  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  by  tail  the  spill  i n a manner s i m i l a r  interchange  change.  should  Figure  12  the  riffle  REARING AND  to u n d e r s t a n d  production.  here because explained  they  to be  directly  was  found  juveniles  on  are  surface  action  the  14a..  The  pool-riffle  flow  increases  upwelling  funcwa-  inter-  in a  intensity  in  the  of  flows  and  on  juvenile fish  depths w i l l  be  there  a r e many more p h y s i c a l and  and  on  discussed  the main h y d r a u l i c p a r a m e t e r s , but  and  by  depths  size,  i n the  remained  being  effects  f o r salmon, I t i s nec-  as  was  biological  considered.  that  They d i s t r i b u t e d smallest  to  the  i s a hump w h i c h  of F i g u r e  a r e a r i n g flow  Only v e l o c i t i e s  Velocities  It  similar  the  FOOD PRODUCTION  the  elsewhere,  parameters  pend  boulder  a progressive  In d e t e r m i n i n g  food  the  the  produce  area.  HYDRAULICS OF  essary  to  been " f l u s h e d " c l e a n by  very  with  tends  I s , the m a t e r i a l o v e r  tailspill  shows how  downstream d i r e c t i o n  itself  The  to  be  redd  that  has  spawners.  the  near  or  size, out  closest  swimming  Campbell the  to  associated with  shore 5 or  ability  R i v e r , which  juveniles  of  the j u v e n i l e s .  i s 300  where v e l o c i t i e s 10  feet  from  th.e bank, H a m i l t o n  feet  were  wide,  low.  e a c h bank —  and  de-  the  B u e l l (.19.74).  56  In  small  streams,  out  the width  providing  the  streambed  will  lee.  Juvenile  shelter. on  velocities  tical red  fish, w i l l  benthic  of measuring  i n a stream  worthwhile, sentative detailed results  of p r e f e r r e d  out from i s also  low v e l o c i t i e s  criteria  i n water  only  study,  the s t u d i e s  stream.  and g e n e r a l i z e  or p r e f e r o f the  a few I n c h e s  to s e l e c t a few r e p r e -  are suitable f o r taking  A considerable  biologist  prac-  I t may, o c c a s i o n a l l y , be  where c o n d i t i o n s  study  k i n d of  dependent  because  measurements; make c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n s , to t h e whole  this  rearing habitat  s t r e w n with, b o u l d e r s .  sites  i n their  I t i s not g e n e r a l l y  depth/velocity  judgement by an e x p e r i e n c e d pret  9).  e s p e c i a l l y f o r a major  study  forages  Invertebrates  (Figure  using  B o u l d e r s on  of lower v e l o c i t i e s  quick  o f benthi.c  and d e p t h s  habitat  areas make  to c a l c u l a t e areas  difficulty deep  v e l o c i t y i s not too h i g h .  create  Production  j u v e n i l e s can d i s t r i b u t e through-  is still  and a p p l y t h e amount o f  required  to i n t e r -  the r e s u l t s .  UPSTREAM MIGRATION Hydraulic  conditions  may r e s t r i c t  upstream  because o f : a).  Falls  or s t e e p  swimming  rapids  or j u m p i n g  which, e x c e e d t h e  capability  of the  f ish. 15.)  Insufficient Broad  depth, o f w a t e r  reaches- of r i v e r .  over  flat  migration  57  Difficulties be  assessed  discharges  by making while  c a r e f u l observations  the f i s h , a r e " r u n n i n g " .  numbers of f i s h , p a s s i n g tallied. may  I t i s possible  be p a s s a b l e  Eight so  that  r a p i d s can  at several d i f f e r e n t Jumping  success,  or  up a t t h e f a l l s , c a n be  d i f f e r e n t parts  o f t h e same  falls  flows.  (1972) g i v e s  the f o l l o w i n g  SPECIES  MINIMUM DEPTH (feet)  Chinook  0.8  8  Coho  0.6  8  Chum  0.6  8  f e e t p e r second  t h e above  criteria  over  short  recommends an tabulated  criteria  f o r up-  some  part  MAXIMUM VELOCITY (f.p.s.)  Is a sustained applies  sections  upstream  criteria  shallowest  over  swimming  to l o n g could  passage  speed  reaches.  which w i l l  This  water  Thompson meet  a t l e a s t 25% o f a t r a n s e c t  of the stream.  (Figure 3),  A higher  be t o l e r a t e d .  flow  (1972)  t h e above  located  may be a u s e f u l  on t h e  technique  cases. In B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a ,  place  or steep  migration:  velocity  in  or b.e:lng h e l d  at d i f f e r e n t  Thompson stream  of p a s s a g e a t f a l l s  immediately  after  the. heavy  salmon m i g r a t i o n fall  rains  usually  a c r i t i c a l problem unless: the r a i n s  greatly  reduced  from  the: u s u a l .  generally  so low f l o w s  takes  are not  a r e d e l a y e d or  T h e r e may be s p e c i a l  obstruction  58  p r o b l e m s on some r i v e r s , mouth, b e a v e r with time.  such  as g r a v e l b a r b u i l d  dams, e t c . , so i t i s n e c e s s a r y  the c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g  along  up near t h e  to become  the r i v e r  during  familiar migration  59 :  CHAPTER STREAM  There veloped  flows,  a r e some u s e f u l  Channel  morphology  b u t i t c a n be used  relationships  annual  source maintenance modified  version The  related  rapidly  c a n be d e -  cannot  to p r e d i c t  be used average  to p r e d i c t annual  v e r y low  flows  (Orsborn  (bank  1976).  f l o w has been e s t i m a t e d , f i s h e r i e s r e -  flows- c a n be e s t i m a t e d u s i n g , f o r example, a of t h e Montana method, T e n a n t  c h a n n e l width, from  to optimum r e a r i n g  proportional  which  c h a n n e l m o r p h o l o g y and b a s i n  f l o w ) when f l o w r e c o r d s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e  Once t h e a v e r a g e  at  MORPHOLOGY  between c h a n n e l h y d r a u l i c s ,  hydrology.  full  V  to t h e w e t t e d  (1976).  t o e o f bank to t o e o f bank i s  f l o w , which, i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be width.  The w e t t e d  width  w i t h d i s c h a r g e up to t o e o f bank l e v e l ,  a much s l o w e r  rate.  some i n v e s t i g a t o r s  to  The b r e a k  then  increases i t increases  i n t h e c u r v e has been c h o s e n by  r e p r e s e n t optimum r e a r i n g  conditions.  (Figure 23). Collings tions ing  ( 1 9 7 4 ) , when d e v e l o p i n g h i s r e g r e s s i o n  f o r spawning and r e a r i n g  f l o w s f o r salmon,  channel m o r p h o l o g i c a l parameters Wid th Gravel Reach  t o be t h e most  Cb_ a nk - f u l l ) . size slope.  Shape f a c t o r Hydraulic  (bank-full).  radius  found  Cbank-full)  equa-  the follow-  significant:  FIGURE 23  60  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WETTED WIDTH and DISCHARGE (SOOKE RIVER)  I20h  looH  x o o  60  UJ UJ  40  2C4i  100  200  300  DISCHARGE  400 (cfs)  500  61  Field these  parameters The  portant has  inventory  and, as w e l l , pool  channel  f o r low f l o w  riffle  c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s one o f the most im-  i n Chapter  The t h e o r y  IV.  levels  ratio  (1:1 I s u s u a l l y recommended).  benthic  nation areas.  food  production  of depths-, Giger  be such  as to g i v e a c e r t a i n  which  velocities  Rearing  and s u b s t r a t e  (19.73) summarizes  these  and  i s useful.  the s t r a t a  siderable is  underlying  interchange  a strong  red  tion.  A profile  points  along  fish  reach  to i n t e r p r e t  fish  f o r part life  lakes.  Black  a system, strata.  which  of the r i v e r  in alluvial  often result  i n con-  flows.  It  f o r s u c c e s s f u l egg  incuba-  t h e same day a t s e v e r a l  conditions  indeed,  be  (Figure 24).  which n a t u r a l l y  go  Y e t , t h e r e may be ample water f o r or other  C r e e k on th.e E a s t  coast  tributaries, of Vancouver  formed by t h e i n t e r - b e d d i n g of p o r o u s There a r e over  fans  creates conditions prefer-  s y s t e m s have r e a c h e s  reaches,  combi-  i n the r i f f l e  i s most u s e f u l and may,  low f l o w  o f most y e a r s .  i n other  size  geology  channel  o f low f l o w s measured  a river  riffle  by a c e r t a i n  g r a v e l found  the r i v e r  to  requirements.  and i s n e c e s s a r y  Many r i v e r dry  porous  of flow  formation  Is dependent  between s u r f a c e and s u b s u r f a c e  interchange  by spawning  necessary  Highly  pool  success  i s optimized  A knowledge o f the s u r f i c i a l channel  of t h e i r  F o r optimum r e a r i n g p r o d u c t i o n ,  water  on  should  include  t h e t o e to t o e w i d t h .  characteristics.  been r e v i e w e d  studies should  200 swamps  i n swamps or I s l a n d I s such  and  impervious  and lakes- i n t h e w a t e r s h e d ,  63  yet at  much o f t h e main c h a n n e l a l l practical  main c h a n n e l a stable not  i n this  unless  reach  they  goes d r y i n l a t e  case  to s p e c i f y  a r e measured  flows  instream  which, has a n a t u r a l p e r e n n i a l f l o w .  a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l to the gross  I t i s not  flows  at a particular  be a t r u e measure o f t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y  these  summer.  i n the  l o c a t i o n on  Even  of the system  this  may  unless  amount o f w a t e r  i n the  sys tern. Channel the  s h a p e , s l o p e , and s u b s t r a t e s i z e  a q u a t i c h a b i t a t , and each, f i s h  particular  habitat.  in  by  change  of t h e p h y s i c a l  changes w i l l  h a b i t a t , and t h e c o n s e q u e n t  a major  s p e c i e s has p r e f e r e n c e s  An u n d e r s t a n d i n g  which produce m o r p h o l o g i c a l  help  redistribution  i n t h e f l o w r e g i m e as may,  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a dam.  help  predict  define fora  processes t h e changes  of the f i s h ,  f o r example, be  due t o caused  64  CHAPTER VI HYDROLOGY  Before low  flow a n a l y s i s  between cycle  discussing  i t Is worthwhile  the annual hydrograph  salmon  B r i t i s h Columbia's c o a s t a l  If  months o f A u g u s t  25) and t h e f r e s h w a t e r  returning rivers  from  t h e ocean  generally  to December.  i s t h e c a s e , t h e salmon, w i l l  lower  river  early  November, If  remain  rains,  which  the a t t r a c t i o n  spawning  as f a r as p h y s i c a l l y  f o r ready  water  depth  i n "resting  c a n be  f o r passage. pools" i n  come i n l a t e  O c t o b e r or  on t h e h y d r o g r a p h s .  f l o w s a r e weak o r t h e water passage  and t h e w a i t i n g  possible  and spawn i n a r e a s  goal,  o r they may e n t e r s i d e  streams.  I n some c a s e s th.ey w i l l  t o p o o l as f l o w c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e months O c t o b e r  depths  f i s h are  m a t u r i t y ( " r i p e n i n g " ) they may swim  preferred  place  to October  during  t h e y a r e a t t r a c t e d up-  generally  as shown by t h e peaks  Insufficient  approaching  stay  or i n the e s t u a r y u n t i l  s t r e a m by t h e f a l l  pool  life  to spawn i n  m i g r a t e upstream  As A u g u s t  d r y months t h e r e may be i n s u f f i c i e n t  this  the  (Figure  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  SPAWNING  Adult  very  to d e s c r i b e  o f t h e salmon.  MIGRATION AND  the  the use of the annual hydrograph i n  short  upstream  of t h e i r  c h a n n e l s or t r i b u t a r y  work t h e i r  permit,  to December.  way u p s t r e a m  from  Spawning g e n e r a l l y Natural  river  takes  flows  66  during  t h e s e months a r e  clearly  understood  usually  how  well  ations.  I t i s known t h a t  or  i n flow  rises  plants,  but  rate  the  salmon a r e  s u c h as of  i n the  natural  river  ently  adjust  without  d i s t r e s s or  Buell  (1976).  ideal  uniform  spawning.  flow,  The  with, r e g u l a t e d  tion  could  the to  the  so  spawning the  ensure  river  substantiate  bed  In  rivers,  will,  success  consequence  them e l s e w h e r e .  i s that  that  there  e x t r e m e s of  eggs w i l l  will  be  flood  Another be  flows  or  of  be  flows  chan-  The  ques-  more a m a t t e r of  the  is  will  at  fish  Preferred  i n one  area  by  parts  this  will flows.  at  a  cer-  successive  likely  a v a r i e t y of  have  natural levels  s u r v i v a l through freezing  of  irreg-  variability  disturbed  an  for  wide r a n g e of  a d v a n t a g e of  water  and  exists  topography  natural  flow  c h a n c e of low  appar-  prevail in different  This  deposited  a better  than  spawning  time.  eggs d e p o s i t e d  stages  there  adaptation  bed  spawning  less likely  changing  an  over a f a i r l y  i s that  will  and  therefore,  at d i f f e r e n t times.  drops  this.  i t i s not  artificial  during  sudden  greater  "preferred"  seems to  some s p a w n i n g  sity  that  flows  flows  vari-  d i s o r i e n t a t i o n , Hamilton  narrow r a n g e of  natural  by  such  spawners can  in a r t i f i c i a l  the  spawners b e c a u s e  the  spawning  the  flow  i s not  from r a i n f a l l ,  to  not  below h y d r o - e l e c t r i c  of  flow.  are  s t a g e of  tracted  or  conditions  A natural tain  of  uniform and  occur  r a i s e d , however, w h e t h e r  uniformity  ular,  of  be  disrupted  flow  It i s  adapted  i s a common a s s u m p t i o n  success  nels  may  change of  found  There  variable.  spawners a r e  levels,  i f the  highly  atdiverso  subsequent  conditions.  67  In c o a s t a l both  h i g h and  control  by  an  a)  low,  B r i t i s h . Columbia  are  upstream  reducing  rivers,  common d u r i n g  the  reservoir  be  can  peak f l o w s w h i c h  spawn on h i g h e r  extremes,  spawning p e r i o d . beneficial  cause  b a r s , which  flow  Flow  by:  spawners  to  subsequently  go  dry. b)  Augmenting  low  flows  so a g r e a t e r a r e a  spawning ground becomes  of  available.  