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Small basin hydrology in the discontinuous permafrost zone Vincent, David Guy 1979

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SMALL BASIN HYDROLOGY IN THE DISCONTINUOUS PERMAFROST  9 1  ZONE  by DAVID GUY VINCENT B . A . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFULLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C i v i l  Engineering)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 19 7 9  (c)  David Guy V i n c e n t , 1979  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  I agree  that  the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying o f this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  o f this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  C \V I L  E M G l ^ £E"R.\^C;  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  Date  £>ci  12^  ABSTRACT  The r e s p o n s e fall in  events  can v a r y  these  variation more the  in  regime,  and t h e  are  incorporates order use  to in  both  the  An a t t e m p t  is  made t o  and s u g g e s t i o n s a r e made  model.  the  vegetative of  in  the  yield  changes  with  understand  incorporate  in  order  hydrographs peak  of  and systematic  interest  Limited  Mackenzie  during Valley.  was their  sponsored bid  to  evaporation  making  anteceFurther  model in  flow  which  parameters statistics  by Canadian  construct  a  are  design. study  time  produce  flows.  changes  estimates  to  the  a deterministic  more r e l i a b l e  rain-  to  cover,  predicting  produce  similar  Of p a r t i c u l a r  random and s y s t e m a t i c  The b a c k g r o u n d Gas S t u d y  dramatic  important to  to  to  attenuation  presented  basins  due  'northern'  conditions  ideas  in  greatly  changes  permafrost  dent  northern  model parameters  reliable  process  for  small  basin parameters.  quantify  in  of  a  Arctic  pipeline  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i i  Table o f Contents  i i i  L i s t o f Tables  v  L i s t of Figures  vi  Acknowledgements  v i i  CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER I I - WHAT'S NORTH AND WHY  5  2.1 Permafrost  6  2.2 V e g e t a t i o n & S o i l s  10  2.3 P o t e n t i a l and A v a i l a b l e Storage  13  2.4 The e f f e c t s o f Permafrost melt on the r a t e of r u n o f f and P o t e n t i a l Storage  15  2.5 E v a p o r a t i o n  16  2.6 Surface Disturbance  20  CHAPTER I I I - THE CHICK LAKE STUDY  21  3.1 Background  21  3.2 The Study Area  21  3.3 L o c a l Topography, Climate,Geology  and V e g e t a t i o n  22  3.4 Data C o l l e c t i o n H i s t o r y  27  3.5 Gage S i t e s  31  3.6 Chick Lake Study Basins  35  3.7 Chick Lake - Data P r e s e n t a t i o n & A n a l y s i s  36  iv  CHAPTER IV - DATA PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS  39  4.1 The Next Step  44  CHAPTER V - CONCLUSIONS  49  BIBLIOGRAPHY  54  APPENDIX  56  V  LIST OF TABLES  Page  I  C a l c u l a t i o n o f E v a p o r a t i o n a t Norman W e l l s , N.W.T., by T h o r n t h w a i t e s 1  method based on  mean monthly data II  Mean Monthly Weather C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Norman Wells & F o r t Good Hope, N.W.T.  III  Summary o f R e s u l t s  17 25 26 42  vi LIST OF FIGURES  Figure  Page  1  General L o c a t i o n Map  2  2  Depth to the f r o s t t a b l e  8  3  T y p i c a l Chick Lake S o i l P r o f i l e Data  12  4  P o t e n t i a l Storage  14  5  E v a p o r a t i o n a t Norman W e l l s , N.W.T.  18  6  Cut-Away of Rain Gage Set-up  29  7  T y p i c a l Basin Arrangement o f Chick Lake S i t e s  30  8  Chick Lake S i t e Map  34  9  19 77 R a i n f a l l & Runoff Data, Chick Lake  37  10  I n f i l t r a t i o n Rate vs I n i t i a l Loss  41  11  Investigation Norman Wells  o f trends i n summer storms a t 46  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The  author i s g r a t e f u l t o Canadian A r c t i c Gas Study  L i m i t e d f o r permission  t o p u b l i s h data c o l l e c t e d a t Chick  Lake, and t o the N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l f o r support the u n i v e r s i t y phase o f the study.  during  S p e c i a l thanks are  extended t o Dr. S.O. R u s s e l l of U.B.C. and Mr. E.D. S o u l i s of S.I. Solomon and A s s o c i a t e s f o r a i d and d i r e c t i o n the  study.  during  -11.0  INTRODUCTION While the permafrost  approximately very l i t t l e  r e g i o n s of Canada c o n s t i t u t e  one-half of the t o t a l land area of the  country,  a t t e n t i o n has been focused on t h i s v a s t area  until recently.  As a r e s u l t , r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e  experience  and v i r t u a l l y no base data e x i s t to support the a c c e l e r a t e d push of modern man frost.  i n t o the v a s t r e g i o n s of muskeg and perma-  T h i s dearth of experience and data i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  apparent  when d e a l i n g in. the area of h y d r o l o g i c design  ing  drainage, e r o s i o n and environmental  ing  the water regime of an area can have f a r r e a c h i n g  environmental to  implications.  impact,  includ-  since disturb-  P a r t of the s o l u t i o n a p p l i e d  b r i d g e t h i s l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n i s the h y d r o l o g i c m o d e l l i n g  approach.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y the methods developed  i n southern  r e g i o n s o f t e n do not d e s c r i b e the northern environment w e l l , r e s u l t i n g i n i n a p p r o p r i a t e designs. T h i s t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s a p r e l i m i n a r y examination  of the  h y d r o l o g i c mechanisms under northern c o n d i t i o n s , based on a study i n i t i a t e d by the Canadian A r c t i c Gas  Study L i m i t e d  d u r i n g t h e i r b i d to b u i l d a Mackenzie V a l l e y Gas The  Pipeline.  study, a t Chick Lake, N.W.T. (see F i g u r e 1), s e t out to  examine the summer hydrology type f r e q u e n t l y encountered  of the muskeg/permafrost t e r r a i n i n the n o r t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r of the Mackenzie V a l l e y . work over a p e r i o d of three years produced l i t t l e of  i n the  'hard' data, but from o b s e r v a t i o n s a great d e a l was  about the processes  Field way  learned  i n v o l v e d and the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n of the  v e g e t a t i o n , permafrost  and water regime.  The work e n t a i l e d  -2-  F/GURE  /:  GENERAL  LOCAT/O/V  MAP  -3monitoring streamflows was  f o u r small drainage b a s i n s , and  correlating  w i t h r a i n f a l l data c o l l e c t e d on s i t e .  T h i s data  to p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r d e s i g n i n g and c a l i b r a t i n g a  s u i t a b l e model f o r g e n e r a t i n g f l o o d frequency  data f o r  s t r u c t u r a l design. The  r e s u l t s showed t h a t some s e r i o u s i n a c c u r a c i e s c o u l d  a r i s e from the d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n i n northern areas of h y d r o l o g i c techniques developed main p o i n t i s t h a t the b a s i n change d r a m a t i c a l l y through  in  temperate r e g i o n s .  The  (and thus the model) parameters the summer season.  Further,  s i n c e the s u r f a c e l a y e r storage i s l a r g e , hydrographs of even small b a s i n s are g r e a t l y attenuated and thus the assumption t h a t independent r a i n f a l l events produce independent f l o o d peaks of s i m i l a r r e t u r n p e r i o d s i s g e n e r a l l y i n v a l i d .  Finally,  the  assumption t h a t e v a p o r t a t i o n i s n e g l i g i b l e can be shown to be q u i t e i n c o r r e c t , and the process i s an important when attempting frequency  mechanism  to model the regime to p r o v i d e v a l i d  flood  estimates.  The muskeg and permafrost are fundamentally  r e g i o n s of northern Canada  d i f f e r e n t from a h y d r o l o g i c viewpoint  from those i n the south.  Over design can l e a d t o as s e r i o u s  problems as can under design, s i n c e drainage of normally land w i l l cause changes i n the permafrost  wet  regime which i n t u r n  can s e r i o u s l y d i s r u p t the ecology of a l a r g e area, or the development being c o n s t r u c t e d . 'southern' techniques  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a l l to o f t e n  are t r a n s p l a n t e d d i r e c t l y n o r t h and  e f f e c t of the permafrost  and muskeg on the water regime i s  the  -4-  ignored.  A b r i e f survey conducted by Newbury (Newbury, 1974)  i n d i c a t e d t h a t a d i s t u r b i n g number of c o n s u l t a n t s and government departments with northern r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f a i l t o recogn i z e the importance o f permafrost furthermore,  on the water regime, and  are not i n t e r e s t e d i n expanding t h e i r e x p e r t i s e  i n order t o improve the quality..of d e s i g n . potentially disastrous  Hopefully,  s i t u a t i o n i s g r a d u a l l y being  this  rectified.  T h i s t h e s i s i s broken i n t o four somewhat o v e r l a p p i n g s e c t i o n s p l u s an appendix. terminology  and concepts  The f i r s t  s e c t i o n presents  as e n v i s i o n e d by the author  with g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o northern work.  combined  This followed  by a d e t a i l e d summary of the Chick Lake study.  The t h i r d  s e c t i o n combines the i n f o r m a t i o n from the f i r s t  two and presents  some ideas about a p p l y i n g the concepts  t o the d e s i g n o f a  northern h y d r o l o g i c model. S i n c e , o f n e c e s s i t y , any major work i n the n o r t h r e q u i r e some f i e l d  will  work there i s an appendix o u t l i n i n g  the hard and expensive  l e s s o n s t h a t were l e a r n e d d u r i n g the  study, as w e l l as some g u i d e l i n e s on what t o look f o r and some o f the l i m i t a t i o n s encountered while  'north o f 60'.  F i n a l l y , g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s and a summary round out the paper.  -5-  2.0  WHAT'S NORTH AND  WHY  The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of the northern ment i s the extreme winter  cold.  environ-  The low temperatures, the  long hours o f darkness, r e l a t i v e l y  little  snow cover i n  winter and the warm, dry, b r i e f summers o f long s u n l i t days combine t o produce an environment which i s f o r e i g n t o our t r a i n i n g , t h e o r i e s and understanding. ground  (permafrost)  southern  Permanently f r o z e n  e x i s t s i n v a r y i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n from the  l i m i t o f the continuous  of the Canadian p r o v i n c e s .  zone t o the northern  regions  The scant a v a i l a b l e water and  f l a t topography common t o much of the h e a v i l y g l a c i a t e d northern  regions combined with the harsh environment are  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development o f the f l o r a l which p l a y an important  communities  r o l e i n c o n t r o l l i n g the h y d r o l o g i c  regime. Since t h i s study was an attempt t o gain some i n s i g h t a p p l i c a b l e t o c u l v e r t and e r o s i o n d e s i g n , o n l y the maintenance of n a t u r a l drainage  i s considered  from these p o i n t s of view.  T h i s e l i m i n a t e s t r u l y low l y i n g muskeg s i n k h o l e s , bogs and fens. The  s c e n a r i o which would g e n e r a l l y apply  i s that of a mildly  s l o p i n g b a s i n , with perhaps l o c a l i z e d f l a t s , t h a t u l t i m a t e l y would r e q u i r e some form o f treatment t o c o n t r o l flow i f a structure  ( p i p e l i n e , road bed, etc.) were c o n s t r u c t e d  downstream reaches.  To t h i s end an understanding  i n the  o f the  mechanisms o f b a s i n response i s r e q u i r e d i n order t o model and  f i n a l l y s y n t h e s i z e s h o r t term f l o o d s t a t i s t i c s f o r r e t u r n  p e r i o d events from m e t e o r o l o g i c a l r e c o r d s .  Each  important  aspect of the environment  i s considered separately, followed  by a d i s c u s s i o n i n g e n e r a l terms of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n between aspects of the environment  and the mechanisms important i n  northern r e g i o n s .  2.1  PERMAFROST The most t a n g i b l e evidence of the harsh environment  below the ground s u r f a c e as permanently subsoils.  