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A contribution to computer aided design evaluation of steel structures Leung, Y. C. 1984

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A CONTRIBUTION TO COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN EVALUATION OF STEEL STRUCTURES by Y.C. Leung A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The Department of C i v i l Engineering) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1984 © Y.C. Leung In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C i v i l Engineering The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2324 Main M a l l Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 Canada ABSTRACT The engineer mostly uses i n h i s work s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, which i s described i n c o d i f i e d observations and abstractions from r e a l i t y , and he may occasionally discover and research such knowledge. Other knowledge i s l a r g e l y uncodified, such as experimental patterns, e.g. technologies (physical procedures), and methodologies (mental proced-ures) . These experimental patterns w i l l become i n future more and more accessible to the engineer, as they w i l l be inc r e a s i n g l y c o d i f i e d and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y described. . One of the objectives of the reported research i s to contribute towards t h i s goal. In the f i r s t part of t h i s thesis general considerations to the design and f a b r i c a t i o n of s t e e l structures are presented. Reasons f or the decline of growth rates i n Western i n d u s t r i a l i z e d countries are b r i e f l y discussed and the t r a n s i t i o n from Machine Age to Systems Age i s being explained. A s h i f t of emphasis i n the engineering f i e l d i s noted from the area of analysis to synthesis. The needs for more tools and computerized aids f o r the s t r u c t u r a l engineer for synthesis i s pointed out. The main objective of t h i s thesis i s to develop an e f f i c i e n t and r e a l i s t i c method to evaluate a p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l design by means of the f a b r i c a t i o n and ere c t i o n costs. The cost i s broken down i n t o cost of material and cost of labour. Emphasis i s placed on the evaluation of the l a t t e r . For the time being, the cost of material i s estimated based on the t o t a l weight of the structure and a current unit cost. R e a l i z i n g that the estimation of the labour cost of a s t e e l - i i i -structure based on weight i s not satisfactory, the construction works are broken down into basic a c t i v i t i e s . The labour time required for each activity i s summed and with the current labour rate, the cost of labour is obtained. The method which i s proposed in this thesis i s intended to be used either by the steel fabricator to evaluate a particular design, or by the engineering consultants to guide him to an economic solution. A structural data f i l e containing the fabrication and erection details of the structure i s setup and a program is written to calculate the fabri-cation/erection cost of the structure based on the information in this data f i l e and the cost data base of the fabricator. Due to the varia-tion in f a c i l i t i e s and setup of the fabricators, each one w i l l have his own cost data base. Changes in the design of a structure can be made by altering the structural data f i l e and the fabrication/erection cost of the structure w i l l be calculated automatically by the computer. This would allow interactive optimization of a design to be carried out in a short time which i s often what a fabricator has in preparing a tender. The fabricator w i l l then be able to propose alterations to the design of the structure with reduction of costs. Due to the time limitations, the portion of work on erection costs has not been completed. - i v -CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS TO DESIGN AND FABRICATION .... 1 CHAPTER 2 - IDEAL SYSTEM OF DESIGN AND COST ESTIMATION PROCESS .. 9 CHAPTER 3 - PROPOSED SYSTEM OF DESIGN AND COST ESTIMATION PROCESS 11 CHAPTER 4 - FABRICATION COSTS 13 CHAPTER 5 - INTERACTIVE/AUTOMATIC OPTIMIZATION 27 CHAPTER 6 - CORRELATION STUDY 29 CHAPTER 7 - POSSIBLE FUTURE EXTENSION 31 CHAPTER 8 - CONCLUSION 32 LIST OF REFERENCES 33 APPENDIX A - DESIGN EVALUATION PROGRAM AND OPERATION MANUAL 35 APPENDIX B - EXPLANATIONS OF ENTRIES INTO THE PROGRAM 39 APPENDIX C - DISCUSSION OF PROGRAM 41 - v -LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig. 1 Web With Intermediate Stiffeners and Doubler 44 Plate. Fig. 2 Web Without Intermediate Stiffeners and Doubler 44 Plate, but thickened to achieve same capacity as Fig. 1. Fig. 3 Inputs for Web With Intermediate Stiffeners and 45 Doubler Plate. Fig. 4 Outputs of Web With Intermediate Stiffeners and 46 Doubler Plate. Fig. 5 Inputs for Web Without Intermediate Stiffeners and 47 Doubler Plate. Fig. 6 Outputs of Web Without Intermediate Stiffeners and 48 Doubler Plate. Fig. 7 Web With Intermediate Stiffeners. 49 Fig. 8 Web Without Intermediate Stiffeners, but Thickened 49 to Achieve Same Capacity as Fig. 7. Fig. 9 Inputs for Web With Intermediate Stiffeners. 50 Fig. 10 Inputs for Web Without Intermediate Stiffeners, This 51 Was Obtained Automatically by the Program. Fig. 11 Outputs of Automatic Comparison of the Fabrication 52 Costs of Two Designs of the Web of a Plate Girder. Fig. 12a I n i t i a l Prompts That Appear on the Screen. 53 Fig. 12b Subsequent Prompts That Appear on the Screen. 53 Fig. 13a Type of Welds (1). 54 Fig. 13b Type of Welds (2). 54 Fig. 14 Flow Chart of Ideal System. 55 Fig. 15 Flow Chart of Proposed System. 56 - v i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The inv e s t i g a t i o n s and research contained i n t h i s thesis were made possible through a GREAT-Award f or the author by the B.C. Science Council and a f i n a n c i a l contribution by B r i t t a i n S t e e l Ltd., New Westminster. The author i s very g r a t e f u l f or t h i s support. S p e c i a l thanks are due to Mr. David Ha l l i d a y , General Manager of B r i t t a i n Steel Ltd., for h i s u s e f u l suggestions and cooperation. The author also wishes to thank Harry Ng and Keith Turpin of B r i t t a i n S teel L t d . , for t h e i r cooperation i n suppling most of the f a b r i c a t i o n cost data used i n the evaluation program. The author wishes to express h i s sincere thanks to Professor S.F. Stiemer, h i s supervisor, f o r the guidance, encouragement and h e l p f u l advice during the course of t h i s study. To my wife, Theresa, I would l i k e to thank her for her patience during my research. 1 . CHAPTER 1 GENERAL CONSIDERATION TO DESIGN AND FABRICATION " T e l l me - and I w i l l forget Show me - and I w i l l remember Involve me - and I w i l l understand" [K'ung-fu-tse (551-479 BC)] 1.1 Introduction This thesis consists mainly of three parts: 1) Consideration of the Design Process; 2) Development of an Evaluation Tool; 3) Case Study and Correlation with an E x i s t i n g Structure. Although the author has been a p r a c t i c i n g engineer for more than a decade there has never been the time to work on general strategies of design and f a b r i c a t i n g . Emphasis i n engineering education and profession was put on s k i l l s i n s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s , as i t has to be r e a l i z e d that most of the Western s c i e n t i f i c and educational philosophy was dominated for over a century by a n a l y t i c a l methods. Following up on a recent problem, the decline of p r o d u c t i v i t y growth rates, a cooperative research project was started, i n which a l o c a l s t e e l f a b r i c a t o r , B r i t t a i n S t e e l Ltd., and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were interested and involved i n equal parts. Before the s p e c i f i c problem of evaluation of s t r u c t u r a l engineer-ing designs w i l l be investigated, here are some general considerations and background to the presented approach ( i t should be noted that the 2. described project i s meant to be only one f i r s t step into a new d i r e c -t i o n , which w i l l generate more research and w i l l show probably more questions than i t w i l l d e l i v e r s o l u t i o n s ) . 1.2 P r o d u c t i v i t y Decline i n p r o d u c t i v i t y - what i s the reason? If one can believe Hayes and Abernathy [17] and Muster [18] then one reason i s the type of education of the engineers of today's i n d u s t r i a l world. They were trained i n the s o - c a l l e d Machine Age while we are already s t a r t i n g the Systems Age. More about t h i s l a t e r . Another reason e s p e c i a l l y i n the s t r u c t u r a l engineering f i e l d , i s the l o c a l separation of owner, consulting engineer, f a b r i c a t o r and erector, as Forde, Leung and Stiemer [19] point out. Let's look for more reasons. Why were cur r e n t l y the U.S., Canada and U.K. h i t so hard, while a surge i n p r o d u c t i v i t y was reported from Japan, Belgium, and somewhat smaller, from France and W.Germany? F i r s t l y , the number of engineering graduates per capita i s smaller i n the Eng l i s h speaking countries than i n Japan, Europe and the Soviet Union. Secondly, many of the graduates i n the U.S. and Canada are foreign students. While i n Japan one-half of a l l i n d u s t r i a l managers are q u a l i f i e d engineers, i n North America these positions are occupied by s p e c i a l i s t s from the business schools. A quote from Muster [18] states: "In Japan, Germany and Russia, there i s a heavy emphasis on science and mathematics i n secondary schools whereas by comparison, high school graduates i n the U.S. are s c i e n t i f i c and mathematical i l l i t e r a t e s " . Furthermore, we have i n North America a t o t a l separation of U n i v e r s i t y education and p r a c t i c a l "hands-on" 3 . experience. The lack of apprenticeship seems to be one of the most serious problems. What i s to do, when engineering graduates today are more educated than trained and then come into a professional world, which was estab-l i s h e d i n the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution and s t i l l uses the same system? In the c l a s s i c a l sense an engineer was well versed i n design, construction and the use of machines. They were able to