Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The periodic coagulation of gold sols in the presence of colloidal silica Wilson, John Norton 1936

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1936_A8_W5_P3.pdf [ 35.05MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0061984.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0061984-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0061984-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0061984-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0061984-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0061984-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0061984-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0061984-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0061984.ris

Full Text

THE PERIODIC COAGULATION OF GOLD SOLS I I THE PlfSSTSHCE OF COLLOIDAL S I L I C A By John I f o r t o n W i l s o n , 3-4 A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f • The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A p r i l , 1 9 3 6 . Aolniowledgement I w i s h to e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e thanks to B r . W i l l i a m U r e , under whose gu idance t h i s r e s e a r c h was u n d e r t a k e n , f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and encouragement . TABLE OF CONTENTS Gb 3©ct o f 1/he research*, • » * « • • . , . • * 0 «,.««>•. 4 T i e T h e r m o s t a t . . . . . . . . 6 A n a l y s i s m e t h o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The e f f e c t o f v a r i o u s i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 At t empts t o p r e p a r e r e g u l a r r i n g s . .23 The p r e p a r a t i o n o f g o l d - s i l i c a s o l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 The mechanisiB o f t h e p h e n o m e n o n . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 P o t e n t i o m e t r i c s t u d y o f d i f f u s i o n . .36 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t he r i n g s 42 5-iuQniary «»e • « » » • « « • • • • « « • « » & p ) « « ( « t t i » » t * o « « « o « » < mm maovto mmmMMm 0 1 ? aow soxs I S C O L L O I D A L S I L I C A Im 1896 Tu 0* S£®mQmg C U S S O T O S^ that i f a g i ^ e l p i t a t e im$® £<mm& fey MMffaMim o*f on© rm§<3&t 1st© a- g#i whieh c o n t a i n e d th© s e c o n d r e a g e n t , the p r e c i p i t a t e In many eaoos m s d i s e o n t i r m o u s . © v i s phenomenon, named a f t e r i t s d i s c o v e r e r , i s a l s o feiowh as " p e r i o d i c ' 1 o r " r h y t h m i c " p r e c i p i t a t i o n - * I t has n o t y e t r e c e i v e d a g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n , hat e v i d e n c e has hoen bsoug&t f o r e s M t o iatlioate thai l a certain cases t h e e s s e n t i a l p r o c e s s i s a p e r i o d i c e o a g u l a t l o n of c o l l o i d a l p a r t i c l e s of the r e a c t i o n p r o d u c t , a s s o c i a t e d i n sono eases T i l t h a d s o r p t i o n , p r o b a b l y of the u n c o a g u l a t e d p s r & i e X e a * hy 1 e *s» <a. the o o c g o l u s u SSiis Is t h o IfijGory o f B i a r and Chat ter ,} i • " ' »" •* -* 9 * isaS has heea s o g g o r M hy ea$&r&&s&t8 ©f ® s % © s and M b oo-wosfcers , • and o f tho a u t h o r s o f the t h e o r y , on the pro-p a r t i t i o n o f p e r i o d i c s t m c t a r o s by t h o v h l f f u s i o n of v a r i o u s oor ig t f in t ing e l o Q t r o l y t e s i n t o G U s t a n c e s { s i l v e r ehromate , a r s o n l o u s sulphide, s t e * ) e o l l o i d a l l y dispersed i a g e l a t i n g e l s * msgwmmks afr$'mm& by th©. au^p@rteo?s o f t h i s &aca& are © s a e n t i o X l y ss J K L I O V T S : San XSsar,. S a i l S 6 , £f0^9. <£93£U 5. ° sssaao* Sam-doy Soo** Cot* 1326 » . « l a l l a SQS, Baa*?©® aad Baafcssv 0&®EU S O O * .B* £* s* a©ag«s.r . » o a i . z ss.» sis f a s sQ}* a* f l ) I t lias been sham^tli&t tsiore I s a patTilicl between ta-e protective action of g o l s and t h e i r powex* to cause xliytlmic i g | Ss^siamts i M i e a & e ^ ^ l i a l " p r e c i p i t a t e s fosmea by ' 'SSf f t i s ios i t l i # ,i?©m@taate l a a g e l a i m i n i t i a l l y In the |®3 I r s s f e i y formed p r e e i p i t s t e s may socLjalate miQ. aftaosfr tlv&lT peptieea s o l s § * t h e &cisoi%ia.g potass? or t!vs preoipitato depends os tlxe tsan&Itions of i t s fo2*nmtioa« I t i s wrfelsy of IK)*o that thoro are tm oMssos oi' perio-dic ctraeturo those i n w ; i i o l i t l i e s p a c e s iseteoBH l a y e r s of g r e © I p i t n t e a r e elo&r ante c o m p a r e f i n e l y froa of p r e e l p i «a£s. , a M t i i o s© la w l i l e i i f a e Intervening spaces aro clou ay t;I!;Ii peptized precipitate* 3tructuiveB of tho formes? el as a are i'orraGd by substances whose precipitates can adsorb their peptlsca col* . . f4) S s a g a l i M s £ l e s<ms t i ?a t cd %JiaS mi a s s t m of e i t h e r s i l o e s ? Ian « r & f s&3Baal© i@a x&XL $m®&&& ©i£y©3? • otsaforaste. i s g-elsfettt f f faa- szesss i s w i t h i n s s r t a i a l i m i t s Tffixlcli tle-gasl the •Boseestmtfen ©f g e & a t i » t e a t o n ttso oea-eoata?atten of siXTco? <shmiaat«» Se sps?lleft t l i e ss r e s u l t s «as, f i e l d s diffsslos o r a t i o n to jakeer In a s ® j i l-»qE£ m t i t a t l ^ e v?ay t J ia t v&m s i lver a i t m t e i l i f f a a e s i n t o g e l a t i n g s l contalniatg potassium tjtasaasafcs, a t a g£vsa t ini© <j«2ffcaia l a y e r s o f ta© s?el should contain precipitated s i lver s lmsa&to ;?hile intervening l a y e r s a l i o s M eosfcafn. ge^fciaefi s ix ths? &m>m&t&* S.0 Sen ana Shea?*. M l S* M , 0 . Ganguly J 0 Piayo, Cbcim SI, 48X*> I t should M emphasised t h a t t h i s mechanissu has by no neons boos shomi t o a p p l y t o ©11 oases o f p e r i o d i c formation* She p e r i o d i c deposition o f sod5.ua c h l o r i d e hy s a l t i a g o a t i s e a x i i l l e r y tabes, and the p e r i o d i c deposit ions produced hy ' reaet ions o f g&s&& i l i f f e s i n g I s nerrot; tubes a r e e-^ txme © m i s s i e s - t*£ t h i . s f e e t * W i l h e l m «8&aB&&*B theeiyp^'Ba^Qfoa^a*-© t f i e o ^ - ^ - ^ a s 4 I m M g a o g Osfe5Sl& f s fcJsscwEy^S* tern o i l heesi -sppli tsa i s i t h sosa© sae.eess.ia. © t a d y i s g , s e x t a i n ©as@s s f t h e ; phenomenon• She general point o f view w i t h regard to these reactions should h e s I b e l i e v e , sc>mevr.e>t a s fellows t (a) She d i f f u s i o n o f the seagGRfcs s lmmld be slow, r e s t r i c t e d and as f r e e as pass!ble from d i s t u r b i n g influences„ so that mixing' by convection s a y he proven ted <> (b) Shore must be seme s o r t of a concentration l i m i t s - ^ i«e», a metaetable sapersa t u r a t i o n l i m i t , o-sr a coagulation l H a l t , o f something &S that vlii^h Mist he reached' hefo'S# I ©,} $h@i?e ,ish©<jpM he son© i a t l s e i j . ^ © a&tssisg a g g x ^ a t i o a of the p?5alp:i$a$0& p a r t i c l e s * S h i s infill be i s t h e nature o f ©ascfrptltm -e££#ots*. a s £txvmm€ h y 8s»0£<flp& a s4 f w a d i f f e r e n t vi&&~pe>£nt« .by Wmar m& Vh&tSmSl, o r i t isey he eomiaetecl w i t l a the concontre.tioa l i m i t s o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n , - a e s o r S i i ^ to the idee© o f Gansull aad o f Wo« Ootoaald* 1 .1 0 Bradford, Blockers, J» Mm I B * J33?adf03?a.^  « 14, 4 M (1920). 13o 8b* Oswald, .B3.FR* 2.(Special ! f a * | A p r i l X, 192£„ 500-90, 16 soms t o S I B p o s s i b l e t h a t a p r o p e r co ns:l & e r a t i o n cud s o l u t i o n tins cliSS'iisSaii e q u a t i o n s for %lm r c a a t i n g s&feofcSBoes l a i g i i t l o a d t o a so l is t i o n e x p r e s s l y t h e a o n o o n t r f c t i o n as a p e r i o d i c x i - a c t i o n o f the d i a t e a c o o - H i i s q t i a s t i o n T r i l l bo e o n s i tossed la tere l a t i l l s paper , , P I S S B I ^ IZSSE&gOH* I t l i a s M e a d'amoiis t e s t e d a t t h i s u a l i r Q r s i t j ^ ^ * t h a t i m S e r •eei^taim- © c m M t i o m ®%Mm m3M m y Ii©. f s ^ m a i :mmM£Mimg taft o o l l o i & a l l y ' filspes,so& g o i d c By p r o p e r r e g u l a t i o n those s o l s m y bo made t o s e t t o g o l s « f l i e d i f f u s i o n o i ' v a r i o u s e l e c -t r o l y t e s i n t o t h o s e g o l a Ims m £ a r f a i l o u t o protkieo p o r i o & i s c o a g u l a t i o n o f t h o c o l d , ffhio may be aye t o tli© f a c t t h a t tho c o n d i t i o n R { o ) " 8 t h a t orf a g g r a v a t i o n o f t l i o p r e c i p i t a t e ^ i s n o t rSaXfilleHSs £o& cm t h e one & S B & t o fcise s l i g h t a i f S o s i o a o f tiiG- p f E e t i c l Q s of ' e o e g i i l s t e a g o l # g asfi p e i t i a p s t o i a o b i l i t y « f aoagi2i.ate& g o l d t o a S s o £ b p e p t l s a c l g « X ^ , tlimgh. t h i s l a t t e r o f f c o t l i e s s o t bsen &cjrc>nstrated' ezpor imen t; a l l y ? anfi on t h s o t h e r hand pe rhaps t o the f a s t t h a t t h e r e l i s n e t n meXl jpas©© o& s a l t ooaee r . tmt lon t f o r s o o ® l a l s t i o n o £ fc&s e o X i o M a l goAS*. feat s&S&er a trifle r a o g o o i ! oonoeat jeet ion* s t c r t i a g , a t & l o w ISnifc* & i & t i & i3&iafo t i i e g o l d i s <»agts3s*©a* I t l i e s a l s o tjo^n ' s 2 i c T O , * ^ ^ w y $ £ * t b a t a i g s & s l o a ©1" c& g o M I s aeaoagesaiea by m$ s o e g i i X e i i o i i o f t n o g o i a xm& the G o t t i s g o i 3 t & o . s i l i c a l o a g o l , 1&« © a a g t i o t e a g o l d a p p e a r i n g 5* i s t l i e g e l i n -a s e r i e s o f discs*© to l a y e r s * hmitJQtm -eitieli t h o filstances g i f a a s a X l y Ikntsmmm m the phmmmon s p r o a a s ap' t h e tafto* I t m s o b j e e t o £ t l i e pifcse&t r & s e a r e l i t o s t u d y M s p t e ionenda^ t i M e l i M e s o t M t l i e r t o beos ooaewefi*. I t m a lasped s i s i y tlsa- W,1@IM& ;s£Segfe tsf nw&wm c o a g u l a t i n g c a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o so© i i * t l i e r o was a p & m l l o l v/itli t i e u s u a l c o a g u l a t i o n s e r i e s , miA t o f i n d o u t s o m e t M r i g •<$£ tfe© mssSaaaissi ©# t i e prseoes*. IIo t o r i u X n , JK-Joa-n u c l e a r S o l d S o l s - M O of d o u b l o - f l i s t i i l e d water* S*r# GOi> o f 0,«,2C# A u C a g s s l a ! 4 s e « o f 0 « I S 15 SgOO«jv aufl 0«B <ss«. -of a eafcjTOfcaa -sol-tit i o n of $&m$mmsi lit e t h e r g s r o a deep r o a and T o r y s t a b l e sol*-PoKasldefey&e: - B cc* o i ' n$w? i33Xi l i w {40$ £oi?aal<»e}iyfie) I n 500 ec» o f w a t e r 0 Botaea i i im Oar l&oi ia te j« e*F* r e a s ^ a t TOO filseolToS i s a o - a b l o - d i s t i l l e d w a t e r to :3oira a 0*50 K s o l u t i o n «> was ^ilsa*©a •gritti t i m & I t s wsimsss m l P W e s d l l l t o r o f i fc$2*cm$i £ S £ i e $ p a p e r mvemZ xji%h a t l i i j i - 7 © l l - m S i i e - J l a y e r o f relics*;** o a r t i u 2h© i r o s o l t i a g -solatioB smely£©&5 S i i i o s ^ . I S E a . O ; ^ ^ J3-C o l l o d i o n : - 4 ootaaeieeisl pftjcteot C " P a r i t y 1 ' brand.