frozen s o i l s  lies  and  An e x c e l l e n t summary of the terminology a s s o c i a t e d  with the study of permafrost as w e l l as a d e t a i l e d map  of  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the continuous and d i s c o n t i n u o u s permaf r o s t zones has been prepared by Brown(1974).  The aspects of  t h i s phenomena of p a r t i c u l a r concern t o h y d r o l o g i s t s c o n s i s t of: (a) the depth t o the top of the f r o z e n zone a t a g i v e n time and l o c a t i o n  (the depth t o the  f r o s t table) (b) the m a t e r i a l of the " a c t i v e l a y e r " s u r f a c e s t r a t a t h a t experiences  (that  annual  f r e e z i n g and thawing) (c) the a r e a l extent of the permafrost. These t h r e e items i n t e r a c t with the r e s t of the e n v i r o n ment to change the b a s i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s markedly over the summer season, while more s u b t l e e v o l u t i o n a r y changes occur over the y e a r s . With the onset of s p r i n g , what snow e x i s t s i s r a p i d l y melted and e i t h e r runs o f f or i s s t o r e d i n the s u r f a c e v o i d s  -7-  of the moss l a y e r which o v e r l i e s the c o n c r e t e - l i k e peats  (see Figure 2).  This i n i t i a l  frozen  rush o f snowmelt g e n e r a l l y  causes few e r o s i o n problems i n small basins s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l i s not e a s i l y , d i s t r u b e d .  s i n c e the f r o z e n As more s o l a r  energy i s absorbed, the f r o s t t a b l e moves down r e l e a s i n g m a t e r i a l and water from the f r o z e n grasp o f w i n t e r .  The r a t e  of progress o f the f r o s t t a b l e i s dependent on: (a) the amount o f incoming energy t o the s u r f a c e (b) the t r a n s f e r of.. t h i s energy t o the f r o z e n L o c a l weather, c l i m a t e , l a t i t u d e , aspect, vegetation  cover  soils.  topography and "high"  ( i e : t r e e cover) c o n t r o l the energy  input  w h i l e the s u r f a c e and subsurface m a t e r i a l , t h e i r h i s t o r y , l o c a l disturbance,  type,  colour., water content and r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n  are important t o the t r a n s f e r o f t h i s energy.  I t i s the l a t t e r  area t o which the bulk of the h y d r o l o g i s t s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n 1  must be focused  i n the development and use o f a s u i t a b l e  technique f o r p r o v i d i n g f l o o d A f t e r about the f i r s t  statistics.  two weeks of s p r i n g melt the f r o s t  t a b l e has moved through the s u r f a c e mosses i n t o the s o l i d peat below.  The r a t e o f r e g r e s s i o n of the f r o s t f r o n t i s  a f f e c t e d by the i n s u l a t i n g value  of the o v e r l y i n g m a t e r i a l ;  as w e l l as the incoming energy.  I t i s i n the f u n c t i o n o f a  thermal i n s u l a t o r t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f unfrozen m a t e r i a l become important.  The common s i t u a t i o n i n the d i s -  continuous permafrost zone i s a ground cover of moss over peat, i n which the v e g e t a t i v e mat p r o v i d e s  e x c e l l e n t thermal  t i o n and the downward progress o f the f r o s t f r o n t as the summer progresses  (see F i g u r e  2).  protec-  deccelerates  However, the  -8-  ^SO&jT  FfrX  OJ.  //J.JJO  -9i n s u l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y o f the cover v a r i e s over two orders of magnitude depending on i t s moisture  content  (Gill,  1979),  (Williams, 1968) being the poorest i n s u l a t o r when s a t u r a t e d . Thus the f r o s t t a b l e below minor l o c a l low spots may be two or three times deeper than an adjacent h i g h perhaps only one metre away.  T h i s c r e a t e s an impermeable s u r f a c e below ground  l e v e l more i r r e g u l a r than the s u r f a c e topography and which may h o l d very s i g n i f i c a n t volumes of subsurface d e p r e s s i o n An e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s i d e a i s the concept of  the f r o s t t a b l e changes throughout  storage.  t h a t i f the topography  the season,  some b a s i c  b a s i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as b a s i n area, the flow p a t t e r n and d e p r e s s i o n storage which a r e o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d " f i x e d " can i n f a c t vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y throught the season and can be r a d i c a l l y changed by new c o n s t r u c t i o n .  A s u r f a c e d i s t u r b a n c e such as a  road, s e i s m i c o r survey c u t l i n e or game t r a i l w i t h i n c r e a s e d i n s o l a t i o n due t o t r e e removal and p o s s i b l y impaired c a p a b i l i t y through  d i s t u r b i n g , o r compressing  cause a d e p r e s s i o n i n the sub-surface  insulating  the cover can  impermeable l a y e r and  hence a major change i n h y d r o l o g i c response.  Upland  flow  c o l l e c t s i n the d e p r e s s i o n f u r t h e r d i s r u p t i n g the i n s u l a t i n g capabilities. of  What can f i n a l l y happen i s a " s h o r t - c i r c u i t i n g "  the upland area t o an adjacent b a s i n , thus changing the  a r e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each b a s i n . An estimate o f the p o s i t i o n of the f r o s t t a b l e a t a g i v e n l o c a t i o n and time i s p o s s i b l e by f i t t i n g an e x p o n e n t i a l decay curve t o a few observed summer season.  depths of thaw taken throughout  a  F a i l i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s an assumption o f 15 cm o f  thaw approximately  two weeks a f t e r the passage o f the 0° C i s  -10-  isotherm p r o v i d e s an i n i t i a l p o i n t which appears i n comparison t o observed data.  reasonable  A shallow d r i l l hole u s i n g  a hand auger w i l l d i s c l o s e the average maximum depth o f thaw s i n c e c o l o r v a r i a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f weathering only i n the m a t e r i a l o f the a c t i v e l a y e r .  will  appear  I t i s suggested  that  s e v e r a l such probes be made i n a v a r i e t y o f l o c a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e an average  value as well, as c o n f i r m the homogeneity o f  the s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s and t h i c k n e s s .  2.2.  VEGETATION AND SOILS The  importance  o f the m a t e r i a l cover, t o permafrost  hydrology r e s u l t s from i t s e f f e c t on the  r a t e o f the b a s i n  f r o s t t a b l e lowering through the summer season which i n t u r n a f f e c t s the b a s i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  These e f f e c t s a r e propor-  t i o n a l t o changes w i t h depth o f the m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s thems e l v e s , e i t h e r w i t h i n the same h o r i z o n o r a t the i n t e r f a c e between h o r i z o n s .  The magnitude o f the v a r i a t i o n s  dictate  whether the subsurface flow and storage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s i n g l e , n o n - v a r i a b l e parameter, or by parameters which must be allowed t o change with time.  F o r example,  a northern b a s i n of exposed bedrock o r t h i n o r g a n i c l a y e r lying a s i l t y , clay t i l l  over-  o f low p o r o s i t y and p e r m e a b i l i t y  c o u l d reasonably be d e s c r i b e d by a s i n g l e parameter s i m i l a r t o that used i n the south.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i n an area w i t h a deep  organic s o i l with a t h i c k a c t i v e l a y e r , f o r m u l a t i o n s f o r storage, h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y , time o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n a l l v a r y i n g as a f u n c t i o n o f date, antecedent  c o n d i t i o n s and event  -11ntagnitude may be r e q u i r e d . i s common along  northern  I t i s t h i s l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n which  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s and i n areas  where development i s l i k e l y t o take p l a c e , and i s the case under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S t a r t i n g above the s u r f a c e , the open b l a c k and  shrubs reduce the s i z e and v e l o c i t y o f incoming  thus reducing has  spruce f o r e s t  t h e i r erosion p o t e n t i a l .  raindrops,  The sphagnum moss cover  a s u f f i c i e n t l y high i n f i l t r a t i o n rate that overland  v i r t u a l l y eliminated  except when the water t a b l e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  h i g h , as may be the case i n e a r l y summer when the f r o s t i s near the s u r f a c e .  flow i s  Progressing  table  downward the moss grades i n t o  peat, the h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y and p o r o s i t y of which decrease with depth.  Below t h i s organic mat l i e s the mineral  soil,  g e n e r a l l y a permanently frozen.remnant o f g l a c i a l times. i t can be g e n e r a l l y assumed f o r e s t i m a t i n g  While  peak flows t h a t  this  f r o z e n s u b s o i l o f f i n e g r a i n e d m a t e r i a l i s impermeable, t h i s i s not s t r i c t l y t r u e and d e f i n i t e movement of l i q u i d water i s p o s s i b l e i n the f r o z e n zone Result  (Carlson,  1979).  i s an examination of the s o i l p r o f i l e  at the Chick Lake study area together are shown i n F i g u r e  3.  with s o i l  encountered  properties  While i t i s not c l e a r , from the data,  a r e l a t i o n between time o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n  o f the b a s i n and the  h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y i n the zone o f water movement exist.  should  son  DEPTH  yyDRAULtC CONDUCTIVITY (/0-' ~/s*c)  SOIL  COLUMN  (MM)  DESCRIPTION  c  1////FIED  o  .  I  T  T  P+  pre** BJ  /oo  200  PORO  5T  . ^J.  48  «*»  (/j)  DEPTH  M M )  o  ^ ^ a n f i i ^  />?*>, rive /rt<T/-eas*s  CesiJeiff  3  fisr&.t.e^  s/ry  (%)  T  300.  I  400  Y +*i*,t  500  MS  600  a-c/(V*  ^ff<P'  rfy J".// , f*Y, low jeAsAc tn.e+1 t*d feai"*<».//jr *«"«^  500  }  CURVE BASED OA/ POO/? ESTIMATES //S MOT RELIABLE, BUT DOES WD/CATE THE TfZEND __ ' Pes-ma.- fi-ost'- f>-er*tajtoxfty  600  7O0  700 t  F/GURE  3  : TYP/CAL  CU/CKUME^SO/L  PROFILE  DATA  -  DATA. OUTLIERS SUSPECT BECAUSE O F D I F F I C U L T I E S HANDLIM6 L O O S E ORGAHMICS ESTIMATED REAL POROSITY:  n 87-rx/o-) D +0.335 - POROSITY USED TO ESTIMATE POTENTIAL STORAGE. <n--(-3.S75*IO-3)D-r0.23 3  ( O  s  D E P T H )  -13-  2.3  POTENTIAL AND AVAILABLE STORAGE P o t e n t i a l storage i s considered t o be t h a t storage  volume p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e in, the s u r f a c e h o r i z o n assuming no water i s being s t o r e d e i t h e r as a r e s u l t o f p r e v i o u s  rain,  snowmelt o r ground melt, and i n c l u d e s the "subsurface" d e p r e s s i o n a l storage caused face.  by low areas i n the f r o z e n i n t e r -  Based on the a c t i v e l a y e r thaw curve and s o i l p o r o s i t y ,  a r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o t e n t i a l storage versus time can be d e r i v e d (Figure 4) . A v a i l a b l e storage i s t h a t p o r t i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l storage not a l r e a d y occupied by l i q u i d water, a t a g i v e n  time.  Thus, p o t e n t i a l storage a t a g i v e n time d u r i n g the summer i s p r e d i c t a b l e ( w i t h i n p r a c t i c a l l i m i t s ) given the r e l a t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y o f the a c t i v e l a y e r melt and the s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . The  a v a i l a b l e storage i s a f u n c t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l storage and  antecedent  c o n d i t i o n s which, because o f the a r e a l  variability  a s s o c i a t e d with p r e c i p i t a t i o n , can be c o n s i d e r e d a t l e a s t p a r t i c a l l y random i n nature.  90  I 80  •  1 >* 70  J*J  /  /  DERIVED BY NUMERICALLY COMB/NWG TU£ MEA/V CURVE /1/VD POROS/Ty DATA OF SURE4CE MATER/A  0.  k  0  POTE/VT/AL  STORAGE  = J (Pofios/ry)-  LS  OEPTP  <£ (£>£RTH)  30  to n AT  i  0 MAY /S~ CWCK  40  20 (.