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The effect of certain chemicals on germination and dormancy in winter wheat Fleming, Richard Howell 1931

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T H E EFFECT OF CERTAIN CHEMICALS ON GERMINATION A N D DORMANCY INWINTERWHEAT  RICHARD H O w E L L F L E M I N G , B. A .  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D F O R T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF ARTS in the D E P A R T M E N T OF C H E M I S T R Y .  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH APRIL 1931.  COLUMBIA.  CONTENTS. 1. INTRODUCTION.  1.  2. E X P E R I M E N T A L .  5.  I. TREATMENT YiITH E T H Y L E N E C H L O R H Y D R I N . CONCLUSIONS.  6. S.  II. TREATMENT W I T ! T H I O U R E A , A M M O N I U M T H I O C Y A N A T E A N D POTASSIUM T H I O C Y A N A T E .  7.  CONCLUSIONS.  7.  III. EFFECT OF CHEMICALS ON DORMANT ./HEAT PLANTS . IV. R E S P I R A T I O N ó. S U M M A R Y . 4 . REFERENCES.  WINTER 0.  MEASUREMENTS, 9. 10.  1.  T H E EFFECT OF C E R T A I N CHEMICALS ON GERMINATION A N D D O R M A N C Y IN W I N T E R W H E A T . INTRODUCTION. The studies of F . E . D e n n y and h i s associates at the Boyce T h o m p s o n Institute for Plant R e s e a r c h on the effect of chemicals u p o n the dormancy of w o o d y plants potato tubers have led to a n u m b e r of important  and  developments.  J o h a n n s e n (6) in 1896 showed that the dormancy of c e r t a i n plants could be b r o k e n b y chemical treatments a n d since that time other workers h a v e f o u n d that a n u m b e r of compounds c o u l d be u s e d for this p u r p o s e . ( 6 ) . Denny h a s m a d e the m o s t comprehensive  study of this p r o b l e m and has t r i e d a large  n u m b e r of inorganic a n d organic compounds and from  these  has selected a f e w w h i c h are p r a c t i c a b l e from apoint of view of cost a n d r e s u l t s . Of t h e compounds t r i e d ethylene c h l o r h y d r i n , t h i o u r e a , a m m o n i u m thiocyanate a n d p o t a s s i u m thiocyanate w o u l d appear to be the m o s t  valuable(5,5,9).  Winter w h e a t u n d e r g o e s a p e r i o d of 'vegetative  dormancy'  w h i c h is similar t h o u g h n o t entirely analagous to that f o u n d in potato tubers and c e r t a i n w o o d y p l a n t s . W i n t e r w h e a t is u s u a l l y p l a n t e d in the late summer or e a r l y a u t u m n , if conditions are f a v o u r a b l e it g e r m i n a t e s and d e v e l o p e s into a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  'rosette!, h e r e it remains w i t h o u t  f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t u n t i l the w a r m w e a t h e r of the f o l l o w i n g spring w h e n the d o r m a n t stage is b r o k e n a n d g r o w t h is  resumed.  2.  This dormant stage is n o t the result of adverse  environmental  conditions because the same wheat e v e n w h e n p l a n t e d in the spring becomes d o r m a n t and remains so until the next season w h e n it will m a t u r e . The p r o b l e m of shortening the time required for g e r m i n a t i o n and early g r o w t h has also r e c e i v e d  considerable  a t t e n t i o n . This 3s of especial interest in wheat g r o w i n g where the season is short  and a fev/ days m a y m e a n the  saving  of a c r o p . Treatments w h i c h have b e e n found to b e effective are of various types. Tincke-.