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The solubility of tetracosane in propane, butane, and pentane Godard, Hugh Phillips 1937

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T H E  S O L U B I L I T Y  O P  TETRACOSAI'TE  II PROPA3QL BUTANE.  A N D  P E N T A N E ,  A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OP MASTER OP APPLIED SCIENCE.  HUGH P. GODARD DEPARTMENT OP CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA 1937  THE SOLUBILITY OF TETRACOSANE PROPANE. BUTANE, AM) PENTANE. I. II.  INTRODUCTION  1  PREPARATION OE TETRAC0SAKE i . Synthesis ix  III.  o  3?\ix* xi* x G ct*fc x oxx«•«  3  EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ii.  Introduction of fetracosane.....  6  iii.  Introduction of Propane, Butane.  6  i v . Introduction of Pentane.........  7  v.  Bulb  Volumes....................  T i . Freezing Points IV.  4  • • « * » « « « « » * * * * * e e  APPARATUS ... Propane Apparatus............... i i i . Pentane Apparatus.... i v . Freezing Point Apparatus.  8 8  Pig, 2 3 4  V. RESULTS Page i . Propane - Tetracosane........... 12 i i . Butane - Tetracosane. l i i . Pentane - Tetracosane..... VI.  CORRECTION OE RESULTS.  13 14 15  VII. VIII.  TREATMENT OE CORRECTED RESULTS CORRECTED RESULTS  16  i . Propane - Tetracosane........... 18 i i . Butane - Tetracosane i i i . Pentane - Tetracosane... IX.  VAPOR CORRECTIONS.  Graphs PROPANE  TETRAC6SANE  II.  BUTANE  TETRACOSANE  III.  PENTANE  TETRACOSANE  IV.  LOG N  vs l/T  19 20 21  THE  SOLUBILITY  OP  TETRACOSANE  IN PROPANE. BUTANE,  I.  ^  AND  PENTANE .  INTRODUCTION Last  year,  Industrial  Chemistry  decided  to  initiate  data  the mutual  of  on  these  W.P.  at  the  a  continuation  of  the  hydrocarbon  paraffin  Propane, number  of  other  igating  the  octane,  decane,  also  their  Butane,  used  and  check  The  and  work,  Fordyee  Pentane.  i n the  The  object  with  results  i s to f u r n i s h m a t e r i a l f o r the  quantatively  regarding  the  data  want,  s u p p l i e d by  felt  most, Of  compounds  the  perhaps,  chemical  of  the  the  data  J.H.  As the will  for  solvents  work,  a  investhexane,  will  be  Hildebrand  compilation  of  advancement  of  origination  petroleum  p r o p e r t i e s which way,  the  of  investigations by  of  solutions.  solubilities  these  the v a r i o u s  in a  p o i n t of view  t h e o r i e s of  this  )  a  ) i n the  obtained  in preparing a  chemistry,  of  is  i n benzene,  equation  data  verification  ( C^gHgg  same l a b o r a t o r y a r e  solubility  the  the  ( C24H5Q  first  the  solubility  dotriacontane  the- s o l u b i l i t y  from  quantitative  In the  investigation  provides  of  Columbia,  determined  1  Concurrent  dodecane.  principal  British  between D o t r i a c o n t a n e  Tetracosane  of  of  Department  of h y d r o c a r b o n s .  and  researchers  and  the  s t u d i e s to p r o v i d e  This present  solubilities  to  of  existing  Butane.  of  University  series  Seyer  relations  P r o p a n e and  Seyer,  solubilities  researches,  solubility and  Dr.  little  2  and i s known  hydrocarbons, supply  this  industry. determine  solubility  i s of  the first  use  of  (2) importance. Therefore s o l u b i l i t y data are perhaps of even greater i n t e r e s t from a p r a c t i c a l , than from a t h e o r e t i c a l point of view. The need of the petroleum industry f o r data of t h i s * sort has arisen through the introduction of solvent extraction to supplement older d i s t i l l a t i o n r e f i n i n g methods. Recent developments i n automotive and a v i a t i o n engines i n the way of increased engine speeds, pressures, and temperatures showed that l u b r i c a n t s from even the highest quality crudes were lacking i n s t a b i l i t y and more e f f i c i e n t r e f i n i