UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

An evaluation of the flat dilatometer as an insitu testing device McPherson, Ian Duncan 1985

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1985_A7 M36.pdf [ 20.09MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0062958.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0062958-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0062958-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0062958-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0062958-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0062958-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0062958-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0062958-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0062958.ris

Full Text

AN EVALUATION OF THE FLAT DILATOMETER AS AN INSITU TESTING DEVICE By IAN D MCPHERSON , The U n v e r s i t y o f C a n t e r b u r y , C h r i s t c h u r c h , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING We a c c ep t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J a n u a r y 1985 @ Ian D McPherson 1985 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f \ y \ \ \z_y\Q^ \ r\ee V ( ^ \ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 03/81) i i ABSTRACT The r e s u l t s f r om t h e use o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r ( M a r c h e t t i 1975 , 1980) a t 4 s i t e s i n B r i t i s h Co l umb i a a r e p r e s e n t e d . Compar i sons a re drawn between t he d i l a t o m e t e r and o t h e r i n s i t u t e s t d e v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e p i e z o - f r i c t i o n c o n e , s e l f - b o r i n g and Menard p r e s s u r e m e t e r s and f i e l d v ane . S o i l s t e s t e d i n c l u d e d s a t u r a t e d d e l t a i c d e p o s i t s , a s e n s i t i v e p l a s t i c c l a y and a s a t u r a t e d , h y d r a u l i c a l l y p l a c e d f i l l . O v e r a l l t h e d i l a t o m e t e r p roved t o be an e x t r e m e l y e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e . I t had a low c a p i t a l c o s t , r e q u i r e d a minimum o f s u p p o r t equ ipment and was s i m p l e t o u s e . The d a t a was r e p e a t a b l e and e a s i l y r educed u s i n g a computer programme. Computer o u t p u t , bo th g r a p h i c a l and t a b u l a r , i s e a s i l y amenable t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o an e n g i n e e r i n t h e f i e l d . Fo r t h e most p a r t t h e r e s u l t s i n t h i s t h e s i s s u p p o r t M a r c h e t t i ' s e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n s : ( i ) d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f K 0 i n s a n d s , ( i i ) d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d e f o r m a t i o n modulus i n c l a y , and ( i i i ) i n o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d s i l t s where i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t abnormal po re p r e s s u r e s c aused t h e e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s t o b reakdown . The d i l a t o m e t e r i s an i n s i t u , t o t a l s t r e s s , p e n e t r a t i o n d e v i c e wh i ch canno t be a n a l y s e d i n a f undamen ta l manner . E l a s t i c t h e o r y i s i n a p p l i c a b l e because o f p l a s t i c s t r a i n i n g d u r i n g b l a d e p e n e t r a t i o n and p r o b a b l y d u r i n g membrane e x p a n s i o n . To more c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e t h e d i l a t o m e t e r , t h e a u t ho r d e s i g n e d an e l e c t r o n i c r e s e a r c h d e v i c e w i t h e x a c t l y t h e same e x t e r n a l d i m e n s i o n s as M a r c h e t t i ' s d i l a t o m e t e r . The aim o f t h e e l e c t r o n i c d i l a t o m e t e r i s t o g r e a t l y improve u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i m p l e M a r c h e t t i d i l a t o m e t e r by a l l o w i n g : ( i ) a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o p e r a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f M a r c h e t t i ' s d i l a t o m e t e r , ( i i ) d i r e c t measurement o f s t r e s s o n , and d e f o r m a t i o n o f , t h e membrane, ( i i i ) measurement o f po re wa t e r p r e s s u r e b e f o r e and a f t e r h a l t i n g p e n e t r a t i o n and d u r i n g membrane e x p a n s i o n , and ( i v ) measurement o f t h e p u s h i n g f o r c e on t h e b l a d e . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i L IST OF TABLES v i L IST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x NOMENCLATURE x CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION 1 1 . 1 . Pu rpose and Scope 1 CHAPTER I I - THE DILATOMETER 3 2 . 1 . D e s c r i p t i o n o f D i l a t o m e t e r and i t s Method o f Use 3 2 . 1 . 1 H i s t o r i c a l Rev iew 3 2 . 1 . 2 I n s t r umen t D e s c r i p t i o n and Method o f Use 4 2 . 2 . Da ta R e d u c t i o n 7 2 . 3 . T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 10 2 . 4 . D i l a t o m e t e r Index Pa r ame te r s and D e r i v e d S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 13 2 . 4 . 1 M a t e r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 13 2 . 4 . 2 H o r i z o n t a l S t r e s s Index 16 2 . 4 . 3 D i l a t o m e t e r Modu lus 18 2 . 4 . 4 U n d r a i n e d Shear S t r e n g t h 19 2 . 4 . 5 F r i c t i o n A n g l e 19 2 . 5 . Advan tages and D i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e D i l a t o m e t e r 20 2 . 6 . D i l a t o m e t e r T e s t T e chn i que s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a 21 CHAPTER I I I - MCDONALD'S FARM SEA ISLAND B.C . 24 3 . 1 . Me thodo l ogy and Scope 24 3 . 2 . Geo l ogy 25 3 .3 R e s u l t s 27 3 . 3 . 1 S i t e P r o f i l e and M a t e r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 27 3 . 3 . 2 L a t e r a l S t r e s s e s 30 3 . 3 . 3 S o i l Modu l i 33 3 . 3 . 4 Und r a i n ed Shear S t r e n g t h 39 i v 3 . 3 . 5 F r i c t i o n A n g l e 40 3 . 3 . 6 Po re P r e s s u r e E f f e c t s 43 3 . 4 . Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 46 CHAPTER IV - FRASER LANDING B.C . 48 4 . 1 . Me thodo l ogy and Scope 48 4 . 2 . G e o l o g y 48 4 . 3 . R e s u l t s 50 4 . 3 . 1 D i s c u s s i o n 50 4 . 3 . 2 S i t e P r o f i l e and M a t e r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 54 4 . 3 . 3 L a t e r a l S t r e s s e s 55 4 . 3 . 4 S o i l Modu l i 58 4 . 3 . 5 F r i c t i o n A n g l e 59 4 . 4 . Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 61 CHAPTER V - TILBURY ISLAND B.C . 64 5 . 1 . Me thodo l ogy and Scope 64 5 . 2 . Geo l o gy 66 5 . 3 . R e s u l t s 66 5 . 3 . 1 D i s c u s s i o n 66 5 . 3 . 2 S i t e P r o f i l e and M a t e r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 73 5 . 3 . 3 L a t e r a l S t r e s s e s 75 5 . 3 . 4 S o i l Modu l i 75 5 . 3 . 5 F r i c t i o n A n g l e 78 5 . 4 . Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 78 CHAPTER VI - CLOVERDALE B.C. 80 6 . 1 . D i s c u s s i o n 80 6 . 2 . Geo l o gy 80 6 . 3 . R e s u l t s 81 6 . 3 . 1 S i t e P r o f i l e and M a t e r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 8 1 . 6 . 3 . 2 L a t e r a l S t r e s s e s 87 6 . 3 . 3 S o i l Modu l i 88 6 . 3 . 4 Und ra i n ed Shea r S t r e n g t h 92 6 . 3 . 5 S e n s i t i v i t y o f E m p i r i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s t o E r r o r s i n Base Da ta 95 6 . 4 . Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 97 CHAPTER V I I - SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 99 7 . 1 . 1 S o i l P r o f i l e and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 99 7 . 1 . 2 L a t e r a l S t r e s s e s 100 V 7 . 1 . 3 Und r a i n ed Shear S t r e n g t h 100 7 . 1 . 4 F r i c t i o n A n g l e 101 7 . 1 . 5 S o i l Modu l i 101 7 . 1 . 6 Po re P r e s s u r e E f f e c t s 105 7 . 1 . 7 B e n e f i t s and L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e F l a t D i l a t o m e t e r 106 7 . 2 . F u t u r e Deve lopment 107 7 . 3 . F u t u r e P r o s p e c t s f o r t h e D i l a t o m e t e r 112 BIBLIOGRAPHY 114 APPENDIX I D i s c u s s i o n on I n s t r u m e n t s Used 118 APPENDIX I I D i s c u s s i o n on Da ta R e d u c t i o n Programme DIL.RED 121 APPENDIX I I I M cDona l d ' s Farm Da ta 124 APPENDIX IV F r a s e r L and i ng Da ta 150 APPENDIX V T i l b u r y I s l a n d Da ta 182 APPENDIX VI C l o v e r d a l e Da ta 202 APPENDIX V I I Des i gn D e t a i l s o f R e s ea r c h D i l a t o m e t e r 205 v i L IST OF TABLES CHAPTER TWO - THE DILATOMETER T a b l e I S o i l P a r ame t e r s De te rm ined f r om D i l a t o m e t e r I n d i c e s U s i n g M a r c h e t t i ' s E m p i r i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s CHAPTER THREE - McDONALD"S FARM, SEA ISLAND B.C . T a b l e I I C a l c u l a t i o n o f E q u i v a l e n t P r e s s u r e m e t e r S t r a i n 37 T a b l e I I I S u / s v ' R a t i o s f r om D i l a t o m e t e r and Cone 40 T a b l e IV W a i t i n g T imes and P e r c e n t a g e D i s s i p a t i o n 43 CHAPTER FOUR - FRASER LANDING, B .C . T a b l e V S o i l P r o p e r t i e s S t u d i e d and I n s t r u m e n t s Used 49 T a b l e VI F r i c t i o n A n g l e i n V i b r o c o m p a c t i o n A r e a 59 CHAPTER SIX - CLOVERDALE, B .C . T a b l e V I I I n f l u e n c e o f V a r i a t i o n s i n E s t i m a t i n g S o i l U n i t , We ight and Depth t o Water T a b l e on C a l c u l a t i o n o f Krj 96 L IST OF FIGURES CHAPTER TWO - THE DILATOMETER F i g u r e 2 . 1 . The D i l a t o m e t e r F i g u r e 2 .2 S chema t i c V iew o f t h e D i l a t o m e t e r F i g u r e 2.3 E m p i r i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n C h a r t f o r E s t i m a t i n g S o i l Type and U n i t We ight f r om t he D i l a t o m e t e r CHAPTER THREE - MCDONALD'S FARM, SEA ISLAND ,B .C . Cone and S o i l P r o f i l e D i l a t o m e t e r Ho l e DH1 - I n t e r m e d i a t e P a r ame t e r s DH1 - I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r ame t e r s K,j f r om D i l a t o m e t e r and K 0 f r om SB P r e s s u r e m e t e r D e f o r m a t i o n Modu l i f r om D i l a t o m e t e r , Cone and SB P r e s s u r e m e t e r E f r om Cone and SB P r e s s u r e m e t e r v E^  f r om D i 1 a t o m e t e r C o n s t r a i n e d Modu l i f r om D i l a t o m e t e r and SB P r e s s u r e m e t e r M f r om SB P r e s s u r e m e t e r v M f r om D i l a t o m e t e r F r i c t i o n A n g l e f r om D i l a t o m e t e r , SB P r e s s u r e m e t e r and Cone P 0 / s v ' and P - j / s v ' v Log Time F i g u r e 3. 1. F i g u r e 3. 2a F i g u r e 3 . 2b F i g u r e 3 . 3 . F i g u r e 3 . 4 . F i g u r e 3. 5. F i g u r e 3. 6a F i g u r e 3 . 6b F i g u r e 3 . 7. F i g u r e 3 . 8 . CHAPTER FOUR - FRASER LANDING, B .C . F i g u r e 4 . 1 . Summary o f Cone Logs B e f o r e and A f t e r Compac t i on F i g u r e 4 . 2 a D i l a t o m e t e r B e f o r e and A f t e r Compac t i on I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r ame t e r s F i g u r e 4 .2b D i l a t o m e t e r B e f o r e and A f t e r Compac t i on I n t e r m e d i a t e G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r ame t e r s F i g u r e 4 . 3 . F r i c t i o n Ang l e f rom D i l a t o m e t e r and SB P r e s s u r e m e t e r CHAPTER FIVE - TILBURY ISLAND, B.C, F i g u r e 5. , 1 . F i g u r e 5. . 2 . F i g u r e 5. , 3 . F i g u r e 5. ,4a F i g u r e 5.4b L o c a t i o n o f T e s t Ho l e s and V i b r o -compac t i on G r i d s Cone R e f e r e n c e Ho l e CPT1 Cone T e s t Ho l e CPT4 D i l a t o m e t e r R e f e r e n c e Ho l e (DH1) I n t e r m e d i a t e G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r ame te r s DH1 - I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r ame t e r s v i i i F i g u r e 5 .5a D i l a t o m e t e r T e s t Ho l e 3 (DH5) I n t e r m e d i a t e G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r ame te r s 71 F i g u r e 5.5b DH5 - I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r ame t e r s 72 F i g u r e 5 . 6 . D e f o r m a t i o n Modu l i f rom D i l a t o m e t e r and Cone 77 CHAPTER SIX - CLOVERDALE, B .C . F i g u r e 6 . 1 . S o i l S t r a t i g r a p h y f rom D i l a t o m e t e r and Cone 82 F i g u r e 6 . 2 . Cone Log 83 F i g u r e 6 . 3a D i l a t o m e t e r Ho l e (DH l ) - I n t e r m e d i a t e G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r ame t e r s 84 F i g u r e 6 .3b DHl - I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r ame t e r s 85 F i g u r e 6 . 4 . D e f o r m a t i o n Modu l i f rom D i l a t o m e t e r and S c r e w p l a t e 89 F i g u r e 6 . 5 . E<j f r om D i l a t o m e t e r v E f rom S c r e w p l a t e 90 F i g u r e 6 . 6 . M f r om D i l a t o m e t e r and S c r e w p l a t e 91 F i g u r e 6 . 7 . Und r a i n ed Shear S t r e n g t h f r om D i l a t o m e t e r and Screw P l a t e v Depth 93 F i g u r e 6 . 8 . S u / s v ' R a t i o f rom D i l a t o m e t e r , Cone and F i e l d Vane 94 CHAPTER SEVEN - SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS F i g u r e 7 . 1 . C o n c e p t u a l Compar i son Between SB P r e s s u r e m e t e r and D i l a t o m e t e r 103 F i g u r e 7 . 2 . Summary o f E/E^ v Id 104 F i g u r e 7 .3a t o F i g u r e 7 . 3 f Des i gn D e t a i l s o f E l e c t r o n i c R e s ea r c h D i l a t o m e t e r 109-111 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The au t ho r wou ld l i k e t o e x p r e s s h i s g r a t i t u d e t o h i s r e s e a r c h a d v i s o r , Dr R i c h a r d Campane l l a f o r h i s g u i d a n c e and s u g g e s t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . He wou ld a l s o l i k e t o thank t he Depar tment o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s , D i c k P o s t g a t e and A r t B rookes f o r t h e i r many hours o f work and numerous h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . Men t i on must a l s o be made o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e : S i l v a n o M a r c h e t t i f o r h i s gene rous s u p p l y o f t i m e , i d e a s and equ i pmen t . P e t e r R o b e r t s o n who he l p ed w i t h f i e l d work and was a g r e a t s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n and t o S t e v e Brown and T e r r y E l d r i d g e f o r t h e i r h e l p i n t h e f i e l d . The au t ho r must a l s o thank h i s w i f e , C a r o l e , f o r her p a t i e n c e , t y p i n g and d r a f t i n g s k i l l s . F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t was p r o v i d e d by t he N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e and E n g i n e e r i n g Re s ea r c h C o u n c i l , Canada . X NOMENCLATURE A = I n i t i a l d i l a t o m e t e r r e a d i n g ( b a r s ) a = D i ame te r o f S c r e w p l a t e (m) B = D i l a t o m e t e r r e a d i n g at 1mm d e f l e c t i o n ( b a r s ) B = Bu l k modulus (MPa) CPT = Cone p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t DA = D i l a t o m e t e r c a l i b r a t i o n f a c t o r ( b a r s ) DB = D i l a t o m e t e r c a l i b r a t i o n f a c t o r ( b a r s ) DMT = D i l a t o m e t e r t e s t E = Young ' s o r d e f o r m a t i o n modu lus (MPa) Ed = D i l a t o m e t e r modulus (MPa) E s = " E q u i v a l e n t " Y oung ' s modulus f r om cone (MPa) Esp = D e f o r m a t i o n modu lus f r om s c r e w p l a t e (MPa) E u = Und r a i n ed d e f o r m a t i o n modulus (MPa) f c = Cone f r i c t i o n ( b a r s ) FV = F i e l d vane G = Shear modulus (MPa) Id = M a t e r i a l Index Kd = H o r i z o n t a l S t r e s s Index K 0 = L a t e r a l s t r e s s r a t i o K 0 d = L a t e r a l s t r e s s r a t i o f r om d i l a t o m e t e r M = C o n s t r a i n e d modulus (MPa) MP = Menard p r e s s u r e m e t e r Mp = D e f o r m a t i o n modulus f r om p r e s s u r e m e t e r (MPa) m/s = m e t r e s / s e c o n d NC = N o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d Nb = B e a r i n g c a p a c i t y f a c t o r OC = Over c o n s o l i d a t e d OCR = O v e r c o n s o l i d a t i o n r a t i o p = S t r e s s on s c r e w p l a t e (kPa) PI = P l a s t i c i t y Index (%) Pc = P r e c o n s o l i d a t i o n p r e s s u r e (kPa) P-j = C o r r e c t e d d i l a t o m e t e r r e a d i n g at 1mm d e f l e c t i o n ( b a r s ) P 0 = I n i t i a l c o r r e c t e d d i l a t o m e t e r r e a d i n g ( b a r s ) q c = Cone b e a r i n g ( b a r s ) v = P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o SBP = S e l f - b o r i n g p r e s s u r e m e t e r S u = Und r a i n ed s hea r s t r e n g t h o f c l a y s (kPa) S v = V e r t i c a l t o t a l s t r e s s ( kPa ) S v ' = V e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s (kPa) U 0 = H y d r o s t a t i c wa t e r p r e s s u r e ( b a r s ) Z w = Depth t o wa t e r t a b l e (m) Zm = Ze ro o f f s e t i n p r e s s u r e gauge NOTE : 1 bar = 100 kPa 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1 . 1 . Pu r po se and Scope The f l a t o r M a r c h e t t i d i l a t o m e t e r , d e ve l o ped i n 1975, i s an i n s i t u , t o t a l s t r e s s , p e n e t r a t i o n d e v i c e t h a t uses e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s t o e s t i m a t e s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . The e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were d eve l o ped u s i n g w e l l documented I t a l i a n s i t e s ( M a r c h e t t i 1 9 8 0 ) . T h i s t h e s i s a ims at p r e s e n t i n g a c omp rehens i v e d i s c u s s i o n on t he f l a t d i l a t o m e t e r , t o e v a l u a t e t h e g e n e r a l u s e f u l n e s s and a c c u r a c y o f t he i n s t r u m e n t and t o t e s t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e I t a l i a n e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s t o some common Canad i an s o i l t y p e s . The v a l i d i t y o f t h e l i m i t e d amount o f t h e o r y b eh i n d t he d i l a t o m e t e r i s d i s c u s s e d and t e s t p r o c e d u r e s and d a t a r e d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s o u t l i n e d . The d i l a t o m e t e r can e s t i m a t e many s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . In t h i s t h e s i s d i s c u s s i o n i s l i m i t e d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s : s o i l l o g g i n g , s o i l s t r e s s / s t r a i n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c o e f f i c i e n t o f l a t e r a l s t r e s s , u n d r a i n e d s hea r s t r e n g t h and f r i c t i o n a n g l e . A s p e c i a l a t t emp t has been made t o c o r r e l a t e s o i l d e f o r m a t i o n modu l i d e t e r m i n e d f r om t he d i l a t o m e t e r and s e l f - b o r i n g p r e s s u r e mete r ( S B P ) . Such a c o r r e l a t i o n c o u l d e n a b l e t h e use o f t h e q u i c k cheap d i l a t o m e t e r t e s t (DMT) i n some c a s e s r a t h e r t han t he s l o w e r more e x p e n s i v e SBP. The d e f o r m a t i o n modulus e s t i m a t e d f rom cone b e a r i n g u s i n g Schmer tmann ' s (1979) method was a l s o compared w i t h DMT d a t a . T h i s was because i f a 2 c o r r e l a t i o n can be d e r i v e d between t h e cone and d i l a t o m e t e r modu l i t h en Schmer tmann 1 s (1979) method o f c a l c u l a t i n g s e t t l e m e n t o f f o o t i n g s i n sand can be a p p l i e d t o t h e d i l a t o m e t e r . The DMT r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s come f r om 4 s i t e s i n B r i t i s h Co l umb i a ( B . C . ) , Canada . S o i l s t e s t e d i n c l u d e ma r i ne d e l t a i c sands and s i l t s , h y d r a u l i c a l l y p l a c e d sands and s i l t s and a s e n s i t i v e ma r i n e c l a y . R e f e r e n c e d a t a was p r o v i d e d by t he e l e c t r i c p i e z o - f r i c t i o n cone ( CPT ) , SBP, Menard p r e s s u r e m e t e r (MP) , s c r e w p l a t e and f i e l d v ane . In some ca se s s o i l samp les were r e c o v e r e d f o r l a b o r a t o r y t e s t i n g . The e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d f r om f i e l d work l e d t o t h e deve lopment o f an e l e c t r o n i c r e s e a r c h d i l a t o m e t e r , i d e n t i c a l i n s i z e and o p e r a t i o n t o M a r c h e t t i ' s d i l a t o m e t e r . The r e s e a r c h d i l a t o m e t e r w i l l c o n t i n u o u s l y measure ( i ) s t r e s s o n , and d e f o r m a t i o n o f , t h e membrane d u r i n g s o i l t e s t i n g , ( i i ) po re p r e s s u r e s d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n and s o i l t e s t i n g , and ( i i i ) p u s h i n g f o r c e on t he b l a d e . Wh i l e t h e r e s e a r c h d i l a t o m e t e r i s more complex t han M a r c h e t t i ' s d e v i c e i t i s hoped i t w i l l g i v e a more f undamen ta l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r t e s t . At t h e t ime o f w r i t i n g , t h e r e s e a r c h d i l a t o m e t e r had not been f i e l d t e s t e d . 3 CHAPTER TWO THE DILATOMETER 2 . 1 . D e s c r i p t i o n o f D i l a t o m e t e r and i t s Method o f Use 2 . 1 . 1 . H i s t o r i c a l Rev i ew The f l a t d i l a t o m e t e r was d eve l o ped i n I t a l y by M a r c h e t t i (1975) as an i n s i t u p e n e t r a t i o n t e s t d e v i c e t o i n v e s t i g a t e v a l u e s o f s o i l modulus f o r l a t e r a l l y l o a d e d , d r i v e n p i l e s . The d i l a t o m e t e r was based on two d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s : t h e need f o r a t h i n i n s t r u m e n t t o m i n i m i s e s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n and an i n s t r u m e n t w i t h a sound t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d . The o r i g i n a l d e v i c e was a s t a i n l e s s s t e e l p l a t e 20mm t h i c k by 80mm w ide w i t h a membrane, 60mm i n d i a m e t e r , mounted f l u s h on each s i d e o f t h e b l a d e . B l a de t h i c k n e s s was a compromise between t h i n n e s s t o m i n i m i s e s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e and t h i c k n e s s t o p r e v en t b l a d e b u c k l i n g under l o a d d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . The b l a d e had a py ram id shaped t i p . The d i l a t o m e t e r was i n t r o d u c e d t o No r t h A m e r i c a by M a r c h e t t i ' s 1980 p u b l i c a t i o n i n t h e G e o t e c h n i c a l D i v i s i o n , J o u r n a l o f t h e ASCE. Compared w i t h CPT, i t ' s use i n No r t h A m e r i c a has been l i m i t e d and o n l y a few f i r m s a r e u s i n g i t . Re sea r ch on t he i n s t r u m e n t and i t s pe r f o rmance i s b e i n g c a r r i e d ou t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a ( U . B . C . ) , Canada and t he U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a , USA. 4 2 . 1 . 2 . I n s t r u m e n t D e s c r i p t i o n and Method o f Use M a r c h e t t i (1980) r e v i s e d h i s o r i g i n a l d e s i g n so t h a t t h e c u r r e n t d i l a t o m e t e r has a mach i n ed , s t a i n l e s s s t e e l b l a d e , 220mm l o n g , 93mm w ide and 13.7mm t h i c k , w i t h a wedge shaped t i p . A s i n g l e s t a i n l e s s s t e e l membrane, 0.25mm t h i c k and 60mm i n d i a m e t e r i s mounted f l u s h on one s i d e o f t h e b l a d e . Beneath t h e membrane i s a d e f l e c t i o n m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e wh i ch t u r n s a b u z z e r o f f , when t h e membrane j u s t • l i f t s c l e a r o f a s e n s i n g d i s c (a d e f l e c t i o n o f about 0 .1 mm), and t u r n s t h e b u z z e r on a ga i n when a f u r t h e r 1mm d e f l e c t i o n o c c u r s at t h e c e n t r e o f t h e membrane ( f i g . 2 . 1 . and f i g . 2 . 2 . ) . The b l a d e can be j a c k e d i n t o t h e ground by CPT o r s t a n d a r d p e n e t r a t i o n (SPT) equ i pmen t . The j a c k i n g r a t e i s s e t at 2 cm/sec t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h CPT. S o i l t e s t i n g t a k e s p l a c e a t 20cm i n t e r v a l s by h a l t i n g p e n e t r a t i o n and i m m e d i a t e l y i n f l a t i n g t h e membrane. H igh p r e s s u r e g a s , u s u a l l y compressed a i r o r n i t r o g e n , i s u s e d , s u p p l i e d t o t h e b l a d e v i a a c o n t r o l u n i t a t t h e s u r f a c e and a n y l o n t ube t h r e a d e d t h r o u g h the r o d s . I n f l a t i o n r a t e i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e o p e r a t o r , u s i n g a v a l v e mounted i n t h e c o n t r o l u n i t , so t h a t i n f l a t i o n t a k e s 15 t o 30 s e c o n d s . As t h e membrane i s i n f l a t e d , t h e p r e s s u r e r e q u i r e d t o j u s t l i f t t h e membrane o f f o f t h e s e n s i n g d i s c ( r e a d i n g A) and t o cause a f u r t h e r 1mm d e f l e c t i o n a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e membrane ( r e a d i n g B) i s r e c o r d e d . Read ings a re t a k e n f rom a p r e s s u r e gauge mounted i n t h e c o n t r o l u n i t and e n t e r e d on a s t a n d a r d f o r m . Once 1mm membrane d e f l e c t i o n i s r e a ched t e s t i n g i s c omp l e t e so p r e s s u r e i s v en t ed and ano t he r 20cm advance i s made. f i g u r e 2.1 F l a t D i l a t o m e t e r . D 10 , 80 TOP VIEW See Detail Below SECTION A - A Membrane Sensing Disc Insulating Seat Plexiglass Cylinder Stainless Steel Cylinder Pneumatic Electr ic Conduit DETAIL Schemat i c of Di latometer F ig . 2.2 7 The use o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r i s l i m i t e d by t h e r o b u s t n e s s o f t h e membrane and t h e b l a d e . In e f f e c t t h i s means t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o s a n d s , s i l t s and c l a y s . 2 . 2 . Da t a R e d u c t i o n The raw DMT d a t a ( r e a d i n g s A and B) must be c o r r e c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e p r e s s u r e s Po and P i wh i ch a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e s o i l b e f o r e and a f t e r membrane e x p a n s i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . , The c o r r e c t i o n s i n c l u d e a l l o w a n c e s f o r membrane s t i f f n e s s , z e r o o f f s e t i n t h e p r e s s u r e gauge and t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e mea su r i n g s y s t e m . The mea su r i n g sys tem i s a r r a nged so t h a t a t r e a d i n g A t h e r e i s a s m a l l d i s p l a c e m e n t ( abou t 0.1 mm). Hence t o d e t e r m i n e P 0 , t h e f u l l r e d u c t i o n f o r m u l a uses an e x t r a p o l a t i o n t o f i n d p r e s s u r e a t z e r o d e f l e c t i o n . A f u l l d i s c u s s i o n on t he c o r r e c t i o n s i s g i v e n by M a r c h e t t i and Crapps ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S i m p l i e d , t o i g n o r e t h e c o r r e c t i o n due t o measu r i ng sys tem c o n f i g u r a t i o n , t h e e x p r e s s i o n s f o r P 0 and P i a r e : P 0 = A + DA - Z m , and ( 2 - 1 ) P i = B - DB - Z m ( 2 - 2 ) Where P 0 = The c o r r e c t e d p r e s s u r e on t h e membrane a t 0mm d e f l e c t i o n , and DA = The vacuum r e q u i r e d t o make t h e membrane j u s t s e a t on t he s e n s i n g d i s c i n f r e e a i r as a f t e r s e v e r a l r e a d i n g s t h e membrane a c q u i r e s a permanent ou twa rd c u r v a t u r e , and 8 Z m = Zero o f f s e t i n t h e p r e s s u r e gauge as t h e n e e d l e g e n e r a l l y does not r e ad e x a c t l y z e r o , and P i = The c o r r e c t e d p r e s s u r e r e q u i r e d t o cause linm d e f l e c t i o n a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e membrane, and DB = The a i r p r e s s u r e r e q u i r e d t o cause 1mm d e f l e c t i o n a t t h e c e t n r e o f t h e membrane i n f r e e a i r . From P 0 and P i a re d e r i v e d t he t h r e e d i l a t o m e t e r p a r a m e t e r s : t h e d i l a t o m e t e r modu l u s , (Ed e q . 2 - 3 ) , t h e m a t e r i a l i n d e x , ( I d e q . 2 - 4 ) , and t h e h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s i n d e x , (Kd e q . 2 - 5 ) , Where Ed = 34 . 6 ( P i - P 0 ) , and (2 - 3) Id = ( P i - P o ) / ( P o " U ) , and (2 - 4) Kd = ( P 0 " U ) / s v ' (2 - 5) Where U = h y d r o s t a t i c wa t e r p r e s s u r e , and s v ' = v e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s . The d i l a t o m e t e r modulus was d e r i v e d u s i n g e l a s t i c t h e o r y ( M a r c h e t t i 1975) w i t h Id and Kd b e i n g a r b i t r a r y i n dex pa r ame te r s ( M a r c h e t t o 1 9 8 0 ) . U s i n g t h e s e t h r e e pa r ame te r s M a r c h e t t i expanded t h e use o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r i n h i s 1980 p ape r , by p r e s e n t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s t o e s t i m a t e n i n e d i f f e r e n t s o i l p r o p e r t i e s ( T a b l e I ) . M a r c h e t t i ' s e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d by 9 S o i l P a rame te r Id Kd Ed Comments S o i l Type * Id d e t e r m i n e s b road s o i l t y p e t hen s o i l d e s c r i p t i o n and d e n s i t y f rom l o g l o g r e l a t i o n between Id and Ed . S o i l D e n s i t y * * S o i l D e s c r i p t i o n * * O v e r -C o n s o l i d a t i o n R a t i o (OCR) * * Id d e t e r m i n e s s o i l t y p e t hen l o g l o g r e l a t i o n -s h i p between OCR and Kd P r e c o n s o l i d a t i o n P r e s s u r e ( P c ) * * Uses OCR and v e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s Und r a i n ed Shear S t r e n g t h ( S u ) * * S u / s v ' = f ( l o g K d ) assumes S u / s v ' = 0 .22 f o r NC c l a y s . O n l y c a l c u l a t e d i f I d -O . 9 o r s o i l s s i l t y c l a y , o r f i n e r . L a t e r a l S t r e s s R a t i o ( K 0 ) * Log K 0 = f ( L o g K d ) C o n s t r a i n e d Modulus (M) * * * Id d e t e r m i n e s s o i l , t y p e , t hen Rm=f ( Id , Log K d ) t hen M=f )R m , Ed) F r i c t i o n A n g l e * * =f( Id> E d . V ) Used o n l y i f Id>2 or s o i l i s sandy s i l t o r c o u r s e r . L i m i t e d t o 25 and 4 5 . T a b l e I S o i l P a r ame te r s De te rm ined f r om D i l a t o m e t e r I n d i c e s u s i n g M a r c h e t t i ' s (1980) E m p i r i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s . 10 compa r i ng DMT d a t a w i t h l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d r e s u l t s f r om homogenous, w e l l documented , I t a l i a n s o i l s and a p p l y i n g a r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s ( T a b l e I ) . S o i l s t e s t e d i n c l u d e d n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d (NC) and ove r c o n s o l i d a t e d (OC) s a n d s , s i l t s and c l a y s . 2 .3 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s The main pu rpose o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r was t o have a t h i n d e v i c e , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n t o a minimum and mak ing e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f s o i l p r o p e r t i e s back t o t h e i n s i t u ( p r e - p e n e t r a t i o n ) s t a t e not o n l y e a s i e r , but more a c c u r a t e . W h i l e t h e c on cep t i s i n t u i t i v e l y good , p e n e t r a t i o n d e v i c e s by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e i m p a r t s i g n i f i c a n t s t r a i n t o t h e s o i l d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . P e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r b l a d e can be m o d e l l e d as t h e e x p a n s i o n o f a f l a t c a v i t y . However because o f c omp l ex , n o n l i n e a r s t r e s s / s t r a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s o i l s , t h e e f f e c t o f p e n e t r a t i o n on t he o r i g i n a l s t r e s s s t a t e i s d i f f e r e n t f o r each s o i l . T h e r e f o r e i t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t r e s s s t a t e i n t h e s o i l a f t e r b l a d e p e n e t r a t i o n and b e f o r e membrane e x p a n s i o n . A n a l y s i s o f membrane e x p a n s i o n i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t even though s o i l i s o n l y d i s p l a c e d 1.1mm by t he membrane compared w i t h 7mm d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . I f s o i l i s assumed t o be an e l a s t i c , i s o t r o p i c , homogeneous h a l f s p a c e , t h e d i l a t o m e t e r membrane a r i g i d d i s c and no s e t t l e m e n t o c c u r s e x t e r n a l t o t h e l o aded a r e a d u r i n g e x p a n s i o n , t hen e l a s t i c t h e o r y can be used t o d e r i v e a d e f o r m a t i o n o r Young ' s Modulus as f o l l o w s ( M a r c h e t t i 1975 , Graveson 1 9 5 9 ) : 11 S = ( P i - P0).M1-V2)/E 2rtc Where S = d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e r i g i d d i s c , and D = d i a m e t e r o f t h e r i g i d d i s c , and v = P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o , and E = Young ' s Modu lus Fo r t h e d i l a t o m e t e r S = 1.1mm, D=60mm wh i ch g i v e s E / ( l - y 2 ) = 3 4 . 6 ( P i - P 0 ) o r Ed = E / ( l - V 2 ) = 3 4 . 6 ( P i - P 0 ) as i n e q u a t i o n 2 - 3 . The v a l i d i t y o f t h e e l a s t i c a n a l y s i s depends l a r g e l y on t h e t y p e o f s o i l b e i n g t e s t e d . When a wedge-shaped p ene t r ome t e r i s i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e g r o u n d , a c e r t a i n amount o f ene r gy i s r e q u i r e d t o open t h e c a v i t y . As t h e t i p nea r s a s o i l e l ement s t r a i n i n g i n c r e a s e s and once t h e wedge i s passed t h e e l emen t t h e r e i s some u n l o a d i n g . The d i l a t o m e t e r membrane l i e s b eh i nd t h e s h o u l d e r o f t h e b l a d e so s o i l f a c i n g t h e membrane i s o ve r c o n s o l i d a t e d . D u r i n g membrane e x p a n s i o n , f u r t h e r l o a d i n g o c c u r s and t he s o i l w i l l r ema in e l a s t i c u n l e s s t h e s t r e s s pa th r e a c h e s t h e y i e l d s u r f a c e a t wh i ch p o i n t p l a s t i c y i e l d i n g o c c u r s . T h e r e f o r e , i n v e r y r i g i d s a n d s , wh i ch undergo r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e y i e l d i n g d u r i n g membrane e x p a n s i o n , e l a s t i c t h e o r y may abe a p p l i c a b l e and t he measured Ed may a p p r o x i m a t e a s m a l l s t r a i n l e v e l " e l a s t i c " E<j. In c l a y s howeve r , wh i ch undergo p l a s t i c s t r a i n s d u r i n g membrane e x p a n s i o n , Ed may be o f l i t t l e use o t h e r t han as an e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n p a r a m e t e r . 12 The re a r e a number o f o t h e r p rob l ems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a s sump t i on s used t o d e r i v e an e l a s t i c d e f o r m a t i o n modu l u s . S o i l i s g e n e r a l l y not i s o t r o p i c nor homogeneous, P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o i s not a lways known and t he d i l a t o m e t e r membrane d e f l e c t s as a dome and no t as a r i g i d d i s c . F u r t h e r m o r e s e t t l e m e n t may o c c u r e x t e r n a l t o t h e l o aded a r e a . The r e a c t i o n l o a d t o t h e membrane i s p r o v i d e d by b e a r i n g on t he s i d e o f t h e b l a d e o p p o s i t e t h e membrane and by t he bend i ng s t i f f n e s s o f t h e r od s f r om wh i ch t h e b l a d e i s c a n t i l e v e r e d . The b l a d e a r e a p r o v i d i n g t he r e a c t i o n b e a r i n g i s o n l y seven t i m e s t he a r e a o f t h e membrane and t he r e l a t i v e l y s l e n d e r r o d s may p r o v i d e l i t t l e s u p p o r t so i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s o i l s u p p o r t i n g t h e b l a d e may y i e l d s l i g h t l y d u r i n g e x p a n s i o n . In t h i s e v e n t t h e s o i l b e i n g t e s t e d wou ld be de fo rmed by l e s s t h an t h e assumed 1.1mm. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t because o f t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s , s i m p l i f i e d e l a s t i c t h e o r y as used by M a r c h e t t i i s not a p p l i c a b l e t o d e r i v a t i o n o f an e l a s t i c modulus f r om t he d i l a t o m e t e r . However t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y s e r i o u s p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e d i l a t o m e t e r i s o n l y used as an e m p i r i c a l t o o l . I t i s o n l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e d i l a t o m e t e r g i v e s c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s so t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s a l s o y i e l d s c o n s i s t e n t and r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s . In f a c t w h i l e M a r c h e t t i (1975) o r i g i n a l l y a imed a t an i n s i t u t o o l w i t h a sound t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d , he has neve r used t h e d i l a t o m e t e r as a f undamen ta l t o o l but o n l y w i t h e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . Fo r e xamp l e , i n T a b l e I Ed i s neve r used t o d e r i v e an e l a s t i c d e f o r m a t i o n modulus bu t i s a lways used as a pa ramete r i n e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . M a r c h e t t i d i d not d e v e l o p Id and Kd as t h e o r e t i c a l p a r a m e t e r s . As shown on T ab l e I Id and Kd a re o n l y used as c o r r e l a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s . 13 2.4 D i l a t o m e t e r Index P a r a m e t e r s and D e r i v e d S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 2 . 4 . 1 M a t e r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t e r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by t h e d i l a t o m e t e r i s p r i n c i p a l l y by t h e so c a l l e d m a t e r i a l i n dex ( I d , eq 2 - 4 ) . The e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was d e v e l o p e d by r e l a t i n g Id t o g r a i n s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s f r om w e l l documented I t a l i a n s i t e s . Id g e n e r a l l y r anges f r om 0.1 t o 8 o r h i g h e r . In t h e c a s e Id i s l e s s t h an 0 .1 t hen t h e s o i l i s v e r y weak and d i s t u r b a n c e d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n i s so g r e a t t h a t M a r c h e t t i (1980) c o n s i d e r s i t i s no t p o s s i b l e t o e x t r a p o l a t e back t o t h e o r i g i n a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . The use o f Id i s shown i n f i g u r e 2 . 3 . Fo r e xamp l e , i f Id = 3 then t h e s o i l i s a s i l t y s a n d . M a t e r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s expanded by t h e use t h e d i l a t o m e t e r modulus t o f u r t h e r q u a n t i f y t h e s o i l d e s c r i p t i o n and p r o v i d e an e s t i m a t e o f s o i l d e n s i t y . M a r c h e t t i (1980) f ound t h a t a l o g l o g r e g r e s s i o n o f Ed and Id gave t he be s t r e s u l t s a l t h o u g h no c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t i s g i v e n . In f i g u r e 2.3 g i v e n t h a t Id = 3 i n d i c a t e s a s i l t y sand t hen i f Ed = 100 MPa, t h e m a t e r i a l i s a v e r y r i g i d s i l t y sand w i t h an a p p r o x i m a t e u n i t we i gh t o f 21 . 1 kN/m3. M a r c h e t t i (1980) b e l i e v e s t h a t Id p r o v i d e s a r e a s o n a b l y good means o f i d e n t i f y i n g s o i l t y p e and even i n d e p o s i t s o f v a r y i n g OCR Id appea r s t o r ema in c o n s t a n t w i t h d e p t h . However a s i n g l e p a r a m e t e r , such as I d , wh i ch measures t h e ne t mechan i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f a s o i l , c anno t g i v e a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f g r a i n s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e r e f o r e i n some ca se s I d nay be i n e r r o r . Fo r e xamp l e , a 100% s i l t may have a 14 s i m i l a r Id t o a c l a y w i t h sand ( M a r c h e t t i 1 9 8 0 ) . A n o t h e r example o f an e r r o n e o u s answer f r om t he c o r r e l a t i o n Id comes f r om Be l 1 o t t i e t a l ( 1 9 8 0 ) . In a s e r i e s o f chamber t e s t s u s i n g d r y NC sand t h e y no t ed t h a t Id p r e d i c a t e d a f i n e r o r more c o h e s i v e m a t e r i a l t han a c t u a l l y e x i s t e d . No e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be f ound f o r t h i s e r r o r . The m a t e r i a l i n dex i s most used d i l a t o m e t e r i ndex p a r a m e t e r . As shown i n T a b l e I i t i s used as an e l ement i n 8 out o f t h e 9 e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s t o e s t i m a t e s o i l p r o p e r t i e s f r om t h e d i l a t o m e t e r . 15 200 0.5 1 MATERIAL INDEX I. F i g u r e 2.3 E m p i r i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n Chart f o r E s t i m a t i n g S o i l Type and U n i t Weight from the Di l a t o m e t e r ( a f t e r M a r c h e t t i and Crapps 1981). 16 2 . 4 . 2 H o r i z o n t a l S t r e s s Index Based on r e s u l t s f r om T e r r e O g l i o i n I t a l y , t o g e t h e r w i t h a number o f o t h e r s i t e s , M a r c h e t t i ( 1978 , 1979 , 1980) b e l i e v e s t h a t Kd (eq 2-5) i s u n i f o r m w i t h dep th i n a NC d e p o s i t w i t h no c e m e n t a t i o n o r o t h e r f o rms o f a t t r a c t i o n . Fo r a NC c l a y M a r c h e t t i and Crapps (1981) s ugge s t t h a t t y p i c a l l y l i k e s between 1.8 and 2 . 3 . I f Kd i s g r e a t e r t han 2 .3 t hen t he d e p o s i t i s d e f i n e d as " a b n o r m a l " o r h a v i n g h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s e s i n e x c e s s o f "norma l l e v e l s " . Fo r e xamp l e , e x c e s s h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s e s c o u l d be due t o l o a d i n g i n o t h e r t han one d i m e n s i o n , t e c t o n i c a c t i v i t y , o r c e m e n t a t i o n ( M a r c h e t t i 1 9 7 6 b ) . In t h e even t a d e p o s i t i s abnormal t hen t he c o r r e l a t i o n s u s i n g Kd g i v e i n c o r r e c t v a l u e s ( M a r c h e t t i 1 9 7 9 b ) . Fo r sand M a r c h e t t i and Crapps (1981) s t a t e t h a t Kd l i e s a round 1 .5 . However t h i s v a l u e f o r sand i s no t bo rne ou t by B e l l o t t i e t a l (1980) who s t u d i e d t h e d i l a t o m e t e r i n chamber t e s t s w i t h d r y NC sand under boundary c o n d i t i o n s o f c o n s t a n t h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l s t r e s s e s and c o n s t a n t v e r t i c a l s t r e s s / n o h o r i z o n t a l s t r a i n . They f ound Kd v a l u e s o f 4 t o 5 o r 2 t o 3 t i m e s h i g h e r than M a r c h e t t i ' s v a l u e f o r NC unde rwa te r d e p o s i t e d s a n d s . B e l l o t t i e t a l c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e " r ema i n t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d " . I n t u i t i v e l y i t can be imag i ned t h a t t h e r e a r e a number o f p rob l ems i n m e a s u r i n g h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s i n a c o h e s i o n l e s s d e p o s i t . Fo r e xamp l e , i n a l o o s e d e p o s i t , t h e vo lume change a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b l a d e p e n e t r a t i o n w i l l have l i t t l e e f f e c t on s t r e s s e s so Kd w i l l measure i n s i t u s t r e s s e s r e a s o n a b l y w e l l . In a dense sand however , p e n e t r a t i o n w i l l c ause d i l a t i o n wh i ch w i l l i n c r e a s e the l a t e r a l 17 s t r e s s on t h e b l a d e and hence t he measured K d . The env i r onmen t i n wh i ch t he sand was l a i d down c o u l d a l s o i n f l u e n c e Kd by v a r y i n g t he s t r e s s e s i n , and t h e s t r u c t u r e o f , t h e s a n d . Fo r e xamp l e , i n a h i g h ene rgy s y s t e m , such as a f a s t f l o w i n g r i v e r , t h e sand may be packed i n i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l d i r e c t i o n , l o c k i n g i n h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s e s . The r e s u l t i s t h a t a s a n d , l a i d down i n d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o nmen t s t o t h e same r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y , but w i t h d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s h i s t o r i e s may have d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s t o p e n e t r a t i o n and hence g i v e d i f f e r e n t K d ' s . In sands and s i l t s t h e r e f o r e , v a r i a t i o n s i n s t r e s s h i s t o r y , d e n s i t y , s o i l t y p e and s o i l s t r u c t u r e may a f f e c t t h e p r e s s u r e e x e r t e d by s o i l on t h e b l a d e i n an i n d e t e r m i n a t e manner . T h i s may i n t u r n a f f e c t c a l c u l a t i o n o f Kd a l s o i n an i n d e t e r m i n a t e manner , mak ing q u a n t i t a t i v e assessment o f Kd d i f f i c u l t and r educe i t s r e l i a b i l i t y as a c o n s i s t e n t c o r r e l a t i o n p a r a m e t e r . The r e s p o n s e o f a s o i l t o l o ad i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s t r e s s pa th and so i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know t h e i n i t i a l s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s o i l . To c o m p l e t e l y d e f i n e t h e s o i l s t r e s s s t a t e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s e s . V e r t i c a l s t r e s s e s can be c a l c u l a t e d by s t a t i c s and so a r e r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . H o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s e s can be d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e c o e f f i c e n t o f l a t e r a l s t r e s s ( K 0 ) wh i ch i s t h e r a t i o o f v e r t i c a l t o h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s e s . M a r c h e t t i (1980) has d eve l o ped an e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e K 0 f r om Kd (eq 2 - 6 ) . 18 Where K 0 = ( K d / 1 . 5 ) ° ' 4 7 - 0 . 6 ( 2 - 6 ) M a r c h e t t i (1980) d i d not g i v e the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . 2 . 4 . 3 D i l a t o m e t e r Modu lus The d i l a t o m e t e r can n o m i n a l l y be used t o d e t e r m i n e two s o i l m o d u l i , E, and the c o n s t r a i n e d modu lu s , M, a l t h o u g h as d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 2 . 3 , E i s neve r d e r i v e d f r om Erj. The c o n s t r a i n e d modu lu s , M, i s t he i n v e r s e o f t h e c o e f f i c e n t o f vo lume change m v . I t i s used t o e s t i m a t e t he o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l d e f o r m a t i o n due t o c o n s o l i d a t i o n s e t t l e m e n t . As shown i n T a b l e I , M i s d e r i v e d u s i n g a l l t h r e e d i l a t o m e t e r i ndex p a r ame t e r s t o g e t h e r w i t h an i n t e r m e d i a t e pa rame te r R m . The use o f Id and l o g Kd t o d e t e r m i n e R m r e c o g n i s e s t h e i n f l u e n c e s o i l t y p e and s t r e s s l e v e l have on M and t he use o f Ed r e c o g n i s e s t he d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s / s t r a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i f f e r e n t s o i l s . M a r c h e t t i (1980) gave no c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t f o r t h e e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n t o d e t e rm i ne M. Schmertmann (1980) checked M a r c h e t t i ' s c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r s o i l s i n F l o r i d a . He f ound t h a t t he d i l a t o m e t e r M was c o n s e r v a t i v e compared w i t h oedometer r e s u l t s by a f a c t o r o f two . M a r c h e t t i (1980) no te s t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e M i s o n l y v a l i d up t o t h e p r e c o n s o l i d a t i o n p r e s s u r e beyond wh i ch t he d i l a t o m e t e r M under p r e d i c t s s e t t l e m e n t s . 19 2 . 4 . 4 U n d r a i n e d Shea r S t r e n g t h Und r a i n ed s hea r s t r e n g t h ( S u ) can be d e t e r m i n e d f r om t h e d i l a t o m e t e r by e m p i r i c a l l y c o r r e l a t i n g Kd and v e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s ( M a r c h e t t i 1 9 8 0 ) . M a r c h e t t i ' s e q u a t i o n i s : S u = 0 . 2 2 s v ' ( 0 . 5 Kd) L 2 5 ( 2 - 7 ) Where S y 1 = v e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s . The e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n i s o n l y used when t he s o i l i s a c l a y o r c l a y e y s i l t ( 0 . 1 < I d < 0 . 9 ) . M a r c h e t t i ' s c o r r e l a t i o n , d i s c u s s e d i n h i s 1980 p a p e r , i n c l u d e s t he a s sumpt i on t h a t NC c l a y has a S u / s v ' r a t i o o f 0 . 2 2 . Because o f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , M a r c h e t t i s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d i l a t o m e t e r d e r i v e d S u i s l ower than t he e q u i v a l e n t f i e l d vane r e s u l t s and hence i n p r i n c i p l e can be used d i r e c t l y i n d e s i g n . M a r c h e t t i (1980) s t a t e s t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s not a p p l i c a b l e t o s e n s i t i v e c l a y s . Lo s s o f s o i l s t r u c t u r e d u r i n g b l a d e p e n e t r a t i o n i s so g r e a t t h a t i t i s not v a l i d t o e x t r a p o l a t e back t o o r i g i n a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . 2 . 4 . 