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Lubrication and chemical constitution McDougall, Stewart Robertson 1923

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Lubrication and Chemical constitution by Stewart Robertson McDougall  Lubrication and Chemical constitution by Stewart Robertson M c D o u g a l l  A ? h « s l a • u b a l t t o d f o r t h o Dogroo o f XA3TBB 0 ? APPLIED 3OI1H0S l a tho dopart»«at of  omaasTM  THB tmXTSBSIK 0? BRITISH ICLI&BI* April,  1923.  Introduction Purpcae of Reeeareh Barly Investigations {A) the Coefficient of friction of Dry Surfaces (b) 9 1 M Coefficient of friction of Journal Bearings Recent Developments (a}  Boundary lubrication and cillness  t») ?iret Sxperiaents on Boundary Lubrication {oJ  Tisoosity 2b«ory  (d?  2fee Doeley &acblne  (e) Hardy*s Metfto* and Results (fl  Regions of lubrication Is a Soaring  (gi  Attempts to Measure Oiiinass by ?arlouo Methods  Review of the Composition and Ohoaioal Satare of Lubricants Description of Apparatus Difficulties Bnaountared BSperinental Data (a) Steel on 3teel (1J (11)  Dry Oleic Acid  ( i l l ) Stearic &ei<  ?AB;,E  tf  jetr/sam.  (Jont.)  (It)  Aayl Butyreta  (T)  ?he B f f s o t of Unaatnratloa  (b)  Babbitt of 3 t e o l U) (11)  i>*y Olala Aold  Dlsousalon of Reaulta Industrial  vpplloatlon  3«usraary Bibliography  I*£ft69tf3£l01! » t a t h e i o a t fear o r fi*« yoare a gro^t &oal Of i a t o r e o t b&* boon &renoe& i n tbo onbjoot of l a b r i n o t i o n * 1% boo boon a wall leaown faot  OVOT  oinao ©laoral i n b r t o u t l a g  o i l * aaao i a t o gonoral noo» t o o t thay woro ott tbo whola i n f e r i o r to a n i M l nan vogotafelo o l i o * rtifforonoo  tbo reaaoa for tfc'lo  on* aawo* loa**©" i n t o an t i l *a«t r e a o a t i ? .  So  f a r * hs»**o*» thoro baa baaa mm o a t l a f a o t o r y tbnory ooiroionoa In oxplanktioo of t h i a <U»al»llsri t y .  m*> novo wo Hon u n t i l  aoa aa? sotho* of aotonainiag too Xnb*io&tln*$ proportion of on o i l witfeoat t i y i a ^ i t out i n p m a t i o o *  aa attntspt baa  boon n&do by ftavara), i a v « a t i « a t o r a to find a r e l a t i o n botwoon tha cthoalo&l n a n a t i t o t i o n and the i n b r l a a t i a g nan l i t ? of an o i l * b a t ao f i a a l r e a o l t a have yet boon obtain***  i a t b l a ronoarab aa attmapt hae boon mid© to ootormlaa the offoot of v a r y i a * maoosta of a l c o h o l * , e a t e r a , nana t o r e tn4 hydrocarbons nan f a t t y an Ida i n e l n o r a l l u b r l e a t i n g o i l * , on tbo oe e f f i c i e n t of e t a t a f r i a t t o a of the l a t t e r whoa applied to d i f f e r e n t metal earfana**  it  we* aleo hoped t o develop a elctple «e»na for aeaart&lalag tbo l o b r i o a t i a * qwaltty *f aa o i l a t t h e a t t r y tag i t i a p r a o t l o o .  - z SARLY IIYESfXfofXCVS (a)  Jho 3oefflolent of /rlotion of Dry Jurfuoes. ?he first recorded investigation of friction was  ia 1699* whan AStontons (lie»*d. l*Aoad* Hoy. daa ^sciences, (16yy}» p. 236} found that resistance to relative notion varied with the nornal pressure, hut was Independent of the area of the applied surfaces*  He expressed this re-  lation as fellowss where  ? t P v  • • • *  u. p. foroe aeoessary to oouse notion total pressure ooeffloleat of frlotloa  la general he feuad that F was equal to onethird P*  His theory was that frlotloa Is das to asperities  la the surfaces,  this view was later upheld by Suler  (Berlin .load, HOBOire, ll748),p.l£2). thm aext experlnent along this lias was oonduoted by Jouloab (Liei3.tl.l*.*o<ad.Hoy. des Sciences,(1765), vol.l0,p.l61). who in 1785 showed that there was a dlfferenoe between statlo and kinetio friotion* but that the above law held for both*  ?hen la 1830, Uorln (Men*  o.3oavanee Strangers IV.*(1833). pp.1. 591t  VI* p.641)  proved with a mere refiaed apparatus* that the kinetio was usually less than the etatlo friction*  finally Jenkln and  Ewing (Phil.Trans*A. 167, 509. (1877) dlsoovered that there was continuity from the stats of static to that of kinetio friction.  - 3 -  (b)  The Coefficient of Friotion of Journal Bearings. A different line of experiments was commenced by  B. rower (Proo. Inst, lleeh. Bng.t 1G83), p. 632; (1864) ,p.29), who determined the coefficient of friotion of a standard bearing and the effect of variations in pressure, speed* temperature, methods of lubrication and the kind of oil used. This marked the advent of the modern journal friction testing machine.  Power used a 4 in. journal in a half bearing with  load* from 100 lbs. to 500 lbs., and speeds ranging from 109 r.p.m. to 450 r.p.m. He found that the friotion was independent of the load, but proportional to the velocity. It was also affected by a change in temperature, and by different methods of lubrication. By using a similar method to lower, 0. Reynolds (Phil. Trans. ?ol,177, (1686), p. 157) showed that the friction depended on the viscosity of the lubricant. He improved the mathematical theory of lubricated bearings by the introduotlon of hydrodynamics.  The mathematical end  of the subject has also been highly developed by  Jomnorfield  Ueitscfcr. f. Kath.t.50.(1904), p.97) and Harrison (Jamb. Trans, vol. XXII, (1913), p.39). 5B3SST DSVEL0PHSIT3 (a)  Boundary Lubrication and Gillness. The mere important reeent investigations have  - 4 been carried out in a different field, namely "Boundary Lubrication". Boundary Lubrication occurs whan the solid faces are close enough together to infltience directly the properties of the lubricant, and is found in ordinary dry surfaces,  This is quite different from the ordinary condition  la bearings which is known as "Flooded Lubrication"*  Here  the metal surfaces are separated by an oil film of appreciable thioknoss which prevents metal to metal contact.  In such  oases the friction depends entirely upon the viscosity of the lubricant; while in the case of Boundary Lubrication, the it depends onAoiliness of the lubricant and the chemical nature of the metal surfaces*  that in Flooded Lubrication,  the value of the lubricant depends on viscosity is shown by the use of wolassee as a lubricant on sugar-making machinery, of air on spinning machinery and of water on the propeller shafts of boats. •The vital importance of Boundary Lubrication is because of its continual occurrence in the actual operation of all machinery*  It is encountered under the following  conditions s (1)  The starting and stopping of bearings, which causes the perfect oil film to be squeezed out, thus allowing abrasion if an oil with a high degree oi* oiliness is not used*  {Z\  Whoa the oil supply, due to negligence or a break in the lubricating system, has been allowed to get low*  (8)  Between the piston rings and cylinder walls, and also in the cross head of an engine.  - s (4}  la oases where high pressures and slow speeds are asefi, such as in gears and l a o a t t l a g and threading* In the l a t t e r case, lard and f i s h o i l s era aaoti in preference to mineral o i l s * 01linesa la a new hypothetical property of as  a l l which wakes I t a s e t t e r lubricant than another o i l of the same v i s c o s i t y .  