n g methods were- sought. Examples of solvent extraction processes are the Duo-Sol process of the Standard O i l Co.? and the Triton process of the Union O i l Co. ; although there are many others. The most important i n demand f o r chemicals during recent years i n petroleum r e f i n i n g has been brought about by the  widespread adoption of solvent de-waxing, and  solvent extraction processes employed i n the manufacture of l u b r i c a t i n g o i l s . I t i s estimated that the work of i n s t a l l a t i o n of such processes i n the industry i s only about one h a l f completed, i n 1936 there were some 4,800,000 gallons of 5  organic solvents used by the industry. With more basic knowledge available, as the theory of solutions of hydrocarbons i s c l a r i f i e d by these i n v e s t i g ations and others, the petroleum r e f i n e r should be much better equipped to tackle h i s solvent extraction problems than he i s today, and we may expect more e f f i c i e n t methods  (3)  and better products, which are r a p i d l y becoming a necessity for modern requirements. PREPARATION OF TETRACOSANE 1.  Synthesis The hydrocarbon tetracosane was synthesized from C P .  l a u r y l alcohol, supplied by the Eastman Kodak Co., a f t e r the method of K r a f f t , employing the 'Wurtz-Fittig reaction. 6  Hydrogen Iodide, generated by the action of water on an intimate mixture of phosphorous and iodine, i n the apparatus shown i n f i g u r e 1, was l e d into the l a u r y l alcohol which was melted by immersing the f l a s k i n warm water. The materials used were calculated on the basis of one and one h a l f times the t h e o r e t i c a l amount of HI required, t h i s being done to allow for 1eaks, and gas not absorbed by the reaction, as well as an i n i t i a l portion of gas which was not used. As the reaction proceeded the alcokol turned a dark brown color and the water produced by the reaction c o l l e c t e d i n the bottom of the f l a s k . The iodide proved to be an o i l y l i q u i d with low freezing point, so p u r i f i c a t i o n by c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n was rejected i n favor of low pressure r e c t i f i c a t i o n . The iodide was d i s t i l l e d twice under a pressure of 9 ma, the observed temperature being 140 U. The product was a clear viscous l i q u i d with a s l i g h t l y p i n k i s h tinge. Small f r a c t i o n s above and below the temperature noted were rejected. The iodide was transferred to a 500 cc round-bottom f l a s k and j u s t covered wi th ether to modify the succeeding reaction with sodium. A 10% excess of the t h e o r e t i c a l amount  14) of sodium necessary was drawn into f i n e wire and added to the iodide, and the contents of the f l a s k refluxed f o r three hours. After a time the "blue color of Nal appeared, showing the reaction to be i n progress, The ether was then d i s t i l l e d off and the mixture refluxed f o r two hours under a temperature of 150 u. As no further reaction with the molten sodium i n the f l a s k was observed the reaction was assumed to be complete. Alcohol (95%) was added to react with the unused sodium, the quantity being the smallest necessary. This was d i l u t e d to large volume with water to decrease the s o l u b i l i t y of the hydrocarbon i n the alcohol, which was f i l t e r e d to obtain the tetracosane thrown out of s o l u t i o n . The a a l dissolved i n the alcohol, leaving the white s o l i d hydrocarbon, ii.  