communicate with people who b u i l t t h e i r s t r uctures. An information transfer took place i n both d i r e c t i o n s . Both sides were involved. Of course, there i s no need to go back to the o l d days but the new developments need further adjust-ment. Information t r a n s f e r seems to be the key word. Experience i s another. Nowadays, when there are even engineering teachers who have never had t h e i r hands on, but teach design, a preference f o r a n a l y t i c a l detachment has been developed. One cannot say that t h i s automatically leads to reduced q u a l i t y i n design. Given proper a n a l y t i c a l and judge-ment tools t h i s could even produce better r e s u l t s , than you could expect from the c l a s s i c a l type of engineer. However, i t seems that p a r t i c u l a r l y the development of design tools i s limping behind the development i n other a n a l y t i c a l areas. We are no longer l i v i n g i n the Machine Age, where everything could be divided into simple elements and then be studied i n i s o l a t i o n . Cause and e f f e c t are no longer c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e , they are i n t e r r e l a t e d and dependent. Ackoff [20] c a l l s our era the Systems Age. We have to view problems by studying a l l l e v e l s of magnitude and complexity, and f i t t i n g d e t a i l s into Its general framework. We need to study whole systems based on synthesis rather than a n a l y s i s . The following example out of the r e a l world 4. might help to understand t h i s : given a structure which should be optimized f o r costs, the Machine Age approach would suggest, that the designer should aim f o r the lowest weight and a maximum number of equal parts (two or more concrete design c r i t e r i a ) . The Systems Age approach, i n contrast, would t r y to u t i l i z e the capacity of the f a b r i c a t i n g plant, have a look at erection procedures, current material costs, the p r i c e of the competition, etc. (multiple i n t e r a c t i n g design c r i t e r i a ) . I t has to be evaluated i f a le s s c o s t l y production causes a more expensive erection, etc. It appears at the f i r s t glance confus-ing, but there i s organization i n t h i s complexity. We have to focus our i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on the laws of the behaviour of the system. Proper analysis and human experience i s no longer enough. Without further developed s t r a t e g i e s one would need too much time to consider a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s to come to the most economic engineering s o l u t i o n . There are two things to be Investigated: the laws of i n t e r a c t i o n ; and, the procedures and tools for decision making. There are reasons f o r a lack of development i n t h i s area. Separation of academics and industry i s only one (which i s t r i e d to be eliminated i n t h i s thesis) and the governing goals of industry are another. Economic f a b r i c a t i o n or design s h a l l y i e l d higher p r o f i t s , however, us u a l l y i n industry, p r o f i t s have to be shown i n a r e l a t i v e l y short term. A colleague student of the author recommended In a study f o r a f a b r i c a t i n g plant the investment i n a p a r t i c u l a r machine. This proposal was rejected because the payback period was longer than one year. The general trend seems to be to s a c r i f i c e long term goals for the accomplishment of short-term objectives. Annual p r o f i t targets are 5 . rewarded, that i s the mechanism how managers get t h e i r effectiveness measured. I t i s obvious that due to t h i s s e l f - r e s t r i c t i o n sometimes superior developments are prevented and even a loss i n competiveness has to be experienced. 1.3 Systems Various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of systems have been i d e n t i f i e d i n l i t e r a -ture. In summary i t should be noted here the d i s t i n c t i o n between primary and secondary regulatory processes. The primary process i s concerned with the design of strategies and the design of structures, with the way i n which the system inte r f a c e s with i t s environment describing a stable equilibrium state of growth. The secondary regula-tory process r e l a t e s to the f i x e d mechanisms and pathways of the imput-transformation-output processes of one system. E s p e c i a l l y the primary process i s a novelty to our young engineers. To handle i t and make successful decisions he needs to understand i n t e r a c t i o n s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , flows, processes, and he has to do t h i s In a multi-dimensional, experience r e q u i r i n g f i e l d . In t h i s complexity i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that i n e f f i c i e n t designs are discovered and a l t e r e d , as we f i n d the s i t u a t i o n i n the case of our cooperating I n d u s t r i a l body, B r i t t a i n S t e e l Ltd. B r i t t a i n Steel's engineers u s u a l l y screen each design proposal and t r y to improve the design on the basis of t h e i r experience, cost estimation, and company s p e c i f i c f a b r i c a t i n g procedures. In the example of B r i t t a i n S t e e l , i t i s important to note that they are very personality dependent. However, they are operating In the Systems Age with tools overtaken and modified 6. from the Machine Age. We f i n a l l y have to accept that we can no longer focus our engineering e f f o r t s only on the secondary process, which we are able to describe by a n a l y s i s , but we have to s h i f t emphasis to the primary processes, which can only be approached by synthesis. As pointed out e a r l i e r , the engineer's education and t r a i n i n g , working aids and t o o l s are s t i l l a l l based on the facts of the secondary process only. There are l i t t l e means of changing the rules i n the input-transformation-output processes a v a i l a b l e . We have learned how the e x i s t i n g processes are structured and not how they should be structured. If a structure Is s p e c i f i e d a p r i o r i as i t e x i s t s , then there i s no room to achieve maximum e f f i c i e n c y . However, we have to use both sides, as Revans [21], [22] describes i t i n h i s " d u a l i t y of thought": programmed knowledge versus posing questions. In summary, the author would l i k e to stress that an engineer needs s k i l l s i n both analysis and synthesis. While there has been extensive r e s e a r c h and development i n the f i e l d of a n a l y s i s (secondary processes), very l i t t l e was done i n the area of synthesis and design (primary processes). This work s h a l l make a small contribution towards the development of tools f or s t r u c t u r a l design and the understanding of f a b r i c a t i o n . 1.4 Evaluation of Designs In t h i s t h e s i s a computerized aid f o r the evaluation of s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l designs has been developed. The proposals for a synthesis s o l u t i o n s h a l l be evaluated on a p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i o n . Economy i s chosen as a common basic c r i t e r i o n to evaluate a 7. structure. Whether a structure w i l l be b u i l t with s t e e l , concrete, or other b u i l d i n g material depends l a r g e l y on the r e l a t i v e costs of constructing the structure with the various materials. In order to make s t e e l design more competitive with other b u i l d i n g materials, an e f f i c i e n t and r e a l i s t i c method to evaluate the economy of several designs of a s t e e l structure must be a v a i l a b l e . Peurifoy [8] and Shoemaker [7] give f a b r i c a t i o n and erection costs, on a weight basis, f o r various types of works. The CISC [2] method, although attempts to adjust the t o t a l cost at the f i n a l stage, i s a lso a weight method. Nixon [3] pointed out i n h i s paper that estimating f a b r i c a t i o n costs by weight may not be s a t i s f a c t o r y and a good example was given there. He proposed to estimate the f a b r i c a t i o n costs by the number of pieces that are to be made. However, the method i s s t i l l not f l e x i b l e enough and an enormous number of cost data i s required to cover a l l the fa b r i c a t i o n s and the p o s s i b i l i t y to obtain a l l those data i s questionable. An assessment of a l l major l o c a l s t e e l f a b r i c a t o r s and/or erectors revealed that the cost of a s t e e l structure i s u s u a l l y estimated based on the weight of the structure or i t s component with various cost factors to account f o r d i f f e r e n t categories of works. These factors are based upon experience on s i m i l a r structure b u i l t previously. Since the types of structures constructed by a s t e e l f a b r i c a t o r are varied i n nature, previous experience on s i m i l a r struc-tures to the one currently under consideration may not be a v a i l a b l e . To use the experience of other f a b r i c a t o r s may not be appropriate as the f a c i l i t i e s and setup of the f a b r i c a t o r s are d i f f e r e n t from each other. Personal experience and judgement i s widely used i n such cost 8. estimations and the r e s u l t may not be s a t i s f a c t o r y as i t can be o f f from the actual cost by as much as 100%. To enable the f a b r i c a t o r to acquire s u f f i c i e n t r e l i a b l e informa-t i o n i n a r e l a t i v e l y short period, the construction works must be broken down in t o basic a c t i v i t i e s that are common to various types of s t e e l s t r uctures. Also, the breakdown of cost a c t i v i t i e s must be f l e x i b l e to accommodate future technology improvement. With the rapid advance of computer technology and large increase i n storage capacity of the microcomputers and at a p r i c e which seems to be affordable by even the smaller f a b r i c a t o r s , information on the d a i l y operations i n the shop or s i t e can be gathered, analysed and transformed into cost v a r i a b l e s that can be used to evaluate the e f f i c i e n c y of an a r b i t r a r y design. An evaluation program has been developed for t h i s evaluation. Once the s t r u c t u r a l data f i l e and cost data base are setup, the costs of several designs can be e a s i l y compared by a l t e r i n g the s t r u c t u r a l data f i l e . The previous experience i s stored i n the cost data base i n the form of labour time required for the various basic a c t i v i t i e s . The data used i n the program described i n the following was acquired through the i n t e r a c t i o n with the cooperating partner from industry and may not be applicable for other f a b r i c a t o r s . Continuing research i s underway to gather more de t a i l e d information about t h i s cost data and i t s background. 