&  DAYS  I  •  60  /A/TO THE  SO  SUMMEP  MELT  F/GU/9E 4: POT^A/T/AL STOr?AG£  i  /OO  SEASON  i  /20  I  f40  /60  -15-  2.4  THE EFFECTS OF PERMAFROST MELT ON RATE OF RUNOFF AND POTENTIAL STORAGE Ignoring antecedent moisture f o r the p r e s e n t , c o n s i d e r the  increase  i n p o t e n t i a l storage due t o the i n c r e a s e  as summer p r o g r e s s e s . frozen  Initially  and snow covered.  rapidly contributing  the e n t i r e a c t i v e l a y e r i s  Snow.melt occurs and runs o f f f a i r l y  t o the s p e c t a c u l a r  spring  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the l a r g e n o r t h e r n r i v e r s . thaw i n c r e a s e s , and  the  break-up As the depth o f  p o t e n t i a l storage i n the moss l a y e r i s opened  two t h i n g s may happen.  dry,  i n thaw depth  I f the a c t i v e l a y e r i s r e l a t i v e l y  an impermeable l a y e r o f i c e w i l l progress downward w i t h thawing f r o n t and the thawed p o t e n t i a l storage w i l l be  converted almost t o t a l l y to. a v a i l a b l e storage. i f the a c t i v e l a y e r i s s a t u r a t e d ,  Alernatively,  the p o t e n t i a l storage i s  a v a i l a b l e only a t the r a t e the moisture f r e e d by thawing can be  removed through some combination o f e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n  drainage.  and  T h e r e f o r e , the a v a i l a b l e storage i s a f u n c t i o n o f  the depth t o the f r o s t t a b l e and moisture present a t a g i v e n time.  -162.5  EVAPORATION The removal of water from storage occurs i n two ways,  drainage and e v a p o r a t i o n .  Due  to the l a r g e storage c a p a b i l i t i e s  of the s u r f a c e l a y e r once thawed, and the r e l a t i v e l y slow movement of water through the s o i l mantle,  e v a p o r a t i o n i s an  important f a c t o r i n determining the a v a i l a b l e storage a t the occurrence of a major p r e c i p i t a t i o n event as w e l l as when c o n s i d e r i n g the seasonal water balance. Using the Thornthwaite approach  based on mean monthly data, a seasonal p o t e n t i a l  e v a p o r a t i o n of 32 6 mm with 180 mm 1977)  (Thornthwaite and Mather, 19 49)  i s calculated.  T h i s compares f a v o r a b l y  shown i n the H y d r o l o g i c A t l a s of Canada  (A.E.S.,  and a few a c t u a l measurements at Norman Wells  1972-77) showed 340 mm.  (A.E.S.,  The r e s u l t s are shown as F i g u r e 5 and  Table I f o r the Chick Lake study. Hare and Thomas (1970) i l l u s t r a t e d the average l o s s e s a t Chick Lake to be i n the order of 240 mm.  potential Specific  phenomena c o n t r i b u t i n g t o these l o s s e s i n c l u d e the constant l i g h t winds, long days with r e l a t i v e l y h i g h a i r temperatures (see T a b l e I ) , the g e n e r a l l y moist moss cover and low humidity.  Dingman  relative  (1971) commented i n r e f e r e n c e t o a s i m i l a r  study i n A l a s k a t h a t the e v a p o r a t i v e l o s s e s are expected to be low, owing to the non-vascular nature of the moss cover the low demands of the r e l a t i v e l y open t r e e and vegetation.  While t h i s may  and  shrub  be t r u e i n a b s o l u t e terms,  evidence  i s t h a t the mosses "wick" moisture upward and p r o v i d e l a r g e s u r f a c e areas conducive to e v a p o r a t i o n .  Bredthouer  (19 79),  TABLE I:  JAN  FEB  Temperature (°F) -19.7 -15.8 Temperature ( C) -28.7 -26.6  C a l c u l a t i o n of Evaporation at Norman Wells, N.W.T., by Thornthwaite's method based on mean monthly data.  MAR -2. -18. 9  APR  MAY  JUN  JUL  AUG  SEP  OCT  NOV  DEC  18.7  41.2  56.6  60.9  55.7  42.5  24.7  -.6  -14.6  5.1  13.7  16.1  13.2  5.8  -4.1 •-18.1  -25.9  -7.4  YEAR  T  1  _  Unadjusted P o t e n t i a l Evap  -  -  -  -  (mm)  f a c t o r of l a t . + 50° 1.15 .74 .78 1. 02 A d j u s t e d P o t e n t i a l Evap. (mm) Adj.  -  -  -  -  1.03 37.  4.60 60.  5.87 80.  4.35 60.  1.25 42.  —  —  —  -  -  -  17.1  I  1.33 49.2  1.36 81.6  P r e c i p i t a t i o n (in) .82 .68 49 .56 .60 1.44 Precipitation (mm) 20.8 17.3 12.4 7.0 15. 2 36.6 P r e c i p - P o t e n t i a l Evap (mm) 21.. 17. 12. 7.0 -34. -45. Accumulated P o t e n t i a l Water l o s s (mm) -34. (0) -79. Storage ST (mm) 263. 280. 292. 299. 268. 230. Change i n storage dST (mm) +21 +17 +12. +7. -31. -38. AE A c t u a l E v a p o r a t i o n (mm) 46. 74. -. Deficeit (mm) 3. 7. Surplus (mm) _ _ _ 0 0 -  1.37 109.6 2.21  1.25 75. 2.43.  1.06 44.5 1.33  .92  -  .70  .76  -  .99  h- 1 I  .86  .76  13.17  56.1  61.7  33.8  25.1  21.8  19.3  348.  -53.5  -14.3  -10.7  25.  22.  19.  -58.5  -132.5 -146.8 -157.5  -  -  -  192.  183.  176.  201.  223.  244.  -38.  -9.  -7.  +25.  22.  19.  94.  71.  41.  -  -  -  26.  5.  4.  -  -  0  0  -  -  0  -  326  1 8 "  F/GURE 5 :£MPORAT/ON AT A/ORMA/V WELLS W.T CALCULATION BY TA/OATHH#/T£'S METHOD 6/S£D OA/ 30 Y/S  CL/A7AT/C A4EAA/S  -19a l s o o f C.R.R.E.L., r e p o r t s t h a t l y s i m e t e r s f i l l e d  with  sphagnum moss show s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher water l o s s r a t e s when compared t o adjacent C l a s s A pans i n a study near F a i r b a n k s , Alaska. While the seasonal e v a p o r a t i o n r a t e s a r e not l a r g e when compared t o those experienced  in. southern  r e g i o n s , comparison  to summer and annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n shows t h a t e v a p o r a t i o n alone c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y account moisture.  f o r a l l o f the a v a i l a b l e  Furthermore, w i t h the w i c k i n g a c t i o n o f the moss,  the l o s s r a t e i s much l e s s r e s t r i c t e d when the water t a b l e f a l l s below the s u r f a c e than the usual southern case o f d e a l i n g with m i n e r a l o r decomposed o r g a n i c  soils.  In r e l a t i v e terms, with a t o t a l annual mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n of 330 mm  (Burns, 1973) of which 170 mm occurs as snow and  runs o f f before e v a p o r a t i o n r a t e s . r e a c h a maximum, the p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s f o r a l l of the summer r a i n s t o be consumed by e v a p o r a t i o n . The u s u a l low l e v e l s o f s m a l l lakes and ponds i n J u l y and August would argue i n favour o f h i g h e v a p o r a t i v e l o s s e s . The main p o i n t i s t h a t e v a p o r a t i o n i s important primary  as a  "drainage" mechanism removing water from the mantle  and i n c r e a s i n g the a v a i l a b l e storage.  T h i s storage volume  c o n t r o l s the magnitude o f the f l o o d peak and the shape o f the hydrograph.  Furthermore, e v a p o r a t i o n g e n e r a l l y accounts f o r  more than 50% o f the summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n as shown by observat i o n s a t Chick Lake water balance  (Figure 10) and thus must be c o n s i d e r e d i n  calculations.  -20-  2.6  SURFACE DISTURBANCE As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, b a s i n area can change as a  r e s u l t of the subsurface or r i d g e developing  " s h o r t - c i r c u i t i n g " caused by a trough  i n the f r o s t . t a b l e .  This  distrubance  c o u l d take the form of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s e i s m i c l i n e game t r a i l which tend to form a trough due reaching  the s u r f a c e and  reducing  i t s i n s u l a t i n g value.  to i n c r e a s e d  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a road where a r t i f i c i a l  e x t r a p r o t e c t i o n to the f r o z e n s o i l s , and  a l l o w i n g the perma-  Reid  an  i s the product being moved a  f r o s t bulb develops around the l i n e and  S o u l i s and  by  providing  f r o s t l e v e l t o , or a p i p e l i n e , which i n i t s e l f p r o v i d e s o b s t a c l e , but when c h i l l e d gas  thus  i n s u l a t i o n or a  t h i c k l a y e r of w e l l d r a i n i n g g r a v e l i s i n t r o d u c e d ,  throughout the year.  energy  the compression of the peat mat, A r i d g e might be caused  or  i s maintained  T h i s l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n was  (1976) i n a separate  frozen  examined by  study at the Chick  Lake  site. Other n a t u r a l d i s t u r b a n c e s  which c o u l d change the f l o o d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an area i n c l u d e the p r o l i f e r a t i o n i n r e c e n t years of the Canadian beaver and l y allowed  f o r e s t f i r e s which are  to burn unchecked i n the muskeg t e r r a i n .  general-  -213.  THE  CHICK LAKE STUDY  3.1  BACKGROUND The Chick Lake Study was  intended t o p r o v i d e an under-  standing of the hydrology of the Northern B o r e a l F o r e s t underl a i n by permafrost.  T h i s landform c o n s t i t u t e s a major p o r t i o n  of the Mackenzie V a l l e y , the area most developed  i n the  North-  west T e r r i t o r i e s and most l i k e l y . t o s u s t a i n f u r t h e r development p r i m a r i l y by the m i n e r a l , petroleum ries.  In terms of the proposed  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t -  p i p e l i n e development, e r o s i o n  c o n t r o l and s m a l l b a s i n drainage works were estimated t o r e p r e s e n t 10%  (or one b i l l i o n d o l l a r s ) of the c a p i t a l o u t l a y .  Of the approximate one  t h i r d of the route i n the d i s c o n t i n u o u s  zone, about 70% l a y i n the r e l a t i v e l y f l a t open b l a c k  spruce  f o r e s t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p o o r l y d e f i n e d drainages and abundant shrub and moss cover.  Considering that s i g n i f i c a n t  savings  c o u l d be r e a l i z e d i f a l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e design c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d , a h y d r o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h program i n the Chick Lake study area was  3.2  THE  s e t up i n c o n j u n c t i o n with s e v e r a l other s t u d i e s .  STUDY AREA  The Chick Lake s i t e p r o v i d e d a s i n g l e s i t e where a number of separate s t u d i e s c o u l d be pursued The  s i t e i s 80 km northwest  and  interrelated.  of Norman W a l l s , Northwest  T e r r i t o r i e s and access i s l i m i t e d to c h a r t e r a i r s e r v i c e s or an arduous o v e r l a n d journey.  During s p r i n g and f a l l the area  i s v i r t u a l l y i n a c c e s s i b l e except by h e l i c o p t e r and t h i s l a c k  -22of p u b l i c access was a major advantage o f the area as an i n t e g r a t e d r e s e a r c h s i t e s i n c e the environmental s t u d i e s r e q u i r e d c o n t r o l i n order t o e s t a b l i s h b a s e l i n e data, a c q u i r e i n an area a c c e s s i b l e to the p u b l i c .  impossible t o To t h i s end four  seasons o f f i e l d data on v e g e t a t i o n and s m a l l mammals 19 77) was obtained ( S o u l i s and Reid, supply,  as w e l l as some subsurface 1977).  (Douglas,  flow s t u d i e s  The lake p r o v i d e d an assured  water  as w e l l as a l l o w i n g the use of l a r g e r f l o a t or s k i  equipped a i r c r a f t t o f e r r y equipment and p e r s o n n e l .  Finally,  a major a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e e x i s t s a t the lake o u t l e t t o the Donnally  R i v e r which r e q u i r e d the establishment  o f a camp f o r  study a t some p o i n t i n time. From an e n g i n e e r i n g viewpoint  the g e n t l y s l o p i n g , deep  o r g a n i c s o i l s on the west s i d e o f the lake were t y p i c a l o f much o f the proposed p i p e l i n e r o u t e .  T h i s route passed near  the l a k e , thus before and a f t e r s t u d i e s were p o s s i b l e i n the realms o f fauna,  f l o r a and hydrology,  both upslope and down-  slope from the d i s t u r b e d r i g h t o f way. i t s e l f provided  easy l o c a l t r a n s p o r t by power boat which  p o t e n t i a l l y allowed tific for  3.3  frequent and r e g u l a r s e r v i c e t o the s c i e n -  s i t e s , as w e l l as some amenities  f o r personnel  on s i t e  extended p e r i o d s .  LOCAL TOPOGRAPHY, CLIMATE, GEOLOGY AND VEGETATION The  study area i s l o c a t e d i n a lake b a s i n i n the c e n t r a l  Mackenzie R i v e r V a l l e y approximately Wells, a t approximately The  F i n a l l y , the lake  80 km northwest o f Norman  65°52' N and 128°07' W (see F i g u r e 1 ) .  lake b a s i n i s surrounded by the rugged t e r r a i n o f the  -23F r a n k l i n Mountains where e l e v a t i o n s range from 135 m ASL a t lake l e v e l t o 825 m ASL on top o f Gibson Ridge, the most prominent l o c a l f e a t u r e and the n o r t h e r n spur o f the Norman Range which forms the western f l a n k o f the F r a n k l i n  Mountains.  