Purification The hydrocarbon was then p u r i f i e d by repeated  c r y s t a l l a t i o n . jr o i l owing the method of i'ordyce using ether as a solvent resulted i n the loss of three weeks time and considerable hydrocarbon. Crystals were obtainable only below -10. c, which temperature was hard to maintain and f i l t e r i n g was found to be d i f f i c u l t . I t was also found that traces of ether were hard to remove from the hydrocarbon even on continued heating at 100 c . At ordinary temperatures when the l i m i t of s o l u b i l i t y of tetracosane i n ether was reached, a layer of hydrocarbonr i c h ether  separated and no c r y s t a l s could be obtained. A l l  vessels used were coated with a f i l m of the p a r a f f i n , e n t a i l i n g some l o s s . A small amount of hydrocarbon was t r i e d i n benzene  . 15) as a solvent but t h i s was rejected as the tetracosane was too soluble and c r y s t a l s were hard to obtain. G l a c i a l a c e t i c acid was f i n a l l y t r i e d as suggested by 7 ITildebrand  ©,nd was founffl to be very s a t i s f a c t o r y , s i x success-  ' i v e c r y s t a l l a t i o n s from t h i s solvent y i e l d e d a product with a melting point of 50.9 0 which value was constant f o r the l a s t two c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n s . A search of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed the following values f o r tetracosane  : 51,5 , 51.0 , 5 1 . As the e  y  1 0  value obtained agrees c l o s e l y i t was assumed that the t e t r a cosane was s u f f i c i e n t l y pure to work with. 111.  EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE i General The so c a l l e d 'synthetic method* f i r s t used by A l e x e j e f f about 1886, f o r the determination of s o l u b i l i t y was decided on as being most applicable to the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The operation consists of preparing a mixture of c a r e f u l l y determined amounts of solute and solvent i n a sealed bulb to prevent vaporization. The bulb i s then subjected to gradually increasing temperatures u n t i l the point of disappearance of the l a s t c r y s t a l of s o l i d i s noted, when the temperature i s observed. When a mixture of two compounds, rendered l i q u i d by elevation of temperature, i s gradually cooled, .a point i s reached at which one or other of the constituents w i l l  separate  as a s o l i d . This point represents the s o l u b i l i t y of one compound i n the other. The method involved d i f f e r s p r i n c i p a l l y from that o r d i n a r i l y employed f o r s o l u b i l i t y i n that the  (6) composition of the mixture remains constant while the satura t i o n temperature i s "being approached, instead of the reverse procedure. "While the r e s u l t s are necessarily obtained under d i f f e r e n t pressures, under ordinary conditions with pressures below 10 atmospheres no notable effect on the s o l u b i l i t y i s 11 produced.  This pressure i s exceeded by only a few of the  bulbs containing propane while a l l other pressures are considerably lower. ii.  Introduction of Tetracosane Thick-walled bulbs of hard glass, 2 cm i n diameter  were -blown and sealed to 9 cm stems of 3 mm tubing. Several s l i g h t l y larger bulbs were also found to be necessary.. The tetracosane was introduced into the weighed bulbs by means ofi a fine-drawn glass funnel, heated by a small flame. A f t e r cooling, the bulbs were again weighed to give the weight of hydrocarbon admitted. Ihen the f i n a l r e s u l t s had been obtained f o r pentane the bulbs were weighed, the p a r a f f i n removed and the bulbs weighed again, to check the hydrocarbon weight. These values were found to agree c l o s e l y ; I.e. w i t h i n .0005 gm. iii.  Introduction of Propane and Butane Introduction of the solvents gave r i s e to two  procedures, one f o r the gases propane and butane with b.p. 's of -44.5 C, -0.5 C respectively, and another f o r the l i q u i d pentane with a b.p. of 36.0 C. The gas cylinders, supplied by The Ohio Chemical & Mfg. Co. of Cleveland , were connected to the apparatus shown i n f i g u r e 2. The bulbs, containing weighed  (?)  