UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The relation between tensile strength and density of pariffin wax at various temperatures Inouye, Kuramitsu 1934

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1934_A7_I5_R3.pdf [ 10.8MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0061953.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0061953-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0061953-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0061953-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0061953-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0061953-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0061953-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0061953-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0061953.ris

Full Text

THE RELATION BETWEEN. TENSILE STRENGTH kM) DENSITY. OF. PARAFFIH WAX AT VARIOUS TEMPER ATP RES by KURAMITSB INOUYE Ji M £ w n w A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE In the Department September, 1954 TABLE QF CONTENTS THE RELATION BETWEEN TENSILE STRENGTH AND DENSITY  OF PARAFFIN WAX AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES ' Page I . INTRODUCTION ..... .. 1 I I . APPARATUS 2 I I I . PROCEDURE ......... 4 1, P r e p a r a t i o n of Specimens ..»„**„<><>„„„,> 4 (a) Specimen for T e n s i l e Strength .. 4 (b) Specimen f o r Density .,...»...*•> 5 2, Determination of T e n s i l e Strength . 5 5. Determination of Density ............ 7 IV. RESULTS .................................. 8 (a) Table I ,. 11 (b) Table I I 14 (c) Table I I I .,...«,., 16 ( d ) Table IV ... ................ 16 (e) Table V ........,..........<..... 13 ( f ) Table VI .' 19 (g) Table V I I ..................... SO (h) Table VIII ............... . 22 V. SUMMARY . , 24 VI. ACKNOWLEDGMENT ... 25 V I I . BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................... , 26 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page 1. Fig^ I Apparatus f o r Tensile Strength of 2, F i g . I I Apparatus f o r Tensile Strength of S, F i g . I l l Apparatus f o r Density of P a r a f f i n Wax „.,,„» 2 - 5 4* F i g . IV Apparatus f o r Preparation of Specimens ..... 3 - 4 5. Fig* V Tensile Strengths of Para f f i n Wax at Various Temperatures .. < lo -14 6„ F i g , VI Curing Test of P a r a f f i n Wax at Constant Temperatures, 0°C, snd 10°CS16 -17 7. ' F i g , VII Densities of Cacl«> Solutions vs. Temperatares .,,».,,,,.,.«,17 -18 8 s F i g . VIII Density vs* Temperature of P a r a f f i n Wax ... 19 -20 9. F i g . IX Relation between Tensile Strength . and Density of P a r a f f i n Wax ........ 22 -23 THE RELATION BETWEEN TENSILE -STRENGTH'• AND DENSITY OF PARAFFIN WAX AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES INTRODUCTION This'paper presents- -a r e l a t i o n between tensile strength, and density of commercial par a f f i n wax at various temperatures, This r e l a t i o n was derived from the two separate series of measurements. namely, the de-termination of tensi l e strengths of par a f f i n wax over the range of the temperature from 30°C. to'. -9.5°C,, and the determination of densities of the same wax over the range of the temperature from 5QWC» to -5°C. J.A.Carpenter ( l ) applied a method of breaking strength test by placing a c y l i n d r i c a l rod of wax on two blunt-knife-ed ge f u l c r a at a standard distance apart, and by suspending.a can.which was to be f i l l e d with 'water u n t i l the rod breaks by means of wire.'-.' A formula •which w i l l give a comparative measure i n suitable units of the breaking strength used by him wasi-:'.'-' ••w'-i-.' ' '. ' - '. ' d where W ='weight of can 4- vdre 4- water, I W distance between f u l c r a , d = diameter of cross section of rod. This method was intended f o r a comparative study f o r series of waxes under similar temperature and general conditions. Besides t h i s , the writer f a i l e d to f i n d any previous work on the determination of tensi l e strength of p a r a f f i n waxes at various temperatures, A scheme for t h i s determina-t i o n , therefore, has been devised i n this laboratory. S3C/W a+us ffin Wax FIG. II - APPARATUS FOR TENSILE STRENGTH OF PARAFFIN WAX Data of s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of p a r a f f i n wax (from which' the density may e a s i l y be derived) i s r a t h e r meagre, F»J, M o r r i s and L.R, Adkins (2) have given the r e s u l t s of t h e i r study on s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of p a r a f f i n waxes ; over the range of the temperature from 15,5°C, to 54°4 C., by means of a modified Nicholson hydrometer. ;. J.A. Carpenter (5) obtained d e n s i t i e s of l i q u i d waxes by means of a pyknometer and t h a t of s o l i d by