The t e r r a i n , w h i l e extremely rugged, has been subdued by passage o f the c o n t i n e n t a l i c e sheets, the l a s t d u r i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e e r a which moved i n a n o r t h w e s t e r l y t r e n d a particularly  leaving  l i n e a r landscape o f p a r a l l e l r i d g e s and grooves.  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t when viewed from the a i r between Norman Wells and the study area... The u n d e r l y i n g bedrock i s f a u l t e d Cretaceous shale and f o l d e d and f a u l t e d  Devonian  limestone which c o n t a i n s some o i l and gas d e p o s i t s .  Over-  l y i n g the bedrock i n the v a l l e y , i s a dense s i l t y t i l l  generally  covered by a l a y e r of l a c u s t r i n e c l a y s and s i l t s d e p o s i t e d when the area was covered by g l a c i a l  meltwater.  The s u r f a c e stratum i n the study area c o n s i s t s o f i c e r i c h l a y e r s -of p o o r l y s o r t e d s i l t y c l a y and s i l t y l a i n by t h i c k  (up t o 2 m) o r g a n i c s u r f a c e l a y e r s .  sand o v e r The a c t u a l  s u r f a c e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as weakly to moderately hummocky (hummock diameter 0.50 t o 1.0 m, h e i g h t 0.25 t o 0.40 m). Permafrost i s found throughout the e n t i r e a r e a , w i t h an average maximum depth o f thaw (as surveyed i n 1975 and 1976) o f 0.44 m. Spot measurements from a l l years when the s i t e was v i s i t e d i n d i c a t e the mean p r o g r e s s of the s e a s o n a l thaw i s c o n s i s t e n t from year t o year, as i s the maximum thawed depth.  A t any time,  up t o 50% v a r i a t i o n from the mean thaw depth i s observed, o f t e n between two p o i n t s w i t h i n one meter o f each o t h e r , dependent on  -24whether the l o c a t i o n i s on a hummock ( l e a s t thaw) or i n a trough.  T h i s type o f v a r i a t i o n i n the f r o s t t a b l e i s an  exaggerated  r e f l e c t i o n of the s u r f a c e topography  on a micro-  s c a l e and the major source o f changing subsurface d e p r e s s i o n storage. V e g e t a t i o n i n the study area c o n s i s t e d of an open b l a c k spruce f o r e s t , average but h i g h l y v a r i a b l e .  t r e e h e i g h t approximately 4 t o 5 meters, The l a r g e s t specimens are found on the  lakeshore, reach h e i g h t s o f 10 m and a p p a r e n t l y enjoy some moderation  of climate.  Abundant shrubs and l i c h e n s p r o v i d e  ground cover dominated by b l u e b e r r i e s , Labrador t e a and lichens.  These are rooted i n t o a mat o f sphagnum moss over  peat i n which the " a c t i v e " l a y e r of seasonal thaw i s g e n e r a l l y confined.  I t i s t h i s l a y e r o f moss and peat which i s respons-  i b l e f o r the h y d r o l o g i c response o f the b a s i n . Climate experienced i n Chick Lake, as e x t r a c t e d from h i s t o r i c a l records  (Burns, 1973) a t Norman Wells  (80 km S.E.)  and F o r t Good Hope (60 km N), i s c l a s s i f i e d as "Dry C o n t i n e n t a l " . The summer i s s h o r t and c o o l f o l l o w e d by long c o l d w i n t e r s . P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s low, averaging approximately  330 mm a n n u a l l y ,  approximately t w o - t h i r d s o f which f a l l s as snow. annual temperature  The mean  o f -6°C p l a c e s the area i n the n o r t h e r n  f r i n g e s o f the d i s c o n t i n u o u s permafrost zone (see Brown, 1974). Climate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been summarized i n Table I I .  TABLE I I : Mean Monthly Weather C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , (Burns, 1973) JAN .  FEB  MAR  APR  )rman Wells mean d a i l y temp ( C) -28.7 -26.6 -18.9 -7.4 mean d a i l y max. temp ( C) -24.6 -22.0 -12 7 -1.1 mean d a i l y min temp ( C) -32.8 -31.1 -25. -•13. 7 6  no. days with f r o s t 31 28 31 mean r a i n  29  JUN  JUL  AUG  5.1  13. 7  16.1  13.2  10. 9  19.5  21.8  - .6  7.8  10.2  17  1  —  SEP  OCT  NOV  DEC  5.8  -4.1  -18. 1  -25.9  -6.3  18.5  10.1  - .8  -14. 7  -22  -1.4  7.8  1.6  -7.4  -21. 7  -25. 8  1  11  29  30  31  (mm)  1.3 .3 mean snow (mm) 213. 185 127 135. mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n (mm) 20.8 17.3 12.4 14.2 no. days measurable r a i n  -  MAY  Norman Wells & F o r t Good Hope, N.W.T.  no. days measurable snow 13 12 10  8.9 64.  35.8 7.6  56.1  61.7  28.2  -  -  58.  56.1  61.7  33.8  25.1  2.8 231  15.2  36.6  -  4  9  11  12  9  2  8  4  -  -  -  3  11  -  3 218 21. 8  14  193 19.3  YEAR  -11.2 239 195.3 1433 334.5  -  47  12  87  TABLE II: Mean Monthly Weather C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , (continued) (Burns, 1973) JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  F o r t Good Hope mean d a i l y temp ( C) -30.8 -28.9 -22.3 -10. 6 mean d a i l y max temp ( C) -26.1 -23.9 -15 7 -3. 4 mean d a i l y min temp ( C) -35.4 -34.1 -28.9 0 &  no. days with f r o s t 31 28 31 mean r a i n  -  (mm)  -  -  no. days measurable r a i n  -  JUN  JUL  AUG  3.5  12.8  15.4  12.1  9.8  19. 8  22.  -2.8  6.2  22  2  SEP  OCT  NOV  DEC  4.6  -5.9  -20. 9  -28. 6  -8.3  18.5  9.6  -2.1  -16. 6  -24. 3  -2.7  8.7  5.7  -.5  -9.8  -25. 2  -32. 9  —  4  17  30  30  31  YEAR  -13.9 256 I  mean snow (mm) 160. 162. 157. mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n (mm) 16. 16.2 15.7  -  30  MAY  Norman Wells & F o r t Good Hope, N.W.T.  -  no. days measurable snow 9 9 9  1. 8  8.1  35.3  45. 7  51.3  28.4 43.  3.8  #  5  175.  79.  -  -  -  15.7  35.3  45.7  51.3  -  4  9  10  13  9  2  -  -  47  6  3  -  -  -  2  9  11  10  68  122. 13. 7  32. 7  231. 26.9  259. 26. 2  157. 15. 7  1371. 311.4  l  -273.4  DATA COLLECTION HISTORY I n i t i a l work began i n 1973 when b i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s were  i n i t i a t e d a t the s i t e , however i t was not u n t i l l a t e i n the summer o f 19 74 t h a t s t u d i e s o f the hydrology, i n c l u d i n g water movement i n the s u b s o i l , were i n i t i a t e d . of  During the summers  1974, '75 and '76 some data was c o l l e c t e d i n i t i a l l y  using  Stevens F r e c o r d e r s which r e q u i r e d s e r v i c e on a weekly b a s i s , and l a t e r an attempt was made w i t h O t t bubbler r e c o r d e r s . The  f i r s t year, 19 74, was a year f o r l e a r n i n g , as the  o r i g i n a l containment  d i k e s f a i l e d by p i p i n g and as a r e s u l t  no u s e f u l r e c o r d was o b t a i n e d . i t was a very wet year.  T h i s was r a t h e r u n f o r t u n a t e as  However, the requirement  t o l i n e the  s t i l l i n g b a s i n t o reduce thaw and p i p i n g by i n c r e a s i n g the l e n g t h of the drainage path was e s t a b l i s h e d .  Unfortunately,  1975 was an e x c e p t i o n a l l y dry year and w h i l e the stream equipment f u n c t i o n e d , very l i t t l e flow r e c o r d was In  produced.  19 76 the O t t bubbler-type r e c o r d e r s were t r i e d but a  r a t h e r unique problem  developed.  The l o c a l mouse p o p u l a t i o n  found the r i g i d b l a c k p o l y e t h y l e n e p l a s t i c tubes to  gaging  (used t o l e a d  the bubbler head) a gastronomical d e l i g h t and damaged the  tubes, r e n d e r i n g the instruments u s e l e s s .  T h i s was the f i r s t  year when the s i t e s were v i s i t e d i n f r e q u e n t l y and thus " f o o l p r o o f " r e c o r d e r f a i l e d t o l i v e up t o e x p e c t a t i o n s . i n t e r e s t w h i l e d i s c u s s i n g the O t t r e c o r d e r s , another  this Of  difficulty  with them was the complex and u n r e l i a b l e pen mechanism which caused some problems, Further, d i f f i c u l t y  although i t d i d not a f f e c t the study.  i n h a n d l i n g of the compressed n i t r o g e n  gas b o t t l e s both a t the undeveloped  s i t e s and i n t r a n s p o r t  precluded f u r t h e r use o f these gages.  -28The p e r i o d o f u s e f u l r e c o r d s was the summer o f 1977 when four Stevens A r e c o r d e r s with 90 day m e c h a n i c a l l y d r i v e n s t r i p c h a r t s were used.  These were i n s t a l l e d i n f u l l y l i n e d  b a s i n s , with e i g h t i n c h diameter  stilling  f l o a t s , and the counter-  weights enclosed i n a s t i l l i n g w e l l .  At a l l four s i t e s  u n i t s f u n c t i o n e d w e l l , as d i d the t i p p i n g bucket which used a "Weather-Measure" s t r i p r e c o r d e r .  these  r a i n gage Generally,  the r a i n gage set-up, while " r u s t i c " was standard  (see F i g u r e 6)  while the V-notch weirs and b a s i n s were a t l e a s t somewhat novel  (see F i g u r e 7 ) .  • GUYED SUPPORT FOR ALTER W/NO SHIELD  T/PPIA/G BUCKET RAM GAGE  HEAVILY REINFORCED 2"4 AVSTROMEAtT PLATFORM  FIGURE  6  : CUT-AWAY  OF  RAIN  GAGE  SET-UP  -30-  J ^  Co  38  JL  >  I CO  y>  -313.5  GAGE SITES A f t e r the snowmelt and break-up of the lake had occured,  (allowing economical access by. f l o a t plane) the s t i l l i n g were s e t up.  The i n s t a l l a t i o n , , based on suggestions  basins  by Rahn  (Rahn, 1967), e n t a i l e d r e c o n s t r u c t i n g the containment d i k e s , l a y i n g the p l a s t i c b a s i n l i n e r on the c a r e f u l l y c l e a r e d and cleaned b a s i n  (to a v o i d l i n e r damage), i n i t i a l l y  allowing  the water to flow underneath i t , i n s t a l l i n g the s t e e l " k n i f e edge" V-notch t o the plywood c u t o f f , sandwiching the p l a s t i c membrane between the s t e e l and plywood i n s t a l l i n g the s t i l l i n g w e l l .  (see F i g u r e 7 ) , and  Since there i s no e f f e c t i v e  or tape s e a l i n g method f o r p o l y e t h y l e n e  sheet  (except  using a heat gun which i s i m p r a c t i c a l under f i e l d and  glue  perhaps  conditions)  the o b j e c t i v e was t o have no holes a t which p i p i n g might be  induced  through the membrane, the method o f s o l i d l y  the s t i l l i n g w e l l s r e q u i r e d some i n n o v a t i o n .  installing  Previously iron  bars had been d r i l l e d s e v e r a l f e e t i n t o the permafrost and these p r o v i d e d a s o l i d instrument  foundation.  By  "capping"  these near ground l e v e l with a plywood d i s c a s u i t a b l e p l a t f o r m was begun.  Over the plywood was p l a c e d the p l a s t i c sheet, and  the s t i l l i n g w e l l was p l a c e d on t o p . The  s t i l l i n g w e l l s c o n s i s t e d o f two 10 g a l l o n g a s o l i n e  kegs, one with both top and bottom removed, the other with the top removed.  The l a t t e r , with 2 small flow holes  only  drilled  i n the s i d e , was p l a c e d bottom down on the plywood, i t s s m a l l rim l o c k i n g on the a p p r o p r i a t e l y c u t d i s c . were p l a c e d i n s i d e f o r s t a b i l i t y .  A few heavy  rocks  Next the other keg was  fastened on and on top o f t h i s was b o l t e d a plywood t a b l e on  -32which the r e c o r d e r was  mounted.  Once t o g e t h e r , the u n i t  was  s o l i d , and a f t e r being h e a v i l y guyed w i t h wire rope i t was very s t a b l e . At t h i s p o i n t i n time the upstream edge of the l i n e r i s sunk i n t o an upstream c u t o f f . t r e n c h and the flow i s d i r e c t e d over, r a t h e r than under the p l a s t i c sheet. worthy of note.  One  Two  p o i n t s are  i s the need f o r an o r g a n i z e d and  fairly  r a p i d pace between c l o s i n g the "under p l a s t i c channel"  and  s e t t i n g the upstream c u t o f f .  V-notch  In t h i s p e r i o d the s t e e l  must be i n s t a l l e d and the membrane sandwiched under i t as w e l l as p l a c i n g , i f not guying the s t i l l i n g  well.  Care must be  e x e r c i s e d not t o damage the p l a s t i c or a l l o w the water p r e s s u r e to  t e a r the sheet.  Secondly,  it.is  s i n g l e l a y e r of p o l y e t h y l e n e .  important t o l a y o n l y a  A i r trapped between two  causes no end of problems i n c l u d i n g f l o a t i n g the l i n e r  sheets up  out of the c u t o f f or dragging p a r t of the membrane i n t o the V-notch.  The water trapped below the p l a s t i c i s g r a d u a l l y  f o r c e d sideways as the b a s i n f i l l s F i n a l l y , the instrument basin f i l l s  and causes no problems.  