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Some experiments on headed stud connections for precast concrete panels under monotonic and cyclic shear… Bischof, Max 1978

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SOME EXPERIMENTS ON HEADED STUD CONNECTIONS FOR PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS UNDER MONOTONIC AND CYCLIC SHEAR LOADING  by MAX BISCHOF Dipl. Ing.  ETH, Zurich, 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f C i v i l  Engineering  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1978 ©  Max Bischof, 1978  In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements  for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I  agree that the Library shall make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying  of this thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head  of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that  copying or publication o f this thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain shall be allowed without my written permission.  Department of C i v i l  Engineering  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date  January  1978  not  i i  ABSTRACT  The research on headed stud connections described in  this  thesis forms a part of a larger program with the objective of pred i c t i n g the behaviour of precast concrete panel buildings  under  earthquake loads. The f i r s t objective of this research is to produce e x p e r i mentally a concrete f a i l u r e o f the connection and to compare the actual f a i l u r e load to the one predicted by the PCI design handbook. The tests show that the PCI shear-tension i n t e r a c t i o n equation for single headed studs can be used f o r the prediction of a concrete f a i l u r e f o r a connection of the type tested.  This method y i e l d s  conservative results i f a special equilibrium model for the determination of the stud tension force is used, and the bearing capacity of the structural steel angle on the concrete is neglected. The second objective of this research is to determine the bearing capacity of a reversed angle connection.  Experiments  show that this bearing capacity is equivalent to a force r e s u l t i n g from a stress equal to the concrete strength uniformly d i s t r i b u t e d over the concrete area enclosed by the structural steel angle 2" x 2 " . Furthermore, the location of this force can be assumed in the center of gravity of the structural steel angle shape, of whether'or not there is an endplate  present.  regardless  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iii  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES  vi . ,  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  v  i  i  x  i  v  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION  1  2.  CONCRETE TEST PANELS  5  2.1 2.2  3.  4.  Design o f the Connection Configuration for the Shear Cone Tests  5  Design of the Connection Configuration for the Bearing Tests  7  2.3  Fabrication of the Panels  8  2.4  Designation of the Test Panels, Testing Schedule and Fabrication Details  "11  TEST EQUIPMENT  13  3.1  Load Transfer  13  3.2  Measuring System  13  3.3  Data Acquisition  17  CONCRETE SHEAR CAPACITY OF A STUD AS RECOMMENDED BY THE PCI DESIGN HANDBOOK  18  1  V  Page  Chapter TEST RESULTS  20  5.1  Concrete Cylinder Compression  Tests  5.2  Steel Tension Tests  5.3  Failure Analysis f o r the Shear Cone Test Panels Zl to Z4  24  5.3.1  Summary of essential  24  5.3.2  Failure descript on for panel Zl  5.3.3  Failure descript on for panel Z2  5.3.4  Failure d e s c r i p t i on for panel Z3  5.3.5  Failure description for panel Z4  5.3.6  Numerical analysis of the f a i l u r e for the panels Zl to Z4  20 22  test data  24 25 26 27  2  _ ?  5.4  Determination of the Stud Tension Force at the Design Stage  30  5.5  Failure Analysis Panels Z5 to Z8  33  5.5.1  Failure description  33.  5.5.2  Bearing capacity of the reversed angle connection  33  Center of gravity of the bearing force  34  5.5.3  6.  for the Bearing Test  CONCLUSIONS FOR THE DESIGN  38 39  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A  Fabrication Details of the Test Panels  40  APPENDIX B  I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Test Equipment . .  50  APPENDIX C  Details of the Concrete and Steel Specimen Tests  56  V  Chapter  Page  APPENDIX D - I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Test of Panel ZI  62  APPENDIX E - I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the Test of Panel 12  68  APPENDIX F - I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the Test of Panel Z3  7 5  APPENDIX G - I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the Test o f Panel Z4  83  APPENDIX H - ' i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Test of Panel 15  93  APPENDIX I - I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Test of Panel Z6  TOO  APPENDIX J - I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Test of Panel Z7  106  APPENDIX K - I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the Test o f Panel Z8  1 1 2  APPENDIX L - Determination of the Shear Cone Surface Area  1 2  0  vi  LIST OF TABLES Table  1.  P a  Designation of the Test Panels, Testing Schedule  2.  Estimated Ultimate Compressive Strength of the Panels at Their Testing Day  3.  Mean Steel Properties  4.  Some Test Data f o r the Panels ZI  5.  C o e f f i c i e n t s E, f o r the E f f e c t i v e Ultimate Concrete Bearing Strength  ,  to Z4 . . . .  . .  6.  Compression Test Data f o r Concrete Cylinders of 6 i n . Diameter and 12 i n . Length  7.  Tensile Test Data for the Steel Specimen . . .  9  e  V I 1  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1.1  Typical p r e c a s t ' c o n c r e t e b u i l d i n g .  2  1.2  Welded headed stud connections showing t y p i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s i n precast b u i l d i n g s  3  2.1  Concrete p u l l o u t c a p a c i t y f o r s i n g l e studs  6  2.2  S t r a i n gage l o c a t i o n s  3.1  S t r a i n gage measuring scheme  16  5.1  Ultimate concrete compressive strength  21  5.2  Olsen compression and tension t e s t machine  5.3  Mean s t r e s s - s t r a i n diagram f o r the studs and b r i g h t bars  23  5.4  Shear-tension i n t e r a c t i o n diagram showing t e s t r e s u l t s f o r s i n g l e studs  29  5.5  Comparison of the stud tension forces from the t e s t s to those computed from various e q u i l i b r i u m model s  5.6  E q u i l i b r i u m model f o r the determination o f the stud tension forces  5.7  E q u i l i b r i u m model of the connection used i n the bearing t e s t panels  36  5.8  Derived l o c a t i o n s f o r the bearing force on the reversed s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l angle 2" x 2 "  37  Al.  