means of c a l c u l a t i o n s based upon expan™ • sion; data. APPARATUS ' For the determination o f t e n s i l e strengths of p a r a f f i n wax an apparatus as shown i n F i g , I and I I was used. I t c o n s i s t e d of a quadripod,, a s t i r r e r , a balance, a holder f o r the specimen; a Dewer f.la sic, and a t h e r -mometer., The quadripod. made p a r t l y of brass p l a t e s and p a r t l y of g l a s s rods, was r i g i d l y attached to a frame work. The motor d r i v e n glass screw s t i r r e r was used to maintain the d e s i r e d temperature i n the bath. The b a l -ance was s e t upon a t a b l e . The p o s i t i o n of t h i s balance was adjusted so t h a t a cord through the t i p of an arm of the balance was passed v e r t i c a l l y to the centre of the bottom p l a t e of the quadripod. The end of t h i s cord was fastened to a screw cap which was designed to f i t to one end of the holder f o r the specimen whose dimensions are I l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . I . Another s i m i l a r cap which was t i e d to the bottom p l a t e of the quadripod by a short •cord,' was scref/ed to the other end o f the h o l d e r . The p a r t of the quadripod together with' the specimen was immersed I n the Dewer f l a s k f i l l e d w i t h water. The thermometer reading-to. l / l O of a degree, p r e v i o u s l y c a l i b r a t e d ^ was used to indicate temperatures of the bath. Densities of the same para f f i n wax were obtained by an apparatus as shown i n F i g . I I I . A platinum resistance thermometer, an inner tube, a.Dewer f l a s k , a motor driven propeller s t i r r e r , 3 thermometer, and a vibrating balance were employed besides a sinker made of brass. The inner tube was placed i n the Dev/er f l a s k together with the s t i r r e r . The platinum resistance thermometer was held i n the inner tube which was f i l l e d with l i q u i d i n which the sinker or sinker plus p a r a f f i n wax was suspended from the bottom of the scale pan. The p l a t i n i z e d portion was immersed so that i t cut the surface. Since the weight of the wire immersed i n l i q u i d was negligibly small, i t was expected that no appreciable error i n weighing . would be introduced., To obtain an approximate temperature of the bath the mercury thermometer was used. The balance was kept upon a table above the Dewer f l a s k . A lathe as shown i n F i g . IV and a specially designed knife were used to machine the specimens. This knife was made of a piece of steel .8 cm. X .8 cm. X 10.0 cm. A portion of t h i s bar about 3.0 cm. i n length from one end was flattened and was sharpened. I t then was bent i n semi-circular shape whose radius was about .7 cm. The curved portion constituted the blade of the knife. FIG. IV - APPARATUS FOR PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS 4 P J t Q g E D P B J E 1. Preparation of Specimens. (a) Specimen for Tensile Strength P a r a f f i n used f o r t h i s was the commercial material called "para-wax" whose melting point i s approximately 54.5°C. . A t an early stage of the work, the preparation of specimens was attempted by pouring hot p a r a f f i n wax into a brass casted mould from which specimens similar to that shown i n F i g , I were obtained. I t , however, was unsatisfactory, because i n many cases, defects i n specimens presumably due to the presence of a i r bubbles on the wall of the mould and probably due to the contraction of p a r a f f i n wax when, i t was subjected to the change of physical states from l i q u i d to s o l i d . (The separation of specimens from the mould, however, has been comparatively easily done by amalgamating the wall of the mould with mercury). The specimens f o r the work, therefore, have been prepared by machining s o l i d paraffin wax bars by means of the lathe. Each slab i n one pound package was cut into four sticks) each s t i c k was roughly shaped into a round bar with a pocket knife; each round bar was set into the lathe and was machined into shape as shown i n Fig. I by means of the specially de-signed knife. Due to the nature of par a f f i n wax, diameters of the specimens were chosen within the range from .5 cm. to .6 cm. I t was a rather d i f f i -c ult task to get the uniform dimension. _ 5 -(b) Specimen for. Density A s m a l l bore was made through the centre of the roughly shaped round p a r a f f i n bar which was of the same m a t e r i a l as i n the case of -the p r e p a r a t i o n of specimen f o r the t e n s i l e strength. This was then machined i n t o a c y l i n d e r w i t h the l a t h e and k n i f e . 