i s guyed and l e v e l l e d , and as the  the zero flow p o i n t i s r e g i s t e r e d .  and a b r i d g e to the s t i l l i n g  A manual gage  w e l l are convenient.  At Chick  Lake i n 19 77 these a c t i v i t i e s c o n s t i t u t e d about 3 man-days per s i t e , a l l of the work done without power t o o l s of any k i n d , and the major c l e a r i n g done p r e v i o u s l y . days should be allowed f o r the i n i t i a l  Approximately  two  full  c l e a r i n g , d i k e prep-  a r a t i o n and s e t t i n g of the i r o n bars to p r o v i d e the n o n - s e t t l i n g foundation f o r the instrument.  F i n a l clean-up  r e q u i r e d one and a h a l f man-days per  site.  i n the  fall  -33-  The  r a i n gage was  p l a c e d i n the c l e a r i n g c r e a t e d by  i n t e r s e c t i o n of the C.N.T. r i g h t of way ed winter  road  and  t h a t of an abandon-  (see F i g u r e 8),. ..This provided more than  adequate c l e a r a n c e from l o c a l v e g e t a t i o n and ference to the a i r - f l o w p a t t e r n s . standard  the  bucket  (approximately  The  other  gage c o n s i s t e d of a  .10 inches i n diameter) equipped  with a t i p p i n g bucket mechanism t h a t p r o v i d e d " c l i c k " f o r each 0.01  inter-  inches of r a i n .  The  an  electrical  rim was  the  standard  four f e e t above the l o c a l ground s u r f a c e and wind e f f e c t s were reduced by an A l t e r s h i e l d p l a c e d i n the s p e c i f i e d manner. Response from the t i p p i n g bucket was  recorded  by a  mechanically  d r i v e n s t r i p c h a r t , with a maximum r e c o r d l e n g t h of 60 days. The  r e c o r d i n g instrument  weatherproof box, The  which.was enclosed  i n an i n s u l a t e d  performed w e l l .  e n t i r e set-up was  reduce p o s s i b l e i l l  h e a v i l y b u i l t and guyed i n order  to  e f f e c t s from the somewhat d e s t r u c t i v e  i n t e r e s t of the l o c a l fauna.  Bear and moose can be  particularly  d e s t r u c t i v e , however, again the mice cause the m a j o r i t y of the problems and have been known to gnaw e l e c t r i c a l causing  leads  s h o r t s or c r e a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s where b a t t e r i e s d r a i n  and render  e l e c t r i c a l l y d r i v e n instruments  a l t e r n a t i v e was  useless.  The  to c o n s t r u c t a semi-permanent s t r u c t u r e ; an  expensive and d i f f i c u l t task c o n s i d e r i n g the a i r f r e i g h t h a n d l i n g i n v o l v e d g e t t i n g m a t e r i a l s to the s i t e .  and  With r e s p e c t  to the s m a l l e r members of the animal community, care must be e x e r c i s e d not to c r e a t e n e s t i n g s i t e s i n an instrument p a r t i c u l a r l y near any  f r e e moving p a r t s .  set-up,  -353.6  CHICK LAKE STUDY BASINS Three s m a l l creeks;  d r a i n i n g i n t o the south  shore of  Lake were chosen as t y p i c a l of the s i t u a t i o n under study w e l l as m a i n t a i n i n g  the o p t i o n of  i n g i f the p i p e l i n e were b u i l t . near the lakeshore end of one  and  as  'before and a f t e r ' monitorThree gage s i t e s were l o c a t e d  a f o u r t h gage was  of the creeks.  Chick  This provided  l o c a t e d on the upstream gages upslope  and  downslope of the proposed p i p e l i n e l o c a t i o n (see F i g u r e 8 ) . Basin c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are summarized i n Table c o n d i t i o n s were presented and  i n F i g u r e 3.  The  I I while s u b s o i l  e a r l i e r i n the d i s c u s s i o n on  important  soils  i n f o r m a t i o n i s conveyed i n  the mean p o t e n t i a l storage d e r i v e d by combining the s u b s o i l p o r o s i t y i n f o r m a t i o n and as shown i n F i g u r e  the depth to the f r o s t t a b l e curve,  4.  D e l i n e a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l drainage ed u s i n g a small s c a l e contour map While the contour  i n t e r v a l was  s m a l l , a n a l y s i s of the  the s u r f a c e may  dominant subsurface  with  flow i n t h a t  not r e f l e c t what i s going on below.  e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n a permafrost  flow  have been i n c o r r e c t l y  A problem e x i s t s i n d e a l i n g with such b a s i n s  p o o r l y d e f i n e d d i v i d e s and  attempt-  based on a e r i a l photographs.  data i n d i c a t e s the b a s i n d i v i d e s may placed.  b a s i n s was  This i s  s i t u a t i o n s i n c e v a r i a b l e lower-  i n g of the f r o s t t a b l e can d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r the b a s i n shape. I t would appear t h a t p a r t of the area a t t r i b u t e d to b a s i n 1 i s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the ungaged stream to the  east.  -36-  3.7  CHICK LAKE - DATA PRESENTATION AND  ANALYSIS  Stream gages were i n s t a l l e d i n e a r l y June, 19 77  and  removed i n e a r l y September with no apparent m a l f u n c t i o n s . r a i n gage f u n c t i o n e d p r o p e r l y d u r i n g the same p e r i o d . measured p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n 19 77 was f a v o r a b l y with 67 mm summer and of 1977  158 mm  105 mm  recorded i n 1975,  i n 1976,  a very wet  1975,  '76 and  83 mm,  86 mm  Total  which compares  a particularly summer.  dry  Histogram  p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s presented i n F i g u r e 9.  p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the same p e r i o d s  The  T o t a l summer  (June through August) i n  '77 f o r Norman Wells and F o r t Good Hope were and 67 mm  and 58 mm,  While d a i l y temperatures  77 mm  and 114 mm  respectively.  were not recorded f o r s u f f i c i e n t  p e r i o d s to present useful, p l o t s , d i u r n a l range and the t r e n d of the d a i l y mean f o l l o w s t h a t observed  at Norman W e l l s , a l l o w i n g  f o r l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n weather caused by the compact  convect-  i v e systems which dominate the summer weather and the p r o x i m i t y of Norman Wells to the Mackenzie R i v e r . Streamflows as recorded i n 19 7 7 are a l s o presented i n F i g u r e 9, along w i t h the "best f i t " method computer model.  obtained u s i n g the C l a r k e ' s  Table I I p r o v i d e s a summary of the  data c o l l e c t e d and the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s . d e f i n i n g the b a s i n areas and boundaries the V/A  A problem i n  i s e v i d e n t by  examining  ( t o t a l recorded flow volume over b a s i n area) r a t i o  and  by p l o t t i n g the f a l l i n g limb of the hydrographs on l o g paper. However, p r e c i s e l y how  to "improve" the estimates i s not  clear  c o n s i d e r i n g the area c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s v a r i a b l e w i t h time the 1977  data d i d not p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t l y separate events,  and  -37-  JUNE  JULV  riGURE 3 o  : /97Z  JUNE  MJNRLL  f RUNOFF  JULY  DATA,  CHICK  LAKE  -38-  or  a long  of  basin  enough r e c o r d response  some i n s i g h t the  intense  into event  stream c h a r t , the  the  of  frost  antecedent While from work terms  of  drainage  the of  changes August  This  (ie:  the  the  the  events  date  Comparison events  basin with  1 solicited  basin  trend.  precipitation  in  provides  a permafrost  table  indicate  particular  even minor  hydrograph.  response  to  to  time.  no r e s p o n s e  i n mid June were support is  for  the  dominated by  into  the  summer  gives  on  While any  recorded  on  contention the  depth  season)  that to  and  conditions. no d a t a was c o l l e c t e d done  in Alaska  accounting  are  that  on e v a p o r a t i o n , it  in water.balance  mechanism i n c r e a s i n g  the  is  extremely  calculations  available  indications important and as  storage.  a  in  -39-  4.0  DATA PREPARATION AND  ANALYSIS  The b a s i s of the a n a l y s i s was  the simple  s i n g l e event,  f i x e d parameter C l a r k ' s hydrograph model programmed f o r use an i n t e r a c t i v e g r a p h i c s t e r m i n a l . i s d e s c r i b e d by Gray by C l a r k  (Clark, 1945)  of Engineers The  The methodology of the model  (Gray, 197.0.)., the o r i g i n a l work  presented  and used,by the United S t a t e s Corps  i n t h e i r HEC-1  Flood Hydrograph Package (HEC,  Canada and  were f i r s t d i g i t i z e d by Water Survey of  then converted  i n t o h o u r l y flow records using a  program w r i t t e n by the author. a l hydrograph p l o t and was  T h i s was  converted  i n t o a season-  input i n t h i s form to the C l a r k  The p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e c o r d was  histogram  manually reduced i n t o a  s u i t a b l e f o r input to the model together with  data and was  used to estimate  c o n c e n t r a t i o n and time versus  a storage constant.  c o n t r i b u t i n g area was  would be r e l a t i v e l y constant T h i s i s reasonable  slopes and  An estimate  of the  The  velocity  throughout the b a s i n at any  s i n c e the basins have f a i r l y  given  constant The  assumed to be zero i n a l l cases.  data i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e data f o r each s i t e was  Input  9. examined u s i n g the two  step  i t e r a t i v e procedure programmed f o r the g r a p h i c s t e r m i n a l . first  step i n v o l v e s e s t i m a t i n g e f f e c t i v e p r e c i p i t a t i o n  using the two  fitting  travel  made f o r each catchment  the s u r f a c e l a y e r i s c o n s i s t a n t throughout.  baseflow component was  flow  the b a s i n parameters of time of  based on watershed shape and the assumption t h a t flow  time.  1973).  s t r i p c h a r t s obtained .from the four r e c o r d e r s f o r  the summer of 1977  model.  with  parameters of i n i t i a l l o s s and  The  by  infiltra-  -40t i o n r a t e t o match flow estimated by the model to t h a t recorded.  The i n i t i a l  l o s s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t p r e c i p i -  t a t i o n which i s i n i t i a l l y r e q u i r e d t o "wet" v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l s u r f a c e before flow begins, and i s l o s t f o r e v e r t o evaporation.  I n f i l t r a t i o n would be the minor l o s s e s t o the  f r o z e n s u b - s o i l which are not e n t i r e l y impermeable, l o s s e s around the weir, and e v a p o r a t i o n s i n c e the model makes no p r o v i s i o n f o r these l o s s e s which would be s i g n i f i c a n t over the f o u r week p e r i o d o f a n a l y s i s .  F i g u r e 1 0 i l l u s t r a t e s the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s obtained between i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e and i n i t i a l loss.  The v a l u e s chosen t o go i n t o the second  hydrograph  step o f the  s y n t h e s i s turned out not t o be c r i t i c a l but were  chosen t o r e f l e c t the "expected"  l o s s e s , approximately  of the t o t a l l o s s e s t o each o f i n i t i a l The model i s extremely  half  l o s s and i n f i l t r a t i o n .  s e n s i t i v e to the c h o i c e o f storage  constant and time o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n except when l a r g e times o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n were r e q u i r e d , thus w i t h i n a few i t e r a t i o n s q u i t e an a c c e p t a b l e and unique was o b t a i n e d .  f i t w i t h the recorded  hydrograph  F i g u r e 9 i l l u s t r a t e s the "best" f i t c o n d i t i o n f o r  each hydrograph  and Table I I I summarizes i n p u t data and r e s u l t s .  The above r e s u l t s do not show any o f the p a t t e r n s one would expect o f f o u r b a s i n s c l o s e together i n s i m i l a r  terrain  and o f such s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s l o p e , aspect, and b a s i n shape.  The obvious c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t some o f the data  i s probably i n c o r r e c t ; and the most l i k e l y problems are with b a s i n area and subsurface flow bypassing the w e i r s .  I t was  extremely d i f f i c u l t t o d e l i n e a t e the apparent b a s i n boundary  TABLE I I I :  SUMMARY OF RESULTS  Basin No. Area  1 22. 4  (hectares)  Basin Length  1450  (m)  Mean Basin Slope  600  Stream l e n g t h (m) Stream slope  12  Peak flow (L/S) Peak flow  Average Basin Runoff Depth Time o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n , T Storage  Constant,  R  3. 