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Studies towards the synthesis of photosensitizers with improved biodistribution and light-absorbing properties Johnson, Claire 1997

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STUDIES TOWARDS THE SYNTHESIS OF PHOTOSENSITIZERS WITH IMPROVED BIODISTRIBUTION AND LIGHT-ABSORBING PROPERTIES by CLAIRE JOHNSON B.Sc. (Hons), University of Surrey, U.K., 1991 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY We accept this thesis as conforming |6 the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1997 © Claire Johnson In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted, by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of CHgrvnIST<3-7 The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 3 O T H NOV. DE-6 (2/88) u Abstract The objective of this work was to develop methods for preparing novel photosensitizer drugs with a) improved selective accumulation in diseased tissue and b) increased wavelengths of activation. The approach taken to enhance selectivity involved exploiting the upregulation of steroid receptors within tumorous cells. Porphyrinic photosensitizers were conjugated to a variety of steroids, ranging from cholesterol to the estrogens and androgens. A number of linking methods were employed: cholesterol was attached at the 3-position via a carbamate group or a diene tether. However, these linkages were non-ideal, as the products lacked the desired stability or existed as geometric isomers, and so improved techniques were sought. This led to the development of a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling technique to link 10-iodo-5,15-diphenylporphyrin with hormonal steroids ethynyl-substituted at the 17-position. Using this method, a series of steroid-porphyrin conjugates was prepared. In an extension of this work, selective couplings were performed on 5-bromo-15-iodo-10,20-diphenyl-porphyrin, in which the iodo-group alone reacted under mild conditions. A second coupling under more rigorous conditions resulted in reaction at the bromo-substituent, creating a bifunctionalized porphyrin product. This provides an alternative method to the synthesis of asymmetrically-substituted porphyrins. Efforts at increasing the absorption wavelength of the photosensitizer lead to the design and synthesis of new chlorin systems based on octaethylporphyrin and possessing exocyclic nitrogen-containing rings. Through these studies three new types of chlorin chromophore were prepared, each absorbing above 670 nm. In addition, an unusual dimeric chlorin was unexpectedly formed, for which an X-ray crystal structure was determined. Finally, attempts were made to prepare analogous chlorins based on other porphyrin systems. As initial efforts at synthesizing a tailor-made base porphyrin system were unsuccessful, 5,15-diphenylporphyrin was chosen as the starting material. Studies aimed at I l l improving the synthesis of this compound were partially successful. A series of meso-substituted diphenylporphyrin derivatives was prepared in a manner similar to that used for the octaethylporphyrin analogues. However, these derivatives did not give rise to chlorin products. iv Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iv List of Figures ix List of Schemes xi List of Abbreviations xv Nomenclature xvii Acknowledgements xix Chapter One Introduction 1 1.1 Tetrapyrrolic macrocycles 2 1.1.1 Introduction 2 1.1.2 Structural characteristics 3 1.1.3 Optical absorption spectra 4 1.1.4 Preparation of porphyrins 7 1.2 Photodynamic therapy 11 1.2.1 Introduction 11 1.2.2 Mechanism of photosensitization 11 1.2.3 Type I reaction 12 1.2.4 Type II reaction 13 1.2.5 Historical background of photodynamic therapy 15 1.2.6 Desirable properties of a PDT drug 16 1.3 Methods for increasing long-wavelength absorption 19 1.3.1 Reduction to a chlorin/bacteriochlorin 19 V 1.3.2 Dihydroxylation and products therefrom 20 1.3.3 Diels-Alder reactions of natural porphyrins 23 1.3.4 Chlorins with exocyclic rings 26 1.3.5 Modifications of natural chlorins and bacteriochlorins 29 1.3.6 Non-porphyrinic macrocycles 30 1.4 Porphyrins conjugated to biologically-active molecules 33 1.4.1 Introduction 33 1.4.2 Porphyrin-monoclonal antibody conjugates 34 1.4.3 Porphyrin-nucleoside conjugates 35 1.4.4 Porphyrin-oligonucleotide conjugates 36 1.4.5 Porphyrin-DNA intercalator/cross-linker conjugates 37 1.4.6 Porphyrin-carbohydrate conjugates 38 1.4.7 Porphyrin-steroid conjugates 39 1.4.8 Porphyrin-peptide conjugates 41 1.4.9 Other porphyrin conjugates 41 1.5 General summary 44 Chapter Two Synthesis of Cholesterol-Conjugated Photosensitizers 45 2.1 Introduction 46 2.2 Literature review of porphyrin-steroid conjugate syntheses 47 2.3 The displacement of a leaving group on cholesterol by a porphyrin nucleophile 48 2.4 The use of cholesterol alkoxide as a nucleophile 49 2.5 Reactions of cholesteryl chloroformate with nucleophiles 51 2.6 Wittig reactions between porphyrins and cholesterol 54 2.7 Summary 61 VI Chapter Three Halogenation and Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions as a Conjugation Method 62 3.1 Introduction 63 3.2 The iodination of porphyrins 66 3.3 The iodination of 5,15-diphenylporphyrin 68 3.4 Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 10-iodo-5,15-diphenylporphyrin 71 3.5 Literature review of palladium-catalyzed couplings applied to porphyrins 76 3.6 Demonstration of selectivity in palladium-catalyzed couplings of bromoiodoporphyrins 78 3.7 Summary 84 Chapter Four Synthesis of Novel Long-Wavelength Absorbing Dyes Based on Octaethylporphyrin 86 4.1 Introduction 87 4.2 The design of possible routes to pyridochlorins 89 4.3 The design and synthesis of a-pyridochlorin 90 4.4 The design and synthesis of (3-pyridochlorin 103 4.5 A new approach to the a-pyridochlorin via raeso-isocyanooctaethylporphyrin 114 4.6 a-Pyridochlorin synthesis via cyclization of the metallated formylmethylimine 125 4.7 Summary 128 Chapter Five Use of Porphyrins with Free (3-Positions as Precursors to Novel Chlorins 130 vii 5.1 Introduction 131 5.2 Attempted synthesis of 5,10,15-triphenylporphyrin 134 5.3 Attempted syntheses of 3,7,13,17-tetraalkyl-5,15-diphenylporphyrins 136 5.4 Syntheses and reactions of 2,3,7,8-tetraethylporphyrin and 2,3,7,8-tetraethyl-15-phenylporphyrin 141 5.5 Improved syntheses of 5,15-diphenylporphyrin 145 5.6 Formation of 10-formyl-5,l5-diphenylporphyrin during DPP synthesis 150 5.7 Afoso-derivatization of 5,15-diphenylporphyrin 154 5.7.1 Synthesis of 10-cyano-5,l5-diphenylporphyrin 154 5.7.2 Synthesis and reactions of 10-aminocarbonyl-5,15-diphenylporphyrin 157 5.7.3 Synthesis and reactions of 10-isocyano-5,15-diphenylporphyrin 160 5.7.4 Synthesis and reactions of 10-amino-5,15-diphenylporphyrin as its zinc complex 162 5.8 Summary 163 Chapter Six Experimental 164 6.1 Instrumentation and materials 165 6.2 Procedure for singlet oxygen tests 165 6.3 Preparation and characterization of compounds described in Chapter Two 166 6.4 Preparation and characterization of compounds described in Chapter Three 175 6.5 Preparation and characterization of compounds described in Chapter Four 190 viii 6.6 Preparation and characterization of compounds described in Chapter Five 206 List of References 226 Appendix 1 Crystal structure report for (Ni-120) 237 Appendix 2 Selected NMR spectra 243 ix List of Figures Figure 1.1. Tetrapyrrolic macrocycles 2 Figure 1.2 The 18 7i-electron pathway 3 Figure 1.3 Absorption spectra of a) tetraphenylporphyrin and b) zinc tetraphenylporphyrin in CH2CI2 5 Figure 1.4 Absorption spectra of a) tetraphenylchlorin and b) zinc tetraphenylchlorin in CH2CI2 5 Figure 1.5 Absorption spectra of a) tetraphenylbacteriochlorin and b) zinc tetraphenylbacteriochlorin in CH2CI2 6 Figure 1.6 Energy level diagram for HOMOs and LUMOs of the four metalloporphyrin classes 7 Figure 1.7 Modified Jablonski diagram for a typical photosensitizer 12 Figure 1.8 The wavelength-dependent penetration of light through tissue 17 Figure 3.1 Substituted porphyrins resulting from palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of the brominated derivatives 63 Figure 4.1 The three possible isomers of the target molecule, octaethylpyridochlorin 89 Figure 4.2 Absorption spectrum of (93) in dichloromethane 94 Figure 4.3 Absorption spectrum of the (Ni-112)/BF3/(CHO)n product in dichloromethane 117 Figure 4.4 X-ray crystal structure of (Ni-120) 122 Figure 4.5 Absorption spectrum of (123) in CH2CI2 127 Figure 7.1 ORTEP representation of (Ni-120) 240 Figure 7.2 Side view of (Ni-120) 241 Figure 7.3 The unit cell of (Ni-120) as its dichloromethane solvate 242 X Figure 7.4 400 MHz 'H NMR spectrum of (48) in CDC13 243 Figure 7.5 300 MHz lU NMR spectrum of (50b) in CDCI3 244 Figure 7.6 400 MHz lU NMR spectrum of (Ni-59) in CDCI3 245 Figure 7.7 400 MHz AH NMR spectrum of (Zn-77a) in CDCI3 246 Figure 7.8 300 MHz lH NMR spectrum of (Zn-79) in CDCI3 247 Figure 7.9 400 MHz H^ NMR spectrum of (93a) in CDCI3 248 Figure 7.10 NOE of (93a): irradiation at a) 7.45ppm b)2.8 lppm 249 Figure 7.11 400 MHz *H NMR spectrum of (111) in C D C I 3 250 Figure 7.12 400 MHz ! H NMR spectrum of (Ni-120) in CDCI3 251 Figure 7.13 400 MHz H^ NMR spectrum of (Ni-121) in CDCI3 252 Figure 7.14 400 MHz lU NMR spectrum of (123) in pyridine ds 253 XI List of Schemes Scheme 1.1 Synthesis of octaethylporphyrin (4) 8 Scheme 1.2 Synthesis of tetraphenylporphyrin (5) 9 Scheme 1.3 Mixed condensation to synthesize monofunctionalized TPPs 10 Scheme 1.4 2+2-type condensations to synthesize 5,15-diarylporphyrins 10 Scheme 1.5 Reactions of singlet oxygen with biological substrates 14 Scheme 1.6 Reduction of a porphyrin to a chlorin or bacteriochlorin 19 Scheme 1.7 Synthesis of tetrakis(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin 20 Scheme 1.8 Osmium tetroxide hydroxylation of octaethylporphyrin 21 Scheme 1.9 Pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement of (7) to give (9) 22 Scheme 1.10 Reactions of the (3-oxochlorin (9) 23 Scheme 1.11 Reaction of protoporphyrin IX with singlet oxygen 24 Scheme 1.12 Synthesis of BPDMA (12) from protoporphyrin IX 25 Scheme 1.13 Synthesis of tin etiopurpurin (15) 27 Scheme 1.14 Synthesis of octaethylbenzochlorin (17) and further reactions thereof 28 Scheme 1.15 Conversion of chlorophyll a to chlorin ee and MACE 30 Scheme 1.16 Preparation of the porphycenes 32 Scheme 1.17 Synthesis of the texaphyrins 32 Scheme 2.1 Attempted displacement of a benzylic bromine atom by cholesterol alkoxide 49 Scheme 2.2 Attempted displacement of a para -fluorine atom by cholesterol alkoxide 50 Scheme 2.3 Preparation of cholesteryl chloroformate (44) 51 Scheme 2.4 Resistance of the TPP iminium salt to further electrophilic attack 55 xii Scheme 2.5 Photooxidation of (54) 56 Scheme 2.6 Formation of (Cu-17) and subsequent formylation 58 Scheme 2.7 Vinylogous Vilsmeier reaction of (Cu-17) 58 Scheme 2.8 Formation of the cholesterol conjugate (Cu-59) 59 Scheme 2.9 Acid-catalyzed cyclization of (Cu-58) 60 Scheme 3.1 Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between alkenes and aryl halides 64 Scheme 3.2 Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between terminal alkynes and aryl halides 65 Scheme 3.3 Indirect iodination of a porphyrin via the chloromercurio intermediate 67 Scheme 3.4 Formation of the iodinating species from iodine and bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene 70 Scheme 3.5 Coupling of (Zn-75) with 1 -butyn-3-ol 71 Scheme 3.6 The first palladium-catalyzed coupling of a steroid with an iodoporphyrin 72 Scheme 3.7 Coupling of an iodophenyl-substituted porphyrin with a steroid 74 Scheme 3.8 Proposed route to conjugates absorbing at longer wavelengths 75 Scheme 3.9 Conventional methods for preparing bifunctionalized porphyrins 79 Scheme 3.10 Selective coupling reactions of (Zn-80) 82 Scheme 3.11 Selective coupling of ethynylestradiol and further derivatization 84 Scheme 4.1 Formation of octaethylbenzochlorin (17) 90 Scheme 4.2 Vinylogous Vilsmeier reaction of metallated octaethylporphyrin (M-4) 91 Scheme 4.3 A possible synthesis of the a-imino precursor (92) 92 Scheme 4.4 Expected product from the cyclization of (92) 96 Scheme 4.5 Synthesis of purpurins 96 xiii Scheme 4.6 Synthesis of the australochlorins 98 Scheme 4.7 Aromatization of the steroid A ring using zinc 100 Scheme 4.8 Postulated mechanism for the removal of the angular ethyl group of (93) 100 Scheme 4.9 Possible cyclization of the glycolaldehyde condensation product (96) 101 Scheme 4.10 Methylcarbamate condensation with (56) and subsequent cyclization 103 Scheme 4.11 Proposed route to meso-aminomethyloctaethylporphyrin (104) 105 Scheme 4.12 Proposed use of (105) as a cyclization intermediate 107 Scheme 4.13 Synthesis of (106) 108 Scheme 4.14 The side-product from N-hydroxymethylation of (Ni-105) 109 Scheme 4.15 Proposed cyclization of the N-formylamide (109) 112 Scheme 4.16 Synthesis of meso-isocyanooctaethylporphyrin (112) 114 Scheme 4.17 Passerini reaction of (112) 115 Scheme 4.18 Acid-catalyzed reaction of (112) with formaldehyde to give (116) 115 Scheme 4.19 Rationale for the cyclization/lack of cyclization of the two types of hydroxymethylamide (106) and (116) 117 Scheme 4.20 Possible mechanism for the formation of the dimer (Ni-119) 120 Scheme 4.21 Mechanism for the formation of the dimer (Ni-120) 123 Scheme 5.1 The two product types formed via the cyclization of substituted octaethylporphyrin derivatives 131 Scheme 5.2 Synthesis of the p-oxobenzochlorin 132 Scheme 5.3 Possible use of (3-free porphyrin precursors to yield pyridochlorins 133 Scheme 5.4 Meso-substituted [3-free porphyrin cyclization leading to a porphyrin product 133 Scheme 5.5 Directed synthesis of 5,10,15-triphenylporphyrin (136) 135 xiv Scheme 5.6 Reaction sequence for the formation of a symmetrical dipyrromethane 137 Scheme 5.7 Acid-catalyzed coupling of acetoxymethylpyrrole (142) 138 Scheme 5.8 Use of the iodo-protected pyrrole (145) to synthesize (143) 139 Scheme 5.9 Attempted synthesis of 2,8-dimethyldipyrromethane (148) 140 Scheme 5.10 Attempted synthesis of the porphyrin (154) 141 Scheme 5.11 Possible electrophilic substitution product of (155), and the subsequent use of this to form chlorins with exocyclic rings 142 Scheme 5.12 Synthesis of (155) and (156) via the method of Franck and Krautstrunk 143 Scheme 5.13 Synthesis of (155) and (156) via dipyrromethene condensation 144 Scheme 5.14 The two main routes to 5,15-diphenylporphyrin (73) 147 Scheme 5.15 The various methods for preparing dipyrromethane (140) 148 Scheme 5.16 Diphenylporphyrin synthesis by self-condensation of dipyrromethanes bearing the bridging carbon substituent 149 Scheme 5.17 The condensation of (166) with (137) 150 Scheme 5.18 Proposed mechanism for the formation of meso -formyl coproporphyrin II tetramethyl ester 151 Scheme 5.19 Proposed mechanism for the formation of meso-formyl-diphenylporphyrin (167) 153 Scheme 5.20 Two pathways to the cyanoporphyrin (171) 155 Scheme 5.21 The possible cyclization products of (173) and (Ni-173) 159 Scheme 5.22 Synthesis of themes'o-foimarnide (177) 160 Scheme 5.23 The two routes to (Ni-178) 161 Scheme 5.24 Attempted synthesis of the formylmethylimine (Zn-181) 162 List of Abbreviations BNCT boron neutron capture therapy BPD benzoporphyrin derivative BPD-DME benzoporphyrin derivative dimethyl ester BPDMA benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A br broad chol cholesterol d doublet DBU l,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene DDQ 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone DMAD dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate DMF N,N-dimethylformamide DMSO dimethylsulfoxide DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DPP 5,15-diphenylporphyrin EI electron impact eq. equivalent FAB fast atom bombardment HOMO highest occupied molecular orbital HpD hematoporphyrin derivative HPLC high performance liquid chromatography HR high resolution LDL low-density lipoprotein LR low resolution LUMO lowest unoccupied molecular orbital m multiplet MAb monoclonal antibody MACE monoaspartyl chlorin t?6 min minute MS mass spectrometry 3-NBA 3-nitrobenzyl alcohol NBS N-bromosuccinimide NIS N-iodosuccinimide NMR nuclear magnetic resonance NOE nuclear Overhauser effect OEP 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphyrin ORTEP Oak Ridge thermal ellipsoid plot PDT photodynamic therapy py pyridine q quartet RNA ribonucleic acid s singlet Sens sensitizer t triplet TCA trichloroacetic acid TCNE tetracyanoethylene TFA trifluoroacetic acid THF tetrahydrofuran TLC thin layer chromatography TPAP tetrapropylammonium perruthenate TPP 5,10,15,20-tetrapheny lporphy rin UV-Vis ultra-violet and visible xvii Nomenclature Monopyrrolic Systems The pyrrolic skeleton is numbered as shown. In addition, positions 2 and 5 are known genetically as the oc-positions, and positions 3 and 4 are termed the (3-positions. 3 4 1N N' H Dipyrrolic Systems Dipyrromethanes are numbered as shown. Postions 1 and 9 are called the a-positions, carbons 2,3,7 and 8 are the (3-positions, and carbon 5 is the meso-position. 5 7 3^ 2 C r T> 1 H 1 0 11 H 9 Porphyrins and Related Systems The numbering system is as shown. Positions 1,4,6,9,11,14,16 and 19 are the ex-positions, positions 2,3,7,8,12,13,17 and 18 are the (3-positions, and positions 5,10,15 and 20 are the me so- positions. N X 1 6 s r l < 1 4 12 15 13 H meso L /) meso H '/ (J meso P Many naturally-derived porphyrins are known by trivial names. A brief listing of the substituents of those compounds of relevance to this thesis follows. Trivial name 2 3 Deuteroporphyrin IX Me H Deuteroporphyrin III Me H Coproporphyrin II Me P Etioporphyrin Me Et Hematoporphyrin Me EA Protoporphyrin IX Me V Substituent Position 7 8 12 13 17 18 Me H Me P P Me H Me Me P P Me P Me Me P P Me Me Et Me Et Me Et Me EA Me P P Me Me V Me P P Me P= CH2CH2C02H EA = CH(OH)CH3 V = CH=CH2 xix Acknowledgements I would like to thank my research supervisor, Professor Dolphin, for allowing me the freedom to explore the area of porphyrin chemistry. The many members of the Dolphin group, past and present, were invaluable both in introducing me to the idiosyncrasies of the field, and in providing moral support. Dr Ross Boyle in particular deserves thanks for his helpful advice during the earlier stages of this project. I am grateful to the staff in the NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis labs for their expert services. Dr Victor Young, Jr and the X-ray Crystallographic Laboratory of the University of Minnesota determined the crystal structure mentioned in this thesis. I would also like to thank the University for allowing me the opportunity to teach, and Dana Zendrowski for making teaching an enjoyable activity. Finally I would like to thank the Johnsons on both sides of the Atlantic for their support over the last five years. CHAPTER ONE Introduction 2 1.1 Tetrapyrrolic macrocycles 1.1.1 Introduction Tetrapyrrolic macrocycles in a variety of forms play a crucial role in living systems. Hemoglobin, myoglobin and the cytochromes all contain iron porphyrin prosthetic groups. These function to bind or store dioxygen or to transport electrons. The chlorophylls, a family of magnesium chlorins, are essential for photosynthesis in green plants, whilst in purple and green bacteria this operation is performed by their bacteriochlorin analogues, the bacteriochlorophylls. Vitamin B12 possesses a cobalt-coordinated corrin structure, which differs from the aforementioned macrocycles in the direct linkage between two of the pyrrole rings. In addition to these compounds of general importance, researchers have discovered porphyrinic natural products with more specialized functions; for example, the porphyrin that controls the sex of the larvae of Bonnelia viridis, a Mediterranean sea worm.l'2 BACTERIOCHLORIN ISOBACTERIOCHLORIN CORRIN Figure 1.1 Tetrapyrrolic macrocycles The ubiquity and diversity of the tetrapyrrolic macrocycles have fueled extensive research into their structures and functions. Some important results derived from this research include the conclusive demonstration of the cyclic porphyrin structure,3 the total 3 synthesis of chlorophyll a4 and of Vitamin B12 ' and the structure determination of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction centre by X-ray crystallography.7 The newly-gained understanding of the biological functions of these compounds has led to attempts to mimic them outside the natural systems. Thus there is much interest, for example, in the use of synthetic porphyrins as catalysts for the functionalization of hydrocarbons. Other fields of study include the development of materials with useful optical or electrical properties. Their therapeutic use as photosensitizers in the treatment of cancer and other hyperproliferative diseases will be discussed in depth in a following section. 1.1.2 Structural characteristics Porphyrins are cyclic compounds consisting of four pyrrole units linked to each other via methine bridges. They possess 22 71-electrons, 18 of which participate in a cyclic conjugated pathway in any given resonance structure (Figure 1.2). Although exceptions have been synthesized,8 porphyrins generally are planar. A cyclic planar structure with a continuous 18 TC -electron pathway fulfils the requirements for aromaticity, Huckel's 4n+2 rule giving n = 4. That porphyrins are indeed aromatic is shown by their bond lengths, heats of combustion and large ring current. The effects of this latter can be seen on inspection of the Iff NMR spectra of these compounds; the inner NH protons are highly shielded and appear upfield, usually between -1 and -5 ppm. The meso -protons at the periphery of the molecule are deshielded and typically are found between 8 and 10 ppm. Figure 1.2 The 18TC-electron pathway The two cross-conjugated double bonds can be reduced without affecting the aromaticity of the molecule. The reduction of one of these bonds leads to the formation of a chlorin, 4 whilst further reaction leads either to the bacteriochlorin, with the two p-|3 bonds of opposite pyrrole rings reduced, or to the isobacteriochlorin, where the two reduced pyrrole rings are adjacent to one another. The central imino nitrogen atoms are basic, and the dication can be formed in strong acid. The central N H groups are acidic, and treatment with strong base leads to the dianion. Replacement of the N H hydrogen atoms by metals occurs with variable ease depending on the particular metal. There are very few metals in the periodic table that have not been shown to form complexes with porphyrins. To a large extent it is this metal-complexing ability that makes the porphyrins so important in natural systems. 1.1.3 Optical absorption spectra Aromatic tetrapyrrolic macrocycles are distinguished by a strong absorption in the region of 400 nm. This absorption is called the Soret or B band, and for porphyrins it has an extinction coefficient in the order of 105. In addition, porphyrins possess four lower intensity absorptions between 450 and 650 nm, known as the Q bands. These are numbered I to IV in order of decreasing wavelength. The Soret band is relatively insensitive to peripheral substitution of the porphyrin or changes in protonation state. In contrast, the Q bands vary in relative intensity and position according to the chemical structure of the compound (Figures 1.3-1.5). This is illustrated by the fact that on metallation, the four Q bands of the porphyrin are replaced by two, which lie between 500 and 600 nm. A similar simplification in the Q band structure is seen in spectra of the dication and dianion. This phenomenon can be explained by the increase in symmetry that results when the porphyrin ring (with D 2 h symmetry) is transformed into the metallo-, dicationic or dianionic porphyrin (all with D 4 h symmetry). a) 400 500 , 600 ^nm b) 700 400 500 „ 600 i l n m 700 Figure 1.3 Absorption spectra of a) tetraphenylporphyrin and b) zinc tetraphenylporphyrin in CH2CI2 Reduction of a porphyrin to a chlorin results in an increase in both intensity and wavelength of the longest wavelength band I. Typically this is red-shifted by about 25 nm and the extinction coefficient increases by a factor of approximately 10. Metallation of chlorins does not lead to the spectral simplification seen with porphyrins, because the reduced double bond renders the chlorin asymmetric, no matter what the environment in the centre of the molecule. Metallo-, monocationic and dicationic chlorin spectra differ little from that of the parent chlorin, although band I is blue-shifted somewhat. a) b) x10A 400 500 , 600 700 400 500 „ 600 A,nm 700 Figure 1.4 Absorption spectra of a) tetraphenylchlorin and b) zinc tetraphenylchlorin in C H 2 C I 2 6 Bacteriochlorins are characterized by a high intensity band I absorption at approximately 750 nm, with an extinction coefficient almost as high as that of the Soret band. The latter is split in two. Isobacteriochlorins display spectra similar to those of chlorins, except that the Q bands are slightly blue-shifted. a) b) 400 500 A.nm 600 700 400 500 600 700 X nm Figure 1.5 Absorption spectra of a) tetraphenylbacteriochlorin and b) zinc tetraphenylbacteriochlorin in CH2CI2 The theory underlying the optical spectroscopy of porphyrins and their derivatives has been investigated by Gouterman.9 A diagram based on extended Hiickel calculations of the HOMOs and LUMOs of the metalloporphyrins and their reduced analogues can be used to explain the positions of the longest wavelength absorption bands. As the porphyrin is progressively reduced, the energies of the HOMOs increase. The LUMOs of the porphyrin, chlorin and bacteriochlorin are isoenergetic, whilst that of the isobacteriochlorin is higher in energy. This results in the HOMO-LUMO energy gap decreasing in the order of porphyrin > chlorin = isobacteriochlorin > bacteriochlorin, and the longest absorption wavelengths increase in this order. 7 -9 -> CD -11 --12-ZINC ZINC PORPHYRIN CHLORIN -4-4- •4 a1u a2u ZINC ISOBACTERIO- ZINC CHLORIN BACTERIOCHLORIN Figure 1.6 Energy level diagram for HOMOs and LUMOs of the four metalloporphyrin classes (adapted from Fajer10) 1.1.4 Preparation of porphyrins Hematoporphyrin (1) and protoporphyrin IX (2) can be isolated from heme (3) in mammalian blood as their diacids or diesters, depending on the techniques used.11'12 By manipulation of their substituents they can be converted into other naturally-occurring porphyrins.13 „OH HEMATOPORPHYRIN PROTOPORPHYRIN IX HEME 8 Other porphyrins must be synthesized from pyrrole precursors. Three major types of synthetic porphyrins are of relevance to this thesis: those with fully alkylated (3-positions, those with fully substituted meso -positions, and those with two opposite mew-positions substituted. O f the (3-octaalkylated porphyrins, octaethylporphyrin (OEP, (4)) is the most synthetically useful, owing to its symmetrical nature, and good solubility and stability characteristics. There are a number of possible methods for preparing O E P , 1 4 - 1 6 which proceed via the tetramerization of a 3,4-diethylpyrrole with either an acid-substituted or an unsubstituted 2-position. The most direct route involves a reduction/cyclization of 2-ethoxycarbonyl-3,4-diethylpyrrole, which can be derived by Barton's me thod 1 7 ' 1 8 (Scheme 1.1). Scheme 1.1 Synthesis of octaethylporphyrin (4) Meso-tetrasubstituted porphyrins such as tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP, (5)) and analogues with substituted phenyl groups are the simplest synthetic porphyrins to prepare, as the starting materials are the commercially available pyrrole and (substituted) benzaldehyde; a one-step condensation gives the porphyrin directly (Scheme 1.2). T P P was synthesized for the first time by Rothemund in the 1930s, 1 9 ' 2 0 but his low-yielding method, which involved heating at 150°C in a sealed bomb for 24 hours, was superseded by milder conditions developed by Adler and Longo, whereby benzaldehyde and pyrrole were refluxed in propionic acid open to the air over a 30 minute period. 2 1 This gave a yield of approximately 20 % with minimal work-up. A complementary procedure which made possible the use of 9 benzaldehydes with acid-sensitive substituents was developed recently by Lindsey et al.: it involves room temperature, high dilution conditions, using dichloromethane as solvent, trifluoracetic acid or boron trifluoride etherate as catalyst, and oxidation of the intermediate porphyrinogen with />chloranil.22 Using this methodology small quantities of porphyrins can be prepared in 30-40 % yield. (5) Scheme 1.2 Synthesis of tetraphenylporphyrin (5) The synthesis of monofunctionalized TPPs can be achieved in several ways. The preferred method is that whereby the functionality is introduced by electrophilic substitution of the pre-formed porphyrin. Examples of such preparations include sulfonation23-24 and nitration25 of one of the phenyl rings. Unfortunately, few substituents are accessible via this route. Most TPPs substituted on only one of the phenyl groups must be formed during the condensation reaction. The most straightforward procedure is to condense pyrrole with a mixture of the two benzaldehydes (Scheme 1.3). However the simplicity of the reaction is compensated for by the extensive chromatography required to separate the desired compound from the other porphyrin products formed. More directed methods involving stepwise synthesis have been developed;26'27 these give better yields of more easily isolable 10 products, but the extensive chemistry involved makes such procedures discouragingly lengthy. Scheme 1.3 Mixed condensation to synthesize monofunctionalized TPPs 5,15-Diarylporphyrins are formed via 2+2-type condensations of dipyrromethanes (Scheme 1.4). There are two major routes: reaction of a 5-aryldipyrromethane with a formaldehyde equivalent, or reaction of dipyrromethane with (substituted) benzaldehyde. These methods and others are described in detail in Chapter Five. Scheme 1.4 2+2-type condensations to synthesize 5,15-diarylporphyrins 11 1.2 Photodynamic therapy2829 1.2.1 Introduction Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that is used primarily for cancer, but also for other hyperproliferative diseases (eg psoriasis, age-related macular degeneration). It involves the administration of a drug (photosensitizer) that, when irradiated with an appropriate wavelength of light, interacts with molecular oxygen in the body to generate reactive oxygen species. These are responsible for the destruction of tissue at the therapeutic site. Oxygen is present naturally in sufficient quantities to require no outside intervention. However, if oxygen is excluded from the treatment area by clamping the blood vessels supplying it, the therapy is ineffective. 3 0 PDT differs from more conventional chemotherapies by its two-stage process: without light, the photosensitizer is inert, whilst the low light doses administered would have no damaging effects if not used in conjunction with the drug. This unique mode of action means that the side-effects common to many chemotherapies, arising from the poor selectivity of these drugs, largely can be avoided. Although photosensitizers also suffer from less than perfect targeting of diseased tissue, destruction of healthy cells can be minimized by careful irradiation of the target area. In this way, the defective cells are killed but drug distributed throughout other parts of the body remains in its inactivated state. 1.2.2 Mechanism of photosensitization The photosensitizer drug is activated by light energy in the following way (Figure 1.7). The initial step is the promotion of an electron in the sensitizer's outer shell from the ground state So to an excited state S n - As the sensitizer in its ground state, like most molecules, is a singlet, and spin is conserved, the excited state is also a singlet. This excited state can then lose energy via internal conversion until it reaches the first excited state, S i . From S i there are a number of possible routes by which it can return to the ground state. It can do so directly by internal conversion or by fluorescence. The third possibility is for intersystem 12 crossing to occur to give the triplet state T i . This process is spin-forbidden, but one of the properties that distinguishes a good photosensitizer from other compounds is that the former can generate the triplet state with a high degree of efficiency. This property can be quantified, and expressed as the triplet quantum yield. As relaxation from this state requires a second spin-forbidden inversion, the lifetime of the triplet is longer than that of the excited singlet states. It can return to the ground state by phosphorescence, or by non-radiative processes. These non-radiative processes involve interaction with an easily reduced or oxidized substrate (Type I reaction) or spin exchange with ground state triplet oxygen, giving rise to ground state sensitizer and singlet oxygen (Type II reaction). It is these Type I and Type II reactions of the triplet state photosensitizer that lead to the cytotoxicity of the drug. A. Absorption of Light I.C. Internal Conversion F. Fluorescence I.S.C. Intersystem Crossing P. Phosphorescence > o rr ui z UJ Type I Process 1o, 3o, PHOTOSENSITIZER OXYGEN Figure 1.7 Modified Jablonski diagram for a typical photosensitizer 1.2.3 Type I reaction 3 1 3 2 Type I reactions involve interaction of the triplet photosensitizer with other organic molecules. As there is an unpaired electron in a higher orbital, the triplet state is more easily oxidized than the ground state. The "hole" left by the promoted electron is in an orbital that 13 binds electrons strongly, and so the triplet state is also more easily reduced than the ground state. Hydrogen atom transfer from a substrate to the triplet photosensitizer produces radicals. These radicals then react with oxygen to give various oxidized products. Although the nature of these products depends on the particular system, they often include peroxides, which can break down to initiate a free radical chain reaction. 3Sens + R-H > Sens-H» + R* R . + 0 2 > R02» R02* + R-H -- -> ROOH + R» Electron abstraction by the triplet photosensitizer from a substrate gives oxidized substrate plus the photosensitizer anion. This can generate the superoxide anion by interaction with molecular oxygen. This species can also be formed directly from triplet photosensitizer and oxygen, by electron transfer from the porphyrin, resulting in a cation radical. 3Sens + Subs > Sens " + Subs0x Sens " + 0 2 > Sens + 0 2 _ 3Sens + 0 2 > Sens4" + 0 2 -The superoxide anion can subsequently generate the hydroxyl radical via a number of pathways; this is particularly reactive and interacts with organic molecules to initiate free radical chain processes. 1.2.4 Type II reaction3132 This pathway leads to singlet oxygen formation via energy transfer between triplet photosensitizer and triplet oxygen (one of the very few ground state triplet molecules). Singlet oxygen has a lifetime varying between 4 |is in water to 25-100 LIS in non-polar organic media that model the lipid region of the cell. It reacts with electron-rich biological substrates in the following ways (Scheme 1.5): 14 a) Addition to a heterocyclic system such as guanine to give a peroxide. b) "Ene" reaction with compounds possessing an allylic hydrogen, such as cholesterol and unsaturated lipids. The 5-hydroperoxycholesterol product can be used as a qualitative indicator of singlet oxygen generation when reduced to its hydroxy derivative (see Chapter Six). c) [2+2] addition to a double bond followed by cleavage of that bond, for example with tryptophan. d) Oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides, as in the case of methionine. NHR' NHR' Scheme 1.5 Reactions of singlet oxygen with biological substrates 15 These types of reactions result in damage to membranes, proteins, enzymes and nucleic acids and if not halted lead ultimately to cell death. The difficulties experienced in measuring singlet oxygen concentrations within biological systems has left the mechanism by which photosensitized damage to cells occurs somewhat speculative, as indirect observations must be relied on. However, the evidence points to singlet oxygen playing the major role in most systems, with Type I processes being less important. 1.2.5 Historical background of photodynamic therapy Although the use of porphyrins as photosensitizers was only developed this century, photodynamic therapy using other compounds has a history dating back millennia. 4000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians used a combination of orally-ingested psoralen-containing plants and sunlight successfully to treat vitilago.33 A therapy using very similar methods, psoralen and UV light, is used today to treat psoriasis. In 1900, Raab showed that a combination of acridine dyes and light was able to kill the unicellular organism, Paramecia?A Soon after this, Jesionek and Tappeiner treated a skin cancer with topically-applied eosin and light.35 1913 brought the first demonstration of the phototoxicity of porphyrins, when Meyer-Betz injected himself with hematoporphyrin and registered no ill effects until he exposed himself to sunlight, whereupon he suffered severe swelling; this photosensitivity persisted several months.36 In 1924, Policard discovered that certain malignant tumours accumulated porphyrins selectively,37 and Auler and Banzer obtained similar results in 1942.38 In the 1950s Schwartz39 reinvestigated Meyer-Betz's observations; he found that hematoporphyrin itself could not have been responsible for the persistent photosensitivity experienced by Meyer-Betz, because this porphyrin is cleared rapidly by the body. Instead, it was caused by oligomeric impurities which were produced during the preparation and isolation of hematoporphyrin from blood. He sought methods for increasing the proportion 16 of these oligomers, as they had better phototoxic properties than hematoporphyrin. The crude oligomer-enriched material he produced was named hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD). HpD was tested in vivo to evaluate its selective accumulation in tumours and to assess its phototoxic properties.40 These experiments generated a revival of interest in PDT, and clinical trials using various HpD preparations began in the 1970s.41 When it became clear that HpD could be used to destroy tumours in animals,42 trials in humans began.43 Although HpD demonstrated impressive properties as a photosensitizer, it suffered from the major drawback of being a mixture of compounds. Many efforts have been made to identify and isolate the active component(s) of the mixture; these have been to little avail although they did prove that neither monomeric nor dimeric compounds were the most active species.44 The material was purified somewhat by ultracentrifugation to yield a preparation named Photofrin II® 4 5 More recently this was purified further to give the drug Photofrin® 4 6 which is the first porphyrin photosensitizer to have received regulatory board approval for the treatment of certain cancers. Photofrin® is the first generation photosensitizer against which all subsequent PDT agents will be measured. There is certainly room for improvement; in addition to the fact that the material is a mixture of oligomers, it has less than ideal light absorption properties and a poor clearance rate from the body. These problems have been addressed in the development of the second generation of photosensitizers, some of which are currently in clinical trials. 1.2.6 Desirable properties of a PDT drug A photosensitizer suitable for therapeutic use must fulfil a number of requirements. Firstly, as is obvious from the name, it must have the ability to sensitize oxygen efficiently. The majority of porphyrinic compounds (with the exception of most transition metal complexes) possess this property. 17 Secondly, it should absorb light strongly at wavelengths in the red region of the spectrum (650-800 nm), unless it is to be used solely in the treatment of superficial skin diseases. The reason for this criterion can be explained by examining the transparency of human tissue to various wavelengths of light (Figure 1.8). 550 630 700 800 nm Figure 1.8 The wavelength-dependent penetration of light through tissue Light scattering and the presence of endogenous chromophores such as hemoglobin result in very poor penetration of tissue by light at wavelengths below 600 nm. This means that the large Soret absorption band displayed by porphyrins in the region of 400 nm is not available as a means of photosensitizer activation. Instead, the longer wavelength Q bands must be used. The longest wavelength Q band for Photofrin® is at 630 nm. Although this wavelength is long enough to make PDT of tumours with this drug feasible, it is not ideal. Light penetration of human tissue typically doubles between 630 nm and 750 nm, so a photosensitizer absorbing at 750 nm would be far more effective at treating thick tumours than Photofrin®. Increasing the absorption wavelength beyond 800 nm would not give rise to further improvement, as compounds absorbing energy above this wavelength do not have a large enough energy gap between their triplet and ground states to be able to generate singlet oxygen. Methods for increasing the wavelength of activation of a porphyrinic sensitizer will be discussed in the following section. 18 A third important property of a photosensitizer is its biodistribution profile. It is preferable that the compound should accumulate selectively in diseased tissue. Although it has been stated previously that this property is less essential than in most chemotherapies, it is still a highly desirable characteristic. The drug should also be cleared from the body as quickly as possible after treatment, in order to avoid the persistent skin photosensitivity that is seen with Photofrin®. Resolving these problems is perhaps the most difficult challenge presented to researchers designing novel photosensitizers. Although there is now a wealth of biological data on the distribution and pharmacokinetics of various sensitizers (especially Photofrin®) in vitro and in vivo, few generalizations can be made. One particularly troublesome fact is that results obtained from in vitro tests sometimes vary greatly from those obtained in vivo: it is known that some compounds which are totally inactive in the former tests can show good activity in the latter ones.48 Consequently, in order to have truly meaningful data, all testing should be performed in vivo. Attempts to improve the diseased-cell targeting ability of the photosensitizer by bioconjugation will be discussed later in this chapter. A crucial property of a PDT agent is that it should have little or no dark toxicity: even those compounds with "good" selective tumour uptake accumulate to a large extent in organs such as the liver and kidney. If the drug exhibits a poor clearance rate, it could remain in these organs for several weeks, and so must have no adverse effect on them. One final characteristic is of interest, especially for a pharmaceutical company intending to develop a marketable photosensitizer. It would simplify the process of getting the drug approved by the regulatory boards immensely if it were a single compound, rather than a mixture of isomers. It seems likely that Photofrin® would have received approval earlier if it had not been a combination of many oligomers. 19 1.3 Methods for increasing long-wavelength absorption 1.3.1 Reduction to a chlorin/bacteriochlorin In theory, the simplest way to increase the wavelength of absorption of a porphyrin would be by reduction of either one or two double bonds to give the corresponding chlorin or bacteriochlorin (Scheme 1.6). Scheme 1.6 Reduction of a porphyrin to a chlorin or bacteriochlorin Diimide is a reagent that will effect such reductions regioselectively, without affecting other double bonds. However, a number of difficulties arise during such syntheses. Reversibility is one problem; in solution in the presence of air, the reduced compounds can be oxidized back to the porphyrin or chlorin. Bacteriochlorins formed by reduction are particularly unstable, reverting readily to the chlorin. Chlorins are more stable but their isolation can be tedious as they must be separated from the mixture of porphyrin, chlorin and bacteriochlorin resulting from the reaction. Most groups working on improved photosensitizers have been discouraged by the practical difficulties outlined above, and have sought alternative approaches. However, Bonnett et al. have persevered and developed a procedure that enables them to synthesize the compound tetrakis(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC, (6)) in approximately 50 % yield using diimide as the reductant. This group screened a series of tetrakis-(hydroxyphenyl)-chlorins and -bacteriochlorins, and found the m-hydroxy derivative to be the most promising.29,49 This chlorin's simple synthesis (3 steps from pyrrole and hydroxybenzaldehyde) makes it very attractive for PDT (Scheme 1.7). 