5 F r i c t i o n A n g l e The f r i c t i o n a n g l e o f a c o h e s i o n l e s s m a t e r i a l can be d e t e r m i n e d f r om d i l a t o m e t e r r e s u l t s u s i n g a s e r i e s o f e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s d eve l o ped by M a r c h e t t i and Crapps ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n , wh i ch uses I d , Ed and s v ' , has a l ower bound o f 25 deg rees and an upper bound o f 45 d e g r e e s . I t i s o n l y used i f t h e m a t e r i a l i s a sandy 20 s i l t o r sand ( I d < - 1 . 2 ) . In t he r e g i o n 0 . 9 < I d < 1 . 2 , t h e d i l a t o m e t e r c anno t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s o i l t y pe a c c u r a t e l y and no s t r e n g t h p a r ame t e r s ( S u o r f r i c t i o n a n g l e ) a re c a l c u l a t e d . M a r c h e t t i and Crapps (1981) no te t h a t t h e f r i c t i o n ang l e c o r r e l a t i o n i s based on a l i m i t e d d a t a base and canno t be c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e . To p r o v i d e a more sound c o r r e l a t i o n f o r f r i c t i o n a n g l e Schmertmann (1982) has used Durgunog lu and M i t c h e l l ' s b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y t h e o r y . A complex i t e r a t i v e method i s used t o s o l v e Du rgunog lu and M i t c h e l l ' s e q u a t i o n u s i n g pu sh i ng f o r c e on the d i l a t o m e t e r and t h e d i l a t o m e t e r Ko . 2.5 Advan tages and D i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e D i l a t o m e t e r The ma jo r advan tage o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r l i e s i n i t s s i m p l i c i t y as o n l y a minimum o f equ ipment i s needed . The i n s t r u m e n t can be i n s t a l l e d w i t h e i t h e r CPT o r SPT equ i pmen t . M a r c h e t t i (1980) c i t e s an example where he used a l i g h t hand d r i v e n r i g on d i f f i c u l t ground c o n d i t i o n s . A minimum o f s u p p o r t equ ipment i s r e q u i r e d as no s o p h i s t i c a t e d e l e c t r o n i c s and power s u p p l i e s a r e u s e d . The d i l a t o m e t e r b l a d e i s c o n s t r u c t e d s i m p l y and r u g g e d l y , r e d u c i n g r e q u i r e d ma i n t enance t o a minimum. F i n a l l y t he r e s u l t s a r e v e r y r e p e a t a b l e ( M a r c h e t t i 1 9 8 1 ) . The main d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r l i e s i n t h e membrane wh i ch has t o be t h i n t o make i t e x p a n d a b l e . T h i s makes i t v e r y f r a g i l e and s u s c e p t i b l e t o damage. In dense sands t h e r e can be s i g n i f i c a n t d r ag on t h e membrane wh i ch s t r e t c h e s and f o rms a w r i n k l e a t t he t o p . E v e n t u a l l y t h e w r i n k l e b lows o u t . 21 S t ones can e a s i l y t e a r t he membrane. To overcome p rob l ems w i t h g r a v e l a t s h a l l o w dep ths a s l i g h t l y o v e r s i z e d d i 1 a t o m e t e r - s h a p e d s t e e l mandre l can be used t o s t a r t t h e h o l e and push s t one s ou t o f t h e way. Ano the r d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t he d i l a t o m e t e r i s d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e b l a d e . S o i l under a d e f l e c t e d b l a d e can become compac ted . I f t h e membrane i s on t he l owe r s i d e o f t h e b l a d e , Po , Ed and Kd a r e h i g h because t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a compacted s o i l a re b e i n g measu red . I f t he membrane i s on t h e upper s i d e o f t h e b l a d e , t he s o i l s may a r ch a c r o s s t he membrane r e d u c i n g P 0 , Ed and K d . F u r t h e rmo r e w i t h a d e f l e c t e d b l a d e , i n s i t u s t r e s s e s on t h e b l a d e a r e not p u r e l y h o r i z o n t a l , bu t i n c l u d e some some component o f t he v e r t i c a l s t r e s s . In an ex t reme ca se f o r e xamp l e , i f K o = 0 . 5 and t h e b l a d e i s h o r i z o n t a l , s t r e s s e s measured wou ld be doub l e t ho se e x p e c t e d f o r a v e r t i c a l b l a d e . One f i n a l p r ob l em w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f DMT d a t a l i e s i n t h e method o f d a t a r e d u c t i o n u s i n g M a r c h e t t i ' s e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . The somet imes complex c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o update as a d d i t i o n a l d a t a f rom U .B .C . and o t h e r s o u r c e s becomes a v a i l a b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t s f o r t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s used t o d e t e r m i n e t he e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s a re unknown so t h e l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t he r e s u l t s i s a l s o unknown. 2.6 D i l a t o m e t e r T e s t T e c h n i q u e s at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A t U .B .C . t h e r e s e a r c h t r u c k (Campane l l a and Robe r t s on 1981) was used t o push the d i l a t o m e t e r i n t o t h e g r ound . Maximum p u s h i n g p r e s s u r e was 8 t onnes w i t h o u t a n c h o r s , wh i ch was adequate i n most c a s e s . G e n e r a l l y i t was f ound 22 t h a t i f maximum p u s h i n g c a p a c i t y was r e a c h e d , t h e d i l a t o m e t e r was no l o n g e r v e r t i c a l so t h e r e was no r e a s on t o go any d e e p e r . To improve r e s o l u t i o n o f A and B a t low v a l u e s and t o p r o v i d e a ha rd copy o f t h e r e s u l t s an a i r p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e a i r s u p p l y o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r . D u r i n g membrane e x p a n s i o n , t h e s i g n a l f r om t he t r a n s d u c e r was f e d on t o a c h a r t r e c o r d e r . V a l u e s o f A and B c o u l d be s c a l e d f rom the c h a r t r e c o r d e r and compared w i t h v a l u e s no ted f r om t he p r e s s u r e gauge d u r i n g t e s t i n g . C o r r e c t i o n s i f n e c e s s a r y c o u l d t hen be madse t o A and B b e f o r e d a t a r e d u c t i o n . The raw d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r om t he d i l a t o m e t e r was r educed u s i n g t he f o r t r a n programme D I L .RED . T h i s programme was adapted by t he a u t ho r f r om the programme DILLY w r i t t e n by Crapps and Schmertmann (1981) ( s ee d i s c u s s i o n i n Append i x I I ) . The u s e r i n p u t s wa te r p r e s s u r e and v e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s a t t h e f i r s t t e s t d ep th and u s i n g t h e s e t h e programme r e d u c e s A and B t o P 0 and P i and t hen c a l c u l a t e s I d , Ed and Kd-S u b r o u t i n e s t o n u m e r i c a l l y s o l v e M a r c h e t t i ' s c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e t hen c a l l e d based on v a l u e s o f E d , Id a n d K d . To s o l v e f o r P 0 and P j at t h e nex t t e s t dep th t h e programme uses t h e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r u n i t we i gh t t o d e t e rm i ne t he i n c r emen t i n v e r t i c a l t o t a l s t r e s s , and assumes a h y d r o s t a t i c wa te r p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n t o f i n d t h e i n c r emen t i n wa te r p r e s s u r e . W i th t h i s d a t a A and B at t h e n e x t dep th can be r educed to P 0 and P-j. The p r o c e s s i s then r e p e a t e d f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e p r o f i l e . 23 The computer o u t p u t i s i n bo th g r a p h i c a l and t a b u l a r f o r m . T y p i c a l g r a p h i c a l o u t p u t i s shown i n f i g u r e s 3 .2a and 3.2b and t y p i c a l t a b u l a r o u t p u t p r e s e n t e d i n a ppend i c e s c o n t a i n i n g s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n . 24 CHAPTER THREE MCDONALD'S FARM SEA ISLAND B .C . 3.1 Me thodo l ogy and Scope The McDona l d ' s Farm S i t e on Sea I s l a n d , Richmond i s t h e r e s e a r c h s i t e f o r U . B . C . ' s I n s i t u T e s t i n g Re sea r ch Group . The s i t e i s l e v e l and s t r a t i g r a p h y i s r e a s o n a b l y u n i f o r m so i t i s p o s s i b l e t o compare r e s u l t s f r om d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e e a s e . I n s t r u m e n t s used a t McDona l d ' s Farm i n c l u d e d U . B . C ' s 5 channe l p i e z o - f r i c t i o n c o n e , t h e d i l a t o m e t e r and SBP. Three d i l a t o m e t e r s ound i n g s were c omp l e t e d : (a) u s i n g s t a n d a r d t e s t p r o c e d u r e as o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n 2 . 2 , (b ) t o s t u d y t he e f f e c t s o f dynamic pore p r e s s u r e s on DMT r e s u l t s by v a r y i n g t he t i m e between h a l t i n g p e n e t r a t i o n and e xpand i n g t he membrane, ( c ) t o measure p u s h i n g f o r c e on t he b l a d e so Schmer tmann ' s (1982) method c o u l d be used t o c a l c u l a t e f r i c t i o n a n g l e . Two SBP h o l e s were made. The f i r s t was a s e l f b o r e d h o l e w i t h t e s t s a t 3.0m, 3.81m, 4.56m, 5.33m and 6 .24 and t he second was a pushed h o l e w i t h t e s t s at 2.7m, 3.0m, and 3.81m. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e i n s i t u t e s t s , samples were r e c o v e r e d at 11.5m and 18.2m f o r l a b o r a t o r y t e s t i n g . 25 3.2 Geo l ogy The McDona l d ' s Farm s i t e l i e s on the d e l t a o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and t h e s i t e s t r a t i g r a p h y r e p r e s e n t s v a r i o u s s t a g e s i n d e l t a f o r m a t i o n . C l a y and s i l t d e p o s i t s f o rm a s u r f i c i a l venee r a c r o s s t he s i t e t o a dep th o f 2 t o 3m. U n d e r l y i n g t h e s i l t s and c l a y s are s a n d s , l a i d down unde rwa te r by t h e a dvan c i n g d e l t a f r o n t . The s a n d , e x t e n d i n g f rom 2 t o 13m, was d e p o s i t e d i n a t u r b u l e n t e nv i r onmen t and i s t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i v e l y non u n i f o r m w i t h d e p t h . I t i s medium t o c o a r s e i n g r a d a t i o n w i t h t h i n l a y e r s o f f i n e t o medium s a n d . D e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s w i t h d e p t h . A t y p i c a l g r a i n s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e f o r t he sand i s shown i n Append i x I I I . a t r a n s i t i o n zone o f f i n e sand and s i l t e x t end s f rom 13 t o 15m. U n d e r l a y i n g t h i s i s a t h i c k d e p o s i t o f s o f t , n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d c l a y e y s i l t e s t i m a t e d t o e x t end t o 300m i n dep th (B lunden 1 9 7 5 ) . A t y p i c a l g r a i n s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e f o r t h e s i l t i s g i v e n i n Append i x I I I . Ground wa te r i s about lm be low ground l e v e l a l t h o u g h t i d a l f l u c t u a t i o n s do o c c u r because o f p r o x i m i t y t o t he No r t h Arm o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . Water p r e s s u r e s a r e h y d r o s t a t i c w i t h d e p t h . A s o i l p r o f i l e d e r i v e d f rom l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s and cone s ound i n g i s g i v e n i n f i g u r e 3 . 1 . SOIL P R O F I L E Soft CLAY 6 SILT Coarto SAND L O O M to Don to with loyor t of l ino Sand F int SANO, M m ! l i l t Soft , normally c o n s o l i d a t e d Cloyoy SILT Sand • 10% Silt • 7 0 % Clay » 2 0 % L L • 3 8 % P I • I 5 % *n • 5 5 % Cc« 0.3 (8flR) 0.5 (DflR) UD/QC 0 0.5 Dynamic para o n m a r a r a t i * I BAR • lOOhPo • U g f / c m * • I t o n / I t 2 F i g u r e 3 .1 Cone P r o f i l e McDonald's Farm, Sea I s l a n d , B.C. 27 3 .3 R e s u l t s The DMT r e s u l t s f r om t he f i r s t t e s t h o l e a t M cDona l d ' s Farm a re p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 3 .2a and 3 . 2 b . The l o g s f o r t he a d d i t i o n a l d i l a t o m e t e r h o l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Append i x I I I t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e t a b u l a r d i l a t o m e t e r o u t p u t and t he raw SBP d a t a . 3 . 3 . 1 S i t e P r o f i l e and M a t e r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The d i l a t o m e t e r m a t e r i a l i ndex s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s a t McDona l d ' s Farm a re m a i n l y s i l t y sands o r sandy s i l t s a l t h o u g h one l a y e r o f c o m p r e s s i b l e c l a y e y s i l t s was l o g g e d . T h i s compares t o t h e t r u e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a m i x t u r e o f c l a y and s i l t t i d a l d e p o s i t s . The marked d e c r e a s e i n cone f r i c t i o n r a t i o , and i n c r e a s e i n cone b e a r i n g at 3m, as t he m a t e r i a l changes t o a c o n s i s t e n t s a n d , i s not r e f l e c t e d by a v a r i a t i o n i n I d . Ra t he r t h e r e i s a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n Kd and Ed-From 3 to 13m both cone and d i l a t o m e t e r l o g t h e m a t e r i a l as s a n d . The d i l a t o m e t e r c l a s s i f i e s i t as s i l t y sand ( 1 . 8 < I d < 3 . 3 ) . Samples r e c o v e r e d showed a c l e a n , f i n e t o c o a r s e s a n d . Thus t h e d i l a t o m e t e r p r e d i c t e d a f i n e r m a t e r i a l t han was r e a l l y p r e s e n t . Id s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a t r a n s i t i o n zone o f sand t o s i l t between 14 .8 and 16m. However cone b e a r i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t r a n s i t i o n zone l i e s between 13 and 15m, a t r e n d p a r a l l e l l e d by t h e Ed and Kd l o g s . 28 U3.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION:MacDonald's F i n Restarrh H n U i INTERMEDIATE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS to => _l Z> Q O C CC re LU Q-f - C LU ~ C o •I 1 1 L TEST No. DH-1 TEST DRTE; 14 Hay 81 O'CC 0 6£ 1 1 1_ X —I LU a a £ 5 o rsj co (—t CO rr LU 9 ^ to +1" . %1 in _ re ™ C u w > a ! o * a . e I .III \fi K M ' T3& | 1 I » t> 1 ' I ' j f ' 1 ' i 1 1 1 r ' II 1 — r -0 6 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 T °'s,(w)°Hizd3a 0 L Z °'K 0 6 C F i g u r e 3.2a D i l a t o m e t e r H o l e 1 ( D H l ) - I n t e r m e d i a t e G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r a m e t e r s . 29 U3.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: flacDonald's Fara Research Hole 1. INTERPRETED GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS. TEST No. DH-1 TEST DRTE: U Hay 81 • t— —i u o M ? (X CD U. 2 O M CO O ° -u * erf o z 3 CO => => Q O C Q in ™ a cr o u E g (W) Hld30 a O ' C 0 6 0 CI O H Z O ' L Z O ' C C 0 6C ^ ' J 1 1 1 1 1 1 I i i I I I L_ «o_ ' ' ' i i 1 r <o i «=' a. — I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1— " 0 6 " ' iHi l iEaa "'** 0 K r " F i g u r e 3.2b DH1 - I n t e r p e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r a m e t e r s . 30 At 15m, cone b e a r i n g d e c r e a s e s a b r u p t l y and t he dynamic pore p r e s s u r e r a t i o i n c r e a s e s as t h e m a t e r i a l changes f r om sand t o c l a y e y s i l t . The d i l a t o m e t e r i n d i c a t e s the change f r om sand t o s i l t not by a change i n Id bu t by ab rup t d e c r e a s e s i n t h e and Kd p r o f i l e s . The c l a y e y s i l t d e p o s i t s a re c l a s s i f i e d by d i l a t o m e t e r as c l a y ( I<0 . 3 ) v a r y i n g f r om s o f t at 16m t o medium c o n s i s t e n c y at 39 .6m. O v e r a l l t he d i l a t o m e t e r at McDona l d ' s Farm p r o v i d e s r e a s o n a b l e m a t e r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . However, Id g e n e r a l l y p r e d i c t s a s l i g h t l y more c o h e s i v e s o i l than r e a l l y e x i s t s . Compared w i t h t h e c o n e , Id i s r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e t o sma l l changes i n g r a i n s i z e and d e n s i t y and i t i s t he Kd and Ed p r o f i l e s wh i ch appear t o p r o v i d e a b e t t e r r e s o l u t i o n o f s o i l s t r a t i g r a p h y . 3 . 3 . 2 L a t e r a l S t r e s s e s Kd i n t h e sandy m a t e r i a l i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t han t he v a l u e o f 1.5 s ugge s t ed by M a r c h e t t i (1980) f o r a n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d unde rwa te r d e p o s i t e d s a n d . In t h e s a n d , Kd v a r i e s f o r 2 t o 12 w i t h an ave rage v a l u e o f 5 to 6, a l t h o u g h t h e r e a re 5 p ronounced s p i k e s on t h e Kd p l o t s w i t h K d ' s o f 9 t o 12 . Cone pore p r e s s u r e d a t a s ugge s t s t h a t t h e s e r e p r e s e n t l a y e r s o f h i g h e r d e n s i t y m a t e r i a l wh i ch d i l a t e d d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . D i l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d t he measured P 0 and hence Kd- The l a y e r s w i t h h i g h K d ' s a re c l a s s i f i e d by Id as v e r y dense s i l t y s a n d . In t h e s i l t s , Kd was c o n s i s t e n t l y 2.2 t o 2.5 i n d i c a t i n g a n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d d e p o s i t . 31 Compar i sons between K 0 d e t e rm i ned by the d i l a t o m e t e r and SBP a r e made i n f i g u r e 3 . 3 . The d i l a t o m e t e r Id p r o f i l e has a s i m i l a r shape t o t h e SBP p r o f i l e , bu t has l owe r v a l u e s and much s m a l l e r v a r i a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g comments can be made on a t M c D o n a l d ' s Fa rm. Kd v a l u e s i n t h e sand at McDona l d ' s Farm a re u n e x p e c t e d l y h i g h compared w i t h M a r c h e t t i ' s (1980) s ugges t ed v a l u e . A t up t o 4 to 5 t i m e s o f s ugge s t e d v a l u e o f 1.5 f o r NC unde rwa t e r d e p o s i t e d s a n d s , t h e y a re more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h B e l l o t t i e t a l ' s (1980) chamber t e s t s . P o s s i b l y v a r i a t i o n s i n i n s i t u l a t e r a l s t r e s s e s and d e n s i t y , due t o t h e d e p o s i t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t , a re a f f e c t i n g r e s u l t s i n an i n d e t e r m i n a t e manner . O v e r a l l t he g e n e r a l shape o f t h e Kd and cone b e a r i n g p r o f i l e s a re s i m i l a r a l t h o u g h i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o c o r r e l a t e t h e p r o f i l e s c l o s e l y . T h i s s ugge s t s t h a t l a t e r a l s t r e s s e s and d e n s i t y e f f e c t s , t h e p r i m a r y f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g cone r e s u l t s , may a l s o be the p r i m a r y f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g DMT r e s u l t s . The SBP v a l u e s f o r K 0 were h i g h and a lways exceeded t he d i l a t o m e t e r K 0 . However t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p rob l ems i n d e t e r m i n i n g Ko f rom t he SBP. F a c t o r s such as s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e and v e r t i c a l i t y o f t h e d e v i c e can a f f e c t r e s u l t s . The SBP t e s t s s o i l i n 0.5m l e n g t h s whereas t h e d i l a t o m e t e r i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p o i n t t e s t w i t h s t a n d a r d t e s t p r o c e d u r e c a l l i n g f o r 2 t o 3 t e s t s i n 0 .5m. I f , f o r e x amp l e , t h e DMP r e s u l t s v a r y m a r k e d l y between t h e 3 r e a d i n g s w i t h i n t h e 0.5m SBP t e s t l e n g t h 33 i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e wh i ch DMT r e s u l t t o use f o r c o m p a r i s o n . F i n a l l y , and most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e 2 arms m e a s u r i n g d e f l e c t i o n o f t he SBP membrane se ldom l i f t e d o f f a t t h e same p r e s s u r e . W h i l e t h e 2 l i f t o f f p r e s s u r e s can be a ve r aged , r e s u l t s f r om McDona l d ' s v a r i e d by 50% o r more . As a r e s u l t l i t t l e c o n f i d e n c e i s p l a c e d i n t h e SBP r e s u l t s f r om McDona l d ' s Fa rm. 3 . 3 . 3 S o i l Modu l i Compar i sons o f s o i l d e f o r m a t i o n modu l i a t M cDona l d ' s Farm a re made i n f i g u r e s 3.4 and 3 . 5 . The r e s u l t s f r om bo th p u s h i n g and s e l f - b o r i n g SBP t e s t s a r e used t o c a l c u l a t e E because t he method o f i n s e r t i o n appea r s not t o have a f f e c t e d r e s u l t s g r e a t l y . As d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 2 . 3 , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e method used t o d e r i v e E f rom Ed i s not v a l i d hence Ed , r a t h e r than the d i l a t o m e t e r e s t i m a t e d E, i s compared w i t h E f r om t he SBP and E s f r om CPT. D e r i v a t i o n o f E s , an " e q u i v a l e n t " Young ' s modulus (Schmertmann 1 9 7 7 ) , i s p r e s e n t e d i n Append ix I . As shown i n f i g u r e 3 .4 the SBP E had a h i g h e r v a l u e than t he d i l a t o m e t e r Ed- An e x c e l l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f ound between Ed and E ( f i g u r e 3 .5 ) w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t o f 0 . 9 5 . An a l t e r n a t i v e way t o compare the d i l a t o m e t e r and SBP i s on a s t r a i n b a s i s . I f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r Ed i s t a k e n as E, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o back c a l c u l a t e G and then a d i l a t o m e t e r e q u i v a l e n t s t r a i n on the SBP p r e s s u r e / c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l s t r a i n p l o t . The p r o c e d u r e i s o u t l i n e d be low and t h e r e s u l t s summar ised i n T ab l e I I . 34 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 E d E and E$ (MPa) Deformation Moduli from- the Dilatometer Self-Boring Pressuremeter and Cone, McDonalds Farm, Sea Island B.C. FIG. 3-4 Ed (Mpa) 36 l e t Ed = E t h e r e f o r e Ed = 2(1+V)G = 2.5G o r G = 0 .4Ed The s l o p e o f t h e SBP p r e s s u r e c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l s t r a i n p l o t = 2G. T h e r e f o r e s l o p e = 2 x 0 .4 Ed = 0 .8Ed I n s p e c t i o n o f t he SBP p l o t s i n Append i c e s shows t h a t S l o p e = 0 .1 ( P i - P 0 ) / S t r a i n where ( P - j - P 0 ) i n k P a , and s t r a i n i n p e r c e n t T h e r e f o r e 0 .8 Ed = 0.1 ( P i - P 0 ) / s t r a i n o r e q u i v a l e n t d i l a t o m e t e r s t r a i n = 0 .125 ( P i - P 0 ) / E d ( 3 - 1 ) The v a l u e i n T ab l e I I can be compared w i t h an ave rage SBP t e s t . T y p i c a l l y t h e u n l o a d / r e l o a d p o r t i o n o f t he p r e s s u r e / c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l s t r a i n p l o t has a ( P i - P o ) o f a b o u t 50 kPa and a s t r a i n l e s s than 0.3%. By c o n s t r a s t , ( P i - P 0 ) f o r t h e d i l a t o m e t e r r e q u i r e s about lOOkPa i n c l a y and up t o 3000 kPa i n sand t o cause 1mm d e f l e c t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , 1mm d i l a t o m e t e r d e f l e c t i o n i n t h e sand at M cDona l d ' s Farm i s e q u i v a l e n t t o an ave rage 3.60% ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0.09%) SBP c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l s t r a i n . 37 Depth (m) Ed (MPa) Po (kPa) P i (kPa) ( P i - P o ) S t r a i n (X) 2.7 9 100 354 250 3.47 3.0 12 165 524 360 3.75 3 .8 43 383 1614 1230 3.57 4 . 6 22 241 884 640 3.64 5.3 30 346 1209 860 3.58 6.2 42 615 1814 1200 3.57 T ab l e I I C a l c u l a t i o n o f E q u i v a l e n t P r e s s u r e m e t e r S t r a i n s f r om D i l a t o m e t e r at McDona l d ' s Fa rm, Sea I s l a n d , B .C . The v a r i a t i o n o f E s w i t h dep th i s shown i n f i g u r e 3 . 4 . The cone E s p r o f i l e was d e r i v e d by t a k i n g 22 p o i n t s f r om t he c o n t i n u o u s cone q c l o g . The r e l a t i o n s h i p Ed and E s i s shown i n f i g u r e 3 . 5 . A c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t o f 0 .94 was f o u n d . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between E s and Ed . G i v en t h e s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between E s and E d , and Ed and E f rom the SBP, a good r e l a t i o n a l s o e x i s t s between E s and E f r om t he SBP. The c o n s t r a i n e d modu l i (M) r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 3 . 6 a and 3 . 6b . The d i l a t o m e t e r and SBP p r o f i l e s show s i m i l a r t r e n d s w i t h t h e d i l a t o m e t e r M w i t h i n +/-40% o f t he SBP v a l u e . The e q u a t i o n r e l a t i n g M f r om the d i l a t o m e t e r and SBP i s g i v e n i n f i g u r e 3 . 6 b . The _ 80 C L £ 60 00 "§ 40 -a a 20 o 0 W 3 0 9 5 + 0 4 8 M(0MT) r = 0-94 0 2 0 4 0 60 8 0 ~ Constrained Moduli Dilatometer (Mpa) lb) 100 Constrained Moduli Results from Dilatometer & SB. Pressuremeter McDonalds Farm, Sea Island BC Fig 3-6 39 c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t i s 0 . 94 . A v a l u e o f P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o o f 0.25 was t a k e n t o c o n v e r t t h e SBP G t o M, 0.25 b e i n g an ave rage P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o f o r s a n d . 3 . 3 . 4 Und r a i n ed Shea r S t r e n g t h The u n d r a i n e d shea r s t r e n g t h ( S u ) r e s u l t s f r om t h e d i l a t o m e t e r a re p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 3 . 2 a . The S u / s v ' r a t i o s f r om t h e d i l a t o m e t e r and cone a r e summar ised i n T a b l e I I I . The S u / s v ' r a t i o f r om t he d i l a t o m e t e r was f ound by d i v i d i n g Su by the v e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s a t t h a t d e p t h . A l a r g e number o f dep ths were c o n s i d e r e d t o y i e l d an ave rage S u / s v ' r a t i o o f 0 .26 w i t h o ve r 90% l y i n g between 0 .24 and 0 . 2 8 . The h i g h e r r a t i o s were f ound a t g r e a t e r d e p t h s . The d i l a t o m e t e r t h e r e f o r e c l a s s i f i e s t he s o i l as s l i g h t l y o ve r c o n s o l i d a t e d because t h e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r S u assumes an NC S u / s v ' r a t i o o f 0 . 2 2 . The S u / s v ' r a t i o f rom the cone was d e t e r m i n e d by e x t r a p o l a t i n g t h e q c p r o f i l e back t o ground l e v e l . Because t h i s pa s se s t h r ough t he o r i g i n , t h e cone ag rees w i t h g e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y by s u g g e s t i n g t h e d e p o s i t i s n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d . 40 DMT Cone S u / s v 1 0.26 0 .22 T ab l e I I I S u / s v ' R a t i o s f rom D i l a t o m e t e r and Cone 3 . 3 . 5 F r i c t i o n A n g l e Three d i f f e r e n t d i l a t o m e t e r f r i c t i o n a n g l e p r o f i l e s have been p roduced and a re p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 3 . 7 a . They were d e r i v e d by u s i n g : ( i ) Schmer tmann 1 s (1982) method w i t h t h e d i l a t o m e t e r K 0 . ( i i ) Schmer tmann ' s (1982) method w i t h t h e a s sump t i on K o = 0 . 4 , and ( i i i ) M a r c h e t t i ' s e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n ( S e c t i o n 2 . 5 . 5 ) . The t h r e e methods a l l gave s i m i l a r shaped f r i c t i o n a n g l e s v e r s u s dep th p r o f i l e s . M a r c h e t t i ' s c o r r e l a t i o n was t h e most s e n s i t i v e w i t h f r i c t i o n a n g l e r a n g i n g f rom 29 t o 39 d e g r e e s . By c o n t r a s t , Schmer tmann 1 s (1982) method u s i n g Du rgunog lu and M i t c h e l l ' s b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y t h e o r y gave f r i c t i o n ang l e v a l u e s o f 30 t o 36 d e g r e e s . Schmer tmann ' s method was found t o be r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e t o l a r g e v a r i a t i o n s i n K 0 . Fo r examp le , t h e r e was o n l y a one t o two deg ree i n c r e a s e i n f r i c t i o n ang l e w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n K 0 o f 0 .4 t o 2 . Two cone f r i c t i o n ang l e p r o f i l e s have been p roduced and a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 3 . 7 b . They were d e r i v e d by u s i n g Schmer tmann ' s (1978) —I 1 U 1 I 1 I I I I . I I I I I ' ' ll I I I L_ 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 U2 FRICTION ANGLE (DEGREES) FRICTION ANGLE (DEGREES) a) DILATOMETER b) CONE AND PRESSUREMETER F I G U R E 3.7 F R I C T I O N ANGLE VERSUS DEPTH AT M c D O N A L D ' S F A R M , SEA I S L A N D , BC 42 r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y method d e s c r i b e d i n Append i x I . The f i r s t p r o f i l e was d eve l o ped assuming K o =0 .4 or t h a t t h e d e p o s i t was n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d . The second p r o f i l e was d e v e l o p e d u s i n g t h e d i l a t o m e t e r K 0 wh i ch r e q u i r e d s c a l i n g o f s v ' by K 0 b e f o r e u s i n g Schmer tmann 1 s e m p i r i c a l c h a r t r e l a t i n g s v ' , r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y and f r i c t i o n a n g l e . Both t he d i l a t o m e t e r and cone have s i m i l a r l y shaped f r i c t i o n a n g l e f i l e s . However t h e cone p r o f i l e s a r e f i v e t o s i x d eg r ee s h i g h e r t han the d i l a t o m e t e r p r o f i l e s . The two cone p r o f i l e s a r e t h r e e t o f o u r deg rees a p a r t w i t h t h e K o =0 .4 p r o f i l e b e i n g t h e l a r g e r . The SBP p r o f i l e g i v e s t h e h i g h e s t f r i c t i o n ang l e f o r t h e sands a t M c D o n a l d ' s Fa rm. Assuming t h a t t he SBP r e s u l t s a re c o r r e c t , t h e d i l a t o m e t e r p r o f i l e u s i n g M a r c h e t t i ' s c o r r e l a t i o n i s c o n s e r v a t i v e by about f o u r t o s i x deg rees and by s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r amount u s i n g Du rgunog lu and M i t c h e l l ' s b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y t h e o r y . O v e r a l l t h e d i l a t o m e t e r p r e d i c t e d l owe r f r i c t i o n a n g l e s than t he cone o r SBP. I t wou ld t h e r e f o r e appear t h a t bo th M a r c h e t t i ' s (1981) and Schmer tmann ' s (1982) methods t o d e t e rm i ne f r i c t i o n a n g l e need f u r t h e r deve l opmen t . 43 3 . 3 . 6 Po re P r e s s u r e E f f e c t s To s t u d y pore p r e s s u r e e f f e c t s on t he d i l a t o m e t e r a t M cDona l d ' s Farm, the t ime between h a l t i n g p e n e t r a t i o n and e xpand i n g t h e membrane was v a r i e d . The t e s t p r o c edu r e was to advance t o t he t e s t d e p t h , w a i t f o r t h e r e q u i r e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , t hen expand t h e membrane, advance t o t h e nex t d e p t h , w a i t , t e s t , e t c . The w a i t i n g p e r i o d s shown i n T a b l e IV r e p r e s e n t t h e e q u i v a l e n t d i s s i p a t i o n t i m e s f o r t h e U .B .C . cone ( G i l l e s p i e and Campane l l a 1 981 ) . Th ree t e s t s e c t i o n s were c a r r i e d ou t at dep th o f 18 t o 19 .8m, 25 t o 26.8m and 30 .4 t o 32m. The P 0 and P i v a l u e s f r om t he s e c t i o n s where t ime was a l l o w e d f o r dynamic pore p r e s s u r e s t o d i s s i p a t e have been p l o t t e d i n f i g u r e 3 . 8 . To a vo i d v a r i a t i o n s caused by d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e p t h s , t h e v a l u e s were f i r s t n o r m a l i s e d by d i v i d i n g by v e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s . A n a t u r a l l o g s c a l e was used f o r t ime because dynamic pore p r e s s u r e d i s s i p a t e l o g a r i t h m i c a l l y w i t h t i m e ( G i l l e s p i e and Campane l l a 1 9 8 1 ) . Depth Wait P e r c e n t a g e D i s s i p a t i o n (m) (Sec ) (%) X 0 0 x+0.2 25 10 x+0.4 84 25 x+0.6 265 50 x+0.8 1800 90 T ab l e IV W a i t i n g T imes and P e r c e n t a g e D i s s i p a t i o n s , M cDona l d ' s Farm Sea I s l a n d , B .C . _25 _Seconds_ _ _ 10% Dissipation 3 zz. m I/O O o 4> o -S-LSeconds 25 % Dissipation AMJIL 25Secgnd s 50% Dissipation" 30_Minu_tes 90 % Dissipation 45 There i s a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between bo th P 0 / s v ' and P i / s v ' and l o g t i m e . Both p l o t s have c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t s above 0 . 9 . The e q u a t i o n s f o r the b e s t f i t l i n e u s i n g a l e a s t s qua r e s r e g r e s s i o n a r e g i v e n on f i g u r e 3 . 8 . The s l o p e o f t he P n 7 s v ' l i n e i s f l a t t e r than t he P 0 / s v ' T i n e so t h a t t h e l i n e s d i v e r g e as t i m e i n c r e a s e s . T h i s means t h a t Id and Ed a p p a r e n t l y i n c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d i s s i p a t i o n because (P-j-Po) i n c r e a s e s . The re was l i t t l e change i n P 0 and P i a f t e r w a i t i n g f o r o n l y 10% d i s s i p a t i o n compared w i t h v a l u e s f r om the s t a n d a r d t e s t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o make a f i r s t e s t i m a t e o f t he amount o f pore p r e s s u r e g ene r a t ed d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n o f t he d i l a t o m e t e r b l a d e f r om t he McDona l d ' s Farm d a t a . T a k i n g v a l u e s f rom t he d i l a t o m e t e r t a b u l a r o u t p u t i n Append i x I I I and c o r r e c t i n g f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n d e p t h , P 0 a t t 0 and t gn can be compared . W a i t i n g f o r 30 m i n u t e s r educed P 0 by 10 t o 25m o f wa t e r p r e s s u r e wh i ch i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y equa l t o t h e dynamic pore p r e s s u r e g e n e r a t e d by p e n e t r a t i o n o f t he d i l a t o m e t e r . By c o m p a r i s o n , t h e cone a t M cDona l d ' s Farm g e n e r a t e s about 50m o f e x c e s s wa te r p r e s s u r e at 18m and 90m o f e x c e s s wa t e r p r e s s u r e a t 30mm. The appa ren t r e d u c t i o n i n po re p r e s s u r e s g e n e r a t e d by t h e d i l a t o m e t e r compared w i t h t h e cone may come f rom t h r e e s o u r c e s . F i r s t l y t h e d i l a t o m e t e r i s a l o t t h i n n e r t han the cone so t h e r e i s l e s s s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t s m a l l e r dynamic p r e s s u r e s a r e g e n e r a t e d . S e c o n d l y t he d i l a t o m e t e r o n l y moves i n 20cm i n c r e m e n t s between t e s t s wh i ch may not be s u f f i c i e n t t o d eve l op the maximum, l i m i t i n g pore p r e s s u r e s . F i n a l l y t h e t ime r e q u i r e d f o r t e s t i n g a l l o w s some o f t h e e x c e s s pore p r e s s u r e s g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g the advance t o d i s s i p a t e . 46 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s In t h e r e a s o n a b l y u n i f o r m sands and c l a y e y s i l t s o f McDona l d ' s Farm t he d i l a t o m e t e r p roduced an a c c e p t a b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s o i l t y p e . However, i t was t h e Ed and Kd p r o f i l e s wh i ch showed the f i n e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s o i l s t r a t i g r a p h y . The l a t e r a l s t r e s s i ndex i n sand was g r e a t e r t han M a r c h e t t i ' s (1980) s t a t e d v a l u e o f 1 .5 . Whether t h i s was due t o v a r i a t i o n s i n d e n s i t y , d e p o s i t i o n a l env i r onmen t o r l a t e r a l s t r e s s e f f e c t s o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e f a c t o r s canno t be d e t e r m i n e d . In t h e c l a y e y s i l t s Kd showed a n o r m a l l y t o s l i g h t l y o ve r c o n s o l i d a t e d d e p o s i t as e x p e c t e d f rom g e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y . P rob l ems were e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f SBP d a t a so no c ompa r i s on s can be made between measurement o f l a t e r a l s t r e s s e s by t h e d i l a t o m e t e r and SBP. The d i l a t o m e t e r and SBP d e f o r m a t i o n modu l i showed a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t o f 0 .95 w i t h t he d i l a t o m e t e r Ed about 20 MPa l owe r than t he SBP E v a l u e . The d i l a t o m e t e r and SBP c o n s t r a i n e d modu l i showed a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t o f 0 . 9 5 . The d i l a t o m e t e r Ed and t he cone E s showed a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t o f 0 .94 w i t h E s about 48% o f Ed-C a l c u l a t i o n s compa r i ng the d i l a t o m e t e r and SBP show s o i l s t r a i n i n g due t o d i l a t o m e t e r membrane e x p a n s i o n i s e q u i v a l e n t t o 3.6% SBP c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l s t r a i n . The d i l a t o m e t e r p r e d i c t s low f r i c t i o n a n g l e s compared w i t h t h e cone and SBP. M a r c h e t t i ' s (1981) e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s work e q u a l l y w e l l as Schmer tmann ' s (1982) approach and bo th p r e d i c t f r i c t i o n 47 a n g l e s f o u r t o f i v e deg rees l e s s than t he SBP. F i v e f o l d v a r i a t i o n s i n d i l a t o m e t e r K 0 had a m in ima l ( 2 d e g r e e s ) e f f e c t on f r i c t i o n ang l e c a l c u l a t i o n s u s i n g Durgunog lu and M i t c h e l l ' s b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y t h e o r y . I f t ime i s a l l o w e d t o e l a p s e between a d v a n c i n g t he b l a d e and t e s t i n g i n f i n e g r a i n e d s o i l s , t h e r e i s a d i s s i p a t i o n o f po re p r e s s u r e s . P 0 and P i a re bo th t o t a l s t r e s s pa r ame te r s wh i ch d e c r e a s e at a f a s t e r r a t e t han P i so t h a t (Pi-PQ) i n c r e a s e i n Id and Kd and a d e c r e a s e i n Kd-Und r a i n ed s hea r s t r e n g t h was d e t e r m i n e d f r om t h e cone and d i l a t o m e t e r . The cone b e a r i n g p r o f i l e and d i l a t o m e t e r Kd bo th show t h a t t he c l a y e y s i l t d e p o s i t a t M cDona l d ' s Farm i s n o r m a l l y d e p o s i t e d . However t h e d i l a t o m e t e r shea r s t r e n g t h / e f f e c t i v e v e r t i c a l s t r e s s r a t i o s u g g e s t s t h a t t he d e p o s i t i s s l i g h t l y ove r c o n s o l i d a t e d . No r e a son c o u l d be f ound f o r t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n d i l a t o m e t e r r e s u l t s . 48 CHAPTER FOUR FRASER LANDING B .C . 4 . 1 Me thodo l ogy and Scope The i n v e s t i g a t i o n programme at F r a s e r L and i ng was aimed a t a s s e s s i n g s i t e s t r a t i g r a p h y , s o i l s t r e n g t h and the l i q u e f a c t i o n r e s i s t a n c e o f a s a t u r a t e d h y d r a u l i c f i l l wh i ch o v e r l i e s much o f t he s i t e . To improve t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t he h y d r a u l i c f i l l t o l i q u e f a c t i o n , two a reas o f t h e s i t e were compacted u s i n g v i b r o - c o m p a c t i o n and dynamic c o m p a c t i o n . A f u r t h e r a r e a o f t h e s i t e was s e t a s i d e as a r e f e r e n c e a r e a . I n s t r u m e n t s used i n c l u d e d U . B . C . ' s p i e z o - f r i c t i o n c o n e , t h e d i l a t o m e t e r , t h e SBP and t he Menard p r e s s u r e m e t e r (MP) . Sound ings were c omp l e t ed b e f o r e and a f t e r c ompac t i on t o g e t h e r w i t h b o r e h o l e s f o r samp le r e c o v e r y and S t anda r d P e n e t r a t i o n T e s t s ( S P T ) . A summary o f t e s t i n g i s g i v e n i n T a b l e V. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l s t u d y and d i s c u s s t h e c o n e , d i l a t o m e t e r and p r e s s u r e m e t e r r e s u l t s f r om t he r e f e r e n c e a r e a , b e f o r e and a f t e r dynamic c o m p a c t i o n , and b e f o r e and a f t e r v i b r o c o m p a c t i o n . 4 .2 Geo l ogy The main zone o f i n t e r e s t at F r a s e r L and i ng i s t h e s u r f i c i a l 10 t o 15m wh i ch c o n s i s t s o f sand f i l l p l a c e d d u r i n g e a r l i e r s i t e d e ve l o pmen t . The sand i s f i n e t o m e d i u m - f i n e i n g r a d i n g w i t h some s i l t y s a n d s . O c c a s i o n a l p o c k e t s o f g r a v e l , woodwaste p r o d u c t s and r i v e r d e p o s i t s a r e f ound w i t h i n t h i s z o n e . Sol 1 Modu1us Lateral Stresses Fri c t i o n Angle Before Before Ref Before Before Ref Before Before Ref After After Area After After Area After After Area Vlbro. D.C. Vlbro. D.C. Vlbro. D.C. Cone X X X X X X DIlatoraeter X X x X X X X X X Set f-borIng Pressuremeter X x X X X X Menard Pressuremeter X X T a b l e v - O u t l i n e o f S o i l P r o p e r t i e s S t u d i e d a n d I n s t r u m e n t s U s e d a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g . 50 The s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l g e n e r a l l y has a low d e n s i t y , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l dense p o c k e t s , and because o f i t s s o f t n a t u r e has a h i g h l i q u e f a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l . In t h e r e f e r e n c e a r e a i t was f ound t h a t down t o about 7m r e a s o n a b l y u n i f o r m sand was p r e s e n t d e c r e a s i n g i n d e n s i t y w i t h d e p t h . From about 7 t o 10m t h e r e was a sandy s i l t l a y e r wh i ch was p r e s e n t i n a l l h o l e s . Be low 10m, more sand i s f ound i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h o c c a s i o n a l s i l t l a y e r s . T y p i c a l g r a i n s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n p l o t s a r e g i v e n i n Append ix IV . A f i g u r e s ummar i z i ng s o i l s t r a t i g r a p h y and cone l o g s b e f o r e and a f t e r dynamic c ompac t i on i s g i v e n i n f i g u r e 4 . 1 . 4 . 3 R e s u l t s A l o g o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r s ound i ng i n t h e r e f e r e n c e a r e a i s p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 4 . 2 a and 4 . 2 b . A l l o t h e r d i l a t o m e t e r l o g s , cone l o g s , d i l a t o m e t e r t a b u l a r o u t p u t and un reduced SBP d a t a a re i n c l u d e d i n Append i x IV . 4 . 3 . 1 D i s c u s s i o n T e s t i n g was r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g and few p rob l ems were e n c o u n t e r e d . Ho l e s were p repushed f o r 1 t o 2m u s i n g an o v e r s i z e d , s o l i d d i 1 a t o m e t e r - s h a p e d mandre l t o t r y and p r e v e n t damage t o t h e d i l a t o m e t e r membrane. T h i s s e e m i n g l y worked s i n c e no membranes were damaged i n t he p r e - pu shed z o n e . However two d i l a t o m e t e r membranes were t o r n by g r a v e l l a y e r s be low t h e p r e - pu shed zone and a SBP membrane was t o r n by g r a v e l i n t h e s t o n e co lumn a r e a . P I E Z O M E T E R C O N E L O G G I N G B E F O R E A N O A F T E R D Y N A M I C C O M P A C T I O N ( N E W W E S T M I N S T E R . B . C . ) 52 UJ3.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: Fraser Landing after Vibrocompaction. INTERPRETED GEOTECHNICRL PARAMETERS. TEST No. FL-DH2 TEST DflTE; 9 Sept 81 S i LL 2 O M CO UJ — =T " o °-u * of a 2 CO 3 o o UJ ™ cr t— CO 2 o o 2g in. o 9-e a . O . o o tW) Hld30 O't O'C 0*5 O'C 0'6 O'tl O'Cl l I K *-M / \ ' ^  f 4 r ^ / \A -/ V ^ 4 1 E E F O R E — 7 i i i i i i i i I 1 1 1 1 T 1 1 r i r "i r r-BEFORE • ' ' ' ' ' ' i ' ' ' BEFORE T 1 1 1 r i r Q 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i 1 1 1 1 1 : SILT 5 BEFORE 1 , 1 -• \ / 0 . i / t1 : w »»4 O't 0 E O'S 0 c OB OTI DEI (W) Hld30 F I G U R E 4 . 2 a DILATOMETER BEFORE AND AFTER COMPACTION F L - D H 3 I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L PARAMETERS 53 U3.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: Fraser Landing after Vibroconpaction. INTERMEDIATE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS TEST No. FL-DH2 TEST DATE; 9 Sept 81 x —J L U cr o o M CO t H CO or uj o or x t-co u in CO ^ n —t 0_ OJ > O u e US 8-_l =>o —• o o _ o _ or re LU Q_ h-LU '—' — o o »— a _J — o a 8 t t 0 E 0 £ 0 t 0 6 0"n -I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I ' ' DEI J L \ BEFOREy L *rtl\ / 1 v V i / \ / - - v ~ t — i r — 1 1 1 1 1 -'• J i i i i i J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 /4ttiW, 'A T 1 r I I E -w> / B E F 0 R ^ I w ~'\, r^ > o . - i ^ ^ f c ^ I ill ' ' A , 11 \ i i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 0*1 0'E CTS CL D'E O H OEI (W) HldBO FIGURE A . 2 b DILATOMETER BEFORE AND AFTER COMPACTION INTERMEDIATE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS 54 4 . 3 . 2 S i t e P r o f i l e and M a t e r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n I t i s d i f f i c u l t to compare s ound i ngs a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g because o f v a r i a t i o n s i n ground e l e v a t i o n and s t r a t i g r a p h y . However , t h e r e was g e n e r a l l y r e a s o n a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e t h r e e cone and one d i l a t o m e t e r h o l e s i n t h e r e f e r e n c e a r e a . From 0 t o 6m, depend i ng on t he h o l e bo th cone and d i l a t o m e t e r i d e n t i f y t h e m a t e r i a l as sand o r s i l t y sand d e c r e a s i n g i n s t r e n g t h w i t h d e p t h . Between about 6 and 10m, depend ing on t he l o c a t i o n and e l e v a t i o n o f t h e h o l e , l a y a v e r y s o f t l a y e r wh i ch t he d i l a t o m e t e r c l a s s i f i e d as c l a y e y s i l t o r s i l t y c l a y and t he cone c l a s s i f i e d as a s i l t . Good agreement between t he cone and d i l a t o m e t e r c o n t i n u e d be low 10m as bo th i n s t r u m e n t s c l a s s i f i e d t h e m a t e r i a l as sands w i t h s i l t y l a y e r s . Samples r e c o v e r e d d u r i n g d r i l l i n g showed t h a t the m a t e r i a l was i n f a c t f i n e t o m e d i u m - f i n e sand w i t h some sandy s i l t s and s i l t y s a n d s . The e f f e c t o f v i b r o c o m p a c t i o n on I u i s shown i n f i g u r e 4 . 2 a . In t h e sand P 0 and P j and (P-j-Po) i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n ( P i - P o ) g r e a t e r t han t h e i n c r e a s e i n P 0 . Id t h e r e f o r e i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y . In t h e s i l t s P 0 and P\ d e c r ea sed bu t ( P i - P o ) i n c r e a s e d so t h a t Id showed a marked i n c r e a s e . The d i l a t o m e t e r t h e r e f o r e c l a s s i f i e d t h e s i l t s as l e s s c o h e s i v e a f t e r c ompac t i on t han b e f o r e . Cone pore p r e s s u r e d a t a s u g g e s t s t h a t t he d e c r e a s e i n P 0 and P i i n t h e s i l t s a f t e r c ompac t i o n was caused by a r e d u c t i o n i n dynamic po re p r e s s u r e s d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . The re was an appa r en t s l i g h t d e c r e a s e i n Id between 2 and 3m dep th a f t e r v i b r o c o m p a c t i o n . The t r u e Id o f t h i s r e g i o n canno t be d e t e r m i n e d as 1mm d e f l e c t i o n was not r e a ched even w i t h t h e maximum 55 pressure of four MPa applied to the membrane. Depths where lmm deflection was not reached are shown on the DMT graphical output by an arrow and question mark. The arrow indicates that the value should be shifted and the question mark that the magnitude of the shift is uncertain. Dynamic compaction generally caused a slight reduction in Id, although differences in stratigraphy make i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to make precise comparisons. The material index in the clayey s i l t layer increased so that after dynamic compaction the clayey s i l t was reclassified as a sandy s i l t . Overall, the cone and dilatometer suggested similar soil stratigraphy. However the dilatometer tended to predict a finer material than really existed before compaction and coarser after compaction. In addition the Ed log was considerably more sensitive than the Id log and better indicated details in stratigraphy. 4.3.3 Lateral Stresses The Kd profiles at Fraser Landing bear a close resemblance to the cone bearing profiles. Sandy layers with a high q c have a high Kd and soft s i l t layers with low q c have low Kd. Since cone bearing values are primarily controlled by the insitu lateral stresses and density, this similarity suggests that Kd is also controlled by these two factors. The exact relationship between lateral stress, density and Kd is not 56 c l e a r however . Cone b e a r i n g i n c r e a s e d f o r a l l m a t e r i a l s a f t e r bo th c ompac t i on methods whereas Kd i n c r e a s e d a f t e r v i b r o - c o m p a c t i o n i n t he sand but d e c r e a s e d i n t he s i l t ( see f i g u r e 4 . 2 b ) . Dynamic c ompac t i o n had a s i m i l a r e f f e c t on Kd as v i b r o c o m p a c t i o n bu t t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e . The i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r t o v i b r o - c o m p a c t i o n c o u l d come f rom two s o u r c e s . V i b r o c o m p a c t i o n may have caused a l a r g e r i n c r e a s e i n d e n s i t y t han dynamic c o m p a c t i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e l y v i b r o c o m p a c t i o n a c t s i n t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y h o r i z o n t a l d i r e c t i o n and dynamic c ompac t i on p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n t h e v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n . I t i s no t p o s s i b l e to d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f each e f f e c t w i t h t h e d a t a p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . The r e a s on f o r t he d e c r e a s e on Kd a f t e r c o m p a c t i o n i n t h e s i l t i s u n c l e a r e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i n c r e a s e i n Kd i n t h e s a n d . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d l i e i n t he change i n po re p r e s s u r e r e s p o n s e a f t e r c ompac t i on (Campane l l a and R o b e r t s o n 1 9 8 1 ) . In f i g u r e 4 . 1 , t h e po re p r e s s u r e l o g s show t h a t b e f o r e c o m p a c t i o n t h e s i l t s had h i g h p o s i t i v e dynamic pore p r e s s u r e s d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e t he t o t a l s t r e s s p a r a m e t e r , P 0 , was a l s o h i g h g i v i n g a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h K d . A f t e r c ompac t i on t h e s i l t s g e n e r a t e d s m a l l n e g a t i v e p r e s s u r e s and so Po and Kd were r e d u c e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , cone l o g s i n Append i x IV show t h a t t h e s i l t s g e n e r a t e d h i g h e r n e g a t i v e pore p r e s s u r e s a f t e r v i b r o c o m p a c t i o n than dynamic c o m p a c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y P 0 and Kd are s m a l l e r a f t e r v i b r o t h an dynamic c o m p a c t i o n . R e s u l t s f r om McDona l d ' s Farm agree w i t h t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i t was t h e d e c r e a s e i n pore p r e s s u r e s a f t e r c ompac t i o n t h a t caused the 57 v a r i a t i o n s i n DMT r e s u l t s i n t h e s i l t s . A t M cDona l d ' s Farm a l l o w i n g t ime b e f o r e t e s t i n g f o r d i s s i p a t i o n o f e x c e s s po re p r e s s u r e s caused d e c r e a s e s i n P 0 and Kd and i n c r e a s e s i n Id and E u i . e . e x a c t l y t h e same e f f e c t s as c o m p a c t i o n . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s a p rob l em w i t h e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s d e r i v e d u s i n g s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s . Once t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e e x c e e d e d , a t McDona l d ' s Farm by u s i n g a n o n - s t a n d a r d t e s t t e c h n i q u e o r a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g by t e s t i n g n o n - s t a n d a r d s o i l , c o r r e l a t i o n s may be i n a p p l i c a b l e and g i v e r e s u l t s i n e r r o r . I t has been s ugge s t ed ( M a r c h e t t i 1982) t h a t may be a u s e f u l p a r ame te r t o d e t e r m i n e l i q u e f a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f s o i l w i t h a low K<j i n d i c a t i n g m a t e r i a l l i k e l y t o l i q u e f y and a h i g h Kd i n d i c a t i n g a more r e s i s t a n t m a t e r i a l . However t h e r e s u l t s f r om F r a s e r L and i ng s ugge s t r e f e r e n c e must a l s o be made t o t h e s o i l t y p e b e f o r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Kd and l i q u e f a c t i o n r e s i s t a n c e can be e s t a b l i s h e d . In a f r e e d r a i n i n g sand f o r example a h i g h Kd i n d i c a t e s a s t r o n g , d i l a t i n g , l i q u e f a c t i o n r e s i s t a n t m a t e r i a l . In a f i n e s i l t a l ow Kd ( 1 .4) may be good as i t i n d i c a t e s a d i l a t a n t s i l t w i t h low o r n e g a t i v e pore p r e s s u r e d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g s h e a r i n g . V a r i a t i o n s i n s t r a t i g r a p h y , l a c k o f d a t a and p rob l ems i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n make i t d i f f i c u l t t o compare SBP and DMT d a t a . Thus no comments can be made on the a c c u r a c y o f t h e e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e K 0 f r om the d i l a t o m e t e r at F r a s e r L a n d i n g . 58 4.3.4 S o i l Modu l i A number o f p rob lems a r o s e at F r a s e r L and i ng wh i ch make i t d i f f i c u l t t o compare modu l i r e s u l t s f r om d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s . These i n c l u d e d : (a) V a r i a t i o n s o f a met re o r more i n ground l e v e l because o f e x c a v a t i o n s d u r i n g the t e s t programme and s u b s i d e n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o m p a c t i o n . (b) V a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s t r a t i g r a p h y o f t he h y d r a u l i c a l l y p l a c e d f i l l a c r o s s t he s i t e so t h a t even i f a c o n s t a n t g round l e v e l e x i s t e d , i t wou ld be d i f f i c u l t t o c o r r e l a t e p r o f i l e s f r om d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . ( c ) R e s u l t s a f t e r dynamic compac t i on v a r y m a r k e d l y w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e f r om t h e l o c a t i o n where t h e we i gh t was d r o p p e d . Because o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , o n l y t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l comments on s o i l modu l i a re made, a l t h o u g h the SBP and Menard p r e s s u r e m e t e r r e s u l t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n Append i x IV f o r c omp l e t e ne s s o f d a t a p r e s e n t a t i o n : (a) The d i l a t o m e t e r modulus d i d not i n c r e a s e as much a f t e r dynamic c ompac t i o n as d i d modu l i f r om t h e Menard p r e s s u r e m e t e r o r c one . V a r i a t i o n s i n d i s t a n c e f rom the c e n t r e o f t amp ing may e x p l a i n some but not a l l o f t h e s c a t t e r i n t h e r e s u l t s . (b) V i b r o c o m p a c t i o n had t h e most e f f e c t on t he d i l a t o m e t e r modulus and Efj i n c r e a s e d by a f a c t o r o f 3 o r 4 a f t e r c o m p a c t i o n . 59 ( c ) The d i l a t o m e t e r and SBP r e s u l t s i n t he v i b r o c o m p a c t i o n a r e a showed l i t t l e o r no c o r r e l a t i o n . T h i s was p a r t l y caused by p rob l ems i n ma t ch i ng dep th s f rom t he two p r o f i l e s . 4 . 3 . 5 F r i c t i o n A n g l e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f r i c t i o n ang l e d a t a a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g s u f f e r e d f rom t h e same p rob lems as i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f modu l i d a t a ( S e c t i o n 4 . 3 . 4 ) . F i g u r e 4 . 3 p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r , SBP and cone i n t h e r e f e r e n c e a r ea and T a b l e VI r e s u l t s f r om t he v i b r o c o m p a c t i o n a r e a . V i b r o c o m p a c t i o n A r ea Depth DMT SBP (m) (deg) (deg) 3 .0 34 33 6.4 33 36 8 .5 26 45 11 . 5 34 33 T a b l e VI F r i c t i o n Ang l e i n V i b r o c o m p a c t i o n A r e a f r om D i l a t o m e t e r and SB P r e s s u r e m e t e r , F r a s e r L a n d i n g , B .C . 60 - DILATOMETER 10 11 1? CONE (USING SCHMERTMANN 1978 ) BEYOND LIMITS V OF CORRELAT-Y ION HFNCF. MINIMUM VALUES SB PRESSUREMETER SILT { NO FRICTION ANGLE ) CONE DILATOMETER 20 25 30 35 40 F I G U R E 4.3 F R I C T I O N ANGLE FROM D I L A T O M E T E R , CONE AND SB P R E S S U R E M E T E R , FRASER L A N D I N G , BC 61 The f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l comments can be made: (a) In g e n e r a l a s i m i l a r t r e n d was found a t F r a s e r L and i ng as a t M cDona l d ' s Farm w i t h d i l a t o m e t e r g i v i n g v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e answers compared w i t h t h e c one . The d i l a t o m e t e r f r i c t i o n a n g l e was t y p i c a l l y seven deg rees l e s s than the cone v a l u e s and t h r e e t o f o u r deg rees l e s s than t he p r e s s u r e m e t e r v a l u e s . (The cone dep th p r o f i l e was a d j u s t e d t o match the d i l a t o m e t e r dep th s c a l e b e f o r e c ompa r i s o n s were made) . (b) Compar i sons o f f r i c t i o n ang l e c o u l d not be made between t he cone and d i l a t o m e t e r a f t e r c ompac t i on because K 0 i s no t known. T h i s p r e v e n t e d use o f Schmer tmann ' s (1978) method t o d e t e r m i n e f r i c t i o n a n g l e f r om t he c one . ( c ) P u s h i n g f o r c e on the d i l a t o m e t e r b l a d e a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g was not known. T h i s p r e v e n t e d c ompa r i s on s between M a r c h e t t i ' s (1980) c o r r e l a t i o n and Schmer tmann 's (1982) method based on Du rgunog lu and M i t c h e l l ( 1 9 7 5 ) . 4 . 4 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s (a ) Cone po re p r e s s u r e l o g s , c o n f i r m e d by l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s , showed t h a t t h e s i l t s at F r a s e r L and i ng were more d i l a t a n t a f t e r c ompac t i o n wh i ch r e du ced dynamic pore p r e s s u r e s g ene r a t ed d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . Thus t o t a l s t r e s s p a r ame te r s P 0 and P i d e c r e a s e d wh i ch i n c r e a s e d Id and Ed and d e c r e a s e d K j . 62 The d i l a t o m e t e r p r e d i c t e d the s o i l p r o f i l e r e a s o n a b l y w e l l a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g b e f o r e c o m p a c t i o n . A f t e r c ompac t i o n t h e r e was g e n e r a l l y an i n c r e a s e i n Id f o r bo th sand and s i l t and t h e s i l t s were r e c l a s s i f i e d as s a n d . Po re p r e s s u r e e f f e c t s d i s c u s s e d i n ( a ) a r e b e l i e v e d t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n c r e a s e i n I d . The Ed p r o f i l e p r o v i d e d a b e t t e r r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s i l t l e n s e s t han d i d I d -V i b r o c o m p a c t i o n had a l a r g e r e f f e c t on t h e d i l a t o m e t e r t h an dynamic c o m p a c t i o n . Whether t h i s i s due t o v i b r o c o m p a c t i o n c a u s i n g a h i g h e r d e n s i t y than dynamic c ompac t i on o r i f i t i s because v i b r o c o m p a c t i o n a c t s p r i m a r i l y i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l d i r e c t i o n and dynamic c ompac t i o n i n t h e v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n was not d e t e r m i n e d . The l a t e r a l s t r e s s i ndex i n sand was h i g h e r t h an M a r c h e t t i ' s s ugge s t ed v a l u e f o r an unde rwa te r d e p o s i t . W h i l e t h e top 2m may have some h i g h h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s e s due t o h i g h s u r f a c e l o a d s on t h e dock a r e a , i t i s u n c l e a r why Kd i s so h i g h . An h y d r a u l i c a l l y p l a c e d sand f i l l wou ld not be e x p e c t e d t o have any l a r g e h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s e s l o c k e d i n . A f t e r c ompac t i o n Kd d e c r e a s e d i n t h e s i l t s . The cone p r e s s u r e l o g s , • n i I , ,H i s due t o t h e s ugge s t t h a t t he r e d u c t i o n i n P 0 and hence i n K u r e d u c t i o n i n dynamic pore p r e s s u r e s g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e s o i l d e f o r m a t i o n modu l i measured a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g because o f t h e l a c k o f , and s c a t t e r i n , 63 SBP d a t a . The d i l a t o m e t e r g e n e r a l l y p r e d i c a t e d l owe r modu l i v a l u e s than t he Menard p r e s s u r e m e t e r and h i g h e r v a l u e s than t he c one . (h) I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g M a r c h e t t i ' s e m p i r i c a l c o r r r e l a t i o n f o r f r i c t i o n ang l e because o f t h e p rob l ems o u t l i n e d i n (g) above . M a r c h e t t i ' s c o r r e l a t i o n g i v e s c o n s e r v a t i v e r e s u l t s compared w i t h t he c one . The SBP f r i c t i o n a n g l e r e s u l t s were v e r y s c a t t e r e d bu t g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r t han t he d i l a t o m e t e r . ( i ) I t may be d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e rm i ne t he l i q u e f a c t i o n r e s i s t a n c e o f a s o i l f r om K<j. In a f r e e d r a i n i n g sand f o r i n s t a n c e , a h i g h Kd i n d i c a t e s a s t r o n g , d i l a t i n g , l i q u e f a c t i o n r e s i s t a n t m a t e r i a l . In a f i n e s i l t a l ow Kd (<1.4) may be good because i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t s m a l l o r n e g a t i v e pore p r e s s u r e s a re b e i n g g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . I t i s no t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e rm i ne t he e x a c t s o i l b e h a v i o u r w i t h o u t pore p r e s s u r e d a t a . ( j ) The r e s u l t s f r om DMT i n t he compacted s i l t s i l l u s t r a t e a p rob l em w i t h an e m p i r i c a l d e v i c e such as t he d i l a t o m e t e r . When s o i l s t e s t e d a r e d i f f e r e n t t o t h o s e used t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , e r r o n e o u s r e s u l t s may be p r odu ced . 64 CHAPTER FIVE TILBURY ISLAND B .C . 5 . 1 . Me thodo l ogy and Scope The t e s t programme a t T i l b u r y I s l a n d was d e s i g n e d t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v i b r o f l o t a t i o n as a c ompac t i on method f o r sand and t o f i n d t he opt imum w i t h d r a w a l r a t e s f o r t h e v i b r o f l o t a t i o n probe (Wightman e t a l 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s t h e s i s d i s c u s s e s and compares t he r e s u l t s o f s i x cone and f i v e d i l a t o m e t e r h o l e s . Of t h e s e , t h r e e cone and two d i l a t o m e t e r h o l e s were comp l e t ed b e f o r e c ompac t i o n t o p r o v i d e r e f e r e n c e p r o f i l e s . Compar i sons a re drawn between s o i l t y p e and p r o p e r t i e s as measured by t h e d i l a t o m e t e r and cone b e f o r e and a f t e r c o m p a c t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y samp les r e c o v e r e d d u r i n g SPT a l l o w compa r i s on s t o be made between a c t u a l m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t and t h a t p r e d i c t e d by the cone and d i l a t o m e t e r . Equ ipment used i n t h e t e s t i n g i n c l u d e d U . B . C . ' s p i e z o f r i c t i o n cone and M a r c h e t t i ' s d i l a t o m e t e r . One o f t he f i v e d i l a t o m e t e r h o l e s y i e l d e d no i n f o r m a t i o n because o f d e f l e c t i o n o f t he b l a d e i n a g r a v e l l a y e r p l a c e d on the s i t e . The g r a v e l made t e s t i n g d i f f i c u l t , bu t was n e c e s s a r y f o r a c c e s s s i n c e v i b r o f l o t a t i o n had made the s u r f a c e s i l t y m a t e r i a l v e r y s o f t . V i b r o f l o t a t i o n p a t t e r n and l o c a t i o n o f t e s t h o l e s i s shown i n f i g u r e 5 . 1 . 120 sec/m CPT 3 o CPT 14 CPT 13^° CPT 12 CPT 5 CPT 9 90 sec/m 60 sec/ m CPT CPT 7 CPT 15 ©CPT 17 ^CPT 16 30 sec/ m D H 1 o C P T 1 o DM 4 o LEGEND ® CPT 1 Piezometer Cone Penetrometer Hole oDH1 D i l a tomete r Hole FIGURE 5.1 LOCATION OF TEST HOLES SCALE 0 0 TILBURY ISLAND BC 3 m cr> 66 5 . 2 . Geo l ogy T i l b u r y I s l a n d s i t e i s l o c a t e d on the d e l t a o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . I t c o n s i s t s o f s u c c e s s i v e l a y e r s o f sand and s i l t y sand l a i d down benea th s ea l e v e l by the a d v a n c i n g r i v e r d e l t a (B lunden 1 9 7 5 ) . The upper 2 o r 3m c o n s i s t s o f a n o n - p l a s t i c s i l t . Benea th the s i l t i s f ound f i n e sand o r c o a r s e s i l t . D e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s w i t h dep th but not i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n . The l a y e r s o f sand a re i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h o c c a s i o n a l s i l t l e n s e s t he f r e q u e n c y o f wh i ch d e c r e a s e s f rom n o r t h to sou th a c r o s s t he s i t e . There i s l i t t l e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e l e n s e s and o n l y t h r e e l a y e r s , l y i n g between 7.5 and 9 .5m, appear i n a l l p e n e t r a t i o n h o l e s . 5 . 3 . R e s u l t s Cone l o g s c omp l e t ed b e f o r e and a f t e r c ompac t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 5.2 and 5 . 3 . D i l a t o m e t e r l o g s comp le ted b e f o r e c ompac t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 5 .4a and 5.4b and a f t e r c ompac t i on i n f i g u r e s 5 .5a and 5 . 5b . A d d i t i o n a l cone and d i l a t o m e t e r l o g s and t a b u l a r d i l a t o m e t e r o u t p u t a re p r e s e n t e d i n Append i x V. 5 . 3 . 1 . D i s c u s s i o n Two p rob l ems a r o s e d u r i n g t e s t i n g . F i r s t was t he d e f l e c t i o n o f t he d i l a t o m e t e r and cone i n t h e g r a v e l b l a n k e t t h a t was s p r e a d a c r o s s t h e s i t e f o r a c c e s s . To t r y and overcome d e f l e c t i o n p rob l ems a m e c h a n i c a l cone w i t h a 100% f r i c t i o n r e d u c e r ( i . e . a r e a two t i m e s t h a t o f t h e cone = 20 c m 2 ) , was used to punch a 1 o r 2m deep h o l e t h r o u g h t he g r a v e l s . The second p rob l em a t T i l b u r y I s l a n d was damage to t h e d i l a t o m e t e r membrane by t he g r a v e l s . 67 0. • o 0 CO RENTIflL 1 10 AU/aC 0 • > u. a OIF „ J m ISU313M) Hid30 e ••^  D - i — .stir t— — cr tr u . a z >. o u l— u. _ f— 9 f^vtJ in o IGU313W) WLc3a o ul cn. — <r — 1BU313WJ H l d i a 1CU3X9M) U1J3Q F i g u r e 5.2 Cone Reference Hole 1 (CPT1) T i l b u r y I s l a n d , B.C. 69 UJ3.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: Tilbury Ref Hole 1. Before Compaction. I N T E R M E D I A T E G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S TEST No. UBC-DHl TEST D A T E : 29 July 81 to 3 -J O O L U O -f — £ L U C o I— a x —J LU a a i - z Z M o M CO M CO or LU o cr x t-to u u to m — t a . SE a. o* a. ••»«» Wa «•« «••> J I I I I 1 L s CM T — i — i r T — r i—r I I I £ C l t\t\rJ v u i LU ft 1A)| 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 T r v w \ I — Y r ™ , T — - , , 1 1 1-—i 1 1 r ! ' ' ! > ' ' S w . ffins" ! ' " r " Figure 5.4a Dilatometer Reference hole 1 (UBC-DH1) P r o f i l e -Intermediate Geotechnical Parameters. 70 U3.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: Ti lbury Ref Hole 1. Before Compaction. INTERPRETED GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS. TEST No. UBC-DH1. TEST DATE: 29 July 81 M Z U. CO LU ~ ZZ ™ cr o z =3 CO ZO - J O O c o — 1,1 a cr »— CO z o u £j LU £ z c fit c> c I I I ' ' ' (W) HM3Q T — r T — r T — r J i i i i i i i i i J i L i i i i i i i i i r i i S'I S> S t . % S -0l SCI 5'9I SSI IW) Hid30 F i g u r e 5. +h UBC-DH1 - I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r a m e t e r s . 7 1 UJ3.C. INSITU TESTING. Location: Tilbury Test Hole 3 [After Compaction). INTERMEDIATE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS Test tsic. UB:-D- 5 Test lii'.i; 5 Rug 8' IT) r: _ fc a. +- Z : CD — E O *-> ro x , u re 1 C D (si in —t in i_ k> D L. ZL ••' C O in CO ™ re 5 ^ > a! o* a © o . ic o rv O o - N" o o rv" i i r i i r "i r i i i i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r £"I £ > £'£ S'DI S'EI £-91 fi"61 (•) mflao F i g u r e 5-5 a D i l a t o m e t e r Test h o l e 3 ( U B C - D H 5 ) P r o f i l e -I n t e r m e d i a t e G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r a m e t e r s . 72 U£.C. INSITU TESTING. Lpcst ipn: Tilbury Test Hole 3 (Rfter Compaction). INTERPRETED GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS. Test Nc. L'BC-D^- 5 Test Date: 5 flue, 81 V) HiOiQ t'L fW J I L c o in OJ — ^ JZ re D Q_ (-) ^ l_* ' -c c Z> in 3 D re in c D re x OJ c re 2C e "i i i i i i i i r i r i i i i t r m O ' i 5 ft 1 1 ! M l 1 1 1 1 1 : 00 * 1— 1 _J J W) V z (O tn- - o m — 5 - d • i S ' l 1 1 i i i i 5 > i'L 5DI S'EI i i i i £•91 £51 F i g u r e 5-5b UBODH5 - I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l Parameters. 73 D e s p i t e t he p r e c a u t i o n s t aken such as p r e - p u n c h i n g a h o l e , s e v e r a l d i l a t o m e t e r membranes were t o r n . 5 . 3 . 2 . S i t e P r o f i l e and M a t e r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n In g e n e r a l t h e r e i s good c o r r e l a t i o n between cone and d i l a t o m e t e r h o l e s and i n some c a s e s , the d i l a t o m e t e r p r e d i c t e d m a t e r i a l t y pe b e t t e r than t he cone f r i c t i o n r a t i o . A t t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e f i r s t cone r e f e r e n c e h o l e (CPT1) f o r e xamp l e , t h e cone f r i c t i o n r a t i o a t 2 t o 4% i n d i c a t e s a c l a y e y s i l t o r c l a y . However , t h e d i l a t o m e t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u g g e s t s a cemented sandy s i l t o r s i l t y s a n d . Wh i l e t h e deg ree o f c e m e n t a t i o n i s u n c e r t a i n , t h e g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a sand o r sandy s i l t ag rees w i t h t h e cone po re p r e s s u r e p l o t s . These show t h a t n e g a t i v e pore p r e s s u r e s a r e g e n e r a t e d i n t he s u r f a c e l a y e r i n d i c a t i n g sand o r s i l t and not c l a y i s p r e s e n t . Samples r e c o v e r e d d u r i n g d r i l l i n g i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l i s a s i l t o f low p l a s t i c i t y . The d i l a t o m e t e r p r o f i l e , based on t e s t s at 20cm i n t e r v a l s , compared w e l l w i t h t h e c o n t i n u o u s cone p r o f i l e i n i d e n t i f y i n g s o i l s t r a t i g r a p h y . Compar i son o f DMT and CPT r e s u l t s a f t e r c ompac t i o n ( f i g s 5.4 and 5 .2 ) showed t h a t t he d i l a t o m e t e r i d e n t i f i e d f o u r ou t o f f i v e l a y e r s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e c o r e . L a y e r i n g was most e v i d e n t i n t h e M and Ed l o g s and not t he Id l o g . The d i l a t o m e t e r c l a s s i f i e d the l a y e r i n g a c r o s s t h e s i t e as sand w i t h a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f s i l t and l owe r d e n s i t y t han u s u a l . The cone f r i c t i o n r a t i o i n d i c a t e d a m a t e r i a l w i t h a h i g h c l a y o r s i l t c o n t e n t but t h e cone po re p r e s s u r e p l o t s agree w i t h t h e d i l a t o m e t e r by 74 show ing s m a l l o r n e g a t i v e dynamic po re p r e s s u r e s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h e l a y e r s a re d en s e , d i l a t i n g sand o r s i l t s . The f i r s t g r i d s t u d i e d at T i l b u r y I s l a n d was compacted u s i n g a v i b r o f l o t a t i o n p robe w i t h d r a w a l r a t e of 2 m/s wh i ch was t oo s l ow t o have much e f f e c t . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e d i l a t o m e t e r r e s u l t s b e f o r e and a f t e r c ompac t i o n are v e r y s i m i l a r (DH3 and DHl r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The cone h o l e CPT2, a d j a c e n t to DHl gave s i m i l a r r e s u l t s t o CPT7 l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t h e g r i d so t h e CPT r e s u l t s v e r i f i e d DMT r e s u l t s . Even w i t h t h e s l o w e s t w i t h d r a w a l r a t e o f 0 .5 m/s, t h e r e was o n l y a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n I j . The r e s u l t was t h a t more o f t h e p r o f i l e was c l a s s i f i e d as a sand ( I d<3 .3 ) r a t h e r than a s i l t y sand ( I d < 1 . 8 ) . The change i n I(j can be e x p l a i n e d by t he change i n po re p r e s s u r e r e s p o n s e o f t h e s o i l t o p e n e t r a t i o n . A f t e r c o m p a c t i o n , i t appears t h e s o i l t ended t o d i l a t e r e d u c i n g dynamic pore p r e s s u r e s . Po re p r e s s u r e s f o rm a p a r t o f t he t o t a l p r e s s u r e pa ramete r P 0 and P-j wh i ch r educed bu t w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n (P-j - P 0 ) wh i ch i n c r e a s e d I d . O v e r a l l t h e d i l a t o m e t e r was as good as o r s u p e r i o r t o t h e cone f r i c t i o n r a t i o i n p r e d i c t i n g m a t e r i a l t y p e b e f o r e c o m p a c t i o n . However , i t l a c k e d t h e r e s u l u t i o n o f t h e cone and i t was Ed r a t h e r t h an Id wh i ch i d e n t i f i e d t he l o c a t i o n o f s o f t e r o r s i l t i e r l a y e r s . A f t e r c ompac t i o n t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n Id . • . * v u wh i ch t h e r e f o r e p r e d i c t e d a c o a r s e r o r more g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l t han b e f o r e c o m p a c t i o n . 75 5 . 3 . 3 . L a t e r a l S t r e s s e s In t h e f i v e DMT h o l e s Kd was n e a r l y a lways g r e a t e r than 1.5 w i t h an ave rage f o r t h e two r e f e r e n c e d i l a t o m e t e r h o l e s o f 3 .5 ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1 . 5 ) . The s u r f a c e met re was n e g l e c t e d as t h e two r e f e r e n c e h o l e s have a d e s s i c a t e d c r u s t . R e f e r e n c e h o l e 2 (DH4) had an a p p r o x i m a t e l y t y p i c a l Kd p r o f i l e f o r an o v e r - c o n s o l i d a t e d d e p o s i t ( M a r c h e t t i 1 9 8 0 ) . A more o r l e s s c o n s t a n t Kd o f t h r e e was r e a ched a t a dep th o f 6m o r a t a v e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s o f about 54 k P a . I t i s not u n d e r s t o o d why t he p r o f i l e t ends t o Kd = 3 r a t h e r t h an 1.5 because t he T i l b u r y I s l a n d s i t e appears t o meet M a r c h e t t i ' s (1980) s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f a n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d , unde rwa te r d e p o s i t e d s a n d . P o s s i b l y t he d i l a t o m e t e r i s mea su r i n g h i gh l a t e r a l s t r e s s e s " l o c k e d " i n t o t h e sand d u r i n g d e p o s i t i o n i n a h i g h e n e r g y d e l t a i c e n v i r o n m e n t . A f t e r v i b r o f l o t a t i o n t h e r e was marked i n c r e a s e i n Kd i n t h e sand i n t e s t h o l e 3 (DH5) . The i n c r e a s e i n Kd can be a t t r i b u t e d t o e i t h e r an i n c r e a s e i n d e n s i t y o r an i n c r e a s e i n l a t e r a l s t r e s s e s . As a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e two e f f e c t s . The s i l t i e r l a y e r l y i n g between 8 .2 and 10.8m showed a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e i n t h e Kd p r o f i l e a f t e r c o m p a c t i o n . The d e c r e a s e i n Kd i n t h e s i l t s can be e x p l a i n e d i n te rms o f t he po re p r e s s u r e r e s p o n s e o f t h e s o i l d i s c u s s e d i n 4 . 3 . 3 . 5 . 3 . 4 . S o i l Modu l i The d i l a t o m e t e r modulus p l o t have l a r g e v a r i a t i o n s because o f l a y e r i n g w i t h i n t h e p r o f i l e s . T h i s makes i t d i f f u c l t t o make q u a n t i t a t i v e a s se s smen t s o f Ed b e f o r e and a f t e r c o m p a c t i o n . An 76 a t t emp t has been made to compare d e f o r m a t i o n modu l i f r om t he cone and d i l a t o m e t e r i n f i g u r e 5.6 where smoothed d e f o r m a t i o n modu l i p l o t s a r e p r e s e n t e d . The f o l l o w i n g comments can be made on t he d i l a t o m e t e r and cone d e f o r m a t i o n modu l i at T i l b u r y I s l a n d . (a ) A c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i l a t o m e t e r ( h o l e DH5) t h e s i l t y m a t e r i a l s d i d not i n c r e a s e i n s t i f f n e s s a f t e r c o m p a c t i o n . By c o n t r a s t t he s t i f f n e s s o f t he sand a lways i n c r e a s e d and a lmos t doub l ed f r om 10 t o 14m. (b ) Schmer tmann ' s (1971) method o f d e t e r m i n i n g a d e f o r m a t i o n modulus f r om t he cone i s o n l y v a l i d down t o 8m wh i ch l i m i t s t he c ompa r i s on s t h a t can be made between t he d i l a t o m e t e r and c o n e . However , i t was found t h a t t he cone was g e n e r a l l y a more r e s p o n s i v e i n s t r u m e n t than t he d i l a t o m e t e r f o r m e a s u r i n g changes i n s o i l d e f o r m a t i o n modu l i a f t e r c o m p a c t i o n . Fo r example cone b e a r i n g and hence the Schmertmann 's " e q u i v a l e n t " d e f o r m a t i o n modulus ( E s ) i n c r e a s e d f rom about 2m and d oub l e d i n v a l u e f r om 3 t o 5m a f t e r c o m p a c t i o n . Below 11m where t h e d i l a t o m e t e r modulus a t most d o u b l e s t he cone b e a r i n g was two or even t h r e e t i m e s l a r g e r . ( c ) As a t M cDona l d ' s Farm and F r a s e r L a n d i n g , t h e cone d e f o r m a t i o n modulus a t T i l b u r y I s l a n d i s about 1/3 o f E<j. 77 10 12 14 16 FROM CONE - 2q,c CONE AFTER COMPACTION ( CPT 4) CONE BEFORE COMPACTION (CPT 3 ) DILATOMETER AFTER COMPACTION (UBC - DH5) DILATOMETER BEFORE COMPACTION (UBC- DH4) 1 J L J L 20 40 60 80 Ed E (mPa) FIGURE 5.6 DEFORMATION MODULII FROM DILATOMETER AND CONE TILBURY ISLAND, BC 78 5 . 3 . 5 . F r i c t i o n A n g l e The s c a t t e r and l a c k o f d a t a makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o compare f r i c t i o n a n g l e c a l c u l a t e d f rom bo th cone and d i l a t o m e t e r . C o n s e q u e n t l y no c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn on the v a l i d i t y o f t h e use o f M a r c h e t t i ' s e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s used to c a l c u l a t e f r i c t i o n ang l e f r om the d i l a t o m e t e r . 5 . 4 . Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s (a ) The d i l a t o m e t e r p r o v i d e d a r e s o n a b l y good l o g o f t h e s o i l p r o f i l e a t T i l b u r y I s l a n d . Based on the cone pore p r e s s u r e l o g s , i n some ca se s t h e d i l a t o m e t e r p r e d i c t e d t he m a t e r i a l t y p e more a c c u r a t e l y t han t he cone f r i c t i o n r a t i o . The d i l a t o m e t e r Id i s no t as p r e c i s e a l o g g i n g pa r ame te r as t h e cone b e a r i n g p a r t l y because o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r o n l y t e s t s a t 20cm i n t e r v a l s v e r s u s t he c o n t i n u o u s cone p r o f i l e , bu t a l s o because Id was not p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e a t i n d i c a t i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n s t r a t i g r a p h y . O f t e n i t was t h e Ed r a t h e r t h a n Id t h a t d e f i n e d t h e l a y e r s o f l owe r d e n s i t y o r f i n e r g r a i n s i z e . (b) As at M cDona l d ' s Farm and F r a s e r L a n d i n g , Kd a t T i l b u r y I s l a n d was g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r than M a r c h e t t i ' s (1981) s ugge s t e d v a l u e o f 1.5 i n sand bo th b e f o r e and a f t e r c o m p a c t i o n . I t was no t p o s s i b l e to d e t e r m i n e i f t h e h i g h Kd v a l u e s a r e caused by h i g h i n s i t u l a t e r a l s t r e s s e s o r i f t h e sand at T i l b u r y I s l a n d i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more dense t h a t t h e sands M a r c h e t t i was s t u d y i n g . ( c ) In t h e s i l t l a y e r s Kd was s l i g h t l y l owe r a f t e r c ompac t i o n than b e f o r e . Cone po re p r e s s u r e d a t a s u g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s c aused by t he 79 compacted s i l t s d i l a t i n g d u r i n g b l a d e p e n e t r a t i o n r e d u c i n g dynamic po re p r e s s u r e s . Thus t h e t o t a l s t r e s s e s pa rame te r P 0 d e c r e a s e d wh i ch i n c r e a s e d K<j. I t i s not p o s s i b l e to draw d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s on s o i l modu l i d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d i l a t o m e t e r because t h e cone does not p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e r e f e r e n c e m o d u l i . Based on the cone r e s u l t s i n t h e f i r s t 8m t he d i l a t o m e t e r i s not as r e s p o n s i v e t o c o m p a c t i o n as t h e c o n e . There was a l a r g e s c a t t e r and v a r i a t i o n i n t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f f r i c t i o n a n g l e f rom t h e c o n e . C o n s e q u e n t l y no c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn r e g a r d i n g M a r c h e t t i ' s e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e f r i c t i o n ang l e f r om t he d i l a t o m e t e r . 80 CHAPTER SIX  CLOVERDALE B .C . 6 . 1 . D i s c u s s i o n The C l o v e r d a l e s i t e i s t h e second r e s e a r c h s i t e f o r U . B . C . 1 s I n s i t u T e s t i n g Re sea r ch G roup . I t i s s i t u a t e d near t h e P a c i f i c R a i l w a y O v e r p a s s , C l o v e r d a l e , B r i t i s h Co l umb i a and was s e l e c t e d because o f i t s c l a y d e p o s i t . I t has j u s t r e c e n t l y been deve l oped as a r e f e r e n c e t e s t s i t e , so t h e r e i s o n l y a l i m i t e d amount o f d a t a a v a i l a b l e . I n s t r u m e n t s employed a t C l o v e r d a l e i n c l u d e U . B . C . 1 s p i e z o - f r i c t i o n cone , M a r c h e t t i ' s d i l a t o m e t e r , a s c r e w - p l a t e and a N i l c o n s hea r v ane . The shea r vane was l o aded t o U .B .C . by t h e B r i t i s h Co l umb i a H ighways Depa r tmen t . The C l o v e r d a l e s i t e i s l e v e l and about 2.5m above mean sea l e v e l . S t r a t i g r a p h y i s u n i f o r m c o n s i s t i n g p r i n c i p a l l y o f c l a y o v e r l a y i n g wea the red f i l l . The ground wa t e r l e v e l i s 0.3m be low ground l e v e l . 6 . 2 . Geo l ogy The g e o l o g y a t C l o v e r d a l e can be d i v i d e d i n t h r e e z o n e s , a l t h o u g h o n l y t h e m i d d l e zone i s o f i n t e r e s t . The s u r f i c i a l 1 t o 2m c o n s i s t s o f f i l l m a t e r i a l o f h o g f u e l and g r a v e l p l a c e d d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c R a i l w a y O v e r p a s s . U n d e r l y i n g the f i l l i s about 26m o f s i l t y c l a y s and c l a y e y s i l t s i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h m ino r sand and g r a v e l l e n s e s . Benea th t h e c l a y i s f ound p o o r l y s o r t e d t i l l m i x t u r e s up t o 275m t h i c k ( A rms t r ong 1 9 5 7 ) . 81 The c l a y was l a i d down i n a ma r i ne p r o g l a c i a l e nv i r onmen t when the l a n d was d ep r e s s ed d u r i n g t he Sumas i c e advance ( A rms t r ong 1 9 5 7 ) . I t i s s e n s i t i v e , p r o b a b l y due t o l e a c h i n g a f t e r i s o s t a t i c rebound l i f t e d t h e s i t e above sea l e v e l and o v e r - c o n s o l i d a t e d e i t h e r due t o a g i n g e f f e c t s o r f l u c t u a t i n g wa te r t a b l e s d u r i n g u p l i f t . A s i t e p r o f i l e i s p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 6 . 1 . 6 . 3 . R e s u l t s Cone and d i l a t o m e t e r l o g s a re p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 6 . 2 . and 6 . 3 . The t a b u l a r d i l a t o m e t e r o u t p u t i s p r e s e n t e d i n Append ix V I . 6 . 3 . 1 . S i t e P r o f i l e and M a t e r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n U s i n g t he cone r e s u l t s , t he c l a y s t r a t i g r a p h y a t C l o v e r d a l e ( f i g u r e 6 . 1 . ) can be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s u b z o n e s . From about 2 t o 6m i s f ound s o f t , o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d c l a y s and s i l t s . The m a t e r i a l has a h i g h f r i c t i o n r a t i o (3 t o 5%) so p r o b a b l y has a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r (Schmertmann 1 9 7 8 ) . Between 6 and 16m u n i f o r m o v e r - c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l i s f o u n d . The f r i c t i o n r a t i o l i e s between 2 and 3% and t he dynamic pore p r e s s u r e r a t i o i s about 0 . 6 5 , so t h e m a t e r i a l i s most l i k e l y a s l i g h t l y o v e r - c o n s o l i d a t e d s o f t s i l t y c l a y . U s i n g Schmertmann (1978) t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e b e a r i n g l o g s u g g e s t s t h a t up t o 4m o f e r o s i o n has o c c u r r e d o r 30 kPa o f e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s has been removed . A t 16m t h e r e i s a change f r om an o v e r - c o n s o l i d a t e d to a n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l . The f r i c t i o n r a t i o r e du c e s by 1% and l i e s between 1 and 2% so t h a t m a t e r i a l i s c l a s s i f i e d as a c l a y e y to sandy s i l t . 0 .0 m S u r f i c i a l SAND, GRAVEL and WASTE F I L L O r g a n i c CLAY and SILT medium s o f t s e n s i t i v e o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d Cone Q c 100 -300 k P a , R f 3-5%, Vane Su 15-20 k P a , S t 7 -20 , M 2-4 mPa OCR 1 . 5 - 2 . 5 CLAY and SILTY CLAY medium s o f t , s e n s i t i v e l i g h t l y o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d Cone Q c 300-500 k P a , R f 2-3%, Vane Su 20-25 k P a , S t 7 - 30 , M 3-5 mPa OCR 1-2 16 .0 m CLAYEY and SANDY S I LT medium s o f t s e n s i t i v e n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d o c a s s i o n a l l y sandy l e n s e s 2 5 . 3 m DENSE SAND CLAY medium s t i f f Cone Q c 1100-1200 k P a , R f 2-3% SAND and GRAVEL v e r y dense ( T I L L ) FIGURE 6.1 MUD o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d Ed 1.2 MPa 0 .2 1 d 0 .42 M 1 . 4 - 1 . 9 M P a CLAY and SILTY CLAY s o f t o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d S u 13-35 k P a , M 1 . 9 - 5 . 9 MPa OCR 2 . 5 - 5 CLAY low c o n s i s t e n c y o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d S u 37 -62 k P a , M 2 . 5 - 6 . 6 MPa OCR 1 . 5 - 2 . 9 SOIL PROF ILE CLOVERDALE BC c o r o PORE PRESSURE F R I C T I O N R E S 1 S T A N C E B E A R I N G R E S I S T A N C E U (BAR) F C ( B A R ) OT I B A R ) 84 UJB.C. INSITU TESTING. Location: Cloverdale Overpass Clay Research S i t e . I N T E R M E D I A T E G E O T E C H N I C A L PARAMETERS Test No. Di l t #1 Test Date; 29 Oct 81 Ul ZD — I T3 a l _ ™ +-• Z= QJ ' — ' e a a ™ 1 o N IP —! t n l_ QJ a i _ <j"> u i Ul OJ l_ •H f ro " a. aj > 0_ o 001 O'El J L i 1 1 1 r £ 3 > l i b ^ i * -— I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -0> OL O'OT O'Et 0*91 0-61 OZZ (ii) uidan UJ * U3 «5 F i g u r e 6.3a D i l a t o m e t e r P r o f i l e - Intermediate G e o t e c h n i c a l Parameters. 85 UJB.C. INSITU TESTING. Location: Cloverdale Overpass Clay Research S i t e . INTERPRETED GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS, Test No. Di l t #1 Test Date; 29 Oct 81 (ii) qidarj o' oi cet n x - - 1 OJ L . -a QJ C m M 0 - £ "i r 0 0 1 Q'£t 0 - 9 l 0*61 to > II in --QNtiS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 III ro- -es •= SILT ! Mil m — -m — >y \_ _J o * -B E D'ZZ F i g u r e 6 . 3b D i l a t o m e t e r P r o f i l e - I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l Parameters. 86 S e v e r a l d i l a t i n g sand or s i l t l e n s e s a re f ound f r om 16 t o 28 m. These i n c r e a s e i n t h i c k n e s s , s t r e n g t h and f r e q u e n c y and u l t i m a t e l y f r om t he t r a n s i t i o n f rom c l a y to f i l l a t 28m. The d i l a t o m e t e r a l s o d i v i d e s t he c l a y p r o f i l e i n t o t h r e e s u b z o n e s , bu t d i f f e r e n t ones f r om those i d e n t i f i e d by t h e c o n e . A c c o r d i n g t o t he d i l a t o m e t e r , f r om 2 t o 4m i s f ound mud ( E d < 1 . 2 MPa ) , f r om 4 t o 12m, s i l t y c l a y , and f r om 12 t o 22m, c l a y . Id was no t a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e pa r ame te r and de c r ea sed i n a r e a s o n a b l y l i n e a r f a s h i o n f r om 4 t o 22m. The s u s p e c t e d v a r i a t i o n s i n s t r a t i g r a p h y a r e based on t h e Ed , Kd and S u l o g s . Each l o g c o u l d be a p p r o x i m a t e d by t h r e e l i n e segments w i t h changes i n g r a d i e n t s o r s t e p s a t about 4 and 12m. Below about 16m the l o g s tended t o be more v a r i a b l e p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e sand o r s i l t l e n s e s no ted on t h e cone l o g s . The r e a son f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e between DMT and CPT r e s u l t s i s not c l e a r but i t may be r e l a t e d t o the s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e C l o v e r d a l e c l a y d e p o s i t . D u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n o f a s e n s i t i v e s o i l , t h e s o i l s t r u c t u r e can c o l l a p s e g e n e r a t i n g h i g h e x c e s s po re p r e s s u r e s . The h i g h p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e t o t a l s t r e s s pa rame te r P 0 and hence K d . Once d i s t u r b e d by p e n e t r a t i o n t he s o i l i s v e r y weak so t h e d i f f e r e n c e ( P i - P o ) i s v e r y s m a l l and t h e r e f o r e so i s Id and Ed- The o n l y method o f c o n f i r m i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t o o b t a i n po re p r e s s u r e d a t a . M a r c h e t t i ( 1 9 8 0 ) c i t e s two Norweg ian s i t e s where t e s t s i n s e n s i t i v e q u a s i - p r e c o n s o l i d a t e d c l a y s gave v e r y low I d ' s o f 0 .20 and l e s s and h i g h K d ' s o f 2.5 t o 3 . 0 . Id and Kd at C l o v e r d a l e a re bo th h i g h e r than t he Norweg ian v a l u e s wh i ch c o u l d be due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n 87 the degree o f s e n s i t i v i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e t r e n d o f low Id and h i g h Kd i n s e n s i t i v e s o i l s i s s i m i l a r . I f po re p r e s s u r e d a t a was a v a i l a b l e f o r bo th s i t e s the r e a s on s f o r low v a l u e s o f I d , and h i g h v a l u e s o f Kd i n s e n s i t i v e s o i l s , and d i f f e r e n c e s between t he C l o v e r d a l e and t he Norweg ian s i t e s may be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d . O v e r a l l t he d i l a t o m e t e r d i d not p e r f o rm w e l l a t C l o v e r d a l e . The m a t e r i a l i n d ex was not as s e n s i t i v e t o v a r i a t i o n s i n s t r a t i g r a p h y as t he K d , S u and Ed p r o f i l e s . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d p r o b a b l e t h a t t h i s was l a r g e l y due t o t h e s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e o f t he c l a y . H i gh po re p r e s s u r e s g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g b l a d e p e n e t r a t i o n as t he s e n s i t i v e s o i l s t r u c t u r e c o l l a p s e s c au se s h i g h P 0 r e a d i n g s . A t t h e same t i m e Po i s h i g h and ( P i - P o ) i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l because a s o f t d i s t u r b e d s o i l i s b e i n g t e s t e d . 6 . 3 . 2 L a t e r a l S t r e s s e s The c o n s o l i d a t i o n h i s t o r y o f a s o i l can be e s t a b l i s h e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y by t he cone b e a r i n g p r o f i l e (Schmertmann 1 9 7 8 ) . By f o l l o w i n g Schmer tmann ' s p r o c e d u r e at C l o v e r d a l e i t wou ld f ound f r om 6 to 14m t h e c l a y i s o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d , and f rom 16 t o 28m t h e c l a y i s n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d . By c o n t r a s t Kd at C l o v e r d a l e i s a lways above 2 . 6 , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e who le p r o f i l e i s e i t h e r o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d o r has been a f f e c t e d by p h y s i o - c h e m i c a l phenomena such as a g i n g , c e m e n t a t i o n o r t h i x o t r o p y . The r e a s on f o r t he d i f f e r e n c e i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e s t r e s s h i s t o r y o f t h e d e p o s i t i s no t c l e a r . I t c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e c l a y ' s s e n s i t i v i t y c a u s i n g abnormal pore p r e s s u r e s d u r i n g b l a d e p e n e t r a t i o n . 88 6 . 3 . 3 S o i l Modu l i The d e f o r m a t i o n modu l i r e s u l t s a re p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 6.4 t o 6.6 and i n Append i x V I . The d i l a t o m e t e r and s c r e w p l a t e modu l i show s i m i l a r g e n e r a l t r e n d o f i n c r e a s i n g w i t h dep th a l t h o u g h the s c r e w p l a t e u n d r a i n e d d e f o r m a t i o n modu l i p r o f i l e i s i n c r e a s i n g at a g r e a t e r r a t e t han the Ed p r o f i l e . The s c r e w p l a t e p r o f i l e i s much more v a r i a b l e and about two t o f i v e t i m e s l a r g e r t han t h e Ed v a l u e s . To d e t e r m i n e i f a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between Ed and E f r om the s c r e w p l a t e , t h e two v a r i a b l e s were p l o t t e d i n f i g u r e 6 . 5 . The e q u a t i o n d e s c r i b i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p , wh i ch had a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t o f 0 . 8 7 , i s g i v e n i n f i g u r e 6 . 5 . The v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s c r e w p l a t e p r o f i l e had a marked e f f e c t on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and i f t h e peak v a l u e s a t 7, 10 and 14m a re i g n o r e d t h e r e m a i n i n g ten p o i n t s g i v e a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c e n t o f 0 . 9 8 . The s c r e w p l a t e modu l i were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the method o u t l i n e d i n Append i x V I . As d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n s 2 . 3 , t h e low v a l u e o f Ed i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a c l a y d e p o s i t . Both b l a d e p e n e t r a t i o n and membrane e x p a n s i o n cause p l a s t i c s t r a i n s so t h e measured d i l a t o m e t e r modulus i s a m e a n i n g l e s s s e c a n t modu l u s . The c o n s t r a i n e d modulus r e s u l t s a re p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 6 . 6 . The s c r e w p l a t e c o n s t r a i n e d modu l i (M S p) i s t y p i c a l l y f i v e t i m e s l a r g e r t han t h e d i l a t o m e t e r d e t e rm ined M. The r e a s o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s no t c l e a r . As was shown i n 6 . 3 . 2 Kd i s u n u s u a l l y h i g h a t C l o v e r d a l e p r e sumab l y due t o pore p r e s s u r e e f f e c t s when p e n e t r a t i n g a s e n s i t i v e s o i l . An i n t e r m e d i a t e p a r a m e t e r , R r n, i s used t o d e t e r m i n e M f r om t he d i l a t o m e t e r where R m = f ( l o g K d ) . Rm s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e a l s o be r e l a t i v e l y h i g h . The c o n s t r a i n e d modulus e q u a l s Rm.Ed but Ed i s 89 Esp Undrained deformation modulus from screwplrjte Ed Dilatometer modulus 12f 0 22 10 12 4 6 8 Ed Esp (MPa) FIGURE 6-4 UNDRAINED DEFORMATION MODULI FROM DILATOMETER AND SCREWPLATE CLOVERDALE B.C. 90 Esp Undrained deformation modulus from screwplate • Ed Dilatometer modulus r Correlation coefficent - / + + Esp-039 + 3-06 Ed + r 0-87 i I . I i I I  I I I I - .1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Esp (MPa) FIGURE 6-5 UNDRAINED DEFORMATION MODULUS FROM DILATOMETER AND SCREWPLATE 91 FIGURE 6-6 CONSTRAINED MODULUS FROM DILATOMETER AND SCREW PLATE 92 u n u s u a l l y low a t C l o v e r d a l e so t he e r r o r s wou ld be e x p e c t e d t o tend t o c a n c e l . Compared w i t h d i l a t o m e t e r M p r o f i l e t he M S p p r o f i l e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more v a r i a b l e . P o s s i b l y t h e r e a r e p rob l ems i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e M f r om the s c rew p l a t e . In any even t no c o r r e l a t i o n was f ound between M f rom t h e s c r e w p l a t e and d i l a t o m e t e r . Whether t h i s was due t o p r ob l ems w i t h M a r c h e t t i ' s c o r r e l a t i o n , wh i ch a r e known t o be i n e r r o r i n a s e n s i t i v e s o i l , o r w i t h p rob l ems i n t h e s c r e w p l a t e c o r r e l a t i o n c o u l d not be d e t e r m i n e d . 6 . 3 . 4 U n d r a i n e d Shea r S t r e n g t h The u n d r a i n e d s hea r s t r e n g t h ( S u ) p l o t s f r om t h e d i l a t o m e t e r and t he f i e l d vane (FV) a re shown i n f i g u r e 6.7 and t he S u / s v ' r a t i o s i n f i g u r e 6 . 8 . The DMT and FV had s i m i l a r S u p r o f i l e s . Above 5.5m t h e DMT r e s u l t s were about 20% l e s s t han t he FV r e s u l t s wh i ch ag r ee s w i t h M a r c h e t t i ' s (1980) f i n d i n g . Below 5.5m t he DMT S u was h i g h e r t h an t h e FV v a l u e s by up t o 20%. The r e a s on f o r t h e change f r om c o n s i s t e n t l y low v a l u e s t o c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h v a l u e s i s not known. I t c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o a change i n s o i l t y p e f rom an OC o r g a n i c c l a y t o an OC s i l t y c l a y l ogged by t he cone at 16m. P o s s i b l y t h e OC s i l t y c l a y a t C l o v e r d a l e i s d i f f e r e n t t o t he s o i l s M a r c h e t t i used t o d e v e l o p h i s e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . S o i l s e n s i t i v i t y may a l s o have a f f e c t e d t h e S u c o r r e l a t i o n . W i t h t he d a t a p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i t i s no t p o s s i b l e J I I I I I 1 1— 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Su (kpa) FIGURE 6-7 UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH FROM DILATOMETER AND FIELD VANE vs DEPTH, CLOVERDALE EC. 94 FIGURE 6-8 Su/OV RATIO'S vs DEPTH FROM DILATOMETER , CONE AND FIELD VANE CLOVERDALE B.C. 95 t o p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t i v e answer . The cone S u / s v ' p r o f i l e was d eve l o ped down t o 14m u s i n g Nk o f e i g h t i n t h e method d e s c r i b e d i n Append i x I . The v a l u e o f N|< was d e t e rm i ned by compa r i ng n i n e cone and FV t e s t s f r om 3 t o 11m, s o l v i n g f o r Nk, a v e r a g i n g t he r e s u l t s and r o u n d i n g t o t h e n e a r e s t who le number. Be low 16m the cone S u / s v ' r a t i o was r e du ced t o 0.22 o r n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d as i n d i c a t e d by t he b e a r i n g l o g w i t h a t r a n s i t i o n a r b i t r a r i l y assumed between 14 and 16m. 6 . 