9. CHAPTER 2 IDEAL SYSTEM OF DESIGN AND COST ESTIMATION PROCESS 2.1 Current P r a c t i c e The creation process of a s t e e l structure i n Canada i s generally divided into the following stages: I Owner appoints consultants (engineers and a r c h i t e c t s ) II Design by consultants. I l l Bidding. IVa F a b r i c a t i o n IVb E r e c t i o n . Usually the structure Is designed without any i n t e r a c t i o n between II and IV. This i s acceptable for structures where the manufacturing processes do not possess that great an importance for the f i n a l costs (e.g. concrete s t r u c t u r e ) . But for s t e e l structures, where the major part of b u i l d i n g i s done i n the shop, the f a b r i c a t o r / e r e c t o r ' s engineer should be allowed to modify the design or the designer should have access to the cost data of the various f a b r i c a t i o n / e r e c t i o n processes i n order to be able to produce a least expensive structure that e f f i c i e n t l y performs a set of s p e c i f i e d functional purposes. 2.2 Ideal System F i g . 14 shows the i d e a l system i n which the designer has access to the f a b r i c a t i o n / e r e c t i o n data base. The design and cost estimation i s done i n t e r a c t i v e l y and a f i n a l optimal design r e s u l t s . Only one design 10. Only one design has to be translated into drawings etc. This saves a l o t of time of the engineer and draughftsman i f compared to the case when the design i s a l t e r e d by the f a b r i c a t o r simply because there i s no In t e r a c t i o n between the designer and the f a b r i c a t o r / e r e c t o r . 11. CHAPTER 3 PROPOSED SYSTEM OF DESIGN AND COST ESTIMATION PROCESS Current practice makes the i n t e r a c t i o n of the designer and the f a b r i c a t o r d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible because the f a b r i c a t o r s are not w i l l i n g to release t h e i r cost data to the designer. The sometimes strong egos of the designers are also other reasons. The i d e a l system would work i f the creation process of a s t e e l structure i s changed to that of a design and construction contract. Such contracts have a c t u a l l y been l e t i n the past. However, the majority of the b u i l d i n g contracts s t i l l follow the practice i n paragraph 2.1. It i s proposed to s t a r t with the drawings from the consultants, do the cost evaluation of the consultant's design, and submit the bid together with proposed changes with of course reduction i n costs. F i g . 15 shows the proposed system. If the design and construction contract becomes more popular, a transformation program can be developed to convert the r e s u l t s of a design/analysis program into inputs to the evaluation program so that the l i n k between designer and f a b r i c a t o r can be completed. For both the i d e a l and proposed system, the s t r u c t u r a l data base can be used f o r other purposes of the f a b r i c a t o r such as material ordering, scheduling and production c o n t r o l . Due to time l i m i t a t i o n , the er e c t i o n cost has not been included i n the cost estimation and evaluation process. Thus the program developed i n t h i s thesis i s only suitable f o r the case that the erection cost i s the same for the various designs considered. 12. The erection cost i s d i f f i c u l t to assess but research i n t h i s aspect i s strongly recommended as an. economic f a b r i c a t i o n may sometimes r e s u l t i n an expensive erection. Besides the d i r e c t labour on s i t e such as b o l t i n g and handling the components etc., the capacity of the a v a i l a b l e l i f t i n g equipment, a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the s i t e , transportation, experience of a v a i l a b l e erection crew, expected weather and r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s of correcting mistakes on s i t e and i n the shop are some of the factors which have to be considered i n the s e l e c t i o n of an erection scheme and assessment of i t s cost. 13. CHAPTER 4 FABRICATION COSTS Notations Notations are defined i n the following and i n the text as w e l l . A s ss surface area BP = labour time for burning a plate BS = labour time f o r burning a shape CS = labour time for cleaning a member with sandblasting CW = labour time f o r cleaning a member with wheelabrator DR = labour time for d r i l l i n g holes i n a plate FI = labour time f o r f i t t i n g a member HA = labour time for handling a member % = length to be burnt L = length of member LA = labour time for layout of member L i = length of the i t h weld L P = length of perimeter of the template MA = labour time f o r machining a member N = number of i d e n t i c a l members N b = number of b o l t s N c = number of shearing or sawing N cp = number of cope marks N d = number of d e t a i l s N h = number of holes Nhb = number of hand burns performed on a member such as 14. = number of l i n e s required f o r the layout Np = number of points required f o r the layout N = maximum number of plates i n a stack s N = number of welds w PA = labour time for painting a member PP = labour time f o r punching holes i n a plate PR = labour time for preparing the shop drawings PS = labour time f o r punching holes i n a shape SA = labour time for sawing done on a member SH = labour time f o r shearing done on a member T g = alignment time t, = b o l t i n g time per b o l t D t ^ r = burning time per unit length t, . = b l a s t i n g time f o r unit surface area t £ = time to centre punch one hole t , = d r i l l i n g time per hole d TE = labour time to make one template t f = f i t t i n g time per d e t a i l T, = material handling time n T^ = labour time to make i d e n t i f i c i a t i o n mark on a member t 0 = time to layout one cope mark t0 = labour time to mark unit perimeter length of the template t = unit moving time m T^ = moving time t = machining time f o r un i t surface area ma 15. = time for marking and c u t t i n g a template into the required shape = member movement time f o r punching = labour time to layout one l i n e of the member = labour time to layout one point of the member = punching time = unit punching time of a d e t a i l punch = time to p o s i t i o n one puncher to punch a hole = unit shearing or sawing time = setup time = labour time to s t a r t a weld = labour time to mark and cut one hole i n a template = welding time per unit length f o r the i t h weld = labour time for welding done on a member 4.1 Current Method of Estimating F a b r i c a t i o n Costs The f a b r i c a t i o n cost of a s t e e l structure i s commonly estimated from the sum of the f a b r i c a t i o n costs of i t s components or members such as beams and columns. The f a b r i c a t i o n costs of the components are estimated from unit costs which are based on the weight, siz e and type of component. With one exception, i t seems that the actual labour times required to carry out the various processes that contribute to the f a b r i c a t i o n of a component are not transparent to the fa b r i c a t o r s and a l s o not investigated. The estimated cost of a project i s usually checked against the ac t u a l t o t a l cost a f t e r completion. mc mp n£ np Ph sw 'th wi WE 16. To estimate f a b r i c a t i o n cost based on weight i s d e f i n i t e l y not s a t i s f a c t o r y as the amount of work, and hence the cost, involved i n the f a b r i c a t i o n of a member does not necessa r i l y vary d i r e c t l y with i t s weight, e.g. the work needed to fa b r i c a t e a beam with many holes i s obviously more than one with few holes while the weight of the l a t t e r i s greater than the former. 4.2 Proposed Method of Estimating the F a b r i c a t i o n Costs The t o t a l f a b r i c a t i o n cost of a s t e e l structure can be obtained from the sum of the fabricaton costs of i t s members, such as beams and columns etc., which i n turn can be obtained from the sum of the costs of the processes that are required to f a b r i c a t e the member. Linear r e l a t i o n s seem to y i e l d s u f f i c i e n t l y accurate evaluations. The type of processes [10] that are common to the f a b r i c a t i o n of members are: (1) Shearing (2) Sawing (3) Burning (4) Punching (5) D r i l l i n g (6) Making Templates (7) F i t t i n g (8) Welding (9) Cleaning (10) Painting (11) Handling (12) Machining 17. (13) Preparing shop drawings (14) Laying out (15) Others Forming Is not included i n the above l i s t because i t i s normally associated with cold formed s t e e l structures and i s used e.g. for f a b r i c a t i o n of open web s t e e l j o i s t s . The production process of t h i s type of s t e e l structure i s geared f o r mass production and i t s evalua-t i o n i s not included i n the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . In the case when forming i s needed f o r s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l designs, category "(15) Others" i s to be used. The cost of any of the above processes can be obtained from the current labour rate and the labour time required f o r the p a r t i c u l a r process. The l a t t e r can be established by looking into the a c t i v i t i e s that are Involved. In the following, the author i s presenting, from h i s own consideration and/or current f a b r i c a t i o n p r a c t i c e , the method and reasoning to estimate the labour time required for the various processes. 