20 (6) Scheme 1.7 Synthesis of tetrakis(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin Extensive clinical testing is now being performed, with impressive results although preliminary findings indicate that skin photosensitivity lasting several weeks is a side-effect encountered with this drug.29'50 1.3.2 Dihydroxylation and products therefrom The problem with simple reduction of a porphyrin to a chlorin lies in the reversibility of the process. Methods for irreversible conversion to a chlorin were therefore investigated. Dihydroxylation of one of the double bonds of a porphyrin using osmium tetroxide was demonstrated on natural P-alkylated porphyrins by Fischer in 1940.51'52 Owing to the 21 asymmetrical nature of the starting material, a number of isomeric products were formed, corresponding to reaction at the 4 different (3-(3 double bonds. When performed on the symmetrical octaethylporphyrin, one product was formed, a stable chlorin (7), absorbing at 643 nm.53 By using an excess of osmium tetroxide, the tetrahydroxybacteriochlorin (8) was produced with an absorption at 712 nm (Scheme 1.8). Both of these compounds are potent in vivo photosensitizers. However, there is some doubt about their selectivity, as a related highly hydroxylated chlorin caused general sensitization in all tissues.53 i) Os04, py ii) H 2 S i) Os0 4, py ii) H 2 S O H C OH \ N = \ 1 H /> N - \ L Scheme 1.8 Osmium tetroxide hydroxylation of octaethylporphyrin A pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement of the chlorin diol occurs in acid to yield the (3-oxochlorin (9) (Scheme 1.9). If the original porphyrin is asymmetrically-substituted, 22 rearrangement leads to two products. The migratory aptitude of different substituents has been examined. 5 4 The (3-oxochlorins can also be synthesized directly from their parent porphyrins, using hydrogen peroxide in concentrated sulfuric acid. This reaction was first employed by Fischer, who reported that it gave rise to the epoxychlorin, 5 5 , 5 6 but this was shown to be in error several decades later. 5 7 However, the osmium tetroxide route, although longer, is the preferred method of preparing these compounds, as the more direct synthesis gives a complex mixture of many products, including di-, tri-, and tetra-ketones, all of which can exist as multiple isomers. Scheme 1.9 Pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement of (7) to give (9) The (3-oxochlorin (9) derived from octaethylporphyrin has been tested for use as a P D T agent, but was found to be inactive. 5 3 This compound can be manipulated further; for example, the carbonyl group reacts with alkyl lithium or Grignard reagents. It can also be reduced with sodium borohydride to give the alcohol, which can be converted to the bromo-derivative and reacted in situ with nucleophiles (Scheme 1.10). In this way, Adams et al. produced a series of functionalized chlorins for biological testing. 5 3 Unfortunately, a lack of selectivity towards target tissue makes the use of these derivatives as P D T photosensitizers unlikely. 23 Scheme 1.10 Reactions of the |3-oxochlorin (9) Only recently has the osmium tetroxide dihydroxylation of the tetraphenylporphyrins been explored.58 The reaction is slower with these compounds than with the (3-alkylated porphyrins, taking one week as compared to two days. The yield is approximately 50 %, with recovery of 40 % of the starting material. Various substituents on the phenyl groups or complexed metals do not affect the reaction. The diol chlorin products have a strong absorption peak at 644 nm, and are able to generate singlet oxygen when irradiated in solution at this frequency. No biological data are available for these compounds to date. 1.3.3 Diels-Alder reactions of natural porphyrins The ready availability of natural porphyrins such as protoporphyrin IX (2), isolated from blood, makes these compounds attractive starting materials for photosensitizers. However, their asymmetry precludes simple methods of chlorin formation, such as those described above. Instead, one or other of the functional groups present on the porphyrin must be exploited to increase the wavelength of absorption. 24 Protoporphyrin IX possesses two (3-vinyl groups conjugated to the (3-(3 double bonds. It is known that this conjugated diene system reacts with singlet oxygen in a [4+2] cycloaddition to give photoprotoporphyrin as a mixture of regioisomers (Scheme 1.11).59'60 C 0 2 H C 0 2 H (2) Scheme 1.11 Reaction of protoporphyrin IX with singlet oxygen This reactivity prompted investigations into the ability of activated dienophiles to participate in similar reactions with protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester.61"64 These experiments produced fair yields of chlorin adducts by [4+2] addition to reagents such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate (DMAD). On further study of the DMAD product, it was found that the 1,4 diene system (10) could be isomerized in base to give a chlorin with a conjugated 1,3 diene (11). This resulted in a 25 bathochromic shift of absorption from 666 nm in the 1,4 diene (10) to 688 nm in the 1,3 diene (11). This latter compound, with one of the methyl esters hydrolyzed to the free propionic acid group, known as benzoporphyrin derivative, monoacid ring A (BPDMA, (12), see Scheme 1.12), shows very good photosensitizing ability, and is currently in phase III clinical trials. C0 2Me C0 2Me (2) ' 1^ V - N N-f H H N-Me0 2 C-DMAD, A Me0 2 C / 7^ )—N N-f H H N-(+ ring B isomer) DBU Me0 2 C-Me0 2 C Acid hydrolysis N-f H H N-C0 2 R C0 2R' (12) Mixture of R = H, R' = Me and R = Me, R' = H C0 2Me C0 2Me (11) BPDMA Scheme 1.12 Synthesis of BPDMA (12) from protoporphyrin IX 26 However, both the synthesis and the drug itself possess certain non-ideal characteristics: there are two sites on protoporphyrin IX where adduct formation can, and does, take place. The two products, formed in equal amounts, must be separated, and only one of these is used for preparation of the drug. Another problem is encountered when hydrolyzing one of the propionic ester groups, as substantial quantities of diester and diacid are present in the hydrolysis mixture, and must be separated. Finally, BPDMA exists as a mixture of regioisomers, with one or other of the two propionic esters hydrolyzed, as well as being composed of two enantiomers. 1.3.4 Chlorins with exocyclic rings There are two major classes of chlorin which possess unsaturated exocyclic rings fused to the skeleton between a meso-position and its adjacent (3-position. When the exocyclic ring is 5-membered, the compound is known as a purpurin, whereas a 6-membered ring is indicative of a benzochlorin. Both purpurins and benzochlorins are synthesized by the intramolecular cyclization of meso-substituted porphyrins. In 1960 Woodward et al. described the first cyclization to yield a purpurin, during the successful synthesis of chlorophyll.4 The precursor was a meso-[P-(methoxycarbonyl)-vinyljporphyrin, which was refluxed in glacial acetic acid. The first octaethylpurpurin was synthesized in 1975 from me5,o-[(3-(2-methoxycarbonyl-2-carboxyl)vinyl]octaethyl-porphyrin by refluxing in toluene under a nitrogen atmosphere.65 This compound absorbs at 27 695 nm.66 A number of purpurins have shown photodynamic activity, but the most effective of this class of compounds appears to be tin etiopurpurin (15), formed by the cyclization of meso- [p-(2-ethoxycarbonyl)vinyl]etioporphyrin (13) followed by metallation with tin (IV) chloride (Scheme 1.13). This compound is currently in clinical trials.67' 6 8 (15) Scheme 1.13 Synthesis of tin etiopurpurin (15) The serendipitous synthesis of a benzochlorin was described by Arnold et al. in 1978.69 It was formed by the treatment of the nickel complex of meso-acrylaldehyde substituted octaethylporphyrin (Ni-16) with sulfuric acid (Scheme 1.14). The demetallated species (17) absorbs at 658 nm. Sulfonation of the benzo ring can be effected in concentrated sulfuric acid,70 and the resulting sulfonic acid group can be used for further derivatization.71 28 Alternatively, the metallated benzochlorin (M-17) can undergo reaction at the meso-position adjacent to the gem-diethyl group to yield a series of iminium salts (M-19).72 Scheme 1.14 Synthesis of octaethylbenzochlorin (17) and further reactions thereof 29 Both octaethylbenzochlorin (17), and its analogous sulfonic acid (18) show in vivo photodynamic activity.70 One of the aforementioned iminium salts ((M-19), R=CH3), as its copper complex, displayed surprising cell-killing power, despite the presence of the central metal. Copper is known to drastically reduce the triplet state lifetime of most porphyrins.73 Therefore it is proposed that this compound does not act via the conventional Type II singlet oxygen mediated mechanism, but rather via a Type I electron transfer process.72,74 Removal of the copper to give the free base results in an approximately 20-fold increase in in vitro cell-killing efficiency.75 1.3.5 Modifications of natural chlorins and bacteriochlorins One method of modifying natural porphyrins such as protoporphyrin IX has been described in Section 1.3.3. Another natural porphyrinic compound, chlorophyll, would seem to be an obvious choice as a photosensitizer, or as a precursor to one, because of its ubiquity and long-wavelength light absorption. Unfortunately, in most plants two forms of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a (20) and chlorophyll b (21) are present, in addition to a host of related pigments, making isolation of one component problematic. C0 2Phytyl C0 2 Me C0 2Phytyl C0 2 Me (20) (21) However, there are some species that contain little or no chlorophyll b, and it is from these Spirulina maxima algae that chlorophyll a is efficiently extracted.76 As an isolated species, this compound is prone to oxidation, and approaches utilizing natural chlorins as 30 photosensitizers have necessarily involved modifications to improve stability. One such modification results in the preparation of chlorin (22) by the treatment of chlorophyll a with strong base (Scheme 1.15). Chlorin e(, shows moderate in vivo activity.77 A more active derivative is the mono-aspartyl adduct (MACE) (23). The aspartyl group confers water-solubility on the chlorin; this compound is now undergoing clinical testing. (22) Chlorin e 6 : R = OH (23) MACE: R = NHCH(C0 2 H)CH 2 C0 2 H Scheme 1.15 Conversion of chlorophyll a to chlorin e<j and MACE Natural bacteriochlorins can be isolated from bacteria such as Rhodobacter capsulatus ,78 but the investigation of these compounds for PDT is hampered by the ease with which they undergo autoxidation. 1.3.6 Non-porphyrinic macrocycles A variety of macrocycles related to the porphyrins is being evaluated for use in PDT. The tetraazabenzoporphyrins, known more commonly as the phthalocyanines (24), have received the most attention to date. 31 These have been used extensively as pigments since the 1930s, and they are now being proposed for a multitude of applications, including PDT. Their greatest attraction as potential photosensitizers lies in their ideal light-absorbing properties (maximum absorption at 680 nm). Unfortunately, the chemistry of phthalocyanines is somewhat restrictive, making it difficult to add functionalities to the basic skeleton. Despite this limitation, a number of phthalocyanines have shown promise as PDT agents, and are undergoing biological testing. These include zinc phthalocyanine and aluminium phthalocyanine disulfonate. The sulfonated aluminium phthalocyanines were found to vary in activity according to their amphiphilicity; thus the hydrophobic compound with no sulfonate groups and the hydrophilic compound with four sulfonate groups showed lower efficiency in tumour photonecrosis than the amphiphilic disulfonate.79 One disadvantage of the disulfonated compound is that it consists of a mixture of regioisomers; HPLC characterization shows there are eight components.80 Porphycene (26) is an isomer of porphyrin with improved light absorption properties; although it absorbs at the same wavelength as Photofrin®, at 630 nm, its extinction coefficient at this wavelength is much higher. Biological studies on substituted porphycenes show some promising results.81 Unfortunately, the low yield of synthesis (achieved by McMurry self-coupling of the 5,5'-diformyl-2,2'-bipyrrole,82 Scheme 1.16) makes this class of compounds less than ideal as potential photosensitizers. 32 (26) Scheme 1.16 Preparation of the porphycenes Texaphyrins (27) are 187t-electron aromatic macrocycles formed by the condensation of diformyltripyrranes with o-phenylenediamines, followed by oxidation (Scheme 1.17). They absorb light above 700 nm. Complexes with lanthanum and lutetium have shown photodynamic ability in vivo, whilst the gadolinium complexes are possible contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.83 R R R R R R Scheme 1.17 Synthesis of the texaphyrins This section has described the more common methods for long-wavelength generation in porphyrin derivatives. However, there are many more techniques used to accomplish this 33 goal which have not been discussed in this thesis owing to space constraints. For a more comprehensive review, see Sternberg et al.84 1.4 Porphyrins conjugated to biologically-active molecules 1.4.1 Introduction Photodynamic therapy differs from most drug treatments in that the selectivity required to kill diseased cells without harming healthy tissue can be provided by targeting the light source exclusively at the tissue to be destroyed. Hence the ability of the photosensitizer itself to concentrate in diseased tissue is less crucial than in other therapies. However, drugs that produce general sensitization create problems such as skin photosensitivity. Compounds that concentrate in organs such as the liver and kidneys arid are not cleared for many weeks or months could cause long-term damage. Therefore it is highly desirable to develop a photosensitizer that has good localization in target tissue and a reasonably fast clearance rate. Another factor to be taken into consideration by pharmaceutical companies is one of cost. Most porphyrin-based photosensitizers are obtained via non-trivial syntheses, and hence are expensive. Obviously it would be more cost-effective to be able to administer a small quantity of a compound that has a strong affinity for the target site rather than to inject a much larger dose of a less specific drug. For these reasons, many groups have sought ways to improve the targeting of photosensitizers. Although a huge variety of approaches has been investigated, some of the most promising techniques involve exploiting or mimicking the specificity of certain biological molecules, which act only at very defined sites in the body. By attaching photosensitizers to these directing compounds, it was hoped that the conjugate would retain the targeting ability, and hence act more selectively than the unconjugated drug. The last ten years has seen the synthesis of numerous photosensitizer-conjugates. The major types will be reviewed briefly in the following pages. 34 1.4.2 Porphyrin-monoclonal antibody conjugates Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that have been raised specifically to recognize an antigen expressed by a certain type of cancer cell are ideal targeting agents for that cancer. The synthetic challenge is to devise a means of linking the photosensitizer to the antibody. A number of groups have explored this area of research. Hasan et al. used polyglutamic acid to link chlorin ee diamine monoamide to 2 different MAbs.85 They obtained conjugates with an average of 36 chlorin molecules per MAb, and found that these compounds displayed photophysical properties identical to those of the parent chlorin. Compared to the free MAb, binding of the conjugates to the antigen was 70 % lower. The conjugates exhibited high in vitro cytotoxicity to target cells after incubation and irradiation, and non-target cells were unaffected. Jiang et al. attached a chlorin, BPDMA (12) via a hexanediamine-modified polyvinyl-alcohol carrier to a MAb that binds to a glycoprotein associated with human squamous cell lung carcinoma.86 Interestingly, in vitro tests in which A549 cells and the conjugate were mixed in the absence of serum and incubated for 2 hours showed that the conjugate was taken up less efficiently by the cells than unconjugated BPDMA. Using a different cell line, the two preparations displayed equal cytotoxicity. However, when similar experiments were carried out in the presence of serum, the conjugate was superior in terms of cell-killing efficiency to the free chlorin, with an LD50 (the concentration of drug required to kill 50 % of the cells) ten times lower. Another study performed by Rakestraw et al. utilized tin chlorin ee (SnCe6) linked to a MAb via a dextran carrier.87 In vitro testing in the presence of serum showed that the conjugate bound to human malignant melanoma cells with a similar affinity to the free antibody. The cell-killing properties of the conjugate were many times greater than those of the unconjugated chlorin. However, spectral studies indicated that the antibody-bound chlorin had a lower singlet oxygen quantum yield than that in its free state; this decrease in ability to generate singlet oxygen was exacerbated by increasing the number of 35 chromophores attached to a single antibody. This may be explained by aggregation of the chlorin molecules, which reduces the lifetime of the excited singlet state of the photosensitizer. Similar photophysical results were obtained by Milgrom and O'Neill after they linked a tetraarylporphyrin to a M A b . 8 8 The conjugate displayed severe quenching of its fluorescence compared to the unconjugated porphyrin. It was proposed that this might be a consequence of hydrophobic interactions between the antibody and the porphyrin. To summarize, monoclonal antibodies have shown promise in providing a means of targeting photosensitizers to specific cancer cells. The attachment of the photosensitizer does not appear to affect the binding of the antibody to its antigen greatly. However, conjugation to the MAb may have a deleterious impact on the ability of the photosensitizer to produce singlet oxygen. 1.4.3 Porphyrin-nucleoside conjugates Photosensitizers which have been conjugated to nucleoside bases show high cytotoxicity to human malignant melanoma.89 The first report of such a compound involved the reaction of a hydroxyphenyl-triarylporphyrin with a tosylated uridine in the presence of base,90 and the same group later described further syntheses of related compounds,91 including the use of cationic porphyrins to give a series of water-soluble complexes, for example (28) 9 2 , 9 3 36 Hisatome et al. linked diphenyloctaalkylporphyrins to adenine and thymine. 9 4 Nucleoside conjugates are also of interest as antiviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infected blood. 9 5 With this possible therapeutic use in mind, Jiang et al. explored the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of vinyl porphyrins and chlorins with mercuriated nucleosides.8 6'9 6 Unfortunately, mixtures of trans- and gem-isomers were obtained which, although separable, resulted in the already poor yields being further diminished. Hence this synthetic route proved impractical. 1.4.4 Porphyrin-oligonucleotide conjugates The use of oligonucleotides as targeting agents for specific D N A or R N A sequences has been explored by researchers seeking ways to control gene expression.9 7 In order to be effective, the oligonucleotide must bind to its complementary sequence. Unfortunately such binding is reversible, effecting only temporary inactivation. It would be advantageous to be able to inflict irreversible damage on the target, in order to block its activity permanently. Photosensitizers are therefore attractive candidates for conjugation to oligonucleotides. •TTCTTCTCCTTTCT Studies involving the conjugation of various porphyrins and chlorins to oligonucleotides ranging in length from 7 to 19 nucleotide bases (e.g. (29)), have shed light on the efficacy and mode of action of such compounds after binding to nucleic acids and irradiation with an appropriate light source. Binding of even the shortest oligonucleotide was highly specific. 37 The photodamage observed primarily consisted of cross-linking and oxidation at the guanine bases of the target nucleic acid closest to the site of the bound conjugate.9 8'9 9 Guanine is known to be more reactive towards singlet oxygen than other bases, 1 0 0' 1 0 1 so this suggests singlet oxygen plays a major role in causing the observed photodamage. Single-stranded DNA was much more sensitive to degradation than double-stranded DNA. Zinc-complexed porphyrins were less effective in terms of yield of photo-cross-linked products than their non-metallated analogues.102 A cationic porphyrin and a lutetium texaphyrin were also shown to possess DNA-cleaving ability when linked to oligonucleotides.103'104 Thus in vitro tests show that conjugation to oligonucleotides imparts high targeting-specificity to photosensitizers and does not interfere significantly with their ability to generate singlet oxygen. 1.4.5 Porphyrin-DNA intercalator/cross-linker conjugates Approaches that involve less specific targeting of the DNA of a cell include work by the group of Mehta et al. whereby DNA-intercalating molecules such as acridone and phenothiazine were linked to simple tetraarylporphyrins.1 0 5'1 0 6 In the latter case, it was found that the nature of the linking group affected the biological activity of the conjugate significantly. In other studies, the D N A cross-linking agent chlorambucil was used to improve the photosensitizer's targeting ability and also to investigate the dark toxicity of such a compound. 1 0 7 Biological activity was evaluated by the extent to which the compounds nicked super-coiled plasmid DNA. No noticeable DNA nicking was seen in the absence of light, but after irradiation all porphyrin-chlorambucil conjugates displayed nuclease activity, irrespective of the linking group. Chlorambucil was also linked via cholic acid to the porphyrin in an attempt to exploit the membrane- and liver cell-affinities of the steroid.108 This conjugate (30) displayed superior nuclease activity over the non-conjugated analogue. 38 1.4.6 Porphyrin-carbohydrate conjugates The rationale for conjugating carbohydrate molecules to photosensitizers is more for the purposes of increasing the conjugate's water-solubility than for those of specific targeting. However, indirectly this may also have an important effect on the selectivity of the drug. Although the mechanism of photosensitizer-uptake is still unclear, it appears that amphiphilic compounds concentrate more selectively in tumours than hydrophobic or hydrophilic molecules. A porphyrin or chlorin skeleton is essentially hydrophobic; in order to convert such a macrocycle into an amphiphilic compound, it must be functionalized with one or more hydrophilic moieties. A carbohydrate molecule, with its abundance of hydroxyl groups, would impart hydrophilicity to a linked porphyrin. A variety of porphyrin-carbohydrate conjugates has been prepared.18'109"117 Adams etal. report the synthesis and in vivo testing of a chlorin-glucose conjugate.53 Although this compound proved to be a very efficient photosensitizer, causing destruction of tumour 39 tissue, it exhibited disappointing selectivity: extensive damage to healthy skin and muscle was observed concurrently with tumour photonecrosis. An interesting amphiphilic conjugate triad (31) was synthesized with a cholesterol molecule and a carbohydrate flanking opposite sides of a porphyrin.114 Here the hydrophobic properties of the porphyrin skeleton were augmented by linkage to the steroid; in this way the hydrophilic/hydrophobic parts of the molecule were clearly defined, and separated from one another at opposite sides of the porphyrin. This amphiphilic nature allowed for facile incorporation into phospholipid vesicles, which can be used as model systems for cell membranes. Hence this conjugate could prove to have good cell-membrane localizing abilities. Biological testing is currently underway. 1.4.7 Porphyrin-steroid conjugates There are two rationales behind the use of a steroid as a targeting agent; the first of these exploits the upregulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors that commonly accompanies many types of cancer.118 This occurs because cancer cells divide rapidly, and have a high cholesterol requirement in order to build new membranes. LDL is the major delivery agent of cholesterol to cells. A photosensitizer that resembles cholesterol in some way, for example by being conjugated to one or more cholesterol molecules, might be able 40 to make use of the L D L transport mechanism and so be delivered more efficiently to the cells than a non-conjugated analogue via the L D L receptors present on the surface of the cell. Estrogens and androgens, the sex hormones, provide a different type of targeting capability. These steroids cross the plasma membrane into the cell, and there bind to specific intracellular receptors. The steroid-receptor complex then binds to DNA whereupon the estrogenic or androgenic response is triggered.1 1 9 Sex hormone receptors are most abundant in tissue such as the breast, ovary, prostate and testes. When this tissue becomes cancerous, the number of receptors increases initially; in the case of breast cancer this increase is frequently as much as ten times the normal concentration.1 2 0 , 1 2 1 Photosensitizers linked to sex hormones would be directly targeted at the cell nucleus, although it seems likely that only those macrocycles with sufficient hydrophobicity to passively diffuse across the cell membrane would make useful conjugates, as the receptor is inside the cell rather than on the surface, as is the case with the L D L receptor. There are a few reports in the literature of studies into the conjugation of macrocycles with steroids for the purposes of PDT. Ke et al. created a series of tetraarylporphyrins linked via a carbonate or ester group to 2 or 4 cholesterol molecules.1 2 2 Hombrecher and Ohm also created a tetraarylporphyrin-cholesterol ester by transesterification.123 Segalla et al. synthesized a germanium phthalocyanine with 2 cholesterol axial ligands. 1 2 4 As mentioned in Section 1.4.6, Hombrecher and Schell developed a conjugate with a cholesterol molecule attached to one side of the porphyrin and a carbohydrate on the opposite side (31).125 Monforts et al. synthesized an estrone-linked chlorin (32).1 2 6 , 1 2 7 However, thus far little biological data have been presented to indicate whether such conjugates achieve their goal of improved targeting of cancer cells. 41 1.4.8 Porphyrin-peptide conjugates Certain cationic porphyrins have been demonstrated to bind strongly to DNA and to cause photodamage at the bound site.128 The group of Peree-Fauvet et al. sought to increase this DNA-binding affinity by functionalizing the porphyrin with short peptide chains.129 The amino acids were chosen to have strong interactions with the DNA bases flanking the intercalation site of the porphyrin. A series of compounds was synthesized possessing peptide side chains consisting of 1, 2 or 3 amino acids. Target compounds with histidine substituents were unable to be isolated: this was tentatively ascribed to the singlet oxygen quenching properties of imidazole leading to decomposition of the histidine residue. However, the conjugates displayed lowered affinity for DNA compared to the parent tetracationic porphyrin.130 This may result from the simple fact that the conjugates were tricationic, rather than tetracationic, as one of the cationic sites was used for conjugation. 1.4.9 Other porphyrin conjugates Porphyrin conjugates have been made for reasons other than improving biodistribution properties, and although not strictly relevant to the topic at hand, they are interesting in this context and will be described briefly. A report on the anti-viral effects of several merocyanine 540 dyes that found that viral inactivation was largely dependent on the functionalization of the barbituric acid part of the dye131 prompted Robinson and Morgan to investigate barbituric acid derivatives of 42 porphyrins and chlorins.132 The strongly electron-withdrawing barbituric acid group changes the conjugative pathway of the porphyrin and leads to a highly perturbed visible spectrum with a major absorption peak above 700 nm. A benzochlorin-barbituric acid conjugate displays an even greater spectral shift to 830 nm. These long-wavelength absorbing compounds show promising in vivo results against tumours. Interestingly, studies on the chlorin-thiobarbiturate conjugate (33) show that light absorption of this drug at the longer wavelength bands generated by the conjugation process lead to no phototoxic effect.133 Only irradiation at the absorption bands associated with the unconjugated chromophore was effective at killing cells. Hence in terms of improving the photophysical properties of a photosensitizer, conjugation to a barbituric acid appears to be unrewarding. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) uses the nuclear reaction between the 1 0 B isotope and thermal energy neutrons to generate toxic species such as cx-particles and 7 Li and to destroy diseased tissue.134 The short pathlength of oc-particles limits the damage to cells which contain a significant concentration of 1 0 B . One of the problems with this therapy is in the delivery of the boron compound to the tumour site. The tumour-localizing ability of porphyrins has been exploited by a number of groups as a means of transporting the boronated moiety.135"138 One example of such a compound is (34). In this approach the roles are reversed, and the porphyrin is used as the tumour-targeting molecule. 43 An intriguing study by Reddi et al. describes the synthesis and pharmacokinetics of a new fluorescent imaging agent.139 The desirable qualities of such a compound are good fluorescence, a strong affinity for the target tissue (in this case cancerous cells) and a lack of photosensitization. Porphyrins have good fluorescence properties and fair tumour-localizing properties. However, they are also good photosensitizers, which in this case is an undesirable property. This group took a simple tetraarylporphyrin and reduced its photosensitizing ability by conjugating it to a carotene. The electronic interaction between the two 71 -systems leads to an efficient quenching of the porphyrin triplet state by an electron transfer process. It was also proposed that if any triplet porphyrin were to escape carotene quenching and generate singlet oxygen, the carotene would be able to interact with the latter, resulting in the formation of triplet state carotene and ground state triplet oxygen. The conjugate (35) showed no photosensitizing activity and reasonable tumour-localizing ability. Unfortunately, the majority of the compound accumulated in the liver and spleen and was retained for at least 2 months with no sign of clearance. This fact limits the utility of the imaging agent and research is ongoing to produce a conjugate which is eliminated from the body more rapidly. 44 1.5 General summary Research into the development of porphyrins and related compounds for use as therapeutic photosensitizers is receiving much attention at present. Efforts at improving the light-absorbing and biological properties of potential drugs involve a great variety of approaches. Through these studies new macrocyclic systems have been synthesized that seem likely also to find applications outside PDT. Fine-tuning the biological behaviour of PDT agents continues to present a challenge. However, the creation of porphyrin-biomolecule conjugates and the biological data gained through their use should provide, a greater insight into the modes of action of these drugs. One problem that plagues the interpretation of these in vivo results is the lack of structurally-related compounds which can be compared with one another in a meaningful way to enable structure-activity relationships to be developed. General conjugation methods that allow the simple synthesis of such series of drugs would aid this pursuit greatly. 45 CHAPTER TWO Synthesis of Cholesterol-Conjugated Photosensitizers 46 2.1 Introduction This project sets out to develop porphyrin-based photosensitizers with more selective diseased-cell targeting properties than Photofrin® and other drugs currently being used in the clinic, and also improved light absorption characteristics. This chapter describes the initial attempts made by this group to solve the biodistribution problem. Methods used in this pursuit by other groups broadly fall into two categories: chemical manipulation of the macrocycle, and preassociation of the drug with various transport vehicles (e.g. LDL, liposomes).118'140 The former approach is of greater interest from a chemical point of view. Studies in this field can also be subdivided into two major areas: one involves modifications to increase the amphiphilicity of the drug, as it appears that amphiphilic compounds are generally more tumour-selective than purely hydrophobic or hydrophilic ones.141 The other relies on conjugation of the macrocycle to a biologically-specific targeting molecule. Bioconjugation presents a particularly elegant solution to the problem; Chapters Two and Three of this thesis describe our work in this area. The main classes of bioconjugates used in PDT research are described in Chapter One. Monoclonal antibody conjugates have been studied extensively and have shown some promise, but there is one major drawback to these compounds: they do not exist as single products, but as an average of "n" photosensitizers per antibody. As the intention was to improve upon the oligomeric mixture Photofrin®, another mixture with reproducibility problems was not desirable. Other conjugation methods involving nucleotides and peptides seem suited to a more biochemical approach than a purely chemical one. However, very little work had been done on the conjugation of steroids, and this area was felt to merit further investigation. The conjugation of steroidal compounds was attractive for various reasons. Firstly, steroids are relatively simple, chemically-defined structures with a limited number of functional groups available for derivatization. Secondly, there is a variety of steroids with different sites of action in the body, allowing for the preparation of a series of differently-47 targeted drugs after the development of a general conjugation method. Thirdly, steroid receptors are often up-regulated in tumorous tissue,118'120'121,140 making steroids promising tumour-targeting agents. At the time that this research was being contemplated, there existed few reports of steroid-photosensitizer conjugates, and those that did appear in the literature122'123'126 gave virtually no biological data to indicate whether such compounds did indeed display improved targeting abilities. Hence further investigations in this area seemed worthwhile. A general method for synthesizing photosensitizer-steroid conjugates with linkages that would be stable both to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis was particularly desirable: two of the three reports mentioned above involve ester linkages between the two moieties, and the third is ether-linked. Both cholesterol and the sex hormones were of interest as potential targeting agents. Owing to the more general targeting nature of cholesterol, in addition to its ready and cheap availability as a starting material, initial investigations were performed exclusively on this steroid; subsequent studies involving the estrogens and androgens will be described in Chapter Three. 2.2 Literature review of porphyrin-steroid conjugate syntheses In addition to those PDT-related projects mentioned above and in Section 1.4.7, there are several cases of porphyrin-steroid conjugates reported in the literature, the majority of these possessing ester linkages between the two molecules. Such compounds have been made for a variety of uses. One of these is for the structure determination of natural products: many sea and lake sediments contain porphyrinic compounds such as chlorophyll esterified to cholesterol,142"144 formed during the herbivory of marine diatoms by zooplankton. The synthetic work was performed in order to have standards for HPLC-MS comparison.145 48 In the field of site-specific catalysis, cholesterol molecules have been used to anchor a metalloporphyrin within a synthetic lipid bilayer. The porphyrin then catalyzed the regioselective oxidation of various steroid substrates incorporated in the membrane.146,147 Other studies in a similar area involve the remote oxidation of a steroidal hydrocarbon bond using catalysis by a metalloporphyrin bonded to that steroid.148 The rigidity of the steroid skeleton has been exploited in spectroscopic studies where two or more porphyrin chromophores were held at fixed distances from one another by attachment at particular positions on the steroid, and their absorption properties were investigated. 149>150 A synthetic receptor was constructed from a metalloporphyrin capped by a dimeric steroid. This was found to bind sugars.151 A molecular bowl consisting of a macrocyclic steroidal array with a metalloporphyrin base selectively bound morphine.152 The above reports encompass a great diversity of steroid-linked porphyrin molecules. Despite this abundance of data, none of these studies employed techniques that would generate a hydrolytically stable linkage. The development of a general method for creating such a linkage was an important step towards our goal. 2.3 The displacement of a leaving group on cholesterol by a porphyrin nucleophile Cholesterol (40) is a secondary alcohol with one double bond, and no other functional groups . The most obvious site for derivatization is at the hydroxyl group, and this is the position which was used in the esterification reactions described above. As a more stable conjugate was desired, the route involving displacement of a leaving group on the steroid by a 49 nucleophile such as an aminoporphyrin was studied. Cholesterol was converted to its p-toluenesulfonyl ester according to literature methods in good y i e l d . 1 5 3 This was then treated with a solution of an aminoporphyrin, but no reaction occurred. A s this lack of reactivity could be caused by the bulky porphyrin molecule preventing close approach to the steroid, the same reaction was attempted using a diamine, 1,6-hexanediamine. This would give a cholesterol molecule with a long-chain amine handle, which could then be linked to a porphyrin without steric hindrance. However, this attempt led to very poor yields, and so was discontinued. It appeared that the /?-tosyl ester was not a goodenough leaving group and so it was replaced by the more reactive trifluoromethanesulfonyl ester. This was prepared and treated in situ with the diamine, but once again, no significant quantity of product was isolable. Therefore a different solution to the problem was sought. 2.4 The use of cholesterol alkoxide as a nucleophile The next study involved making use of a cholesterol alkoxide group as a nucleophile to displace a leaving group on the porphyrin, thus generating an ether link. Cholesterol was converted to its alkoxide using sodium metal. It was then added to a solution of a porphyrin containing an easily displaced benzylic bromine atom (Scheme 2.1). The mixture was stirred at 0°C for one hour, quenched with a large quantity of water and worked up. Unfortunately the product upon analysis proved to be the porphyrin alcohol, i.e. the compound formed by displacement of the bromine atom by hydroxide, indicating that prior to the work-up, no reaction had taken place between the porphyrin and cholesterol. Scheme 2.1 Attempted displacement of a benzylic bromine atom by cholesterol alkoxide 50 Another use of the cholesterol alkoxide was made in an effort to displace a para-fluorine atom from zinc tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (Zn-42) to give the O-cholesterol para-substituted product (Scheme 2.2). A group working on novel oxidation catalysts describes the use of a series of nucleophiles ranging from amines to alkoxides to thiols to displace the fourpara-fluoro-substituents in (Zn-42), giving a number of tetra-substituted derivatives in excellent yields.154 A mixture of the porphyrin, cholesterol and lithium hydride was refluxed overnight, but on monitoring the reaction by TLC, mostly starting material remained. Refluxing was continued for several days, after which the reaction was worked up. A preparative plate was used to separate the most prominent product band from the starting material, and < 5 % product was obtained. This was analyzed by mass spectrometry and gave the correct mass for the compound (Zn-43) with one cholesterol molecule attached. However, this product appeared to be unstable, as subsequent analysis by TLC showed the presence of many compounds. The reaction was repeated using a larger excess of cholesterol, but after 6 days refluxing there was no evidence of any product formation, and this preparation was abandoned. Scheme 2.2 Attempted displacement of a para- fluorine atom by cholesterol alkoxide 51 2.5 Reactions of cholesteryl chloroformate with nucleophiles The problems encountered so far appeared to be caused by the poor reactivity of the cholesterol derivatives used. A functionalized cholesteryl derivative that would be more amenable to linkage formation was required. Cholesteryl chloroformate (44) is such a compound. This reagent is described in the literature as being useful for forming solid derivatives of amines suitable for characterization.155'156 It is made by the reaction between phosgene and cholesterol157 (Scheme 2.3); much of the original literature on this compound is contained in studies of the effects of the chemical weapon, phosgene, used in the First World War, on various biological components, cholesterol amongst them.158,159 However, the reagent is now studied for its more benign uses, and is commercially available. Scheme 2.3 Preparation of cholesteryl chloroformate (44) Three porphyrin amines, (45), (46) and (47), were prepared and condensed with cholesteryl chloroformate to give the three carbamate conjugates. The amines were chosen for the following reasons: compound (45) was used because it is one of the simplest porphyrins to prepare with a single amino functionality, being accessed via mononitration of tetraphenyl-porphyrin (5), followed by reduction of the nitro group.25 Compound (46) was designed to ascertain whether there would be a significant difference in condensation reactivity between an aromatic amine and an aliphatic amine (the para-ethyl groups were present in an attempt to increase the solubility of the porphyrin). 52 N H 2 C H 2 N H 2 Ph Ph Ph-J Ph (45) The third and most complex porphyrin used, (47), was a derivative of the compound benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) which is currently in clinical trials as its monoacid ( B P D M A ) (12). This amine was chosen as there is a wealth of data on the biodistribution of B P D M A , and so direct comparisons would be possible with the resulting carbamate. Unfortuately, the synthesis of the amine from the dimethyl ester of B P D ( B P D - D M E ) creates a chiral centre. There are already two chiral centres in the original molecule, but as the methyl and methoxycarbonyl groups exist only in their trans -conformation with respect to one another, the starting material is present as a pair of enantiomers. The product amine, with its extra chiral centre, has two diastereomeric forms, each consisting of two enantiomers. The diastereomers can be separated by careful preparative chromatography, and two diastereomeric carbamates can be synthesized. C 0 2 M e (47) C 0 2 M e C 0 2 M e 53 The condensations progressed slowly at room temperature and were complete after 3 to 4 days. Yields were approximately 50 % in each case. Using this linking method, the three carbamates (48), (49) and (50) were prepared. C0 2 Me C0 2Me (50) Although the conjugations using this methodology were successful, and this appears to be a reaction that can be applied to any porphyrin possessing an amine group, it is not an ideal solution: the aim had been to produce conjugates more hydrolytically stable than the 54 corresponding esters, but the carbamate linkage is also susceptible to hydrolysis. Therefore the search continued for a more robust method to join the two moieties. 