- (s) reports that soaking the oat grains a c c e l e r a t e d seedling g r o w t h . Kunerati and Fawcett (9) showed that a low temperature and. alternate  thawing  and f r e e z i n g had considerable effect on a c c e l e r a t i n g the germination of small seeds. H o w e v e r J e n s e n (9) n o t e d little or no effect on subsequent g r o w t h a f t e r soa.king whea.t in water a n d freezing it before p l a n t i n g . Other physical m e t h o d s which are not of practical value but w h i c h have b e e n  reported  in the literature are those of B e n e d e t t i (2) w h o claims to ha.ve s h o w n that treatment  o^ soaked seed w i t h h i g h  frequency  o s c i l l a t i n g e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c fields caused a n e a r l i e r  and  b e t t e r g e r m i n a t i o n , H e z z a d r i o l i and Vareton (7) also report that they o b t a i n e d an i n c r e a s e d rate of g e r m i n a t i o n a n d an e n h a n c e d catalase a c t i v i t y in seeds treated w i t h u l t r a s h o r t electromagnetic  waves.  Various chemicals have b e e n s h o ^ n to have a b e n e f i c i a l effect o n g e r m i n a t i o n . K i s s l i n g (9) u s i n g a large number of chemicals was able to increase the g e r m i n a t i o n of w h e a t ,  5. oats and b a r l e y . Becker (l) reports that the sulphates of p o t a s s i u m , l i t h i u m , m a g n e s i u m and copper have an accelerating effect on g e r m i n a t i o n a n d he also lists a number of organic compounds w h i c h have a similar effect. Reifenberg and Frankenthal (8) report that phosphate solutions u n d e r  certain  conditions have a b e n e f i c i a l effect. Zlataroff (lo) also reports c e r t a i n chemicals that will h a s t e n g e r m i n a t i o n . It has also b e e n reported that c e r t a i n chemicals as ivell as  stimulating  the g e r m i n a t i o n of the seed also increase the y i e l d . Such results have b e e n obtained, b y G l e i s b e r g , S i l b e r t , and PopofT S m i t h and B r e s s m a n (9) made a study of the effect of various chemicals and of f r e e z i n g on the g e r m i n a t i o n and subsequent g r o w t h of va.rious varieties of w h e a t . The varieties c h o s e n f o r the tests i n c l u d e d three types of spring w h e a t , two of semi-winter and. e l e v e n of w i n t e r w h e a t . It is f r o m this account that m o s t of the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n was  obtained.  The chemicals tried. s.-/ere as f o l l o w s . The m e t h o d s of treatment are also  indicated..  Trichloroethylene, ¡3 h o u r s in a ^ per cent solution. tt tt tt tt 1 " Ethylene c h l o r i d e , 3 " tt tt tt 8 tt " Ethylene chlorhydr3 n , 3 " tt tt tt tt 6 Ethyl b r o m i d e , " 3 " f t t t t t t t Ammonium thiocyanate, 3 3 " " t t t t tt tt 1 Potassium thiocyanate ,3 " " Carbon bisulphide, 2 h o u r s in a t e r and 1 h o u r in a 1 per cert s o l u t i o n . G e r m i n a t i o n tests wer^ m a d e to determine the effect of hte chemicals on f e r t i l i t y and v i g o r . Outside  clots were plan'-ed  to f i n d o t the effect of the chemicals <*m g r o w t h and dorn;_nc;, . As a r e s u l t of their i n v e s t i g a t i o n they re^oi-t, "Lone of the treatments p r o v e d to be either h i g h l y  -stimulative to growth or  4.  