Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Socioeconomic and situational factors in urban traffic noise annoyance levels Saur, William Leonard 1975

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1975_A7 S29_7.pdf [ 7.97MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0062585.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0062585-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0062585-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0062585-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0062585-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0062585-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0062585-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0062585-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0062585.ris

Full Text

SOCIOECONOMIC AND SITUATIONAL  FACTORS  IN U R B A N T R A F F I C NOISE A N N O Y A N C E L E V E L S by WILLIAM L E O N A R D SAUR B.S.,  M a s s a c h u s e t t s Institute of T e c h n o l o g y ,  1969  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A P P L I E D  SCIENCE  i n the D e p a r t m e n t of C i v i l Engineering  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A May,  197 5  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of t h e  requirements  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r  reference  and  copying  study.  I f u r t h e r a g r e e that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y of m y  be  D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  g r a n t e d by the  Head  It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t  c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y  written  permission.  D e p a r t m e n t of  The  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Vancouver,  Canada  Columbia  ii  ABSTRACT  T r a f f i c noise is having an increasingly adverse q u a l i t y of u r b a n l i f e .  impact  on the  A s a r e s u l t it i s n e c e s s a r y f o r community  p l a n n e r s and engineers to develop better t r a f f i c m a n a g e m e n t c r i t e r i a a n d s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s t o k e e p t h e l e v e l of c o m m u n i t y n o i s e to s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e l e v e l s .  traffic  In t h e r e c e n t p a s t s u b s t a n t i a l  r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n done t o h e l p u n d e r s t a n d  the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s  of t r a f f i c n o i s e a n d i n d i c e s of c o m m u n i t y n o i s e p e r c e p t i o n . However, little i s understood  about the p e r c e p t i o n a n d a n n o y a n c e  l e v e l s of s p e c i f i c g r o u p s t o w a r d t r a f f i c n o i s e .  Complete knowledge  of a l l d i m e n s i o n s of t r a f f i c n o i s e a n n o y a n c e i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t of c o m m u n i t y t r a f f i c m a n a g e m e n t c r i t e r i a a n d neighborhood planning The  techniques.  p u r p o s e of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d i m e n s i o n s  of p u b l i c a n n o y a n c e t o t r a f f i c n o i s e i n a l a r g e c i t y .  Specifically,  the study o b j e c t i v e i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n o i s e a n n o y a n c e i n s e v e r a l u r b a n n e i g h b o r h o o d s a n d the and  situational v a r i a b l e s which have some impact  socioeconomic on a t t i t u d e s a b o u t  traffic noise. F o l l o w i n g a p r e l i m i n a r y n o i s e a n n o y a n c e s u r v e y of 3 500 h o u s e holds i n Vancouver,  British Columbia,  a discriminant-classification  s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e was u s e d t o a n a l y z e a f o l l o w - u p ,  i n depth,  attitudinal  T h r e e  s u r v e y  of  c a t e g o r i e s  1)  331  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  a h o u s e h o l d  s e m a n t i c  2)  of  of  the  e a c h  m e a s u r e s  3)  s u r v e y  of  s o m e  effect  s c a l i n g  h o u s e h o l d  p h y s i c a l  the  to  in  the  n o i s e  s u r v e y :  u s i n g  a  t e c h n i q u e ;  a n d  c u l t u r a l  s u r v e y e d ,  a n d  a n d  situational  w h i c h  n o i s e  n e i g h b o r h o o d s .  obtained  attitudes  v a r i a b l e s  on  s e v e r a l  s o c i o e c o n o m i c  the  n e i g h b o r h o o d  in  w e r e  of  differential  m e a s u r e s  p r o f i l e s  h o u s e h o l d s  w o u l d  l i k e l y  e n v i r o n m e n t  of  h a v e  the  h o u s e h o l d .  T h e  s t a t i s t i c a l  m o d e l  s o c i o e c o n o m i c ,  t h o s e  f r o m  s o c i a l  t h o s e  is  d i s t a n c e  w h o  the  the  P a r t i c u l a r l y ,  f a c t o r  of  this  in  as  w e r e  s h o w  m a j o r  it  of  t r a f f i c  to  p h y s i c a l  w e r e  in  n o i s e  l i v e s  that  f r o m  h i g h l y  d i m e n s i o n s  on  s e n s i t i v e  t r a f f i c  m a j o r  of  s e p a r a t i n g  to  t r a f f i c  n o i s e  T h e  a n d  s o c i o e c o n o m i c  f o l l o w e d  t r a f f i c  l e v e l s  a r e  the  c r i t e r i a  to  of  c r i t e r i a  c u l t u r a l  m e e t  b y  the  a r t e r i e s .  i m p l i c a t i o n  m a n a g e m e n t  p l a n n i n g  l e v e l s .  h i g h  a n n o y a n c e  e d u c a t i o n  s o c i o e c o n o m i c  n o i s e  the  v a r i a b l e s  r e s p o n d e n t ' s  a n n o y a n c e .  t r a f f i c  investigate  s e n s i t i v e .  the  f a c t o r  that  the  a c c e p t e d  a c c e p t a b l e  that  n o i s e  is  a n d  l e s s  a p p e a r s  r e s e a r c h  u s e d  w h i c h  r e s p o n d e n t  t r a f f i c  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  w e l l  c u l t u r a l ,  g r o u p i n g s  R e s u l t s  status  w a s  d o m i n a n t  the  m u s t  r e s u l t s  i n c l u d e  e n v i r o n m e n t  p u b l i c l y  as  iv  T A B L E  O F  C O N T E N T S P a g e  L i s t  of  T a b l e s  v i  L i s t  of  F i g u r e s  ix  L i s t  of  M a p s  L i s t  of  E x h i b i t s  x  x i  A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s  x i i  C H A P T E R  I  I N T R O D U C T I O N  Statement  1  of  P r o b l e m  1  H y p o t h e s i s  2  A s s u m p t i o n s R e s e a r c h  and  L i m i t a t i o n s  5  A p p r o a c h  7  P r e v i e w  II  8  L I T E R A T U R E  C o n t r o l -  at  S U R V E Y  of  N o i s e  the  9  s o u r c e  -  of  t r a n s m i s s i o n  -  at  the  T r a f f i c  N o i s e  and  -  J o h n s o n  -  G o r d e n  -  G a l l o w a y  T r a f f i c  path  r e c e i v e r  N o i s e  T r a f f i c  and et.  S a u n d e r s  a l .  Indices  N e w  -  R o b i n s o n ,  14  a l .  et.  -  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  a n d  A n n o y a n c e  Y o r k C o p e l a n d  -  S t e v e n s ,  Z w i c k e r  -  G r i f f i t h s  and  -  J o h n s o n  and  L a n g  and  a n d don  C a r o t h e r s  R e n n i e  K r y t e r  18  V  III  D A T A REDUCTION AND M E T H O D O L O G Y Data Reduction - Socioeconomic variables - Situational variables  31 32 45  Methodology - Discriminant-classification analysis  61 61  - Factor analysis IV  ANALYSIS ,  65 70  Preliminary Discriminant Analysis  70  Discriminant-Classification Analysis - 5 group case - 3 group case  76 76 86  - 2 group case Factor Analysis Discriminant Analysis Using Factor Scores V  31  RESULTS  90 96 103 111  Research Findings  111  Conclusions  124  Suggestions for Further Research  125  Implications  128  BIBLIOGRAPHY  130  APPENDIX A :  DATA  APPENDIX B:  NOISE,  134 MEASUREMENT,  AND INDICES  149  vi  LIST OF  TABLES  Table 1  Page P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n Coefficients between Selected Indices and M e d i a n D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n Scores  25  2  Socioeconomic Variables  42  3  Situational V a r i a b l e s  46  4  T r a f f i c V o l u m e s and N o i s e L e v e l s  — West E n d  49  5  T r a f f i c Volumes and Noise L e v e l s  - Kitsilano  50  6  T r a f f i c V o l u m e s and N o i s e L e v e l s  - Fairview/  East End  51  7  R e s p o n s e to A n n o y a n c e Q u e s t i o n  - West  End  8  R e s p o n s e to A n n o y a n c e Q u e s t i o n  - Fairview  57  9  R e s p o n s e to A n n o y a n c e Q u e s t i o n  - Kitsilano  58  Annoyance Question  56  10  C o m p o s i t e R e s p o n s e to  11  E x a m p l e of F a c t o r L o a d i n g s  67  12  Five Trial Discriminating Variables  71  13  F i v e Group Classification Categories  72  14  Three Group Classification Categories  73  15  Correct Classification Matrix  75  16  C o r r e c t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x (1) - 3 G r o u p T r i a l  77  17  C o r r e c t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x (2) - 3 G r o u p T r i a l  78  18  S u m m a r y of D i s c r i m i n a t i n g V a r i a b l e s C o n s i d e r e d  79  19  C o r r e c t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x (1) - 5 G r o u p s  80  - 5 Group T r i a l  59  vii  P a g e  T a b l e  20  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (2)  -  5  G r o u p s  82  21  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (3)  -  5  G r o u p s  83  22  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (4)  -  5  G r o u p s  84  23  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (5)  -  5  G r o u p s  85  24  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (1)  -  3  G r o u p s  87  25  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (2)  -  3  G r o u p s  88  26  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (3)  -  3  G r o u p s  89  27  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (4)  -  3  G r o u p s  91  28  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (1)  -  2  G r o u p s  92  29  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (2)  -  2  G r o u p s  93  30  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (3)  -  2  G r o u p s  94  31  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  M a t r i x (4)  -  2  G r o u p s  95  32  R o t a t e d 3,  5  R o t a t e d  33  2  F a c t o r  M a t r i x  a n d  C o m m u n a l i t i e s 97  G r o u p s  F a c t o r  M a t r i x  a n d  C o m r n u n a l i t i e s 98  G r o u p s  F a c t o r  L o a d i n g s  (1)  100  35  F a c t o r  L o a d i n g s  (2)  100  36  F a c t o r  L o a d i n g s  (3)  101  37  F a c t o r  L o a d i n g s  (4)  101  38  F a c t o r  L o a d i n g s  (5)  102  34  39  .  C o r r e c t  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  F a c t o r s  (1)  -  5  G r o u p s  M a t r i x  U s i n g 104  VIX'l  Table 40  41  42  43  Page Correct Classification Matrix F a c t o r s (2) - 5 G r o u p s  using  Correct Classification Matrix Factors - 3 Groups  using  Correct Classification Matrix F a c t o r s (1) - 2 G r o u p s  using  Correct Classification Matrix  using  105  106  108  F a c t o r s (2) - 2 G r o u p s 44  Correct Classification Matrix  . 109 using  F a c t o r s (3) - 2 G r o u p s  110  45  Summary  113  46  M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of V a r i a b l e s 5 Group Case  47  of " B e s t " R e s u l t s  114  M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of V a r i a b l e s 3 Group Case  116  ix  LIST OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page  1  M e a s u r e d N o i s e and T r a f f i c V o l u m e s - West E n d  52  2  M e a s u r e d N o i s e and T r a f f i c V o l u m e s - K i t s i l a n o  53  3  M e a s u r e d Noise and T r a f f i c V o l u m e s - F a i r v i e w  54  4  W e i g h t e d Sound L e v e l s and H u m a n R e s p o n s e s  60  5  D i s t a n c e as a F a c t o r i n N o i s e I n t e n s i t y  153  6  F a l l o f f of C o n t i n u o u s over Distance  154  7  8  Transportation Noise  Noise Reduction P r o v i d e d by Various Highway Configurations  155  Frequency  156  R e s p o n s e of W e i g h t i n g N e t w o r k s  LIST OF  MAPS  Map  1  A r e a s u n d e r Study  2  Interview Locations - West  3  End  Noise and T r a f f i c M e a s u r e m e n t Locations West End.  4 5  Interview Locations - Kitsilano N o i s e and T r a f f i c M e a s u r e m e n t L o c a t i o n s Kitsilano  6 7  Interview Locations - F a i r v i e w (East) Noise and T r a f f i c M e a s u r e m e n t Locations F a i r v i e w (East)  8 9  Interview L o c a t i o n s - F a i r v i e w (West) Noise and T r a f f i c M e a s u r e m e n t Locations F a i r v i e w (West)  L I S T  O F  E X H I B I T S  E x h i b i t  1  S a m p l e f r o m  H a r d c o p y  C h a r t  of  N o i s e  R e c o r d e r  L e v e l s  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w i s h to e x p r e s s m y gratitude and thanks to P r o f e s s o r G e r a l d B r o w n for his guidance and encouragement throughout this t h e s i s .  Without h i s help and thoughtful suggestions a n d •  c r i t i c i s m the p r o j e c t c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplished. I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k D r . J o h n P r i c e of t h e D e p a r t m e n t of A r c h i t e c t u r e b o t h f o r h i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d his a s s i s t a n c e i n t r a n s c r i b i n g data. Finally,  I w o u l d l i k e t o thank the C e n t e r f o r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  S t u d i e s w h o s e g e n e r o u s f i n a n c i n g m a d e t h e e n t i r e study p o s s i b l e .  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  S t a t e m e n t of P r o b l e m An one  i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s of the p r o b l e m s of n o i s e h a s  of the m a j o r a s p e c t s of a new  been  c o n c e r n o v e r the e n v i r o n m e n t .  P a s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e r e v e a l e d that, not s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  the  p r i m e " d i s t u r b e r " o r s o u r c e of n o i s e i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s  and  c o m m u n i t i e s a p p e a r s to be t r a f f i c .  As  the s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g r i s e s  a n d a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r of v e h i c l e s m o v e s a l o n g o u r  roadways  t h i s p r o b l e m w i l l o n l y b e c o m e g r e a t e r ; t h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r to deal with t r a f f i c noise and its m a n a g e m e n t i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas, i t b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y f o r t r a f f i c m a n a g e r s a n d p l a n n e r s to u n d e r s t a n d as c o m p l e t e l y as p o s s i b l e a l l a s p e c t s of t r a f f i c n o i s e f r o m i t s g e n e r a t i o n to i t s p e r c e p t i o n b y the p u b l i c . In t h e p a s t , any u n d e r t a k i n g i n the f o r m of new roads be  or  on t h e p a r t of g o v e r n m e n t o r p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s h a d  concerned  improved o n l y to  with t r a d i t i o n a l t r a f f i c engineering c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  e.g. t h e s p e e d a n d r o a d c a p a c i t y d e s i r e d . U.S. , e n v i r o n m e n t a l  impact  statements  M o r e r e c e n t l y , i n the  h a v e b e e n r e q u i r e d as  p a r t of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s to e s t i m a t e t h e a d v e r s e on the e n v i r o n m e n t .  It i s new  e f f e c t s , i f any,  e f f o r t s a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s to u n d e r -  s t a n d a n d d e a l w i t h t r a f f i c n o i s e w h i c h w i l l n e e d t o be m a d e b e f o r e progress  c a n be a t t a i n e d i n r e d u c i n g the t r a f f i c n o i s e o r a l l e v i a t i n g  2  the p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by i t .  T r a f f i c p l a n n e r s m u s t now  c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e o v e r a l l i m p a c t of any new  f a c i l i t i e s and this  m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the n o i s e In the r e c e n t p a s t , help understand compile  be  impact.  s u b s t a n t i a l r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n done t o  the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of t r a f f i c n o i s e  and develop  i n d i c e s of c o m m u n i t y n o i s e p e r c e p t i o n .  However, little is understood  about t h e p e r c e p t i o n a n d  l e v e l s of s p e c i f i c g r o u p s t o w a r d t r a f f i c n o i s e . become necessary  and  for engineers  As  annoyance  a result,  a n d p l a n n e r s to d e v e l o p  and b e t t e r t r a f f i c m a n a g e m e n t c r i t e r i a and  it has  newer  study t e c h n i q u e s  to  a t t a i n a n d k e e p the l e v e l of t r a f f i c n o i s e i n the c o m m u n i t y to socially acceptable levels.  It i s h o p e d that t h i s t h e s i s m a y  s o m e l i g h t on one a s p e c t of the a b o v e , v i z . a b e t t e r  shed  understanding  of t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e to a c o m m u n i t y ' s o r i n d i v i d u a l ' s a w a r e n e s s of n o i s e .  Therefore,  the p u r p o s e of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the d i m e n s i o n s of a n n o y a n c e w i t h t r a f f i c n o i s e i n a l a r g e city, V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the study o b j e c t i v e i s  to i n v e s t i g a t e a n u m b e r of u r b a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r f a c t o r s a n d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r e f f e c t u p o n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e i v e d l e v e l s of annoyance.  Hypothesis An  i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of n o i s e d e p e n d s u p o n m a n y ,  circumstances  and f a c t o r s .  In t h e r e l a t i v e q u i e t of the  evening,  3  the p a s s a g e of a s i n g l e c a r m a y peace.  On  b e c o m e a m a j o r " d i s t u r b e r " of the  the o t h e r hand, s e v e r a l m o t o r c y c l e s  may  d r i v e by  b e h a r d l y n o t i c e d i n the v i c i n i t y of a n o i s y c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e . m e m b e r of a f a m i l y m a y  be m u c h m o r e s u s c e p t i b l e to the  n o i s e t h a n a n o t h e r m e m b e r and,  and One  same  f i n a l l y , the s a m e i n d i v i d u a l  may  g i v e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s to the s a m e n o i s e s i f t h e y h a p p e n to o c c u r at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o r u n d e r d i f f e r e n t  circumstances.  P r a c t i c a l i t y and t i m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n this t h e s i s d i c t a t e d a g a i n s t e l a b o r a t e a t t e m p t s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e s p o n s e s to n o i s e under v a r y i n g circumstances,  e. g. t r a f f i c n o i s e o c c u r r i n g l a t e i n  t h e e v e n i n g v s . that d u r i n g r u s h hour.' R a t h e r , a t t e n t i o n  was  f o c u s e d on the e x a m i n a t i o n of t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h w e r e f e l t c o u l d a f f e c t o r c o n t r i b u t e t o a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of n o i s e i n a fairly direct manner. T h e s e f a c t o r s o r v a r i a b l e s a r e of m a n y f o r m s ; a s o c i o e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u c h as h i g h i n c o m e m a y  m a k e an  individual  m o r e a w a r e of h i s g r e a t e r e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to h i s e n v i r o n ment, thus l e a d i n g h i m  to a g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s of a n d  to n o i s e i n t r u s i o n s . S i m i l a r l y ,  an o l d e r p e r s o n may  sensitivity have become  a c c u s t o m e d to a p a r t i c u l a r n o i s e p a t t e r n a n d thus be l e s s s e n s i t i v e t o the n o i s e e n v i r o n m e n t . vehicle ownership may e.g.  D e m o g r a p h i c data s u c h as h o m e o r  a l s o a f f e c t one's p e r c e p t i o n of t r a f f i c n o i s e ,  t h e o w n e r o r d r i v e r of a m o t o r c y c l e  or t r u c k may  p r o n e to p e r c e i v e t r a f f i c n o i s e as a n n o y i n g t h a n one who  be f a r l e s s d o e s not  4.  own any v e h i c l e s . The  physical environment and traffic characteristics them-  s e l v e s m a y a l s o p l a y a r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g one's p e r c e p t i o n of n o i s e ; t h e e a s i l y v i s i b l e p r e s e n c e of a l a r g e s t r e a m of t r a f f i c m o v i n g p a s t one's r e s i d e n c e  m a y a l t e r the p e r c e p t i o n  of n o i s e s o  that the n o i s e f r o m the t r a f f i c s t r e a m s e e m s to be l o u d e r than i t actually i s .  T h e p r e s e n c e of e v e n a f e w m o t o r c y c l e s o r l a r g e  trucks usually  contributes  g r e a t l y to the p e r c e i v e d  annoyance no  m a t t e r h o w l a r g e t h e c o n t i n u o u s f l o w of a u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c m a y be. F i n a l l y , the t r a f f i c n o i s e itself, as m e a s u r e d o b j e c t i v e l y b y a c a l i b r a t e d m e a s u r i n g device,  would c e r t a i n l y s e e m to be a f a c t o r ;  the g r e a t e r t h e m e a s u r e d t r a f f i c n o i s e ,  the greater  should be the  annoyance indicated. It i s o b v i o u s , then, that m a n y f a c t o r s e x e r t s o m e on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n  of t r a f f i c n o i s e .  influence  Therefore,  the  following hypothesis has been developed as a focus f o r this "The  research:  individual's stated annoyance l e v e l is a function  of t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l and  of t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e t r a f f i c  situation. " Thus, the study objective i s to investigate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between noise annoyance i n s e v e r a l u r b a n neighborhoods and the s o c i o e c o n o m i c and s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h have s o m e i m p a c t on attitudes about t r a f f i c  noise.  I  5  A s s u m p t i o n s  a n d  S e v e r a l  b e f o r e  u n d e r  f o r m  in  n e c e s s i t y ,  s c o p e  as  it  a s s u m p t i o n s  continuing.  f a c t o r s  the  L i m i t a t i o n s  of  put  the  a tighter  a n d to  be  c o n s t r a i n t s  and,  f o c u s  u n d e r  a r e  c o l l e c t e d .  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  f o l l o w i n g  l i m i t a t i o n s  1)  w a s  c e r t a i n  f a c t o r s  T h e  it  l i m i t a t i o n s  a s s u m p t i o n s  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  w h i c h  e n a b l e s  s p e c i f i c  T h e  a n d  to  s h o u l d b e  m a d e  able  to  T h e s e  on the  b o t h to  a  b e  b r o u g h t  a n d  extent,  u p o n  the  the  data  a s s u m p t i o n s ,  c e r t a i n  explicit  l i m i t  a n a l y z e the  a n a l y s i s  to  m a d e  of  l i m i t  this  in  is  topic  the  d e s i r a b l e  a n d  the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  is  a  s u m m a r y  of  the  a s s u m p t i o n s  m a d e  a n d  the  e n c o u n t e r e d :  T h e  on  p e r c e i v e d  a n n o y a n c e  s e m a n t i c  differential  a  T h i s  is  a n  p e r c e i v e d  a n n o y i n g  o r d i n a l  rating  a n n o y a n c e "  etc. ) a n d  no  c a n be  L i k e r t  s y s t e m  ( e . g .  of  a n n o y a n c e  of  l e v e l  of  a n n o y a n c e .  is  a p a r t i c u l a r  is  any  T h e  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  s y s t e m .  " l e v e l s  a n n o y i n g ,  is  m e a s u r e d  rating  indicating  p r e s u m p t i o n  l e v e l  g i v e n  s c a l e  m i l d l y  p a r t i c u l a r  a n o t h e r  d e s c r i b e d a n d  m a d e  v e r y  that  f r a c t i o n  to  a  or  s u b j e c t i v e  r e s p o n s e  of  m u l t i p l e  rating  a  p a r t i c u l a r  q u e s t i o n .  2)  T h e  f a c t o r s  t r a f f i c  w e r e  to  u n d e r  related)  felt  w e r e  w o u l d  e x p l a i n i n g  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  the  r e s t r i c t e d  contribute  ( s o c i o e c o n o m i c  to  t h o s e  r e a s o n a b l y  p e r c e p t i o n  of  n o i s e  a n d  v a r i a b l e s  s i m p l y  a n d  a n n o y a n c e  a n d  w h i c h  d i r e c t l y  to  the  6  d e v e l o p m e n t of a s i m p l e  " m e t r i c " w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d t o  indicate and d e s c r i b e n o i s e annoyance.  Other factors  c o u l d have b e e n b r o u g h t into c o n s i d e r a t i o n after m o r e e x t e n s i v e w o r k i n data g a t h e r i n g h a d t a k e n p l a c e o r i f m o r e complex variables were considered,  but i t was  d e c i d e d to l i m i t the s c o p e of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n b y r e s t r i c t i n g the f a c t o r s to t h o s e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h c o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y obtained and 3)  In the p r o c e s s  measured.  of data c o l l e c t i o n , m e a s u r e m e n t s of  v a r i a b l e s took s e v e r a l g e n e r a l f o r m s . of i t s n a t u r e , such.  i s continuous  T r a f f i c noise,  and can be m e a s u r e d  as  V a r i a b l e s s u c h as age w e r e m o r e e a s i l y g r o u p e d  i n t o d i s c r e t e s e g m e n t s , e.g.  20-29 y e a r s o l d .  Charac-  t e r i s t i c s s u c h as the r e s p o n d e n t ' s s e x w e r e c o d e d i n a purely discrete fashion.  F i n a l l y , n o i s e p e r c e p t i o n or  a n n o y a n c e c a n be d e s c r i b e d b y the r e s p o n d e n t a l o n g a c o n t i n u u m , but i s c o n v e n i e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d b y d i s c r e t e n u m b e r s w h i c h a r e o r d i n a l i n nature and  convey only the  r e l a t i v e o r d e r o r r a n k i n g of the p e r c e p t i o n .  It  was  a s s u m e d that a l l of t h e s e v a r i o u s f o r m s of f a c t o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c o u l d be u s e d t o g e t h e r i n an a n a l y s i s . . 4)  The  s a m p l e study a r e a s w e r e c i t y s t r e e t s i n r e s i d e n t i a l  areas.  It was  r e c o g n i z e d that t h e s e s t r e e t s w e r e not  homogeneous i n nature,  i . e. t h e r e w e r e i n the  sample  7 both a r t e r i a l s and side streets.  These locations  are  s h o w n on m a p s i n c h a p t e r 3. 5)  The traffic characteristics,  as m e a s u r e d ,  were  assumed  t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t r a f f i c s i t u a t i o n i n t h e g i v e n area.  T h i s qualification and its limitations a r e m o r e  f u l l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h e a p p e n d i x on d a t a c o l l e c t i o n .  Research Approach The  p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n the a n a l y s i s  are i n determining which factors socioeconomic characteristics, noise. who  was  A s i t was  of p e r c e i v e d  e x e r t the g r e a t e s t  annoyance  influence:  traffic characteristics  or m e a s u r e d  a l r e a d y known t h r o u g h the s u r v e y s and i n t e r v i e w s  a n n o y e d a n d t h e i r r e l a t i v e l e v e l of a n n o y a n c e , i t was  d e c i d e d to u s e d i s c r i m i n a n t - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e f o r d e c i d i n g w h i c h of t h e v a r i a b l e s  a s the  statistical  or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  m o s t significant i n assigning an individual to a p a r t i c u l a r  group  characterized  two  b y a g i v e n l e v e l of a n n o y a n c e .  r e s u l t s w o u l d be o b t a i n e d :  first,  In t h i s way  only those f a c t o r s  we re ;  which  c o n t r i b u t e d m o s t t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d a s s i g n m e n t of i n d i v i d u a l s to t h e i r c o r r e c t  g r o u p w o u l d b e i n c l u d e d (thus e s t a b l i s h i n g  these  f a c t o r s a s d o m i n a n t o v e r the o t h e r s i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p e r c e p t i o n of t r a f f i c n o i s e ) and, the v a r i a b l e s  secondly,  s o m e g e n e r a l i d e a of how  under consideration a r e can be gained by  what p e r c e n t a g e of i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d ,  important ascertaining a posteriori,  8  b y t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t - c l a s s if i c a t i o n s c h e m e .  A h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of  c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and a s s i g n m e n t would tend to s u p p o r t the h y p o t h e s i s that t h o s e s o c i o e c o n o m i c a n d t r a f f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i d influence the individual's e x p r e s s e d annoyance with t r a f f i c n o i s e . A  s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t  either the v a r i a b l e s u n d e r  c o n s i d e r a t i o n a r e not those which  influence  a n n o y a n c e w i t h t r a f f i c n o i s e o r e l s e t h a t t h e e n t i r e h y p o t h e s i s of annoyance being influenced by such factors i s wrong. alternative may  A  third  e x i s t i n that e r r o r s m a y h a v e p r o v i d e d a n  i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r i n a d e q u a t e d a t a b a s e on w h i c h t o p e r f o r m t h e analysis.  Preview C h a p t e r T w o w i l l o f f e r a b r i e f s u m m a r y of t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n the  subject.  C h a p t e r T h r e e w i l l be c o n c e r n e d with the data  c o l l e c t i o n a n d r e d u c t i o n a n d the r e s e a r c h methodology.  A-summary  of t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r a n d t h e r e s u l t s of the  analysis given i n Chapter F i v e .  findings, Chapter  Inaddition to the r e s e a r c h  F i v e c o n t a i n s s o m e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e r e s u l t s  and suggestions f o r further r e s e a r c h .  F u r t h e r a s p e c t s of d a t a  c o l l e c t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n on n o i s e m e a s u r e m e n t and i n d i c e s a r e to be found i n two a p p e n d i c e s .  9  C H A P T E R II LITERATURE  SURVEY  R e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a of t r a f f i c n o i s e a n d i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r traffic management and control has been focused i n approximately three main areas:  t h e c o n t r o l of n o i s e , t h e r e l a t i o n of m e a s u r e d  t r a f f i c noise to t r a f f i c c o m p o s i t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , ' and the r e l a t i o n of m e a s u r e d t r a f f i c n o i s e (as c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s o m e i n d e x ) t o t h e p e r c e i v e d a n n o y a n c e .  