4.3 Labour-Time of F a b r i c a t i o n Processes (1) Shearing Usually bars, pla t e s , angles and channels with thicknesses less than 12 mm are sheared. The de t a i l e d a c t i v i t i e s that are involved i n shearing are the setup, moving the member along the conveyor and c u t t i n g . The setup time would be p a r t i c u l a r to a s p e c i f i c plant and i s the same for any number of i d e n t i c a l members. No s i g n i f i c a n t improve-ment i n p r o d u c t i v i t y i s envisaged f o r the moving and cu t t i n g a c t i v i t i e s 1 8 . with regard to Increase of length of member and r e p e t i t i o n of cuts. T h i s i s because the rate of moving the member depends on the speed of the conveyor which i s about constant. I f more than one cut Is required to produce the member, the cuts are separated by movement of the member and thus the increase i n p r o d u c t i v i t y due to r e p e t i t i o n of cuts i s interrupted. Hence the movement time would be proportional to the length of the member and the c u t t i n g time would be proportional to the number of cuts required to produce the member. The labour time f o r shearing one member can be computed as T SH = r ^ - + t .L + t .N N m s c (2) Sawing Shapes and stack of bars are not sui t a b l e f o r shearing. They are sawn. The basic a c t i v i t i e s are s i m i l a r to shearing except that a setup time, which now involves marking the length on the member and p o s i t i o n -ing the member for sawing, i s required f o r each member. If a s p l i c e i s required to b u i l d up a member, f i t and tack welds have to be applied by the saw operator and the labour time i s included under t h i s p r o c e s s . F i t t i n g time (T^) and time for welding has to be considered which depends on the cr o s s - s e c t i o n a l area and i n turn on the weight per unit length (w) of the member. If t w i s the unit welding time required and S i s the number of s p l i c e s , the labour time for sawing i s SA = T + t .L + t .N + (T, + t .w)S s m s c f w 19. ( 3 ) Burning Plates are frequently (automatically and semi-automatically) burned to s p e c i f i e d dimensions. The a c t i v i t i e s are setup, handle and p o s i t i o n the plate, and burn. The setup time would be the same for any number of i d e n t i c a l plates and the burning time would depend on the thickness of the pl a t e . The labour time f o r burning a plate i s T BP = -2- + T, + t, .£ N h br The cost v a r i a b l e s , i n t h i s case, depend very much on the av a i l a b l e machinery and w i l l show big v a r i a t i o n s from f a b r i c a t o r to f a b r i c a t o r . For shapes, handburning i s often employed and the a c t i v i t i e s involved are s i m i l a r to that f o r plates except that setup Is required f o r each member and for a p a r t i c u l a r type of burning, such as coping, notches, etc., the burning time ( T b) which depends on the cross-s e c t i o n a l area, i s a function of the weight per unit length of the member. The labour time for burning a shape i s BS = T + T. + T, . N, . s h b hb (4) Making Templates Templates are often required when holes have to be punched or d r i l l e d i n t o p l a t e s , or complicated shapes have to be burnt manually. The a c t i v i t i e s can be divided i n t o (a) marking and cu t t i n g the template Into the required shape and (b) marking and cutting the holes i n the s p e c i f i e d l o c a t i o n s . The labour time f o r (a) depends on the shape of 20. the p l a t e s . The labour time f o r (b) depends on the number of holes and the complexity i n l o c a t i n g the holes or the shape. The labour time f o r one template i s TE = T + t„. .N. mc th h (5) Punching (5a) P l a t e s . A multiple punch i s commonly used to punch holes In pl a t e s , e.g. standard connection p l a t e s . The a c t i v i t i e s involved are setup, p o s i t i o n i n g puncher over holes and punching. The setup time depends on the type of machine and i s the same for any number of iden-t i c a l p l a t e s . The po s i t i o n i n g time i s proportional to the number of holes while the punching time i s constant f o r a given machine. The labour time f o r punching holes i n a plate i s then T p p = «r + t , .N. + T N ph h p (5b) Shapes. Shapes can be si n g l y punched with a d e t a i l punch. The a c t i v i t i e s are setup, move the member along the conveyor and punch. The setup time depends on the number of holes, the movement time depends on the length of the member, and the punching time depends on the number of holes. The work of lay i n g out cope marks on the member i s usu a l l y done by the punch operator. I f there i s no f i t t i n g needed for the member, I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the member i s also done by the punch operator. The labour time f o r punching a member i s 21. PS = T + T + t .N. + t 0 .N + T. s mp p h £c cp I (6) D r i l l Holes whose depth i s greater than the nominal diameter of the fastener by more than 4 mm and a stack of plates with i d e n t i c a l holes have to be d r i l l e d instead of punched. The a c t i v i t i e s involved are setup, a l i g n i n g , centering, punching and d r i l l i n g . The setup time depends on the type of d r i l l i n g machine and i s constant for any number of plates i n a stack which i s however r e s t r i c t e d by the capacity of the d r i l l . The alignment time depends on the number of plates i n a stack. The d r i l l i n g time depends on the diameter of the hole, and the thickness of the plate and the number of holes. The labour time to d r i l l one plate i s n DR - n{T g + I ( T f l ) i + t d . N h + V^/N N N where n = ^— + 1 and r = — i s integer d i v i s i o n N N S S (7) F i t t i n g This depends on various factors such as type of f i t t i n g , layout and f a c i l i t i e s of the plant, etc. The a c t i v i t i e s can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o setup, f i t t i n g and b o l t i n g the d e t a i l s . The setup time depends on the types of f i t t i n g , the f i t t i n g time depends on the complexity of the f i t t i n g and the b o l t i n g time depends on the number of b o l t s . The labour time f o r f i t t i n g a member i s 22. FI = T + t,.N, + t,.N t s f d b b (8) Welding There are many kinds of welding. For manual welding, the relevant a c t i v i t i e s are (a) material handling; (b) s t a r t i n g a weld; (c) welding; and (d) preheating. The material handling time depends on the number of turns that i s required to perform on the member and the length and weight of the member. The labour time to s t a r t a weld depends on the type of weld, p o s i t i o n of weld, and s i z e of weld. The welding time depends on the p o s i t i o n of the weld, type of weld, siz e of weld and length of weld. The labour time of welding the member i s N w WE = T. + t .N +1 t . .L, h sw w wi i Labour time f o r preheating can be taken into account by adding approximately 10% of the welding time to the above formula. For i n -shop f a b r i c a t i o n preheating i s usually not required. (9) Cleaning (9a) Wheelabrator. The a c t i v i t i e s are setup, moving the member through the machine. The labour time for cleaning a member i n a wheelabrator i s , CW = 2(T + t .L) s m 23. The i n c l u s i o n of the number 2 i s because the member has to be moved twice. (9b) Sandblasting. A l l the members that are too large for the wheelabrator have to be cleaned by sandblasting. The a c t i v i t i e s Involved are setup and b l a s t i n g the surface of the member. The labour time to sandblast a member i s CS = T + t. „ .A s b£ s (10) Painting The relevant a c t i v i t i e s are setup and painting. The painting time (T ) should depend on the surface area of the member, the length of the member, the number of coats of paint and the type of paint. The labour time to paint a member i s PA = T + T s pa (11) Handling The handling time depends to a large extent on the setup of the fa b r i c a t o r ' s plant. I f the t r a f f i c through the plant i s streamlined, the handling time would be smaller. For a p a r t i c u l a r setup, the handling time of a piece would depend on i t s weight and s i z e , work load i n the shop and type of work before and a f t e r handling. It i s assumed that the piece can be handled by the overhead crane and j i b s i n the plant. Anything that i s too heavy for the cranes to handle w i l l 24. require s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . The weight of the piece determines whether i t can be handled manu-a l l y or by cranes or i f i t needs s p e c i a l provisions. The type of work before and a f t e r handling determines the distance of handling. These two factors should give a basic handling time ( T R ) . The s i z e of the piece determines the degree of d i f f i c u l t y of the handling and can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o plates and shapes. Work load i n the shop determines the e f f i c i e n c y of the handling and can be repre-sented by the number of people working i n the shop. These two factors can be accounted f o r by two adjustment factors (S^ and W^). The handling time for a piece i s HA = S,.W,.T, r r n (12) Machining The contact surfaces of a x i a l load bearing member such as founda-t i o n columns u s u a l l y require machining to make the surfaces smooth. A planar or a m i l l i s assumed to do the work although torch planning i s sometimes used. Besides the setup time, there i s labour time for actua l machining which should be proportional to the area that i s to be machined. The labour time to machine a member i s MA = T + t .A s ma s (13) Preparing Shop Drawings The labour time required to prepare shop drawings depends on the 2 5 . complexity of the d e t a i l i n g and the number of drawings needed. The l a t t e r depends on the number of d i f f e r e n t members (N ) to be d e t a i l e d . m The complexity of the d e t a i l i n g can be accounted f o r by an e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r ( E ^ ) . If t ^ i s the labour time required to d e t a i l one member, the labour time to d e t a i l the whole structure Is PR = E,.t ,.N f pd m (14) Laying Out Laying out can be divided into two classes, with or without template. (14a) With template The labour time i s LA = T + t 0 .L s £p p (14b) Without template The number of points and l i n e s required for the lay i n g out should be factors that contribute to the labour time needed which i s LA = T + t .N + t „.N s np p ni i The above should apply to making template as well, only that the values f o r t and t . w i l l be smaller. np nil 26. (15) Others This item i s f o r processes whch are not frequently c a r r i e d out In the shop or which are not d e f i n i t e l y required f o r a p a r t i c u l a r member such as co r r e c t i o n of d i s t o r t i o n . They can be entered d i r e c t l y by the evaluator or estimator as i n d i v i d u a l estimates. Considerable experience i s needed to comply with t h i s l a s t cate-gory. It i s proposed f o r further research to eit h e r s p l i t "(15) Other" up i n more d e t a i l or to give some guidelines or t y p i c a l "Other" opera-t i o n s . 