UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Scheduling knowledge base for high-rise residential construction Tse, Henry Lai Han 1989

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1989_A7 T63.pdf [ 6.63MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0062817.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0062817-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0062817-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0062817-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0062817-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0062817-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0062817-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0062817-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0062817.ris

Full Text

SCHEDULING KNOWLEDGE BASE FOR HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION by HENRY LAI HAN TSE A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY 1989 © Henry L a i Han Tse, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada D ^ e Mav 2 9 . 1 989 DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o a s s e m b l e the knowledge base w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e e x p e r t i s e o f t h e b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r as i t r e l a t e s t o a c t i v i t y s c o p i n g and s e q u e n c i n g work f o r h i g h r i s e r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s . To f a c i l i t a t e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s c h e d u l i n g knowledge, ' c o m p u t e r i z e d p r o j e c t management c a p a b i l i t i e s were i m p l e m e n t e d i n t o a medium s i z e g e n e r a l b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r , J.C. S c o t t C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . • o f V a n c o u v e r . T h i s company was u s e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d s f r o m w h i c h the knowledge i s e x t r a c t e d . The p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e c o m p u t e r i z e d s y s t e m was i m p l e m e n t e d and u s e d i n t h e f i e l d t o a c q u i r e t h e knowledge i s documented so t h a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s g a i n e d r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a c q u i r e d d a t a . The knowledge a c q u i r e d from th e s t u d y i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e form o f r u l e - b a s e d d a t a and s t o r e d i n d a t a b a s e s s t r u c t u r e d f o r use i n a k n o w l e d g e - b a s e d e x p e r t s y stem. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIS T OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x 1. T h e s i s O b j e c t i v e 1 1.1 B a c k g r o u n d & M e t h o d o l o g y 2 1.2 S t r u c t u r e o f the T h e s i s 4 2. The Knowledge A c q u i s i t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t 6 2.1 JCSC B a c k g r o u n d & Use As An I n d u s t r y S t a n d a r d 6 2.1.1 B a c k g r o u n d o f JCSC 6 2.1.1.1 Types o f C o n s t r u c t i o n P r o j e c t .... 7 2.1.1.2 JCSC P e r s o n n e l 8 2.1.1.3 U s i n g JCSC As An I n d u s t r i a l S t a n d a r d 9 2.2 S c h e d u l i n g Needs of t h e C o n t r a c t o r 10 2.2.1 S c h e d u l i n g Needs o f JCSC 10 2.2.1.1 S u b t r a d e C o o r d i n a t i o n 11 2.2.1.2 C o n s u l t a n t C o o r d i n a t i o n o f . D r a w i n g s 12 2.2.1.3 P r o c u r e m e n t o f M a t e r i a l and Eq u i p m e n t 12 2.2.1.4 "What I f ? " S c e n a r i o s 13 2.3 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n & Knowledge C o l l e c t i o n P r o c e s s e s 14 2.3.1 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n a t t h e Management L e v e l .. 14 2.3.2 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n a t t h e S i t e s 15 2.3.2.1 E d i t i n g t h e S c h e d u l e t o S i t e C o n d i t i o n s 16 2.3.2.2 F i e l d U p d a t i n g E f f o r t s on S i t e ... 17 i v 2.3.3 Implementation With the Subtrades 18 2.4 E v a l u a t i o n of Successes & F a i l u r e s of the Implementation & Data C o l l e c t i o n Process 20 2.4.1 A c h i e v i n g a Work Breakdown S t r u c t u r e .... 21 2.4.2 C o l l e c t i o n of P r o d u c t i v i t y Information .. 21 2.4.3 C o l l e c t i o n of Procurement Sequences 22 2.5 M a i n t a i n i n g a L e v e l of Use 22 3. Case S t u d i e s 24 3.1 T i f f a n y ' s Place 25 3.1.1 Scheduling Using REPCON 25 3.1.2 Siz e C o n s t r a i n t of the P r o j e c t 26 3.1.3 R e v i s i o n to Accommodate Showsuite F l o o r . 27 3.1.4 Conclusion ' 27 3.2 Langara Gardens 28 3.2.1 Scheduling of the P r o j e c t on REPCON 28 3.2.2 Trades' R e c o g n i t i o n of the Schedule 29 3.2.3 S e a l i n g the B u i l d i n g So That D r y w a l l i n g Can Begin 31 3.2.4 Implementation of the Showsuite 31 3.2.5 Conclusion 32 3.3 2020 Highbury 33 3.3.1 C r e a t i o n of the B a s e l i n e Schedule 33 3.3.2 D i f f i c u l t i e s i n Gathering Progress Data . 34 3.3.3 Use of the Procurement System 34 3.3.4 Delay Claim 36 3.3.5 Co n c l u s i o n 36 V 4. S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of Scheduling Knowledge 38 4.1 Background and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Acquire Knowledge 39 4.1.1 Database to Manage Acquired Knowledge ... 39 4.1.2 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Acquired Knowledge ... 40 4.2 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of Acquire d Knowledge i n the Context of an Expert System 41 4.2.1 The Knowledge-Base Expert System Environment 41 4.2.2 Knowledge A c q u i s i t i o n from JCSC 42 4.2.3 Methodology to A r r i v i n g at Knowledge Base 44 4.3 How the KBES Works to Gather Scheduling Data ... 46 4.3.1 Approach of KBES to Knowledge A c q u i s i t i o n 46 4.3.2 S o l i c i t a t i o n of COntext Information 47 4.3.3 The Workings of the Inference Mechanism . 48 4.3.3.1 S i m u l a t i o n of the Scheduling Thought Process 48 4.3.3.2 Concept of a F u n c t i o n i n g System .. 52 4.4 Knowledge Database S t r u c t u r e & I t s A t t r i b u t e s .. 56 4.4.1 Representing the Knowledge i n D a t a - l i k e Form 57 4.4.2 S t r u c t u r i n g Scheduling Knowledge 60 4.4.3 Standardized Knowledge A t t r i b u t e s 60 v i 4.4.3.1 P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge 60 4.4.3.1.1 Types of Information Sought 60 4.4.3.1.2 Rules f o r S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g Systems 61 4.4.3.1.3 Rules f o r L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g Systems Into the P r o j e c t Network ... 63 4.4.3.1.4 Rules which Determines the Approp r i a t e Work L o c a t i o n Sequencing ... 66 4.4.3.2 A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge 68 4.4.3.2.1 Types of Information Sought 68 4.4.3.2.2 U n c o n d i t i o n a l Predecessors and Log i c R e l a t i o n s h i p s . 69 4.4.3.2.3 P r o d u c t i v i t y Information .. 71 4.4.3.2.4 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y A l l o c a t i o n . 73 4.4.3.2.5 Procurement Items and Sequences 73 4.4.3.2.6 R e p e t i t i v e A c t i v i t y Types . 75 4.5 Standardized A c t i v i t y Coding System f o r Scheduling 77 4.5.1 Conceptual Requirements 77 4.5.2 P r a c t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 78 4.5.3 Proposed Coding System ( 9 - d i g i t ) 80 4.6 Overview of the Features and Use of the Expert System 82 4.7 Problems Encountered While I n p u t t i n g Acquired Knowledge i n t o the E s t a b l i s h e d Database S t r u c t u r e 88 4.7.1 A c t i v i t y Sequences Not R e a d i l y S t a n d a r d i z a b l e 89 v i i 4.7.2 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Systems Not E a s i l y Assigned to a Phase 90 4.7.3 Work Not Adapting to the F u n c t i o n i n g Systems Approach 91 5. Co n c l u s i o n & Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research ... 92 5.1 Conclusions 92 5.2 Future Research 94 BIBLIOGRAPHY 95 APPENDIX A - P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Data 96 APPENDIX B - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Data 121 v i i i LISTS OF FIGURES 1.1 Knowledge-Based Expert System Environment 3 1.2 The Knowledge A c q u i s i t i o n Process 3 3.1 Subtrade S i t e Meeting Minutes 30 4.1 KBES Environment Of T h i s T h e s i s 42 4.2 Experience Side Of The KBES 43 4.3 Context Information A c q u i s i t i o n Side OF KBES 43 4.4 Question -> Answer -> E f f e c t 49 4.5 S i m u l a t i o n Of Knowledge A c q u i s i t i o n 50 4.6 A n a l y s i s Of Knowledge A c q u i s i t i o n Process 51 4.7 Concept Of F u n c t i o n a l Requirements & F u n c t i o n i n g Systems Of A P r o j e c t 53 4.8 F u n c t i o n a l Requirements & F u n c t i o n i n g Systems 55 4.9 Q u a n t i t a t i v e Vs. Q u a l i t a t i v e Knowledge 56 4.10 Knowledge Database S t r u c t u r e 58 4.11 L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g Systems To The P r o j e c t Network .. 64 4.12 New JCSC A c c o u n t i n g / E s t i m a t i n g Coding System 79 4.13 9 - D i g i t Coding System 81 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e to Dr. A.D. R u s s e l l , my s u p e r v i s o r , f o r h i s va l u a b l e guidance and encouragement throughout my s t u d i e s . I am e s p e c i a l l y indebted to Dr. R u s s e l l f o r h i s arrangement of a part-time p o s i t i o n with J.C. S c o t t C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . where my t h e s i s r e s e a r c h was enric h e d and made a l l the more meaningful. My thanks are a l s o extended to Dr. W.F. Ca s e l t o n f o r reviewing t h i s t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , acknowledgement i s most g r a t e f u l l y extended to J.C. S c o t t C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . and i t s personnel f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the t h e s i s r e s e a r c h . In p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e express my deepest a p p r e c i a t i o n to John S c o t t and John M i l l s f o r t h e i r a t t e n t i v e advice, guidance, and t r a i n i n g during my s t u d i e s . 1 CHAPTER 1 1.0 T h e s i s O b j e c t i v e Two o b j e c t i v e s have guided t h i s t h e s i s r e s e a r c h : a) To document the implementation process f o r an advanced microcomputer c o n s t r u c t i o n management system i n a b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r ' s o p e r a t i o n ; and b) To assemble the knowledge base which r e f l e c t s the e x p e r t i s e of the b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r as i t r e l a t e s to scoping and sequencing a c t i v i t i e s f o r h i g h - r i s e r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s . The fundamental goal of the resea r c h focuses on the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of sc h e d u l i n g knowledge f o r h i g h - r i s e c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n has been a c q u i r e d d i r e c t l y from the f i e l d and i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n t o the knowledge base environment of an expert system. Concepts from the f i e l d of expert systems provide the re s e a r c h with i n s i g h t s i n t o a c h i e v i n g a v i a b l e method of s t r u c t u r i n g the acquired knowledge. 2 1.1 Background and Methodology A medium s i z e b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t i n g f i r m , J.C. S c o t t C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d ; (JCSC) of Vancouver, acted as the experiment c e n t e r f o r t h i s t h e s i s work. An advanced computerized s c h e d u l i n g system, REPCON, was implemented i n t h i s company to a s s i s t i n the tasks of e x t r a c t i n g and documenting employee e x p e r t i s e i n p l a n n i n g and s c h e d u l i n g . T h i s implementation a l s o provided the UBC r e s e a r c h group under Dr. A.D. R u s s e l l with important feedback on the f e a t u r e s and use of the REPCON system. To act as the l i a i s o n f o r implementing the s c h e d u l i n g system w i t h i n JCSC, and to provide the research group with the most d i r e c t route f o r e x t r a c t i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n knowledge, the author of t h i s t h e s i s was h i r e d by JCSC as a s c h e d u l i n g engineer. Since the s t a r t of t h i s r e s e a r c h e f f o r t two years ago, e i g h t JCSC r e s i d e n t i a l h i g h - r i s e p r o j e c t s (3 completed) worth over 50 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s have been scheduled and monitored by the author using the REPCON system. With the experience gained from these p r o j e c t s , and the knowledge obtained through d i r e c t c o n s u l t a t i o n and meetings with p r o j e c t managers, superintendents, and trade c o n t r a c t o r s of JCSC, a s i z e a b l e knowledge base has been c o l l e c t e d . The next c h a l l e n g e i s how to r e p r e s e n t t h i s knowledge f o r use i n an expert system. F i g u r e 1.1 d e p i c t s the expert system environment as i t r e l a t e s to t h i s t h e s i s r e s e a r c h . The author's work has been focused on the USGR * • User In ter face Context Inference Hechani S M QPGRT 4 ^ Knowledge ^_^Knowlege u i r L n i n " A c q u i s i t i o n * * Base I Knowledge Database PIGLIRG 1.1 ~ Krxwl&do"&-Based export System Grwironmenr USCR « > I n ^ f a c e « • C o " t e x t I Inference H e c h a n i S H t OfPTRT ^ k. Knowledge ^ ^ K n o w l e g e \ ^ Knowledge t n r t n i i w A c q u i s i t i o n * * Base T * Database - \ - f — V JCSC oiTJCSC projects R £ K 0 N Schedules Use.of REPCON Update As-Built f  EPCO TIGURG 1.2 — The Knowledge, (acquisition Process 4 knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n aspects of t h i s environment; as shown i n F i g u r e 1.2. A r a t h e r s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s and l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s u s i n g r u l e s has been adopted to symbolize the a c q u i r e d knowledge. The approach to t h i s r e s e a r c h study i s unique i n t h a t the focus i s on the documentation of p r a c t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n knowledge which must be gathered from the f i e l d as opposed to from the l i t e r a t u r e . Use of the l i t e r a t u r e was necessary, however, f o r the knowledge s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n p o r t i o n of the study. I t helped provide ideas f o r s t r u c t u r i n g the knowledge gained i n t o a useable expert system environment. 1.2 S t r u c t u r e of the T h e s i s This r e p o r t c o n s i s t of f i v e chapters and two appendices. Chapter one i n t r o d u c e s the o b j e c t i v e s of the r e s e a r c h study and the methodology employed to accomplish the set g o a l s . In chapter two, the knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n process used i s documented. Chapter three i l l u s t r a t e s the ideas of the p r e v i o u s chapter with case s t u d i e s of three JCSC scheduled p r o j e c t s . In chapter four, the knowledge acquired from the f i e l d s t u d i e s i s s t r u c t u r e d i n t o an expert system knowledge database. The d e r i v a t i o n of the database 5 s t r u c t u r e i s achieved through a hypothesis of the manner i n which a knowledge-based expert system would f u n c t i o n . Chapter 5 c o n t a i n s the c o n c l u s i o n s of the t h e s i s r e s e a r c h , along with recommendations f o r f u t u r e work. F i n a l l y , the sc h e d u l i n g knowledge, s t a n d a r d i z e d i n accordance with the database s t r u c t u r e d e r i v e d i n Chapter 4, i s documented i n the two Appendices A and B. 6 CHAPTER 2 2 . 0 The Knowledge A c q u i s i t i o n Environment In t h i s chapter, i n s i g h t i s provided i n t o JCSC as the t y p i c a l c o n t r a c t o r and the scheduling demands and e x p e c t a t i o n s of the general c o n t r a c t o r . The procedures of implementing the t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s of s c h e d u l i n g i n t o the everyday work of JCSC are then d e t a i l e d to r e f l e c t the environment from which knowledge was c o l l e c t e d . Future e f f o r t s to expand on the knowledge base can b e n e f i t from the documented experiences of t h i s study. 2.1 JCSC Background and Use As An I n d u s t r y Standard In t h i s s e c t i o n , i n s i g h t i s provided on JCSC as a b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r i n the l o c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y . An a s s e r t i o n i s then made t h a t JCSC's p r a c t i c e s and experience r e f l e c t those of the average small to medium s i z e general b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r . 2.1.1 Background on JCSC J.C. S c o t t C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . (JCSC) i s a young, agg r e s s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n company s p e c i a l i z i n g i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l concrete h i g h - r i s e s i n the Vancouver Lower Mainland. E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1984, the f i r m ' s volume was over $15 m i l l i o n i n 1988 and w i l l double i n 1989 with three r e s i d e n t i a l h i g h - r i s e s and a $12 m i l l i o n h o t e l j u s t i n the beginning phases of c o n s t r u c t i o n . The f i r m i s unique as the l a r g e s t non-union general c o n t r a c t o r i n the r e g i o n which performs i t s own concrete formwork. Most of 7 the other g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r s subcontract t h i s aspect of work to s p e c i a l i s t formwork c o n t r a c t o r s . JCSC does i t s own because i t p r o v i d e s the f i r m with c o n t r o l of a v i t a l l ead a c t i v i t y , the s t r u c t u r a l work. 2.1.1.1 Types of C o n s t r u c t i o n P r o j e c t JCSC i s noted i n Vancouver f o r i t s experience i n b u i l d i n g high q u a l i t y r e s i d e n t i a l h i g h - r i s e work. The f i r m s p e c i a l i z e s i n f a s t - t r a c k e d c o n s t r u c t i o n which i s t y p i c a l l y performed under a c o n s t r u c t i o n management arrangement. Thus, most of the company's p r o j e c t s are obtained through s e l e c t i v e n e g o t i a t i o n s r a t h e r than by open tender. As a c o n s t r u c t i o n manager, the f i r m i s more apt to work with the c l i e n t and h i s c o n s u l t a n t s as a team to achieve the most c o s t e f f e c t i v e design. Besides concrete h i g h - r i s e s , the f i r m i s a l s o experienced i n wood-framed c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n commercial b u i l d i n g works. In the past year, the f i r m has completed two f o u r - s t o r e y wood-framed apartments and has j u s t completed a one s t o r y commercial b u i l d i n g which houses a l o c a l branch of the Royal Bank. Yet another one of the f i r m ' s a s s e t s i s i t s r e p u t a t i o n f o r f a s t and r e l i a b l e tenant improvement work. The p r o p e r t y management d i v i s i o n s of Royal Lepage and the Royal Bank of Canada are frequent c l i e n t s of the company i n these areas of work. 8 2.1.1.2 JCSC Personnel Company personnel at JCSC's main o f f i c e c o n s i s t of four p r o j e c t managers, an e s t i m a t o r , a p r o j e c t scheduler (an e n g i n e e r ) , an accountant and three supporting s t a f f . John S c o t t , the company p r e s i d e n t , i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y r e g i s t e r e d s t r u c t u r a l engineer who from time to time assumes the r o l e of p r o j e c t manager during the e a r l y stages of major p r o j e c t s . The remaining p r o j e c t managers are a l l experienced men who have worked i n the f i e l d i n the c a p a c i t i e s of superintendent to f i e l d l a b o r e r . F i e l d s t a f f c o n s i s t of seven s i t e superintendents and over 50 foremen, c a r p e n t e r s , and l a b o r e r s who make up the three forming crews f o r the h i g h - r i s e s t r u c t u r a l work. The company's s i t e s uperintendents and . c a r p e n t e r ' s foremen are t y p i c a l l y experienced c a r p e n t e r s who have g r a d u a l l y taken on s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s throughout t h e i r c a r e e r s . Since the company i s r e l a t i v e l y new, the people employed are mostly personnel who have worked p r e v i o u s l y with other union or non-union companies. This mixture ensures t h a t JCSC enjoys the e x p e r t i s e -of a wide range of other c o n t r a c t i n g f i r m s . 9 2.1.1.3 Using JCSC As An I n d u s t r y Standard The c u r r e n t l o c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t o r s , u n i o n i z e d c o n t r a c t o r s and open-shop or non-union c o n t r a c t o r s . In the past f i v e years, the shares of union vs non-union work have reversed so t h a t over 80% of the c o n s t r u c t i o n d o l l a r spent i n the province i s now performed by open-shop companies. The r e s u l t of t h i s s h i f t i s t h a t most r e s i d e n t i a l and s m a l l e r commercial p r o j e c t s are now c o n s t r u c t e d by open-shop f i r m s while the bigger s c a l e shopping c e n t e r s , o f f i c e towers and c i v i l works remain w i t h i n the domain of the union s e c t o r . JCSC i s an open-shop company and i s among the top f i v e non-union c o n t r a c t o r s i n Vancouver i n terms of number of p r o j e c t s and the volume of work i n d o l l a r s . T h i s , along with the f a c t t h a t JCSC partakes i n many s i z e s and types of p r o j e c t s , makes the f i r m a good example f o r conducting the t h e s i s r e s e a r c h . The f a c t t h a t the f i r m ' s employees have come from a wide assortment of c o n t r a c t o r s ensures that the company's p r a c t i c e s are c l o s e l y t i e d to the norm (although the f i r m i s working hard to improve over t h i s norm). I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the e x p e r t i s e of JCSC personnel r e f l e c t t h a t of the average b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r , union or non-union. T h e i r demands and a t t i t u d e s towards computerized c o n s t r u c t i o n management are b e l i e v e d to l e a d those of t h e i r competitors. 10 2.2 Scheduling Needs of the C o n t r a c t o r L i k e JCSC, most general c o n t r a c t o r s have a l r e a d y adopted the microcomputer i n t o t h e i r p r a c t i c e s with word p r o c e s s i n g , accounting, and perhaps e s t i m a t i n g as the main areas of focus. Computerized s c h e d u l i n g has not been adopted as q u i c k l y i n these companies, i n p a r t because the b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g from i t s use are not so immediately apparent while the implementation c o s t s are r e l a t i v e l y high. Most p r o j e c t management s t a f f are not f a m i l i a r with network a n a l y s i s nor are they computer l i t e r a t e . Computerized s c h e d u l i n g i n JCSC would l i k e l y have not been s u c c e s s f u l e i t h e r i f not f o r the i n n o v a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n management system, REPCON, made a v a i l a b l e to the company by Dr. A.D. R u s s e l l of the C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g Department at U.B.C. The use of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r system has made computerized s c h e d u l i n g p o s s i b l e with a minimum amount of resources being spent on manpower. In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , the s c h e d u l i n g needs of JCSC are analyzed to i l l u s t r a t e the need of the general b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r . 2.2.1 Scheduling Needs of JCSC The a b i l i t y of a system to d i r e c t l y answer the s c h e d u l i n g needs of a general c o n t r a c t o r i s important f o r quick acceptance of the system by the personnel of the f i r m . The f o l l o w i n g s u b - s e c t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e some of these needs. 11 2.2.1.1 Subtrade C o o r d i n a t i o n A b r i s k c o n s t r u c t i o n market causes many problems which hamper p r o j e c t c o n t r o l and consequently p r o j e c t progress. C o o r d i n a t i o n and s c h e d u l i n g of trade c o n t r a c t o r s i s one of the major problems as the subtrades are g e n e r a l l y unable to meet the demands of the market. T h i s problem i s magnified by the i n a b i l i t y of the trades to p r e d i c t with any accuracy when they are r e q u i r e d on each p r o j e c t . As a r e s u l t , trade c o n t r a c t o r s are f o r c e d e i t h e r to maintain an o v e r s i z e d crew f o r which they have c o n s t a n t l y to f i n d work f o r each man, or to maintain an undersized crew which i s not be capable of meeting the mandate when c a l l e d upon. The l a t t e r o p t i o n i s guaranteed of continuous work, maximizing subtrade p r o d u c t i v i t y and p r o f i t a b i l i t y , but not n e c e s s a r i l y t h a t of the general c o n t r a c t o r . The l a t t e r o p t i o n i s t y p i c a l l y e x e r c i s e d by trade c o n t r a c t o r s and delays i n p r o j e c t progress r e s u l t because trades f a i l to man the job with adequate experienced manpower. A p r o p e r l y scoped and r e g u l a r l y updated schedule, maintained by the general c o n t r a c t o r , would mean th a t the subtrades can be given r e a l i s t i c dates as to when they are needed on s i t e so t h a t sudden manpower problems would no longer be a l e g i t i m a t e excuse. The e x i s t e n c e of such d e t a i l e d schedules, which are updated r e g u l a r l y to r e f l e c t the l a t e s t progress and changes on s i t e , i s c r i t i c a l f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t the prime c o n t r a c t o r has t o t a l c o n t r o l of the p r o j e c t and t h a t the schedules are dependable. 12 2.2.1.2 Con s u l t a n t C o o r d i n a t i o n of Drawings Another problem with a b r i s k c o n s t r u c t i o n market i s t h a t c o n s u l t a n t s are overloaded with work. T h i s problem i s compounded by the volume of b u i l d i n g s coming onto a competitive r e a l - e s t a t e market causing b u i l d i n g owners to pressure c o n s u l t a n t s to produce under unreasonable d e a d l i n e s . As a r e s u l t , many p r o j e c t s are s t a r t e d before the e n t i r e scope of the b u i l d i n g has been s p e c i f i e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a t r i c k l i n g through of d e t a i l s c r i t i c a l to the p r o j e c t as they are needed on s i t e . The general c o n t r a c t o r , mainly through i t s subtrades, i s o f t e n put i n t o the r o l e of p r o j e c t managers f o r the p r o j e c t s i n c e i t i s the only p a r t y which knows what i s missing or not making sense i n the p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . Again, a r e a l i s t i c b u i l d i n g schedule which t r a c k s the s t a t u s of theses drawings and the p r o g r e s s i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n would help the c o n s u l t a n t s c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r drawing p r o d u c t i o n with the requirements of the s i t e . 2.2.1.3 Procurement of M a t e r i a l and Equipment A t h i r d problem which f r e q u e n t l y hampers s i t e progress r e l a t e s to the d e l i v e r y of m a t e r i a l and equipment r e q u i r e d on s i t e . Vancouver i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as a "mail order c i t y " because over 50% of the m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e d on any p r o j e c t i s ordered and shipped from out of town. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true f o r f i n i s h i n g items such as plumbing and l i g h t i n g f i x t u r e s , a p p l i a n c e s , and c a r p e t i n g . Heavy 13 equipment such as mechanical b o i l e r s , e l e c t r i c a l generators and e l e v a t o r machinery a l s o f a l l i n t o the same problem category. The c l i e n t ' s r e l u c t a n c e to s p e c i f y these items before the s t a r t of c o n s t r u c t i o n , u s u a l l y so t h a t they can shape t h e i r d e c i s i o n s to market trends when the b u i l d i n g i s about to go onto the market some months or years l a t e r , means t h a t these items are o f t e n t r e a t e d as cash allowances with f i r m d e c i s i o n s to be expedited a f t e r the p r o j e c t s t a r t s . A l a c k of a t t e n t i o n to the procurement of these items o f t e n delays completion of the p r o j e c t as items are not ordered i n time or i n s u f f i c i e n t time i s a l l o t t e d f o r d e l i v e r i e s . I n c o r p o r a t i o n of these items i n t o the o v e r a l l schedule i s important f o r the continuous p r o g r e s s i o n of the p r o j e c t . 2.2.1.4 "What I f ? " Scenarios The a b i l i t y to "formulate and evaluate e a s i l y a number of p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s (that) can lead to a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n p r o j e c t d u r a t i o n " ( R u s s e l l , 1985) i s perhaps the most fundamental c a p a b i l i t y of a computerized s c h e d u l i n g system. The t e s t i n g of many work sequences and crew s t r u c t u r e s to formulate a plan of a t t a c k f o r a p r o j e c t i s e s s e n t i a l when p r o j e c t s have t i g h t and u n y i e l d i n g d e a d l i n e s . The use of what-if s c e n a r i o s to devise plans to work around problems such as those d e s c r i b e d i n the pre v i o u s s e c t i o n s would be a v a l u a b l e a s s e t f o r a f i r m . 14 2.3 Implementation and Knowledge C o l l e c t i o n Processes The implementation of the s c h e d u l i n g system i n t o the working p r a c t i c e s of JCSC was the most c h a l l e n g i n g task of the e n t i r e t h e s i s r esearch. The triumphs and s t r u g g l e s of the company personnel during the implementation process are documented i n t h i s s e c t i o n . 2.3.1 Implementation At The Management L e v e l S u c c e s s f u l implementation of any i n n o v a t i o n i n t o an o f f i c e environment must f i r s t have the overwhelming support of the company's top management. For JCSC, the p r e s i d e n t ' s push to implement a computerized c o n s t r u c t i o n management system w i t h i n the f i r m was i n s t r u m e n t a l to the system a r r i v i n g at the company at a l l . Implementation at the management l e v e l i n v o l v e s making p r o j e c t and s i t e managers aware of the b e n e f i t s of a computerized s c h e d u l i n g system and how such a system should be a p p l i e d . Since the s i t e s u p e r v i s o r s would normally only take i n s t r u c t i o n s from t h e i r p r o j e c t manager, i t i s imperative f o r the managers to be convinced of the need f o r computerized s c h e d u l i n g . As w e l l , the p r o j e c t manager v i s i t s the s i t e much more f r e q u e n t l y than the scheduler i s able to so t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n from management personnel i s c r i t i c a l . 15 To e n s u r e , t h a t t h e p r o j e c t managers a r e c o o p e r a t i n g i n t h e s c h e d u l i n g e f f o r t s , t h e f i r m i m p l e m e n t e d t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f e ach p r o j e c t ' s s c h e d u l e a t t h e company's w e e k l y p r o j e c t r e v i e w m e e t i n g . A t t h e s e meeting's, t h e managers, n o t t h e s c h e d u l e r , i s a s k e d a b o u t t h e s t a t u s o f h i s p r o g r e s s i n t e r m s of t h e u p d a t e d computer s c h e d u l e s . T h i s s t e p has been v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n g e t t i n g t h e p r o j e c t managers t o a t l e a s t c o o p e r a t e even i f t h e y a r e n o t c o n v i n c e d o f t h e need t o do so. 2.3.2 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n A t The S i t e s A s c h e d u l e w h i c h i s n o t u p d a t e d and r e v i s e d r e g u l a r l y t o r e f l e c t s i t e c o n d i t i o n s c a n n o t be a c r e d i b l e management t o o l . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s c h e d u l e a t t h e s i t e l e v e l i n v o l v e s i n t r o d u c i n g the s c h e d u l e t o t h e s i t e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and f oremen, c o l l e c t i n g s c h e d u l i n g knowledge and d a t a from s i t e p e r s o n n e l , e d i t i n g t h e s c h e d u l e t o f i t t h e f i e l d ' s p l a n o f e x e c u t i o n , and u p d a t i n g t h e s c h e d u l e w i t h a c t u a l s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n . T y p i c a l l y f o r each p r o j e c t , t h e p r o j e c t manager a s s i s t s t h e s c h e d u l e r i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s c h e d u l e i n c o r p o r a t i n g s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n as t h e p r o j e c t t i m e frame and r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s . Then i t i s l e f t t o t h e s i t e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t o e d i t t h e s c h e d u l e t o t h e s i t e and t r a d e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p r o j e c t t o d e r i v e t h e w o r k i n g s c h e d u l e . I t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s c h e d u l e m i l e s t o n e s a r e a c h i e v a b l e s i n c e he i s t h e p e r s o n 16 who u l t i m a t e l y has to c o n s t r u c t the p r o j e c t . A c t i v i t y l o g i c o f t e n d i f f e r s among superintendents and must be e d i t e d to r e f l e c t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s . Having the working schedule r e f l e c t the superintendent's thought process i s the f i r s t step f o r s u c c e s s f u l implementation. I t i s then l e f t to the superintendent to u t i l i z e the schedule plan to meet the e s t a b l i s h e d d e a d l i n e s . 2.3.2.1 Updating the Schedule f o r S i t e C o n d i t i o n s On s i t e , i t i s important to re c o r d e x a c t l y how the p r o j e c t i s b u i l t and to r e v i s e the schedule a c c o r d i n g l y to accommodate the changing s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . I f there i s one t h i n g t h a t can be s a i d about a schedule with t o t a l c onfidence, i t i s t h a t the p r o j e c t w i l l not be b u i l t as o r i g i n a l l y planned. The u n c o n t r o l l a b l e v a r i a b l e s t h a t impact a p r o j e c t mean th a t the scheduled a c t i v i t i e s must c o n s t a n t l y be adju s t e d f o r t h e i r scope, sequencing, and du r a t i o n s to r e f l e c t the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s of the s i t e . I f the schedule cannot r e f l e c t these changes, i t very q u i c k l y l o s e s i t s c r e d i b i l i t y i n the eyes of s i t e management. The r e c o r d i n g of these sequences and the reasoning behind why they are sequenced i n t h i s manner i s c r i t i c a l to the sch e d u l i n g of f u t u r e p r o j e c t s . Updating of the a c t u a l performance of scheduled works on s i t e i s a l s o important to the accumulation of pr o d u c t i o n r a t e s needed f o r s c h e d u l i n g f u t u r e p r o j e c t s . 17 2.3.2.2 F i e l d Updating E f f o r t s on S i t e The updating of p r o j e c t progress i s best achieved by the superintendent who records the number of men from each trade and the progress of each work a c t i v i t y . T h i s i s a problem area as superintendents i n general do not enjoy paper work and do not n e c e s s a r i l y conform' to a company standard. Consequently, the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t they do re c o r d may not be u s e f u l f o r schedule updating or d e r i v a t i o n of work p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s . For the p r o j e c t s with which the author has been a s s o c i a t e d , l a c k of c o o p e r a t i o n by superintendents has meant t h a t he has had to update the schedules weekly by v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of progress on s i t e with no i n f o r m a t i o n of manpower usage on s i t e and estimates as to when i n the weekly time-frame the work was a c t u a l l y done. An e f f o r t to r e c t i f y the problem i s being attempted with the use of a new computer generated d a i l y update form which t i e s i n t o the computerized schedule. E a r l y successes with the implementation of t h i s REPCON subsystem has been mainly due to delays i n the completion of s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s . In these cases, good documentation of e x a c t l y what caused the delays was needed f o r p r e p a r a t i o n of claims f o r extension of time. The l a c k of such i n f o r m a t i o n i n the past has prompted the p r e s i d e n t to s t r i c t l y enforce usage of t h i s updating form. 18 2.3.3 Implementation With The Subtrades Cooperation from the subtrades i n the s c h e d u l i n g e f f o r t has been a p l e a s a n t s u r p r i s e of the implementation process. Trade c o n t r a c t o r s are quick to r e a l i z e t h a t a r e a l i s t i c schedule can help them plan t h e i r work and to a l l o c a t e b e t t e r t h e i r r esources. A trade c o n t r a c t o r i s t y p i c a l l y i n t r o d u c e d to the working schedule once the n e g o t i a t i o n of t h e i r c o n t r a c t i s completed. Then i t i s only the p r i n c i p a l or the n e g o t i a t o r who gets the summary working schedule so t h a t he can plan when h i s f i r m w i l l f i r s t be expected on a s i t e . The d e t a i l e d schedule which d e s c r i b e s a l l a c t i v i t i e s and the l o c a t i o n s where they occur i s i n t r o d u c e d g e n e r a l l y to the trade c o n t r a c t o r ' s s i t e foreman j u s t p r i o r to commencement of work. Trade c o n t r a c t o r s t y p i c a l l y i n s p e c t the r a t e s at which they are expected to perform each work package and may dispute t h i s component of the schedule. The trades take note of the other trades scheduled ahead of or behind t h e i r work and o f t e n suggest c o n s t r u c t i v e recommendations as to how each trade could work around each other. The importance of the schedule has been emphasized by making i t the f o c a l p o i n t of a l l s i t e subtrade meetings. The foreman from each f i r m has h i s work progress reviewed and upcoming works d i s c u s s e d based on the planned schedule. 19 The f a c t t h a t a tra d e ' s work progress i s updated and di s c u s s e d i n f r o n t of the other trades once every two weeks has s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved t h e i r work e t h i c and reduced t h e i r c a r e l e s s assessment of dates and/or p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s . The scoping of t h e i r work i n terms of a c t i v i t i e s and p r e d i c t e d d u r a t i o n s are checked f o r accuracy from progress updating. I t i s the b e l i e f of the f i r m t h a t i f the computerized schedule can help the trades to plan and to execute t h e i r work more p r o f i c i e n t l y , they w i l l respond with more co m p e t i t i v e p r i c i n g i n the f u t u r e and be more responsive to remedial work. 20 2.4 E v a l u a t i o n of Successes & F a i l u r e s Of The  Implementation & Data C o l l e c t i o n Process Implementation of REPCON i n t o JCSC has been s u c c e s s f u l i n c e r t a i n areas while d i s a p p o i n t i n g i n other r e s p e c t s . In g e n e r a l , the system has been s u c c e s s f u l l y adopted by o f f i c e personnel but i s s t i l l a mystery to the m a j o r i t y of the f i e l d s t a f f . P r o j e c t Managers have spent the time to l e a r n to understand the b e n e f i t s and the l i m i t a t i o n s of the schedule as a t o o l and are accustomed to using i t i n t h e i r n e g o t i a t i o n s with c l i e n t s and subtrades. S i t e s u p erintendents, on the other hand, have not had the time or the patience to t r y to understand the purpose of the s c h e d u l i n g e f f o r t . T h e i r use of the schedule i s l i m i t e d to subtrade meetings where they convey the impression to the subtrades t h a t they u t i l i z e the schedule to plan and c o n t r o l the p r o j e c t . T h i s falsehood i s confirmed by t h e i r general lack of c o o p e r a t i o n i n the updating of these schedules. 