2, Determination of T e n s i l e Strength The machined specimen was next moulded on both ends i n t o the holder w i t h a small s o l d e r i n g i r o n . I n doing t h i s , the a p p l i c a t i o n of excessive heat was avoided as much as p o s s i b l e to prevent the change i n the c r y s t a l l i n formation of p a r a f f i n wax and thus e f f e c t i t s probable breaking l i m i t s . A f t e r the temperature of the holder seemed to come back to t h a t o f the room temperature, i t was screwed on both ends to the caps. The one of these caps, as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , was fastened to the bottom p l a t e of the quadripod, the other, connected to the arm of the balance through the cord. Care has been taken not to give any twist to the cord, otherwise the t o r s i o n e f f e c t would be exerted upon the specimen when the l o a d was a p p l i e d to the system. The Dewer f l a s k , f i l l e d w i t h water, was now r a i s e d to immerse the specimen. The s t i r r e r was s e t i n motion to maintain the d e s i r e d tem-perature i n the bath. The h e a t i n g or c o o l i n g medium was hot water, i c e or i c e plus common s a l t . I t was found t h a t the sudden change of physical s t a t e s of l i q u i d a i r from l i q u i d to gaseous -state caused the v i o l e n t a g i -t a t i o n i n the bath. E v i d e n t l y t h i s caused the l o c a l c o o l i n g on the sur-face o f the specimen which was immediately n o t i c e d in the form of cracks. F u r t h e r , i t probably caused the change i n the c r y s t a l formation due to the impact on the specimen (4). The values of t e n s i l e strengths of p a r a f f i n wax obtained by l i q u i d a i r as c o o l i n g medium were low. A f t e r the d e s i r e d temperature had been reached by gradual change, i t was maintained constant from 1 to 5 hours, This time i n t e r v a l f o r cur i n g p a r a f f i n wax w i l l be discussed l a t e r , When the d e s i r e d time i n t e r v a l f o r the constant bath temperature was reached, the s t i r r e r was stopped, because the v i b r a t i o n caused by a motor always gave r i s e to the small values of a p p l i e d l o a d s , hence the un-r e l i a b l e values i n t e n s i l e strength. The loa d was now a p p l i e d on the scale pan i n steps, . The maximum l o a d a t which the specimen f r a c t u r e d was record-ed and, a t the same time, the diameter of the specimen was measured w i t h a micrometer. Elongation of specimen i t various temperatures due to the a p p l i e d l o a d has been stud i e d i n v a i n . P o i n t e r s made of t h i n brass p l a t e s , s o l d e r -ed on the hold e r , were employed to i n d i c a t e a l e n g t h of .specimen to be determined. The l e n g t h of specimen t r e a t e d under the d e s i r e d temperature a t d e f i n i t e a p p l i e d l o a d has been read by means of a cathethometer placed at a di s t a n c e apart. Readings have been taken under the a p p l i c a t i o n of loads 100 grams i n steps, but they were numerically always s m a l l . Since the specimen under an a p p l i e d s t a t i c l o a d i f kept f o r a long time, as i n the case of determining elongation, seemed to give r i s e to the premature f r a c t u r e , the determination of the elongation due to the - 7 -a p p l i e d l o a d has not been c a r r i e d , on. 5c Determination of Density The determination of d e n s i t i e s of p a r a f f i n wax a t va r i o u s tem-peratures has been c a r r i e d out by a s i n k e r method. The p a r a f f i n wax bar was, as described before, machined i n t o the c y l i n d e r of 1.3 cm. i n diameter and 8.2 cm. i n l e n g t h . A t h i n brass wire .078 cm. i n diameter attached to the brass s i n k e r of diameter 1.27 cm. and l e n g t h 1440 cm., was passed through the bore of the p a r a f f i n c y l i n d e r . A l i t t l e space about 0.5 cm. was reserved to prevent the p o s s i b l e adherence of a i r bubbles a t the space between the s i n k e r and specimen. One end of the brass wire was bent i n t o a hook to which a loop o f the p l a t i n i z e d platinum wire was attached. The l i q u i d s employed i n t h i s determination were a i r - f r e e d i s -t i l l e d water and calcium c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n of 7.55$ by weight. The former was r e d i s t i l l e d and was cooled j u s t before i t has been used to e l i m i n a t e a i r bubbles both on the s i n k e r and on the specimenj the l a t t e r was prepared by d i s s o l v i n g "Baker's Analysed" calcium c h l o r i d e , Ca c l g .2H20, i n f r e s h l y d i s t i l l e d water. Owing to the nature of calcium c h l o r i d e , approximately 8% by weight, based upon the formula weight, CaClg was f i r s t made: i t was then t i t r a t e d (5) to f i n d out the exact c o n c e n t