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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Computer design of steel framed buildings Foo, Frankie L. C. 1985

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COMPUTER DESIGN OF STEEL FRAMED BUILDINGS By FRANKIE L.C. FOO B.A.Sc, The University of British Columbia, 19 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C i v i l Engineering We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1985 © Frankie L.C. Foo, 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C _ w i \ ^wQ^wg_<a_-c The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 0<^ 0 Wv & 5 DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT The art of structural design l i e s in the selection of the most suitable structural system for a given structure. The arrangement of beams, girders, trusses and columns to support gravity design loads determines the economy and functional suitability of a building. Much of the cost of a steel framed building is i n the floor system. Due to the lack of suitable optimization schemes, numerous t r i a l designs might be necessary to ensure that the most economical system has been selec-ted. Therefore, a computer program is developed as a design aid to make such studies practical in a design office. The program, developed on a mini-computer, i s capable of designing structural components of steel framed buildings. These components include gravity columns and floor framing members such as simply supported beams and girders, cantilevers, beams and girders with over-hangs, trusses and stub-girders. The program is based on the require-ments of CSA Standard CAN3-S16.1-M78, "Steel Structures for Buildings -Limit States Design". In addition to i t s a b i l i t y to select steel sections, quantity take-off and cost estimates features are incorpora-ted in the program. - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i LIST OF TABLES x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiv 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Objectives 1 1.2 Historial Review of Floor and Rood System in Steel Framed Buildings 1 1.2.1 Composite Construction 1 1.2.2 Non-Composite Construction 3 1.3 Deck-Slab System 3 1.4 Headed Stud Shear Connectors for Composite Floor Member 6 1.5 Loading Consideration 9 1.6 Composite Beams and Girders 11 1.7 Composite Trusses 12 1.8 Stub-Girder System 13 2. SCOPE AND PREPARATION 16 2.1 Program Capability 16 2.2 Problem Size Limitation 17 2.3 Units 17 - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 2.4 Sign Convention 18 2.5 Member Marks 18 2.6 Drawing 20 2.7 Geometric Conventions 20 3. PROGRAM OPERATION 24 3.1 Running the Program 24 3.2 I/O Configuration Menu 25 3.3 Location of Design Data Menu 27 3.4 Job Ti t l e and Data 28 3.5 Library 30 3.6 Enter/Edit Input Data Menu 33 3.7 Print Options Menu 34 3.8 Run Options Menu 36 4. DESIGN DATA INPUT 42 4.1 General 42 4.2 Screen Layout for Input Tables 42 4.3 Function of Keyboard Keys 45 4.3.1 Main Keyboard 46 4.3.2 Cursor Keys 48 4.3.3 Auxiliary Keypad 48 - iv -TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 5. INPUT DESIGN DATA TABLES 51 5.1 General 51 5.2 Steel Deck, and Concrete Slab Systems 51 5.2.1 Deck-Slab General Design Data 52 5.3 Floor and Roof Framing Systems 54 5.3.1 Area Load Description 54 5.3.2 Floor/Roof Member General Design Data 57 5.3.3 Distributed Loads 62 5.3.4 Point Loads: Loads from Attached Members 63 5.3.5 Point Loads: Local 65 5.3.6 Equally Spaced Point Loads: Loads from Attached Members 67 5.3.7 Equally Spaced Point Loads: Local 68 5.3.8 External Moment 69 5.3.9 Composite Design Information 71 5.3.10 Truss Type Construction 73 5.3.11 Stub-Girder Type Construction 78 5.3.12 Cantilever Span Type Construction 79 5.4 Gravity Columns 80 5.4.1 General Column Data 82 5.4.2 Column Geometry and Loads 85 5.4.3 Local Column Loads 86 - v -TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 6. MEMBER DESIGN 89 6.1 Member Design Sequence 89 6.2 Load Combinations for Floor and Roof Framing Member ... 90 6.3 Shapes Design Module 93 6.3.1 Analysis 93 6.3.2 Shapes Design 94 6.3.3 Shapes Output 108 6.4 Truss Design Module 112 6.4.1 Analysis 112 6.4.2 Truss Design 116 6.4.3 Truss Output 124 6.5 Stub-Girder Design Module : 133 6.5.1 Analysis 133 6.5.2 Stub-Girder Design 138 6.5.3 Stub-Girder Output 149 6.6 Cantilever Span Design Module 150 6.6.1 Analysis 150 6.6.2 Cantilever Design 155 6.6.3 Cantilever Span Output 159 6.7 Columns 164 6.7.1 Loadings 164 6.7.2 Laterally Unsupoprted Length 166 6.7.3 Column Design Module 169 - v i -TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 6.7.3a Analysis 169 6.7.3b Column Section Selection 170 6.7.3c Column Output 176 7. QUANTITY TAKE-OFF AND COST ESTIMATE 179 7.1 General 179 7.2 Floor Framing Components 179 7.3 Columns 181 7.4 Job Summary 184 8. CONCLUSIONS 187 REFERENCES 188 APPENDIX A 189 APPENDIX B 196 - v i i -LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1.1 Composite action by means of member embedment 2 1.2 Composite acton by means of shear connectors 3 1.3 Deck/slab composite construction 4 1.4 Steel deck 4 1.5 Steel deck profile 5 1.6 Effective cover slab thickness, t 6 c 1.7 Steel deck flutes parallel to steel member 7 1.8 Stee deck flutes parallel to steel member 8 1.9 Arc spot welds 11 1.10 Lateral support condition for flutes placed perpendicular to steel member 12 1.11 Lateral support for flutes placed parallel to steel member 12 1.12 Composite steel truss 13 1.13 Typical stub-girder system 14 1.14 Continuous longitudinal reinforcement 15 1.15 Transverse slab reinforcement 15 2.1 Sign conventions 16 2.2 Drawing 21 2.3 Geometric convections 22 2.4 Geometric convections 23 3.1 Execute the program 24 - v i i i -LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Page 3.2 Title 24 3.3 Sequence of menu 26 3.4 I/O Configuration Menu 25 3.5 Location of Design Data Menu 27 3.5a Library Management Module Menu 30 3.5b Library catalogue 31 3.6 Enter/Edit Input Data Menu 33 3.7 Print Option Menu 34 3.8 Run Options Menu 36 3.9 Run problem 38 4.1 Screen format 42 4.2 Screen layout 43 4.3 VT-100 keyboard 46 4.4 Steel deck profiles 49 5.1 Input data block I 52 5.2 Deck/Slab General Design Data Table heading 52 5.3 Input data block II 55 5.4 Area Load Description Table 56 5.5 Floor/Roof Member General Design Data Table 57 5.6 Span 58 5.7 Distributed Loads Table 61 5.8 Point Loads: Attached Members Table 64 5.9 Point Loads: Local Table 65 - ix -LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Page 5.10 Equally Spaced Point Loads: Attached Members Table 67 5.11 Equally Spaced Point Loads: Local Table 68 5.12 External Moment Table 70 5.13 Composite Design Information Table 71 5.14 Truss Type Construction Table 73 5.15 Available chord-web combinations 76 5.16 Web configuration 77 5.17 Stub-Girder Type Construction Table 78 5.18 Cantilever Span Type Construction Table 79 5.19 Input data block III 81 5.20 General Column Data Table 82 5.21 Column Geometry and Loads Table 85 5.22 Local Column Loads Table 87 6.1 Construction Live Load 91 6.2 Stress Strain Diagram 95 6.3 Effective Slab Width of Composite Members 102 6.4 Plastic neutral axis f a l l s within effective slab thickness (case 1) 103 6.5 Plastic neutral axis i n steel section (case 2) 104 6.6 Partial shear connection (case 3) 107 6.7 Shapes Output Table 109 6.8 Equivalent panel points load 113 6.9 Panel point load 113 - x -LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Page 6.10 Truss Analysis Models 115 6.11 Web to chord joint eccentricity 116 6.12 Connection eccentricity 117 6.13 Localized overturning 117 6.14 Force equilibrium of composite truss 119 6.15 Truss detail output 125 6.16 Truss Summary Table 131 6.17 Stub-girder arrangement 134 6.18 Simplified stub-girder analysis model 134 6.19 Continuous longitudinal slab reinforcement 135 6.20 Transverse slab reinforcement 136 6.21 Example showing the analysis of stub-girder 137 6.22 Stub-to-bottom-chord flange width difference 138 6.23 Overall maximum bending moment 139 6.24 Exterior stub 142 6.25 Interior stub 143 6.26 Idealized failure mechanisms 144 6.27 End stiffener design - exterior stubs 146 6.28 Design of exterior stub to girder welding 148 6.29 Design of interior stub to girder welding 148 6.30 Stub-girder detail output 151 6.31 Stub-girder detail output 152 6.32 Load pattern for cantilever span 154 6.33 Cantilever detailed output 160 - x i -LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Page 6.34 Cantilever Summary Table 161 6.35 Floor member to column connection 164 6.36 Splice 165 6.37 Floor member to column connection eccentricity 166 6.38 Lateral support of column 167 6.39 Illustrating unsupported length 168 6.40 Column output 177 7.1 Floor Framing Members QTCE Table 182 7.2 Cost estimate by section type and use 183 7.3 Column quantities and cost estimate 184 7.4 Building summary 185 7.5 Building summary 186 - x i i -LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1 Width-to-Thickness Limits 96 Table 2 Flanges 173 Table 3 Webs 173 - x i i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to my advisor, Dr. S.F. Stiemer, for his encouragement and guidance throughout the course of this thesis. My thanks are also extended to fellow graduate student , Mr. Henry Wong, my parents and my wife for their encouragement, advice and assistance. - xiv -CHAPTER 1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Objective The aim of the work presented in this thesis i s to develop a computer program capable of designing structural steel members in a statically determinant steel framed building. Such a program should include the design of various types of floor framing members and gravity columns. Throughout the program, an attempt i s made to incorporate the latest technology and the latest design technique of structural steel members. The program, designed to run on a computer of the VAX family, is intended to provide a comprehensive design, quantity take-off and cost estimate for structural components. As such, the program can be used by students in education or research and by engineers in practice. Numerous rerun and editing features are implemented in order to allow the user to investigate alternate schemes with minimum amount of effort. 1.2 Historical Review of Floor and Roof System in Steel Framed  Buildings 1.2.1 Composite Construction Structural designers have long been aware of the advantages of composite floor systems such as saving i n the weight of steel required, reduction in depth of members, increase stiffness of floor system and increase in the overload capacity. The f i r s t type of composite arrangement, developed in the 50's, util i z e d a steel beam with i t s top 2. flange embedded in the underside of a pour-in-place slab as shown i n Fig. 1.1. Two distinct disadvantages of this type of construction are Figure 1.1 Composite action by means of member embedment. cost of forming and additional dead load. With the development of economical shear connectors in the 60's, the next type of composite arrangement was developed. This arrangement involves the welding of shear studs to the top of the steel beam and embedded in the concrete slab as shown in Fig. 1.2. More recent research has resulted i n the evolution of a method which has gained universal acceptance in the construction of Canadian steel framed buildings. This method u t i l i z e s a light gauge steel deck covered with a concrete slab. The deck-slab system i s connected to the top of either a steel beam or a steel truss by means of shear connec-tors as shown in Fig. 1.3. The use of the steel deck serves as a double purpose: (1) i t provides a form for the wet concrete, eliminat-ing the necessary of temporary wood forms; (2) i t provides tensile 3. Reinforced concrete s l a b ^ o o (0 Figure 1.2 Composite action by means of shear connectors. reinforcement for the hardened slab. About 1970, a unique composite floor system known as stub-girder system (Fig. 1.13) was introduced. This system offers a substantial saving in steel mass due to the over-a l l efficiency of the system. 1.2.2 Non-Composite Construction The development of non-composite type of construction follows the same trend as i t s composite counterparts. With the development of improved steel deck products, the deck-slab system replaces the traditional flat-bottom slab. 1.3 Deck-Slab System Steel deck is manufactured by r o l l framing light gauge structural steel sheet into fluted elements as shown i n Fig. 1.4. During the Welded wire mesh _ ^ i r t E f f e c t ive slab t h i c k n e s s N a r r o w -prof ile w / t H < 2 T w - r i b I ? deck SectionX B ^ f /Welded wire mesh 4 W W i d e - r i b profi le deck w / t „ * 2 Section'B' N a r r o w - r i b deck used in the d e c k - s l a b s y s t e m (sys tem used most ly during mid 1960's to mid 1970 s ) Effect ive s lab th ickness W i d e - r i b deck used in the d e c k - s l a b s y s t e m (sys tem used commonly today) r v . - / Standard composi te girder de ta i l 1 ' I 1 Al te rna te composi te girder de ta i l showing uncoped b e a m s Girder Cons t ruc t i on Figure 1.3 Deck/slab composite construction. 5. rolling process, specially designed embossments or indentations are rolled into the webs and flanges of the steel deck. These embossments are primarily used to transfer horizontal shear between the steel deck and the concrete slab. CSA Standard, CAN3-S16.1, classifies steel deck into two distinc-tive types depending on the ratio of the average flute width to the height of the steel deck. A wide-rib profile deck (Fig. 1.5(a)) is defined as having an average flute width equal to at least twice the depth of the steel deck. Steel decks having narrower ribs are defined as narrow-rib profile deck (Fig. 1.5(b)). stee l deck height td — i _ concrete rib• :65 Wide - r ib profile d e c k - s l a b W r j D td " s tee l deck height td average rib width W r-,b 4-65 N a r r o w - rib profi le d e c k - s l a b W r jb td <2 concrete rib average rib width W r j ^ Figure 1.5 Steel deck profile. Steel decks produced in Canada may be grouped into four depths. They are 38 mm, 43 mm, 51 mm and 76 mm. In general, deep decks allow larger deck spans and hence provide more efficient beam spacing. A combination of a particular steel deck and a concrete cover of 6. at least 65 mm i s defined as a deck-slab system. Concrete cover i s defined as that portion of concrete slab above the flute of the deck. The effective slab thickness, t^, for composite design should be taken as the overall slab thickness, t Q , minus the height of the deck, t^, as shown i n Fig. 1.6. Cover , Wr I V 4« cover when cover? 65mm and td-80rnm and Wrjb-50mm -Average rib width , Wr|5 Figure 1.6 Effective cover slab thickness, t c . 1.4 Headed Stud Shear Connectors for Composite Floor Members It was not un t i l 1971 that the capacity and behaviour of headed stud shear connectors embedded i n solid concrete slabs were well established by Ollgaard, Slutter and Fisher (13). They proposed the following equation: q = 0.5 A /PT" u sc c c where q^ = ultimate strength of a stud connection (N) A = normal area of stud shear connector (mm2) sc E c = modulus of e l a s t i c i t y of concrete (MPa) = specified concrete compressive strength at 28 days (MPa) The above equation was later adopted by CAN3-S16.1 with the add i t ion of a performance factor, <j> equal to 0.8. Section 17.3.6 of sc CAN-S16.1 states that the factored shear resistance, q of a (solid) shear connection embedded in solid concrete may be expressed as: (solid) 0.5 <J> A / F E < 415 $ A sc SC c c SC SC 1.5 -where E = w 0.043 / f , and co = mass density of concrete (kg/m^) c c c c Note the l imit ing value of 415 <j> A is the tensile strength of common sc sc shear stud. When steel deck flutes are placed paral le l to steel members as shown in F ig . 1.7, the shear values assigned to studs may be the f u l l Effect ive s lab th ickness B /Welded wire mesh -Wide- r ib •profi le deck w / t d * 2 Sectiorf B' Figure 1.7 Steel deck f lutes para l le l to steel member. s o l i d va lue , q However, when the s t e e l deck f lu tes are ( so l id ) oriented perpendicular to steel members as shown in F ig . 1.8, the shear values may di f fer substantially from the f u l l sol id value. For a wide-rib prof i le deck placed perpendicular to the steel member, CAN3-S16.1 permits the shear capacity of studs to be of the f u l l sol id values ( i . e . q ) . As an a l t e r n a t i v e , an empir ica l formula r ( s o l i d ) 8. \:.-r-\ ; i Figure 1.8 Steel deck flutes parallel to steel member. derived by Grant, Fish and Slutter (5) may be used to estimate stud capacity. The formula i s : 0.85 ( r r i b i q r = ( - ~ t ~ J ( - ~ t — J q r < q r (rib) /N d d (solid) (solid) where q = the factored shear resistance of a stud embedded in a T (rib) concrete rib N = number of stud embedded i n a concrete rib H = height of stud t, = height of steel deck d a) = average rib with r i b q = defined as before r ( s o l i d ) For a narrow rib profile deck placed perpendicular to the steel member, the ultimate factored shear resistance of stud may be obtained from Table 8 of S16.1 and steel deck producers design manuals. For situations not covered by stud value tables, stud resistance may be estimated by interpolation and/or the use of adjustment factors: i.e., adjustment for density and compressive strength: 9. • f E (design) c c (table) /f'E (table) c c diameter adjustment: (Diameter) 2 (design) (table) (Diameter) 2 (table) 1.5 Loading Consideration A floor framing system in composite design acquires i t s f i n a l design strength and stiffness only after the concrete in the concrete slab or deck-slab system has attained the 28-day cylinder strength. Thus, during construction of the floor system, consideration must be given to the member to ensure adequate strength, stability and s t i f f -ness. However, for non-composite floor system and composite floor system shored during the construction period, the designer needs not be concerned with construction loading. Dead loads are loads of constant magnitude that remain permanently throughout the entire l i f e of a structure. They consist of the steel framing members' own weight and other loads that are permanently attached to the frame. In composite floor design, dead loads are divided into three catagories and are as follows: 1) Deck-slab load 2) Steel framing member 3) Superimposed dead load 10. Deck-slab load describes load pertaining only to the mass of the concrete slab and the steel deck ( i f applicable). Steel framing member is the mass of the structural steel member. Dead loads due to a l l other building components including floor finishes, partitions, fibre-protective materials, mechanical-eletrical systems and ceiling materials, etc. should be categorized under superimposed dead load. The subdivision of dead loads is desirable i n that i t allows the strength, stability and serviceability of floor framing member to be evaluated under fresh concrete conditions and f i n a l occupancy loading conditions. Live loads are loads that do not remain in one position and may change in magnitude. Simply stated, a l l loads that are not dead loads are live loads. The National Building Code of Canada permits the reduction of live load based on the type of occupancy and accumulated tributary area. In the program, live load i s divided into three types for the purpose of calculating live load reduction factors i n accordance with Part 4.1.6 of the NBC. Each live load type is indicated by a number code from 0 to 2 and is as follows: Number Code 1) No reduction LLRFQ = 1.0 0 2) Reduction using LLRF^ = 0.3 + SQR(9.8/A) 1 , LLRF < = 1.0 3) Reduction using LLRF2 = 0.5 + SQR(20/B) 2 , LLRF < = 1.0 * SQR() - Square root of A,B - Accumulated tributary area (m2) 11. No reduction i s permitted in areas supporting snow load. LLRF 1 is used when a structural member supports a tributary area greater than 80 m2 for the purpose of storage, manufacturing, r e t a i l stories, gauge or assembly. LLRF2 is used when a structural member supports a tributary area greater than 20 m2 used for occupancy other than these indicated in LLRF L. 1.6 Composite Beams and Girders In composite beams and girders construction, the steel deck is connected to the steel beam by means of arc spot welds as shown i n Fig. 1.9. Before the steel deck is welded to the steel beam's top flange, the unbraced length i s equal to the beam span (Fig. 1.10(a)). At this instant, the beam is required to carry the mass of the steel deck plus a nominal amount of construction load. After the steel deck has been welded to the top flange, the steel beam may be considered continuous laterally supported (Fig. 1.10(b)). Hence, during the placement of concrete, the beam may be designed as a f u l l supported member. Addi t ional Arc Spot Welds Arc spot welds. Figure 1.10 Lateral support condition for flutes placed perpendicular to steel member. 12. S t e e l deck S t u d or ore spot w e l d S t e e l deck (a) Beam may not be (b) Beam may be considered considered as laterally lateral ly and tors ional ly or torsionally supported prior to the weld ing-down process supported through properly engineered d e c k - s l a b weld connections Figure 1.11 Lateral support condition for flutes placed parallel to steel member. Girder (a) Girder can be assumed to be lateral ly and/or tors ional ly supported by beams Girder (b) S imi la r to c a s e s (a)and (b) in Fig.4-8 If the flutes of the steel deck are placed parallel to the member span, continuous lateral and torsional supports cannot be assumed. In this situation, lateral supports are provided only at the end supports and at points where secondary members frame into the member under consideration (Fig. 1.11). Since lateral support length varies substantially, depending on the state and nature of construction, the design of composite beams and girders involves the assessment of i t s performance at various stages of construction: (1) the placement of steel deck; (2) the placement of concrete; and (3) occupancy. 1.7 Composite Trusses Composite trusses, shown in Fig. 1.12, provide an alternative to 13. Figure 1.12 Composite steel truss. solid web members for reasons of economy. They are extremely attrac-tive in spans greater than 10 metres where free web openings offer subtsantial amounts of space to accommodate services. To justify the use of composite trusses for floor framing members, a project should contain a large number of similar trusses for ease of truss fabrication. Three types of web-framing configuration are commonly used in floor trusses. They are Pratt, Warren and modified Warren. Chord members may be selected from steel sections such as angles, tees and square or rectangular structural section. The web members may be angle and square or rectangular sections. However, due to ease of fabrication and hence overall economy, only certain combinations of chord and web member types may be considered as shown in Fig. 5.15. 1.8 Stub-Girder System Stub-girders are vierendeel-girder type assemblies, consisting of a steel w-shape bottom chord, a concrete deck-slab top chord and studs (intermittent short length W shape) connected to both chords to transfer shear as shown in Fig. 1.13. 14. web opening Figure 1.13 Typical stub-girder system. Secondary framing members pass through the viereendeel opening and are connected to both top and bottom chords. The secondary framing members consist of cantilever beams and suspended beams known as Gerber beams. Stub-girder generally span about 12 metres with the secondary framing beams spanning about 9 metres. Since the top chord i s subjected to both high compression and high shear stresses, continuous f u l l span longitudinal slab reinforcement and transverse slab reinforcement are required. Figs. 1.14 and 1.15 show possible longitudinal and transverse slab reinforcing arrange-ments, respectively. (a)7-bar a r rangement (b) 8 - b a r ar rangement (c) 11 - bar ar rangement (d)lO- bar a r rangement No te : a l l longitudinal s lab reinforcing occur w i th in ef fect ive s lab width Figure 1.14 Continuous longitudinal reinforcement. T T Bent bar reinforcing Double welded-wire mesh I- T T Straight bar reinforcing • - - J - . . - 1 • • — — T " T U ^ -^75 mm concrete cover on I 76 mm composite wide-rib I profile steel deck 3- 15M cont. top bars 4- 15M cont.bot.bars I— 500 mm Sheet steel pan Section A -A (a) Section B - B (b) . Figure 1.15 Transverse slab reinforcement. 16. CHAPTER 2  SCOPE AND PREPARATION 2.1 Program Capability The program i s designed primarily to select steel sections for various structural elements in a statically determinant gravity loaded structure. Structural elements including gravity columns and floor framing members such as composite and non-composite beams and girders with or without overhangs, composite and non-composite cantilevers, composite and non-composite trusses and stub-girders may be designed expeditiously on a piece-by-piece basic by the program. The inter-connection of these structural elements are defined by the user during the input of design data. This feature enables the program to be utili z e d to design individual members, a complete floor layout or an entire multi-storey building. The procedure for member selection is based on the Limit States Design (LSD) method specified by National Standard of Canada CAN3-S16.1-M78, "Steel Structures for Buildings - Limit States Design". Structural members are designed to satisfy ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states during construction and occupancy. In addition, the selected steel section must satisfy design and physical constraints such as allowable shape and size defined by the engineer. Structural steel sections are selected from a data base of Canadian rolled shapes and common build-up sectioas. Beams, girders, and cantilevers may be chosen from one or more of the Wide Flange (W), Welded Wide Flange (WWF), Standard (S), Miscellaneous (M), and Channel (C) shapes. Truss components may be selected from Hollow Structural 17. Sections (HSS), Tees from W sections (WT), Single Leg Angles (L) and Double Leg Angles (2L). A l l stub-girder components must be selected from the W sections. Finally, columns may be selected from the W, WWF, HSS, Built-up H (BH), Built-up Box (BB) sections. 2.2 Problem Size Limitation The program is capable of designing a 100 storey building with limitations on the number of input data lines as follows: 20 Floor and Roof Deck-Slab (General) 10 Area Loads 150 Floor Framing Members (General) 400 Floor Framing Members Loads 450 Floor Framing Members Construction Data 100 Column (General) 250 Column Geometry and Load Data 2.3 Units The unit adopted by the program i s the International System of Units (SI). In general the units are as follows: length - millimeters (mm) area - square metres (m2) force - kilonewtons (kN) line load - kilonewtons per metre (kN/m) area load - kilopascal (kPa) moment - kilonewton metres (kN.m) mass - tonnes (t) density - kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m3) stress - megapascal (MPa) 18. 2.4 Sign Conventions For floor framing members: Loads are downwards positive and exter-nally applied moments are clockwise positive. Reactions are upwards positive and counter-clockwise positive. Bending moments are positive i f they create tension on the underside of the member. Deflections are downwards positive. For column: Loads are downwards positive. Bending moments are positive i f tension occurs on the north or west face of the column. Fig. 2.1 illustrates the sign conventions. LOADS REACTIONS BENDING  MOMENTS DEFLECTIONS LE T Figure 2.1 Sign conventions. 2.5 Member Marks A member mark must be assigned to a member or a group of identical members for the purpose of identification as shown in Figure 2.2. The marks are used to identify input and output data, define the inter-19. connection of members and also to activate certain design and costing features. A member mark must contain a special character (D, B, G or C) and may extend up to five characters in length. The meaning of these special characters are as follows: D - Steel Deck and/or Slab Systems B - Beams G - Girders C - Column In addition to the above special characters, a member mark containing a S character is used to describe spandrel Condition. For example the mark SB describes a spandrel beam and mark SG describes a spandrel girder. Note that the special character may appear in any location and in any order. For example the marks 12SB2 and B12S2 both indicate a Spandrel beam. For non-composite design, member marks containing a B character indicate that the deck spans perpendicular to the member and member marks containing a G character indicates a girder condition where the deck ribs are parallel to the web of the member. During quantity take-off and cost estimate the B, G and S char-acters are used to group members and when a SB or SG combination i s used, the cost factors associated with spandrel members are used. The following i s a l i s t of acceptable member marks: Deck-Slab: ROOFD - roof deck-slab TYD1 typical floor deck-slab 1 MECD1 mechanical floor deck-slab 1 Beam/Girder: 20SB1 20th level spandrel beam 1 Gl typical floor girder 1 TBI typical floor truss 1 STG1 typical floor stub-girder 1 20. Columns: Cl - column 1 Cla - column 1 with minor differences. 