This  s t u d y i s a n o f f s h o o t of t h e l a s t a r e a , v i z . a n a t t e m p t t o r e l a t e t h e p e r c e i v e d a n n o y a n c e o n t h e p a r t of i n d i v i d u a l s n o t p r i m a r i l y t o t h e disturbing noise but to both the p h y s i c a l environment and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  C o n t r o l of N o i s e Noise  c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s m a y b e c l a s s i f i e d into t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s :  n o i s e r e d u c t i o n a n d / o r c o n t r o l at t h e s o u r c e ,  c o n t r o l of t r a n s m i s s i o n  path, a n d p r o t e c t i v e m e a s u r e s t a k e n at o r b y t h e r e c e i v e r . T h e two i m p o r t a n t  a r e a s of n o i s e g e n e r a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  the v e h i c l e a r e the p o w e r plant (gears, intake a n d exhaust p r o c e s s e s , fans, blowers,  s u p e r c h a r g e r s ) a n d the contact with the r o a d s u r f a c e  ( t i r e whine, b r a k e s q u e a l ) .  F o r m o s t m o t o r v e h i c l e s the p r i m a r y  n o i s e s o u r c e s a r e e x h a u s t n o i s e s (low f r e q u e n c y ) a n d t i r e n o i s e ( h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y ) , t h e t i r e n o i s e b e i n g d o m i n a n t a b o v e 50 m p h .  10  E x h a u s t noise, however, i s dominant f o r dies el t r u c k s , buses  and  motorcycles. The  f o l l o w i n g l i s t s u m m a r i z e s the p r i m a r y  r e d u c t i o n at the  m e t h o d s of n o i s e  source:^  a)  d e s i g n of the d e v i c e to p r o d u c e l i t t l e o r no n o i s e .  b)  i n h i b i t i o n of n o i s e r a d i a t o r s b y a b s o r p t i o n m a t e r i a l .  c)  a l t e r a t i o n of f r e q u e n c y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by  changing  s t i f f n e s s e s or adding weights to c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s of the s t r u c t u r e . d)  e n c l o s u r e or baffling.  e)  changes i n operating  f)  p r o p e r alignment,  procedures.  maintenance, and  lubrication;  S h o r t of f o r c i n g v e h i c l e s to be q u i e t e r t h e r e a r e o t h e r m e t h o d s of r e d u c i n g n o i s e , i . e. b y e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l i n g o r e l i m i n a t i n g the a c c e s s of v e h i c l e s ( e s p e c i a l l y t r u c k s ) t o c e r t a i n a r e a s o r at c e r t a i n times. to  O f t e n t h i s i s done, not f o r r e a s o n s  relieve congestion.  in this r e g a r d .  of r e d u c i n g n o i s e ,  E u r o p e h a s b e e n f a r a h e a d of N o r t h  Alexandre  but  America  n o t e s that the C o m m o n M a r k e t c o u n t r i e s  have adopted c o m m o n m a x i m u m p e r m i t t e d noise levels for motor 2 v e h i c l e s a n d o t h e r c o u n t r i e s h a v e b e e n f o l l o w i n g the  example.  In a d d i t i o n , v e h i c l e s a r e t e s t e d b e f o r e t h e y a r e e v e r put on t h e m a r k e t f o r s a l e a n d n o i s e t e s t i n g h a s b e c o m e p a r t of t h e r e g u l a r m a i n t e n a n c e and safety testing p r o c e d u r e s .  In s o m e i n s t a n c e s  s e p a r a t e t r a f f i c n o i s e p a t r o l s have a l s o b e e n i n s t i g a t e d whose job  i t i s to a p p r e h e n d , f i n e , a n d i n s u r e c o m p l i a n c e of r e p a i r o r d e r s any v e h i c l e w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be t o o n o i s y .  to  If the p a t r o l f e e l s t h a t  the v e h i c l e i s e x c e s s i v e l y n o i s y (a s u b j e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l as  no  m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e s a r e c a r r i e d ) the v e h i c l e i s t a k e n to a t e s t i n g s t a t i o n f o r o b j e c t i v e t e s t i n g a n d i s not a l l o w e d b a c k on the u n l e s s any  deficiencies are  road  corrected.  C o n t r o l of the t r a n s m i s s i o n p a t h m a y  be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a  n u m b e r of ways:^ a)  Increasing distance:  I n c r e a s i n g the d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n  the n o i s e s o u r c e a n d r e c e i v e r w i l l r e d u c e n o i s e l e v e l s at the r e c e i v e r . b)  P a t h d e f l e c t i o n : B a r r i e r s c a n be e f f e c t i v e u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s i n d e f l e c t i n g n o i s e a w a y f r o m the receiver.  c)  Enclosure:  Attenuation may  be a t t a i n e d b y the u s e  a properly designed enclosure  of  a r o u n d e i t h e r the  n o i s e s o u r c e o r the r e c e i v e r . d)  Absorption:  A b s o r b i n g m a t e r i a l s i n the p a t h of the  n o i s e e f f e c t i v e l y l i m i t the n o i s e r e a c h i n g  the  receiver. In m o s t c a s e s the p r i m a r y a n d p a t h d e f l e c t i o n of t h e n o i s e . use  often only r e l i e f i s t h r o u g h  T h i s is-."'..usually a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h the  of e i t h e r a c o u s t i c b a r r i e r s , cut a n d f i l l s e c t i o n s , o r l a n d -  scaping.  E f f e c t i v e s o u n d b a r r i e r s s h o u l d be  solid,  dense,  12  i m p e r m e a b l e , not l i a b l e to v i b r a t e , a n d h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e  mass.  4  E a r t h m o u n d s a n d v a r i ous w a l l b a r r i e r s a r e the u s u a l t y p e s . B a r r i e r s a r e of g r e a t e s t e f f e c t i f i n s t a l l e d c l o s e to e i t h e r the source  or r e c e i v e r and  s h o u l d be i n the o r d e r of 10 f e e t i n h e i g h t . 5  6  T h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s of b a r r i e r s b y M a e k a w a h a v e l e d to the d e v e l o p m e n t of c u r v e s  and  Moore  of n o i s e r e d u c t i o n b y  b a r r i e r i n t e r m s of i t s e f f e c t i v e h e i g h t (height a b o v e t h e  a  source),  t h e d i f f r a c t i o n a n g l e o v e r t h e b a r r i e r (the g r e a t e r the a n g l e , g r e a t e r t h e n o i s e r e d u c t i o n ) , a n d the f r e q u e n c y  of t h e n o i s e  f r e q u e n c i e s a r e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y s t o p p e d b y the b a r r i e r ) .  the (higher  These  7 t h e o r e t i c a l c u r v e s have b e e n m o d i f i e d by G a l l o w a y use  in highway design.  for practical  B a r r i e r s are, i n general, m o r e effective  i n r e d u c i n g a u t o m o b i l e n o i s e s i n c e the s o u r c e p a v e m e n t - t i r e i n t e r a c t i o n , i s of h i g h f r e q u e n c y  of t h i s n o i c e , and i s e s s e n t i a l l y  at g r o u n d l e v e l , t h u s m a x i m i z i n g the e f f e c t i v e h e i g h t of the b a r r i e r . The  t h e o r e t i c a l m a x i m u m e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r r e d u c t i o n i s a b o u t 15 g f o r c a r s a n d 10 dB f o r t r u c k s .  dB  9  M o r e recent p r a c t i c a l studies by H a r m e l i n k  , however,  i n d i c a t e d that b a r r i e r s a r e n o t s u b s t a n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e .  have  Investigations  i n t o the p e r f o r m a n c e of b a r r i e r s a l o n g f r e e w a y s i n O n t a r i o i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y m o d e r a t e (2-4 d B A )  r e d u c t i o n s i n n o i s e o c c u r r e d at h o m e s  n e a r the f r e e w a y a f t e r the i n s t a l l a t i o n of s e v e r a l t y p e s of b a r r i e r s , a n d no r e l i e f at a l l was of a h o u s e .  It was  f o u n d f o r t h o s e l i v i n g a b o v e the g r o u n d l e v e l  c o n c l u d e d t h a t e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r s ( i . e. a 8-10  dBA  r e d u c t i o n i n m e a s u r e d n o i s e ) w o u l d h a v e to b e o v e r 20 f e e t h i g h w o u l d be p r o h i b i t i v e l y The  and  expensive.  vertical displacement  of a r o a d to a p o s i t i o n b e l o w g r o u n d  p r o d u c e s a c o u s t i c s h i e l d i n g i n m u c h the s a m e m a n n e r as a b a r r i e r . Although  s e c t i o n s with v e r t i c a l r e t a i n i n g walls a c h i e v e g r e a t e r  a t t e n u a t i o n t h a n cut s e c t i o n s w i t h s l o p e d e m b a n k m e n t s , the l a t t e r usually have s e v e r a l advantages i n having greater being cheaper, and being better sound a b s o r b e r s  right-of-way, ( s o u n d w o u l d be  r e f l e c t e d f r o m a r e t a i n i n g w a l l b a c k i n t o the t r a f f i c The  u s e of b u s h e s , t r e e s , a n d o t h e r f o l i a g e  stream).  is virtually useles  i n the r e d u c t i o n of n o i s e , i t b e i n g n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e r o u g h l y to 2 00 f e e t of 15 f o o t h i g h t r e e s to a c h i e v e a 4 t o 5 dB  100  reduction.  T h e i r c h i e f v a l u e s l i e s i n s c r e e n i n g the o f f e n d i n g n o i s e f r o m v i e w and offering p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c r e e n i n g . E x a m p l e s of a t t e m p t s to r e d u c e n o i s e at the r e c e i v e r c o n s i s t of t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of b u i l d i n g i n s u l a t i o n , the u s e of d o u b l e a c o u s t i c p a n e l i n g , o r the e m p l o y m e n t of s e l f g e n e r a t e d sounds to m a s k extraneous  noises.  The  windows,  internal  a b o v e a p p l y p r i m a r i l y to  f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h a l r e a d y e x i s t i n t h e v i c i n i t y of n o i s e ; i f new f a c i l i t i e s a r e to be l o c a t e d i n a s i m i l a r n o i s y area,  care can  be  t a k e n to s e e t h a t a r e a s of p a r t i c u l a r s e n s i t i v i t y to n o i s e be l o c a t e d on the f a r s i d e of the b u i l d i n g a w a y f r o m t h e n o i s e s o u r c e . a d d i t i o n , i m p r o v e d b u i l d i n g a n d h o u s i n g l a y o u t s m i g h t be  In designed  to m i n i m i z e n o i s e by facing t h e m away f r o m an e x i s t i n g f r e e w a y  14  a n d l o c a t i n g b e d r o o m s o n t h e f a r s i d e of t h e s t r u c t u r e .  T r a f f i c Noise and T r a f f i c The  Characteristics  s e c o n d m a j o r a r e a of c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h a t of .  r e l a t i n g m e a s u r e d t r a f f i c n o i s e to the t r a f f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , two m a j o r s t u d i e s b y J o h n s o n a n d S a u n d e r s being p r i m e contributions i n this a r e a . traffic in Great Britain,  12  and Galloway  13  with et. a l . ,  In a study of f r e e f l o w i n g  J o h n s o n a n d S a u n d e r s took r o a d s i d e n o i s e  m e a s u r e m e n t s a n d e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d a m o d e l of t h e n o i s e b a s e d on m e a s u r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Noise levels were measured i n d B A  and analyzed using a statistical distribution a n a l y z e r to d e t e r m i n e the t r u e d i s t r i b u t i o n .  Not unexpectedly,  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that, at  d i s t a n c e s c l o s e t o t h e r o a d w a y o r at s u f f i c i e n t l y l o w t r a f f i c d e n s i t i e s , i t i s t h e n o i s e of i n d i v i d u a l v e h i c l e s t h a t i s o b s e r v e d  and that noise  levels decrease  at 6 d B p e r d o u b l i n g of d i s t a n c e a s i s e x p e c t e d f o r  point s o u r c e s .  A t g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s f r o m the r o a d w a y a n d h i g h e r  t r a f f i c d e n s i t i e s , t h e n o i s e due t o i n d i v i d u a l v e h i c l e s t e n d s t o s m e a r into a line s o u r c e f r o m which both m e a n and p e a k n o i s e l e v e l s decrease  at 3 d B p e r d o u b l i n g of d i s t a n c e .  It w a s a l s o f o u n d t h a t  the h i g h e s t a n d l o w e s t n o i s e l e v e l s w e r e c o n t r o l l e d b y i n d i v i d u a l 14 noisy vehicles and by background noise respectively. T h r o u g h a n a l y s i s of t h e s e a n d o t h e r f a c t o r s ,  Johnson and  Saunders p r o d u c e d an e m p i r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n f o r the m e a n n o i s e levels,  i n dBA, for free flowing traffic:  15  where  V  =  t r a f f i c v o l u m e (vph)  S  =  speed  D  =  distance f r o m roadway center l i n e to  (mph)  o b s e r v e r (feet) L  50 -  =  median noise level  (dBA).  T h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n was d e r i v e d f o r a t r a f f i c c o m p o s i t i o n of 2 0 % t r u c k s b u t was a s s u m e d v a l i d  - 1 dBA  f o r up to 4 0 % t r u c k s .  T h e s p e e d r a n g e c o n s i d e r e d was f r o m 3 5 t o 55 m p h e q u a t i o n o b t a i n e d b y n o r m a l i z i n g t o 40 mph.  consisting  and the above  The noise  source  s t r e n g t h of i n d i v i d u a l v e h i c l e s was a s s u m e d t o v a r y a s t h e f o u r t h p o w e r of t h e s p e e d . A n a l y t i c a l m o d e l s of b o t h a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e s o u r c e a n d a d i s c r e t e s o u r c e h a v e a l s o b e e n d e v e l o p e d a n d a n a l y z e d b y G o r d o n et. a l . F o r flow rates i n excess  of 1000 v e h i c l e s p e r h o u r t h e n o i s e l e v e l  due to a n i n f i n i t e l i n e s o u r c e i s p r e d i c t e d b y  T h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n i s one of s t e a d y state, i . e. t h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l t i m e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the n o i s e - l e v e l s . The discrete source model (individual vehicles) predicts a m e a n n o i s e l e v e l of  16  w h e r e  K  T h e  d i s c r e t e  m o d e l  =  t r a f f i c  =  a  s o u r c e  density  in  v e h i c l e s / m i l e  constant  m o d e l  a p p r o a c h e s  the  continuous  line  s o u r c e  as  In  c o n t r a s t  to  the  e m p i r i c a l  a n d  a n a l y t i c a l  m o d e l s  a b o v e ,  16  G a l l o w a y  in  an  et.  effort  p r e s e n c e  to  of  data  w a s  to  be  of  a n d  b a n d  a  t e r m e d  that  point  f r o m  of  a  for  c o n s i s t e d  l a n e s ,  l e v e l s  the  a b o v e  s p a c i n g ,  inability  a l s o  to  e v e r y  of  lane  p r o d u c e d  s p e c t r a ) .  line  a  a n d  m e t h o d s  l a c k  to  (e.  of  a  " s i n g l e  handle  a  v a r i e d  a v o i d  the  situation  for  w h i c h  s n a p s h o t  in  T h e  of  t i m e .  p a r t i c u l a r  the  i n f o r m a t i o n  width),  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  n o i s e  along  l a n e s ,  v e h i c l e s ) ,  data  f l o w  n o i s e  v e h i c l e  of  s i m u l a t i o n  n e c e s s i t y  or  of  p h e n o m e n o n  m o d e l  g.  l a n e  b e i n g  w h i c h  i n v e s t i g a t e d .  ( n u m b e r  t r a f f i c  u n i f o r m  m u l t i p l e  a p r o b a b i l i s t i c  d r a w b a c k s  o b s e r v a t i o n s  Input  ics  d e v e l o p e d  o v e r c o m e  for  c o m p o s i t i o n  to  h a v e  only  e q u i v a l e n t "  tied  a l .  ( m e a n  by  d i s t a n c e  speed,  i n d i v i d u a l  set  of  n o i s e  o b s e r v e d  h i g h w a y  n o i s e  S u c c e s s i v e  distribution  on  to  t r a f f i c  s o u r c e s  n o i s e  m i x ,  l e v e l  w e r e  l e v e l s  (defined  w a s  i. e.  point,  v o l u m e ) ,  b y  (vehicles)  conditions,  n o i s e  c h a r a c t e r i s t -  o b s e r v a t i o n  v e h i c l e s  s n a p s h o t s  of  r o a d w a y  octave  a r r a y e d  c a l c u l a t e d  a  p i c t u r e  independent  is  at  s a m p l e s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , of  the  17 g i v e n  f l o w  a n d  V e h i c l e s  w i t h  a  s p e c i f i c  s p e e d  w e r e  f l o w  conditions.  c o n s i d e r e d  rate.  T h e  as  n o i s e  s o u r c e s  a s s u m p t i o n  of  a  a l o n g  P o i s s o n  a  r o a d w a y  distribution  17  of v e h i c l e i n t e r - a r r i v a l t i m e s approximation  a l o n g the r o a d w a y ( a g o o d  f o r f r e e f l o w i n g t r a f f i c ) a l l o w s the p r o g r a m m e r t o  s a m p l e r a n d o m l y f r o m this d i s t r i b u t i o n thus obtaining, a f t e r conversion,  a s e t of h e a d w a y s o r v e h i c l e s p a c i n g s  t h a t of f r e e f l o w i n g t r a f f i c .  The  approximating  p o s i t i o n i n g of v e h i c l e s a l o n g the  l a n e s a l s o t a k e s i n t o e f f e c t the p o s i t i o n of the r o a d w a y c e n t e r - l i n e a n d the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n of o t h e r l a n e s .  The  vehicle mix  is  o b t a i n e d b y s e l e c t i n g at r a n d o m f r o m the d i s t r i b u t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g the p r o p o r t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t v e h i c l e s i n the t o t a l t r a f f i c m i x  for  that lane. The  n o i s e s o u r c e f o r the m o d e l was  f r o m t h r e e r e f e r e n c e s p e c t r a , one t r u c k s , and light t r u c k s .  obtained by  e a c h f o r autos,  sampling  heavy diesel  Slight modifications i n these three b a s i c  s p e c t r a e n a b l e t h e m o d e l to a c c o u n t f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n n o i s e l e v e l t o d i f f e r e n t o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , e.g.  for accelerating cars  d u c i n g m o r e n o i s e t h a n t h o s e at c o n s t a n t v e l o c i t y a n o i s e s l i g h t l y a b o v e t h e n o r m a l r e f e r e n c e s p e c t r u m m i g h t be P r o p a g a t i o n l o s s e s u s e d w e r e the 6 dB  due  pro-  spectrum  used.  p e r d o u b l i n g of d i s t a n c e  appropriate for a single source plus s m a l l c o r r e c t i o n s for a t t e n u a t i o n due to a b s o r p t i o n a n d The was  scattering.  octave band r e f e r e n c e s p e c t r u m for each noise  a d j u s t e d a c c o r d i n g to s p e e d a n d the d i s t a n c e f r o m the  T h e s e adjusted s p e c t r a for each v e h i c l e a r e then s u m m e d frequency  source observer. by  b a n d to g i v e t h a t c o m p o s i t e s p e c t r u m w h i c h w o u l d b e  18  obtained  n o i s e  at  the  l e v e l  in  c h a r a c t e r i z e  l i n e a r i z e d  that  g o o d  w e r e  the  the  n o i s e  l e v e l  r e s u l t s  f r o m  C e n t r a l  to  instant.  the  statistics  given  m e a n  the  the  l e v e l  the  m e a n  c o m p u t e d 18  is  to  T h e  the  s a m e  as  s o u r c e :  conditions,  a b o v e  m o d e l ;  guide  h a s  a r e  situation.  n o i s e  line  F i n a l l y ,  or  b e e n  G a l l o w a y  so  obtained  s u c c e s s f u l ,  " c o o k b o o k "  d e v e l o p e d  for  as  a n  in  fact,  c o m p u t i n g  o u t g r o w t h  of  m o d e l .  A n n o y a n c e  a l l  efforts  r e s p o n s e  a s p e c t  for  d e s i g n  s i m u l a t i o n  a n d  the  a  that  m e a s u r e d  conditions  Indices  m e a s u r e d  for  at  s u m m a r y  the  u s i n g  that  g i v e n  of  with  a g r e e m e n t  s u b j e c t i v e  after  other  a n a l y t i c a l l y  o r i g i n a l  N o i s e  the  point  a n d  c o m p a r i s o n  v e r y  n o i s e  d B A  a p p r o x i m a t i o n  d e r i v e d  In  o b s e r v a t i o n  of  s e l e c t i o n  to  the  that  of  an  at  n o i s e  n o i s e  a b a t e m e n t  e n v i r o n m e n t  e n v i r o n m e n t .  a p p r o p r i a t e  is  to  the  s o m e  P r o g r e s s  c r i t e r i o n  n e e d  for  c a n  to  relate  r e a d i l y  only  be  a s s e s s i n g  m a d e  the  19 s e v e r i t y  of  s c a l i n g ,  a n d  T h e  the  U n i t e d  the  data  what  the  e x p o s u r e .  i n d e x i n g  e a r l i e s t  States  being  extent  n o i s e  the  w e r e  one  in  of  the  s o u n d  i n v o l v e s  the  m e a s u r i n g ,  n o i s e .  s y s t e m a t i c  t a k e n  w a s  of  T h i s  city  s o u n d  n o i s e  f o r m  of  m e a s u r e m e n t s  in  N e w  m a s k i n g  i n t e r f e r e d  with  Y o r k  in  c a r r i e d  1929,  e x p e r i m e n t s ,  or  o v e r w h e l m e d  out  m o s t  i. e.  b y  in  of  to  19  another.  A  s e c o n d t y p e of o b s e r v a t i o n was  a l s o made, however,  i n d e p e n d e n t of a n o b s e r v e r ' s e a r a n d y i e l d i n g a p h y s i c a l m e a s u r e m e n t of the sound.  The a c o u s t i m e t e r , or noise meter, u s e d  was  s i m i l a r t o the m o d e r n s o u n d l e v e l m e t e r b u t e m p l o y e d o n l y one f r e q u e n c y w e i g h t i n g n e t w o r k w h i c h was  a d j u s t e d to m a t c h the  20 Fletcher-Munson the  equal loudness contours which  closely  A - w e i g h t i n g s u b s e q u e n t l y a d o p t e d i n the f i r s t A m e r i c a n  resemble standard  sound l e v e l m e t e r . "  i f a c e r t a i n m e t e r r e a d i n g r e s u l t s w h e n a p u r e tone  of 1000 H Z  at a s e n s a t i o n l e v e l of 30 u n i t s a g i t a t e s the  microphone,  t h e n the s a m e m e t e r r e a d i n g w i l l be o b t a i n e d f o r a n y o t h e r p u r e t o n e of e q u a l l o u d n e s s . the  S t a r t i n g w i t h any s i n g l e f r e q u e n c y t o n e at  i n t e n s i t y j u s t d e f i n e d , i f the l e v e l of the t o n e i s alter-ed b y a  c h o s e n a m o u n t , s a y 10 dB, 10 d B .  the r e a d i n g of the n o i s e m e t e r  It i s w e l l known, h o w e v e r , t h a t a c h a n g e of 10 dB  changes in intensity  p r o d u c e s u n e q u a l c h a n g e s i n l o u d n e s s at d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s ; h e n c e the  n o i s e m e t e r c a n n o t b e s a i d t o m e a s u r e the l o u d n e s s of a p u r e  t o n e at o t h e r l e v e l s t h a n that f o r w h i c h t h e w e i g h t i n g n e t w o r k adjusted.  was  T h e m e t e r does, h o w e v e r , i f c a l i b r a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y ,  m e a s u r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y the s e n s a t i o n l e v e l of a p u r e tone i n t h e f r e q u e n c y r e g i o n f r o m 1000 t o 5000 H Z , ...  w h e r e the  ^weighting curve}  is substantially flat. " T h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the m e t e r r e a d i n g f o r a c o m p l e x a p p l i e d wave i s m o r e i n v o l v e d than f o r a p u r e tone. The r e c t i f i e r i s not a l i n e a r d e v i c e ; the n o i s e m e t e r ^ o e s n o t ]  20  s u m up the c o m p o n e n t s of a c o m p l e x w a v e i n the s a m e m a n n e r as d o e s t h e e a r i n p r o d u c i n g l o u d n e s s . Hence, if two s u c c e s s i v e c o m p l e x w a v e s d i f f e r g r e a t l y i n c o m p o s i t i o n , the c o r r e s p o n d i n g m e t e r r e a d i n g s w i l l not c o m p a r e the w a v e s a s t h e y a r e c o m p a r e d by the e a r . T h e r e i s thus a d e f i n i t e l y a r b i t r a r y e l e m e n t i n v o l v e d i n the u s e of a n o i s e m e t e r e m p l o y e d i n any p a r t i c u l a r survey; another noise meter, having a different single f r e q u e n c y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . . .and e m p l o y i n g a d i f f e r e n t i n t e g r a t i n g device, would, i n g e n e r a l , y i e l d d i f f e r e n t m e a s u r e m e n t s . The a r b i t r a r y feature is inevitable, h o w e v e r , as no k n o w n a p p a r a t u s h a s b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d c a p a b l e of i m i t a t i n g the e a r i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of the c o m p o n e n t s of a c o m p l e x w a v e . " It h a s l o n g b e e n t h e g o a l to p r o d u c e a d e v i c e that w o u l d r e s p o n d to noise s i g n a l s with readings human response.  The  closely corresponding  to s u b j e c t i v e  d i f f i c u l t y of t h i s h a s b e e n s u c h t h a t t h e  A - w e i g h t e d l e v e l , f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n 1935,  persists in correlating  a s w e l l w i t h s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s of m a n y v a r i e t i e s of n o i s e as t h e 22 m o s t s o p h i s t i c a t e d s c a l e s and p r o c e d u r e s . of the A - w e i g h t e d s y s t e m ,  see A p p e n d i x  F o r further discussion  B.  F u r t h e r c o n f i r m a t i o n of the a c c u r a c y  of the A - w e i g h t e d n e t w o r k 23  c a m e i n I9 60 w h e n R o b i n s o n , C o p e l a n d a n d R e n n i e  performed  roadside experiments outside L o n d o n i n which n o i s i n e s s judgements on p a s s i n g v e h i c l e s w e r e r e l a t e d to t h e o b j e c t i v e r e a d i n g s of s o u n d l e v e l m e t e r s with different f r e q u e n c y  weighting  networks.  L i s t e n e r s w e r e s t a t i o n e d at r o a d s i d e a n d a s k e d t o j u d g e the n o i s i n e s s of s e l e c t e d p a s s i n g v e h i c l e s on a s i x s t e p s c a l e ( f r o m q u i e t to excessively noisy).  The  n o i s e was  a l s o m e a s u r e d a n d r e c o r d e d at  t h e s a m e spot a s the l i s t e n e r s and a n a l y z e d i n the l a b b y p l a y i n g i t  21  b a c k through both A and B weighted networks.  (The B  weighted  n e t w o r k i s s i m i l a r t o the A w e i g h t e d one but m o r e s e n s i t i v e t o f r e q u e n c i e s b e l o w 500 H Z ) .  When all vehicle classes were  grouped  t o g e t h e r , a t t e m p t s t o f i n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n the s u b j e c t i v e n o i s i n e s s r a t i n g g i v e n by l i s t e n e r s a n d the m e a s u r e d v a l u e of the n o i s e gave p o o r r e s u l t s f o r both the A and B weighted G r o u p i n g the v e h i c l e s i n t o c l a s s e s ( p r i v a t e c a r s a n d  networks. commercial  v e h i c l e s ) , h o w e v e r , b r o u g h t out a c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m e a s u r e d noise.levels and individual assessments It was  of n o i s e f o r e a c h  f o u n d t h a t f o r b o t h v e h i c l e c l a s s e s the A - w e i g h t e d  class.  network  o u t p e r f o r m e d t h e B w e i g h t e d n e t w o r k w i t h c o r r e l a t i o n s of <~ . 9 f o r the A - n e t w o r k v e r s u s  *^». 8 f o r t h e B n e t w o r k .  These  results  c o m p a r e d f a v o r a b l y w i t h e a r l i e r w o r k of a s i m i l a r n a t u r e p e r f o r m e d 24 in Switzerland a n d the Young,  26  U.S.  25  in several articles,  a n d G a l l o w a y et. a l .  27  have  a l s o a t t e s t e d t o the u s e of the A - w e i g h t e d n e t w o r k b o t h b e c a u s e its consistently r e s p e c t a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s with subjective  of  response  a n d its ease and s i m p l i c i t y i n u s e . 28 Stevens, Zwicker,  and K r y t e r  have a l l developed m o r e  s o p h i s t i c a t e d but s i m i l a r m e t h o d s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h c o m p l e x n o i s e , i . e . r e a l i z i n g that sound,  particularly traffic noise, is broadband  i n n a t u r e a n d t h a t the i n t e n s i t y of t h i s n o i s e i s not ^ u n i f o r m a c r o s s the f r e q u e n c y b a n d .  A l l m e t h o d s t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t the m a s k i n g of  one c o m p o n e n t of a c o m p l e x n o i s e b y the o t h e r c o m p o n e n t s .  22  F r e q u e n c y  i n d i c e s  b a n d  a n a l y s i s  d e t e r m i n e d  together  to  u s e d  e a c h b a n d  to  for  obtain  c o m p a r e  w i t h  the  v a r i e d  continually  the  depending  p r i m a r l y  m o d i f i c a t i o n  in  of  y e a r s .  S t e v e n s '  of  the  b a s i c  a d d e d  weightings  b e i n g  A t t e m p t s  h a v e  p r o c e d u r e s  a c c u r a c y  has  n o i s e ,  c a l c u l a t i o n s  a n d  a p p e a r  a  m e t  a r e  b e e n  P e r c e i v e d N o i s e  a i r c r a f t  VI  a r e  r e s p o n s e  i n c r e a s e d  w i t h  M a r k  contributions  subjective  K r y t e r ' s  c o n n e c t i o n  l o u d n e s s  m e t h o d .  M o d i f i c a t i o n s  the  a n d  p a r t i c u l a r  with  a n d  p e r f o r m e d  w i t h v a r i o u s  on.the  i n d i c e s  is  T h e s e  l o u d n e s s  d e v e l o p e d  o v e r  n o i s e  e a c h b a n d .  v a r i o u s  being  the  total  s u c c e s s .  f o r t h c o m i n g  u s e d  for  of  s l o w l y  L e v e l  ( P N L ) ,  R o b i n s o n  to  give  better  29 r e s u l t s  better  o n  than  than  t h e s e  m o s t  the  object  of  to  i n s u r e  i s t i c s ,  of  b o t h  c o n d u c t e d  a  c r i t e r i a  for  t h e s e  a r e a s .  of  straight  A s  as  a r e a s  w i t h  the  r o a d ,  it  w a s  a n d  it  w a s  a l s o  d e s i r e d  f r o m  H e r e  r e n t e r s  two  the  w e r e  to  t a k e n  p o s s i b l e  to  flow,  14  in  the  sites  a m o n g  c a r e  w a s  no  w a s  in  the  t a k e n  c h a r a c t e r -  other  m a j o r  e l e m e n t s  p r o j e c t s  p u r p o s e  the  in  different  h o u s i n g  r e p r e s e n t e d  at  p h y s i c a l  s a m p l e  p r i m a r y  w i t h  n o i s e  c o n d u c t e d  t r a f f i c  l o c a l  1967  t r a f f i c  r e s p e c t  u n i n t e r r u p t e d  r e s i d e n t s  i n t e r v i e w e d .  o w n e r s  Insofar  i n f o r m a t i o n  B .  in  w e r e  i n t e r v i e w s  m a r g i n a l l y  F u r t h e r  study  12 00  a n d  only  in A p p e n d i x  a r e a  population,  that  found  L o n d o n  of  those  b e  m e a s u r e m e n t s  s o u r c e s .  a m o n g  m a y  a p p e a r  rating.  A c o u s t i c  n o i s e  the  g e n e r a l ,  A - w e i g h t e d  a c c e p t a b i l i t y  u n i f o r m i t y  i. e.  in  L a n g d o n ^  a r e a s .  g r e a t e r  r e s i d e n t s  s c h e m e s  a n d  but,  s i m p l e r  d e v e l o p i n g  r e s i d e n t i a l  the  m u s t  rating  G r i f f i t h s  others  to  s a m p l e .  w e r e  i n s u r e  N o  23  other s o c i o e c o n o m i c data was g a t h e r e d b e c a u s e i n t e r n a l tests h a d i n d i c a t e d t h e y m a d e n o d i f f e r e n t t o l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o n e e x c e p t i o n ; r e s p o n d e n t s of l e s s t h a n s i x m o n t h s  residence were m o r e  s a t i s f i e d w i t h n o i s e l e v e l s t h a n r e s p o n d e n t s who h a d b e e n a t t h e s i t e 31  longer.  A-weighted  sound level m e a s u r e m e n t s were taken over  a 2 4 h o u r p e r i o d o u t s i d e the h o u s e o f e a c h i n t e r v i e w e e a n d L L  50  , and L  9  sound levels were computed where  0  =  noise level (dBA) exceeded  L _ 50  =  median noise level (dBA)  L^Q  = n o i s e l e v e l ( d B A ) e x c e e d e d 9 0 % of the t i m e .  C (  1 0 % of t h e t i m e  Interview responses to certain questions or statements consisted of i n d i c a t i n g a l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a l o n g a s e v e n point scale.  Attempts  were then made to correlate  the L  , L 10  and 50  l e v e l s with the m e d i a n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s as obtained f r o m the  interviews.  