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Instream aeration of the Serpentine River Town, Christopher Albert 1986

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INSTREAM AERATION OF THE SERPENTINE RIVER  by  CHRISTOPHER B.A.Sc., U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  ALBERT TOWN  Of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE  in FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department  We  of C i v i l  Engineering  accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o — t h e r e g u i r e d 'standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE  ©  1984  Christopher  1986 A l b e r t Town,  1986  In  presenting  requirements COLUMBIA, for  I agree that  extensive  copying by  the  thesis  written  in partial  the L i b r a r y  and s t u d y .  Representatives. this  thesis  fulfillment  of  the  f o r t h e a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  reference  granted  this  I further  of t h i s Head  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  of  thesis my  gain  that  for scholarly  Department  I t i s understood  for financial  agree  that shall  or  copying  available  permission  for  p u r p o s e s may by  his  or  her  or p u b l i c a t i o n  n o t be a l l o w e d  be  without  of my  permission.  Christopher  Department  o f C I V I L ENGINEERING  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH 2070 Wesbrook P l a c e , Vancouver, Canada. V6T-1W5 Date: June,  1986  COLUMBIA  Albert  Town  ABSTRACT  Urban encroachment and i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s w i t h i n the S e r p e n t i n e - N i c o m e k l watershed B.C.) ine  ( i n proximity to  Vancouver,  have caused a number of s e r i o u s f i s h k i l l s on the Serpent -  R i v e r s i n c e 1980.  Low  d i s s o l v e d oxygen l e v e l s were respons-  i b l e f o r these k i l l s . This  study  i n v e s t i g a t e d some of the dynamic  chemical  b i o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the r i v e r , as w e l l as  and  artificial  a e r a t i o n as a p o l l u t i o n abatement or i n - s i t u improvement measure. Weekly s a m p l i n g from J u l y t o December, shed  a s o l i d d a t a base from which  were  deduced.  dissolved blooms  A  inciteful  inclusive,  establi-  interrelationships  s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between c h l o r o p h y l l - a  oxygen  l e v e l s s u p p o r t e d the  d y i n g i n the F a l l ,  hypothesis  c r e a t e a massive  p r o t o t y p e , (457 m) a r t i f i c i a l led  1985,  that,  oxygen  and algae  demand.  a e r a t i o n l i n e was d e s i g n e d ,  instal-  and m o n i t o r e d t o e v a l u a t e i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r a l l e v i a t i n g  d i s s o l v e d oxygen c o n d i t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d i n the F a l l p e r i o d s . aeration  system o p e r a t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y d u r i n g September,  and November of 1985; ions,  dissolved  however,  A  low The  October  because of i d e a l weather c o n d i t -  oxygen l e v e l s never dropped  below 7.3 mg/L,  so  the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e v a l u a t e i n - s i t u oxygen t r a n s f e r d i d not a r i s e in  1985.  of  the  stretch levels.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the d a t a base g e n e r a t e d s u p p o r t s the use prototype of  a e r a t i o n u n i t as a  r i v e r subject to  Expansion  of  means  periodic,  t h e system,  low,  of  "upgrading"  dissolved  to include  other  oxygen critical  s t r e t c h e s of the S e r p e n t i n e R i v e r , i s s t r o n g l y recommended.  ii  a  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i i  L I S T OF TABLES  vi  L I S T OF FIGURES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  1.  INTRODUCTION  1  2.  BACKGROUND  3  2.1  History  3  2.2  River  4  2.3  Land Use i n t h e W a t e r s h e d  5  2.4  Surficial  9  2.5  Soils  10  2.6  C l i m a t e and Weather P a t t e r n s  11  2.7  Hydrology  15  2.7.1 2.7.2  Groundwater R i v e r and C r e e k F l o w s  15 16  2.7.3  Tidal  19  3.  Uses  G e o l o g y and L a n d f o r m s  Gates  2.8  Mud Bay and E s t u a r i n e  2.9  Fish  Environments  and W i l d l i f e  19 21  2.9.1  Fish  21  2.9.2  Wildlife  23  2.10 Summary  24  ARTIFICIAL  25  AERATION  3.1  Literature  Review  25  3.2  Purpose  30  3.3  Design  31  3.4  Installation  32  3.5  Assessment  35 iii  4.  SAMPLING  PROGRAM  (1985)  37  4.1  Introduction  37  4.2  S i t e Locations  38  4.3  4.2.1  Introduction  38  4.2.2  Site Descriptions  39  Parameters  42  4.3.1  42 42 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 46 46 46 46 46 47 47  4.3.2  Laboratory 4.3.1.1 C h e m i c a l Oxygen Demand 4.3.1.2 T o t a l O r g a n i c Carbon 4.3.1.3 T o t a l Ammonia 4.3.1.4 O r g a n i c N i t r o g e n 4.3.1.5 N i t r a t e Nitrogen 4.3.1.6 Orthophosphate 4.3.1.7 T o t a l Phosphorus 4.3.1.8 Sediment A n a l y s i s Field 4.3.2.1 D i s s o l v e d Oxygen 4.3.2.2 Temperature 4.3.2.3 S p e c i f i c Conductance 4.3.2.4 pH 4.3.2.5 Chlorophyll-a 4.3.2.6 Primary P r o d u c t i v i t y  4.4  Quality Control  48  4.5  Results  49  and D i s c u s s i o n  4.5.1  Water Q u a l i t y 4.5.1.1 D i s s o l v e d Oxygen 4.5.1.2 Temperature 4.5.1.3 pH 4.5.1.4 S p e c i f i c Conductance 4.5.1.5 Ammonia N i t r o g e n 4.5.1.6 Nitrates 4.5.1.7 Phosphorus 4.5.1.8 Other Parameters  49 50 58 61 65 65 67 69 71  4.5.2  Rainfall  71  4.5.3  Periphyton Populations 4.5.3.1 Chlorophyll-a 4.5.3.2 Primary P r o d u c t i v i t y  74 74 76  4.5.4  Ditch Monitoring  80  4.5.5  Sediment  81  and Water  Results  iv  Quality  5.  6.  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF OTHER YEAR'S DATA  83  5.1  Introduction  83  5.2  Water Q u a l i t y  84  5.3  Sediments  5.4  Tidal  5.5  Discussion  CONCLUSIONS 6.1  6.2  '.  Gates  AND  87 87 88  RECOMMENDATIONS  92  Conclusions  92  6.1.1  General  92  6.1.2  Specific  93  Recommendations  94  REFERENCES APPENDIX I - A e r a t i o n  96 calculations  APPENDIX I I - Water Q u a l i t y D a t a  102  (1985)  APPENDIX I I I - D i t c h M o n i t o r i n g  Data  APPENDIX IV - S e d i m e n t A n a l y s e s  (1985)  v  (1985)  105 114 116  L I S T OF Table  No.  TABLES  Title L a n d Use  by  Percent  Page of A r e a  No.  1.  Surrey  6  2.  P r i n c i p a l S o i l Groups i n the S e r p e n t i n e N i c o m e k l L o w l a n d s and A d j a c e n t U p l a n d s  12  3.  Climate  13  4.  F r o s t Period - Surrey  5.  Oxygen T r a n s f e r R a t e s  6.  Interlab Quality Control  48  7.  D u p l i c a t e Sample C o m p a r i s o n  49  8.  Comparison  9.  Oxygen D e p t h P r o f i l e s  56  10.  Trophic  Type C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  74  11.  Primary  Productivity  12.  Latimer  D i t c h Analyses  13.  T r a c e M e t a l s i n S t r e a m S e d i m e n t s of t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y compared w i t h t h e Serpentine River  82  14.  Serpentine  Water Q u a l i t y , 1982  84  15.  Serpentine  Water Q u a l i t y , 1983  85  16.  Serpentine  Water Q u a l i t y , 1984  86  17.  S e l e c t e d Sediment A n a l y s e s  87  18.  Tidal  DO  88  19.  F a c t o r s i n Oxygen B a l a n c e  89  20.  Rainfall  90  Parameters - Surrey  of DO  14 for Surface Aerators  P r o b e and  at S i t e  G a t e O p e n i n g and  and  Fish  Kills  vi  Modified Winkler  #13  .  .  28  49  77 80  L I S T OF F i g u r e No.  FIGURES  Title  Page  T~.  Official  2.  Mean A n n u a l and M o n t h l y F l o w s - Mahood 1952-1976  Surrey  Community  1985  7  f o r Mahood C r e e k  Creek 17  3.  Discharge  4.  Tidal  5.  M i g r a t i o n R o u t e s and Spawning H a b i t a t s  22  6.  A e r a t i o n Design  33  7.  Map  of S e r p e n t i n e  River - Site  8.  Map  of S e r p e n t i n e  - Nicomekl Drainage  9.  D i s s o l v e d Oxygen v e r s u s Time - S i t e s  10.  Hydrograph  Plan,  No.  Gate O p e r a t i o n s - S e r p e n t i n e  ..  18  River,1974-1977.  20  on t h e S e r p e n t i n e  - 1970  River  Locations  40  Basin 10,  12, 99A.  D i s s o l v e d Oxygen S a t u r a t i o n - P e r c e n t v e r s u s S i t e s 10, 12, 99A  11.  D i s s o l v e d Oxygen A l o n g  Serpentine  12.  D i s s o l v e d Oxygen S a t u r a t i o n - P e r c e n t Serpentine Length  52 54  Along 55  D i s s o l v e d Oxygen V a r i a t i o n  14.  D i s s l o v e d Oxygen and C h l o r o p h y 1 1 - a v e r s u s  O v e r 24 Hour P e r i o d s  .  57  Time  12  59  15.  Temperature versus  16.  pH v e r s u s  17.  pH and C h l o r o p h y l l - a v e r s u s  18.  Total  19.  Nitrates  20.  Total  21.  Rainfall, all  51  Time  Length  13.  site  41  Time - s i t e s  Time - s i t e s  10,  12, 99A  ...  10, 12, 99A  60 62  ....  64  12, 99A  ..  66  and C h l o r o p h y l l - a v e r s u s Time - S i t e  12.  68  10, 12, 99A.  70  Ammonia v e r s u s  Time - s i t e  Time - s i t e s  10,  P h o s p h o r u s v e r s u s Time - s i t e s Nitrates  and T o t a l  12  P h o s p h o r u s v s Time  sites  73  22.  C h l o r o p h y l l - a v e r s u s Time - s i t e s  10,  23.  P r i m a r y P r o d u c t i v i t y and C h l o r o p h y l l - a On S e l e c t e d Days - s i t e 13 vii  12, 99A  ..  75  78  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Mavinic and  author  would l i k e  f o rh i s experienced  overall  support  to express  h i sgratitude  supervision,  during this  help with  study.  Dr.  to  Dr.D.S  the manuscript  K. H a l l  was a l s o o f  tremendous a s s i s t a n c e . Ken ially tise  Ashley  i n the p r a c t i c a l  hour  water q u a l i t y  gate  charts.  Tony  Martin  saved  provided  Parkinson  a n d Ken W i l s o n  Computing the author  a l o t of time.  Fisheries  support  forthis  and Oceans,  Canada,  Columbia.  especexper-  was a l s o  appre-  f o r c o l l e c t i n g the for  a s s i s t a n c e from  by R i c h a r d B r u n . i s g r a t e f u l l y  Financial  British  data;  help,  Laboratory  T h a n k s a r e a l s o due t o G e o r g e D e r k s e n  tidal  by  aspects of the study.  p r o v i d e d by Susan L i p t a k a n d P a u l a  ciated. 24  a n d B r e n t Moore were o f i n v a l u a b l e  supplying  Troy Vassos  Drafting  the and  expertise  acknowledged.  work came from  t h e Department  a n d the. M i n i s t r y  of  of  Environment,  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e l a b o r a t o r y c o s t s were p a i d  t h e Waste Management B r a n c h ,  Columbia.  Funds were a l s o  Engineering  Research  Ministry  of Environment,  s u p p l i e d by t h e N a t u r a l  C o u n c i l o f Canada.  vi i i  British  S c i e n c e s and  1.INTRODUCTION  A  l o t of time,  effort  nment  d e p a r t m e n t s h a s been  stand  the  watershed in close sively focal use,  and e x p e n s e by many p e o p l e spent  trying  p r o b l e m s and r e s o u r c e s o f t h e contained  B.C.  natural  problems that  are l i s t e d 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  on t h e  10.  fishery,  wildlife  into a  Chemical  salmon),  on  spills  the  Management B r a n c h determine  t h e complex and  other  McFarlane,1978).  have been e x p e r i e n c e d  on t h e S e r p e n t i n e  t o suggest  with  the f i r s t  Serpentine River, to i n i t i a t e  fish  kills,in  possible  October  and  - eg p e n t a c h l o r o p h e n o l s  itself  the causes  and  water  below.  report concerns  1984,  and  inten-  control,  and o v e r  In October,1980 a s e r i o u s f i s h  to  and L a n g l e y ,  Fish k i l l s Water q u a l i t y d e t e r i o r a t i o n Problem d i s c h a r g e s Poor d r a i n a g e i n t h e w a t e r s h e d D e s t r u c t i o n or d e t e r i o r a t i o n of a q u a t i c habitats r e a r i n g grounds D e s t r u c t i o n or d e t e r i o r a t i o n of waterfowl h a b i t a t s S a l i n e i n t r u s i o n when t i d a l g a t e s a r e b l o c k e d open D y k i n g r e l a t e d - s t i r r i n g up s e d i m e n t Urban e n c r o a c h m e n t  6. 7. 8. 9.  This  factors  flood  policies,  resources of the area."(Cox  Major River  these  Nicomekl  i t has d e v e l o p e d  and c o n t r o v e r s y over  u r b a n i z a t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l of  of Surrey  -  under-  "As one o f t h e most  i n Western Canada...  p o i n t of c o n f l i c t  and  Serpentine  i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  p r o x i m i t y t o Vancouver,  farmed a r e a s  impacts  to elucidate  and gover-  kill  three  problems.  (300 - 800 spawning  motivated  Region  a water c h e m i s t r y program  o f t h e low d i s s o l v e d  oxygen  remedial measures.  Two o t h e r ,  o f 1983,  o f an i n t e r a g e n c y g r o u p  motivated  1  Waste  i n 1981,  (DO) l e v e l s ,  the formation,  (Waste Management,  II  Coho  Fish  low  DO  in July and W i l d -  life,  Water Management, E n v i r o n m e n t  artment  of F i s h e r i e s  reported,  DO-related  proposed vide  by  the  s h o r t term  The  Environmental  if  project  Applied  ;  and  algal  (470  fish an  from a s a m p l i n g  reduce  of B r i t i s h be  1984  the  last  of  as p a r t  measures  l o n g term;  pro-  drainage  cont-  oxygen demanding m a t e r i a l s instream  Department Columbia  was  i n an  T h i s author  of the  saw  Remedial  agricultural  interested  of t h i s  requirements  kills  investigation  on  aeration.  of C i v i l  Engine-  contacted to instream agreed  see  aeration  to  under-  f o r a Master  program;  was  to study  the  the S e r p e n t i n e R i v e r ; d e s i g n ,  instream aeration  p r e v i o u s y e a r s ; and f u t u r e p l a n of  October  of  degree.  purpose  monitor  Dep-  Coho).  E n g i n e e r i n g Group,  project,  to the  and  bloom h a r v e s t i n g and  s t u d e n t might  Science  The  and  kill  f o r the S e r p e n t i n e R i v e r .  this  ground  trees  at the U n i v e r s i t y  a graduate  take  fish  l o a d i n g s of p h o s p h o r u s and  and  ering,  Oceans).  Service,  i n t e r a g e n c y c o m m i t t e e were b o t h  shade-bearing  aminant  and  Protection  system;  a n a l y z e and  d e v i s e and  backinstall  assess data  d i s c u s s data c o l l e c t e d  make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s  action.  2  from for a  2.BACKGROUND  2.1  History To  consistently  with  fresh  ted  i n 1912  necessary control paid  water  (1984)  (Wilson,  report l i s t s  and  basin. that  and  group  Their  41  most  control  Committee  main  immediate d r a i n a g e  b a s i s and,  and  studies  past.  In  iated  a study  to determine  1974  Hebert  and  1974,  Nov.  (1982).  measured met  EPA  mended l e v e l s B.C.  Water  ween  1974  lane  (1978).  on  1976  changes  the  attention Knight  concerned  B.C.  Environ-  the problems  taken  i n the  1976)  an  an  were  area-by-area  to  implement  a  basin.  i n t h e water q u a l i t y was  that  assessed  "most of  also collected  data  the  between  Bourque  exceeded collected  by  t h e B.C.  Cox  and  parameters temprecomby  of E n v i r o n m e n t ,  analysed by  by  the init-  f o r fish...Summer  Ministry and  in  Protection Service  Water q u a l i t y  3  flood  all  (O'Riordan,  standards  were p r e s e n t e d  D a t a was  such,  was  coordinated  l e v e l s q u i t e often...pH  occassion."  1977,  The  a p p r o a c h e d on  This data  concluded  lethal  gates  A D a y t o n and  t o review  t h a t s t e p s be  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch,  and  As  River  construc-  have become more i m p o r t a n t  water q u a l i t y  e r a t u r e s were n e a r  leakage.  (ELUC) S e c r e t a r i a t  the Environment  1975. They  the  i n the a r e a .  p r o b l e m s be  recent  June  of  i n the p a s t ,  recommendations  importantly,  quality  were f i r s t  f o c u s of most of  w a t e r s h e d management a p p r o a c h t o t h e Water  gates  Rehabilitation  r e p o r t s done  i n 1975  two  the S e r p e n t i n e  - Nicomekl watershed.  flood  L a n d Use  interagency  tidal  have been t h e  Serpentine  with drainage ment  1986).  along  b e c a u s e of e x c e s s i v e  drainage  to the  farmers  for irrigation,  i n 1974,  and  provide  and  the bet-  McFar-  Waste Manage-  ment  Branch,  at three  stations  1972-1978.  However,  this  or  in report  form.  analysed The  Waste  Serpentine the  data  along has  the  not  development  of  the  their  1980  fish  sampling  River  been o f f i c i a l l y  Management B r a n c h became  River after  Serpentine  presented  re-involved  kill.  Moore  with  (1984)  program t h r o u g h  from  to  the  details  1984.  To  summarize;  The arose  1981 1982 1983  - water c h e m i s t r y a t numerous l o c a t i o n s - water c h e m i s t r y p l u s p h y t o p l a n k t o n sampling - water c h e m i s t r y , p h y t o p l a n k t o n , s e d i m e n t sampling  1984  - water c h e m i s t r y ,  interagency  after  were p r o v e n  some 22 very  a l s o a sense  levels,  because  cycle)  had  been  t h e most  1980  h i t hard  decimate  the  installed  relatively  ding  At  of u r g e n c y the  run.  shade b e a r i n g  to provide  An  the  time  feasible  about and  1983  t w i c e and  instream  quickly, t r e e s and  whereas the  The  urban  fish,  and  users  are  of  competitive pressure - Nicomekl  wildlife  on  anglers,  the (3  year  kill  f o r the  but  4  There  to  DO  spawning  would  likely  designed  suggestions  years  made,  Serpentine's  of  and  provi-  contaminants  effect.  the c o n f l i c t i n g  watershed.  province  follow.  t h e V a n c o u v e r Lower  are a l l vying  primarily  to  reducing a g r i c u l t u r a l  Uses  aeration,  the  a e r a t o r c o u l d be  River  expansion  route  a third  2.2  Serpentine  instream  Coho run  p h o s p h o r u s l o a d i n g s c o u l d have t a k e n  the  phaeophytin-a  t h e p r o p o s a l was  enhancing  and  increased  and  lake a e r a t i o n p r o j e c t s around  successful.  i n s t r e a m a e r a t i o n was was  proposal,  chlorophyll-a  Mainland interests  Recreation, resource.  some b o a t e r s a l s o  has of  irrigation, Recreational enjoy  the  river.  A recent a n g l e r / c a t c h survey  suggests  that  (Redekopp and  2000-3000 a n g l e r d a y s a r e  spent  Scott,  annually  1985) on  the  Serpentine River. Twenty-one p e r m i t s on  the  Serpentine River are e n t i t l e d  meters per The tine  for i r r i g a t i o n ,  d a t i n g back  t o draw a b o u t  Serpentine River drains approximately  hectares.  watershed,  Farmers with  ners are a l s o  and  which Dick waterfowl  the d r a i n a g e affected  by  1/2  (section  facilities  2.9)  the S e r p e n t i n e d r a i n a g e quantities  runoff  which the S e r p e n t i n e  i s expected  to  serves to s u s t a i n  and  cutthroat trout  populations  2.3  Land Use  Watershed  of  urban  i n t o Mud  zones of finally  Bay.  acreages.  The  just  an  inside  sizable  near 29  Hyland  Mahood and  the upland  through  flows  Mahood,  areas,  acreages;  in  zone, the  then  farms.  5  Urban p l a n -  of  stormwater  steelhead  2.9).  Tynehead,  Surrey  at  an  and  Creeks,  before  originate  i n the  Hyland  Latimer Creeks  through  suburban  through  its  zones,  farmed a r e a s , b e f o r e  Creek e s s e n t i a l l y  flows  lowlands,  intimately  salmonid,  m a i n s t e m of t h e S e r p e n t i n e b e g i n s urban  33,870  to receive  flow  Latimer  Serpen-  km,southwest  small i n t e n s i v e l y  ing the Serpentine R i v e r .  small  cubic  receive.  (see S e c t i o n  River begins  75 m e t e r s and  tributaries,  emptying  then  i n the  Serpentine  elevation three  1935,  capacity, since  significant  also  the  of t h e a r e a .  generated  river  of  are  g r o w t h has  The  9460  (1975) e s t i m a t e d a s  urban  The  to  day.  - Nicomekl  concerned  one  join-  drains small  i n the  uplands  Tynehead Park,  i t meanders  and  through  and  larger  The Surrey  final  on M a r c h 25,  percent derived  of a r e a by  trial  1985  area  only.  residential  of  used per  direct  mate v a l u e s of  adoption  zoning  Community  in Figure  category,  l a n d a v a i l a b l e from  the  Surrey  just  1980  by  from  147,100 i n 1981  of  pressure  combined  % OF  DTN TCR COM RM URB SUB IND AGR SPL  specific  areas  lined  i n Bourque and  the  t o 292,000 by  that w i l l  Nine  with  be  exerted  ensuing Hebert  and  for  breakdown  are  1,  in was  approxi-  proportions  triples  Percent  the  indus-  the  from t h i s (1982).  Area  TOTAL AREA  estimated  2001, on  of  1 .2 0.4 2.2 3.0 20.2 27.0 11.6 31.0 3.4 100.0  TOTAL information,  OCP  almost  ABBREV.  This  (OCP)  proportions.  L a n d Use  Downtown Town C e n t e r Commerc i a l Multiple Residential Urban R e s i d e n t i a l Suburban R e s i d e n t i a l Industrial Agricultural S p e c i a l Study Area  The  about d o u b l e s the  l a n d , and  ZONE  1.  Plan  shown i n T a b l e  measurements o f f t h e  commercial  1.  Official  i s shown  This plan  and  Table  the  population  h i g h l i g h t s the watershed  They a r e  direction  i n the  urban p r e s s u r e  growth  future.  were  out-  ...  (1)  flow regime changes - no water in summer due to e x c e s s i v e r e m o v a l of g r o u n d w a t e r i n w e l l s , and f l o o d i n g i n w i n t e r due t o r a p i d r u n o f f of p a v e d s u r f a c e s .  (2)  c h a n n e l i z a t i o n of u p l a n d  (3)  vandalism  (4)  removal of stream bank vegetation i n c r e a s e s i n water temperature  (5)  i n c r e a s e d e r o s i o n and  of  tributaries  fish  sedimentation  6  and  consequent  OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLAN DESIGNATIONS  FIRST AND SECOND READING 1« Ih. of MAY, 1083 THIRD READING, >1at. day or JANUARY, 1988. FINAL ADOPTION 25 Ih day of MARCH, 1985 3rd. day of FEBRUARY, 1988.  Figure  1: O F F I C I A L  SURREY  COMMUNITY  PLAN, 1985.  ( F r o m D i s t r i c t of S u r r e y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ) .  (6)  sewage c o n t a m i n a t i o n of s t r e a m s from s e p t i c tank l e a k a g e - r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e a s e d n i t r o g e n and phosphorus l e v e l s  (7)  increased wastes  (8)  toxic  (9)  i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s of o i l s , contaminants i n stormwater  The  largest  1977,  roughly  15%  was  was  woodland  the  bacterial  l e a c h a t e s from  45%  i n market  of t h e d y k e d gardening,  (Hirst  et a l . ,  land i s poorly drained, p h o s p h o r u s and  Inventory  of  severe  incentive purposes, ability  1973  elsewhere  has  dyking;  of  fertilizers  ion,  chemical are  stressful  r u n - o f f from  Hebert,  of B.C.  required.  barns, the  been being  one  the  1982).  8  potassium,  avail-  to  intensi-  channelization heavy  use  of  gardens  in this  led  land  limitations,  Serpentine River.  waters  little  the  i t has  the n a t u r a l  market  to  agricultural  of t h e most  tilling,  Land  severe  been  than  10%  purposes,  agricultural  intensive  n u r s e r i e s and receiving  has  i s r e q u i r e d and  This  while  t h e Canada  rezoned,  overcome  pest c o n t r o l  in  i n t h e a r e a and As  In  c e r e a l s and  as h a v i n g  There  by d i t c h i n g ,  c o n d i t i o n s on  of  has  6%  for other  drainage  To  to pasture,  such,  soil  other  lowlands.  deficient  most of t h e  lowlands  pet  and  For a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n pH,  lowlands  improved  the water q u a l i t y and  t h e poor  - Nicomekl  been  and  creates  1979).  i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y  farmed a r e a s  drainage  given  inexpensive land elsewhere.  the S e r p e n t i n e vely  i s i n the  for agriculture.  t o d e v e l o p i n g the b e c a u s e of  farms  forage crops,  low  human and  lead, pesticides and r o a d r u n o f f .  l a n d was  19%  from  disposals  o t h e r m i n e r a l s ; as  classified  limitations  of  garbage  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  calcium,  very  contamination  region  dosages the  land  In " a d d i t degrades (Bourque  2.4  Surficial  The which land  Geology  (Holland,  tains  on and  lated  1976).  The  to  Cox  and i s p a r t  The L o w l a n d  area  depths  marine  of about  range  and M c F a r l a n e  of the C o a s t a l range of  complex  glacial  2300 m,  t o the sea ( H o l l a n d ,  of the F r a s e r  Low-  the  MounCascade  Pleistocene  and n o n - m a r i n e ,  During several  valley,  e x t e n d s t o B e l l i n g h a m and i s  has had a v e r y  involving  deposition.  relative  s e a embayment  t h e n o r t h by t h e P a c i f i c  history  glacial  area i s a flat-bottomed  on t h e s o u t h e a s t by t h e S k a g i t  Mountains. Recent  Landforms  S e r p e n t i n e - Nicomekl  was a f o r m e r  bounded  and  glacial  advances,  and t h e l a n d  and  and non-  i c e accumu-  was  depressed  1976).  (1978) r e p o r t  that  t h e ...  " p r e s e n t s h a l l o w v a l l e y f o r m i n g t h e major p a r t o f t h e floodplain of t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f b o t h r i v e r s i s a r e s u l t o f t h e r e t r e a t o f a C o r d i l l e r a n g l a c i a t i o n some 11,000 t o 14,000 y e a r s a g o . A 100 m h i g h moraine rims the n o r t h e r n s i d e of the v a l l e y , w h i l e a s i m i l ar moraine on t h e s o u t h s i d e r i s e s o n l y some 45 m above the valley f l o o r ( p r e s e n t day Panorama R i d g e ) . The mainstem R i v e r s are from 1.0 t o 2.5 km a p a r t i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y and may have been l i n k e d by m e a n d e r i n g c h a n n e l s p r i o r t o a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p ment; t h e S e r p e n t i n e and t h e N i c o m e k l a r e t o d a y j o i n e d by i n t e r connecting drainage ditches. The e n t i r e l o w l a n d i s w i t h i n 15 m elevation ( g e o d e t i c datum), w h i l e much o f t h e l o w e r f l o o d p l a i n has an e l e v a t i o n o f 1 t o 2 m and i s l o w e r t h a n s p r i n g and w i n t e r high tide levels. B o t h r i v e r s d r a i n i n t o Mud Bay, the eastern e x t e n s i o n o f Boundary Bay." The and  delta  subject  action,  a r e a o f Mud  Bay i s s t i l l  t o t o p o g r a p h i c changes  s t o p p e d by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  of dykes.  The t o t a l  t o d a t e , on t h e two r i v e r s ,  i s about  about  33,870 ha  t o be a b o u t  64 km  4900 ha  1975).  (Hirst  The f l o o d  et a l . ,  9  1979).  even  l e n g t h of dykes  (Bishop,  plain  current  s l o w e d and  area of the S e r p e n t i n e - Nicomekl (Dick,  geologically  deposition,  h a s been  total  Deposition  from s i l t  and e r o s i o n  The  etc.  very a c t i v e  1986). watershed  is  area i s considered  The s l o p e o f t h e l a n d  in  the lowland Roads,  tures  with  i s very  dykes  significantly  Highway,  affect  or l e s s . topographical  runoff i n the lowland  160 t h S t r e e t  the hydrology  areas.  fea-  Fraser  and Number' 10 Highway a l l  of the a r e a .  Soils Information  and  0.05 p e r c e n t  and d i t c h e s a r e i m p o r t a n t  r e g a r d t o water  Highway, P a c i f i c  2.5  slight,  Kelly On  t h e b a s i s of g e o l o g i c a l  soils  stoney  stream  common.  gleysols,  Sprout  lowland drained.  revealed  soils  Up-  can a l s o  t e x t u r e d , compact, Whereas t h e fairly  river  into  around  be c l a s s i f i e d  two  5.5 a r e  into  two major  i n sandy m a r i n e  sediments  which a r e developed development  as s o i l  recent  are separated pH l e v e l s  parent  history  over  under  swamp  o f the b a s i n has  80% o f t h e s o i l s  complexes,  i n the  i . e . t h e y a r e com-  series.  soils  are t y p i c a l l y  Chemical  low i n pH  analyses  of s o i l s  f o r c r o p growth Although  high,  sufficient  i s unlikely  soils.  soils  phosphorus and potassium. i t  and l o w l a n d  1980).  as a consequence,  deficiencies  Lower  and p o d z o l .  The s o i l  are c l a s s i f i e d  of t h e  coarse  which a r e developed  o f two o r t h r e e The  upland  The u p l a n d  and h u m i s o l s ,  vegetation.  poorly  d e r i v e d from  the s o i l s  was f i n e r - t e x t u r e d ,  humic g l e y s o l  been complex a n d ,  posed  soils  The l o w l a n d  watershed  into  origin,  (Luttmerding,  deposits.  mesisols  forest  till  of l o w l a n d  groups;  i s primarily  were d e r i v e d from m o d e r a t e l y  main c l a s s e s :  and  are d i v i s i b l e  glacial  material and  section  (1961).  Fraser Valley land  in this  that  10  in  total  (5.0 in  - 6.0)  the  calcium,  lowlands  magnesium,  nitrogen contents  nitrogen w i l l  and  be  are  released  in  available  growth.  form,  To  overcome t h e  i n t e n s i v e management ssary  to maintain Table  organic ter  or  River?" er  To  Climate  of  not  and  hot  groups  i s then  Organic  the  Surrey  summers,  pressure  systems,  on  this  bring  (1955).  a  small  barometric  air  range  result  of  most A r c t i c east, after  by March  oceanic  Cascade Mountains  but  conditions  i t i s damp and  the  Coast  (see  Table  3)  and  (Rue, are  1 1  1978).  lowest  on  Surrey  sweep s o u t h w a r d  Mountains  winters,  temperatures. high  the  a  and  few  diverse  mild  winters  days  The the  i n most  i s protected  The  low  and  Pacific.  into  this  distinctive  r a i n y t e n d e n c y of  snow f a l l s  soon m e l t s .  waves, t h a t  of  The  in  i n c r e a s e the  is usually slight;  cold  much  soil/wat-  within  masses f r o m d i s t a n t  are  winters,  the  Serpentine  humid  pressure,  n o t o r i o u s l y v a r i a b l e weather.  Frost  "how  of  The  climate are mild  and  of  Kerr  to g i v e  area.  aspect  in  groundwa-  t o the  patterns,  regions  and  matter  d i s s o l v e d i n the  generalized climatic  the  Serpentine  the q u e s t i o n  introduced  study  i n the  Patterns  irregularities  Coastal  i s nece-  undertaken.  Frequent  a  crop  agriculture,  fertilizers)  uplands.  i s being  definitive  been  f e a t u r e s of  but  to  soil  o r i g i n a t e d i n Kendrew and  general warm  soil  Weather  Knowledge section,  no  has  and  limitations  which r a i s e s  r u n o f f and  date,  interaction  2.6  adjacent  from the  surface  to s u s t a i n  tillage  principal  predominant,  matter  quantities,  profitable productivity.  l o w l a n d s and  i s very  inherent  (drainage,  2 o u t l i n e s the  - Nicomekl soils  in s u f f i c i e n t  from  regions farther rains  i n J u l y and  decrease  August.  The  T a b l e 2. P r i n c i p a l  GROUP  S o i l Groups i n the S e r p e n t i n e - Nicomekl (from H i r s t et a l . . 1979) ORIGIN  Lowlands and Adjacent Uplands  SURFACE PH  ORGANIC MATTER PERCENTAGE  CONDUCTIVITY VALUE  TOTAL AREA (ha) **  4.4-4.8  100  0.4 - 1.1  3406  4.5  48  2. 1  4.8-5.9  G - 30  0.3 - 0.6  2.4  Organlcs (humisoIs and meslsols)  Organic veneers and b l a n k e t s o v e r l y i n g gleyed marine sediments  Sa1Ine organlcs  Thin r i v e r i n e sediments mixed Into u n d e r l y i n g decomposed peat  GleysoIs (orthic, hum 1c and rego g l e y s o t s  S1lty f l u v i a l deposits ovei— l y i n g marine depos1ts  SalIne gleysols  Recent marine sediments overl y i n g decomposed peat  4.8  16  Upland podzols and g l e y s o I s  Washed and unwashed marine deposits, Incl.. r a i s e d beaches  3.6 and up  5-53  * T o t a l area as measured w i t h i n lowlands  i n s i d e 15 m contour  60  1071  587  1241  T a b l e 3. Mean Monthly C l i m a t e Parameters - Surrey (Data from Canadian C l i m a t e Normals) PARAMETER  UNITS  Sol ar MJ/m' Radiation * * * Mean Da 1 1 y °C Max Temp Mean Da 1 1 y °c Mln Temp Mean D a l l y °c Mean Temp mm Mean T o t a l Precip. mm Greatest ppt In 2 4 hr  LOCATION Vancouver UBC *** Surrey + Mun. H a l l It  PERIOD OF RECORD  J  F  1959  -  1980  2.94  5.53  1951  -  1980  4.8  7.8 1 .2  II  - 0 . 6  n n n II  fl  2. 1  4 . 5  II  181.2  139.4  II  87.9  47.5  A  M  M  0 7.38  N  D  3.59  2.28  9. 1  6.2  13.8  3.0  0 . 9  5.9  6 . 0  3.6  9.8  2 0 8 . 4  1307.9  77.0  87  13.22  19.3  22.5  22.0  19.7  7.6  10.5  12.  12.3  14.9  17.2  17.0  14.8  10.6  75.5  5 8 . 3  56.  35.4  5 0 . 8  72.4  131.6  178.7  33.5  3 3 . 3  34.5  5 3 . 3  43.2  42.7  62.7  50.5  9 . 7  13.3  17.0  2.0  4.6  5.9  8.9  1  S  18.65  20.  120.  A  J 2 2 . 9 5  15 . 0 9  10.03  J 15  21  .78  1  1  12.  1  10.  14.3 1  6.8  YEAR  II  n n  • Mean g l o b a l s o l a r r a d i a t i o n on a h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e ** mega J o u l e s per square meter *** c l o s e s t l o c a t i o n with recorded r a d i a t i o n values + S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l H a l l 1s 7 6 m above Mean Sea l e v e l  4 9 . 8  .9  summers  a r e warm but  Autumn b e g i n s and  the  prevailing  notoriously of  stormy  northeast.  Table  3 was  as e x p e c t e d , August  are  coldest.  in  The  high  i n the  Only  January  few;  frost  by 3;  data  cool  the  Canadian Climate  low  1963  to  In  direction  are  successummer,  of o r i g i n  i n the w i n t e r .  January  a mean, d a i l y through  and  is  Climate  February  rainfall  ( T a b l e 4)  December  a r e v e r y wet less  events  than  87.9  mm  i n t h e a r e a was  (1982) and  and  are  the  covers  less  months, December.  throughout  the G r e a t e s t  h i g h as  July  minumum t e m p e r a t u r e  i s s i x times  been a s  Normals  longer.  p u b l i s h e d i n Canadian  t h e numbers under  record  which  f o r Mean G l o b a l S o l a r R a d i a t i o n a r e ,  in July  i t has  westerlies,  their  summer and  f o r v e r y heavy  demonstrated hr, Table  has  October  precipitation  The  from  values  are  f o r c e i s f r e q u e n t , and  t h e warmest months and  potential  24  build-up.  when n i g h t s become  f o r a week or  gales are  collated  freezing.  whereas  is  and  (1982).  gale  continue  primarily  Normals  winds of S u r r e y  s t o r m s may lighter  The  i n t e n s e heat  of September  in winter;  winds a r e  than  t h e end  prevent  rains return.  The  sions  around  sea b r e e z e s  the  year  Precipitation in  also the  January. taken  from  period  from  1980. Table  4.  Frost  Period  AVERAGES Frost free Last frost First frost  216 d a y s April 4 Nov. 7  earliest latest  14  -  Surrey.  EXTREMES Last Frost F i r s t Frost March 8 S e p t . 26 April  25  Nov.  26  2.7  Hydrology  As  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the  encompasses flood  about  plain.  Though t h e  ion,  about  line,  w i t h much of  and  90%  Hyland  of  reaches.  2.7.1  Groundwater Halstead  Serpentine  are  2 m.  i s below t h e  The  considered 75  m elevat-  15 m  contour  upper t r i b u t a r i e s ,  have g r a d i e n t s a r o u n d  central  and  fested  as  1% and  groundwater  up  flow  to  Mahood  3%  over  s y s t e m of  some of h i s f i n d i n g s a r e  The  zonation  discharge  sources  and  origin,  the  summa-  In  unconsolidated basin, fact,  but  flow  15  mani-  lands  adja-  that  the  Branch  silty  clay,  in  The  represent  artesian  a  glaciofluvial  system.  i n 1915  dis-  valleys.  leaky c o n d i t i o n s  lowlands,  t h e Water R i g h t s  of  fluvial,  flow  path  to provide  s e c t i o n of  d e p o s i t s does not  i n the  recharge  are  systems,  limits  l e n s e s of  groundwater  higher  systems,  i s a complex  sand  of  d e p o s i t s and  flow  topographic  areas  - Nicomekl  follow a lateral  The  local  that provide  z o n e s of a major of  of  and  They  area.  the major  w i t h i n the  sandy s i l t s  artesian  exist.  i n the  g e o l o g i c a l framework  glaciomarine  sequence  zone  are  Serpentine  have many s o u r c e s  i n t e g r a t e with  sand,  w i t h i n the  s e c t i o n of u n c o n s o l i d a t e d  valleys  and  chemical  silty  systems,  eastern Fraser V a l l e y .  a discharge  t o the  charge  flow  a r e c o m p o s i t e and  a thick  cal  course  - N i c o m e k l b a s i n and  through  and  4900 ha  watershed  below.  valley,  cent  river's  - Nicomekl  o r i g i n a t e s at about  (1978) s t u d i e d t h e  Groundwater  in  the  of w h i c h  river  t h a t below  Creeks,  short  rized  33,870 ha,  Serpentine  a  the thick  classi-  conditions  reported  do  uncon-  trolled  artesian  wells discharging  1514  c u b i c meters  H y d r o c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s d e f i n e a zone nge,  that  flow;  this  Flows  off  is attributed is  to a c y c l i c a l  c a u s e d by  the e a s t e r n  semidiurnal  and  Newton,  produce  a dilution  distance  into  valley.  the  Groundwater  within  centration  of N a C l ,  i n f l o w s and  dilutional  in  the  sodium  2.7.2  effect  which  waters.  River Stream  are too  high.  and C r e e k  Flows  recommended  the  Nicomekl  River  (1978) r e p o r t ,  on t h e N i c o m e k l and  and  i n Mud  on  and  high  groundwater  the watershed  measure  of  i t s tributaries.  the b a s i s of  13 y e a r s of f l o w  25 y e a r s f o r Mahood  Creek,  Serpentine Rivers discharge  annually  because  o f Canada  (assuming  similar 6  that  con-  regional  irrigation  two  near  considerable  much of t h e for  Bay.  uplands,  extends a  gauges o p e r a t e d by t h e Water S u r v e y  and M c F a r l a n e  data  the  excha-  groundwater  has a r e l a t i v e l y  In f a c t ,  f l o w s on Mahood C r e e k , N i c o m e k l Cox  base  of  changes  of  day.  v a r i e s w i t h t h e s t r e n g t h of  l o w l a n d a r e a i s not levels  tidal  which  the watershed  of p o s i t i v e  reversal  s o u t h e r n ends  per  r e l e a s e s about  115  x 10  volumes) 3  m  to  Mud  Bay. Mean between Cox  varied  1970,  and m o n t h l y  t h e y e a r s 1952  and M c F a r l a n e ,  months  ably  annual  and  1976,  1978).  throughout the y e a r s . 3 3 from  1 m /s t o 4 m / s .  more p r e d i c t a b l e . on  Mahood  flows recorded for  The  There  are plotted  Mahood  in Figure  2  are large v a r i a t i o n s  For  instance,  The  mean a n n u a l  hydrograph  (from between  mean J a n u a r y flows are  o f mean d a i l y  C r e e k a r e shown i n F i g u r e 16  Creek,  3  (from  flows  notice-  flows  for  Halstead,  5  YEAR  re  2:  Mean  A n n u a l and M o n t h l y F l o w s ( f r o m Cox and M c F a r l a n e ,  Mahood 1978)  Creek,  1952-1976  CO  StolionNO  Figure  3:  D i s c h a r g e H y d r o g r a p h f o r Mahood ( f r o m H a l s t e a d , 1978)  Creek  -  08MH020  1970.  1978),  and  are  typical  t h e heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n low  flows d u r i n g the  highlights  the  of  flows  i n the a r e a .  months of Nov.,  summer a r e  High  Dec,  J a n . and  representative.  wide f l u c t u a t i o n s  i n flows  flows during Feb.;  and  Figure 3  between  also  consecutive  days. 2.7.3  Tidal  Gates  Tidal and  upgraded  each  i n 1974.  river.  waters,  side  (i.e.  sed.  gates prevent  i s g r e a t e r than  a t low  tide).  closed  f o r up  tidal  gate  ween  total  i o n ) and  Mud  operations.  the  Bay  p r e s s u r e on  and  Estuarine  British  Columbia's  In  fact,  shellfish  to f e c a l  the  1974.  1 - 9 hours  downstream  They  p e r day,  F i g u r e 4 i s an McFarlane  reveal but  remained  may  interesting  (1978),  of  the s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n  the gates  the  open t h a t  the bet-  statmonth.  Environments  of water t h a t  Rivers.  purposes.  ( S u r r e y Newton r e c o r d i n g  g r o w t h i n t h e Mud  Nicomekl  fresh  when c o n d i t i o n s a r e r e v e r -  and  It reflects  number o f h o u r s  to the q u a l i t y  due  i n Cox  monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n  Biological  1962  from  t o 8 days a t a t i m e . as p r e s e n t e d  crosses  whenever t h e p r e s s u r e on  opposing  open  1986)  c o n t a m i n a t i o n of the  for irrigational  They c l o s e  the g a t e s are u s u a l l y  summary g r a p h ,  in  saline  (Wilson,  where Highway 99A  G a t e o p e r a t i o n s have been r e c o r d e d s i n c e  that  2.8  They a r e l o c a t e d  g a t e s a r e opened p a s s i v e l y  upstream side  The  c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1912  t o m a i n t a i n water q u a l i t y  The  be  g a t e s were f i r s t  Bay  estuary i s i n t e g r a l l y  i t receives Mud  Bay  was  industry,  contamination  19  from  the S e r p e n t i n e  once t h e but  from  tied  the  rivers  s o u r c e o f 60%  fishery  was  draining  and of  closed  into  the  SOO-i TOTAL MONTHLY PRECIPITATION  (mm)  200  100  NICOMEKL TIDAL GATES HOURS PER MONTH OPEN 1  200 100  NICOMEKL TIDAL GATES' HOURS PER DAY OPEN  \  SERPENTINE TIDAL GATES i HOURS PER 200 MONTH OPEN ICO  SERPENTINE TIDAL GATES • HOURS PER DAY OPEN T — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — r - I — i — i — I — I — i — r ~ i — i — i — r ~i—r i — i — r M A M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F M A M JJ A 3 0N o J F M A 1976 1974 1975 1977 F i g u r e 4: T i d a l G a t e O p e r a t i o n s - S e r p e n t i n e R i v e r , 1974-1977, ( f r o m Cox and M c F a r l a n e , 1978)  Bay  (Kay,  shrimp  1976).  At p r e s e n t ,  i s permitted;  of  quantities.  However,  for  juvenile  salmon and  2.9  Fish  Wildlife  2.9.1  and  about  head,  400  average  1976).  only crab  tidal  flats  Serpentine  do p r o v i d e  i n commercial  feeding  grounds  waterfowl.  (Caverhill,  are  1986)  and  fishery  h a b i t a t s by  agricultural  tributaries,  The  Fisheries  5,  illustrating  as  intensive  and  impacts  w e l l as farming  the and  receiving  migration  and  b r a n c h e s of  the  (1986).  of each s e c t i o n  and As  "reaches"  McFarlane  well, and  rearing  each  of  and  the watercourse  quality,  and  5 year  Hirst  drainage  a map,  physical  downstream  juveniles.  21  result in  rear-  practices.  shown i n F i g u r e routes, system. and  spawning Detail-  aquatic  char-  have been  present-  Backman and  Simonson  been d i v i d e d  been e v a l u a t e d  the  upon l o w l a n d  Serpentine  has  (1979)  spawning h a b i t a t s  impact  done by  et a l .  is likely  the watercourse  (1978),  r e a c h has  t h e most r e c e n t  rearing  d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l ,  15,000 Coho Steel-  land  100  contained  - 200  on  Marine S e r v i c e prepared the  around  roughly  t h a t the d e c l i n e i n the  ing  i n Cox  and  1986).  upland  acteristics  Nicomekl R i v e r s  (Schubert,  the  g r o u n d s and  and  3500 C u t t h r o a t T r o u t  f o r Coho i s 700  u r b a n i z a t i o n and  ial,  i s present  some h e r r i n g and  Today, e s t i m a t e s  Cutthroat  postulated  ed  the  the  6500 S t e e l h e a d ,  (O'Riordan,  ed  these,  and  Fish Historically,  of  o n l y h a r v e s t i n g of c r a b , prawn,  into  f o r spawning  movements  of  numerous potentfry  and  L E G E N D  migration & rearing routes ima spawning  to to  Figure  5:  Migration (Prepared  Routes and Spawning H a b i t a t s . by F i s h e r i e s a n d M a r i n e S e r v i c e )  2.9.2  Wildlife Cox  (1975) r e v i e w e d t h e  - Nicomekl  basin;  tion.  The  Estuary  and  migratory Flyway  of  millions  of  integral  the  i n Canada  most  ,  and  North America.  Thus,  w a t e r f o w l and  aquatic  of  and/or w i n t e r bird  i s an  system,  birds  i n the  i s not  several  h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d w a t e r f o w l and  bering  i n the m i l l i o n s ,  species  of  present  passerine  within  Wetland otter, ent  and  i n the  fields  mammalian weasel are  host  with  to  a total  primarily  species the  gained  are  1170  only  on  p a r t s of t h e  does not  be  by  the  of  the  through fifty  assumed  shore  that  birds,  area.  Up  raptorial  birds  like  muskrat,  racoon,  field  mice,  num-  to  are  66 also  pres-  oppossums. shrew,  The on  dependent. clubs operating (Trew,  Boundary Bay  with  beaver,  Others  m o l e s and  1986).  within  the  - Mud  season,  agricultural  23  use.  