27. CHAPTER 5 INTERACTIVE/AUTOMATIC OPTIMIZATION The developed evaluation program can be used to do i n t e r a c t i v e or automatic optimization. When a s t r u c t u r a l data base representing a p a r t i c u l a r design has been established, the f a b r i c a t i o n cost of that design can be estimated. The s t r u c t u r a l data base can then be altered to represent another design, the f a b r i c a t i o n costs of which w i l l be automatically calculated by the program. The costs of the two designs can thus be compared. Example: to compare the f a b r i c a t i o n costs of two designs f o r the web of a girder: (1) Web with intermediate s t i f f e n e r s and doubler p l a t e . This i s shown i n F i g . 1 with the Inputs and outputs shown In F i g . 3 and 4 res p e c t i v e l y . (2) Web without intermediate s t i f f e n e r s and doubler p l a t e , but thickened to achieve same capacity as (1). F i g s . 2, 5 and 6 show the arrangements, inputs and outputs for t h i s case. The costs of the two design can be compared by looking at the l a s t l i n e of the outputs. If optimization modules have been written and connected to the program, automatic optimization can be c a r r i e d out. A sample subroutine (ALTER) has been written to indicate t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . It 28. calculates the shear resistance of the s t i f f e n e d web of a plate g i r d e r and replaces the web by a thic k e r one without intermediate s t i f f e n e r s but with the same shear capacity i n accordance with CAN3-S16.1-1978 Clause 13.4.1. It then a l t e r s the section i d of the web, the number of d e t a i l s that requires f i t t i n g and cancel the intermediate s t i f f e n e r s . In t h i s case, the member mark f o r the intermediate s t i f f e n e r s has to be the same as that of the web but with a s u f f i x that begins with *(S'. In the following example, BI i s the member mark of the web and B1(S1) Is the member mark of the Intermediate s t i f f e n e r s . Example: to investigate the economy of the f a b r i c a t i o n of a web for a plate girder without Intermediate s t i f f e n e r s and a thinner web with intermediate s t i f f e n e r s . The arrangement of the web with intermediate s t i f f e n e r s i s shown In F i g . 7. The inputs are shown In F i g . 9. The program cal c u l a t e s the cost of the above arrangement f i r s t ; then changes the s t r u c t u r a l data base to that as shown i n F i g . 10 which corresonds to the arrangement shown i n F i g . 8 and do the cost estimation again. The outputs are shown i n F i g . 11. I f desired, the subroutine ALTER can be modified to search f o r the most economical spacing of the intermediate s t i f f e n e r s . 29. CHAPTER 6 CORRELATION STUDY The arch girder of an observatory dome constructed- by B r i t t a l n S t e e l Ltd. was chosen f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n study as I t can be i s o l a t e d from the whole structure. The inputs, outputs and drawings of the study are not included i n t h i s thesis but are with the author and h i s supervisor Dr. Stiemer. The f a b r i c a t i o n cost outputs were checked by B r i t t a i n S t e e l Ltd. and i t was found that the figures agree very well with t h e i r figures both i n d e t a i l and o v e r a l l . This indicates that the developed program i s a p r a c t i c a l design t o o l and can be used as i t i s . The information on the upper portion of the arch girder was taken from drawings no. 3a to 3k while that on the bottom end of the arch gi r d e r was taken from drawings no. 4a to 4c. The member marks follow those shown on the drawings except the following: (1) For the upper portion of the girder (drawing no. 3f to 3k), 'B' was added to the fr o n t , e.g. for mk pj (drawing no. 3 f ) , the member mark i s BPJ. (2) For the lower portion of the girder (drawing no. 4b and 4c) and the assembled section of the girder (drawing no. 3a, 3b and 4a), 'BB' was added to the fro n t , e.g. for mk pra (drawing no. 4b), the member mark i s BBPM. (3) I f a member i s made up of two or more pieces, a numeric s u f f i x i s added to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between d i f f e r e n t pieces, e.g. f o r mk pb (drawing no. 3 f ) , the member mark for the piece marked 2 i s BPBR2. 30. (4) Member mark with '*' at the end i s used to input a d d i t i o n a l f a b r i c a t i o n works. The cost of material i s not calculated f o r t h i s case. The cost of material i s calculated based on a unit cost of $0.6/Kg. The current unit labour cost used i s $37/hr. The following costs were not Included i n the estimation: (1) Handling; (2) Cleaning (Sandblasting); (3) Grinding; (4) Laying out; (5) Making templates f o r members pw, py, paa, pab (drawing no. 3g), pbm, pbt, ptv (drawing no. 3 j ) , and pw, pab (drawing no. 4b). 31. CHAPTER 7 POSSIBLE FUTURE EXTENSION The following items need further research, i n v e s t i g a t i o n and development. (1) The missing cost data, e s p e c i a l l y the handling costs, as mentioned i n the discussion of the program (Appendix C), should be investigated and obtained. (2) An easy method of updating the cost data base has to be developed. This i s c u r r e n t l y being investigated by B. Forde, a colleague student. (3) S p e c i f i c optimization modules should be developed and connected to the program to f a c i l i t a t e semi-automatic optimization. (4) A transformation program should be developed to convert the r e s u l t s of a design/analysis program in t o inputs to the evaluation program so that design and evaluation can be c a r r i e d out auto-m a t i c a l l y . (5) More research i s necessary on the erection costs. 32. CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION This thesis i s a step towards the d i r e c t i o n of providing more design tools to the designers. I t attempts to contribute towards the cl o s i n g of the gap between the designer and the f a b r i c a t o r although there i s s t i l l a l o t to be researched. The p o s s i b i l i t y of automatic optimization was indicated i n Chapter 5. I t i s hoped that i f the f a b r i c a t o r i n the proposed system of Chapter 3 can produce more economical designs by using the evaluation program, i t w i l l create the motivation to change the present system of design and cost estimation process to that shown i n Chapter 2. By that time, the design of s t e e l structures w i l l always be optimal or very near optimal. As a side e f f e c t , i t i s hoped that the evaluation program can help the f a b r i c a t o r to i d e n t i f y the area where improvements are needed i n the shop. 33. REFERENCES [I] R u s s e l l , A.D. "Cost Optimization of a S t r u c t u r a l Roof System", M.A.Sc. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, (1970). [2] CISC, A Project Analysis Approach to Bu i l d i n g , 1980. [3] Nixon, D. "Estimating the Cost of Small Steel Buildings", CJCE, Vol. 1, No. 2 (December 1974). [4] Paul De Garmo, E. "Materials and Processes i n Manufacturing", 5th Ed., New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. (1979). [5] Moses, F. and G. Goble, "Minimum Cost Structures by Dynamic Programming", Engineering Journal, AISC (July 1970). [6] Donnelly, J.A. "Determining the Cost of Welded J o i n t s " , Engineering Journal, AISC (October 1968). [7] Shoemaker, M.M. "The Building Estimator's Reference Book", The Frank R. Walker Company, 1977. [8] Peurifoy, R.L. "Estimating Construction Costs", 3rd Ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975. [9] Berry, G.L. "Shop Floor Information System: Design and Implementa-t i o n " , Engineering Digest (1984). [10] AISC, S t r u c t u r a l D e t a i l i n g (1971). [II] CISC, Handbook of Steel Construction (1982). [12] Thatcher, W.M. "Horizontally Curved Steel Girders - F a b r i c a t i o n and Design", Engineering Journal, AISC (July, 1967). [13] Holesapple, J.C. "The Fabricator/Designer Connections", C i v i l Engineering, ASCE (November, 1982). [14] Roberts and Lapidge, "Manufacturing Processes", New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1977. [15] Amstead, B.H., P h i l l i p F. Ostwald and Muron L. Begeman, "Manufac-tur i n g Process", 7th Ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977. [16] Yankee, "Manufacturing Process", New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1979. [17] Hayes, R.H. and W.J. Abernathy, "Managing Our Way to Economic Decline", Harvard Business Review, 1980, #58 July/Aug., 67-77. [18] Muster, D., "Relevance of Analysis and Synthesis i n Management and Engineering Education", Proc. Instn. Mechan. Engrs., Vol. 198B, No. 2, 1984. [19] Forde, B., Leung, Y.C, and Stiemer, S.F., "Computer-Aided Design Evaluation of S t e e l Structures", to be presented at the 12 th Congress of International Association f or Bridge and S t r u c t u r a l Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, Sept. 1984. [20] Askoff, R.L., "Science i n the Systems Age: Beyond I.E., O.R., and M.S.", Operations Research, May/June 1973, #21, 661-671. [21] Bogen, J.E., "Some Educational Aspects of Hemispheric S p e c i a l i z a -t i o n " , UCLA Educator, 1975, #17, 24-32. [22] Furst, C , "Origins of the Mind: Mind-Brain Connections", P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., New Jersey, 1979. APPENDIX A The l i s t i n g of the program i s not Included i n t h i s t h e s i s but i s available from the author or h i s supervisor, Dr. S.F. Stiemer. • The program i s wri t t e n i n Fortran 77 and presently can accept a t o t a l of 700 members. The following i s the storage requirement to run the program: (1) RAM: 371K. This i s used to store the f a b r i c a t i o n d e t a i l s of the members; (2) Disk or equivalent storage: 194K. This i s used to store the contents of the f a b r i c a t i o n data base (FDB.DAT), the shapes data base (SHAPES.DAT), and the conversion data base (CONV.DAT). OPERATION MANUAL OF DESIGN EVALUATION PROGRAMME (DEP) CONTENTS Page START PROGRAMME CHOOSE MENU INPUT OF FABRICATION DETAILS ALTER STRUCTURAL DATA BASE EXAMPLE OF INPUT AND OUTPUT 36. DESCRIPTIONS ACTIONS THE FOLLOWING MENU ARE AVAILABLE 1. Input of member marks only 2. Input of member marks and f a b r i c a t i o n d e t a i l s 3. Continuation from 1 4. Continuation from 2 5. A l t e r a t i o n 6. Estimation Type 'EC or 'RUN ECS' and press return key. Type the number correspond-ing to the menu you want and press the return key. IF MENU 1 IS CHOSEN, IF MENU 2 IS CHOSEN, The prompt shown i n F i g . 