21 2.4.1 A c h i e v i n g a Work Breakdown S t r u c t u r e An area of success deals with refinement of the a c t i v i t y breakdown s t r u c t u r e achieved from p r o j e c t to p r o j e c t . The l i s t of work a c t i v i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d can now be used to e f f e c t i v e l y scope e n t i r e p r o j e c t s . The r e s u l t i s a d e t a i l e d schedule which can be updated r e g u l a r l y and used from the beginning through to the end of the p r o j e c t . The breakdown s t r u c t u r e can s t i l l be improved i n the e x c a v a t i o n -s u b s t r u c t u r e and the f i n i s h i n g phases of the p r o j e c t . Plans to b e t t e r scope these phases of c o n s t r u c t i o n are underway i n the form of d i r e c t meetings with the f i r m ' s p r o j e c t managers and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s . 2.4.2 C o l l e c t i o n of P r o d u c t i v i t y Information While the achievement of the work breakdown s t r u c t u r e has been a success, the c o l l e c t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s f o r a c t i v i t i e s has been a disappointment. At present, a c t i v i t y d u r a t i o n s are achieved by i n t e r p o l a t i o n from pass p r o j e c t s with l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n to the s i z e of the b u i l d i n g or the number of people and man-hours used. T h i s f a i l u r e can be a t t r i b u t e d to the l a c k of c o o p e r a t i o n from s i t e personnel to record such i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t a l i b r a r y of p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s can be e s t a b l i s h e d . Without c o o p e r a t i o n from s i t e p ersonnel, the resources r e q u i r e d to o b t a i n such data would be an expensive undertaking. As a r e s u l t , new s t r e a m l i n e d f i e l d updating forms are being conceived and w i l l be f i e l d t e s t e d . 22 2.4.3 C o l l e c t i o n of Procurement Sequences Another area of success has been i n the implementation of the procurement system. A b r i s k c o n s t r u c t i o n market has made the need f o r t r a c k i n g procurement items such as f i n i s h i n g items, c o n s u l t a n t ' s drawings and permits e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l . While the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of procurement items has come about e a s i l y , the sequences of tasks r e q u i r e d to t r a c k each item along with task d u r a t i o n s have been d i f f i c u l t to d e r i v e . Again, more e f f o r t w i l l be expanded i n i d e n t i f y i n g these sequences tasks and d u r a t i o n s i n upcoming work s e s s i o n s with p r o j e c t managers and superintendents. 2.5 M a i n t a i n i n g A L e v e l Of Use While the use of REPCON f o r plann i n g and sc h e d u l i n g has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n JCSC, much e f f o r t s t i l l remains to ensure i t s use and growth i n the company process. Although company personnel, f o r the most p a r t , r e a l i z e the b e n e f i t s of having such a system, l i t t l e or no e f f o r t has been vol u n t e e r e d to a i d the scheduler who has been s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r using the system. P r o j e c t managers r e l y on the scheduler to cre a t e and maintain the schedule while f i e l d s t a f f have done l i t t l e to provide data needed f o r r e g u l a r progress updating. The t r a i n i n g of p r o j e c t managers to use the sc h e d u l i n g program i s viewed as c r i t i c a l to the long term use of REPCON i n JCSC. P r o j e c t managers must be 23 more i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n of t h e i r own p r o j e c t schedules and should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o l l e c t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r a c t u a l l y updating the schedule i n the computer. T h i s w i l l e l i m i n a t e much of the l a c k of c o o p e r a t i o n experienced by the scheduler and minimize the resources needed by the f i r m to use the system. In order f o r t h i s to happen, two c o n d i t i o n s must be s a t i s f i e d to help system users. To minimize the time consuming work of c r e a t i n g a schedule from past p r o j e c t data, an expert system i s being designed by Dr. A.D. R u s s e l l f o r JCSC which w i l l generate p r e l i m i n a r y schedules using a company database of i n f o r m a t i o n . The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the s c h e d u l i n g knowledge c o l l e c t e d from past p r o j e c t s i s the f i r s t step toward the c r e a t i o n of such an expert system and i t i s a major area of c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s t h e s i s . Secondly, improvements i n the d a i l y updating e f f o r t are e s s e n t i a l i n order to minimize the time r e q u i r e d by the p r o j e c t manager to gather data necessary f o r schedule updating. 24 CHAPTER 3 3.0 Case S t u d i e s In the l a s t chapter, the implementation of the c o n s t r u c t i o n management system was documented to d e p i c t the environment from which the knowledge base was e x t r a c t e d . In t h i s chapter, f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s i n t o t h i s environment are provided by way of case s t u d i e s of a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s . The f i r s t three JCSC p r o j e c t s scheduled by the author are documented i n summary form to i l l u s t r a t e the l e v e l of d e t a i l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d of a schedule which must be r e g u l a r l y updated to r e f l e c t the s i t e ' s c o n d i t i o n s . The occurrences noted f o r each p r o j e c t are s i g n i f i c a n t i n demonstrating the f i r m ' s usage of the schedule and the schedule's s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s which should be documented i n the knowledge base. 25 3 • 1 T i f f a n y P l a c e T i f f a n y P l a c e i s an e i g h t s t o r e y l u x u r y condominium h i g h - r i s e b u i l t between the summer of 1987 and F e b r u a r y o f 1988 i n t h e K e r r i s d a l e a r e a . Due t o t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s i t e , o n l y 7 u n i t s were d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s b u i l d i n g w h i c h i n c l u d e d a two s t o r e y p e n t h o u s e . The s u i t e s were d e v e l o p e d t o be s o l d i n d i v i d u a l l y as l u x u r y s t r a t a u n i t s . The b u i l d i n g has a s i n g l e l e v e l u n d e r g r o u n d p a r k i n g a l l o w i n g 17 v e h i c l e s . 3.1.1 S c h e d u l i n g U s i n g REPCON The o r i g i n a l breakdown o f a c t i v i t i e s and t h e l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s u s e d t o s equence the p r o j e c t were t a k e n f r o m p r o j e c t s s c h e d u l e d p r e v i o u s l y by t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n Management Team a t UBC. U s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , a p r e l i m i n a r y s c h e d u l e was c r e a t e d so t h a t i t c o u l d be m o d i f i e d by t h e e x p e r t i s e o f t h e p r o j e c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . T h i s e f f o r t was d i s a p p o i n t i n g as he gave m i n i m a l c o o p e r a t i o n f o r s c h e d u l e r e f i n e m e n t and t h e r e c o r d i n g o f p r o g r e s s d a t a f o r s c h e d u l e u p d a t i n g . A f t e r f o u r months i n t o t h e p r o j e c t , t h e o r i g i n a l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t was t r a n s f e r r e d t o a l a r g e r p r o j e c t and a y o u n g e r , more c o o p e r a t i v e r e p l a c e m e n t was i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s r e p l a c e m e n t h e l p e d t o e s t a b l i s h much of t h e s e q u e n c i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s c h e d u l e s t o d a y . 26 3.1.2 S i z e C o n s t r a i n t Of The P r o j e c t The major problems a f f e c t i n g the p r o j e c t d e a l t with the small s i z e of the l o t and of the b u i l d i n g to be c o n s t r u c t e d . The underground p a r k i n g was b u i l t to the four edges of the 50' x 120' l o t and posed many d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r storage of s i t e m a t e r i a l s and maneuvering of equipment i n the 'hole'. The problem with storage d i d not improve a f t e r the b u i l d i n g came out of the s u b s t r u c t u r e and the main f l o o r had to be used f o r temporary storage of m a t e r i a l s and equipment as they a r r i v e d on s i t e . Major r e v i s i o n s to the f l o o r sequencing of a l l of the r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , from the main f l o o r through to the second f l o o r of the penthouse, had to be made to accommodate t h i s requirement. The f a c t t h a t the b u i l d i n g was so small made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the trades to maintain a crew on the job s i t e . As a r e s u l t , the appearance of the trades on the job s i t e was fragmented. I f the s i t e superintendent had recog n i z e d and used the time schedule to co o r d i n a t e the a r r i v a l on s i t e of the t r a d e s , then the tra d e s could have provided t h e i r crews with continuous work and the job cou l d have progressed much more smoothly and q u i c k l y , because of the "comeback" problem with s e v e r a l trades (e.g. once they leave the s i t e because they run out of work, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to get them back i n a t i m e l y manner because they are now a c t i v e on another pro j e c t ) . 27 3.1.3 R e v i s i o n To Accommodate The S i x t h F l o o r Major r e v i s i o n to the s i t e schedule m a t e r i a l i z e d when the s i x t h f l o o r of the b u i l d i n g was p r e - s o l d . With the promised occupancy date looming and the p r o j e c t behind the o r i g i n a l b a s e l i n e schedule, m o d i f i c a t i o n of the l o c a t i o n sequencing of much of the work had to be made. The r e s u l t was the m a j o r i t y of the f i n i s h i n g trades working from the s i x t h f l o o r down to the main f l o o r before moving back to the upper l e v e l s to complete the penthouse. T h i s s h u f f l i n g of work sequences to expedite the s i x t h f l o o r slowed down s u b s t a n t i a l l y the progress of work on the remainder of the b u i l d i n g . The l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s and work l o c a t i o n s use to schedule the p r o j e c t showed i t s f l e x i b i l i t y as the computerized plan was modified to r e f l e c t to changes. 3.1.4 C o n c l u s i o n The experience at T i f f a n y Place demonstrated t h a t b e t t e r s c h e d u l i n g could have made the c o n s t r u c t i o n progress smoother and the trad e ' s p r o f i t a b i l i t y h i g h e r by a l l o w i n g them to complete t h e i r work c o n t i n u o u s l y a f t e r they began. The number of times t h a t the l o c a t i o n sequencing of a c t i v i t i e s had to be modified made i t c l e a r t h a t the work must be scheduled to the d e t a i l of l o c a t i o n to l o c a t i o n so t h a t the e f f e c t s of these changes can be r e f l e c t e d . 28 3.2 Langara Gardens Langara Gardens Tower 4 i s a 19-storey r e s i d e n t i a l h i g h - r i s e b u i l t between the summer of 1987 and the f a l l of 1988. I t c o n t a i n s 85 r e n t a l u n i t s plus a two s t o r e y luxury penthouse which was completed e a r l y i n 1989. The s i t e encompasses three other 19-storey concrete towers and a number of two s t o r e y wood framed condominiums b u i l t i n the e a r l y 1970s. Some of these wood frame b u i l d i n g s were demolished to make way f o r the new tower. 3.2.1 Scheduling Of The P r o j e c t On REPCON A p r e l i m i n a r y schedule was again d e r i v e d using the work breakdown s t r u c t u r e of the St. M o r i t z P r o j e c t b u i l t by JCSC and scheduled by the UBC C o n s t r u c t i o n Management Team i n 1986. The s i t e superintendent was c a l l e d upon to work through the phases of the p r o j e c t to help d e r i v e the a c t i v i t i e s and l o g i c r e q u i r e d to d e f i n e the scope of work. Th i s e f f o r t helped to d e f i n e s e v e r a l new a c t i v i t i e s and to r e c o n f i r m the e x i s t i n g a c t i v i t y breakdown. Trades were shown the d e t a i l e d schedule at the c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n stage of the p r o j e c t and some m o d i f i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t y d u r a t i o n s were made to s a t i s f y t h e i r concerns. 29 3.2.2 Trades' R e c o g n i t i o n Of The Schedule By f a r the b i g g e s t breakthrough was the u t i l i z a t i o n of the d e t a i l e d schedule i n the biweekly subtrade meeting held on s i t e . The tr a d e s a t t e n d i n g each meeting were provided with the l a t e s t update of the schedule showing t h e i r performance to date and the work planned f o r the coming months. As each c r u c i a l a c t i v i t y i s begun, the trade and JCSC agree at these meetings as to the rate t h a t the a c t i v i t y i s to be executed (see f i g u r e 3.1). At each meeting, the updated schedule was the f i r s t t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n as the trades were asked to d i s c u s s t h e i r progress and t h e i r plan to i n c r e a s e t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y when they f a l l behind the agreed pace. At one j u n c t i o n i n the p r o j e c t , the schedule showed the mechanical rough-in of the s u i t e s as the c r i t i c a l a c t i v i t y hampering the s t a r t of the d r y w a l l i n g a c t i v i t y . At the s i t e meeting, the mechanical trade was asked to provide more men on the job s i t e so t h a t the p r o j e c t c o u l d progress at a q u i c k e r r a t e . The f a c t t h a t the mechanical t r a d e ' s progress was so c l o s e l y monitored helped to show i t s impact on other t r a d e s . Consequently, t h e i r response to a request f o r more men on s i t e was q u i c k l y met and the d r y w a l l i n g stage of the schedule was completed one month ahead of schedule. j . c. S C O T T C O N S T R U C T I O N L T D . E N G I N E E R S A N D C O N S T R U C T I O N M A N A G E R S MINUTES OF MEF.TIKG, S u b t r a d e m e e t i n g h e l d on s i t e , 8 : 3 0 am R e : L a n g a r a G a r d e n s , 5 7 t h I C a m b i e , V a n c o u v e r . Mark J ensen E e r t ' s E l e c t r i c L t d . L a r r y E r r i n g t c n E a n - J e n M e c h a n i c a l L t d . F i n n Jensen D a n - J e n M e c h a n i c a l L t d . L u i g i F r a t i e n Seymour D r y w a l l L t d . Mark R c s s i g n c l S e y a o u r D r y w a l l L t d . E r i c D o m i n i o n M a s o n r y L t d . G u n t e r Trey J . C . S c o t t C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . John S c o t t J . C . S c o t t C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . p u r p o s e o f t h i s m e e t i n g was t o r e v i e w t h e r e v i s e d s c h e d u l e t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l t r a d e s c a n meet the s c h e d u l e a g r e e d t o . Company s c h e d u l e d a t e d March 1, 1SE6 v a s g i v e n o u r t o a l l s u b t r a d e s a t t h e m e e t i n g . T h i s s c h e d u l e v i l l new be the p r o j e c t s c h e d u l e and a l l p r e v i o u s s c h e d u l e s s h o u l d n e t be u s e d . S a n - J e n M e c h a n i c a l Dan- Jen i s a b l e t o c o m p l e t e h o r i z o n t a l r o u g h - i n a t 4 d a y / f l o o r r a t e . D e n - J e n c u r r e n t l y has 6 rcen cn s i t e . The d e s i g n i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e dair.per s i z e and t h e c o l o r s i z e f o r the smoke s h a f t change i s s t i l l n o t a v a i l a b l e . I t was agreed t h a t D a n - J e n w o u l d c a l l S t e r l i n g C o o p e r a f t e r t h i s m e e t i n g t o p u r s u e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a s s c o n as p o s s i b l e . JCSC w i l l c o n t i n u e t r y i n g t o g e t t h e sa:r.e i n f o r m a t i o n from KDGC. The b o i l e r i s new I n s t a l l e d . JCSC w i l l p o u r a c o n c r e t e base f o r the b o i l e r . The g r o u t i n g c f t h e p i p e s w i l l new s t a r t on M a r c h 10, 1 9 6 E . The AC u n i t s need t o be o r d e r i m m e d i a t e l y t h e r e i s a s i x week d e l i v e r y and they n e e d t o be l i f t e d by t h e c r a r . e . ...71 UPPER FLOOR, 16S< WEST 77H AVENUE. VANCOUVER, B.C. V&J lS5 TEL: (60«) 733-6228 FAX: (60J) 723-0136 M i n u t e s o f M e e t i n g Re : L a n g a r a Gardens March 3 , 1SE6  Page Two A c t i o n D a n - J e n M e c h a n i c a l - c o n t i n u e d I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t m o i d e r l i n e r s be u s e d f o r the t u b s and the c o s t c f the l i n e r s be s p l i t amcngst the t r a d e s . <=F E r a s s has been a p p r o v e d f o r the ba throoms a change o r d e r w i l l be f o r t h c o m i n g t o Dan- Jen once a p p r o v e d by S t e r l i n g C o o p e r . E e r t ' s E l e c t r i c a l E e r t ' s E l e c t r i c a r e h a v i n g no p r o b l e m w i t h 3 d a y s / f l o o r r o u g h - i n c y c l e . B e r t ' s p r e s e n t l y have 5 s e n c n the s i t e and t h i s appear s t o be a d e q u a t e . Seymour D r y w a l l D r y w a l l crew i s n e t l a r g e enough i t w i l l have to be i n c r e a s e d . L u i g i w i l l have a crew o f 2 c e n c o m i n g on F r i d a y . The c o l o r o f t h e I s c r e n i s r e q u i r e d . JCSC The s t u c c o w i l l s t a r t Wednesday , March 16 , 1968. Sample c e i l i n g i s s t i l l n o t r e d o n e , i t must be done b e f o r e March 16 , 1968. S e y n o u r D o m i n i o n Masonry Domin ion w i l l have the e x t e r i o r b r i c k c o m p l e t e by March 2 5 , 1968. They need t h e D r y w a l l t o g e t a h e a d . R e q u e s t e d d r y w a l l t o speed u p . The e a s t s i d e e v e r c o m m e r c i a l a r e a h a s s t a r t e d and i s up t o the f o u r t h f l o o r . A copy o f the k i t c h e n and v a n i t y shop d r a w i n g s i s r e q u i r e d by the t r a d e s as socn as p o s s i b l e . J o r g e n s e n Kext m e e t i n g 7 i s March 17 , 1988 g 8 : ; 0 a . m . c c : AW p r e s e n t K i c k Sack , Waisman Dewar G r c u t C a r t e r A k s e l J o r g e n s e n , J c rger . s en C o n s t r u c t i o n . / J C S : l b 1 0 « i S / « . 2 J. C . SCOTT C O N S T R U C T I O N LTD. Figure 3.1 - JCSC Site Meeting Minutes CO o 31 3.2.3 S e a l i n g The B u i l d i n g So That D r y w a l l i n g Can Begin At one p o i n t during the p r o j e c t , the p r o j e c t manager considered s e a l i n g the b u i l d i n g at a c e r t a i n f l o o r so t h a t d r y w a l l i n g work on lower f l o o r s could . begin without the t h r e a t of r a i n coming from the roof. T h i s had to be considered because the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e had yet to reach the roof but the lower f l o o r s were ready f o r d r y w a l l i n g . The schedule was c o n s u l t e d and s e v e r a l ' w h a t - i f analyses were conducted to show the e f f e c t s of s e a l i n g c e r t a i n f l o o r s of the b u i l d i n g . Through these a n a l y s e s , i t was shown t h a t the s e a l i n g of the b u i l d i n g ahead of the penthouse f l o o r would have no e f f e c t on e x p e d i t i n g the job since the rough i n g - i n of the mechanical and e l e c t r i c a l remained on the c r i t i c a l path. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was accepted and the b u i l d i n g was only sealed at the 17th f l o o r when the s t e e l roof s t r u c t u r e was delayed by c o n s u l t a n t changes. 3.2.4 Implementation Of The Showsuite The e a r l y completion of a showsuite f l o o r , the 3rd f l o o r , had to be planned i n t o the schedule to accommodate an owner's request. A f t e r the owner and the p r o j e c t manager agreed on the date t h a t the showsuite was to be ready, the schedule was examined to plan the necessary a c t i o n s . Because the showsuite f l o o r was to be completed before many of the f i n i s h i n g trades were scheduled to begin i n the 32 tower, a plan had to be devised to minimize the number of tr a d e s who had to come i n s p e c i a l l y to do t h i s f l o o r . The schedule was c o n s u l t e d to see the expected progress of work on the t h i r d f l o o r one month before the agreed completion date. From t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t was decided t h a t work up to the month before the showsuite completion date would remain as o r i g i n a l l y scheduled with the remainder of the f i n i s h i n g work comfortably f i t t i n g i n t o the f i n a l f o u r weeks. A separate showsuite schedule was c r e a t e d and monitored and the f l o o r was completed on time. 3.2.5 Co n c l u s i o n Langara Gardens was the f i r s t JCSC p r o j e c t where the REPCON schedule was a c t u a l l y put to f u l l use by the f i r m i t s e l f . The emphasis placed on the schedule by the p r o j e c t manager was i n s t r u m e n t a l f o r g a i n i n g the c o o p e r a t i o n of both JCSC s i t e s t a f f and the trade c o n t r a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . Near the end of the p r o j e c t , the e l e c t r i c a l foreman, the mechanical foreman, and the s i t e superintendent a l l commented i n p r i v a c y to the author t h a t the schedule was a u s e f u l t o o l which helped the p r o j e c t . Problems with the d e l i v e r y of important m a t e r i a l s and equipment to the job s i t e would l a t e r consume the month t h a t had been gained through t i g h t schedule c o n t r o l . The use of the procurement system i n REPCON would be the next important step to u t i l i z i n g REPCON to i t s f u l l n e s s . 33 3.3 2020 Highbury 2020 Highbury i s a 12-storey h i g h - r i s e condominium of 4 5 - s t r a t a t i t l e u n i t s . Designed by the same team of c o n s u l t a n t s f o r Langara Gardens, the f l o o r and e x t e r i o r design of the b u i l d i n g s were very s i m i l a r so t h a t the Langara work breakdown s t r u c t u r e and a c t i v i t y l o g i c were d i r e c t l y t r a n s f e r r e d over to the new schedule. M o d i f i c a t i o n s to the schedule were made to t r e a t the s m a l l e r number of f l o o r s and the wood p i l e foundations of the s u b s t r u c t u r e . 3.3.1 C r e a t i o n Of The B a s e l i n e Schedule The b a s e l i n e schedule f o r 2020 Highbury was crea t e d by d i r e c t l y t r a n s f e r r i n g the schedule f i l e of Langara Gardens to t h a t of the new p r o j e c t . The name and calendar of the schedule were mo d i f i e d along with the number of f l o o r s to the b u i l d i n g and a very accurate c o n s t r u c t i o n plan was cre a t e d i n fou r hours time. The e x e r c i s e was prompted by the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two b u i l d i n g s but demonstrated t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of sc h e d u l i n g knowledge could be st a n d a r d i z e d . 34 3.3.2 D i f f i c u l t i e s In Gathering Progress Data The underground s u b s t r u c t u r e progressed at a slower than scheduled pace due to poor s o i l s c o n d i t i o n s , slow d e c i s i o n making by the c o n s u l t a n t s , and i n t e r f e r e n c e with the adjacent c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e . These delays were not documented i n the p r o j e c t schedule as the superintendent r e f u s e d to cooperate i n p r o v i d i n g data once he r e a l i z e d he was behind. I t was apparent t h a t as progress f e l l more and more behind, the l e s s a t t r a c t i v e to the superintendent became the schedule which t r a c k e d the progress. The d e t a i l e d schedule was not used i n the s i t e meetings as JCSC sought a l t e r n a t i v e s to expedite the p r o j e c t while v e r b a l l y complaining of the f a c t o r s which delayed the job. A b e t t e r approach would have been to keep the owner f u l l y aware of a l l the schedule updates so t h a t he would have been aware from the beginning t h a t the problems were not JCSC o r i e n t e d . In an e f f o r t to make up the l o s t month, the d r y w a l l i n g trade was paid a bonus to s t a r t e a r l i e r than scheduled even though they were not guaranteed continuous work on s i t e . 3.3.3 Use Of The Procurement System The l a t e d e l i v e r y of m a t e r i a l and equipment to s i t e s has been a c o n s i s t e n t problem on JCSC p r o j e c t s . The procurement system was viewed from the s t a r t of the Highbury p r o j e c t as an e s s e n t i a l t o o l to maintain p r o j e c t c o n t r o l . The mechanical and e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e s were given procurement 35 blank forms at the beginning of the p r o j e c t to t e s t the response of the t r a d e s . Both trades responded p o s i t i v e l y but the data was never used i n REPCON. Recently, the mechanical c o n t r a c t o r has i n f a c t asked t h a t a space be provided to him on s i t e f o r storage of h i s equipment which a r r i v e d on time but was not yet needed because the p r o j e c t f e l l a month behind the o r i g i n a l schedule. The c o n t r a c t o r quoted JCSC's l e t t e r asking f o r co o p e r a t i o n i n the t r a c k i n g of procurement items and JCSC l a t e r provided an area f o r the mechanical trade to st o r e these equipment. P.C. Sum ( p r o v i s i o n a l ) items have been programmed i n t o REPCON to s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a c k the owner's d e c i s i o n making process of such items. A procurement b a r - c h a r t was cr e a t e d to monitor a l l P.C. Sum items and given to the owner at a s i t e meeting. The owner has been slow to s p e c i f y these items, d e l a y i n g the p r o j e c t due to h i s l a c k of d e c i s i o n making. The a r c h i t e c t of the p r o j e c t , who i s the l i a i s o n between the owner and JCSC, has now used t h i s procurement b a r - c h a r t to approach the owner to c l a i m f o r delays i n the p r o j e c t caused by h i s i n d e c i s i o n s . The f a c t t h a t the procurement b a r - c h a r t was i n t r o d u c e d e a r l y on i n the p r o j e c t p r ovided JCSC with the argument needed to c l a i m f o r compensation i f and when the d e l i v e r i e s of these items hampered the p r o j e c t . Without such a t r a c k i n g system, the owner's memory suddenly becomes very short and the blame f o r delay i s imposed on the c o n t r a c t o r . 36 3.3.4 Delay Claim A delay c l a i m was. prepared to extend the c o n t r a c t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d and to seek f o r compensation f o r e x t r a overhead c o s t s i n c u r r e d by the company. The r e p o r t was h e a v i l y backed by the paperwork done by the p r o j e c t manager complaining of the problems. The updated schedules which were sent to the a r c h i t e c t on s e v e r a l occasions upon h i s request were used to s u b s t a n t i a t e the time l o s t by JCSC. I t i s f e l t , however, t h a t had the owner asked f o r f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t i o n showing the delays i n the schedule f o r each problem source, JCSC would have a diminished case f o r the c l a i m s i n c e the update forms and the e f f e c t s of problems on the schedule were not documented by the superintendent. T h i s experience has now convinced John S c o t t and the p r o j e c t manager of the importance of updating and of u t i l i z i n g the computerized schedule (and h o p e f u l l y of r e q u i r i n g the s i t e s uperintendent to complete a meaningful d a i l y s i t e r e p o r t ) . 3.3.3 C o n c l u s i o n The s c h e d u l i n g e f f o r t at 2020 Highbury was a step backwards from the Langara Gardens experience as the trades and the owner were kept i n the dark about the schedule u n t i l submission of the delay c l a i m . The major c o m p l i c a t i o n of how to u t i l i z e the schedule when the p r o j e c t i s behind schedule was the important l e s s o n l e a r n t from t h i s p r o j e c t . Despite the problems, major s t r i d e s were made i n c o n v i n c i n g 37 the s e n i o r p r o j e c t manager of the f i r m of the b e n e f i t s of having a r e g u l a r l y updated schedule. T h i s i s i r o n i c s i n c e i t i s the superintendent's, and not the p r o j e c t manager's, l a c k of a t t e n t i o n to h i s s i t e r e c o r d i n g which could have put the company i n jeopardy f o r problems caused by the c o n s u l t a n t s and the owner. The superintendent s t i l l does not r e a l i z e h i s f a i l u r e s or the b e n e f i t s of the s c h e d u l i n g e f f o r t . The use of the procurement system was b e n e f i c i a l to only a l i m i t e d extent as no concerted e f f o r t was made to maintain i t , thereby l i m i t i n g i t s u s e f u l n e s s . I t , however, showed t h a t m a t e r i a l and equipment which need long lead d e l i v e r y d u r a t i o n s must be monitored i n the schedule. A s t a n d a r d i z e d l i s t of such procurement items has been compiled and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the knowledge base i n the appendices. 3 8 CHAPTER 4 4.0 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of Scheduling Knowledge I f experience or knowledge gained from each p r o j e c t i s st o r e d and recorded i n some way w i t h i n a f i r m , then a company's employees could b e n e f i t from each other's performance. The f i r m , as a whole, would a l s o l e a r n from each p r o j e c t and i s not devastated when important personnel leave the company. In t h i s chapter, the manner i n which s c h e d u l i n g knowledge a c q u i r e d from past p r o j e c t s can be s t a n d a r d i z e d and s t r u c t u r e d f o r use i n a knowledge database i s examined. In p a r t i c u l a r , the questions to be addressed are: 1) What a t t r i b u t e s of the acq u i r e d knowledge should be represented i n a database? 2} How should the knowledge be represented i n t o data-l i k e form? 3 ) How should the data be organized f o r storage and r e t r i e v a l ? 4) Where does the knowledge ac q u i r e d f i t i n the context of an expert system? 5) How would an expert system be used to manipulate the data to c r e a t e p r o j e c t plans and schedules? By responding to the above l i s t of questions, a database s t r u c t u r e which can e f f i c i e n t l y handle the data e x t r a c t e d from the a c q u i r e d scheduling knowledge w i l l be formulated and the knowledge database e s t a b l i s h e d . The manner i n which a knowledge-based expert system could handle t h i s s t o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o e x h i b i t e d . 39 4.1 Background and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Acquired  Knowledge In s c h e d u l i n g one JCSC r e s i d e n t i a l h i g h - r i s e p r o j e c t to the next, the author q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d that there i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the a c t i v i t i e s and the sequences used to d e s c r i b e each p r o j e c t . Besides m o d i f i c a t i o n s made to these a c t i v i t i e s to t a i l o r them to the unique context c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each p r o j e c t , the same b a s i c b u i l d i n g f u n c t i o n s and requirements were addressed each time. But because the f i r m has no p o s t - p r o j e c t a n a l y z i n g f a c i l i t y , where the i n f l u e n c e of p r o j e c t context v a r i a b l e s on the a c t i v i t i e s i s e x t r a c t e d from a c t u a l schedule data, simple comparisons of the a c t i v i t y data and sequences between p r o j e c t s could not be made. As a r e s u l t , important programming i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t could be a p p l i e d to the p l a n n i n g and s c h e d u l i n g of f u t u r e p r o j e c t s has not been c o l l e c t e d from the company's experience. 4.1.1 Database to Manage Acquired Knowledge The knowledge base ac q u i r e d from p r o j e c t to p r o j e c t i s u s e l e s s to the scheduler unless the p o s t - p r o j e c t data from each p r o j e c t are separated from t h e i r context c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t o r e d i n a manner t h a t i s r e a d i l y useable at a l a t e r time. A database s t r u c t u r e d to s t o r e and to r e t r i e v e i n f o r m a t i o n gathered from past schedules would 40 c r e a t e a l i b r a r y to f a c i l i t a t e the storage and f u t u r e usage of acquired s c h e d u l i n g data. Information gathered i n the database could then be r e f e r e n c e d to reuse good p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s formulated i n the past as w e l l as to i d e n t i f y problematic areas t h a t were encountered and which can be avoided. 4.1.2 L i m i t a t i o n of the Acquired Knowledge Due to the f a c t t h a t the s c h e d u l i n g knowledge base gathered from JCSC i s p r i m a r i l y from r e s i d e n t i a l h i g h - r i s e p r o j e c t s , the database which i s c r e a t e d from the a c q u i r e d knowledge i s only u s e f u l f o r h a n d l i n g and a n a l y z i n g t h i s one p a r t i c u l a r type of c o n s t r u c t i o n . W h i l s t the uses of t h i s database f o r general c o n s t r u c t i o n i s l i m i t e d , i t s s u c c e s s f u l implementation could demonstrate the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s of such s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n f o r other types of c o n s t r u c t i o n . 41 4.2 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of Acquired Knowledge i n the Context  of an Expert System A connection between the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the a c q u i r e d s c h e d u l i n g knowledge i n t o a database s t r u c t u r e and the general concept of a knowledge-base expert system i s demonstrated i n t h i s s e c t i o n . In doing so, the approach taken to achieve a database s t r u c t u r e and the manner i n which t h i s s t r u c t u r e can be expanded f o r use i n an expert system environment i s v e r i f i e d . 4.2.1 The Knowledge-Based Expert System Environment A good standard d e f i n i t i o n of knowledge-based expert systems (KBES) i s t h a t "(they) are i n t e r a c t i v e computer programs i n c o r p o r a t i n g judgement, experience, r u l e s of thumb, i n t u i t i o n , and other e x p e r t i s e to provide knowledgeable advice about a v a r i e t y of t a s k s . " (Gaschnig, 1981) In the context of t h i s t h e s i s , an expert system i s a "pre- and post- p r o c e s s o r " which gathers and e x p l o i t s the data r e q u i r e d f o r use with an independent c r i t i c a l path method (CPM) s c h e d u l i n g t o o l . FIGURE 4.1 l a i d out the components of the KBES environment. An Expert i s i n i t i a l l y c o n s u l t e d to e x t r a c t knowledge which i s i n p u t t e d i n t o a Knowledge Base. Information from t h i s knowledge base i s s e l e c t i v e l y chosen by the Inference Mechanism by u t i l i z i n g the context i n f o r m a t i o n s o l i c i t e d from the system User. Once the r e q u i r e d s c h e d u l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s assembled by the i n f e r e n c e mechanism, i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d to the Scheduling 42 Tool where a c o n s t r u c t i o n plan and schedule i s c r e a t e d and updated throughout the l i f e of a p r o j e c t . The environment would then see the i n f e r e n c e mechanism conduct a post-p r o j e c t a n a l y s i s of the data from the updated schedule and then t r a n s f e r the newly ac q u i r e d knowledge back i n t o the knowledge base f o r fu t u r e use. The p o s t - p r o j e c t a n a l y s i s can much more e a s i l y be processed by the expert and again t r a n s f e r r e d back i n t o the knowledge base l i k e the i n i t i a l t r a n s f e r e n c e of the expert's experience. 4.2.2 Knowledge A c q u i s i t i o n from JCSC The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of s c h e d u l i n g knowledge i n t o a database i s a d i s t i n c t p o r t i o n of the p r e s c r i b e d process (see f i g u r e 4.2). The expert i n t h i s analogy i s JCSC, and the knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n has been achieved through the US€R k Uset» 4 h Context T 4— In ter face •J w Inference ' k Outside Mechanisn < • CPM Tool T CXPOT" •• i Knowledge _^ A c q u i s i t ion ' * ' Base . 1 ^ Knowledge Database FIGURE 4.1 — KBCS Gnyirorment of this Thesis 43 USER User In ter face Context Inference . Mechanisn T" t Lnrxni ^ ' ' A c q u i s i t i o n * * Base I I Knowledge / Database — •• . — — Cxparianoo Side of tho KBCS — _ _ ^ Outside CPM Tool FIGURE 4.2 - experience Side of the KBES — _ Pro jacr Contort S d o of tho KBCS (addrassad lightlv in thesis) \ i USCR < • I n « £ | f M . « > Context Inference J Outside MechaniSH / CPM Tool 1 cypcaj Knowledge Knowlege Knowledge A c q u i s i t i o n Base Database FIGURE 4.3 — Context Information acquisition Side of the KBES. 44 sch e d u l i n g of a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s . The goal of e s t a b l i s h i n g a database of sc h e d u l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s achieved when the acq u i r e d knowledge i s represented i n a knowledge database. A d i s t i n c t i o n has been made here between the Knowledge Base and the Knowledge Database. The knowledge base i s the summary of a l l s c h e d u l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d from past p r o j e c t s and s t o r e d i n the form of updated p r o j e c t schedules. On the other hand, the knowledge database i s the f a c i l i t y where the knowledge t h a t i s used by the i n f e r e n c e mechanism i s kept. The i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d i n the knowledge database i s a s e l e c t e d subset of the i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d and kept i n the knowledge base. 4.2.3 Methodology f o r A r r i v i n g at Knowledge Base Before the ac q u i r e d knowledge can be t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o the knowledge database, the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the database must be formulated. T h i s s t r u c t u r e has to be cre a t e d i n a form so t h a t the acq u i r e d knowledge can be sto r e d and r e t r i e v e d e f f i c i e n t l y from the database when used by the i n f e r e n c e mechanism. T h i s requirement i s addressed by h y p o t h e s i z i n g how the KBES would go about scoping a given p r o j e c t and then subsequently drawing i n f o r m a t i o n from the database (see f i g u r e 4.3). In pursuing t h i s e x e r c i s e , the a t t r i b u t e s of the sc h e d u l i n g knowledge which are needed by 45 the i n f e r e n c e mechanism are i s o l a t e d , grouped and c a t e g o r i z e d to form a s u i t a b l e database s t r u c t u r e . F i n a l l y , to ensure t h a t the components of the acquired knowledge needed by the i n f e r e n c e mechanism are a l l d e f i n e d i n the database s t r u c t u r e , a s i m u l a t i o n of the i n f e r e n c e mechanism using i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d i n the database i s conducted to i d e n t i f y d e f i c i e n c i e s . 