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Application of surface coils to in-vivo studies using ³¹P-NMR spectroscopy Schachter, Joyce 1985

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APPLICATION OF SURFACE COILS TO IN-VIVO STUDIES USING  31  P-NMR  SPECTROSCOPY  by  JOYCE SCHACHTER B.Sc.(Hons.),  Simon F r a s e r  A THESIS SUBMITTED  University,  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  We  accept t h i s  1982  of C h e m i s t r y )  t h e s i s as conforming  *:o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August  1985  e Joyce Schachter,  1985  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f  department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  written  ii ABSTRACT  The two  work  parts:  described  testing  and  application  In  particular,  coils  were  c o i l  the  changes  tissue  rats  The  spectroscopy. sizes,  on  the  copper  was  found  c o i l .  to  increase  coils of  the  with  the c o i l .  found  that one  that  coil  of  surface  the  highest of  the  involved  muscle  coils  have  been  patterns  with  'H and  manufactured  the  used the  to  and  brain  the  radius lying  above  for  pulse silver  the  plating  outside  the  of  the  the  B,  and r a d i a l l y of  the  extends  surface the  coils  of  patterns  shape  Q  widths  surface  magnitude  the  NMR  tested  a x i a l l y  dome-like  P  1  by  different  characterized  decreasing  i t s  3  signal-to-noise  excitation  of  A  studied  in  and  fabricate  samples  as  were  sample.  Q and  the  samples  of  Application  ratios,  Calculations  reveal  studies.  studies  materials  point  coils  c o i l s ,  in-vivo  of  coils,  of  surface  using  status  into  spectroscopy.  and  wire  divided  properties  in-vivo  surface  excitation  approximately was  of  P  excitation  Examination  surface  field  1  to  and wire.  signal-to-noise for  from  3  is some  optimized  to  Surface  required  of  coils  in metabolic  geometries,  factors,  f i e l d  and  using  their  thesis  localization  geometry  properties  evaluating  surface  technique  measuring in  the  coil  this  and evaluation  examined  performance surface  of  in  c o i l .  domain  of  B, to It this  iii  "sensitive  volume"  These  data  plated  coil  which  to  were was  in-vitro  3 1  not  a l l  correlated  deemed  pursue  In-vivo  did  P  to  contribute  be  in-vivo  further  s t u d i e s of  spectral  the  most  rat  measurements  of  to  identification  spectra.  Metabolic  ischemia induced  in brain  spectra oxygen  of  be  of  deceased  dementia  were  anaesthetized  whereas diagnosed  is the with  silver  coil  with  preceded  in  were  by  brain,  and  with  tissues.  used  induced  artificially "normal"  I t was  observed of  at  in-vivo  the  artificially  preparation NMR  were  standards  compared rat  P  "0.9"  various metabolites  as  readily  3 1  the  resonances  such  muscle,  deprivation  technique cannot  changes  spectrum.  efficient  tissues  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . These  i n the  a  studies.  physiological aid  and  to  found with  brain  spectroscopy.  3 1  P  that this  dementia  iv TABLE OF  CONTENTS  CHAPTER  I - INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER  I I - PROPERTIES OF SURFACE COILS  9  2.1 - I n t r o d u c t i o n  10  2.2 - T h e o r y  11  2.3 - S u r f a c e  Coils  and Q F a c t o r  2.4 - S i g n a l - t o - N o i s e 2.5 - Two and T h r e e 2.6 - C a p i l l a r y  and t h e 90 D e g r e e P u l s e  "Point" Experiments  Width i n S u r f a c e  Coils  49  2.9 - E x p e r i m e n t a l  5  3.2 - S u r f a c e  3 1  P  NMR  0  SPECTROSCOPY 51 52  Coil  f o r In-vivo  Experiments  56  3.3 - I n - v i v o E x p e r i m e n t s  57  (a) B a c k g r o u n d  57  Information  (b)  In-vitro  References  (c)  In-vivo Muscle  (d)  In-vivo  Brain  3.4 - E x p e r i m e n t a l  APPENDIX  44  2.8 - Summary  I I I - IN-VIVO STUDIES USING  IV - CONCLUSION  REFERENCES  4  36  3.1 - I n t r o d u c t i o n  CHAPTER  2  30  Tube E x p e r i m e n t s  2.7 - D e p t h and P u l s e  CHAPTER  21  Spectra Spectra  61 66 70 81 8  3  8  8  93  LIST  Table  TABLES  I Q  Table  OF  Factors  for  some  surface  coils  II Molecular of  s t r u c t u r e and  3 1  P  NMR  spectra  selected phosphorus-containing  metabolites.  vi  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Chapter 11 Fig.1 Schematic representation of surface coil showing r f magnetic vectors. Fig.2 Contour surface coil.  plot  Fig.3 coils.  plots  Contour  of B,(xy) f i e l d  representation  F i g . 5 Peak h e i g h t determination.  vs pulse  Signal-to-noise  of a  single  f o r the B,(xy) f i e l d  Fig.4 Schematic tested.  Fig.6  a single turn field component  of  width  ratios  turn  15  of surface  17  surface  f o r 90 d e g r e e  for various  13  coils  19  angle  25  coils.  28  F i g . 7 (a) Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of configuration of three "point" sources above s u r f a c e c o i l ; (b) p u l s e s e q u e n c e e m p l o y e d i n two and three "point" experiments; (c) spectra f o r three "point" sources of H 0.  32  F i g . 8 (A) Peak h e i g h t v s p u l s e w i d t h f o r two " p o i n t " s o u r c e s o f H 0 ; (B) peak h e i g h t v s p u l s e width f o r three " p o i n t " sources of H 0.  33  Fig.9 Schematic phantom.  tube  37  tube phantom Msec i n 5 usee  38  2  2  2  cross-section  of  capillary  Fig.10 Spectra from H 0 capillary e x c i t e d with p u l s e widths from 5 - 7 0 increments. 2  Fig.11 Peak h e i g h t v s p u l s e c a p i l l a r y tube phantom. Fig.12 Peak in c a p i l l a r y  height vs pulse tube phantom.  width  width  f o r rows  f o r rows  of H 0 2  in  of H P0 3  2  40  42  Fig.13 (A) Peak height vs p u l s e width f o r H and 4 3 P; (B) peak h e i g h t v s pulse width f o r rows of H P0 i n c a p i l l a r y tube phantom. 1  3 1  3  2  Fig.14  Axial  distance  and  90  degree  pulse  width  45  vii  relationship Fig.15  for a variety  Enlarged  version  coils.  of Fig.14B.  F i g . 1 6 8 0 . 3 MHz H s p e c t r a two a d j a c e n t v i a l s .  from  47  phantom  comprised  of the g l y c o l y t i c  pathway.  1  Chapter  of surface  of  48  III  Fig.17  Selected steps  Fig.18 E n e r g e t i c s of phosphate m e t a b o l i sm. Fig.19 In-vitro P NMR of m e t a b o l i t e s a t pH=7. 3 1  Fig.20 P rat l e g . 3 1  Fig.21 induced  NMR  in-vivo  P NMR ischemia  3 1  exchange  spectra  spectra  reactions  54 of  of v a r i o u s m i x t u r e s  of  ( a ) human  in-vivo spectra in a rat l e g .  of  arm;  (b)  artificially  59  65  67'  69  Fig.22  3 1  P  NMR  in-vivo  spectrum  of r a t b r a i n .  72  Fig.23  3  P  NMR  in-vivo  spectrum  of r a t b r a i n .  74  Fig.24 Fig.25 brain.  1  Schematic 3 1  P  NMR  drawing in-vivo  of a brain spectrum  neuron. of  lesioned  78 rat  79  viii  Acknowledgement  I  would  encouragement for  their  for  many  help. Sarath  like and  to  guidance,  cooperation  and  illuminating  I would  also  Abyakoon.  thank  like  Laurie  Edie  Hall  McGeer  support,  and  discussions t o acknowledge  and  and  for Peter  his Reiner  Lalith  Talagala  his  invaluable  the a s s i s t a n c e  of  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  2  The  last  advances  in  the  biochemical magnets  twenty  and l i q u i d u s  match.  this  new  imaging  turned  a  advances  transformation  a n d NMR  in  as  explore as  experiment  differed of  homogeneous  field.  soon  density  imaging was  a  of  became  overlooked  and  of  and  use of narrow  bore  many  new  vocabulary  o f NMR  imaging  of research the  activity  NMR  were  has  the  in  tenets of  techniques  with  to  and the  1  basic  that  along  tomographs  emerged new  developed  again  impressive  t h e 60's and 70's i n F o u r i e r  imaging,  there  introduction  has  been  progress  conventional field  comparison. were  rapidly  imaging  in  were  designed  to  the NMR  first  imaging  simply  gradient  Known  by  rather  i n the sample.  spectroscopy The p o t e n t i a l  quickly in this  realized direction.  was  a  was  Imaging somewhat  applications and  the  than  the q u a n t i t y measured  (protons)  while  NMR  of the technique.  method,  In e s s e n c e , nuclei  of  methods  and scope  magnetic  i n medicine  advanced  chemical  experimental  of  from  popular by  a  years,  back-projection  employment  the  have  physico-chemical  the capacities  the  to  changes and  well.  the i n i t i a l  many  1  few  many  whole-body  flurry  However,  technological  1973,  a  sufficiently  i t s focus.  After  there  created  and the scope  the science  to  introduction  Within  considered  NMR  the i n i t i a l  instruments,  furor  area.  of  samples,  Lauterbur's  subsequent  From  imaging,  techniques,  has witnessed  application  systems.  in-vivo  and  years  of  research  In a d d i t i o n  to  3  new  imaging  machines  techniques  for  operating  low  back-projection imaging CT,  chronic  during  etc.  In-vivo  when  i t was  left  past  years.  In  of  living  nucleus  nuclei  NMR  NMR  in relative  The  this  body  (including  the  3  1  P  explored. spectra  as  a  3  1  important  to  P  biological  numerous  the  of  have,  first  a  rat's  important be  studied  diseases  the prospect  clearly  the  e g . ATP,  of  can  for disease  tissues  of  spectroscopy  spectrum  Since  other  promising  metabolism, Indeed,  the  processes  i n many  reactions  achieve  until  and  thermodynamics  as a marker  rapidly  the  brain) metabolism,  Attempts of  a  biochemical  nucleus  and  progress  being  high-resolution  and  as w e l l .  some  was  i s contained  i n 1 9 8 0 , was  nucleus  popular  to study  most  which  kinetics  with  as  possible  spectra,  in-vivo  of  enzyme-regulated  such  to proton  published  The  this  lesions  seclusion  phosphocreatine.  leg."  the  very  imaging  glucose-6-phosphate,  appeared  of  methods  made  involved in bio-energy  which  nature  for  made  c a n be u s e d  i s phosphorus  work  established  multiple sclerosis  addition  systems.  intermediates  the  other  spectroscopy  period  NMR-sensitive  produced,  device.  exploited, few  using  used  whole-body  3  were  The n o n - i n v a s i v e  of tumours,  diagnostic  the  and  c o n d i t i o n s soon  Although  2  contrasted with  PET,  identification  medical  method.  developed, ' imaging  fields  technique  X-rays,  other  in-vivo  human  at  being  affect  of  using  continues  t o be  resolved  proton  however,  met  with  4  difficulties. the  water  pulse  The  peak,  most  challenged  sequences  obstruction.  to  There  for  in-vivo  this  now  seemed  the  to  supposedly an a  localized  NMR  without  tissues;  insensitivity  There  few  and  1 3  NMR,  along  to  the  Magnet usually for  systems  higher  equipment  Though  much  studies  of  of  Thus,  fields, used the  perfused  to early  designed used  K. " 7  spectroscopy  to  merge  poor  to  the  data  of  the  same  then  improve work  organs  in and  body  first of  imaging  the  images.  need  from  for  localized  body  found  that  bores,  and  problem.  intermediate were  or  of  intrinsic  a  same  from  surrounding  the  be  after  data  the  resolution  two  users  from  of  The  organs  of  for  1 3  paths.  specific  clumsiness  "hands"  with  so-called  medical  out  recognized  grappling with  3 9  and  started  grew  two  were  and  effects  regions. they  this  are  different  image  spectroscopic  the  reduce  being  imaging  high-resolution Thus  Na,  new  i n o b t a i n i n g NMR-type  resulting  also  2 3  of  create  of  which  6  dominance  least  nuclei  sample.  able  at  collection  C,  years,  desire  the  was  a  interference  of  or  disciplines  in a  be  this  devices  include  expressed  to  to  Other  developing  region  wished  parts  last  was  researchers  5  divergent  interest  the  exists  purpose.  be  these,  techniques '  spectroscopy  Until  of  eliminate  "water-suppression" solely  notable  sized  developed  as  the  basis  experimental  methods.  "localization"  involved  excised  tissue,  this  5  approach the  was  clearly  quest  for  underway.  The  possible  from  would  not  for  new  idea a  only  imaging,  but  unsuitable methods  was  to  include the  very  any  to  from  which  high  resolution  This  would  be  limiting  and  various  case  were  and  combinations. "'  back new  NMR to  1  main  emphasis:  The  surface  coil,  techniques  a  various  Magnetic very  is a a  data to  be  sample  obtained.  spectroscopy,  sophisticated the  but  in  hardware  digression  chemists  with  returned  now  coils"  spatial  small  loop  with  a  simplicity with  and  other  sensitive  Resonance  (TMR)  1 6  practical  m a t e r i a l s and  to  NMR  advance  in  localization.  A  of  conventional  the  attractive  sizes,  i n the  by  successful  considerable  this  The  as  localized  surface a  contrasted  such  this  shift  be  spectroscopy,  of  within  magnet.  would  Thus,  as  localization.  which  used  wide-bore  as  of  achieve  coil,  probe  Topical  science  signified to  1 5  soon  sample;  o b j e c t i v e was  enticed physical  introduction  endeavours  surface  had  regional  spectroscopy  the  objective using  imaging  the  for  was  measurements  demonstrably  this  which  the  element  spectra  hence  information  of  the  volume  approaching software  NMR  d e s i r a b l e chemical  arbitrary  methods  much  density  Ideally  able  a  as  volume  spin  patients;  localizing  obtain  a l l pertinent nuclei. choose  of  designated  also  f o r human  wire,  serves  as  super-conducting e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  more point  made tool.  geometries,  the  a  sophisticated method former  Surface  1 5  appear  coils  activated  and  by  of a  6  variety  of  pulse  innovative  regime  localization excellent shape  sequences, of  property  filling  of  further  using  created  by  surface  The  into  passing  from  the c o i l  plane  the  s e n s i t i v e volume,  any  NMR  field  in-vivo  new,  operationally  many  experiments,  experimental  simple,  methods  previously  their  i s now  and  generated coils.  