}. m a usefl^ I t s c o m p o s i t i o n v;aa a p p r o x i m a t e l y : Stlio?.*:VS0 cc* Ef tbyl JO.cc h o i : B&O o o o l > y r a t l i n : 40 grw C e l l o p h a n e s - Ha 'Mont O o l i o p l i a n e , #S00 p l a i s t r a n s p a r e n t , , m o o u t I n t o s a a l l squa res and a l lo ' i f ad t o soak I n « t e -at. l e a s t I ® & e f e r o G o l d G h l o r l f i e : » C P , "brora i g o l d c h l o r i d e " nets d i s s o l v e d i s d o u b l e - d i s t i l l e d ??ator to raofce- a 0*£t?p Bt&atim* So i n i i i i a i s e a s mmh a s p o s s i b l e e o n v o o t i o a c s r s m t s anA Y a r i a t i o n s © a a s M l>y nlimigoB In v e l o c i t y os? d i f f u s i o n vtlfk t o ^ p o r a t n r o * a t i i o n n a s t a t t?as c o n s t r u e t e a i ' o r t h e d i f u s i o n o j q j c r i s o n t s * A \H3odori fees M " b y Zln 'W A© 1/4** n i ty l i p w l i n e d i i i t h two l a y e r s o f a s b e s t o s s a t « Oao s i S o "of t h e hms.^ l>5r 18 1 /4% tms I j i i ^ e d a t t i j e t o p t o f o r s a doo r o p e n i n g ttpDords* Bea t I S E S s u p p l i e s fijr ivao 40 w a t t l e a p s s o t i n so elects i n t a e r o o f o f tli© bos.* 5&e t l i e n s o ^ r e g u l a t o r s a s o f t l i o c o n v e n t i o n a l t o lucnc - . r i c r ca xy v a r i e t y - , t i i o d e s i g n b e i n g i i o i l l f i o d oo t l i & t i t c o a l d be mounted a l o n e t l i e r e a r w a l l o f t i i o bos* Sfro rsgfa la toy- opo ra to f i a roAs^r t i M o i i c c t o u t t a © I i s a t i n g o lo iaents* 55io o a r r e s t p a s s i n g t n r o a g n t h e ho a t i n s lo.inps c o u l d b© r e g & l a t o d tiv a e a a s o f a rfeeoatat* L a t ox" a s t l r r i a g f a n m s aaflod* & t a r i n g d i ag ram o f fine t l i e s s io s t a t and a d i a g r a m -mi t i i o r e g u l a t o r a r e i a e l u i t e d i n t k i s paper*. f i i e t h o E n o s t a t , 'snon o p e r a t i n g e f f i c i e n t l y * w i l l m a i n -t a i n a toHporatsrs- a r o s i i t -ggPto 5 0 % t g t f e i a # 0 , 8 ° f o r o r o r ton- da©©* 2a . i imo t i i o o a p i l l a r f tafee o:? t h o sognlttto? b e c o m e c i i r t y « 3 M s ^ B w a o t ^ s ' s t i c & i a s o f t he nsswsEffijr, t&ief t i n t o r i T o r o s r;itli t i i o o £ £ i c ? i e a o y o f t ao te ra^ora t s re c o n t r o l * Wiien t h i s ft* happena tlie rogulator mast be talcon apart aad alaaaaa^ Some ' C O T E S m& ^spori-euaoct at f i r s t tTltli the ralay points,, tiMa-a fe90Sg?io fiis*ty rnul ¥saaM sot Snnxsttmi r e l i a b l y a f t e r a eaali 02? so o f usee B i i a - t r o u b l e was obirlataa b y th& aoo ox* silvo:c*ad points,, 2Iic ITOgD l a 'taa mtor-glass solations TJSS aetaralaea as follows; a g w ssrag&o of mtosvglass was tsoigfeoa oat, ailutaa witli «ter, auS a e i S i f i a a xrlth wa&m of 1 # 0 1 2 Zl EgSGA* witli plieBolgaSIialoia as an infiiaatar the gelation nas baeli-t i t r a t e d xvitk 0*105 21 1C0B* i l i a s i l i c a aa 1;enT&n e tioaa v;ore taaile a s fo3,lGi?s? a aamplQ x-aiali aliaaXd y i e l d beteaea 0*1 and. 0*2 gsu SiOp T T S S vjoighocl oat a &mll s t o p p e r sa f l a c k lat-o a SSG aa* beal-x*?,, S M 0 saiaple <ssas tlilateS wiSt S5 aa* of watas? caS 20 ec# o f aaiieoatratetl l i y d r a o i L l o^ia Q G M was adaaa^ 2aa s^aaaltiag ©al rac evaporatoa to aryaass aa a not plate * C a r e i s noaeaeary to G V G M apattarIag-« SSie prooipltatG ass nac aaistoned - ? i t i i 85 00« of water a n d e v a p o r a t e d a s s i s t to dryaoss-a 2a© aseaipl-tate r/aa t h a n trashea with a convenient quantity of w a t e r , f l l y a r e a sac! tlriod* I t me then i g n i t e d i n a platiaus eraaiaia am! v/e lg i i sa . i f sa 4asirocl 9 tho s i l i a a aaalS be v o l a t i l i s e d ad t i i HgSf% ana m d t i i e s o n * alilatsaas s a t t a r i n t h a procipitat-o iata-sriinaa^ m&mimmd. P H O - O J S I U R S , . A s i l i c a s o l r/as made froiu 80 co, of ;satsa>3lGQS s go O Q * of mSor, aa& 100 as* of Sa» HDX* i 3 i l s was .aSJUsssod t o stand f o ? a i n o i i o a r s and was tli@a dialy-ised t i i r o a g l i collodion iseiateaiies f o ^ gd 1 I O E 3 ? S « 2o ISO os* o f t h e resulting sol were addea 10 oo* o f c o l d o h l o r i f i e solution* tm& 3*6 O G » of p o t a s s i a i a © o r b o n a t © noXt i t ioE* suff i c i e s t to b*lag pH„ a© measured t r l M i e crain* xiydroHO eXeet rode* to- 6*2* Sfow S*0 G O * of s a s l e a r s o l were audodj, t h e miir&are v;as h o a t o d over a Danaon burner to SO0, and 13*0 oo* of foraslde-I iyde i^ore s t i r r e d I s af ter - tho m i x t u r e l i s d bees roiiQTOd from tfce f laniQ* Eedsctiaa tsas complete a f t e r o e v e r o l mismtes, a c l e a r r e d s o l b e i n g f o s a o 4 a Aftos? t o o s o l bad e o s l e d - i t w d i a i y s e f i t h r o u g h e o l A o f i i o a t a e ^ r a a o © for-4e hours* 2?he r e s u l t i n g ool contained X*«?£^ Si0 g and 0«-027>» of material not v o l a t i l i s e d by I sydrofXuoj^? acid* to #1«*~ S e v e r a l p i egos o f Pyres: tablng* 3/4° i s fiiaraates^ and 6 t o 8 i ^ o l i e s l o n g , ?;ore capped tsitfc ©ollopaaa© meabranae-cooi tred by . rubber bands, sad wore oac l i f i l l e d with SO eo* o f S o l #X« I l i e tabes- tvero tasu d i p p e d i n t o s o l u t i o n s o f E01 CSt^ 3^ 0*3"S» m& 0*£S M) a t a t e a p o r a t i i r e o f .6^ 0* Bi^gs be~an to fom within fifteen hoars, s a d oentinuod f o r a \reelu l i o i g l i t s o f t h e r i n g s foamed were measured ^ i t h a ca t l i e to iaBte r* 10 n / P / 0 / \ 7-0 0/ / / / • .. • 0 V j LI 0 / / V / ) c / 1 ~ , 9 ) ( Co 7 y <r ; o c e & — — — ..I —j—i——/ •0 e 1 s 9 © / e ' 4.* © e I 9 A ve/te too mt z/yerVT, ocea IB. °r MAZY vsrt/icr n>t< Kit/// c- Beta taxes W THE MO £ /fc e £ e X -—f — • ; ..i - i • / ! c 1,0 i •5 » / 3 1 L — ^ — \ • / >n r i • // i / / / / / / / 1 • — Run ft- * / / -/ I * 1 j / , • 1 i 1 to/ > i «L. . / • / : // / / / ; / / ' 1 1 1 1 ii • • / / / ; / 1 / / / / / / • F I ' 1 o P k 1 ! / / / l \ / / / / f : G j / / — * / / / . j/y | | / / £ y : /' -.(•it- / • : - i 1_-y ) —-—-• — - — — — — ; U^ J . 0 ) G ) ! j t o • ' V K " T 1 9* She 3?$ags farrjetl w sameroas and s o t T o r y r a » t i l a r , » a s T J I I I ha soon f rom tae graph o f the rasaIts* Taoso e:<pcriraents, aad most a t those heraafter aeaoribea, were soadaa t aa i n £50 ee* Splaasseyea? f l a o h a * 0or£ stoppors to f i t those f l a s h s maxt fcoa?©& w i t h h o l a e of s l i g h t l y smaller t l c e a a t a r than t h a t o f t h a Pyres t a h i a g * !Hio' oorls -sore sos? a l i t O B © a i d e , aaa f i t t e d ovos* t h e gysnsor taboo, a f t i c h war© thm a l a a p e a ay m-asas o£ t h a aorliia i a t.ho n a s h o f t h a f l a s l s a a a t h a t t h a fcottoa o f t h a t&has ?*®re ahoat t\;o oa f r h e l o t ; t h e &UT£m& Qt t h a a l e a t r a l y t o ^ s o l a t i a n s r , Wm t?.ppor anas o f the P y r e s t aaes a l o s o d ra l th aarfc s t o p a a r s to j e e v a a t evaporation ©r aa i i t t ^ a l s a t i a a a f t h o a i l l c a s o l a * Han #2-*?- 2hree t a b e s o f s o l #X Tser© s a t up ovar 0*£5M 201, •laa r a s a l t s I » 4 i a a t e how poor i s t h a r a p r a f i m a e a M l i t y * (So© g r a f h w l mm S o l #1 over 0*0g jr. E O i aad 0»G1 S01* S e o g r a p h f o r roaotlt TSzm # £ 5 ~ Sol #1 a-vos? 0*028 5« K O I * ftMF o r fiva i r r a s ' i t l a r r i n g s v;src a h t a i a a u * Boa #5 ; - S o l #1 over 0* .0 i£ SOI* Olio r i x i s formes a f t o r a ooaple of- -7aaha« S a c r a was a leyor o f aarl: eocgalas . on t h o xtemhrajio ahourt 4 ms. thl t /a . , afellisss^St hy a a l o w sr*aae o f 3 wu, a a a a ring about I ssa* ®iie&» .It i a noticeable t h a t l i i i s r i a g 4 t i lalah proat tacd r i n ^ s a l i t t l e a a r l i a r v&th 0*01 II* S O I , nor/ ciitt so T / i t h fiifflealty t/ith O,>015 IU 2CC1. I t was also n o t i c e d t h a t some of the gold in t h o g o l d sol hed coagulated o v e r the p e r i o d i n vf.ii oh. r u n s 1 t o 6 r;oro no.de ( x ^ ~JL> ) s t i e r e d color boring loco deep, and a s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f d a r h eot^uluri hariap act tied i n e s a l i f l o o t s t o t h e bo i - toa o f t he fLnslr. Conclusions from Hans 1 - oh>* With c-oncen trnted s o l u t i o n s , , t h e rings be^in to torn, a t a g r e a t e r height aboire t h e membrane* Henco tho d i f f u s i o n g r a d i e n t i n . ® n o e n t r a t © t t s o l u t i o n s mmt be t o o g r e a t , i*o«» t h o d i f f u s i o n t a k e s plaao t oo r a p M l y * I t i a net iced t h a t t h e a i g l i e r v i a o t ^ f o r a e a r i n g a * xto®m t h e d i f f u s i o n i s slower and t h e concentration snail or,, are tho sharpest*. She results in Btm #g sham not very g r e a t reprodueeabilityo. Sfeo o f the enruoo are a i m i i a r but one differs quite narkodiy,, and does not even give a smooth curve. Shis e f f e c t s a y be due to t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n menbranoo, o r perhaps t o other e f f e c t s , sueh as convection*. 1 S i n g e p r o d u c e d b y ol^ atroa^ rt© o f loyiear s o n o e n t r a t i o s txm nor© Yi idoXy s e p a r a t e d a t a giiroa h e i g h t than t h o s e p roa need by aore concentratea electrolyte* ffihe gold s o l s u s e d a p p a r e n t l y aetoriorato viita t ico . Hease any c o m p a r a t i v e runs t r i l l have to be made ^rith the sane s o l a t t h e same tS;ne„ She production o f r i n g s i s e v i d e n t l y c o n t r o l l e d by tho oonccntrution o f cold as v;eli a s by t h e concentration o f e l e c t r o l y t e , * TtZPGQ toateiies X i l t e s o l #1 gpogoxea , o f SOO c s * oaoa* I n p i ^ o o s s i n g t h e i r T O X E B S O B i n c r e a s e d 'to 69-0^ 530,,. and TOO eo* r © s p o e t i T © l y . B duo a g ^ a r o i i t l y t o o s m o t i c o f f e a t s union. v a r i M isd-tlt t l s s p r o p o r t i o n o f f fee mmtesmm. t e s d f o r d . is iysAs.» l a © s o l p roduced fey m i s l a y t h e s e t a r e s © a s O y s c d £*XSjS 810^ s a d O.OSSp OT£ r a t a HE?» SSiio s o l appo-ared to be laos© s t a b l e than t i i o x^eviouo -on©*, Hun #G? U s i E * 30 oo* o f s o l #2 i n eacb. caco, . t u b e s viero ee t up o v o r £ sasaplos each o f 200 eo* o f 0*2511 I X ; 1 , L i C l * S a C I and i l O X g * TBlt&Sn 4 duyo a!3. o^oop-t t h e A X S l ^ i s e r s o a t t o t h e top:, t i l t l i rmm abffaliag good , b e a d i n g * 111 t h i s about two « f e t i i o A l C l ^ was s o t , and showed v e r y i r r e g u l a r s c a t t e r e d r i n g s * SaGi j , **• no d e f i n i t e i l np - s t r u c t u r e , but a a s i a a o f I n t e n s i t y * M G i »• eamo as- E a M a . *» l a s g o nu i i be r o f r i n g s o f paoa? d o t i n i t i o n ^ C o n c l u s i o n : t i i o c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y t o o h±$h f o r b e s t r e s u l t s * Run # f 5 S e t up c o m p a r a t i v e r u n s o f CUOS S S S I s ad s s l n s i n ^ aoalced and imso&fced aeXXophane a s laeitbraneo* She ooafcad membranes gave n o r © r e g u l a r and d i s t i n c t r i n g s e B a a §Q% 0*025 II K a C l , EC1„ B a O X g ? xaGXg , ( 8 0 0 ©s^ e a « 3 & » - x l t h SO oe* s o l #g)* 2rt l o s s t h a n £ 4 h o u r s t h e S a md A l saragleo bad ohsaged o o l o i * a l l t he T/ay t o t h e t o p , t & e r o a s t he Ho and £ AO i _ Run ft*-<y / m [4 i J A c< (r. / • • / / / / ' * J •• /Pi NtTM-J j. : • • • h . . • • <> -<r r * i - / • i >~ 1 _ ['"-{" >X • >* y * • )c) .