46 4.3 How the KBES Works to Gather Scheduling Data Formulated i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s the approach t h a t the KBES would take to a r r i v e at the sc h e d u l i n g data r e q u i r e d to be sent to an o u t s i d e CPM t o o l . 4.3.1 Approach of KBES to Knowledge A c q u i s i t i o n There a r e . two d i s t i n c t approaches a scheduler can use f o r c r e a t i n g a p r o j e c t schedule. The f i r s t approach ( " s t a r t from s c r a t c h " ) i n v o l v e s examining the f e a t u r e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p r o j e c t design i n order to def i n e the a c t i v i t i e s and the sequencing needed to repr e s e n t the p r o j e c t workscope. A second approach i n v o l v e s s t a r t i n g with an e x i s t i n g database of sc h e d u l i n g data i n order to s e l e c t and modify a c t i v i t i e s and sequencing l o g i c to s u i t the p r o j e c t workscope. Given the e x i s t e n c e of an " i d e n t i c a l " core of i n f o r m a t i o n from p r o j e c t to p r o j e c t , as has been suggested f o r r e s i d e n t i a l h i g h - r i s e p r o j e c t s , the second approach of ' e l i c i t i n g data' from an e x i s t i n g database becomes the obvious approach f o r the KBES since i t would seem unnecessary to approach each p r o j e c t from s c r a t c h . Once the work breakdown s t r u c t u r e has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r one p r o j e c t , t h i s s t r u c t u r e could be mo d i f i e d to c a t e r to the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the next s i m i l a r p r o j e c t . 47 4.3.2 S o l i c i t a t i o n of Context Information Context i n f o r m a t i o n r e f e r s to the p r o j e c t parameters d e f i n e d i n the p r o j e c t c o n t r a c t , the b u i l d i n g plans and the p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . I t i n c l u d e s such items as the p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the s t r u c t u r e , the l o c a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n s of the s i t e , the time frame i n which the p r o j e c t i s to be b u i l t , and the a r c h i t e c t u r a l , s t r u c t u r a l , mechanical, and e l e c t r i c a l f e a t u r e s and products s p e c i f i e d f o r the b u i l d i n g . In the expert system environment, the context i n f o r m a t i o n i s s o l i c i t e d from the system user through the system's user i n t e r f a c e (see f i g u r e 4.3). The extent and accuracy of c o n s t r u c t i o n schedules depend on the a v a i l a b i l i t y and completeness of t h i s context i n f o r m a t i o n at the s t a r t and during, the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p r o j e c t . The context i n f o r m a t i o n of a p r o j e c t i s combined with the experience of the c o n t r a c t o r to formulate the c o n s t r u c t i o n methodology and sequences. T h i s combination a l s o holds true f o r the KBES which i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n marries the context i n f o r m a t i o n e l i c i t e d from the system user with the experience e s t a b l i s h e d i n the knowledge database to scope and to formulate the c o n s t r u c t i o n plan and schedule. Since the focus of t h i s t h e s i s i s on the data a c q u i s i t i o n s i d e of the expert system environment (see f i g u r e 4.2), an assumption i s made here t h a t any context i n f o r m a t i o n needed by the i n f e r e n c e mechanism i s always a v a i l a b l e to the system. 48 4.3.3 The Workings of the Inference Mechanism With the context i n f o r m a t i o n i n hand, the i n f e r e n c e mechanism, u s i n g context i n f o r m a t i o n f a c t s obtained through the user i n t e r f a c e , accesses the knowledge database, and s e l e c t s the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n needed to produce a c o n s t r u c t i o n schedule (see f i g u r e 4.3). In b u i l d i n g the i n f e r e n c e mechanism, the s c h e d u l i n g thought process of the expert should be documented ( i s s u e s of order, decomposition i n t o subproblems, i n t e g r a t i o n of subproblem s o l u t i o n s , etc.) and then simulated by the i n f e r e n c e mechanism. The premise t h a t the expert system should operate the same way as the human scheduler i s forwarded f o r t h i s t h e s i s . 4.3.3.1 S i m u l a t i o n of the Scheduling Thought Process Each q u e s t i o n t h a t i s pondered and r e s o l v e d i n the head of the scheduler must be e x t r a c t e d along with the consequences t h a t each answer has on the schedule. (see f i g u r e 4.4) The q u e s t i o n s , the answers and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the schedule are the "knowledge" d e s c r i b e d and sought. E x t r a c t i o n of knowledge through t h i s query process allows the d i f f e r e n t types of i n f o r m a t i o n to be i s o l a t e d and s o r t e d . The order i n which i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d by a scheduler, which i s analogous to the order t h a t the expert system i n f e r e n c e mechanism would r e q u i r e the data, i s analyzed to ensure t h a t the data are s t o r e d i n a manner so t h a t t h e i r r e t r i e v a l would not be hampered by t h e i r being ie) Hhat type of ex te r io r c ladding f i n i s h w i l l th is bu i ld ing use ? i c ) The b u i l d i n g w i l l have a s t u c c o f i n i s h on top of drywal 1 s h e a t h i n g . i e ) Add the a c t i v i t y c h a i n : ' s t e e l s t u d e x t e r i o r w a l l s ' ' e x t e r i o r s h e a t h i n g ' 'vapor b a r r i e r / b u i l d i n g paper ' w i r e Mesh' 'sand/cenent base' ' s c r a t c h ft f i n i s h c o a t s ' FIGURC4.4- — Quesrion Qramr effect c l u s t e r e d with other i n f o r m a t i o n . FIGURE 4 . 5 demonstrates a sample s i m u l a t i o n of such a thought process and the questions and the a t t r i b u t e s pondered i n the mind of the scheduler are c l e a r l y shown. The plann i n g and sc h e d u l i n g of a c u r t a i n w a l l system was used i n t h i s sample because the author has had no previous experience with the sc h e d u l i n g of such a system. As a r e s u l t , p r e v i o u s experience would not impede the n a t u r a l order and d e t a i l s of the questions t h a t a scheduler would ask to schedule the c u r t a i n w a l l or other s i m i l a r systems. Through these query processes, development of a p r e l i m i n a r y c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of s c h e d u l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n becomes p o s s i b l e (see f i g u r e 4 . 6 ) . Hhat i s the e x t e r i o r c ladd ing systen ? "CURTAIN HALL SYSTEM." Hhat a c t i v i t i e s are needed to represent t h i s Funct ion ing systen ? BRACKETS TO SLAB EDGE -> INSTALL ALUMINUM MULLIONS -> INSTALL GLAZING -> INSTALL FIRE-STOPS BETHEEN FLOORS Hhat are the l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these a c t i v i t i e s ? A l l a c t i v i t i e s are a in 'FS=8' r e l a t i o n s h i p . How does t h i s chain of a c t i v i t i e s t i e in with the o v e r a l l schedule? Star t BRACKETS ON SLAB EDGE as soon as the s lab pour i s severa l f l o o r s ahead. The retraining a c t i v i t i e s do not depend on other outs ide works. For each a c t i v i t y , how Hany l o c a t i o n s and where w i l l t h i s work be repeated ? The work s h a l l s t a r t a t the 2nd f l o o r and repeats to the ROOF. For each a c t i v i t y , what i s the duration to couplete a floor ? , what prooureHent itens & tasks are required ? , what type of repetitive act ivi ty would represent t h i s ? FIGURE 4.5 — Simulation Of Knowledge Acquisition Process 51 QUGRY OR KNOOLCDGC ACQUISITION PROCGSS STCPS What i s the e x t e r i o r c ladding systeH ? "CURTAIN HALL SySTEH. What a c t i v i t i e s are needed to represent t h i s func t ion ing systen ? BRACKETS TO SLAB EDGE -> INSTALL ALUHINUM MULLIONS.-> INSTALL GLAZING -> INSTALL FIRE-STOPS BETWEEN FLOORS Hhat are the l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between these a c t i v i t i e s ? A l l a c t i v i t i e s are a in 'FS=B' r e l a t i o n s h i p . How does t h i s chain of a c t i v i t i e s t i e in with the o v e r a l l schedule? S ta r t BRACKETS ON SLAB EDGE as soon as the s lab pour i s severa l f l o o r s ahead. The retraining a c t i v i t i e s do not depend on other outs ide works. For each a c t i v i t y , how nany l o c a t i o n s and where w i l l t h i s work be repeated ? The work s h a l l s t a r t a t the 2nd f l o o r and would repeat to the ROOF. For each a c t i v i t y , what i s the dura t ion to conplete a f l o o r ? , what procurement i tens 8 tasks are requ i red ? , what type of r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y would represent t h i s ? Funct iona l Requirement of a B u i l d i n g Systen Selected to Meet Requirement L i s t of A c t i v i t i e s to Scope Systen L i s t of A o t i v i t i es In terna l L o g i c Between Systen A c t i v i t i e s L o g i c R e l a t i o n s h i p s Linkage of Systen to Pro jec t Network Externa l L o g i c Between Systens Loca t i on Sequencing In fo rna t i on Data S p e c i f i c To Each A c t i v i ty fIGUP£4-.& — analysis of Knowledge. Acquisition Process 52 4.3.3.2 Concept of a F u n c t i o n i n g System The f u n c t i o n a l requirements of a p r o j e c t can be addressed by connecting systems of work i n t o the p r o j e c t network u n t i l the workscope of the e n t i r e p r o j e c t i s de f i n e d . A c t i v i t i e s which are used to rep r e s e n t the work are brought i n t o p l a y only when the scheduler has confirmed t h a t a f u n c t i o n i n g system w i l l be used. Thus, time i s saved i n the reasoning process since the work i s t e s t e d f o r i t s relevance to the p r o j e c t being scheduled at the system l e v e l r a t h e r than at the more d e t a i l e d a c t i v i t y l e v e l . Consequently, the approach adopted f o r the expert system c o n s i s t of breaking the p r o j e c t workscope down i n t o f u n c t i o n a l requirements and work systems. Once a f u n c t i o n i n g system has been s e l e c t e d f o r use i n a p r o j e c t , the a c t i v i t i e s used to scope the work of the system are e x t r a c t e d from the knowledge database along with the l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s which l i n k the a c t i v i t i e s of the system. The system subnetwork i s then i n s e r t e d i n t o the p r o j e c t network. The f a c t t h a t the p r o j e c t network i s produced by l i n k i n g f u n c t i o n i n g systems (blocks of a c t i v i t i e s ) , r a t h e r than each a c t i v i t y means t h a t the number of r u l e s needed to crea t e the e n t i r e p r o j e c t network i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower. FIGURE 4.7 shows an example of the f u n c t i o n a l requirement and the 5 3 Acquired Knowledge Knowledge Database PHases SUBSTRUCTURE i r SUPERSTRUCTURE ROUGH-IN I—r ENCLOSURE Functional Raqulramants Of tho Phosa. FINISHING SITEH0R1 E x t e r i o r E x t e r i o r C ladding Cladding F i n i s h G l a z i ng/Mi ndows Roof ing Cholca of Functioning: S^stams a . a c r y l i c Stucco b. Masonry B r i c k c . Painted Concrete d . Conbinat ion a . S e. Conbinat ion a . ft f . Conbinat ion b. a b. c . c . Placenent of Funct ion ing Systen Cchain of a c t i v i t i e s ) Into The P r o j e c t Network. Projact Spocific Knowlod^ F ind S p e c i f i c Data For Each A c t i v i t y . Get A c t i v i ty Data: Log ic PredecessorCs) P r o d u c t i v i t y In fornat ion flctivihj Spacific Knowladg-Proourenent In fornat ion R e p e t i t i v e A c t i v i t y Fype FIGURE A.l — Concept of Funct iona l Requirements and Funct ioning: SNjsfems of a P ro jec t . 54 p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n i n g systems i n r e l a t i o n to the p r o j e c t while FIGURE 4 .8 i s a s t a n d a r d i z e d l i s t of f u n c t i o n a l requirements of a p r o j e c t and the a v a i l a b l e systems to meet each need. The phasing and systems shown i n these f i g u r e s have been i d e n t i f i e d through o b s e r v a t i o n of s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s and examination of v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems f o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , e s t i m a t i n g , and c o s t c o n t r o l . PHASE FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT FUNCTIONING SYSTEM PHASE FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT FUNCTIONING SYSTEM S u b s t r u c t u r e Earthwork 10 S u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e E n c l o s u r e E x t e r i o r C l a d d i n g 43 M e t a l Support System No s u b - l e v e l S t r u c t u r e S p a n d r e l W a l l System Foundation 11 Core r a f t / p a d / s t r i p f t g M e t a l S u p p o r t / S p a n d r e l System F i l e f o u n d a t i o n M e t a l S u p p o r t / G l a z i n g System S u b - l e v e l 12 S u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e G l a z i n g W a l l System No s u b - l e v e l S t r u c t u r e P r e c a s t P a n e l s System S l a b on Grade 13 U t i l i t i e s u/ SOG No u t i l i t i e s u/ SOG E x t e r i o r C l a d d i n g F i n i s 41 P a i n t e d / C o l o r e d Concrete M i s c e l l a n e o u s In Sublev 14 S p r i n k l e r s A c r y l i c S t u c c o S u b - l e v e l L i g h t i n g B r i c k Masonry Slop e P r o t e c t i o n 15 S h o t c r e t e A c r y l i c S t u c c o / B r i c k Masonry Shotcrete/.Anchors Window/Glazing System 42 Aluminum Windows/Patio Doors S h o t c r e t e / A n c h o r s / U n d e r p i n n i n g H - p i l e s / L a g g i n g F i n i s h i n g W a l l F i n i s h i n g s 50 P a i n t S i t e P r e p a r a t i o n 16 Ho e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e P a i n t / W a l l p a p e r Remove e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e F l o o r F i n i s h i n g s 51 c a r p e t w/ marble S u p e r s t r u c t u r e S t r u c t u r e : N o n - t y p i c a l 23 Number of N o n - t y p i c a l L e v e l s w/ ceramic T i l e Ho n o n - t y p i c a l l e v e l s w/ hardwood S t r u c t u r e : T y p i c a l 21 C o n v e n t i o n a l Concrete S l a b C e i l i n g F i n i s h i n g s . 52 S p r a y t e x Post-Tensioned Concrete S l a b P a i n t . S t e e l S t r u c t u r e B a t h / K i t c h e n Assembly 53 C o n v e n t i o n a l . U t i l . Penthouse/Roof S t 22 S t r u c . S t e e l , P i t c h Roof S u i t e Assmebly 54 C o n v e n t i o n a l Concrete Roof S l a b w/ pent abo w/ c l o s e t o r g a n i z e r s Concrete Roof S l a b w/ no pent w/ b l i n d s / d r a p e s C o n s t r u c t i o n Man/Mtl. 23 Han-hoist O n l y H a n d l i n g To'.;er Crane/Manhoist S i t e Work/Lobby Hard L a n d s c a p i n g 63 P l a n t e r s O n l y P l a n t e r s & Pa v e r s Rough-In P a r t i t i o n i n g 30 S t e e l Stud/No drops Driveways 61 Concrete On Suspended S l a b S t e e l Stud/Drop C o r r i d o r C e i l i Pavers S t e e l Stud, Dropped C e i l i n g s A s p h a l t Plumbing D i s t r i b u t i o n 31 Plumbing v/ Tub & Set U n i t Sho Signage 62 C o n v e n t i o n a l Plumbing w/ P r e f a b Tubs & Shov; S o f t L a n d s c a p i n g 63 Ho I r r i g a t i o n V e n t i l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n 32 Some Ducts i n S l a b W D r y e r s I n c l . I r r i g a t i o n Some Ducts i n S l a b Lobby 64 C o n v e n t i o n a l Ho d u c t s i n s l a b w/ marble Ko duct i n s l a b w/ D r y e r s v.7 p a i n t e d l o b b y v.'alls E l e c t r i c a l U t i l i t i e s 33 C a b l e v i s i o n / t e l e p h o n e w/ w a l l c o v e r i n g s C a b l e / T e l e . / E n t r y Phone w/ s p r a y t e x c e i l i n g Conveyor System 34 H y d r a u l i c E l e v a t o r Cable-run E l e v a t o r Waste D i s p o s a l 35 Garbage Chute System No D i s p o s a l i n F l o o r s E l e c t r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n 36 No c o n d u i t s i n S l a b FIGURE 4-. 8 -- F u n c t i o n a l Requirements Some C o n d u i t s i n S l a b ~- . and F u n c t i o n i n g Systems H e a t i n g System 37 Hot water h e a t i n g E l e c t r i c h e a t i n g Furnace h e a t i n g F i r e p l a c e 33 E l e c t r i c F i r e p l a c e Gas F i r e p l a c e No F i r e p l a c e 56 4.4 Knowledge Database S t r u c t u r e & i t s A t t r i b u t e s The a t t r i b u t e s of the knowledge database are d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The database cre a t e d from the JCSC knowledge base i s r e f e r e n c e d to provide examples of the a t t r i b u t e s i d e n t i f i e d . 4.4.1 Representing the Knowledge i n D a t a - l i k e Form The manner i n which the knowledge should be s t r u c t u r e d depends l a r g e l y on the way t h a t the scheduling i n f o r m a t i o n i s to be represented i n the database. For q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n such as the p r o d u c t i o n r a t e of an a c t i v i t y and the s i z e of a t y p i c a l work1 crew, the knowledge may be d e s c r i b e d n u m e r i c a l l y (eg. 100 square f o o t of d r y w a l l per man-hour given a crew s i z e of 2). For more q u a l i t a t i v e knowledge such as the reasoning behind when an a c t i v i t y should s t a r t on a p r o j e c t , IF-THEN r u l e s would be more ap p r o p r i a t e to rep r e s e n t the i n f o r m a t i o n , (see f i g u r e 4.9) QI1WTITATIVE KNOWLEDGE ( tumeric va lues) 'INSTALL DRYWALL' has product ion r a t e of '18B SF /hour ' average crew s i z e = 2 Han QUALITATIVE KNOWLEDGE c i f - t h e n r u l e s ) I f 'EXTERIOR CLADDING' i s 'ACRYLIC STUCCO' Then add a c t i v i t i e s 'ERECT SCAFFOLDING CSWINGSTAGE)' •APPLY BUILDING PAPER' 'APPLY CEMENT/SAND BASE' 'APPLY PRIME/FINISH COATS' FIGURE 4.9 — QMNTITuTWG vs. QUaLITuTIVC KNOULGDGG 57 4.4.2 S t r u c t u r i n g Scheduling Knowledge A f t e r examination of: ( i ) the types of i n f o r m a t i o n to be s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r the database; ( i i ) the timing and order r e g a r d i n g use of each data element; and ( i i i ) the way i n which the data i s best represented, the database s t r u c t u r e shown i n Fig u r e 4.10 has been conceived. To reduce the i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g task, the p r o j e c t i s i n i t i a l l y broken i n t o s i x major p r o j e c t phases. T h i s d e c i s i o n i n e f f e c t f o r c e s the c r e a t i o n of a database f o r each of the s i x phases of a p r o j e c t . I t i s important to minimize the s i z e of each i n f o r m a t i o n a l database because the KBES i n f e r e n c e engine searches through the e n t i r e database at each c y c l e j u s t to get one piece of i n f o r m a t i o n . Scheduling knowledge can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o one of two main c a t e g o r i e s , A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge and P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge. Simply speaking, the A c t i v i t y l e v e l of knowledge c o n s i s t of data which are sought f o r use with an a c t i v i t y a f t e r i t has been s e l e c t e d (eg. i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the time r e q u i r e d to execute the a c t i v i t y ) . P r o j e c t l e v e l knowledge c o n s i s t of the r u l e s used to s e l e c t and sequence a c t i v i t i e s i n a network pl a n . From these two major c a t e g o r i e s , more sub-groups can be developed to s t i l l b e t t e r s t r u c t u r e the database, as shown i n F i g u r e 4.10. The o b j e c t i v e i s to d e f i n e d i s t i n c t knowledge groupings so t h a t minimum e f f o r t i s spent i n s t o r i n g and r e t r i e v i n g s p e c i f i c 1 58 Schedul ing Knowledge Hork Breakdown St ructure SUBSTRUCTURE SUPERSTRUCTURE ROUGH-IN ENCLOSURE FINISHING SITEW0R1 Projact Specific Knovriad a^ * Rules f o r S e l e c t i n g Funct ion ing Systens * Rules f o r L i n k i n g Systens to P r o j e c t Network * Notes on Locat ion Sequencing of R e p e t i t i v e Type Works Activity Spocific Knododga * System's In ternal Predecessors * P r o d u c t i v i t y In forna t ion * R e s p o n s i b i l i t y In fornat ion * R e p e t i t i v e Type of A o t i v i t y Procurenent I tens fi Tasks The sane set of 8 databases e x i s t f o r each phase of the p r o j e c t . PIGURG 4.18 — Knowledge Database Structure 59 k n o w l e d g e i t e m s . W i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e e n c o d e d i n s m a l l e r d i v i s i o n s , t h e c o n t r o l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h m a n i p u l a t e s t h e k n o w l e d g e b a s e t o c r e a t e a s c h e d u l e c a n be more e f f i c i e n t . So f a r , a t t e n t i o n h a s f o c u s e d on t h e b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d t o c o m p u t e a p r e l i m i n a r y n e t w o r k s c h e d u l e . O t h e r k n o w l e d g e r e q u i r e d t o r e f i n e t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s c h e d u l e i n t o a w o r k i n g s c h e d u l e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t t h e e n d o f s e c t i o n 4.6. 60 4.4.3 Standardized Knowledge A t t r i b u t e s The two main c a t e g o r i e s of knowledge, p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c and a c t i v i t y s p e c i f i c knowledge, are expanded upon i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . The a t t r i b u t e s of the knowledge which are to be represented i n the knowledge database are int r o d u c e d and ex p l a i n e d . 4.4.3.1 P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge c o n s i s t of r u l e s which determine which a c t i v i t i e s are needed i n the schedule, when and where these a c t i v i t i e s should be executed, and s p e c i a l weather and p r o j e c t c o n d i t i o n s which may f u r t h e r d i c t a t e the sequencing of work. The s i m u l a t i o n of the sc h e d u l i n g thought process d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e s 4.4 and 4.6 c l e a r l y showed the sequence when such knowledge i s r e q u i r e d during a planni n g and s c h e d u l i n g s e s s i o n . 4.4.3.1.1 Types of Information Sought The types of p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r the s c h e d u l i n g process can be i s o l a t e d by examining the s i m u l a t i o n of the thought process of F i g u r e 4.5. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of such i n f o r m a t i o n . 1) Rules f o r s e l e c t i n g f u n c t i o n a l systems (& a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ) 2) Rules f o r l i n k i n g f u n c t i o n a l chain of a c t i v i t i e s i n t o the o v e r a l l p r o j e c t network. 3) Rules f o r s e l e c t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n s where the a c t i v i t i e s w i l l repeat. 4.4.3.1.2 Rules f o r S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g Systems A master l i s t of f u n c t i o n i n g systems i s assumed to e x i s t from which a c t i v i t i e s can be chosen. Fi g u r e 4.8 shows the complete l i s t of f u n c t i o n a l requirements f o r each of the s i x phases of the t y p i c a l h i g h - r i s e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t . The s e l e c t i o n of these a c t i v i t i e s f o r use i n a schedule i s , however, not done a c t i v i t y by a c t i v i t y . Instead, each system choice has a set or c h a i n of a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with i t . S p e c i f y i n g a system a l t e r n a t i v e r e s u l t s i n the i n s e r t i o n of a chain of a c t i v i t i e s i n t o the schedule. T h i s approach helps to minimize the number of r u l e s needed to s e l e c t a l l the r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t i e s f o r a p r o j e c t . For each phase of the p r o j e c t , the system s p e c i f i e d f o r each f u n c t i o n a l requirement i s requested. Rules f o r i n s e r t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s i n t o the schedule can then be t r i e d . Below i s an example of how the r u l e s would appear. Note t h a t the numbers i n parentheses corresponds to a standard coding system which r e f l e c t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a c t i v i t y number and l o c a t i o n (see s e c t i o n 4.5.3). 62 f o r PROJECT PHASE - ENCLOSURE, and FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT = EXTERIOR CLADDING FINISH, RULES FOR SELECTING CHAIN OF SYSTEM ACTIVITIES i f EXTERIOR CLADDING FINISH = ACRYLIC STUCCO, then add the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s to p r o j e c t l i s t : ERECT SCAFFOLDING/SWINGSTAGE (015 525 p r j ) VAPOR BARRIER/MESH/CONTROL JOINTS (900 350 000) CEMENT/SAND SCRATCH COAT (900 330 000) CEMENT/SAND SECOND COAT (900 333 000) ACRYLIC STUCCO FINISH (900 335 000) SEAL/CAULK STUCCO JOINTS (900 340 000) REMOVE SCAFFOLDING/SWINGSTAGE (015 526 p r j ) i f EXTERIOR CLADDING FINISH = BRICK MASONRY then add the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s to p r o j e c t l i s t : IRON ANGLES IN CONCRETE SLAB (G 185 000) ERECT SCAFFOLDING (015 525 p r j ) INSTALL VAPOR BARRIER (425 250 000) INSTALL EXTERIOR BRICK (425 210 000) SEAL/CAULK BRICK JOINTS (425 145 000) REMOVE SCAFFOLDING (015 526 p r j ) The number of a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with each f u n c t i o n i n g system v a r i e s widely depending on the p h y s i c a l assembly of the system. Apart from the major trades of the p r o j e c t , formwork, mechanical, e l e c t r i c a l , and d r y w a l l i n g t r a d e s , most f u n c t i o n i n g systems are a s s o c i a t e d with only one subtrade. As p a r t of t h i s t h e s i s , an a n a l y s i s of the systems a s s o c i a t e d with each p r o j e c t phase has been conducted. The r e s u l t s are compiled i n Appendix A. They were d e r i v e d from cumulative experience gained on e i g h t h i g h - r i s e p r o j e c t s . 63 4.4.3.1.3 Rules f o r L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g Systems i n t o the  P r o j e c t Network. Once the f u n c t i o n i n g systems and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d chains of a c t i v i t i e s have been s e l e c t e d , d e c i s i o n s as to where each system should be i n s e r t e d i n the p r o j e c t network must be made. These r u l e s are complicated because i n s e r t i o n of the chain i n t o the network may not be j u s t through connection to the f i r s t and the l a s t a c t i v i t y i n the chain. Precedence r e l a t i o n s h i p s with i n t e r m e d i a t e a c t i v i t i e s may be r e q u i r e d . For example, f i g u r e 4.11 d e p i c t s the i n s e r t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with e x t e r i o r brickwork. The l i n k i n g of the f u n c t i o n i n g system i n t o the p r o j e c t network takes place at more than one l o c a t i o n . F i r s t , the a c t i v i t y 'ANGLE IRONS IN CONCRETE SLAB' i s l i n k e d to the a c t i v i t y 'PLACE/FINISH TYPICAL SLAB' of the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e phase to provide the s t r u c t u r a l element on which the brickwork s i t s . Then, the a c t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n and the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the b r i c k w a l l s i s l i n k e d to s t a r t a f t e r the 'EXTERIOR SHEATHING' i s completed. These r u l e s would appear as f o l l o w s i n the database: 64 PROJECT NETUJOPK E x t e r i o r Stee l Stud Window L i n e r s Sheath E x t e r i o r H a l l s Hindow/Patio Doors P l a c e / F i n i s h T y p i c a l Slab I n t e r i o r Stee l Stud Hastewater R i s e r s E l e c t r i c a l R i s e r / P a n e l s INSERTION Of CLADDING SYSTEM CHOICES INTO PROJGCT NETWORK I Sheath E x t e r i o r > H a l l s Brick Cladding E r e c t S c a f f o l d i n g Vapor B a r r i e r CTyvek) I n s t a l l B r i c k Lr • ^ H i n d o w / P a t i o I I I Doors r Sheath E x t e r i o r •—I _ H i ! L i _ J L Acrylic SKJOOO IHindow/Patio1 | Doors I E r e c t S c a f f o l d i n g H i r e Hesh Paper Contro l Joint Sand/Cenent CScratch) Coat Apply A c r y l i c F i n i s h s FIGURE 4-11 Linklnj FUncfionino* Systems To The Project- Network 65 f o r PROJECT PHASE = ENCLOSURE, and FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT = EXTERIOR CLADDING FINISH i f EXTERIOR CLADDING FINISH = ACRYLIC STUCCO then ERECT SCAFF0LDING/SWINGSTAGE (015 525 p r j ) has p r e d e c e s s o r ( s ) SHEATH EXTERIOR WALLS & CEMENT/SAND SCRATCH COAT (900 330 000) has p r e d e c e s s o r ( s ) INSTALL ALUMINUM WINDOWS (850 520 000) FS=0, & INSTALL PATIO DOORS (850 525 000) FS=0. i f EXTERIOR CLADDING FINISH = BRICK MASONRY then IRON ANGLES IN CONCRETE SLAB EDGES (G 185 000) has p r e d e c e s s o r ( s ) REINFORCE TYPICAL FLOOR (330 150 000) SS=0 & ERECT SCAFFOLDING/SWINGSTAGE (015 525 p r j ) has p r e d e c e s s o r ( s ) SHEATH EXTERIOR WALLS (900 240 000) FS=0. APPENDIX 'B' pr o v i d e s the knowledge r e l a t e d to t h i s category f o r a l l systems and phases. Again, t h i s knowledge has been documented as p a r t of t h i s t h e s i s and i s d e r i v e d from the author's experience on s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s and d i s c u s s i o n s with a number of experienced c o n s t r u c t i o n personnel. 66 4.4.3.1.4 Rules Which Determine The Appropriate L o c a t i o n  Sequencing The sequencing of r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s from f l o o r to f l o o r normally f o l l o w s the order t h a t the f l o o r space f i r s t becomes a v a i l a b l e f o r the t r a d e , from the bottom most f l o o r to the roof. T h i s order i s mandatory f o r a c t i v i t i e s c l a s s i f i e d i n the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e phase of the p r o j e c t s i n c e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s h e l l of the b u i l d i n g must f o l l o w such an order. However, rough-in and f i n i s h i n g phase work o f t e n do not f o l l o w t h i s order due to c o n d i t i o n s on the s i t e which fo r c e c e r t a i n p r o j e c t l o c a t i o n s to be worked f i r s t i n p r e ference to o t h e r s . The f o l l o w i n g are some of the more common f a c t o r s which can i n f l u e n c e the sequencing of such r e p e t i t i v e works. - c o n s t r u c t i o n of a showsuite f l o o r i n the b u i l d i n g - use of c e r t a i n areas f o r storage of m a t e r i a l s - use of c e r t a i n areas f o r equipment such as the tower crane and the man-hoist - delays i n the d e l i v e r y of m a t e r i a l s p e c i f i c to c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s of the b u i l d i n g - f a i l u r e of work i n c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s to pass i n s p e c t i o n s or owners approval so t h a t the work f o l l o w i n g must be re-sequenced For s e v e r a l of the f i n i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the C l o s i n g - i n Phase of the p r o j e c t , the use of f l o o r to f l o o r sequencing i s not a p p r o p r i a t e to d e s c r i b e the manner i n which the 6 7 a c t u a l work i s executed. For example, the a p p l i c a t i o n of stucco and o u t s u l a t i o n i s t y p i c a l l y a p p l i e d a s e c t i o n or a face at a time to minimize the r e n t a l of s c a f f o l d i n g equipment. For these a c t i v i t i e s , d i s t i n c t l o c a t i o n s must be named i n REPCON to t r a c k the course of c o n s t r u c t i o n . The f a c t o r s which can a l t e r the l o c a t i o n sequencing of r e p e t i t i v e type work are s e v e r a l and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the order of work can r e s u l t i n complicated sequencing when more than one f a c t o r i s present. As a r e s u l t , the a c q u i r e d knowledge i s represented i n t o the database i n the form of lengthy e x p l a n a t i o n s r a t h e r than r u l e s . 'Notes on L o c a t i o n Sequencing of R e p e t i t i v e Type Works' i s the l o c a t i o n where such knowledge i s s t o r e d . An example of the knowledge st o r e d f o r a c r y l i c stucco i s as f o l l o w s : A c r y l i c Stucco: Stucco i s g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d s e v e r a l (2-4) f l o o r s at a time, before s h i f t i n g to another face of the b u i l d i n g , s i n c e the wood walk planks p l a c e d i n between the s c a f f o l d i n g are c o n v e n i e n t l y r a i s e d i n such a manner. Such a sequence i s repeated u n t i l the top of the s c a f f o l d i n g s i s reached. T y p i c a l l y , s c a f f o l d i n g s i s e r e c t e d i n increments of 5 f l o o r i n t e r v a l s (or what ever h e i g h t the crew can f i n i s h i n a c e r t a i n time p e r i o d , i e ) 1 or 2 weeks, so as to minimize r e n t a l c o s t and yet not impede the smooth progress of work. For the sake of s c h e d u l i n g , i t i s adequate to sequence the work as though i t progresses from f l o o r to f l o o r from the lowest l e v e l up. More than one f l o o r would l i k e l y be a c t i v e at any one time though due to t h e i r s h i f t i n g from face to face of the b u i l d i n g . 68 An example of the f l o o r sequences used at Langara Gardens (case study i n Chapter 3) i s shown below. Main f i r to Roof - i e ) P l a c e / F i n i s h T y p i c a l F l o o r j Parkade to Lower Penthouse - i e ) Masonry Around j E l e v a t o r E n t r i e s j 3rd to 16, then 2nd, then Main F l o o r j - i e ) Plumbing S u i t e Rough-in j 2nd to Roof, then Main - i e ) Clean-up & D e f i c i e n c i e s j L o c a t i o n f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s can be found i n APPENDIX 'B'. 4.4.3.2 A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , the a t t r i b u t e s unique to each a c t i v i t y of the schedule, A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge, are d e s c r i b e d . 4.4.3.2.1 Types of Information Sought A c t i v i t y s p e c i f i c knowledge c o n s i s t of: 1) ' U n c o n d i t i o n a l P r e decessor(s) and Log i c R e l a t i o n s h i p s with a c t i v i t i e s i n the same f u n c t i o n a l system. 2) P r o d u c t i v i t y Information. 3) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Information 4) Procurement Items and Sequences. 5) R e p e t i t i v e A c t i v i t y Type. I t i s a f u n c t i o n of the work breakdown s t r u c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r use i n the s c h e d u l i n g e f f o r t . I f the breakdown of the workscope i s changed, f o r example, i f the p r o j e c t i s to be scoped at e i t h e r a broader or at a more d e t a i l e d l e v e l , then the accompanying a c t i v i t y s p e c i f i c knowledge data must be 69 modified. The work breakdown s t r u c t u r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s was e s t a b l i s h e d through i t s use on past h i g h - r i s e r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s . I t i s cons i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e f o r t r a c k i n g the progress of t h i s p r o j e c t type while keeping the resources r e q u i r e d to maintain and update the schedule at a reasonable l e v e l . 4.4.3.2.2 U n c o n d i t i o n a l Predecessors and Lo g i c  R e l a t i o n s h i p s The predecessor a c t i v i t i e s r e f e r r e d to as u n c o n d i t i o n a l i n t h i s s e c t i o n are always predecessors independent of other c o n d i t i o n s of the p r o j e c t . For example, the a c t i v i t y 'TAPE & FILL DRYWALL' must be preceded by the a c t i v i t y 'INSTALL GYPSUM WALL BOARDS' r e g a r d l e s s of whether or not the r e s u l t i n g w a l l i s to be pa i n t e d or wallpapered. An example of a c o n d i t i o n a l predecessor i s 'SPRAYTEX CEILINGS' as the predecessor of 'INSTALL GYPSUM DRYWALL' i f and only i f ' c e i l i n g s f i n i s h = a c r y l i c spraytex'. In other words, the prede c e s s o r ( s ) s t o r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n are those w i t h i n a F u n c t i o n i n g System which are not s u s c e p t i b l e to change due to outside p r o j e c t c o n d i t i o n s . Once t h i s f u n c t i o n i n g system i s chosen to meet a f u n c t i o n a l requirement of the p r o j e c t , the accompanying l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s and predecessor r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s s e l e c t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y . For example, the a c t i v i t i e s added to the p r o j e c t a c t i v i t y l i s t when the e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g f i n i s h of a c r y l i c stucco i s chosen are as f o l l o w s : 70 j A c r y l i c Stucco A c t i v i t i e s & I n t e r n a l L o g i c s j | ERECT SCAFFOLDING/SWINGSTAGE (015 525 p r j ) | | VAPOR BARRIER/MESH/CONTROL JOINTS ( 900 350 000) j | CEMENT/SAND SCRATCH COAT (900 330 000) | | CEMENT/SAND SECOND COAT ( 900 333 000) j j ACRYLIC STUCCO FINISH (900 335 000) j 1 SEAL/CAULK STUCCO JOINTS ( 900 340 000) | | REMOVE SCAFFOLDING/SWINGSTAGE (015 526 p r j ) | | (900 350 000) has predecessor (015 525 p r j ) FS = 0 | | (900 330 000) has predecessor (900 350 000) FS = 0 | j (900 333 000) has predecessor ( 900 330 000) FS = 0 j | (900 335 000) has predecessor (900 333 000 ) FS = 0 j j (900 340 000) has predecessor (015 526 000) FS = 0 | Combining the a c t i v i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h i s s e c t i o n with the r u l e s f o r l i n k i n g f u n c t i o n i n g systems to p r o j e c t networks d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 4.4.3.1.3 prov i d e s the l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s needed to t o t a l l y sequence the work i n v o l v e d . APPENDIX 'B', developed as p a r t of t h i s t h e s i s , c o n t a i n s a set of the f u n c t i o n a l requirements, the fu n c t i o n i n g ' s y s t e m s , the accompanying l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s and the compiled u n c o n d i t i o n a l predecessors f o r a t o t a l p r o j e c t . 