Bay  basin,  Hunting access  P u b l i c waterfowl hunting  waterfowl hunting  conflict  Pacific  a c t u a l numbers  v i a l e a s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s between t h e  p r i v a t e landowners.  the  6 gun  members  and  tely,  i t may  i n c l u d e r a b b i t s , skunk and  b i r d s are  there of  The  most n o t i c e a b l e mammals.  innumerable  raptorial  Currently  numbers of  the  for  watershed.  wooded z o n e s  are  which the  the  and  in  h u n d r e d and  probably  supported  sec-  Fraser ' River  which migrate  area.  but  in this  i t s share  Over one  i n the  Serpentine  wintering area  element  birds,  the  the  i t attracts  known a c c u r a t e l y ,  are  of  important a key  of  included  part  F r a s e r Lowland.  s p e c i e s have been o b s e r v e d birds  resources  some o f h i s p o i n t s a r e  watershed Delta  wildlife  is  foreshores.  October  through  gun  is club  permitted FortunaJanuary,  2.10  Summary The  fish  artificially use  f o r the  stormwater ine.  kills aerate  river runoff  Intensive  farming  a  organic  content.'  summer.  the  Fish  Serpentine  has  motivated  River.  The  the a c t i o n  primary,  needs;  is increasingly  placing  demands on  cultivation  the  summers.  populations  land i s  Soils  the  As  a r e a have  a consequence,  fall  and  s p a w n i n g on  reduced  from h i s t o r i c  times.  scheme  to  and  the  I t i s the  promote the  River.  24  river  intent  fishery  in  and  to  make  a  high  mild,  river  winter,  urban  Serpent-  required  i n the  to  human,  however,  c l i m a t e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  h i g h d u r i n g the  maintain  of  venture.  Surrey  warm, d r y and  years  i s t o meet a g r i c u l t u r a l  profitable  w i n t e r s and variable,  of e a r l i e r  flows  low  in  wet are the  are d r a m a t i c a l l y of  this the  aeration Serpentine  3 . A R T I F I C I A L AERATION  3.1 L i t e r a t u r e There employed  Review  are  t h r e e major a r e a s where a r t i f i c i a l  i n environmental  engineering :  wastewater,  rivers.  The t h r e e d i f f e r  i n nature, environmental  desired  oxygen  W i t h i n each  levels.  methods o f a e r a t i o n Martin water and  may be  i n England  of  these  experiments  as e a r l y  expense h a s been s p e n t  on a e r a t i o n  of waste-  since  a s 1882. then  A l o t of time,  on i m p r o v i n g  to  began  i n the l a t e  ( M e r c i e r and P e r r e t ,  as  an i m p o r t a n t  water  quality  wastewater.  technique  improvement  1943 ( T y l e r ,  1946).  of  self  in  conserving their  purification  rced e f f i c i e n t l y enthusiasm,  Tyler  though  this  premise  vide  supplemental  1969; ive  concluded  Imhoff,  than  The f i r s t  "Thus t h e n a t u r a l  h a s been r e s i s t e d  on p h i l o s o p h i c a l  feel  that  treatment,  of the year.  river  grounds  or t e r t i a r y  aeration  on a p a r t This i s ,  treatment  25  methods  by  reinfoTyler's govern-  i . e . wastewat-  Most r e s e a r c h e r s a g r e e  time  i s meant t o  basis,  pro-  (Amberg,  more c o s t  facilities.  with  a t t h e most  i n many c a s e s  1968; and W h i p p l e e t a l . , 1969),  secondary  and  reported  f o r t h e u s e o f m a n k i n d , may be  s h a r e d by many,  but a l s o  times  enhancement  w h i c h have been so i m p o r t a n t  s h o u l d be t r e a t e d a t t h e s o u r c e .  critical  1949) and c o n t i n u e s  and e c o n o m i c a l l y by i n s t r e a m a e r a t i o n . "  ment r e g u l a t o r s p r i m a r i l y er  aeration  on t h e F l a m b e a u R i v e r i n W i s c o n s i n  of our streams, waters  1985).  effort  the e f f i c i e n -  Hypolimnetic  for fisheries  (Ashley,  i n s t r e a m a e r a t o r was i n s t a l l e d in  c o n d i t i o n s and multiple  o f oxygen t r a n s f e r  today  and  areas,  cies  1940's  lakes  is  used.  (1927) r e p o r t s t h a t  started  aeration  effect-  Also,  in-  s t r e a m a e r a t i o n can point  source The  literature  on  artificial  of  i n - s i t u a p p l i c a t i o n s having  only  a handful  ted  and  reported  injection,  weirs,  systems.  Air  ple,  River  small  total air  which  the  rest  absorption treating  of  very the  1.64%  of  non-  been  implemen-  include  pressure  diffused  aeration  A  i s made i n t h e  sparse,  differentiation  literature  (Whip-  s y s t e m was  first  remixed with  water.  Amberg  as  the  high  total  as  a small the  main  which  by  portion flow;  rise  Anon  of  the  the  excess  through  and  et a l . , ( 1 9 6 9 ) found  55%  flow  described  two.  were a t t a i n e d  enabled  a  2 ppm  that  and  that  increase  in  levels.  et a l . ,  fact,  an  1958;  necessary  s u c c e s s f u l l y as  Hagist,  increase  B a d f i s h Creek, is  and  used.  bubbles,  W e i r s have been u s e d son  be  small  efficiencies  only  surface  supersaturates  i s then  i s r e l e a s e d as  options  i s very  u n i q u e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  injection  essentially  flow,  aerate  rivers  the  aeration  aeration  or p u r e oxygen may  pressure It  river  t u r b i n e , U-tubes,  1971), b e c a u s e of  (1960).  DO  on.  l a r g e and  A  a measure of p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t  pollution.  with  between  provide  of  3 ppm  Wisconsin  t o have a  1967;  aeration devices  Imhoff and  was  (Wiley  reported and  sufficient  Albrecht,  with  Lueck,  a 2.8  1960).  head d r o p f o r t h i s  1978).  In  drop  on  m  Of  (Game-  course,  method  to  it be  employed. The the  first,  f u l l - s c a l e look  Flambeau R i v e r ,  concluded useful  "...turbine  in a l l e v i a t i n g  Wisconsin  at in  reaeration critical  turbine aeration occurred 1953; has  Wiley been  c o n d i t i o n s on  26  and  found large  Lueck  on  (i960)  particularly rivers  where  power dams a r e s o l o c a t e d and o t h e r this  method.".  the  Ruhr R i v e r  was  a turbine  Of s e v e r a l  c o n d i t i o n s permit  instream  i n Germany, t h e most aeration  and  and T u i z z a d ,  advantages  Bruijn  1958).  and T u i z z a d ,  o r oxygen  i s introduced  the  U-tube,  The  p r e s s u r i z a t i o n and l o n g  such that  efficiencies tube.  Like  saturate main  a  of the  i s given  by  operation  Speece,  i s swept down w i t h  contact  times  transfer.  injection  p o r t i o n of the flow  with  the  oxygen  a properly  system, t h e idea  and then  side  i n t h e U-tube  In f a c t ,  reintroduce  1969b;  Essentially,  a t t h e t o p o f t h e downflow  o f 90% c a n be a c h i e v e d the pressure  1978).  of  water. provide  absorption  designed  U-  i s t o superi t t o the  flow. The  first  trial  using  common method) t o o k p l a c e of C h i c a g o impeller  ence  ( E n g . News R e c o r d  entrained  1962).  in  include  aerators  ( t h e most  and S a n i t a r y  Basically,  to the surface  into  out from t h e a e r a t o r ;  Canal  t h e u n i t h a s an  and c a s t s  Table  foaming,  within  t h e w a t e r a n d oxygen a b s o r b e d  Some o x y g e n t r a n s f e r r a t e s  given  surface  i t out p e r i -  by c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e , c r e a t i n g a zone o f i n t e n s e t u r b u l -  extending  1970).  mechanical  i n 1962 i n t h e S h i p  w h i c h draws water  pherally  ction  system  the bubble  f o r oxygen  economical  i n t h e N e t h e r l a n d s a b o u t 1957  1958; a n d S p e e c e e t a l . , 1969.  air  good o p p o r t u n i t y  a n d most  An u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f t h e U-tube  i n p l a c e on  (Imhoff a n d A l b r e c h t ,  U - t u b e a e r a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d (Bruijn  a e r a t i o n methods effective  installation  t h e u s e of  5.  reported  P o t e n t i a l problems  the hazard  this  zone,  (Whipple  air is et  a l . ,  i n the l i t e r a t u r e are  with  surface  aeration  to r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s , the r e s t r i -  of n a v i g a t i o n a l access,  resuspension  27  of bottom  sediments  Table  5.  Oxygen  Transfer  on  vandalism. used  as  the  Source Whipple 1971 W h i p p l e e t a l . 1970 E c k e n f e l d e r + F o r d 1968 Susag e t a l . 1966  0.68  Kaplovsky  -  2.04  surface,  low c o s t  Aerators  1 .39 0.95 1 .45 - 1.72 1.81  i t would  D e s p i t e these problems, a  Surface  n  Delaware r i v e r Passaic river A e r a t i o n tank Lab. channel C h i c a g o Sewerage Canal being  for  T r a n s f e r Rate (kg 0 / h p - h r )  Location  and,  Rates  e t a l . 1964  be more  Doyle  susceptible  (1973) s a y s i t has  method of p r o v i d i n g  additional  to been  oxygen  to  streams. The  diffused  attempt  a i r system of T y l e r ' s  at a e r a t i n g  a river,  "in-situ".  composed  of Carborundum d i f f u s e r  about  m under  3.6  Pixley about  Dam,  0.55  Palladino  under  oxygen  levels  1.7%  River  1.4  by a b o u t DO  0.8  mg/L,  pipes;  Link-Belt  Jersey,  d e p t h o f 3.05  m.  1.7%  in-situ  and  7.0%  o f 0.54  DO  a i r system  was  This  unit  transfer  Diffusers  As n o t e d above,  28  transfer lower  the  increased  w i t h 3.2  by mm  raise  efficiency Shaw and  the two  under  Yu  Passaic 0.2  m air  equipped with  m orifices)  oxygen  are s u b s t a n t i a l l y  on  using  m l o n g and was (3.97  of  managed t o  rates,  kg o x y g e n / h p - h r ,  placed  reported  an a b s o r p t i o n  was  averaged  levels  pipe d i f f u s e r s ,  giving  24.4  tubes  tailrace  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f 2 t o 3 mg/L.  e a c h p i p e was  Adjust-Air  and  first  system  efficiencies  deficit.  m of water.  r e p o r t e d a v e r a g e oxygen i n New  supply  diffused  I t used d r i l l e d  about  at i n i t i a l  (1970)  Another  (1961).  holes,  Oxygen t r a n s f e r  the  first  p l a t e s and p o r o u s  with saturation  mg/L.  was  This  i n both the headrace  Wisconsin.  7% but v a r i e d  about  of  water,  (1946)  a  80  water  efficiencies  of  than those o b t a i n e d  in  more  conventional fine-bubble  aeration t o 30%,  t a n k s or l a g o o n s M e t c a l f and  There  "...diffused  water  comparable the  of s t r e a m s  supplied  as a s t r e a m ,  this  competitive  very  10%  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  pertaining  to  will  even  position  concludes that  Whether given  s u r f a c e a e r a t o r s or bottom  site  er than  t h e use  Cunningham  limited  demonstrated  of l i m i t e d  DO  systems  requirements  to  depth,  be  such  i n i t s economic Whereas  appear  Whipple  to offer  s t a n d a r d s on major  diffusers  for  i s shown not  increases."  (1982) n o t e as  to s i t u a t i o n s  that  a  rivers.  are a p p l i c a b l e  to  a  of n a v i g a t i o n  (rath-  "Oxygen t r a n s f e r  effic-  saturation i n which  B o t h Amberg e t a l . ( 1 9 6 9 ) , and  i s approached  t h e DO  Speece  deficit  and  is  (1969a) a g r e e  is  very that  o f m o l e c u l a r oxygen becomes e c o n o m i c a l l y c o m p e t i t i v e when  especially  In  on  u s i n g a i r , i s v e r y poor  attempting  chased  depends p r i m a r i l y  and  normally large."  the  been  system  economics)."  Eder iency,  o f oxygen c a p t u r e d by  aeration  "River aeration  compebe  i s shown t o i n c r e a s e  e c o n o m i c a l means o f a c h i e v i n g  states  can  ever  diffused  as t h e d e p t h  (1970)  not be e c o n o m i c a l l y  t e c h n i q u e f o r water  technique  Hogan  i f the d i f f u s e d  t h a n has  depths...Although  optimum a e r a t i o n  (1971)  (typically  a i r technique.  o t h e r methods,  oxygen  within  wastewater  t o a c h i e v e a much h i g h e r r a t i o  to  systems  1979)  of t h e d i f f u s e d aeration  with  designed  for treating  i s some d i s a g r e e m e n t  the economics  tetive  Eddy,  diffused-air  t o a e r a t e water in large  at reasonable summary,  urban  which  i s a l r e a d y above  c e n t e r s where p u r e  50%  saturation,  oxygen c a n  be  pur-  rates.  costs are very d i f f i c u l t  29  t o compare b e c a u s e  of  the  many  reported studies  3.2  different factors and  some a r e  mentioned  aeration  reader  f o r more d e t a i l e d  (1947) s a i d t h a t are  fermentable demand,  "(1).  To  organic  by  deficiency  matter  because  some c o s t s  i s r e f e r r e d to  the  are  specific  information.  demand  the  and  objectives  of  primarily responsible  oxygen  making up  the  artificial  microbiological  minimum l e v e l s of DO.  in dissolved by  the  accelerate  maintaining  oxidations,  breakdown f o r the  ( 2 ) . To  r e s u l t i n g from t h e  supplied  by  of  oxygen  supply  any  microbiological  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  oxygen n o r m a l l y  stream  natural  total  oxygen  rearation  of  stream." To  tine  e x p a n d on  River  tary  Wiley's objectives  in p a r t i c u l a r ,  s y s t e m c a p a b l e of  preventing  constraints,  twofold  (1)  water as  a  pilot  to  kind  type  viability  of was  demand of  the  Appendix  the  of  this  the  conditions  be  aeration  until  the  used  the  fish  during  the  to maintain  a  channel and  a  fish  DO . d e p r e s s i o n  to  a  budge-  scheme became of  oxygenated  to demonstrate assess  aeration  the  periods  l e v e l s high At  i s i s o l a t e d or  the  oxygen (refer  to  located  on  enough  until  present,  remedial  a  system  total  strategically  kill.  Serpen-  install  and  the  critical  short-term,  30  (2)  t o meet  DO  the  to  aeration  s i z e of  systems,  to prevent  was  authorities  The  to  However, due  1985  zone or  f o r the  multiple  i s v i e w e d as  s o u r c e of  the  local  goal  kill.  insufficient  entire river,  i m p r o v e d and  situ  fish  government  definitely  could  a  with regard  ultimate  technology.  I ) ; however,  river,  a  reprieve to  the  p u r p o s e of  provide  unit  provided  the  The  and  Purpose  Wiley  the  not.  involved  in-  measure,  until  a more  suitable  3.3  l o n g term  solution  is instituted.  Design The  oxygen  siting  of the a e r a t i o n  transfer  traints  that  sibility,  efficiencies  were  as w e l l  imposed  system  under  included  as c o n s i d e r a t i o n  was c h o s e n  the given  Since  systems  ( l o n g e r c o n t a c t t i m e s ) a s compared  ved  oxygen  select  possible.  because  eye  on  Also,  are attained  The s o u t h  i t ; being  this  further  upstream,  sites  reaching the t i d a l Two S u t o r b i l t ,  and d e l i v e r e d  at  a p r e s s u r e o f 69 k i l o n e w t o n s  S t was s e l e c t e d , farmer  the p r o b a b i l i t y  per square  Finally,  pipe,  with  every  152  holes d r i l l e d  reduce  an  vandalism. of a e r a t i o n  were  connec-  3.4 c u b i c m e t e r s o f a i r p e r m i n u t e  n o n - p e r f o r a t e d pvc p i p e .  To  St,  of the Serpentine length, p r i o r  50 mm  diameter.  of  to  primari-  c o u l d keep  effects  meter  Compressed a i r was t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e a e r a t i o n  The f i r s t  sys-  undertaken  model 3HBV, 5 h o r s e p o w e r b l o w e r s  in parallel,  the water.  bubble  fine  gates.  ted  0.8 mm  with  (152nd S t and 160th  the b e n e f i c i a l  to a greater portion  a t the  s u r v e y was  s i d e o f 160th  would m i n i m i z e  vandalism  t h e maximum amount o f d i s s o l -  A hydrographic likely  acces-  to coarse-bubble  i t was more remote a n d a n e a r b y  would a c c r u e to  to supply  one of t h e two most  see F i g u r e 7 ) . ly  was u s e d  Con-  power a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n  site.  tems, t h e f o r m e r  maximize  constraints.  forpotential  greater e f f i c i e n c i e s  to  (7 m o f w a t e r ) .  zone v i a 152 m  304 m o f p e r f o r a t e d pvc  0.15 m, c o n v e y e d  the a i r to  152 m o f p e r f o r a t e d p i p e h a d a 50 mm p r e s s u r e l o s s e s and save  m o f p e r f o r a t e d p i p e had a 38 mm  31  of  inside  expense,  diameter.  inside  the last The  hole  size lic  and s p a c i n g  was e s t a b l i s h e d by e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  I n d u s t r i e s , Langley Figure  aeration upon  6  remain  view,  tural  i t  keep  the  full  of water. from  pipe  used  line.  The c o n c r e t e  sediments. about  3.4  >1.0) from  was  to a t t a c h the f l o a t s blocks  impact  designed  This  struc-  The f l o a t s  on  s i n k i n g when  i t is full and b l o c k s  prevent  of a i r . t o the  The n e t h e i g h t  to sink  into  the  top  i t is the Nylon diffuser  (17.3 kg) were t e s t e d b e f o r e h a n d  c o u l d be e x p e c t e d  to  eliminates  unnecessary  b l o c k s on t h e b o t t o m  t o t h e s u r f a c e when  to  the  soft,  as t o bottom  o f w a t e r above t h e d i f f u s e r  averages  shed c o n s t r u c t e d on a 100 mm,  reinfor-  3.4 m.  Installation  A ced  2.4 x 3.1 m c e d a r  concrete  About the  gravity  The c o n c r e t e  was  they  that the pipe  s e d i m e n t s and a v o i d s  of  From t h e c r o s s -  0.3 m o f f t h e b o t t o m .  (specific  floating  far  width.  i f movement were p e r m i t t e d .  twine  how  c a n be seen  of bottom  stresses  pipe  p o r t i o n of the r i v e r  s t a t i o n a r y about  resuspension  t h e p l a n and e l e v a t i o n v i e w s  A z i g - z a g l a y o u t p a t t e r n was c h o s e n  a significant  sectional  B.C.  illustrates  system.  at Hydrophil-  275  river  concrete side.  were  glued  glue  took  joined secured  pad h o u s e d  together  paraphernalia.  b l o c k s were d e l i v e r e d a n d d i s t r i b u t e d  the night before  s i x hours t o f u l l y  to  related  The pvc p i p e came i n 6.1 m l e n g t h s ;  by c o m p r e s s i o n  (galvanized  t h e b l o w e r s and  and c o n n e c t e d  two s e c t i o n s Since  t h e 12.2 m s e c t i o n s  c o u p l i n g s on t h e w a t e r .  the concrete steel),  develop,  installation.  along  were  Each blower  in parallel  with  the  was  piping  i n c o r p o r a t i n g one way v a l v e s . H i g h a i r temp-  32  North river bank ( d y k e d ) 216m  South  a  r i v e r bank ( d y k e d )  Pump House  PLAN  VIEW  _2_  perforations 0.8mm holes at 0.15m spacing Floats  ^2  E I  •Jl  f  IL.  "5 II  [ II—  * P C V pipe  ^Concrete Blocks  ELEVATION NOTE:  j  Jl  6 to b  II  VIEW  SECTION A - A  T H E S C H E M A T I C S K E T C H IS NOT TO S C A L E .  Figure 6 • A E R A T I O N  DESIGN ON T H E S E R P E N T I N E RIVER  33  e r a t u r e s generated the  steel To  (pvc  guard a g a i n s t  the  Connections  s i d e of  m  lengths and  tying  pipe  into  the  electrical  pushed  out  visible  on  on  the  floats.  concrete While  on of  acceptable boxes, seats  preparing  i t took  5-10  the  pipe.  The  the  noise  the  the  next  level  being  lowering  carried  the hook  blowers  water  to  became  turbulence  be  readily was  considerably  such higher  blowers bothered  to muffle  insulation  the  of  and  the  circulation  however, a r e a  was  blower's  an  lead-lined  using  rubber  of a i r ,  was  the  sound t o  lead-lined  Fiberglass insulation  shed t o meet t h e  the  out,  the  included building  f o r the  34  difficult  river.  Construction  roof;  the  in place,  the  the  followed  blowers to r e c e i v e  from t h e  fiberglass  help-  team  carefully  would be  the  turned  team c o n n e c t e d  zig-zag pattern  area  was pipe.  teams of  team had  was  in fact  of  opportunity  blowers.  f o u r w a l l s and  enough a i r i n t o  the  pvc pipe  minutes f o r the  These measures  blowers.  sufficient  to c o o l the  areas  of  the  regulations  the  three  first  third  so measures were t a k e n  level.  the  The  b l o c k s and  and  installation for  allowed  by  a trench  where t h e  t h i s work was  r a t e s i n the  for  backfilled,  The  the water's s u r f a c e ;  farmer,  point  Once e v e r y t h i n g  i n t h e more p l a c i d  nearby  dissipated  buried)  bank  water's s u r f a c e ;  Hydro.  Initially,  acts  the  the  reaeration  than  and  meet P r o v i n c i a l  river  operations.  c o n t r a c t o r was  turned  the  t r e n c h was  water.  from B.C.  that  on  attached  of  were  and  made down t o t h e  A f t e r the  task  all  vandalism  performed d i f f e r e n t  behind  up  sloped  were  upstream.  12.2  b l o w e r s were h a n d l e d  c a r r y i n g c o m p r e s s e d a i r must be  down  ers  the  pipe.  pipe  dug  by  boxes which  installed  provided  to  requirements.  on  allow  3.5  Assessment In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e ,  air  along  t h e two 5 hp b l o w e r s were a b l e  80% o f t h e t o t a l  l e n g t h of d i f f u s e d  line.  volume o f a i r d e l i v e r e d t o t h e water was s t i l l per  min.  304  m.  b u t i t was d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h  Since  decided  to  aerator  the severe monitor  was o p e r a t i o n a l .  t o be g a t h e r e d  creases.  In  greater,  fact,  value  fore,  12.9 °C;  this  s i n c e t h e oxygen  years, never  (see fully  (Sept.  of F i s h e r i e s  are  satisfied  ability  provide  20 - Nov.  additional  capability  this  trial  The  summer was v e r y  ditches);  the  relevant information  oxygen  deficit  12,  i s very  with  this  or  small. 7)  29) was 7.3 mg/L a t Thereof past  of the a e r a t o r  period.  prototype  Consideration  in-  see F i g u r e  to  i s being  was  Nevertheless,  a n d Oceans and t h e v a r i o u s  u n i t s elsewhere along  were s e t t i n g  of  i t was  while  d i d not drop t o the l e v e l s  Provincial  system  and i t s  the  Serpentine  given  to i n s t a l -  the r i v e r .  NOTE: As O c t o b e r / 8 5 was a p p r o a c h i n g , conditions  a week  t o 69% s a t u r a t i o n .  some measure o f r e l i e f  in future years.  instead  i s 50% o f s a t u r a t i o n  at site  was e q u i v a l e n t  demonstrated d u r i n g  departments  River,  (experienced  levels  meters  rapidly,  from an a i r b u b b l e  Note below) t h e . f u l l  t h e Department  to  improve a s t h e  o f oxygen  f o r DO  total  time.  t h e DO l e v e l  the a e r a t i o n p e r i o d  a Temp.