2.6 Drawing Before the user begins to Input data, a certain amount of prepara-tion is required to ensure consistency of member interconnection. A sketch of the framing system showing member arrangement, loads and dimensions must f i r s t be prepared. Member marks are then assigned and labelled to identify individual members and/or group of identical members as illustrated in Fig. 2.2. The marking of member is extremely important because i t establishes the l e f t and right ends of floor members and the north, south east and west face of column. Floor member marks should be labelled on the drawing in such a way that the desired l e f t end is to the l e f t of the mark when the mark is read straight on. For a symmetrical building, the user may take advantage of the situation by labelling members in such a way that the l e f t end of a member located on one side of the line of symmetry coincides with the l e f t end of the same member on the other side. Refer to member mark BI in Fig. 2.2. 2.7 Geometric Convections For floor framing members, the terms l e f t and right are used to describe locations in the longitudinal and transverse directions. In the longitudinal direction, l e f t i s defined as the location l e f t of the member mark when viewing the mark straight on. In the transverse direction, l e f t i s referred to the le f t of the member's centre line while viewing the floor member from the l e f t support to the right support (Fig. 2.3) o Pa Q_ U3 o cn *L I I u . "O a. < . LL sod .a O £ I/. & eri \ Q. *a o a> l / l Q 111 Q > < LU _1 Q FLOOR FRArtING SKETCH SHOWING DIMENSIONS, MEMBER MARKS AHD LOADS. taw V 3-6 [ s 2 ' -$ ! si 16 W ?: 009 o o rsi ^ Q. 3 C O ao o rM c_> QC OS L O * • o ro un O I I Lu o I I L L cc CC r ? _1 — i LL22 _ l _ J 2£. cn <_> o a *™ 19S CL J£ 0 . -C T3 o O CO ro o mpos 2^* i _ o o rri Or a. L L Co C O — • —* ' LJj •6 > a Or Q 00221 09L6 002 21 F i g u r e 2 . 2 D r a w i n g . 2 2 . | - LENGTH _j L E F T S L A B WIDTH of MEMBER RIGHT S L A B WIDTH GEOMETRY LEF'T OVER r HANG SPAN L } 1 RIGHT 1 OVERHANG -- DISTANCE 11 0 Figure 2 . 3 Geometric convections. The l e f t and right supports are defined as the centre line of supports. The l e f t support i s defined as the zero point or datum for a l l distance measurements. Positive distance refers to location right of the l e f t support and negative distance refers to location l e f t of the l e f t support. Span i s defined as the clean distance between l e f t and right supports. A level i s defined as the floor framing member of that level plus the column below as shown in Fig. 2.4. Thus column level n refers to the column members between level n and level n-1. The ground level i s taken as level 1. 23. LEVEL DESIGN LEVEL 4 3 2 Storey Height Levels >per Tier « , GROUND  1 '//>///. N \ W W E B 0 W lWW W E B 90 Figure 2.4 Geometric convections. 24. CHAPTER 3 PROGRAM OPERATION 3.1 Running the Program To execute the program, simply enter the "Run GFD2" command as shown i n Fig. 3.1. The program w i l l f i r s t search for the devices $ RUN GFD2 Figure 3.1 Execute the program. addresses on which the program f i l e , structural selection, table f i l e s and data f i l e s are stored. Two types of magnetic disk device address are tried. They are DSK0 (main disk) and DSK1 (removable media disk cartridge). When the search i s completed, the t i t l e w i l l appear on the screen for 10 seconds (Fig. 3.2), followed by a series of menu which University of British Columbia Gravity Frame Design 2 Version 1.0 for VAX Figure 3.2 T i t l e . 25. enable the user to select various options and features incorporated in the program. Fig. 3.3 (on the following page) illustrates the sequence in which these menu wi l l appear on the screen. 3.2 I/O Configuration Menu I/O Configuration To revise press <1> The printer device i s T: <2> The Program mass storage devices i s DSK0: <3> The SST mass storage device i s DSK0: <4> The Data mass storage device i s DSK0: <5> The Library mass storage device is DSK0: <6> If no change or changes complete Figure 3.4 I/O configuration menu. The I/O configuration menu (Fig. 3.4) is the f i r s t menu to appear and i s used to indicate to the user the addresses of the various input and output devices. How to change the device address: Changing any or a l l of the device addresses Is a simple operation and i s performed by following the same basic steps. 1) Select the appropriate device by pressing the corresponding numeric key 2) Press the Return key I/O Configuration Location of Design Data Print Option Run Option <1> Library Enter/Edit Input Data <1> <2> W <3> lev PP <«•> Eh • Deck/Slab Tables Floor Framing Tables Column Tables Library Figure 3 . 3 Sequence of menu. 3) Prompts w i l l appear at the bottom of the I/O configuration menu, stating the current device address and asking for the revise device address 4) The user should respond by typing i n the revise device address 5) Press return and the new revise device address w i l l appear in the menu in place of the old. No change or a l l changes have been made: Press the numeric key <6>, the program w i l l store the latest configuration and the program proceeds to the next menu which i s location of data. 3 . 3 Location of Design Data Menu Job currently in Data f i l e s Project #1 Date Location of Design data Press key <1> to Store/Reload Library Data <2> to Prepare for New Data <3> to Edit/Return Existing Data Figure 3 . 5 Location of Design Data Menu. The Location of Design Data menu i s shown in Fig. 3 . 5 . The f i r s t part of the menu display the job t i t l e and date of the current job in the Data f i l e s (see Appendix A for definition of Data f i l e s ) . The second part of the menu gives the user the options of loading the current Data f i l e s with f i l e s from the library, or prepare for new data input or reuse the data presently in the Data f i l e s . 28. <1> To Store/Reload Library Data Select i n g t h i s option, the user may store the current Data f i l e s i n the l i b r a r y or reload the Data f i l e s from the l i b r a r y . A complete d e s c r i p t i o n of the l i b r a r y system i s given i n Section 3 . 5 . <2> To Prepare f o r New Data When t h i s option i s selected, the user i s immediately warned that a l l the current Data f i l e s w i l l be deleted (or erased) to prepare for new data. The following prompt w i l l appear on the screen. A l l Data f i l e s w i l l be emptied ok? ((Y) Yes, (N) No). If t h i s cause of action i s not desired, type i n 'N' and press the "return" key, the l o c a t i o n of design data menu w i l l reappear on the screen. If 'Y' i s entered and return key pressed, the program erases a l l e x i s t -ing Data f i l e s i n the Data f i l e group and proceed to ask for the Job t i t l e and date as described i n Section 3 . 4 . <3> Edit/Rerun E x i s t i n g Data When t h i s option i s selected, the user i s s t a r t i n g o f f with the e x i s t i n g Data f i l e s f o r possible e d i t i n g and/or rerun the job i n the current Data f i l e s . The program proceeds d i r e c t l y to ask for the Job t i t l e and date as described i n Section 3 . 4 . 3 . 4 Job T i t l e and Data In order to help the user i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g one job from another, 2 9 . the program requires the input of a Job t i t l e and date each time the Location of Design Data Menu appears on the screen. The user i s asked to enter the job t i t l e by the following prompt: Project t i t l e (68 characters) — ? Note that the length of the t i t l e i s lim i t e d to 68 characters. Next, the user i s asked to enter the date by the following prompt: Date YY/MM/DD ? The date must be i n the format of YY/MM/DD. F a i l u r e to enter a date w i l l r e s u l t i n the following prompt appearing on the screen: Please enter a Date. It w i l l help keep track of job. Once the t i t l e and date have been entered, the program proceeds to the next menu, "Enter/Edit Input Data". 30. 3 . 5 Library The f i l e s that make-up the Data f i l e group are l i s t e d and discussed i n Appendix A. The Data f i l e group i s work f i l e s that are created, written into and read from during data input, member design and costing. These f i l e s contain information p e r t a i n i n g to one job and could e a s i l y be a l t e r e d by subsequent e d i t i n g and/or redesign. Hence, a l i b r a r y system i s implemented i n the program to store Data f i l e s f o r up to ten jobs. When the l i b r a r y i s c a l l e d from the Location of Design Data menu, the Enter/Edit Input Data menu or the Finished menu, the menu shown i n f i g . 3 . 5 a appears. The user has the options of s t o r i n g Data f i l e s i n t o L i b r a r y Management Module Press key <1> to Store Data f i l e s i n l i b r a r y <2> to Reload l i b r a r y f i l e s i n t o Data f i l e s <3> to Return Figure 3 . 5 a L i b r a r y management module menu. the l i b r a r y , reload Data f i l e s from the l i b r a r y or return to the main program. When the <1> key i s selected, the l i b r a r y catalogue i s displayed on the screen. A sample catalogue l i s t i n g i s shown i n F i g . 3 . 5 b . The numbers i n the l e f t margin correspond to the l i b r a r y job f i l e number and to the r i g h t of the numbers are job d e s c r i p t i o n . The user i s asked i f any e x i s t i n g l i b r a r y job f i l e numbers are to be made a v a i l a b l e . Want to Make any Occupied F i l e s Available? (Y/N) If the answer i s YES, then a f i l e number i s requested. 31. No. Job Description 1 Example problem #1 2 Example problem #2 3 File available 4 F i l e available 5 File available 6 F i l e available 7 File available 8 F i l e available 9 File available 10 F i l e available Figure 3.5b Library catalogue. Number of F i l e to be Made Available, i f None, press Return. Enter the Job f i l e number to be made available and the f i l e s related to the Job f i l e number are erased from the library. The catalogue i s then relisted and the f i l e description reads F i l e Available. If the job f i l e number entered i s not occupied, then the following prompt appears on the screen. F i l e Not Used Want to Make Any Occupied Files Available? (Y/N) If a NO response i s given, the program requests the job f i l e number i n which the the data i s to be stored. F i l e Number for Data Storage (Return to Abort) If the f i l e number is already occupied, the above prompt i s revised and another job f i l e number is requested as follows. F i l e Not Available F i l e Number for Data Storage (Return to Abort) 32. When the job f i l e number i s found to be unoccupied the user i s then asked f o r a job des c r i p t i o n . Input Job Description to be Assigned to the Job Number The program then checks the Data f i l e s to see i f any of the output f i l e s (Appendix A) are present. If they are, the following prompt i s displayed. Are Output F i l e s to be Transfered to the Library? (Y/N) Once the above prompt has been answered or i f no output f i l e s were detected, the program proceeds with the transfer of Data f i l e s into the l i b r a r y . When the <2> key i s pressed, the l i b r a r y catalogue i s dislayed as described f o r the store option. Using the following prompt, the number of the job f i l e to be reloaded into the Data f i l e s i s requested. L i b r a r y F i l e Number to be Reloaded (Return to Abort) If the job f i l e number entered does not contain any input or output data f i l e then the above prompt i s modified and displayed again. F i l e Not Active Library F i l e Number to be Reloaded (Return to Abort) When a v a l i d job f i l e number i s entered, the user i s asked to respond to the following: Reconstruct Output F i l e s i f Present? (Y/N) If a YES response i s entered and no output f i l e s are found i n the l i b r a r y then the transfer ends once the input data i s copied. A NO response w i l l i n any case terminate the transfer at the end of the input data. Since i t i s only a copy that i s transferred from the 33. library to the Data f i l e s , the source f i l e ( s ) remain intact until modified or deleted. 3.6 Enter/Edit Input Data Menu Enter/Edit Input Data Menu Select key <1> Deck/Slab Tables <2> Floor Framing Tables <3> Column Tables <4> Library Management Module <5> Revise Job Ti t l e and I/O Config. <6> Continue to Print Options Menu Figure 3.6 Enter/Edit Input Data Menu. The Enter/Edit Input Data menu shown i n Fig. 3.6 i s essentially used to gain access to the three design input data blocks as discussed i n Chapters 5 and 6. They are: (1) steel deck and concrete slab system; (2) Floor framing members; and (3) columns. • When numeric key <1> is pressed, the user directs the program into design input data block 1 which is Deck/Slab tables. • When numeric key <2> is pressed, the user gains access to design input data block 2 which is Floor framing members. • When numeric key <3> is pressed, the user gains access to design input data block 3 which is columns. • When numeric key <4> is pressed, the user may store input data in the library for retrieval at a later time. • When numeric key <5> is pressed, the user i s taken back to the beginning, that is to the f i r s t menu "I/O Configuration". • Pressing key <6>, the program proceeds to the print options menu. 34. 3.7 Pr i n t Options Menu Pri n t Options Select key to turn options ON/OFF Key Options <1> OFF P r i n t input data tables p r i o r to design <2> OFF D e t a i l output for shapes <3> OFF D e t a i l output f o r gir d e r <4> OFF D e t a i l output for truss <5> OFF D e t a i l output f o r column <6> OFF D e t a i l output for ca n t i l e v e r span <7> OFF Quantity take o f f and cost estimate <8> To continue to Run Options Menu Figure 3.7 Print Option Menu. The p r i n t options menu shown i n F i g . 3.7 enables the user to se l e c t various options f o r p r i n t i n g input and output data. The options are turned on or o f f by pressing the corresponding numeric key and then the Return key. <1> P r i n t input data tables p r i o r to design. When t h i s option i s turned on, the program w i l l p r i n t the input data tables p r i o r to s t a r t i n g the design or redesign of members. <2> + <6> D e t a i l output and design trace. Each of these key invoke the program to give d e t a i l output of a l l members of the desired construction type. The following i s an example of d e t a i l output for shapes: DESIGN TRACE OF MEMBER H3 DESIGN DENDINC MCMENT DIAGRAMS O n 1 M l 2290 3435 43B0 3723 6270 9015 9160 U N F A C T O R E D : U N F A C T O R E D P L A C I N G : S L A B * A T T . S T L : DL-REDCD. L L : DECK : 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 130 : 32. 3 64. 1 1 1 ? 223. i 33. 7 109. 9 20. 0 27B. 3 69. 6 137. 4 23. 0 297. 4 74. 3 144. 3 26. 7 273. 3 69. 6 137. 4 23. 0 223. 1 35. 7 109. 9 . 20. 0 130. t 32. 3 64. 1 I I . 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 I SHEAR DIAGRAMS POINT : OCCUPANCY UNFACTORED : UNFACTORED ! 1 SLAH+ATT. 3TL1 DL*HEDCD. LL i 7 32. 4 64 0 4 24. 3 4S. 0 ? 16. 2 32. 0 3 3. I 16. 0 0 0. 0 o. o 3 -a. I - i j . o 9 -16. 2 -32. 0 4 -24. 3 -43. 0 9 -32. 4 -6«. 0 POURING SLAD 0. 0 63. 4 112. 2 140. 3 149, 6 140. 3 112. 2 63. 4 0. 0 POURING : SLAB : 63. 3 49. 0 32. 7 16. 3 O. O -16. 3 -32. 7 -49. 0 -63. 3 INFLECTION POINTS 0 0 9160 9160 C£3:GN MOMENTS 0 0 197 74 0 0 LOCATIONS OF DESIGN MOMENTS UNSUPPORTED LENGTHS 9160 9160 9160 9160 9160 9160 POSITIONS QF LATERAL SUPPORT 0 9160 9160 7160 9160 6107 6107 6107 9160 9160 9160 SPAN/DEPTH INDEX =• O. 83 SHFAR SPAN » 43QO No TLUTES - 0 BOTTOM FIBRE STRESS - .32 0. 0 323. 1 O. 0 EFFICIENCY INDICES 0. 000 0. 919 0. 000 LLDEFLN - 0. 00 SUPER DEAD DEFLN CAMBER - O. 00 DESICN SMEAR INDEX - 0. 000 0. 00 INDEX - 0. 000 INDEX - O. 000 1.00 SHEAR RESISTENCE -0. O 0. 0 0. 0 0. 000 0. OOO 0. 000 0. 0 0. 0 0. 000 O. 000 O. 000 SPAN/DEPTH INDEX - 0. 74 SHEAR SPAN - 43B0 No FLUTES • II BOTTOM FI3RE STRESS - 232 MPa EFF. - 0. 93 MOMENT RESISTANCES 0. O 0. 0 0 0 • 61 7 33. 9 197. 1 0 0 O. 0 0. 0 EFFICIENCV INDICES 0 OCO 0. 000 O. 000 0. 836 0. 391 0. 763 0 OCO O. OOO 0. 000 LLCGFLM - 10 " i INDE< - 0. 4;-» SUPER DEAD DEFLN » 7. 73 INDEX - 0. COO •:AI-3ER - 26. "34 INDEX - 0. 33"? HE31GN "SHEAS - 133 07 SHEAR ^ E ^ 15TENCE » 427 39 INDEX - O 309 36. Note that the detail output gives the bending moment, shear and a section by section trace of selection process. The amount of output increases dramatically. Therefore, i t i s advisable to use those options only for the redesign of individual members. The users f i r s t run the entire problem with the detail output options i n the off mode, then i f more information i s required for selected members, simply re-design the selected members with the detail output options i n the ON mode. <7> Quantity Take-Off and Cost Estimate This option w i l l active quantity take-off after members have been designed by the program. <8> To Continue to Run Options Menu Continue to run options menu. 3.8 Run Options Menu Run Options <1> Change MCI which is currently 1000 <2> Print input data tables <3> Run problem <4> Redesign individual members <5> Reprint output based on current print options <6> Regenerate quantity take-off and cost estimate <7> To Enter/Edit menu Figure 3.8 Run Options Menu. 3 7 . When the Run Options Menu (Fig. 3 . 8 ) appears on the screen, the user i s given the options of triggering various degrees of member design and various types of output. <1> Metric Cost Index The metric cost index i s required by the program to estimate the cost of the steel members selected by the program during the design phase. In general, this index i s calculated regionally and the default value is set at zero. To change the MCI, press numeric key <1> and then press Return, the following prompt wi l l appear: New Metric Cost Index? Input the new MCI and press Return. <2> Print Input Data Tables When this option is selected, the program w i l l print a l l input data tables and once printing i s completed, the program returns to Enter/Edit menu. <3> Run Problem This key w i l l trigger the design of the entry project in the Data f i l e s . The sequence of actions taken by the program i s summarized i n the following flowchart. Print input data table i f print option is on Ensure that attached members do exist Determii design le member sequence Create i output lecessary : f i l e s Design members in the order established by member design sequence Print output of designed member according to print options Perform quai and cost i t i t y take-off estimates Print quantity take-off and cost estimates tables Figure 3 . 9 Run Problem. 39. <4> Redesign Individual Members Af t e r an en t i r e program has been designed using the Run problem option key ( i . e . "<3> Run Problem"), the user may, with c e r t a i n l i m i t a -t i o n s , modify the input data of one or more members f o r the purpose of redesign. This enables the user to c o r r e c t l y input data, update design c r i t e r i a based on engineering judgement and run d e t a i l output. However, i n order for the user to u t i l i z e the redesign option, the following constraints apply: (a) The e n t i r e problem must have been previously designed, i . e . the output f i l e group must be present (b) Members may not be added or deleted (c) Member marks may not be changed (4) Member construction type may not be changed. When numeric key <4> i s selected, the following notice appears at the top of the screen: Note: (1) the existence of marks entered i s checked on completion of the l i s t . Next, the following prompt appears asking for member marks to be redesign. Enter the mark of member to be redesign (Return i f complete). The members mark are entered one at a time and pressing the Return key a f t e r each. When the input of the redesign l i s t i s complete, press the Return key only without making a member mark entry. The program proceeds to ask the user to check the v a l i d i t y of the redesign l i s t by the following prompt: 40. I s t h e r e d e s i g n l i s t ok? Y / N ? I f ' N ' i s e n t e r e d , t h e p r o g r a m r e t u r n s t o t h e f i r s t prompt f o r f u r t h e r member mark e n t r y . I f ' Y ' i s e n t e r e d , t h e p r o g r a m c o n t i n u e s on t o c h e c k t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e member mark ( i . e . t h e member must h a v e b e e n p r e v i o u s l y d e s i g n e d ) and t h e f o l l o w i n g n o t i c e a p p e a r s on t h e s c r e e n : C h e c k i n g t o see i f marks g i v e n EXISTED I n l a s t r u n I f t h e p r o g r a m d e t e c t s a n o n e x i s t e n c e member m a r k , t h e f o l l o w i n g message a p p e a r s on t h e s c r e e n . Mark "member mark" has n o t been p r e v i o u s l y d e s i g n e d I f any mark i s f o u n d t o be n o n e x i s t e n t , t h e f o l l o w i n g message a p p e a r s on t h e s c r e e n P r e s s R e t u r n t o r e - e n t e r l i s t I f a l l m a r k s e x i s t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e p r o g r a m p r o c e e d s t o r e d e s i g n t h e l i s t o f member m a r k s . <5> R e p r i n t O u t p u t B a s e d on C u r r e n t P r i n t O p t i o n s When n u m e r i c k e y <5> i s e n t e r e d , a c o p y o f t h e d e s i g n o u t p u t f o r t h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t o r p r o g r a m i s p r i n t e d b a s e d o n t h e c u r r e n t p r i n t 41. o p t i o n s . H o w e v e r , t h e p r i n t i n g d o e s n o t i n c l u d e d e t a i l o u t p u t o f members. When p r i n t i n g i s c o m p l e t e d , t h e f i n i s h e d menu a p p e a r s . <6> R e g e n e r a t e Q u a n t i t y T a k e - O f f a n d C o s t E s t i m a t e The q u a n t i t y t a k e - o f f a n d c o s t e s t i m a t e c a n be u p d a t e d a n d r e p r i n t e d by p r e s s i n g t h e n u m e r i c k e y <6>. T h i s o p t i o n i s u s e d i f t h e number o f p i e c e s o f a member i s c h a n g e d a n d o n l y i f a c o p y o f t h e c o s t o u t p u t i s r e q u i r e d . <7> C o n t i n u e d t o E n t e r / E d i t Menu K e y <7> t a k e s t h e u s e r b a c k t o t h e E n t e r / E d i t menu. CHAPTER 4 42. DESIGN DATA INPUT 4.1 General The input of design data i s divided into three blocks. They are: (1) Steel deck and concrete slab system; (2) Floor framing members; and (3) Columns. Each block contains one or more related input data tables and each table has a table heading containing description f i e l d s . The user enters data in the fields below the description f i e l d in the manner described i n this chapter. 4.2 Screen Layout for Input Tables The VT100 screen format must be set at 80 characters per line. In this format, the screen i s 80 characters wide by 24 lines high as shown in Fig. 4.1. The procedure for setting up screen format i s described in the "USER GUIDE FOR VT100". •*• 80 characters + + 24 lines + Figure 4.1 Screen format. Each input table u t i l i z e s the entire screen area and is divided 43. into four parts (Fig. 4.2): (1) Table Heading (2) Data Input Window (3) Default Values (4) Message Line DECK<SLftB G E N E R A L . D E S I G N D A T A ; D STEEL DECK CONCRETE E DEPTH D C M T T E K fl H 0 N / R AREA TYPE I S P S • S K C L P I f L (.key word) K fl I T c fl B N Y B G k g / m2 mm mm mm m3 MPa a 0« •ft'* 230Q -20 Figure 4.2 Screen layout. Table Heading Data Input Window Default Values Message Lines Table Heading The table heading contains the table t i t l e , f i e l d headings separated by f i e l d division bars, notes and sketches. The f i e l d 44. heading describes the information required in the f i e l d below. Where applicable, the required units are displaced in the last line of the table heading. During the input of design data, the table heading remains frozen in place, as the input data lines in the data input window are scrolled up and down. Data Input Window Data input window appears directly below the table heading and continuous to line 20 of the screen. Within this window area, the user may enter or edit input design data one line at a time. The blinking block cursor (H) is used to indicate the "active line", or the line of input data being currently entered or edited. Lines of input data w i l l s c r o l l upward or downward in the window when the user attempts to move the cursor above or below the window boundaries, respectively. If multiple lines of data are allowed for the table, the f i e l d division bars w i l l cover the entire window. However, for tables requiring only one line of data, the f i e l d division bars w i l l terminate one row below the table headings. Default Values Line The default values line indicates to the user in the inverse video mode the current default values of the corresponding fields. Default values are defined as common numbers or characters that w i l l be inserted into blank fields when the user presses the return key. The purpose i s to avoid repetitive typing of common numbers or characters for a specific f i e l d . A blank f i e l d i n the default values line indicates that the user 4 5 . must enter the required information or else the following symbol and error message w i l l appear on line 21 and 22, after the Return key is pressed. AAAAA Data is required in f i e l d indicated The '%' symbol in the default values line indicates that the f i e l d may be le f t blank without generating any error message. Message Line An error or warning message appears on the screen when a problem i s found while checking the validity and compatibility of a line of data after the Return key is pressed. Error messages indicate unacceptable problems and remain on row 23 u n t i l the error has been corrected. A line of data is not stored u n t i l a l l errors have been resolved. Warning messages indicate uncommon situations and are generally displayed for about 3 seconds before execution continues. 4.3 Functions of Keyboard Keys The VT-100 was a keyboard with a key arrangement similar to an ordinary office typewriter as shown in Fig. 4.3. In addition to the standard typewriter keys, the VT-100 keyboard has an 18-key auxiliary keypad. 46. 1 E IN NI lOCM -10 ll I] . 14 iiv 'in* Mi UM/ i i n ' Toaau ii'niuir -if t v i w i n J I I " ' •* r»«, LOCAL «. • i.O »f ID coiu»m HIIIT pj| m a s 1 Dl das IBI IBB] l a a a a 1 E l D D I 0131 BI m i mm 3 3 -I D S ] aai a i s a a i B I Figure 4.3 VT-100 keyboard. a a a a a asm a a a H ^ a 4.3.1 Main Keyboard Alphaneumeric Keys When each of these keys i s pressed, the corresponding character appears at the l o c a t i o n of the blinking cursor and the cursor then moves one p o s i t i o n to the r i g h t . To prevent overflow i n t o the next f i e l d s , the cursor w i l l not move to the right when i t i s located at the end of a f i e l d . The only way to move the cursor into the next f i e l d i s by ei t h e r using the Tab key or the cursor c o n t r o l keys. Tab Key When pressed, the cursor w i l l move from the current f i e l d to the beginning of the next f i e l d . If the cursor i s at the end of the l i n e , the cursor w i l l tab to the beginning of the l i n e . Key Return key signals the completion of a newly typed l i n e or edited l i n e of input data. For the case of newly typed l i n e of data, the program immediately proceeds to place default values i n t o blank f i e l d s , check the v a l i d i t y and compatibility of the input data, and stores the 47. l i n e of data. For the case of editing a l i n e of input data, the program proceeds to check, the v a l i d i t y and c o m p a t i b i l i t y of data and stores the revised l i n e of data. If the l i n e of input data f a i l s the checking procedure, the er r o r or warning messages w i l l appear on the message l i n e and the cursor w i l l appear i n the f i e l d where the error occurs. If the l i n e of input data passes the checking stage, the cursor w i l l appear at the beginning of the next l i n e . Delete Key Erase from the screen only the character or symbol on which the cursor s i t s . H B Caps Lock This key enables the transmission of uppercase alphabetic char-acters only. A l l numeric and s p e c i a l symbol keys remain i n lowercase. No S c r o l l Temporarily haults execution of the program u n t i l the 'No S c r o l l ' key i s repressed. Line Feed Used to route through relevant secondary design input tables f o r the member mark on which the cursor i s residing on. Secondary design input tables are described i n the next chapter. 48. 