71 4.4.3.2.3 Pr o d u c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n P r o d u c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n i s used to estimate the time t h a t i t takes to perform an a c t i v i t y . For r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , a p r o d u c t i o n r a t e i s r e q u i r e d f o r each l o c a t i o n worked, even though such a rate i s t y p i c a l l y constant f o r the a c t i v i t y . The d u r a t i o n of an a c t i v i t y i s i n f l u e n c e d by many p r o j e c t f a c t o r s . These i n c l u d e p r o j e c t s i z e , the time of year t h a t the work i s executed, the q u a l i t y of the trade c o n t r a c t o r , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of tradesmen i n the market, and the rate of progress of the tra d e s working before and a f t e r the t r a d e . The i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d from the previous p r o j e c t s worked on by the author d i d not permit an i n depth d e r i v a t i o n of p r o d u c t i v i t y r a t e s which can be u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i e d to new p r o j e c t s of s i m i l a r type. C a r e f u l r e c o r d i n g of work q u a n t i t i e s ( t y p i c a l l y not done), the manpower used, and the time d u r a t i o n of each work package i s needed to produce such r a t e s . To date, due to l i m i t e d r e s o urces, only a c t i v i t y d u r a t i o n s have been recorded along with broad q u a l i t a t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s of the q u a n t i t y and the manpower used. (Even these d u r a t i o n s have been "guesstimated" at times.) Data such as ' i t took 4 days per f l o o r to perform the mechanical rough-in at Langara Gardens' cannot be used to d e r i v e general p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s . However, they can be used to help estimate d u r a t i o n s of the same a c t i v i t y by comparing r e l a t i v e p r o j e c t s i z e s . Despite t h i s lack of data, i t i s important to document the f a c t o r s which a f f e c t both p r o d u c t i v i t y and p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s . They i n c l u d e p r o j e c t a t t r i b u t e s which determine work crew s i z e s and work q u a n t i t i e s most s u i t a b l e f o r f o r e c a s t i n g a c t i v i t y d u r a t i o n . Some of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s documented i n the knowledge base i n APPENDIX 'B'. An example d e s c r i p t i o n of some of the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s are given below. SHEATH EXTERIOR WALLS - Sheathing i n v o l v e s the hanging of e x t e r i o r d r y w a l l on the o u t s i d e face of the e x t e r i o r s t e e l studding. The work can be done with or without s c a f f o l d i n g . When s c a f f o l d i n g i s not used, the c o n t r a c t o r must budget f o r s a f e t y c a b l e s f o r the workers and a longer time to i n s t a l l a sheet of d r y w a l l . The d u r a t i o n per f l o o r depends on the number of men i n the crew, on whether s c a f f o l d s are used, on the t o t a l area of sheathing, and on how fragmented the stud w a l l s are d i s t r i b u t e d over the b u i l d i n g face. ACRYLIC STUCCO FINISH - a p p l i c a t i o n of the a c r y l i c c o a t i n g onto a b u i l t up cement/sand base. The time r e q u i r e d depends on p r e c i p i t a t i o n and temperature although adverse weather may be m i t i g a t e d by a t a r p on the e x t e r i o r face of the b u i l d i n g . The d u r a t i o n of the a c t i v i t y depends on the s u r f a c e area and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these areas on the b u i l d i n g ' s facades. 73 4.4.3.2.4 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y A l l o c a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n s to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the trade c o n t r a c t o r ( s ) normally c o n t r a c t e d to perform the work d e s c r i b e d by the a c t i v i t y . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s encoded i n t o the a c t i v i t y coding number to make s o r t i n g of a c t i v i t i e s e f f i c i e n t f o r sc h e d u l i n g , accounting and general o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Each trade c o n t r a c t o r has a unique r e s p o n s i b i l i t y code assigned to him. In the knowledge base, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y code i n f o r m a t i o n would appear as f o l l o w s . A c t i v i t y = S i t e Measurement of Window Openings Measurement i s done by the window/patio door manufacturer who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r measurement, f a b r i c a t i o n , and d e l i v e r y of the m a t e r i a l only. I n s t a l l a t i o n and c a u l k i n g i s t y p i c a l l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a separate c o n t r a c t o r . '855' i s assigned to the manufacturer while '850' i s assigned to the i n s t a l l a t i o n c o n t r a c t o r . 4.4.3.2.5 Procurement Items and Sequences For the purposes of e x p e d i t i n g the schedule and to minimize the e f f e c t s of l a t e m a t e r i a l and equipment d e l i v e r i e s on the schedule, i t was emphasized i n Chapter 2 t h a t the t r a c k i n g of procurement items has been s t r e s s e d at JCSC. For the company database, items which t y p i c a l l y need procurement a t t e n t i o n , along with the accompanying task s e q u e n c e s and d u r a t i o n s , must be i d e n t i f i e d . Such i t e m s a r e u n i q u e t o e a c h s c h e d u l e d a c t i v i t y . W h i l e i t i s r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o i d e n t i f y t h e i t e m s most l i k e l y t o hamper the s c h e d u l e , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the. t a s k s e q u e n c e s and a c c o m p a n y i n g d u r a t i o n s i s d i f f i c u l t and needs more work. P r o c u r e m e n t i t e m s i d e n t i f i e d t o d a t e a r e summarized i n A p p e n d i x B a l o n g w i t h t h e t a s k s w h i c h s h o u l d be u s e d t o t r a c k t h e p r o c u r e m e n t p r o c e s s . The t a s k s u s e d a r e s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o c u r e m e n t t a s k s from REPCON's p r o c u r e m e n t s y s t e m and a r e u s e d i n t h e knowledge d a t a b a s e u n d e r the f o l l o w i n g n u m b e ring s y s t e m . 1 1 = = S p e c i f i c a t i o n From Owner ( r e g a r d i n g t h e s c o p e o f j work) j 1 2 = = C a l l s f o r Q u otes ( t e n d e r i n g by c o n t r a c t o r ) j 1 3 = = S u p p l y Award ( n e g o t i a t i o n and award o f s u b c o n t r a c t s j t o t r a d e c o n t r a c t o r s o r s u p p l i e r s ) j 1 4 = Shop D r a w i n g P r e p a r a t i o n ( p r e p a r a t i o n o f documents j by t h e c o n s u l t a n t , j s u p p l i e r , o r t r a d e ) j 1 5 = = Shop D r a w i n g Review & R e v i s i o n ( t y p i c a l l y r e v i e w by j g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r j o r c o n s u l t a n t s ) j 1 5 = = Owner's (sample) A p p r o v a l ( a p p r o v a l by c o n s u l t a n t | o r owner o f sample j p r o d u c t s from j c o n t r a c t o r ) j 1 7 = = F a b r i c a t i o n ( m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f t h e p r o d u c t s t o be j u s e d on t h e p r o j e c t ) | 75 8 = Tr a n s p o r t & D e l i v e r y (time r e q u i r e to ship products to the s i t e ) 9 = Work to be Arranged by General C o n t r a c t o r (not i n REPCON l i s t ) An example of a procurement sequence a s s o c i a t e d with the a c t i v i t y "ACRYLIC STUCCO FINISH" i s as f o l l o w s : | A c t i v i t y : ACRYLIC STUCCO FINISH | j Procurement Item : STUCCO FINISH COLOR & TEXTURE | | TASKS: 1,6 | The data shows t h a t before the a c t i v i t y " a c r y l i c stucco f i n i s h " can s t a r t on the p r o j e c t , procurement item "stucco f i n i s h c o l o r & t e x t u r e " must be s p e c i f i e d by the owner and a sample from the c o n t r a c t o r approved by the owner. 4.4.3.2.6 R e p e t i t i v e A c t i v i t y Type REPCON's unique f e a t u r e of r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e s has meant t h a t the modelling of a c t u a l work c o n d i t i o n s can be made more r e a l i s t i c . REPCON t r e a t s three types of r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y . A CONTINUOUS r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y assumes t h a t the a c t i v i t y w i l l only begin when the crew can work c o n t i n u o u s l y through a l l the l o c a t i o n s of the b u i l d i n g without i n t e r r u p t i o n . Subtrades who are 76 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r only one task on the p r o j e c t are u s u a l l y scheduled i n such a manner so th a t the crew does not run out of work, have to leave and r e t u r n to complete i t . An ORDERED r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y assumes t h a t an a c t i v i t y can s t a r t at a l o c a t i o n as soon as the predecessor a c t i v i t i e s at th a t l o c a t i o n are s a t i s f i e d , i n c l u d i n g s i m i l a r work at the previous l o c a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , such an a c t i v i t y may have i n t e r r u p t i o n p e r i o d s between the f i n i s h at one l o c a t i o n and the s t a r t of work at the next l o c a t i o n . Subtrades who have more than one task on s i t e can be scheduled i n such a manner as the crew can be arranged to s h i f t between v a r i o u s task while remaining on the s i t e . F i n a l l y , SHADOW a c t i v i t i e s schedules a crew to s t a r t at a l o c a t i o n as soon as the predecessor a c t i v i t i e s at th a t l o c a t i o n are s a t i s f i e d r e g a r d l e s s of whether the same work at previous l o c a t i o n s i s completed. An a c t i v i t y such as 'TAPE & FILL DRYWALL' i s a good sample of a shadow a c t i v i t y as a f l o o r must go through s e v e r a l passes of work before i t i s completed by a crew which c y c l e s between f l o o r s . R e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are c l a s s i f i e d i n Appendix "B" as to t h e i r most a p p r o p r i a t e d e s i g n a t i o n : ordered, continuous, shadow. 77 4.5 Standardized A c t i v i t y Coding System f o r Scheduling Development of a s t a n d a r d i z e d c h a r t of accounts or st a n d a r d i z e d a c t i v i t y coding system i s e s s e n t i a l to permit the storage and r e t r i e v a l of a c t i v i t y data so t h a t i t can be t r a n s f e r r e d from one p r o j e c t to the next. Such s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i s i n f a c t the cornerstone whereby the knowledge gained from p r o j e c t to p r o j e c t can e f f e c t i v e l y be handled by a knowledge-based expert system. 4.5.1 Conceptual Requirements In order to determine the c o n s t r a i n t s and f e a t u r e s r e q u i r e d f o r a coding system, i t s purpose or use must be determined. A good comprehensive coding system should be common to and used f o r each management f u n c t i o n of a c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t to f a c i l i t a t e communication re g a r d i n g job progress amongst the departments of the company and members of the c o n s t r u c t i o n team. Coding numbers should not be lengthy and should convey the q u a l i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n accompanying the a c t i v i t y name or d e s c r i p t i o n . The primary purpose of a coding system i s to allow the user to promptly s o r t and search f o r a c t i v i t i e s by means of the coding number. Our f i r s t task, t h e r e f o r e , i s to i d e n t i f y the most common s e a r c h i n g and s o r t i n g c r i t e r i a used i n s c h e d u l i n g . From experience, the a b i l i t y to s o r t a c t i v i t i e s by trade c o n t r a c t o r and by the l o c a t i o n on s i t e are two of the most f r e q u e n t l y used s o r t i n g c r i t e r i a . The other common 78 c r i t e r i o n i s to s o r t by the scheduled s t a r t date of a c t i v i t i e s . Since scheduled s t a r t dates of a c t i v i t i e s are c a l c u l a t e d w i t h i n the schedule, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and l o c a t i o n are the only pre-determinable f a c t o r s which should be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the coding number. 4.5.2 P r a c t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s As d e s c r i b e d i n e a r l i e r chapters, the e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s of JCSC, i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i n g , c o s t accounting and f i l i n g systems are a l l d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the f o r m u l a t i o n of a s t a n d a r d i z e d coding system f o r s c h e d u l i n g . Of immediate concern are the p r a c t i c e s of the c o s t accounting department because of the need f o r cash-flow p r o j e c t i o n s using the s c h e d u l i n g system. The accounting system's R e s i Master Code L i s t was d e r i v e d over 15 years ago by a pre v i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n company and brought over by the p r i n c i p a l of the f i r m . The major emphasis of Resi was on the general c o n t r a c t o r ' s work with l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n given to the work of trade c o n t r a c t o r s . Given t h a t the t y p i c a l general b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r s u b c o n t r a c t s out 80 to 95% of the value of a p r o j e c t , i t i s now c r i t i c a l to modify the coding system to b e t t e r scope the s u b c o n t r a c t o r ' s work. As a r e s u l t , JCSC has r e c e n t l y formulated a new accounting coding system which more c l o s e l y adheres to present i n d u s t r y standards and addresses subcontracted work b e t t e r (see f i g u r e 4.12). The 79 5 3 • a i = I s = 5 i = 1 = it.i I I I I I II .II : = = = Us T. = = III i llilSlI g i IIIIIII i IIIIHl = 2 = = = - - : : : : : : -l i n n i i i i i i i i m i l l • m i n = = = ^ ~ =; ilSn i i l l l S l § l l i g l t l l l i l i i i i l l l l l l l l l ; t l ! l i l l l l l l ! . S l i i i i i i p i i i i l P i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i l i i i i i i i e i i i P ! l 5 l if!s»ii!yiiifc Lb •.. l l l i l l i t i l i l i i l i l l S l l l S i i i l l I S I i i i i i i l i i i i i i i I I 11 M -m i.m.'i^ , PIP \Mrar-:-*AimiMi mm i lliililllllllilliilliiii : = j=r = = = =j = = p e m y i m i m m : e i i m : i I s ;5 II I I I I - r r ep . * i i i f i l U S f i i i in i f J i i i i IM I L . i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i s i f i n = . = = = = =,= = = = == = = = = = = = = r = = 3 = =s=r = = = = r s = - == = ; = =' =i : mmmummmmummmmm^ - . ========-•===================== = = = = = . = = = = = = = IS. L I QO c >. •H GO c c H O o o o o < QO c u tH </) CJ 10 E •"3 B CD H 4-> s 4-> cn 0) to >• S: U M CM TH 3-a> QO •H Cu 80 Masterformat Coding System and the B r i t i s h Columbia C o n s t r u c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ' s coding system are the b a s e l i n e f o r t h i s new d e t a i l e d c h a r t of accounts. Another major c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r a new coding system are the c o n s t r a i n t s stemming from the e x i s t i n g computerized sc h e d u l i n g system. REPCON's c u r r e n t coding s t r u c t u r e i n c o r p o r a t e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . The 6 - d i g i t coding system i s t h e r e f o r e 'subtrade' o r i e n t e d and allows f o r a maximum of 99 subtrades, 99 a c t i v i t i e s per trade and 99 l o c a t i o n s where these a c t i v i t i e s can occur. T h i s format i s r i g i d i n the program and r e s t r i c t s a new coding system from u t i l i z i n g the Masterformat and the B.C. C o n s t r u c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n Systems, which are t y p i c a l l y ' m a t e r i a l ' or 'systems' o r i e n t e d and which u t i l i z e 3 - d i g i t s f o r d e s c r i b i n g the work, independent of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and l o c a t i o n . 4.5.3 Proposed Coding System ( 9 - D i g i t ) A 9 - d i g i t coding system was conceived f o r s t a n d a r d i z i n g the a c t i v i t i e s used f o r s c h e d u l i n g . A good coding system must: * be f l e x i b l e * be expandable * be easy to l e a r n * be able to a l l o c a t e c o s t s * be able to cover a l l work * be simple to e x t r a c t i n f o r m a t i o n with * c o n t a i n a c t i v i t y l o c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n * c o n t a i n a c t i v i t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n * be r e c o g n i z a b l e by f i e l d personnel and tr a d e s . 81 The proposed system uses a 9 - d i g i t coding number (see f i g u r e 4.13} and allows the marriage of the s t a n d a r d i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n of the Masterformat system with the t e c h n i c a l format of REPCON. The f i r s t three . d i g i t s are designated f o r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y code of the subtrade. The middle three d i g i t s are used to represent the type of work performed by the trade. F i n a l l y , the l a s t three d i g i t s are used f o r s p e c i f y i n g the l o c a t i o n where the a c t i v i t y takes p l a c e . T h i s coding s t r u c t u r e i s a copy of the REPCON format but uses three d i g i t s per s e c t i o n compared to REPCON's two. Th i s m o d i f i c a t i o n of the coding system would permit, with minor adjustments, the p o r t i n g over of Masterformat's coding system which uses three d i g i t s to d e s c r i b e the work performed. At the same time, the requirement t h a t the coding system be f a m i l i a r to the f i e l d personnel i s met through the use of the Masterformat system. This 9 - d i g i t coding system has been used i n Appendix A and B f o r b u i l d i n g the knowledge base. A B C A = R e s p o n s i b i l i t y = des ignates the t y p i c a l p e r f o m e r of the a c t i v i t y . = u t i l i z e s the s tandardized coding of Master fornat fo r the 1st two d i g i t s whi le the 3rd d i g i t i s s tandardized by the code author to fu r the r break down the resource or ien ted Master fornat systen to represent a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y cod ing . B = Task NuHber = sane as the M a s t e r f o r n a t ' s narrowscope des igna t ion with nuHbers in between not s p e c i f i e d by Master fornat s tandardized by the author of the code to Meet h i s own requirements. C = Loca t ion = the locat ionCs) where a c t i v i t i e s to take p l a c e . fIGURC 4.13 — 9-Digir Codiryj System 82 4.6 Overview of the Features and Use of the Expert System In t h i s s e c t i o n , the manner i n which the i n f e r e n c e engine would manipulate knowledge from the e s t a b l i s h e d data s t r u c t u r e i s demonstrated by way of, an example. The example c o n s i s t s of a 9-step " s e s s i o n " with the proposed expert system. Step 1 The Expert system requests context i n f o r m a t i o n on the p r o j e c t being scheduled. ie) How many n o n - t y p i c a l r e s i d e n t i a l f l o o r s are there i n the b u i l d i n g and at what l e v e l do they begin? ans.) 3, 1 How many t y p i c a l r e s i d e n t i a l ' I n s t a l l V e n t i l a t i o n Ducts i n C o r r i d o r f l o o r s are there i n the b u i l d i n g and at what l e v e l do they begin? ans.) 14, 4 How many s u i t e s per t y p i c a l f l o o r ? ans.) 1 What i s the expected date f o r p r o j e c t s t a r t ? (mmddyy) ans.) 080388 How many working days per week? ans.) 5 Step 2 Tre a t each of the s i x phases of a p r o j e c t i n t u r n . For t h i s example, the ROUGH-IN phase of the p r o j e c t i s addressed. Step 3 Given a phase, work through each of the s t a n d a r d i z e d ' f u n c t i o n a l requirements' of the phase. The s e l e c t i o n of one system f o r each requirement ensures t h a t a l l aspects of the p r o j e c t are addressed. The requirements and the p o s s i b l e systems to be s e l e c t e d f o r each requirement f o r the ROUGH-IN phase are as f o l l o w s ( e x t r a c t e d from f i g u r e 4.10): Phase F u n c t i o n a l  Requirement F u n c t i o n i n g  System ROUGH-IN I n t e r i o r P a r t i t i o n i n g S t e e l stud p a r t i t i o n w/ no drops except i n bath S t e e l stud p a r t i t i o n w/ drops i n c o r r i d o r s & bath S t e e l stud p a r t i t i o n w/ drop c e i l i n g i n c o r r i d o r and i n s u i t e s Plumbing D i s t r i b u t i o n Plumbing without i n s u l a t i o n of pipes Plumbing with i n s u l a t i o n of pipes V e n t i l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n A l l ducts embedded i n s t r u c t u r a l s l a b Only d r y e r / f a n ducts embedded i n s l a b No ducts embedded i n sl a b E l e c t r i c a l Related U t i l i t i e s C a b l e v i s i o n / T e l e p h o n e C a b l e v i s i o n / T e l e p h o n e / Entry Phone j Conveyor System H y d r a u l i c E l e v a t o r | Cable-run E l e v a t o r j | Waste D i s p o s a l Garbage Chute System | | No D i s p o s a l j j E l e c t r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n No conduits i n j | s t r u c t u r a l s l a b j Some conduits i n s l a b j Heating System Hot Water Heating E l e c t r i c Heating Furnace Heating F i r e p l a c e E l e c t r i c a l f i r e p l a c e Gas F i r e p l a c e For our example, we focus on the i n t e r i o r p a r t i t i o n i n g f u n c t i o n a l requirement. Step 4 For the f u n c t i o n a l requirement ' i n t e r i o r p a r t i t i o n i n g ' , the user s p e c i f i e s one of the three a v a i l a b l e systems. The choosing of a system a u t o m a t i c a l l y c a l l s up the l i s t or chain of a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with t h a t system (which i s t r a n s p a r e n t to the u s e r ) . For example, the l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s f o r each of the systems might be: i ) IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' S t e e l Stud P a r t i t i o n w/ No Drops Except i n Bath' THEN ADD ACTIVITIES GRIND CONCRETE CEILINGS LAYOUT/SET BOTTOM TRACKS OF STUD STEEL STUD INTERIOR WALLS BUILD CEILING DROPS IN BATHROOM i i ) IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' S t e e l Stud P a r t i t i o n w/ Drops i n C o r r i d o r s Only' THEN ADD ACTIVITIES GRIND CEILINGS IN SUITES LAYOUT/SET BOTTOM TRACKS OF STUD STEEL STUD INTERIOR WALLS STEEL STUD DROP CEILINGS IN CORRIDORS i i i ) IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' S t e e l Stud P a r t i t i o n w/ A l l Dropped C e i l i n g s ' THEN ADD ACTIVITIES LAYOUT/SET BOTTOM TRACKS OF STUD STEEL STUD INTERIOR WALLS STEEL STUD DROP CEILINGS 8 5 Step 5 The i n f e r e n c e engine would then proceed to the next f u n c t i o n a l requirement and the s e l e c t i o n of the a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t i e s u n t i l a l l f u n c t i o n a l requirements have been met. Step 6 The next step i s to generate a l l the A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge f o r the a c t i v i t i e s chosen. For example, f o r the a c t i v i t y LAYOUT/SET BOTTOM TRACKS OF STUD, the f o l l o w i n g data would be attached to the a c t i v i t i e s : a c t i v i t y d e s c r i p t i o n : LAYOUT/SET BOTTOM TRACKS OF STUD: coding: 900 120 000 p r e d e c e s s o r ( s ) : none (eg. i t i s the f i r s t a c t i v i t y of i t s f u n c t i o n i n g system) p r o d u c t i v i t y i n f o r m a t i o n : l a y o u t of l o c a t i o n s f o r w a l l s and c e i l i n g s . Crew s i z e = 2 men. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n : work c o n t r a c t e d by the drywall/tape & f i l l c o n t r a c t o r who t y p i c a l l y sub t h i s out to a s m a l l e r studding o u t f i t . r e p e t i t i v e type: ordered - i e ) do when the f l o o r i s a v a i l a b l e s i n c e the main crew can work at t h e i r own pace behind the l a y o u t . procurement item(s) & sequence: none needed. 86 7) The p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c knowledge i s then c a l l e d upon to l i n k the l i s t s of a c t i v i t i e s with other systems i n the p r o j e c t network. This l i n k i n g of the systems i s l e f t u n t i l a l l the f u n c t i o n a l requirements of the p r o j e c t have been addressed. T h i s i s so because the manner i n which c e r t a i n systems l i n k with each other i s dependent on whether other s p e c i f i c systems have been chosen f o r the p r o j e c t (see r u l e number 4 immediately below). The p a r t i t i o n i n g system would be l i n k e d to the p r o j e c t network as f o l l o w s : IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' S t e e l Stud w/ No Drops Except i n Bath' THEN 'grin d concrete c e i l i n g s ' HAS PREDECESSOR ' p l a c e / f i n i s h t y p i c a l s l a b ' FS=0 0FFSET=3. IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' S t e e l Stud w/ Drops i n C o r r i d o r s Only' THEN 'grind c e i l i n g s i n s u i t e s ' HAS PREDECESSOR ' p l a c e / f i n i s h t y p i c a l s l a b ' FS=0 0FFSET=3. IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' S t e e l Stud w/ A l l Dropped C e i l i n g s ' THEN 'Layout/Set Bottom Tracks' HAS PREDECESSOR ' p l a c e / f i n i s h t y p i c a l s l a b ' FS=0 0FFSET=3. IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS { [ ' S t e e l Stud w/ A l l Dropped C e i l i n g s ' ] and [ ' v e n t i l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n ' IS ('Only Dryer/Fan Duct i n Slab' OR 'No Ducts Embedded i n Slab')]} THEN 'Layout/Set Bottom Tracks' HAS PREDECESSOR ' p l a c e / f i n i s h t y p i c a l s l a b ' FS=0 0FFSET=3. & S t e e l Stud Dropped C e i l i n g s ' HAS PREDECESSOR ' I n s t a l l V e n t i l a t i o n Ducts i n C o r r i d o r ' So, the f i r s t p a r t i t i o n i n g a c t i v i t y would be l i n k e d to a s u p e r s t r u c t u r e phase a c t i v i t y " P l a c e / F i n i s h T y p i c a l Slab." A l s o , by the l a s t r u l e given i n the example, one of the a c t i v i t i e s i n the middle of the p a r t i t i o n i n g chain may be l i n k e d to another system of the rough-in phase. The c o n d i t i o n t h a t a l l systems are chosen i n the p r o j e c t before the p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c r u l e s are c a l l e d upon ensures t h a t a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n i s gathered to make t e s t i n g of these r u l e s p o s s i b l e . 87 Step 8 L o c a t i o n sequencing f o r r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i s then performed. For the a c t i v i t y LAYOUT/SET BOTTOM TRACK, the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n may be stor e d i n the database: S t e e l Stud P a r t i t i o n Systems: Used to p a r t i t i o n a l l r e s i d e n t i a l s u i t e s from the common areas as w e l l as from each room of the s u i t e . The work i s u s u a l l y sequenced from the f i r s t a v a i l a b l e f l o o r a f t e r c o n c r e t i n g , u s u a l l y a t y p i c a l f l o o r s i n c e n o n - t y p i c a l f l o o r s have forms t h a t are l e f t i n plac e longer. From t h i s knowledge base and user s u p p l i e d responses to g l o b a l context i n f o r m a t i o n , the program would deduce t h a t the f l o o r s w i l l be worked i n the f o l l o w i n g sequences: 4th f l o o r to 17th f l o o r 3rd f l o o r to 1st f l o o r . Step 9 By c y c l i n g through a l l the f u n c t i o n a l requirements f o r the rough-in phase, a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d to schedule the a c t i v i t i e s i n the phase has been compiled to run an i n i t i a l schedule. The databases c a l l e d upon i n t h i s example are: database #1 - Rules f o r S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g Systems database #2 - Rules f o r L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g Systems to P r o j e c t Network, database #3 - Notes on L o c a t i o n Sequencing of R e p e t i t i v e Type Works. - System's' I n t e r n a l Predecessors - P r o d u c t i v i t y Information - R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Information - R e p e t i t i v e Type Information - Procurement Item(s) & Sequences These e i g h t databases would e x i s t f o r each of the major phases of the p r o j e c t r e s u l t i n g i n 48 databases to summarize a l l the s c h e d u l i n g knowledge needed to create a p r e l i m i n a r y database #4 database #5 database #6 database #7 database #8 schedule. 88 User refinements to t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y schedule would be r e q u i r e d to account f o r design d e t a i l s d i c t a t e d by the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of products which may a l t e r a c t i v i t y sequences. As w e l l , a c t i v i t i e s which are weather or temperature s e n s i t i v e may have to be re-sequenced and/or t h e i r d u r a t i o n s b u f f e r e d . F u r t h e r , marketing plans f o r h i g h - r i s e r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s o f t e n • r e q u i r e r e v i s i o n s and a d d i t i o n s to the p r e l i m i n a r y schedule. The sch e d u l i n g of a showsuite i n t o the b u i l d i n g i s common and i n v o l v e s the re-sequencing of many a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a l l y , the a d d i t i o n s of c o n t i n g e n c i e s i n t o the schedule i s r e q u i r e d to tu r n the p r e l i m i n a r y schedule i n t o a working schedule. Contingencies are o f t e n added f o r work a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are not common or when the work scope i s not yet c l e a r l y defined,, as i n the case of a c t i v i t i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g P.C. Sum ( p r o v i s i o n a l ) items which are c l a r i f i e d a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n begins. 4.7 Problems Encountered While I n p u t t i n g Acquired Knowledge  Into the E s t a b l i s h e d Database S t r u c t u r e In t h i s s e c t i o n , problems encountered i n assembling the knowledge database are d i s c u s s e d . These problems were r e s o l v e d i n each i n s t a n c e by compromising one or more of the g u i d e l i n e s s et f o r the f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t / f u n c t i o n i n g systems approach used f o r the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . 89 4.7.1 A c t i v i t y Sequences Not R e a d i l y S t a n d a r d i z e a b l e I t was found t h a t not a l l a c t i v i t y sequences can be e a s i l y s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r a l l p r o j e c t s . For most a c t i v i t i e s , l i k e those found i n the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , rough-in, and enclosure phases, the l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s used i n the database were "common-sense" sequences ( t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y d r i v e n ) . However, f o r the s u b s t r u c t u r e phase of work, the sequences of work were found to depend not on the l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the elements of the s u b s t r u c t u r e , but r a t h e r , on s i t e l a y o u t c o n d i t i o n s and p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n of design elements. A c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with these elements are done i n an excavated area l o c a t i o n by l o c a t i o n with the s i t e parameters determining which areas are to be worked f i r s t . As a r e s u l t , c l e a r precedence r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t r i p f o o t i n g s , column f o o t i n g s , core f o o t i n g s , e x t e r i o r w a l l s , columns, core w a l l s and suspended sl a b s are not e a s i l y e s t a b l i s h e d . To best simulate the sequence of work on s i t e , these a c t i v i t i e s have been scheduled to occur c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h i n a c e r t a i n time frame a l l o c a t e d to the s u b s t r u c t u r e . T h i s d u r a t i o n i s mainly dependent on the number of the s u b s t r u c t u r e elements, the formwork systems used and the s i z e parameters of the s u b s t r u c t u r e . 9 0 4.7.2 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Systems Not E a s i l y Assigned to a Phase Many w e l l d e f i n e d f u n c t i o n i n g systems extend over more than one phase of the p r o j e c t . For example, the e l e v a t o r system t y p i c a l l y s t a r t s at the completion of the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e and f i n i s h e s during the f i n i s h i n g phase while the tower crane i s erected i n the s u b s t r u c t u r e phase and dismantled during the f i n i s h i n g phase. Since each system i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d by one continuous chain of work, breaking the a c t i v i t i e s i n t o s e v e r a l systems, each i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e time frame, would only f o r c e more r u l e s to schedule the same amount of work. For example, the a c t i v i t y of i n s t a l l i n g the p i s t o n of a h y d r a u l i c type e l e v a t o r i n t o the base of the e l e v a t o r p i t occurs during the s u b s t r u c t u r e phase of the p r o j e c t . I f t h i s a c t i v i t y i s separated from the e l e v a t o r system, then i t would s i t alone i n the su b s t r u c t u r e phase u n r e l a t e d to any other a c t i v i t y thus f o r c i n g more r u l e s to sequence t h i s one a c t i v i t y . As a r e s u l t , the chain of a c t i v i t i e s of each system has been l e f t i n t a c t , the chains are s t o r e d i n the phase (by way of the databases f o r t h a t phase) when the m a j o r i t y of t h e i r work takes p l a c e . 91 4 . 7 . 3 Work Not Adapting to the F u n c t i o n i n g Systems Approach F i n a l l y , i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t many of the a c t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n the F i n i s h i n g Phase, d i d not adapt w e l l to the f u n c t i o n i n g systems approach. The main advantage of the f u n c t i o n i n g systems approach i s the requirement of fewer i n f e r e n c e r u l e s to d e f i n e the l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the e n t i r e p r o j e c t because a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g to one another are grouped and scheduled as a chain. However, many f i n i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s are not a s s o c i a t e d with s p e c i f i c systems, e.g. " i n s t a l l b l i n d s and drapes", " c l o s e t o r g a n i z e r s " and "marble t i l e s u i t e e n t r y " . Attempts to form these a c t i v i t i e s i n t o groups of a c t i v i t i e s i n order to minimize the number of r u l e s r e q u i r e d to l i n k them i n t o the p r o j e c t network was not p o s s i b l e . Consequently, many of the a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h i s phase had to be t r e a t e d one by one i n terms of f o r m u l a t i n g r u l e s f o r l i n k i n g them i n t o the p r o j e c t p l a n . 92 CHAPTER 5 5.0 Con c l u s i o n s & Recommendations For Future Research In t h i s chapter, the c o n c l u s i o n s reached from the t h e s i s study are summarized along with recommendations f o r fu t u r e r e s e a r c h . 5. 1 Conclus i o n s The f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s were set f o r the t h e s i s : 1) To implement an advanced microcomputer c o n s t r u c t i o n management system i n a b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r ' s o p e r a t i o n ; 2) To assemble the knowledge base which r e f l e c t s the e x p e r t i s e of the b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r as i t r e l a t e s to scoping and sequencing a c t i v i t i e s f o r h i g h - r i s e r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s ; 3) To s t a n d a r d i z e the acq u i r e d knowledge i n t o a knowledge-based expert system environment. With r e s p e c t to the f i r s t o b j e c t i v e , the c o n s t r u c t i o n management system REPCON was implemented i n t o JCSC and i s now used e x c l u s i v e l y to schedule and to monitor a l l t h e i r p r o j e c t s . The implementation process has been w e l l documented to provide a b e t t e r understanding of the environment from which the knowledge was c o l l e c t e d . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can b e n e f i t f u t u r e undertakings to r e f i n e and extend the knowledge base. 93 With r e s p e c t to the second o b j e c t i v e , a comprehensive knowledge base c o n t a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , r e l a t e d l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and r u l e s to manipulate them to create a p r o j e c t plan have been e x t r a c t e d from JCSC p r o j e c t s and presented i n Appendices A and B. A f e a s i b l e work breakdown s t r u c t u r e has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the t y p i c a l p r o j e c t with some improvements s t i l l needed i n the scoping of the s u b s t r u c t u r e and f i n i s h i n g phases of c o n s t r u c t i o n . An area of weakness i n the knowledge base i s the assembling of pr o d u c t i o n r a t e s f o r the p r o j e c t a c t i v i t i e s . Improved methods f o r c o l l e c t i n g manpower and p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s on s i t e i s needed before enhancements can be made to the knowledge base. With r e s p e c t to the t h i r d o b j e c t i v e , a s t r u c t u r e designed to stor e the acquired knowledge i n t o a knowledge-based expert system environment has been s u c c e s s f u l l y demonstrated i n chapter 4 and Appendices A and B. The approach of breaking the p r o j e c t workscope down i n t o f u n c t i o n a l requirements and work systems has been s u c c e s s f u l i n reducing the number of i n f e r e n c e r u l e s needed to scope the p r o j e c t workscope. The work systems approach, however, was not found to be as e f f e c t i v e i n r e p r e s e n t i n g the work a c t i v i t i e s of the f i n i s h i n g phase where many of the a c t i v i t i e s are u n r e l a t e d to any p a r t i c u l a r system of work. 94 5.2 Future Research The knowledge base e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s only the f i r s t step towards c r e a t i n g a working knowledge-based expert system. Refinements and extensions to the knowledge base documented i n the Appendices must be pursued to transform the a c q u i r e d knowledge i n t o useable data f o r an expert system. Establishment of p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s f o r the a c t i v i t i e s s t a n d a r d i z e d i n the knowledge base w i l l be a major component of t h i s work. Before f u r t h e r c o l l e c t i o n of knowledge should be attempted, improvements to the knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n process must be made. Computerized d a i l y s i t e r e p o r t i n g i s one p o s s i b l e enhancement although g a i n i n g the c o o p e r a t i o n of s i t e personnel i n the e f f o r t i s e q u a l l y important. The r u l e s used to l i n k f u n c t i o n i n g systems together i n t o a s i n g l e network must a l s o be examined i n more d e t a i l to ensure t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r scoping the e n t i r e p r o j e c t . F i n a l l y , the kinds of context i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s r e q u i r e d to s e l e c t the a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n i n g systems, p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s and other a t t r i b u t e s needed to form a schedule must be explored i n d e t a i l before an expert system i n f e r e n c e mechanism can be devised. 