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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of: i. The total alkaloid content of British Columbia Datura Stramonium and Conium Maculatum… Offord, Harold Reginald 1925

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I U . B.C. LIBRARY AN INVESTIGATION OF: ACC. wo. _ ; i t'S'ea^w/^e w THE TOTALALKAL0IDC0NTENT OF B.C. • DATURA STRAHONIUM AND CONI UN flACULATUTI AND THE ESSENTIAL OILCONTENT OF 50t1E B.C.GR0WN HINTS AND TANNIN CONTENT OF B.C.ALNU5 RUBRA <*f^M-BY H.R.OFFORD LE-5£>7 ISIS APRIL m AS INVESTIGATION OF: I. THE TOTAL ALKALOID CONTENT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DaTUBA STRAMONIUM AND CONIUM MACULATUM AND THE ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENT Of SOME BRITISH COLUMBIA GROWS MINTS. II. TH1 TANNIN CONTKNT 0? BRITISH COLUMBIA ALNUS RUBRA. HAROLD REGINALD OFFORD A Thesis submitted for the Degree of M&STER OF ARTS in the Department of CHEMISTRY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1925. cy^i^-v^ • I H 11*11 IH | HU..IM • TABLE OF CQHTKHT3. General Introduction and purpose of the investigations. Conium maoulatum - Introduction. Method of Analysis. Datura Stramonium - Introduction. Method of analysis. tabulated results of analysis of plants grown in 19£E and 1923. Conclusions. Bibliography. The essential oil content of some B. C. grown mints. Introduction Plants investigated Method of extraction Tabulated results of data Conclusions Bibliography. The Tannin content of B. C. Alnus rubra. Introduction Preparation and extraction of the sample Procedures used Tabulated results of data Conclusions Bibliography. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. It is a natter of interest both to the farmer and to the industrial man that certain of the well known weeds, now gen-erally or locally distributed throughout this province are the sourees of crude drugs at the present tine wholly imported from foreign countries, Shis source of revenue hitherto over-looked, is one whioh may well demand the attention of anyone who is looking for new and profitable ways to invest his money* Throughout the province of B« C. there are consider-able numbers of logged off tracts of land, which could read-ily be obtained for such a purpose. The purpose of this in-vestigation was to find out whether or not, certain plants which grow larger and more profusely in this province, are as rich in drug content as the smaller plants growing in other countries. With this idea in view, the leaves and fruit of Datura Stramonium and the fruit and stems of Conium maculaturn were carefully assayed according to several different standard procedures for the percentage of total alkaloid. The following European plants were grown in the Univer-sity gardens at Point Grey and analyzed for the amount of essential oil, a comparison being then made with the average of foreign grown plants: Tanaoetum vulgare; Monarda fistulosa; Mentha Pulegium; Thymus vulgaris. - £ -An enquiry recently came from the Forest Products Laboratory of Canada as to the possibility of the util-ization of Alnus rubra* Alder has, of late, come into use for piling, as it seems to be immune from the attacks of the teredo. In view of this it seemed desirable to ascertain whether any use could be made of the remain-ing portions of the tree. Accordingly the tannin content of the bark and leaves was investigated. The following material presents a complete report of the procedures employed, results obtained, and sub-sequent conclusions. I wish' to take this opportunity of thanking Br. R. H. Clark for his kindly assistance during the course of the work, and also to thank Prof. J. Davidson for procuring the samples used, and for his advice regard-ing the botanical material presented here. THE TOTAL ALKALOID CONTENT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DATURA STRAMONIUM AND CONIUM MACULATUM. OOUIUM MaCULATUM. IMTROPUCTIOH. Spotted