INCUBATION Incubation gence,  i n March or A p r i l .  tible  to b o t h  occur  In the  are  very  low  tions.  Eggs and water.  very  eggs and high  There  sideways cause  living i n the  transfer  alevins  w i t h i n the  low  freezing  tolerate  intergravel  g r a v e l towards  It i s evident  th.at c o n t r o l l e d  flows-and  reduced  p e a k i n g ) would  period.  Very  and  cannot  of w h i c h  the  washout  flows be  spaces  stream  emersuscepcan flows condi-  dryness  that older a l e v i n s ,  alevins.  incubation  25.  to  are very  flows, both  g r a v e l movement and  flood  spawning  alevins  Figure  i s some e v i d e n c e  move down or  flows  oxygen  newly h a t c h e d  (1969.),  high  The  reduced  CL969) , Bams  Very  and  the p e r i o d from  i n c u b a t i o n p e r i o d , see  a s s o c i a t e d with  still  covers  Dill can  centerline.  of eggs  and  ( h i g h e r minimum  beneficial  or  during  the  68  Once the swimming  (March and  a l e v i n s have l e f t April),  high  e n c o u r a g e downstream m i g r a t i o n in  the  spawning  the  flows  of  g r a v e l to become  are b e n e f i c i a l ,  smolts,  and  cleanse  free  They the  will  gravel  beds.  REARING The cycle. those for to  p e r i o d May  This period  sea.  low  i n the  Chum j u v e n i l e s ,  immediately flows  are  generally governed the  i s the b e g i n n i n g  s p e c i e s which remain  example, r e a r  most  likely  agree by  after  the  amount of  i n the  that  lowest  other  the  In  during  cover  and  means l i m i t e d  fish  survival  low  flows  food  production,  cover, the  and  low  low  higher  flow  period,  rearing  juveniles.  streams  the  ually all  dry  the  concentrations the  less  In v e r y  s u r f a c e f l o w may  up.  adverse  F i s h , can  this as  food and  or more b e f o r e  lowest  of  the  period.  flows  The  with  reduced more  in certain  l e a v i n g only  habi-  Associated  chance f o r s u r v i v a l and  limit  limited  temperatures,  survive for short periods  c o n d i t i o n s mentioned  is frequently  requires a cer-  of p o l l u t a n t s .  cease,  prolonged Biologists  Low  for survival,  dry weather  going  river a l -  most  stream  production.  i s the  the  and  each f i s h  high  of  juveniles,  rearing period.  productivity  flow  annual  Coho  hand, l e a v e  The the  the  r e a r i n g phase  system.  on  tat  are  the  f o r a year  h a b i t a t , and  space,  of  river  emergence;.  the  completes  stream  to o c c u r  amount of a q u a t i c  tain  to September  pools  extended of  reaches which  i n pools  above i n c r e a s e i n  the of grad-  but  severity  69  to  cause r a p i d  mobility, higher  m o r t a l i t y of the trapped  tributaries  occasioned  by low f l o w s .  of the r i v e r ;  under u n d e r c u t  over  bed.  or f i n d  production w i l l  be d r a s t i c a l l y  there  conditions  and numbers o f r e t u r n i n g a d u l t s .  i s a positive  i s - sometimes c o n s i d e r e d  s t r e a m s b u t i t may  take  analysis,  between summer The l o w e s t  flow  mean  to govern r e a r i n g produce rule  o f thumb f o r some low f l o w to  only  p e r i o d i s now b e g i n n i n g  perhaps p a r t l y  o f 7 day low f l o w  a s h o r t enough p e r i o d  frequency  to c o n s i d e r  flows  lasting  study  of s e v e r a l years  a day o r l e s s  in relation  the n e c e s s a r y  basic understanding  history  tation  to the f l o w  preferences. systems-.  to the s t u d y  i n t h e same r i v e r  stream  to t h e l i f e provides,  of the. n a t u r a l  d i f f e r e n c e s - between  a r e year  system.  to y e a r  I be-  flow to the  o f salmon and t h e i r  Each, s p e c i e s has d i f f e r e n t  There are a l s o t i m i n g  In a d d i t i o n , there  n o t be  T h e r e a r e many v a r i a t i o n s  o f fresh., w a t e r r e s i d e n c e regime.  still  Careful  lieve,  annual  I t may  c o u l d be d i s a s t r o u s .  of hydrographs  the year.  of the a v a i l -  where low  specific  through  to be  f o r some s i t u a t i o n s  o f the salmon  requirements:  because  curves.  cycles  timing  as f l o w s  the p o p u l a t i o n :  i n low f l o w  ability  reduced  o n l y a few days o f extreme  The. 7 day low f l o w used  relationship  T h i s may be a s a t i s f a c t o r y  decimate  pools,  McKernan e t a l . (1950) has  shown t h a t  tivity..  i n deep  b a n k s , o r even w i t h i n t h e g r a v e l s u b s t r a t e o f t h e  Food  flow  s h o r t p e r i o d s of  They may move t o o t h e r  c o o l e r water  productive r i f f l e s diminishes.  monthly  Because of t h e i r  j u v e n i l e s c a n s u r v i v e , t o some e x t e n t ,  stress  stream  fish.  adap-  t i m i n g and river  differences i n  70  The conclusions in  the  as  foregoing to  the  d i s c u s s i o n Leads us  degree  hydrograph, might  Be  to w h i c h  the  a l t e r e d to  to  certain  general  natural flows,  improve  fishery  as  productiv-  ity.;. 1.  Peak f l o w s during  2.  Low  could  spawning  winter  flow  be  reduced,  and  flows  incubation  should  n e v e r d r o p s below  quired  as  for incubation,  be  by  diversions,  periods.  augmented  so  the  safe  levels  and  over  winter  the re-  rearing. 3.  Summer and up  to  the  studies. rally  Any  increase  occur  from  during  spawning  limits.  I f spawning  a flow  the  flows  field  natureserva-  migration  peak, f l o w s  takes  for attraction  ermergence  for  hydro  at  too  incubation a l l the  prior  to  gravel  migration.  flows redds.  upstream  w a t e r , and  to c l e a n s e  e n c o u r a g e downstream  place  to c o v e r just  of  as,  within certain  subsequent  insufficient  Maintain  i n flows  downstream  Maintain  after  augmented  determined  i n flows  sudden changes  power p l a n t s .  be  be  i s , almost without  electric  may  should  beneficial.  Eliminate  high  6.  flows  levels  periods  example, may  5.  low  optimum  dry  tions, 4.  fall  just and  shown  71  GAGED WATERSHEDS When s u r f a c e r u n - o f f d a t a types  of a n a l y s e s 1.  Hydrograph  2.  Storage  3.  Frequency  4 .  Correlation If  then  passage  calculations. analysis. analysis.  t h e r e a r e many y e a r s  timing.  Estimate  spawning, lines  They  study.  Several estimates  experience  should  he r e a l i s t i c  keeping  i n mind t h e  i n c u b a t i o n , r e a r i n g , and  a t these v a l u e s  years  r e q u i r e d to m a i n t a i n  flows.  Usually  hydrographs,  o f 2 or 3 of the d r i e s t  augmentation  o f r e c o r d s , s a y 10 o r more,  i s as f o l l o w s :  f l o w s ; draw h o r i z o n t a l  drographs or  analysis.  Examine t h e p l o t t e d  cycle  the f o l l o w i n g  performed.  a way o f p r o c e e d i n g a)  life  c a n be  i s available  and e s t i m a t e  these  on t h e hy-: the s t o r a g e  tentatively  f o r the watershed  may be n e c e s s a r y  system  depending  o f t h e a n a l y s t and t h e c o m p l e x i t y  t h e r e a r e a l r e a d y m a j o r water u s e r s i s some d e v e l o p e d  chosen under  on t h e  of the system. diverting  water  storage.  from  the  river,  and o f t e n t h e r e  The e x i s t -  ing  rights  and t h e i n f l u e n c e t h e y may have on t h e h y d r o g r a p h s  have t o he c o n s i d e r e d . 15). tentative  Do s u f f i c i e n t  fishery  tion  should  done  (Chapter  field  flow values  be o b t a i n e d Villi.  work to c o n f i r m ,  so f a r d e v e l o p e d .  so t h a t some i n c r e m e n t a l  I f the f i e l d  values  or amend t h e Enough  informa-  analysis  c a n be  t u r n o u t to be e n t i r e l y  72  different of  from  those  the h y d r o g r a p h  ural  limits  balance  o b t a i n e d by  analysis  to the w a t e r  has  to be from  ability  the w a t e r s h e d  from  is indicated.  available  field  studies,  the h y d r o g r a p h s  The  and  7 day  Survey  of Canada  can  compared  be  they  f i t , they  Q.974), and with  are  f i t then  the r e a s o n s  the  formulas  and  sheds  (gaged d)  along during  and  the  a river times e)  water  that  be  study  areas  low  other  flows  and  the  determined existing  and  c h a r t s of Water  of C o l l i n g s  Orsborn  data analyses.  explored.  and  and  I f they  Familiarity  to o t h e r  do  with  i s very u s e f u l .  extended  If  Inforwater-  to the f i e l d  work i t i s  between f l o w s a t the  a r e known.  Large  gaging  differences  i n flow  even i n s h o r t d i s t a n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  flow. existing  present  Resource  water d i v e r s i o n s ,  storage f a c i l i t i e s  storage f a c i l i t i e s  realistically  criteria,  field  hydrology  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  Finally,  the F i s h e r i e s  and  the h y d r o g r a p h s  are p o s s i b l e , of  be  so a  ungaged).  diversions,  potential  should  nat-  the optimum  f l o w s , as  formulas  correlated  In r e l a t i n g  imperative station  and  always  to c o n f i r m the r e s u l t s .  the w a t e r s h e d be  be  flow frequency the  revision  uses.  the h y d r o g r a p h  tending  o b t a i n e d may  these  water  are  a  a g i v e n watershed  t a k i n g Into account  minimum  not  mation  There  using habitat  to s u p p l y  Cpossibly). f u t u r e b e n e f i c i a l c)  from  analysis  s t r u c k between what m i g h t  determined of  hydrograph  must  Maintenance.  attained,  a l l be Flows,  and  proposed  major  proposed  considered  and  to see  so f a r d e t e r m i n e d ,  U s u a l l y compromises a r e  how can  necessary.  73  In p r a c t i c e they  are  done more or  solution field  i s one  data  and  aid  existing  a case  of  can  periods tended  there  not  clearly  The  i s i n good  constraints.  use  of w a t e r be  covered  a few  satisfactory agreement  The  years  fewer  the more i t w i l l  the  have  to be  conflict  of  records,  be  prethe  VIII. correla-  have  longer  effectively  available  t r e a t e d as  be-  with  i n Chapter  records  with  the means o f  n e a r b y w a t e r s h e d s w h i c h may  The  separate;  for fisheries  F r e q u e n c y a n a l y s i s can  t h i s - way.  most  u s e s of w a t e r , and  are. o n l y  of r e c o r d s .  watershed  use  analysis will  be made w i t h  In  hydrology  water  for instream  incremental  are  concurrently.  beneficial  If tions  less  steps  i n which, the  tween d i f f e r e n t senting  these  for  ex-  the  ungaged.  UNGAGED WATERSHEDS The shed of  i s to  daily  cially  best  install  flow  one  data.  i f obtained  approach  Even d a t a during  I f gages c a n n o t  c a u s e of  limited  At  should  least  should  be  be  three  The  stage  discharge  the be  f o r a few dry  of an  o b t a i n one  and  the  flow  year, data  water-  or more  days or months,  p e r i o d of  installed  ungaged  years  espe-  can  be  obtained  some o t h e r  metered  at  several locations for several flows.  and  gageCs), a r e curve  at l e a s t read can  f o r three w e l l one  staff  e.a.ch, t i m e be  prepared  the  f o r use  stream  separated  gage s h o u l d stream  the  be-  or  s e t s of -meterings  c o n s t r a i n t , then  very  time,  obtained  led.  study  or more gages and  useful.  flow  to the  be  stages instal-  i s metered  in later  flow  so  a  74  analysis  f o r spawning  (1969) p r e s e n t s from  a series  and  a method  other  life  cycle a c t i v i t i e s .  of c o n s t r u c t i n g a m o n t h l y  of m e t e r i n g s  taken  at l e a s t  Riggs  hydrograph  once e v e r y  month f o r a  year . Meterings stream flow  length during  profile.  point  There  to a n o t h e r ,  significant  effect Field  used  f o r both  sites, easy  and  at so  be. l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n f l o w  the  flows  when no  Stalnaker the  ably  of  and  the  records  low  oped what he m e t e r s and Interval  flows.  calls  the  an  To  plan  i n Chapter Study  to s e t up and  techniques  this  form can  one have  IV  can  areas, I t may  not  amount of  permanent  available  I s not  the  records  (1976)  Orsborn  gages  and  describes  very  although  7 day  problem, Orsborn  low  been reason-  successful for  a n a l y s i s based  and  field-  for estimating  Orsborn  subject.  overcome t h i s  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  be  reference.  regression analysis, flows,  be  metering  a n a l y s i s methods, where i t has  output-output  graph, u t i l i z i n g  this  of a p r o j e c t , the  are a v a i l a b l e .  flow and  longitudinal  common to b o t h .  f o r f u t u r e use  successful for flood of  show, and  described  are  i t i s a good  low  26  ungaged w a t e r s h e d s .  beginning  that c o r r e l a t i o n  diction  and  to o b t a i n a  the  fishery.  (1976) have r e v i e w e d  development  found  24  work p r o c e d u r e s  t r a n s e c t markers  s e v e r a l points along  can  Figures  periods  gage i n s t a l l a t i o n s  to j u d g e ,  done a t  flow  T h e r e a r e a few low  be  low  on  gaged  work n e c e s s a r y , and  as  should  flow  on  pre-  devel-  basin  para-  recurrence  characteristics  of  other  SALMON RIVER FLOW PROFILE SEPTEMBER, 1975 (Adapted from Obedkoff, 1976)  90  80  70  60  50 DISTANCE  40  30  20  10  0  (miles) o c  m rv>  76  basins  i n the  others  discovered,  equations Orsborn the  important the  flow  gaged  (outputs)  the  several i f they  meterings  was  are  can  not  be  on  his  of Vancouver  prepared  as  an  tation  and  Krajina.  