surface to  The  volume,  coil  i s a  one  coil  point.  i s t o o weak  coils  unrecognized  a  need  to  a s a means  there  innovators that  precisely  are  Outside  to  induce  surface  coils  surface because  coils  the technique  being  to  factors  developed  for localizing  coil  role  users  became v e r y  of t h e i r  for.  Thus,  use  future.  At  coils  reason  popular,  simplicity,  while  broadened  current  of surface One  New  spectroscopy,  in the  science.  even  i s  accounted the  i s quite  implement.  of t h e c o i l s  evaluate  many  of surface  using  easy  are s t i l l  p o t e n t i a l l y important  moment  in-vivo  or sensitive  extends  groups  since  t h e o r e t i c a l understanding  surface  i n both  on  has  a t i t sf u r t h e s t  t h e B,  are currently  for  there  which  their  experimental  surface  a  and  signals.  There  and  the  with  through  region  in  emphasis  field,  current  shaped  lies  techniques  research  new  flexibility  to  current  a  The key t o t h e  coils  respect  ( r f ) magnetic  hemispherically radius  experiments.  non-invasive  incentives  radio-frequency  yielded  f a c t o r , and t h e i r  interest.  spectroscopy  is  of  and p o s i t i o n i n g with  region  the  NMR  have  very  of and the  b u t few  for  this  quickly,  and widespread  use  7  of  the  coils  understanding  It and  of  and  their  is essential  to  use  by  provide  surface  coils  to  as  their  other  localization  limitations  of  surface  thesis  surface  their  coils  evaluated kind  have  but  a  and  design  the  performance. phantoms, their to  was  surface  Specifically,  chosen  for  the  on of  P  the and  current the  i t is and  systems.  The  has  separate as  to  application  this  accounts,  this  using to  been  of  has  not  to  the  optimize  their  chemical  inter-compare of  the  appropriate  coils  optimal  experimentation.  d i s c u s s i o n of  nucleus  of  II. Results  such  status  extent  coils  coils  with  technology 3 1  this,  with  properties  tests,  the  further  a  to  requires  improvements  made  the  coil  III presents coil  in  commentary  were  a  do  the  surface  addition,  view  this  to  of  in Chapter  performed In  for choosing  biological  experimental  systems,  Chapter of  and  spectroscopy  themselves.  in-vivo  coils  efficiency.  features  order  examination  In  Various  were  other  In  regarding  survey  thorough  in perspective  spectroscopy,  to  appeared.  of  placed  previously reported  general  previously  be  summarized  been  i n NMR  justification  coils  i n NMR  technology  gap  elucidate fully  i s an  application  existing  this  techniques.  first  a  p r e f e r r e d method;  performance  to  of  f i l l  the  imperative  preceded  properties.  reasonable  that  This  large  to was  the  application  in-vivo used  systems. to  probe  the  8  metabolic  status  The  muscle  and  involved  insult  t o t h e sample  measurement.  Given  that  about  spectroscopy many future  systems  directions  areas, of  and  in-vivo  their  prior  to  a t the end of the t h e s i s .  1  P.  NMR  and  of  a  spectroscopic breadth  retrievable  possible P  3  at  identification.  i t slimits,  3 1  rats.  preparing  application  depth  has not y e t reached  unexplored  discussed  living  the  in  metabolites  f o r peak  physiological  knowledge  of  obtaining  as standards  experiments  tissue  consisted  phosphorus  conditions  t o be u s e d  in-vivo  and  studies  containing  physiological spectra  brain  in-vitro  Preliminary phantoms  of  v i a  there  of NMR  remain  i m p l i c a t i o n s and  experimentation  are  9  CHAPTER I I  P R O P E R T I E S OF  SURFACE COILS  10 (2.1)  Introduction  The  flexibility  resulted and  i n a sundry  materials.  determined well  as  choice  in  collection  The  of  most  considerations  of  of the size  as the l o s s  with  a mildly  conducting  The  advantageous  their which  most  ability they  their  to  size  and  rf  inherent  production  application pulses  1  8  "  2  1  of ,  rotating  are  regions  deeper  surface  coil  heart  for where  well  by o t h e r  frame  compartmentalized  concentration  provide  gradients  of  in 1 7  in from  from t h e  to the  surface is  most  as the eye or  boundaries  metabolites.  the depth  spectra  zeugmatography  the  ,  pulses,  are separated  such  their  radio-frequency  Depth  organs  over  originally  convenient  closer  is  by v i r t u e o f  namely  to obtaining  lying  as  contact  coils  zeugmatography  which  layers  Rotating  membranes  been  on  head,  in  was  coils,  nonuniform  suited  based  the region  What  spectroscopy.  2 2  i n t h e sample  the specimen.  useful  signals  frame  chapter,  specimen.  localize  actually  and DRESS  particular,  of  has  as  coil  from  a  performed  rat's  spectra  of surface  of  be  of surface  distribution.  a disadvantage  field  property  They  considered  magnetic  the  (i.e. living)  obtain  are placed.  of  will  was  of a  has  shapes,  In t h i s  coil  and shape  of e f f i c i e n c y  used  being  the sample.  coils  sizes,  coil  appropriate  well  surface  of v a r i o u s  of experiment  geometry  the  of  particular  by t h e t y p e the  design  defining  The p a r t i c u l a r  11  sample  and  degree  of  In in  the  experimental  localization  this  objective  and  chapter,  s e n s i t i v e volume  of  surface  determine  the  studies been  of  the  to  and  these  The  2  3  ' "  been  helped  and  3  surface  to  methods  coils  have  ' " 2  surface  coils,  magnetic  Smythe's  equations  wire,  law. the  divided  component, xz  r  plane.  ,  In  a  be  are unit  axial can  this  the  their  of  the  a  the  and  graphical properties  limitations.  current  passing  calculated according  modified current field  versions flows  through surface  of  through  produced, B  NMR  induced  presented  component,  rotate  case,  by  of  the  influence  advantages  r f magnetic  an  created  they  understanding  can  which  When  which  as  have  induced  coil  total  into B ,  2 5  in  their  field  surface  Biot-Savart  field  aid  have  understanding  calculations  which  2  a  the  2  properties  magnetic  through  be  of  coils  theoretical  Various  inhomogeneous displays"'  a  surface  electrical  experiments.  coil  have  applications. Theoretical  literature.  employing  develop  magnetic  of  coils  pattern  Theory Studies  need  the  excitation  knowledge  excitation patterns in  the  required.  parameters  in-vivo  further  the  This  experimental  presented  (2.2)  some  determine  method  in  experimentally.  for  the  changes  examined  required  hence  will  , and  B,, a  to the the can  radial  360  degrees  coil  lies  in  in the  12  xz  plane  rotates it  (see  over  Fig.1(a)).  t h e xy  i s orthogonal  field, the  B ,  sample,  sensitivity.  The into  and 2  B,(xy),  i s of of  f o r changes  directly coils,  radial  component,  components:  perpendicular i s  B ,  B (z),  to both  B  composed  and  0  of  B  an  interest  can  axial  magnetic in coil  such.  also  be  split  to B ,  and  B (x),  0  (Fig.1(b)).  =  since  t r a n s m i t t e r s and  parallel  r  which  1  to receiver  both  o f B,  r  B  in magnetization  related  being  of  the s t a t i c  a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y s t u d i e d as  two  vector  is  Surface  6  component  to the d i r e c t i o n  i s responsible  0  receivers  plane,  The  r  The  component,  B^xy)  B  . and  a  3.  perpendicular whose The  component,  magnitude  component  of B  B  (x), directed  i s determined along  r  by  along  the r a d i a l  the x-axis,  the  x-axis  vector,  B (x),  i s given  r  B (x)=B sin0 r  where  6  i s the angle  vectorially produced  by  added  to  the c o i l  B  B to  calculate  B,(xy),  by  and  B .  B (x)  0  can  r  obtain  the  total  now  be  B,(xy)  (Fig.1(c)):  B, ( x y ) = B  To  r  r  (1)  r  between  B .  the  a  + B  Smythe  r  (x)  (2)  equations  2 5  take  the  form:  K + b (b-x) :  2ir  [(b+x)  2  + y ] 2  , / 2  2  + y  (3a) :  Fig.1 Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s i n g l e t u r n c o i l showing r f m a g n e t i c f i e l d component vectors.  surface  14  -K 2ir  where b  u  i s  (see  x[(b+x)  the  coil  integrals contour  of  with  The  in  the  this  2.0  Further  different  field  g r a d i e n t . The  B,(xy)  field  y  +  2  y  excitation  same  as  Within  the  planes  c a n be  excitation  a  which  excitation. radially  in of  passing diminish the  coil  magnetic  over  which the  volume",  and.  subtends  approximately 2 0  The of  series  which  are  correspond  at  to  frequency  with  These  found  from  the geometry  to exist  extend  seen  the c o i l  a  used f o r  a current  the "sensitive  imagined  of  by  radio  volume,  coil  later.  (Fig.2(a)).  upon  B^xy)  turn  c a n be  distance  region  A  9  and d i s c u s s i o n  dimensions,  the c o i l  coil  plots  coil,  elliptical  programs  plots  above  the  coordinates  single  follows  sensitive  surface  distribution  three  depends  about  8  a  induced  called  hemispherical  (3b)  2  kind. "  Computer  contour  region  in  volume  for  cm.  effectively  extends,  2  complete  c a n t h e r e f o r e be  dome-shaped  sensitive  second  increasing  and  radius  and  contour  field  with  i s  the  geometry  surface c o i l  magnitude  are  i n Fig.2  and o t h e r  magnetic a  E  of  plane,  the  +  2  x and y a r e reduced  first  i s shown  Appendix.  through  (b-x)  1 / 2  radius,  diameter  calculating  coils  2  and K and  plot  a  the  y ]  + x  2  i s t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y o f t h e medium  Fig.1),  with  +  2  + b  1  a the  of the  the  coil.  of f i n i t e  spin  coplanar  with  to  planes  least  shape  i s  the  spatial  of  uniform  r/2 o f f - a x i s  and  4  15  o IN  X o eg  w  -2.0  -1.0  -  0.0  1.0  2.0  X  Fig.2 Contour p l o t of B,(xy) f i e l d of a s i n g l e turn s u r f a c e c o i l w i t h same o r i e n t a t i o n a s p e r F i g . 1 ; ( a ) z=0.0; (b) z=0.5 (reduced c o o r d i n a t e s ) . Numbered c o n t o u r s show r e l a t i v e B, m a g n i t u d e s a s percentages o f B, a t t h e c o i l center.  16  axially line in  r / 2 away  sample t i p  adjacent  angles  respect  t  a p p l i e d through  ,  to the c o i l .  t h e sample  would  where  7  i s the  interest, B,(xy) unit  the c o i l ,  passing  axial  considered  distance  as  a  of v a l u e s  at  spatially most  each  important  to  conventional  a  is  constant  diagrams  are  by  current  unit  pulse  producing  the f i e l d  width,  a of  nuclei  probes a  passing  on  feature  are contours  i t cannot for  induced  a  a will of  i s also  i s one o f  coils  as  opposed  coils)  t i pangle  where The  of the  produced  F o r example,  a t r away  a  the  of the sample.  the c o i l s .  t i pangle  is a with  of the B,(xy)  of c o n s t a n t  a  magnitude  Thus,  volume  by  B^xy)  plane,  (solenoid, saddle  90 d e g r e e  and  induced  the  of s u r f a c e  through  the c o i l ,  Therefore,  point.  large  of  decreases  the c o i l  This  nucleus  Since  which  dependent  contours  a  through  the t i pangles  quantity.  which  also  range  pulse  the  the c o i l .  from  width,  over  i n Fig.3  coils,  o f B,,  distinctions NMR  of  passing  particular  dependent  a  (4)  constant.  assume B,(xy)  for a  the t i pangle,  quantity,  pulse  range  experience  nuclei  respective positions  ratio  through  predetermined a  the  [B, (xy) ]  gyromagnetic  dependent  increasing  (dotted  2 0  be  i s t h e xy component  spatially  their  plane  applied,  will  Generally,  I i s the current  current  length  on  a=7lt  be  the c o i l  to the c o i l  depending  with  in  from  i n F i g . 2 ) . F o r any p u l s e  a  of  at least  a  from the  1 7  II  Fig.3 Contour plots f o r B , ( x y ) f i e l d of s u r f a c e c o i l s w i t h same o r i e n t a t i o n as p e r F i g . 1 : (a) f l a t ; (b) d o u b l e t u r n ; ( c ) 0.9 c o i l ; column I : z=0.5; c o l u m n I I : z=0.0.  18  coil  center  volume r/2  would  of  for a  widths  the c o i l single  extend  the  sample.  general  of  further  to  not  a  homogeneous  longer  plane  of  concentration.  of  This  into of the  contours  which  volume.  The  magnitude  as  Signals  coming  contribute  only  and, i n f a c t ,  samples  but  each  in  r  pulse  deeper  trick,  increases.  ca.  at  t o the c o i l  of the c o i l  decrease  sensitive  t i pangle  of i t ss e n s i t i v e  than  for  close  pattern  spectrum  appear  Generally,  4  to  coil  in  90 d e g r e e  electronic  depth is  the  regions  will  B,  to a  volume  has a unique  from  marginally  2  increase  t i pangles  this  the potential  distance from  increase  Despite  trend  30%  c o i l .  the sensitive  in Fig.4  implies  a  compared  turn  not only  also  coils  cause  experimentally  uniform  applies  shape  and  to a l l coils  in  Fig.4.  Prior  to  magnetization magnetic applied some the  rf  of the sample,  field,  B .  xy p l a n e ,  a  (Eqn.4). M  x y  ,  M ,  is  the  i s aligned  0  This  0  radio-frequency  angle  excitation,  magnetization  waves  by  rotating  The component the  source  equilibrium with  t h e main  interacts away  from  with B  0  of magnetization of  the  NMR  to in  signal  received:  M  Sample a  regions  stronger  lying  B^xy)  xy  =  M  closer field  °  s  i  n  C5)  a  to the c o i l than  regions  plane  experience  further  away.  19  Fig.4 Schematic representation (a) single turn; (b) double elliptical; ( e ) 0.9 coil.  of surface c o i l s tested: turn; (c) flat; (d)  20  Similarly, plane the  induces  a  stronger  same m a g n i t u d e ,  known of  magnetization  as  the  the  dual  experiments and  situated  the  a  single  (see  2 3  latter  which  Eqn.4  or  depends  on  occupied,  is  a  fraction the  size  filling a  pertaining  the  the  electrical circuit.  ratios,  the  x y  behavior, expression  on  B,(xy)  in  transmission  but  by  only by  is a  the  composite  sample.  factor.  