a m o d i f i e r of the g r o w t h h a b i t s of w i n t e r , semi-winter or spring w h e a t s . A m m o n i u m thiooyanate was definitely toxic. Soaking in water caused the grains to h e a d from one to three days e a r l i e r that the u n s o a k e d  checks."  As the results of Denny's investigation showed that individual treatments were required for the different varieties of potato tubers and w o o d y plants ('3,4,5,6.) it was considered w o r t h while to m a k e a more careful study of the effect of ethylene c h l o r h y d r i n , t h i o u r e a , amttonium thiocyanate and p o t a s s i u m thiocyanate u n d e r a variety of conditions and concentrations to d e t e r m i n e w i t h certainty whether  these  chemicals h a d any stimulatory effect on g e r m i n a t i o n or would m o d i f y the g r o w i n g h a b i t s of w i n t e r w h e a t in any w a y .  5.  EXPERIMENTAL. A variety of w i n t e r w h e a t , n a m e l y , Jones'Fife was u s e d in the f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t s . Treatments were m a d e approximately thirty five seeds soaked in ten cubic  on  centimetres  of the solution. Each lot was a c c o m p a n i e d by controls  soaked  in d i s t i l l e d wa.ter f o r a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r i o d to eliminate the p o s s i b i l i t y of the effect b e i n g due only to the  soaking.  The treatments were m a d e at room t e m p e r a t u r e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18 - 20° C. A f t e r soaking all the seeds rere rinsed well w i t h distilled w a t e r before p l a n t i n g . T h e grains w e r e p l a n t e d in flats containing ordinary coarsely sieved f i e l d so-'l, the t r e a t e d seeds b e i n g planted in rows separated by rows of the control seeds w h i c h h a d b e e n soaked in d i s t i l l e d w a t e r . The flats were k e p t in the greenhouse at about 15° C . , and w e r e w a t e r e d at regular i n t e r v a l s . Rec'ords were k e p t of the date of e m e r g e n c e , rate of gro 'th, and the general  appearence.  F o r p u r p o s e s of c o m p a r i s o n flats containing  Jones'  Fife and a v a r i e t y of spring <vheat, n a m e l y B l u e s t e m , were p l a n t e d and some k e p t in the g r e e n h o u s e and some outsid.e. Thos<: inside the g r e e n - h o u s e  showed l o n g , s p i n d l y , and  a b n o r m a l g r o w t h a n d the two types c o u l d n o t be  distinguished  very w e l l . Those outside s h o w e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c the Jones' Fife w e n t into a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  forms,  'rosette' while  the B l u e s t e m r e m a i n e d small a n d stunted b e c a u s e of the cold winter  weather.  6.  I. TREATMENT W I T H E T H Y L E N E CHLORBYDRIN. As this substance a p p e a r e d to offeT the m o s t p r o m i s i n g results an extensive trial was m a d e u s i n g different concentrations for d i f f e r e n t times and also soaking the g r a i n in some cases before or after the treatment w i t h the reagent. The a c c o m p a n y i n g tables show the t r e a t m e n t , date of e m e r g e n c e , and the h e i g h t after thirty five days and also the g e n e r a l  apoearence.  CONCLUSIONS. 1. That seeds of w i n t e r w h e a t treated w i t h ethylene  chlor-  h y d r i n 1 , 2 , 5 , or 10 per cent show poor g e r m i n a t i o n and d.elay in emergence f r o m one to nine days depending the  on  treatment.  