Connection d e t a i l s f o r panels Zl and Z2  41  A2.  Connection d e t a i l s f o r panels Z3 and Z4  42  A3.  Connection d e t a i l s f o r panels Z5 and Z6  43  A4.  Connection d e t a i l s f o r panels Z7 and Z8  44  . . . .  9  . . . .  21  -  vi i i  ix Figure  Page  C3.  5/8 i n . diam. steel specimen  60  C4.  3/4 i n . diam. steel specimen  61  C5.  Detail  61  DI.  Load-vertical ZI  D2.  Panel ZI,  a f t e r f a i l u r e , f a i l u r e load = 20 kip . .  64  D3.  Panel ZI,  after failure  64  D4.  Panel ZI,  after failure  65  D5.  Panel ZI,  a f t e r test  65  D6.  Panel ZI,  a f t e r test  66  D7.  Panel ZI,  a f t e r test  66  D8.  Concrete piece with faceplate, angle and studs broken out of panel ZI  67  Concrete piece broken out of panel ZI the heads of the studs  67  D9. El.  from Fig. C4 displacement diagram for panel  63  behind  Load-vertical displacement diagram for panel Z2 • • • •  69  E2.  Panel Z2, cycle 17, max load = 18.8 kip  70  E3.  Panel Z2, cycle 17  70  E4.  Panel Z2, cycle 17  71  E5.  Panel Z2, a f t e r f a i l u r e  7 1  E6.  Panel Z2, a f t e r f a i l u r e  72  E7.  Panel Z2, a f t e r test  72  E8.  Panel Z2, a f t e r test  E9.  Concrete piece with faceplate, angle and studs broken out of panel Z2 Concrete piece broken out of panel Z2 behind the heads of the studs  E10.  '  73  73 74  X  Figure Fl.  Page Load-vertical  displacement diagram for  panel Z3  76  F2.  Panel Z3, Load = 33 kip  7 7  F3.  Panel Z3, F a i l u r e load = 38 kip  7 7  F4.  Panel Z3, load = 22 kip  78  F5.  Panel Z3, a f t e r f a i l u r e  78  F6.  Panel Z3, a f t e r f a i l u r e  79  F7.  Panel Z3, a f t e r test  79  F8.  Panel Z3, a f t e r test  80  F9.  Panel Z3, f a i l u r e surface  80  F10.  Panel Z3, f a i l u r e surface  81  Fll.  Concrete piece, broken out of panel Z3  81  F12.  Concrete piece with faceplate, angle and studs broken out of panel Z3 Load-vertical displacement diagram for  82  panel Z4  84  G2.  Panel Z4, cycle 14, load = 29.8 kip  85  G3.  Panel Z4, cycle 16 downwards, max load = 35 kip. .  85  G4.  Panel Z4, cycle 16 downwards, max load = 35 kip. .  86  G5.  Panel Z4, cycle 17 downwards  86  G6.  Panel Z4, cycle 18 upwards  87  G7.  Panel Z4, cycle 18 upwards  87  G8.  Panel Z4, cycle 18 downwards  88  G9.  Panel Z4, cycle 18 downwards  88  G10.  Panel Z4, cycle 18 downwards  89  Gl.  xi Figure  ^  Page  Gil.  Panel Z4, cycle 19 upwards  89  G12.  Panel Z4, a f t e r f a i l u r e  90  G13.  Panel Z4, a f t e r f a i l u r e  90  G14.  Panel Z4, a f t e r test  91  G15.  Panel Z4, f a i l u r e surface  91  G16.  Concrete piece with faceplate, angle and studs broken out of panel Z4  92  Load-vertical displacement panel Z5  94  HI.  H2.  H3.  diagram for  Panel Z5, cycle 10 upwards, max load = 24.4 kip . .  95  Panel Z5, cycle 10 upwards, max load = 24.4 kip  95  H4.  Panel Z5, cycle 11 downwards, load = 10.7 kip  . .  96  H5.  Panel Z5, cycle 11 downwards, load = 10.7 kip  . .  96  H6.  Panel Z5, cycle 12 upwards, load = 13.8 kip  H7.  Panel Z5, a f t e r test  97  H8.  Panel Z5, f a i l u r e surface  98  H9.  Panel Z5, f a i l u r e surface  98  H10.  Panel Z5, a f t e r test  99  11.  Load-vertical displacement diagram for panel Z6  "  . . .  97  101  12.  Panel Z6, Connection d e t a i l  102  13.  Panel Z6, max load = 23.1 kip  102  14.  Panel Z6, load = 21.5 kip  103  15.  Panel Z6, load = 21.5 kip  103  16.  Panel Z6, load = 6 kip  104  xi i  Figure  Page  17.  Panel Z6, a f t e r f a i l u r e  104  18.  Panel Z6, a f t e r test  105  19.  Panel Z6, f a i l u r e surface  105  Jl.  Load-vertical displacement diagram for panel Z7  107  J2.  Panel Z7, load = 26.7 kip  108  J3.  Panel Z7, load = 26.7 kip  108  J4.  Panel Z7, f a i l u r e load = 27.6 kip  109  J5.  Panel Z7, f a i l u r e load = 27.6 kip  1  J6.  Panel Z7, load = 7.6 kip  11°  J7.  Panel Z7, load = 7.6 kip  HO  J8.  Panel Z7, a f t e r complete f a i l u r e  J9.  Panel Z7, f a i l u r e surface  Kl.  Load-vertical displacement diagram for  . . . .  0  9  Ill HI  panel Z8  113  K2.  Panel Z8, connection d e t a i l  114  K3.  Panel Z8, cycle 10 upwards, max load = 22.9 kip  114  K4.  Panel Z8, cycle 11 upwards  115  K5.  Panel Z8, cycle 10 upwards, max load = 22.9 kip  115  K6.  Panel Z8, cycle 11 upwards  116  K7.  Panel Z8, cycle 12 upwards  116  K8.  Panel Z8, upper f a i l u r e surface  117  K9.  Panel Z8, cycle 11 downwards, max load = 25.3 kip at scan 315, cycle 10  117  xi i i Figure  Page  K10.  Panel Z8, cycle 11  118  Kll.  Panel Z8, cycle 12  118  K12.  Panel Z8, lower f a i l u r e surface  119  K13.  Panel Z8, a f t e r f a i l u r e  119  Ll.  Determination of the shear cone surface area . . . .  121  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The w r i t e r is indebted to Dr. R.A. Spencer f o r his teaching, advice and guidance. For the assistance provided during the f a b r i c a t i o n of the test equipment and test panels, I would l i k e to thank the s t a f f in the shop o f the C i v i l Engineering Department: Dick Postgate, Wolf Schmitt, J e f f Sharp, and Bernard M e r k l i . The research was financed by the National Council of Canada.  Research  1  1.  INTRODUCTION  This thesis deals with a p a r t i c u l a r type of connection used in precast concrete wall panels for single and m u l t i - s t o r y buildings.  An example of such a building is shown in F i g . 1.1 and  some others may be found in Reference 1. As indicated in the National Building Code of Canada, Supplement No. 1  , the l i k e l i h o o d of occurrence of an earthquake  is not zero for quite a large area of t h i s country.  Therefore,  the earthquake design of those precast concrete buildings p a r t i c u l a r concern to the structural engineer.  i s of  Of special  interest  is the behaviour of the connections of the precast panels, since the shear forces due to c y c l i c loading must be transferred through those connections. At the u n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, research has been (3  (3)  done in t h i s f i e l d by Spencer  v  ' and N e i l l e ^ '  4) ;  . They i n v e s t i -  gated the commonly used fusion welded headed stud connections in precast concrete panels under monotonic and c y c l i c shear loads. A t y p i c a l example of such a connection i s shown in F i g .  