> 1.06 —, •—•——;—i—i—i_j v % // i • s ; . \ 1 / \ \ 1 S • • ' A — — j — , — i — _ _ — i _ ( \ • * ° i ..V I.XC \ X • V i \ - -v * 1 1 ' i 1 O.o 1 i i L t J i ! | i | 5 4 f it f 1 1 1-7 s .3,2* had rsaahoa only about 1*5 iaahss l a 5G hoars.*. Within a xmelz tlia .aillaa. Iiacl .gelled i a the 3a samalaa a l l . the way to the tot?* 2ha othai?a !hat .sot yat set to- th® top* % 11. days-prostiaoxt ria;y ayato7'i;S' had bass aomplate4 i a tha X © M Ha samples* '2he M samplo-a eaatalaaa a $vs£«sn of very f i n e alosely saaaaa slags* S?ho Ba samples shocraa aa de f i n i t e r i n g s , hat merely maxima aad raiiiiss o f cto&city* Conclusion: She AX on6 Ba. Iona t having creator charso* aaagalato the gold p a r t i c l e s raore r a p i d l y than tho 1C and ITa ion a. fho Ba aaparoatiy oca eoagalat© tho s i l i c a at lot? eesamtratloso and sot raaeii of i t i s absorbed i a tha g o l * Sins tha d i s o D B t i n a l t i o s i a tha tllffhaiaa s a t e of th® Ba ions are not g&mfc enough to a l l o t ? riag© to fossu Apparently tha £ aad 11a ioma, hawatrer^ a r e ahsorhscl to a large esrtent* J*srgo d i s o a a & i M M l t i e s are araaaasa i a tiio clirc£asio% ®&& t r o l l sspaayatat • riags tarn* SIi©-Jl. l a s aesas to ba imteraaalata i s i t s axoimrtiea befeees th© el&alf aad, tha Ba ions* Saggo'stefi o i c p a r i P i a i t s Jstoro c l e a r l y t a f iaoa r i a a a aiglit bo obtained with tha iCt l o a i f a mm S i l a t e s i l i c a s o l iiara ksqO+ f o r higher e o B o a h t r a t i o a s of £L i o n i?aala ba aee«ee f o r sa t t i s g and at those aaaeoatmfcioas raoro of the ion sight be sbsorbea. oafi greater fiiaaoatimritios i a % i r t r o s o l t * Q.uaatitati% re r s s a i t s > sao graphs« B S E S O tse. of Sola s o l #ft o^r- goo sa, c f o0m I I f X t 3 i g y 0*005 3 B a S l g , 0,01 ?I RaQl asfi 0»0X S 201* Within 4 hours tha A l hat ffiissgai bslo* ta 1% the Ba to =aboat ana the £ 0 1 ot»a HaGl tsai at a l l * $••0 4-6' 4-0 3-0 3^ 1.0 1.5 1.0 0.S Ran # 9, « //. / • I : / / — L / t 1 n 1 n . L / / r- I / • i t 1 / / ?/ / / V / / ,tv/ r / X 1/ / / / / 3 K / V 2S \f 0.0 5* 3&» J a SO h e a r a Sn>tii i l a a a Ba ^ e r o ahange& t o t h e t o g , thoagh tho sMage "sao i>iorc raarfeea w i t h the Al« f he ffa and 11 ha4 b o t h aaen&<3$ t o ahoat l / 4 n * After 68 heara there itraa a aarh eo aaalsri i a tha "bottom of t h o t a b e s , 8ot£ t h a Ba-caaS A l t*©r© a o t t o t h o eflgo o f t h i s oaagalisri. 9 t h a © s t o a t s o f whisht \ $ © I S B . 4 i r 2/4rj Ba* l / S n | a a , I/O"; 1/16t? f a l l approslmate- .k After ISO h o a r s o s o r i n g - has a p p e a r a a i n oaah o f Ha m8. IU Oao l o s e ring Iiad formed i a t h e 2 a tabc, aafi t h e ciiica taas s a t bsjrosd. this for one oau After 1 9 0 hours th.c B a tuba tjas s o t t o t h e top, as v.aa t h e A l * She £ 0 1 t?aa s a t a t t h o e % e o f tho l a s t r i n g * She H a Q i ahowea a 3 rasw a o p o s i t o f saagulsm.* t h e n a e l o a r sposo antah-tliag 2 SSD„, an.a a p i i ^ esfceaain,j 1 an* She a i l i a a ms a-at t o t h e o % o o f t h i s l a s t r i s ^ a treti above i t rms clear ami u n s e t » (See ga?s$ia for £01 r o e n X i s ) * 1-laa #20? 20 m* o f a a l #8 tmp 200 c&> o f 0,00111 3a02g, 6 - O 0 0 2 M" mm^m M * 0 M ¥ E 0 1 a a 4 SfaSX*. 0*0001.1! SaClgj s a a i i l O l g . , a a d « 0 0 f 5 If ZG1 ascl ftoOl, aaS 0,02 H Ba01gasi<I A l G l f / BaOlg - 0,001 fr* S I houro, Color ehsaao f o r 1/8'h 66 h o a r s , Color chango ta top,, eoagalam foxmiag on iaottoia; s o rin^a* 1 7 0 hoars^ S S B I O aa b e f o r e b a t s e t aboiro ooagalaKu-«*0QQ& XT® j t o a c s * -~ l o o f f a s t * 0 ® 0 1 If« 84 hoa r s* «* ftao ring1 apparently 9 5 h t l t i i ^ S i a g has beaeae l/S" l a y e r o% ©oagalasa^ Silica oet f a r above it» 1 liXOi - 0*0001 170 hie*— m effect, S3. 2n.v—Color ehosue f o r X l / 4 n . 8& h r * >~geXor ohanged' t o t o p ; O O U S I J I C T I c a b o t t o m ; no r iapi* X ? S huv ~ Same* b u t s o t afeovo aoegulua* 0»0X g4 nr. - C o l o r encage t o top.. 48 hr„ *> C o a ^ a l u s on bottom, rot cot. 95 h r * - S t r i a t e d oo&saXusi f o r about xw„ Sot bolovr limit* o f tli l a , 180 2sr» - Stol lar , b a t sotting sooos t o be s p r e a d i n g beyond eoasuXam* 170 Iir* •» Himuj forcing a t 4*6 OEU S i l i c a v e r y v i s c o u s below t h i s point. l i r * «- Sot t o top* jK&Ol 0,005 00 nr. - Ho effect. Q*QQ¥B 2d br* - So. offeet* 4 0 In** ~ Ho a f f e c t * 78 hr* * dolor change t o top. DC h r » - Lay o r o f u o s ^ X u m on bo t tom* Hat set at a l l * 14D « -aXtaost c o m p l e t e l y eos j jn ln to t l t o b o t t o m ( g o l d p o r t ! a l e s ) * . So s e t t i n g * mi 0.005 100 h r * - IJo effect. 0*GQT§ 140 hr* - Bo e f f e c t « Kan #IXs B0 so* c o l #8 o v e r SOO cs* 0*0905 IT B a G X g and AlQX^ m& 0*0085 and ©»0X& H K01 SfeSl* ( 2 s m p X o s e a c h l * 0*0005 iU - 3d l ixv - Colas? abaago l / g R * S l i g h t • o o s g n l ^ u B i t M n tua /waofcs t h e © o l e r o i i a sso e p r o a d t o abou t In. t h r o e ureelsa t h e g o l d m s aXX c o a g u l a t e d to t h e bottom* Ko s o t t l n r t o r r i n g s * ataxia MJXLr ••0C©& ' M Ich ~ O o l o r choose t o t o p , Sone ^ ooarfu-liiH on b o t t o m o f tube* K i t e a c a j o l m i u a r e a s e d g isadaolXy eras? a p e r i o d Qt 10 day a,, Til V O S a aone o f t i i i t e appeared above i t T o r obaut 3 c a , S h i a aone o f t & i i t c s p r e a d agt-iarda a a - t i l i t r a&cUed the t o p and a l l t h e ^ o l d hod bean c o a g u l a t e d t o t h a bottom, by t h r e e r ;aeha 3 llaOX 0*015 24 l i s* , - c o l o r chango f a r X l / £ a „ S X % h t aoaijaliaa^ Ho a e t t i a ^ o 4 2 h r * « c o l o r a b a s i a to top* l le ' ra m^ilwu 6a h r » «* p o o o i b l y r i a £ i 'OKt i i a^ a t atsoat " 1 / 4 % to hr* - b l u i s h aoa^alaiTi x b r l / £ " , l iXS hr*. - eoogaXiaa t o abaa t 9 / l 6 f l , S o t t e 140 h r* - l i t ' t i e ohaa r ; e„ 164 h r » - so*- s l i g h t l y beyond aas-gclrcis h £ t o r t h i s s o t t i n g proceeded spamrds beyond tae t&agpjljom,' w l d o h o a K t a i E a d 0»GOS& 4 0 ha?.~ C o l o r ahar^e f o r l / 8 * „ S l i g h t ooagalario Ho ohaatiO^ia t h o JS day a* M L 0*0X0 dB- - O o l o r ohaage f o r X l / g n * O O Q S * -X I T S o s ba t tea:* P o s s i b l y rat03 f o i l i n g a t l / g « i n 0 3 0 sample K 86 223?, - C o l o r ohasiyo & n * S d o f i a i t o r i a g s and one t e r r a i n s i n one aaapXo, S boay r i s ^ a i a o t h e r * irO h r* f a ) S o t t o 1*3 « s , , b l u e t o 4* 15 a ' u , r52iao a t 0*9,, and 1*6 o n , { b ) Sofc t o 1*4 a s i s b l u e to.£5«g ecu raaigs 1*5, 2«0 T ana £*a a - - r c a , 115 hr«. fa.) S o t t o £«& cm,* b l a o t o S*5cm», r i n a o 0«0* X«£*X*6, ; t«a s a , ( h i S o t Uo I A ? C S U , r i a a o a t 3-«*S* X«fc„ 1 , 9 , aad S*8 o a » • 137 l2.iv, (a) Ho not; r i n g s * {b) Hou r i n g a t 3»0 oru 166 to* Caf. S o t at abou t J&«3* l o ssesr r i a ^ o * l b ) S o t a t S«V P J u s i b e l o w lout r-ingo 190 b i u l a ) woe; ring a t 3*0 unu at 3»G* £ M !ir« (a) S e t a t 5*6 ring-* C o l o r obango t o 4*0 Gf.iK Cb) S e t a t S*5 orio l i e u ring a ' ; 4*5 dm.*, S62 h r « l a ) d o l o r cbarwre t o t o p ( 8 0 5 } , , S l i g a t r i n g a t 4»8«. S e t t o 7*5,, (b ) S l i g h t r i n ^ a t 4 . 8 * S o t a t about 8a K G ! 0 , 0 0 0 5 K - 48 fer* - S l i g h t but noticeable color euango n e a r bot tom* 66 Ltiv «- S / 3 " c o l o r enaapej son© 0 0 0 3 1 1 -I n t i o n o , 91 b i v « Ca) K i n g a t abou t 1/2"* G a l n o t \ rery r i g i d a t t n i o p o i n t 0 (1>) P a r t i a l 0 0 ag* t o Kb r i n s S f t 116 b r . ~{a) R i n g a t 5 /16"* S e t l / l G " be louu (b ) l&> x'inga* 138 h r 0 - fa} B i n g SomtOQ a t 1*8 <ss* S e t a t do8 saw {b} ITo rings yet* Ooapuitui i n c r e a s i n g * 168 br«~( a} E i n g f o r m i n g a t g«S c s i s fb) Hin t ' s f o m i e . g a t 1 ,2 and 1,6 sm* 189 hr« - f a ) P.iog 8 t i l l f o r m i n g a t S«S en* (b ) R l a s foraocl a t 1*2; 1,6 era* fomiug * S I S l a % - Co) 3*3 s t i l l fomin^ also 3*£» Safe o i t g l i t l y near tlie 1*8 ring* ( b ) 1*6 definite; nor: ring eoapectecu £62 in?* - (a) Ho new riaic; s e t elfjbfcly near &»1« th) S o t n e a r .1*6 r i n g * . S o u r i n g at 8*5 fom. £36 h r c - {a} B i n s a eve loping abort 3*4 crw l b ) Little ebsnge* a o t about .1*6 oia« 1500 Sir. ~ Both sot t o top* ISO new rings* E m #14? SO oe* o f Sol §B o-rar 200 oc« eaoi i of I l gOlg ( 0 * 5 , 0 .05 r 0*01, and 0*005 M«>) B e e n l t s s 0»005 II « C l o s e packed e o o j a l i t a on bottos* SO ring structure* C l e a r g e l bbove ooagolan* 0 *01 ** 1 nou c l e a r r - e i , foHor?ed by one sharp ring„ 1/2 an, o l e e r gel, broad band o f continuous oonA-uiua, and oleer g o ! t o t h e top. 0*01 l o o e o n S o a a p i e l «- S era* o f e i e s so iy paefeefi Isasy r i % % w b i o n were barely 41s« t i r i f j t i i s l i G b l O o 0*0S - ivbout 5 olosely paofceu and appror^i'-auely ecp t i c l i s t ea t x l a j j a in a space o f 1 en«T follov.-ed by X mu of dense eoafjnliiJ;xe- a n d ' • o l o a r g e l t o t i i o tope •as* Shoso r e c a l l - s \7ere oasm/hat s i m i l a r t o t h o s e v r i t h B a C l g * giving v e r y i n d e f i n i t e r i n g f o r m a t i o n a « d r a p i d g e l a t i o n * Baa #15; 30 co* o f s o l o l t h 200 oo* oS HOI ( 0 . 0 0 5 and 0 , 0 0 1 H ) , She 0 » O 0 1 B* s o l a t i o n limply c o a g u l a t e d t h o / 3 0 M a t a l l i i i t h i n two o-oa:cs$ t ha 0 , 0 0 0 H s o l u t i o n c o a g u l a t e d t h o g o l d - w i t h i n 4 d a y e „ ba t d i d no t s o t t ho s o l e ^ h i a i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g , i m v i o u o f t h a f o o t t h a t a a i d s i l i c a s o l s a r o o a i t e S t a b l e , S o l # 0 , A s i l i c a s o l was a r o p a r o a f r o m SOO oc e . o f m t o j v g X a s s , . 75 c c c o f o a t e r , aad £ 6 0 aa*. SM HOI* 4150 co* o f t h i s e o l a t i o n d i a X y a o d f o r 24 h o a r s a f t e r s t a n d i n g I S h o u r a a , a t t a i n e d a yo lamo o f 690 ee» a t a pH o f 15,1 end a s i l i c a c o n t e n t o f SB h o u r s a f t o r c o m p l e t i o n o f d i a l y s i s t h o g o l d xjo.d added a s £ o i l o ? ? s : 1 0 aa* o f A u O l g „ 2 . 