I t Is the only difference between  good* >>oor and a©n~lubrtoa»t»«  Lord Saylei^h la 1916 (Pail* Kag* 3 . 6 . Yoi.SS* ll*I*J# *m Sfttl studied the action of a glass b o t t l e e l i d i n g on an inclined g l a s s plane*  Ha noticed that for  • *ry* clean plate the b o t t l e s l i d quits e a s i l y ;  but  when he breathed on the p l a t e or flooded I t with water* tfea #j|gU» earns lag s l i p wae much greater*  On evaporation  of the moisture he obtained h i s original values*  2 hen he  tried the same experiment asiag paraffin o i l and a brass plate l a which he obtained similar r e s u l t s to those with water*  the conclusion* drawn frosa these determinations  was that tha f r i c t i o n was greater* thelarger the awount o lubricant present* and that in the dry s t a t e the plate had a t h i s film af about 10 "* 4 HUU in sorbed onto i t s surface*  thiatoaeas ad-  Shis film levered the f r i c t i o n  a large asoant. «Tast before he performed the above «e*k ^ord ftstfletgh went into an involved mathematical discussion of  -  * -  the subject which Is given la detail la tho Philosophical Hagasino. 3»d» Vol.35, (1918J, p.l. For two platas tho conclusion drawn wa« that whore  »/$• S 7 a P • h * a s  4.091 h/e friction pressure distance between platea length of upper and shorter plate.  Co) fti YtiflWaty fl»onr» Prof. 0. Faaai at Settlagan (a* phy*lk.ahea.e6, Un*U  9P* *?»•**) foand that the viscosity of ether,  carbon bisulphide and ethyl, alcohol iacreased enormously far proseare» of £.000 atmosphere*,  4a shown by H.li.  Martin (2>roe. rhys.3eo.¥ol.32, {1919~*Q) p. lis), it was believed, that la a aaae of imperfect lubrication, wear was das to a concentration of the lead In a few spots of Halted area, tans giving a very high pressure oa the oil film.  This eaased a rise la the vleeoeity of the oil. whloh  would then prevent metal to metal contact. Jhis led to the theory that animal and vegetable oils were batter lubricants than aiaeral oils la easts of Imperfect lubrication, because it was Believed that the viscosity ef ths latter did not increase as ouch as the former under pressure.  This view was overthrown In 1919.  by f, 3. Stanton. L. ^rohbatt and J. 0. Southooabe (Snginee ring 108 # (1919) pp. 759-60) in measureaeats of the traneaisslon of power through a warm gear.  ?hey found  that, contrary to the above theory* an Increase in pressure to 900 atmospheres raised the viscosity of animal and vegetable oils four fold, and that of mineral oils sixteen fold*  2his showed that viscosity- could not he the only  factor in lubrication* •?hey noticed th&t there was very little change in the efficiencies of aniraal and vegetable oils with a rise in temperature* but that It was accompanied by a rapid fall for mineral oils*  X% was found that this fall In the  latter could be prevented by the addition of small amounts of fatty aelds* From these results ©illness was believed to be due to chemical affinity between the metal surfaces and the lubricant* (d)  ?fto Pce^ey Haohtat. *• *m Lesley (Proo. I»hyo. Soo* Vol. SI, (1919-20)*  9* 1 S«) concluded from the &bove investigation, that the property of oillness would show up best, by measuring the statio coefficient of friction for oils between different metal surfaaos*  For this purpose he constructed what is  now known as the Deeley Machine»  •  - e _2  Q  B  f a l s xaaehiae ooaaiated of a saaooth, flat* olreular plat** 4 . of any deaired s e t a ! , whloh oould be rotated at varioae epe«de» of adjustable weight*  OB i t r e s t s aaofcher p l a t e , B,  2aia plate 1» supported by three  eaall ho»i*phsrleal pegs of any taetal.  Whoa A i» rotated,  B i s dragged aloag at the ease apeed by the f r l a t i e a between the two aotal aurfasea, a a t i l the torque set ap la the o&librated epriag, Q9 overeoaes the resiataaoo to slip*  2o 3 la attached a polator, J>, whioh indieatea on  a epeolal aoale the a o e f f i o i e a t of f r i o t i o a ,  *»at at the  polat where a l l p oaeura the indicator giwea the ooeffioieat of a t i t l e f r l a t l o a , aad froa thoa oa the ooeffioieat of kinetics frlotloa»  2© get auy ooaaisteat reaulte with thia  aaohlao, i t haa been feand aeoesaary to rewov© the l a s t  - 9 traces of water. Beeley noticed, that with this machine for clean surfaces without any lubricant, the coefficient of static friction gets greater and greater as the surfaces are rubbed en each other*. For aild steel en oast iron, his coefficient at first was 0,164. while after running for tea minutes he got a value 0.417. He found very little difference between static and kinetic friction* but observed * marked differ ens* in the friction of the sane ell when need on different metals* fhis dissimilarity is •hews i« the following table*  Kind of  en  ft*B,31eelc e l l Bayoano e l l Typewriter o i l I l e t o r y Hod o i l ?*?*? .cylinder o i l llano has tor spindle o i l Oastor e l l Talvoline cylinder o i l sperm e l l trotter oil Olive e l l Hape e l l  a u u  m  n M U H B II  r  B A A 7 7  Mild Steel  0.275 0*234 0,294 0*246 0*236 0,262 0.189  0.271 0.213 0.211 0.196 0*193 0.183 0*183 0*143 0*127 0*123 0*119 0*119  M m mineral oil? V • vegetable oil; B m -blended oil  Mild Steel on  o.ieo 0.152 0.196 0*136 m  animal oil  ?hls table brings out the fact that Bape and Olive oils are the best lubricants* with mineral oils the worst* and castor oil about half way in between*  Hape  - 10 aad O l i v e o l i o aee* to redaee the f r l e t l e a the aa»e aoMMt f o r » l i d a t e a l 01 oaat l r e a . h t  the f o m e r to  b e t t e r w i t h a l l d a t e e l oa load b r o n t e . r r e a theee r e a u l t a . Peelay ooaoladed t h a t tho e e e f f l o l e a t o f e t e t l o f r l e t l e a v a r l e e aot o a l j w i t h the l a b r l e a a t , h a t also v i t a the a * tola l a eontaot*  There f o r a ,  ellftaeae v e a l d appear to be aa o f f o o t o f the a l l apoa the a e t a l a a r f a e e a , r a t h e r thea aay phyeloal p r o p e r t y o f the l a b r l o a a t l t a e l f .  ? M t , ha belteved.waa aao to tho  eaeevaretea ae l e e * l e e o f tho l a b r l o a a t oa t o r i at* l a t a a f i r * payolao-ohoaleel maloa w i t h tho a o t a l  earfaeee,  t h a t f o r a l a f a f r l o t l e a r e d * o l a g aedlea oeapeaed o f  oil  aad a « t a l , v h l e h v e a l d appoar to ba aero than a a o l o o a l o l a thlekaeaa. (•I  aaral*! Mtlhjj m l  jajilU.  hardy d e t e r a l a e d tha a t e t l o f r l o t l a a by a e a a a r l n g tha fovea aeoeaeary to a t a r i a healephere a l l d l a g 9r»r  a aaooth p l a t a .  la Lebrleatlea". p . It)  l a b l a a r t l o l e , "A Arabian  ( J o a n , o f * e o * Jhea. l a d . V o l * 3 8 . ( 1 * 1 1 ) ,  ha ototoo t h a t , " w i t h a t r a e l a b r l e a a t tha  faalllty  f a r a l l p p l a g l a a e a l a a l when a l a y a r of soob axoosslra t a a a l t y oaparataa tha a a l l d faaaa t h a t a a t h l a a l a aalaed by l a o r e a a t a c tha thlekaeaa o f tho l a y o r " . faaaa to ho aboat I i 10 *  T  Thla f l l a ha  a a . l a thlahasaa.  