r a t i o n . The s i n k e r o r s i n k e r attached to the specimen was weighed both i n a i r a t room temperature and i n l i q u i d s a t various temperatures. The temper-atures of the in n e r tube i n which the si n k e r or s i n k e r plus specimen was immersed were s e n s i t i v e l y I n d i c a t e d by images, screened upon the s c a l e , of a moving m i r r o r galvanometer of the platinum r e s i s t a n c e thermometer system. - 8 -A reasonable time i n t e r v a l was allowed when each reading of the balance was taken, s i n c e the expansion or c o n t r a c t i o n of p a r a f f i n wax seemed to take p l a c e r a t h e r s l o w l y over the range of the temperature from 10°C. to -10°C., and r a t h e r r a p i d l y i n the range from 30°C. to 10°C. Hence i n the former case, the readings of weights were taken a f t e r the l a p s e of 2 hours and i n the l a t t e r case they were taken a f t e r a 1 hour time i n t e r v a l . E i t h e r c o o l i n g o r h e a t i n g medium was s u p p l i e d i n t o the e x t e r i o r bath, t h a t i s , i n t o the Dewer f l a s k . The u n i f o r m i t y of temperature was maintained by the s t i r r e r , The weight o f the suspension wire i n a i r was recorded, RESULTS In c a l c u l a t i n g the t e n s i l e strength of p a r a f f i n wax the f o l l o w -i n g formula was employed:- ' T « . ^ - ^ 1 where T = - t e n s i l e strength i n kilograms per sq. sm,, L = l o a d i n kilograms, r = r a d i u s of f r a c t u r e d specimen i n cm. L i s the a p p l i e d l o a d at the moment of breaking the specimen and r repre-sents the r a d i u s of the f r a c t u r e d specimen. I t seemed probable t h a t the t e n s i l e strength of p a r a f f i n wax would vary w i t h v a r i o u s f a c t o r s , namely, the time i n t e r v a l a f t e r the specimen has been machined and the time i n t e r v a l o f the immersion i n the bath of the d e s i r e d temperature. The experiment roughly i n d i c a t e d t h a t the maximum value of t e n s i l e strength has been reached at about 12 days a f t e r the specimen has been machined, and that the maximum value due to 9 the curing time over the range of the temperature from 5°C. to -3.5°C. was obtained after exposing the specimen for at lea s t 3 hours at the constant temperature and also for the range of the temperature from 30°C« to 10°C. the maximum te n s i l e strength was obtained after the specimen has been l e f t i n the constant temperature f o r at lea s t 1 hour. The c r y s t a l l i n e formation of paraffin would undoubtedly influence values of t e n s i l e strength at various temperatures. In th i s work, study regarding the c r y s t a l l i n e formation of the fractured specimen by means of photomicrographs has not been carried out, hence nothing can be d e f i n i t e l y said on the change i n c r y s t a l l i n e formations. But i t was evident that there were i n many cases "internal flows" i n c r y s t a l l i n e formation of para f f i n wax and defects due to the presence of a i r i n the para f f i n wax (6) (7), These might have caused an extensive fluctuation i n tensile strength at a tempera-ture as shown i n Table I . "Internal flaws" may be closely related to the c r y s t a l l i n e formation of pa r a f f i n wax and hence to the tensi l e strength. As to the cryst a l formation of paraffin wax, opinions are rather divergent! F.H. Rhodes, C.W. Mason and W.R. Sutton (8) claimed that they found two types of c r y s t a l l i n e formation of paraffin wax, namely, needles and plates; further they said that the needles are formed from the plates which are r o l l e d t i g h t l y under a certain condition. JYA. Carpenter i s of the opinion that the paraffin wax obtained from Burma crude has the transformation point from needles to plates at 10°C. to 15°C. below the melting point. He stated that the cr y s t a l forma-t i o n i s dependent on the s o l v e n t used, upon the r a t e of c o o l i n g and upon the wax used* CO. Buchler and G.D. Graves (10) s t a t e d t h a t the p u r i f i e d para-f f i n was c r y s t a l l i z e d in. p l a t e s w h i l e the wax containing i m p u r i t i e s w i l l produce needles. Graves (11) f u r t h e r claimed that he obtained pure para-f f i n waxes which c r y s t a l l i z e d i n p l a t e s . S.W. F e r r i s , H.C Cowles and L.M, Henderson (12) found three broad types of formation, namely, p l a t e , needle and m a l - c r y s t a l l i n e , from p u r i f i e d p a r a f f i n wax f r a c t i o n s which were obtained from a mid-continent petroleum. • Three types of c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n were a l s o noted by F.W. Padgett, D.G, Hefley and A. Henriksen (13). They