=  ling  when  the t r a n s f e r  lowest  during  efficiencies  3.4 c u b i c  very  t h r e e times  T h i s would enable  a t the opportune  Transfer  The  t h e DO l e v e l s  The  244 m o f p i p e  DO d r o p c o u l d o c c u r  to force  i t a p p e a r e d a s i f weather  up f o r a d r a m a t i c  DO d r o p on t h e  river.  d r y £ n d h o t ( a l l o w i n g a b u i l d u p o f BOD i n t h e  m i d September was r e l a t i v e l y  35  c o o l with  some  significant  rainfall and  events  then h o t t e r  October,  which  Oct.  and  12  mm).  Then,  temperatures Therefore, s e v e r e DO  (23.2 days  can,  on  Sept.  16 a t S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l  Hall)  in late  Sept.  (22°C on  early  created  Nov.  an a l g a e bloom  7 it  in early were  rained  d r o p as  (see A p p e n d i x  everyday  below, f r e e z i n g  seen  e x c e p t one  from Nov.  12  and  II).  Between  (totalling spell  into  332  h i t and  December.  weather c o n d i t i o n s d i d not encourage  the  in previous years.  a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix  o f t h e oxygen demand,  theoretically,  S e p t . 28)  November a v e r y u n u s u a l c o l d  the o v e r a l l  Calculations portion  mm  be  met  I, which  in a worst-case by t h e e x i s t i n g  system.  36  indicate  scenario, diffused  the  which  aeration  4.SAMPLING PROGRAM,  4.1  (1985)  Introduction The  the  quality  validity  program  of a n a l y t i c a l  of  t h e sample  (MacDougall et a l . ,  program  was  entative  of t h e s t a t e  used,  ing  biological  1980).  The o b j e c t  etc.  and  at a given  questions  growth?  How  reasonable hypothesis  such as  much oxygen  (2) t o p r o v i d e  conclusions.  The  which  biochemical of  the  oxygen  the  holiday  Samples fell  utively,  7).  atory  repres-  The d a t a  upon  limit-  based  (DO)  on  a  l e v e l s of  The h y p o t h e s i s  thus d e p l e t i n g  is  w h i c h t o draw  was  oxygen  was  material  c o n t r i b u t e an e x c e s s i v e  Weekly  on a Monday.  beginning with  was:  amount  t h e DO  of  reserves  the f u r t h e s t  a t about h a l f on  Samples  Seven p a r a m e t e r s ( c h e m i c a l  of  a meter  station  t o the M i n i s t r y  i n the in  the  water  the  morning  cooler,  of Environment's  for analysis  the  and  afternoon.  were k e p t i n a  oxygen demand, o r g a n i c  37  from  were a l w a y s c o l l e c t e d c o n s e c -  bottles,  Vancouver  below  the  Mondays, or T u e s d a y s when a  downstream  in plastic  Research,  the length  g r a b samples were c o l l e c t e d  at the upstream s t a t i o n  i c e , and t r a n s p o r t e d a t B.C.  were c h o s e n a l o n g  were c o l l e c t e d  samples, c o l l e c t e d  with  w h i c h was  sampling program  (BOD),  sites  m i d d l e of t h e r i v e r ,  surface.  The  sampling  (see F i g u r e  ending  sampling  river.  Seven river  demand  of t h i s  demanding  f o r t h e low d i s s o l v e d  d i e i n the f a l l  sampling  time.  information  on  the  "Are n u t r i e n t s  p r e v i o u s y e a r s and on b u d g e t a r y c o n s t r a i n t s . algae  dependent  and t h e s o u n d n e s s o f  of t h e r i v e r  (1) t o answer  reasonable  is critically  t o g e n e r a t e water c h e m i s t r y d a t a ,  then  present?"  data  next  laborday.  carbon, organic  nitrogen, were  ammonia,  quantified  sampling  nitrate,  by t h e l a b o r a t o r y .  m e a s u r e d DO,  chlorophyll-a.  o r t h o p h o s p h a t e and t o t a l  temperature,  Monthly,  bicarbonate,  and d e p t h DO  r e a d i n g s were a l s o  three in  (Sept.  t i m e s p e r week.  the  total  aeration  several  weekly  specific  regularly  Two  sets,  29),  experiments,  of t h r e e  levels  sediment  were a l s o a n a l y s e d f o r  total  Cross  evaluated. DO  at various  using  sectional During the  were m o n i t o r e d samples,  total  c a r b o n a s w e l l a s a number  d i t c h e s were s a m p l e d  field-  c o n d u c t a n c e and  were a l s o p e r f o r m e d .  20 - Nov.  area,  phosphorus,  Finally, Fall  period  pH,  primary p r o d u c t i v i t y  radioactive  aeration  In a d d i t i o n ,  phosphate)  taken  nitrogen, of  metals.  times d u r i n g the  period. Quality  Ministry  control,  of Environment  Environmental  on some o f t h e a n a l y s e s p e r f o r m e d laboratory,  Engineering  laboratory  was  by  the  u n d e r t a k e n a t t h e U.B.C.  and i s d i s c u s s e d  in  section  4.4.  4.2  Site  4.2.1  Locations  Introduction  Seven  site  Serpentine to  locations  River.  I t was  were c h o s e n felt  that  along the length  seven  sites  d e v e l o p an o v e r v i e w o f t h e S e r p e n t i n e R i v e r ' s  perhaps also  isolate  necessary  within which  and have  Ministry  a particular  upstream,  downstream o f t h e a e r a t i o n  zone.  i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s by  of Environment,  behaviour  were s e l e c t e d  38  It  just Site  and was  upstream, locations,  personnel  for this  the  sufficient  r e a c h as a problem a r e a .  to acquire data well  been u s e d  were  of  study,  from  the  so t h a t  c o m p a r i s o n s c o u l d be made between y e a r s . to  seven,  because  ( f r o m Moore, Four three or  1984) p r e s e n t s  sites  (12,  o f budget and t i m e  (10,  6,  13, 14) had t o be a c c e s s e d  seven  were  constraints.  limited  Figure  7  locations.  152, 99A) were a c c e s s i b l e  0.65 o f t h e S e r p e n t i n e  these  the seven  The s i t e s  by b o a t .  River's total  by b r i d g e and  In t o t a l ,  l e n g t h were  19 km,  covered  by  stations.  4.2.2 S i t e D e s c r i p t i o n s All  seven  sites  t o c o n t a i n a 100 y e a r flood  plain,  Nickomekl River depth of  sites  given  (refer  t o F i g u r e 8,  i n each d e s c r i p t i o n  and a r e dyked,  are located i n the of the  from  Serpentine-  Bergmann,  obviously vary  1980).  with  a general  water picture  the s i t e . #10 = I n t e r s e c t i o n It  recorded. mats.  I n t h e summer,  within  width  with  sites  thick  algae  w i t h Highway  #10.  16 m w i d e . of the S e r p e n t i n e  I t i s some 650 m.  The w a t e r d e p t h  i s about  #12 = 227 m u p s t r e a m o f t h e c e n t e r  approximate  Hwy.  ( a s low a s 1 m e t e r ) o f a l l  i s 20 m e t e r s .  the a e r a t i o n zone.  with Fraser  i t was o f t e n c o v e r e d  #6 = I n t e r s e c t i o n  I t s approximate width  Site  of the S e r p e n t i n e  i s the shallowest  I t i s approximately Site  Its  A l l seven  and a r e r e p o r t e d o n l y t o g i v e t h e r e a d e r  Site  of  flood.  v e g e t a t i v e cover  a s d e f i n e d by t h e 1.5 m c o n t o u r  watershed  widths  are without  i s 22 m.  39  1.5 m.  line  I t i s the only  the a e r a t i o n zone. I t ' s the deepest  upstream  of  160th  station  St. lying  of a l l the s i t e s ( 4  m).  40  41  Site It  #13  i s just  It  100  m upstream  #14  3.5  =  m  It  #152  = Intersection  4.3  St.  line  of 2.5  of t h e S e r p e n t i n e w i t h  160th  St.  - 3.5  m.  152nd S t . 3.0  m.  of t h e S e r p e n t i n e w i t h Highway  15 m u p s t r e a m  i s 28 m and d e p t h  from the t i d a l  i s about  3.0  99A.  gates.  The  m.  Parameters  The levels  parameters present,  parameter 4.3.1  chosen  oxygen  problem parameter.  were u s e d  demand and  In t h i s  section,  to evaluate  perhaps  the  isolate a  relevant  nutrient particular  information  on  each  i s presented.  Laboratory  4.3.1.1 C h e m i c a l Oxygen Demand The of  160th  I t i s approximately  w i d t h o f 30 m and d e p t h a b o u t  Samples were t a k e n o n l y width  of  w i d t h o f 22 m and d e p t h a b o u t  #99A = I n t e r s e c t i o n  approximate  zone.  150 m downstream of t h e c e n t e r  has an a p p r o x i m a t e Site  line  deep.  has an a p p r o x i m a t e Site  of the c e n t e r  downstream o f t h e a e r a t i o n  22 m wide and  Site  =  COD  the organic  test  was  (COD)  u s e d as a measure o f t h e oxygen  m a t t e r c o n t e n t o f a sample  oxidation  by a s t r o n g c h e m i c a l o x i d a n t .  used  t h e Open R e f l u x Method  was  potassium dichromate bottles,  unfiltered,  (I^C^O^). w i t h 0.2  that The  equivalent  i s susceptible  analytical  ( S t a n d a r d Methods,  ml c o n c e n t r a t e d H S 0 2  technique  1985)  Samples were c o l l e c t e d 4  to  using  i n 250  as a  ml  preser-  vative . Significant  interference  from c h l o r i d e s 42  occurred  on  several  occasions, ed  from  due t o s a l i n e the t i d a l  eliminate  gates  only  this  ferences  request  4.3.1.2 T o t a l O r g a n i c TOC organic  is  a  carbon  a component  up.  The  NK^  either  of o r g a n i c  preserved  city the  expression  tests.  t h e COD  It also  test  (Standard  of  will  Methods  total includ-  not  pick  1985) was un-  Interferences are n e g l i g i b l e .  i t s toxic  nature  to f i s h , i t s The  toxi-  by ammonia o r ammonium s a l t s h a s been a t t r i b u t e d ammonia  species  1948).  Ammonia  to  (NH^) (Wuhrmann e t a l . , 1947; Wuh-  The E u r o p e a n a water q u a l i t y  Inland  F i s h e r i e s Advisory  criterion  o f 0.025  mg/L  was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e A u t o m a t e d B e r t h o l o t Method  Instrument  Corp.,  1973) a n d i n c l u d e s t h e  i o n i z e d (NH*) components.  ammonia  inter-  species.  and i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o oxygen demand.  Commission has suggested  (Technicon  significant  Samples were u n f i l t e r e d ,  for:  rmann and Woker,  and  that  ammonia was c h o s e n  un-ionized  NH-j-N.  carbon  NH*)  to f i s h  to  i n i t s freshwater  inorganic  t h e BOD o r COD  (NH^ +  value,  less  and d i r e c t  a n d a i r was e x c l u d e d .  Total  added  (TOC)  technique.  4.3.1.3 T o t a l Ammonia  nutrient  Other  Combust i o n - I n f r a r e d Method  used as the a n a l y t i c a l  is  result-  a t t h e t i m e of samp-  was, a s n o r m a l ,  more c o n v e n i e n t than  Since,  and r e d u c e d  Carbon  HgSO^  This  a t the M i n i s t r y of E n v i r o n -  as r e q u e s t e d .  was n o t made.  a r e from NH^,  of t h e r i v e r .  jammed open.  i t was assumed t h e r i v e r  state,  es  being  the c h l o r i d e i n t e r f e r e n c e ,  ment L a b o r a t o r y , ling,  contamination  The u n - i o n i z e d  i s pH and t e m p e r a t u r e d e p e n d e n t .  43  un-ionized  p o r t i o n of t o t a l  Thurston  e t a l . , (1974)  present nia, tion  tables in their  paper of t h e percent  i n aqueous ammonia s o l u t i o n s , o f pH a n d t e m p e r a t u r e .  #6 ( s e e A p p e n d i x 0.956 mg/L  the  mg/L NH^-N, a c c o r d i n g  4.3.1.4 O r g a n i c  contribution taking  un-ionized  t o Thurston  would be  was  only  0.05  e t a l . , (1974).  chosen  t o o x y g e n demand.  values  fori t s nutrient  Organic  (Standard  a s mg/L o f N i t r o g e n .  value  and  n i t r o g e n was o b t a i n e d by Kjeldahl Nitrogen  were e s t a b l i s h e d u s i n g t h e  Automated C o l o r i m e t r i c Method expressed  and NH^ =  Nitrogen  nitrogen  TKN  16/85 a t s i t e  pH = 6.32,  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between ammonia a n d T o t a l  (TKN).  are  fraction  ammo-  s a l i n i t y , as a func-  F o r example on S e p t .  I I ) f o r a Temp = 14.5 °C,  NH^-N,  Organic  of zero  of u n - i o n i z e d  Block  Methods,  Digestive  1985).  Units  -  4.3.1.5 N i t r a t e N i t r o g e n (NOg) Nitrate component whether values  of  nutrient.  Diazotization  Nitrite Method  to  i s the Nitrate value.  a  nitrite  Reduction  Method  v a l u e s were o b t a i n e d  through  (Standard  Methods,  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e measurements g i v e n  techniques  As  determine  Nitrate plus  by t h e A u t o m a t e d Cadmium  1985).  to algae.  i t c a n a l s o be u s e d  i sa limiting  Methods,  Automated  f o r i t s n u t r i e n t value  nitrogen,  were o b t a i n e d  Therefore, two  total  nitrogen  (Standard the  was c h o s e n  1985). by t h e s e  U n i t s are expressed  a s mg/L  N0 ~N. 3  4.3.1.6 O r t h o p h o s p h a t e Orthophosphates  (Ortho-P)  were c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y 44  a r e used  in  agri-  cultural  fertilizers  and p h o s p h o r u s  nutrient  in regulating  productivity  ophosphates  are  readily  since  t h e y do n o t need  total  phosphorus,  phosphorus ities,  t h e Automated  a r d Methods,  1985).  4.3.1.7 T o t a l Total for  limiting  Ascorbic  nutrient.  was c h o s e n  a s a component o f determine  whether  To d e t e r m i n e  quant-  (AAA) was u s e d ( S t a n d PO^-P.  phosphorus  organisms.  digesting  is  Total  essential phosphorus  a l l phosphorus  t h e AAA Method.  retrieved  the surface  Eckman d r e d g e  i s a soft-surface,  loaded  which a r e a c t i v a t e d  cable.  Three  c a r b o n as w e l l  using  sediment  forms t o  Units are expres-  by a heavy  and a n a l y s e d a s numerous  Concentrated N i t r i c  nique  i s contained  Manual  ( 1 9 7 6 ) , B.C. M i n i s t r y  sediment  sampler  s e p a r a t e samples  w i d t h , a t two s t a t i o n s ,  digested  metabolism,  Analyses  An Eckman d r e d g e  total  Orth-  phosphorus.  4.3.1.8 Sediment  orus,  since  o f a l g a e and o t h e r  o r t h o p h o s p h a t e s and t h e n u s i n g  river  be u s e d t o  A c i d Method  v a l u e s were d e t e r m i n e d by f i r s t  lowering  critical  Phosphorus  the growth  jaws,  most  biological  U n i t s a r e e x p r e s s e d a s mg/L  phosphorus  s e d a s mg/L  for  breakdown. A l s o ,  o r t h o - P can a l s o  i s a growth  the  i n freshwater systems.  available  further  i s often  Acid  samples.  that  weight  slid  f o r TKN, t o t a l  down t h e the  phosph-  Samples  were  and t h e a n a l y t i c a l  tech-  i n an u p d a t e o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l of Environment.  45  has s p r i n g  were t a k e n a c r o s s  metals.  An  Laboratory  4.3.2  Field  4.3.2.1 D i s s o l v e d Dissolved evaluated changes A  Oxygen  oxygen  the o v e r a l l  air  measurements health  i n water  quality.  dissolved  oxygen  ment C o . , Y S I ) , model saturation  oxygen.  Some  assessed  of the r i v e r  meter  and p r o b e  #57, c a l i b r a t e d  technique,  in-situ  t h e DO p r o b e v a l u e s  4.3.2.2  (DO)  (refer  and  (Yellow  abrupt  Springs  Instrue-  the Winkler or the  measure  the  dissolved  were p e r f o r m e d t o c o r r o b o r a t e  to S e c t i o n 4.4).  Temperature  Water  temperatures play  ment, s u r v i v a l , a n d erature also  affect  a significant  t h e DO s a t u r a t i o n  role  i n f r y develop-  concentration.  were measured  using  oxygen  Specific  a YSI, temperature probe  (associated  with the  Conductance  c o n d u c t a n c e was u s e d p r i m a r i l y  contamination.  Temperatures  meter).  4.3.2.3 S p e c i f i c  p r o b e , model  Temp-  s e r v e s a s a g u i d e t o t h e g r o u p o f m i c r o o r g a n i s m s (eg  m e s o p h i l e s o r p s y c h r o p h i l e s ) w h i c h may be p r e s e n t .  dissolved  performance,  indicated  to either  was u s e d t o  Winkler t e s t s  aerator  I t was m e a s u r e d  using  to indicate  a YSI, s p e c i f i c  saline  conductance  #33.  4.3.2.4 pH pH i s a f u n d a m e n t a l w a t e r q u a l i t y the  equilibrium  parameter which  of t h e b i c a r b o n a t e - c a r b o n a t e  46  system,  influences microorg-  anisms,  higher  organisms  and  measured w i t h a Cole-Parmer, calibrated  many c h e m i c a l  species.  was  model #5994,  and  i s t h e most common p h o t o s y n t h e t i c pigment  in  weekly w i t h  d i g i - s e n s e probe,  pH  solutions  of  known  pH.  4.3.2.5 C h l o r o p h y l l - a Chlorophyll-a green ify  plants  (Keeton,  can  distinguish  excess  nitrogen  and  methanol e x t r a c t i o n chlorophyll-a.  A Turner  measure t h e  converted  In  order  establish  monthly levels  and  to determine how  inorganic  affect  a picture  productivity at either  carbon  the  A  living  that  chloroform-  (Model standard  10)  was  used  curve  then  primary of  the  were r u n .  productivity,  experiments  river  injected  300  Since  values  were p e r f o r m e d  2 m e t e r s below t h e  ml,  with carbon  47  levels was, light  obtained  "moment".  measurements were a l s o  Transparent  t o DO  p o p u l a t i o n of a l g a e  experiments  1 or  calculations. water,  The  the a l g a e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n  productivity  just  s u r f a c e and  indication  chlorophyll-a.  significant  turbidity  Primary  t o t h e p o i n t of  t o q u a n t i f y amounts of  Fluorimeter  samples.  Algae  Productivity  primary  were r e a l l y  the  Designs  f l o u r e s c e n c e of  4.3.2.6 P r i m a r y  even  used  this  dead a l g a e .  present.  was  to quant-  However,  blooms a r e a c l e a r  1985)  flourescence into  and  levels,  phosphorus are  (Wood,  chosen  river.  living  t o DO  Also, algae  i t was  i n the  between  contribute significantly  supersaturation.  and  Therefore,  t h e b i o m a s s of p h y t o p l a n k t o n  v a l u e does n o t  to  1980).  BOD 14  taken  bottles  just  below  surface.  Total  for  use  in  were f i l l e d  (labelled  HCOg  the with  ,Amersham  Serle)  and a l l o w e d  blank,  using  correct  formalin,  for  hours,  each  Later,  using  incubation  Quality  random  to k i l l  four  a l l life.  and t h e  i n PCS  on an  standard total  scintil-  ISOCAP  300  to correct  for  inorganic  isotope  cellu-  carbon  discrimination  rates  (mg  C/L/hr).  analyses  p e r f o r m e d by t h e M i n i s t r y  a t B.C.  R e s e a r c h was  verified,  Columbia.  (EE)  Results  of on  labor-  a r e shown  6.  LAB  6.  Interlab Quality  COD mq/L  TOC mg/L  NO,+N0  mqVL  -  -  EE ME  As n o t e d ,  After  by t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l E n g i n e e r i n g  ME  Oct. 7 85  to  isotope.  t o c a l c u l a t e uptake  (ME) l a b o r a t o r y  Table  Aug. 12 85  bottles  counted  data,  at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  DATE  the l i v e  formalin  an e x t e r n a l  time  of the  occasions,  Table  A  Control  accuracy  Environment  hours.  were d i s s o l v e d  radioactivity  (1.064) were u s e d  The  in  the  four  o u t on S a r t o r i u s 0.2 m i c r o n  The f i l t e r s  counter  measurements,  atory  of  s o l u t i o n and t h e r a d i o a c t i v i t y  quenching.  4.4  were s e p a r a t e d  filters.  scintillation  factor  run a l o n g s i d e  b o t t l e was i n j e c t e d w i t h  nitrate  lation  was  f o r approximately  physical adsorption  Then, t h e a l g a e lose  to incubate  EE  there  27 20  were o n l y  7  0.57 0.62  9  0  Z  Control  TKN mg/L 0.38  TP mg/L 0.214  ORTHO-P mg/L 0.01  0.40  <0.50  <0.05  0.96  0. 122  -  0. 13  —  1. 1  m i n i m a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e r e s u l t s 48  from ted  t h e two l a b o r a t o r i e s . t o t h e ME  (refer  A l s o , d u p l i c a t e s a m p l e s were  lab, incognito, to v e r i f y  their  own  submit-  reproducibility  to Table 7 ) . Table  DATE  SAMPLE  7.  Duplicate  TOC mq/L  Sample  Comparison  N0_ mg; 'L  NH_ mg7L  ORG N mg/L  ORTHO-P mg/L  TOT P mg/L  July  29  #1  1 3  <0. 02  0.009  1 .64  0.008  0.236  July  29  #2  1 3  <0. 02  0.009  1 .47  0.010  0.251  Again, minimally The against  as  noted,  different  from  accuracy  of  the one  duplicate  sample  analyses  were  another.  t h e o x y g e n meter and  the i n - s i t u M o d i f i e d Winkler  probe  method o f DO  was  checked  determination  (Table 8 ) . Table  8.  Comparison  DATE 1985 Oct. Oct. Nov. Dec. Except  For the purposes  idered  accurate  Results  4.5.1  and  DO P r o b e  SITE 7 25 18 9  f o r the l e v e l s  well.  4.5  of  and M o d i f i e d  PROBE mq/L 10.2 8.3 10.0 10.4  #12 #12 #14 #13  Winkler  WINKLER mg/L 11.6 7.9 9.8 10.6  on O c t . 7, v a l u e s compared  of t h i s  project,  probe  reasonably  readings are cons-  enough.  Discussion  Water Q u a l i t y  Complete  water q u a l i t y  data  49  are presented  in  Appendix  II.  These  data  were o b t a i n e d from  unless otherwise maries  and  indicated,  important  weekly  grab  samples.  Figures,  were d e r i v e d u s i n g t h e s e d a t a .  highlights  Sum-  a r e d i s c u s s e d below.  4.5.1.1 D i s s o l v e d Oxygen Cross-sectional, varied DO  more t h a n  0.6  readings taken  DO  readings,  mg/L.  As  such,  i n the middle  at the  same  depth,  i t i s reasonable  o f "the r i v e r  as  never  to consider  representative  values. Dissolved levels  in percent  study are 12,  oxygen  and  shown 99A  conditions lowest  for sites  July  the  independent  2 as day  0 and  levels  than a l l the o t h e r s i t e s .  nsible  for this  that  the  demand  Creeks  since  they are  would e x p l a i n  review  hovered  picture  sites  were  intersect  the d i f f e r e n c e 12 and  above 8.0  99A, mg/L.  two  the depth  Secondly,  oxygenated,  day DO  respo-  at s i t e  10,  lowest  this  meant  summer; a  both  significant Mahood site  10,  and and  a s i m p l e mass b a l a n c e further  a l l DO  levels  were above 6.2  downstream.  Davis(l975),  t h e minimum DO  50  i n days,  f a c t o r s are  levels  According to  10,  the  9 on  i n DO  of v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s ,  to  e x p e r i e n c e d lower  least  the  river  regularly  1 m d u r i n g the  well  and  i s measured  t h e S e r p e n t i n e downstream o f  relatively  of t h e  the middle, axis  sites  w i t h Dec.  Firstly,  around  Only  finishing  At  t h e water column a b o v e .  Hyland  most  situation.  10  saturation  f o r the d u r a t i o n of  b e n t h a l oxygen demand p r o b a b l y e x e r t e d  on  At  site  oxygen  respectively.  through  F i g u r e 9 shows t h a t  a l l sites,  99A  to give a c l e a r  160.  