consider  high  volume  Surface  have  The and  Signal-to-noise  sensitive  of  magnetic to  by the  resistivity  of  important  not  also  Noise  for also  which  coils,  is  being  characteristically  quality  s i g n a l - t o - n o i s e as  entire  signal-to-noise  the  A  S,  for  sources:  shape  factors.  coil's to  and  of  is affected  samples.  filling  M ,  ( 6 )  generated  are  of  than  x y  combination  which  conductive  M  noise.  two  these  in  excellent  from  coil  5).  itself,  of  noise  the  i s used  value  types  the  i s an  2 7  signal,  <* B, ( x y )  signal  arises  called  flexible  28.  the  losses  "lossy"  as  and  and  dielectric  well  coil  itself,  of  improve  of  NMR  to  away. T h i s  the  different  coil  further  of  signal-to-noise  quantity  coil  the  dependence where  of  in  reciprocity,  magnitude  effects  close  of  S  the  signal  lying  principle  reception  The  M  factor,  will  other  Q,  will  factors  p r o p e r t i e s of  the  For  d i s c u s s i o n of  a  reader  detailed should  read  coil  as  reference  21  (2.3)  Surface  The  quality  surface and  Coils  coil,  Q  factor,  is a  resistance,  and  Factor  Q,  of  the  across  L  resonant factor  is  of  to  at  =  that  current  higher of  inductance,  a L,  can  in a  since  C,  B,  root.  values.  regarded  how  and A  much  circuit.  Q  which the  receiver coil  2  The  Q  as  a  voltage by  the  The  9  Q  s i g n a l - t o - n o i s e are  high  During  the  is increased  series  both  circuit.  be  quantities  the  the  factor are  desirably  tuning  circuit  will  is  process, adjusted  that  The  i s the  resonance  inductance the  type  sharpness  Q  of  of  "lossy"  decrease the  of  capacitance,  these  capacitance  which  in  as  (7)  determines  LCo)  to  coil's  such  Lw/R  frequency  i t s square  both  optimized  so  the  important  increase  the  circuit  factor  rise  proportional  the  resonant  or  receiver coil,  R:  resonant  magnification  a  f u n c t i o n of  Q  w h e r e u> i s t h e  of  or  the  coil,  present,  circuit's  conductive coil's  =  1  condition  the  sample  i n the  factor.  of  2  (8)  for  which  a  series  circuit.  is slightly  sensitive  therefore  tuning.  samples  inductance  Eddy  by  the  and  influences  the  currents  produced  B,  cause  a  lowering  of  hence  field a  22  The listed  Q  factors  in  Table  are  shown.  The  on  them.  In  performing average coils  coils this  of  Single-tuned efficiency initial  spectra  with  values  and  Most with  were  4.5  were  produced cm  were  shown  suggestions  from  coils  with  two  larger  sensitive  which  the  sensitive subtlety  and two  loaded;  the  a  even these  shape  3.  In  loops  volumes influences  a  3  but  the  rat  these  tubing.  efficiency: Q  of  150  Smaller  by  coils the  Generally, adjacent,  addition,  both  double  turn  are  not  coplanar,  than  the  turn the  coils  or the  produce as  shown  coils,  produce flat  a is  necessity  coils,  of  were  for  turn  efficiency  H).  higher  spectra;  1  or  double  1  overall  copper  adopted  flat,  the  probe.  in-vivo  '  and  have  probe,  material.  0  An  phantoms  with  3  while  reduction in  single  the  than  P  3 1  manufactured  2  t u r n s , whether  (  higher  of  literature. '  arm  loading  probes  show  planned  i n F i g . 4 were  coil,  upon  reasonable  and  coils  clarified.  hollow  coil  are  human  the  larger  circuit  of  a  circuit  single-tuned  turn  volumes  of  and  unloaded  was  studies  f o r the  the  and  noted  surface coils  size,  desirable  Figs.2  an  measured  resting  consequently  single  geometries  in  was  c o n s t r u c t e d from  for this  more  are  surface c o i l s  diameter  typical  suffer  with  the  by  experiment  double-tuned  taken  loaded  double-tuned  of  a  Initially,  This  a  were  efficiency  efficiency  they  experiments  the  circuits  efficiency.  for  loaded  actual  when  performed  were  way,  40%  connected  various coils  I. Values  i n an  loss  of  in  larger  coil.  This  and  the  23  Table  I  Q  Factors (  O l-i  3 ,  f o r some  coils  ( H>  P)  1 54  unloaded  surface  1  245  155  250  •o C D  4->  <U  o  140  88  52  164  200  360  250  100  95  155  180  100  loaded  unloaded  »-i u  CO -rt C o  -l-l  c 3  loaded  24  diversity  of t h e i r  Thin  applications to various  copper  wire  was  used  for  construction  found  that  a  smaller  coils,  until  i t was  on  copper  wire  increased  the  follows and  from  the well-known  wire. the  Perusal  highest  However, ratio,  which  be  coil  and  show  that  of  proper  pulse  small filled  one  pulse  gradient  degree  with  water  data  in  t o a maximum to  each  created  and  coil. by  coil  of a  coil  the  has  lowest.  provided was  Degree  pulse  not  strong t h e most  Pulse  good  on  In view  the surface  center.  to determine in Fig.4.  with  A  decrease  with  a  the r f magnetic  coil,  First, coil,  the graphs  of  width  increments. curves  A  the  number  the pulse  asymmetric  of  surface  signal-to-noise  the c o i l .  regular  then  a  of the s u r f a c e  performed  shows  of  at the c o i l  performed  and p l a c e d  Fig.5  coil  of the c o i l s  in  silver  of the s i g n a l - t o - n o i s e  the diameter  systematically  of  the f l a t  efficiency  were  were  This  the surface  later,  t h e 90  f o r some  experiments  resulting  unique  width  with  that  for yielding  experiments  beaker,  was  increase  o f t h e 90  coating  experiments.  of the  i t spotential  number  varied  and  properties  t h e 0.9  this  in-vivo  indication  the width  and  discussed  for future  good  I reveals  silver  of  efficiency.  along  considerations  will  to  conducting  factor  Signal-to-Noise  A  a  Q  coil  of current  of Table  loaded  appropriate  (2.4)  flow  further  arguments  is  the better  experiments.  The which slope field  must  be  25  0  j  0  !  !  25  50  Pulse F i g . 5 Peak h e i g h t v s p u l s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n ; t o p : 4.5 cm cm d o u b l e t u r n A g / C u c o i l ;  Width  [  75  (»sec)  width f o r 90 degree angle s i n g l e t u r n Cu c o i l ; m i d d l e : 2 b o t t o m : 2 cm f l a t A g / C u c o i l .  26 interpreted  carefully  experiencing has  a  the  rf  regions field.  accumulated volume  of  widths  Since  the  become  contribution  from  from  total In  a  coil  where  the  principle will  flat  second the  the  be  rise  fields close  signal  when  ca.  180  B,  of  degree  field  of  as  well.  curve  of  the  small  to  the  coil  most  degree  of  the  pulse.  results and that  large  sample's  subtracted  in  peak  sample  of  the  nuclei  total  away  nuclear  a  the  consideration  loops  yields  than  the  of  induction  the  curve  for  the  rest.  The  interaction  of  from  from  value,  from  shape  differs  pulse  within  the  further  this  The  largest  Once  be  of  In  must  greater  decrease  is  in  signal  the  regions  i s weaker.  (Fig.5(c)) the  angles  region  the  change  optimum  a  pulse  of  the  induces  will  reciprocity,  weaker  coil  region  a  90  water,  graphs  and  causing the  the  sample.  some  of  entire sensitive  this  increased  signal,  to  not sample  plane  these  the  tip  from  addition,  experiencing  signal  are  in  than  arising  the  the  which  in  signals with  volume,  the  height.  the  longer  degrees  sensitive  t i p angle  the  represents  maxima  is  beaker  due  occupying  width  a  from  away  curve  pulse  though  i.e.  further  the  sample  Even  i n moving  sample  the  averaged  field.  the  coil,  to  spatially  changes  the  the  density,  axially  for  correspond  B,  spin  intensity  to  180  uniform  uniform  signal coil  a  since  which small are  creates  a  positive  subjected  to  27  Using the  the  curves  pulse  in  Fig.5,  signal-to-noise these  tests.  material  are  the  same  fact  that  each  of  cases, with  were  most  an  the  was  was  made  and  which  The  silver  40%  the  geometry  and  These  changes  when  experiments reflection coils, and  than  except  only  fact,  coil  the  by  material  entire  in  hemisphere. reported  in  coils  3  revealed  show  turn  coil In  of  radius and that  same  coils  differing  copper  coils  of  these  was  noted  signal-to-noise  should  be  of  the  the  also  be  of  was  consideration  would  35%.  that  will  unit  constant of  volume  this rather  provide  lowest  more  trend  as  were  valued  volume  signal-to-noise differences  a the  s e n s i t i v e volumes the  by  considered  noted  geometry  of  the coil  each  c a l c u l a t i n g the the  by  of  improvement  per  had  signal-to-noise  be  volume  magnify the  and  s e n s i t i v e volume  Estimates  Fig.6 but  the  varied.  and  geometry  signal-to-noise  sensitive  Figs.2 This  and  should  where  the  coil  In  an  signal-to-noise  data.  of  higher  caused  of  cases  approximating  contour  tested  extent  in  measuring  illuminating made  the  test  results  signal-to-noise  significant  to  the  plated  increased  It  for  of  comparison  silver  in  tests  only  A  the  factor  coils.  used of  35-40%  of  double  (Fig.4b-4c).  plating  are  designing  plated.  yielded  ratio.  of  two  two  maxima  shows  dimensions,  cm  of  The  the  series  effects  between  2.0  from  first  Fig.6  the  silver  increase coil  the  apparent.  one  diameter  measured  done.  Here,  geometry  geometry  width  of  a  values  between  the  signal-to-noise  28  15.3  flat  462  double turn i  double t u r n ii  11.8  9.4  single turn  391  .9 coil  846  Fig.6 Signal-to-noise ratios for various coils; thin l i n e : 5 m l b e a k e r o f 1 0 0 mM N a H P 0 i , ; t h i c k l i n e : 100 ml beaker of H P O ( 8 5 % ) ; ( i ) Ag/Cu c o i l ; ( i i ) Cu c o i l . 2  3  a  29  per  unit  the  2  volume  cm  values.  single  signal-to-noise  were  a l l  fitted  across  not  type  of  Faraday  entire  shielding  teflon  from  coating  diameter geometry slightly silver.  of  coil  outlined  wire  The  0.9  was  ca.  was  used  coil  other  coils  magnetic  field  any  further  (see  of  the  into  a the  Fig.3(c)).  gradient  of  0.9  In  was  this  still  detracts  coil. the  exact  addition,  also  plated  much  coils. magnetic  sample  is  a  The  (31).  B,  than  type  with  other  This  and  cm  which  coin.  . geometry  registered  characterizes  axially  2.0  coil  sample.  of  the  reference  of  extends  with  the  coil  the  influence  shown  good  design  effective  over  than  coil  more  thick  mobility  signal-to-noise this  a  for  shielding  in  thicker  matrix  resembling  the  is a  coil  the  of  shields  interferences.  surface a  values  spectrometer  thus  clearly  this  and  the  coil's  was  rf  This  and  the  higher  rf  wire  little  material  bore.  was  lower  but  the  portable;  example  a  copper  magnet  in  i s apparently  and  Another  the  s h i e l d as  lightweight from  of  magnet  3 2  this  Signal-to-noise  external  ensemble  for  coil  use  where  advance  a  the  to  showed  flat  the  of  exception  which  volume.  with  case  recent  the  coil  unit  isolated  only  the  ends  any  incorporates wire;  the  in well  A  per  enhanced  practice are  turn than  signal-to-noise  The  than  The  linearly  coil  is a  The  a  with  higher geometry  field any  of  which the  decreasing  feature  which  30  simplifies volume than  and  would  sample of  the  coil  would a  of  excitation  region  used.  For  surface  spectra,  The  coil  0.9  from  a  ensure  nonlinear  the  the  and  uniform  composition  Two  The to  two  test  region  of  bottoms  useful  and  three  effect  5 mm  approximated  a  up  NMR  filled drop,  were  placed  of  water  were  within could  the be  used  from  volume  considered to  variability possible  to  frequency  of  of  B,(xy) observe  signal  the  cm  be over  depth  of  with  at  shallow  least  one  specimens  of  are  the  underway  sensitive  of  were with  along  to  volume.  small coil  sample  differences  amplitude  By  modulation  the  so  In turn  the  sample  from  the  that  they  the  three  Cu  coil  was  coil  axis  at  These  volume over  "points" elements  which  B,(xy)  eliminating  volume,  in  developed  made  center,.  the  on  water  single  constant. the  were  water.  coil  to approximate  sensitive  type  gradient  of  the  r away  the  information  "points"  used  and  the  obtaining  B,  4.5  r/2,  into  experiments  the  0,  depth  appropriate.  within  experiment, "points"  induction  more  efforts  "point" and  signal  require  be  best  the  tubes, or  sensitive  Experiments  of  sphere,  the  determine  which  to a  "point"  The  will  for  works  Point  The  would  although  interest.  of  coil  localisation  Three  the  interest  flat  presently  and  uniform  field.  volume  radius,  (2.5)  more  B, of  i s more  further  a  within  experiments  sensitive  achieve  pattern  t i p with  the  i t would  be  angle,  and  pulse  width  31  within  the  sensitive  experiments surface static the  were  coils  the  of  magnetic  coil  done  to  to  field  a  shift,  the  unlike  electronic observe  a  B  experienced  i n the  water  the  peak  same  B  to  and  of  B,  magnitude  shift  act  between  will  of  was  not  chemical to  shimmed  both  the  A to  similarly  that  of  two  material.  details  ensure  with  field  field  0  "point"  coaxially  frequency  which  The  3 3  effects  applied  resonance  gradients,  0  three  geometry  resolution  shielding. single  size,  Gradients  and  these  g r a d i e n t was  induce  with  Two  compare  differing  " p o i n t " phantoms.  interfere  volume.  to  "points"  linear  applied  gradient.  The in  F i g . 7 . The  from of  pulse  10  10  to  sec  and  r,  for  a  width  the  higher  pulse  at  is  Fig.8  is  amplitude  modulation  their  respective  plane.  Since  "points"  is  the  a  5  Msec  in  the  than  the  e.g.  only  a  the  "points"  positions  t i p angle  different,  coil  as  more  the a  delay signal  the  pulse  plane  "points"  degrees,  m a n i f e s t a t i o n of  of  with  slightly  a  the  greater  180  shown  increased  with  Initially  experiences  tipped  degrees.  