b e l i e v e t h a t the a c t u a l nature of the waxes i s of importance i n c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f wax, and t h a t the i n -fluence of the a s s o c i a t e d substances, namely, o i l s and a l i p h a t i c m a t e r i a l s , should not be overlooked. L.D. Jones and F.E. B l a c k l y (14) stated the d i f f e r e n c e s between c r y s t a l l i n e wax and amorphous wax, and the c o n d i t i o n s i n which a wax was p r e c i p i t a t e d I n a c r y s t a l l i n e o r amorphous s t a t e . They were of the o p i n -i o n t h a t the surface t e n s i o n and c o l l o i d a l f o r c e s would cause the produc-t i o n of amorphous wax. A.H. Sqchanen, L.G. Zherdeva and A.N. V a s i l y e v (15) agreed w i t h Jones' and B l o c k l y * s view, excepting t h a t the i m p u r i t i e s (ceresines) would cause the change i n c r y s t a l l i n e s t r u c t u r e of. p a r a f f i n . - 11 -Defects i n specimens c h i e f l y due to the "mottle" were detected. The f l a w l e s s specimens (not due to the " i n t e r n a l flaws") only were employed f o r experiments. R e s u l t s , however, showed t h a t some specimens gave r i s e to considerably lower t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h than o t h e r s . These cases are not shown i n Table I . TABLE I Temperatures i n C. Loads i n Kgm. Diameters i n Cm. T e n s i l e Strength Kg/sq.cm, Time i n hour 's - 9 . 5 6 . 4 1 7 . 5 3 6 2 8 . 5 0 3.0 - 9 6 . 5 1 7 , 5 3 8 2 8 . 7 0 1.5 - 8 6.017 . 5 2 6 28 = 80 3 , 5 - 7 6 . 9 1 7 . 5 3 3 31.10 1 , 5 7 . 6 7 7 . 5 3 6 3 4 . 1 0 5.0 6 , 7 1 7 . 5 3 2 3 0 , 2 0 5,0 6,717 , 5 3 2 30 . 2 0 4,0 - 6 7 . 3 2 1 . 5 5 4 50.40 1 , 5 6,717 . 5 3 8 2 9 , 5 0 1.5 6,767 . 5 2 6 51,20 4 , 0 - 5 7 , 0 1 7 , 5 3 6 31.10 3.0 6 . 5 1 7 , 5 3 0 29.60 5 . 0 6 . 6 1 7 . 5 3 0 5 0 . 2 0 4.0 - 4 6,717 , 5 2 8 ' 3 0 . 6 0 4.0 - 3 6 . 0 1 7 .555 2 4 , 8 0 1.5<: 5 . 5 1 7 . 5 5 7 21.80 1.0 6 . 0 1 7 . 5 3 8 2 6 . 5 0 1 . 5 5 . 3 1 7 , 5 3 9 2 3 . 4 0 : 4.0 6 . 5 1 7 . 5 2 6 50.00 4.0 . - 2 7,227 .555 29,80 1.5 7.117 , 5 3 8 3 1 , 3 0 2 . 5 (Continued) - IE -TABLE I - Continued Temperatures i n C, Loads i n Kgm, Diameters i n Cm. Te n s i l e Strength Kg./Sa.Cm. Time i n hours 0 7,421 ,576 28.50 1.5 7.421 „576 28.50 1.5 7,017 .538 50,90 2.5 7,017 .555 28.90 3.0 6.717 .526 30.90 4.0 7.167 - .545 30.80 1.0 5.817 .549 24.50 1.0 5.917 .544 25,50 2.0 6.267 ' .542 27.20 3.0 6.267 .544 27.00 4o0 2 5.717 .537 25.50 4.0 5 6.867 .574 26,50 1.5 7,721 .581 29.10 1.5 "7.623. ,585 28.30 1.5 6.717 ,540 29,40 2,5 . 4.917 .530 22.30 4.0 6.317 .520 29.80 4.0 7.167 .645 30,70 1.5 7 6.817 .545 29.30 2.0 8 6.017 ,526 27.70 - 3.0 6.117 .544 26.40 3.5 10 5.817 .545 25.00 1.0 5.717 .544 24.60 2.0 6,267 .551 26.30 2.5 5.717 ,544 24.50 3.0 7.421 .570 29.10 1,5 6,017 ,560 24.50 4.0 12 6.3.17 .553 26.20 1.5 ' 5.517 .526 24.50 4.0 6.117 .521 28.70 4,0 13 6.117 .544 26.30 1.5 15 6.605 .583 ' 24.30 1,5 6.505 .585 24.40 1.5 6.817 .585 . 25.40 4.0 (Continued) - IS -TABLE I r Continued Temperature Loads Diameters T e n s i l e Strength Time " — i S - C , . i n J C g m s ^ J ^ C m ^ Kg./Sq .Cm. _ Jahenxea 16 5„4I7 ,550 2 4 . 5 0 4.0 17 5.457 .553 2 2 . 6 0 1.5 18 6.017 .549 2 5 . 4 0 . 1.0 20 4.751 . 581 18.00 1.5 4,751 .584 17.70 1.5 5.517 ,528 25.20 4.0 4.817 ,517 22.90 4.0 22 4,501 ,548 19.10 1 . 5 23 4 . 6 4 6 ,520 21,90 4.0 5,017 . 544 21,60 1.5 25 3.101 .500 15,80 1.5 3,258 ,512 15.80 1.5 4,517 ,528 20,60 4,0 3,917 .517' 18.60 4.0 26 2,501 .449 14.50 1.0 27 3.300 ,508 16.30 4.0 50 ,701 ,415 5,10 1,5 2 . 1 5 1 .534 9.60 4.0 1 4 TABLE I I Temperature Loads —--3JL_Q.. i n Kerns. Diameters i n Cm. T e n s i l e Strength - 9.5 - 9,0 - 8,0 - 7.0 - 6,0 - 5o0 - 4,0 - 5,0 - 2.0 • 0.0 - 5 , 0 7 O 8,0 6.417 6.517 6,017 6«9X7 7.577 6.717 6,717 7.521 6,717 6,767 7,017 6,617 6.517 6.717 8,017 6.517 7.227 7,117 7.167 7,017 6.717 7 * 72X 6*717 7.167 6.317 6,817 6.117 6.017 .536 .538 .526 * 52>«5 .536 ,552 .554 ,558 .526 # 53S ,550 ,550 .528 .538 .526 ,558 .545 .538 ® 526 ' ,581 .540 .545 .520 . 545 .544 .526 28.50 28,70 28.80 31.10 34,10 50,20 30,20 30.40 29,50 31.20 51,10 29. SO 30.20 30.60 26.50 50,00 29.30 31.30 30.80 50.90 50,90 29.10 29.40 30.70 29.80 29.30 26.40 27.70 Time i n hours 5.0 x© s «3 » 5 1,5 3.0 4.0 5.0 X •» 5 1.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 4.0 X •» 5 -4.0 X»5 2.5 X 9 0 2.5 4.0 X • 5 1.5 4.0 2.0 3© 5 3.0 (Continued) - 15 -TABLE I I - Continued Temperature Loads D i a ^ e t e r ^ T e n s i l e Strength Time" ™* i n hours i n Kgms. i n Cm, Kg./Sa.Cm. 10.0 7,421 ,570 29,10 6,267 ,551 26.30 12,0 6,317 ,553 26,20 6,117 ,521 26,70 13.0 6.117 .544 26.30 15,0 6.505 .583 24.80 6.505 .583 24.40 6.817 .585 25.40 16.0 5.417 .530 24.50 17.0 5.457 ,553 22.60 18.0 6.017 .549 25.40 20,0 5.517 .528 25.20 4.817 .517 22.90 22.0 4,501 .548 19.10 23,0 5,017 .544 21.60 4.646 .520 21.90 25,0 3,101 .500 15,80 3,917 .517 18.50 26.0 . 