of  10  the uppermost, Time on  dissolved  12,  i n F i g u r e s 9 and  from  from  and  10,  are displayed,  site.  beginning  levels  level  mg/L  and  in  his  required  to  0  10  20  30  40  50  70  80  9 0 1 0 0 110 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 4 0 1 5 0 1 6 0  Time (days)  July'2/85 Figure  60  9:  Dissolved  Oxygen  versus  Time -  Dec) 9 / 8 5 sites  10,  12,  99A.  175  Legend  1654S  A  S1TE1Q  X SITE12 •  SITE99A_  to  ^ I ^ I J T ^ B O 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Time (days)  J  F  i  g  u  U  r e  '  y  2  /  10:  8  5  Dissolved  Oxygen  , S a t u r a t e o  n  Percent versus Percent  Dec. 9/85  Time  -  Sites  10,  12,  99A  prevent fish,  severe  i m p a c t s on  a mixed,  i n c l u d i n g s a l m o n i d s , was  entire  sampling  program,  freshwater  s u g g e s t e d as  only  site  3.9  population  mg/L.  of  During  the  10 would have b r e a c h e d  this  minimum. The  percent  plotted  in  effects ion  Figure  upon t h e  indicate  thetic  tine,  a given  encouraging where, is  on  data  fact  how  DO  the  to  the  the  this  i n the  (see  data  explanation nment  to Figures  at  site  Oct.  28,  i s that  the  in-situ,  t h a t the  the  from t h e  just  100%  saturatphotosyn-  11  and  were n o t as  river.  53  and  of  DO  12.  levels  most  Sept.  23,  were l o w e r . during  is  t h a t DO  It the  substantiates  greater  was  Serpen-  The  on  occurred This  the  the  the  driving  water  column.  was  slightly  u p s t r e a m o r downstream of i t  aeration created  mass or c o n t r i b u t e as much DO,  as  temperature  the  bubble to the  however,  Figures  algae  from  length  11  12.  level,  a e r a t i o n zone t h a n  on  above  e f f e c t i v e n e s s was  aerator,  more common e x p e r i e n c e ,  lower  the  positive result  t h e DO  t r a n s f e r oxygen  arising  any  time,  river.  aerator's  recorded  lower  values  v a r i e d along  refer  versus  eliminates  The  levels  i n the  day,  that  readings  that  force The  DO  on  algae  e i t h e r s i d e of  significant  lowest  of  saturation  effectively  oxygen p a t t e r n .  visualize  on  10,  supersaturated  activity To  d i s s o l v e d oxygen  12).  The  most  such a t u r b u l e n t able  probable enviro-  to e s t a b l i s h a  i n more t r a n q u i l  areas  of  great the  13-1  12-  10  6 Figure  12 11:  13 14 Site Location  Dissolved  Oxygen  Along  Serpentine  152 Length.  99A  125-1  25 H  10 Figure  12:  1  i  6  12  Dissolved  Oxygen  1  1  13 14 Site Location Saturation  -Percent- Along  1  152 Serpentine  f  99A Length  Oxygen p r o f i l e s  with depth are l i s t e d  Table SITE DATE PARAMETER DEPTH (m)  #152 AUG. 1 2 DO TEMP mq/L °C  sf c 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.7  10.0 7.6 4.3 3.9 3.4  in  Of  most d r a m a t i c a l l y ,  1.2  penetration  Primary  this  hydrolab  (courtesy  at s i t e river,  uated  independent day.  #6.  In  axis the  colder  of  5.5  mg/L,  DO  0.2  t o 2.4  below  months  Even  which  -0.3  -0.1  drop  1.2  dropped  variance  over  levels.  mg/L.  am  respiration  m,  t h e DO  is s t i l l  24 hour well  to  light  drop  is,  activity. at  24 hour p e r i o d s ,  0.7  depth  an  and  Service)  the  and A u g u s t ,  periods,  was  be  m)  am  The  the next  the e f f e c t seen.  the phenomenon the DO  of  fluct-  results.  ends w i t h 8:00  can c l e a r l y  in-situ  m f r o m t h e bottom  13 p o r t r a y s  September and O c t o b e r over  mg/L  Since  i t ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.5  Figure  8.4  from the s u r f a c e  photosynthetic  p l a c e d about  h e i g h t above  not-  4.5.3.2).  warmer months o f J u l y and  registered.  The  (see S e c t i o n  b e g i n s a t 9:00  photosynthesis  2, when DO  of t h e a l g a e ' s  I t was  river  9.8 9.6 9.3 9.2 9.1 0.7  of the E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n  t h e water  with  DEC . 2 DO TEMP mg/L °C  v a l u e s t a k e n a t t h e s u r f a c e and  statement  o b s e r v e DO  from  negligible  independent  To  the  i s almost  1 2  14.9 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5  on Dec.  only  #  a b e n t h a l oxygen demand was  of w a t e r .  productivity  confirm  used  0.6m  m depth v a r i e d  virtually  6.0 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 4.5  a l l d a t e s shown,  t h e bottom  the  21 .0  for selec-  Profiles  SEPT . 9 TEMP DO mg/L °C  —  ted dates. iceable,  9. Oxygen D e p t h  i n T a b l e 9,  never  of  In  the  is  not  fell  below  above D a v i s ' recommended minimum.  56  Time of Day (hr.) Figure  13:  Dissolved  Oxygen V a r i a t i o n S i t e 13  Over  24  Hour  Periods.  The clearly of  a  correlation  displayed in Figure linear  below  between DO  separate days days days  Thus,  there  DO  chloropyll-a,  phyll-a  is  dead  and  105  response were  (Oct.  remembered  that  100%  tinuous rains, such,-  the  materialize  expected and  DO  between  from  t o day  Chloro-  day  41  present  between  saturation  was  It should highlighted  w e a t h e r o f November.  relatively  high  by in  values  October/85 experienced  freezing  of  of a l g a e  upward - p r o b a b l y  ( F i g u r e 10).  all  estimate  disappearance  September/85  remained  in  differentiate  t o g i v e an  moved  105  105.  m a s s i v e b i o c h e m i c a l oxygen demand levels  given  -0.63 0.81 -0.66  s i n c e oxygen  the  is  (r)  relationship  dry weather w h i l e  f o l l o w e d by  is  significant  levels  t h e month o f  essentially,  r = r = r =  the d r a m a t i c  beyond day  12,  (inclusive);  i t d o e s not  to c o l d e r temperatures, than  chlorophyll-a  i t i s o f t e n used  t h e DO  at s i t e  coefficient  p h o t o s y n t h e t i c pigment  After  15),  and  periods  Although  algae,  biomass.  less  warm,  time  especially  1983).  living  day  correlation  0-35 41-105 111 - 153  the primary  (Wetzel,  algal  The  is a statistically  algae  the  14.  chlorophyll-a,  r e g r e s s i o n between DO  for three  and  and  be by conAs  did  not  during  the  and  99A,  salmon m i g r a t i o n .  4.5.1.2 T e m p e r a t u r e Temperature  readings  over  the c o u r s e  The  obvious  p r o g r e s s i o n of  the  higher  temperatures  sampling.  Site  of  the  recorded  sampling  10 was  for sites  program,  lower  at s i t e sampled  58  10,  are given  temperatures 99A,  12,  was  in early  due  from  in Figure site  t o the  morning  (about  15.  10,  to  order  of  8:30  am)  Chlorophyll-a (ug/L)  30-1  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  9 0 1 0 0 110 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 4 0 1 5 0 1 6 0  Time (days)  July 2 / 8 5 Figure  15:  Temperature  versus  Time  Dec' 9/85 -  sites  10,  12,  99A.  and  site  99A  i n the e a r l y  temperatures  a f t e r n o o n (about 2:30  correspond c l o s e l y  w i t h mean a i r  recorded at Surrey M u n i c i p a l H a l l  by  Service.  t o the  This  is  primarily  due  shade-providing, v e g e t a t i v e cover As n o t e d temperature  i n Bourque and for  steelhead  it  represent  a  Brett  resident higher  water  sudden  a  also  salmon  organisms  under  serious  (1971)  danger  and  trout  with their  fact  (1982),  as  Environment  that  the  (Brett,  there  is  incipient  1952)  1970).  that  and  no  early  August  spawners.  be  inhibited  in  exceed  19°C.  The  support the growth of  more r a p i d m e t a b o l i c r a t e s .  of b i o d e g r a d a b l e o r g a n i c matter  adult  and  adult  g r o w t h may  lethal  for  Thus J u l y  i f temperatures  also  warmer  temperatures,  the Atmospheric  t o f r y and  indicates  temperatures  surge  Hebert  (Coutant,  The  i n the lowland a r e a s .  Coho f r y i s 25°C  i s 21°C  pm).  As  mesophilic such,  if  e n t e r s the  a  system  the c o n d i t i o n s n o t e d above, t h e n t h e r e i s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r  r a p i d drop  i n DO,  High temperatures consequent  as t h e b a c t e r i a  also contribute  eutrophic  state  begin degrading the  waste.  t o t h e growth o f a l g a e , and  i n the  river,  during  the  the  summer  months.  4.5.1.3 pH  pji values,  graphically By  day  111  below 6.0. Cox  i n F i g u r e 16. (Oct. The  and M c F a r l a n e  drainage water  recorded for s i t e s  21)  trend  and  12 and  v a l u e s range  beyond,  f o r pH,  pH  and  are presented  between 5.4  and  "all  through the s o i l s  61  9.0.  i s downward.  soils  the r e s u l t i n g  and  consistently  o v e r t h e time p e r i o d  acidic  leaching  99A,  v a l u e s were  (1978) have o b s e r v e d t h a t  area are h i g h l y  draining  pH  10,  low  within  the  pH  the  appears  of to  be  5H  0  1  1  1  1  1  10  20  30  40  50  r — i  60  70  1  80  1  1  1  1  1  !  Figure  16:  pH v e r s u s  1  "  9 0 1 0 0 110 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 4 0 1 5 0 1 6 0  Time (days)  July 2/85  1  Time  -  Dec! 9/85 sites  10,  12,  99A.  effectively alkaline  balanced  fertilizers,  contaminants values  from  rainfall,  since  farming  of r u n - o f f water, c o n t a i n i n g  c a l c i u m a n d l i m e compounds and some o r g a n i c  the surrounding  experienced  reased  in late  Fall  urban a r e a s .  the compensating  has ceased  f o r the winter."  are probably  alters  the carbonate carbonate  due t o h i g h buffering  equilibrium  The  a r e most l i k e l y  without  summer  wing  by t h e a d d i t i o n  due t o t h e  alkaline High  r a t e s of  lower  inc-  fertilizers,  pH l e v e l s  i n the  photosynthesis,  c a p a c i t y of t h e w a t e r .  equation  pH  which  The f o l l o -  (1) e x p l a i n s t h i s  relation-  ship: C0 During  + H 0<—>H C0  2  2  2  photosynthesis,  produced.  For  Chatelier's  principle,  protons esis.  (H )and +  Notice  three  separate  >H  time  periods  shift  response  iderably  .  (1 )  in equilibrium,  this  peak o f c h l o r o p h y l l - a ,  The c o r r e l a t i o n  by  Le  which consumes  17 s u p p o r t s  hypoth-  there  coefficient  is a  (r) of  a  i s g i v e n below f o r  (inclusive),  0 - 3 5 41 - 105 111 - 153  r = -0.58 r = 0.75 r = -0.05  significant  relationship  t h e pH i s s t i l l  i s observed,  Once t h e a l g a e have found  t o g r e a t e r a n d more f r e q u e n t  = -0.05 f o r t h a t p e r i o d .  + CO~  t o the l e f t ,  Figure  between d a y 41 and d a y 105.  disappeared,  +  up by t h e a l g a e and oxygen i s  (1) t o r e m a i n  r a i s e s t h e pH.  a statistically  ecially  r  + HCO~  i s used  i tw i l l  peak i n pH.  +  r e g r e s s i o n between pH a n d c h l o r o p h y l l - a  Thus,  in  2  equation  days days days  ially  C0  that for every  corresponding linear  <~->H  3  to fluctuate rainfall  63  essent-  - probably  events,  However, t h e a b s o l u t e l e v e l  lower.  esp-  since  i s cons-  p100  -90  g/D  -80  -60  3 CO i  -50 CM  5  ^  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  9 0 1 0 0 110 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 4 0 1 5 0 1 6 0  Time (days)  July 2/85 Figure  17:  pH a n d  Chlorophyll-a  Dec. 9/85 versus  Time  -  site  12.  4.5.1.4 S p e c i f i c C o n d u c t a n c e All As  specific  conductance values  a rule, specific  (30  mS/m), w i t h  days,  the  extremely mS/m,  at  99A)  due  high site  conductance values  some n o t a b l e  tidal  specific  to the  exceptions,  system  remarkably  values  is  and  as  high  the  of  site  10.  throughout linear  and  appears 1970;  Also,  being  system,  i n a n i m a l and  12  and  values  resulting in  in  the  river.  the  700  3000 mS/m,  at With  "fresh  water"  7.5  are  the  between NH^  the  99A  are  to  the  and  range  Ahlert,  1977).  maximum r a t e s ,  bulk  system of  at  of  NH^  the  was  a minor  f o r the  and  #10  However,  65  role  for  6 to  18.  It  most  nitrogupstream  occurring ( r ) of  in  a  sugoxygen  Nitrosomo-  nitrification, 1968;  other  systems n i t r i f i c a t i o n down t o a b o u t pH  ammon-  i s -0.05,  g r o w t h of  Painter,  also  the  somewhere  the  site  responsible  (Loveless  apparently  DO  playing  t o 8.5  in acclimatized  the  at  correlation coefficient  which are  shown t h a t  and  in Figure  c o n s i s t e n t l y higher  was  optimum pH  waste  displayed  some o x i d a t i o n but  human  nitrogenous wastes. T o t a l  introduced  nitrification  Sharma and  sampling  (7,000 umho/cm or  gates maintain  I t would seem t h a t  Nitrobacter, t o be  umho/cm  a c o u p l e of  umho/cm o r  s a l i n e water  300  II.  (Total)  Certainly,  that  levels. nas  that  regression  gesting  10,  (#10).  the  30,000  breakdown of  for sites  enous waste was  as  tidal  excreted  from the  site  Appendix  well.  is  significant  upstream  On  conductance values  4.5.1.5 Ammonia N i t r o g e n  ia  in  were l e s s t h a n  exceptions.  i n t r u s i o n of  these  originates  given  g a t e s were jammed open w i t h d e b r i s ,  #10  Ammonia  are  Painter,  studies  can 6.5  have  proceed,  at  (Barnes  and  TO  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  9 0 1 0 0 110 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 4 0 1 5 0 1 6 0  Time (days)  July 2 / 8 5 Figure  18:  Ammonia  versus  Time  -  Dec. 9/85 sites  10,  12,  99A.  Bliss,  1983).  would  mean any  relatively  The  pH  values  below  nitrification  6.0,  t h a t was  experienced  occurring,  i n the  would  Fall, be  at  slow r a t e s .  4.5.1.6 N i t r a t e s The  primary  fields,  bacterial  matter. but  it  accessible  system  form  as a  (i.e.  increase being  take  pH  they  especially  in nitrate up,  as  levels  Notice in algae  levels  (i.e.  105.  rainfall  of d e c o m p o s i n g  become  the  OH  of  Serpentine  readily  needs. can  i s high i s at  drop  not  are measurable after  matter  also the  times.  The  evident,  in chlorophyll-  is a  as much of  As  and  chlorophyll-a is quite f o r every  organic  nitrogen,  most  which  i f production  consequential  the  nitrates  in  the  are  water).  the c h l o r o p h y l l - a v a l u e s  These h i g h  levels and  were r e l a t e d  a l s o to a  (leaves,  a n o n - l i m i t i n g , growth n u t r i e n t f o r a l g a e  67  fertilized  nutritional  (see F i g u r e 21)  organic  source  numbers) t h e r e  also continued  a r o u n d day of  that  from  decomposing  their  e x c r e t e an  the  t h e r e f o r e they  levels  dropped o f f ,  presence  19.  assumed d r o p  taken  higher  nitrates  between n i t r a t e s and  in Figure  High n i t r a t e  was  up NO^  runoff  of ammonia and  p r e f e r ammonia as  i s poorly buffered,  shown  are  of n i t r o g e n f o r t h e i r  increase  relationship  nitrates  i s a l l u s e d up  phytoplankton to  of  oxidation  Phytoplankton  once  help  sources  etc.).  during  this  to  greater Nitrogen study.  r100  32.82.6-  Legend  2.42.2-  A  N03  A  ChL-o  2~Z.  CD  1.8  CO I  1.6  JZ  1.4H co  Cl  o o  1.2 1  o  0.80.60.4 0.2 i 00 July  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  1 0 0 110 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 4 0 1 5 0 1 6 0  Dec! 9/85  Time (days)  2/85 Figure  19:  Nitrates  and  Chlorophyll-a  versus  Time  -  site  12.  4.5.1.7  Phosphorus  P h o s p h o r u s may phate  and o r g a n i c  orus.  I t may  be  in three  from  enter  readily  mg/L waters  nuisances, any p o i n t  are  stationary once  fell  being by  it  total  would  inorganic  1.7%  phosphorus  20  The  indicates  t h e 0.05  mg/L  1979)  and  that  4,  with p a r t i c u l a t e  o r t h o - P component  at s i t e  #10  12,  to prevent  not exceed mg/L  where  Serpentine  system  is  fairly  that  phosphorus  levels  recommended.  Thus,  total  to a l g a e growth.  not a c c u m u l a t i n g  the bulk of the #10,  at s i t e  (see Appendix  downstream;  phosphorus  Over  site  99A  p h o r u s p a t t e r n s would drop  physical  i s due  15%. have  to active  adsorption  from a on  or 69  low  November  the c o u r s e of the study 10 was  36%,  while,  t o be u n d e r t a k e n t o a s c e r t a i n  to inert  phosph-  occurring.  A more t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n  phosphorus  was  utilized  of  phosphorus v a r i e s  average ortho-P percentage f o r s i t e only  be  #99A, t o a h i g h o f 65% II).  I t should  and t h e n i s b e i n g  m a t t e r may  of t o t a l  0.10  o r 0.05  the  i t was  runoff  phytoplankton.  judgement,  should  maximum  p h o s p h o r u s was appear  by t h e  stream,  nutrient  upstream of s i t e  on A u g u s t  wastes,  phosphate  a l g a e as i t moves downstream o r some s e d i m e n t a t i o n  The  the  human body  and Eddy,  considered  a flowing  not a l i m i t i n g  introduced  orus a s s o c i a t e d  of  below  be n o t e d t h a t fact,  (1969)  more s t a t i o n a r y .  p h o s p h o r u s was  in  (Metcalf  used as a n u t r i e n t  within  and F i g u r e  condensed  phosph-  I t i s t h e o r t h o p h o s p h a t e t ( o r t h o - P ) form  t o Mackenthum's  at  also  in detergents  i s most  biological  never  t o sewers,  fields.  According  known as t o t a l  t h e w a t e r c o u r s e by e i t h e r  fertilized  which  orthophosphate, polyphos-  phosphorus c o l l e c t i v e l y  food wastes d i s c h a r g e d compounds u s e d  forms,  uptake a l o n g  inactive  of  phos-  whether  the reach  suspended,  at  or  particles  0.40-1  0.35 H  0.30H  0.25  0.20  0.15  0.05 H  0.00  0  10  20  30  40  60  70  80  9 0 1 0 0 110 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 4 0 1 5 0 1 6 0  Time (days)  July'2/85 Figure  50  20:  Total  Phosphorus  versus  Time  Dec. 9/85 -  sites  10,  12,  99A.  which  settle  out  4.5.1.8 O t h e r  oxygen  values are  Isolated were  due  site  #10  was  #10.  according  demand,  listed  chloride  about  32 mg  Organic  is  interesting  and  organic nitrogen.  i n c r e a s e d as base higher  explained  by  the  Rainfall One  be  <--->  the  water  average  around  11 mg  t o TOC,  COD  C/L  at  C0  2  at  at  2.67:1,  ,  (2)  as a n u t r i e n t  source  for  algae  form, were p l e n t i f u l .  19,  It  nitrates  the n i t r a t e  values  v a l u e s d r o p p e d ; however, the  data-  reveals that organic nitrogen levels  were  v a l u e s were low t h a t , as  the  ( b e f o r e day  nitrates  105).  are being  This taken  up  is by  to organic n i t r o g e n .  Water Q u a l i t y  p o s s i b l e s c e n a r i o t o e x p l a i n the c l o s e p o s i t i v e  to n i t r a t e s  peaks  leakages,  i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  are converted  and  these  in practice.  used  a t i o n s between c h l o r o p h y l l - a , ation  2  R e f e r r i n g to Figure  II,  fact  but  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p of COD  the c h l o r o p h y l l - a  the a l g a e , t h e y  4.5.2  t o note  when n i t r a t e  sea  v a l u e s averaged  the p r e f e r r e d b i o c h e m i c a l  i n Appendix  mg/L,  (2)  n i t r o g e n may  nitrates,  100  2  well maintained,  but  organic  0 /L.  carbon  to equation  and  II f o r a l l s i t e s .  were jammed open.  theoretical  reasonably  organic carbon  i n t e r f e r e n c e s from  gates  organic The  total  i n Appendix  C + 0 was  sites.  v a l u e s peaked a t over  when t i d a l  Total site  COD  to  occurring  two  Parameters  Chemical nitrogen  between t h e  i s as  DO  follows. 71  and  pH,  with a negative  A heavy r a i n f a l l  event  correlcorrelleads to  the BOD,  washout nitrate  ever,  and  l o w e r pH  events.  Also,  but as much as COD  be n o t e d  from A p p e n d i x  correlated  t o heavy  Figure  21  September, trate  BOD  II d a t a t h a t  ing.  The  The  and  also  to a dramatic increase  actually out  dropped  of s o i l s  1985.  that  phosphorus  levels  there  i s however, a t r e n d  and  in  are r e l a t i v e l y  since  ion. October  Nitrates 13.  As  mentioned  there  i s respond-  increases  but  and  13  phosphates to  leach  this.  of  In  rainfall,  of t h e more numerous  and  Also  a t the h i g h  t e n d s t o be since  tendency  levels,  these high  adsorbed  the f i e l d s  are  for eros-  even  levels also  between O c t . 7 and O c t .  72  i n both  and  i s a greater  before,  c i d e d w i t h the a l g a e d i e - o f f ,  sites;  i n l a t e October  phosphorus  matter.  were s u s t a i n e d  sampling  independent  events,  and moves w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a t e  (mg/L  e v e n t s on O c t . 9  f o r more p h o s p h o r u s  and Nov.  well  and n i -  the graph.demonstrates  intense  Oct.  are not  i s more d i f f i c u l t  be a f u n c t i o n  in late  i t can  phosphorus  nitrates,  T h i s may  bare  tested  i n BOD,  lowland r i v e r  e a r l y November. rainfall  The  produced  Phosphorus  than n i t r a t e s  heavy  on n i t r a t e  of a l l seven  Precipitation  a little.  How-  followed  i n COD  of r a i n f a l l  the e n t i r e ,  phosphorus led  increases  e v e n t on S e p t . 5  nitrates.  changes  of  b a r g r a p h c o v e r s t h e months of  t h e summation  rainfall  input  weeks.  levels.  e n a b l e s a s e n s e of how  correlations  relative  O c t o b e r , a n d November, are  by an  v a l u e s were n o t e x p l i c i t l y  p r e s e n t s the e f f e c t  amounts  followed  from t h e d r a i n a g e d i t c h e s .  reflects  rainfall  NOg~N) and p h o s p h o r u s  this  water  not a l l i n c i d e n t s of the c l o s e  rainfall for,  o f a l g a e from t h e s y s t e m ,  15.  after coin-  1.7-J O.  1.5-  CD E  — ' '  1.3-  3 L 0 JL  1.1 -  a w  o  0.9-  X 0_ _)  o  0.7-  0 t0.525 - i  20-  _J \  CD £  15-  (fl 0 -J 0 L  10-  .J 2  5-  »>  050 - i  4540E E  35-  C O .J ~J  30-  flvg Sept ppt-72.4  flvg Oct ppt-131.6  flvg Nov  Sept 85 ppt-71.9  Oct  Nov 85 ppt-94  85 ppt-112  ppt-178  algae d i e - o f f  !•—H  25-  a  ~>  .j  a .j o  20-  0) L 0_  15-  \'<\ 105-  ru  0-  J2L  October  September  Figure  21:  Rainfall,  Nitrates  73  I  and T o t a l all sites.  '•'~\  November  Phosphorus  vs  Time  4.5.3  Periphyton  4.5.3.1  Populations  Chlorophyll-a  Chlorophyll-a Figure cold  22.  