Ba v e r i f i e d  - 11 this statement by showing that some liquids were better lubricants in thin than in thiolc layers, as shown by the following results for glass on glass.  Liquid  Film  Acetic Acid Sulphuric Acid Aleie Acid  Pull in grams Flooded  40 Vt 10  47 47 13  He believed this indicated that lubrication depends wholly on the chemical constitution of the liquid, and that films being better lubricants, pointed to the fact that lubrication is accomplished by a fluid adsorbed onto the solid face. In a paper published by the saae investigator in 1919, (Phil. Mag. Vol. 38, (1919), p. 32)  it was  pointed out that there is a variation in the surface energy at an interface between two liquids and a composite surfaoe, which Is closely related to the chemical constitution of these substances.  If this interface is  formed by chemical forces, we would expect that they could be saturated or neutralized.  1?his seems to be the  action of a lubricant in reducing the cohesion and resistance to slip between two surfaces.  - 12 Hard/ also found evidence of orientation of tho molecules of a lubricant, because at an Interface the sompoundi, such as, acids, bases -tnd asters, ah! oh produce the greatest surface energy changes are readily polarltall*. This orloatation of molecules at oarfaces was also pointed oat by Lengmalr. (Journ. Am. 3hen>. Joe. Vol. 56, (1916), p. 2221; vol.39, (1917), p.1646) According to Kardy, the theory of static friotlon which heat suits these facts Is that friction It dae to cohesion between the Dotal surfaces. 'Hm B. Hnrdy and *da Doubleday (Proa* Uoyal Joe. ?el. 110 A, March 1922, p. 560) carried oat numoroas experiments in the  field of Boundary fabrication,  from which they case to the following conclusions: (1)  that variation in the weight of the sliding hemisphere did not affoot their results,  (2)  that variation in the radius of curvature of the hemisphere had no effect  (3)  that for eteol, bismuth and rubbed quarts a change in temperature had no appreciable effect, U'rcc. ^oyal Joo, Vol. 1 0 1 A , Sept. 1922, p. 46?) However, it wis actlooc that for glaseand oloan quarts, a rise In temperature lowers tho coefficient of friction. ?h« low valae obtained waa retained on cooling to the original temperature. ?hoy also found that for a lubricant, which is solid over part of the ran-re of temperature, there Is a rapid drop to a very lew value Just below and at the melting point, while Just above the melting point there Is a sadden rise to a constant value.  - 13 (4}  t h a t the thlekaosa of the filra did not of foot the f r i c t i o n providing there was enctj^a of the l a b r i c a n t present t o cover the whole s u r f a c e . *?he f r i c t i o n * however, gradually diminished as the concentration of the l u b r i c a n t increased, u n t i l a Btlnitatua was reached, when f u r t h e r conc e n t r a t i o n produced no change.  IB)  t h a t an equation, such a s , « s h - aE f i t t e d each oheigjqel a e r i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d a c c o e f f i c i e n t of s t a t i c f r i c t i o n % « Hcolecular weight of l u b r i c a n t c s a e e a s t a a t dependent on t h e cbesloal type of the s e r i e s . h * a constant dependent on the chenieal nature ef the s o l i d s u r f a c e s . I t was noticed that the f r i c t i o n for the  sarae l u b r i c a n t Varied when applied to d i f f e r e n t  solid  substances, for s t e e l gave a higher c o e f f i c i e n t  than  bismuth, hat lower than f?laas.  In the case of Eietala,  the f r i c t i o n wee found to vary d i r e c t l y as the hardness., while two d i f f e r e n t aaetals on each o t h e r gave values intenaedl&te to those for each metal on i t s e l f . In the «Jouraal of the Jhenioal Society for December 1922 i p . 2875}, Uimm Ida Poubleday gives an account of setae E»easure©ents which s h e stade of the coe f f i c i e n t of s t a t i c f r i c t i o n for a a e r i e s of a p t i e a l l y a c t i v e e a r b i n o l s {3% H§ OHOH OJJ Ha« t U *  She found  t h e i r l u b r i c a t i n g p&ser te be Independent of the sign of r o t a t i o n * o r of any s p i r a l arrangement of the carbon atoas.  - 1* Th* Fourth Sepert on aollold ahe&istry (British Association for Advancement of iolenee (1922J, p. 185} contains an article by '• B. Hardy, In which he Indicates the affect of chemical constitution on the va3 «e of the coefficient of friction for pare liquids, when measured with Bismuth on Bismuth*  In some chemical series, such  as, the paraffins and benzenes, the static friction »aa shown to be a linear function of the molecular weight. In other series the effect of molecular weight was overshadowed by that of chemical const!tatica. However, if he went high enough in any staple series of chain compounds, e*g* aloohols and fatty acids, he found a good lubricant, except in the ease of the aliphatic esters* It also became evident, that similar changes in the molecular structure of ring and chain compounds produced opposite effects en the two series*  He ring compound  was encountered which proved to he a really good lubricant. Hardy found that atoms placed symmetrically about a central careen atom produced very bad lubriaants, an example being carbon tetra chloride. ?he only generalisation whiah he could draw in the ease of bismuth on bismuth, was that the addition of a single VB. group to a molecule increases its lubricating power. However, a second or third group diminishes the effect of the firsts  Single -OH groups on a  ring or  - 13 oloaed chain aoapound appeared to bo sore effective than on an open chain. ^iso when he replaced Cl by H, or S by 3Hg  it)  a better lubricant was obtained.  Pggftptta af ..WriaaUfttt 3.B a Bgartaff l o b e r t B*  i l s o n and Daniel P . Barnard UTcurn*  Imd» and Bng. 3heta. Vol. 14, Mo.8  Aug* 1922, p.68£)  •bowed froo experiments on a f r i c t i o n ^oaraal t e s t i n g naohlne* t h a t for any bearing there a r e three regions of l u b r i c a t i o n , namelyi (al  4 region of flnid filis l u b r i c a t i o n where the o c t a l surfaces a r e held a p a r t by a perfect filss of l i q u i d . Here v i s c o s i t y l a of p r i s e importance, t h e o i l l n e e e of the l u b r i c a n t and the n a t u r e of the a e t a l having no e f f e c t •  (b)  4 region of p a r t i a l l u b r i c a t i o n where the stetnl surfaces a r e i n c l o s e contact with each other* S e r e , we a r e not concerned with t h e v i s c o s i t y of the l u b r i c a n t , but «| tfc i t s o i l l n e s s and t h e n a t u r e Of the bearing ttetal*  (o)  4 c r i t i c a l point Just between those two regions which i s lowered by an Increase i n the o i l l n e s s of a l u b r i c a n t , and i s affected by the n a t u r e of the bearing raet&l. Proa these r e s u l t s i t appears t h a t t h e ordinary  Journal f r i c t i o n t e a t i a g sutoh ine operates i n region & thus being nothing acre than a rougb viscometer*  fhis  was d e f i n i t e l y proven by Wiaslow H* Hereohel (3bea# * Set* Sng* Vol. 28, 3Jo* 1 3 , March 1923, p . 