Overall  results were relatively poor.  Multiple  c o r r e l a t i o n a t t e m p t s w e r e t h e n u n d e r t a k e n w i t h t h e h o p e of i m p r o v i n g the  results.  comparison  T h e most significant correlations  resulted f r o m the  of m e d i a n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s w i t h t h e m e a n 1 0 %  n o i s e l e v e l ( L ) m i n u s . 7 5 of the m e a n 9 0 % ( L ) l e v e l . 10 90  Griffiths  and Langdon then m o d i f i e d this e x p r e s s i o n as p e r below and t e r m e d i t t h e T r a f f i c N o i s e Index ( T N I ) :  The parameter  i n c l u d e s a m e a s u r e o f the v a r i a b i l i t y of t h e n o i s e  24  environment, ( L - L ,)> 10 7 0 or  level,  (L  7 0  a n d a c o n t r i b u t i o n f r o m the b a c k g r o u n d  ). It i s o f t e n u s e f u l t o t h i n k of t h e L  f r o m the w h o l e s t r e a m of t r a f f i c a n d the noisy vehicles.  "0  level coming  level f r o m individual  P e a r s o n correlation coefficients between m e d i a n  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s a n d the a b o v e m e n t i o n e d i n d i c e s a r e s h o w n i n T a b l e 1. W h e n the c o r r e l a t i o n was b e t w e e n the T r a f f i c N o i s e Index a n d the i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s as o p p o s e d to m e d i a n s c o r e s the above c o r r e l a t i o n f e l l t o .29. O t h e r r e s u l t s of the s t u d y w e r e that t h e t r a f f i c n o i s e was c o n s i d e r e d t o b e w o r s e i n b a d w e a t h e r a n d t h a t t h e m a j o r noise offenders were, i ndescending trucks and buses, and sports cars. TNI  has maintained  order;  motorcycles,  L i k e the A - w e i g h t e d l e v e l , the  support i n traffic noise studies because it offers  e a s e of a p p l i c a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o c o r r e l a t i n g w e l l w i t h s u b j e c t i v e response. 32 Johnston and Carothers the u s e of the N o i s e  , i n 197 3, c o n d u c t e d s t u d i e s t o v e r i f y  P o l l u t i o n Index ( N P L )  as an acceptable  of s u b j e c t i v e a n n o y a n c e d u e t o t r a f f i c n o i s e h e a r d i n d o o r s . e x p e r i m e n t w a s a c o n t r o l l e d one,  measure Their  occurring indoors, and consisted  of h a v i n g v o l u n t e e r s , w h i l e i n a l e i s u r e e n v i r o n m e n t , l i s t e n t o a s e r i e s of s i x m i n u t e t a p e s of t r a f f i c n o i s e (of k n o w n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n d B A ) a n d i n d i c a t e t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o the p a r t i c u l a r n o i s e on a "not a n n o y i n g " t o " v e r y a n n o y i n g " s c a l e ( i n d e x n u m b e r s 1 t o 9). A t t e m p t s at c o r r e l a t i o n w e r e t h e n m a d e b e t w e e n the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  TABLE 1 PEARSON C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S B E T W E E N S E L E C T E D INDICES AND MEDIAN DISSATISFACTION SCORES  Selected Index L  10  L  5 0  So  .35  .19  T N I  Median Dissatisfaction Score  *  p  .05  **  p  .001  .51*  Source: Griffiths and Langdon, p. 5.  .81**  26  s c o r e s  w h e r e  a n d  a n d the  the  N P L ,  e n e r g y  w h e r e  =  the  n o i s e  T  =  the  length  the  s t a n d a r d  =  k  =  a  l e v e l  of  constant  In  a s ,  f o u n d  to  give  f r o m  .77  l o w  to  v a l u e ,  U p o n  e x p l a n a t i o n  n o i s e  w h e r e  l e s s ,  t h e r e  ( L  eg  d B A  o r  for  the  in  or  b e l o w  4 0 - 4 5  m i n i m a l  a n d  In  tape  of the  a n  of  data,  r e g i o n s  the  d B A )  w o u l d  t w o  be  of  d B A  (thought  k  o p t i m u m  w a s  the  a r e  e x t r e m e  is  m a x i m i z e  r e s u l t s  v a l u e s  of  k  w a s  the  w e r e  k  coefficients  w e r e  r a n g e d  10. 5 w h i l e  the  z e r o .  a u t h o r s  offered  r e s p o n s e s  of the  either  of  o r d e r  the  r e g i o n s  independent  to  conflicting  g o v e r n e d b y  a n n o y a n c e  in  m a x i m u m  different  a n n o y a n c e  d e v i a t i o n s  m i n u t e s )  l e v e l  ( c o r r e l a t i o n  s e v e r a l t r i a l s ,  of the  (6  r e s p o n s e  v a l u e  v e r y  v a l u e  r u n  t i m e  2.6)  o p t i m a l  t r i a l s ,  of  n o i s e  obtain  about  c o n s i d e r i n g  t h r e e  case).  b e  h i g h  s t a n d a r d  exist  this  as  a function  s u b j e c t i v e  c o r r e l a t i o n  e x a m i n a t i o n  in  as  s e v e r a l a p p a r e n t l y  T h e  o b t a i n e d  that,  defined  p a r t i c u l a r  w i t h  different  .96).  d B A  d e v i a t i o n  find  o p t i m u m  in  else  to  coefficient  o b t a i n e d  the  R o b i n s o n to  a t t e m p t i n g  c o r r e l a t i o n  in  d e s i g n e d to  c o r r e l a t i o n by  w a s  m e a n  L(t)  Q*  N P L  m e a n  (L  • V  eg  the  to  of  10  dB  or  n o i s e  l e v e l  a b o v e  7 5 - 8 0  constantly  s t a n d a r d  t r a f f i c  v e r y  h i g h  d e v i a t i o n s ,  27  i . e . of t h e  k <T t e r m .  In t h e c e n t e r r e g i o n , . hpweyef',  annoyance  w o u l d d e p e n d b o t h o n the m e a n n o i s e a n d the m e a s u r e of t h e standard deviation.  Johnston and C a r o t h e r s  c o n c l u d e d that t h e N P L  w o r k e d as w e l l as any other index i n relating to s u b j e c t i v e response, but t h a t m o r e r e s e a r c h was n e e d e d i n t o the v a r i a b i l i t y of t h e "constant"  k.  T h e s e i n d i c e s a n d others not mentioned above a r e d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y i n A p p e n d i x B o n the m e a s u r e m e n t of n o i s e a n d t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of i n d i c e s .  T h e A p p e n d i x c o v e r s s e v e r a l of t h e m a i n  i n d i c e s but i s b y no m e a n s exhaustive as t h e r e a r e a l m o s t as m a n y i n d i c e s as t h e r e a r e r e s e a r c h e r s .  28  F O O T N O T E S  ^ M . D . p o r t a t i o n R R 1 6 8 ,  H a r m e l i n k ,  S y s t e m s " ,  O c t o b e r  " N o i s e  Dept.  1970,  of  p.  a n d  V i b r a t i o n  H i g h w a y s ,  C o n t r o l  O n t a r i o ,  for  R e p o r t  T r a n s N o .  16.  2 A . T r a f f i c  A l e x a n d r e ,  N o i s e " ,  W a s h i n g t o n , 3  D.  " E u r o p e a n  I n t e r - N o i s e C . ,  H a r m e l i n k ,  72  O c t o b e r  op.  E f f o r t s  1972,  cit.  ,  to  R e d u c e  C o n f e r e n c e  p.  pp.  the  I m p a c t  of  P r o c e e d i n g s ,  2 0 5 - 2 0 9 -  19-  4 Ibid. ,  p.  2 1 .  5 M a e k a w a ,  Z. A c o u s t i c s ,  V o l .  1,  " N o i s e 1968,  R e d u c t i o n  p p .  b y  S c r e e n s " ,  A p p l i e d  1 5 7 - 1 7 3 .  6 J . P r e s s ,  E .  M o o r e ,  D e s i g n  for  N o i s e  R e d u c t i o n ,  A r c h i t e c t u r e  L o n d o n . 7 W .  " H i g h w a y  J .  G a l l o w a y ,  N o i s e :  E .  C l a r k ,  M e a s u r e m e n t ,  N a t i i n a l  C o o p e r a t i v e  H i g h w a y  R e s e a r c h  8  W .  H a r m e l i n k ,  H i g h w a y  B o a r d ,  op.  a n d  S i m u l a t i o n ,  R e s e a r c h  W a s h i n g t o n ,  cit.  ,  J .  p.  S.  K e r r i c k ,  a n d  M i x e d  P r o g r a m D.  C ,  R e p o r t  R e a c t i o n s " , N o .  7 8 .  •  ,  1969.  22.  9 M . T r a f f i c  D-  H a r m e l i n k ,  E n g i n e e r i n g ,  a n d  V o l .  43,  ^ H a r m e l i n k ,  l o c .  cit.  ^ H a r m e l i n k ,  l o c .  cit.  J .  J .  N o .  Hajek, 12,  " H i g h w a y  S e p t e m b e r  N o i s e  1973,  C o n t r o l " ,  pp.  4 7 - 5 3 .  12 D. N o i s e  R .  f r o m  V i b r a t i o n , 13  J o h n s o n ,  F r e e l y V o l .  G a l l o w a y ,  7,  a n d  F l o w i n g N o . op.  2, cit.  E .  G .  R a o d 1968,  S a u n d e r s , T r a f f i c " , pp.  " T h e  J o u r n a l  2 8 7 - 3 0 9 -  E v a l u a t i o n of  S o u n d  of a n d  29  14  C . G.  Gordon,  W.  J . G a l l o w a y , B. A .  Kugler, and  D,. L . N e l s o n , " H i g h w a y N o i s e : A D e s i g n . G u i d e f o r E n g i n e e r s " , N a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i v e H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h P r o g r a m R e p o r t N o . 117. , H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h B o a r d , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C , 1971.  1 5  Ibid.  ^Galloway,  op. c i t .  17 I b i d . , p. 43. 18  I b i d . , p.  44.  19 T h e o d o r e Schultz, C o m m u n i t y N o i s e Ratings,' A p p l i e d S c i e n c e P u b l i s h e r s L t d . , L o n d o n , 1972, p. 2. 20 H.  F l e t c h e r , a n d W.  A Munson, "Loudness,  its Definition,  M e a s u r e m e n t , a n d C a l c u l a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of t h e A c o u s t i c S o c i e t y of A m e r i c a ,  V o l . 5, 1933,  pp.  82-108.  21 R.  H.  Gait,  " R e s u l t s of N o i s e S u r v e y s ;  P a r t 1:  Noise  o u t - o f - d o o r s " , J o u r n a l of the A c o u s t i c S o c i e t y of A m e r i c a , V o l . 2, 1930, 22  pp.  Schultz,  32-33.  op. c i t . , p.  15.  23 D.  W.  R o b i n s o n , W.  C. C o p e l a n d , a n d A .  J. Rennie,  " M o t o r V e h i c l e N o i s e M e a s u r e m e n t " , T h e E n g i n e e r , V o l . 211, March  1961. 24  G e r n a l d i r e k t i o n P T T , Switzerland, " F o r s c h u n g s und V e r s u c h s a m w a l t " , R e p o r t No. 22, 637, a n d A p p e n d i x , O c t o b e r  1959.  25 B . A n d r e w s , a n d D. R e s e a r c h Board, Washington,  M. D.  Finch, Proceedings, Highway C. , D e c e m b e r 1951,  p.  456.  26 R.  W.  Young, i n m a n y studies l i s t e d i n Schultz,  p . 13, r e p e a t e d l y r e m i n d s t h e r e a d e r t h a t t h e A - w e i g h t e d  op. c i t . , level  p e r s i s t s i n c o r r e l a t i n g a l m o s t as w e l l w i t h s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s  30  of  m a n y  v a r i e t i e s  p r o c e d u r e s . W e i g h t i n g J o u r n a l  of  27  of  n o i s e  S e e a l s o  N e t w o r k s  G a l l o w a y ,  R .  for  S o u n d a n d  as H .  the  m o s t  P a r k i n ,  L o u d n e s s  V i b r a t i o n ,  op.  cit.  ,  s o p h i s t i c a t e d  p.  " O n the  E s t i m a t e s  V o l .  2,  s c a l e s  A c c u r a c y of  1964,  S o m e pp.  of  a n d S i m p l e  U r b a n  N o i s e " ,  8 6 - 8 8 .  25.  28 F o r b y  a f u l l e r  S t e v e n s ,  list  of  p p .  1 6 - 2 1 ,  t h e i r  29  d e s c r i p t i o n  Z w i c k e r , v a r i o u s  a n d  of  K r y t e r  the  o v e r  p u b l i c a t i o n s ,  see  v a r i o u s the  i n d i c e s  y e a r s  S c h u l t z ,  a n d  op.  d e v e l o p e d  a  cit.  p a r t i a l ,  3 0 - 3 4 .  S c h u l t z ,  op.  cit.,  p.  2 1 .  30 I. to  R o a d  3 7 / 6 8 ,  D .  G r i f f i t h s ,  T r a f f i c A p r i l  a n d  N o i s e " ,  F .  J .  B u i l d i n g  L a n g d o n ,  " S u b j e c t i v e  R e s e a r c h Station  R e s p o n s e  C u r r e n t  P a p e r  1968.  ^ ^Ibid.,  p.  3.  32 G . m e n t s  W .  J o h n s o n ,  R e l a t e d to  T o r o n t o - - Y o r k R e s e a r c h  U r b a n  a n d R . T r a f f i c  U n i v e r s i t y  R e p o r t  N o .  13,  Joint 1973.  C a r o t h e r s , N o i s e  " A n n o y a n c e  E x p o s u r e " ,  P r o g r a m  in  M e a s u r e -  U n i v e r s i t y  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  of  31  C H A P T E R III D A T A R E D U C T I O N AND Data  METHODOLOGY  Reduction The  p u r p o s e of t h e s t u d y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p  b e t w e e n n o i s e annoyance a n d the s o c i o e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s which have some impact  and situational  on a t t i t u d e s a b o u t t r a f f i c n o i s e .  In t h i s m a n n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r p a t t e r n s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n b e u s e d t o e x p l a i n o r d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n the v a r i o u s g r o u p s who a r e affected differently by traffic noise.  T h e s t r u c t u r e of t h i s  chapter  w i l l b e t o e x p l a i n b r i e f l y the c o l l e c t i o n a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n of data, the m e t h o d o l o g y a d o p t e d , a n d the p r i n c i p l e s b e h i n d t h o s e m e t h o d s used. T h r e e a r e a s of V a n c o u v e r w e r e c h o s e n f o r t h e s t u d y o n t h e b a s i s of r e s u l t s of a p r e v i o u s s u r v e y .  T h e noise climate in these  a r e a s ( s e e M a p 1) h a d b e e n i n d i c a t e d to b e f a i r l y b o t h e r s o m e , a n d i t was  felt that r e s p o n d e n t s  i n the t h r e e a r e a s ( W e s t E n d ,  Kitsilano,  F a i r v i e w / E a s t E n S ) w o u l d b e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r a n g e of s o c i o e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s to be investigated. T h e i n t e r v i e w l o c a t i o n s (a one b l o c k s e c t i o n ) i n e a c h a r e a n u m b e r e d about t w e n t y a n d w e r e s e l e c t e d to s i m u l a t e a s c l o s e l y a s p o s s i b l e the a v e r a g e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the a r e a .  A t o t a l of 331 s e t s of s o c i o e c o n o m i c  and annoyance  d a t a w e r e g a t h e r e d w h i l e t r a f f i c a n d n o i s e data w e r e o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h m e a s u r e m e n t l o c a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r v i e w block.  Both i n t e r v i e w a n d noise m e a s u r e m e n t locations a r e shown  32  on  m a p s  h o u r s  of  2 t h r o u g h  9-  w e e k d a y s  in  T h e  data  c a t e g o r i e s ;  those  a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h  S o c i o e c o n o m i c  T h e  a r e  eight  a n d  d e t e r m i n e  if  n o i s e  either  h o m e  a l l  m i d - d a y  b a s i s  life  of  a n d  age  its  than  their  data  on the  for  the  this  d u r i n g  the  m i d - d a y  1973.  study  can b e  d i v i d e d  a s s o c i a t e d with  p h y s i c a l  v a r i a b l e s  s e x  in  the  into  two  g e n e r a l  i n d i v i d u a l  a n d  t h o s e  e n v i r o n m e n t .  a r e  b a s i s  as  any  a r e  and  T a b l e  u s e d  in  the  d i f f e r e n c e  the  c l i m a t e  f o l l o w i n g  of  the  M a l e  a n a l y s i s  in  w h o  w h o  m a y  m a y  l e s s  a  or  f a s t e r  s u s c e p t i b l e  c a t e g o r i e s  w e r e  20  o  F e m a l e  r  u s e d  to  Q  50  -  59  P  69  O  -  29  •  60  -  30  -  39  D  7 0  or  40  -  49  •  o l d e r  be  Q  on  p a c e  to  £D  20  of  e x p e r i e n c e  o c c a s i o n a l l y ) ,  u s e d to  to  p e r c e p t i o n  r e s p o n d e n t .  Q  U n d e r  only  r e s p o n d e n t  2.  h o u s e w i f e ,  p e r h a p s  d i s t r a c t i o n s ,  T h e  s e x  in  b u s i n e s s m a n ,  young,  a c c o m p a n y i n g  e l d e r s ? ).  the  n o i s e  the  ( e . g .  i n d i v i d u a l  s h o w n  r m r k e d  s e x  o p p o s e d to  (e. g.  a r e  v a r i a b l e s  of  r e s i d e n t i a l  G r o u p :  a n d  b a s i c  on  the  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  nature  o c c u r s  age  w e r e , c o l l e c t e d  v a r i a b l e s  Sex:  A g e  A u g u s t ,  t h e r e  day,  data  v a r i a b l e s  s o c i o e c o n o m i c  A g e  the  u s e d  A l l  the  of  n o i s e  obtain  OO  * 'N * ">••' 7  r  i u.Ji.,>' e M  a!  i  * lp*«>r / i t . 0SHIS  5  iS '  37  • CIVIC  l»o/«l V a « r o u « t r • • Y««M Club •  • vrp • • • • - - C O R N W A L L - - - - ^ A ^ E , - ^ ^ ^ : , ...nry , HJdion School..  'PiftST SECOND THIRD  AVE.  Ii  </>  32E  "  FPU RTH  UJ  FIFTH  AVE;  SIXTH  AVE, ! T !  IMF"  SEVENTH R.C. _ S c n oo I B  ElGHTH  TvT  V/EST-  TENTH  pi AVE. Lord Ttnnjion ...Schffol..  Vonc'f |w<inr Piilr  WEST  ELEVENTH  WEST  TWE L FT H  <4 'WEsY  !O  WEST  3 r.  j  r  —  5*  co  /  i  I  \,r~...  I'I  r\  o_y  ' r  r  . —•— ^ ,  Ii  I  •i  E.E.^C  li  ^>TsS  ?!_ [_5i ;>5or  , ,  -Jrsn.s o uT h — — — >X\V^  1/LJ  o  •  I—  • ~l -  4^  42  TABLE 2  SOCIOECONOMIC  VARIABLES  AGE:  a g e of t h e r e s p o n d e n t  INCOME:  y e a r l y i n c o m e of t h e r e s p o n d e n t  SEX:  s e x of the r e s p o n d e n t  EDUC:  e d u c a t i o n l e v e l of t h e r e s p o n d e n t  CAROWN:  n u m b e r of c a r s o w n e d i n the h o u s e h o l d  OWN/RNT:  i n d i c a t i o n of w h e t h e r t h e r e s p o n d e n t owns o r r e n t s  HOWLNG:  i n d i c a t i o n ' of r e s p o n d e n t ' s l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y at h i s p r e s e n t a d d r e s s  JOB:  i n d i c a t i o n of t h e t y p e of o c c u p a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e respondent is employed.  43  E d u c a t i o n ,  one  another,  s o m e w h a t  i n c o m e  so,  to  a  A l l  d i f f e r e n c e s  i n v o l v e d  v a r i a b l e s .  O c c u p a t i o n s  o p p o s e d  that  if  b e i n g  to  a  equal,  h i g h  right  to  field  this  quiet  a n  or  r o u g h l y  e n v i r o n m e n t ,  p e r c e p t i o n  d i f f e r e n c e  with  m o r e  w o r k i n g  a n d  thus  v a r i a b l e s  an  w o u l d  then  a r i s e ,  the  be  f e e l  quite  on  a l l  t h e s e  v a r y  job  be  as  e x p e c t e d  other  things  t o l e r a n c e s  p a r t i c u l a r  m a y  the  c a n  office  they  w i t h  a r e  of  b a s e d  s a m e  a t t r i b u t e d to  at  e d u c a t i o n  the  n o i s e  h i g h l y  b e c a u s e  e. g.  It  of  c o u l d be  e n v i r o n m e n t  t h r e e  expectations  c o n s t r u c t i o n .  on the  c o r r e l a t e  h o w e v e r ,  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  p a y  often  t h e s e  u s e d ,  w h i c h  in  affiliated  extent,  a r e  n o i s e  job  i n c o m e s  a  in  their  d i f f e r e n c e s  f r u s t r a t i o n s  w i t h  in  o c c u p a t i o n  c e r t a i n  redundant.  c o n s i d e r a b l y  a n d  job.  h a v e  or  T h o s e  e a r n e d  d i s t r e s s e d  at  the  m o d e r a t e  2 o r  l o u d  n o i s e  l e v e l s  study  of  m o r e  a n n o y e d  not  u s e  w i t h  d o w n  in  s u s c e p t i b i l i t y  the  t e n d e d  f r e e w a y  r e s p e c t  to  the  a c c o r d i n g I n c o m e  (in  to  their  to  to  for  h o m e  f r e e w a y  be  n o i s e ,  better  w o r k  f r e e w a y ) .  the  e n v i r o n m e n t .  (no  e d u c a t e d ,  e l e m e n t  T h e  c a t e g o r i e s  found  a b o v e  g i v e n  of  G a l l o w a y  that  those  s o m e w h a t  n e c e s s i t y  t h r e e  Q  w a s  v a r i a b l e s  b e l o w .  Q  U n d e r  Q  2 0 0 0 - 3 9 9 9  O  1 2 , 0 0 0 - 1 3 , 9 9 9  a  4 0 0 0 - 5 9 9 9  C3  1 4 , 0 0 0 - 1 5 , 9 9 9  a  6 0 0 0 - 7 9 9 9  Q  16, 0 0 0 - 2 0 ,  Q  8 0 0 0 - 9 9 9 9  O  O v e r  1 0 , 0 0 0 - 1 1 , 9 9 9  20,  000  000  w h o  older,  d o l l a r s ) :  2000  ,  in  a  w e r e  a n d  d i d  p e r c e i v e d  w e r e  b r o k e n  44  Education  L e v e l Attained:  Q  Public School  Q  High School  O  Professional Training  Occupational  Car  Diploma  Diploma  C3  Junior  College  Q  University Degree  Q  Post Graduate Degree  Category:  O  Professional  O  Homemaker  C3  Managerial  0  No  O  Craftsman  CD  Part-time  Q  Sales,  1 I  Student  O  Secretarial  Q  Unskilled  Clerical  Employed Employee  owners,- b e c a u s e of t h e i r o w n i n g a c a r t h e m s e l v e s ,  be m o r e i n c l i n e d to t o l e r a t e the t r a f f i c n o i s e of o t h e r s . f a s h i o n , t h o s e who noise pollution may  do not own  may  In a s i m i l a r  c a r s a n d thus do n o t c o n t r i b u t e to the  be i n c l i n e d t o be q u i t e s e n s i t i v e .  L e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y i n the p r e s e n t s t a t u s of the i n d i v i d u a l (do t h e y own a f f e c t the p e r c e p t i o n of n o i s e .  d w e l l i n g a n d the  or r e n t ) a l s o m a y  be e x p e c t e d to  C e r t a i n a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n may  a f t e r a n i n d i v i d u a l has b e e n e x p o s e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r n o i s e f o r a p e r i o d of t i m e ; on the  ownership  occur  environment  o t h e r h a n d i t i s p o s s i b l e that i f the  i n d i v i d u a l h a s n o t a d j u s t e d o r a c c o m m o d a t e d h i m s e l f t o the n o i s i n e s s , he m a y  b e c o m e even m o r e s u s c e p t i b l e and h y p e r s e n s i t i v e over t i m e .  O w n e r s h i p of the d w e l l i n g m a y  l e a d to i n c r e a s e d a n n o y a n c e b e c a u s e  45  of t h e i m p l i e d d e c r e a s e i n v a l u e o r c o m f o r t of the h o m e i n t h e p r e s e n c e of a n o i s y e n v i r o n m e n t .  A r e n t e r m a y not b e c o m e as  a n n o y e d b e c a u s e , i n t h e o r y at l e a s t , he h a s t h e o p t i o n of m o v i n g w i t h o u t a g r e a t d e a l of d i f f i c u l t y o r p o s s i b l e l o s s o f e q u i t y i n t h e home.  V e h i c l e a n d h o m e o w n e r s h i p s t a t u s a n d l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y  w e r e o b t a i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o the f o r m a t b e l o w .  H o m e O w n e r s h i p Status: Q  Q  Own  Rent  L e n g t h of R e s i d e n c y ( i n y e a r s ) : D  Less^than  Q Q  Number  Q  5-10  1-2  a  10 - 15  3-5  O  o v e r 15  1  of V e h i c l e s O w n e d : The  a p p r o p r i a t e n u m b e r was  entered.  Situational V a r i a b l e s The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d with the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t  are l i s t e d i n Table  3.  T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s describe the noise  e n v i r o n m e n t i n the a r e a ,  at t h e t i m e m e a s u r e d , a n d t h e p r e s e n c e  of f a c t o r s w h i c h m a y a l t e r t h e p e r c e p t i o n of n o i s e b y the i n d i v i d u a l . L  n  10  and L  50  a r e t h e s o u n d l e v e l s e x c e e d e d 1 0 % a n d 5 0 % of t h e  t i m e r e s p e c t i v e l y , a s m e a s u r e d i n t h e A - w e i g h t e d s y s t e m (units of  46  T A B L E  S I T U A T I O N A L  T N I :  L  L  io  5 0  :  t r a f f i c  n o i s e of  n o i s e  l e v e l  3  V A R I A B L E S  i n d e x  e x c e e d e d  10%  of  the  t i m e  (indicative  p e a k s )  m e d i a n  n o i s e  l e v e l  :  D I S T :  d i s t a n c e the  T O T V E H :  b e t w e e n  r e s p o n d e n t  total n u m b e r a p p a r a t u s  T R E E S :  i n d i c a t e s in.the  B L D G S :  F L O W :  the  i n d i c a t e d  w a s  n o i s i e s t  v e h i c l e s  p a s t  the  of  during  the  p r e s e n c e  h o u r  of  street  m e a s u r i n g  m e a s u r e m e n t  or  a b s e n c e  of  l a r g e  t r e e s  p r e s e n c e  or  a b s e n c e  of  l a r g e  b u i l d i n g s  a r e a  indicates f r e e  l i s t e n e r ;and t h e  a r e a  indicates in  the  w h e t h e r  flowing.  t r a f f i c  f l o w  is  i n t e r r u p t e d  or  47  dBA).  L  10  i s i n d i c a t i v e of t h e " p e a k " s o u n d l e v e l s a n d L  m e d i a n or average sound level.  50  of t h e  T h e T r a f f i c N o i s e Index ( T N I ) i s  a c o m p o s i t e i n d e x f o r m e d u s i n g t h e v a l u e s of L  10  and L  90  (the  s o u n d l e v e l e x c e e d e d 9 0 % of the t i m e ) a n d i s m o r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r II a n d A p p e n d i x B.  A s a m p l e h a r d c o p y of t h e c o n t i n u o u s  n o i s e l e v e l ' a s output o n a c h a r t r e c o r d e r i s s h o w n b e l o w . The  d i s t a n c e i n v o l v e d i s that a p p r o x i m a t e d i s t a n c e , i n feet,  f r o m the c e n t e r l i n e of t h e r o a d w a y u p o n w h i c h the n o i s e was m e a s u r e d to the house w h e r e the i n t e r v i e w was m a d e .  Distances  w e r e e s t i m a t e d u s i n g l a r g e s c a l e s t r e e t m a p s of t h e c i t y ( s c a l e 1" = 200').  T h e n u m b e r of v e h i c l e s was t h e t o t a l n u m b e r of c a r s ,  trucks, buses and motorcycles  t o h a v e p a s s e d the m e a s u r i n g  a p p a r a t u s i n both d i r e c t i o n s d u r i n g t h e h o u r i n w h i c h n o i s e m e a s u r e ments w e r e taken.  T h e r a n g e s of n o i s e s a n d v o l u m e s of t r a f f i c  encountered during the m e a s u r e m e n t hour a r e given i n T a b l e s t h r o u g h 6.  4  T h e l o c a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d r e f e r t o those i l l u s t r a t e d on  m a p s 3, 5, 7 a n d 9-  F i g u r e s 1 t h r o u g h 3 i l l u s t r a t e t h e r a n g e of  noise levels encountered for various traffic volumes.  The flow  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the t r a f f i c s t r e a m was a two v a l u e d index t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between u n i n t e r r u p t e d flow and that w h i c h was r e g u l a r l y s t o p p e d b e c a u s e of l i g h t s , pedestrian crossings.  stop signs o r f r e q u e n t  T h e p r e s e n c e of l a r g e t r e e s o r b u i l d i n g s  w h i c h c o u l d a f f e c t t h e n o i s e p a t h i n the a r e a of n o i s e t r a n s m i s s i o n under concern  (either t h r o u g h s h i e l d i n g o r r e f l e c t i o n e f f e c t s ) was  TABLE  T R A F F I C V O L U M E S AND  4  NOISE L E V E L S - W E S T  END  ( a l l f i g u r e s a r e f o r the one h o u r m e a s u r e m e n t p e r i o d )  Traffic Composition N u m b e r of Location  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  cars  297 64 985 241 36 945 710 695 1055 1015 235 1446  N u m b e r of pickups/vans  29 4 107 25 2 107 66 62 128 106  26 193  N u m b e r of trucks  17 8 42 16 3 37 32 26 41 35 20 60  Measured Noise Levels  N u m b e r of buses  N u m b e r of motorcycles  4 18  4  24 1 23 10 3 7 17  8 6 11 15 16 6 5  L  5 0 , •• :  65. 0 64. 0 72.4 65.6 57.7 75. 1 71.7 70. 2 71.0 71.3 65. 0 73. 5  L  i o.  75.0 70. 0 79- 5 74. 3 64.7 82. 5 81. 1 79- 2 79- 5 79- 3 76. 8 82. 4  TABLE  T R A F F I C V O L U M E S AND  5  NOISE L E V E L S  - KITSILANO  ( a l l f i g u r e s a r e f o r the one h o u r m e a s u r e m e n t p e r i o d )  Traffic Location  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14  N u m b e r of  N u m b e r of  cars  pickups/vans  trucks  67 0 540 1185 1048 763 637 107 0 665 925 740 107 0 1040 558 435  118 31 177 117 88 74 139 70 93 52 96 108 52 47  Measured Noise Levels  Composition  N u m b e r of  28 7 52 61 27 18 36 14 21 13 44 34 14 12  N u m b e r of buses  N u m b e r of motorcycles  12 1 13 53 19 15 49 17 15 1 66 16  • •  8 7 18 16 9 13 17 7 13 5 " 9 18 9 2  T L  50  7 0.2 64. 0 67. 2 . 64.7 61.6 64. 0 65.8 64. 0 67.6 59. 2 60. 1 66.5 63.2 59. 3  T L  io  79.7 75.3 74. 6 73. 0 71.6 75.0 75. 1 74. 4 76.7 72. 3 67. 3 74.7 74. 8 70. 4  T A B L E  T R A F F I C  V O L U M E S  (all  f i g u r e s  A N D  a r e  T r a f f i c N u m b e r L o c a t i o n  c a r s  of  - N u m b e r  p i c k u p s ; / v a n s  one  h o u r  -  F A I R V I E W / E A S T  m e a s u r e m e n t  period)-  C o m p o s i t i o n  N u m b e r T r u c k s  of  E N D  M e a s u r e d  N u m b e r b u s e s  of  N u m b e r  N o i s e  L e v e l s  of  m o t o r c y c l e s  L  5 0  L  1 0  56. 1  68. 2  221  11  73. 6  7 9 . 7  37  22  70. 7  78. 8  128  66  5  66. 0  74. 2  40  266  47  2  1348  289  3  1200  168  560  the  L E V E L S  3  1  4  of  for  N O I S E  6  :  15  24  17  66. 1  7 5 . 5  179  3  8  71. 8  8 1 . 8  125  54  17  13  63. 6  7 0 . 4  146  28  1  9  69. 3  78. 9  31  31  66. 3  7 3 . 9  5  60. 2  7 2 . 2  15  70. 0  76. 8  5  935  124  6  717  213  7  1005  8  940  9  1665  244  138  10  397  84  32  11  117 0  287  197  2  12  7 9 0  105  45  14  6  64. 1  7 3 . 0  883  155  45  1  5  76. 1  84. 9  14  547  97  30  17  6  54. 8  64.  15  217  28  17  2  61. 0  7 5 . 0  13  1  Figure Measured  Noise  West  1.  and  End.  Traffic  (5.6%  Volumes  trucks)  /too.J /Seel  H  (-E  t  1  60  70  1— £c  Measured Range  displayed ' to  the  is  10th  Noise  (dBA)  from median percentile  noise level  level (L  i  n  ).  Figure Measured  Noise  2.  and  Ki t s i l a n o  Traffic  (6.U  Volumes  trucks)  aooj  — i —  —J—  — ; —  4<r  (oO  Measured Range  displayed  .to  the  10th  —r  is  Noise  (dBA)  from median  percentile  60  1$  70  noise  level  level  (Lj^j).  <  L  5 0 >  54  Figure Measured  Noise  and  Fairview  /&0D  £  3. Traffic  Volumes  trucks)  (8.6%  J  mo J  6oc J  —i  1  ~\  1  6o  A'S"  Measured Range  displayed to  the  1  1  10th  is  Noise  (dBA)  from median  percentile  1—•  eo  -70  noise  level  (L  level, i  n  ).  (L,-Q)  a l s o taken into account by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n those  situations  in which l a r g e buildings and t r e e s were p r e s e n t and those i n which t h e y w e r e not. L a s t l y , a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t r a f f i c n o i s e w e r e c o l l e c t e d as p a r t of t h e s a m e i n t e r v i e w s i n w h i c h t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c  data was  T h e s e w e r e o b t a i n e d b y a s k i n g the i n t e r v i e w e e t o r e s p o n d  obtained.  with  v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of a g r e e m e n t o r d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h a s t a t e m e n t t r a f f i c n o i s e (see q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n A p p e n d i x A ) . semantic  d i f f e r e n t i a l L i k e r t s c a l e r a t i n g i t was  on  T h r o u g h the u s e  of  p o s s i b l e to attach  a n u m b e r i n d e x to a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t e d a n n o y a n c e w i t h t r a f f i c n o i s e . T h i s n u m b e r i n d e x w o u l d t h e n c a t e g o r i z e the i n d i v i d u a l as  belonging  to a g r o u p w h i c h was  annoyed or unannoyed by t r a f f i c n o i s e to a  p a r t i c u l a r extent.  s u m m a r y of t h e s e r e s p o n s e s  Tables 7 through  A 10.  is given in  In a d d i t i o n , F i g u r e 4 p r e s e n t s a s c a l e of  n o i s e r e l a t i n g v a r i o u s s o u n d s o u r c e s a n d the g e n e r a l r e s p o n s e  to  them. A l l the a b o v e data w e r e c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the m i d - d a y 10 A . M .  to 4 P.M.,  during August,  197 3.  N o i s e and t r a f f i c  hours, data  w e r e c o l l e c t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y at l o c a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s to be the p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e s  of t r a f f i c n o i s e i n the a r e a .  E r r o r s i n the c o l l e c t i o n a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n of data a r e f u r t h e r discussed in Appendix  A.  56  T A B L E  R E S P O N S E  is  to  .  T O A N N O Y A N C E  W E S T  R e s p o n s e  7  s t a t e m e n t that  " t r a f f i c  Q U E S T I O N  E N D  n o i s e  i n the  a n n o y i n g " ;  N u m b e r  S t r o n g l y  M i l d l y  A g r e e d  A g r e e d  Indifferent  M i l d l y  D i s a g r e e d  S t r o n g l y  D i s a g r e e d  39  45  8  18  • '9  119  n e i g h b o r h o o d  57  T A B L E  R E S P O N S E  T O  8  A N N O Y A N C E  Q U E S T I O N  F A I R V I E W  R e s p o n s e is  to  s t a t e m e n t that  " t r a f f i c  n o i s e  in the  a n n o y i n g " .  