6 ' oo, o f >.h,GQg wore added to 1 5 0 oo» o £ s i l i c a s o l B b r i a s i o g t h o a l l t o 6 , 5 5 , H O E ? 2 cc* and 5 cc* o f iOrroa ldehydo ware added q u i o l c l y w i t h s t i r r i n g . '^ 3.0 c o l o r p r o d u c e d oas v e r y good aad c l e a r » 3 hour s l a t e r the- s o l m a s t a r t e d d i a l y a i n f | s aad th© p r o c e s s v/ae c o n t i n u e d f o r 48 h o a r s * ' 3 i i i ca c o n t e n t ; i , 4 7 p . S h i s s o l was t h o b e a t Bade s o f a r * I t s t o o d av> b e t t o r a i i d e r t h e l a p s e o f -time p o s s i b l y booau.se i t was kept i n c o o p e r a t i v e da r lmoos and t h o p a r t i c l e a o f g o M eoenod t o bo i n a f i n e r a S a t o o f s a b - d i v i s i o n . 3-0 r ' ! t i * / / 1 ; xa -.-j feS—!—|—— / / / / XI . !\ "7 1 / / / / / — j j LI / / / / / v./ / ;' / /> / / / 1 / / ...i \.$ 1 ' / ^ 0 / / 1* v/ / . / / / J k r / / s V -if 1/ • : 1 1 •• ; / "•/ ,- / ^ \ V / f OA > 1 /I 1 // 1 • ' "K / o> / / * / • t *T~' ' j i i i i / / / / y 0.3 d //• . / / ' i / 1 ^ r-/ / / / n*V" - > ; i • ••' — — I &J2 xj : • o-V .J i . . : J • 3 7 l j ? ~7a It*; IMs #16* j p i f f u s i o n i n t o m>Z #3 o f KGl {0*01, 0*015* 0*020, . and 0*025 IT) end I7QC1 (0.035 end C020L!}. Ho observations u l t l i time r a r e mfie; t i io rin^e i b m e c l wore laoasnrefi and i n son© eases- p a o t o g r a p b M * See g r n p n s * fuo JiCl s o l u t i o n s a l l proaraoefl rinps, fchowga t i i o more d i l u t e solutions- toolr considerably l o n g e r t o So so* neither o f tlie f faCl solutions pro&neei r i n £ j s 9 b a t only a l o c a l i s e d region o f continuous ooagalnm* Ban #17 s I n a n a t tempt t o secure r i n g s isita t l i e H a O i aolutioas, diffusion o f 0,»0S ana 0*025 H HaCl i n t o s o l #S a t various di l u t i o n s teal luted, Zt 1—S vols of s o l #3 t o I v o l * o f wa te r* a n t Xsl). Soap*. g5°e.» Results: 0*025 Undiluted: Baric cloudy s u s p e n s i o n f o r S osto above t l i e ,mmhTm®v, vilth. a a l i g l i t ring a t t b i s point* Se t t o t.:is i i s t o a o e anu no further* Olear s i l i o a s o l above* Possible intorppotation: Sue I-ToGl d i f f u s o i i n ana © o a s a l s t o a f lie- g o i a ana s t a r t e d t o c o a g u l a t e the b i l i e a * b e i n g absorbed a t tlie same tirae*, S&ougii rTaCi •msx absorbed i n s e t t i n g 2 cm* o f s i l i o a t o rorJuoo t l i e eono* o f IfaOl available b e l o w the; s r i t i o a l p a i n t for- s o t t i n g - t l i a s i l i o a * Ills bt bo cbeckeel by s i m i l a r espori-* meat follov.'0& b y analysis o f t l i e t l i f f u s i n g solution to f i n d concentration o f I?aGl„ , S:.sl SUoSaqy r i n g a t 0*? ess* appsswu so* 2 : 1 S o l d c o a g u l a t e d t o t o o bot tom* Ho r i x ^ S s , S i l i c a p o s s i b l y sot f o r l/o n* 1:1 G o l d c o a g u l a t e d t o bo fctaia« Mo r i n ^ e * ITo s e t t i n g . * 0*05 IT U n d i l a t o c l : S o t t o 4 . 4 aa..'- One t h i e h baad e x t e n d i n g fror.v 1 O H * t o 1*8 onu a t 1*0} 0 s l l l a s i i s a o f d e n s i t y a t 0 . 7 , i » g s 1*7, and 2 . 5 oa» aap io K i n a t a l y . gsl ffiay n a g a t 1*6 f o l l o w s ^ b y a c l e a r s p a a © e x t e n d i n g t o 8*0 C E I ^ ;iollo?j©d by a haay r eg i o n s h a d i n g o f f t o .8*7 cno- approst* 1 :1 S o t f o r 4 C P U ?&en obse rved* l*o M a g s * S o l d c o a g u l a t e d t o t h e bottom.* She change o f c o l o r which, t a&es p l a c e imei i t h o e l e c t r o n l y t e d i f f u s e s t ip t h e t abo eoeaod t o g o mora s l o w l y i n t h o more d i l a t e s o l s * A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t tho s o l c o n t a i n s a c e r t a i n aiaoaat o f e l e c t r o l y t e w h i c h i s d i l a t e d "©ith t h o s o l , a a d t h e od i f f ea i ag e l e c t r o l y t e ha s to r e a c h a lahjher c o n e a n t r a l ; i o n t o e f f e c t c o a g u l a t i o n , s i n c e i t am? has l e s s h e l p f rom t h e e l e c t r o l y t e a l r e a d y p r e s e n t * B I H I #18 s 3Sd.s was s i m i l a r t o #17, using il01g{0.02S£T)» She s o l cone eat r o t i o n s u sed wore 1 : 1 , 2 ; 1 , 3 : 1 , 4 : 1 , and t h a u n d i l u t e d s o l * She a a d i l a t o d s o l gave a l a r g e mmber of hoar;? r i n g s t o o c l o s e l y spaced f o r measurement* Eho 4 : 1 s o l a p p a r e n t l y p roduced a s a t i s f a c t o r y r i aa ; ays tem bat t h e £ e l vm.s d i s a r r a a s e ^ by shaJria.a i a t r a i l s p o r t i n g t h e tabe* B o t h t h e BtX aad Btl s o l a proclaoed a n s K b s s f ' o f good r i n g s ( s e e g raph) x.oo 1-70 4 IMP I-IS I-10 Fun 4 /r / 1 XT l ~ to*. \/ X 1 0 x / : y •v 4 uf.jj / /o £3* b a t tli© S s l r i n g s were novo c l e a r a i d d i s t i n c t * She I t l s o l a l s o psoSactsd r i n g e ^ ha t t h q y tver© too f a i a t f o r a c c u r a t e r e a d i n g s . I t s h o u l d bo n o t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h d i l u t i o n o f t h e s o l Improved tho c l a r i t y o f t h o r i n g s , , i t d i d n o t change t h e i r e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r * - a l l r i n g s p roduced T J I . t h J & O l g i a p r e v i o u s © s p e r a s e i i t s ^ t h o a a r i n g s xj&tq c l o s e l y s p a c e d , aad a l m o s t o o u i d i s t a h t * C o n c l u s i o n s £ros Baas 6 t o IBs l a g o a e r a l , i t may be s a i d t h a t cone ant r a t od e l e c t r o l y t e s produce f u s s y .„ i n d i s t i n c t r i s g s * 4s t h e e l e c t r o l y t e a sed i a p r o g r e s s i v e l y d i l a t e d , t h e number o f r i n g s p i o d u c e d i a a g i v e s d i s t a n c e d e c r e a s e s and t h e i r c l a r i t y and s h a r p n e s s improves* S i a o o t h e e f f e c t i s s o d i f f i c u l t t o raprodaee^ however 9 i t I s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h mars t h a n t h i s g e n e r a l r o l e , Sher© i s a l i m i t o f cosoeri f i x a t i o n b e l o w n h i e h s o r i n g s a r e i ' o m e c h As t h o c o n c e n t r a t i a n :lS' dec reased a p o i n t i a r e a c h e d r iaare t h o s i l i c a v i l l i no l o n g e r bo c o a g u l a t e d t o a g a l , b a t t h a g o l d i s s t i l l c o a g u l a t e d * 2a t h i s r e g i o n o f coaaan™-t r a t i o B the o o a g n i a t e d g o l d s i m p l y s e t t l e s t o t h o b a t t e a w2 t h e t t i b e e 21* t h e c o n c e n t r a t i a n o f © i e c t r a 3 . y t o i s d e c r e a s e d s t i l l f a r t h e r , a p o i n t i s r e a c h e d tfeere the e l o c t r o l y t o - o i l l n o t even, e o o g a l a t © t h o g o l d , , aad hence ha s no apparen t e f f e c t on t h e e o i « Shea© c K j a c a a t r a t i o a l i m i t s a re c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s a l t s a.sect, s a d o f the p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s o l , a aoh a s c o n c e n -t r a t i o n and s t a t e o f a s u r a g a t i o a o f t h o g o l d and o f t h e s i l i c a , and p r o b a b l y a l s o o f t h o cnount o f e l o c t r o l y t o not removed f r o m t i i o s o l by dialysis* Xt © 1 1 1 also bo n o t i c e d t l i a t t be e f f e c t o f oaefo e l e c t r o -l y t e i s q u i t e s p o o i f i o . s and does n o t f a l l r e a d i l y i n lino w i t i / t l i© usual v a i e n a o r u l e s e i s o n g tiio m.lv£Lm.t salts, potosslna caleridc,. and, a s vrlXL be seen later, silver nitrate, woris T J $ H * Sod ium o b l o r i S e i s v e r y t emperamenta l « s u c c e s s o b t a i n e d using i t - o i t l i one s o l oonlc l n o t be duplicated vslth anotboro SJio bivalent i o n s triod t m r M Q very poorly, but .the trlvalent a luminum ion. T.'orked. b a t t e r * fno r a t e at w b i o b the formation o f rin>a proceeds ime rea se s w i t b tiio oonoentration9 a s trill be coon f rom a study o f the 2 I C 1 oysters* Since i t -oas not p r a c t i c a b l e t o observe t i i o r a t e o f f o r s i a t i o n e x a c t l y 9 a a ©finite r e l a t i o n can bar-Sly bo deduced* "variation of Gold Concentrations A for? ©xperiaents t?ere tried t ^ i i i i s o l o s i m i l a r to §B b u t © e n t a i a i n g varying amounts o f cold f2#3 8 6«o, ICvO and 15*0 ce« o f .pold o n i o r M e i n 150 ee* o f s i l i o a sol)« 5Sio sols-, us ing ; 2*5 and 5*0 so* g a v e t i i t l i 0*0115 K £ 0 1 2 t e _ j G v&ieh -W O T © t oo f a i n t to d.iotiarjuish euoily, ba t i ?b io l i were quite obarp* S?noso -using 15 oo* gave- w i t s , tlie ems* e i e o t r o l y t © a s y s t e m o f sis£_0 formed w i t l t o n t eoupleto ^ o o / j u l a t i o s o f t l i e s o l d * s o that a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f r o d g o l d s o l r e g a i n e d d i s ~ nersod i n tlie £ O l i n tho spaces between tbs rclnss* She aaomat o£ e l e c t r o l y t e d i f f u s i n g i a t o t h e g a l ; 20 oe# o f g o l d s o l #8 a?er© s e t up o v e r ISO oe* o f 0.080, O a OBO f f a ? i 0*015 H 1351* M t o r I X days t h e a o a s a a t r a t i o a o f had boon reduced t c O^Oaal* 0*018% and 0,03,455'*- S h i s indicates t h a t lorgare v o t e © o f e i o s t r o l y t o i m s t bo a s e d id* the c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t th© a a s b r a a e i s t o retain aomtmt. Since t i l l s c o n d i t i o n isast b e f u l f i l l e d i f r o & a i i s r r i n g sys tems are to be produced, a so-a method o f preparing the r i a * s tmo doviaaflt . P a r t I I , Bus #10; A tv*>-litre beaker o f 0*035 If E01 -gas iaadc up aad allowed to s t e a d i a t he thar/Bootat u n t i l i t r e a c h e d a c o a s t a a t toapsrataire o f £7*6° 0* £ h a a three- tabes o f aol #3 waro aaspondod vert ica l ly in t h e beahor„ i n t h e centre of a / l i i ch a s t i r r a r a/as s e t ap* Melted p a r a f f i n me aow poa rea ovor t ho sarfaco o f t h o electrolyte aad a l l o w e d t o s o t t o eliminate evaporation* fho t u b e s v/ore act r;oil das® i a the beahar so that t h e g l&cs t»b la«* 1st c o n t a c t \idth the s o l was mt h a l t e d by the paraffin-r B e s d t s s V l i t h l a 10 ficys a v a r y r e g u l a r sya tas i o f sha rp r i n g s had formed i a one tube* Tho r i n g ays teas In tho o t h e r t ab e s however shor/ad marked i r r a j r a i a r i t i e s ^ 2&o r o a a l t s a r e r e c o r d e d i n a g raph* 5hc r e g u l a r r i n g sys tem O Q S O & G o f t h e i r r e g u l a r o n e s x-iers pho tos raphod t o g e t h e r * ( P h o t o g r a p h 1 } « '? W I J 1 / / / / / / / 1 1 / / / (H) i * / ; / ; A / / /' / / / * ' . / K. / / / / / / k ! 5 V / A ) // •/•• / / / / / / r / / / / . • (1 A A 7 M-f / / ~~~-/ / / / / / X / « x X / X X ^ ? 