1.2.  This research was a continuation of the work already done by Spencer and N e i l l e and had two aims: 1.  The f i r s t aim was an experimental  investigation  into the concrete shear cone capacity of a fusion welded stud connection in a concrete panel under  2  Fig.  1 . 1  Typical precast concrete panel building (copied from Reference 1 )  3  Fig.  1.2  Welded headed stud connections showing typical applications in precast buildings (from Reference  3)  monotonic and c y c l i c load.  A comparison with the  capacity indicated by the PCI design handbook has also been made. The second aim was the experimental  determination  of the end bearing capacity of a fusion welded stud connection in a concrete panel under monotonic and c y c l i c load.  For the connection of i n t e r e s t , the  structural steel angle i s reversed and may or may not have an endplate (see Fig. A3, A4 and Table 1).  5  2.  2.1  CONCRETE TEST PANELS  Design of the Connection Configuration for the Shear Cone Tests In most o f the tests done previously by Spencer and N e i l l e ,  the f a i l u r e occurred in the Nelson studs and not in the concrete. N e i l l e noticed that a bending f a i l u r e in the stud usually occurred at a stud t e n s i l e force equivalent to 40% of the y i e l d stress. information was used to design the studs. Handbook  From the PCI  This  Design  the concrete pull out capacity was determined for a  single stud.  In order to be sure of getting a concrete f a i l u r e  the studs had to be chosen such that the, concrete pull out capacity was below 40% of the stud tension capacity. A f t e r evaluating Fig. 2.1, i t was decided to make two test panels with Nelson studs of diameter 5/8 inch and 3 inch length. Another two panels were made with 6 inch long studs of 3/4 inch diameter, although F i g . 2.1 did not predict a concrete f a i l u r e . All  the studs were fusion welded to structural steel angles  2 x 2 X j - 12 inch long.  6  o  concrete pull out capacity kip  40% of steel tension capacity  20  . f ' = 6000 psi c ,f  cu CJ  o U-r-> 3  10  O  r— 3  Q.  0  3  4  5 Stud  Fig. 2.1  c  = 4000 psi  /diam.  3/4"  ^diam.  5/8"  -diam.  1/2"  6  inch  Length  Concrete pullout capacity for single  studs  7  2.2  Design of the Connection Configuration for the Bearing Tests  These tests were intended to f i n d the bearing capacity of 2x2x^--12 plates.  inch long structural steel angles with and without end  It i s shown by N e i l l e ^ that a v e r t i c a l shear load in such  a connection i s c a r r i e d by three components:  1.  by d i r e c t bearing of the angle (or end plate) on the concrete,  2.  by f r i c t i o n between the concrete and the structural steel  3.  angle,  by d i r e c t bearing between the stud and the surrounding concrete.  In a d d i t i o n , bending in the studs  can carry some shear. For the determination of a single component, i t is convenient to eliminate two of these three components.  For our purpose,  it  was convenient to eliminate the f r i c t i o n and stud bearing by putting s t y r o f o r p l a s t i c foam behind the reversed angles and around the "studs."  Since the s t y r o f o r around the stud would prevent the  stud from acting as an anchorage, the stud was replaced by a 1/2 inch diameter and 6 inch long bright bar with s i m i l a r steel properties. 2x2x|--  This bar was welded to a structural steel  angle  two feet long, which embedded in the concrete,  served as an anchorage.  This configuration can be seen in  Fig. A3, A4, A10, and A l l .  8  2.3  Fabrication of the Test Panels The firm of W.M. Sommerville in Burnaby fusion welded  the Nelson studs to the structural steel angles. done by the personnel of the c i v i l  The rest was  engineering shop at UBC.  In order to determine the forces and moments at both ends of the studs, s t r a i n gauges were fastened at those l o c a t i o n s , one on top of the stud and one at the bottom (Fig.  2.2).  The s t r a i n gages were of the type EA-06-250 BG-120 with an e l e c t r i c a l  resistance of 120fit0.3% and a working range between  minus and plus 50,000 micro strains Romulus, Michigan).  The corresponding gage factor was 2.06, i . e . :  for a s t r a i n of 2.06 x 10" tation.  (Supplier: Micro Measurements  the output w i l l be 1 mV per 1 V e x c i -  A f t e r sandblasting of the surfaces of the studs, the  s t r a i n gages were glued on to the steel with "M-Bond 610 adhesive" and held in place by scotch tape and a pressure clamp. The s t r a i n gauges were then cured in an oven f o r one hour at a temperature of 150°C.  A f t e r cooling down, solder was put on  the two terminals of the s t r a i n gages, to which the two wires were then connected.  F i n a l l y , the terminals of the s t r a i n gages were  treated with a corrosion protection paste, and the eight wires belonging to a stud were c o l l e c t e d in a p l a s t i c pipe that passed through the bottom of the wooden formwork (see Figs. A6, A7, A8, and A9).  9  Fig. 2.2  Strain gage locations  10  Four panels could be cast in each of the two wooden forms which had been used on previous occasions.  A cage of round un-  deformed steel bars of 1/4 inch diameter served as a nominal forcement.  rein-  The geometry of the cage was such that none of the  bars should have an influence on the concrete shear cones. On June 23rd, 1977 ready-mixed standard concrete, 4,000 psi high early strength, type 3 cement and 3/4 inch maximum aggregate s i z e , was poured into the formwork.  The concrete was consolidated  with an internal vibrator of a diameter o f 1 inch.  The curing  occurred in the C i v i l Engineering laboratory.  The concrete was  covered with a p l a s t i c for the f i r s t 7 hours.  Then, wet potato  sacks were added under the p l a s t i c . boards o f the formwork were removed.  At the fourth day, the side F i n a l l y , the faceplates  (see  Fig. B6), which accommodate the 6 bolts to transfer the shear load, could be welded on.  The s t y r o f o r p l a s t i c foam near the structural  steel angles melted because of the heat of welding. In order to determine the compression strength of the concrete  12 cylinders of 6 inch diameter and 12 inch length were  made with the standard procedure.  They cured at the same place  and under the same conditions as the panels. not done.  