3 . 5 S e n s i t i v i t y o f E m p i r i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s t o E r r o r s i n Base Da t a B e f o r e d a t a r e d u c t i o n can s t a r t an e s t i m a t e o f s o i l u n i t we i gh t and dep th t o t h e w a t e r t a b l e ( Z w ) i s r e q u i r e d so t h a t v e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s can be d e r i v e d at t he f i r s t t e s t d e p t h . N o r m a l i s i n g by v e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s i s used to d e t e r m i n e Kd f r om P 0 . I f P 0 i s s m a l l as at C l o v e r d a l e where a v a l u e o f 99 kPa was d e t e r m i n e d , l a r g e e r r o r s can r a p i d l y a c cumu l a t e i f t h e r e a r e any e r r o r s i n e s t i m a t i o n o f u n i t we i gh t and Z w . The p rob lems a re a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t a t s h a l l o w dep th s where t o t a l s t r e s s e s are l ow . A s e n s i t i v i t y a n a l y s i s f o r Kd i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I I where s o i l u n i t we i gh t and dep th t o wa te r t a b l e i s v a r i e d f o r c o n s t a n t dep th be low ground l e v e l ( 2 . 6 m) and P 0 (99 k P a ) . C o n s i d e r t h e c a s e when t he s o i l u n i t w e i g h t was i n c o r r e c t l y e s t i m a t e d t o be 1.7 t / m , . i n s t e a d o f 1.5 t / m 3 , an 11% e r r o r . The c a l c u l a t e d v e r t i c a l e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s wou ld be i n c o r r e c t l y c a l c u l a t e d as 21 kPa i n s t e a d o f 16 k P a , a 24% e r r o r , and l<d wou ld be i n c o r r e c t l y c a l c u l a t e d as 3.7 i n s t e a d o f 4 . 8 , a 30% e r r o r . The e r r o r s a re worse i f a m i s t a k e was made i n mea su r i n g 96 t he dep th t o the wa te r t a b l e o r i f t h e wa t e r t a b l e was u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y h i g h o r low a t t h e t ime o f measurement . A t C l o v e r d a l e f o r i n s t a n c e i f Z w = 0 .3 but 1.3m was measured t hen s v ' wou ld be c a l c u l a t e d as 22 .5 kPa i n s t e a d o f 15 . 8 kPa (38% e r r o r ) and K(j wou ld be c a l c u l a t e d as 3.4 i n s t e a d o f 4 . 8 (40% e r r o r ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y t h e e r r o r s i n Kd wou ld be c a r r i e d t h r ough t o OCR, P c , K 0 and M wh i ch a re dependent on Kd . E r r o r s i n e s t i m a t i n g the d e n s i t y o f t h e C l o v e r d a l e c l a y and c o n s e q u e n t i a l e r r o r s i n Kd and M may e x p l a i n some o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s f ound i n S e c t i o n 6 . 3 . 2 . 1.5 UNIT WEIGHT ( t /m3) 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.7 Sv' 38 .4 4 0 . 8 4 3 . 4 38 .4 4 0 . 8 4 3 . 2 (kPa) Depth = 2.6m s v ' 1 5 . 8 18 . 1 20 . 8 25 . 5 28 . 0 30 . 1 (kPa) P 0 = 99 kPa Kd 4 . 9 4 . 2 3.7 3 .4 3 .1 2 .8 Z w = 0.3m Z w = 1.3m T a b l e V I I I n f l u e n c e of V a r i a t i o n s i n S o i l U n i t We igh t and Depth to Water T a b l e on C a l c u l a t i o n o f Kd 97 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s M a t e r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f rom DMT and CPT d i d not agree v e r y w e l l . Bo th i n s t r u m e n t s p r e d i c t e d s i l t y c l a y s at about 4m but w i t h g r a d a t i o n d e c r e a s i n g w i t h dep th a c c o r d i n g t o DMT and i n c r e a s i n g a c c o r d i n g t o CPT. Id was not a v e r y s e n s i t i v e pa r ame te r and d e c r e a s e d more or l e s s l i n e a r l y w i t h d e p t h . M i no r v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e Ed , Kd and S u l o g s s ugge s t e d v a r i a t i o n s i n t he s t r a t i g r a p h y , bu t t h e s e c o u l d not be r e l a t e d to t h e cone d a t a . The h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s i ndex at C l o v e r d a l e was a lways g r e a t e r t han 2.6 i n d i c a t i n g on o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d d e p o s i t . The o v e r c o n s o l i d a t i o n r a t i o (OCR) v a r i e d f r om f o u r at 4m t o 2.3 be low 16m. CPT d a t a showed t h a t o n l y t h e s u r f i c i a l 14m was o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d w i t h OCR v a r y i n g f r om 2.3 a t 4m t o 1.3 at 16m. The d i f f e r e n c e s between t he two i n s t r u m e n t s c o u l d come f r om two s o u r c e s . B l a de p e n e t r a t i o n i n a s e n s i t i v e s o i l may cause c o l l a p s e o f s o i l s t r u c t u r e g e n e r a t i n g e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h pore p r e s s u r e s . Such h i g h po re p r e s s u r e s wou ld i n c r e a s e Po and hence K d . Sma l l e r r o r s i n e s t i m a t i n g s o i l u n i t w e i g h t o r dep th t o wa te r t a b l e can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t c a l c u l a t i o n o f Kd-As e x p e c t e d ( S e c t i o n 2 .3 ) Ed was v e r y low and o n l y about 20% o f t h e s c r e w p l a t e d e f o r m a t i o n modu lus . L a r ge p l a s t i c s t r a i n s d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n and membrane e x p a n s i o n i n t h e s o f t s e n s i t i v e c l a y meant t h a t a s m a l l s e c a n t f a i l u r e modulus was measured by t he d i l a t o m e t e r . The d i l a t o m e t e r M was low at C l o v e r d a l e , p o s s i b l y due t o t h e e r r o r s i n (b) above and no c o n f i d e n c e i s p l a c e d i n DMT o r s c r e w p l a t e r e s u l t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y no comments can be o f f e r e d on t h e d i l a t o m e t e r 98 c o n s t r a i n e d modu lus a t C l o v e r d a l e . The d i l a t o m e t e r u n d r a i n e d shea r s t r e n g t h a t C l o v e r d a l e was g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n 20% o f t h e vane s t r e n g t h . Above 5.5m t h e d i l a t o m e t e r S u was l e s s than t h e FV S u as sugges t ed by M a r c h e t t i (1981) bu t be low 5.5m g r e a t e r . The r e a s on f o r t he v a r i a t i o n f rom be l ow FV r e s u l t s t o above i s not known, bu t b e l i e v e d t o be r e l a t e d to t h e s e n s i t i v e s o i l . The t r e n d o f low Id and h i g h Kd i n s e n s i t i v e s o i l s ag rees w i t h M a r c h e t t i ' s (1981) f i n d i n g s . In s o f t m a t e r i a l s where P 0 i s sma l l and a t s h a l l o w d e p t h s , e r r o r s i n e s t i m a t i n g s o i l u n i t we i gh t and mea su r i n g dep th t o wa t e r t a b l e can have s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . I f an i n c o r r e c t v a l u e o f e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s i s used t o n o r m a l i s e P 0 t o get Kd l a r g e e r r o r s i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Kd may r e s u l t . M a r c h e t t i ' s c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r OCR, P 0 , Ko and M a l l r e l y on Kd so t h e s e t oo may be i n e r r o r . 99 CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 7 . 1 . 1 . S o i l P r o f i l e and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The d i l a t o m e t e r i s a u s e f u l t o o l f o r t h e i n s i t u l o g g i n g o f s o i l s t r a t i g r a p h y . I t does not g i v e an e x a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s o i l w i t h r e s p e c t t o g r a i n s i z e , but r a t h e r one based on t he s o i l ' s m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . T h i s i s more t han adequa te f o r most e n g i n e e r i n g pu rposes s i n c e a p r e c i s e , g e n e r i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s not e s s e n t i a l so l o ng as t he mechan i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s o i l can be d e t e r m i n e d . I t appea r s f r om t he r e s u l t s i n t h i s t h e s i s and chamber t e s t s ( B e l l o t t i e t a l 1980) t h a t Id t ends t o g e n e r a l l y p r e d i c t a f i n e r o r more c o h e s i v e s o i l t han r e a l l y e x i s t s . The re were e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s g e n e r a l i s a t i o n such as o v e r c o n s o l i d a t e d s i l t s where t h e r e v e r s e was t r u e and Id p r e d i c t e d sand o r s i l t y s a n d . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s was caused by low o r n e g a t i v e po re p r e s s u r e s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g the t o t a l s t r e s s Po and P j and t he d i f f e r e n c e (P-j - P 0 ) . Ed and Kd o f t e n p r o v i d e d a b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n o f f i n e d e t a i l s i n s o i l s t r a t i g r a p h y t han Id by h i g h l i g h t i n g s m a l l v a r i a t i o n s i n g r a i n s i z e o r d e n s i t y . 100 7 . 1 . 2 . L a t e r a l S t r e s s e s The h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s i ndex i s c o n t r o l l e d by many i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y , s t r e s s h i s t o r y , a g i n g , c e m e n t a t i o n and i n s i t u h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s e s . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e t h e s e f a c t o r s a t p r e s e n t so t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f u s i n g Kd t o e s t i m a t e K 0 i n sand a t l e a s t i s l i m i t e d . The NC sands t e s t e d u s u a l l y had Kd v a l u e s h i g h e r t h an the e x p e c t e d v a l u e o f 1.5 ( M a r c h e t t i 1 980 ) . The r e a son f o r t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t i s not known, but t h e r e s u l t ag rees w i t h B e l l o t t i e t a l ( 1 9 8 0 ) . In compacted s i l t s t h e o p p o s i t e was t r u e and Kd was a b n o r m a l l y low ( l e s s than 1 . 8 ) . Co re pore p r e s s u r e d a t a s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f i n e s i l t s d i l a t e d d u r i n g b l a d e p e n e t r a t i o n , r e d u c i n g dynamic po re p r e s s u r e s and hence P 0 and Kd - In NC c l a y s Kd i s r e l i a b l e because c l a y s a lways ac t i n an u n d r a i n e d manner d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . D i l a t o m e t e r d a t a r e d u c t i o n r e q u i r e s i n p u t o f t o t a l s t r e s s at t he f i r s t t e s t dep th and dep th t o wa te r t a b l e ( Z w ) . When P 0 i s s m a l l , and dep ths s h a l l o w , sma l l e r r o r s on e s t i m a t i n g t o t a l s t r e s s a t t he f i r s t t e s t dep th o r Z w can cause e r r o r s o f 40% o r more . C o r r e l a t i o n s r e l y i n g on Kd w i l l a l s o be i n e r r o r . 7 . 1 . 3 . Und r a i n ed Shea r S t r e n g t h Und r a i n ed s hea r s t r e n g t h compa r i s ons have been s t u d i e d at two s i t e s . A t C l o v e r d a l e t h e d i l a t o m e t e r gave S u v a l u e s about 20% l e s s t han the f i e l d van (FV) above 5.5m a g r e e i n g w i t h M a r c h e t t i ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Be low 5.5m the d i l a t o m e t e r was up t o 20% h i g h e r than t h e FV v a l u e s . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t i v e answer f o r t h e c hange . P o s s i b l y t he 101 s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e o f the c l a y d e p o s i t , o r t h e change i n s o i l t y p e l ogged by the cone f rom an OC o r g a n i c c l a y t o an OC s i l t y c l a y , a f f e c t e d the e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n used t o d e r i v e S u . M a r c h e t t i (1980) n o t e s t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s not v a l i d f o r s e n s i t i v e s o i l s . A t McDona l d ' s Farm t h e p i e z o - f r i c t i o n cone was compared w i t h t h e d i l a t o m e t e r . The cone b e a r i n g p r o f i l e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e d e p o s i t was n o r m a l l y c o n s o l i d a t e d , whereas t h e d i l a t o m e t e r s u g g e s t e d a s l i g h t l y OC d e p o s i t . The d i f f e r e n c e s were r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l however . 7 . 1 . 4 . F r i c t i o n A n g l e T h e o r e t i c a l l y t h e b e s t method f o r c a l c u l a t i n g f r i c t i o n a n g l e f rom t he d i l a t o m e t e r i s by u s i n g Durgunog lu and M i t c h e l l ' s b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y t h e o r y (Schmertmann 1 9 8 2 ) . However, f r om t he l i m i t e d amount o f d a t a a v a i l a b l e i t appears t h a t M a r c h e t t i ' s c o r r e l a t i o n g i v e s compa rab l e v a l u e s o f f r i c t i o n ang l e w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e f f o r t . T y p i c a l l y M a r c h e t t i ' s c o r r e l a t i o n g i v e s v a l u e s o f f o u r t o f i v e deg rees l e s s t han t h e SBP o r p i e z o - f r i c t i o n c one , whereas Du rgunog lu and M i t c h e l l ' s t h e o r y , as a p p l i e d by Schmertmann ( 1 9 8 2 ) , y i e l d s v a l u e s o f t h r e e t o f o u r deg rees l e s s . The r e s u l t s f r om bo th app roaches agree w i t h M a r c h e t t i and Crapps (1981) who s t a t e t h a t more work i s r e q u i r e d t o d e v e l o p f r i c t i o n a n g l e c o r r e l a t i o n s f rom t h e d i l a t o m e t e r . 7 . 1 . 5 . S o i l Modu l i The d i l a t o m e t e r e s t i m a t e s s o i l modulus f r om two p o i n t s on t he s t r e s s / s t r a i n c u r v e . One p o i n t i s f ound when t h e s o i l has been d i s p l a c e d 7mm by b l a d e p e n e t r a t i o n and the second when membrane e x p a n s i o n has caused ano the r 1mm d e f l e c t i o n . As s o i l g e n e r a l l y has 102 a n o n - l i n e a r s t r e s s / s t r a i n c u r v e i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o a n a l y s e s o i l b e h a v i o u r i n a f undamen ta l manner u s i n g t h e two p o i n t s f r om t h e d i 1 a t o m e t e r . An a t t empt t o i l l u s t r a t e t he f undamen ta l d i f f e r e n c e s between t he d i l a t o m e t e r and t he SBP i s g i v e n i n f i g u r e 7 . 1 . In t h i s f i g u r e a pp r o x ima t e v a l u e s f o r P 0 and P i i n sand and c l a y a r e p l o t t e d w i t h a g e n e r a l i s e d SBP p l o t . In dense s a n d s , such as t h o s e f ound at McDona l d ' s Fa rm, t h e d i l a t o m e t e r can p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l e , i f somewhat, c o n s e r v a t i v e d e f o r m a t i o n modu l u s . In c l a y however , t he l a r g e s t r a i n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h membrane e x p a n s i o n c au se s s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d i n g so t h e measured Ed i s a sma l l s e c a n t modu l u s . To r e l a t e Ed t o a more fundamenta l s o i l modu l u s , l i k e t h a t d e t e r m i n e d by t h e SBP, i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p an e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n . T h i s i s a t t emp ted i n f i g u r e 7.2 where most o f t h e d e f o r m a t i o n modu l i p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a re summar ised i n one f i g u r e . The d a t a o m i t t e d comes f rom F r a s e r L a n d i n g a f t e r c ompac t i o n as t h e i r a n o m a l i e s i n the d a t a . Fo r e xamp l e , t h e two d i l a t o m e t e r r e a d i n g s at 4.6m and 4 .8m, wh i ch spanned t h e SBP t e s t at 4 .7m, v a r i e d by a f a c t o r o f 2. A s e r i e s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s were a t t emp t ed i n c l u d i n g a l i n e a r , l o g - l i n e a r , and l o g - l o g r e g r e s s i o n s . A l l r e g r e s s i o n s had c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s g r e a t e r than 0 .7 w i t h t h e b e s t v a l u e o f 0 .79 f rom the l o g - l i n e a r a n a l y s i s . Because o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t y i n t h e r e l a t i i o n s h i p between E^/E and Id d a t a p o i n t s o n l y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 7 . 2 . p, SAND Ed * E P .-P o *3000 kPa CLAY P i - P o ^ PRESSURE CURVE METER J 3-6% FROM TABLE 3-1 CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRAIN F I G U R E 7.1 CONCEPTUAL COMPARISON OF PRESSUREMETER AND DILATOMETER DURING MEMBRANE E X P A N S I O N 104 0-8 07 0-6 0-5 CLAY ] SILT j SAND - • McDonalds Fdrm ( Sand SB. jPressuremeter ) O Fraser Landing ( Sand/Silt before compaction S(3 Pressure metej" ) _ ® Fraser Landing ( Sand/Silt after compaction S£j. Pressuremeter1) ~r~ Cloverdale ( ClaJy^Screwplate ) ! _ • UJ 0-3 0-2 0-1 © e o • 0 + l + + • + • e i 1 1 1 1 • t i 1 1 1 ro Id FIGURE 7.2 SUMMARY OF DEFORMATION MODULI VERSUS Id 105 The McDona l d ' s Farm d a t a i s the most v a r i a b l e and a t w o r s t t h e a c t u a l Ed/E r a t i o i s l e s s than h a l f t h a t p r e d i c t e d by t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The r e a s on why McDona l d ' s Farm d a t a i s so v a r i a b l e i s now known. E q u a t i o n 3-1 sugges t ed t h a t t h e r e was a v e r y good c o r r e l a t i o n between Ed and t he SBP E whereas a r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s on Ed/E and l o g Id f r om McDona l d ' s Farm has a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f n e a r l y z e r o . I t wou ld t h e r e f o r e appear t h a t w h i l e Ed and E can be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d f o r a g i v e n s o i l a t a g i v e n s i t e , v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p a c c o r d i n g t o s o i l t y pe are p o o r l y i n d i c a t e d by I d . 7 . 1 . 6 . P o r e P r e s s u r e E f f e c t s The d i l a t o m e t e r i s a t o t a l s t r e s s i n s t r u m e n t and measures t h e com-b i n e d p r e s s u r e o f s o i l and wate r on t he membrane. T h i s i s not a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r when t e s t i n g NC c l a y s o r f r e e d r a i n i n g sands wh i ch have c o n s i s t e n t r e s pon s e s t o p e n e t r a t i o n and known d r a i n a g e c o n -d i t i o n s . However , when n o n - s t a n d a r d po re p r e s s u r e r e s p o n s e s o c c u r , o r when d r a i n a g e c o n d i t i o n s a re unknown, t hen e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a t o t a l s t r e s s i n s t r u m e n t such as t h e d i l a t o m e t e r can break down. In compacted s i l t s f o r examp l e , t h e s o i l may d i l a t e d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n c a u s i n g s m a l l e r dynamic po re p r e s s u r e s t o be g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n than were e x p e c t e d . T h i s d e c r e a s e s P 0 , P i and Kd w h i l s t ( P i - P 0 ) , Ed and Id i n c r e a s e . Because o f t he i n c r e a s e i n Id t he d i l a t o m e t e r s u g g e s t s a more c o a r s e o r g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l t han r e a l l y e x i s t s . In s e n s i t i v e c l a y s t h e r e v e r s e i s t r u e where u n u s u a l l y h i g h dynamic pore p r e s s u r e s a r e g e n e r a t e d as t h e s t r u c t u r e c o l l a p s e s d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . T h i s i n c r e a s e s P 0 and P i , bu t ( P i - P 0 ) i s sma l l because a weak, d i s t u r b e d s o i l i s b e i n g t e s t e d . The r e s u l t i s s m a l l Id and Ed v a l u e s , but h i g h K d ' s . 106 E r r o r s can a l s o a r i s e i f the s t a n d a r d t e s t p r o c e d u r e i s not f o l l o w e d . I f , i n a f i n e s o i l f o r e xamp l e , an e x c e s s i v e amount o f t i m e i s a l l o w e d t o e l a p s e between a d v a n c i n g t h e d i l a t o m e t e r and mem-brane e x p a n s i o n , t he dynamic po re p r e s s u r e g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g p e n e t r a -t i o n may d i s s i p a t e . The r e s u l t i s s i m i l a r t o t e s t i n g compacted s i l t s and w i l l r e s u l t i n h i g h Id and Ed v a l u e s , low Kd v a l u e s and an i n c o r r e c t s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 7.1.7. B e n e f i t s and L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e F l a t D i l a t o m e t e r In i t s p r e s e n t f o rm t h e d i l a t o m e t e r i s a u s e f u l i n s i t u t e s t i n g d e v i c e . I t r e q u i r e s l i t t l e c a p i t a l o u t l a y t o a c q u i r e , i s s i m p l e t o use and r e q u i r e s a minimum o f s u p p o r t e qu i pmen t . The d a t a f rom d i l a t o m e t e r i s r e p e a t a b l e and easy t o r e d u c e u s i n g computer programmes. The r e s u l t s a re p r e s e n t e d i n a t a b u l a r and g r a p h i c a l manner i n a f o rm r e a d i l y a s s i m i l a t e d by a p r a c t i s i n g E n g i n e e r . The d i l a t o m e t e r does have s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s . I t i s s l o w e r t o use t han t he e l e c t r i c cone wh i ch i n c r e a s e s t h e o p e r a t i n g c o s t s , and i t does not p roduce a c o n t i n u o u s p r o f i l e . I t appea r s t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s used t o p r e d i c t K 0 i n sand and a d e f o r m a t i o n modulus i n a c l a y a r e o f l i m i t e d v a l u e at p r e s e n t and need f u r t h e r s t u d y . Care i s r e q u i r e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the d i l a t o m e t e r r e s u l t s i n s o i l s w i t h n o n - t y p i c a l po re p r e s s u r e r e s p o n s e such as compacted s i l t s o r s e n s i t i v e c l a y s . These s i t u a t i o n s f a l l o u t s i d e o f t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t M a r c h e t t i used t o d e ve l o p h i s e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s and t hu s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s may no t be a p p l i c a b l e . 107 The e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a re " l o c k e d " i n t o t h e d a t a r e d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . Because o f t h i s i t i s not e a s y t o update t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s as more i n f o r m a t i o n becomes ava i 1 a b l e . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o m o n i t o r t h e i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t because i f t h e b l a d e i s d e f l e c t e d , e r r o n e o u s v a l u e s f o r P 0 and P i w i l l be measu red . I f t h e s e two v a l u e s a r e i n e r r o r so w i l l a l l o t h e r pa r ame te r s c a l c u l a t e d f r om t h e d i l a t o m e t e r . The re i s a l i m i t e d r e s o l u t i o n on the gauge used t o measure P 0 and P i . Wh i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o use a more s e n s i t i v e gauge e r r o r s can a r i s e i n s o f t d e p o s i t s because P 0 and P i a r e v e r y c l o s e . 7 . 2 . F u t u r e Deve lopment From t he p r o c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t M a r c h e t t i ' s d i l a t o m e t e r i s a r e a s o n a b l e t o o l i n d e t e r m i n i n g s o i l p r o p e r t i e s f r om e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . However, i t has a number o f d e f i c i e n c i e s i n c l u d i n g : (a ) a l a c k o f f undamen ta l t h e o r y , (b) i t i s a t o t a l s t r e s s i n s t r u m e n t , ( c ) i t c anno t p roduce a c o n t i n u o u s p r o f i l e , (d) an i n a b i l i t y t o d e t e c t d e f l e c t i o n d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n , (e ) Durgunog lu and M i t c h e l l ' s b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y t h e o r y canno t be used d i r e c t l y s i n c e p u s h i n g f o r c e on t he b l a d e i s no t known. Wh i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o measure p u s h i n g f o r c e a t t h e s u r f a c e and make a number o f a s sump t i on s t o e s t i m a t e p u s h i n g f o r c e a t t h e b l a de 108 i t i s much more d e s i r a b l e t o measure a c t u a l f o r c e on t he b l a d e , ( f ) measurement o f a i r p r e s s u r e on t he membrane can be a f f e c t e d by t ime l a g e f f e c t s i n t he l o n g t h i n a i r t u b e . A f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s i t was d e c i d e d t o i n c l u d e t he f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s i n a r e s e a r c h d i l a t o m e t e r d e s i g n e d by t he a u t h o r : (a ) a pore p r e s s u r e s e n s i n g e lement i n the c e n t r e o f t h e membrane. (b) a p r e s s u r e c e l l i n the b l a d e to measure a i r p r e s s u r e . ( c ) a l o a d c e l l b eh i nd t he b l a d e to c o n t i n u o u s l y m o n i t o r p u s h i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . (d ) a s t r a i n gauged d e f l e c t o r arm a t t a c h e d t o t h e c e n t r e o f t h e membrane t o c o n t i n u o u s l y measure d e f l e c t i o n d u r i n g membrane e x p a n s i o n s , and (e) a s l o p e s e n s o r t o measure t h e v e r t i c a l i t y o f t h e b l a d e d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e added f e a t u r e s i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t M a r c h e t t i ' s mea su r i n g sys tem s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d , at l e a s t i n t h e f i r s t r e s e a r c h m o d e l , so t h a t c ompa r i s on s c o u l d be made between the r e s e a r c h model and M a r c h e t t i ' s d i l a t o m e t e r . O b v i o u s l y a l l t h e f e a t u r e s must be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n a d i l a t o m e t e r t h a t had d i m e n s i o n s s i m i l a r t o M a r c h e t t i ' s , t h a t i s 93mm l o n g , 14mm t h i c k , about 200mm l ong and w i t h a 60mm membrane. D e t a i l s o f t he r e s e a r c h d i l a t o m e t e r a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Append i x V I I and d e s i g n s k e t c h e s a re p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 7 .3a t o 7 . 3 f . (B) CROSS SECTION FIGURE 7.3 DESIGN DETAILS OF THE ELECTRONIC RESEARCH DILATOMETER SECTION A-A PLAN VIEW (C) DETAILS OF MEASURING SYSTEM r — P O R E PRESSURE TRANSDUCER POROUS STONE MARCHETTIS MEASURING SYSTEM SECTION (D) DETAILS OF MEASURING SYSTEM FIGURE 7.3 DESIGN DETAILS OF THE ELECTRONIC RESEARCH DILATOMETER CONTINUED WIRE CONNECTORS INSITU TESTING TRUCK AIRLINE TRUCK 1 TO DILATOMETER BRASS COLLAR (E) DETAIL OF DILATOMETER ROD CONNECTION FRICTION SLEEVE INCLINOMETER MOUNTED HERE LOAD CELL STRAIN GAUGES D I L A T O M E T E R — -(F) LOAD CELL SECTION FIGURE 7.3 DESIGN DETAILS OF THE ELECTRONIC RESEARCH DILATOMETER CONTINUED 112 I t i s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t the r e s e a r c h d i l a t o m e t e r may not be as r o b u s t as M a r c h e t t i ' s s i n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be more s o p h i s t i c a t e d w i t h more j o i n t s and hen ce , pe rhaps more weak p o i n t s . D e s p i t e t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s the r e s e a r c h d i l a t o m e t e r s h o u l d p r o v i d e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e M a r c h e t t i d i l a t o m e t e r . 7 . 3 . F u t u r e P r o s p e c t s f o r t h e D i l a t o m e t e r The l o ng te rm r o l e o f t h e d i l a t o m e t e r i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t . I t may have a r o l e i n two f o r m s . In i t s p r e s e n t f o rm i t i s cheap to a c q u i r e and s i m p l e t o u s e , wh i ch makes i t a t t r a c t i v e f o r a c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r . I t i s an i d e a l i n s t r u m e n t f o r d i f f i c u l t o r i s o l a t e d s i t e s , because i t r e q u i r e s a minimum o f s uppo r t e qu i pmen t . However , t h e e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s do not a lways work and to get a good i n d i c a t i o n o f s o i l s t r a t i g r a p h y t h e Ed p r o f i l e o f t e n needs t o be s t u d i e d as w e l l as t h e Id p r o f i l e . 8ecause o f t h i s t he d i l a t o m e t e r may have d i f f i c u l t y c ompe t i ng w i t h t h e p i e z o - f r i c t i o n cone as a l o g g i n g t o o l . An a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o d e v e l o p an advanced d i l a t o m e t e r based on t he U .B .C . r e s e a r c h d i l a t o m e t e r . A d i l a t o m e t e r w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g improvements wou ld be an e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l d e v i c e : (a ) A l o a d c e l l s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d beh i nd t h e b l a d e . T h e r e f o r e Schmer tmann ' s (1982) use o f Du rgunog lu and M i t c h e l l ' s b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y t h e o r y to c a l c u l a t e f r i c t i o n a n g l e i s s i m p l e r and more a c c u r a t e . In a d d i t i o n t he s o i l c o u l d be l o gged on a c o n t i n u o u s b a s i s u s i n g t he b e a r i n g measurement , a l t h o u g h Id measurements wou ld s t i l l be made a t 20cm i n t e r v a l s . 113 (b) A pore p r e s s u r e c e l l c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e d i l a t o m e t e r . The r e s e a r c h d i l a t o m e t e r has t he pore p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r mounted on the membrane, but t h i s i s u n n e c e s s a r i l y complex f o r a f i e l d d e v i c e . A t r a n s d u c e r mounted i n t he b l a d e wou ld s u f f i c e t o measure dynamic pore p r e s s u r e s d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n and improve t h e r e s o l u t i o n i n l o g g i n g a s o i l p r o f i l e . ( c ) An i n c l i n o m e t e r s h o u l d be mounted beh i nd t h e b l a d e . I t i s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e s e improvements w i l l add t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t he d i l a t o m e t e r and w i l l r e d u c e i t s v e r s a t i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . However , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t a d i l a t o m e t e r i n c l u d i n g t h e s e components w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r i n s i t u t e s t i n g d e v i c e . I t w i l l be c a p a b l e o f q u i c k , c o n t i n u o u s l o g g i n g and w i t h f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , s u i t a b l e f o r m e a s u r i n g s o i l d e f o r m a t i o n m o d u l i . The modu l i measurements may no t be as r e l i a b l e as t he SBP, but t h e advanced d i l a t o m e t e r wou ld p r o v i d e much more d a t a at a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l owe r c o s t . 114 BIBLIOGRAPHY A r m s t r o n g , J . E . , ( 1 9 5 7 ) , " S u r f i c i a l Geo l ogy o f New W e s t m i n i s t e r Map A r e a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , GSC Paper 5 7 - 5 , G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada , O t t awa , 1957 . B a l d i , G . , B E l l o t t i , R., Gh ionna V . , J a m i o l k o w s k i M., and P a s q u a l i n i E . , ( 1 9 8 0 ) , "Cone R e s i s t a n c e i n Dry NC and OC S a n d s " , ASCE Symposium on CPT, O c t o b e r , 1981 , S t L o u i s . B a l i g h , M.M., ( 1 9 7 6 ) , " Theo ry o f Deep S i t e S t a t i c Cone P e n e t r a t i o n R e s i s t a n c e " , R e s e a r c h Repo r t 7 5 - 7 6 , No. 517 , M . I . T . , C amb r i d ge , Mass . B a l i g h , M.M., and S c o t t , R . F . , ( 1 9 7 5 ) , " Q u a s i - s t a t i c Deep P e n e t r a t i o n i n C l a y s " , J o u r n a l o f t h e G e o t e c h n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n ASCE, Vo l 101 , No. GT11, Nov. pp 1119-1133 . B a l i g h , M.M., and S c o t t , R . F . , ( 1 9 7 6 ) , " A n a l y s i s o f Wedge P e n e t r a t i o n i n C l a y " , G e o t e c h n i q u e 2 6 , N o . l , 1976 , pp 185 -208 . B a l i g h , M.M., V i v i t r a t , V . , and L add , C , ( 1 9 7 5 ) , " E x p l o r a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n o f E n g i n e e r i n g P r o p e r t i e s f o r F o u n d a t i o n De s i g n o f O f f s h o r e S t r u c t u r e s " , M . I . T . P u b l i c a t i o n R78 -40 , M . I . T . , C amb r i d ge , M a s s . , 02139 . B e l l o t t i , R., B i z z i , G . , G h i o n n a , V . , J a m i o l o k o w s k i , M. , M a r c h e t t i , S . , and P a s q u a l i n i , E . , ( 1 9 7 9 ) , " P r e l i m i n a r y C a l i b r a t i o n t e s t s o f E l e c t r i c a l Cone and F l a t D i l a t o m e t e r " , P r o c e e d i n g s 7 t h Eu ropean C o n f e r e n c e on  S o i l Me cahn i c s and F o u n d a t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g V o l , 2, S e p t . , B r i g h t o n , E n g l a n d , pp 195 -200 . B e r z i n s , W.E . , and C a m p a n e l l a , R . G . , ( 1 9 8 1 ) , "Deve lopment o f t h e S c r e w p l a t e f o r t h e I n s i t u D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f S o i l P a r a m e t e r s " , S o i l Me chan i c s  S e r i e s No .48 Dep t . o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canda , May 1981 . B l u nden , R . H . , ( 1 9 7 5 ) , "Urban Geo l ogy o f R i chmond , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , A d v e n t u r e s i n E a r t h S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a No. 15 , 1975 . C a m p a n e l l a , R . G . , and R o b e r t s o n , P . K . , ( 1 9 8 1 ) , " A p p l i e d Cone Re sea r c h Cone  T e s t i n g and E x p e r i e n c e , G e o t e c h n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n , ASCE, O c t o b e r , 1981 , pp 343 -362 . C a m p a n e l l a , R . G . , and R o b e r t s o n , P .K . , ( 1 9 8 2 ) , " S t a t e o f A r t i n I n s i t u T e s t i n g o f S o i l s : Deve lopments s i n c e 1 9 7 8 " . I n v i t e d P a p e r , E n g i n e e r i n g F o u n d a t i o n Con f e r en ce on the Updated S u b s u r f a c e Samp l i n g o f S o i l s and Rocks and t h e i r I n s i t u T e s t i n g , J a n u a r y 3 -8 , 1982 , S a n t a B a r b a r a , C a l i f o r n i a . C a m p a n e l l a , R . G . , G i l l e s p i e , D .G . , and R o b e r t s o n , P . K . , ( 1 9 8 2 ) , " Po re P r e s s u r e s D u r i n g Cone P e n e t r a t i o n T e s t i n g " , ESOPT I I , Amsterdam, The N e t h e r l a n d s , May 24 - 27 , 1982 . 115 C r a p p s , D., and Schmertmann, J . , ( 1 9 8 1 ) , "D ILLY , a F o r t r a n Computer Programme t o Reduce D i l a t o m e t e r D a t a " , Schmertmann and Crapps I n c . , I n t e r n a l  R e p o r t , G a i n s v i l l e , F l o r i d a , 1981 . D a h l b e r g , R., ( 1 9 7 5 ) , " P e n e t r a t i o n , P r e s s u r e m e t e r and S c r e w p l a t e T e s t s i n N a t u r a l Sand D e p o s i t s " , European Symposium on P e n e t r a t i o n T e s t i n g , S t o c k h o l m , V o l . 2 . 1 , N a t i o n a l Swed i sh B u i l d i n g R e s e a r c h , 1975 , pp D o u g l a s , B . J . , and O l s e n , R . S . , ( 1 9 8 1 ) , " S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n u s i n g E l e c t r i c Cone P e n e t r a t i o n " , Symposium on Cone P e n e t r a t i o n , G e o t e c h n i c a l D i v i s i o n , ASCE, S t L o u i s , M i s s o u r i , O c t . 1 981 . Du rngunog l o , H.T. , and M i t c h e l l , J . K . , ( 1 9 7 5 ) , " S t a t i c P e n e t r a t i o n R e s i s t a n c e o f S o i l s : I - A n a l y s e s , I I - E v a l u a t i o n o f T heo r y and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e " , P r o c e e d i n g s , ASCE S p e c i a l t y C o n f e r e n c e on I n s i t u Measurement o f S o i l P r o p e r t i e s , Vo . 1, 1975 . Gh i onna , V . N . , J a m i o l k o w s k i , M. and L a n c e l l o t t a , R., ( 1 9 8 2 ) , " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S a t u r a t e d C l a y s as o b t a i n e d f r om SBP T e s t s " , P r o c e e d i n g s , P r e s s u r e m e t e r and i t s Ma r i n e A p p l i c a t i o n s , P a r i s , 1982 . G i l l e s p i e , D. , and C a m p a n e l l a , R . G . , ( 1 9 8 1 ) , " C o n s o l i d a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f rom Po re P r e s s u r e D i s s i p a t i o n a f t e r P i e z o m e t e r Cone P e n e t r a t i o n " , S o i l Mechan i c s S e r i e s No. 47 Dep t . o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g , May 1981 . G r a v e s o n , S . , ( 1 9 5 9 ) , " E l a s t i c S e m i - i n f i n i t e Medium Bounded by a R i g i d Wa l l w i t h a C i r c u l a r H o l e " , L a b o r a t o r i e t f o r B y g n i n s t e k n i k , Danmarks T e k n i s k e H o j s k o l e , M e d d e l e l s e , No . 10 , Copenhagen, Denmark. Hughes, J . M . O . , ( 1 9 8 2 ) , " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e P r e s s u r e m e t e r T e s t f o r t he D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f an E l a s t i c Shear M o d u l u s " , E n g i n e e r i n g F o u n d a t i o n  C o n f e r e n c e on t h e Updated S u b s u r f a c e S a m p l i n g o f S o i l s and Rocks and t h e i r I n s i t u T e s t i n g , J a n u a r y 3 -8 , 1982 , S a n t a B a r b a r a , C a l i f o r n i a . Hughes, J . M . O . , W ro t h , C P . and Wind lw, D., ( 1 9 7 7 ) , " P r e s s u r e m e t e r t e s t s i n S a n d " , G e o t e c h n i q u e 2 7 , No. 4 , 1977 , pp 4 5 5 - 4 7 7 . J anbu , N . , and S e n e s s e t , K., ( 1 9 7 3 ) , " F i e l d Compressometer P r i n c i p l e s and A p p l i c a t i o n s " , P r o c e e d i n g s , 8 t h ICSMFE, Moscow, V o l . 1 . 1 . J a n b u , N . , and S e n n e s e t , K., ( 1 9 7 4 ) , " E f f e c t i v e S t r e s s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f I n s i t u S t a t i c P e n e t r a t i o n T e s t s " , European Symposium and P e n e t r a t i o n  T e s t i n g , S t o c k h o l m , V o l . 2 . 1 . , N a t i o n a l Swed i sh B u i l d i n g R e s e a r c h , 1975 , pp M a r c h e t t i , S . , and C r a p p s , D. , ( 1 9 8 1 ) , " D i l a t o m e t e r U se r s Manual 1981 D r a f t E d i t i o n " , I s s u e d by Schmertmann and Crapps I n c . M a r c h e t t i , S . , ( 1 9 7 5 ) , "A New I n s i t u Te s t f o r t h e Measurement o f H o r i z o n t a l S o i l D e f o r m a b i l i t y " , P r o c e e d i n g s C o n f e r e n c e on I n s i t u Measurement o f  S o i l P r o p e r t i e s , ASCE S p e c i a l i t y C o n f e r e n c e , R a l e i g h , N .C . , V o l . 2, June 1975, pp 255 -259 . 116 M a r c h e t t i , S . , ( 1 9 7 9 ) , "On t he D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f I n s i t u K 0 i n S a n d " , P r o c e d i n g s 7 t h European C o n f e r e n c e on S o i l Me chan i c s and F o u n d a t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g , D i s c u s s i o n S e s s i o n 7, De s i gn P a r ame t e r s i n Sands , D i s c u s s i o n V o l . , S e p t . 1979. M a r c h e t t i , S . , ( 1 9 7 9 ) , " S t r e s s H i s t o r y o f C l a y D e p o s i t s " , P r o c e e d i n g s 7 t h  Eu ropean C o n f e r e n c e on S o i l Mechan i c s and F o u n d a t i o n E n g i n e e r s , D i s c u s s i o n S e s s i o n 4 , Des i gn Pa r ame te r s f o r S t i f f C l a y s , D i s c u s s i o n V o l . , S e p t . 1979 , B r i g h t o n , E n g l a n d . M a r c h e t t i , S . , (1979) "The D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f De s i gn P a r ame t e r s o f Sand by Means o f Q u a s i - s t a t i c a l l y pushed P r o b e s " , P r o c e e d i n g s 7 t h European  C o n f e r e n c e on S o i l Mechan i c s and F o u n d a t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g , Pane l P r e s e n t a t i o n , Ma in S e s s i o n , S e p t . 1979, B r i g h t o n , E n g l a n d . M a r c h e t t i , S . , ( 1 9 8 0 ) , " I n s i t u T e s t s by F l a t D i l a t o m e t e r " , J o u r n a l o f t h e  G e o t e c h n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n ASCE, V o l . 106 No. GT3 P r o c . Pape r 15290 , Mar . 1980 , pp 2 9 9 - 3 2 1 . M a r c h e t t i , S . , ( 1 9 7 9 ) , "The I n s i t u D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f an Ex tended O v e r c o n s o l i d a t i o n R a t i o " , P r o c e e d i n g s 7 t h Eu ropean C o n f e r e n c e on S o i l  Me chan i c s and F o u n d a t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g , Vo l~ 2, S e p t . 1979 , B r i g h t o n , E n g l a n d , pp 239 -244 . M i t c h e l l , J . K . , ( 1 9 7 6 ) , " Fundamenta l s o f S o i l B e h a v i o u r " , John W i l e y and  S o n s , New Y o r k . M i t c h e l l , J . K . , G u z i k o w s k i , F . , and V i l l e t , W .C .B . , ( 1 9 7 8 ) , "The Measurement o f S o i l P r o p e r t i e s I n s i t u " , R epo r t P r e p a r e d f o r US Depar tment o f  E n e r g y , C o n t r a c t W-7405-Eng-48, Lawrence B e r k e l e y L a b o r a t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , C a l . , March 1978. M i t c h e l l , J . K . , and Lunne , T . A . , ( 1 9 7 9 ) , "Cone R e s i s t a n c e as a Measure o f Sand S t r e n g t h " , J o u r n a l o f t h e G e o t e c h n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n ASCE, V o l , 104 , No. GT7, P r o c e e d i n g s , Paper 13901 , J u l y 1978 , pp 9 9 5 - 1 0 1 1 . R o b e r t s o n , P . K . , ( 1 9 8 2 ) , Ph .D . s t u d e n t , P e r s o n n e l C o m m u n i c a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V an c ouve r , Canada . Schmertmann, J . , ( 1 9 8 0 ) , D i s c u s s i o n o f " I n s i t u T e s t s by F l a t D i l a t o m e t e r " , J o u r n a l o f t h e G e o t e c h n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n ASCE, V o l . 106 , No. GT3, P r o c e e d i n g s , Paper 15290, Mar . 1980, pp 2 9 9 - 3 2 1 . Schmertmann, J . , ( 1 9 8 1 ) , " C a l c u l a t i o n o f F r i c t i o n A n g l e " , P e r s o n n e l  C o m m u n i c a t i o n . Schmertmann, J . , ( 1 9 8 2 ) , "A Method f o r D e t e r m i n i n g t he F r i c t i o n A n g l e i n Sands f r om t he M a r c h e t t i D i l a t o m e t e r T e s t (DMT)" , ESOPT I I , The Hague, The N e t h e r l a n d s , May 1982. Schmertmann, J . , ( 1 9 7 8 ) , " G u i d e l i n e s f o r Cone P e n e t r a t i o n T e s t i n g , P e r f o rmance and D e s i g n " , U .S . Depar tment o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Repo r t FHWA-TS-78-209, Dated J u l y 1978. 117 Schmertmann, J . , ( 1 9 7 9 ) , " S t a t i c Cone t o Compute S t a t i c S e t t l e m e n t s o ve r S a n d " , J o u r n a l o f t h e S o i l Mechan i c s and F o u n d a t i o n D i v i s i o n ASCE, V o l . 96 , No. SM3, May 1970, pp 1011-1043 . S c o t t , R . F . , ( 1 9 6 3 ) , " P r i n c i p a l s o f S o i l M e c h a n i c s " , A d d i s o n Wes ley  P u b ! i s h e r s , 1963 . S e l v a d u r a i , A . P . S . , B aue r , G .E. , and N i c h o l a s , T . J . , ( 1 9 7 9 ) , "Sc rew P l a t e T e s t i n g o f a S o f t C l a y " , 32nd Canad i an G e o t e c h n i c a l C o n f e r e n c e , Quebec C i t y , Quebec, Oc t obe r 1979 . V e s i c , A . S . , ( 1 9 7 0 ) , T e s t s on I n s t r umen t ed P i l e s Ogeechee R i v e r S i t e " , J o u r n a l o f t h e S o i l Me chan i c s and F o u n d a t i o n D i v i s i o n , ASCE, V o l . 96 , No. SM2, pp 561 -584 . Wightman, A . , Weaver , J . , and S t e w a r t , W.P . , ( 1 9 8 1 ) , "The E f f e c t s o f P r obe E x t r a c t i o n Time on D e n s i t y I n c r e a s e i n a V i b r o f l o t a t i o n A r r a y " , P r e s e n t e d a t Deep F o u n d a t i o n s Sympos ium, C u r r e n t De s i gn and C o n s t r u c t i o n P r a c t i c e s , C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , Sep t embe r , 1981 . Wong, J . , ( 1 9 8 1 ) , "A Compar i son Between V i b r o f l o t a t i o n and Dynamic C o m p a c t i o n " , CE474 Term P a p e r , U . B . C . , 1981 . 118 APPENDIX I DISCUSSION ON INSTRUMENTS USED 119 APPENDIX I DISCUSSION ON INSTRUMENTS USED 1 . 1 . M a t e r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f r om t he cone i s based on cone b e a r i n g , f r i c t i o n and f r i c t i o n r a t i o (Doug l a s and O l s en 1981 ) , (Schmertmann 1 9 7 8 ) . U s i n g U . B . C ' s 5 channe l p i e z o - f r i c t i o n cone and Doug las and O l s e n ' s work i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make an a c c u r a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s o i l t y p e , t o g e t h e r w i t h an a s ses smen t o f s o i l d e n s i t y and g r a d a t i o n (Campane l l a e t a l 1 9 8 2 ) . The a c c u r a t e cone c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e n a b l e s c ompa r i s on s to be made between a c t u a l s o i l s p r e s e n t and t h o s e p r e d i c t e d by t h e d i l a t o m e t e r even when bo re l o g s a r e n ' t a v a i l a b l e . 1 .2 . L a t e r a l S t r e s s e s T h e o r e t i c a l l y t he SBP can a c c u r a t e l y d e f i n e i n s i t u h o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s e s d i r e c t l y by mea su r i n g t h e p r e s s u r e r e q u i r e d t o j u s t c ause t h e s o i l t o de fo rm d u r i n g i n f l a t i o n . In p r a c t i s e however , t h e two d e f l e c t i o n m e a s u r i n g arms t end t o s t i c k and so t h e l i f t o f f p r e s s u r e as measured by t h e two arms t end s t o d i f f e r . D e s p i t e t h e s e p rob l ems t h e SBP p r o v i d e s t h e b e s t method to d e t e rm ine K 0 and hence was used wherever p o s s i b l e i n c ompa r i s o n s w i t h t h e d i l a t o m e t e r . 1 .3 . S o i l Modu l i Two s o i l modul were s t u d i e d , a d e f o r m a t i o n o r Young ' s modulus and a c o n s t r a i n e d modu l u s . Schmertmann (1971) used a sc rew p l a t e t o d e v e l o p an e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n between s e t t l e m e n t o f f o o t i n g s on sand and cone b e a r i n g v i a a pa rame te r he d e f i n e d as an " e q u i v a l e n t " d e f o r m a t i o n modulus E s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p was d e f i n e d a s : Es = 2 q c The e q u a t i o n was d e v e l o p e d u s i n g a mechan i c a l cone and i s v a l i d down t o 8m. The s e l f - b o r i n g p r e s s u r e m e t e r (SBP) can be used t o measure an e l a s t i c s hea r modulus (G) u s i n g t he u n l o a d / r e l o a d p o r t i o n o f t h e SBP p r e s s u r e / c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l s t r a i n p l o t (Huges 1 9 8 2 ) . T a k i n g a t y p i c a l v a l u e o f P o i s s o n ' s r a t i o o f 0 .25 i n sand (Lambe and Whitman) i t i s p o s s i b l e to c a l c u l a t e a d e f o r m a t i o n modulus (E) as f o l l o w s : E = 2.5G The f i n a l method o f f i n d i n g a d e f o r m a t i o n modulus comes f r om t h e s c r e w p l a t e u s i n g a method d e v e l o p e d by S e l v a d u r a i e t a l ( 1 9 7 9 ) . They used a t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n based on work by S e l v a d u r a i and N i c h o l a s (1979) wh i ch f o r m u l a t e d t he s c r e w p l a t e t e s t as a c i r c u l a r p l a t e - l i k e r e g i o n embedded i n a homogeneous i s o t r o p i c e l a s t i c medium s u b j e c t t o an a x i a l l o a d 120 t o d e r i v e t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n : W / (p . a . /E u ) = 0.6 t o 0 .7 Where W = p l a t e d e f l e c t i o n P = s t r e s s on p l a t e , and E u = u n d r a i n e d d e f o r m a t i o n modulus A c o n s t r a i n e d modu lus (M) can be i n f e r r e d u s i n g t h e SBP. By assuming e l a s t i c t h e o r y i s v a l i d t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n can be d e t e r m i n e d . M = 2G (1 - v ) / ( l - 2V ) I f V = 0 .25 then M = 3.0G The o t h e r method used i n t h i s t h e s i s t o d e t e r m i n e M f r om an i n s i t u d e v i c e i s f rom t he s c r e w p l a t e . Janbu and Sennese t (1973) g i v e a method t o c a l c u l a t e M f rom t he S c r e w p l a t e l o a d / d e f l e c t i o n c u r v e . 1.4. U n d r a i n e d Shea r S t r e n g t h Und r a i n ed s hea r s t r e n g t h can be measured d i r e c t l y u s i n g t h e f i e l d v a n e . I t can a l s o be e s t i m a t e d u s i n g cone b e a r i n g (Schmertmann 1 9 7 8 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s shown be low: S u = ( q c - s v ' ) / N k Where N|< = B e a r i n g C a p a c i t y F a c t o r . 1 . 5 . F r i c t i o n A n g l e Many d i f f e r e n t methods e x i s t t o d e t e rm i ne f r i c t i o n a n g l e f r om t h e c one . In t h i s t h e s i s two methods a r e u s e d . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s v i a Du rgunog l u s and M i t c h e l l ' s (1975) b e a r i n g c a p a c i t y t h e o r y . The Du rgunog l u and M i t c h e l l method i s r e l a t i v e l y comp l ex , but a s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t has been deve l oped by B a l d i e t a l (1980) f rom a s e r i e s o f chamber t e s t s on d r y N.C. s a n d s . The second method i s Schmer tmann ' s ( 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s uses cone b e a r i n g t o e m p i r i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y and then f r i c t i o n a n g l e i s f ound f r om r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y . The SBP can be used to f i n d t h e f r i c t i o n ang l e o f a g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l . The p r e s s u r e / c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l p l o t i s r e p l o t t e d on l o g - l o g axes and t he s l o p e o f t h e l o g - l o g p l o t can be r e l a t e d e m p i r i c a l l y t o f r i c t i o n ang l e u s i n g t h e d i l a t i o n a n g l e (Hughes 1 9 7 7 ) . An e s t i m a t e o f t h e c o n s t a n t volume f r i c t i o n ang l e i s r e q u i r e d t o use t he method . In t h i s t h e s i s a v a l u e o f 33 deg rees was used based on t e s t s o f sand f r om McDona l d ' s Fa rm. 121 APPENDIX II DISCUSSION ON DATA REDUCTION COMPUTER PROGRAMME DIL .RED 122 DILLY r e a d i n c a l i b r a t i o n d a t a (DA, DB, dep th t o w a t e r t a b l e and t o t a l s t r e s s at t he f i r s t r e a d i n g ) t o g e t h e r w i t h d e p t h , A and B r e a d i n g s f r om a d a t a f i l e . The o u t p u t c o n s i s t e d o f a t a b u l a r l i s t i n g o f t h e above pa r ame te r s t o g e t h e r w i t h a c h a r a c t e r p l o t o f OCR, S u and M. To speed up d a t a r e d u c t i o n t h e au t ho r added i n t e r a c t i v e c a p a c i t y and l i n e p l o t t i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o t h e programme. U s i n g DIL.RED t h e computer gu i d e s the u se r by s u c c e s s i v e l y a s k i n g f o r t h e c a l i b r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n and i n i t i a l and f i n a l d e p t h s . A and B r e a d i n g s a r e r e q u e s t e d a t 20 cm i n t e r v a l s s t a r t i n g at t h e i n i t i a l d e p t h . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i f SPT equ ipment was used to d r i v e t he d i l a t o m e t e r so t e s t s a r e not at 20cm i n t e r v a l s , dep ths as w e l l as A and B can be e n t e r e d . As d a t a i s e n t e r e d , p r e l i m i n a r y c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e made t o c a l c u l a t e I d , Po and P i . I f Id> A o r B a r e n e g a t i v e a r e q u e s t i s made f o r new d a t a . T h i s speeds up d a t a r e d u c t i o n by e l i m i n a t i n g some e r r o r s i n d a t a e n t r y as w e l l as c h e c k i n g t h e i n p u t d a t a . I f f o r some r e a s on d a t a i s m i s s i n g a t a p a r t i c u l a r dep th t h e o p e r a t o r e n t e r s z e r o e s f o r A and B and t he computer s k i p s t o t h e n e x t d e p t h . One f i n a l check i s made on t he i n p u t d a t a . I f t h e sum o f (DA + DB) i s g r e a t e r t han B - A) an e r r o r message i s p r i n t e d and new d a t a i s r e q u e s t e d . The q u e s t i o n o f wh i ch v a l u e o f DA and DB t o use r e q u i r e s some judgement as o f t e n the a r i t h m e t i c mean o f r e a d i n g s made at t h e s t a r t and end o f t h e t e s t i s not t h e b e s t c h o i c e . C o n s i d e r f o r i n s t a n c e i f a new e x e r c i s e d membrane w i t h DB ( b e f o r e ) = 0.6 and DB ( a f t e r ) = 0 .3 i s used i n a s o f t c l a y d e p o s i t w i t h a s t i f f d e s i c a t e d c r u s t . The a r i t h m e t i c mean wh i ch c o u l d be used i n d a t a r e d u c t i o n i s 0 . 4 5 , bu t i t i s more than l i k e l y most o f t h e r e d u c t i o n took p l a c e i n t h e f i r s t few r e a d i n g s i n t he s t i f f c r u s t . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n a b e t t e r c h o i c e o f DB may be 0 .35 or 0 . 4 . Ano the r s i t u a t i o n wh i ch can c au se s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n DA and DB i s damage t o t h e membrane d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . In t e s t h o l e 1 at T i l b u r y I s l a n d f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e membrane became b a d l y w r i n k l e d d u r i n g t e s t i n g and DA s h i f t e d f r om 0 .15 t o - 0 . 6 . I t i s not c l e a r where t h e s h i f t o c c u r e d , so i t was assumed t h a t t h e damage o c c u r r e d i n t he l a s t 2m where p u s h i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e t r u c k was b e i n g a p p r o a c h e d . A t t h i s dep th maximum n i t r o g e n p r e s s u r e (4000 kPa) was a p p l k i e d t o t h e membrane, but was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o a c h i e v e lrnm d e f l e c t i o n . Based on t h e a s sump t i on o f damage t o t he membrane o c c u r r i n g i n t he l a s t 2m, DA was s e t a t 0 . 1 1 . From t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s i t i s t h e r e f o r e c l e a r t h a t when a l a r g e s h i f t i n e i t h e r DA or DB o c c u r s , c a r e f u l judgement i s r e q u i r e d i n s e l e c t i n g v a l u e s t o be used i n t h e a n a l y s i s . I f a c o r r e c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o t h e sum (DA + DB) t h e programme c a l c u l a t e s t h e v a l u e ( = 3 4 . 6 / E d ( m i n ) ) and p r i n t s i t on the s c r e e n . Once a l l t h e d a t a has been e n t e r e d , i t i s s t o r e d on a permanent f i l e . The u se r then has t he o p t i o n o f s t o p p i n g t o check and make any n e c e s s a r y c o r r e c t i o n s o r c o n t i n u i n g w i t h a c omp l e t e d a t a r e d u c t i o n u s i n g Schmer tmann 1 s s u b - r o u t i n e s f o l l o w e d by the a u t h o r ' s p l o t s u b - r o u t i n e s . A f t e r t h e c omp l e t e d a t a r e d u c t i o n i s c o m p l e t e d t h e j o b name, c a l i b r a t i o n c o n s t a n t s and name o f t h e d a t a f i l e a r e c o p i e d i n t o a summary f i l e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e comments on t he t e s t i n t o t h e summary f i l e at t h i s s t a g e . These comments can a l s o be w r i t t e n a t t h e bo t tom o f t h e t a b u l a r o u t p u t i f d e s i r e d . The f i n a l s e c t i o n o f DIL.RED i s the p l o t t i n g s u b - r o u t i n e s added by t he a u t h o r . The programme a u t o m a t i c a l l y s e l e c t s t h e dep th s c a l e a c c o r d i n g t o the i n i t i a l and f i n a l d e p t h . However , i n t he ca se where s e v e r a l h o l e s o f d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h have been comp l e t ed at one s i t e o r a s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o f i l e needs t o be e xpanded , t h e r e i s p r o v i s i o n f o r o v e r r i d i n g t h e a u t o m a t i c s e l e c t i o n . The dep th s used a re 6.5m, 13.0m, 19.0m and 39m or 1cm : 0 .5m, 123 l cm : 1.0m, 1cm : 1.5m and 1cm : 3m. The u s e r a l s o has a c h o i c e i n s e l e c t i n g f u l l s c a l e s f o r M, S u , P-j/P 0 and Ed p l o t s o r l e t t i n g t h e programme d e c i d e . Programme s e l e c t i o n o f s c a l e s i s based on M a r c h e t t i and C r a p p s ' recommendat ion i n t h e D i l a t o m e t e r Use r s Manual ( 1 9 8 1 ) . They s ugge s t e d t h a t 10% o f t h e p o i n t s l i e beyond f u l l s c a l e ( i . e . p l o t 90%) f o r M and 5% ( p l o t 95%) f o r S u . Somet imes i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o emphas i se one p o r t i o n o f a p l o t so t h e r e i s the f a c i l i t y to m a n u a l l y s e l e c t t h e s c a l e s . Fo r examp les at t h e r e s e a r c h s i t e a t M cDona l d ' s Farm t h e a u t o m a t i c r o u t i n e i s i n f l u e n c e d by t he h i g h c o n s t r a i n e d modu lus i n t h e sand wh i ch s e l e c t s a f u l l s c a l e o f 25 MPa and p l o t s 100% o f t he d a t a . T h i s s upp r e s s e s t h e c l a y r e s u l t s . By u s i n g a f u l l s c a l e o f 10 MPa and p l o t t i n g 89% o f t h e d a t a a more u s e f u l p l o t r e s u l t s . 124 A P P E N D I X I I I M C D O N A L D ' S F A R M , S E A I S L A N D , B C 125 U3.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: McDonald's Farm Pore Pressure Effects. I N T E R M E D I A T E G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S TEST No. DH-2 TEST DATE; 7 Oct 81 to ZD -J ZD O o c QC "to LU O-t- TZ LU " n o X _ l LU cr o o isj to H to r r LU o or x t -to in U> OJ L. *-to _ ro - H Q_ SE OJ > o Q-(W) Hj .d30 0 SI O t Z 0 L 2 J L o o' S CL t| lib i * * r- ^ * LU * to V i o T " — l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r-O'C 0 6 O S ! 0 1 2 O'LZ O E E 0 6C (W) HldBO D i l a t o m e t e r H o l e 2 (DH2) - I n t e r m e d i a t e G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r a m e t e r s . 126 U3.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: McDonald's Fam Pore Pressure Ef fects . INTERPRETED GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS. TEST No. DH-2 TEST DATE; 7 Oct 81 S i LL co w o °-s * of a z => LO o o HI ro a ac t— to z o u S X n (WJ HldBO £1 0 ^ 2 OLZ i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r O'C 0 6 O S ! 0 1 2 O L Z O C C (W) H ld30 T r 0 6E DH2 - I n t e r p e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l Parameters, 127 U.B.C. INSITU TESTING. Lcr.3ti.on: McDonald's Farm. Bearing Hole.  INTERMEDIATE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS Test No. DH-3 Test Date; 4 Feb 81 U l 3 T3 O TZ ai C_ Q J • X — I «J c " J •/) — t IP I- OJ C i _ T +-» in j i OJ L. CO u 0_ OJ o" ST J o a:' o o o o !>||. , (ii] mdag S'fr S ' i C" 01 fi'El S'91 SGI J 1 1 I I I I 1 L i 1 r i 1 1 r j i i i J I I I I I L i 1 1 — I 1 1—p r—n r l\ I I /1 I I / i I I l \ I I K I \ I I v /V i / i / 1 I l , \ / I n I A / v /\ •—' i4 —I —T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r -S ' l S > S"L 5* DI S"EI 591 5 BT (II) LlltttO D i l a t o m e t e r Hole 3 (DH3) -Parameters. Intermediate G e o t e c h n i c a l 128 UJ3.C. INSITU TESTING. Lccat lcn: McDonald's Farm. Bearing Hole. INTERPRETED GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS. Test No. DH-3 Test Date; 4 Feb 81 3"> C 0J cc 2 31 ; r _ • O Q. 3 C Z3 3 -a • i s ro C • x ._ cu (ii) qidaa C"t c o t -i 1 r s-z. s-or (ii) Limao - m . DH3 - I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l Parameters. U.B.C.INSITU TESTING RESEARCH GROUP. F i l e Name:DIL.DAT 1 Record of Dilatometer test No:DH-1 LocatlonrMacDonald's Farm Date:14 May 81 C a l i b r a t i o n Informat1on:DA« 0.12 Bars DB- 0.26 Bars 2tf» 0.20 Bars ZW- I.OO metres Gamma-Bulk unit weight Sv - E f f e c t i v e over.stress Uo -Pore pressure Id -Material Index Ed -Dilatometer modulus Kd -Horizontal stress Index INTERPRETED GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS Ko -In s i t u earth press.coeff. OCR-Overconsol1datIon Ratio M -Constrained modulus Cu -Undrained cor.es 1on(cohes 1 ve) PHI»Fr1ct1on Angle(coneslonless) Z PO PI Ed Uo Id Gamma Sv (m) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (T/CM) (Bar) Kd OCR Pc KO (Bar) Cu PHI M Soil Type Description Z (Bar) (Deg) (Bar) (m) 0 . 2 0 1. .01 3. 34 81 . 0. .0 2 .31 1 .70 0 . 036 28. 0 ***** 9. .75 3. .36 35. 3 280. SILTY SAND CEMENTED O. .20 0 . 4 0 0. 83 2. 64 6 2 . 0. .0 2 . 17 1 .70 0. 070 11 . 9 52, .86 3. .70 2. .05 32. 7 167. SILTY SAND LOOSE 0. .40 0 . 6 0 0. .48 1 . 34 3 0 . 0. .0 1. .80 1 .60 0. 102 4. .7 7. . 15 0. 73 1 . . 11 28. 9 5 3 . SANDY SILT COMPRESSIBLE O. .60 0 . 8 0 0. .48 1 . 34 3 0 . 0 . 0 1 . .80 1 .60 0 . 134 3. ,6 4. .35 0. 58 0 . .90 28. 3 4 5 . SANDY SILT COMPRESSIBLE 0. .80 1.00 o. .64 2. 34 5 9 . 0. .0 2 .66 1 . 70 0. 168 3 .8 5 .97 1 OO O. .95 30. 5 9 6 . SILTY SAND LOOSE 1. OO 1 .20 0. .48 1 . 34 3 0 . 0. .02 1 .88 1 .70 0. 182 2 . 5 2 .46 0 .45 0. .68 27. 7 36 . SILTY SAND LOOSE 1. .20 1 .40 0. .70 1 . 14 15. 0. .04 0 .67 1 .60 0. 194 3. .4 2 .28 O. 44 0. .87 0 . 0 8 21 . CLAYEY SILT COMPRESSIBLE 1. .40 1 .60 0 .88 3. 74 9 9 . 0. 06 3, .47 1 .70 0. .208 4 .0 6. .45 1 . 34 0. 98 32. 5 168. SAND LOOSE 1. .60 1 .80 o. .86 2. 14 44 . O. .08 1 .64 1 .60 0 . 220 3 .5 3 .69 0. 81 O. .90 27 . 9 6 7 . SANDY SILT COMPRESSIBLE 1. .80 2 . 0 0 o. .92 2. 94 7 0 . 0. . 10 2 .45 1 . 70 0. .234 3. .5 5 . 15 1 , .21 0. .89 29. 8 109. SILTY SAND LOOSE 2. .00 2 . 2 0 1, .35 4. 94 124. 0. . 12 2 .92 1 . 80 0. ,250 4 . 9 9. .74 2. .44 1 . . 15 32. 0 234. SILTY SAND LOW RIGIDITY 2. .20 2 . 4 0 0 .98 3. 94 102. 0. . 14 3 .53 1 . 70 0. .264 3 .2 4 .24 1 .  12 O. .82 31 . 8 154. SAND LOOSE 2. .40 2 . 6 0 1. .00 3. 54 88 . 0. . 16 3 .03 1 .70 0. 278 3 .0 3. .84 1 . .07 O. .79 30 . 6 128. SILTY SAND LOOSE 2. 60 2 . 8 0 1 .00 3. 54 8 8 . O. . 18 3 . 10 1 .70 0. .292 2 .8 3. .34 0 .97 0. .74 30 . 5 123. SILTY SAND LOOSE 2. .80 3 . 0 0 1 .65 5. 24 124. 0. .20 2 .48 1 .80 0. 308 4. .7 8 .96 2. .76 1 . . 11 30. 7 226. SILTY SAND LOW RIGIDITY 3. OO 3 . 2 0 1 .94 5. 74 132. 0 .22 2 .21 1 . 80 0. .324 5. .3 11 , .27 3. .65 1 . .21 30. 4 252. SILTY SAND LOW RIGIDITY 3. .20 3 . 4 0 1 .69 6. 54 168. 0. .24 3 .35 1 .80 0. 340 4 .3 7 .42 2. .52 1 . ,03 32. 5 295 . SAND LOW RIGIDITY 3. .40 3 . 6 0 2. 91 11 . 54 299. 0. .26 3 .26 1 .90 0. 358 7. .4 21 . 28 7. .62 1 . .52 34. 3 668 . SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 3. .60 3 . 8 0 3 .83 16. 14 426. 0 .28 3 .46 1 . 90 0. 376 9. .5 33 .97 12. .77 1 . 78 35. 7 1044. SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 3, .80 4 . 0 0 3 .51 12. 14 299 . 0 .30 2 .69 1 .90 0. .394 8 . 1 25 .56 10. .07 1 . .61 33. 1 692 . SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 4. .00 4 . 2 0 2 .61 9 . 04 222. 0. .32 2 .80 1 .90 0. 412 5 .6 12 .36 5. .09 1 . .25 32. 1 441 . SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 4. .20 4 . 4 0 2. .41 8. 84 222. 0. .34 3 . 10 1 .90 0. ,430 4. a 9. .40 4. .04 1 . , 13 32. 4 4 1 5 . SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 4. .40 4 . 6 0 2 .41 8. 84 222. 0 36 3 . 13 1 .90 0. .448 4. .6 8. .53 3. .82 1 . .09 32. 2 4 0 5 . SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 4 . .60 4 . 8 0 3 .09 9. 94 237. 0 .38 2 .52 1 . 90 0. 466 5, .8 13 .47 6. .28 1 . .29 31 . 5 4 7 7 . SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 4. .80 5 . 0 0 2 .92 9 . 14 215. O. .40 2 .46 1 .90 0. .484 5, .2 10 ,91 5. 28 1 . .20 31 . 0 4 1 1 . SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 5. OO 5 . 2 0 2 .37 9 . 74 255 . 0. .42 3 .78 1 .90 0. 502 3 .9 6. .21 3. . 12 0. .96 33 . 1 428 . SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 5. .20 5 . 4 0 4 .55 14. 44 342. 0. .44 2. .41 1 .90 0. 520 7. .9 24. . 13 12. .55 1. ,58 32. 3 782 . SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 5. , 40 5 . 6 0 3 .73 7. 74 139. 0 .46 1 .23 1 . 80 0. 536 6, . 1 5 .87 3 . 15 1. .33 27. 8 279 . SANDY SILT MEDIUM DENSITY 5 .60 5 . 8 0 3 .20 14. 14 379. o. .48 4 .02 1 .90 o. 554 4 . 9 9 .71 5 .38 1. . 15 34. 8 712. SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 5. .80 6 . 0 0 3 .59 14. 64 382. 0 .50 3 .57 1 .90 0. 572 5. .4 11 . 70 6. .69 1. .23 34. 1 751 . SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 6. • OO 6 . 2 0 6 . 15 18. 14 415 . 0. .52 2. . 13 2 .00 0. .592 9. .5 34 .36 20. ,34 1. . 78 32. 1 1018. SILTY SAND RIGID 6. .20 6 . 4 0 3 .99 15. 04 382. 0. ,54 3 .20 1 .90 0. 610 5. .7 12. ,76 7. ,79 1. .27 33 . 3 767 . SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 6. .40 Z PO PI Ed Uo Id Gamma Sv Kd OCR Pc KO Cu PHI M So i l Type Description Z (m) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (T/CM) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Deg) (Bar) (m) Z PO P1 Ed Uo Id Gamma Sv Kd OCR Pc KO Cu PHI M S o i l Type D e s c r i p t i o n (m) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) (T/CM) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) (Deg) ( B a r ) Z (m) 6, .60 5 .35 19 .44 488. 0. 56 2 .94 2 .OO 0. .630 7 .6 22 . 40 14 . 1 1 6, .80 4 . 86 18. .74 480. 0. 58 3 .24 2 .00 0. 650 6 .6 17. .02 1 1 . 06 7. .00 4 .67 16. . 14 397. 0. 60 2 .81 2 .OO 0 .670 6 . 1 14 . 63 9. 80 7 , .20 4 .50 13, .34 306. O. 62 2 .28 1 .90 O. .688 5 .6 12 .66 8. 71 7 , .40 2 .70 11 .54 306. 0. 64 4 .29 1 .90 0 .706 2 .9 3. .59 2. 54 7. .60 8. .34 31 . 04 785. 0. 66 2 .96 2 . 15 0. .729 io, .5 41 .78 30. 45 7. .80 8 . 1 1 27. . 14 658. 0. .68 2 .56 2 .00 0, .749 9 .9 37. .29 27. 93 8. ,00 6. .61 23. 64 589. 0. 70 2 .88 2 .OO 0. , 769 7, .7 22 .87 17 . 59 8. .20 4 .85 14. .74 342. 0. ,72 2 .40 1 .90 0. .787 5 .2 11 . 03 8. 68 8. .40 3. .38 10. .44 244 . 0. ,74 2 .67 1 .90 0, .805 3 .3 4. .51 3. 63 8. .60 4. .98 20. 44 535. 0. ,76 3 .66 2 .00 0. .825 5 . 1 10. .53 8. 69 8. .80 5. .44 23. .94 640. 0. ,78 3 .97 2 .00 0 .845 5 .5 12. . 13 10. 25 9. .00 5 .86 23. .94 626. 0. 80 3 .57 2 .00 O. .865 5 .8 13. .58 1 1 . 75 9. .20 6. .67 24. .44 615. 0. 82 3 .03 2 .00 0. .885 6 6 17. . 18 15. 20 9. .40 5. .56 21 . 54 553. O. 84 3 .39 2 .OO 0 ,905 5 .2 10. 91 9. 87 9 .60 5 .57 23 .44 618. 0. 86 3 .80 2 .OO O .925 5 . 1 10 .42 9. 64 9. .80 8 .06 32 .34 840. 0. 88 3 .38 2 .00 0. .945 7 .6 22. .41 21 . 17 10, .00 8 .65 39 . 54# 1069. 0. 90 3 .99 2 . 15 0 .968 8 .0 24. .73 23. 94 10, .20 11 .48 39 ,54/C 971 . 0. 92 2 .66 2 . 15 0 .991 10 .7 42 . 74 42. 35 10, .40 9 .35 29. .74 706. 0. ,94 2 .42 2 . 15 1 , .014 8 .3 26 .46 26. 83 10, .60 5. .81 16. .44 368. 0. 96 2 . 19 2 .00 1 .034 4 .7 a .92 9. 23 10, .80 5 .78 15. .04 320. 0. 98 1 .93 2 .00 1 , .054 4 .6 7. .80 8. 22 11 .OO 4. .77 12. .04 251 . 1. OO 1 .93 1 .90 1. .072 3. .5 4. .79 5. 13 11 . ,20 3 .34 1 1 . .24 273. 1. ,02 3 .40 1 .90 1. 09O 2 . 1 1 , .98 2. 15 11 . 40 5. .02 15. .54 364. 1. ,04 2 .64 1 .90 1 . 108 3 .6 5. .35 5. 93 11 . 60 5 .40 16. .34 379. 1. ,06 2 .52 2 .00 1. . 128 3 .8 6. . 10 6. 88 11 .80 5 .04 21 . 34 564. 1. ,08 4 . 1 1 2 • OO 1 . 148 3. .5 4. .96 5. 70 12. .OO 5 .94 20. . 14 491 . 1. , 10 2 .93 2 OO 1 . 168 4 . 1 7. .04 8. 23 12 .20 4 .89 18. . 14 458 . 1. 12 3 .52 2, .OO 1 . 188 3 .2 4 .22 5. 02 12. .40 5. .62 22. .44 582. 1. 14 3 .76 2 .00 1 . 208 3 ,7 5. .69 6. 87 12, .60 6. .94 29 .64 785. 1. 16 3 .93 2 .OO 1 . .228 4. .7 8. .97 1 1 . .01 12. .80 9 . 17 39 .54 1051 . 1. 18 3 .80 2 . 15 1 . .251 6. .4 16 .08 20. , 12 13, ,00 8 .81 34. . 24 880. 1. ,20 3 .34 2 . 15 1. .274 6 .0 14. . 13 18. 01 13. .20 16 .84 39 54* 785. 1. 22 1 .45 2 . 10 1. .296 12. . 1 23. .85 30. 91 13, .40 7. .86 19. .54 404. 1. 24 1 , .76 1 .95 1 . 315 5. .0 7. .81 10. 27 13, .60 5 .65 11 . 24 193. 1. 26 1 .27 1 .80 1 . 331 3 3 2 .33 3. 10 13, .80 6. .91 23. .84 586. 1. 28 3. .00 2. .00 1 . ,351 4. .2 7. . 12 9. 62 14. .00 4. .74 14. .84 349. 1. 30 2. .94 1 .90 1 . 369 2. .5 2. .70 3. 70 14. .20 4. .57 14. .04 328. 1. 32 2. .92 1 . .90 1 . ,387 2. ,3 2. , 37 3. 28 14. ,40 4. .33 14. .54 353. 1. 34 3. .41 1 . 90 1 . ,405 2. , 1 1 . 97 2. 77 14. .60 4 . 94 17. .04 419. 1. 36 3. .37 1 .90 1 . 423 2 5 2. ,72 3. 87 14. .80 3. .81 10. .24 222. 1. 38 2. .64 1 . 90 1 . 441 1 . ,7 1 . ,27 1 . 83 15. OO 3. 24 7. 04 132. 1. 40 2 . 07 1 . 80 1 . 457 1 . 3 O. 73 1 . 06 15. .20 3. .46 4. 74 44 . 1. 42 0. 63 1 . 70 1 . 471 1 . .4 O. 56 0. 83 15. .40 3. 67 4. .64 33. 1. 44 0. ,43 1 .70 1 . ,485 1 . 5 0. .64 0. 95 15, .60 3 73 5. .64 '66. 1. 46 0 84 1 .70 1 . 499 1 . ,5 0. .65 0. 97 Z PO PI Ed Uo Id Gamma Sv Kd OCR Pc (m) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) (T/CM) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) 1, 54 33. 9 1102 . SILTY SAND RIGID 6 .60 1. 40 34. 1 1026. SILTY SAND RIGID 6 .80 1. .33 32 . 5 818. SILTY SAND RIGID 7 .00 1. 26 30. 7 604 . SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 7 .20 0. . 77 33. 0 437. SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 7 .40 1. .90 35. 6 2002. SILTY SAND VERY RIGID 7 .60 1. .83 33. 8 1641 . SILTY SAND RIGID 7 .80 1. ,56 33. 7 1337. SILTY SAND RIGID 8 OO 1. 20 30. 8 655. SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 8 .20 o. 85 30. 1 368. SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 8 .40 1. . 18 34. 1 1026. SAND RIGID 8 .60 1. ,24 35. 2 1269. SAND RIGID 8 .80 1. 30 34. 5 1273. SAND RIGID 9 .OO 1. ,41 33. 5 1316. SILTY SAND RIGID 9 .20 1. 20 33. 4 1070. SAND RIGID 9 .40 1 . 18 34. 4 1 183. SAND RIGID 9 .60 1. .54 35. 2 1900. SAND RIGID 9 .80 1 .60 37. .5 2466. SAND VERY RIGID 10 .00 1. .91 34 . 5 2486. SILTY SAND VERY RIGID IO .20 1. .63 32. .6 1644. SILTY SAND VERY RIGID 10. .40 1. . 11 29. .9 663. SILTY SAND RIGID 10 .60 1. .09 29. 2 565. SILTY SAND RIGID 10 .80 o. .89 28. 6 382. SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 11 .OO 0. .58 30. 2 316. SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 11 .20 0. .91 30. .3 578. SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 11 .40 0. .96 30. 2 621 . SILTY SAND RIGID 11 .60 0. .88 33. 3 889. SAND RIGID 11 .80 1. .01 31 . 4 851 . SILTY SAND RIGID 12 OO 0. .82 31 . 7 689. SAND RIGID 12 .20 0. 93 32. .9 953. SAND RIGID 12 .40 1. 11 34 . 3 1449. SAND RIGID 12 .60 1 38 35 .6 2218. SAND VERY RIGID 12 .BO 1. .31 33. .9 1806. SAND VERY RIGID 13 .OO 2. .06 30. .3 2102. SANDY SILT VERY DENSE 13 .20 1 . 17 29. .0 747. SANDY SILT DENSE 13 .40 0. 85 26. .7 273. SANDY SILT MEDIUM DENSITY 13 .60 1. .02 31 . 6 1019. SILTY SAND RIGID 13 .80 0. .67 29. .8 452. SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 14 .00 0. .63 29. .6 404. SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 14, .20 0. 58 30. .2 409. SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 14 .40 0. 68 30. 7 545. SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 14 .60 0. 46 28. .3 203. SILTY SAND MEDIUM RIGIDITY 14 .80 o. 32 26. 8 112. SILTY SAND LOW RIGIDITY 15 OO o. 36 0. 20 38. CLAYEY SILT LOW DENSITY 15 .20 0. 40 0. 23 28. SILTY CLAY LOW CONSISTENCY 15 .40 0. 40 0. 23 56. SILT LOW DENSITY 15 .60 KO Cu PHI M S o i l Type D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( B a r ) (Deg) ( B a r ) (m) CO o Z PO PI (m) (Bar) (Bar) Ed Uo Id Gamma Sv (Bar) (Bar) (T/CM) (Bar) Kd OCR Pc KO Cu PHI SoH Type Description (Bar) (Bar) 1 3 0 52 0 79 0. 34 0. 20 1 9 0 92 1 41 O 52 0. 31 2 0 1 OO 1 54 0 55 0 34 1 8 0 84 1 .29 0 48 0. 29 1 9 0 96 1 50 0 53 0 33 2 1 1 09 1 71 0 57 0 37 2 1 1 .07 1 69 0 57 0. 37 1 9 0 95 1 51 0 53 0 34 1 9 0 95 1 52 0 53 0 34 2 1 1 05 1 69 0 56 0 37 2 0 1 03 1 68 0 55 0 37 2 O 1 03 1 69 0 56 0 37 2 1 1 08 1 79 0 57 0 39 2 1 1 11 1 85 0 58 0 40 2 2 1 18 1 98 0 60 0 42 2 3 1 20 2 04 O 61 0 43 2 2 1 13 1 93 0 59 0 41 2 2 1 13 1 94 0 59 0 42 2 2 1 20 2 09 0 61 0 44 2 3 1 24 2 17 0 62 0 46 2 2 1 13 2 OO O 59 0 43 2 1 1 09 1 95 0 58 0 42 2 2 1 16 2 09 o 60 O 45 2 2 1 13 2 06 0 59 0 44 2 2 1 13 2 07 0 59 0 44 2 2 1 13 2 09 0 59 0 45 2 1 1 11 2 06 0 58 0 44 2 2 1 13 2 11 0 59 o 45 2 1 1 07 2 02 0 57 0 44 2 1 1 09 2 07 0 57 o 45 2 1 1 05 2 00 0 56 o 44 2 2 1 17 2 25 0 60 0 48 2 1 1 09 2 11 0 57 0 46 2 1 1 09 2 13 0 57 0 46 2 3 1 21 2 39 0 61 0 51 2 3 1 25 2 .49 0 63 0 52 2 3 1 25 2 51 0 63 0 53 2 2 1 19 2 .39 0 61 0 51 2 2 1 15 2 .33 0 59 0 50 2 2 1 19 2 43 0 61 0 52 2 2 1 17 2 .40 0 60 0 51 2 2 1 15 2 37 0 59 0 51 2 2 1 18 2 .46 0 60 0 52 2 2 1 19 2 .49 0 60 0 53 2 3 1 28 2 .70 0 63 0 57 2 4 1 36 2 .90 0 66 o 60 z (m) 15 80 3 47 4. 44 33. 1 48 0. 48 1 60 16 OO 4 39 4. 94 19. 1 .50 0. 19 1 60 16 20 4 59 5. 14 19. 1 52 0. 18 • 1 60 16 40 4 30 4. 79 17. 1 .54 0. 18 1 60 16 60 4 60 5. 04 15. 1 .56 0. 15 1 .60 16 80 4 90 5. 34 15. 1 .58 0. 13 1 .60 17 OO 4 90 5. 34 15. 1 .60 0. 13 1 60 17 20 4 70 5. 14 15. 1 62 0. 14 1 60 17 40 4 75 5. 24 17 . 1 .64 0. 16 1 60 17 60 4 99 5. 54 19. 1 .66 0. 16 1 .60 17 80 5 00 5 39 13. 1 .68 0. 12 1 .60 18 00 5 05 5. 44 13. 1 70 0. 12 1 60 18 20 5 20 5. 59 13. 1 72 0. 11 1 60 18 40 5 30 5. 74 15. 1 74 O. 12 1 60 18 60 5 49 6. 04 19. 1 .76 0. 15 1 70 18 80 5 59 6 14 19. 1 78 0. 14 1 .70 19 OO 5 49 6 14 23. 1 .80 0. 18 1 .70 19 20 5 54 6. 24 24. 1 82 0. 19 1 70 19 40 5 75 6. 24 17. 1 84 0. 13 1 70 19 60 5 88 6. 69 28. 1 86 0. 20 1 70 20 00 5 74 6. 39 23. 1 90 0. 17 1 .70 20 20 5 70 6. 04 12. 1 .92 0. 09 1 .50 20 40 5 90 6. 34 15. 1 94 O. 11 1 70 20 60 5 90 6. 39 17. 1 96 O. 13 1 70 20 80 5 94 6. 54 21 . 1 .98 0. 15 1 70 21 OO 6 00 6 44 15. 2.00 0. 11 1 .70 21 20 6 OO 6 49 17. 2.02 0. 12 1 .70 21 40 6 09 6 74 23. 2 .04 0. 16 1 .70 21 60 6 OO 6 49 17. 2 06 o. 13 1 70 21 SO 6 09 6 69 21. 2.08 o. 15 1 70 22 OO 6 04 6. 64 21 . 2 10 o. 15 1 70 22 20 6 38 7 14 26. 2 12 0. 18 1 70 22 40 6 24 6. 94 24. 2 14 o. 17 1 70 22 60 6 29 6. 94 23. 2 16 0. 16 1 70 22 80 6 64 7. 34 24. 2 18 0. 16 1 70 23 OO 6 79 7. 49 24. 2 20 0. 15 1 70 23 20 6 84 7. 39 19. 2 22 0. 12 1 70 23 40 6 74 7. 44 24. 2 24 0. 16 1 70 23 60 6 69 7. 24 19. 2 26 0. 12 1 70 23 80 6 84 7 . 44 21 . 2 28 0. 13 1 70 24 00 6 84 7. 44 21 . 2 30 0. 13 1 70 24 20 6 83 7. 59 26. 2 32 0. 17 1 70 24 40 6 98 7. 84 30. 2 34 o. 19 1 70 24 60 7 04 7. 74 24. 2 36 0. 15 1 .70 24 SO 7 32 8. 34 35. 2 38 0. 21 1 70 0. 15 1 70 Z PO PI Ed Uo Id Gamma .511 .523 .535 .547 .559 .571 .583 .595 .607 .619 .631 .643 .655 .667 .681 .695 .709 .723 .737 .751 .779 .789 .803 .817 .831 .845 .859 .873 .887 .901 .915 .929 .943 .957 .971 .985 .999 013 027 041 055 069 2.083 2.097 2.111 2. 125 28. 16. 16. 15. 13. 14. 14. 13, 15. 17. 12. 12. 12. 14. 18. 18. 21. 23. 17. 28. 21. 11. 14. 16. 19. 14. 16. 21. 15. 19. 18. 25. 22. 20. 24. 24. 19. 23. 18. 20. 20. 25. 29. 23. 36. 28. SILTY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY MUD CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY CLAY SOFT SOFT SOFT SOFT SOFT SOFT SOFT SOFT SOFT SOFT SOFT SOFT SOFT SOFT LOW CONSISTENCY LOW CONSISTENCY LOW CONSISTENCY LOW CONSISTENCY LOW CONSISTENCY LOW CONSISTENCY LOW CONSISTENCY LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW CONS I CONS I CONS I CONS I CONS I CONS I CONS I CONS I CONS I CONS I CONS I CONSI CONSI CONSI CONSI CONSI CONSI CONSI CONSI CONSI CONSI CONSI CONSI CONSI STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY STENCY 15.80 16.00 16.20 16.40 16.60 16.80 17.00 17.20 17.40 17.60 17.80 18.00 18.20 18.40 18.60 18.80 19.00 19.20 19.40 19.60 20.OO 20.20 20.40 20.60 20.80 21 .OO 21.20 21 .40 21.60 21 .80 22.OO 22.20 22.40 22.60 22.80 23.OO 23.20 23.40 23.60 23.80 24.OO 24 . 20 24.40 24 .60 24.80 25.00 (m) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) Sv (T/CM) (Bar) Kd OCR Pc KO (Bar) Cu PHI M (Bar) (Deg) (Bar) Soi l Type De s c r i p t i o n Z (m) CO Z P O Pi E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o l i T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 2 5 . 2 0 7 . . 7 8 8 . 6 4 S O . 2 . . 4 2 0 . 1 6 1 . 7 0 2 . . 1 3 9 2 . 5 1 . 4 2 3 , . 0 4 2 5 . , 4 0 7 . , 7 8 8 . 6 9 3 2 . 2 . 4 4 0 . 1 7 1 . 7 0 2 . . 1 5 3 2 . 5 1 . 4 0 3 . O l 2 5 . . 6 0 7 . . 8 4 8 . 5 4 2 4 . 2 . . 4 6 0 . 1 3 1 , . 7 0 2 . . 1 6 7 2 . 5 1 . 4 0 3 , . 0 3 2 5 . . 8 0 7 . . 8 7 8 . 9 9 3 9 . 2 , . 4 8 0 . 2 1 1 . 7 0 2 , . 1 8 1 2 . 5 1 . 3 9 3 . 0 3 2 6 . O O 7 . . 8 7 8 . 8 4 3 3 . 2 . . 5 0 O . 1 8 1 , . 7 0 2 . . 1 9 5 2 . 4 1 . 3 7 3 . 0 1 2 6 . 2 0 7 . . 9 3 8 . 7 9 3 0 . 2 . . 5 2 0 . 1 6 1 . 7 0 2 . . 2 0 9 2 . 4 1 . 3 7 3 . . 0 3 2 6 . . 4 0 8 . . 0 9 8 . , 7 4 2 3 . 2 . . 5 4 0 . 1 2 1 . 7 0 2 . . 2 2 3 2 . 5 1 . 4 1 3 . . 1 4 2 6 . 6 0 8 . . 0 8 8 . 9 4 3 0 . 2 . . 5 6 0 . 1 6 1 . 7 0 2 , . 2 3 7 2 . 5 1 . . 3 9 3 . . 1 0 2 6 . 8 0 7 . . 9 3 8 . 7 4 2 8 . 2 . . 5 8 0 . 1 5 1 . 7 0 2 . . 2 5 1 2 . 4 1 , . 3 1 2 . . 9 5 2 7 . O O 7 . . 9 8 8 . 7 4 2 6 . 2 . . 6 0 0 . 1 4 1 . 7 0 2 . . 2 6 5 2 , , 4 1 . 3 1 2 . 9 7 2 7 . . 2 0 8 . . 0 8 8 . 9 4 3 0 . 2 . . 6 2 0 . 1 6 1 . 7 0 2 . . 2 7 9 2 . 4 1 . 3 3 3 . 0 2 2 7 . . 4 0 8 . 0 8 8 . 8 9 2 8 . 2 . . 6 4 0 . 1 5 1 . 7 0 2 . . 2 9 3 2 . 4 1 . 3 1 2 . . 9 9 2 7 . . 6 0 8 . . 0 8 8 . , 8 9 2 8 . 2 . . 6 6 0 . 1 5 1 . 7 0 2 . . 3 0 7 2 . , 4 1 . 2 9 2 . . 9 7 2 7 . . 8 0 7 . . 9 8 8 . 7 4 2 6 . 2 . . 6 8 0 . 1 4 1 . 7 0 2 . . 3 2 1 2 . 3 1 . 2 3 2 8 6 2 8 . O O 8 . 1 3 8 . 9 9 3 0 . 2 . . 7 0 0 . 1 6 1 . 7 0 2 . . 3 3 5 2 . 3 1 . 2 6 2 . 9 5 2 8 . 2 0 8 . 2 9 8 . . 9 9 2 4 . 2 . 7 2 0 . 1 3 1 . 7 0 2 . 3 4 9 2 . 4 1 . 3 0 3 . . 0 6 2 8 . 4 0 8 . 4 8 9 . , 3 9 3 2 . 2 . 7 4 O . 1 6 1 . 7 0 2 . 3 6 3 2 . 4 1 . 3 5 3 . . 2 0 2 8 . 6 0 8 . 4 3 9 . . 2 4 2 8 . 2 . . 7 6 0 . 1 4 1 . 7 0 2 . 3 7 7 2 . 4 1 . 3 2 3 , . 1 3 2 8 . 8 0 8 . 4 7 9 . . 5 4 3 7 . 2 . 7 8 0 . 1 9 1 . 8 0 2 . . 3 9 3 2 . 4 1 . 3 1 3' . 1 3 2 9 . O O 8 . 3 7 9 . , 4 4 3 7 . 2 . 8 0 0 . 1 9 1 . 8 0 2 . . 4 0 9 2 . 3 1 . 2 5 3 . . 0 2 2 9 . 2 0 8 , . 6 3 9 . . 5 4 3 2 . 2 . 8 2 0 . 1 6 1 . 7 0 2 . 4 2 3 2 . 4 1 . 3 3 3 , . 2 1 2 9 . 4 0 8 . 6 3 9 . 5 4 3 2 . 2 . 8 4 O . 1 6 1 . 7 0 2 . 4 3 7 2 . 4 1 . 3 1 3 . 1 9 2 9 . . 6 0 8 . . 5 4 9 . . 2 4 2 4 . 2 . 8 6 0 . 1 2 1 . 7 0 2 . 4 5 1 2 . 3 1 . 2 6 3 , . 0 8 2 9 . . 8 0 8 . . 4 6 9 . 6 4 4 1 . 2 . . 8 8 0 . 2 1 1 . 8 0 2 . . 4 6 7 2 . 3 1 . 2 1 2 . . 9 9 3 0 . . O O 8 . . 5 2 9 . 6 4 3 9 . 2 . . 9 0 0 . 2 0 1 . 8 0 2 . 4 8 3 2 . 3 1 . 2 1 3 . . 0 1 3 0 . . 2 0 8 . 5 7 9 . . 5 4 3 3 . 2 , . 9 2 0 . 1 7 1 . 7 0 2 . 4 9 7 2 . 3 1 . 2 1 3 . 0 3 3 0 . . 4 0 8 . 6 7 9 . , 7 4 3 7 . 2 . . 9 4 0 . 1 9 1 . 8 0 2 . . 5 1 3 2 . . 3 1 . 2 3 3 . . 0 8 3 0 , . 6 0 8 . 7 2 9 . . 6 9 3 3 . 2 . 9 6 0 . 1 7 1 . 7 0 2 . 5 2 7 2 . 3 1 . 2 3 3 . 1 0 3 0 . 8 0 8 . 9 7 9 . . 9 9 3 5 . 2 , . 9 8 0 . 1 7 1 . 8 0 2 . 5 4 3 2 . 4 1 . 2 9 3 . 2 8 3 1 . 0 0 9 . 0 7 1 0 . . 0 4 3 3 . 3 . O O 0 . 1 6 1 . 8 0 2 . 5 5 9 2 . . 4 1 . 3 1 3 . . 3 4 3 1 .2P 9 . 0 7 1 0 . . 1 4 3 7 . 3 . 0 2 0 . 1 8 1 . 8 0 2 . 5 7 5 2 . 3 1 . 2 9 3 . 3 1 3 1 . 4 0 9 . 2 7 1 0 , . 3 4 3 7 . 3 . 0 4 0 . 1 7 1 . 8 0 2 . 5 9 1 2 . 4 1 . 3 3 3 , . 4 5 3 1 . 6 0 9 . 3 7 1 0 . . 4 4 3 7 . 3 . 0 6 0 . 1 7 1 . 8 0 2 . 6 0 7 2 . 4 1 . 3 5 3 . 5 1 3 1 . 8 0 9 . 4 7 1 0 . . 5 4 3 7 . 3 . 0 8 0 . 1 7 1 . 8 0 2 . 6 2 3 2 . 4 1 . 3 6 3 , . 5 7 3 2 . 0 0 9 . 4 7 1 0 . . 5 9 3 9 . 3 , . 1 0 0 . I B 1 . 8 0 2 . 6 3 9 2 . 4 1 . 3 4 3 , . 5 4 3 2 . 2 0 9 . 5 2 l O . . 5 4 3 5 . 3 . 1 2 o. 1 6 1 . 8 0 2 . 6 5 5 2 . 4 1 . 3 4 3 , . 5 5 3 2 . 4 0 9 , . 2 6 1 0 . . 4 9 4 3 . 3 . 1 4 0 . 2 0 1 . 8 0 2 . 6 7 1 2 . 3 1 . 2 4 3 , . 3 0 3 2 . 6 0 9 , . 2 2 1 0 . , 2 4 3 5 . 3 , . 1 6 o. 1 7 1 . 8 0 2 . 6 8 7 2 . 3 1 . 2 1 3 . . 2 4 3 2 . 8 0 9 . 3 1 1 0 . , 5 4 4 3 . 3 . 1 8 0 . 2 0 1 . 8 0 2 , . 7 0 3 2 . 3 1 . 2 2 3 . . 2 9 3 3 . 0 0 9 . 5 6 1 0 . . 8 4 4 4 . 3 . 2 0 0 . 2 0 1 . 8 0 2 . . 7 1 9 2 . 3 1 . 2 8 3 . . 4 7 3 3 . . 2 0 9 . 4 7 1 0 . , 4 9 3 5 . 3 , . 2 2 0 . 1 6 1 . 8 0 2 . . 7 3 5 2 . . 3 1 . . 2 3 3 . . 3 7 3 3 . 4 0 9 . 4 7 1 0 . . 5 4 3 7 . 3 . 2 4 0 . 1 7 1 . 8 0 2 . . 7 5 1 2 . . 3 1 . 2 1 3 . 3 4 3 3 . 6 0 9 . 6 7 1 0 . 6 4 3 3 . 3 , . 2 6 0 . 1 5 1 . 8 0 2 . 7 6 7 2 . . 3 1 , . 2 6 3 . . 4 8 3 3 . 8 0 9 . 8 7 1 0 . . 8 4 3 3 . 3 , . 2 8 o. 1 5 1 . 8 0 2 . 7 8 3 2 . 4 1 , . 3 0 3 . . 6 3 3 4 . O O 9 . 7 7 l O . . 7 4 3 3 . 3 . . 3 0 0 . 1 5 1 . 8 0 2 7 9 9 2 . . 3 1 . 2 5 3 . , 5 1 3 4 . 2 0 9 . 7 7 1 0 . , 7 4 3 3 . 3 . 3 2 0 . 1 5 1 . 8 0 2 . , 8 1 5 2 . . 3 1 . 2 4 3 . , 4 8 Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) 0 . 6 7 O . . 6 2 3 2 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 5 . 2 0 0 . 6 7 0 . , 6 2 3 4 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 5 . 4 0 0 . . 6 7 0 . . 6 2 2 6 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 5 . 6 0 0 . . 6 6 0 . . 6 2 4 1 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 5 . 8 0 0 . . 6 6 0 . . 6 2 3 5 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 6 . O O 0 . , 6 6 0 . , 6 3 3 2 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 6 . 2 0 0 . . 6 7 0 . 6 5 2 4 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 6 . 4 0 0 , 6 6 O . 6 4 3 2 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 6 , . 6 0 0. . 6 4 O . 6 1 2 9 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 6 . . 8 0 0 . . 6 4 0 . 6 2 2 7 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 7 . . O O 0 . 6 5 0 . 6 3 3 1 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 7 . . 2 0 0 . . 6 4 0 . 6 2 2 9 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 7 . 4 0 0. . 6 3 O . 6 2 2 8 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 7 . 6 0 0 . . 6 2 0 . 6 0 2 6 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 7 . 8 0 0 . 6 3 0 . 6 2 3 0 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 8 . O O 0 . 6 4 0 . 6 4 2 5 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 8 . 2 0 0 . . 6 5 O . . 6 6 3 3 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 8 . 4 0 0 , . 6 4 0 . 6 5 2 9 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 8 . 6 0 0 . 6 4 0 . . 6 5 3 8 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 8 . 8 0 0, . 6 3 0 . . 6 4 3 7 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 9 . O O 0 . 6 5 0 . 6 7 3 3 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 9 . 2 0 0 . 6 4 0. . 6 6 3 2 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 9 . 4 0 0 , 6 3 0 . 6 5 2 4 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 9 . . 6 0 0 . 6 1 0 . 6 3 4 0 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 9 . . 8 0 0 . . 6 1 0 . 6 4 3 8 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 0 . O O 0 . 6 1 0 . 6 4 3 3 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 0 . . 2 0 0 . 6 2 0 . 6 5 3 6 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 0 . . 4 0 0 . . 6 2 0 . 6 6 3 3 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 0 . . 6 0 0 . . 6 4 0. 6 9 3 6 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 0 . . 8 0 0 . 6 4 0. 7 0 3 4 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 1 . O O 0 . 6 3 0 . 6 9 3 8 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 1 . . 2 0 0 . . 6 5 0 . , 7 2 3 9 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 1 . . 4 0 0 , . 6 5 0 . 7 3 3 9 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 1 . . 6 0 0 , . 6 6 0 . 7 4 3 9 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 1 . . 8 0 0 . 6 5 0 . , 7 3 4 1 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 2 . . 0 0 0 . . 6 5 0 . 7 4 3 7 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 2 . . 2 0 0 . . 6 2 0 . 7 0 4 2 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 2 . . 4 0 0 . 6 1 0 . 6 9 3 4 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 2 . . 6 0 0 . 6 1 0 . 7 0 4 2 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 2 . 8 0 0 . . 6 3 0 . 7 3 4 5 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 3 . 0 0 0 . . 6 2 0 . 7 1 3 5 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 3 . 2 0 0 . 6 1 0 . 7 1 3 6 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 3 . 4 0 0. 6 3 0 . 7 3 3 3 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 3 . 6 0 0 6 4 0 . 7 6 3 4 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 3 . 8 0 0 6 3 0 . 7 4 3 3 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 4 . O O 0 . . 6 2 0 . 7 3 3 3 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 4 . 2 0 K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r 1 p t I o n Z ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o l i T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 3 4 . 4 0 9 . 9 7 1 0 . 9 9 3 5 . 3 . 3 4 0 . 1 5 1 . 8 0 2 . 8 3 1 2 . 3 1 . 2 8 3 . 6 2 0 , 6 3 0 . . 7 6 3 6 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 4 . 4 0 3 4 . 6 0 1 0 . 0 6 1 1 . 3 4 4 4 . 3 . 3 6 0 . 1 9 1 . 8 0 2 . 8 4 7 2 . 4 1 . 2 9 . 3 . 6 7 0 . 6 4 0 . . 7 7 4 5 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 4 . 6 0 3 4 . 8 0 1 0 . . 3 6 1 1 . 5 9 4 3 . 3 . 3 8 0 . 1 8 1 . 8 0 2 . 8 6 3 2 . 4 1 . 3 6 3 . 9 0 0 . 6 6 0 . 8 1 4 5 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 4 . 8 0 3 5 . 0 0 1 0 . . 3 7 1 1 . 4 4 3 7 . 3 . 4 0 0 . 1 5 1 . 8 0 2 . 8 7 9 2 . . 4 1 . 3 5 3 . 8 8 0 . . 6 5 0 . , 8 0 3 9 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 5 . O O 3 5 . 2 0 1 0 . . 3 2 1 1 . 4 4 3 9 . 3 . 4 2 0 . 1 6 1 . 8 0 2 . 8 9 5 2 . . 4 1 . 3 1 3 . 8 0 0 . . 6 4 0 . , 7 9 4 0 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 5 . 2 0 3 5 . 4 0 1 0 . . 5 0 1 1 . 9 4 5 0 . 3 . 4 4 0 . 2 0 1 . 8 0 2 . 9 1 1 2 . 4 1 . 3 5 3 . 9 3 O . . 6 5 0 . 8 2 5 2 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 5 . 4 0 3 5 . 6 0 1 0 . . 6 5 1 2 . 0 4 4 8 . 3 . 4 6 0 . 1 9 1 . 8 0 2 . 9 2 7 2 . . 5 1 . 3 8 4 . 0 4 0 . . 6 6 0 . 8 3 5 1 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 5 , . 6 0 3 5 . 8 0 1 0 . . 6 6 1 1 . 9 9 4 6 . 3 . . 4 8 0 . 1 9 1 . 8 0 2 . 9 4 3 2 . 4 1 . 3 6 4 . 0 1 O . . 6 6 0 . 8 3 4 9 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 5 . . 8 0 3 6 . O O 1 0 . . 4 9 1 1 . 1 4 2 3 . 3 . 5 0 O . 0 9 1 . 7 0 2 . 9 5 7 2 . 4 1 . 3 0 3 . 8 4 0 . 6 4 0 . 8 0 2 3 . O F F C H A R T 3 6 . O O 3 6 . 2 0 1 0 . . 2 7 1 1 . 2 4 3 3 . 3 . . 5 2 0 . 1 4 1 . 8 0 2 . 9 7 3 2 . 3 1 . 2 2 3 . 6 3 0 . 6 2 0 . 7 7 3 3 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 6 . 2 0 3 6 . 4 0 1 0 . . 7 6 1 1 . 9 4 4 1 . 3 . . 5 4 0 . 1 6 1 . 8 0 2 . 9 8 9 2 . 4 1 . 3 4 4 . 0 2 0 . 6 5 O . 8 3 4 3 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 6 . 4 0 3 6 . 6 0 1 0 . . 8 5 1 2 . 3 9 5 3 . 3 . . 5 6 O . 2 1 1 . 8 0 3 . 0 0 5 2 . . 4 1 . 3 5 4 . 0 6 0 . 6 5 0 . 8 4 5 6 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 6 . . 6 0 3 6 . 8 0 1 0 . . 8 5 1 2 . 3 4 5 2 . 3 . . 5 8 O . 2 1 1 . 8 0 3 . 0 2 1 2 . 4 1 . 3 3 4 . . 0 3 0 . 6 5 0 . 8 4 5 4 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 6 . 8 0 3 7 . 0 0 1 0 . . 9 0 1 2 . 3 4 5 0 . 3 . . 6 0 0 . 2 0 1 . 8 0 3 . 0 3 7 2 . 4 1 . 3 3 4 . . 0 5 0 . 6 5 0 . 8 4 5 2 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 7 . . O O 3 7 . 2 0 1 0 . . 7 6 1 2 . 0 9 4 6 . 3 . . 6 2 0 . 1 9 1 . 8 0 3 . 0 5 3 2 . 3 1 . 2 8 3 . . 8 9 0 . 6 3 0 . 8 2 4 7 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 7 . . 2 0 3 7 . 4 0 1 0 . . 7 2 1 1 . 7 9 3 7 . 3 . . 6 4 O . 1 5 1 . 8 0 3 . 0 6 9 2 . 3 1 . 2 5 3 . 8 3 0 . 6 2 0 . 8 1 3 7 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 7 . . 4 0 3 7 . 6 0 1 0 . . 8 6 1 2 . 1 4 4 4 . 3 . . 6 6 0 . 1 8 1 . 8 0 3 . 0 8 5 2 . 3 1 . 2 7 3 . . 9 2 0 . 6 3 0 . 8 2 4 5 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 7 . 6 0 3 7 , . 8 0 1 0 . . 8 7 1 1 . 8 9 3 5 . 3 . . 6 8 0 . 1 4 1 . 8 0 3 . 1 0 1 2 . 3 1 . 2 6 3 . 9 1 0 . 6 3 0 . 8 2 3 5 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 7 . 8 0 3 8 . . 0 0 1 0 . 8 6 1 2 . 1 4 4 4 . 3 . . 7 0 0 . 1 8 1 . 8 0 3 . 1 1 7 2 . 3 1 . 2 4 3 . . 8 7 0 . 6 2 0 . 8 2 4 4 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 8 O O 3 8 . . 2 0 1 0 . . 9 6 1 2 . 1 9 4 3 . 3 . . 7 2 0 . 1 7 1 . 8 0 3 . . 1 3 3 2 . 3 1 . 2 5 3 . . 9 3 0 . 6 3 0 . 8 3 4 2 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 8 . 2 0 3 8 . 4 0 1 1 . . 0 5 1 2 . 4 4 4 8 . 3 . . 7 4 0 . 1 9 1 . 8 0 3 . . 1 4 9 2 . 3 1 . 2 6 3 . . 9 8 0 . 6 3 0 . 8 4 4 8 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 8 . . 4 0 3 8 . . 6 0 1 1 . . 0 5 1 2 . 4 4 4 8 . 3 . . 7 6 0 . 1 9 1 . 8 0 3 . . 1 6 5 2 . 3 1 . 2 5 3 . 9 5 0 . 6 2 0 . 8 3 4 8 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 8 . 6 0 3 8 . . 8 0 1 0 . . 8 5 1 2 . 2 4 4 8 . 3 . . 7 8 O . 2 0 1 . 8 0 3 . . 1 8 1 2 . 2 1 . 1 8 3 . . 7 5 0 . 6 0 0 . S O 4 6 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 8 . . 8 0 3 9 . . 0 0 1 0 . 7 0 1 2 . 1 9 5 2 . 3 . 8 0 0 . 2 2 1 . 8 0 3 . . 1 9 7 2 . 2 1 . 1 3 3 . 6 0 0 . 5 9 0 . 7 7 4 8 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 9 . O O 3 9 . . 2 0 1 0 . . 8 6 1 2 . 1 4 4 4 . 3 . 8 2 o. 1 8 1 . 8 0 3 . 2 1 3 2 . 2 1 . 1 5 3 . 7 0 0 . 5 9 o. 7 9 4 2 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 9 . . 2 0 3 9 . . 4 0 1 0 . 9 6 1 2 . 1 9 4 3 . 3 . 8 4 0 . 1 7 1 . 8 0 3 . . 2 2 9 2 . 2 1 . . 1 6 3 . , 7 6 o. 6 0 0 . 8 0 4 0 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 9 . 4 0 3 9 . . 6 0 1 1 . 2 5 1 2 . 7 9 5 3 . 3 . 8 6 0 . 2 1 1 . 8 0 3 . 2 4 5 2 . 3 1 . . 2 2 3 . . 9 7 0 . 6 2 0 . 8 4 5 3 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 9 . 6 0 Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P C K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r I p t I o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) N O T E S : I . F o r 0 . 9 > I d > 1 . 2 n e i t h e r C u n o r P h i c a l c u l a t e d . 2 . 1 B a r = 1 0 0 K P a 3.0 ' 1 m m D e f l e c t i o n n o t r e a c h e d . C O M M E N T S R e s e a r c h h o l e 1 a t M a c D o n a l d ' s F a r m . U . B . C . I N S I T U T E S T I N G R E S E A R C H G R O U P . F i l e N a m e : D I L . D A T 1 5 R e c o r d o f D i l a t o m e t e r t e s t N o : D H - 1 L o c a t i o n : M c D o n a l d ' s F a r m . D a t e : 4 F e b 8 1 C a l i b r a t i o n I n f o r m a t 1 o n : D A = 0 . 1 4 B a r s D B = 0 . 4 7 B a r s Z M = 0 . 1 0 B a r s Z W = 0 . 8 0 m e t r e s G a m m a = B u l k u n i t w e i g h t S v = E f f e c t 1 v e o v e r . s t r e s s U o - P o r e p r e s s u r e I d ' M a t e r i a l I n d e x E d = D 1 l a t o m e t e r m o d u l u s K d = H o r 1 z o n t a l s t r e s s I n d e x I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S K o = I n s 1 t u e a r t h p r e s s . c o e f f . 0 C R = 0 v e r c o n s o l 1 d a t 1 o n R a t i o M ' C o n s t r a i n e d m o d u l u s C u = U n d r a 1 n e d c o h e s 1 o n ( c o h e s 1 v e ) P H I = F r 1 c t 1 o n A n g l e ( c o h e s 1 o n l e s s ) Z P O P 1 ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) E d U o I d ( B a r ) ( B a r ) G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M ( t / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) S o i l T y p e D e s c r 1 p t 1 o n Z ( m ) 2 . 0 0 0 . 7 3 3 . 1 3 8 3 . 0 . . 1 2 3 . . 9 7 1 . 7 0 0 . 2 4 0 2 . , 5 2 . 7 3 0 . . 6 5 0 . 6 8 3 1 . 8 1 0 8 . S A N D L O O S E 2 . 0 0 2 . 5 0 1 . 0 6 3 . 7 3 9 2 . O . 1 7 2 . 9 9 1 . 7 0 O . 2 7 5 3 . 2 4 . 4 1 1 . , 2 1 0 . . 8 4 3 0 . 7 1 4 0 . S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 2 . 5 0 3 . O O 1 , . 1 5 6 . 1 3 1 7 2 . 0 . 2 2 5 . . 3 3 1 . 8 0 O . 3 1 5 3 . 0 3 . 7 0 1 . . 1 7 0 . , 7 8 3 5 . 1 2 4 9 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 . 0 0 3 . 5 0 1 . . 7 7 1 1 . 7 3 3 4 5 . 0 . . 2 7 6 . 6 6 1 . 9 0 0 . . 3 6 0 4 , . 2 7 . 0 6 2 . . 5 4 1 . . 0 1 3 9 . 2 5 9 9 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 . 5 0 4 . 0 0 2 . , 0 8 9 . 6 3 2 6 1 . 0 . 3 2 4 , . 2 9 1 . 9 0 0 . . 4 0 5 4 . 3 7 . 7 0 3 . 1 2 1 . , 0 5 3 4 . 7 4 6 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 . 0 0 4 . 5 0 1 . . 4 4 5 . 7 3 1 4 9 . 0 . 3 7 4 . . 0 3 1 . 8 0 O . 4 4 5 2 . . 4 2 . 4 7 1 . , 1 0 0 . 6 5 3 1 . 7 1 8 7 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . 5 0 5 . 0 0 2 , 3 2 1 1 . 1 3 3 0 5 . 0 . 4 2 4 . 6 4 1 . 9 0 0 . . 4 9 0 3 . 9 6 . 2 0 3 . , 0 4 o. 9 6 3 4 . 9 5 1 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 . O O 5 . 5 0 3 . 8 2 1 1 . 6 3 2 7 0 . 0 . . 4 7 2 . 3 3 1 . 9 0 0 . 5 3 5 6 . 3 1 5 . 4 5 8 . , 2 7 1 . , 3 6 3 1 . 2 5 6 0 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 . 5 0 6 . O O 3 . . 7 1 1 6 . 9 3 4 5 7 . 0 . 5 2 4 . , 1 4 1 . 9 0 0 . . 5 8 0 5 . . 5 1 2 . 0 8 7 . 0 1 1 . . 2 4 3 5 . 7 9 0 6 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . O O 6 . 5 0 3 . . 1 9 1 9 . 0 3 5 4 8 . 0 . . 5 7 6 . . 0 6 1 . 9 0 O . . 6 2 5 4 . 2 7 . . 1 6 4 . 4 8 1 . . 0 2 3 8 . 7 9 5 6 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 5 0 7 . O O 6 1 8 2 4 . 2 3 6 2 5 . 0 . 6 2 3 , . 2 5 2 . O O 0 . . 6 7 5 8 . 2 2 6 . 1 2 1 7 . . 6 3 1 . . 6 3 3 5 . 2 1 4 5 6 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 7 . O O 7 . 5 0 4 , , 2 5 2 3 . 0 3 6 5 0 . 0 . . 6 7 5 , . 2 5 2 . 0 0 0 . 7 2 5 4 . . 9 9 . 8 0 7 . , 1 1 1. , 1 5 3 7 . 9 1 2 2 6 . S A N D R I G I D 7 . 5 0 8 . 0 0 2 . 8 5 1 3 . 2 3 3 5 9 . 0 . 7 2 4 . 8 9 1 . 9 0 0 . . 7 7 0 2 . . 8 3 . 2 4 2 . . 4 9 0 . . 7 3 3 3 . 9 4 9 7 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . 0 0 8 . 5 0 6 . . 0 5 2 6 . 8 3 7 1 9 . 0 . 7 7 3 . . 9 4 2 . 0 0 0 . 8 2 0 6 . , 4 1 6 . . 3 2 1 3 . 3 8 1. 3 8 3 6 . 0 1 5 2 3 . S A N D R I G I D 8 . 5 0 9 . 0 0 5 . . 1 7 2 3 . 5 3 6 3 5 . 0 . 8 2 4 . . 2 3 2 . 0 0 o . 8 7 0 5 . 0 1 0 . 0 5 8 . 7 4 1 . . 1 6 3 5 . 4 1 2 0 5 . S A N D R I G I D 9 . O O 9 . 5 0 5 . 8 6 2 6 . 5 3 7 1 5 . 0 . 8 7 4 . , 1 5 2 . 0 0 0 . 9 2 0 5 . 4 1 1 . 7 4 1 0 . . 8 0 1. . 2 3 3 5 . 6 1 4 0 8 . S A N D R I G I D 9 . 5 0 1 0 . 0 0 9 . 2 0 3 9 . 43/C 1 0 4 6 . 0 . 9 2 3 . . 6 5 2 . 1 5 0 . 9 7 7 8 . , 5 2 7 . 5 5 2 6 . , 9 3 1 , 6 6 3 6 . 7 2 4 6 4 . S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 5 0 5 . , 5 0 1 9 . 0 3 4 6 8 . 0 . 9 7 2 , 9 9 2 . O O 1. . 0 2 7 4 . . 4 7 . . 9 0 8 . 1 2 1 . . 0 6 3 1 . 8 8 3 7 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 0 . 5 0 1 1 . O O 5 . . 6 0 2 3 . 2 3 6 1 0 . 1 . 0 2 3 , 8 5 2 . 0 0 1 . 0 7 7 4 . . 3 7 , . 3 8 7 . . 9 6 1 . 0 3 3 3 . 7 1 0 7 2 . S A N D R I G I D 1 1 . . O O 1 1 . 5 0 5 . 6 0 2 1 . 1 3 5 3 7 . 1 . . 0 7 3 . . 4 3 2 . 0 0 1 . 1 2 7 4 . . 0 6 . 6 3 7 . . 4 8 0 . . 9 9 3 2 . 4 9 1 8 . S A N D R I G I D 1 1 . 5 0 1 2 . 0 0 8 , . 3 4 3 3 . 5 3 8 7 2 . 1 . 1 2 3 . . 4 9 2 . O O 1 . 1 7 7 6 . 1 1 4 . 8 6 1 7 . . 5 0 1 , . 3 4 3 4 . 5 1 8 0 9 . S A N D R I G I D 1 2 . O O 1 2 . 5 0 6 8 3 3 6 . 4 3 1 0 2 4 . 1 . 1 7 5 . 2 3 2 . O O 1. . 2 2 7 4 . 6 8 . 6 2 1 0 . , 5 9 1 . . 1 0 3 7 . 4 1 8 7 2 . S A N D R I G I D 1 2 . 5 0 1 3 . 0 0 1 0 . , 1 5 3 9 . 4 3 1 0 1 3 . 1 . 2 2 3 . 2 8 2 . 1 5 1 . 2 8 5 6 . 9 1 8 . 8 6 2 4 . 2 3 1 . 4 6 3 4 . 5 2 2 1 2 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 3 . 0 0 1 3 . 5 0 3 . . 9 7 1 1 . 7 3 2 6 8 . 1 . 2 7 2 . 8 7 1 . 9 0 1 . 3 3 0 2 . . 0 1 . 8 0 2 . . 3 9 0 5 5 2 9 . 2 2 9 6 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 . 5 0 1 4 . 0 0 4 . . 3 7 1 5 . 2 3 3 7 6 . 1 . . 3 2 3 . . 5 6 1 . 9 0 1. . 3 7 5 2 . 2 2 . 1 4 2 , . 9 4 0 . . 6 0 3 0 . 6 4 4 8 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 . 0 0 1 4 . 5 0 5 . . 0 4 1 7 . 7 3 4 3 9 . 1 . . 3 7 3 . 4 6 1 . 9 0 1. . 4 2 0 2 . 6 2 . 8 5 4 . , 0 4 0 . 6 9 3 0 . 9 5 8 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 . 5 0 1 5 . 0 0 3 3 9 4 . 4 8 3 8 . 1 . 4 2 0 , 5 5 1 . 6 0 1 . 4 5 0 1 . . 4 0 . 5 5 0 . , 7 9 0 . . 3 5 0 . 2 0 3 2 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 1 5 . 0 0 1 5 . 5 0 3 . . 5 6 5 . 1 8 5 6 . 1 . 4 7 0 . 7 7 1 . 7 0 1 . 4 8 5 1 , . 4 0 . 5 8 O . . 8 6 0 . . 3 7 0 . 2 1 4 8 . C L A Y E Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 1 5 . 5 0 Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( t / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) N O T E S : I . F o r 0 . 9 > I d > 1 . 2 n e i t h e r C u n o r P h 1 c a l c u l a t e d . 2 . 1 B a r = 1 0 0 K P a 3 . # = 1 m m D e f l e c t i o n n o t r e a c h e d . C O M M E N T S H o l e 3 c o m p l e t e d m e a s u r i n g p u s h i n g f o r c e s o f r i c t i o n a n g l e c a n b e c a l c u l a t e d f r o m D u r g u n o g l u a n d M i t c h e l l ' s w o r k U . B . C . I N S I T U T E S T I N G R E S E A R C H G R O U P . F i l e N a m e : D I L . D A T 1 1 R e c o r d o f D i l a t o m e t e r t e s t N o : D H - 2 L o c a t i o n : M c D o n a l d ' s F a r m D a t e : 7 O c t 8 1 C a l i b r a t i o n I n f o r m a t 1 o n : D A = 0 . 1 3 B a r s D B = 0 . 3 1 B a r s Z M = 0 . 1 0 B a r s Z W = 0 . 8 0 m e t r e s G a m m a - B u l k u n i t w e i g h t I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S S v " E f f e c t i v e o v e r . s t r e s s K o " I n s i t u e a r t h p r e s s . c o e f f . U o " P o r e p r e s s u r e O C R = O v e r c o n s o l I d a t 1 o n R a t i o I d " M a t e r i a l I n d e x M " C o n s t r a i n e d m o d u l u s E d " D i l a t o m e t e r m o d u l u s C u " U n d r a i n e d c o n e s 1 o n ( c o h e s 1 v e ) K d " H o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s I n d e x P H I " F r 1 c t 1 o n A n g l e ( c o h e s l o n l e s s ) Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 1. . 4 0 0 . 7 6 1 . 2 4 1 7 . 0 , . 0 6 0 . 6 9 1 . 6 0 0 . 1 9 2 3 . 6 2 . 5 3 0 . 4 9 0 . 9 1 0 . 0 9 2 5 . C L A Y E Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 1 . 4 0 2 . 4 0 1 . 2 2 4 . . 4 9 1 1 3 . 0 . . 1 6 3 . . 0 7 1 . 8 0 0 . 2 7 2 3 . 9 6 . 3 0 1 . 7 1 O . . 9 7 3 1 . . 5 1 9 0 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . 4 0 3 . . 4 0 1 . 9 8 9 . 3 9 2 5 6 . 0 . . 2 6 4 . . 3 2 1 . 9 0 0 . 3 6 2 4 . 7 9 . 1 0 3 2 9 1 . . 1 2 3 5 . 1 4 7 5 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 . 4 0 4 . . 4 0 2 . 5 9 9 . . 7 9 2 4 9 . 0 . . 3 6 3 . . 2 3 1 . 9 0 0 . . 4 5 2 4 . 9 9 . 7 9 4 . . 4 2 1 . 1 5 3 2 . . 8 4 7 0 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 . 4 0 5 . . 4 0 1 . 7 4 1 0 . . 8 9 3 1 6 . 0 . . 4 6 7 . . 1 2 1 . 8 0 0 . 5 3 2 2 . 4 2 . 5 1 1 . 3 3 0 . 6 5 3 7 . 2 4 0 0 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 . 4 0 6 . . 4 0 3 . 2 8 1 0 . . 6 9 2 5 6 . 0 . . 5 6 2 . . 7 3 1 . 9 0 0 . 6 2 2 4 . 4 7 . 7 8 4 . . 8 4 1 . . 0 5 3 1 . 1 4 5 3 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 4 0 7 . . 4 0 9 , . 4 4 3 4 . . 3 9 8 6 3 . 0 . . 6 6 2 . 8 4 2 . 1 5 0 . . 7 3 7 1 1 . 9 5 2 . . 8 7 3 8 . 9 6 2 . . 0 5 3 5 8 2 3 0 1 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 7 . 4 0 8 . . 4 0 6 . 3 9 2 4 . 0 9 6 1 3 . 0 . . 7 6 3 . , 1 5 2 . 0 0 0 . , 8 3 7 6 . 7 1 7 . . 7 2 1 4 . . 8 3 1 , . 4 2 3 3 . 9 1 3 2 0 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 8 . 4 0 9 . . 4 0 6 . 2 4 2 4 . 9 9 6 4 9 . O . 8 6 3 . 4 9 2 . O O 0 . . 9 3 7 5 . 7 1 3 . io 1 2 . 2 7 1 , . 2 8 3 4 . . 1 1 3 0 9 . S A N D R I G I D 9 . 4 0 1 0 . 6 0 1 0 . 2 3 3 9 , 5 9 # 1 0 1 6 . 0 . . 9 8 3 . . 1 7 2 . 1 5 1 . . 0 7 5 8 . 6 2 8 . 4 0 3 0 . . 5 3 1 . 6 7 3 5 . 2 2 4 0 7 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 0 . 6 0 1 1 . . 4 0 5 . 8 7 2 1 . 7 9 5 5 1 . 1 . 0 6 3 . . 3 1 2 . 0 0 1 . . 1 5 5 4 . 2 7 . I O 8 . . 2 1 1 . 0 2 3 2 . . 3 9 5 8 . S A N D R I G I D 1 1 . 4 0 1 3 . . 4 0 3 , . 7 4 7 . . 7 9 1 4 0 . 1 . . 2 6 1 . . 6 4 1 . 8 0 1 . . 3 1 5 1 . 9 1 . . 2 1 1 . . 5 9 0 , . 5 1 2 6 . 6 1 2 6 . S A N D Y S I L T M E D I U M D E N S I T Y 1 3 . 4 0 1 4 . . 4 0 6 . 4 7 1 8 . . 1 9 4 0 5 . 1 . . 3 6 2 . 2 9 2 . 0 0 1 , . 4 1 5 3 . 6 5 . 4 1 7 . . 6 6 0 . 9 1 2 9 . . 5 6 3 6 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 4 . 4 0 1 5 . . 4 0 3 . 4 9 4 . . 3 9 3 1 . 1 . . 4 6 0 . . 4 5 1 . 6 0 1 , . 4 7 5 1 . 4 0 . 5 6 0 . 8 2 0 , . 3 6 0 . 2 0 2 7 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 1 5 . 4 0 1 6 . . 4 0 4 . 9 4 5 6 9 2 6 . 1 . . 5 6 0 . 2 2 1 . 7 0 1 . . 5 4 5 2 . 2 1 . . 1 5 1 , . 7 8 0 , . 5 9 0 . 3 8 2 4 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 6 . 4 0 1 7 . , 4 0 5 . 0 0 5 . . 6 9 2 4 . 1 . . 6 6 0 . 2 1 1 . . 7 0 1 . 6 1 5 2 . 1 1 . . 0 5 1 . . 7 0 0 . . 5 6 0 . 3 7 2 1 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 7 . 4 0 1 8 . . 0 0 5 . 2 8 6 . . 2 9 3 5 . 1 . , 7 2 0 . 2 8 1 . 7 0 1 . . 6 5 7 2 . 1 1 . 1 2 1 . 8 5 0 . 5 8 0 . 4 0 3 2 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 8 . O O 1 8 . . 2 0 5 . 2 9 6 . . 1 9 3 1 . 1 . . 7 4 0 . , 2 5 1 . 7 0 1 . . 6 7 1 2 . 1 1 . 1 0 1 . 8 3 0 , . 5 8 0 . 