of  increases  field  width,  spectra are  systematically  "point"  B,(xy)  given r/2  was  "points"  i t s magnetization  "point"  resulting  experiments.  a l l  because to  and  usee i n i n c r e m e n t s  75  from  but  subject  pulse  between  intensity width  sequence  at  tip  is r/2,  angle  while  the  than  90  difference  in  function  of  with  respect  to  the  coil  (Eqn.4)  induced  at  the  two  the  signal,  S,  r e c e i v e d from  the  32  F i g . 7 (a) S c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f configuration of three "point" sources a b o v e s u r f a c e c o i l ; (b) p u l s e s e q u e n c e e m p l o y e d i n two and three "point" experiments; (c.) s p e c t r a f o r t h r e e " p o i n t " s o u r c e s of H 0. Roman numerals correspond to sample "points". (spectral w i d t h = ± 1 0 0 0 Hz; s c a n s = 1 ; b l o c k size=1024 points; pulse width=25-500 usee (8=25 ttsec); r e l a x n delay=0.5 s e c ; y g r a d i e n t = 0 . 0 4 G/cm; l i n e b r o a d e n i n g = 1 0 Hz) 2  33  0  ,  ,  ,  1  2  3  Piilse  Width  ,  ,  ,  1  ,  ,  4  (ysec)  F i g . 8 (A) Peak h e i g h t v s p u l s e w i d t h f o r two " p o i n t " s o u r c e s o f H 0 u s i n g 2 cm f l a t Ag/Cu surface coil; (B) peak height vs pulse width f o r three "point" s o u r c e s o f H 0 u s i n g 4.5 s i n g l e t u r n surface coil. Roman n u m e r a l s c o r r e s p o n d t o sample " p o i n t s " shown in F i g . 7 ( a ) . 2  2  , 5 (X10 ) 2  34  two  "points"  will  also  be  different:  S  where  substituting  for a  S  The (t  P  frequency ) f o r each  = M sina  yields  = M sin{7lt  [B,(xy)]}  0  of  amplitude  "point"  (9)  0  is  modulation  (10)  with  pulse  width,  then  f  =  7  I[B,(xy) ]  (11)  2 T T  which at  will  the  be  "points"  modulation distance  from  the  coil.  coil  coil.  Fig.8  height  and  surface  along  shows  coils,  the  the  coil  It plane  h e i g h t s and  modulation  the  effect  pattern  i n the  amplitude  coil  since  of  because  The  rate  with  increasing  was  done  axis  at  single  of  B,  the  for  the  the  use  amplitude  is  have B,(xy)  the  a  copper on  peak three  different  the the  highest  i s at  and  modulation that  two  r / 2 away  turn  two  produce  axial  using  two of  B,(xy)  amplitude  gradient  expected  would  of  0 and  4 . 5 cm  Despite  similar.  peak  the  modulation  is  resonance  decreases  using  amplitude  "points"  experiment  experiments.  "points" located  "point"  center  two  different.  signal  placed  "point"  is  the  "points" the  f o r the  of  Another  from  unequal  of  "point" highest  frequency  maximum  the  of  there  35  (Eqns.8 would  and  9).  produce  amplitude region these  of  signal  volume  can  width  used.  graphs  f o r the  for  potentially The  produce  two  a  this  be  notable  coils  i s i n the  degree no  bearing  and  three region  depending  pulse  angle  on  the  shows  sample  the  pulse  between  width in  a  "point" of  on  and in  Fig.8  difference  tip  plane  height  field.  broad,  isolated  coil  i t is situated  two  though  the  peak  B^xy)  most  90 has  since  the  selected,  from  lower  weaker  clearly A  r away  with  frequency  relatively  effects  However,  a  "point" at  modulation  experiments.  to  The  the  required  each  objective  "point". of  this  experiment.  Selective widths  works  example, the  sampling  at  coil  a  reasonably pulse  plane  magnetization  continuous regions  at  r/2  varying  the  have  the  pulse  reliable  of  ca.  100  be  and  sensitive width  can  for precise  obtained  180  be  flipped  degrees;  volume  of  achieved  in-vivo  flip  a  but  in  arise to  a  from  angles  surface coil phantoms  applications.  a  minimal  localization  with  the  hence  with  could  for  "point" in  However,  interference  magnetization  the  degrees,  "point".  pulse  phantoms;  degree  100  could  former  90  //sec,  180  ca.  some  appropriate  for discrete  a  at  the  between  within  well  spectrum  from  which  signals  not  is  specimen,  intermediate  is  width  choosing  undergoes  high-resolution contributions  by  of by but  36  (2.6)  Capillary  The for  the  two  Tube  and  Experiments  three  potential  to  coordinates.  thin  wide  show  more  the  The  next  isolated  clearly  decreased  how  the  length  5 cm)  were  arranged  into  each.  Each  row  defined  a  mm.  from  Fig.9  shows  the  phantom.  and  phosphorus  Fig.7  was  which  planes.  3 1  are  to  experiences  the  a  the  greater and coil,  of  by  used  a  of  was  3.0  four 1.5  both  mm, tubes  mm  thick  of  1.5  water  sequence  of  that  as  used  of  to  a  spectrum;  coil  extending  to  Sample  lying  near  amplitude is mm  a  from  the  use  closest  to  i s , the  from  the  the  coil  wire  than  when  the  the  r  modulation "point"  the  sample  and  that  ca.  in  the  before  region  in  clearly  in Fig.10. Clearly, the  1  gradient  to  shifts  of ( H)  depicted  field  required  varied  i . e . 2.5  coil.  distance  magnetic  shown  there  modulation  O.D.  water  with  pulse  allows only  (Fig.2).  away, to  of  mm,  how  would  surface  1.5  frequency  contribute  volume  each  their  This  amplitude  magnitude  were  on  experimental dimensions  The  This  be.  s i x rows  static  widths  of  plane  was  the  could  (I.D.  and  P).  a  p u l s e widths  plane  closest  with  spectra  coil  further  (  resonance  Pulse  sensitive coil  phantom  acid  the  short  the  ideal  three times  resulting of  tubes  experiments.  separate  to determine  adjacent plane  the  This  used  was  "point"  the  s t e p was  for  capillary  evidence  based  rate  Twenty-four  gave  signals  region  characteristically  separated  experiments  separate  spatial and  "point"  the  coil  that region plane,  Fig.9 Schematic cross-section of capillary tube p h a n t o m . Murobers b e l o w a r r o w s a r e ideal dimensions (mm); numbers above arrows are actual averaged d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e h e i g h t o f e a c h row o f tubes from the base. Roman numerals correspond to phantom planes.  38  (*)  W  Fig.10 Spectra from H 0 capillary tube phantom e x c i t e d with pulse widths from 5 - 7 0 usee i n 5 usee increments; (a) 2 cm flat Ag/Cu coil; ( b ) 2 cm d o u b l e t u r n A g / C u c o i l . Roman n u m e r a l s c o r r e s p o n d t o phantom planes i n F i g . 9 . ( s p e c t r a l w i d t h = ± l 0 0 0 Hz; scans=1; block size=2048 points; pulse delay=0.5 sec; y g r a d i e n t = 0 . 1 3 G/cm; l i n e broadening=10 Hz) 2  39 will  u n d e r g o a 180 d e g r e e  from  the c o i l  plane  leaves a resultant  f l i p while  are being  the s i g n a l  be m i n i m i z e d  (180 d e g r e e s )  the c o i l both  a r e maximized  flat,  degrees. the  entire  between  thus  of  i n Fig.11  these  planes  into  a  further  away  angle  a t c a . 40  not  spectral  modulation  vanishes while  of c o i l s .  characteristic applied lower  indeed  t o each  to achieve  Q. In  potentially  this be  plane  and  different  and  then  is  from  The d o u b l e of  patterns  of  the  the  only  maximized. where t h e  the  entire  turn  silver  rising  signal  a r e u n i q u e and must  due t o t h i s  volume  with a s p e c i f i c  r e g i o n between r/2 and r , however, t h i s  note  intensity  Longer p u l s e widths  t h e same f l i p a n g l e  isolated  to  Features  plane  pattern  these  coil.  case,  i . e . the  plots are  where s i g n a l  another  up t o c a . r a r e m i n i m i z e d .  intensities  for  of the r e g i o n  vs p u l s e width  region  has a  o f 180  usee  contribute  viewing  the  t h e sample.  from  coil  In  from  where  o c c u r s a t 23 Msec and 40 jusec i n F i g . 10(b)  plated  which  plane.  nearest the c o i l ,  are the "points"  the f i r s t  mm  t o the c o i l can  flip  that  signals  the  xy  configurations  for a variety  graphs  one p l a n e  This  signals  be n o t e d  allowing  amplitude  the  close  indicates  both  8 and 11 mm  Peak  in  when  a r e a up t o r/2 away w i l l  spectrum  shown  signal  coil,  in  nuclei  looped  I t should also  flat  5.5  (90 d e g r e e s ) . T h i s c a n be seen f o r  and d o u b l e  dispersion-like  from  spins  t i p p e d by some a n g l e  magnetization  particular,  the  which  be  coil's could  pulse width i s is  a  fairly  40  25  SO  75  WO  False W i d t h ( t*c> v  F i g . 1 1 Peak h e i g h t v s p u l s e w i d t h f o r rows o f H 0 capillary tube p h a n t o m ; t o p : 2 cm f l a t A g / C u co m i d d l e : 2 cm d o u b l e t u r n A g / C u c o i l ; bottom: 2 double turn Cu c o i l . Roman n u m e r a l s c o r r e s p o n d phantom p l a n e s in Fig.9. 2  in il; cm to  41  thick  slice:  These acid,  same  H P0 , The  only  in  test  gyromagnetic pattern  of  f o r a l l the  whether  or  The pulse  3 1  P  elliptical  length,  separate only,  was  The  height d i f f e r  the  gyromagnetic  elliptical  coil  flat  silver  coil  in that  with  pulse  coil,  these  widths to  the  to  the  first  spins for  the  two  coil of  i n the  3 1  the  a  a  of  ratio  3 1  P  to  1  3 1  the  H.  In  intensity  was  P)  found  (see be of  an the  practice,  and  t o be  of  amplitude the  widths  same,  It  and  90  first  undergoes  coil,  plane the  the  two  planes  180  of  degree at  ca.  90  magnetization  for  the  of  of the and  is  excited the  flat pulse  similarity amplitude  phantom.  spin  P  coaxial  different  pattern  3 1  the  with  t i p a n g l e . The  the  are  sample  very  i s 60%  coaxial to  (  largest  curves  both  whereas  in  a  the  which  the  to  values  require  exists  of  to  phantom  is similar  r/2,  degree  1.5  degree  ability  producing  shape  90  its  tube  ca.  similarities  similar  a  of  its  for  capillary  The  regions  for  and  factor  r/6  second  coaxial  should  tested  coils.  both  the  plane  was  ratios.  achieve  flat  modulation  by  bears  widths  graphs  factor  of  phosphorus  in these  of  pulse  plated at  with  nuclei  signal  and  using  peak  repeated  diameter.  P  planes  coil  1  Fig.13).  2 cm  measured.  ( H  signals  of  response  by  ratios  modulation 'H  the  width  coil  were  difference  pulse  general  surface  experiments to  increase nuclear  for a  2  3  Fig.12).  the  5 mm  flip,  degrees, is closer  When the  whereas to  120  42  -6i 0  •  25 Pulse  1  1  50 75 W i d t h (*sec)  _____ f 100  F i g . 12 Peak h e i g h t v s p u l s e w i d t h f o r rows o f H P 0 i n c a p i l l a r y tube phantom; top: 2 cm flat Ag/Cu coil; middle: 2 cm d o u b l e t u r n A g / C u c o i l ; b o t t o m : oblate eliptical Ag/Cu coil. Roman numerals c o r r e s p o n d t o phantom p l a n e s i n F i g . 9 . 3  2  43  _4-| 0  1  T  25  I  50 Pulse  Width  75  I  100  (vsec)  F i g . 1 3 (A) Peak h e i g h t v s p u l s e width for H and P using prolate e l l i p t i c a l c o i l ; (B) peak h e i g h t vs p u l s e w i d t h f o r r o w s of H P 0 i n c a p i l l a r y tube phantom using prolate elliptical coil. Roman numerals correspond t o c o i l planes in Fig.9. r  3  2  3 1  44  degrees.  In  reached  at  addition,  most  contribute  as  half  much  coaxial  coil  specific  purpose  coils  were  of  to  were  the  the  rat  found  further  maximum  height  and  will  not  resulting  spectrum  as  if  the  This  was  with  the  their  used.  of  planes  brain to  coil  spectra  have  away  designed i n mind  higher  have  but  Q  other  and  better  90  degree  s i g n a l - t o - n o i se.  (2.7)  Depth  and  Fig.14 pulse from  shows  width data  from  distant  maximum  tip  angle  the  pulse  peak  coils widths The  height  pulse  plane.  The  dimensions  approximated  mm.  by  the  (dotted tube  Perusal  width  for  plane  of  the  to  extent  of flat  spins  give  and a  trend  which  dictates  for  of  the  By  to  away  B,(xy)  the  Fig.10  reveals  coil  minimizes  region  region  10 a  the coil  mm  ca.  x  of  25  signal but  the  coil's may  be  shown  in  of 10  of  most  the  diameter  ca.  degree  in  uniformity  that  the  a  this  outer of  90  that  from  of  width  interpolation  seen  volume  to  of  for  corresponds  of  excitation  in Fig.5  volume  closest  "point"  pulse  be  taken  three  the  can  the  sample  represent  axially  of  line)  the  the  and  experiment.  i t  r/4  into  required  shown  width  l o c a t e d about  capillary  are  Coils  between  tube  follow  dots  in Fig.14,  this  depth  capillary  sample  Fig.2  relationship  determination  "points"  cases,  the  regions.  the  in Surface  penetration  Most  longer  Width  the  and  experiments. that  Pulse  mm  one x  3  usee p u l s e from yields  the an  cn  Axial  Distance  from  Coil  Fig.14 Axial distance and 90 degree relationship f o r a v a r i e t y of surface c o i l P ; ( a ) 4.5 cm s i n g l e t u r n Cu c o i l ; (b) 2 Cu coil; ( c ) 2 cm f l a t A g / C u c o i l ; (d) 2 Ag/Cu c o i l ; (e) p r o l a t e e l l i p s e Ag/Cu; ( f ) Ag/Cu. 3 ,  pulse width s . ( A ) 'H; ( B ) cm d o u b l e t u r n cm d o u b l e t u r n oblate ellipse  46  appreciable This  from  width  in  pulse  region in  signal  located  Fig.5  on  the  coil  the  the  In  90  coming  curve.  while  at  r/2  from  from  data  cm  0.9  surface  Ag/Cu  the  slope  coil  was  signal  of  from  experiment  the large trend Fig.15  from  t h e 2 cm  coils  added.  using  was  i n separating  each  plane  noted  tip  angle  peak  height  c a . r/4 from  required  to  excite  by t h e e f f i c i e n c y single  the  an  expanded turn  The  data  3  1  P  the least the  view  Ag/Cu shows  positive;  greatest  widths  coil  signal of  and 2 that this  intensity  i n the c a p i l l a r y  pulse  and  turn  maximum  single  of spins  the smallest  degree  ( 4 . 5 cm)  i s  spins.  and i s  region  showing  t h e 0.9 c o i l  the best  width  of  t o t h e sample  maximum  t o t h e sample  r / 2 away.  with  the  i s determined  this  Fig.14b  the  the pulse  of the c o i l ,  deviated  corresponds plane,  therefore,  plane  plane  the c o i l  corresponds  sample  geometry  Fig.14  adjacent  c a . r/2 from  determination, generally  the next  of  tube  a l l the  coils.  The  experiment  depicted  in  small  vials  ( I . D . 