A slump test was  The steel t e n s i l e test specimens were made by welding  three 6 inch long Nelson studs together (Fig. C3). diameter, three samples were set aside .  For each stud  11  2.4  Designation of the Test Panels, Testing Schedule and Fabrication  Details  The numbering of the test panels as well as the test dates are given in Table 1.  The panels ZI  to Z4 serve f o r the shear cone  t e s t s , the panels Z5 to Z8 are reserved f o r the bearing tests. f a b r i c a t i o n d e t a i l s are shown in Fig. Al to A l l .  The  TABLE 1 Designation of the Test Panels, Testing Schedule  Stud Diameter Stud Length  Position of the Angle  Testing Date  Panel Designation  Type of Test  ZI  monotonic  5/8"  normal  •1-Jul-77  Z2  cyclic  5/8"  normal  13-Jul-77  Z3  monotonic  3/4" 6"  norma I  15-Jul-77  Z4  cycl i c  3/4" 6"  normal  22-Jul-77  Z5  cyclic  1/2" 6"  reve rsed  10-Aug-77  16  monotonic  1/2" 6"  reversed  28-Jul-77  Connection Type  3"  3"  3M r.y,  ft •  />  ** »  17  monotonic  1/2" 6"  re versed, endplate  ll-Aug-77  IS  cyclic  1/2" 6"  reve rsed,  17-Aug-77  endplate  .  .ft  a  13  3.  TEST EQUIPMENT  P r i o r to t e s t i n g , the e x i s t i n g equipment with a test capac i t y of 50 kip was redesigned and p a r t i a l l y r e b u i l t to a capacity of 100 k i p .  3.1  Load Transfer The concrete panel i s held in place by a frame (Fig. Bl  to B3).  A displacement c o n t r o l l e d hydraulic MTS jack of 100 kip  capacity applies a v e r t i c a l load to the steel face p l a t e , which i s connected to the loading yoke by 6 high strength f r i c t i o n bolts A490 diameter 3/4 inch (Fig.  3.2  B6).  Measuring System In each test  the following parameters of i n t e r e s t are  measured: 1.  the applied v e r t i c a l load with an MTS load c e l l of ±100 kip capacity with an output of 10 volts under full  2.  load,  the stroke of the hydraulic jack.  An output of  ± 1 0 volts is equivalent to a stroke of ± 2 inches. The jack can be c o n t r o l l e d manually or by a function generator.  For various periods and  14  amplitudes, the function generator is able to produce a sine or a ramp function,  3.  the v e r t i c a l displacement of the top of the faceplate with respect to the top of the concrete. Two transducers  (Fig. B6) are fastened at the  top of the concrete.  Two measuring probes lead  from the centerholes of the transducers to the top of the faceplate, one at each s i d e .  This arrange-  ment allows the c a l c u l a t i o n of the average v e r t i c a l displacement of the faceplate as well as the corresponding l a t e r a l  4.  rotation.  the horizontal displacement at two p o i n t s , above and below the faceplate.  Again, two transducers  ( F i g . B5) are used to measure the displacements, from which the rotation about the horizontal axis of the faceplate can be computed. 5.  the strains at 4 points of each stud or bar ( F i g . 2.2).  The i n s t a l l a t i o n of s t r a i n gages on  opposite sides of a bar allows the c a l c u l a t i o n of the axial  forces and bending moments.  Before each test the transducers are c a l i b r a t e d .  A metal  gauge of a given thickness produces a known displacement and from  15  the voltage change measured the c a l i b r a t i o n can be calculated in inches per v o l t output.  The transducers are Hewlett Packard 7DCDT-500  l i n e a r variable d i f f e r e n t i a l transformers (LVDTs), with a l i n e a r working range between plus and minus 0.5 inch. The p r i n c i p l e of the s t r a i n gage measuring system i s the following:  the s t r a i n gage undergoes the same deformation as the  steel.  the steel elongates, the s t r a i n gage does the same.  If  goes into tension and reduces i t s c r o s s - s e c t i o n area. results in an increase of the e l e c t r i c a l  resistance.  It  This, of course, This increase  can be measured with a Wheatstone-bridge arrangement as shown in Fig. 3.1.  A power supply unit ( F i g . B8) produces 6 volts between  points A and B.  The output voltage measured between points C and D  i s proportional to the change in the resistance of the strain-gage and proportional to the s t r a i n .  In order to avoid a measuring e r r o r  due to long leads, leads of the same lengths L are put between the points E-F, D-G and H-G.  Before each t e s t , the s t r a i n gage measur-  ing system i s checked out by putting into the c i r c u i t an additional r e s i s t o r between the points E and D and measuring the change in voltage.  Of the 64 s t r a i n gages mounted, only one proved to be  defective (Panel Z l , upper stud, upper gage near angle).  s t r a i n gage in panel, resistance R  A  Fig. 3.1  Strain gage measuring scheme  17  3.3  Data Acquisition A l l measurements were made using an integrating  digital  Voltmeter (IDVM) i n s t a l l e d in a Vidar 5403D-DAS data a c q u i s i t i o n (Fig. B4).  A scanner allows data from each channel to be acquired  e i t h e r manually or automatically using a timer to scan a l l at preset i n t e r v a l s .  Data i s then recorded in two ways: i t  channels is  written on a seven track magnetic tape connected d i r e c t l y to the Vidar, and i t i s sent to a PDP-11 (Fig. B9) which processes i t and stores i t on a magnetic disc.  The minicomputer calculates the  applied load and the corresponding v e r t i c a l displacements and writes these out on a DEC LA30 console typewriter (Fig. BIO).  The MTS  load and the v e r t i c a l displacement of the connection (measured by one LVDT only) are also monitored using a Hewlett Packard 7004B X-Y recorder (Fig. B4).  The c a l i b r a t i o n of the X-Y recorder f o r load  was done by means of an input of 6 volts which corresponded to a 60 kip load.  The c a l i b r a t i o n for displacement was c a r r i e d out by  i n s e r t i n g a gauge under the LVDT probe.  18  4.  CONCRETE SHEAR CAPACITY OF A STUD AS RECOMMENDED BY THE PCI DESIGN HANDBOOK  For combined tension and shear loading on a headed stud, the PCI design handbook gives a l i m i t on the ultimate concrete capacity by the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r a c t i o n formula:  ( p u P' ^ u  1  4/3 x X  ;  r V i u V u  4/3 . .(4.1)  ;  applied ultimate tension force  where  applied ultimate shear P' u  ultimate pull out strength of s t u d , governed by the concrete  V  ultimate concrete shear capacity of the stud.  u  P.'  <D4A  r  (4.2)  v^T c  0.85  where bp  f  1  c  l a t e r a l surface, area of a p a r t i a l shear cone with an angle of 45° with respect to the stud (see Appendix L) concrete c y l i n d e r  strength  19  V  u  =  0.75 A  cn  so  f'  ...  s  where A r V  u  so  shank area of the stud ultimate t e n s i l e strength of the stud.  should not exceed P' determined for the p a r t i a l shear cone, u  .(4.3)  20  5.  5.1  TEST RESULTS  Concrete Cylinder Compression Tests The concrete cylinders were tested in an Olsen compression  and tension test machine with a maximum capacity of 400 kip ( F i g . Groups of three cylinders underwent a standard compression test at a concrete age of 14, 21, 28 and 56 days. are shown in Table 6.  The detailed test data  F i g . 5.1 shows the average compression  strength as a function of time.  The ultimate concrete compression  strength f o r the several panels at t h e i r t e s t i n g age can be estimated by i n t e r p o l a t i o n from F i g . 5.1  (see Table 2).  TABLE 2 Estimated Ultimate Compressive Strength of the Panels at Their Testing Day  Panel  Concrete Age Days  Compressive Strength psi  Zl  15  4500  Z2  20  4700  Z3  22  4800  Z4  29  5400  Z5  48  5600  Z6  35  5500  Z7  49  5600  Z8  55 •  5600  5.2).  21  psi 6000  concrete age s=  5000  V  s-  +J l/l  HI >  4000  l/l co CD  3000 10  Fig. 5.1  Fig. 5.2  20  30  40  50  60  days  Ultimate concrete compressive strength  Olsen compression and tension test machine  iQ. E o  o  22  5.2  Steel Tension Test For each stud s i z e , three test specimens were taken from  samples of the steel used in the connections;  The t e s t specimens  (Figs. C2 to C5) were machined down 1/8 inch in diameter in order not to get a f a i l u r e in the threads.  The threads were needed for  mounting the specimen in the Olsen testing machine (Fig. 5.2).  An  extensometer measured the average s t r a i n over a gage length of 2 inches and f o r c e - s t r a i n curves were plotted d i r e c t l y on an X-Y recorder.  The extensometer worked with a transducer manufactured  by Hewlett Packard.  This transducer only allowed the measurement _3  of strains  up to 50x10  .  The f a i l u r e strains were estimated to  -3 vary from 140x10 specimen. F i g . CI.  -3 to 293 x 10  , depending on the size of the  The detailed test data are shown in Table 7 and The mean values for each diameter are summarized in  Table 3 and F i g . 5.3. TABLE 3 Mean Steel  Properties Modulus of E l a s t i c i ty ksi  Stud Diameter Inches  0.2% Offset Yield Strength ksi  Ul timate Strength ksi  1/2  73  79.1  30,000  5/8  56  75.5  30,000  3/4  52  64.8  30,000  0  2 Fig. 5.3  10  20  30  40  50  10  Mean s t r e s s - s t r a i n diagram f o r the studs and bright bars  24 5.3  5.3.1  Failure Analysis  for the Shear Cone Test Panels ZI to Z4  Summary of essential  test data  The f a i l u r e loads as well as the corresponding v e r t i c a l \  displacements are summarized in the following table:  TABLE 4 Some Test Data of the Panels ZI to Z4  Panel  Type of Test  ZI  monotoni c  Z2  cyclic  Maximum Shear Load kips  20.0  Corresponding Vertical Displacement _3 10 inches  25  (up)  18.8  20  (up) cyclic  18.9  14  38.0  98  (down)  Z3  monotonic  Z4  cyclic  (up)  35.0  112  (up)  Z4  5.3.2  cyclic  35.0  no  (down)  F a i l u r e description for panel ZI This panel with the structural steel angle anchored in the  concrete by two Nelson studs of 5/8 inch diameter and 3 inch length was tested under a monotonic upward loading.  The f a i l u r e of this  25 connection occurred in the concrete immediately behind the heads of the studs at a load of 20 kip (Figs. DI  to D9).  A piece of concrete contain-  ing the two studs and the structural steel angle rotated about a horizontal axis A-A ( F i g . D7) perpendicular to the studs somewhere above the angle. The concrete immediately on top of the steel angle was crushed.  The shape of  the f a i l u r e surface as i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g . D5 to F i g . D7 did not resemble a cone with an angle of 4 5 ° .  The f a i l u r e surface was more nearly a plane  perpendicular to the axis of the studs ( F i g .  5.3.3  D8).  F a i l u r e d e s c r i p t i o n for panel Z2 This panel with the same stud arrangement as in panel Zl was  tested under a c y c l i c loading.  For the f i r s t c y c l e , the v e r t i c a l  shear  load was applied upwards from 0 to 5 k i p , then downwards to 0 again and to  -5  kip,  and again upwards to 0 .  This procedure was repeated  three times for a given load l e v e l , which is defined here as the maximum load in a c y c l e .  The load l e v e l s were increased in steps of  5 kip u n t i l the f a i l u r e occurred.  The f a i l u r e of the connection  occurred again in the concrete j u s t behind the heads of the studs (Figs. El to E10 —  the numbers written at the panels indicate the  scan at which a crack was observed for the f i r s t time).  The concrete  immediately on top of the steel angle was observed to be crushed. The shape of the f a i l u r e surface as i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g . E7 and F i g . E8 was d i f f e r e n t from that of panel Zl .  In this c y c l i c t e s t ,  two single shear cones could be recognized with angles somewhat greater than 4 5 ° .  26  5.3.4  Failure description for panel Z3  Panel Z3 with the s t r u c t u r a l steel angle anchored in the concrete by two 6 inch long Nelson studs of 3/4 inch diameter was tested under a monotonic upward loading.  The development of the  cracks f o r this test is shown in F i g . F2 to F i g . F6. cracks became v i s i b l e at a load of 29 k i p .  The f i r s t  S p a l l i n g and cracking  could be observed on top of the structural steel angle, and diagonal shear cracks appeared in the concrete at the level of the two studs. At a load of 38 kip, the rotation of the structural steel  angle  about a horizontal axis located above the angle and perpendicular to the studs caused a large v e r t i c a l tension crack (Fig. 63).  F3, scan  This crack proceeded almost to the bottom of the panel, since  the concrete block below the angle rotated about an axis located at the bottom of the panel.  The shape of the f a i l u r e surface cannot  be described by 45° shear cones.  As in panel ZI,  the f a i l u r e  surface was nearly a plane perpendicular to the axis of the studs. A d d i t i o n a l l y , there was a f a i l u r e in a v e r t i c a l plane through the axis of the studs.  