12a w i l l appear on the screen. The values shown within the brackets are d e f a u l t values. A f t e r the entr i e s requested have been completed, the prompt shown i n F i g . 12b w i l l appear on the screen. For explanation of the e n t r i e s r e q u e s t e d see Appendix B. THE FOLLOWING FACILITIES ARE AVAILABLE FOR MENU 2 and 4. 1. I f the default value i s used, Type i n the member marks one by one. T y p e t h e e n t r i e s a s requested by the prompts and press the return key af t e r each entry. b y t h e p r o m p t s Press the return key. 2. I f the d e t a i l s of a member are Type the member mark of the the same as a previous member, previous member oh the row marked 'drawing number?', and press the return key. 3. I f the d e t a i l s of a member except drawing number are the same as a previous member, 4. I f a p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l has the same value as that of an immediately preceding member, 5. To move the cursor up one l i n e , Enter the drawing number and type the member mark of the previous member on the row marked 'section ID?', and press the return key. Type 'P' return key. Type '!' return key. and press the and press the 37. 6 . To stop the program during Type 'S' and press the input of a member, return key. The input of that particular member w i l l not be registered. 7. When a l l the entries requested Press the return key. by the prompts on the screen have been completed, the following prompt w i l l appear on the screen 'Do you want to continue?'. If you want to enter a new member, If you want to continue the Type 'W' and press the input of the welding details, return key. ALTER STRUCTURAL DATA BASE Select Menu 5 Type the member mark you want to alter, and press the return key. After typing in the member mark you want to alter, a prompt similar to that shown on Fig. 12a and 12b w i l l appear on the screen. The only difference i s that the default values w i l l be replaced by the values entered previously. If the details of a member are the ame as another member, To cancel a member, To alter a detail of a member, Type the member mark of that member on the row marked 'drawing number?', and press the return key. Type 'C' on the row marked 'Member Mark?', and press the return key. Type the new value on the line of the prompt and press the return key. If there i s no alteration to a Press the return key. particular item, 38. To move the cursor up one l i n e , I f there i s no more a l t e r a t i o n s to the member, Type ' ! 1 , and press the return key. Type 'S' on any numerical entry and press the return key. 39. APPENDIX B The followings are explanations of the entries requested by the prompts shown In F i g . 12a and F i g . 12b. 1. MEMBER MARK A l l member marks have to begin with B, C, or J, e.g. B1,C2A,J1KC. The maximum number of characters i s 13. 2. SECTION ID For pla t e s , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n format i s PL'width'X'thickness', e.g. a plate 300 mm wide by 10 mm thick w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d as PL300X10. 3. LENGTH Length has to be i n metres when metric units are used, or i n feet when imperial u n i t s are used. 4. SHEAR-NO. OF PIECES/LOT Enter the number of members of same section i d and same length. 5. BURN-(A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP Enter the number of members of smae section i d and same length. 6. PUNCH-(a)N0. OF PASSES Enter the number of times that the member has to pass the punch. I f holes are required on both the flanges and web, the number of passes i s 2. 7. TYPE OF MACHINE The program caters f o r two types of d r i l l i n g machines. If the portable d r i l l i s used, enter PO. If the r a d i a l d r i l l i s used, press the return key. 8. TYPE OF TEMPLATES The templates are f o r d r i l l i n g holes only. There are f i v e types of templates. For normal templates, enter NS For normal templates with work point o ff template enter NW For normal templates with developed shapes, enter ND Templates f or s p l i c e , enter SP Templates f o r gusets, enter GU 9. FITTING-(a)LIGHT OF HEAVY For f i t t i n g with welding, enter L For f i t t i n g with b o l t i n g , enter H 10(i) WELDING-(a)N0. OF TURNS Enter the number of times that the main member has to be turned over to enable the completion of a l l weldings. ( i i ) WELDING-(b)TYPE OF WELDS Enter the number corresponding to the type of welds shown i n F i g . 13a and 13b. 40. ( i l l ) WELDING-(c)SIZE OF WELDS The size of welds has to be in millimetres when metric units are used, or in inches when imperial units are used. (Iv) WELDING-(d)LENGTH OF WELDS The length of welds has to be i n metres when metric units are used, or in feet when imperial units are used. (v) WELDING-(e)POSITION This i s the position under which the welding i s performed. There are four possible positions. For f l a t position, press the return key. For horizontal position, enter H For vertical position, enter V For overhead position, enter 0. (vi) WELDING-(f)PREHEAT If preheat i s needed for the welding, enter Y If preheat is not needed for the welding, press the return key. (vii) WELDING-(g)TYPE OF ELECTRODES At the present moment, the only choice is E480XX, which Is the default value. 11. CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING For sandblasting, enter the SMM (standard man minutes) directly. For wheelabrating, enter W. 12. PAINTING Class A represents primer Class B represents red lead Class C represents heavy 13. GALVANIZING There i s no f a c i l i t i e s for this item at the present moment. Just press the return key. 41. APPENDIX C  Discussion of Program At the present moment, the program can only evaluate the design of a s t e e l structure with regard to f a b r i c a t i o n costs by a l t e r i n g the s t r u c t u r a l data base manually. However, cost optimization modules can be attached to the program to do the evaluation automatically. A sample of such subroutine (ALTER) has been written to Indicate t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . The program consists of a main con t r o l module and 16 subroutines, the names of which are ECS, AMEND, ASBD, CHREAL, CONV, DECO, EM, ESMH, ESTM, INPUT, INTCH, SAR, WRITE, WRITE2, WRITE3, WTP, AND WTS. There are 6 options to choose from: 1) Input of member marks only; 2) Input of member marks and f a b r i c a t i o n d e t a i l s ; 3) Continuation from 1; 4) Continuation from 2; 5) A l t e r a t i o n s ; 6) Estimation. There are two ways of entering information into the s t r u c t u r a l data base of a s t e e l s tructure. One way i s to enter a l l the member marks of the components of a structure f i r s t and then the f a b r i c a t i o n d e t a i l s . Option 1 i s the choice. The other way i s to enter the member marks and f a b r i c a t i o n d e t a i l s at the same time. Option 2 provides t h i s f a c i l i t y . The program can be stopped at any time during the input stage and continued l a t e r on by choosing Option 3 or 4 as appropriate. The s t r u c t u r a l data base can be altered by choosing Option 5. 4 2 . When Option 1 and 3 are chosen, the user w i l l be requested to enter the name of the output f i l e ( s t r u c t u r a l data base) which w i l l contain i n a compact form a l l the subsequent inputs on the screen. When Option 3 to 6 are chosen, the user w i l l be requested to enter the name of the input f i l e which contains the previous inputs. The output f i l e f o r Options 3 and 4 w i l l have the same name but one version higher, e.g. i f the input f i l e i s INPUT.DAT;2, the output f i l e w i l l be INPUT.DAT;3. For Option 5 , the user w i l l be asked to enter the name of the output f i l e . When a l l the inputs have been completed or when Option 6 i s chosen, the user w i l l be asked whether automatic optimization i s wanted. This i s the lo c a t i o n where future s p e c i f i c optimization modules can be connected to the main program. At the present moment, a sample optimization module (ALTER) has be written which examines the economy of using a thicker web witout s t i f f e n e r s f o r a plate girder to give the same shear capacity as a thinner web with s t i f f e n e r s . If i t i s desired, the s t r u c t u r a l data base can be written i n t o a f i l e c a l l e d INPUT.DAT i n a form as the d e t a i l s appeared on the screen. During estimation, the program automatically searches through the s t r u c t u r a l data base f o r members with i d e n t i c a l section Id and length and a l t e r the entry f o r 'SHEAR-NO. OF PIECES/LOT'. For estimation of the costs of f a b r i c a t i o n of a s t e e l structure, the following f i l e s are required: 1 ) S t r u c t u r a l Data Base. This i s the output f i l e f o r Options 2 , 4 , and 5 and input f i l e f o r Option 6 . 2 ) F a b r i c a t i o n Data Base. This i s a f i l e which contains a l l information on f a b r i c a t i o n costs and i s presently named FBD.DAT. 43. 3) Shapes Data Base. This i s a f i l e which contains a l l the information on the common r o l l e d shapes and i s presently named SHAPES.DAT. I t s contents are copied from a magnetic tape supplied by CSCI. 4) Conversion Data Base. This i s a f i l e which contains comparable metric and imperial sizes of r o l l e d shapes. This data base i s not complete yet and i s named CONV.DAT. If two or several members have the same member mark, the estimated labour time f o r a l l subsequent members w i l l be added to that of the f i r s t member and the cost output show the f i r s t member only. According to information obtained from a l o c a l s t e e l supplier and from [1] (pg. 367), s t e e l i s pri c e d at a unit cost per weight plus some extra charges also based on weight. The extra charges are re l a t e d to the s i z e s , and qua n t i t i e s , etc. This requires f u r t h e r Investigation. At the present moment, f o r s i m p l i c i t y sake, the cost of s t e e l material i s estimated based only on a unit cost per weight. The program can accept inputs i n e i t h e r metric or imperial u n i t s . The subroutine CONV converts Imperial units to metric u n i t s . The Information on the output of estimation of costs are i n metric u n i t s . At the present moment, there are no cost values f o r the following operations: Forming, Mac h i n i n g , L a y i n g out, S a n d b l a s t i n g , P r e p a r i n g shop drawings, Galvanizing, and Handling. I f they are required, the labour time i n SMM (standard man minutes) has to be entered d i r e c t l y . 