5 9 4 ) .  - 16 ~ W  AtlWPtg fco i n s u r e c i l i n a s s by ?arlcu« Mathads v/llsoa and latttard {dearn* lad.  . ffti—,  ?*** t** I e . 8 , 4.ngr« 19££» p.. 663} give as account of several different methods whiah they usod In an attempt to measure c l l i n e s o * Beeley'a method was employed f i r s t * because with i t both the s t a t i c and k i n e t i c f r i c t i o n s ooaid be -.hair conclusions were that* (11 (2)  **• k i a e t l e f r l o t l e a i s lower than the s t a t i c jfjftatioa far metals thare t» a continuous change from s t a t i c to kinocio f r i c t i o n  $Ml  ftowmmv en the bearing had far? l i t t l e affect  |4l  Aaimal sad Ve&e table o i l s have a lower c o e f f i c i e n t ©f f r i c t i o n than refined >rsl o i l s  (ft!  the addition of a easel 1 emetrnt af fatty aold # or a aoaalftar&bly larger ameaat af a neutral v© X© o i l to a mineral oll» predness a «arkad lowering af the c o e f f i c i e n t of f r i c t i o n .  (6)  the maximum dlfTerence on metal aurfaoes between the f r i o t i e * af different o i l s Is s^t sera v e l o c i t y . This would s a f e s t the eaafflatant of s t a t i o f r i c t i o n to be • the best s i n g l e measurement af ©Illness* fhey considered o I l l n e s s ta ha due to a  tenatieusly adsorbed film of the lubricant to the metal snrfaees, the presence of which diminishes or prevents Hiatal to metal contaot.  ?ho a b i l i t y of t h i s film to  - 17 withstand t h e high and prolonged pressures to wljich i t I s exposed without being squeeaed out would i n d i c a t e that i t was s o r e than ssonft-aolecular aad saore of the nature of a p l a s t i c solid than of a l i q u i d . 7h&y next used Laagouir's Inclined Plane Method with s i m i l a r r e s u l t s to those obtained above. However, p-*orec~el, which i s known to lower t h e surface tension of watar*. did not give a low c o e f f i c i e n t of friction*  ?his shows that an adsorbed f l l a can not be  the only n e c e s s i t y of a l u b r i c a n t and that i t s chemical structure vast have  SONS  effect*  ?fcls i s brought eat  l a the following t a b l e . — '  • ii  * w i »  S t a t i c F r i c t i o n Measurements I n c l i n e d Plaae itsthod Spherical Segment S l i d e r .. Lead m 100  on. 31yoorol V e l o a i t e "B" o i l V e l o e l t e »B" + z£ S t e a r i c acid 7 e l o e i t e "B- -r £,l Irea 3 tearate Heutral l a r d o i l V e l o e l t e *B* r &,l p - c r e s o l V e l o e l t e «*" t r e a t e d twice with Fe by M  i n e f f i c i e n t of F r i c t i o n Speculum Speculum ^ l l o y on ^ t e e l ©a Spec- 3 on Jtael xmmm ., 0*20 0*20 0 . 173 0.152 o*isa 0.120  0.121  0.123  0*120 0.125 a.186  0.120 0.126 0*178  0.09S a • a *> a •  0*190  o.ieo  a a a a a  - 18 Measurements of the lowering of the surfaoo tension between l u b r i c a n t s and mercury were alao made. Mercury was used codetta© I t la the only pare metal in the l i q u i d s t a t e under ordinary c o n d i t i o n s .  From t h i s  they only found t h a t t h s lowering of t h e surface tension indicated a tendency for some substance to concentrate oa a o c t a l s u r f a c e , and t h a t the film formed was a s o l i d f a t h e r than a f l u i d , and of c o l l o i d a l r a t h e r than jaoleonlar dimensions* 4 method was then devised to measure the e l e e t r i o s l r e s i s t a n c e of an adsorbed f i l m .  2hey took  two hardened, polished s t e e l surfaces sad held theia firmly together by a d e f i n i t e p r e s s u r e , while t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e was mm&auT*4 by means of a wheatstone bridge* fhen the surfa#ea were exposed to some o i l and t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e again measured.  Xt was notioed, that the  lender the faces were kept In contact with the o i l , up te a period of about twenty-four h o u r s , th© higher was the r e s i s t a n c e o b t a i n e d .  ? h l s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t takes  sofiirt t i a e f o r en adsorbed film to build u p .  I t took  longer for the film of mineral o i l to foaa than for aa amiaal or vegetable o i l , due, i t was b e l i e v e d , to the small amount of film forming c o n s t i t u e n t s present in the former and the time I t takes for them to diffuse to t h e metal surfaces*  - 19 file rate of clogging of taetal and glass c a p i l l aries was also studied* yielding the f a c t , that on s t e e l and glass mineral o i l s gave a thicker film than lard-oil* therefore the thickness of an adsorbed film i e no i n d i e ation of the o i l i a e s s of a lubricant.  ?he films in the  capillary tuboa proved to be of the order of 0*1 mm* in thickness*  She  film forming tendency of o i l s which had  been f i l t e r e d through F u l l e r ' s Barth was the same as before the treatment* f i n a l l y an attempt v&s made to separate the " o i l i a e s s " of a lubricant by treating It with very finely divided iron formed by the reduction with hydrogen of a ferric hydroxide gel at 450° 3. 2his iron seemed te adsorb to I t s e l f e l l the film lb rains constituents of the e l l leaving behind an inferior lubricant as shown by the table em page ^7 *&d by the following* Original concentration of s t e a r i c acid in o i l , percent  0.S0  j  S t e a r i o a e l d l e f t a f t e r t r e a t i n g 50 gms* e f s o l a * with 10 gtsa* of reduced Iron S t e a r i c a c i d removed per gta*  0*28  f iron.  spas*  0.016  In the bibliography are listed quite a number of other recent articles on the subject which come to about the same conclusions as the above*  - 20 -  \alaal and Vegetable olio are known to ooaeiat of eatera of the flyaerll *roup -33 H3. eoaponada of the for* aold radlele.  ?hle glvea  33 H3 * 3 , whore H la the fatty  la aolld fits, stearin and Palaltla pro-  doalaate, while In llqaida, wo nanally find u 1 .!•<{• mount of Clein.  ?ho ooapoeitlon of thoae ooaaon eatera lot  Trijlyoeryl Stoarate -  J3  H5  ( 0 3je H35 0 ) 3  ?rl glyceryl Palaltato -  03  H6  ( 0 ; 16 H 3l 0 ) a  frlglyeeryl oloato -  1) Us  ( 0 ^16 H33 °*S  3pera oil ooataiaa oatera of mono- and trl-valont aloohola iaetead of glyoeril. mineral olio* on the other hand, are hydrooarbona, the ultimate otruotnro of whloh very little la known*  Dunatan and ?hole (Journal of the Inatltutloa of  Potrolena Teoaaologleta, Yol. IV, (1918),pp. 191-220) oay that all mineral oils whloh are good lubrlonnta oontain unsaturated aoleouloa.  They alao atnte thati  "la  no oaao haa the ohoaloal oonetltotion of a aoapound of a lubrioating oil boon eetubllahod, but the ohemloal bonavloar of thooo olio lndloite that aoong the ooopononto are nnaatorated hydrooarhona {poeelbly open ohaln, bat aore probably aaphthonlo aad polynnolear,  or perhapa  both typea), oataratod hydrooarbeaa (aapthonio aad  *  -. 