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Pre-contract procedures and design management of fast track projects Rahemtulla, Arif Ramzan 1989

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P R E - C O N T R A C T P R O C E D U R E S A N D D E S I G N M A N A G E M E N T O F F A S T T R A C K P R O J E C T S by ARIF RAMZAN RAHEMTULLA B. Sc. (Civil Engineering) University of Nairobi, Kenya A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A P P L I E D SCIENCE in T H E FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1989 © ARIF RAMZAN RAHEMTULLA, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Civil Engineering The University of British Columbia 2324 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: Abstract Traditional engineering procedure, in its essentials, comprises four separate but closely related stages namely, the investigation of possible solutions leading to a recom-mended proposal; the development of detailed design and contract documentation; the calling of tenders and construction; and finally working operation. The procedure is characterized by the sequential manner in which each phase of the project life cycle is implemented. In comparison, fast tracking involves the overlapping of design and construction which provides a mechanism for an overall reduction in project duration and costs. This method diverges significantly from conventional practice as some portion of overall design is executed simultaneously with construction. Fast tracking has been employed on a variety of projects but its theoretical benefits have not been obtained consistently, failure generally been attributed to inadequate pre-contract planning and management. Previous experience has not led to a detailed definition and documentation of fast tracking as a formal engineering procedure. This thesis presents pre-contract procedure for fast track building projects and associated management techniques required for its proper operation. Traditional engineering procedure and design practice are reviewed to set the basis from which the proposed procedures may be developed and to identify limitations of established practice. Fast track design definition is selected following an assessment of alternative design definitions for their ability to satisfy principal pre-contract and construction objectives. Pre-contract procedure is presented in the form of a project level network and defined comprehensively at the design discipline level with the aid of activity schedules. The procedure is supplemented with a commentary on fast track execution requirements. Construction commencement using a partially complete design results ii in greater volumes of variations and information requests. A simulation study of the operations of a design team is presented to demonstrate the disruptive effect of variations on design performance and construction implementation. Fast track design management is necessitated by the need to control the progres-sive release of information during construction. Procedures for information planning, scope definition and scheduling, design review and variation control are presented. Information planning focuses upon early information release systems for construc-tion. Scheduling procedures are tailored to cater for the varying levels of design definition during pre-contract development and to match the process of construction. Emphasis in design review is on assuring completeness and accuracy for global design requirements immediately prior to information release for construction implementa-tion. Variation control involves the identification and establishment of management plans for anticipated variations during the pre-contract stage and the procedure for processing and recording formal changes and requests for additional information. In combination, these management techniques enable design control demanded in a non-traditional scheme of working. i n Table of Contents Abstract ii List of Tables v List of Figures vi Acknowledgements vii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Engineering Procedure 1 1.2 Design Management 5 1.3 Research Objectives and Definitions 6 1.3.1 Research Objectives 6 1.3.2 Definitions 6 1.4 Content of Thesis 7 2 Literature Review 9 3 Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 17 3.1 General 17 3.2 Pre-Contract Procedures for Buildings 18 3.3 Design Structure and Outputs 21 3.4 Design Office Organization Structure and Time Usage 25 3.4.1 Design Office Organization Structure 25 Project Engineer Structure 27 iv Design Team Structure 27 3.4.2 Design Time Usage 28 3.5 Design Management 30 3.6 Performance of Traditional Systems 32 3.6.1 Time Scale of Projects 32 3.6.2 Design and Documentation 36 3.7 Summary 38 4 Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 39 4.1 General 39 4.2 Factors Affecting Fast Track Procedure 40 4.3 Fast Track Design Definition 42 4.3.1 Principal and Supporting Design Inputs 43 4.3.2 Design Evaluation - Pre-contract Objectives 45 4.3.3 Design Evaluation - Construction Implementation 46 4.3.4 Variation Impact 50 Simulation Analysis of the Variation Process 51 The Program 54 Variations - Impact Assessment 55 4.3.5 Design Definition - Summary 60 4.4 Pre-Contract Fast Track Procedure 60 4.4.1 Stage 1 - Pre-Commissioning 67 4.4.2 Stage 2 - Initial Considerations 74 4.4.3 Stage 3 - Information Gathering 74 4.4.4 Stage 4 - Preliminary Engineering Considerations 74 Economic and Risk Analysis 75 4.5 Stage 5 - Investigations 76 v 4.6 Stage 6 - Scheme Selection 78 4.7 Stage 7 - Preliminary Design 78 4.8 Stage 8 - General Arrangements 79 4.9 Stage 9 - Tender and Final Design to Grade Level 81 4.10 Summary 81 5 Fast Track - Design Management 82 5.1 General 82 5.2 Management Requirements 83 5.3 Design Organization 84 5.4 Information Planning 87 5.5 Design Scheduling Procedures 88 5.5.1 Pre-Commissioning Stage 89 5.5.2 Preliminary Engineering Considerations Stage 92 5.5.3 The Preliminary Design Stage 94 5.5.4 Tender and Final Design 96 5.6 Review Procedures 98 5.6.1 Design Review 98 5.6.2 Documentation Reviews 101 5.6.3 External Reviews 101 5.7 Variation Control Procedures 101 5.8 Summary 106 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 109 6.1 Conclusions 109 6.2 Recommendations 110 Bibliography 112 vi List of Tables 4.1 Determination of Governing Disciplines 44 4.2 Design Definition & Pre-Contract Objectives 47 4.3 Input and Output Data 56 4.4 Stage 1 - Pre-Commissioning 64 4.5 Stage 2 - Initial Considerations 65 4.6 Stage 3 - Information Gathering 66 4.7 Stage 4 - Preliminary Engineering Considerations 68 4.8 Stage 5 - Investigations 69 4.9 Stage 6 - Scheme selection 70 4.10 Stage 7 - Preliminary design 71 4.11 Stage 8 - General arrangements 72 4.12 Stage 9 - Tender & Final Design to Grade 73 4.13 Factors Influencing Pre-Contract Risks 77 5.1 Work Breakdown - Preliminary Design 97 5.2 Sample Design Review Sheet 102 5.3 Sample Variation List 105 5.4 Sample Action/Criteria Schedules 105 5.5 Design Management tools 108 vii List of Figures 1.1 Alternative Procedural Techniques 3 3.1 Typical Project Organization 20 3.2 Pre-contract Procedure for Buildings 22 3.3 Tender and Mobilization Procedures 23 3.4 Organization Structures for Engineering Consultancies (Miller, 1970) 26 3.5 Activity Sampling in the Design Office (Chan, 1968) 29 3.6 Time Scale of Housing Projects (NEDO, 1975) 33 3.7 Time Scale of Building Projects (NEDO, 1975) 34 3.8 Effect of the Method of Organization on Project Times (NEDO, 1983) 37 4.1 The Fast Track Process 41 4.2 Variation Processing 53 4.3 Fast Track Procedure 61 5.1 Skeleton Network - Storage Building 90 5.2 Design Scheduling Process 93 5.3 Design & Review Process 100 5.4 Design Variation Control 107 viii Acknowledgements I would like to thank Dr. A. D. Russell for his guidance and financial support during the course of my studies. I greatly appreciate his efforts in reviewing this thesis and the suggestions to improve its content. My thanks to Dr. W. F. Caselton for reviewing the thesis. Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Engineering Procedure Traditional engineering procedure is the organized system within which civil engineer-ing works are conceived, planned, constructed and launched into working operation. The procedure is firmly established throughout the English-speaking world and stands in principle on the firm foundation of the Client-Consultant-Contractor relationship. The procedure is characterized by the sequential manner in which the project is devel-oped through its life cycle. Once the need has been established, the process, taken in logical sequence, involves the careful consideration of possible alternatives and their economic evaluation leading to a recommended proposal and an estimate of its cost; the development of detailed design and contract documentation; followed by the call-ing of tenders under these defined conditions and construction; and finally operation of the completed facility. This procedure has evolved gradually and is employed for a large proportion of civil engineering projects. Properly operated it secures value for money and protects the legitimate interest of all those concerned. Over the last fifty years the rapid increase in global population and the drive to improve the quality of life has resulted in greater demand for construction. Typical of the modern day are high inflation and interest rates, strong business competition and rapid technological change with associated risks of design obsolescence. These factors have compelled a search for construction methods and procedural techniques 1 Chapter 1. Introduction 2 which minimize durations of design and construction. Prominent developments in this regard are the considerable advances made in construction implementation through increased and efficient mechanization, novel building methods and considerable use of standard and pre-fabricated components. Extensive use of specialist sub-contracting in response to complexity and sophistica-tion in design has provided for greater economy in the execution of site works, but at the expense of coordination and contractual difficulties. Efficiency and speed in de-sign have increased through overlapping of pre-contract activities and standardization of drawings, details, specifications and conditions of contract. Figure 1.1 provides simplified schematics of alternative engineering procedures. The sequential process is included only for comparison, as in practice, a very limited number of projects follow this trend. Acceleration is a technique in which the general sequence of traditional procedure is maintained but conventional site durations may be reduced using methods such as 24 hour site operations, incentive schemes and off-season working. The basis of the contract award in this instance remains unchanged and the smooth execution of construction relies upon complete design and comprehensive contract documentation. Variations from traditional practice offer alternative means of securing time re-ductions. The design and build or turnkey approach is one such non-traditional pro-cedure. In the turnkey contract the client either directly or through his consultant invites submissions for the complete design, construction and operation, if required, of the project. This procedure has been in use in certain fields of engineering, espe-cially in the chemical and oil industries. It differs from the traditional one in that contracting firms retain the services of consultants directly and thus command the resources needed to design, construct and equip projects and to offer a contract for de*gn Development Approval Working DnaMngs Documents Tender smcrSECXJEmw. Construction 3 Design Development Approval Woriong Drawings Documents Tender TRADITIONAL Oomtrucbon o c o' t3 Design Planning Development Approval Working Drawings Documents Tender ACCELERATION Construction Design Developmert Planning Approval Poci Tender C*r«a*jcBon-ContracM W.drg> P o o ^ Tender^  CorisoTJctlon-Contract a W. Prp^ Docs ^Tende^ ftmucCon • Cgpjnjci 3. PHASED CON3TRCUT10N (MuHple Contracts) Design Development Planning Approval « - . • • — • wonong prejaaigi Does i Tender. CimaliycflgL. FAST TRACK (Slngte Contract) Figure 1.1: Alternative Procedural Techniques CO Chapter 1. Introduction 4 so doing. Construction commences when design is only partially complete and confi-dence for such a deviation stems from documented experience and understanding of requirements from previous projects. Another approach to reducing project duration is phased construction. In this system individual sections of a project, complete in design and specification are let for construction in a carefully pre-planned sequence. The design as a whole remains incomplete. In buildings for example, excavation, structural, electrical, mechani-cal and architectural fittings and finishes may comprise such work packages. When competitive bidding is adopted this procedure will involve a large number of con-tractors. Systems to provide the organization to manage the complexities of the separate contract system have been developed and include construction management and management contracting. Theoretically, even greater reduction in project duration is possible if construc-tion can be commenced while design as a whole and at the individual work package level is only partially complete in a process known as fast tracking. Construction can be through single or multiple contracts. Under the accepted Client-Consultant-Contractor system, fast tracking represents a significant departure from traditional practice, due to the incompleteness of design at contract award and the necessity of progressively defining it during the course of construction. Design definition at tender is therefore a primary consideration for this technique. Fast tracking offers considerable potential savings in cost and duration and many variations of this technique are in widespread use. However, there are mixed reac-tions regarding the true benefits of the approach largely due to the lack of a formal procedure defining the method in its entirety, (Robison 1987). Fast tracking affects the entire spectrum of the project life cycle from project planning to post completion Chapter 1. Introduction 5 evaluations. The comprehensive description of fast tracking as a methodical pro-cess for engineering development is therefore an essential pre-requisite for organizing design and construction to achieve success consistently. 1.2 Design Management In the traditional system, the pace of pre-contract development is often set by the consultant's approach to project development as moulded by his past experience. The design process is punctuated by formal approvals by the client. Simple management systems have served to direct design development towards the principal goal of com-prehensive design and contract documentation, frequently over a lengthy time frame. The focus for management control has generally been on the construction phase. On fast track projects however, the incompleteness of design and the inevitability of change poses a major risk and measures to contain these risks are essential. Fast track design can be divided into two phases. The pre-contract phase, during which initial design development takes place, aims at an early call for tenders. The post-contract phase, during which outstanding design is executed simultaneously with construction. The latter phase is distinctly different from the traditional process in which a need for the continuous supply of design information in the post-contract phase does not arise. Fast tracking therefore demands careful management of design. Design management is essentially aimed at control of information to satisfy the time policy set by this strategy and to fulfill the demands generated by the dynamic process of construction. It includes: 1. maintaining the pre-contract duration at a minimum in line with the overall strategy of reducing project duration; f. Chapter 1. Introduction 6 2. ensuring correct timing and sequence of information release for construction planning and implementation; 3. completeness, accuracy and consistency of information released for construction so as to minimize disruption, rework and contractual claims against the client and his agents; and 4. organization of post-contract design to accommodate, with minimum impact, the consultant's responsibilities, operations of variation and information pro-cessing. 1.3 Research Objectives and Definitions 1.3.1 Research Objectives The objectives of the research are: 1. to consolidate available information on the traditional process thereby providing a reference base for the development of a fast track procedure; 2. to identify the principal factors which influence fast track design definition, present an approach for their assessment, and develop a fast track procedure; and 3. to develop procedures for the management of fast track design. 1.3.2 Definitions The Client initiates the project and is responsible for providing funds for it's execu-tion. The Consultants are appointed by the client to have overall responsibility for design Chapter 1. Introduction 7 and to supervise the construction of the project. The Contract is the agreement entered into between the client and the contractor for the execution of the works. The Contractor is the organization or individual undertaking the execution of the works. The Contract Documents are the form of tender, conditions of contract, specifica-tions, drawings, bills of quantities and form of agreement. The Cost Estimate is the consultant's opinion of the cost of the project. Design includes the initial investigations, conceptual development, calculations and drawings for construction. Post-contract Design includes the amplification of construction information sup-plied at tender and the processing of variations. The Pre-contract Phase is the term of the project life cycle preceding the award of the contract. The Report is the appreciation of the project prepared by the consultants for the client. A Variation is an addition, omission or alteration in work described and included in the contract. The Works refer to those parts of the project to be executed by contract or by direct labour. 1.4 Content of Thesis Chapter two is the literature review which focuses upon procedures employed for fast track execution and highlights special efforts in connection with the management of Chapter 1. Introduction 8 design and construction. The chapter concludes with a summary of the major fea-tures of engineering practice on fast track projects. Chapter three consists of a detailed review of traditional engineering procedure and design practice. The process of building development is charted in sufficient detail to permit understanding of the traditional process. This review also exposes those aspects of traditional practice which require special consideration for procedural devel-opment for fast track projects. Survey data on the time scale of projects is presented and the potential benefits of fast tracking demonstrated. Chapter four presents a summary of the principal factors which affect design definition and an approach for their assessment. A pre-contract network and detailed activity schedules which describe the process comprehensively are developed. The procedure is supplemented with a commentary on particular requirements for its operation. An evaluation of the impact of variations upon design performance and construction im-plementation is conducted using a simulation analysis of the operations of a model design team. Chapter five contains details of design management procedures for information plan-ning, design scheduling, design review and variation control. Management processes are described in diagrammatic form and where possible examples to illustrate the application of proposed tools are provided. Chapter six lists the conclusions drawn from the present study and provides recom-mendations for further research. C h a p t e r 2 Literature Review A large proportion of reported fast track projects do not exhibit the design and con-struction overlap as defined in the earlier chapter. Commonly the phased construction and fast track approaches are taken to be identical. In many cases, acceleration, de-sign/build and even rapid construction methods have been termed as fast tracking. A number of projects, so classified, are reviewed as they diverge from traditional prac-tice and therefore provide insights into planning and operation methods. In the text appropriate definitions of such procedures are adopted. The emphasis in this review is on the procedural framework and management techniques employed on fast track projects. The papers are reviewed in chronological order so that developments in fast tracking strategy over time may be observed. The Consulting Engineer (1961) reported on parallel working, a system in which early contractor involvement and the overlapping of design and construction enabled reductions in project duration. In this system the contractor was appointed on a non-competitive basis. The procedure was commented upon by The Association of Consulting Engineers (UK), who saw closer designer and contractor collaboration as a positive step but cautioned against the possibilities of inadequate advance planning. The exclusion of open competitive bidding was seen as a major limitation as it did not assure the best possible combination of quality and economy. Whitcomb and Kliment (1973) provide an account for organization and man-agement of phased construction for buildings in the multiple contracting situation. 