2.6 Wittig reactions between porphyrins and cholesterol The Wittig reaction provides a simple method for joining two molecules, provided that one of these compounds possesses a carbonyl group and the other can be converted into a phosphonium halide. It gives rise to a double bond, which, although meeting the desirable criterion of stability to hydrolysis, is less than ideal as it generates geometric isomers, unless the porphyrin is symmetrical about the carbonyl group. However, this problem can be remedied by hydrogenation of the double bond. Many porphyrins can be formylated either at free (3- or meso- positions under Vilsmeier conditions of phosphoryl chloride and dimethylformamide. Cholesteryl bromide can be converted to its triphenylphosphonium salt (51) by heating in a melt with triphenyl-phosphine.160 Hence the starting materials were available to perform a study into the feasibility of connecting various porphyrins to cholesterol via the Wittig reaction. The first porphyrin to be studied was tetraphenylporphyrin (5). This can be formylated as its copper complex at one of the free (3-positions.161 Although a large excess of Vilsmeier reagent is used, only the monoformyl product (M-52) is obtained because the initially -formed iminium salt (M-53), which must be hydrolyzed by base to give the formyl product, is positively charged, and hence is not susceptible to further attack by the electrophilic Vilsmeier reagent (Scheme 2.4). The free base porphyrin is not reactive to this reagent, and the copper or nickel chelate must be used. Copper is more easily removed from the porphyrin after formylation, and so was used in preference to nickel. 55 Scheme 2.4 Resistance of the TPP iminium salt to further electrophilic attack The Wittig reaction was carried out on the copper formylporphyrin (Cu-52), using an excess of the cholesteryl phosphonium salt and n-butyllithium as the base. After 30 mins at room temperature the reaction was complete, and the product (Cu-54) was isolated in 75 % yield as a mixture of geometric isomers. Copper was removed from the product by brief treatment with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and trifluoroacetic acid. However, the demetallated product (54) turned out to be prone to decomposition, especially when kept in solution in the light. With time the visible spectrum of this solution became progressively more chlorin-like (long-wavelength absorption increasing in intensity and moving from 656 nm to 670 nm), suggesting that photooxidation had taken place. This is a common occurrence with free base porphyrins possessing a vinyl group at a p-position. For example, protoporphyrin IX undergoes photooxidation in solution to give photoprotoporphyrin IX 56 (see Chapter One, 1.3.3). This involves an ene reaction with singlet oxygen, followed by rearrangement to give the chlorin product.59,60 Copper porphyrins do not undergo such decomposition because the lifetime of the sensitizer's triplet state (the sensitizer triplet being the species responsible for the formation of singlet oxygen) is greatly reduced by the presence of the transition metal and hence the amount of singlet oxygen produced is minimal. The free base porphyrin-cholesterol conjugate (54) can react with singlet oxygen in a similar way to protoporphyrin IX, giving rise to the product (55) shown in Scheme 2.5. Unfortunately the photoproduct was not stable enough to be isolated and characterized; otherwise, it would have been an interesting conjugate in itself, as it has a chlorin structure and hence improved light absorption properties. Scheme 2.5 Photooxidation of (54) 57 The next porphyrin upon which the coupling was attempted was meso-formyloctaethyl-porphyrin as its copper complex (Cu-56). This compound was prepared from copper octaethylporphyrin in a similar way to the tetraphenylporphyrin analogue. It is known to undergo Wittig reactions with simple reagents such as allyl triphenylphosphonium chloride and benzyl triphenylphosphonium choride.69 However, under identical conditions to those used above, no reaction was observed with cholesteryl triphenylphosphonium bromide. This is most likely caused by the porphyrin (3-ethyl groups preventing the approach of the sterically bulky cholesterol Wittig reagent. These results show that the Wittig reaction is a viable method of achieving the desired conjugation, but that the outcome is governed by steric constraints, and the demetallated product may not be stable if it contains a (3-vinyl group. The latter does not appear so intractable a problem as the former, as if the vinyl group of the metalloporphyrin were reduced before removal of the metal, photooxidation could be avoided. Although simple porphyrins had been used as model compounds, ultimately the intention was to synthesize cholesterol conjugates of longer-wavelength absorbing chromophores, such as chlorins. Hence the next target molecule was a cholesterol conjugate of octaethylbenzochlorin (17), an easily synthesized compound with good solubility and light absorption properties. Copper octaethylbenzochlorin can be prepared in two steps from copper octaethylporphyrin (Scheme 2.6).162 The next obvious step would be to formylate this product and use it in the Wittig reaction. However, although the formylation step can be achieved without problem, giving one major isomer (Cu-57), with the formyl group at the meso-position next to the reduced pyrrole ring, under basic conditions the formyl group , tends to be lost and the non-formylated compound is recovered. Even if this were not the case, the approach of the cholesteryl group is hindered by the (3-ethyl substituents, and so the reaction would be unlikely to meet with success. 58 Scheme 2.6 Formation of (Cu-17) and subsequent formylation However, a formylated derivative of copper octaethylbenzochlorin that is more stable to basic conditions, (Cu-58), the vinylogous analogue of the simple formyl compound, can be synthesized in good yield using a vinylogous Vilsmeier reaction (Scheme 2.7).162 C H O Scheme 2.7 Vinylogous Vilsmeier reaction of (Cu-17) 59 As this derivative possesses a longer tether between the porphyrin ring and the aldehyde group, the steric crowding preventing the cholesteryl group from approaching the aldehyde would be lower than in the case of the simple formyl analogue, and the Wittig reaction with this compound would be expected to be more successful. (Cu-58) was prepared and subjected to the Wittig reaction using two equivalents of cholesteryl triphenylphosphonium bromide. Reaction was slow, but a less polar product (Cu-59) was obtained in 26 % yield which had the correct mass ion in the mass spectrum (Scheme 2.8). Another trial using 8 equivalents of the Wittig reagent was run, which gave a much improved yield of 95 %. An attempt was made to demetallate the product using 15 % concentrated sulfuric acid in trifluoroacetic acid. A number of compounds were isolated from this reaction, including starting material and copper octaethylbenzochlorin, but the more polar fraction isolated proved by mass spectrometry to be the desired product (59). y> (Cu-58) Scheme 2.8 Formation of the cholesterol conjugate (Cu-59) 60 An attempt was made to demetallate (Cu-58) before performing the conjugation, in the hope that this compound would be less sensitive to the acid conditions than the conjugate (Cu-59). Unfortunately 15 % H 2 S O 4 in TFA was not sufficiently strong to effect the demetallation, whilst stronger conditions led to a mixture of starting material and a less polar compound with an isobacteriochlorin spectrum (long-wavelength absorption at 626 nm). This was shown to be copper dibenzoisobacteriochlorin (Cu-60), formed by acid-catalyzed cyclization of the vinylogous aldehyde side chain, leading to the creation of a second benzene ring (Scheme 2.9). Thus it appears that cyclization occurs before demetallation, so demetallation of the vinylogous aldehyde is not a viable option. CHO Scheme 2.9 Acid-catalyzed cyclization of (Cu-58) As removal of the complexed metal was problematic, the same reactions were perfomed using the nickel complex, which allowed characterization of the product by Iff NMR spectrometry. By using a 6-fold excess of the Vilsmeier reagent, approximately quantitative yields of the conjugate (Ni-59) were obtained. This compound was subjected to catalytic hydrogenation over palladium on charcoal. However, it proved difficult to either exhaustively reduce all three double bonds, or to produce one single compound from these reduction experiments. According to mass spectral data, after three hours of catalytic hydrogenation, a compound possessing two double bonds was the major product, whereas when the conjugate was subjected to reduction overnight, the product with one double bond 61 predominates. It appears from NMR that the unsaturation that resists reduction is the A5 double bond of the cholesterol moiety. Unfortunately the compounds obtained from these experiments were not pure, consisting of mixtures in varying proportions of the partially-reduced species, which were inseparable by chromatography. The problems experienced during demetallation and catalytic hydrogenation of the Wittig products make this method of conjugation an impractical one, and so this area of research was not pursued further. 2.7 Summary This chapter describes efforts made to develop a generally applicable method for conjugating cholesterol to both simple and more complex porphyrins and chlorins. Cholesteryl chloroformate was found to be an effective reagent for forming conjugates with aromatic and aliphatic aminoporphyrins. These conjugations occur under mild conditions, making this a particularly useful method for linking sensitive macrocycles. Another partially successful conjugation technique involved the use of the Wittig reaction. This method has shown itself to be limited by steric constraints, as copper meso-formyloctaethylporphyrin failed to react. In cases where the carbonyl group was not sterically blocked to approach by the cholesteryl Wittig reagent, the reaction was very successful. However, the creation of geometric isomers renders this method an impractical one, and attempts to remedy this problem by catalytic hydrogenation to give a single product were unsuccessful. 62 CHAPTER THREE Halogenation and Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions as a Conjugation Method 63 3.1 Introduction In Chapter Two two successful methods for attaching a cholesterol molecule to the porphyrin nucleus were described. However, these methods are less than ideal; the carbamates thus produced do not possess the desired stability, whilst the Wittig products, although hydrolytically stable, exist as a mixture of isomers that could not be reduced to a single compound. The most desirable linking system would be a carbon-carbon single bond between steroid and porphyrin. At this time we became aware of studies by DiMagno et al. into the use of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions between brominated porphyrins and organometallic reagents.163,164 This group successfully derivatized the zinc complexes of 2-bromotetraphenylporphyrin (Zn-70) and 5,15-dibromodiphenylporphyrin (Zn-71) to obtain 2-alkyl, -aryl and -vinyl substituted tetraphenylporphyrins, and 5,15-di-alkyl, -aryl, -vinyl and -pyridyl substituted diphenylporphyrins (Figure 3.1). Ph Ph Figure 3.1 Substituted porphyrins resulting from palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of the brominated derivatives 64 These types of coupling reactions, requiring mild conditions and giving high yields, appeared potentially useful for forming porphyrin-steroid conjugates. However, the necessity of using organo-tin or -zinc compounds as coupling materials reduced the practicality of this method. Therefore the literature was examined in an effort to find related reactions which would allow the conjugation of simple organic molecules. Heck's group reported that organopalladium compounds could be prepared in situ from aryl halides and palladium salts, and that these, in the presence of a tertiary amine, would arylate alkenes (Scheme 3.1).165 - 2 P P h 3 Ar-X + P d ( P P h 3 ) 4 ^ PPh I 3 H2C=CHY A r - P d - P P h a . p p h 3 * X H2C=CHY A r - P d - P P h 3 X Ar—C=CHY H + P d ( P P h 3 ) 4 + Et3NHX Et3N I | H—C—C—Y 3 P P h 3 I I Ar P d - P P h 3 X Scheme 3.1 Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between alkenes and aryl halides This reaction was later extended to the arylation of terminal alkynes by Diercks et al., who prepared hexaalkynyl-substituted benzenes, using a dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)-palladium(II)/cuprous iodide catalyst (Scheme 3.2).166 Further investigations revealed that terminal alkynes and aryl iodides were more reactive than alkenes and aryl bromides.167 In addition to this favourable reactivity, the use of alkynes rather than alkenes was attractive to us for two reasons: firstly, their use would lead to single isomer conjugates, in contrast to 65 the alkene products, which could exist as geometric isomers. Secondly, a number of steroidal hormones with terminal-ethynyl groups are commercially available. I fPha A r - P d - P P h 3 + 2CulCI X P P h 3 A r - P d - P P h 3 + C u C = C R X A r — C = C — R + " P d ( P P h 3 ) 2 " Scheme 3.2 Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between terminal alkynes and aryl halides The rationale for synthesizing cholesterol-photosensitizer conjugates was to improve the photosensitizer's tumour-targeting abilities by exploiting the increased cholesterol requirement of the dividing cells. The use of other steroids such as estradiol and testosterone would allow specific targeting of particular tissues rich in receptors for those steroids. In the early stages of breast cancer, the cancerous cells express an increased number of estrogen receptors, approximately ten times the level found in normal breast tissue.121 At this stage of the disease, anti-estrogens such as tamoxifen are often administered; this therapy is effective because the anti-estrogens block the receptor to endogenous estrogens such as estradiol, which stimulate the proliferation of established cancer cells. A photosensitizer-estrogen conjugate might prove to be a more effective drug, as it would kill the cancerous cells, rather than simply suppressing their growth. Another potential use for such a conjugate would be in determining the estrogen receptor levels in cancerous tissue, by H C E C R » C u C E C R E t 3 N + E t 3 N H I P d " C I 2 ( P P h 3 ) 2 + A r X + 2Cul C u X P P h 3 A r - P d - P P h 3 C III C I R 66 acting as a fluorescent imaging agent. As the disease progresses the cells become unresponsive to anti-estrogens, because of a loss of receptors. It is important to know whether a cancer is receptor-positive or receptor-negative in order to determine what treatment will be effective, and imaging agents that bind to estrogen-receptors are useful for ascertaining this receptor status. For these reasons there was great interest in studying the palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings of bromoporphyrins with steroidal hormones. However, experiments indicated that the coupling between 5,15-dibromodiphenylporphyrin and a simple alkyne did not occur under mild conditions. This prompted the replacement of the bromoporphyrin by the more reactive iodoporphyrin. Unfortunately, the iodination of porphyrins is a non-trivial matter, and so research into the preparation of such starting materials was required before their usefulness in Heck-type coupling reactions could be evaluated. 3.2 The iodination of porphyrins Halogenation of porphyrins has been well studied, but there are few instances of successful iodination. A number of groups have attempted to iodinate octaethylporphyrin (4) under various conditions, 168>169 but without success. Similarly, tetraphenylporphyrin (5) failed to give an isolable (3-iodinated product.168 More successful were iodinations of deuteroporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (72) and deuteroporphyrin III dimethyl ester; in these reactions (3-iodination was observed.170'171 An indirect method for iodinating (Zn-72) was employed by Minnetian et al. , 1 7 2 via iodine/sodium iodide treatment of the chloromercurio-porphyrin (Scheme 3.3). 67 C 0 2 M e C 0 2 M e Scheme 3.3 Indirect iodination of a porphyrin via the chloromercurio intermediate The difficulty experienced in forming the desired iodoporphyrin appears to arise, at least in part, from the inability of the bulky iodine atom to approach the periphery of the porphyrin; in those cases where there is less steric hindrance, e.g. deuteroporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (72), where both the adjacent (3- and mesc-positions are unsubstituted, iodination is successful. It was felt that the use of 5,15-diphenylporphyrin (73) as the iodination substrate might lead to good results, as the two unsubstituted sides of this molecule are sterically open to reaction. It has already been shown that dibromination of this molecule occurs readily at the two meso -positions.164 Both the products of mono- and di-iodination were potentially interesting: monoiodination would leave a free meso-position which could be functionalized further to alter the chromophore or to change the lipophilicity of the conjugate. A series of conjugates with different physical properties could thus be 68 produced, allowing structure-activity relationships to be determined. The diiodo compound was expected to be more easily synthesized, as an excess of iodinating agent would presumably lead to this product, uncontaminated with starting material or monoiodo-porphyrin, and so laborious chromatography could be avoided. Hence the intention was to develop an efficient iodination procedure for diphenylporphyrin, and to produce quantities of the mono- and di-iodinated species sufficient to allow the study of subsequent coupling reactions with terminal alkynes. 3.3 The iodination of 5,15-diphenylporphyrin A variety of iodination methods are known,173 some requiring the use of quite harsh conditions such as nitric or iodic acid, which are used to oxidize the HI formed in the reaction and thus prevent it from reducing the electrophilic attacking species. It was desirable to avoid such harsh conditions because diphenylporphyrin is prone to acid-catalyzed ring opening, as evidenced by the lower yields obtained during the synthesis of this porphyrin when the reaction period before neutralization of the acid is lengthened. Therefore the initial studies involved mild iodination conditions. The dibromination of diphenylporphyrin (73) was achieved by the use of excess N-bromosuccinimide. It therefore seemed logical to attempt the analogous iodination with the analogous reagent, N-iodosuccinimide (NIS). Using this reagent, a less polar compound was formed, as seen by TLC. However, the reaction progressed very slowly, and a large excess of NIS was necessary to drive it to completion. The resulting product was shown by mass spectrometry to be the diiodinated species (74), but the H^ NMR spectrum was not that of a single compound; it appeared to consist of at least two isomers, with one iodine at the meso-position and the other on one of two possible (3-positions (given the size of the iodine atom, it seems likely that the two iodine atoms are on opposite sides of the molecule, in the less sterically constrained configurations). The two isomers were inseparable by chromatography, and their presence in similar amounts precluded recrystallization. 69 Modelling studies suggest that it is not simply steric factors that prevent the attack of the iodinating species at the second meso-position, as the diiodinated compound does not experience severe steric crowding. Electronic effects are likely to play an important role. The presence of an iodine atom at one mew-position would reduce the electron density at the opposite mew-position, compared with the unsubstituted porphyrin. The cross-conjugated (3-(3 double bonds would be protected from the iodine atom's electron-withdrawing effect as they are not part of the conjugation pathway. Thus one can explain the preference for the second iodination to occur at the more electron-rich P-positions. However, this does not account for the fact that bromination occurs solely at the two meso-positions. If the same argument were to be applied in this case, the presence of one meso-bromine atom on the porphyrin would deactivate the opposite mew-position to further electrophilic attack more strongly than would an iodine atom, bromine being more electronegative than iodine. Possibly this effect is countered by the increased electrophilicity of the bromonium ion compared with the iodonium ion. The three factors of steric effects, electron-withdrawing properties of the mono-halide substituent and electrophilicity of the halogenating agent all seem likely to be important in determining the outcome of the dihalogenation reaction. As the reaction with NIS was very slow and required large excesses of iodinating agent, other methods for effecting the transformation were sought. A reagent that would react stoicheometrically was especially desirable, as this would enable monoiodinations to be performed by controlling the amount of reagent used, something that would be difficult to do with the NIS procedure. Iodine monochloride was the next reagent assayed: reaction occurred faster than with NIS and led to a less polar product. However, mass spectral data indicated that chlorination rather than iodination had occurred. This is a common side-reaction of a number of electrophilic substitutions involving a reagent that possesses a chlorine atom: for instance, Johnson and Oldfield obtained the meso-chloro product when attempting to formylate 70 etioporphyrin as its free base with DMF/phosphoryl chloride,174 whilst in our hands a cyanation of octaethylbenzochlorin using chlorosulfonylisocyanate led to a mixture of chlorinated products. The next iodination attempt employed the reagents iodine and bis(trifluoroacetoxy)-iodobenzene. The interaction of these leads to the formation of trifluoroacetylhypoiodide, which effects the iodination (Scheme 3.4).175 l 2 + (CF 3 C0 2 ) 2Ph l • 2 C F 3 C 0 2 I + Phi Scheme 3.4 Formation of the iodinating species from iodine and bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene Two equivalents of iodine were used together with a slight excess of bis-(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene, and in half an hour at room temperature all the starting material had been consumed. The product had the same Rf as that obtained using NIS, and analysis by NMR showed that the same isomeric mixture had been formed. As diiodination produced an isomeric mixture, it appeared the monoiodo compound would have to be used as the substrate for the development of a good conjugation method. Consequently the iodination reaction was run using only one equivalent of iodinating agent; this gave rise to a statistical mixture of starting material, monoiodinated and diiodinated porphyrins, with the desired compound as the major product. These could be separated by chromatography, although the diiodinated compound has poor solubility and hence exhibits a tendency to streak throughout the column. On optimizing this reaction it was found that the use of 1.5 equivalents of iodine and 1.8 equivalents of bis-(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene leads to an isolated yield of 10-iodo-5,15-diphenylporphyrin (75) of approximately 50 %. Octaethylporphyrin (4), octaethylbenzochlorin (17) and protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester were subjected to these same iodination conditions, but without success. It seems likely in these cases that steric factors are responsible for the failure of this reaction. 71 3.4 Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 10-iodo-5,15-diphenylporphyrin The conditions reported for the coupling of terminal alkynes with aryl bromides or iodides require the use of a dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)/cuprous iodide catalyst.167'176 Copper readily inserts into free base porphyrins, and in order to avoid obtaining the desired product as its copper complex, which would be hard to demetallate, the iodoporphyrin was metallated with zinc before attempting the coupling reaction (zinc can be removed from a porphyrin under much milder acidic conditions than can copper). Palladium insertion was not expected to present a problem as palladium complexation requires high temperature conditions.17615 Investigations of the utility of the zinc iodoporphyrin (Zn-75) as a substrate for palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions initially made use of the simple alkyne l-butyn-3-ol, as it was anticipated that the resulting product would be easily distinguishable from the starting material by its greater polarity on TLC. After the reagents were stirred in THF/ triethylamine solution at room temperature under nitrogen for two hours, a more polar compound was seen on TLC. The purified product was analyzed by mass spectrometry and lH NMR, and was shown to be the coupled compound (Zn-76a) (Scheme 3.5). OJO CUI'E,3N (Zn-75) O H (Zn-76a) Scheme 3.5 Coupling of (Zn-75) with l-butyn-3-ol The reaction was repeated using a variety of simple alkynes, such as phenylacetylene, propynal(diethylacetal), 1-octyne and trimethylsilylacetylene.177 These all gave satisfactory 72 results. The latter reagent gave the trimethylsilyl-protected ethynylporphyrin, which could be deprotected using tetrabutylammonium fluoride to afford the meso-ethynylporphyrin. 1,7-Octadiyne was also subjected to the coupling conditions; this gave a good yield of the product with one porphyrin molecule attached to the alkyne rather than the dimer which would result from reaction of an iodoporphyrin with both alkynyl functionalities of the reagent. This is most likely due to the low concentration conditions made necessary by the poor solubility of the porphyrin. After the conditions were optimized using simple alkynes, the conjugation of steroids was attempted. A number of estrogen and androgen derivatives with ethynyl groups at the 17-position are commercially available. Initial reactions were run using a large excess of 17-ethynylestradiol (Scheme 3.6), and the formation of a more polar product was observed, but the reaction progressed more slowly than the previous couplings with simple alkynes. This is presumably a result of the much larger steroid molecule finding approach to the porphyrin periphery more difficult than the smaller alkynes. However, after the reaction mixture was stirred for 24 hours at room temperature the coupling had progressed far enough to give substantial quantities of product, and on work-up and analysis, the product was shown to be the desired one (Zn-77a). Scheme 3.6 The first palladium-catalyzed coupling of a steroid with an iodoporphyrin 73 The reaction was repeated using other steroids, and found to be generally applicable.177 There was only one case where an unexpected result was observed: when ethynodiol diacetate was used in the coupling reaction, two products were seen in the crude reaction mixture on monitoring by TLC. These products appeared to exist in different proportions, but on purification of the mixture by chromatography on silica, the proportions changed, suggesting that one product is formed by acid-hydrolysis of the other. After analysis of the two compounds, that which was initially the major product of the reaction, according to TLC of the solution before work-up, was found to be the expected product (Zn-77b). The other, which became the major component after work-up and chromatography, was the coupled compound formed by elimination of acetic acid across the 16- and 17-positions, (Zn-77c). The presence of the triple bond a to the carbocation formed by loss of the acetate group stabilizes this intermediate, and a proton is lost from the 16-position to form a double bond. This double bond is in conjugation with the triple bond, which is reflected in the absorption spectrum, where the Soret band is at 436 nm, as compared with the product without the 74 double bond, which has a Soret band at 424 nm, as do all the other zinc diphenylporphyrin-steroid conjugates. In order to ascertain whether steroid coupling reactions would also be applicable to systems where the iodine atom is in other positions on the porphyrin, a zinc diphenylporphyrin with one 4-iodophenyl group and one 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl group (Zn-78) was synthesized. This was subjected to the standard conditions, with 17-ethynylestradiol as the steroid substrate (Scheme 3.7), and gave a 50 % yield of the desired material (Zn-79). OMe OMe HO Scheme 3.7 Coupling of an iodophenyl-substituted porphyrin with a steroid This type of compound allows for the possibility of prior red-shifting of the porphyrin chromophore, for example by formation of the oxobenzochlorin,178 followed by coupling of the steroid (Scheme 3.8). 75 To our knowledge these are the first uses of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions to conjugate steroids, or other molecules of biological interest, to porphyrins. However, recently there has been an upsurge of interest in the area of palladium-catalyzed reactions on porphyrins for many different applications, and during the period this research was being performed, and since then, numerous reports have appeared. The recent literature in this field will be reviewed briefly in the following section. 76 3.5 Literature review of palladium-catalyzed couplings applied to porphyrins The first reports of carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions with porphyrins via palladium-catalyzed couplings were made by Smith et al.13' 1 7 2 > 1 7 9 > 1 8 0 This group used (3-chloromercurated porphyrins in couplings with alkenes, catalyzed by LiPdCl3, in order to synthesize natural porphyrinic products from readily available commercial porphyrins. They achieved fair yields from the coupling reactions, but were hindered during preparation of the chloromercurated precursors by the formation of permercurated contaminants arising from reaction of the meso-positions in addition to the free p-positions. These difficulties in controlling the selectivity of the mercuration reaction are also described in a report by Buchler and Herget. 1 8 1 As mentioned previously, DiMagno et al. were the first to investigate the reactions of brominated porphyrins with a variety of organometallic reagents . 1 6 3 , 1 6 4 Their initial studies focused on synthetic methodology, exploring the possibilities and limitations of the technique. Following reports described the use of these reactions to build oligomeric porphyrin arrays joined by ethynyl linkages in an effort to mimic biological light-harvesting systems. 1 8 2 Further studies by this group involved the synthesis and photophysical study of donor-spacer-acceptor, or "push-pull" compounds which link donor and acceptor molecules via ethynyl moieties to a d i p h e n y l p o r p h y r i n . 1 8 3 ' 1 8 4 Such compounds are used to provide insight into the design criteria of new non-linear optical devices. Another group that has made use of palladium coupling reactions is that of Chan and Chan. Their initial publication in this area described couplings between porphyrin aryl triflates and alkynyl stannanes using Pd(PPh3)4, and the analogous reaction using trimethyl-silylacetylene and PdCl2(PPh3)2 as a catalyst. 1 8 5 Use was then made of this methodology to produce quinone-linked porphyrins to act as model systems for the photosynthetic reaction centre and to catalyze small molecule redox processes. 1 8 6 The substituted porphyrins were prepared by palladium-catalyzed reaction of the porphyrin aryl triflates with (2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)boronic acid followed by oxidation to give the quinone linked to the 77 porphyrin via a carbon-carbon single bond. Further studies on similar couplings involved the synthesis of highly-substituted porphyrins by palladium-catalyzed reactions of an octabromotetraarylporphyrin with alkyl and aryl boronic acids.187 In a publication of work with a similar goal to that of our group, i.e. the production of derivatized photosensitizers by mild methods, Ali and van Lier described the palladium-catalyzed coupling of P-brominated and -iodinated porphyrins with simple alkynes.188 Their experiences were of great interest to us as they were published following the completion of our investigations and some of their results paralleled our own observations, although the systems used were different. They reported that the nickel complex of P-monobromoheptaethylporphyrin underwent very slow coupling with simple alkynes at 80°C to give the coupled products in 30-40 % yield after 48 hours. Reaction with 1,7-octadiyne did not give the dimer, just as in our case, although it is not clear if the monomeric product wass obtained in their synthesis. Nickel P-monobromotetraphenylporphyrin reacted much faster and gave better yields under the same conditions, presumably as a consequence of the lower degree of steric hindrance caused by the lack of an adjacent P-substituent: 80-90 % conversion was achieved after 6-8 hours. Zinc 5-(4-iodophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin reacted at room temperature in 2-4 hours. Finally, the isomeric mixture of p-monoiodinated deuteroporphyrin IX dimethyl ester reacted as its zinc or nickel complex to give the isomeric mixture of coupled products in 60-70 % yield after 8-12 hours at room temperature. These results agree with our own in that iodo-substituted porphyrins react more readily than the bromo-analogues, and the less sterically hindered the position of the halogen atom, the faster the reaction. No couplings with more complex alkynes were described. Arnold and Nitschinsk reported the use of palladium-catalyzed couplings to form dimers from raeso-ethynylporphyrins and diiodobenzenes, and also from ethynylporphyrins and a meso- (P-bromovinyl)porphyrin.189 A later communication described the first 78 alkynylporphyrin to be characterized by X-ray crystallography, a nickel octaethylporphyrin dimer linked by a diethynylthiophene unit.190 Palladium-catalyzed copper-free couplings have been used by Lindsey's group as a direct method of forming metal-free porphyrin dimers or porphyrin dimers in which one porphyrin is metallated, and the other is not.191 A porphyrin aryl iodide and a porphyrin aryl ethyne, either of which may be metallated or metal-free, were reacted under anaerobic conditions using tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) as catalyst and triphenylarsine as ligand. A method of copper-free homocoupling of porphyrin aryl ethynes using palladium catalysis was also described. This was extended to the synthesis- of porphyrin trimers in a later paper.192 3.6 Demonstration of selectivity in palladium-catalyzed couplings of bromoiodo-porphyrins It already has been shown that brominated and iodinated porphyrins react at different rates in palladium coupling reactions, the latter being more reactive. Investigations with the goal of demonstrating selective coupling of an iodoporphyrin in the presence of a bromo-substituent were next initiated. Such selectivity has been described in work by Tao et al. on simple polyhaloarenes, with variable results depending on the particular compound.167 The extension of this work to such a unique aromatic system as a porphyrin seemed to be an interesting study, as well as potentially providing a better method for bifunctionalizing porphyrins than those most often employed: viz., the condensation of two different types of benzaldehyde in a tetraarylporphyrin synthesis or the condensation of two dipyrromethane variants in a diphenylporphyrin or tetraarylporphyrin preparation (Scheme 3.9). Such condensations lead to mixtures of products requiring laborious chromatography to separate the desired compound. 79 X Scheme 3.9 Conventional methods for preparing bifunctionalized porphyrins By carefully choosing the sequence of reactions and conditions it was hoped that a method could be developed allowing the simple formation of a biologically-conjugated porphyrin molecule, with a handle which subsequently could be used to fine-tune its 80 photophysical or physicochemical properties. It was anticipated that a bromoiodoporphyrin would react under mild coupling conditions to afford the coupled product with the less reactive bromo-substituent still present. This could then be subjected to more rigorous coupling conditions with a different reagent to give an asymmetrically-disubstituted product. The first step was to form the requisite 5-bromo-15-iodo-10,20-diphenylporphyrin (80). Such a synthesis can be approached in two different ways, either by initial bromination followed by iodination, or vice versa. The bromonium ion is a more reactive electrophile than the iodonium ion, and so it was desirable to avoid attack on the iodinated porphyrin by the former, as this might lead to partial displacement of the iodine atom to give the dibrominated product. Attack on the brominated compound by the poorly electrophilic iodine species appeared unlikely to present a problem. Therefore monobromo-diphenylporphyrin (81) was synthesized using NBS. This was then subjected to the usual iodination conditions of iodine/bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene, resulting in a quantitative yield of bromoiodoporphyrin (80). However, it should be noted that in contrast to the iodination of unsubstituted diphenylporphyrin (73) which is complete within 1 hour, the reaction using the brominated substrate (81) progressed far more slowly, completion being achieved after 24 to 48 hours. The lowered reactivity to electrophilic attack presumably is caused by the electronegative bromine substituent reducing the electron density at the opposite mew-position. After metallation with zinc the porphyrin (Zn-80) was subjected to the same coupling conditions as used previously: stirring at room temperature under nitrogen with dichloro-bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)/cuprous iodide catalysis. The initial trials employed 1 -butyn-3-ol as the alkyne to be coupled, and this was used in excess owing to the very low concentration conditions required for complete dissolution of the porphyrin. The first experiment was run using 120 equivalents of alkyne; overnight reaction led to complete consumption of the starting material and two spots were observed on TLC. Purification by 81 chromatography gave a 50 % yield of the desired compound (Zn-82a). The other product was more polar, and was shown to be the dialkynylated adduct (Zn-83a). This would indicate that there is a reasonable selectivity of reaction between the iodo- and bromo-substituents, but in the presence of large excesses of the alkyne, once all the iodo-moieties have been coupled, the bromo-functionalities will start to react. Consequently a second reaction was run using 50 equivalents of the alkyne; after stirring overnight, approximately 50 % starting material remained, so a further 25 equivalents was added, followed after two hours by another 25 equivalents. On work-up the yield of isolated monoalkynylated product (Zn-82a) was again 50 %. It seems that if too much alkyne is used, the forcing conditions lead to increased quantities of dialkynylated product, whereas lower alkyne concentrations result in incomplete reaction, and recovery of starting material. However, a yield of 50 % is reasonable, especially in view of the fact that the analogous study on simple arenes gave yields ranging from 30-85 %.1 6 7 The bromoalkynylporphyrin (Zn-82a) was then subjected to the second coupling. More rigorous conditions were used in order to force the less reactive bromo-substituent to react completely. The method used was that of DiMagno et a/.,164 employing tetrakis-(triphenylphosphine)palladium(O) as the catalyst, and coupling to vinyltributyltin. The reaction was performed in refluxing THF under nitrogen over 48 hours. The resulting product had an Rf identical to that of the starting material, but the Q-bands in the visible spectrum displayed a bathochromic shift of approximately 10 nm. The isolated compound was obtained in 50 % yield, and *H NMR and mass spectrometry showed it to be the desired alkenylalkynylporphyrin (Zn-84a) (Scheme 3.10). 82 (PPh 3) 2PclCl2 Cul, E t 3 N (Zn-82a) Scheme 3.10 Selective coupling reactions of (Zn-80) Selective couplings were performed with other alkynes, in order to show the general applicability of the reaction. However, the reactivity of the particular alkyne plays an important role in determining the selectivity of the coupling. The use of only 5 equivalents of trimethylsilylacetylene led to complete consumption of the bromoiodoporphyrin starting material (Zn-80) within two hours. Unfortunately, the product thus obtained was shown on analysis to be a mixture of the mono- and di-alkynylated compounds, and these were inseparable by chromatography. This mixture was subjected to the vinyltributyltin coupling, and the resulting product was a combination of the dialkynyl- and alkenylalkynyl-porphyrins. 83 More success was experienced with 1-octyne as the coupling alkyne, and the bromo-octynylporphyrin (Zn-82b) was isolated in 60 % yield. The subsequent alkenylation gave 20 % of the desired product (Zn-84b); the loss in yield appeared to result from decomposition of the macrocycle, as there was a large quantity of black material that remained at the top of the chromatography column. After the utility of this reaction sequence had been demonstrated with simple reagents, the next step was to show that it could be used to prepare photosensitizer-biomolecule conjugates possessing a futher functionality on the porphyrin ring, enabling subsequent derivatization. Therefore 17-ethynylestradiol was subjected to the coupling conditions, resulting in a 50 % yield of the bromo(ethynylestradiol)porphyrin (Zn-82c) after overnight reaction. This is a similar yield to that obtained from the coupling reaction between the (non-brominated) iodoporphyrin and the steroid, showing that the selectivity achieved by this alkyne is very good. In order to determine the stability of the conjugate to further reaction, it was treated with vinyltributyltin under the usual coupling conditions. This yielded 40 % of the desired product (Zn-84c) (Scheme 3.11). Hence it appears that these reactions with the more complex ethynyl-steroids occur with comparable efficiency to those with simpler alkynes. 84 Scheme 3.11 Selective coupling of ethynylestradiol and further derivatization 3.7 Summary In this chapter palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions have been shown to be an effective way of conjugating iodo-substituted porphyrins, using a variety of alkynes, including alkynyl-steroids. In order to exploit this coupling method, conditions for iodinating porphyrins at the mew-position had to be developed; this led to a one-step procedure for preparing mono-iodinated diphenylporphyrin. However, this method appears 85 to be very sensitive to steric factors, and was not applicable to systems such as octaethylporphyrin or protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester. Nevertheless, the iodination/ coupling techniques have proved promising as a means of producing mew-substituted derivatives of diphenylporphyrin. In addition to the preparation of a number of steroidal and non-steroidal conjugated porphyrins, coupling selectivity between raew-iodo and mew-bromo substituents was also demonstrated. This was achieved by synthesizing a bromoiodoporphyrin and subjecting it to two consecutive coupling reactions; the first reaction involved the milder conditions, and led to selective reaction of the iodo-group. The second coupling required more rigorous conditions in order to force the bromo-group to react. The success of these reactions makes this a potentially useful method for synthesizing unsymmetrically-substituted porphyrins. CHAPTER FOUR Synthesis of Novel Long-Wavelength Absorbing Dy Based on Octaethylporphyrin 87 4.1 Introduction In Chapter Three a new method for the preparation of photosensitizer conjugates was described, accessed through the iodo- or bromo-porphyrin. Unfortunately, iodination and bromination reactions were unsuccessful when applied to octaethylporphyrin (4), which is perhaps the most convenient mew-unsubstituted porphyrin starting material. The lack of halogenation at the mew-positions presumably results from the p-ethyl groups sterically blocking these positions. It should be noted that octamethylporphyrin, which would be an obvious choice if one were seeking a less sterically hindered porphyrin, suffers from severe insolubility, whilst the completely unsubstituted porphine lacks stability, and hence the use of these compounds in a synthesis is impractical. 