4.3.2 Cursor Keys The cursor keys are primarily used to move the blinking cursor within the area of the data input window. If the cursor i s situated on the last line of the data input window and the user presses the 4-key, the lines of input data w i l l s c r o l l upward. Further selection of the + key w i l l cause the input data lines to continue to s c r o l l upward unt i l the last line of the input data has been reached. In the similar manner, when the cursor i s situated on the f i r s t line of the data input window and the user presses the t key, the lines of input data will scroll downward. t moves the cursor to the f i r s t column on the line above + moves the cursor to the f i r s t column on the line below • «- moves the cursor one position to the l e f t , skipping a l l f i e l d division bars •*• moves the cursor one position to the right, skipping a l l f i e l d division bars 4.3.3 Auxiliary Keypad Enter Applies to a l l input data tables and i t signals the completion of table input or editing. 0 During the input of Deck/Slab data, the keywords and dimensions for deck profiles are displayed on the screen for 30 seconds (Fig. KEY WORD DEPTH RIB TOP OF BOT OF C N SPACING RIB RIB C (mm) (mm) (mm) < mm) T-15 38. 1 152. 4 67. 3 53. 8 * * NARROW RIB 33. 1 152. 4 68.3 53. 3 * * T-15-INV 38. 1 152. 4 98. 6 85. 1 * T - l 63 42. 7 203. 2 66. 0 46. 7 * * MODU RIB 42. 7 203. 2 66. 7 47. 6 * * T-168-INV 42. 7 203. 2 156. 5 137. 2 * SPAN RIB 50. 8 228. 6 120. 7 88. 9 * * T-20V 50. 8 0.0 0.0 0.0 * * T-30-8 76. 2 203. 2 63. 5 53. 3 * * BOLD RIB 76. 2 203. 2 60. 3 54. 0 * * 324KEYDECK 76. 2 203. 2 68. 1 38. 6 * * T-30-6 76. 2 152. 4 65. 0 53. 3 * * D I AM RIB 19.1 152. 4 125. 7 80. 3 * V-RIB 22. 2 190. 5 190. 5 146. 1 * MINI-DECK 12.7 84. 6 71.9 59. 2 * YORK-1.5 38. 1 152. 4 61.0 50. 3 * * 636KEYDECK 38. 1 152. 4 66. 5 40. 6 * * S15-K 38. 1 152. 4 66. 7 44. 5 * * 424KEYDECK 38. 1 152. 4 61.8 55. 9 * * LORDECK 76. 2 304. 8 170. 5 141.2 * * LOCK RIB 76. 2 304. 8 184.2 120. 7 * * T-30V 76. 2 406. 4 203. 2 160. 0 * * Figure 4.4 Steel deck profiles. 5 0 . 4.4). During the input of Beam and Column data, t h i s key stroke w i l l suspend the program from normal ed i t i n g mode to bulk e d i t i n g mode. Bulk editing allows the user to enter a table and examine a l l l i n e s of data related to the selected table. Some care should be exercised when entering or e d i t i n g data i n the bulk editing mode because not a l l data i n t e g r i t y and com p a t i b i l i t y checks are performed. Q 1 to 9 Select table to be bulk edited. PF1 This key has been set to create a s l o t between the l i n e that the cursor i s on and the l i n e below ( i n s e r t l i n e ) . PF2 Remove from screen and from memory f i l e the l i n e of data on which the cursor s i t e s (delete l i n e ) . PF3 Clear a l l characters except f i e l d d i v i s i o n bars on the l i n e the cursor i s r e s i d i n g ( c l e a r to end). PF4 It i s used to f i n d and display a data l i n e r e l a t e d to a given member mark (edit mark). Enter into secondary l o c a l table. CHAPTER 5 DESIGN DATA INPUT TABLES 5.1 General As mentioned in Chapter 4, the input of design data i s separated into three blocks: (1) Steel deck and concrete slab system; (2) Floor framing members; and (3) Column. The input tables associated with each block and the flow from table to table is illustrated i n Figs. 5.1, 5.3 and 5.19. Each of the three blocks contain a General Table. In addi-tion to a General Table, the second and third input data blocks contain secondary tables used to describe the various options ( i . e . : load description, geometry and construction type) selected in the General table. The following sections contain detailed descriptions of the tables i n each of the three blocks. Each f i e l d in a table has been numbered so that the descriptions on the pages following each table can be easily referenced. 5.2 Steel Deck and Concrete Slab Systems The f i r s t input data block (Fig. 5.1) containing only one input data table, is used to describe the various deck-slab systems. The deck-slab systems may have any of the following arrangements: (1) Steel deck only (2) Concrete slab only (3) Steel deck covered with concrete slab D E C K / S L A B GENERAL DESIGN DATA Figure 5.1 Input data block I. DECK/SLAB GENERAL DESIGN DATA D STEEL DEi" ;K CONCRETE E DEPTH D C M T T E K A H 0 N / R AREA TYPE I S a i S S K C L P I f L <key word) K A I T c A B N Y B G kg/ m2 mm m m mm m3 MPa Figure 5.2 Deck/Slab General Design Data table heading. 5.2.1 Deck-Slab General Design Data The table shown in Figure 5.2 i s used to describe the various deck-slab systems. 53. DECK-SLAB MARK A unique member mark containing the l e t t e r 'D'. AREA (m 2) The t o t a l area covered by the s p e c i f i c deck/slab system. This data i s f o r the user's information only. STEEL DECK: TYPE The keyword associated with one of the 22 s t e e l decks supported by the program. A table showing the keywords and dimensions can be displayed on the screen by pressing the key. STEEL DECK: THICK (mm) The nominal thickness of the s t e e l deck. The f i e l d i s l e f t blank i f the system does not incorporate a s t e e l deck. CONCRETE: DEPTH: SLAB (mm) The depth of the s t r u c t u r a l concrete cover slab above the top of the s t e e l deck. If no deck i s s p e c i f i e d , then enter the st r u c t u r a l thickness of the concrete slab. CONCRETE: DEPTH: TOPPING (mm) The depth of a non-structural topping. CONCRETE: DENSITY (kg/m3) Density of concrete used i n the s t r u c t u r a l cover slab and topping. CONCRETE: f (MPa) c The 28 day compressive strength of s t r u c t u r a l concrete. 54. 5.3 Floor and Roof Framing Systems The second input data block is used to describe floor and roof framing members (i.e.: beams and girders). This block contains twelve input data tables and Fig. 5.3 illustrates the flow from one table to the next. The f i r s t table is used to describe the dead, deck-slab and live loads over a designated area. The second table i s a General input data table which control the flow to six secondary tables for load description and four secondary tables for construction type data. Note that there are two POINT LOAD tables and two EQUALLY SPACED POINT LOAD tables. In both cases, the f i r s t table has the subtitle LOADS FROM ATTACHED MEMBERS and the second table has the subtitle LOCAL. The f i r s t table appears when the respective PL or ESPL option i s selected in the General table. The second table i s secondary to the f i r s t and appears only when the key ^ s pressed. 5.3.1 Area Load Description The table shown in Fig. 5.4 describes the loading over designated areas and is primarily used to assist i n the input of loads for secondary tables. The information contained in this table i s not used in either the member design or costing phases of the program. The loading is divided into three types: (1) Superimposed dead load: (2) Live load; and (3) Deck/Slab load, as described in Section 1.5. (1) LOAD MARK A unique mark of 1-5 characters. E.g.: FLOOR, ROOF, MECH, etc. (2) SUPER DEAD LOAD (kPa) The magnitude of live load (see section 1.5). ENTER A R E A LOAD D E S C R I P T I O N F L O O R / R O O F M E M B E R G E N E R A L DESIGN DATA DISTRIBUTED LOADS POINT LOADS: A T T A C H E D M E M B E R S POINT LOADS: LOCAL E Q U A L L Y SPACED POINT LOADS: ATTACHED M E M B E R S EQUALLY SPACED POINT L O A D S : LOCAL E X T E R N A L MOMENT -3 R E T U R N SORT CANTILEVER T Y P E CONSTRUCTION S T U B GIRDER TYPE CONSTRUCTION TRUSS TYPE CONSTRUCTION COMPOSITE DESIGN INFORMATION Figure 5 . 3 Input data block II. 56. AREA LOAD DESCRIPTION DECK L M SUPER L I V E /SLAB 0 A DEAD LOAD A R LOAD LOAD T or D K Y MARK k P a k P a P k P a Figure 5.4 Area Load Description table. LIVE: LOAD (kPa) The magnitude of live load (see section 1.5). LIVE: TYP The code number (0,1,2) corresponding to the live load reduction formula. SLAB LOAD or MARK (kPa) To identify the amount of deck/slab load, the user has the options of either specifying the slab load or specifying the deck-slab mark. When a line containing a deck-slab mark i s entered, the program w i l l retrieve the input data for the specified system, calculate the slab load and place i t i n this f i e l d . If the speci-fied deck/slab system has a concrete topping, the dead load of the topping i s calculated and added to the value in the superimposed dead load f i e l d . 57. FLOOR/ROOF MEM3ER GENERAL DESIGN DATA R LOAD CONSTRUCT DEPTH SECTION DEFLN B M No. E PATTERN r 'PE CONTROL TYPES INDEX MAX SPAN U P E 11 C c T 3 C E A P E T D L c 0 0 H R T A G L S D C I c - c H R L p 11 M A U U N R I u E A H R E D R L E P P 5 3 T A V P A M C SUPPRT I N E _< 111 N MAX U U 3 C D E E D B 11 K E tl T G ; U 8. E R E S T R P F M R mm L R ? D N mm mm mm I Figure 5.5 Floor/Roof Member General Design Data table. 5.3.2 Floor/Roof Member General Design Data The table shown i n Fig. 5.5 i s the General input table for floor and roof framing member. Each line of input data represent one member. The f i r s t time a line i s typed and entered by pressing the Return key, the program examines the line for options (i.e. load patterns, construction type) checked and routes the user through the required tables and returns to the General table (see Fig. 5.3). Once a line of General data and i t s associated lines of secondary data exist, data can be added, deleted and edited in the following ways: (a) By pressing the Line Feed key (section 4.3.1), the program routes through a l l the relevant secondary tables for the member mark on which the cursor i s residing on. The user may add, edit or delete secondary data as they appear on the screen. 58. By using the PF2 key (section 4.3.3) to delete a line of data in the General table, a l l related secondary data are also deleted. A l l lines of secondary data associated with a particular option for a particular data line in the General table may be deleted by blanking the option f i e l d and then press the Return key. To regain access to a particular secondary table, simply change the characters used to indicate the option and press the Return key. For example to recall the Composite Design table, change the upper case 'Y' to a lower case 'y' and press Return. BEAM MARK A unique member mark containing either an uppercase 'B' or 'G'. If the mark contains an uppercase 'S' as i n 'SB' or 'SG', the mark is treated as a spandrel member. NO. PIECES The total number of pieces of the member. If the member of pieces i s zero, the member i s excluded i n the quantity take-off process. SPAN C-C SUPPORT (mm) The span of the member is measured from centre-to-centre of supports shown in Fig. 5.6. A span span Figure 5.6 Span. 5 9 . END RESTRAINT: L|R Boundary conditions at the l e f t (L) and r i g h t (R) supports are indicated by the following characters: 'S' - simple support 'F' - free condition 'R' .- fixed condition Acceptable l e f t and r i g h t boundary conditions are S-S, R-F, F-R. For c a n t i l e v e r span type (Gerber) construction using S-S. For true cantilever use R-F or F-R. LOAD PATTERN: UDL | PL | ESPL | MOMENT Select the loading pattern(s) by placing a non-blank charater i n the corersponding f i e l d . UDL (Distributed loads), PL (Point loads), ESPL (Equally spaced point loads), moment (Externally applied moment). The corresponding loading pattern secondary table(s) w i l l appear when the General data l i n e i s stored. The program supports c e r t a i n loading pattern(s) f o r c e r t a i n construc-t i o n type and i s summarized as follows: Shapes - any load pattern Trusses - d i s t r i b u t e d loads, l o c a l point loads and l o c a l equally spaced point loads only. No attached members and no external moments. Stub-Girder - 2 or 3 equally spaced point loads only. Can be attached members or l o c a l loads. Cantilever span - any load pattern. COMP? Enter 'Y' to indicate yes, the user i s defining a composite member. Enter 'N' to i n d i c a t e NO, the user i s defining a non-composite member. Stub-girder construction must be composite. 60. CONSTRUCT TYPE: SHAPE | TRUSS | STUB GRD | CANT SPN Check, only one construction type by placing a non-blank character in the corresponding f i e l d : SHAPE - rolled or welded structural shapes. TRUSS - truss and i t s geometry and section types are entered in secondary tables. STUB GRD - stub-girder and i t s geometry are entered into secondary tables. CANT SPN - cantilever span with l e f t and/or right overhangs using rolled or welded shapes. DEPTH CONTROL: MIN | MAX (mm) Except for trusses, the default minimum depth i s 0 and the default maximum depth is 9999. The controlled depth i s the nominal depth of the steel section for shapes and cantilever span type construc-tion. The controlled depth for trusses i s the out-to-out depth of the steel truss and only one depth can be specified meaning minimum depth must equal the maximum depth. When trusses are specified the default values for depth are based on a span/depth ratio of 18 for composite and 16 for non-composite. For stub-girders, the controlled depth is the nominal depth of the section used for the bottom chord. SECTION TYPES: WWF | W | S & M | C | GRADE Indicate from which group(s), Welded Wide Flange (WWF), Wide Flange (W), Standard Shapes (S), Miscellaneous Shapes (M) or Standard Channels (C) the section should be selected by placing a 61. non-blank character in the corresponding f i e l d . The grade of steel i s specified according to CSA Standard G40.21-M78. The program supports only grade 300W for floor framing member. Section type selection for trusses is done in the Truss Type Construction table and is removed i f entered in this table. For stub-girders, these fields refer to the bottom chord and selection i s limited to the W group. (10) DEFLN INDEX: LIVE | SUPER DEAD Enter the minimum span/deflection ratio that i s permissible under live loads and superimposed dead loads. DISTRIBUTED LOADS P. M LOADED L M L INE LOAD ING E fl LENGTH FROM 0 fl TRIBUTARY SUPERIMP. L I V E SLAB ft ft LEFT SUPP. fl R AREA DEAD LOAD LOAD T LOAD M K START END D K START END START END START EH D Y START END mm mm n> 2 s .'ii klVm kH.'m P kN/m 1 (L) (2) (2) (4) (5) & (b (s) Figure 5.7 Distributed Loads table. 62. 5.3.3 Distributed Loads When the UDL option is selected in the General table, the Distributed Loads table shown in Fig. 5.7 appears on the screen. It is also accessable when the bulk, editing mode is in effect. This table i s used to describe line loads of the configuration illustrated in Fig. 5.7. Multiple lines of data may be entered. Note that the load may vary linearly or i t may be constant. Note that the table heading i s divided by a double set of f i e l d delimiting bars. While entering distributed load data, the user has the options of either: (1) without having to enter a load mark, directly enter the line load in the corresponding LINE LOADING fields to the rightr of the double bars; or (2) i f a load mark is specified, the program w i l l convert i t into line loads. That i s when the line of data is stored, the LINE LOADINGS fields to the right of the double bars are f i l l e d i n . (1) BEAM MARK The current beam mark is displayed in this f i e l d automatically i f in the Normal entry mode. Unless in the Bulk editing mode, the cursor i s locked out of this f i e l d to prevent the mark from being changed. (2) LOADED LENGTH FROM LEFT SUPP: START | END (mm) The distance measured from l e f t support to the START (DI Fig. 5.7) and END (D2 Fig. 5.7) of the distributed load. (3) LOAD MARK The user has the option of using this f i e l d to indicate a load mark which is associated with a particular area load described in 63. the Area Load Description table. It is used i n conjunction with the tributary ares entered in the next two fields to f i l l i n the LINE LOADING portion of this table. ( 4 ) TRIBUTARY AREA: START | END (m2) The tributary area at the start and end of the distributed load as described in f i e l d 3 above. ( 5 ) LINE LOADING: SUPERIMP. DEAD LOAD: START | END (kN/m) The superimposed dead load portion of the liv e load at the start and end of the loaded length. (6) LINE LOAINDG: LIVE LOAD: START | END (kN/m) The li v e load portion of the live load at the start and end of the loaded length. (7) LINE LOADING: LIVE LOAD: TYP TYP i s a code (0,1,2) indicating the live load reduction formula that applies to the live load. 5 . 3 . 4 Point Loads: Loads from Attached Members The table shown in Fig. 5 . 8 is used to describe the inter-connection of members. During the design phase, the reactions from attached members are retrieved and placed on the member as point loads. Up to four attached members may be described per input data line. (1) BEAM MARK The current beam mark is displayed in this f i e l d automatically i f in the Normal entry mode. Unless in the Bulk editing mode, the 64. POINT LOADS : ATTACHED MEMBERS B M DIST MEMBER DIST MEMBER DIST MEMBER DIST MEMBER E A LEFT E LEFT E LEFT E LEFT E A R SUPFORT MARK N SUPPORT MARK N SUPPORT MARK N SUPPORT MARK N M K mm D mm D mm D mm D (!) (2) (2) (S) (2) (3)(1)'(2) (3) (4) (2) < 7 Figure 5.8 Point Loads: Attached Members table. cursor i s locked out of this f i e l d to prevent the mark from being changed. ) DIST LEFT SUPPORT (mm) The distance measured from the l e f t support to the location at which the attached member i s connected (DI on Fig. 6.8). Canti-lever span my have an attached member on the l e f t overhang in which case the distance would be negative. ) MEMBER: MARK Enter the mark of the member supported by this member. The attached member may be a beam, girder or column. ) MEMBER: END Enter the end of the attached member that is connected. Section 65. 2.6 and 2.7 show the convention used to determine the right (R) or l e f t (L) end of a floor member. This f i e l d i s l e f t blank i f the attached member is a column. POINT LORDS : LOCAL B M E A fl R M K DIST L E F T SUPPORT mm L M 0 A fl R D K TA m 2 DEAD LOAD kH L I V E LOAD kN T Y P SLAB LOAD kN (J) <k> <2> (d) 6 (6) ( A ) (5) D1 Figure 5.9 Point Loads: Local table. 5.3.5 Point Loads: Local The Local Points Loads table (Fig. 5.9) is used to describe the location and magnitude of point loads. A load mark and tributary area may be used to generate the loads or each load may be entered separately. (1) BEAM MARK The current beam mark is displayed in this f i e l d automatially i f 66. i n the Normal entry mode. Unless i n the Bulk e d i t i n g mode, the cursor i s locked out of t h i s f i e l d to prevent the mark from being changed. ( 2 ) DIST LEFT SUPPORT (ram) The distance measured from l e f t support to the l o c a t i o n of the l o c a l point load (DI F i g . 5 . 9 ) . ( 3 ) LOAD MARK The user has the option of using t h i s f i e l d to in d i c a t e a load mark which i s associated with a p a r t i c u l a r area load described i n the Area Load Des c r i p t i o n table. It i s used i n conjunction with the t r i b u t a r y area entered i n the next f i e l d to f i l l i n DEAD, LIVE and SLAB point load f i e l d s . (4) TA (m 2) The tribut a r y area associated with the LOAD MARK. (5) DEAD LOAD (kN) Superimposed dead load portion of the point load. (6) LIVE: LOAD (kN) The l i v e load portion of the point load. (7) LIVE: TYP TYP i s the l i v e load type ( 0 , 1 , 2 ) i n d i c a t i n g the l i v e load reduction formula. (8) SLAB LOAD (kN) The deck and slab load portion of the point load. 67. EQUALLY SPACED POINT LOADS : ATTACHED MEMBERS B M E A A R M K No. o r POINTS MEMBER HARK No. o f POINTS MEMBER MARK No. o f POINTS MEMBER MARK No. o f POINTS MEMBER MARK d ) © ® @ © @ © d ) © ® (2) ^ $ e > £ * < > I I I 2 ^ -Figure 5.10 Equally Spaced Point Loads: Attached Members Table. 5.3.6 Equally Spaced Point Loads: Loads from Attached Members The table shown in Fig. 5.10 i s used to describe the interconnec-tion of regularly spaced members. During the design phase, the reac-tions from attached members are retrieved and placed on the members as point loads. Up to four series of attached equally spaced members may be entered per input data line. (1) BEAM MARK The current beam mark i s displayed i n this f i e l d automatically i f in the Normal entry mode. Unless in the Bulk editing mode, the cursor i s locked out of this f i e l d to prevent the mark from being changed. (2) NO. OF POINTS The number of points of the member described i n the next two fields supported by this member. For cantilever span type members, only the interior span can be loaded using this load type. (3) MEMBER: MARK Enter the mark of member(s) supported by this member. The attached number may be a beam, girder, column. (4) MEMBER: END Enter the end of the attached member that is connected. See section 2.6 and 2.7. This f i e l d i s l e f t blank i f the attached member is a column. EQUALLY SPACED POINT LOADS : LOCAL B M L M DEAD L I V E SLAB E A No. o f 0 A TA A R POINTS A R LOAD LOAD T LOAD 11 K D K Y m2 kN kN P kN (2) (2) (3) (4) (5) (£) & (J) > t \ 1 Figure 5.11 Equally Spaced Point Loads: Local Table 5.3.7 Equally Spaced Point Loads: Local The table shown in Fig. 5.11 i s used to input directly the magnitude of equally spaced point loads. A load mark may be used to generate the loads or each load may be entered separately. (1) BEAM MARK The current beam mark is displayed in this f i e l d automatically i f in the Normal entry mode. Unless in the Bulk editing mode, the cursor i s locked out of this f i e l d to prevent the mark from being changed. (2) NO. OF POINTS The number of points of the local load occuring on this member. (3) LOAD MARK The user has the option of using this f i e l d to indicate a load mark which i s associated with a particlar area load described in the Area Load Description table. (4) TA (m2) The tributary area associated with the LOAD MARK (5) DEAD LOAD (kN) Superimposed dead load portion of the point load. (6) LIVE: LOAD (kN) The live load portion of the point load. (7) LIVE: TYP Code 0,1, or 2 to indicate the appropriate live load reduction formula. (8) SLAB LOAD (kN) The deck-slab load portion of the equally spaced point load. 5.3.8 External Moment The table shown in Fig. 5.12 i s used to enter the location and magnitude of an externally applied moment. A l l externally applied 70. EXTERNAL MOMENT B M DIST DEAD LIVE SLAB E A LEFT A R SUPPORT LOAD LOAD TA T LOAD M K Y mnt kN .n i kN. m m2- P k N . m 1 <£) (2) (2) (5) (5) (S) (Z) J s r - = ^ Ml Figure 5.12 External Moment Table. moments must be within the length of the member. (1) BEAM MARK The current beam mark i s displayed i n t h i s f i e l d automatically i f i n the normal entry mode. Unless i n the Bulk e d i t i n g mode, the cursor i s locked out of th i s f i e l d to prevent the mark from being changed. (2) DIST LEFT SUPPORT (mm) The distance measured from l e f t support to the point at which the externally applied moment i s applied (DI i n F i g . 5.12). (3) DEAD LOAD (kN.m) Superimposed dead load portion of the applied moment. (4) LIVE: LOAD The l i v e load portion of the applied moment. 71. COMPOSITE DESIGN INFORMATION D ** 6 M E DECK/SLAB WIDTH ACUTE c c M ANGLE DECK H E fi K A DECK 0 / R LEFT RIGHT RIB TO DROP R fi R S K OF OF BEAM E L BEAM BEAM D M K fl L 1 R g mm mm d €• a 1 d •? a mm 0 1 1 (!) (2) (2) (5) (5) (6) 1^2 d i s t i n c e to a d j a c e n t beam o r f u l l d i s t a n c e o f c a n t i l e v e r e d g e . Figure 5.13 Composite Design Information Table. (5) LIVE: TA (m 2) The tr i b u t a r y area associated with the l i v e load (6) LIVE: TYP The l i v e load type code (0,1,2) (7) SLAB LOAD (kN.m) The deck and slab load portion of the applied moment. 5.3.9 Composite Design Information The Composite Design information Table ( F i g . 5.13) appears when a *Y' or 'y' character i s placed i n the COMPOSITE? f i e l d of the General table. This table i s used to i d e n t i f y the Composite deck-slab system and to describe the slab width and the deck o r i e n t a t i o n . (1) BEAM MARK The current beam mark i s displayed i n t h i s f i e l d i f i n the Normal entry mode. Unless i n the Bulk e d i t i n g mode, the cursor i s locked out of this f i e l d to prevent the mark from being changed. (2) DECK-SLAB MARK Enter the mark of the deck-slab system described i n the Deck-Slab 72. General Design Data table that i s to be used compositively with the framing number. (3) DECK-SLAB WIDTH: LEFT OF BEAM (mm) | RIGHT OF BEAM (mm) Enter the width of concrete slab on the l e f t side and the right side of the framing member (see Section 2.7 for left/right convention). Generally the width of an interior member i s half the distance to the adjacent members. For spandrel conditions, one width would be half the distance to the adjacent member and the other would be the width of the slab overhang. The actual effective width i s determined during the design. (4) ACUTE ANGLE DECK RIB TO BEAM: L (deg) | R (deg) For the l e f t and right sides of the framing member in the trans-verse direction, enter in degrees, the acute angle (0 to 90) between the direction of the deck ribs and the longitudinal direc-tion of the framing member. This information i s used to determine the degree of lateral support provided to the top of the framing member by the deck during the various stages of construction. (5) DECK DROP (mm) Enter the distance between the bottom of the deck and the top of the steel framing member. In most cases the value i s zero. However, for the cases where the beams are framed below the girder flanges, the bottom of the deck is below the top of steel girder. (6) SHORED? Answer 'Y1 for yes and 'N* for no. If shored, the design skips the bottom fibre stress check. 7 3 . TRUSS TYPE CONSTRUCTION * 1 - PRATT * tt MEMBER 2 - WARREN B M F TOP CHORD PANEL TYPES 3 - MODIFIED WARREN R GEOMETRY CHORDS WEB E A WA tt 1 - S INGLE ANGLES EM No. PANELS <? LENGTH T G T G - DOUBLE ANGLES ft R EI e g . 191000,33 1500 Y R MIN Y R 3 - WT N P A DEPTH P A 4 - HSS H K G m u l t i p l e e n t r i e s E D E D and 1i nes a l1 owed E E No. Slum mm (2) (2) (2) (f)(1) (6) (7)(2) Figure 5.14 Truss Type Construction Table. 5.3.10 Truss Type Construction The Truss Type Construction table (Fig. 5.14) appears when the Truss option is checked in the General table. This table is used to describe the panel geometry, web framing configurations and the section types to be used. In general one line of data is entered per truss member. However, i f in describing the top chord panel geometry more space i s required, additional lines may be used but the web framing and members types information entered i n the f i r s t line cannot be altered i n subsequent line. As discussed i n the introduction, only certain combinations of chord and web section types are permitted as i l l u s t r a -ted in Fig. 5.15. (1) BEAM MARK The current beam mark is displayed in this f i e l d automatically i f 74. in the Normal entry mode. Unless in the Bulk editing mode, the cursor i s locked out of this f i e l d to prevent the mark from being changed. WEB FRAMING Enter the code number associated with one of the three web framing patterns l i s t e d to the right of the table. The patterns supported by the program are illustrated i n Fig. 5.16. TOP CHORD PANEL GEOMETRY (# @ mm) Starting from the l e f t support enter the panel lengths of the truss. A panel i s defined i n Fig. 5.16 for the three web framing patterns. A panel or group of adjacent panels with the same length i s described by entering the number of panels i n the group followed by the ' @' character and followed by the panel length i n millimetres. Each entry i s separated by a comma. To ill u s t r a t e , the data input for an 11 m warren truss with 3 panels of 1500 mm at the end and 1 middle panel of 2000 mm would be "3 @ 1500, 1 @ 2000, 3 @ 1500". MEMBER TYPES: CHORDS: TYPE The section types available and the associated code numbers are listed to the right of the input table. A l l types except single angles may be used as chords. MEMBER TYPES: CHORDS: GRADE Tees must be grade 300W. Double angles may be either grade 300W or grade 380W. For HSS sections, the entry 350W indicates grade 350W class C sections and entry 350H indicates grade 350W class H sections. 75. (6) MEMBER TYPES: CHORDS: MIN DEPTH (mm) Enter the minimum depth of chord member that i s to be permitted in the design. (7) MEMBER TYPES: WEB: TYPE Enter the code number of the section types to be used for the webs. The code i s liste d to the right of the input table. A l l section types except tees may be used for webs. (8) MEMBER TYPES: WEB: GRADE Single and double angles may be either grade 300W or 380W. HSS grade is specified in (5). 76. Figure 5.15 Available chord-web combinations. W E B CONFIGURATION PANEL POINT PANEL L E N G T H 3 4 5 6 © PRATT 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' r 8' E V E N N U M B E R OF PANELS 3 4 5 6 7 P A N E L L E N G T H © WARREN P A N E L POINT P A N E L LENGTH 1 2' © MODIFIED WARREN z P A N E L POI 6 / 7 2 4 6 Figure 5.16 Web configuration. 78. * * 3 PURLINS * * 2 PURLINS . 2 . 4 1 CM 1 I I I I T 1 I I I 1 3 1 3 STUB GIRGER TYPE CONSTRUCTION B M E ft STUE SECTION * U R I I D * * REFERENCE POINTS d i s t a n c e f rom l e f t s u p p o r t fl R n K e g . 1-14 10X39 B T H mm 1 mm 2 mm 3 mm 4 mm i © © © * d i r e c t l y above s t u b s Figure 5.17 Stub Girder Type Construction Table. 