9 Chapter 2. Literature Review 10 Pre-contract construction planning using network analysis to determine sequence and pace of design work is recommended. Considerable emphasis is placed on bid packag-ing and it is suggested that the sixteen division Uniform Construction Index may be regrouped into construction contracts. The authors express concern about the speed and commitment of the client's decisions which are vital for smooth and uninterrupted flow of design and construction. A pre-design schedule of key decisions required dur-ing the life of the project is proposed as a control tool. The paper comments that whereas multiple bidding can provide competitive prices and the opportunity to an-alyze tenders in detail, total project costs will be unknown until the final contract is awarded. It has been suggested therefore that the first contracts should only be awarded once satisfactory bids have been obtained for 60% of the budget. This would be a necessary risk containment strategy. However, action to counter subsequent high bids in the face of limited scope for project re-definition once site works are underway is not discussed. The need for construction management input supplemental to the normal design function is emphasized for practical implementation of the proposals. Goldhaber et al (1977) describe the implementation of a number of phased con-struction projects whose success they attribute to the adoption of the construction management system. Their account of the design and construction of the Honolulu International Airport illustrates the benefits of integrating design and construction. There is a notable absence of an evaluation demonstrating the advantages of the phased approach over the traditional one in relation to principal project objectives. A post completion cost evaluation has been presented for another project, the San Diego Metropolitan Correctional Center. The assessment incorporates a number of assumptions regarding comparative duration of construction, general contractor prof-its and contains no allowance for the risks of the incompleteness of design thereby excluding a realistic comparison. Chapter 2. Literature Review 11 The criterion for adopting a non-traditional method is frequently economic feasi-bility. Morris (1977) presents a method of assessing the potential economic advantages of construction acceleration through off-season work from the viewpoint of the general contractor. This is a special application and in view of the context of this study is not considered in detail. However, this approach towards estimating potential benefits prior to selecting a procedural strategy is worthy of mention as reports of appropriate evaluations for fast track projects are limited. White (1980) conducted research to evaluate the performance of phased construc-tion projects. The method employed involved a comparison between scheduling ac-tivities of a phased construction project and a hypothetical traditional case derived from it. Recreating the hypothetical case for a process as complex as construction is a major limitation of this method. The study does, however, draw the anticipated conclusions that design planning and scheduling are vital for harmonious execution of site works. Design and construction planning measures to permit construction acceleration of the River Bend Nuclear Project are described by Baker and Boyd (1982). Scope definition and the adequacy of initial design are highlighted as the most important factors for the acceleration approach. 70% of design and 80% of procurement were complete on construction commencement. A carefully organized change order sys-tem also contributed towards minimization of delays on site works. The strategy for acceleration involved a construction scheduling methodology which permitted a con-siderable amount of overtime work. Labour poses a considerable risk in construction and is critical when it is the means of construction acceleration. The execution of a Nuclear Stabilization Agreement controlling labour action was a vital step in reducing the possibility of site disruption from strikes. Chapter 2. Literature Review 12 Undue haste in works commencement due to political pressures for the construc-tion of two air bases in Israel has also been labelled as " fast tracking " , (Farritor, 1982). Insufficient final design was available at contract award and a cost plus type of contract was adopted. The parties faced considerable difficulties in administering the contract due to their unfamiliarity with its workings. Economy and efficiency in logistics and materials acquisition was impossible as project requirements were vaguely defined. This project is illustrative of what fast tracking is not; a system in which cost is unknown and mobilization requirements are not clearly understood on contract award. The advantages of employing a single experienced contractor to implement a spe-cialized project on a turnkey basis are evident in Slepow's and Medelssohns's (1982) account of a demonstration coal-oil mixture project. Project management techniques employed to assure a successful outcome indicate that the premiums paid for speed were cost, limitations on design preferences and inadequate review of design proposals coupled with a heavy reliance of the contractors expertise. Absence of a formal brief, limited specialized design experience and a late change in sites are some of difficulties surmounted by consultants in the development of a micro-chip factory for a state backed agency in Britain (Sudjic 1982). The aspects of design complexity and scarcity of information were tackled by the adoption of a management contract and by tracking the development of a similar plant in the United States. Greater effort on the part of the consultants was necessary in coordinating design and in tailoring it to maximize off site fabrication and to allow for sequential working by separate trades. Service contractors were required to contribute towards the design effort by the preparation of detailed proposals for installation to demonstrate that their individual work tasks adequately accommodated the complexity of the project as a whole. Chapter 2. Literature Review 13 Schick (1982), discusses aspects of pre-contract procedure for in-situ uranium leaching plants. Details of the sequence of engineering design, level of engineering definition prior to tender and desirable form of contract for fast track implementation are provided. For such projects finalization of the process flow sheet is important for engineering design. Preliminary general arrangements can then be prepared and confirmed once certified vendor drawings for equipment are received. A unit price tender using these drawings with allowances for items undefined at the time should be used to invite tenders. Schick identifies the critical aspect of success to be the accuracy and speed with which detailed engineering is produced. The unit price contract not only allows a fairer distribution of risk but is eminently suitable for valuing variations. A simple summary economic comparison to demonstrate the advantages of fast tracking is included. Harwood (1983) provides a list of some of the factors that designers have to accommodate in planning a fast track project. These include design flexibility and reserve to cover all eventualities in terms of function, acceptance of change and cost allowance for retrofit to accommodate the user. Emphasis is also placed on planning and scheduling of design and to providing sufficient design support during the critical overlapping period to limit the impact of pressure for information. The report on the NCPA Geothermal Project by Whalen (1985) provides an indi-cation of substantial potential savings available both to client and contractor. Whalen provides a list of what he terms as "fast track risks" but these are really indistinguish-able from the risks associated with any construction project. Costs for variations and higher professional fees are seen as economic losses, thus the fact that a premium must be paid for the non-conventional approach is not recognized. Theberge (1987) conducted a study to determine the factors which influence fast track performance. His conclusions echo those of previous writers, namely greater Chapter 2. Literature Review 14 planning and control of design and variations. This study highlights two other points in connection with evaluation of fast track performance. Firstly, the enormous diffi-culty in conducting a realistic evaluation of fast track impact. Whereas the method of delay estimation in conjunction with examination of contract documents and site records is reasonable, evaluation can be colored by the analyst's involvement and role in the project. It is also difficult to accept the precise time and cost evaluations of impact due to individual design or scheduling inadequacies in view of the complex en-vironment of a construction project. Secondly, the problem of differentiating between poor and inefficient design as opposed to inadequate design performance directly at-tributable to the use of the fast track strategy. This work does, however, highlight the need for a deliberate assessment of necessary engineering input prior to tender and the importance of records of activities of the client, consultant and the contractor in connection with claims for project delay. Closeky's (1988) report on the collapse of the Station Square Development in Burnaby, B.C. identifies fast tracking, high degree of construction fragmentation, fee competition and poor site administration practice as principal factors contributing to failure. He recommends the preparation of a manual of practice which will pro-vide guidelines regarding responsibilities of the various parties, coordination of design and construction, certification and design review to assure public safety. The report provokes thought regarding the liabilities of the consultant involved on a fast track project in regard to scope definition, the pre-tender estimate, site supervision and claims evaluation. The dangers of sub-standard quality in the constructed project as a result of the absence of suitable design practices are mentioned in the ASCE's (1988) Manual of Professional Practice. Other reports (ENR July 21, ENR July 23, Pomerance 1987 and Archer and Knight 1988) of major fast track projects reaffirm that success requires close design Chapter 2. Literature Review 15 control and intimate involvement of the project team. A small survey of local engi-neering practice revealed that considerations to methods of reducing project duration through fast tracking and similar techniques are active policy on most projects. How-ever, the processes for so doing and the manner in which design should be structured are generally undocumented. A summary of the important points highlighted by the literature review is pre-sented below. 1. The concept of fast tracking has assumed widely differing definitions in the industry. Few reported projects can be classified as true fast track projects, having a design/construction overlap at the work package level. 2. Fast tracking as an organized system for engineering development has not been documented in a manner which permits a methodical approach to design and construction for different classes of engineering facilities. 3. The dangers of inadequate design planning and those of excessive variations are appreciated but guidelines regarding the manner in which design should be organized to avoid these shortcomings are lacking. 4. The complexity of construction operations makes a realistic evaluations of fast track performance difficult. 5. Although economic benefits are the primary aim of employing fast track proce-dure, pre-design evaluations to gauge the potential benefits and risks involved do not appear to be undertaken. Where fast tracking has been employed, the reasons leading to the decision and an analysis of this decision are generally unavailable. 6. For the consulting engineer conditioned to providing services of a high standard Chapter 2. Literature Review 16 in a time frame most frequently set by himself, fast tracking coupled with fee competition are exerting enormous downward pressure on performance. 7. A separate construction management function is being resorted to increasingly as a means of support for early construction commencement. This points to the need for the consultant to develop in-house expertise in this area so that the non-traditional approach may still be undertaken successfully within the client-consultant-contractor system. Chapter 3 Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 3.1 General In this chapter traditional pre-contract procedures and design practice are reviewed. The objectives of this review are listed below in the divisions in which they are subsequently discussed. 1. Pre-contract procedure for buildings. The aim is to document traditional pre-contract procedure for buildings in a comprehensive fashion to allow for an examination of the manner in which this process may be modified to permit fast tracking. 2. Design structure and outputs. To describe the internal structure of design and the sequence and timing of its outputs so that the implication of alternative design outputs in the fast track situation may be gauged. 3. Design office organization structure and time usage. The purpose here is to present information on the organization of the design office and allocation of design time usage to various pre-contract activities. This information can then be used to judge the impact of fast tracking upon resource and time requirements. 17 Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 18 4. Design management. A summary of prevailing design management practice is presented so that the applicability and effectiveness of these techniques may be assessed for the fast track approach. 5. Performance of traditional procedure. To assess the potential of fast tracking through an examination of the perfor-mance of traditional procedures in relation to the time scale of projects. To identify the principal criticisms of traditional procedure so that measures to reduce their impact in a non-traditional framework may be incorporated. The focus of this review is on multi-storey buildings, an engineering facility that is frequently fast tracked. Information and data presented relate mostly to engineering practice in the United Kingdom as similar information for North American practice is limited. Particular differences in comparative practice, design organization and so forth are highlighted. Observations made on the basis of available data are, however, applicable to both systems due to the global similarity between them. 3.2 Pre-Contract Procedures for Buildings Traditional engineering procedure is essentially the system within which all the prin-cipal phases of the project life cycle are executed in a sequential manner. A certain amount of overlapping between various phases will occur but its influence on the overall performance and system of execution is not significant. The procedure has been documented in a general fashion in many standard texts (RIBA 1966, ICE 1976, Halpin and Woodhead 1980) and would appear to be essentially the same for most engineering projects. The process in its details is, however, different for classes of facilities by virtue of the nature of the works, the participants and their roles and Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 19 the influence of local custom and laws. The pre-construction phase of the process is complex and comprises a large number of inter-related operations. Descriptions of the process which expose this complexity are limited (Chan 1968, Ministry of Public Building and Works 1967, Napper et al 1967) and arise when network analysis is employed for scheduling the design process. Traditional procedure is based upon the client-consultant-contractor relationship. Building projects require the input of a number of specialist consultants. Figure 3.1 provides details of a typical organization for such projects in the United King-dom. The principal differences in the North American set-up are the exclusion of the Quantity Surveyor and the resident supervision team. This alternative project team composition results in a re-distribution of responsibilities for contract compilation and use of contract forms which do not require detailed quantity breakdowns. Figure 3.2 is an activity network prepared by the author for a building project. The network has been sectionalized to highlight the participation of the various par-ties during the course of pre-contract development. Of the engineering disciplines, only the structural consultant is included but the general trend of design development is similar for the other disciplines. This simple network is only illustrative of such a project and is not intended to project a firm indication of activity durations or sequence. The progression of design within the stages shown is cyclic, due to infor-mation and approval feedback from associated designers and the client. For clarity activity inter-relationships and the cyclic nature of design are not included. It may be noted that the network assumes simultaneous and independent selection of all consul-tants generally in accordance with the recommendations of the ASCE (1975). It also assumes select tendering, this being the most frequently used method of contractor selection. A similar network that illustrates the contractor's involvement during ten-der and mobilization is shown in Figure 3.3. In combination, these networks define OFF SITE ORGANIZATION Contractor's Head Office Contr Site < actor's Office Contractor's QS ON SITE ORGANIZATION THE DESIGN TEAM Client Architect Elec & Mech Consultant Civils Consultant Design Links Project Architect Site Control Staff Structural Consultant I Quantity Surveyor Design Links Resident Supervisor SiteQS SUPERVISION TEAM * Not Included in the North American Set-Up Figure 3.1: Typical Project Organization to o I Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 21 the process of engineering up to the completion of the first major activity directly relating to the permanent works. This information can be employed as a baseline case for development of a fast track procedure. 