N u m b e r  S t r o n g l y  M i l d l y  A g r e e d  A g r e e d  42  21  Indifferent  13  M i l d l y  14  D i s a g r e e d  S t r o n g l y  N o  R e p l y  D i s a g r e e d  11  1_  102  n e i g h b o r h o o d  58  T A B L E  R E S P O N S E  T O  9  A N N O Y A N C E  Q U E S T I O N  K I T S I L A N O  R e s p o n s e is  to  a n n o y i n g .  s t a t e m e n t  that  "traffic! n o i s e  in  the  "  N u m b e r  S t r o n g l y  M i l d l y  A g r e e d  A g r e e d  Indifferent  M i l d l y  D i s a g r e e d  S t r o n g l y  D i s a g r e e d  3 0  40  6  26  8_  110  n e i g h b o r h o o d  59  T A B L E  R E S P O N S E  T O  ( C O M P O S I T E  R e s p o n s e is  to  s t a t e m e n t that  10  A N N O Y A N C E  A L L  " t r a f f i c  Q U E S T I O N  T H R E E  n o i s e  A R E A S )  in the  n e i g h b o r h o o d  a n n o y i n g " .  N u m b e r  S t r o n g l y  111  3 3 . 6  106  3 2 . 0  Indifferent  27  8 . 2  M i l d l y  58  1 7 . 5  28  8 . 4  M i l d l y  A g r e e d  D i s a g r e e d  S t r o n g l y  N o  A g r e e d  %  R e p l y  D i s a g r e e d  1_  331  1 0 0 . 0  Sound source  dB (A)* T 150  Carrier deck jet operation  -T 140  Response criteria  Painfully loud 130  Jet takeoff (200 ft) Discotheque Auto horn (3 ft) Riveting machine  Limit amplified speech  4- 120 Maximum vocal effort 110  Jet takeoff (2000 ft) Shout (0.5 ft)  + 100  N.Y. subway station  Very annoying  Heavy truck (50 ft)  -f 90  Hearing damge (8 hr)  4- 80  Annoying  + 70  Telephone use difficult  Pneumatic drill (50 ft)  Freight train (50 ft) Freeway traffic (50 ft)  Intrusive Air conditioning unit (20 ft)  60  Light auto traffic (50 ft) 50  Quiet  Living room Bedroom  40  Library 30  Very quiet  Soft whisper (15 ft) 20 Broadcasting studio 10  J-  0  Just audible  Threshold of hearing  'Typical A—Weighted sound levels taken with a sound-level meter and expressed as decibels on the scale. The " A " scale approximates the frequency response of the human ear.  Figure  k.  Weighted  Sound  Human Source:  U.S.  DOT  "Recommendations  Transportation,  pp.  62-63.  Final  Levels  and  Response for  Report"/  Northeast NTIS,  Corrido  Sept.  1971  M e t h o d o l o g y  T h e  b a s i c  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  a m o n g  v a r i o u s  m e t h o d s  w e r e  d i s c r i m i n a n t  e m p l o y e d  a b o v e  to  a n d  in  u s e d  of  the  in  t o w a r d  a n  the  then  w a s  u s e d  to  t r a f f i c  to  into  a n d  to  effective  u s e d  u n d e r s t a n d  the  g r o u p s  n u m b e r  a g a i n  u s i n g  a n a l y s i s  b a s e d  L a t e r ,  of  a n a l y s i s  f a c t o r s  stated  t h e s e  factor  into  w a s  d i s c u s s e d  g r o u p s  a n a l y s i s  a  single  v a r i a b l e s .  t h e s e  a n d  on their  b e t w e e n  v a r i a b l e s  d i s t i n g u i s h  s t a t i s t i c a l  v a r i a b l e s  d i s t i n g u i s h  what  a n d  T w o  D i s c r i m i n a n t  u s e  s i m i l a r  d e t e r m i n e  factor  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  g r o u p  to  n o i s e .  a n a l y s i s .  a t t e m p t  n o i s e  to  study  investigation,  i n d i v i d u a l s  a t t e m p t  w a s  the  c o u l d be  the  g i v e n  r e d u c e  a n a l y s i s  in  of  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  t o w a r d  a n  thus  any,  attitudes  c l a s s i f y  b a s i s  u s e d  if  initially  a n n o y a n c e  the  p u r p o s e  on  w a s  f a c t o r  D i s c r i m i n a n t  as  the  n e w  " v a r i a b l e s " .  D i s c r i m i n a n t  - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a n t  the  of  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  p e r s o n s  s e e k  an  w h e n  a n d  i n d e x  a p p l i e d  a s s i g n  h i m  to  a  a n a l y s i s  of t h i n g s  set  of  n u m b e r  to  s o m e  one  o r  a n a l y s i s  or  is  a  statistical  p e r s o n s .  m e a s u r e m e n t s  d e r i v e d  n e w l y  f r o m  another  of  the  G i v e n two  m a d e  t h e s e  o b s e r v e d  t e c h n i q u e  a n d  on  or  to  facilitate  m o r e  c l a s s e s  e a c h p e r s o n  m e a s u r e m e n t s  we  w h i c h ,  u n c l a s s i f i e d p e r s o n ,  c l a s s e s  w i t h  the  s m a l l e s t  w i l l  p r o b -  3 ability  of  g r o u p s  the  e r r o r .  F o r  p r o c e d u r e  the  for  s i m p l e s t  c a s e  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  of  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  c o n s i s t s  in  finding  into  a  two  62  c r i t i c a l  i n d e x  v a l u e  v a l u e  w o u l d  be  other  of  s u c h that  d i s c r i m i n a n t  any  i n d i v i d u a l  function  b e l o n g i n g  to  one  fell  b e l o w  c l a s s ,  w h o s e  the  the  p r i n c i p a l  l i n e a r  A  v a r i a b l e  v a r i a b l e s  w h e r e a s  v a l u e s  v a r i a b l e ,  to  c r i t i c a l  o t h e r w i s e  a  to  l i n e a r  set  of  f r o m  l i n e a r  the  function  u s e s  the  w h i c h  it  is  d e s i r e d to  i n d i v i d u a l s .  a  l i n e a r  Z  to  s e r v e  i . e .  the  as  g r o u p s .  p l a n e ,  to  Z ,  the  the  function  u s e s  v a l u e s  of  of  v a l u e s  of  the  p o s s e s s e s  a n d  dependent  no  s u c h  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of  the  4  v a r i a b l e s  d i s c r i m i n a t e  c o m b i n a t i o n  d e t e r m i n e  ing  the  X , ,  X „  X ,  b e t w e e n  b y  m e a n s  k two  g r o u p s  of  L e t  to  t w o  v a l u e  n a t u r e  1 2  be  to  function  a t w o - w a y  function.  k  a  e s t i m a t e  i n s t e a d  d i s c r i m i n a n t  a r i s e s  d e t e r m i n e  w i l l  a  r e g r e s s i o n function  d i s c r i m i n a n t  but  the  l i n e a r  that  the  d e t e r m i n e  C o n s i d e r  b e t w e e n  r e g r e s s i o n function  v a r i a b l e ,  or  d i f f e r e n c e  v a r i a b l e .  dependent  independent  of  c o m p u t e d  c l a s s .  dependent  data  i n d e x  c l a s s i f i e d as  o r d i n a r y  the  the  on the  T h e  a n  of  a n  B y  c a n b e  g w o  ^ ' s  of  b y  i n d e x  t h e s e  m e a n s  for  g r o u p s  d i f f e r e n c e  w i l l  of  s o m e  differentiating  a d j u s t m e n t s  a l i g n e d  v a r i a b l e s .  in  to  the  s p a c e  a s s u m e  b e t w e e n  the  T h e  c r i t e r i o n  b e t w e e n  the  Vs  s u c h that  of  Z  that  then  w i l l  m e m b e r s  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  v a l u e s  i n c r e a s i n g l y  v a l u e s  p r o b l e m  for  of  Z  d i v e r g e n t  the  two  is  enable  of  the  h y p e r -  c o r r e s p o n d -  v a l u e s ,  g r o u p s  w i l l  63  b e c o m e  v a l u e s  g r e a t e r .  of  Z  g r o u p s ;  of  Z  w i t h i n  for  the  t w o  of  the  c o r r e s p o n d s  s e p a r a t i n g  an  to  but  as  a r e  the  as  the  g r o u p s ,  the  that  d e s i r e d  .  p l a n e  m a x i m i z e  of  the  of  w i l l  A s  a  to  m e a n s  the  to  of the  the  (Z^  Z  two  of  for  of  -  A s  of  the  Z ^ ) ^ ,  a  g r o u p s ,  v a l u e  the  it  the  function  (  2.-  a r e  for  of  is  both  v a l u e s  i n c r e a s e  in  the  situation  the  d e s i r a b l e  the  two  of  Z ^  the  g r o u p  's  a r e  L  in  •  of  Z  the  a n d  t w o  Z ^  v a r i a t i o n  convenient  in  to  g r o u p s  v a l u e s  w h e r e  to  two  be  the  of  a r e  i n c r e a s i n g  j*** i n d i v i d u a l  \  for  the  s e p a r a t i o n  m e a s u r e  i n d i v i d u a l s  w h i c h  Z  the  distributions  w o u l d  v a r i a t i o n  m e a s u r e  u s e  of  of  T h i s  b e t w e e n  It  of  l a r g e  a n  two  deviations  v a l u e s  the  of  g r o u p .  r e s u l t .  g r o u p s .  that  e a c h  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  n u m b e r  be  s e p a r a t i o n  e x p e n s e  s t a n d a r d  relative  the  the  v a r i a t i o n s  i n c r e a s i n g l y  the  w i t h i n  the  the  t w o  h o w e v e r ,  in  at  n e c e s s a r i l y  w i t h i n  the  Z  s e p a r a t e s  the  denotes  a n d  o c c u r s  convenient  Z  i n c r e a s e  g r e a t e r  not  t i m e ,  a l s o b e c o m e  w h i c h  g r o u p s .  of  2;]  in  p o s s i b l e  is  v a l u e s  g r o u p  does  two  it  the  w h i c h  that  m e a n s  w h e r e  group  v a l u e s  that  a p l a n e  w i d e l y  w i t h i n  a  s a m e  g r o u p s  for  extent  distributions  c h o o s e  the  c o n s e q u e n t l y  s e p a r a t i o n  s u c h  A t  to  u s e  the  T h e n  d e t e r m i n e d  of  t*** the  to  .  64  Set  to  up  in  obtain  this  w a y ,  the  the  v a l u e s  p r o b l e m  of  \  and,  then  can be  s o l v e d  c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  the  m a t h e m a t i c a l l y  d i s c r i m i n a n t  5  function,  Z .  H a v i n g  the  v a l u e s  c a l c u l a t e  e x c e e d s  of  the  one  a  of  the  weighting  a n a l y s i s  v a l u e s  e a c h  he  of  In  the  v a r i a b l e s  s c o r e ,  a s s i g n e d to  a p r i o r i  B y  a  f a c t o r s  ( A's)  d i s c r i m i n a n t  v a r i a b l e s  attains  the  for  to  the  a  the  c l a s s i f y  m o s t  r e l a t i v e  subject  a n d  h i g h e s t  n e w  be  the  a r e  cutting  subject  d i s c r i m i n a n t  u s e f u l  n o i s e  in  but  the  m e a n s  the  h i g h e s t  w i l l  b e l o n g i n g  the  o v e r a l l  two  e a c h  g r o u p s ) ,  e n t e r i n g  g r o u p .  m e a s u r e d  a s s i g n e d to  a n d  the  T h e  a p p l i e d  the  g r o u p  s c o r e .  a n a l y s i s  w a s  u s e d  not  r a t h e r  to  d i s c o v e r  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  or  p r e d i c t i n g ,  a n n o y a n c e  to  ^  g r o u p  for  s c o r e  s c o r e  point,  than  e a c h  then  h a d  a c t u a l l y  a n d  his  cutting  ( m o r e  m e a s u r e  b e t w e e n  m i n i m i z e d .  w e i g h t e d  subjects,  of  f o r m e d  If  w h i c h  T h i s  of  a n a l y s i s  function  n e w  case  g r o u p  c a l c u l a t e d for  function  p r e s e n t  p r o v e d  p o s t e r i o r i ,  c h o i c e  m i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a y  a  h a l f w a y  w e  subject  function.  function.  suitable  a r e  that  a n e w  p r o b a b i l i t i e s  d i s c r i m i n a n t  he  u s u a l l y  function,  of  d i s c r i m i n a n t  m u l t i p l e  s p e c i f i c a l l y  v a r i a b l e s  is  on the  d i s c r i m i n a n t  w h i c h  d i s c r i m i n a n t  d i s c r i m i n a n t  g r o u p s .  a n d  of  u s i n g  cutting  on the  d e p e n d i n g  In  for  s c o r e  g r o u p s ,  s c o r e  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  c e r t a i n  p o s s i b i l i t y  to  the  his  two  m e a n  v a r y  of  d e t e r m i n e d  felt  b y  i n d i v i d u a l s .  what  a  65  F a c t o r  a n a l y s i s  F a c t o r  a n a l y s i s  inter c o r r e l a t i o n s  d e t e r m i n e  at  the  for  start  p o s s i b l e  the  a  the  set  of  set  of  together  of  b a s i c  T h e  b a s i s  v e c t o r s  F a c t o r  a n a l y z i n g  of  f a c t o r s  is  a n a l y s i s  b e c a u s e t h e s e  n e w  find  w i t h  m o s t  of  w a s  a  u s e d  s m a l l  z e r o  the  as  c o r r e l a -  v a r i a n c e  e n a b l e s  f a c t o r s  to  a d e q u a t e l y  than  to  (factors  for  the  v a r i a b l e s  c a n b e  p r o b l e m  a c c o u n t s  v a r i a b l e s .  of  r e p r e s e n t e d  n u m b e r  w h i c h  m e t h o d  o b s e r v a t i o n s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  of  v a r i a b l e s  a  statistical  v a r i a t i o n s  e a c h p a i r )  set  a  s m a l l e r  o r t h o g o n a l  o r i g i n a l  s o m e  by  of  t i o n b e t w e e n  the  w i t h i n  w h e t h e r  a c c o u n t e d  is  one  to  in  g r o u p  hopefully  r e f l e c t  7 s o m e  m o r e  T h e  the  T h e  b a s i c  f i r s t  c a l c u l a t i o n  s e c o n d  v a r i a b l e s  T w o  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  step  of  step  to  a n d p r i n c i p a l  a n a l y s i s  w a s  P r i n c i p a l  g i v e n  set  p r i n c i p a l  other.  the  in  p a r t i c u l a r  d e t e r m i n e s  is  the  that  as  data  for  by  c a s e  the  a n e w  t h e r e  set  of  is  in  this;  S i n c e  be  i n i t i a l  c o m p o s i t e  or  the  of  a  in  i n v o l v e s  v a r i a b l e s .  n e w  set  the  p r i n c i p a l  of  f a c t o r  c o m p o n e n t  f u r t h e r .  t r a n s f o r m i n g  v a r i a b l e s  u n c o r r e l a t e d  u n d e r l y i n g  to  e a c h  s t r u c t u r e  w h i c h  a  o r  f a c t o r - a n a l y s i s .  v a r i a b l e s  of  data.  c o m m o n  d e s c r i b e d  a m e t h o d  c o m m o n  c o m b i n a t i o n  of  e x h i b i t e d  w i l l  o r t h o g o n a l  about  set  a n a l y s i s  c o n s t r u c t i n g  it  is  v a r i a b l e s .  R - f a c t o r  a n a l y s i s .  a n a l y s i s  a r e  l i n e a r  c o m m o n  a c c o m p l i s h i n g  p r e s e n t  into  o r i g i n a l  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s  a s s u m p t i o n  m a d e  b e s t  the  for  c o m p o n e n t  c o m p o n e n t s  v a r i a b l e s  the  the  m a t r i x  c o m p o n e n t  the  of v a r i a b l e s  N o  of  a v a i l a b l e  a n a l y s i s  u s e d  m o r e  r e d u c e  b a s i s  a r e  the  c o r r e l a t i o n  is  on the  m e t h o d s  a  in  of  of  O n e  a c c o u n t s  66*  for  m o r e  v a r i a n c e  v a r i a b l e s .  of  l i n e a r  is  that  T h e  in  the  f i r s t  r e s i d u a l  after  of  the  any  other  c o m p o n e n t  e x h i b i t e d  c o m b i n a t i o n  v a r i a n c e  than  p r i n c i p a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  l i n e a r  data  in the  of  is  the  data.  v a r i a b l e s  effect  l i n e a r  that  the  c o m b i n a t i o n  single  T h e  s e c o n d  a c c o u n t s  f i r s t  b e s t  for  c o m p o n e n t  of  s u m m a r y  c o m p o n e n t  the  is  m o s t  r e m o v e d ,  g a n d  be  so  for  s u b s e q u e n t  o r t h o g o n a l  S i n c e  the  on  e a c h  data  (have  s e v e r a l  z e r o  c o m p o n e n t  after  the  c o m p o n e n t s .  c o r r e l a t i o n )  is  the  p r e v i o u s  c o m p o n e n t s  E a c h  w i l l  b e s t  to  e v e r y  l i n e a r  other  s u m m a r y  c o m p o n e n t s  h o p e f u l l y  c o m p o n e n t  a r e  e x p l a i n  m o s t  v a r i a n c e  c a r e  of  a l s o  c o m p o n e n t .  of  t a k e n  m u s t  the  of,  left  the  in  f i r s t  v a r i a n c e  in  the  data.  T h e  of  as  this  final  rotation  p o s s i b l e ,  T h e r e  a r e  f a c t o r s  rotation,  c o l u m n s  the  of  u l t i m a t e  types  not  the  of  kept  type  11  u s e d  a f a c t o r  II  v a r i a b l e s  m a d e  g o a l  of  f a c t o r s  in  this  m a t r i x ,  in  a s  any  s i m p l e  the  a n d  a n d  as  b e i n g  situation,  c e n t e r s  to  A s  to  in  obtain  m e a n s  s o m e  s t r u c t u r e .  w h i c h  rotations.  on  B y  i n t e r p r e t a b l e  f a c t o r  rotation,  o r t h o g o n a l  c o l u m n .  rotation.  s i m p l e s t  oblique  equivalent  e a c h  factor  rotation  a n d  rotation:  is  the  V a r i m a x  s i m p l i f y i n g  m a x i m i z i n g  the  a n  c o n s i d e r  e x a m p l e  the  v a r i a n c e  of  b e l o w .  A f t e r  f a c t o r  is  a n a l y s i s  o r t h o g o n a l ,  s q u a r e d l o a d i n g s  T a b l e  factor  m e a n i n g f u l  two  a r e  in  e a c h factor  the  t h e o r e t i c a l l y  step  rotation,  a n d v e r y  D  a n d  v a r i a b l e s  little  E .  A ,  on factor  T h e  l o a d i n g s  B ,  I  a n d  while  or  C  the  n u m b e r s  l o a d  quite  r e v e r s e  in  a  l a r g e l y  is  t r u e  g i v e n  r o w  for  on  67  T A B L E  E X A M P L E  O F  11  F A C T O R  L O A D I N G S  U n r o t a t e d F a c t o r V a r i a b l e  F a c t o r  I  R o t a t e d  M a t r i x F a c t o r  F a c t o r II  F a c t o r  I  M a t r i x F a c t o r  A  . 7 5  .63  .  14  .95  B  .69  .57  .  14  • 90  C  . 80  .49  .  18  • 92  D  .  E  .76  85  ' -.  42  • 94  • 09  -.  42  • 92  .  07  II  68  r e p r e s e n t  r e g r e s s i o n  v a r i a b l e s .  T h e  c o m b i n a t i o n  T h e  total  a l l  c o m m u n a l i t y  v a r i a n c e  of  of  w h i c h  v a r i a b l e  coefficients  A  f a c t o r s  of  is  v a r i a n c e  is  of  of  f a c t o r s  a v a r i a b l e  c a l l e d the  a v a r i a b l e  is  r e p r e s e n t e d  in  in  that  the  a c c o u n t e d for  c o m m u n a l i t y  thus  the  d e s c r i b i n g  of  p r o p o r t i o n  factor  s p a c e .  by  the  of  the  v a r i a b l e .  its  T h e  total  c o m m u n a l i t y  is  2 a n d  (-95)  or  c o m p o n e n t  a m o u n t  b y  of  adding  this  . 9 0 3  a n a l y s i s  total  the  this  the  s q u a r e s  is  e x p l a i n e d b y  i m p o r t a n c e  v a r i a n c e  of  in  the  the  of a  data  it  loadings  f a c t o r  g i v e n  factor  a c c o u n t s  in  II.  e a c h  for  in  In  t e r m s  m a y  c o l u m n .  p r i n c i p a l  be  of  the  obtained  F o r  f a c t o r  II,  b e c o m e s  + T h i s  n u m b e r  p r i n c i p a l  the  of  c a l l e d the  c o m p o n e n t  o r i g i n a l  v a r i a n c e  is  C°iof  n u m b e r  e i g e n v a l u e  a n a l y s i s ,  of  v a r i a b l e s ,  a c c o u n t e d for  b y  f a c t o r  5  A  m o r e  the  detailed  =  Corf  t  for  f a c t o r  II  s u m  we  II  -r  of  h a v e  all  the  C.07)  a n d  1  J.S7A  =  since,  u s i n g  e i g e n v a l u e s  is  e q u a l  p r o p o r t i o n  of  the  to  total  is  . 5 1 5  d i s c u s s i o n of  the  v a r i o u s  types  of  f a c t o r  9 a n a l y s i s  for  the  m a y  S o c i a l  b e  found  S c i e n c e s  in  either  (SPSS)  R u m m e l  c o m p u t e r  of  the  p r o g r a m  S t a t i s t i c a l  m a n u a l .  P a c k a g e  ^  69  F O O T N O T E S  A .  J .  V a n c o u v e r  P r i c e ,  R e g i o n a l  S t r a c h a n ,  " A  C o m m u n i t y  D i s t r i c t " ,  C o n s u l t i n g  N o i s e  S u r v e y  E n g i n e e r i n g  A c o u s t i c a l  of  R e p o r t ,  E n g i n e e r s ,  the  G r e a t e r  B a r r o n  V a n c o u v e r ,  and  B . C .  2 W . " H i g h w a y  J .  G a l l o w a y ,  N o i s e :  W .  E .  C l a r k ,  M e a s u r e m e n t s ,  N a t i o n a l  C o o p e r a t i v e  H i g h w a y  R e s e a r c h  H i g h w a y  B o a r d ,  and  J .  S i m u l a t i o n ,  R e s e a r c h  W a s h i n g t o n ,  S.  K e r r i c k ,  and  M i x e d  P r o g r a m D.  C  ,  R e p o r t  1969,  p.  R e a c t i o n s " , N o .  78,  70.  3 K e i t h of  L o n d o n  H o p e ,  P r e s s  M e t h o d s  of  M u l t i v a r i a t e  L t d . ,  L o n d o n ,  1968,  H o e l ,  I n t r o d u c t i o n to  p.  A n a l y s i s ,  U n i v e r s i t y  102.  4 P a u l J o h n  W i l e y  5  G .  a n d  Sons  I b i d . ,  p.  H o p e ,  op.  Inc.  ,  N e w  Y o r k ,  M a t h e m a t i c a l 1954,  p.  Statistics,  180.  181.  6 cit.,  p.  106.  7 F o r see  either  J o u r n a l pp.  of  R.  B o o k  m o r e J .  or  N o r m a n for  N e w  N i e ,  the  Y o r k ,  op.  cit.  ,  p.  9  R u m m e l ,  ^ N i e ,  bp.  op.  cit.  cit.  V o l . D a l e  II, Bent,  1970,  210.  pp.  of  f a c t o r  F a c t o r  N o .  S o c i a l S c i e n c e s  g N i e ,  d i s c u s s i o n  " U n d e r s t a n d i n g  R e s o l u t i o n ,  P a c k a g e  C o m p a n y ,  c o m p r e h e n s i v e  R u m m e l ,  C o n f l i c t  4 4 4 - 4 8 0 ,  Statistical  a  4,  a n d C  A n a l y s i s " ,  D e c e m b e r H a d l a i  (SPSS),  2 0 8 - 2 4 4 .  a n a l y s i s  1967, H u l l ,  M c G r a w - H i l l  7 0  C H A P T E R  IV  A N A L Y S I S  A l l  a n a l y s e s  U n i v e r s i t y  of  the  B r i t i s h  U n i v e r s i t y  a n a l y s i s  T h e  of  of  d i s c r i m i n a n t  s o m e  w o r k i n g .  the  u s e d  a n d  the  data  w a s  in  into  e a c h  w e r e  t h e s e  " T h e  a r e  A s  a r e  a  s o m e  b a s i c  g i v e n  extent.  T h i s  a s s u m p t i o n  t h o s e  s e c t i o n s  n o i s e  w a s  a c c e p t e d  of  w h i c h  a p r o b l e m .  as  as  p e r  only  T a b l e s  in  T a b l e  a n n o y a n c e  weighting  the  h a d  in  a v a l i d  of  of  in  p r o c e s s  the  five  T h e  the  those  w a s  r e s u l t s  is  the  as  s u r v e y s  a n n o y a n c e  opinion  the  n u m b e r  to  the  a n n o y i n g " ,  m a j o r i t y  of  c o m m u n i t y  r e f l e c t s  study  a r e a s  that  t r a f f i c  r e s p o n s e s  in  at  III.  the  in  of  a n d  a c t u a l  a n n o y e d  c h o o s i n g  of  to  r e s p o n s e  III,  n o i s e  p r e v i o u s  s a m p l e  v a r i a b l e s  C h a p t e r  C h a p t e r  the  Initially,  a n d  14.  factor  p r o g r a m ) .  g r o u p s  of  t r a f f i c  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  i n d i c a t e d  a n a l y s i s  n e i g h b o r h o o d  f a v o r  A c c o r d i n g l y ,  r e p r e s e n t i n g  in  the  into  b a s i s  9  p r o g r a m s  attempts  a n d  this  the  12  the  s e p a r a t e  one  13  10  w i t h  in  two  at  F A C T O ,  test  h o w  T w o  7 t h r o u g h  T a b l e  few  to  the  in  a  as  T a b l e s  traffic  a n d  d i s c r i m i n a n t  m a d e ,  on  ( U B C  p l a c e  s e v e r a l p h a s e s .  l i s t e d  k n o w n  s e e n f r o m  i n d i c a t e d  in  u s i n g  w e r e  f r o m  in  the  took  center  a n a l y s i s  i n c o n c l u s i v e .  w a s  n o i s e  can be  r e s p o n d e n t s  to  g r o u p s  the  i n f o r m a t i o n  v a r i a b l e s  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  s t a t e m e n t  a n d  t h r e e  chapter  c o m p u t i n g  0 7 M ,  r u n  d i s c r i m i n a n t - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  other  this  o c c u r r e d  p r e l i m i n a r y  a n a l y s i s  in  B M D  a n a l y s i s  T h e s e  above  C o l u m b i a  w e r e  p r o g r a m ,  a n a l y s e s  obtain  d i s c u s s e d in  those  w e r e  p a r t i c u l a r  T A B L E  F I V E  T R I A L  12  D I S C R I M I N A T I N G  V A R I A B L E S  O W N / R N T  H O W L N G  A G E  T N I  I N C O M E  definitions  T a b l e s  2  of  a n d  the  3.  above  v a r i a b l e s  m a y  be  found  in  72  T A B L E  F I V E  G R O U P  13  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N  1  =  s t r o n g l y  2  =  m i l d l y  3  =  n e i t h e r  C A T E G O R I E S  d i s a g r e e d  d i s a g r e e d  a g r e e d  d i s a g r e e d  4  =  m i l d l y  5  =  s t r o n g l y  n o r  (indifferent)  a g r e e d  a g r e e d  T A B L E  T H R E E  G R O U P  14  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N  A  =  d i s a g r e e d  B  =  indifferent  C  =  a g r e e d  =  =  1 a n d  =  4  3  a n d  5  C A T E G O R I E S  2  a r e a s .  H a d t h e r e  obtained  w e r e  f a c t o r s  to  this  n u m b e r s  k n o w l e d g e  of  opinion  a p p l i e d to  k n o w l e d g e .  the  a  in  r e s p o n s e s  a r e a ,  w e i g h t i n g  n u m b e r  w a s  weighting  the  the  s a m p l e  S i n c e it  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ,  that  felt  of  in  that  unity  e a c h  the  for  g r o u p  s a m p l e  e a c h  g r o u p  a s s u m e d .  hone  of  the  the  attempts  five  together  w e r e  G r e a t e s t  a r e  It  to  by  a g r e e d  w i t h  l e v e l  of  then  a n n o y e d  v a r i a b l e  in  in  w e r e  the  a l m o s t  a t t e m p t  g r o u p s  on n o i s e  c o r r e c t  p e r c e n t a g e  of  t h o s e  g r o u p s  the  A G E  1 4 . 9 %  w h o  at  of  w e r e  5%  a n d  the  l e v e l  T N I  s u b j e c t s .  indifferent  c o r r e c t l y  w a s  1 9 - 4 %  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  as  the  i n d i c a t e d  f i r s t  or  c l a s s i f i e d .  w e r e  w e r e  T a b l e  as  either  L e s s  T h e  only  a g r e e d  enter  h o w e v e r .  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s to  in  into  or  d i s -  A t  the  d i s c r i m i n a -  a n d  not  t h a n  b e i n g  a n n o y e d  1%  addition  function  i n c r e a s e d  2 8 . 5 % ,  i n c r e a s i n g  c o r r e c t l y  t h r e e  14.  a  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  w h o  d i s c r i m i n a n t  w h o  to  indifferent.  c l a s s i f i e d ,  a n n o y e d  b a s i c a l l y  c o r r e c t  or  of  only  w h i c h  statement)  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e  50% w e r e  those  p e r c e n t a g e  of  five  significant  those  c l a s s i f y i n g  to  w a s  into  15.  A G E  in  c o r r e c t l y  O W N / R N T  12  c o r r e c t l y  d e c i d e d to  t h o s e  i n d i v i d u a l s  10% l e v e l  T a b l e  r e s u l t i n g  w i t h  T a b l e  c l a s s i f y i n g  s t a t e m e n t  s u c c e s s f u l in  ( d i s a g r e e d  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e  v a r i a b l e  in  w h e r e  c o m b i n i n g  the  c l a s s i f y i n g  c l a s s i f y  w a s  s h o w n  w a s  g r o u p s  m o s t  a b l e  at  d i s a g r e e d ,  R e s u l t s  ting  a n d  s u c c e s s  s t r o n g l y  at  v a r i a b l e s  s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  5%  b e e n  p r i o r  w e r e  In  of  a p r i o r i  u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  c o u l d h a v e  reflect  w a s  b e e n  of  of  t h o s e  the  the  the  c l a s s i f i e d to  2 4 %  7 5  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y G r  15  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  M L D N O T  into  I N D I F F  -  F I V E  g r o u p s  G R O U P  T R I A L  -  M L D A N Y  V E R Y A N  oup  N O T A N Y  14  6  7  0  1  M L D N O T  22  12  17  6  11  6  4  12  4  1  M L D A N Y  27  27  38  11  3  V E R Y A N  30  20  61  0  0  I N D I F F  %  of  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  into  e a c h  I N D I F F  group  N O T A N Y  M L D N O T  N O T A N Y  50.  21. 43  25.  00  00.  M L D N O T  37. 93  20. 69  29.  31  I N D I F F  22. 22  14. 81  M L D A N Y  25. 47  V E R Y A N  27.  18.  -  M L D A N Y  V E R Y A N  T O T A L  G r o u p  C o r r e c t  of  1 4 . 8 5 %  •  03  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g L e v e l  00  3.  57  28.  00  10. 34  1  72  58.  00  44. 44  14. 81  3. 7 0  27.  00  25. 47  35. 85  10  2. 83  106. 00  02  54. 95  00.  0. 00  111.  m a t r i x ;  v a r i a b l e s ;  the  c a s e s  w e r e  38 00  g r o u p s  A G E ,  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  5  00  10%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  T N I  00  but  d e c l i n i n g  p r o f e s s e d  to  10%  not  a n d  function  of  15  G r o u p  In  i n c r e a s e d  v a r i a b l e s  c o r r e c t  to  be  finally  s h o w n  of  to  enter  able  any  indifferent  the  l e v e l  change  in  of  the  c l a s s i f i e d .  a n d  those  w h o  s i g n i f i c a n c e  d i s c r i m i n a n t  T a b l e s  16  and  17  A n a l y s i s  d e c i d e d  to  T h i s  T a b l e  i n c r e a s e  w a s  v a r i a b l e s .  T h e  the  done  in  n u m b e r  of  stages  f r o m  list  the  c o m p l e t e  in  5  to  o r d e r  18.  d i s c r i m i n a n t  v a r i a b l e s  the  to  or  b e i n g  w e r e  enter  w a s  in  at  or  the  a n d  five  a l l  a l w a y s  the  the  f i r s t  c l a s s i f y  with  opinion  d i s c r i m i n a n t  g r o u p s ,  a n d  s a m e  those  of  n o i s e  A l m o s t  (see  p e r c e n t a g e  the  5%  and,  subjects,  either  one  19).  w e r e  t h r e e  l e v e l  enter  s t a t e m e n t  T a b l e  function  the  the  no  the  f i r s t  to  who  u s i n g  the  at  v a r i a b l e  2 3 . 6 %  the  annoyed).  " m i l d "  a g a i n  function  c l a s s i f y i n g  d i s a g r e e d  not  a n a l y s i s  d i s c r i m i n a n t  c o r r e c t l y  strongly  to  in  c o r r e c t l y  w a s  E d u c a t i o n  m o d e r a t e  v a r i a b l e s  r e s u l t  16  in  n u m b e r  s u c c e s s  or  C h a n g i n g  c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  the  a n n o y e d  of  it  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  g r e a t e s t  v e r y  stage  running  w a s  a g r e e d  not  the  C a s e  s i g n i f i c a n c e .  itself,  a n n o y e d .  - C l a s s if i c a t i o n  and  is  c l a s s i f y  a b o v e .  u n d e r  addition  F i v e  be  to  p e r c e n t a g e  this  v a r i a b l e s  ability  did  the  P i s c r i m i n a n t  12,  to  the  A t  the  2 0 %  or  illustrate  11,  in  the  of  of  by  the  strongly  (were  w a s  T h e  either  c a t e g o r i z e d  next  two  d i s t a n c e  a n d  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  16  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  -  N u m b e r  into  of  c a s e s  N O T A N N  c l a s s i f i e d  I N D I F F  T H R E E  G R O U P  g r o u p s  -  A N O Y E D  G r o u p  N O T  A N N  I N D I F F  A N O Y E D  %  of  42  44  0  6  21  0  86  130  1  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  N O T A N N  I N D I F F  into  e a c h  group  A N O Y E D  -  T O T A L  G r o u p  48. 34  51  16  0. 00  86. 00  I N D I F F  2 2 . 22  77  78  0. 00  27. 00  A N O Y E D  39. 63  59  91  •46  217. 00  N O T  A N N  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t o r y  L e v e l  of  19- 3 8 %  m a t r i x ;  v a r i a b l e s ;  the  c a s e s  w e r e  g r o u p s  A G E  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  3  5%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  T R I A L  78  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  17  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N N  C a s e s  -  T H R E E  c l a s s i f i e d  I N D I F F  into  G R O U P  T R I A L  group  A N O Y E D  G r o u p  N O T  A N N  26  38  22  5  15  7  53  111  53  I N D I F F  A N O Y E D  %  of  c a s e s c l a s s i f i e d  N O T A N N  I N D I F F  into  e a c h  group  -  A N O Y E D  G r o u p  N O T  A N N  30  23  44.  19  2-5  58  86  00  I N D I F F  18  52  5 5 . 56  25  93  27  00  A N O Y E D  24 .42  51  24  42  217  00  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  L e v e l  2 8 . 4 8 %  of  of  15  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  c a s e s  w e r e  groups  A G E ,  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  the  3  5%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  O W N / R T  79  T A B L E  S U M M A R Y  O F  18  D I S C R I M I N A T I N G V A R I A B L E S  C O N S I D E R E D  O W N / R T A G E  )  H O W L N G  )  T N I  )  initial  5 test  v a r i a b l e s  I N C O M E  S E X E D U C D I S T  next  g r o u p  T O T V E H  total  n u m b e r  12th  v a r i a b l e  of  6 of  v a r i a b l e s v a r i a b l e s  a d d e d to to  11  D1C0  LS'G)  J O B  a d d e d  F L O W T R E E S  ) )  B L D G S  C A R O W N  1 3 t h t h r o u g h t  15th  v a r i a b l e s  )  ) .  