ungaged taries  a division  patterns T h i s map  Tsulquate of  the  ates  on of  basin flows  and  then  recurrence  interval  of  the graphs  and  obtains  f o r 7 day  has  to c h e c k and  reestimates  agreement.  improve  by  step  flows  the  Mis-;  Island  procedure  ( p a r t of which  i n the  for  were p l o t t e d u s i n g into  i s shown i n  a n a l y s i s of  regions  was  ungaged  latest  made by  precipi-  considering  biogeoclimatic zonation  been u s e d compare  to a n a l y s e flows  In  flows  the  developed  for  ungaged  (JL9.7 4).. has, d e r i v e d  stream  required  channel  regression  parameters, which  the tribu-  f o r spawning  and  rearing.  equations, give  His  •  results.  technique.  aid  the  and  step  low  River.  Collings based  and  River  Sooke  he  a detailed,  Isohyetal lines  precipitation  a few  parameters,  in satisfactory  used  watersheds. data,  only  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  flow  results  C I have g i v e n  A map 27)  using  low  parameters.  e l e c t e d to use  basin  and  regression  f u n c t i o n a l . r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  a c t u a l problem, based  Figure  (1972)  watersheds.  :r-e'lt,e:ri.a.tes  In A p p e n d i x  by  7 day  Riggs  a f u n c t i o n of b a s i n  Independent  compares- the  from  cellaneous  by  as  predictability  He  an  and  parameters: and  nearby  and  low  As  to d e r i v e r e l i a b l e  recognizing • this .difficulty,  strengthen  of  i t is difficult  expressing  most  basin  same h y d r o l o g i c a l r e g i o n .  estim-  equations  78  a r e not needed than  of  f o r optimum  7 day  flows, dard  estimates  he  low  flows;  fishery  flows).  obtained  error  low  B e c a u s e he  a reasonable  of h i s e q u a t i o n s  h i s formulae,  attained  and  fisheries work was  resource done on  do  not  streams  apply d i r e c t l y  sideration. annual  He  found  flow provided  f r e s h water  life  from has  f l o w s based  of  degree  to B. that  C,  average the  60%.  stan-  In  streams  correspondence  methods. a method  streams,  for estimating  annual  S t a t e s ; so,  flow.  Plains,  and  His Inter-  although h i s r e s u l t s  h i s technique  percentages  flows  and  of  the a v e r a g e  certain  suitable  cycle.  24%  i n the M i d w e s t , G r e a t  the U n i t e d  w i t h more  for several  developed on  flows  of c o r r e l a t i o n .  between  other  of  a r e much g r e a t e r  working  calculations  ("19.7 61  m o u n t a i n West a r e a s  (which  was  ranges  estimates  I n d i c a t e d the d e g r e e  with, the r e s u l t s Tennant  are  production  A p p e n d i x B I have p r o v i d e d using  they  of  bears  the  con-  average  f o r the v a r i o u s p h a s e s of  They a r e as  the  follows:  Recommended  Base  Narrative Description of Flows  Oct.-Mar.  Apr.-Sept  Flushing  200%  Flow  Flow  F  of  l  o  w  R  e  g  i  m  e  n  the A v e r a g e  s  Optimum Range  60%-100% of  Outstanding  40%  60%  Excellent  30%  50%  Good  20%  40%  Fair  10%  30%  Poor or MinImum  10%  10%  Severe  10%  Degradation  the A v e r a g e  of A v e r a g e Flow  Flow  to Zero F l  79  T e n n a n t ' s method Cullen  and Ducharme  (1976),  was  proposed  but with  f o r e a s t e r n Canada by  considerable modification o  percentages. The above studies by  and  and f o r c h e c k i n g  o t h e r means.  adjusted  techniques  and c o m p a r i n g  for preliminary  flow requirements  They become more r e l i a b l e  t o the h y d r o l o g i c a l  measurements.  can be used  and u s e f u l  derived  when  r e g i o n and to m i s c e l l a n e o u s  records  80  CHAPTER TECHNIQUES AND  A "methodology" techniques types  METHODOLOGIES  I s commonly meant  f o r a systematic  of methodologies  optimize of  used  VII  fishery  used  inquiry.  to c a l c u l a t e  productivity,  to mean a body o f  There  a r e t h r e e main  the flows  o r to b r i n g  about  r e q u i r e d to  a specific  level  productivity: 1),  Biological and  - may be s i m p l e  experience)  sampling 2)  type  to complex  (opinion  (exhaustive  and a n a l y s i s ) .  H y d r o l o g i c a l type complex.  Little  - may be s i m p l e t o o r no  biological  inpu t. 3)  Combined opinion ing  type  - simple  backed  up by s i m p l e  i n p u t ) to complex  bio-engineering  All often  used  types  and  morphological  ond  type  i s used  hydraulics about the  (exhaustive  The f i r s t  type  i s t h e one  f r e q u e n t l y , the h y d r o l o g i c a l , are Ignored  by e n g i n e e r s  and s t r e a m  biology.  first  aspects  engineer-  studies).  are i n use.  by b i o l o g i s t s ;  (biological  because  or misunderstood. they  understand  morphology but u s u a l l y  The combined  type  two and e l i m i n a t e s t h e i r  combines short  know v e r y  the b e s t  comings.  hydraulic The s e c -  hydrology, little  f e a t u r e s of  81  The  total  methodology  or p r o c e e d u r e  fishery  flows w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r  discuss  only  techniques  ed  those  and a n a l y z e d .  rights,  I will  statutory  necessary  i n a complete, f i s h e r i e s  methodologies  proposed the  So,  r a t h e r than  chosen the  phases  UP STREAM  and A r n e t t e  cycle  of p r i o r  flow requirements  cycle  d i s c u s s each  water they a r e  States.  techniques  for fish, A number o f  a r e common t o the v a r i o u s m e t h o d o l o g i e s , of the l i f e  is collect-  methodology.  (1976) have r e v i e w e d  f o r determining  and t h e  are g e n e r a l l y treated separately.  methodology  individually, under  I have  the headings  of  phases.  MIGRATION There  for  flow  to d i s c u s s t h e v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s  life  I will  t h e way d a t a  the a s p e c t s  or i n p r e s e n t u s e , i n t h e U n i t e d  techniques  several  not cover  cover  Here,  powers, o r economic v a l u e s , a l t h o u g h  Stalnak.er and  which  IX.  for establishing  a r e two ways o f c a l c u l a t i n g  the f l o w r e q u i r e d  upstream m i g r a t i o n . 1.  Biologists and  watch, t h e f i s h  by knowing  observation,  move u p s t r e a m ,  the f l o w a t t h e time o f  can judge  t h e minimum  flow  n e e d e.d . 2.  T r a n s e c t s of the r i v e r of  critical  follows,  passage,  Thompson  are taken  at points  and a s s e s s e d , as  (1972) :  82  a)  The t r a n s e c t shallowest  i s laid  route  o u t on t h e  a c r o s s the  r i v e r. b)  D e p t h s and v e l o c i t i e s sured  along  a r e mea-  the t r a n s e c t a t  intervals. c)_  The l e n g t h passage  Recommended the of  of  p r e f e r r e d because  falls,  of method useful  i n the lower  2 i n additon  i n such  cases.  percent  25%  of t h i s  contiguous. the f i r s t  method  can f a m i l i a r i z e  throughout  areas,  Sometimes, p a s s a g e  areas  forty  at least  a t dams,  f o r w h i c h method  is difficult  reaches  t o , not i n l i e u  with  length culverts, 2 has  over broad  of r i v e r s .  o f , method  i s to  himself  the m i g r a t i o n  passage problems a r i s e  and r a p i d s ; n o t a t r i f f l e  or r i f f l e  over  f o r salmon,  the b i o l o g i s t  Usually,  been d e v e l o p e d . bar  l e n g t h , to be that,  i s t h a t w h i c h meets  criteria  the unique passage problems the r i v e r .  i s calculated.  passage flow  the t r a n s e c t l e n g t h ;  I believe  all  criteria  depth v e l o c i t y  qualifying  be  of t r a n s e c t meeting the  flat  Application  1 could  be  83  SPAWNING The is  almost  the  There are and  transects  for  across  optimum  the  spawning  for calculating which are  technique  a graph  each  described  by  6)  flow.  Stalnaker several  measure d e p t h s and  transect.  Is p r e p a r e d  Th.e. h i g h  spawning  i s to s e t out  g r o u n d s and  of p o i n t s on  and  This  showing  p o i n t on  Is a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e .  f o l l o w i n g way: of  spawning  or  t r a n s e c t s are  four  area  several  i n the  sites  are  the  determines  ve-  i s done  spawnable  graph  biologist  i s present  his  observations least  can  be  some of  s e a s o n when spawners a r e  I t on the  study.  s e l e c t e d f o r "study about  D e p t h s and  25'  to 50'  velocities  as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , and  The  results.  I use  s y s t e m under  surveyed  ( F i g u r e 11).  flows,  At  A biologist  spawners  typical  ings.  usual  ( F i g u r e s 4 to  is  area  the  flow.  tribution  study  The  ( F i g u r e 15) .  This in  the  a t a number  flow  technique  of v a r i a t i o n s  (19.76).  s e v e r a l flows  versus  of v e l o c i t y / d e p t h c r i t e r i a  standard  a number  Arnette  locities  use  during used  some or  to c o r r o b o r a t e  the work s h o u l d present,  be  study  r a n g e or Two  or  areas"  dis-  three  arid  apart  three  i n each  a r e measured  analyzed  a l l of  every  this  and  at  plotted.  work so  or augment done d u r i n g  the  that find-  spawning  to f u r t h e r c o r r o b o r a t e  the  84  INCUBATION One Is  simply  flowing an  to c a l c u l a t e  water.  level  be s a t i s f a c t o r y .  experiments flow  i n Oregon  i s satisfactory.  the spawning l e v e l  It  should  must be d i r e c t l y limit the  the flow  As t h e minimum  i n c u b a t i o n flow  should  to  way of d e t e r m i n i n g  spawning  necessary spawning  Thompson  To be on t h e s a f e  tors could An  be k e p t  i n mind  during  that  from  feet, level  a number o f  2/3 o f t h e spawning a flow  level  the i n c u b a t i o n  flow.  t h e time  to be a d j u s t e d  I f there  of i n c u b a t i o n  equal  and A r n e t t e ,  level  could  areas  then  a suitable  r a t e o f oxygen  transfer.  procedures  have i n v o l v e d a g r e a t However,  flow isa then  downward. flow  r a t e s and oxygen  w a t e r have been made by s e v e r a l  be made In s e l e c t e d spawning  reliable.  t h e spawning  side,  t o t h e spawning  (reported i n Stalnaker  entirely  0.6  with  c a n be s p e c i f i e d .  f l o w may have  i n c u b a t i o n flow  flow  the redds  i s about  t h a t an i n c u b a t i o n f l o w  available  of s u b s u r f a c e  depth  (1972) f o u n d  Measurements o f i n t r a - g r a v e l content  incubation  to c o v e r  3 or 4 I n c h e s below  related  to the f l o w  t h e minimum  1976).  investiga-  Such measurements  at s e v e r a l flow  be c h o s e n w h i c h would To d a t e ,  levels. ensure  the a v a i l a b l e  d e a l o f work and have n o t been  the P a c i f i c  Northwest  F o r e s t and  Range E x p e r i m i n t a l S t a t i o n i n J u n e a u , A l a s k a ,  i s working  insrument  on t h e h o t w i r e  flow meter  t o measure, i n t r a - g r a v e l theory,  flow,  based  which, may p r o v e pr a c t l e a l .  on an  85  REARING A number effects ing  of f l o w  t o how 1.  t e c h n i q u e s have been used  of  on r e a r i n g  Is p l a c e d , i n t o  t h e emphasis Food  velocities benthic  ratios and d e p t h s  drift  sampling  areas  or widths  Juvenile  in riffles  riffles  in riffles  Habitat  pool-riffle velocities bank  of  ratios and d e p t h s ,  swim  wetted  instream  cover,  width  Inventory pool-riffle bank  speeds  cover  substrate,  ratios  cover  substrate sh.ade wetted  width  juvenile, sampling,  accord-  three general c a t a g o r l e s :  sampling  substrate  3.  can be g r o u p e d ,  Production  pool-rlffle  2.  They  salmon.  to a s s e s s t h e  shocking  resting  areas  86  Food  production  velocities  in r i f f l e s ,  covered  combinations  by  the  r a n g e of b e n t h i c  and  drift  The  pool  to  food  sampling, to r i f f l e  ratio  locities  productivity, along  and  material,  can as  cover,  indicator  parameters  of  stream.  Standing  crop  concentrate  on  will  The  techniques  as:  and  and  analysis. of  food  use  provide  on  an  depths  and  of ve-  large  width,  and  veloc-  substrate  alone,  It is  is  probably  productivity.  i n c l u d e measurements of a number but  aerial be  Ar.nette  production,  by  production.  can,  as w e l l ,  overhang,  p h o t o s may  estimated  by  and  shock  some on  used.  Some  detailed  of j u v e n i l e  addi-  orientation used.  sampling. the  rear-  techniques  velocity  i n v e n t o r y approach., e t c .  some, a s s e s s m e n t  cover  a l s o be  (.1976) have r e v i e w e d  techniques: c u r r e n t l y being food  indicator  applying rearing veloc-  wetted  shade, canopy and  i s an  measuring  of p o t e n t i a l  of j u v e n i l e s can  measurements, o t h e r s nique  the b a l a n c e  within  Benthic  a s s o c i a t e d depths  juvenile  Terrestrial  Stalnaker assessment  and  a l r e a d y mentioned;  f e a t u r e s , such  ing  falling  a i d i n the  u s u a l l y provided  a measure of  single  by  in a grid  a l s o be m e a s u r e d .  tional the  i s assessed  Bank c o v e r  Inventory the  sampling  and  areas  (Figure 9).  i s a measure of  t r a n s e c t s or  instream  used  the b e s t  of  velocities  j u v e n i l e , h a b i t a t , which  depth c r i t e r i a .  often  depths  the w i d t h s or  criteria  substrate  measuring  production.  potential  ities;  of d e p t h s and  and  by  calculating  production  Suitable  ity  and  i s assessed  Each  production,  depth techor  87  potential depend  production.  The  reliability  1.  The  nature  2.  The  f i s h , species, b e i n g s t u d i e d .  3.  TR.e  scope,  4.  The  accuracy  5.  The  experience  emphasizing  food  production  governs  measurement w h i c h do  of  the  not  o f the  technique  will  overall  depend  of  account  is  as  rather specific. likely  should not  be  A  A  technique  valid  technique  used  to know w h i c h  unless based  f o r those  techniques  may  arise  stages  because  of f l o w .  