3.3 D e s i g n S t r u c t u r e a n d O u t p u t s The distinctive staged structure of the pre-contract phase arises due to the require-ment of securing formal approvals for the recommendations of the feasibility and tender analyses. Coincident with these approvals are the requirements for regula-tory approvals for planning and construction. This explains the constrictions in the pre-contract network and introduces two possible causes of delay during this phase. The principal output of the investigation and report stage is the Feasibility Re-port. The document in its essentials contains details of possible project alternatives and economic and technical analyses supporting the recommended proposal. Design development in terms of drawings is mainly architectural with an emphasis on detail required for regulatory approvals. The objectives of the final design stage are the production of a complete design and associated contract documentation for the purpose of inviting tenders and for construction execution. The intermediate outputs of design are employed strictly for inter-disciplinary discussion and are not required for any function with respect to information for construction. The practice in regard to the amount of information for construction and respon-sibility for its preparation varies. In the United Kingdom, building contracts are most frequently awarded on a lump sum basis using detailed drawings and comprehensive bills of quantities (NEDO 1975). The design team usually includes a quantity surveyor who compiles the contract package and is responsible for measurement and certifica-tion during construction. In North America, the lump sum contract is prevalent but Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures Prelim Comparative cost studies Investigate Experience Costs Sketch Designs & Design Panel Approval Preliminary Layouts & Preliminary Development Permit Project Purchase Appoint Shortlist Invite Proposals Evaluate Proposals , Interview Firms I I Commission j Scope Definition/Progress ControiyFunding Investigations Need Land Project Manager Consultants * _ — Consultants Additional Information QUANTITY SURVEYOR ARCHITECT CLIENT STRUCTURAL ENGINEER GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER CONSULTANT SELECTION Initial Information Prelim. Eng. General t~ k> h» Considerations Collection Considerations Investigations Scheme Selection Prelim. Design Site Recce Examine Avail data Assess Geotech. - - ^-Geotech Needs Contract INVESTIGATION & REPORT Site St report Investigations (continued below) Investment Analysis Refine - — 4-Prelim, layouts / Feasibility Report Waiting/Additional Data j Development; Permit Waiting \ Prelim. Contractual Prequalification \ ^ Report Evaluation Approval I : to proceed ; Considerations & Document Compilation Final Architectural General Arrangements Progress Control & Cost Finalize Architectural Details estimate Draft Tender Package Documents' Contract Documents Design/Document Evaluation Tender Report Tender (continued from above) Waiting/Additional Data Draft GLA'S Global Calcs Await Final * Comment G A ' s Detailed Design, Drawings Independent Check Specifications i Construction Permit & Award INVESTIGATION & REPORT FINAL DESIGN & DOCUMENTATION Figure 3.2: Pre-contract Procedure for Buildings Figure 3.3: Tender and Mobilization Procedures 9 •8 Co Alternative Designs DESIGN - Temporary works, permits Supplers Quotations LABOUR - Recruitment. Housing On-site Assessment SHE - Layout. Services. Offices Preliminary Evaluation DetaRed Evaluation Tender PRE-WORKS - Setting out. Clearance Excav. of Tender Documents & Pricing * Methods & Resources & Award MATERIALS - Orders. Delivery, Storage Bonds, Insurance etc EQUIPMENT - Purchase, Transfer, Service Outlne Schedule CONSTRUCTION • Methods & Schedule s3 o S3 i O o c N5 CO Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 24 tenders are often based only on drawings. The Architect assumes the responsibility for contract compilation and detailed assessment for pricing is undertaken by tender-ers. Under both systems information supplied is complete and representative of the final form that the project is anticipated to take. Considered tenders can therefore be submitted and the complex pre-construction operations described earlier are thus readily accomplished despite relatively short tender and mobilization periods. The contractor's long term planning for works execution is also set upon a sound basis requiring minimum consultation with the designer. On the topic of construction information, the other important consideration is the manner in which variations to the work described and included in the contract are dealt with. Ideally in a situation in which a complete design is available limited variations to the design will be necessary. Variations of any kind affect the unique combination of resources, which include time and money as well as plant, labour and materials used in direct operations and supporting operations and services. The responsibilities of the parties involved in construction and the framework within which the works are to be executed are defined in the conditions of contract, standard forms of which are in widespread use. The conditions provide the framework for evaluating the impact of variations. The bills of quantities approach provides fewer chances for dispute regarding content and evaluation of variations, but frequently variations resulting from multiple and interacting causes are often referred for decision beyond the immediate contractual framework. The conclusion of final design permits the calling of tenders and their evaluation. Approval for construction is on acceptance of the consultant's Report on Tenders, by the client. This report usually contains a detailed evaluation of the tenders, comparative analysis of pre-tender estimates, projected cash flow requirements and recommendations for acceptance of a tender. The contract award signals the close of Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 25 the pre-contract phase and construction can commence provided regulatory approvals have been issued. NEDO's (1975) survey shows that for over 90% of building projects nearly all the production drawings are available at tender. Thus, the consultant's active role in the design comes to an end at this stage. 3.4 Design Office Organization Structure and Time Usage The established use of traditional engineering procedure has moulded the manner in which consultancies have structured their organizations to allocate responsibilities for various categories of staff. Through experience senior personnel are able to delegate work in a manner that permits reasonable allocation of the designer's time to a variety of pre-contract activities. On a fast track project, the consultant's continuing role in design during construction, responsibilities for processing variations and closer interaction with site supervision are likely to impose different demands upon design organization, resource and time usage requirements. A review of these aspects in the traditional framework is therefore necessary. 3.4.1 Design Office Organization Structure There appears to be a limited range of organization structures for engineering con-sultancies. Miller (1970b), in his study of the organization of civil and structural consulting firms in the U.K. , identified two common organization structures which are shown in Figure 3.4. The general division of time between the technical and administrative functions of the various categories of engineering personnel is also indicated. GO % Management 40 % Technical Associate Partner 40 % Management 60 % Technical 15 % Management 85 % Technical Project Engineers Associate 40 % Management 60 % Technical Admin. Manager 90 % Management 10% Technical Partner 20 % Management 80 % Technical Project Engineers Junior Engineers & Drawing Office Staff Junior Engineers & Drawing Office Staff Project Engineer Structure Design Team Structure Note: Drawing office staff are headed by the Senior Detaffer Figure 3.4: Organization Structures for Engineering Consultancies to Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 27 Project Engineer Structure This form is common in civil consulting firms. In this system the partner is not in close contact with the detailed design which is handled by an associate. The associate is allocated a number of projects and is expected to work without detailed supervision. The associate is a key person in the system as he is responsible for client liaison and design supervision. His inability to provide the necessary guidance to his team or delay in passing information from the client and other associated consultants will affect design performance seriously. There is also the danger in this system that the partner will not be aware of problems and inefficiencies in good time. In terms of design and documentation the job is active at the project engineer level. Project engineers are usually responsible for more than one project at any one time and are frequently required to undertake designs on which they have no prior experience. Therefore, the volume of work delegated to them has to be controlled carefully to include a time allowance for the learning process thereby avoiding poor design and inadequate documentation. Independent checks on design and drawings are usually conducted by engineers at the same level in the hierarchy with final review by the associate. Design Team Structure The organization structure commonly encountered in structural consultancies is of the design team type. This structure arises because structural firms have limited in-volvement in project coordination functions which are usually borne by the architect. This is a flatter structure and therefore the principal is close to the design team. The main danger in this system is that the principal can be overworked. There is a limit to the number of personnel that the principal can supervise. Beyond this he will have to delegate administrative matters to an office manager if he wishes to participate Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 28 effectively in design. 3.4.2 Design Time Usage The main resources in a consulting firm are the engineers and technicians. Major expenditure is due to them and consequently it is important to know how their time is spent. An appreciation of the manner in which total time is allocated to a variety of tasks in project development is important in assessing the impact of differing design demands imposed by non-traditional techniques. Miller (1972a) conducted a small survey and his observations are as follows: 1. 70% of engineers spend less than 30% of their time actually designing. 2. On average an engineer spends 7% of his time on or working with contract documents. 3. About 10% of the engineer's time is spent on report writing. 4. 80% of senior engineers spend more than 30% of their time in discussion. En-gineers who supervise a number of designers and draughtsmen could spend up to 50% of their time in discussion. 5. Some engineers could spend up to 25% of their time dealing with correspon-dence. The results of activity sampling in the design office (Chan, 1968) shown in figure 3.5 generally correspond with Millers observations. Of particular interest is the relatively modest proportion of time actually devoted to design and the substantial require-ment for consultations in preparing designs. As expected, time allocations for site supervision are small involving periodic site inspections are all that is required. Figure 3.5: Activity Sampling in the Design Office (Chan, 1968) Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 30 3.5 D e s i g n M a n a g e m e n t In view of the complexity of the pre-contract phase, methods which provide an ef-fective means of checking, guiding and controlling day to day activities and, which provide a means of relating the responsibilities of external parties to the consultant's own work hold an important place in project development. Surprisingly however, a re-view of the literature reveals that management guidelines for planning and controlling the pre-contract phase are limited. Published information regarding design perfor-mance, its effectiveness and success in meeting anticipated pre-contract duration, is also limited. Early work in the area of design management was by Davies (1915). He em-ployed a series of project checklists, each individually prepared for a particular class of facility. The value of these checklists is immense as they serve to assure accuracy and completeness of design. Systems of managing the drawing office and details of simple methods of tracking and recording the movement of the consultant's own and fabrication drawings by specialists are also provided in his book. The use of similar checklists is not prevalent in the present day but general office systems are established in most firms. More recent work by Miller (1970b) concentrates mainly upon the control of design office practice to assure profitability. There is little emphasis on the management of design to assure that its production and quality contribute towards the achievement of project objectives. Ministry of Public Buildings and Works, U.K. (1967) has provided recommenda-tions on the use of network analysis for pre-contract work which provides a number of advantages in regard to the management of the pre-contract phase. The network provides a pictorial representation of the project and therefore makes the collective Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 31 intentions of the participants clear. It aids in improving communication and coordina-tion between participants and promotes efficiency in use of design resources. Moreover it enables the forecasting of the effect of delay upon specific areas of the project so that plans to reduce impacts upon the critical path can be suitably drawn in line with the logical discipline that network analysis imposes upon decision making. The M P B W document provides guidelines for the manner in which networks should be developed with useful suggestions on how the issues of estimating activity durations and resource allocation should be approached. Chan (1968) reports on the introduction of network analysis for building projects by the National Building Association (UK). An important part of this work is the classification of networks into particular project groups together with supporting data of time and resource estimates. Two important observations are made regarding manner in which the technique is applied. Firstly, that the networks are progressively updated to allow for improving project definition of the later activities. The stages in project development when these updates have to be undertaken are not indicated. Secondly, scale fees are used as a basis for determining manhour input for various design stages with specially designed time sheets to monitor the assumptions and improve the accuracy on subsequent projects. This method for duration estimation has to be approached cautiously if projects are obtained under circumstances in which the principal aim is simply to sustain the office, for prestige in association with a project and in situations in which scale fees do not truly represent input necessary to execute a design satisfactorily. Napper et al (1967) provide an account of the successful implementation of the technique as developed by the National Building Association to some of their projects. Barlow (1985) proposes a framework for design planning and control which in essence is similar to the preparatory work and use of network analysis for design Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 32 control. Rowdon and Mansfield's (1989) implementation of some of these proposals confirm improvements in design effectiveness. However the exclusion of time as a significant control variable did not allow for an evaluation of the savings obtained in the duration of the pre-contract phase. Despite the availability of methods of controlling scope and schedule there is little evidence to confirm their widespread use among consultancy organizations. It is not surprising therefore that NEDO's (1975) recommendations regarding policies for public sector purchasing highlight the necessity for design coordination and control and the need to ensure that existing procedures for documenting and processing variations are made to work properly. 3.6 Performance of Traditional Systems The fast track approach aims at reducing overall project duration through early con-struction on the basis of a partial design. The time scale of projects and the effective-ness of comprehensive documentation in achieving predetermined objectives of time, cost and quality are therefore the parameters which have been selected to gauge the performance of traditional procedure. Principal observations on performance evalua-tion are from two major studies published by NEDO (1975 and 1983). 3.6.1 Time Scale of Projects Figures 3.6 and 3.7 provide summaries of the time scale for housing and building projects examined in NEDO's 1975 survey. This data is generally representative of a wider cross section of projects reported therein and permits the following observations: V a K M . f O O O 300 400 SOO soo boo 700 700 700 700 700 • 1300 2700 3700 M O O •A> t: .ft> •A) It c/d c/d - r -c/d •A) ovirtll Phm t e r III. •/b c/d c/d - r -*/b X • A i c/d »A> c I d •/b c/d • r r Not avalliM* t/b L 1 , . •/b c d/t * • i • i i i » i t » i i .... . . i . . . . . i ... i — i — i — i — i — i — i SO 76 70 65 60 65 60 46 40 36 30 .26 30 16 10 Conception and (fallen period, monthi 10 16 30 35 30 35 40 46 60 65 Con I true lion period, m o n i N • f io |«c l conception b S i * I of b r U t " * period C A f l f — c T X f t l » f t » » t f d. S U M of d*uM <***gn • TtmWri out I Con tree toe appointed ( Start on l i l t A OtteH dailgn compftti Conception end dailon parted' Actual comtructton period f l inn«d coni l / iKl lon period Figure 3.6: Time Scale of Housing Projects V t l w . C O M XX) ate -1f o|«ct h*td In AtwytAC* -•r ial ( f r x d >Ad cnanfid H W I I W I M * durln* i h h ptrlod * . b/c • . - - - * yoo « i» I M I ^ " . | | M O t i/b t!4 c d t - r • i t i l l I I • i t i i i g — i Agrtvd • K U f u i o * lo connect p««»od J L • V § 0 7S >0 4S 60 ft* 10 41 40 3ft 30 IS 30 1ft 10 C o n * « f U l « * M M I 4**J#A p«wtt>4, i M t t i h i 10 IB 70 » JO 31 40 41 M Comuu<ilon «***)«•*, m * n i * » • Protect c o n e l i o n b S l f l ol br^fmi p«' iod d Sur l ol dtl**l dtt*fo • T a n d v r l o u t I Contract of tppofnud I Sur l on >ii« • O i u i l dtiign compl«u Conception tod dailon portod I • PUnntd construction period Figure 3.7: Time Scale of Building Projects Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 35 1. There is considerable variability in the relative durations of design and con-struction for projects in the same group and cost classification. This is to be expected as every construction project is unique. Variables including the type or characteristics of the project, client and consultant have a bearing on the time scale of projects. 2. Conception and design phases of civil engineering jobs are considerably longer than their anticipated construction durations. The periods preceding the de-tailed design stage, and which require close client involvement, generally con-sume the greater proportion of total pre-contract duration. 3. A large proportion of the projects experienced construction overruns. 4. Information on comparative data of anticipated and actual pre-contract dura-tions is unavailable as schedules for this phase are infrequently prepared. 5. Substantial benefits are potentially available if the pre-contract phase can be effectively reduced or overlapped through fast tracking. NEDO's 1983 survey compares the relative benefits of different management sys-tems on the speed of site and total times for industrial building projects. Figure 3.8 is a summary representation of the performance of four different systems. The man-agement systems include the traditional with the consultant as overall coordinator, the client's in-house management, turnkey organization and a separate management function such as a management contractor. The survey shows that whereas the traditional method can provide good results, the non-traditional methods appear to provide quicker times on the whole. Time savings under non-traditional arrangements resulted mainly from early and compre-hensive preparation and scheduling of construction. These methods permitted fast Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 36 tracking and focused attention on designing the project for construction as a sequence of self-contained operations with minimal interference between them thereby acknowl-edging the practical realities of sub-contracting on site. The total times also reflect efficiencies gained in pre-contract duration as a result of employing non-traditional methods. 3.6.2 Design and Documentation NEDO's 1975 survey identified the following aspects of current procedures and prac-tice which give rise to recurrent criticism: 1. Specification and drawings were inadequately prepared before lump sum tenders were invited. 2. Use was made of tendering methods and forms of contract inappropriate to the job and the circumstances under which it was to be carried out. 3. Variations were excessive. NEDO's (1983) survey shows that on almost half the projects studied variations were a principal cause of delay. 4. There was underpayment for work done, undue delay in settling outstanding claims and increasing resort to arbitration. 5. Integrated project control from design to completion was too rarely undertaken. These criticism's in essence relate to decisions taken during the pre-contract phase and indicate that the primary objective of producing detailed design and documentation to avoid these very problems is not always approached and executed satisfactorily. Fast - More than 10% faster than normal Average - within 10% of normal Method of organization slow-More than 10%slower than the normal CONSTRUCTION TIMES DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION TIMES Traditional Fast Average Slow Fast Average Slow Own Management Fast Average Slow Fast Average Slow Design &Bu3d Fast Average Slow Fast Average Slow Separate Management function Fast Average Slow Fast Average Slow I I I 1 I I I I I I I I 0 20 40 60 80 100% 0 20 40 60 80 100% Percentage of case study projects Percentage of case study projects Figure 3.8: Effect of the Method of Organization on Project Times Chapter 3. Traditional Pre-Contract Procedures 38 3.7 S u m m a r y Traditional engineering procedure for building projects has been documented to serve as a baseline case for fast track procedural development. The staged structure of the procedure is caused by the breaks necessitated by the principal decisions regarding acceptance of feasibility and tender recommendations and the acquisition of regula-tory acceptances. The final outputs of the pre-contract phase, namely the detailed design and contract documentation are used to define the conditions under which the works will be executed. It is emphasized that the intermediate outputs of design do not contribute to construction implementation. The strongly design oriented nature of building consultancies is reflected in their organization structures. Design time usage data is revealing in that it shows that only a small proportion of time is actually spent on producing design and drawings. The limited use of management techniques has been identified as a major shortcom-ing for the effective control of the pre-contract phase. Both information generated for construction and pre-contract duration are affected. The common criticisms of the traditional system further emphasize the need to manage the process of design development. Published data on the time scale of projects confirms the considerable potential of the fast track approach to reducing overall project duration. Chapter 4 Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 4.1 General Fast tracking in essence is the overlapping of the design and construction phases. In multi-storey building construction, the overall design input comprises the contribu-tions of a number of design disciplines including architectural, structural, mechanical and electrical. Design at these individual discipline levels is only partially complete at construction commencement when using the fast track approach. A definition of the extent of design required at the start of construction is a pre-requisite to the development of a fast track procedure. The selection of such a definition is a com-plex issue that necessitates consideration of a variety of factors which influence the objectives of design in connection with pre-tender evaluations and construction. This design definition governs the structure that a fast track procedure will assume. The objectives of this chapter are: 1. to identify the principal factors which influence the extent of design completion required for fast tracking; 2. to present a general approach for the assessment of these factors in order to select a suitable design definition for fast tracking; 3. to develop a fast track procedure in network form based on such a design defi-nition and to highlight the special requirements of the process; and 39 Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 40 4. to develop standard design activity schedules that describe the procedure it detail and which may be employed for planning fast track building projects in general. 