1— x ^-^x y' ————-— ~X" ~ ~7 ' X- r ; > . - / z r i, 7 j gg^pagatlozt off Sol 2 0 0 ee* o f t i s t e r ^ . g l a s s trow r a i sed u i t l i r /5 oc« o f w a t e r and SOO oo« . o f S3 BS1 u^ere s t i r r e d i n t o t l i e a i n t n r o * Sisc l i o n r s l a t e r SO co* s o r e £8.1 were added,* s i n c e tb.e sol f o r a e i t*aa senTorliat e l endy* S l i t lEOtirs l a t e r t l i e s o l \mo started dielyatag, t!ie d i a l y s i s b e i n g c o n t i n u e d f o r 3? bourse Basaltti^j p U ~ 6*0 SiOct 3 5 2«7B'J'3«. After 20 Jurors 150 os* o f t i i i s s o l viero Bixed with 1 0 00* o f pold chloride end 2^5 00 # o f % 0 0 g * f i l e pll 77Gs 6«05o She s o l ms r educed a s u s u a l a&a f O T B f i a r e d s o l -vTithin f s i m i t e s © 150 ce* o f t l i e s o l vtqvc t r e a t e d rath 10 00* gold cliloridc. and 8*0 eo* EgQ&p* $&© p S ma 6*70* i l x e i o a r s o l < 2 eo*} and. 5 eco o f fonsQldolryde nore added, a s usual* A deep r e d bat somet i ia t i s r e aurtey s o l fars tod - s i t a i n t f l f t o e n m i n u t e s * f l i o earn© misrturs u s i n g 1*5 ca* % 0 0 g a t a pH o f 6*50 .-3-r e d u c e d t o a r e M i s b . p u r p l e s o l i n . owes* Sl> aSaaatos* f l i e s o s o l s -/?oro ta±se&, a i l o m d t o s t a n d CO liourse and a i a l y a e a f a r ' SO- bouixs* Final s i l i o a content mm 2*XS0« Ran fgOt A t t e m p t s TO aa&o t o p r e p a r e r l n ^ s r r l t l i JtOX and sol Tory basy0 i l l - d e f i n e d , olosely spaced rin ; ;s resulted* Qm$h.}» Tim s o l was t b e n d i l a t e d vzitii t r a tor t o a s i l i o a c o n t e n t o f l*SfL W i t b tho d i l u t e sol a i i a rp rings coulfi be obtained* Han #81; f l i r e o tubes containing SO so* oaob o f t l i e d i l a t e d s o l #4 \7®m s e t up i n a s t i r r e d beaker- o v e r 0*026 M K01 a t " : \ ; \ V . \ \ \ V \ • \ "• — — \ \ \ : \ \ \ h 'X. - :' . \ X \ \ \ \ \ \ \\ V 5 -J ;—; , \ , \ \ \ \ -3^-——~—— . . . . I I • • \ \ ' \, ,. \ \ \ \ •'\ x - X ) . , 1 A' \ \ • L|q-• \.1 \ ^ . ; 1 ' i 1 \ ) _ — \ — j — i x V ' x \ \ } - l . ' H „ - - , ,, . — V, 1 3br t h a r a s n l t s s e e gsojtiuoft* gfes4:c^rr.y::c> Saoa-si Ifetes-^Slass S o l s t i o m * A t t l i i a o-tago t h r o © l i t r e s o f f r e s h imtor**glasB a o l a t i e n t i e r s proparaa*. 53ie s n a l y s i a a s ooaparod ty i th . t h e o l d s o l i a a s f a l l o w s s Pi ret S o l u t i o n 6.//Z 12*?Q# . • Second Solution Vo*W$> Preparation of S o l J;S« A s i l i c a s o l was p r e p a r e d f r o a SOO o f m i t o r ~ s l a s s 9 . ?8 oe» o f oater*, a n a £'00 co* o f m HC2« iiftesr s t a n d i n g 0 h o a r s t i l l s ra*s d l a l y a e f i f o r 2d boa r s* t o a pg o f S.£§, a n d a a i l i s a content o f 8»50>k f o 100 o o * Of t M s e o l were added 10 ac* A a O l g and 1*6 ea EgOOg , b r i n g i n g tho p H t o 6*85* fao co« o f anal oa r s o l war© cfi&otL, t h e m i s t a r o T-aac h ea t ed t o tjoiliag, and 10 aa* o f f o r -rrialdohyde t?oi?e a t i r r o d i n * A p e r f e c t s o l -sae o b t a i n e d ^ ihiother ISO ec* wore pre pa red aad a f t e r two h o a r s the combined sol was d i a l y a e d f o r 48 hoars* SiOg oan ton t^ B»Qg$r Run # 32a I n a t t e m p t to compare t h o a f f e c t s of v a r y i n g s a l t eonaentrations on the formation o f r i i ig-s tinder a s closely controlled c o n d i t i o n s as possible,, two 2 « i i t x » e b e a t e r s contain-ing 0-0102 ST KQl and 0*04as K JC01 vjera s a t i n t h a t hemos - t a t s i i r a i l t o n a o t t s l y » I n e a c h of t h e bea l t e ra ware p l a c e d t h r e e t a b e s us*, c o n t a i n i n g s o l #S« SSss.miSLs- o f t l t e bealpars mam lsgg©& w i t a a s b e s t o s m i , S i© t w a g s s a t a r e was gS»S°e* fas r e - s t i l t s r ' o ro d i s a p p o i n t i n g m<5 sots?jeis£jJ3. A»~ 0*0193 XJ S 0 1 a 2Iie ttifee vbloh tras I n t b e d a r k e s t part o f t l i e beaker eon t a l l i e d v e r y f ol nt, hasy, aid a l m o s t ind is -trlnpnishabio rings* Hbe tube iritkrb ras in tli© noire l i g h t e s t p a r t o f t n e boalser contained a l a r g o fasabcsr o f p o o r l y d e f i n e d and erratically op need rinps Oi t touding a l l tbo way up tho tube* fbe tube r/aioii %me. i n t i i o i % n t o s t p a r t of t l i e b easier c o n t a i n e d a s m a l l e r nnmbor o f s o r e r e g u l a r l y opaeofi ana b e t t e r d o f i n e d r i n g s * S3.ie b e s t r i n g s "eero i n t l i e a p p e r p a r t o f t n © tub© t t i e r o t a e M g t i t i n f i o a s i t y ms gsssaSF&r*. B*» 0*0428 H 3 £ 1 » B i i s boakar T J S S closer t o tbo banting larip than tras A*** iiie tube t l i i e n \ias fort host from tn© lamp -oontained s o a o f a i n t i r r e g u l a r r i n g a exoop t n e a r t l i e t o p ignore tlm i l g l i t i n t e n s i t y ms g r e a t e s t * f n o t n b o ts&l»& isas n e s t farthest- f r o m t b o lamp was a l i t t l e b e t t o r * Sne tnbo rfaltih ms e l o s o s t t o t n © l i g J i t vms s t i l l b e t t e r * Hone o f t b o rin^s i n A o r B were oortii laeasnring* S o a s l m s i o n s f r o m Ban. # 2 2 * I t a p p e a r s t h a t l i g h t l i e s a s i t spo r ton t o f feot on thi# pbosoyienon* fso i a o k o f r e g u l a r i t y o f tlie r i n g s ®oy d o e be in© p a r t l y t o t b o o o n g o n t r a t i o a o f ta& s i l i o a * S a n #SS-i Soms o f S o l #S mo. d i l a t e d t o l«,6jS SfO.« and t e s t e d w i t l i 0»OliS If I S 1 t o s e e ' i f a i o a r r i n g s ' uomM. foss* l i t t t i n a few doys a woll*>definea s e t o f rings -appeared* Sxm §Mz Siag-s fa tho f&mm® <s£ llg&£v One tube o f s o l #4 ana two of a o l e l l diluted t o 2.-Op S i O g B vera s a t aj> i n a stirred beater o f 0*035 II hdl a t £5*S°0*. 55ia h e a t i n g iaraa t?eo aa r roaaaoa by a n a t a l shield so t h a t t a e t h e r m o s t a t yas a/aite dar-h* 3?hs expar i raoat r,ts than, l e f t andxeturbed f o r t e n days* On observation,; i t \,as iVamd t h a t e l e & r ^ rcgEl&r slug, systems had formed i n a i l t h a tatoeo,. a l t h o u g h thoro- were i»arfc©d d i f f o r e n a a a between, t h o v a r i o & a tubas-* O o n e l s a l o a s f roa i Rons IS t o M i % a s i j i j a s t i r r e d b a t h o f e l e c t r o l y t e o f e a f f i c i o m t Tolamo s o t h a t t h a e a a o a a t r a t i a s dec s n e t change a p p r e c i a b l y d i t r ino; ta© e sper i r ; ran t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p r e p a r e c ja i t e r e g u l a r ri ; . r : sys te iac o f b e a u t i f u l C l a r i t y * . I t io necessary however t o use a s o l whose s i l i c a content i s about l«-5>^  t o a c h i e v e s a o c o s s K n d a r t h o c o n d i t i o n s ' d o s a r i b o d hem*. I n s a l t o Q£ t ae f a c t t h a t mgc&m sys tems con bo obtained* gaaalfayj i r r o g s i l a x a i i i o s a r e observed i a r i s ^ o y s t o a s f a m e d i a the same, teaterc*. P a r s o f t h i s o i f a c t nay bo daa t o l i g h t * Borne irregularities Kay p e r h a p s bo t r a c e d t o v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e meahiaaoa o r i n tho *aey t h e y a r e attached* Share raay ba a t i l l o t h e r f a c t o r s as y e t tmsuspacfcod* I t h a s been shovjii t ha t l i £ i i t i s n o t aee&seary f o r t h o f o r r m t i c n o f t hose r i n g s * b a t rosulto have boas, o b t a i n e d w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n l i g h t i i t t o n s i t y may have an i m p o r t a n t a f f e c t o n t h a c h a r a c t e r o f t h e r i n $ a „ f h i s i s perhaps h a r d l y a a i ^ r i s i n g i n v ioar o f the vmU.-^siovn% i n f l u e n c e o f l i g h t on tiio oonr;;il.at;toH of «f>l3LoMol fysi©ris« •?ari i l l , . ^ ^ g m t l p ^ - ffg,^~^4pajp|g» I t t i i l i l>e evident from tn© fore-going ras& tbat tiio eliaraeteristios of taoae aols aw 'riidely v a r i a b l e * I f t b i s r.-ork i s t o b o adraneed^ i t appears t o m© t l i a t seToral improvements l a t e c h n i q u e w i l l &&Y© to bo sade» Siosb deal w i t l i t i i o c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s i l i c a , t b o ooneoatration of a n -d i o l y s o d e l e c t r o l y t e s , and tbe d e t o i r . i n a t i o n o f suitable c o n d i t i o n s , f o r t l i e redaction of tiio QQ1&* T&th the p r e s e n t t s o b n i q i i e , sols are p r e p a r e d and dialysod i n inonbraaos r-noso pomeabiiity varies tilth s i i g b t obanpos i n t h s sistncdo and aondi tions of preparation* ¥aryisg aaotmts- of e i i i s a ax-4© l o c t tbrongb t i re isesbrsno -» for ^sxamlo i n ml® #S ana #4* tli© peraeaiag© of tn© s i l i o a present rAilea ?r\s 3.G:;t i n d i a l y o i e - sao opjiroid^nteAy as f a l l o T s : *D„5;'->6 S4';Cs0 i n tlie f i r a t a i a l y s i % and 4Q> and ggfs i n the seaond S i a l y s S . © , a f t e r tlie .gold bad fceeaa roclnood* SSw> v a r i a t i o n i n the properties of tlie f i n a l sola indicates tliat tliore s r s t b a r e boon a v a r i a t i o n i n t h o c^ionnt o f e l e c t r o l y t e present» A p r e f e r a b l e , tlionplx razoli n o r o t e d i o u s raetbod, i n % ! i t bo as f o l l o w * J T?itfc a s o l o r i g i n a l l y smSsx up to a s i l l e a eon» S5sn t ra t ion of* say, g»6 , o e ©l©etrotlicslyeis mi£$xt bo carried on ant5 .1 t he c o n d u c t i v i t y of tbo sol f e l l v e r y l o - / * Leas p e m e a b l o eellopneno r t m b r c n e e c o u l d probably bo u s e d . %* ouch a method as t b i o „ n s i rig v a r y set-ore ©loetrs«.diolysis8 • Hi* E a M n o t / j i t s e l i and his ©o-x^rlisrs h a r e btso-a able t o p»©par© Tory and v e r y s t a b l e s l l i e a sc£Ls^» tPbeir sola T;/ere n o t aa aoaeemt ra t ed a s b e i n g r a t h e r o f t h e order o f 0«S;S* 1 boll ere tho method eon-Id b a a p p l i e d hero., hoTiever* -Shore i s a l s o a n e t hod o f p r e p a r i n g SS% s o l a i a t h e absence o f o 3 . e o t r s l y t e a by os s ix l i a ing SiB^t t & t a mm®*^* fhese stable sals r - i i ah i then bo d i l a t e d t ? i t a water to a o o i w o n i e a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n or- a s e d a s they were* and QOX& sols formed i a thorn i a t he o o m r o a t i o n a l zcasner, uoisg t h e same toehttiT{R.s a s i s asod far- p r e p a r i n g g o l d s o l o ii% a r a t e r « 2ho s a l s a s a i d p r o b a b l y n o t s e e d f u r t a s r - d i a l v s i a , f o r t h e e l e c t r o * -iytc concentration v?oul<3 bo very loo amy xray 0 I n fact, i t s i i j h t ba n e c e s s a r y t o add t o t h e s o l s a c e r t a i n aaoant o f a d d i t i o n a l olsotsKJ^to t o e n a b l e t h e pboaoaeaon t o ba produced a t a l l j . a i a a s o t h e r v i i s e t h e Q G ! migdit n o t s o t i f ; e l e c t r o l y t e s o f low eonaoafera t ioa vt&m d i f f a s e d - i a * Such s a l s xmtM. T . robably bo n»ro s t a b l e and ranch mora r a r r ' o d a a i b l © ^ I f t