9 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] C o n s t r u c t i o n S p e c i f i c a t i o n s I n s t i t u t e / C o n s t r u c t i o n S p e c i f i c a t i o n s Canada, "Masterformat - Master L i s t of S e c t i o n T i t l e s and Numbers", May 1983. [2] Fenves, S.J., "What i s an Expert System", i n Proceedings of the " F i r s t Symposium on Expert System i n C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g " , S e a t t l e , Washington, 1986, pp. 1-6. [3] F i n n , G.A., "Expert Systems i n an E n g i n e e r i n g -C o n s t r u c t i o n Firm", i n Proceedings of the " F i r s t Symposium on Expert System i n C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g " , S e a t t l e , Washington, 1986, pp. 40-54. [4] Gaschnig, J.R. and J . R e i t e r , "Development of a Knowledge-Based Expert System f o r Water Resources Problems", SRI P r o j e c t 1619, S R I , I n t e r n a t i o n a l , August, 1981. [5] Kostem, C.N., " A t t r i b u t e s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Expert Systems", i n Proceedings of the " F i r s t Symposium on Expert System i n C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g " , S e a t t l e , Washington, 1986, pp. 30-39. [6] Levine, Harvey A., " P r o j e c t Management Using Microcomputers", Osborne McGraw-Hill, 1986. [7] Ludvigsen, P.J., "Expert System Tools f o r C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s " , i n Proceedings of the " F i r s t Symposium on Expert System i n C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g " , S e a t t l e , Washington, 1986, pp. 18-29. [8] Maher, M.L., "Problem S o l v i n g Using Expert System Techniques", i n Proceedings of the " F i r s t Symposium on Expert System i n C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g " , S e a t t l e , Washington, 1986, pp. 7-17. [9] O'Connor, M.J., "An Expert System f o r C o n s t r u c t i o n Schedule A n a l y s i s " , i n Proceedings of the " F i r s t Symposium on Expert System i n C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g " , S e a t t l e , Washington, 1986, pp. 67-77. [10] P e u r i f o y , R.L., " E s t i m a t i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n Costs", McGraw-Hill Inc., 1975. 96 APPENDIX A P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge Data Include: - phase (of p r o j e c t ) - f u n c t i o n a l requirement - r u l e s f o r s e l e c t i n g f u n c t i o n i n g systems - r u l e s f o r l i n k i n g f u n c t i o n i n g systems - notes on l o c a t i o n sequencing of r e p e t i t i v e type works Page Phase: Sub s t r u c t u r e 97 S u p e r s t r u c t u r e 102 Rough-In 107 E n c l o s u r e 112 F i n i s h i n g 115 Sitework/Lobby 118 P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge SUBSTRUCTURE Page So. 1 85/19/S9 P r o j e c t Phase F i i a c t i o a a l R s q a i r a a s a t R u l e s F o r S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e i s SL'B S i t e P r e p a r a t i o n IF ' s i t e p r e ? . ' 13 'DO e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e ' IKES ADD A C T I V I T I E S 'star; p r o j e c t ' (G 333 PRJ), ' m o b i l i z a t i o n / h o a r d i n g ' (G 535 PRJ), ' i n s t a l l / c o n n e c t t s a a . power' (G 513 PRJ). I F ' s i t e p r e p . ' IS ' r e i o v e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e 1 THEN ADD A C T I V I T I E S 'start p r o j e c t ' (G S38 PRJ), ' l o b i l i z a t i o a / h o a r d i n g ' (G 585 PRJ), ' d e s o l i s h eiistiag' (229 331 PRJ), ' i n s t a l l / c o n n e c t t e a p . power' (G 513 P R J ) . SOB E a r t h w o r k I F ' e a r t h w o r k ' IS ' s u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' TK5S ADD A C T I V I T I E S 'talk e x c a v a t i o n ' [223 835 P R J ) , ' r e s o v a l o f e a r t h - r a s e ' (223 e«6 P R J ) . I F ' e a r t h w o r k ' IS 'so s u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' • TKE5 ADD A C T I V I T I E S £03 F o u n d a t i o n I F ' f o u n d a t i o n ' IS ' c o r e r a i t / p a d / s t r i ? f t g ' TE25 ADD A C T I V I T I E S ' e x c a v a t e p e r i i e t e r s t r i p f t g ' (223 312 tt), ' f c n / s t r i p p e r i m e t e r s t r i p f t g '(G 312 m, ' r e i n f o r c e p e r i t e t e r s t r i p f t g ' (338 312 m, 'pour p e r i i e t e r s t r i p f t g ' (C- 052 n i l , ' e x c a v a t e pad f o o t i n g ' (223 814 ni, ' f o r a / s t r i p pad f o o t i n g ' (S 614 F N ) , ' r e i n f o r c e pad f o o t i n g ' (333 314 F S ) , 'pour c a d f o o t i n g ' (C- 354 F S ) , ' e x c a v a t e c o r e r a f t f o o t i n g ' (220 816 F S ) , ' f o n c o r e r a f t f o o t i n g ' (5 916 F S ) , ' r e i n f o r c e c o r e r a f t f o o t i n g ' (333 616 FN), 'pour c o r e r a f t f o o t i n g ' (G 365 F S ) . I F ' f o u n d a t i o n ' IS ' p i l e f o u s d a t : i o n ' THEH ADD A C T I V I T I E S ' i n s t a l l w o o d e n / s t e e l p i l e s ' (213 913 F S ) , ' e x c a v a t e p e r i i e t e r s t r i p f t g ' (223 812 F S ) , A P F E S D H 'A' - P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge R u l e s F o r L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e m K o t e s On L o c a t i o n S e q u e n c i n g O f R e p e t i t i v e P r o j e c t network ' Type forks So l i n k a g e s t o o t h e r s y s t e i a s t h i s i s t h e base S o t A p p l i c a b l e , s y s t s i f r o a w h i c h o t h e r s y s t e s s w i l l b e g i n to c h a i n o n t o the p r o j e c t network. I F 'earthwork' IS ' s u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' THES 'b u l k e x c a v a t i o n ' (223 335 PRJ) EAS PREDECESSOR ' i n s t a l l / c o n n e c t t e i j . power' (G 519 PRJ) FS=8. I F 'earthwork' IS 'no s u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' I F ( ' f o u n d a t i o n ' I S ' c o r e r a f t / p a d / s t r i p f t g ' ASD ' e a r t h w o r k ' IS ' s u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' ) THEN 'exc a v a t e p e r i i e t e r s t r i p f t g ' (223 912 FS) HAS FSEDECESSCR ' b u l k e x c a v a t i o n ' (223 995 PRJ) FS=3. I F ( ' f o u n d a t i o n ' IS ' c o r e r a f t / p a d / s t r i ? f t g ' AND ' e a r t h w o r k ' IS 'no s a b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' ) TKES ' e x c a v a t e p e r i s e t e r s t r i p f t g ' (223 812 FS) HAS PREDECESSOR ' i n s t a l l / c o n n e c t t e i p o r a r y power' (G 519 PRJ) FS=3. I F ( ' f o u n d a t i o n ' IS ' p i l e f o u n d a t i o n ' AND ' e a r t h w o r k ' IS ' s u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' ) TH3S ' i n s t a l l w o o d e n / s t e e l p i l e s ' (213 919 FS) HAS PREDECESSOR ' i n s t a l l / c o n n e c t t e is. power' (G 519 FRJ) FS=3 So R e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y a l t h o u g h t h e b u l k e x c a v a t i o n work i s done i n l i f t s o f 10-12 f e e t . The b u l k e x c a v a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s n o t b r o k e n i n t o t h e l i f t s s i n c e t h e r e a c h i n g o f a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f d e p t h u s u a l l y has no i n f l u e n c e on o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f p o s s i b l y t h e s t a r t o f u n d e r p i n n i n g . I n t h e c a s e where u n d e r p i n n i n g i s p l a n n e d t o s t a r t d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n p h a s e , the b u l k e x c a v a t i o n a c t i v i t y s a y be b r o k e n i n t o two: b u l k e x c a v a t i o n t o _ f e e t (where u n d e r p i n n i n g ' i s e x p e c t e d t o b e g i n j a n d e x c a v a t i o a beyond t h i s d e p t h , i l l s t r i p f o o t i n g and pad f o o t i n g works a r e r e p e a t e d i n s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r d e p e n d e n t c n t h e s p e c i f i c s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . A c e r t a i n n e a t e r o f f o r s s a r e s a d e and used r e p e a t e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e r e q u i r e d n e a t e r o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n e l e i e n t s . The c o r e r a f t f o o t i n g i s p e r h a p s the o n l y e l e i e n t t h a t d o e s n o t i n v o l v e r e p e t i t i o n i n t h e s u b s t r u c t u r e c o n c r e t e work. I t i s a g e n e r a l r u l e t h a t t h e sequence by w h i c h the f o u n d a t i o n e l e s e n t s a r e t o n e d / p o u r e d i s s o r e d e p e n d e n t on t h e a r e a where t h e e l e a e n t i s l o c a t e d t h a n t h e t y p e o f e l e i e n t . The s e q u e n c i n g o f t h e a r e a s t h a t the g e n e r a ! f o u n d a t i o n i s work o a i s d i c t a t e d b y s i t e l a y o u t and c o n d i t i o n s . oo Page So. 2 85/18/8? Project Phase functional Requirejeat Rules For Selecting Functioning Systess 'fori/strip peril.ftg.pile caps'(G 813 FS), 'reinforce perh.ftg. pile ca?s'(333 813 FS), 'pour periseter ftg pile caps' (G 353 PS), 'fona/strip peris, strip ftgs' (G 812 FS), 'reinforce peril, strip ftgs' (330 612 FS), 'pour periieter strip ftgs' (G 852 FS), 'excavate pad footings' (228 014 FS), 'fen/strip pad footing' (G 814 FS), 'reinforce pad footing' (333 014 FS), 'pour pad footing' (G 864 FS), 'excavate core raft ftg' (229 816 FS), 'fon core raft footing' . (G 616 FS), 'reinforce core raft footing' (333 616 FS), 'pour core raft footing' (G « « PS). SUB Sub-levels IF ('earthwork' IS 'sab-level structure' ASD 'sober cf sub-levels' IS 'one') THEN m ACTIVITIES 'fon/stri? sub-level peril. vali:(G 924 PE), 'rsinf. sub-level peria. vails' (339 324 PK), 'pour sub-level peril, vails' (G ei4 PK), 'fcrs/stri? sub-level colums' (G 823 PK), 'reinforce sub-level colunns' (333 823 PK), 'pour sub-level coluias' (G 973 PK), 'fora/stri? sutlevel core walls'(G 322 PS), 'reiaforca'sub-level core vails'(339 02! PK), 'pour sub-level core sails' (G 372 PK). IF ('earthwork' IS 'sub-level structure' BO 'nuiter of sub-levels' IS 'two') THES ADD ACTIVITIES sase as above option except use 'sub-levelj' and then repeat for 'sub-level_2' . . . . IF 'earthwork' IS 'no sub-level structure' m ADO inmnss SOB Slope Protection IF ('earthwork' IS 'sub-level structure' ASD 'slope protection' IS 'shotcrete') TEES ADD ACTIVITIES 'shotcrete' (218 150 PK). IF ('earthwork' IS 'sub-level structure' AliD 'slope protection' IS 'shotcrete/anchors'] APPESDIS 'A' - Project Specific Knowledge Rules For Linking Functioning Systess Sotes On Location Sequencing Of Repetitive Project Setwork Type '/forks 'excavate periieter strip £tg'(223 312 FS) HAS PREDECESSOR 'bulk excavation' (223 685 PRJ) FS=3. IF ('foundation' IS 'pile foundation' ASD 'earthwork' IS 'no sub-level structure') THES 'install woodea/steel/concrete piles' (213 013 FS) HAS P3EDEC3SSOR 'install/connect tei?. power' (G . 519 PRJ) FS=9. IF 'earthwork' IS 'sub-level structure' THES 'fon/stri? sub-level peria: vail' (G 324 EK) EA3 PREDECESSOR 'pour peril, strip footing' (G 652 FS) SS=uote_l. notej : As noted in the Sequencing Note of the 'foundation functional reqaireient, the vork of eleaents in the substructure is sequenced Eore by the location of the element in the bole than the type of eleaent. This is the reason that the tiae relationship between the above activities is not specified since it is the superintendent's decision as to what ele:eut of work is pushed ahead first.. In short, this facade of the construction is not easily standardized and depends heavily on the site conditions, and the person running the job. Even if there is mlti sub-level floors, the start of one level does not necessary have to wait for the completion of the previous level because the different areas of the site say have reached different levels. IF ('earthwork' IS 'sub-level structure' AND SOI APPLICABLE 'slope protection' IS 'shotcrete') THES 'shotcrete' (219 159 FK) HAS PREDECESSOR 'bulk excavation' (220 835 FSJ) SS=3. ^ to IF ('earthwork' IS 'sub-level structure' ASD Page Ho. 3 85/10/S3 P r o j e c t Phase F u n c t i o n a l R e q u i r e i e n t U t i l i t i e s Under Gr=da s l a o c c Grade R u l e s f o r S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e m s mrna r - P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge R u l e s F o r L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e i s P r o j e c t S e t v o r k T H S H w A C T I V I T I E S ' s h o t c r e t e / a a c h o r r o d s ' (218 152 PK). I F ('earthwork' 1 8 ' s u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' A S D ' s l o j e p r o t e c t i o n ' I S ' s h o t c r e t e / a n c h o r s / u n d e r p i n n i n g ' ) TESH ADD ACTIVITISS ' s h o t c r e t e / a n c h o r r o d s ' (213 !52 PK), ' u n d e r p i n e x i s t i n g f o o t i n g s ' ( 2 ! f l 154 P S ) . I ? ' t t l i t i e s u/g' IS ' c o n v e n t i o n a l ' THEM ADD ACTIVITIES ' i n s t a l l e z t . p e r i l , d r a i n t i l e s ' (G 632 ' t r e n c h u/g u t i l t i e s ' (G 684 ' i n s t i l l v e t u t i l i t i e s ' (150 659 ' e i c a v a t e s u n p ( s ) ' (229 695 ' i n s t a l l s c s p i s ) ' (ISO SOS ' i n s t a l l i n t . p e r i l , d r a i n t i l e s ' (G 533 I F ' s l a b on g r e d e ' IS ' u t i l i t i e s u/ SOG' THEN ADD ACTIVITIES ' b a c k f i l l / c o s p a c t / s c r e e d S.O.G.' (G 939 ' i n s t a l l u/g bydro d u c t i n g ' (153 932 ' i n s t a l l u/g t e l e p h o n e d u c t i n g ' (160 835 'pour s l a b on g r a d e ' (329 932 ' s l o p e p r o t e c t i o n ' Is ( ' s h o t c r e t e / a n c h o r s ' OS ' s h o t c r e t e / a o c h o r s / u n d e r p i n s i n g ' ) I F ' s l a b on g r a d e ' IS 'co u t i l i t i e s u/ SOG' IKES .ADD A C T I V i r i S S ' b a c k f i l l / c c s p a c t / s c r e e d S.O.G.' (G 930 P 'pour s l a b oa g r a d e ' (326 032 ?;:). ALL PS=9 THSS ' s h o t c r e t e / a n c h o r s ' (219 152 PK) HAS PREDSCE5S08 ' b u l k e x c a v a t i o n ' (229 995 PRJ] S5=9. IF ( ' e a r t h v o r k ' IS ' s u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' A S ' s l o p e p r o t e c t i o n ' IS ' h - p i i e / l a g g i s g / s b o l c r e t e ' ) m 'install h - p i l e s ' (213 150 PK) HAS PREDSCSSSOR 'install t e s o o r a r y power' (G 519 PRJJ FS=0 ASD ' i n s t a l l l a g g i n g and s h o t c r e t e ' (210 152 PK) HAS FF.SDECFJS503 ' b u l k e i c a v a t i o n ' (229 995 PRJ} SS=6. I F ' u t i l i t i e s u / g ' IS ' c o n v e n t i o n a l ' THSS PK), ' i n s t a l l e x t . p e r i t e t e r d r a i n t i l e ' (G 692 PK) PK), HAS PREDECESSOR 'pour s a b - l e v e l p e r i s . Balls ' F K ) , (G 9!8 PK) SS=9. PK), ?K), PK). I? ' s l a b on g r a d e ' IS {('utilities nl SOG' OR 'no utilities u/ SOG') 4 FK), ' e a r t h w o r k ' IS 'sub-le7el s t r u c t u r e ' PK), THSS F K ) , ' b a c k f i l l / c o i p a c t / s c r e e d SOG' (G 939 PK) PK). HAS PREDECESSOR 'pour s u b - l e v e l c o r e vails' (G 972 PK) i 'pour s u b - l e v e l p e r i s , w a l l s ' ( G 8S3 PK) 5 'pour s u b - l e v e l c o l u a n s ' (G 979 FK)S K), ' i n s t a l l i n t . p e r i s , d r a i n t i l e ' { G 693 FK) Ko t e s On L o c a t i o n S e q u e n c i n g O i R e p e t i t i v e . Type Works I F ' s l a b on g r a d e ' IS ( ( ' u t i l i t i e s u/SOG' OR 'no utilities v/ SOG') i ' e a r t h w o r k ' IS 'no s u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' THSS ' b a c k f i l l / c s s p a c t / s c r e e d SOG' (G 939 PK) HAS PREDECESSOR ' i n s t a l l i n t . p e r i l , d r a i n t i l e ' (G 693 PK) & S U B K i s c e l l a n e o u s i n S u b - l e v e l I F ' e a r t h w o r k ' IS ' s u b - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' IF ' e a r t h w o r k ' IS - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e ' Page So. 4 85/18/33 APPSSDIX 'A' - P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge Pr o j e c t Paase F u n c t i o n a l R e q u i r e i e n t Pules For S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g Systens Rules For l i n k i n g Functioning Systens P r o j e c t Network IKES ADD ACTIVITIES THES ' b u i l d t e c h . / e l e c t , roons' (423 315 PK), . ' b u i l d e e c b . / e l e c t , roons' (429 315 PK) ' s p r i n k l e r s i n s u b - l e v e l ' (159 319 PK), HAS PREDECESSOR ' i n s t a l l l e c h a n i c a ! rooa' (153 315 PK), ' p l a c e / f i n i s h t y p i c a l f i r : 1st t y ? ' ' i n s t a l l e l e c t r i c a l r o o i ' (168 315 FX), (323 159 _ ) ' s u b - l e v e l l i g h t i n g ' (163 313 PK). Sotes On l o c a t i o n Sequencing Of R e p e t i t i v P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge SUPERSTRUCTURE Page So. 1 es/ie/59 Project Fhase Functional Requireaent Rales For Selecting Functioning Systeas amn T - Project Specific Knowledge •ales For Linking Functioning Systeas Project Setvork Botes On Location Sequencing Of Repetitive type Works SUPER KAK-XATSRIAL HASDLISC- IF 'Ean-atl handling' IS 'lanhoist' THES ADD ACTIVITIES 'erect saa-hoist' (145 613 023J, 'disaaatle tan-hoist' (146 633 630], IF 'san-itl handling' IS 'tower craae/aaa-hoist' THEN ADD ACTIVITIES' 'excavate crane footing' (228 114 EK), 'fori crate footing' (G 114 PK), 'reinforce crane footing' (328 114 PK), 'pour crane footing' (G 114 PK), 'erect/install tower crane' (146 513 PRJ), 'disiantle tower crane' (146 533 PRJ), 'erect tan-hoist' (145 613 ??.J), 'dismantle iaa-hoist' (146 633 PRJ). IF 'iaa-itl handling' IS ('isanhoist' 'tower crane/aanhoist') THES 'erect tan-hoist' (156 618 PRJ) HAS 'place/finish typ. slabiStV (323 153 836) FS=9. Sot Applicable. 'dismantle ian-hoist' (146 633 PRJ) HAS 'elevator test/iaspectioa' (141 488 PRJ) FS=6. IF 'csn-atl handling' IS 'tover crane/aanhoist' ASD 'peat/roof IS 'concrete pent w/ struct pitch roof THIS 'excavate crane footing' (223 114 FX) HAS PREDECESSOR 'excavate peril, strip ftg' (228 ei2 FS) SS=3 'disiantle tower crane' (146 530 PRJ) HAS 'erect structural fraiai roof (353 238 RF) FS=3. IF 'jan-itl handling' IS 'tower crane/aanhoist' ASD 'pent/roof IS 'concrete slab roof s/ pent, above' THES 'excavate crane footing' (223 114 PK) FAS peril, strip ftg' (223 3i2 FS) SS=8 SUPER Son-typical Levels IE ('earthwork' IS 'no sub-level structure' ASD 'onaber of non-typ. slabs' IS 'rero' THES ADD ACTIVITIES IF ('earthwork' IS 'no sub-level structure' ASD 'ccuberof oon-typ. slabs' IS 'one' ASD 'non-typical' IS 'conventional concrete slab' TEES ADD ACTIVITIES 'fors/stri? colffisr./vall;2nd flr'(G 142 882), 'reinforce cohso/vall:2nd fir' (323 142 692), 'pour coIcsn/va!l;2nd fir' (G 242 602), 'fors non-typ. slab:2ad fir' (5 152 632), 'reinforce nos-nyp slab:2nd flr'(323 152 632], 'place/fiaish non-typ: 2nd slab'(328 152 832). 'disaantle tower erase' (145 633 PRJ) HAS ! 'ion/pour elev/iech pent, slab' (G 149 PH) FS=9. IF 'earthwork' IS 'no sub-level structure' THES 'fort/strip co!uan/wall:2nd fir' (G 142 632) HAS PREDECESSOR 'place/finish slab on grade' (G 832 PK) FS-3. IF 'earthwork' IS -level structure' ) 'fori ground floor slab' (G 'place/finish slab on grade' 151 831) HAS ;! 332 PK) E5=3 Son-typical eleieats here refer to levels which are tot the sar.e structurally as typical floor elesents. Son-typical concrete slabs are usually bigger than the typical slabs and are poured in sections. The dividing of a non-typical slab is decided by the liaitation of the surface area of the slab which can be screeded and finished as well as the progress of work under the concrete slab, i'ork under the slab aay be another suspended slab or lay be a section of slab on grade which is needed before the slab above can begia. o co Page Ho. 2 85/10/89 APPENDII 'A' - Project Specific Knowledge Project Fhase Functional Requiresent Rules For Selecting Functioning Systeis Rules For Linking Functioning Systeis Project Network Sotes On Location Sequencing Of Repetitive Type Works Repeat entire sequence for each additional non-typical fir replacing 2nd with '_th fir' IF ('earthwork' IS 'sub-level structure' AND 'umber of non-typ. slabs' IS 'zero') THEN ADD ACTIVITIES ' ion ground floor slab' (G 151 iii), 'reinforce ground floor slab' (339 151 991), 'place/finish ground floor slab'(329 151 991], IF ('soa-typice!' IS 'convent ASD 'earthwork' IS 'sub-1 ;onal concrete slab' ivel structure' IS 'one') ASD '} of non-typ. THE!! ADD ACTIVITIES 'fori ground floor slab' (G 151 991), 'reinforce ground floor slab' (339 151 991), 'place/finish ground floor s!ah'(329 151 991), 'fora/stri? wall/coluM:2ad flr'(G 142 092), 'reinforce vsll/cokia:2sd fir' (339 142 Ml), 'pour walls/coiusns : 2nd floor'(G 242 992), 'fors non-typ slab:2nd fir' (G 152 992), 'reinforce non-ty? s!ab:2nd flr'(339 152 992), 'place/finish oon-ty?: 2nd slab'(329 152 002). Repeat latter vall/colunn; core walls; and slab sequence for each additional non-typical floor. SUPER Typical Levels Add activity : 'post-tension s!ab:_n fir' (333 252 99J, if non-typical slab is post-tensioned. IE) IF ('non-typical' IS 'post-tensioned slab' ASD 'earthwork' IS 'sub-level structure' AND 't of non-typical slabs' IS GREATER THAN 'zero') . . . . IF 'typical levels' IS 'conventional' THIS ADD ACTIVITIES 'fora/stri? typical colusn/wall'fG 149 999), o IF 'typical levels' IS 'conventional' ASD '} of non-typ. levels' IS 'zero' 'earthwork' IS 'no sub-level structure' The elements of a level is considered to be the slab on that level and the vertical eieseots supporting it. For instance, the slab which one Page So. 3 65/18/89 Project Phase Functional Requireaent Pules For Selecting Functioning Systeas 'pour typical colusn/valls' 'fori/strip typical slab' 'reinforce typical slab' 'place/finish typical slab' 15 243 896), (G 159 668), (333 158 899), (329 153 63C), IF 'typical levels' IS 'steel structure' TEES ADD ACTIVITIES 'erect structural fraie' (3:3 188 383), 'aetal floor decking' (355 182 833), 'concrete grout on decking' (328 192 663), IF 'typical levels' IS 'F/T slabs' THSS ADD ACTIVITIES 'fcra/strip typical colua/v-U'jC- 149 989 'reinforce typical culsaa,'valls'(323 143 663 'pour typical colunn/valls' (G 249 983 'fon/stri? typical slab' (G 153 636 'reinforce typical slab'. (333 153 893 'place/finish typical slab' (223 153 883 'post-tension cables' (333 253 393 APFFJDI7. 'A' - Project Specific Knowledge Rales For linking Functioning Systeas Project Sef.-ork THSS 'fora/strip typical colu:a/waH' (5 143 m) HAS PREDECESSOR 'place/finish slab on grade' (G 632 PK) FS=3. IF 'typical levels' IS 'conventional' AND '1 of non-typ. levels' IS 'zero' 'earthwork' IS 'sub-level structure' THES 'fors/stri? typical coluio/vall' (G 143 699) HAS PREDECESSOR 'place/finish ground floor slab' (G 632 PK) FS=9. IF 'typical levels' IS 'conventional' ASD '} of non-typ. levels' IS 'greater than zero' THES 'fon/stri? typical coiutn/wall' (C- 143 988) HAS PREDECESSOR 'place/finish ws-tjf.jtS slab' (323 15. MJ ?S»0. Notes On Location Sequencing Of Repetitive Type Vorks when he is on the 4th fir is the 4Ui floor slab where as the 4th ilr colatns and sells are those directly underneath which is visible on the 3rd floor. The activities of the repetitive cycle will begin froii the lowest typical level and sequentially u?to the highest typical (structurally) level. SUPER Penthouse/Roof Structures IF 'pent/roof IS 'concrete penthouse core/ structural steel pitch roof TEES ADD ACTIVITIES 'fora elev./iech. pent walls' (5 143 'reinf. elev./sech. pent walls' (333 143 'pour elev./iech. pent wells' (G 143 'fon/pour elev/sech peat. s!ab'(G 153 'erect structural frane: roof (3:3 263 'steel cladding on struct frase'|3S5 282 IE 'pent/roof IS 'concrete P/T slab roof «/ concrete penthouse above' THES ADD ACTIVITIES 'fora elev./sech. pent, vails' (G 143 'pour elev./iech. pent, walls' (323 143 'fora/poar elev/sech peat. slab'(S 153 IF 'pent/roof IS 'concrete slab roof •i! concrete penthouse above' TEES ADD ACTIVITIES 'fcri/pour elev/sech pent. slab'(G 143 PH), PE), ?H), PE), w,-RF). FE), PS), PE). FE), IF 'pent/roof IS 'concrete penthouse core w/ 'structural steel pitch roof TEES 'fcra elev./aecb. pent vails' (G 143 PE) HAS PREDECESSOR 'place/finish typical slab: TOP' (32? 153 TCP) FS=3. IF 'pent/roof IS 'concrete slab roof THES 'fors/pour roof colnans/valls' (G 149 F3) FAS PREDECESSOR 'place/finish typical slab: RE' (323 153 RF) FS=6. If the building has a roof slab which is near the sase site as the typical building slab, then the foraing/pouring of the roof slab would be the last location of the typical slab cycle. If the building has a pitch roof with structural steel, then the floor level on which the structural steel fraaing takes place is the last slab locatiou of tie typical slab cycle. o Faga So. 05/13/39 APPENDIX 'A' - P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o j e c t Phase F u n c t i o n a l F . e q u i r e i e a t R u l e s F o r S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e s s R u l e s F o r L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e a s P r o j e c t Network N o t e s On L o c a t i o n S e q u e n c i n g Of R e p e t i t i v Type J o r k s 'pour e l a v . / s e c h . pent, v a i l s ' (338 149 ' f o r a / p o u r e l e v f e c h p e n t . s l a b ' ( S 159 P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge ROUGH-IN Pace So . 1 65 /19 /83 P r o j e c t Phase F u n c t i o n a l F.equireieut Rules f o r S e l e c t i n g f u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e : s P a r t i t i o n i n g IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' s t e e l s tud v / no d rops ' TEES ADD r.CTIVITISS ' g r i n d c o n c r e t e c e i l i n g s ' (5 720 663), ' l a y o u t / s e t b o t t o a t r a c k s ' (=06 126 666) , ' s t e e l s tud i n t e r i o r ' (988 122 668) , ' i n s t a l l g y p s u i d r y v a l l ' (966 143 e03), ' v e i l i n s u l a t i o n ' ' (963 133 838), ' tape & f i l l j o i n t s ' (333 158 033) . IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' s t e e l stud with drops in c o r r i d o r s ' THES ADO ACTIVITIES ' g r i n d concre te c e i l i n g s ' (G 726 383) , ' l a y o u t / s e t b o t t o s t r a c k s ' (553 123 683) , ' s t e e l stud i n t e r i o r ' (503 122 603) , ' s t e e l stud dropped c o r r i d o r s ' (933 124 360), ' i n s t a l l gypsus d r y v a l l ' (933 148 633), ' v a i l i n s u l a t i o n ' (539 133 863), ' tape 5 i i i i j o i n t s ' (533 133 383) . IF ' p a r t i o n i n g ' IS ' s t e e l s tud v i t a a l l dropped c e i l i n g s ' JESS ADD ACTIVITIES ' l a y o u t / s e t b o t t o a t r a c k s ' (939 126 609) , ' s t e e l s tud i n t e r i o r ' (983 122 (ii), ' c e i l i n g hangers S c h a n n e l s ' (539 125 C33), ' i n s t a l l gypsut d r y v a l l ' (933 149 333) , ' v a i l i n s u l a t i o n ' (583 133 633) , ' tape i f i l l j o i n t s ' (963 153 333). R/I F l u s h i n g D i s t r i b u t i o n I? ' p l u i b i n g ' IS ' p l u i b i n g v / bathtub S Prefab shove- u n i t s ' TKES ADO ACTIVITIES ' s e c h a n i c a l canning i n s l a b ' (153 423 603), ' i n s t a l l v a s t e v a t e r r i s e r s ' (158 432 863), ' i n s t a l l water supply r i s e r s ' (158 434 86oi , ' p lunh ing s u i t e r o u g h - i n s ' (159 449 333), ' b a t h t u b / s h c v e r r o u g h - i n s ' (156 442 693). ' A ' - P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge Rules For L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g Systeas . P r o j e c t Se tvork Sotes On L o c a t i o n Sequencing Of R e p e t i t i v e Type i iorks IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' s t e e l stud v / no d r o p s ' THES ' g r i n d concrete c e i l i n g s ' (G 729 039) HAS PREDECESSOR ' p l a c e / f i n i s h t y p i c a l s l a b ' (329 353 603) FS=3 0FFSET=3" IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' s t e e l stud wi th i i n c o r r i d o r s ' ' g r i n d concre te c e i l i n g s ' (G 723 386) HAS PREDECESSOR ' p l a c e / f i n i s h t y p i c a l s l a b ' (329 353 089] Vy-i 0FFSST=3 ASD ' s t e e l s tud dropped c o r r i d o r s ' (588 124 683) EAS PRSDECESSOi ' v e n t i l a t i o n ducts r o t g h - i n s ' (138 844 093) FS=0 5 ' e l e c t r i c a l condui ts i w i r i n g ' (159 442 083) FS=3. IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' s t e e l stud wi th a l l dropped c e i l i n g s ' THES ' l a y o u t / s e t b o t t o i t r a c k s ' (569 129 688) H.AS PREDECESSOR ' p h c e / f i a i s h t y p i c a l s l a b ' (323 353 633) FS=8 0??:E?=3 ASD ' c e i l i n g hangars k c h a n n e l s ' (533 12S 883) HAS PREDECESSOR ' v e n t i l a t i o n ducts r o u g h - i n s ' (158 844 898) FS=3 5 ' e l e c t r i c a l condui ts S w i r i n g ' (163 442 666) FS=8. IF ' p a r t i t i o n i n g ' IS ' s t e e l s tud r e l a t e d ' THES ' i n s u l a t e v a i l s ' (566 133 063) EAS PREDECESSOR 1 'plusbing s u i t e r o u c h - i n ' (153 443 888) ?S=3 S ' b a t h / s h o v e r r o u g h - i n ' (153 442 000) F5=3 5 'bathtub r o u g h - i n s ' (153 142 838) FS=3 i ' s e t shower bases ' (158 444 663) FS=8 i ' e l e c t r i c a l condui ts S w i r i n g ' (168 442 688) FS=8 5 ' c a h l e v i s i o n r o u g h - i n ' (157 443 809) FS=3 S ' te lephone r o u g h - i a ' (158 449 688) F3=9 S ' i n t e r c o a r o u g h - i a ' (159 443 eOO) FS=6 S ' c a s - l i a e to i i r e c l a c e ' (!58 563 883) FS--3 ).. IF ' p l u i b i n g ' IS ( ' p l u i b i n g » / bathtub 5 set shower u n i t s ' . OS 'p lunhing « / bathtub 5 prefab shover u n i t s ' ) THES ' s e c h a n i c a l canning i n s l a b ' (158 428 638) EAS FP.SDECESSOR ' r e i n f o r c e t y p i c a l s l a b ' (338 158 933) SS«1 S t e e l Stud P a r t i t i o n s -S t e e l S t u d d i n g I n t e r i o r V a i l s i s a e r i a l l y p e r f o n e d s t a r t i n g E M the f i r s t t y p i c a l f l o o r l o c a t i o n and then s e q u e n t i a l l y up the b u i l d i n g . S o n t y p i c a l f l o o r s are then done a f t e r the t y p i c a l ones are l a i d . The l a y i n g out of the f l o o r i s s o n a t i n a s done s e v e r a l f l o o r s a t a t i s e i f the s i t e l a c k s a p e n a a e n t tea who i s go a t l a y o u t s . T h i s v a y , the c r e v can have work ' to do f o r c e r t a i n p e r i o d s of t i s e . ' i n s t a l l vas teva te r r i s e r s ' (150 432 836) HAS P l u i b i n g r o u g i i a works w i l l g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w the f l o o r sequenc ing o f the s t u d d i n g crew s i n c e they vork i n the sequence t h a t the genera l c o n t r a c t o r •would l i k e the b u i l d i n g c o a o l e t e d . Bathtub and shower u n i t s are sh ipped to the f l o o r i a shipments o f s e v e r a l f l o o r s at a t i s e Page So. 2 65/13/83 P r o j e c t Phase F u n c t i o n a l K e q c i r e s e s t R u l e s F o r S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e i s R/I V e n t i l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n ' III E l e c t r i c a l R e l a t e d U t i l i t i e s I F ' c l a s h i n g ' IS ' p l u i b i n g v / b a t h t u b S s e t shower u n i t s ' THES (DS K t H I f l l S ' m e c h a n i c a l c a n n i n g s i n s l a b ' (159 428 839), ' i n s t a l l w a s t e w a t e r r i s e r s ' (159 432 393), ' i n s t a l l w a t e r s u p p l y r i s e r s ' (159 434 339), ' p l u i h i a g s u i t e r o u g h - i n s ' (153 449 933), ' b a t h t u b r o u g h - i n s ' (153 442 933), ' s e t shower b a s e s ' (158 444 8 3 3 ) , IF ' v e a t i i a t i o n ' IS 'soae d u c t s i a s l a b v/ d r y e r s i n s u i t e s ' THEN m A C T I V I T I E S ' v e n t i l a t i o n d u c t s i n s l a b ' (153 826 3-33), " ' v e n t i l a t i o n r i s e r s ' (153 833 8 3 3 ) , ' n o t o r i z e d tempers' (158 832 838), ' f a n / d r y e r r o u g h - i a s ' (158 849 883), IE ' v e n t i l a t i o n ' IS 'sose d u c t s i n s l a b ' THES ADD AC T I V I T I E S ' v e n t i l a t i o n d u c t s i n s l a b ' (153 823 833), ' v e n t i l a t i o n r i s e r s ' (158 838 683), ' s c t o r k e d d a a p e r s ' (150 832 833), ' f a n u n i t i n b a t h s ' (158 842 8 3 3 ) . I F ' v e n t i l a t i o n ' IS 'no d u c t s i n s l a b ' THEN ASD AC T I V I T I E S ' v e n t i l a t i o n r i s e r s ' (!33 838 8 8 3 ) , ' v e n t i l a t i o n d u c t s r o u g h - i n ' ( 1 5 8 844 8 9 3 ) , ' n o t o r i z e d d a a p e r s ' (158 832 883), ' f a n u n i t s i a b a t h s ' (158 842 8 0 3 ) . I F ' v e n t i l a t i o n ' IS 'no d u c t s i n s l a b w/ d r y e r s i n s u i t e s ' THEN ADD AC T I V I T I E S ' v e n t i l a t i o n r i s e r s ' (159 838 683), ' v e n t i l a t i o n d u c t s r o u g h - i n ' ( l ! 3 344 8 0 0 ) , ' m o t o r i z e d d a t p e r s ' (159 832 8 8 3 ) , ' f a n / d r y e r d u c t r o u g h - i n s ' (158 348 6 6 3 ) . IF ' u t i l i t i e s ' IS ' c a b i e v i s i o n / t e l e p h o n e ' THEN ADD ACTIVITIES ' c a b l e v i s i o a r o u g h - i a ' (1ST 449 6 8 8 ) , ' t e l e p h o n e r o u g h - i a ' (158 443 6 0 0 ) . I? ' u t i l i t i e s ' IS ' c a h l e v i s i o n / t e l e p h o n e / e a t r y A F F E S D I i 'A' - P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge R u l e s F o r l i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e a s P r o j e c t Network ' p l a c e / f i n i s h t y p i c a l s l a b ' (323 153 863) FS=8 O F F S E T 1 3 . N o t e s On L o c a t i o n S e q u e n c i n g O f R e p e t i t i v e Type l a r k s so t h a t t h e f l o o r s p a c e i s n o t c o n j e s t e d . As a r e s u l t , t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f b a t h t u b s and p r e f a b s h o w e r s a r e done s e v e r a l f l o o r s a t a t i a e w i t h v o i d s i n b e t w e e n . IF ' v e n t i l a t i o n ' IS ('sote d u c t s i a s l a b ' OS ' s o s e d u c t s i a s l a b il d r y e r s i a s u i t e s ' ) THES ' v e n t i l a t i o n d u c t s i n s l a b ' (153 823 863) EAS FEEDECESSOR ' r e i n f o r c e t y p i c a l s l a b ' (333 153 833) SS=1 ASD ' v e n t i l a t i o n r i s e r s ' (153 S13 889] EAS PREDECESSOR ' s t e e l s t u d i n t e r i o r ' (533 122 633) FS=6 IF ' v e n t i l a t i o n ' IS ('no d u c t s i n s l a b ' CR 'no d u c t s i n s l a b •/ d r y e r s i n s u i t e s ' ) THES ' v e n t i l a t i o n r i s e r s ' (153 333 609) EAS PREDECESSOR ' s t e e l s t u d i n t e r i o r ' (:?6 122 883) FS=8. V e n t i l a t i o n work g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s t h e f l o o r s e q u e n c i n g t h a t t h e s t u d d i n g f o l l o w s which i s t h e o r d e r t h a t t h e GC would l i k e t h e b u i l d i n g c o m p l e t e d . I F ' u t i l i t i e s ' IS ( ' c a b i e v i s i o n / t e l e p h o n e ' CR ' c a h l e v i s i o n / t e l e p b o n e / e n t e r p b o a e ' ) TKSS ' c a b l e v i s i o a r o u g h - i n ' (167 443 363) EAS PREDECESSOR ' i n s t a l l c o n d u i t s / w i r i n g ' ?S=3. E l e c t r i c a l R e l a t e d U t i l i t i e s -w i l l f o l l o w t h e f l o o r s e q u e n c i n g t h a t t h e e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e p r o g r e s s f r o m f l o o r t o f l o o r . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e c o n d u i t s and r i s e r s used by t h e s e u t i l i t y p e o p l e a r e i n s t a l l e d by t h e e l e c t r i c a l c o n t r a c t o r . Fage So. 3 65/13/53 Project Phase Functional Retirement Rules far Selecting Functioning Systeis phone' TEEN ADD ACflYiriES 'cablevisioa rough-in' (157 543 633), 'telephone rough-in' (168 443 e03), 'intercom rough-in' (163 448 668), III Conveyor Systeis IF 'conveyor systei' IS 'hydraulic elevator' TEEN ADD ACTIVITIES ' i n s t a l l hydraulic piston' (141 283 PSJ), 'temporary vork platforms' (141 218 666), 'elevator E a c h i n e / » o t o r / c o n t r o l ' ( 1 4 1 215 PRJ), ' i n s t a l l elevator ra i l s ' (141 226 FRJ), 'build cab platform' ( 141 238 PRJ), 'tasonry to elevator entry' (423 248 888), 'elevator door frames/bifold' (141 243 PSJ), ' i n s t a l l cab' (141 253 PRJ), 'elevator controls' (141 263 PSJ), 'elevator cab finish' (141 2)8 PRJ), 'elevator test 5 inspection' (141 433 PSJ). I? 'conveyor systei' IS 'cabie-rua elevator' THES ADD ACTIVIrlES 'machines in elevator peathouse'(141 133 ?3), 'temporary vork platfons ' (141 213 633], ' i n s t a l l elvator ra i l s ' (141 223 PRJ), 'build cab platters' (141 233 FRJ), 'tasonry to elevator entry' (423 243 633), ' i a s ta i i /bu i ld cab' (141 253 PRJ), 'elevator cable/controls' (141 263 FRJ), 'elevator cab finish' (141 273 PRJ), 'elevator test i inspection' (141 433 PRJ). Ill Ifaste Disposal IF 'veste disposal' IS 'garbage chute' rS3S ADD ACTIVITIES ' i n s t a l l floor brackets' (114 262 633), ' i n s t a l l chute sheetsetal' (114 234 863), 'masonry around chute' (428 258 638). IF 'saste disposal' IS 'no disposal system' THES ADD ACTIVITIES R/I Electrical Distribution IF ' e l ec t r i ca l ' IS 'no conduits in slab' THES ADD ACTIVITIES 'e lectr ica l canaing in slab' (163 423 638), APPENDIX 'A ' - Project Specific Knovledge Sales For Making Functioning Systeas Botes On Location Sequencing Of Repetitive Project Network Type forks IF 'conveyor systei ' IS 'hydraulic elevator' TEES ' ins ta l l hydraulic piston' (141 233 PRJ) HAS PREDECESSOR 'bulk eicavatioa' (228 635 FRJ) FS=3 AND 'teiporary work p l a t fons ' (141 216 666] HAS PREDECESSOR 'place/finish typical slab, root" (323 158 RF] F5=8, IF 'conveyor systei ' IS 'cable-rua elevator' TEES 'sachines in elevator penthouse' (141 198 PS) EAS 'form/pour elevator penthouse' SS=5 ASD 'teiporary work p l a t fons ' (14! 