4.2 F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g F a s t T r a c k P r o c e d u r e The factors which influence the structure of fast track procedure can be identified through a closer examination of the process. Figure 4.1 provides a simplified repre-sentation of fast tracking at the detail of the principal design and early construction activities. The design resource profiles shown are typical of the traditional process and emphasize the variable nature of design input during the pre-contract phase. The significant departure from the traditional process in which complete design and documentation provide the basis for inviting tenders, implementing construction and administering the contract is apparent. The main requirement in fast tracking therefore, is for an intermediate output of design to serve the above functions. The completeness of such a design, in terms of the inputs of the individual design dis-ciplines, with respect to every individual construction activity, is also an important consideration. The inevitability of change must be accepted since construction is launched under circumstances which do not permit the design refinement which re-sults from the normal cyclic feedback of information from all affected consultants and the client. The specific issues which require examination for a fast track design to prove satisfactory for the aforementioned functions are listed below. 1. Varying levels of participation by the large cross section of professionals are necessary during the course of design development. A n assessment of the crit-icality of the individual contributions of design in relation to the sequence of execution of construction work packages is required. CO UJ _J LL O rr CL UJ O rr r> o CO rr ! INVESTIGATION & REPORT DESIGN & DOCUMENTATION J L Architectural Design Structural Design Electrical J Design 9 MX I Mechanical J Design CONSTRUCTION o o n Cu c CO 111 E > < CO Excavation Foundations Basement - — Ground Floor Mezzanine Figure 4.1: The Fast Track Process Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 42 2. Design and construction of buildings demands close interaction of designers and involves considerable inter-disciplinary information transfer. Whereas emphasis in design for a particular construction activity may be placed on a single disci-pline, associated design inputs required for a construction feasible design must be identified. 3. In the traditional system, the intermediate outputs of design serve to provide confirmation that the clients requirements in terms of cost, quality and so forth can be met satisfactorily. The extent of design completion which allows for a similar assessment of important pre-contract objectives requires evaluation. 4. The use of an intermediate output of design necessitates consideration of its suitability for overall construction planning and its ability to minimize delays in construction. 5. On a fast track project, in the period following the contract award, designers are required to assume dual responsibilities of amplifying tender design and su-pervising construction. The post contract design input and volume of variations are a function of the tender design definition. A n evaluation of the impact of variations on design performance and construction implementation is necessary. 4.3 Fast Track Design Definition A n assessment of the aforementioned factors to identify a suitable fast track design definition is conducted under four main divisions: 1. Principal and supporting design inputs; 2. Design evaluation - pre-contract objectives; 3. Design evaluation - construction implementation; and Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 43 4. Variation impact. 4.3.1 Principal and Supporting Design Inputs In this section the principal and supporting design inputs required to compile infor-mation packages to suit the sequence of construction are identified. In so doing, the focus for the main design effort and an indication of the level of completion of the supporting designs can be established. Principal design refers to the requirements of design in relation to form, function and construction of the item under consideration. Supporting design is that design that enables completeness in elemental construction with respect to function and operation of the permanent works. Building development involves a number of engineering disciplines including ar-chitectural, civil, structural, electrical, mechanical, landscape and interior design. For these projects the principal disciplines may be determined through an examination of the requirements of conceptual development of the project as a whole, regulatory acceptances and information required for construction commencement. Building layout, form and function are essentially developed by the architect, usu-ally with limited engineering input. Architectural design is developed only sufficiently to satisfy building regulations and permit transition to the detailed design. Special-ist engineering input leading to information that can confirm the physical feasibility and define construction requirements can only commence after this phase. In gen-eral, therefore, the pace and systematic execution of the overall design is dependant upon the progress of architectural development. Exceptions include those facilities for which aesthetic considerations are of secondary importance and engineering function dominates. The sequence of construction defines the detailed requirements of the principal and supporting design inputs. A tabular presentation of the principal site activities Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 44 Table 4.1: Determination of Governing Disciplines Site Activities Arch Strc Mech Elec Land Intr Demolition PD PD SD SD Site Clearance PD - - - SD -Excavation PD PD - - SD -Foundations PD PD - - - -Bas. Slab PD PD SD SD - -Bas. Walls PD PD SD - - -Int. Cols. PD PD SD - - -Stairs PD PD - - - -Lift Core (B-G) PD PD PD SD - -against the level of site input by the various disciplines provides a simple means of determining the Principal Design (PD) and for Supporting Design (SD) input, to the entire project design. Table 4.1 provides such a summary for a few activities at construction commencement on a typical building project. This exercise may be con-ducted for all the major construction activities to produce profiles of individual design participation requirements through the course of the project. However, emphasis will generally be on the earlier site activities as ideally completion of post contract design will outpace construction. Complete isolation of the individual activities is impossi-ble, but it is clear that the structural designer's involvement in the early stages and subsequently for the building frame that provides the support for services, highlights the reliance that fast track success places upon his performance. Consideration is now provided to the determination of the level of design com-pletion of the supporting disciplines. This is done through a an examination of the detailed information requirements of participating disciplines for each construction activity. The intention is to identify precisely the interaction of individual inputs on Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 45 construction form and the level of design needed to obtain it. In an in-situ reinforced concrete structure pre-installation requirements for services in terms of openings, sleeving, etc is an example of design interaction. This exercise will yield informa-tion supporting design detail and the extent by which principal design will lead can therefore be evaluated. 4.3.2 Design Evaluation - Pre-contract Objectives This section aims at evaluating the suitability of information produced at various stages in design in relation to the main objectives of the pre-contract phase (Table 4.2). Selection of the design completion level must aim at attaining a balance between basic design output of the principal disciplines and minimization of cost and time uncertainties of the supporting disciplines. It should be noted that design definition in this context refers not only to construction drawings but also to documentation which plays an important role in conveying the client's and the designer's intentions to the contractor. Construction commencement at any stage prior to the traditional results in an information gap which has an impact upon pre-contract objectives of design. The effect of partial design may be considered at logical design completion points within the pre-contract stage. The minimum level of design development required to satisfy the principal objectives of design is shown in Table 4.2. The investigation and report stage is considered the absolute minimum for any engineering enterprise due to re-quirements of project realizability and regulatory compliance. At this stage however, there is little information to permit proper consideration of construction. Once the general arrangements are ready, then a global appreciation of the project in terms of construction needs is possible. The general arrangements are important design documents as they provide the means of communication among the various design Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 46 disciplines. It is clear therefore that the major goals of the pre-contract phase will be achieved if design development has progressed beyond the general arrangement level prior to construction commencement. 4.3.3 Design Evaluation - Construction Implementation The purpose of this evaluation is to identify the level of design required for overall construction planning and that which minimizes construction delays. Baldwin et al (1971), conducted a survey of the common delay factors in con-struction. NEDO's (1983) case summaries of industrial building projects confirm the factors selected for the study to be those that significantly influence construction times. The survey involved ratings of the most common delay factors in construction by engineers, architects and contractors. The sequence of rating by contractors was: weather, labour supply, sub-contractors, design changes, shop drawings, foundation conditions, material shortages, sample approvals, jurisdictional disputes, equipment failure, contracts, construction mistakes, inspections, finances, permits and building codes. The contractor's ability to exercise control over these factors is directly de-pendent upon the amount of information available to him. In order to judge what this level should be, the influence of partial design on some delay factors is examined below. Weather An incomplete design reduces the capacity for construction planning to accommodate seasonal variations in the scheme of operations. The maximum impact of weather is usually upon the construction of the substructure although its severity and coinci-dence with the above ground works can have equally detrimental impacts. Labour Supply Labour supply is a principal cost and risk element for contractors. Labour planning Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 47 Table 4.2: Design Definition & Pre-Contract Objectives Design Stage/Information Pre-Contract Objectives Investigation &c Report Level Preliminary architectural layouts Engineering investigations complete Structural scheme selected Service systems known Project realizabilty and estimates Planning approvals Investment analysis Funding submissions General Arrangement Level Final architectural layouts Structural general arrangements Preliminary service layouts Mobilization, works planning, excavations Initiate permit process Realistic estimates of duration &; cost Start measurement & documentation Variations readily identifiable Final Design - Substructure Detailed design, drawings - structural Service general arrangements Structural optimality Complex, difficult ground conditions Part Building Permit Final Design - Upper Floors Detailed design, drawings - structural Structural optimality Non-repetitive construction Traditional Design Complete design &; documentation for all disciplines Innovation, new technology Reliable cost & duration Minimum variation Maximum contractual control Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 48 involves estimates of workers in each individual skill category and their variations during the course of the works. Economy and streamlining of recruiting policies are possible if planning can cover the entire span of the construction life cycle. Design and tender documentation must therefore permit a global appreciation of these needs. Sub-Contractors Nowadays few general contractors retain the variety of staff required to execute the complete building project. Domestic and nominated subcontracting are common-place. The greater the restriction of information flow and the higher the degree of fragmentation, the more onerous the requirements for careful channeling and coor-dination of information especially for the early specialist operations of demolition, excavation, dewatering, underpinning, water proofing and drainage. Design Changes Fast tracking necessarily involves greater numbers of variations and hence higher risks of disruption. Variations have a detrimental impact upon project objectives and therefore tender design definition must preclude the possibility of major scope changes and disproportionate numbers of variations. Shop Drawings Production and accuracy of this information is entirely dependant upon the design-ers intentions as conveyed by the drawings and documentation. Incomplete design definition results in higher chances of re-drafting fabrication drawings and rework on completed elements. Foundation Conditions Unforseen ground conditions are a frequent cause of delay and disruption. The predictability of the sub-surface conditions is only possible through comprehensive geotechnical investigations. Lack of relevant previous data on similar sites, difficulty Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 49 in interpreting results of investigations will set bounds for design and affect the con-tractual approach for the initial works. Material Shortages Materials planning requires a clear impression of the intended finished facility and a detailed specification of the type and quantity of products that have to be incor-porated in the permanent works. Building form and the means of creating it with a combination of constituent products governs procurement and resource planning. The role of documentation in reducing the uncertainty of project scope due to the lack of finished drawings is highlighted by this requirement. Permits Constrictions on the progress of construction may arise if temporary works designs cannot be conducted and approved due to unavailability of detailed design informa-tion. A critical area in this regard are the excavation and shoring designs. In the context of multi-storey building construction, the characteristics sought of a fast track design definition are: 1. it must convey a global appreciation of construction form so that construction strategy, materials and labour planning may be undertaken with confidence; and 2. it must enable the general contractor to seek reliable quotations for sub-contracts and for sub-contractors and later allow for the preparation of accurate fabrica-tion drawings. Again, the threshold design that will satisfy the above is the general arrangement design definition. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 50 4 . 3 . 4 Variation Impact On traditionally designed projects, post contract design work is often of a minor na-ture. The nature of design execution and construction supervision alters considerably for fast track projects. The design team is placed under much greater pressure due the requirements for rapid and accurate completion of outstanding design and more im-portantly the processing of variations and requests for information. The post-contract design therefore creates a different environment for design execution. Variations are known to have a detrimental impact upon fast track performance and therefore a complete understanding of their impact upon design and construction is necessary. For comparable projects, different fast track commencement points will generate different volumes of variations and requests for information. There is little information available in this regard to permit judgement of impact. Field studies to collect data for such an analysis poses substantial problems. It is virtually impossible to tap into projects which have been designed in comparable environments, each with a different fast track commencement point. Analysis based on completed jobs, where comprehensive records have been maintained will also require major assumptions on design execution, experience and objectivity to judge impact. Results from such time consuming exercises are not easily relatable to a general situation. For a comparative analysis, simulation provides a means of studying of the con-sequences of variations. Specifically, to show the disruptive effect that large volumes of variations can have on the operation of the design office, on the quality of design and on construction implementation. This analysis therefore contributes indirectly towards selection of fast track design definition. Additional advantages obtained in building the simulation model include: 1. a detailed breakdown the complex system of variation movement and processing which provides a comprehensive understanding of the operation; and Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 51 2. identification of bottlenecks for design execution and the important interactions between different types of services required. This information is used in developing systems of managing the variation process in the next chapter. Simulation Analysis of the Variation Process A simulation study of the operations of a typical structural design team during a three month span of fast tracking was undertaken using GPSS (General Purpose Simulation System). GPSS is a simulation programming language that may be used to build computer models for discrete event simulations especially those involving queues. In building the model assumptions regarding design office set-up, design processing sequences, division of work, service durations and volume of variations were necessary. The basis for these assumptions are project records of an office building compiled by the author. This building was constructed under the traditional system. Simulations have been conducted for four different levels of possible fast track design. 1. Case A - Preliminary engineering considerations. 2. Case B - Preliminary design. 3. Case C - General arrangements. 