Algae die  weather,  zooplankton 15),  is  values  (3)  from  The  likely  since  e a r l y October  rients  were not  explained  limiting.  It  factor also.  be  ascertained  since  and  very  freshwater  Moore's hours per  day,  or  as  (1)  but  heavy  f o r the  since  they  by  e v i d e n c e d by at  week b e f o r e  site Table  9 and  introduce  the  pH  possibly  that  in  13 may  15  drop from Oct.  (3)  as  cold  1982  but  not  (5) (Oct.  well,  and  nutgrazing  (Moore,  the  rotifers  enumerated  value  was  only  in toxic  Services,  15,  of  7  was  2.2.  The  compounds,  w h i c h a f f e c t e d pH;  7 to Oct.  in  sunlight  weeks p r i o r t o O c t .  the  not  1984  Environment  have washed  materials  105  mean number of  Atmospheric  Oct.  day  zooplankton  were  The  two  prolonged  i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e could  sampling  in  n u t r i e n t s and  unseasonably  1985.  recorded  did  of  plotted  (2)  d i e - o f f , by  zooplankton  during  r a i n s of O c t .  lack  and  However,  are  sunlight,  is possible  S u r r e y - W h i t e Rock s t a t i o n , f o r t h e 7.6,  99A  protozoan populations,  Crustacea  sampling  of  (4)  not  biological  small  12 and  algae  by  w e a t h e r was  have been a  revealed  lack  radical  may  1984)  (1)  10,  t o x i c compounds,  grazing.  most  for s i t e s  7.46  this to  is 6.15,  #12. 10  (Wetzel, Table  TROPHIC TYPE Oligotrophic Mesotrophic Eutrophic  1983)  10.  Trophic  MEAN PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY (mg C/m -day) 50 - 300 250 >  -  i n d i c a t e s that Type  Serpentine  River,  Characteristics  CHLOROPHYLL-a (uq/L) 0.3 - 3  1000 1000  the  DOMINANT PHYTOPLANKTON Chrysophyceae Cryptophyceae  2-15 10  74  -  500  Bacillariophyceae Cyanophyceae  Time (days)  July 2/85 1  Figure  22:  Chlorophyll-a  versus  Time  -  sites  10,  12,  99A.  with chlorophyll-a be  classified  Phytoplankton  as  values  falling  between  10 and  least  for part  eutrophic - at  class-analyses, as  reported  this  classification,  were  b a c i l l a r i o p h y c e a e (diatoms)  i n Moore  the predominant and  500  ug/L,  would  the  year.  of  (1984),  confirms  phytoplankton  cyanophyceae  detected  (blue  -  green  algae). It ote very  i s obvious  bacterial  The  specific  1.01  to  than  1.03  0.5  Stoke's that  the  provide  this  However,  do  gravity  of most  (Wetzel,  1983).  mm  they  the  can  algae  fresh  would s i n k ,  dead a l g a e can  use  up  remain  prom-  dissolved suspended  oxygen in  the  slightest  mean d i a m e t e r  in  water,  that necessary oxygen  placid gravity  turbulence w i l l river  due  i s less  according  that close to  1.0  Therefore,  t o dead a l g a e ,  to  means  keep i t i n s u s p e n s i o n .  flows are c e r t a i n l y  turbulence.  reserves,  water p l a n k t o n i c o r g a n i s m s i s  Since t h e i r  However, a s p e c i f i c  i n t h e a r e a and  of  process  from  l o n g enough t o e x e r t t h a t b i o c h e m i c a l o x y g e n demand?  Law.  currents  ion  growth;  rapidly.  water column  that o r g a n i c matter  Wind  sufficient  the  rapid  remains  to  depleta  sound  hypothesis.  4.5.3.2 P r i m a r y  Productivity  Average  primary  site  #13,  fit  into  drop  algal  are the  listed sampling  occurred,  site  w o u l d have a l l o w e d oxygen t r a n s f e r  an  productivity  in Table day 13,  11.  Site  values, 13 was  conveniently. located just  76  had  a severe  below t h e a e r a t i o n of how  primary  from  chosen because i t  Also,  opportune assessement  would have been t o a l g a l  obtained  DO  zone,  effective  productivity,  the as  compared of  w i t h a second  primary  the a e r a t i o n s i t e .  t o oxygen  production Table  Uptake rates  experiment  r a t e s of CC>2 c a n  (mg C ^ / L - h r ) ,  11. Primary  DATE (1985) J u l y 22 Aug. 19 S e p t . 16 Oct. 4 Nov. 12  productivity  be  converted  v i a the photosynthetic  P r o d u c t i v i t y at  SURFACE (mq C / L - h r ) 1 .260 0.112 0.030 0.123 0.005  upstream  2 m DEPTH (mq C / L - h r ) 0.017  Site  13  1 m DEPTH (mq C / L - h r )  —  — — —  0 .005 0.002 0.037 0.001  equation ( 3 ) , C0 That  i s , 12 u n i t s  the  conversion  oxygen  mg  depth,  primary  and  2  <---*» C H 0  0 /L-hr.  produce  i s 2.67.  production levels  the r a d i c a l  (3)  2  f o r example,  on Aug. 19,  i s very  was  observed  low.  between  the  that  surface  (0.112)(2.67) =  that,  Shallow  were s u b j e c t i v e l y  difference  0 .  32 u n i t s o f oxygen, s u c h  So,  It i s readily  2  +  2  by t h e a l g a e ,  high t u r b i d i t y  explain  H 0  of carbon  factor  produced  0.299  +  2  a t one  light  observed  meter  penetration and p r o b a b l y  s u r f a c e and d e p t h  product-  ion. The with  primary  those  productivity  of Table  to c u b i c meters, (2 m),  side,  10 ( f r o m W e t z e l ,  integrating  and a c c o u n t i n g  example, c o n v e r t since  from  site  only  t h e v a l u e s over  f o r a 24 h o u r d a y . 2  2 discrete confirms  23 e n a b l e s  13 c a n be compared  1983), by c o n v e r t i n g the depth  a visual 77  water  i s b i a s e d on t h e h i g h  d e p t h s were t e s t e d .  the eutrophic  of  litres  The O c t . 4 v a l u e s , f o r  t o 7680 mg C/m - d a y , w h i c h  though, d e f i n i t e l y Figure  values  This  value,  classification.  comparison  between p r i m a r y  prod-  Primary Productivity (mg C/L/hr)  c  n (D ro  p  to O  at  3 i ^<  •a o  a c  \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Temp 20.5°C  o  rt W »<  M  Temp 14.5°C  (5>  rf 01 (D 3  a  co O  \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Temp 11.8°C,  3*  t— O  1  \ \ \ \ \ \ O  •1  o T>  CD ^  I  o 9  cn (T> ft> o rt  fD a a (A  \  Temp 3.0°C  Chlorophyll-a (ug/L)  fD § 2 .  uctivity  and  experiments istical is  chlorophyll-a of p r i m a r y  possible  involved.  For  metabolic values  generate  instance, can  compared  chloropyll-a  data.  be  eratures  dogmatic  was  the e f f e c t seen  t h o s e of O c t .  It  took  1.7  values  Several  factors  8.7°C c o o l e r  between  July  22 and  be Aug.  19  values,  equal.  states  that  biological  reaction  i t approaches  temperature  production, higher  on J u l y  however,  temperatures  t e r m s of o x y g e n b a l a n c e . ious  four days t o J u l y  Aug.  19,  ity).  Thirdly,  living  and  algae.on out  they averaged  Aug  that  22 w i l l  19 t h a n  "often  the low  apparent  values  averaged  for  f o r some of  13.4  hrs/day  primary data.  disparity  Hoff  rule  every  10°C  The  high-  the  higher  r a t e s by b a c t e r i a  i t is possible 22.  i n the whereas  ( t h u s lower  that  Finally,  s m a l l s p e c i e s of r e l a t i v e l y  79  hours,  hrs/day,  v a l u e s do  on  chlorophyll-a  the van't  sunlight  to  temp-  some o f the v a n ' t H o f f e f f e c t  o n l y 9.3  on J u l y  (or mass)  d a t a , the  r a t e s double  Secondly, 22,  with  chlorophyll-a  decomposition  offset  microbial  p r o d u c t i o n when  considering  account  since chloropyll-a  dead a l g a e ,  22  Firstly,  dynamics  productivity  i t s optimum t e m p e r a t u r e .  higher  will  on  t o t h e low  w i t h the  stat-  conjunction  Also,  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  essentially  er  4.  contributed  were  until  in  t h e number  on O c t .  levels  increase,  4,  times  well  the  primary  f o r t h e moment, J u l y  correlated may  into  t h e same amount of p r i m a r y  Ignoring,  production  19  5  However, i t  of t e m p e r a t u r e  when Aug.  i n November u n d o u b t e d l y  12.  insights  that  from a  conclusions.  to  approximately  the temperature  insufficient,  t o g a i n some f u r t h e r  activity  are  I t s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d  production are  v i e w p o i n t , t o make any  still  Nov.  values.  at in  prevfor  productiv-  not d i s c e r n  between  t h e r e were more dead Wetzel  (1983) p o i n t s  minor  contribution  to  the a l g a l  contribute  4.5.4  Thus, perhaps,  in July  than  primary  productivity  times  than  and  do l a r g e r  g r e a t e r numbers o f s m a l l e r s p e c i e s were  i n August.  Ditch Monitoring The  ditch  Budgetary egy.  monitoring  restraints  Overall,  source  arging  into  i t  to assess  in  a n d an i n c o m p l e t e  the Serpentine.  strat-  because  impacting  this of  of d i t c h e s d i s c h -  be made c l e a r  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e a r e over  f l o w s and l o a d i n g s ,  monitoring  system,  study  I t should also  Appendix I I I .  how i n f l u e n t i a l  i s t o the Serpentine  flow data  irregular  i s presented  isdifficult  i s an o n e r o u s t a s k ,  system.  data  imposed a r a t h e r s e l e c t i v e  of contaminants  insufficient  very  b i o m a s s have s h o r t g e n e r a t i o n  more t o t h e t o t a l  species." present  community  that i t  150 d i t c h e s , w i t h on t h e  Serpentine  However, t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e p r o b l e m was h i g h l i g h t e d i n  the a n a l y s e s  of the Latimer  Creek d i t c h  on O c t .  9,1985  (refer  to  Table 12). Latimer and  intersects  ditch  runs  Latimer Table  DATE 1985 Oct.  9  along  Creek  the north  (see Figure 7 ) .  12. L a t i m e r  COD mg/L  TOT N mq N/L  2570  91 .5  medium s t r e n g t h raw 500 40 wastewater * * A c c o r d i n g t o M e t c a l f a n d Eddy wastewater e f f l u e n t  s i d e of L i v i n g s t o n  Ditch  Road  I f the average  Analyses  TOT P mg P/L  TOC mg/L  FLOW L/min  23.0  200  1 36  160  —  8.0 (1979).  f l o w s a r e 227 L / d a y - p e r s o n  80  ( M e t c a l f a n d Eddy,  1979)  and a c c o u n t i n g  Latimer 4434  ditch  for differences  c a n be e q u a t e d  people!  Granted,  i n strength  t o t h e raw w a s t e w a t e r  these  flows  not  similar  t h i s q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y  t a k e many d i t c h e s o f t h i s  type,  then t h e  produced  a r e not c o n t i n u o u s ,  does beg t h e q u e s t i o n - how many o t h e r contributing  (COD),  but  ditches are  of wastewater?  discharging  by i t  there  I t would  coincidentally,  t o be t h e c a u s e o f s e r i o u s oxygen d e p l e t i o n s .  4.5.5  Sediment Three  and  sediment  13.  middle  Results  The  complete  of t h e r i v e r  results  are Total  phosphorus, stations  as  are  31%,  carbon  total  absolute  Iron  the  their  sites  Highest  carbon,  of  elements.  (Moore,  from  The  reasonably  Carbon  data  i n Table  - 20.6  Calcium  a s compared  by  Some o f t h e  f o r the elements  Magnesium - 9.3 mg/g, f o r the area,  total  t h a t TKN v a r i e d  p h o s p h o r u s by 6%.  mg/g d r y w e i g h t o f s e d i m e n t ,  i n the  total  are  12  i n the  Included  values  absolute values  i n 1982 and 1983 by p e r s o n n e l  were mg/g,  - 4.6 mg/g.  t o data  the M i n i s t r y  coll-  of E n v i r o n -  1984).  et a l .  (1976) r e s e a r c h e d  Mainland;  report.  sediments  (TKN),  taken  v a l u e s a r e compared w i t h p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s  - 27.1  Lower  each of s i t e s  IV.  i t c a n be seen  by 21% and t o t a l  S e c t i o n 5.3.  Hall the  i n Appendix  a s a l a r g e complement  These v a l u e s a r e t y p i c a l  ment  from  t h e samples  125 m a p a r t a n d t h e  Aluminum - 11.0 mg/g,  ected  from  Kjeldahl Nitrogen  about  Between  results  are given  well  similar.  16,  samples were c o l l e c t e d  in  t r a c e metal  much o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s comes  The d e g r e e o f t h e t r a c e m e t a l the  concentrations i n  Serpentine  R i v e r can best  81  contamination be  from of the  determined  by  comparing  them t o v a l u e s d e t e r m i n e d  Lower F r a s e r v a l l e y . sediment  valley  (Cu) ,  iron  and  analyzed  summer of  (Fe),  er  than  of  contamination  Agemian, 13.  Trace Metal  from  manganese  (Mn),  over  s m a l l streams  nickel  data).  sediments  1974,  f o r t r a c e metals  - Isherwood, u n p u b l i s h e d  Table  the  s a m p l e s were c o l l e c t e d  Fraser  (Zn)  During  for other  (cobalt (Ni),  Assuming  300  surface Lower  (Co),  copper  (Pb),  1974),  opposed t o n a t u r a l  i t readily  occurrence  becomes a p p a r e n t  from  Table  13  and  that  T r a c e M e t a l s i n S t r e a m S e d i m e n t s of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y compared w i t h the S e r p e n t i n e R i v e r (a) (ref H a l l et a l . , 1976)  Arithmetic mean (x)  Standard Dev.(s)  (x  +  2s)  Serpentine River *  Still Creek  12  4  20  16.5  Cu  25  16  57  32.2  24  15  54  22.3  Mn  343  227  797  Ni  36  28  92  38.8  85  Pb  18  45  108  55.3  840  Zn  64  40  144  83.2  408  X10  areas  (Oliver  Co  Fe  zinc  values great-  2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ( 2 s ) above t h e mean i n d i c a t e as  the  i n the  lead  that  in  3  **  23.6 816 33.4  364  425  (a) a l l u n i t s a r e ug/g d r y w e i g h t of s e d i m e n t * a r i t h m e t i c mean v a l u e s d e t e r m i n e d from a l l sediment sampling s i t e s a l o n g t h e S e r p e n t i n e ' s l e n g t h a s c o n t a i n e d i n Moore (1984) and t h i s a u t h o r ' s s a m p l i n g ( a b o u t 60 s u r f a c e s e d i m e n t samples i n t o t a l ) . ** S t i l l C r e e k a t D o u g l a s Road, B u r n a b y , B.C. the  S e r p e n t i n e would not  inated Creek a very  river  system.  (heavily  The  be  t r a c e metal  industrialized  contaminated  stream  classified  as a t r a c e m e t a l  v a l u e s of one  zone of B u r n a b y ,  section  82  is  like.  B.C.)  site  contamon  reveal  Still what  5 . R E S U L T S AND  5.1  1980,  not  the year  collected.  relates  well  temperature can  OTHER Y E A R ' S  DATA  Introduction  In was  D I S C U S S I O N OF  with values  to the  by a b o u t atures  The  the average (Wilson,  I t was  kill  prior  to a  i n the  similarities A the  Tynehead  of  kill,  water q u a l i t y  30  fish  day's  water t e m p e r a t u r e s  o n l y year were  B.C.  f o r the  sampling  Zoological 1986).  survey,  t h e y have spawned) s a m p l i n g  1982,  1983,  1984  t o i d e n t i f y any  only,  a r e not  Using  dead-pitch  formations  are  of  briefly  statis-  ( c o u n t i n g dead  salmon  during Oct.  techniques  In  a total  190  spawners  understood, may  of  1200  recorded  o n l y 69 Coho the  reasons  83  in  impeded  spawn-  entire  f o r the  however, Backman s u g g e s t s have p h y s i c a l l y  Jan.,  surveyed  spawners i n 1984/85 was  i n 1985/86. The  -  1985/86, t h e same r e a c h ,  numbers a r e e x t r a p o l a t e d o v e r  area,  i n Nov.  Ministry  some a l a r m i n g  techniques,  Coho were r e c o r d e d .  same s a m p l i n g  fully  temper-  of  436  to,  °C)  done under t h e a u s p i c e s  1984/85, and  spawning  (10.6  or  r e a c h o f t h e Upper S e r p e n t i n e R i v e r was  these  days  trends  a particular  When  two  recorded.  Society, indicated  after  ers.  1980  data.  (Backman,  the  air  for  t h a t h i g h e r water  Waste Management,  tics  using  cor-  mean,  y e a r mean f o r O c t o b e r  f o r the y e a r s  1985  previous  data  temperature  t h a t temperatures  kill  by  5  following sections,  with  recent  the  fish  collected  Environment p e r s o n n e l analysed  found  T h i s was  data  fish  1985),  exceeded the  3 °C.  just  first  However, knowing t h a t water  be d e d u c e d .  prior  of t h e  reduced decrease  t h a t the i c e  the movement  of  the  salmon.  Also,  the  movements  into  many  Jan.  have  washed  may  counted  5.2  -  leading  Water  Quality  Only  select  chapter. set.  Refer  Table  to  reveals  DATE  #59 (near #10)  #6  #99A  *  TDP  at  ity  may  have  channels.  The  heavy  carcasses  artificially  quality (1984)  that  14.  the  Nov.  for  low  in  S e r p e n t i n e Water  COD (mq/L)  NH(mq'7D  are  listing  DO l e v e l s  NO(mq7L)  before  rains  of  they  were  in  this  count.  values a  away  prevented  1982  tabulated of  the  were  Quality,  TDP * (mq/L)  complete low  data  enough  1982  DO (mg/L)  TEMP  PH  °C  13 29 5 14 20  26 22 30 17 71  0.325 0.265 0.537 0.582 0.587  0.73 0.27 0.33 0.55 0.97  0 . 145 0.214 0.228 0.194 0.114  5.8 2.9 1 .1 4.8 4.5  13.5 11.5 8.6 12.2 6.3  7.0 7.1 . 7.6 6.9 6.6  Sept. Sept. Oct. Oct. Oct.  13 29 5 14 20  22 18 35 17 27  0.214 0.220 0.084 0.396 0.408  0.60 0.54 0.36 0.44 1.04  0.057 0.026 0.039 0.067 0.073  4.9 7.7 4.8 4.0 5.4  17.0 13.0 10.7 11.4 7.2  6.7 7.1 7.7 6.7 6.5  Sept. Oct. Oct. Oct.  13 5 14 20  35 18  0.130 0.084 0.270  0.33 0.17 0.43  0.025 0.019 0.052  6.2 6.7 8.0 5.2  19.0 13.0 1 1 .8 7.0  7.0 7.2 6.0  10 t o  recovered the  of  in  Sept. Sept. Oct. Oct. Oct.  = Total  site  an  rainfall  spawning  some  Moore  Table SITE  the  water  to  14  of  low  —  13  dissolved  kill  fish,  downstream.of  problem m a t e r i a l values  of  1982  phosphorus  yet  none were  site  enters  10,  it  upstream  emulated  reported. is  of  logical site  1985 d a t a ,  84  in  10.  Since to  levels  conclude  The  that  DO  water ammonia  that qualand  phosphorus  v a l u e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y  downstream o f L a t i m e r C r e e k ) . Oct.  6  was  o n l y 7.1 mm.  Oct.  5 at s i t e  at  site  was 44.6 mm,  whereas  between S e p t .  T h i s may e x p l a i n  15 (1983 d a t a ) c l e a r l y Serpentine,  Table  DATE  15.  relative  S e r p e n t i n e Water  Quality,  nutrient  on  levels  0.21 0.21 0.33 0.50  0.021 0.022 0.026 0.032  #10  Sept. Sept. Oct. Oct. Oct.  20 26 4 17 26  29 32 35 29 45  0.303 0. 142 0.093 0.326 0.277  0.61 0.44 0.66 0.47 1 .33  0. 139 0. 106 0.101 0. 150 0.055  #99A  S e p t . 20 S e p t . 26 Oct. 4 O c t . 17 O c t . 26  29 30 53 41 53  0.040 0.016 0.086 0.013 0.464  0.62 0.45 0.41 <.02 2.03  0.035 0.035 0.033 0.063 0.088  * TDP = T o t a l Accumulation kill  higher  dissolved  was  TEMP °C  10,  pH  „_  10.9  10.2  10.2  9.2  8.5 8.0 7.4 7.2  5.6 6.5 6.4 5.9  13.2 12.1 9.1 10.1  7.4 7.4 7.0 7.3 6.8  —  m- mm.  __  12.7 9.6 12.0 2.7  14.8 14.8 10.1 9.9  —  7.6 8.1 7.5 8.0 6.6  phosphorus  reported.  at site  qual-  stations.  o f n u t r i e n t s downstream was n o t a p r o b l e m ;  significantly  l a t e October  water  1983  COD NHNO.. TDP * DO (mq/L) (mq7L) (mq/L) (mq/L) (mq/L) 0.005 0.005 0.008 0.008  always  levels  to the lowland  <10 1 1 19 26  are  and  and S e p t . 31, i t  shows t h e s u p e r i o r  20 26 4 17 26  fish  13  t h e lower  Sept. Sept. Oct. #1 (upper Oct. Serp) Oct.  a  between O c t . 1  the high n u t r i e n t  59, but does n o t e x p l a i n  i n t h e Upper  SITE  Precipitation  10 ( i . e . j u s t  6 a n d 99A, downstream.  Table ity  highest at s i t e  however,  A g a i n , ammonia and p h o s p h o r u s than s i t e  higher at s i t e  during the f i s h  kill.  85  99A.  Dissolved  99A t h a n  site  T h i s means t h a t  levels  oxygen  10,  was  except i n  the p o l l u t i o n  loading site than  must have been  99A.  i n t r o d u c e d somewhere between  Temperatures  t h e 30 y e a r mean.  Oct.  26  was  increase  in nutrients  on O c t .  observed  26/83  would a l s o c o r r e l a t e  Table tern  16,  noted  chlorophyll-a  that  1985  during is  that  found  that  l e a d s one  site  Table  SITE  #10  #6  #152  DATE  i n DO  85 mm.  10 was  to believe  somewhere between  the  4 to Oct.  week was  that  site 16.  i n DO  for  99A.  were  and  and  the  less 17  and  rise  and  massive  From t h e  close  nitrates  i n NO^  t o an a l g a e d i e - o f f .  data,  a corresponding decrease  kill  and  on  in Oct.  Unfortunately,  taken.  summarizing  (Oct.  26 a t s i t e  the drop  d a t a was  i n the  accounts  between c h l o r o p h y l l - a  i t i s surmized  chlorophyll-a  fish  10  f a l l i n g between O c t .  which p a r t i a l l y  1985,  no  of t h e  Precipitation  56 mm,  relationship  at the time  site  1984  data,  namely t h a t  affirms  accompanies a drop  and  an  site  6,  Serpentine  with  on O c t .  11, i t  downstream.  t h e c o n t a m i n a t i o n was  being  in  Rainfall  3  levels  drop  i n pH,  increase in N0 «  h i g h e r than  site  same p a t -  a significant  11)  C o m p a r i n g DO  10 and  the  This  introduced  6.  Water  Quality,  NH^ ORTH-P DO NO-. (mq/L) (mq7L) (mq/L) (mq/L)  1984  TEMP °C  pH  CHL-a (uq/L)  Oct. Oct. Oct.  4 11 15  0.328 0.286  0.80 3.20  0. 123 0. 155  8.7 6.1 7.5  13.8 12.6 9.0  7.2 7.5 6.7  ——  Oct. Oct. Oct. Oct. Oct. Nov.  4 1 1 15 18 24 1  0.016 0.084  0.65 1 .23  0.032 0.041  —  0.067 0.065 0.040  -  33 6  1 .58 0.34 1 .56  13.0 13.0 9.0 9.1 7.4 4.0  7.6 6.8  0.532 0.620 0.267  10.8 3.1 2.0 5.3 2.4 9.1  6.6 6.8 6.9  2 3 2  Oct. Oct. Oct.  4 1 1 15  0.006 0.206  0.51 0.96  0.012 0.050  10.0 6.8 4.0  14.0 13.0 10.0  7.7 7.0  39 7  --  —  —  --  —  86  -  1 1 6  —  5.3  Sediments Sediment  analyses  f o r p e r i o d s of  1982,  Moore  A select  17,  (1984). to  highlight  radically erent, ly  over  values  from  ,  including  1983, few  the  time.  and of  years.  17.  July 2/81 #6 Oct. 5/82 #6 Aug. 31/83 #4 Aug. 26/85 #12 Organic carbon on. is  depletions?  Moore  rent  sampling  significantly  5.4  Tidal It  ious  the  reducing  i s commonly on  reservoir-like  of  in a report  presented  the  changing  sites  are  diff-  substantial-  Analyses  to  serious  "...DO p r o f i l e s  t h a t sediment river  by  in Table  not  differ  oxygen demand  (1984) c o n c l u d e s indicate  metals,  PARAMETER TOT P TOT C (mg/g) (mg/q) 0.051 11.8 0.86 14.0 0.66 15.0 * 24.0 0.91  TKN (mg/g) 1 .4 1 .2 0.7 1 .7  sediment  not  of  DO  and  DO  concur-  oxygen demands  are  levels...".  Gates  effects  l o n g as  26/85 do  S e l e c t e d Sediment  SITE  not  numbers a r e  Note t h a t , c o n s i d e r i n g the  of e a r l i e r  important  are contained  o b s e r v a t i o n that values are  DATE  sediment  the  August  Table  How  1984,  o b t a i n e d on  values  a l a r g e complement  known t h a t  water q u a l i t y .  system.  