16th  a n d  last  v a r i a b l e  a d d e d  a d d e d  i n c r e a s e o  80  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  19  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  of  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  -  into  I N D I F F  F I V E  G R O U P S  g r o u p  -  N O T A N Y  M L D N O T  S O M A N Y  22  0  2  0  4  37  0  8  0  13  0  4  0  9  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T  A N Y  M L D N O T  I N D I F F  .  14  S O M A N Y  50  0  12  2  42  V E R Y A N  44  0  17  0  50  %  of  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  c l a s s i f i e d  M L D N O T  into  e a c h  I N D I F F  group  -  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  T O T A L  G r o u p  78  57  0  0  7  14  0  0  14  29  28  00  M L D N O T  63  79  0  0  13  79  0  0  22  41  58  00  I N D I F F  51  85  0  0  14  81  0  0  33  33  27  00  S O M A N Y  47  17  0  0  11  32  1  89  39  62  106  00  V E R Y A N  39  64  0  0  15  32  0  0  45  05  111  00  5  g r o u p s  N O T  A N Y  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  L e v e l  of  2 3 . 6 4 %  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  E D U C  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  the  c a s e s  w e r e  5%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  81  t h e  total  c o r r e c t  n u m b e r  in  o v e r a l l  i n c r e a s i n g  the  21  of  of  for  the  the  those  o r  v e r y  a n d  l e v e l  of  the  s i n c e  a n d  r e p l a c e d  10%  l e v e l  of  opinion)  w e r e  the  D I S T ,  22  the  c a m e  a n d  p e r c e n t a g e  r e s p e c t i v e l y .  c o r r e c t l y  about  not  of  T h i s  t h r o u g h  c l a s s i f i e d  d e c r e a s i n g  definitely  in  the  the  m i d d l e  c o r r e c t  a n n o y e d .  i n d e x  a n d  r a i s i n g  the  the  i n d i c a t o r  the  L J Q  the  l a r g e s t  S e e  10% l e v e l  of  T a b l e s  p e r c e n t a g e  w a s  with  the  23  w h o  c o r r e c t  as  a  " b e s t "  T R E E S ,  illustrate  the  w e r e  the  to  of  e n t e r e d  of  c o r r e c t  in  the  indifferent  length  d i s c r i m i n a n t  of  function  33%.  A t  the  2 0 %  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  r e s u l t s  s e v e n v a r i a b l e s  T O T V E H ,  a n d  of  a l s o  o c c u r r e d  p e r c e n t a g e  r e m o v e d  T h u s ,  those  the  p r e s e n c e  l e v e l  s i g n i f i c a n c e  e n t e r e d  the  p e r c e n t a g e  i n c r e a s e s  of  of  n o i s e  o v e r a l l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  o t h e r s .  T a b l e s  ability  those  H O W L N G ,  s i g n i f i c a n c e  ( E D U C ,  H O W L N G ) .  the  H O W L N G  b y  30. 3%  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  c o r r e c t  s i g n i f i c a n c e  d e c l i n e d  function  A t  v a r i a b l e ,  r a i s e d  a n d  v a r i a b l e s ,  3 2 . 7 % ;  c o r r e c t  of  i n c r e a s e d  f i g u r e s .  function  to  a n n o y e d .  r e s i d e n c y  w h o  o w n e r s h i p  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  of  28. 5%  no  exact  d i s c r i m i n a n t  p e r c e n t a g e  or  additional  c a r  w h i c h  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  m i l d  the  T h r e e  t r e e s ,  to  p e r c e n t a g e  (those  p e r c e n t a g e s  2 0 a n d  v e h i c l e s  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  i n c r e a s e  g r o u p s  of  in  w e r e  the  C A R O W N ,  a b o v e .  v a r i a b l e  obtained  at  d i s c r i m i n a n t  L  ,  a n d  the  82  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  20  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  N O T A N Y  of  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  M L D N O T  I N D I F F  -  F I V E .  into  G R O U P S  g r o u p  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  11  5  1  6  5  M L D N O T  23  0  8  15  12  9  0  2  6  10  S O M A N Y  24  1  21  26  34  V E R Y A N  23  0  12  21  55  I N D I E F  %^fofocas;es  c l a s s i f i e d  N O T A N Y  M L D N O T  N O T A N Y  3 9 . 2 9  17.86  M L D N O T  3 9 . 6 6  0.  I N D I F F  3 3 . 3 3  0.0  S O M A N Y  2 2 . 6 4  0.94  V E R Y A N  2 0 . 7 2  0.0  into e a c h  I N D I F F  g r o u p  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  T O T A L  G r o u p  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  L e v e l  2 8 . 4 8 %  of  of  0  3.57  2 1 . 4 3  17.86  2 8 . 0 0  1 3 . 7 9  2 5 . 8 6  2 0 . 6 9  5 8 . 0 0  2 2 . 2 2  3 7 . 0 4  2 7 . 0 0  19.81  2 4 . 5 3  32  10.81  18.92  4 9 . 5 5  •  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  c a s e s  w e r e  5  g r o u p s  E D U C ,  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  the  7.41  5%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  D I S T  .08  1 0 6 . 0 0  1 1 1 . 0 0  83  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  21  •  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X . . - T I V E  N u m b e r  N O T A N Y  of  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  M L D N O T  I N D I F F  into  G R O U P S  g r o u p  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  13  4  1  2  M L D N O T  20  12  8  7  .11  7  6  )11  3  10  S O M A N Y  23  20  20  18  35  V E R Y A N  17  11  10  17  I N D I F F  %  of  c a s e s c l a s s i f i e d  N O T A N Y  M L D N O T  N O T A N Y  46  14  29  M L D N O T  3 4 . 4 8  20  69  I N D I F F  25  22  22  S O M A N Y  2 1 . 7 0  18  V E R Y A N  15  9  into e a c h  I N D I F F  8.  56  g r o u p  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  T O T A L  G r o u p  C o r r e c t  30.  of  30%  .93  .32  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  L e v e l  .43  3 .57  7 .1-4  2 8 . 5 7  28.  00  .V9  12 . 07  1 8 . 9 7  58.  00  3 .70  11 . 1 1  3 7 . 0 4  27.  00  87  9 .43  16 . 9 8  3 3 . 0 2  1 0 6 . 0 0  91  9 .01  15 . 32  5 0 . 4 5  1 1 1 . 0 0  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  the  c a s e s  w e r e  5  g r o u p s  E D U C ,  s i g n i f i c a n c e : of  13  5% c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  D I S T ,  T O T V E H  84  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  22  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  N O T A N Y  of  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  M L D N O T  I N D I F F  -  F I V E  G R O U P S  intbsgroup  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  14  M L D N O T  13  I N D I F F  2  .  3  3  6  17  7  11  6  3  6  7  18  34  10  5  S O M A N Y  200  15  19  V E R Y A N  17  12  6  c l a s s i f i e d  into e a c h  %  of  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  M L D N O T  I N D I F F  13  63  {j r o u p  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  5 0 . 0 0  M L D N O T  2 2 . 4 1  1 7 . 2 4  I N D I F F  18.52  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  C o r r e c t  7.  10  71  21  43  2 8 . 0 0  29.31  12  07  18  97  5 8 . 0 0  2 2 . 2 2  11.11  22 .22  25 .93  2 7 . 0 0  1 8 . 8 7  14.  15  17.92  16 . 9 8  32 .08  1 0 6 . 0 0  15  10.  81  5  .41  11 . 7 1  56 .76  111  m a t r i x :  5  g r o u p s  5 gvcup  .32  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  14  v a r i a b l e s :  1 0 ;  71  E D U C ,  D I S T ,  C A R O W N ,  L e v e l  3 2 . 7 3 %  of  of  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  the  c a s e s  w e r e  5%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  i  T O T V E H , L 1 0  .00  T R E E S ,  85  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  2 3  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  N O T A N Y  of  c a s e s c l a s s i f i e d  M L D N O T  .-  into  I N D I F F  F I V E . G R O U P S  group  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  13  5  4  2  4  M L D N O T  13  13  . 16  6  10  5  3  9  4  6  S O M A N Y  19  15  27  14  31  V E R Y A N  21  16  8  6  60  I N D I F F  %  of  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  c l a s s i f i e d  M L D N O T  into  I N D I F F  e a c h  g r o u p  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  4 6 . 4 3  1 7 . 86  14 .29  7. 14  14  29  28  00  M L D N O T  22.41  2 2 . 41  27 .59  10. 34  17  24  58  00  I N D I F F  18.52  1 1 . 11  33 .33  1 4 . 81  22  22  27  00  S O M A N Y  17.92  1 4 . 15  25 .47  1 3 . 21  29  25  106  00  V E R Y A N  1 8 . 9 2  1 4 . 41  7 .21  5. 41  54  05  111  00  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  4  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  5  g r o u p s  E D U C ,  D I S T ,  C A R O W N ,  L e v e l  of  33. 03%  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  the  c a s e s  w e r e  10%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  T O f t E H , ; L 1 0 ,  T R E E S ,  H O W L I N G  86 T h r e e  G r o u p  T h e  the  t h r e e  a n d  16  s a m e  g r o u p  in  v a r i a b l e  p r o c e d u r e  case,  n u m b e r .  v a r i a b l e s  enter.  w a s  able  a n d  v a r i a b l e  the  as  A t  to  the  a n d  5%  c l a s s i f y  to  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  to  w h o  w e r e  a n n o y e d  w h o  p r o f e s s e d to  of  w a s  w e r e  4 7 . 6 %  C a r  5 6 . 1%.  4 3 %  not  w e r e  c o r r e c t l y  those  T h i s  is  the  a l l  in  two  e d u c a t i o n  a n d  w a s  a n d  only  for  15  f i r s t  c a s e s  a n n o y e d  s h o w n  12,  b r i n g i n g  c l a s s i f i e d but  indifferent.  11,  o w n e r s h i p  function,  f o l l o w e d  a g a i n the  of  d i s c r i m i n a n t  b e  to  s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  52. 4%.  of  a l s o  i n c r e a s e d  d i s t a n c e  c o r r e c t l y  together  a b o v e  b e i n g  l e v e l  d i s t a n c e  enter  d e s c r i b e d  v a r i a b l e s  E d u c a t i o n  to  e d u c a t i o n  t h i r d  C a s e  the  the  6 5 %  2 2 %  of  T a b l e s  c o r r e c t  of  t h o s e  t h o s e  24,  25,  a n d  26.  A g e  a l l  effect  4 9 %  at  w a s  e n t e r e d  to  r e d u c e  ( i n c r e a s i n g  the  w e r e  a l s o  e x p e n s e  c o r r e c t l y  d i s c r i m i n a n t  w a s  the  just  u s i n g  p o i n t e d  o v e r a l l  of  in  the  function  at  function  2 0 %  of  d i s t a n c e  that  of  as  t e n d e d  c o r r e c t l y  s i g n i f i c a n c e  c o r r e c t  indifferent  of  those  l e v e l  of  its  a n d  v a r i a b l e s  u n a n n o y e d  a l s o  s i g n i f i c a n c e  but  in  h i g h  a n d  o w n e r s h i p .  s h o u l d  to  n u m b e r  the  of  v a r i a b l e s  p e r c e n t a g e s  b e c o m e  It  m o r e  of  in  A s  a n  no  the  c a s e  as  b y  be  the  c o r r e c t  e q u a l e v e n  c l a s s i f i e d d e c l i n e d .  w h o  e n t e r e d  as  the  to  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  c a r  o v e r -  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  c o r r e c t  a n n o y e d  but  c o r r e c t  i n c r e a s e d ,  g r o u p  p e r c e n t a g e  of  of  S e v e r a l other  the  p e r c e n t a g e  l e v e l  p e r c e n t a g e  p e r c e n t a g e  h o w e v e r ,  e a c h  5%  p e r c e n t a g e  education,  out,  the  the  c l a s s i f i e d ) .  o v e r a l l  d i s c r i m i n a n t  fications  the  at  c l a s s i -  though  e x a m p l e ,  the  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  24  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A " T R T X :  N u m b e r  N O T A N Y  of  c a s e s  I N D I F F  c l a s s i f i e d  - • T H R E F )  into  group  V E R Y A N -  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  59  10  I N D I F F  14  4  94  29  V E R Y A N  —JJ  %  of  17  9  94  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  c l a s s i f i e d  I N D I F F  into  e a c h  V E R Y A N  group  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  68  60  11  63  19. 77  86  00  I N D I F F  51  85  14  81  33 .33  27  00  V E R Y A N  43  32  13  36  43 .32  217  00  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  L e v e l 4 7 . 5 8 %  of  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  the  c a s e s  w e r e  g r o u p s  E D U C  s i g n i f i c a n c e : of  3  5% c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  G R O U P S  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  25  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  I N D I F F  -  T H R E E  into  group  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  38  10  38  9  2  16  47  37  133  I N D I F F  V E R Y A N  %  of  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  c l a s s i f i e d  I N D I F F  into  e a c h  V E R Y A N  g r o u p  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  I N D I F F  .  V E R Y A N  C o r r e c t  5 2 . 4 2 %  19  11  63  44  33  33  7  41  59.  21  66  17  05  61  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  L e v e l  44  of  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s  ,  the  c a s e s  w e r e  26  29  00  27  00  217  00  D I S T  5%  c o r r e c t l y  86  g r o u p s  E D U C ,  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  3  19  c l a s s i f i e d  G R O U P S  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  26  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X , . -  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  I N D I F F  T H R E E  into  G R O U P S  group  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  3-7,  16  33  I N D I F F  13  6  18  V E R Y A N  -5.0  %  25  of'  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  142  c l a s s i f i e d  I N D I F F  into  e a c h  V E R Y A N  g r o u p  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  43.  02  I N D I F F  4 8 .  V E R Y A N  2 3 . 0 4  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  L e v e l  of  56. 06%  15  18 . 6 0  38  37  86  00  22 .22  29  63  27  0Q  11 . 5 2  65  44  217  00  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  the  c a s e s  w e r e  g r o u p s  E D U C  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  3  ,  D I S T ,  5%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  C A R O W N  90.  ten  of  v a r i a b l e s  w e r e  s i g n i f i c a n c e  t h o s e  not  a n d  w a s  only  T w o  G r o u p  l a s t  m o s t  at  l e s s  the  7 1%  of  a l s o  e n t e r e d  to  c o r r e c t l y  at  v a r i a b l e s  6 6 . 7 %  at  the  at  T a b l e s  g r o u p  s a m p l e  10%.  l e v e l  this  of  for  a n d  l e v e l  T h e  c o r r e c t  w e r e  in  at  the  2 0%  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  44%,  c o r r e c t l y  s h o w n  l e v e l  for  4 1 % a n d  c l a s s i f i e d ,  T a b l e  5 7 %  h o w e v e r ,  27.  five  of  the  2 0%  6 8 . 2 %  6 0 %  s i g n i f i c a n c e  w h i c h  b o o s t e d  ( E D U C ,  31  those  give  who  the  l e v e l s  but  w e r e  h a d  of  those  b e e n  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  w h o  a n d  n o w  64.  0%  t o l e r a n c e  other  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  B L D G S ,  w e r e  c o r r e c t l y  m a t r i c e s  6 5 . 7 %  o v e r a l l  c o r r e c t  T O T V E H ,  two  v a r i a b l e s  and  the  the  a n n o y e d  the  s e v e r a l  o v e r a l l  6 2 - 8 %  s a m p l e  w e r e  w e r e  p a s s  w a s  i n d i f f e r e n t  in  T O T V E H  (60. 5%  not  D I S T ,  not  r e d u c e d  did  the  those  a n n o y e d  a c c u r a c y  w e r e  c l a s s i f y i n g  of  but  w h o  v a r i a b l e s  d i s t a n c e  a n d  a n d  v a r i a b l e  s i g n i f i c a n c e .  of  O W N / R T  s i g n i f i c a n c e  o v e r  a n d  (54%  the  r e d u c t i o n  c o r r e c t l y  u n a n n o y e d  v a r i a b l e s  of  the  the  e d u c a t i o n  s i g n i f i c a n c e  a l l  w i t h those  s u b j e c t s ,  together  O W N / R T  a d d e d  t h r o u g h  c a s e .  A g a i n  B o t h  B o t h  10% a n d  w e r e  28  c a s e  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u s i n g  v a r i a b l e s ,  6 3 % .  10% l e v e l  a n n o y e d  is  g r o u p  a n n o y e d  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  c l a s s i f i e d w i t h  the  to  at  annoyed).  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  test  a n d  of  p e r c e n t a g e  case  the  than  5%  those  a c c u r a c y  g r o u p  f r o m  i m p o r t a n t  o v e r a l l  last  a t t e m p t  two  r e m o v e d  b e i n g  t h r e e  p e r c e n t a g e s  o v e r a l l  T h i s  the  C a s e  a t t e m p t e d  s i z e  for  indifferent  T h e  52%.  T h e  b e i n g  the  a n n o y e d ,  r e s p e c t i v e l y .  a n  e n t e r e d  for  T R E E S )  not  c l a s s i f i e d .  the  two  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  27  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  I N D I F F  -  T H R E E  into  G R O U P S  group  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  38  22  26  7  .11  9  51  43  123  I N D I F F  V E R Y A N  %  of  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  c l a s s i f i e d  I N D I F F  into  e a c h  V E R Y A N  group  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  44.  19  25  58  30  23  86  00  I N D I F F  25. 93  40  74  33  33  27  00  V E R Y A N  23. 5 0  19  82  56  68  217  00  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  3  groups  E D U C ,  D I S T ,  T O T V E H ,  L 1 0 ,  L e v e l  52.  of  1 2 % of  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  the  c a s e s  w e r e  L50„  20%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  C A R O W N ,  T R E E S ,  T J M  A G E ,  B L D G S ,  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  28  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  -  into  T W O  ' G R O U P S  group  V E R A N Y  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  59  27  V E R A N Y  94  123  %  of  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  c l a s s i f i e d  V E R A N Y  into  e a c h  g r o u p  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  6 8 . 6 0  3 1 . 4 0  8 6 0 0  V E R A N Y  4 3 . 3 2  5 6 . 6 8  2 1 7 . 0 0  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  ;  2  groups  E D U C 2  L e v e l  of  60. 07%  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  the  c a s e s  w e r e  5%  c o r r e c t l y  R  c l a s s i f i e d  .042  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  29  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  -  T W O  into  G R O U P S  group  V E R A N Y  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  46  V E R A N Y  64  %  of  40  153  c a s e s c l a s s i f i e d  N O T A N Y  into  V E R A N Y  e a c h  group  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  53  V E R A N Y  2 9 . 4 9  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  4 6 . 5 1  .49  86.  70.51  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  00  2 1 7 . 0 0  2  g r o u p s  E D U C ,  D I S T 2  L e v e l  6 5 . 6 8 %  of  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  the  c a s e s  w e r e  5%  c o r r e c t l y  R  c l a s s i f i e d  ^  .076  94  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  30  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  -  T W O  into  G R O U P S  group  V E R A N Y  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  52  34  V E R A N Y  78  139  %  of  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  c l a s s i f i e d  into  V E R A N Y  e a c h  group  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  6 0 . 4 7  39  V E R A N Y  35 . 94  6 4 . 0 6  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  .53  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  8 6 . 0 0  2 1 7 . 0 0  2  groups  E D U C ,  D I S T ,  O W N / R T ,  T O T V E H 2 L e v e l  of  63. 04%  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  the  c a s e s  w e r e  5%  c o r r e c t l y  R  c l a s s i f i e d  . 11  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  31  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  c a s e s  -  c l a s s i f i e d  T W O  into  G R O U P S  group  V E R A N Y  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  54  32  V E R A N Y  69  148  %  of  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  c l a s s i f i e d  into  V E R A N Y  e a c h  group  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  62  79  37  21  86  00  V E R A N Y  31  80  68  20  217  00  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  m a t r i x :  v a r i a b l e s :  2  g r o u p s  E D U C  ,  D I S T ,  B L D G S ,  T O T V E H ,  T R E E S 2  L e v e l  of  6 6 . 6 7 %  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  the  c a s e s  w e r e  10%  c o r r e c t l y  R  c l a s s i f i e d  / s  -  . 1 2  .  F a c t o r  A n a l y s i s  L a s t l y ,  it  w a s  b e c a u s e  d e c i d e d to  v a r i a b l e s  in  an  effort  r e f l e c t e d  the  factor  a n a l y s e s  w e r e  s e c o n d  on  subjects  r e s u l t s  a  of  to  O n l y  f a c t o r  data  a n a l y s i s  qualities  set  n u m b e r  a f e w  p e r f o r m e d ,  a r e  the  v a r i a b l e s  of the  f i r s t  v a r i a b l e s  o r i g i n a l  the  o r i g i n a l  obtained  b y  the  r e m o v a l , of  the  or  data  t r a f f i c  b o t h  o r i g i n a l  a n a l y s e s ,  r e t a i n e d .  by  r e v i s e d  factor  B L D G S ,  of  five  the  F a c t o r  data  b e l o w  f a c t o r s  s a m e  I  index,  a n d  L  c  n  in  w a s  a n d  in  v a r i a n c e  a n d  e x p l a i n e d by  c o m m u n a l i t y  T a b l e s  32  in  g r e a t e r  e i g e n v a l u e s  f a c t o r s ,  p r o d u c e d  data  factor,  a c c o u n t s  2 4 . 8 %  five  total  a n d  e a c h  of  those  n o i s e .  L ,  ,  N  five  c h e c k s  33.  of  the  for  e a c h  m a y  be  T N I )  In  1.0  w e r e  data  total  f a c t o r s .  ,  .7 0.  than  o r i g i n a l  A l t h o u g h  c a s e  T h e  10  than  g r e a t e r  the  6 7 . 1%  its  a  w a s  v a r i a n c e  T h e  data  of  rotated  set  n u m b e r e d  i n t e r p r e t e d  a r e  differently,  in  t e r m s  v a r i a b l e s .  (both  T h i s  the  c o m m u n a l i t i e s  with  a n d  b e l o w .  H O W L N G ,  h a d  f a c t o r s  of  t h e s e  m a t r i c e s  p r e s e n t e d  the  five  66. 3%  e x p l a i n e d  the  v a r i a b l e s  T w o  set  50 the  f a c t o r s  v a r i a b l e s .  on  t o w a r d  c o n s i d e r e d ,  fifteen  one  d i s c u s s e d  ( O W N / R N T ,  of  c o m p o s i t e  of  i n d i f f e r e n c e  a n a l y s e s  s i x  a  l a r g e  obtain  p r o f e s s e d  both  the  b a s i c  r e v i s e d  w h o  of  a t t e m p t  w h i c h  of  96  the  for  sets)  w h i c h  2 4 . 9 %  r e v i s e d  s e r v e s  of  the  data.  as  total  It  h a s  a  d i s t u r b a n c e  v a r i a n c e  h i g h  in  a n d  the  l o a d i n g s ,  s e p a r a t i o n  o r i g i n a l  p o s i t i v e  data  or  97  T A B L E  R O T A T E D  V a r i a b l e  F A C T O R  F  M A T R I X  1  F  08174  0  79249  H O W L N G ;  -0  00315  -0  82994  S E X  -o  08119  0  08225  -0  12776  -0  0  06131  J O B  .  . -o  I N C O M E F L O W T R E E S B L D G S  L 5  0  -0  5 G R O U P  3  F  C A S E S )  4  F  5  07466  0  21041  -0  17823  01479  -0  09511  -0  17751  0  78950  -0  06293  -0  12970  65600  -0  07373  0  10234  -0  40440  - 0  10908  0  81196  00  07646  -0  10240  .  0  00911  0  21538  -0  25516  0  05730  0  67841  -0  05252  -0  00273  -0  05410  0  01580  0  72126  -0  00908  -0  04212  -0  01158  -0  52216  -o  03675  0  44808  -0  02880  -0  22516  -0  5381 1  -0  26694  06275  -0  22694  0  10403  -0  79750  0  15284  52038  00  12925  -0  03777  -0  61210  -0  13320  0  97499  0  04716  - 0  00511  -0  01420  -0  00971  0  054-31  -0  08864.  0  04852  -°0  T O T V E H  A N D  F  -0  E D U C  (3  2  O W N / R T  A G E  32  L 1 0  0  91511  -0  06289  D I S T  0  61972  -0  08380  0  03491  -0  13979  0  00721  T N I  0  92779  0  14078  0  00561  0  14838  -0  08347  C h e c k  V a r i a b l e  O W N / R T H O W L N G  '  <Mi<  -  C o m m u n a l i t i e s  B e f o r e  A f t e r  R o t a t i o n  R o t a t i o n  0  71634  0  71634  0  00001  0  72959  0  72958  0  00001  D i f f e r e n c e  S E X  0  65746  0  65745  0  00000  A G E  0  62611  0  62611  0  00001  J O B  0  69127  0  69126  0  00000  E D U C  0  57510  0  57510  0  00000  I N C O M E  0  52616  0  52615  0  00000  F L O W  0  27600  0  27599  0  00000  T R E E S  0  61313  0  61313  0  00001  B L D G S  0  72563  0  72563  0  00001  T O T V E H '  0  681  0  68134  0  00001 00001  L 5 0  '  34  0  95315  0  95315  0  L 1 0  0  85423  0  85423  0. 00001  D I S T  0  41189  0  41188  T N I  0  90964  0. 90963  R o t a t e d  f a c t o r  m a t r i x  a n d  c o m m u n a l i t i e s  0  00000  0. 00001  for  3 and  5  g r o u p  c a s e .  98  T A B L E  R O T A T E D  V a r i a b l e  F A C T O R  F  33  M A T R I X  1  F  (2  2  F  O W N / R T  -0 .05632  0022  H O W L N G .  -0 .02334  -0  11026  0  S E X  -0  07096  -0  08219  0  A G E  -0  11160  0  08958  -0  J O B  0  03316  0  08498  E D U C  0  00146  0  03160  I N C O M E  -0  07363  0  01063  F L O W  -0  01645  -0  T R E E S  0  47607  - 0  B L D G S  -0  T O T V  E H  G R O U P  -0  C A S E )  3  F  -0  78137  03869  0  79815  -0  08102  0  0  80780  -0  29013  -0  55055 52732  311>9  06803  4  17398  83251  -0  14722  08105  -0  10889  69950  -0  35888  00  10929  -0  09158  -0  25966  0  6 5 2 8 4  03596  -0  00029  0  78323  -0  02414  0  05531  -0  00625  -0  19115  0  06503  90  24782  OS 3 5 0  -0  80591  0  12100  0  20747  0  11003  0  53228  - 0  60363  -0  03286  - 0 .  12-747  -0  14585  -0  04806  0  01834  0  07898  0  0  97726  0  01480  0  00938  E l  0  0  92123  - 0  06173  -0  02302  0. 06637  D I S T  0  5 9462  -0  16350  -0  01035  0  T N I  0  93004  0  17640  C h e c k  on  0. 00483  02887  - 0 . 06235  13779  - 0 . 05840  - 0 .  C o m m u n a l i t i e s  B efor e  A f t e r  V a r i a b l e  R o t a t i o n  R o t a t i o n  D i f f e r e n c e  O W N / R T  0  70206  0 .70205  0  H O W L N G  0  72895  0 .72894  0  00001  S E X  0  66726  0  66725  0  00001  A G E  0  64515  0  6 4 5 1 4  0  00001  J O B  0  68120  0  68120  0  00001  E D U C  0  57881  0  57880  0  00001  I N C O M E  0  62028  0  62027  0  00001  F L O W  0  30706  0  30705  0  00000  T R E E S  0  60690  0  60689  0  00001  B L D G S  0  72260  0  72259  0  00001  T O T V E H  0  68629  0  68629  0  00001  0  00001  0  00001  95800  0  95799  0  L 1 0  0 , 8 6 3 6 5  0  8 6 3 6 4  0. 00001  D I S T  0. 38514  0  38514  0. 00000  T N I  0  0  91851  0. 00001  R o t a t e d  f a c t o r  5  .-0  L 5  L 5  F  m a t r i x  91852  a n d  c o m m u n a l i t i e s  for  2  g r o u p  c a s e .  99  negative,  F a c t o r  on  II  factor  a n d  T a b l e  35.  o r i g i n a l  is  data  (both  a n d  factor  v a r i a b l e s  in  status  life.  F a c t o r  IV  p a r t i c u l a r  the  a r e  V  T h i s  It  a c c o u n t s  a n d  6 . 7 %  l o a d i n g s  of  for  on the  of  a t i m e  on  the  adaptability-  v a r i a b l e s  for  is  1 5 . 4 %  in  in  the  data.  10.'7%  indicate  this  data)  is  a n d  an  of  v a r i a b l e s  in  the  high  factor  II  v a r i a n c e  is  in  l o a d i n g s  a n  i n d e x  ( r e v i s e d  the  of  of  v a r i a n c e  a c c o u n t e d  l i s t e d  in  T a b l e  or  data)  e n v i r o n m e n t  r e v i s e d  t w o  p o s i t i o n  p h y s i c a l  the  o r i g i n a l  on the  the  a m o u n t  16. 2 %  of  T h e  F a c t o r  i n d e x  T h e  a n d  data.  H i g h  for  a n d  is  8.  l o a d i n g s  37.  sets)  is  6 . 8 %  that  for  36  data  factor  r e v i s e d  data.  data  (both  the  as  a c c o u n t e d  r e v i s e d  factor  on the  l o a d i n g s  data)  sets)  s c e n a r i o .  p r e s e n t  h i g h  34.  ( r e v i s e d  d e s c r i b e d  the  T a b l e  o r i g i n a l  F a c t o r  in  in  T a b l e  IV  v a r i a n c e  a c c o u n t s  (original  T h i s  in  data  1 0 . 6 %  i n  8 . 8 %  be  the  of  in  F a c t o r  b e s t  by  a m o u n t  a n d  i n d i c a t e d  a n d  c o u l d  r e f l e c t e d  T h e  III  data)  f a c t o r  T h i s  data  v a r i a b l e s  (original  T h i s  F a c t o r  the  an  of  the  i n d i c a t o r  the  total  r e v i s e d  v a r i a b l e s  in  of  w e l l  v a r i a n c e  data  T a b l e  a n d  38.  is  b e i n g  and  of  o r i g i n a l  the  e x p e c t a t i o n s .  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  v a r i a b l e s  by  h i g h  5%  100  T A B L E  F A C T O R  34  L O A D I N G S  C © . r i:gitaiaTT,;d'atmf a  OnRevi.sed  data.  11.  T O T V E H  (.52038)  (.53228)  12.  L 5 0  (.97499)  (.97726)  13.  L 1 0  (.91511)  (.92123)  14.  D I S T  (.61972)  (.59462)  15.  T N I  (.92779)  (.93004)  T h e  f i g u r e s  and  a r e  in p a r e n t h e s e s s h o w the  o b t a i n e d f r o m  the  l o a d i n g s on  rotated f a c t o r  T A B L E  F A C T O R  v a r i a b l e  m a t r i x .  35  L O A D I N G S  ®%i<Elafeaat£at a  2.  each  • O iRSvYsfeaTdat-a  O W N / R T  (  H O W L N G  (-.82994)  (  .83251)  A G E  (-.65600)  (  .69950)  .79249)  (-.78137)  T A B L E  - F A C T O R  36  L O A D I N G S  O r i g i n a l  data  R e v i s e d  data  3.  S E X  (.78950)  (.79815)  5.  J O B  (.81196)  (.80780)  T A B L E  F A C T O R  37  L O A D I N G S  O r i g i n a l  data  R e v i s e d  .data  8.  F L O W  (-.52216)  (-.55055)  9.  T R E E S  (-.53811)  (9.52732)  10.  B L D G S  (-.79750)  (-8i8'059_l)  11.  T O T V E H  (-.61210)  (-.60363)  102  T A B L E  F A C T O R  38  L O A D I N G S  O r i g i n a l  data  R e v i s e d  data  6.  E D U C  (.67841)  (.65284)  7.  I N C O M E  (.72126)  (.78323)  103  D i s c r i m i n a n t  A n a l y s i s  H a v i n g  effectively  then  equations  at  f a c t o r  (of  a r e  F a c t o r  e s t a b l i s h e d that  s p a n n e d the  c o m p u t e  s c o r e s  U s i n g  s c o r e s  w h i c h  u s e d  s p a c e  of  l i e u  of  the  the  five,  five  t h r e e ,  a n d two  adaptability  g r o u p s  the  f a c t o r s  f a c t o r  t i m e  s i g n i f i c a n c e  but  to  c l a s s i f y  r a i s e d  p e r c e n t a g e  w h o  w e r e  v e r y  of  of  f a c t o r s  indifferent  t i m e  d i s c r i m i n a n t  s e e n in  2 2 . 4 %  of  50%  both  of  N o  or  f u r t h e r  function  4 1 ,  c a s e s  the  not  in  the  t h r e e  c o r r e c t l y  u n a n n o y e d  39  a n d  the  w e l l  r e g r e s s i o n  factor  another  of  the  the  only  w a s  at  only  the  one  of  w e r e  only  the  a n d  Z0. 0%.  T h e  t h o s e  for  10% a n d  a b o v e  able  2 0 %  the  a n a l y s i s .  to  s i g n i f i c a n c e .  c o r r e c t l y  the  r e s u l t s .  entering  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  5% l e v e l  of  c l a s s i f y i n g  for  w a s  of  e n t e r e d  the  the  five  1 6 . 