1.3 cm, O.D.  vials  were  taped  vertically; acetate, placed  both  the  A pulse  from  minimizing  contained  neat.  nearest  Fig.16(a). signals  one  together  The  width  the region  those  from  1.4 cm,  and  and  o f 24 r / 2 away  the region  was  using  5 c m ) . Two  on  the  coil,  and the other  ethyl  containing  ethanol  the spectrum Msec  done  length  placed  ethanol vial  coil  Fig.16  was  would closer  was  i s shown i n  used  so  be m a x i m i z e d to the c o i l .  that while The  47  0  r/  Axial  r/2  4 Distance  from  3r/4 Coil  r  Plane  Fig.15 Enlarged v e r s i o n of Fig.14B; (a) p r o l a t e ellipse Ag/Cu; (b) 2 cm double turn Ag/Cu; (c) 2 cm s i n g l e turn Ag/Cu; (d) 2 cm f l a t Ag/Cu; (e) o b l a t e e l l i p s e Ag/Cu; ( f ) 0.9 c o i l Ag/Cu.  48  (a)  Fig.16 80 MHz *H s p e c t r a f r o m p h a n t o m c o m p r i s e d of two a d j a c e n t v i a l s (O.D. 1 cm); (a) ethanol (Et) adjacent to the coil ( c ) ; (b) e t h y l a c e t a t e (EA) a d j a c e n t to the c o i l ; (c) v i a l s l a i d f l a t over the coil. (spectral width=±700.28 Hz; s c a n s = 2 4 ; b l o c k size=2048 p o i n t s ; pulse delay=0.5 sec)  49  sample  was t u r n e d  interference either  over  from  spectrum.  the  liquids  were  c o i l .  In this  case,  i n the  the  flat  mm  axially  liquid no  c o i l  lower  be  the upper, would  vial  (2.8)  Summary The  to  slightly  ratios  use  the  and B,  Q  fields  from  the  the  to  It  of  pulse liquids  the  case  were  5 to  15 the was  n o r was widths. are  where  of the  solution  concentrated  i n spectra  surface  of  a  c o i l ' s  where  is  coils  is  spectroscopy. surface radius  by geometry  obtain  higher  the  the  c o i l .  volume  wire.  of  spectrum,  more  of  there  the  the  that  from  concentrated  observed  in practice  factor  less  with  however,  about  scans,  higher  In  Msec,  inteference  in localization  by  coil  from  100  since  in design  sensitive  influenced  high  be to  determined  for a  their  the  generally  used  was adjacent  A t 24  after  using  much  interference likely  liquids  "see"  concentration.  f l e x i b i l i t y  advantage of  expected  a  from  both  No  so  volume  the ethanol  when  flat  sensitive  was no  Even in  contained  lower  have  v i a l .  turned  spectrum.  but there  change  proton  vial  solution  size  resulting  away,  to  comparable  than  contributions  any i n t e r f e r e n c e is  the  repeated.  was r e g i s t e r e d  was t h e n  within  i n the upper  This  vial  can experimentally  detectable  there  experiment  upper  The sample  both  observed  and the  desirable good  magnitudes.  c o i l  an The is  b u t c a n be  and for a  material c o i l  to  signal-to-noise The t i p  angles  50  induced  by  spatially field.  current  dependent  induce  lying  The  coils.  peak  height  2.9  the  region  can  therefore  These  results  previously  spectra  from  angles the  used  as  in  a  reported  in  the  widths  exciting the  plane.  with  180  Specific means  properties  a  large  than  crude  agreement  sample  sensitive  less  coil  localizing  are  T),  NT-300  console  239C  30  pulse MHz  neat  water.  3 1  liquids  The coils  recorded  cm  with  controlled  P.  at  an  of  of  surface  theoretical  literature. ' 4  by  weighing  2  3  ' ' 2  magnetic using  digital-to-analogue  at  converters  1280 80.3  prepared  1  the  using  Systems a  Nicolet  computer MHz  for  and  H  and  used  as  analytically  by  were  were  voltages in  and  in deionized  gradients  driving  magnet  spectra  dissolving  field  temperature Research  Nicolet  f o r NMR  solutions and  bore  operating  Samples or  a  room  Oxford  horizontal  programmer  for  accurately  were  equipped  (1.89  shim  arises  B,  Experimental  spectrometer  32.5  the  the  by  from be  in  are  the  pulse  obtained  tip  r/4  coils  excite  longer  regions  usually  positive  improving  All a  of  widths  while  maximum  in  studies  coil  distant  sample  widths  pulse  the  surface  p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y with  more  concentration  further  to  through  from  homogeneous  degrees  vary  short  close  signals  volume.  pulse  and  Generally,  regions  passing  293C  1  distilled  produced  by  generated unit.  the by  51  CHAPTER I I I  IN-VIVO STUDIES USING  3 1  P  NMR  SPECTROSCOPY  52  (3.1) I n t r o d u c t i o n In-vivo stage In  spectroscopy  where  the  i t can  last  increasing  two  of  with for  100%  The as  of  key  universal  the  as  3 1  to  between  species  The  or  has  been  published most  nucleus this  that  so,  in  a  on  often  has  steadily biological  using  only  isotope  enrichment  the  3 1  1/15  occurs  P  the  naturally  is  and  necessary  clearly  the  with  such  McArdle's 3 1  P  NMR  progressing  to  animal  peaks  state as  in  syndrome  fairly  of  an  spectroscopy, " 3  the  list  a  for a l l similar  3 1  a  have  an  kingdoms.  a  P  high simple  individual.  ischemia  lengthen  is  identical  and  comprise  metabolic  states,  chemically  plant  resolved  ailments as  the  and  metabolism  considered  diseased  is chemically  even  of  such  characterize  Metabolism,  humans,  manifestation  currently  tool.  understanding  spectrum  identified  diagnostic  t h e r e f o r e no  resolution  conditions  P  possible.  process  Transitory  clinical  objective i s to  processes  ten,  the  there  papers  protons,  current  important  a  approaching  preparation.  accurately  energy  of  abundance,  sample  as  rapidly  spectroscopy,  Although  sensitivity  used  years,  number  applications nucleus.  be  is  and  chronic  already and of  been  work  is  observable  disorders.  A  phosphorus-31  reflection  of  the  spectrum fermentation  of  living  stage  of  tissue  is  catabolism,  a the  53 anaerobic  breakdown  reactions  involving  electron-transfer adenosine all  diphosphate phosphate (SP),  a l l of which of  spectrum.  present  narrow  tissues,  ATP,  of at least  regulators  2,3-diphosphoglycerate  hidden peak of  such  as adenosine  and  under  of only are  prominent  or chemical  altered  visible  metabolic  metabolic  pointer  been  t o be pH s e n s i t i v e .  as  shown muscle  detected NMR  by  fatigue 3  1  and  P NMR. "  spectroscopy  3  for  in-vivo  monophosphate  present i n  or  are  Changes  shift  3 5  Thus,  lactic  acid  Previous  metabolites  to  or  as  are in  indicative useful  of P i which has  conditions as mild  the  analysis,  flowing  either  particularly  i s thechemical  Pi are  sufficiently  i n the spectra,  A  P  e t c . are  a r e regarded  status.  1  and  peak.  shift,  3  (PEA),  a few m i c r o m o l a r ,  not  another  height  (2,3-DPG),  over  simple  other  phosphoethanolamine  blood  dispersed  0.2mM,  and  in  phosphates  PCr, and  f o r d e t e c t i o n b y NMR. Many  concentrations  inorganic  c a . 40 ppm i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y  In l i v i n g  are  adenosine  and sugar  concentrated  (AMP),  cycle  ATP,  resonances,  for  F i g . 1 7 ) . The  (PCr),  (PE),  and  source  bio-energy  compounds:  at concentrations  enzyme  (see  phosphocreatine  show  glucose  energy  t h e body  ( P i ) , phosphoesters  The c h a i n o f  i n the formation of  t h e prime  of themolecular  (ADP),  bandwidth  NMR  (ATP),  containing  of  results  reactions within  phosphorus  a  processes  participants  "fuels".  transformation  triphosphate  chemical  major  of biochemical  build-up  have  availability metabolic  been of  studies  54  glycogen, starch  glucose  glucose 1-rphosphate c e l l membrane _  ADP  Stage I  glucose 6-phosphate  Conversion of sugars to glyceraldehyde phosphate; input of ATP  fructose 6-phosphate ^  ATP fructose  > ADP  1,6-diphosphate  I 2-glyceraIdehyde phosphate  1,3-diphosphoglycerate ADP Stage II  ^  >  ATP*  3-pho sphoglyc erat e  I  Oxidoreduction and coupled formation of ATP; output of l a c t a t e  2-phosphoglycerate phosphoenolpyruvate ADP ATP« pyruvate  lactate  Fig.17  Selected steps  of  the  glycolytic  pathway.  55  of  the  brain  problems  were  formidably  associated with  freeze-extraction. such  as  those  research most  in  NMR  the  the  commonly  and  The  underlying  learn  dogs  have  more  particularly  of  experimental  This  a  to  in  tissues.  discussion  encouraged  f i t into with  reasons  gerbils,  played  roles  i n NMR  such  human brain;  valid  and  have  bore  of and  have  been  guinea  pigs,  experiments.  s t u d i e s has  similarities  far,  humans),  physiological  ethical  So  the  rats  but  of  much  systems  animals,  presents  e l u c i d a t e and  mimic  data  these  and  parameters,  in-vivo  (to  the  been  to  processes,  between  human  considerations,  convenient  and make  choice  for  specimens.  chapter  identify  of  perfusion  NMR  have  ( f o r comparison  b r a i n s , and  intended rat  small  objective  models  as  observable  s t u d i e s of be  also  the  such  above,  For  about  mammalian  animal  These  to  used  because  diagnostic spectroscopy.  mammalian  cats  which  of  anaesthetized.  most  other  area  subject  magnet),  easily  mentioned  spectroscopic  required the  the  techniques  Clearly  3 6  difficult  are  in-vitro  Preliminary tests systems  metabolites  presented  thereof  results  follow  of  experiments  characterize metabolic  physiological  various  the  first;  were  by  their  the  in-vivo  afterwards.  on  changes phantoms  performed chemical  to  shift.  results  and  56 (3.2)  Surface  The to  objective  elucidate  find  with  geometry  which  elliptical  of  a  rat's  in-vivo  head,  which had  the 0.9 c o i l .  with  thicker  wire  which  that  i t does  not perform  which the  i t  was m o r e  spectra  rather  combination judged  be  single  The the  region the  vial  coils  i s  originates coil's making  very  coil  to the  However,  t o t h e shape  coil  was  sensitivity,  as thinner wire In t h e present  highly  The  signal-to-noise  latter  and l i n e a r for  experiments  made  albeit  i n terms  study,  gross  resolved  suitable  experiment  in  changes i n peaks,  the  B, g r a d i e n t was the  envisaged  were  at the c o i l The  i t s sensitive  spectra  occupied volume  hemisphere  made  using  volume  coil  showed  that  from  the  emanated  the sensitive  f o r most  subtended  center, 0.9  i n Fig.12  depicted  to  which  The s e n s i t i v e  radius.  and  probe.  sample  the  suited  to observe  wire  most  contribution  of  coil.  than  the  tuned  major  important  A l l t h e in-vivo  experiments. the  3 6  shaped  and  This  as well  of the thick  to  Q  enhances  resolution.  be  i s an advantage.  lower  than  achieving high  can  was b e t t e r  measurements  of  I I was  spectroscopy.  coils  o f t h e sample  coil,  i n Chapter  o f some s u r f a c e c o i l s  for  surface  and s i z e  detailed  properties  one s u i t e d  the  Experiments  o f t h e work  the  the best  ease  f o r In-vivo  Coil  volume of  circular by  a  surface  line  which  the l e n g t h of which  i sthe  had a diameter  extend  to  of 2 . 3  approximately  cm, 1.1  57  cm  from  rat  cm  skull  wide of a  including  the  here,  from  meaning  This  is  In-Vivo  this  be  nucleus since  most  processes  4  i s only c a .  The  mm  to the objective between  animated and  shields  mode  the brain  of the b r a i n  and  thick  t h e measurement  one s i d e  jaw  effectively  into  g  used by c a .  i s sampled.  of the planned  the respective  sides  Experiments  Information  section,  of  actual  to discuss  being  lobes.  300  interest.  the  in-vivo  The  choice  some  build  3 1  i n energy  P  NMR  experiments  of phosphorus-31  to the study  molecules  experimental  observed  called  some  i s suited  are involved  Animals  to  of  itself  ca.  extends  differences  discussed.  the  first  only  of interest  mammals  volume  o f a.  ligaments, and  i s  With  suited  were  Background  will  are  since  the brain  In  on  that  with  which  the side.  ideally  experiment  (a)  and r i g h t  t h e e a r and which  the sensitive  7 mm,  (3.3)  below  t h e head  but the b r a i n  r a t are connected  just  brain  average,  left  the massetter muscle  located  of  p l a n e . On  i s c a . 2.0 cm w i d e ,  1.2  by  the c o i l  of  containing exchange. results,  as the  metabolism  phosphorus  Before  in  embarking  i t i s instructive  of the biochemical reactions  which  v i a NMR.  up a n d  anabolism  break  down  energy-stores  and c a t a b o l i s m ,  p h o t o s y n t h e s i s and r e s p i r a t i o n  which  in plants.  by  are akin  Storage  of  58  energy  in  mammals  absorption is  of foods.  obtained  process with  through  by w h i c h  lactate  3 7  .  of  the  Biochemical  input.  to  Hence  a large  high  The  compounds  phosphate (PEP)  i s  Fig.18  3 7  .  few  leaving one In  of  one p h o s p h a t e  ATP  then  glucose-6-phosphate:  group  + ADP  to  with  coupled  a  lost  transfer to  the in-vivo  a l l  build  energy-reserve  requiring which  ATP.  system.  t h e mimimum  usually  for  compounds  reactions.  have  greater  Phosphoenolpyruvate and  i s  listed  glucose-6-phosphate,  t o become  pyruvate  ;==^ p y r u v a t e  combines  schematic  economically  little  biochemicals  t o produce  partake i n are present  to effect  i n energy  these  order  PEP The  with  than  shown i n  a  are  are  currency  potential  are  major  o f t h e ATP-ADP  output  source  The  i s  3 7  o f mammals  i s ATP; i t i s used  i s the  a s an energy  Fig.18  compounds  energy  which  the others  compounds  universal  very  work  i n the inset  mechanism  and i s expended  are  t o do b i o c h e m i c a l  pathway  t h e maximum  of  and  by-product.  whereas  processes  energy  digestion  pathway,  glycolytic  low e n e r g y  amount  biochemistry  There  a  spaces.  obtain  to  system.  as  the  energy  indirectly  loses  of  v i a  i s utilized  the c e l l  the i n t e r c e l l u l a r  designed  needed  the glycolytic  glucose  within  representation  of  Energy  The s u b s t r a t e s e n c l o s e d  reactions in  accomplished  produced  constituents Fig.17  i s  with  in PEP  and ATP:  + ATP glucose  to  yield  59  16 r phosphoenol pyruvate !4  High-energy P donors  1,3-diphospho-glycerate  t  phosphocreatine reservoir PCr + A D P - * C r + ATP  ,  4 h  2  0  V  Low-energy P acceptors  glucose 6-phosphate  glycerol 3-phosphate  Reaction Coordinate  F i g . 