The  e i g h t days at a time. tidal  gate  ment B r a n c h , whether or n o t  impounded w a t e r can  operations,  Ministry  Long g a t e  tidal  gates  Therefore, s u p p l i e d by  of E n v i r o n m e n t ,  a connection  closures  deletercreate  a  have been c l o s e d f o r a s strip-chart the  B.C.  DO  recordings  Water Manage-  were s t u d i e d t o  to the S e r p e n t i n e  87  have  determine  problem c o u l d  be  identified. there DO  An e x a m i n a t i o n  i s no p o s i t i v e  levels.  regression,  of T a b l e  correlation  -0.8.  the c o r r e l a t i o n  between  DO a t s i t e  This suggests,  closed,  between t i d a l  In f a c t ,  -0.02 and between DO and s i t e  10 and t i d a l  99A a n d  levels  18. T i d a l  gate  tidal  will  ( r ) of a  and  linear  openings,  gate  openings  is  i t is  the l o n g e r the gates a r e  be!  G a t e O p e n i n g and DO TIDAL GATE OPENINGS * (hrs/day)  Oct.  20/82  4.5  --  5.2  2.0  Oct. Oct. Oct.  4/83 17/83 26/83  6.5 6.4 5.9  — — —  9.6 12.0 2.7  1 .1 0.0 7.5  Oct. Oct.  4/84 11/84  8.7 6.1  10.0 6.8  — —  1 .4 1 .6  Sep. Oct.  30/85 21/85  6.7 8.2  —  * Gate openings  that  openings  gate  DISSOLVED OXYGEN (mq/L) #10 #152 #99A  DATE  demonstrates  coefficient  i f anything, that  t h e h i g h e r t h e DO Table  18 c l e a r l y  15.0 8.9  0.0 4.6  f o r the previous  our  days.  5.5 D i s c u s s i o n Nemerow  (1974) r e v i e w s  oxygen b a l a n c e primary  and  significant The  i n a stream secondary  drain  Aquatic creditors  (Table 19).  also.  salinity  which  affect  Slime growths,  the  as w e l l a s  do n o t e x e r t  a  r e s e r v e s of t h e S e r p e n t i n e R i v e r .  of temperature  by t h e p o s i t i v e ,  life,  factors  o r g a n i c bottom d e p o s i t s ,  on t h e oxygen  negative effect  superceded  t h e major  rises,  i n t h e summer t i m e , i s  counter-effect  and reduced  Organic matter,  88  inorganic  of  photosynthesis.  species are  which o r i g i n a t e s  from  minor  the d i t -  Table  19.  Factors  in  Oxygen  CREDITORS  BENEFACTORS  1 : Organic matter 2. S l i m e g r o w t h s 3. P r i m a r y o r g a n i c b o t t o m deposits (benthal) 4. S e c o n d a r y o r g a n i c b o t t o m d e p o s i t s (dead a l g a e ) 5. T e m p e r a t u r e r i s e s 6. A q u a t i c l i f e 7. O r g a n i c c o n t a m i n a t i o n i n branch streams 8. S a l i n i t y 9. Reduced i n o r g a n i c s p e c i e s * Added by ches,  dead a l g a e  imer C r e e k , a r e All  the  fish  kills  on  the  between ved.  A similar  before kills 1980  kill  were below kill.  as  of the  1985  both  DO  play  Lat-  evidenced  kill  of  1983.  year  i t can  be  roles  However,  benefactors  met  data, and  significant  the y e a r .  a close  nitrates,  by  c o i n c i d e d with  thirty  not  especially  the drop  obser-  sharply,  before  in  chlorophyll-  increase in  with  concluded  contributing factors  the  demand  been  nitrates,  Temperatures before  mean,  when  relationship, has  dropped  an  the  on  a l l fish  exception  of  that unseasonably  the warm  t o the c r i t i c a l l y  low  levels. The  one  fish  Therefore, are  tributaries,  c o n t r i b u t i o n s of DO  i n DO  the  times  From  1984,  drop  the major  temperatures DO  reserves.  of  and  none o f  c h l o r o p h y l l - a and  t h e major a.  at various  Photosynthetic  author  ( e x c l u d i n g #5)  have o c c u r r e d ,  oxygen  * the  Reaeration Photosynthesis Temperature decrease D i l u t ion A r t i f i c i a l aeration *  concern.  benefactors  Serpentine,  1 . 2. 3. 4. 5.  in suspension,  of main  the  Balance  generally placid  to surmise  that  nature  of  the  Serpentine  r e - a e r a t i o n i s p l a y i n g a minor  89  River  tempts  role. Certain-  ly,  reaeration  correlation that tly  any  i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to turbulence,  between oxygen  s t a g n a t i o n c r e a t e d by  r e s p o n s i b l e for depressed  from  Mahood,  ular  and  the  poorest  entire that  incomplete;  but  of e x i s t i n g  water q u a l i t y .  and  of t h e  just  just  downstream  on  uncommon. from  his  which  only  In f a c t ,  Latimer  field was  For  Creek  suspected  In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  definite  candidate  likely  source  mg/L  mg/L  i t was  prior  i s dead a l g a e ,  Creek  an  14).  outflow  of  had  ditch  source which  This  pattern  spread  kill  Latimer  suspended  manure  rainfall) (Farrow, Creek  of e x c e s s i v e BOD. remain  and  oxygen-demanding  fish  data,  of  meas-  1984)  September  1980  the  observed  29/82, DO  apparently  the  exhibits  spanned  (Moore,  (Table  irreg-  confluences  Sept.  to a late  1985  as a m a j o r  records are  the  was  direc-  dilution  consistently  on  as t h e c a u s e of  1980).  data  example,  2.9  proves  Regarding  between  (a f a r m e r  immediately  openings  data, Latimer  10.3  negative  o p e r a t i o n i s not  i t was  exists  u p s t r e a m of L a t i m e r i t was  gate  the  d a y s when s a m p l i n g  Serpentine,  Mahood C r e e k .  gate  Creeks,  On  water q u a l i t y  tidal  oxygen v a l u e s .  Latimer  ured  waters  tidal  and  poorest  not  and  Hyland  length  Latimer  was  levels  but  is a  The  other  i n the  water  column. Table on  the  fish  20  was  formulated  kills. Table  In a l l c a s e s 20.  the  except  Rainfall  and  i n f l u e n c e of  Oct.  Fish  31/83, t h e  Kills  RAINFALL (mm) 2, 1980 300 - 800 19.6 9, 1983 50 14.0 31, 1983 150 49.6 19, 1984 12 10.9 28, 1984 470 41 .6 * R a i n f a l l i n p r e v i o u s seven d a y s DATE  Oct Oct Oct Oct Oct  to address  FISH  90  KILLED  *  rainfall two  days  just put  prior forth:  fields  the  river;  this  this  d r y . The f o l l o w i n g  days b e f o r e runoff  height  the f u l l y  prevents  Even  systems,  may  this  temporary,  from the into  on  i s true,  solution  be a s e r i e s  the  lower  t h e n empty  scenario  The o n l y  River.  91  into  boxes  gate openings  i f this  c a p a b l e of meeting  on t h e S e r p e n t i n e  runs o f f the  i n s t a n t a n e o u s demand  be i m p o s s i b l e .  and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e ,  scenario i s  t o flow  the f l o o d  loaded d i t c h e s  creates a large,  may  the k i l l  i s unable  weather and t i d a l  i n the r i v e r .  control  oxygen demand  fairly  several  river  such t h a t  realistic  aeration  the drier  reserves  effective both  the d i t c h e s ;  height  oxygen  were  falling  because  opening; river  rain  into  river,  the  t o the k i l l  of  that  the an is  instream  b u t sudden,  6.CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  6.1 C o n c l u s i o n s 6.1.1  General (1)  The  However, isted  a e r a t i o n s y s t e m was s u c c e s s f u l i n  because of the h i g h d i s s o l v e d  throughout  potential  the F a l l  t o i n f l u e n c e oxygen  (2) The L a t i m e r nation bute er  oxygen  #10 ( s i t e  (3)  6),  significant  1984 drop  with  hypothesis  a n d 1985 d a t a  in chlorophyll-a  an a c c o m p a n y i n g that  upstream  do c o n t r i Anoth-  (site  demonstrated  10) lower  ( F r a s e r Highway)  revealed the pattern  and  resulted  increase i n  in  that  a pH a n d DO  nitrate  the r i v e r  and c r e a t e a l a r g e b i o c h e m i c a l  levels.  cannot  sustain),  oxygen  was s t r e n g t h e n e d  a  decThe  l a r g e masses o f a l g a e d i e i n a s h o r t p e r i o d  i n the F a l l ,  (which  has  contami-  River.  between F r a s e r Highway  where d a t a  in i t s  River.  of  i n that area  pers-  (152nd S t . ) o f i t .  Both  rease,  source  loads to the Serpentine lies  which  i n the Serpentine  Ditches  l e v e l s a t Highway #10 t h a n  downstream  time,  reach  levels  i t remains u n t e s t e d  i sa definite  River.  pollution  p o s s i b l e problem Highway  levels  Creek a r e a  to the Serpentine  significant  and  o f 1985,  oxygen  i t s operation.  of  demand  by t h i s  the-  sis. (4) Heavy r a i n f a l l  c o r r e l a t e s well with  es a n d , t o a l e s s e r  degree,  fication  t o be a m i n o r c o n t r i b u t o r t o oxygen  ions. .The  was f o u n d  Nitrogen  Serpentine  with  increases i n n i t r a t -  i n c r e a s e s i n phosphorus.  and phosphorus d i d n o t l i m i t River, during the F a l l  92  Nitri-  fluctuat-  the growth of a l g a e .  period, i s eutrophic.  (5) T i d a l  gate  o p e r a t i o n s are  s s e d oxygen v a l u e s . dissolved  oxygen  In  fact,  levels  no  and  not  directly  positive  tidal  related  correlation  gate  openings  to  depre-  between  per  low  day  was  found. (6)  The  many and, ies,  coupled  makes  source. past  In  years  multiple a  number of p o t e n t i a l  6.1.2  extremely  fact,  the  were  f l o w s and  difficult  evidence  attributable  sources.  sources  variable  assessment  indicates  to d i f f e r e n t  approach,  may  at l e a s t  w e l l prove  f o r the  near  very  qualit-  of t h e  problem  fish  sources  t o be  are  water  t h a t the  Thus, p r a g m a t i c a l l y speaking,  of a c t i o n ,  kills  or  of  perhaps  a e r a t i o n , though  the  only  plausible  future.  Specific (1)  A  dissolved ion  irregular  f o r an  "band-aid"  course  with  contaminating  24  hour H y d r o l a b  oxygen t o the  detected a  phenomena o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s  of a l g a e d u r i n g t h e months of J u l y (2)  Of  the p o o r e s t reached  as  (3)  early  adult  and  °C.  length  pH  3.0  #10  August,  consistently  response and  in  respirat-  1985. experienced  D i s s o l v e d oxygen  levels  mg/L. i n J u l y and  August  consistently  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o Coho  ex-  fry  and  spawners.  pH  varied  over  between J u l y 1985,  as  site  and  measurements.  Water t e m p e r a t u r e s  21  ions,  sites,  water q u a l i t y low  ceed  (4)  a l l seven  definite  the  2 and  values  of t h e  a l o t from  l e n g t h of t h e Oct.  15,  stabilized,  river  week t o week a t  on  Serpentine  1985. both  from  a g i v e n day.  93  Then,  individual  R i v e r on  from  Oct.  a given 15 t o Dec.  week t o week, and The  stat-  along  excessive variance  day, 2, the is,  thought  t o be,  attributable  w h i c h c a u s e s a pH change (5) H i g h of  specific  the  tidal  levels  (7,000 - 30,000 umho/cm, o r 700 - 3000  nitrogen levels  Nitrates  present (7)  mS/m)  by d e b r i s t h a t b l o c k e d  open  surface,  are  i n c r e a s e d as the n i t r a t e  converted  to organic  n i t r o g e n by  primary  productivity  values  indicate  d i s s o l v e d oxygen p r o d u c e d by a l g a e  but,  oxygen  levels  levels the  i n the r i v e r .  Algal  cant,  due  waters.  gates.  decreased.  the  r a t e s of p h o t o s y n t h e s i s ,  i n the poorly buffered r i v e r  c o n d u c t a n c e were c a u s e d  (6) O r g a n i c  algae  to the high  at  one meter d e p t h and below,  i s very  to restricted  slight.  i s very  near  signifi-  the c o n t r i b u t i o n  The low l e v e l s  p e n e t r a t i o n of l i g h t ,  that,  to  a t depth are l i k e l y  because of h i g h  l e v e l s of  turbidity. (8)  Sediment  changes  in  results  collected  streams  in  River  6.2  results  from  sediment q u a l i t y  the  indicate  the past  5  insignificant  years.  Sediment  i n 1982,1983 a n d 1985 and compared Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y  would n o t be c o n s i d e r e d  revealed  a contaminated  the  to  other  Serpentine  t r a c e metal  area.  Recommendations  To m a x i m i z e t h e u t i l i t y aeration led  over  1985  equipment,  of the present  i t i s recommended t h a t a f i s h  a t the end of the p r e s e n t  t o be c a p a b l e approaching contain  of being  raised  an u n a c c e p t a b l y  the f i s h  capital  a e r a t i o n zone. and lowered.  low l e v e l ,  i n an o x y g e n a t e d  94  zone;  investment i n n e t be  instal-  The n e t would  have  When DO, u p s t r e a m , i s  t h e n e t w o u l d be r a i s e d t o t h e n e t would be  lowered  when c o n d i t i o n s  improve.  In a d d i t i o n , be  constructed.  sufficient. are  two  the  these  additional  along  between  A  A single  costs are quite  systematic, with  and i d e n t i f y i n g  since  to build  expend  worst  flexibility  used,  t o Nov.), the for this  type  should  into  resources  a l s o be kept the past  a n d one p e r s o n ,  specific  the plan, year  specifically,  strategy.  I t w o u l d be  i n order  to  respond  of the s t r a t e g i c  on t h e L a t i m e r  plan  Creek  problematic.  area, Ditch  up, w i t h a t t e n t i o n f o c u s i n g on t h e years,  a s w e l l as s e e k i n g  A s c a l e d down v e r s i o n o f t h e 1985 s a m p l i n g t o keep a n n u a l  strategy  p r o b l e m p a r a m e t e r s more a c c u r a t e -  The f i r s t  significant  o f f e n d e r s over  ones.  pending  of i s o l a t i n g  i t h a s been h i g h l i g h t e d as d e f i n i t e l y  monitoring  net",  upstream.  f i v e - y e a r sampling  the i n t e n t  government d e p a r t m e n t  the f i n d i n g s to date.  should  Sept.  reasonable  be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e S e r p e n t i n e  necessary  160th S t . a n d t h e  t o t h e p r o b l e m a t hand.  reaches  should  t h e r e would be  conditions  o f use ( e s s e n t i a l l y  a l s o be d e v e l o p e d ,  problem ly.  and a n n u a l  comprehensive,  should  between  i n t h e o x y g e n a t e d water c o u r s e ,  the frequency  solution,  then,  river  be  levels  would be s u p p l e m e n t e d by a " r e m o v a b l e  t o h o l d the f i s h  capital  the  In e f f e c t ,  the r i v e r  $6000 would  oxygen, when DO  i n the s e c t i o n of  gates.  a t 152nd S t . s h o u l d  of only  r e t u r n o f more f a v o r a b l e water q u a l i t y  total  be  depressed  and t h e t i d a l  Considering  to  expenditure  T h i s would p r o v i d e  gates;  designed  aeration station  capital  zones of a e r a t i o n  tidal  of  A  critically  152nd S t .  a booster  out  new  program c o u l d  o p e r a t i n g a n d l a b o r a t o r y c o s t s as low a s  possible.  95  REFERENCES  Amberg H.R., W i s e D.W., and A s p i t a r t e T.R., ( 1 9 6 9 ) , " A e r a t i o n o f S t r e a m s w i t h A i r a n d M o l e c u l a r Oxygen", T a p p i , v o l 52, no 10, pp 1866 - 1871. 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M i n o f E n v , p e r s . comm.  100  Wood L.W., (1985), "Chloroform - Methanol Extraction C h l o r o p h y l l - a " , Can J . F i s h . A q u a t . S c i . , v o l 42, pp 38-43.  of  Wuhrmann K., Zehender F. and Woker H., ( 1 9 4 7 ) , " B i o l o g i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Ammonia and Ammonia C o n t e n t o f F l o w i n g Water i n F i s h e r i e s " , V j s c h r . n a t u r f . G e s . Z u r i c h , v o l 92, pp 198 - 204. Wuhrmann K., and Woker H., ( 1 9 4 8 ) , " C o n t r i b u t i o n s l o g y o f f i s h " , Schweiz Z. H y d r o l . I I , pp 210-244.  101  to the Toxico-  APPENDIX I AERATION  CALCULATIONS  102  The  following  portion the  of  the  c a l c u l a t i o n s are  oxygen demand w h i c h can,  existing diffused  (1980)  state  "...in  aeration a  a diffused  1.13  kg  oxygen t r a n s f e r r e d / b l o w e r  atures  s y s t e m has  w o u l d be  ator.  The  kg  oxygen p e r  as  0.8  in October are  kg/hp-hr  of  aeration  two,  holes  fairly  a  5-hp  mm  system  blowers,  hour.  the  is usually hp-hr".  and  oxygen  (10  estimate  then, are  f o r the  System c a p a b i l i t y can  and  that  the  temper-  rate  of  Serpentine  c a p a b l e of  by  Randall  that  a transfer  met  0.68  Considering  °C),  the  transfer  between  ( f i n e b u b b l e s ) and  low  reasonable  indicate  Benefield  b i o l o g i c a l process,  of  to  t h e o r e t i c a l l y , be  system.  rate  aeration  presented  0.9 aer-  transferring  t h u s be  9  evaluated  such: (a)  one  What volume o f  water  f l o w s through the  aeration  zone  in  hour? I f r i v e r v e l o c i t y = 0.2 m/s, t h e n a d r o p of water w i l l t r a v e l 720  m  in  1  hr.  G i v e n : a c t i v e a e r a t i o n zone l e n g t h (as water f l o w s ) = 172 t h e n i n 1 hr a 548 m l e n g t h o f water has p a s s e d e n t i r e l y t h r o u g h the a e r a t i o n z o n e . I f a v e r a g e d e p t h = 3.5 m, and w i d t h of a e r a t i o n zone = 8.6 then, volume = (b)  What  16,494,800  transfer  1.5(worst c a s e ) t o vary  over t h i s tran.  (c) necessary  rate  How  5.0  m,  L.  rate mg/L,  m,  i s required  to  assuming the  raise  the  transfer  DO  rate  from  doesn't  range? = (3.5 mg/L) (1 6, 494,800 L / h r ) d . O =57.7 kg/hr.  many  t o meet  equivalent  Serpentine  t h i s demand?  103  x  10~  aeration  6  kg/mg)  units  are  # of u n i t s  In  other  existing  =  =  57.7/9 6.4  words,  system  plying  to begin a larger  the worst-case  c a n be e x p e c t e d  oxygen demand d u r i n g higher  under  the c r i t i c a l  with, fraction  then  scenario  t o meet a b o u t period.  the aeration  o f t h e demand.  104  one s i x t h  I f t h e DO unit  above,  the  of  the  levels  are  i s c a p a b l e of s u p -  APPENDIX II WATER Q U A L I T Y  DATA  105  (1985)  DATA SUMMARY ON SERPENTINE RIVER. 1985 A l l u n i t s mg/L except SPCON (umho/cm); CL-a (ug/L); and To c o n v e r t SPCON umho/cm t o mS/m d i v i d e by 10. DATE TIME SITE DO TEMP SPCON PH COD TOC TIC TC JULY  JULY  AUG  AUG  NH3  ORGN  TKN  TOT N ORTH P TOT P CL-a  9 12 14 15  .4 .0 .8 .4  20 22 22 22  .0 .0 .O .0  250 220 240 240  7 7 8 8  .50 .90 .60 .75  40 39 40 49  7 8 8 8  19 19 18 18  26 27 26 26  0 0 0 0  .031 .029 .029 .029  0 0 0 0  .66 .60 . 39 .37  0 0 0 0  .241 .017 .007 .012  0 .68 0 .69 1 .01 1.04  0 .92 O .71 1.02 1.05  1 .61 1 .34 1 .44 1 .45  0 0 0 0  . 145 . 127 .014 .017  0 . 255  6 6 6 6 6 6  e  10 6 12 13 14 152 99  6 7 14 14 13 12 9  .0 .4 .0 .0 .2 .0 .0  20 22 24 24 24 25 24  .0 .5 .0 .5 .5 .5 .0  230 220 260 260 270 1850 5500  7 7 8 8 8 8 8  .00 .41 .80 .95 .87 .49 .75  25 34 37 41 45 45 43  7 8 10 9 8 1 1 1 1  21 19 18 18 18 21 21  28 27 28 27 26 32 32  0 0 o 0 0 0 0  .031 .026 .016 .014 .012 .005 .005  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  . 53 .42 .03 .02 .02 .02 .02  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  . 155 .01 1 . 107 .071 .037 .009 .006  0 .72 0 .83 1 . 13 1 . 18 1.00 1 . 18 0 .93  0 .87 0 .84 1.24 1 .25 1 .04 1 . 19 0 .94  1 .43 1 .29 1.29 1 .27 1 .06 1 . 19 0 .94  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  . 127 .025 .012 .012 .007 .003 .004  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  .280 . 1 19 .113 . 103 .088 . 105 . 105  20 10 SO 32 29 31 27  1  13 13 13 13 13 13 13  10 6 12 13 14 152 99  8 9 9 9 8 11 12  .2 .8 .0 .2 .2 ..0 .8  20 23 24 24 24 25 27  .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .5 .0  230 230 1300 1350 2100 4600 9500  7 7 8 8 7 8 8  . 10 .80 .00 .00 .84 .50 .65  10 13 15 10 22 49 69  7 8 8 7 8 10 1 1  21 20 20 21 21 20 22  28 28 28 28 29 30 33  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  .027 .026 .017 .017 .016 .005 .005  0 .35 0 .20 0 .. 0 7 0 .. 0 7 0 .. 0 6 0. 02 0 .. 0 2  0 .043 0 . 184 0 . 129 0 . 142 0 . 158 0 .. 0 0 5 0 .005  0 .92 1.30 0 .91 1 .05 1 .07 1 . 12 1 .20  0 .96 1 .48 1 .04 1 . 19 1 .23 1 . 12 1.20  1 .34 1 .71 1 . 13 1.28 1 .31 1 . 12 1.20  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  .094 .007 .004 .003 .003 .003 .004  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  . 236 . 1 19 .082 .086 .083 .090 . 134  41 44 42 45 52 54 51  2  20 20 20 20 20 20 20  10 6 12 13 14 152 99  7 .2 4 .. 1 9 a 9 6 1 0 .2 1 1 ..0 7 .. 0  23 .0 310 27 .0 7O00 28 .0 1 4 0 0 0 28 .0 1 5 5 0 0 28 .0 1 3 0 0 0 27 .0 2 3 0 0 0 2 6 ..0 3 0 0 0 0  7 7 8 8 8 8 8  .00 .44 .32 .01 .03 .69 .20  33 69 251 367 176 222 282  8 9 1 1 11 10 9 7  21 23 23 26 24 23 22  29 32 34 37 34 32 29  0 .034 0 .008 0 ,. 0 0 5 0 .. 0 0 5 0 .. 0 0 5 0 .. 0 0 5 0 .. 0 0 7  0 ..31 0. 02 0. 02 0. 02 0. 02 0. 02 0. 02  0 .061 0 .. 1 7 3 0 .. 1 1 3 0 ., 1 2 0 0 .. 0 5 5 0 .006 0 .. 0 1 3  0 .78 1 .. 14 2 .07 2 .. 2 4 1 ..8 2 1 ..0 3 0 .35  0 .84 1..31 2 . 18 2 .36 1 ..8 7 1 .04 0 .. 3 6  1 . 18 1 .31 2 . 18 2 . 36 1 .87 1 .04 0 . 36  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  .030 .007 .034 .037 .019 .019 .090  0 .117 0 . 146 o .309 0 ., 3 3 0 0 ,. 2 4 5 0. 269 0 .. 1 7 3  20 43 53 60 49 44 22  2  27 27 27 27 27 27 27  10 6 12 13 14 152 99  6 . ,3 7 .8 1 0 . .2 9 .,4 6. 3 7 .0 10. 8  2 0 ..0 2 3 ..0 2 3 .5 25 .0 25. 0 2 5 .,5 2 6 ..0  240 1850 3200 3120 4700 8200 15000  6 .91 7 .70 8 .24 8 .26 7 .. 9 3 8 07 a.. 6 0  24 40 35 39 60 76 248  6 9 10 9 9 12 13  20 20 18 18 19 21 22  26 29 28 27 28 33 35  0 . ,031 0 .. 0 2 9 0. 026 0 .. 0 2 5 0. 023 0. 020 0. 005  0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.  42 28 25 25 22 14 02  0 .. 0 8 5 0. 150 0. 049 0 .. 0 3 3 0 . 120 0. 021 0. 009  0 . 61 1. 3 2 1., 14 1.. 17 1. 2 5 1. 4 9 1. 6 4  0 .. 6 9 1.. 4 7 1.. 19 1.. 2 0 1.. 3 7 1. 5 1 1. 6 5  1 ., 14 1 .78 1 .,4 7 1 ..4 7 1 .61 . 1 ..6 7 1 .,6 5  0 .081 0 .. 0 0 6 0 .. 0 0 3 0 .. 0 0 3 0. 004 0 ., 0 0 6 0 .. 0 0 8  0 .. 1 9 5 0 .. 1 1 6 0 .. 0 8 8 0 .. 0 8 0 0. 085 0 . 143 0. 236  18 70 62 69 60 71 67  35 35 35 35 35 35 35  10 6 12 13 14 152 99  5. 1 8.2 10. 8 1 1 .O 10. 8 12. 0 1 1 .8  1 8 ., 0 20. o 21 .3 21 .4 21 .5 22. 5 22. 5  240 270 800 900 1000 3450 7000  6 .66 7 .. 16 8 .. 4 8 8 . 51 8 .. 5 8 8. 8 0 8. 68  23 46 27 28 36 40 62  5 9 8 8 8 7 5  23 18 19 19 19 19 21  28 27 27 27 27 26 26  0. 0. 0. o. 0. 0. 0.  050 051 045 044 043 010 005  0. o. 0. o. 0. 0. 0.  56 38 35 36 38 22 02  0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.  147 053 046 048 025 016 005  0. 65 1. 13 0. 80 0 . 79 0 . 74 1. 0 4 0 . 96  0. 80 1. 18 0. 85 0 . 84 0 . 76 1. 0 6 0 . 96  1 .41 . 1 .61 . 1 .2 4 1 .2 4 1 .18 1 .2 9 0. 96  0 .. 0 7 4 o. OIO 0. 006 0. 005 0. 005 0. 003 0. 008  0. 0. 0. o. 0. 0. 0.  290 120 069 067 059 121 148  30 82 38 32 29 68 33  41 41 41 41  10 6 12 13  4 .5 7. 0 7. 6 7. 1  210 200 470 510  6. 56 6. 78 7. 35 7 . 41  20 18 13 1 1  8 7 8 7  20 17 17 17  28 24 25 24  0. 0. 0. 0.  052 044 046 046  0. 0. 0. 0.  67 45 50 48  0. 0. 0. 0.  360 078 195 206  0. 0. 0. 0.  