2.301 .449 14.50 27.0 5,500 .508 ' 16.50 30.0 0,701 .415 5.10 2.151 .534 9.50 1.5 2.5 1.5 4.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 4.0 4.0 1.5 1.0 4.0 4.0 1.5 1.5 4.0 1,5 4„0 4-517 .528 20.60 4.0 1.0 4.0 1.5 4.0 Table I shows t e n s i l e strengths of p a r a f f i n wax a t d i f f e r e n t temperatures, l o a d s , diameters and time i n t e r v a l s of the immersion. • Table I I was constructed from Table I , by e x t r a c t i n g some of the re p r e s e n t a t i v e values from which F i g . V was made. TABLE I I I CTOIJG_TESX^F_PARAFFIH WAX. AT CONSTANT TEMPERATURE Q°C, Temperature i n C. Load i n Kgms Diameter » i n Cms. Te n s i l e Strength Kgms, per Sq. Cm, Time i n hours 0°C. 5.817 ,549 24,50 1 it - 5,917 .544 25t, 50 2 1! 6,267 .542 27.20 3 tl 6,267 ,549 27,00 4 TABLE IV CURING TEST OF PARAFFIN WAX AT CONSTANT TWffF.R4TURE iO^C. Temperature i n C. Load ...in Kgms. Diameter i n Cms, T e n s i l e Strength Kgms. per Sq. Cm. Time i n hours 10°Co 5,817 .545 24.80 1 1! 5,717 .544 24.60 .2 n. 5,,717 ,544 24.60 3 Table I I I shows the c u r i n g t e s t of p a r a f f i n wax a t the constant temperature, 0°C. This was g r a p h i c a l l y represented i n F i g . VI. S i m i l a r l y Table IV shows the curing t e s t of p a r a f f i n wax at the f i x e d temperature, 10°C. The r e s u l t s w i l l suggest t h a t the maximum t e n s i l e strength may be reached a t a d i f f e r e n t time i n t e r v a l and at a d i f f e r e n t temperature. These are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . V I . -1 1 ! • E E . , \ Curing test o f af Cons-Pa raff irr k. Tern pen Wax rh i res , 0° C. and 10° c . 0__3 9-0 — t -I : fe , g J — — » Qi Q°C, ;" . ; : * ' 1 .2..-2C hO « ; 1 f af i'Q°c S i 1 1 f \ ^ 1 -! i f ft 1 - 1.0 .0 . -- - - ' < 0 • • • • 0 ; 2 T i m e i • n Hours The c a l c u l a t i o n o f the d e n s i t i e s of p a r a f f i n wax i n t h i s work was derived from the formula suggested by E.S, F e r r y (16) p _ Ba P f S Ba - (B + SJi+'S"!* where P s = density of p a r a f f i n wax, B a r weight of p a r a f f i n wax i n a i r , (B •!• S ) i = weight of p a r a f f i n wax p l u s s i n k e r i n l i q u i d , S]_ = weight of s i n k e r i n l i q u i d , P j = d e n s i t y of l i q u i d a t given temperature. B a, the weight of p a r a f f i n wax i n a i r a t room temperature, was assumed to be constant over the range of the temperature from 50°G. to -5°C. w h i l e the values o f (B -5- S ) i and Sj_ have been observed a t the d i f f e r e n t temperatures. P^, the d e n s i t y of the l i q u i d a t the given temperature, was found from I n t e r n a t i o n a l C r i t i c a l Tables. In the case of wafer, the v a l -ues were d i r e c t l y t r a n s f e r r e d from t a b l e s , while i n the case of calcium c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n , the values were obtained from F i g . ¥11 through the g r a p h i c a l i n t e r p o l a t i o n . The curve representing percentage composition by weight of calcium c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n used i n t h i s work was constructed a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g the r e l a t i o n s between t h a t of 10%f 8% and 6% by weight of c a l -cium c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n s (17). i i 1 • --'Densities. "Ii SpJuliarts. vs. — I I' -• -\ i ' . •>e>oo -• • / /-> % • O . • .to | -,;0 TOO -^====- • , ! • Q AO ft.QQ __ £ > % _ J . i 1 . i .'. 1 • 1 1 : / r 0 i ?Q0 • —. : 1 : •• • • i 1 J i /.04-00 6.0 # . — — — . _ ! I . 0 7 10 erfipem-hirk • i ( ? 3 c r. 1 1 _ _ 1 * 1 " 1 4 • '• • • • I j •'. ; : • •' • • 1 •• i 1 1 - 13 -TABLE V Temperature (B -1- S)i+ P t . w i r e (B 4- S ) i S l 30° 12.8580 12.7044 13.9120 13.7584 .90155 23° 12.8984 12,7448 15.9112 13.7576 .90531 25° 12,9262 12.7726 13.9100 13,7564 .90863 o 20 12,9564 12,8028 13.9086 15.7550 ,91218 15° 12,9874 12.3338 13.9076 15.7540 .91565 10° 13,0220 12.8684 13.9072 13.7556 .91922 5° 13,0570 12,9034 15.9072 13.7536 .92235 0° 15,0968 12,9432 13.9080 13.7544 ,92547 Table V presents the values o f (B 4> S ) 1 ? S 1 ? and P g obtained w i t h d i s t i l l e d water. The c o r r e c t i o n f o r the weight of p a r a f f i n wax due to the buoyancy of a i r has been considered (18) before the c a l c u l a t i o n has been made. - 1 9 -TABLE VI Pcaclg- Temp. (B-l-SJti-l- wire ( B i S ) i Si?