44. 2 125*12 Plote(B2) 2• 900 P.P. 450 I.D. Ring Plote (B4) 450dio Hole Grind to Bear 6^38 I80<T*P \6^38 225 ^ Grind to Bear 2-100* 7-Plote I Bl (SI)) I 1400X9 Plate (Bl) (fe. ^ 2 180X12 3ot29IO= 8730 s y m - Plote (B3) 9880 F i g . 1. Web With Intermediate S t i f f e n e r s and Doubler P l a t e . 2 125X12 Plote (B2) N I • 1400X13 — Plate (Bl) 450 dia.Hole Grind to Beor 1150 6 38 225 6 38 225 8^50 240 3ot 2910= 8730 9880 ^1 Sym. -*4 •Grind to Beor -2 180X12 Plate (B3) F i g . 2. Web Without Intermediate S t i f f e n e r s and Doubler Plate, but Thickened to Achieve Same Capacity as F i g . 1. MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - - - Bl DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB 1 SECTION ID? - - - - - - - - - - -: PL1400X9 NO OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS . 1.000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 19. 800 BURN-(A)PLATES-(a>NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — : I. 000 -<b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 42.400 — (c)BURNT LENGTH FOR CUT OUTS? - — — : 2.820 FITTING-<a(LICHT OR HEAVY? — — — — — — — . L -<b)NO. OF DETAILS g. STIFFENERS? — — — : 22 000 WELDING-(a>NO. OF TURNS?— — — — — — — — : 1.000 CLEAN ING-UHEELABR ATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-(a(NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- 1.000 MEMBER MARK?— - - - - - - - - - -:B2 DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB2 SECTION ID? - PL125X12 NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 4. 000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 1.400 BURN-(A)PLATES-< a (NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — : 4.000 — < b )BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 3.050 WELDING— < b )TYPE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - 1 -<c)NO. OF WELDS?— — — — — — — — : 14.000 -(d)SIZE OF WELDS?— 6.000 — (•) LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : 0. 03B -<• )POSITION? - - - - - - - - - : F — <g >PREHEAT? — — — — — — — — — : NO -(h >TYPE OF ELECTRODES?- - - - - - - : E4B0XX CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTINC-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- -: 1.000 MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - - -:B3 DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB3 SECTION I D ? - - - - - - - - - - - : PL1B0X12 ND. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 2. 000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 1. 400 BURN-<A(PLATES-<a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — : 2.000 — (b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 3. 160 WELDING—<b)TYPE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - : i -<c)NO. OF WELDS?— — — — — — — — : 14.000 -<d(SIZE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - : 6.000 — < e) LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : 0. 03B • -( f (POSITION? - - - - - - - - - ; F — (g ( PREHEAT? — — — — — — — — — : NO -(h)TYPE OF ELECTRODES?- - - - - - -: E480XX CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-<a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- 1.000 MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - - -: Bl ( S l ) DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB4 SECTION ID? - PL100X7 NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 12. 000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 1.364 BURN-(A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — : 12.000 — (b >BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - .-: 2.930 WELDING-<b(TYPE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - : i -<c(NO. OF WELDS?— — — — — — — — : 16 000 -(d)SIZE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - -: 6.000 — < *) LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : 0.038 -If )P0SITION? - - - - - - - - - ; F — (g)PREHEAT? — — — — — — — — — : NO -(h)TYPE OF ELECTRODES?- - - - - - -: E4B0XX CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- 1.000 MEMBER MARK?- - B4 DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB4 SECTION ID? - - - - - - - - - - - PLS30X9 NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 4. 000 LENGTH? — — • — — — — — — — — — — : 0. 900 BURN-(A)PLATE5-(a)N0. OF PIECES/SETUP? — — — — — : 4.000 — (b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 2. B30 — (c)BURNT LENGTH FOR CUT OUTS? - — — : 1.410 WELD I NO— < b ) TYPE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - 1 -(c)NO. OF WELDS?— .— — — — — — — : 1.000 -(d)SIZE OF WELDS?- 5.000 — (a)LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : 2.830 -< f (POSITION? - - - - - - - - - : F — (g (PREHEAT? — — — — — — — — — : ND —(h(TYPE OF ELECTRODES?- E4B0XX CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W F i g . 3. Inputs for Web With Intermediate S t i f f e n e r s and Doubler Plate. 46. THE FOLLOWING COSTS ARE IN DOLLARS COST PER PIECE MEMBER MARK QTY BI 1 DESCRIPTION LENGTH PL1400X9 19. 80 OPERATION BURN FITTING WELDING CLEANING PAINTING SMM/PC 186 150 9 32 737 LABOUR 114. 70 92. 93 5. 55 20. 05 454. 66 MATERIAL SUB-TOTAL = 1115 687. 90 1175. 05 B2 4 PL125X12 1. 40 BURN WELDING CLEANING PAINTING 10 17 15 5 6. 10. 9. 3. 17 59 64 51 SUB-TOTAL 48 29. 90 9. 89 B3 2 PL180X12 1. 40 BURN WELDING CLEANING PAINTING 13 17 15 7 8. IO. 9. 4. 02 59 64 74 SUB-TOTAL 53 32. 98 14. 24 B K S l ) 12 PL100X7 1. 36 BURN WELDING CLEANING PAINTING 7 19 15 4 4. 12. 9. 2. 32 10 62 76 SUB-TOTAL 46 28. 79 4. 50 B4 4 PL530X9 0. 90 BURN WELDING CLEANING 21 60 15 12. 37. 9. 95 55 35 SUB-TOTAL 97 59. 85 20. 22 THE TOTAL COST OF THE TOTAL COST OF THE TOTAL COST DF LABOUR FOR FABRICATION IS MATERIAL IS MATERIAL AND FABRICATION IS 1458. 3' 1377. 9: 2836. 2< F i g . 4. Outputs of Web With Intermediate S t i f f e n e r s and Doubler Plate. 47. MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - - - : B 1 DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB1 SECTION ID? - PL1400X13 NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 1.000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 19. 800 BURN-(A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — : 1.000 -<b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 42.400 -(c)BURNT LENGTH FOR CUT OUTS? - — — : 2.820 F I T T I N O - < « ) L I G H T OR HEAVY? — — — — — — — : L -<b)NO. OF DETAILS e.g. STIFFENERS? — — — : 6.000 WELD I NG- (a) NO OF T U R N S ? — — — — — — — — : 1.000 CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-<a>NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- 1.000 MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - - - : B 2 DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB2 SECTION ID? - PL125X12 ND. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 4.000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 1.400 BURN-(A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — — : 4.000 -(b>BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 3. 050 WELDING-(b)TYPE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - ; i - ( c ) N 0 OF WELDS?— — — — — — — — : 14.000 -<d)SIZE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - 6.000 — (e) LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : 0.038 -<f )POSITION? - - - - - - - - - : F - ( g ) PREHEAT? — — — — — — — — — : NO -<h)TYPE OF ELECTRODES?- - - - - - - : E480XX CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- -: 1.000 MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - - - : B 3 DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB3 SECTION ID? - PL180X12 NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 2. 000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 1.400 BURN-(A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — — — : 2.000 -< b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 3. 160 WELDING-(b)TYPE OF WELDS?- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ : i -<c)NO. OF WELDS?— — — — — — — — : 14.000 - ( d ) S I Z E OF WELDS?- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ : 6.000 — (e >LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : 0.038 -<f )POSITION? - - - - - - - - - : F — (g) PREHEAT? — — — — — — — — — : NO - ( h ) T Y P E OF ELECTRODES?- - - - - - -: E480XX CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- 1.000 F i g . 5 . Inputs for Web Without Intermediate S t i f f e n e r s and Doubler Plate. 48. THE FOLLOWING COSTS ARE IN DOLLARS MEMBER MARK QTY DESCRIPTION LENGTH OPERATION SMM/PC LABOUR QI 1 PL1400X13 19. 80 BURN 213 131. 33 FITTING 39 36. 99 WELDING 9 3. 53 CLEANING 32 20. 03 PAINTING 739 455. 94 SUB-TOTAL = 1033 649. 88 B2 4 PL125X12 1. 40 BURN 10 6. 17 WELDING 17 10. 39 CLEANING 15 9. 64 PAINTING 5 3. 51 SUB-TOTAL 48 29. 90 B3 2 PL180X12 1. 40 BURN 13 8. 02 WELDING 17 10. 59 CLEANING 15 9. 64 PAINTING 7 4. 74 SUB-TOTAL 53 32. 98 COST PER PIECE MATERIAL 1697.30 9. 89 14. 24 THE TOTAL COST OF LABOUR FOR FABRICATION IS THE TOTAL COST OF MATERIAL IS THE TOTAL COST OF MATERIAL AND FABRICATION IS 835. 43 1765. 35 2600.77 F i g . 6. Outputs of Web Without Intermediate S t i f f e n e r s and Doubler Plate. 49. 2 125X12-Plote (B2) Grind to Bear-6 38 225 6^38 !80<TyP NS^M 225 I.S. \ / Who 240 I.S. I .S . \ Grind to Bear 2-100X 7-Plote(BKSI)) 1150 I • 1400 X9Plate (Bl) ^2-180X12 3ot 2910 = 8730 Sym. Plote (B3) • 9880 Fig. 7 . Web With Intermediate Stiffeners. 2 125 X| 2-. Plate (B2) \ I 1400X13 Plate (Bl) Grind to Bear Grind to Beor 1150 C_ ^"2 180X12 3at 2910=8730 Sym. Plate (83) 9880 Fig. 8 . Web Without Intermediate Stiffeners, but Thickened to Achieve Same Capacity as Fig. 7 . 5 0 . MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - -: B l DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB 1 SECTION ID? - PL1400X9 NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 1.000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 19. 