4. Case D - Traditional design Each of these design definitions will generate different volumes of variations which decrease with each additional design input through pre-contract development. The output from the simulation of the traditional case, in which all information is released on contract award may be used to judge the impact of variations. Design outputs for Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 52 the preliminary design and general arrangement stages have been described earlier. Design output at the preliminary engineering considerations stage are sketch drawings of a selected project scheme, containing mainly architectural form. The model for the simulation is a team comprising the structural engineer, as-sistant engineer, detailer and two draughtsmen. In queue terminology these are the service facilities. The requests for additional information and variations represent the transactions. A considerable variety of enquiries and variations are possible but these can be generalized into five basic categories. The details and processing requirements for these various classes of information requests/variations are described below. These categories are presented in order of decreasing priority. A pictorial representation of variation movement in the design office is shown in figure 4.2. Major Variation - Priority Rating 5 These are significant variations in project scope requiring changes to the structural scheme in part. The initial input for processing these variations is assumed to be by the structural engineer in conjunction with the lead consultant. The engineer's detailed input includes an assessment of the impacts of the change upon the design already in its final form and which may have been issued to the contractor, and on outstanding design which may be affected as a result of this change. His input includes principal engineering calculations, sketches and a cost estimate. Once the engineering package has been approved by the client this variation is routed through the drawing office. It is assumed that regulatory approvals for these changes are not necessary and that construction may proceed on the basis of designer certified drawings. Immediate Response - Priority Rating 4 These are queries which require response to permit on going work on site to proceed uninterrupted. Confirmation or clarification of dimension, detail or specification may be classified under this category. It is assumed that all such requests are managed by O O Contractor T o CM O T o i n Project Engineer T Queries Arrive T 80% 80% 50% Cont Draughtsmen T i Detailer — i r Assistant Engineer Architect Major Variation Immediate Details Only Design & Detail Consult, Design, Detail Variation Figure 4.2: Variation Processing Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 54 the structural engineer in view of his familiarity of the project and the contractual consequences of delay. Details Only - Priority Rating 3 Requests for drawings to amplify available detail or define new work. Joint details, additional sections to clarify design intentions fall into this category. It is assumed that on the average 20% of such requests are handled by the structural engineer and the remainder by the detailer. The select 20% includes details which need special engineering input and those which are fairly straightforward but which are likely to take a much longer time through the formal detailing process. Design &: Detail - Priority Rating 2 Similar to the above class but some design will be necessary. It is assumed that 80% of such design may be delegated to the assistant engineer who can instruct the de-tailer on the requirements for construction drawings. Consult, Design &: Detail - Priority Rating 1 A modification of the above two classes in which queries require approval for aesthetic or service requirements before detailed design can be conducted. 50% of these are assumed to be tackled directly by the structural engineer with minimum consultation while the remainder follow a longer path with time being consumed in evaluation by the other affected parties. T h e Program The program essentially comprises a series of segments for the various categories of variations. In the processing of variations, allowance has been made for rework, checking and approvals. Additional time input for monthly payment certifications and related contract administration functions are included. It is recognized that even with the present level of detail, the model is a simple representation of a complex real Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 55 life situation. In performing the simulation a number of assumptions have been made. 1. Uniform random distributions have been used for inter-arrival and service rates. The variety of tasks needed to process a single variation provides justification for the use of this distribution. Table 4.3 provides details of the average inter-arrival times. The base data is from the traditional case and the remainder are assumed linear extensions. 2. Inter-arrival times are assumed not to vary over the study period. This assump-tion has been made for simplicity only. Inclusion of this feature in the program will not significantly influence the conclusions since the addition will affect all cases. 3. The average service times are assumed to be the same for each of the design cases these being the minimum time necessary to produce work of an acceptable quality. The objectives of the simulation do not impose requirements for accuracy in output and therefore only a limited number of runs for each case were sufficient for estab-lishing trends and determining average output values. Additional runs were made to judge the sensitivity of output to changes in inter-arrival times, service rates and distributions and, its influence on the overall conclusions of this exercise. Significant differences were not detected. Variations - Impact Assessment Table 4.3 shows the principal output of the simulations in the form of the impor-tant evaluation criteria, namely average utilization of personnel in the processing of variations and time taken to release information to the contractor. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures Table 4.3: Input and Output Data Input/Output Data for Various Construction Starts Case A Case B Case C Case D Average Inter-Arrival Rate (Queries per week) Immediate 8 6 4 2 Details 3 2 1 0.5 Design and Detail 3 2 1 0.5 Consult, Design and Detail 3 2 1 0.5 Major Change (per quarter) 5 3 0 0 Average Utilization (%) Project Engineer 95 77 51 21 Assistant Engineer 81 65 29 18 Detailer 97 91 41 18 Draughtsmen 26 31 19 10 % Queries Within 1 Day 48 54 68 68 2 Days 57 65 78 76 3 Days 67 73 87 83 7 Days 82 87 99 99 Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 57 The utilization criterion has important implications in regard to the design team's capability for decision making in a crisis situation resulting from fast tracking . Sharp and Dando (1978), defined crises as situations which: 1. threaten the high priority goals of the decision making unit: On fast track projects the principal goals are sustaining construction with a steady flow of information, both in terms of the outstanding design and addi-tional instruction in the form of information and variations. 2. restrict the amount of time before the situation is transformed: Typical of construction is the simultaneous execution of activities, many of which are related. These dependencies impose time limitations on the consul-tant's response to the contractor's requests for information due to a dynamic environment on-site. The client's contractual obligations and the consultant's desire to maintain project control and job efficiency create further limitations. 3. surprise members of the decision making unit by their numbers: The volume of variations and occurrence of unanticipated variations cause this effect. Inappropriate fast track designs will lead to crises situations. An exact definition of a design office crises is difficult but it some judgement in terms of overall design time usage is possible. Comparing the output of the simulation against Chan's (1968) results of activity sampling in the design office indicate that even in the traditional case variation processing can take up a substantial proportion of time. Allowing for little non-productive time, variation processing time allocation can only be of the order of 25% . An imbalance in time usage affects completion of principal design and other administrative office tasks especially when there is little support staff reserve time, thereby eliminating delegation of additional work. In this particular case, design Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 58 definition below the general arrangement level will precipitate a crisis situation. The impact upon design quality and effectiveness is better understood through an assessment of the behavior of principal project participants using a series of general-izations proposed by Sharp and Dando (1978). G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 1. " The more severe the crisis, the fewer the number of alternatives that are likely to be considered ". Limited time curtails the necessary process of detailed engineering evaluation of pos-sibilities and consequently suitability, economics and adaptability for future work of * solutions offered for design and variations is affected. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 2. " As the stress in a crisis increases, various costs and side effects of the "preferred" option tend to be neglected ". Examination of the deficiencies of selected solutions tend to be limited, with possi-bilities of a chain of subsequent problems and a lower level of quality in the finished product. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 3. " Increases of set are likely in a crisis ". The likelihood of implementing a familiar solution that is less time consuming than a new and possibly more appropriate and cost effective one, is high. The relevance of using past experience in such matters has to be closely monitored. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 4. "Crises tend to increase a tendency towards rigidity of perception and thought". In view of requirements to minimize engineering input in design, schemes already partly designed will be rigidly conserved in the face of possible change. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 5. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 59 " The more severe the crises the more foreshortened the decision makers perception of time". This is the natural feeling generated within design staff when a large number of vari-ations have to be attended to in a an environment where the possibility of claims for delay is high and performance is being monitored. Apparent limitations in time may encourage " short cuts " in the design process often resulting in multiple issues of the same information due to incompleteness and inaccuracies. Better performance can be obtained with larger design teams than those employed traditionally. The inclusion of a design/construction coordinator would be the major modification to traditional organization structure. However such decisions have to be made at the outset as staff increases during advanced stages in design are likely to lead to problems of coordination, low morale and design leadership for individual sections of work. Overtime work similarly must be taken as a reserve strategy otherwise the increasing trend of employing fast tracking will quickly lead to an overworked and ineffective staff. Variation impact on construction primarily takes the form of delay in information supply. This is a common area for dispute. Often once cause of the delay is established its effect in claims can be extended to far exceed the direct impact when associated delays in productivity , site re-organization and rework are included. Construction contracts normally stipulate that information must be issued in " reasonable" time. The contractor's aspirations about such times will vary depending upon a variety of factors but in most cases, 1-3 days is an acceptable range. The output provides interesting insight into supply time performance for the various fast track cases. Sup-ply times for the individual categories of queries are not provided as each request is considered to have equal importance to construction progress. The inability of total information release within an extended period of 7 days for design definitions lower Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 60 than the general arrangement is prominent. 4.3 .5 D e s i g n D e f i n i t i o n - S u m m a r y The selection of fast track design definition requires a combined assessment of a series of factors. For the general case, consideration of pre-contract objectives and construc-tion implementation suggest the threshold design to be the general arrangement level. The related design inputs for services can however place a limitation to the time at which tenders may be invited due to the necessity for compiling a complete infor-mation package. Post contract design considerations also require a design definition that enables ready identification of variations to the contract and which excludes the possibility of major variations. Detailed general arrangements will satisfy these requirements. 4.4 P r e - C o n t r a c t F a s t T r a c k P r o c e d u r e Having established the manner in which fast track design definition may be deter-mined, a pre-contract procedure can now be structured around this definition. The traditional procedure developed earlier can be modified to produce the non-traditional case. Figure 4.3 provides a network level representation of a pre-contract fast track procedure with design definition at the general arrangement level. This is a project level representation and a number of important features about this particular proce-dure should be noted. 1. Continuity and efficiency in pre-contract duration can be obtained if design development is allowed to continue while the client considers the consultant's report, provided its recommendations are in general conformity with the client's expectations. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures Prelim Costs Comparative cost studies Investigate Experience Sketch Designs & Design Panel Approval Preliminary Layouts & Preliminary Development Permit Project Purchase Appoint Shortlist Invite Proposals Evaluate Proposals j Interview Firms * • I I Commission J Scope Definition/Progress Control/Funding Investigations Need Land Project Manager Consultants Additional Information Consultants Initial Information ^ Considerations Collection CONSULTANT SELECTION Site Recce Examine Avail data Prelim. Eng. Considerations Assess Geotech Needs General investigations Geotech. — .... Contract Scheme Selection Site Investigations Prelim. Design f SI report QUANTITY SURVEYOR ARCHITECT CLIENT STRUCTURAL ENGINEER GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER INVESTIGATION & REPORT (continued below) FAST TRACK DESIGN DEFINITION Fast Track Evaluation Draft Contract Documentation TENDER 'DOCUMENTS Prequalifi cation Cost Estimates Principal Drawings Report Main Architectural Drawings I Architectural Details Dev. Permit Project Final Decision Fin. Doc * Tender Negotiation & Mobilization Bulk Excavation Evaluation Scope to Tender Check Award Draft General Arrangements Master Specification Loading, Global Design Initiate Statutory Approval Process FINAL GENERAL Foundation Drawings, Schedules A J M I A N G E M E N T C * " Foundation Design Basement Slab Design »- • Independent Design Check & Initial siib mission Foundations Approved (continued from above) & DETAILED DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION Figure 4.3: Fast Track Procedure Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 62 2. The staged acquisition of planning approvals provides greater assurance for the client in relation to payment for professional services for detailed design work as suggested above. 3. Contractor pre-qualification now forms a part of the initial investigations thereby permitting time savings and realistic evaluations of construction and contract strategy. 4. The contractor's tenders are based upon the general arrangement drawings and associated documentation. The award establishes a contractual relationship on the basis of the above. Since initial planning and pricing of the works is based on this information, fast track commencement is on invitation to tender. 5. The tender period is used to secure a lead in the production of detailed design. 6. The contract documentation must serve as the means by which the undefined, but anticipated requirements for the projects will be allowed for. 7. The procedure assumes that the acquisition of construction permits do not require detailed design completion on a level to level basis. Such limitations will of course alter the pre-contract strategy. 8. Alternative design thresholds may be suitable for buildings in which technical or other factors indicate that large risks have to be contended with unless some specified portion of detailed design has been completed. The network provides a useful pictorial representation of the procedure but it does not provide an indication of the detailed intermediate activities and outputs of design. This may be accomplished with the aid of activity tables for each section of design shown in the network. Tables 4.4 - 4.12 are the procedural schedules for one such discipline, structural engineering and illustrate the consultant's involvement on a Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 63 typical building project. These are in a standardized format and may be employed as planning tools and design checklists for building projects in general. Such schedules may be developed for all the disciplines involved and in combination will provide a comprehensive representation of a fast track procedure. Indeed this approach aids in defining and promoting a better understanding of the engineering development process. A number of important considerations in connection with the operation of fast track procedure are discussed below. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 64 Table 4.4: Stage 1 - Pre-Commissioning Detailed Activity Description Schedule 1 1. Invitation to Consultancy a. Evaluate client proposed design organization b. Confirm client's intention to fast track c. Investigate client and potential competitors d. 2. Proposals - Planning a. Visit site, collect information for design b. Examine comparable completed projects c. Document relevant company experience d. Review staff and need for additional consultants 3. Design Planning a. Assess current workload, prepare projections b. Propose design team, define design organization c. Prepare detailed description of project development d. Draft a preliminary design schedule 4. Technical and Financial Proposals a. Fees from time, cost evaluations of activities b. Need for specialist services, site supervision c. Payment schedules d. 5. Consultancy Contract a. Schedule of duties w.r.t. fast track b. Liabilities - design programme, estimating c. Supervision and contractual variations d. Independent contracts for specialists -6. a. b. c. d. 7. Review a. Contract by legal counsel b. Technical input and compensation c. d. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 65 Table 4.5: Stage 2 - Initial Considerations Detailed Activity Description Schedule 2 1. General a. Project leaders - contact, position b. Agree meeting schedules and report format c. Submit preliminary design schedule d. Establish approval process - client and architect 2. Authority a. Client representative's level of delegation b. Lead consultant's authority c. User's authority w.r.t scope definition d. 3. Client's requirements a. Cost, time, function and aesthetic preferences b. Future extensions, long term maintenance c. Acceptance criteria for fast track d. Submission of pre-contract progress reports 4. Pre-design site visit a. Limitations on building form and construction methods b. Preliminary sketches for existing structures and utilities c. Confirm permanent bench marks d. Compile photographic record of site and surroundings 5. Architectural and Service needs a. General building form and materials b. Mechanical equipment, lifts and water storage c. Electrical and security requirements d. General external works, water and sewage disposal 6. Contract Documentation a. Contract form, special conditions, pre-qualification b. Site organization and supervision needs c. Use of direct labour and client specifications d. 7. Review a. Realism of schedule and expectations b. Contract form and site organization c. d. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 66 Table 4.6: Stage 3 - Information Gathering Detailed Activity Description Schedule 3 1. Geotechnical/Climatological a. Existing maps and site investigation data b. Evaluate preliminary site investigation needs c. Precipitation, temperatures and wind data d. 2. Existing Services and Structures a. As constructed drawings of existing facilities b. Protection of services, relocation and demolitions c. Legal limitations, adjacent owners rights d. 3. Regulations and Design Standards a. Relevant codes and specifications b. Design and works approval procedures c. Designer qualifications for staged approvals d. Standards for uncodified design 4 . Similar Existing Facilities a. Site visit and performance evaluation b. Study design for form, simplicity, appropriateness c. Evaluate contract performance d. 5. Contractors a. Local experience and resources of potential contractors b. Degree of sub-contracting, local contract practice c. Common construction practices and limitations on design d. Need for early contractor involvement 6. Information Summary a. Highlight design and construction limitations b. Specify requirements for detailed investigations c. Suggest contract approach and identify principal risks d. Draft conditions for special risks 7. Review a. Extent of investigations b. Limitations on design and construction c. Contractual approach, special provisions d. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 67 4.4.1 S t a g e 1 - P r e - C o m m i s s i o n i n g Three factors require special considerations at this stage. Firstly the client's under-standing of the risks underlying the non-traditional approach and the need for eval-uating the project's suitability for fast tracking. A well formulated strategy at the outset avoids the considerable confusion that will erupt through a haphazard imple-mentation of fast tracking using only superficial modifications to traditional practice. Although the client's experience has a bearing in this regard, the consultants have a responsibility of creating an awareness of the need for special procedures through their consultancy submissions. The second factor is the client's intentions regarding the organization of design and construction. The well established client-consultant-contractor system is assumed with consultants appointed independently or as a consortium and within the single or multiple contracting environment. Other organization forms may be suitable and appropriate considerations for procedure and management will have to be developed. Direct involvement by the client or his representative cannot be recommended as this obscures lines of responsibility and leads to contractual complications. The third factor is the degree of participation of the various consultants during initial design development. For projects to be construction feasible and economic nothing less than the total participation of all consultants is acceptable. The practice of clients proceeding with architectural development in isolation to secure planning permission must only be adopted if the following trade-off's are acceptable. A n un-economic scheme due to the lack of simultaneous engineering input with conceptual development. A slower pace of design development, while engineering specialists fa-miliarize themselves with a pre-determined solution and backtrack through the nec-essary feasibility considerations may lead to variations in the architecture. Internal conflict between team members may also arise due to the inflexibility of initial design Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 68 Table 4.7: Stage 4 - Preliminary Engineering Considerations Detailed Activity Description Schedule 4 1. Architectural Proposals a. Check feasibility and identify structural requirements b. Review special needs - structural aesthetics, new technology c. Identify requirement for specialist design d. 2. Conceptual Design a. Develop possible structural systems b. Document design and construction advantages c. Chart process of construction information supply d. 3. Geotechnical Requirements a. Confirm scope of the site investigation b. Prepare estimates and seek client authorization c. Shortlist geotechnical contractors d. Conduct formal pre-qualification process 4 . Other Investigations a. Prepare scope documents for special studies b. Prepare estimates and submit for approval c. Evaluate potential risks d. 5. Fast track assessment a. Prepare initial construction estimates b. Submit for economic and risk analysis c. Establish strategy for management/contract needs d. Draft project design schedule/activity lists 6. a. b. c. d. 7. Review a. Design alternatives and scope of site investigation b. Fast track risk assessment and contractual approach c. d. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 69 Table 4.8: Stage 5 - Investigations Detailed Activity Description Schedule 5 1. Site Survey a. Establish boundaries and building lines b. Include existing services, roads and structures c. Verify " as mades " of existing facilities d. 2. Geotechnical Investigations a. Prepare documentation and call tenders b. Site supervision and preliminary data collection c. Laboratory testing and compilation of final report d. Document principal engineering data 3. Special Surveys a. Conduct model and full scale testing b. Evaluate and seek confirmation for adoption c. d. 4. Contractors a. Invitation for pre-qualification - by architect b. Assist in pre-qualification assessment c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. Review a. SI report and site survey b. Special survey data c. d. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 70 Table 4.9: Stage 6 - Scheme selection Detailed Activity Description Schedule 6 1. Global Structural Evaluation a. Evaluate structural systems, single drawing plan/section b. Engineering calculations for principal sizes c. Assess potential for repetition, off-site assembly d. Verify compliance with principal project requirements 2. Construction Evaluation - Substructure a. Excavation and back filling procedures b. Groundwater control and waterproofing methods c. Construction method for foundation and basement d. Document advantages, flexibility for change 3 . Construction Evaluation - Superstructure a. Construction method for vertical elements b. Construction method for floors, cladding c. Document advantages d. 4. Scheme Selection a. Prepare construction estimates for alternatives b. Conduct design/construction evaluation c. Joint evaluation by consultants d. Final selection 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. Review a. Comparison of design/construction alternatives b. c. d. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 71 Table 4.10: Stage 7 - Preliminary design Detailed Activity Description Schedule 7 1. Preliminary Architectural Layouts a. Assess conformity with structural needs b. List outstanding architectural design c. Identify major information needs from service engineers d. 2. Loading and Sizing a. Establish gravity, lateral, impact and special loads b. Evaluation of lateral load resisting system c. Preliminary sizing of typical members d. 3. Preliminary General Arrangements a. Plans for foundations, typical floor b. Plans for non-typical and complex floors c. Principal sections, special details and specification needs d. 4. Statutory Approvals a. Initiate design approval process b. Prepare preliminary submission schedule c. d. 5. Detailed Design Planning a. Work breakdown, responsibility allocation, duration estimates b. Design schedules - discipline and project levels c. Preliminary drawing lists and information requirements d. Develop early information release systems 6. Estimates a. Review limits based on drawings and design b. c. d. 7. Review a. Structural scheme and preliminary sizing b. Design schedules c. d. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 72 Table 4.11: Stage 8 - General arrangements Detailed Activity Description Schedule 8 1. Final Architectural Layouts a. Identify changes b. Prepare information requirement lists c. Confirm service needs d. 2. Design &: Drawings a. Conduct detailed lateral load analysis b. Establish main member sizes per level c. Principal plans/level and sections d. 3. Documentation a. Master, standard & special specifications b. Check bills, conditions and associated drawings c. Confirm inclusion of " undefined " items d. 4. Variation Assessment a. Compile sub h superstructure variation lists b. Evaluate impact and formulate back-up strategies c. Develop acceptance criteria for variations d. 5. Estimates a. Assess accuracy of pre-tender estimate b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. Review a. Detailed design & relevant documentation b. Variation impact analysis c. d. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 73 Table 4.12: Stage 9 - Tender & Final Design to Grade Detailed Activity Description Schedule 9 1. Foundations and Basement a. Detailed design, drawings Sz schedules b. Revise general arrangements c. d. 2. Statutory Approvals and Construction Drawings a. Submit substructure design package b. Final drawings prepared c. Notification of changes to consultants d. 3. Tender a. Evaluation of pricing, methods, programme b. Assess pre-tender design schedule c. d. 4. Information Release a. Early information issue b. Final subs-structure details c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. 6. a. b. c. d. 7. Review a. Detailed design, drawings and schedules b. Tender Report c. Design strategy during construction d. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 74 concepts to best serve the needs of all affected consultants. 4 . 4 . 2 S t a g e 2 - I n i t i a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s A n assessment of the realism of the client's schedule and preparation of a master schedule is possible once project requirements are understood. One of the major decisions that needs to be made at this stage is the client's acceptance criteria for fast tracking. Where the motivation for fast tracking is financial, acceptance criteria must be related to net potential savings i.e. savings following allowances for risk considerations. 4.4.3 S t a g e 3 - I n f o r m a t i o n G a t h e r i n g The emphasis here is in identifying information voids, regulations or external proce-dures which may prevent fast tracking or significantly reduce confidence levels for an effective start on site. Such an approach will promote formulation of strategies to counter potential problems and expose alternative design approaches more suitable for fast track execution. 4.4.4 S t a g e 4 - P r e l i m i n a r y E n g i n e e r i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n s A detailed fast track review can be conducted once preliminary engineering and cost-ings are available. Through economic evaluation and risk analysis the project's suit-ability for fast tracking can be assessed. This evaluation is a logical extension to the economic analysis necessary for the selection of the most attractive project alternative in the traditional framework. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 75 Economic and Risk Analysis Frequently the primary motivation for fast tracking is a higher return on investment. It is an essential requirement therefore to gauge the true savings at the outset and to obtain an appreciation of risks so that reliable strategies for reducing their impact may be formulated. A detailed analysis is beyond the scope of this work and therefore only the framework is provided. Fast Track Premium The adoption of fast tracking does not automatically guarantee higher returns. Depar-ture from the traditional route necessarily results in higher risk levels and additional effort and expenditure to manage these risks is required. The calculation of the fast track premium is the first step in the assessment. From the cash flows of the prin-cipal phases of the project life cycle the Net Present Value (NPV) at the Minimum Attractive Rate of Return ( M A R R ) of the traditional scheme may be determined. Fast tracking will only be adopted if it generates at least equivalent benefits. For a realistic design/construction overlap and assuming that the premium for fast tracking is absorbed by additional design or construction costs, the fast track design cost in constant dollars may be evaluated and hence the premium. Allocation of the Premium Table 4.13 provides a summary of the principal factors influencing the level of pre-contract risks. These are applicable to both traditional and non-traditional projects and are essentially the variables that govern design effectiveness. The next task in fast track assessment is the allocation of the calculated premium to those factors which exceed risk levels acceptable within the traditional framework. Particular fast track risks include design management, variation control and allowances contractors may attach to their tenders for incompleteness of design and stringent documentation to allow for the same. There is no doubt that this is an extremely difficult task and even Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 76 with the best of experience, judgement may be faulty. Risk Analysis Ideally further analysis beyond this deterministic framework should be conducted to obtain an estimate of the probability of achieving a positive NPV for the fast track case. Sensitivity analysis is perhaps the most accessible tool and can provide a pre-liminary indication of risk but on major projects a formal risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation or Moment Analysis is essential (Chapman, 1979, Hayes et al, 1986). This exercise also focuses managements attention on those areas which require special control. Confirmation of fast track feasibility is followed by the development of a design schedule and design strategy for execution. At this stage the design schedule is a tool that promotes efficiency in pre-contract execution, essentially in line with the overall strategy of minimizing overall project duration. 4.5 S t a g e 5 - I n v e s t i g a t i o n s The greater portion of effort is directed towards a comprehensive site survey and sub-surface investigations. The latter can reduce the chances of the unforseen but where such results are inconclusive then consideration must be given to contractual provi-sions for risk sharing. The scope of the investigations must be carefully determined so that the maximum benefits of these studies may be obtained. The momentum of pre-contract development will be lost if further investigations are required at a later stage. As far as investigations of contractors are concerned, the select tendering route ensures participation by those contractors whose familiarity with similar projects al-lows them to operate effectively in the staged information release situation. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures Table 4.13: Factors Influencing Pre-Contract Risks Client Experience of construction and fast track procedures Capability, degree of delegation of project manager Site selection and delay in site hand-over Experience, delay in consultant selection, change of consultants Funding and liaison between funding parties Delay in design approvals, change in scope of work Inadequate compensation for professional services Consultant Design and construction experience, fast track experience Design management and review procedures Relationship of professional staff to each other Delay in information supply, inappropriate sequence of supply Work load, inadequate staffing, temporary staff and staff changes Realism of design programme Design Incomplete design scope, interaction of design and construction method Inadequate level of detail, design inconsistencies Level of innovation, new technology, complexity Availability of information, data from investigations Likelihood of change Documentation Inappropriate contract form, appropriateness of specification Inequitable contract conditions Inappropriate for pre-tender estimate Inappropriate for realistic assessment of variations Contractor Experience, high bids, mistakes in tender Insufficient time for tender preparation Failure of low bidder to enter into contract Feasibility of proposed construction methods Statutory Procedures for land transfer Regulations and possible changes in law Requirement for permits and procedures for design approvals Public enquiry Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 78 4.6 S t a g e 6 - S c h e m e S e l e c t i o n The important fast track requirement is the consideration of construction techniques and the process by which design will have to be developed to ensure maximum transfer of design information to the contractor. The advantages gained from this exercise extend beyond that of construction feasibility. It enable the designers to discharge their responsibilities in a manner that is appropriate for such projects. It also provides the design team with the background for an effective interaction with the contractor and the ability to respond quickly to the numerous queries which are likely to arise during the course of construction. 4.7 S t a g e 7 - P r e l i m i n a r y D e s i g n The conclusion of preliminary design is a transition from concepts to firmer engi-neering construction form. Design work can now be defined at the activity level, a detailed schedule based on a comprehensive work breakdown can be prepared and responsibilities allocated. Important decisions regarding methods of analysis, form and content of drawings are reached at this stage. A balance must be struck be-tween the economies to be gained from the employment of sophisticated techniques for analysis and design against simplicity, ease of checking and revision during con-struction of alternative simpler methods. A constructability review is conducted to assure minimization of site referrals on aspects of detail. The development of early information release systems is done at this stage. These systems are designed to extract and transfer construction information from design calculations to the contractor. Information in a preliminary form reduces the con-tractor's inability to plan for the implementation of the works which arises if he has to wait for the detailed drawings to be completed. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 79 4.8 Stage 8 - General Arrangements Additional calculation and refinement of drawings leads to the general arrangements. This sets the stage for post contract design planning for variations through the com-pilation of anticipated variation lists. Variation lists serve a number of important functions. They: 1. Permit a realistic assessment of content and the likely finished cost of the project; 2. Provide an indication of the additional work load during construction; 3. Enable the formulation of back-up strategies for critical variations; 4. Initiate the development of acceptance criteria for possible variations; 5. Highlight the responsibilities and action required of the various parties and hasten the development of alternatives; and 6. A id in the preparation of the contract documents to ensure their completeness and flexibility for change. The importance of comprehensive contract documentation to support an incom-plete design cannot be over-emphasized. The contract documents should convey a clear and unambiguous account of the projects' requirements. The detailed consider-ation of contract compilation is beyond the scope of this work but appropriateness of contract form and detailed conditions are discussed briefly. A large variety of contract forms may be employed on building projects. These range from the lump sum to the cost plus types, each representing a different level of risk for the client and requiring different inputs during design and construction. The popular lump sum contract without quantities is unsuitable for fast track projects due Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 80 to the necessity of the contract form to accommodate changes. The cost plus forms may be adopted but require considerable experience and involvement by the client and the consultant in their administration. The bills of quantities form demonstrates greater suitability for the following reasons: 1. it avoids the need for all of the tendering contractors to measure quantities thereby eliminating wasteful duplication of effort and contractors overheads which are eventually transferred to the client; 2. all contractors tender on the same basis so that the risk in estimating and, consequently an increase in disputes over what is and what is not covered by the contract is reduced; 3. bills enable a systematic valuation of interim payments and assists in the valu-ation of variations; 4 . the detailed breakdown provides the design team invaluable information on project cost and is the basis for future cost planning; 5. detailed descriptions of items and tasks acts as a channel of information espe-cially since drawings will be relatively incomplete; and 6. the process of preparing the bills acts as a checking exercise on the completeness of design. Contract conditions relating to possession of site, supply of information, evaluations of variations, works programme and submission of claims will require special consid-eration. Specific details will vary depending upon the contractual framework adopted and therefore further consideration is not provided. Chapter 4. Fast Track Pre-Contract Procedures 81 4.9 S t a g e 9 - T e n d e r a n d F i n a l D e s i g n t o G r a d e L e v e l The particular fast track requirement at this stage involves an appraisal of the con-tractor's information needs and the acceptability of the pre-tender design schedule. A strategy for early information release to the contractor, to permit him to organize the host of activities that precede actual construction must be launched at this time. The form that the final design takes is of particular importance. Only the designer is aware of the global and particular requirements of design and therefore his design output must extend sufficiently close to preparatory tasks for construction. Relatively simple tasks that may be performed simultaneously with drafting, such as preparing reinforcement schedules, must form a part of the consultant's duties. 