5,15-Diphenylporphyrin (73), the system to which the iodination/bromination and subsequent conjugation reactions have been applied successfully, is hampered as a useful starting material by the fact that in order to synthesize it in optimum yield, high dilution conditions are necessary, and so a multi-gram preparation is precluded. For these reasons it was felt that whilst the halogenation/palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions presented in Chapter Three are undoubtedly valuable steps in the direction of achieving this project's goal, they do not provide a generally applicable method for producing photosensitizer conjugates. Therefore studies were initiated to design a novel long-wavelength absorbing dye that would lend itself to further derivatization, in order to solve the two problems concurrently. Octaethylporphyrin is one of the most readily available mew-unsubstituted synthetic starting materials with the desirable characteristics of symmetry, solubility and stability, and so it seemed sensible to use this as the molecular "scaffolding" on which to base the new design. The first problem addressed was that of long-wavelength absorption; the most obvious way to achieve this is by converting the porphyrin to a chlorin. However, chlorins formed by the simple addition of dihydrogen across one of the P~P double bonds are prone to reoxidize back to the porphyrin. More stable chlorins are produced when an aromatic 88 exocyclic ring is incorporated into the molecule, as in the case of benzochlorins, e.g. (17), where reversion to the porphyrin would require the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond. Octaethylbenzochlorin (17) was first reported by Arnold et al. as its nickel complex in 197 8.69 The free base has an absorption peak at 658nm with an extinction coefficient of 35000.162 Studies have been made to find methods of derivatizing this compound in order to tailor its physical properties (specifically its amphiphilicity) to fulfil desired parameters70'193 and also to produce a series of compounds suitable for research into structure-activity relationships.71 One way to achieve this functionalization is to sulfonate the benzene ring using sulfuric acid. Another approach builds in the functionality before the cyclization reaction that creates the ring is performed. Attempts by our group to iodinate, brominate and nitrate octaethylbenzochlorin in an effort to find a simple one-step route to forming a photosensitizer amenable to conjugation were unsuccessful. However, recently the sulfonated benzochlorin has been reported to undergo reaction in high yield to give the sulfonylchloride derivative, which reacts with amines to give the corresponding sulfonamide conjugates.71 Although octaethylbenzochlorin proved disappointingly resistant to further derivatization in our hands, it was still thought to be an ideal compound in respect of its photophysical properties, stability and symmetry. Therefore, it was desirable to incorporate at least some of its features into the novel photosensitizer. It was deemed advantageous to (17) 89 develop a compound with as many similarities to the benzochlorin as possible, as in this way the wealth of knowledge gained by the many studies on this compound might be exploited. The sole modification would be to introduce a more reactive species that would not affect the cyclization necessary to form the exocyclic ring, but would be amenable to conjugation reactions after the chlorin was formed. One possible way to achieve this goal would be by replacing the benzene ring with a pyridine ring. Such a compound might be expected to undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions at the exocyclic pyridine ring, in contrast to the (mostly unsuccessful) electrophilic substitutions attempted on the benzochlorin benzene ring. The absorption wavelength would not be expected to vary greatly from that of the benzochlorin, and even if nucleophilic substitution reactions were to fail, the possibility of using the nitrogen atom as a site for the formation of quarternary salts would still exist. Added to these potential advantages is the fact that there are three possible isomers of "pyridochlorin", with the nitrogen atom in positions a, (3 or y with respect to the meso-position of octaethylporphyrin (Figure 4.1). For these reasons, it was felt that the design and synthesis of one or more "octaethylpyridochlorins" would be a worthwhile area of study. oc-isomer P-isomer y-isomer Figure 4.1 The three possible isomers of the target molecule, octaethylpyridochlorin 4.2 The design of possible routes to pyridochlorins First a decision had to be made as to which of the three possible isomers was likely to be the most easily synthesized. Here a comparison with the synthesis of octaethylbenzochlorin 90 was made. The formation of the latter is achieved by a vinylogous Vilsmeier reaction on metallated octaethylporphyrin to give the acrolein-substituted metalloporphyrin (M-16), which then undergoes cyclization and demetallation by treatment with acid (Scheme 4.1). i) POCI3, M e 2 N C H C H C H O N — \ N A / C H O Scheme 4.1 Formation of octaethylbenzochlorin (17) If a similar method were to be used for the synthesis of pyridochlorins, it would seem logical first to make the nitrogen analogues of the meso-acrolein. This reaction pathway would rule out the synthesis of the y-pyridochlorin as this would require nucleophilic attack by the (3-(3 double bond on the nitrogen atom, a highly unlikely reaction. For this reason, efforts were concentrated on synthesizing the a- and |3-pyridochlorins, and for the simple reason of alphabetical priority, the synthesis of the oc-isomer was attempted first. 4.3 The design and synthesis of a-pyridochlorin In order to synthesize the a-pyridochlorin it was necessary first to make (92), the a-imino analogue of the acrolein derivative (16) used in the benzochlorin synthesis. (M-16) is formed in two steps by electrophilic attack on the porphyrin meso-carbon by the vinylogous Vilsmeier reagent formed from 3-(dimethylamino)acrolein and phosphoryl chloride, followed by treatment with aqueous base to hydrolyze the iminium salt to the aldehyde (Scheme 4.2). 91 cr HCI OH" (M-16) N M e 2 Scheme 4.2 Vinylogous Vilsmeier reaction of metallated octaethylporphyrin (M-4) Clearly, another approach would be necessary to create the a-nitrogen analogue. One well-known method of obtaining a porphyrin mew-substituted by a nitrogen functionality is nitration.1741194,195 The nitro compound can be reduced to the aminoporphyrin, and such compounds are reported to react with aldehydes to give Schiff s bases.174 Thus a reasonable route to the desired precursor from octaethylporphyrin would be to prepare the nitro derivative (90), reduce it, and then form the Schiff's base with glyoxal (Scheme 4.3). 92 y - N H N = H - N \ \ N -' s (4) SnCI 2 • / > — N H 2 HCI H. 7 ^ ( C H O ) 2 , A N = C H C H O Scheme 4.3 A possible synthesis of the oc-imino precursor (92) The nitration was carried out in an ice-cold mixture of glacial acetic acid and concentrated nitric acid to give the mono-nitro compound (90) in 50 % yield. The reaction mixture had to be monitored carefully, in order to minimize the formation of poly-nitro compounds. The reduction of the nitro group to the amine was effected with stannous chloride dihydrate in concentrated hydrochloric acid and gave the desired product (91) in 85 % yield. Thus far, the synthesis proceeded as described in the literature. 174-194,195 The formation of Schiff s bases by condensing aminoetioporphyrin with benzaldehyde and anisaldehyde has been described as occurring in good yield (> 80 %). However, these reactions were performed using the aldehyde as solvent, whilst glyoxal trimer dihydrate, the 93 aldehyde necessary for this synthesis, is a solid. Hence a solvent system in which both the aldehyde and the porphyrin would have reasonable solubility was required. A number of small-scale experiments led to the finding that a mixture of ethanol and THF was a suitable solvent, the ethanol dissolving the glyoxal trimer when heated, and the THF dissolving the porphyrin. Although the condensations reported with benzaldehyde and anisaldehyde occurred at room temperature, it was necessary to reflux the glyoxal/porphyrin mixture overnight. This might well be accounted for by the lower concentrations of reagents resulting from the use of a solvent. The optimized yield of the reaction was 69 %, or 80 % based on recovered starting material. Unsuccessful attempts were made to drive the reaction to completion by the addition of drying agents, but it is likely that the amount of residual water in the THF/ethanol solvent far outweighed the small quantity of water produced in the condensation. In any case, the product (92) could be separated from the polar starting material by column chromatography, and the latter could then be reused. Before attempting this condensation, it had been anticipated that dimer formation, resulting from the reaction of an aminoporphyrin with each of the two formyl groups of glyoxal, might occur. However, the use of a large excess of glyoxal prevented the dimeric product from being formed in any significant quantity. (92) was stable enough to allow it to be chromatographed on silica, although care was taken to elute it from the column as quickly as possible as some decomposition to the amine was observed during chromatography. However, as it appeared to be sensitive to acid, and the cyclization step was expected to require the use of such conditions, problems with this step of the synthesis were envisaged. Consequently, attempts were made to reduce the imine functionality to the amine using sodium cyanoborohydride, a reagent reported to reduce imines selectively in the presence of carbonyl groups.196 Unfortunately, any products formed in this reaction appeared to be very unstable, and decomposed during work-up to give the amine (91). In view of this result, the cyclization reaction was performed directly 94 on (92), in the hope that conditions favouring cyclization over hydrolysis could be developed. In an effort to minimize the possibility of hydrolysis, initial experiments employed non-acidic conditions, namely refluxing in toluene. Indications that neutral, high temperature conditions might be successful came during a synthesis of the imine, when the solvent inadvertently was allowed to boil away, and the reaction mixture was heated as a solid for several hours. On working up this product, no trace of the desired imine (92) was present; instead, in addition to the amine starting material (91), which was the major compound isolated, a few milligrams of a mixture of two low polarity green compounds (93) was obtained. By NMR and visible spectroscopy (Figure 4.2) these appeared to be two isomers with a chlorin structure. On refluxing the imine in toluene overnight this result was reproduced, the isomeric mixture (93) being formed in 15 % yield. No starting material was recovered, but a substantial quantity of the amine (91) was isolated; it seems that the cyclization and hydrolysis reactions are in competition with one another, which would suggest that obtaining the cyclized product in high yield might not be possible. • 1.079-1 n •0.857- / \ •0.635- / \ •0.413- / \ •0.191- \ S*\ -0.030-1— . , . .—. , . . , .— ,——-Tt: , , 400 500 EOO 700 800 W A V E L E N G T H Figure 4.2 Absorption spectrum of (93) in dichloromethane Although the quantity of cyclic product (93) thus far obtained was small, and it consisted of a mixture of two isomers, it was relatively simple to determine the structure using spectroscopic techniques: firstly, the visible spectrum (Figure 4.2) showed an 95 absorption peak at 722 nm (e = 10800), indicative of a reduced porphyrin species such as a chlorin (the longest-wavelength absorption of the precursor imine was at 660 nm and very weak (e = 4400)). Secondly, in the 400 MHz *H NMR spectrum there were some very distinctive peaks: two quartets at 7.45 ppm and 7.72 ppm and two doublets at 2.62 ppm and 2.81 ppm. These resonances are typical of the ethylidene functionality CHCH3 attached via a double bond to the p-position of a reduced pyrrole ring. 6 6 There were also two singlets at 7.98 ppm and 8.15 ppm, in addition to the expected meso-hydrogen signals, and these could be assigned to the imino C H of the two isomers. Finally there were two triplets at 0.10 ppm and 0.50 ppm, suggesting the presence of ethyl groups lying out of the plane of the macrocycle and hence experiencing a greater degree of shielding by the ring current than those lying in the plane. The two isomers were present in a ratio of approximately 4 to 1. This information lead to the two isomers (93) being assigned the structures shown below. The formation of these products from the cyclization reaction was somewhat surprising, as it requires a formal oxidation. The expected product, given that the desired 1,2-alkyl shift did not take place, and the carbocation created by the cyclization process was quenched instead by the loss of a proton from the attached p-ethyl group, would be the imino-alcohol (94) (Scheme 4.4). In (93) the carbonyl group of the ketone is in conjugation with the imine double bond, which may increase its stability with respect to the alcohol, but the mechanism by which this transformation occurs is unclear. However, a similar oxidation is seen during 96 purpurin synthesis (see below) when the reaction mixture is refluxed open to the air; in that case oxygen is presumed to be the oxidant. N = C H C H O Scheme 4.4 Expected product from the cyclization of (92) Despite the very close analogy to the octaethylbenzochlorin synthesis, the replacement of a CH group with a nitrogen atom obviously changes the cyclization mechanism significantly, even though the N atom is several bonds removed from the site of reaction. There appears to be a closer similarity to purpurin synthesis. These compounds are produced by the acid-catalyzed cyclization of (metal-free) mew-acrylic esters66,69'197"199 (Scheme 4.5). C 0 2 R Scheme 4.5 Synthesis of purpurins 97 There are two types of purpurins, named Type A and Type B. Type A purpurins possess an sp3 carbon atom on the reduced pyrrole ring, adjacent to the exocyclic ring, whilst Type B purpurins have an sp 2 carbon at this position. Type A Purpurin Type B Purpurin The formation of Type B purpurins requires a formal oxidation after cyclization. In some cases, the Type A compound is produced when the cyclization is performed under nitrogen, whilst the Type B arises when this step is performed in a vessel open to the air. However, this is not always true, and the outcome varies according to the particular system. Studies are on-going in this area to elucidate the mechanism controlling the formation of the two types of purpurin. 1 3 , 6 6 The cyclization of the imine displays characteristics of a Type B purpurin synthesis, although the product contains a 6-membered exocyclic ring, reminiscent of a benzochlorin preparation. Very recently a report of a system bearing similarity to our own appeared, describing the synthesis of a new class of chlorins possessing 6-membered exocyclic rings, the "australochlorins".200 These compounds are isomeric with the benzochlorins but have a P-ethylidene group adjacent to the fused ring, which is non-aromatic. They are obtained by the thermolysis of the trimethylammonium salt as a mixture of two geometric isomers in a ratio of 10:7 (Scheme 4.6). Spectroscopically these compounds are typical metallochlorins, absorbing at 643 nm, and hence are less interesting as potential photosensitizers than (93), which has a significantly red-shifted spectrum. 98 Scheme 4.6 Synthesis of the australochlorins Although the cyclization experiments performed to this point had been successful in producing quantities of the product (93) sufficient to allow its structure to be assigned, it obviously was desirable to attempt to improve upon the yield of 15 %. The reaction was repeated using Montmorillonite K10 clay as a solid acid catalyst. This reagent has been used previously in acid-catalyzed reactions such as porphyrin syntheses, as it appears that the pore size of the clay is a good fit for allowing the entry of a porphyrin, whilst being small enough to hold such a species in a restricted conformation suitable for intramolecular cyclization reactions.201 The addition of a small amount of activated Montmorillonite clay to the toluene solution of the imine (92) doubled the yield of (93) to 30 % after overnight reflux. However, although the solvent and reaction time were varied, no further improvements were made to the efficiency of the cyclization, the competing hydrolysis reaction limiting the yield by destroying the imine starting material. Significant quantities of the aminoporphyrin (91) were recovered after each cyclization reaction, and this could be reused in the glyoxal condensation, to regenerate (92). In order to see if the cyclization would have a different outcome if performed in the absence of air, in analogy with some purpurin syntheses, the reaction was performed under nitrogen. However, the same mixture of isomers was obtained as previously. In an attempt 99 to convert the isomeric mixture to a single compound, efforts were made to reduce the ethylidene double bond of (93) by catalytic hydrogenation, but only decomposition products resulted. The mixture was then subjected to diimide reduction, a reaction known to reduce symmetric double bonds in preference to double bonds between heteroatoms, but in this case, surprisingly, reduction occurred at the carbonyl group, giving the isomeric mixture of alcohols (94) (the same mixture that initially had been expected to result from the cyclization reaction, see Scheme 4.4). The identity of this compound was confirmed by reaction of the original isomer mixture with sodium borohydride, which gave the same species as its major product. The alcohol product (94) gave the following selected resonances in the 400 MHz *H NMR spectrum (only signals for the major isomer given, for clarity): a quartet at -0.23 ppm (methyl of the angular ethyl group), a doublet at 2.63 ppm (methyl of the ethylidene group), a singlet at 4.50 ppm (CHOH), a quartet at 6.62 ppm (methine of the ethylidene group) and a singlet at 7.88 ppm (CH=N). The longest-wavelength absorption peak was blue-shifted relative to (93) to 686 nm, reflecting the loss of the conjugated ketone. As attempts to convert (93) to a single compound were unsuccessful, the two isomers were separated by preparative thin layer chromatography, using a 0.5 mm silica plate. There was sufficient differentiation between the two bands to be able to acquire the major isomer (93a) in good purity. The minor isomer (93b), owing to slight trailing of the faster moving major compound, as well as to its presence in much smaller quantity, was more difficult to isolate in a completely pure state, but a reasonable *H NMR spectrum of it was obtained. NOE experiments on (93a) indicated that this compound has the Z-configuration, where the ethylidene methyl group is in the sterically less constrained position, pointing away from the angular ethyl group. This is analogous to the Type B octaethylpurpurin situation, where the Z-geometry about the double bond was observed (although in that case no trace of the E-isomer was reported). The major isomer formed in the australochlorin synthesis also had the Z-geometry. 100 The intention had been to produce a compound with an aromatic exocyclic ring. The major impediment to aromaticity in the cyclic product (93) is the presence of the angular ethyl group. In steroid chemistry, an angular methyl group can be removed from androster-l,4-diene-3-one via a radical mechanism using zinc to generate the aromatic A ring (Scheme 4.7).202'203 Zn Zn H O Scheme 4.7 Aromatization of the steroid A ring using zinc As the exocyclic ring of (93) has a similar structure to the steroid A ring, it seemed possible this reaction might remove the angular ethyl group in an analogous way to yield the 3-hydroxypyridine structure (95) shown in Scheme 4.8. Zn O A / N — \ \ O H Scheme 4.8 Postulated mechanism for the removal of the angular ethyl group of (93) 101 However, when the isomeric mixture (93) was refluxed in pyridine in the presence of a large excess of zinc powder and a drop of water, only the zinc complex of the starting material (Zn-93) was obtained. At this point it appeared that the possibilities of this compound had been exhausted, and other strategies towards the desired goal were considered. The replacement of glyoxal by glycolaldehyde in the condensation reaction would yield an imine (96) which might be more likely to lead to the desired product, as under acidic conditions the hydroxyl group would be lost and the resulting carbocation might easily lose a proton from the exocyclic ring to become aromatic (Scheme 4.9). V -N = C H C H 2 O H N H J N Scheme 4.9 Possible cyclization of the glycolaldehyde condensation product (96) The analogous cyclization of the metal-free mew-(3-hydroxypropenyl)octaethyl-porphyrin has been reported to give quantitative yields of octaethylbenzochlorin.70 102 Unfortunately, despite several efforts, the condensation of glycolaldehyde with meso-aminooctaethylporphyrin (91) was not achieved. Possibly this is a consequence of the difficulty of depolymerizing the dimeric glycolaldehyde to its monomer,204 although a reaction of this type with an aliphatic amine is reported to give good yields on stirring at room temperature in THF. 2 0 5 In a different strategy to form the desired imine alcohol, attempts were made to condense glyoxalic acid to form the imine carboxylic acid and then reduce this to the alcohol (96). It appeared that the condensation reaction was successful, but on work-up, despite being careful to maintain very slightly basic conditions, the product reverted to the starting material (91), suggesting auto-hydrolysis of the imine double bond by the carboxylic acid functionality. The next approach was to use the amine (91) as a nucleophile, to attack alkyl halides such as 1,2-dibromoethane and l-bromo-2-(diethylacetal)ethane, and give the amines (98) and (99), which could then be used in cyclization reactions. However, in both of these cases no reaction occurred: it seems that the nucleophilicity of the nitrogen atom is low, presumably as a consequence of derealization of the lone pair into the aromatic system. N = H ) N -(98) N = H ) N -(99) It was clear from these unsuccessful reactions that a different method was necessary to form the desired acyclic precursors with nitrogen in the a-position. The synthetic effort was then redirected to the P-pyridochlorin, in the hope that this would be an easier target, and that it might provide some new ideas that would help to solve the a-pyridochlorin problem. 103 4.4 The design and synthesis of (3 -pyridochlorin In considering methods for synthesizing the acyclic precursor to the P-pyridochlorin, one can imagine taking an approach very similar to that used for the a-pyridochlorin, and condensing the meso-formylporphyrin (56) with an appropriate amine, to obtain the (3-imine. Unfortunately, the necessary amine would be formamide, and amides do not possess the required nucleophilicity for the condensation. However, methylcarbamate, with greater nucleophilicity at the nitrogen atom, would produce a condensation product (100) potentially useful for the cyclization (Scheme 4.10). This condensation was attempted, but despite the use of a various conditions, no reaction was observed, and the meso-formylporphyrin was recovered unchanged. N H 2 C 0 2 M e • ,, / / — C = N C 0 2 M e N' ^ HOMe, -H + \ H< Scheme 4.10 Methylcarbamate condensation with (56) and subsequent cyclization Another way to make compounds with nitrogen in the desired position would be to displace a leaving group on the raeso-methyl group of the porphyrin with a nitrogen 104 nucleophile such as ammonia. The meso-hydroxymethyl compound (101) can be made by sodium borohydride reduction of the formyl group of (56). Efforts were made to convert this first to the />toluenesulfonate ester, and then displace the />toluenesulfonyl group with ammonia gas. During the first experiment, the intermediate ester was worked up, and an attempt was made to isolate it, but it appeared to be very reactive, and decomposed. Consequently, a second reaction was run, and this time the in situ formed /?-toluenesulfonate was reacted with ammonia gas. However in this case, only the hydroxymethyl starting material was recovered. The next approach was a reductive amination of the meso-formyl compound (56), using ammonium acetate and sodium cyanoborohydride,196 in another attempt to form the meso-aminomethylporphyrin. Once again, no reaction was observed. Reactions that are well-known to work in standard organic systems had been attempted without success, and so literature methods that describe reactions specific to porphyrins were examined. There is one report of a condensation of an amine with meso-formyloctaethylporphyrin (56), the amine being P-alanine, and the yield only 15 %.2 0 6 As this synthesis had been attempted with methylcarbamate without success, it was not pursued further. Another paper describes the condensation of meso-formyletioporphyrin with aniline and />anisidine, with very good yields.174 However, this approach requires the use of the amine as solvent, and the compounds thus produced, being aromatic Schiff's bases, are structurally further from the desired product than the alanine conjugate mentioned, and it was felt that the latter was a more realistic model of our system. A more commonly used preparation of p-nitrogen-substituted porphyrins involves the formation of the oxime of the meso-formylporphyrin using hydroxylamine hydrochloride in refluxing pyridine.174 The oxime can be dehydrated to give the cyano group, which is reported to yield the meso-carboxylic acid by hydrolysis in sulfuric acid, although this latter report has been shown to be in error,207 and will be discussed in more detail below. 105 The mew-cyanoporphyrin (103) 07provides a route to the mew-aminomethyl compound (104) via reduction (Scheme 4.11). Hence raew-cyanooctaethylporphyrin was synthesized, and attempts were made to reduce it. However, this compound was extremely resistant to the many reagents (lithium aluminium hydride, aluminium hydride, borane-dimethylsulfide complex, diborane, catalytic hydrogenation) used. In most cases, the starting material was recovered unchanged, although in the case of catalytic hydrogenation over palladium on charcoal, the porphyrin ring was reduced at one of the mew-positions to give the green phlorin, which slowly reoxidized to the porphyrin. Reduction of the nickel complex of the mew-cyano compound was also attempted, as the reactivity of a metalloporphyrin can differ markedly from that of the corresponding free base. However, there was no improvement in reactivity; the only differences being a lack of reaction during catalytic hydrogenation, and the partial loss of the cyano-group during treatment with lithium aluminium hydride. These disappointing results prompted the search for another strategy. Scheme 4.11 Proposed route to meso-aminomethyloctaethylporphyrin (104) 106 As mentioned before, it was reported that the hydrolysis of meso-cyanoetioporphyrin in hot concentrated sulfuric acid gave the carboxylic acid.174 Clezy et al. reinvestigated this reaction and discovered that the product was in fact the amide.207 The same reaction was performed on the octaethylporphyrin analogue, with identical results, and despite using various forcing conditions, no further hydrolysis of the amide (105) was seen. This amide was a potentially useful intermediate in the synthesis of cyclization precursors, as it would lead via reduction to the desired meso-aminomethylporphyrin (104). Unfortunately, reduction of the amide (105) using lithium aluminium hydride, in dry THF under nitrogen, resulted in formation of the meso-cyano compound (103), i.e. the dehydration product. This was formed in 35 % yield, the remainder of the yield being decomposition products, which suggests the possibility that the aminomethyl product was formed, but that it was too unstable to be isolated. The nickel complex of the amide was synthesized in order to see if it would be more easily reduced by treatment with the same reagent. In this case, no reaction occurred at room temperature, but after being refluxed, the major product was nickel octaethylporphyrin. This follows the same trend as with the nickel cyano-derivative: the nickel complexes appear readily to lose their meso-substituents under basic conditions. Despite many efforts, no practical method for preparing the desired aminomethyl-substituted porphyrin (104) had been found. However, the meso-amide (105) could be produced. Although no progress had been made in reducing this compound, it was hoped that it could be converted into a cyclic chlorin with an exocyclic amide functionality, and that this cyclic product would prove more amenable to reduction (Scheme 4.12). 107 In order to make the precursor to the cyclization step using the amide, it was necessary to alkylate the nitrogen atom with a functionalized methyl group susceptible to nucleophilic attack under acidic conditions, ideally a formyl or a hydroxymethyl group. Amides can be hydroxy methylated at the nitrogen atom using paraformaldehyde and base.208 A small-scale test reaction was run using sodium methoxide as base in refluxing THF: this led to the formation of a more polar compound with a H^ NMR spectrum consistent with the desired product (106). Subsequent trials suggested that the quantity of base was crucial to the success of the reaction, as a large excess lead to the formation of a more polar compound which was initially attributed to the doubly alkylated species, produced by deprotonating the nitrogen atom of the N-hydroxymethyl compound and reacting with a second equivalent of paraformaldehyde. As it evidently was important to control the quantity of base used, sodium methoxide was replaced by n-butyllithium, as this is easier to measure out in small 108 quantities. Using 1.5 equivalents of this base in THF at room temperature, a 70 % yield of the mew-(N-hydroxymethyl)aminocarbonyloctaethylporphyrin (106) was obtained (Scheme 4.13). N=< N ^ (CHO) c • / ) — C O N H L i %-H H (106) Scheme 4.13 Synthesis of (106) The nickel complex of the N-hydroxymethyl compound was also of interest, as the cyclization outcome can vary depending on whether the free base or metallated species is used (for example, refluxing the metal-free meso-acrylaldehyde of octaethylporphyrin in acetic acid leads to the purpurin, whereas the nickel complex is unaffected by these conditions69). Therefore the metal-free (106) was subjected to the standard nickel-complexing conditions: addition of nickel .acetate tetrahydrate in refluxing DMF. Unfortunately, upon work-up of this reaction, it was found that the hydroxymethyl group had been lost, and the product was the nickel amide (Ni-105). The hydroxymethyl group was also lost under the conditions used for EI mass spectrometry (at 200°C), so FAB was used for these compounds. The metallation with nickel was run at 50°C, and a 70 % yield of the desired product (Ni-106) was obtained after 3 days (the remainder of the yield was unchanged starting material). In view of the very slow metallation. at the lower temperature necessary to preserve the integrity of the compound, it seemed more efficient to make the nickel derivative by hydroxymethylation of the nickel amide (Ni-105). This was found to work well, although the first trial using 1.5 equivalents of n-butyllithium lead to a poor yield 109 of the desired compound and a large amount of more polar material. Again, it was initially believed that this side-product was the result of bis-hydroxymethylation at the nitrogen atom, but now there was enough compound to study spectroscopically and it was found to be the product of hydroxymethylation at the N-hydroxymethyl oxygen atom (Ni-107) (Scheme 4.14). (Ni-106) (Ni-107) Scheme 4.14 The side-product from N-hydroxymethylation of (Ni-105) This is an obvious result, given the relative pKa's of an alcohol (15-19) compared with an amide (25).208b Consequently, the reaction was repeated using 0.5 equivalents of n-butyllithium, to minimize formation of the side-product, and a 76 % yield of the target molecule was obtained. It is interesting to note the differences between the reaction using the metal-free amide and that with the nickel amide: the latter appears to require only catalytic amounts of base, whereas the former requires at least stoicheometric quantities. Presumably this is due to the central NH's in the metal-free compound, one of which is deprotonated by the base to give the monoanion - apparently the conditions are not such that the dianion is formed, as fewer than 2 equivalents of base are necessary. Both the metal-free and the nickel-complexed N-hydroxymethylamides (106) and (Ni-106) had been prepared, ready for cyclization studies. The first experiment entailed stirring the nickel complex in dichloromethane solution with a drop of the Lewis acid, boron 110 trifluoride etherate. This is one method for making metallated benzochlorins from their acyclic precursors.209 On work-up after three hours there appeared to be two major products (Ni-108) (present in different proportions), both more polar than the starting material. An attempt was made to separate these compounds by chromatography, but only the less polar one was obtained pure, as both compounds had poor solubility and streaked throughout the column. A NMR spectrum of the pure compound was run, but very broad signals resulted; this was thought to arise from aggregation of the compound in solution. However, the visible spectrum did give cause for optimism, as it displayed a large absorption peak at 646 nm, suggestive of a nickel chlorin. The next cyclization attempt involved treatment of the nickel complex (Ni-106) with concentrated sulfuric acid. A peak was seen in the visible spectrum of the neutralized reaction mixture at 680 nm, indicative of a metal-free chlorin. On work-up a green-brown product (108) slightly more polar than the starting material was isolated in 70 % yield. Although by TLC this appeared to be one compound, the *H NMR spectrum showed it to be a 1:1 mixture of two isomers. The visible spectrum of the isolated mixture showed a double long-wavelength absorption peak at 680/686 nm. The *H NMR spectrum was reminiscent of that of the isomeric a-pyridochlorin mixture (93) made previously, and it was obvious that the two isomers arose from the same ethylidene functionality as in that case. The compound was assigned the structure shown below. NH O (108) I l l The metal-free cyclization precursor (106) was treated with sulfuric acid, with identical results. The O-hydroxymethylated side-product (Ni-107) (Scheme 4.14) was also subjected to the same conditions, resulting in isolation of the same product. Finally, the mixture of nickel lactams (Ni-108) from the boron trifluoride reaction was stirred with concentrated sulfuric acid. Again, the same 1:1 isomeric mixture of metal-free lactams (108) was obtained. It is interesting to note that although there appears to be a major and a minor isomer formed in the B F 3 reaction, on stirring with sulfuric acid, a 1:1 mixture results: obviously equilibration occurs under strong acid conditions. Once again, the products formed via loss of a proton from the (3-ethyl group had been formed, rather than the desired compound that would result from a 1,2-alkyl shift. A number of different cyclization conditions were investigated in the hope of finding a method that would lead to the target compound. The nickel N-hydroxymethylamide (Ni-106) was refluxed in chloroform with the acidic clay Montomorillonite K10 (the successful catalyst in the earlier cyclization reaction to make the a-pyridochlorin-type structure). However, in this case, although a trace of cyclized material was detected, the major products were nickel octaethylporphyrin and the nickel amide, with only a small amount of starting material. It is surprising to see that the mew-substituent is lost so easily under acidic conditions, as has already been observed under strongly basic conditions. Another cyclization was run using the metal-free N-hydroxymethylamide (106) in trifluoroacetic acid, and adding concentrated sulfuric acid dropwise until cyclization occurred. Here the hope was that one of the two isomers would be favoured, and the lower acid strength would prevent equilibration to the 1:1 mixture thus far seen. Unfortunately in this case, no cyclization occurred until a large quantity of sulfuric acid was added, and the usual isomeric mixture (108) was obtained. The next line of approach was to synthesize the metal-free and nickel N-formylamide analogues (109) and (Ni-109), as there was an interest in seeing if these would cyclize in the same manner, or if they might give the corresponding cyclic imides (110) (Scheme 4.15). 112 Scheme 4.15 Proposed cyclization of the N-formylamide (109) The N-formylamides were produced by tetrapropylammonium perruthenate (TPAP) oxidation of the N-hydroxymethylamides.210 The oxidations proceeded smoothly to give the compounds in reasonable yields. The nickel complex (Ni-109) was treated with concentrated sulfuric acid, but no cyclization was observed, and the demetallated N-formylamide (109) and demetallated amide (105) were recovered. Dichloromethane/boron trifluoride etherate conditions were tried, but yielded only nickel octaethylporphyrin and a small amount of starting material. The metal-free N-formylamide (109) was then treated with dichloromethane/boron trifluoride etherate, but on work-up only starting material and the porphyrin amide were obtained. Finally, cyclization of the metal-free compound (109) in refluxing chloroform with Montmorillonite clay was attempted, and in this case the 113 resulting compounds were starting material and octaethylporphyrin. In conclusion, the acid treatment of the N-formylamides appears to lead preferentially to hydrolysis of the N-formyl moiety rather than to cyclization. Returning to the lactam (108), efforts were made to reduce the amide functionality which had resisted such a reaction before cyclization. However, once again, lithium aluminium hydride proved ineffective, both at room temperature, and in refluxing THF. In each case, starting material was recovered. Attempts were made to remedy the fact that (108) was present as a mixture of isomers, rather than a single compound. Catalytic hydrogenation over palladium on charcoal was performed on the isomeric mixture: this reaction met with some success, although it proved difficult to obtain reproducible results. During some experiments, no reduction was seen, whilst others gave good results. This may be due to the presence of small amounts of impurities that poisoned the catalyst. One observation common to all experiments was the formation of a large quantity of a more polar pink compound which appeared from its visible spectrum to be non-porphyrinic, possibly arising from reduction of the porphyrin ring. Unfortunately, this compound did not reoxidize to the chlorin on stirring in air, or even after the addition of an oxidizing agent such as l,2-dichloro-4,5-dicyanoquinone (DDQ). Hence the yields for this reaction, even when "successful", were prohibitive. However, a single porphyrinic reduction product (111) was produced, reaction presumably taking place only on the least hindered side of the molecule, i.e. that opposite the angular ethyl group (it should be noted that both the a- and the (3-pyridochlorins synthesized so far possess a chiral centre, and so exist as a mixture of optical isomers). The reduced compound exhibited a small blue-shift in the visible spectrum, the double peak at 680/686 nm becoming a single peak at 670 nm, reflecting the loss of the conjugated double bond of the ethylidene group. The nickel complex of the lactam (Ni-108) having given very broad signals in the H^ NMR spectrum, there was interest in seeing whether other metal complexes displayed similar behaviour. Consequently the lactam free base (108) was metallated with zinc. The 114 zinc complex (Zn-108) displayed the same broadness in the AH NMR spectrum as previously seen with the nickel complex, and so it appears likely to result from strong association of the complexed metal from one molecule with the amide group of another molecule, leading to aggregation in solution. During the course of these efforts to produce a p-pyridochlorin, a report came to light detailing the synthesis of a meso-isocyanoporphyrin (112).207 This was relevant to these studies as it provided an alternative approach to the formation of the a-pyridochlorin. The following section describes the strategy developed using this compound, and the subsequent results. 4.5 A new approach to the a-pyridochlorin via meso-isocyanooctaethylporphyrin The raeso-isocyanoporphyrin (112) is produced by the dehydration of the corresponding meso-formamide (113), which in turn is formed by a Beckmann rearrangement of the meso-acetoxime (114) in concentrated sulfuric acid (Scheme 4.16). Scheme 4.16 Synthesis of /neso-isocyanooctaethylporphyrin (112) A Passerini reaction211 of the isocyanide with formaldehyde and acetic acid was attempted in an effort to obtain the alkylated amide (115) shown in Scheme 4.17. 115 ( C H O ) n f H O A c - • \ — N H C H 2 C 0 2 A c (115) Scheme 4.17 Passerini reaction of (112) The product of this reaction would have been set up for acid-catalyzed cyclization to give a chlorin. However, on work-up, only the formamide (113) was isolated, formed by acid hydrolysis of the isocyanide. The next strategy involved reacting the isocyanide with formaldehyde in the presence of the Lewis acid, boron trifluoride etherate. It was envisaged that the nucleophilic isocyanide carbon atom would attack the carbocation of the formaldehyde-BF3 adduct, to give the analogue of the p-pyridochlorin cyclization precursor, with the nitrogen in the a-position (116) (Scheme 4.18). H 2 0 0 - B F , 3 N = H N -\A r—\ (116) O H O Scheme 4.18 Acid-catalyzed reaction of (112) with formaldehyde to give (116) Formaldehyde gas was bubbled through a flask containing toluene, giving a solution of formaldehyde, to which was added boron trifluoride etherate. This solution was added to the solid isocyanide, and stirred at room temperature. After work-up, two compounds were 116 isolated: the major product was the formamide (113), formed by hydrolysis of the isocyanide by BF3. The other product was polar and highly insoluble. Spectroscopy showed this latter compound to be the desired species (116). Test reactions were run to see if (116) was susceptible to cyclization in acid, but neither reaction in dichloromethane with BF3 catalysis, nor reaction in concentrated sulfuric acid led to any trace of a cyclized product, and the starting material was recovered unchanged. In order to see if the nickel complex would be more prone to cyclization, the C-hydroxymethylamide was metallated with nickel, and this product (Ni-116) was subjected to the same reaction conditions described for the metal-free compound. The only reaction seen to occur was demetallation. Finally, attempts were made to oxidize the metal-free C-hydroxymethylamide (116) using TPAP to form the C-formylamide, in the hope that this might change the reactivity of the chain in favour of cyclization; however this oxidation reaction failed. The lack of reaction of the C-hydroxymethylamide (116) compared with the N-hydroxymethylamide (106) can be explained by the relative stabilities of the carbocations which must be formed in order for cyclization to occur (Scheme 4.19). In the case of the N-hydroxymethylamide, the carbocation is adjacent to a nitrogen atom, and hence can be resonance-stabilized by the lone pair on that atom. This stabilization allows the cation to exist long enough for the double bond to attack it, leading to cyclization. In the case of the C-hydroxymethylamide, the carbocation would be created adjacent to a carbonyl group, i.e. adjacent to a partially positive carbon. Formation of the carbocation would lead to the highly unstable situation where two positive (or partially positive) atoms exist side by side. The lack of cyclization suggests that such a species either does not form at all, or its lifetime is too short to allow nucleophilic attack on it, leading to cyclization. 