2. That the t r e a t m e n t had no effect o n the p e r i o d of dori,.anuy. L. That solutions of f p e r cent or over were  definitely  toxic in their a c t i o n o n the se d , the g e r m i n a t i o n and. g r o w t h ' b e i n g very p o o r . <4-. T h a t soaking the seed in water before or after treatment h a d no m a r k e d effect on the g e r m i n a t i o n or d o r m a n c y , a l t h o u g h the soaked seeds emerged a d a y before the checks w h i c h h a d b e e n planted, d r y .  (8 4* ti** 43 ST 3? 33*3-** 8 tr\tf\o O S-! gr  O a ÍB 4a iß ^t E ^ O 6C CS -w 0 ' a 6 s? C P-i  !  ÍK O M CJ?  0 o CS  os HA o\oc t^- ^ o 00  OO  nf\oo co \jo tf\oc sc ^  co  O : e i c = ^ e  >  O S. c c * X — Ï ? K " C — S C S S K 1 t s  r  C  a  r  ?  ?  C  PS!  m a 0 <3  O  CM  sí  *  &  %  S3 S  &<  O  %  &t M  r  S  =  S &  s  $  *  a O K K  S  R s; = r  <&  OJ CM a a a c 0 0 0 0 +3 ^ ¡3 ^ a ^ r*4 r*<  CM a a 0 O O *!-4 —t +3 a a W O ^ O O Sì $ ^ 33 43 +3 -  #  O äs M i  a 0  ^  CM a e; 0 0 43 43 a a r*t W O O C3 Q) iS 4a a! aß a e ^ as^r- as^- a!^C^) jg:: CM ^ï CM g: CM  * <B  O 43  *  e  ti <8  §  S a  S ce  13 **  *  g  ^ * & a O 9} ^ 43  4) Î4 e e  ^ a >¡O o  ta O i^O ^ & ii  a o sá s "y ^M t-jj D  O <Ë* *  tt -a+s a g! H3 A O a # {6 O § 43 a 43 g a! tw r-( \ ï o &)  O a e ^  t a a e e a e E a c a s a a a a  O- c o at a = E a s a = a a e t s & s: s $ *  ¡3  a o 4S  {C X ^ ï : — g S -  O a? {3 {M r-t ^ CJ W W a a s s a a a a a -H  4a Ci t& 43 05  O Ëg è  W & s  {H a a ses? O cas s s a s s a s: c ce a ¿3 o OJ OJ Ai W W W cu MCCCC^- c&cceo * ^ -* * * * * * . . * .* * , H c ^ st ^ O 4-) M t.; X a a a a a a a a a a & OKS a a a o o o 43 <r* C 43 43 43 a syc e a a a a a a a a a a g a a W t<o ^ o 0 a ta ^ CO 0 m a a a a e c s c a c a a 43 4^ ^SJ W W M W C Ck¡ OJ CsJ M CU &J CJ  * S! * 8  'S) O a *-( a g? 43, <3+3 e <s P! g g  *  9? -M gg c pi  S) -w g CJ p- ^ S3 r-4 O O  #  S) . 43 13 g M -r a? a (S )  43  OO  <3  >  ^ S --)  g  43 =  >-  # LT\, U*\ Lf\ ^ a es < #y C - C* - p-* i-D T-O oc COCO  #  CM  ej CJ  ¡-i i-; ï^! CM OJ CM  *  O CM  # ^ Ciy 43 t O <-)  M  S)  ai T3  o c M c !K O g 3  3  a ^ O  w  —Wr-ir-if'iW'*?-:  t  *  K! <D +3 ¿3 0 0j  ^  O eu  c  ^  4^  t  ^  r &  z  es  O  o Pi O  s;  &J!- I S S Z S S S CM ^  ^  CO c 4=  a r-< C  O O  sr  OJ CM CM g eg c o ^ & e Kì M ri  O t3 CM  sy  ^  *sî* '-Í  e .0 o  7.  II. TREATMENT W I T H POTASSIUM T H I O C Y A N A T E , AMMONIUM THIOCYANATE AND THIOUREA. Solutions of the concentrations as indicated in the f o l l o w i n g tables were m a d e u p and the seed treated for different times w i t h the solutions of the varying  concentrations  The p l a n t i n g and observations were m a d e as in the previous experiment. CONCLUSIONS. 1. That the seed of winter w h e a t treated w i t h solutions of potassium thiocyanate,.!, thiocyanate,  .5, 1 and ¿L p e r c e n t , ammonium  .5, 1 , and 5 p e r c e n t , or t h i o u r e a 1 , 3 , or  5 per cent showed no change in the p e r i o d of d o r m a n c y . 2. T h a t all except the thiourea solutions 1 and 2 per c e n t , w h e n u s e d f o r 1 or 2 h o u r s had a d e t r i m e n t a l effect  on  germination. 5. T h a t 1 and 2 per cent solutions of thiourea w h e n u s e d f o r ore or two h o u r s cmis^d -, -'l'g'T:*'y a l t h o u g h the g e r m i n a t i o n was n o t h a s t e n e d .  healthy  growth  O  S3 3  o  O +3 13 O ?! —< V* S+3 g <D 5 6  w m  33  8} as  ^ )—)  r^c-r-tr-^c^c*-^ oc—coc^cococc:  t * ar 0 a) ^ 0 g) cf a! 0 a g)  33  23  sr 0 O ^  ^  cj Cki  C'j  O  ej r^j r S  i ex o^co cc y-. cr^o: co cr\ o\oo 00 o^co co a^cc ; <—{rWr-^r-li—lr-)r-4r-(r^r^r—( -1 r*-! r-! rW r-^ -"t r-i r*4 CU  -H O  M^cucucuf<\cucucu  <y o r-3 13 A .