21 probably to some extent polynuolear. but not to any appreciable extent paraffiaold)* and aromatic hydrooarboas (to aa unknown and possibly a limited extent)* saturated compounds constitute between cent* Of fssost lubricating oils*  2he un-  20 and 40 per  It appears then, that the  true lubricant is an unsaturated compound, possessing all the attributes of such a compound, i. o*t (1)  Capacity to absorb Iodine* broialna, oxygen and so on.  {£) Sol ability In strong Sulphuric /.old. {5}  Bigier l/ti  ratio th&u  the saturated derivative*  ^Apparently the same facts hold ^oed la regard to fatty lubricants*  Bapo oil* castor oil and olive oil  contain in their sjcleoulos double bonds, and are superior to enoh a saturated product as, for example, tallow. *»!» recent years the progress of organic chemistry has largely been due to the realisation that ansaturntlon, or the possession of residual affinity, plays aa all important part In the reactivity and the very personality of a oompownd*  Colour, odour, tagto.  physiological activity* and* in a word, all the characteristlo properties of bodies are influenced by this condition*  It appears now that ??e stay add lubricating  ability to the already long list of effects proceeding from this one prise cause.  cause of 3 re •  ¥•  led J e l l o l d concentrate Isorbtioa* Thole say is to the late gory of . I the d i e » ae th« irded an co-exists ting o i l spended in •no tare*"  0  rk done  oh to ose I Btof seed  three a solid -, -  ground g l a s s , t o p .  . ^ r ^ ^ r ^ t t t l ng,  ?he stetal p l a t e ased I s neasurlag  - 22 Another view held by some as to the cause of oiliness of lubricants is their colloidal nature* '*• Ostwald (Introduction to theoretical and ...polled aolloid Jheralstry, 1917} says that a colloid tends to concentrate on the surfaces, the phenomena being called adsorbtion. In their article mentioned above Bunstan and Thole say thatj  "Recent work on colloid ohemlstry points to the  fact that heavy oils must be Included in the category of . ieo-colloids, i.e., polyphase systems in which the disperse component is ef the sane chemical nature as the dispersion Medium,  ^ust as water Must be regarded as  a system in which molecules,such as, (S2 Q)~ with simple  H2 0  co-exists  molecules, so la a lubricating oil  the dlsperee phase is a molecular aggregate suspended in a dispersion medium of simpler and similar structure."  From consideration of the previous work done one this subject it was decided In this research to use the method employed by .v. B. Hardy.  She apparatus used  is shown in Plate I. it consists of a glass case set on a three legged levelling stand, which in turn rests on a solid table* She glass ease Is covered by a tightly fitting, ground glass, top.  ?he metal plate used In measuring  - 23 the coefficient of static case by  friction ia placed Inside the  smsas of a pair of tongs, after which, the  apparatus is carefully levelled.  Ca the plate is set a  spherical segment of any desired Metal*  *hie is connected*  by means of a fine thread over a veil balanced pulley running on ball bearings, to a beaker into which mercury is run In a very fine stream front a burette*  When the  weight of the beaker becomes great enough the hemisphere is pulled along the plate*  &t the instant movement is  first noticed the stream of mercury is Immediately shut off*  Then the beaker is detached and weighed, to the  second decimal place* with that part of the string which Is below the pulley. During all the experiments a stream of carefully dried and filtered air was passed through the apparatus by means of a water pressure ptu;p. ?hla precaution was taken to prevent the cleaned plate from •*»ortlng a film of grease from the atmosphere, the drying and filtering of the air was accomplished by passing it through six wash bottles of concentrated sulphuric acid* an absorption tower containing solid sodium hydroxide, two tubes of phosphorous pentoxide and finally a tube of glass wool. as well as acting  ?he sulphuric acid,  as a drying agent, took up a con-  siderable amount of dust from the air ana was renewed  -  24  -  whenever i t became dark l a c o l o r .  ?he purpose of the  Sodium Hydroxide wa» to prevent any aulphuric acid spray from b e i n g c a r r i e d through. M m o i l UQ«, ffnoountared, A s c a l e pan on which weights were placed was firstt used t o determine the f o r c e necessary to cause taoveaent, but proved u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  2his was due to  the i n e v i t a b l e j a r caused by adding and removing t h e w e i g h t s , which s t a r t e d the hemisphere sieving too s o o n , t h i s d i f f i c u l t y woe overcome by r e p l a c i n g the s c a l e pan w i t h a beaker i n t o which a f i n e stream of mercury was run u n t i l t h e n e c e s s a r y weight was o b t a i n e d .  ?he  weight e f the beaker and mercury was then found fcy weighing en a b a l a n c e . Sue s t e e l p l a t e s and h e m i s p h e r e s * f i r s t used, and were mild s t e e l A c a u s e d a great deal e f t r o u b l e by not g i v i n g any c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s s e shewn by the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s i n t a b l e I*  Mild S t e e l 34.23 S0.14 4S.12 32,72 87.78  3?ull i n 3 r a » s . (Bry Surfaces} Hand fool J t e e l 75.69 7$.3£ 77.20 77.00 7d.47  - 2$ In t M i 3i,io a a seal fcotaisphoro of 214 ipsa* i a weight •*»« usod tee a dry s t e e l plat©*  ft*© t r o a b l e  was) elissiastod 'by g e t t i n g a p l a t e of hard tool s t e e l whiah %ns of t h e iaB9 aosipeaition as th# faeiai s p h e r e . ~hi» asw p l a t e g©ve iM»ry l i t t l e trouble freta jrastlag a f t e r i t wa* alenned where an the e t h e r s rusted v©ry readily.  2ke r e s u l t s for t h e ae® p l a t e a r e a l s o given  i n t a * l e I* J l e a a i a g the p l a t e s and hemispheres turned out t e « e A 4 1 f f l a n l t task*  2he p l a t e s «ere .ground by  rubbing two of thara together with very f i n e eaery and water*  ?h<s etaer? was then reaowed and the p l a t e polished  ey m e h i a g with a fresh aorlr l a clean flawing water* a f t e r whieli t h e p l a t e wae rufchsd vigorously by the fiagera -with a l i t t l e inure snap l a the running »**«* u n t i l a alingla& feeling- was produced*  hen the p l a t e  was elean water weald ©ever i t s e n t i r e ettrfaee*  the  r e a l t e s t for a eleaji etfTfeee i s a oatiatant walae for fcfie oeeffioieat ei* f r i c t i o n whl3h ana b« reproduced* After cleaning the p l a t e was plaeee i n the glass ease ;m& dried by a rapid atreara of dry a i r *  She hemisphere  was aieaned aad d r i e d in a e i & i l a r manner* hen s o l u t i o n s of S t e a r i n Asia l a Liquid fetrol&tuo  ware need t h e fejsser s o l i d i f i e d an* and  aould net he leapt i n s o l u t i o n *  i*his  riiifioaity  wee  - 26 surnounted by p l a c i n g an o l e i t r i o r n d l a t l m h e a t e r next tha T I I S B o a i e t so tha teiroernture could ba kept h i j h enough to s a l t tha 3 t e a r i o * o l d .  