h e a r o s o s t t e c h r i a a o o f s o l f e x p i a t i o n i s coast? smod* i t " a ' i l l bo d e s i r a b l e t o f i n d a ho~ttor war o£ d o t e m l n i n a ; the e:mimi o f pofcaaoiira e s rbo no t o t o be addod t o t h e s o l b e f o r e r e d u c t i o n * A t p r o s a i s t , g ; d l r a i o a r b o B a t © i s added t o gold chloride i n t h o s o l * m& t h o a f e t H r e i s tes te r ! Taith t h o q u i a -bgahaoBe a l a e t r o d a * Unfo r - t r a i a to ly qminhydroa© t ends t o r educe t h a g o l d c h l o r i d e , , t h e pH d e t e r ? i i s c d has no t B a c h r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e s hGfaj m e r e l y a n a p p r o x i m a t e f;wido<, f i l e p E could • I S , Lashln, Z o l l ha da, l & D ^ 16* H a b i n o w i t a h and I ^ r a l a s K r e n s ^ Finraday 8oo» 31* M O (1935) perhapo De de t e rmined w i t h a f r l aea e l e c t r o d e * Ba t i t o i ioalc l no detar-iineu i n eor:.o vsny , r.inoe toe pH i s a very important footer l a d e t e r m i n i n g t l i e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the g o l d c o l , no 5 iay bo oeen by r e f e r r i n g ? t o t'm no*©s on tbo p r e p a r a t i o n o f s o l fH* or to the v/ork provioaaly cited,,' 3 '-* A tentat ive catncd. o f f i n d i n g bro-i men p o t a s s i n t i c a r -bona te s h o n i d be usod bos b o o n developed* I t depends on tho f a e t that potaseiaui o&rbona te i n t h o preeer .ee o f a o r a a l i amount of a o i d acts a s a b u f f e r so lut ion* Shore i s a s l i g h t amonnt o f a e i d present i n t he s i l i c a s o l e lfoi7 i f t h i s s i l i o a s o l i s t i t r a t e d v&Uk potacelwa oe rboha te p u n t i l t h e pH„ as moasnred '.fitli the opiJnhyerone olo^trode. i s e^rosstoafcoly t h e a o i d i i f i a a t i o n prodnoofj by tho a d d i t i o n end r-edno'Cion o f g o l d ohlorido chenld bo nontraliuod,, cad ths rednotion s h e a M proceed s raootMy* By t h i s $uetao& t hen one ©an iaeasnre p S 5 s i n tho afcssiies o f g o l d s a l t s * She ^ t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e Ca rbona t e Keqniroiasnta. She i d e a j u s t o n t l i n o d . has b e e s t e o t o d i n a amatory f a s h i o n w i t h the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s J -fitrat>.on of B i l i e a (7Quo) Bednotion of f> eo, £aOXn T i l t h 1 . 5 O G « nneloar s o l In -75 cn« o'iliea s o l _ ^ V ^ h h ,y?„f-L,.•£LO;f. . J h 0 ^ - : : ' 4"^"^g5 „ Vol* EgOOg 2K Hhfjeni; of l i e d o e t ion Sice of BoOnotion Colon 0,4 CO* 6*30 Slight hCt i rO Xlpht blno lb* 5 3 0« 0,55 •» «• f a i n t p u r p l e C»6 ec* 30-40 iiin». clean r o d e 0.8 eo* 6 J 86 6 rain-., d e e p o l e e r 1*0 ooo 6«9? # . 4 min. 1-, 'i CO* 7.3.0 OeO 0 O « 5.25 0»d ©CV 8-8 50 OaG oc«- fiomalot© 4-;> nin^ c l e a r rod 1*15 eo« iii.*vi4*> clear rod Lone of those sols wwp© aidyawa* fhe red color of the f i r s t hatch becase aort; stable no the arronnt of LhOO^ nas ins-rooaed» fho color- of bath sols Ir. the second batch "lea Tory Ktables h l l tho eels i n the f l r o h hatch sot erentnaliy to a g e l * tho tin** of aettinp inereaDing vrith tne anonnt of ,%0hgc Neither of the solo i n tho second batch sot vrithin three f^ontba* Shite ear- probably be traoed to differences i n content of elec t r o l y t e and of s i l i e a * fS5ae f^elieaissa of. tho 2?toioeorioaq fho T©2jy s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f t a e e f f e c t s o f v a r l s a o electrolytes i n ftMsalng t h e s e s i B g e l e i t o a sasaiGlon t h a t t a e o s o e a t i a l p r o c e s s i a e s s e n t i a l l y a periodic e o a p a l a t l o n o f tho s i l i c a , too gold particleo a c t i n g merely as aa iadicatos? t f iose f a l l i n g i s a r r e s t e d a t t l i e . g a l i n t e r f a c e * . 3I!iis l i j a o t l i o s i a tms s u p p o r t e d by t h a lasasnea? l a vihxsh. i s © pbcoiocaiori rasa i t s coarsei a r e g i o n c f eoagrlatad p a i d so l , . , i a xhilah t h e c o l o r -ckoiifo i s fresa r o d t o b l u e f f proceeds up tho t a b e « O l o s o boiriad t h i s i s a reader , o f colorless s o l ' s h i o h has be on ftppa^oatly deaadod of s o l d o B e h i n d t h i s a r i s g i s i£ovm& v i i i c h gsova i a t k l e h a e s s c r a d i m i i y u n t i l a now r i a g i ' o r a s i s r t h s r up t h e tuba, 2bo s i l i s a a p p e a r s t o J-e s e t t o a g e l s l i g h t l y be loa/ t l i o poiat \fmr& t h e r i n g i s Sosraftas, S i r i c a i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e t e c t gelation tn3& vfr.<m i t l ias bacome qui to w e l l s&wtood, i i i s r e a s o n a b l e t o aseatae t h a t t h o s&ng n a r h s t o o boaadarj* o f t l io so t t i n g s i l i c a * f o t o s t i b i s ay pat basis th© falisrrinp esrporixients .vera siadei-Sas #12; Upside-dcaii d i f f u s i o n . W i t h t h e a p p a r a t u s l a v o r t e d s o thare E01 f r s a : 800 ae=* o f solution o f c o B c a a t r a t i a a s 0.03J5 If and G*G£5S! d i f f u s e d aog&» txards i n t o a t a b o o a a i j / l e t s l y f i l l e d t ; I t h s o l £ 2 K no r i n p s appeared eaoept i u the c a s e o f t ha 0*015 II £C1, fd i s re a f c t i rin&s appeared J a s t a b o v e t h o s t o p p e r i n t he b c t t o a o f the tuba* S3* . SSxeso v.'ore ps^bably canoed by t b o d i f f u s i o n o i e i e e t r o l y i e f r c n t i t s e o r h s t o p p e ra honet i t-ion o f the a;tpar'fr-vaiit trj.th w e l l -nashed s t o p p e r s prodnood no r i n p o „ Hon #18: H o r i z o n t a l d r l f f a s l e n t I n t h i s cane 0 , 0 1 5 H SOX TOO d i f f u s e d i n t o a tube f i l l e d ?ji t l i s o l #3 i n t i i o horizontal p o s i t i o n . Ho r i n p o fom©£ bat a l a y e r - o f eoac&tnn appoarod nlmQ t h e lows? s i d e o f t he tubes Han #35; f i f f u s i o n at Y a r i o s s Angles « A e o l a t i o n o f £01, 0»O2S!5r, x s ulicsrsa t o ch l f faso i n t o tubes c o n t a i n i n g s a l p4 d i l a t e d to 1*5^5 SiO„ * She t a b e s were i n o l i n o d a t a n g l e s o f Q, 15„ SD« and 60 degrees t o th© irssr^Seal* £XBg» forsiod a l l t h e s e tufcos* tho r i i ^ & b e i n g a l l i n o. jpprjgertal position* s a d n o t a t ripht envies t o fclie wall of t h o tnhop f o e x p l a i n t h i s r e s a l t i t \ i a s aaoin-?ad t h a t the d e n s i t y o f the g e l l o g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e ool s, and that tho go! vfom i t i© i n i t . i a . l l y formed i s aosingtwt i i l n i d and a b l e t o flcar t o f o r r i a h o r i z o n t a l s n r f a o e e So v e r i f y t M s , the f o l l o r ' i i i p enpjosfeant T S R t r i e d ; Ban # 0 5 : P o t & s s i a i a e h l o r i d e ma o l i o - n o d t o d i f f u s e nptsards i n t o a v e r t i c a l tnfeo oontainiS£-; s i l i o a c o l n?i tb ne g o l d d i s p e r s e d i n i t * A f t e r some t ime a e:;iail a iuomt o f a coarse sncpenslon of si"lphGnB p r e p a r e d by g r i n d i n g sulphur \ m t e i h was introduced at t h e t o p o f t h o s o l and allowed to s e t t l e to . torn a horizontal r l n p at tho p e l i u t o r f a o o o She tp.be oas no?/ t i l t e d a t an a n p l © o f about A f t o r s e v e r a l h o a r s t h o s n i p h n r r i n g had become h o r i s o n t a l * 2iaga P r e p a r e d i n tlio Ahscmaa of. G o l d 3 o i » Attoiapta w r o not? raaaa t o prepare rings l a the abseiise of gold by a l l o a l a g material to f a l l throagh s o l upon tfas gal isterfasa* I t was e?Msidored that* i f ths s o t t i n g of tha s i l i a a t?ere oAmxiotng 'in & diseoutinaoas caaiier^ that a die* aoittfiiaoas d i s t r i b u t i o n of material stooped at tha i n t e r f a c e -w o u l d be o b t a i n e d * 'i TJieiBS tlio g i l l o a s o l fros tihiah s a l $4 was mM* dilatsd-to 1#J5# a l i i s a f f tho f o l l o w i n g ex^rXmnt was t r i a d * P o t a o a i o a c h l o r i d e (0*025 jf) was a l l o w e d to d i f f u s e upwards into a • s ror t ioa l tube of s l l i o a s o l * tor 10 hoars I GmmmaeS. to drop fine ft well^ashed blaeJ: s&s&» Mora© grains evory h a l f -hour s Into t h e s o l * t h i s p r o c e s s oas c o n t i n u e d f o r J>2 h o u r s , Ea d i s a o n t i i i i i i t y aoald. ba. disoovarad i n tha d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h a p a r t i e i e s * dun p28j r i i r o i i a r e x p e r i m e n t s "aero t r i e d using ornery poodar and sulphar* fhasa 'had. to ba jroistaaod trith \mfcor before they were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o tho tipper sarfaao o f tha s o l „ o l n o c o t h e r w i s e t h e y i /ere no t o e t t e d - and f l o a t e d on t a p . Hero also aa d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s c o u l d ba d e t e c t e d * Hail p2f s ^otassiiaxa alilorid&s Q.02j? M9 was a l l o w e d to diffhsa' apr/cirds into a t ab s oaataitiiiip a i l i o a s o l 1 (2$ 3 1 C & ) , f h i s s o l *oas aarofalXy ovsriaid. 8 shortly after d i f f u s i o n begossx, f i l t h a slowly toward, tbo s o t t i n g silica» Tho suspension wan x>roparea by shaking & f r e s h l y prepared, mshed proolpitata of a i l v o r OixlorMo w i t h mfces* S i s g s * s i m i l a r i n character to the usnal rings prepared v?ith KOI* wore f o r n i e i * Sonolusions from theae Sxporlmonts; Tim f & i l o r e of mm £21 and $2B may bo duo perhaps to tho large also of tho p a r t i e l o s sssea* I t w notieed. that they penetrated v a r y i n g distances into th© gel* even the salphur snspoasios3_ whioh tamled. t o o l o t Ijaetond of aproafiiag-* Th& saooess of run i e m% d e f i n i t e evidence t h a t the e s s e n t i a l process i s one of p e r i o d i c s e t t i n g * I t i s possible that tho sl o i r l y s e t t l i n g s i l v e r tff&03&i& s&srtic&es might ha p e r i o d i c a l l y f u r t h e r aoag^Xated a»a t h e i r a e t t l i n s v e l o c i t y ijioroaoo&# In vieir of tho ntm- of the psrtlo!ea, s, bwievosw t h i s uay not be vary probable* tim B o p o l a r i s n t i o n i n f e c t i -on the basis of an a b s t r a c t of an a r t i c l e by is&iofet stated that tho fiopolarimtioa of l i g h t by a i l l o a sols stemmed vihen tho sol© set to s a l s , as attempt was made to fallot? theooaraQ of golatios of a i l i o a sols whoa oleotrolytoe d i f f a s o d i n t o them* I t mm f a and. t however* that sols and. .jple of the sort used, i n tho present •;/orh show no measurable d e p o l a r i z a t i o n effects*. Attempts to follow the d i f f u s i o n of e l e c t r o l y t e : -It was considered that, i f the effects observed i a this worh are due to a discontinuous coagulation of the s i l i c a , that the di f f u s i o n of electrolyte through the s i l i c a should also he a. discontinuous process- She reasons for t h i s b e l i e f may he summed up as follows: (1) the v e l o c i t y of d i f f u s i o n i n gals i s >aaovm to "ba s l i g h t l y less than i n sols; (2) i t was believed that the coagulation of the s i l i c a would, be accom-panied by an absorption of some of the coagulating electrolyte Some doubt i s cast on t h i s l a t t e r assumption, however, by recant work on the coagulation of s i l i c a sols by electrolytes* This work indicates that there is. no;.adsorption of barium- or -calcium ions i n the process of coagulating s i l i c i c acid sols which are neutral or s l i g h t l y acid.