Hemlock *• A knowledge of its properties dates from early times. Hemlock probably formed the fatal draught that Socrates was foroed to drink for rejecting the gods whom the state had accepted. la medicine, the juice prepared from the hemlock is used as a sedative and narcotic in various spasmodic diseases. Hemlock is distributed all over Great Britain where it usually grows from two to six feet high. The ex-traordinary height to which this plant grew in British Columbia first attracted attention. The average height to which it grows here is about nine feet, which is consider-ably higher than either English or American varieties. Coniine exists in all parts of the plant although it is more abundant in the fruit, varying considerably with the maturity of the plant, the average assay being about .5%. The fruit of the plant used in this analysis was collected from the flowering plant late in June - aundried, and then the seeds were carefully separated from the stems and ground to about a no* 40 powder. The best method for assay is as fellows; -- 2 -Method of Analysis -'^' 10 gma. of conium in a No .60 powder &re macerated with a 100 c o . mixture of ether 69 parts, aloohol 6 parts, and ammonia water 10$ 3 parts. The mixture is macerated for about 4 hours. Decant 50 c*e. of the olear liquid and add fi/l flgSO^ to slightly acid reaction. Evaporate off ether by gentle heat. Add IS c.e. alcohol and after standing in a cool place for two hours, filter off the precipitated ammonium sulphate, washing the ppt. and filter carefully with aloohol. neutralize any excess acid with lag C03 leaving the solution faintly acid, concentrate on a water bath to 3 o.o. add 3 c.o. fl2o and S drops of l/l H 30 and wash with two successive portions of ether (15e.c.} to remove fat. Make slightly alkoline with Ha CO3 &nd shake out with successive portions of ether (15 c.c. 15 c.c. 10 c.c). To the ethereal solution in a taied beaker add sufficient 5 # hydrochloric acid to insure excess and evaporate ether » by gentle heat. To residue add 3 c.c* aloohol, evaporate and repeat in order to remove excess HCl. Dry the residue thoroughly at a temperature not exceeding 60° and weigh. This weight multiplied by 0.777 gives the amount of coniine in 5 gras. of the drug. Three samples of Conium assayed by this method: - .836%; .930%; .918%. (1) U. d. Pharmacopoeia: 8th Kevision - 5 The stems of the plants were next assayed and four samples yielded ; -.0254$ .0267^ .0248% .0250$ ! DATURA 3TBABDHXUH. This plant grows in many parts of British Columbia, springing up on dung hills and waste ground. The drug obtained is used in medicine to relieve the bronchial spasm. It was formerly imported from Germany and Hungary but it is now being cultivated in England and America. A great deal of work: has been done on tills particular specie as the following excerpt '*' shows: - "The alkaloids of Datura Stramonium consist of atropine, hycoseyamlne and hyosoine. The amount found In dried leaves varies from .12$ to .35^, that in seeds from .\&$ to .37$. from Stramonium seeds Harts obtained .137% alkaloid by extract-ing the fat from the dried substance by petroleum spirit, then removing the alkaloid with proof-spirit* and proceeding in the usual way. farr and Wright found from .16 to .24$ (2) Allen: Commercial Organic Analysist Vol* 6 - 4 of alkaloid in the seed, B. Schmidt found in four samples of stramonium seed from different sources .25, .37, .05, and .20.