A careful observation of the concrete piece  in F i g . F12 showed some s p l i t t i n g of the concrete on top of the studs perpendicular to the compressive stresses. horizontal stud.  Finally, a  f a i l u r e plane was formed at the level of the lower  27  5.3.5  Failure description for panel Z4  This panel with the same stud arrangement as panel Z3 was tested under c y c l i c loading.  The l o a d - v e r t i c a l  diagram i s shown in Fig. G l .  The cracking history of this t e s t can  be followed from Fig. G2 to Fig. G13. mechanism occurred as in panel Z3.  displacement  Basically,  failure  At f i r s t , the concrete f a i l e d  in compression above and below the structural  steel angle.  the shear cracks at the level of the studs formed. the structural  a similar  Then,  The rotation of  steel angle about some horizontal axis perpendicular  to the studs at the upper and lower end o f the angle caused the vertical  t e n s i l e crack between the two studs.  This crack proceeded  then diagonally  to the edge of the panel at an angle of approximately  70° (Fig. G i l ) .  The f a i l u r e surface (Figs. G14, Gl5) did not have  the shape of two single cones. to the axis of the studs.  It was nearly a plane perpendicular  S p l i t t i n g of the concrete between the  two studs could be observed again as in panel Z3.  5.3.6  Numerical analysis of the f a i l u r e for the panels Zl to Z4 In a l l panels mentioned above the f i n a l  in the concrete behind the heads of the studs. tests the structural  f a i l u r e occurred Since in a l l  steel angle rotated about i t s  end, i t was assumed that the f i n a l  these  upper or lower  f a i l u r e of the connection was  caused by a f a i l u r e that was analogous to the "cone" f a i l u r e used  28  in deriving the PCI i n t e r a c t i o n equations to combined shear and tension. surfaces  had s i m i l a r i t i e s  for a single  stud subject  Although the shape of the f a i l u r e  to shear cones only in the case of panel 12,  i t was f e l t that this i n t e r a c t i o n formula (Eq. 4.1) might be useful for p r e d i c t i n g the f a i l u r e , F i g . 5.4 shows the PCI  i n t e r a c t i o n diagram.  The correspond-  ing shear and tension forces assumed to be acting at f a i l u r e in the panels ZI  to Z4 are marked as a point in the diagram..  The tension  forces were determined from s t r a i n gage measurements near the head of the stud. equal.  The shear forces in the two studs were assumed to be  In c a l c u l a t i n g the shear force on a stud, the bearing of the  concrete on top of the structural significant  steel angle was considered to be  for the panels ZI and Z2, while the tests  for the panels  13 and Z4 c l e a r l y showed a complete bearing f a i l u r e before the f i n a l collapse.  For the shear and pullout c a p a c i t i e s , a capacity reduction  factor of cf> = 1 was used. In Fig. 5.4,  the points representing the test results  f a i l u r e should l i e close to and above the i n t e r a c t i o n l i n e , i f method is to be useful results  for predicting a concrete f a i l u r e .  for this  The  from the panels Z2 to Z4 are reasonably close to the i n t e r -  action l i n e , while the f a i l u r e prediction for panel ZI would be rather more conservative.  F i g . 5.4  Shear - Tension i n t e r a c t i o n diagram showing t e s t r e s u l t s for single studs.  30 5.4  Determination of the Stud Tension Force at the Design Stage. For the use of the PCI shear-tension i n t e r a c t i o n formula  (Eq. 4.1), i t is necessary to know the shear and tension force applied on a stud.  Given an external shear load, i t can be assumed,  that each of the two studs c a r r i e s half of the load. forces in the two studs cannot be found e a s i l y .  The tension  Since we would l i k e  to design the connection on the basis of the forces associated with one stud only, a suitable a n a l y t i c a l model is needed. Consequently, f o r various equilibrium models the tension force f o r the main working stud was computed and subsequently compared to the stud force measured f o r the panels Zl to Z4 (Fig.  5.5).  In order to be on the safe side in the design, the tension values computed from the suitable model should be greater than the measured one.  This comparison suggests that model (3) would be a reasonable  one.  For t h i s model, ( F i g . 5.6),  i t was assumed, that the v e r t i c a l  reaction occurs in the center of gravity of a t r i a n g u l a r compression zone inside the structural steel angle.  The concrete compression  stress was set to the actual compressive strength f  .  Furthermore,  the tension force in the upper stud was neglected, and the horizontal reaction H was supposed to act at the upper end of the structural steel  angle.  kips  (0)  measured values at the head of the stud  14 Model (1):  1 0  (3)  W  (2)  S-  o  (0)  CO  P =0.2 P 2  P  2  8  P =0.2 P 2  (3)  (3)  (0)  0)  1  (i) Model  m  (3)  H  (i)  (1)  1  concrete compression zone: triangular at stress f cu  Model (2.)  CO  -a  I  1  •I— QJ  8  p l a s t i c hinge in the stud near angle  y  m  c o c  m  131  12  3 u  H  10  (0T"  eiV  concrete compression zone; triangular inside the angle at stress f  cu  P =0 2  ZI  Z2 up  Z2 down Test  F i g . 5.5  Z3  Z4 up  Z4 down  Panels  Comparison of the stud tension forces from the tests to those computed from various equilibrium models.  32  Fig. 5.6  Equilibrium model for the determination of the stud tension forces  33 5.5.  5.5.1.  F a i l u r e Analysis  for the Bearing Test Panels Z5 to Z8  F a i l u r e Description All  structural  the bearing test panels were equipped with reversed  steel angles.  Furthermore, the angles for the panels  Z7 and Z8 hadendplates welded on.  The tests were done under a  monotonic upward loading f o r the panels Z6 and Z7, and under a c y c l i c loading for the panels Z5 and Z8.  As expected, a l l the  panels f a i l e d outside the ends of the structural steel angles. The sequences of the f a i l u r e s are i l l u s t r a t e d in the appendices H, I,  5.5.2.  J and K.  Bearing Capacity of the Reversed Angle Connection The v e r t i c a l shear load in the test panels was resisted  by bearing of the structural steel angle on the concrete and by the shear force taken by the two horizontal bright bars (Fig. A3, A4).  This shear force could be calculated e a s i l y from the known  v e r t i c a l displacement of the face p l a t e .  