Howtter, for s o l u t i o n s  o?«r t h i r t y par o o n t . s t o . i r i o aoid tha teraporature e a l not high enough s o recourse was had to d i l u t e other solutions.  ?he a t a a r i o aoid and l i q u i d p o t r o l a t u n war*  hen tea l a a f l a n e and thoroughly n i x e d .  \ ssmll p o r t i o n  of t h i s s o l u t i o n was d i s s o l T a d In sons a t h e r which was poured onto tba p i at a and allowed to evaporate, ihlm a left^wery t h i n f i l m on tha p l a t a on whioh measurements aoald ba aa&e*  3trrt«titan rha feroa necessary to oanaa tha string to BOTC  ewer tha pulley whan it was loaded was found to ba  0*5 gas*  fhia amount has bean subtracted frost all tha  values given in this artiole.  c A oouroe of error a r l s o s in tha angle *B3 over tha p u l l e y not b e i n g a r i g h t a n g l e thus oanalng a vary s l i g h t l i f t i n g atotlaa on tha hemisphere,  'fha angle  SUA was measured by taking two p o i n t s tan inches apart d l r e o t l y beneath the thread on tha t a b l e and measuring  - 2? the difference in height of the string at point* above the ends of the l i n e , in.  fhis difference *?as found to average 0,29  which gives for the tangent of the angle BAQ a value  0.029.  HJhis the angle BA3 1B 1° 43*.  a© the value of the  desired force A3 equals «.£. cos BAG • AB X 0.9996, whloh gives a negligible oouireotion and therefore has been omitted.  tftl Bfttit U ) ti.Ufll OB Stttfl(1)  Measurements were first made to determine  the force necessary to oause steel to move on dry steel ?he coefficient of friction was calculated by means of Anontons* equation*  Full in Oram*  fhe results are given in Table 11.  for ;3teel on 3 tool (firy) Joefficlent of Static  75.69 76.3,2 77,20 77.00 76.4? AT.  0.353? 0.3567 0.3606 0.3596 0.3573 0.3576  ?he weight of the steel hemisphere used throughout ell the determinations was 214 gms.  'riotion  •  U ) 3 t e e l on a t — 1 -  28  -  (cost)  U i ) \Ui<3 AflU ~ 2»he c o e f f i c i e n t  of s t a t i c f r i c t i o n  for s t e e l  en s t e e l , u s i n g l i q u i d p e t r o l a t u m with v a r i o u s p e r c e n t ages e f o l e i o a c i d a s a l u b r i c a n t , was n e x t measured* t h e l i q u i d was a p p l i e d to t h e p l a t e by d e a n s of a c l e a n g l a s s t u b e i n such a n o u n t s t h a t t h e hemisphere s t o o d i n a visible film.  The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d a r e g i v e n i n 2able.  XXI and t h e i r a v e r a g e s p l o t t e d i n  3raph X.  ?A£L3 XXI• S t e e l on S t e e l , o i e l e Acid 0,i c i s i o *oid 0 . 6 5 5 Liquid P e t r o l a t u s 99.35/* L i q u i d r e t r o l a tun 100.1  .  55.86 55.00 56.67 55.48 50.76  0.2507 0.2607 0.2601 0.2592 0.2606 AY.Q.2599  O l e i c Aold 0 . 9 7 ^ L i q u i d P e t r o l a t u n 99.03/5  46.93 47.18 47.56 45.97 47.40  0.2193 0.2205 0.2223 0.2146 0.2216 AV.0.2197  O l e i o Acid 1.73,S Liquid P e t r o l a t u m 9 6 . 2 7 * y  43.14 42.64 43.56 44*19 43.86  0,2016 0.2002 0.2036 0.2063 0.2040 AV.0.2033  41.60 40.51 41*56 40.14 40.29  0*1946 0.1693 0.1942 0.1675 0.1682 .V , 0 . 1 9 0 0  •  ~fe  1  rrr^ —  u.  :r  ..__:r -_-"  -  ™  -  _  -  -  -  _  -  :  -:... --  '.:..: —.-  _:.:::-.-  1 ;  r1—  4444 1  .  -  .  .  .  '  :  .  _  •4  i :  •:-  .  •  •  •  •  •  •  —i V  1  ! 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L r ..... _  P*-  7414 -"  •  —-" ;'  ^  7-77.74 IP747 ~ ™ . 4  O.ZZOO  _  •  O.Z600 (E=r i  :z_r.t::::.  :  ;T~4 :_.:.-  _  :  44  ^..  7--7777:  ;  1 —  77 :;:.-:../  -__---.- -  ==z —  ~  11  -  477.4:  • i  - -  ;_  :.::--..:.  - 4 4 .": : 777:4  --;. .... .. •  -  -  .  :  .  "  --:r*.--r  777(477  ....  :._ .:.:_:: .~:";";'-:~ :::.::,.::- .  4 4 4 4 4:477" 4 7 7 7 4  -?°  Grt>1PH 1.  30  •  Br ^"+i  -----  i '  1 .._:•;._ - - — -:-S JT_ -.- : L ...:.:..: .  "  {j -:::•-!•.. '  •  4 4 - 4 7 : 777:----- 77:;.-:.: 7: 747: •7 77:::::. : . . . - .  .7  ''  -::. I ""Hi: | ; 4 7 4 7  ._;. 1 . ] | |  ^ L  m;~^mmm  40  .::..:•:••  7^7447  JO  60  : —  29 ?*.BLS  Ill.toont.  Stool t >n 3tool. cloi o -aid 31.79,.» Ololo i.old 3.33/J Liquid Potrolatua 67.21.» Liquid Potrolatua 96*67,* a  3  41*67 41*30 42*21 41*01 41*79  1.1947 0*1991 0.1969 0.1916 0.1961 ±•.0.1943  Ololo aola 60.99,5 Liquid Potrolatua 39.01* -*  37.99 97*06 96*90 97*99 37*94  «  0.1776 0*1732 0.1780 0*1796 0.1749 ,.•.0.1746  m {mil l a (jramo  to)  u  •-*  36*29 37.26 38.22 36.80 38.49  0.1787 0.1741 0.1786 0.1720 0*1799 «.•.0.1767  Cloi 0 *oId 100 * Liquid Potrolatuo 0,» u  ft' 36.77 39.72 38.66 37.21 39.04  0.1012 0.1836 0.1806 0.1749 0.1624 .**• 0.1609  u m oooffioiont friotion  of  statio  j t i f t r U **aifl * o i a l l a r oxporiaont wno outdo,using varying  amounts of s t o a r l o aoid in l i q u i d petrolatum, a l no tho o f f o o t o f tho unoatnratoti bond.  to  rt  otor-  ?ho r o o u l t o aro  givon l a fablo IT and tho aoora t ;oo plot tod i n ttrayh I .  -  30  -  *A5LB •"  ".I  IV.  i  i i  fei*l n  ! •  •  .  »  . i-....  3t«*l •  S t e a r i o A* 1 4 0 . 4 2 * Liquid P e t r o l a t u m 99.56,3  S t e a r i o AOld 0 . 9 7 / 1 L i q u i d P e t r o l a t u m 9 9 , 03,5 •  i 49.96 49.31 51.11 49.99  a  W  0.2334 0.2304 0.2300 0.2336 AT. 0.2341  48*06 46.06 48.03 40.61  S t a a r l e Aoid 2 * 7 3 i L l q a i d P e t r o l s tout 9 7 . 2 7 4 1  a 0.2263 0.2284 0.8246 0.2272 AT. 0 . 2 2 7 1  •  '  s t e a r i c Aold S.76(l L i q u i d P e t r o l a t u m 9 4 .,Z&& £J  «  !  '' t» .'  •  43.63 44.16 44.81 44.02 44.90  S t e a r l e Acid 54.99,1 L i q u i d P e t r o l a t u m 4 5 . 01,4  S t e a r i c AC I d 2 4 . 3 , 2 Liquid Petrolatum 75.7,1 ¥  43.76 44.61 44.34 44.01 43.50  »  a  ''in  •u  43.57 42.76 43.46 42.36 43.16 ether eolation  0.2045 0.2064 0.2072 0.2056 0.2033 AT. 0 . 2 0 5 6 i i l i . i l in"  0.1990 0,2010 0.1977 0.2050 0.1970 AT.0.2000  42.56 43.00 42.32 43.87 42.15  0.2X85 0.2064 0.2095 0.2057 3.2098 AT. 0 . 2 0 9 0  II  i l l  i  in  '  i  0.2036 0.1999 0.2031 0,1979 0.2016 AT. 0 . 2 0 1 2  '  I  "  i"  i' "  I I  'i <  i  '  " "i  31 * SAJJLS I?„ (Oont.) 3t*ario j i c i d 1 0 0 $ Liquid Petrolatuia 0% W  «  82.01 82.77 33,35 33.32 ether  0.1495 0.1531 0.1553 0.1557 AV. 0.1535  eolation  4  2he of foot o f the a d d i t i o n o f an • • t o r to a oil Mineral .was s t u d i e d by melag Tarious a u o a n t a of j;rjl fintyrate  i n Llqald r«trolatn& with the r e s u l t * g i v e n In  ? a » l « 7 ana p l o t t e d i n Graph I I .  SPOT  U. xr-r.  O.2600  Q  X: > V*  0-ZZOQ  Wo*  0.1&00  O-WOO  :;. ••  =£  mO-IOOO  0-0600  I LTLQ ^J r 1  o ozoo  G8/?PH IT.  • 32 m fABLB Steel on Amy I Butyrate 1*06,* Liquid Petrolatum 98.94,i  54»se  54.11 53*92 54*19 53*96  ?. steel. imyl Butyrate 2*19 I Liquid Petrolatum 97. ei,£  0.2550 0.2529 0*2520 0*2532 0*2583 AT* 0*2533  52*23 52*53 51.61 52.66 51.12  0.2440 0.2454 0.2412 0.2461 0.2389 AT. 0 . 