% of total alkaloid, from 50 $ to 70 % of this consisting of pure atropine. The remainder which was more difficult to crystallize consisted of hyoseyamine and their decomposition products. But the relative proportions of alkaloid are variable, as Lodeaberg found hyoseyamine to preponderate and Sehiitte found that both fresh and old stramonium seeds, yielded chiefly hyoscyamine with small quantities of ready formed atropine. A. B. Lyons, (Manual of Pharmaceutical Assaying) found in five specimens of stramonium seeds proportion of alkaloid (titrated by Mayers sola) ranging from .45% to .55% the extractive matter yielded to strong aloohol by the same method samples varying from 3*3$ to 7.5$. In eight samples of stramonium leaves Lyons found from .40% to .52% of alkaloid. Parr and Wright extracted .12 to .22% alkaloid from the leaves". This specie like many others appears to grow much larger here in -British Columbia than in other parts of the world. The specimen taken for analysis was €-£. feet high and 7 feet across* The leaves were air dried in the shade and finally dried in large dessicators over CaClg for a period of nine days. The leaves then powdered very nicely to about a So. 60 powder in an ordinary mortar. The capsules contain-ing the seeds were allowed to ripen until they burst and 5 -discharged the deeds. The seeds were then ground in a machine to about a Ho.20 powder, pressed out between two large sheets of filter paper in a vice and then dried in an oven^ and finally dried over P£ Og for five days. Then it was further ground in a mortar to about a Ho.40 powder. USTHQBS OF AitU.Y3.I3. Samples of the powdered leaves were then analyzed as follows: -(3)»introduce 15 gms. of stramonium leaves in a $fo.60 powder into a £30 ao. flask. Add 150 c.c. of the mixture ohloroform 1 vol.,* ther a vols .stopper the flask well, shake it and allow to stand for 10 caina., then add 5 c.c. ammonia water 10% and shake well every 10 mins* for two hours. How a^ d £5 c.c. distilled water again shake the flask, and when the drug has settle decant 100 c.c. of soln. representing 10 gms, of stramonium, filter the solution through a pledget of cotton into a separator, and rinse the graduate and cotton with a little ether. Completely extract the alkaloids from the solution by shaking out with weak fig 0O4. Collect the acid washings in a separator, add ammonia water till the solution is (3) U.S. Pharmacopoeia: 9th Revision 6 -decidedly alkaline to litmus and completely extract with chloroform* Evaporate to dryness the combined chloroform washings, dissolve ia S e.c. of chloroform and again evapor-ate, repeating this process in order to eo.ssa.xm complete removal of aoid. Dissolve the residue in exactly 5 c.c. H/lO fl2 304 and titrate the exeess of aoid with a/50 KoH using cochineal or methyl orange as an indicator. Each Q.e. S/lO Hg304 consumed corresponds to 28.92 milligrams of total alkaloid". Three samples of stramonium leaves assayed by this method .292# .321$ .324%. An alternate method was also tried* The procedure is as follows: *4) "20 gms of finely powdered dry leaves are ex-hausted with absolute alcohol. The liquid is largely diluted with water, acidified with HC1 and extracted by chloroform until the whole of the fat had been removed. The liquids is then made alkaline with ammonia and extracted with chloroform. Evaporate to dryness - dry at 100° for one hour and weigh. Two samples assayed by this method .272% and •310 % total alkaloid. (4) Thorps: Chenu Dictionary* Vol* 5, P. 636. - 7 -The seeds were next analyzed by the same two methods. In the first procedure the amount of distilled water added is cut down to 15 c.o. while in the second procedure the seed is first extracted with light petroleum, in order to remove any trace of oil* The seeds assayed as follows: 0. S. P. Metmoi - .871% .271% .270% .£67% Thorpe's Method * .266% .269% The following year, 1923, another analysis was made of Conium maoulatum and Datura Stramonium. Samples of Stramonium leaves were gathered when the seeds were ripe, as they had seen the year previous. A sample was also gathered somewhat earlier when the plant was flowering. The methods of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia were adhered to throughout and are the same as previously given. The following tables show the results obtained. TABLE I. SUMMARY OF 1922 PLANTS. Plant Time of Collection % Alkaloid Method Used Conium maoulatum Seeds - July 50th 0.911 U.S.P. 8th Rev. Stems 0.025 Datura Stramonium Seeds - Sept.28th 0.271 U.S.P. 9th Rev. Seeds - 0.268 Thorpe; Vol.5,P.636 Leaves 0.312 U.S.P. 9th Rev. . Leaves 0.291 Thorpe: Vol.5, P.636 - 8 -TABLE I I . SOMMaRY OF 1925 PLANTS Plant Time of Collection % Alkaloid Method Used Conium maculatum Seeds - Aug. 8th 0.930 0 . 