of a l l a v a i l a b l e  biologist  system and  govern  techniques  judgement of i n Chapter  of  detailed  several  study.  production flows.  f l o w s , which takes  the o b s e r v e r s ; VIII.  changing  at other  and  The  makes a r e c o n n a i s a n c e  to d e t e r m i n e  selects  species  a r e most  Food  for assessing rearing  i n more d e t a i l  The  on  I t takes c o n s i d e r -  field  follows: 1.  food  case.  changing  procedure  to be  on bank c o v e r .  difficulty  the knowledge, and  explored  observers.  a t some f l o w s , bank c o v e r may  makes use  be  parameters.  productivity.  experience  conditons with  The propose,  the  are  primarily  for a particular  govern  being studied.  measurements.  p r o d u c t i o n i s not  A further habitat  stream  or number of  of bank c o v e r  biological  suitable  may  the  on:  Some t e c h n i q u e s  able  of  of  the  rearing  distribution,  typical  areas  for  I  into  this  will  procedure  88  A water  level  each chosen curves At  study area,  one t r a n s e c t  and s t a g e d i s c h a r g e  i s surveyed across  a r e a and r e f e r e n c e d  permanent m a r k e r . toe  i n or near  are prepared.  least  study  gage i s i n s t a l l e d  full  on each bank by a  The b a n k f u l l  width, i s measured  w i d t h and  a t each  A simple inventory  I s made o f each  area,  gravel  to i n c l u d e :  width  bankfull and r e a c h  conditions,  f o r several  flow  levels  full  level.  assessment During  width,  water  i s made o f r e a r i n g flow l e v e l s ,  Assessments below,  n e a r , and above  The gages  i n each  s h o u l d be done f o r the toe  are read during  so t h e f l o w w i l l  each a s s e s s m e n t ,  velocities  photo-  slope.  assessment  area.  study  and bank  width, toe f u l l  A biological  study  transect.  sampling,  graphs-, s k e t c h e s o f o v e r h e a d cover,  a l o n g each  each  be known.  t h e d e p t h s and  transect  s h o u l d be  measured. The  b i o l o g i s t C s ) making  must keep rate for  i n mind  that  the p r o d u c t i v i t y preparation  incremental  each  the assessments he w i l l  a t each  of u t i l i t y  analysis  need to flow  level  curves f o r  (Chapter  VIII).  89  Step ough, d e t a i l e d on  the  time  5 may  consist  biological  and  funds  of a q u i c k  study.  The  available,  appraisal,  or a  thor-  amount of work w i l l relative  depend  and  the  importance  the  p e r i o d of downstream  of  the p r o j e c t .  DOWNSTREAM MIGRATION Natural tion  flows  a r e u s u a l l y a d e q u a t e , but  t i o n s may highly  develop.  That  reservoirs.  of w a t e r  can  available.  i s . , the  be To  may  To  get  held  large, short period  extra  dry  can  be  depend  released at  i f there  the  flows.  swamps or  is controlled  appropriate The  size  2.  The  nature  3.  The  amount of  4.  The  d u r a t i o n of  the  The  size  e x t r a flow  of  of  been o b s e r v e d  the of  flow. artifi-  to be  volume  storage  the as  held  re-  relain re-  river.  the m i g r a t i o n storage  the  to one  or  A  problem.  available.  released extra  at v a r i o u s  have been a s s e s s e d . f o r up:,  amount  time  into  on:  The  flow  sec-  problems, a s p e c i f i e d  1.  has  stacles  in pools,  migra-  disappear  a i d o r e n c o u r a g e downstream m i g r a t i o n ,  tively  will  trapped  in reserve,  water  river  systems,  s u r f a c e f l o w may  overcome t h e s e  served  serve  i n some r i v e r  p e r m e a b l e r i v e r b e d m a t e r i a l to become s u b s u r f a c e  Downstream m i g r a n t s cial  during  stages  storage  two  can  be and  reserve  weeks s h o u l d  flow. estimated  after  the m i g r a t i o n to m a i n t a i n be  the  obthe  sufficient.  90  Several  short  releases,  effective  t h a n one  necessary  every  long  year.  spread  over  release.  a longer  Extra  p e r i o d , may  releases  should  be not  more be  91  CHAPTER  VIII  INCREMENTAL ANALYSIS  Much o f t h e work t o d a t e directed  towards  mum a c c e p t a b l e where  there  provide flows  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  flows",  fixed  flow  use c o n f l i c t s ,  and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  productivity  The p r i n c i p l e , o f i n c r e m e n t a l  incremental  change  productivity,  utilizing  of  low f l o w  there  o r i n t h e economic  Orsborn od  i n flow,  concept.  instream  o r economic w o r t h o f  change i n  value. an i n c r e m e n t a l  The s e v e r i t y  a n a l y s i s meth-  a measure o f t h e e f f e c t  factor  The f o l l o w i n g f o u r  may i n c l u d e a v a r i -  term f o r m u l a  discussed: Ql Q2  VLF1 W2/D2 W2/A2 VLF2 Wl/Dl Wl/Al  X  X  X  where SF  = Severity Factor  Ql = reference  flow  recurrence Q2 VLF1  = a flow  = volume under Interval for  (J7 day low f l o w ,  2 year  interval)  less  than  Ql,  7-day  graph  the  a n a l y s i s i s , t h a t f o r each  " S e v e r i t y F a c t o r s " to g i v e  number o f t e r m s .  However,  i t i s n e c e s s a r y to  i s a corresponding  (19.76) p r o p o s e s  reductions.  has been or " m i n i -  t h e d e c i s i o n makers with, a r a n g e o f p o s s i b l e  fishery.  able  flows  o f "optimum f l o w s "  o r some s u c h  aremulti-water  on i n s t r e a m  t o be e v a l u a t e d  low f l o w  between  natural conditions.  recurrence.  2 and 20. y e a r s ,  w i l l be  92  VLF2 = VLF1 AQ Wl,  minus e f f e c t  = Qi  D l , A l = Water  D2,  A2  The  first  eral  effect  second  reduction  i n f l o w due  reduction  of AQ  third  heat  energy  be  = Qi  low  low  As  f o r the  l o n g term  f l o w would  2 year  1.0 gen-  - Q2 •  AQ.  effect That  be more  of a  is, a  severe  flow.  i s a measure of  term  the  effect  flow decreases  rate  than w i l l  g r e a t e r than  rise  The  r e p r e s e n t s the  the c r o s s s e c t i o n a l  i s entering  perature w i l l  plying  year  term  fourth  at a f a s t e r  W2/A2 w i l l  to a c c o u n t  to a c o n s t a n t d i v e r s i o n ,  i n th.e 20  flow decreases  decrease  g r e a t e r than  of  reduced  the w i d t h  to  increases. The  As  1)  a l l o w s f o r the  the i n s t r e a m h a b i t a t .  ratio  a r e a , at flow Ql  a ratio  g r e a t e r than  term  depth,  Q2  i s merely  same r e d u c t i o n i n the The  depth  water  o f the f l o w r e d u c t i o n , AQ The  f l o w on  sectional  term  terms a r e n o r m a l l y  the  2  = as above, f o r  (all  than  Q  flow r e d u c t i o n  s u r f a c e width., a v e r a g e  cross W2,  -  of low  the f a c t o r s ,  the water  faster  severity  the r a t i o  a t the factor  as. shown, In  temperature  water  the  a t the  can be  normally  surface width.  Wl/Al.  lower  area w i l l  effect.  The  This implies  ratio  that i f  s u r f a c e the w a t e r  tem-  flow. obtained either  the above f o r m u l a  by  or by  multiadding  93  them. the  The  values  shape of  sectional  the  obtained  7-day r e c u r r e n c e  shape of  the  Although increasing ful  f o r the  the  severity  i n value with  value  factor  i n t e r v a l curve  depend.; on  and  the  cross  channel. factor  decreasing  for incremental analysis  habitat  severity  —  flow  is quantifiable l e v e l s , and  i t does n o t  or f i s h e r i e s p r o d u c t i v i t y ,  —  hence  directly relate  f o r the  useto  following  reasons: 1.  There  i s no  results 2.  The  provision  for  including  of b i o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s .  terms  i n the  have e q u a l  SF  weight  equation w i l l  not  r e l a t i v e to f i s h e r i e s  p r o d u c t i v 1 1 y. Mllh.ous Worth Model I I  and  Bov.ee (1977) have p r o p o s e d  formulated  HW  as  A.  I 1=1  a "Habitat  fo Hows :  (FD . x FV. x FS. x l l l  FT.) l  where A . Is I  the  horizontal  segment is  the  be  of a  stream  (.Figure. 2 8 ) . r e l a t i v e , worth  related depth  area  to the p e r f e c t  has  a value  generally  less  of  the h a b i t a t  depth.  of 1.00. than  1.00.  The  as  perfect  FD . w i l l  then  94  FIGURE 28  (a) DEFINITION DIAGRAM OF A S T R E A M  VELOCITY  (b) S A M P L E  (ft/sec)  ELECTIVITY  SEGMENT  DEPTH (ft)  CURVES  95  The  remaining  velocity, The from At  electivity  strate  a p p l y s i m i l a r l y to  substrate,  relative curves  t h e p r e s e n t time  terms  habitat  (Figure  and t e m p e r a t u r e . worth  f o r each  28) f o r t h e s p e c i e s  t h e y do n o t have e l e c t i v i t y  and t e m p e r a t u r e  term  so t h e y u s e o n l y  i s obtained  being  studied.  c u r v e s f o r sub-  the v e l o c i t y  and d e p t h  terms. The by m e a s u r i n g  habitat  or c a l c u l a t i n g  the a r e a A. f o r each l to g e t t h e e l e c t i v e in  worth  the h a b i t a t The  t h e mean d e p t h  element.  worth  the a s s u m p t i o n  habitat  worth  sured  and d e p t h  f o r use  recurrence Interval.  be compared.  the u l t i m a t e  depends on t h e n u t r i e n t s  f o r each  stream  i t Is a p r e s e n t flow, a proposed  ( a s mea-  to the h a b i t a t  productivity  i n the watershed  Monthly,  The a u t h o r s make  i n a g i v e n stream  by t h e s t a n d i n g c r o p ) i s p r o p o r t i o n a l  stituants  curves are entered  forvelocity  the p r o d u c t i v i t y  They a l s o , assume t h a t  worth.  of a stream  and t h e c h e m i c a l c o n -  i n the stream. Wcsche  trout:  and mean v e l o c i t y , and  can be c a l c u l a t e d  flows can a l s o that  i s obtained  equation.  or a f l o w w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r  7 day, or d a l l y  element  The e l e c t i v i t y  probabilities  f l o w b e i n g a n a l y z e d , whether flow  of each, s t r e a m  (19 7 6) has: p r o p o s e d  a cover r a t i n g  formula*" f o r  96  C  = \ ™  R  (  p  )  F  A  +  b  (pp  )  AD  where: CR  = cover  L^.,  rating  = l e n g t h of  acceptable  L = l e n g t h of A = area  of  study  study  dlam., and = area  PF  = preference  a  of  site  study  cover  site  water  A^^  bank  having  boulders  depth. >0.5  site  >3"  foot.  at average d a i l y  factor  for instream  factor  f o r bank  flow.  boulder  cover. PF^  = preference Acceptable  0.3  f o o t and  good  in  a water depth  correlation  provides  to the  determined  habitat method  value  CR  of a t  must have a w i d t h least  0.5  foot.  crop  and  cover  standing  versus  flow,  suggesting  of  at  least  Wesche r e p o r t s rating.  they  He  c o u l d be  also used  analysis.  The  are  between  g r a p h s of  incremental  similar  bank c o v e r  cover.  method  I propose  above methods s e p a r a t e l y and or  fisheries  for incremental  in that values then  combined  productivity  i s much, more f l e x i b l e  i n that  for several  factors  to o b t a i n a  final  rating.  i t can  analysis is  However,  the  i n c o r p o r a t e the  sub-  j e c t i v e , e v a l u a t i o n of e x p e r t s : as w e l l as v a r i o u s q u a n t i t a t i v e techniques-. curves".  The  way  A utility  t h i s : i s done i s by  the use  curve, i s a g r a p h r e l a t i n g  a  of  "utility  qualitative  97  evaluation vertical area,  to some q u a n t i t a t i v e  a x i s of F i g u r e 15  but  also  ductivity. area  the v a l u e  I f i t had  (as was  done f o r the  The  and  vertical  The  having  The  think. flows  be  able  (which  Each f l o w  by  level  values  a similar flow,  flow  level  have  the  as  spawnable  spawning by  reading  be  against  plotted  advantages  either  by  and  be  knowledge of  with, wide p r a c t i c a l  put  on  If f i e l d  as  a curve  can  still  range  a gage) he  would ef-  experience. and  one,  able  field  experience  be. drawn.  may  and  the  flow.  experts  p o s s i b l e or  one  for a  to  develop  work or  or can  paper. work i s n o t  data.  biologist's  assessment: The. q u a l i t a t i v e  and  quantitative  his  i n being  detailed  —  p r e f e r e n c e , or  between z e r o  then  judgement  activity  f o r spawning  i t would  engineer  difficult  r a t e d , say  be  or  pro-  the maximum v a l u e .  would  those  2.  only  fish  could  spawnable  " u t l i l i t y " , or  would  time  using  the b e h a v i o r .of the  a graphical relationship,  1.  the  i s not  observed  knows a t any  as  the  the p o t e n t i a l  biologist, graph  the  curve  There are unique  qualitative  Q,  such, a c u r v e  to r a t e each  fectiveness,  rating  he  or  the  to measure  experienced  the  I f the b i o l o g i s t  of  fishery,  represent  peak of  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  only  example,  c o n s t r u c t i o n of F i g u r e 1 5 ) ,  the  a x i s would  evaluation.  r e p r e s e n t s not  been i m p o s s i b l e  team, to p r e p a r e  experience,  For  to the  have been p o s s i b l e f o r an biologist  variable.  practical  by  98  3.  The c u r v e checked  4.  drawn q u a l i t a t i v e l y  later  The c u r v e measured  by f i e l d  work.  c a n be drawn u s i n g data  can be  and p a r t l y  partly  qualitative  knowledge. 5.  The c u r v e of  6.  c a n be. a c o n s e n s u s  several  of o p i n i o n  experts.  A f e e d back p r o c e s s example:  c a n be u s e d .  a biologist  qualitatively;  For  may draw a c u r v e  some c r i t i c a l  field  mea-  s u r e m e n t s c a n be made and t h e f i r s t improved; this  the b i o l o g i s t  and r e v i s e  the p r o c e s s 7.  based The  curve  That  c a n be  i s , the f i r s t  qualitative  tested  assessment  shown i n F i g u r e 29.  