1%  e n t e r e d  40  into  t i m e  p o o r l y  factor  indifferent  in  r u n  subjects  5% l e v e l  w a s  a t t e m p t  w a s  e x t r e m e l y  a n d  g r o u p  this  at  at  factor  w e r e  factor  h o w e v e r ,  in  c a s e s  c o r r e c t l y  f a i r l y  T a b l e s  m a y  T h e s e  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s to  f a c t o r s  S e e  the  we  a n a l y s i s  all  e n t e r e d  a n n o y e d but  adaptability  T a b l e  the  c o r r e c t  p e r f o r m e d  s i g n i f i c a n c e .  T h e  A s  of  m o d e r a t e l y  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n into  d i s t u r b a n c e - s e p a r a t i o n  a n n o y e d .  l e v e l s  In  F o r  w a s  to  T h i s  b e f o r e .  d o m i n a n t .  able  v a r i a b l e s  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  factor  T h e  c o m b i n a t i o n  as  u s i n g  coefficient).  a n a l y s i s .  adaptability  s u b j e c t s .  the  a  f a c t o r s  v a r i a b l e s ,  subject  o r i g i n a l  a t t e m p t  g r o u p s  w a s  is  five  o r i g i n a l  e a c h  e a c h l o a d i n g  in  a b o v e  the  for  d i s c r i m i n a n t - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  u s i n g  the  S c o r e s  c l a s s i f y  O v e r  c l a s s i f i e d  104  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  39  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N . M A T R I X -  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  5  c a s e s  U S I N G  F A C T O R S  G R O U P S  c l a s s i f i e d into  M L D N O T  I N D I F F  group  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  1  12  12  2  1  M L D N O T  3  27  25  2  1  I N D I F F  2  5  16  2  2  S O M A N Y  10  31  56  5  4  V E R Y A N  9  32  64  2  4  %  of c a s e s  N O T A N Y  into e a c h  c l a s s i f i e d  M L D N O T  I N D I F F  g r o u p  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  3.57  42  86  4 2 . 8 6  7 . 14  3 . 57  2 8 . 0 0  M L D N O T  5.  46  55  4 3 . 1 0  3. 45  1  58 . 00  I N D I F F  7.41  18  52  5 9 . 2 6  7. 41  7.41  S O M A N Y  9 . 4 3  29  25  52  4. 72  3 . 77  1 0 6 . 0 0  V E R Y A N  8.  28  83  5 7 . 6 6  1 .80  3 . 6 0  111  C o r r e c t  of  16. 06%  11  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  L e v e l  17  m a t r i x :  f a c t o r s :  5  the  c a s e s  w e r e  g r o u p s  T I M E  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  .83  A D A P T A B I L I T Y  5%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  .72  2 7 . 0 0  .00  105  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  40  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X "  -  N u m b e r  N O T A N Y  of  5  c a s e s  U S I N G  F A C T O R S  G R O U P S  c l a s s i f i e d  M L D N O T  I N D I F F  into  group  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  13  4  M L D N O T  20  5  6  0  16  8  14  0  8  2  7  10  0  S O M A N Y  22  21  32  30  1  V E R Y A N  24  20  50  17  0  I N D I F F  %  of  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  :  c l a s s i f i e d  M L D N O T  into  I N D I F F  e a c h  group  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  46 .43  14  29  17 .86  21  43  0  0  28  M L D N O T  34 .48  27  59  13 .79  24  14  0  0  58 .00  I N D I F F  29  63  7  41  25  93  37  04  0  0.  27  00  S O M A N Y  20  75  19  81  30  19  28  30  0  94  106  00  V E R Y A N  21  62  18? 0 2  45  05  1 5 . 32  0  0  111  00  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  m a t r i x :  f a c t o r s :  5  groups  T I M E  A D A P T A B I L I T Y ,  D I S T U R B A N C E - S E P A R A T I O N  L e v e l  of  20. 00%  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  the  c a s e s  w e r e  5%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  00  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  41  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X -  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  U S I N G  F A C T O R S  5 G R O U P S  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  I N D I F F  into  group  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  37  43  I N D I F F  V E R Y A N  %  6  7  16  4  81  121  15  of  c a s e s c l a s s i f i ed  into  e a c h  gr  G N O T A N Y  I N D I F F  V E R Y A N  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  50  00  43  02  6  98  86  00  I N D I F F  25  93  59  26  14  81  27  00  V E R Y A N  37  33  55  76  6  91  217  00  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  L e v e l  2 2 . 4 2 %  of  m a t r i x :  f a c t o r s :  3  T I M E  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  the  c a s e s  w e r e  g r o u p s  A D A P T A B I L I T Y  5%  c o r r e c t l y  c l a s s i f i e d  107 -  but  l e s s  w a s  than  7 %  of  the  f o r t h c o m i n g  at  the  10%  A t t e m p t s  to  u s e  factor  m o d e r a t e l y  only  to  m o r e  significant  c l a s s i f y  6 3 . 6 %  of  the  s e p a r a t i o n  function  without  a n n o y e d  T a b l e s  of  at  a l l  a n n o y e d ) .  l o w e r e d  m a r k e d l y  In  i n d i v i d u a l s  43,  the  so  c l a s s i f i e d .  2 0 % l e v e l s  s c o r e s  T h e  in  t i m e  5% l e v e l  of  c o r r e c t l y  the  10% a n d  e n v i r o n m e n t  o v e r a l l  i m p r o v i n g  a n d  g e n e r a l ,  the  A t  a n d u n a n n o y e d  42,  or  c a s e s  a n d p h y s i c a l  but  w e r e  s u c c e s s f u l .  f a c t o r  6 0 . 1%  a n n o y e d  two  g r o u p  a n a l y s i s  f a c t o r  s i g n i f i c a n c e  ( 5 1 . 1%  of  a n d  the  2 0 % l e v e l s  c l a s s i f i e d .  T h i s  w a s  w a s  the  able  a n d  d i s t u r b a n c e -  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s to  the  p r o v e d  u n a n n o y e d  the  e n t e r e d  b a l a n c e b e t w e e n  c o r r e c t l y  i m p r o v e m e n t  s i g n i f i c a n c e .  adaptability  f a c t o r s  c o r r e c t  the  of  N o  d i s c r i m i n a n t  5 8 . 4 %  p e r c e n t a g e s  c a n b e  s e e n  of  in  44.  the  c o r r e c t l y  f a c t o r s  as  did  the  d i d not  r a w  p r o v e  a s  v a r i a b l e s .  f r u i t f u l  i n  c l a s s i f y i n g  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  42  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X -  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  U S I N G . . F A C T O R S  ,2 G R O U P S  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  into  group  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  44  42  V E R Y A N  79  138  %  of  c a s e s  N O T A N Y  c l a s s i f i e d  into  V E R Y A N  e a c h  group  T O T A L  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  51  16  48  84  86  00  V E R Y A N  36  41  63  59  217  00  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  m a t r i x :  f a c t o r s :  2  g r o u p s  T I M E  A D A P T A B I L I T Y 2  L e v e l  of  60. 0 7 %  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  of  the  c a s e s  w e r e  5%  c o r r e c t l y  R  c l a s s i f i e d  . 03  109  • T A B L E  C O R R E C T  43  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X -  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  2  G R O U P S  c a s e s  U S I N G  F A C T O R S  -  c l a s s i f i e d  into  group  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  45  41  V E R Y A N  82  135  %  of  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  into  e a c h  N O T A N Y  V E R Y A N  N O T A N Y  52  33  47  67  86  00  V E R Y A N  37  79  62  21  217  00  group  T O T A L  G r o u p  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  m a t r i x :  f a c t o r s :  2  groups  T I M E  A D A P T A B I L I T Y ,  D I S T U R B A N C E - S E P A R A T I O N 2  L e v e l  5 9 - 4 1 %  of  of  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  the  c a s e s  w e r e  10%  c o r r e c t l y  R  c l a s s i f i e d  • " • . 0 3 8  •110  T A B L E  C O R R E C T  44  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N M A T R I X -  N u m b e r  of  N O T A N Y  U S I N G  F A C T O R S  2 G R O U P S  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  into  group  V E R Y A N  G r o u p  N O T A N Y  45  41  V E R Y A N  85  132  %  of  c a s e s  c l a s s i f i e d  into  e a c h  group  N O T A N Y  V E R Y A N  T O T A L  N O T A N Y  52  33  47  67  86  00  V E R Y A N  39  17  60  83  217  00  G r o u p  C o r r e c t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g  m a t r i x :  2  f a c t o r s :  groups  T I M E  A D A P T A B I L I T Y ,  D I S T U R B A N C E - S E P A R A T I O N ,  L e v e l  of  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  2 P B I Y S I S A L  E N V I R O N M E N T  2  L e v e l  5 8 . 4 2 %  of  of  s i g n i f i c a n c e :  the  c a s e s  w e r e  20%  c o r r e c t l y  R  c l a s s i f i e d  .043  I l l  C H A P T E R  V  R E S U L T S  R e s e a r c h  F i n d i n g s  T h e  v a r i a b l e s  r e s u l t s  a n d  W h e n  u s i n g  m o r e  u s e f u l  the  v a r i a b l e  of  f a c t o r s  but  c a p a b i l i t i e s .  capability  offer  F a c t o r  f a c t o r s  w e r e  o r i g i n a l  l e v e l  in  e x p e c t e d  the  e a r l i e r  that  the  w o u l d  w h e n  the  a m o n g  b a l a n c e  in the  g r o u p s ,  w i t h  c o m b i n a t i o n  to  the  in  the  enter  the  at  the  10% a n d  i m p r o v e  the  o v e r a l l  often  the  in  v a r i a b l e s  only  c o n f u s i n g .  c l e a r l y  i m p r o v e m e n t  O t h e r  not  but,  o r i g i n a l  a n d  is  d i s t a n c e  slight  f r e q u e n t l y  o r i g i n a l  r o u g h l y  B e c a u s e  d i s c r i m i n a n t  d e c r e a s e this  p e r c e n t a g e s  v a r i a b l e s  2 / 3  of  factor  f a c t o r s  of  the  a n a l y s i s ,  b e i n g - e x p e c t a t i o n  that  five  of  they  e x p l a i n  w e l l  be  addition  R a t h e r ,  on the  fifteen v a r i a b l e s .  education)  function  to  l e v e l  i m p o r t a n c e ;  do  both the  e n c o u r a g i n g  e d u c a t i o n  g e n e r a l l y  of  of  2 0 %  o v e r a l l  c o r r e c t  g r o u p .  a n a l y s i s  a b l e  the  u s u a l l y  g r e a t e r  e a c h  the  in  although  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  in  b o t h  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  a n a l y s e s  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  next  offers  function,  but  in  v a r i a b l e ,  c o r r e c t  a r e  s c o r e s ,  b e i n g  function  d i s c r i m i n a n t  of  data  d i s c r i m i n a n t  v a r i a b l e  e d u c a t i o n  p e r c e n t a g e  l e v e l s  r a w  single  d i s c r i m i n a n t  the  c o m p o s i t e  the  d i s t a n c e  w i t h the  of  m o s t  w e r e  as  total  v a r i a n c e  d o m i n a n c e  it  m i g h t  factor  l i k e l y  u s e d  the  r e v e a l e d that  to  of  h a v e  (which  enter  p o s s i b l e  the  five  of  the  e d u c a t i o n  b e e n  i n c l u d e d  the  d i s c r i m i n a n t  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  112  v a r i a b l e s .  A t  s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  the  single  w a s  often  did  B a s e d  b r i e f  T h e s e  one  enter  u s i n g  on  is,  in  c o m p o s i t e  a r e  the  for  of  the  only  A G E ,  t i m e  H O W L N G )  the  a n a l y s i s  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  obtained  give  w h e n  the  5%  off  in  l e v e l  u s i n g  c a s e  T a b l e  of  two  g r o u p  r a w  v a r i a b l e s .  45.  A l l  s i g n i f i c a n c e .  a c c u r a c y  the  of  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  o r i g i n a l  s h o w n  the  the  c o r r e c t  u s i n g  is  in  p r e d i c t i v e  better  m e a n s  the  five  m e a n s  v a r i a b l e s  c l a s s i f y i n g the  T a b l e s  46  47 .  a n d  a n d  a n d  the  s u b j e c t s  s t a n d a r d  a n d t h r e e  v a r i a b l e s ,  t o w a r d  a n d  at  for  the  r a t h e r  in  this  v a r i a b l e  c a s e ,  data  than  s c o r e s .  of  the  that,  of  function;  w a s  function  c o r r e c t  that  r e s u l t s  t h e s e  to  d i s c r i m i n a n t  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  of  f a c t o r s  o c c u r  2 0 % l e v e l  v a r i a b l e s .  " b e s t "  m u c h  the  ( O W N / R N T ,  obtained  of  r e s p e c t  of  at  d i s c r i m i n a n t  a p p a r e n t  b e l o w  v a r i a b l e s  c o d i n g  in  t h o s e  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  the  the  o r i g i n a l  is  indicate  f a c t o r  f a c t o r  the  u s e  of  g e n e r a l ,  B e l o w  o r i g i n a l  it  c l o s e to  r e s u l t s  enter  p e r c e n t a g e s  d o e s  s h o w n  e v e n  v a r i a b l e s  the  the  s u m m a r y  p e r c e n t a g e s  factor  w h o s e  e a c h m e t h o d ,  p e r c e n t a g e s  h o w e v e r ,  i m p o r t a n t  not  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  A  this  f a c t o r  p e r f o r m e d  u s i n g  point,  did  m o s t  adaptability  m o s t  no  deviations  g r o u p  s t a n d a r d  w a y  in  into the  c a s e s .  deviations  o b s e r v a t i o n s  c a n be  w h i c h  of  they  p a r t i c u l a r  the  16  F r o m  a n d  m a d e  m i g h t  g r o u p s .  k n o w l e d g e  w i t h  contribute  S e e  113  T A B L E  S U M M A R Y  O v e r a l l  %  O F  of  U s i n g  45  " B E S T "  c o r r e c t  o r i g i n a l  R E S U L T S  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  v a r i a b l e s  U s i n g  facto:rs  5  g r o u p  c a s e  32  7%  20  0%  3  g r o u p  c a s e  56 . 1 %  22  4%  2  g r o u p  c a s e  65  60  1%  7%  T A B L E  - M e a n s  (the  last  M E A N S  A N D  S T A N D A R D .  c o l u m n  c o n t a i n s  the  46  D E V I A T I O N S  w e i g h t e d  g r a n d  O F  m e a n s  V A R I A B L E S  o v e r  the  -  groups  5 G R O U P  C A S E  u s e d in the  a n a l y s i s )  G r o u p N O T A N Y  M L D N O T  I N D I F F  S O M A N Y  V E R Y A N  O W N / R T  1 .5714  1 .5862  1.6667  1 .745  1 .7477  1.6970  H O W L N G  2. 4643  3. 0000  2 . 0 0 0 0  2. 5000  2. 5135  2 . 5 4 8 5  C A R O W N  1 .2667  1 .2632  1.3750  1. 2 0 4 8  1 . 1111  1.2027  S E X  1 .5000  1. 5 8 6 2 2  1.5185  1 .5755  1 .5315  1.  A G E  3. 8214  3. 7544  2 . 7 0 3 7  3. 3619  3. 2973  3 . 3 9 4 3  V a r i a b l e 3  5515  J O B  3. 5417  4.  1190  3 . 8 6 3 6  4. 0562  3 .5543  3 . 8 3 9 0  E D U C  2. 2692  2. 6724  3 . 0 0 0 0  3 . 0577  3. 3486  3 . 0162  I N C O M E  4. 7826  4. 5532  4 . 7 1 4 3  4. 7791  4. 6667  4 . 6 9 6 6  F E O W  1 . 7857  1 .8103  1  1 .6698  1 .6667  1.7030  T R E E S  1 .8571  1 .8448  1.8889  1 .7642  1 .7387  1  .7879  B L D G S  1 .6429  1 .6379  1.5926  1 .4906  1 .5586  1  .5606  T O T V E H  9 9 2 . 0 0  7 6 6 . 2 6  8 3 4 . 0 4  8 2 6 . 7 8  9 7 2 . 0 5  8 7 9 . 6 2  L 5 0  69 . 175  65  .947  6 6 . 1 4 1  65 .378  66 .537  66  .252  L 1 0  78 .011  75 . 4 2 9  7 4 . 8 7 4  74 .528  75 . 6 5 0  75  .388  D I S T  2 0 5 . 3 6  1 6 6 . 6 4  1 6 8 . 7 0  130.71  108.29  1 3 8 . 9 2  T N I  59 .561  56 .414  5 7 . 4 5 2  56 .480  57 .223  5 7 . 0 5 9  v  .6667  c o n t ' d /  r  T A B L E  46  S t a n d a r d  (cont'd)  D e v i a t i o n s  (the  last  g r o u p s  c o l u m n u s e d  in  contains the  the  weighted  g r a n d  s t a n d a r d  deviations  o v e r  the  a n a l y s i s )  G r o u p N O T A N Y  M L D N O T  I N D I F F  SO  0 . 5 0 3 9 5  0.49681  0.48038  0.43777  M A N Y  V E R Y A N  V a r i a b l e O W N / R T  0.43627  0 . 4 6 0 2 7  H O W L N G  1.7317  C A R O W N  0.57521  0 . 4 8 4 2 9  0 . 5 4 5 9 6  0 . 3 8 4 4 4  0 . 3 4 5 2 4  0 . 4 2 9 6 8  0.50127  0 . 4 9 8 0 9  11  .8353  1 .3868  1.5931  1 .6396  1  .6592  S E X  0 . 5 0 9 1 8  0.49681  0 . 5 0 9 1 8  0 . 4 9 6 6 2  A G E  1.8470  1.7600  1.3535  1.5984  1 .8320  1  .7262  J O B  2 . 1253  1 .9395  2  2 . 1 2 1 8  2 . 0 2 4 2  2  .0565  E D U C  1.2926  1.3687  1 .5689  1 . 3995  1 .5158  2 . 4 6 8 2  I N C O M E  2.2601  2 . 2 4 6 3  2.0966  1.7803  2 . 3 2 6 4  2 . 1139  .0624  F L O W  0 . 4 1 7 8 6  0 . 3 9 5 4 5  0.48038  0 . 4 7 2 5 2  0 . 4 7 3 5 4  0 . 4 5 7 6 2  T R E E S  0 . 3 5 6 3 5  0 . 3 6 5 2 3  0.32026  0.42655  0.44131  0 . 4 0 9 4 3  B L D G S  0 . 4 8 7 9 5  0 . 4 8 4 8 0  0.50071  0 . 5 0 2 2 9  0.49881  0 . 4 9 7 0 7  T O T V E H  4 3 8 . 6 0  4 1 0 . 0 6  5 6 8 . 3 9  5 1 8 . 2 0  5 5 2 . 3 4  5 1 5 . 2 2  L 5 0  6 . 3 8 5 8  5  5 . 8 3 1 0  5 . 0 4 9 7  4 . 2 9 7 9  5 . 1 8 1 7  L 1 0  5 . 9 9 2 8  5 . 3 2 8 8  5 . 7 6 0 0  5 . 0 5 0 2  3  4 . 9 2 7 5  D I S T  2 1 6 . 8 7  1 6 0 . 7 3  186.26  131.51  109.42  1 4 6 . 7 0  T N I  6 . 6 1 2 3  5 . 8 2 3 6  5  5 . 1 0 5 6  4 . 6 9 0 8  5 . 3 4 4 6  .6263  .8333  .7821  T A B L E  M E A N S  M e a n s  (the the  A N D  l a s t  S T A N D A R D  c o l u m n  contains  47  D E V I A T I O N S  the  w e i g h t e d  O F  VARIABLES  g r a n d  m e a n s  --3  o v e r  G R O U P  the  groups  C A S E  u s e d  in  a n a l y s i s )  G r o u p N O T A N Y  I N D I F F  V E R Y A N  V a r i a b l e  O W N / R T  1 .5814  1 .6667  dj. 7 4 6 5  1  H O W L N G  2 . 8256  2 . 0000  2 . 5069  2 . 5 4 8 5  C A R O W N  1 .2642  1 .3750  1 .1613  1.2056  S E X  1 .5581  1 .5185  1 .5530  1.5515  A G E  3 .7765  2. 7037  3 . 3287  3 . 3 9 4 3  J O B  3. 9091  3 . 8636  3 .8011  3 . 8 3 4 4  E D U C  2 . 5476  3. 0000  3. 2066  3  I N C O M E  4. 6286  4. 7143  4. 7225  4 . 6 9 7 4  F L O W  1 .8023  1 .6667  1 .6 6 8 2  1.7030  T R E E S  1 .8488  1 .8889  1 .7512  1  .7879  B L D G S  1 .6395  1 .5926  1 .5253  1  .5606  T O T V E H  8 3 9 . 7 6  8 3 4 . 0 4  9 0 1 . 0 9  8 7 9 . 6 2  L 5  66 .998  6 6 . 1-41.  65 .971  6 6 . 2 5 2  74 .874  75 .  102  7 5 . 3 8 8  .24  0  L 1 0  76 .270  D I S T  1 7 9 . 2 4  1 6 8 . 7 0 .  119  T N I  57 .438  57 .452  56 .860  .6970  .0179  1 3 8 . 9 2 57.05.9  c out  1  d /  T A B L E  47  S t a n d a r d  (cont'd)  D e v i a t i o n s  (the  last  o v e r  c o l u m n  the  g r o u p s  contains  the  u s e d in the  w e i g h t e d  g r a n d  s t a n d a r d  d e v i a t i o n s  a n a l y s i s )  G r o u p N O T A N Y  I N D I F F  V E R Y A N  0 . 4 9 6 2 2  0 . 4 8 0 3 8  0 . 4 3 6 0 0  V a r i a b l e  O W N / R T H O W L N G  .  1  .8097  C A R O W N  0.  S E X  0 . 4 9 9 5 2  51223  1.3868  1 .6134  0.54596  0.  0 . 5 0 9 1 8  0 . 4 9 8 3 3  36621  0 . 4 6 0 2 7 1.  6592  0 . 4 2 8 8 8 0 . 4 9 8 0 9  A G E  1  J O B  2 . 0 0 4 3  E D U C  1  .3496  1.5689  1.4639  1.4675  I N C O M E  2  .2396  2 . 0 9 6 6  2 . 0 7 3 5  2.  .7781  1.3535  1 .7182  1.7263  2 . 0 6 2 4  2 . 0 8 0 4  2 . 0 5 3 7  1137  F L O W  0 . 4 0 0 5 8  0 . 4 8 0 3 8  0 . 4 7 1 9 5  T R E E S  0 . 3 6 0 3 1  0.32026  0 . 4 3 3 3 5  0 . 4 0 9 4 3  B L D G S  0 . 4 8 2 9 5  0.50071  0 . 5 0 0 5 1  0 . 4 9 7 0 7  0 . 4 5 7 6 2  T O T V E H  4 3 0 . 3 4  5 6 8 . 3 9  5 3 9 . 6 3  5 1 5 . 2 2  L 5 0  6 . 0 4 1 2  5  4 . 7 0 5 3  5 . 1817  L 1 0  5 . 6 5 0 7  5 . 7 6 0 0  4 . 4 7 1 9  4 . 9 2 7 5  D I S T  1 8 0 . 5 4  186.26  1 2 0 . 9 6  1 4 6 . 7 0  T N I  6 . 2 3 1 4  5 . 8 3 3 3  4 . 9 0 0 6  5 . 3 4 4 6  .8310  118  O W N / R T  C o d e :  1 =  o w n  R e n t e r s  o w n e r s ,  be  2  tend  a fact  to  =  r e n t  b e  w h i c h  s o m e w h a t  a p p e a r s  in  m o r e  a n n o y e d  c o n t r a s t  to  than  what  m i g h t  e x p e c t e d .  H O W L N G  C o d e :  h i g h e r  the  n u m b e r s  w h o  h a v e  p a r t i c u l a r  l o c a t i o n  n o i s e .  they  b e c o m e  they  m o r e  h a v e  b e c o m e  l o n g e r  r e s i d e n c y  at  a d d r e s s  Subjects  A s  indicate  l i v e d  a r e  m o s t  r e m a i n  a n n o y e d  b e e n t h e r e  the  in  indifferent  the  w i t h  s h o r t e s t  s a m e  the  a c c l i m a t e d to  the  in  t o w a r d  their  t r a f f i c  l o c a t i o n  they  until,  finally,  n o i s e  e v e n l o n g e r ,  t i m e  they  t e n d  to  after  a p p a r e n t l y  n o i s e .  C A R O W N  C o d e ;  the  n u m b e r  p e r  h o u s e h o l d for  T h e  a  c a r  v e r y  t h a n  is  the  a n n o y e d  other  a v e r a g e  the  a r e  n u m b e r  of  c a r s  o w n e d  g r o u p  m a r g i n a l l y  l e s s  l i k e l y  to  o w n  g r o u p s .  S E X  C o d e ;  1 = m a l e  S e x  a p p e a r s  2 =  to  p l a y  f e m a l e  no  r o l e  in  the  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  A G E  C o d e :  h i g h e r  n u m b e r s  indicate  older  subjects  119  T h e  length  age  of  v a r i a b l e  follows  r e s i d e n c y .  b e c o m e  a n n o y e d  as  b e c o m e  a c c l i m a t e d  b e c o m e  o l d e r  T h e  t h e y  the  s a m e  y o u n g e s t  g r o w  p a t t e r n  a r e  older,  as  the  indifferent,  a n d  then  a p p a r e n t l y  a n d notice  the  n o i s e  l e s s  n u m b e r ,  the  g r e a t e r  as  they  still.  J O B  C o d e :  the  l o w e r  t o w a r d  N o  the  a p r o f e s s i o n a l  p a t t e r n  is  or  the  m a n a g e r i a l  t e n d e n c y  o c c u p a t i o n  d i s c e r n i b l e .  E D U C  C o d e :  h i g h e r  T h e r e  h a v e  n u m b e r s  indicate  s t r o n g  i n d i c a t i o n s  a r e  attained  a h i g h e r  l e v e l  of  a h i g h e r  l e v e l  p r e s e n t  e d u c a t i o n  that  tend  of  e d u c a t i o n  t h o s e  to  be  w h o  m o r e  a n n o y e d .  I N C O M E  C o d e :  h i g h e r  N o  n u m b e r s  p a t t e r n  is  indicate  g r e a t e r  i n c o m e s  d i s c e r n i b l e .  F L O W  1 =, i n t e r r u p t e d  C o d e ;  A  v e r y  t r a f f i c  w h o  a r e  m i l d  situation  2 = f r e e  t e n d e n c y  to  r e l a t i v e l y  be  s h o w n  m o r e  f l o w i n g  is  l i k e l y  in  for  a f r e e  the  c a s e  f l o w i n g  of  t h o s e  u n a n n o y e d .  T R E E S  C o d e ;  1 = l a r g e  t r e e s  in  a r e a  2 = n o  l a r g e  t r e e s  120  T h e  of  a r e a s  this  11)  a b s e n c e  is  w h e r e  of  l a r g e  t r e e s  r e s p o n d e n t s  c o n t r a r y  to  what  1 = l a r g e  b u i l d i n g s  is  a r e  m i g h t  m o r e  not  b e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  a n n o y e d .  A g a i n  e x p e c t e d .  B L D G S  C o d e ;  N o  12)  p a t t e r n  is  in  a r e a  2  = no  l a r g e  b u i l d i n g s  d i s c e r n i b l e .  T O T V E H  C o d e ;  n u m b e r s  the  n o i s e  h o u r  A  v e r y  s t r a n g e  a n n o y e d  g r o u p  v e h i c l e s  v e r y  a r e  a n d t h o s e  b y  the  F o r  a r e  is  w h o  the  a r e  the  not  in  at  g r o u p  in  a l l  of  the  h o w e v e r ,  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  d u r i n g  h e r e  n u m b e r  t h r e e  v e h i c l e s  p a r t i c u l a r  n o t e d  v a r i a t i o n  g r e a t e r ,  of  a p p a r a t u s  h i g h e s t  T h e  m u c h  n u m b e r  for  o c c u r r e n c e  a n n o y e d .  a n n o y e d  total  m e a s u r i n g  c a s e .  is  the  m e a s u r e m e n t  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  five  a r e  p a s t  the  a r e a .  that  both  a n n o y e d  v e h i c l e s  n u m b e r  for  t h o s e  case,  h i g h e r  one  the  a r e  in  the  of  w h o  those  a r e  w h o  n u m b e r s  of  v e h i c l e s .  13,  14, 16)  L  5  Q  ,  L  C o d e ;  1  (  )  ,  T N I  n u m b e r s  T h e  a r e  h i g h e r  objectively  N o  p a t t e r n  is  the  the  v a l u e  of  n u m b e r ,  m e a s u r e d  d i s c e r n i b l e .  the  the  n o i s e  i n d e x  g r e a t e r  the  in  d B A .  n o i s e .  T h i s  is  p r i m a r i l y  due  to  LEAF 121 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING.  ^  the  fact  that  the  different  r u s h  m e a s u r e m e n t s  h o u r  n o i s e  of  v a r i a b l e s  s o u r c e  a n d  r e f l e c t s  do  i n d i c e s  the  a n d  i n v o l v e d  or  a r e  S e v e r a l  p a r t , o f  c l a s s i f y i n g  of  factor  i m p o r t a n c e  to  is  a  of  in  that  of  it  d i s t a n c e .  the  v a r i o u s  data.  is  be  into  in  d i s t a n c e s ,  in  feet,  r e c e i v e r  t e n d e n c y  for  c a n be  for  t h o s e  o r  the  at  about  A l s o ,  factor  of  is  c l a s s i f y i n g  m a d e  factor  g r o u p s .  f a i r l y T o w  l o a d i n g  its  to  g r e a t e r  c o m p o s i t e  factor.  a p p r o x i m a t e  strong  s u g g e s t i o n s  the  in  a r e  s o u r c e  total v a r i a n c e  factors  a s s o c i a t e d  of  that  s e p a r a t i o n  o v e r  f u r t h e r  in  set  i m p o r t a n t  n o i s e  d i s c u s s  the  no  r o u g h  itself  the  not  b e c a u s e  T h i s  enter  rather,  w e r e  the  w h o  d i s t a n c e s  a r e  not  a n n o y e d  indifferent.  subjects  g i v e n  e x p e c t a t i o n  p r o b a b l y  m a n i f e s t s  b e c o m e s  B  r o a d s i d e  m a d e .  d i r e c t l y  c o l l e c t i o n  n u m b e r s  T h e r e  its  a n d  c a s e s ,  w e r e  of  at  D I S T  f r o m  of  not  attenuation  A  C o d e :  centage  m o s t  n o i s e  r e c e i v e r  the  n o i s e s  v a r i a b l e s ;  A p p e n d i c e s  15)  in  m e a s u r e d  d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  not  m e a s u r e d  m a r k e d l y  equality  is  122  the  as  w h i c h  F i r s t ,  4 6 %  and,  is  subjects  this  w i t h  w h i c h ,  into  by  the  e d u c a t i o n  m o s t  v a r i a b l e  of  the  u s e f u l  c o m m u n a l i t y  or  e x p l a i n e d  58%,  e x p l a i n e d b y  v a r i a b l e  i n c o m e  w h y  p r o v e d  the  e d u c a t i o n  58%;  to  only  the  w h i c h  itself,  c o r r e c t  the  l e v e l  in  p e r -  b y  all  s q u a r e  w e l l - b e i n g /  e d u c a t i o n  was  of  g r o u p s .  no  is  123  O n  the  c o r r e c t  of  other  A G E  g r e a t e r  than  definite  d i r e c t i o n a l  to  be  w a s  a  a  o r  indifferent  a n n o y i n g  i n  to  s e v e r a l  data  to  In  both  A p p e n d i x  initially  A  s o m e  n o i s e ;  the  as  the  w a s  length  t i m e  be  at  subject  p a s s e s  i n d i v i d u a l  a  a n  r e s u l t s  O f  its  in  g e n e r a l  p r i m a r y  a r e  not  better,  i m p o r t a n c e  in  r e l a t i v e l y  a c c l i m a t e d  m a i n  b e e n  a  points  p u r p o s e  g r e a t e r  data w o u l d  m e a s u r e m e n t s  a r e  w e r e  a d m i n i s t e r e d  f o r e s i g h t ,  h a v e  taken  i n a p p r o p r i a t e  to  than  b e e n  for  p l a c e s .  a  a  f o r  w h a t  m o r e  v e r y  T h e  i n t e r v i e w e e s  l i m i t e d  p u r p o s e  w a s  fully  T h e  it  not  the  in  data  w a s  B o t h  put  w a s  to  a n d  n o i s e  t i m e  of  i s  a r e  c o m p l e t e  c o l l e c t e d .  a r e  r e g a r d  t h e r e  s t r e s s e d h e r e .  other  t h e r e  this  d i s c u s s e d m o r e  at  the  stage  b e c o m e s  a r e  of  the  b e c o m e s  T h e s e w e a k n e s s e s  set  of  e a r l y  s u f f i c i e n c y  the  w a s  a n n o y e d b y  n o i s e  either  a  subject  a p p e a r s  the  w e r e  m e a n s .  r e s i d e n c y  pattern;  the  t i m e  of  g r o u p  l i k e l y  to  c o m p o s e d  d i s p l a y e d  a n d  H a d t h e r e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  a l s o  of  m o r e  of  c o m m u n a l i t i e s  c o l l e c t i o n  but  c a s e s ,  he  the  t e r m s  f a c t o r  v a r i a b l e s  d e s c r i p t i o n  that  a n d  w h o s e  in  it.  c o l l e c t e d for  a p p r o p r i a t e  t h r e e  r e s i d e n c y )  l a t e r ,  the  the  s i m i l a r  of  i g n o r e  w h y  in  adaptability  two. of  a l l  l i k e l y  a*ge  v e r y  still  w e a k n e s s e s .  traffic  the  p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  b a s e .  u s e .  B o t h  s u c c e s s f u l f a c t o r  t i m e  i n d i c a t i o n  traffic  c h o o s e s to  A s  p a t t e r n  length  a n d ,  the  addition,  m o r e  a  m o s t  H O W L N G ,  the  f o l l o w e d  ( a g e w i s e  In  positive  n o i s e .  subject  a n d  . 7 0 .  r e n t e r ,  traffic  o r  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w a s  O W N / R T ,  T h e r e  h a n d ,  a n d ,  the  sufficiently  a n d  in  124  d i s g u i s e d ,  t h e r e f o r e  p a r t  r e s p o n d e n t  of  the  m a n n e r  of  o r d i n a l  T h i s  in  c o l l e c t i o n  data  has  a n d  u s e d  e n t e r e d .  the  in  p o s s i b l e that  c o d i n g  the  a c c u r a c y  and,  c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  Ideally,  the  w i t h  rating  a l l  status  n o i s e  of  data,  a n d  the  a n n o y a n c e  both  to  c a n be  b i a s  on  both  the  c a r d i n a l  l e d to  u s e d only  o r  due  of  s h o u l d be  the  distinction  other  v a r i a b l e s ,  a n d  e r r o r s  ability  w h e r e  the  a n a l y s e s .  s o m e  p r e d i c t i v e  w h i c h  b e i n g  c e r t a i n  d i s c r i m i n a n t  u n d o u b t e d l y  v a r i a b l e s  o r d i n a l  of  h a s  a  P a r t i a l l y  f a c t o r  types  the  e x p r e s s e d  n e c e s s a r y ,  b e t w e e n  m a l e  f e m a l e .  It  w a s  quite  data  c a r d i n a l l y  e . g .  is  of  a n a l y s e s .  a n d  w e r e  m i x t u r e  the  it  i s  not  traffic  t i m e  a l s o  c o l l e c t e d ,  n o i s e ,  p e r i o d .  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  s c o r e s  than  if  m e a n  h i g h l y  nather  the  e . g .  p r o b a b l e  a r e  i m p o r t a n t  the  n u m b e r  of  peak  a t t e m p t s  at  p e r c e i v i n g  L a s t l y ,  a m o n g  than  m e a n s  that  v a r i a b l e s  of  m e a n s  w e r e  in  d e t e r m i n i n g  noise  b a s e d on  i n v a r i a b l y  u s e d b e c a u s e of  a n d  the  to  w h i c h  s u s c e p t i b i l i t y  o c c u r r e n c e s  a n a l y s e s  l e a d s  data  in  to  the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  i n d i v i d u a l  p o o r e r  g r e a t e r  r e s u l t s  stability  of  s c o r e s .  C o n c l u s i o n s  A t  r a w  least, f o r  v a r i a b l e  c o m p o s i t e  into  g r o u p s  the  s c o r e s  f a c t o r  b a s e d  v a r i a b l e s  offer  s c o r e s  on  the  u n d e r  g r e a t e r  in  the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  p r e d i c t i v e  c o r r e c t  in  a c c u r a c y  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  p e r c e i v e d a n n o y a n c e  t o w a r d  this  study,  than  i n d i v i d u a l s  traffic  n o i s e .  125  E d u c a t i o n  in  is  the  single  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  n o i s e  T h e  s o u r c e  t i m e  i n d e x  a n d  s e e m  s u c c e s s f u l  to  i n s u r e  f o r  of  d e p e n d s  of  the  f o l l o w s  a n d  g e n e r a l l y  t o w a r d  no  they  in  a n a l y s i s ;  as  c a n  not  these  i . e .  f o c u s e d  as  c l o s e l y  c a s e ;  e . g .  1  the  w e l l  a n d  c o m p o s i t e  as  e d u c a t i o n .  c o l l e c t i o n  o v e r  the  of  data  m o d e r a t e l y  of  the  w i l l  a n d  in  a n d  its  v i c e  p h y s i c a l  on  to  be  to  be  d r i v e - b y  n e w  the  what  of  w h a t  the  a  good  it  a p p r o a c h  ' situation'  attention  the  It  w h e n  c o l l e c t i o n  is  the  b e t w e e n  a n n o y e d  A  on  h i s t o r y .  indicate,  t e r m e d  data,  just  a l s o  r e l a t i o n  v e r s a .  