5.3.11 Stub-Girder Type Construction The Stub-Girder Type Construction shown in Fig. 5.17 appears when the STUB GRD option i s checked i n the General table. This table i s used to describe the stub location, stub section and r i b with for 2 and 3 purlins stub-girders. (1) BEAM MARK The current beam mark i s displayed i n this f i e l d automatically i f in the Normal editing mode. Unless in the Bulk editing mode, the cursor is locked out of this f i e l d to prevent the mark from being change. (2) STUB SECTION Enter the designation of the Wide Flange section that i s to be used for the stubs. If this f i e l d i s l e f t blank, the program w i l l use the same section for the stub as for the purlins. 79. (3) RIB WIDTH (mm) Enter the width of the concrete r i b d i r e c t l y above the stub-girder. In some s i t u a t i o n s , a metal pan i s added i n t h i s area to increase the concrete r i b width. If l e f t blank, the program assumes the sp e c i f i e d s t e e l deck r i b width. (4) REFERENCE POINTS: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | (mm) Enter the distance i n millimetres from the centre of the l e f t support to the reference points i l l u s t r a t e d i n the diagrams above the table heading i n F i g . 5.17. If the point 1 f i e l d i s l e f t blank, the program w i l l s e l e c t the optimum l o c a t i o n . The point 4 location i s not entered for the 2 pur l i n s case. CANTILEVER SPAN TYPE CONSTRUCTION OVERHANG TIP DEFLNS INDICES MAX B M DISTANCES L C E A I E CAM A R XI X2 V A BER (1 K E D mm mm mm cb (3) & (£> (5) < - X l - > < SPftU LENGTH > <-X2-> Figure 5.18 Cantilever Span Type Construction Table. 5.3.12 Cantilever Span Type Construction The Cantilever Span Type Construction shown i n F i g . 5.18 appears when the CANT SPN option i s checked i n the General table. This table 80. is used to describe the length of the cantilever overhangs and deflection constraints. (1) BEAM MARK The current beam mark is displayed in this f i e l d automatically i f in the Normal entry mode. Unless in the Bulk editing mode, the cursor i s locked out of this f i e l d to prevent the mark from being changed. (2) OVERHANG DISTANCES: XI (mm) | X2 (mm) Enter the length of the l e f t (XL) and the right (X2) overhangs as shown i n the diagram to the right of the input table i n Fig. 5.18. Either entry may be zero but not for both. (3) TIP DEFLNS: INDICES: LIVE Enter the maximum allowable live load deflection index for the tips of the overhangs. (4) TIP DEFLNS: INDICES: DEAD Enter the maximum allowable superimposed dead load deflection index for the tips of the overhangs. (5) TIP DEFLNS: MAX CAMBER (mm) Enter the maximum allowable tip deflection for deck-slab load plus the mass of the member i t s e l f . 5.4 Gravity Columns The third data input block i s used to enter data for the design of gravity columns. There i s one General table and two secondary tables 81. used for geometry and load description. The flow from the General table to the secondary tables i s shown in Fig. 5.19. The f i r s t secondary table called Column Geometry and LOCAL COLUMN LOADS Figure 5.19 Input data block III. Loads appears when the f i r s t line of data for a column in the General table i s stored by pressing the Return key. This table Is used to describe the interconnection of floor framing members and columns. The second secondary table called Local Column Loads i s accessed using the key while the program is in the Column Geometry and Loads table. Unlike the other two general tables, the General Column Data table can be placed into Bulk editing mode. However, while i n this mode, the secondary tables do not appear automatically when the f i r s t data line is stored. 82. GENERAL COLUMN DATA COLUMN SEGMENT C Ho. U SECTION NOMINAL DIMENSION 0 M REF LEV E TYPES CONTROL S L A L LEVEL PER 3 GROUP N-- S E--W H U R I T A B C DIRECTION DIRECTION A M K N 1 0 U l-J s B G H G M M M M P N E T B E 0 U H E R S R I fl I fl c S 0 0 R or F D S D N X N X P T 90 mm mm mm mm 7 d) (2) (2) (4) (5) (4) (7) (8) (9) fa fa Figure 5.20 General Column Data Table. 5.4.1 General Column Data The General Column Data table shown in Fig. 5.20 is the General input data table for gravity column members. At least one of data i s required for each column. A column may be divided into more than one segment to accommodate changes i n tiering, orientation, size or shape control. A segment may be one or more levels and may be the entire height of the column. One data line i s used for each segment. Once a data line has been entered, a l l other lines of data must follow immediately after, however, the reference levels need not be In any order. (1) COLUMN MARK Enter a unique mark containing an uppercase 'C. 83. NO. LINES Enter the number of column l i n e s with the same geomtry and load-ing. COLUMN SEGMENT: REF: TOP | BOT Enter the top and bottom l e v e l s . Refer to Section 2.7 f o r column geometry convention. The top and bottom reference l e v e l s f o r a 1 l e v e l segment at the bottom of the column would be TOP = 2 and BOT = 2. The top and bottom reference l e v e l s for a 3 l e v e l segment at the bottom of a column would be TOP = 4 and BOT = 2. COLUMN SEGMENT: LEV PER TIER Enter the number of l e v e l s that w i l l be used to make up a column t i e r . The same section w i l l be selected f o r each l e v e l i n the t i e r . If the segment cannot be divided evenly i n t o t i e r s , the remaining l e v e l s form a smaller t i e r at the top of the segment. COLUMN SEGMENT: WEB 0 OR 90 (deg) Enter e i t h e r 0 or 90 degree ro t a t i o n . With a 0 i n the f i e l d , the web of the column section i s assumed to be aligned with the north-south d i r e c t i o n . With a 90 i n the f i e l d , the web i s aligned i n the east-west d i r e c t i o n . COLUMN SEGMENT: SECTION TYPES: GROUP: A Use a non-blank charater to ind i c a t e which s e c t i o n types are to be considered from Group A during the design of t h i s column segment. Group A sections include W and WWF sections. Grade 300W i s assumed. Group A sections may be mixed with Group B sections but now with Group C sections. (7) COLUMN SEGMENT: SECTION TYPES: GROUP: B Use a non-blank character to indicate which section types in Group B are to be considered during the design of this column segment and give the steel grade. Group B includes a series of built-up, H (BH) and built-up box (BB) sections that may be either grade 300W or 350W. Group B sections may be mixed with Group A sections but not group C sections. (8) COLUMN SEGMENT: SECTION TYPE: GROUP: C Use a non-blank charater to indicate that Group C sections are to be considered in the design of this column segment. Group C sections are HSS sections. For steel grade 350W Class C, enter 350W into the GRD f i e l d . Grade 350W Class H, enter 350H. (9) COLUMN SEGMENT: NOMINAL DIMENSION CONTROL: N-S DIRECTION Enter the permitted minimum (MIN) and maximum (MAX) nominal dimen-sion of the column section in the north-south direction. The orientation of the web as described in f i e l d 5 determines whether the depth or width of the section is being controlled. (10) COLUMN SEGMENT: NOMINAL DIMENSION CONTROL: E-W DIRECTION Enter the permitted minimum (MIN) and maximum (MAX) nominal dimension of the column section: in it s east-west direction. (11) COLUMN SEGMENT: SHAPE? Enter a 'Y' for yes and a 'N' for no. Shaping i s the process of smoothing out the transition from one tier to the tier below. 85. COLUMN GEOMETRY AND LOADS c 0 M GEOMETRY LOADS FROM ATTACHED MEMBERS L A L E V E L STOREY U R D MEMBER D MEMBER D MEMBER D MEMBER M K T B HEIGHT I E I E I E I E N 0 0 R MARK N R MARK N R MARK N R MARK N P T mm D D D D Figure 5.21 Column Geometry and Loads Table. 5.4.2 Column Geometry and Loads The Column Geometry and Loads table i s a secondary table that appears automatically each time the f i r s t data line for a column i s stored or restored. This table is used to enter the storey heights for each level and to describe the column loading by entering the marks of attached floor members. (1) COLUMN MARK The current mark is displayed i n this f i e l d automatically i f i n the Normal entry mode. Unless in the Bulk editing mode, the cursor i s locked out of this f i e l d to prevent the mark from being changed. (2) GEOMETRY: LEVEL: TOP | BOT Enter the top level number and the bottom level number of the 86. range of levels for which the information i n the following fields apply. (3) GEOMETRY: STOREY HEIGHT (mm) Enter the floor to floor height between levels in the range reference i n f i e l d 2. (4) LOADS FROM ATTACHED MEMBERS: DIR Enter a N, S, E or W to indicate that the attached member frames into the North, South, East or West face of the column, respectively. (5) LOADS FROM ATTACHED MEMBERS: MEMBER: MARK Enter the mark of the member framing into the column. (6) LOADS FROM ATTACHED MEMBERS: MEMBER: END Enter an L or R to indicate the l e f t or right end of the member that is attached to the column. 5.4.3 Local Column Loads The Local Column Loads table shown in Fig. 5.22 i s a secondary table that appears when the key is pressed while in the Column Geometry Loads table. This table is used to enter column loads directly. These loads w i l l be in addition to load introduced by connected framing members. Multiple lines of data may be entered for each column. (1) COLUMN MARK The current column mark i s displayed in this f i e l d automatically i f in the Normal entry mode. Unless in the Bulk editing mode, the 87. LOCAL COLUMN LOADS c 0 M L E V E L L M DEAD L I V E L A D E 0 A U R T B I C A R TA M K 0 0 R C D K LOAD LOAD T N P T Y mm m2 kN kN P (t) (3)(3)© (5) © © © © Figure 5 . 2 2 L o c a l Column Loads Table. cursor i s locked out of t h i s f i e l d to prevent the mark from being changed. REF LEVEL: TOP | BOT Enter the top l e v e l number and bottom l e v e l number of the range of l e v e l s f o r which t h i s l i n e of l o c a l column load data app l i e s . LOADS FROM LOCAL FORCES: D1R Enter a N, S, E or W to in d i c a t e that the load e c c e n t r i c i t y given i n the next f i e l d i s i n the North, South, East, or West d i r e c t i o n , r e s pectively. LOADS FROM LOCAL FORCES: ECC (mm) Enter the e c c e n t r i c i t y of the load measured from the centroid of the column. 8 8 . LOADS FROM LOCAL FORCES: LOAD MARK -The user has the option of using t h i s f i e l d to enter the load mark which i s associated with a p a r t i c u l a r area load described i n the Area Load Des c r i p t i o n table. LOADS FROM LOCAL FORCES: TA (m2) The t r i b u t a r y area associated with the load mark. LOADS FOR LOCAL FORCES: DEAD LOAD (kN) Enter the dead load portion of the load column load. LOADS FOR LOCAL FORCES: LIVE: LOAD (kNO Enter the l i v e load portion fo the load column load. LOADS FOR LOCAL FORCES: LIVE: TYP Enter a 0 , 1 or 2 to indic a t e the l i v e load reduction formula that applies to the l i v e portion of the l o c a l column/load. 89. CHAPTER 6  MEMBER DESIGN 6 .1 Member Design Sequence P r i o r to the design of members, the program determines the sequence i n which members are to be designed. A member design sequence l i s t i s generated based on the concept that attached members must be designed p r i o r to supporting members. This enables the program to provide the necessary information ( i . e . reactions) for the design of supporting members. In general, the order i n which members are arranged i n the design sequence l i s t i s as follows: (1) Beams i . e . : members with no attached members such as trusses or shapes with d i s t r i b u t e d or l o c a l point loads. (2) Girders i . e . : members with attached members. (3) Columns i . e . : girders attached columns. However, there may be s i t u a t i o n s i n which column i s designed p r i o r to the transfer girder. This involves a column being supported by a transfer girder. Once the design sequence l i s t i s constructed, a pointer points to the f i r s t member i n the l i s t and the OVRLAY module transfers the con t r o l to the appropriate design module ( i . e . Shapes design module, Truss design module, Stub-girder design module, Cantilever span design module, or Column design module). As members are designed, the pointer advances down the l i s t and when a d i f f e r e n t design module i s required, the OVRLAY module would transfer the co n t r o l to the next design module. 90. 6.2 Load Combinations for Floor and Roof Framing Member As discussed in the introduction, the design of floor and roof framing members involves the assessment of i t s performance against different load combinations associated with each stage of construction. In general, up to four stages of construction are considered. They are deck placement, concrete placement, occupancy and shoring requirement. In the program, load combinations for checking flexural strength and sta b i l i t y of floor and roof framing member under construction and occupancy are taken as: (1) 1.25 (Superimposed dead + Deck-Slab + Steel framing member) + 1.5 (reduced live) , Occupancy (2) 1.25 (Deck-Slab + Steel framing member) + 1.5 (Construction live) , Concrete placement (3) 1.25 (Steel framing member + Deck) + 1.5 (40% Construction live) , Steel deck placement Load combination 1 describes the design loads under occupancy and is in accordance with Limit States Design given in CAN3-S16.1-M78 clause 7.2 where dead load factor (o^) equals 1.25, live load factor (a ) equals 1.5 and an importance factor (y) taken as 1.0. Load combination 2 gives the magnitude of the design loads during the placement of concrete and combination 3 indicates loads during the installation of the steel deck. The construction li v e load find in load combination 2 and 3 is the expected live load during the pouring of concrete which would include construction equipment, materials, and heaping of concrete. In the program, these construction loads are taken empirically to be a function of the accumulative tributary area. Below an accumulative area of 27 m2, i t is assumed to be 1.2 kPa, between 27 m2 and 54 m2, i t varies linearly from 1.2 kPa to 0.7 kPa and above 54 m2, the constructive live load is 0.7 kPa (shown in Fig. 6.1). a Q < O 1.2 go.7 o ZD Ql I— tn z o 27 54 TRIBUTARY A R E A (m?) Figure 6.1 Construction live load. To construct the bending moment and shear diagrams for construc-tion live load, i t was assumed that the bending moment and shear diagrams for occupancy live load could be multiplied by a scaling factor called the Construction Load Factor. The scaling factor is determined as follows: , _ . Total tributary area (m2) CLF = Construction Live Load (kPa) x — ;—— ' , Total live load (kN) The total tributary area is taken as the sum of the reaction tributary areas and the total l i v e load i s taken as the sum of the live load reactions. A similar approach is used to calculated the steel deck load associated with load combination 3. For simplicity, a l l steel decks are assumed to contribute 0.1 kPa and the bending moment and shear diagrams for deck-slab loads could be scaled using the Deck load factor which i s : DLF - 0.1 (kPa) x Total tributary area (m?) Total deck-slab load (kN) In accordance with clause 17.6 of S16.1, the stresses in the tension flange of an unshored composite beam, due to loads applied before the concrete strength attained 0.75 f' plus superimposed c stresses due to remaining specified loads, shall not exceed 0.9 F^. This precaution i s to prevent permanent deformation due to yielding of the tension flange. Hence, load combinations for checking shoring requirement are as follows: (4) Deck-Slab + Steel framing member (5) Dead + Reduced live Combination (4) describes the design load acting on the bare steel section (i.e. before concrete has attained 0.75 f ) and combination (5) c gives the remaining specified superimposed loads acting on the compo-site section. Vertical deflection are checked using: (6) Superimposed dead; (7) Reduced live Combination (6) is used when determining the superimposed dead load deflection which is generally limited to 1/300 of the span. Combination (7) is used for live load deflection which is usually limited to 1/360 of the span. 93. 6.3 Shapes Design Module 6.3.1 Analysis P r i o r to the design of the member under consideration, the program w i l l perform a de t a i l e d analysis involving the determination of bending moment, shear and i n f l e c t i o n points. Analysis begins with the extrac-t i o n of relevant load data and reactions from any attached member. Two sets of reference points are generated at c r i t i c a l l o c a t i o n s along the member's length. The f i r s t set of reference points corresponds to l o c a t i o n where bending moment and shear are to be computed. The number of reference points depends e n t i r e l y on the type of loadings and the l o c a t i o n of maximum bending moment. The points are located at 1/8th span apart i f a d i s t r i b u t e d load i s present and at each l o c a l point load and attached member lo c a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l points are added as points of maximum bending moment are determined. The second set of reference points refers only to the l o c a t i o n where attached members frame into the member under consideration. For each of the 6 load types ( 3 - l i v e , superimposed dead, deck-slab, steel) the following are determined: (1) Bending moment and shear are determined at l o c a t i o n established by the f i r s t set of reference points. (2) Support r e a c t i o n s and the t r i b u t a r y area ( t r i b u t a r y area associated with each of the l i v e load are divided between the supports i n proportion to the l i v e load r e a c t i o n s ) . (3) Deflections are determined i n terms of EI. The 6 types of de f l e c t i o n s are condensed l a t e r into 3 groups. They are l i v e load d e f l e c t i o n , camber (slab-deck and attached steel) and superimposed dead l o c a l d e f l e c t i o n . 9 4 . The live load reduction factors, construction load factor and deck, load factor are determined in order to factor and sum the bending moment and shear i n accordance with load combinations 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. For each of the five load combinations, the following are determined: (1) The location of maximum bending moment and shear. (2) Up to three design forces are recorded. They are located at both ends of the member plus somewhere along the span. (3) Points of inflection are found and the unsupported length associa-ted with the design bending moment calculated. It is assumed that between any two points of zero moment, the design bending moment f a l l s within the largest unsupported length. The influence of steel deck and concrete slab on unsupported length i s l e f t to the member selection phase. 6.3.2 Shapes Design Procedures for the design of simply supported non-composite shapes are as follows: (1) Select a t r i a l section based on the section types specified in the input data table "Floor/Roof Member General Design Data", i.e. Welded wide flange (WWF), Wide flange (W), Standard shapes (S), Miscellaneous shapes (M), or Standard channels (C). (2) Check that the depth of the t r i a l section i s within the range of the specified maximum and minimum limitations. (3) Ensure that the span-to-depth ratio of the steel section does not exceed 30. This criterion i s a CSSBI publication ("Composite Beam Manual", Canadian Sheel Steel Building Institute, 1968) recom-mendations in which they suggest that the limit of 30 w i l l provide a good starting point in the selection of satisfactory non-composite member. 95. (4) Modify the bending moments, shears and deflections to include the weight of the section under consideration. (5) Determine the minimum yield strength ( Fy) °f t n e t r i a l section. For welded sections (i.e. WWF), F^ is based on the specified grade and plates thickness. For rolled section ( i . e . W, S, M, C), F^ is based on the specified grade and size groupings. This information i s summarized in Table 6.3, "Mechanical Properties Summary", on Pg. 6-7 of S16.1. Stress 0 5 10 15 20 Per Cent Strain Figure 6.2 Stress Strain Diagram. (6) The class designation of the t r i a l section i s assigned based on i t s a b i l i t y to resist local buckling of the flange and the web, under the action of a bending moment. CSA Standard S16.1, clause 11.1.1 states that structural sections shall be designated as class 1, 2, 3 or 4 depending on the maximum width-thickness ratio of their element subjected to compression. Class 1 sections must be able to develop a moment resistance equal to the plastic capacity of the member and subsequent redistribution of bending moment. Class 2. sections w i l l permit attainment of the plastic moment but need not allow subsequent bending moment redistribution (or rotation of plastic hinges). Class 3 sections must be able to develop a yield moment resistance. Class 4 sections w i l l generally have local buckling of elements in compression as the limit state. Table 6.1 summarizes the width-thickness ratios of compression elements for class designation. Table 6.1 Width-to-Thickness Limits Class Flange Web Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 b/2t < 145 /F~ y b/2t < 170 /F~ y b/2t < 260 /F~ y h/w < 1100 /F~ y h/w < 1370 /F~ y h/w < 1810 /F y where (7) Check the flexural capacity of the t r i a l section for the 3 possible design bending moments associated with occupancy loads (load combination 1). As discussed, the unsupported length during occupancy depends entirely on the orientation of the deck-slab with respect to the steel member. For non-composite design, the deck rib i s assumed to be perpendicular to the steel member, i f a 'B' character appears in the member mark. Alternatively, i f a 'G' charater appears i n the member mark, the deck rib i s assumed to be parallel to the steel member. 97. When l a t e r a l s u p p o rt i s p r o v i d e d t o the compression f l a n g e (deck r i b p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the s t e e l member), the f a c t o r e d moment r e s i s t a n c e can be determined i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h S16.1 c l a u s e 13.5. F o r c l a s s 1 and c l a s s 2 s e c t i o n s : M = AZF = AM r y p Fo r c l a s s 3 s e c t i o n s : M = ASF = AM r y y where the performance f a c t o r , A = 0.9. The purpose of the performance f a c t o r i s to take i n t o a c c o u n t the v a r i a b i l i t y o f m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s , dimensions and workmanship. In the case where c o n t i n u o u s l a t e r a l s u p p o r t i s not p r o v i d e d (deck r i b p a r a l l e l t o s t e e l member), the s t e e l s e c t i o n w i l l be s u b j e c t e d to both i n p l a n e bending and l a t e r a l - t o r s i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y . The f a c t o r e d moment r e s i s t a n c e i s governed by S16.1, c l a u s e 13.6. F o r c l a s s 1 and c l a s s 2 s e c t i o n s : i ) when M > 2/3 M u p 0.28 M M = 1.15 AM (1 £.) but n o t g r e a t e r t h a n AM r P M ° T p u i i ) when M < 2/3 M u p M = AM r u For case 3 s e c t i o n s : i ) when M > 2/3 M 0.28 M M = 1.15 AM (1 - -) but n o t g r e a t e r than AM r y M y i i ) when M < 2/3 M u y M = AM r u where A = 0 . 9 M = ZF y y M = SF p y 98. L = unsupported length of compression flange in millimeters co =1.0 (equivalent moment factor) (8) Check that the live load deflection divided by the span i s less than the live load deflection index entered. If a superimposed dead load deflection index is entered check that i t i s greater than the superimposed dead load deflection divided by the span. Check the maximum camber i s not exceeded. In general, l i v e load deflection should be limited to 1/360 of span and superimposed dead load deflection should be limited to 1/300 of span i n order to prevent cracking of ceilings and partitions. (9) For unshored construction, check the flexural capacity of the section for the 3 possible bending moment during the placement of the steel deck (load combination 2). The unsupported length i s taken as the greatest distance between adjacent points of lateral support and points of inflection, and must not exceed 2/3 of the span since some deck must be installed prior to the application of load. The factored moment resistance i s governed by S16.1 clause 13.6 and is discussed in step (7). (10) For unshored construction, check the flexural capacity of the section for the 3 possible bending moment during the pouring of concrete (load combination 3). When the deck rib i s perpendicular to the steel member, moment resistance i s calculated using S16.1 clause 13.5. Alternatively, when the deck r i b i s parallel to the steel member, moment resistance i s determined by S16.1 clause 13.6. 99. (11) Find maximum end shear associated with occupancy load (load combination 1). Check this end shear against the factored shear resistance, V = i> A F given in S16.1, clause 13.4.1 r co s where F is determined as follows: s (a) when h/w < 439 /k /F ... F = .66 F v y s y 290/Fk (b) when 439 /k /F < h/u < 502 /k /F ... F = , ? V v y v y s (h/co) 180,000 k (c) when 621/k /F < h/u ... F = f -1 (h / c o ) z (12) If section f a i l s any of the above checks, the next t r i a l section i s selected and the procedures repeated unt i l a l l checks are passed. Procedures for the design of simply supported composite shapes with either a solid slab or steel deck and cover slab are as follows: (1) Select a t r i a l section based on the section types specified in the input data table, i.e. WWF, W, S, M, or C. (2) Check that the depth of the t r i a l section i s within the range of the specified maximum and minimum limitations. (3) Check the maximum span-to-depth ratio of 24 and 30 for composite section depth and bare steel member depth respectively. These limits are CSSBI recommendations. (4) Modify the bending moments, shears and deflections to include the weight of the section under consideration. (5) Determine the minimum yield strength (F ) of the t r i a l section. (6) Assign the class designation of the t r i a l section. (7) Since negative bending moment associated with occupancy loading (load combination 1) i s assumed to be resisted only by the base 100. s t e e l s e c t i o n , check t h a t the f l e x u r a l c a p a c i t y o f the base s t e e l s e c t i o n i s adequate i n r e s i s t i n g any n e g a t i v e d e s i g n bending moment. The unsupported l e n g t h i s t a k e n as the g r e a t e s t d i s t a n c e between a d j a c e n t p o i n t s o f l a t e r a l s u p p o r t and p o i n t s o f i n f l e c -t i o n . Moment r e s i s t a n c e o f t r i a l s e c t i o n i s determined i n accordance w i t h S16.1 c l a u s e 13.6. F o r c l a s s 1 and c l a s s 2 s e c t i o n s : i ) when M > 2/3 M u p 0.28 M M = 1.15 <tM (1 2.) but n o t g r e a t e r t h a n AM r T p M p u i i ) when M < 2/3 M u p M = d>M r u For c l a s s 3 s e c t i o n s : i ) when M > 2/3 M u y 0.28 M M = 1.15 <(>M (1 -) but not g r e a t e r t h a n d>M r y M y i i ) when M < 2/3 M u y u = 0.9 CO = 1.0 M P = ZF y M y = SF y M u = IT/tdL y w Determine the e f f e c t i v e s l a b w i d t h o f c o n c r e t e based on c l a u s e 17.3.2 (see F i g . 6.3). 101. For I n t e r i o r condition: i . e . Slab extending on both sides of the s t e e l sections. The e f f e c t i v e width i s equal to the l e a s t of: (a) 0.25 times the composite beam span. (b) 16 times the o v e r a l l slab thickness, or o v e r a l l cover slab and c e l l u l a r s t e e l deck thickness, plus the width of the top flange of the s t e e l section or top chord of the st e e l j o i s t . (c) the average distance from the centre of the s t e e l s e c t i o n or j o i s t to the centre of adjacent p a r a l l e l support. For Spandrel condition: i . e . In the program, i f the width of the slab on one side of the member i s less than 40% the width of the other side, then spandrel condition i s assumed. The e f f e c t i v e width, b^, should not be greater than the width of top flange of the st e e l section, plus the least of: (a) 0.1 times the composite beam span. (b) 6 times the o v e r a l l slab thickness or o v e r a l l cover slab and s t e e l deck depth. (c) 0.5 times the clean distance between the s t e e l s e c t i o n and the adjacent p a r a l l e l support. Assuming f u l l shear connection (100% shear connection) between the deck-slab and the s t e e l beam, check that the ultimate f l e x u r a l capacity i s adequate i n r e s i s t i n g the po s i t i v e bending moment associated with occupancy loading. In accordance with S16.1 clause 17.4.3, the factored moment resistance M of the composite c section with the slab i n compression can be computed as follows: Eff. w i d t h ^ l e a s t of = (16 t 0 * b ) (a) Effective Slab Width For Interior Beams Least value of: (6t 0) (1/10) ( p - b / 2 ) Eff. w i d t h Least value of • ( 6 t 0 ) (1/10) ( S - | - | - ) / 2 Eff. s lab a rea j j t c | ^ t 0 = deck • cover (b) Effective Slab Width For Spandrel Beams Figure 6.3 Effective slab width of composite members. 1 0 3 . (a) Case 1 applies when the concrete slab i s adequate to r e s i s t the t o t a l compression force as shown i n F i g . 