2 4 3 1  A»yl Butyrate 20.33,1 Liquid ^etrolatuta 79.67>  Aayl Butyrate 8«8,i Liquid Petrolatum 9 1 . 2 1 v/ 90*01 49.29 49*08 49*76 49.99  49.16 49.34 50.08 50.63 49-99  0.2337 0*2304 0.2294 0*2326 0*2336 AT. 0 . 2 3 1 9  „Y<  Amyl Butyrate fi6«99% Liquid Petrolatum 13.01/2  4»yl Butyrate 50.49p Liquid Petrolatum 49.51,1  50.77 50.03 51.01 51.15 50.27 AT.  0.2292 0.2306 0.2340 0.2366 0.2336 0.2326  53.57 53.61 52.69 53.11 53.72  0.2373 0.2338 0.2384 0.2390 0.2349 0.2367  AT.  S=k  0.2504 0*2506 0.2471 0.2482 0.2510 0.2495  - 55 • ?ABI»E  7* ( J o n t . )  i .1 • » . i ^ •  xmfl B u t y r a t e 95 •9,1 L i q u i d Potr©latum 4 . l i  Aayl B a t y r a t e 9 7 . 3 5 J Liquid £ o t r o l a t u » 2*65,a  a J  55«7? 55*24 55.11 54.3ft  M,n  0.2560 0*2583 0*2*76 0*2541 0*255? A*.0*2565  56*22 55.72 56.60 55.96 56.31  o . 1 6«3 2 0*2604 0.2643 0.2615 0.2631 &••0.2625  •  1  Aflgrl B u t y r o t o 100 » ; L i q u i d l e t r o l a t u w j 0,> • *  «  »  55*45  ft.**  55*55 5t*55  •t.n (•)  0*27«0 0.2755 0*2755 5*5752 5*5720 Av*0.2762  * * • »fg«at of Unaaturatlon  Tlie coefficient of static friction of mineral oil e*»B different iodino nuabcrs to find the effect of unsaturated hydrocarbons. and Oraph III*  ..'he reeulte are found in 2ablo VI  -  34  -  'Sa.hUl  3*90 L.fifi ,31po.ol. O i l #78 I o d i s e S o . 20  Oil #73 I o d i n e So . 1 7  a  V  55*58 58 . 6 6 58.15 57*97 55*18  0.2728 0.2740 0.2718 0.2709 0*2719 AT* 0 . 2 7 2 5  57*55 56*51 57*42 56*57 56.25  I 1 . :• | 55 .32 55,00 55.17 56.13  56.24 58.20 56*50 58*06 58.19  Q  0.2721 0.2719 0.2724 0.2712 0.2719 AT* 0 . 2 7 1 9  u  •a  0*2695 0*2646 0.2683 0.2634 0.2629 A * . 0*2657  P o l a r i s e #2 Iodise Be. 23 y  y  2. Pelerine 5 Iodise so.  O i l #79 Iodise »o. 4 0 V  71.  ti  0.2627 0*2585 0.2570 0.2577 0*2635 AT. 0*2596  57.32 58.46 57.64 57.96 57.24  0.2679 0.2731 0.2695 0.2709 0.2675 . 0 AY . 2 6 9 7  --  1  ••-•••m4\  -; m  •  :-p-  -- ,- -  r: r  ——r+--  H  I  pi ; *  — ; ::itT:::±a ,—U4--4---WC  w  r- - -  -::.:  u^  i  .x-xxn T H r .  -  -XtV- L^-V-i-"  _  r  .... 1 .,.:  -  ... "  ..: ^ *  •  ....... f.rl  I "  O  ._...  f  h—  M  :".'....  %  •  -  -  o K5  -1:: — HE  :  - i . .:.  1:1 " --  +- j j„ 9  o o  6  6  _  •  •  .:,.... ... ,. -  4  _!.:"!'  :."u:  • — ! T !+•* *••  . '. .:.:!  -jt~-  !—.' —  Si  f i'i r  ffi j-j  /  ^^^  ::r;.;  :  '  it  "44-  J  •'•'•tstrHf^  —<  ;.:  ']••","  _  m 1m  /  /  1  •  ttr:  : ——  •*7 -  .  :  'J' •  —1—f—i—j—  :  FT 1"  .  :r:i:  Bin  i'  ;  -+—  ^—-  -  i  .  - .:s:.  _—  PPB  ' •  X"r".  5s .  •  4*4-  1 '"1 LJ— .. .. /  11  •  -  -  K  g3te?3=  .,._.  •f-i—  ^5?  !  .... ".- ._ -— :"__ ;: ...... '" .. .. :.: . —...  vrrr  .  / .... .. .  ~;TT  1,  o  j 1 ! 1"  1 '"' 1  S 3  -  •  ' "  TTTf.  [j i T  -h-r  •  •1  —1X1.-7  -H-rt-  ;  ;.i—  •4-:4  1 ! -H  l l ^ f S ten^  -  —^— •••* H -  -rt-i T • { 1 '" 1 | i'i'  Eiiiil  -  -a  1  i:  "sir '! j  jjgmT-SH-  id-.  .... r;:.. 1+ -  •  iE-"t  :•'::  •  _  -  5j 4CT  |  44...J:.'„  ." ±  &  j  o o o N  O  6  :  --  - 35 A test was also atterapted with Butyric told but bad to "be abandoned as it attacked the steel even la very dilate solutions.  (tl  Dry ->  The c o e f f i c i e n t of b a b b i t t on s t e e l with out any l u b r i c a n t was measured with d i f f i c u l t y * b a b b i t t was abraded so badly  She soft  by the hard s t e e l that-"  I t was had to get c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s with the dry surfaces* t h e wei^xt of t h e b a b b i t t hemisphere was 135.? pas*  ?he  r e s u l t s f o r dry surfaces a r e given in Table ?XX«  ?ABia m * Babbitt en Steel. Pull i» Srims |H»I|»».I«IIISMMI> I M M — J * W W — J S  Ooeffielent of Static Friction •i.Hlll|»IPiWWWli*liHW  77.52 76*80 78.00  Ui)  a*.  QU\Q  {Vryl  iWW.il<Ml.n.l««»i— II«I«.W  I • •»«•——mi — III! • » — < W — W — W t * »  0*5043 0,5126 0.5075 0.5081  »gl4 -  la order so ascertain the affeot of different a&tals on the coefficient of static friotlon of a lubricant the same solutions of oleic aoid used on the steel were tired with the babbitt.  2he results obtained are  given la fable 7111 aa* plotted in Uraph IV.  :¥\  —.. .1 ~ ' •  (1  -:.t^  •  71-&  ::•'• i ...  7-J  : .... ( - - .  .  • ~ - l  F  ••;•;••  ' tt • 444--  •  :  ~:s .  |  '  Sffl  _. . 1  • '  •  :  '  ;  :  .  "  1  &  -ti  •  - V ..'-  "  1  ' ;"  '  -  .  • •  .  :Fi : .i  |  .  !  :  ;  -  .  .  !  •  ,  :  :  1. :  1 ••  _"  i 4 -%- ;  - 1  •  \  • • "  '  i  •  ' • - ! > ' " "  •  '7~T — " : j...  r~~\—~  i  —-;  •  . |  <o_  ~" " zz: ..:'.. ..... ^ 1 — $ : '- : •  QZ&OO  •  ."i-..;•"•  - ..!  .-  i  •  1  r  1  ^ •  1  '  -  .i  i ... i .• i "  •  •  i  \  -.- j -  - .": 1 :.  i'-l ;..  ....  A 0  :  " •  ^  I  ^  O. /30O  "I  i •  .-jS: ;• ;  ;  -  a  . r:.  ..-..  •  •  .  ;  J  J ;  ;  . ..':. . .  I !  | j  -  4^. : -i  : ' :! ©  ,  .....  i •  •  .  • j i ::: ; '  i •'.  ::":'...': ' .1 'fs  '  : If  •  |  j •-  ; • • • • • • • ! '  i  i-  •  •  0.1000 £)  .:. U-'  .. '  .  !  •  •  :.  •  ./ 0  z0  Z0  GR/JPH IS  [-.':  1  4-T'^T.-'  :  £i£ ::-40  50  .  - t * S-U4-'..H-F d0  mm  •  i.  Q.tyoo i  .  .  i  -  -  .-"" .  i  •  •j .  -  :-'.  •  1  ;._L [••*  .  '  &  —  j •  —  •  •i-j' "  :  [  •  ...  :  .  ••  ,  j. . -  I ' l l i i ; -:-  •  •i ••. .......  "  .....  rrrrrt  2 •.•*—-n9—  S  •  i  ••.[••••  !•  •  "  !  ;  •  \  ••'••i ffi  : •'!  j.....  .....  1  :^5  •H  i •  :S~JL:  itS  J i; -x:"" Z-t "fh"; f*7tr Z'.TtZ. - ; - i . _:..:.  ffi  •• 1  o.zzoo  ....  •  :c f Fit IfF ^  i  -"•  •  rSt ^ " T  — ! —  ... i  '  -  .  ."  TL.:..  **»5i'l i ' ;  •  t7.  L.  :  ~T— T - T T  p £ l l is  ! . . • • •  i  i  sS  ;:  "*"."-  -1  rnrj_ — J T l j t :, zu ._). . — " * = -  -  ..  ^tft^t  ^m  i—~  1  —  • •: \ J r  ."•  •  .  "  '  1  :il  • • ' i ' .:  !  ^  V. "^ '_ — . . 3.;"^. -.; '•'.-  .. _  ~"~~T~  .".."  .V  ~~  r  ~  i  — ~ - i  :  ^  . ^ ' - -. . r ...  •1  _ j .:••  —  • •  4ft  .. :i-:_:  .1 -  ...  +tj±t| i  -:: " "•.:  f  .  .-.  IH!J  •" "f"iii -:;.  -  i  -...  .....  a 300 0  •  ,  !  :  :  ,  - . ; : -  [••-•-:•  5  0.3-9 00  !  I  ;  " . 1 ... •>.:.:  f:  - J  , . | . :.  i+ — 4:^-.  •  .  -  •  1  - 36 ?iBL3  Till.  Babbitt on Steel d o l e l o l d OS Liquid Potrolatun  100 > a  57 55 56 57 56  .72 .25 .86 .97 •95  J..37i6 0, . 3 5 9 4  .3699 3772 0.,3705 4V.0, 3705  Olftio \ o l d 0 . 9 7 * Liquid Patrolfttaa X-i  47.10 46*38 46.33 46.84 46.58  99.03,1  u  0.3064 0.3017 0.3014 0.3047 O.3031 AV* 0 . 3 0 3 5  O l e i c - o l d 3*33> Liquid P « t r o l a t u a 96.67 J ",'  42.73 43.28 43*49 43.37  O l o l o .t o l d 0 . 6 5 1 Liquid Petrolatum  vV  53*11 52.77 53.04 53*43 53.27  u  0.3455 0.3433 0.3451 0.3475 0.3465 •vv* 0*£456  0 1 * I d a o l d 1 .73,J Liquid Patrolatua  .  98 .27;*  \'  u  41.59 40*51 40.78 41*56  0.2705 0*2636 0.2753 0.2703 AT. 0 . 2 6 7 4  OXeio t o l d 3 2 . 