89 74 82 76  1. 2 5 0 . 82 1. 0 1 0 . 97  1. 9 7 1. 31 1. 5 6 1. 5 0  0. 0. 0. 0.  0. 0. 0. 0.  296 123 1 15 11 1  47 42 40 49  o JULY  N03  10 6 12 13  8  JULY  N02  0 O O 0  2  JULY  IP (°C): N02, N03, NH3 (mg/L as N); ORTH P (mg/L as P)  6  12  17. 19. 19. 19.  0 0 2 2  1 15 020 018 019  0 . 133 0 .117  DATE  TIME SITE 41 41 41  DO  TEMP SPCON  PH  COD  TOC TIC  TC  N02  N03  NH3  ORGN  TKN  TOT N ORTH P TOT P  0 .82 1 .08 1 .43  1 .05 1 .21 1 .44  1 .58 1 .59 1 .55  0 .018 0 .010 0 .004  0 . 106 0 . 132 o . 2 14  CL-i  AUG  12  14 152 99  7. 1 10 . 0 9 .6  19 .2 21 .0 21 .5  700 3100 7100  7 .42 7 .82 8 .30  13 22 44  7 9 9  18 19 21  25 28 30  0 .046 0 .037 0 .009  0 .48 0 .34 0 . 10  O .226 0 . 126 0 .007  AUG  48 10 48 6 48 12 19 48 13 14 48 • 48 152 99 48  5 .4 9 .9 1 1 .2 1 1.2 1 1 .2 10 .5 10 . 1  16 .8 19 .O 20 .5 20 .5 20 .5 20 .0 20 .0  210 215 260 300 340 1 100 2700  6 .85 7 .73 8 .40 8 .48 8 .57 8 .80 8 .94  33 24 24 22 24 46 33  10 9 10 9 9 10 10  22 18 16 16 16 16 16  32 27 26 25 25 26 26  0 .050 0 .048 0 .045 0 .045 O .044 0 .030 0 .005  0 o 0 0 0 0 0  .63 .37 .23 .24 .21 .04 .02  0 o 0 0 0 0 0  . 138 .015 .023 .029 .016 .056 .011  2 .65 1. 1 1 1 .02 0 .95 0 .88 1 . 35 0 .92  2 .79 1 . 12 1 .04 0 .98 0 .90 1 .41 0 .93  3 .47 1 .54 1 .31 1 .26 1 . 15 1 .48 0 .93  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  . 109 .014 .016 .016 .013 .010 .005  0 0 0 o 0 0 0  16 .4 18 .8 19 .8 19 .8 20..0 22..7 22 .8  180 195 220 230 250 2400 6000  7 .02 7 .83 8 .92 9 .04 9 . 13 9 .28 9 .01  13 24 26 35 26 35 60  3 6 7 8 7 10 9  21 20 19 19 19 17 20  24 26 26 27 26 27 29  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  .020 .005 .005 .005 .005 .005 .005  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  .33 .04 .02 .02 .02 .02 .02  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  .005 .036 .005 .005 .005 .005 .005  0 .71 0 .96 1 .08 1 . 13 1 . 15 1 .00 1 .34  0 .71 1.00 1 .08 1 . 13 1 . 15 1.00 1 .34  1 .06 1 .04 1 .08 1 . 13 1 . 15 1 .00 1 .34  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  .087 .012 .011 .010 .005 .003 .008  0 .2 13 0,. 105 0.,095 0 . 107 0 . 1 18 0 . 1 16 0 . 2 11  15..0 16. 8 17..5 17..8 18 .0 . 19., 2 18.,7  175 165 400 485 660 1600 3000  6 7 8 8 8 8 8  .57 .63 .28 .40 .49 .60 .20  26 17 17 17 13 19 34  7 4 4 5 4 6 6  19 18 18 18 19 20 21  26 22 22 23 23 26 27  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  .046 .020 .021 .021 .020 .005 .005  0 .53 0 .51 0.. 19 0.. 17 0., 13 0.,02 o ..02  0 . 145 0 .035 o .028 0 .041 0 .033 o .,01 1 0 .018  0 .62 0 .62 0 .66 0 .68 0..71 0 .86 o .71  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  .76 .65 .69 .72 .74 .87 .73  1 .34 1 . 18 0 .90 0 .91 0 .89 0 .87 o . 73  0 .080 0,.007 0 .006 0 .005 0,.005 0,.004 0 .024  0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. o.  200 089 066 066 067 094 103  21 46 53 55 50 35 21  13.,0 13..4 14. 7 14. 7 14 . 7 14 .0 16. 0  280 140 150 155 160 290 2200  6 . 35 6 .32 6 .40 . 6 .40 6 .43 6. 83 7.. 13  30 10 10 10 10 10 10  14 5 4 4 5 5 6  16 15 16 15 13 10 15  30 20 20 19 18 15 21  0 .060 0 .029 0 ..030 0 . 029 0..028 0. 023 0 . 019  1. 52 0 . 79 0 . 67 0 . 68 0 . 72 0 . 68 0 . 41  0 . 570 0 ..300 0 . 282 0 . 271 0 . 232 0 . 378 0 . 655  0 ..84 0 ..51 0 . 54 0 . 51 0 . 59 0 . 64 0 . 69  1 .41 0,.81 0. 82 0..78 0..82 1..02 1.,34  2 .99 1 .63 , 1 .52 . 1 .49 . 1 ,57 . 1 .72 1 77 .  0.. 103 0..046 0 . 035 0 . 034 0 . 021 0. 020 0 ..036  0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.  235 143 126 124 124 121 168  18 20 27 29 33 33 41  13. 0 14. 5 14 . 5 14 . 5 14 . 5 15. 0 15. 0  195 190 190 200 215 315 1900  6.. 25 6. 32 6..39 6 .41 , 6 ., 42 6..58 7. 39  33 28 21 24 24 26 37  10 8 7 7 7 6 8  19 14 14 14 14 14 1 1  29 22 21 21 21 20 19  0. 0. 0. 0. o. 0. 0.  0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. o.  68 68 81 82 83 81 58  0. 0. o. 0. 0. 0. o.  613 956 355 371 393 217 01 1  0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. o.  93 62 58 60 60 76 90  1..54 1. 58 0 .,93 0.,97 0 . 99 0 . 98 0 . 91  2 . 27 2. 32 1 ,79 . 1 .84 1 87 . 1 .83 1 .53  0 ., 141 0 . 031 0 . 021 0 . 019 o. 020 0 . 013 0. 010  0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. o.  321 141 101 1 14 1 14 096 088  18 38 36 39 42 61 92  240 260 265 280 295 250 470  6..51 6. 32 6. 22 6. 20 6. 17 6. 79 7. 03  28 37 33 33 27 45 37  7 7 7 9 10 10 9  23 17 17 15 16 13 1 1  30 24 24 24 26 23 20  0 . 024 0 . 067 0 . 059 0 . 063 0 . 072 0 . 055 0 . 042  0 . 56 1. 14 1. 35 1. 43 1. 54 1. 73 1. 49  0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.  235 470 41 1 452 472 298 201  0. o. o. 0. 0. o. 0.  71 58 60 65 77 91 71  0 . 95 1. 05 1. 01 1. 10 1. 24 1. 21 0 . 91  1 53 . 2. 26 2 . 42 2. 59 2. 85 3. 0 0 2. 44  0 . 107 o . 041 0 . 043 0 . 017 0 . 025 0 . 027 0. 025  0. 0. o. 0. o. 0. 0.  268 146 154 162 160 156 1 14  10 13 18 19 29 48 26  AUG 26  55 55 55 55 55 55 55  10 6 12 13 14 152 99  7 9 12 13 14 16 13  SEPT  2  62 62 62 62 62 62 62  10 6 12 13 14 152 99  6.. 1 9 6 10..6 1 1 2. 1 1 O. 9. 6 8. 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N03 0 .66 0 .53 0 . 35 0 .31 0 .42 0 .56 0 .67 0 .63 0 .33 0 .53 1 .52 0 .68 0 .06 0 .60 0 .48 5 .49 3 .67 3 .53 3 . 14 1 .32 1 .85 , 1 .48 1 .31 2., 79  NH3 0 . 241 0 . 155 0 .043 0 .061 0 .085 0 . 147 0 .360 0 . 138 0 .005 0 . 145 0 .570 0 .613 0 .235 0 .351 0 .495 0 .284 0 . 172 0 . 104 0 . 191 0..552 0..402 0..419 0..355 o .. 7 0 0  ORGN 0 .68 0 .72 0 .92 0 .78 0 .61 0 .65 0 .89 2 .65 0 .71 0 .62 0 .84 O .93 0 .71 0 .69 0 .61 1.49 . 0 .92 0 .86 1.. 19 1 , 26 0 . 97 0 .,47 0 . 38 1. 29  TKN O .92 0 .87 o .96 0 .84 0 .69 0 .80 1 .25 2 .79 0 .71 0 . 76 1 .41 1 .54 O .95 1 .04 1 . 10 1 . 77 1 .09 0..96 1 .38 1.81 , 1 .37 0 ..89 0 ..73 1..99  TIME S I T E 6 0 6 6 6 13 6 20 27 6 6 35 41 6 48 6 55 6 62 6 6 69 76 6 83 6 6 90 97 6 105 6 1 1 1 6 6 1 18 125 6 133 6 6 139 6 146 153 6 6 160  DO 12..0 7 .4 . 9 8 4. 1 7. 8 8. 2 7 .,0 9. 9 9.,0 9. 6 6. 2 6 .1 6. 4 1 16 . 8. 5 8. 0 8. 4 9. 5 7. 4 6. 9 10. 0 10. 0 10. 2 10. 6  TEMP SPCON 22. 0 220 22. 5 220 23. 0 230 27 . 0 7000 23. 0 1850 20. 0 270 19. 0 200 19. 0 215 18. 8 195 16. 8 165 13. 4 140 14. 5 190 1 15 . 260 1 1 205 0. 10. 4 180 10. 2 130 170 10. 0 7. 7 80 8. 1 90 2 .1 200 2. 8 140 0. 0 160 O. 0 200 0. 2 100  PH 7 .90 7 .41 7 .80 . 7 .44 . 7..70 7 . 16 6..78 7.,73 7..83 7 . 63 6.,32 6.,32 6., 32 7. 16 6. 85 5. 76 5. 82 6. 33 5 . 60 5. 55 6. 26 5. 87 6 . 19 5. 81  COD 39 34 13 69 40 46 18 24 24 17 10 28 37 15 23 41 31 27 39 52 13 26 15 30  TOC T I C 8 19 19 8 8 20 9 23 9 20 9 18 7 17 9 18 6 20 4 18 5 15 14 8 7 17 5 17 5 19 12 8 14 10 9 7 12 9 22 15 7 13 5 17 3 19 9 10  TC 27 27 28 32 29 27 24 27 26 22 20 22 24 22 24 20 24 16 21 37 20 22 22 19  N02 0 . 029 o . 026 0 . 026 o . 008 0 . 029 o . 051 0 . 044 0 . 048 0 . 005 0. 020 0 . 029 0 . 063 0 . 067 0 . 033 0 . 028 0. 020 o . 022 o . 014 0 . 034 0 . 039 0 . 017 0 . 014 0 . 01 1 0 . 013  N03 0. 60 0 . 42 0 .,20 0 . 02 0 . 28 0 . 38 0 . 45 0 . 37 0 . 04 0 . 51 0 . 79 0 . 68 1. 14 0 . 65 0 . 69 2. 13 2. 98 2 . 62 2. 4 0 2 . 14 1 64 . 1 .69 1 .34 2. 24  NH3 0. 017 0 . 01 1 0 . 184 0 . 173 0 . 150 o . 053 0 . 078 0 . 015 0 . 036 0 . 035 0 . 300 0 . 956 0. 470 0 . 015 0 . 192 0 . 122 0 . 145 0. 066 0 . 309 0 . 475 0 . 175 0 . 293 0 . 508 0 . 515  ORGN 0 . 69 0 . 83 1. 30 1. 14 1. 32 1. 13 0 . 74 1. 1 1 o . 96 0 . 62 0 . 51 0 . 62 0 . 58 0 . 65 0 . 78 0 . 66 0 . 75 0 . 61 o . 84 1. 35 0 . 62 0 . 50 0 . 31 0 . 66  TOT P TKN TOT N ORTH P 1 .34 0 ..71 0 . 127 1 .29 0 . 1 19 0 . 84 0 ..025 1. 48 1 .71 . 0 . 007 0 . 1 19 1 .31 1. 31 0 . 146 0 . 007 1. 47 1.78 . 0..006 0 . 1 16 1. 18 1 .61 o . 120 0. 010 1 .31 0 ..020 0 . 123 0 . 82 1. 12 1.54 . 0 . 014 0 . 1 14 1. 0 0 1 .04 . 0 . 105 0 . 012 1 .18 0 . 007 0 . 65 0 . 089 1 63 . 0 . 046 0 . 143 0 . 81 1. 58 2 . 32 0 . 031 0 . 14 1 1. 05 2 . 26 0 . 041 0 . 146 1 35 . 0 . 093 0 . 67 0 . 021 0 . 97 1 .69 0. 030 0 . 131 2. 93 o . 78 0 . 034 0 . 120 3 .9 0 0 . 038 0 . 146 0 . 90 3. 31 0 . 053 0 . 134 0 . 68 1. 15 3. 58 0 . 136 0 . 24 1 1. 83 4 .01 0 . 024 0 . 215 2. 45 0 . 79 0 . 019 0 . 118 2 .49 0. 009 0 . 095 0 . 79 o . 82 2. 17 0 . 007 0 . 076 1. 17 3. 42 0 . 066 0 . 172  TOT N 1 .61 1 .43 1 .34 1 . 18 1 . 14 1 .41 1 .97 3 .47 1 .06 1 .34 2 .99 2 .27 1 .53 1 .67 1 .61 7 .32 4 .79 4 .52 4 .58 3 . 16 3 .24 2 .38 2 .05 4 .82  ORTH P 0 . 145 0 . 127 O .094 0 .030 0 .081 0 .074 0 .115 0 . 109 0 .087 0 .080 0 . 103 0 . 14 1 0 . 107 0 .111 0 . 126 0 .069 O .030 0 . 150 0 . 189 0 .023 0 .005 0 .003 0 .054 0,. 104  TOT P CL-i 0 . 255 20 0 . 280 4 1 0 .236 0 . 1 17 2 0 18 0 . 195 30 0 .290 47 0 .296 0 . 377 120 26 0 .213 2 1 0 . 200 18 0 . 235 18 0 .321 0 .268 10 35 0 .240 21 0 .267 17 0..250 12 o.. 166 9 0 .228 1 1 0 .289 16 0 . 170 9 0 .. 146 7 0 ., 119 6 0 . 168 16 0 . 289  CL-i 10 44 43 70 82 42 71 60 46 20 38 13 65 70 1 1 1 1 9 8 15 8 5 6 9  TIME S I T E 0 12 6 12 13 12 20 12 27 12 35 12 41 12 48 12 55 12 62 12 69 •12 76 12 83 12 90 12 97 12 105 12 1 11 12 1 18 12 125 12 133 12 139 12 146 12 153 12  DO 14 .8 14 .0 9 .0 9 .8 10 .2 10 .8 7 .6 1 1.2 12 .8 10 .6 6 .2 7 .9 7 .3 12 .2 10 .2 8 .O 8 .0 9. 3 7 .7 8 .3 9..8 10 .5 9 .8  TEMP SPCON 22 .0 240 24 .0 260 24 .0 1300 28 .0 14000 23 .5 3200 21 .3 800 19 .2 470 20 .5 260 19 .8 220 17 .5 400 14 .7 150 14 .5 190 12 .9 265 12 .8 1300 1 1 .2 210 125 10 .4 210 10 .O 7 .9 80 8 .3 90 3 .0 170 3 .0 160 0 .0 60 0 .0 240  PH 8 .60 8 .80 8 .00 8 .32 8 .24 8 .48 7 .35 8 .40 8 .92 8 .28 6 .40 6 .39 6 .22 7 .58 7 .46 6 . 15 5 .76 6 .50 5 .69 5 .84 6 .40 5 .99 5 .91  COD 40 37 15 251 35 27 13 24 26 17 10 21 33 26 31 38 35 29 32 49 19 24 24  TOC T I C 8 18 10 18 8 20 11 23 18 10 8 19 8 17 16 10 7 19 4 18 4 16 7 14 7 17 8 16 6 18 8 12 16 9 9 7 12 9 15 14 8 12 5 15 3 20  TC 26 28 28 34 28 27 25 26 26 22 20 21 24 24 24 20 25 16 21 29 20 20 23  N02 O .029 0 .016 O .017 0 .005 0 .026 O .045 0 .046 0 .045 O .005 0 .021 0.030 0 .048 0 .059 O .067 0 .034 O .020 0 .027 0 .013 0 .032 0 .024 0 .013 0 .012 0 .012  N03 0 .39 0 .03 0 .07 0 .02 0 .25 0 .35 0 .50 0 .23 0 .02 0 . 19 0 .67 0 .81 1 .35 0 .71 0 .66 1 .85 2 .87 2 .55 2 .27 1 .86 . 1 .55 , 1 .55 , 1 .39 .  NH3 0 .007 0 . 107 0 . 129 0 .113 0 .049 0 .046 0 . 195 0 .023 0 .005 0 .028 0 . 282 0 .355 0 .411 0 .081 0 . 126 0..131 0 . 170 0 . 109 0 .261 O.,373 0 ., 161 0 . 293 0.,535  ORGN 1 .01 1 . 13 0 .91 2 .07 1 . 14 0 .80 0 .82 1 .02 1 .08 0 .66 0 .54 0 .58 0 .60 0 .97 0 .94 0 .66 0 .81 0 .64 0 .82 1 .04 0 .60 0 .49 0 .49  TKN 1 .02 1 .24 1 .04 2 . 18 1 . 19 0 .85 1 .01 1 .04 1 .08 0 .69 0 .82 0 .93 1 .01 1 .05 1 .07 0 .79 0 .98 0 .75 1 .08 1 .41 0 .76 0 .78 1 .02  TIME S I T E 13 0 6 13 13 13 13 20 27 13 35 13 41 13 48 13 55 13 62 13 69 13 76 13 83 13 90 13 97 13 105 13 1 1 1 13 1 18 13 125 13 133 13 139 13 146 13 153 13 160 13  DO 15..4 14 ..0 9..2 9. 6 9..4 1 1 .0 . 7. 1 1 1 .2 . 13. 6 1 12 . 6. 1 7. 9 6. 9 13. 6 10. 6 8. 4 8. 0 9. 4 7 .3 8. 3 9. 8 10. 7 10. 0 10. 2  TEMP SPCON 22..0 240 24.,5 260 24 . 0 1350 28..0 15500 25. O 3120 21 .4 . 900 19. 2 510 2 0 .,5 300 19. 8 230 17. 8 485 14. 7 155 14. 5 200 12. 9 280 12 . 8 750 11 .3 220 10. 4 130 10. 0 220 7 .9 80 8. 2 90 3. 0 175 3. 0 170 O. O 60 0. 0 240 0. 2 1 10  PH 8 .75 8 .95 8 .00 8 .01 8 . 26 8 .51 . 7..41 8..48 9..04 8 ..40 6..40 6..41 6 ..20 8. 32 7 . 48 6. 16 5. 82 6 . 50 5. 69 5. 73 6. 4 0 5. 97 5. 94 5. 71  COD 49 41 10 367 39 28 11 22 35 17 10 24 33 30 31 42 35 20 39 43 31 29 18 30  TOC T I C 8 18 9 18 7 21 1 1 26 9 18 8 19 7 17 9 16 8 19 5 18 4 15 7 14 9 15 8 14 7 18 12 8 15 9 9 7 13 8 17 14 8 12 5 14 3 19 10 10  TC 26 27 28 37 27 27 24 25 27 23 19 21 24 22 25 20 24 16 21 31 20 19 22 20  N02 0 ..029 0 . 014 0 ..017 0 .,005 0 ..025 O. 044 O. 046 0 . 045 0 . 005 0 . 021 0 . 029 0 . 048 0 . 063 0 . 065 0 . 033 0 . 021 0 . 027 0 . 013 0 . 031 0 . 026 0 . 014 0 . 012 0 . 012 0 . 017  N03 0..37 0 . 02 0 . 07 0 . 02 0 .,25 0 . 36 0 . 48 0 . 24 0 . 02 0 . 17 0 . 68 0 . 82 1. 43 0 . 64 0 . 65 1. 87 2. 97 2. 55 2 . 32 1 .83 1 .55 1 .54 1 37 . 2. 33  NH3 0 . 012 0 . 071 0 . 142 0 . 120 o . 033 0 . 048 0 . 206 0. 029 0 . 005 0 . 041 0 . 271 0 . 371 o . 452 0 . 012 0 . 069 0 . 148 0 . 180 0 . 099 0 . 275 o . 405 0 . 171 0 . 270 0 . 545 0 . 518  ORGN 1 .04 , 1. .18 1 .05 . 2.,24 1 .. 17 0.,79 0. 76 0 .,95 1., 13 0 . 68 0 . 51 0. 60 0 . 65 1. 05 0 . 94 0 . 65 0. 80 0 . 62 0 . 80 1. 08 0 . 61 0 . 55 0. 03 0 . 91  TOT N ORTH P TKN 1 .45 , 1 .05 , 0..017 1 .27 1 ,25 . 0 ..012 1 ,. 19 1 .28 0 .,003 2..36 2. 36 0 ..037 1 .20 , 1 ,47 . 0..003 1 ,24 . 0 ..005 0 . 84 1 ,50 . 0 ..019 0 .,97 0 .,98 1 .26 0 .,016 1., 13 1 .13 0. 010 0 . 91 o. 005 0 . 72 1 .49 0 . 034 0 . 78 1 .84 0 . 019 0 . 97 2. 59 1. 10 0 . 017 1 .77 1. 06 0 . 018 1. 01 1 .69 0 . 028 2. 69 0. 030 0 . 80 3. 98 0 . 016 0 . 98 3. 28 0 . 72 0 . 057 1. 07 3. 42 0 . 128 1. 49 3. 35 0 . 030 2. 34 0. 010 0 . 78 2 . 37 0 . 008 0 . 82 2. 27 0 . 89 0 . 005 3. 78 1. 43 0 . 087  TOT N 1 .44 1 .29 1 . 13 2 . 18 1 .47 1 .24 1 .56 1 .31 1 .08 0 .90 1 .52 1 .79 2 .42 1 .83 1 . 76 2 .66 3 .88 3 .31 3 .38 3 .29 2 . 32 2.. 34 2..42  ORTH P 0 .014 0 .012 0 .004 0 .034 0 .003 0 .006 0 .018 0 .016 0 .01 1 0 .006 0 .035 0 .021 0 .043 0 .016 0 .034 0 .029 0 .016 0 .054 0 . 129 0 .029 0 .010 0 .007 0 .003  TOT P 0 . 133 0 .113 0 .082 0 . 309 0 .088 o .069 o . 115 o .097 0 .095 o .066 0 . 126 0 . 101 0 . 154 0 .090 o . 126 o .114 0 . 141 0 . 144 0 . 229 0 . 153 o ,.094 o ,.078 0 .064  CL-a 30 42 53 62 38 40 68 71 53 27 36 18 77 93 12 12 9 8 9 8 6 4  TOT P CL-a 0 . 117 32 0 . 103 45 0 . 086 0 . 330 60 69 o. 080 32 0 . 067 49 0 . 111 58 0. 099 89 0 . 107 55 o . 066 29 o . 124 39 0 . 114 19 0 . 162 0 . 1 1 1 93 97 0 . 121 12 0 . 1 15 12 0 . 140 9 o . 154 8 0 . 236 12 o . 168 8 0 . 092 6 0 . 082 5 0 . 067 10 0 . 242  TIME S I T E  6 14 13 14 20 14 27 14 35 14 41 14 48 14 55 14 62 14 69 . 14 76 14 83 14 90 14 97 14 105 14 1 1 1 14 1 18 14 125 14 133 14 139 14 146 14 153 14 TIME S I T E  DO  13.2 8.2 10.2 6.3 10.8 7. 1 11 .2 14.0 11 .0 6.6 7.9 6.4 15 .6 1 1.0 8. 1 8.0 9.3 7.3 8. 1 10..0 10.6 10 .0 DO  6 152 12 .0 13 152 1 1,0. 20 152 1 1.0. 27 152 7..0 35 152 12.,0 4 1152 10.0 48 152 10.5 55 152 16.4 62 152 9.6 69 152 6.4 76 152 10.0 83 152 7 . 3 90 152 16.0 97 152 13 . 0 105 152 8.0 1 1 1152 8.2 1 18 152 9.8 125 152 7. 7 133 152 a.9 139 152 10.0 146 152 10.6 153 152 160 152 10.9  TEMP SPCON  24 .5 270 24 .0 2100 28 .0 13000 25 .0 4700 21 .5 1000 19.2 700 20. 5 340 20 .0 250 18.0 660 14.7 160 14.5 215 13 .0 295 11 .8 590 11 .2 265 10.5 130 10.0 220 7.9 80 8.2 90 3 .0 160 3 .0 170 O .0 25 0 O 235 TEMP SPCON  25..5 1850 25 ..5 4600 27..0 23000 25..5 8200 22.,5 3450 21 .0 3100 20.0 1100 22. 7 2400 1.9..2 1600 14.0 290 15.0 315 13.8 250 13.7 1 100 12.0 550 11 . 0 150 10.0 230 80 . 90 82 . 100 3.4 190 3.O 180 0.0 190 0.2  PH  COD  TOC T I C  8.87 45 8 7.84 22 8 8.03 176 10 7.93 60 9 8.58 36 8 7.42 13 7 8.57 24 9 9. 13 26 7 8.49 13 4 6.43 10 5 6.42 24 7 6. 17 27 10 8.63 22 8 7.61 36 10 6.20 36 12 5.84 32 16 6.50 24 10 5.70 34 1 1 5.80 43 16 6.24 22 8 5.99 24 6 5..96 20 4 PH  COD TOC  8 .49 45 8 .50 49 8.69 . 222 8..07 76 8..80 40 7.82 22 8.,80 46 9.28 35 8.,60 19 6.83 10 6.58 26 6.79 45 8 86 . 34 8 35 . 27 6 .20 33 5.74 27 6.34 24 5.77 39 5.72 21 6.28 22 5.79 22  1 10 5.85  26  11 10 9 12 7 9 10 10 6 5 6 10 12 7 11 14 10 12 16 8 6 10  18 21 24 19 19 18 16 19 19 13 14 16 14 17 8 9 7 9 14 12 15 18 TIC  21 20 23 21 19 19 16 17 20 10 14 13 12 16 8 9 7 9 12 12 15  TC  N02  26 29 34 28 27 25 25 26 23 18 21 26 22 27 20 25 17 20 30 20 21 22  0.012 0.016 0.005 0.023 0.043 0.046 0.044 0.005 0.020 0.028 0.049 0.072 0.060 0.032 0.020 0.028 0 .014 0 .031 0 .022 0 .014 0,,012 0 .012  TC  32 30 32 33 26 28 26 27 26 15 20 23 24 23 19 23 17 21 28 20 21  N02  0..005 0.,005 0.,005 0.020 0.,010 0.037 0.030 0.005 0.005 0.023 0.043 0.055 0.077 0.032 0.020 0.024 0.013 0.024 0.017 0.015 0.013  9 19 0.011  N03  0 .02 0.06 0.02 0.22 0.38 0.48 0.21 0.02 0. 13 0.72 0.83 1.54 0 .59 0 .66 1.83 2.92 2.69 2.24 1 82 , 1., 56 1..56 1,. 36 N03  0..02 0.02 0.02 0.14 0.22 0.34 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.68 0.81 1.73 0.92 0.54 1.4 1 3.48 2. 72 2.33 2.25 1 71 . 1 56 .  NH3  ORGN  0.037 1.00 0. 158 1.07 0.055 1.82 0. 120 1.25 0.025 0. 74 0. 226 0.82 0.016 0.88 0.005 1. 15 0.033 0.71 0.232 0.59 0.393 0.60 0 .472 0 . 77 0 .01 1 1.OI 0 .027 1. 18 0 . 135 0 .65 0 . 185 0 .85 0 . 180 0..60 0,.253 0 .80 0..346 1.06 0.. 174 0..64 0.267 0..50 0.520 0., 34 NH3  o.009 0.005 0.006 0.021 0.016 0.126 0.056 0.005 0.01 1 0.378 0.217 0.298 0.008 0.008 0.188 0.200 0.089 0.200 0.239 o. 166 o. 295  ORGN  1. 18 1. 12 1,. 03 1 49 . 1 04 . 1 08 . 1 35 . 1 00 . 0.86 0.64 0.76 0.91 1.19 0.95 0.57 o. 76 o.66 0.75 0.84 0.59 o.56  TKN  TOT N ORTH P TOT P  CL-;  1.04 1. 23 1.87 1. 37 O. 76 1.05 0.90 1. 15 0. 74 0.82 0.99 1. 24 1.02 1.21 0 . 79 1.03 o .72 1..05 1.41 o .81 o .77 0..86  1.06 0.007 1.31 0.003 1.87 0.019 1.61 0.004 1. 18 O.005 1.58 0.018 1. 15 0.013 1. 15 0.005 0.89 0.005 1.57 0.021 1.87 0.020 2.85 O .025 1.67 0 .020 1.90 0 .029 2.64 O 031 3.98 0 .018 3.42 0.. 106 3.32 0 . 129 3.25 0..031 2. 38 0 .007 2.34 0..009 2.23 0..003  0.088 0.083 0. 245 0.085 o .059 0. 106 0.086 0 .118 0 .067 0 . 124 0 .114 0 . 160 0 . 101 0 . 143 o,.115 0 . 132 0,. 162 0 .226 0. 151 o.095 0 .080 0.057  29 52 49 60 29 52 53 85 50 33 42 29 83 121 13 12 9 8 10 8 8 4  TOT P  CL-i  3.06 0.041 0.154  9  TKN  TOT N ORTH P  1,,19 1., 19 0.,003 1. 12 1..12 0.003 1,, 04 1., 04 0.019 1 51 . 1.67 0.006 1,, 06 1.29 . 0.003 1 21 . 1,59 . 0.010 1 41 . 1 48 . 0.010 1 00 . 1,00 . 0.003 0.87 0..87 0.004 1.02 1 72 . 0.020 0.98 1 83 . 0.013 1.2 1 3.00 0.027 1.20 2.20 0.016 o.96 1 53 . 0.024 0.76 2 .19 0.020 0.96 4.46 0.019 o.75 3.48 0.075 0.95 3 . 30 0.106 1.08 3.35 0.022 0.76 2 . 49 0.007 0.86 2.43 0.006  2.14 0.288 0.62 0.91  0.105 31 0.090 54 0.269 44 0.143 71 0.121 68 0.132 60 0. 153 52 0.1 16 80 0.094 35 0.121 33 0.096 61 0.156 48 0.109 92 0.122 102 0.1 10 15 0.122 13 0.189 11 o. 196 8 0.117 12 0.087 8 0.092 6  TIME S I T E 6 13 20 27 35 41 48 55 62 69 76 83 90 97 105 11 1 1 18 125 133 139 146 153 160  99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99  DO 9 .0 12 .8 7..0 10 .8 11 .8 9 .6 10.. 1 13 .4 8 .0 6 .9 1 1.6 7,.5 15 .0 14,.7 8 .2 8 .9 10 .0 7 .7 7 .8 9 .0 9 ..8 9 .4 1 1.3  TEMP SPCON 24 .O 5500 27 .0 9500 26..0 30000 26 .0 150O0 22 .5 7000 21 .5 7100 2700 20 .0 22 .8 6000 18 .7 3000 16 .0 2200 15 .0 1900 14 .2 470 1500 13 .2 1 1.9 1 100 190 10 .7 240 10,.0 8 .0 100 8 .3 130 3 .0 200 3. 1 220 300 0 .0 700 0 .0 1 10 0 ,2  PH  COD  TOC T I C  8 .75 8 .65 8 .20 8 .60 8 .68 8 .30 8 .94 9 .01 8..20 7 . 13 7 .39 7 .03 8 .88 8 .89 6 .25 5..87 6 .26 5 .65 5 .63 5 .97 5..77 5. 84 5..86  43 69 282 248 62 44 33 60 34 10 37 37 33 31 33 32 22 43 53 31 31 22 24  11 11 7 13 5 9 10 9 6 6 8 9 1 1 8 10 14 10 13 22 14 7 5 6  21 22 22 22 21 21 16 20 21 15 11 1 1 11 14 9 8 6 9 12 13 15 20 9  TC  N02  32 33 29 35 26 30 26 29 27 21 19 20 22 22 19 22 16 22 34 27 22 25 15  O .005 0 .005 o .007 0 .005 0 .005 o .009 o .005 0 .005 0 .005 0 .019 0 .036 0 .042 0,.060 o .038 0 .023 o .,023 0,.012 0..024 0..035 o ..023 o ..013 0 ..022 o ..009  N03 0..02 0..02 0..02 0..02 0..02 0,. 10 0..02 0..02 0..02 0..41 0,.58 1,.49 1,. 10 0..48 0. 89 3. 38 2..75 2,,71 1 .91 . 1 .95 1,57 . 1 55 . 1 .71  NHS  ORGN  TKN  TOT N ORTH P TOT P  0 .006 0 .005 0,,013 0,0 0 9 0 .005 0 .007 0..01 1 0,.005 0 ..018 0 ..655 0 .011 0,.201 0,.012 O..007 0 .. 187 0 . 250 0,. 118 0,. 188 0,. 387 0 .,397 0 . 270 0 . 620 0 . 213  0 . 93 1. 20 0 . 35 1. 64 0 . 96 1. 43 0 . 92 1. 34 0 . 71 0 . 69 0. 90 0 . 71 1. 19 o . 82 0 . 55 0 . 78 0 . 64 0 . 79 1. 29 0 . 99 0 . 63 0 . 58 0 . 53  0,.94 1 ,20 0..36 1 .65 . O..96 1 ,, 44 0..93 1..34 0. 73 1..34 0 . 91 0. 91 1. 21 0 . 83 0 ..74 1. 03 0 . 76 0. 98 1. 68 1. 39 0. 90 1. 20 o . 74  O .94 1 . 20 0 .36 1 .65 O .96 1 .55 0 .93 1 .34 . 0..73 1 .77 1 .53 , 2..44 2 .37 1 .35 . 1 .65 . 4 ..43 3..52 3..71 3..62 3..36 2. 48 2 . 77 2 . 46  0 .004 O..004 O.,090 0 ..008 0 .008 O .004 0.,005 0 .008 0 ..024 0 .,036 0 ..010 0.,025 0 .,010 0 .,01 1 0 .,028 0 .,025 0 .,038 0.,098 0 ..069 0 .,01 1 0 . 005 0 . 003 o. 015  O 105 0,, 134 0 .. 173 0 .. 236 0 . 148 0 . 2 14 0,. 103 0 ..211 0 .. 103 0 .. 168 O.,088 O..114 0 ., 130 O..095 o . 113 0 . 139 0 .. 171 0 .. 206 0 .. 227 0 . 191 0 . 095 0 . 055 o . 123  CL-a 27 51 22 67 33 69 35 44 2 1 4 1 92 26 72 79 21 15 1 1 9 15 10 7 4 9  APPENDIX III D I T C H MONITORING D A T A  114  (1985)  DITCH SURVEY. 1985  All  u n i t s mg/L except TEMP °C ; SPCON umho/cm (10 umho/cm =  DITCH  cn  DO  TEMP  SPCON  pH  COD  TOC  Avenue 52  0..8  13 .0  440  6 .0  27  F r a s e r Hw Avenue 64 Avenue 52 Latimer *  7 .9 , 7..4 4 .2 5 .8 .  9 .0 10 .3 8 .8 7 .8  183 382 2020 1940  6 .9 7 .3 7 .0 4 .6  27 59 85 2570  F r a s e r Hw Avenue 64 Avenue 52 Lat1mer  2 .8 4 .4 . 6 .8 2 .2  9 .7 1 .7 1 . 10..0 10 .6  215 973 1 130 1100  7. 1 6 .2 5 .8 6 .7  F r a s e r Hw Avenue 64 Avenue 52 Latimer  6 .2 4 .0 . 5..5 1.3,  7 .0 9 .7 9..0 10.. 3  125 415 800 503  6 .6 5 .5 4 ,B 5 .9  * Flow = 136 L/m1n  TIC  mS/m)  ; N02. N03, NH3  N02  TC  1 1 29  40  9 21 27 1200  14 22 61 25  23 43 88 1220  52 54 71 358  22 25 31 164  8 13 12 26  30 38 43 190  41 73 91 209  13 25 31 77  9 20 20 37  22 45 51 1 14  N03  NH3  mg/L as N ; ORTH P mg/L as P ORG N  TOT N  TKN 1 . 12  <0 .02  O. 103  1 .02  0 .08 0 .28 o .03 3,.02  1 .350 0. 220 1 .120 28. 000  1 .05 3 .36 1 .97 60 . 3 0  0 . 022 0 ..016 0 . 140 0. 020  1..63 10..80 1 1.40 . <0 .02  0 . 102 0 . 128 0 . 655 4 .600  0 .99 1 . 17 1 .77 8 .80  1 .09 . 1 .30 . 2..42 13..40  0 .,023 0 .,012 0 . 032 o . 098  1 .40 , 6 .44 1 1OO, 4 ,. 15  0. 0. 0. 0.  090 094 506 745  0 .89 1 .45 2 .02 4 .81  0 ..98 1 ,54 . 2.,53 5..56  <0..005 <0..005 0..070 0 .,009 0 .. 127  2 3 3 88  .40 .58 .09 .30  ORTH P  TOT P  1 . 14  0 .030  0 . 293  2 .48 3 .93 3 . 13 91 . 5 0  0 .023 0 .049 0..061 21 .000 .  0 .050 0 . 136 o .086 23..000  2 12 13 13  .74 . 10 .90 .40  0 ..053 0 ..007 0 ..042 1 .720 .  0 ..089 0 ..026 0 ..073 2 . 1 10  2 7 13 9  .40 .99 .50 .81  0 . .098 0 . .023 5 .6 5 0 0 . .309  0 . 136 0 . 053 5 .9 8 0 0 . 481  APPENDIX IV  SEDIMENT ANALYSES  116  (1985)  SEDIMENT SAMPLES, AUGUST 26, PARAMETER  RESULTS •  Aluminum Arsenic Barium C a l c ium Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper I ron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Lead Selenium Strontium Tin Zinc N i t r o g e n (TKN) Phosphorus T o t a l Carbon T o t a l  SITE  12  11,000 36 39 3,760 < 1 39 12 27 27, 100 9,020 309 14 40 39 1 3 29 < 5 1 16 1300 802 20,600  1 17  1985  (ug/g  d r y wt)  SITE  13  10,700 30 38 4,640 < 1 38 1 3 22 26,100 9,290 319 1 4 39 41 < 10 29 42 76 890 751 16,200  

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