amounts of hydrocarbon, were sealed to the apparatus and their necks constricted. A i r was then pumped off to at l e a s t .001 mm by means of the mercury d i f f u s i o n pump and o i l fore-pump. The whole volume was then " r i n s e d with gas and re-evacuated, to be n  ' f i n a l l y f i l l e d with gas to a pressure of about one atmosphere. After equilibrium had been reached, pre-calculated amounts of the gaseous solvent were condensed into the bulbs by immersion i n l i q u i d a i r , and the bulbs sealed off at the c o n s t r i c t i o n . The amount of solvent admitted was controlled by means of the stop-cock and by observation of the pressure drop, from which the weight of gas condensed may be calculated. A f t e r the freezing point of the mixture had been obtained the amount of gas was determined more exactly by weighing the bulb, allowing the gas to escape, and re-weighing the bulb and t i p . The neck was scratched by a f i l e Before  the  f i r s t weighing, and the bulbs cooled i n l i q u i d a i r before breking off the t i p . i v . Introduction of Pentane In the case of pentane, the desired amount of solvent was pipetted into the bulb, which was immersed i n l i q u i d a i r . The bulb, s t i l l i n the l i q u i d a i r , was then sealed to the apparatus shown i n f i g u r e 3 and evacuated with a motor pump. Hydrogen was then admitted, and the bulb re-evacuated and sealed off at the c o n s t r i c t i o n . The purpose of the hydrogen i s to sweep out the remaining a i r and leave only a trace of gas. After the freezing point of the mixture had been obtained the bulbs were weighed and the t i p s broken off as i n the  (8) case of propane. The pentane was then driven off by heating a t 100 - 125 C f o r 30 minutes, after which the bulbs were cooled and rev/eighed to obtain the pentane weights. v. Bulb Volumes In order to correct the solvent weights f o r the buoyancy of the a i r displaced i t was necessary to know the volumes of each bulb. 'When each sealed set of bulbs had been prepared a record of the o v e r - a l l length was taken. After the f i n a l measurements were completed and the hydrocarbon had been removed the lengths were again measured and the volume fuund from the weight of water necessary to f i l l the bulb s to the t i p . Prom the volume of the bulb to a known length, and from the o v e r - a l l lengths and t i p bore the volume of each bulb was calculated. The volume of the vapor phase i n each bulb was found by subtracting the volume of the hydrocarbon and that of the solvent. v i . Freezing Points To determine the freezing points of the mixtures i n the bulbs, two constant temperature baths were set up as shown i n f i g u r e 4. The thermometers used were graduated i n tenths and were c a l i b r a t e d against a standard resistance thermometer. Stem corrections were not made as the thermometers were c a l i b r a t e d under the same conditions as they met i n use. The e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t employed i s of i n t e r e s t since i t gives unusual f 1 e x i b i l i t y of control and requires a minimum of equipment. Temperatures above 30 C could be maintained w i t h i n .10 C by the heaters alone.  Pressure  Trap  s A  L  bsorption  aury/  A/co/no/  Tower FIGURE  1  Gas  Reservoir  To  McLeod Crciucje.  To Pump  Manomafer  Bulbs Cylinder  6  0  0  0  FIGURE  0  Z  Fore  (9)  The hath was cooled u n t i l the white c r y s t a l s of tetracosane appeared, upon which the temperature was slowly raised, w i t h continuous a g i t a t i o n of the bulb, u n t i l the l a s t trace of hydrocarbon j u s t disappeared. The temperature at this point was taken and the procedure repeated u n t i l three values agreed w i t h i n .10 o. The point of disappearance was extremely sharp and could be obtained upon r e p e t i t i o n to w i t h i n .05 C. Supercooling to the extent of two to f i v e degrees wes observed. APPARATUS  i . Figure 1 The absorption tower was packed with glass beads coated with red phosphorous.  