Thus, the bearing force  applied on the concrete could be found. A suitable equation f o r the prediction of the bearing capacity of a reversed structural steel angle 2"x2" would be: P  where  P  ub  u b  =  A  b  (  5  f  cu  . . . .(5.1)  }  ultimate bearing capacity of the reversed structural steel  angle  2 A^ = 4 inch  concrete area enclosed by the reversed  structural steel  angle  f £  cu  actual ultimate concrete strength* c o e f f i c i e n t for the determination of the e f f e c t i v e ultimate concrete bearing strength  Table 5 shows the test data and the derived values for the c o e f f i c i e n t s £ .  It  is interesting to note, that there is not  a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in the c o e f f i c i e n t E, f o r reversed angles with or without end plates.  For design purposes, E, could be taken  as 1.0.  5.5.3.  /  Center of Gravity of the Bearing Force For the design of a reversed angle connection, we would  l i k e to use Eq. 5.1 to determine the bearing capacity.  This  equation i s based on a uniform stress d i s t r i b u t i o n over the enclosed area of the structural steel angle.  Since the actual stress  dis-  t r i b u t i o n might d i f f e r from the assumed one, we have to determine the l o c a t i o n of the center of gravity of the bearing force to enable the stud tension forces in the main working stud to be estimated.  Having measured the tension forces and the moments in  the horizontal bright bars, we get the distance d to the center of gravity e a s i l y by applying equilibrium to the model shown in F i g . 5.7.  Values derived f o r the tests are presented in F i g .  5.8.  Considering the mean and the standard deviation for the d i s t r i b u tion of the distances d, the bearing force can be assumed to act in the center of gravity of the sturctural steel angle shape, regardless of whether or not there i s an endplate welded on.  TABLE 5 C o e f f i c i e n t s <% for the E f f e c t i v e Ultimate Concrete Bearing Strength  Panel  Type of Test, Direction of Load  Max Shear Load  Corresponding Vertical Displacement  Shear Taken by Steel Bars  Ultimate Load Taken by Bearing P  kip  _3 10  inches  r  ^  _  P . ub A f b cu  A  T  ub  kip  kip  cyclic up  24.38  41.1  0.42  23.96  1.070  cyclic down  24.48  36.5  0.37  24.11  1.076  16  monotonic up  23.06  34.5  0.35  22.71  1.032  17  monotonic up  27.59  54.5  0.56  27.03  1.207  18  cyclic up  22.90  36.3  0.37  22.53  1.006  cyclic down  25.33  61.8  0.63  24.70  1.103  Z5  CO  cn  36  1 4  •  Kb  H  (Jc:::;  Fig. 5.7.  Equilibrium model of the connection used in the bearing test panels.  Panel d (inch) d  /a  Z5 Up  Z5 Down  Z6  11  Z8 Up  Z8 Down  2.38  1.91  1.97  2.16  1.80  1.90  1.196  0.960  0.990  1.085  0.904  0.955  endplates  no endplates mean d = 2.02" standard deviation a = 0.19"  2  CG of the structural angle  F i g . 5.8.  steel  Derived locations for the bearing force on the reversed structural steel angle 2"x2"  38 6.  Conclusions f o r Design The test results for the panels Zl to Z4, which had normal angles  without end p l a t e s , showed that the PCI shear-tension i n t e r a c t i o n equation (Eq. 4.1) f o r single headed studs can be used f o r the prediction of a f a i l u r e of the concrete surrounding the studs.  The bearing  capacity of the structural steel angle on the concrete should be neglected.  For the computation of the tension force i n one stud, a l l the  vertical  shear is assumed to be c a r r i e d by a bearing stress of  f  c u  acting on a triangular area defined by the inside of the legs of the angle (as explained in Section 5.4) with the resultant acting through the centroid of this triangular area.  The tension in the stud i s found  by assuming a horizontal compression force acts at one end of the angle, and produces a couple equal to that r e s u l t i n g from the applied shear and the equal and opposite v e r t i c a l force acting in the concrete. The PCI equation (Eq. 4.1)  is then used for one stud which i s assumed  to carry this tension force and half the total v e r t i c a l shear. Furthermore, the test results for the panels Z5 to Z8, which had reversed angles with and without endplates, showed that the bearing capacity for this case is equivalent to a force r e s u l t i n g from a stress equal to the actual ultimate concrete strength f  c  uniformly d i s t r i -  buted over a square or rectangular area defined by the outside of the legs of the s t r u c t u r a l steel angle.  The l o c a t i o n of this force  can be assumed to be in the actual center of gravity of the structural steel angle (not of the square or rectangle), regardless of whether or not there i s an endplate present.  39 BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  PCI Design Handbook. Precast and Prestressed Concrete. Prestressed Concrete I n s t i t u t e , Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 1971.  2.  National Building Code of Canada, Supplement No. 1, Climatic Information f o r Building Design in Canada. Associate Committee on the National Building Code, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1975.  3.  Spencer, R.A. and N e i l l e , D.S., " C y c l i c Tests of Welded Headed Stud Connections," Journal of the Prestressed Concrete I n s t i t u t e , V o l . 21, No. 3, May/June 1976, pp. 70-83.  4.  N e i l l e , D.S., "Behaviour of Headed Stud Connections for Precast Concrete Panels under Monotonic and Cycled Shear Loading," Ph.D. thesis at the department of c i v i l engineering of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, May 1977.  APPENDIX A  FABRICATION DETAILS OF THE TEST PANELS  Fig. A l .  Connection d e t a i l s of panels ZI and Z2  42  +-  L2x2x%xT-0"  L2x2x% F i g . A.2.  Connection d e t a i l s of panels 12 and Z4  I > Section B-B 2  F i g . A.3.  Detail for the anchorage of the angles  Connection d e t a i l s of panels 15 and 16  L2x2x1/4x2'-0"  ..../.*.  * /  fir  1  p l a s t i c foam %x2xl2h  Section A-A 3/16K\r  PL%x2x2  r2j\L2x2x%  ^  T ^ R b r i q h t bar 4>V'x7 |" "j, z j, long  l  K  Y  \  ^  bl  4  Section B-B F i g . A.4.  N  p l a s t i c foam 2x1x6  Connection d e t a i l s of panels Z7 and Z8  Detail of the anchorage of the angles,  45  1 suspension  bar  46  A  A  II  OIL  "»  'fir  1  24 Elevation (studs e t c . not shown) 1" cover concrete surface  24  Detail  Section A-A all  steel bars diam. 1/4",  F i g . A5.  suspension  undeformed, ^ ^ 4 0  Typical rebar arrangement  ksi  bars  Fig- A.7.  