7  c  (mm)  5  (hours)  (hours)  33  120.  3.4  3. 5  • 33  3.9 350  26  4. 4 25 • 40  • 57  52  31  10  40  80  40  100  80  7. • 80  1350  400  2. 5  • 54  (L/sec/ha)  61. 8  46 1575  150  3. 3  (%)  15. 3 1000  3. 7  (%)  2  I  ro  l  -43from the a v a i l a b l e mapping, and the moss covered  terrain  i n t r o d u c e d f u r t h e r u n c e r t a i n t y with r e s p e c t t o the l o c a t i o n o f the r e a l d i v i d e s .  Basin 2 appears t o have been  overestimated  while b a s i n 3 has been underestimated. The  rainfall  losses  (the d i f f e r e n c e between the r a i n which  f e l l and t h a t which e v e n t u a l l y showed up as r u n o f f ) were i n the order o f 70 mm and t h i s volume never d i d appear as subsequent streamflow.  T h i s volume i s approximately  of e v a p o r a t i o n  equal t o the amount  one would expect d u r i n g the p e r i o d  analysed.  As has been p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , annual evaporation order o f 24 0 The  mm.  s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f the r e s u l t s is. the r e l a t i v e l y  l a r g e values obtained constant  i s i n the  f o r time o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n and storage  c o n s i d e r i n g the s i z e and slope o f the b a s i n s .  'Ignoring  s i t e 2, times o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f 2 t o 4 days f o r b a s i n s than 75 hectares  less  i n area i m p l i e s t h a t the s u p e r - p o s i t i o n o f  events i s important  i n d e f i n i n g the sequence o f storms respons-  i b l e f o r major r u n o f f .  I t c e r t a i n l y negates e f f o r t s t o use  independent s h o r t d u r a t i o n storms as the design c r i t e r i a f o r erosion structures.  T h i s procedure i s a t t r a c t i v e s i n c e the  long term d a i l y m e t e o r o l o g i c a l records can be analysed statistically  ( S o u l i s and V i n c e n t ,  1977) but s i n c e storm  sequence and t i m i n g are not accounted f o r , the r e s u l t s may not be  realistic. Unfortunately,  events were recorded  i n s u f f i c i e n t independent and separable throughout the summer season t o show the  expected t r e n d i n g i n b a s i n response.  Of some importance i s  t h a t the most s i g n i f i c a n t r a i n f a l l event o f the year, which  o c c u r r e d i n e a r l y August,  s o l i c i t e d no response from any of  the r e c o r d e r s w h i l e very minor r a i n f a l l s i n June produced d i s t i n c t f l o o d peakes. ilities  I t would appear, based on the p o s s i b -  f o r l a r g e c a p i t a l savings i m p l i e d by the o b s e r v a t i o n s  t h a t f u r t h e r work i s j u s t i f i e d parameters  i n d e f i n i n g the necessary  and the manner i n which they t r e n d through the  summer season, thus a f f e c t i n g the d e s i g n s t a t i s t i c s .  4.1  THE NEXT STEP The Chick Lake study has i n d i c a t e d t h a t the t y p i c a l  m o d e l l i n g approach f o r s m a l l b a s i n s i s i n c o r r e c t s i n c e t i o n i s based on s i n g l e independent events.  calibra-  An a p p r o p r i a t e  model would have t o take i n t o account the s y s t e m a t i c and random changes i n the b a s i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as the superp o s i t i o n of adjacent events.  Since t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n random  "wander" i n b a s i n parameters due to c o n d i t i o n s beyond the r e s o l u t i o n o f common measurements, an a p p r o p r i a t e model might c o n s i s t of elements d e t e r m i n i s t i c a l l y modelled, but each element d e s c r i b e d by a d i s t r i b u t i o n r a t h e r than a s i n g l e number. F u r t h e r , those elements which f o l l o w a time t r e n d change should do so and the outcome should r e f l e c t these Is t h i s e f f o r t worth i t ?  changes.  I f we can show t h a t  virtually  a l l r a i n f a l l s e a r l y i n the summer, f o r i n s t a n c e , perhaps a s i n g l e event c a l i b r a t i o n p l u s a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of e a r l y season storms i s a l l t h a t i s j u s t i f i e d .  I f the c h a r a c t e r of  the r a i n events a l s o change with time d u r i n g the season, then t h i s a l s o should be taken i n t o account.  A n a l y s i s of storm  -45-  d i s t r i b u t i o n based on 30 years o f d a i l y records a t Norman Wells  shows t h a t t h i s i s not apparently  the case  (see F i g u r e  11).  The d i s t r i b u t i o n s of storm s t a r t s , volume, and i n t e n s i t y  appear q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t ; even when combinations o f events are considered.  Thus, the t r e n d i n g i n b a s i n response due t o the  lowering of the f r o s t t a b l e w i l l i n f a c t j u s t i f y the e f f o r t i n d e s i g n i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e model which can be c a l i b r a t e d on a minimum o f data o r f i e l d measurements and i s simple allow the g e n e r a t i o n  enough t o  o f flow s t a t i s t i c s by r o u t i n g the a v a i l -  able h i s t o r i c a l m e t e o r o l o g i c a l r e c o r d through i t . A c u r s o r y look a t summer records o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n as compiled  over t h i r t y - f i v e years a t Norman Wells  the p o i n t .  illustrates  In no r e s p e c t do the s i z e o f frequency  t r e n d , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 11.  o f events  T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t the  storm event or combination o f events o f a given exceedence l e v e l , a p p l i e d t o a b a s i n model o f f i x e d parameters w i l l to e x c e s s i v e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e r e s u l t s .  lead  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s based  on the concept t h a t the a v a i l a b l e flow data and thus the model c a l i b r a t i o n tends t o be from e a r l y i n the year when data . i s e a s i e s t t o a c q u i r e because the response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are most  severe. The  framework f o r the a p p r o p r i a t e model a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n  the form of the C l a r k ' s model used f o r data a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study.  T h i s model i s s u f f i c i e n t l y simple  t h a t even with  s i o n s t o a l l o w t r e n d i n g i n parameters, i n c l u d i n g b a s i n it  should be reasonably  exten-  storage,  e f f i c i e n t i n terms o f computer use.  Furthermore, a random element can be i n t r o d u c e d t o allow f o r n a t u r a l u n c e r t a i n t y i n data and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  This  type  60r  t>  SO  ^ AO  /  to  20 % 10  M  J  J  §  PLOTS WEPE EXTRACTED PROM DAILY METEOROLOGY  S  3  .  ->  %i  .  •  -/O  — —_  «ov!/-~ /  ^  L — M  /F  PROM  SMOTHER  i  //:  i J  INVESTIGATION  i A  OF  L S  TRENDS  IN  SEPARATED  ^T  L E A S T  WERE  STORMS  RAMFALt  J  /S  EVENT  -6/0  i  NORMAN  WELLS,  PROM  J943-+  /977  MOV/A CLEARER  STORM  -A  / '  '  A T  DAY  '  /  ^.  FIGURE  . -  OBSERVAT/ONS  '  ~  ^ \ ^  A  EVENTS  OA/E  EVE/VT  /  CONSIDERED  'DRY'DAY fSOUL/S  OEF/A/EP AS 7%T  oyaG  AN  * 1//NCENT /A/OEPENOSiVT YEAPS  A/8: WHILE MILD TRENDS IN STORM CHARACTERISTICS EVIDENT, THEY ARE NOT STRONG ENOUGH TO EITHER A FIXED PARAMETER OR A RAM EVENT STATISTCAL APPROACH  SUMMER  STORMS  AT  NORMAN  /A/DEPENDENT  SEPARATES  WELLS  /T /977) 'SOMME/Z  ANALYZED  ARE JL/STF/ BASED  -47-  of model c o u l d be run on long term m e t e o r o l o g i c a l r e c o r d s and used t o d e t e r m i n i s t i c a l l y produce s y n t h e t i c flow records from which design s t a t i s t i c s  c o u l d be e x t r a c t e d .  A model f o r south-  ern use (non-trending parameters) i n c o r p o r a t i n g u n c e r t a i n t y i n b a s i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t the time of the event has been designed by R u s s e l l (1977) f o r e s t i m a t i n g flow  statistics  for municipal design. T h i s technique has some advantage i n t h a t some f l e x i b i l i t y i s allowed s i n c e , w i t h f u r t h e r work, estimates o f b a s i n p a r a meters and t h e i r trends should be p o s s i b l e w i t h few f i e l d measurements.  relatively  U n c e r t a i n t y i n these estimates can  be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the random nature of the parameters while the r e q u i r e d r e a l data, the r a i n f a l l  sequence, can be t r a n s -  f e r r e d u s i n g the more complete a v a i l a b l e knowledge o f the weather p a t t e r n s .  The r e s u l t i n g long term hydrograph, w h i l e  not l i k e l y c o r r e c t i n a b s o l u t e terms, should be reasonable  statistically  and p r o v i d e some b a s i s f o r a r a t i o n a l  structural  design. C l a r k ' s model, about the s i m p l e s t r a i n f a l l - r u n o f f model a v a i l a b l e , takes account has been w i d e l y used  ( i t i s the b a s i s o f the U.S. Corps o f  Engineers HEC-1 program it  i s suggested  of both t r a v e l time and storage and  (HEC-1973)).  Lacking anything b e t t e r  t h a t peak flows be computed on the b a s i s o f  seasonal m o d e l l i n g o f the r u n o f f u s i n g , as i n p u t ,  rainfall  data from the n e a r e s t long term m e t e r o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n  (Norman  Wells would have t o serve f o r a wide area) e i t h e r on a d a i l y b a s i s or s h o r t e r time p e r i o d i f s u i t a b l e data a r e a v a i l a b l e .  -48(1)  Keep a running t o t a l of storage space - e v a p o r a t i o n rainfall  losses (total r a i n f a l l  l e s s the e f f e c t i v e  less rain-  f a l l which c o n t r i b u t e s t o r u n o f f ) assuming t h a t the storage space i s f u l l (2)  a t the end o f the snowmelt  season.  Model the r u n o f f u s i n g C l a r k ' s method when t h e r e i s a rainfall  surplus a f t e r f i l l i n g  the space c r e a t e d by evapor-  a t i o n , assuming: (i)  "Losses equal s p l i t between i n i t i a l constant r a t e i n f i l t r a t i o n completely  (ii)  T  fill  o  /  where  L  Q  (these l o s s e s should  the storage space a t the t i m e ) .  i n hours = L /V  c  loss  l o s s and  + L /V o  c  c  = l e n g t h o f o v e r l a n d flow (m)  V  Q  = v e l o c i t y of o v e r l a n d flow  V  Q  = 250 S where S = mean slope  L  c  = channel  V  c  (m/hr)  length i n m  = channel v e l o c i t y i n m/hr computed from Manning's o r other standard  formula.  ( i i i ) R i n hours = 2T c The above procedure s i t e i n question.  should y i e l d flow hydrographs f o r the  From these, annual peaks c o u l d be a b s t r a c t e d  and anlayzed by standard frequency methods.  To a l l o w f o r  u n c e r t a i n t y the h y d r o l o g i s t may wish t o put bounds on h i s assumed parameters and i n c o r p o r a t e these i n the a n a l y s i s by a procedure  such as t h a t O u t l i n e d by R u s s e l l (1977) .  -495.0  CONCLUSIONS The C h i c k  exercise  rather  how a n d w h y o f t y p e was t h e least  Lake  study  than the  subarctic  intended  as  directory study. basins frost  are  events  Determining of  of  at  around which what  to  zone was a n e c e s s a r y Chick  hydrology  is  in  its  study,  questions  the were  climes.  as  (a)  Is  (b)  To w h a t  permafrost extent of  the  study  terrain  was  at  Lake  which  d o we l a b o r  the  under  harsh  Appendix which  difficulties remote  and  data  is  a  gathering  the  the  simply  discontinuous  overall because  relative  the  study  to  questions  inevitably  with  perma-  which  northern  the.study which  in  initiated  resulted  in  further  affected  by  the  important? is  basin  of  the  to,  response  permafrost  regime  are  important?  What m i s c o n c e p t i o n s  As a l l u d e d  of  data  permafrost?  What p r o c e s s e s  particularly  a particular  The  and why when d e a l i n g  in  infancy  of  hydrologically (d)  of  learning  follows:  presence (c)  study.  the  that  types  Some o f  answers  in  measure  part  at  still  length  affect  the work  the  gathering  respect  the major  muskeg v e g e t a t i o n  temperate  this  as a  gathering meaningful  initiated  more  hydrology  and i n  discussed  a guide  of  data  primarily  success.  