i s kept w i t h i n  i t expressed  and compared  system.  with  graphically available  data.  Application A series  qual-  d e s c r i b e d i n 6 c o u l d be  on knowledge o f a s i m i l a r  measure.d  follows-.  thinking;  on one s y s t e m  bounds by h a v i n g and  from  c a n be r e p e a t e d .  on a n o t h e r .  itative  learn  his qualitative  Knowledge g a i n e d used  will  curve  o f the t e c h n i q u e  of u t i l i t y  curves  to the r e a r i n g  for rearing  phase  analysis i s  99  REARING  changes  Rearing  habitat characteristics  1.  Benthic  productivity  2.  Depth/velocity  3.  Bank  4.  Instream  5.  Pool/riffle,  6.  Temperature  But  characteristics independent  Shade f r o m  2.  O r i e n t a t i o n of  3.  Substrate. utility, can  to or beyond  a p p r o a c h e s bank f u l l maximum.  flow  The  type  carefully  of  of  trees along  ( F i g u r e 29a)  i s up  oped By  ratios  1.  Bank c o v e r  matrix  coy e.r  characteristic  level  the  or Be  which flow the  stream  ferable  Gas  affect  the  (direction  measuring  toe  full  of  stage.  the  c a u s e each, salmon s p e c i e s has  and  As  flow  29a  until  instream  different  the  flow  c o u l d be  to  flow  level  devel-  at s e v e r a l  suit  trout).  cover  example,  i n c r e a s e s to a  amount of bank c o v e r modified  depen-  For  the  the bank c o v e r  shown i n F i g u r e  Bank c o v e r  each  flow)  graphically.  h i s work a p p l i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y : to  to a s s e s s  of  generally effective  the v a l u e curve  are:  Banks  represented  i s not  rearing condi-  changes  e f f e c t i v e n e s s , of  lervels. u s i n g We.sche.'s te.chni.que,  salmon  flow  cover  which, a r e  The dent  by  are:  Stream tions  affected  juvenile  It i s pre-  separately  preferences.  Be-  Varying  100  FIGURE  UTILITY CURVES FOR ANALYSIS OF REARING HABITAT  (a)  BANK COVER  (b)  (e) WATER TEMPERATURE I  DEPTH  (f) FINAL UTILITY CURVE  i  i  i  0- FEET  20  22 WATER WIDTH 0  20  22  0 CFS  30  40  30  40  FLOW  0  29  101  types  of h a b i t a t  ences.  I f data  difficult develop  o r time  a utility  the best  tional  biologist  listed.  to t h e r a t e  and p l o t t e d  conditions ture  directly.  o f low f l o w i n the h e a t  be i n s t a l l e d  pretation may need  to study  conditions. the u t i l i t y effect  to o b t a i n d i r e c t  of temperature  data  juvenile  effect this  and c a n be  temperature quantitative  under  f o r temperature  when d e v e l o p i n g t h e f i n a l The  of  data.  Inter-  so t h e b i o l o g i s t  stressful  temperature i n drawing  and a s s e s s i n g t h e t e m p e r a t u r e utility  depth, and v e l o c i t y  A great deal of c a r e f u l  the complexity  certain  recorders  curves  curve. c a n be d e v e l o p e d  t a k i n g many d e t a i l e d meas.ur eme.nts and a p p l y i n g v e l o c i t y criteria.  calcu-  I f .tempera-  C o n s i d e r a b l e judgement may be r e q u i r e d curve  will  So t h e r a t i o  i s assuming  i s very d i f f i c u l t  behaviour  i s propor-  i n the water  o f t h e summer.  i s t h o u g h t to be a m a j o r p r o b l e m ,  should  c a n be d e v e l o p e d  o f f l o w , Q.  Of c o u r s e ,  i s employed  curve.  rise  rise  In  curves f o r  l e n g t h of stream  The t e m p e r a t u r e  proportional  curve  the. t e m p e r a t u r e  very  can, a l t e r n a t i v e l y ,  and judgement  Each  i s a.measure o f t h e t e m p e r a t u r e  lated  prefer-  of cover  F i g u r e 29 shows example  transfer, per u n i t  to t h e width., W.  inversely  /  curve.  manner e x c e p t Heat  o r measurement  o f measurement  of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  In a s i m i l a r  affect  c u r v e u s i n g h i s knowledge and j u d g e m e n t .  a combination  to d e v e l o p  be  i s limited,  or u n c e r t a i n , the f i e l d  practice,  five  o r v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s may a l s o  work i s n e c e s s a r y  o f t h e v e l o c i t y depth, m a t r i x  by  depth,  and, b e c a u s e  i n the r e a r i n g  102  h a b i t a t , the better,  results  results  measurements instream  can  not  can  then  be  The  effect  wide r a n g e of  stream  productivity bank f u l l  low may  the  permit area  with  flows. but  be  i f other  may  velocities  the b i o l o g i s t consider  to d e v e l o p  a l l the  effects.  T h i s would  The  utility  final the  full  the  c a n n o t be desired  by  an  be  of  readily  overall  will flow  depth  may  will be  are  the  data  have llt.t.Ie for a  favourable,  flow  may  weight  zero  level  h e a v i l y on  stream  be  too  bank a r e a .  and  curve.  weigh  In  the  He  their of  expected  cover  high  i t i s necessary  utility  nears  bank  be more i m p o r t a n t .  represent  will  to an As for have  relative  flow  (stages).  productivity  levels.  of  t h i s method  knowledge and  quantified..  including  As very  curves  the  juveniles.  have e q u a l  done f o r s e v e r a l l e v e l s  advantage  biologist's  the  i t may  for i t s effect,  individual  curve  range  The account  judged  not  in protected  of heavy p r e d a t i o n bank c o v e r must be  do  high.  i n the  depth  curves.  factors  depend  or  observing  the v e l o c i t y  In f a c t ,  fairly  productivity  of  good,  velocity  example, bank c o v e r  r e a r i n g anywhere e x c e p t  each f a c t o r  over  low  still  patterns  the u t i l i t y  For  I b e l i e v e as  t r a n s e c t ) and  habitat factors  flows,  b e c a u s e d e p t h s and  i t .  taking limited  together  to p r e p a r e  at v e r y  by  behaviour  rearing productivity.  or no  worth  at a r e f e r e n c e  assessment  used  be  obtained  c o n d i t i o n s and  biological  to  be  (perhaps  The  in  may  I t can  more, measured  i s that i t takes  into  experience  which., o f t e n ,  be  to any  data  refined or more  factors.  degree  103  Utility sults can  curves  pooled  be used  could  fora final even  measurements  though  readily  sites  measured.  each  field  trip.  the study  benthic tion  ever,  areas each  stage  tion  can then  erence and  level  be p l o t t e d  he l i k e s  anywhere  reference  series in  order  being  to develop  analysis  should,  will  Benthic  involving  look at benthic  produc-  p r o d u c t i o n w i l l occur i n  t o examine  The v e l o c i t y  read  produc-  of v e l o c i t y  measurements as  ( p r e f e r a b l y I n some o r d e r l y  discharge  read  the stage a t  anyway, to t a k e a  at the r e f e r e n c e curve  transect  f o r the range of f l o w s  d e p t h measurements  i n many cases:, be a d e q u a t e site.  How-  a t the r e f -  the e f f e c t s  I t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y ,  a stage  he must  The b e n t h i c  as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s t a g e  d e p t h measurements  of the study  transect.  production  transect.  site  transect  by an example  the r e f e r e n c e  the b e n t h i c  site  the average c o n d i t i o n s  t r a n s e c t s ) b u t he must  transect.  studied.  purpose  site.  i n the study  of v e l o c i t y  c a n be  a r e measured  as many d e p t h and v e l o c i t y  manner, as a t a u x i l i a r y the  to r e p r e s e n t  I f he w i s h e s  char-  t r a n s e c t i s needed a t each  a t the r e f e r e n c e  d e p t h he c a n t a k e  stream  d e p t h s and v e l o c i t i e s  Th.e b i o l o g i s t study  which  The f i e l d  The c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e r e f e r e n c e  he a s s e s s e s  transect.  data.  be p o s i t i o n e d where  which, may n o t be n e a r  time  little  I w i l l explain this  production:  f o r t h e whole  riffle  the  site.  I t i s a method  d e p t h s and v e l o c i t i e s  a r e n o t , however., i n t e n d e d for  and t h e r e -  made by t h e b i o l o g i s t .  and where  stage,  curve.  i s very  A reference  where water w i d t h , during  there  should  are t y p i c a l  by s e v e r a l e x p e r t s  composite  c a n be s i m p l y Study  acteristics  be p r e p a r e d  obtained  for this  i n themselves f o r the  104  SPAWNING Incremental obtained (Figure study  directly 15).  site.  The u t i l i t y  of For  will  curve  spawning  success  example,  and w e i g h t i n g  those  minimum  then  spawning  study  site.  flows  equal  Other  the u t i l i t y  a r e known to have a  utility  f o r each  by c o n s i d e r i n g each  can be i n c o r p o r a t e d , i n t o  higher  curve  i t i n p r o p o r t i o n to the  by e a c h  If i n c u b a t i o n flows  value,  Flow  be somewhat d i f f e r e n t i s prepared  o f spawners r e p r e s e n t e d  minimum on  curve  f o r spawning h a b i t a t can be  t h e Spawning H a b i t a t v e r s u s  These c u r v e s  Spawning H a b i t a t number  from  values  value  will  to or s l i g h t l y  have  aspects curve.  certain  t o be p l a c e d  greater  than  this  incubation value.  INCUBATION Incremental incubation  period.  analysis  t h e spawning  loss.  level  I f t h e water because  drops  very  Fortunately,  during  storage any by  low f l o w s  as f r e q u e n t  over  licensed  is- u s u a l l y  there  difficult  i s not l e s s should  i s no way  and e x t e n s i v e  the i n c u b a t i o n other  can u s u a l l y  light  a p p l i e d to the than  be no  o r more, eggs may  but t h e r e  low f l o w s w h i c h may  users  level  level  6 Inches  o r s e r i o u s as a t  In the s y s t e m water winter  flow  of d e s i c c a t i o n ,  to what d e g r e e w i t h o u t  mally  be r e a d i l y  I f the i n c u b a t i o n flow  3 o r 4 i n c h e s below  destroyed  cannot  be  of knowing  monitoring.  p e r i o d a r e not nor-  times.  I f there i s  be r e l e a s e d t o augment  occur,  because winter  or n o n - e x i s t e n t .  demand  105  . The g r e a t e s t egg l o s s flows will  (Figure 25). be d e s t r o y e d .  the more t h a t w i l l to  i s probably  Once g r a v e l s c o u r The h i g h e r be l o s t .  very  could  be r e d u c e d  significant  or r o u t e d  improvement  eggs  and t h e more  prolonged,  i t i s practically  impossible  know what p r o p o r t i o n o f the eggs w i l l  flows  by h i g h f l o o d  becomes s i g n i f i c a n t ,  the f l o w ,  Again,  caused  be d e s t r o y e d .  If flood  away from the spawning beds a  i n i n c u b a t i o n success  c o u l d be  expected.  UPSTREAM AND  DOWNSTREAM Different  phases used  of the l i f e  i n incremental  MIGRATION  flow  levels  have  some e f f e c t  on  these  c y c l e b u t n o t i n a way w h i c h c a n be r e a d i l y analysis.  I n some c a s e s  incremental  may be a p p l i e d to u p s t r e a m m i g r a t i o n .  F o r example,  increase  an e x t r a spawning  not  i n flow  could  a c c e s s i b l e a t lower  allow  fish  flows.  into  values  a certain area  106  CHAPTER IX PROCEDURE FOR ESTABLISHING "FISHERIES RESOURCE MAINTENANCE An establishing Figure  30.  results  outline  Listing reports,  can  licensed  constraints  f o r use.  Once a l l e x i s t i n g memorandum"  A physical information  ( O r s b o r n 1976)  s u c h as  maps, c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  review.  3.  Outline  to be  4.  T i m i n g , manpower, c o s t s .  5.  List  of proposed  of water level  solved.  study  program.  licenses.  and t e m p e r a t u r e  recorders  a r e needed, as soon as p o s s i b l e  should  be I n -  after a decision  been made to do a s t u d y . Preliminary  It  has i t s . own u n i q u e  of a l l a v a i l a b l e d a t a  S p e c i f i c problems  i f they  i f the f i n a l  to i n c l u d e :  2.  Water  has  already  an " I n v e s t i g a t i o n  be p r e p a r e d ,  stalled,  i s shown i n  One o f t h e p r i m a r y  may be an e x i s t i n g dam.  been g a t h e r e d  1.  Each w a t e r s h e d  and c o n s t r a i n t s .  be t h e amount o f water  should  I recommend f o r  The whole, w a t e r s h e d must be c o n s i d e r e d  a r e to have v a l i d i t y .  constraint has  of the procedure which  F i s h e r i e s R e s o u r c e M a i n t e n a n c e Flows  characteristics will  FLOWS"  field  may be a t t h i s s t a g e -that Be s e l e c t e d  i n v e s t i g a t i o n should suitable, s i t e s  and i n s t r u m e n t s  spawning and r e a r i n g  should  installed.  Be s e l e c t e d ,  for  be s t a r t e d .  instrumentation  Study  and gages  sites for I n s t a l l e d and  FIGURE 3 0  107  PROCEDURE OUTLINE FOR ESTABLISHING FISHERIES RESOURCE MAINTENANCE FLOWS Recognition  Decision  of a low f l o w  to e s t a b l i s h  problem  instream  flows  Early Instrumentation Water Recorder Thermograph  Collect and Review available information maps, correspondence r e p o r t s , W.L. d a t a e t c  Prepare  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  Prelim, office Analysis Correlation Techniques  memorandum  I  Prelim. field investigations; determine watershed c o n s t r a i n t s and u n i q u e conditions  Select  methodology and develop study plan  Utilize ~1 research I criteria & | information j  1 Detailed  Field  Work  F i n a l a n a l y s i s of data t a k i n g i n t o account w a t e r s h e d c o n s t r a i n t s and unique c o n d i t i o n s  Interagency review; n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r water users  Recommendations  Monitoring  f o r instream  <>  Instrumentation Water Recorder Thermograph  Policing  flows  H  Feedback""! to | Research '  108  t r a n s e c t s marked shed  should  special  be  out.  A  obtained  general understanding during  characteristics  and  this  able.  