18 E n e r g e t i c s metabolism.  of.  phosphate  exchange  reactions  of  60  glucose  In  this  + ATP  way  a  high  without  large  amounts  of  energy  absorbed  i n one  s t e p and  the  system  thermal  that  phosphate  equilibrium.  In  ADP  as  In  the  an  energy  stored  in  phosphagen used  the  mediators  background  compounds in  energy.  phosphate  by  addition  of  a  above  i s of  prime  PCr  i s used  to  ATP  i n muscle  actually  muscle-contraction sometimes  muscle  than  been was  way  energy  ATP  activity,  phosphates The  are major  phosphocreatine; this in  i s another than  group  the  ATP  to  and  the  remains  of  the  PCr  found,  that  more in  the  is  a  formed  reaction  contraction  ATP.  The  when  amount  constant  level ATP  with  ATP  fairly  until  of  creatine:  i n muscular amounts  is  form  molecule  r i g h t . The  to  3 7  cycle.  lies  present  far  with  +  large  and  suggests  5==^ creatine  importance  create  high  is  (G6P),  stray  evidence  potential  phosphate  equilibrium  not  biochemical  potential  + ADP  does  energy  is  (PEP),  expended  phosphagens.  PCr  leaving  PCr  the  called  metabolic  bond  where  where  ADP  acceptor,  in this  a l l this  vertebrates  higher the  of  reservoir  for storing  phosphate  in the  +  donor,  being  fact,  a l l biochemical processes act  lies  has  energy  phosphate  to  and  low  energy  coupled  from  a  glucose-6-phosphate  of  during  i s depleted. It  was cell  used  by  the  before  the  61  contract ion.  In were is  the  used  widely  45  hours.  The  and i n an  In-vitro  to  chemical  of  titrated  for  identify  were  to  e f f e c t s on  for  suitable  one  the  (sleeping)  for  lasted ca.  rat  relaxation  of the  were which  48  slower would  be  state.  expected  Solutions prepared pH.  3 1  P  spectra  work.  is  measured  relative to  was  spectra to  small  Recording  identification  It  of  and  i t . This  a l l  differences these  peaks  in  of  spectra in-vivo  to  note zero  chemical  the  and  surface  the  corrects  their  obtained  same  as  by  in-vitro,  important  used  deemed  physiological  were  the  prior  i t was  various  analytically  in-vivo  the  literature,  resonances  of  using  PCr,  the  measurements,  solutions  of  magnet.  the  in  these  abcissa  due  studies  neutral  standard,  the  inactin,  was  long-term  spectroscopic  internal  peaks  and  which  injected interperitoneally  muscular  ample  shifts.  metabolites  mixtures  studies,  the  barbiturates  Pentabarbitol,  anaesthetic  unconscious  in-vivo  necessary  as  general  rats:  both  whereas visible  different  References  spite  any  short-term  short-term  only  two  the  measurements;  The  In to  for  minutes  expected  studies,  anaesthetize  used  breathing  (b)  present  syringe.  ca.  8  to  long-term by  3  by  that  an the  shifts  were  of  settings  facilitated spectra  coil  of  drifting shim  from  the in  further  comparison  62  of  chemical  Table in  a  3 1  II  P  mixtures  the of  follow  living  of  phosphorus  which  can  s t r u c t u r e and  compounds  shown  slightly  in  compounds  these  spectrum.  other  P  II  Generally  Phosphoric  would  present various obtained  as  well.  phosphorus in-vitro  assignments.  this of  be  Exact  and  NMR  dependent some  of  on the  difficult  only to  of  the  selection  of  that  some  resonances  may  Information  reason. fact  will The  and  be  of  be  discussed  ester  phosphates  downfield appear  from  PCr  shifts  metabolites a  more  limitations  will  that  as  about  c-AMP  phosphates  act  P  be  chemical  can  3 1  may  downfield  containing  in a  differ  appear  appear  created,  19  noted  nucleoside  are  Fig.  as  this  various breakdown  are  example,  phosphate and  acid  for  their  the  found  signals.  for  of  shielding,  such  i t should  phosphocreatine  be  and  indicates  i n view  inorganic  of  clearly  with  Spectra  shifts  Perusal  stronger  extract  spectroscopy  later. and  to  appear  along  course  and  shift  o-phosphoethanolamine,  3 1  I  substances,  difficult  the  electronic  chemical  by  In  Table  in Table  hidden  spectrum.  theoretically  molecular  in a  tissue,  since chemical  in  which  containing moieties  However,  distinguish  NMR  in Fig.19.  spectrum.  be  metabolites  s t r u c t u r e and  glucose,  each  lists  spectrum  molecular  of  shifts.  from upfield. were  i t  recorded  for  3 6  guide  have for  been peak  oI o—p=o 1  o I o—p=o  ?  O—P=0  I I  / \  CH.  N  r  ^  N  .a  N ^CH N  H^j^H OH O H  PC  O- H 0=P  CH.  I I  I  /«  ~N—C—N—CH,—cf NH  Pi  O II O—P—o  20  Table II Molecular structure and P NMR spectra of selected phosphorus-containing metabolites. 3 1  0  -20 pptn  o — C H . y°\  AMP  Hi j / H  H H\|"  0=P  A d e n i n e  O  OH  I  OH CH.CH.NH.  H  H  H—C  C  I  PEA  I  I  CH.  I  ?  c=o  I CH  2  ?  c=o  I CH •  20  2  i  i  CH.  PEP  I O I 0=P—o I O I  CH.  CH =C—c 2  o -o—p—oo  Table II Molecular structure and P NMR spectra of selected phosphorus-containing metabolites.(cont'd) 3 1  "I 0  ^ ' I -20  ppm  1.2  Fig.19 In-vitro P spectra of various mixtures of metabolites at pH=7; ( A ) A T P + ADP; ( B ) A T P + P C r ; ( C ) A T P + P C r + P i ; (D) A T P + P C r + c-AMP; ( E ) A T P + P C r + c-AMP + P i ; ( F ) A T P + P C r + o - P E A + P i ; ( 1 ) 30 mM A T P ; ( 2 ) 25 mM ADP; ( 3 ) 41 mM P C r ; ( 4 ) 25 mM P i ; (5) 0.5 M c-AMP; ( 6 ) 0.5 M o - P E A ; u s i n g 2 cm 0.9 Ag/Cu c o i l . (spectral width=±l000 Hz; scans=200; block size=2048 points; pulse delay=2 sec; line broadening=10 Hz) 3  ,  66  (c)  In-Vivo  Muscle  Muscle  tissue  applications used  Spectra  of  3  1  P  i n animating  i s NMR a  pathway  can  easily  subjects  may  be a s k e d  obtaining  spectra  understandably since  large  skeleton.  amounts  The  be t a p p e d  of  or r a t muscle  in  of energy a r e  biochemical  w i t h muscle  to exercise  interest  energy  as w e l l .  Human  an arm o r l e g p r i o r can a r t i f i c i a l l y  to  b e made  ischemic.  Fig.20(b) anae'sthetized in  the  PCr  a n d ATP  shows (inactin)  spectrum are  concentrations similar under  a  present  shown  to  do  spectra  design  which  The muscle height  The  ATP  ADP  occurred  The  i s a  3  1  the  lack  P  ratio."  clearly  tissue  These  for  of  that  a  mM  are a l lof buried  signal  from  blood and to the  human  arm  characteristics  of  Differences  in  of a c q u i s i t i o n s in  between t h e  coil  recording  and  these  characterizing  have  5-10  significantly  was t o m e a s u r e  two p e a k s  and  a  indicates  spectrum  inbetween  visible  phosphates.  peaks  of  universal  number  l e g o f an  presumably  metabolism.  adopted  brain  a  mM  i s  a r e due t o improvements  method or  and  20  not contribute  muscle  signal-to-noise  ca.  i n muscle  illustrate  vertebrate  two  in  resonances.  Fig.20(a)  3 6  of  rat. Metabolites  and l i n e w i d t h ;  phosphates  spectrum.  spectrum  a r e P C r , ATP, P i , a n d s u g a r  2,3-diphosphoglycerate skin  P  1  respectively.  height these  3  spectra.  spectra  t h e PCr//3ATP  been  probe  chosen  as peak  since  Fig.20 P NMR in-vivo s p e c t r a o f ( a ) human a r m ; (b) r a t l e g ; u s i n g 2 cm 0.9 A g / C u c o i l . [Human a r m ( u s i n g 2 cm double turn Cu c o i l ) : p u l s e width=38 Msec; scans=400; b l o c k s i z e = l 0 2 4 p o i n t s ; l i n e broadening=8 Hz; Rat leg(using 2 cm 0.9 Ag/Cu coil): pulse width=12 usee; scans=200; block size=2048 points; line broadening=10 Hz; both spectra: spectral width=±1000'Hz; p u l s e delay=2 sec] 3 1  68 they a  arise  as  resonances  combination  PCr/|3ATP  In an  ratio  order  elastic  hip  joint  leg.  of  ca.  placed  a  Spectra hours  were  continuing are  shown  leg  became  that  played  a major  role  contrary  to  experiment,  of  the of  spectra  of  the  i s the  leg just  below  the  t o and  from  the  were  undertaken  here  equipment  used.  but  3 6  method  and  4 minutes was  the  is  40  being  of  PCr  experiment, striking  rapidity  minutes.  Results  of  clearly  seen  The  suggest  be of  the  that  not  energy,  opposed  be  a  fall.  level  PCr  PCr  of of  This  effects  closer may  the  steady  expected.  as  feature  with which  rat's  phosphate  A  there  the  the  phosphate.  tissue,  will  when  depeleted with  normally  that  1.5  spectra  be  spectra  exercise.  about with  interval  source  muscle  for  removed,  i s a manifestation  stores  metabolism,  been  ca.  would  of  previously  inorganic  a  suggests  constant. A  a  have  in these  moderate  energy  rat's  i s c h e m i c , i t can  as  on  have  this  elastic  ATP  however,  stress  virtually  the  what  Fig.21(d)-(e)  period  every  increase of  than  blood  the  increasingly  levels  generally  state  recorded for another  state  rather  of  in Fig.21. During  concommitant  which  flow  phosphocreatine  abnormal  the  as  of  which  source  spectra  different  literature"'  t o be  the  effects  the  acquired  after  a  such  verification  single  Muscle  around  restrict  i n the  a  4:1.  to observe  was to  signals.  Experiments  reported as  of  from  to  look limit  this  the at  below  During PCr  of  this  remained set  i s restored  of  after  69  Fig.2A P N M R in-vivo spectra of a r t i f i c i a l l y induced ischemia i n a r a t l e g u s i n g 2 cm 0 . 9 c o i l ; (1) SP? (2) P i ; (3) P C r ; (4) A T P / A D P ; (5) ATP; (A) prior to insult; ( B ) a f t e r 20 m i n ; (C) a f t e r 44 m i n ; (D) a f t e r 64 m i n ; ( E ) a f t e r 84 m i n ; ( F ) 5 m i n after circulation restored; (G) 30 minutes after circulation restored; using 2 cm 0.9 Ag/Cu c o i l , (spectral width=±l000 Hz; scans=200; block size=2048 points; pulse width=l2 Msec; pulse delay=1 sec; line broadening=10 Hz) 3  1  70  removal the  of  the  return  been  of  elastic blood  virtually  above  of  inorganic  a  Under  anaerobic from  In-Vivo  spectra  muscle  i t  However,  interest  was  first  4980  1  have  and  since  resistant  tissues and  is  a  i n the  to  disease  potential  had  An  on  remains  to  increase  PCr  is  the  oxygenated.  in muscle  pH,  and  P  NMR  prevails.  subject  of  further  brain  spectrum of  literature.  9  ""  2  for and  human are  as  cures  models of  easily insults  for  which  brain  human remain  shows  containing  being  of  primary  experimentation. was  published  fruitful 3  3 1  and  phosphorus  metabolism,  handful  for  accessed  of  Physiological act  PCr  results  The  choice  of  rats  they  can  are  very  processes,  bred  under  applied diseases, unknown.  in  experiments  physiological practices since  models  can  effect  easily  brain  rat  as  conditions.  of  height.  similar  decrease  choice  object  then,  standard  used  the  in-vivo  P  appeared  follows be  3 1  any  reserves  is a  metabolites.  The  a  leg,  dramatic.  muscle  concentrations  here  as  minutes  Spectra  because  detectable  the  conditions,  Brain  Skeletal  not  5  rat's  yields  without  energy  the  i t ' s original  though  when  PCr  to  forearm  phosphate  observation  borrowing  to  human  experiment,  usual  (d)  circulation  restored  Exercising the  obstruction. Within  controlled  to  rat  the  brain causes  71  A in  Fig.22.  shape a  typical  generic  and  1  in-vivo  P  Despite  between  which  3  small  animals,  rat brain  are  prominent  here.  resonance  at  ca.  5 ppm  2,3-DPG muscle may  spectra.  in  energy  with  the protein  brain  sugar  demands  - A  as t h i s  with  muscle  coating  ( c f . muscle  spectra:  intrinsically,  longer  muscle.  addition,  In  2 2  superimposed immobile  coil.  this  of  spectrum  i n t h e bone  the  resulted  Elevations  of brain as  brain  spectra compared  i s reduced t o  consequence  of  the  in  brain  compared t o  a  broad  resonance  which  arises  from  of the  skull.  Prior  i s  r a t brain  supinely  i n a much  of  2 2  ratio  a  spectra,  rat  substituent  quantity  PCr  there  and other  by l a y i n g  This  T,  the  phosphates  obtaining obtained  on  4:1) a s  in  levels  be due t o g r e a t e r  this  of  not occur  axons.  PCr/|3ATP  In brain  likely  2-phosphate  mobile  a  resonance a t  does  characteristic  i s the reduced  of  phosphodiester  on n e u r a l may  more  i s  the  v i a glycolysis.  but u s e f u l  spectra.  by  fairly  phosphates  being  phosphate  in brain  here  appearance  interference  this  supplied  subtle  such  This  as  a r e t h e ATP, P C r , P i  which  obscured  and  appearing  the  The i n o r g a n i c  3 6  height  latter  ppm  Elevations  be a s s o c i a t e d  myelin,  5:2  blood.  the  i s shown  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  tissue  also  2.5  is partially in  i s  peak  Features  peaks,  There  in  spectrum  t o muscle  phosphoenolpyruvate. ca.  this  phosphate  of r a t brain  variations  spectrum.  common  sugar  spectrum  larger  over  spectra the  hump w h i c h  the to were  surface could  be  72  PCr  ATP  -J  1  20  1  1  1  0  1  1  1  1  -20  1  1 ppm  Fig.22 P NMR in-vivo spectrum of r a t b r a i n ; using 2 cm flat Ag/Cu coil. ( s p e c t r a l w i d t h = ± l 0 0 0 Hz; scans=600; b l o c k size=2048 points; pulse width=24 Msec; p u l s e d e l a y = 2 . 5 s e c ; l i n e b r o a d e n i n g - 1 0 Hz) 3 1  T  73  partially problem first the  removed was of  surface a  convolution  somewhat  point  avoiding  by  the  on  "shield"  encountered  alleviated  FID  coil  here  during the  of  the  would  the  same  on  both  the  spectra  In  muscle  was  an  a  sensitivity  of  spectrum  Another brain. was be  show  change more  of  a  that  The  observe  brain  sacrificed was  are  via  the  placing and  thus  obstruction  muscle,  the  muscle  interference  head,  its  removal  contribution  If  an  in  of to  3 1  P  for  23.  study  NMR  deviations  from  was the  most not  objective  here  disease  dramatic used  which  correspond  minute  would enough  metabolic to  detect  metabolism.  