P l a s t i c pipes containing s t r a i n gage wires lead through the bottom of the formwork  F i g . A.8.  Strain gage  4 8  Fig. A . 1 0 .  Connection unit for panel Z 5  Fig. A . l l  Connection unit for panel 17 (with endplate)  APPENDIX  B  ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE TEST EQUIPMENT  0  Fig. B l .  Test arrangement  Fig. B4.  Data a c q u i s i t i o n and test c o n t r o l l i n g instruments  F i g . B5. Transducers f o r the horizontal displacements  box containing Wheatstone bridges  power supply unit  Fig.  B7.  Backside of a panel with leads connected to the s t r a i n gage termi nal s  Fig.  B8.  Power supply unit and four boxes containing Wheatstone bridges  APPENDIX  C  DETAILS OF THE CONCRETE AND STEEL SPECIMEN TESTS  TABLE 6 Compression Test Data For Concrete Cylinders of 6" diam. and 12" length Testing Date  7-Jul-77  14-Jul-77  21-Jul-77  18-Aug-77  Area  Failure Load kip  Compressive Strength psi  Concrete Age Days  Cylinder Number  14  1  28.56  128.0  4480  2  28.56  128.5  4500  3  28.46  127.5  4480  4  28.37  137.5  4850  5  28.75  132.5  4610  6  28.46  131.5  4620  7  28.46  155.0  5440  8  28.56  160.2  5610  9  28.56  151.5  5310  10  28.56  160.0  5600  11  28.37  158.0  5570  12  28.37  161,5  5690  21  28  56  in  2  Mean Strength psi  Standard Deviation psi  4490  10  4690  110  5450  120  5620  50  TABLE 7 Tensile Test Data For The Steel Specimens Specimen No.  Nominal Diam. inches  Stud Diam. inches  Machined Diam. inches  Failure Diam. inches  Maximum Load kip  Maximum Stress ksi  Failure Strain 10  "  3  1  1/2  0.498  0.385  0.252  9.4  80.8  156  2  1/2  0.498  0.388  0.250  9.2  77.8  140  3  1/2  0.498  0.384  0.246  9.1  78.6  145  4  5/8  0.620  0.488  0.305  13.8  73.8  198  5  5/8  0.620  0.496  0.316  15.4  79.7  196  6  5/8  0.621  0.491  0.305  13.9  73.4  195  7  3/4  0.746  0.623  0.373  20.4  66.9  226  8  3/4  0.75  0.628  0.381  19.9  64.3  287  9  3/4  0.745  0.624  0.370  19.3  63.1  293  F i g . C2.  1/2" diam. steel specimen  F i g . C3.  5/8" diam. steel specimen  APPENDIX  D  ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE TEST OF PANEL Zl  F i g . DI.  Load - v e r t i c a l displacement diagram for panel Zl  F i g . D2.  Panel ZI, a f t e r f a i l u r e , f a i l u r e load = 20 kip  F i g . D3.  Panel ZI,  after  failure  CTI  Fig. D 4 .  Panel Z l , a f t e r f a i l u r e  Fig. D 5 .  Panel Z l , a f t e r t e s t  Fig. D 6 .  Panel Z l , a f t e r t e s t  Fig. D 7 .  Panel Z l , a f t e r t e s t  F i g . D9.  Concrete piece broken out of panel  ZI  APPENDIX  E  ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE TEST OF PANEL 12  69  20  Fig. E l .  Load - v e r t i c a l displacement diagram for panel 12  F i g . E2.  Panel Z 2 , c y c l e 17 max. load = 18.8 kip  F i g . E3.  Panel Z 2 , c y c l e 17 o  F i g . E4.  Panel 12, c y c l e 17  F i g . E5.  Panel 12, a f t e r f a i l u r e  F i g . E6.  Panel Z2, a f t e r f a i l u r e  F i g . E7.  Panel Z2, a f t e r t e s t  Fig. E8. Panel Z2, after test  Fig. E9. Concrete piece with face plate, angle and studs broken out of panel Z2  G O  74  F i g . El0.  Concrete piece broken out of panel Z2 behind the heads of the studs  APPENDIX  F  ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE TEST OF PANEL Z3  Fig. F l .  L o a d - v e r t i c a l displacement diagram f o r panel Z3  F i g . F2.  Panel Z3, load = 33 kip  F i g . F3.  Panel Z3, f a i l u r e load = 38 kip  Fig. F4.  Panel Z3, load=22 kip  Fig. F6.  Panel Z3, after failure  Fig. F7.  Panel Z3, after test ^4  Fig. F8.  Panel 13, a f t e r t e s t  Fig. F9.  Panel Z3, f a i l u r e surface  oo o  Fig. FT2.  Concrete piece with face p l a t e , angle and studs broken out of panel Z3  APPENDIX  G  ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE TEST OF PANEL Z4  84  Fig. Gl. Load-vertical displacement diagram for panel Z4  F i g . G2.  Panel Z4, cycle 14, Load=29.8 kip  F i g . G3.  Panel Z4, c y c l e 16 downwards, max. load = 35 kip  F i g . G4.  Panel Z4, cycle 16 downwards, max. load = 35 kip  F i g . G5.  Panel Z4, cycle 17 downwards oo  F i g . G6.  Panel Z4, cycle 18 upwards  F i g . G7.  Panel Z4, cycle 18 upwards CO  F i g . G14.  Panel Z4, a f t e r  test  F i g . G15.  Panel Z4, f a i l u r e surface CO  92  F i g . 616.  Concrete piece with face p l a t e , angle and studs broken out of panel Z4  93  APPENDIX  H  ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE TEST OF PANEL Z5  Fig. HI.  Load-vertical displacement diagram for panel Z5  to  Fig. H2.  Panel Z5, cycle 10 upwards, max. load = 24.4 kip  Fig. H3.  Panel Z5, cycle 10 upwards, max.load » 24.4 kip  CO  F i g . H4.  Panel 15, cycle 11 downwards, load = 10.7 kip  F i g . H5.  Panel 15, cycle 11 downwards, load = 10.7 kip  Fig. H6.  Panel Z5, cycle 12 upwards, load = 13.8 kip  Fig. H7.  Panel Z5, after test <0  F i g . H8.  Panel Z5, f a i l u r e surface  F i g . H10.  Panel Z5, a f t e r  test  APPENDIX  I  ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE TEST OF PANEL Z6  101  0.10  F i g . II.  Load-vertical  inch  displacement diagram for panel 16  103  F i g . 16.  Panel Z6, load = 6 kip  F i g . 18.  Panel Z6, a f t e r test  APPENDIX  J  ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE TEST OF PANEL 17  F i g . J 2 . Panel Z7, load = 26.7 kip  Fig. J 4 .  Panel Z7, f a i l u r e load = 27.6  kip  Fig. J 5 .  Panel Z7,  f a i l u r e load = 27.6  kip  Fig. J 6 .  Panel Z 7 , load • 7.6 kip  F i g . J8.  Panel 17, a f t e r complete f a i l u r e  F i g . J9.  Panel 17, f a i l u r e  surface  APPENDIX  K  ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE TEST OF PANEL Z8  F i g . K2.  Panel Z8, Connection d e t a i l  F i g . K3.  Panel Z8, c y c l e 10 upwards, max. load = 22.9 kip  Fig. K4. Panel Z8, cycle 11 upwards  F i g . K6.  Panel Z 8 , cycle 11 upwards  F i g . K8.  Panel Z8, upper f a i l u r e surface  F i g . K9.  Panel Z8, cycle 11 downwards, max. load = 25.3 kip at scan 315, cycle 10  F i g . K10.  Panel Z8, cycle 11  F i g . KIT -  Panel Z8, c y c l e 12  APPENDIX  L  DETERMINATION OF THE SHEAR CONE SURFACE AREA  Full  Partial shear cone  shear cone  Horizontal cross section through the connection  Section B - B  Section A - A Surface area A • o partial full  shear cone :  shear cone  Fig. Ll .  ;  A  Q  = 1.916 l [l +.d ) - 0.631 d£  A  Q  = /2~ A "ir(Jl  h  +'d ) h  Determination of the shear cone surface area  

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