The d i f f i c u l t i e s conditions  intended  a definitive  subject,  a partial  was  of  the  northern  environment  with?  the  existence  thaw process  of  permafrost  and t h e m a t e r i a l  is  important,  composition  of  -50the a c t i v e l a y e r . mat  I f t h i s l a y e r i s composed of an o r g a n i c  which behaves l i k e a sponge whose t h i c k n e s s i n c r e a s e s  with time, then b a s i n parameters change and these changes must be taken i n t o account.  A l s o , s i n c e the p o i n t lowering of the  f r o s t t a b l e i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e , l o c a l lows are formed i n the t a b l e where moisture  accumulates which reduces  value of the cover f u r t h e r i n c r e a s i n g the the f r o s t t a b l e .  the  insulating  ;rate of progress of  Thus the topography of the f r o s t t a b l e  becomes an exaggerated  r e p l i c a of the s u r f a c e u n l e s s some form  of d i s c o n t i n u i t y i s caused  by s u r f a c e d i s t u r b a n c e .  This creates  i n c r e a s i n g d e p r e s s i o n a l storage and can a l s o change the b a s i n d e f i n i t i o n with  time.  E v a p o r a t i o n has o c c a s i o n a l l y been ignored when c a l c u l a t i n g a water balance  i n the n o r t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f a c l o s e look  at the amounts of water i n v o l v e d has been avoided. e v a p o r a t i o n i s not l a r g e (300 mm  estimated  (approximately  at the study s i t e ) about h a l f of which f a l l s as  becomes important.  total  f o r Chick Lake) when  compared w i t h the l i m i t e d annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n 330 mm  While  snow,-it  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e s i n c e i t can  be  shown t h a t the r e a l e v a p o r a t i o n approaches the p o t e n t i a l evapora t i o n i n o r g a n i c t e r r a i n u n i t s s i n c e the water t a b l e cannot fall  f a r below the s u r f a c e due  to the l o c a t i o n of the  frost  t a b l e , and a constant w i c k i n g a c t i o n of the a l l important mat.  Again, why  as a secondary  i s e v a p o r a t i o n important?  I t appears to a c t  drainage mechanism which removes water from the  s u r f a c e cover, thus c r e a t i n g p o t e n t i a l storage f o r precipitation.  organic  incoming  The more storage t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e , the  less  -51s i g n i f i c a n t the b a s i n response. Simply,  Where does t h i s a l l lead?  the i n t e l l i g e n t design of minor h y d r a u l i c  s t r u c t u r e s and e r o s i o n c o n t r o l works i s g e n e r a l l y based on some a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of f a i l u r e r e l a t i v e to the c o s t s and r i s k s of damage.  The  s i z i n g t h e r e f o r e , i s based on some form  of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s which p r o v i d e s a design flow of s m a l l return period floods. both  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n northern  flow data and experience  latitudes  i s i n s h o r t supply, w i t h  the  m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data s i t u a t i o n being only somewhat b e t t e r . The  s i m p l e s t approach to d e f i n e the d e s i g n f l o o d i s to d e f i n e  a s i n g l e s e t of b a s i n parameters and choose the storm event the r e q u i r e d s t a t i s t i c a l l e v e l and route t h i s through f i x e d b a s i n model.  of  the  However, s i n c e i t has been shown t h a t the  b a s i n parameters change s i g n i f i c a n t l y with time, a l l storm events must be c o n s i d e r e d .  I t has been f u r t h e r demonstrated  t h a t even f o r small b a s i n s the h y d r o l o g i c response  i s atten-  uated to the extent t h a t the storm hydrographs o v e r l a p thus event combinations  must be c o n s i d e r e d .  and  Thus, to d e f i n e the  necessary design hydrographs, the design model must a l l o w the b a s i n parameters to vary w i t h time, must take i n t o antecedent adjacent  account  c o n d i t i o n s , and must a l l o w the s u p e r p o s i t i o n of events.  F i n a l l y , i t has been shown t h a t the storm  s e r i e s , based  on the Norman Wells r e c o r d , are not s u f f i c i e n t l y skewed to e a r l y summer to j u s t i f y a c c e p t i n g the common design approach. T h i s approach, g e n e r a l l y based on a s i n g l e b a s i n c a l i b r a t i o n obtained e a r l y i n the year and then a p p l i e d to a l l storm events r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r t i m i n g tends to c o n s e r v a t i v e l y  -52-  estimate  single  seriously  event  unconservative  A simple synthesis  model,  be s e t  up t o  basin  parameters.  meteorological  statistics. of  basin  as bands) range  are  spatial  and t h e  water  table  of  define  this  of  depth  surface these  including  of  cover  The d e f i n i t i o n  "conservativeness  of  statistically  of  of  the  from of  significant  the the  flow  the  in which  the  parameters  interest  are  the  lowering  of  of  the  and/or  investigated. detailed  to  such  and s t o r a g e  table  frost  depth  i n model parameters  as  coefficient  moisture  To e x a m i n e  studies  the  are  content and  required,  work.  hydrology  ignorance"  by  input  1976).  t h e s e mechanisms  money and e n v i r o n m e n t a l of  be  amount  information  values  as a f u n c t i o n  further,  northern of  specific  concentration  field  the  varying  in  flow  based on each c o m b i n a t i o n  rate  must  changes  the  involves  time  Of p a r t i c u l a r  of  oversizing  three  Changes  concepts  of  or  for  which  a large  provide  process  (or  thaw and w a t e r  extensive  understanding  the  variation  time  hydrograph  proposed  allows  to  method t h e manner  and d a t e .  is  is  superposition.  method o f  model  Russell,  evaporation  variation  the  of  (see  and t e m p o r a l  the  flow  be d e f i n e d .  table  of  event  1973)  be u t i l i z e d  two  set  Clark  a simple  to  to  and t h e r e f o r e  random and s y s t e m a t i c  as r a n g e s  generated  change must  respect  both  An e x t e n s i o n  To u t i l i z e  with  data  a large  ignores,  a n d HEC,  Use o f  and c a l c u l a t i n g  peaks  the  1970  and by u s i n g  parameters,  with  allow  parameters  but  based on t h e  (see G r a y ,  could  of  peaks,  will  as w e l l  which  is  structures  as  for  to  a  reducing  costly  damage r e s u l t i n g  drainage  lead  from  both  in  better the terms  overdrainage  northern  -53-  communities  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  links.  -54BIBLIOGRAPHY AES.  Monthly Records o f M e t e o r o l o g i c a l O b s e r v a t i o n s i n Canada. F i s h e r i e s and Environment, Atmospheric Environment S e r v i c e . Ottawa. 1972-1977.  Bredthouer, D. of CRREL, F a i r b a n k s , A l a s k a . Personnal Communication. NRC Conference on C o l d Regions Hydrology. Vancouver, B.C. 19 79. Brown, R.J.E. Permafrost Terminology, T e c h n i c a l Memorandum A s s o c i a t e Committee on G e o t e c h n i c a l Research, N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l of Canada, No. I l l , Ottawa P u b l i c a t i o n s S e c t i o n , NRC, 1974, pp 62. Burns, B.M. The C l i m a t e of the Mackenzie V a l l e y - B e a u f o r t Sea. V o l . 1, C l i m a t o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s , No. 24. Atmospheric Environment S e r v i c e , Environment Canada. Ottawa, 19 73, pp 227. C a r l s o n , C.E. of the U n i v e r s i t y of A l a s k a , F a i r b a n k s . Personnal Communication. NRC Conference on C o l d Regions Hydrology. Vancouver, B.C. 1979. Clark, CO. Storage and the U n i t Hydrograph, Trans. ASCE, V o l . 110, 1945, pp 1419-1488. Dingman, S.L. Hydrology of the Glen Creek Watershed, Tanana R i v e r B a s i n , C e n t r a l A l a s k a . U.S. Army Corps of E n g i n e e r s , CRREL Res. Rpt. 297, 19 71. Douglas, R.D. Senior b i o l o g i s t w i t h Renewable Resources L t d . of Edmonton. Personnal Communications at C h i c k Lake. 1977. Gill,  D. of the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton. Communication. 1979.  Personnal  Gray, D.M. Handbook on the P r i n c i p l e s of Hydrology. Canadian C o n t r i b u t i o n to IHD, F i s h e r i e s & Environment Canada. 1970, pp.390. Hare, F.K. and M.K. 1974, pp 256. HEC.  Thomas.  Climate Canada.  Toronto: Wiley,  HEC-1 F l o o d Hydrograph Package. Hydrolic Engineering Centre, U.S. Corps of E n g i n e e r s , Davis C a l i f o r n i a , 1973.  H y d r o l o g i c a l A t l a s of Canada. prepared by F i s h e r i e s and Environment Canada, a v a i l a b l e from Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, Ottawa, O n t a r i o , Canada, 1978. Newbury, R.W. R i v e r Hydrology i n Permafrost Areas, Proceedings of Workshop Seminar on Permafrost, CNC/IHD, C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , February 19 74.  -55Rahn, P. and M.T. G i d d i n g s . C o n s t r u c t i n g a Temporary Stream Gauging S t a t i o n , C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g 37 (12) pp 46-47. R u s s e l l , S.O. A Method f o r Computing Design Flows f o r Urban Drainage, Proceedings of Canadian Hydrology Symposium Edmonton, A l b e r t a (1977) Sept. 1979. S o u l i s , E.D. and D.E. Reid. Impact o f I n t e r r u p t i n g Subsurface Flow i n the Northern B o r e a l F o r e s t . Proceedings o f the T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on Permafrost, Edmonton A l b e r t a , (1978) J u l y . S o u l i s , E.D. and D.G. V i n c e n t . I n d i v i d u a l Storm S t a t i s t i c s from D a i l y R a i n f a l l Records, Proceedings of the Second AMS/CMOS Conference on Hydrometeorology, Oct 77, Toronto. Thornthwaite & Mather. The Water Balance. Drexel I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Laboratory of C l i m a t o l o g y , P u b l i c a t i o n s i n C l i m a t o l o g y , V o l 8, No. 1, 19 49. W i l l i a m s , G.P. The Thermal Regime o f a Sphagnum moss Peat Bog, Proceedings o f the T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Peat Congress, Quebec August 1968, pp 195-200.  APPENDIX: NORTHERN FIELD OPERATIONS  -57-  NORTHERN F I E L D In of  OPERATIONS  a northern  considerations  data  generally  experience  of  follow  a collection  are  many f i e l d  based on e x p e r i e n c e s northerner point 1.  in  gathering  the  program there  outside  the  personnel. of  suggestions  of  and  use  number  of  which  considerations  to  a program,  a  realm  The comments  w h i c h may b e o f  planning  usual  are  the  first  presented  time  briefly  in  form. Transportation -  air  freight  but  given  port -  a)  costs  are  sufficient  can be u s e d t o  freight  high lead  and o f t e n time  the  overland  only or  alternative,  water  trans-  advantage.  leap-frogging  is  useful.  relatively  c h e a p means as  far  reduce  the  expensive  to  nearby  point  jump  and t h e n  sling  (ie:  transport  as p o s s i b l e the  in  site.  using  in  eg:  a  by  order barge  to to  a  helicopter.)  Aircraft F i x e d Wing -  -  -  cheaper,  faster  capacity  than  awkward  shapes  and  because  of  limitations  spring  -  the  since  and  strips  are  heaves  or  useable  inability  soft  difficult of  and  doors.  sometimes  conditions  access  often  to  sizes  usefulness  ice  ski  for  larger  helicopters.  and f a l l  limited float  and g e n e r a l l y  limit  temporary  unuseable  due  to  frost  ground.  reconnaisance land  at  will,  but fly  the low  and  -58-  slow or hover reduce t h e i r v a l u e . H e l i c o p t e r s - expensive - f u e l i s a problem; h i g h consumption and l i m i t e d tankage r e q u i r e  careful  p l a n n i n g and p o s s i b l e f u e l caches. - the c o r r e c t machine w i l l handle almost any f r e i g h t as doors are b e t t e r p l a c e d or items can be slung below.  Further,  the f r e i g h t can be p l a c e d p r e c i s e l y where i t i s wanted. - u s e f u l as a c o n s t r u c t i o n t o o l - sky hook. - probably the b e s t reconnaisance v e h i c l e a v a i l a b l e as c a b i n v i s i b i l i t y i s e x c e l l e n t , p e r s o n n e l can be put almost anywhere, and the hover c a p a b i l i t y i s most u s e f u l . b) Boats - f o r moving heavy f r e i g h t , barges and tugs can be used i n the Mackenzie V a l l e y but l e a d time of almost a f u l l year i s necessary. - canoes, j e t boats and other small c r a f t are u s e f u l f o r moving s m a l l amounts of f r e i g h t , water programs, good.  sampling  e t c . and t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y i s g e n e r a l l y  -59c)  Overland -  with  the  Inuvik  and t h e this  viable.  