117 Scheme 4.19 Rationale for the cyclization/lack of cyclization of the two types of hydroxymethylamide (106) and (116) That would have been the end of the syntheses using the isocyanide as a starting material, had experiments not been performed with the intention of making more (Ni-116) by C-alkylating the nickel isocyanide (Ni-112) with paraformaldehyde/BF3. Instead of obtaining the expected more polar hydroxymethyl compound, one major non-polar product was isolated, with an unusual visible spectrum (Figure 4.3). •0.941 •0.753 .0.564 t0.188 0.0000^-. . r— , . — - , , 400 500 600 700 600 H A V L L E N G T H Figure 4.3 Absorption spectrum of the (Ni-112)/Wy(CHO)n product in CH2CI2 118 The Ifi NMR spectrum showed by the presence of a six hydrogen triplet at -0.05 ppm that this compound possesses a gem- diethyl group, which led to the suggestion that a cyclization had occurred in situ to give the unsaturated lactam (Ni-117). However, this structure was not consistent with the AH NMR spectrum, as there were no signals corresponding to the proton a to the carbonyl group, or to the lactam NH. There was a suspicion that the product might have been formed independently of formaldehyde, so the reaction was repeated, this time omitting the paraformaldehyde. This resulted in the formation of the same compound, leading to the formulation of another possible structure, (Ni-118). However, this structure is also inconsistent with the lH NMR spectrum, as one would expect to see the methine proton a to the NH, even if the NH signal itself were too broad to 119 be distinguished. Despite its low polarity, the product was very slow to dissolve, and had a melting point higher than most octaethylporphyrin derivatives. These facts, coupled with the atypical visible spectrum, suggested that the compound might be a dimer, and so it was submitted for FAB mass spectrometry, which confirmed this. A mechanism can be drawn for the formation of a dimer (Ni-119) consisting of two units of (Ni-118) joined at the carbon a to the nitrogen atom (Scheme 4.20). This mechanism requires the addition of two equivalents of H + and two electrons per molecule of dimer. Excess B F 3 was used, and accounts for the acid requirement, but reduction under these conditions might seem harder to explain. However, the formation of nickel octaethylbenzochlorin (Ni-17) also requires a formal reduction to take place under similar conditions, and it is suggested that nickel porphyrin complexes can act as electron donors under acidic conditions.69 It should be noted that the best yields of this reaction were approximately 50 %, and a large quantity of non-porphyrinic decomposition product was always obtained, reinforcing the possibility of electron donation from two porphyrin molecules to two others to form the dimer, followed by decomposition of the two porphyrin cation radicals. Also, the fact that the reaction only occurs when the nickel complex is used, and no cyclization/dimerization is seen with the metal-free compound, suggests that the nickel is playing an important role. The proposed structure would be consistent with the H^ NMR spectrum, the only signals not observed being the NH protons. 120 Scheme 4.20 Possible mechanism for the formation of the dimer (Ni-119) 121 The final structure, (Ni-120) was ascertained by X-ray crystallography (Figure 4.4), and was significantly different to that proposed. This structure contains a pyrido[3,2-b]-pyridine unit linking the two chlorin molecules. It possesses two fewer hydrogen atoms than the proposed structure, and fits better with the mass spectrum (however, without the hindsight made possible by a crystal structure, it would have been difficult to be certain of the exact number of hydrogen atoms in the dimer simply by FAB mass spectrometry, as such an ionization method sometimes gives rise to molecular ion peaks corresponding to the gain of one or more hydrogens). A mechanism can be drawn for the formation of this dimer which is catalytic in acid, and has no need for a reduction step (Scheme 4.21). Finally, this structure is completely consistent with the NMR spectrum, and there are no "missing" signals. 122 CI27I Figure 4.4 X-ray crystal structure of (Ni-120) 123 Scheme 4.21 Mechanism for the formation of the dimer (Ni-120) 124 This totally unexpected result was extremely interesting. The objective of this chapter was to create a chlorin with a fused pyridine ring and this so far had proved an elusive goal. In this serendipitous reaction finally this objective had been achieved, but "in duplicate", in the form of a dimer. In all the previous cyclizations, the alkyl 1,2-shift did not occur, and instead the ethylidene product resulting from the loss of a proton from the ethyl group was obtained. This did not appear to happen in this case. However, when the dimerization reaction was run on a larger scale, and the product was very carefully isolated, another compound was seen running just behind the dimer (Ni-120) on TLC. After purification by column chromatography, ] H NMR and mass spectra of this fraction were obtained, and it was revealed to be the ethylidene analogue of the dimer, in which there is one ethylidene group, one angular ethyl group, and one gem-diethyl group (Ni-121). As there is now no symmetry in the molecule, the 'H NMR spectrum is much more complex. Two noteworthy points about this minor product are a) that it exists as one isomer, i.e. there is only one geometry about the ethylidene bond (although the presence of a chiral centre at the angular ethyl group gives rise to optical isomers) and b) that its visible spectrum differs greatly from that of the major dimeric product, possessing a Soret band at 410 nm and very little absorption at longer wavelengths. The angular hydrogen atom at the position of fusion of the two pyridine rings prevents these rings from becoming aromatic, and this presumably prevents interaction between the two porphyrin moieties and accounts for the more porphyrin-like visible spectrum. 125 The major nickel dimer (Ni-120) was demetallated in concentrated sulfuric acid to give a very insoluble grey product (120). The *H NMR spectrum of this product showed two new singlets at 4.97 ppm and 5.82 ppm, exchangeable with D2O, but no signals were seen upfield of 0 ppm, in the region where the central NH protons are usually observed. It is possible that the pyridine nitrogens are more basic than the central nitrogens, and that it is the protonated pyridine NH's that give rise to the new signals. High resolution FAB mass spectrometry confirmed that demetallation had occurred. Further confirmation was obtained by complexing the demetallated compound with zinc; the zinc dimer (Zn-120) thus obtained displays a ] H NMR spectrum very similar to that of the nickel complex. The nickel, zinc and metal-free compounds all possess similar visible spectra. 4.6 a-Pyridochlorin synthesis via cyclization of the metallated formylmethylimine The differences in reactivity to acid of the nickel-complexed and metal-free meso-isocyanoporphyrins prompted the review of all previous attempts at synthesizing pyridochlorins, in order to be certain every logical cyclization method had been tried on both the metallated and metal-free substrates. The first cyclization that had been attempted, which gave rise to the iminoketone (93), rather than the desired a-pyridochlorin, had been performed only on the metal-free precursor (92). For the sake of completeness, further investigations using the metallated compound (M-92) were required. Metallation of the formylmethylimine (92) was attempted under mild conditions, by stirring with zinc acetate at room temperature. However, this led to cleavage of the imine, to give the zinc amine (Zn-91). In light of this result, it was necessary to go back one step, to synthesize the zinc formylmethylimine by condensation of the zinc aminoporphyrin with glyoxal. The condensation occurred in better yield than that with the metal-free amine: after refluxing overnight approximately 80 % of the desired product (Zn-92) was obtained. Test experiments were run using various acids to effect the cyclization of the zinc formylmethylimine, as initially it appeared to be more acid-stable than the metal-free 126 analogue. Unfortunately, acetic acid, trifluoroacetic acid and boron trifluoride etherate all gave rise to the metal-free amine (91), and no evidence of cyclization was observed. Hence the standard cyclization conditions of Montmorillonite K10 acidic clay and refluxing toluene were employed. After 24 hours reflux mostly starting material remained, according to TLC, but there was a small amount of more polar green product, as well as some zinc iminoketone (Zn-93) (this cospotted with an authentic sample produced by metallating the iminoketone (93) with zinc). Refluxing was continued for a further 24 hours, then the mixture was worked up and purified by chromatography. The polar green material (Zn-123) was isolated in 10 % yield, and 80 % of the starting material was recovered. The visible spectrum of the new compound indicated it was a chlorin, with a prominent absorption peak at 678 nm. In contrast to the metal-free cyclic product (93), the ^H NMR spectrum of this product showed no ethylidene peaks, but a six hydrogen triplet at 0.33 ppm suggested that the cyclization had occurred as originally anticipated, to give an aromatic exocyclic pyridine ring and a gem-diethyl group at the adjacent (3 -position. There were four peaks in the aromatic region, evidence of three mew-hydrogens and one hydrogen on the exocyclic ring. This, coupled with the mass spectral data, showed that unlike in the benzochlorin synthesis, the hydroxyl group is retained on the ring. The exchangeable hydroxyl proton was not observed in the NMR spectrum, which had to be run in pyridine, as the compound was poorly soluble in other solvents. The new chlorin (Zn-123) was assigned the structure shown. / (Zn-123) O H 127 This compound was difficult to obtain in a completely pure state, as it streaked badly during chromatography. It was demetallated in dichloromethane/trifluoracetic acid to give the metal-free species (123) in approximately 30 % yield. It seems likely that this poor yield is a reflection of the impurity of the starting material rather than a measure of the inefficiency of the demetallation. The metal-free (123) was easier to purify, as it is less polar and runs in a much narrower band on the silica column. It possesses a visible spectrum with a strong absorption at 672 nm (Figure 4.5); the diagnostic peaks in the *H NMR spectrum are a six hydrogen triplet at 0.40 ppm and four aromatic peaks above 8 ppm as well as a broad singlet at 13.06 ppm corresponding to the OH proton. 500 600 ' • • * " • f00 WAVELENGTH Figure 4.5 Absorption spectrum of (123) in CH2CI2 The synthesis of one of the target compounds had finally been achieved, using the very first method devised, but with one obviously crucial modification: using the metallated substrate for the cyclization rather than the free base. The (3-hydroxypyrido)chlorin (123) appears to be fairly stable to acid (in that it can be demetallated by treatment with acid without destruction of the chromophore), has good spectroscopic properties, and possesses sites for possible further derivatization in its hydroxyl group and basic N-atom. Unfortunately, so far efforts to improve the yield have failed - approximately 5 mg product is obtained from 100 mg zinc formylmethylimine (Zn-92). However, the unused starting 128 material is recovered unchanged, and can be recycled through the cyclization reaction many times. 4.7 Summary This chapter describes efforts to synthesize a number of chlorins with fused pyridine rings, analogous to the benzochlorins. Varying degrees of success were achieved in this endeavour: one of the target molecules was prepared and three other new types of cyclic chlorin were created during these investigations. The first new chlorin that was prepared, (93), possesses an exocyclic ring containing a (3-carbonylimine functionality 0=CCH=N, and an ethylidene group on the reduced pyrrole ring. Its longest-wavelength absorption in the visible spectrum is at 722 nm (8 = 10800). Both possible geometric isomers were produced, in a ratio of approximately 4:1, and these two isomers could be separated by chromatography, although they were not amenable to catalytic hydrogenation to give a single isomer. The carbonyl group could be reduced with sodium borohydride to give the corresponding alcohol. Attempts to aromatize the ring were unsuccessful. This compound could be metallated with nickel or zinc under standard conditions. The second type of chlorin synthesized, (108), contains an exocyclic lactam, with an absorption at 686 nm (e = 34800). Again, an ethylidene group is attached to the reduced pyrrole ring, but in this case the ratio of geometric isomers is 1:1, and these proved inseparable by chromatography. The metal complexes of this compound appear to exist in solution as aggregates, indicating the high affinity of the centrally complexed metal for the lactam amide functionality of another molecule. Reduction of the amide group failed, but the ethylidene group underwent catalytic hydrogenation to give a single diastereomer. Metallation and demetallation reactions were successful. The third class of compounds formed, (120), consists of a dimer of two chlorin molecules possessing exocyclic pyridine rings, fused to each other through the pyridine 129 rings. These compounds display very unusual visible spectra, for example, the nickel complex possesses an absorption peak at 814 nm (e = 13600). The X-ray crystal structure shows that the molecule is essentially planar. Metallation and demetallation reactions were successful. The fourth and final class of compounds synthesized, (123), contains an exocyclic 3-hydroxypyridine ring, with the pyridine N-atom a to the porphyrin meso-position. The metal-free species has a visible spectrum with the longest-wavelength absorption at 672 nm (e = 22700). 130 CHAPTER FIVE Use of Porphyrins with Free (3-Positions as Precursors to Novel Chlorins 131 5.1 Introduction Chapter Four describes the synthesis, using octaethylporphyrin as the starting material, of a variety of novel chlorins with exocyclic nitrogen-containing rings. In some cases the exocyclic ring is aromatic, whilst in others aromaticity is prevented by failure of the P-ethyl group to migrate to the adjacent P-position (Scheme 5.1). CHLORIN WITH AROMATIC EXOCYCLIC RING e.g. (123) Scheme 5.1 The two product types formed via the cyclization of substituted octaethylporphyrin derivatives This area was felt to merit futher study as the compounds prepared were potentially useful as photosensitizers. There was an interest in synthesizing similar derivatives using a different porphyrin system. In particular, the study of cyclizations using meso-substituted 132 precursors with free (3-positions adjacent to that functionality seemed worth investigating as the products formed from these reactions would lack the impediment of a (3-alkyl group blocking the route to aromaticity of the exocyclic ring. One synthesis of relevance to this field of research is that by Boyle and Dolphin, whereby the acrolein-substituted metalloporphyrin (M-130) was cyclized under acidic conditions to give 7-oxo-5,15-diphenylbenzochlorin (M-131) (Scheme 5.2).178 Scheme 5.2 Synthesis of the (3-oxobenzochlorin A similar preparation of pyridochlorins can be envisaged using porphyrins with free (3-positions. For example, analogous cyclization of the formylmethylimine-derivatized porphyrin (M-132) would lead to a pyridochlorin with a |3-hydroxyl group (M-133). If both the (3-positions were unsubstituted in the parent porphyrin, the product would be oxidizable to an oxopyridochlorin (M-134) (Scheme 5.3). 133 Ft R (M-134) (M-133) Scheme 5.3 Possible use of (3-free porphyrin precursors to yield pyridochlorins However, with these types of systems there is also the possibility that cyclization will lead not to a chlorin, but to the porphyrin with an exocyclic ring (M-135) (Scheme 5.4). Such compounds would be of little interest as photosensitizers owing to their non-ideal light absorption properties. Scheme 5.4 Meso- substituted P-free porphyrin cyclization leading to a porphyrin product 134 Thus there was no guarantee of success in using this type of porphyrin to create novel pyridochlorins, as the pathway leading instead to porphyrin formation might predominate. However, in view of the successful oxobenzochlorin synthesis, which could also have generated a porphyrin rather than a chlorin by a similar mechanism to that shown in Scheme 5.4, it seemed worthwhile pursuing studies in this area. The first task was to choose a base porphyrin for these syntheses. The compound chosen must possess at least one adjacent pair of free meso- and (3-positions. In addition, ideally it would have two other characteristics: a) it would be symmetrical about the free meso-position, as such a compound would generate only one regioisomer on cyclization and b) it would have good solubility and stability properties, and be available in reasonable quantities. 5,15-Diphenylporphyrin (73) is a possible suitable starting material, but its insolubility and low yield of preparation prompted the search for a better candidate. One compound that appeared to be ideal for these purposes was 5,10,15-triphenylporphyrin (136). However, although it fulfils the structural requirements, we were not aware of any references to this compound in the literature. It seemed likely it would be both soluble and stable enough for our purposes, as tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and diphenylporphyrin (DPP) are well-known and widely used compounds. The hope was that the additional phenyl group would improve its solubility over that of DPP, making it more TPP-like. It remained to be seen whether this porphyrin could be prepared in useful quantities. 5.2 Attempted synthesis of 5,10,15-triphenylporphyrin The preparation of this porphyrin can be envisaged as shown in Scheme 5.5. The easily-synthesized 5-phenyldipyrromethane212 (137) can be dibenzoylated at the 1- and 9-positions.213 The dibenzoyl product (138) can then be reduced with lithium aluminium hydride to give the dibenzyl alcohol (139), which is condensed under acidic conditions with dipyrromethane (140). This reaction scheme follows that used by Wallace et al. to make in 135 20 % yield a tetraphenylporphyrin with differently-substituted phenyl groups on opposite sides of the molecule.27 However, in our hands, using the same condensation conditions (refluxing propionic acid, air oxidation), less than 5 % porphyrinic product was obtained, and this appeared to be a mixture of more than one compound. (140) Scheme 5.5 Directed synthesis of 5,10,15-triphenylporphyrin (136) The condensation was repeated using different conditions: dichloromethane solution, trichloroacetic acid catalysis, DDQ oxidation. Unfortunately, there appeared by TLC to be very little porphyrin produced by this method, and so the reaction was abandoned. 136 It seems strange that such poor results were obtained from this synthesis, especially as the conditions used for the first condensation directly followed a procedure known to be successful. The only significant difference between this system and that described in the literature was that the latter used a 5-aryldipyrromethane in place of the unsubstituted dipyrromethane (140). Possibly the presence of the 5-aryl group stabilizes the macrocycle to acid attack, whilst the macrocycle with an unsubstituted meso-position is less stable to acid. However, the second trial was run under conditions similar to those used for diphenylporphyrin synthesis, conditions that do not attack the two unsubstituted meso-positions of DPP. Hence it is unclear where the problem lies. However, as the object of the exercise was to produce a reasonable quantity of a base porphyrin to be used in subsequent syntheses, it was obvious that the search should continue for an ideal starting material. 5.3 Attempted syntheses of 3,7,13,17-tetraalkyl-5,15-diphenylporphyrins Having failed in attempts to make triphenylporphyrin, the possibility of synthesizing 3,7,13,17-tetraalkyl-5,15-diphenylporphyrins was then explored. These are compounds with two free mew-positions, each flanked by two free (3-positions. The reasons for preferring these compounds over the structurally simpler 5,15-diphenylporphyrin (73) were threefold: a) the (3-alkyl groups should reduce the aggregation caused by molecules stacking one on top of the other and hence improve the solubility properties, b) they should be prepared in higher yields from the acid-catalyzed condensation reaction, as [3-alkyl groups stabilize the compounds to acid degradation (octaalkyl-diarylporphyrins can be prepared in far higher yields than can simple diarylporphyrins.214) 137 c) the resulting products, having four of their (3-positions protected, should be less prone to decomposition in the subsequent derivatization reactions, some of which require strongly acidic conditions. Synthesis of the the desired porphyrin would require the condensation of a 2,8-dialkyldipyrromethane with benzaldehyde. Symmetrically-substituted dipyrromethanes with ester groups at the 1- and 9-positions can be formed by self-coupling of the 2-acetoxy-methylpyrrole under acidic conditions. The 2-acetoxymethylpyrrole is prepared by lead tetraacetate oxidation of the corresponding 2-methyl compound (Scheme 5.6).215 H Scheme 5.6 Reaction sequence for the formation of a symmetrical dipyrromethane The ester groups can be hydrolyzed or hydrogenated to give the 1,9-diacid, which can be converted to the dipyrromethane with free a-positions either by thermal decarboxylation, or via the higher yielding route of iodinative decarboxylation followed by reduction. This multistep reaction sequence has been applied successfully to a large number of pyrroles with alkyl substituents on the 3- and 4-positions, and a variation of it has been used for pyrroles with one alkyl and one ester substituent at these positions. However, in order to prepare the requisite dipyrromethane for these syntheses, the use of a pyrrole with a free (3-position (ie where R = H, Scheme 5.6) was necessary. As no simple literature precedent was found, the standard approach outlined above was followed in the hope that it would yield similar results. The lead tetraacetate oxidation of 2-benzyloxycarbonyl-3,5-dimethylpyrrole (141) was performed in good yield to give the acetoxymethyl-substituted product (142). However, the 138 acid-catalyzed coupling reaction was more problematic: in addition to a substantial quantity of remaining starting material, it gave rise to a number of compounds, at least three of which on TLC stained red with bromine vapour, an indication that they were dipyrromethanes (which oxidize to the red dipyrromethene on treatment with bromine). This result suggests that coupling may have occurred at the free p-position as well as at the desired 5-position (Scheme 5.7). EXPECTED 5,5-COUPLED PRODUCT POSSIBLE 3,5-COUPLED PRODUCT Scheme 5.7 Acid-catalyzed coupling of acetoxymethylpyrrole (142) The multitude of products in the crude mixture precluded isolation and definitive structure determination. An attempt was made to remedy the problem presumed to result from undesired reaction at the free (3 -position by using a pyrrole protected at that position with an iodine substituent, which can be removed at will by simple reduction. The lead 139 tetraacetate oxidation of 2-benzyloxycarbonyl-4-iodo-3,5-dimethylpyrrole (145) gave a cleaner product (146) than that with the corresponding 4-H analogue (Scheme 5.8). The coupling reaction initially appeared to have been far more successful than the previous attempt, as all the starting material was consumed and there was only one major TLC spot that stained red with bromine. However, on work-up and chromatography, only a small quantity of dipyrromethane (147) was obtained, and most of the material remained at the baseline as decomposition products. Different reaction conditions were tried, but in each case very little product was isolable. Scheme 5.8 Use of the iodo-protected pyrrole (145) to synthesize (143) The next approach was to use an esterified acid as the protecting group. This would be hydrolyzed to the acid after coupling, and then undergo iodinative decarboxylation followed by reduction to give the desired dipyrromethane (148). Initially 2,4-di(benzyloxycarbonyl)-3,5-dimethylpyrrole was treated with lead tetraacetate in an attempt to form the ester-protected acetoxymethylpyrrole, but no reaction occurred; the presence of the 4-ester group deactivates the methyl group to oxidation by this reagent. Instead, use was made of a dipyrromethane previously synthesized in the group, l,9-di(benzyloxycarbonyl)-3,7-di(ethoxycarbonyl)-2,8-dimethyldipyrromethane (149). This had been prepared by acid-catalyzed coupling of the 2-chloromethylpyrrole (150) formed by the action of sulfuryl chloride on the methyl derivative (151) (Scheme 5.9) (the sulfuryl chloride method is precluded for the (3-free or P-iodo pyrroles as it leads to chlorination at these positions). E t 0 2 C C H 3 E t 0 2 C C H 3 Scheme 5.9 Attempted synthesis of 2,8-dimethyldipyrromethane (148) Hydrolysis of the 3- and 7-ethoxycarbonyl groups was performed in strong base, but these ester groups proved extremely resistant to reaction, and only the 1- and 9-esters were converted to their acids. Therefore attempts were made to prepare the porphyrin (154) with the P-ester groups attached, the intention being to hydrolyze these functionalities after macrocycle formation. The dipyrromethane (149) was converted to the compound (152) with free 1- and 9-positions via the iodination-deiodination method. It was next condensed with benzaldehyde in a porphyrin synthesis, following known procedures (Scheme 5.10).216 As there were ester groups present, care was taken to use a condensation method that had been developed to preserve acid-sensitive functionalities; this procedure was designed specifically to allow for the synthesis of porphyrins bearing aldehyde groups protected as their acetals. 141 Scheme 5.10 Attempted synthesis of the porphyrin (154) Unfortunately the crude product from this synthesis showed only traces of porphyrin, heavily contaminated with the oxidizing agent, DDQ. As the yield of product was so much poorer than expected (the yields from this condensation method using tetraalkyl-dipyrromethanes are reported to range from 50-90 %) this discouraging result lead these investigations to be discontinued. 5.4 Syntheses and reactions of 2,3,7,8-tetraethylporphyrin and 2,3,7,8-tetraethyl-15-phenylporphyrin An intriguing report217 describing the synthesis and electrophilic substitution reactions of the two title compounds (155) and (156) appeared potentially to be of relevance. 142 (155) was of particular interest, as it is a hybrid between half an octaethylporphyrin molecule and half an unsubstituted porphine. Porphine itself is rather unstable and difficult to prepare and intuitively one would expect the tetraethyl analogue also to lack stability, as it possesses one completely unsubstituted side. However, this does not appear to be the case. The intention had been to find a porphyrin on which to perform the same reactions described in Chapter Four where octaethylporphyrin was used, but with adjacent unsubstituted meso- and (3-positions. Tetraethylporphyrin is a compound with close analogy to octaethylporphyrin, but with the requisite free positions. However, it has three different types of meso-site where the initial electrophilic substitution reaction (formylation or nitration) could take place, and the investigations described in the literature by Franck and Krautstrunk were limited to deuteration experiments, in which they found that deuteration occurred at all four meso-positions. For the purposes of this study it was, necessary to have a compound that would give a single major formylation and nitration product, with the substitutions taking place adjacent to a free (3-position. On steric grounds it could be anticipated that the major product would be the 15-substituted derivative (157), which would be ideal, as such a compound would be symmetrical, and any cyclization product resulting from further derivatization would be formed by cyclizing at one of the two adjacent free (3-positions (Scheme 5.11). (155) C H O (157) Scheme 5.11 Possible electrophilic substitution product of (155), and the subsequent use of this to form chlorins with exocyclic rings However, it remained to be seen whether the electrophilic substitution reaction would be so selective. The formylation of (156) was also potentially of interest; here the major 143 product would be expected to be that substituted at the more sterically open 10- and 20-meso-positions. The two porphyrins were synthesized using two different methods. That of Franck and Krautstrunk involves the reaction of 2,3,7,8-tetraethyldipyrromethane (158) with 2-pyrrole-carboxaldehyde (159) to give the biladiene (160). This is then cyclized under acidic conditions with either formaldehyde or benzaldehyde to give the two products (Scheme 5.12). N + H Br (160) i) CH 2 0, H> ii) [O] i) PhCHO, H + ii) [O] (155) (156) Scheme 5.12 Synthesis of (155) and (156) via the method of Franck and Krautstrunk 144 Using this method (155) was prepared in 6 % yield and (156) in 30 % yield. It was unfortunate that the porphyrin of greater interest for this study was prepared in much lower yield. Another synthetic method was evaluated, involving the condensation of the dipyrromethene hydrobromide (161) with dipyrromethane (140) or 5-phenyldipyrromethane (137) to give the porphyrins in 8 % and 20 % yield respectively (Scheme 5.13).218 Scheme 5.13 Synthesis of (155) and (156) via dipyrromethene condensation These experiments produced sufficient quantities of the two compounds for investigations of their reactivities to formylation conditions to proceed. They were converted to their nickel complexes, and subjected to Vilsmeier formylation conditions of phosphoryl chloride/DMF. (Ni-155) gave rise to three major products in yields of 10, 13 145 and 47 %, as well as remaining starting material (the use of large excesses of the Vilsmeier reagent had been avoided in an effort to obtain selectivity). The small quantities of products obtained precluded definitive structure assignment, but it appeared that the major product was a mixture of (3-formylated compounds, that obtained in 13 % yield was a 1:1 mixture of 5- and 15-formylporphyrins, and the product isolated in 10 % yield was the 10-formyl derivative. Thus the reaction was not particularly selective, so (155) was eliminated as a possible base porphyrin for subsequent studies. The formylation of (Ni-156) was investigated for the sake of completeness, and in the hope that it might give a potentially useful single formyl isomer. However, in this case four major products were formed in yields of 6, 15, 19 and 19 %. B y ^ H N M R the minor product was shown to be symmetrical, hence it was assigned the structure with the substituent at the 5-position. The least polar of the products, formed in 19 % yield, was that with a 10-formyl group. The 15 % yield product was unable to be assigned a structure, as it was obtained heavily contaminated with two of the other compounds, even after preparative chromatography. The final compound (19 % yield) was tentatively assigned to be (3-formylated. Hence (156), like (155), shows little selectivity in its reactions with the Vilsmeier reagent. 5.5 Improved syntheses of 5,15-diphenylporphyrin The earlier part of this chapter describes attempts to develop an ideal base porphyrin on which to perform subsequent pyridochlorin syntheses. Unfortunately these efforts had proved unsuccessful, and so it was decided to revert to the known compound 5,15-diphenylporphyrin (DPP) (73), which fulfilled at least most of the criteria for a practical starting material. The reasons this compound had not been chosen earlier were two-fold: it suffers from poor solubility and its synthesis is problematic, typically giving poor yields. The first of these problems was addressed by synthesizing analogues using substituted benzaldehydes. The following compounds had previously been made in this group: bis(4-146 nitrophenyl)-, bis(2-cyanophenyl)-, bis(4-cyanophenyl)-, bis(4-acetoxyphenyl)-, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)- bis(4-bromophenyl)-, bis(4-iodophenyl)- and bis(pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrins, and these had all proved to have worse solubilities than DPP. Surprisingly, a bis(4-tbutylphenyl)porphyrin exhibited even worse solubility than the aforementioned compounds, although the rationale for making it was that the bulky rbutyl groups would prevent the molecules from approaching each other, and hence reduce aggregation. The only analogue that had been prepared with better solubility properties than DPP was bis(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)porphyrin, and unfortunately this would not be useful in the planned syntheses as it had previously been shown to lack stability under acidic conditions and the compound chosen would be subjected to concentrated sulfuric acid during later steps of the proposed synthetic sequence. Other porphyrins made specifically to determine their solubility characteristics were bis(4-ethylphenyl)-, bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)- and bis(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-porphyrins. The first of these had poor solubility, but the second was much improved. Unfortunately the best yield of this compound was only 8 %, and so its use was impractical. One possible reason for this poor yield could be that the dipyrromethane precursor is twisted by the presence of the 2- and 6-methyl groups into a conformation that is not amenable to ring formation. In an effort to minimize the possible distorting interactions of the phenyl substituents in the dipyrromethane the bis(3,5-dimethylphenyl)porphyrin was prepared. However, the yield for this compound was only 4 %, and its solubility did not match that of the bis(trimethylphenyl)porphyrin. Efforts to improve upon DPP in terms of solubility had come to nothing, and so the second problem was addressed, optimizing the yield of this compound. There are two main routes to DPP, each involving a 2+2-type condensation of a dipyrromethane with an aldehyde (Scheme 5.14). 5-Phenyldipyrromethane (137) (prepared in one step from pyrrole and benzaldehyde212) can be reacted with trimethylorthoformate, a formaldehyde equivalent, with acid catalysis, to give the product in yields of 20-30 %.2 1 9 The major 147 drawback to this synthesis is the need for very high dilution conditions: to synthesize 150 mg of porphyrin requires 850 mL of dichloromethane solvent, and attempts to decrease this solvent volume lead to much poorer yields. The other method involves the condensation of unsubstituted dipyrromethane (140) with benzaldehyde to give 30-40 % product;220 here higher concentrations are possible without loss in yield, 200 mg of porphyrin requiring 500 mL of dichloromethane. The major problem with this synthesis lies in the preparation of the dipyrromethane (140). CH(OCH 3) 3 OHC- / \ CKX) (137) H (140) H i) H + ii) [O] (73) Scheme 5.14 The two main routes to 5,15-diphenylporphyrin (73) (140) can be made in a number of ways (Scheme 5.15). Most of these require the initial synthesis of the di(pyrrolyl)ketone (162), which is then reduced to the target compound. The di(pyrrolyl)ketone can be prepared directly from pyrrole, activated as its Grignard salt, and phosgene,221 but methods avoiding the use of phosgene are preferred. Pyrrole reacts with thiophosgene (a liquid reagent less hazardous and easier to handle than phosgene) to give 148 the di(pyrrolyl)thione (163) in good yield.222 The thione can be oxidized with hydrogen peroxide to yield (162) followed by reduction to (140).223 This three-step synthesis is a widely used method for making the desired dipyrromethane, but the overall yield is below 35 %. Recently a procedure for reductively desulfurizing the thione directly to the dipyrromethane was developed to give the product in just two steps.219 However, it required the use of Raney nickel, and the yield was highly dependent on the activity of the metal. Lithium aluminium hydride was also found to effect desulfurization, but this method was only useful on small scales. Finally, a large-scale desulfurization procedure using sodium borohydride was developed that allowed the preparation of gram quantities of (140).219 This breakthrough made the synthesis of DPP from dipyrromethane (140) and benzaldehyde a much more practical one than that using 5-phenyldipyrromethane (137) and trimethy lorthoformate. ( 1 6 3 ) [O] Scheme 5.15 The various methods for preparing dipyrromethane (140) Investigations also were made into the possibility of forming DPP through the self-condensation of l-formyl-5-phenyldipyrromethane (164) and l-hydroxymefhyl-5-phenyl-149 dipyrromethane (165) (Scheme 5.16). In these syntheses the dipyrromethane is already attached to the carbon that would normally be provided by the aldehyde, and so the condensation should occur with higher yield as it requires the condensation of only two molecules rather than four. This approach has been used successfully in the formation of (3-alkylated porphyrins,224 and (l-aryl-l-hydroxymeth'yl)dipyrromethanes have been used to prepare tetraphenylporphyrins.27 (165) Scheme 5.16 Diphenylporphyrin synthesis by self-condensation of dipyrromethanes bearing the bridging carbon substituent The condensation of l,9-diformyl-5-phenyldipyrromethane (166) with 5-phenyl-dipyrromethane (137) was also studied to see if it would lead to better yields of DPP (Scheme 5.17). This is another reaction common to the synthesis of (3-alkylporphyrins.218 150 Scheme 5.17 The condensation of (166) with (137) 5-Phenyldipyrromethane (137) was mono- and di-formylated under Vilsmeier conditions, and the monoformyl compound (164) was reduced with sodium borohydride to give the monohydroxymethyl derivative (165). (164), (165) and (166) were then evaluated for their usefulness in DPP syntheses under various reaction conditions. Surprisingly, in all cases very little porphyrin was produced, and far from being better substrates for DPP formation, these dipyrromethane derivatives were much worse. These studies showed that the most efficient method for preparing 5,15-diphenyl-porphyrin (73) was the condensation of dipyrromethane (140) with benzaldehyde, the dipyrromethane being produced by sodium borohydride reduction of the thione (163). Having decided on the base porphyrin and the optimal way to synthesize it, the next step was to produce meso-derivatives of it and investigate their cyclization reactions. However, before describing the reactions performed on DPP, an interesting side product formed during the synthesis of this compound will be discussed. 5.6 Formation of 10-formyl-5,15-diphenylporphyrin during DPP synthesis During investigations into the practicality of using the condensation of 5-phenyl-dipyrromethane with trimethylorthoformate to synthesize DPP, an additional porphyrinic 151 product, which was more polar than the desired product, was seen to be formed. On isolation and purification of this compound, it was found to be the meso-formyl derivative (167), produced in approximately 2 % yield. A paper by Cavaleiro et al. describes a similar result during the synthesis of coproporphyrin II tetramethyl ester, where the formyl derivative also was formed in 2 % yield.225 That group proposed that the porphodimethene condensation intermediate (168) is in equilibrium with the macrocycle formed by loss of a proton (169), and it is the latter compound which reacts with the activated orthoformate species to give rise to the product (Scheme 5.18). This explains the production of a single isomer with the formyl group in the most hindered position. C 0 2 C H 3 C 0 2 C H 3 Scheme 5.18 Proposed mechanism for the formation of meso-formylcoproporphyrin II tetramethyl ester 152 That it was not the fully oxidized porphyrin that was being formylated was demonstrated by subjecting the porphyrin to the same reaction conditions: no formyl product was detected. This is to be expected, as Vilsmeier formylation of porphyrins requires the prior complexation of the porphyrin by metals such as copper or nickel. A test reaction whereby diphenylporphyrin was treated under the same conditions of trimethylorthoformate, trichloroacetic acid and dichloromethane gave a similar result, with no formylporphyrin isolable. If an identical reaction mechanism to that proposed in the literature were to be applicable to the diphenylporphyrin system, formylation would occur at one of the meso-carbons that is attached to a phenyl group, and such a compound would not be oxidizable to a porphyrin. Possibly such a reaction occurs, but only the porphyrinic compounds are easily isolable, and so this non-porphyrinic product was not observed. The side-product that is obtained involves formylation occurring at one of the other two mew-carbons, leading to a product that can be oxidized to a porphyrin. It seems likely that an equilibrium takes place whereby (to at least a small extent) the two opposite methine groups gain a hydrogen atom from the other 2 meso-positions to become methylene groups,226 and then the same mechanism as that proposed by Cavaleiro et al. leads to the formylated product (Scheme 5.19). Scheme 5.19 Proposed mechanism for the formation of meso-formyl-diphenylporphyrin (167) 154 The literature report suggested that one way to improve the yield of formylated product formed during the porphyrin synthesis would be to increase the lifetime of the porphodimethene, i.e. to leave the reaction mixture longer before oxidizing the solution to the porphyrin. One result from such an attempt was mentioned: a 24 hour reaction with exclusion of oxygen, followed by aerial oxidation, led to a slight improvement of the yield from 2 % to 3 %. Optimizing the conditions for formylation was potentially useful in our case, as the formylporphyrin was one of the compounds needed for the planned synthetic studies, and normally a three-step reaction is necessary to produce it from the unsubstituted porphyrin. Hence it would be advantageous to be able to obtain it directly from the porphyrin condensation. A series of experiments was run in which the reaction time before oxidation to the porphyrin was varied. This led to an increase in the yield of formylated product (167) from 2 % to 4 % (accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the yield of diphenylporphyrin). However, no futher increase was achieved, and even this improvement was not strictly reproducible. Therefore this method was abandoned as a practical way of synthesizing 10-formyl-5,l5-diphenylporphyrin, and as it was not the highest-yielding preparation of diphenylporphyrin, this condensation was discontinued in favour of the benzaldehyde/dipyrromethane technique. 