-i ¿2 r-l  c!  O 0  s s  "gí Tí t  w M 9? O a<  ^  O  <r « 0 m œ^ C! O  CU  CO CU W  M  n 'CUW'Sf^CUf-n-^œCUW'SÎ-CCCU CU CU CU  f* Ci ' S3 m  #  ^ a r-i 0 *  O  O  ^  43 3 ^ 3) 0 O A C O O  ^  ^  CU  CU CU r-¡ r-¡ r-í r-!  O  ^ *  +  O  ¡s* ë  r^ W W OQ E*^ CU c— r-f\OC -sí* C^ <7% -- ß ^o ¡r— c^- '^o tr- c- ^-D - .o c— c*-- ^ cr- r*- -- 3 '- o c r-  68  +  sa  ^  O O P^ Pu Ì4 a?  è ¡o  > a? ë 43 ^ a i? O —<  O a; si  —4 h4  ¡a s? O r**i  .3 0 O O  $)-M 0ik OA4 +3 ^ 43 43 ^ 49 ^ ^ 0 4e ¿ì ^sa PS43 43 r-{ ^ a 43 a te a- te T* w  ^ * # o# c) * r) * * ^ 00 "^00 cc  *  O * 43 ^ ^ O OOO sB ^ C O 43 a: ¡3 0 C 4^ ^ S? 43 ¿g 3)+= rï)  O D * CC. ccor j.  r-4 OO xD OJ CM CM CM OJ CM  oj CM  OJ  o  OD CC y-? r-i r-4 r4 r-4 r- r-!-t i r-4 <-4 W W < O ì< e e e = r y  O O O CS O f-4 05 E )  O (L& 43 C C Î4 C  -st OC OJ r-t ^CC CM CM CU  CM  *  ar 43 c 0 P a O o  u^tr\tf\ur\cMCMCM  CM  r-)r4r-) r-i  CM 6f\oc CM ' ^ O Ox Ox Ox ^  -sy c**- O MX C  ¡M O * 43 -4 a 43 a O ^ O m a 43 r Ci C ^ ^ C P4-0 r-t O w ^ c 43  so  O O ^ A# ^ e a? & t> a  o at {h ^ §  & o m  ^ a <3 r)  o o 43 -H o  *  S? a o CK CO  g  eg.ts^a -W S3 y W rcf A O +s  g) O  tî O T-! 43 . <D c! (& e s:- 43 ¡—í ÇÇ  5) ST K3 G ^ ^ g. O e  a O*  O O 40 US CT\ f-i  -3 o O< ^ -t#) #O *O^ O # - a ## cc co r- tr- .OL e\cc ^ -J3 -sí- "¡t C\J OJ CJ CM OJ OJ OJ OJ CJ C.J = t r a cc ^ cy-oo co  O e  *  O^S^Wsj-OC PJ f-4 -st CO CSE r-1  0 43 g c* 0 0 r - s*  g  O 43 S3 Œ a) O Pi g O  t^ *  f-r\ {sr; :<r\ ¡--s r-i,—!C3  *  *  <3  *  *  o e M  o^w w r-- 0 CM ^.cc r-t  43 la S3 o o o Ë! 43 S a a S c & tS6 o  III. T H E E F F E C T OF CHEMICALS ON DORMANT  PLANTS.  Plants of Jones' Fife w h i c h h ^ d g r o w n in the greenhouse and were in the dormant c o n d i t i o n were sprinkled w i t h solutions of 2 per cent t h i o u r e a , 1 per cent ammonium thiocyanate and 2 p e r cent p o t a s s i u m thiocyanate. Those sprintled w i t h the thiocyanate solutions  vere not m a t e r i a l l y  affected a l t h o u g h some of the plants appeared to be damaged by the t r e a t m e n t . Those treated w i t h the thiourea  solution,  h o w e v e r , showed a slight ch-m^e over the untreated p l a n t s , 15 - 20 p e r cent o^ the treated plunts 3n the different lots showing a definite renewal of g r o w t h . As the plants h a d b e e n in a d o r m a n t c o n d i t i o n for some time it is possible  that  that tbe chemical hud little to do w i t h the c h a n g e . The results  , h o w e v e r w o u l d w a r r e n t a 'iore complete trial w i t h  plants w h i c h w h i c h h a d b e e n grown in the field. The  effect  of the v a p o u r of ethylene chlorhydfin. on d o r m a n t pl&nts m i g h t also y i e l d some interesting IV. R E S P I R A T I O N  results.  EASUREhENTS.  A t t e m p t s were m a d e to measure the rate of  respiration  and the r e s p i r a t o r y quotient of treated a n d u n t r e a t e d grains d u r i n g g e r m i n a t i o n and e a r l y g r o w t h . It was h o p e d that by this m e t h o d it w o u l d be p o s s i b l e  to ¡?ind. at w h a t s t a g e , if  a n y , the chemicals a f f e c t e d the rate of g e r m i n a t i o n a n d for h o v long the e f f e c t l a s t e d . A n y change in the rate of r e s p i r a t i o n or in the r e s p i r a t o r ' quotient that the m e t a b o l i s m of the p l a n t s h a d b e e n d i s t u r b e d a n d this  ight  throw some light on the m e c h a n i s m of the action of these substances. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the apparatus available was not sufficiently refined and the results obtained were so variable as to be of no  significance. SUMMARY.  1. Ethylene c h l o r h y d r i n , t h i o u r e a , ammonium  thiocyanate,  and p o t a s s i u m thiocyanate in various concentration were u s e d in soaking seeds of Jones' Fife winter wheat to determine the effect ot? these substances on g e r m i n a t i o n and d o r m a n c y . The results were of a negative  character.  2. It was e s L a b l i s h e d that ethylene c h l o r h y d r i n , 5 per eent or o v e r , thiourea o v e r 5 per c e n t , ammonium thiocyanate 1 p e r cent or over, and p o t a s s i u m thiocyanate 3 per cent or - o v e r , were d e f i n i t e l y toxic to tbe s e e d s , the  resulting  g e r m i n a t i o n b e i n g p o o r and the luber g r o w t h stunbed  and  abnormal. S p r i n k l i n g of thiourea solutions on planbs of Jones' Fife in tbe dormant c o n d i t i o n caused 15 - 30 per cent of the plants to resume  growth.  In c o n c l u s i o n I should like  bo express m y  thanks  to D y . R. H . C l a r k of tbe Chemistry D e p a r t m e n t f o r his advice and g u i d a n c e , to D r . G. G . loe of the D e p a r b m e n t of A g r o n o m y for the f a c i l i t i e s of that D e p a r t m e n t p l a c e d at the  authors  d i s p o s a l , and to M r . L a n g f o r d Godfrey of Lhe faculty o" A g r i c u l t u r e for his assistance in m a k i n g these  tests.  10. REFERENCES. (1) Becker,"Effects of Stimulative Chemicals on the G e r m i n a t i o n and Later Growth". Biol. Abts. 1927 N o . 11450. (2) B e n e d e t t i , E . "Action of H i g h Frequency  Oscillating  E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c Field on Seeds", Biol. A b t s , 1929 No. 831. (3) D e n n y , F . E. "Importance of Temperature in the Use of Chemicals for H a s t e n i n g of Sprouting in Dormant Potato T u b e r s " . A m ^ r . Jour. B o b . 1 5 , 395-404. 1928. (4) D e n n y , F . E . " S e c o n d Report on the Use of Chemicals for H a s t e n i n g the S p r o u t i n g 0" D o r m a n t Potato T u b e r s " , A m e r . Jour. Bot. 1 3 , 5 8 K - 3 9 6 . 1 9 2 ^ . (5) D e n n y , F . E . ajid S t a n t o n , E . N. "Chemical Treatment for S h o r t e n i n g the Rest Period of ^ot-gro^rtrt 'Joody Plant A m e r . J o u r . Bot. 1 5 , 3 2 7 - 3 ^ .  1928.  (6) D e n n y , F . E . "Chemical T r e a t m e n t s for Controlling the G r o w h t of Buds a n d Plants," Ind.and E n g . Cbem. 20, 5 7 8 . 1928. (7) M e z z a d r o l i , G. and V a r e t o n , E . "Action of U l t r a - v i o l e t Light on G e r m i n a t i o n and G r o w t h oF P l a n t s " .  Cbem.  A b t s . 2 ^ , 3531. (8) R e i f o n b e r g , A . and  ^rarkenthal, 1. "Effect of Phosphate  Solutions of D i f f e r e n t p H on the R e s p i r a t i o n a n d G e r m i n a t i o n in S e e d s " .  Chem. A b t s . 2 4 , 4 0 7 7 .  11  (9) S m i t h , D . C. and B r e s s m a n , E . N . "Some Effects of Seed Treatment on the G e r m i n a t i o n and Subsequent  Growth  of YRieat". Jour. A g . Res. ¿ 0 , 25-36. 1930. (10) Z l a t a r o f f , A . S. "Chemical S t i m u l a t i o n of G r o w t h in Plants." Biol. A b t s . 1927 , No. 11^-55.  

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