Contact  Edmonton  in winter but  will  Often  -  Dempster of  is  winter  and  in  summer o v e r l a n d  of  more  Public  Works  conditions.  road network  f r o z e n waterways  to  Mackenzie  becoming  investigation  the  Highway  the  Department  access  of  roads  may b e o f  use  by  the  planner.  become  the  highways  north.  is  transport  difficult  damage t o 2.  the  require  the  the  possibility  for  the  of  construction  Highway,  in -  opening  the  off  the  and d i s c o u r a g e d  all-weather  due t o  the  flora.  Instrumentation -  choice  becomes  available; the -  -  -  a choice  be  very  few r e p a i r  simple,  freight  often  occasional  the  field.  before  robust  with  t h e mode o f  transport  beyond the m a n i p u l a t i o n  anything  and v e r y  facilities  handlers  the  of  are  bear  goes  not or  in  reliable.  the  tender  into  the  are  north.  with  moose o n c e  There  boxes;  neither  an i n s t r u m e n t  field  it  must  be  is  are in  assembled  checked.  -  suitable  -  every are  aligned  planner.  must  and  closely  spare  parts  should  go w i t h  each  unit.  that  field  effort  must  b e made t o  ensure  familiar  with  how t h i n g s  work  repairs  or  improvise  when  in  necessary.  order  to  personnel effect  the environment i s extreme; t h e r e f o r e weatherproof the instruments  ( r i g i d foam boxes) and mount them w e l l .  Again bear and moose present a problem. care must be taken not to p r o v i d e n e s t i n g s i t e s f o r the b i r d s , animals and  i n s e c t s i n the instruments.  There-  f o r e screen or p l u g openings where p o s s i b l e , mechanical  d r i v e s f o r c h a r t s seem to work b e t t e r than  e l e c t r i c a l ones.  They don't have b a t t e r i e s to f r e e z e  which can be f o r g o t t e n on a s e r v i c e t r i p and they to  tend  " t i c k " loud enough t h a t there i s some assurance  the  u n i t i s working a f t e r being p l a c e d i n i t s weatherproof box. use l o t s of d e s i c a n t ; p r e f e r a b l y one pouch i n each instrument  of the v a r i e t y t h a t changes c o l o r as i t s  c a p a c i t y i s used up.  T h i s p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l check,  c a r r y a g e n e r a l t o o l k i t , as w e l l as s p e c i f i c p a r t s a n t i c i p a t e d to g i v e problems, u s e f u l items to b r i n g along: - f i b r e g l a s s packing  tape  - epoxy glue - q u a r t of r e s i n , some f i b r e g l a s s c l o t h and - push-type hand  drill  - nuts, b o l t s , some metal - hack saw -  catalyst  blade, axe  screws and  nails  file  axe  - v i c e g r i p s , p l i e r s w i t h wire c u t t e r s , c r e s c e n t wrench  - 6 1 -  -  spare  electrical  -•bailing -these for -  items  the  along with or  installation  set-up  given  to  the  however  it  reasonable  able  long  to  flow  line  pieces  taken.  if  to  Is  and s i t e  through  in  be  required  be i n s t a l l e d ?  tools  bottle  becomes  definitely  should  a nitrogen  a  conditions?  a swamp i s  not  a helicopter  awkward  it  pleasant,  is  avail-  locations.  recorders Ott  bubbler  nitrogen  chart -  recorders  bottle,  protected  Stevens  -  F float-type elaborate but  require  most  the  above  mentioned  t u b i n g which must  a finicky  pen and a  recorders  are  stilling are  drive,  be  battery  well  recorders  a back-up  thanks  to  and a  reliable.  require  non-settling They  with  strip  Of p a r t i c u l a r  pen d e s i g n w i t h  simple,  do  however  service.  a n d a 90 d a y  reliable.  resolution  very  frequent  Stevens A f l o a t - t y p e chart  rain  plastic  from mice,  foundation, also  involve  drive.  a more  a  mechanical  chart  proved  interest  pencil  a reversing  trace, pen  is  the  the  and  simple  good  drive.  gages -  s t a n d a r d Weather with  3.  items  Packing  -  -  those  instrumentation  reasonable  -  wire  servicing  How i s  lead  a mercury  Measure  type  tipping  s w i t c h worked  bucket  gages  well.  Environment weather  -  best  described  as e x t r e m e ,  the  author  has  fitted  -62experienced snow and f r e e z i n g c o n d i t i o n s  in a l l  months, as w e l l as a l a r g e i n s e c t hatch when there was 90% snow cover.  Winter i s p r e d i c t a b l e  - cold. s u r v i v i a l - go prepared; w h i l e a i r c r a f t a r e r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y k i t s , they are o c c a s i o n a l l y and  o f t e n have been  neglected  "raided".  - an A r c t i c - t y p e parka i s good insurance  from  October through May i n the Discontinuous Zone - a l l year f u r t h e r  north.  - a l l p e r s o n n e l take a good course which  includes  a i r c r a f t s a f e t y and f i r s t a i d , c a r r y the gear and  p l a y by the r u l e s .  i n s e c t s - always c a r r y i n s e c t r e p e l l e n t ; i n p a r t i c u l a r l y bad  c o n d i t i o n s , gloves  and a headnet a r e necessary  combined w i t h long s l e e v e s and t r o u s e r s , d a y l i g h t - during  summer i t i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e t o work  n e a r l y 2 4 hours as f a r south as in. the northern extremes o f the p r o v i n c e s . used t o advantage d u r i n g  T h i s can o f t e n be  s e r v i c e t r i p s when the  work i s l i g h t and the t r a v e l time between s i t e s is  long.  - i n winter,  the short day can s e r i o u s l y l i m i t  access s i n c e f l y i n g time i s c u r t a i l e d , f l o r a - muskeg can be d e c e i v i n g with r e s p e c t bearing  t o i t s apparent  capacity.  - i n s p r i n g , when f r o z e n , a l l i s w e l l , w h i l e by summer instrumentation  has been tumbled i n t o a f e n thanks  -63-  to -  -  -  -  differential  one  solution:  the  permafrost  the  drilling  is  the  piles  will  summer a c c e s s is  very  at  times  best  easier, be  is  often  done  active  frozen  in  summer,  care must  even w i t h  standing  top  of  the  moss  the  growth  rate  incredible  in  through  to in  act the  layer  solid  difficult  the  to  as a  pile  fall is  since  melted,  and  over  the  winter.  since  the  surface  water  ing poles,  is  extreme  Fire  inches  will  below  spread the  layer. of  willow  i n weeks.  and w r i t i n g  site  cariboo  hazard  a few  along  a n d new g r o w t h  etc.  an i n s t r u m e n t  fire  be e x e r c i s e d .  unpredictable,  moose o r  drill  spongy.  flagging  -  settlement.  an a u g e r ,  is  and g r e a t  bears,  and  a n d embed s t a k e s  This  clearing,  -  using  foundation.  is  fauna  thawing  the  can obscure  Keep t h i s  site  river  in  particularly  when  descriptions,  no a p p a r e n t  seem t o  flagging,  mind  have been known t o  for  banks  prefer where  reason.  setups  the  destroy  for  trees  scratch-  are  few  or  spindly. -  build the  -  instruments  survey lots  -  platforms,  flagging  around  polyethylene the  ground,  mice.  etc. if  and maybe  are  this  in mind.  Protect  possible.  often  rolls  with  for  great  Have e n o u g h t o  gets  eaten  some w i l l basin  be  for  for  Spread  left.  liners,  "chews" allow  by moose.  if  left  on  bear,  wolf  and  the  outer  layers  -64-  of  the  ion -  roll  is  Once s p r e a d  the  attract-  mice  chew e l e c t r i c a l  wire  tightly  insulation.  and p l a c e  and d r a i n  the  wire  so  Therefore  it  won't  install  short  or  battery.  Communications -  Motorola to  box"  FM r a d i o s  and g r o u n d t o  operations.  multiple  -  "lunch  person  field  work.  Range  either  between  short  wave  where  the  work,  it  is  to  tie  limited units  or  communication line  of  should  and a base  sight  only  the  into  the  to  about  to  the  is is  excellent  person  communication  during  unit  c a n be  radio  repeater  necessary  for  s h o u l d be  line  for net-  of  longer  While  for  up  sight  station.  obstructed.  operating  set  telephone  25 m i l e s  be c o n s i d e r e d  since  station  provide  helicopter  Further,  channels  camp o p e r a t i o n s  5.  be damaged.  diminished.  ground 4.  to  distances  it  does  semi-permanent  schedules  are  required  maintained.  Accommodation -  fly  camps a r e  terms -  of  permanent -  time  often lost  towards  to  set-up,  program  particularly  in  objectives.  camps  Department for  costly  of  northern  Public highway  Works  runs  a series  construction  and i s  of  camps  often  helpful. -  oil  companies  their  drill  or  some g e n e r a l l y  operating seismic discreet  in  the  area  sometimes  camp f a c i l i t i e s inquiries  are  to in  be  allow used;  order.  -65- c o n t a c t Lands and F o r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f some connection t o environmental  concerns  can be made  by the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . - f i s h i n g and hunting camps - c o n t a c t the t o u r i s t bureau. h o t e l s , motels, e t c . - check the major towns.  There i s o f t e n some form  of r e n t a l accommodation. small v i l l a g e s - a c a l l t o the R.C.M.P. of the community can r e s u l t i n e i t h e r an i n v i t a t i o n t o stay a t the s t a t i o n or a l e a d t o f u r t h e r  inquiries.  Personnel - f i e l d experience i s important, p a r t i c u l a r l y remote experience. - f a m i l i a r i t y with equipment, f i r s t a i d , s u r v i v a l  skills.  - p r a c t i c a l , i n n o v a t i v e and open-minded. - healthy. Contingency - what happens i f t h i n g s go wrong?  Back-up i s important  i n northern operations. - p l a n f o r unexpected  costs.  As a rough guide i s t o add  15 t o 20% t o estimated c o s t , e x c l u d i n g a i r c r a f t Add  charges.  a 30% contingency t o those.  - p l a n f o r l o s t time due t o mechanical  problems, s c h e d u l -  i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and most o f a l l weather. - back-up p a r t s and spares are necessary items, but don't l e t them stop a t the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n .  A pair of lost  -66-  p e r s c r i p t i o n g l a s s e s can be j u s t as d e v a s t a t i n g to a program as a case of odd  s i z e dead b a t t e r i e s .  - b e f o r e you go n o r t h , ask the "what i f ? " questions to cover each aspect of the program and p r o v i d e f o r a s o l u t i o n where p o s s i b l e . The  f o r e g o i n g i s a somewhat d i s j o i n t s e r i e s of comments  which w i l l h o p e f u l l y p r o v i d e a s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n p l a n n i n g ; an o p e r a t i o n which i s designed cover p o s s i b l e events which may  to e l i m i n a t e u n c e r t a i n t y and occur d u r i n g f i e l d  operations.  Of n e c e s s i t y , any program i s a compromise of what can accomplished  w i t h c e r t a i n t y , and what might be; a l l w i t h i n  the a v a i l a b l e budget. "Are we  Perhaps the f i r s t q u e s t i o n should  l o o k i n g at the r i g h t source of i n f o r m a t i o n by  i n t o the f i e l d ? " necessary,  be  be  going  Once i t has been decided t h a t f i e l d data i s  the q u e s t i o n s : "Is i t p o s s i b l e to get meaningful  r e s u l t s ? " and  "How  are we  going to analyse the r e s u l t s ? " must  be answered so t h a t a l l of the necessary data t h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s obtained.  Finally,  "Are we measuring the c o r r e c t t h i n g s ;  are there f a c t o r s w i t h i n t h i s unusual be measured?"  (eg: "Is permafrost  environment which should  important?").  Program p l a n n i n g i s a s e r i e s of answering the a p p r o p r i a t e questions w i t h the best p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . are i n h e r e n t l y very expensive,  Northern  programs  but the f a i l u r e to p l a n p r o p e r l y ,  or to gather the c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n with the r i g h t equipment g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t s i n economic d i s a s t e r . o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e to "patch up" with the n o r t h .  It is d i f f i c u l t  and  e r r o r s i n judgement when d e a l i n g  

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