5.7 Meso-derivatization of 5,15-diphenylporphyrin 5.7.1 Synthesis of 10-cyano-5,15-diphenylporphyrin The first target compound was the mew-cyanoporphyrin (171). This would be converted to the amide, N-hydroxymethylated and cyclized, just as described in Chapter Four for the octaethylporphyrin analogue. However, with diphenylporphyrin there is an alternative route to the cyano compound that had not been possible with OEP, via displacement of the meso-brominated derivative (81) by copper (I) cyanide. Such an approach was impossible with OEP because the meso-bromo-OEP is inaccessible, bromination of OEP with N-bromosuccinimide leading to a complex mixture of compounds.169'170 This synthetic 155 sequence merited investigation, as it would be shorter than the method used with OEP (four steps rather than five, Scheme 5.20). t Scheme 5.20 Two pathways to the cyanoporphyrin (171) The meso-bromoporphyrin (81) had been prepared previously for use in palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions (described in Chapter Three). It was converted to its zinc complex in order to avoid the undesired complexation of copper during the high 156 temperature reaction with copper (I) cyanide. The first cyanation attempt was run in refluxing quinoline, conditions that were used by Callot for the conversion of (3-brominated copper tetraphenylporphyrin to its cyano-derivative.227 The product (Zn-171) was obtained in 37 % yield, extensive decomposition having occurred at this temperature. Milder conditions were next assayed, refluxing in pyridine.228 In this case reaction was much slower, but after 48 hours reflux 61 % cyanated product was isolated, most of the remaining compound being unreacted starting material. As the bromoporphyrin was very slow to react under the preferred lower temperature conditions, the same reaction was attempted with the more reactive iodoporphyrin (75). Crude material was used, contaminated with the non-iodinated and diiodinated derivatives, as it seemed likely the contaminants would be more easily removed after cyanation. The starting material was completely consumed after 1.5 hours reflux in pyridine, a great improvement over the much lengthier reaction time required by the bromo-derivative. The monocyanoporphyrin was easily separated from the other porphyrin contaminants. It is interesting to note that the diiodinated porphyrin impurity, which appears to be a mixture of isomers in the NMR spectrum, but shows only one spot on TLC (see Chapter Three), gives rise to two separate spots on TLC after cyanation, confirming the existence of (at least) two isomeric forms. The zinc cyanoporphyrin complex (Zn-171) was demetallated in dichloromethane/ trifluoroacetic acid to give the desired 10-cyano-5,15-diphenylporphyrin (171) in 30 % yield over the 4 steps. The major impediment to a high yield in this synthesis is the iodination reaction: this cannot be optimized above approximately 50 %, as it gives a statistical mixture of non-iodinated, monoiodinated and diiodinated products. Therefore, although the feasibility of this reaction sequence had been demonstrated, a return was made to the original method of metallation, formylation, demetallation, oximation and dehydration in the hope that this would give better yields. Complexation of diphenylporphyrin with copper, formylation under Vilsmeier conditions and demetallation with 15 % sulfuric acid in TFA gave a 58 % yield of the meso-157 formylporphyrin (167) over the three steps. Formation of the oxime (170) using hydroxylamine hydrochloride in refluxing pyridine resulted in 94 % yield, and dehydration in refluxing acetic anhydride gave the target meso-cyano compound (171) in 91 % yield. Hence the overall yield from the parent porphyrin to the cyano derivative via this route is 50 %, a substantial improvement over the 30 % obtained by displacing the iodo-substituent with cyanide. 5.7.2 Synthesis and reactions of 10-aminocarbonyl-5,15-diphenylporphyrin The next step was to hydrolyze the cyano-group in acid to the amide (172). This reaction on the octaethylporphyrin analogue requires several hours of heating at 90°C in concentrated sulfuric acid. Such conditions were anticipated to lead to sulfonation of the phenyl rings in the diphenylporphyrin case, so the initial test reaction was performed at room temperature. This resulted in slow conversion of the starting material to a more polar product. After being stirred for four days at room temperature the reaction was worked up and the product was isolated, along with 40 % unconverted starting material. The product was found upon analysis to be the desired amide (172), obtained in a yield of 60 %. In an effort to shorten the reaction time, the hydrolysis was then performed at 60°C. After three hours the starting material had been completely consumed. However, on work-up a large amount of porphyrinic compound remained in the aqueous phase, even after neutralization with potassium carbonate solution. It seems probable this is a consequence of (poly)sulfonation at the phenyl rings, giving the water-soluble porphyrin (poly)sulfonic acid. This result indicated that in order to obtain good yields of the amide the longer reaction time at low temperature would have to be tolerated. The amide was converted to its nickel complex (Ni-172), and subjected to the N -hydroxymethylation reaction. This was performed in an identical manner to that used for the OEP analogue, viz., deprotonation of the amide with n-butyllithium followed by addition of paraformaldehyde. The alkylation proceeded similarly to that with the OEP derivative, in 158 that two more polar products were formed, the less polar of these being the dominant one. These were the desired N-hydroxymethyl compound (Ni-173) and the N-(methylhydroxy-methylether) side-product (Ni-174) formed by O-hydroxymethylation of (Ni-173). o CONHCH 2OH (Ni-173) CONHCH 2 OCH 2 OH (Ni-174) Unfortunately, the three compounds, (Ni-172), (Ni-173) and (Ni-174), proved to be extremely insoluble, and although column chromatography was attempted, little separation was achieved. In the hope that the non-metallated versions would be more amenable to chromatography, the hydroxymethylation reaction was run on the metal-free amide (172). The same mixture of three compounds was obtained, but once again, the low solubilities resulted in very poor separation by chromatography. As isolation of the pure N-hydroxymethyl compound had not been possible, in either its metal-free or nickel-complexed form, trial runs were made with the mixture to see if cyclization would occur under acidic conditions, and if it did, whether it would yield the chlorin or porphyrin product (Scheme 5.21). The nickel complex was dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid and stirred for one hour. On work-up, the crude product displayed a peak in the visible spectrum at 696 nm, suggestive of a chlorin. However, using preparative chromatography, no pure product with this chromophore was obtained. A new spot was observed on TLC that was pink and slightly more polar than the amide (172); this was proposed to be the cyclized porphyrin product (175) shown in Scheme 5.21. However, 159 when this product was separated by preparative chromatography in very poor yield and submitted for FAB mass spectrometry, the mass ion expected for the cyclized product was not detected: the major peak in the spectrum corresponded to that of the amide (172). A similar lack of success was experienced on treatment of the metal-free analogue with acid. PORPHYRIN (175) Scheme 5.21 The possible cyclization products of (173) and (Ni-173) In addition to the fact that no evidence of cyclization was found, the majority of the starting material appeared to be destroyed by the acidic conditions, yielding very polar brown material that remained on the baseline during chromatography. These discouraging results led to this area of study being abandoned and to the investigation of other derivatives of diphenylporphyrin. 160 5.7.3 Synthesis and reactions of 10-isocyano-5,15-diphenylporphyrin The nickel complex of isocyanooctaethylporphyrin gave a very unusual dimeric chlorin when treated with Lewis acid, and there was interest in seeing whether the diphenylporphyrin analogue would react similarly. A precursor to the isocyanide had already been prepared, namely the meso-hydroxyimine (170) formed from the oximation reaction of the raeso-formylporphyrin (167). This was acetylated by heating at 80°C in acetic anhydride to give a 75 % yield of the desired acetoxime (176) with a minor quantity of the meso-cyano compound as a side-product. Beckmann rearrangement of the acetoxime occurred quantitatively within 20 minutes in concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature (Scheme 5.22). This is in contrast to the OEP analogue, which required two hours at 90°C. Scheme 5.22 Synthesis of the meso- formamide (177) The 10-formamido-5,l5-diphenylporphyrin (177) was split into two batches. One batch was metallated with nickel acetate in refluxing DMF. This reaction gave two products, one the expected nickel formamide (Ni-177), and the other one much less polar. The quantity of side-product increased with the length of reflux time, and was initially believed to be the nickel isocyanide formed by dehydration of the nickel formamide. However, by comparison with an authentic sample it was found to be the nickel cyanoporphyrin (Ni-171); obviously the isocyanide is prone to rearrangement, in common with many compounds of this class, although in contrast to the octaethylporphyrin analogue. Thus care had to be taken when performing this reaction to continue the reflux for the shortest time necessary to ensure consumption of the starting material. The nickel formamide was dehydrated using 161 phosphoryl chloride to give quantitative nickel isocyanide (Ni-178). In this reaction no evidence of rearrangement to the cyanide was observed. The second batch of (177) was to be converted to the nickel isocyanide using a slightly different route; dehydration to the isocyanide (178) followed by metallation. The two approaches led to significant differences in the yield of product. The first attempt at dehydrating the free base formamide with phosphoryl chloride resulted in two non-polar compounds with very similar Rf values. These were separated and the major product (64 % yield) was found by comparison with authentic samples to be the mew-cyanide (171). The other product, obtained in only 14 % yield, was the desired isocyanide (178). This reaction was repeated using a much lower concentration of phosphoryl chloride, and the yield of isocyanide was improved to 41 %, with 31 % cyanide side product. Obviously the first route to (Ni-178) was the preferred one (Scheme 5.23). Scheme 5.23 The two routes to (Ni-178) 162 Treatment of the nickel isocyanide (Ni-178) with boron trifluoride etherate in dichloromethane disappointingly failed to lead to any compound with a chlorin-like visible spectrum, or one showing a dimeric structure by mass spectrometry. 5.7.4 Synthesis and reactions of 10-amino-5,15-diphenylporphyrin as its zinc complex The final synthetic study using diphenylporphyrin involved an attempt to reproduce the reactions performed on aminooctaethylporphyrin, which was condensed with glyoxal and then cyclized under acidic conditions. Diphenylporphyrin was mononitrated according to the method of Arnold et al. using iodine and silver nitrite.229 The nitro compound (179) was metallated with zinc acetate and then reduced to the amine with sodium borohydride over a palladium catalyst. The zinc amine (Zn-180) was condensed with glyoxal by refluxing in ethanol/THF (Scheme 5.24). After 4 hours reflux, the visible spectrum of the reaction mixture, which had changed from that of starting material, did not show any further progression, and so the reaction was worked up. However, the product appeared to be very susceptible to hydrolysis, as the only isolable compound was the starting material (Zn-180). I NaBH 4 , Pd/C Scheme 5.24 Attempted synthesis of the formylmethylimine (Zn-181) 163 5.8 Summary This chapter describes efforts to synthesize compounds analogous to those described in Chapter Four based on octaethylporphyrin with other porphyrin systems possessing adjacent free (3- and meso-positions. Attempts were made to synthesize a novel tailor-made porphyrin for these purposes, however little progress was made on this front, and 5,15-diphenylporphyrin was eventually chosen to act as the starting material for these investigations. Studies to optimize the synthesis of this porphyrin were performed, and significant improvements were made. A number of mew-substituted diphenylporphyrins were synthesized, including cyano-, isocyano-, N-hydroxymethyl and amino-derivatives. These were subjected to the same conditions that gave rise to the novel octaethylporphyrin-based chlorins; however, these investigations were disappointing, as there was little evidence for the formation of analogous compounds. CHAPTER SIX Experimental 165 6.1 Instrumentation and materials Melting point determinations were performed on a Thomas Model 40 Micro Hot Stage and are uncorrected. H^ NMR spectra were measured on Bruker AC-200 (200 MHz), Varian XL-300 (300 MHz), or Bruker WH-400 (400 MHz) spectrometers; 1 3 C NMR spectra were measured on a Bruker AC-200 (50 MHz) spectrometer. Chemical shifts are expressed on the 8 scale using residual solvent peaks as internal standards. Low and high resolution EI mass spectra were measured using a Kratos/AEI MS-902 spectrometer; low and high resolution FAB mass spectra were measured using a Varian Mat CH 4-B spectrometer. UV-visible spectra were recorded on a Hewlett Packard Model 8452A Diode Array spectrometer. Elemental analyses were performed on a Fisons CHN/O Analyzer, Model 1108. For experimental details of the X-ray crystal structure determination, see Appendix. Chromatography was performed on Merck silica gel 60, 70-230 mesh; flash chromatography was performed on Merck Silica Gel 60, 230-400 mesh. Thin layer chromatography utilized Merck 60 F254 silica gel pre-coated sheets, 0.2 mm thick. Preparative thin layer chromatography was performed on pre-coated Whatman or Merck silica gel plates, thickness 0.5 mm or 1 mm. Solvents and chemicals were reagent grade. Solvents were dried when necessary using literature techniques. 6.2 Procedure for singlet oxygen tests The ability of selected compounds to generate singlet oxygen was tested according to an adapted literature procedure.230 The compound to be tested (approx. 0.5-1 mg) was dissolved in dichloromethane or methanol (1 mL). To this solution was added a 10 mM solution of cholesterol in methanol/ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v) (1 mL). The mixture was vigorously shaken for 1 min, then placed in a clear vial in front of a projector lamp for 2 hours. Excess sodium borohydride was added to the solution, and the mixture left 30 min. The solvent was evaporated with a stream of nitrogen, and replaced with dichloromethane (0.5 mL). A TLC of 166 the resulting solution was developed twice in 1:1 hexanes:ethyl acetate. The TLC was visualized by dipping in a 5 % sulfuric acid/ethanol solution, and then heating with a heat gun for 2 min. A dark blue spot with Rf approx. 0.5 was evidence of the presence of 5-hydroxycholesterol and was taken to be a positive indicator of singlet oxygen formation. 6.3 Preparation and characterization of compounds described in Chapter Two (Zn-43) [4-Cholesteryltetrafluorophenyl-tri-(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinato]zinc(II) [Tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinato]zinc(II) (20 mg, 0.02 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (2 mL). Cholesterol (225 mg, 0.6 mmol) was added, followed by lithium hydride (16 mg, 2.0 mmol). The mixture was refluxed under nitrogen for 4 days. The solution was filtered to remove the excess lithium hydride, and the solvent was removed in vacuo. A crude purification was effected by column chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent) and the resultant product was repurified by prep. TLC (0.5 mm silica plate, eluent dichloromethane: hexanes 1:1, 2 developments) to give < 1 mg of product. This quickly decomposed to give many compounds. Prepared from tetraphenylporphyrin by nitration and reduction according to the method of Kruper et al. 2 5 m.p. > 300°C; R F 0.38 (silica - CH2C12); ! H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 3.99 (br s, 2H, NH2), 6.96 (d, 2H, aniline H's m to porph.), 7.58-7.78 (m, 9H, triphenyl m- and p-H's), MS (FAB (3-NBA matrix)) m/e 1403 (M+, 10 %) (45) 5-(4-Aminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin 167 7.92 (d, 2H, aniline H's o to porph.), 8.07-8.20 (m, 6H, triphenyl o-H's), 8.72-8.81 (6, 6[3-H's), 8.86 (d, 2H, 2(3-H's); UV-Vis (CH 2C1 2) ? w 4 2 0 ' 5 1 6 ' 5 5 4 * 5 9 2 > 6 4 6 n m -(48) 5-(4-Cholesterylcarbamylphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin Amine (45) (10 mg, 1.6 umol) was dissolved in a mixture of dichloromethane (0.5 mL) and methanol (5 drops). Cholesteryl chloroformate (8 mg, 1.8 p,mol) was added to this solution and the mixture stirred over 2 days in the dark (during which time the colour of the solution changed from purple to green). The solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent) to give the purple solid product (13 mg, 79 % yield). R F 0.74 (silica - CH 2 C1 2 ) ; ! H NMR (400 MHz, CDC1 3) (Fig.7.4) 8 -2.78 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 0.69 (s, 3H, CH3-I8 of chol), 0.86 (dd, J=6.6, 1.6 Hz, 6H, CH 3-26 and -27 of chol), 0.92 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 3H, CH 3-21 of chol), 1.08 (s, 3H, CH 3 -19 of chol), 4.66-4.79 (m, 1H, H-3 of chol), 5.46 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H, H-5 of chol), 6.88 (s, 1H, NH), 7.73-7.77 (m, 11H, 8m- and 3p-H's), 8.13 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H, 2 o-H's), 8.18-8.21 (m, 6H, 6 o-H's), 8.81-8.83 (m, 6H, 6|3-H's), 8.85 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's); UV-Vis (CHCI3 (log £)) ? i m a x 418 (5.52), 516 (4.13), 550 (3.91), 590 (3.64), 646 (3.37) nm; MS (FAB (3-NBA matrix)) m/e calc'd for C 7 2 H 7 5 N 5 0 2 : 1041.59255, found 1041.59177; 1042 (M++1, 100 %); Analysis calc'd for C 7 2 H 7 5 N 5 0 2 - H 2 0 : C, 81.55; H, 7.32; N, 6.60; found: C, 81.83; H, 7.19; N, 6.43; Singlet Oxygen Test: Positive. 168 5-(4-Cyanophenyl)-10,15,20-tri(4-ethylphenyl)porphyrin 4-Cyanobenzaldehyde (246 mg, 1.88 mmol), 4-ethylbenzaldehyde (770 pJL, 5.63 mmol), pyrrole (520 pX, 7.50 mmol) and dichloromethane (500 mL) were placed in a 1 litre flask. The mixture was stirred under nitrogen 15 min, then trifluoroacetic acid (385 uX, 5.02 mmol) was added and the flask stirred in the dark for 1 hour. p-Chloranil (1.38 g, 5.61 mmol) was added and the mixture was refluxed under nitrogen for 1 hour. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent) using 3 columns to give the slightly impure product (91 mg, 2.6 % yield). R F 0.26 (silica - CH 2Cl 2:hexanes 1:1); l H N M R (200 MHz, CDC1 3) 5 1.57 (t, 9H, 3 x C H 3 ) , 2.86-3.11 (m, 6H, 3 x C H 2 ) , 7.59 (d, 6H, 6 m-H's), 7.95-8.18 (m, 8H, 6 o-H's and 2 m-H's), 8.33 (d, 2H, 2o-H's), 8.70 (d, 2H, 2(3-H's), 8.84-8.96 (m, 6H, 6p-H's); U V -Vis (CH 2C1 2) ? t m a x 420, 518, 552, 592, 648 nm; MS (EI) m/e 723 (M+ 100 %). (46) 5-(4-Aminomethylphenyl)-10,15,20-tri(4-ethylphenyl)porphyrin Lithium aluminium hydride (50 mg, 1.32 mmol) was suspended in dry THF (1 mL) and (4-cyanophenyl)-tri(4-ethylphenyl)porphyrin (91 mg, 0.13 mmol) in dry THF (2 mL) was slowly added. The mixture was stirred under nitrogen for 2 hours. Aqueous 1 M potassium hydroxide (5 mL) was added, followed by water (2 mL). The THF was decanted, and the aqueous phase was saturated with potassium carbonate and extracted with THF. The organic phases were dried and evaporated, and the residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent initially dichloromethane, increasing polarity to 10 % methanol in dichloromethane) to give the purple solid product (43 mg, 47 %). ! H N M R (200 M H z , CDCI3) 6 -2.80 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 1.38-1.61 (m, 9H, 3 x CH3), 2.84-3.12 (m, 6H, 3 x C H 2 ) , 4.23 (br s, 2H, C H 2 N H 2 ) , 7.41-7.62 (m, 6H, 6 m-H's), 7.67 (d, 2H, 2 m-H's), 8.00-8.24 (m, 8H, 80-H's), 8.77-8.99 (m, 8H, 8p-H's); U V - V i s (CH 2C1 2) Xmax 420, 516, 552, 592, 650 nm; MS (EI) m/e 131 (M+ 28 %). 169 (49) 5-(4-Cholesterylcarbamylmethylphenyl)-10,15,20-tri(4-ethylphenyl)porphyrin Amine (46) (4 mg, 5.5 pxnol) was dissolved in T H F (1 mL) . Cholesteryl chloroformate (10 mg, 22 umol) was added and the mixture was stirred in the dark for 4 days. The solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent) to give the product as a purple solid (3 mg, 48 % yield). Rp 0.59 (silica - C H 2 C 1 2 ) ; lU N M R (200 M H z , C D C 1 3 ) 8 -2.80 (s, 2 H , 2 x N H ) , 0.66-2.50 (chol multiplet), 1.53 (t, J=7.1 Hz , 9 H , 3 x C H 3 ) , 3.00 (q, J=8.7 H z , 6 H , 3 x C H 2 ) , 4.69-4.75 (m, 2 H , C H 2 N H ) , 5.35-5.45 (m, I H , N H ) , 7.58 (d, 6 H , 6 m-H's), 7.65 (d, 2H , 2 m-H's), 8.11 (d, 6 H , 6 o-H's), 8.17 (d, 2 H , 2 o-H's), 8.78 (d, 2 H , 2(3-H's), 8.85 (d, 6H, 6p-H's); U V - V i s ( C H 2 C 1 2 ) Xmax 420, 516, 552, 592, 646 nm; M S ( F A B ( 3 - N B A matrix)) m/e calc'd for C v ^ n N s O ^ 1140.70910, found 1140.70941; 1141 (M+, 100 %); Singlet Oxygen Test: Positive. (47) B P D - D M E amine (diastereomeric mixture) B P D - D M E (11) (95 mg, 0.13 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (15 mL) which had been pre-dried by filtering through a plug of alumina. The solution was stirred at 0°C r 170 under nitrogen for 15 min, then HBr gas was bubbled through the solution for 10 min. The solvent was then evaporated with a stream of nitrogen. Dry dichloromethane (15 mL) was added and again evaporated, and this process was repeated a third time to remove all residual HBr. Dry dichloromethane (15 mL) was added to the solid to redissolve it and this solution was added by canula to ice-cold THF (10 mL) which had been saturated with ammonia gas. After the addition was complete, the mixture was left stirring for 10 min at 0°C, then the ice-bath was removed and stirring was continued a further 10 min. The solvent was removed and the residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent initially 20 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane, increasing to 5 % methanol in dichloromethane) to give the green amine product (43 mg, 44 %). The 2 diastereomers (47a) and (47b) were separated using a 0.5 mm thickness silica plate and 10 mg of the mixture, eluent 8 % methanol in dichloromethane and 2 developments, to give approx. 5 mg of each isomer. (47a) BPD-DME amine (less polar isomer) RF 0.58 (silica - 10 % MeOH / CH2C12, 2 developments.); lH NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) 5 -2.40 (br s, 2 x NH), 1.84 (s, 3H, CH3-7), 2.24 (d, 3H, CH3-I), 2.85 (s, 3H, Me-ester-71), 3.08-3.28 (m, 4H, 2 x RCH2CH2C02CH3), 3.40, 3.48, 3.61, 3.62, 3.63 (5s, 15H, CH3-2, -12, -18 and Me-esters -132 and 172), 3.93 (s, 3H, Me-ester-72), 4.20 and 4.33 (2t, 4H, 2 x RCH2CH2C02Me), 5.12 (s, 1H, H-71), 5.87 (br s, 1H, H-31), 7.45 and 7.83 (2d, 2H, H-73 and H-74), 9.30, 9.38, 9.68, 9.72 (4s, H-5, -10, -15 and -20); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ^max 428, 576, 626, 686 nm. (47b) BPD-DME amine (more polar isomer) RF 0.49 (silica - 10 % MeOH / CH2C12, 2 developments); *H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) 5 -2.45 (br s, 1H, NH), -2.33 (br s, 1H, NH), 1.84 (s, 3H, CH3-7), 2.22 (s, 3H, CH3-3 1 ), 2.89 (s, 3H, Me-ester-71), 3.12-3.29 (m, 4H, 2 x RCH2CH2C02Me), 3.40, 3.47, 3.60, 171 3.62, 3.65 (5s, 15H, CH 3 -2 , -12, -18 and Me-esters-132 and 172), 4.17 and 4.32 (2t, 4H, 2 x R C H 2 C H 2 C 0 2 M e ) , 5.16 (s, IH, H-7 1), 5.88 (br s, IH, H-3 1), 7.44 and 7.82 (2d, 2H, H-7 3 and H-7 4), 9.38, 9.52, 9.68, 9.72 (4s, 4H, H-5, -10,-15 and -20); UV-Vis (CH 2C1 2) ^max 428, 576, 626, 686 nm. (50a) Cholesterylcarbamyl-BPD-DME (from (47a)) The less polar amine, (47a) (5 mg, 6.69 fimol) was suspended in water (1 mL) and triethylamine (1 drop) was added. Cholesteryl chloroformate (3 mg, 6.69 u\mol) was dissolved in diethyl ether (2 mL) and this solution was added to the amine suspension. The flask was shaken for 1 min, then left to stand for 5 min. The organic phase was decanted, the aqueous phase extracted twice with ether and the organic phases combined and dried over sodium sulfate. On filtration and evaporation of the solvent, 11 mg crude product was obtained. This was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent initially dichloromethane, increasing polarity to 7 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the carbamate product (6 mg, 77 % yield) and a small amount of starting material. m.p. 160-165°C; R F 0.47 (silica - 10 % AcOEt / CH 2 C1 2 ); ! H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) 8 -2.43 (br s, IH, NH), -2.33 (br s, IH, NH), 0.64 (s, 3H, chol-CH 3-18), 1.77 (s, 3H, C H 3 - 7 ) , 2.28 (d, 3H, C H 3 - 3 J ) , 2.95 (s, 3H, Me-ester-71), 3.10-3.27 (m, 4H, 2 x R C H 2 C H 2 C 0 2 M e ) , 3.42, 3.51, 3.63, 3.65, 3.67 (5s, 15H, CH 3 -2 , -12, -18 and Me-esters-132 and 172), 4.01 (s, 3H, Me-ester-72), 4.19 and 4.35 (t, 4H, 2 x R C H 2 C H 2 C 0 2 M e ) , 5.08 (s, IH, H-7 1), 6.17 (br s, IH, NH), 6.42 (br m, IH, H-3 1), 7.48 and 7.87 (2d, 2H, H-7 3 and H-7 4), 9.12, 9.38, 9.69, 9.75 (4s, 4H, H-5, -10, -15 and -20); UV-Vis (CHC1 3 (log e)) ? i m a x 354 (4.72), 428 (4.93), 578 (4.22), 680 (4.50), 686 (4.59) nm; MS (FAB (3-NBA 172 matrix)) m/e calc'd for C70H92N5O10: 1162.68394, found 1162.68842; 1163 (M++1, 100 %); Analysis calc'd for C70H92N5O10: C, 72.26; H, 7.97; N, 6.02; found: C, 72.11; H, 7.86; N, 5.93; Singlet Oxygen Test: Positive. (50b) Cholesterylcarbamyl-BPD-DME (from (47b)) Procedure: as for previous compound using the more polar amine (47b) as starting material. Yield from 5 mg amine = 4 mg (51 %) + 2 mg starting material. R F 0.47 (silica -10 % AcOEt / CH 2 C1 2 ); ! H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3) (Fig. 7.5) 5 -2.43 (br s, IH, NH), -2.31 (br s, IH, NH), 0.65 (s, 3H, chol-CH3-18), 1.84 (s, 3H, CH 3 -7) , 2.27 (d, 3H, C H 3 - 3 1 ) , 2.94 (s, 3H, Me-ester-7 1), 3.10-3.29 (m, 4H, 2 x R C H 2 C H 2 C 0 2 M e ) , 3.43, 3.52, 3.62, 3.64, 3.66 (5s, 15H, CH 3 -2 , -12, -18 and Me-esters-132 and 172), 4.01 (s, 3H, Me-ester-72), 4.19 and 4.33 (t, 4H, 2 x R C H 2 C H 2 C 0 2 M e ) , 5.10 (s, IH, H-7 1), 5.92 (br s, IH, NH), 6.08 (br m, IH, H-3 1), 7.49 and 7.86 (2d, 2H, H-7 3 and H-7 4), 9.15, 9.38, 9.70, 9.75 (4s, 4H, H-5, -10, -15 and -20); MS (FAB (3-NBA matrix)) m/e 1163 (M++1, 100 %); Singlet Oxygen Test: Positive. (Cu-54) Copper tetraphenylporphyrin-cholesterol Wittig conjugate Ph Cholesteryl triphenylphosphonium bromide 1 6 0 (137 mg, 0.19 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (5 mL) under nitrogen. 1.6 M n-butyllithium in hexanes (125 | iL , 0.2 mmol) was added dropwise and the resulting dark brown solution stirred for 15 min under nitrogen. (2-Formyltetraphenylporphyrinato)copper(II)161 (25 mg, 0.035 mmol) was added to the solution 173 and the mixture was stirred for 30 min. The solvent was removed and the residue taken up in dichloromethane. The organic phase was washed with water, dried and the solvent evaporated. The crude product was purified by chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent) to give the purple solid product (28 mg", 76 % yield). R F 0.70 (silica - CH2C12); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 418, 546, 580 nm; MS (EI) m/e 1055 (M+ 100 %). (54) Tetraphenylporphyrin-cholesterol Wittig conjugate (Cu-54) (20 mg, 0.019 mmol) was dissolved iri a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid (10 drops) and trifluoroacetic acid (10 drops). The solution was stirred for 5 min and then neutralized with sodium bicarbarbonate solution and the product extracted with dichloromethane. The compound was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane:hexanes 1:1) to give the demetallated product (10 mg, 53 % yield). UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 420, 518, 550, 594, 656 nm; MS (EI) m/e 994 (M+, 100 %). (Cu-59) Copper octaethylbenzochlorin-cholesterol Wittig conjugate Cholesteryl triphenylphosphonium bromide (350 mg, 0.49 mmol) was placed in a 25 mL flask and stirred under nitrogen for 5 min. Dry THF (5 mL) was added, followed by 1.6 M n-BuLi solution in hexanes (325 pL, 0.49 mmol). The solution became dark red-brown. It was stirred for 15 min, then a solution of copper octaethylbenzochlorin acrylic aldehyde (Cu-58)162 (44 m ^ o.064 mmol) in dry THF (5 mL) was added dropwise. The mixture was 174 stirred under nitrogen for 1 hour. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue purified by flash chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane:hexanes 1:1) to give the green product (63 mg, 95 % yield). RF 0.89 (silica - CH2C12); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 430, 698 nm; MS (EI) m/e 1039 (M+, 100 %). (59) Octaethylbenzochlorin-cholesterol Wittig conjugate 15 % cone, sulfuric acid in trifluoroacetic acid (1 mL) was added to (Cu-59) (8 mg, 7.7 jimol). The solution was stirred for 5 min, then neutralized with sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with dichloromethane. The solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by prep. TLC (silica, dichloromethane eluent) to give the product (59) (1 mg, 13 % yield). UV-Vis (CH2C12) ?im ax 422, 676 nm; MS (EI) m/e 978 (M+ , 100 %). (Ni-59) Nickel octaethylbenzochlorin-cholesterol Wittig conjugate Cholesteryl triphenylphosphonium bromide (108 mg, 0.152 mmol) was placed in a 10 mL flask and stirred under nitrogen for 5 min. Dry THF (2 mL) was added, followed by 1.6 M n-BuLi solution in hexanes (100 pL, 0.16 mmol). The solution became dark red-brown. After 15 min stirring, a solution of nickel octaethylbenzochlorin acrylic aldehyde (Ni-58) (18 mg, 0.026 mmol) in dry THF (3 mL) was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred under nitrogen for 1 hour. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane:hexanes 1:1) to give the green product (27 mg, quantitative yield). m.p. 167-172°C; RF 0.86 (silica - CH2C12); lH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) (Fig. 7.6) 8 0.05 (t, 6H, 2 x CH3), 1.42-1.64 (m, 18H, 6 x CH3), 2.23-2.40 (m, 2H, 1 x CH2), 2.74-2.92 (m, 2H, 1 x CH2), 3.22-3.63 (m, 12H, 6 x CH2), 5.68 and 5.73 (d, J=11.5 Hz, 1H), 5.83 and 5.86 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.98 and 6.14 (d, J=l 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.62 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H, 1 benzo-H), 7.68 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 1H, 1 benzo-H), 7.82 and 7.86 (d, J=14.7 Hz, 1H), 175 8.26 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 8.63 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 8.68 (d, 8.1H, 1 benzo-H); UV-Vis (CHC13 (log £)) X m a x 434 (4.88), 710 (4.46) nm; MS (EI) m/e calc'd for C 6 9 H 9 2 N 4 N i : 1034.6675, found 1034.6693; 1034 (M+, 100 %); Analysis calc'd for C 6 9 H 9 2 N 4 N i : C, 79.98; H, 8.95; N, 5.41; found: C, 79.74; H, 8.90; N, 5.22. (Cu-60) (Dibenzoisobacteriochlorinato)copper(II) Isolated during the attempted demetallation of the copper benzochlorin acrylic aldehyde (Cu-58) in 1:1 sulfuric:trifluoroacetic acids, after 4 hours stirring. Separated from the mixture of starting material and degradation products by prep. TLC (silica, dichloromethane eluent). R F 0.81 (silica - CH2C12); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 438, 626 nm; MS (EI) m/e 671 (M+, 82 %) 642 (M+-29, 100 %). 6.4 Preparation and characterization of compounds described in Chapter Three (73) 5,15-Diphenylporphyrin 5-Phenyldipyrromethane (137)2 1 2 (500 mg, 2.25 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (630 mL) and trimethylorthoformate (18 mL) was added. To this stirred solution protected from the light was added dropwise a solution of trichloroacetic acid (8.83 g) in dichloromethane (230 mL). The mixture was stirred in the dark for 4 hours, then pyridine (16 mL) was added, and stirring continued overnight. Air was bubbled through the solution for 10 min, then stirring continued for 4 hours. The solvent was evaporated, the residue pre-adsorbed onto silica, and purified by flash chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane:hexanes 7:3). The resulting porphyrin was suspended in methanol and filtered to give the product (203 mg, 19.5 % yield). m.p. > 300°C; *H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 -3.12 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 7.76-7.88 (m, 6H, 176 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.25-8.34 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 9.09 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 4H, 4p-H's), 9.39 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 4H, 4p-H's), 10.31 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, CDC13) 8 105.2, 119.1, 127.0, 127.7, 131.0, 131.6, 134.8, 141.4, 145.2, 147.2; UV-Vis ( C H C I 3 (log e)) Vax 406 (5.63), 502 (4.26), 536 (3.73), 574 (3.78), 630 (3.15) nm; Analysis calc'd for C 3 2 H 2 2 N 4 : C, 83.09; H, 4.79; N, 12.11; found: C, 82.93; H, 4.66; N, 11.98. (75) 10-Iodo-5,l 5-diphenylporphyrin Diphenylporphyrin (73) (50 mg, 0.11 mmol) was dissolved in chloroform (50 mL) and pyridine (2 drops) was added. To this stirred solution was added a mixture of 0.037 M iodine/chloroform solution (4.10 mL, 0.15 mmol, 1.4 eq) and bis(trifluoroacetoxy)-iodobenzene (33 mg, 0.076 mmol, 0.69 eq). Stirring was continued for 30 min, then the solution was washed with aqueous sodium sulfite, water and brine, dried over sodium sulfate and the solvent evaporated. The residue was pre-adsorbed onto silica, and purified by chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane: hexanes 1:1) to give the product, 10-iodo-5,15-diphenylporphyrin (25 mg, 38 % yield). m.p. > 300°C; RF 0.48 (silica - CH2Cl2:hexanes 1:1); lH NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 -3.03 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 7.69-7.88 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.12-8.26 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.91 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 8.94 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.25 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.74 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 10.14 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ^max 414, 512, 546, 588, 644 nm; MS (EI) 588 (M+, 100 %); Analysis calc'd for C32H21N4I: C, 65.32; H, 3.60; N, 9.52: found: C, 66.42; H, 3.51; N, 9.30. (Zn-75) (10-Iodo-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)zinc(II) The iodoporphyrin (75) (50 mg, 0.085 mmol) was dissolved in chloroform (50 mL) and zinc acetate dihydrate (50 mg, 0.23 mmol) in methanol (2 mL) was added. The mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The solution was washed with water, the solvent evaporated and the residue passed through a short column of flash silica, eluting with 177 dichloromethane to give quantitative product. Rp 0.36 (silica - CH2Cl2:hexanes 1:1); !H NMR (400 MHz, pyridine-d5) 5 7.74-7.78 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.30 (dd, J=6.2, 1.1 Hz, 4H, 4o-H's), 9.11 (dd, J=4.7, <1 Hz, 4H, 4p-H's), 9.48 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.03 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.36 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) A , m a x 418, 546 nm. (Zn-76a) [ 10-( 1 -Butyn-4-ol)-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato]zinc(II) The zinc iodoporphyrin (Zn-75) (5 mg, 6 (imol) was dissolved in dry THF (5 mL), to which copper (I) iodide (1 mg), dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) (0.5 mg), triethylamine (20 uJL) and 3-butyn-l-ol (50 uL, 0.66 mmol) had been added. The mixture was stirred under nitrogen for 4 hours, then the solvent was removed and the residue purified by prep. TLC (silica, eluent 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the product (3 mg, 50 % yield) and 1 mg starting material. R F 0.55 (silica - 10 % AcOEt / CH2C12); ! H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 5 2.91 (t, J=6.1 Hz, 2H), 3.75-3.79 (m, 2H), 7.73-7.78 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.19 (dd, J=6.3, 1.4 Hz, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.95 (dd, J=4.7, <1 Hz, 4H, 4(3-H's), 9.24 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.55 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.07 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 422, 552, 590 nm; MS (EI) m/e calc'd for C36H24N4OZn: 592.1241, found 592.1236. 178 (Zn-76b) [ 10-( 1 -Octyne)-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato]zinc(II) The zinc iodoporphyrin (Zn-75) (4 mg, 6 fimol) was dissolved in dry THF (5 mL), to which copper (I) iodide (1 mg), dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) (0.5 mg), triethylamine (20 pL) and 1-octyne (50 uL, 0.34 mmol) had been added. The mixture was stirred under nitrogen for 48 hours, then the solvent was removed and the residue purified by prep. TLC (silica, eluent 25 % hexanes in dichloromethane) to give the product (1 mg, 20 % yield) and 3 mg starting material. RF 0.55 (silica - CH2C12); ! H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 6 1.03 (t, 3H, CH3), 1.20-1.65 (m, 4H, 2 x CH2), 1.78-1.92 (m, 2H, 1 x CH2), 2.02-2.14 (m, 2H, 1 x CH2), 3.04 (t, 2H, CH2-CC), 7.70-7.90 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.21 (dd, J=7.1, 1.5 Hz, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.99 (dd, J=4.5, 1.3 Hz, 4H, 4(3-H's), 9.31 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.76 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.15 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 424, 554, 590 nm; MS (EI) m/e calc'd for C4oH32N4Zn: 632.1918, found 632.1909; 632 (M+, 39 %). (Zn-77a) (10-Ethynylestradiol-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)zinc(II) The zinc iodoporphyrin (Zn-75) (8 mg, 0.012 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (10 mL) to which copper (I) iodide (1 mg), dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) (0.5 mg), HO 179 triethylamine (25 flL) and 17-ethynylestradiol (20 mg, 0.067 mmol) had been added. The mixture was stirred under nitrogen overnight. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, eluent 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the red product (6 mg, 61 % yield). Rp 0.29 (silica - CH 2C1 2 / 5 % AcOEt); lH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) (Fig. 7.7) 6 1.14 (s, 3H, C H 3 - I8 of steroid), 2.70-3.05 (m, 4H), 4.49 (br s, IH, phenolic OH), 6.52 (d, J=2.3 Hz, IH, CH-4 of steroid), 6.57 (dd, J=8.4, 2.3 Hz, IH, CH-2 of steroid), 7.16 (d, J=8.4 Hz, IH, CH-1 of steroid), 7.77 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.19 (dd, J=7.6, 1.8 Hz, 4H, 4o-H's), 9.00 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.02 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.31 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.76 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 10.17 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 424, 554, 592 nm; MS (EI) m/e calc'd for C 5 2H4 2 N 4 0 2 Zn: 818.2599, found 818.2605; 818 (M+, 0.2 %), 800 (M+-H20, 2.2 %). (Zn-77b) [10-(Ethynodiol diacetate)-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato]zinc(II) The zinc iodoporphyrin (Zn-75) (8 mg, 0.012 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (10 mL) to which copper iodide (1 mg), dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) (0.5 mg), triethylamine (25 JJ,1) and ethynodiol diacetate (20 mg, 0.052 mmol) had been added. The mixture was stirred under nitrogen overnight. TLC showed there to be 2 major products, one purple and more polar, the other green and less polar. After evaporation of the solvent and purification by chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane) the purple product had mostly converted to the green product. A final purification by prep. TLC (eluent 20 % hexanes in dichloromethane) lead to 1 mg of the purple product (Zn-77b) and 3 mg of the green product AcO 180 (Zn-77c). R F 0.45 (silica - CH2C12); * H N M R (200 M H z , CDC13) 6 1.13 (s, 3H, I8-CH3,), 1.90 (s, 3H, 3-OAc), 2.21 (s, 3H, 17-OAc), 5.09 (m, 1H, 3-H), 5.25 (d, 1H, 4-H), 7.59-7.82 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.10-8.27 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.88-9.04 (m, 4H, 4(3-H's), 9.14 (d, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.79 (d, 2H, 2p-H's), 10.11 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); U V - V i s (CH2C12) ? i m a x 424, 554, 596 nm. (Zn-77c) [10-(Ethynodiol diacetate)-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato]zinc(II) elimination product R F 0.55 (silica - C H 2 C 1 2 ) ; ! H N M R (200 M H z , CDCI3) 8 1.24 (s, 3H , I8-CH3), 1.99 (s, 3H , 3-OAc) , 5.13 (m, 1H, 3-H), 5.30 (d, 1H, 4-H), 6.47 (d, 1H, 16-H), 7.64-7.82 (m, 6 H , 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.12-8.23 (m, 4 H , 4o-H's), 8.97-9.03 (m, 4 H , 4p-H's), 9.30 (d, 2 H , 2p-H's), 9.77 (d, 2 H , 2p-H's), 10.13 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); U V - V i s ( C H 2 C 1 2 ) ^ m a x 436, 560, 604 nm; M S (EI) m/e 786 (M+-HOAc, 4 %). (Zn-77d) (10-Quinestrol-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)zinc(II) For preparation see above. 181 The zinc iodoporphyrin (Zn-75) (6.5 mg, 0.010 mmol) was treated as described for the preparation of (Zn-77a), using quinestrol (20 mg, 0.055 mmol) in place of ethynylestradiol. The residue after removal of solvent was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane) to give the red product (6 mg, 68 % yield). RF 0.28 (silica - CH2C12 / 2.5 % AcOEt); ! H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 8 1.14 (s, 3H, CH3-I8 of steroid), 4.68-4.75 (m, IH, cyclopentane R2CH-0-steroid), 6.60 (d, J=2.7 Hz, IH, CH-4 of steroid), 6.66 (dd, J=6.0, 2.6 Hz, IH, CH-2 of steroid), 7.21 (d, J=8.60 Hz, IH, CH-1 of steroid), 7.70-7.90 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.20 (dd, J=5.8, 1.8 Hz, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.98 (d, J=4.4 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.01 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.27 (d, J=4.4 Hz, 2H, 2(5-H's), 9.74 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.11 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 424, 554, 592 nm; MS (EI) m/e 868 (M+-H20, 1.3 %). (Zn-77e) (10-Norethynodrel-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)zinc(II) o The zinc iodoporphyrin (Zn-75) (8 mg, 0.012 mmol) was treated as above, using norethynodrel (20 mg, 0.059 mmol) as the steroid. After purification by chromatography (silica, eluent 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane), the red product was obtained (7 mg, 69 % yield). RF 0.11 (silica - CH2C12 / 5 % AcOEt); ! H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) 8 1.13 (s, 3H, CH3-I8 of steroid), 7.73-7.90 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.19 (dd, J=8.2, 1.5 Hz, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.99 (dd, J=7.0, 4.6 Hz, 4H, 4(3-H's), 9.26 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.70 (d, 1=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.08 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 422, 554, 594 nm; MS (EI) m/e 802 (M+-H20, 1.4 %). 182 Demetallation procedure for zinc-DPP-steroid conjugates The zinc conjugate (5-10 mg) was dissolved in dichloromethane (10 mL) and TFA (2 drops) was added. The reaction was monitored by visible spectroscopy. When demetallation was complete (30-60 min) pyridine (5 drops) was added to neutralize, the solvent was removed and the product was purified by prep. TLC. (77d) 10-Quinestrol-5,l 5-diphenylporphyrin RF 0.13 (silica - CH2C12); ! H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 8 -2.70 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 1.16 (s, 3H, CH3-I8 of steroid), 4.68-4.75 (m, 1H, R2CH-0-steroid), 6.60 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H, CH-4 of steroid), 6.66 (dd, J=6.6, 2.5 Hz, 1H, CH-2 of steroid), 7.22 (d, J=8.82 Hz, 1H, CH-1 of steroid), 7.74-7.80 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.20 (dd, J=3.0, 1.6 Hz, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.94 (dd, J=5.0, 0.7 Hz, 4H, 4p-H's), 9.26 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.71 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 10.16 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 422, 518, 556, 596, 654 nm; MS (EI) m/e 824 (M+, 2.6 %), 806 (M+-H20, 11.2 %); Singlet Oxygen Test: Positive. (77e) 10-Norethynodrel-5,l 5-diphenylporphyrin RF 0.19 (silica - CH2C12 / 10 % AcOEt); 'H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 8 -2.67 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 1.15 (s, 3H, CH3-18), 7.75-7.85 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.18-8.27 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.90-8.95 (m, 4H, 4p-H's), 9.25-9.30 (m, 2H, 2P-H's), 9.62 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 1H, lp-H), 9.68 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 1H, lp-H), 10.16 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 422, 492, 518, 556, 594, 652 nm. 183 (77f) 10-Mestranol-5,15-diphenylporphyrin H 3 C O RF 0.11 (silica - CH2C12); *H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) 8 -2.69 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 1.18 (s, 3H, CH3-I8 of steroid), 3.78 (s, 3H, OCH3), 6.66 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H, CH-4 of steroid), 6.73 (dd, J=6.6, 2.5 Hz, 1H, CH-2 of steroid), 7.26 (CH-1 of steroid masked by CHC13), 7.77-7.83 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.20-8.25 (4, 4o-H's), 8.96 (dd, J=4.5, <1 Hz, 4H, 4(3-H's), 9.29 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.73 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.19 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 422, 518, 556, 594, 654 nm; MS (EI) m/e 770 (M+ 1.3 %), 752 (M+-H20, 8.7 %); Singlet Oxygen Test: Positive. 