* Some adsorption does taha place 5 however, i n alkaline solsv It i s worthy of note that barium gives the least successful results i n the formation of rings by the present method. I t should be interesting to investigate the question of whether potassium ions are adsorbed i n the coagulation process. In order to investigate the di f f u s i o n of the electrolyte,, the following worlc was carried onto Potentiometrie Study,of. Diffusion» 30 GO « of the s i l i c a s o l used i n preparing sol #3 were placed i n a special tube over 150 cc-. of 0..01J5 H AgKO^. About •J. R OA ri I T T I F \ J ' ' \ •-/ ~ \ i i """" ~" N V — j— ! ; 1 i -I a • • 1 V I • \ -\ \ > "V i \ D V \ \ --W j ] I \ 4 -sv . : k , 1 \ \ \ \ \ - 1 S' j N V X V K. *> j : ;• ' • • —<2L * "f • j f j " | 3 l 700 I v<rt> 1/60 r L „ J 4 OEU above the membrane a s i l v e r wire and a platinum wire were sealed into the tube with s i l v e r chloride* The EMF across these two e3.eetrodes was measured with a Leeds and 2'forthrup "Student-type" potentiometer* She diffusion apparatus was maintained at a constant temperature i n the thermostats Result: a discontinuous curve for EMF with time was obtained*: Attempts to duplicate these .resulta were not successful. Run 01-. Bxoeriments were now made to test the r e l i a b i l i t y of the Ag - Pt c e l l as a measure of the concentration of s i l v e r ion.' 3?he results indicated that, the- c e l l -Is not reliable*: The experiments consisted o f measurements o f t h e 323? o f t h e c e l l as a solution of s i l v e r n i t r a t e i n i t was diluted with water,. Eun ^32 - She Concentration Cell*. The following concentration c e l l was devised: a s i l v e r wire i s sealed into the dif f u s i o n tube about 4 cm. above the membrane*. A second s i l v e r wire i s suspended i n the diffusing solution i n the flask or beaker<» Then the IMF between these electrodes should be a measure of the difference i n concen-trat i o n at the two electrodes.* 'Ibis was tested by setting up the apparatus with (a) 30 ce. of water, (b) 30 oc= of s i l i c a s o l i n the tube,, over a solution of 0,03 If s i l v e r n i t r a t e . How a solution of 22? s i l v e r nitrate was added 0*1 co. at a time, to the contents of the tube* and mixed by pouring back and f o r t h from the tube to a clean beaker.. The results are { f f — _ -/ -1 if ! <f : 1 ' ' : • : : i {/ACTIVITY COCA V/r*e EST/ rue our. f i ZMr* •) i: • !...:••• • ! •: ; . • ; : 1 ' ! ' I ': I Q ! • • : L_;—_ _ J 1 1 — : * « . . . . • ] • - • , • . — •a 1 1. ! : : \ \ . ! - • . . : i - i S ' . - s <•? ' .. ' . v V • S f > d . r '• : .: '• • s . - i 1 _ ~~ ~~ — G J >---. I c.c. l« • W> at>ppj> ro 3< cc , r i o -! Q (S j ,1 1 1 ' • ' tr • • •'. ' • " ~ f y ; i ; • i ; ' &' | J .; , © © © <Z> o . -< O ' 't 1 • 1 i « • -; ; ; . < ( G G G • • 1 ' >> ; . © © © ) • . ' . : • : : • . • • 1 • - : — • VI K .p. 1 ; • . . , ^ © © © © © © © — ; — — ' • .V> . : — • © © © n ® ©: :; © . 1 . • ' ; . . , _ — ; Q " • © © © — — _ : 1 ,© © © © t r, - 1 © s -v> "I N . 1 1 • . \n \ . ' . - i -1 ] \ < J . . 33-. expressed, as a graph*. 2! he theoretical ourve.s using the Imovm a c t i v i t i e s of s i l v e r n i trate, i s also given for comparison.-It was noticed that the 'silioa. s o l took rauefc longer to .come to equilibrium than the water a f t e r the addition of the 2 II s i l v e r n i t r a t e . 3?he time necessary i n the former case was about" an h o u r ; i n the l a t t e r case two or three minutes w e r e s u f f i c i e n t . For this, reason only a small concentration range YSS covered with the s i l i o a * . . i t w i l l be observed however that ths s i l i o a carve follows the curve for water f a i r l y closely, though the deviation increases as- the concentration r i s e s . Sun- 031 The concent rat ion c e l l ^tist described was used to follow the d i f f u s i o n of £00 ec* of C O l o J TS s i l v e r nitrate into 30 cc s of the s i l i c a s o l used to prepare Sol f£j>, (2«50i SiO^)* The d i f f u s i n g solution was contained in. a 250 eo. beaher and. was covered, with a layer of par a f f i n . The temperature was 2*7°0». In making the IMP .measurements^ the .silver electrode i i i the concentrated .solution was connected' to the terminal of the-potentiometer usually used f o r the qntnhydrone electrode* She results are expressed, as a graph* Etta #34i. •A s i m i l a r expe r imen t -was made with 0»0j? 1 s i l v e r n i t r a t e ;diffusing into the same sol*- The electrode system used was -somewhat different.. One s i l v e r electrode was sealed i n at about above the membrane as before*. The electrode i n — '.1 : ; ; 5 : 1 ' ! ' ; • • j ' 0 ;'l© u 1 ' i • • c <(• i c ! } © © — . •. - f t : t ! f •, $ ©, 1 ©' • Q. 1 •* © © © . © -J r -f J • y * Jf—, V» • : 1 : c > © © © _-L • ;—.—;—; C / + © © © © 1 j 1 T ' W ' .- • , ; r + ; . • * -• • : ••!••:-.•+• ' -V © < 3 N h -\ • '• ' 1 1 ! • ; ! : : • ; . • : •• : • ; -; * ' x • - . > © © © i i 1 Q ••: > ^ : ; • ! ' • ( • • • • ! • 1 -1 1 SJ7« Am/fa T 1 1 J ! si i ; . • ' r ; f I •  ; -j i • i © f / • . 0 ' s 1 . * r X 0 / e '/ / ; £ • 1 e i ' 1 ©• i 0 • ./ i • i • : . . • ; / •. f. • i .1 . 1 • •. / . • 1 ; > ; • . : : •si . ; •; • s r 0 0" , ' • ; • ' ' / • ; •••/• / ' /' , - '/ /' '/ / •/ • • ' : .-"I •. . • : • i ' 1 • 0 • / 0 0 0 ' _ 1 fl • ; Q ;. <. • . s 1 : ' i L r C ' > © i 7 — o.o*H —©-=>-= - " , T ° . • -^ . . A ' - ^ . ' ; ' •" - "* , © ' G " — : j. rf G" ' 0 1 "' . • \: .. t\ T j^- ~ • • r _ ^ 'tx-3 ; 5-* > I • • •V. , — _ _ J -1.': '. ' i > 1 I SJ.70AI _.£]_ 1 1 • • < . 1 ,B " i V : ? • • • • ; ^—; 4 ( o O i • . ! i. , • * '-HE)- ; © • (?~' ©~ * / 9 ' i © / L P f Q ^ .1. 1 i . 1 / L © / /' * / © <? © / 2 i' •; ;• !••••• — . •—:—-H—™-/' V , ' / / . / / -V . „ / • ^ • . < . • V . $ V •/— : : ™ / © 1 c -— — • -- <-', '•. • - ... Q nf o . < : VS . . ! . . . . , ; > « 0 V • • :.. I 1 i ] • < SU70AI , / 7 W | ~ ; r — ^ -1 r< 1 • ^9* • • the d i f f u s i n g solution was not used.. Instead., an electrode was sealed into a side tube fused into the diffusion-tube near the upper l i m i t o f the sol,. She side-tube was bent down a l i t t l e and contained s o l i d s i l v e r chloride and water, so that the second electrode was i n contact with a saturated solution of s i l v e r ehloride* Shis set-up was not very satisfactory, since due to the low conductivity of t he s o l between the electrodes i t was not possible to measure the IMF i n the early stages of the exper-iment very a c c u r a t e l y . The results a r e e x p r e s s e d i n a graph* At the conclusion of t h i s run the s i l i c a was set just above the electrode,. mm i3^i P o u r d i f f u s i o n experiments x?ere started, at the same t i m e , .using: the same type of c e l l as i n Htm 0$*.. In one tube,* 0.02 S AglQ-^ d i f f u s e d into pure wa te r* In the second, 0 ,04 2T AgSO^ diffused into a g o l d - s i l i c a s o l * i n the third,. 0 . 02 I AgHO^ diffused into s i l i c a s o l containing no g o l d . . In the fourth, 0.04 K AgKCU d i f f u s e d into the same sol*- lach of thesei tubes was dipping into-a 2.5 0 o c beaher containing the e l e c t r o -l y t e , j, the b e a k e r being sealed with p a r a f f i n . She. results a re expressed graphically* K m f 3'6* In an attempt' to eliminate the peculiar i r r e g u l a r i t i e s apparen t i n the results of r u n s §33 ^ 3 4 , ,and 33 a more elaborate arrangement ?/as devised* 1'hree diffusion tubes were set into a two-litre beaker of electrolyte into which was placed an electrode which could be used, as the constant electrode f o r each of the three tubes* In order that the exploring electrodes might not come i n contact with the solution i n the beaker, they were sealed i n through small glass side-tubes which extended from the di f f u s i o n tube about 4 om» above the. taembrane, were bent through a right angle,-and carried up above the surface of the electrolyte * 2? he sealing was done with .Khutinsky cement*, the electrolyte i n the beaker was constantly stirred'with an'electric s t i r r e r f c and was protected against evaporation by a pa r a f f i n seal* She f i r s t tube contained a solution of 0 e00l H sodium nitrate*-. This was used instead of water because the lovi conductivity of the l a t t e r maless accurate E Ii F measurements d i f f i c u l t * -The second tube contained s i l i c a , s o l containing s i l i c a * She t h i r d tube contained g o l d - s i l i c a sol containing 1*5% s i l i c a * . The electrolyte was 0 e OH 1" AgHOjj. 2he electrodes previous to the escperiinent were made as similar as possible by connecting their lead wires a l l together' and allowing them to stand for a day i n a solution of s i l v e r n itrate*. She temperature during the experiment x^emained at 2 6 , 6 * 0„2°G. A. _ } / i \ •• • ••-..•rf—, "1 A : I / • 1 Jf if' if i 1 [ S i «© //; 08© /;; k i | f IS * ? e fife© '/ ! Bfc© » © " k D© © — X M t 1 1 FT) ' 1/ / f e «® i A 1 m P. a® I , g| /' «fc (a /' ' © 0 p = * 1 " c 0< >® V 1 >? ® o p ® / © 0 Q ft: I m / m V J 1 ' ' '/ / / ® • •j Q V y / ® * ® '/ / ,* / >—__ J OS * 0 J — , — - — , — ~ » J >-<ar:—.