4 0 2 8 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 8 . 2 0 1 8 . . 4 0 5 . 2 3 6 . 1 9 3 3 . 1 . , 7 6 0 . 2 8 1 . 7 0 1 . . 6 8 5 2 . 1 1 . . 0 5 1 . . 7 7 0 . . 5 6 0 . 3 9 2 9 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 8 . 4 0 1 8 . 6 0 5 . 0 9 5 . . 9 9 3 1 . 1 . , 7 8 0 . 2 7 1 . , 7 0 1 . . 6 9 9 1 . 9 0 . . 9 6 1 . . 6 3 0 . . 5 3 0 . 3 6 2 7 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 8 . 6 0 1 8 . . 8 0 3 . 9 7 5 . . 1 9 4 2 . 1 . , 8 0 0 . , 5 6 1 . 7 0 1 . . 7 1 3 1 . 3 0 . 4 9 0 . . 8 4 O , 3 2 0 . 2 1 3 6 . S I L T Y C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 8 . 8 0 1 9 . . 0 0 5 . 8 0 6 . . 4 9 2 4 . 1 . 8 2 0 . , 1 7 1 . 7 0 1 . 7 2 7 2 . 3 1 . 2 5 2 . . 1 5 0 . . 6 2 0 . 4 5 2 4 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 9 . O O 1 9 . , 2 0 5 . 7 8 6 . 7 9 3 5 . 1 . 8 4 0 . 2 6 1 . 7 0 1 . , 7 4 1 2 . 3 1 , . 2 1 2 . . 1 1 0 . . 6 1 0 . 4 5 3 4 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 9 . 2 0 1 9 . . 4 0 5 . 3 8 6 . . 4 9 3 9 . 1 . 8 6 0 . 3 2 1 . 7 0 1 . , 7 5 5 2 . 0 1 . . 0 0 1 . . 7 6 0 . . 5 5 0 . 3 9 3 3 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 9 . 4 0 1 9 . , 6 0 4 . 8 8 5 . . 8 4 • 3 3 . 1 . 8 8 0 . 3 2 1 . 7 0 1 . , 7 6 9 1 . 7 0 . 7 7 1 . . 3 7 0 . . 4 6 0 . 3 2 2 8 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 9 . . 6 0 1 9 . . 8 0 3 . 9 6 5 . 3 9 4 9 . 1 . , 9 0 0 . 6 9 1 , . 7 0 1 . , 7 8 3 1 . 2 0 . . 4 3 0 . . 7 6 0 . . 2 8 0 . 2 0 4 2 . C L A Y E Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 1 9 . . 8 0 2 0 . , 0 0 6 , . 1 8 7 . . 1 9 3 5 . 1 . . 9 2 0 . 2 4 1 , . 7 0 1 . , 7 9 7 2 . 4 1 . . 3 0 2 . 3 4 0 . . 6 4 0 . 4 9 3 6 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 0 . O O 2 0 . 2 0 6 , . 0 9 6 . . 9 9 3 1 . 1 . , 9 4 0 . 2 2 1 . 7 0 1 . . 8 1 1 2 , 3 1 . . 2 4 2 . . 2 4 0 . . 6 2 0 . 4 7 3 1 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 0 . , 2 0 2 0 . 4 0 6 . . 1 9 7 , . 0 9 3 1 . 1 . . 9 6 0 . , 2 1 1 . 7 0 1 . . 8 2 5 2 . 3 1 , . 2 6 2 . 2 9 0 . . 6 3 0 . 4 8 3 1 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 0 , . 4 0 2 1 . 4 0 6 . . 3 9 7 . . 1 9 2 8 . 2 . . 0 6 0 . . 1 8 1 . 7 0 1 . . 8 9 5 2 . 3 1 . 2 3 2 . . 3 3 0 . . 6 2 0 . 4 9 2 7 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 1 . 4 0 2 2 . , 4 0 6 . . 5 8 7 . . 5 9 3 5 . 2 . . 1 6 0 . , 2 3 1 . 7 0 1 . , 9 6 5 2 . 3 1 . . 2 0 2 . . 3 6 0 . . 6 1 0 . 5 0 3 4 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 2 . 4 0 2 3 . 4 0 6 . . 8 9 7 . 7 9 3 1 . 2 . . 2 6 0 . . 2 0 1 . 7 0 2 . . 0 3 5 2 . 3 1 . 2 2 2 . 4 9 0 . . 6 2 0 , 5 3 3 1 . C L A Y L O W , C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 3 . . 4 0 Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) Z ( m ) Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e fiescrlptlon Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 2 4 . 4 0 7 . . 4 7 8 . 6 9 4 2 . 2 . 3 6 0 . 2 4 1 . 7 0 2 . 1 0 5 2 . 4 1 . . 3 5 2 . 8 5 0 . . 6 5 0 . 5 9 4 4 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 4 . 4 0 2 5 . O O 7 . . 6 8 8 . 6 9 3 5 . 2 . 4 2 O . 1 9 1 . 7 0 2 . 1 4 7 2 . 5 1 . 3 7 2 . , 9 5 O . 6 6 O . 6 1 3 7 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 5 . 0 0 2 5 . 2 0 7 . . 5 8 8 . 5 9 3 5 . 2 . 4 4 0 . 2 0 1 . 7 0 2 . 1 6 1 2 . 4 1 . . 3 1 2 . 8 3 O . . 6 4 0 . 5 9 3 6 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 5 . 2 0 2 5 . 4 0 7 . . 2 2 8 . 4 4 4 2 . 2 . 4 6 O . 2 6 1 . 7 0 2 . 1 7 5 2 . 2 1 . 1 5 2 . 5 0 O . 5 9 0 . 5 4 4 0 . C L A Y L O W . C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 5 . 4 0 2 5 . 6 0 6 . 8 9 7 . 7 9 3 1 . 2 . 4 8 0 . 2 0 1 . 7 0 2 . 1 8 9 2 . 0 1 , O l 2 . 2 1 O . . 5 5 0 . 4 9 2 7 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 5 . 6 0 2 5 . 8 0 5 , . 3 5 7 . 0 9 6 0 . 2 . 5 0 0 . 6 1 1 . 7 0 2 . 2 0 3 1 . 3 0 . 5 1 1 . 1 1 0 . . 3 3 0 . 2 8 5 1 . C L A Y E Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 2 5 . 8 0 2 6 . 0 0 7 . . 7 8 8 . 7 9 3 5 . 2 . 5 2 0 . 1 9 1 . 7 0 2 . 2 1 7 2 . 4 1 . 3 1 2 . 9 0 0 . , 6 4 0 . 6 0 3 6 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 6 . O O 2 6 . 2 0 7 . . 6 8 8 . 6 9 3 5 . 2 . 5 4 0 . 2 0 1 . 7 0 2 . 2 3 1 2 . 3 1 . 2 5 2 . 7 8 O . 6 2 0 . 5 9 3 5 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 6 . 2 0 2 6 . 4 0 7 . . 7 8 8 . 8 9 3 9 . 2 . 5 6 O . 2 1 1 . 7 0 2 . 2 4 5 2 . 3 1 . . 2 6 2 . 8 4 O . 6 3 0 . 6 0 3 9 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 6 . 4 0 2 6 . 6 0 6 . . 7 7 8 . 0 9 4 6 . 2 . 5 8 0 . 3 2 1 . 7 0 2 . 2 5 9 1 . . 9 o . 8 9 2 . 0 1 0 . 5 0 O . 4 5 3 9 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 6 . 6 0 2 6 . 8 0 5 . . 5 4 7 . 3 9 6 4 . 2 . 6 0 0 . 6 3 1 . 7 0 2 . 2 7 3 1 . 3 0 . 5 1 1 . 1 5 0 . . 3 3 0 . 2 9 5 4 . C L A Y E Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 2 6 . 8 0 2 7 . 4 0 8 . . 2 8 9 . 3 9 3 9 . 2 . 6 6 O . 2 0 1 . 8 0 2 . 3 2 1 2 . 4 1. . 3 5 3 . 1 2 O . 6 5 0 . 6 5 4 0 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 7 . 4 0 2 8 . 4 0 8 . . 5 7 9 . 7 9 4 2 . 2 . 7 6 0 . 2 1 1 . 8 0 2 . 4 0 1 2 . 4 1 . . 3 5 3 . 2 3 0 . 6 5 0 . 6 7 4 4 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 8 . 4 0 2 9 . 4 0 8 . 9 7 1 0 . 2 9 4 6 . 2 . 8 6 O . 2 2 1 . 8 0 2 . 4 8 1 2 . . 5 1. . 3 8 3 . 4 3 0 . 6 6 0 . 7 1 4 9 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 9 . 4 0 3 0 . 4 0 7 . . 9 6 9 . 4 9 5 3 . 2 . 9 6 O . 3 1 1 . 8 0 2 . 5 6 1 2 . 0 o. . 9 6 2 . 4 6 0 . 5 3 0 . 5 5 4 5 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 0 . 4 0 3 0 . 6 0 8 . . 1 6 9 . 5 4 4 8 . 2 . 9 8 O . 2 7 1 . 8 0 2 . 5 7 7 2 . 0 1. . 0 1 2 . 6 0 0 . . 5 5 0 . 5 7 4 1 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 0 . 6 0 3 0 . 8 0 8 . . 1 1 9 . 5 9 5 1 . 3 . 0 0 O . 2 9 1 . 8 0 2 . 5 9 3 2 . 0 o. . 9 8 2 . 5 3 0 . . 5 4 0 . 5 6 4 4 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 0 . 8 0 3 1 . 0 0 7 . . 4 6 8 . 9 9 5 3 . 3 . 0 2 O . 3 5 1 . 7 0 2 . 6 0 7 1 . 7 0 , . 7 8 2 . 0 3 0 . 4 6 0 . 4 7 4 5 . S I L T Y C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 1 . O O 3 1 . 2 0 6 . . 1 1 8 . 5 9 8 6 . 3 . 0 4 0 . 8 1 1 . 7 0 2 . 6 2 1 1 . . 2 0 . . 4 3 1 . 1 4 0 . 2 9 0 . 3 0 7 3 . S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 3 1 . 2 0 3 1 . 4 0 9 . . 2 6 1 0 . 7 9 5 3 . 3 . 0 6 O . 2 5 1 . 8 0 2 . 6 3 7 2 . . 4 1 . , 2 9 3 . 3 9 0 . 6 3 O . 7 1 5 4 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 1 . 4 0 3 1 . 6 0 9 . . 1 5 1 0 . 7 9 5 7 . 3 . 0 8 0 . 2 7 1 , . 8 0 2 . 6 5 3 2 . . 3 1. . 2 3 3 . 2 7 0 . 6 2 0 . 6 9 5 6 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 1 . 6 0 3 1 . 8 0 8 . . 9 5 l O . 5 9 5 7 . 3 . 1 0 O . 2 8 1 . 8 0 2 . 6 6 9 2 . . 2 1. . 1 5 3 . 0 8 0 . 6 0 0 . 6 6 5 4 . C L A Y M E D I U M C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 1 . 8 0 3 2 . 0 0 8 . . 2 9 9 . 1 9 3 1 . 3 . 1 2 0 . 1 7 1 . 7 0 2 . 6 8 3 1 . . 9 0 . , 9 4 2 . 5 3 0 . 5 2 0 . 5 6 2 7 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 3 2 . O O 3 2 . 2 0 6 . . 4 2 8 . 6 4 7 7 . 3 . 1 4 o. 6 7 1 . 7 0 2 . 6 9 7 1 . . 2 0 . . 4 6 1 . 2 4 0 . 3 1 0 . 3 2 6 5 . C L A Y E Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 3 2 . 2 0 Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) N O T E S : I . F o r 0 . 9 > I d > 1 . 2 n e i t h e r C u n o r P h i c a l c u l a t e d . 2 . 1 B a r = 1 0 0 K P a 3 . # «1mm D e f l e c t i o n n o t r e a c h e d . C O M M E N T S H o l e w a s c o m p l e t e d t o s t u d y p o r e p r e s s u r e e f f e c t s o n r e a d i n g s A a n d B . F o r t h r e e 2 m s e c t i o n s ( 1 8 - 1 9 . 8 m , 2 5 - 2 6 . 8 m , 3 0 . 4 - 3 2 . 2 m ) t i m e w a s a l l o w e d f o r e x c e s s p o r e p r e s s u r e s g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n t o d l s s a p a t e . R e a d i n g s w e r e t a k e n I n t w o 1m c y c l e s o f w a i t i n g f o r T 0 ( 0 s e e s ) , T 1 0 ( 2 5 s e e s ) , T 2 5 ( 8 4 s e e s ) , T 5 0 ( 4 m 1 n 2 5 s e c s ) a n d T 9 0 ( 3 0 m 1 n s ) . T h e s e c o n d m e t r e p u s h p r o v i d e s a c h e c k o n t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e f i r s t m e t r e . i—» c o c n M I T . MAIN t i f f SCALE U. S. S. i l i t , «••»»••/l«eh •OO 1.0 0.1 G R A I N S I Z E , mm l I 0.001 0.0001 b o u l d e r S I Z E c 0 6 s l e S I Z E yoor f Imtdtymj f i n t c o o r n I m t d i u m l f i n t 7 mt Q f o i n 1 4 G R A V E L S I Z E S A N D S I Z F S I L T S I Z E C L A Y S I Z E NOTFI VERT SCALE: ) 0 0 H m - 2CM HOIt S C A L E : IX TO 2CH 1100 1000 900 0 0 0 4 400 300 200 100 s.o e . O 7.0 R A D I A L I M S I ' L A n E M E N T ( Z ) A R R 50OxJO0^X_L 1.9 toco S. eoflt Mote *• mi mi" s o r i i 1 OC.fM It «T MTt EL 1 0 FT OS DEC 1 9 0 1 JlftM MATeflfAL TfITFD FINE SBND 3B f iJ^ISmj T E C H N O L O Q Y I N C UNIVERS1TT Of O.C. H.S.B PRESSUREMETER 1M.OT OF APPLIED PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT U . S . C . DEHO Oft ft*" JOS HO *0-B IH0fii_ THACEO JOB No VT GUHE NO. 1100 NOTES VERT SCRLE: lOOIirR- 2CH ttm SCKLE: IX TO 2CH •CMC HOtC ML s o n I m i ... 2 EL 12.S f T T I P D»Tt 03 DEC 1901 •MTCflltl. TltTtO F I N E SAND UHIVEKS1TT or o . c . H.S.B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OF APPLIED PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT I I . 0 U.B.C. DEHO (MAWN J 0 « HO. OATt H0S3 IftACEO JO* No-FIGURE N o . CO to NOTES VERT SCBLE:lOOKrfl- SCK MOR SCALE : i x TO ZCH - 14 A* PA I...i 11.0 MAC M U Wfc 1 tist *.. SBPT I 3 OCFTM TEtT OATE EL IS FT 03 OEC 1901 ASM MATERIAL TESTED FINE SOHO I 4 ii ^  SITU TECHNOLOOY INC. UNIVERSITY OF O.C. H.S.B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OF APPLIED PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT U.B.C. DEMO DflkWN JOS HO. 40 - B OATE 1HQS3 TRACED JO* *to FIGURE N o . o 1100 NOTES VERT SCBIEMOOHM- 2CH HOR SCRLE: IX TO 2CH t.2.5 ao - 2.4 MPa •ONE HOLE mm, SBPTI T E S T No. 4 DEPTH EL i ? . s FT TEST DATE 03 OEC 1901 AM* MATERIAL T E S T E D FINE MEDIUM SRHD 1 SITU TECHNOLOGY INC UHIVERS1TT OF B.C. H.S.B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OF APPLIED PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT U.B.C. DEMO DRAWN J 0 « HO. 40-8 DATE H0S3 TRACED JOB No FIGURE N o . 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 i 700 I • I soo 300 200 M i 3 . 0 4 . 0 S .O B .O R A D I A L D I S P L A C E M E N T NOTES V E M S C B t e . - l O O K r S - 2CH HOO SCPLE: I X T O 2CH i vi* .0 1 0 . 0 1 1 . 0 1 2 . 0 G-GSO. XJ_ AlPa. M - 72, Atf* *0«E HH 9 »* •tnr We. SBFTI E L 2o.s n C3 r*c i s c i f!ME SflHD ^ l g £ SITU T E C H N O L O G Y I N C UHIVERSITT O f O.C. H.S.B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OF APPLIED PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT u.a. c. oeno DRAWN JOS HO. 10-" 0*?E IMOSS TRACED JOS Mo F I G U R E N o . r o 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 m 3 7 0 0 3 0 0 , 2 0 0 MOTES VERT SCM.E:]00KFR> 2 C t l n o n SCPLE: it TO 2 c n (5= S30_ xL 1.35 ZO •one HOLE mm. s o r T i mi m. c OEPTH EL S F T TESt DATE 04 DEC 1 9 S I ARM MATERIAL TESTCO f l H C S P H 0 w l ^ l - j ^ l T E C H N O L O G Y INC. U M IVERS I T T O F O . C . H . S . B P R E S S U R E M E T E R P L O T O F A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT U . B . C . DEMO DRAWN J O " HO. 4 0 - B DATE I H 0 5 3 TRACED F I G U R E N o . 1100 0 0 0 B O O a. a 4 S 500 400 500 100 R A D I A L D I S P L A C E M E N T ('*) A R MOTES VERT SCALE:100KPB- 2CH HOO SCALE: IX TO 2CM 5= 6*>__*J-t.l5 eo •ORE HOLE M*. I T E S T «.. s o r T i 7 DEPTH I TEST DATE EL 12.S f T 04 D E C 1 9 B I •UTMISl TESTED FINE LOOSE SBNO 4 Cj o} SITU TECHNOLOOV M C UNIVERSITY OF O.C. H.S.B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OF APPLIED PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT U . B . C . O E N O J O B N O . 4 O - » | H 0 5 i FIGURE N o . 1000 3 ft* g s I 100 o . i RAD IAL D ISPLACEMENT (X) JCM.C: U N C T A C - l t cm nunc t jrm roe» t w o Slope = 7-^  ^ 0.33 I t f T I 10 F T F1K 1^IT\I T11IWICACKJV MC ONIVauiTT O F O.C. U.S.! PRESSUKMETKR PLOT Of APPLIED PRESSURE V.S. RADIAL DISPLACEMENT n.t.c. OCIM n. <B-I F I G U R E N o . 1000 i.o RAD IAL DISPLACEMENT (I) 10.0 A R R MOkXti K M CTCLf-10 OI rnnic HID nu mm S l o p e =. 0-35 bU lakl a* M i l l . . t o r n a 12.0 PT "WW C IMI Xi ' F1K •ITO TKHNOUMY MC. muratsiTT or o.c. H . S . I PRESSUREMETER PLOT OF A P P L I E D PRESSORS V . S . RADIAL D ISPLACEMENT U.O.C. DEM TOT-F I G U R E N O jgia-vPl. If-rimr. I 1000 I N 1.0 RAD IAL D ISPLACEKENT (X ) S O L E : 1L0S CTCICIO CD STATIC wrot rues I O I K M S l o p e d . S ^ / G "7 "Wit PT I f 8CT itoi FlttE SUM) ONIVCMITT OF I . C . H.S.B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OP APPLIED PRESSURE" V.S. RADIAL DISPLACEMENT U . i . C . K M •mmr .00. 4D -0M F I G U R E N o . 1000 1 0 0 RAD IAL DISPLACEMENT (X ) A R MMXI U M crctr-io ctt -njnjc wren rues lower « Slopes = 0 - 3 4 uu Soi ar" S B P T I € L 17 . S rt "o?'o€C 1 M 1 M M HED1UM S U M UHlrCUlTT ff i.C. H.S .B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OP A P P L I E D PRESSURE V . S . RAD IAL D ISPLACEMENT U.I.C. D M 0 F I G U R E N o . 4^ 0 0 I O N I N RAD IAL D ISPLACEMENT (X ) A R •CKLC: I L N CTCLO10 CN jmrrjc W T U rues IITKPN Slope = 3 % 8 =- O 3 3 , W 1 " W W . O P T I f W I • f i r riNC sMto •NIVCMITT OF O.C. H.S .B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OF A P P L I E D PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL D ISPLACEMENT U.O.C. OEM NO. «U«» t F I G U R E N o . 150 APPENDIX IV FRASER LANDING, BC 151 D i l a t o m e t e r A f t e r Dynamic Compaction (FL-DH1) -Intermediate G e o t e c h n i c a l Parameters. 152 U.B.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCRTION: Fraser Landing after Dynatuc Compaction INTERPRETED GEOTECHNICAL PRRRflETERS, TEST No. FL-DH1 TEST DRTE; 9 Sept 81 i 1 or cn u to o °-u ^  or Q 2 to _ l Q O o ro 0_ cr or i— to z o o cr x or Q o r O'E 0 £ in. n o in. tn o o m _ (W) H M30 m | J , 1 J L 0 6 O'tt OGI J 1 I I I I 1 I J I I I L J I I I ' ' i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 r _Li ' i I - I I i 1 1 r lY. I I L m -a ' \ 5 \ CO \ i i r r I i i r i i 1 1 : r>-V A * t — V UWv /AAA/ o - l - l t o w K J I f I : m - y -tn - >- i -7 5 u 1 o t i i i i i i i i O'E O'E 0 ' i 0 6 (W) Hld30 i i 0" IT I 1 OEI FL-DH1 - I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l Parameters. F i l e N a m e : F L O 1 L o c a t i o n : F r a s e r L a n d i n g U . B . C . I N S I T U T E S T I N G R E S E A R C H G R O U P . R e c o r d o f D i l a t o m e t e r t e s t N o : F L - D H 1 0 a t e : 9 S e p t 8 1 C a l i b r a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n : D A = 0 . 0 9 B a r s D B = 0 . 3 3 B a r s Z M = 0 . 0 5 B a r s Z W = 2 . 3 0 m e t r e s G a m m a = B u l k u n i t w e i g h t I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S S v = E f f e c t i v e o v e r . s t r e s s K o = I n s i t u e a r t h p r e s s . c o e f f . U o = P o r e p r e s s u r e O C R = O v e r c o n s o l 1 d a t I o n R a t i o I d = M a t e r i a l i n d e x M = C o n s t r a i n e d m o d u l u s E d = 0 1 l a t o m e t e r m o d u l u s C u = U n d r a 1 n e d c o h e s 1 o n ( c o h e s 1 v e ) K d - H o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s I n d e x P H I = F r 1 c t 1 o n A n g l e ( c o h e s 1 o n l e s s ) Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 1 . 20 0 .09 3 .22 108 . 0 0 34 . 38 1 .70 0 .212 0 .4 0 .09 0 .02 - .04 45 .0 92 . S A N D L O O S E 1 . 20 1 .40 2 .97 17 .02 486. 0 .0 4 .73 1 .90 0 .250 1 1 .9 52 .60 13 . 15 2 .05 39 .4 1288. S A N D C E M E N T E D 1 . 40 1 . 60 9 . 29 33 .42 835. 0 0 2 60 2 . 15 0 .293 31 . 7 ***** ***** 3 .60 36 . 4 2999. S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 1 .60 1 .80 S .64 29 .72 730. 0 o 2 .44 2 . 15 0 .336 25 .7 ***** 77 . 12 3 .20 35 .5 2476. S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 1 .80 2 .00 4 .87 19 .02 490. 0. 0 2 91 2 .00 0 .376 12 .9 61 .90 23 . 27 2 . 15 35 . 2 1344 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 2 . O O 2 .20 3 .87 1 1 .72 272 . 0. 0 2 .03 1 .90 0 .414 9 .3 33 . 19 13 .74 1 .76 31 .6 662 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 2 .20 2 .40 9 . 13 19 .82 370. 0. 01 1 . . 17 1 .95 0 443 20 .6 37. .99 16 .83 2 .82 1 177. S I L T D E N S E 2 .40 2 . G O 5 . 33 14 .02 301 . 0. .03 1 .64 1 .95 0 .462 1 1 .5 28 .87 13 . 34 2 O O 30 .8 791 . S A N D Y S I L T D E N S E 2 .60 2 .80 2 43 8 .92 225. 0. 05 2 73 1 .90 O .480 5 .0 9 .91 4 . 76 1 . 15 31 . 5 422 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 2 .80 3 .00 3 .08 10 .72 264 . 0. 07 2 .54 1 .90 0 .498 6 .0 14 .42 7 . 18 1 . . 32 31 . 7 541 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 . O O 3 .20 3. . 1 1 0 . 12 243. 0. 09 2 33 1 .90 0 516 5 8 13 56 7 . . O O 1 . .30 31 .0 488 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 .20 3 .40 2 .78 10 .32 261 . 0. 11 2 82 1 .90 0 .534 5 .0 10 .07 5 .38 1 . . 16 31 8 493. S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 .40 3 .60 2 .87 10 .62 268 . 0. . 13 2 .83 1 .90 0. .552 5 .0 9 .93 5 .48 1 . 16 31 .8 505. S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 .60 3 .80 1 .90 4 .92 105. 0. 15 1 .73 1 .70 0 566 3 . 1 3 13 1 . . 77 0 80 27. .8 145 . S A N D Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 3 .80 4 .00 1 .47 5 .02 123 . o 17 2 .73 1 .80 O 582 2 .2 2 16 1 . 26 0, 61 29 . 1 144 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . O O 4 .20 4 48 12 . 12 264 . 0. 19 1 78 1 .80 O 598 7 . 2 15. . 17 9 .07 1, ,49 30. O 578 . S A N D Y S I L T M E D I U M D E N S I T Y 4 . 20 4 .40 3 .51 12 .52 312 . 0. 21 2 .73 1 .90 0 .616 5 .4 1 1 . 49 7 . 08 1 22 31 8 607 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 .40 4 .60 2 .83 9 .42 228 . 0. 23 2 . 54 1 .90 0. 634 4 . 1 6 .87 4 , . 36 1. O O 30. .4 387 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 .60 4 .80 1 .75 3 .62 65. 0. 25 1 .25 1 .70 0 648 2 .3 1 , .30 0, .84 0 63 25 9 69. S A N D Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 4 .80 5 .00 1 . 33 2 62 45 . 0. 27 1 22 1 .60 0 660 1 .6 0 72 0 47 0 43 25. .0 38. S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 5 O O 5 .20 1 .30 2 .22 32 . 0. 29 O .92 1 .60 0. 672 1 .5 0, .64 0 .43. 0, .40 27. S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 5 .20 5 .40 1 .46 4 .22 96. 0 31 2 .40 1 .80 0. 688 1 .7 1 . 24 0 .85 0 45 27 . 9 84. S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5. . 40 5 .60 1 , .62 3 . 12 52 . o. 33 1 . 17 1 .60 o. 700 1 .8 0. 88 O . .61 0. 50 44 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 5 . 60 5 .80 1 .28 2 .62 47 . 0. 35 1 .45 1 .60 0. .712 1 .3 0 58 0 .41 0. 34 25. O 40. S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 5. .80 6 .00 1 .37 2 .92 •54. 0. 37 1 56 1 .60 0. 724 1 .4 0. 67 0 49 0. . 36 25. 8 46. S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 6 .00 6 .20 1 .32 2 .87 54. 0. 39 1 .68 1 .60 0 736 1 .3 0. 61 0 .45 0. 32 25. 9 46. S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 6 . 20 6 .40 1 , .45 2 . 32 30. 0. 41 0. .84 1 .60 0. 748 1 .4 0 57 0 .42 0. 36 0. 10 26. S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 6. .40 6 .60 1 . 44 2 .52 37 . o. 43 1 .07 1 .60 0. 760 1 .3 0. .53 0 .40 0. 34 32 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 6 .60 6 .80 1 , .50 2 .42 32. 0. 45 0. 88 1 .60 0. 772 1 . . 4 0. 54 0. 42 o. 35 0. 10 27. S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 6. 80 7 .00 1 .61 2 . 32 25. o. 47 O 63 1 .60 0. 784 1 . .4 0 60 0 47 0 38 0. 12 21 . C L A Y E Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 7. O O 7. .20 1 .85 2 72 30. 0. 49 0 64 1 .60 0. 796 1 .7 0. 78 0 62 o. 46 0. 14 26. C L A Y E Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 7 . 20 7 .40 2 . 18 3 .42 43. 0. 51 O . . 74 1 .60 o. 808 2 . 1 1, 05 0 85 0. 56 0. 19 39 . C L A Y E Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 7 . 40 Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n (m) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) Z ( m ) Z PO P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( O e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 7 . 6 0 5 . 2 9 2 5 . 2 2 6 9 0 . 0 . 5 3 4 . 1 9 2 0 0 O . 8 2 8 5 . 8 1 3 . 1 5 1 0 . 8 8 1 . 2 8 3 6 . 1 1 3 9 2 . S A N D R I G I D 7 . 6 0 7 . 8 0 1 0 . 4 5 3 9 . 6 2 * 1 0 0 9 . 0 . 5 5 2 . 9 5 2 . 1 5 0 . 8 5 1 11 . 6 5 0 . , 5 1 4 2 . 9 8 2 . 0 2 3 6 . 1 2 6 6 8 . S I L T Y S A N O V E R Y R I G I D 7 . 8 0 8 . 0 0 1 2 . 3 4 3 9 . 6 2 * 9 4 4 . 0 . 5 7 2 . 3 2 2 . 1 5 0 . 8 7 4 1 3 . 5 6 6 . . 8 0 5 8 3 8 2 . 2 1 3 4 . 3 2 6 2 6 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 8 . C O 8 . 2 0 1 0 . 7 9 2 8 . 7 2 6 2 1 . O 5 9 1 . 7 6 2 1 0 O . 8 9 6 11 4 3 3 . . 8 5 3 0 . 3 3 1 9 9 3 1 . 4 1 6 2 7 . S A N D Y S I L T V E R Y D E N S E 8 . 2 0 8 . . 4 0 3 . 3 5 5 . 2 2 6 5 . 0 . 6 1 0 . 6 8 1 . 7 0 0 . 9 1 0 3 . 0 1 . 8 9 1 . . 7 2 0 . 7 9 0 . 3 3 8 3 . C L A Y E Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 8 . 4 0 8 . . 6 0 5 . 8 9 1 7 . 5 2 4 0 3 . 0 . , 6 3 2 . 2 1 2 . 0 0 O . 9 3 0 5 7 1 2 . 7 2 1 1 . 8 3 1 . 2 7 3 0 . 6 7 9 5 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 8 . 6 0 8 . 8 0 3 . 9 3 1 0 . 5 2 2 2 8 . 0 . , 6 5 2 . 0 1 1 . 9 0 0 . 9 4 8 3 . 5 4 9 7 4 , 7 1 0 . 8 8 2 8 . 7 3 4 4 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . . 8 0 9 . 0 0 2 . 7 1 3 . 3 2 2 1 . 0 6 7 0 . . 3 0 1 . 6 0 O . 9 6 0 2 . 1 1 . . 1 0 1 . 0 6 0 , 5 8 0 . 2 3 1 9 . C L A Y S O F T 9 . OO 9 . . 2 0 3 . 3 5 9 . 4 2 2 1 0 . 0 . 6 9 2 . 2 8 1 . 9 0 0 . 9 7 8 2 , 7 3 . . 1 5 3 . 0 8 0 . . 7 2 2 8 . 8 2 7 5 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 . 2 0 9 . 4 0 3 . . 1 5 5 . 1 2 6 8 . 0 . . 7 1 O . 8 1 1 . 7 0 0 . 9 9 2 2 5 1 . 3 8 1 . 3 7 0 . 6 6 0 . 2 8 7 4 . S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 9 . 4 0 9 . 6 0 2 . . 3 4 4 . 4 2 7 2 . 0 . , 7 3 1 . 2 9 1 . 7 0 1 0 0 6 1 . 6 0 . . 7 4 0 . 7 5 0 . 4 3 2 5 . 0 6 1 . S A N D Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 9 . 6 0 9 . 8 0 4 . 8 9 1 6 . 4 2 3 9 9 . 0 . 7 5 2 7 8 2 . 0 0 1 . 0 2 6 4 . 0 6 6 9 6 8 6 0 9 9 3 1 . 0 6 7 8 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 9 . 8 0 1 0 . OO 4 6 2 1 1 . 3 2 2 3 2 . 0 . 7 7 1 7 4 1 . 8 0 1 . 0 4 2 3 7 4 . . 3 7 4 5 5 o. 9 3 2 8 . 2 3 6 0 . S A N D Y S I L T M E D I U M D E N S I T Y 1 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 2 0 2 . 5 5 4 . 5 2 6 8 . 0 . 7 9 1 . . 1 2 1 . 7 0 1 . 0 5 6 1 . 7 0 . 7 5 0 7 9 0 . . 4 5 5 8 . S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 1 0 . 2 0 1 0 4 0 3 8 9 9 . 2 2 1 8 5 . 0 . 8 1 1 . 7 3 1 . 8 0 1 . 0 7 2 2 9 2 . 7 6 2 . 9 6 0 . 7 6 2 7 . 7 2 4 2 . S A N D Y S I L T M E D I U M D E N S I T Y 1 0 . 4 0 1 0 . 6 0 9 . 1 4 3 0 . 1 2 7 2 6 . 0 . 8 3 2 . 5 2 2 . 1 5 1 . 0 9 5 7 . 6 2 2 . 3 4 2 4 4 6 1 . 5 4 3 2 . 5 1 6 3 5 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 0 . 6 0 1 0 8 0 1 3 7 1 3 9 . 6 2 # 8 9 7 . 0 , 8 5 2 . 0 2 2 . 1 5 1 . 1 1 8 1 1 5 4 9 3 9 5 5 2 2 2 . O O 3 2 . 4 2 3 6 0 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 0 . 8 0 1 1 . 0 0 1 2 . 3 4 3 9 . 6 2 # 9 4 4 . 0 . 8 7 2 . 3 8 2 . 1 5 1 . 1 4 1 1 0 . . 1 3 8 . 2 1 4 3 . 6 0 1 . 8 5 3 3 . 2 2 3 6 4 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 1 . 0 0 1 1 . 4 0 2 0 . 1 1 3 9 . 6 2 * 6 7 5 . 0 . 9 1 1 . 0 2 2 . 1 0 1 . 1 8 5 1 6 . 2 2 6 . 1 4 3 0 , 9 8 2 . 4 6 1 9 9 6 . S I L T V E R Y D E N S E 1 1 . 4 0 z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r l p t 1 o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) N O T E S : 1 . F o r 0 . 9 > I d > 1 . 2 n e i t h e r C u n o r P h i c a l c u l a t e d . 2 . l B a r = l 0 0 K P a 3 . H = 1 m m D e f l e c t i o n n o t r e a c h e d . C O M M E N T S T e s t h o l e 1 ( F L - D H 1 ) w a s c o m p l e t e d a f t e r d y n a m i c c o m p a c t i o n . A d j a c e n t t o M e n a r d p r e s s u r e m e t e r h o l e . G r a v e l c o v e r e d s i t e s o b l a n k d i l a t o m e t e r u s e d t o p u s h f i r s t 1 . 2 m . M a x i m u m p u s h i n g p r e s s u r e r e a c h e d a t 1 1 . 4 m p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e u s i n g 1 0 O % f r i c t i o n r e d u c e r . F i l e N a m e : F L D 2 L o c a t 1 o n : F r a s e r L a n d i n g U . B . C . I N S I T U T E S T I N G R E S E A R C H G R O U P . R e c o r d o f D i l a t o m e t e r t e s t N o : F L - D H 2 D a t e : 9 S e p t 8 1 C a l i b r a t i o n I n f o r m a t 1 o n : D A = 0 . 1 0 B a r s D B = 0 . 2 3 B a r s Z M = 0 . 1 0 B a r s Z W = 2 . 3 0 m e t r e s G a m m a = B u l k u n i t w e i g h t S v ' E f f e c t i v e o v e r . s t r e s s U o = P o r e p r e s s u r e I d ' M a t e r i a l i n d e x E d = D i l a t o m e t e r m o d u l u s K d ' H o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s i n d e x I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S K o = I n s i t u e a r t h p r e s s . c o e f f . O C R ' O v e r c o n s o l i d a t i o n R a t i o M ' C o n s t r a i n e d m o d u l u s C u ' U n d r a i n e d c o h e s i o n ( c o h e s i v e ) P H I ' F r i c t i o n A n g l e ( c o h e s i o n l e s s ) z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 1 . 4 0 4 3 3 2 2 . 5 7 6 3 1 . 0 . . 0 4 . 2 1 2 . 0 0 O 1 0 6 4 0 9 ***** 5 8 . 9 9 4 . 1 3 4 0 . 8 2 3 4 9 . S A N D C E M E N T E D 1 . 4 0 1 . 6 0 7 . 3 8 3 0 . 9 7 8 1 6 . O . 0 3 . 2 0 2 . O O 0 . 1 4 6 5 0 . 5 ***** ***** 4 . 6 2 3 8 . 7 3 1 8 9 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 1 . 6 0 1 . 8 0 9 . , 4 5 3 7 . 8 7 9 8 3 . 0 0 3 . 0 1 2 . 1 5 O . 1 8 9 5 0 . . 0 ***** ***** 4 . 6 0 3 8 . 2 3 8 3 3 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 1 . 8 0 2 . O O 1 0 . 6 2 3 9 6 7 1 0 0 5 . 0 0 2 . 7 4 2 . 1 5 0 . 2 3 2 4 5 . 8 ***** ***** 4 . 3 9 3 7 . 3 3 9 6 1 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 2 . O O 2 . 2 0 1 7 , 2 4 4 1 . 6 7 * 8 4 5 . 0 0 1 . 4 2 2 . 1 0 0 . 2 7 4 6 2 9 ***** 9 5 . 5 5 5 . 1 9 3 3 . 4 3 5 8 5 . S A N D Y S I L T C E M E N T E D 2 . 2 0 2 . 4 0 1 5 , 5 1 4 2 . 6 7 # 9 4 0 . O . 0 1 1 . 7 5 2 . 1 0 0 . 3 0 6 5 0 6 ***** ***** 4 . 6 3 3 4 . 4 3 7 9 3 . S A N D Y S I L T C E M E N T E D 2 . 4 0 2 . 6 0 1 6 . 7 7 4 2 . 6 7 * 8 9 6 . 0 0 3 1 . 5 5 2 . 1 0 0 . 3 2 8 5 1 . 0 ***** ***** 4 . 6 5 3 3 . 6 3 6 2 4 . S A N D Y S I L T C E M E N T E D 2 . 6 0 2 . 8 0 1 1 . 9 0 3 5 . 0 7 * 8 0 2 . 0 . . 0 5 1 . 9 6 2 . 1 5 0 . . 3 5 1 3 3 8 ***** ***** 3 . 7 2 3 4 . 4 2 9 2 8 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 2 . 8 0 3 . 0 0 1 5 . 1 9 4 2 . 6 7 # 9 5 1 . 0 . 0 7 1 . 8 2 2 . 1 5 0 . 3 7 4 4 0 . . 4 ***** ***** 4 . 1 0 3 4 . 3 3 6 3 4 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 3 . O O 3 . 2 0 1 3 . . 8 9 3 3 . 0 7 6 6 4 . 0 0 9 1 . 3 9 2 . 1 0 O 3 9 6 3 4 . 8 ***** 4 9 . 2 8 3 . 7 9 3 2 . 4 2 4 4 4 . S A N D Y S I L T C E M E N T E D 3 . 2 0 3 . 4 0 1 0 8 9 4 2 . 6 7 1 1 0 0 . 0 , 1 1 2 . 9 5 2 . 1 5 0 . . 4 1 9 2 5 . . 7 ***** 9 6 . 3 0 3 . 2 0 3 7 . 0 3 7 3 3 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 3 . 4 0 3 . 6 0 8 0 1 3 7 . 1 7 1 0 0 9 . 0 . 1 3 3 . 7 0 2 . 1 5 0 . 4 4 2 1 7 . 8 ***** 5 0 . 4 6 2 . 6 0 3 8 . 1 3 0 2 9 . S A N D C E M E N T E D 3 . 6 0 3 . 8 0 6 0 6 4 2 . 6 7 1 2 6 7 . 0 . , 1 5 6 . 2 0 2 . 0 0 0 . 4 6 2 1 2 . 8 6 0 . 4 8 2 7 . 9 4 2 . 1 4 4 2 . 6 3 4 3 7 . S A N D C E M E N T E D 3 . 8 0 4 . O O 7 . 3 2 4 2 . 6 7 # 1 2 2 3 . 0 1 7 4 9 5 2 . 1 5 0 . 4 8 5 1 4 . . 7 7 9 . 3 1 3 8 . 4 7 2 . 3 3 4 0 . 5 3 4 7 0 . S A N D C E M E N T E D 4 . 0 0 4 . 2 0 6 . 9 7 4 1 . 1 7 1 1 8 3 . O . 1 9 5 . 0 4 2 . 1 5 0 . . 5 0 8 1 3 3 6 5 6 8 3 3 . 3 7 2 . 1 9 4 5 . O 3 2 5 5 . S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 4 . 2 0 4 . 4 0 6 3 8 3 4 . 0 7 9 5 8 . 0 . 2 1 4 . 4 9 2 . 0 0 0 , . 5 2 8 11 7 5 0 . 9 6 2 6 . 9 1 2 . 0 2 4 2 . 0 2 5 2 5 . S A N D R I G I D 4 . 4 0 4 . 6 0 4 . 4 8 2 5 . 9 7 7 4 4 . 0 . 2 3 5 . 0 6 2 . 0 0 0 . . 5 4 8 7 . 7 2 3 2 4 1 2 . 7 4 1 . 5 6 • 4 0 . 6 1 6 9 4 . S A N D R I G I D 4 . 6 0 4 . 8 0 7 . . 7 7 3 3 . 5 7 8 9 3 . 0 . 2 5 3 . 4 3 2 . 1 5 0 . . 5 7 1 1 3 . . 2 6 4 . 0 3 3 6 . 5 6 2 . 1 8 3 8 . 8 2 4 4 5 . S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 4 . 8 0 5 . 0 0 5 2 6 2 7 . 0 7 7 5 5 . 0 . , 2 7 4 . 3 7 2 . 0 0 0 . 5 9 1 8 4 2 7 . . 4 0 1 6 . 1 9 1 . 6 5 3 9 . 1 1 7 7 6 . S A N D R I G I D 5 . O O 5 . 2 0 8 . 5 8 4 2 . 6 7 # 1 1 8 0 . 0 2 9 4 . 1 1 2 . 1 5 0 . . 6 1 4 1 3 . 5 6 7 . 0 6 4 1 . 1 8 2 . 2 1 4 1 . 8 3 2 5 6 . S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 5 . 2 0 5 . 4 0 9 7 9 3 7 . 2 7 9 5 1 . 0 . , 3 1 2 . 9 0 2 . 1 5 0 . 6 3 7 1 4 . 9 8 0 8 6 5 1 . 5 1 2 . 3 4 3 7 . 4 2 7 3 5 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 5 . 4 0 5 . 6 0 6 9 6 3 0 . 9 7 8 3 1 . 0 . 3 3 3 . 6 2 2 . 0 0 0 , 6 5 7 1 0 . 1 3 8 . 4 5 2 5 . 2 6 1 8 5 3 7 . 7 2 0 8 3 . S A N D R I G I D 5 . 6 0 5 . 8 0 7 . . 4 1 2 8 . 1 7 7 1 8 . 0 . , 3 5 2 , . 9 4 2 . 0 0 0 . . 6 7 7 1 0 . . 4 4 1 . O O 2 7 . 7 6 1 . 8 9 3 5 . 4 1 8 2 4 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 5 . 8 0 6 . 0 0 6 . 1 3 2 0 . 2 7 4 8 9 . 0 . 3 7 2 . 4 6 2 . 0 0 0 . . 6 9 7 8 . 3 2 6 . 2 5 1 8 . 3 0 1 . 6 3 3 2 . 7 1 1 3 9 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 6 . O O 6 . 2 0 3 . 2 7 1 4 . 4 7 3 8 8 . 0 . 3 9 3 8 9 1 . 9 0 0 . . 7 1 5 4 . 0 6 . 6 5 4 . 7 5 0 . 9 9 3 3 . 5 6 6 3 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 2 0 6 . 4 0 3 8 3 1 5 . 8 7 4 1 7 . 0 . 4 1 3 . 5 3 1 . 9 0 0 , , 7 3 3 4 . . 7 8 . 8 0 6 . 4 5 1 . . 1 0 3 3 . 3 7 6 5 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 4 0 6 . 6 0 1 3 5 6 . 5 7 1 8 1 . 0 . 4 3 5 . 6 6 1 . 8 0 0 . 7 4 9 1 . 2 0 . 6 9 0 . 5 2 0 . 3 1 3 1 . 8 1 5 3 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . 6 0 6 . 8 0 1 0 5 4 . 2 7 1 1 2 . 0 4 5 5 , , 4 0 1 . 7 0 0 . , 7 6 3 0 . 8 0 . 2 9 0 . 2 2 0 . . 1 4 3 0 . 0 9 5 . S A N D L O O S E 6 . 8 0 7 . O O 1 . 1 7 1 . 8 7 2 4 . 0 . 4 7 1 , 0 1 1 . 6 0 0 . . 7 7 5 0 . 9 0 . 2 9 0 . 2 2 0 . 1 9 2 1 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 7 . O O 7 . 2 0 1 . . 0 5 2 . 1 7 3 9 . 0 . 4 9 2 . 0 2 1 . 7 0 0 7 8 9 0 . 7 0 . 2 4 0 . 1 9 0 . . 1 0 2 5 . 0 3 3 . S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 7 . 2 0 7 . 4 0 1 . . 1 0 2 . 0 7 3 3 . 0 . 5 1 1 6 3 1 . 6 0 0 . . 8 0 1 0 . 7 0 . 2 4 O . 1 9 o. 1 2 2 5 . 0 2 8 . S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 7 . 4 0 7 . 6 0 1 1 0 2 . 1 2 3 5 . o. 5 3 1 , . 7 8 1 . 6 0 0 8 1 3 0 7 0 . 2 2 O . 1 8 0 . . 1 0 2 5 . 0 3 0 . S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 7 . 6 0 Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t o r , Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 7 80 1 . 09 2 .42 46. 0 .55 2 .49 1 . 70 0 .827 0. 6 0. .20 0. . 1 7 0 .07 26. .2 39. S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 7 . 80 8. O O 1 . , 14 2 .42 44. O .57 2 25 1 .70 0 .841 0 . 7 0 . 22 0 . 19 0. 09 25 8 38 . S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 8 O O 8 . 20 1 . 28 2 .67 48. 0 .59 2 .00 1 . 70 O .855 0 .8 0 .31 0 .27 0. 15 25 . 7 41 . S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 8 . 20 8. .40 1 . 44 2 .67 43. 0 .61 1 . 48 1 .60 0 .867 1 . 0 0 . 35 0 .30 0. 21 25 .0 36. S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 8 .40 8 .60 1 . 46 3 .37 66. O 63 2 .31 1 .70 0. .881 0. 9 0. .41 0 .37 0. 20 26 6 56. S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 8 .60 8 .80 3. .41 1 1 .67 286 . O .65 3 .00 1 .90 0 .899 3 1 3 .96 3 .56 0. 80 30 6 421 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 .80 9 .00 3 . 47 25 . 17 751 . 0 .67 7 . 76 2 .00 0 .919 3 .0 3 .90 3 .58 0, . 79 40 .0 1 101 . S A N D R I G I D 9 .00 9 .20 7 .89 35 .47 954 . 0 69 3 .83 2 . 15 0 .942 7 .6 22 .62 21 .31 1 .55 36 .7 2163. S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 9 . 20 9 .40 9 16 33 . 17 831 . 0 71 2 .84 2 . 15 0 .965 8 .8 29 . 33 28 . 30 1 69 34 .2 1980. S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 9 .40 9 .60 4 . 36 17 .77 464. 0 .73 3 .69 2 O O 0, .985 3 7 5 62 5 .54 0. 93 32 .7 758 . S A N D R I G I D 9 .60 9 .80 4 . 79 15 .47 369. 0 .75 2 64 2 00 1 .005 4 0 6 .64 6 .67 0 .99 30 .6 623. S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 9 .80 10 .00 7 .82 28 . 37 711. 0 .77 2 .91 2 .00 1 .025 6 .9 18 .52 18 .98 1. .45 33 .3 1545 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 10 .00 10 .20 5 .31 15 .67 359. 0 .79 2 .29 2 .00 1 .045 4 . 3 7 .62 7 .96 1 04 30 .0 621 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 10 .20 10 .40 3 .51 5. . 37 64 . 0 81 0 .69 1 .70 1 .059 2 6 1 .46 1 .55 0. ,68 0.32 71 . C L A Y E Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 10 .40 10 .60 3 . 10 17 .87 511. O .83 6 .52 1 .90 1 .077 2 1 1 .93 2 .08 0 .57 35 .4 586. S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 10 .60 10. .80 5 93 28 .47 780. 0 .85 4 .44 2 .00 1 .097 4 6 8 .68 9 .52 1. i o 35 .5 1428. S A N D R I G I D 10 .80 1 1 . .00 6 40 40 .07 1165. O 87 6 .09 2 . O O 1 .117 4 9 9 .87 1 1 .02 1. 15 40 .0 2201 . S A N D R I G I D 1 1 . O O 1 1 .20 10 . 15 42 .67* 1 125 . 0 .89 3 .51 2 . 15 1 . 140 8 . 1 25 .44 29 .00 1. 61 36 .0 2610. S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 1 .20 1 1 . .40 7 .21 32 .27 867 . 0 .91 3 .98 2 .00 1 . 160 5 .4 1 1 . 78 13 .66 1, .23 35 .2 1708. S A N D R I G I D 11 .40 1 1 .60 6 . 16 36 .47 1049. 0 .93 5 .80 2 O O 1 . 180 4 4 7 .99 9 .42 1 .06 38 .5 1880. S A N D R I G I D 1 1 .60 1 1 .80 1 1 , .94 42 67# 1063. O 95 2 .80 2 . 15 1. .203 9 . 1 31 .81 38 .27 1 . 74 34 .3 2573 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 1 .80 12. .00 11 , .62 42 .67* 1074. 0 .97 2 .91 2 . 15 1. .226 8 .7 28 .92 35. .45 1. 68 34 .4 2554 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 12 . O O 12 .20 10. .89 42 .67 1100. 0 .99 3 .21 2 . 15 1 249 7 9 24 . 25 30 .29 1 59 34 .9 2527 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 12 . 20 12 .40 10. .43 39 . 27 998. 1 .01 3 .06 2 . 15 1 .272 7 .4 21 .30 27. .09 1 52 34 . 1 2234 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 12 .40 12 .60 7 .51 30 .47 795. 1 03 3 .55 2 . O O 1 292 5 O 10. . 1 1 13 .07 1. 16 33 .7 1510. S A N D R I G I D 12 .60 12 .80 4 .61 12 .87 286 . 1 .05 2 . 32 1 .90 1 .310 2 7 3 . 14 4 . 1 1 0 72 28 .8 375 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 12 .80 13 O O 3 .71 16 . 17 431 . 1 .07 4 . 73 1 .90 1 .328 2 0 1 .72 2 .29 0 .54 32 . 2 472. S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 13 .00 13 . 20 7 . 87 33 .67 893. 1 09 3 . 80 2 .00 1 348 5 . 0 10 18 13 .73 1 17 34 . 3 1699. S A N D R I G I D 13 . 20 Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) N O T E S : 1 . F o r 0 . 9 > I d > 1 . 2 n e i t h e r C u n o r P h i c a l c u l a t e d . 2 . 1 B a r - 1 0 0 K P a 3 . # = 1 m m D e f l e c t i o n n o t r e a c h e d . C O M M E N T S T e s t h o l e 2 ( F L - D H 2 ) c o m p l e t e d a f t e r v i b r o c o m p a c t i o n . M e m b r a n e t o r n b y g r a v e l a t 3 . 2 m s o c h a n g e d i n s t r u m e n t s a t t h i s d e p t h . A b o u t 0 . 8 m o f s a n d e x c a v a t e d f r o m s i t e s o g r o u n d l e v e l t a k e n a t p r e - e x i s t i n g g r o u n d l e v e l . S t a r t e d w i t h 1 0 0 % f r i c t i o n r e d u c e r b u t c h a n g e d t o 2 5 % w h e n c h a n g i n g d i 1 a t o m e t e r s . F i l e N a m e : F L D 3 L o c a t 1 o n : F r a s e r L a n d i n g U . B . C . I N S I T U T E S T I N G R E S E A R C H G R O U P • R e c o r d o f D i l a t o m e t e r t e s t N o : F L - D H 4 D a t e : 1 0 S e p t 8 1 C a l i b r a t i o n I n f o r m a t 1 o n : D A = 0 . 1 3 B a r s D B = 0 . 3 5 B a r s Z M = 0 . 0 5 B a r s Z W = 2 . 3 0 m e t r e s G a m m a = B u 1 k u n i t w e i g h t I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S S v " E f f e c t i v e o v e r . s t r e s s K o = I n s 1 t u e a r t h p r e s s . c o e f f . U o = P o r e p r e s s u r e 0 C R = 0 v e r c o n s o l I d a t 1 o n R a t i o I d " M a t e r i a l I n d e x M " C o n s t r a i n e d m o d u l u s E d " D i l a t o m e t e r m o d u l u s C u " U n d r a i n e d c o h e s 1 o n ( c o h e s 1 v e ) K d " H o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s I n d e x P H I = F M c t 1 o n A n g l e ( c o h e s l o n l e s s ) Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 0 6 0 2 2 6 1 3 2 0 3 7 9 . 0 0 4 8 4 1 9 0 0 1 0 7 2 1 1 ***** 1 6 8 7 2 8 7 4 1 1 1 1 9 2 . S A N D C E M E N T E D 0 6 0 0 8 0 2 8 5 1 6 1 0 4 5 8 . 0 0 4 6 5 1 9 0 0 1 4 5 1 9 6 ***** 1 9 9 3 2 7 5 4 0 5 1 4 1 5 . S A N D C E M E N T E D 0 8 0 1 O O 3 5 2 1 7 4 0 4 8 0 . 0 0 3 9 4 2 0 0 0 1 8 5 1 9 0 ***** 2 3 9 0 2 7 0 3 8 9 1 4 6 9 . S A N D C E M E N T E D 1 O O 1 2 0 4 0 4 1 7 5 0 4 6 6 . o 0 3 3 3 2 O O 0 2 2 5 1 8 0 ***** 2 6 0 2 2 6 1 3 7 2 1 4 0 1 . S A N D C E M E N T E D 1 2 0 1 4 0 4 8 1 1 8 9 0 4 8 8 . o o 2 9 3 2 0 0 0 2 6 5 1 8 1 ***** 3 1 2 9 2 6 3 3 6 1 1 4 9 4 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 1 4 0 1 6 0 4 8 6 1 7 8 0 4 4 8 . 0 0 2 6 6 2 0 0 0 3 0 5 1 5 9 9 2 2 5 2 8 1 3 2 4 4 3 5 0 1 3 1 7 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 1 6 0 1 8 0 3 8 1 1 7 8 0 4 8 4 . o 0 3 6 7 2 O O 0 3 4 5 1 1 1 4 5 8 1 1 5 8 1 1 9 6 3 6 7 1 2 5 2 . S A N D C E M E N T E D 1 8 0 2 O O 3 7 5 1 7 0 0 4 5 8 . 0 o 3 5 3 2 O O O 3 8 5 9 7 3 5 9 5 1 3 8 4 1 8 1 3 6 0 1 1 3 6 . S A N D R I G I D 2 O O 2 2 0 3 2 9 1 3 5 0 3 5 3 . o 0 3 1 0 1 9 0 0 4 2 3 7 8 2 3 4 6 9 9 2 1 5 7 3 4 1 8 0 6 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 2 2 0 2 4 0 3 7 3 1 5 3 0 4 0 0 . o 0 1 3 1 1 1 9 0 0 4 5 1 8 2 2 6 1 7 1 1 8 0 1 6 3 3 4 3 9 3 4 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 2 4 0 2 6 0 3 7 4 1 3 0 0 3 2 0 . 0 0 3 2 5 0 1 9 0 0 4 6 9 7 9 2 4 1 6 1 1 3 3 1 5 8 3 2 5 7 3 3 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 2 6 0 2 8 0 1 7 2 5 0 0 1 1 3 . 0 0 5 1 9 6 1 8 0 0 4 8 5 3 5 4 7 6 2 3 1 O 8 8 2 8 6 1 7 0 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 8 0 3 O O 2 1 8 8 5 0 2 1 9 . 0 0 7 3 0 0 1 9 0 0 5 0 3 4 2 7 1 9 3 6 2 1 0 2 3 1 6 3 8 2 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 0 0 3 2 0 1 9 3 7 2 0 1 8 2 . 0 0 9 2 8 7 1 8 0 0 5 1 9 3 5 5 2 1 2 7 1 0 9 0 3 0 7 2 9 0 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 2 0 3 4 0 2 5 2 1 0 1 0 2 6 2 . 0 11 3 1 5 1 9 0 0 5 3 7 4 5 8 1 8 4 3 9 1 0 7 3 2 2 4 7 3 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 4 0 3 6 0 1 9 3 9 2 0 2 5 1 . o 1 3 4 0 3 1 9 0 0 5 5 5 3 3 4 4 2 2 4 5 0 8 4 3 2 9 3 8 3 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 6 0 3 8 0 2 7 2 1 2 3 0 3 3 1 . 0 1 5 3 7 2 1 9 0 0 5 7 3 4 5 8 2 0 4 7 0 1 0 7 3 3 6 5 9 8 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 8 0 4 0 0 2 6 1 1 1 5 0 3 0 8 . 0 1 7 3 6 5 1 9 0 0 5 9 1 4 1 6 9 6 4 1 2 1 0 1 3 3 1 5 3 2 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 O O 4 2 0 1 1 9 5 1 0 1 3 5 . 0 1 9 3 8 9 1 8 0 0 6 0 7 1 7 1 2 2 0 7 4 0 4 5 3 0 3 1 2 7 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 2 0 4 4 0 3 2 1 1 1 0 0 2 7 0 . 0 2 1 2 6 0 1 9 0 0 6 2 5 4 8 9 3 0 5 8 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 9 7 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 4 0 4 6 0 2 7 1 1 0 5 0 2 7 0 . 0 2 3 3 1 4 1 9 0 0 6 4 3 3 9 6 1 3 3 9 4 0 9 6 3 1 6 4 5 1 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 6 0 4 8 0 2 3 4 7 3 0 1 7 1 . 0 2 5 2 3 7 1 8 0 o 6 5 9 3 2 4 2 3 2 7 9 0 8 2 2 9 3 2 5 0 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 8 0 5 O O 2 0 5 5 9 0 1 3 3 . 0 2 7 2 1 7 1 8 0 0 6 7 5 2 6 2 9 5 1 9 9 0 7 0 2 8 4 1 6 9 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 O O 5 2 0 1 7 9 5 7 0 1 3 5 . 0 2 9 2 6 0 1 8 0 0 6 9 1 2 2 2 0 6 1 4 2 0 5 9 2 8 8 1 5 3 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 2 0 5 4 0 1 8 5 6 7 0 1 6 8 . 0 3 1 '3 1 5 1 8 0 0 7 0 7 2 2 2 0 6 1 4 5 0 5 9 2 9 8 1 9 7 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 4 0 5 6 0 2 1 4 6 1 0 1 3 7 . 0 3 3 2 1 9 1 8 0 0 7 2 3 2 5 2 6 9 1 9 4 0 6 7 2 8 4 1 6 8 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 6 0 5 8 0 1 7 3 4 9 0 1 1 0 . 0 3 5 2 3 0 1 8 0 0 7 3 9 1 9 1 5 3 1 1 3 0 5 1 2 8 0 1 0 6 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 8 0 6 O O 2 1 0 5 8 0 1 2 8 . 0 3 7 2 1 3 1 8 0 0 7 5 5 2 3 2 2 8 1 7 2 0 6 2 2 8 1 1 4 6 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 0 0 S 2 0 1 9 4 4 9 0 1 0 2 . 0 3 9 1 9 1 1 8 0 0 7 7 1 2 0 1 6 5 1 2 7 0 5 5 2 7 4 1 0 2 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 2 0 6 4 0 1 8 0 5 5 0 1 2 8 . 0 4 1 2 6 5 1 8 0 0 7 8 7 1 8 1 3 9 1 0 9 0 4 8 2 8 5 1 2 2 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 4 0 6 6 0 1 8 1 5 3 0 1 2 1 . 0 4 3 2 5 2 1 8 0 o 8 0 3 1 7 1 3 2 1 0 6 0 4 7 2 8 2 1 1 1 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 6 0 G 8 0 2 1 8 3 2 0 3 5 . 0 4 5 0 5 9 1 6 0 0 8 1 5 2 1 1 1 0 0 9 0 0 5 8 0 . 1 9 3 2 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 6 8 0 Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) Z ( m ) 7 . O O 1 . 6 9 3 . 5 0 6 2 . 0 . . 4 7 1 4 8 1 . 6 0 0 . 8 2 7 1 . 5 0 . 7 3 0 . 6 0 0 . 3 9 2 5 . 6 5 3 . S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 7 . O O 7 2 0 2 . . 0 5 2 6 5 2 1 . 0 . 4 9 O 3 8 1 . 6 0 0 8 3 9 1 . 9 0 . 8 9 0 . . 7 5 0 . , 5 1 0 . 1 7 1 8 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 7 . 2 0 7 . . 4 0 1 . 9 5 2 . 5 0 1 9 . O 5 1 0 . 3 8 1 . 6 0 O , . 8 5 1 1 . 7 0 , 7 7 0 . 6 6 0 . . 4 6 0 . 1 5 1 6 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 7 . 4 0 7 . 6 0 1 , . 7 8 2 . 8 0 3 5 . 0 5 3 0 . . 8 1 1 . 6 0 0 . 8 6 3 1 . 5 0 6 1 0 . 5 2 0 . 3 8 0 . 1 3 3 0 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 7 . 6 0 7 8 0 2 . 1 3 3 . 2 0 3 7 . 0 , 5 5 0 6 8 1 . 6 0 0 . 8 7 5 1 8 0 . 8 5 0 . 7 5 0 . 4 9 0 . 1 7 3 1 . C L A Y E Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 7 . 8 0 8 , 0 0 2 . 3 6 2 . . 7 0 1 2 . 0 . 5 7 0 . 1 9 1 . 5 0 0 . 8 8 5 2 . 0 1 . 0 2 0 . 9 0 0 . 5 5 0 . 2 0 1 0 . M U D 8 O O 8 , 2 0 1 . 8 3 2 , . 9 0 3 7 . 0 . , 5 9 0 . . 8 6 1 . 6 0 O . . 8 9 7 1 . 4 0 . 5 6 0 . 5 0 0 3 6 0 . 1 2 3 1 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 8 2 0 8 , 4 0 2 1 4 3 . . 0 0 3 0 . 0 6 1 0 5 6 1 . 6 0 0 . . 9 0 9 1 . 7 0 . 7 6 0 6 9 0 4 6 0 . 1 6 2 5 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 8 . . 4 0 8 . 6 0 2 . 1 4 3 . O O 3 0 . 0 6 3 0 . . 5 7 1 . 6 0 0 . . 9 2 1 1 . 6 0 7 3 0 . 6 7 0 . 4 4 0 . 1 6 2 5 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 8 . . 6 0 8 . 8 0 2 . 3 2 3 . 5 0 4 1 . 0 6 5 0 . 7 0 1 . 6 0 0 , . 9 3 3 1 8 0 . 8 4 O . 7 9 0 . 4 9 0 . 1 8 3 5 . C L A Y E Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 8 . . 8 0 9 . 0 0 2 . 6 4 3 5 5 3 2 . 0 6 7 0 . 4 6 1 . 6 0 0 . 9 4 5 2 . 1 1, . 0 6 1 0 1 0 . 5 7 0 . 2 2 2 8 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 9 0 0 9 . 2 0 2 . 6 3 3 6 0 3 3 . O 6 9 o . 5 0 1 . 6 0 0 . 9 5 7 2 . 0 1, . 0 2 0 9 8 0 . 5 5 0 . 2 1 2 9 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 9 . 2 0 9 . 4 0 2 . 6 3 3 . 6 0 3 3 . 0 . 7 1 o . 5 0 1 . 6 0 0 . . 9 6 9 2 . 0 0 . 9 9 0 9 6 0 . 5 4 O . 2 1 2 8 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 9 . 4 0 9 . 6 0 2 . 4 0 4 . 1 0 5 9 . 0 . 7 3 1 . 0 2 1 . 7 0 0 . 9 8 3 1 . 7 0 . 7 7 0 . . 7 6 0 . 4 6 5 0 . S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 9 . 6 0 9 . 8 0 2 . 5 0 8 . 4 0 2 0 4 . 0 . . 7 5 3 . 3 7 1 . 8 0 0 . 9 9 9 1 . 8 1 . 3 6 1 . . 3 5 0 . 4 8 2 9 . 6 2 0 1 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 9 . 8 0 1 0 O O 2 . 9 3 6 1 0 1 1 0 . O . 7 7 1 . 4 7 1 . 7 0 1 . 0 1 3 2 . 1 1 . 3 3 1 3 5 0 . 5 8 2 6 5 1 1 0 . S A N D Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 1 0 . . 0 0 1 0 . 2 0 6 . 2 2 3 2 . 6 0 9 1 3 . O . 7 9 4 . 8 5 2 . 0 0 1 . 0 3 3 5 . 3 11 . 0 9 1 1 . . 4 6 1 . . 2 0 3 7 . . 3 1 7 7 2 . S A N D R I G I D 1 0 . 2 0 1 0 . 4 0 8 . 9 9 3 6 O O 9 3 4 . O . 8 1 3 . 3 0 2 . 1 5 1 0 5 6 7 8 2 3 . 2 5 2 4 5 5 1 5 6 3 5 . 1 2 1 2 9 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 0 . 4 0 1 0 . 6 0 7 . . 2 6 3 0 . . 7 0 8 1 1 . 0 8 3 3 . . 6 4 2 . 0 0 1 . 0 7 6 6 . 0 1 4 . 1 7 1 5 . 2 4 1 . 3 2 3 4 . . 8 1 6 6 5 . S A N D R I G I D 1 0 . 6 0 1 0 . 8 0 6 . 4 2 2 6 . 6 0 6 9 8 . O . . 8 5 3 . 6 2 2 . 0 0 1 . 0 9 6 5 . 1 1 0 . 3 8 1 1 . 3 8 1 1 7 3 3 . 9 1 3 3 5 . S A N D R I G I D 1 0 . 8 0 1 1 O O 6 . 7 0 3 5 . 6 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 . . 8 7 4 . 9 5 2 . 0 0 1 . 1 1 6 5 . 2 1 0 . 9 6 1 2 . . 2 3 1 2 0 3 7 . 5 1 9 3 6 . S A N D R I G I D 1 1 . O O 1 1 . 2 0 7 . 3 5 3 3 . 2 0 8 9 4 . 0 . 8 9 4 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 1 . 1 3 6 5 . 7 1 2 . 8 7 1 4 . . 6 2 1 . 2 7 3 5 . 5 1 7 9 7 . S A N D R I G I D 1 1 . 2 0 1 1 . 4 0 7 . 5 4 3 5 . 7 0 9 7 4 . o 9 1 4 . 2 5 2 . O O 1 . 1 5 6 5 . 7 1 3 . 0 8 1 5 1 2 1 . 2 8 3 6 . 2 1 9 6 5 . S A N D R I G I D 1 1 . 4 0 1 1 . 6 0 1 1 . 5 5 3 9 . 4 0 9 6 3 . o . 9 3 2 . 6 2 2 . 1 5 1 . 1 7 9 9 . 0 3 1 . 0 0 3 6 . 5 5 1 . 7 2 3 3 . 6 2 3 1 9 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 1 . 6 0 1 1 . 8 0 7 . 3 6 3 0 . 9 0 8 1 5 . 0 . 9 5 3 . 6 7 2 . 0 0 1 . 1 9 9 5 . 3 1 1 . 4 3 1 3 . 7 1 1. . 2 2 3 4 . 3 1 5 9 3 . S A N D R I G I D 1 1 . S O 1 2 . 0 0 1 5 . 8 0 4 2 , 6 0 / f 9 2 7 . 0 . 9 7 1 . 8 1 2 . 1 5 1 . 2 2 2 1 2 . 1 4 0 . 8 6 4 9 9 3 2 0 7 3 1 . 8 2 4 8 8 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 2 O O 1 2 . 2 0 1 5 . 7 0 4 2 . 6 0 # 9 3 1 . 0 . 9 9 1 . 8 3 2 . 1 5 1 . 2 4 5 1 1 . 8 4 0 . 2 1 5 0 0 7 2 . 0 4 3 1 8 2 4 7 4 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 2 . 2 0 1 2 . 4 0 2 0 . 0 0 4 2 . 6 0 * 7 8 2 . 1 . . 0 1 1 . 1 9 2 . 1 0 1 . 2 6 7 1 5 . 0 2 3 . 1 6 2 9 3 4 2 . 3 5 2 2 5 4 . S I L T V E R Y D E N S E 1 2 . 4 0 1 2 . 6 0 1 6 . 2 2 4 2 . 6 0 * 9 1 3 . 1 . 0 3 1 . 7 4 2 . 1 0 1 2 8 9 1 1 . 8 3 4 . 8 6 4 4 . 9 4 2 . 0 4 3 1 . 4 2 4 2 4 . S A N D Y S I L T V E R Y D E N S E 1 2 . 6 0 1 2 . 8 0 1 8 . 3 2 4 2 . 6 0 * 8 4 0 . 1. . 0 5 1 . 4 1 2 . 1 0 1 . 3 1 1 1 3 . 2 2 5 . 7 5 3 3 . 7 6 2 . 1 8 3 0 . 4 2 3 1 9 . S A N D Y S I L T V E R Y D E N S E 1 2 . 8 0 1 3 . O O 1 7 . 4 8 4 2 60/C 8 6 9 . 1. 0 7 1 . 5 3 2 . 1 0 1 , 3 3 3 1 2 . 3 2 7 . 7 1 3 6 . 9 4 2 . 0 9 3 0 . 7 2 3 4 4 . S A N D Y S I L T V E R Y D E N S E 1 3 . O O 1 3 . 2 0 1 6 . 6 4 4 2 . 6 0 * 8 9 8 . 1. 0 9 1 . 6 7 2 . 1 0 1 . 3 5 5 1 1 . 5 3 0 . 1 1 4 0 . . 8 0 2 0 0 3 1 . 0 2 3 6 2 . S A N D Y S I L T V E R Y D E N S E 1 3 . 2 0 1 3 . 4 0 1 4 . 5 4 4 2 . 6 0 # 9 7 1 . 1 . . 1 1 2 . 0 9 2 . 1 5 1 . 3 7 8 9 . 7 3 6 . 0 3 4 9 6 5 1 . 8 1 3 2 . 0 2 4 0 4 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 3 . 4 0 Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) N O T E S : 1 . F o r 0 . 9 > I d > 1 . 2 n e i t h e r C u n o r P h i c a l c u l a t e d . 2 . 1 B a r = 1 0 0 K P a 3 . # = 1 m m D e f l e c t i o n n o t r e a c h e d . C O M M E N T S R e f e r e n c e h o l e ( F L - D H 4 ) . 160 Cone Before Dynamic Compaction (CPT5) F r a s e r Landing, B.C. PORE P R E S S U R E F R I C T I O N R E S I S T P N C E B E A R I N G R E S I S T A N C E F R I C T I O N R R T I O D I F F E R E N T I A L P.P. U ( B O R ) F C t a P R l Q C ( B Q R ) R F - F C / Q C (7) R R T I O & U / O C c n r o 164 I 6 N V H 1 M 3 N I 4 1*20*34 Fraser Landing G r a i n S i z e D i s t r i b u t i o n Curves ( a f t e r Wong 1981). V i b r o c o m p a c t i o n A r e a D e p t h DMT SBP (m) (deg) (deg ) 3 . 0 3 4 3 3 6 . 4 3 3 3 6 8 . 5 2 6 4 5 1 1 . 5 3 4 3 3 C o m p a r i s o n o f F r i c t i o n A n g l e i n V i b r o c o m p a c t i o n A r e a u s i n g D i l a t o m e t e r (DMT) and P r e s s u r e m e t e r (SBP) a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g 166 Dynamic C o m p a c t i o n A r e a D e p t h DMT M e n a r d P r e s s Cone ( m l (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) V u l ) ( 1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) ( 2 ) ( 4 ) 2 . 5 3 1 7 1 7 9 7 1 8 3 - 5 2 5 9 2 1 1 0 2 1 7 4 . 5 2 5 6 3 0 1 5 5 1 1 5 . 5 3 4 3 3 7 6 . 5 3 4 7 4 7 . 5 3 4 4 4 8 . 5 6 - 1 8 4 1 1 3 1 3 2 2 9 . 5 7 3 1 3 7 N o t e s : 1 E f r o m eq 2 - 1 w i t h f = 0 . 2 5 . 2 B e f o r e Dynamic C o m p a c t i o n . 3 A f t e r Dynamic C o m p a c t i o n and t e s t d i r e c t l y b e l o w t a m p i n g . 4 A f t e r Dynamic C o m p a c t i o n and midway b e t w e e n t a m p i n g s i t e s . 5 Cone m o d u l u s f r o m E s = 2 q c . S o i l D e f o r m a t i o n M o d u l i a f t e r Dynamic C o m p a c t i o n u s i n g D i l a t o m e t e r (DMT) , Cone and M e n a r d P r e s s u r e m e t e r a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g , B C . 167 V i b r o c o m p a c t i o n A r e a D e p t h DMT Men P r e s s SB P r e s s Cone (m) (MPa) ( 2 ) (MPa) ( 2 ) (MPa) ( 2 ) (MPa) ( 1 ) (MPa) ( 2 ) 2 . 5 3 . 5 4 . 5 5 . 5 6 . 5 7 . 5 8 . 5 9 . 5 1 0 . 5 1 1 . 5 1 2 . 5 8 6 1 0 7 7 8 7 8 3 8 4 4 9 6 9 6 9 6 9 1 2 1 3 1 0 5 5 1 6 3 4 4 8 2 4 5 5 1 4 3 9 7 4 2 1 1 3 9 2 8 2 7 1 6 7 N o t e s : 1 B e f o r e C o m p a c t i o n . 2 A f t e r C o m p a c t i o n . 3 Cone m o d u l u s f r o m E g = 2 q c . D e f o r m a t i o n M o d u l i a f t e r V i b r o c o m p a c t i o n u s i n g D i l a t o m e t e r (DMT) and M e n a r d and S e l f - b o r i n g P r e s s u r e m e t e r s a nd Cone a t F r a s e r L a n d i n g , BC. 168 R e f e r e n c e A r e a D e p t h (m) DMT (MPa) Cone (MPa) SB P r e s s (MPa) 1.3 - 2 . 2 - 3 . 6 - 4 . 6 - 6 . 6 - 9 . 6 - 1 3 . 2 4 4 2 2 2 9 1 2 3 8 3 14 4 - 1 4 1 0 4 3 6 S> 3 . 6 m 2 0 cD k.G m 2 4 5) 5 . 3 m 2 1 S! 6 . 1 m N o t e s : 1 D e f o r m a t i o n M o d u l u s f r o m D i l a t o m e t e r (DMT ) . 2 Cone m o d u l u s f r o m E s = 2 q c . 3 S e l f - b o r i n g p r e s s u r e m e t e r m o d u l u s f r o m E = 2.5G. S o i l D e f o r m a t i o n M o d u l i i n R e f e r e n c e a r e a u s i n g C o n e , D i l a t o m e t e r (DMT) and S e l f - b o r i n g P r e s s u r e m e t e r , F r a s e r L a n d i n g , BC . 400 300 200 100 3 .0 KAIHA1. D I S P L A C E M E N T (7.) NOTES VERT SCALE :100KPR- SC(1 NOR S C A L E : U TO 2CM - t+ mPo-momn HOt-t N* I TEST II*. rm i l i r a 1901 MATERIAL TESTED SRN0 S m j TECHNOLOQV INC. • C Swtlto.W*. NRCLE00 CEOTECHNICRL H . S . B P K E S S U R E M F T E R P L O T O F A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E v . s . K A D i A L D I S P L A C E M E N T . - S K S E r L A N D I N G K K H I R E N o . 400 300 200 100 2 . 