- w i r e S i . P s. B a BatBiSj-fl- S i 1,0587 50° 12,0558 .11,8822 13.7980 13.6444 .9014 .8514 1,0595 28° 12,0780 11.9244 15.7978 13.6442 .9053 .8544 1.0605 0 25 12.1076 11.9540 13,7968 15.6432 .9084 .8566 1,0620 0 20 12,1358 11.9822 13,7938 15.6402 .9122 .8589 1.0635 15° 12,1642 12,0106 13.7928 13.6392 .9155 .8610 1,0645 10° 12,1916 12,0380 13.7922 13.6386 .9188 .8631 1.0858 5° 12,2180 12,0644 13.7924 13.6388 ,921.9 .8650 1,0662 2° 12,2378 12,0842 13.7924 15.6388 .9258 .8665 1.0665 o 0 12,2488 12,0952 13.7924 13.6388 .9250 .8673 1.0668 o - 2 12,2620 12.1084 13,7918 13.6382 .9264 ,8684 1.0669 - 5 ° 12,2786 12,1250 15,7918 13.6582 .9273 .8696 Table VI shows the values of (B S)j, S i , B a ' 57- (B + S ) i + S i ' P c a c l g , and. P s obtained w i t h calcium c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n . P s, the d e n s i t i e s of p a r a f f i n wax obtained from bath i n a i r - f r e e d i s t i l l e d water over the range of the temperature from 50°C. to 0°C., and calcium c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n over the range o f the temperature from 30°C, to - 5°C., were i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . V I I I . The r e s u i t s o b t a i n e d with two l i q u i d s agree f a i r l y w e l l , t h a t i s , the discrepancies i n the values are n e g l i g i b l y s m a l l . 1 1 i • i ! • FfgJ. (M. liens > s »i. _ — O f Pai 1 1 1 1£ \ \ P -• • ' • ^ • •<? .0 • — - - - ^ - - • 9 -2-V .By Gil \ "j™ 9"um Chloride $!y Wafer Solution • -.-'0 ' 1 \ \ i • • Y 1 ; l l ! l ' i ' Ii : : ; - -11 • . •  • i i . - '% - --'11: r '.: '. 1 ]i ' 1 ' ; 1 • j I • ) ~Q — r — Temp'em-hu in G 0 3< Bey. i 1 -• • -• • . : • . i '•• • • 1 ! 1 1 ! TABLE V I I Temperature , i n -C. Time I n t e r v a l i n hours to get (S 4 B)-H- wire (S + B ) i 4- wire (S + E)x ( s ) i Ps 15° 1 12.9872 12.8338 15.7540 ,91565 • 10° 1 13.0220 12.8684 15.7536 .91922 -5° 2 13.0570 12.9034 15.7556. .92235 0° . 2 13,0968 12.9432 13.7544 ,92547 5° 2 13,0572 12.9036 15.7536 .92235 10° 1 13.0238 12,8702 13,7536 ,91928 15° 1 12.9892 12.8356 13.7540 .91580 20° 1 12.9564 12.8028 13.7550 .91218 25° 1 12.9262 12.7726 13.7564 .90863 0 28 1 12.8984 12.7448 13.7576 ,90542 30° 1 12.8580 12.7044 13.7584 .90155 o 28 1 12.8970 12.7454 13.7576 .90531 o 25 1 12.9262 12.7726 13.7564 .90863 o 20 1 . 12.9592 12.8056 13.7550 .91241 When the p a r a f f i n was subjected to change i n temperature, i t was found t h a t d i f f e r e n c e i n the value of d e n s i t i e s could be produced depending upon how the temperature was approached. I n general,- i t was found that the dens i t y found by changing the temperature i n one d i r e c t i o n d i d not cor r e s -pond to t h a t obtained i n another d i r e c t i o n except at the one f i x e d tempera-t u r e at which the values obtained were p r e c i s e l y the same. The experiment - 21 -showed t h a t there was a l a g I n the value o f d e n s i t i e s ; i t thus appeared . t h a t the p a r a f f i n wax possesses a s o r t of h y s t e r e s i s , I n the determination of t e n s i l e strength i t has already been noted ( q u a l i t a t i v e l y ) t h a t the specimen when i t was cooled from room tem-perature to lower temperatures gave a ra t h e r reduced volume as compared w i t h i t s o r i g i n a l one, and t h a t b e i n g kept f o r one to f i v e months, a t room temperature, i t never came back to t h a t of the o r i g i n a l volume. I n the determination of d e n s i t y , the same phenomenon has been observed, The p a r a f f i n wax attached w i t h the s i n k e r has been subjected to lower temperatures from 15°C, to 0°C. and then to higher temperatures from 0°G. to 15°C, I t has been noted t h a t the d e n s i t i e s obtained from i n c r e a s -i n g the temperature from 0°C. has s l i g h t l y l a r g e r values than t h a t obtained i n depressing the temperature from 15°C. to 0°C. How by f a l s i n g - t h e temperature from 15°C. to SO°C, and by depress-' Ing i t from SO°C„ to 15°C«, the s i m i l a r phenomen^has been experienced, except a t 25°C-, th a t i s , by depressing the temperature from 50°C., the h y s t e r e s i s has been shown to e x i s t at every temperature except a t 25°C. where no h y s t e r e s i s has been observed. The r e s u l t i s shown i n Table V I I . By repeating the experiment w i t h calcium c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n , the same has been observed, The d i f f e r e n c e i n the d e n s i t i e s at t h e ' f i x e d tem-perature due to the h y s t e r e s i s i s ra t h e r too small to be shown g r a p h i c a l l y , But i t can be s a i d t h a t a "centre" of the h y s t e r e s i s loop w i l l be l o c a t e d a t 25°C« i n a temperature-density diagram, Values outside the range from 0° to 50°C. may be found by a f u r t h e r work. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n density due to the h y s t e r e s i s are from 0 to ,00025 a t a s p e c i f i e d temperature. TABLE VIII Temperatures Densities T e n s i l e Strengths i n C. i n Kgms. per So.Cm. - 5° ,9278 51.20 - 4° ,9272 51.25 - 5° .9267 51.25 - 8° .9264 31.30 - 1° .9255 31.30 0° ,9250 51,50 1° .9244 31.30 2° ,9258 31.20 5° .9232 51,10 4° - 5° .9226 30.80 .9219 30.60 6° .9212 • 50.40 ?° 8° ,9206 ' 30.20 ,9200 29.80 9° ,9193 29,40 10° ,9188 29.00 11° ,9181 28.50 12° ,9174 28.00 13° ,9167 27.50 • 14° - .9161 27,00 15° ,9155 26.50 16° ,9148 25.80 17° .9141 25.00 18° .9155 24.40 19° . .9128 23,60 20° ' .9121 22.80 21° •.9115 22.00 22° • ,9108 21.30 23° .9101 20.50 24° .9095 19.50 25° ,9084 18.50 • ' 26° • .9077 17.50 27° .9067 16.30 28° ,9053 14.70 29° ,9038 12,50 30° .9015 9.50 Table VIII has been constructed through the interpolation of and V I I I , . • • • • - 23 -Each-pair of values of t e n s i l e strength and density o f p a r a f f i n wax a t the given temperature i s g r a p h i c a l l y shown i n F i g . IX, - 24 -This experiment showed th a t the t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h of p a r a f f i n wax Increased r a p i d l y as the temperature was lowered over the range from 50°C. to 20°C. The r a t e of the increase i n t e n s i l e strength with respect to the change i n temperature, however, gr a d u a l l y decreased as the tempera-ture was lowered i n the range from 20° C. to - 9.5°C. This experiment covered over the range o f the temperature from - 9,5°C. to 30°C. f o r the determination of t e n s i l e strength of p a r a f f i n wax, ' The r e s u l t s obtained through t h i s experiment revealed t h a t den-s i t i e s of p a r a f f i n wax over the range o f the temperature from 30°C, to - 5°C. Increased as the temperature was lowered. I n the range o f the tem-perature from - 5°G, to 25°C., d e n s i t i e s seemed t o vary l i n e a r l y w i t h the change i n temperature, while i n the range from 25°C, to 30°C., d e n s i t i e s seemed to decrease r a p i d l y as the temperature was r a i s e d . I n connection w i t h t h i s , i t may be i n t e r e s t i n g to remark J.A, Carpenter's view (19). According to him the change i n p a r a f f i n wax c r y s t a l l i n e formation from needle-shaped prisms to rhombahedral p l a t e s w i l l take p l a c e a t 10°to 15°C, below the m e l t i n g p o i n t . From the above two separate determinations, the r e l a t i o n s between t e n s i l e strength and density of p a r a f f i n wax have been derived through the g r a p h i c a l i n t e r p o l a t i o n , - 25 -ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r i s deeply indebted to Dr. '.V.F. Seyer f o r h i s val-uable i n s t r u c t i o n through which t h i s work has been c a r r i e d out. - 26 -BIBLIOGRAPHY i (1) (3) (7) (9) (19) P. 288 ? v o l . 12, 1926, J . I n s t , of P e t r . Tech., The P h y s i c a l and Chemical P r o p e r t i e s of P a r a f f i n Wax, P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the S o l i d S t a t e . by J.A. Carpenter. (2) (6) P. 501, V o l . 19, 1927, J . of Ind. & Eng. Chem., S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y of P a r a f f i n Wax, by F.J. M o r r i s and L.R. Adlcins. (4) P. 159, A l l e n ' s Com. Organic A n a l y s i s , V o l . I I I . (5) P. 67, 218, 3rd e d i t i o n , Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s , by E.G. Mahin, (8) P. 955, V o l . 19, 1927, J . Ind. & Eng. Chem,, C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f P a r a f f i n Wax, by F.H. Rhodes, C.W, Mason, and W.R. Sutton. (10) P. 713, V o l . 19, 1927, J . Ind. & Eng. Chem., The Petroleum Waxes, by CO. Buchler and G.D. Graves. (11) P. 762, V o l . 23, 1931, J . Ind. & Eng. Chem., C r y s t a l Form o f P a r a f f i n Hydrocarbons, by G.D. Graves. (12) P. 631, V o l . 23, 1931, J . Ind. & Eng. Chem., Three Forms of P a r a f f i n Wax, by S.W. F e r r i s , H.C, Cowles, and L.M. Henderson. (13) P. 832, V o l . 18, 1926, J . Ind. & Eng. Chem., Wax C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , by F.W. Padgett, D.G. Hefley and A. Henriksen. - 27 -(14) P. 318, V o l . 21, 1926, J . Ind. & Eng. Chem., Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Amorphous Wax, by L.D. Jones and F,E. B l q c k l y . (15) P. 47, A p r i l 22j P. 67, A p r i l 29: p, 51, May 6: p. 71, May 13, 1951, N. P e t r . News. P r o p e r t i e s and Str u c t u r e s of P a r a f f i n Waxes and Ceresines, by A.N. Sachanen, L eG. Zherdeva and A.M. V a s i l y e v , (16) P. 47, V o l . I , A Handbook of Phys i c s Measurement by E.S. F e r r y . (17) P. 72, V o l . I l l , I n t e r n a t i o n a l C r i t i c a l Tables. (18) P. 24, P r a c t i c a l P h y s i c a l Chemistry, 4th E d i t i o n by A. F i n d l e y , 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0061953/manifest

Comment

Related Items