features  fifteen  was  rat's  spectrum  death.  " a  deceased  brain  of  rat  sensitive  be  the  barbiturate.  brain  not  normal  of  The  of  the  the  brain  acquiring  rat  understanding the  of  in  establish  After  overdose  Fig. a  to  brain,  acquired  whether  NMR.  used  rat's  then  shown  was  tissue.  with  difference  characteristic  to  head  differences  test  normal  deceased  biochemical  or  the  the  This  4  removing  Though  of  a l l , i t certainly could  subtle  refers  to  determine  feasible  to  NMR  spectrum  to  to  preliminary  a  Spectra  sides  '*  negligible.  of  subsequently  Instead  indicated  effort  metabolism,  rat's  skull.  to  massetter  the  massetter  jaw  by  4 3  processing,  the  the  the  of  bone.  was  both  data  side  connecting be  difference.*'  In. t h i s period  has  case,  some  to  the  "death"  following  the  —1  20  i  1  1  1 0  1  1  1  1  -20  1  ppm  r  Fig.23 P NMR in-vivo spectrum of rat brain; (A) live rat; (B) deceased rat; (1) monosugar p h o s p h a t e s ; (2) P i ; (3) P C r ; (4) ATP/ADP; (5) ATP; u s i n g 2 cm 0.9 A g / C u c o i l , ( s p e c t r a l w i d t h = ± l 0 0 0 Hz; scans=200; b l o c k size=2048 points; pulse width=12 usee; p u l s e delay=1 s e c ; l i n e broadening=10 Hz) 3 1  75  cessation  of  phosphate  the  heart  peak  catabolism signal  i s  and  PCr  phosphate  bond  resulting  build-up  signal  molecules.  a l l in  the  case  the  ATP/ADP  eventually  suggesting  some  metabolites. deceased an  In  an  altered was  metabolism  artificially  involved of  a  neurotoxin,  brain. was  which  disease  in  used  are  characteristics  and  Huntington's  Chorea,  models  these  brain  for allowed  Kainic  the a  utilize  acid  acid,  efforts of  the other  that  Peak  lobe  to  with  this.  to  acid  used  time,  of  these  live  of  The  (I) into  vs  insult procedure  one  effects by  side potent  on  the  Alzheimer's  elucidate  the  disease, or  treatments one s i d e as  to  mildly  extremely  caused  the  disease.  effects  an  small  to proceed  brain  Injecting  t o be  a  a  shapes f o r  of  Alzheimer's  kainic  conditions.  the  physiological  to those  causes  with  similar  possible  for i t s deleterious  Many  much  yields  resolution  to achieve  of k a i n i c  similar  humans.  over,  f o r human  observe  applied  that  decomposition  i t was  i n the brain,  the injection  rat's  brain  to  or  residual  PCr  identification  r a t model  effort  that  that  of a l l other  indicates  and l o s e  states,  of a  the expense  is left  spectral  The  evidence  fact  instability  metabolic  indicate  rat leg (Fig.21).  broaden  With  examination  at  inorganic  expended  spectrum  of the phosphagen ischemic  been  The  remainder of  peak  further  Pi  large  completion.  has  of  The PCr  to  gives  energy  donor  at  small  proceeding  from  phosphate  beat.  a  as  of the  control;  76  biologically, comparing standard rat  one  is  Kainic Digenea  acid  shown  in  to  have  unknown  but until  L-glutamate various  (II)  parts  is a  suspected  more  another  since  "normal"  (KA)  of  by  off  Takemoto  the  central  however,  his  on  strong  of  i t  nervous  seaweed  Japan.  it  KA  glutamate, behavior. a  was that  neurons hence  was  emetic  known  of  of  is  5  First  neurons  was  system,  opposite  acid  the  in (I) was  Unlike  heterocyclic  molecule.  e  e  e J. — CH — CHr-CH  glutamate kainate  large every  some c a s e s  mammalian  derivative  kainic  of  excitant  s i m i l a r or  is a  colleagues," in  However,  a  than  unique.  coast  and  effect  was  showing  the  and  anthelmintic  later.  there  ingredient  grows  its  reliable  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  s i m i l a r yet  i s an  disubstituted of  glutamate,  for  which  1953  properties  to  is  simultaneously  Simplex  isolated  procedure  animal  deviation  brain  which  this  77  Kainic cause  acid  cell  in neural  kills  neurons  substituted the  highly  sustained  increase KA  is  most  neurotoxic  membrane  by  and  acting  system.  The  operates  is still  unknown,  advanced.  acid,  like  only  but  other  nerve  region  (see  highly is  whose  Fig.24).  neurons  are  completely  The  in a  the  It  or  KA  has  a  brain  given  resistant  since  KA  and  have  can  kill the  dendrites  of  through used  damage  volume. to  acid  of  been  the  is  kainic  vicinity  In  agent  the  is that  toxic.  axons  KA  theories  however,  way,  the  central  which  some  l i e i n the  lesioning  4 5  dose  are  synapses  nanomoles.  on  by  passing  this  Of  mammalian  or  volume  KA  and  bodies  death.  this as  a  i t does  However,  some  a  even  few  are  unaffected.  of  nmoles  known,  Essentially,  4 5  terminating  relatively  usual  nanomoles doses  to  the  to  concommitant  excitotoxic,  mechanism  penetrate  cells  localized  nerve  cannot  specific  in  as  is selectively  cell  and  to  although  is  glutamate,  neurons  injection  exact  What  them  recognized  long  its ability  permeability.  exciting  nervous  been  to  depolarization,  glutamates  potent  due  given of  up  to  left  brain  from  both  sides  the  rat  with  to  rest  the  inactin.  for 3 1  P  one  NMR  rat's The  a  rat  few  the  was  spectra  a  2  were  after are  dose  injected  while  spectra head  from  activity  after  rat week  was  microlitres.  since  arrested  experimental  tissue. of  a  superfluous  is virtually The  to  the  acid  then  to  10  Large of  the  of  15  with  5  acted  acquired  anaesthetizing  shown  in Fig.  25.  78  dendrite  Fig.24 Schematic drawing of a brain neuron. Dendrite fibres are usually profusedly branched to bring much information t o the c e l l body. The l o n g t h i n axon carries i n f o r m a t i o n away f r o m t h e cell body; Kainic acid can diffuse across only t h e c e l l b o d y membrane, b u t c a n n o t p e n e t r a t e axons o r d e n d r i t e s .  20  0  -20  20  0  -20  ppm  Fig.25 P NMR in-vivo spectrum of lesioned rat brain; (A) r i g h t b r a i n ; (B) l e f t b r a i n ; u s i n g 2 cm 0.9 A g / C u c o i l , ( s p e c t r a l w i d t h = ± l 0 0 0 H z ; scans=200; block size=2048 p o i n t s ; p u l s e w i d t h = 1 2 /usee; p u l s e delay=1 s e c ; l i n e broadening=10 Hz) 3 1  8 0  Within  the  spectrum  range  of  living  differentiate features. the  of  tissue,  these  T h e many  head  spectra  as  resolution  a s do  these  manifold.  It  may  NMR.  A concentration be  not enough  significant  devices  but  sensitivity insult  may  action  of  containing interacts  debilitating  no in  assumed  this  3 1  P  Another  brain  lesions potential  may  in the  simply  the  spectrum  height  and  this  is  minimum  the  cell.  led  to  since  death  experiment  Since  KA  involved  in  the p h y s i c a l In t h i s  case though  not  be  the overwhelming in  the  rest  the appearance attempts  o r t o make of  the  phosphorus  could  Further KA  pervasive  be e x p e c t e d ,  obliterate  the  be  of  i s that  the  metabolites  with  limit  more  conclusion  via  neurochemical  alter  would  spectrum.  to this  the  or  to the  microlitres  fine  only  given,  would  brain  adjunct  of  change  few  of neurons.  this  rat  in a  or changing  sites  the dosage  side)  side  applied  possibility  to  i t  of phosphorus  (same  effect  "saturate"  on  peak  with  within  of c o n c e n t r a t i o n , based  any one  in  larger  to  distinguishing  a detectable  neurotransmitters  concentration the  a  nothing  synapses,  in the  from  for a  possible  the dosage  exceed  Thus  of the receptor  change terms  that  metabolites at  structure  not  does  not any  of 5 nanomoles  required.  KA  expected  two. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f  and measurable  o f NMR. be  by  t o generate  would  is  variation  suggest  was  i t  acquired  much  brain  deviation  spectra  show  may  standard  the  might  be  of of to  multiple  animal.  A  to further  81  inject  the  rat  with  metabolite  to  glycolytic  pathway  once  observe  reliable  may  yield  considered nature,  not  the  a  spectra spectra  from  whether  the  mask  These  side  operate  by  of  action  questions  of  with  NMR  be  diseased  and  kainic for and  acid  results.  In  their  very  metabolism  and  By  is  desirable.  obtaining  NMR  acquisition  of  i s not  known  then,  metabolism  on  attention animal  condition  been  precluded  on  normal  not  with  It  In  observing  has  effects  rats.  proton  traced.  for  affecting  anaesthetic  beg  lesioned since  itself.  associated  the  rat  a  illuminating  precise  s t a t i o n a r y samples  effect  of  can  in  this, are  anaesthetics  entity  to  the  techniques  results  for a  in  addition  explanations  more  unanaesthetized  the  In  step  characterizing this  the  problems  experimentation  would  brain  tissue.  from  further  models.  Experimental The  spectrometer  experiments made  at  their  from  each  fruitful  separate  on  Unfortunately,  of  spectra  of  anaesthetics  study  specific  suppression  yield  effect  as  a  phosphorus-containing  blocked.  various  similar  may  addition,  3.4  the  f u r t h e r attempts  NMR  also  been  or  neurotransmitters  of  statistically  a  has  more  from  consideration  via  whether  spectra  resonances  brain,  enzyme  water  established, brain  an  were  analytically  and  described by  magnet in  weighing  section  used 2.9.  accurately  for  these  Solutions  were  and  dissolving  82  in  deionized  titrating aliquots  distilled  with were  Male  dilute  pipetted  Wistar  water; HC1  into  rats  in-vivo  experiments  which  a  i n concentrations  10  (inactin)  %  ml/100  gm  interperitoneally  Shimming the the  probe  was  kept  %  by  the appropriate  were  used  for  experiment  Anaesthetics  a l l  for were  ( p e n t a b a r b i t o l ) , and  f o r both  were  Injections  given were  a t 0.1 made  syringe.  on r a t h e a d s  transmitter  o f 5 gm  adjusted  container.  gm)  employed.  weight. by  NaOH;  t h e human a r m  and dosages  body  was  t h e sample  was  prepared gm  and  (250-350  except  volunteer  pH  was a c c o m p l i s h e d  frequency tuned  to  by  changing  and p r e a m p l i f i e r t o H 1  3  1  P."  6  while  83  CONCLUSION  84 The an  work  effort  presented  to  objectives  of  bridge  applications.  surface  coils  their  and  have  use.  optimal  application metabolic with  a  been  of  probe.  Some  presented  this  and  the  of  the  separated  the  from  its  provide  justification  some  of  a  the  advantages  coil  was  suitable  wire  and  brain  other  chosen for  the  of  were  the  performed  nucleus  directives  and  present  p r o p e r t i e s of  phosphorus-31  and  these  in  examinations  r a t muscle  using  undertaken  the  most  In-vivo  conclusions  i n view  end,  surface coils,  of  was  which  studied to  intended.  surface c o i l  chasm  elucidating  geometry  status  thesis  spectroscopy  To  After  disadvantages  with  the  localization  sundry  for  in this  as  a  will  now  be  results  in  the  1iterature.  It  has  been  characteristic field,  is  a  within  the form  the  of  pulse  located  more  crude at than  generally  in  to  spatial the one  does  coil not  achieved  due  excellent  their  peak  the  of  predetermined  region. away  contribute to surface  filling  modulation surface pulse  the  coils  factor,  the  coil  widths  achieve  Sample from  B,  spectroscopy  the  to  notable  nonuniform  amplitude  volume  radius  with  most  localized  localization  chosen  signal-to-noise to  use  the  namely  further  sensitive  experimentor  degree  coil  makes  that  coils,  Differences  frequency  as  surface  what  possible.  allow  of  observed  a  material surface  spectrum. i s very and  90  can  The good be  85  influenced material  by  used  wire  yields  than  pure  coils use  for  geometry  the  surface  copper  coils.  coils  as  of as  the  configurations  means  achieve  field  shape  relative current using  from  The by  the  fact  NMR  is  changes  metabolic of Lack  any  manifest  as  NMR  a  affect  the  the  hypothesis  sensitive  as  to to  Coil  coils  in  possible  desired.  The  design. to  emphasis  B,  However, be  the  placed  obtaining  that of  on  localized  brain.  not  observed  3 1  P  a  i t s potential  NMR  is  sensitive  and the  the  altered  severe that  further  hypothesis  technique.  on  to  insult  the by  tissue  enough  the  of  drastic effects  this  not or  detected  with  chemistry  explored  before  pursue  However,  for  was  be  muscles  the  metabolic  nuclei  point  strictly  appears  to  indicator;  be  this  d e v i a t i o n s can  shown  insult  may  surface  volume.  evidence  positive  of  more  coil  for  uptake  were  spectral  that  latter  been  at  or  more  enough  oxygen  acid  implies  not  sequences  d e v i a t i o n s of  kainic of  in  the  the  copper  experiment.  field  with  metabolic  I t has  science  explored  design  goal  sensitive  that  two  B,  in coil  encouraging  applications. to  of  as  and s i g n a l - t o - n o i s e  and  be  well  plated  designed  sample  determine  pulse  Q the  been  of  as  silver  of  should  appropriate  suitable  A  coil  imperative  use  type  should  simplicity and  signals  the  view  the  the  higher  have  various to  of  seems  which  well  of  wire.  In  i t  requirements  geometries  coil  coils  themselves,  surface  the  the  1  H  the  does  brain. or  be  The  other  action  of  86  KA  c a n be  advanced.  Most  of  aberrant  the  NMR  results  metabolic  indicator.  That  phosphate  states  i s ,  peak  the  with  phosphocreatine  a  peak. or  impossible  to  these  only  existed.  as  Until  3 1  quantitative metabolites diseased NMR  tissues  would  spectroscopy P  may  a  tangent the  3 1  P  region of  surface  perform  such  as  injecting to  i n more d e t a i l .  which  is likely  spectrum  i s  downfield  the spectrum  itself  abnormal  as  a  state  reliable of  energy  unrelated  as probes  will  with  continue  and  3 1  P  in  this  P  NMR  slightly  how  This  yield  The  into  be  i f finer  the next  invasive t h e body  the disease  could  attained,  t o map  more  a metabolite  show  3 1  organs.  