213 838) EAS PREDECESSOR 'place/finish typical slab: roof (323 158 Pi) FS>3. ELEVATORS -the only repetitive act ivit ies relating to work for the elevator are the setting up of the entries and the teiporary work platfons which are used. These act ivit ies follow the order froa the bottom lost level where elevator travels and up. The ground floor entry is soaetises left to be worked on left to allow itejs to be loaded into the shaft, Eiajple of these iteas are the elevator cab which comes on site after the false cab is functional. If 'waste disposal' IS 'garbage chute' THEN 'garbage chute steel f i r . brackets' (114 232 883) HAS PREDECESSOR 'steel stud interior ' (583 122 e66) ES=0, IF 'waste disposal' IS 'no disposal system' THEN IF ' e lec tr ica l ' IS 'no conduits in slab' THEN 'e lectr ical canning ia slab' (153 428 003) HAS PROCESSOR C-arbase Chute -fork w i l l proceed in the order that the studding is sequenced floor to floor. The sheeUetal is typical ly enclosed with masonry blocks to isolate the unit froa the public areas and the masonry shaft is covered when dry-walled. Consequently, the chute wi l l typical ly follow the order that the steel stud and dryvall is done. The botton offload areas of the chute systea is worked on last. Electr ica l Eough-ia -Electr ical risers v i l l follow sequentially u? the buildng hooking up the power distribution Face So. 4 65/19/53 P r o j e c t Phase F u n c t i o n a l R e q a i r e i e n t R u l e s F o r S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e s s ' e l e c t r i c a l r i s e r s / p a n e l s ' (159 433 933), ' l a y o u t b r a c k e t s / s w i t c h e s ' (159 443 833), ' i n s t a l l c o n d u i t s S v i r i t g ' (159 442 663). I F ' e l e c t r i c a l ' IS ' s o i e c o n d u i t s i n s l a b ' TEES ADD ACTIVITIES ' e l e c t r i c a l P./I i n s l a b s ' (159 422 668), ' e l e c t r i c a l r i s e r s / p a n e l s ' (169 433 889), ' l a y o u t b r a c k e t s / s w i t c h e s ' (169 443 8 8 6 ) , ' i n s t a l l c o n d u i t s 4 w i r i n g ' (169 442 688). P./I H e a t i n g S y s t e a I F ' h e a t i n g s y s t e s ' IS 'hot water h e a t i n g ' THES ADD ACTIVITIES ' h o t - w a t e r p l a s h i n g f o r h e a t ' (153 445 6 8 3 ) . I F ' h e a t i n g s y s t e n ' IS ' e l e c t r i c h e a t i n g ' TEES ADD ACTIVITIES ' r o u g h - i n e l e c t r i c b a s e b o a r d s ' (159 4(4 633), I F ' h e a t i n g s y s t e n ' IS ' f a r s a c e h e a t i n g ' THSS ADD ACTIVITIES P./I F i r e p l a c e IF ' f i r e p l a c e ' IS ' e l e c t r i c f i r e p l a c e ' THES ADD ACTIVITIES ' f i r e p l a c e r o a g h - i n ' (163 283 6 9 3 ) . I F ' f i r e p l a c e ' IS 'gas f i r e p a l c e ' TEES ADD ACTIVITIES 'gas l i n e t o f i r e p l a c e ' (153 533 888), ' f i r e p l a c e r o a g h - i n ' (163 268 699). IF ' f i r e p l a c e ' IS 'no f i r e p l a c e ' TSS5 ADD ACTIVITIES APPESDII 'A' - P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge Rales F o r L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e n s P r o j e c t S e t w o r k ' f o r i t y p i c a l f l o o r s l a b ' (C- 153 683) SS=2 'electrical r i s e r s / p a n e l s ' (153 433 833) HAS PREDECESSOR 'steel s t u d i n t e r i o r ' (569 122 833) F5=3. IF ' e l e c t r i c a l ' IS 'soae c o n d u i t s i n s l a b ' TEES 'electrical R/I i n s l a b s ' (169 422 93'3) HAS PREDECESSOR ' f o r i t y p i c a l f l o o r s l a b ' (G 156 980) S5=2 ASD 'electrical r i s e r s / p a n e l s ' (169 433 883) HAS PREDECESSOR 's t e e l s t u d i n t e r i o r ' (300 122 663) FS=3. S o t e s On L o c a t i o n S e q u e n c i n g Of R e p e t i t i v e Type Sforks s t a t i o n s t o t h e f l o o r s . The h o r i z o n t a l r o u g h - i n , however, w i l l f o l l o w the f l o o r sequence t h a t the f l o o r s a r e s t u d d e d as t h i s o r d e r i s t h e sequence t h a t t h e C-C wants the b u i l d i n g c c i s p l e t e d , The e l e c t r i c a l r o o s i s worked on f r o s t h e s t a r t o f e l e c t r i c a l work t i l l t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l r o u g h - i n and e n e r g i z a t i o n o f the p e m a n e n t power, IF ' h e a t i n g ' IS 'hot w a t e r h e a t i n g ' TEES 'hot water p l a s h i n g f o r h e a t ' (153 445 988) HAS ' p l a n t i n g s u i t e r o u g h i a ' (1:8 443 636) SS=8, H e a t i n g B a i t s -H e a t i n g u n i t s a r e i n s t a l l e d i a t h e o r d e r t h a t t h e s t u d d i n g p r o g r e s s e s as t h i s i s t h e o r d e r w h i c h t h e . GC would l i k e t h e b u i l d i n g c o m p l e t e d . :E ' h e a t i n g ' IS ' e l e c t r i c h e a t i n g ' THES 'ro u g h - i n e l e c t r i c b a s e b o a r d s ' (163 444 633) HAS FSEDECESSOR 'steel s t u d interior' (563 122 303) FS=3. IF ' h e a t i n g ' IS ' f u r n a c e h e a t i n g ' TEES IF ' f i r e p l a c e ' IS ' e l e c t r i c f i r e p l a c e ' TEES 'fireplace r o u g h - i n ' (133 263 339) HAS PREDECESSOR 'steel s t u d interior' (!93 122 633) ?S=3. IF ' f i r e p l a c e ' IS 'gas f i r e p l a c e ' TEES 'gas l i n e t o f i r e p l a c e ' (159 539 686] HAS PREDECESSOR 'steel s t u d i n t e r i o r ' (933 122 883) FS=6 ASD 'fireplace r o a g h - i n ' (183 283 393] HAS PREDECESSOR 'steel s t u d i n t e r i o r ' (963 122 838) FS=3. F i r e p l a c e -The r o o g h i s g n a o f f i r e p l a c e f o l l o w s the sequence t h a t the s t u d d i n g i s done as t h i s i s t h e o r d e r t h a t t h e i n t e r i o r . f i n i s h w i l l be c o a s l e t e d , F i r e p l a c e s are u s u s a l l y a l u x u r y i t e s i a a h i g h r i s e and o f t e n a r e s p e c i f i e d on o n l y t h e t o r e e x p e n s i v e u p p e r f l o o r s . The s c h e d u l i n g o f f i r e p l a c e R/I would o b v i o u s l y f o l l o w i n o r d e r o f o n l y t h o s e f l o o r where the a r e s p e c i f i e d . IF ' f i r e p l a c e ' IS 'no f i r e p l a c e ' TEES P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge ENCLOSURE Page So. 1 05/10/59 APFiNDII 'A' - P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o j e c t Phase F u n c t i o n a l Requirement Rules For S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e i s Rules For L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g Systens P r o j e c t Setwark S o u s On L o c a t i o n Sequencing Of Repetitive type (forks Enclosure E x t e r i o r Cladding Enclosure E x t e r i o r C l a d d i n g F i n i s h IF ' e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g ' IS TEES ADD AOriVIFIES ' s t e e l stud e x t e r i o r v a i l s ' 'sheath e x t e r i o r v a i l s ' ' i n s u l a t e e x t e r i o r v a i l s ' t e t s l support s y s t e i ' (980 228 680), (908 248 008), (588 135 088). IF ' e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g ' IS ' c u r t a i n v a i l s y s t e i ' THEN ADD ACTIVITIES 'brackets i n s l a b edge' (5 59S 888), ' i n s t a l l a l u i i n t i B u l l i o n ' . (875 105 009), ' i n s t a l l g l a z i n g ' (315 115 009), ' i n s t a l l f i r e - s t o p between f l o o r s ' ( S 8 0 115 033). IF ' e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g f i n i s h ' IS ' a c r y l i c s t u c c o ' TEES ADD ACTIVITIES 'erect s c a f f o l d i n g / s v i n g s t a g e ' (915 525 p r j 'vapor b a r r i e r / n e s h / c o n t r o l j o i n t s ' (S90 353 833 'ceaent/sand s c r a t c h c o a t ' (583 333 098 'cenent/sand second co a t ' (533 333 633 ' a c r y l i c stucco f i n i s h ' (933 335 088 ' s e a l / c a u l k stucco j o i n t s ' (S39 349 880' 'reiove s c a f f o l d i n g ' (315 525 p r j ) . IF ' e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g f i n i s h ' IS ' b r i c k sasonry' THES ADO ACTIVITIES ' i r o n angles i n concrete s l a b ' 'erect s c a f f o l d i n g / s w i n s t a g e ' ' i n s t a l l vapor b a r r i e r ' ' i n s t a l l e x t e r i o r b r i c k ' ' s e a l / c a u l k b r i c k j o i n t s ' s c a f f o l d i n g ' IF ' e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g f i n i s h ' IS ' b r i c k t a s o a r y / a c r y l i c s t u c c o ' TEES ADD ACTIVITIES ' i r o n angles i n concrete s l a b ' 'erect s c a f f o l d i n g / s v i n g s t a g e ' ' i n s t a l l vapor b a r r i e r ' ' i n s t a l l e x t e r i o r b r i c k ' 'vapor b a r r i e r / a e s h / c o a t r o l j o i n t s 'ceaeat/sand s c r a t c h c o a t ' 'cesent/saad second c o a t ' (0 185 639), (015 525 P r j ) , (425 258 633), (425 210 888), (425 145 606!, (315 525 f r j ) . (0 135 680), (015 525 ? r j ! , (425 253 660), (425 219 833), (593 353 363); (969 333 889), (500 333 999), I? ' e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g ' IS ' n e t a l support systea THSS 's t e e l stud e x t e r i o r v a i l s ' ' p l a c e / f i n i s h t y p i c a l s l a b ' (590 220 e93) HAS FREDSCESSO! (339 359 689) FS=8 0r;SET=3. IF ' e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g ' IS ' c u r t a i n v a i l s y s t e i ' TEES 'brackets i n s l a b edge' (0 558 863) HAS P: ' p l a c e / f i n i s h t y p i c a l s l a b ' (330 350 689) FS=3 0FF=3 Katal Support S y s t e i -S t e e l Studding E x t e r i o r K a i l s i s t y p i c a l l y p e r f o r a e d s t a r t i n g f r o a the f i r s t t y p i c a l f l o o r l o c a t i o n and i s s e d i a t e l y up two t o r e l e v e l s so t h a t the e x t e r i o r b u i l d i n g l i n e can be l a i d out, p l e a t e d and e s t a b l i s h e d . These i c i t a l f l o o r s are i i p o r t a n t to do q u i c k l y so that on s i t e neasuresect of windows c o u l d take place and t h e i r f a b r i c a t i o n s t a r t e d i i i e d i a t e l y . I? ' e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g f i n i s h ' IS ' a c r y l i c stucco' TEES 'erect s c a f f o l d i n g / s v i n g s t a g e ' (015 525 p r j ) HAS ' i n s t a l l a l u j i s u i vindovs' (353 529 868) FS=3 k ' i n s t a l l p a t i o doors' (5:9 525 839) ?S»0. IF ' e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g f i n i s h ' IS ' b r i c k l a s o n r y ' THSS 'erect s c a f f o l d i n g / s v i n g s t a g e ' (615 525 p r j ) HAS 'sheath e x t e r i o r w a l l s ' (533 249 033) !3=0. IF ' e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g f i n i s h ' IS 'brick aasonry / a c r y l i c s t u c c o ' TEES 'erect s c a f f o l d i n g / s v i n g s t a g e ' (015 525 p r j ) HAS 'sheath e x t e r i o r v a i l s ' (580 243 663) FS=3, 5 ' i n s t a l l vapor b a r r i e r ' (939 359 883] HAS ' i n s t a l l alunir.ua windows' (853 529 889) FS--8 S ' i n s t a l l p atio doors' (850 525 088) FS=3. A c r y l i c Stucco --Stucco i s g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d s e v e r a l (2-4) f l o o r s at a r i s e , before s h i f t i n g to another face o f the b u i l d i n g , s i n c e the wood pl a c e d i a between the s c a f f o l d i n g are c o n v e n i e n t l y r a i s e d i n such a tanner. Such a sequence i s repeated t u t i ! the top of the s c a f f o l d s are r e a c t e d . T y p i c a l l y , the s c a f f o l d i n g are added i n h e i g h t a t 5 f l o o r i n t e r v a l s to a i n i i i z e r e n t a l c o s t PREDECESSOR, of the equipaent. For the sake of s c h e d u l i n g , it i s adequate to sequence the work as though i t progress f r o a f l o o r to f l o o r f r c s the l o w e s t f l o o r to the h i g h e s t d i s r e g a r d i n g the workers f r o a face to face of the b u i l d i n g . PREDECESSOR Brick Xasoary -E x t e r i o r b r i c k work t y p i c a l l y work f r o i f l o o r to f l o o r f r o s the lowest l e v e l up r o t a t i n g between the face of the b u i l d i n g . The wood placed between the s c a f f o l d s f o r the workers to walk on are r a i s e d as the b r i c k work progress upwards. The s c a f f o l d i n g s a r e t y p i c a l l y added to the b u i l d i n g 4-5 f l o o r s a t a t i s e to s i n i a i z e the c o s t of r e n t i n g the s c a f f o l d s . Page Ho. 2 35/16/S9 P r o j e c t Phase F u n c t i o n a l Requirement Rules For S e l e c t i n g Functioning Systens ' a c r y l i c stucco f i n i s h ' ' s e a l / c a u l k b r i c k j o i n t s ' ' s e a l / c a u l k stucco j o i n t s ' s c a f f o l d i n g ' APPENDIX 'A' - P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge Rules For L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g Systems P r o j e c t network (589 335 688), (425 145 609), (909 349 999), (915 526 p r j ) . Hotes On L o c a t i o n Sequencing Of R e p e t i t i v e Type Works Enclosure Windows/Glazing Systeas IF 'windows/glazing s y s t e a ' IS ' a l u a i n n i windovs/patio doors' FEES ADD ACTIVITIES ' s i t e neasureients of window opennings' (855 139 p r j ) , 'window/patio door wood l i n e r s ' (G 183 608), ' s i t e d e l i v e r y o f windows/patio ' doors' (855 153 833), ' i n s t a l l a i u a i a u i windows' (853 529 883), ' i n s t a l l p a t i o doors' (859 525 099), 'caulk windovs/patio doors' (859 533 658). I ! ' v i n d o v s / g l a z i s g s y s t e n ' IS ' a l u a i n u j vindows/patio doors' and ' e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g ' IS ' i e t a l support systea', ' s i t e aeasureaents of windows opennings' (855 163 p r j ) HAS PREDECESSOR ' s t e e l stud e x t e r i o r w a l l s : 1st tyo. f i r . ' (333 223 p r j ) FS=9 & 'window/patio door wood l i n e r s ' (G 183 080) HAS PREDECESSOR 'sheath e x t e r i o r w a l l s ' (960 249 983) FS=9 5 ' i n s t a l l a l u a i n u i windows' (653 529 036) HAS 'sheath e x t e r i o r v a i l s ' (363 249 938) FS=8 S ' i n s t a l l p a t i o doors' (S53 525 883) HAS e x t e r i o r w a l l s (583 253 656) FS=6 A l l window/glazing r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s are done i n the order of t h a t the e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g s y s t e a i s assembled because s i t e Eaasoreaent l u s t take p l a c e •before f a b r i c a t i o n can b e g i n . S i t e t e a s u r e a e n t of the f i r s t t y p i c a l f l o o r nay have precedence over n o n - t y p i c a l f l o o r s s i m p l y to get the t a s s f a b r i c a t i o n of the t y p i c a l windows begun. The sequencing o f the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the g l a z i n g s i s a l s o c r i t i c a l to the p r o g r e s s of i n t e r i o r works since the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f the g l a z i n g s i s the f i n a l c l o s i n g i n of the b u i l d i n g before d r y v a l l i n g c m begin.. P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge FINISHINGS Page So. 1 85/18/39 Project Phase Functional Requirement Rules For Selecting Functioning Systeas APPEND!! '.V - Project Specific Knowledge Rules For Linking Functioning S; Project Network Botes On Location Sequencing Of Repetitive Type Works FINISH '/all Finishing FINISH Ceiling Finishin, FINISH Bath/Kitchen Assembly FINISH Suite Assembly IF 'wall finishing' IS 'painted' THEN ADD ACTIVITIES 'paint primer coat' (398 918 888), 'paint finish coat kitchen/hath' (993 922 839), 'paint finish coat rsiaioder' (553 921 869). IF 'wall finishing' IS 'paint/wallpaper' THEN ADD ACTIVITIES 'paint priser coat' (939 919 936), 'paint finish coat kitchen/bath' (953 922 633), 'paint finish coat resainder' (993 S24 933), 'install wallcovering' (S29 923 333). If 'ceiling finishing' IS 'spreytar' TEES ADD ACTIVITY 'seal/plaster ceiling' (938 328 830), 'apply ceiling sprayter finish' (568 323 930). If 'ceiling finishing' IS 'paint' THEN ADD ACTIVITY IF 'hath/kitchen' IS 'conventional' THIN ADD ACTIVITIES 'ceramic tile bathtubs and showers' (938 319 303), 'kitchen/bathroom cabinets' (123 332 668), 'kitchen/bathroom couatertops' • (123 381 388), 'shower door installation' (161 163 803), 'bathroom accessories (mirrors)' (193 100 333), 'plumbing fixtures' (158 450 088), 'electrical fixtures' (1-8 458 088), 'appliances' (0 452 600). IF 'suite' IS 'conventional' TEEN ADD ACTIVITIES 'install wood trims • (0 ISO 839), 'hang wooden doors' (0 195 889), 'closet doors (sliding or bifoid)' (5 283 883). IF 'closet organiters' IS 'yes' If (('wail finishing' IS 'paint' OR 'wail finishing' IS 'paint/wallpaper') k 'ceiling finishing' IS 'paint')) THEN • 'paint primer coat' (993 S16 888) HAS PREDECESSOR ('tape & fill joints' (983 i58 868) FS=9 k 'install wood trims' (G 153 883) FS=3). IF (('wall finishing' IS 'paint' OS 'vail finishing' IS 'paint/valipaper') S 'ceiling finishing' IS 'spraytex') THES 'paint priser coat' (999 916 388) EAS PREDECESSOR ('install wood trims' (G 138 868) FS=3 k 'spraytez ceiling' (933 323 688) FS-3). IF 'ceiling finishing' I: 'spraytez' TEES 'seal/plaster ceilings' (983 328 833) EAS PREDECESSOR 'install gypsum drywall' (983 143 063) FS«8 5 'apply ceiling spreytei finish' (983 323 863) EAS PREDECESSOR 'tape 4 fill gypsna joints' (983 !56 893) m. IF 'hath/kitchen' IS 'conventional' TEES 'ceramic tile bathtubs and showers' (950 313 809) HAS PREDECESSOR 'tape 5 fill gypsum joints' (983 153 003) ES=3 k 'kitchen/bathroom cabinets' (123 332 860) EAS PREDECESSOR 'paint primer cost' (393 913 880) FS=8. IF 'suite assembly' IS 'conventional' THEN 'install wood trims' (G 1=3 863) HAS I 'tape ( fill gypsum joints' (963 153 093) ES=8 k 'hang wooden doors' (G lSi 833) EAS PREDECESSOR 'paint remainder' (953 524 033) PS=8. Floor sequencing of finishing related works are in the order that the dryvall/ceiling works are completed and handed over to the trade following up, Page So. 2 85/16/89 P r o j e c t Phase F u n c t i o n a l R e q u i r e m e n t FINISH F l o o r F i n i s h i n g R o l e s F o r S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e s s APPENDIX 'A' - P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge R u l e s F o r L i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e i s P r o j e c t Network THEN ADO ACTIVITIES ' c l o s e t o r g a n i z e r ' (G 210 9 8 3 ) . I F ' b l i n d s and d r a p e s ' I S ' y e s ' THEN ADD A C T I V I T I E S ' i n s t a l l b l i n d s / d r a p e s ' (125 290 6 9 9 ) . I F ' c a r p e t ' IS 'yes ' THES ADD ACTIV I T I E S ' i n s t a l l c a r p e t i n g ' (969 315 0 9 3 ) . I F 'hardwood f l o o r i n g ' IS ' y e s ' THEN ADD ACTIVITIES ' i n s t a l l h a r d v o o d f l o o r s ' (955 315 8 8 3 ) . I F ' a a r b l e f l o r i n g ' IS ' y e s ' THES ADD ACTIVITIES ' i n s t a l l a a r b l e f l o o r i n g ' (455 315 6 8 8 ) . IF ' c e r a m i c t i l e ' IS ' y e s ' THES ADD ACTIVITIES ' c e r a m i c t i l e f l o o r s ' (930 315 3 3 3 ) . Note s Oa L o c a t i o n S e q u e n c i n g Of R e p e t i t i v e Type Works IF ' c l o s e t o r g a n i z e r s ' IS y e s ' THES ' c l o s e t o r g a n i z e r ' (G 218 883) HAS FREDECESSOJ ' c l o s e t d o o r s ( s l i d i n g o r b i f o l d ) ' (G 263 660) FS=8. I? ' i n s t a l l b l i n d s / d r a p e s ' IS ' y e s ' THEN 'install b l i n d s / d r a p e s ' (125 263 668) HAS PREDECESSOR ' c a r p e t f l o o r i n g ' (969 315 838) FS=3. IF ' c a r p e t ' IS ' y e s ' THES ' c a r p e t f l o o r i n g ' (969 315 083) HAS PREDECESSOR 'electrical f i s t n r e s ' (163 453 833) F3=3. IF 'hardvood f l o o r i n g ' IS ' y e s ' THES 'install h a r d v o o d f l o o r s ' (555 315 683) HAS FRiEECSSSOR ' p a i n t r e m a i n d e r ' (S56 524 tit) FS=6. IF ' s a r b e l f l o o r i n g ' IS 'yes ' THES ' i n s t a l l a a r b l e f l o o r ' (455 315 333) HAS PREDECESSOR ' p a i n t r e m a i n d e r ' (998 924 e33] FS=3. F l o o r S e q u e n c i n g o f a l l f i n i s h i n g r e l a t e d works a r e i n t h e o r d e r t h a t t h e d r y v a l l / c e i l i n g works a r e c o m p l e t e d and handed o v e r t o t h e t r a d e s f o l l o w i n g them. IF ' c e r a a i c t i l e f l o o r s ' IS ' y e s ' THES 'ce r a m i c b a t h / k i t . f l o o r ' (933 315 683) HAS PREDECESSOR ' k i t c h e n / b a t h r o o m c a b i n e t s ' (123 332 863) »S=; P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c Knowledge SITEWORK/LOBBY P a g e S o , I 65 / 1 3 / 3 3 A P F S S D I X T • P r o j e c t S p e c i f i c K n o w l e d g e P r o j e c t P h a s e J u n c t i o n a l R e q u i r e s e n t R u l e s F o r S e l e c t i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e R u l e s F o r l i n k i n g F u n c t i o n i n g S y s t e a s P r o j e c t N e t w o r k S o t e s On L o c a t i o n S e q u e n c i n g O f R e p e t i t i v e T y p e ' f o r k s S I T S H a r d L a n d s c a p i n g S I T S D r i v e w a ' I F ' h a r d ' IS ' p l a s t e r s o n l y ' THSS ADD A C T I V I T I E S ' f o r a p l a n t e r w a l l s ' ( G 159 p r j ) , ' p o u r p l a n t e r w a l l s ' (G 752 p r j ) , ' w a t e r p r o o f p l a n t e r s ' ( 2 3 3 753 p r j ) . I F ' h a r d ' I S ' p l a n t e r s 5 p a v e r s ' THSS ADD A C T I V I T I E S ' f o r i p l a n t e r w a l l s ' (G 759 p r j ) , ' p o u r p l a n t e r w a l l s ' (G 752 p r j ) , ' w a t e r p r o o f p l a n t e r s ' ( 3 3 3 753 p r j ] , ' w a t e r p r o o f i n g a e a b r a n e o n w a ! k w a y s ' ( 3 9 5 753 p r j l , ' r i g i d i n s u l a t i o n f o r w a l k w a y s ' ( 3 3 5 762 p r j ] , ' s a n d s u h b a s e f o r v a l k v a y s ' ( 3 3 5 764 p r j ) , ' i n s t a l l w a l k w a y p a v e r s ' ( 3 9 5 755 p r j ) . I F ' d r i v e w a y s ' I S ' c o n c r e t e o n s u s p . s l a b ' THSS ADD A C T I V I T I E S ' w a t e r p r o o f i n g a e i b r a n e : d r i v e w a y ' (G 763 p r j ) , ' r i g i d i n s u l a t i o n f o r d r i v e w a y ' ( 9 762 p r j ] , ' s a n d s u h b a s e f o r d r i v e w a y ' ( G 764 p r j ) , ' s t e e l r e i n f o r c i n g s f o r d r i v e w a y s ' ( 3 3 9 765 p r j ) , ' p o u r c o n c r e t e d r i v e w a y s u r f a c e ' ( 3 2 9 766 p r j ) , I F ' d r i v e w a y s ' I S ' p a v e r s ' T HES ADD A C T I V I T I E S ' w a t e r p r o o f i n g s e n b r a n e : d r i v e w a y ' ( 3 9 5 753 p r j ] , ' r i g i d i n s u l a t i o n f o r d r i v e w a y ' ( 3 5 5 762 p r j ) , ' s a n d s u h b a s e f a r d r i v e w a y ' ( 3 3 5 764 p r j ] , ' i n s t a l l d r i v e w a y p a v e r s ' ( 3 9 5 756 p r j ) . I F ' h a r d ' I S ' p l a n t e r s o n l y ' S o t A p p l i c a b l e I B S ' f o r i p l a n t e r w a l l s ' ( G 753 p r j ) HAS PREDECESSOR I'fon/stri? t y p i c a l s l a b : t o ? ' (G 1:3 t o p ) FS=3 & ' f o r a / p o u r e l e v / i e c h p e n t , s l a b ' ( G 153 PH) FS= 3 j I F ' h a r d ' I S ' p l a n t e r s 5 p a v e r s ' T E E S ' f o r a p l a s t e r v a i l s ' ( G 753 p r j ) HAS PREDECESSOR [ ' f o n / s t r i ? t y p i c a l s l a b : t o ? ' (G 159 t o ? ) FS=9 5 ' f c r s / p o u r e l e v / a e c h p e n t , s l a b ' ( G 159 P K) FS=3; ASD ' v a t e r p r o o f i n g a e a b r a n e : w a l k w a y ' ( 3 5 5 7 6 9 p r j ) HAS PREDECESSOR [ ' d i s i a n t l e s a n - h o i s t ' ( 1 4 5 6 3 3 p r j ) F S = 3 S ' r e s c v e s c a f f o l d i n g s ' (315 525 p r j ) ] I F ' d r i v e w a y ' I S ( ' c o n c r e t e o n s u s p . s l a b ' OR S o t A p p l i c a b l e ' p a v e r s ' OR ' a s p h a l t ' ) THIS ' w a t e r p r o o f i n g a e a b r a n e : d n v e v e y ' ( 3 5 5 7 7 9 p r j ) HAS PREDECESSOR [ ' d i s i a n t l e i a n - h o i s t ' ( 1 4 5 6 3 3 p r j ) F 3 = 9 5 s c a f o f o l d i a g s ' (315 526 p r j ) F S = 3 | I F ' d r i v e w a y s ' I S ' a s p h a l t ' THSS ADD A C T I V I T I E S ' w a t e r p r o o f i n g s e i b r a n e : d r i v e w a y ' ( 3 5 5 7 5 3 p r j ) ' r i g i d i n s u l a t i o n f o r d r i v e w a y ' ( 3 5 6 762 p r j ! , ' s a n d s u h b a s e f o r d r i v e w a y ' ( 3 5 5 764 p r j ) , ' p o u r a s p h a l t d r i v e w a y s u r f a c e ' ( 3 5 6 765 p r j ) , S i g n a g e I F ' s i g n a g e ' I S ' c o n v e n t i o n a l ' T HES ADD A C T I V I T I E S I F ' s i g n a g e ' I S - ' c o n v e n t i o n a l ' T HES S o t A p p l i c a b l e Page So. 2 65/18/83 APPENDIX 'A' - Project Specific Kaewledge Project Phase Functional Recuireient Pules ?or Selecting Punctioaiag Systeas Pules For licking Fanctioaiag Systeas Project Setvork Botes On location Seqijencing Of Repetitive Type forks SITS Soft Landscaping SIT3 Lobby 'building signage' (G 815 prj). IF 'soft' IS 'no irrigation' THSS ADD ACTIVITIES 'soft landscaping' (282 748 prj), IF 'soft' IS 'ind. irrigation' THSS ADD ACTIVITIES 'soft landscaping' (282 743 prj), 'irrigation systei' (282 742 prj). IF 'lobby' IS 'conventional' THES ADD ACTIVITIES 'steel stud lobby vails' (933 335 prj), 'electrical rough-in lobby' (153 035 prj), 'ventilation rough-in lobby' (153 835 prj), 'sprinkler rough-in lobby' (153 007 prj), 'steel stud ceilings lobby' (300 837 prj), 'install dryvall lobby' (900 339 prj), 'lain entry door fraies/storefront' (363 035 prj), 'tape, fill, k sand lobby' (383 811 prj), 'electrical fixture for lobby' (153 837 prj), 'lobby sprinkler finishing' (153 389 prj). 'building signage' (G 735 prj) HAS PREDECESSOR 'electrical lobby fixtures' (153 031 prj) FS=3. IP 'soft' IS ['irrigation' OR 'no irrigation'! lot Applicable THES 'soft landscaping' (232 740 prj) HAS PRSDCESSOR ['disiantle ian-hoist' (145 633 prj] F3=9 S scaffoldings' (815 526 prj) FS=9 ] IP 'lobby' IS 'conventional' Sot Applicable THES 'steel stud lobby vails' (900 005 prj) HAS PRSDCESSOR 'steel stud interior : top' (900 122 to?) FS=3. IF ['lobby floor/vails has marble' IS 'yes' 5 {('lobby vails' IS 'paint') OR ('lobby ceilings' IS 'sprajtei')) THES 'install lobby tarsia' (455 935 prj) HAS PREDECESSOR 'paint lobby' (959 885 prj) FS=0 k 'seal/piaster/s?ray lobby ceiling' (338 813 prj) FS=3. IF ['lobby lobby has tarble' IS 'yes' THES ADD ACTIVITIES 'install lobby sarble' (455 685 prj). IF 'lobby vails' IS 'paint' THES ADD ACTIVITIES 'paint lobby' (993 835 prj). IF 'lobby vails' IS 'wallcovering' THSS ADD ACTIVITIES 'vallpaperlobby' (555 697 prj). IF 'lobby ceilings has spraytex' IS 'yes' THEN ADD ACTIVITIES 'seal/plastar/spray lobby ceiling' (939 813 prj). IF ['lobby vails' IS 'paint' k 'lobby ceilings' IS 'spraytex' THIS 'seai/piaster/spray lobby ceiling' (503 613 prj) HAS PREDECESSOR ['tape, fill, sand lobby' (989 01! prj) FS=8. k 'paint lobby' (550 805 prj) HAS PREDECESSOR 'seal/plaster/spray lobby ceiling' (900 013 prj) FS=0] ELSE ['paint lobby' (559 835 prj) HAS PRSCECESSSOR 'tape, fill, sand lobby' (590 011 prj) FS4] IF 'lobby' IS 'conventional' THEN 'electrical fixtures lobby' (160 637 prj] HAS PREDECESSOR 'paint lobby' (353 835 prj) ES=9. 121 APPENDIX B A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge Data Include: - coding (of a c t i v i t y ) - a c t i v i t y d e s c r i p t i o n - predecessor(s) - l o g i c r e l a t i o n s h i p of predecessor to a c t i v i t y - p r oduction i n f o r m a t i o n - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n - r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y type - procurement item(s) & tasks Procurement Tasks: 1 = S p e c i f i c a t i o n from Owner/Consultant 2 = C a l l f o r Quotes from Su b t r a d e / S u p p l i e r 3 = Supply Award 4 = Shop Drawing P r e p a r a t i o n 5 = Shop Drawing Review & R e v i s i o n 6 = Owner's (Sample) Approval 7 = F a b r i c a t i o n 8 = Transport & D e l i v e r y to S i t e 9 = Work Coordinated by General C o n t r a c t o r Page Phase: Substructure 122 S u p e r s t r u c t u r e 130 Rough-In 135 Enclosure 144 F i n i s h i n g .... Sitework/Lobby 148 151 A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge SUBSTRUCTURE Page So. 1 95/18/S3 Coding A c t i v i t y ' D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r ! s ) G 869FRJ S I M PROJECT' G 595FRJ KOBILIZATIOS/BOARDISG G 899PRJ FS--9 .G 518-RJ I S S r A L L / C G S S F C I TFXF.' FO ' O G 5 9 5 P M ?S=3 imm mm sustiss simm G mm ss«i 228885PRJ BULK EXCAVATIOS APPFSDIJ '3' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n S e s p P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e i ( s ) S T a s k ( s ) S t a r t K i l e s t o n e o f t h e p r o j e c t s c h e d u l e . S e t t i n g up o f s i t e t r a i l e r s and b o a r d i n g . T h e d u r a t i o n depends on t h e s i t e of t h e p r o j e c t and the l o c a t i o n and e z t e a d o f the s i t e o f f i c e s . I n t h e c a s e where s i t e o f f i c e on ground l e v e l i s n o t p e r m i t t e d , o v e r h e a d h o a r d i n g must be d e s i g n e d and e r e c t e d i n which c a s e i t would t a b t o r e time. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y c o d i n g o f t h e g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r o r c o n s t r u c t i o n manager. 'G' R e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r o r c o n s t r u c t i o n manager 'G' a l t h o u g h the h o a r d i n g maybe a s s i g n e d to the f o r m v o r k c o n t r a c t o r i f t h e r e i s one. K B u i l d i n g P e r m i t : 1 H S t r e e t O c c u p a n c y F e r m i t : 9 O v e r h e a d H o a r d i n g D e s i g n : 9 D u r a t i o n depends on t h e number o f t r a i l e r s , t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e s i t e , and t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f u t i l i t i e s t o t h e s i t e such as t e l e p h o n e s , water, power. Work i n v o l v e s the s e t t i n g up o f t h e t e m p o r a r y power DOT, i n s t a l l a t i o n o f the e l e c t r i c a l equipment, and hook u? o f power f r o a the s t r e e t s e r v i c e . Time r e q u i r e d depends on t h e s i z e o f power needed i n t o the b u i l d i n g , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a s u i t a b l e p a n e l a l r e a d y l a d e up and used f r o m a p a s t j o b , and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f power s e r v i c e s from which Hydro can c o n n e c t i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g . I f t h e l a t t e r i s not a v a i l a b l e , Hydro c a n p u t up a t e m p o r a r y power p o l e f o r the p u r p o s e a t c o s t to the j o b . -Time r e q u i r e d depends on the s i z e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e b e i n g d e m o l i s h e d . S t r u c t u r e s w i t h l o t s o f c o n c r e t e w i l l t a k e l o n g e r t o d e m o l i s h t h e n one b u i l d from m o s t l y lumber. A n o t h e r f a c t o r i m p o r t a n t i s the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of t h e s i t e f o r d a s ? t r u c k s . A s i t e w i t h e z i s t i n g b u i l d i n g on b o t h s i d e s would be much more d i f f i c u l t t o g e t to t h a n one w i t h t h r e e o r f o u r open s i d e s . A l s o i m p o r t a n t i s i f t h e m a t e r i a l d e m o l i s h e d can be r e a d i l y d i s p o s e d . F o r e s e a p l e , t o x i c o r dangerous m a t e r i a l s such as PVC, a s b e s t o s e t c . . a r e o f t e n f o u n d d a r i n g d e m o l i t i o n which i m m e d i a t e l y r e q u i r e s s e a l i n g o f f t h e s i t e t o s t o p c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a . Time r e q u i r e d depends on the volume o f t h e removal, • t h e s t i f f n e s s o f t h e m a t e r i a l b e i n g removed, and the d e p t h o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n . The t i m e r e q u i r e d to e x c a v a t e a l s o depends h e a v i l y on t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y of the s h o r i n g c o n t r a c t o r who must keep up w i t h the e x c a v a t i o n i f the e x c a v a t i o n i s t o p r o g r e s s c o n t i n u o u s l y . A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e s i t e f o r d a s ? t r u c k s w i l l a l s o The box a s s e m b l y i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r , c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e box o n s i t e i s c o n t r a c t e d t o t h e e l e c t r i c a l c o n t r a c t o r , and hook up o f t h e s e r v i c e t o t h e p a n e l i s work o f t h e u t i l i t y a u t h o r i t y . The a c t i v i t y i s c o d e d a g a i n s t the g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t the g e n e r a l i s t h e o n l y c o n t r a c t o r w i t h p e o p l e on s i t e f u l l t i m e a t t h a t s t a g e . V o r k e i t h e r c o n t r a c t e d d i r e c t l y t o a d e i o l i t i o a c o n t r a c t o r o r t o the e x c a v a t i o n c o n t r a c t o r who may do t h e d e m o l i t i o n w i t h h i s own machine o r s u b c o n t r a c t the p o r t i o n o u t h i m s e l f . The r e s ? , code used i n t h e former c a s e i s '209' and '228' f o r t h e l a t t e r . Work c o n t r a c t e d t o a e x c a v a t i o n c o n t r a c t o r . '229' S P e r m i t from H y d r o S D e m o l i t i o n P e r s i t : : NO Page So. 3 85/13/83 Coding Activity Description • ?redecessor(s) G 652 FN FOGR PSXDBKR STRIP FOOTING 220312 FS SS=8 230015 FS EXCAVATE FAD FO0TISG 223312 FS SS=3 G Oil FS FORK/STRIP PAD FOOTING 223314 FS ss=e 330314 FN RSI5P0RCE FAD FOOTING 220314 FS SS=3 G 054 FS POOR PAD FOOTISG '333314 FS SS=3 22-3016 FS EXCAVATE CORE RAFT FOOTISG 223312 PS SS=9 G 316 FS FORK CORE RAFT FOOTISG 223016 FS FS=3 333316 FS REINFORCE CORE RAFT FOOTISG 5 016 FS G 855 FS PODS CORE RAFT FOOTISG G 815 FS 218319 FS INSTALL K00DSS/5TSSL PILES £5=2 FS=9 338815 FS APPENDIX '3' - Activity Specific Knowledge Production Intonation Responsibility Intonation Resp Procurement Type Ites(s) 5 Task(s) See G 012 FS Sase As 'G 612 FS'. S Concrete Kii Desi 1,6 Sea G 012 FS Saae As '223 812 FS' S See G 912 FS Sase As 'G 012 EN' S See G 812 FS • Sase As '339 612 FS' H See G 812 FN Saae As 'G 812 FS' ' S Tite duration is dependent on the site of Kork done by tbe excavating contractor. '228' N tbe footing and tbe soils condition. Tine duration depends on tbe size of tbe footing, Sans As 'G 912 FS' S Elevator Spec.: 1 tbe soils condition and tbe tetbod of foravork. If tbe soils is very stiff, then tbe soil bank theaselves car. be used as tbe for: and tbe concrete poured directly.against it. If tbe soils is very poor, then tbe tiae taken to fori tbe core footing will be lengthened by the slufficg of soils ia to hole. Tbe tite taken to fen and to pour the raft footing is but a fraction of that to do tbe other concrete elements and is scheduled in during this tine spaa. The core area is treated just like any other location of the foundation and the vork in this area begins and is pushed once the area is reached in the sequence around the site. But unlike tbe other foundation eleients, the raft is not repetitive and is done in one shot. Tiae duration depends oa the site of the footing and Sase As '339 312 FS' H the tonnage of steel. Tiae duration depends on the size of the footing Saae As 'G 912 FS' S and the voluae of the concrete. Also isportant is tbe aethod of placing the concrete, vbether by pun?, by crane and bucket, or by directly accessing tbe area yith the concrete trucks. Since tbe raft footing is typically not permitted to be done in sections, the pour vill be designed so to allow it done in a day. Tiae required depends oa the nnaber of piles, the Kork contracted to a Piling contractor. S Piles: 1 inclination at which these piles are specified to be installed, and the soils conditions. The tiie taken to drive each pile cay vary widely depending on the depth that it takes to reach bedrock or £ soils which will provide the specified resistance. cn Foaring of concrete blcck over piles installed into Saae As 'G 812 FS' 8 the ground. Like the other concrete eleients of the Fage No. 4 85/18/39 338813 FN REINFORCE RESIN.FIG. F I L E CAPS G 818 FN . SS=3 G 863 FN POUR PESIHETSS FTG. P I L E CAPS 338818 FN S5=8 G 824 FK ffltimt SU3LEVEL PESIK WALL 338324 PK REISF. SUB-LEVEL PERIS. STALLS G 824 PK SS=3 G 814 FK POL'S SOB-LEVEL F i S B , K ALIS 323824 PK SS=3 G 826 PK FCSX/STRIF S l ' 3 - L E V E l C0L5KNS G 824 FK SS=0 336329 PK SEISFC3CS SOB-LEVEL COLSKNS G 829 PK SS=3 G 073 FK F O B EG2-LEV5L CCLEKSS 338628 PK SS=0 G 822 FK FORK/STRIP S'JELEVEL CORE WALLS G 624 FK SS=3 333822 FK SEISEORCS SU3-LEVEL CORE WALLS G 322 PK SS=8 G 672 PK IOCS S3E-LEVEL CORE WALLS 328322 PK S3=3 21S153 PK SEO?CRS:E 216152 FK SHOTCRETE/ANC30R SODS 219154 PK UNDERPIN EXISTING FOOTINGS 219152 FK SS--8 APPENDIX '3' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n f o u n d a t i o n , t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o t o n a p i l e cap i s n e g l i g i b l e b u t t b e t o t a l d u r a t i o n t a k e n t o i o n and t o p o u r a l l t b e p i l e caps i s l e n g t h y s i n c e the sequence by which t h i s r e p e t i t i v e t y p e work i s done i s n o t by t h e type o f e l e t e n t , by r a t h e r by the l o c a t i o n o r a r e a t h a t t h e element i s l o c a t e d i n . See G 812 FN R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n P.esp P r o c u r e m e n t Type ! t e m ( s ) 5 T a s k ( s ) See 'G 812 FN' See 'G 812 FN' • See 'G 812 ;S' See 'G 812 FN' See 'G 312 FN' ' See 'G 312 FN' See 'G 612 FN' See 'G 312 FN' See 'G 312 EN' See 'G 012 FS' See 'G 012 FN' S h o t c r e t i n g o f the s l o p e to keep t h e s o i l from • s l u f f i n g i n t o t h e e x c a v a t i o n . S h o t c r e t i n g by i t s e l f , w i t h o u t a n c h o r s , i s r a r e l y done s i n c e the s h o t c r e t e i t s e l f i s n o t c a p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g the l o a d from t h e s l o p e . The use o f s h o t c r e t e by i t s e l f would o n l y be s e e n i t s m e l l e x c a v a t i o n where the c a v i n g i n o f the s l o p e i s not a c o n c e r n b e c a u s e the s o i l i s good o r i f t h e s l o p e o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n c a t i s v e r y low. Time d u r a t i o n v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h the e x c a v a t i o n d u r a t i o n as the d u r a t i o n o f t h e s h o t c r e t i n g w i l l f i t i a hetweea the t i m e span o f the t o t a l e x c a v a t i o n . Work i n v o l v e s s h o t c r e t i n g , d r i l l i n g o f a n c h o r i n t o the s l o p e , g r o u t i n g t h e s t e e l a n c h o r and t h e n f i n a l l y t e n s i o n i n g t h e a n c h o r a g a i n s t the s l o p e . The t i n e d u r a t i o n depends on t h e a r e a of s l o p e t o be s h o t c r e t e d end t h e number o f a n c h o r s to he i n s t a l l e d , The t o t a l d u r a t i o n o f the a c t i v i t y t y p i c a l l y f i t s i n t o t h e t i m e span o f the t o t a l b u l k e x c a v a t i o n . Time d u r a t i o n depends on the l i n e a l f o o t a g e of u n d e r p i n n i n g , t h e t h i c k n e s s o f the u n d e r p i n n i n g , and the h e i g h t o f t h e u n d e r p i n n i n g w h i c h w i l l d e t e r m i n e the amount o f r i g g i n g o r b r a c i n g needed, r i t e r e q u i r e d a l s o depends on the s o i l s c o n d i t i o n s Same As '338 312 FN' Same As 'G 612 FN' Same As 'G 312 FN' Same As '333 312 FN' . Same As 'G 812 FN' Same As 'G 812 FN' S a t e As '338 8!2 FN' -Same As. 'G 812 FN' . Same-As 'C- 312 FN' Same As '339 612 FN' Same As 'G 812 FN' S h o t c r e t i n g can be c o n t r a c t e d d i r e c t l y t o a s h o t c r e t i n g c o n t r a c t o r o r c a n be p a c k a g e d w i t h t h e e x c a v a t i o n c o n t r a c t . I a t h e f o r m e r c a s e , " t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y code used i s '213' whereas t h e l atter c a s e would use the code '228'. Same As '2!3 153 FK' Same As '213 158 FK' S h o t c r e t e : 1 N U n d e r p i n D e s i g n : 1 CJ> Page Ho. 5 85/18/33 Coding Activity Description Fredecessor(s) G 692 PK INSTALL EST. fSRIK. DSA1S TILS G 604 PK TRSSCH U/G UTILITIES G 692 PK SS=0 153684 PK INSTALL ¥5T UTILITIES G 634 PK SS=0 228686 PK EXCAVATE SDK?(S) G 632 PS SS=9 159696 PK INSTALL SUHP(S) 229585 ?K FS=9 G 693 PK ISSTAIL 1ST. FEP.IH. DRAIS TILS G 692 PK SS=3 G 023 PK SACKFILL/C0HPACT/5CREED S.O.G. APPENDIX T - Activity Specific Knowledge Production Infonatio Responsibility Information Resp. rrocuresent Type Ites(s) S Task(s) vfcicb detertines the sunber of sections or panels that a certain area oust be divided into to do the work. The sase soils condition vii1 also detersine tbe depth of each lift of eicavation and tbe accompanying underpinning and shotcreting. Jork duration depends cn the lineal footage of drain tiles and tbe gap left between tbe exterior wall and the excavation bank into which tbe worker Bust work to place the tile in place. Jork involves layout out the route that the wet runs which runs froa tbe building to the outside of the property lisits. Tiae duration depends oa the lineal footage of the utilities to be routed and tbe soils conditions. Actual installation of the pipes running froa tbe building to tbe services outside of the property liaits. fork is dose by the lechanica! contractor. Tiae required depends oa the soils conditions, and the lineal footages of tbe runs. fite depends on the nuaber of s fork done by laborers of tbe general contractor or the construction aanager. 'G' Jork done by laborers of the general contractor or the construction aanager. 'G' Although this work is lechanica! related, the ' aechanical trade always excludes 'civil works' froa their contract leaving this for the general to do. The eluding contractor, through the general aechanical contractor is responsible. '159' Done by the excavation contractor. '223' location Layout: 1 Again, start of work oa a particular sua? is not dependent on the sua? itself but ca the area or location that the sua? is situated. Tise required depends oa the nusber of sua? puaps ia each sua? and the way that they are connected. Usually, cusps are backed u? by a secondary ?ui? and electronic eqtipaent soaitoring their status aust be wired. Tiae duration depends oa the lineal footage < the drain tile. Tiae depends oa the soils conditions, the of foreign backfill brought ia, and tbe type of backfill brought in. The total duration of preparing the entire slab on grade depends on the area of the slab on grade and the naiber of sections that tbe total area is broken up and done. The sectioning typically depends on tbe progress «ork done by the techanici! contractor. '153' Done by the general contractor's own laborers. 'G' Vork done by the general contractor's laborers. 