3 . P . 8th Rev. Datura Stramonium Seeds • O c t . 3 rd 0.277 Leaves- Oct. 3rd 0.293 Leaves- Aug. 22nd 0.416 Stems - Aug. 22nd 0.0*>6 U.S.P. 9th Hev. U.S.P CONCLUSIOHS. The results of this investigation show that (1) Stramonium leaves gathered in August while the plant is in flower contain more drug than those gathered when the seeds are ripe* (2) That in spite of the faot that the above plants grow to a greater height and more profusely here in British Columbia, the total alkaloid content is just as high as that of smaller plants growing in foreign countries. - c, -BIBLIOGRAPHY. Allen - Commercial Organic Analysis, Vol, 6. P. 319 (1914) Philadelphia Pharmacopoeia of the United Statea - Eighth Revision, Washington, B.C. (1905) Pharmacopoeia of the United States - Sinth Revision, Washington, D.C, (1916) Thorpe - Chemical Dictionary, Vol. 5, P. 636. - 10 -THE ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENT Qg SOME B .C. GRQWfl MINTS. um I I I ^ K I M I . I will n i i II I I W ^ — — — i n — i » i — w — i i • — — — • — — p » — I M ^ — — i » m i ^ i in INTRODUCTION. The plants used for this investigation are all European varieties Introduced into British Colombia. They were grown on average well drained sandy loam at the university farm Point Grey, B.C. It was noted that the location was on the east side of forest land, where soon after mid-day they were in partial shade. Essential oils are usually formed in response to intense light and heat. The plants used, received no special cultivation and under favorable conditions the oil content would be higher than hers determined, old bog land containing few large trees is recommended as the best propogating medium. PLANTS INVESTIGATE]). Monarda fistulosa - known in North America as wild bergamot. The oil obtained is similar to horsemint oil obtained from Monarda punctata, and is a light reddish-brown color. The leaves and flowering tops are distilled and the oil has quite an extensive use in medicine and for flavoring. Mentha Pulegium - from which is obtained pennyroyal oil. It has a pleasant mint odor and is light yellow in color. The leaves and flowering tops are used and the oil obtained is used in medicine and in the flavoring of confectionery. - 11 Thymus vulgaris - from which is obtained oil of thyme, *xhe oil, a dark-reddish colored liquid, is distilled from the green leaves and flowering tops, and finds its use as a drug and for flavoring. It might be noted here that we have no native thyme in B.C. Tanacetum vulgare - or "tansy" is an introduced weed (loeal) and has been located growing along the Eraser river west of Mem Westminster and also in South Vancouver* The oil is yel lowish and turns brown under t h e influence of a i r and l i g h t . I t i s extremely poisonous, being used in medicine as a vermifuge and a l so f inding use in perfumery. The leaves and flowering tops are d i s t i l l e d while green. So current market pr ice on tiorsemlnt Oil i s a v a i l a b l e . A quotat ion In 1922 priced i t a t #2.00 per l b . Market repor t s of Toronto, Ont . , Harch 4 t h , 1925, give the following p r i c e s : -Tansy Oil - |4»1£ per l b . Thyme Oil - #1.82 per l b . Pennyroyal Oil - #2,70 per l b . 