—_ > | • ' i -___^ _>£l J 0 ! : 1 © > © r£ O — d vs — ; « ; ® &> © ? w u - J r T 1 1 1 - "41* ' The.results are expressed as. a g r a p h . • It should be noted that a. very regular r i n g system, formed i n the tube containing gold sol,, one ring forming right at the expj..oring electrode... C o n c l u s i o n f rom Potent iosaetrie Experiments:_•-She graphic representation o f t h e experiments,, especially the l a s t and most accurate one, would indicate that the di f f u s i o n process i n rin g formation i s not essentially different from the d i f f u s i o n i n pure wa te r* She c u r v e s o f 13 M F against time contain occasional variations as yet .unexplained.,, yet the.se my be conneoted -with the method of measuring the S H F., since they o c c u r i n a l l three tubes- and o f t e n at a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same time* f hey may, on the other hazid, be due to mixing*. It w i l l be noted that the greatest i r r e g u l a r i t i e s occur i n the tubes which were not f u l l y immersed i n electrolyte ( Runs § 3 0 - 3.5). Shis condition would lead to more marked mixing i f any temperature variations t o o k place, since the s p e c i f i c - heat of the a i r s u r r o u n d i n g the upper part- of the tube i s much less than that of the electrolyte surrounding the .lower' part*-. . PAET Y D i s t r i b u t i o n of the K i n g s I t i s appa ren t f rom a s tudy, o f t he graphs e x p r e s s i n g the r e s u l t s o f Kuns #1 to 21 t h a t i n many cases t h e r e appears t o tie some s o r t o f r e l a t i o n between the h e i g h t of the r i n g , "h" and i t s o r d i n a l number, " n " . I n s e v e r a l o f t he exper iment p e c u l i a r i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o c c u r w h i c h may be due to . m i x i n g or t o a v a r i a t i o n i n the p r o p e r t i e s o f t he membrane or i t s f a s t e n i n g . E v e n i n the cases where a smooth cu rve e x i s t s between " h " and " n n , however , i t has not been p o s s i b l e to f i n d a n e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h f i t s a l l t hese curves w e l l . A number o f e x p r e s s i o n s have been deve loped by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s e x p r e s s i n g w h " as a f u n c t i o n o f " n n or o f the t i m e , " t " . Of the l a t t e r c l a s s the most i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t o f Morse and Pierce-*-®, AN AY , w h i c h was deve loped on the b a s i s o f a m e t a s t a b l e l i m i t o f s u j S e r e a t u r a t i o n and i n v o l v e d a s o l u t i o n of F i c k ' s d i f f u s i o n e q u a t i o n . I n v iew of the s i m p l i c i t y o f t he a s sumpt ions and o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f the phenomena ( f o r a d i s c u s s i o n see H . F r i e z e ' s w o r k 1 9 ) i t i s s u r p r i s i n g how w e l l t h i s e q u a t i o n f i t s . The e x p r e s s i o n was not t e s t e d f o r the p r e s e n t phenomenon, s i n c e measurement o f the exac t t i m e o f f o r m a t i o n of the r i n g s was not p r a c t i c a b l e . 1 8 — Morse and P i e r c e , 2 . f u r p h y s i c a l . Chemie 45, 589 (1903) 19— B o b e r t P r i c k s , Z. f u r p h y s i k a l . Chemie 107, 4 1 . The r e l a t i o n s between " h " and " n " a r e l a r g e l y e m p i r i c a l , , The f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n s have been suggested by v a r i o u s authors. I n e q u a t i o n s (3) and ( 4 ) , d n i s the d i s t a n c e be -tween the n'th and n - 1*th r i n g s . (1) fcn* K h ^ 2 0 ' 2 1 (2) hn - h a - 1 « A n " 1 ( h 2 - h ^ 2 2 ' 2 3 (3) Jd n - J d n . i = K x 2 4 (4) T d n h E i n + i d 0 2 4 I t w i l l now be shown t h a t these e x p r e s s i o n s are a l l i d e n t i c a l . I f we s u b s t i t u t e equation (1) i n equation (2) and pu t X e q u a l to A , we o b t a i n a n i d e n t i t y . Or we may o b t a i n f rom ( 1 ) : h n . 3 = K ^ h g h n = K 1 1 " 1 ^ Then h n + i - h n - K. ~ ( h £ - h-^ } whi c h i s i d e n t i c a l i n form w i t h ( 2 ) . E q u a t i o n s (3) and (4) a r© o b v i o u s l y i d e n t i c a l . To show t h a t equation (3) i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h equation (2) we p roceed as f o l l o w s : From (2) h n - h a - 1 = K^1 ( h 2 - hj} h n - l - V 2 ^ & n " 2 Cb 2 - h 2 ) Then h n - h ^ * K ( h ^ - h^z) (20) CA. Schleussner, K o l l . Z. 34 , 338 -41 . (21) " , P r o c . Hoy . I r i s h A c a d . 38B, 435 (1929). (22) K. Jablc z y n a k i , h o l l . Z, 40 , 2 2 - 8 . (23) " , Roc z n i k i Chem. 7, 150-5 (1927) . (24) Suzanne V e i l , Comptes rendus 191, 6 1 1 - 2 . J . P h y s . Kadium 3 , 302-13 (1932) Mow a c c o r d i n g t o ( 3 ) , Hence [h^- hQ^ - J h ^ - . J h ^ - h n-2 n-2 n-3 - 1 = JK - 1 And h K w h i c h i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the r e l a t i o n •n=i" d e r i v e d f rom (2). To t e s t the agreement o f t hese e q u a t i o n s (or e q u a t i o n ) w i t h our r e s u l t s , we may p l o t t h e l o g a r i t h m o f " h " a g a i n s t " n " . I f t h e e q u a t i o n a p p l i e s , a s t r a i g h t l i n e w i l l "be o b t a i n e d . F o r , h n - K h n „ 1 = h n r a l h2 Then l o g h n ^ (n-1) l o g K -t-log h-j^  And d l o g hyi - l o g TL a c o n s t a n t . R e s u l t s : l ? o r s e v e r a l o f those expe r imen t s w h i c h gave a smooth cu rve betiveen 11 h " and " c " the graphs sugges ted above have been d rawn. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t i n some cases the e q u a t i o n f i t © q u i t e w e l l , w h i l e i n o the r s the agreement i s p o o r . A t t emp t s t o f o r m u l a t e a r e l a t i o n w h i c h w i l l f i t a l l cases has been u n s u c c e s s f u l , a l t h o u g h a graph of the r o o t o f " h " a g a i n s t " n w has found to be l i n e a r i n s e v e r a l cases w i t h q u i t e good agreement . I t would seem, however,, f rom the i r r e g u l a r r i n g sys tems w h i c h sometimes form, t h a t t h e r e a r e p r e s e n t s e v e r a l d i s t u r b i n g f a c t o r s as y e t u n c o n t r o l l e d . T h i s would make f o r poor agreement even w i t h an e q u a t i o n w h i c h was c o r r e c t so f a r as the fundamenta l p r o c e s s goes. m l *« ** r I N . ." n \ • \r ' ~'\ \ : \ : : \ ! ' \ . \ \ \ \ \ j — tie \ "V K \ -_ x — y \ i \ \ \ \ N , \ \ \ X (— • i f v. x o N o \ A h v -a- \ ' N I "'; \ \ \ \_. / \ ' 5- 1 A \ X , s \ c *\ \ ;' . ' ' \ ' \ \ \ ; \" V J : V V X € V v \ 1 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 1 "\ J \ \ \ l i t 1 , S ^ 1 X x x X • N • | \ \l \ H \ X " v x -r——h—r \ \ \ \ \ : A ! ' 1 i 9—| 1 j-^5' The f a c t t ha t the s e v e r a l e m p i r i c a l e q u a t i o n s proposed lay v a r i o u s a u t h o r s a r e i d e n t i c a l wou ld i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s someth ing fundamenta l about the r e l a t i o n exp re s sed by these e q u a t i o n s . As a consequence o f ( l ) and of Morse and P i e r c e ' s ' e q u a t i o n , i t i s e a s i l y shown- t h a t t n and a r e i n a c o n s t a n t r a t i o . I t may be p o s s i b l e t o s o l v e the d i f f u s i o n e q u a t i o n i n s u c h a way as t o dearive t h i s l a s t r e l a t i o n t h e o r e t i c a l l y . - •• • • ' • ••S'ElMM&fciX • The phenomenon o f p e r i o d i c ii±££wK±jaia. c o a g u l a t i o n of g o l d s o l s i n c o l l o i d a l s i l i c a has been i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s ; (a) The a b i l i t y o f v a r i o u s i o n s t o p roduce the e f f e c t i s not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the v a l e n c e o f t h e i o n s , but i s a s p e c i f i c p r o p e r t y o f t h e i o n . Ions o f t h e same v a l e n c e d i f f e r i n t h e i r e f f e c t s . P o t a s s i u m and s i l v e r i o n s produce good r i n g sys tems , sodium i o n s may do so under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , as may a l u m i n i u m i o n s . B a r i u m , magnesium, and hyd rogen i o n s have not s o f a r been made t o p roduce good r i n g s . (b) As the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f d i f f u s i n g e l e c t r o l y t e i n c r e a s e s the r i n g s become more numerous, more c l o s e l y spaced, and l e s s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . (c) The e f f e c t v a r i e s w i t h the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c o l -l o i d a l g o l d i n the s o l , and a l s o w i t h the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s i l i c a . Too h i g h a s i l i c a c o n t e n t causes i n d i s t i n c t and i r r e g u l a r . r i n g s . A low c o n c e n t r a t i o n of g o l d causes t h i n , c l e a r r i n g s . The s t a t e of a g g r e g a t i o n of the s i l i c a , and o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h change w i t h t h e age o f the so l . , p r o b a b l y a f f e c t t h e phenomenon a l s o . (c) E v i d e n c e has been adduced f o r the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the fundamenta l p r o c e s s i s t he p e r i o d i c c o a g u l a t i o n of t he s i l i c a s o l to a g e l , (d) The course o f d i f f u s i o n of e l e c t r o l y t e i n t o t h e s o l has been i n v e s t i g a t e d ' p o t e n t i o m e t r i c a l l y * l o h i n d r a n c e o f d i f f u s i o n d u r i n g the f o r m a t i o n " o f p e r i o d i c l a y e r s has been d e t e c t e d . (e) I t has been shown t h a t s e v e r a l e m p i r i c a l e q u a t i o n s advanced by o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o r e l a t e the h e i g h t "h'* t o the o r d i n a l number w n " o f L i e s © g a n g r i n g s formed i n a t ube a r e i d e n t i c a l . The e q u a t i o n i s i n o n l y f a i r agreement w i t h the p r e s e n t phenomenon. BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) B r a d f o r d , B i o c h e m i c a l J o u r n a l 14, 29 " * 14, 474 (1920) (2) Dhar and Chatter,} i , K o l l o i d Z e i t s c h r i f t 3 1 , 15-6 (1922) " " 37 , 2-9 " 50, 147-59 . Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r anorga n i s che n und a l l g e m e i n e n Chemie 159, 129-144. T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the Fa raday S o c i e t y , O c t . 192& (3) hha r and Sen , K o l l o i d Z e i t s c h r i f t 34, 2 7 0 - 9 . (4) h . P r i c k e , Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r p h y s i k a l i s h e Chemie 107* 41.. (5) h . G a n g u l i , J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l C h e m i s t r y 3 1 , 4 8 1 . (6) Hedges and H e n l e y , J o u r n a l o f t he C h e m i c a l S o c i e t y • 1928, 2714. (7) Hedges, S . S . , K o l l o i d Z e i t s c h r i f t 52, 219. (8) i i . J a b l c s y n s k i , K o l l o i d Z e i t s c h r i f t 4 0 , 2 2 - 8 . H o c z n i k i Chem. 7, 1 5 0 - 5 . (9) l a s k i n , K o l l o i d Z e i t s h h r i f t 40 , 2 2 - 8 . (10) Morse and P i e r c e , Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r p h y s i k a l i s h e Che mi© 45 , 589 ( 1 9 0 3 ) . (11) Os twa ld , f i l h e l m (12) Os twa ld , "Wo.„ K o l l o i d Z e i t E c h r i f t , S p e c i a l lumber , A p r i l 1, 1925, 3 8 0 - 9 0 . (13) P e t r e s c u , V . , Anna l e s S c i e n t i f i q u e s de 1 * U n i v e r s i t e de Jassy 17 e 15 ( 1 9 3 5 ) » (14) h a b i n o v i t c h and K a r g i n , T r a n s a c t ions , o f t he Fa raday S o c i e t y 3 1 , 248 (1935) . (15) S c h l e u s s n e r , C A . , K o l l o i d Z e i t s c h r i f t 34 , 3 3 8 - 4 1 . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t he h o y a l I r i s h Academy, 38B.8 435 . (16) • V e i l , Suzanne, Comptes rendus 191, 6 1 1 - 2 . J o u r n a l de p h y s i c et r ad ium 3 , 3 0 2 - 1 3 . (17) W i l s o n , J . i i . , , . B . A . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B . C . , 1934. See Rot* » V. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0061984/manifest

Comment

Related Items