A l l the main w a t e r  the whole  p r e l i m i n a r y work so  constraints will  views w i t h water u s e r s , r e s e r v o i r  of  operators  d i v e r s i o n s and  be  known.  and  others  uses  should  water-  that i t s Interare  be  advis-  examined  and i n v e n t o r i e d . Office or  even b e f o r e ,  tion  analysis,  review  the  of a l l w a t e r  a final  plan  work, and  phase. eral  flow  over  stages  of  analysis  one  selected  Study  the  VIII. or  two  not  of  the  covering  the  study).  technical  the  same time  Include  existing  as,  correla-  r e c o r d s , and  of  a  the p r e l i m i n a r y work  f o r the r e m a i n i n g  are  suit  detailed  selected  and  observations  several l i f e The  detailed  years  to g e t cycle.  t h e y may The  stages field  be  started  will  lead  into  a s e t of r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h may  instal-  the p r e l i m i n a r y  a r e made f o r  sev-  described in  data  step  d i s c u s s i o n s and  prob-  gages a r e  work may  next  d i s c u s s i o n s and  analysis,  as  sufficient The  field  the p a r t i c u l a r  a l r e a d y been done d u r i n g  Interagency  follow (although  period  at  I t may  using  to b e s t  sites  salmon's l i f e  of d a t a .  work.  the r e s u l t s  prepared  f o r the  V I I and  spread  tions  be  work has  levels  started  analysis  D e t a i l e d measurements and  Chapters  with  should  i f this  field  reviewing  faced.  be  licenses.  techniques  lems b e i n g  can  initial  hydrograph  After  led,  analysis  have  to  be  f o r a l l the  i s the  final  various negotia-  anytime d u r i n g  the  n e g o t i a t i o n s , combined a final  report  i n c l u d e any  of  the  109  following: 1.  A s c h e d u l e of recommended  2.  Recommendations  on  flows.  storage  developmen t . 3.  Rule curve f o r r e s e r v o i r  4.  Suggested  5.  Methods o f  6.  Changes  design  Physical  diversions.  monitoring.  i n water management or  restrictions 7.  of  operation.  i n water  changes  use.  to improve  of  the w a t e r s h e d ,  of  o l d dams and  or  artifical  s u c h as  other  cleaning  the use  removal  obstructions, o f spawning  beds.  110  CHAPTER WATER  Fisheries provided  MANAGEMENT  R e s o u r c e M a i n t e n a n c e Flows a r e n o r m a l l y  f o r i n one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g ways: 1.  Clauses  i n water  2.  Legal  3.  I n f o r m a l v e r b a l or w r i t t e n agreements  should  incorporated the  field  be p h r a s e d  f o rFisheries  I n such  with  licence,  a minimum amount o f p o l i c i n g c a n p l a c e many t y p e s  by c l a u s e s i n th.e l i c e n c e  licence.  Resource  a way t h a t t h e y  as c l a u s e s i n a w a t e r  Water C o m p t r o l l e r either  licenses  agreements  Recommendations Flows  X  Maintenance  c a n be r e a d i l y  and e a s i l y  adopted i n  and m o n i t o r i n g .  o f c o n d i t i o n s on a l i c e n c e ,  o r by o r d e r s  accompanying the  The f o l l o w i n g c l a u s e s , p r o v i d i n g f o r f i s h e r i e s  have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o 1.  The d i v e r s i o n prohibited  a t any time f o r the  to m a i n t a i n  a minimum  of f i s h  The C o m p t r o l l e r amend may  life  by w r i t t e n o r d e r of Water  District  flow f o r the p r e s e r -  i n the stream.  may, upon s i x months  the wording  notice,  of t h e above c l a u s e and  cancel the l i c e n c e  ten years  licenses:  o f w a t e r may be r e s t r i c t e d o r  the E n g i n e e r  vation 2.  water  The  f o r any r e a s o n  notice, to the l i c e n s e e .  upon  flows,  Ill  One which  limits  if  a license  to  the h i g h  ical set is  use  the more f a v o u r a b l e  to s p e c i f i c  flow winter  for fisheries. to c o r r e s p o n d  an  and  to  fair  ensure  tionment  some c a s e s Irrigation  are  p a r t of  the  r e l e a s e of w a t e r type  are with  Instream  tant  that  licenses  the y e a r .  start  the  For  is  one  example,  i t can  be  are u s u a l l y  limited  not  of d i v e r s i o n  crit-  can  be  spawning p e r i o d , t h i s  also  be  on  s e a so n s .  low  been j o i n t l y  A legal  agreement  the r e s e r v o i r  maintenance parties  by  and  developed Is  necessary  provide  costs.  The  for  f o r appor-  water  licenses  the Water C o m p t r o l l e r  become,  agreement. a number of i n f o r m a l or  for fisheries.  B.C.  date  Hydro and  t h e r e has  done.  streams.  Most  of  the  little  I t i s becoming  and  tacit  agreements  agreements  of  Power A u t h o r i t y .  been v e r y  A bailiff  to p o l i c e , s t r e a m s ,  a l l critical  trate  of  of  of  to s t o r a g e  s t o r a g e , has  flow agreements.  this  Comptroller for  end  uses.  i s s u e d to b o t h  To of  dates  o p e r a t i o n of  There are  this  the  of o p e r a t i n g and  effect,  for  of  p e r i o d where f l o w s  I f the  with  types  advantage.  fisheries  which  periods  i s issued for diversion  In  in  of  can  be  perhaps  A bailiff  would  f l o w probelms. which, would  regular  increasingly  appointed  by  this  needs  need  only  occur  monitoring  during  impor-  the  Water  to be to  done  concen-  specific  112  Water management greater  concern.  management, 1.  I b e l i e v e t h a t , as p a r t  A l l potential  water  storage  should  of i n s t r e a m should  sites  be  An e f f o r t  should  tributary, duction could  considered:  or r i v e r  enforce  implies  storage  should  to a n o t h e r .  effected  the f i s h e r y  i n spawning  Re-  i n this  by r e d u c i n g  way,  gravel  beds.  be d e v e l o p e d  a l l instream  Is p r o b a b l y Rights  system,  o f high, f l o w s ,  A program  This  surplus  o r , p o s s i b l y , d i v e r s i o n f r o m one  enhance  erosion  flow  t o m o n i t o r and  agreements.  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  This  o f t h e Water  Branch of the M i n i s t r y of the  Environment. Post  development  after for  water  should  be made t o u t i l i z e  or s p r i n g f l o w s .  development  4.  become o f  reserved.  winter  3.  flows  the f o l l o w i n g recommendations  be 2.  of i n s t r e a m  flow  s t u d i e s should  be made,  a g r e e m e n t s have been In e f f e c t  a p e r i o d of time,  effectiveness  to a s s e s s the  o f t h e new  flow  regimes.  113  LITERATURE  CITED  B a g n o l d , R.A., " E x p e r i m e n t s on a G r a v i t y - F r e e D i s p e r s i o n of L a r g e S o l i d S p h e r e s i n a N e w t o n i a n F l u i d Under S h e a r " , P r o c . R o y a l S a c , S e r . A, 225 (1160) , 49-63, 1954 . Bams, R.A., " A d a p t a t i o n s of Sockeye Salmon A s s o c i a t e d w i t h I n c u b a t i o n In Stream G r a v e l s " , I n : Symposium on Salmon and T r o u t i n S t r e a m s , I n s t i t u t e of F i s h e r i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 1969 . Banks,  Bell,  J.W., tion Vol.  "A Review of the L i t e r a t u r e on the U p s t r e a m M i g r a of A d u l t S a l m o n l d s " , J o u r n a l of F i s h B i o l o g y , 1969, 1 pp 85-136.  M.C., " F i s h e r i e s Handbook of E n g i n e e r i n g R e q u i r e m e n t s and B i o l o g i c a l C r i t e r i a " , Corps of E n g i n e e r s , N o r t h P a c i f i c D i v i s i o n , P o r t l a n d , Oregon, F e b . 1973.  Chambers, J . S . , A l l e n , G.A., and P r e s s e y , T., " R e s e a r c h R e l a t i n g to Study o f Spawning Grounds i n N a t u r a l A r e a s " , Washingt o n , Department of F i s h e r i e s , O l y m p i a , W a s h i n g t o n , 1955. C o l l l n g s , M.R., " G e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f Spawning and R e a r i n g D i s c h a r g e s f o r S e v e r a l P a c i f i c ^ Salmon S p e c i e s i n W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n " , U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f the I n t e r i o r , G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , Tacoma, W a s h i n g t o n , 1974. C o o p e r , A.C., "The E f f e c t of T r a n s p o r t e d Stream S e d i m e n t s on the S u r v i v a l of S o c k e y e and P i n k Salmon Eggs and A l e v i n " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s Commission, New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., Canada, 1965. Cullen,  A., and Ducharme, A., " T e c h n i q u e s f o r D e t e r m i n a t i o n of M a i n t e n a n c e F l o w s f o r P r o t e c t i o n of F i s h H a b i t a t " , Department of the E n v i r o n m e n t , P.O. Box 550, H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a , 1976.  DeBeck, H.D., " P r e s e n t Use of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s Water", C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s , and Water s o u r c e s , V i c t o r i a , B.C., F e b . 1967. Dill,  British Re-  L.M., "The S u b - g r a v e l B e h a v i o u r of P a c i f i c Salmon L a r v a e " , In: Symposium on Salmon and T r o u t i n S t r e a m s , I n s t i t u t e of F i s h e r i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 19.6 2.  Freeze,  R.A., and W i t h e r s p o o n , P.A., " T h e o r e t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f R e g i o n a l Groundwater Flow", Water R e s o u r c e s R e s e a r c h , V o l . 3, 19.6 7  114  Glger,  R.D., " S t r e a m f l o w R e q u i r e m e n t s o f S a l m o n i d s " , Oregon W i l d l i f e Commission, P.O. Box 3503, P o r t l a n d Oregon, 1973.  H a m i l t o n , R., and B u e . l l , J.W., " E f f e c t s o f M o d i f i e d H y d r o l o g y on C a m p b e l l R i v e r S a l m o n i d s " , E n v i r o n m e n t a l Canada, F i s h e r i e s and M a r i n e S e r v i c e , P a c i f i c R e g i o n , T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t S e r i e s PAC/T-76-20, 1976. Hooper,  D.T., " E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e E f f e c t s o f F l o w s on T r o u t Stream E c o l o g y " , Department o f E n g i n e e r i n g R e s e a r c h , P a c i f i c Gas and E l e c t r i c Co., E m e r y v i l l e , C a l i f o r n i a , 1973.  Hunter,  J.W., "A D i s c u s s i o n o f Game. F i s h i n t h e S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n as R e l a t e d to Water R e q u i r e m e n t s " , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e Department o f Game, O l y m p i a , 1973.  Kennedy, H.D., " S e a s o n a l Abundance o f A q u a t i c I n v e r t e b r a t e s and T h e i r U t i l i z a t i o n by H a t c h e r y R e a r e d Rainbow T r o u t " , Bureau o f S p o r t F i s h e r i e s and W i l d l i f e , U.S. Department of t h e I n t e r i o r , T e c h n i c a l Paper No. 12, 1967. Krajlna,  V . J . , " B l o g e o c l i m a t i c Zones o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , a map p u b l i s h e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e s Committee, Department o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s , and Water Resources, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, not dated.  McKernan, D.L., J o h n s o n , D.R., and Hodges, J . I . , "Some F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g t h e T r e n d s o f Salmon P o p u l a t i o n s i n Oregon", T r a n s a c t i o n s North. A m e r i c a n W i l d l i f e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , 1950, V o l . 15, pp 437-441. Milhous,  R.T., "The C a l i b r a t i o n o f E q u a t i o n s Used to C a l c u l a t e the V e l o c i t y D i s t r i b u t i o n i n a R i v e r f o r I n s t r e a m Flow A n a l y s i s " , D e p a r t m e n t of E c o l o g y , O l y m p i a , W a s h i n g t o n , U.S.A., Nov . 19^7 7 .  Milhous,  R.T., and Bovee, Ken, " I n s t r e a m Flow R e q u i r e m e n t s and Stream M o r p h o l o g y " , C o o p e r a t i v e I n s t r e a m Flow S e r v i c e Group, U.S. F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , F o r t C o l l i n s , C o l o r a d o , 80521, O c t . 19.77.  Miller,  J.D., "The E f f e c t s o f Minimum and Peak Cedar R i v e r Streamf l o w s on F i s h . P r o d u c t i o n and Water S u p p l y " , M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , U.S.A., 19.76.  Needham, P., and a Single cated by cultural  U s i n g c r , R. , " V a r i a b i l i t y i n the. M a c r o f a u n a o f R i f f l e i n P r o s s e r Creek, C a l i f o r n i a , as Indir: a Surber Sampler", H i l g a r d l a , C a l i f o r n i a A g r i E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , V o l . 24, No. 14, 1956.  115  N i c k e l s o n , T.E., "Development of M e t h o d o l o g i e s f o r E v a l u a t i n g I n s t r e a m Flow Needs f o r Salmon R e a r i n g " , I n : P r o c e e d i n g s of the Symposium and S p e c i a l t y C o n f e r e n c e on I n s t r e a m Flow Needs, A m e r i c a n F i s h e r i e s S o c i e t y , 5410 G r o s v e n o r Lane, B e t h e s d a , M a r y l a n d , U.S.A., S e p t . 1976 , V o l . 2, pp 588-5 9.6. Orsborn,  J . F . , and Deane, D.F., " I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Methods f o r Developing a P h y s i c a l A n a l y s i s f o r E v a l u a t i n g Instream Flow Needs", Department of C i v i l and E n v i r o n m e n t a l E n g i n e e r i n g , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Pullman,.WA 99164, S e p t . 1976.  P e a r s o n , L.S., C o n o v e r , K...R. and Sams, R.E., " F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the N a t u r a l R e a r i n g of J u v e n i l e Coho Salmon D u r i n g the Summer Low Flow S e a s o n " , Oreg on F i s f i C O T n m i s s i o n , POTJ*tXa.nd. 19.7 0.  