'G' S Backfill Materiel: ?,2,6 -•J Page So. 6 35/1-3/59 Cod i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n F r e d e c e s s 168632 PK INSTALL U/G HYDRO CDCTIHG . G 638 PK 168834 PK I S S f A L L U/G TEL5PH0S3 DOCTISG G 838 PK 3268:2 PK POUR SLA3 OS GRADE G 838 ?K 423315 PK P5ILD S C H . / J L K f . ROOKS 156313 PK SPRINKLERS IS SU3-LEYSL 158315 PK INSTALL KSCHASICAL ROOK APPENDIX T - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the o t h e r e l e m e n t s i n an a r e a and a r e a s a r e c o n c r e t e d as s o o n as p o s s i b l e t o t i n i s i z e t h e e f f e c t o f r a i n and p o n d i n g on t h e soil. See G 612 ?N on t h e e f f e c t s o f s e q u e n c i n g tbe s e c t i o n s o f p o u r s . r i s e d u r a t i o n r e q u i r e d depends cn t h e l i n e a l f o o t a g e o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e l i n e a l f o o t a g e of the run f r o a t h e b u i l d i n g t o t h e u t i l i t y s e r v i c e o u t s i d e t h e p r o p e r t y . T o t a l t i a e r e q u i r e d t o p o u r t h e e n t i r e s l a b on grade depends oa t h e n u a b e r o f s e c t i o n s t h a t tbe s l a b i s ' d i v i d e d . U s u a l l y , an a r e a o f the e x c a v a t i o n i s p o u r e d as soon a s t h e ar e a i s r e a d y t o s i n i a u e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e weather on t h e s o i l s . Each s e c t i o n o r each pour i s s i t e d so t h a t t h e f i n i s h i n g crew i s ' a b l e t o f i n i s h t h e s l a b b e f o r e i t s e t s . The t i t e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s , which d e t e n i n e s how b i g an a r e a c a n be pou r e d on a day, depends oa the o u t s i d e t e t p e r a t u r e and t h e a i x o f t h e c o n c r e t e . Sea G 312 EN f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f - l o c a t i o n t o l o c a t i o n s e q u e n c i n g on the p o u r i n g o f t h e SCG. f i t ! d u r a t i o n depends oa t b e n a t t e r o f r o o t s , and t h e s q u a r e f o o t a g e o f w a l l s t o be e r e c t e d . A l s o a f f e c t i n g t i s e i s t h e a u i b e r and shape o f o p e n n i a g s t h a t t u s t he l e f t i n o r through the w a l l t o a l l o w u t i l i t i e s t o r u a through. T i a e d u r a t i o n depends on the s i t e i a a r e a o f the u n d e r g r o u n d l e v e l . Each f i x e d a t o u a t o f ar e a i s r e q u i r e d by code t o have a s p r i n k l e r head. Hooking up o f t h e a e c h a n i c a l n e t e r i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g a e c h a n i s a . A c t u a l a t o u c t o f t i t e spend on w o r k i n g i n t h e a e c h . r o o t i s n o t lo n g but t h e work i s s p r e a d o u t i n t i t e s i n c e work i n t b e a r e a i s u s u a l l y l e f t as b u f f e r work where work i a the b u i l d i n g R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n t o n a t i o n Resp F r o c u r e t e n t Type I t e t ( s ) 5 T a s k [ s I n s t a l l a t i o n t y p i c a l l y done by t h e e l e c t r i c a l c o n t r a c t o r who e x c l u d e s t h e c i v i l works to t b e g e n e r a l ' s own l a b o r f o r c e , '160' C o n n e c t i o n f r o a t h e b u i l d i n g t o t b e p r o p e r t y l i n e i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l c o n t r a c t o r . '153' J o r k c o n t r a c t e d o u t to a c o n c r e t e f i a i s h i n g c o n t r a c t o r . I f f o r t w o r k i s done by t h e g e n e r a l , t h a n t h e r e s p o a i s b i l i t y code 'G' w i l l be d i r e c t l y u s e d . I f t h e f i n i s h i n g v o r k i s p a c k a g e d w i t h t h e f o r a w o r k / c o n c r e t e c o n t r a c t t o a s u b c o n t r a c t o r , t h a n t h e c o d i n g '323' i s used. V o r k c o n t r a c t e d t o a l a s c s r y c o n t r a c t o r . '428' V o r k done by the p l u a b i n g t r a d e w h i c h i s e n c o s p a s s e d by t h e g e n e r a ! a e c h a n i c a l c o n t r a c t . '150' i'ork done by the a e c h a n i c a l t r a d e . '158' S E q u i p m e n t L a y o u t : 1 S S p r i n k l e r s : 1,4,5,1,5 S Kech. E q u i p a e a t : 1,4,5,7,3 co Page So, 7 05/13/S9 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n • P r e c e c e s s o r ( s ) 168315 PK INSTALL ELECTRICAL RODS. 169318 FK SUB-LSvTiL LIGHTING A F F E S D H 'B' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n t o n a t i o n t a k e s p r i o r i t y oa the : Saae as s e c h a n i c a l r o o j e x c e p t t h e v o r k i s r e l a t e d to the e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e s . T i t e d u r a t i o n depends on t h e ounber o f f i x t u r e s and the l e n g t h s o f r o u g h - i n s t o power t h e f i x t u r e s . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n t o n a t i o n • V o r k done by the e l e c t r i c a l c o n t r a c t o r , '169' V o r k done by t h e e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e . '158' Res? P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e a ( s ) 5 ? a s k ( s ) S E l e c t . E q u i p m e n t : 1,4,5,7,8 S L i g h t F i x t u r e s : 1,4,5,8 to 130 A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge SUPERSTRUCTURE Page So. 1 05/19/89 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r ( s ) 146619PEJ ERECT XAS-HOISv 129:11 ?S S i I A V A ? S CRASS K C T I S 5 G 114 FS FOES CR.A!iS FOOTING 229114 FS FS=3 329114 PS RSIRFORCE CRASS FOOTISG G 114 FS ES=2 G 114 FS POOR CRASS FOOTISG 320114 FS FS=9 14S516FSJ EEECT/ISSTAlt, TOVER CRASE G 114 FS E3=9 APPSSDIJ '3' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Kno-.iedge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n Res? P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e a ( s ) i T a s k ( s ) Vork i n v o l v e s the s e t ap o f the a c t u a l m a n h c i s t s a c h i n e r y and cab as v e i l as the f l o o r t o f l o o r l o a d i n g p l a t f o r m e n t r i e s . The a s s e m b l y i s f i n a l l y approved by t h e l i f t i n g S e r v i c e S r a r c h b e f o r e i t c a n be used. Time r e q u i r e d f o r e n t i r e s e t up depends on the s e n - h o i s t b e i n g a v a i l a b l e on t i m e , the days t h a t the i n s p e c t o r t a k e s t o g e t t o t h e s i t e , and on whether the b u i l d i n g l a y o u t makes the a s s e m b l y o f the m a n - h o i s t easy. Some b u i l d i n g s v i t h o d d l y shaped f l o o r p l a t e s may r e q u i r e t h a t l o a d i n g p l a t f o r m s be b u i l t t o e x t e n d a d i s t a n c e o u t from t h e edge o f the b u i l d i n g t o r e a c h the h o i s t . Time r e q u i r e d depends on the number o f f l o o r s t h a t t h e n a n - h o i s t r e a c h e s and on v h e t h e r a c r a n e i s b r o u g h t i n to h e l p . The tower c r a n e i s t y p i c a l l y o f f the p r o j e c t by the t i m e the h o i s t c o s e s dova. A ssembly l e a s e d on a m o n t h l y b a s i s by t h e c o m p a n i e s I K a a - h o i s t : 9 which t y p i c a l l e a s e the o v e r h e a d t o v e r c r a n e s . O p e r a t o r i s u s u a l l y a l a b o r e r o f t h e g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r . D i s m a n t l e by t h e p e o p l e vho e r e c t e d i t . Time d u r a t i o n depends on the s o i l s c o n d i t i o n s and t h e s i r e o f t h e f o o t i n g . Crane f o o t i n g s are u s u s e l l y n o t l a r g e enough t o t a k e l o n g e r t h a n 1/2 day o f d i g g i n g v i t h a machine. Time d u r a t i o n depends on t h e s o i l t y p e and the l o c a t i o n o f the f o o t i n g r e l a t i v e t o t h e b u i l d i n g . I f the c r a n e i s to be w i t h i n t h e b u i l d i n g and r a i s e d up w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g as i t p r o g r e s s e s , t h e n t h e f o o t i n g b u i l t f o r i t would he c l o s e t o t h e o t h e r b i g f o u n d a t i o n elements. Oa l a n g a r a G a r d e n s , t h e c r a n e f o o t i n g was c o n n e c t e d v i t h t h e b u i l d i n g ' s c o r e r a f t f o o t i n g and t a d t o be c a s t i n p l a c e t o g e t h e r , t h e r e f o r e e l o n g a t i n g t h e f o r m i n g / p o u r i n g o f t h e c r a n e f o o t i n g . V o r k done b y the e x c a v a t i o n c o n t r a c t o r , '220' Same As 'G 912 FS' S C r a i e ; t g . D e s i g n : 5,4,5,7,3 Time depends on the s i t e o f t h e f o o t i n g and t h e t o n n a g e ' o f s t e e l t o be i n s t a l l e d . See G 612 FS f o r e f f e c t s on t i n e i f t i e d i n w i t h o t h e r f o o t i n g s , r3=3 Time d u r a t i o n depends on t h e volume o f c o n c r e t e and whether the f o o t i n g i s t i e d i a w i t h a a y o t h e r f o u a d a t i o n e l e m e n t s . Time r e q u i r e d depends on the t y p e o f c r a n e , the h e i g h t , the make, the l e n g t h o f t h e boom, and the a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e tower c r a n e l o c a t i o n o f equipment used t o r a i s e the c r a n e i n p l a c e . Same as-'336 912 FS' Same As 'G 012 FS' V o r k done b y t h e c r a n e c o n t r a c t o r vho l e a s e s t h e tower c r a n e . '146' N S t r e e t C l o F e r m i t : 9 Page So. 2 85/13/83 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r ! , 145538PRJ DISMANTLE TO»'SR CRASS 146513FFJ G lim FORX/STRI? COLSKS/SALL: 2SD FLR 329142882 REINFORCE COL'jy.S/XALL:2ND FLR G 142882 G 242882 FOl'R C0L0K)/SALL:2ND FLR G 142882 G 152992 FORK NON-TYP. SLAB:2ND FLR G 242882 338152882 RSISFORCE NON-TYP SLAS:2ND FLR G 152082 APPENDIX '3' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n . Resp P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e m ( s ) i T a s k ( s ) ' I t g e n e r a l l y t a k e s t h r e e working days a f t e r the p h y s i c a l e r e c t i o n o f the c r a n e t o s e r v i c e t h e c a b l e s and machine and be i n s p e c t e d b e f o r e i t i s p e r m i t t e d t o be u s e d . Time r e q u i r e d depends on hov h i g h t h e c r a n e i s , the a c c e s s i b i l i t y around the s i t e of equipment used t o d i s m a n t l e and t o lower t h e s e c t i o n s o f t h e c r a n e , and t h e method used t o l o w e r the c r a n e . Three s u c h methods a t e the use o f a l a r g e mobile c r a n e t o r e a c h t o t o ? o f t h e b u i l d i n g f r o a s t r e e t l e v e l , t h e use o f p r o g r e s s i v e l y s m a l l e r c r a n e s t o d i s m a n t l e and t h e n t o l o v e r the tower c r a n e and the r e i o v a l equipment t o the ground, and f i n a l l y the r a r e use o f a h e l i c o p t e r . Time r e q u i r e d t o f o r m , t o r e i n f o r c e and t o pour a column o r a f i x l e n g t h s e c t i o n of w a l l s i s o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f a day and would depend oa t h e type o f f o r m i n g system e s p e c i a l l y f o r w a l l . G a n g f o r a s a r e q u i c k e r t o use g i v e n ample s p a c e a t t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e s whereas b l i n d forms a r e cumbersome h u t u n a v i d e h l e i n l i m i t e d space s i t u a t i o n s . The t o t a l t i m e r e q u i r e d to do a l l s u c h elements on a n o n - t y p i c a l f l o o r would however depend on the number o f columns and the number o f s e c t i o n s o f w a l l s on t h e f l o o r . S o n - t y p i c a l f l o o r s a r e t y p i c a l l y l a r g e r so t h a t the t o t a l work f o r the f l o o r i s b r o k e n up i n t o s e v e r a l a r e a s t o be cone one a t a t i m e . The number of p r e f a b forms a v a i l a b l e t o be r o t a t e d between the number c f t h e columns and w a l l s i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r d i c t a t i n g t h e time d u r a t i o n . See the e f f e c t s o f s e q u e n c i n g the n o n - t y p i c a l f l o o r s by l o c a t i o n s in 'G 812 F S ' See 'G 142 032' and 'G 812 FS' See 'G 144 882' aad 'G 6!2 FS' The t i m e r e q u i r e d t o form a n o n - t y p i c a l s l a b depends c n t h e formwork method employed t o s u p p o r t t h e c a s t i n p i e c e p r o c e d u r e and t h e number c f s e c t i o n s t h a t the s l a b i s b r o k e n i n t o . T h i s number o f s e c t i o n s t h a t t h e s l a b i s b r o k e n i n t o depends an the s u r f a c e a r e a t h a t a crew can s c r e e d and f i n i s h the s l a b and on t h e p r o g r e s s o f work on the s l a b and t b e columns u n d e r n e a t h . See 'G 144 832' and 'G 812 FN' Time depends on t h e s i t e o f t h e s l a b and the tonnage o f s t e e l t o be i n s t a l l e d . See G 812 883 f o r the f o r k done b y t h e c r a n e c o n t r a c t o r vho l e a s e s o u t t h e c r a n e . S t r e e t C l o s u r e P e r m i t : 9. Same As 'G 012 FS' Same As '333 612 FS' Seme As 'G 612 F ! i ' Same As 'G 812 FN' Same As '333 612 FN' Page Ho. 3 mum C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r s ) 329152332 PLACE/FINISH NON-TYP:2ND SLAB 238152632 SS=8 G 151381 FORK GROUSD FLOOR SLAB 333151031 REINFORCE GROUND FLOOR SLA3 G 151831 SS--6 320i51631 PIACE/FIHISH GROUND FLOOR SLAB 320151931 S3=8 G um FCRH/STRI? TYPICAL COLESS/i'ALL ' G 243888 PODS TYPICAL C0L5KS/VALLS G 140933 SS=3 G 158033 FORK/STRIP TYPICAL 5LA3 G 248933 FS=8 338156033 REISFORCE TYPICAL SLAB G 153868 SS=1 328158366 PLACE/FINISH TYPICAL SLAB G 158603 FS=9 358186368 ERECT STRUCTURAL STEEL 355:32338 KSTAL FLOOR DECKING 353138860 FS=3 APFSNDI3 ':' • A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n P;esp P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e m ( s ) i T a s k ( s ) e f f e c t on t i m e o f b r e a k i n g tbe s l a b i n t o s e c t i o n s . T i n a depends on tbe t e m p e r a t u r e on t b e day o f t b e pour and a l o t oa t h e m i x t u r e . I t i s a g e n e r a l r u l e t h a t t h e a r e a c f s l a b pour oa any oae day depends on t h e r a t e a t w h i c h the s c r e e d and f i n i s h i n g c a n h a n d l e . The t o t a l t i m e r e q u i r e d t o p o u r a c e r t a i n f l o o r s l a b i s l a r g e l y dependent on t h e number o f s e c t i o n s t h a t i t i s d i v i d e d . See 'G 812 EN' Same as 'G 012 FN' 5 'G 144 382' Same as 'G 012 FN' Same as 'G 144 832' & 'G 912 FN' Time r e q u i r e d depends on t h e a n t h e r o f columns -end the l i n e a l f o o t a g e o f w a l l s . A l s o i m p o r t a n t i s t h e number o f p r e f a b forms f o r w a l l s and columns ased. Same as 'G 148 833' Time depends on t h e f o r m i n g system employed. On b u i l d i n g s where t h e r e a r e o v e r 7 o r 8 l i f t s o f t y p i c a l l e v e l , f l y f o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y nsed f o r s p e e d and e f f i c i e n c y . The number o f f l y f o n s u s e d , t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e forms can be s l i d o u t from under t h e f r e s h l y p o u r e d s l a b , and t h e a n i h e r o f s i t e s o f f i l l e r s t o be formed i n a r e a s where t h e f l y t a b l e s f i l l a r e t h e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i a g t h e d u r a t i o n . Same As '323 832 PK' Same as-'G 612 FN' Same as '333 312 FN' Same as '328 632 PK' Same As 'G 012 FS' Same.As. [Q 6:2 FS' Same As 'G 312 FS' l a s i t u a t i o n s where f l y f o n s a r e a o t f e a s i b l e o r where the b u i l d i n g l a y o u t r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e s l a b be l o o s e formed, the d u r a t i o n would i n c r e a s e s u b s t a n t i a l l y c a r f l o o r . Time r e q u i r e d depends on t h e tonnage o f s t e e l and whether t h e r e a r e f/t c a b l e s t o t e l a i d i a amount the o t h e r r e i n f o r c i n g ; . 53933 FS=0 T i t e r e q u i r e d depends oa t h e a r e a o f t h e pour. I f a s l a b a r e a i s t o o b i g f o r i t t o be p o u r e d and f i n i s h e d i a oae day, t h e n the s l a b would be b r o k e n i n t o s e c t i o n s and done i n sequence. Time d u r a t i o n depends oa t h e tonnage of s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l t o be e r e c t e d , t h e volume o r s p a c e t a k e n up by t h e r e s u l t i n g s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l frame, and t h e l e n g t h and h e i g h t s o f t h e members. A l s o i m p o r t a n t i s t b e equipment a v a i l a b l e t o h o i s t the s t e e l i n t o p l a c e . Time r e q u i r e d depends on the square f o o t a g e a r e a Same As '336 812 FN' Same As '320 032 PK' S o r k can be c o n t r a c t e d o u t to s e p a r a t e s u p p l i e r and e r e c t i o n c o n t r a c t o r s a l t h o u g h t h e two a r e o f t e n l i n k e d i n t o one c o n t r a c t t o the g e n e r a l . Assume the l a t t e r c a s e , '353' (fork done by the m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t e e l c o n t r a c t o r N S t r u c t u r a l S t e e l : 1,4,5,7,3 _ co co S S t e e l Deck: 1,4,5,7,. Page So. 05/13/S3 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s s r ( s ) 326192030 COSCfiSTS GROUT OS DECKING 355162999 FS=0 339253380 F03T-TES3IOS TYPICAL SLAS 326159939 FS=2 G 1 9 PS FORK SLEV./XECH. PEST S A I L S 33-2143 PH P J I S F . SUT./ECH. PES? i'ALLS SS=0 G 21? PH POD?. ELE7./HSCH. PES? i'ALLS G 149 PH FS=9 338143 G 153 PH FORX/FOS?. ELSvYKSCH PEST. ROOF G 243 FH FS=9 3:3283 RF ERECT STRUCTURAL FRAKE: ROOF G 153 PH FS=9 3:5232 RF HE T - I CLADDING OS STRUCT ERASE FS=3 APPENDIX '3' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r t a t i o s o f d e c k i n g t o be i n s t a l l e d and tbe a v a i l a b l i t y o f e q a i p a e a t t o b e l ? l i f t tbe s h e e t o f s t e e l d e c k s o n t o the l e v e l . P l a c e and f i n i s h o f l i g h t v e i g h t c o n c r e t e on s t e e l d e c k i n g . T i t e r e q u i r e d depends on the a r e a o f t h e pour and t h e r a t e a t v h i c h the f i n i s h i n g t r a d e c a n s c r e e d and f i n i s h t h e s u r f a c e . A b i g s l a b i a y be . broken u? i n t o s e c t i o n s l i k e the l a r g e r s u s p e n d e d s l a b s f o r t h i s r e a s o n . T i t e d u r a t i o n depends on t h e n u t t e r of c a b l e s t o he t e n s i o n e d . I t t a k e s l e s s t h a n 18 t i n u t e s t o p o s i t i o n t h e a p p a r a t u s and to s t r e s s a c a b l e . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e aaouat o f a o d i f i c a t i o n t h a t a u s t be aade t o t h e s a i l f e n s used t o f o r a t b e t y p i c a l f l o o r t o s a k e i t s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p e a t h o u s e . O t h e r w i s e , t h e s q u a r e f o o t a r e a o f v a i l s d i c t a t e s t h e t i a e r e q u i r e d . T i t e depends on t h e tonnage o f r e i n f o r c i n g s needed. H U>i T i t e depends on t h e v o l u a e o f c o n c r e t e t o be p o u r e d and w h e t h e r the w a l l s are p o u r e d a l l a t once o r i a s e c t i o n s and/or H i t s . T i a e d u r a t i o n depends on t h e a r e a o f t h e s l a b and the f e e i n g s y s t e a u s e d . T i t e r e q u i r e d depends on the tonnage o f s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l t o be e r e c t e d , t h e a v a i l b i l i t y of e q u i p a e a t t o p o s i t i o n t b e s t e e l , and the shape o r i n c l i n a t i o n c f the s t e e l , T i a e r e q u i r e d depends oa the a r e a o f t e t a l c l a d d i n g , the e q u i p m e n t a v a i l a b l e to l i f t t a t e r i a l t o the a r e a , the s l o p e c f the p i t c h r o o f , and t h e aaount o f d e t a i l work w h i c h l u s t be c u t i n t b e d e c k i n g , i e ) f o r s k y l i g h t s e t c . . . ' R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r a a t i o n o r t a y be packaged w i t h t h e a a i n s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l c o n t r a c t who subs t o a o i s c e l l a n e o u s s t e e l t r a d e . '355' f o r t h e f i r s t c a s e and '353' f o r t h e V o r k done by a c o n c r e t e f i n i s h i n g t r a d e '329' V o r k done by the r e i n f o r c i n g t r a d e . Saae as 'G 812 FS' Saae as '330 612 F S ' Saae as 'G 312 FN' S a t e as 'G 912 FH' S a t e as '359 199 036' Sase as '355 182 803' R e s ? P r o c u r e a e - a t Type I t e t ( s ) S T a s k i s ) 0 P/T C a b l e s : 1,4,5,7,3 5 S S E l e v a t o r M o t o r : 8 S S t r u c t . S t e e l : 1,4,5,7,3 S S t e e l Deck: 1,4,5,7,8 co A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge ROUGH-IN o;/:3/s3 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n G 7 2 0 0 0 0 GRIND C0NCRIT5 CSILIKGS wivm wmissi mm T R A C K S G 720000 m 9 0 9 1 2 2 0 8 0 S T E S L S T S B I N T E R I O R S 0 3 1 2 9 0 O 0 ?S«« soo!2=ooo s u a S T U D mm C O R R I D O R S 900122000 F S = O 9 0 0 1 2 5 0 0 0 CEILING H A S G A B S A N D CHANNELS 9 0 0 1 2 2 0 0 3 F 3 = 0 A P P E N D I X T - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r n a t i o n Resp P r o c u r e a e n t Type I t e s ( s ) 5 T a s k l s ] G r i n d i n g c o n c r e t e c e i l i n g s t y p i c i l l y i n v o l v e s one l a b o r e r o p e r a t i n g a s a n d i n g s a c b i u e on v'neels. Tbe tisse r e q u i r e d p e r f l o o r depends o a t h e s u r f a c e a r e a o f c e i l i n g s t o be ground. T h i s , i n t u r n , depends on the p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e c e i l i n g s which a r e t o be ground. O a l y c e i l i n g a r e a s where t h e r e w i l l be a f i n i s h a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y o n t o t h e b a r e • c o n c r e t e w i l l t h i s g r i n d i n g be done, Sih e r e v e r t h e r e i s a d r o p i n t h e c e i l i n g , t h e n a i l s and s p i k e s l e f t f r o a t h e f o r a work a r e l e f t oa t h e c o n c r e t e s u r f a c e . L a y i n g o u t o f the f l o o r r e q u i r e s o t e l a y o u t t a n and an a s s i s t a n t . T i t e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e l i n e a l f o o t a g e c f w a l l s and how e x p l i c a t e d t b e s u i t e shapes and l a y o u t s a r e . v i s e r e q u i r e d t o s t e e l i r a t e the i n t e r i o r c f a t u i l d i n g depends oa the n a t t e r o f sen i a tbe crew, the l i n e a l f o o t a g e o f w a l l s and the f l o o r space a r e a i a which t b e v a i l s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d . The s t u d d i n g t y p i c a l l y b e g i n s w i t h the f u r r i n g o f c o n c r e t e w a l l s and c o l u t n s f o l l o w e d by t h e a c t u a l s t u d d i n g o f the s u i t e s . The g r i n d i n g i s done by a l a b o r e r who w i l l be t y p i c a l l y h i r e d by t b e g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r . T h i s work Eay c o n c e i v a b l y be done by t h e f o r t w o r k t r a d e c o n t r a c t o r , i f t h e r e i s one oa the j o b . L a y o u t done by t b e s t e e l s t u d d i n g t r a d e who i s t y p i c a l l y p a c k a g e d i n w i t h the d r y v a l l i n g c o n t r a c t o r . ' 5 3 3 ' S a t e As ' 3 0 3 1 2 0 0 0 0 ' S t u d d i n g o f c o r r i d o r d r o p p e d c e i l i n g s t a s t be s t a r t e d S a s e As ' 9 0 0 1 2 0 6 0 0 ' a f t e r a f t e r b i g r o u g h i a i t e a s are i n s t a l l e d above t h e f r a a e b u t a u s t f i n i s h b e f o r e the s a t e r o u g h - i n s can be f i n i s h e d i n the a r e a . F o r e t a t p l e , v e n t i l a t i o n d u c t s under the c o n c r e t e s l a b b u t i n s i d e the d r o p p e d c e i l i n g a u s t be i n s t a l l e d b e f o r e t b e f r a i e of the d r o p i s s t u d d e d . The f i n i s h c f t h e v e n t i l a t i o n r o u g h - i n , t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f s a y e s h a u s t g r i l l s i n the s a t e d r o p p e d c e i l i n g s can n o t be c o a p l e t e d u n t i l the s t u d d e d f r a a e i s c o t p l e t e d . As a r e s u l t , t h i s a c t i v i t y i s t y p i c a l l y b u f f e r work t o t t h e s t u d d i n g crew who would have s e v e r a l t e n drop down f r o a t h e s t u d d i n g of s u i t e s up h i g h e r i n t h e tower t o c c s e down o f f and on t o s t u d d t b e d r o p s i n the c e i l n g s . T h e r e f o r e , the e s t i a a t i o a o f a d u r a t i o n f o r t h i s work i s d i f f i c u l t . Vben aa e n t i r e s u i t e i s t o have dropped c e i l i n g s , aucb Sase As ' 5 6 0 1 2 6 0 0 0 ' o f t b e u t i l i t i e s w i l l run-above t h e d r o p p e d c e i l i n g s so t h a t t h e f r a a i n g o f t h e c e i l n g a u s t be c o o r d i n a t e d v i t h tbe e l e c t r i c a l and v e n t i l a t i o n t r a d e s . The d u r a t i o n o f t h i s a c t i v i t y s h o u l d equate t o t h e t i a e b e t v e e a t h e s t a r t o f t o r i t a o n t a ! e l e c t r i c a l and co cn Page No. 2 95/18/89 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s c r ( s ) 159128889 8 K S I I I C J I C i S J I K IN SLAB 158432033 IKSTALL mnnm RISERS 156426333 FS=3 1531.34889 INSTALL VATIR SUPPLY RISERS 153432389 FS=8 158448883 PLSNBISG SUITE R03C-H-IN 156434993 FS=3 153442936 B A i W / S S 0 S 3 ROKH-INS 158446333 ?S=3 159442886 BATHTUB RCUCH-IN5 158448663 FS=3 153444368 SET SHOVER FANS 183443933 FS=3 153329639 VENTILATION DUCTS IN S I B A r P S S D n 'B' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n t o n a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n t o n a t i o n Resp P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e a ( s ) 5 T a s k ( s ) v e n t i l a t i o n r o u g h - i n s and t h e i r c o n p l e t i o n . Kork i n v o l v e s l e y i n g o u t v b e r e tbe p l u s b i n g r i s e r s are to p r o t r u d e t h r o u g h t h e s l a b oa each f l o o r . T i n e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e n u i b e r o f o p e n n i n g s which i s d e t e r m i n e d by the number o f s u i t e s p e r f l o o r and the number o f p l u m b i n g c o n n e c t i o n t o e a c h s u i t e . I n s t a l l a t i o n o f heavy wastewater p i p e s i s t h e f i r s t a c t i v i t y t h a t t a k e s p l a c e on a f l o o r a f t e r the formwork a c c e s s o r i e s a r e removed. The work • i n c l u d e s k i c k i n g o u t t h e m e t a l c a n s t h a t have been l a i d o u t i n the s l a b . Time depends oa the number o f p i p e s which depends oa t h e number o f s u i t e s . C o n n e c t i o n o f c o p p e r r i s e r s i n t o the f l o o r . V o r k i n v o l v e s more w e l d i n g work and more r i s e r s s i n c e t h e r e a r e s e p a r a t e h o t water and c o l d water s u p p l y r i s e r s a t e a c h l o c a t i o n . i n v o l v e s t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f h o r i z o n t a l s u p p l y l i n e s from the w a t e r s u p p l y r i s e r s t o s i n k l o c a t i o n s , b a t h t u b l o c a t i o n s and shower l o c a t i o n s . D u r a t i o n depends oa the nunher o f s u i t e s and t h e number o f bathrooms and a m e n i t i e s . K e c h e n i c a ! c a n n i n g s h o u l d i n v o l v e t h e p l u m b i n g t r a d e and t h e v e n t i l a t i o n t r a d e who e a c h need o p e n n i n g s i a the s l a b f o r t h e i r r i s e r s t o r e a c h t h o r o g h . S i n c e t h e s e t r a d e s a r e t y p i c a l l y encompassed i a t h e K e c h a a i c a l c o n t r a c t , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y code g i v e n t o t h i s a c t i v i t y w i l l be t h a t o f t h e t r a d e i a d i r e c t c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e g e n e r a l , i e '153' Done by t h e p l u m b i n g t r a d e w h i c h i s t y p i c a l l y encompassed i n t o t h e g e n e r a l s e c h a n i c a l c o n t r a c t , ie: '153' See '159 423 638' Same As '156 428 683' Same As '1:3 423 669' C F i n i s h P l u m b i n g F i x t u r e S p e c i f i c a t i o n s : 1,4,5 A p p l i a n c e S p e c i f i c a t i o n : 1,4,5 The a c t u a l h o o k i n g up o f t h e t u b and shower f i x t u r e s t o the h o r i z o n t a l r o u g h - i n s . The d u r a t i o n r e q u i r e d depends on t h e number of f i x t u r e s and t h e a i o o a t o f b l o c k i n g work t h a t must be b u i l t a r o u n d t h e a . S a l e As '153 423 386' 0 B a t h t u b : 1,4,5 Shower: 1,4,5 The c o n n e c t i o n o f t u b s t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l r o u g h - i n p l u m b i n g . Time r e q u i r e d depends on t h e number o f t u b s and t h e amount o f b l o c k i n g around the f i x t u r e s . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e base o f t h e : The v o r k i n v o l v e s rough c a r p e n t r y t o form the base f o l l o w e d by t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e d r a i n a g e i n the pan and c o n c r e t e g r o a t t o t h e base. Time d u r a t i o n depends on the number o f pans p e r f l o o r . l a y i n g o u t o f d u c t v o r k i n t h e s l a b b e f o r e c o n c r e t e pour. The d u r a t i o n o f v o r k depends oa the degree o f d u c t v o r k t o he embedded i a t h e s l a b . D r y e r / f a n Same As '156 428 863' Same As ' i 5 3 429 083' Vork done by t h e s h e e t m e t a l s u b t r a d e who i n t u r n i s t y p i c a l l y a s u c o n t r a c t o r t o t h e g e n e r a l m e c h a n i c a l c o n t r a c t o r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 0 B A t h t u b : 1,4,5 0 Shower D o o r s : 1,4,5 Page So. 3 05/13/83 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r ( s ) 15G-33-3S36 VENTILATION RISERS 158329883 158332033 NOTORIZED DAXPSRS 150338089 153243989 PAS/DRYER RCSC-H-ISS 150330803 153342000 FAS UNITS IS BATHS 150330330 1S7448606 CAELEYISION ROUGH-IS APPESDIi' T - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c F a o v l e d g e P r o d u c t i o n I n t o n a t i o n i b i i i t y I n t o n a t i o n Resp ; Type I t e a ( s ) S T a s k ( s ) d u c t s f r o s t h e s u i t e s t o the e x t e r i o r o f the b u i l d i n g a r e u s u a l l y the f i r s t to be d e s i g n e d i n the s l a b v i t h f r e s h a i r d u c t s f r o a the v e n t i l a t i o n r i s e r s t o the s u i t e s o c c a s i o n a l l y d e s i g n e d i n t o t h e s l a b . p l u a b i n g as w e l l . '130' I n s t a l l a t i o n and c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e v e r t i c a l s h e e t s e t a l t h r o u g h t h e f l o o r s of t b e b u i l d i n g . T i s e r e q u i r e d depends cn the s i z e o f t h e f l o o r v h i c h d e t e r s i n e s t h e nuaber of the r i s e r s p e r f l o o r . C o n n e c t i o n o f t h e a e c b a n i s a v h i c h c l o s e s o f f the v e n t i l a t i o n r i s e r f r o a f l o o r to f l o o r i n t h e event o f a f i r e . The v . j r i i n v o l v e s h o o k i n g up t h e u n i t s t o t t e c o v e r s o u r c e and the a c t u a l i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e s e c h a n i s a s i n t h e r i s e r s , fee o f t o t a i v o r k depends on the nuaber o f f l o o r s o f t h e r i s e r s . I n s t a l l a t i o n c f t h e d r y e r e x h a u s t d u c t s a l o n g v i t h t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f the f a : u n i t and a s s o c i a t e d d u c t v o r k . I f t h e d u c t v o r k i s a l r e a d y i n s t a l l e d i n t b e s l a b , t h e n t h e a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e s o n l y t h e r o u g h i n f i n o f t h e f i x t u r e u n t i s . O t h e r w i s e , the a c t i v i t y e n c o a p a s s e s t h e r o u g b i n i n c l u d i n g the d u c t v o r k . Sase As '150 820 000' V o r k i n v o l v e s the e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e and t h e s h e e t a e t a l t r a d e , The s h e e t a e t a l t r a d e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a s s e m b l y and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y code o f t h e a e c h a n i c a l i s t h e r e f o r e coded a g a i n s t t h i s a c t i v i t y . '159' Saae As '158 823 863' D a a p e r s : 1,4,5,7,3 0 Fan: 1 D r y e r : 1,4,5 T i a e r e q u i r e d p e r f l o o r depends oa t h e nuaber of f a n s f t s t h r o o t s ) i n the b u i l d i n g , the t u s b e r o f d r y e r e x h a u s t , and t h e d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d o f d u c t v o r k t o l e a d the e x h a u s t t o t h e d e s i g n a t e d o u t s i d e c f the b u i l d i n g . I n s t a l l a t i o n o f tbe f a n u n i t s and t h e a s s o c i a t e d i f s u c h d u c t v o r k a r e not a l r e a d y i n s t a l l e d i n the S a s e As '150 828 669' T i i e r e q u i r e d depends on the auaber o f f a n s p e r f l o o r , and t h e d i s t a n c e b e t v e e n t t e f a n u n i t s and the l o c a t i o n o u t s i d e the b u i l d i n g vhere the e x h a u s t t o be r e l e a s e d . H i r i n g o f c a b l e v i s i o a f r o i the c e n t r a l c o n t o l r o w o f t h e b u i l d i n g , u s u a l l y l o c a t e d i a t b e e l e c t r i c a l r o o a , t o t h e s u i t e s . T i a e depends on t h e cuaber c f s u i t e s p e r f l o o r , and t h e nuaber o f o u t l e t s p e r s u i t e . The c o n d u i t s v h i c h such v i r i n g a u s t r u n t h r o u g h are r o s g h e d - i n by t h e e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e i n t h e i r c o n d u i t • v i r i n g a c t i v i t y . V o r k done by t h e l o c a l c a b l e - v i s i o n c o a p a n y v i t h t h e c o n d u i t s r o u g h - i n t o the b u i l d i n g b e f o r e hand b y t h e e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e . The a c t i v i t y i s coded a g a i n s t t h e g e n e r a l e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e c o d i n g f o r s i m p l i c i t y s i n c e i t i s t h e a vho a u s t c o o r d i n a t e t b e u t i l i t y c o n p a n y t o coae i a a f t e r t h e i r c o n d u i t r o u g h - i n . i e ) '1:6' C S a t e l l i t e D i s h : 1 A p p l i c a t i o n t o U t i l i t i e s : 1 co CO Page So. 4 Coding A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r 168443388 TELEPHONE ROUGH-IS 157440308 153443333 1S?3?.C0X R O U C M S 167443893 wmm mm mmn ?isros 1412130-33 P5SF0HAP.T K 3 C PLATrORX F S « 0 l«2l5?.y ELEVATOR KACHISE/MT0R/C0STR0L 141210PRJ 141223PRJ INSTALL ELEVATOR RAILS 141213TO? APPENDIX '8 ' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n t o n a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n Resp P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e m ( s ) 5 T a s k ! W i r i n g o f t h e t e l e p b o n e s y s t e m from t h e c e n t r a l c o n t r o l l i n g u n i t i n t h e b u i l d i n g ; u s u a l l y i n the e l e c t r i c a l room, t o t h e s u i t e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g . Time r e q u i r e d p e r f l o o r depends on t h e number o f s u i t e and the number o f phone p l u g s p e r s u i t e . B.C. T e l now o f f e r s an e s t e r p h o n e s e r v i c e whereby t h e i r w i r i n g would a l s o f a c i l i t a t e t b e v o i c e p o r t i o n o f the e n t e r p h o n e s y s t e m . K o u g h i n g - i a o f t h e i n t e r c o m f i x t u r e as w e l l as t b e w i r i n g t o the u n i t s . The t i m e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e t y p e o f t h e u n i t . The i n t e r c o m s y s t e m i s c o n n e c t e d t o the e n t r y d o o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g , and w i l l have a u d i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s as v e i l as sometimes v i s u a l v i d e o c a p a b i l i t y . I n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e p i s t o n i a t h e p i t o f t h e h y d r a u l i c e l e v a t o r . The t i m e r e q u i r e d depends cn the s o i l s c o n d i t i o n s , where the p i s t o n i s t o be d r i v e n i n l i k e a p i l e . Work done by the t e l e p h o n e u t i l i t y p e r s o n n e l . The c o n d u i t s i a t h e b u i l d i n g a r e l a i d b e f o r e hand by t h e e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e . The c o d i n g o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e , i e . ] '153' i s used t o code t h i s a c t i v i t y f o r c o n v e n i e n c e s i n c e i t i s t h i s t r a d e who c o o r d i n a t e s t h e s t a r t o f t h e phone w i r i n g . A p p l i c a t i o n t o U t i l i t i e s ! 1 WOrk done by a c o m e n a i c a t i o a s p e c i a l t y s n b t r a d e . The r e s p o a s i b i l i t y code '153' i s u s e d . - E l e v a t o r company i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s d r i l l i n g a n d ' i n s e r t i o n o f t h e p i s t o n . C E q a i p i e n t : 1,4,5,7,8 S P i s t o n : 1,4,5,7,3 Ass e m b l y from f l o o r t o f l o o r o f t e i p o r a r y work p l a t f o n s from w h i c h t i e work on t h e s h a f t v a i l s a r e t o he c o n d u c t e d . Time depends i f the p l a t f o r m s a r e vooden p l a n k s of v o c d s p r e a d a c r o s s t h e s h a f t o p e n n i a g , OR, m e t a l s c a f f o l d i n g e r e c t e d i n s i d e the s h a f t . A l s o i n f l u e n c i n g the time r e q u i r e d i s the t o t a l number o f f l o o r s . S o t e t h i s i s n o t l i s t e d as a r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y s i n c e t h e y can u s u a l l y do more t h e n two f l o o r s p e r day. G e n e r a l r u l e o f thumb f o r o v e r a l l time r e q u i r e d to assemble an e l e v a t o r on s i t e i s : one week p e r f l o o r p l u s one week f o r c o n t r o l s and one week f o r m a c h i n e s . C o v i n g o f t h e c o n t r o l c n i t ( s ) aad s o t o r ( s ) t o t h e basement e l e v a t o r room. The t i m e r e q u i r e d depends on the s i z e o f t h e u n i t , t h e number o f u n i t s , ( d e p e n d i n g on t h e number o f e l e v a t o r s ) and t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e basement. Work the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e e l e v a t o r c o n t r a c t o r . The work i s t y p i c a l l y s u b c o n t r a c t e d o u t by t h e e l e v a t o r t r a d e hut the r e s p o a s i b i l i t y s t i l l l i e s w i t h t h e e l e v a t o r t r a d e who i s i n c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e g e n e r a l . '141' The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e '141' g e n e r a l e l e v a t o r c o n t r a c t o r . S E q u i p m e n t : 1,4,5,7,. I n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e s t e e l r a i l s t o the s i d e s of the e l e v a t o r s h a f t ( s ) . Work i n v o l v e s c l e a n i n g o f r a i l s , i n s t a l l a t i o n o f b r a c k e t s cn t h e w a l l where tb e r a i l s w i l l be c o n n e c t e d , and t h e s u r v e y f l o o r t o f l o o r Sane As '141 218 833' ID Page Ho. 5 65/18/83 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n F r e d e c e s s o r ( s ] APPENDIX '5' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n t o n a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n P.esp P r o c u r e a e u t Type I t e s ( s ) 5 T a s k ( s ) 141238PRJ BUILD CAE PLATFOEK 111223PRJ to ensure, t b e r a i l s are p l a t e d and t r e e , r i s e r e q u i r e d p e r f l o o r depends on the nuaber o f f l o o r s , and t h e m i s t e r o f e l e v a t o r s . A s s e n b l y o f f a l s e cab v h i c h house t h e f i n a l e l e v a t o r cab t h a t runs up and dova the b u i l d i n g . The a c t i v i t y i n c l u d e s b u i l d i n g o f t h e c a b t o vhen the f a l s e cab can be c o n t r o l l e d t o run i n t h e s h a f t f r o a t o ? t o t o t t o a . Saae As '141 215 ' 428210883 XJSOSRT TO ELEVATOR EST?.? 141230PR3 FS=S T i a e r e q u i r e d depends oa the nuaber o f f l o o r s and t h e n u a ber o f e l e v a t o r s . A s s e a b l y o f v a i l e n t r y f r o a f l o o r t o f l o o r u s i n g c o n c r e t e b l o c k s . T h i s a c t i v i t y vas p r e v i o u s l y s c h e d u l e d as a r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y b u t the p r o j e c t s . s c o p e d s h o v s t h a t the v o r k can be donv a t g r e a t e r t h a n 5 f l o o r s par day so t h a t i t i s nov s c h e d u l e d as a n o n - r e p e t i t i v e . V o r k o f t h e a a s o n r y c o n t r a c t o r , code '420' s i b i l i t y 141243PRJ ELEVATOR DOOR FE.AXES/DO0R5 423248TO? 141250PPJ INSTALL ELEVATOR C.A3 !4i!68??.J 141266PPJ ELEVATOR CONTROLS •41230PR3 141230PRJ ELEVATOR C.A3 F I NISH 141486PRJ ELEVATOR TEST S INSPECTION 141250PSJ 141266PRJ FS=3 E r e c t i o n o f the d o o r f r e i e s i n t o t h e c p e s a i n g s Saae As '141 215 000' l e f t by t h e a a s o n r y . These d o o r s c a o be i n s t a l l e d i n a b o u t 23 a i a u t e s p e r door a f t e r the e l e v a t o r t r a d e c l e a n s u? the o p e n i n g s f r o a the i n s i d e o f the s h a f t . S3--? 