m i g h t  but  p r e v i o u s  m a y  the  m a g n i t u d e  D e s p i t e  r e s u l t s  continue  that  given  s t i m u l u s ,  a f i x e d  addition  p o s s i b l e  single  a  j u s t i f i e d . " ^  c a s e s  ,  of  by  p r e d i c t s  be  i n d i c a t e d  s t i m u l u s  a v a i l a b l e  be  s o c i o e c o n o m i c  each  a  d e t e r m i n e d  and  a s  as  h a v e  intensity  ' n o r m a l '  in  to  i n d i v i d u a l s  a n a l y s i s  'incident'  data  s c a l e w h i c h  s h o u l d  i m p o r t a n c e .  i m p o r t a n t  f a r e  s e l e c t i o n  in  b e t w e e n  study.  of  r e s p o n s e  of  not  (distance)  s e c o n d  m o s t  v a r i a b l e  R e s e a r c h  on the  a c c e p t a b l e  g r o u p  a p p e a r s  this  o r g a n i s m  be  i m p r o v e m e n t  i n d i v i d u a l  only  that  s t i m u l u s  of  n u m b e r  the  not  an  to  the  d o e s  the  F u r t h e r  " A . l a r g e  r e s p o n s e  in  is  s o c i o e c o n o m i c  s e p a r a t i o n  a p p e a r s  f a c t o r  c a r e  r e s u l t s  S u g g e s t i o n s  s i z e d  r e c e i v e r  g r e a t e r  significant  p h y s i c a l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n but  F i n a l l y ,  state  the  adaptability  in  w o u l d  a n d  m o s t  of  the  s h o u l d  a n n o y i n g  a m o t o r c y c l e  o r  late  be  f a c t o r  at  17.6  night  (an  a l o n g  a  of  a  m a i n  b u s  T h e  i s o l a t e d  r o a d  f r o m  a  p r e s e n c e  k n o w n ,  p e a k  m a y  the  (continuous  stop  o r  noise),  steady  loud  (intermittent  noise),  p e a k  a b s e n c e  of  v a r i o u s  be  in  a n a l y s i s  then  u s e d  d r o n e  or  of  the  n o i s e s  a s  the  t r u c k s  a c c e l e r a t i o n  a b o v e  incidents,  m u c h  h e a v y  the  ambient)  they  s a m e  .  b e c o m e  a s  other  v a r i a b l e s .  M o r e  effort  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  and  expectations  c h a r a c t e r i z e  these  e n v i r o n m e n t  w h i c h  be  so b y  o r  v i s u a l i z e  m o s t  Ithe  s o m e  m e n t  as  m o d e r n  t o w a r d  m a y  b a s i c  a  a  m e t ;  not  for  thus,  A s  n e c e s s i t y  a n d  an  the  p e r c e p t i o n  D e s p i t e  the  s o m e w h a t  gations  a r e  n e e d  be  to  Sites  p r i m a r y  to  and  be  of  e v e n  of  of  p r i c e s  the  (or  v i e w  of  its  w h e t h e r  the  a r e  s a m e  it  a  or  a n  w a y s  a n n o y i n g  another,  or  v e r y  that  is  l i v i n g  s o u n d .  the  If  in  i n d i v i d u a l  loud  it  O n  e n v i r o n -  g e n e r a t i n g  too  is  a n n o y e d .  for  is  to  expect  w h i c h  n o i s y  a n  n o i s e  found  they  p r i v a c y  p a i d  is  to  m e a s u r e d  r e s u l t s ,  line  on  a n d  e x c e s s i v l y  a m b i g u o u s  a l o n g  or  quiet  a n  the  m e t h o d o l o g y  m a d e  n o i s e  often b e c o m e  n o i s e  his  f o c u s e d  offensive  e x a m p l e ,  of  to  r e a s o n  they  influence  h y p o t h e s i s  be  one  be  O f t e n t i m e s ,  one  r e g a r d  one  s o c i e t y .  r e g a r d  a t m o s p h e r e  m a n y  n a t u r a l  the  s h o u l d  c e r t a i n  h a n d ,  w i t h  s h o u l d  e x p e c t a t i o n s .  b e c a u s e ,  often not  other  attention  a  holds  activity)  or  felt  f u r t h e r  a n n o y i n g .  that  the  i n v e s t i -  f o l l o w i n g  foundations  laid:  should  s o u r c e  of  be  c h o s e n to  n o i s e  in  the  i n s u r e  a r e a .  that  traffic  T h i s  c o u l d  n o i s e  be  is  the  a c c o m p l i s h e d  127  q u i c k l y  b y  s h o u l d be  telephone  u s e d  N o i s e  ( y a r d  or  at  s a m p l i n g  o v e r  thus  be  a  24  be  the  p e r i o d  c o u l d  a r e a  no  s h o u l d b e  r e s p o n d e n t  m o s t  d e p a r t m e n t .  in  p o s s i b l e ;  g a t h e r e d  h o u r  a n d  if  e l a b o r a t e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  stage.  the  data  obtained  situation  to  of  T r a f f i c  e n g i n e e r i n g  this  data  p o r c h )  s u r v e y ,  T h e  a d j u s t e d  without  o v e r  or,  a p e r i o d  if  be  a v e r a g e  give  going  to  of  p o s s i b l e ,  l i k e l y  to  g a t h e r e d  a  good  the  e v e n  h o m e  e.  the  city  t r a f f i c  i n d i c a t i o n  of  g.  l o n g e r .  f r o m  daily  t r o u b l e  the  t i m e ,  obtained  a n n u a l  at  of  c a n  the  t r a f f i c  counting  c a r s  oneself.  A  short  a d m i n i s t e r e d  differential  p r o b l e m s  a n d  the  p r o p e r l y  s a m e  s u c h  be  as  to  (no  attitudes  s y s t e m  r e s p o n d e n t  if  m o r e  t o w a r d  a p p e a r e d  the  than  10  traffic  to  w o r k  questions  questions)  n o i s e .  w e l l  w e r e  s h o u l d  T h e  a n d  be  s e m a n t i c  o f f e r e d  no  u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  w o r d e d .  c o l l e c t i o n  p a t t e r n  w o u l d  obtain  r e s p o n s e  to  T h e  to  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  as  for  collect  the  of  this  a n d  o c c u r r e n c e  s o c i o e c o n o m i c  study;  the  m a i n t a i n  of  n o i s e  the  data  data  m a j o r  c a r d i n a l  c o u l d  f o l l o w  d i f f e r e n c e  data  'incidents'  as  c o u l d  the  r e c o m m e n d e d  s u c h .  be  m u c h  O t h e r  obtained  data,  as  d e s i r e d .  F u n d a m e n t a l l y ,  b a s i s  is  of b o t h  t e m p o r a l  r e c o g n i z e d that  collect  the  data  there  but,  as  a n d  f i n a n c i a l  w e r e  in  for  this  study  p r a c t i c a l i t y .  often t e c h n i c a l l y  m a n y  w a s  r e s e a r c h  g a t h e r e d  In  better  e n d e a v o r s ,  on  r e t r o s p e c t ,  w a y s  the  it  to  c o m p r o m i s e s  128  w e r e  m a d e  w e r e  m e t  to  i n s u r e  a n d  to  that  t h e s e  facilitate  the  t e m p o r a l  a n d  a c c u m u l a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l  a n d  c o n s t r a i n t s  a n a l y s i s  of  the  data.  I m p l i c a t i o n s  T h e  a n d  p r e l i m i n a r y  e n g i n e e r s  m e a s u r e d  n o i s e  on  n o i s e  into  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  p r o c e s s e s  or  to  w i l l  a n d  b e y o n d  a n d traffic  other  e n v i r o n m e n t  n e w  go  i n d i v i d u a l s  i n c o r p o r a t e  e n g i n e e r  m u s t  i m p l i c a t i o n s  or  a  any  b e  i n c r e a s e d  a n d  to  of  u s e  to  c o n t r o l  traffic.  It  the  a n  u p g r a d e  the  i n d i c a t o r s  w i l l  n o i s e  a r e  full  b e c o m e  ability  It  p r o b l e m s  in  of  as  i m p a c t  of  to  p h y s i c a l  is  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the  p l a n n e r s  n e c e s s a r y  a n d  i m p a c t .  that  s u c h  the  p e r s o n a l  n o i s e  further  a n d to  r e s u l t s  u n d e r s t a n d  c o m m u n i t y .  a s s e s s m e n t of  of  the  ' h a r d '  counts  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  v a r i a b l e s  l i m i t  the  of  h o p e d  of  the  this  t h e s e  traffic  situations  of  F O O T N O T E  " T h e o d o r e S c i e n c e as it  given, f r o m  M e t h o d of  the  S c h u l t z ,  P u b l i s h e r s  W for  w a s .  C .  taken  C o m m u n i t y  L t d . ,  L o n d o n ,  f r o m  M i c h a e l s  a n d . I .  C o m p a r a t i v e  A c o u s t i c  S o c i e t y  S c h u l t z  w h o ,  T .  L o u d n e s s of  N o i s e  1972,  A m e r i c a ,  R a t i n g s ,  p.  in  D o s e r ,  3.  t u r n ,  q u o t a t i o n  had  obtained  " R a t i n g  M e a s u r e m e n t s , " V o l .  27,  A p p l i e d  T h e  1955,  S c a l e J o u r n a l pp.  1 1 7 3 -  130  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  1 .  B o o k s  B a c o n ,  R o b e r t  Inc.  ,  B r a g d o n ,  A .  N e w  C l i f f o r d  U n i v .  of  -Buchanan,  C o l i n  C r o c k e r , of  H o e l ,  P r e s s ,  an  H o p e ,  G .  K e i t h .  B j e r r i n g , U n i v .  T o w n s :  R e p o r t s  H e r  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  of  the  M a j e s t y ' s  N o i s e s :  C r i t e r i a ,  I n t e r - N o i s e  C o n f e r e n c e  N o i s e  Sons  on  C o n t r o l  and  U n i v .  72:  of  W a s h -  N o i s e  P r o c e e d i n g s  C o n t r o l  E n g i n e e r i n g ,  M a t h e m a t i c a l ,  N e w  E n g i n e e r -  W a s h i n g t o n ,  C o m m u n i t y L t d . ,  M c G r a w - H i l l  U n p u b l i s h e d  H .  B r i t i s h  D o c u m e n t a t i o n ,  " U B C  1954.  A n a l y s i s „  U n i v .  of  1968.  N o i s e  L o n d o n ,  B o o k  R a t i n g s ,  Statistics C o . ,  A p p l i e d  1972.  f o r  N e w  the  Y o r k ,  B e h a v i o r a l 1956.  M a t e r i a l  F A C T O :  C o l u m b i a 1969.  S t a t i s t i c s ,  Y o r k ,  M u l t i v a r i a t e L o n d o n ,  N o n p a r a m e t r i c  J a m e s of  to  Inc.  of  L t d . ,  P u b l i s h e r s  S i d n e y .  P e r i o d i c a l s  in  1970.  1963.  (editor).  M e t h o d s P r e s s  Science-s,  2.  and  T h e o d o r e .  S c i e n c e  S i e g e l ,  C r i s i s ,  1970.  I n t r o d u c t i o n  W i l e y  L o n d o n  S c h u l t z ,  P r e s s ,  1972.  P a u l J o h n  of  M a r t i n ' s  U n q u i e t  G r o u p ,  A c c e p t a b i l i t y  J .  St.  P h i l a d e l p h i a ,  T r a f f i c  L o n d o n ,  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  . ,  P o l l u t i o n :  W o r k i n g  Seattle,  Institute  N o i s e ,  P r e s s ,  (editor) . on  M a l c o l m  ing, D . C  a n d  Office,  J a m e s  ington  N o i s e  (editor).  S y m p o s i u m  of  1970.  R.  G r o u p  S t a t i o n e r y  C h a l u p n i k ,  T y r a n n y  P e n n s y l v a n i a  S t e e r i n g  A  T h e  Y o r k ,  F a c t o r  C o m p u t i n g  A n a l y s i s ;  C e n t e r  131  B o c k ,  F r e d e r i c k  A s s i g n m e n t P r o g r a m  C . ,  1  R e p o r t  W a s h i n g t o n ,  C o n s e r v a t i o n in  the  N o .  D . C . ,  C o u n c i l  C r e i g h t o n ,  ,  D i c k e r s o n ,  T r i p R e s e a r c h  R e s e a r c h  B o a r d ,  1968.  of  O n t a r i o .  " A  C a u s e s ,  " N o i s e  O c t o b e r  D a v i d  C o n t r o l  and  L a n g l e y  R e n e  H i g h w a y  M o d a l  H i g h w a y  C o n f e r e n c e  E f f e c t s ,  on  N o i s e  C o n t r o l s . "  1 9 7 1 .  H u g h .  R I B A J  I n f l u e n c i n g  C o o p e r a t i v e  57,  E n v i r o n m e n t :  T o r o n t o ,  F o s s ,  " F a c t o r s  N a t i o n a l  the  O .  " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  A b a t e m e n t , "  N .  E x t e r n a l  E n v i r o n m e n t "  1966.  R e s e a r c h  A p p l i e d  in  C e n t e r ,  " V e h i c l e  P h y s i c s  N T I S  Study:  U n i v .  of  P o l l u t i o n :  N71 - 15557 ,  L a n g l e y ,  N o i s e  L a b ,  N o i s e  N o .  N A S A  V a . -  F i n a l  R e p o r t : ,  W a s h i n g t o n ,  Seattle,  1972.  G a l l o w a y ,  W .  J . ,  " H i g h w a y , M i x e d  B o a r d ,  B . ,  O .  a n d  R e s i d e n t i a l  R a d i o  R .  of  A i r  G o r d o n , D .  State  " U r b a n  S c h o o l of  B r i t i s h  C o l i n L .  G . ,  W .  P r o g r a m  V a l u e s " ,  ,  D . C .  " A  R e s e a r c h  C .  J .  .  L a n g l e y .  H i g h w a y s  on  Tunpublished  r e p o r t ,  of  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  C o m m u n i t y  J .  N o .  1971  ,  M e a s u r e m e n t '  as  the  D e t e r m i n a n t s  u n p u b l i s h e d  and M a y  G a l l o w a y ,  R e g i o n a l  B .  Noise:-  A  H i g h w a y \  M a s t e r ' s P l a n n i n g ,  1973.  C o o p e r a t i v e 117,  .  N o i s e  1966.  G e n e r a t i o n "  N a t i o n a l  ,  a n d of  P r i m e r  " H i g h w a y  R e p o r t  H i g h w a y  H i g h w a y  1969.  E f f e c t s  C o l u m b i a ,  N e l s o n .  E n g i n e e r s "  W a s h . ,  of  78,  a n d  U n i v e r s i t y .  M a s s . ,  P a s s e n g e r  K e r r i c k .  C o o p e r a t i v e  S a u e r l a n d e r ,  P r o p e r t y  S .  S i m u l a t i o n ,  N o .  D . C . ,  C o m p a n y .  K .  t h e s i s , U n i v .  R e p o r t  H .  C o n c o r d ,  and. J .  N a t i o n a l  B e n e f i c i a l  P e n n s y l v a n i a  G h o s h ,  ,  W a s h i n g t o n ,  H .  W e s t  C l a r k ,  M e a s u r e m e n t ,  P r o g r a m  " A d v e r s e  G e n e r a l  E .  R e a c t i o n s "  R e s e a r c h  G a m b l e ,  W .  N o i s e :  '  A .  K u g l e r ,  D e s i g n H i g h w a y  R e s e a r c h '  a n d  G u i d e  for  R e s e a r c h B o a r d ,  ,  132  Griffiths,  I . D . ,  a n d  to. R o a d  T r a f f i c  C u r r e n t  P a p e r  H a l l ,  F r e d  L . ,  I m p a c t  a n d  f o r  M . D . ,  H i g h w a y s  G .  R e l a t e d of  K a r l  D . ,  S p e c t r a l  N o .  6,  of  J u n e  L a v e n d e r ,  D .  J o u r n a l  N a t i o n a l  the  and  P r i c e ,  J .  B a r r o n  " A  P r o c e e d i n g s the  S a f e e r ,  H .  B .  4,  U n i v in  1973.  " S o m e  E f f e c t s  P e r c e i v e d  N o i s e  A m e r i c a ,  V o l .  of  of  N o i s e V o l .  for  of  L e v e l " , 35,  N o i s e  M e a s u r e m e n t s " , 15,  1971.  R e s e a r c h  1970.  of  the  E n g i n e e r i n g  C o n s u l t i n g  1,  N o i s e " ,  H i g h w a y  S u r v e y  D i s t r i c t " ,  N o .  P r o g r a m .  H i g h w a y  24,  D e c e m b e r  S t r a c h a n ,  A c o u s t i c a l  G r e a t e r R e p o r t , E n g i n e e r s ,  B . C .  an  W . ,  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  W .  C .  -  1973,  a n d  on  W a s h . ,  A .  M e a s u r e m e n t ' ,  J . T h e  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D . C .  R e n n i e . E n g i n e e r ,  1961 .  " C o m m u n i t y  1973.  C o n f e r e n c e  1972,  C o p e l a n d ,  N o i s e  M a r c h  P h e n o m e n o n " , N o .  D . C . ,  N o .  C o m m u n i t y  V e h i c l e  2 1 1 ,  on  M e a s u r e -  P r o g r a m  13,  R e s e a r c h  S t a n d a r d s  E n v i r o n m e n t  D .  " M o t o r V o l .  of  of  E x p o s u r e " ,  Joint  N o .  V i b r a t i o n ,  D i g e s t  R e g i o n a l  and  V a n c o u v e r ,  R o b i n s o n ,  of  R e s u l t s  V a n c o u v e r  a n d  a n d  H i g h w a y  W a s h . ,  A .  f o r  1970.  N o i s e  S o c i e t y  " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  S o u n d  " E s t a b l i s h m e n t  B o a r d ,  C o n t r o l  D e p a r t m e n t  3.  C o o p e r a t i v e  R e s e a r c h  O n t a r i o .  P e a r s o n s .  D u r a t i o n  E n g i n e e r -  " A n n o y a n c e  R e p o r t  S.  C o m m u n i t y  C i v i l  O c t o b e r  T r a f f i c  A c o u s t i c  196  L .  of  K a r l  of  V i b r a t i o n O n t a r i o  a  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  H a m i l t o n ,  U n i v e r s i t y  R e s e a r c h  and  of  C a r o t h e r s .  U r b a n  C o n t e n t  J o u r n a l  R .  to  " T o w a r d  D e p t .  R R 1 6 8 ,  T o r o n t o - Y o r k  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  K r y t e r ,  and  R e s p o n s e Station  1968.  r e p o r t ,  N o .  and  R e s e a r c h  A l l e n .  S y s t e m s " ,  W . ,  e r s i t y  L .  " N o i s e  R e p o r t  m e n t s  A p r i l  U n i v e r s i t y ,  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  " S u b j e c t i v e  B u i l d i n g  A s s e s s m e n t  u n p u b l i s h e d  H a r m e l i n k ,  L a n g d o n .  B r i a n  M c M a s t e r  J o h n s t o n ,  J .  3 7 / 6 8 ,  M e a s u r e  N o i s e " , ing,  F .  N o i s e " ,  J o u r n a l  N o i s e of  L e v e l s  S o u n d  a n d  -  A  S t a t i s t i c a l  V i b r a t i o n ,  V o l .  26,  U n i t e d  States  E n v i r o n m e n t a l  " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P o w e r e d N o .  U n i t e d  b y  N T I D  States  P a n e l on  U s " ,  00147,  1970.  of  W a c h s ,  by  of  S o c i e t y  W i l l i a m s ,  of  N o i s e " , N o .  W o o d s ,  1,  T e x a s 166S2,  a n d  R e p o r t  C o m p u t i n g  A n a l y s i s :  S c h o f e r .  U r b a n  of  C O M  7 1 -  C e n t e r .  B M D 0 7 M ' ,  " S y s t e m s  P l a n n i n g " ,  of  the  and  1970.  the  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Vibration,  and  U r b a n  O c t o b e r  E n g i n e e r i n g  D e sign  S o u n d  A n a l y s t ' s  A m e r i c a n  J o u r n a l  D i v i s i o n ,  " H i g h w a y  G e o m e t r i c  N o i s e  1970.  D e v e l o p m e n t  H .  " T h e  V o l .  on 15,  1971.  L .  ,  and  M u r r a y  M e a s u r e m e n t  f o r  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C o l l e g e  M u r r a y  F . ,  M e a s u r e m e n t  L .  H i g h w a y  R e s e a r c h e r ,  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Institute, "  .  D e c i s i o n s " ,  N o i s e " ,  C o l l e g e  R e p o r t  1 9 7 1 .  W o o d s .  V o l .  •  " H i g h w a y  R e s e a r c h  T e x a s ,  D o n a l d  of  . Y o u n g .  E n g i n e e r i n g  Station,  and  F  Institute  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  1971.  E q u i p m e n t  C o m m e r c e ,  E n g i n e e r i n g ,  J o u r n a l  D o n a l d  N o i s e  Y o u n g ,  of  L .  and  C i v i l  E .  Influence  of  C o l u m b i a  a n d J .  a n d  T .  D e p t .  J a s o n H a l m ,  N o i s e  P l a n n i n g  f r o m  E n g i n e s " ,  A b a t e m e n t .  D i s c r i m i n a n t  M a r t i n ,  V i e w  N o i s e  C o m b u s t i o n  N o i s e  U . S .  B r i t i s h  " S t e p w i d e adapted  and  A g e n c y .  3 0 0 . 13 .  A r o u n d  U n i v e r s i t y  N o i s e  I n t e r n a l  P r o t e c t i o n  7,  " S o u r c e s T e x a s  N o .  Station,  1,  T e x a s  T e x a s ,  134  A P P E N D I X  A :  D A T A  b a s e f o r  the  D a t a  T h e  c o l l e c t i o n  g a t h e r i n g  data  a n d  l e v e l s ,  of  three  attitudes  a n d  e c o n o m i c  b a s i s .  T h i s  a n d  of  n o i s e  attitudes  sixty  (the  K i t s i l a n o ,  a n  a v e r a g e  T h e  of  V a n c o u v e r  a r e a s  two  a r e a  t h e s e  s t r o n g  felt  that  three  ent  s o c i o e c o n o m i c  the  c o n d u c t e d  (West  t h r e e  E n d ,  In  a  the  o n  a  end  of  t h r e e  of  w a s  K i t s i l a n o  w e r e  r e p r e s e n t ,  people .  the  b a c k g r o u n d  traffic  T h e  the  d o orb to  the  w e r e  n o i s e  s o c i o -  t h r o u g h  d o o r  a p p e n d i x .  s e c t i o n s  a n d  of  V a n c o u v e r  s e l e c t e d ,  F a i r v i e w )  s u r v e y  a m o n g  n o i s e .  i n v o l v e d  a n d  c o n d u c t e d .  p r e l i m i n a r y  a r e a s  w o u l d  c l a s s e s  i n  b l o c k  a n n o y a n c e w i t h  a r e a s  at  b l o c k s  p e r  the  obtained  F a i r v i e w / E a s t E n d )  r e a s o n s .  m o d e r a t e l y  w e r e  s h o w n  different  :six i n t e r v i e w s  t h r e e  s e l e c t e d f o r  i s  s o c i o e c o n o m i c  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  a  p r o b l e m  indicationsDof  l a n d s c a p e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  E n d ,  t y p e s :  n o i s e ,  A p p r o x i m a t e l y  W e s t  data  data  t o w a r d  a n d  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  the  b a s i c  traffic  data  of  Alsco,  t h o s e  it  b r o a d l y  T h i s  last  of  the  w e r e  g r e a t e r  i n d i c a t i n g  w a s  a  initially  s p e a k i n g ,  p r e s u m p t i o n  d i f f e r -  p r o v e d  135  i n a c c u r a t e  w i d e  T h e  but  r a n g e  of  r e s p o n d e n t s  v a l u e s  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  b a s i c a l l y  c h o s e n to  v a r i o u s  t y p e s  s e c t i o n  r e s i d e n t s  c o l l e c t o r  ing  the  of  n a i r e  although  e n c o u n t e r e d .  on  the  r e d u c i n g  traffic  p r o b l e m s  r e g a r d  N o i s e  streets  f r o m  in  n o i s e  as  r e s p o n d e n t ' s  a n d  i n t e r v i e w s  (in  to  m a d e  b l o c k .  at  street  the  of  noise  l e v e l  w i t h  the  it  w a s  o n  b y  the  a w i n d  M a p s  o r  the  q u e s t i o n -  w e r e  r e s p o n d e n t s  the  their  a n d  a r e a  traffic  side  h e r e  of  as  s h i e l d e d  w a s .  in  this  in  w a s  data.  the  q u e s t i o n .  the  w o r s t  N o i s e  street  o p p o s e d to  a l o n g  of  other  a r e  intended  traffic  not  i m p o r t a n c e  a s k e d  n o i s e  s h o w -  3.  r e f u s a l  in  e a c h  a r t e r i a l s ,  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ,  o r i g i n a l l y  of  out  obtained  a n d  t a k e n  c o m p o s i t i o n  m o n i t o r e d  fill  q u e s t i o n  i n d i c a t e d  m a j o r  r e m e d y i n g  obtained  In  C h a p t e r  r e l a t i v e  w i t h  the  in  street  the  r e s u l t s  R e a d i n g s w e r e  b e c a u s e  to  n o i s i e s t  but  c o l l e c t i o n  g i v e n  w e r e  a l o n g  s t r e e t s .  a s k e d of  d e t e r m i n e  w e r e  side  a r e a  s a m p l e .  a l o n g  a  v a r i a b l e s .  l i v e d  the  r e l u c t a n c e  c o m p a r i s o n  data  in  w i l l i n g  of  the  r e s p o n d e n t s  the  w e r e  w h a t  e n c o m p a s s  e a c h  w h o  l i v e d  a r e  q u e s t i o n  pollution)  t r a f f i c  h o m e  quite  c h o s e n a n d  w h i c h  g e n e r a t e d  S o u n d i l e v e l s  a i r  p o o r l y  w e r e  m i d  m a d e  w h o  t r a v e l l e d  incidents  w a s  w i t h i n  r e p r e s e n t e d  u s u a l l y  did  s o c i o e c o n o m i c  l o c a t i o n s  i n t e r v i e w e d  additional  c h o s e n f o r  r e a d i n g s  n o i s e  w e r e  a l s o  s u c h  w a s  w e r e  of  a r e a s  r e s p o n d e n t s  s p a r s e l y  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  w e r e  side)  that  i s o l a t e d  A t t e m p t s  b e i n g  i n s u r e  and  t h r e e  v a r i o u s  b l o c k  w e r e  A n  the  t w e n t y  l o c a t i o n s  R e s i d e n t s  the  streets  r o a d s ,  b l o c k  for  in  to  the  E l e k t r e t  ( c u r b -  at  relate  the  the  street.  c o n d e n s e r  136  m i c r o p h o n e  l e v e l  In  the  c o n n e c t e d to  m e t e r  lab,  M o d e l  a n d  the  4420  m e a s u r i n g  w e r e  tape  a  a n d K j a e r  r e c o r d e d  w a s  statistical  B r u e l  on  a c a s s e t t e  p l a y e d b a c k  distribution  a m p l i f i e r . t o  obtain  t h r o u g h  a n a l y z e r  the  L .  ,  L  10 The  K j a e r  for  M o d e l  one  n o i s e  n o i s e  (dBA)  h o u r  w a s  b e t w e e n  the  w a s  of  h o u r s  c o m p o s i t i o n  and  m e a s u r i n g  noted.  A  of  t e r . i-st-ifGs&is  the  f o r m  s h o w n  of  a n d  L.  4 P M .  2606  s o u n d  r e c o r d i n g  l e v e l s .  yo B r u e l  R e a d i n g s w e r e  to  d u r i n g  l o c a t i o n  T h u s ,  of  K j a e r  no  taken  w h i c h  but  r u s h  and  the  did  o c c u r  h o u r  traffic  k n o w n  d e c i b e l  l e v e l  w a s  p l a c e d at  the  p r i o r  to  the  m e a s u r e m e n t  n o i s e .  m e a s u r e m e n t  w a s  a l s o  b u s e s ,  of  r e c o r d  end  of  the  traffic  i . e .  the  in  the  this  h o u r .  s p e e d a n d flow  l a r g e  the  given  buildings  traffic  a n d  a p p e n d i x .  or  n o i s e  the  n u m b e r  a n d m o t o r c y c l e s  s u c h as  p r e s e n c e  of  r e c o r d e d ,  (both w a y s )  the  a n d  M o d e l  day  d u r a t i o n  u s e d to  at  location  s e c o n d s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  as  of  30  t r u c k s ,  a p p a r a t u s  s u c h  T h e  traffic  t i m e s  tone  h o u r ' s  h o u r  v a n s ,  a n d  B r u e l  bu  c a l i b r a t i o n  traffic  the  the  a  sound  r e c o r d e r .  a n d  R e c o r d e r .  f r o m  10 A M  e a c h one  traffic  f e a t u r e s  of  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  D u r i n g  other  v a r i e d  r e c o r d e d .  of  L e v e l  ineeach location;  e a c h l o c a t i o n ' s  p i c k u p s  J  G r a p h i c  m e a s u r e d  b e g i n n i n g  of  2305  .  e  tape  obta'i&ed'vuJS.Hie t h e  haThd <^©tpyrofbtfed nois'S >le-feels:'SsasJ  A - w e i g h t e d  of  p a s s i n g  In  c a r s ,  the  addition,  a n d  ' l a n d s c a p e '  t r e e s  l a n d s c a p e  w e r e  c h a r a c -  137  C o d i n g  In  c o d i n g  p r o g r a m s  h a v e ,  no  and  the  the  exact  it  w a s  of  of  u s e  data  obtained.  the  m a k e  s o m e  r e s u l t s  f o r  c o m p u t e r  e x a m p l e ,  c o m p i l e d .  d e s i g n e d  so  that  o r d i n a l ,  it  w a s  r a t h e r  T w o  it  statistical  the  w h i c h  c o d i n g  quite  c o u l d  to  c a r d i n a l ,  of  In  w a s  a n s w e r s  e x a m p l e s  the  H o w e v e r ,  n e c e s s a r y  than  b y  c o m p r o m i s e s  obtained.  or  c a t e g o r i e s ,  a n  in  c o m p u t e d  w a s  s u c h that  to  the  v e h i c l e s ,  n u m b e r  a few  for  affected  n u m b e r  w a s  data  n e c e s s a r y  doubt,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  one  the  p l a c e d  this  w i l l  to  u s e  the  into  i n f o r m a t i o n  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  above  n o i s e  e a s y  as  be  code  the  of  suffice  the  to  d e m o n s t r a t e .  1.  T h e  r e s p o n s e s  attitudes  a  t o w a r d  s e m a n t i c  five  In  5,  o n .  an  these  i n d i c a t e d  a n s w e r  T h u s ,  i n d i c a t i o n  a n n o y i n g  the  a g r e e ,  d i s a g r e e ,  c o d i n g  w h i c h  traffic  or  w h i c h  that  traffic  r e s p o n d e n t  the  p e r s o n .  to  be  d e c i d e d  m i l d  n u m b e r ,  n o i s e  A  b e  a n n o y a n c e  c o n v e y e d  w a s  of  on  s y s t e m ,  the  i n d i f f e r e n t  w i t h  the  that  to  a n s w e r  b e , c o d e d  4,  g r e a t e r  3 w o u l d  to,  statement.  any  w o u l d  indifferent  i . e .  i n t e r v i e w e e  a n n o y a n c e  the  r e s i d e n t ' s  i n d i c a t e d  b o t h e r s o m e  v a l u e  s o m e w h a t  the  rating  d i s a g r e e  w a s  greatest  h i g h e r  tfte  it  be  p o s s i b l e :  a g r e e ,  strongly  about  to  s c a l e  w e r e  m i l d l y  the  to  w e r e  L i k e r t  a n s w e r s  the  s t a t e m e n t s  n o i s e  r e s p o n s e s  s t r o n g l y  m i l d l y  c e r t a i n  differential  p o s s i b l e  c o u l d  to  and  so  the  a n d  indicate  h i s  n o i s e  138  environment o r to f e e l that the noise was  of b o r d e r l i n e  status, noticeable perhaps but not r e a l l y  annoying.  A value of 1 would indicate that the respondent feels he is not at a l l annoyed by t r a f f i c noise. 2.  In the coding of the socioeconomic  data, c e r t a i n categories  or levels of educational attainment were given rather than have a specific grade l e v e l mentioned.  It thus became  n e c e s s a r y to convert these educational levels to a numeric scale.  T h i s was  accomplished by a s s i g n i n g to  the lowest educational l e v e l the value 1 (in this case a public school diploma) and a 6 to the highest l e v e l (a postgraduate degree).  Intermediate levels of education took  on athe integer values between 1 and 6 . Again, the higher the number, the greater the corresponding l e v e l of education. The use of two types of coding, c a r d i n a l (or exact numbers) in the case of v e h i c l e numbers and noise measurements, and o r d i n a l (or rank order) in the case of attitudes and some socioeconomic  data  presents a p r o b l e m i n that the statistical p r o g r a m s a r e designed p r i m a r i l y to use c a r d i n a l values (i.e. the actual numbers).  The  use  of o r d i n a l rankings i n statistical analyses \such as factor and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i s l i m i t e d because of the lack of a constant or determinate  i n t e r v a l scale in much of the data;  e.g. a 4 on the  annoyance scale does not indicate twice the annoyance of a 2,  and,  139  in  like  t h r e e  It  m a n n e r ,  t i m e s  w a s  felt  h o w e v e r ,  this  as  b e c a u s e  both  in  i n v o l v e d  Of  f i r s t  not  the  eventually  to  a n  effort  it  w a s  the  p e r s o n s  T h e  fact  that  of  the  w a s  f i r s t ,  It  the  n o i s e  t h e r e  at  the  w o u l d  the  h o m e  w a s  for  this  a b l o c k  to  the  is  data,  a n d  it  of  w e r e  h e l p f u l .  o n  for  street  d i m i n i s h  subject.  half  h a v e  p o r c h  a b o v e .  w a s  it  the  to  b e e n  o r  given  b l o c k  the  a  r o a d -  to  traffic  do  t h i s .  n o i s e  better  l a w n  of  m u c h  the  n o i s e  and  to  the  better  r e s p o n d e n t .  s e p a r a t i n g  substantially  w a s  p r o b l e m s  the  m e a s u r e d  (where  T h i s  at  not  e x p e r i e n c e d b y  o r  the  w h i c h  w i t h  d e c i d e d  h a v e  m a d e  b e n e f i c i a l  g e n e r a t e d  the  w e r e  to  t a k e n  be  in  the  c o l l e c t e d ,  a n a l y s e s  w o u l d  2.  d e s c r i b e d  a s  w o u l d  not  c o l l e c t e d w a s  addition  b e t w e e n  w o u l d  a c t u a l l y  n o i s y  s e r v e  of  an  later  r e l a t i o n  often  m a j o r  it  n o i s e  a p p a r a t u s  l e v e l s  w a s  that  r e s p o n s e ,  a n a l y s i s ,  the  s c h e m e s  the  is  in  c o n s t r u c t i o n  data  6  l e v e l  prudent  statistical  t i m e .  i n t e r v i e w e d  m a d e )  n o i s e  that  of  that  traffic  m e a s u r i n g  r e s p o n d e n t S f r o m  m e n t  the  subjective  n o i s e  of  of  af  of  c o d e d  data  m e a s u r e m e n t s  u n d e r s t a n d ' t h e  b e i n g  i n d i c a t i o n  the  c o d e  s e v e r a l m i s t a k e s  c o d i n g  fact  N o i s e  felt,  the  s e e n that  the  the  e x t r e m e l y  m i x e d  u s e d for  d u r i n g  to  be  of  in  c o l l e c t i o n  w a s  l e v e l  s c a l e s  m a j o r i t y  b e e n  the  u s e d .  andindividual's  locate  of  c o r r e l a t i o n s  c o m p o s i t i o n  In  be  w a s  b e c a u s e  a t t e m p t  u s e  t h e s e  f o r e s i g h t  c a n  a n d  e d u c a t i o n  s o m e o n e w h o s e  great  it  the  e m p l o y  h a v e  i m p o r t a n c e  intended  side  w o u l d  s e l e c t i o n  in  a s  g r e a t e r  hindsight,  the  to  the  H e r e ,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e  w i t h  intelligent  n e c e s s a r y  f o r m .  In  s o m e o n e  the  m e a s u r e -  the  p a r t i a l l y  effects  140  a c c o u n t e d  of  the  f o r  t i m e  i m p r o v e d  n o i s e  an  thus,  and  to  u s e  f o r  12  traffic  a r e a  c o n s i s t  a s p e c t  of  of  the  a  A M  in  the  a n a l y s i s  l o n g e r  this  E v e n  r e d u c e d  I m p r o v e d  s m a l l e r  total  a n d  the  in  entire  the  of  the  a b o v e ,  in  few  t i m e  331  a  as  one  both  in  nature  b l o c k  m i g h t  m o r e  and  gives  the  a r e a  the  data  of  be  t e r m s  of  the  data  of  of  w a s  in  the  obtaining  m o r e  h o m o g e n e o u s  be  the  data  n o i s e  of  o v e r  that  in  w h a t  the  of  a r e a s  definitive  w a s  of  of  the  T h e  m a y  r e s u l t s .  