12 -MKTHQ3) OF EXTRACTION. The above plants were distilled while fresh and green in a steam autoclave capable of holding about 1£# of material. The distillate, a mixture of steam and oil, was condensed by means of a long water cooled condenser and the oil separated by allowing the distillate to stand in a separating funnel and running off the water* In the ease of Monarda, Mentha and Thymus a pressure of E5# was used in their distillation. Tanaeetum was distilled without pressure. The crude oil was weighed and then redistilled twice from animal char-coal at a pressure of 4 to 10 m.m. and the weight of re-distilled oil obtained. The woody stems of Tanaeetum yulgare were distilled separately from the green, leaves and flowering tops, but no Oil obtained from them. It was noted at the time of cutting the thyme that the plants were past their best period for a maximum yield of oil. The following table presents all the data. Plant Total wt. of plant Time of gathered Collection Area from which total Wt.of plant Wt.of Crude Wt. of fo of material was analysed oil obtained Hedistilled Oil collected Oil obtained B. C. foreign Cru< e Monarda fistulosa Var.Holies "Horsemint" 62 Kilos Aug. 9th 1923 1700 sq.ft. 9.1 Kilos 58.0 gms. 37.30 gms. 0.64 % of Redistilled Oil 0.5 -0.75 0.41 Wt. of Crude Oil per Acre 22.2 lbs. Mentha Pulegitim "Pennyroyal" 33 kilos Sept. 5th 1923 540 sq.ft. 33 kilos 231.75 gms. 205.66 gms. 0.70 0.5 0.64 40.9 lbs. Thymus vulgaris "Thyme" 110 kilo Sept. 12th 1923 1290 sq.ft. 33 kilos 44.6 gms. 37.78 gms. 0.14 0.5 1.0 0.11 10.1 lbs. Tanaceturn vulgare "Tansy" 11.3 kilos Oct. 16th 1923 Growing wile and not collected from any speoified area 11.3 kilos 17.20 gms. Wot Redistilled 0.15 0.1 0.2 Ernesl J. Parry: Average of foreign grown plants. - 14 G0HCLU3I0US. The yield of the B.C. grown plants have been compared with the average of foreign grown plants, and with the exeoption of Thymus vulgaris, which was cut too late as previously pointed out, they show a very favorable com-parison, Monarda and Tanacetum falling well within the average while Mentha gave a higher yield of oi 1 than the foreign grown plant. HAPHY. S# Gl^dmeiater and Fr. Hoffmann - "The Volatile Oils" Vols, I, II, III., Second Edition, Hew York, 192S. E. 3. Parry - "The Chemistry of Essential Oils" Second Edition, London, England, 1908. - 15 THE TAHHIH COHTEUT Off B . C . AINU3 RUBRA. • » • • • • W — 'HI ! • — W W I M . I I * IMI I I W l M M W ^ I I ^ M i ^ W ^ M W p M t W - M M ^ W M ^ W I W t h M W M i INTRODUCTION. Tannin is the generic name for a large group of vegetable products ao named from their property of con-verting raw hide into leather. They are soluble in water, their solutions having an aeid reaction and an astringent taste. Their chemistry is little known; some appear to be gluoosides of gallic aeid since they yield this acid and sugar on hydrolysis, e.g. oak-tannin. In medicine tannin is official in both the U.S.?. and B.P. It is a powerful astringent to tissues as well as a powerful haemostatic. Tannic acid is also used in the treatment of various sores and ulcers. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain the tannin content of the red-alder and how it varied with the time of year. PREPARATION AHD EXTRACTION Of THIS SAMPLE. The samples of bark used in this investigation were all taken from a particular section of trees near Little Mountain, Vancouver, B.C., in order to obtain as nearly equivalent conditions of soil, moisture and sunlight as possible. About 2 kilos, of bark were taken from a number of different trees each time that an analysis was - 16 -to be made. Hi is bark was dried at a temperature of about 80° C. for a week until it would crush nicely in a large iron mortar. This was again sanpled and about 600 gas. put through an ordinary meat chopper until the material would pass through a Ho.20 sieve. Between 50-60 gms. of the bark were used for each extraction as this was the weight of bark which gare between 3.5 and 4*5 gms. of tanning material per litre. The Proctor extractor was used for extracting the solid tanning materials. A des-cription of this extractor is aa follows: '*'A large beaker (1000 c.c.) is used aa the extract-ing vessel. A common thistle funnel with its stem bent twice at right angles, serves