6.4. The p l a s t i c neutral axis f a l l s within the e f f e c t i v e slab thickness. Note that i f concrete i s cast on s t e e l deck, only the concrete cover thickness above the top of the s t e e l deck i s e f f e c t i v e for composite a c t i o n with the s t e e l shape. P N A -E f f e c t i v e width b ; | C Q Q f c Q n c r e t e r e s i s t a n c e j Concrete compress ion ' 0.85 <Mc area -^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ • i Tension area • F y 'c;=o.85*cf,;abi| T r = * A s F y C.G. of s tee l res i s tance Figure 6.4 P l a s t i c neutral axis f a l l s within e f f e c t i v e slab thickness (case 1) The moment resistance i s computed by M = d>A F e' where e' = the lever arm and i s computed r s y r c , <f>A F using a = s y 0.85<p b f c 1 c If f u l l shear connection i s required Q > <j>A F r s y where Q = sum of the factored resistance of a l l shear r connectors between the point of maximum moment and the adjacent point of zero moment, (b) Case 2 applies when the concrete slab i s not large enough to r e s i s t the t o t a l compressive force as shown i n F i g . 6.5. In 104. Effective width b, RNA-Concrete compression a rea I 0.85 $c fc Cr.o. of concrete compression C.G. of steel compression i ; v" Stee l compression a r e a , A r r . Stee l tension area *FV .rt,/2 — C r = 0 .85* c f c t c b, >' ^ 2 • v c r . c ; C.G. of steel in tension (a) Plastic Neutral Axis in Steel Flange Ef fec t ive width b, i . Concrete compression a r g a ^ I 0.85* cf: ^ C . G . of concrete compression /'C.G. of steel compression P N . A -S tee l compression a r e a . A r r Steel tension c= area d, 4^  4>FV t e / 2 -c;=o.85* c f ( : t c b 1 \ r »AsFy-C^  T r = c r - c ; C.G. of steel in tension (b) Plastic Neutral Axis in Steel Web Figure 6.5 Plastic neutral axis i n steel section (case 2) this situation, the plastic neutral axis l i e s in the steel section when f u l l shear connection is provided. The moment resistance is calculated by M = C e + C'e' r r r c where C = 0.85 A b,t f r c 1 c c C = r AA F - C s y r 1 0 5 . For f u l l shear connection, Q > 0.85 <f> f'b,t r c c 1 c (10) Transform the e f f e c t i v e concrete slab i n t o e l a s t i c s t e e l proper-t i e s and determine the l o c a t i o n of the neutral a x i s . Next compute the moment of i n e r t i a of the composite s e c t i o n ( l f c ) and determine the section modulus of the composite section with respect to the extreme f i b r e of the s t e e l bottom flange ( S t ) based on the value of I . t (11) Check for unshored requirement s p e c i f i e d i n S16.1 clause 17.6 where: M M < r + < r < 0 - 9 F y x t J i s the moment due to s p e c i f i e d fresh-concrete condition load acting on bare s t e e l (load combination 4) M i s the moment due to s p e c i f i e d superimposed loads acting on composite sections. S = e l a s t i c section modulus of bare s t e e l section, x S = e l a s t i c s e c t i o n modulus wit h r e s p e c t to bottom flange of composite section. (12) Find the maximum allowable stud diameter ( i n the program only 12, 16 and 19 mm diameter shear studs are used) based on two c r i t e r i o n s . F i r s t l y , S16.1 clause 17.3.5.5 s p e c i f i e s the diameter of a welded stud s h a l l not exceed 2.5 times the thickness of the top s t e e l flange. Secondly, the minimum stud p r o j e c t i o n above the top of the c e l l u l a r s t e e l deck i s two stud diameter while maintaining a 25 mm concrete cover. (13) Check that the length of the stud i s >75 mm, i f not the user i s warned to v e r i f y the stud capacity. The 7 5 mm minimum represents 106. the lower bound for test data (5). (14) Determine the shear resistance, q^ of a single shear connector. The ultimate shear capacity is a function of components which make up the composite section along with the orientation of the deck with respected to the steel section as discussed in Chapter 1. (15) Compute shear span and i f steel deck i s being used and the deck flutes are not parallel to the steel member, determine the number of flutes available for shear studs. (16) Determine the number of shear stud required for 50% shear connec-tion. If tri p l e studs in each flute of the shear span w i l l not provide 50% connection, then the program assumes a solid slab condition. That i s , the deck is assumed to terminate at the flange tips. If such action i s taken, the user w i l l be warned in the output. (17) For the purpose of flexural resistance, clause 17.4.4 of S16.1 allows a partial shear connection lower limit of 50%. Hence, check that the flexural capacity of the composite section with 50% shear connection i s adequate using the requirement given in S16.1, clause 17.4.3, case 3 (see Fig. 6.6). For partial shear connection: Q < 0.85 <b btf' and < d>A F M r c i c s y r c = C e + C'e' r r C* = Q r r C = <|>A F - C r s y r C where e' = the level arm and is computed using a = n Q r . , t i U.OJq) DI C X C If not adequate, add studs un t i l factored moment resistance i s at least equal to the design bending moment. 107. Effect ive width b, Concrete compression a rea -v i PN.A S tee l compression a r e a , A c r Stee l tension a rea M l /-C.3. of concrete compress ion 0.850 cfa fCG of s t ee l compress ion C r = 0 . 8 5 M c a b , : Q r <t>AsFy-Qr 4>FV t./2 e- L r 2 • T r = c r . c ; • C.G. of steel in tension UJ (a) Plastic Neutral Axis in Steel Flange Effect ive width b, a : Q r / ( O . B S ^ b , ) f C & o f C o n C r e t e c o m P r e s s i o n C.G. of steel compress ion t o l Concrete compress ion area I f t c i f 0.854>cfc PN.A . —y-Stee l compression a r e a , A c r Stee l tension area d, 1^1 *Fy * F V -C;=0.854> c fcab. :Q-r - r <t A s F y - Q r d 2 - T r = C r . Q r •C.G. of s teel in tension (b) Plastic Neutral Axis in Steel Web F i g u r e 6.6 P a r t i a l s h e a r c o n n e c t i o n ( c a s e 3) (18) The moment o f i n e r t i a o f the composite s e c t i o n i s reduced t o take i n t o account c r e e p of c o n c r e t e , i n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from p a r t i a l shear c o n n e c t i o n and deck p r o f i l e i n accordance w i t h S16.1 c l a u s e 17.3.1.1. The r e d u c t i o n f a c t o r i s determined u s i n g : R e d u c t i o n F a c t o r = 1/(R1 + R2 + R3) RI = 0.15 f o r c r e e p . R2 = 0 f o r s o l i d s l a b c o n d i t i o n , R2 = 0.15 i f s t e e l deck i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o member. 108. T , I « c mr,°, -L. Tio ,100-% Connection. .. R3 = 0 f o r 100/ shear connection, R3 = ( 50 x 0 15 ' 1 shear connection i s between 50 and 100%. (19) Divide deck-slab, superimposed dead and l i v e load d e f l e c t i o n s by reduced EI and check that they have not exceeded t h e i r s p e c i f i e d l i m i t s . (20) Only for unshored construction, check the f l e x u r a l capacity of the section f o r the 3 possible bending moment during the placement of the s t e e l deck (load combination 2). The unsupported length i s taken as the greatest distance between adjacent points of l a t e r a l support and points of i n f l e c t i o n , and must not exceed 2/3 of the span. The factored moment resistance i s governed by S16.1 clause 13.1. (21) Same as step (10) for non-composite. (22) Same as step (11) for non-composite. (23) Same as step (12) for non-composite. 6.3.3 Shapes Output A f t e r the design of each beam or gird e r shape, the section selected and various parameters are summarized i n a table shown i n F i g . 6.7. (1) BEAM MARK The beam/girder mark. (2) SECTION Name of section selected. (3) SPAN Span. ill i i t ?s ! ml i i i ! tn UJ a. <t I to 11 i i § I s S S s i S 2 2 2 1 £ 5 2 l l Is 5 5 i K K 3 ;? 2 S 3 as m i F i g u r e 6.7 Shapes Output T a b l e . 110. STUD GROUPS PER SPAN - S The t o t a l number of shear studs on the member when a s o l i d stub or gird e r condition e x i s t s . If a beam condition e x i s t s , the number of deck f l u t e s per member containing s i n g l e studs i s output. The f i e l d i s l e f t blank i f the member i s non-composite or sing l e stud groups are not used. STUD GROUPS PER SPAN - D The number of deck f l u t e s per member that contain double shear studs. The f i e l d i s l e f t blank i f the member i s non-composite or no double stud groups are used. STUD GROUPS PER SPAN - T The number of deck f l u t e s per member that contain t r i p l e shear studs. The f i e l d i s l e f t blank i f the member i s non-composite or no t r i p l e stud groups are used. STUD GROUPS PER SPAN - DIA (mm) The diameter of the shear studs used. The f i e l d i s l e f t blank i f the member i s non-composite. If the length of the shear stud i s less than 75 mm then a # symbol i s also printed i n the f i e l d . CONN (%) The percentage connection. The f i e l d i s l e f t blank i f the member i s non-composite. Factored MOMENT M (kN.m) The maximum design bending moment associated with occupancy loads (load combination 1). 1 1 1 . (10) Mr (kN.m) The moment resistance of the steel section. If the member was designed compositely, the composite moment resistance i s printed in the f i e l d . (11) M£/M r r The r a t i o of the design bending moment, M^  to the moment resistance, M . ' r (12) BOT FIB STR (MPa) The bottom fibre stress is printed. The f i e l d i s l e f t blank i f the member is non-composite. If a A symbol i s printed i n the fi e l d , shoring was specified and the bottom fibre stress output is for the unshored condition and may be greater than 0.9 F (13) DEFLECTIONS - SLAB (mm) The deflection due to deck-slab load. (14) DEFLECTIONS - DEAD (mm) The deflection due to superimposed dead load. (15) DEFLECTIONS - LIVE (mm) The deflection due to reduced live load. (16) I COMPOSITE REDUCED 10 6 mm* The moment of inertia of a composite reduced for creep, deck profile and partial connection. (17) UNFACTORED END REACTIONS - LEFT END - DEAD (kN) The unfactored dead load portion of the l e f t support reaction. The * symbol indicates that this force includes the superimposed 112. dead load, the deck-slab load and the steel load. If the member i s a fixed-end cantilever, the reaction printed would be the dead load portion of the fixed-end moment (kN.m) and the character 'M' would be printed beside i t . (18) UNFACTORED END REACTIONS - LEFT END - RED. LIVE (kN) The unfactored but reduced live load portion of the l e f t support reaction. If the member is a fixed-end cantilever, the reaction printed would be the reduced live load portion of the fixed-end moment (kN.m) and the character 'M' would be printed beside i t . (19) UNFACTORED END REACTIONS - RIGHT END - DEAD (kN) The unfactored dead load portion of the right support reaction. The * symbol indicates that this force includes the superimposed dead load, the deck-slab load and the steel load. If the member is a fixed-end cantilever, the reaction printed would be the dead load portion of the fixed-end shear (kN) and a character 'V' would be printed beside i t . (20) UNFACTORED END REACTIONS - RIGHT END - RED. LIVE (kN) The unfactored but reduced live load portion of the right support reaction. If the member is a fixed-end cantilever, the reaction printed would be the fixed-end shear (kN) and a character 'V would be printed beside i t . 6.4 Truss Design Module 6.4.1 Analysis Analysis begins with the extraction of relevant load data pertaining to the member under consideration. The dead weight of the 113. steel truss is estimated based on the span and i s applied to the top chord as a uniform distributed load. A l l loads are assumed to be applied to the top chord and are factored and live load reduced in accordance with load combinations 1, 2, and 3, before resolving into equivalent panel points load and local top chord bending moment as illustrated in Fig. 6.8. I ! i i , ! ' i f i \ \ \ \ \ \ \ _ \ ^ \ ! \ P P M < \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ; \ Figure 6.8 Equivalent panel points load. For the purpose of determining panel points load, the top chord members are assumed to be pin connected (i.e . simply supported). Every top chord panel point except the ends have a member on each side and the sum of the end shear reactions from each side determines the panel point load as illustrated in Fig. 6.9. A" J L 1 A" i A + Figure 6.9 Panel point load. 114. The negative bending moment at panel points i s obtained by assum-ing that the panel points are fixed from rotation. The larger of the fixed-end moment is used. The positive bending moment between adjacent panel points is calculated by assuming simply supported connection. The analysis and design of truss are closely linked because each time new chord sections are tried, the effective depth and self-weight of the truss changes, resulting i n a change in geometry of the truss. Therefore, i n general, a new analysis must be performed each time the effective depth changes. Each analysis returns the axial forces in the top chord, bottom chord and web member for load combinations 1, 2 and 3. The effective depth is defined as the distance between the centroids of the top and bottom chords. When the program i s asked to design a non-composite truss, the effective depth i s taken as the vertical distance between the centroids of the steel chords for load combinations 1, 2 and 3. For composite truss, under loading conditions during deck placement and concrete placement (load combinations 2 and 3), the effective depth is same as non-composite truss. However, during occupancy loading, the effective depth i s taken as the distance between the centroid of the bottom chord to the centre of gravity of concrete i n compression. The analysis is performed using the models illustrated in Fig. 6.10. Model (a) represents a non-composite conditions, and Model (b) represents a composite condition. For non-composite truss, the model is a typical pin connected steel truss. For composite truss, the model i s a l i t t l e more complex with the area of steel top chord neglected as required by S16.1 clause 116. 17.4.2. The concrete top flange i s to be connected to the steel top chord by a f i c t i t i o u s shear link. This link i s assumed to transfer the compressive force in the concrete, to the steel top chord and then to the web framing member without developing bending moment. In the analysis, the program disregards the effect of local bend-ing moment induced by: (1) Web to chord joint eccentricity, Fig. 6.11. (2) Connection eccentricity, Fig. 6.12. (3) Localized overturning due to steel-to-concrete shear connection, Fig. 6.13. ^Vertical component of c Figure 6.11 Web to chord joint eccentricity. 6.4.2 Truss Design The design of truss is an iterative process that converges on effective depth and self-weight. Each iteration involves the selection of bottom and top chord members, as well as web members in order to refine the self-weight and truss geometry for the next iteration. In the f i r s t iteration, the estimated self-load based on span i s used in the analysis. The out-to-out depth of the truss i s used for the effec-117. Compression diagonals and verticals -Truss chord Bending out of web plane Figure 6.12 Connection eccentricity. . Ult imate connector force.q / \ I ^ r 1 r ^ • .-- . — — — —j _ — i Figure 6.13 Localized overturning. tive steel depth and the overall depth less one-half the slab depth is used for the effective composite depth. Successive iterations uses the self-weight and effective depths calculated in the previous iteration. The design is complete when the effective depth from the previous iteration is equal to the effective depth of the current iteration. 118. Bottom chord selection: (subjected to axial forces) (1) Determine which bottom chord member is subjected to the maximum factored axial tension force from the most recent analysis for each of the three load cases (i.e. occupancy, placement of concrete and deck placement). (2) Select a t r i a l section based on the section type specified in the input truss data table. If chords are hollow structural sections, the section i s f i r s t tied in i t s upright orientation and then in a rotated position. When HSS chord i s used i n conjunction with single or double angle webs, the top and bottom chord must be the same. (3) As required by S16.1 clause 16.5.7, the factored tensile resist-ance, of the t r i a l section must be checked for i t s adequacy during occupancy, deck placement and concrete placement. .95 (T ) > maximum axial tension force in the bottom chord r where T is the lesser of (a) T = .9 (area)(F ) r r y (b) T r = .85(.9) (area) F u For Grade 300W ->• F = 450 MPa u For Grade 350W, 380W ->• F = 480 MPa u Note a 5% reduction is applied to the factored tensile resistance to take into account the possibility of local stresses developed by web-chord connection. (4) For composite truss only: During the f i r s t iteration, an analysis for occupany loading i s performed for each t r i a l section by assum-ing the top steel chord is the same as the t r i a l bottom steel chord. 119. (5) For composite truss only: The effective width of concrete top flange is calculated using rules set forward in S16.1 clause 17.3.2. Ensure that the plastic neutral axis (P.N.A.) l i e s within the depth of the cover slab because S16.1 clause 17.4.2 limits the design of composite truss to 100% shear connection with only clause 17.4.3(a) being applicable (see Fig. 6.14). T:——:T Port Elevation 0.85 »„f o f concrete compression a 2_ C; = 0.85»ct;QO, C.G of steel in tension Cross -Section Figure 6.14 Force equilibrium of composite truss. Note: The top steel flange is neglected in the evaluation of force equilbrium. (6) Check the live load, superimposed dead load and deck/slab deflec-tion. For non-composite truss, the moment of inertia i s calculated using only the steel top and bottom chord and is reduced 15% for web deflection due to strain. For composite 120. truss, the moment of inertia i s computed using the transformed concrete top chord plus the steel top and bottom chord. The composite moment of inertia i s reduced 15% for creep and 15% for profiled deck. (7) Repeat Steps 1-6 un t i l up to five sections have been selected for the bottom chord so that later the least cost solution can be found. Select top chord: (Subjected to combined axial and bending forces) (1) Trusses are assumed to be laterally braced by bridging at the one-third points. The program determines the location of the c r i t i c a l top chord panel based on the maximum factored compressive force for each of the 3 load combinations. For composite construction and under occupancy loading, the steel top chord i s assumed to carry no compressive force. (2) A t r i a l section is selected based on the following criterias: (a) section type specified in the input data for truss. (b) If composite condition, the flange thickness must be able to support at least a 1/2" stud. (c) If composite condition, the width of HSS top chord must be atleast 3" wide to assist in shear stud placement. (d) If HSS chords, pick same width for top and bottom chord. (3) Check the adequacy of the t r i a l section under occupancy, concrete placement and deck placement for strength and sta b i l i t y in accord-ance with S16.1 clause 13.8.1 which requires that: Strength check: C^ /C + ttc /M < 1.0 f r f r x x e where C = .9 (area) (F ) 121. = factored compressive force = factored l o c a l moment at panel point x e M = f a c t o r e d moment r e s i s t a n c e based on c l a s s r x d e s i g n a t i o n and unsupported length, and -is ca l c u l a t e d i n accordance with S16.1 clause 13.5 and 13.6. S t a b i l i t y check: ZjQ + to M /M (1-C C/C ) < 1.0 f r x f r f ex x x m where = factored mid panel l o c a l moment xm = factored a x i a l compressive forces = the f a c t o r e d compressive r e s i s t a n c e based on s e c t i o n type and on the l a r g e r e f f e c t i v e s l e n d e r n e s s r a t i o , t h a t i s KL / r or KL / r x x y y (S16.1 clause 13.3.1, 13.3.2). C = e l a s t i c buckling strength ex lu^ = equivalent moment fac t o r equal to 1 M = f a c t o r e d moment r e s i s t a n c e based on c l a s s r x d e s i g n a t i o n and unsupported length, and i s calc u l a t e d i n accordance with S16.1 clause 13.5 and 13.6. Unsupported lengths and L^: During deck placement = panel width, = distance between bridging which Is set at 1/3 span. During concrete placement L = panel width, L =0 x y During occupancy L x = panel width, = 0. (4) Check a l l other top chord panels for strength and s t a b i l i t y f o r the 3 load combination. 1 2 2 . Steps 5-9 for composite truss only: (5) Determine the shear force required for 100% shear connection. In general, Q = 6A F where A = area of the steel bottom chord, r s y s (6) Find the maximum allowable stud diameter based on two criterions. F i r s t l y , S16.1 clause 17.3.5.5 specifies the diameter of a welded stud shall not exceed 2.5 times the thickness of the top steel flange. Secondly, the minimum stud projection above the top of the cellular steel deck is two stud diameter while maintaining a 25 mm concrete cover. (7) Check that the length of the stud i s >75 mm, i f not, the user i s warned to verify the stud capacity. (8) Determine the shear resistance, q^ of a single shear connector. The ultimate shear capacity is a function of components which make up the composite section, along with the orientation of the steel deck with respect to the steel top chord as discussed i n Chapter 1. (9) Determine the number of shear stud required for 100% shear connection. Only single shear stud per rib i s allowed due to the limited flange width of the steel top chord. (10) Repeat steps 2-9 until five sections are selected. The most economical top and bottom chord combinations w i l l be used. Web selection: (1) Select a t r i a l section based on the following requirements: a) section type specified in the input data for truss b) In truss where the chords are hollow structural section, the width of HSS web must be less than the width of both the top and bottom chord 1 2 3 . c) When HSS webs are specified, the width of a l l web members must be the same. d) Where chord are double angles, the gap between angles i s assumed to be 3/8" for the gusset plate when combined with single or double angle webs. e) Only equal leg angles (L's and 2L's) allowed for compression webs. If web is i n tension, check that the slenderness ratio does not exceed 300. Check the adequacy of the t r i a l section against the 3 load cases. The tensional resistance is governed by clause 16.5.7. T i s the lesser of (a) T = .9(area)(F ) r r y (b) T r = .85(.9)(area)(F u) If web is i n compression, check that the slenderness ratio does not exceed 200. For HSS web, check i t s s t a b i l i t y using S16.1 clause 13.8. .95 r where C^  = factored axial compressive force C^ = the factored compressive resistance based on HSS sec-tion and on the larger effective slenderness ratio, that i s KL /r or KL /r (clause 13.3.2). x x y y The 5% reserve capacity is for additional forces resulting from connection eccentricity. For angles L's or 2L's, check i t s strength and st a b i l i t y using CAM3-S136. 124. The general requirement i s : C f •x— < .95 (5% reserve for possible connection eccentricities) r In the above = factored axial compression force C = F (area) r a where: F^ is the average axial stress for compression member under concentric loading given in CAN3-S136, clause 12.6.1 as: a) F < F then F = F p o a p b) F > F then F = 2F - F 2/F p o a o o p where: F^ i s the lesser of the torsional-flexural buckling stress, F^and flexural buckling stress, F^ F = 4r [F +F - /(F +F ) z + 4BF F 1 (clause 12.6.3) st 2B L s t s t s t J F e = <()c(291,000)/Y2 (clause 12.6.4) F = .5QF o Q = local buckling factor defined i n Clause 4.9 F = basic design stress defined in clause 12.2 6.4.3 Trusses Output After the design of each truss, one page of detailed output data i s printed as shown in Fig. 6.15. Before control is transferred to another design module, a truss summary table is printed for a l l truss members designed to that point as shown in Fig. 6.16. A description of each f i e l d in the detailed truss output in Fig. 6.15 follows: TRUSS 2 B i SPAN (mi) - 9000 OUT-OUT STEEL DEPTH (mi) - 560 EFFECTIVE STEEL DEPTH (mi) - 496.5 STEEL MOMENT OF INERTIA (10A6mi4) - 158.32 EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DEPTH itm) - 666.3 REDUCED COMPOSITE MOMENT OF INERTIA (10A6wi4) - 425.50 STUD DIAMETER USED (mi) - 16 TOTAL NUMBER OF STUDS - 18 for 190Z conn. CONC. UTILIZATION - .27 based on actual b«tto« chord force THEORETICAL PLACE SLAB COMPONENT SECTION LENGTH (m) OCCUP. DECK POUR TOP CHORD - HS76.2X76.2X6.35 9000 .36 .26 .74 .71 .55 .51 .55 .48 .29 .51 .51 .29 .48 .55 .Sl .55 1  TOM CHORD - HS76.2X50.8X6.35 R 9000 .94 .14 i MEMBERS -1 - 2 HS38.1X38.1X4.78 899 .98 . i i 2 - 3 HS50.8X50.8X3.8i 899 .90 .10 3 - 4 HS38.1X38.1X2.54 899 .98 .11 4 - 5 HS38.1X38.1X3.81 89? .86 .09 5 - 6 HS25.4X2S.4X2.54 899 .52 .06 6 - 7 HS25.4X25.4X3.18 899 .91 .10 7 - 8 HS25.4X2S.4X3.i8 899 .91 .10 8 - 9 HS25.4X25.4X2.54 89? .52 .06 9 - 10 HS38.iX38.iX3.31 899 .36 .09 10 - 11 HS38.1X38.1X2.54 89? .98 .11 11 - 12 HS50.8X50.8X3.8i 899 .90 .10 12 - 13 HS33.1X38.1X4.78 899 .98 .11 DECK/SLAB DEFLN (mi) - \ SUPER DEAD DEFLN (mi) -LIVE LOAD DEFLN (««) -GROSS MASS (kg) -GROSS UNIT MASS (kg/n) -DEAD LOAD (kN/n) - .272 20 UTILIZATION - .39 6 UTILIZATION - 8.00 6 UTILIZATION - .26 287 31.9 DECK/SLAB SPECIFICATIONS DECK DEPTH <nn) - 76 COVER SLAB (mi) - 65 CONC. DENSITY (kg/nA3) - 2300 CONC. STRENGTH (MPa) - 20 tm»# WARNING - NEITHER WEB MEMBER FORCE REVERSALS DUE TO PATTERNED LOADS NOR WEB-CHORD CONNECTIONS HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED. Figure 6.15 Truss detail output. 126. TRUSS The truss mark. SPAN (mm) A reprint of the span entered in the input tables. OUT-OUT STEEL DEPTH (mm) A reprint of the out-to-out depth of the steel truss entered in the input tables. EFFECTIVE STEEL DEPTH (mm) The effective dept of the truss measured between the centroids of the top and bottom chord sections selected. STEEL MOMENT OF INERTIA (10 6 mm1*) The moment of inertia of the bare steel truss divided by 10 raised to the power 6. EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DEPTH (mm) The effective depth of the composite section. Appears for composite trusses only. REDUCED COMPOSITE MOMENT OF INERTIA (10 6 mm11) The moment of inertia of the composite section divided by 10 raised to the power of 6. The value i s reduced for deck profile and creep. Appears for composite trusses only. STUD DIAMETER USED (mm) The largest diameter stud possible given availability, project and thickness of the top flange. Appears for composite truss only. 127. (9) TOTAL NUMBER OF STUDS The total number of single shear studs on the truss. Appears for composite trusses only. (10) CONC. UTILIZATION A factor reflecting the effective depth of the concrete versus the actual depth of the concrete cover slab. It is based on the actual bottom chord force versus the tensile capacity. If near 1.0, the concrete slab may be controlling the moment capacity of the composite section. Appears for composite trusses only. (11) COMPONENT The truss component being referred to. Includes top chord, bottom chord and each web member. The web member are numbered according to Fig. 5.16. The warren post is reported separately when modified warren trusses are specified. (12) SECTION The designation of the section selected for the indicated component. A character 'R' after an HSS member indicates that the section i s rotated 90 degrees meaning that the long dimension is out of plane. The sections can be matched to properties in Appendix 'B'. (13) THEORETICAL LENGTH (mm) The length of the component used to calculate mass. For chords, the length is the span. For web members, the length is the distance between the centroids of the top and bottom chord. 