This was applied by dampening  the red powder with as l i t t l e water possible and r o l l i n g the beads i n the paste. I t s purpose i s to prevent any iodine vapor reaching the alcohol. The pressure trap was found to be a great improvement as i t prevented the alcohol being sucked back into the apparatus. i i . Figure 2 The apparatus shown was constructed of hard glass and supported on a frame. The two 5 l i t e r -gas reservoirs may be f i l l e d d i r e c t l y from the pressure cylinder with the r e s t of the apparatus i s o l a t e d . They are contained i n an asbestos box provided with an e l e c t r i c fan and heater so that constant temperature may be maintained. The volume of the apparatus was obtained by noting the pressure drop f o r measured weights of gas. The weight of gas per mm of pressure drop was then calculated. This may best be  =M=-  To  Hydrogen  Tank.  F/asA  6  To  Vacuum  (10) i l l u s t r a t e d 'by the actual figures : Volume of Apparatus V = 1.4720  760 297 54 273 V - .9572 „760 ^ 297'"' 35. 273  22.4 ^ 11.49 l i t e r s 4"4706 -22.4 =. l l ; - 5 2 " 44.06 •  11.50 l i t e r s These figures were obtained f o r propane at 25 <j and 760 mm. Weight Propane per,mm Pressure Drop w = 44.06 11.50 273 1 = 22.4 * T "760 x  ,8.3.-2  grams  T  Weight Butane per mm Pressure Drop w = 58.08  11.50 273 22.4 - ±  1 . 10.7 760  grams  T  i i i . Figure 4 The heaters are 250 watt 110 v o l t e l e c t r i c immersion heaters and may be regulated  by placing a variable resistance  i n s e r i e s . As the two heater c i r c u i t s are the same only one need be described.  '''  With switch A thrown i n p o s i t i o n 1 the heating element receives the f u l l 110 v o l t s and the temperature of the bath i s r a p i d l y elevated. In the 2 p o s i t i o n there i s no c i r c u i t u n t i l switch B i s closed. With B i n p o s i t i o n 1, there i s 97 ohms i n series with the element. This permits v a r i a t i o n from 0 to 97 ohms. With B i n p o s i t i o n 2 there i s the 100 ohm l i g h t i n series with the element and v a r i a t i o n of the s l i d e wire gives 100 to . 197 ohms.  (11)  iror temperatures above  30 (J i t was found that the  resistance could he set i n such p o s i t i o n that the heater would j u s t balance r a d i a t i o n losses to the room. Below 30 C control was less exact and cold water had to be used as w e l l .  (12) V.  RESULTS PROPANE #- TETRACOSANE  l .  Bulb No.  Grams Tetra.  Grams Propane  11  .0576  2.2620  15.56  11.59  2.17  12  .0707  2.0202  13.49  9.95  4.67  14  .0921  1.932]  11.75  8.33  7.03  9  .2230  4.1114  14.98  7.12  8.21  1  .0736  .934^  9.01  7.00  11.99  2  .15 79  .775$  8.48  6.60  18.57  4  .3196  .5979  8.33  6.88  2 5»2X  5  .3305  .32444  9.19  8.20  30.50  6.78  4.87  34.17  5.44  3.75  37.75  6.10  4.56  42.49  6.67  5.22  45.65  5.18  3.71  46.56  7*44  6.03  48.52  7.30  4.61  48.22  17  .8898  18  .9299  15  .9739  20  1.0087  21  1.0599  16  1.0407  19  2.0066  j  .440Q .2858 . 1611 .080). .0613 .034& .0651  Air Displaced.  Volume Vapor  P.P. C.  (13)  ii.  BUTANE - TET.RAC0SANE  Bulb Bo.  Grams Tetra.  Grams Butane  11  .0571  3.3928  13.73  8.17  -2.01  12  .0707  2.4328  12.43  8.32  3.90  14  .0921  1.5039  10.85  8.26  5.60  8•  .1477  1.2300  5.70  3.49  12.77  2  .1579  .6285  4.81  3.56  18.15  13  .1854  .6330  8.48  7.19  19.52  10  .1937  .3740  6.88  6.06  24.00  9  .2230  .3380  12.44  11.69  26.06  5  .3305  .3000  5.97  5.10  30.58  17  .8898  .3830  5.79  4.07  36.43  15  .9739  .2442  5.31  3.70  40.10  18  .9299  .1767  5.03  o ®  20  1.0087  .0959  (5«X X  4.72  45.00  21  1.0599  .0617  4.67  3.11  46.72  16  1.0407  .0599  6.89  5.45  47.02  19  2.0066  .0100  6.86  4 • 27  50.43  Air Volume Displaced Vapor  55  E.P. C.  41.98  (14)  iii.  