141268PRJ FP=3 Assembly o f e l e v a t o r cab onto t h e f u n c t i o n i n g f a l s e Saae As '141 215 608' c a b s , The cabs can coae v i t h i n t e r i o r f i n i s h i n g a l l c c a p l e t e and the cab v a i l s and c e i l i n g s c o n n e c t e d on s i t e . S o a e t i a e , tbe e l e v a t o r i n t e r i o r f i n i s h i n g s a r e done a f t e r t h e b a s i c cab i s a s s e s b l e d . T i n e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e above two f a c t o r s , the a c c e s s o f t h e cab f r o a c a r t a g e to the i n s i d e o f the s h a f t , and t h e n u aber o f e l e v a t o r s . FS=8 I n s t a l l a t i o n o f t b e e l e v a t o r c o n t r o l s f r o a w i t h i n Saae As '141 215 PRJ' t h e e l e v a t o r c a b ( s ) , t o the push b u t t o n u n i t s o u t s i d e each f l o o r e n t r a n c e , and f i n a l l y t o t h e a a i a c o n t r o l l i n g u n i t i n t h e e l e v a t o r r o o a . T i t e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e n u aber of f l o o r s , t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e c o n t r o l u n i t s , and t h e n u aber o f e l e v a t o r s , F3=9 I n s t a l l a t i o n o f the cab f inish i f n o t a l r e a d y . . Sase As '141 215 PRJ' i n s t a l l e d and a r r i v i n g oa s i t e f o r i t b e f a c t o r y . T i a e r e q u i r e d dec-ends ca the t v e e and f e a t u r e s o f the f i n i s h i n g , and the n u aber o f e l e v a t o r s . FS=8 141278FRJ FS=3 T e s t i n g o f t h e e l e v a t o r ( s ) by the t r a d e i a Saae As '141 215 PRJ' p r e p a r a t i o n t o t b e i n s p e c t i o n f r o a the e l e v a t o r s C o n t r o l s : 1 Cab F i n i s h : 1,4,5,6,7,8 S I n s p e c t i o n : 9 Page So. 6 ©5/10/39 Codiog A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n 1411S3FR3 HACHIN3S I S ELEVATOR PBST30USS 114232600 GARBAGE CHUTE FLOOR B R A C G T S 114284383 GARBAGE CHUTE SHEETKETAL 114232000 FS=8 420253883 HASOKP.Y AROUND GARBAGE CHUTE 114234088 P5=3 168420080 ELECTRICAL CANNING IS SLAB APPENDIX * B ' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n Resp PP Type Ite»(s S T a s k ( s ) b r a n c h , and t h e a c t u a l i n s p e c t i o n by t h e b r a n c h , T i n e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e number o f f l o o r s and the number o f e l e v a t o r s t h a t t h e t r a d e s t h e a s e l v e s have t o f i n i s h o f f , and the p e r s i t t h a t t h e g e n e r a l wants ' f o r th e e l e v a t o r . D e p e n d i n g on t h e r e a c h e s o f the e l e v a t o r , t h e c o n t r a c t o r c a n o b t a i n two l e v e l s o f a p p r o v a l . S e c t i o n 13, and the f i n a l p e n i t . A s e c t i o n 13 i s a p r e l i m i n a r y p a s s e d o f t h e e l e v a t o r w h i c h s a y n o t have i t s i n t e r i o r and f l o o r t o f l o o r e n t r i e s c o m p l e t e d b u t t h e e l e v a t o r o p e r a t i o n a l . I n t h i s c a s e , a s e c t i o n 13 i s o b t a i n e d so t h a t the cab c a n be o p e r a t e d by a o p e r a t o r so t h a t the t a n h o i s t can be d i s m a n t l e d . M o v ing i n t o p l a c e o f t h e e l e v a t o r m otors i n t o the e l e v a t o r p e n t h o u s e o f t h e b u i l d i n g b e f o r e t h e r o o f o f t h e penthouse i s c o m p l e t e d . T h i s a c t i v i t y e n t a i l s o n l y t h e p h y s i c a l moving o f the m otors and machines i n t o t h e a r e a where t h e y w i l l be c o n n e c t e d a t a l a t e r t i m e . C a b l e - r u n e l e v a t o r s may a l s o have the motors s i t u a t e d a t t h e bootm o f t h e a s s e m b l y i n which c a s e t h i s a c t i v i t y i s t o t n e e d e d . T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e s y s t e m can o n l y be used f o r e l e v a t o r s n o t g o i n g more t h a n 12 f l o o r s i n w h i c h case h y d r a u l i c e l e v a t o r s are more w i d e l y used. Time r e q u i r e d depends oa the s i z e and number o f u n t i s t o be l i f t e d i n t o the a r e a . I n s t a l l a t i o n o f m e t a l b r a c k e t s around the openning l e f t i n t h e s l a b f o r t h e g a r b a g e c h u t e . The b r a c k e t s a r e what w i l l h o l d u? t h e c h u t e . A number o f f l o o r s c a n be done i n a day and t h e t o t a l d u r a t i o n depends on t h e number of f l o o r s t h a t t h e c h u t e w i l l run. I n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e sheet-metal c h u t e r i s i n g from . f l o o r t o f l o o r , i f c r k i n c l u d e s p l u m b i n g t h e c h u t e and c o n n e c t i o n t o the b r a c k e t s . Time r e q u i r e d depends on t h e number o f f l o o r s . The t r a d e c a n t y p i c a l l y c o n n e c t two t o t h r e e f l o o r s i n a d a y i f tbe f l o o r i s ready, f o r t h e s h e e t m e t a l . To i s o l a t e t h e c h u t e f r o a t h e p u b l i c a r e a s o f the b u i l d i n g f o r s - . e l l and sound, the c h u t e s a r e u s u a l l y e n c a s e d i a masonry. The mason c a a do a f l o o r i n 2 -3 h o u r s and t h i s n o n - r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y w i l l t a v e a d u r a t i o n d e p e n d i n g c n t h e number o f f l o o r s which have t o be done. J o r k i n v o l v e s t h e l a y i n g o u t o f l o c a t i o n s where the Same As '111 215 PRJ' E l e v a t o r M o t o r s 1,4,5,8 Dene by a t r a d e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m e t a l a c c e s s o r i e s , JCS uses a s m a l l f i r m w h i c h o n l y does g a r b a g e c h u t e s b u t door and hardware t r a d e s w i l l a l s o s u p p l y garbage c h u t e u n i t s . Same As '114 232 003' S C h u t e . 1,4,5,1,8 Work c o n t r a c t e d d i r e c t l y t o the masonry t r a d e . '428' Work done by t h e g e n e r a l E l e c t r i c a l C o n t r a c t o r . Page So. 7 85/14/89 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r ) 168438083 ELECTRICAL R1SERS/PASSLS 168426883 166410003 ELECTRICAL BRACKETS & SWITCHES 160433803 168442883 ELECTRICAL C0SD8ITS 5 J I R I S G 160440300 159445069 EOT JATER PLUK3ISG EOR K S H S S 163444683 ROUGH-IS ELECTRIC EASEE0ARD5 1932863-.39 PIRFLAC3 RGKf.-IS 150538303 GAS L I S S TO PIRSPLACE 930138883 W a l l I n s u l a t i o n 900146063 500119600 I n s t a l l G y p s u t D r y v a l l 900122869 APPENDIX '3' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n t o n a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n t o n a t i o n Res? P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e i ( s ) & T a s k ( s e l e c t r i c a l r i s e r s v i i ! go t h r o u g h the f l o o r s l a b . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e n u aber of s u i t e s v h i c h v i i ! d e t e n i n e t h e n s s b e r o f r i s e r s g o i n g up t b e b u i l d i n g . 53422999 ES=0 I n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l r i s e r s and e l e c t r i c a l p a n e l s f r o a f l o o r t o f l o o r . The p a n e l s a r e then c o n n e c t e d t o the p o v e r d i s t r i b u t i o n s t a t i o n s l o c a t e d r e g u l a r l y i n the b u i l d i n g ( e v e r y second, t h i r d o r f o u r t h ' f l o o r ) The t i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e n u aber o f s u i t e s p e r f l o o r (each v i t h a p a n e l ) . L a y i n g o u t c f v h e r e t h e s w i t c h e s and o u t l e t s a r e i n each s u i t e and t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of tbe b a r e b r a c k e t s o n t o the s t u d s . T i t e r e q a r i e d depends on the n a i t e r o f s w i t c h e s and o u t l e t s p e r s u i t e , and t h e n a i t e r o f s u i t e s . R a a a i a g o f c o n d u i t s and t h a t v i r i n g f r o a t h e p a n e l s . i n e a c h s u i t e t o t h e o u t l e t , f i x t u r e , s w i t c h l o c a t i o n . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e d i f f i c u l t y and d i s t a n c e t h a t i t t a k e s t o run t h e v i r e s f r o a t h e p a n e l t o t h e d e s i g n a t e d l o c a t i o n s . R o u c h i n g - i a box i n t o t b e v a i l where the e l e c t r i c a l b a s e b o a r d s w i l l be l o a n t e d . The t i a e r e q u i r e d p e r f l o o r depends on the n u a b e r o f s u c h b a s e b o a r d s p e r s u i t e , and t h e nuaber o f s u i t e s . R o u g h i a g - i n o f t h e f i r e p l a c e i n t o t h e w a l l b e f o r e t h e o p e n n i n g i s d r y v a l l e d . Tbe v o r k i n v o l v e s t h e p h y s i c a l i n s t a l l a t i o n o f the rough box i n t o t h e w a i l and the c o n a e c t i o a o f e x h a u s t d u c t s t o the c h i x n e y s . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on the d e t a i l o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n s o f t h e r o u g h box f r o a o t h e r s o u r c e s and t h e nuaber o f f i r e p l a c e s p e r f l o o r . I n s t a l l a t i o n of gas l i a e t o t h e f i r e p l a c e r o u g h - i n . T i n e r e q u i r e d p e r f l o o r depends on the n u aber o f f i r e p l a c e s p e r f l o o r and t h e l e n g t h o f t h e run o f t b e gas l i n e f r o a t h e s o u r c e t o t h e f i r p l a c e . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e s q u a r e f o o t a g e o f v a i l s t o be d r y v a l l e d . T h i s v o r k a c t u a l l y t a k e s so l i t t l e t i a e t h a t i t i s done a l o n g v i t h t h e dry-wall i n s t a l l a t i o n . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e s q u a r e f o o t a g e o f v a i l s and, i f a e c c e s s a r y , c e i l i n g s to be d r y v a l l e d . A l s o e f f e c t i n g t h e t i a e i s tbe nuaber of e l e c t r i c a l '166' Saae As '159 429 900'-S a s e As '160 420 903' : As '160 429 I C o n t r a c t e d t o t h e p l u a b i c g t r a d e who i s g e n e r a l l y e a c o a p a s s e d by the t a i n t e c h a a i c a ! c o n t r a c t o r . '153' J o r k done t y tbe E l e c t r i c a l c o n t r a c t o r who w i l l a l s o i n s t a l l and c o n n e c t t h e f i n a l b a s e b o a r d , See '169 429 080' K o r k c o n t r a c t e d t o a f i r e p l a c e c o n t r a c t o r . '103' V o r k c o n t r a c t e d t o the p l u n b i n g t r a d e who i n t u r n i s a sab o f the g e n e r a ! t e c h a n i c a ! c o n t r a c t o r . '159' 'See '156 429 699' Sase As '990 120 860' V o r k done by t h e d r y w a l l i n g c o n t r a c t o r . '989' 0 P a n e l s , B r a c k e t s , S w i t c h e s 1,4,5,7,2 C P o l l e r : 1,4,5,7,3 C F i r e p l a c e : 1,4,5,6,7,3 Page No, 8 35/13/83 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r s ] S33153339 Tape 5 F i l l J o i n t s 900149366 PS APPENDIX T - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n and v e n t i l a t i o n o u t l e t s i n t h e v a i l s and t h e c e i l i n g s v h i c h the d r y v a l l e r must c a t o p e n n i n g s f o r . The time i t t a k e s t a d r y v a l l a s e c t i o n would be l o n g e r i f t h e i n s t a l l e r measures and p r e c u t s e a c h o p e n n i n g b e f o r e s c r e w i n g the d r y v a l l b o a r d i a p l a c e . K o s t t r a d e s speed up t h i s p r o c e s s by u s i n g a r o u t e r saw t o c u t i n the d r y v a l l d i r e c t l y a f t e r i t i s screwed i n p l a c e . P r o b l e m s w i t h t h i s i s the o c c a s i o n a l damage t o the o u t l e t h o s e s and w i r i n g i n s i d e , v i s e r e q u i r e d p e r f l o o r depends on the t e m p e r a t u r e and h u m i d i t y i n t b e d r y v a l l e d a r e a , t h e s q u a r e f o o t a g e o f w a l l s aad t b e number o f c o a t s o f f i l l s p e c i f i e d . H e a t e r s a r e used i a t h e w i n t e r t a speed o: the d r y i n g o f t h e p l a s t e r . r e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n P.esa P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e m ( s ) i T a s k ( s ) Work doae by a t a p i n g and filling t r a d e who S i s t y p i c a l l y a s a b t r a d e o r on c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e g e n e r a l d r y w a l l i n g c o n t r a c t o r . '563' co 1HH A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge ENCLOSURE Face So. 1 es/ie/39 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n F r e d e c e s s o r ( s ) mnm S T E E L S T U D E X T E R I O R H I L L S wmm mm E X T E R I O R W A L L S 900220000 F S = O mim I S S ' J L A T S E X T E R I O R S M S 615525PRJ ERECT SCAiEOLBLSO/SWIHGSTAGE APPSSDIX 'B' • A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r s a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r s a t i o n R es? P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e a ( s ) 5 T a s k ( s ) S t e e l S t u d d i n g o f t h e E x t e r i o r W a l l s i s u s u a l l y done . Same As '960 129 060' c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the S t e e l S t u d d i n g o f tbe I n t e r i o r W a l l s . T h e r e i s t y p i c a l l y a r u s h t o frame a t l e a s t a c o u p l e o f t h e f l o o r s so t h a t s i t e m e a s u r i n g o f windows can be done t o s t a r t the window m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s . l a y o u t must be done a t s e v e r a l f l o o r s a t a t i m e t o a l l o w t h e e x t e r i o r b u i l d i n g l i c e t o be plumb. The d u r a t i o n t o c o e p l e t e a f l o o r depends oa t h e a r e a o f s t u d w a l l s and t h e number o f crews working. S h e a t h i n g i n v o l v e s t h e h a n g i n g o f e x t e r i o r Same As '990 Hi 666' d r y w a l l t o t h e o u t s i d e f a c e c f s t e e l s t u d d i n g . The work can he done w i t h o u t e x t e r i o r s c a f f o l d i n g s a l t h o u g h some screws a r e f i n a l l y t i g h t e n e d when tb e s c a f f o l d i n g s a r e s e t u p t o do t h e c l a d d i n g f i n i s h . 0 Wind l o a d i n g : 1 S t e e l S t u d W a l l : 4 The d u r a t i o n p e r f l o o r depends oa t h e cumber c f men i n t h e crew, on t h e t o t a l a r e a o f s h e a t h i n g , and oa bow f r a g m e n t e d the s t u d w a l l s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d on t h e b u i l d i n g f a c e . I n s u l a t i o n o f e x t e r i o r w a l l s a r e done as soon as the e l e c t r i c a l and p l u m b i n g r o u g h - i n s on t h e f l o o r i s c o m p l e t e d . T h i s work i s t y p i c a l l y done j u s t b e f o r e a w a l l i s c l o s e d i a v i t h i n t e r i o r d r y w a l l and the d u r a t i o n depend on t h e s q u a r e f o o t a g e o f v a i l s . E r e c t i o n of e x t e r i o r s c a f f o l d i n g i n v o l v e s t h e e r e c t i o n of the s c a f f o l d i n g frames up t o t h e d e s i r e f l o o r l e v e l . The f l o o r s s c a f f o l d e d a t e a c h l i f t depends on t h e number o f f l o o r s o f t h e b u i l d i n g and oa t h e amount c f the e x t e r i o r w h i c h needs t o be s c a f f o l d . O n l y the a r e a s where e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g f i n i s h i s r e q u i r e d i s s c a f f o l d e d . The number o f f l o o r s t o be s c a f f o l d e d a t a t i m e i s u s u a l l y so to a l l o w t h e f i n i s h i n g t r a d e 2-3 weeks o f v o r k b e f o r e r e q u i r i n g an a d d i t i o n a l l i f t o f s c a f f o l d . A b a l a n c e between t h e c o s t o f r e n t i n g the s c a f f o l d s and t h e c o s t o f d e l i v e r i n g t h e s c a f f o l d s must be made. The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a c r a n e t o h e l p l i f t s c a f f o l d i n g m a t e r i a l s i s a b i g h e l p a l t h o u g h Same As '560 139 000' S c a f f o l d i n g i s t y p i c a l l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r t r a d e who needs i t f o r h i s work. The e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g f i n i s h t r a d e s a r e t y p i c a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own s c a f f o l d s . D e a l s a r e o f t e n made between t h e s e t r a d e s t o s c a f f o l d a l l t h e v o r k a r e a s a t once t o t i a i i i i z e d e l i v e r y and e r e c t i o n c o s t s . I f a t r a d e o n l y needs t o v o r k on a s m a l l a r e a o f t h e b u i l d i n g f a c a d e , he may o p t f o r a s w i n g s t a g e v h i c h l o w e r s o n l y t o t h e a r e a s o f work. The c o d i n g used i s 015 f o r a s e p a r a t e s c a f f o l d i n g t r a d e c o n t r a c t o r a l t h o u g h the s c h e d u l e s h o u l d use t h e r e s ? , code c f the t r a d e who a c t u a l l y r e n t s t h e s c a f f o l d s , i e ) 420 o r 999. WCB I n s - e c t i c a : 9 Page Ho. 2 85/18/89 Cod i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r s ) 988358883 VAPOR BARRIER/KESH/CONTR0L JOI 615525PRJ • FS=9 930330009 CEKE5T/SA5D SCRATCH C O M 930350303 FS=8 993333083 C f i G S r V S A S D SECOND COAT 909330309 P3=3 909335938 ACRYLIC SVBCCO H 8 I 3 E 988333393 13=9 903313333 SEAL/CAULK STUCCO JOISTS '990335009 ! S « « G 135999 IROS ANGLES IS COSCRETE SLAB 425259888 INSTALL VAPOR BARRIER 915525PRJ FS=3 APPENDIX T - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r n a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n t o n a t i o n Rasp F r o c u r e s e n t T y p e I t e s f s J ' S T a s k ( s ) i t i s n o t n a n d a t o r y s i n c e the s c a f f o l d s have i t s own h o i s t i n g s e c h a u i s a . Tbe s c a f f o l d i n g i s u s u a l l y r a i s e d d u r i n g t b e weekend so t h a t the c r a n e c a n g i v e i t f u l l a t t e n t i o n . V o r k i n v o l v e s t h e t a c k i n g o f v a p o r b a r r i e r s ( b u i l d i n g p a p e r o r t y v e k ] t o t h e e x t e r i o r s h e a t h i n g b e f o r e t b e c l a d d i n g f i n i s h i s a p p l i e d . H i r e a e s h i s o f t e n i n s t a l l a t t h i s t i n e i f i t i s s p e c i f i e d . The work i s done j u s t b e f o r e t h e w a l l a r e a i s a p p l i e d w i t h t h e c e s e n t / s a n d s t u c c o base. I n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e v a p o r b a r r i e r i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s t u c c o t r a d e . S i n c e t h e s t u c c o work i s t y p i c a l l y c o n t r a c t e d by the s t u d d i n g / d r y v a l l / t a p i D g / s t a c c o t r a d e c o n t r a c t o r , t b e 989 c o d i n g i s used. 'Ceaent/Sand S c r a t c h C o a t ' i n v o l v e s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t u d b a s e on t o the e x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g . S i n c e a 3/4' b a s e i s t y p i c a l l y needed, a s c r a t c h c o a t i s oo and a second c o a t b u i l t on top oa a r u n . See 983 358 683. Tbe d u r a t i o n o f the a c t i v i t y depends oa t b e s u r f a c e a r e a s b e i n g s t u c c o and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e a r e a s on t h e b u i l d i n g f a c a d e . See 989 333 009. A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e a c r y l i c c o a t i n g o n t o t h e b u i l t - u p c e a e a t / s a a d base. See 989 359 000. See 983 350 003. C C o l o r / T e x t u r e : 1,5 The d u r a t i o n o f the a c t i v i t y depends oa tbe s u r f a c e a r e a o f t h e s t u c c o and t b e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e a r e a s c n t h e b u i l d i n g f a c a d e . W a t e r p r o o f i n g o f a r e a s where the s t u c c o a e e t s w i t h o t h e r e x p o n e n t s o f t h e b u i l d i n g , i e ) w i t h p a t i o d o o r s , windows, e x t e r i o r b r i c k e t c . . . I n c l u d e d i n the scope o f work of the s t u c c o c o n t r a c t o r who i n t r u n i s t y p i c a l l y e n c l o s e d i n t b e s t u d d i n g / d r y w a l l / t a p i a g / s t a c c o c o n t r a c t . D e r a t i o n depends oa the component t h a t t h e s t u c c o i s j o i n t v i t h and the d e t a i l s p e c i f i e d . O f t e n , s t u c c o a n g l e s o r t r i s s a r e s p e c i f i e d and t h e c o n n e c t i o n s c a u l k e d . P l a c e a e n t o f a n g l e s eabedded i n t o t h e t y p i c a l s l a b edge f o r use by t h e e t e r i o r b r i c k s t o s i t on. The v o r k i s done by t h e f o n v o r k c r e v and t h a t s o n l y a s a a l l f r a c t i o n o f t i a e t o do. T a c k i n g on o f b u i l d i n g paper o r t y v e k on The a c t u a l c a u l k i n g i s however t y p i c a l l y i t o a s i a i l e r c o n t r a c t o r s p e c i a l i z i n g i n c a u l k i n g . S i n c e t h e a n g l e s a r e eabedded i n t o t h e s l a b edge, t h i s a c t i v i t y i s p e r f o n e d by the f o r s v o r k c r e v which i s a s s u a e d t o be by t h e G e n e r a l C o n t r a c t o r ' s own f o r c e s , G. The v a o o r b a r r i e r i s a d e t a i l o f t h e b r i c k 0 I r o n A n o l e S i 1,4,5,7,'a , Face S3. 3 05/10/53 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n APPENDIX '3' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r e d e c e s s o r ( s ) P r o d u c t i o n I n f o m a t i O : R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n P.eso P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e m ( s ) S T a s k ( s ) 8 5 5 ! 3 8 p r j SITE KSASSREHESTS OE OPESISO: G imi VISDOW/PATI0 DOOR KOOD LINERS S55150C30 SITS DELIVER!' OE WISBOWS/OOORS S S 5 ! 8 8 p r j 85O5230O3 INSTALL ALUXIS'JK WINDOWS 855150000 !S=15 FS=3 G s h e a t h i n g b e f o r e t h e c l a d d i n g f i n i s h i s a p p l i e d . The work i s t y p i c a l l y done j u s t b e f o r e - t h e b r i c k i s p l a c e d on the e z t e r i o r c l a d d i n g . The p l a c e m e n t o f t h e v a p o r b a r r i e r s t a k e s a f a c t i o n o f a day b u t i s done c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h ' i n s t a l l e x t e r i o r b r i c k ' so t h a t t h e a c t i v i t y seems e l o n g a t e d i n d u r a t i o n . On s i t e measurement o f window and p a t i o . d o o r o p e n i n g s b e f o r e f a b r i c a t i o n . The m e a s u r i n g t a k e s a f r a c t i o n o f a day t o do once t h e e x t e r i o r s t u d d i n g o f t h e f l o o r i s c o m p l e t e d . L i n i n g c f w i n d o w s / p a t i o d o o r o p e n i n g s i n p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l w i n d o w / p a t i o d o e r s . D u r a t i o n depends on the number o f windows and t t e number of men p u t on t h e t a s k . 133330 FS=3 I n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e windows and d o o r s i n v o l v e s s e c u r i n g t h e windows and doo r s i n t o t h e s t u d w a i l o p e n n i n g s . c l a d d i n g f i n i s h and i s p l a c e d by t h e masonry c o n t r a c t o r , 425. Work i s done by t h e v i n d o v / p a t i o d o o r s m a n u f a c t u r e r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m e a s u r e m e n t / f a h r i c a t i o n / d e l i v e r y o f t h e m a t e r i a l s o n l y . I n s t a l l a t i o n and c a u l k i n g i s t y p i c a l l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a s e p a r a t e c o n t r a c t o r . 855 has been u s e d f o r t b e m a n u f a c t u r e r w h i l e 853 f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n c o n t r a c t o r . L i n e r s and o t h e r rough c a r p e n t r y work i s t y p i c a l l y dona by the g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r ' s own crew o r t i e f o n w o r i crew c a r p e n t e r s . . The g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r i s assumed f o r t h e work i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , G. See 355 133 ? r j Work i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e c o n t r a c t o r h i r e d t o i n s t a l l and t o c a u l k t h e windows and p a t i o d o o r s , 8:0. N Windows: 1,4,5,3,3 Windows w i t h C o l o r : 1,4,5,6,7,3 850525893 INSTALL PATIO DOORS 858528338 CAULK WINDOWS/PATIO DOORS 855150338 853523339 The d u r a t i o n p e r f l o o r depends on t h e c a s t e r o f windows and d o o r s , t h e s i t e s o f t h e m a t e r i a l , and any s p e c i a l windows o r g l a r i n g s s u c h a s windows w i t h c o r n e r edges o r c u r v e d g l a r i n g s . D u r a t i o n a l s o depends on the s i l l f l a s h i n g s w h i c h a r e i n s t a l l e d a l o n g w i t h t h e windows a t t h i s t i m e , Some s i l l f l a s h i n g s are g l u e d on, some screwed on and some s t u c k on v i t h a h e s i v e t a p e . FS=8 G 183369 FS=0 See 853 523 868. SS=3 853536888 SS=6 See 858 523 393. See 858 520 833. See 853 523 860. -p ^3 A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge FINISHINGS Page So. 1 65/19/39 C o d i n g a c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r s ] 999919969 PAIST PRIK5R COAT 999922899 PAINT P I S I S H COAT KITCHEN/BATH 593510000 FS--8 950924333 PAIST P I S I S H COAT IS REMAINDER 993522883 FS=3 955328099 INSTALL WALLCOVERINGS 990919889 FS=9 966328009 SEAL/PLASTER CEILING 906323865 APPLY CEILING SPRAYTEX FINISH 908323339 ?S=3 533319093 CERAMIC T I L E BATHTUBS/SHOWERS 123382963 KITCHES/BATHROOH CABISETS 930330999 FS=9 123394988 KITCEES/BATHROOK C0DSTERT0P3 123382889 F5=2 181166809 SHOWER DOOR ISS T A L L A T I C S 338316889 FS=3 133199609 BATHROOM ACCESSORIES (MIRRORS) 123334909 FS=8 159458903 PLl'KBLSG F U T U R E S 123394999 FS=9 APPENDIX '3' P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r t a t i o a - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n Resp P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e a ( s ) 4 T a s k ( s ] T i n e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e s q u a r e f o o t a g e • o f v a i l s and c e i l i n g s t h a t have t o be p a i n t e d ,tbe nuaber o f c o l o r s o f p a i n t , and t h e nuaber o f r o o a s t h a t t h e p a i n t e r has t o s h i f t t o . A l s o i n p o r t a n t i s the a a o u n t o f wood t r i a s t h a t has t o be p a i n t e d . F r i t s a r e auch s l o v e r t o p a i n t t h a n v a i l s and c e i l i n g s b e c u a s e t b e b i g g e r a r e a s can be s p r a y e d w h i l e t h e s a a l l e r d e e t a i l s have t o be hand p a i n t e d . Saae As 550 910 863 T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on the a r e a o f w a l l p a p e r i n g t h a t has t o be done. A l s o a f f e c t i n g t h e d u r a t i o n i s t h e q u a l i t y o f t b e sand f i n i s h e d d r y - w a l l . The w a l l p a p e r has t o t o u c h a? any t i n c r f l a w s b e a f o r e he can c o v e r t h e a r e a s . T i t e r e q u i r e d depends oa t h e n u t b e r o f l a y e r s o f f i l l s p e c i f i e d , and the c o n c r e t e f i n i s h o f t h e c e i l i n g . C e i l i n g s t h a t a r e ' uaevea o r h i v e n a i l s o r v o i d s t a k e s l o n g e r t o f i l l a ? ! The n u a b e r o f r o o t s a l s o d e t e r t i n e s p r e p a r t i o n t i a e s i n c e e a c h v a i l has t o he p l a s t i c e d o v e r . Sate As 903 328 693 l i t e r e q u i r e d depends on the a r e a o f t i l e v o r k . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends oa the l i n e a l f o o t a g e o f c a b i n e t s p e r s u i t e , t b e nuaber o f s u i t e s , and the n u aber o f c o t p o n e n t s o f t h e c a b i n e t s v h i c h have t o a o u n t e d p e r r o o a . See 123 362 669. A l s o depends on t h e t y p e of c o u n t e r t o p v h i c h d e t e r t i n e s t b e ease o f t h e t o ? t o be Mounted. T i t e depends on t b e n u aber o f shower d o o r s per f l o o r , and t h e n n a b e r o f s e c t i o n s t h a t are i n s t a l l e d t o e n c l o s e t h e shower. T i s e depends on t h e n u t h e r o f a c c e s s o r i e s , and the b a c k i n g t y p e u s e d . on t h e n u t e b e r o f t h e nuaber o f c o n n e c t i o n s WOrk c o n t r a c t e d t o a p a i n t i n g c o n t r a c t o r . P a i n t : 1,6 Saae As ')39 916 633' S a t e As '990 910 366' WOrk s o s e t i t e s c o n t r a c t e d o u t d i r e c t l y t o a t r a d e who o n l y does w a l l p a p e r i n g and oa t h e r o c c a s i o n s e n c o t p a s s t h e w a l l c o v e r i n g i a t h e p a i n t e r s ' c o n t r a c t . Work done b y t b e a s t u c c o / p l a s t e r i n g t r a d e vbo i s e a c o n p a s s e d t y p i c a l l y i n t h e d r y w a l l i n g c o n t r a c t . 'S68' S a t e As '933 323 363' Work dona by a c e r a a i c t i l e c o n t r a c t o r who t y p i c a l l y s u p p l i e s and i n s t a l l t h e t i l e s . '530' V o r k c o n t r a c t e d to a k i t c h e n c o n t r a c t o r vbo d e s i g n s , s u p p l i e s and i n s t a l l s t h e c a b i n e t s . '123' T i a e r e q u i r e d p l u a b i n g f i x t u r e s , Saae As '123 382 889' Work done by ??? wORK DOSE iX '???' Saae As 'ISO 423 033' C W a l l p a p e r : 1,6,8 C Finish: 1,6 C Tiles: 1,6,8 e t p h a s i s on '3' C C a b i n e t s : 1,4,5,6,7,8 A p p l i a n c e : 1 F i x t u r e s : 1 0 C o u n t e r t o p : 1,6 S h ower Door: 1,4,5,6,7,8 A c c e s s o r i e s t - ' 1,4,5,6,8 £ H i r r o r s : 1,4,5,8 P l u a b i n g F i x t u r e s : 1,4,5,5,7,8 Page No. 2 85/13/83 C o d i t g Activity D e s c r i p t i o n APPENDIX '3' - A c t i v i t y S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r e d e c e s s o t ( s ) P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n 188158808 ELECTRICAL FUTURES/FINISHINGS 123381008 G 452033 APPLIANCES / WASHER i DRYER 153458833 G 150383 INSTALL WOOD TRIMS G 135903 KASO WOODEN DOORS G 133283 G 233333 CLOSET DOORS (SLIDING/EIFOLDSj G 135933 G 218330 CLOSET ORGANISER 125238333 INSTALL PLISDS/DRAPERIES 353315393 INSTALL SUITE CARPETING 'S55315O0O INSTALL HARDVOOD FOCRING 455315803 INSTALL KARELS FLOORING 353315308 C 2 1 W I C TILE FLOORING to e a c h f i x t u r e . FS=0 fin r e q u i r e d depends on t h e number o f e l e c t . f i i t u r e s , t b e s i t e and w e i g h t s o f t h e f i x t u r e s , and t h e number c f o u t l e t s and s w i t c h e s . FS=6 U 8 4 5 0 3 3 3 F S 4 Time r e q u i r e d depends on t h e number o f p i e c e s , and the number o f c o n n e c t i o n s t o power, w a t e r , and v e n t i l a t i o n s needed. Time r e q u i r e d depends on t h e amount o f t r i m s i n the t y p i c a l s u i t e and c o r r i d o r s , T y p i c a l t r i m s are window s i l l , wooden f l o o r b a s e b o a r d s , and wooden d o o r f r a m e s . O t h e r t r i m s t h a t s a y t e used are w a l l m o u l d i n g s and v a l e n c e s . FS=3 Time r e q u i r e d depends on t h e number o f door s , n--i Time r e q u i r e d depends on t h e number o f c l o s e t s and t b e way t h e c l o s e t d o o r s are c l o s e d . Time r e q u i r e d depends oa t h e type o f e r g - n i t e r and the number o f them t a he i n s t a l l e d p e r f l o o r . Time r e q u i r e d depends on the number o f l i n e e l f o o t o f b l i n d and s h e a r s . Time r e q u i r e d depends on the a r e a o f c a r p e t i n g per f l o o r and whether t h e r e are a r e a s where t h e r e are two p a t t e r a s ( t y p e s ) o f c a r p e t combined. See 3:3 515 800 See 533 315 033 Time depends on t h e a r e a o f c e r a m i c t i l e s , and the t y p e and t h i c k n e s s o f mud t o be used u n d e r t h e t i l e . Uneven c o n c r e t e f l o o r s o f t e n c a u s e p r o b l e m s f o r t i l e i n s t a l l a t i o n and the t h i c k n e s s e s o f t h e mud u s e d t o t r y t o l e v e l tbe s u r f a c e s . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n Same As '1:3 423 0 3 3 ' Work done b y '?>?' C a r p e n t r y v o r k i s done by the g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r i f i t has i t s owa c a r p e n t e r s o r t h e v o r k may be c o n t r a c t e d o u t t o c o n t r a c t o r s vho does odd c a r p e n t r y works. Same As 'C- 198 083' Same As '0 139 683' Resp Procurement Type I t e m ( s ) S T ; s k ( s ) C L i g h t F i x t u r e s : 1,4,5,6,7,3 C A p p l i a n c e s : 1,4,5,7,8 C D o o r s : !,S C C l o s e t Doors: 1,5 C C l o s e t O r g a n i z e r s : 1,4,5,7 B l i n d s / S h e a r s : 1,3,1,3 C a r p e t : 1,6,7,8. Same As 3:3 3!5 833 Same As 939 315 863 T i l e : 1,6,7,8 SITEWORK/LOBBY Page No. 1' 05/18/39 C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r s ] C I M p r j POPS FLANTSR SAILS G 7 5 2 p r j POt'H PLANTER WALLS G 7 3 3 p r j SS=0 3 9 0 i 5 0 ? r j WATERPROOF PLANTERS G 7 5 2 ? r j FS=0 3S5750?rj WATBR?ROO?IKG KEKBRASE:WALKWAY 3 9 8 7 5 6 p r j . PS=0 3557S2?rj RIGID INSULATION t WALKWAYS 39S7£Cp>rj FS=0 3S5 ? S 4 p r j SASD S3FEA3E FOR WALKWAYS 3 9 5 7 6 2 ? r j F5=0 395765prj INSTALL WALKWAY PAVERS 3 3 5 7 6 4 p r j FS=0 395776?rj WATERPROOFING KEffiRASE:DRIVEWT 335772prj P.IDIG INSULATION : DRIVEWAY 3 9 5 7 7 0 p r j FS=0 395774prj SAND SU22ASS: DRIVEWAY 3 9 5 7 7 2 p r j PS=0 G 7 ) 5 p r j STEEL REINiORCIKGS : DRIVEWAY G 7 7 4 ? r j FS=8 G Jloprj POOR CONCRETE DRIVEWAY SURFACE G 7 7 5 p r j F5=0 395776prj INSTALL DRIVEWAY PAVERS 3 9 5 7 7 4 p r j FS=0 33S776prj POUR ASPHALT DRIVEWAY SURFACE 3 9 S 7 7 4 ? r j FS=0 G 78 5 p r j BUILDING SIGNAGE APPENDIX T - Activity S p e c i f i c Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n I n t o n a t i o n T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t b e l i n e a l f o o t a g e and h e i g h t s c f t h e p l a n t e r s , Saae As 'G 750 p r j ' Saae As 'G 758 p r j ' T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e s q u a r e f o o t a g e a r e a o f the walkway. The ae a b r a n e i s o f t e n used f o r b u i l d i n g up one grade t o t h e d e s i r e l e v e l . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends c a t h e a r e a o f walkways t o be c o v e r e d and t h e t h i c k n e s s o f the i n s u l a t i o n . The i n s u l a t i o n i s o f t e n u s e d t o t h i c k e n a? g r a d e s u n t i l t h e y a r e a t t h e l e v e l d e s i r e d and/or t o g e t c e r t a i n s l o p e s on the g r a c e . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends oa the a r e a t o be c o v e r e d , t h e s l o p e d e s i r e d , and t h e c o i p a c t i o n d e s i r e d . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e a r e a o f p a v e r s t o be i n s t a l l e d . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e a r e a o f d r i v e w a y t o be c o v e r e d . Saae As '395 752 p r j ' Saae As '335 754 p r j ' T i t e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e a a o c n t o f r e i n f o r c i n g which depends oa t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e s l a b . Purpose o f c o n c r e t e s l a b o a t o p o f c o n c r e t e suspended s l a b i s t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r a l s u s p e n d e d s l a b i s n o t d e s i g n e d t o c a t e r t o d r a i n a g e o f water e t c . . . l i k e t h e d r i v e w a y w i l l have t o be. T i n e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e a r e a o f tbe pour and the t h i c k n e s s o f t b e s l a b . T i t e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e a r e a o f p a v e r s t o be i n s t a l l e d . T i a e r e q u i r e d depends on t h e s u r f a c e a r e a t o be a s p h a l t e d . I n s t a l l a t i o n t i a e no s i g n i f i c a n t . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r n a t i o n S a t e As 'G 612 FS' Saae As 'G 812 FN' Work done by a R o o f i n g c o n t r a c t o r o r by s p e c i a l i s t t r a d e who does o n l y w a t e r p r o o f i n g b u t no t a r S g r a v e l r o o f i n g . I n t h e f i r s t c a s e , use ' ', i a the l a t t e r c a s e , use '398' Work donw by the c o n t r a c t o r who will be p u t t i n g the f i n i s h i n g cn t o ? o f t h e graded l e v e l . " i e ) '335' f o r p a v e r s , 'G' f o r c o n c r e t e , '397' f o r a s p h a l t . Saae A s ' 3 3 5 768 p r j ' S a t e As '355 lii p r j ' Work done by the Paver t r a d e , '335' Sa s e As '335 7b? p r j ' Saae As '335 758 p r j ' Saae As '353 750 p r j ' Work C o n t r a c t e d t o the . R e i n f o r c i n g T r a d e '328' Work C o n t r a c t e d o u t t o C o n c r e t e F i n i s h i n g T r a d e '328' Work done by the Pave r s C o n t r a c t o r '335' Work cone by A s p h a l t C o n t r a c t o r '335' I n s t a l l a t i o n l i k e l y done by g e n e r a l ' s own f o r c e s 'G' Page Ho. 2 65/13/33 APPENDIX T - Activity Specific Knowledge C o d i n g A c t i v i t y D e s c r i p t i o n P r e d e c e s s o r ( s ) P r o d u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n SOFT LANDSCAPING 2 0 2 7 4 2 ? r j IRRIGATION SYSTEM 232743prj 3 8 8 e 8 5 p r j STEEL STUD LOEBT VAILS ! 5 3 0 8 3 ? r j ELECTRICAL SOUGH-IN LOSS: J W H s p r j ISOOOJprj VENTILATION R O U G H S Wit S 3 3 8 9 5 ? r j ! 5 3 8 3 7 ? r j SPRINKLER ROUGH-IN LOB57 93O805?rj S 3 8 8 3 7 ? r j STEEL STUD CEILING OE LOBBY !59083prj 9 0 8 3 8 3 ? r j INSTALL DRYVALL C? LOBBY 153885?rj 8 £ 8 8 3 5 p r j SAIN ENTRY DOOR FRAHE/STOREERT S3333S?rj S O O O i l p r j TAPE, F I L L , SAND LOBBY 533C39?rj 1 6 0 3 9 7 ? r j ELECTRICAL F U T U R E LOBBY S O O O i l p r j l S t t H f t j LOBBY SPRINKLER FINISHING S O O O i l p r j 4 5 5 0 3 5 p r j INSTALL LOBBY MARBLE 9 S 8 8 3 5 p r j PAIST LOBBY 9 5 5 8 3 7 p r j V.ALLFAPER LOBBY 5 0 0 0 ! 3 p r j SSAL/PLASTER./SPRAY LOBBY C S I l , P5=8 FS=8 PS=9 Time d u r a t i o n depends on t b e a r e a o f l a n d s c a p i n g , t h e d e p t h o f s u r f a c e s o i l s s p e c i f i e d , k t h e t y p e s o f p l a n t s s p e c i f i e d . Time d u r a t i o n depends on the type o f i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m u s e d . A l s o depends on whether t h e b u i l d i n g ' s o r i g i n a l d e s i g n s had a n t i c i p a t e d t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n t o the s i t e . E x t r a p l u m b i n g and b a c k f l o w r e g u l a t o r . Time d u r a t i o n depends oa t h e s u r f a c e a r e a o f w a l l s and t h e r e g u l a r i t i e s o f the w a l l s . I n t h e l o b b y , t h e w a l l s a r e o f t e n drawn t o be c u r v e d o r i r r e g u l a r s h a p e s . Time r e q u i r e d depends on the number o f o u t l e t s and f i x t u r e s . Time d u r a t i o n depends oa t h e e x h a u s t l o c a t i o n o f t h e d u c t w o r k i n the c e i l i n g s o r t h e w a l l s . Time r e q u i r e d depends on the number o f s p r i n k l e r heads i n t h e c e i l i n g s . SS=0 ! 3 3 0 e 5 o r j FF=0 Time r e c u i r e d deoeads oa the a r e a o f c e i l i n g d r o p p e d . PS=3 153885prj E S 4 Same As '900 007 p r j ' 5S--8 Time r e q u i r e d depends c n t h e w i d t h and h e i g h t o f t h e d o o r . FS--3 6 6 3 3 3 S ? r j !S«» Same As 'steel s t u d l o b b y ' F3=8 Time r e q u i r e d depends cn the number o f f i x t u r e s and t h e i r s i r e s . Time D u r a t i o n depends on the number o f s p r i n k l e r h e a d s . Time r e q u i r e d depends oa the a r e a o f f l o o r s and o r / w a l l s t o be m a r b l e d . Time r e q u i r e d depends on t h e s u r f a c e a r e a o f p a i n t i n g and t b e t y p e s o f wood t r i m s t h a t need t o be p a i n t e d . Time d u r a t i o n depends c a tbe a r e a o f w a l l t o be w a l l p a p e r e d . Time r e q u i r e d depends on a r e a t o be s p r a y e d . FS=3 V o r k C o n t r a c t e d t o L a n d s c a p i n g T r a d e V o r k e i t h e r c o n t r a c t e d d i r e c t t o I r r i g a t i o n T r a d e o r p a c k a g e d w i t h the L a n d s c a p e r . ' ' f o r f i r s t case 5 ' ' f o r s e c o n d . Same As '988 128 008' V o r k done b y E l e c t r i c a l Trade '168' Same-As '156 828 833' -:• Same As"'150 3 i O PS' Same As '508 126 863' Same .As '583 128 838' V o r k done by S t o r e f r o n t C o n t r a c t o r '868' Same As '583 156 83-3' V o r k Done b y E l e c t r i c a l '163' Same As '158 867 p r j ' V o r k Dene By t h e Marble C o n t r a c t o r '455' V o r k done b y p a i n t i n g t r a d e '993' Same As '935 529 883' Same As '983 329 668' Resp P r o c u r e m e n t Type I t e m ( s ) 5 T a s k ( s ) N P l a n t s : 1,8 N N N Lobby L i g h t F i x t u r e s : 1 S - . N S N N Main E n t r y D o o r Hardwares 1 N N Lobby F i x t u r e : 1,8 8 S M a r b l e : !,8 N S V a l l c o v e r i n g : 1,6,3 N c n Co 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0062817/manifest

Comment

Related Items