128. (14) OCCUP. The component ut i l i z a t i o n factor under occupancy loads. Is the ratio of the' factored axial load to the factored axial capacity. (15) PLACE DECK The component ut i l i z a t i o n factor under loads associated with plac-ing the steel deck on the bare truss. Is the ratio of the factored axial load to the factored axial capacity. (16) SLAB POUR The component ut i l i z a t i o n factor under loads associated with pour-ing the concrete cover slab on the bare truss. Is the ratio of the factored axial load to the factored axial capacity. (17) DECK-SLAB DEFLN (mm) - UTILIZATION The midspan deflection of the truss due to the deck-slab load and the self-load using the bare steel I. The u t i l i z a t i o n factor is the ratio of the actual deck-slab deflection to the permissile deflection specified. (Usually equal to the built in truss camber.) (18) SUPER DEAD DEFLN (mm) - UTILIZATION The midspan deflection of the truss due to the superimposed dead load using the bare steel I i f non-composite or the reduced composite I i f composite. The u t i l i z a t i o n factor is the ratio of the deflection to the allowable deflection calculated by dividing the deflection index into the span. If no index is entered, the uti l i z a t i o n i s zero. (19) LIVE LOAD DEFLN (mm) - UTILIZATION The midspan deflection of the truss due to the reduced live load using the bare steel I i f non-composite or the reduced composite I i f composite. The uti l i z a t i o n factor i s the ratio of the deflec-tion to the allowable deflection calculated by dividing the live load deflection index into the span. (20) GROSS MASS (kg) The gross mass is the sum oif the masses of each individual component using the theoretical length a l l multiplied by the connection factor given in Section 7.2. (21) GROSS UNIT MASS (kg/m) The gross mass in kilograms divided by the span in metres. (22) DEAD LOD (kN/m) The gross mass in kilograms per metre multiplied by the gravita-tional constant to yield a load in kilonewtons per metre. (23) DECK-SLAB SPECIFICATIONS: DECK DEPTH (mm) The depth of the steel deck type specified under the deck-slab mark entered. Appears for composite trusses only. (24) DECK-SLAB SPECIFICATIONS: COVER SLAB (mm) The depth of the concrete cover slab as specified for the deck-slab mark entered. Appears for composite trusses only. (25) DECK-SLAB SPECIFICATIONS: CONC. DENSITY (kg/m3) The density of the concrete cover slab. Appears for composite trusses only. 130. (26) DECK-SLAB SPECIFICATIONS: CONC. STRENGTH (MPa) The 28 day cylinder compressive strength of the concrete cover slab. Appears for composite trusses only. A description of each f i e l d in the truss summary table output in Fig. 6.16 follows: (1) TRUSS MARK Truss member mark. (2) WEB FRAMING Web framing configuration specified in input data. PRATT, WARREN or MOD. WARREN (modified warren) w i l l appear. ( 3 ) GROSS MASS (kg) Total gross mass as described under gross mass in the detailed output. (4) SPAN (mm) A reprint of the span entered i n the input data. (5) 0-0 STEEL DEPTH (mm) The out-to-out depth of the bare steel truss. (6) CHORD TYPE The type of section specified for the chords. Field w i l l contain a 2L (double angles), T (tees from W sections) or HSS (hollow structural sections). iS. ii h s a 1 i i r !3I Si t s i s 111 = I l l s II F i g u r e 6.16 T r u s s summary t a b l e . 132. (7) WEB TYPE The type of section specified for the webs. Field w i l l contain an L (single angles), 2L (double angles) or HSS (hollow structural sections). (8) STUDS/SPAN Total number of shear studs per truss. (9) STUD DIAM (mm) Diameter of shear stud used. (10) M (kN.m) Overall design bending moment (11) Mc/M f r Ratio of design bending moment to factored moment resistance. Factored moment resistance i s calculated by multiplying the top or bottom chord capacity depending on which governs, by the effective depth. (12) DEFLECTIONS: SLAB (mm) Midspan deflection due to deck-slab load plus self-load on bare steel truss. (13) DEFLECTIONS: DEAD (mm) Midspan deflection due to superimposed dead load. If composite, the reduced inertia of the composite section i s used. (14) DEFLECTIONS: LIVE (mm) Midspan deflection due to reduced live loads. If composite, the reduced inertia of the composite section is used. 133. (15) UNFACTORED END REACTIONS: LEFT END: DEAD (kN) Deck/slab, superimposed dead and self-load portion of l e f t reaction. (16) UNFACTORED END REACTIONS: LEFT END: RED. LIVE (kN) Reduced live load portion of l e f t reaction. (17) UNFACTORED END REACTIONS: RIGHT END: DEAD (kN) Deck/slab, superimposed and self-load portion of the right reaction. 6.5 Stub-Girder Design Module 6.5.1 Analysis The program supports the preliminary design of stub-girder with 2 equally spaced purlin (3 stubs) and 3 equally spaced purlin (4 stubs) as shown in Fig. 6.17, respectively. For preliminary analysis, a stub girder may be modelled as a symmetrical "Vienendeel" girder with a r t i f i c i a l "hinges" as shown in Fig. 6.18. The introduction of hinges makes the structural model statically determinate and hence greatly simplifies the preliminary structural analysis. The following three paragraphs define the properties of the various components which create the structural model for analyzing stub-girders. Top Chord: the deck-slab dimensions and concrete properties are specified in the input phase. The program uses a preselected reinforc-ing arrangement which includes one layer of welded wire mesh with a 25 mm concrete cover, eight 15 m f u l l span longitudinal reinforcing bars placed as shown in Fig. 6.19, and five 15 m transverse reinforcing bars 4 Deck s p a n s I^Hole 1 Hole 2 j r Hole 3 Ho le % I I 3 S t u b - 1 \ S tub G i r d e r r MLT S t u b • S t u b ^ [ i G i r d e r span (a) Stub-girder with 4-stub arrangement 3 Deck spans Holel Hole 2 IK ii Hole 3 i S t u b ^ \ S t u b - J Stub G i r d e r -G i rde r s p a n (b) Stub-girder with 3-stub arrangement Figure 6.17 Stub-girder arrangement. S y m m e t r i c a l about - A r t i f i c a l inf lect ion po in ts @ to (g) - A x i a l . f l exu ra l forces to be computed at loca t ions © to ( f ) , and (7). Long i tud ina l s h e a r at (6). Figure 6 .18 Simplified stub-girder analysis model. 135. 8 - b a r arrangement F i g u r e 6.19 Continuous l o n g i t u d i n a l s l a b r e i n f o r c e m e n t . w i t h 15 mm of co v e r bent i n t o a h e r r i n g - b o n e shape arrangement and l o c a t e d over the e x t e r i o r stubs as shown i n F i g . 6.20. S t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s ( i . e . moment of i n e r t i a , n e u t r a l a x i s ) of the r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e top chord i s c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the e f f e c t i v e w i d t h p r o v i d e d i n p r o v i s i o n S16.1 c l a u s e 17.3.3, a l o n g w i t h the e f f e c t i v e c o n c r e t e compression a r e a computed from the f o l l o w i n g : (1) c r o s s - s e c t i o n a r e a o f the c o n c r e t e s l a b ; (2) c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a o f the c o n c r e t e r i b s ; (3) c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a o f l o n g i t u d i n a l r e i n f o r c i n g b a r s ; (4) c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a of the s t e e l deck. Stub s e c t i o n : The stub s e c t i o n used i s e i t h e r the s e c t i o n s p e c i -f i e d i n the i n p u t t a b l e o r i f the f i e l d i s l e f t b l a n k , t h e stub s e c t i o n used i s the same as the s e c t i o n s e l e c t e d f o r the a t t a c h e d members. I f the program f i n d s more t h a n one s e t of a t t a c h e d e q u a l l y spaced members, the deepest o f the s e c t i o n s e l e c t e d i s used. I f the program cannot f i n d the s e c t i o n s e l e c t e d o r s p e c i f i e d , the u s e r w i l l be prompted f o r a s e c t i o n d e s i g n a t i o n . 136. Bent bar reinforcing Double welded-^ wire mesh i n i in i i n i I X — -75 mm concrete cover on 76 mm composite wide-r ib profile steel deck - H | J L I—500 mm 3-15M cont. top bars ' / Sheet steel pan A - 15M cont. bet. bars I Section A-A Figure 6.20 Transverse slab reinforcement. The l o c a t i o n of the stubs are s p e c i f i e d i n the input, thus, f i x i n g the stub lengths and hole s i z e . The only exception i s the siz e of the f i r s t hole which i s determined by the program i f the input f i e l d i s l e f t blank. The size of the f i r s t hole i s determined on the bending resistance of the bottom chord and the length of the stub required f or the development of long i t u d i n a l shear. Bottom chord: Knowing the neutral axis of the t r i a l bottom s t e e l - Approximate 'statically-determinate' model analysis Moment of inertia of top chord = 7 4 . S X 10A mm 4 (or 27%) Moment of inertia of bottom chord = 199X 10h mm 4 (or 73%) Shear at location A = 3P f/2 = 350 kN B = (3P,/2)(0.73) = 255 kN C = (Pf/2) (0.73) = 85 kN D = (3Pr/2)(0.27) = 94.4 kN E = (Pr/2)(0.27) = 31.5 kN where P f = 233 kN Bending moment at points: 1 350 (0.625) = 219 kN-m 2 255 (0.4)(0.75) +85(0.9) = 153 kN-m 3 85(1.075/2 + 0.9) = 122 kN-m 4 94.4 (0.6)(0.75) = 42.5 kN-m 5 31.5(1.075/2 + 0.9) = 45.3 kN-m 7 94.4(0.4)(0.75)+ 31.5(0.9) = 56.7 kN-m Axial forces at points: B and D = (3Pf/2)(2.875-0.4X0.75)/0.638 = 1 411 kN C and E = [(3Pr/2)(2.875)(1.5)-Pf(2.875/2)]/0.638 = 1 837 kN Figure 6.21 Example showing the analysis of stub-girder. 138. section. The e f f e c t i v e depth of the stud-girder system i s taken as the distance between the neutral axis of the top and bottom chords. Since stub-girder design i s based on the assumption of shored composite construction, only forces r e s u l t i n g from occupancy loading are investigated at seven c r i t i c a l l o c a t i o n s . O v e r a l l shear forces are determined along the span of the stub-girder and at a hinge l o c a t i o n i t i s proportioned to the top and bottom chord according to the member s t i f f n e s s of the top and t r i a l bottom chord. Knowing the l o c a l shear force d i s t r i b u t i o n along the top and bottom chord, l o c a l bending moment at c r i t i c a l locations are determined. The a x i a l forces are calculated by d i v i d i n g the o v e r a l l bending moment by the e f f e c t i v e depth of the t r i a l stub-girder. An example of the analysis i s shown i n F i g . 6.21. 6.5.2 Stub-Girder Design (1) Select a t r i a l W-shape bottom chord which i s compatible with the stub f o r the purpose of welding the stub bottom flange to the bottom chord top flange. A stub-to-bottom-chord flange width difference of at le a s t 12 mm i s permitted (see F i g . 6.22). G i r d e r Figure 6.22 Stub-to-bottom-chord flange width d i f f e r e n c e . 139. Check that the overall depth of the stub-girder system is within the specified maximum and minimum depth limitations. Determine the factored point loads from attached members and compute the overall maximum bending moment as shown in Fig. 6.23. For two equally spaced For three equally spaced point loads point loads span A" span M = v P (span) M = P (span) max 3 max 2 r Figure 6.23 Overall maximum bending moment. Next, compute the maximum bottom chord factored axial tension f o r c e which i s approximately equal to (1.2) (M / e f f e c t i v e max depth). Note an increase of 20% accounts for the effects of local bending. Finally, estimate the required area of the bottom chord and check that i t s area i s greater than the area of the t r i a l section. Perform the analysis including the weight of the t r i a l bottom chord as described i n Section 6.5.1. The analysis w i l l determine: the shear at location A,B,C,D,E; the bending moment at location 1,2,3,4,5,6; the axial force at location B and D, C and E. 140. Check the bending resistance of the bottom chord at location 1 where M^ /M < 1.0. The factored moment resistance i s evaluated i n f r accordance with S16.1 clause 13.6. The unsupported length i s taken as the width of the f i r s t hole. For class 1 and class 2 sections: (i) when M > 2/3 M u p 0.28 M M = 1.15 AM (1 - — E-) but not greater than AM r p M p u ( i i ) when M < 2/3 M u p M = <j)M r u where M = TT/OJL /EI G J + (TTE/L)" 1 I C u y y to For class 3 sections: (i) when M > 2/3 M u y 0.28 M M = 1.15 AM (1 zz 2L) but not greater than AM r y M y u ( i i ) when M < 2/3 M u y M = AM r T u If the size of the f i r s t hold i s to be determined, then i t i s sized such that the factored bending moment at location 1 i s equal to the moment resistance, with an upper limit of 1/14 of the span. This limit i s an empirical rule governed by longitudinal shear between the exterior stub and the deck-slab. Check the shear i n the bottom chord at location 1, V„/V < 1.0. F r At location 2, check the combined bending and axial tension in the steel member. As required by S16.1, clause 13.9, member subjected to both bending moments and axial tensile force shall be proportional such that: T^/T + M^ /M < 1.0. The factored moment f r f r resistance i s calculated from S16.1, clause 13.5 with an 141. unsupported length equal to the width of the third hole. The factored tensile resistance i s taken as T = <}>F A = .9F A r y s y s (8) At location 3, check the effect of combined bending and axial tension in the bottom chord. T M f f T M r r The unsupported length for evaluating M i s the width of the fourth hole. (9) Check combined axial compression and positive bending in the deck-slab at location 7. In computing the top chord's resistance to combined compression and bending, i t i s assumed that the shear bond capacity i s exceeded i n the ultimate state and thus no steel deck contribution can be credited. Values of Cr/C > 1.0 cannot f r be improved by trying a new bottom chord section and thus requires that the geometry or deck-slab properties be changed externally. (10) Check combined axial compression and bending i n the deck-slab at location 5. (11) Check combined axial compression and negative bending moment in the deck-slab at location 4. (12) Check shear at location 4. Values of V^/V^ > 1.0 can only be improved by externally changing geometry and/or deck-slab properties. Note: The method in step 9-12 is approximate. For a more rigorous treatment, refer to "Composite Floor Systems". (13) Determine the number of 3/4" shear studs required on the exterior stubs. As illustrated in Fig. 6.24, horizontal shear and direct tensile forces due to overturning moment must be transferred by 142. 151 1 450  12 eq. s p a c e s = 1 400 T T T T T T T T T T T T T T - | 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 67 m m ' ' • i i W410-39 1 500 1 411 k N Figure 6 . 2 4 Exterior stub. the shear studs at the interface between the exterior stub and the deck-slab system. A conservative approach i s used, such that each stud installed provides either shear or tensile resistance. Therefore: Total number of studs for shear action = factor horizontal shear i s equal to the axial compressive force at point D q r where: q^ being the shear capacity of a single shear stud i s calculated as described in Chapter 1. tensile force Total number of studs for tensile action = where: the tensile force is equal to: q t /•axial forces^ (-Distance between centroid o f - ^ L o c a l bending moment> '-at point D -''•the deck/slab to top of stub'1 ^ at location 4 ' length of the exterior stub - 150 mm 143. and q being the pull-out resistance of a 3/4" stub i s assumed to be 20 kN. This value may be more accurately calculated by rules set forward in "Embedment Properties of Headed Studs", TRW Nelson Division, Design Data 10, 1971. The shear studs requirement is arbitrarily increased by 50% in order to prevent a failure mechanism occuring in the stub to slab/deck interface. (14) Determine the number of 3/4" shear studs required for the interior stub. Again, shear studs are used to transfer both horizontal shear and tensile forces due to overturning moment as shown i n Fig. 6.25. 56.7 kN-m 6 7 m m , 411 k N Jirti| 1 075 900 , 6 7 m m 1 8 3 7 k N A M o m e n t = 45.3 1 438 (538)= l6 .9kN-m Figure 6.25 Interior stub. Therefore: Total number of studs for shear action = axial force at D - axial force at E  q r 144. T o t a l number of studs f o r t e n s i l e a c t i o n = where t e n s i l e f o r c e = t e n s i l e f o r c e ( d i s t a n c e between ( l o c a l moment j u s t ( d i f f e r e n c e between x c e n t r o i d of deck- + l e f t and r i g h t o f a x i a l f o r c e D and E) s l a b to top of s t u b ) the i n t e r i o r s t ub) l e n g t h o f i n t e r i o r s t u b - 150 mm Again, the number of shear studs i s i n c r e a s e d by 50%. (15) Check the adequacy of t r a n s v e r s e s l a b r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r l o n g i t u -d i n a l shear r e s i s t a n c e a t l o c a t i o n 6. The t o t a l f a c t o r e d s h e a r f o r c e i s e q u a l to the f a c t o r e d a x i a l f o r c e s a t l o c a t i o n D. Two d e a l i z e d l o n g i t u d i n a l shear f a i l u r e mechanisms a r e c o n s i d e r e d as hown i n F i g . 6.26. Q I Q 90 28. 28' (90-19) - 2 layers of welded wire mesh v E x t e r stub , ^-Transverse ~ j / rebars =151 Case (A) Shear Planes at 0.-0. f a i l u r e planes a d j a c e n t t o s h e a r studs 262 = 2 1 9 Transverse rebars 76 Case (B) Shear Planes at P-P f a i l u r e planes through t h i n n e s t p a r t o f deck/ s l a b system F i g u r e 6.26 I d e a l i z e d f a i l u r e mechanisms. 145. Four components of horizontal resisting forces may be con-sidered for each of the idealized failure mechanisms. They are: (a) axial resistance due to concrete in compression V = .85f'A r l c c s where f^ = the specified compressive strength of concrete A = area of the concrete block between shear planes cs (b) axial resistance due to longitudinal steel in compression V = f A r 2 y s where f = the specified yield strength of rebars y A = area of longitudinal slab reinforcement between s shear planes (c) Longitudinal shear resistance of slab, reinforced by trans-verse rebars and mesh. V = 21. (t )V r 3 sh c u where V < (0.8 pf + 2.76)MPa < .3 f u y c 1 , = shear length under consideration i.e.: length of sh exterior stub t = slab thickness in shear c p = the ratio of transverse reinforcement f = the s p e c i f i e d y i e l d strength of transverse rebars (d) Longitudinal shear resistance due to the tensile longitudinal components of the herring-bone pattern reinforcement. V = 2f A //2 where A - area of herring-bone pattern r^ y s s reinforcement. The total factored horizontal resistance is reduced by an , , . i #_ J JT i 1.25DL + 1.5LL overall factor d>, calculated from <h = -—r——;—=—=——. ' c 1.4DL + l./LL 146. (16) Structural analysis of stub-girder generally shows large overturn-ing moments at the exterior stub, resulting in large compressive force on the web of the exterior stub as shown in Fig. 6 . 2 7 . If end stiffeners are not provided for the web of the exterior stub, local web buckling w i l l occur. The overturning moment is the axial compressive force at location D times the distance to the bottom of the stub plus the local bending moment at location 4 . The resulting compressive design force i s equal to the overturning moment on the stub divided by the lever arm between the centroids of the stiffener at each end of the stub. 1 500 94.4 kN (neglected J during s t i f fener design) 42.5 k N m - 1 4 1 1 kN =483 Elevat ion (exterior stub) Section A Figure 6.2 7 End stiffener design - exterior stubs. End plate stiffener of i n i t i a l dimensions (10 mm thick x [width of stub flange + 1.0 mm]wide x [overall depth of stub - 50 mm] long) i s evaluated. If proven inadequate, plate thickness is increased in increments of 1 mm un t i l i t satisfies a l l c r i t e r i a . The capa 147. c i t y of the s t i f f e n e r i s i t s a x i a l resistance AA F , where the s y ef f e c t i v e area A i s assumed to be in the shape of a 'T' section s with the flange equal to width of the plate and the stem length equal to 1450) / /?" " min as shown in Fig. 6.27. y (17) Check i f end plate stiffeners are required on interior stubs. If required the design procedure is similar to step (16). (18) Check horizontal shear in the web of exterior stubs. The horizon-t a l shear force i s equal to the axial forces at location D. The factored shear resistance is calculated from S16.1 clause 13.4.1 where the factored shear resistance V = AA F . r ui s Note the flanges of the stub acts as the stiffeners for the web. (19) Check horizontal shear in the web of interior stubs. The horizon-t a l shear force i s equal to the axial force at D minus the axial force at E. (20) Design exterior stub-to-girder welds. It i s assumed that at each end of the stub there is a f i l l e t weld across the end and along each side. The length of weld along the support side of the stub and the interior side of the stub may be different. The weld group is designed for overturning moment and shear (see Fig. 6.28). (21) Design the interior stub-to-girder weld. The overturning moment is generally small in the interior stub as the length of weld at each end i s made equal (see Fig. 6.29). (22) Check elastic deflection with no consideration given to the creep of concrete. Elastic deflection may be computed with good accuracy by summing the deflections due to "Chord action" and "Web action". "Web action" includes deflections due to cantilever effect of the f i r s t hole, bending of chords at the exterior purlin opening, and interior purlin opening. Weld Group 'B ' Weld Gr&up " A ' W 6 ^ 7 0 0 V /~o~vW 140 3 5 0 7 0 0 1 5 2 0 9 4 4 kN F i W 4 1 0 x 3 9 I-3 0 9 I 1 411 kN / 4 2 . 5 kN-m = 4 8 3 1 211 ^ F Figure 6.28 Design of exterior stub to girder welding. Weld Group 'B ' ,140 \ -Weld Group ' A ' 3 8 0 380 12CK 7 5 ^ 120 7 5 H Weld Group ' A ' I 31.5 kN 37.9^ 1 0 7 5 2 0 6 k N m A —-4 2 6 kN 31.5 kN 37 .9 Figure 6.29 Design of interior stub to girder welding. 149. Chord action: = 12_ M l 384 EI where P = equally spaced point load, kN £ = span E = elastic modulus of steel 200,000 MPa I = moment of inertia of the transformed concrete top chord I and steel bottom chord I c s Web action: (a) Deflection due to bending of end cantilever = -TEI— s 1 = cantilever length (width of 1st hole) c 3 2" P = end reaction E = elastic modulus of steel I = moment inertia of bottom steel chord s (b) Deflection due to bending of bottom chord between point F and H. (c) Deflection due to bending of bottom chord at middle openings. (23) Check deflection by taking into account the creep of concrete. The procedure is same as step 22 except that a reduction factor of 2.5 is applied to the concrete modulus. The modulus ratio becomes n = E' ./(E _ /2.5) steel concrete 6.5.3 Stub-Girder Output A two page output is printed for each stub-girder designed. An example of the f i r s t page is shown in Fig. 6.30 and an example of the 150. second page i s shown in Fig. 6.31. The output needs l i t t l e explanation as the heading fully describes the value printed. The number one hole width i s the distance between the centre line of the support and the outside end of the exterior stub. The second and third holes are the opening on each side of the f i r s t attached beam. The fourth hole for the 4 stub arrangement i s the opening to the le f t of the beam at the centre line of the stub-girder and for a 3 stub arrangement i t is the opening in the centre of the stub-girder. The Utilization factors on the second page (Fig. 6.31) are the ratio of the actual design c r i t e r i a to the resistance. A u t i l i z a t i o n factor greater than 1.0 indicates failure. Some u t i l i z a t i o n factors such as those for the bottom checks w i l l not be greater than 1.0 because the program can simply increase the size of the steel section. Others, particularly those involving the top chord which i s fixed with respect to geometry, material quantities and properties may be greater than 1.0. In this situation, the input must be changed and the member re-designed until a satisfactory result is obtained. 6.6 Cantilever Span Design Module 6.6.1 Analysis Prior to the design of the member under consideration, the program w i l l perform a detailed analysis involving the determination of bending moment, shear and inflection points. Analysis begins with the extrac-tion of relevant load data and reactions from any attached member. Two sets of reference points are generated at c r i t i c a l locations along the member's length. The f i r s t set of reference points corresponds to location where bending moment and shear are to be computed. The number 151. S T U B G I R D E R 3 G i 4 STUBS STUB GIRDER SECTION - W3UX107 SPAN ( M I ) - 12080 STUB SECTION - U410X39 LENGTH = EXTERIOR (MI) - 1423 : INTERIOR (MI) - 1090 HOLE *1 WIDTH ( M I ) - 857 #2 WIDTH (MI) - 720 •3 WIDTH (MI) - 960 *4 WIDTH ( M I ) - 960 NUHBER OF STUDS ON EXTERIOR STUBS - 2844' INTERIOR STUB(S) - 2816 TOTAL SHEAR STUDS/MEHBER - 120 19 ( M I ) DIA STIFFENED (END PLATE) EXTERIOR STUBS fun) - PL 13 X 140 X 350 INTERIOR STUB(S) (fin) - NONE EXTERIOR STUB WELDING = SUPPORT SIDE ( M I ) - 1012 = INSIDE ( M I ) - 1631 INTERIOR STUB WELDING = SUPPORT SIDE ( M I ) - 432 : INSIDE ( M I ) - 432 FILLET WELD SIZE (MI) - 8 NUMBER OF W.W.M. LAYERS - 1 W.W.M. SPECIFIED - 152X152 MW13.3XMU13.3 W.W.M. COVER ( M I ) - 2S TOP LONG. BARS = No - 3 : SIZE - 15 M • COVER - 25 MI BOTTOM LONG. BARS = Ni - 4 : SIZE - 15 M : COVER - 107 M I NUMBER OF LONG. BARS IN CENTRE FLUTE - 1 TRANSVERSE : TYPE - HERRING-BONE REINFORCING : SIZE - 15 M COVER - IS Ml COVER SLAB THICXNESS ( M I ) - 75 DENSITY <kg/«3) - 2300 STRENGTH (MPa) - 20 DECK DIMENSIONS PITCH ( M I ) - 304 8 PITCH - SOT. PLATE ( M I ) - 184 2 TOP PLATE (Ml) - 120 7 • DECK DEPTH ( M l ) - 76 = METAL THICKNESS ( M I ) - .91 = CENTRE FLUTE WIDTH ( M I ) - 120.65 Figure 6 .30 Stub-girder detail output. STUB GIRDER 3C1 * * * « (con'T) (A) UTILIZATION FACTORS » VALUE ) 1.00 MEANS FAILED DESCRIPTION OF POINTS OF INTEREST UTILIZATION FACTOR 1. BOTTOM CHORD : HOLE »1 INSIDE 0.76 2. ; HOLE *2 SUPPORT SIDE 0.7? 3. : HOLE *3 INSIDE 0.92 4. : MID SPAN 0.98 5. TOP CHORD : HOLE *2 SUPPORT SIDE 0.88 6. : HOLE *3 INSIDE 0.94 7. : MID SPAN 0.97 8. LONGITUDINAL SHEAR OUTSIDE STUB 0.84 9. EXTERIOR STUB UEB HORIZONTAL SHEAR 1.ii 10. STIFFENER CAPACITY 1.00 11. INTERIOR STUB UEB HORIZONTAL SHEAR J.52 12. UNDER OVERTURNING MOMENT 1.15 13. EXTERIOR STUB TO GIRDER UELDING 0.90 14. INTERIOR STUB TO GIRDER WELDING 0.89 (B) TOP CHORD MEMBER PROPERTIES-. SHORT TERM DEFLECTION CALCULATIONS = MOMENT OF INERTIA - 65.6 X10A6 (n«4) t TRANSFORMED AREA - 35780 <mi2> : NEUTRAL AXIS - 67 (««) LONG TERM DEFLECTION CALCULATIONS : MOMENT OF INERTIA - 33.4 X10*6 (««4) : TRANSFORMED AREA - 17120 <nn2) •: NEUTRAL AXIS - 72 <««) (C) MEMBER FORCES UNDER S16.1 FACTORED LOADING = LOCATION DESCRIPTION AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT (kN) (kN) (kN.n) 1 BOTTOM CHORD HOLE ti INSIDE - 9 423.2 362.7 •5 k. BOTTOM CHORD HOLE *2 OUTSIDE - 1798 334.6 144.6 3 BOTTOM CHORD HOLE *3 INSIDE - 1798 113.0 294.9 4 BOTTOM CHORD MID SPAN 2286 113.0 169.5 5 TOP CHORD HOLE *2 OUTSIDE - 1798 88.5 38.2 6 TOP CHORD HOLE 13 INSIDE - 1798 29.9 54.2 7 TOP CHORD = MID SPAN 2286 29.9 44.8 (D) TABLE OF GIRDER DEFLECTIONS <wO : TYPE Of DEFLECTION SHORT TERM LONG TERM 1. AT SHORE REKOVAL - 9 12 2. D.L AFTER CONCRETE CURING - 6 8 3. DUE TO LIVE LOAD - 8 9 m«TOTAl DUE TO ALL EFFECTS - 24 29 Figure 6.31 Stub-girder detail output. 153. of reference points depends entirely on the type of loadings and the location of maximum bending moment. Points are located at l/8th span apart i f a distributed load i s present and at each local point load and attached number location. Additional points are added as points of maximum bending moment are determined. The second set of reference points refers to the location where attached members frame into the member under consideration. The cantilever member must be designed for the most severe load combination and pattern. Five load patterns shown in Fig. 6.32, are considered in the determination of maximum possible factored design forces and maximum possible deflections. Load pattern 1 i s used to determine support reactions, superimposed dead load deflection and deck-slab load deflection. Load patterns 2 and 3 are used to find design shear forces and maximum support reactions. Finally, load patterns 4 and 5 are used to determine design bending moments and live load deflection. For each load pattern, one or more of the following is determined for each of the 6 load types (3-live, superimposed dead, deck-slab, steel): (1) Bending moment and shear are determined at location established by the f i r s t set of reference points. (2) Support reactions and the tributary area (tributary area associated with each of the live load are divided between the supports in proportion to the live load reactions). (3) Deflections calculated in terms of EI are determined at the mid-span of the interior span and at the tips of the overhangs. The three live load deflections are condensed later into one live load deflection. 154. LOAD PATTERN © © © © © D*L D+L D*L —s s— D D+L EM. D+L D+L - D £ 2X— D + L D D*L 5 £ D D+L D s s— Figure 6.32 Load pattern for cantilever span. The live load reduction factors, construction load factor and deck load factor are determine i n order to factor and sum the bending moment and shear in accordance with load combination 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. For each of the five load combination, the following are determined. (1) The location of maximum bending moment and shear. 155. (2) Up to eight design forces are recorded. (3) Points of i n f l e c t i o n are found and the unsupported length a s s o c i -ated with the design bending moment calcu l a t e d . The influence of s t e e l deck and concrete slab on unsupported length i s l e f t to the member selecti o n phase. 