PENTANE - TETRACOSANE  Bulb No.  Grams Tetra.  Grams Air Pentane Displaced  11  .0571  4.3766  12  .0707  14  Volume Vapor  3?«~f?«  14.43  7.22  -3.81  3.1855  13.64  8.42  2.37  .0921  2.0416  13.24  9.84  3.50  8  .1477  1.6091  5.15  2.37  11.16  2  .1579  1.0913  4.27  2.32  14.73  10  .1937  .5512  6.49  5.46  22.14  4  .3196  .6376  4.28  2.84  24.95  13  .1854  .2882  10.86  8.54  27.17  5  .3305  .4726  5&1Q  4.00  27.98  17  .8898  .7500  6.41  4.06  32.43  9  .2230  . 1414  11.70  11.18  35.60  .4690  4.53  2.59  36.50  .18  0  9290  c.  15  .9739  .2678  5.78  4.10  41.19  20  1.0087  .1814  6.66  5.07  43.21  16  1.0407  .1399  7.24  ' 5.68  44.60  21  1.0599  .0762  5«25  3.77  46.51  19  2.0066  .0803  7.64  4.94  48.52  (15)  VI.  CORRECTION 03? RESULTS It i s necessary to correct the observed weight of solvent f o r the buoyancy of the a i r during the weighing of the sealed bulbs. The corrections, which are p o s i t i v e , have been calculated on the assumption that the bulbs were weighed at 21 C. At t h i s temperature the weight of one cc of a i r i s .001220 grams. Another correction applied by Fordyee was f o r the amount of solvent i n the vapor phase at the saturation temperature. If the perfect gas law be assumed, and i f the vapor pressure r e l a t i o n s are known, the amount of solvent i n the vapor phase may be calculated. The following equations are talc en from the l i t e r a t u r e : Propane  12  log p = 10  Butane  l o g p = 7.395 - 1225  15  Pentane  4.375 - 1010 T  aW.  14  l o g p = 7.558 - 1446 lb mm T  If n be the number of moles pv - nRT n - pv RT If M i s the molecular weight of the solvent and w the weight i n grams : w - Mn  =r M  pv  R T  (16) The propane vapor corrections with p expressed i n atmospheres are then given by : w = 44.06 pv 82.07" T For butane, with p i n millimeters : „  w = 58.08 pv 62359 *~T~ For pentane, with p i n millimeters : w = 72.10 62359  pv T  When the corrections were calculated on t h i s basis i t was found that i n the case of propane and butane,, several of the corrections exceeded the amount of solvent i n the bulbs i n d i c a t i n g that a l l the solvent should be i n the vapor state. On the other hand the freezing points indicate most d e f i n i t e l y that t h i s i s not the case. This suggests that the assumptions are i n v a l i d . Pressed f o r time, the author decided to neglect vapor corrections altogether and the data has been corrected f o r buoyancy only. This was done as i t appeared that as much error would be introduced by applying the ¥apor corrections as by neglecting them. The corrections have  however been calculated  and may be found tabulated with the other r e s u l t s . VII.  TREATMENT OF CORRECTED RESULTS The mole f r a c t i o n of tetracosane has been computed for each bulb.For each solvent the s o l u b i l i t y - temperature r e l a t i o n has been plotted, with mole percent as abscissa and temperature as ordinates.  (18) VIII.  CORRECTED RESULTS PROPANE - TETRACOSANE  i.  Bulb Buoyancy (,'orr .Wt No. dorr. Propane  J  11  .0190  12  •t  Mol  %  Temp. C.  1  log Mol %  T ... / /  /'.  0.314  2.17  .003633  -.5031  Q0164  2.2810 2.0366  0.450  4.67  .003601  -.3468  14  .0143  1.9464  0.608  7.03  .003571  -.2161  9  .0183  4.4297  0.651  8.21  .003556  -.1854  1  .0100  .9442  1.01  11.99  .003509  .0043  2  .0104  .7859  2.56  18.57  .003427  .4082  4  .0102  .6081  6.40  25.21  .003353  .8062  5  .0112  .3356  11.4  30.50  .003295  1.0569  17  .0083  .4483  20.2  34.17  .003255  1.3054  18  .0066  .2924  2 9»3  37,75  .003217  1.4669  15  .0074  .1685  43.0  42.49  .003169  1.6335  20  .0081  .0882  5.9.8  45.65  .003137  1^7767  21  .0063  .0676  67.5  46.56  .003129  1.8293  16  .0092  .0441  75.4  48.52  .003110  1.8774  19  .0089  .0740  77.9  4d.22  .003113  1.8915  (19)  ii.  