5  R e d e l , W.R., " R i p a r i a n R i g h t s " , Aim, p u b l i s h e d by A p p r a i s a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada, 93 Lombard Avenue, W i n n i p e g , M a n i t o b a , Canada, F a l l 1967. R i g g s , H.C., "Mean S t r e a m f l o w f r o m D i s c h a r g e Measurements", Intern a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of S c i e n t i f i c H y d r o l o g y , B u l l e t i n XIV, 4:9.5-110, 19.6 9. R i g g s , H.C., "Low Flow. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s " , U.S. G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y T e c h n i q u e s of Water R e s o u r c e s I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , Book 4, C h a p t e r B l , 19.7 2. Shen,  H.W., " S t o c h a s t i c A p p r o a c h e s to Water R e s o u r c e s " , H.W. P.O. Box 606, F o r t C o l l i n s , C o l o r a d o , U.S.A. 80521,  S m i t h , A.K., " F i s h and W i l d l i f e Oregon, and T h e i r Water Commission, 1973.  Shen, 1976.  R e s o u r c e s of the A m a t i l l a B a s i n , R e q u i r e m e n t s " , Oregon S t a t e Game  S t a l n a k e r , C.B., and A r n e t t e , J . L . , " M e t h o d o l o g i e s f o r the D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Stream R e s o u r c e Flow R e q u i r e m e n t s : An A s s e s s ment", Utah. S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Logan, U t a h , 1976 . Stober,  Q.J. , and G r a y b i l l , J ..P. , " E f f e c t s of D i s c h a r g e i n the Cedar R i v e r on Sockeye Salmon Spawning A r e a " , U n i v e r s i t y of W a s h i n g t o n Research. I n s t i t u t e , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , 19.7 4.  Surber,  E.W., "Bottom Fauna and T e m p e r a t u r e C o n d i t i o n s i n R e l a t i o n to T r o u t Management i n S t . Mary's R i v e r , A u g u s t a C o u n t y , V i r g i n i a " , Va. J S c i . 2 : 19.0-202 . 19.51 .  116  T a u t z , A . F . , and G r o o t , C., "Spawning B e h a v i o u r o f Chum Salmon ( O n c o r h y n c h u s k e t a ) and Rainbow T r o u t (Salmo g a i r d n e r i ) " , J o u r n a l F i s h e r i e s R e s e a r c h B o a r d , Canada, V o l . 32, No. 5, 1975, pp 633-642. Tennant,  D.L., " I n s t r e a m . Flow Regimens, f o r F i s h , W i l d l i f e , Rec r e a t i o n and R e l a t e d E n v i r o n m e n t a l R e s o u r c e s " , F i s h e r i e s , V o l . 1 No. 4, Aug. 19.7 6.  Thompson, K.E., " D e t e r m i n i n g S t r e a m f l o w s f o r F i s h L i f e " , I n : P r o c e e d i n g s I n s t r e a m . F l o w R e q u i r e m e n t Workshop, P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t R i v e r B a s i n s Commission, P o r t l a n d , Oregon, 1972 pp 31-50. Waters,  Water  B.F., "A M e t h o d o l o g y f o r E v a l u a t i n g t h e E f f e c t s o f D i f f e r e n t S t r e a m f l o w s on S a l m o n i d H a b i t a t " , I n : P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e Symposium and S p e c i a l t y C o n f e r e n c e on I n s t r e a m F l o w Needs, A m e r i c a n F i s h e r i e s S o c i e t y , 5410 G r o s v e n o r L a n e , B e t h e s d a , M a r y l a n d , U.S.A., S e p t . 1976, V o l . 2, pp 254-266.  S u r v e y o f Canada, I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e , P a c i f i c Reg i o n , Department o f E n v i r o n m e n t , "Low F l o w s I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , J a n . 19.7 4.  Wesche, T.A., "Development and A p p l i c a t i o n o f a T r o u t C o v e r R a t i n g System f o r I n s t r e a m Flow Needs D e t e r m i n a t i o n s " , I n : P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Symposium and S p e c i a l t y C o n f e r e n c e on I n s t r e a m F l o w Needs, A m e r i c a n F i s h e r i e s S o c i e t y , 5410 G r o s v e n o r L a n e , B e t h e s d a , M a r y l a n d , U.S.A. S e p t . 1976, V o l . 2, pp 224-234. Yaug, C.T., " F o r m a t i o n o f R i f f l e s and P o o l s " , Water R e s o u r c e s R e s e a r c h , V o l . 7, No. 6, Dec. 1971, pp 1567-1574.  117  GLOSSARY ALEVIN — The l i f e s t a g e o f salmon between h a t c h i n g and the f r e e swimming f r y s t a g e . A l e v i n s g e n e r a l l y remain w i t h i n the g r a v e l of the s t r e a m b e d . BENTHIC —  Bottom  dwelling.  FISHERIES RESOURCE MAINTENANCE FLOWS — E s s e n t i a l l y synonomous with stream Resource Maintenance Flows, but p e r t a i n i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y to the f i s h e r y . FORK LENGTH — The d i s t a n c e f r o m (vee) o f t h e t a i l o f a f i s h . METHODOLOGY — inquiry.  t h e t i p o f t h e nose  A body o f t e c h n i q u e s  used  for a  to the f o r k  systematic  MINIMUM FLOW — May mean the l o w e s t d a i l y f l o w r e c o r d e d e a c h y e a r at a s t a t i o n , o r t h e l o w e s t d a i l y f l o w f o r t h e t o t a l p e r i o d o f record. PRODUCTIVITY — The r a t e standing crop). REDD — The p l a c e p o s i t s h e r eggs.  of i n c r e a s e  i n t h e streambed  i n the biomass  (or i n the  where t h e f e m a l e  salmon d e r  STANDING CROP — The b i o m a s s (jln t h i s c a s e , f i s h and s u p p o r t i n g food c h a i n ) w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d area of a stream a t a p o i n t i n time. STREAM RESOURCE MAINTENANCE FLOWS — A term d e v e l o p e d i n Idaho by F e d e r a l and S t a t e a g e n c i e s t o mean "a r a n g e o f f l o w s w i t h i n w h i c h f i s h , w i l d l i f e and o t h e r a q u a t i c o r g a n i s m s a r e m a i n t a i n e d , p r o t e c t e d and r e s t o r e d " . U T I L I T Y CURVE — A graph, r e l a t i n g quantitative variable.  a qualitative evaluation  to a  118  APPENDIX A COMPUTER PROGRAM "STREAM FLOW" " S t r e a m F l o w " i s a computer the  area  satisfy in  the c r i t e r i a  c.f.s.  data  input data.  calculates  w h i c h water v e l o c i t i e s  and d e p t h s  f o r spawning  will  Input  salmon, g i v e n e i t h e r  of the water  that i s , i tw i l l  But t h e o u t p u t  1.  over  or the e l e v a t i o n  dependent;  input, of  o f t h e streambed  program w h i c h  surface.  operate  improve w i t h  the flow  The program i s  on a minimum amount of t h e amount and a c c u r a c y  consists of:  Topographical  Information  f o r one o r more t r a n s e c t s  (cross-sections). . 2.  Velocity  and d e p t h  criteria  f o r the s p e c i e s  Being  studied. 3.  One o r more f l o w v a l u e s , w i t h tlons-,  4.  A rating along  .5.  f o r at least  corresponding  eleva-:'  one t r a n s e c t .  of t h e s u b s t r a t e a t each measured  point  the t r a n s e c t .  The s p e c i f i e d  flows  ( o r water  levels)  t o be  analyzed.  Output  ( T a b l e s A l and A L L ) c o n s i s t s o f : 1.  Spawning  area  specified 2.  t o each  t r a n s e c t f o r each  flow.  Parametric  data  s u r f a c e , wid t h , transect  tributary  (cross-sectional wetted  f o r each  perimeter,  specified  flow.  water  area,  e t c . ) f o r each,  119  3.  Velocities  and  depths  at a l l p o i n t s  transect,  f o r each, s p e c i f i e d  Transects  are  on  the  flow.  FIELD WORK laid  out  perpendicular  tween permanent r e f e r e n c e  markers.  grouped  feet apart  150  together  f e e t long  to  nearest  0.01  a little  foot.  beyond  0.1 The  the  lowing  rules;  subsequent 1.  procedures. f o o t and  profile  the  should  A l l elevations  A l l chainages to  elevations  surface be  program  up  each  t r e a t s each  strict  that  stan-  to  the  bank  they  adherence be  transect to  followed  the  fol-  to s i m p l i f y  plotting: study  site  should  datum.  to p o i n t s  e i t h e r the  distances  mea snared .  to  are  elevations  continued  for a particular  r e f e r r e d to one  Thalweg  be  60  using  along right  transects bank or  the  should left  b. ank. 3.  be-  level.  require  i t i s recommended  Ground  water  computer  does n o t  referred  site  i s surveyed  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , and  be 2.  and  flow  transects  to f o r m a s t u d y  each, t r a n s e c t  "bank f u l l "  Although independently,  of  survey  th.e n e a r e s t  four  the  11).  profile  topographical  taken  to 50  (Figure  The dard  20  I suggest  to  between  transects  should  be  be  120  The transect. each  should  be m e t e r e d  I recommend m e t e r i n g  t r a n s e c t so as to p r o v i d e  puter. apart 0.6  flow  The v e l o c i t y along  bottom,  at three  the t r a n s e c t  once a t each  or more f l o w  b e t t e r input data  and depth, i s measured  o f t h e d e p t h below  velocity.  at least  ( F i g u r e 11).  the s u r f a c e .  The "nose, v e l o c i t y " ,  f o r t h e com-  a t p o i n t s 1 to 10 f e e t  The v e l o c i t y  i s measured  This represents  assumed  levels at  the average  t o be 0.4 f o o t o f f  the  c a n a l s o be m e a s u r e d .  PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The  program u s e s  t h e f o l l o w i n g form  o f t h e Manning  equa t i o n :  Q  5 /1 „A ' C ,„ 2/3  =  ' 1.486 S  , „ where C =  0  n  p  The and  values  of C a r e c a l c u l a t e d  s t o r e d as a C g r a p h " f o r each  flows  11  have been m e t e r e d ,  comparable  to a s t a g e  and s u b r o u t i n e  following  geometric  f o r each metered  transect.  t h e "C g r a p h " w i l l  discharge  PRAM.  I f three provide  charts  The s u b r o u t i n e  face e l e v a t i o n : Cross  sectional  2.  W i d t h o f water  or more  accuracy  water  area.  surface.  f o r t h e main  c a l c u l a t e s the  parameters of a t r a n s e c t g i v e n  1.  flow  curve.  F i g u r e s A l and A2 a r e t h e f l o w program  2  the water  sur-  121  3 .  Wetted  A .  Maximum  depth.  5.  Average  Depth.  6.  Chainage The  multiple  perimeter.  t o edge o f w a t e r .  subroutine  Tabel  Table  A ITT,  AIV .  lengthy, and  of the output  program  the t r a n s e c t  for scale.  discussed program  f l o w s or  deck a r e d e s c r i b e d Is provided i n  i s not provided  as i t i s  f o r one t r a n s e c t  (section)  In I t s present  as T a b l e s  A l and A l l .  form d i s t r i b u t e s v e l o c i t y  to t h e water  depth;  that i s ,  i s a. .mlr-rror image o f t h e d e p t h p r o f i l e , a d -  A l t e r n a t e models of v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e IV.  Another  possibility  i s to use the v e l o c i t y i n p u t t r a n s e c t v e l o c i t y data  the  velocity profile.  the  most a p p r o p r i a t e  data  could  with  this  as a m o d e l . be s t o r e d  computer Each s e t  as a model o f  For i n t e r p o l a t e d or e x t r a p o l a t e d stored  profile  flows,  i s chosen a s a . p a t t e r n  for  the  distribution. Input  data  f o r substrate  1, s u i t a b l e g r a v e l  present;  b u t a r a t i n g of- 0 to 10 c o u l d  future.  present;  Is p r e s e n t l y  either:  the  of d i v i d e d  o f symbols  are included  i n proportion  i n Chapter  of measured  velocity  list  of t h e program  b u t a sample  velocity profile  justed  care  f o r the data  and an abr e v l a t: ed  A listing  The  the  required  a summary f o r one f l o w  across  take  channels. Punch c a r d s  in  will  r e s t r i c t e d to  o r 0, no s u i t a b l e easily  gravel  be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n  122  The  program was o r i g i n a l l y  that  each  cent  t r a n s e c t s ; But now,  a strip if  t r a n s e c t would  only  suBstrate  wider  strip,  represent  the stream h a l f  I recommend  one f o o t wide  s e t up on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  that  (contrIButary  transect  length  = 1.0)  i t may Be B e t t e r  perhaps  wide.  The  program  combination w i t h i n  gives  the s p e c i e s  equal  weight  criteria;  weight  as t h e c o m b i n a t i o n Weighted  program.  values  will  to c o n s i d e r  f o r example,  of optimum depth, and optimum v e l o c i t y  represent although  to any d e p t h  nation  ity.  to a d j a -  each  I s to Be a s s e s s e d one meter  way  will  have  velocity  the combit h e same  o f t h e minimum d e p t h and minimum Be i n t r o d u c e d  in a revision  a  veloc-  of t h e  123 TABLE A l PROGRAM "STREAMFLOW" SAMPLE OUTPUT FOR A SECTION AT A SPECIFIED FLOW  SECTION:  8  RUN NO.  7  POINT  CHAINAGE  DISCHARGE  DEPTH  COEF. C = 1.02  Q=550.0 CFS  VEL.  SPAWN. AREA  GRAVEL(0=NO.1=YES)  1  8.0  .0  .0  .0  0  2  10.0  .0  .0  .0  0  3  15.0  3.0  2.1  6.5  1  4  23.0  3.6  2.5  9.0  1  5  33.0  3.4  2.4.  10.0  1  6  43.0  3.1  2.2  10.0  1  7  53.0  2.5  1.8  10.0  1  8  63.0  2.4  1.7  10.0  1  9  73.0  2.4  1.7  10.0  1  10  83.0  2.5  1.8  10.0  1  11  93.0  2.2  1.5  10.0  1  12  103.0  2.3  1.6  10.0  1  13  113.0  2.1  1.5  10.0  1  14  123.0  2.0  1.4  .0  Q  15  125.0  .0  .0  .0  0  16  126.0  .Q  .0  .0  Q  PROGRAM "STREAMFLOW" SAMPLE OUTPUT OF A SUMMARY TABLE  SUMMARY FOR RUN NO. 7  AT DISCHARGE  SECTION  SURFACE WIDTH  SURF. ELEV.  5  124.2  97.3  6  124.9  97.8  7  119.. 4  8  115.0  98.0 98.0  Q = 550.0 CFS.  DIST. TO WATER EDGE  AREA  MAX. DEPTH  WETTED PERIMETER  SURFACE AREA  SPAWNING AREA  8.1  200.2  2.7  .125.3  124.2  90.0  4.8  184,4  2.5  125.9  124.9  88.5  2.0. 1Q.0  248.4 292.9.  2.5 3.6  121.1 116.7  119.4 115.0  107.5 105.5  125 TABLE  AIII  DATA CARDS FOR COMPUTER PROGRAM "STREAM FLOW"  INFORMATION  CARDS  FORMAT  General Cards 1st card  "Name of r i v e r "  20A4  2nd card  "Species of salmon"  20A4  3rd card  NR, NS, SAR, VI, V2, DS1, DS2, VNOSE  one or more cards  QR(1), ELEV(l): OR (2), ELEV(2): e t c .  315,6F10.3 8F10.1  Following set of cards required f o r each section one card one card  "Number of section" '  one or more cards one or more cards  NP, TM, TC, NCD, DIST CH(1), E L C I ) , SG(1); etc. QC(.l), ELEVC(l), CC(1): etc.  4A4 415,F10.1 5(2F7.1,12) 4(2F8.1,F4.2)  126 TABLE  AIV  PARTIAL L I S T OF SYMBOLS USED IN COMPUTER A  Area  B  Width  C  Flow  of c r o s s  PROGRAM  section  of water  surface  coefficient  CC(T).  