4.10 S u m m a r y Multiple inputs of design for construction, pre-contract design objectives, suitabil-ity of design for construction planning and design variations have been identified as the principal factors which affect fast track design definition. An approach to the manner in which the influence of these factors on fast track design definition may be assessed has been presented. The disruptive impact of variations on design per-formance and construction implementation has been demonstrated through a model simulation study. A fast track procedure has been developed in network form and its particular operational requirements discussed. Activity schedules which provide a comprehensive description of the procedure and which may be used as design check-lists have also been developed. Chapter 5 Fast Track - Design Management 5 .1 General The objective of this chapter is to develop methods to manage the release of de-sign information for construction.This important requirement arises due to the need to commence construction on the basis of a fast track design definition and in ac-cordance with the procedure as described in the preceding chapter. Emphasis is placed here upon the post contract period during which the entire course and pace of construction is dependant upon the systematic release of production drawings and variation processing. The critical nature of this operation is highlighted when the availability of construction information at tender is assessed for a procedure based on general arrangement design definition. Virtually every final detail for construction will have to be developed during the tender and construction periods. It is important to note that the supply of a complete design package at tender in the traditional system does not demand equal control. However, the performance evaluation of the traditional system ( see Chapter 2) confirms that substantial effi-ciencies in duration and design completeness are possible if the pre-contract phase is properly managed. Therefore, the management techniques presented in this chapter are also of relevance to projects developed within the traditional framework. 82 Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 83 5.2 Management Requirements Pre-contract management is the means by which the operational requirements of the fast track procedure are complied with to assure project success. Design organization and coordination of the various disciplines to achieve an integrated design solution is the primary task. Each individual consultant in the team is responsible for producing work which adheres to project requirements and this is achieved through the practice of design management. Design management enables a systematic execution of both pre-contract and post-contract fast track design. It includes the organization of design, systems for infor-mation collection and processing and procedures to ensure that information for con-struction is free from the problems attributable to the progressive development of design in the post contract phase. In connection with the latter, design management must accommodate the following: 1. assurance of the general completeness of design not only in regard to content, but also from the viewpoint of compliance with the necessary procedural steps of approvals and permits; 2. delivery of drawings and instruction in the correct sequence to match the course of construction as defined by the contractor's programme of work; 3. timely supply of construction information to permit proper construction plan-ning and organization of site activities; 4. design accuracy and, consistency with information produced by associated con-sultants; and 5. efficient processing and recording of site queries and variations within the design office to sustain the pace of construction and permit comprehensive contractual Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 84 evaluations. The first three items may be considered as a group under design scheduling proce-dures. Accuracy and consistency is the goal of design review procedures and finally, variation control procedures accommodate the requirement of changes in the project. The link between these management techniques and the project network/activity schedules becomes apparent as the methods are developed. Design management is discussed from the viewpoint of the structural consultant but similar principles apply to any design discipline. 5.3 D e s i g n O r g a n i z a t i o n Design organization involves the development of general guidelines regarding the man-ner in which the design team must be built taking into consideration requirements of liaising with associated consultants and effective information transfer to the site. Team make-up can be established through a consideration of responsibilities to the various categories of design personnel with the aim of making the best use of each level of experience. Experience levels are difficult to define and therefore a general classification on common design designations for the typical organization structure shown in Figure 3.4 is presented. This establishes participation of personnel at var-ious stages of the design life cycle and more importantly paths of delegation and information flow. P a r t n e r • Define practice objectives in terms of market for services, service to clients, profitability and liaise with administrative staff. • Ensure an adequate flow of work. • Define technical standards and ensure that they are attained. Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 85 • Assess all schemes and liaise with project engineers to define methods of design, investigation etc. • Liaise with clients and other parties in the construction process. Project Engineer • Supervise and be responsible for technical content and progress of all work. Check design, calculations and drawings prepared by assistants in the team. Compile relevant contract documentation. • Agree on time budgets with associates and principal. • Liaise with clients and other parties in the construction process and supervise construction. • Allocate staff to jobs. 9 Liaise with other team members. Assistant Engineer • Prepare detailed engineering calculations and sketches as directed. • Collect engineering data and design information. • Supervise and check drawings and schedules prepared by drawing office staff. Chief Detailer • Organize and allocate work to drawing office staff. • Liaise with project and assistant engineers and administrative staff. • Assess all projects to determine drawing formats, essential details etc. Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 86 • Monitor progress on all projects. Detailer • Maintain register of drawings, records of drawing movements and revisions for individual projects. • Prepare drawings and schedules from engineering calculations and sketches. • Check drawings before final review by engineers. Draughtsman • Complete in final form drawings prepared by the detailer. • Maintain current and dead files as directed. Design teams are built up gradually, commencing with initial participation by the partner to a full fledged design group once design form is established. The greatest difficulty lies in estimating engineering input at project start as little is known about the work. Varying staff involvement at the lower levels is to be expected but the apportionment of work for project engineers whose involvement spans the entire job must be carefully determined. Bottlenecks arising from the use of a common pool of detailers must be eliminated by the election of a specific draughting team. Whereas contractual powers for the administration of the project generally lie with the lead consultant, construction and design interaction takes place at the project en-gineer level. The unavailability of a complete design on fast track projects handicaps resident supervisors in their ability to make decisions on changes and in supplying clarifications and information for forward planning. A certain level of authority must therefore be delegated to principal design personnel in relation to the conditions of contract especially in connection with variations to permit their efficient process-ing. Otherwise the volume and character of the requests will overwhelm the lead Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 87 consultant. The variation control procedures discussed later aid in maintaining the information link between the various team members. 5.4 I n f o r m a t i o n P l a n n i n g Information forms the basis for design development from concept to detailed design. Indeed the major portion of the early design effort is directed at collecting data. In-formation requirements may be classified in two main divisions. The first is generally applicable to the project at hand and includes codes, specifications, weather data etc. The second contains project specific information such as the sub-soil conditions, finishes etc. For the second category the fast track procedure demands that all information necessary to establish concept and general form must be available at tender. How-ever, at such a level of design development there can still be a large volume of detailed information whose absence can lead to construction delays or forced modifications to completed works. This situation arises out of the trailing design of other consultants and the need for customized details for specialist fittings, finishes etc which are un-known until samples are approved and suppliers appointed. Information deficiencies may be minimized using a number of strategies. Firstly, through detailed product specifications. This strategy may deprive the client of potential savings from accept-able alternatives. Secondly, design can be prepared so that it is sufficiently flexible to accommodate a range of requirements. However there will always be a range of items for which completeness of construction drawings will only be feasible once supplier details are known. Lift pit sizing, machine room details, vault door fixings, seatings for beam bearings and tank supports are some examples. The compilation of information lists for such items so that these lists may be used to include contractual provisions for information supply and a means of following Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 88 up is a necessity. The lists should comprise item descriptions, latest information delivery dates and propose alternative courses of action in the event that specified information is not forthcoming. Information planning also includes early information release systems which are described in the section below. 5.5 Design Scheduling Procedures These procedures aim to assure that design meets with scope and procedural needs, and to ensure that construction information is issued in a logical sequence and in a timely fashion. The combined consideration of design scope and time control is an essential requirement for fast track projects. This need is emphasized in respect to the construction drawings for which the scope, time and sequence are all inter-related and each equally important for the success of the design/construction overlap. The use of critical path methods is favoured in this situation. Indeed, such methods are indispensable for analysis of claims for delay in information supply. A large array of project planning software is available for this purpose with report formats which are easy to understand. Design development is a continually changing process as it systematically allows project needs to be transformed into contract documentation and construction draw-ings. Design scheduling procedures will therefore have to match changing project needs. Four stages in project development have been selected for fast track schedul-ing during pre-contract development. 1. Pre-Commissioning Stage. 2. Preliminary Engineering Considerations Stage. 3. Preliminary Design Stage. 4. Tender and Final Design Stage. Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 89 5.5.1 Pre-Commissioning Stage Pre-contract development is an extremely complex collection of activities. At this stage in project development it is impossible to define the full extent of the project scope or to expose the inter-relationships between them. However, the pre-contract procedure for any particular class of facility can be categorized and presented in a simple network form similar to that shown in Figure 4.3. The requirements of design too can be identified in an aggregate form and presented in the form of activity sched-ules. The skeleton network and accompanying activity schedules are invaluable aids in providing the design team with a comprehensive understanding of the requirements of design. Specifically, staffing, specialist design needs and associated fees may be as-sessed adequately. Information presented to the client in this fashion also provides him with a true perspective of project requirements, a sound basis for evaluating the services offered and the realism of his intended programme. The use of the skeleton network and activity schedules as fundamental planning tools prompts consideration of the compilation of a library of such documents for routine use by the consultant. In the field of building construction for example, networks may be developed for different building classes such as office, residential, storage, factory, industrial etc. Each such class will contain a number of possible procedural alternatives but within the bounds of accepted local practice it is possible to prepare general fast track networks for individual groups. For example, consider fast track procedural development for a storage facility in the structural steelwork sub-class. Following the approach outlined in the earlier chapter, in the case of a simple structure, a summary of the considerations leading to the procedure indicated in Figure 5.1 is presented below. 1. The architectural and structural disciplines govern. Pro-tender Estimates Sketch ' Design Preliminary Layouts Scope definition Documents Dev. Permit Final Layouts Client _\_. \ \ 1 Architectural Details Client  Architect Sir. Engineer Quantity Surveyor Tender Award Mobilization Excavation Fabrication Drgs Evaluation Initial Information Scheme Prelim. Foundation & Structural Foundation Frame Gable end ; »».....„. ap. Considerations Collection Selection Design General Arrangements Design Design Design Check Fab. Drgs. Figure 5.1: Skeleton Network - Storage Building CO o Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 91 2. Sufficient information about cost, duration and construction form will be avail-able on conclusion of the investigation and report stage. Little change may be expected in architectural form and detail once planning approval has been secured. Structural form and foundation setting out and sizes may be defined confidently. Steelwork fabrication drawings afford a means of final design review of the super-structure. 3. Tenders to permit fast tracking can therefore be invited solely on the basis of the architectural layouts and appropriate documentation that bridges the information gap on detailed project requirements. 4. Fast track success is assured if foundation setting-out, structural frame gen-eral arrangements and principal details are ready on award so that steelwork detailing may commence. 5. Final design of footings, gable ends, floors etc can be done simultaneously with fabrication and construction. Accompanying detailed activity schedules can also be prepared. It is interesting to note how the pre-contract procedure may be condensed for such buildings, not only by virtue of its simplicity, but also by the fact that considerable support in design is provided since detailed steelwork drawings are compiled by the fabricator. In established consultancies, documented project data and the experience of pro-fessional staff can enable the preparation of such documents. The availability of these planning tools provide an effective means of commencing pre-contract development. With the procedure and design execution requirements defined, the issues of se-quence and timing need to be addressed. Due to limited information, estimates of duration of the pre-contract activities will be approximate, generally being based Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 92 upon past experience on similar projects. It would appear reasonable to allocate durations to principal design stages as defined by the activity schedules. 5.5.2 Preliminary Engineering Considerations Stage A project specific design schedule can be prepared once the requirements of the client are revealed. The initial network, in terms of the number of activities, would be of the order of about 50 aggregated tasks. Figure 5.2 shows the typical process of project scheduling using critical path techniques. There are two main problems associated with the employment of this technique in the pre-contract development of multi-storey buildings. The first relates to the aspect of activity definitions. Except for activities at the detailed design stage, there will be considerable difficulty in demarcating precisely the completion of the various activities and design stages. For example, completion of preliminary design for similar buildings will result in varying definition and output of design data depending upon the acceptability of uncertainty of cost, duration etc. The second relates to estimates of design durations. Reliable estimates of dura-tions can only be made provided past information on comparable projects is available. Also, the speed with which a particular engineering task can be accomplished is a function of the training and experience. Many tasks are also heavily dependant upon design and information feedback by associated disciplines and therefore realism and operational success are equally reliant on an combined effort of all project partici-pants.The problem is quite significant for the early stages of pre-contract development since duration estimates have to allow for the cyclic nature of design. Durations for detailed design operations in comparison can be estimated more accurately due to the degree of standardization created by the systems defined in the codes. Acceptable durations for any particular project are those which can be related to past work and which have been obtained following consultation with the person _No_ Activity List Network Set Team Size Estimate Durations Critical Path Analysis Project Duration Resource Analysis OK? L U I DATA BASE Activity Schedules Networks Durations jratiofi^^ YBR OK? ^ J t a s - Schedule Identify Restraints & Restart Figure 5.2: Design Scheduling Process Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 94 allocated the responsibility for its execution. There is little evidence to show that engineering consultancies routinely maintain records of time spent on engineering design for planning. Development of data bases which permit the preparation of realistic schedules are an essential requirement. The manner in which these may be developed is not considered here but data for time usage is generally available in consultancy organizations in the form of time sheets and project records and may be employed in the compilation of a data base. Ideally, specially designed time sheets may be used for this purpose so that reliable and meaningful data can be collected gradually. The important function in terms of duration analysis at this stage is the identifi-cation of those factors and tasks which appear to require a disproportionate amount of time for execution. Common factors include specialist design, client approvals, statutory acceptances, and site access. Early consideration of strategies to reduce the impact of such problems results in efficiencies in pre-contract execution. Efficiencies are also obtained from clear task descriptions which should specify not only work required but also that which is unnecessary. The individual discipline schedules can the be employed in the preparation of the master programme. 