7 9 1 L i q u i d P o t r o latUK» 67.21,*  a  0.2780 0.2616 0.2829 0.2622 J.V. 0 . 2 8 1 2  99 • 3 5 *  u  40.63 40.22 40*25  0.2643 0.2617 0.2619 «.v . 0 . 2 6 2 6 '——  - 37 ?iUBLS VIII. (Gent.) O l e i o Acid d o . 99 5 L i q u i d *>etroIatuia 3 9 . 0 l i .:  40.12 39 . 25 33.06 40,43 40.29  u 0.2610 0.2954 0.2542 0.2630 0*2621 *v. 0 . 2 5 9 1  O l e i c i void i o o | .Liquid Petrolatum IS  40.41 39.7 6 39.28 40.42 38.69  oj  a 0.2629 0.2587 0.2356 0.2629 0,2530 A** 0 . 2 5 8 6  Oleic 4old was observed to attach the babbitt when evtr 3.33 par seat* was used ia the liquid petrolatata.  7a« above results show that the coefficient ef •tatlo friotlon of mineral lubricating oils ia materially layered by the addition of fatty acids, frem the oarres far olaio and stearic acid it appears that the oheaioal constitution materially affects the degree of lowering. Beth these acids are of practically the same molecular weight the only difference being that stearic aaid eontains two mare hydrogen atoms than clele acid.  Bowerer,  the latter is unsaturated and contains one double hood which seems te be the cause of its greater effect. 2hls would Indicate that the double bond contains some residual  - 38 affinity, whioh is attracted by foroes on the srufaces of the solid, thus forming a very tenacious film. /rota the differenoe in the lowering of the friotion due to the addition of the olelo and atearlo uoids and that of the arayl butyrato it is seen that the nolooular weight of the conpound added is of priao iaportonoe* for irayi butyrate has a molecular weight of 156, while olelo and atearlo aolds It is 262*36 and 284.36. respectively, thus showing that the greater the noleoular  weight of  the substance added te the mineral oil, the sore the ooefflolent of friotion Is lowered. Also, from the curves for the aolds, it is seen that the ooefflolent of friction varies inversely as the amount of acid present, until a concentration of about five per oent of aoid Is obtained in the oil.  For greater  conoentratione of aoid there is no appreciable lowering of the ooefflolent of friction.  The -00H group of the  aoid is practically insoluble in the oil while the hydrocarbon end is vory soluble, oonoontrate  ^his causes the a d d to  at the surface of the oil so the «0)H group  is free to be adsorbed onto the metal surface.  /hen the  concentration of acid is such that tho surface of the oil contains all the molecules it can, the effect is the same as if pure acid were being used.  - S9 "Slam curve for aayl bntyrate Is an exception to this theory and none has so far been suggested to account for it.  However* when tested with different metals its  behaviour may suggest an explanation. Iraph IY shews that the metal surfaces with which the lubricant is la contact have a very decided influence en the coefficient of friction, whieh mast be dae te the ohemioal nature of the metals themselves* It is seen quite distinctly that for the name lubrieant steel oa steel gives a much lower value than does babbitt ea steel* fhe latter pert of the stearlo sold ourve Is discontinuous due to the stearlo acid becoming solid on the plate* ?he experiments with mineral oils of different iodine numbers shown that there is a slight deorease in the friction for an increase la iodine number* 2his is undoubtedly dae to an iacrease in unaaturation*  it is  thought that this increase in unsatoration has a similar off eat to the addition of a fatty acid*  If the oil to  begin with had ao iodine number and the aasataratloa was gradually Increased a ourve similar to that for oleic aeld would likely be obtained.  -  40  -  LtiHftTaRsftfc  .rftkM.iLU*  2he above Information coo Id bo used in compoundi n g of l u b r i c a t i n g o i l s *  If i t i s d e s i r e d to obtain a  aheap o i l w i t h the same l u b r i c a t i n g p r o p e r t i e s of SOBS e x p e n s i v e animal or v e g e t a b l e o i l , i t i s only necessary fr© take a mineral o i l and add to i t not more than f i v e to p e r cent* of an animal or v e g e t a b l e aoid A produoe a l u b r i cant of the required Q u a l i t y .  In some oases where a  f a t t y a c i d i n the pure s t a t e a t t a c k s the bearing*  its  f a l l e f f e c t can be obtained without i n j u r y to the b e a r i n g , by u s i n g a d i l u t e s o l u t i o n of the acid i n a mineral o i l * as shown above In the c a s e of b a b b i t t and o l e i o acid*  ajaauaxThe above results may be summarised as followst (1)  ?he coefficient of static friction of a mineral lubricating oil is lowered by the addition of asters and fatty acids*  (2)  fhe addition of an unsaturated compound lowers the coefficient of friction more than does the corresponding saturated compound*  (3)  fhe coefficient ef a lubricant is affected by the metal*a surfaces with which it is in contact•  (4) Five per cent of an acid added to a mineral oil gives as low a coefficient as the pure acid*  -ills)  Xaore&se In iodine aw1t«r of an oil lowers Its coefficient of friction. In conclusion, the writer wishes to express his  thanks and appreciation to 3>r« 7* F. Jeyor for his assist' anoe and advice in  directing this work.  »;,flw<m*'m. Amontons:  Ilea. d . l ' & o a d . Boy. d e s S o l o n o e s , p.206.  Salon  B o r l i n Aoad. U e o o l r s ,  Ooulozab:  (1699),  (1748), p.122.  Ham. d . l * A o a d . Soy* d e s S o l o n o e s , 10. p. 161.  (1785),  TOI.  Horlnj  *J«Q.  d . 3oa-rans s t r a n g e r s I V . ,  591|  VI. p . 641.  J o n k i n and Swing* B . Towors  ( 1 8 3 3 ; , PP«1.  P h i l . Traus. ...167,  (16770,  p.509  ? r o o . I n s t , tiooh. 3ng« ( 1 6 6 3 ) , p . 6 3 2 ; (1664), p. 29.  G. Reynold*i  P h i l . Trans. Vol. 177,  (1666). p . 157.  Sosnaorfioldj  Z o l t s o h o r . f . liath. t . 6 0 ,  (1904),  p.97.  Harrison*  J a a b . Trans* v o l * XXII. ( 1 9 1 3 ) , p . 3 9 .  0 . Pauott  &, p h y s i k . ah o n . 8 6 , ( 1 9 1 4 )  Lord K a y l o l g h j  pp.479-94.  Phil* l a g . s . 6 . Vol.35.(1918), pp.1, 157.  2 . 3 . S t a n t o n , L • ^ r o h b u t t and « • K. Southaoiabe* 1 0 8 , (1919) p p . 7 5 9 - 6 0 . K. K. o i l s and » . 3 . 3on*hooobei  l.angnralrt  Engineering  P e t r o l e u m ^iinos 3 , p p . 1 7 3 - 5 , 2 0 1 - 3 , ( 1 9 2 0 ) . v o u r n . 3 o o . Ohen. I n d . 3 9 , p p . 51 - 60 * ( 1 9 2 0 )  *Jonnr. Ata. Jheia. 3 o o . v o l . 3 8 , ( 1 9 1 6 ) p . 2 2 2 1 * • o l . 39, (1917), p . 1646. T r a n s . Faraday 3 o o . 1 5 , I I I ( 1 9 2 0 ) p . 6 2 .  .;. B . Hardy:  J o n r n . 3 o o . Ohem. I n d . V o l . 3 6 , ( 1 9 1 9 ) , P h i l . Hag. V o l . 3 8 , ( 1 9 1 9 ) , p . 3 2 . 7 o l . 4 0 , (1920), p.201 Fourth Boport on C o l l o i d Chemistry B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n for .dTanoeaent o f Soienoo, (1922), p . 165.  '«. B. Hardy and Ida Doublooay t Froo. Hoy.3oo.Vol.100A (l922)p.550» Vol. 101* (192^), p. 467.  p.7«  BIBLloqiUPHY  (Joat.)  Ida Doa"bleday:  Jonrn* 3heia. Uoa. (1922) p . 2875  B . K. Deoloyj  ? r o o . P a y s . 3 o c . 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