Flow c o e f f i c i e n t  CH(I)  Chainage  to each, p o i n t  Chainage  to waters  CHB D(I)  Depth o f water  DMAX  Maximum d e p t h  input  i n cross-section  a t each p o i n t In c r o s s  Average  depth of water  DS1  Minimum  spawning  DS2  Maximum .spawning  EL(I)  data  edge  DAV  DIST  "STREAMFLOW"  i n cross  section  section i n cross  section  depth. depth  L e n g t h o f r i v e r to w h i c h (contributary length)  cross  section  Elevation  of ground  ELEV(I)  Elevation  o f water  surface  f o r each r u n  ELEVC(I)  Elevation  of water  surface  corresponding  NP  Number o f p o i n t s  NS  Number o f s e c t i o n s  NR  Number o f r u n s  NCD  Number o f i n p u t  P  Wetted  Q  Discharge  a t each p o i n t  applies  i n cross  data  corresponding  QR(I)  Discharges  f o r runs  SG(I)  i f spawning  Spawning g r a v e l  areas  indicator  (field  i f previous  C graph  TM  Trigger  i f metering  notes  VI  Minimum  V2  ^Maximum spawning v e l o c i t y  observation)  t o be used  input  V e l o c i t y a t points, i n c r o s s  Factor obtain  determination  required  Trigger  VNOSE  forC  to C C ( I )  TC  VELCI)  to CC(.I)  perimeter  Discharges  Trigger  section  section  groups  QC(I)  SAR  i n cross  section  spawning v e l o c i t y by w h i c h a v e r a g e v e l o c i t y i s : m u l t i p l i e d to nose v e l o c i t y  "STREAM FLOW" COMPUTER PROGRAM FLOW CHART  Start  T Initialize  T READ General Data: Name of r i v e r Species of f i s h Number of runs Number of sections Preferred v e l o c i t y and depth range Known flow data  WRITE r i v e r name, f i s h species and other selected input data  READ Section Data: Number of surveyed points, Contributary length, l-<r Survey data and gravel quality for each point  <S>  128  ®  READ known data to compute flow c o e f f i c i e n t s  r  "Surface E l e v a t i o n \ N 0 known  YES Discharge must be known. Flow c o e f f i c i e n t can be calculated  Subroutine PRAM  f Compute flow c o e f f i c i e n t  NO.  Last set of known Data?  WRITE section number and contributary length  t  Discharge and flow c o e f f i c i e n t must be known  129  ©  ©  WRITE values of flow c o e f f i c i e n t s and corresponding values of surface elevation and discharge  Select flow c o e f f i c i e n t and tentative surface elevation  Subroutine PRAM  Assume a flow c o e f f i c i e n t and calculate discharge  130  131 FIGURE  A2  "PRAM" SUBROUTINE FLOW CHART  Calc. B. increment and add to B P r i n t out MULTIPLE CHANNEL CONDITION Calc. P, increase and'add to P. Calc. B increase by proportion & add to B  T Calc. CHB once only  if Calc. P increase and add to P  Calc. area increase and add to A  Calc. Area increase and add to A  Calc. depth and add to DSUM  ©  132  Calc. B. increment by proportion and add to B  >  Calc. area increment and add to A  Calc. P. increment by proportion and add to P  Calculate Average Depth  133  APPENDIX SPAWNING AND AS  B  REARING FLOWS  FUNCTIONS OF  BASIN AND  CHANNEL  PARAMETERS  M. R. C o l l l n g s CI9.74). has d e v e l o p e d sion and of  equations stream  streams  f o r spawning  channel  characteristics,  i n western He f o u n d  most  and r e a r i n g f l o w s based  multiple  regres-  In terms o f b a s i n  on a s t u d y  o f a number  Washington. the f o l l o w i n g e i g h t  parameters  to be t h e  significant: A  -  Drainage  MA  -  Mean b a s i n  RA  -  Reach  W  -  Reach w i d t h  GS  -  Gravel  RS  -  Reach  SF  -  Shape f a c t o r  HR  -  Hydraulic  The depths  depth values  using  (bank f u l l  width)  size slope  radius  shape f a c t o r i s o b t a i n e d points  flow,  by m e a s u r i n g  o f each, t r a n s e c t  and d i v i d i n g  by the a v e r a g e Colllngs  flows,  altitude  altitude  a t the quarter  suming bank f u l l  area  i n the reach, a s -  the average of the l a r g e r  of the s m a l l e r  provides  the w a t e r  equations  depth, v a l u e s .  f o r spawning  one. o r more o f t h e p a r a m e t e r s  listed  and r e a r i n g  above.  134  He charge", the  the  dis-  ;  which  "spawning  than  d i s t i n g u i s h e s h.e„tw.een " p r e f e r r e d spawning is equivalent  to  the  optimum  or peak v a l u e ,  and  s u s t a i n i n g d i s c h a r g e " , which i s that d i s c h a r g e ,  p r e f e r r e d d i s c h a r g e , where the  spawnable a r e a  becomes l e s s : t h a n  the  percent  percent  less  reduction in  reduction in  discharge. The the  bend of  "preferred rearing discharge"  the w e t t e d Table  charges:, al  as  rivers  values well  of  to  which  the  the  the  not  The  the  f o r the  Sooke R i v e r  15.  field  values  made.  Coquitlam  not  River  miles,  original  94  square  mile watershed  rearing flows,  values  obtained  minimum  spawning  only  of  from C o l l i n g * s and  about  corresponds  the  c f s and  50  This roughly  formulae.  a third  of  As the  very  for  the  comparison  equivalent remainder  measurements, and cfs for  of  can  hydro-  spawning  corresponds  Tentative values  r e a r i n g flows: were e s t i m a t e d analysis.  sever-  i s d i v e r t e d f o r hydro-  field  100  23).  calculated  that a  from  at  dis-  for  r e a r i n g flow  so  drainage  respectively.  Creek from hydrograph are  as  Observations,  a n a l y s i s l e d to v a l u e s  rearing  p r e s e n t l y d r a i n s an  square  purposes.  The  s t u d i e d i n the was  The  to be  (Figure  formulae,  some s t u d i e s .  21  graph  they  some of C o l l l n g s  flow  curve  spawning and  of  electric  and  discharge  of  graph, shown, i n F i g u r e  calculated  watershed  from  I have done  spawning  Sooke R i v e r was with  versus  Bl; srhows v a l u e s  calculated  on  width  i s assumed  be  the  for  f o r Norrfsh.  seen from  calculated  to  the  table  v a l u e s , w h i c h means  135  that for  before Norrish  check  final  F i s h e r i e s Resource Maintenance  Creek a d d i t i o n a l f i e l d  conditions  at flow  Values tabulated  to h e l p  a l s o Appendix  could  and  from about  f o r t h e ungaged  should 50  Tsulquate  are set  be done to  to 160 c f s . River  i n the a n a l y s i s of the T s u l q u a t e  have  been  system  (see  C).  Collings analysis  levels  studies  Flows  f o r m u l a e seem to be u s e f u l f o r p r e l i m i n a r y  as a d e c k . o n  p o s s i b l y be m o d i f i e d  B r i t i s h . Columbia  once  other  methods.  to b e t t e r  sufficient  data  The  reflect  coefficients  conditions i n  has been  accumulated.  SPAWNING AND REARING FLOWS FOR SALMON DERIVED FROM BASIN PARAMETERS  SOOKE  C0QUITLAM  NORRISH  RIVER  RIVER  CREEK  A  108.4  21  94  44  W  140  60  150  100  YP = 1 2 A* YP, = . 3 . 1 1 A fa  4 , 4 Z  w; . . • r 5  04  Spawning Flow by other methods YS = 9 ,32 .675 YS = 2 ,64 .475 .47 Spawning Flow-by other methods YR = 2 . 5 3 YR  =  ~A'  .032 A -  TSULQUATE . RIVER 23 80± 750  75Q  2000  2000  1780  257  87.9  234  142  93  268  88  262  155  106  200-300 220  72.8  200  120  77  w  229  72.7  222  130  87  200  100  867  147  35  130  67  38  9.4  56  157  90  40  3 2 7  MA'  5 3 3  W' ' 59  Rearing Flow by other methods  A = Basin area i n square miles W = Bankfull width i n feet MA = Mean A l t i t u d e of basin i n feet above sea l e v e l YP = Preferred spawning flow i n c . f . s . YS = Sustained spawning flow In c . f . s . YR = Optimum rearing flow In c . f . s .  50  60+  50+  137  APPENDIX C APPLICATION OF LOW FLOW ANALYSIS TO The  THE  UNGAGED TSULQUATE  s e v e n day low f l o w ,  RIVER  two y e a r  recurrence  Q7L2, was c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e T s u l q u a t e . R i v e r 1.  Using  a few f l o w  River  and c o m p a r i n g  Zebalios 2.  River  Using  a method  using  various  lyzing and  cedure  Q7L2 v a l u e  developed  data  by O r s b o r n parameters  gaged  rivers  1.  and a n a -  determined, but a l s o  Benson  h i s pro-  f o r m below; n o t o n l y  is  the  the v a l u e s of  parameters: streams i n  region: P l o t Q7L2 and Q7L20 a g a i n s t L T ( H ) , 3/2LI(H), 2  best 2.  (1976)  (Kokish,  Do t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r a l l t h e gaged the  on t h e  period.  I have summarized  a number o f o t h e r A.  them w i t h  o f t h e same  the n e a r e s t  i n step  as f o l l o w s :  measurements o f t h e T s u l q u a t e  watershed  Zebalios).  interval,  basin  LT(.H),  the b a s i n  LI(DD) .  S e l e c t the  2  parameter.  P l o t Q7L2 and Q7L2Q on l o g - l o g paper recurrence slope,  interval  (Figure C l ) .  p and i n t e r c e p t , Q7L1P f r o m  Calculate  parameters:  the average r a t i o s  Q7L20/Q7L2 f o r the r e g i o n .  against  Determine the graphs.  Q7LIP/Q7L2 and  138  3.  Calculate  **^ ^—nS!**^^ H  =  30.0p 4.  Plot  Q7L2 a g a i n s t  C2) .  From  the  coefficients B.  Do  the  x  station.  -  log-log  n  the  for  each  r  A  regression  for  following  o  X f°  paper  line  equation  the  (Figure  determine  the  Q7L2=k(x) > m  ungaged  stream  under  study: 1.  Calculate  basin  using  graphs prepared  the  Q7L2 and 2.  3.  Plot  p a r a m e t e r s LT(H)  Q7L2 and  Q7L20 on  the  Calculate  Q7L1P f r o m  step  i n step  Al,  and estimate  Q7L20.  determine  In  etc.,  2  A2,  slope  or  log-log  paper  to  p. the  ratio  determined  read  off  graph p l o t t e d  Q7L2 f r o m  the  equation  in  B2 . 4.  Calculate in  step  A4.  If  satisfacorily another  i t does n o t  with  iteration  the of  correspond  estimated  the  determined  Q7L2,  calculations is  necessary. The  variables  ^  used  i n the  analysis  A = Watershed  area  H  difference  ?= E l e v a t i o n and  highest  the  watershed,  are  described  above gage,  average in  i n sq.  between gage continuous  below: mi. elevation  contour  feet.  = Total  l e n g t h , of  first  = Total  length  streams- ( a l l o r d e r s )  of  in  order  stream  in  miles. In  miles.  139  DD  Drainage  X k  d e n s i t y = L /A  300.p '  ( A  IF  A  3  w  a  t  e  r  s  h  e  d  parameter  coefficient  Q7L2  Seven day low f l o w ,  2 year  Q7L20  Seven day low f l o w ,  20 y e a r  Q7LI.P  Hypothetical log-log  p = Slope log  value  graph  o f seven  obtained  day low f l o w  annual  interval  by p r o j e c t i n g the  curve  line,  on the l o g -  flow.  a t h r e e month  p e r i o d i n 1975.  extracted  this  data  same p e r i o d o b t a i n e d  Date  Two  on t h e T s u l q u a t e  w i t h .7 day low f l o w d a t a o f  f o r the Z e b a l i o s R i v e r : River  8HE6  7 day low f l o w  A.  July  27 - A u g u s t  B.  Sept.26 - O c t . 2/75  2/75  Tsulquate A. J u l y  26 - A u g u s t  B. Sept  21 - 27/75  River f o r  7 day low f l o w p e r i o d s were  and compared  Zebalios  or  recurrence  ( F i g u r e CI) to t h e one y e a r  F l o w r e c o r d s were o b t a i n e d  the  interval  graph.  QAA = A v e r a g e  from  recurrence  1/75  Recurrence  Interval  300 c f s  1.1  208 c f s  1. 4 y e a r s  185 c f s  2 . 0 years  River 5.0 c f s 7.2 c f s  t h e Tsulquate.: A data,  Q7L2 =  185 x 5 = 3.1 c f s 3 00.  B data,  Q7L2 =  185 x 2 08  7.2 = 6.4 c f s  years  140  A tentative the  Tsulquate  instead  River.  of going The  and  value  This  through results  double these  gages.  would  o f 6.7  calculated  values  o f 6.0 ever  calculated,  the v a l u e s  run).  by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h  to a n a l y z e  using  annual  d a t a , P, was  to c a l c u l a t e value  Q7L1P and  CI shows t h a t t h e well  with  the Z e b a l l o s r e c o r d s .  flow,  See l a s t from  on  of 7 c f s f o r the  check r e a s o n a b l y  low f l o w s  taken  based  to Q7L2 and Q7L20 to  Table  QAA,  the c o e f f i c i e n t ,  f o r the K o k i s h .  Precipitation  f o r the T s u l q u a t e  using a tentative  and 5.1 o b t a i n e d  average  procedure.  7 day low f l o w v a l u e s a  i n s t e p A2 were used  be needed  used  f o r two gages on  f o r Q7L2 and 2.0 f o r Q7L20 a r e a b o u t  The also  calculated  ( o b t a i n e d by a t r i a l  Q7L2 v a l u e s those  different  R a t i o s o f Q7L1P  Q7L20 f o r t h e T s u l q u a t e , Tsulquate  of Q7L2 can be  As t h e r e were r e c o r d s  s e t o f v a l u e s was  Q7L2, as i n d i c a t e d  value  as Q7L2 f o r  s t e p s A l and B l o f the O r s b o r n  which, had q u i t e  two K o k l s h  tentative  taken  o f s t e p s A2 to A4 a r e shown i n T a b l e CI  F i g u r e s CI and C2.  the K o k l s h  o f 5.0 c f s was  Average  as c l o s e as  for fisheries.  f o r the T s u l q u a t e  C, o b t a i n e d  entries  by  averaging  i n Table CI.  F i g u r e 27.  was  141 TABLE BASIN PARAMETERS AND FOR  SEVERAL RIVERS  BASIN PARAMETER  KOKISH RIVER 8HF3  A  104  H  0.8 9. Ill  Li  7-DAY LOW  ON VANCOUVER  CI  FLOWS ISLAND  BENSON RIVER BENSON  TSULQUATE RIVER TSULQUATE  KOKISH RIVER 8HF1  81  23  120  0.85  0 . 68  0 . 284  1.03  120.9  101.3  22.5  121  ZEBALLOS RIVER ZEBALLOS 6 9.. 8  3/2LiH  148 . 2  15 4 .1  103.3  9 . 58  187 . 3  L  27 5  211. 8  189.7  61.8  290  244 . 8  180  129  17 . 6  299 .3  259 . 0  195.3  156.4  32 . 9  294.6  2. 64  3 . 03  2.34  2 . 69  2.42  180  210 . 4  155  36 . 9  T  L H T  L H  h  T  DD \|DD(Li)  188 . 2 2.67  X  5.1  51.4  6.8  . 18 !". 14  k  18.8  17.4  15 . 2  1  50  185  48±  6.7  Q7L20  19  148  30±  2.6  Q7L1P  65  200  55  1. 6 | 9.1 |I0.7  P  .41  .10  . 20  | .43 |.65  QAA  63 9.  111Q  7 02  103  635  P  130  200+  180  100  130  .04 7  . 07±  .048  . 04 5  .041  Q7L2  L  PA  ". %  1 1  | 5 .1  1  16 . 6 30 7 46 .6.4  

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