800 BURN-(A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — : 1.000 —(b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 42.400 F I T T I N G — ( a ) L I G H T OR HEAVY? — — — — — — — . L -<b)NO. OF DETAILS e.g. STIFFENERS? — — — : 18.000 WELDING-(a)NO. OF T U R N S ? — — — — — — — — : 1.000 CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — . W PAINTING-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- 1.000 MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - - - : B 2 DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB2 SECTION ID? - PL125X12 NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 4. 000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 1.400 BURN-(A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — : 4.000 -(b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 3.050 WELDING-< b)TYPE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - _ : i - ( c )N0. OF WELDS?— — — — — — — — : 14.000 - ( d ) S I Z E OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - : fe.000 — (e) LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : 0.038 - ( f )POSITION? - - - - - - - - - : F — (g >PREHEAT? — — — — — — — — — : NO -<h)TYPE OF ELECTRODES?- - - - - - - : E480XX CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- -: 1.000 MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - - _ : B 3 DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB3 SECTION ID? - PL180X12 ND. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 2.000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 1.400 BURN-(A>PLATES-(a>NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — — — — — : 2.000 -(b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 3. 160 WELDING-(b > TYPE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - : j -Cc)NO. OF WELDS?— — — — — — — — : 14.000 -<d)SIZE OF WELDS?- 6.000 - ( e ) LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : 0.038 - ( f 1PQSITIQN? - - - - - - - - - : p - ( g ) PREHEAT? — — — — — — — — — : NO — ( h)TYPE OF ELECTRODES?- - - - - - -: E480XX CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- -: 1.000 MEMBER MARK?- - _ : B l ( B l ) DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB4 SECTION ID? - PL100X7 NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 12. 000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — . 1.364 BURN-(A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — : 12.000 -(b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 2.930 WELDING-(b)TYPE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - : 1 -(c)NO. OF WELDS?— — — — — — — — : 16.000 - ( d ) S I Z E OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - : 6 000 — (e > LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : 0.038 - ( f )PQSITION? - - - - - - - - - : F — (g) PREHEAT? — — — — — — — — — : NO - ( h ) T Y P E OF ELECTRODES?- - - - - - -: E480XX CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- -: 1.000 F i g . 9. Inputs for Web With Intermediate S t i f f e n e r s . MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - - - : B 1 DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB 1 SECTION ID? - PL1400X12 NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS . 1.000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 19. 800 BURN-<A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — : 1.000 -(b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 42.400 FITTING- ( a )LIGHT OR HEAVY? — — — — — — — : L -<b)NO. OF DETAILS e. g. STIFFENERS? -- — — : 6.000 WELDING-(«)NO. OF T U R N S ? — — — — — — — — : 1.000 CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- -: 1.000 MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - - - : B 2 DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB2 SECTION ID? - PL125X12 NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : 4. 000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 1.400 BURN-(A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — — — : 4.000 — < b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: 3.050 WELDING-<b>TYPE OF WELDS?- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ i - ( c >NQ OF WELDS?— — — — — — — — : 14.000 - < d ) S I Z E OF WELDS?- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ : 6 000 - ( e ) LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : 0.038 -< f (POSITION? - - - - - - - - - : F - (g > PREHEAT? — — — — — — — — — . NO - ( h ) T Y P E OF ELECTRODES?- - - - - - -: E480XX CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- - _ _ _ _ ; 1.000 MEMBER MARK?- - - - - - - - - - - : B 3 DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : AB3 SECTION ID? - - - - - _ _ - - - - : PL180X12 NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS -: 2. 000 LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : 1.400 BURN-(A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — — — : 2.000 -(b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -. 3. 160 WELDING—(b)TYPE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - i -(c)NO. OF WELDS?— — — — — — — — : 14.000 - ( d ) S I Z E OF WELDS?- - - - - - - 6 000 - ( e ) LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : 0.038 - ( f >POSITION? - - - - - - - - - F -(g)PREHEAT? -- — — — — — — — — : NO — < h)TYPE OF ELECTRODES?- - - - - - -: E4B0XX CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : W PAINTING-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- -: 1.000 F i g . 10. Inputs for Web Without Intermediate S t i f f e n e r s , t h i s was Obtained Automatically by the Program. OUTPUT OF FIRST DESIGN - WEB WITH INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS THE FOLLOWING COSTS ARE IN DOLLARS COST PER PIECE MEMBER MARK BI QTY DESCRIPTION 1 PL1400X9 LENGTH 19. eo OPERATION BURN FITTING WELDING CLEANING PAINTING SMM/PC 109 127 9 32 737 LABOUR 67. 22 78. 87 5. 55 20. 05 454. 66 MATERIAL SUB-TOTAL - 1015 626. 36 1175 05 BS .4 PL 123X12 1. 40 BURN WELDING CLEANING PAINTING 10 17 15 5 6 10. 9. 3. 17 39 64 31 BUB-TOTAL 48 29. 90 9. 89 B3 _« PL180X12 1. 40 BURN WELDING CLEANING PAINTING 13 17 15 7 8. 10. 9. 4. 02 59 64 74 SUB-TOTAL 53 32. 9B 14 24 BI(Sl) 12 PL100X7 1. 36 BURN WELDING CLEANING PAINTING 7 19 15 4 4. 12. 9. 2. 32 10 62 76 SUB-TOTAL = 46 28. 79 4. 50 THE TOTAL COST OF LABOUR FOR FABRICATION IS 1 1 5 7 . 3 9 THE TOTAL COST OF MATERIAL IS 1 2 9 7 0 7 THE TOTAL COST OF MATERIAL AND FABRICATION IS 2 4 5 1 4 5 OUTPUT OF SECOND DESIGN - WEB WITHOUT INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS THE FOLLOWING COSTS ARE IN DOLLARS MEMBER MARK BI QTY DESCRIPTION LENGTH 1 PL1400X12 19. 80 OPERATION BURN FITTING WELDING CLEANING PAINTING SUB-TOTAL COST PER PIECE SMM/PC LABOUR MATERIAL 1 0 9 6 7 . 2 2 59 3 6 . 91 9 5. 55 3 2 2 0 . 0 5 7 3 8 455. 6 2 949 585. 35 B2 4 PL125X12 1.40 BURN 10 6.17 WELDING 17 10. 59 CLEANING 15 9.64 PAINTING 5 3. Sl SUB-TOTAL •= 48 29. 90 9. 89 B3 2 PL180X12 1.40 BURN 13 8.02 WELDING 17 10. 59 CLEANING 15 9. 64 PAINTING 7 4. 74 SUB-TOTAL = 53 32. 98 14 24 THE TOTAL COST OF LABOUR FOR FABRICATION IS 770. 90 THE TOTAL COST DF MATERIAL IS 1634 7 B THE TOTAL COST OF MATERIAL AND FABRICATION IS 2405 69 ••THE DESIGN WITHOUT INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS IS MORE ECONOMICAL** F i g . 11. Outputs of Automatic Comparison of the Fabrication Costs of Two Designs of the Web of a Plate Girder. 5 3 . MEMBER MARK?- - -DRAWING NUMBER?— — — — — — — — — — : SECTION ID? -NO. OF IDENTICAL MEMBERS : CI] LENGTH? — — — — — — — — — — — — : CO] SHEAR-NO. OF PIECES/LOT? - - - - - - - - : CO] SAW-(a)NO. OF CUTS? — — — — — — — — — : CO] -<b)NO. OF S P L I C E ? - - CO] BURN-(A)PLATES-(a)NO. OF PIECES/SETUP? — : CO] -(b)BURNT LENGTH TO FORM PLATE? - -: CO] - ( c )BURNT LENGTH FOR CUT OUTS? - — — : CO] -(d)BURNT LENGTH FOR BEVEL EDGES? - -: COD -<B)SHAPES-(a)NO. OF BEVEL C U T S ? — — — — — : CO] -(b)NO. OF COPINGS?- -: CO] -<c)NO. OF NOTCHES?- — — — — — : CO] -(d)NO. OF SLOTS? - - - - - - : CO] PUNCH-(a)NO. OF PASSES? CO] -(b)NO. OF COPE MARKS? — - — — — — — : CO] -<c)NO. OF SINGLY MARKED PUNCH? -: CO! -(d)NO. OF HOLES? — — — — — — — — : CO] - ( e ) F I T T I N G NEEDED? (ENTER 1 FOR YES. O FOR NO) -: CO] DRILL-(a)NO. OF HOLES IN THE P I E C E ? — — — — — : CO] - ( b ) S I Z E OF HOLES? - - - - - - - - : CO] - ( c ) T Y P E OF MACHINE?- — — — — — — — : CR] F i g . 12a. I n i t i a l Prompts That Appear on the Screen. TYPE OF TEMPLATES? — — — — — — — — — : C03 SMM FOR FORMING? CO] SMM FOR MACHINING? — — — — — — — — : CO] SMM FOR LAYOUT? - CO] FI TT ING- (a) LIGHT OR HEAVY? — — — — — — — : CO] -(b)NO. OF DETAILS e.g. STIFFENERS? — — — : CO] -(c)NO. OF COPES/CUTS? CO] -<d)NO. OF BOLTS? CO] WELDING- (a) NO. OF T U R N S ? — — — — — — — — : CO] - ( b ) TYPE OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - : C I ] - ( c )NO. OF WELDS?— — — — — — — — : CO] - ( d ) S I Z E OF WELDS?- - - - - - - - : CO] -(e)LENGTH OF WELDS? — — — — — — — : CO] - ( f ) POSITION? CF] - ( g ) PREHEAT? — — — — — — — — — : CNO] - ( h ) T Y P E OF ELECTRODES?- CE480XX] CLEANING-WHEELABRATE OR SAND BLASTING? — — — — : CO] PAINTING-(a)NO. OF CLASS A COATS?- CO] -(b)NO. OF CLASS B COATS?- — — — — — : C03 -(c)NO. OF CLASS C COATS?— -: CO] GALVANIZING-YES OR NO? — — — — — — — — : CN] SMM FOR HANDLING?- CO] SMM FOR OTHERS? — — — — — — — — — — : CO] F i g . 12b. Subsequent Prompts that Appear on the Screen Later. 54. TYPE OF WELDS FTT.TET FULL STRENGTH MANUAL BUTT WELDS WELDING SYMBOL \ \ [ \ ( \ \ !_ I to' \ I \ [ 30 e \ 1 to /.< \" e NUMBER TO BE ENTERED INTO PROGRAM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 F i g . 13a. Type of Welds (1). TYPE OF WELDS FULL STRENGTH MANUAL BUTT WELDS PARTIAL STRENGTH MANUAL BUTT WELDS WELDING SYMBOL \ [ <? \ > c N :> •C \ •> "/ eo A s 1 X N X \ X < \ i A k X i NUMBER TO BE ENTERED INTO PROGRAM 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 F i g . 13b. Type of Welds (2). 5 5 . ! Owner S • _s i S t r u c t u r a l i i Data Base ! i i ! R e v i s e s t r u c t u r a l d ata ! I base i f n e c e s s a r y i i i E s t i m a t i o n + H* ! F a b r i c a t i o n / E r e c t i o n ! ! E v a l u a t i o n ! 1 d a t a b a t e ! F i g . 14. Flow Chart of Ideal System. 56. • E x i s t i n g ! • design/drawings ' .... i i 4 * S t r u c t u r a l S • data base i 1 __„ E s t i m a t i o n + H» ! F a b r i c a t i o n / E r e c t i o n ! ! E v a l u a t i o n ! ! data base ! No • O p t i m i z a t i o n ! ! modules ! • 1 ! Revise s t r u c t u r a l data ! -! base i f necessary ! 4 ! A l t e r : ! drawing ! 1 i Bid u i t h ! ! proposed changes ! ^ S t o p ^ ) F i g . 15. Flow Chart of Proposed System. 

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