as a siphon to draw off the extract; the south of the funnel has muslin tied over it and is placed on the bottom of the beaker, and the funnel held in position by a clamp. A 1.5 cm. layer of sand which has been purified by treatment wi th HCl is then poured upon the bottom of the beaker# so aa to cover the mouth of the funnel, and the prepared and dried tanning material is mixed with the distilled water in which it is to be digested, and is poured upon the sand, '-"-'he material was allowed to soak over night before percolation. Extraction with 500 c.c. of water was commenced at 35° G. and gradually raised to 50° C After siphoning off this 500 c.c. the material was (1) Cloves and Coleman: Quantitative Analysis,P.361 - 17 -extracted at nearly boiling temperature with fresh distilled water* The extract was finally made up to 1 litre at 20° C. The percolation covered a period of from 4 to 5 hours. The fresh extract was quite clear and reddish-tan in color whioh changed to a more yellowish-tan after a day or so and a fine yellow residue settled out* The leaves used for analysis were gathered in mid-October just as they were ready to fall, airdried for a period of three months indoors, before sampling in the manner explained above for the bark. The extract was of a browner shade than the bark and contained considerable more solid material as the resulting figures show. The analysis for taanin was carried on according to the standard methods of the American Leather Chemists as follows: PROCEDURES USE).. Non-Tannins -The moisture in the air-dried powder is determined and the quantity equal to 6*5 gms. actual dry hide powder is weighed out. Any multiple of this quantity is taken accord-ing to the number of analyses to be made and digested with 10 times its weight of distilled water till thoroughly soaked. Add 2% of chrome alum. Crg(304)3 K£304» 24 % 0 . in 3# solution calculated on the weight of air dry powder* Agitate frequently (2) Allen: Commercial Org* Analysis. Vol.IX, Supplement Page 388 - 18 for several hours and let stand over night. Squeeze through linen and wash by digesting with four successive portions of distilled water, each portion equal in amount to fifteen times the weight of the air dry powder. Each digestion will last for 15 minutes and the hide powder shall he squeezed to approximately 75$ water after each digestion. The wet hide powder used for analysis shall contain aa nearly aa possible 73$ water, not less than 71$ or more than 74$. Determine the moisture in 10 gms. of the wet hide powder. To such a quantity of wet hide powder as represents 6.5 gms. of absolutely dry hide powder add 100 o.c. of the original analysis soln. and ahake for 10 mine. Squeeze through linen, add 8 gms. Kaolin to the detannised soln* and filter through a single folded filter of sufficient size to hold the entire filtrate, return-ing until elear. Pipette 5o cc. of filtrate into a tared dish, evaporate at 98° to 100°, dry to constant weight and weigh. This is the weight of the non-tannins. Notes on amove procedure -1. The standard hide powder used was tested and its acidity fell within the proper limits - i.e. not more than 5 c.e. or less than 2.5 c.c. of U/lO ttaOH were required to produce a pine color with phenolpthalein when 6.5 gms* of the dry powder were suspended in water. £• The moisture in the air dry powder was determined as 0.75$. - 19 -3. The wet hide powder was squeezed through linen bags; no difficulty was experienced in squeezing the powder to the right % of moisture* The average sample use u containing 71.6 % water. 4. The kaolin used waa purified by digesting for several hours with distilled water; filtered and dried and kept in s glass stoppered bottle. 