0 3-0 5.0 E .O 7.0 K A I i l A I . I • l S IM .ACKMF .NT (/) •torn VERT SCALE:100KTR- SCH MB* SCALE: IX TO 2CM <5» (4££.xl°9_ lx/ \ / I0OO' « 2.0>*iPa. E-SOhP*. BOHE HOLS Ma. I T I t T PHI 2 DEPTH IS' TEST DATE RUG.20 1901 MATERIAL TESTED SANO/SILT p^  4 | b ^ SHUTECMMOLOQVINC HACLE0D H.S.B PRESSUREMETER P L O T O F APPLIED PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT FRRSER LBHDINC ORAWM | DATE 40-S1J040 FIGURF. N o . VCRT SCM.E:|DCNIPH> ECH Htm t c p L E : i x 19 ten = 9.S AlP* M = 28 MPa, Mnmt MDt Mat HII k». SRT/SPMO si ^ ^  Msmi TECMNOUMY MC HRCLEDO H.S .B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OP A P P L I E D PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT ritRSC* LUNOINS bmAwU H I T F I G U R E No. 11 . 0 n o •CRT SCRLC.'lOOtirR- CCH HSR fCRLE: IX TO ICR K£.3&*IOO/ 2-= 9 MPa. M= £7 MPa. •one m l Ma. I Ttar PRl « OCPTH JO* TV ST MTV RUC .20 1911 •UTtKUM. TtSTIB SILVSRHO SITU TECHNOLOGY vNC. RRCLCOO N.S .B PRESSUREMETER PUTT OF A P P L I E D PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL D ISPLACEMENT FRRSCR LBMOINS oiTr 'W^IJOW FIGURE N o . r o VERT ICRIE:|OOKFR« SCH NOR SCMLC: IX TO IC« \2./xtotZ?S 2. - t — SOME NOLI-*! I T i l l M«. fH2 • M m * 21' raar B*TC WUC.17 13«l S1LVSRM0 «TU TEC4INOUMV MC NRCLCOO H.S .B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OF A P P L I E D PRESSURE V . S . RAD IAL DISPLACEMENT FRPSCR LRNDINC M « < M FIGURE No. CO MOTES •CRT SCPLC:100Hr*l» ( C D H M tCOLC: IX IB ICH 0 . 9 * 22 mrV . M M NOLI M*. m WW U.. MPTM Z i " Tc t r an* BUB.J7 1 » 1 • M T M M L T I * T t » SBND KRCLEM H.S .B PRESSUREMETER PIXJT OF A P P L I E D PRESSURE V . S . RAPTAL DISPLACEMENT "••i>5f» LPN01HC 1000 10 o . i 1 . 0 A R RADIAL DISPLACEMENT (%) — • NOTES bipjafc JLBS CTCLE-10 CM -STjnir. WATER PRES OPKM Slope 12-5 = o-Z8 I •OWE1 Not. I mm. TE.T N..1 IUTENIAL TESTEO SAND SITU TECHNOLOGY INC HRCLEOO GEOTECHNICRL H.S.B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OF APPLIED PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT FRRSER LANDING t l J 8 4 l FIGURE N o . I 1000 10 0.1 1.0 A K R A D I A L D I S P L A C E M E N T ( ? ) R -NOTES SCALE: 1L0C CTCLE-10 CM STATIC WATER TRES OPKPA ICV] Slope* 3£7 10-3 = o-34 TI»t Mo 2 ocnra- tfXHfcOO 1001 •UTCMIAL Tf STED SRNO/SILT SITU TECHNOLOOY INC MACLEOD H.S.B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OF APPLIED PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT F R A S E R L A N D I N G DRAWN , OATE 10.0 TRACED K I C U R E N o . 1000 s 100 10 0.1 1.0 R A D I A L D I S P L A C E M E N T SCALE: 1L0S CTCLE-10 STATIC WATCH PRCS OP Slope M. - t > ] 9 2-1 "THT~5TT" T N » W H MATERIAL TESTED SILT/SAND 3 1 lis SITU TECHNOLOQY INC MACLEOD H.S.B PRESSUREMETER PLOT OF APPLIED PRESSURE V . S . RADIAL DISPLACEMENT FRASER LANDING ^ 1 FIGURE N o . I 1000 10 10 _ f j 100 10 1.0 K A D I A l . 1)1 SfM .ACEMF.NT CO ~R " S C A L E : 1L0G C T C L E - 1 D C N S T A T I C V H T E R P R E S O P K P H 51 oft - 2JL-10-5 0.B >Of»||HH.t M . I Ho4 TMKOM 1 3 0 T MHftlUl TISTIO S I L T / S A N D 1 SITU TECHNOLOGY INC • C % , Mb. HACLEOD H . S . B P R E S S U R E M E T E R P L O T O F A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E V . S . R A D I A L D I S P L A C E M E N T rnnsEft L A N D I N G FIGURE N o . 1000 SCALE.- 1LSG C T C L E - 1 0 CH swuc wia FRCS OWA Slope. £L f i i r > . . s  OErfg- T O D O N ? 1901 •UTERiAl TEETEO SAND 1 STTU TECHNOLOGY INC E.C. tenia. WM. HACLEOD H . S . B P R E S S U R E M E T E R P L O T O F A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E V . S . R A D I A L D I S P L A C E M E N T FRASER LANDING DM AWN OATC TRACEO FIGURE N o . 1000 12.4-3 7 5 100 R A I H A I . D I S P I A C K M E N T ("0 SCPLE: 1L0O CTCLE-10 CM STATIC WATER PRES OPKPB S | o p e = £ £ 0-30 ttir TftDOWR 1901 MATMIAl T f t m SILT/SAND 4 td ^  SITU TECHNOLOGY INC MACLEOD H . S . B P R E S S U R E M E T E R P L O T O F A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E V . S . R A D I A L D I S P L A C E M E N T FRPSER LANDING j d H U P I J O ' B Ficupr: NO. 1000 10 0.1 1.0 i :AD IAI. D I S P L A C E M E N T 5CPt€: 1L0G CTCLE«10 CN -STATIC VATER PRCS OPKPR -1-04 TE1T Hkt.p 1901 ANN MATEAIAt TCSTEO SAND HACLEOD H . S . B P R E S S U R E M E T E R P L O T O F A P P L I E D P R E S S U R E V . S . R A D I A L D I S P L A C E M E N T FRPSER LPNOING DRAWN OATE TRACED FIGURE N o . 182 APPENDIX V TILBURY ISLAND, BC 183 U.B.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: Tilbury Ref Hole 2 (Before Conoaction). INTERMEDIATE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS TEST No. UBC-DH4 TEST DPTE; 5 Aug 81 CO D O TZ or "3 LU Q_ (- C UJ — c o a Q r- 2 2 t—I o M CO H CO or U J o or x f— CO to CO ro -t 0_ OJ > a . o * O-(W) HM30 S I C> £(. 6"bT . C E i c-gt c/6! J 1 1 1 1 1 I I i w i i I I l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r-S t S> S i . S"0t S E I S'9I S'BT (W) Hld30 D i l a t o m e t e r R e f e r e n c e h o l e 2 (UBC-DH4) P r o f i l e -I n t e r m e d i a t e G e o t e c h n i c a l P a r a m e t e r s . 184 UJB.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: Tilbury Ref Hole 2 (Before Conpaction). I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L P R R f l H E T E R S . TEST No. UBC-DH4 TEST DOTE; 5 Aug 81 i — —' tr cr L L z o CO UJ 1 / ° O Q -U ^ of o z = 3 CO z> _J r> o o I I a cc t-co z o o £ z n i n _ m i n J L (W) K1J30 > f t £"01 - S ' E t fi'9I c e i J L J I I I L j i J I I I I I I I 1 I T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r s r s > S t s* ot s c r S'9I SBI (W) HlcOO UBC-DH4 - I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l Parameters. 185 U£.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: Tilbury Test Hole 2 (fifter Compaction). INTERMEDIATE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS TEST No. UBC-DH3 TEST DATE: 4 Aug 81 o o n t r "to LU o_ r— r : LU ~ o X _) LU a a t- 2 2 M O M CO H CO or LU o or X r -C O OJ CO ^ —I 0_ ro r OJ > _l (W) H,irJ90 K> 5*1 £ 01 . s c i c - g i e e l J 1 1 1 I I i i i I i 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r o t\i' T 1 1 1 1 1 1 r >l" i I ii a. ov t> f \/ V V f w 1 / W y ~i r T ~ " T " ~ T , 1 1 1 — i 1 1 1 1 1— S t S > S t S ' O I S ' C I S 9 I S BT (H) Hld30 Dilatometer Test hole 2 (UBC-DH3) P r o f i l e -Intermediate Geotechnical Parameters. 186 U£.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: Tilbury Test Hole 2 (After Compaction). I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C R L P A R A M E T E R S . TEST No. UBC-DH3 TEST DATE; 4 Aug 81 L L O M CO LU ~. O °-ctf o 2 CO ZD _ l rs o o c i n E cr cr f— o o o. CM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 • 1 1 1 1 1 1 "T i 1 1 1 r S t SOt SC I (W) HldBO UBC-DH3 - I n t e r p r e t e d G e o t e c h n i c a l Parameters. 187 U£.C. INSITU TESTING. LOCATION: Tilbury Test Hole 1 (After Compaction). I N T E R M E D I A T E G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S TEST No. UBODH2 TEST DflTE; 30 Ju ly 81 to ZD _J ZD O o ir cr "to L U 0-f - TZ L U w r o X _J LU a o o M CO H CO or LU o tr x t -co in in cu CO _ ro -H 0_ OJ > CL (W) KldBO t £ 01 £ C ! £ 9 ! 561 — r ~ s t — r r-_^-T i r £> S t SOt S'E (W) Hld30 J 1 L V S'9l LU * T r SSI D i l a t o m e t e r Test Hole 1 (UBC-DH2) U . B . C . I N S I T U T E S T I N G R E S E A R C H G R O U P . F i l e N a m e : t 1 1 d 1 R e c o r d o f D i l a t o m e t e r t e s t N o : U B C - D H 1 L o c a t 1 o n : T 1 l b u r y R e f H o l e 1 . D a t e : 2 9 J u l y 8 1 C a l i b r a t i o n I n f o r m a t 1 o n : D A = 0 . 1 2 B a r s D B = 0 . 3 5 B a r s Z M = 0 . 0 5 B a r s ZW= 0 . 8 0 m e t r e s G a m m a = B u l k u n i t w e i g h t S v = E f f e c t 1 v e o v e r . s t r e s s U o = P o r e p r e s s u r e I d = M a t e r 1 a l I n d e x E d = D 1 1 a t o m e t e r m o d u l u s K d " H o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s I n d e x I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S K o = I n s 1 t u e a r t h p r e s s . c o e f f . 0 C R = 0 v e r c o n s o l 1 d a t I o n R a t i o M = C o n s t r a i n e d m o d u l u s C u = U n d r a 1 n e d c o h e s 1 o n ( c o h e s 1 v e ) P H I = F r 1 c t 1 o n A n g l e ( c o h e s 1 o n l e s s ) Z ( m ) P O ( B a r ) P 1 ( B a r ) E d ( B a r ) U o ( B a r ) I d G a m m a ( T / C M ) S v ( B a r ) K d O C R P c ( B a r ) K O C u ( B a r ) P H I ( D e g ) M ( B a r ) S o i l T y p e D e s c r I p t I o n Z ( m ) 0 . . 2 0 1 . 7 2 4 . 8 0 1 0 6 . 0 . 0 1 . 7 9 1 . 7 0 0 . 0 3 6 4 7 . 9 ***** 1 7 o. 4 0 1 . 2 4 4 . O O 9 6 . 0 . o 2 . 2 3 1 . 8 0 O . . 0 7 2 1 7 . 2 ***** 7 0 . . 6 0 1 . . 0 7 3 2 0 7 4 . 0 . 0 1 . 9 9 1 . 7 0 O . 1 0 6 1 0 . 1 3 8 . 1 2 4 o. 8 0 0 . 8 1 2 . O O 4 1 . 0 . 0 1 . 4 6 1 . 6 0 0 . 1 3 8 5 . 9 7 . 2 6 1 1 . O O O . 6 2 1 . 7 0 3 7 . 0 . 0 2 1 . 8 1 1 . 7 0 0 . 1 5 2 3 . 9 5 . . 2 4 0 1 . . 2 0 0 . 6 5 1 . 0 0 1 2 . 0 . 0 4 0 . 5 6 1 . 5 0 0 . 1 6 2 3 . 8 2 . 7 1 0 1 . . 4 0 0 . 6 8 1 6 0 3 2 . 0 . 0 6 1 . 5 0 1 . 6 0 0 . . 1 7 4 3 . 5 3 . 2 2 0 1 . 6 0 0 . 8 3 1 . . 7 0 3 0 . 0 . , 0 8 1 , . 1 6 1 . 6 0 0 . 1 8 6 4 . 0 2 . 9 8 0 1, . 8 0 1 . 0 7 5 . 2 0 1 4 3 . O . . 1 0 4 . 2 4 1 . 8 0 0 . 2 0 2 4 . 8 9 . 3 8 1 2 . 0 0 1 . 5 5 6 . 2 0 1 6 1 . 0 . . 1 2 3 . 2 6 1 . 8 0 0 . . 2 1 8 6 . 6 1 6 . 8 7 3 2 . 2 0 1 . 4 8 5 . 4 0 1 3 6 . 0 . . 1 4 2 . 9 2 1 . 8 0 0 . 2 3 4 5 . 7 1 3 . 1 1 3 2 . 4 0 1 . 3 0 4 . . 9 0 1 2 5 . 0 . . 1 6 3 . . 1 6 1 . 8 0 0 . . 2 5 0 4 . 6 8 . 4 2 2 2 . 6 0 1 . 3 1 6 . 7 0 1 8 6 . 0 . 1 8 4 . 7 5 1 . 8 0 0 . . 2 6 6 4 . 3 7 . 4 2 1 2 . 8 0 1 . 1 6 5 . 5 0 1 5 0 . 0 . . 2 0 4 . 5 0 1 . 8 0 0 . 2 8 2 3 . 4 4 . 8 6 1 3 . 0 0 1 . 6 9 7 . 5 0 2 0 1 . 0 . . 2 2 3 . 9 4 1 . 8 0 0 2 9 8 4 . 9 9 . 8 5 2 3 . 2 0 1 . . 6 3 8 . 7 0 2 4 5 . 0 . 2 4 5 . 0 7 1 . 8 0 O . , 3 1 4 4 . 4 8 . 0 2 2 3 . . 4 0 3 . 0 5 1 1 . . 9 0 3 0 6 . 0 . 2 6 3 . 1 7 1 . 9 0 0 . 3 3 2 8 . 4 2 7 . 1 1 9 3 6 0 2 . 2 6 8 . . 7 0 2 2 3 . 0 . 2 8 3 . 2 5 1 . 9 0 O . 3 5 0 5 . 7 1 2 . 7 9 4 3 . , 8 0 2 . 8 6 1 1 . 4 0 2 9 5 . 0 . 3 0 3 . 3 3 1 . 9 0 0 . 3 6 8 7 . 0 1 8 . 9 6 6 4 . . 0 0 0 . 9 5 7 . 6 0 2 3 0 . 0 . 3 2 1 0 . 4 9 1 . 8 0 0 . 3 8 4 1 6 1 . 2 1 0 4 . . 2 0 1 . . 3 5 1 2 . 2 0 3 7 5 . 0 . 3 4 1 0 . 7 0 1 . 8 0 0 . 4 0 0 2 . 5 2 . 7 5 1 4 , . 4 0 5 . 2 5 1 8 . . 2 0 4 4 8 . o. 3 6 2 . . 6 5 2 . O O 0 . 4 2 0 1 1 . 7 S O . 6 5 2 1 4 , . 6 0 2 . 9 1 1 0 . . 4 0 2 5 9 . 0 . 3 8 2 9 6 1 . 9 0 0 . 4 3 8 5 . 8 1 3 . 3 0 5 4 . . 8 0 2 . 6 3 1 4 , . 0 0 3 9 3 . 0 . 4 0 5 1 0 1 . 9 0 0 . , 4 5 6 4 . 9 9 . 6 4 4 5 . . 0 0 3 . . 3 3 1 4 . . 6 0 3 9 0 . 0 . 4 2 3 . 8 7 1 . 9 0 0 . . 4 7 4 6 . 1 1 4 . 9 3 7 5 . . 2 0 3 . . 4 7 1 4 O O 3 6 4 . 0 . , 4 4 3 . 4 8 1 . 9 0 0 . 4 9 2 6 . 2 1 4 . 9 7 7 5 , . 4 0 3 , 3 4 1 2 . . 3 0 3 1 0 . 0 . 4 6 3 . . 1 1 1 . 9 0 0 . . 5 1 0 5 . 7 1 2 . 7 3 6 5 , 6 0 2 . 5 8 1 0 8 0 2 8 4 . 0 . 4 8 3 . 9 2 1 . 9 0 0 . 5 2 8 4 . 0 6 . 4 9 3 5 . 8 0 1 . . 9 1 9 . 5 0 2 6 3 . 0 . 5 0 5 . 3 9 1 . 8 0 0 . . 5 4 4 2 . 6 2 . 8 6 1 6 . O O 2 . 1 9 1 0 . 1 0 2 7 4 . 0 . 5 2 4 . 7 2 1 . 9 0 0 . 5 6 2 3 . 0 3 . 7 4 2 6 , 2 0 2 . 0 1 9 . 5 0 2 5 9 . 0 . 5 4 5 . . 0 8 1 . 8 0 0 . 5 7 8 2 . 5 2 . 7 8 1 6 . 4 0 2 . 6 5 1 1 . 4 0 3 0 3 . o. 5 6 4 . 1 8 1 . 9 0 0 . 5 9 6 3 . 5 5 . 1 3 3 2 1 4 . 4 9 3 4 . . 4 4 2 4 . S A N D Y S I L T C E M E N T E D 0 . 2 0 6 7 2 . 5 5 3 3 . . 9 2 8 8 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 0 . 4 0 0 4 1 . 8 5 3 1 . 7 1 8 5 . S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 0 . 6 0 O O 1 . 3 0 2 8 . . 5 8 2 . S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E O . 8 0 8 0 O . 9 7 2 8 . 5 6 1 . S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 1 . C O 4 4 0 . 9 5 0 . 0 8 1 8 . M U D 1 . 2 0 5 6 0 . 9 0 2 7 . 5 4 8 . S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 1 . 4 0 5 5 0 . 9 9 4 8 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 1 . 6 0 9 0 1. 1 3 3 5 0 2 6 6 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 1 8 0 6 8 1 . . 4 0 3 3 . 9 3 4 3 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . 0 0 0 7 1. . 2 8 3 2 . 5 2 7 3 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . . 2 0 1 1 1 . 0 9 3 2 . 3 2 2 6 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . , 4 0 9 7 1. . 0 3 3 5 . 6 3 2 8 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 6 0 3 7 0 8 7 3 4 . 1 2 3 5 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . 8 0 9 4 1. 1 5 3 4 . 5 3 7 9 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 . 0 0 5 2 1 . 0 6 3 6 . 4 4 3 9 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 . 2 0 0 0 1. . 6 5 3 4 . 6 7 1 9 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 . 4 0 4 8 1 . 2 7 3 3 . 3 4 4 7 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 . 6 0 9 8 1. . 4 6 3 4 . 3 6 4 6 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 . 8 0 4 6 0 . . 4 5 3 9 . 9 2 1 5 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 6 8 4 2 . 9 4 9 1 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . 2 0 2 7 2 . 0 2 3 4 . 1 1 1 8 5 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 4 . 4 0 8 2 1 . . 2 9 3 2 . 7 5 2 4 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 . 6 0 3 9 1 . 1 4 3 6 . 9 7 3 9 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 . 8 0 0 8 1 . 3 4 3 5 . 2 8 1 0 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 . O O 3 7 1 . 3 4 3 4 . 2 7 5 7 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 . 2 0 4 9 1 . 2 7 3 3 . 0 6 2 1 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 . 4 0 4 3 0 9 8 3 3 . 5 4 8 3 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 . 6 0 5 6 o 6 9 3 4 . 5 3 4 8 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 . 8 0 1 0 0 . , 7 8 3 3 . 9 3 9 6 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . O O 6 1 0 . 6 8 3 3 . 9 3 4 0 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . 2 0 0 6 0 . 8 9 3 3 . 5 4 8 2 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 4 0 Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) Z ( m ) Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c • K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) Z ( m ) 6 . 6 0 3 . 1 6 1 1 . 7 0 2 9 5 . O . . 5 8 3 . 3 0 1 . 9 0 0 . 6 1 4 4 . 2 7 . 2 4 4 . . 4 5 1 . 0 2 3 2 . 3 5 1 6 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 6 0 6 . 8 0 3 . 1 1 1 0 . 6 0 2 5 9 . 0 . 6 0 2 . 9 8 1 . 9 0 0 6 3 2 4 . 0 6 . 5 0 4 . 1 1 0 . 9 8 3 1 . 4 4 4 0 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 8 0 7 . O O 1 . 7 2 4 . . 8 0 1 0 6 . 0 . 6 2 2 . 7 9 1 . 8 0 0 . 6 4 8 1 . 7 1 . 2 9 0 . 8 3 0 . 4 6 2 8 . 6 1 0 0 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 7 . 0 0 7 . 2 0 2 . . 4 4 9 . . 3 0 2 3 7 . 0 . 6 4 3 . 8 0 1 . 9 0 0 6 6 6 2 . 7 3 , . 1 2 2 . 0 8 0 . 7 2 3 1 . 7 3 2 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . 2 0 7 . 4 0 3 . 1 9 1 3 . 2 0 3 4 6 . 0 . 6 6 3 . 9 5 1 . 9 0 0 . . 6 8 4 3 . 7 5 . 6 7 3 . 8 8 0 . 9 3 3 3 . 3 5 6 7 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . 4 0 7 . 6 0 3 . 4 0 1 1 . 1 0 2 6 6 . 0 . 6 8 2 . 8 3 1 . 9 0 0 . 7 0 2 3 . 9 6 . 2 0 4 . , 3 5 0 . 9 6 3 0 . 9 4 4 4 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . 6 0 7 . 8 0 2 . 2 0 7 . 8 0 1 9 4 . 0 . 7 0 3 . 7 2 1 . 8 0 0 7 1 8 2 . 1 1 . 9 1 1 . 3 7 0 . 5 7 3 0 . 7 2 2 1 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 7 . 8 0 8 . 0 0 2 . 3 2 7 . 6 0 1 8 3 . 0 . 7 2 3 . 3 0 1 . 8 0 0 . . 7 3 4 2 . 2 2 . 0 6 1 . . 5 1 0 . 5 9 3 0 . 1 2 1 5 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 8 . 0 0 8 . 2 0 1 . . 7 7 3 . 8 0 7 0 . 0 . 7 4 1 . 9 6 1 . 7 0 0 7 4 8 1 . 4 O . 8 4 0 . . 6 3 0 . 3 6 2 6 . 7 6 0 . S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 8 . 2 0 8 . 4 0 3 . 2 8 1 3 . 6 0 3 5 7 . 0 . 7 6 4 . 1 0 1 . 9 0 0 . 7 6 6 3 . 3 4 . 5 2 3 . 4 6 0 . , 8 5 3 3 . , 1 5 4 8 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . 4 0 8 . 6 0 4 . 0 0 1 3 . 9 0 3 4 3 . 0 . 7 8 3 . 0 8 1 . 9 0 0 . 7 8 4 4 . 1 6 . 9 1 5 . . 4 1 1 . 0 1 3 1 . 7 5 9 2 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . , 6 0 8 . 8 0 2 . 8 5 9 . 6 0 2 3 4 . 0 . . 8 0 3 . 3 0 1 . 9 0 0 . 8 0 2 2 . 6 2 . 7 9 2 . . 2 4 o. 6 8 3 0 . 6 3 0 7 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . . 8 0 9 . 0 0 2 . 3 1 5 . 7 0 1 1 7 . 0 . 8 2 2 . 2 8 1 . 8 0 0 . 8 1 8 1 . 8 1 . 4 6 1 . 1 9 0 . . 5 0 2 7 . . 9 1 1 0 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 9 . . 0 0 9 . 2 0 4 . 1 6 1 2 . 8 0 2 9 9 . 0 . 8 4 2 . 6 0 1 . 9 0 0 . . 8 3 6 4 . 0 6 . 4 8 5 . 4 1 0 . , 9 8 3 0 . 5 5 0 0 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 . 2 0 9 . 4 0 2 . 8 3 7 . 8 0 1 7 2 . 0 . . 8 6 2 . 5 2 1 . 8 0 0 . . 8 5 2 2 . 3 2 . 3 2 1 . 9 7 0 . 6 3 2 8 . 8 2 0 3 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 9 . 4 0 9 . 6 0 2 . 5 4 5 . 2 0 9 2 . o 8 8 1 . 6 0 1 . 7 0 0 . 8 6 6 1 9 1 . 2 2 1. . 0 6 o. 5 2 2 6 . 6 8 4 . S A N D Y S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 9 . 6 0 9 . 8 0 2 . 0 1 5 . 4 0 1 1 7 . 0 . , 9 0 3 . 0 6 1 . 8 0 0 . 8 8 2 1 . 3 0 . 7 2 0 . 6 4 o. 3 2 2 8 . 3 1 0 0 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 9 . 8 0 1 0 . O O 3 . 0 4 1 2 . 0 0 3 1 0 . 0 . 9 2 4 . 2 2 1 . 9 0 0 . . 9 0 0 2 . 4 2 . 4 0 2 1 6 0 . 6 4 3 2 . 0 3 8 6 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 O O 1 0 . 2 0 3 . 8 6 1 4 . 5 0 3 6 8 . 0 . . 9 4 3 . 6 4 1 . 9 0 0 . 9 1 8 3 . 2 4 . 2 5 3 . 9 0 0 . 8 2 3 2 . , 0 5 5 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 2 0 1 0 . 4 0 4 . 4 3 1 6 , . 8 0 4 2 8 . 0 . 9 6 3 . 5 6 1 . 9 0 0 . 9 3 6 3 . 7 5 . 6 9 5 . . 3 2 0 . 9 3 3 2 . 4 7 0 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 4 0 1 0 . 6 0 4 . . 3 8 1 4 . 7 0 3 5 7 . 0 . 9 8 3 . 0 4 1 . 9 0 0 . , 9 5 4 3 . 6 5 , . 2 7 5 . 0 3 0 . 9 0 3 1 1 5 7 3 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 6 0 1 0 . 8 0 4 , . 1 1 1 3 . . 8 0 3 3 5 . 1, . 0 0 3 . 1 2 1 . 9 0 0 . 9 7 2 3 . 2 4 . 2 9 4 . , 1 7 0 . 8 3 3 0 . . 9 5 0 6 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 8 0 1 1 . 0 0 3 . 7 1 1 3 . 3 0 3 3 2 . 1, . 0 2 3 . 5 6 1 . 9 0 0 9 9 0 2 . 7 3 . 1 5 3 . . 1 2 0 . 7 2 3 1 . 3 4 5 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 1 . O O 1 1 . 2 0 2 . 4 1 7 . 8 0 1 8 6 . 1 . 0 4 3 . 9 2 1 . 8 0 1. . 0 0 6 1 . 4 O . 8 4 0 . . 8 5 0 . 3 6 2 9 . . 8 1 5 8 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 1 1 . 2 0 1 1 . 4 0 3 . 9 5 1 4 . 9 0 3 7 9 . 1 . 0 6 3 . 7 9 1 . 9 0 1, . 0 2 4 2 . 8 3 . 3 7 3 , . 4 5 0 . , 7 5 3 1 . . 9 5 3 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 1 . 4 0 1 1 . 6 0 5 . 1 9 1 5 . 2 0 3 4 6 . 1 . . 0 8 2 . 4 3 1 . 9 0 1. . 0 4 2 3 . 9 6 . . 4 1 6 . . 6 8 0 . 9 8 3 0 . . 1 5 7 4 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 1 . 6 0 1 1 . 8 0 3 . 7 0 1 1 . 5 0 2 7 0 . 1, . 1 0 3 . 0 0 1 . 9 0 1 . 0 6 0 2 . 5 2 . 5 8 2 . 7 3 0 . . 6 6 2 9 . 9 3 4 5 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 1 . 8 0 1 2 . 0 0 3 . 2 1 1 0 . 8 0 2 6 3 . 1, . 1 2 3 . 6 3 1 . 9 0 1. . 0 7 8 1 . 9 1 . 6 5 1 . 7 7 0 . . 5 3 3 0 . 3 2 8 2 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 . 0 0 1 2 . 2 0 4 . . 4 4 1 5 . 5 0 3 8 3 . 1 . 1 4 3 . 3 5 1 . 9 0 1. 0 9 6 3 . 0 3 . 8 3 4 . 2 0 0 . . 7 9 3 1 . 2 5 5 8 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 . 2 0 1 2 . 4 0 4 . 2 7 1 4 . 7 0 3 6 1 . 1 1 6 3 . 3 5 1 . 9 0 1 . 1 1 4 2 8 3 . 3 1 3 , 6 9 0 . 7 4 3 1 0 5 0 2 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 . 4 0 1 2 . 6 0 3 . 5 8 1 3 . 9 0 3 5 7 . 1 . , 1 8 4 . 3 0 1 . 9 0 1. , 1 3 2 2 . 1 1 . 9 5 2 . , 2 1 0 . 5 8 3 1 7 4 1 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 . 6 0 1 2 . 8 0 3 , . 8 6 1 6 . . 6 0 4 4 1 . 1 . 2 0 4 . 7 8 1 . 9 0 1. , 1 5 0 2 . 3 2 . 3 1 2 . 6 6 0 . 6 3 3 2 . , 9 5 4 2 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 . 8 0 1 3 . 0 0 5 . 4 0 2 3 . 7 0 6 3 3 . 1 . 2 2 4 . 3 8 2 . 0 0 1. , 1 7 0 3 . 6 5 . 2 9 6 . 1 9 0 . 9 0 3 4 . 1 1 0 1 7 . S A N D R I G I D 1 3 . 0 0 1 3 . 2 0 6 . 2 4 2 1 . 5 0 5 2 8 . 1 . 2 4 3 . 0 5 2 . O O 1. 1 9 0 4 . 2 7 . 2 3 8 6 0 1 . . 0 2 3 1 . 7 9 2 2 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 3 . 2 0 1 3 . 4 0 6 . 0 4 1 9 . . 2 0 4 5 5 . 1 . 2 6 2 . 7 5 2 . 0 0 1. . 2 1 0 4 . 0 6 . 4 3 7 7 8 0 . 9 8 3 0 . 8 7 6 4 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 3 . 4 0 1 3 . 6 0 4 . 7 4 1 4 . 9 0 3 5 2 . 1 . 2 8 2 . 9 4 1 . 9 0 1. 2 2 8 2 8 3 . 3 6 4 , 1 2 o. . 7 4 3 0 . 2 4 9 0 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 . 6 0 1 3 . 8 0 3 . 4 1 1 3 . 1 0 3 3 5 . 1 . 3 0 4 . 6 0 1 . 9 0 1. 2 4 6 1 . 7 1 . 2 7 1 , 5 8 0 4 6 3 1 . 4 3 2 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 . 8 0 1 4 . 0 0 4 . 6 6 1 6 , . 5 0 4 1 0 . 1. 3 2 3 . 5 5 1 . 9 0 1. 2 6 4 2 . 6 2 . 9 7 3 , 7 5 0 . 7 0 3 1 . 2 5 5 0 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 . O O 1 4 . 2 0 5 . . 3 7 1 7 . 9 0 4 3 3 . 1 . . 3 4 3 . 1 1 2 . 0 0 1. 2 8 4 3 1 4 . 1 4 5 . , 3 2 0 . 8 2 3 0 . 9 6 4 8 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 4 . 2 0 1 4 . 4 0 5 . . 3 9 1 7 . 5 0 4 1 9 . 1 , 3 6 3 . O O 2 . 0 0 1. , 3 0 4 3 . 1 4 . 0 2 5 2 5 0 8 1 3 0 . 6 6 2 0 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 4 . 4 0 1 4 . 6 0 5 . 0 1 1 8 . 8 0 4 7 7 . 1 . 3 8 3 . 7 9 2 . 0 0 1 3 2 4 2 . 7 3 . 2 0 4 2 4 0 . 7 3 3 1 , 8 6 5 7 . S A N D R I G I D 1 4 . 6 0 1 4 . 8 0 5 . 5 5 2 0 . 7 0 5 2 4 . 1 4 0 3 . 6 5 2 . 0 0 1. 3 4 4 3 . 1 4 . 0 1 5 3 8 0 . 8 0 3 1 , 9 7 7 5 . S A N D R I G I D 1 4 . 8 0 1 5 . 0 0 5 . 2 5 1 6 . 2 0 3 7 9 . 1 . 4 2 2 . 8 6 1 . 9 0 1. 3 6 2 2 . 8 3 . 3 5 4 , 5 6 0 . 7 4 3 0 . 0 5 2 5 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 5 O O . 2 0 1 5 . 2 0 5 . 1 6 1 8 O O 4 4 4 . 1 . 4 4 3 . 4 5 2 . 0 0 1 . 3 8 2 2 , . 7 3 0 8 4 . 2 6 0 . 7 2 3 1 . . 0 6 0 4 . S A N D R I G I D 1 5 1 5 . 4 0 6 . 0 9 2 2 . 4 0 5 6 4 . 1 . 4 6 3 . 5 2 2 . 0 0 1 . 4 0 2 3 . 3 4 5 6 6 . , 4 0 0 . 8 5 3 1 9 8 6 8 . S A N D R I G I O 1 5 . 4 0 1 5 . 6 0 5 . 6 3 1 9 , . 1 0 4 6 6 . 1 , 4 8 3 . 2 5 2 . 0 0 1. 4 2 2 2 9 3 . 6 0 5 . 1 1 0 . 7 7 3 0 . 9 6 6 7 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 5 . 6 0 Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) N O T E S : 1 . F o r 0 . 9 > I d > 1 . 2 n e i t h e r C u n o r P h i c a l c u l a t e d . 2 . 1 B a r = 1 0 0 K P a 3 . # = 1 m m D e f l e c t i o n n o t r e a c h e d . C O M M E N T S F i r s t r e f e r e n c e h o l e a t T i l b u r y I s l a n d . C o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e s i l t y t h a n h o l e s t o t h e s o u t h a n d t h e r e f o r e n o t v e r y a p p l 1 c a b l e . U . B . C . I N S I T U T E S T I N G R E S E A R C H G R O U P • F i l e N a m e : T I L D 4 R e c o r d o f D i l a t o m e t e r t e s t N o : U B C - D H 4 L o c a t i o n : T i l b u r y R e f H o l e 2 D a t e : 5 A u g 8 1 C a l i b r a t i o n I n f o r m a t 1 o n : D A = 0 . 1 8 B a r s D B = 0 . 2 6 B a r s Z M = 0 . 1 0 B a r s Z W = 0 . 8 0 m e t r e s G a m m a = B u l k u n i t w e i g h t S v " E f f e c t i v e o v e r . s t r e s s U o = P o r e p r e s s u r e I d " M a t e r i a l i n d e x E d " D i l a t o m e t e r m o d u l u s K d " H o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s I n d e x I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S K o " I n s i t u e a r t h p r e s s . c o e f f . 0 C R = 0 v e r c o n s o 1 I d a t I o n R a t i o M " C o n s t r a i n e d m o d u l u s C u " U n d r a i n e d c o h e s 1 o n ( c o h e s 1 v e ) P H I = F r 1 c t 1 o n A n g l e ( c o h e s l o n l e s s ) Z P O P 1 ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) E d U o I d ( B a r ) ( B a r ) G a m m a S v ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) K d O C R P c K O C u P H I S o 11 T y p e D e s c r 1 p t I o n ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 1 . 7 5 1 . 8 4 3 0 . 6 1 0 5 . S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 0 . 4 0 0 . 6 1 1 . 3 5 5 2 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 0 . 6 0 0 . 5 4 1 . 1 4 0 0 9 2 6 . C L A Y E Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 0 , . 8 0 0 . 7 2 O . 9 5 2 8 . 4 5 5 . S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 1 O O O . 9 1 O . 9 3 3 1 . 8 1 1 0 . S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 1 . . 2 0 0 . 8 0 0 . 8 5 3 1 . . 2 9 8 . S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 1 . 4 0 1 . 5 4 1 . 4 6 2 8 . . 4 1 3 0 . S A N D Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 1 . 6 0 0 3 8 0 . 7 9 0 . . 0 7 2 4 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 1 . 8 0 2 . 3 0 1. 1 9 3 1 8 2 0 6 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 O O 2 . , 1 3 1 . . 1 2 3 3 4 2 5 0 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . 2 0 3 . 1 6 1 . 2 7 3 6 . 8 4 6 3 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . 4 0 1 . 9 3 1 . 0 3 3 2 . 7 2 3 3 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . 6 0 3 . 0 0 1 1 9 3 3 3 3 2 6 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . 8 0 2 . 8 5 1 . . 1 4 3 2 . . 4 2 9 1 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 O O 1 . . 6 0 0 . 8 9 3 4 . 5 2 8 1 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 . 2 0 2 . 9 2 1 . 1 1 3 4 . 1 3 7 9 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 . 4 0 1 . . 2 9 0 . 7 8 3 1 . 6 1 8 2 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 . 6 0 3 . 4 2 1. 1 4 3 4 5 4 5 3 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 . 8 0 2 . 3 0 0 . 9 6 3 3 . 1 3 1 6 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . O O 2 . 8 8 1 . 0 3 3 2 . 9 3 5 4 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . 2 0 2 . . 8 4 1 . 0 1 3 4 . 3 4 2 5 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . 4 0 3 . , 0 6 1 . 0 2 3 3 . 4 4 0 4 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . 6 0 2 9 6 0 9 9 3 2 . . 7 3 7 1 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . 8 0 3 . 1 2 1. O O 3 2 . 3 3 7 3 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 . O O 2 3 6 0 . 8 8 3 2 . 9 3 4 8 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 . 2 0 3 . . 0 1 0 . . 9 6 3 2 . 8 3 9 9 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 . 4 0 0 . 8 4 0 . 5 3 3 2 . 0 1 7 0 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 . 6 0 1 . . 0 7 0 . 5 9 3 5 . 5 2 9 6 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 . 8 0 3 . 7 0 1 . O O 3 4 . 6 5 6 7 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . O O 3 . 6 7 0 . 9 9 3 1 . 2 3 8 0 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 2 0 2 , 2 4 o . 7 9 3 1 . 1 2 9 1 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . 4 0 1 . 2 1 0 . 5 9 3 0 . 6 1 8 6 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . 6 0 0 . 4 0 0 . 6 0 0 . 8 0 1 . 0 0 1 . 2 0 1 . 4 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 8 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 2 0 2 . 4 0 2 . 6 0 2 . 8 0 3 . O O 3 . 2 0 3 . 4 0 3 . 6 0 3 . 8 0 4 . 0 0 4 . 2 0 4 . 4 0 6 0 8 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 6 . 0 0 6 . 2 0 6 . 4 0 6 . 6 0 0 . 7 2 0 . 6 4 0 . 6 6 0 . 5 8 0 . 6 4 0 . 6 4 1 . 4 0 0 . 7 0 1 . 2 3 1 . 2 4 1 . 5 6 1 . 3 0 1 . 6 5 1 . 6 7 1 . 3 4 1 . 8 0 1 . 3 1 2 . 0 5 1 . 7 7 2 O O 2 . 0 4 2 . 1 6 2 . 1 8 2 . 2 8 2 . 0 8 2 . 3 5 1 . 4 6 1 . 6 3 2 . 7 3 2 . 7 7 2 . 3 1 1 . 8 6 1 . 9 4 1 . 3 9 1 . 0 9 1 . 5 9 2 . 5 9 2 . 4 9 3 . 1 4 1 . 2 4 4 . 3 4 5 . 1 4 8 . 2 4 5 . 1 4 6 . 5 4 6 . 6 . 7 . 4 . 9 . 1 4 4 4 7 4 9 4 0 4 7 . 2 4 7 . 8 4 9 . 1 4 8 . 8 4 8 . 4 4 8 . 5 4 8 . 4 4 9 . 2 4 6 . 0 4 8 . 9 4 1 2 . 2 4 9 . 2 4 8 . 0 4 6 . 4 4 4 2 . 2 6 . 1 5 . 3 5 . 6 8 . 6 4 . 6 0 . 1 9 . 1 0 8 . 1 3 5 . 2 3 1 . 1 3 3 . 1 6 9 . 1 5 5 . 1 7 7 . 2 0 6 . 1 2 6 . 2 4 2 . 1 8 9 . 2 0 2 . 2 4 6 . 2 3 1 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 7 . 2 2 0 . 2 3 8 . 1 5 8 . 2 5 3 . 3 2 9 . 2 2 4 . 1 9 8 . 1 5 8 . O O O 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 O . 1 8 0 . 2 0 1 . 6 9 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 3 2 0 . 3 4 0 . 3 6 0 . 3 8 0 . 4 0 0 . 4 2 0 . 4 4 0 . 4 6 0 . 4 8 0 . 5 0 0 . 5 2 O . 5 4 0 . 5 6 0 . 5 8 1 6 6 5 7 9 2 7 1 8 3 2 8 9 7 9 5 3 7 6 4 4 3 8 0 9 6 5 8 7 5 4 0 0 7 7 5 1 2 2 7 5 5 1 3 6 8 9 6 4 6 6 4 6 3 1 9 0 2 8 5 7 1 . 6 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 7 0 1 . 7 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 9 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 9 0 1 . 9 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 8 0 0 7 2 1 0 4 1 3 6 1 4 8 1 6 2 1 7 6 1 8 8 2 0 0 2 1 6 2 3 2 2 4 8 2 6 4 2 8 0 2 9 6 3 1 2 3 2 8 3 4 4 3 6 0 3 7 6 3 9 2 4 0 8 4 2 4 4 4 0 4 5 6 4 7 2 4 9 0 5 0 6 5 2 2 5 4 0 5 5 8 0 . 5 7 4 0 . 5 9 0 1 0 . 6 . 4 . 3 . 3 . 3 . 7 . 3 . 5 . 4 5 4 5 4 . 2 4 . 3 4 5 . 8 4 3 . 5 4 . 7 3 . 0 4 . 9 3 . 9 4 . 2 3 . 9 8 4 . 8 4 5 . 6 2 4 . 5 7 8 . 2 1 1 . 9 0 1 0 . 6 4 9 . 1 7 1 2 . 7 3 7 . 3 2 1 0 . 7 2 9 . 6 4 5 . 1 4 8 . 8 9 4 . 0 3 . 0 2 . 2 7 6 5 1 1 3 3 5 9 6 2 2 7 3 8 4 0 1 1 4 1 . 6 5 2 . 0 4 6 . 8 5 6 . 5 7 3 . 9 0 2 . 0 5 Z ( m ) P O P 1 ( B a r ) ( B a r ) E d U o I d ( B a r ) ( B a r ) G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( O e g ) ( B a r ) D e s c r I p t I o n Z ( m ) Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) Z ( m ) 6 8 0 2 3 8 8 . 6 4 2 1 7 . O . 6 0 3 . 5 1 1 . 8 0 0 . 6 0 6 2 . 9 3 . 6 5 2 7 O O 2 . 7 4 9 . 8 4 2 4 6 . 0 . 6 2 3 . 3 4 1 . 9 0 O . 6 2 4 3 . 4 4 . 8 2 3 7 . . 2 0 3 . 2 1 1 1 . 0 4 2 7 1 . 0 . . 6 4 3 . 0 5 1 . 9 0 0 6 4 2 4 . 0 6 . 5 7 4 7 , . 4 0 2 . . 8 6 9 . 6 4 2 3 5 . 0 . 6 6 3 . 0 9 1 . 9 0 0 . 6 6 0 3 . 3 4 . 6 3 3 7 . . 6 0 1 . 9 3 7 . 2 4 1 8 4 . O . 6 8 4 . 2 6 1 . 8 0 0 . 6 7 6 1 . 8 1 . 5 0 1 7 . 8 0 2 . 9 5 9 . 8 4 2 3 8 . 0 7 0 3 . 0 6 1 . 9 0 0 . 6 9 4 3 . 2 4 . 4 1 3 8 . 0 0 3 . 2 6 1 2 , . 1 4 3 0 7 . 0 . 7 2 3 . 5 0 1 . 9 0 O 7 1 2 3 6 5 . 2 7 3 8 . 2 0 3 . 6 5 1 2 . 6 4 3 1 1 . 0 . 7 4 3 . 0 9 1 . 9 0 0 . 7 3 0 4 . 0 6 . 5 4 4 8 . 4 0 2 . 8 7 1 1 . 4 4 2 9 6 . 0 . 7 6 4 . 0 6 1 . 9 0 O . 7 4 8 2 . 8 3 . 3 8 2 8 . 6 0 3 8 1 1 1 . 5 4 2 6 7 . 0 . 7 8 2 . 5 5 1 . 9 0 0 7 6 6 4 O 6 . 4 4 4 8 . 8 0 3 . . 4 1 1 3 . . 2 4 3 4 0 . 0 . 8 0 3 . 7 6 1 . 9 0 0 , 7 8 4 3 . 3 4 . 6 4 3 9 . 0 0 3 . 9 1 1 3 . 8 4 3 4 4 . 0 8 2 3 . 2 2 1 . 9 0 0 8 0 2 3 . 8 6 . 1 1 4 9 . . 2 0 3 . . 9 6 1 2 . . 8 4 3 0 7 . o . 8 4 2 . 8 5 1 . 9 0 0 8 2 0 3 8 5 9 6 4 9 . 4 0 4 . . 4 2 1 4 . 0 4 3 3 3 . 0 8 6 2 . 7 0 1 . 9 0 0 8 3 8 4 . 3 7 . 3 8 6 9 . 6 0 3 . 1 4 1 0 . 2 4 2 4 6 . o . 8 8 3 . 1 4 1 . 9 0 0 . 8 5 6 2 . 6 2 . 9 8 2 9 . 8 0 5 . 3 3 1 8 9 4 4 7 1 . 0 9 0 3 . 0 7 2 C O 0 . 8 7 6 5 . 1 1 0 . 3 0 9 1 0 . 0 0 4 . 8 1 1 4 . 6 4 3 4 0 . 0 . 9 2 2 . 5 3 1 . 9 0 o 8 9 4 4 , . 4 7 . 7 3 6 1 0 . 2 0 3 . 3 0 1 3 . 4 4 3 5 1 . 0 9 4 4 . 3 0 1 . 9 0 0 9 1 2 2 6 2 . 8 5 2 1 0 . 4 0 5 . 1 9 1 5 . 5 4 3 5 8 . 0 . 9 6 2 . 4 5 2 O O 0 9 3 2 4 . 5 8 . 3 6 7 1 0 . 6 0 3 4 9 1 1 . 6 4 2 8 2 . 0 9 8 3 . 2 4 1 . 9 0 0 . 9 5 0 2 6 2 . 9 8 2 1 0 . 8 0 4 . . 2 3 1 3 . 6 4 3 2 6 . 1 . 0 0 2 . 9 1 1 . 9 0 o 9 6 8 3 . 3 4 . 6 5 4 1 1 . O O 3 . 7 0 1 1 . 6 4 2 7 5 . 1 . 0 2 2 . 9 6 1 . 9 0 0 . 9 8 6 2 . 7 3 . 1 5 3 1 1 . 2 0 3 . 6 9 1 1 . . 9 4 2 8 6 . 1 0 4 3 . 1 2 1 . 9 0 1 . , 0 0 4 2 . 6 2 . 9 6 2 1 1 . 4 0 3 . 9 9 1 2 . 2 4 2 8 6 . 1 . . 0 6 2 . 8 2 1 . 9 0 1 0 2 2 2 . 9 3 . 4 7 3 1 1 . 6 0 4 , . 1 5 1 3 . 2 4 3 1 5 . 1 0 8 2 . 9 6 1 . 9 0 1 . 0 4 0 2 9 3 . 6 7 3 1 1 . 8 0 4 . . 4 9 1 6 . . 9 4 4 3 1 . 1 1 0 3 6 8 1 . 9 0 1. 0 5 8 3 2 4 . 3 0 4 1 2 . . O O 5 . 1 5 1 6 . 3 4 3 8 7 . 1 . . 1 2 2 . 7 8 2 . O O 1. , 0 7 8 3 . 7 5 . 7 7 6 1 2 . 2 0 4 . 3 4 1 3 . 6 4 3 2 2 . 1 . 1 4 2 . 9 1 1 . 9 0 1 , 0 9 6 2 . 9 3 . 6 0 3 1 2 . 4 0 3 . . 8 5 1 2 . 8 4 3 1 1 . 1 . . 1 6 3 . 3 4 1 . 9 0 1. 1 1 4 2 . 4 2 5 1 2 1 2 . 6 0 3 . 4 9 1 5 . 8 4 4 2 7 . 1 . 1 8 5 . 3 4 1 . 9 0 1. 1 3 2 2 . 0 1 . 8 2 2 1 2 . 8 0 6 . 0 4 1 9 . 5 4 4 6 7 . 1 . 2 0 2 . 7 9 2 . 0 0 1 1 5 2 4 . 2 7 . 2 1 8 1 3 . 0 0 6 . . 4 9 2 0 9 4 5 0 0 . 1 . 2 2 2 . 7 4 2 . O O 1, 1 7 2 4 . 5 8 . 2 3 9 1 3 . 2 0 5 . . 0 8 1 5 . 6 4 3 6 5 . 1 . 2 4 2 . 7 5 1 . 9 0 1. , 1 9 0 3 2 4 . 3 5 5 1 3 . 4 0 4 . . 3 1 1 2 . 0 4 2 6 7 . 1 . 2 6 2 . 5 3 1 . 9 0 1. 2 0 8 2 5 2 . 7 3 3 1 3 . 6 0 3 . 5 3 1 0 . . 9 4 2 5 6 . 1 . 2 8 3 . 3 0 1 . 9 0 1. 2 2 6 1 8 1 . 4 8 1 1 3 . 8 0 4 1 4 1 3 . . 3 4 3 1 8 . 1 . 3 0 3 . 2 4 1 . 9 0 1 . 2 4 4 2 , 3 2 . 2 5 2 1 4 . 0 0 4 . 1 3 1 3 . . 5 4 3 2 6 . 1 . 3 2 3 , . 3 5 1 . 9 0 1 . 2 6 2 2 . . 2 2 . 1 5 2 1 4 . 2 0 4 . . 8 5 1 5 9 4 3 8 4 . 1 3 4 3 . 1 6 1 . 9 0 1 . 2 8 0 2 . 7 3 . 2 0 4 1 4 . 4 0 3 . . 3 6 1 0 . . 1 4 2 3 5 . 1 . 3 6 3 , 4 0 1 . 9 0 1 . 2 9 8 1 . 5 1 , . 0 6 1 1 4 . 6 0 2 . . 9 0 1 0 . . 8 4 2 7 5 . 1 . 3 8 5 . 2 2 1 . 8 0 1 . 3 1 4 1 . 2 0 . 6 2 0 1 4 . 8 0 3 . 1 6 1 4 . 0 4 3 7 6 . 1 . 4 0 6 . , 1 7 1 . 9 0 1 . 3 3 2 1 3 0 . 7 9 1 1 5 O O 5 . 9 1 2 2 . 0 4 5 5 8 . 1 . 4 2 3 . 5 9 2 . 0 0 1 . 3 5 2 3 . 3 4 . . 6 1 6 1 5 . 2 0 5 . 2 2 1 6 . 9 4 4 0 5 . 1 . 4 4 3 . 1 0 1 . 9 0 1 . 3 7 0 2 . 8 3 . 2 4 4 1 5 . 4 0 4 2 9 2 0 . 9 4 5 7 6 . 1 . 4 6 5 . 8 9 1 . 9 0 1 . 3 8 8 2 O 1 . 8 1 2 1 5 . 6 0 6 . . 7 2 2 8 . 9 4 7 6 9 . 1 . 4 8 4 . 2 4 2 O O 1. 4 0 8 3 . 7 5 7 3 8 1 5 . 8 0 7 . 4 8 3 2 . . 6 4 8 7 0 . 1 . 5 0 4 2 1 2 O O 1 . 4 2 8 4 . 2 7 . . 1 8 1 0 2 1 0 . 7 7 3 1 . 5 3 1 1 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . 8 0 0 1 0 . 8 7 3 1 . 6 3 8 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . 0 0 2 2 O . . 9 9 3 1 . 5 4 6 2 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . 2 0 0 5 0 . 8 5 3 1 . 0 3 6 2 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . 4 0 0 1 0 . . 5 0 3 1 . 2 1 9 0 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 7 . 6 0 0 6 0 8 4 3 0 . 9 3 6 3 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . 8 0 7 5 0 . 9 0 3 2 . . 1 4 9 3 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . 0 0 7 7 0 . 9 8 3 1 . 6 5 2 9 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . 2 0 5 3 o. . 7 5 3 2 . 4 4 1 6 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . 4 0 9 3 0 9 8 3 0 . 3 4 4 6 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . 6 0 6 3 0 . 8 6 3 2 . 4 5 2 5 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . 8 0 9 0 o . 9 6 3 1 8 5 7 4 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 . . 0 0 8 9 0 . . 9 5 3 0 . 9 5 0 7 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 2 0 1 9 1. . 0 3 3 0 . 9 5 7 9 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 . 4 0 5 5 0 . 7 0 S O . 4 3 3 0 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 . 6 0 0 2 1, 1 7 3 2 5 8 9 8 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 9 . 8 0 9 1 1, 0 5 3 0 6 5 9 6 . S I L T Y S A N D M E O I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 0 0 6 0 0 . 6 9 3 2 . , 5 4 6 5 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 2 0 7 9 1. . 0 8 3 0 5 6 3 9 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 0 . 4 0 8 3 0 . . 7 1 3 0 . . 6 3 7 9 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 6 0 5 1 0 8 6 3 0 6 5 0 2 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 8 0 1 0 o . 7 2 3 0 1 3 7 5 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 1 . O O 9 8 0 . 7 0 3 0 . 3 3 8 3 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 11 . 2 0 5 5 0 . 7 6 3 0 . 0 4 0 0 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 1 . 4 0 8 2 0 . . 7 7 3 0 . . 4 4 5 2 . S I L T | Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 1 . 6 0 5 4 0 . 8 3 3 2 . , 1 6 5 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 1 . 8 0 2 2 0 9 4 3 0 7 6 3 1 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 2 . 0 0 9 4 0 . 7 7 3 0 2 4 5 8 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 . 2 0 8 0 0 . 6 5 3 0 . . 5 3 9 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 . 4 0 0 6 0 5 6 3 3 . 3 4 7 9 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 . 6 0 3 1 1 . 0 2 3 1 . 1 8 1 0 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 2 . 8 0 6 4 1 . 0 8 3 1 . 2 8 9 6 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 3 . 0 0 1 8 0 . 8 3 3 0 . 2 5 4 8 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 . 2 0 3 0 0 6 8 2 9 . 1 3 3 8 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 . 4 0 8 1 0 5 0 2 9 . 6 2 6 3 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 . 6 0 8 1 0 6 2 3 0 . 1 3 8 8 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 . 8 0 7 1 0 . 6 0 3 0 . 2 3 8 9 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 7 3 3 0 . 5 5 2 8 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 . 2 0 3 8 0 . 4 1 2 9 , 3 2 0 5 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 . 4 0 8 1 0 . 2 9 3 1 . 0 2 3 3 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 1 4 . 6 0 0 6 o 3 4 3 2 . 7 3 2 0 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 . 8 0 2 3 0 . . 8 5 3 2 . . 1 8 6 1 . S A N D R I G I D 1 5 . 0 0 4 3 0 . , 7 3 3 0 . 4 5 6 0 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 5 . 2 0 5 1 0 5 5 3 4 . . 2 6 4 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 5 . 4 0 0 7 0 9 3 3 3 . 9 1 2 6 2 . S A N D R I G I D 1 5 . 6 0 2 5 1. , 0 2 3 4 . 4 1 5 1 8 . S A N D R I G I D 1 5 . 8 0 Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( O e g ) ( B a r ) Z ( m ) z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e O e s c r 1 p t 1 o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 1 6 . 0 0 7 . 9 6 3 1 . 4 4 8 1 2 . 1 . 5 2 3 . 6 4 2 . 0 0 1 . 4 4 8 4 . 4 8 . 0 5 1 1 . 6 6 1 . 0 7 3 3 . 4 1 4 5 9 . S A N D R I G I D 1 6 . O O 1 6 . 2 0 8 . 1 8 3 3 . 4 4 8 7 4 . 1 . 5 4 3 . 8 1 2 . 0 0 1 . 4 6 8 4 . 5 8 . 3 1 1 2 . 1 9 1 . 0 8 3 3 . 8 1 5 8 3 . S A N D R I G I D 1 6 . 2 0 1 6 . 4 0 1 0 . 0 9 3 9 . 2 4 1 0 0 9 . 1 . 5 6 3 . 4 2 2 . 1 5 1 . 4 9 1 5 . 7 1 3 . 0 3 1 9 . 4 2 1 . 2 8 3 3 . 9 2 0 3 2 . S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 6 . 4 0 1 6 . 6 0 9 . 3 1 3 3 . 8 4 8 4 9 . 1 . 5 8 3 . 1 7 2 . 1 5 1 . 5 1 4 5 . 1 1 0 . 4 8 1 5 . 8 7 1 . 1 8 3 2 . 8 1 6 2 6 . S I L T Y S A N D V E R Y R I G I D 1 6 . 6 0 Z P O P 1 E d U o I d • G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r I p t I o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) N O T E S : 1 . F o r 0 . 9 > I d > 1 . 2 n e i t h e r C u n o r P h i c a l c u l a t e d . 2 . 1 B a r = 1 0 O K P a 3 . # = 1 m m D e f l e c t i o n n o t r e a c h e d . C O M M E N T S S e c o n d r e f e r e n c e h o l e a t T i l b u r y . G o o d a g r e e m e n t w i t h a d j a c e n t c o n e h o l e s . U s e d a s b a s e h o l e s i n c e I t w a s t h e m o s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t e s t h o l e c o n d i t i o n s . M e m b r a n e p u n c t u r e d b y g r a v e l a t 1 . 6 m s o I n s t r u m e n t s c h a n g e d a t t h i s d e p t h . U . B . C . I N S I T U T E S T I N G R E S E A R C H G R O U P . F i l e N a m e : T I L D 2 R e c o r d o f D i l a t o m e t e r t e s t N o : U B C - D H 2 L o c a t i o n : T i l b u r y T e s t H o l e 1 D a t e : 3 0 J u l y 8 1 C a l i b r a t i o n I n f o r m a t I o n : D A = 0 . 1 1 B a r s G a m m a = B u l k u n i t w e i g h t D B = 0 . 3 2 B a r s ZM= 0 . 1 0 B a r s Z W = 0 . 6 0 m e t r e s S v U o I d E d K d = E f f e c t 1 v e o v e r . s t r e s s = P o r e p r e s s u r e ' M a t e r i a l I n d e x = D 1 1 a t o m e t e r m o d u l u s • H o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s I n d e x I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S K o = I n s 1 t u e a r t h p r e s s . c o e f f . 0 C R = 0 v e r c o n s o l 1 d a t I o n R a t i o M ' C o n s t r a i n e d m o d u l u s C u = U n d r a 1 n e d c o h e s 1 o n ( c o h e s 1 v e ) P H I = F r 1 c t 1 o n A n g l e ( c o h e s l o n l e s s ) Z P O P 1 ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) E d U o ( B a r ) ( B a r ) I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P C K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r I p t I o n 2 ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 0 . 5 8 1 . 6 0 0 . . 1 0 5 1 6 8 2 7 . 6 0 2 . 9 0 2 . 5 1 0 . 3 3 1 0 7 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 0 . 6 0 0 . , 3 2 1 . 5 0 0 1 1 5 7 . 6 8 0 6 O . 9 3 1 . 5 5 0 . 1 3 2 2 . M U D 0 . 8 0 0 . 3 3 1 . 5 0 0 . 1 2 5 5 . . 7 5 0 8 0 . 6 4 1 . 2 7 0 . 1 0 1 5 . M U D 1 . O O O . 5 3 1 . 6 0 0 , 1 3 7 5 . 3 4 . 6 3 0 . 6 3 1 . 2 2 0 . 1 0 2 5 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 1 . 2 0 0 . 7 8 1 . 6 0 0 . . 1 4 9 6 0 5 . 5 7 0 . 8 3 1 . 3 2 0 . 1 3 4 8 . C L A Y E Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 1 . 4 0 O . 5 8 1 . 6 0 0 . . 1 6 1 7 O 7 . 0 8 1 . 1 4 1 . 4 6 0 . 1 7 4 8 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 1 . 6 0 0 . 5 6 1 . 6 0 0 . 1 7 3 6 1 5 . 7 5 0 . 9 9 1 . . 3 4 0 . 1 5 4 1 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 1 . 8 0 O . 6 8 1 . 6 0 0 . . 1 8 5 5 . . 6 4 . 9 9 0 . 9 2 1 . 2 6 0 . 1 5 4 6 . C L A Y E Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 2 . O O 0 . . 7 7 1 . 6 0 o. . 1 9 7 4 . 7 3 . 7 3 0 . 7 4 1 . . 1 0 0 . 1 2 4 2 . C L A Y E Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 2 . 2 0 0 . 9 2 1 . 6 0 0 . 2 0 9 4 . . 5 3 . 5 3 0 . 7 4 1 . 0 7 5 1 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 2 . 4 0 0 . 8 8 1 . 6 0 0 . . 2 2 1 7 . . 4 7 . 7 4 1 . 7 1 1 . 5 2 0 . 2 5 1 1 0 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 2 . 6 0 0 . . 8 1 1 . 7 0 0 . 2 3 5 8 . . 2 8 . 9 6 2 . 1 1 1 . . 6 2 0 . S O 1 2 2 . S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 2 . 8 0 0 9 7 1 . 7 0 0 . 2 4 9 6 8 6 . 7 4 1 . 6 8 1 . 4 3 1 2 1 . S I L T L O W D E N S I T Y 3 . O O 1 . . 0 1 1 . 8 0 0 . 2 6 5 1 2 . 1 1 6 . 5 0 4 . 3 7 2 0 6 2 9 9 . S I L T M E D I U M D E N S I T Y 3 . 2 0 0 . , 9 1 1 . 8 0 o . 2 8 1 1 1 . 0 1 4 . 3 3 4 . . 0 3 1 . . 9 5 2 5 1 . S I L T M E D I U M D E N S I T Y 3 . 4 0 1 . 3 5 1 . 8 0 0 . 2 9 7 1 1 4 1 8 . 8 6 5 . , 6 0 2 O O 2 9 . 7 4 1 7 . S A N D Y S I L T M E D I U M D E N S I T Y 3 . 6 0 1 . 4 6 1 . 9 5 0 . 3 1 6 1 7 . , 7 4 5 . 6 8 1 4 . , 4 3 2 . . 5 9 3 1 . 3 8 5 9 . S A N D Y S I L T D E N S E 3 . . 8 0 1 . . 8 6 2 . 0 0 0 . 3 3 6 1 9 . . 1 ***** 3 4 . 5 4 2 7 0 3 2 . 9 1 2 8 5 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 4 O O 2 , 1 1 2 . O O 0 . 3 5 6 1 9 8 ***** 4 9 . , 5 5 2 . 7 6 3 3 . 9 1 6 1 9 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 4 . 2 0 2 . 4 4 2 . 0 0 0 . 3 7 6 1 7 , . 9 ***** 4 3 . , 4 4 2 . 6 1 3 4 . 7 1 7 3 8 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 4 . 4 0 2 . 0 4 2 . 1 5 0 . 3 9 9 2 3 . 1 ***** 7 4 . . 6 9 3 . 0 2 3 4 . 0 2 1 3 8 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 4 . 6 0 2 . . 2 9 2 . 0 0 0 . 4 3 9 1 7 . 6 ***** 4 8 . 8 9 2 . 5 8 3 4 . 2 1 8 6 0 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 5 . . O O 1 . 8 7 2 . 1 5 o . 4 6 2 2 0 . 4 ***** 5 4 . . 3 2 2 . 8 1 3 3 . 1 1 9 3 4 . S I L T Y S A N D C E M E N T E D 5 . 2 0 2 . . 3 7 2 . 0 0 0 . 5 0 2 9 . 9 3 6 . 8 5 1 8 . . 5 0 1 . 8 2 3 3 . 1 1 0 0 9 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 5 . 6 0 2 . 1 4 2 . O O 0 . 5 2 2 1 0 . 8 4 3 . 5 0 2 2 . , 7 1 1 . 9 2 3 2 . 6 1 0 7 1 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 5 . 8 0 1 8 3 1 . 9 0 0 . 5 4 0 6 8 1 4 . 4 9 7 . . 8 3 1 . 4 3 3 0 . O 4 9 3 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . O O 2 . 0 8 1 . 9 0 0 . 5 5 8 5 . 7 1 2 . 9 5 7 2 3 1 . 2 7 3 0 . 2 4 5 4 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 2 0 2 4 7 1 . 8 0 0 . 5 7 4 3 . 2 4 . 2 0 2 4 1 O . 8 2 2 9 . 5 2 2 7 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . 4 0 2 0 0 1 . 8 0 0 . 5 9 0 2 . 6 2 . 9 8 1 . 7 6 O . 7 1 2 8 . 1 1 3 6 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . 6 0 2 . 5 8 1 . 7 0 0 . 6 0 4 1 . 5 0 . 9 6 0 . 5 8 0 . 3 9 2 7 . 9 6 7 . S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 6 . 8 0 3 0 2 1 . 8 0 0 . . 6 2 0 1 . 9 1 . 5 2 O . 9 5 0 . 5 1 2 9 . 2 1 2 5 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 7 . 0 0 2 . 3 1 1 . 8 0 0 . 6 3 6 2 8 3 . 2 4 2 , 0 6 0 . 7 3 2 8 . 9 1 8 6 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 7 . 2 0 0 . 6 0 0 . 8 0 1 . 0 0 1 . 2 0 1 . 4 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 8 0 2 O O 2 . 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 O O 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 O O 4 . 2 0 4 . 4 0 6 0 O O 2 0 6 0 8 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 0 0 2 0 1 . 7 6 0 . 9 0 0 . 7 5 0 . 7 9 0 . 9 8 1 . 2 3 1 . 1 8 1 . 1 8 1 . 0 8 1 . 1 2 1 . 8 4 2 . 1 4 1 . 9 3 3 . 4 6 3 8 6 9 9 2 7 4 4 0 1 3 6 2 2 . 7 8 1 . 1 8 0 . 9 8 1 . 1 8 1 . 6 8 1 . 8 8 1 . 7 8 1 . 8 8 1 . 7 8 1 . 9 8 2 8 6 8 5 8 6 8 1 8 8 . 1 7 9 . 8 7 4 5 1 4 1 9 7 4 4 0 1 6 1 . 5 0 1 . 7 9 2 . 4 2 3 3 3 6 6 8 . 2 8 1 4 . 0 8 1 8 . 6 8 2 2 . 2 8 2 3 . 5 8 2 8 . 3 8 2 5 . 8 8 2 7 . 4 8 1 7 . 1 8 1 8 . 1 8 1 0 . 8 8 1 0 . 3 8 6 . 8 8 2 8 7 8 2 8 4 8 3 5 . 1 0 . 8 . 1 3 . 2 4 . 2 3 . 2 1 . 2 4 . 2 4 . 3 0 . 5 0 . 5 3 . 5 7 . 1 1 2 . 9 7 . 1 5 9 . 2 8 2 . 4 1 3 . 5 1 5 . 5 6 9 . 6 4 9 . 6 1 3 . 6 0 9 . 4 0 6 . 4 1 7 . 2 3 1 . 2 3 0 . 1 5 5 . 1 0 8 . 7 9 . 1 2 1 . 1 4 1 . 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 8 O . 1 0 0 . 1 2 O . 1 4 0 . 1 6 0 . 1 8 0 . 2 0 O . 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 0 3 2 3 4 3 6 3 8 4 0 4 4 4 6 5 0 5 2 5 4 5 6 5 8 6 0 6 2 6 4 6 6 Z P O P 1 ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) E d U o I d ( B a r ) ( B a r ) G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) Z PO P1 Ed Uo Id Gamma Sv Kd OCR Pc KO Cu PHI M Soil Type Description (m) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (T/CM) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Deg) (Bar) Z (m) 7 . 40 1 . 99 6. 58 159 . 0. 68 3 50 1 . 80 0. 652 2 . 0 1 . 77 1 7 . 60 2 . 60 7 . 08 155. 0. 70 2 . 36 1 . 80 0. 668 2 . 8 3. 4 1 2 7. 80 1 . 95 5. 28 1 15. 0. 72 2 70 1 . ,80 0. 684 1 . 8 1 . 43 0 8 00 2. 14 5. 78 126 . 0 74 2. .61 1 .80 0. 70O 2. 0 1 . 74 1 8. 20 2. .39 7 . 08 162 . 0. 76 2 89 1 . .80 0. 716 2 . 3 2 . 23 1 8 40 2 . 50 8. 98 224 . 0. 78 3 .76 1 . 80 0. 732 2 .4 2 38 1 8 GO 4 . , 25 1 1 . 78 260. O. .80 2 18 1 90 0. 750 4. 6 8 59 6 8. .80 4 .29 1 1 . 08 235. 0 82 1 . 96 1 . 90 0. 768 4. ,5 7 . 92 6 9 OO 3 37 8. 38 173. 0 84 1 98 1 .90 0. 786 3. .2 4 . 26 3 9 .20 2 .84 6. 38 122 . 0. .86 1 .79 1 . 70 0. BOO 2. ,5 2 , .21 1 9 .40 2 .49 4 . 98 86. 0. 88 1 . 54 1 . 70 0. 814 2. .0 1 . 24 1 9 .60 2 OO 4 . 38 82. 0. .90 2 17 1 . 70 0. 828 1 3 0 .80 0 9 .80 2 .00 4. .38 82. 0 .92 2 .21 1 .70 0. 842 1 .3 0. .74 0 10 .00 1 .73 3, 48 61 . 0 .94 2 .23 1 .70 0. 856 0 .9 0 .40 0 10 .20 1 .65 2. .98 46. o .96 1 .94 1 . 70 0. , 870 0 8 0. .29 0 10 .40 1 .65 2 .98 46 . o 98 2 OO 1 .70 0 884 0 .8 0 .27 O 10 .60 1 .83 3. .58 61 . 1 .00 2 . 12 1 .70 0. 898 0 .9 0 .40 0 10 .80 1 .74 3 . 18 50. 1 .02 1 .99 1 .70 o. .912 0 8 0 .30 0 1 1 OO 2 . 19 4 68 86. 1 .04 2 . 16 1 .80 0. .928 1 . 2 0 .70 0 1 1 .20 1 .99 6 .68 162 . 1 .06 5 .07 1 .80 0 .944 1 . 0 0 .45 0 1 1 .40 3 .34 9 .08 199. 1 .08 2 .55 1 .90 0 .962 2 . 3 2 . 37 2 1 1 .60 4 .47 13 .68 319. 1, . 10 2 . 73 1 .90 0 .980 3 .4 4 .93 4 1 1 .80 4 .72 12 .98 286. 1 . 12 2 .30 1 .90 0 .998 3 .6 5 .39 5 12 OO 6 . 32 18 .68 428. 1 . 14 2 . 39 2 OO 1, .018 5 . 1 10 .41 10 12 .20 6 .35 16 .08 337. 1. . 16 1 . 88 2 .00 1 .038 5 .0 8 .75 9 12 .40 4 .99 17 .98 449. 1 . 18 3 .41 2 .00 1 .058 3 .6 5 38 5 12 .60 7 .90 20 .68 442. 1 .20 1 .91 2 .00 1 .078 6 .2 13 .61 14 12 .80 6 .80 19 .68 446. 1 . 22 2 .31 2 .00 1 .098 5 . 1 10 .37 11 13 .00 15 .04 39 . 58# 849. 1. . 24 1 . 78 2 . 10 1. . 120 12 .3 40 .23 45 13 .20 8 . 13 26 .58 638. 1. .26 2 .68 2 .OO 1 . 140 6 .0 14 .38 16 13 .40 1 1 .76 29 . 58 617 . 1. .28 1 .70 2 . 10 1 . 162 9 O 20 .53 23 13 .60 18 .61 39 . 58# 726. 1 .30 1 .21 2 . 10 1 . 184 14 .6 22 .66 26 13 .80 18 .40 39 ,58# 733. 1 .32 1 .24 2 . 10 1 . 206 14 .2 22 .52 27 14 .00 17 .98 39 . 58# 747. 1 .34 1 .30 2 . 10 1 .228 13 6 22 .92 28 14 .20 17 .04 39 .58* 780. 1 . 36 1 .44 2 . 10 1 .250 12 .5 24 .92 31 14 .40 19 .56 39 . 58# 693. 1 . 38 1 . 10 2 . 10 1 . 272 14 . 3 21 .49 27 15 0. .55 30. 2 176 . SAND LOW R I G I D I T Y 7 . 40 28 0. 75 29 . 0 210. S I L T Y SAND LOW R I G I D I T Y 7 : 60 98 0. 49 28 . 6 1 13 . S I L T Y SAND LOW R I G I D I T Y 7 . 80 22 0. 54 28. 7 133. S I L T Y SAND LOW R I G I D I T Y 8. OO 60 0. 62 29. 5 195. S I L T Y SAND LOW R I G I D I T Y 8. .20 74 0. 64 31 . 2 279. SAND LOW R I G I D I T Y 8. .40 44 1 . 09 29. 9 465. S I L T Y SAND MEDIUM R I G I D I T Y 8. .60 09 1 . 08 29. 2 413. S I L T Y SAND MEDIUM R I G I D I T Y 8. .80 35 0 83 28. 5 250. S I L T Y SAND MEDIUM R I G I D I T Y 9. .00 77 0. .67 27. 5 144 . SANDY S I L T LOW D E N S I T Y 9. . 20 01 0. 54 26. 5 81 . SANDY S I L T LOW D E N S I T Y 9. .40 66 0. 34 27 . 1 70. S I L T Y SAND LOOSE 9 .60 63 0 .33 27. 1 70. S I L T Y SAND LOOSE 9. .80 34 0. 19 26. ,4 52 . S I L T Y SAND LOOSE 10. OO 25 0 . 14 25. 3 39 . S I L T Y SAND LOOSE 10. .20 24 o . 12 25. .4 39. S I L T Y SAND LOOSE 10 .40 36 0 . 19 26. 3 52. S I L T Y SAND LOOSE i o .60 27 0 . 14 25. 6 42 . S I L T Y SAND LOOSE 10 .80 65 0 .31 26. 9 73. S I L T Y SAND LOW R I G I D I T Y 11 OO 42 0 .22 30. 3 138 . SAND LOW R I G I D I T Y 11 .20 28 0 .63 28 9 238 . S I L T Y SAND MEDIUM R I G I D I T Y 11 .40 83 0 .88 30. 3 495. S I L T Y SAND MEDIUM R I G I D I T Y 11 .60 37 0 .91 29 .5 448 . S I L T Y SAND MEDIUM R I G I D I T Y 11 .80 60 1 . 18 30 . 7 807 . S I L T Y SAND R I G I D 12 OO 08 1 . 16 29. ,3 622 . S I L T Y SAND R I G I D 12 .20 69 0 .91 32 O 725. SAND R I G I D 12 .40 67 1 .35 30 .0 908. S I L T Y SAND R I G I D 12 .60 39 1 . 17 30 .5 839. S I L T Y SAND R I G I D 12 .80 05 2 .09 31 .7 2290. SANDY S I L T VERY DENSE 13 .OO 40 1, . 32 32 , 1 1308 . S I L T Y SAND R I G I D 13 .20 86 1 .72 30 .4 1481 . SANDY S I L T VERY DENSE 13 .40 83 2 .32 29 8 2075. SANDY S I L T VERY DENSE 13 .60 16 2 .27 29 .9 2073 . SANDY S I L T VERY DENSE 13 .80 15 2 .21 30. .0 2083. SANDY S I L T VERY DENSE 14 .OO 15 2 . 1 1 30 .4 2117. SANDY S I L T VERY DENSE 14 .20 33 2 .28 1966. S I L T VERY DENSE 14 .40 Z PO PI Ed Uo Id Gamma Sv Kd OCR Pc KO Cu PHI M Soil Type Description (m) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (T/CM) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Deg) (Bar) NOTES:1.For 0.9>Id>1.2 neither Cu nor Phi calculated. 2.1Bar=100KPa 3.# =1mm Deflection not reached. COMMENTS Fir s t test hole at Tilbury. Maximum pushing pressure reached at 14.4m. Believed hole was not exactly vertical and Intercepted a vibr o f l o t a t i o n hole. This caused low A and B values from 5.2-11.8m. U . B . C . I N S I T U T E S T I N G R E S E A R C H G R O U P . F i l e N a m e : T I L D 3 R e c o r d o f D i l a t o m e t e r t e s t N o : U B C - D H 3 L o c a t 1 o n : T 1 1 b u r y T e s t H o l e 2 D a t e : 4 A u g 8 1 C a l i b r a t i o n I n f o r m a t 1 o n : D A = 0 . 1 4 B a r s D B = 0 . 3 5 B a r s Z M = 0 . 1 0 B a r s Z W = 0 . 