5.5.3 T h e P r e l i m i n a r y D e s i g n S t a g e A detailed schedule based upon a comprehensive work breakdown can be prepared. The work breakdown is the method by which design scope is defined. Presented in a tabular form, it can be used for allocating responsibilities and attaching duration estimates for the design schedule. The form that the detailed design breakdown as-sumes can be logically divided into a number of levels as illustrated in Table 5.1. The first contains activities that the contractor can reasonably be expected to plan and Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 95 complete in a single or a series of continuous operations. In a simple, modestly sized building, representative activities are the foundation raft, basement walls, basement to ground floor columns etc. In larger and more complex buildings in which pro-gressive vertical construction at every level involves a series of inter-connected, but logically separable construction operations, design may be broken down into smaller sections. Such a breakdown requires the consultant to make some reasonable as-sumption regarding the likely course of construction. A typical example is a two way division of design for a floor slab for an L-shaped building having unequal wings. Contractual provisions which safeguard the client for specific information delivery must be included. What is paramount is that such assumptions do not significantly influence the contractor's liberty to adopt sequence and methods of working generally employed for the facility under consideration. The sub-levels of design work breakdown comprise four sections namely detailed design, design review, detailing, review and finalization of drawings. The detailed de-sign sub-level includes every structural member and detail necessary for construction. The design review is essentially a check on the above. The detailing breakdown in-cludes all specified design items but can be organized to indicate the exact content of the various drawings together with codes defining presentation format. This exercise will reduce the time spent in communication by senior designers with their drawing office staff. The preliminary design schedule should comprise the first level activities using the effective sum of durations at the lower levels i.e. taking into account any ef-fective overlapping. The clear allocation of responsibilities for design, detailing and review is desirable not only from the point of initial execution but also with respect to processing of subsequent queries and variations during the course of the works. Additional advantages to be gained from this process are the early identification of Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 96 individual sections of the project which are likely to change and those for which there is insufficient data for design completion. In addition to specific design activities, extra activities allowing for time input for variations and information requests will be required, durations for which will have to be assumed. Perhaps the most important aspect of the schedule is judgement on advance timing for design information release to permit adequate construction planning. The development of early information release systems will take place at this stage. Early information release is essentially based upon a detailed examination of the con-struction process for individual design elements and the contribution partly complete design can make to construction planning in terms of materials, labour and equipment planning. An example best illustrates this system. Consider the construction of the structural floor in a reinforced concrete building structure which is being fast tracked with field work starting when the general arrangements are complete. Clearly in terms of construction data, the principal piece of outstanding information are the reinforce-ment drawings. In the case of a contractor experienced in this form of construction, the primary constriction is lack of confirmation on sizes and respective quantities of reinforcement. Early information release can take the form of tables of sizes and approximate weights for various sections, as extracted from the design calculations. The reasonable interpretation and accuracy of such information will of course have to be detailed in the contract but the method does bridge a large information void between general form and detailed construction drawings. 5.5.4 T e n d e r a n d F i n a l D e s i g n There are two important requirements at this stage. The first involves appraisal of the pre-design programme in regard to its suitability for information supply in er 5. Fast Track - Design Management Table 5.1: Work Breakdown - Preliminary Design Design Item Duration Action F L O O R S L A B G L J9,5 & E9,5 Ref. Drawing 1902/S7/p 12 Design 4.5 JRC Slab panels SP1, SP2 Secondary beams SBI, SB2 Main beams MB1, MB2, MB3 Floor opening GL G,F-9,5 Expansion joint GL 9 1. Confirm availability of flexcell. 2. Beam SB2 to change to upstand ? Design Review 1.5 KR Detailing 4.0 ADN Drawing 21 Slab panels SP1, SP2 (p 1:50, s 1:25) Bending Schedules for SP1, SP2 Expansion Joint Details, openings Channel r.c, cover fixing details Drawing 22 Main Beams MB1, MB2, MB3 (p 1:50, s 1:25) Secondary beams SBI, SB2 Bending schedules Main and Secondary Drawings Review 1.0 KR Tracing Drawings 21 k 22 2.0 CCD Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 98 comparison with the contractor's works programme taking into account the more realistic assessment of time input for variation processing. Adjustments to the detailed sequence and timing may be required. The tender stage is the latest possible time at which schedule alterations are possible with minimum contractual implications due to the possibility of extending the tender period. Second is the commencement of regular monitoring to assure timely delivery. De-sign monitoring under this framework is a straightforward comparison of actual design output, measured in terms of documentation produced against the anticipated. Once construction has commenced updates will be required on a weekly basis and design progress reports will have to be structured to indicate action required internally and of others involved in the works. 5.6 R e v i e w P r o c e d u r e s Errors, omissions and inconsistencies have been cited (Fazio et al, 1988) as major fast track problems and therefore formal review systems are a necessary part of fast track management systems. Review procedures may be divided into three main categories, namely design reviews, documentation reviews and external reviews. The latter are so titled as they are conducted by individuals or organizations not part of the original design team. Due to the wide range of outputs of design, an assembly of reviewers is required, with each member having the requisite experience to conduct specific checks. 5.6.1 D e s i g n R e v i e w Design and review are essentially sequential processes which may result in design execution through a number of cycles. Prior to the preliminary stage, the review function is essentially supportive, providing the means for better considered schemes Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 99 on a global basis. Later the review is corrective, providing a system through which errors, inaccuracies and inconsistencies in design and documentation are detected and modified suitably. The review process during fast tracking is especially important. A considerable volume of information is issued to the contractor at this stage and when this infor-mation is unsatisfactory, construction delays and claims will ensue. Fast track review has one major difference in comparison with traditional design. Since associated de-signs trail, their progressive definition may necessitate changes in architecture and structural designs. Detailed checks on calculations and drawings have to be preceded with a validation of conformity of structural form with overall project requirements. Construction drawings need a certain minimum level of detail and little time can be saved in this process. When the pressure for information delivery is high, the review process is likely to suffer. In view of the above, the review system must be organized to permit efficient check-ing with minimum of consultation with the principal designers. It must include formal reporting that clearly identifies the problem, its implications on design and construc-tion and the corrections required. Figure 5.3 illustrates the general design/review process at the final design stage. The Design Summary and Design Review Sheets are management tools that accommodate the above requirements. The former is a simple description of design in connection with detailed calculations indicating the assumptions, method of analysis and its interaction with the rest of the structure. The Design Review Sheet serves a number of functions. 1. It provides a description of the specific error or discrepancy that needs to be rectified. 2. It identifies documentation that has been affected. Action Recommended by Design Review Sheet Yes Design Calculations for work package Communication by Design Summary Sheet _ J _ Reviewer Commences Design Check Principal Outlines of Drawings Communication by Design Review Sheet L Design Check Complete Design Submission for Statutory Approval Stat. Review Done Design/Drgs Comments Draft Final Drawings & Schedules Prelim. Check by Detailer and Engineer Final Working Drawings & Schedules i Drawing & Schedule Review Commences Drg/Sch Review Done - Marked Drawings Information Released to Contractor Figure 5.3: Design & Review Process Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 101 3. It indicates action to be taken in respect of design and on-going construction. 4. It assesses the impact in terms of its time usage on design and construction. The format of these will vary depending upon the characteristics of the project. Table 5.2 shows a sample Design Review Sheet. 5.6.2 Documentation Reviews The major portion of reviews are undertaken immediately prior to the issue of tender documentation. These center around the relevancy of the documents for a non-traditional application. These documents generally remain unaltered during the course of construction and special checking procedures during fast tracking are not required. 5.6.3 External Reviews External reviews have held an important place in engineering design and provide benefits of improved design through the input of specialists in the field. In large firms these are conducted by associate offices and smaller firms sometimes appoint other consultants to conduct comprehensive checks. External reviews are a special category of work and guidelines on how these should be conducted have been published by the ASCE (1988). 5.7 Variation Control Procedures The manner in which variations are processed from their identification, assessment and arbitration if required is generally governed by the form of contract and related contractual provisions. The contractual framework of FIDIC (1977) provides a suit-able background for the development of a model variation control system. Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 102 Table 5.2: Sample Design Review Sheet Reference: Entrance Canopies Documents Structural drawings: S2020/104/A First Floor Layout Structural calculations : pp 98-107 Architectural: 231/K/03/C First Floor Layout Review Comments Tie back beams to 1st floor removed. Client initiated change - revision mark unchanged on arch. drg. Action Hold structural detailing of canopies Revise 1st floor layout Assess alternative systems Inform contractor of anticipated change Impact Scheme development and approval: 3 days Design: 2 days Detailing: 2.5 days Construction: Immediate impact - nil Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 103 Variation control is the management of a sub-system within the overall variation order process and covers the period from the time the query is referred to the design office until formal instruction is issued to the contractor. This process was simulated and the results presented earlier for a simple model (Chapter 3, section 4.5.1) A summary of the important observations made in building and running the computer model is presented below and provides the basis for the development of a fast track variation control system. 1. The number of possible variations and requests for information will be consid-erably greater than those for traditional design. The volume of variations is related to design definition at the time of tender. 2. Due to the complexity of modern buildings, a necessary variation for a single discipline can effect design requirements of others involved in the project. 3. If a variation affects other disciplines, then the time needed for comment and approval depends upon the speed with which impact and acceptance criteria can be developed. 4. Major changes will necessitate client approval. 5. Local regulations may necessitate design re-approvals for major variations. 6. Disproportionate time usage on variation processing will have a detrimental impact upon completion of outstanding design and its quality. 7. Delay in releasing information and providing approvals for variations can have serious impacts upon construction progress and consequently lead to claims against the client and/or his agents. Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 104 8. Detailed records of requests and information supplied have to be maintained as part of design/construction records and for monthly payments and claims evaluations. 9. The large volume of information transfer from the design office to site requires proper control and coordination to ensure that current information is being employed in building the works. This is particularly important for drawings which are the principal means of communication. The accuracy of the " as mades " is also dependant upon control of design/site information. 10. Advantages may be gained from early information release systems that enable the contractor to plan in advance and thereby relieve the pressure on the design team for data on proposed variations. The above suggests that any proposed system can logically be built up in two steps. The first being during the pre-contract phase when the incompleteness of design is assessed and anticipated changes in the project are documented. The second is the formulation of the procedure for processing both the anticipated and unanticipated variations during the course of construction. The first step involves the compilation of Anticipated Variation Lists based upon the general arrangement drawings and project design records to that point in time as follows. Each anticipated variation is tagged with a reference number, and a brief description indicating the data which is likely to change. An impact matrix is then completed so that an indication of the extent of change and those to whom responsibility for processing the variation extends. The next step is the compilation of Action and Acceptance/Rejection Criteria Lists in consultation with concerned parties. Sample Variation Lists and Action and Acceptance/Rejection Criteria Lists are shown in Tables 5.3 and 5.4. Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 105 Table 5.3: Sample Variation List Item Descriptions CI A r St El Me QS 9.0 Vault door Confirm opening size and and fixing * * * 10.0 Tang Bar Reinforcement Client to confirm inclusion if tender price OK * * * * 11.0 Intermediate Platform Architect to confirm use and extent * * * * * * Table 5.4: Sample Action/Criteria Schedules Item Action Criteria 9.0 Vault Door Confirm wall/opening reinforcement Information to Arch, Mech, Elec If supplier not Chubb 10.0 Tang Bar Reinforcement Alternative includes locally manufactured steel cages Sketches forwarded for approval Steel drawings required If tendered cost exceeds 4 million 11.0 Intermediate Platform Major change, see minutes of meeting 14.1.87. Costing by QS Preliminary design for stat. approval Drgs affected /04, /05, /07 Client decision req. by 23.2.87 User evaluation of office/storage use Cost must not exceed 700,000. R.C.option Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 106 The post-award period will involve the processing of both anticipated and unantic-ipated variations. The process is illustrated in Figure 5.4. Information and variation requests arriving at the design office are dated and provide with Request Reference numbers. Where necessary a formal Variation Order Number is assigned. The an-ticipated and unanticipated variations can then be distinguished. In the case of the former design and detailing may be undertaken on the basis of the pre-determined action and criteria plans. Where possible the contractor should be provided with any advance information that would permit him to plan for change. Following design and review, updating of the drawing index, drawing movement register and issuance of a Variation Order are required. There is little in the way of procedure in ensuring that drawings are provided with the correct revision marks and effectively communicate the changes other than thoroughness in the work. Simple systems for a small design office have been in use from the early part of this century (Davis, 1915) and are still suitable for many jobs. The claims summary indicated in Figure 5.4 should be pre-pared in accordance with the requirements of the contract and forms the basis for the contractor's submissions. In the case of unanticipated changes, the process is longer since all those decisions needed to arrive at the Anticipated Variation Lists have to be made. Apart from the greater time needs, the chances of a higher detrimental impact on design and construction are greater and thus the value of the lists is highlighted further. 5.8 S u m m a r y The success of fast tracking relies upon careful control and conveyance of final design information in the period following the contract award. The absence of this need has necessitated the development of formal management guidelines anew. Table 5.5 provides a summary of the management tools that have been developed for fast track Variation Lists * Acti or/Criteria * Back-Up Strategy Variation Request Provide date, reference * Note: All actions marked with an asterisk must be recorded in a Variation/Information register Eval. Current Impact Issue Prelim info Design & Review Update Drg Register Claims Eval. Summary Issue Information Assess) Assess Impacts on Design & construction No Client Evai.Summary Cost & Duration Impact On Site & Design Yes No Cancel Variation or Re-evaluate Need Figure 5.4: Design Variation Control Chapter 5. Fast Track - Design Management 108 Table 5.5: Design Management tools Design Stage Information Source Management Tools Initial Considerations Skeleton Network Activity Schedules Design Schedules Pre-Contract Schedule Preliminary Design Preliminary Layouts Design work Breakdown Detailed Design Schedule Information Lists Responsibility Schedules General Arrangements Detailed G.A.'s Documentation Variation Lists Variation Impact Matrix Action/Criteria Lists Back-up Strategies Final Design Calculations and Drawings Early Information Release Design Summary Sheet Design Review Sheet design management. It is emphasized that these guidelines are also useful for the traditional project and more so for projects of an intermediate character. These are projects which neither seek the full potential of fast tracking nor adhere strictly to traditional requirements and so approach construction with substantial but not complete design. Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1 Conclusions Pre-contract fast track procedure and design management techniques as developed in chapters four and five meet the objectives set for this thesis by providing the framework within which designers can plan and control a fast track building project. The approach proposed for procedural development enables a realistic evaluation of objectives of design from a viewpoint of pre-contract and construction needs, leading to a threshold design for tender and commencement of construction. The procedure, as defined by a project level network and supporting discipline level activity schedules, is a suitable method of capturing the large number and diversity of tasks that make up the pre-contract phase and serves as the master management tool. This format compels the designer to consider and execute each individual task in a systematic and time efficient manner with a full view of the implications upon inter-related activities. The operational requirements of the procedure for every individual stage of design are outlined with particular emphasis on contract documentation which bridges the information gap that is created by the incomplete nature of design. The simulation of the post-contract operations of the design office has provided an invaluable insight into the factors that affect design performance and set the basis for the development of design management techniques. 109 Chapter 6. Conclusions and Recommendations 110 The demand for design management arises from the need to progressively re-lease design information following contract award.The scope and design scheduling procedures follow from the project activity schedules and permit the allocation of responsibilities and the formulation of detailed schedules for the release of construc-tion information in time and in correct sequence. Other management systems revolve around the critical issues of information forecasting, its quality and progressive release for construction. Information planning allows tracking of critical data required for completeness of design. Review procedures assure quality and correctness of design data. Variation control provides a two phase system of pre-contract assessment and action policies for anticipated variations and, method of control and recording during construction. The use of early information release systems have been recommended as mechanisms which operate in parallel with pre-site implementation processes and enable the smooth flow of construction activities. 6.2 Recommendations Two important areas for further work are the development of skeleton networks and activity schedules for a range of engineering facilities and the compilation of data for the duration of design tasks. The former charts the process of engineering and pro-vides the basis for the development of non-traditional systems together with a clear understanding of the implications of deviations from established practice. Duration data is vital in design planning as it enables the designer to confidently project in-formation release during the design/construction overlap. This information will also enable greater uniformity and efficiency in design execution and allow for realistic assessments of professional input and associated compensation. 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