6.2.2 Cantilever Design Procedures for the design of hollow composite, s o l i d composite and non-composite members with c a n t i l e v e r overhangs: (1) Locate the maximum p o s i t i v e bending moment i n the i n t e r i o r span under occupancy loading and then determine the shear span of the i n t e r i o r span. (2) Determine the appropriate adjustment factors f o r the unsupported lengths for the overhangs and i n t e r i o r spans, g i v i n g consideration to deck d i r e c t i o n , sign of bending moment and composite or non-composite. (3) Select a t r i a l section based on the section type s p e c i f i e d i n the input data table "Floor/roof Member General Design Data", i . e . W, WWF, S, M. (4) Check that the depth of the t r i a l section i s with i n the range of the s p e c i f i e d maximum and minimum depth l i m i t a t i o n s , (5) Check the maximum span-to-depth r a t i o of 24 and 30 for composite section depth and bare s t e e l member depth r e s p e c t i v e l y . The span i s taken as the distance between supports. (6) Modify the bending moments, shears, and d e f l e c t i o n to include the weight of the section under consideration. (7) Determine the minimum y i e l d strength (F ) of the t r i a l section. 156. (8) Only for unshored construction, check the flexural capacity of the bare steel section for design bending moment associated with placement of steel deck (load combination 2). The unsupported length is taken as the greatest distance between adjacent points of lateral support and points of inflection, multiplied by the adjustment factors determined in step (2). The factored moment resistance is governed by S16.1 clause 13.5 and 13.6. (9) Only for unshored construction, check the flexural capacity of the bare steel section for design bending moment during the pouring of concrete (load combination 3). (10) If non-composite, check the bare steel section for design bending moments associated with occupancy loads (load combination 1). If composite, check the bare steel section for negative design bending moments associated with occupancy loads. (11) If member is non-composite go to step 22. (12) Determine the effective slab width of concrete based on S16.1 clause 17.3.2. For Interior condition: i.e. Slab extending on both sides of the steel sections. The effective width is equal to the least of a) 0.25 times the composite beam span. b) 16 times the overall slab thickness, or overall cover slab and cellular steel deck thickness, plus the width of the top flange of the steel section or top chord of the steel j o i s t . c) The average distance from centre of the steel section or joist to the centre of adjacent parallel support. For Spandrel condition: 157. i.e. In the program, i f the width of the slab on one side of the member is less than 40% the width of the other side, then spandrel condition is assumed. The effective width, b^ should not be greater than the width pf top flange of the steel section, plus the least of: a) 0.1 times the composite beam span. b) 6 times the overall slab thickness or overall cover slab and steel deck depth. c) 0.5 times the clear distance between the steel section and the adjacent parallel support. (13) Assuming f u l l shear connection (100% shear connection) between the deck-slab and the steel beam, check that the ultimate flexural capacity is adequate in resisting the positive bending moment associated with occupancy loading. The fatored moment resistance is determined in accordance with S16.1 clause 17.4.3(a) and (b). (14) Transform the effective concrete slab into elastic steel proper-ties and determine the location of the neutral axis. Next compute the moment of inertia of the composite section (Ij.) and determine the section modulus of the composite with respect to the extreme fibre of the steel bottom flange (S ) based on the value of I . & t t (15) Check for unshored requirement specified in S16.1 clause 17.6 where VL M < r + < r < 0 - 9 F y x t • J (16) Find the maximum allowable stud diameter and check stud length. (17) Determine the shear resistance, q^ of a single shear connector. The ultimate shear capacity i s a function of components which make up the composite section, along with the orientation of the deck 158. with respect to the s t e e l section as discussed i n Chapter 1. (18) I f s t e e l deck i s being used and the deck f l u t e s are not p a r a l l e l to the s t e e l member, determine the number of f l u t e s a v a i l a b l e f o r shear studs. (19) Determine the number of shear stud required f o r 50% shear connec-t i o n . If t r i p l e studs i n each f l u t e of the shear span w i l l not provide 50% connection, then the program assumes a s o l i d slab condition. (20) Check that the f l e x u r a l capacity of the composite section with 50% shear connection i s adequate using the requirement given i n S16.1 clause 17.4.3, case 3. If not adequate, add studs u n t i l factored moment resistance i s at le a s t equal to the design bending moment. (21) Compute reduced composite moment of i n e r t i a . Reduction factor = 1/(R1 + R2 + R3) RI = 0.15 for creep. R2 = 0 for s o l i d slab condition. R2 = 0.15 i f s t e e l deck i s perpendicular to the member. R3 = 0 for 100% shear connection (100-% connection) _ . , , R3 = •• r f o r p a r t i a l shear connection. 50 x 0.15 r (22) Compute t i p and mid-span camber, superimposed dead and l i v e load d e f l e c t i o n s and check that they have not exceeded t h e i r s p e c i f i e d l i m i t s . Use reduced composite moment of i n e r t i a . (23) Find maximum shear associated with occupancy loading. Check t h i s end shear a g a i n s t the factored shear resistance V = d>A F given & r co s i n S16.1 clause 13.4.1. 159. 6.6.3 Cantilever Span Output After the design of each cantilever span, one page of detailed output i s generated. A sample i s shown in Fig. 6.33 and is for the most part self-explanatory. Before control i s transfered to another design module, a cantilever span summary table i s printed. It includes information pertaining to a l l cantilever span members designed while in this design module. The following is a description of each f i e l d in the cantilever span summary table illustrated in Fig. 6.34. (1) BEAM MARK The cantilever span member mark. (2) SECTION Designated name of section selected. (3) LOH (mm) A reprint of the length of l e f t overhang entered in the input tables. (4) SPAN (mm) A reprint of the span entered i n the input tables. (5) ROH (mm) A reprint of the length of the right overhang entered in the input tables. (6) STUD GROPS PER SPAN - S The total number of shear studs on the member when a solid slab or girder condiiton exists. If a beam condition exists, the number of deck flutes per member containing single studs is output. The CANT ILEVER SPAN 3B3 SECTION SELECTED - W410X39 LEFT OVERHANG <wt) - 1500 INTERIOR SPAN (mi) - 9000 RIGHT OVERHANG (nn) - 1500 COMPOSITE DATA EFFECTIVE SLAB WIDTH (mO SHEAR STUD DIAMETER (M) SHEAR STUD VALUES (N) SHEAR SPAN (nn) NUMBER OF FLUTES TOTAL SHEAR STUDS/SPAN STUD GROUPINGS SHEAR CONNECTION (2) BOT. FIBRE STRESS (MPa) COMPOSITE INERTIA <nn4) COMPOSITE Mr (kN.n) HOLLOW COMPOSITE WIDE RIB PROFILE INTERIOR CONDITION 22S0 19 (SNGL 4500 14 20 (SNGL 55.1 139.7 360.S xlJ 368.9 74258 XDBL 52508 ) (TRPL 42873 ) 0 ) DESIGN BENDING MOMENTS DIST LEFT 1 Mf 1 UL 1 Mr 1 Mf/Mr 1 LOAD 1 SUPP.(nn) 1 (kN.n) 1 (nn) 1 (kN.n) 1 1 PTRN 1 (OCCUPANCY) 0 -154.2? 2700 167.34 0.92 4 9000 -154.29 2700 167.34 0.92 4 4500 179.50 0 368.90 0.49 5 (DECX PLACING) 0 -2.01 3000 154.85 0.01 4 1 9000 -2.01 3000 154.85 0.01 * (POURING SLAB) 0 -59.38 1601 197.10 0.30 4 1 4S00 48.75 0 197.10 0.25 4 9000 -59.38 1601 197.10 0.30 4 Vf (kN) 123.95 Vr DESIGN SHEAR (kN) - 427.89 Vf/Vr - .2? UNFACTORED REACTIONS 1 LEFT SUPPORT RIGHT SUPPORT 1 1 REDUCED LIVE 1 DEAD REDUCED LIVE 1 DEAD 1 1 (kN) 1 (kN) (kN) 1 (kN) 1 (PATTERN 1 FULL) 1 64.80 127.83 64.80 127.83 (— (PATTERN 2) 1 27.90 127.83 69.30 127.83 (PATTERN 3) 1 69.30 127.83 27.90 127.83 <— ONLY PATTERN 1 REACTIONS CARRIED FORWARD DEFLECTIONS PATTERN 4 1 PATTERN 5 1 SUPER IMPOSED 1 DECK/SLAB 1 LIVE 1 LIVE 1 DEAD' 1 • STEEL 1 LEFT TIP 1 10.7 -4.1 -.8 -1.4 MID SPAN 1 -14.6 7.7 6.4 9.8 RIGHT TIP 1 10.7 -4.1 -.8 -1.4 Figure 6.33 Cantilever detailed output. C A N T I L E V E R S P A N S I DEAD = SLAB • SUPER.DEAD • STEEL * STUD LENGTH (75 iw, tier t i verify stud n i n e s * LOAD CASES: 1 - OCCUPANCY 2 - PLACING DECK 3 - POURING SLAB SECTION LOH I I I SPAN I I I) OH I I I Inn) I (ww) I (im) I I S I I STUD GROUPS I PER SPAN IDIA I ID I T I t I I I I (ww)I HID SPAN DEFLECTIONS C I I I* I 0 I ftr I MAX I LOAD I N I Coup IUTILICASEI N I I I I SLAB I DEAD I LIVE (I) I<kN w) I I l(nn) linn) l(n«> UNFACTORED END REACTIONS LEFT END DEAD I I RED. LIVE (kN) (kH) LOAD PATTERN 1 RIGHT END DEAD t I RED. LIVE (kN) (kN) U41QX39 I I 9000 I ISO0 I 20 I I I 19 I SS I 368.9 10.841 I I 19 I 13 I SS.3 I 27.9 136.7 I 69.3 y410X39 1500 I 9)00 I 1S00 I 20 I I 19 I 55 I 368.9 10.921 I I 10 I 6 1 8 127.8 I 64.8 127.8 64.5 I 162. f i e l d i s l e f t b l a n k i f the member i s non-composite or s i n g l e s t u d groups are not used. (7) STUD GROUPS PER SPAN - D The number of deck f l u t e s p e r member t h a t c o n t a i n double s h e a r s t u d s . The f i e l d i s l e f t b l a n k i f t h e member i s non-composite o r no double s t u d groups are used. (8) STUD GROUPS PER SPAN - T The number o f deck f l u t e s per member t h a t c o n t a i n t r i p l e s h e a r s t u d s . The f i e l d i s l e f t b l a n k i f t h e member i s non-composite o r no t r i p l e s t u d groups a r e used. (9) STUD GROUPS PER SPAN - DIA (mm) The diameter o f the shear studs used. The f i e l d i s l e f t b l a n k i f the member i s non-composite. I f the l e n g t h o f the shear s t u d i s l e s s than 75 mm, then a * symbol i s a l s o p r i n t e d i n the f i e l d w arning the u s e r t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s o u t s i d e the range of c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . (10) CONN (%) The p e r c e n t a g e c o n n e c t i o n . The f i e l d i s l e f t b l a n k i f t h e member i s non-composite. (11) M r (kN.m) The moment r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e s t e e l s e c t i o n . I f the member was d e s i g n e d c o m p o s i t e l y , the composite member r e s i s t a n c e i s p r i n t e d i n the f i e l d . (12) MAX UTIL The u t i l i z a t i o n r a t i o o f t h e c o n t r o l l i n g d e s i g n c r i t e r i a . 163. (13) LOAD CASE The load case associated with the maximum u t i l i z a t i o n r a t i o described above. (14) MID SPAN DEFLECTIONS - SLAB (mm) This i s the deck-slab plus s t e e l d e f l e c t i o n . It w i l l a s s i s t the designer i n determining whether camber i s required, and i f so, how much. (15) MID SPAN DEFLECTIONS - DEAD (mm) This i s the superimposed dead load d e f l e c t i o n . (16) MID SPAN DEFLECTIONS - LIVE (mm) This i s the reduced l i v e load d e f l e c t i o n . (17) UNFACTORED END REACTIONS - LEFT END - DEAD (kN) The unfactored dead load portion of the l e f t support reaction. The * symbol indicates that t h i s force includes the superimposed dead load, the deck-slab load and the s t e e l load. (18) UNFACTORED END REACTIONS - LEFT END - RED. LIVE (kN) The unfactored but reduced l i v e load portion of the l e f t support reaction. (19) UNFACTORED END REACTIONS - RIGHT END - DEAD (kN) The unfactored dead load portion of the ri g h t support reaction. The * symbol indicates that t h i s force includes the superimposed dead load, the deck-slab load and the s t e e l load. (20) UNFACTORED END REACTIONS - RIGHT END - RED. LIVE (kN) The unfactored but reduced l i v e load portion of the right support reaction. 164. ASSUMED LINE OF LATERAL SUPPORT & LOADED ELEVATION -NORMAL LOCATION OF COLUMN SPLICES ASSUMED SPLICE LOCATION FOR DESB3N & CUANTITY TAKE-OFF -USER DEFINED FLOOR LEVEL Figure 6.35 Floor member to column connection. 6.7 Columns 6.7.1 Loadings In the program loading combination for checking strength and sta b i l i t y of column is taken as 1.25(Dead + Steel) + 1.5(Reduced Live) Since the design of columns does not require the distinction between superimposed dead load and deck-slab load, the reactions of these loads from floor members framing into column are added ("Total" 165. dead load). The steel load is the dead weight of the column plus the dead weight of a l l attached members. A l l column loads (from attached members or local column load) are assumed to be applied at the user defined floor level as shown in Fig. 6.3.5. The location of lateral support and location of column splice are also assumed to be located at the same level. Splice is permitted only at location where the column is laterally supported in both principal direction (N-S and E-W) as shown in Fig. 6.36. This precaution is to avoid the occurrence of column splice to f a l l within the unsupported length of the column as defined in "column-laterally unsupported length". Splice allowed. Splice not allowed. Figure 6.33 Splice. A connection eccentricity of 100 m is assumed at location where a shape, truss, stub-girder or the non-continuous end of a cantilever span frames into a column as shown in Fig. 6.37. Thus the total eccentricity from the centre of the column would be the sum of the distance from the surface to the centroid of the column plus 100 mm. 166. ASSUMED LOCATION OF REACTION FOR DETERMINING CONNECTION ECCENTRICITY Figure 6.37 Floor member to column connection eccentricity. No connection eccentricity (i.e. 100 mm) is assumed for the shear reaction of fixed-end cantilever and the reaction from a cantilever span i s applied to the centroid of the column section i f there is an overhang at the connected end. The eccentricity for local column loads i s entered during the input of local column loads data and this eccentricity i s measured from the centroid of the column. 6.7.2 Laterally Unsupported Length Lateral support of the steel column i s provided by any floor or roof member except fixed-end cantilever that frames into the column. A 167. column i s considered to be laterally supported in a given principal direction (i.e N-S or E-W) only when at least one laterally supporting member or tie member frames into the column in that direction. Fig. 6.38 illustrates this concept. Figure 6.38 Lateral support of column. In both Figs. 6.38a and b, level 5 i s laterally supported in the N-S direction. However in Fig. 6.38c, level 5 i s laterally unsupported in the N-S direction. The unsupported length of a column level i s the distance between points of lateral support in both principal directions. In order to il l u s t r a t e this, the corner column shown in Fig. 6.39 is used. Floor members frame into the column but not necessarily at each level or i n both principal directions. The unsupported length of column levels 2 and 3 in the N-S direction i s 8200 mm. In the E-W direction, the unsupported length for level 2 i s 4500 mm and level 3 i s 7200 mm. 168. O CORNER COLUMN Figure 6.39 Illustrating unsupported length. Since lateral support is provided in both directions at the top of level 4 and at the bottom of level 2, the same column section w i l l be selected for levels 2, 3 and 4 regardless of tiering. 169. 6.7.3 Column Design Module 6.7.3a Analysis The analysis starts with the determination of laterally unsuppor-ted length of each level in both the N-S and E-W direction as described i n "Laterally Unsupported Length". Reactions from attached floor or roof members (i.e. a dead load and 3 l i v e loads reactions) and local column loads are applied at the appropriate level in the following manners. (1) concentric axial load (2) moments in N-S and E-W directions arising from attached canti-levers and local column loads (3) moments in N-S and E-W directions due to connection eccentricities of simply supported members. Notice that since the column section i s unknown at this point, the moment due to connection eccentrici-ties are expressed in terms of the eccentricity. Concentric axial design load at any level i s the summation of the axial reactions from above plus the concentric axial reations at the level under consideration, multiplied by the appropriate load factors i.e. 1.25(dead + steel) + 1.5(reduced l i v e ) . The tributary areas used for the calculation of reduced live load factors at any level i s the summation of the total tributary areas from above plus the tributary areas of the level under consideration. Live load reduction factors are calculated in accordance with the National Building Code (NBC.) The factored axial dead load of the column sections are added during the design phase. The applied moments at each level are factored and the live load reduction factors applied. In this instance, the l i v e load reduction 170. factors are calculated based on only the tributar y are of the load creating the moment. During the design phase, the connection e c c e n t r i -c i t y of the column section being t r i e d i s introduced and the t o t a l applied factored moment i s found i n both the N-S and E-W d i r e c t i o n s . The design moment at the top of the l e v e l i n each d i r e c t i o n i s then found by d i s t r i b u t i n g the applied moment to the column above and below the j o i n t based on t h e i r r e l a t i v e s t i f f n e s s e s ( E l / L ) . 6.7.3b Column Section Selection: In the program, the design of a column i s an i t e r a t i v e procedure that terminates when the s t e e l sections selected i n one i t e r a t i o n passes the checking i n the next i t e r a t i o n . In each i t e r a t i o n , the column i s designed or checked one l e v e l at a time from the top of the column down. The column i s divided into segments containing one or more adjoin-ing l e v e l between which a s p l i c e i s not desirable. The number of l e v e l s i n a segment depends on the t i e r i n g requirements and on the l o c a t i o n of l a t e r a l support i n both p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s . The same s t e e l section i s used f o r each l e v e l i n the segment. The procedure for selecting a section for a column l e v e l : (1) In the f i r s t i t e r a t i o n , s e l e c t a t r i a l section based on the sec-t i o n type s p e c i f i e d i n the input design data. For a l l subsequent i t e r a t i o n s , check the adequacy of the section selected from the previous i t e r a t i o n . If proven inadequate, proceed to the next t r i a l section. ( 2 ) Check that the nominal depth of the t r i a l s e ction i s within the 171. s p e c i f i e d maximum and minimum depth l i m i t a t i o n i n the N-S and E-W di r e c t i o n s . (3) Determine the moment d i s t r i b u t i o n factors above and below the j o i n t based on the column r e l a t i v e s t i f f n e s s (EI/L) i n both p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s . (4) Knowing the properties of the t r i a l section, determine the connection e c c e n t r i c i t y and c a l c u l a t e the applied moments. Using the moment d i s t r i b u t i o n f a c t o r s c a l c u l a t e d i n step (3), d i s t r i b u t e the applied moments to the column above and below the j o i n t accordingly. (5) Add 1.25 times the mass of the t r i a l s e c tion to the design concentric a x i a l load. (6) Perform preliminary stress check by assuming a short column with F equal to the grade s p e c i f i e d ( i . e . F = 300 MPa f o r grade y o r y 300W). A short column i s defined as a member capable of r e s i s t i n g a load equal to the y i e l d load. The y i e l d load i s defined as hte product of the cr o s s - s e c t i o n a l area of the column, A and the y i e l d s t r e s s , F . T h e r e f o r e , check t h a t the s t r e s s due to combined y a x i a l load and moment i s l e s s than .9AF . y [The maximum of M or M ] i . e . .9AF > P/A + y f f X t o p ^ o t + Z x [The maximum of M^  or ] y t o p y b o t Z y 172. where P = the axial load M = moment about the x axis at the top of the column x top = moment about the x axis at the bottom of the column Xbot M^  = moment about the y axis at the top of the column ytop M^  = moment about the y axis at the bottom of the column ybot Z £ X } Plastic section modulus in their respective directions. y Determine the minimum y i e l d strength (F ) of the t r i a l section. For welded sections (i.e. WWF), F^ is based on the specified grade and plate thickness. For rolled section (i.e. W, BK, BB), F^ is based on the specified grade and size grouping. This information i s summarized i n Table 6-3 "Mechanical Properties Summary", on Pg. 6-7 of S16.1. The class designation of the t r i a l section i s assigned based on i t s a b i l i t y to resist local buckling of the flange and the web under the action of combined flexural and axial compression. Table 6.2 and 6.3 summarized the width-thickness ratio of compres-sion elements of different types of sections. If the section is a rectangular HSS and built-up boxes, the class designation of the t r i a l section is determined in both principal axes. Finally, i f class 4 i s assigned to the t r i a l section, then try the next section. Determine the factored moment resistance of the t r i a l section in two principal directions. The unsupported length of the compres-sion flange of W, WWF and BH sections i s taken as the unsupported length of the column. While the unsupported length of the Table 6.2: Flanges 173. Class Flanges of I section Flanges of Flanges of box i.e. : W, WWF, BH HSS section section (BB) Class 1 145//F-y < 420//F-2t y IF < 525//?; Class 2 170//F" y |- < 525//F" 2t y IF < 5 2 5 / / i y Class 3 IF* 260//F" y | r < 670//F-2t y 77- < 670//F 2t y Table 6.3: Webs Class Web of W, WWF, BH, HSS, BB Class 1 h < 1 1 0 0 (1 - 1.40 W /F" c* c J y Class 2 when -T=- < 0.15 h < 1 3 7 0 (1 - 1.28 w / — c^ y when ~r=- > 0.15 h < 1 1 8 0 (1 - 0.43 w / — c* y Class 3 when -=- < 0.15 y h < 1 8 1 0 (1 - 1.69 W / — X y C f when -rr- > 0.15 h < l 4 7 ° (1 - 0.54 w / — y c J y in combined flexural & axial compression where C^ = factored axial comp. C = F * area y y 174. compression flange of HSS and BB sections i s taken as zero. For the laterally supported and unsupported case, the factored moment resistance is determined in accordance with S16.1 clause 13.5, respectively. (10) Check the adequacy of the t r i a l section for strength requirements as outlined in S16.1 clause 13.8.1 part a, for class 1 and 2 sections, S16.1 clause 13.8.2 part a and b for class 1 and 2 sections of I-shaped and S16.1 clause 13.8.3 part a, for class 3 sections. Strength check of class 1 class 2 and class 3 sections: M M (1) + „ t Q P + M P < 1 Top of column C M M r r r x y C. X, V K (2) •—• + „ + — - — — < 1 Bottom of column C M M r r r x y Strength check of class 1 and class 2 sections of I-shaped: M M r r x y Top of column M M f (2) ! i + . 8 5 - ^ + 0 . 6 - ^ < 1.0 r r r x y i.e.: W, WWF, BH M f M f ^ - F ^ £ i + - M ^ < 1 - ° r r x y M f M r ( 4 ) ! i + .85^21 + 0.e-^l< i.o r r r Bottom of column 175. where = 0.9 (area of column)(F ) M and M - are the factored moment resistance of the r r x y t r i a l section determined in step 9 = factored axial load M f x top M f ytop as defined i n step (6) M f x, bot M f y bot (11) Determine the maximum kL/r for the t r i a l section. (12) Check the adequacy of the t r i a l section for s t a b i l i t y requirements in accordance with S16.1 clause 13.8.1 part b, for class 1 and class 2 sections, S16.1 clause 13.8.2 part c, for class 1 and class 2 I-shaped sections and S16.1 clause 13.8.3 part b for class 3 sections. Stability requirement: w [max. of M,_ or M. 1 w [max. of M_ or M. 1 x L f f J y L f f J l i + bs2 hs*- + ytoE y_bot_ < l a Q C r C C Mr (1 - /-) Mr (1 - — ) x ex y ey where C f = the factored compressive resistance i s defined i n clause 13.3. For W, WWF, BB, BH and cold rolled HS sections: 176. 0 < L < 0.15 C = 0.9 AF r y 0.15 < L < 1.0 C = 0.9 AF (1.035 - 0.202L - 0.222L2) r y 1.0 < L < 2.0 C = 0.9 AF (-0.111 + 0.636/L + 0.087/L2) r y 2.0 < L < 3.6 C = 0.9 AF (0.009 + 0.877/L2) r y 3.6 < L C = 0.9 AF /L 2 r y where L = KL/r /F /TT ZE y For hot rolled and cold rolled stress relieved HS sections 0 < L < 0.15 C = 0.9 AF r y 0.15 < L < 1.2 C = 0.9 AF (.990 + 0.122L - 0.367L2) r y 1.2 < L < 1.2 C = 0.9 AF (0.051 + 0.801/L2) r y 1.8 < L < 2.8 C = 0.9 AF (0.008 + 0.942/L2) r y 2.8 < L C = 0.9 AF /L 2 r y w = equivalent uniform bending coefficient defined in S16.1 clause 13.8.4. w = 0.6 - 0.4 Mf 1/Mf 2 - for member bending in double curvature but not less than 0.4. where Mf1/Mf2 ratio of the smaller moment to the larger moment at opposite ends of the unbraced length, in the plane of bending considered, w = 0.85 i f a concentrated load or moment exist between supports. 6.7.3c Column Output After the design is complete, the following parameters are output for each level as shown in Fig. 6.40. (1) LEV. The column level number. 177. C O L U M N C 2 ILEV. HT. SECTION 1 GRADEI Cf 1 hx 1 My STREN STAB 1 1 1 1 1 (kN) 1 (kN.n) 1 (kN.n) RATIO RATIO 1 1 15 3900 W200X52 1 300W 1 518.6 1 70.7 1 0.0 .6860 .6427 1 1 14 3900 W200X52 1 300U 1 986.7 1 35.4 1 0.0 .7475 .9469 1 1 13 3900 U250X101 1 300W 1 1448.9 1 55.1 1 0.0 .5399 .6045 ! ! 12 3900 U250X101 1 30OU 1 1906.7 1 33.0 1 0.0 .6216 .7515 1 1 11 3900 U250X101 1 380U 1 2361.9 1 40.4 1 0.0 .7690 .9314 1 1 10 3900 W310X143 1 300W 1 2815.1 1 61.6 1 0.0 .6530 .7312 1 1 9 3900 U310X143 1 3 0 0 U | 3266.9 1 45.3 1 0.0 .7237 .8317 1 1 8 3900 U310X143 ! 300W 1 3717.5 1 45.3 1 0.0 .8154 .9427 1 1 7 3900 U310X202 1 3 0 0 U 1 4170.0 1 56.1 1 0.0 .6713 .7643 1 1 6 3900 U310X202 1 300U 1 4621.7 1 57.7 1 0.8 .7399 .8452 1 1 5 4000 W310X202 1 300U 1 5128.6 1 56.3 1 0.0 .8138 .9423 1 1 4 4000 U310X253 1 300W I 5637.4 1 66.5 1 0.0 .7190 .8257 1 1 3 4000 1 W310X253 1 300W 1 6145.5 1 58.6 1 OJ .7737 .8952 1 1 2 4000 1 W3i0X253 1 300U 1 6653.1 1 58.6 1 0.0 .8341 .9784 1 UNFACTORED FOUNDATION LOADS - DEAD = 4313.1 (kN) - REDUCED LIVE = 841.1 (kN) Figure 6.40 Column output. (2) HT. (mm) Storey height. ( 3 ) SECTION The designated name of section selected for this level. For built-up sections, the dimensions and properties can be found i n Appendix 'B'. (4) GRADE The grade of steel used. (5) C f (kN) The design axial load. 178. (6) Mx (kN.m) The design moment in x-x direction of section. (7) My (kN.m) The design moment in y-y direction of section. (8) STREN The largest strength ratio for given section and design forces. (9) STAB The stability ratio for given section and design forces. 179. CHAPTER 7 QUANTITY TAKE-OFF AND COST ESTIMATE 7.1 General The costing method utilized in the program is described in the CSCC publication "A Project Analysis Approach to Building Costs" (4). In general, the estimated cost of steel memebr is determined by: Member Theoretical Nominal MCIxBSM Cost = Length x Mass x CONFAC x COSFAC x 100U ($) (m) (kg/m) ($/t) The mass of the section is multiplied by a connection factor (CONFAC) that reflects the additional mass of material necessary to make the connection. The gross mass is then multiplied by a cost factor (COSFAC) which reflects the cost difference between sections used under various types of construction. Finally, the value is multiplied by the metric cost index (MCI) assigned to the location of the structure. THE BSM (Bay Size Modifer) factor reflecting the amount of connections In a standard 9 m x 9 m bay compared to the actual bay size i s omitted. It i s l e f t to the user to modify the costs reflecting any change in bay size. The output of quantity take-off and cost estimate is divided into floor components, columns and a summary for the job. 7.2 Floor Framing Components The connection and cost factors for simple shape-type construction are as follows: 180. Interior Shapes Connection Factor Cost Factor C, M or S shapes < 20 kg/in 1.05 2.50 C or S shapes 20 to 50 kg/m 1.05 1.80 C or S shapes > 50 kg/m 1.05 1.20 W shapes < 51 kg/m 1.05 1.20 W shapes 51 to 240 kg/m 1.05 1.00 WWF (Welded Wide Flange) 1.05 1.15 Spandrel Shapes W shapes up to 50 kg/m 1.05 1.30 W shapes 51 to 240 kg/m 1.05 1.15 WWF (Welded Wide Flange) 1.05 1.27 The cost of a fixed-end cantilever i s estimated in a different manner using the following formula: Cost = Theoretical length x Nominal mass x 1.3 x 0.48 x MCI/1000 + (83+2.2xNominal mass) x MCI/850 The connector factors and cost factors for truss i s based on i t s section type used in the chords Trusses Connection Factor Cost Factor Tee Shape Chord 1.15 1.50 Double L Chords 1.15 1.60 HSS Chords 1.15 1.80 The connector bottom chord factors and cost factors for stub-girder is based 181. on the Stub-Girders Connection Factor Cost Factor W Shapes (Main Girder) 1.40 1.05 Cantilever span connection and cost factors are as follows: Cantilever Spans Connection Factor Cost Factor W Shapes < 51 kg/m 1 .10 1.55 W Shapes 51 to 240 kg/m 1.10 1.30 WWF (Welded Wide Flange) 1.10 1.45 The estimated cost of stud shear connection for composite construction is calculated using the formula Total Shear Connector Cost = Number of Connectors x MCI/550 Quantity and cost estimate information for f l o r framing components is grouped by construction type and reported member by member as illustrated in Fig. 7.1. In addition, framing members are also cate-gorized as either interior or spandrel members as shown in Fig. 7.2. 