5-(4-Iodophenyl)dipyrromethane212 A mixture of pyrrole (2.8 mL, 40 mmol) and 4-iodobenzaldehyde231 (237 mg, 1.02 mmol) was degassed by bubbling nitrogen through the solution for 10 min. TFA (8 |lL, 0.05 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred under nitrogen for 15 min. The excess pyrrole was removed under reduced pressure and the resulting brown oil purified by chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane:hexanes:triethylamine 75:25:1). This gave the product as a yellow oily solid (274 mg, 78 % yield). RF 0.38 (silica - 20 % hexanes / CH2C12); ] H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 5.41 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 5.86 (d, 2H, 2(3-H's), 6.12 (d, 2H, 2(3-H's), 6.69 (d, 2H, 2oc-H's), 6.95 (d, 2H, 2o-H's), 7.65 (d, 2H, 2m-H's), 7.90 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH); MS (EI) m/e 348 (M+, 100 %). (78) 5-(4-Iodophenyl)-15-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)porphyrin 4-Iodophenyldipyrromethane (50 mg, 0.14 mmol), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyldipyrro-184 methane212 (45 mg, 0.14 mmol) and trimethylorthoformate (1.8 mL, 16 mmol) were dissolved in dichloromethane (60 mL) and nitrogen was bubbled through the solution for 15 min. Trichloroacetic acid (900 mg, 5.5 mmol) in dichloromethane (25 mL) was added to the solution and the mixture was stirred under nitrogen for 6 hours, then stirred open to the air overnight. Pyridine (10 mL) was added, and air was bubbled through the solution for 10 min. The solvent was removed and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, eluent initially dichloromethane, increasing in polarity to 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane). This gave 3 porphyrinic products; bis(4-iodophenyl)porphyrin (6 mg, 6 % yield), the title compound (11 mg, 11 % yield) and bis(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)porphyrin (5 mg, 5 % yield). RF 0.33 (silica - CH2C12); ] H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 -3.09 (v br s, 2H, 2 x NH), 4.00 (s, 6H, 2 x O C H 3 ) , 4.19 (s, 3H, 1 x O C H 3 ) , 7.51 (s, 2H, 2o-H's of trimethoxyphenyl), 7.99 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 2H, 2m-H's of iodophenyl), 8.15 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 2H, 2o-H's of iodophenyl), 9.05 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.18 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.40 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 4H, 4(3-H's), 10.31 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 408, 504, 538, 578, 630 nm; MS (EI) m/e 678 (M+, 100 %). (Zn-79) [5-(4-Ethynylestradiolphenyl)-15-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)porphyrinato]zinc(II) The zinc iodophenylporphyrin (Zn-78) (6 mg, 8.1 [imol) was reacted under the standard coupling conditions using ethynylestradiol (20 mg, 0.067 mmol) as the steroid. The mixture was stirred under nitrogen overnight, then the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, eluent initially dichloromethane, increasing polarity to 10 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane ) to give the red product (4 mg, 54 % yield). OH 185 RF 0.40 (silica - CH2C12 / 15 % AcOEt); !H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) (Fig.7.8) 8 1.04 (s, 3H, C H 3 - I 8 of steroid), 4.00 (s, 6H, 2 x OCH3), 4.20 (s, 3H, 1 x O C H 3 ) , 4.50 (br s, IH, phenolic OH of steroid), 6.57 (d, J=2.3 Hz, IH, CH-4 of steroid), 6.63 (dd, J=8.0, 2.4 Hz, IH, CH-2 of steroid), 7.20 (d, J=8.0 Hz, IH, CH-1 of steroid), 7.53 (s, 2H, ArH on trimethoxyphenyl), 7.90 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 2H, m-ArH on phenyl), 8.22 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 2H, o-ArH on phenyl), 9.12 (d, J=4.0 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.25 (d, J=4.0 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.46 (dd, 1=4.0, <1 Hz, 4H, 4(3-H's), 10.33 (s, 2H, 2 meso- H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 410, 536, 574 nm; MS (EI) m/e 908 (M+, 0.3 %). (81) 10-Bromo-5,15-diphenylporphyrin Diphenylporphyrin (73) (50 mg, 0.11 mmol) was dissolved in chloroform (50 mL). To this was added a 0.04 M solution of N-bromosuccinimide in chloroform (2 mL, 0.08 mmol, 0.75 eq). The mixture was stirred for 30 min, then the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by column chromatography, eluting with toluene:hexanes 7:3 to give the product, 10-bromo-5,15-diphenylporphyrin (18 mg, 31 % yield) and 22 mg recovered starting material. m.p. > 300°C; Rp 0.41 (silica - 30 % hexanes / toluene); *H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 5 -3.01 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH), 7.72-7.86 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.14-8.26 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.95-8.97 (m, 4H, 4(3-H's), 9.28 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.74 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.16 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 414, 512, 544, 588, 644 nm; MS (EI) m/e 540 / 542 (M+, 98 % / 100 %); Analysis calc'd for : C, 70.99; H, 3.91; N, 10.35; found: C, 70.60; H, 3.72; N, 10.10. (80) 5-Bromo-15-iodo-10,20-diphenylporphyrin The bromoporphyrin (81) (13 mg, 0.024 mmol) was dissolved in chloroform (20 mL). 0.053 M iodine/chloroform solution (0.6 mL, 0.033 mmol, 1.4 eq) was added, followed by pyridine (1 drop) and bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene (10 mg, 0.024 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 48 hours at room temperature in the dark. After removal of the solvent and 186 purification by chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent), quantitative iodinated product was obtained. m.p. >300°C; RF 0.71 (silica - 30 % hexanes / toluene); 'H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 -2.68 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH), 7.71-7.83 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.11-8.20 (m, 4o-H's), 8.76-8.86 (m, 4p-H's), 9.54-9.63 (m, 4P-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 422, 520, 556, 600, 660 nm; MS (EI) m/e 668 (M+, 100 %); Analysis calc'd for : C, 57.59; H, 3.02; N, 8.40; found: C, 57.06; H, 2.80; N, 7.97. (Zn-80) (5-Bromo-15-iodo-10,20-diphenylporphyrinato)zinc(II) The bromoiodoporphyrin (80) (13 mg, 0.019 mmol) was dissolved in chloroform (20 mL), zinc acetate dihydrate (20 mg, 0.091 mmol) dissolved in methanol (1 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature in the dark overnight. The solution was passed through a short column of silica, eluting with dichloromethane to remove the excess zinc acetate, and the solvent was evaporated to give the metallated product (11 mg, 79 %). RF 0.61 (silica- 30 % hexanes / toluene); *H NMR (400 MHz, dioxane-d8) 5 7.74-7.86 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.13-8.25 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.77-8.89 (m, 4P-H's), 9.60-9.76 (m, 4p-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 424, 560, 604 nm; MS (EI) m/e 730 (M+, 82 %), 524 (ZnDPP+, 80 %). (Zn-82a) [5-Bromo-15-( 1 -butyn-4-ol)-10,20-diphenylporphyrinato]zinc(II) The bromoiodoporphyrin (Zn-80) (4 mg, 5.5 |imol) was dissolved in dry THF (5 mL) to which copper (I) iodide (1 mg), dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) (0.5 mg), triethylamine (20 U.L) and 3-butyn-l-ol (50 uX, 0.66 mmol) had been added. The mixture was stirred under nitrogen overnight, then the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, eluent 10 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the product (2 mg, 54 % yield). !H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) 5 3.15 (t, 2H, CH2CH2OH), 4.06 (br t, 2H, 187 CH2CH2OH), 7.79-7.88 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.12-8.22 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.73 (d, 4H, 4(3-H's), 9.55-9.67 (m, 4H, 4(3-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 428, 526, 562, 602 nm; MS (EI) m/e 672 (M+ 38 %). (Zn-82b) [5-Bromo-15-( 1 -octyne)- 10,20-diphenylporphyrinato]zinc(II) The zinc bromoiodoporphyrin (Zn-80) (10 mg, 0.014 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (10 mL) to which copper (I) iodide (1 mg), dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) (0.5 mg), triethylamine (20 p:L) and 1-octyne (10 |iL, 0.068 mmol) had been added. The mixture was stirred under nitrogen for 1.5 hours, then the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, eluent hexanes:dichloromethane 1:1) to give the product (6 mg, 60 % yield). RF 0.26 (silica - CH2C12: hexanes 1:1); lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 5 0.95 (t, 3H, CH3), 1.41-1.59 (m, 4H, 2 x CH2), 1.75-1.92 (m, 2H, 1 x CH2), 1.97-2.05 (m, 2H, 1 x CH2), 3.03 (t, 2H, CH9-CC). 7.79-7.86 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.13-8.20 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.77 (d, 4(3-H's), 9.58 (d, 4(3-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 428, 528, 564, 604 nm; MS (EI) m/e 712 (M+, 100 %). (Zn-82c) (5-Bromo-15-ethynylestradiol-10,20-diphenylporphyrinato)zinc(II) The zinc bromoiodoporphyrin (Zn-80) (11 mg, 0.015 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (10 mL) to which had been added copper (I) iodide (1 mg), dichloro-bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) (0.5 mg), triethylamine (20 pJ_) and 17-ethynylestradiol (10 mg, 0.034 mmol). The mixture was stirred under nitrogen overnight, then the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, eluent 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the product (6 mg, 45 % yield) and a small amount of starting material. RF 0.29 (silica - CH2C12 / 5 % AcOEt); JH NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 1.09 (s, 3H, CH3-I8 of steroid), 4.47 (br s, 1H, phenolic OH), 6.41-6.57 (m, 2H, CH-2 and CH-4 of 188 steroid), 7.12 (d, J=8.8 Hz, IH, CH-1 of steroid), 7.69-7.84 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.06-8.22 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.83-8.95 (m, 4H, 4(3-H's), 9.56-9.71 (m, 4H, 4(3-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 430, 572, 616 nm; MS (FAB (thioglycerol + CHC13 matrix)) m/e 899 (M+, 6.2 %). (Zn-84a) [5-( 1 -Butyn-4-ol)-15-etheny 1-10,20-diphenylporphyrinato]zinc(II)1 The monosubstituted bromoporphyrin (Zn-82a) (4 mg, 6 p.mol) was dissolved in dry THF (2 mL) to which tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (0.5 mg) and vinyltributyltin (50 |lL, 0.17 mmol) had been added. The mixture was refluxed under nitrogen in the dark for 45 hours. The solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by column (silica, eluent 10 % THF in toluene) to give the green product (2 mg, 54 % yield). RF 0.38 (silica - CH2C12 / 5% AcOEt); *H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) 8 3.15 (t, J=6.1 Hz, 2H, CH 2CH 2OH), 4.05 (br s, 2H, CH2CH2OH), 6.05 (dd, J=17.3, 1.6 Hz, IH, CHH=CH, cis to macrocycle), 6.48 (dd, J= 11.2, 1.5 Hz, IH, CHH=CH, trans to macrocycle), 7.72-7.78 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.17 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.90 (d, J=1.4 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 8.91 (d, J=1.4 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.18 (dd, J=17.3, 11.1 Hz, IH, CH2=CH), 9.50 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.61 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 430, 572, 614 nm; MS (EI) m/e 618 (M+, 75 %). 189 (Zn-84b) [5-Ethenyl-15-(l -octyne)- 10,20-diphenylporphyrinato]zinc(II) The monosubstituted bromoporphyrin (Zn-82b) (5 mg, 7 umol) was dissolved in dry THF (10 mL) to which had been added tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (0.5 mg) and vinyltributyltin (10 |iL, 0.034 mmol). The mixture was refluxed under nitrogen for 48 hours. The solvent was evaporated and the residue chromatographed (silica, eluent dichloromethane) to give the product (1 mg, 20 % yield). RF 0.79 (silica - CH2C12); *H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 0.95 (t, 3H, CH3), 1.18-1.55 (m, 4H, 2 x CH2), 1.78 (m, 2H, CH2), 1.98 (m, 2H, CH2), 2.96 (t, 2H, CH2), 6.03 (dd, 1H, CHH=CH cis to macrocycle), 6.42 (dd, 1H, CHH=CH trans to macrocycle), 7.55-7.74 (m, 6H, 4m and 2p-H's), 8.01-8.17 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.78-8.94 (m, 4H, 4p-H's), 9.10 (dd, 1H, CH2=CH), 9.45 (2, 2(3-H's), 9.61 (2, 2(3-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 428, 528, 564, 606 nm. (Zn-84c) (5-Ethenyl-15-ethynylestradiol-10,20-diphenylporphyrinato)zinc(II) HO The monosubstituted bromoporphyrin (Zn-82c) (6 mg, 6.7 p:mol) was dissolved in dry THF (4 mL) to which had been added tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (0.5 mg) and vinyltributyltin (50 pL, 0.17 mmol). The mixture was refluxed under nitrogen for 48 hours, 190 then the solvent was evaporated and the residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent 10 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the product (4 mg, 50 % yield). Rp 0.29 (silica - CH2C12 / 5 % AcOEt); ] H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 1.14 (s, 3H, 1 x CH3), 4.47 (br s, 1H, phenolic OH), 6.05 (d, J=17.6 Hz, 1H, p-vinyl H cis to porph.), 6.42-6.61 (m, 3H, CH-2 and CH-4 of steroid and P-vinyl trans to porph.), 7.13 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 1H, CH-1 of steroid), 7.65-7.83 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p- H's), 8.05-8.24 (4, 4o-H's), 8.82-8.99 (4, 4p-H's), 9.18 (dd, J=17.6, 6.4 Hz, 1H, a-vinyl H), 9.48 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.65 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 430, 562, 606 nm; MS (FAB (thioglycerol/TFA + CHCI3 matrix)) m/e 845 (M+, 0.3 %). 6.5 Preparation and characterization of compounds described in Chapter Four (92) 5-Formylmethyliminooctaethylporphyrin 5-Aminooctaethylporphyrin (91)194 (100 mg, 0.18 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (10 mL). Glyoxal trimer dihydrate (250 mg, 1.2 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (10 mL) with heating. The latter solution was added to the former, and the mixture was refluxed overnight. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue purified by chromatography (flash silica, dichloromethane eluent, polarity of eluent increased to 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane after the product had been eluted to elute starting material), giving the product (74 mg, 69 %) and unreacted starting material (24 mg). m.p. 190-192°C; lK NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 1.80 (t, J=7 Hz, 6H, 2 x CH3), 1.88-2.12 (m, 18H, 6 x CH3), 3.92-4.26 (m, 16H, 8 x CH2), 7.84 (d, J=9 Hz, 1H, CHCHO). 9.95 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 10.11 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 10.45 (d, J=9 Hz, 1H, CHO); 1 3 C 191 NMR (50 MHz, CDC13) 8 16.21, 18.45, 18.51, 19.77, 22.15, 96.69, 98.19, 102.62, 128.26, 137.18, 140.30, 141.53, 142.36, 143.67, 143.89, 145.73, 169.16, 191.46; UV-Vis (CHCI3 (log £)) Xmax 396 (5.01), 458 (4.61), 502 (4.01), 582 (3.89), 660 (3.61) nm; MS (EI) m/e 589 (M+, 100 %), 560 (M+-29, 32 %); Analysis calc'd for C38H47N5O: C, 77.38; H, 8.03; N, 11.87; found: C, 77.04; H, 8.13; N, 11.84. (93) Cyclic iminoketone (diastereomeric mixture) The formylmethylimine (92) (61 mg, 0.10 mmol) was dissolved in toluene (10 mL). Montmorillonite K10 acidic clay (50 mg) was activated by heating with a heat-gun in a test tube for 5 min, until all water had been driven off, and was then added to the solution. The mixture was refluxed overnight, then filtered and the solvent was removed in vacuo. The residue was purified by chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent) to give the cyclized product (19 mg, 31 %) as 2 diastereomers and unreacted starting material (14 mg). The 2 isomers were separated by prep. TLC on a 0.5 mm thick silica plate, eluting with dichloromethane:hexanes 1:1. UV-Vis ( C H C I 3 (log e)) X m a x 360 (4.33), 410 (4.82), 446 (4.67), 584 (3.66), 672 (3.79), 722 (4.03) nm; MS (EI) m/e calc'd for C38H45N5O: 587.36243, found 587.36313; 587 (M+, 40 %), 558 (M+-29, 100 %); Singlet Oxygen Test: Negative. (93a) Cyclic iminoketone (major isomer) Present as approximately 80 % of the mixture. m.p. 214-215T; RF 0.36 (silica - CH2Cl2:hexanes 1:1); lU NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) (Fig. 7.9 and 7.10) 8 -1.18 (br s, IH, 1 x NH), -0.74 (br s, IH, 1 x NH), 0.50 (t, J=7.3 192 Hz, 3H, CH3 of angular ethyl group), 1.65-1.90 (m, 18H, 6 x CH3), 2.81 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 3H, CH3CH=), 3.70-4.00 (m, 12H, 6 x CH2), 4.09-4.26 (m, 2H, CH 2 of angular ethyl group), 7.45 (q, J=7.5 Hz, IH, CHCH3), 8.15 (s, IH, CH=N), 9.31 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.51 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.57 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); Analysis calc'd for C 3 8 H 4 5N 5 OH 2 0: C, 75.34; H, 7.82; N, 11.56; found: C, 74.89; H, 7.69; N, 11.15. (93b) Cyclic iminoketone (minor isomer) Present as approximately 20 % of the mixture. RF 0.27 (silica - CH2Cl2:hexanes 1:1); NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 8 -1.14 (br s, IH, 1 x NH), -0.74 (br s, IH, 1 x NH), 0.10 (t, J=7.3 Hz, 3H, CH3 of angular ethyl group), 1.68-1.84 (m, 18H, 6 x CH3), 2.62 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 3H, CH3=CH), 3.70-3.95 (m, 12H, 6 x CH2), 4.05-4.25 (m, 2H, CH 2 of angular ethyl group), 7.72 (q, J=7.5 Hz, IH, CH3=CH), 7.98 (s, IH, CH=N), 9.16 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.43 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.53 (s, IH, 1 meso-H). (Zn-93) Cyclic iminoketone-zinc (II) (diastereomeric mixture) The cyclic product (93) (6 mg, 0.010 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (1 mL), and zinc acetate dihydrate (10 mg, 0.046 mmol) in methanol (0.5 mL) was added. The mixture was refluxed 2 hours, then the solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent) to give the metallated product (4 mg, 62 % yield). RF 0.64 (silica - CH2C12); *H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) (NB: only peaks for major isomer listed) 8 0.50 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H, CH3 of angular ethyl group), 1.51-1.75 (m, 18H, 6 x CH3), 2.70 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 3H, CH3CH=), 3.49-3.75 (m, 12H, 6 x CH2), 3.80-3.97 (m, 2H, CH 2 of angular ethyl group), 7.35 (q, J=7.5 Hz, IH, CHCH3), 7.95 (s, IH, CH=N), 8.85 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.05 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.13 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ?imax412, 454, 688 nm. 193 (94) Cyclic iminoalcohol (diastereomeric mixture) The cyclic product (93) (8 mg, 0.013 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL). Sodium borohydride (10 mg, 0.26 mmol) in ethanol (0.5 mL) was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The mixture was then poured into water and extracted with dichloromethane. After work-up, the residue was purified by prep. TLC (0.2 mm thickness silica plate, dichloromethane eluent) to give the product, present as a mixture of diastereomers (2 mg, 25 % yield). ] H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) (NB: only peaks for major isomer listed) 8 -2.25 (br s, 1H, 1 x NH), -1.69 (br s, 1H, 1 x NH), -0.23 (t, J=7.4 Hz, 3H, CH3 of angular ethyl group), 1.50-2.00 (m, 18H, 6 x CH3), 2.63 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 3H, CH3CH=), 3.70-4.40 (m, 14H, 7 x CH2), 4.50 (s, 1H, CHOH), 6.62 (q, J=7.4 Hz, 1H, CHCH3), 7.88 (s, 1H, CH=N), 9.42 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.64 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.71 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); MS (EI) m/e 589 (M+ 50 %), 587 (M+-2, 45 %), 560 (M+-29, 75 %), 558 (M+-31, 100 %); Singlet Oxygen Test: Positive. (105) 5-Aminocarbonyloctaethylporphyrin Prepared according to the method of Clezy et al. 207 m.p. 296-299°C (lit.295-297); RF 0.32 (silica - CH2C12 / 5 % AcOEt); UV-Vis (CH2C12) m^ax 400, 502, 536, 572, 624 nm. 194 (106) 5-((N-Hydroxymethyl)aminocarbonyl)octaethylporphyrin The amide (105) (28 mg, 0.048 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (10 mL) under nitrogen. 1.6 M n-BuLi in hexanes (30 uL, 0.048 mmol) was added, and the mixture was stirred under nitrogen for 5 min. Paraformaldehyde (3 mg) was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. Acetic acid (2 drops) was added, then the solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue was purified by chromatography (flash silica, eluent 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane), to give unreacted starting material (6 mg) and the product (15 mg, 51 % yield). m.p. >300°C; RF 0.16 (silica - CH2C12/ 5 % AcOEt); !H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 -3.50 (v br s, 2H, 2 x NH), 1.33 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 6H, 2 x CH3), 1.78-1.94 (m, 18H, 6 x CH3), 3.44-3.62 (m, 4H, 2 x CH2), 3.84-4.12 (m, 12H, 6 x CH2), 4.42 (d, J=6 Hz, 2H, CH2OH), 6.50 (t, J=6 Hz, 1H, NH), 9.88 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 10.10 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, CDC13) 5 17.55, 18.47, 19.57, 20.30, 65.18, 96.33, 97.02, 102.83, 110.80, 140.73, 141.48, 142.09, 142.25, 143.13, 144.58, 145.32, 172.10; UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 400, 502, 536, 570, 624 nm; MS (FAB (thioglycerol matrix)) m/e 608 (M+ 100 %). (Ni-105) (5-Aminocarbonyloctaethylporphyrinato)nickel(II) The amide (105) (31 mg, 0.054 mmol) was dissolved in dimethylformamide (5 mL) and nickel acetate tetrahydrate (30 mg, 0.12 mmol) was added. The mixture was refluxed overnight, then poured into water, extracted with ethyl acetate, the extracts dried over sodium sulfate, and the solvent removed in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica, eluent 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the metallated product (28 mg, 82 % yield). 195 m.p. 272-274°C; RF 0.44 (silica - CH2C12/ 5 % AcOEt); !JH NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 1.60 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 6H, 2 x CH3), 1.77 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 18H, 6 x CH3), 3.73-3.99 (m, 16H, 8 x CH2), 5.75 (br d, J=2 Hz, IH, 1 x NH), 6.38 (br d, J=2 Hz, IH, 1 x NH), 9.52 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.60 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, CDC13) 8 18.02, 18.17, 19.58, 21.21, 96.36, 96.86, 139.24, 140.10, 140.81, 143.25, 143.47, 143.69, 145.61, 172.50; UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 400, 524, 558 nm; MS (FAB (thioglycerol + CHC13 matrix)) m/e 634 (M+, 100 %). (Ni-106) [5-((N-Hydroxymethyl)aminocarbonyl)octaethylporphyrinato]nickel(II) The nickel amide (Ni-105) (30 mg, 0.047 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (20 mL) and 1.6 M n-BuLi in hexanes (15 (lL, 0.024 mmol) was added. This solution was stirred for 5 min under nitrogen, then paraformaldehyde (4 mg) was added. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour, then acetic acid (2 drops) was added and the solvent evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the pink product (24 mg, 76 % yield). Rp 0.25 (silica - CH2C12/ 5 % AcOEt); ] H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 1.50 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 6H, 2 x CH3), 1.68-1.85 (m, 18H, 6 x CH3), 3.61-3.92 (m, 16H, 8 x CH2), 5.08 (d, 1=6.0 Hz, 2H, CH2OH), 6.58 (t, J=6.0 Hz, IH, NH), 9.48 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.53 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, CDC13) 8 17.74, 18.09, 18.17, 19.54, 20.84, 65.67, 96.47, 96.88, 108.99, 135.29, 140.10, 140.77, 143.22, 143.39, 143.46, 145.51, 171.77; UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 398, 522, 558 nm; MS (FAB (thioglycerol + CHC13 matrix)) m/e 663 (M+, 30 %). 196 (109) 5-(N-Forrnylaminocarbonyl)octaethylporphyrin The N-hydroxymethylamide (106) (5 mg, 0.008 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (2 mL) to which anhydrous magnesium sulfate (10 mg) had been added. To this mixture was added N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (1 mg), and the solution was stirred for 5 min. Then tetrapropylammonium perruthenate (TPAP) (0.5 mg) was added and the mixture was stirred for 30 min. The solvent was evaporated, and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane) to give the pink product (4 mg, 80 % yield). RF 0.29 (silica - CH2C12); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 402, 504, 538, 572, 624 nm; MS (FAB (thioglycerol matrix)) m/e 606 (M+, 100 %). (Ni-109) [5-(N-Formylaminocarbonyl)octaethylporphyrinato]nickel(II) The nickel N-hydroxymethylamide (Ni-106) (11 mg, 0.017 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (2 mL) to which anhydrous magnesium sulfate (20 mg) was added. To this solution was added N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (2 mg). The mixture was stirred for 5 min, then tetrapropylammonium perruthenate (TPAP) (0.5 mg) was added. The mixture was stirred for 30 min, then the solvent was evaporated, and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent) to give the pink product (7 mg, 64 % yield). RF 0.43 (silica - CH2C12); UV-Vis (CH2C12) A.m a x 398, 524, 560 nm; MS (FAB (thioglycerol + CHC13)) m/e 662 (M++1, 85 %). 197 (Ni-107) [5-((N-Hydroxymethylmethylether)aminocarbonyl)octaethylporph (II) Formed as a side-product in the synthesis of (Ni-106), especially when excesses of butyllithium were used. ] H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 6 1.58 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 6H, 2 x CH3), 1.70-1.88 (m, 18H, 6 x CH3), 3.62-3.99 (m, 19H, 8 x CH2 + OCH20 + NH), 5.46 (d, J=8 Hz, 2H, NHCH20), 9.58 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.64 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); MS (FAB (thioglycerol + CHC13 matrix)) m/e 693 (M+, 16 %). (108) Unsaturated lactam (mixture of isomers) The nickel N-hydroxymethylamide (Ni-106) (10 mg, 0.015 mmol) was dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid (1 mL), and stirred at room temperature for 1.5 hours. The solution was then poured into water, extracted 4 times with dichloromethane, washed successively with potassium carbonate solution and water, and the solvent evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent 20 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the green-brown product as a 1:1 mixture of isomers (7 mg, 79 % yield). m.p. 293-294°C; Rp 0.44 (silica - CH2C12 / 20 % AcOEt); ] H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) 8 (selected peaks), -1.20 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH of one isomer), -0.62 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH of one isomer), 0.33 (t, 3H, Me of angular Et group of one isomer), 0.58 (t, 3H, Me of angular Et group of one isomer), 2.37 (d, 3H, CH3=CH of one isomer), 2.60 (d, 3H, CH3=CH of one 198 isomer), 6.10 (q, 1H, CH=CH^ of one isomer), 6.66 (d, 1H, NH of one isomer), 6.73 (d, 1H, NH of one isomer), 7.17 (q, 1H, CH=CH3 of one isomer), 8.86, 9.10, 9.39, 9.47, 9.60, 9.62 (6s, 6H, 6 meso-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12 (log e)) X m a x 414 (5.15), 506 (3.95), 542 (3.57), 628 (3.57), 680 (4.53), 686 (4.54) nm; MS (EI) m/e calc'd for C 3 8 H 4 7 N 5 O : 589.37805, found 589.37825; 589 (M+, 100 %); Analysis calc'd for C 3 8 H 4 7 N 5 O : C, 77.38; H, 8.03; N, 11.87; found: C, 77.10; H, 7.96; N, 11.59; Singlet Oxygen Test: Positive. (Ni-108) Nickel unsaturated lactam (mixture of isomers) The nickel N-hydroxymethylamide (Ni-106) (14 mg, 0.021 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL) and boron trifluoride etherate (1 drop) was added. The colour changed from grey-green to bright green almost immediately. The solution was stirred for 3 hours, then the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, eluent 10 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give 4 mg pure less polar isomer and 8 mg of a mixture of the two isomers. RF 0.18 and 0.08 (silica - CH2C12 / 5 % AcOEt); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 414, 506, 562, 644 nm; MS (EI) m/e 645 (M+ 100 %), 616 (M+-29, 61 %). (Il l) Lactam reduction product NH O The lactam (108) (5 mg, 0.008 mmol) was dissolved in THF (3 mL) and triethylamine (1 drop). 10 % Pd on charcoal (2 mg) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight under a hydrogen balloon. The catalyst was filtered off and air was bubbled through the solution for 1 hour. The THF was evaporated and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, eluent 20 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the desired product as a dark green solid (2.5 mg, 199 50 % yield). m.p. >300°C; RF 0.44 (silica - CH2C12 / 20 % AcOEt); lH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) (Fig. 7.11) 8 -0.66 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH), -0.22 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H, CH 3 of angular ethyl group), 1.47-2.10 (m, 21H, 7 x CH3), 2.60-2.75 (m, IH, CH of angular ethyl group), 3.04-3.20 (m, IH, CH of angular ethyl group), 3.50-4.00 (m, 13H), 4.05-4.25 (m, 3H), 4.63 (dd, J=12.5, 2.0 Hz, IH, angular H), 6.70 (d, J=5.22 Hz, IH, NH), 8.47 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.38 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.57 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CHCI3 (log e)) Xmax 406 (5.19), 502 (4.04), 534 (3.61), 670 (4.64) nm; MS (EI) m/e calc'd for C 3 8 H 4 9 N 5 O : 591.39374, found 591.39285; 591 (M+, 100 %). (113) 5-Formamidooctaethylporphyrin This compound was prepared in 87 % yield according to the procedure of Clezy et al. 207 m.p. 231-234°C; RF 0.14 (silica - CH2C12); iH NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 -3.43 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH), 1.70 (t, J=8 Hz, 6H, 2 x CH3), 1.80-2.01 (m, 18H, 6 x CH3), 3.95-4.22 (m, 16H, 8 x CH2), 8.61 (d, J=12 Hz, IH, CHO), 9.36 (br d, J=12 Hz, IH, NH), 10.02 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 10.18 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, CDCI3) 8 17.50, 18.55, 19.82, 21.77, 96.84, 97.48, 102.81, 109.07, 140.57, 141.82, 142.55, 143.55, 143.75, 144.51, 145.74, 167.82; UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 404, 504, 538, 572, 626 nm. (112) 5-Isocyanooctaethylporphyrin The formamide (113) (23 mg, 0.04 mmol) was dissolved in dry pyridine (5 mL). Phosphoryl chloride (200 u\L, 2.1 mmol) was added dropwise under nitrogen, and the mixture was stirred under nitrogen at 40°C for 2 hours. The solvent was removed in vacuo, and the residue purified by chromatography (flash silica, dichloromethane eluent) to give the product (20 mg, 90 %). m.p. 257-259°C; RF 0.39 (silica - 1:1 CH2Cl2:hexanes); *H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 -3.41 (v br s, 2H, 2 x NH), 1.82-2.00 (m, 24H, 8 x CH3), 3.95-4.17 (m, 12H, 6 x CH2), 200 4.28 (q, J=8 Hz, 4H, 2 x CH2), 10.01 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 10.14 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, CDC13) 5 17.22, 18.48, 19.70, 21.60, 97.96, 102.83, 114.30, 140.56, 141.01, 141.46, 141.92, 142.45, 143.76, 144.86, 145.38, 175.30; UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xm ax 408, 510, 546, 580, 634 nm. (116) 5-(C-Hydroxymethylformamido)octaethylporphyrin Paraformaldehyde (100 mg) was placed in a 25 mL flask equipped with a septum. Toluene (5 mL) was placed in another 25 mL flask equipped with a septum and a stir bar. The 2 flasks were connected by a canula and the flask containing toluene was also furnished with an empty balloon. The paraformaldehyde-containing flask was heated with a heat-gun and the resultant gaseous formaldehyde was bubbled through the toluene. The heating was continued for 5 min, after which the canula was removed, and the balloon filled with nitrogen. Boron trifluoride etherate (30 pL) was added dropwise by syringe and the mixture was stirred for 5 min. The isocyanoporphyrin (112) (17 mg, 0.030 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture and stirring continued under nitrogen for 30 min. The mixture was poured into water, extracted with dichloromethane, the extracts dried over sodium sulfate and the solvent evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica, eluent 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the polar pink product (5 mg, 28 % yield). m.p. 272-280°C; RF 0.09 (silica - CH2C12 / 5 % AcOEt); lU NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3 + 1 drop TFA) 8 1.12 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 6H, 2 x CH3), 1.39 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 6H, 2 x CH3), 1.60-1.80 (m, 12H, 4 x CH3), 3.39-3.68 (m, 4H, 2 x CH2), 3.79 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 4H, 2 x CH2), 3.98 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 8H, 4 x CH2), 4.76 (s, 2H, CH2OH), 10.10 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 10.26 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 404, 504, 538, 572, 624 nm; MS (EI) m/e 607 201 (M+ 100 %), 576 (M+-CH2OH, 72 %). (Ni-116) [5-(C-Hydroxymethylformamido)octaethylporphyrinato]nickel(II) The C-hydroxymethylformamide (116) (5 mg, 0.008 mmol) was dissolved in dimethylformamide (1 mL) and nickel acetate tetrahydrate (30 mg, 0.12 mmol) was added. The mixture was refluxed for 2 hours, then poured into water, extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with water, dried over sodium sulfate and the solvent removed in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica, eluent 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the product (4 mg, 73 % yield). RF 0.23 (silica - CH2C12 / 10 % AcOEt); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 402, 526, 562 nm; MS (EI) m/e 663 (M+, 100 %). (Ni-113) [5-Formamidooctaethylporphyrinato]nickel(II) The formamide (113) (32 mg, 0.055 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (5 mL), and nickel acetate tetrahydrate (20 mg, 0.080 mmol) was added. The mixture was refluxed for 1 hour, then allowed to cool, poured into water, and extracted 3 times with ethyl acetate. The organic phase was dried, the solvent was evaporated, and the residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane), to give the metallated product (27 mg, 77 % yield). m.p. 258-260°C; RF 0.27 (silica - CH2C12); *H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 1.61-1.86 (m, 24H, 8 x CH3), 3.82 (q, 1=7.5 Hz, 16H, 8 x CH2), 7.68 (d, J=12 Hz, IH, CHO), 9.13 (br d, J=12 Hz, IH, NH), 9.51 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.55 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, CDCI3) 8 17.42, 18.16, 18.21, 18.26, 19.51, 19.62, 22.04, 96.75, 97.25, 107.44, 138.32, 139.20, 140.31, 141.05, 142.80, 143.60, 143.76, 145.72, 167.60; UV-Vis (CHCI3 (log e)) ?i m a x 400 (5.24), 524 (4.03), 562 (4.30) nm; Analysis calc'd for C37H 45N 5NiO.0.5H 2O: C, 69.06; H, 7.21; N, 10.88; found: C, 69.17; H, 7.19; N, 10.87. 202 (Ni-112) (5-Isocyanooctaethylporphyrinato)nickel(II) The nickel formamide (Ni-113) (22 mg, 0.035 mmol) was dissolved in pyridine (2 mL), and phosphoryl chloride (4 drops) was added to this solution. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min, then was added to water and the resulting solid was filtered off and washed with water, to give quantitative product. m.p. 282-284°C; RF 0.53 (silica - 1:1 CH2Cl2:hexanes); *H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 1.58-1.83 (m, 24H, 8 x CH3), 3.62-3.83 (m, 12H, 6 x CH2), 3.99 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 4H, 2 x CH2), 9.38 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.41 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, CDCI3) 8 17.31, 18.27, 20.48, 22.08, 97.63, 97.79, 102.86, 136.10, 138.36, 140.78, 143.27, 143.59, 144.06, 146.12; UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 406, 536, 576 nm. (Ni-120) Nickel dimer The nickel isocyanide (Ni-112) (25 mg, 0.039 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (3 mL), and boron trifluoride etherate (25 pL) was added. The mixture was stirred overnight, then pyridine (1 drop) was added and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane:hexanes 1:1), then suspended in methanol and filtered, to give the green solid product (14 mg, 56 % yield). m.p. >300°C; RF 0.64 (silica - 1:1 CH2Cl2:hexanes); *H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) (Fig.7.12) 8 -0.05 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 12H, 4 x CH3 of gem-diEt), 1.40-1.60 (m, 36H, 12 x CH3), 2.64-2.76 (m, 4H, 2 x CH2), 3.10-3.30 (m, 16H, 8 x CH2), 3.42 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 4H, 2 x CH2), 3.64-3.76 (m, 4H, 2 x CH2), 4.17 (q, J=7.3 Hz, 4H, 2 x CH2), 7.64 (br s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 7.96 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 8.49 (br s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); UV-Vis (CHCI3 (log £)) ^ m a x 408 (4.69), 500 (4.99), 680 (4.64), 816 (4.13) nm; MS (FAB (3-NBA + CHC13 203 matrix)) m/e calc'd for C74H87Nio5 8Ni6 0Ni: 1233.5757, found 1233.57831; 1233 (M++1, 42 %); Analysis calc'd for C74H86NioNi2-HCl: C, 70.02; H, 6.91; N, 11.03; found: C, 69.98; H, 6.85; N, 10.93; Singlet Oxygen Test: Negative. (120) Free base dimer The nickel dimer (Ni-120) (5 mg, 0.004 mmol) was dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid (1 mL). The solution was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours, then poured into water, and extracted 3 times with dichloromethane. The solvent was dried and evaporated, and the residue was suspended in methanol and filtered to give the product as a grey solid (3.5 mg, 77 % yield). m.p. >300°C; RF 0.33 (silica - CH2Cl2:hexanes 1:1); !H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 8 0.04 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 12H, 4 x CH3 of gem-diEt), 1.48-1.80 (m, 36H, 12 x CH3), 2.88-3.02 (m, 4H, 2 x CH2), 3.23-3.46 (m, 16H, 8 x CH2), 3.67 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 4H, 2 x CH2), 4.00-4.23 (m, 4H, 2 x CH2), 4.63 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 4H, 2 x CH2), 4.97 (br s, 2H), 5.82 (br s, 2H), 7.69 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 7.88 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 8.67 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 400, 500, 572, 620, 678, 686, 742, 814 nm; MS (FAB (3-NBA + CHC13 matrix)) m/e calc'd for C 7 4 H 9 1 N 1 0 : 1119.74262, found 1119.74164; 1120 (M++1, 17 %); Singlet Oxygen Test: Positive. (Zn -120) Zinc dimer The free base dimer (120) (5 mg, 0.004 mmol) was dissolved in chloroform (5 mL) and zinc acetate dihydrate (10 mg, 0.046 mmol) in methanol (1 mL) was added. The mixture was refluxed 1 hour, then the solvent was evaporated, the residue was suspended in methanol, and this suspension was filtered to give quantitative dark green solid product. m.p. >300°C; Rp 0.32 (silica - CH2C12); ] H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 0.02 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 12H, 4 x CH 3 of gem-diEt), 1.46-1.88 (m, 36H, 12 x CH3), 2.84-3.06 (m, 4H, 2 x CH2), 3.32-3.58 (m, 16H, 8 x CH2), 3.68 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 4H, 2 x CH2), 4.01-4.24 (m, 4H, 204 2 x CH2), 4.67 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 4H, 2 x CH2), 7.88 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 8.23 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 8.91 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 392, 466, 494, 518, 628, 680, 688, 728, 818 nm; MS (FAB (thioglycerol matrix)) m/e 1248 (M+, 100 %). (Ni-121) Nickel ethylidene dimer Formed in low yield as a side-product during the synthesis of (Ni-120). RF 0.39 (silica - CH2Cl2:hexanes 1:1); !H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) (Fig.7.13) 5 (selected resonances), 0.27 (t, 3H, CH3 of one gem-diEt group), 0.91 (t, 3H, CH3of one gem-diEt group), 2.82 (d, 3H, CH3=CH), 5.46 (s, IH, angular CH), 8.33 (q, IH, CH=CH3), 8.84, 8.99, 9.03, 9.38, 9.42, 9.46 (6s, 6H, 6 meso-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ^ m a x 410, 500, 626 nm; MS (FAB (matrix 3-NBA + CHCI3)) m/e calc'd for C 7 4H 8 6Nio 5 8Ni 6 0Ni: 1232.61802, found 1232.57458; 1233 (M+, 2 %); Analysis calc'd for C74H86NioNi2: C, 72.09; H, 7.03; N, 11.36; found: C, 72.07; H, 7.08; N, 11.20. (Zn-92) (5-Formylmethyliminooctaethylporphyrinato)zinc(II) The zinc aminoporphyrin (Zn-91) (100 mg, 0.16 mmol) was dissolved in THF (5 mL) and a solution of glyoxal trimer dihydrate (125 mg, 0.59 mmol) in ethanol (5 mL) was added. The mixture was refluxed for 8 hours, then the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane) to give the product (73 mg, 70 % yield). RF 0.74 (silica - CH2C12); [U NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 6 1.60-2.00 (m, 24H, 8 x CH3), 3.80-4.25 (m, 16H, 8 x CH2), 7.57 (d, J=8.1 Hz, IH, CH=CHO), 9.77 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 205 9.91 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 10.30 (d, J=8.1 Hz, 1H, CHO); UV-Vis (CH2C12) A.m a x 408, 468, 544, 612 nm; MS (EI) m/e 651 (M+, 100 %). (Zn-123) [Octaethyl-(3-hydroxypyrido)chlorinato]zinc(II) The zinc formylmethylimine (Zn-92) (93 mg, 0.14 mmol) was dissolved in toluene (10 mL) and activated Montmorillonite clay (50 mg) was added. The mixture was refluxed for 72 hours, then filtered and the solvent evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent initially dichloromethane, increasing polarity to 5 % methanol in dichloromethane) to give unreacted starting material (59 mg) and the slightly impure product (20 mg, 22 % yield). RF 0.58 (silica - 10 % AcOEt / CH2C12); ! H NMR (200 MHz, pyridine-d5) (Fig.7.14) 5 0.33 (t, J=7.1 Hz, 6H, 2 x CH3 of gem-diEt), 1.58-2.01 (m, 18H, 6 x CH3), 2.62-2.82 (m, 2H, 2 x CH of gem-diEt CH2), 3.43-3.92 (m, 12H, 6 x CH2), 4.45 (q, J=7.6 Hz, 2H, 2 x CH of gem-diEt CH2), 8.23, (s, 1H, CH of pyridine ring), 9.15 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.60 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H) 9.62 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 410, 422, 518, 558, 574, 624, 678 nm; MS (EI) m/e 651 (M+, 100 %); Singlet Oxygen Test: Negative. (123) Octaethyl-(3-hydroxypyrido)chlorin The zinc chlorin (Zn-123) (20 mg, 0.030 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL) and TFA (2 drops) was added. The solution was stirred for 2 hours, then pyridine (5 drops) was added to neutralize and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was chromatographed (silica, eluent 5 % methanol in dichloromethane) to give the product (6 mg, 35 % yield). RF 0.70 (silica - 10 % AcOEt / CH2C12); *H NMR (400 MHz, pyridine-d5) 5 0.40 (t, 206 J=7.3 Hz, 6H, 2 x CH3 of gem-diEt), 1.63-1.81 (m, 15H, 5 x CH3), 1.88 (t, J=7.3 Hz, 3H, 1 x CH3), 2.78-2.91 (m, 2H, CH2), 3.49-3.71 (m, 10H, 5 x CH2), 3.85 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 2H, 2 x CH of gem-diEt CH2), 4.43 (q, J=7.3 Hz, 2H, 2 x CH of gem-diEt CH2), 8.40, 8.99, 9.58, 9.69 (4s, 3 meso-H's and CH=N) 13.06 (br s, IH, OH); UV-Vis (CHC13 (log e)) Ji m a x 412 (4.89), 490 (3.51), 522 (3.73), 556 (3.75), 616 (3.86), 672 (4.36) nm; MS (EI) m/e calc'd for C 3 8 H 4 7 N 5 O : 589.37805, found 589.37791; 589 (M+, 100 %), 560 ((M-29)+ 65 %); Analysis calc'd for C3 8H47N5O-0.5H2O: C, 76.22; H, 8.08; N, 11.70; found: C, 75.96; H, 7.64; N, 11.67; Singlet Oxygen Test: Positive. 6.6 Preparation and characterization of compounds described in Chapter Five (142) 5-Acetoxymethyl-2-benzyloxycarbonyl-3-methylpyrrole 2-Benzyloxycarbonyl-3,5-dimethylpyrrole (141) (11.5 g, 0.05 mol) was dissolved in glacial acetic acid (50 mL) and acetic anhydride (1 mL). Lead tetraacetate (24.5 g, 0.055 mol) was added and the mixture stirred at room temperature. The lead tetraacetate dissolved within 10 min and the solution became dark red. After 1 hour the reaction was not complete, so more lead tetraacetate (3 g, 6.8 mmol) was added, and the mixture stirred for a further 30 min. The solvent was evaporated, water was added to the residue, and the product was extracted with dichloromethane. The organic phases were washed with sodium carbonate solution, water and brine, and after evaporation of the solvent a dark red-brown oil was obtained. This was purified by flash chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent) to give the product as a yellow solid (6.9 g, 48 % yield). m.p. 111-119°C; RF 0.38 (silica - 5 % AcOEt / CH2C12); !H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 2.08 (s, 3H, CH 3 C0 2 ), 2.32 (s, 3H, 3-CH3), 4.99 (s, 2H, A C O C H Q ) . 5.28 (s, 2H, PhCH2), 6.04 (d, J=2.6 Hz, IH, 4-H), 7.25-7.43 (m, 5H, Ph), 9.21 (br s, I H , N H ) ; Analysis calc'd for C16H17NO4: C, 66.89; H, 5.96; N, 4.88; found: C, 67.22; H, 6.01; N, 4.93. 