6. The non-tannin filtrate did not give a precipitate with s 1# gelatin, 10$ salt soln. 6. Evaporation and drying was carried on in a water-jacketed drying oven at 100°. Water 3olubles ' The infusion is filtered through a Berkfeld candle till it is perf8?H? clear to both reflected and transmitted light. Ho correotion for absorption is necessary if the first (250 - 300 o.o*) is rejected before measuring the quantity for evaporation .50 o.o. of this filtered soln. are measured out and evaporated as before. Calculate the per cent of soluble solids. Total Solids £in*4$§ go o»e. of the original infusion into a tared glass dish, evaporate and dry to a constant weight. Cal-culate the per cent of to ta l so l ids . Tannine The difference in weight between the water solubles and non-tannins gives the weight of tannins. ft»MM»ew«imiSp>JWiWPl>**<***Mi^ •^mm^»^mmmmmmmm^^^mm»^mmtmm^mimmmmmmmmmt»m^mmmmmmm^^mmmmmmmt^ (3) Official and Tentative Methods of Analysis of A.O.A.G. - £G -Table I was eonpiled for the recognition of tanning mterlale Of Alnua rubra. Tables II and III give the tabulated resulta of the analyaea of the various aamolea. aaoiple IV was collected just a feu days after the sap had oouaenoed to run, while sample V was eo lies ted sous twelve days lister. The oh art shown here illustrates the variation of the tannin oontent of alder between the months October and April* . FOR THS RgQOOBH?IOB OI1 gA|g |gg MAfEBIALS OjP ALSBB RUBBA Infusion of Alnus rubra + ( 3 0*0 . ) Brg Water Brownish - yellow ppt. and pale yellow coloration Ferric Alum Sari: green ppt .and a green coloration HBO, Brownish-yellow ppt. and pale yellow coloration w<mmmm*mmm#**mimm (0a304 BH40H) Bark reddish-brown ppt. and reddish-brown coloration -t <Sn01£ HOI) fio ppt. pale yellow coloration + (Deal shavings HC1 Bo ppt, or change of color Ha2S£03 Bo ppt. Light pink coloration •f Lime Water Brick red ppt. and brick red coloration Above reagents employed are those used in official test of Leather Chemists. TAMHIJ CONTEHT - TABLE Iio. I I . BARK 0 ? ALIUS RUBRA. Bate of Collection Oct.22nd /24 I Total Solids 1) 20.40 2) 3 20.98 4 21.21 Average 20.86 Total water Solubles 17.02 17.85 Average 17.43 Insolubles 3.96 S.36 Average Ion-Tannins 1.Blank ) 2.5-6% Tannin) 5.66 10.85 11.57 Average 5-6$ 11.21 Tannins 6.17 6.28 Average 6.23 _. - / o , i 23.50 Deo.6 / 2 4 2 I I 3 23.82 4 23.66 19.76 20.02 20.18 20. 20 20.08 3.61 3 .63 3.62 13.78 14.34 14.45 14.60 14.29 5.98 5.68 5.73 5.60 5.79 Jan.20 /25 1 2 16.23 i c TIQ III 3 1 6* 3 8 4 16.54 14.18 14 .58 14 .15 14.48 14.35 1.85 2.22 2.03 11.61 11.75 11.32 11.63 11.56 2.57 2 .83 2 .83 2.85 2.79 Mar.7/25 1 21.67 2 1 8 4 19.67 IV 2 22.02 20.75 20.21 2.00 2.73 2.36 14.20 14.66 14.43 5.47 6.09 5.78 Mar. 19/25 1 21.95 o2 * 4 20.35 V 2 22 .73 20.174 20.54 1.60 1.99 1.80 13.69 13.99 13.84 6.66 6.75 6.70 / 1 29.88 Oc t .14 /24 2 29.62 3 29.27 4 TAMIN OOSTSHT - JAB IE Mo. I l l LEAVES Off AUTOS RUBRA. 23.62 23.59 23.38 23.68 5.51 6.2.6 5.99 6.13 20.40 20.03 20.05 £0.25 3.20 3.19 3*35 3.63 3.26 A l l t a n n i n v a l u e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d on a bone-dry b a s i s . - £3 -Conolualoae 1. Analysis of the ohart shows that there Is a rise of tannin content up to the late fall with a sudden drop after the sap has ceased to flow. As soon as the sap starts to run in the spring the tannin content rises to its former maximum full value. Z9 Although the amount of tannin does not warrant a commercial extraction at the present time, in •lew of too rapid growth and quick reproduction of alder it seems probable that in event of the shortage of other tanning mater Sals it could be utilised for that purpose. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Allen : "Commercial and Organic Analysis" fourth Edition, Vol. V, Philadelphia 191£. Allen: "Commercial and Organic Analysis" Fourth Edition, Vol. IX, Philadelphia, 1916. Clowes and Coleman: "Quantitative Analysis" Tenth Edition, Philadelphia, 1914. "Offlelal and Tentative Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Cuemlsts'r" Washington A.6.. lSiS? f * 


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