8 0 m e t r e s G a m m a ' B u l k u n i t w e i g h t S v ' E f f e c t i v e o v e r . s t r e s s U o = P o r e p r e s s u r e I d ' M a t e r i a l I n d e x E d ' D i l a t o m e t e r m o d u l u s K d ' H o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s I n d e x I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S K o ' I n s i t u e a r t h p r e s s . c o e f f . O C R ' O v e r c o n s o l 1 d a t I o n R a t i o M ' C o n s t r a i n e d m o d u l u s C u ' U n d r a i n e d c o h e s 1 o n ( c o h e s 1 v e ) P H I ' F r l c t l o n A n g l e ( c o h e s l o n l e s s ) Z P O P 1 ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) E d U o I d ( B a r ) ( B a r ) G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) S o i l T y p e D e s c r I p t I o n Z ( m ) 0 . 8 0 0 . 4 3 0 . 7 0 9 . 0 . 0 0 . 6 4 1 . 5 0 0 . 1 0 5 4 . 1 3 . 0 3 0 . 3 2 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 6 1 5 . M U D 0 . 8 0 1 . O O 0 . 5 3 0 . . 7 0 6 . O . 0 2 0 . 3 3 1 . 5 0 0 . 1 1 5 4 . 5 3 . 4 8 0 . 4 0 1 . 0 7 0 . 0 7 1 0 . M U D 1 O O 1 . 2 0 0 . 5 3 0 . 7 5 8 . 0 . 0 4 0 . 4 5 1 . 5 0 0 . 1 2 5 3 . 9 2 . 8 5 0 . 3 6 0 . 9 7 0 . 0 6 1 2 . M U D 1 . 2 0 1 . 4 0 0 . 7 9 0 . 8 0 0 . O . 0 6 0 . 0 1 1 . 5 0 0 . 1 3 5 5 . 4 4 . 7 1 0 . 6 4 1 . . 2 3 0 1 0 1 . M U D 1 . 4 0 1 . 6 0 O . 7 9 0 . 8 5 2 . O . 0 8 0 . 0 9 1 . 5 0 0 . 1 4 5 4 . 9 4 . 0 2 0 . 5 8 1 . . 1 4 0 . 1 0 4 . M U D 1 . 6 0 1 . 8 0 0 . 7 9 0 . 8 5 2 . 0 . 1 0 O . 0 9 1 . 5 0 0 . 1 5 5 4 . 4 3 . 4 6 0 . 5 4 1 . 0 6 0 . 0 9 4 . M U D 1 . 8 0 2 . 0 0 1 . 3 2 3 . 7 5 8 4 . O . 1 2 2 . 0 1 1 . 8 0 0 . 1 7 1 7 . 0 1 9 . 3 7 3 3 1 1 4 7 3 0 . 7 1 8 2 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 O O 2 . 2 0 1 . 0 4 4 . 2 5 1 1 1 . 0 . 1 4 3 . 5 8 1 . 7 0 0 . 1 8 5 4 . 8 9 . 4 9 1 . 7 6 1 . 1 4 3 3 . 6 2 0 8 . S A N D L O O S E 2 . 2 0 2 . 4 0 0 . 9 6 4 7 5 1 3 1 . O . 1 6 4 . 7 4 1 . 7 0 0 . 1 9 9 4 . 0 6 . 6 3 1 . 3 2 0 . 9 9 3 5 3 2 2 4 . S A N D L O O S E 2 . 4 0 2 . 6 0 0 . . 7 1 3 . . 3 5 9 1 . 0 . 1 8 4 . 9 3 1 . 7 0 0 . 2 1 3 2 . 5 2 . 7 0 0 . 5 7 0 . . 6 7 3 3 . 5 1 1 8 . S A N D L O O S E 2 . 6 0 2 . 8 0 0 . 7 4 4 . 8 5 1 4 2 . 0 2 0 7 . 5 4 1 . 7 0 0 . 2 2 7 2 . 4 2 . 4 7 O 5 6 0 . 6 5 3 7 . 8 1 7 9 . S A N D L O O S E 2 . 8 0 3 O O 0 . 8 2 5 5 0 1 6 2 . 0 2 2 7 . 8 4 1 . 7 0 0 . 2 4 1 2 . 5 2 . 6 3 0 6 3 0 . 6 7 3 8 . 5 2 0 9 . S A N D L O O S E 3 . O O 3 . 2 0 1 . 1 9 6 3 5 1 7 8 . 0 . 2 4 5 . 4 0 1 . 8 0 0 . 2 5 7 3 . 7 5 . 7 0 1 . 4 7 0 . 9 3 3 6 . , 3 2 9 2 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 . . 2 0 3 . . 4 0 1 . , 2 1 6 . , 0 5 1 6 7 . 0 . 2 6 5 . 1 0 1 . 8 0 0 . 2 7 3 3 5 5 . 0 3 1 . , 3 7 0 . 8 8 3 5 . . 4 2 6 5 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 . . 4 0 3 . 6 0 O . 9 2 5 . 4 5 1 5 7 . 0 2 8 7 . 0 2 1 . 7 0 0 . 2 8 7 2 2 2 . . 1 8 0 . 6 3 0 6 1 3 6 6 1 8 8 . S A N D L O O S E 3 . 6 0 3 . 8 0 1 . 8 4 1 0 . 1 5 2 8 7 . 0 3 0 5 . 3 8 1 . 8 0 0 . 3 0 3 5 . 1 1 0 . 4 4 3. 1 6 1 . 1 8 3 7 . 7 5 5 0 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 . 8 0 4 . O O 1 . 9 0 9 0 5 2 4 7 . O 3 2 4 . 5 3 1 . 8 0 0 . 3 1 9 5 . 0 9 . 8 8 3 . 1 5 1 . 1 5 3 5 . 8 4 6 7 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . 0 0 4 . 2 0 1 , , 6 3 1 0 . 1 5 2 9 5 . 0 . 3 4 6 . 5 8 1 . 8 0 O . 3 3 5 3 . 9 6 . 1 5 2 . 0 6 0 , . 9 6 3 8 . 7 4 9 3 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . 2 0 4 . 4 0 1 . 6 8 9 . 2 5 2 6 2 . O . 3 6 5 . 7 4 1 . 8 0 0 3 5 1 3 . 8 5 . 8 4 2 . 0 5 0 . 9 4 3 7 . 0 4 3 2 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . 4 0 4 . 6 0 1 . 4 2 3 9 5 8 8 . 0 3 8 2 . 4 3 1 . 7 0 0 . 3 6 5 2 . 8 3 . 4 4 1 . 2 5 o . 7 5 2 9 2 1 1 9 . S I L T Y S A N D L O O S E 4 . 6 0 4 . 8 0 1 . 6 3 5 , 9 5 1 4 9 . 0 4 0 3 . 5 0 1 . 8 0 0 . 3 8 1 3 . 2 4 . 4 0 1 , . 6 7 0 . 8 4 3 1 8 2 2 7 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 4 . 8 0 5 . 0 0 1 . 6 8 9 . , 2 5 2 6 2 . 0 . 4 2 6 . 0 1 1 . 8 0 0 . 3 9 7 3 . 2 4 . 2 2 1 . 6 8 0 . . 8 2 3 6 7 3 9 4 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 O O . 2 0 5 . 2 0 2 . 0 3 8 . 5 5 2 2 6 . 0 . 4 4 4 . 1 0 1 . 8 0 0 . 4 1 3 3 . 8 6 . 1 1 2 , 5 2 0 , 9 6 3 3 . 8 3 7 7 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 5 . 4 0 1 . , 9 3 8 3 5 2 2 2 . 0 . , 4 6 4 . 3 5 1 . 8 0 0 . 4 2 9 3 . 4 4 . 9 2 2 . . 1 1 0 . 8 8 3 3 . . 8 3 4 9 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 . 4 0 5 . 6 0 1 . 5 0 6 4 5 1 7 1 . 0 . 4 8 4 . 8 3 1 . 8 0 0 . 4 4 5 2 . 3 2 . 2 9 1 . 0 2 0 . 6 2 3 3 . 0 2 0 9 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 . 6 0 5 . 8 0 1 . , 9 7 7 . 6 5 1 9 7 . 0 . . 5 0 3 . 8 7 1 . 8 0 0 . 4 6 1 3 . 2 4 . 2 6 1 . 9 6 0 . . 8 3 3 2 . 5 2 9 6 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 5 . 8 0 6 . O O 1 . 6 3 6 . 0 5 1 5 3 . 0 . 5 2 3 . 9 8 1 . 8 0 0 . . 4 7 7 2 . 3 2 . 3 3 1 . 1 1 0 . 6 3 3 1 , . 5 1 8 9 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . O O 6 . 2 0 1 . 9 0 6 . 8 5 1 7 1 . 0 . 5 4 3 . 6 2 1 . 8 0 0 . 4 9 3 2 . 8 3 . 2 5 1 . 6 0 0 . 7 3 3 1 . 5 2 3 7 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . 2 0 6 . 4 0 1 . 7 9 6 9 5 1 7 8 . 0 . 5 6 4 . 1 8 1 . 8 0 0 . 5 0 9 2 . 4 2 . 5 3 1 2 9 0 6 5 3 2 . 0 2 2 6 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . 4 0 6 . 6 0 1 . . 6 3 6 . 0 5 1 5 3 . 0 . 5 8 4 . . 2 1 1 . 8 0 0 . 5 2 5 2 . 0 1 . . 7 5 0 . 9 2 0 . . 5 4 3 1 . 4 1 6 8 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . 6 0 G . 8 0 1 . . 5 7 7 . 1 5 1 9 3 . 0 . 6 0 5 . . 7 2 1 . 8 0 0 . 5 4 1 1 . 8 1 . 4 3 0 . 7 7 0 . . 4 9 3 3 . 4 1 9 5 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 6 . 8 0 7 . 0 0 3 . . 3 0 1 2 . 4 5 3 1 6 . 0 . 6 2 3 . 4 1 1 . 9 0 0 . 5 5 9 4 . 8 9 . 3 2 5 . 2 1 1 . 1 3 3 3 . 1 5 8 9 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . O O Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) Z ( m ) 7 2 0 3 0 4 1 1 3 5 2 8 7 . 0 6 4 3 4 5 1 9 0 0 5 7 7 4 2 7 1 1 4 1 0 1 0 2 3 2 6 5 0 0 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 2 0 7 4 0 2 9 0 9 9 5 2 4 4 . 0 6 6 3 1 4 1 9 0 0 5 9 5 3 8 5 8 8 3 5 0 0 9 4 3 1 5 4 0 3 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 4 0 7 6 0 2 3 2 8 9 5 2 2 9 . 0 6 8 4 0 3 1 8 0 O 6 1 1 2 7 3 0 8 1 8 8 0 7 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 7 6 0 7 8 0 2 4 9 9 8 5 2 5 5 . O 7 0 4 1 1 1 9 0 0 6 2 9 2 8 3 4 3 2 1 6 0 7 5 3 2 5 3 5 9 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 8 0 8 O O 2 8 5 1 1 0 5 2 8 4 . 0 7 2 3 8 5 1 9 0 0 6 4 7 3 3 4 5 3 2 9 3 0 8 5 3 2 6 4 3 5 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 O O 8 2 0 2 8 5 1 0 9 5 2 8 0 . 0 7 4 3 8 3 1 9 0 0 6 6 5 3 2 4 2 4 2 8 2 0 8 2 3 2 4 4 2 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y B 2 0 8 4 0 2 7 9 1 0 0 5 2 5 1 . 0 7 6 3 5 7 1 9 0 0 6 8 3 3 O 3 7 4 2 5 6 0 7 8 3 1 6 3 6 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 4 0 8 6 0 1 5 6 5 3 5 1 3 1 . 0 7 8 4 8 6 1 7 0 0 6 9 7 1 1 0 5 8 0 4 0 0 2 7 3 0 4 1 1 1 . S A N D L O O S E 8 6 0 8 8 0 1 8 3 8 3 5 2 2 6 . 0 8 0 6 3 3 1 8 0 0 7 1 3 1 4 0 9 4 0 6 7 0 3 8 3 3 3 1 9 2 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 8 8 0 9 0 0 3 9 3 1 2 4 5 2 9 5 . 0 8 2 2 7 3 9 0 0 7 3 1 4 3 7 4 1 5 4 2 1 0 3 3 1 0 5 1 4 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 O O 9 2 0 3 3 0 1 2 5 5 3 2 0 . 0 8 4 3 7 6 1 9 0 0 7 4 9 3 3 4 5 1 3 3 8 0 8 5 3 2 4 4 9 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 2 0 9 4 0 4 6 2 1 7 5 5 4 4 7 . 0 8 6 3 4 3 0 0 0 7 6 9 4 9 9 6 7 7 4 3 1 1 4 3 3 3 8 4 1 . S A N D R I G I D 9 4 0 9 6 0 3 6 1 1 2 5 5 3 0 9 . 0 8 8 3 2 7 1 9 0 0 7 8 7 3 5 5 0 2 3 9 5 O 8 8 3 1 5 4 8 9 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 6 0 9 8 0 4 3 3 1 5 0 5 3 7 1 . 0 9 0 3 1 3 9 0 0 8 0 5 4 3 7 4 1 5 9 7 1 0 3 3 2 0 6 5 2 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 8 0 1 0 0 0 4 6 5 1 6 9 5 4 2 5 . 0 9 2 3 2 9 1 9 0 0 8 2 3 4 5 8 3 6 6 8 8 1 0 8 3 2 6 7 7 2 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 O O 1 0 2 0 4 6 1 1 7 7 5 4 5 4 . 0 9 4 3 5 7 O O 0 8 4 3 4 4 7 7 4 6 5 3 1 0 5 3 3 1 8 0 8 . S A N D R I G I D 1 0 2 0 1 0 4 0 4 1 0 1 5 4 5 3 9 3 . 0 9 6 3 6 2 1 9 0 0 8 6 1 3 6 5 5 1 4 7 4 0 9 2 3 2 5 6 3 8 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 4 0 1 0 6 0 3 8 0 1 2 9 5 3 1 6 . 0 9 8 3 2 4 1 9 0 0 8 7 9 3 2 4 3 3 3 8 0 0 8 3 3 1 2 4 7 9 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 6 0 1 0 8 0 3 8 7 1 3 7 5 3 4 2 . 1 O O 3 4 4 i 9 0 0 8 9 7 3 2 4 2 9 3 8 5 0 8 3 3 1 6 5 1 6 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 8 0 11 0 0 3 8 5 1 4 0 5 3 5 3 . 1 0 2 3 6 0 1 9 0 o 9 1 5 3 1 4 0 3 3 6 9 O 8 1 3 1 8 5 2 3 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 1 O O 11 2 0 4 0 5 1 2 2 5 2 8 4 . 1 0 4 2 7 2 1 9 0 0 9 3 3 3 2 4 3 6 4 0 7 O 8 3 3 0 1 4 2 5 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 11 2 0 1 1 4 0 3 6 0 1 0 6 5 2 4 4 . 1 0 6 2 7 7 \ 9 0 0 9 5 1 2 7 3 0 5 2 9 0 0 7 1 2 9 7 3 2 5 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 1 4 0 1 1 6 0 2 7 6 8 6 5 2 0 4 . 1 0 8 3 5 1 8 0 0 9 6 7 1 7 1 3 4 1 2 9 0 4 7 2 9 8 2 0 0 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 1 1 6 0 11 8 0 3 6 2 1 2 3 5 3 0 2 . 1 1 0 3 4 6 1 9 0 0 9 8 5 2 6 2 8 1 2 7 7 0 6 9 3 0 9 3 9 8 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 11 8 0 1 2 0 0 3 9 5 1 2 0 5 2 8 0 . 1 1 2 2 8 6 1 9 0 1 0 0 3 2 8 3 3 9 3 4 0 0 7 5 3 0 0 3 8 9 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 O O 1 2 2 0 4 8 9 1 8 4 5 4 6 9 . 1 1 4 3 6 1 O O 1 0 2 3 3 7 5 5 8 5 7 0 0 9 2 3 2 5 7 6 4 . S A N D R I G I D 1 2 2 0 1 2 4 0 4 8 8 1 6 6 5 4 0 7 . 1 1 6 3 1 6 9 0 1 0 4 1 3 6 5 3 0 5 5 2 0 9 0 3 1 4 6 5 4 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 4 0 1 2 6 0 3 6 7 1 1 4 5 2 6 9 . 1 1 8 3 1 3 1 9 0 1 0 5 9 2 4 2 3 8 2 5 2 0 6 4 3 0 0 3 3 4 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 6 0 1 2 8 0 3 5 4 1 3 9 5 3 6 0 . 1 2 0 4 4 4 9 0 1 0 7 7 2 2 2 0 6 2 2 1 0 5 9 3 2 1 4 2 3 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 2 8 0 1 3 0 0 4 3 4 1 4 7 5 3 6 0 . 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 9 0 1 0 9 5 2 9 3 4 5 3 7 8 0 7 5 3 1 0 5 0 8 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 O O 1 3 2 0 4 2 5 1 2 3 5 2 8 0 . 1 2 4 2 6 9 9 0 1 1 1 3 2 7 3 1 2 3 4 7 0 7 2 2 9 6 3 7 5 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 2 0 1 3 4 0 4 3 9 1 3 7 5 3 2 4 . 1 2 6 2 9 8 1 9 0 1 1 3 1 2 8 3 2 6 3 6 9 0 7 3 3 0 2 4 4 8 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 4 0 1 3 6 0 3 9 0 1 0 9 5 2 4 4 . 1 2 8 2 6 8 1 9 0 1 1 4 9 2 3 2 2 5 2 5 9 0 6 2 2 9 1 2 8 9 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 6 0 1 3 8 0 3 9 1 1 2 8 5 3 0 9 . 1 3 0 3 4 2 1 9 0 1 1 6 7 2 2 2 1 7 2 5 4 0 6 1 3 0 4 3 7 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 3 8 0 1 4 0 0 3 9 2 1 2 7 5 3 0 6 . 1 3 2 3 4 0 9 0 1 1 8 5 2 2 2 0 9 2 4 7 0 6 0 3 0 3 3 6 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 O O 1 4 2 0 4 6 4 1 5 1 5 3 6 4 . 1 3 4 3 1 9 9 0 1 2 0 3 2 7 3 2 0 3 8 5 0 7 3 3 0 6 5 0 1 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 2 0 1 4 4 0 5 3 2 1 6 1 5 3 7 5 . 1 3 6 2 7 3 i 9 0 1 2 2 1 3 2 4 4 1 5 3 9 0 8 4 3 0 2 5 6 3 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 4 0 1 4 6 0 3 3 6 1 1 2 5 2 7 3 . 1 3 8 3 9 7 1 9 0 1 2 3 9 1 6 1 1 4 1 4 2 0 4 3 3 0 3 2 4 8 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 6 0 1 4 8 0 5 3 4 2 0 0 5 5 0 9 . 1 4 0 3 7 3 2 0 0 1 2 5 9 3 1 4 1 1 5 1 8 0 8 1 3 2 1 7 5 9 . S A N D R I G I D 1 4 8 0 1 5 0 0 5 8 6 2 0 0 5 4 9 1 . 1 4 2 3 1 9 2 0 0 1 2 7 9 3 5 5 0 2 6 4 3 0 8 8 3 1 4 7 7 6 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 5 O O 1 5 2 0 5 3 2 1 6 1 5 3 7 5 . 1 4 4 2 7 9 1 9 0 1 2 9 7 3 0 3 7 8 4 9 1 0 7 8 3 0 0 5 3 8 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 5 2 0 1 5 4 0 4 9 7 1 8 9 5 4 8 4 . 1 4 6 3 9 8 2 0 0 1 3 1 7 2 7 3 0 3 4 O O 0 7 1 3 2 0 6 5 4 . S A N D R I G I D 1 5 4 0 1 5 6 0 6 4 9 2 2 2 5 5 4 5 . 1 4 8 3 1 5 2 0 0 1 3 3 7 3 7 5 8 0 7 7 6 0 9 4 3 1 5 8 9 8 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D \ 1 5 6 0 1 5 8 0 5 8 7 2 1 9 5 5 5 6 . 1 5 0 3 6 7 2 0 0 1 3 5 7 3 2 4 3 5 5 9 1 0 8 3 3 2 1 8 4 4 . S A N D R I G I D 1 5 8 0 1 6 0 0 5 7 1 1 8 9 5 4 5 8 . 1 5 2 3 1 6 2 O O 1 3 7 7 3 0 3 9 0 5 3 7 0 7 9 3 0 9 6 7 2 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 6 O O 1 6 2 0 5 6 5 1 7 9 5 4 2 5 . 1 5 4 2 9 9 2 0 0 1 3 9 7 2 9 3 6 6 5 1 2 0 7 7 3 0 4 6 1 1 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 6 2 0 Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 1 6 . 4 0 7 . 1 4 2 1 . 8 5 5 0 9 . 1 . 5 6 2 . 6 4 2 - O O 1 . 4 1 7 3 . 9 6 . 3 8 9 . 0 4 0 . 9 7 3 0 . 5 8 4 9 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 6 . 4 0 1 6 . 6 0 4 . 8 1 1 5 . 8 5 3 8 2 . 1 . 5 8 3 . 4 1 1 . 9 0 1 . 4 3 5 2 . 3 2 . 2 0 3 . 1 5 0 . 6 1 3 0 . 4 4 6 0 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 6 . 6 0 Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r I p t I o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) N O T E S : 1 . F o r 0 . 9 > I d > 1 . 2 n e i t h e r C u n o r P h 1 c a l c u l a t e d . 2 . 1 B a r = 1 0 0 K P a 3 . * = 1 m m D e f l e c t i o n n o t r e a c h e d . C O M M E N T S T e s t h o l e 2 . S o u n d i n g m a d e a f t e r f i r s t h o l e i n t h i s g r i d d e f l e c t e d . I n g o o d a g r e e m e n t w i t h a d j a c e n t c o n e h o l e s b t g r i d o v e r a l l s h o w e d l i t t l e r e s p o n s e t o v i b r o f l o t a t i o n . U . B . C . I N S I T U T E S T I N G R E S E A R C H G R O U P . F i l e N a m e : T I L 0 5 R e c o r d o f D i l a t o m e t e r t e s t N o : U B C - D H 5 L o c a t i o n : T i l b u r y T e s t H o l e 3 D a t e : 5 A u g 8 1 C a l i b r a t i o n I n f o r m a t 1 o n : D A = 0 . 1 6 B a r s D B = 0 . 1 5 B a r s Z M = 0 . 0 5 B a r s ZW = 0 . 8 0 m e t r e s G a m m a = B u l k u n i t w e i g h t S v ' E f f e c t i v e o v e r . s t r e s s U o = P o r e p r e s s u r e I d ' M a t e r i a l I n d e x E d ' D i l a t o m e t e r m o d u l u s K d ' H o r i z o n t a l s t r e s s I n d e x I N T E R P R E T E D G E O T E C H N I C A L P A R A M E T E R S K o ' I n s i t u e a r t h p r e s s . c o e f f . O C R ' O v e r c o n s o l I d a t I o n R a t i o M ' C o n s t r a i n e d m o d u l u s C u ' U n d r a i n e d c o h e s 1 o n ( c o h e s I v e ) P H I = F r 1 c t 1 o n A n g l e ( c o h e s l o n l e s s ) Z ( m ) P O ( B a r ) P 1 ( B a r ) E d ( B a r ) U o ( B a r ) I d G a m m a ( T / C M ) S v ( B a r ) K d O C R P c ( B a r ) K O C u ( B a r ) P H I ( D e g ) M ( B a r ) S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) 1 . 2 0 O 8 7 1 . 7 0 2 9 . 0 . . 0 4 1 , 0 0 1 . 6 0 0 . 1 7 2 4 . 8 3 . 9 6 0 . 6 8 1 . 1 3 5 1 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 1 . 2 0 1 . 4 0 0 . 6 8 1 . 2 5 2 0 . 0 . 0 6 0 9 1 1 . 6 0 0 . 1 8 4 3 . 4 2 2 8 0 4 2 O . 8 7 2 8 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 1 , 4 0 1 . 6 0 0 . 8 3 1 . 4 0 2 0 . 0 . O S 0 7 5 1 . 6 0 0 1 9 6 3 . 8 2 . 7 7 0 . 5 4 0 . 9 6 0 . 1 0 3 0 . C L A Y E Y S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 1 . 6 0 1 . 8 0 0 9 2 1 . 8 5 3 2 . 0 . 1 0 1 . 1 5 1 . 6 0 O . , 2 0 8 3 . 9 2 . . 8 6 O 5 9 0 . 9 7 5 1 . S I L T C O M P R E S S I B L E 1 8 0 2 . 0 0 0 . . 6 1 4 . 9 0 1 4 9 . 0 . 1 2 8 . 8 5 1 . 7 0 O . 2 2 2 2 . 2 2 . 0 8 O . 4 6 0 . 5 9 3 9 . . 3 1 7 5 . S A N D L O O S E 2 . 0 0 2 . 2 0 1 . 5 7 6 . 7 0 1 7 8 . 0 . . 1 4 3 6 0 1 . 8 0 0 . 2 3 8 6 O 1 4 . 2 2 3 . 3 8 1. . 3 2 3 4 . 4 3 6 5 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . . 2 0 2 . 4 0 1 . 5 8 6 . 4 0 1 6 7 . 0 1 6 3 3 9 1 . 8 0 0 . 2 5 4 5 . 6 1 2 4 8 3 . 1 7 1 . 2 6 3 3 7 3 3 3 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . 4 0 2 . 6 0 1 . 7 4 8 . 4 0 2 3 0 . 0 . 1 8 4 2 6 1 . 8 0 O 2 7 0 5 . 8 1 3 . 3 2 3 . 6 0 1 . 2 9 3 5 , 8 4 6 7 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 2 . 6 0 2 . 8 0 2 . 1 8 8 . 1 0 2 0 5 . 0 . , 2 0 2 9 9 1 . 9 0 0 . 2 8 8 6 . 9 1 8 . 4 7 5 . 3 2 1. , 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 5 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 2 . , S O 3 O O 2 . . 1 4 7 . 9 0 1 9 9 . 0 . 2 2 3 . . 0 1 1 . 8 0 0 . 3 0 4 6 . 3 1 5 . 6 7 4 7 6 1 . 3 6 3 3 , . 1 4 1 9 . S I L T Y S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 3 . 0 0 3 . 2 0 2 . 2 8 9 . 2 0 2 3 9 . 0 . 2 4 3 . . 3 9 1 . 9 0 0 . 3 2 2 6 . 3 1 5 . . 8 4 5 . 1 0 1 . 3 7 3 4 , 1 5 0 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 . 2 0 3 . 4 0 2 . . 7 3 1 0 8 0 2 7 9 . 0 . 2 6 3 . 2 7 1 . 9 0 0 . 3 4 0 7 . 3 2 0 . 4 9 6 . 9 6 1. 5 0 3 4 3 6 2 1 . S I L T Y S A N O M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 . 4 0 3 . 6 0 2 , 2 4 1 0 . 0 0 2 6 8 . 0 . 2 8 3 . . 9 6 1 . 9 0 0 . 3 5 8 5 . 5 1 1 . 9 8 4 . 2 9 1. 2 4 3 4 . 9 5 3 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 . 6 0 3 . 8 0 2 . . 0 6 1 1 . 6 0 3 3 0 . 0 . 3 0 5 4 4 1 . 9 0 0 . 3 7 6 4 . 7 8 . 8 4 3 3 2 1. . 1 1 3 7 . 4 6 0 7 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 3 . 8 0 4 O O 2 . 9 1 1 5 . 6 0 4 3 9 . 0 . 3 2 4 . , 9 1 1 . 9 0 0 . , 3 9 4 6 . 6 1 6 . 9 3 6 . 6 7 1 . 4 0 3 7 , 7 9 3 7 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 . O O 4 . 2 0 5 . 1 8 1 6 . 3 0 3 8 5 . 0 3 4 2 3 0 2 . O O 0 . 4 1 4 1 1 . 7 5 1 . 0 1 2 1 1 1 2 , 0 3 3 3 . 1 1 0 1 9 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 4 . 2 0 4 . 4 0 3 . . 1 1 9 . 5 0 2 2 1 . 0 . 3 6 2 3 3 1 . 9 0 0 . . 4 3 2 6 . 4 1 5 . 9 2 6 . . 8 8 1 . 3 7 3 1 . 3 4 6 2 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 . 4 0 4 . 6 0 3 6 3 1 8 . 0 0 4 9 7 . 0 . . 3 8 4 . 4 3 1 . 9 0 0 . , 4 5 0 7 . 2 2 0 . 2 7 9 1 2 1 4 9 3 7 . 1 1 1 0 2 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 . 6 0 4 . 8 0 3 . 5 0 1 8 . 4 0 5 1 6 . 0 . 4 0 4 . 8 1 1 . 9 0 0 . 4 6 8 6 . 6 1 7 . 2 4 8 0 6 1 . 4 1 3 7 , . 6 1 1 0 5 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 4 . 8 0 5 . 0 0 2 . . 7 3 1 5 . 0 0 4 2 5 . 0 4 2 5 . 3 2 1 . 9 0 0 . 4 8 6 4 . 7 9 . 1 1 4 4 3 1 . 1 2 3 7 2 7 8 7 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 O O 5 . 2 0 2 . 6 3 1 2 . 7 0 3 4 8 . 0 . 4 4 4 . 6 0 1 . 9 0 0 , 5 0 4 4 . 3 7 . 7 0 3 . 8 8 1 . 0 5 3 5 , . 5 6 1 9 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 . 2 0 5 . 4 0 2 . , 7 4 1 2 . 7 0 3 4 5 . 0 4 6 4 . 3 8 1 . 9 0 0 , 5 2 2 4 . 4 7 . . 7 5 4 0 4 1 . 0 5 3 5 O 6 1 3 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 . 4 0 5 . 6 0 2 . 4 9 1 3 . 4 0 3 7 7 . 0 , 4 8 5 . 4 3 1 . 9 0 0 . . 5 4 0 3 . 7 5 . 7 3 3 . 1 0 0 . 9 3 3 6 . 5 6 2 0 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 . 6 0 5 . 8 0 2 . , 9 5 1 2 . 6 0 3 3 4 . 0 , 5 0 3 . 9 4 1 . 9 0 0 . 5 5 8 4 . 4 7 . 8 6 4 3 8 1 . 0 6 3 4 . 0 5 9 6 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 5 . 8 0 6 . 0 0 2 8 4 1 2 . 7 0 3 4 1 . 0 . 5 2 4 , . 2 5 1 . 9 0 0 . 5 7 6 4 . 0 6 . 6 7 3 . 8 4 0 . 9 9 3 4 . 3 5 8 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 0 0 6 . 2 0 3 . . 0 1 1 3 . 6 0 3 6 7 . 0 . . 5 4 4 3 0 1 . 9 0 0 . . 5 9 4 4 . 2 7 . 0 6 4 1 9 1 . 0 1 3 4 . 6 6 3 7 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 2 0 6 . 4 0 3 . . 1 2 1 3 . 4 0 3 5 6 . 0 . 5 6 4 . 0 1 1 . 9 0 0 . . 6 1 2 4 . 2 7 . 1 6 4 . 3 8 1 . 0 2 3 4 . 0 6 2 0 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 4 0 6 . 6 0 2 . 7 6 1 2 . 2 0 3 2 7 . 0 . 5 8 4 . 3 3 1 . 9 0 0 . 6 3 0 3 . 5 4 . 9 9 3 . 1 4 0 . 8 8 3 3 8 5 1 6 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 6 0 6 . 8 0 3 . 1 4 1 5 . 2 0 4 1 7 . 0 6 0 4 7 6 1 . 9 0 0 . 6 4 8 3 . 9 6 . 3 0 4 0 8 . 0 . . 9 7 3 5 . 3 7 0 3 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 6 . 8 0 7 . O O 3 . 3 5 1 5 . 1 0 4 0 7 . 0 6 2 4 . 3 0 1 . 9 0 0 6 6 6 4 . 1 6 . 8 9 4 . 5 9 1 . 0 0 3 4 . 6 7 0 2 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . 0 0 7 . 2 0 3 4 0 1 4 . 2 0 3 7 4 . 0 . . 6 4 3 9 2 1 . 9 0 0 . 6 8 4 4 . 0 6 . 6 6 4 , . 5 6 0 . 9 9 3 3 . 6 6 3 9 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . 2 0 7 . 4 0 2 . 9 6 1 2 . 5 0 3 3 0 . 0 6 6 4 . . 1 6 1 . 9 0 0 . 7 0 2 3 . 3 4 . 4 7 3 . , 1 4 0 . 8 4 3 3 . 2 5 0 5 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . 4 0 Z P O P 1 ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) E d U o I d ( B a r ) ( B a r ) G a m m a S v K d ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) O C R P C K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) Z ( m ) 7 . 6 0 3 . 2 7 1 2 . 6 0 3 2 3 . 0 . 6 8 3 6 1 1 9 0 0 . 7 2 0 3 . 6 5 . 3 5 3 . 8 5 7 . 8 0 1 . 3 6 1 3 0 0 4 0 3 . 0 . 7 0 1 7 . 7 6 1 . . 8 0 0 . . 7 3 6 0 . 9 0 . 3 7 0 . 2 7 8 . O O 3 . 5 9 1 2 . 4 0 3 0 5 . 0 . 7 2 3 . 0 7 1 . 9 0 0 7 5 4 3 . 8 5 . 9 8 4 5 1 8 2 0 3 . 3 8 1 0 . . 3 0 2 3 9 . O . 7 4 2 . 6 2 1 . . 9 0 0 , 7 7 2 3 . 4 4 . 8 8 3 . , 7 6 8 . 4 0 2 . 3 9 1 1 . 2 0 3 0 5 . 0 . , 7 6 5 . 4 0 1 , . 9 0 0 , 7 9 0 2 , 1 1 . 8 6 1 4 7 8 6 0 3 . 0 3 8 9 0 2 0 3 . 0 . 7 8 2 . 6 1 1 . 9 0 0 . 8 0 8 2 . 8 3 . 2 9 2 6 6 8 . 8 0 2 . . 2 8 1 1 , . 3 0 3 1 2 . 0 . 8 0 6 . 0 9 1 , . 8 0 0 . . 8 2 4 1 , a 1 . 4 3 1 . 1 7 9 . 0 0 3 4 5 1 5 , . 3 0 4 1 0 . 0 . . 8 2 4 . 5 2 1 . 9 0 0 . 8 4 2 3 . 1 4 . 0 9 3 4 4 9 . 2 0 3 . 5 4 1 7 6 0 4 8 6 . O . 8 4 5 . 2 1 1 . 9 0 0 . 8 6 0 3 . 1 4 . 1 4 3 5 6 9 . 4 0 3 . . 5 1 1 8 . 3 0 5 1 2 . 0 . 8 6 5 . 5 9 1 , . 9 0 0 . 8 7 8 3 0 3 . 8 3 3 . 3 6 9 . 6 0 3 . 8 9 1 7 . O O 4 5 4 . 0 . 8 8 4 . 3 6 1 . 9 0 0 . 8 9 6 3 , . 4 4 . 7 0 4 . . 2 1 9 . 8 0 3 . . 7 8 1 5 , O O 3 8 8 . 0 . 9 0 3 . 9 0 1 . 9 0 0 . 9 1 4 3 1 4 . 1 6 3 8 0 1 0 O O 3 . . 3 2 1 3 . 7 0 3 5 9 . 0 . 9 2 4 . 3 4 1 . 9 0 0 9 3 2 2 6 2 . 8 2 2 . 6 3 1 0 . 2 0 3 . 6 1 1 4 . 2 0 3 6 7 . 0 . 9 4 3 . 9 7 1 . 9 0 0 . . 9 5 0 2 8 3 . 3 4 3 . 1 7 i o . 4 0 3 . 5 5 1 5 . 3 0 4 0 7 . 0 . 9 6 4 . 5 4 1 . 9 0 0 . . 9 6 8 2 , . 7 3 0 5 2 9 5 1 0 . 6 0 3 . . 4 3 1 7 . 7 0 4 9 4 . 0 . 9 8 5 . 8 2 1 . 9 0 0 . 9 8 6 2 5 2 . 6 5 2 6 1 1 0 . 8 0 4 . 4 4 1 8 . 6 0 4 9 0 . 1 . 0 0 4 . 1 2 1 . 9 0 1 . 0 0 4 3 . 4 4 . 8 8 4 9 0 11 . 0 0 4 . 1 5 2 4 . 3 0 6 9 7 . 1, . 0 2 6 . 4 4 2 O O 1 . 0 2 4 3 . 1 3 9 3 4 . 0 3 1 1 . 2 0 4 . 8 9 2 4 . 3 0 6 7 2 . 1. . 0 4 5 . 0 5 2 O O 1 . 0 4 4 3 7 5 . 6 2 5 8 6 1 1 . 4 0 5 . 2 7 2 7 . 1 0 7 5 5 . 1. . 0 6 5 , . 1 8 2 . 0 0 1 . 0 6 4 4 . 0 6 4 4 6 8 5 1 1 . 6 0 6 . 0 3 3 2 . 9 0 9 3 0 . 1. . 0 8 5 . 4 3 2 O O 1 . 0 8 4 4 . 6 8 . . 4 7 9 1 8 11 . 8 0 7 . 7 1 2 8 . 8 0 7 3 0 . 1. . 1 0 3 . 1 9 2 O O 1 . 1 0 4 6 . 0 1 4 . 1 9 1 5 6 6 1 2 . 0 0 5 . 6 1 2 4 . 6 0 6 5 7 . 1 . 1 2 4 . 2 3 2 . O O 1 . 1 2 4 4 . 0 6 . . 5 4 7 3 6 1 2 . 2 0 5 . 6 0 2 4 . 7 0 6 6 1 . 1, . 1 4 4 . 2 8 2 . O O 1 . 1 4 4 3 . 9 6 . 2 6 7 . 1 6 1 2 . 4 0 6 . 5 1 2 9 . 7 0 8 0 3 . 1 . 1 6 4 . 3 4 2 O O 1 1 6 4 4 6 8 . 5 6 9 9 6 1 2 . 6 0 5 . 6 4 2 8 . 2 0 7 8 1 . 1 . 1 8 5 . 0 6 2 . O O 1, . 1 8 4 3 . 8 5 8 5 6 . 9 3 1 2 . 8 0 8 . 0 9 3 1 . 6 0 8 1 3 . 1 . 2 0 3 . 4 1 2 O O 1 . 2 0 4 5 . 7 1 3 . 0 3 1 5 . 6 9 1 3 . O O 6 . 4 0 2 9 . 8 0 8 1 0 . 1 . 2 2 4 . 5 2 2 . 0 0 1 . 2 2 4 4 . 2 7 . 3 1 8 . 9 5 1 3 . 2 0 7 . 8 6 3 2 . 1 0 8 3 9 . 1 . 2 4 3 . 6 6 2 , 0 O 1 . 2 4 4 5 . 3 1 1 . 3 3 1 4 . 0 9 1 3 . 4 0 7 . 0 2 2 5 . 8 0 6 5 0 . 1 . 2 6 3 . 2 6 2 . 0 0 1 . 2 6 4 4 . 6 8 . 4 2 1 0 . 6 4 1 3 . 6 0 5 . 5 2 2 4 . 3 0 6 5 0 . 1 2 8 4 . 4 4 2 . 0 0 1 . 2 8 4 3 . 3 4 . , 5 5 5 . 8 4 1 3 . 8 0 7 . 8 8 2 5 . 3 0 6 0 3 . 1, . 3 0 2 . 6 5 2 . 0 0 1 . 3 0 4 5 O 1 0 2 5 1 3 . . 3 6 1 4 . 0 0 5 . 0 2 1 7 . 5 0 4 3 2 . 1 . 3 2 3 . 3 8 1 . 9 0 1 . 3 2 2 2 . 8 3 . . 3 2 4 , . 3 8 1 4 . 2 0 6 . 6 1 2 1 . 4 0 5 1 2 . 1 . 3 4 2 . 8 1 2 . 0 0 1 . 3 4 2 3 . 9 6 . 3 4 8 . 5 0 1 4 . 4 0 5 . 9 9 2 1 . 1 0 5 2 3 . 1 . 3 6 3 . 2 6 2 . 0 0 1 . 3 6 2 3 . 4 4 . . 8 2 6 . 5 6 1 4 . 6 0 6 . 8 8 2 4 . 3 0 6 0 3 . 1 . 3 8 3 . 1 7 2 . O O 1 . 3 8 2 4 . 0 6 . 5 1 9 . 0 0 1 4 . 8 0 6 . 7 2 2 3 . 4 0 5 7 7 . 1 . 4 0 3 . 1 4 2 . 0 0 1 . 4 0 2 3 . 8 5 . , 9 3 8 3 2 1 5 . 0 0 6 . 8 1 2 1 . 6 0 5 1 2 . 1, . 4 2 2 . 7 5 2 . O O 1 . 4 2 2 3 . 8 5 9 2 8 . 4 2 1 5 . 2 0 6 . 4 4 2 2 . 6 0 5 5 9 . 1 . 4 4 3 . 2 3 2 . 0 0 1 . 4 4 2 3 . 5 5 , . 0 0 7 , . 2 2 1 5 . 4 0 6 . 4 0 2 5 . 6 0 6 6 4 . 1 . 4 6 3 . 8 9 2 . 0 0 1 . 4 6 2 3 . 4 4 . . 7 5 6 . 9 5 Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) o . 9 1 3 2 . 4 5 2 0 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 7 . 6 0 0 . 1 8 4 3 . 6 3 4 2 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 7 . 8 0 0 . 9 5 3 1 . 4 5 0 6 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 O O 0 . 8 7 3 0 . 1 3 6 9 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y a . 2 0 0 . 5 6 3 3 . 5 3 4 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . 4 0 0 . 7 4 2 9 . 5 2 7 6 . S I L T Y S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 8 . 6 0 0 . 4 9 3 3 . 9 3 1 5 . S A N D L O W R I G I D I T Y 8 . 8 0 o. 8 1 3 3 . 7 6 1 0 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 . O O 0 . 8 2 3 5 . 1 7 2 7 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 . 2 0 0 . 7 9 3 5 . 7 7 4 6 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 . 4 0 0 . 8 6 3 3 . 7 7 0 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 . 6 0 0 . 8 2 3 2 . 5 5 8 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 9 . 8 0 0 . 6 9 3 2 . 5 4 7 4 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . O O o. 7 4 3 2 . 2 5 1 2 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 2 0 o. 7 1 3 3 . 1 5 5 1 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 4 0 0 . 6 7 3 5 . 1 6 3 7 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 6 0 0 . 8 7 3 3 . 3 7 6 9 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 0 . 8 0 0 . 8 0 3 7 . 4 1 0 2 5 . S A N D R I G I D 11 . O O 0 . 9 3 3 5 . 7 1 0 9 7 . S A N D R I G I D 1 1 . 2 0 o. 9 8 3 6 . 4 1 2 8 0 . S A N D R I G I D 11 . 4 0 1 . 0 9 3 7 . 8 1 6 9 1 . S A N D R I G I D 11 . 6 0 1 . 3 2 3 3 . 5 1 4 9 9 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 11 . 8 0 o. 9 8 3 4 . 3 1 1 1 9 . S A N D R I G I D 1 2 . O O 0 . 9 7 3 4 . 3 1 1 1 2 . S A N D R I G I D 1 2 . 2 0 1 . 0 9 3 5 . 2 1 4 6 4 . S A N D R I G I D 1 2 . 4 0 0 . 9 4 3 5 . 8 1 2 8 9 . S A N D R I G I D 1 2 . 6 0 1. . 2 8 3 3 . 9 1 6 3 9 . S A N D R I G I D 1 2 . 8 0 1 . 0 3 3 5 . 2 1 4 1 9 . S A N D R I G I D 1 3 . 0 0 1 . , 2 1 3 4 . 3 1 6 3 7 . S A N D R I G I D 1 3 . 2 0 1. 0 9 3 2 . 5 1 1 8 1 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 3 . 4 0 0 . 8 5 3 3 . 8 9 9 9 . S A N D R I G I D 1 3 . 6 0 1 . 1 7 3 1 . 4 1 1 3 9 . S I L T i Y S A N D R I G I D 1 3 . 8 0 0 . 7 4 3 1 . 0 6 0 2 . S A N D M E D I U M R I G I D I T Y 1 4 . 0 0 0 . 9 7 3 0 . 9 8 5 8 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 4 . 2 0 0 . 8 7 3 1 . 5 8 1 7 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 4 . 4 0 0 . 9 8 3 1 . 8 1 0 2 5 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 4 . 6 0 0 . 9 5 3 1 . 6 9 5 7 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 4 . 8 0 0 . 9 5 3 0 . 7 8 4 0 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 5 . 0 0 0 . 8 8 3 1 . 5 8 8 4 . S I L T Y S A N D R I G I D 1 5 . 2 0 0 . 8 6 3 2 . 8 1 0 3 4 . S A N D R I G I D 1 5 . 4 0 K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r I p t i o n Z ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) N O T E S : 1 . F o r 0 . 9 > I d > 1 . 2 n e i t h e r C u n o r P h 1 c a l c u l a t e d . 2 . 1 B a r = 1 0 0 K P a 3 . 0 = 1 m m D e f l e c t i o n n o t r e a c h e d . r o O O COMMENTS T e s t h o l e 3 . T h i s h o l e i n g r i d t h a t s h o w e d m a x i m u m r e s p o n s e t o v i b r o f l o t a t i o n . G o o d a g r e e m e n t w i t h c o n e r e s u l t s a s i n o t h e r h o l e s . 202 APPENDIX V I CLOVERDALE , BC U.B.C.INSITU TESTING RESEARCH GROUP. F i l e Name: DI L . DAT 14 Record of Dilatometer test No-.DIlt #1 Location:Cloverdale Overpass Date:29 Oct 81 Calibration Informat1on:DA= 0.10 Bars DB= 0.57 Bars ZM= 0.05 Bars ZW= 0.30 metres Gamma'Bulk unit weight INTERPRETED GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS Sv 'Effective over.stress Ko =Ins1tu earth press.coeff. Uo »Pore pressure OCR'OverconsolIdat1on Ratio Id 'Material Index M 'Constrained modulus Ed 'Dilatometer modulus Cu 'Undrained cohes1on(cohesIve) Kd 'Horizontal stress Index PHI'Frlctlon Angle(coheslonless) Z po P1 Ed Uo Id Gamma Sv Kd OCR Pc KO Cu PHI M Soil Type Description Z (m) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (T/CM) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Deg) (Bar) (m) 2 .60 0 99 1 . 28 10. 0. 23 0. 39 1 .50 0. 160 4 . 7 3. .82 0. 61 1 . 1 1 0. 10 18 . MUD 2.60 2 .80 1 04 1 . 33 10. O. 25 0. 37 1 .50 O. 170 4 6 3 70 0. 63 1 . 10 0. 11 17 . MUD 2.80 3 .00 1 . 04 1 . 33 10. 0. 27 0. 38 1 .50 0. 180 4 .3 3 .25 0 58 1 .03 0. 10 17. MUD 3.00 3 .20 1 . 14 1 . 38 8 . 0. 29 0. 28 1 . 50 0. 190 4 5 3 50 0. 67 1 .07 0. 11 14. MUD 3.20 3 .40 1 . , 13 1 . 48 12. 0. 31 0. 42 1 .50 0. 20O 4 . , 1 3 .08 0. 62 1 .01 0. 11 19. MUD 3.40 3 .60 1 . 19 1 . 48 10. 0. 33 0. 34 1 .50 0. 210 4. . 1 3 .04 0. 64 1 OO 0. 11 16 . MUD 3.60 3 .80 1 . 23 1 . 58 12. 0. 35 0. 39 1 .50 0. 220 4 0 2 .97 0. .65 0 .99 0. 12 19. MUD 3.80 4 .00 1 .23 1 . 58 12. 0 37 0. 40 1 .50 0. 230 3 8 2 .67 0 61 0 .94 0. 11 18. MUD 4 .00 4 .20 1 . 43 1 . 83 14 . 0. 39 0. 38 1 .60 0. 242 4 3 3 .30 0. .80 1 .04 O. 14 23. SILTY CLAY SOFT 4.20 4 .40 1 .43 1 . 88 16. 0. .41 0. 44 1 .60 0. ,254 4 .0 2 .96 0 .75 0 .99 0. 13 24 . SILTY CLAY SOFT 4.40 4 .60 1 .53 1 . 88 12. 0. 43 0. 31 1 .50 0. .264 4 .2 3 . 16 0 .83 1 .02 0. 15 19. MUD 4.60 4 .80 1 , .57 2 . 13 19. 0 .45 0. 50 1 60 0 .276 4 . 1 3 .03 0 .84 1 .00 0. 15 30. SILTY CLAY SOFT 4.80 5 .00 1 .77 2 . 33 19. 0. 47 0. 43 1 .60 0. .288 4 .5 3 .58 1 .03 1 .08 0. 18 32. SILTY CLAY SOFT 5.00 5 . 20 1. 97 2. 68 25. 0. 49 0. 48 1 .60 o. 300 4. 9 4 .07 1 .22 1 . 15 0. 20 44. SILTY CLAY SOFT 5.20 5 .40 2 .21 3. 08 30. O. 51 0. 51 1 .60 0 ,312 5 4 4 .77 1 49 1 .23 0. 24 57. SILTY CLAY SOFT 5.40 5 .60 2. .21 2. 98 27 . 0. 53 O. 46 1 .60 0. 324 5. 2 4 .43 1. .44 1 . 19 0. 24 49. SILTY CLAY SOFT 5.60 5 .80 2. .42 3 . 08 23. 0. 55 0. 35 1 .60 0. 336 5 6 4 .93 1, .66 1 .25 0. 27 43. SILTY CLAY SOFT 5.80 6 .00 2 . 42 3 . 08 23. 0. 57 0. 36 1 .60 0. .348 5 .3 4 .59 1. .60 1 .21 0. 26 42. SILTY CLAY SOFT 6.00 6 .20 2 .52 3 . 08 19 . 0. 59 0. 29 1 .60 0 .360 5 .4 4 .67 1 .68 1 .22 0. 27 36. CLAY SOFT 6.20 6 .40 2. .62 3. 18 19. 0. 61 0. 28 1 .60 0 .372 5 .4 4 .73 1 .76 1 .23 0. 28 36. CLAY SOFT 6.40 6 .60 2 .62 3. 18 19. 0. .63 0. 28 1 .60 0 .384 5 . 2 4 .43 1 . 70 1 . 19 0. 28 35. CLAY SOFT 6.60 6 .80 2 .62 3. 28 23. 0 65 0. 34 1 .60 0 .396 5 .0 4 . 14 1 .64 1 . 16 0. 27 41 . SILTY CLAY SOFT 6.80 7 .00 2 .71 3. 58 30. 0 .67 0. 43 1 .60 0 .408 5 .0 4 . 17 1 .70 1 . 16 0. 28 54. SILTY CLAY SOFT 7 .OO 7 .20 2. .71 3. 48 27 . 0. .69 0. 38 1 .60 0. .420 4 8 3 .94 1 66 1 . 13 0. 28 46. SILTY CLAY SOFT 7.20 7 .40 2 .81 3. 58 27 . O 71 0. 36 1 .60 0 432 4 .9 4 .01 1 73 1 . 14 o. 29 47. SILTY CLAY SOFT 7. 4C 7 .60 2 .72 3. 38 23. O. 73 0. 33 1 .60 0. .444 4 .5 3 .52 1 .56 1 .07 0. 27 38. SILTY CLAY SOFT 7.60 7 .80 2 .92 3. 58 23 . 0 75 0. 31 1 .60 0 456 4 .8 3 . 86 1 76 1 . 12 0. 30 40. CLAY SOFT 7.80 8 .OO 2 .92 3. 58 23. 0. 77 0. 31 1 .60 0 .468 4 .6 3 .66 1 .71 1 .09 0. 29 39. CLAY SOFT 8 .CO 8 .20 3 .01 3. 78 27. 0 .79 0. 34 1 .60 0 .480 4 .6 3 .71 1 . 78 1 . 10 0. 30 45. SILTY CLAY SOFT 8.20 8 .40 3 .20 4 . 18 34 . 0. 81 0. 41 1 .70 0 .494 4 .8 3 .98 1. .96 1 . 14 0. 33 59. SILTY CLAY LOW CONSISTENCY 8.40 8 .60 3 .01 3 . 78 27. 0 .83 0. 35 1 .60 0 .506 4 .3 3 . 32 1 .68 1 .04 0. 29 43. SILTY CLAY SOFT 8.60 8 .80 3 .01 3. 78 27 . 0 .85 0. 35 1 .60 0 .518 4 .2 3 . 15 1 .63 1 .02 0. 29 43. SILTY CLAY SOFT 8 .80 Z PO P1 Ed Uo Id Gamma Sv Kd OCR Pc KO Cu PHI M Soil Type DescrIpt1on Z (m) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (T/CM) (Bar) (Bar) (Bar) (Deg) (Bar) 2 P O P I E d Uo I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 9. 00 3. 01 3. ,78 27 . 0. 87 0 . 36 1 .60 0. 530 4 0 3 O O 1 .59 0. 99 0. 28 42 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 9 .00 9. 20 3. O I 3. 88 3 0 . 0 89 0 . 41 1 .60 0. 542 3 9 2 .84 1 54 O . 97 0. 28 46. S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 9 .20 9. 40 3. 32 3. 98 2 3 . 0. 91 0 . 27 1 .60 0. 554 4 .3 3 .36 1 .86 1 . .05 0. 32 38. C L A Y S O F T 9 .40 9. 60 3 . 1 1 3 . 98 3 0 . 0. 93 O . 40 1 .60 O . 566 3 8 2 .78 1 .57 0 96 0 28 46. S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 9 .60 9. 80 3. .21 3. 98 27 . 0 95 O . 34 1 .60 0. 578 3 9 2 .85 1 65 0. 97 0 29 41 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 9 .80 10. O O 3 .31 4 08 27 . 0 97 0 . 33 1 .60 0. 590 4 .0 2 .92 1 .72 0 98 0. 31 41 . C L A Y S O F T 10 .00 10. 20 3 ,31 4 08 27 . O .99 0 . 33 1 .60 0. 602 3 9 2 . 79 1 .68 0. 96 0. 30 4 0 . C L A Y S O F T 10 .20 10. 40 3 .21 4 08 30. 1 .01 o. 40 1 .60 0. 614 3 .6 2 .48 1 , .52 0. 91 0. 28 44 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T 10 .40 10. .60 3 .31 4 .08 27 . 1 .03 0 . 34 1 .60 O . 626 3 .6 2 .55 1 .60 0 92 0. 29 39 . S I L T Y C L A Y S O F T i o .60 10. 80 3 .42 4 .03 21 . 1 .05 0 . 26 1 .60 0. 638 8 .7 2 .63 1 .68 0. 93 0 30 31 . C L A Y S O F T 10 .80 11 . 00 3 .61 4 .53 32 . 1 .07 0 . 36 1 .70 0. 652 3. .9 2 .82 1 84 0. 96 0. , 33 49 . S I L T Y C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 11 . O O 1 1 .20 3 .75 4 .73 34. 1 .09 0 . 37 1 .70 0. 666 4 .0 2 .95 1 .96 0 99 0 . 35 53 . S I L T Y C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 11 .20 1 1 . .40 3 .80 4 .78 34 . 1 . 11 0 . 36 1 .70 0. 680 4 .0 2 .90 1 .97 0. 98 0. 35 52. S I L T Y C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 11 .40 1 1 .60 3 .86 4 .78 32 . 1 , 13 0 . 34 1 .70 0. 694 3 .9 2 .87 1 .99 0. 97 0. 35 4 9 . S I L T Y C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 11 .60 1 1 . .80 3 .86 4 . 78 32. 1 . 15 0 . 34 1 .70 0. 708 3 ,8 2 .75 1 .94 0. 95 0. .35 4 8 . S I L T Y C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 11 .80 12 . 00 4 .01 4 83 28 . 1 . 17 0 . 29 1 .70 O . 722 3 .9 2 .87 2 .08 0. 97 0 37 44. C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 12 . O O 12. .20 4 . 1 1 4 .98 3 0 . 1 . . 19 0 . 30 1 .70 0. ,736 4 .0 2 .91 2 . 14 0 . 98 0. .38 47 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 12 .20 12. .40 4 .21 5 .08 3 0 . 1 . .21 0 . 29 1 .70 0. 750 4 .0 2 .95 2 .21 0. 99 0. 39 4 7 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 12 .40 12 .60 4 .21 5. .08 3 0 . 1 . .23 0 . 29 1 .70 0. 764 3 .9 2 .83 2 . 16 0. 97 0. , 39 46 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 12. .60 12 . 80 4 .21 4 .98 2 7 . 1 , .25 0 . 26 1 .70 0. 778 3 8 2 .73 2 . 13 0. 95 0. .38 4 0 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 12. .80 13, . O O 4 .40 5 . 38 34 . 1 . 27 0 . 31 1 .70 0 792 4 .0 2 .90 2 . 30 O . 98 0. 41 52. C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 13. O O 13 .20 4 .40 5 .38 34 . 1 , .29 0 . 31 1 .70 0. .806 3 .9 2 . 79 2 .25 0. 96 0 40 52 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 13. .20 13. .40 4 .50 5 .48 34 . 1 .31 o . 31 1 .70 0. 820 3 .9 2 .83 2 . 32 0 . 97 0. 41 52 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 13. .40 13 .60 4. .41 5 . 18 27 . 1 .33 0 . 25 1 .70 o. ,834 3 .7 2 .61 2 . 17 O . 93 0. 40 39 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 13. .60 13 .80 4 .41 5 . 18 2 7 . 1 .35 0 . 25 1 .70 0 848 3 .6 2 .52 2 . 13 0 91 0. 39 39 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 13. 80 14 O O 4 .52 5 . 18 2 3 . 1 .37 o . 21 1 . 70 0. 862 3 .7 2 .56 2 .21 0. 92 0. 40 34. C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 14. .00 14 .20 4 .41 5 . 18 27 . 1 , . 39 0 . 25 1 .70 0. 876 3 .5 2 .34 2 .05 0 88 0. 38 37 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 14. .20 14 . 40 4 .52 5 . 18 23 . 1 .41 0 . 21 1 .70 0. 890 3 .5 2 .39 2 . 12 0. .89 0. .39 33 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 14. .40 14 .60 4 .51 5 .28 27 . 1 , .43 o . 25 1 .70 0 904 3 .4 2 .30 2 .08 0, 87 0 39 37 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 14. .60 14 .80 4 .61 5 .38 27 . 1 , .45 0 . 24 1 .70 0. 918 3 .4 2 .34 2 . 15 0. 88 o. .40 37 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 14. .80 15 .00 4 .61 5 .48 30 . 1 .47 0 . 28 1 .70 0. 932 3 .4 2 . 25 2 . 10 0. .86 0. 39 42 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 15 . O O 15 .20 4 .71 5 .58 3 0 . 1 .49 0 . 27 1 .70 0. ,946 3 .4 2 .29 2, . 17 0 87 0 ,40 42 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 15 .20 15 .40 4 .80 5 .78 34 . 1 .51 0 . 30 1 .70 0. 960 3 .4 2 . 32 2 . 23 0. 88 0 41 47 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 15 .40 15 .60 4 .80 5 .78 34 . 1 , .53 0 . 30 1 .70 0 .974 3 .4 2 .25 2 . 19 0. 86 0. 41 47 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 15 .60 15 .80 4 .80 5 .78 34. 1 .55 0 . 30 1 .70 0 988 3 .3 2 . 18 2 . 15 0 .85 0. 41 46. C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 15 .80 16 . O O 5 .00 6 .08 37 . 1 .57 0. 32 1 . 70 1. .002 3 .4 2 .31 2 . 32 0, ,87 0. 43 52. C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 16 . O O 16 .20 5 .30 6 . 38 3 7 . 1 .59 0. 29 1 .70 1 .016 3 . 7 2 .56 2 .60 0 92 0. 47 55 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 16 .20 16 .40 5 .20 6 .28 3 7 . 1 .61 0. 30 1 .70 1. .030 3 .5 2 .38 2 .45 0 89 0. 45 53 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 16 .40 16 .60 5 .49 6 .68 41 . 1 .63 0. 31 1 .70 1 .044 3 .7 2 .61 2 .73 0 .93 0. 50 61 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 16 .60 16 .80 5 .49 6 .68 41 . 1 .65 o . 31 1 .70 1. .058 3 .6 2 .54 2 .68 0 .92 0. 49 6 0 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 16 .80 17 . O O 5 .31 6 . 18 3 0 . 1 , .67 0 . 24 1 .70 1 .072 3 .4 2 .28 2 .45 0 87 0. 46 42 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 17 .00 17 .20 5 .02 5 .68 2 3 . 1 .69 0 . 20 1 .70 1 .086 3 . 1 1 .95 2 . 1 1 0 .80 0. 41 29 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 17 .20 17 .40 5 .21 5 .98 2 7 . 1 , .71 0 . 22 1 .70 1 . 100 3 .2 2 .07 2 .27 0 .82 0 43 35 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 17 .40 17 .60 5 .38 6 .78 4 8 . 1 .73 0 . 38 1 .70 1 1 14 3 .3 2 . 16 2 .41 0. 84 0 45 66 . S I L T Y C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 17 .60 18 .20 5 .49 6 .68 41 . 1 , .79 0. 32 1 .70 1, 156 3 .2 2 .09 2 .41 0 83 0 46 5 5 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 18 .20 18 .40 5 .51 6 .38 3 0 . 1 .81 0 . 24 1 .70 1 . 170 3 .2 2 .04 2 . 39 0 .82 0. 46 40. C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 18 .40 Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) Z P O P 1 E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o l ) T y p e D e s c r i p t i o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( D e g ) ( B a r ) ( m ) 1 8 . 6 0 5 . . 5 1 6 . 3 8 3 0 . 1 . 8 3 O . 2 4 1 . 7 0 1 . 1 8 4 3 1 1 . 9 9 2 . 3 5 0 . 8 1 0 . 4 5 3 9 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 8 . 6 0 1 8 . 8 0 5 . . 5 2 6 . 0 8 1 9 . 1 . 8 5 0 . 1 5 1 . 7 0 1 . 1 9 8 3 1 1 . 9 5 2 . 3 3 0 . 8 0 0 . 4 5 2 5 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 8 . 8 0 1 9 . O O 5 . 9 1 6 . 6 8 2 7 . 1 . 8 7 O . 1 9 1 . 7 0 1 . 2 1 2 3 3 2 . 2 2 2 . 6 9 0 . 8 6 0 . 5 1 3 6 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 9 . O O 1 9 . 2 0 5 . . 8 1 6 . 6 8 3 0 . 1 . 8 9 0 . 2 2 1 . 7 0 1 . 2 2 6 3 . . 2 2 . 0 8 2 . 5 5 O . 8 3 0 . 4 8 4 0 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 9 . 2 0 1 9 . 4 0 5 . . 7 1 6 . 4 8 2 7 . 1 . 9 1 0 . 2 0 1 . 7 0 1 . 2 4 0 3 . 1 1 . 9 5 2 . 4 2 0 . 8 0 0 . 4 7 3 4 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 9 . 4 0 1 9 . 6 0 5 . . 6 0 6 . 5 8 3 4 . 1 . 9 3 0 . 2 7 1 . 7 0 1 . 2 5 4 2 . 9 1 . 8 1 2 . 2 7 0 . 7 7 0 . 4 4 4 2 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 9 . 6 0 1 9 . 8 0 5 . 2 1 5 . 9 8 2 7 . 1 . 9 5 0 . 2 3 1 . 7 0 1 . 2 6 8 2 . 6 1 . 4 8 1 . 8 8 0 . 6 9 0 . 3 8 2 9 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 1 9 . 8 0 2 0 . 0 0 6 . . 0 1 6 . 8 8 3 0 . 1 . 9 7 O . 2 2 1 . 7 0 1 . 2 8 2 3 . 2 2 0 3 2 . 6 0 O . 8 2 0 . 5 0 4 0 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 0 . O O 2 0 . 2 0 6 . 6 1 7 . 3 8 2 7 . 1 . 9 9 0 . 1 7 1 . 7 0 1 . 2 9 6 3 . 6 2 . 4 7 3 . 2 0 0 . 9 0 0 . 5 9 3 8 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 0 . 2 0 2 0 . 4 0 6 . 4 0 7 . 4 8 3 7 . 2 . 0 1 0 . 2 5 1 . 7 0 1 . 3 1 0 3 . 4 2 . 2 4 2 . 9 3 0 . 8 6 0 . 5 5 5 2 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 0 . 4 0 2 0 . 6 0 6 . 5 0 7 . 5 8 3 7 . 2 . 0 3 0 . 2 4 1 . 7 0 1 . 3 2 4 3 . 4 2 . 2 6 2 . 9 9 O . 8 6 0 . 5 6 5 2 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 0 . 6 0 2 0 . 8 0 6 . . 5 9 7 . 7 8 4 1 . 2 . 0 5 O . 2 6 1 . 7 0 1 . 3 3 8 3 . 4 2 . 2 8 3'. 0 6 0 . 8 7 0 . 5 7 5 7 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 0 . 8 0 2 1 . 0 0 6 . 5 9 7 . 7 8 4 1 . 2 . 0 7 0 . 2 6 1 . 7 0 1 . 3 5 2 3 . 3 2 . 2 3 3 . 0 2 O . 8 6 0 . 5 7 5 7 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 1 . O O 2 1 . 2 0 6 . 4 0 7 . 4 8 3 7 . 2 . 0 9 0 . 2 5 1 . 7 0 1 . 3 6 6 3 . 2 2 . 0 4 2 . 7 8 O . 8 2 0 . 5 3 4 9 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 1 . 2 0 2 1 . 4 0 6 . 8 0 7 . 7 8 3 4 . 2 . 1 1 0 . 2 1 1 . 7 0 1 . 3 8 0 3 . 4 2 . . 2 9 3 . 1 6 O . 8 7 0 . 5 9 4 7 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 1 . 4 0 2 1 . 6 0 7 . O O 8 . 0 8 3 7 . 2 . 1 3 0 . 2 2 1 . 7 0 1 . 3 9 4 3 . 5 2 . 3 9 3 . 3 3 0 . 8 9 O . 6 2 5 3 . C L A Y L O W C O N S I S T E N C Y 2 1 . 6 0 Z P O P I E d U o I d G a m m a S v K d O C R P c K O C u P H I M S o i l T y p e D e s c r I p t I o n Z ( m ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( T / C M ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( B a r ) ( O e g ) ( B a r ) (m) N O T E S : I . F o r 0 . 9 > I d > 1 . 2 n e i t h e r C u n o r P h i c a l c u l a t e d . 2 . 1 B a r = 1 0 0 K P a 3 . # «1mm D e f l e c t i o n n o t r e a c h e d . APPENDIX VII DESIGN DETAILS OF RESEARCH DILATOMETER 206 D i s c u s s i o n Two ma jo r p rob l ems had t o be overcome i n t h e d e s i g n o f t he r e s e a r c h d i l a t o m e t e r . The f i r s t o f t he se was s p a c e . Namely how t o f i t a l l t h e d i v e r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t o a 14mm p l a t e e s p e c i a l l y when t h r e e o f them demanded a l o c a t i o n a t t h e c e n t r e o f t he membrane. S e c o n d l y , was how t o f i n d a way o f t r a n s p o r t i n g a i r and power t o t h e b l a d e w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e cone r ods and t o d e s i g n an a i r / e l e c t r i c a l c o n n e c t i o n at t h e b l a d e . In e x c e s s o f 250 hours work by t h e C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s and t h e a u t h o r were r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e p rob l ems were f o u n d . The v a r i o u s components a r e d e s c r i b e d be low and the f i n a l d e s i g n i s shown i n f i g u r e 7 . 3 . Po re P r e s s u r e T r a n s d u c e r The pore p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r was one o f t he more d i f f i c u l t d e s i g n d e t a i l s because o f t he l a c k o f room i n a 14mm b l a d e w h i l e r e t a i n i n g M a r c h e t t i ' s measu r i ng s y s t e m . The f i n a l d e s i g n was a U . B .C . -made , s t r a i n gauged , s t a i n l e s s s t e e l d i aph ram about 0.43mm t h i c k . The membrane was d e s i g n e d f o r 200 kPa p r e s s u r e a t 60% y i e l d s t r e s s . The t r a n s d u c e r u n i t was made f r om b r a s s f o r ease o f m a c h i n i n g . I t i s h e l d i n p l a c e by b r a s s c o l l a r s o l d e r e d o r e p o x i e d t o t he d i l a t o m e t e r membrane. S o l d e r i n g i s used a t p r e s e n t but t h e heat d i s t o r t s t h e membrane so t he use o f epoxy r e s i n s i s c u r r e n t l y under s t u d y . The c o l l a r on t he membrane i s j u s t t h i c k enough so t h a t c o u n t e r s u n k s c rews can be used t o a t t a c h t h e t r a n s d u c e r u n i t t o t h e membrane. The c o l l a r on the membrane has an a d d i t i o n a l r o l e as i t a l s o s u p p o r t s t h e po rous s t o n e . The back o f t h e t r a n s d u c e r i s s e a l e d t o p r o t e c t t h e d i aph ram s t r a i n gauges . Wh i l e t h i s may a f f e c t i t s t e m p e r a t u r e s t a b i l i t y s i n c e t he c a v i t y i s not e v a c u a t e d , i t does r e du ce t he l o a d on the d i aphram c o n s i d e r a b l y . I f t he back o f t h e t r a n s d u c e r was not s e a l e d the d i aph ram wou ld be s u b j e c t e d t o up to 4000kPa i n t e r n a l a i r p r e s s u r e d u r i n g t e s t i n g and then pe rhaps 2000kPa o r more e x t e r n a l wa t e r p r e s s u r e d u r i n g p e n e t r a t i o n . C y c l i c l o a d i n g wou ld r educe t h e l i f e t i m e and s t a b i l i t y o f t h e d i aph ram c o n s i d e r a b l y . An a d d i t i o n a l bonus i s t h a t t h e back o f t h e t r a n s d u c e r p r o v i d e s a c e n t r a l r e f e r e n c e spo t f o r M a r c h e t t i ' s measu r i ng s y s t e m . A s e r i e s o f h o l e s have been d r i l l e d i n t h e d i l a t o m e t e r membrane t o p e r m i t t h e wa te r p r e s s u r e to be t r a n s m i t t e d t o t he pore p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r . A porous s t o n e i s l o c a t e d under t he d i l a t o m e t e r membrane t o p r e v e n t d i r t e n t e r i n g t h e t r a n s d u c e r . To e n su r e t h a t t h e t r a n s d u c e r i s s a t u r a t e d b e f o r e t e s t i n g t he f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e i s u s ed : Remove the d i l a t o m e t e r membrane and f i l l t h e t r a n s d u c e r c a v i t y w i t h g l y c e r i n e , p l a c e t h e porous s t o ne wh i ch has p r e v i o u s l y been s a t u r a t e d w i t h g l y c e r i n e i n t h e c a v i t y and t hen r e p l a c e t h e membrane. Care i s r e q u i r e d not t o s p i l l g l y c e r i n e o v e r exposed s t r a i n - g a u g e s . D e f l e c t i o n Measurements I t was not p o s s i b l e t o measure membrane d i s p l a c e m e n t at t h e c e n t r e o f t he membrane. T h e r e f o r e t h e s i d e o f t he pore p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r i s used as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t . The po re p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r r e i n f o r c e s t h e membrane so t h e 207 d e f l e c t i o n at 6mm o f f - c e n t r e s h o u l d be the same as t h e d e f l e c t i o n a t dead c e n t r e . The d e f l e c t i o n arm c o n s i s t s o f a 30mm l o n g by 5mm w ide p i e c e o f s p r i n g s t e e l w i t h a s t r a i n gauge on t he t op c a l i b r a t e d t o measure d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e arm. Wh i l e i t was i n i t i a l l y p roposed t h a t a f u l l b r i d g e s t r a i n gauge c o n f i g u r a t i o n be used i t was no t p o s s i b l e t o f i t a s t r a i n gauge on t he l owe r s i d e o f t he d e f l e c t i o n arm. A h a l f b r i d g e s t r a i n gauge c o n f i g u r a t i o n was t h e r e f o r e u s e d . A i r P r e s s u r e Measurement A number o f ways o f mea su r i n g a i r p r e s s u r e were c o n s i d e r e d , i n c l u d i n g both manu f a c t u r ed and U .B .C . -made t r a n s d u c e r s . The d e s i g n a t p r e s e n t , u t i l i s e s a U .B .C . -made t r a n s d u c e r s i m i l a r t o t h e pore p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r . I t i s p roposed t o c o n v e r t t o a c o m m e r c i a l l y m a n u f a c t u r e d s u b m i n a t u r e t r a n s d u c e r such as t h e S e n s o t e c L i m i t e d , S e r i e s K i n t h e f u t u r e . The a i r p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r was d e s i g n e d t o measure 4000 kPa a t 60% y i e l d s t r e s s . I t i s made f rom s t a i n l e s s s t e e l and uses t h e same f u l l b r i d g e d i aph r am s t r a i n gauges as i n t he po re p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r . The e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s on the d i l a t o m e t e r membrane i s f ound by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e pore p r e s s u r e r e a d i n g f r om t he a i r p r e s s u r e r e a d i n g . Load C e l l and S l o p e I n d i c a t o r The l o ad c e l l i s s i m i l a r i n d e s i g n t o t he cone l o a d c e l l s . I t i s made f r om s t r e s s p r o o f s t e e l w i t h an u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h o f 860 MPa and y i e l d s t r e s s o f 690 MPa f o r a d e s i g n l o a d o f 10 t o n s . The d i l a t o m e t e r b l a d e i t s e l f i s mach ined f rom SPS s t e e l . SPS s t e e l was used because i t i s h a r d e r , s t r o n g e r and c o n s i d e r a b l y e a s i e r t o mach ine t han s t a i n l e s s s t e e l . S t r e s s p r o o f s t e e l c o u l d not be used because i t o n l y comes i n bar f o r m . The y i e l d s t r e s s o f SPS s t e e l i s 740 MPa a t ha rdnes s o f 207 BHN, but i t can be hea t t r e a t e d t o a ha rdness o f 277 BHN. The s l o p e i n d i c a t o r i s mounted i n the r e a r o f t h e l o a d c e l l s e c t i o n u s i n g s p e c i a l c o l l a r s . The c o l l a r s a re s l o t t e d so the 12 w i r e s r e q u i r e d can be t h r e a d e d t h r o u g h . The s l o p e i n d i c a t o r i s a s t a n d a r d DC a c c e l e r o m e t e r used i n E r t e c and U .B .C . c o n e s . E l e c t r o n i c s E n c a p s u l a t e d s t r a i n gauges a re used t h r oughou t t h e d i l a t o m e t e r . A f u l l y a c t i v e f o u r arm Whea ts tone b r i d g e i s used f o r t h e b e a r i n g l o a d c e l l and f o u r arm d i aph ram s t r a i n gauges a re used f o r t he p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r s . I t i s p roposed t h a t t he a i r p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r be r e p l a c e d by a S e n s o t e c s e r i e s K t r a n s d u c e r at a l a t e r d a t e . A h a l f b r i d g e s t r a i n gauge c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s used on t he d e f l e c t i o n arm because o f space c o n s t r a i n t s . The DC a c c e l e r o m e t e r i s a l s o o p e r a t i n g on h a l f s e n s i t i v i t y , but t h i s i s because o f a l a c k o f w i r e s . A t o t a l o f 12 w i r e s a r e used w i t h common e x c i t a t i o n t o power t h e 5 r e s e a r c h c h a n n e l s , p l u s M a r c h e t t i ' s measu r i ng d e v i c e . A r e g u l a t e d 15v power s u p p l y i s used t o p r o v i d e a 10 v o l t f i x e d e x c i t a t i o n . A more c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t he e l e c t r o n i c s employed i n t he U .B .C . Re s ea r c h cone t r u c k i s g i v e n by Campane l l a and R o b e r t s o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0062958/manifest

Comment

Related Items