a  affects  temporary  r e s o l u t i o n of  especially  t h e PCr peaks. may  be  situation.  to follow  not  from  nuclei  parts  to  animal  some  u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by a  coils  body  the  diagnostically;  systems  be  diseased  metabolism  the  the  i t would  c a l c u l a t e d , many  in-vivo  of  of various  experiments, of  studies  of of  concentrations  appear  to c l a r i f y  using  profile  step  where  will  inorganic  decrease  that  on  spectral  the  developed  The use o f o t h e r  help  of  spectra  c a n be  date  same  preparation  P  c a n be a c c u r a t e l y  Further  3 1  NMR  tool,  spectrum.  case  sample 3 1  to  foreknowledge  a confirmation P  the  increase  Without  disease, use  show  concommitant  particular  rather  published  in  More d a t a  illuminating  the  analysis  indicators  87  about  the mechanics  height  ratios  examined  of metabolism.  and  i n more  relative  detail  previously  overlooked  be  a  used  spectra  as must  samples. species an  long  will  diagnostic  be r e c o r d e d  in-vivo yield be  a  tool.  useful  state 3 1  P  tool,  can  be  much  information  very  desirable  3  1  P  spectrum  metabolic  non-invasive  can of  a  before In  spectroscopy  about  be  o f many  within  identified.  coil  NMR  standards  variation  "normal"  peak  may  averages  as a  surface  as  information  Before  as s t a t i s t i c a l  biological  metabolic  term,  undoubtedly and  natural  such  intensities  reveal  diagnostic  be t a b u l a t e d  should  peak  or u n a v a i l a b l e .  clinical  The  abnormal  to  Factors  the will  status clinical  88  REFERENCES  1.  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Briggs,  70,310,  Schickner,  Medicine  Radda,  and  G.K.  and  Kidney  Radda,  93 APPENDIX  The a  derivation  circular  by  others* For  loop  a  coil  in  the  coil  Bp,  fields  of  to  3 1  of wire  figure  center, to  vector  was  P,  Smythe  at  a  in  the  radial  finds  the  [(r+p)  n  i s the  coil,  I  i s the  coil  radius,  integrals  of  and  of  surface  yz  plane  axial,  B , a  p,  and  of used  coils.  above  distance,  .2  K  2v  Smythe  field 2 5  the from  radial,  be:  B,  where  by  field  located  below,  p o t e n t i a l and  outlined  c a l c u l a t e the  point,  the  the  +  2  y ]1/2  permeability  of  current  flowing  and  and  the  K  first  and  -  ( i i )  <r-p)  2  I,  the  medium  through the  second  the  surrounding coil,  complete  kind,  r,  the the  elliptical  respectively.  94 In the  the c a l c u l a t i o n  following  this  assumptions  and s u b s t i t u t i o n s  were  assumed  unit  current  the  coil  wire,  (2)  coil  radius,  (3)  the  case, (4)  To  hence  t o be  thesis, made:  flowing  through  1=1;  r=1; p,  which  was a v a r i a b l e  in this  set to  the distance  from  the c o i l  center  to the  point,  then  simplify  the c a l c u l a t i o n  the a r b i t r a r y  portions  was  distance,  was  P, was  used,  for  (1)  o f B, c o n t o u r s  variables,  i n t h e FORTRAN  A,  programs  B, C, a n d D w e r e  set to  of the equation: A = (1 + x + y + z ) [1 - ( x + z ) 1 / 2 ] 2 2  2  2  2  2  +  y  2  1  B * {[1  +  (x +z ) /2]2 2  2  1  +  y }!/ 2  2  (x +y )1/2 2  (1 ti  The  following  - x -  programs  2  2  - y  2  -  z ) 2  (x +z )1/2]2 2  list  2  + y2  equations  + K)  ( i ) and  B  a  =  (E x D  x B  B  r  =  ( E x A - K ) x B x C  ( i i ) as:  ( i ) * ( i i ) *  95  2 3 4 S 6 7 e  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 54.5 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 ' 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87  C THIS PROGRAM CALCULATES THE COMPONENTS OF A MAGNETIC I C INDUCED BY A UNIT CURRENT RUNNING IN A CIRCULAR LOOP DIMENSION X P ( 2 0 1 ) , Y P ( 1 0 1 ) . Z P ( 2 0 1 , 1 0 1 ) PI-4.*ATAN(1.0) C C  c c  CC C C Z-0.5 DO 400 J-1,201 X-(FL0AT(J)-101.)/50.  c  DO 300 K-1,101 Y-(FL0AT(K)-1.)/50.0  C IR-1 C XZ«SQRT(X«»2+Z«*2)  c  C C c h o c k f o r p o i n t s on t h e r i n g C C I F ( ( A B S ( X Z - 1 . 0 ) . L E . 1 0 E - 6 ) . A N D . ( K . E 0 . 1 ) ) GO A-( 1 . + X « » 2 + Y " 2 + Z * » 2 ) / ( ( 1 . - X Z ) * « 2 + Y " 2 ) C B-1 ./SORT(( 1 . + X Z ) " 2 + Y * « 2 )  c  TO  D«<1.-X»»2-Y»«2-Z»*2)/((1.-XZ)«»2+Y*«2)  C IF(K.NE.1) GO C-0.0  c  GO  c  TO  TO  140  180  C check f o r p o i n t s on the a x i s C I F ( ( X Z - 0 . ) . G T . 1 0 E - 6 ) GO TO 170 140 IR-0 GO TO 180 C-Y/XZ 170 XISQ-4.«XZ/((1.+XZ)*«2+Y««2) 180 XI-SORT(XISO) EF1-ELIK1(XI,IND1) ES1-ELIEKXI.IND2) " I F ( I R . E Q . I ) GO TO 190 BRAD-0.0 GO TO 195 190 BRAD-(ES1*A-EF1)»B*C 195 BAX-(ES1»D+EF1)*B THETA«ATAN(-X/Z) C IF(d.NE.21) THETA-PI/2. I F ( d . E 0 . 2 1 ) THETA-0.0 c BX"BRAD*SIN(THETA) BY-BAX B1»SQRT(BX«»2*BY«»2) ZP(d,K)-B1 RA-BX/BY ALPHA-ATAN(RA ) • 180.0/PI C  c c c C  c c  GO 300 400 BOO 850  C  950  TO  300  CONTINUE CONTINUE DO BOO M-1,101 YP(M)-(FL0AT(M)-1.)/50.0 DO 850 L-1,201 XP(L>-(FL0AT(L)-101.)/50. CALL AXIS(-2.0,0.0.1HX.-1,,-2.0,1.0) CALL AXISIO.0.0.0,1HY,1,2.0,,1.0) DO 950 1-1.500 CN-FLOAT(I) CALL CNT0UR(XP,201,YP,101,ZP.201,CN.0.O.CN) CONTINUE CALL PLOTND  C STOP END  300  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 IS 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 S3 54 55 56 57 56  C THIS PROGRAM CALCULATES THE COMPONENTS OF A MAGNETIC FIELD C INDUCED BV A UNIT CURRENT RUNNING IN A DOUBLE LOOP. DIMENSION XP(201),YP(101).ZP(201.101) PI«4.*ATAN(1.0) R'0.6 WITE(6, 100) C C100 F0RMAT(/3X,'XI',6X,'Yl',6X,'Z1',6X.'X2'.6X,'Y2' ,6X.'Z2 • 'BX1•,5X.'BY1',5X,'B11',5X, C • 'B1'.6X,'ALPHA' , 3X,'BETA',4X.'GAMMA'/) C DO 600 1-1.3 C Zl'0.5 22-21/R DO 500 J-1.201 X1»(FL0AT(J)-1O1.)/50. X2'X1/R DO 400 K»1, 101 Y1-(FL0AT(K)-1.0)/50. Y2-Y1/R 1R1«1 IR2«1 X*1-SORT(X1*«2*Z1»*2) X?2-SQRT(X2««2+Z2*»2) C C check for points on the ring C IF(<ABS(XZ1-0.6).LE.10E-3).AND.(K.E0.1)) GO TO 400 IF((ABS(XZ1-1.0).LE.10E-3).AN0.<K.EQ.1)) GO TO 400 IF((ABS(XZ2-1.0).LE.10E-3).ANO.(K.EO.1)) GO TO 400 IF((ABS(XZ2-1.6).LE.1OE-3).AN0.(K.EQ.1)) GO TO 400  AIMi.+xi*«a*Yi««a*zi»«2)/<< 1 -xzi)*»2*Yi««2) A2M1.*X2**2»Y2**2»Z2«*2)/<(1.-XZ2)**2+Y2««2) 81*1 ./SQRTM 1 .*XZ1)'«2*Y1*«Z> B2-1./SQRT<(1.»XZ2)**2*Y2«»2) D1"(1.-X1»»2-YI*»2-Z1«*2)/((1.-XZ1)»«2*Y1«»2) D2-(1.-X2*»2-Y2**2-Z2«»2)/((1.-XZ2)*»2+Y2**2) IF(K.NE.1) GO TO 140 C1-0.0 C2-0.0 GO TO 180  C C check for points on the axis C 140 IF((XZ1-0.0).QT.10E-6) GO TO 170 IR1-0 GO TO 180 170 C1«Y1/XZ1 180 XIS01-4.*XZ1/((1.*XZ1)**2+Y1««2) XI1-SORT(XIS01) EFI-ELIKI(XII.INDI) ES1'ELIE1(XI1.IND2) IF(IR1.E0.1) GO TO 190 BRAD 1-0.0 GO TO 195 190 BRAD1«(ES1*A1-EF1)«B1«C1 195 BAX1-(ES1*D1*EF1)«B1 THETA'ATAN(-X1/Z1) IFtJ.NE.1) THETA-PI/2. C  •  59 60 61 62 63 64 6X. 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 1 10 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 1 19 120 121 122  C  C  270 280  290 295 C C  IF(d.EO.1) THETA-0.0 BX1>BRA01*SIN(THETA) BYl-BAX1 81l'SORT(BX1<«2*BY1«»2) RAt'BXI/BYl ALPHA-ATAN(RA1)•180.0/PI IF((XZ2-0.0).GT.10E-6) GO TO 270 IR2-0 GO TO 280 C2-Y2/XZ2 XIS02-4.«XZ2/((1 .+XZ2)»»2+Y2*»2) XI2«S0RT(XIS02) EF2-EL1K1(XI2,IND1) ES2-ELIEKXI2. IND2) IF(IR2.E0.1) GO TO 290 BRAD2<=0.0 GO TO 295 BRAD2»(ES2»A2-EF2)«B2»C2 BAX2»(ES2*D2+EF2)«B2 PHI-ATAN(-X2/Z2) IF(J.NE.1) PHI-PI/2. IF(d.EO.1) PHI-0.0 BX2»BRAD2*SIN(PHI) BY2-BAX2 B12-=S0RT(BX2 «2+BY2*«2) RA2-BX2/BY2 BETA**ATAN(RA2)*180.0/PI ,  C C sum of smalt and large f i e l d s C BX-BXUBX2 BV-BYt«BY2 B1'SORT(BX»»2+BY»«2) ZP(J.K)«B1 RATIO-BX/BY GAMMA =ATAN(RAT 10)•180.0/PI C WRITE(6.30O) X 1. Y'l. Z1. X2.Y2.Z2.BX1. BY 1,B 11.81. C •ALPHA.BETA,GAMMA C3O0 FORMAT(10F8.4,3FB.2) GO TO 400 C490 WRITE(6.495) X1.Y1.Z1 C495 F0RMAT(/'(X1.Y1.Z1)" '.3F5.2.' . point Is on the C •ring'/) C GO TO 400 C590 WRITE(6.595) X2.Y2.Z2 C595 FORMAT(/'(X2,Y2.Z2)- '.3F5.2.' . point Is on the C •ring'/) 400 CONTINUE 500 CONTINUE DO 800 M-1,101 800 YP(M)-(FL0AT(M)-1.)/50.0 DO 850 L-1.201 850 XP(L)-(FL0AT(L)-I01.)/50. CALL AXIS(- CALL AXIS(0.O,0.0.IHY,1,,1.0) 00 950 I•1,500 CN-FLDAT(I) CALL CNTOURIXP.201.YP.101,ZP.201.CN.0.0.CN) 950 CONTINUE CALL PLOTND STOP END  LO  2  3 4' S  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65  C THIS PROGRAM CALCULATES THE COMPONENTS OF A MAGNETIC FIELD 66 C INDUCED BV A UNIT CURRENT RUNNING IN A 0.9 COIL DIAM-2.0 67 DIMENSION XP(201).YP(101).ZP<201.101) 68 69 PI-4.«ATAN(1.0) 70 R-0.9 WRITE(6.100) 71 C F0RMAT(/3X.'X1'.6X,'Y1'.6X.'Z1'.6X.'X2'.6X,'Y2',6X.'Z2 ,6X. 72 C1CO • 'BX1',5X.'BY1•,5X.'B11',5X, C 73 « 'BI',6X.'ALPHA',3X.'BETA',4X,'GAMMA',3X.'B1REL'/) 74 C 75 C Z1-0.0 76 Z2-0.0 77 DO 500 J"1.201 78 X1-(FL0AT(J)-101.)/50. 79 X2-XI/R 80 00 400 K-1.101 81 Y1-(FLOAT(K)-1.0)/50. 82 Y2-Y1/R 83 IR1-1 84 IR2-1 85 XZ1-SORT(X1**2*Z1**2> 86 XZ2-SORT(X2*«2+Z2«»2) B7 g-SQRT(X1'«2*Yt««2*Z1««2) 88 01-SQRT(XI••2*0.0625) 89 C 90 C check f o r p o i n t s on t h e r i n g 91 92 C IF((ABS(XZ2-1.O).LE.10E-3).AND.(K.EQ.O) GO TO 400 93 IF(ABS(Of-1.0307764).LE.IOE-3) GO TO 400 94 A I M 1 .*X1"2*Y1«*2+Z1««2)/<( 1.-XZ1)*«2*Y1*«2) 95 A 2 M 1 • + X 2 " 2 * Y 2 * 2 * Z 2 * * 2 ) / ( ( 1 . -XZ2)**2+Y2 2) 96 B1-1./SQRT((1 •XZ1)*«2+Y1«»2) 97 B2-1./S0RT<( 1 +XZ2)«*2*Y2**2) 98 D I M 1.-X1»«2-Y1««2-Z1**2)/((1.-XZ1)»*2+Y1*»2) 99 D2M1.-X2**2-V2**2-Z2**2)/((1.-XZ2)**2*Y2**2) 100 IF(K.NE.1) GO TO 140 101 C1-0.0 102 C2-0.0 103 GO TO 180 104 C 105 C check f o r p o i n t s on t h e a x i s 106 107 C 108 140 IF((XZ1-0.0).GT.10E-6) GO TO 170 IR1-0 109 110 GO TO 180 170 C1-Y1/XZ1 111 112 180 XISQ1-4.«XZ1/((1.*XZ1)»*2+Y1«*2) XI1-SQRT(XISQ1) 113 EF1-ELIK1(XI1,IND1) 114 ES1-ELlE1(Xt1,IND2) 115 IFCIR1 EQ.1) GO TO 190 116 117 BRAD 1-0.0 118 GO TO 195 119 190 BRAD1MES1*A1-EF1)*B1»C1 120 195 BAX1-(ES1*D1+EF1)»B1 121 C 122 I F ( J . N E . I ) THETA-PI/2. IFId.EQ.1) THETA-0.0 BX1-BRAD1*SIN(THETA) BY 1-BAX1 B11-SORT(BX1**2+BY1**2) RAI-BX1/BYI ALPHA-ATAN(RA1)•180.0/PI C ,  ,,  270 280  C  290 295  IF((XZ2-0.0).GT.10E-6) GO TO 270 IR2-0 GO TO 280 C2-Y2/XZ2 XIS02-4.«XZ2/((1.+XZ2)»»2*Y2*«2) XI2»SORT(XIS02) EF2-ELIK1(XI2.IND1) ES2-ELIEKXI2.IND2) I F ( I R 2 . E 0 . 1 ) GO TO 290 BRAD2-0.0 GO TO 295 BRAD2-(ES2*A2-EF2)*B2»C2 BAX2-(ES2»D2*EF2)»B2 IFfd.NE.1) PHI-PI/2. IF(d.EO.1) PHI-O.O BX2-BRAD2*SIN(PH!) BY2-BAX2 B12-SQRT(BX2»«2*BY2«*2) RA2-BX2/BY2 BETA-ATAN(RA2)*180.0/PI  C C sum o f s m a l l and l a r g e f i e l d s C BX-BX1+BX2 BY-BY1+BY2 B1-SORT(BX»»2+BY»»2) ZP(d,K)-B1 RATIO-BX/BY GAMMA-ATAN(RATIO)*180.0/PI C WRITE(6.300) X1.YI,Z1.X2.Y2.Z2,BX1.BY1.B11.B1. C •ALPHA.BETA,GAMMA C300 FORMAT(10F8.4.3F8.3 C GO TO 400 C490 WRITE(6.495) X1.Y1.Z1 C495 F0RMAT(/'(X1.Y1.Z1)« '.3F5.2.' , p o i n t Is on t h e C •ring'/) C GO TO 400 C590 WRITE(6,S95) X2.Y2.Z2 C595 FORMAT(/'(X2.Y2.Z2)- '.3F5.2.' . p o i n t 1s on t h e C •ring'/) 400 CONTINUE 500 CONTINUE DO 800 M-1,101 800 YP(M)-(FL0AT(M)-1./50.) DO 850 L-1.201 850 XP(L)-(FLOAT!L)-101./50.) CALL AX ISC-2.0,0.0.1HX. CALL AX IS(-,, DO 900 1-1,500 CN-FL0AT(I) CALL CNT0UR(XP,2O1,YP,101.ZP.201.CN,1.0.CN) 900 CONTINUE CALL PLOTND C STOP END  2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 IB 19 20 21 22 23 23. 5 23. 7 24 25 26 27 28 28. . 1 28. .5 28. 6 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60  C THIS PROGRAM CALCULATES THE COMPONENTS OF A MAGNETIC FIELD C INOUCED BY A UNIT CURRENT RUNNING IN A 0.9 COIL DIAM-2.0 DIMENSION XP(161),YP(85).ZP(161.85) PI»4.*ATAN(1.0) R-1.0 WRITE(6,100) C C100 FORMAT(/3X.'XI',6X.'Yl',6X.'Z1',GX.'X2',6X.'Y2',6X.'Z2',6X. • 'BX1',5X.'BY1',5X,'B11'.5X, C • 'BI',6X,'ALPHA',3X,'BETA',4X.'GAMMA',3X.'B1REL'/) c  c  Zl'0.5 Z2-Z1/R DO 500 J-1,161 X1-((FL0AT(J)*25.)-2025.)/1000. X2-X1/R DO 400 K-1.85 Yt-((FL0AT(K)*25.)-125.)/1000. V2*(((FL0AT(K)*2S.)-25.J/1000.)/R IR1«1 I R2» 1 XZ1"SQRT(X1**2+Z1«*2) XZ2-SQRT(X2**2+Z2**2) 0*SQRT(XI»*2+Y1«»2+Z1**2) Q1»SORT(X1**2*V1**2)  c c check f o r p o i n t s on t h e r i n g c  IF((ABS(XZ2-1.0).LE.10E-6).AND.(K.EQ.U) GO TO 400 IF((ABS(Q1-0.871779).LE.10E-6).AND.(K.EO.1))G0 TO 400 IF((ABS(1.-XZ1).LE.10E-6).AND.(K.EO.5)) GO TO 400 IF((ABS(XZ1-0.8660254).LE.10E-6).AND.<K.EQ.5))G0 TO 400 IF( (ABS(01-0.8660254).LE.10E-6).AND.(K.E0.5))G0 TO 400 A1-( 1.+X1**2*Y1«*2*Z1**2)/((1.-XZ1 )**2*Y1«*2) A2*( 1 .+X2**2+Y2**2*Z2**2)/(< 1.-XZ2)«»2*Y2**2) B1«1./SQRT(<1.*XZ1)**2+Y1**2) B2-1./SQRT(<l.*XZ2)**2*Y2**2) D1-(1.-X1**2-Y1**2-Z1**2)/(<1.-XZ1)*»2*Y1«*2) D2*(1.-X2**2-Y2**2-Z2»*2)/((1.-XZ2)**2*Y2**2) IF(K.NE.1) GO TO 140 C1-O.0. C2-0.0 GO TO 180  c c check F o r p o i n t s on t h e a x i s c  IF((XZ1-0.0).GT.10E-6) GO TO 170 IR1-0 GO TO 180 170 C1-Y1/XZ1 180 XISQ1"4.*XZ1/((1.*XZ1)**2+Y1**2) Xll-SORT(XISOI) EFI-ELIKI(XII.INDI) ES1-ELIEKXI1.IND2) I F ( I R 1 .EO.1) GO TO 190 BRAOI'O.O GO TO 195 190 BRAD1«(ES1*A1-EF1)*B1*C1 195 BAX1-(ES1«D1+EF1)*B1 THETA»ATAN(-X1/Z1) IF(J.NE.1) THETA.PI/2. c IF(J.EQ.1) THETA-0.0 c BX1"BRAD1*SIN(THETA) BY1-BAX1 B11-S0RT(BX1**2+BY1**2) 140  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 106. 1 106. 16 106. 22 106. 28 106 . 34 106. .4 106. 46 106. 52 106. 58 106. 64 106. 7 107 108 109  RA1*BX1/BY 1 ALPHA-ATAN(RAI)*180.0/PI  C  270 280  290 295 C C  IF((XZ2-0.0).GT.10E-6) GO TO 270 IR2-0 GO TO 280 C2-Y2/XZ2 XISQ2-4.*XZ2/((1.+XZ2)**2*Y2**2) XI2*S0RT(XIS02) E F 2 - E L I K K X I 2 , IND1) ES2-ELIE1(XI2,IND2) IFIIR2.E0.1) GO TO 290 BRAD2-0.0 GO TO 295 BRAD2-(ES2*A2-EF2)*B2*C2 BAX2»(ES2*D2+EF2)*B2 PHI-ATAN(-X2/Z2) IF(J.NE.1) PHI-PI/2. I F I J . E O 1) PHI-0.0 BX2"BRAD2*SIN(PHI) BY2-BAX2 B12-S0RT(BX2**2*BY2**2) RA2»BX2/BY2 BETA'ATAN(RA2)*180.0/PI  C C sum of s m a l l and l a r g e f i e l d s C BX«BX1+BX2 BY*BY1+BY2 B1*SORT(BX*«2+BY**2) ZP(J.K)«B1 RATIO-BX/BY GAMMA ATAN(RATIO)*180.0/PI C WRITE(6.300) XI,Y1,Z1.X2.Y2.Z2.BX1,BY1.BI1,B1, C •ALPHA.BETA,GAMMA C300 FORMAT(10F8.4.3F8.2 C GO TO 400 C490 WRITE(6.495) X1.Y1.Z1 C495 F0RMAT(/'(X1.Y1,ZD- '.3F5.2.' , p o i n t I s on t h e l a r g e r C •ring'/) C GO TO 400 C590 WRITE(6.595) X2.Y2.Z2 C595 F0RMAT(/'(X2.Y2.Z2)« '.3F3.2.' , p o i n t I s on t h e sma11er •ring'/) C 400 CONTINUE 500 CONTINUE DO 800 M"1,85 800 YP(M)-((FLOAT(M)*25.)-125.)/1000. DO 850 L*1,161 850 X P ( L ) - ( ( F L 0 A T ( L ) * 2 5 . ) - 2 0 2 5 . ) / 1 0 0 0 . CALL AXIS(-2.0.-0.10.1HX,- CALL AX I S(0.0,-0. 10. 1HY, 1,, 1 .0) DO 900 1-1,500 CN=FLOAT(I) CALL CNTOUR(XP.161.VP.8S.ZP.161.CN.O.O.CN) 900 CONTINUE CALL PLOTND C STOP END 3  CO  


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