f o r m e d  a n d  .  profile  l i k e .  a r e a .  b l o c k s  data  c o l l e c t e d  h o m o g e n e o u s  data  A M  w e e k d a y s  N o i s e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  w e r e  if  a  p e r h a p s  it  e x p e c t e d  if  on  m i n u t e s  c o n d u c t e d  traffic  a s  11  i n d i c a t i o n  m a k e  the  f r o m  is  f e w  gives  no  w a s  m a y  m a d e  w h i c h  e v e r y  m i d - d a y ,  a r e a  A u g u s t ) .  h o w e v e r ,  s a m p l e s  d u r i n g  w e r e  data  c o n s t r a i n t s  n o i s e  street  b e e n  c o l l e c t i o n  s e c u r i t y  the  of  h a v e  the  p a r t i c u l a r  s e c o n d s  i n  of  to  to  t a k e n  m o n t h  i n t e r v i e w s  p o s s i b i l i t i e s  p o s s i b l y  the  a  a s p e c t  the  reliability  and  a n d  p a r t i c u l a r  i n f e r i o r  e n v i r o n m e n t  different  of  f o r  the  f o r  point  the  a n a l y s i s  f r o m  t i m e  s a m p l e  s a m p l e  c o u l d  r e s p e c t  e q u i p m e n t  h o u r  v a s t l y  s a m p l i n g  A  i n t e r v i e w e e s  one  n o i s e  is  a d v e r s e  quite  a  P M  a g g r e g a t i o n .  city  of  m e a s u i n g  n o i s e  w a y  n o i s e  A n o t h e r  of  4  p a r t i c u l a r  t e r m  B e c a u s e  w i t h  a l s o  d u r i n g  p e r i o d .  a  c o l l e c t i o n  and  a  at  data  -'(all m e a s u r e m e n t s  e . g .  h a v e  in  T h u r s d a y  p r o p e r l y ;  only  s e p a r a t i o n  p a r t i c u l a r l y  the  t r a f f i c  on  10  h o u r  the  n o i s e  c o n s i s t e d  the  n o o n  c o l l e c t e d  24  this  d a t a .  e x a m p l e ,  b e t w e e n  of  c o n s i d e r a b l y ,  i n v o l v i n g  for  i n c l u d i n g  v a r i a b l e s .  T h e  of  b y  the  into  141  a n a l y s i s  w i t h  the  a b o v e  s m a l l e r  o n  the  this  p e r f o r m e d  data  of  In  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  h o w e v e r ,  traffic  the  fact  n o i s e  p r o v i n c i a l  e x i s t e d .  than  t h e m  either  ately,  it  this  t h r o u g h  que  that  to  to  offer  a p p e a r s  o r  that  the  in  an  o n  the  w e r e  m e t i c u l o u s  it  an  q u i c k l y .  w a s  part  of  quite  o r  to  objective  data  b l o c k  to  initially  a n d  any  d e s i r e d  In  m o s t  attitudes  In  m a n y  t o w a r d  o w n  m o r e  e l i m i n a t e  testing,  a n d  the  the  city  n o i s e  w o u l d  d e s i r e s ,  be  U n f o r t u n -  p r o b l e m  r e d e s i g n  m a y  r a t h e r  t r u t h f u l .  a  o r  a l r e a d y  r e s p o n d e n t s  thought  that  c a s e s ,  c a s e s  traffic  a few  they  a n d  into  p e r f o r m e d  a n s w e r  what  their  to  be  s p o n s o r e d by  c u r b  d e s i g n ,  the  c o n c e r n e d  to  w a y  of  w a s  effort  only  d i s a g g r e g a t i o n  i n t e r v i e w .  r e s p o n s e s  d r a w b a c k  d a t a .  the  s u r v e y  s h a d e d  the  of  quite  one  d i s a g g r e g a t i o n  i n t e r v i e w  if  T h e  a  p r e s u m e  f o c u s  i n t e r v i e w e r  w h i c h  the  that  i n t e r v i e w  a p p a r e n t  a s k e d  the  the  is  r e o r g a n i z e d  the  the  attitude  r e s p o n s e s  is  of  g o v e r n m e n t  T h i s  l e d  helpful  e v e n  the  k n o w  b e c a m e  r e s p o n d e n t s  h a v e  on  g r o u p s .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  p r e j u d i c e  a n a l y s i s  not  that  c o m m o n  effect,  i n t e r v i e w e e  s m a l l e r  h o w e v e r ,  i m p l i e s  s o m e  in  d i s c r i m i n a n t  these  s u g g e s t i o n ,  b l o c k s  b a s i s  w o u l d ,  o n  s u c h  of  as  the  s t i o n n a i r e .  D e s p i t e  the  be  e m p h a s i z e d  o n  g r o u n d s  w o u l d  m o r e  be  of  above  that,  m a n y  p r a c t i c a l i t y  t e c h n i c a l l y  :ldeal  in  l i m i t a t i o n s  to  s h o r t c o m i n i n g s ,  the  e v e n though  i n f e r i o r  c o n d i t i o n s .  c a s e s ,  a n d  it  ' o p t i m a l '  d e c i s i o n s  c o u l d b e  t a k e n  it  ^should  w e r e  s e e n that  d e c i s i o n s  m a d e  m a d e  they  u n d e r  142  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Interview No. I I I I Date  r r n  The Department of C i v i l Engineering of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Is conducting this survey to determine how you feel about t h i s neighbourhood and improvements you would l i k e to see made. We would appreciate i t i f you could take a few moments to answer the following questions. A.  F i r s t l y we would l i k e to know something about where you l i v e . 1. House Address? 2. Do you own or rent?  own Q  rent  Q  3. How long have you lived at your present address? less than 1 year  Q  5 - 1 0 years  •  1 - 2 years  •  1 0 - 1 5 years  •  3 - 5 years  •  > 15 years  Q  4. Where did you l i v e before moving to your present address? Rural  •  Small town of less than Medium town of  10,000  10,000 - 250,000  Large c i t y of greater than 5.  •  250,000  Number of vehicles owned by the family? cars  Q  trucks  {~|  motorcycles  L]  • Q  143  B.  Now we would like to know what improvements to the neighbourhood you would like to see carried out. Governments spend about one hundred dollars per family each year on the improvement of public f a c i l i t i e s in the Vancouver metropolitan area. Suppose you had the opportunity of deciding how "your" hundred dollars should be spent. How would you allocate your $100 among the following possible types of investments in such a way as to improve the area as you think i t should be Improved? You may spend the whole amount on any one type of improvement, or s p l i t 1t among some or all of the alternatives in any amounts you wish. 1.  Reduce air pollution  $,  2.  Improve police and fire protection  $  3.  Reduce traffic noise  $  4.  Reduce industrial noise  $.  5.  Improve parks and recreation f a c i l i t i e s  $„  6.  Improve educational f a c i l i t i e s  $  7.  Improve public transportation f a c i l i t i e s  $.  8.  Improve welfare services  $  9.  Improve public health and hospital f a c i l i t i e s  $  10.  Improve street and freeway f a c i l i t i e s  $  11.  Other (specify)  $ TOTAL $100  144  C.  We are now going to ask you some questions about the noisiness of your neighbourhood. Please answer each question as accurately as you can. In thinking about this block where you l i v e , would you please Indicate to what extent you are annoyed by each o f the following noises. 1 2 3 4 5 Not Noticeable Mildly Moderately Very noticeable but not annoying annoying annoying annoying 1.  Noise from cars  2.  Noise from trucks  3.  Noise from motorcycles  4.  Noise from  5.  Noise from industry  6.  Noise from other houses  7.  Noise from children  8.  Noise from lawn mowers  9.  Other  • • • •  • • • • • • • • •  aircraft  (specify)  d  • • • •  • • • • • • • •  • • • • • •  • • • • • • • • •  d  • •  Would you please indicate your agreement or disagreement with the f o l i c statements. 1.  The noise from t r a f f i c in this neighbourhood i's annoying. Strongly Agree  • 2.  Mildly Agree  d  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  Mildly Disagree  Strongly Disagree  •  •  •  L i v i n g here with the t r a f f i c noise i s a strain on my nerves. Strongly Agree  •  Mildly Agree  •  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  Mildly Disagree  Strongly Disagree  •  •  •  145  3.  We would seriously consider moving i f the traffic noise gets much worse. Strongly Agree  • 4.  •  •  •  d  Mildly Agree  •  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  •  Mildly Disagree  •  Strongly Disagree  D  Mildly Agree  •  Neither Agree No Disagree  •  Mildly Disagree  d  Strongly Disagree  d  Mildly Agree  d  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  •  Mildly Disagree  •  Strongly Disagree  d  This neighbourhood is no noisier from traffic than the last one I lived i n . Strongly Agree  • 8.  •  Strongly Disagree  We would (do) tolerate sorce traffic noise because we like living close to ' work/shoppi ng/schools. Strongly Agree  7.  •  Mildly Disagree  There has been a noticeable increase In t r a f f i c noise here over the past few years. Strongly Agree  6.  •  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  Traffic noise bothers us less now than when we f i r s t moved here. Strongly Agree  5.  Mildly Agree  Mildly Agree  •  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  Mildly Disagree  a  a  Strongly Disagree  d  As long as the traffic noise is continuous i t doesn't bother me; i t the loud bangs, rumblings and screeching which annoy me. Strongly Agree  •  Mildly Agree  •  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  •  Mildly Disagree  d  Strongly Disagree  •  Is  146  9. A few loud noises do not bother me, but so many motorcycles and/or trucks go past here that it is annoying. Strongly Agree  Mildly Agree  •  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  •  •  Mildly Disagree  Strongly Disagree  •  •  10. I find it much noisier from traffic downtown than here. Strongly Agree  Mildly Agree  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  Mildly Disagree  Strongly Disagree  •  •  •  •  •  11. I notice the noise much less at night than during the day Strongly Agree  Mildly Agree  •  •  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  •  Mildly Disagree  Strongly Disagree  •  •  12. Traffic noise is more annoying here in the summer than in the winter. Strongly Agree  Mildly Agree  •  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  •  Mildly Disagree  Strongly Disagree  d  •  13. It is only the rush hour traffic which is annoying. Strongly Agree  Mildly Agree  •  •  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  •  Mildly Disagree  Strongly Disagree  •  •  14. Reducing traffic here would get rid of most of the noise. Strongly Agree  Mildly Agree  •  •  Neither Agree Nor Disagree  •  Mildly Disagree  Strongly Disagree  •  •  15. A general restriction on commuter traffic in residential areas (such as was recently done in the West End) should be encouraged to reduce traffic noise. Strongly Agree  Mildly Agree  Nei ther Agree Nor Disagree  Mildly Disagree  Strongly Disagree  •  •  •  •  •  147  Now we would like to get the following factual What sex are you?  male  []]  female  information.  Q  Which age category dc you f a l l into? under 20  •  50-59  •  20-29  •  60-69  •  30-39  •  70 or older  •  40 - 49  •  Which occupation category most closely f i t s what you do? (Note: you may f i t into more than one category). Professional  •  Homemaker  •  Managerial  •  Not Employed  •  Secretarial  •  Part-time Employee  •  Sales, Clerical  •  Student  •  Craftsman  •  Shift Work?  •  Unskilled  •  day Q  evening •  night  Q  What is the category of school you last attended? Public School Diploma  Q  High School Diploma  •  Professional Training  Q  Junior College  |~1  University Degree  tZ3  Post Graduate Degree(s)  Q  What is your total household income (including income for a l l members of the family)? 1000 - 11999 under 2000 2000 - 3999 4000 - 5999 6000 - 7999 8000 - 9999 Comments?  • • • • •  12000 - 13999 14000 - 15999 16000 - 20000 over 20000  • • • • •  NOISE AMD TRAFFIC HEASURE'SEflT SU^i 1ARY SHEET  DAY-  TIME:  .  LOCATION:  FLOW CHARACTERISTIC:  INTERRUPTED?  YES j  ( i . e . , the presence o f a stop s i g n , s i g n a l GRADE GREATER THAI! SHIELDING:  2%;  YES  PARKED CARS  YES  LARGE TREES  YES  LARGE BUILDINGS  YES  OTHER  YES  |  HO  etc.)  •  • n • LT • • • • • NO  NO NO  NO  NO  DISTANCE OF POINT OF MOISE -EASlREHEilT FROM NEAREST PAVEMENT EDGE ( F T ) : NUMBER OF TRAVELED LATJES (BOTH HAYS): TRAFFIC VOLUME:  CARS  .  (VPH)  PICKUP ft PAMEL  (VPH)  TRUCKS  (VPH)  SI'SES MOTORCYCLES  •  (VPH) (VPH)  TOTAL 1 0 MEASURED SPEEDS  (MPH):  OTHER ROAD AND TRAFFIC FEATURES THOUGHT TO BE SIGNIFICANT: (signals,  signs,  pavement c o n d i t i o n , c o n g e s t i o n , p e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g s )  ILLUSTRATE ON MAP PHYSICAL SITUATION (esp. EFFECT NOISE. COMMENTS:  t r e e s , w a l l s , embankments) WHICH MAY  149  A P P E N D I X  B :  M E A S U R E M E N T  N O I S E  A N D  I N D I C E S  Outline  S o u n d s  changes)  i n a l  w a v e  defined  is  in  the  an  p h y s i c a l  elastic  m o t i o n  as  to  the  u n d e s i r a b l e  the  p r e s s u r e  n o i s e s  a r e  a m b i e n t  l e v e l ,  e a r  o r  p r e s s u r e  n o i s e  those  the  sound  the  l o g a r i t h m  (base  the  r e f e r e n c e  p u r e s s u r e ,  l e v e l  S P L  the  of  (dB)  sounds  a r e  n o i s e  ( S P L ) ,  in  20  any  is  10  t h r o u g h  l o n g i t u d -  N o i s e  a  the  is  is  u s u a l l y  a m b i e n t  given  as  distinctly  sound,  defined  p r e s s u r e  m i c r o b a r .  n o i s e  e n v i r o n m e n t ;  m e a s u r e d  u n w a n t e d  the  .0002  log  p r e s s u r e  T h e  d e c i b e l s ,  of  o r  noticeable  l e v e l  of  ratio  u s u a l l y  =  p r o p a g a t e  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  (dB),  the  (vibrations  l i s t e n e r .  w h i c h  T h e  d e c i b e l s  10)  of  w h i c h  u n w a n t e d  n o i s e .  in  d i s t u r b a n c e s  m e d i u m  a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g  p a r t i c u l a r  f r o m  a r e  of  as  this  apart  s o u n d  w h e r e  20  t i m e s  s o u n d  to  T h e  d e c i b e l  l o g a r i t h m  is  is  10  p r o p o r t i o n a l  a  m e a s u r e  T h e  a  that  c a n  e x t r e m e l y  sound  l e v e l  the  be  S o u n d  e n e r g y  is  h e a r d  by  00002  is  the  z e r o  a f o r m  s q u a r e  is  of  of  m i c r o b a r s  b a r  ).  A  =  1  the  a r e  p o w e r ,  of  the  h e a r i n g  audible  of  a n d  p r e s s u r e .  l e v e l  good  (1  or  sound  the  s m a l l e s t  b a s e  c o n c e r n e d  the  w i t h  the  e n e r g y  about  p e r s o n  T h e  w h e n  quantities  d B ,  a  2  l o c a t i o n .  of  m e a s u r e m e n t  m e a s u r e d  quantity,  quiet  p r e s s u r e  of  p o w e r .  this  r e f e r e n c e  sound  and  to  of  unit  w e a k e s t  in  s o u n d  an  h a s  a  a t m o s p h e r i c  2 p r e s s u r e ;  1 m i c r o b a r  =  1 d y n e / c m  d e c i b e l  is  f quantity.  T h e  m e a s u r e  of  p o w e r  is  IkOjlog  sound  p r e s s u r e  In  p r e s s u r e  d e a l i n g  level  of  the  p r e s s u r e  of  the  w i d e  sound  l e v e l  6  In  the  sound  in  in  w i t h  decibiels  the  of  w h i c h  and  m i c r o b a r s .  s o u n d  is  u s e d  T h i s  is  p r e s s u r e s  c o r r e s p o n d s  to  an  I *  r  i  r  \J \J  i  Y )  7  •  I h e  U CJ J  t h e r e f o r e  m e a s u r e m e n t  d e c i b e l s  of  is  n  relative  2  n o i s e ,  not  done  to  it  the  e a s t  e n c o u n t e r e d .  i n c r e a s e  in  the  is  the  sound  actual  the  A  v a l u e  h a n d l i n g  doubling  sound  of  p r e s s u r e  dB .  c o m b i n i n g  d e c i b e l  sound  in  r a n g e  p r e s s u r e  of  l e v e l  p  / 1 U  a  two  v<a<lue:s c a n n o t  p r e s s u r e  l e v e l  p r e s s u r e s .  is  or  b e  m o r e  s e p a r a t e  a d d e d  d e t e r m i n e d  s o u n d  d i r e c t l y .  f r o m  the  p r e s s u r e  R a t h e r  the  resultant  of  l e v e l s  resultant  the  two  151  \J  R  P ,  2 1  +  P _  of  70  2  E x a m p l e :  A d d  two  sound  p r e s s u r e  l e v e l s  d B  and  74  dB  20  log  P 7  0  =  2  3.7  0  =  log  1  P  =  the  u s e  20  log  T h u s  70  of  h i g h e r  above  10"  J  =  d B  (-628)  0002  \.  +  74  tables  a l l o w s  initial  sound  log  @  +  =  /  20  dB  =  7 5 . 4  one  to  r e a d  p r e s s u r e  =  (1 . 0 0 2 )  log  10 V  \  .0002  . 0002  5.01  0002  P  R  10  =  10  x  j  )  10"  1 . 002  1 . 18  5.  9  x  10  .=  7 5 . 4  d B .  off  l e v e l  the  a m o u n t  without  to  going  be  added  t h r o u g h  to  the  c a l c u l a t i o n s .  F o r  (no  x  =  3.7  .0002  .628  P  T h e  10 V  3.16  0002  74  io(^b(32-j  1 o g  a  point  o b s t r u c t i o n s  o r  s o u r c e  ( e . g .  b o u n d a r y  an  individual  effects)  sound  t r u c k )  p r e s s u r e  in  a f r e e  v a r i e s  field  152  i n v e r s e l y  w i t h  p r e s s u r e  is  l e v e l  w i l l  of  6  h a l v e d  d B .  result  in  F o r  p r e s s u r e  E a c h  the  d i s t a n c e .  a  line  d o u b l i n g  p r e s s u r e  sound  p r e s s u r e  sound  o v e r  a  flat  o r  d i s t a n c e  to  p r e s s u r e  m e a s u r i n g  f i l t e r s  T h e  to  b a s i s  c o n t o u r s  and  it  is  f o r  of  be  T h e  is  a  f r e q u e n c y .  l e v e l s  to  add  and  sound  of  in  m e a s u r e d  this  attempt  the  e a r l i e r  l e v e l  of  a n o i s e  obtained  by  u s i n g  then  equal  c u r v e s  b e c o m e s  a m e t e r  w h o s e  h u m a n  m o s t  c o m m o n  a r e  s p e c i f i e d .  w e i g h t i n g  n e t w o r k s  T h e  a r e  f r e q u e n c y  s h o w n  in  l o u d n e s s  of  F l e t c h e r  the  w e i g h t e d  w e i g h t i n g  r e s p o n s e  F i g u r e  or  f r e q u e n c i e s .  3 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  w i t h  w h e n  n e t w o r k s  c e r t a i n  the  of  sound  duplicate  to  the  l o u d n e s s  effect  to  in  m e t e r s  into  the  on  on  the  w e i g h t i n g  a r e  3 d B  i n c r e a s e s  both  e l e c t r i c a l  m e t e r  of  7.  a p p a r e n t  of  sound  attenuation  5 t h r o u g h  take  n e t w o r k s  D a d s o n  this  l e v e l .  d i s t a n c e .  d i s t a n c e  function  an  the  the  of  s o u r c e  field,  d e c r e a s e  T h e  T o  of  s o u n d  p r e s s u r e  and  a  in f i g u r e s  r e s p o n s e .  w e i g h t i n g  l e v e l  h a l v i n g  sound  a f r e e  root  in  u s u a l l y  the  d i s t a n c e ,  p r e s s u r e  traffic)? in  s q u a r e  of  r e c e i v e r  s o u n d  result  a r e  r e s p o n s e  R o b i n s o n  the  E x a m p l e s  h o w e v e r ,  the  the  the  s e e n  l e v e l s  p r e s s u r e  these  p r e s s u r e  of  A g a i n ,  n e c e s s a r y  r e d u c e  M u n s o n .  sound  and  s o u n d  r e s p o n s e ,  ( s t r e a m  w i l l  in  b e t w e e n  in  w i t h  d o u b l i n g  d e c r e a s e  dB  f r e q u e n c y  sound,  l e v e l  6  3 d B .  c a n  p r e s s u r e  a  of  l e v e l .  by  e a c h  distance  d i s t a n c e  l e v e l  u n i f o r m  attributed  the  s o u r c e  the  f o r  resultant  i n v e r s e l y  of  S o u n d  a  i n c r e a s e  v a r i e s  sound  w i t h  H a l v i n g  a n  T h u s  8.  of  the  Source:  C.R. B r a g d o n , Noi se Pennsylvania Press,  Pol 1ut i o n . U n i v . 1971, p. 115.  of  50 100  200  400  I  600 600  800  1,000  2,000  DISTANCE FROM S O U R C E , IN F E E T Typical continuous noise produced by surface ground transportation modes.  Figure  Source:  6.  F a l l o f f of Continuous Transportation Noise over Distance.  U.S. DOT " R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for Transportation,Final Report"  i  4,000  Northeast Corridor NTIS, Sept. 1971  5,000  Distance Noise reduction  provided  by various highway  from x of  configurations.  Figure  7.  Lane in feet  Frequency  in  Hertz  >ON  Figure  8.  Frequency  Response  Characteristics  of  Weighting  Networks.  157  M e a s u r e m e n t  T h e  of  b a s i c  sound  l e v e l  sound  p r e s s u r e  It  w i l l  the  u s u a l l y  T h e  in  p o r t a b l e  of  of  the  an  n e t w o r k s .  p r e s s u r e  a m p l i f i e d  T h e  T h e  the  w e i g h t i n g  w h i c h  a  s m a l l  attenuator  n e t w o r k s  an  actuate  to  a r e  the  p r e s s u r e .  indicating  a m e t e r  this  the  m e t e r ,  f l u c t u a -  o r  r e c o r d e r .  r a n g e  s o u n d  e l e c t r i c a l  an  ,t>ransforms  voltage  r a n g e ,  suit  the  m i c r o p h o n e ,  e l e c t r i c a l  to  is  r e a d s  m i c r o p h o n e  into  only  s y s t e m  r e f e r e n c e  attenuator,  w a v e s  o v e r  by  s t a n d a r d  sufficiently  r e a d s  m e t e r  o m n i d i r e c t i o n a l  w e i g h t i n g  adjusted  m e a s u r e d .  sound m e a s u r i n g  c a l i b r a t e d  u s u a l l y  and  a  a  a r e  m e t e r  t e r m s  c o m p o s e d  sound  w h i c h  of  a c c u r a t e  a m p l i f i e r ,  c h a n g i n g  s e l e c t e d  a n  l e v e l  be  e l e c t r i c a l  tions  i n s t r u m e n t  m e t e r ,  adjustable  and  N o i s e  b e i n g  b e i n g  c i r c u i t s  w h i c h 4  p r o v i d e  for  v a r i o u s  sensitivities  C a l i b r a t i o n s ,  a n d  tone,  a r e  p r o p e r l y .  A  f r e q u e n c y  a c t i v a t e d  m e t e r .  n o i s e  a n d  u s e d to  b a n d  p a s s  M a g n e t i c  b a n d w i d t h  p e r c e n t a g e  of  the  is  n o i s e .  for  d i s t r i b u t i o n  o v e r  sound  a  sound  of  the  r a n g e  p r e s s u r e  a k n o w n  l e v e l  It  m e t e r  c o n s i s t s  a r e  and  of  later  s o u n d  l e v e l s  is  p r e s s u r e  d e t e r m i n e  a  set  in  of  to  sounds  d r i v e  p r e s s u r e  b e t w e e n  to  b a n d  s t o r i n g  a n a l y z e  c h a n n e l s  l e v e l s ,  70  a  and  lab.  into  the  i n d i v i d u a l l y  the  u s e d  l e v e l  functioning  r e c o r d i n g  a n a l y s i s  a n a l y z e r  f r e q u e n c i e s .  is  a m p l i f i e r  u s e d f o r  r e c o r d e d  of  different  often u s e d to  attenuator  field  distribute  of  sound  r e c o r d e r s  the  statistical  statistically  the  f i l t e r s ,  in  the  a n a l y z e r  tape  e n c o u n t e r e d  c e r t a i n  of  sounds  p r o d u c e  e n s u r e  f r e q u e n c y  s p e c t r u m  T h e  w h i c h  to  a n d  75  e. g.  d B  of  a  that  w i l l  -158  be  p l a c e d  80  d B  c a n  in  w i l l  be  the  b e  70  -  75  dB  p l a c e d i n  c a l i b r a t e d  and  c h a n n e l ,  the  75  adjusted  -  80  to  that  d B  p e r c e n t a g e  c h a n n e l ,  h a n d l e  a  b e t w e e n  etc.  v a r i e t y  T h e  of  75  a n d  a n a l y z e r  r a n g e s  and  b a n d w i d t h s .  R a t i n g  S c a l e s  A  either  rating  in  a  w e i g h t e d  m o r e  s i m p l e  s o u n d  n o i s e  to  a c c o u n t  u s u a l l y  istics  l e v e l  of  the  s u c h  d u r i n g  m a n n e r  a n a l y z e d  f o r  d e s c r i b e s  w a y  c o m p l i c a t e d  of  and  s c a l e  into  the  the  n o i s e  the  that  m a y  of  a c c o u n t  the  of  e x p o s u r e  the  n o i s y  b a n d s .  i*nhw_hich  tone,  n o i s e  r e a d i n g  i n t r o d u c t i o n  (pure  the  a t r a n s i e n t  f r e q u e n c y  context  entails  as  only  A  m a x i m u m  event,  f o r  the  rating  n o i s e  o r  in  t i m e  s t i m u l u s  a n d for  A -  s o m e  v a r i a t i o n  p r o c e d u r e  c o r r e c t i o n s  duration)  itself,  is  for  the  attempts  e x p e r i e n c e d  the  c h a r a c t e r -  p a r t i c u l a r  5 situation  (time  T h e  w h i c h  h a v e  offers  of  day  rating  b e e n  it  o c c u r r e d ) .  s y s t e m s  p r o p o s e d  s o m e t h i n g  a  little  dfcscussed b e l o w  o v e r  the  different  past  a r e  f e w  f r o m  the  but  a few  y e a r s .  o t h e r s  E a c h  a n d  of  m a n y  s y s t e m  e a c h h a s  its  p r o p o n e n t s .  1 .  w h i c h  in  attempts  a m a n n e r  500  T h e  H z )  s y s t e m .  a r e  A - w e i g h t e d  sound  l e v e l  is  to  sound  l e v e l  m e t e r  e a r .  L o w  m o r e  quite  T h i s  is  m a k e  like  the  the  s e v e r e l y  h u m a n  d i s c r i m i n a t e d  a c c o m p l i s h e d  t h r o u g h  a  r e l a t i v e l y  r e s p o n d  to  f r e q u e n c i e s  against  the  old  u s e  of  in  the  s y s t e m  sounds  (below  A - w e i g h t e d  e l e c t r i c a l  w e i g h t i n g  159  networks'  in  the  r e s p o n s e .  O v e r  c o n s i s t e n t l y ,  w i t h  •  of  the  f o r  T h i s  to  a  d i f f e r e n c e s  a r r i v e s  is  T h e  then  a r e  at  u s e d  its  n o r m a l l y  p r o c e d u r e  sound  h a s  l e v e l  in  s h o w n  in  by  E .  t o u d n e s s  m a s k i n g  other  of  o r  flat  to  be  c o r r e l a t i o n  the  intense  b a n d  a r e  m a s k e d  is  d e t e r m i n e d  a  this  c o m p o s i t e  b y  the  the  f o r m u l a  and  o c c u r  of  is  =  L e v e l  c a l c u l a t e d  m a i n l y  in  Instead  the  of  ' p e r c e i v e d  s a m e  P  equation  a  ( P N L )  w a y  m u c h  that  l o u d n e s s  n o i s i n e s s '  as  above  to  b a n d ' s  that  a n d  is  the  is  b a n d s .  c o n v e r t e d  is  s a m e  a  spinoff  w a y .  b a n d  S ,  T h e  l o u d n e s s  K r y t e r  the  p r o d u c e  b a n d  S.  i n d i v i d u a l  index,  s u m m e d ,  o t h e r  K r y t e r  the  (unit  s o u n d  fact  of  t h o s e  l o u d n e s s  the  log^Q  of  a  then  S,  4 0 + 1 0  in  a n d  a r e  contributions  index,  so than  b a n d  the  one  a s y m m e t r i c  m o r e  i n d i c e s  reflect  l o u d n e s s  P e r c e i v e d N o i s e  l e v e l  to  is  of  of  n o i s e .  Z w i c k e r ' s  r e p r e s e n t s  T h e s e  f a c t o r s  m a s k  a function  h a v e  c o m p l e x  p e r f o r m e d  i n d e x  l o u d n e s s .  w i l l  is  as  a  c o m p o n e n t s ;  m a s k i n g  a n a l y s i s  Z w i c k e r  inhibiting  this  index  the  the  and  that  w e i g h t i n g  i n d e x  S t e v e n s  a c c o u n t  c o m p u t e d .  an  a l t e r s  into  total  l e v e l  l o u d n e s s  i n d i c e s  the  S .  the  a n d f r e q u e n c y ;  b e c o m e s  l o u d n e s s  noise  " F r e q u e n c y  v a r i o u s  loudest  s u m  the  few  to  S .  account  c o m p l e x  band).  3.  of  a  l e v e l  e a c h w i t h  or  A - w e i g h t e d  c a l c u l a t i n g  into  a b o v e  c o n t r i b u t i o n  the  take  e a c h b a n d  p r e s s u r e  the  scale  l e v e l .  f o r  a l s o t a k e s  (frequencies  no  w h i c h  r e s p o n s e .  m e t h o d s  c o m p o n e n t  i n d e x  than  m e t e r  6  m e t h o d s  b e l o w  y e a r s  L o u d n e s s  d e v e l o p e d  m e t h o d  l e v e l  •  s u b j e c t i v e  B o t h  the  better  2.  w i t h  sound  noy)  the  w h i c h  p e r c e i v e d  160  n o i s e  l e v e l  a n a l y z i n g  (units  a i r c r a f t  4.  the  to  c o u r s e  N o i s e  of  s o c i a l  a n n o y i n g .  the  T h e  t a k i n g  of  a v e r a g e  T h e  N u m b e r  s u r v e y  a s p e c t s  of  P N L  is  (average  peak  outside  R e p o r t  h e a r d  n o i s e  Index  a i r c r a f t  accounttthe  a i r c r a f t  =  d B ) .  a n d  W i l s o n  into  N N I  T h e  a  P N  u s e d  in  n o i s e  a v e r a g e  n o i s e  l e v e l  w a s  °ho  as  p e a k  N o i s e  w a s  w a s  L e v e l )  the  the  u s i n g  p e a k  T h e  a v e r a g e  the  n o i s e  o c c u r r i n g  n u m b e r  5.  of  the  b a s e  of  aircraft  T r a f f i c  +  ' b a c k g r o u n d '  m e a s u r e  s o u n d  l e v e l s  L  of  =  l e v e l  L  10 10%  a n d  90%  of  of  the  range  the  the  b a c k g r o u n d  the  t i m e  n o i s e  n o i s e  P N d B  1  7 0  Q  (TNI)  L  9  Q  w e r e  r e s p e c t i v e l y .  e n v i r o n m e n t  l e v e l .  as  w e l l  as  the  7 log  N -  of  units  e a c h  s p e c i f i e d  is  and the  -  (the  p a s s a g e  A - w e i g h t e d  4 ( L  and  in  I n d e x  l e v e l  m e a s u r e  80.  L / 1 0  £  a  m o s t  10  i  in  A i r p o r t  c o m p o s i t e  15  d u r i n g  as  '  the  h e a r d  N o i s e  T N I  T h e  d u r i n g  " a  p e r i o d . "  defined  l e v e l  w e r e  n o i s e  level)  (ir)  01  L  in  d e v e l o p e d  (Heathrow)  w h i c h  N N I  s p e c i f i e d  p e a k  w a s  L o n d o n  defined  a  (NNI)  N  w h e r e  f r e q u e n t l y  n o i s e .  T h e  d e t e r m i n e  n u m b e r  a r e  L  those  the  and  N  c o m b i n a t i o n  'peak'  l e v e l  found  l e v e l .  9  Q  -  s o u n d  T h e  w h i l e  a i r c r a f t  p e r i o d .  a v e r a g e  +  P e r c e i v e d  a w e i g h t e d  sound  )  of  f i r s t  30.  l e v e l s  t e r m  s e c o n d  e x c e e d e d  e x p r e s s e s  r e p r e s e n t s  6 .  R o b i n s o n  T h e  and  a n n o y a n c e  N o i s e  is  due  r e p r e s e n t i n g  P o l l u t i o n  b a s e d  to  on  two  t e r m s ,  fluctuations  that  a n n o y a n c e  L e v e l  of  ( N P L )  one  n o i s e  due  to  N P  d e v e l o p e d  a c c o u n t i n g  l e v e l  the  w a s  a n d  the  continuous  f o r  by-  the  other  n o i s e  l e v e l .  eg  w h e r e  L  =  eg  the  ' e n e r g y '  s p e c i f i e d  0"  =  the  =  a  l e v e l  constant  T h e  the  t e r m ,  n o i s e  L  ,  and  is  is  d e v i a t i o n  o v e r  of  L  found  the  f r o m  N P k  d e t e r m i n e d  d e r i v e d  the  n o i s e  of  by  l e v e l  o v e r  a  to  i n s t a n t a n e o u s  p e r i o d  obtaining  w i t h  the  subjective J  b e  l a r g e l y  a  the  s a m e  d e t e r m i n e d  c o r r e l a t i o n  ( R o b i n s o n  of  p e r i o d  s t a n d a r d  n o i s e  k  m e a n  by  statistical  best  r e s p o n s e .  2.6).  the  a v e r a g e  a n a l y s i s  of  intensity  the  n o i s e  h i s t o r y .  L  =  10  L(t)  =  the  n o i s e  T  =  the  t i m e  eg  l o g , 1 0 5  n  l  Cio  L | t | / l l >  dt  w h e r e  l e v e l  p e r i o d  in  d B A  as  i n v o l v e d .  a funtion  of  t i m e  of  16  A s  p h y s i c a l  c a n b e  the  to  index  long  h a s  often  s y s t e m .  this  r e q u i r e d .  s h o u l d  thus  a n d the  n o i s e .  and  the  m e a s u r e m e n t s  c a l c u l a t i o n  p u r p o s e  seen,  b e e n  It  study.  w a s  n o i s e ,  T h e  c h o i c e  c o n s i d e r  p r e c i s i o n  B e c a u s e of  h i s t o r y  of  v a r i o u s  of  and  a l l  as  of  differ  of  the  in  the  rating  for  a  a c c u r a c y  a b o v e  i n v o l v e d  in  the  of  A - w e i g h t e d  s o u n d  l e v e l  r e a s o n s that  of  p a r t i c u l a r  in  e a s e  o n  a m o u n t  p r e d i c t i o n  s i m p l i c i t y ,  s t a n d a r d  b a s e d  greatly  any  a c c u r a c y ,  the  s c h e m e s ,  tradeoffs  relative  relative  c h o s e n  f o r  its  the  rating  c o m p u t i n g  of  r e s p o n s e  a p p l i c a t i o n ,  sound  l e v e l  m e a s u r i n g  it  w a s  u s e d  in  163  F O O T N O T E S  * M .  D.  H a r m e l i n k ,  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e p o r t  N o .  S y s t e m s " ,  R R 1 6 8 ,  " N o i s e Dept.  1970,  p.  of  and  V i b r a t i o n  H i g h w a y s ,  C o n t r o l  for  O n t a r i o ,  1.  2  3  4  Ibid . ,  p.  2 .  I b i d . ,  p.  4.  I b i d . ,  p.  5.  5 T h e o d o r e S c i e n c e 6  P u b l i s h e r s  L t d . ,  I b i d . ,  16.  S i r C o m m i t t e e O f f i c e ,  S c h u l t z ,  p.  A l a n on  the  L o n d o n ,  W i l s o n ,  C o m m u n i t y L o n d o n ,  N o i s e :  P r o b l e m J u l y ,  of  1963.  N o i s e  1972,  F i n a l  N o i s e ,  p.  R a t i n g s , 10.  R e p o r t  H e r  A p p l i e d  of  the  M a j e s t y ' s  S t a t i o n e r y  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0062585/manifest

Comment

Related Items