7.3 Columns For each column, the gross mass and estimate cost for each of four section types is reported as shown in Fig. 7.3. The mass and costs given in the tables are for a l l sections of particular type multiplied 182. F L O O R / R O O F F R A M I N G M E M B E R S - B Y M A R K i 2 MARK # SECTION STUDS LENGTH GROSS MASS FP AREA STUD COST STEEL COS W (t) («)A2 $ ' 5 %'s (SHAPES - SIMPLE BEAMS) i B i 35 U410X39 20 9000 12.97 379.6 1464 17892 iSBi i l U360X33 14 9000 3.09 96.1 293 4620 2SB1 10 W360X33 14 9000 3.09 96.1 293 4620 3B2 14 W208X27 14 6000 2.35 67.3 410 3238 3SB1 10 W360X33 16 9000 3.09 96.1 335 4620 (SHAPES - SIMPLE GIRDERS) IGi 8 W610X125 24 12000 12.60 181.2 40i 14490 iSGi 4 W530X92 16 12BQ0 4.67 80.3 134 6172 2Gi 8 U610X12S 24 12000 12.60 181.2 401 14490 2SGi 4 W53QX92 16 12000 4.67 80.3 134 6172 3SGi 4 U530X92 16 12000 4.67 80.3 134 6172 (TRUSSES) 2Bi 35 560X27.7 18 9000 18.04 1098 20789 (STUB GIRDERS) 3G1 4 W310X107 120 12000 7.19 836 8682 /W410X39 3G2 4 U310X107 112 12000 7.19 781 8682 /U410X39 (CANTILEVER SPANS - BEAMS) 3Bi 14 W410X3? 20 10500 6.34 0.0 585 11299 3B3 7 W410X39 20 12000 3.62 0.0 293 6456 171 3890 98.18 1338.4 7592 138394 1) FIRE PROTECTION AREA IS MINUS TOP OF TOP FLANGE 2) STUD COSTS ARE BASED ON FIELD APPLICATION Figure 7.1 Flo o r Framing Members QTCE Table 183. F L O O R / R O O F F R A M I N G M E M B E R S INTERIOR BEAMS ~ B Y S E C T I O N T Y P E A N D U S E 1 1 CROSS MASS 1 COST 1 1 1 (t) 1 <*'s) 1 1 UF <50 kg/* 1 1 25.28 1 38885 1 1 WF )50 kg/n i 25.29 1 28980 1 1 TRUSS (HSS) 1 10.04 1 20789 1 1 STUB GIRDERS 1 14.38 1 1 17364 I 1 TOTAL'S 1 1 74.90 1 1 106018 1 SPANDREL BEAMS I | GROSS MASS 1 COST 1 I | (r) 1 (*'s) 1 1 UF (50 kg/n 1 1 9.27 1 13860 1 1 WF >S0 kg/M 1 14.01 1 1 18516 1 1 TOTAL'S 1 1 23.28 1 32376 1 Figure 7.2 Cost Estimate By Section. Type and Use 184. C O L U M N S - B Y M A R K CI C2 1 1 SECTION 4 Line(s) 8 Line(s) 1 1 TYPE GR. MASS (r) 1 COST <*'9) 1 GR. MASS (t) 1 COST (*'s) 1 1 WF (50 kg/* 0.10. 1 0 1 0.00 1 0 1 1 WF )50 kg/n 22.80 1 27S33 1 79.99 1 96582 1 1 WUF 41.66 1 57492 1 0.00 1 0 1 1 HSS 0.00 1 0 1 0.00 1 0 1 1 Built-up 1 0.00 1 0 1 0.00 1 0 1 1 TOTALS 64.46 1 85025 1 79.99 ! 96582 1 Column quantities and cost estimate by the number of lines. The connection and cost factors are as follows: Columns Connection Factor. Cost Factor W Shapes up to 50 kg/m 1.15 1.15 W Shapes 51 to 285 kg/m 1.15 1.05 WWF (Welded Wide Flange) 1.15 1.20 HSS (Hollow Structural Sections) 1.15 1.35 Built up Sections (3-4 plates) 1.15 1.25 7.4 Summary Three tables are printed to give the gross mass and estimated costs of section type for floor/roof framing members, columns and the combination of both (Figs. 7.4 and 7.5). 185. S U M M A R Y F O R B U I L D I N G TOTAL CROSS MASS AND ESTIHATED COST FLOOR/ROOF FRAMING MEMBERS ALL PIECES 1 1 GROSS MASS 1 COST 1 1 1 (t) 1 <$'s) 1 1 1 1 WF <50 kq/« 1 1 34.55 1 52745 1 1 WF >50 kq/n 1 39.21 1 47496 1 1 WUF 1 0.00 1 0 1 1 C,M or S 1 9.09 1 0 1 1 TRUSS (HSS) 1 10.04 I 20789 1 1 STUB GIRDERS 1 1 1 14.38 1 1 17364 1 1 1 1 TOTALS 1 1 1 1 98.18 1 1 138394 1 ESTIMATED COST OF SHEAR STUDS (FIELD APPLIED) = TOTAL GROSS MASS AND ESTIMATED COST COLUMNS ALL PIECES I | GROSS MASS 1 COST 1 I | (t) 1 ($'s) 1 1 WF (50 kg/n 1 1 0.00 1 0 1 1 WF >50 kg/M 1 102.79 1 124115 1 1 WUF 1 41.66 1 57492 1 1 HSS ! 0.00 1 0 1 1 Built-up 1 0.00 I 1 0 1 1 TOTALS 1 i 144.45 1 181607 1 Figure 7.4 Building summary 186. TOTAL GROSS MASS AND ESTIMATED COST BY SECTION TYPE 1 GROSS MASS 1 COST 1 1 ( t ) 1 ($'s) 1 1 ROLLED 1 1 1 190.93 1 241720 1 1 WUF 1 41.66 1 57492 1 I HSS i 10.04 1 20789 1 1 Built-up i 0.00 1 ! 1 0 1 1 TOTALS 1 1 1 242.63 1 1 1 320001 1 TOTAL GROSS MASS FOR BUILDING ALL PIECES ALL LINES = 242.63 (t) TOTAL ESTIMATED STEEL COST FOR BUILDING = 320001 ($) TOTAL ESTIMATED STUD COST = 7592 ($) ESTIMATED UNIT STEEL PRICE = 1319 ($/t) AVERAGE COST FACTOR = 1.15 Note: Estimated cost does not include M i s c e l l a n e o u s angles around core and spandrels. Figure 7.5 Building summary 187. CHAPTER 8  CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive d e s i g n o f s t r u c t u r a l components i n s t e e l framed b u i l d i n g s can be g e n e r a t e d u s i n g t h e computer program d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s work. In a d d i t i o n t o i t s a b i l i t y of s e l e c t i n g s u i t a b l e beam, g i r d e r , t r u s s , s t u b - g i r d e r and column s e c t i o n s , the program i s c a p a b l e of per f o r m i n g q u a n t i t y t a k e - o f f and c o s t e s t i m a t e f u n c t i o n s . Such a program c a n have a g r e a t p o t e n t i a l . S t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n e r s can spend more time on t h e concept o f a system and l e s s on t h e manage-ment of numbers. The b e n e f i t o f the program a p p l i e s e q u a l l y w e l l t o e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d e n t s . The s t u d e n t can spend h i s time s t u d y i n g the e f f e c t o f v a r i o u s parameters on t h e r e s u l t r a t h e r t h a n c a l c u l a t i n g the r e s u l t . F o r f u r t h e r development, i t i s proposed t h a t the d e s i g n o f open web s t e e l j o i n t s s h o u l d be implemented i n the program. F u r t h e r -more, g r a p h i c i n p u t and o u t p u t r o u t i n e s w i l l improve the speed o f implementing i n p u t d a t a and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of output d a t a . REFERENCES 188. 1. Canadian Standards Association, "Steel Structures for Building -Limit States Design", Standard CAN3-S16.1-M78, Rexdale, Ontario, 1980. 2. National Research Council of Canada, "National Building Code of Canada", Ottawa, Ontario, 1980. 3. Canadian Institute of Steel Construction," Design and Construction of Composite Floor Systems", Willowdale, Ontario, 1984. 4. Canadian Steel Construction Council, "A Project Analysis Approach to Building Costs", 5. Grant, John A., Fisher, John W. and Slutter, Roger G. , "Composite Beams with Formed Steel Deck". Engineering Journal of the American Institute of Steel Construction, 14(1), pp. 24-43, 1977. 6. T a l l , L. , "Structure Steel Design", Ronald Press Company, New York, 1974. 7. Gaylord, E.H., and Gaylord, CN. , "Structural Engineering Handbook", McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1979. 8. Adams, P.F., Krentz, H.A., and Kulak, G.L., "Limit States Design in Structural Steel", Universal Offset Limited, Don Mills, Ontario, 1977. 9. Dier, G. and Barron, T. and Munro, T., "Basic Programming for the-VAX and PDP-11", John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1984. 10. Hwang, C.J. and Ho", T.I.M., "Structured Programming in Basic-Plus and Basic-Plus-2", John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1984. 11. Digital Equipment Corporation, "User Guide VT-100", Digital, U.S.A., 1979. 12. Digital Equipment Corporation, "Basic User's Guide", Digital, U.S.A., 1982. 13. Allgaard, J.G., Slutter, R.D. and Fisher, J.W., "Shear Strength of Stud Connectors in Light-weight and Normal-weight Concrete", AISC Engineering Journal, April 1971. 189. APPENDIX A Hardware Requirements The program i s written in VAX-11 basic and u t i l i z e s the VAX/UMS operating system. Input and output devices required to run the program are VT-100 terminal and dot printer capable of producing 132 characters per line. Software Each f i l e , that i s part of the programmer that i s created by the program, f a l l s into one of four groups: Program f i l e s ; SST f i l e s ; Data f i l e s ; or Library f i l e s . The f i l e s are placed in either the user's directory or subdirectories (see "VAX/UMS U t i l i t i e s and Commands" for detailed information on hierarchies of directories). Program Fil e Group The program i s divided into 16 program segments, each with i t s own f i l e name. Each program segment can be considered to be an independent program. The execution of the entire program i s the back-to-back execution of each program segment and the entire logic i s the combination of the logic of a l l program segments. Control is transferred from one program segment to the next by the use of the "chain" statement. The flow from one program segment to the other i s illustrated in Fig. A . l . A brief description of the function of each f i l e in the Program f i l e group is as follows: 1 9 0 . r i LIBRY S H A P E S TRUSS TRUSS 1 COLUMN G F D 2 INPUT MDSEQ OVRLAY QTCE I N P U T 1 I N P U T 2 INPUT 3 CNTLVR STUBG S T U B G 1 ( ^ S T O P ^ Figure A.l 191. GFD2 Starts program, establishes I/O configuration, job t i t l e , date, type or run (new job, rerun work f i l e s , rerun library f i l e ) . LIBRY Library management module. TABLES Data f i l e containing the table heading for data entry/edit modules. Read by GFD2, INPUT or MDSEQ modules. INPUT Control program for data entry/edit modules, select print options, choose run options and initiates design. INPUT1 Data entry module for DECK-SLAB components. INPUT2 Data entry module for ROOF/FLOOR members. INPUT3 Data entry module for COLUMN members. MDSEQ Prints input data i f requested, creates output f i l e s , determines order in which members are to be designed. OVRLAY Controls entry to design modules and restructures common block area. SHAPES Design module for purlins or girders specified as composite or non-composite shapes. TRUSS Design module for purlins specified as composite or non-composite trusses. TRUSS1 Sub-design module for trusses. Used by TRUSS module only. Does member selection. STUBG Design module for girders specified as stub girder type construction. STUBG1 Sub-design module for stub girder design. Used by STUBG module. CNTLVR Design module for purlins or girders specified as composite or non-composite cantilever spans. 192. COLUMN Design modules for columns. QTCE Quantity take-off and cost estimate module. SST F i l e Group The SST f i l e s are permanent data f i l e s containing the data base of steel deck profiles and steel section properties and selection sequence l i s t s . The following f i l e s make up the SST f i l e group. DECK Steel deck profiles WWF Welded wide flange sections W Wide flange sections S Standard I sections M Miscellaneous sections C Channel sections SHS Square hollow structural sections RHS Rectangular hollow structural sections BH 3 plate built-up H sections BB 4 plate built-up box sections WT Structural tees from wide flange sections EQ-L Equal leg single angles UEQ-L Unequal leg single angles EQ-2L Double equal leg angles LLEG2L Double angles, long legs back-to-back SLEG2L Double angles, short legs back-to-back TSHS Square hollow structural sections for trusses TRHS Rectangular hollow structural sections for trusses 193. BSSL Selection sequence for beam/girder shapes CSSL Selection sequence for column sections T-SSL Selection sequence for tees L-SSL Selection sequence for single angles L2-SSL Selection sequence for double angles HS-SSL Selection sequence for HSS in trusses SG-SSL Selection sequence for W's as bottom chords in stub girders The last 7 f i l e s are the section selection sequence f i l e s and contain a l i s t of coded numbers referencing a f i l e and element. This l i s t i s arranged in the order that sections w i l l be considered during the design and member selection phase. The l i s t is in according order of cost based on reference 4. The steel section selection sequence l i s t s for each f i l e are give in Appendix B. Data F i l e Group The Data f i l e group consists of a l l data f i l e s used to store input data and output data. Files are only created as they are required so not a l l f i l e s w i l l be present for a l l jobs. DEVICE I/O configuration, t i t l e and date SIZE Number of lines currently in input data tables VALUE Store array value (10) COST Current metric cost index GDECK ALOAD GBEAM deck/slab component data Area load data General roof/floor member data 1 9 4 . BMLDS Roof/floor member load data CONTYP Roof/floor member construction type data GENCOL General column data COLGLD Column geometry and load data MDS Member design sequence BLIST Bookkeeping f i l e for roof/floor member reactions BMREAC Roof/floor member reactions FLRSH Output data for beam/girder shapes BOOKSH Bookkeeping f i l e for FLRSH FLRTR Output data for trusses BOOKTR Bookkeeping f i l e for FLRTR WEBTRUSS Web output data for trusses FLRSG Output data for stub girders BOOKSG Bookkeeping f i l e for FLRSG FLRCS Output data for cantilever spans BOOKCS Bookkeeping f i l e for FLCS CNTRACE Additional output data for cantilever span CLIST Bookkeeping f i l e for column reations CLREAC Column reactions CLCOST Output for column costs CLSPEC Output for column specifications INOUT Temporary data transfer between TRUSS and TRUSS1 CLTEMP Temporary data storage for COLUMN BUFFER Temporary data storage for redesign of individual members l i s t TRACE Temporary data storage for tracing design 195. When transfering Data f i l e s to the library the f i r s t and second groups are always moved and data from the third group i s optional. The four f i l e s in the last group are only temporary and are removed after use. Library F i l e Group The library f i l e group are copies of Data f i l e s for up to ten jobs. APPENDIX B SECTION SELECTION LISTS 197. B E A M S E L E C T I O N S E Q U E N C E i) C75X6 52) C310X31 103) U530X109 154) WUF450X223 2) r"?cv*j 53) i)310X52 104) W6i0X113 155) UUF3Q0X23S 3) ciaoxa 54) W200X52 105) U250X115 156) UUF3S0X233 4) S7SX8 55) U410X54 106) U310XH3 157) UUF400X243 5) C100X9 56) W360X57 107) W530X123 158) WWFiO0OX244 6) C75X9 57) W250X53 103) W610Xi25 159) U310X233 7) C130X10 58) W20CX59 109) U310X129 160) UUF450X243 3) W150X22 5?) U410X60 110) W2S0X131 i i i ) WUF900X249 9) S100X11 60) U310X60 111) U530X133 162) UWF508X2S4 ifl) C130X11 61) W460XS1 112) U6i0X140 163) liMFl 10 0X255 il) S7SX11 62) S200X34 113) U310X143 164) UUF1200X263 12) C150X12 63) S310X52 114) U250Xi49 165) UUF350X243 13) 11280X27 64) S2S0XS2 115) U610X1S5 166) MiF400X273 14) C130X13 65) U360X64 116) UUF350X137 167) UyF4S0X274 IS) C230X20 66) C3i 0X37 117) W310X153 163) UWF500X276 16) U1S0X30 67) C2S0X37 118) WUF700X141 169) (4UF3 00X279 17) W200X31 68) U460X67 119) U250X167 170) «UF1300X280 13) C130X1S 69) W410X67 120) UUF700X151 171) WWII 3 0X291 i?) S130X15 70) 'J3i0X67 121) W61CX174 172) WWF900X293 20) C200X21 71) W250X67 122) WUF300XiS4 173) UUFi200X332 21) 11360X33 72) 5250X33 123) WWF3S0X155 174) UWF400X303 22) W2S0X33 73) W200X71 124) U310X179 175) UWF500X306 23) C230X22 74) C380X60 125) UWF400X1S7 176) UWF450X308 24) S130X22 75) W360X72 126) WWF300X164 177) WUF350X315 25) C150X16 76) W250X73 127) UUF700X164 178) UUF1000X324 26) C2S0X23 77) U460X74 123) UWF900X169 17?) WWF800X332 27) C200X17 79) U410X74 129) U610X195 180) UWFi100X335 23) C130X17 79) W310X74 k ~ n \ l J U / * u l \lACJC 131) WUF430X342 29) W200X36 30) U360X79 131) UUF350X176 182) UUF500X343 30) U1S5X37 81) W310X79 132) UUF45QX177 133) UUF900X347 31) C130X13 82) U250XS3 133) WWF400X178 134) UUF400X362 32) W410X39 83) C318X45 134) UUF700X185 185) UWF12Q0X364 33) W360X39 84) (4530X82 135) U610X217 136) UWFI000X377 34) W310X39 85) W460X82 136) UUF900X192 187) WUF500X381 35) W250X39 86) S310X47 137) UUF3S0X192 138) WUF350X3S5 36) S150X26 87) U410X35 133) U310X226 189) UUF1100X388 37) 5150X19 83) W310X36 139) WUFS90X197 190) UUF1200X403 33) C1S0X19 89) U200X86 140) UUF30QXI98 191) UUF450X409 39) H100X19 • 90) C380X74 141) UUF1000X200 192) UUF900X417 40) S200X27 91) U460XS9 142) WUF450X2D1 193) WUF550X420 41) W200X42 92) W2S0X39 143) UUF400X202 194) UUF400X444 42) C200X28 93) C330X50 144) WWF700X203 195) UUF1000X447 43) U360X4S 94) Y530X92 145) U610X241 196) UUF500X456 44) U31JX4S 95) U460X97 146) WUF350X212 197) UWFi100X458 45) U250X45 96) U310X97 147) UUF900X213 198) WUF1200X487 46) W410X46 97) W200X100 148) UUF550X217 199) UUF550XS03 47) W290X46 98) W610X101 149) UUFU00X220 200) WUF4S0X503 48) C250X30 99) U53QX101 150) UUF400X220 201) UWF500X561 49) C230X30 100) U2SOX101 1S1) U3i0X253 202) WWF550X620 58) W250X49 101) W460X106 152) WUF700X222 203) WUF500X651 51) W360X51 102) W310X107 153) UUF500X223 204) WUF550X721 198. T R U S S - T E E S E L E C T I O N S E Q U E N C E 1) WT100X13.5 6) WT12SX19.5 il) UT15SX30 16) UT155X48.S 2) WT100X15.S 7) 'JT 10 0X21 12) UT155X33.S 17) UT1SSXS3.S 3) WT125X16.5 3) UT155X22.5 13) WT155X37 13) HT155XS9 4) UT100X18 9) *T 125X22.5 14) UT155X39.S T R U S S - A N G L E S E L E C T I O N S E Q U E N C E i) L2SX2SX4 20) L55X5SX6 39) Li 00X75X6 53) L75X75X13 2) 125X25X5 21) L65X6SXS 40) L90X90X6 59) L100X90X10 3) L35X35X4 22) L65X50X6 41) L30X60X8 60) LiOOXiOOXiO 4) L45X30X4 23) L4SX4SX8 42) L100X90X6 61) L125X125X3 5) L35X35X5 24) LS0X60X5 43) L75X75X3 62) L90X75X13 6) L45X4SX4 25) L75X5DX6 44) L100X100X6 63) L130X7SX13 7) LS5X35X4 26) 175X75X5 45) L90X65X3 64) L90X90X13 8) 145X30X5 L65X65X6 46) L65X65X10 65) L100X90X13 9) L35X35X6 28) 190X65X5 47) L90X75X3 66) Li25X125X10 10) L45X30X6 29) L90X75XS 48) L80X60X10 67) L100X100X13 11) LS5X55X4 30) 180X60X6 49) Li00X75X8 68) LiSOXiSOXiO 12) L45X45X5 31) L55X55X8 50) L90X90X8 69) L100X100X16 13) L55X35X5 32) L6SX58X8 Si) L75X7SX10 70) Li25Xi2SX13 14) L6SX50X4 33) L75X75X6 52) L100X90X3 71) L150X1S0X13 IS) L45X45X6 34) L90X65X6 S3) L90X65X10 72) Li 25X125X16 16) LS5X35X6 35) L75X50X3 54) L100X100X8 73) L150XiS0Xi6 17) L55X55XS 36) L90X75X6 55) L90X75X10 199. T R U S S - D O U B L E A N G L E S E L E C T I O N S E Q U E N C E 1) 2L25X2SX4 32) 2L45X45X8 63) 2SL100X90X6 94) 2L75X75X13 2) 2L25X25XS 33) 2LL65X50X6 64) 2LL100X90X6 95) 2SL100X90X10 3) 2L35X35X4 34) 2SL80X60X5 65) 2L75X75X8 96) 2LU00X90X10 4) 2SL4SX30X4 35) 2LL30X60X5 66) 2SL125X75X6 97) 2SL125X75X10 5) 21145X30X4 36) 2SL75X50X6 67) 2L10OX10OX6 98) 2U30Xi00Xi0 6) 2L35X35XS 37) 2LL75X50X6 63) 2LL125X75X6 99) 2LL125X7SX10 7) 2SL55X35X4 33) 2L75X75X5 69) 2SL90X65X8 100) 2SL150X108X8 3) 2L45X45X4 39) 2165X65X6 70) 2LL90X65X8 101) 2LLi50Xi00X3 9) 2LLS5X35X4 40) 2SL90X65X5 71) 2L65X65X10 102) 2SL90X75X13 10) 2SL45X30X5 41) 2LL90X65X5 72) 2SL90X75X3 103) 2LL90X75X13 li) 2L14SX30XS 42) 2SL90X75X5 73) 2LL90X75X3 104) 2SL12SX90X10 12) 2L35X35X6 43) 2SL80X60X6 74) 2SL30X60X10 105) 2LL125X90X10 13) 2SL4SX30X6 44) 2LL90X75XS 75) 2LL80X60X10 106) 2SL.100X75X13 14) 2LL45X30X6 45) 2LLS8X60X6 76) 2SLi00X75X8 107) 2LL100X75Xi3 15) 2L55X55X4 46) 2LS5X55X3 77) 2LL100X75X3 10S) 2L90X90X13 16) 2SL55X35XS 47) 2SL65X50X8 78) 2L90X90X3 109) 2SL100X90X13 17) 2L45X4SXS 43) 2LL65X50X3 79) 2L75X75X10 110) 2LL100X90X13 18) 2LL55X35X5 49) 2L75X75X6 30) 2SL90X65X10 i i i ) 2SL150X100X1 19) 2SL65X50X4 50) 2SL90X65X6 81) 2LL90X65X10 112) 2LLi50Xi00Xi 20) 2LL65X50X4 51) 2LL90X65X6 82) 2SL100X90X8 113) 2SL125X75X13 21) 2SL55X35X6 52) 2SL75X50X3 33) 2LL100X90X8 114) 2L100X100X13 22) 2L45X45X6 S3) 2LL75X50X8 84) 2SL125X75X8 US) 2LL125X7SX13 23) 21155X35X6 54) 2SL90X7SX6 85) 2L100X100X8 116) 2SL125X90X13 24) 2LS5X55X5 55) 2LL90X75X6 86) 2LL12SX75X8 ii7) 2LL125X90X13 25) 2SL65XS0XS 56) 2L65X65X3 37) 2SL90X75X10 118) 2L100X100X16 26) 2LL65X50X5 57) 2L55X55X10 88) 2LL90X75X10 ii?) 2SL150X100Xi 27) 2SL75X50XS 58) 2SL100X75X6 89) 2SL100X75X10 120) 211150X100X1 28) 2LL75X50XS 59) 2LL100X75X6 90) 2LL100X75X10 i2i) 2SLi25X90X16 29) 2L55X55X6 60) 2L90X90X6 91) 2SL125X90X8 122) 2LL12SX90X16 30) 2L65X65X5 61) 2SL30X60X8 92) 2LL125X90X8 123) 2SL1S0X10OX1 31) 2SL65X50X6 62) 2LL30X60X3 93) 2L90X90X10 124) 2LL1S0X108X1 200. T R U S S - H S S S E L E C T I O N S E Q U E N C E 1) HS2S.4X25.4X2.54 35) HS76.2X76.2X6.3S 69) HSi27.0X76.2X9.53 2) HS25.4X25.4X3.i3 36) HS127.0X63.5X4.73 70) HSi52.4X152.4X6.35 3) HS31.3X31.8X2.54 37) HS88.9X63.5X6.35 71) HS177.8Xi27.0X6.35 4) HS3l.8X3i.8X3.18 33) HS10i.6X50.3X6.35 72) HS203.2X101.6X6.35 5) HS33.IX33.1X2.54 39) HSiOi.6X181.6X4.78 73) HS127.0X127.0X7.95 6) HS30.8X2S.4X2.54 40) HSi27.0X76.2X4.78 74) HS152.4X101.6X7.95 7) HS31.8X31.3X3.8i 41) HS88.9X83.9X6.35 75) HS127.0X127.0X9.S3 3) HS38.iX38.iX3.18 42) HS10i.6X76.2X6.35 76) HS152.4X101.6X9.53 9) HS50.8X2S.4X3.i3 43) HS127.0X50.8X6.35 77) HS203.2X152.4X6.35 10) HS33.1X38.1X3.81 44) HS76.2X76.2X7.95 78) HS152.4X152.4X7.95 ii) HS50.3X50.8X2.79 45) HS88.9X63.5X7.95 79) HS177.8Xi27.0X7.95 12) HS38.1X38.1X4.78 46) HSi01.6X50.3X7.95 30) HS203.2Xi0i.6X7.95 13) HS50.3X50.8X3.13 47) HS127.0X63.5X6.35 81) HS127.0X127.0X11.13 14) HS5C.aX50.SX3.31 48) HS127.0X127.0X4.73 32) HS152.4X10i.6Xii.i3 15) HS63.5X63.5X3.18 49) HS152.4X101.6X4.78 83) HS2S4.0X152.4X6.35 16) HS50.8X50.3X4.73 50) HS101.6X101.6X6.35 84) HS152.4X152.4X9.53 17) HS63.5X63.5X3.Si 51) HS127.0X76.2X6.35 85) HS177.3X127.0X9.S3 13) H376.2XS0.SX3.31 52) HS88.9X38.9X7.95 86) HS203.2Xi0i.6X9.53 19) HS88.9X63.5X3.i8 53) HSi01.6X76.2X7.95 37) HS203.2X152.4X7.95 20) HSi0i.6XS0.3X3.13 54) HS127.0X50.3X7.95 83) HS152.4X152.4Xii.13 2i) HS50.8X50.3X6.35 55) HS127.0X63.5X7.95 39) HS177.3X127.0X11.13 22) HS63.5X63.5X4.78 56) HS152.4X152.4X4.78 90) HS203.2X101.6X11.13 23) HS76.2X50.8X4.78 57) HS177.8X127.0X4.73 9i) HS254.0X152.4X7.95 24) HS88.9X63.5X3.3i 58) HS203.2X101.6X4.78 92) HS203.2X152.4X9.53 25) HSi81.6X50.8X3.31 59) HS88.9X88.9X9.S3 93) HS152.4X152.4Xi2.70 26) HS76.2X76.2X4.78 60) HSi01.6X76.2X9.53 94) HS177.8X127.0X12.70 27) HS88.9X63.5X4.78 6i) HSi27.0X50.3X9.S3 95) HS203.2X101.6X12.70 23) HSi0i.6X50.8X4.78 62) HSiOi.6X101.6X7.95 96) HS203.2X152.4X11.13 29) HS63.5X63.5X6.35 63) HS127.0X76.2X7.95 97) HS254.0X152.4X9.53 30) HS76.2X50.8X6.3S 64) HS127.0X127.0X6.3S 93) HS203.2X152.4X12.70 31) HS88.9X88.9X4.78 65) HS1S2.4X101.6X6.35 99) HS254.0X152.4X11.13 32) HS10i.6X76.2X4.78 66) HS127.0X63.5X9.53 100) HS254.0X152.4X12.70 33) HS127.0X50.3X4.78 67) HS203.2X152.4X4.78 S T U B G I R D E R B O T T O M C H O R D S E L E C T I O N S E Q U E N C E 1) U250X49 7) W2S0X67 13) U310X79 19) W200X100 2S) W2S0X131 2) U250X58 8) U200X71 14) U250X80 20) W250X101 26) U310X143 3) U200X59 9) W360X72 15) U310X86 21) W310X107 27) W250X149 4) W10X60 10) U250X73 16) W200X36 22) W250X115 28) W310X153 5) U360X64 11) W310X74 17) U250X39 23) U310X118 29) U250X167 6) W318X67 12) U360X79 13) U310X97 24) U310X129 30) U310X179 2 0 1 . C O L U M N S E L E C T I O N S E Q U E N C E i) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) ii) 12) 13) 14) IS) 16) i7) 18) 1?) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 2?) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 3?) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 4?) 50) 51) KS101.6X101.6X4.78 HS152.4X101.6X4.78 HS127X127X4.78 HS101.6X101.6X6.35 14150X22 HS203.2X101.6X4.78 HS177.8X127X4.78 HS152.4X152.4X4.73 HSiOi.6X101.6X7.95 14200X27 HS152.4X101.6X6.35 HS127X127X6.35 HS203.2X152.4X4.73 HS177.8X177.8X4.78 U150X30 HS10i.6XiOi.6X9.53 14200X31 HS203.2X101.6X6.35 HS177.8X127X6.35 HS152.4X152.4X6.35 HS1S2.4X101.6X7.95 HS127X127X7.95 W200X36 14150X37 HS152.4X101.6X9.53 HS127X127X9.S3 HS203.2X152.4X6.35 HS177.8X177.8X6.35 HS203.2X101.6X7.95 HS177.3X127X7.95 HS152.4X152.4X7.95 U200X42 HS152.4X101.6X11.13 HS127Xt27Xll . i3 HS254X152.4X6.35 HS203.2X203.2X6.3S U230X46 HS203.2X101.6X9.53 HS177.8X127X9.53 HS1S2.4X152.4X9.53 HS203.2X152.4X7.95 HS177.8X177.8X7.95 14250X4? U200X52 14250X58 14200X5? 14310X60 HS203.2X101.6X11.13 HS177.8X127X11.13 HS152.4X152.4X11.13 HS254X152.4X7.95 33) 34) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 63) 69) 70) 71) 72) 73) 74) 75) 76) 77) 73) 79) 30^  81) 82) 83) 84) 85) 86) 87) 88) 89) 90) 91) 92) 93) 94) 95) 96) 97) 93) 9?) 100) 101) 102) HS203.2X203.2X7.95 HS203.2X152.4X9.53 HS177.8X177.8X9.53 MS:04.3X203.2X6.33 HS254X254X6.3S 14360X64 14310X67 14250X67 HS203.2X101.6X12.7 HS177.8X127X12.7 HS152.4X152.4X12.7 14200X71 HS203.2X152.4X11.13 HS177.8X177.8X11.13 14360X72 HS254X152.4X9.53 HS203.2X203.2X9.53 U2S0X73 14310X74 HS304.8X304.8X6.3S HS304.8X203.2X7.95 HS254X254X7.95 14360X7? 14310X79 14250X80 HS203.2X152.4X12.7 HS177.8X177.8X12.7 HE254X152.4Xii.13 HS203.2X203.2X11.13 14310X86 14200X86 14250X89 HS304.3X203.2X9.53 HS254X254X9.53 HS2S4X1S2.4X12.7 HS203.2X203.2X12.7 HS304.8X304.8X7.95 14310X97 U200XiOO 14250X101 HS304.8X203.2X11.13 HS254X2S4X11.13 14310X107 HS304.8X304.8X9.53 U250X115 14310X113 HS304.8X203.2X12.7 HS254X2S4X12.7 HS304.8X304.8X11.13 W310X12? I42SQX131 103) 104) 105) 106) 107) 108) 10?) 110) i i i ) 112) 113) 114) 115) 116) 117) 118) 119) 120) 121) 122) 123) 124) 125) 126) 127) 123) 129) 130) 131) 132) 133) 134) 135) 136) 137) 138) 139) 140) 141) 142) 143) 144) 145) 146) 147) 148) 149) 150) 151) 152) 153) 14310X143 HS304.8X304.BX12. 14250X14? I4UF350X137 14310X158 14250X167 UI4F350X155 k310X17? 14UF400X157 14UF350X176 14310X202 U14F4S0X177 1414F400X178 1414F3S0X1?2 UUFS00Xi?7 14310X226 U14F450X201 I4I4F4C0X202 1414F350X212 (414F5S0X217 14UF400X220 14310X253 1414F500X223 U14F450X223 I4I4F350X238 14I4F400X243 14310X283 14WF450X248 14UF500.X2S4 1414F350X263 I414F400X273 UUF4S0X274 UUF500X276 UUF400X3C3 14UFS00X306 I414F4S0X308 14UF350X315 U14F430X342 1414F500X343 1414F400X362 14I4FS00X381 14UF3S0X38S I414F450X40? U14F550X420 UUF400X444 I414FS0CX456 U14F550X503 14WF450XS03 WUF500X561 W14F550X620 14UF5C0X6S1 202. C O L U M N S E L E C T I O N S E Q U E N C E 154) 155) 154) BBS00X628-1 205) 20o) 207) BH500X913-26 256) 257) 253) BH600X1059-72 BBS 00X682-2 UUF550X721 BB500X706-12 BB500X734-3 BH500X747-1 BHS00X761-2 BBS05X768-13 &HS00X916-35 BH600X918-67 BH600X1062-80 BH600X1064-78 157) 158) 159) 208) 209) 210) BH5GOX920-31 BH500X926-27 BH500X928-36 259) 260) 261) BH700X1069-93 BH700X1072-99 BH800X1073-131 160) 141) 211) 212) B&500X929-7 BH600X930-64 262) 263) BH700X1077-102 BH600X1078-ei 162) BHS00X775-3 213) BH500X932-32 264) BH700X10S3-105 143) BH500X781-8 214) BH600X936-6B 265) BB600X1091-23 164) BB500X785-4 215) BH500X940-37 266) B6600X1C92-24 165) Bu5-'!0X789-4 216) BH600X942-54 267) BH600X1095-82 146) BH600X791-49 217) BH600X944-59 263) BB500X1099-11 167) 168) BH500X794-? BH500X803-5 213) 219) BHS00X94S-33 BB500X945-16 269) 270) BHS00XU0O-132 BH700X1104-106 169) EH500X80S-10 220) BH600X948-6S 271) BBS00X1107-19 170) BH600X810-50 221) Bn500X949-42 272) BH600Xl i i i -83 171) BHS00X814-1S 222) BH500X952-38 273) BH700X1114-94 172) BH500X817-6 223) BH600X953-69 274) BH700X1117-100 173) BH500X822-11 224) BH700X955-91 275) BH700X1120-103 174; BHSC0X82B-16 225) BHS00X957-34 276) BH700X1126-107 175) BB500X828-14 226) BH600X960-73 277) BH800Xli27-133 176) BH500X832-7 227) BH500X961-43 278- BB600X1128-25 177) BH600X833-55 228) BH500X964-39 279) BH600X1130-85 178) BB500X835-5 229) BH6Q0X971-70 280) BH800XU31-137 179) BH5C0X836-12 230) BH500X973-44 231) BH700Xl i33 - i l i 180) BHSO0X841-17 231) BE500X974-8 282) BH600X1144-84 181) BH600X847-51 232) BH500X976-40 233) BH600XU46-86 182: BH560X848-21 233) BH600X978-74 234) BH700X114B-108 133) BH500X849-13 234) BH600X981-60 235) BH800X1153-134 184) BH600X852-56 235) BH700X982-95 286) BH700X11S4-112 185) BH500X854-18 236) BH60OX984-66 287) BHS00X1158-138 186) BH500X861-22 237) BH500X985-45 288) BB500X1158-20 187) BHS00X843-14 238) BHSO0X989-41 289) BH600X1161-87 188) BH400X866-52 239) BH600X995-75 290) BB600X1164-26 139) BH500X868-19 240) BH5Q0X996-46 291) BB600X1165-27 190) BH600X870-57 241) BB500X1000-17 292) BB600X1168-30 191) BH500X874-23 242) BH700X1005-96 293) BH700X1169-109 192) BH600X876-61 243) BH500X1008-47 294) BH700X1175-113 193) BH500X881-20 244) BH600X1012-76 295) BH600XU77-88 194) BH500X882-28 245) BB500X1017-9 296) BH800X1180-13S 195) BBSO0X883-6 246) BH500X1020-48 297) BH800X1184-139 196) BH500X887-24 247) BH700X1023-92 298) BH800X1190-142 197) BB500X887-15 248) BH600X1024-71 299) BH600X1193-89 198) BH600X3S9-S8 249) BH700X1027-97 300) BH700X1197-114 199) BH600X894-62 250) BH600X1029-77 301) BB600X1201-28 200) BHS00X894-29 251) BH700X1033-101 302) BB600X1202-31 2J1) BH500X9C0-25 252) BH600X1045-79 303) BB700X1205-4S 202) BH600X904-53 253) BH700X1049-98 304) BB500X1208-21 203) BHS00X907-30 254) BB500X1055-18 305) BH700X1208-104 204) BH600X912-63 255) BB500X1058-10 306) BH800X1210-140 C O L U M N S E L E C T I O N S E Q U E N C E 307) 303) 309) 318) 311) 312) 313) 314) 315) 316) 317) 318) 319) 320) 321) 322) 323) 324) 325) 326) 327) 328) 32?) 330! 33D 332) 333) 334) 335) 336) 337) 338) 33?) 340) 341) 342) 343) 344) BH700X1212-110 BHS00X121S-143 BH700X121S-U5 EH600X1224-90 BH700X1234-118 BB600X1236-2? 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BB700X1384-53 390) BB700X1385-54 391) BB700X1337-57 392) BH700X13?3-128 393) BB800X1394-74 394) BH700X13?7-124 395) BH800X14Ci-i52 396) BH800X1406-154 397) 398) 399) 400) 401) BB600X1413-44 BH800X1422-156 BB70CX1428-5S BB700X1430-58 BB600X1441-40 BB600X1444-45 402) 403) 404) 485) 406) 487) 408) 409) BH800X1446-157 BB800X1447-75 BH700X1452-129 BH800X1456-155 BH800X1471-15B BB700X1471-56 BB700X1472-59 BB700X1478-62 410) BH700X1491-130 411) BH800X1495-15? 412) BB300X1S00-76 413) BB800X1500-77 414) BB60CX1507-46 415) BB700X15iS-60 416) BB700X1519-63 417) BH800X1533-162 418) BB80CX1552-73 419) BB800X15S4-80 420) BB70CX1557-61 421) BB700X1560-64 BHS00X1562-163 BH800Xi56S-160 BB600X1570-47 BH800X1S85-164 BB700X1601-65 BB800X1604-79 BB800X1605-81 BB800X1607-84 BB700X1609-68 •BH800X1617-161 BH800X1632-16S !BB700X1642-66 :BB700X1648-69 :BBS00X1656-82 BB800X1657-85 1BHS00X1677-166 BB700X1687-70 BB800X1707-33 BB800X1708-86 BB800X1714-89 BB700X1723-67 BB700X1727-71 BB800X1758-87 BB800X1763-90 BB700X1805-72 BB800X1808-88 BBS00X1811-91 BB800X1321-95 BB80DX1860-92 BB800X1B6S-96 BB700X1884-73 BB800X1909-93 BB300X1915-?7 BB800Xi?62-?8 BB800X2006-?4 BB800X200?-?? BB800X2103-100 BB800X2i?8-101 

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