BUTAIE - TETRACOSfflE  Bulb Buoyancy Gorr.Wt. no. Gorr. Butane  Mol  %  Temp C  1 T  log Mol %  11  .0168  3.4096  .291  -2.01  .003690  -.5361  12  .0152  2.4480  .494  3.90  .003611  -.3063  14  .0132  1.5171  1.07  5.60  .003591  .0294  8  .0070  1.2370  2.00  12.77  .003500  .3010  2  .0059  .6344  4.10  18.15  .003434  ..6128  13  .0103 .  .6433  4.73  19.52  .003418  .6749  10  .0084  .3824  8.0  24.00  .003367  .9031  9  .0152  .3532  9.8  26.06 • .003343  .9912  5  .0073  .3073  15.6  30.58 . .003293  1.1931  17  .0071  .3904  27.7  36.43  .003232  1.4425  15  . 0065  .2507  40.0  40.10  .003195  1.6021  18  .0061  .1828  46.7  41.98  .003175  1.6693  20  .0074  .1033  62.5  45.00 \ .003145  1.7959  21  .0057  .0674 •  .003121  1.8633  16  .0084  .0683  72.3  47.02  .003125  1«359X  19  .0084  .0184  94.8  50.43  .003096  1.9768  (20)  iii.  PENTANE - TETRACOSANE  3ulb Buoyancy C o r r .7/t. No. Corr. Pentane  Mol  Temp C  %  1 T  Log Mol %  11  .0176  4.3942  .279  -3.81  .003714  .5544  12  .0166  3.2021  .468  2.39  .003631  - .3928  14  .0162  2.0578  .945  3.50  .003616  - .0246  8  .0063  1.6154  1.91  11.16  .003519  .2810  2  .0052  1.0965  2.97  14.73  .003476  .4728  10  .0079  .5591  6.9  22.14  .003388  .8838  4  .0052  . 6428  9.6  24.95 -  .003356  .9823  13  .0132  .2934  11.9  27.17  .003331  1 .0755  5  .0063  .4789 - 12.8  27.98  .003322.  1 .1072  17  .0078  .7578  19.7  32.43  .003274  1 .2945  9  .0143  .1557  23.4  35.60  .003240  1 .3692  18  .0055  .4745  2$«5  36.50  .003231  1 .4698  15  .0071  .2749  43.1  41.19  .003182  1 .6345  20  .0081  .1895  53.1  43.21  .003162  1 .7251  16  .0088  .1487  60.0  44.60  .003148  1 .7782  21  .0064  .0826  72.1  46.51  .003129  1 .8579  19  .0093  .0896  82.7  48.32  .003112  1 .9175  (21) VAPOR CORRECTIONS The weights of solvent i n the vapor space, calculated by means of the equations given i n section VI are l i s t e d below PROPANE Bulb Grams  BUTANE  PENTANE  Bulb  Grams  Bulb  Grams  11  .1148  11  ,0352  11  . 0048  12  .1070  12  .0388  12  .0072  14  .0952  14  .0355  14  .0086  9  .0831  8  .0230  8  .0028  1  .1506  2  i 0227  2  .0031  2  .0997  13  .0423  10  .0097  4  «X 2X3  10  .0388  4  .0056  5  .1614  9  .0770  13  .0184  17  . 1049  5  .0390  5  .0088  18  .0884  17  .0383  17  .0102  15  . 1163  15  .0301  9  .0322  20  .1441  18  .0364  18  .0075  21  .1034  21  • 0343  15  .0146  16  .1749  16  .0596  20  .0181  19  .1501  19  .0671  16  .0211  21  .0151  19  . 0203  :  (22) AUTHOR'S NOTE While i t may be argued that t h i s thesis i s too meticulous and f u l l of d e t a i l , the author experienced much loss of time over small points inr.the work and so i t was f e l t better to be over complete than too b r i e f . I t i t hoped that succeeding investigators w i l l f i n d the explanations clear and f u l l , that there time w i l l not be wasted repeating errors that might not have been explained here. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. J . Am. Uhem. Soc. 58, 2029 2. S o l u b i l i t y  (1936)  - j.H. Hiidebrand  3. French Patent. 770903 (1934) U.S. p r i o r (1933) 4. U.S. Pat. 1, 988713 (1932) Chem. Zentralbl 11, 314, 1935. 5. Chem & Met. 44, 68 , (1937) 6. Berichte, 19, '2219 , (1886) 7. J . Am. Chem. Soc. 51, 2487 , (1929) 8. K r a f f t , Ber. 19, 2219 (1886) 9. Hildebrand, J . Am. Chem. Soc. 51, 2487, (1929) 10. International C r i t i c a l Tables 11.  s o l u b i l i t i e s of Inorganie & Organic Compounds A. S e i d e l l  12. J . Am. Chem. Soc. 55, 4339 , (1933) 13. International C r i t i c a l Tables 14. International C r i t i c a l Tables  


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