207 (146) 2-Acetoxymethyl-5-benzyloxycarbonyl-3-iodo-4-methylpyrrole 2-Benzyloxycarbonyl-4-iodo-3,5-dimethylpyrrole (145) (5 g, 14 mmol) was dissolved in glacial acetic acid (100 mL) and acetic anhydride (1 mL). Lead tetraacetate (7.5 g, 17 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred at 90°C for 40 min. It was then cooled and water (80 mL) was slowly added. The product precipitated out, and was filtered off to give the product as a cream solid (2.9 g, 51 % yield). m.p. 124-129°C; RF 0.46 (silica - 5 % AcOEt / CH2C12); ! H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 2.07 (s, 3H, CH3CO2), 2.29 (s, 3H, 3-CH3), 5.05 (s, 2H, AcOCH2), 5.31 (s, 2H, PhCH2), 7.29-7.46 (m, 5H, Ph), 9.47 (br s, 1H, NH); Analysis calc'd for Ci6H1 6N04I: C, 46.51; H, 3.90; N, 3.39; found: C, 46.49; H, 3.79; N, 3.27. (147) l,9-Di(benzyloxycarbonyl)-3,7-diiodo-2,8-dimethyldipyrromethane The iodopyrrole (146) (100 mg, 0.24 mmol) was dissolved in toluene (10 mL) to which had been added p-toluenesulfonic acid (1 mg). The solution was refluxed for 30 min, during which time it became dark brown and the condensate became slightly pink (evidence of loss of iodine). It was allowed to cool, washed with potassium bicarbonate solution, and the solvent evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent 5 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give 25 mg of a yellow oil. Most of the material remained at the top of the column. This reaction was repeated using p-toluenesulfonic acid in refluxing dichloromethane and trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane at room temperature in an effort to improve the yield, but to no avail. RF 0.63 (silica - 5 % AcOEt / CH2C12); JH NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 6 2.28 (s, 6H, 2 x CH3), 4.05 (s, 2H, meso-CH2), 5.13 (s, 4H, 2 x PhCH2), 7.22-7.49 (m, 10H, 2 x Ph), 10.50 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH). 208 (152) 3,7-Di(ethoxycarbonyl)-2,8-dimethyldipyrromethane2:i2 l,9-Di(benzyloxycarbonyl)-3,7-di(ethoxycarbonyl)-2,8-dimethyldipyrromethane (149) (1.0 g, 1.70 mmol) was dissolved in THF (50 mL) containing a drop of triethylamine, and 10 % palladium on charcoal (100 mg) was added. The solution was stirred under a balloon of hydrogen for 2 hours. At this point the product began to precipitate out. The solution was filtered to give the white solid 1,9-diacid (530 mg, 77 % yield). The diacid (530 mg, 1.31 mmol) was heated with a solution of sodium bicarbonate (0.5 g, 6 mmol) in water (6 mL) at 90°C until it had all dissolved. To this solution was added dropwise a solution of iodine (0.7 g, 2.8 mmol) and sodium iodide (0.75 g, 5 mmol) in water (3 mL). After 5 min at 90°C the solution was cooled and the precipitated product was filtered off and washed with water to give 0.7 g crude 1,9-diiodide. The diiodide ( 0.7 g, 1.23 mmol) was dissolved in refluxing ethanol (10 mL) and sodium iodide (0.5 g, 3.3 mmol) was added, followed by concentrated HC1 (1.5 mL). Tin (II) chloride dihydrate (1.35 g, 6.0 mmol) in water (10 mL) containing cone. HC1 (0.5 mL) was then added. Heating was continued for 5 min, then water was slowly added until crystallization started. The mixture was left to cool and the pale purple crystalline product was filtered off (310 mg, 80 % yield). m.p. 162-166°C; ] H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 6 1.36 (t, J=7.1 Hz, 6 H , 2 x CH3CH2), 2.15 (s, 6 H , 2 x CH3), 4.28 (q, J=7.1 Hz, 4 H , 2 x C H 3 C H 2 ) , 4.42 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 6.31 (s, 2H, 2a-H's), 9.41 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH); Analysis calc'd for C17H22N2O4.O.5H2O: C, 62.37; H, 7.08; N, 8.56; found: C, 62.68; H, 6.86; N, 8.39. (154) 2,8,12,18-Tetra(ethoxycarbonyl)-3,7,13,17-tetramethyl-5,15-diphenylporphyrin216 The dipyrromethane (152) (286 mg, 0.9 mmol) and benzaldehyde (92 fxL, 0.9 mmol) were dissolved in acetonitrile (10 mL). Trichloroacetic acid (25 mg, 0.15 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred at room temperature in the dark for 5 hours. DDQ (332 mg, 1.5 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added and stirring was continued for a further 3 hours. The solvent was 209 evaporated, and chromatography on silica attempted, but no compound with a porphyrinic visible spectrum was eluted until the polarity of the solvent was increased to 10 % methanol in dichloromethane, and that which did was a very minor quantity and mixed with DDQ. Therefore this synthesis was abandoned. (155) 2,3,7,8-Tetraethylporphyrin Method A: Prepared according to the method of Franck and Krautstrunk217 in 6 % yield. Method B: Adapted from Arsenault et al. 218 The dipyrromethene (161) (160 mg, 0.3 mmol) and the dipyrromethane (140) (45 mg, 0.3 mmol) were dissolved in glacial acetic acid (200 mL) containing sodium acetate (300 mg). The mixture was stirred in a hot water bath at 50°C for 1 hour, then air was bubbled through the cooled solution for 1 hour. The solvent was evaporated and the residue was taken up in chloroform, passed through a short plug of silica, the solvent evaporated, and the resulting residue suspended in methanol and filtered to give the product (10 mg, 8 % yield). RF 0.21 (silica-CH2Cl2:hexanes 1:1); lH NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 -3.76 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 1.88-2.08 (m, 12H, 4 x CH3), 3.99-4.21 (m, 8H, 4 x CH2), 9.48 (s, 4H, 4p-H's), 10.18 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 10.22 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 10.26 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 396, 494, 526, 562, 616 nm. (156) 2,3,7,8-Tetraethyl-15-phenylporphyrin Method A: Prepared according to the method of Franck and Krautstrunk217 in 30 % yield. Method B: Adapted from Arsenault et al. 218 The dipyrromethene (161) (160 mg, 0.3 mmol) and the dipyrromethane (137) (70 mg, 0.3 mmol) were dissolved in glacial acetic acid (200 mL) containing sodium acetate (300 mg). The mixture was stirred in a hot water bath at 50°C for 1 hour, then air was bubbled through the cooled solution for 1 hour. The solvent was evaporated and the residue was taken up in chloroform, passed through a short plug of silica, the solvent evaporated and the resulting 210 residue suspended in methanol and filtered to give the product (30 mg, 20 % yield). m.p. 217-220°C; RF 0.32 (silica-CH2Cl2:hexanes 1:1); !H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 -3.23 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH), 1.90-2.10 (m, 12H, 4 x CH3), 4.02-4.26 (m, 8H, 4 x CH2), 7.80-7.95 (m, 3H, 2m- and lp-H's), 8.32-8.42 (m, 2H, 2o-H's), 9.17 (d, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.43 (d, 2H, 2p-H-s), 10.13 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 10.23 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, CDC13) 5 18.4, 18.5, 19.8, 19.9, 95.7, 100.9, 102.9, 120.1, 126.9, 127.7, 130.3, 130.7, 134.8, 142.0, 142.1, 142.9; UV-Vis (CHCI3 (log e) Xmax 404 (5.47), 500 (4.21), 532 (3.55), 570 (3.76), 622 (2.94) nm Analysis calc'd for C34H34N4.0.5H2O: C, 80.44; H, 6.95; N, 11.04; found: C, 80.69; H, 6.83; N, 10.87. (Ni-155) (2,3,7,8-Tetraethylporphyrinato)nickel(II) The porphyrin (155) (25 mg, 0.06 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (4 mL) and nickel acetate tetrahydrate (20 mg, 0.69 mmol) was added. The mixture was refluxed for 3 hours. The cooled solution was poured into water and extracted with dichloromethane. After evaporation of the solvent, the residue was taken up in methanol and filtered to give the product (20 mg, 71 % yield). *H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 1.74-1.92 (m, 12H, 4 x CH3), 3.93 (q, 8H, 4 x CH2), 9.22-9.34 (m, 4H, 4(3-H's), 9.86 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 9.91 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 9.97 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 390, 508, 544 nm. Formylation of (Ni-155) The nickel porphyrin (Ni-155) (20 mg, 0.04 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL) under nitrogen. DMF (100 u,L) and phosphoryl chloride (50 U.L, 0.54 mmol) were added to the solution and the mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Saturated potassium carbonate solution was added and the mixture stirred for 2 hours. Water was added and the product extracted with dichloromethane. After evaporation of the solvent the residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane:hexanes 1:1) to give 211 unreacted starting material (5 mg) and 3 other products in 2 mg, 1.5 mg and 7 mg quantities. 2 mg least polar product, formylated at the 10-position. !H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 1.62-1.86 (m, 12H, 4 x CH3), 3.71-3.88 (m, 8H, 4 x CH2), 9.00-9.12 (m, 3H, 3p-H's), 9.52 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.61 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.65 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.89 (d, 1H, lp-H), 12.05 (s, 1H, CHO); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 408, 586 nm. 1.5 mg second fraction, 1:1 mixture of 5- and 15-formyl products. !H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 1.58-1.86 (m, 24H, 8 x CH3), 3.63-3.92 (m, 16H, 8 x CH2), 8.84 (d, 2H, 2p-H's), 8.93 (d, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.22 (d, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.38 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 9.48 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.68 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.75 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 9.98 (d, 2H, 2p-H's), 11.88 (s, 1H, CHO), 12.23 (s, 1H, CHO); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 408, 594 nm. 7 mg more polar product, appears to be a mixture of P-formylated products. UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 406, 530, 572 nm. (Ni-156) (2,3,7,8-Tetraethyl-15-phenylporphyrinato)nickel(II) The porphyrin (156) (53 mg, 0.11 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (10 mL) and nickel acetate tetrahydrate (50 mg, 0.20 mmol) was added. The mixture was refluxed for 3 hours. The cooled solution was poured into water and extracted with dichloromethane. After evaporation of the solvent, the residue was taken up in methanol and filtered to give the product (47 mg, 80 % yield). Rp'0.64 (silica - CH2Cl2:hexanes 1:1); ! H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 1.78-1.97 (m, 12H, 4 x CH3), 3.82-4.03 (m, 8H, 4 x CH2), 7.65-7.78 (m, 3H, 2m- and lp-H's), 8.02-8.16 (m, 2H, 2o-H's), 8.93 (d, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.15 (d, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.77 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.82 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 398, 508, 548 nm. 212 Formylation of (Ni-156) The nickel porphyrin (Ni-156) (47 mg, 0.085 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL) under nitrogen. DMF (200 pJL) and phosphoryl chloride (200 p:L, 2.15 mmol) were added to the solution and the mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Saturated potassium carbonate solution was added and the mixture stirred for 2 hours. Water was added and the product was extracted with dichloromethane. After evaporation of the solvent the residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane:hexanes 1:1) to give 1 major product and 1 more polar minor product. In fact the major product was found to consist of 3 compounds, which were separated by prep. TLC using 3 developments (eluent dichloromethane:hexanes 1:1). The 4 products were obtained in the following quantities (in order of increasing polarity): 9 mg, 7 mg, 9 mg and 3 mg. 9 mg least polar 10-formyl product. !H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 1.67-1.85 (m, 12H, 4 x CH3), 3.67-3.93 (m, 8H, 4 x CH2), 7.60-7.76 (m, 3H, 2m- and lp-H's), 7.83-7.98 (m, 2H, 2o-H's), 8.65 (d, 1H, lp-H), 8.74 (d, 1H, lp-H), 8.93 (d, 1H, lp-H), 9.41 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.51 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.78 (d, 1H, lp-H), 11.97 (s, 1H, CHO); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 416, 530, 576, 606 nm. 7 mg second fraction, too impure to be assigned a structure. 9 mg third fraction, 1 isomer, P-formylated. !H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 5 1.68-1.86 (m, 12H, 4 x CH3), 3.66-3.92 (m, 8H, 4 x CH2), 7.62-7.79 (m, 3H, 2m- and lp-H's), 7.93-8.04 (m, 2H, 2o-H's), 8.78 (d, 2H, 2p-H's), 8.93 (d, 2H, 2P-H's), 9.23 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.49 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 9.58 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 10.62 (s, 1H, lp-H), 10.94 (s, 1H, CHO); UV-Vis (CH2C12) /Vm a x 414, 530, 574 nm. 3 mg most polar 5-formyl product. !H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 1.50-1.68 (m, 6H, 2 x CH3), 1.70-1.88 (m, 6H, 2 x CH3), 3.58-3.92 (m, 8H, 4 x CH2), 7.57-7.70 (m, 3H, 2m- and lp-H's), 7.84-7.95 (m, 213 2H, 2o-H's), 8.55 (d, 2H, 2p-H's), 8.76 (d, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.29 (s, 2H, 2 meso-H's), 11.72 (s, 1H, CHO); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 422, 528, 574, 624 nm. (140) Dipyrromethane219 Potassium hydroxide (100 mg, 1.8 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (50 mL). To this solution was added di(pyrrolyl)thione222 (163) (500 mg, 2.8 mmol) followed by sodium borohydride (500 mg, 13 mmol). The mixture was refluxed for 1 hour, then more sodium borohydride (500 mg) was added. Refluxing was continued for another 2 hours, then another portion of sodium borohydride (500 mg) was added. Refluxing was continued for another 2 hours. The mixture was cooled, the solvent evaporated and water (50 mL) added. The product was extracted with dichloromethane and purified by chromatography (silica, eluent 20 % hexanes in dichloromethane) to give the product as a pale brown solid (228 mg, 55 % yield). (73) 5,15-Diphenylporphyrin Method 2 (for Method 1 see Section 6.4): The dipyrromethane (140) (300 mg, 2.05 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (500 mL) and the solution was degassed by passing a stream of nitrogen through it for 10 min. Benzaldehyde (215 (iL, 2.12 mmol) was added, followed by trifluoroacetic acid (35 |iL, 0.45 mmol). The mixture was stirred in the dark under nitrogen overnight. Then /?-chloranil (1.5 g, 6.1 mmol) was added and the mixture refluxed in the air for 1.5 hours. The solution was allowed to cool, then sodium borohydride (500 mg, 13 mmol) was added followed by methanol (100 mL). Stirring was continued for 1.5 hours. The solvent was evaporated and water (100 mL) was added. The suspension was filtered and the filtrant washed with methanol (50 mL). The remaining solid was redissolved in dichloromethane and filtered. The filtrate was evaporated and the residue purified by passing through a short column of silica (dichloromethane eluent). The solvent was evaporated and the solid washed with methanol 214 and recrystallized from toluene + 1 drop of pyridine to give the crystalline product (224 mg, 47 % yield). (164) 1 -Formyl-5-phenyldipyrromethane Vilsmeier reagent was prepared by adding phosphoryl chloride (3 mL, 32 mmol) dropwise under nitrogen to DMF (20 mL) at 0°C. 5-Phenyldipyrromethane (1.0 g, 4.5 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (15 mL) under nitrogen and the solution was cooled to 0°C. To this stirred solution was added dropwise a portion (3.5 mL, 1.08 eq) of the Vilsmeier reagent prepared above. The mixture was stirred at 0°C for 1.5 hours. Saturated aqueous sodium acetate solution (50 mL) was carefully added and the mixture was stirred for 4 hours at room temperature. The solution was extracted 3 times with ethyl acetate, the extracts were washed with water and brine, dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated in vacuo to give a brown oil. This was purified by flash chromatography (silica, eluent initially dichloromethane, gradually increasing to 10 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the desired product (524 mg, 47 %) as a light brown oil that solidified. This was further purified by recystallizing from methanol-water to give analytically pure cream crystals. m.p. 142-143.5°C; RF 0.55 (silica - CH2C12 / 20 % AcOEt); ] H NMR (200 MHz, acetone-d6) 6 5.65 (s, IH. 1 meso-H), 5.78-5.86 (m, IH, 1(3-H), 6.00-6.08 (m, 2H, 2(3-H), 6.75 (dd, J=4.5, 2 Hz, IH, la-H), 6.93 (dd, J=4, 1 Hz, IH, 1(3-H), 7.19-7.28 (m, 5H, 5Ph-H's), 9.43 (s, IH, CHO), 9.90 (br s, IH, 1 x NH), 10.98 (br s, IH, 1 x NH); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, acetone-d6) 8 44.74, 107.89, 108.31, 110.93, 118.31, 121.66, 127.51, 129.12, 129.18, 132.40, 133.55, 142.90, 144.08, 179.05; MS (EI) m/e 250 (M+, 100 %); Analysis calc'd for Ci 6Hi 4N 20: C, 76.78; H, 5.64; N, 11.19; found: C, 76.59; H, 5.55; N, 11.08. 215 (165) 1 -Hydroxymethyl-5-phenyldipyrromethane l-Formyl-5-phenyldipyrromethane (164) (165 mg, 0.66 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (8 mL) and methanol (8 mL). The solution was stirred at room temperature and sodium borohydride (excess) was added until the reaction was complete by TLC. Water was added and the solution was extracted 3 times with dichloromethane. The extracts were washed with water and brine, and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent was removed in vacuo to give quantitative product as a pale brown oil. If not used within a day or 2 this compound decomposed to give a dark brown oil, with no trace of the original compound by TLC. 'H NMR (200 MHz, acetone-d6) 8 3.92 (br s, IH, OH), 4.48 (s, 2H, CH2OH), 5.44 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 5.69 (t, J=3 Hz, IH, lp-H), 5.76-5.82 (m, IH, lp-H), 5.91 (t, J=3 Hz, IH, lp-H), 6.03 (q, J=3 Hz, IH, 1P-H), 6.69 (q, J=2 Hz, IH, la-H), 7.22-7.30 (m, 5H, 5Ph-H's), 9.46-9.72 (2 overlapping br s, 2H, 2 x NH); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, acetone-d6) 8 44.95, 57.92, 106.82, 107.28, 107.42, 108.10, 117.78, 127.03, 128.86, 129.23, 132.55, 133.93, 134.17, 144.42; MS (EI) m/e 252 (M+, 18 %), 234 (M+-18, 100 %). (166) 1,9-Diformyl-5-phenyldipyrromethane Prepared using the procedure described for (164) but with 2.4 eq Vilsmeier reagent. Obtained in 53 % yield as a pale brown foam. Recrystallization from methanol/water gave an analytically pure pale brown powder. m.p. 154-156°C; RF 0.17 (silica - CH2C12 / 20 % AcOEt); JH NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 5.76 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 5.99-6.08 (m, 2H, 2p-H's), 6.87-6.98 (m, 2H, 2p-H's), 7.19-7.41 (m, 5H, 5Ph-H's), 9.45 (s, 2H, 2 x CHO), 11.15 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH); 1 3 C NMR (50 MHz, CDC13) 8 44.6, 111.1, 121.3, 127.9, 129.2, 129.3, 134.0, 141.5, 142.2, 179.1; MS (EI) m/e calc'd for Ci 7Hi 4N 20 2: 278.1056, found 278.1056; 278 (M+, 100 %); Analysis calc'd for Ci 7 Hi 4 N 2 0 2 : C, 73.37; H, 5.07; N, 10.07; found: C, 73.33; H, 5.09; N, 10.02. 216 (Zn-81) (10-Bromo-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)zinc(II) The bromoporphyrin (81) (18 mg, 0.033 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (10 mL) and zinc acetate dihydrate (20 mg, 0.091 mmol) in methanol (1 mL) was added. The solution was stirred overnight at room temperature, then washed with water and filtered through a plug of flash silica, eluting with dichloromethane to give quantitative product. RF 0.57 (silica- 30 % hexanes / toluene); !JH NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 7.70-7.80 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.13-8.25 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.96 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2|3-H's), 8.97 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.28 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.74 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.10 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 414, 504, 542, 576 nm; MS (EI) m/e 604 (M+, 81 %), 524 (M+-80, 100 %). (Zn-171) (10-Cyano-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)zinc(II) Method 1: The zinc bromoporphyrin (Zn-81) (18 mg, 0.03 mmol) was dissolved in quinoline (4 mL) and cuprous cyanide (30 mg, 0.33 mmol) was added. The mixture was refluxed for 3 hours, then poured into 2 M HC1 solution, and extracted with dichloromethane. The organic phases were washed with water, dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated. The residue was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent initially dichloromethane, increasing polarity to 1 % ethyl acetate in dichloromethane). This gave the product as a very insoluble purple solid (6 mg, 37 % yield). Method 2. The zinc bromoporphyrin (Zn-81) (18 mg, 0.03 mmol) was dissolved in pyridine (5 mL), and cuprous cyanide (40 mg, 0.45 mmol) was added. The mixture was refluxed for 48 hours, then cooled, aqueous ferric chloride solution was added, and the solution was extracted with dichloromethane. The extracts were washed with water, dried over sodium sulfate, evaporated, and purified by chromatography, eluting with dichloromethane to give the 217 product (10 mg, 61 % yield) and 7 mg recovered starting material. Method 3. Crude zinc iodoporphyrin (i.e. slightly contaminated with ZnDPP and ZnDPPI2) (Zn-75) (50 mg) was dissolved in pyridine (5 mL) and cuprous cyanide (55 mg, 0.61 mmol) was added. The mixture was refluxed for 1.5 hours, then cooled and worked up as Method 2 to give the title product (28 mg) slightly contaminated with ZnDPP(CN)2. RF 0.24 (silica- CH2Ch); *H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 (Coordinated to one eq pyridine), 3.02 (bs, 2H, py), 5.66 (t, J=6.4 Hz, 2H, py), 6.46 (t, J=8.0 Hz, 1H, py), 7.68-7.83 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.12-8.24 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.94 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.04 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.31 (d, J=4.4 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.60 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.24 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 416, 548, 584 nm; MS (EI) m/e 549 (M+, 100 %). (171) 10-Cy ano-5,15-diphenylporphyrin Method 1: from (Zn-171). The zinc cyanoporphyrin (Zn-171) (10 mg, 0.018 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL). Trifluoroacetic acid (5 drops) was added, and the mixture was stirred for 30 min. Pyridine (5 drops) was added and the solvent evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane). The resulting product was suspended in methanol and filtered to give 10-cyano-5,l5-diphenylporphyrin (7 mg, 79 %). Method 2: from 10-hydroxyimino-5,l 5-diphenylporphyrin (170). The oxime (170) (57 mg, 0.11 mmol) was dissolved in acetic anhydride (15 mL). The solution was refluxed for 1 hour, then cooled and water (10 mL) added. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour, then filtered, and the filtered solid purified by flash chromatography, eluting with dichloromethane to give the product (50 mg, 91 % yield). m.p. >300°C; RF 0.57 (silica- CH2C12); ] H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 6 -2.76 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 7.74-7.88 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.13-8.26 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.95 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 218 2H, 2p-H's), 9.06 (d, 1=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.32 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.64 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2P-H's), 10.30 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CHC13 (log e)) ?imax 416 (5.52), 514 (4.22), 548 (3.81), 584 (3.79), 638 (3.58) nm; MS (EI) m/e 487 (M+-,100 %); Analysis calc'd for C33H21N5: C, 81.29; H, 4.34; N, 14.36; found: C, 81.25; H, 4.31; N, 14.20. (167) 10-Formyl-5,l 5-diphenylporphyrin Method 1: as a side-product from DPP synthesis. 5-Phenyldipyrromethane (137) (200 mg, 0.9 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (250 mL) and trimethylorthoformate (7.2 mL) was added. The mixture was degassed by passing a stream of nitrogen through it for 10 min, then a solution of trichloroacetic acid (3.53 g) in dichloromethane (100 mL) was added dropwise. The solution was stirred in the dark under nitrogen for 10 hours, then pyridine (7 mL) was added and stirring continued overnight. Air was bubbled through the solution for 10 min, then stirring continued for 4 hours. The solvent was evaporated and the residue pre-adsorbed onto silica and loaded onto a silica column. Elution with 20 % hexanes in dichloromethane gave diphenylporphyrin (34 mg, 16 %) and 10-formyl-5,l5-diphenylporphyrin (9 mg, 4 %). Method 2. 5,15-Diphenylporphyrin (73) (200 mg, 0.43 mmol) was dissolved in chloroform (70 mL) and cupric acetate monohydrate (100 mg, 0.50 mmol) was added, followed by methanol (5 mL). The mixture was refluxed for 1 hour, then cooled slightly, and the solvent evaporated. The residue was taken up in methanol (50 mL), filtered, and the filtrant washed with methanol to give quantitative (5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)copper(II). This was dissolved in chloroform (70 mL) and to this solution Vilsmeier reagent prepared by adding phosphoryl chloride (2 mL, 0.021 mol) dropwise to dimethylformamide (10 mL) was added. The solution was refluxed for 2 hours, then cooled and aqueous potassium carbonate (50 mL) was carefully added. The mixture was stirred overnight. The 2 phases were separated, the organic 219 phase washed 3 times with water, and the solvent was evaporated. The resulting (10-formyl-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)copper(II) was demetallated by stirring for 15 min at room temperature with 15 % sulfuric acid in trifluoroacetic acid (10 mL). This solution was carefully poured into ice-water, then extracted 5 times with dichloromethane. The extracts were washed with aqueous potassium carbonate solution and water, then the solvent was evaporated. The residue was pre-adsorbed onto silica and purified by chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent). The product was recrystallized from toluene (10 mL) to give the product (130 mg, 58 % yield over 3 steps). m.p. >300°C; RF 0.46 (silica - CH2C12); lH NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 -2.53 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 7.71-7.87 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.12-8.26 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.86 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.03 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.24 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 10.04 (d, J=5.1 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.20 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 12.54 (s, 1H, CHO); UV-Vis (CHCI3 (log £)) X m a x 422 (5.40), 520 (4.09), 560 (4.01), 592 (3.78), 648 (3.85) nm; MS (EI) m/e 490 (M+ 100 %); Analysis calc'd for C33H22N4: C, 80.80; H, 4.52; N, 11.42; found: C, 80.75; H, 4.45; N, 11.31. (170) 10-Hydroxyimino-5,l 5-diphenylporphyrin The formylporphyrin (167) (130 mg, 0.26 mmol) was dissolved in pyridine (50 mL). Hydroxylamine hydrochloride (250 mg, 3.6 mmol) was added and the solution was refluxed for 1 hour. After cooling briefly, the solvent was evaporated and methanol (20 mL) was added. The solid was filtered off and washed with more methanol (5 mL) to give the purple product (126 mg, 94 % yield). RF 0.56 (silica - 5 % AcOEt / CH2C12); JH NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) 8 -3.13 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 7.76-7.94 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.12-8.30 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.89 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 8.92 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.54 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.77 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 10.50, 10.70 (2s, 2H, 1 meso-H and CH=N). 12.40 (s, 1H, OH); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 414, 512, 546, 588, 644 nm; MS (EI) m/e 487 (M+-H20, 220 100%). (172) 10-Aminocarbonyl-5,15-diphenylporphyrin The cyanoporphyrin (171) (43 mg, 0.088 mmol) was dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid (5 mL) and stirred at room temperature in the dark for 48 hours. It was then poured into ice-water, extracted with dichloromethane, the extracts washed with potassium carbonate solution and water and evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography, eluting initially with dichloromethane, increasing polarity to 5 % methanol in dichloromethane, to give unreacted starting material (21 mg) and the product (20 mg, 45 % yield). RF 0.14 (silica - CH2C12 / 5 % AcOEt); »H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) 5 -3.28 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 7.76-8.00 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.14-8.34 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.78 (br s, IH, NH), 8.96 (d, J=5.7 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 8.99 (d, J=5.7 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.11 (br s, IH, NH), 9.54 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2|3-H's), 9.59 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.57 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 410, 506, 538, 580, 634 nm; MS (EI) m/e 505 (M+, 35 %), 487 (M+-H20, 100 %). (Ni-172) (10-Aminocarbonyl-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)nickel(II) The amide (172) (27 mg, 0.054 mmol) was dissolved in dimethylformamide (5 mL), and nickel acetate tetrahydrate (50 mg, 0.20 mmol) was added. The mixture was refluxed for 1 hour, then cooled and poured into water. The suspension was filtered, the solid was redissolved in chloroform and the solvent evaporated. The resulting product was purified by recrystallization from toluene to give a purple solid (22 mg, 73 % yield). m.p. > 300°C; RF 0.21 (silica - CH2C12 /10 % AcOEt); !H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) 8 7.70-7.88 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 7.95-8.11 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.62 (br s, IH, NH), 8.83 (dd, J=5.0, 4.8 Hz, 5H, NH + 2 x 2(3-H's), 9.37 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2f3-H's), 9.40 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 10.19 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CHC13 (log e)) Xmax 404 221 (5.48), 520 (4.31), 550 (4.02) nm; MS (EI) m/e 561 (M+ 13.5 %), 543 (M+-H20, 100 %); Analysis calc'd for C 33H 2iN 5NiO: C, 70.49; H, 3.76; N, 12.46; found: C, 70.85; H, 3.74; N, 12.11. (173) 10-(N-Hydroxymethyl)aminocarbonyl-5,l 5-diphenylporphyrin The amide (172) (5 mg, 0.01 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF (2 mL) under nitrogen. 1.6 M n-Butyllithium in hexanes (20 pL, 0.03 mmol) was added and the solution was stirred under nitrogen for 10 min. Paraformaldehyde (1 mg) was added and stirring continued for 1 hour. The solvent was evaporated and the residue pre-adsorbed onto silica and chromatographed (silica, eluent initially 2.5 % methanol in dichloromethane, increasing in polarity to 4 % methanol in dichloromethane) to give a 4 mg mixture of starting material, the title compound (present as the major component) and a more polar product. MS (FAB (thioglycerol matrix)) m/e 536 (M+, 6 %), 506 (DPPCONH2+ 20 %). (176) 10-O-Acetyloximino-5,l 5-diphenylporphyrin The oxime (170) (100 mg, 0.20 mmol) was dissolved in acetic anhydride (20 mL). The solution was stirred at 65 °C for 1 hour, then cooled and water (20 mL) added. The mixture was stirred for 1 hour at room temperature, then filtered and the filtered solid purified by flash chromatography on silica, eluting with dichloromethane to give the title product (99 mg, 91 % yield) and 10-cyano-5,l 5-diphenylporphyrin (3 mg). RF 0.35 (silica - CH2C12); ! H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 -2.96 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 2.50 (s, 3H, CH3CO), 7.68-7.90 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.07-8.29 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.91 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 8.97 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.22 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.64 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 10.13 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H), 10.73 (s, 1H, CH=N); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ^ m a x 418, 516, 552, 590, 644 nm; MS (EI) m/e 548 (M++1, 8.4 %), 487 (M+-HOAc, 100 %). 222 (177) 10-Formamido-5,15-diphenylporphyrin The acetoxime (176) (75 mg, 0.14 mmol) was dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid (10 mL) and stirred at room temperature for 20 min. It was then carefully poured into ice-water, and extracted 4 times with dichloromethane. The extracts were washed with potassium carbonate solution, water and brine, and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was pre-adsorbed onto silica and purified by chromatography (silica, eluting initially with 1 % methanol in dichloromethane, increasing polarity to 2 % methanol in dichloromethane) to give the product as a purple solid (64 mg, 92 % yield). m.p. > 300°C; RF 0.41 (silica - 2.5 % AcOEt / CH2C12); ! H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 -2.94 (br s, 2H, 2 x NH), 7.70-7.84 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.14-8.27 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.96 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.00 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.30 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.65 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 10.21 (s, IH, 1 meso-H), 10.72 (s, IH, CHO); UV-Vis (CHCI3 (log e)) X m a x 414 (5.48), 512 (4.21), 548 (3.72), 588 (3.69), 644 (3.20) nm; MS (EI) m/e 505 (M+, 1.9 %), 487 (M+-H20, 100 %); Analysis calc'd for C33H 2 3N 50: C, 78.40; H, 4.59; N, 13.85; found: C, 78.19; H, 4.49; N, 13.39. (Ni-177) (10-Formamido-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)nickel(II) The formamide (177) (17 mg, 0.034 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (5 mL). Nickel acetate tetrahydrate (20 mg, 0.080 mmol) was added and the mixture refluxed for 1 hour. The solution was allowed to cool, then poured into water and the product was extracted with ethyl acetate. The solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by flash chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane) to give the product (15 mg, 79 % yield) and NiDPPCN (1 mg). RF 0.23 (silica - CH2C12); !H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) 5 7.63-7.84 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 7.84-8.04 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.68 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 8.72 (d, 1=5.1 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.25 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.64 (d, J=5.1 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.99, 10.35 (2s, 2H, NH and 1 meso-H), 12.26 (s, IH, CHO); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 414, 528 nm; MS (EI) m/e 561 (M+, 0.5 %), 543 (M+-H20, 100 %). 223 (178) 10-Isocyano-5,l 5-diphenylporphyrin The formamide (177) (10 mg, 0.02 mmol) was dissolved in pyridine (1 mL) under nitrogen. Phosphoryl chloride (10 |iL, 0.11 mmol) was added, and the mixture stirred for 20 min. Water was added (2 mL) and the solid product filtered off and washed with methanol. The solid was purified by chromatography (silica, eluent dichloromethane:hexanes 6:4) to give the title product as the least polar fraction (4 mg, 41 % yield) and 10-cyano-5,15-diphenylporphyrin, as the more polar fraction (3 mg). lH NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 -2.90 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 7.73-7.88 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.15-8.28 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.97 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.02 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.30 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 2H, 2P-H's), 9.66 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 10.24 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) Xmax 416, 514, 548, 588, 644 nm; MS (EI) m/e 487 (M+, 100 %). (Ni-178) (10-Isocyano-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)nickel(II) The nickel formamide (Ni-177) (6 mg, 0.011 mmol) was dissolved in pyridine (1 mL) under nitrogen. Phosphoryl chloride (10 uX, 0.11 mmol) was then added, and the mixture stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Water (2 mL) was added, and the solid filtered off and purified by flash chromatography (silica, dichloromethane eluent) to give quantitative product. RF 0.70 (silica - CH2C12); !H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 7.64-7.78 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 7.92-8.03 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.82 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 8.86 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.07 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.45 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.80 (s, IH, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CHCI3 (log £)) Xmax 410 (5.55), 528 (4.39), 564 (4.19) nm; MS (EI) m/e 543 (M+, 100%); Analysis calc'd for C33Hi 9 N 5 Ni: C, 72.83; H, 3.52; N, 12.87; found: C, 72.99; H, 3.52; N, 12.75. 224 (179) 10-Nitro-5,15-diphenylporphyrin229 Diphenylporphyrin (73) (100 mg, 0.22 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (15 mL) and acetonitrile (5 mL) under nitrogen in the dark. To this was added a solution of iodine (40 mg, 0.16 mmol) in dichloromethane (5 mL). The mixture was stirred for 30 min, then a solution of silver nitrite (50 mg, 0.32 mmol) in acetonitrile (5 mL) was added. Stirring was continued in the dark for 1.5 hours. The solution was filtered, and the solvent evaporated. The residue was recrystallized from dichloromethane-methanol to give the purple product (75 mg, 68 %). RF 0.38 (silica - 1:1 CH2C12: hexanes); 'H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 5 -3.02 (s, 2H, 2 x NH), 7.69-7.90 (m, 4H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.06-8.31 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.96 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.03 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.30 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.32 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 10.26 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 412, 512, 546, 582, 638 nm. (Zn-179) (10-Nitro-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)zinc(II) The nitroporphyrin (179) (50 mg, 0.099 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (20 mL) and methanol (1 mL). Zinc acetate dihydrate (30 mg, 0.137 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred at room temperature for 5 hours. The solvent was removed and the residue suspended in methanol and filtered to give the product (42 mg, 74 % yield). !H NMR (200 MHz, CDCI3) 8 7.68-7.86 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.07-8.25 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 9.02 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2p-H's), 9.09 (d, J=4.9 Hz, 2H, 2P-H's), 9.36 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 4H, 4p-H's), 10.28 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) ? i m a x 414, 544, 582 nm. (Zn-180) (10-Amino-5,15-diphenylporphyrinato)zinc(II)229 The zinc nitroporphyrin (Zn-179) (20 mg, 0.035 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (10 mL) and methanol (10 mL). To this solution was added 5 % palladium on charcoal (34 mg). Three 50 mg portions of sodium borohydride were added at 20 min 225 intervals. The solution became dark green. After 1.5 hours, the solution was filtered, the solvent evaporated, and the residue suspended in methanol and filtered to give the product (14 mg, 74 % yield). !H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 8 7.62-7.78 (m, 6H, 4m- and 2p-H's), 8.03-8.17 (m, 4H, 4o-H's), 8.54 (d, 2H, 2(3-H's), 8.64 (d, 2H, 2(3-H's), 8.82 (d, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.03 (d, 2H, 2(3-H's), 9.29 (s, 1H, 1 meso-H); UV-Vis (CH2C12) X m a x 424, 550, 622 nm; MS (EI) m/e 539 (M+ 100 %). 226 List of References (1) Lederer, E. C. R. Acad. Sci. 1939, 209, 528. (2) Ballantine, J. A.; Pelter, A.; Psaila, A. F.; Murray-Rust, P.; Ferrito, V.; Schembri, P.; Jaccarini, V. J. Chem. Soc, Perkin Trans. 1 1980, 1080. (3) Fischer, H.; Klarer, J. Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem. 1926, 448, 178. (4) Woodward, R. B.; Ayer, W. A.; Beaton, J. M.; Bickelhaupt, F.; Bonnett, R.; Buchschacher, P.; Closs, G. L.; Dutler, H.; Hannah, J.; Hauck, F. P.; Ito, S.; Langemann, A.; LeGoff, E.; Leimgruber, W.; Lwowski, W.; Sauer, J.; Valenta, Z.; Volz, H. J. Am. Chem. 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Final cell constants are calculated from a set of 6097 strong reflections from the actual data collection. Final cell constants reported in this manner usually are about one order of magnitude better in precision than reported from four-circle diffractometers. The data collection technique used for this specimen is generally known as a hemisphere collection. Here a randomly oriented region of reciprocal space is surveyed to the extent of 1.3 hemispheres to a resolution of 0.84 A. Three major swaths of frames are collected with 0.30° steps in to. Since the lattice is triclinic some additional sets of frames were collected to better model the absorption correction. Structure solution and refinement The space group PI was determined on systematic absences and intensity statistics. A successful direct-methods solution was calculated which provided most non-hydrogen atoms from the E-map. Several full-matrix least squares/difference Fourier cycles were performed which located the remainder of the non-hydrogen atoms. All non-hydrogen atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters unless stated otherwise. All hydrogens were placed in ideal postions and refined as riding atoms with individual (or group if appropriate) isotropic displacement parameters. The compound lies on an inversion centre located at the midpoint of the bond which is shared in common between the two 6-membered rings. A disordered molecule of 238 dichloromethane is also located in the asymmetric unit. The two orientations of the solvate molecule share one common Cl position. Bond length and angle restraints were applied to the atoms in the disordered groups, and the anisotropic displacement parameters for these atoms were constrained to be similar. Data collection and structure solution were conducted at the X-ray Crystallographic Laboratory, 160 Kolthoff Hall, Chemistry Department, The University of Minnesota,. All calculations were performed using SGI INDY R4400-SC or Pentium computers using the SHELXTL V5.0 suite of programs. Crystal Data Empirical Formula Crystal Habit, colour Crystal size Crystal system Space group Volume Z Formula weight Density (calculated) Absorption coefficient F(000) Data collection Diffractometer Wavelength C 7 6H9oCl 4NioNi2 prism, purple 0.30 x 0.29 x 0.25 mm Triclinic PI a = 10.6420(1) A a = 98.388(1)° b= 11.9025(1) A p = 100.603(1)° c = 14.9759(2) A y = 106.754(1)° 1745.07(3) A 3 1 1402.80 1.335 Mg/m3 0.744 mm-1 740 Siemens SMART Platform CCD 0.71073 A 239 Temperature 9 range for data collection Index ranges Reflections collected Independent reflections Solution and refinement System used Solution Refinement method Weighting scheme Absorption correction Max. and min. transmission Data / restraints / parameters R indices (I > 2o(I) = 4818) R indices (all data) Goodness-of-fit on F 2 Largest diff. peak and hole 173(2) K 1.42 to 25.09° -12 < h < 12, -14 < k < 14, 0 < 1 < 17 10662 6016 (Rint =0.0259) SHELXTL-V5.0 Direct methods Full-matrix least-squares on F 2 w = [ a 2 (F02) + (AP)2 + (BP)]"1, where P = (Fo2 + 2Fc2)/3 A = 0.0845, and B = 6.4483 SAD ABS (Sheldrick, 1996) 1.000 and 0.8916 6012/3/430 RI =0.0686, wR2 = 0.1751 RI =0.0885, wR2 = 0.1929 1.049 0.958 and-1.405 eA-3 240 Figure 7.1 ORTEP representation of (Ni-120) 241 242 Figure 7.3 The unit cell of (Ni-120) as its dichloromethane solvate 243 Appendix 2 Selected NMR Spectra Figure 7.4 400 MHz ! H NMR spectrum of (48) in CDCI 3 i Figure 7.5 300 MHz ! H NMR spectrum of (50b) in CDC1 3 Figure 7.6400 MHz ! H NMR spectrum of (Ni-59) in CDCT3 246 Figure 7.7 400 MHz *H NMR spectrum of (Zn-77a) in CDC13 247 Figure 7.8 300 MHz ^H NMR spectrum of (Zn-79) in C D C I 3 248 Figure 7.9 400 M H z 1 H N M R spectrum of (93a) in CDC13 249 J l 10 I 1 I 4 3 I 1 I 0 -1 ppm Figure 7.10 NOK of (93a): irradiation at a) 7.45ppm b) 2.81 ppm 250 I- T Figure 7.11 400 MHz X H NMR spectrum of (111) in CDC1 3 251 Figure 7.12 400 MHz lH NMR spectrum of (Ni-120) in CDC13 252 Figure 7.13 400 M H z ! H N M R spectrum of (Ni-121) in C D C 1 3 253 Figure 7.14 400 MHz ! H NMR spectrum of (123) in pyridine d 5 

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