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Water quality studies in Osoyoos Lake, B.C. Booth, Donald Michael 1969

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WATER QUALITY STUDIES IN OSOYOOS LAKE, B . C . by DONALD MICHAEL BOOTH B . S . A . , Univers i ty of Guelph ( O . A . C . ) , 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Mechanics We accept t h i s thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 19 69. In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D. M. Booth Department o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineering £ Mechanics The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 18th August, 1969 . A B S T R A C T The Osoyoos Lake problem i s one of excessive a l g a l populations creat ing nuisance condit ions for recreat ion and a g r i c u l t u r e . During the summer of 19 68 (May 28 to October 14) an extensive water sampling program was c a r r i e d out to determine phytoplankton communities present and some of the phys ica l and chemical factors inf luenc ing t h e i r growth. The lake was monitored using a system of three transects at pre-determined sections across the lake and four f ixed sampling locat ions on each transect . The s i t e s on each transect were sampled at in t erva l s of approximately two weeks. Mud samples were co l l ec t ed at each s i t e once a month. Samples were also co l l ec t ed on a two week basis from various waters which eventual ly enter Osoyoos Lake. The purpose of th i s was to gain some i n d i c a t i o n of nutr ients contributed to the lake by inf lowing waters. Osoyoos Lake gave r i s e to a major blue-green alga bloom which pers i s ted throughout June and J u l y . This Anabaena flos-aquae bloom was followed by smaller populations of F r a g i l a r i a crotonensis , Dinobryon s e r t u l a r i a , a la te summer pulse of A. f los-aquae, and at the southern end of the lake considerably large populations of Melos ira i t a l i e a and O s c i l l a t o r i a acut iss ima. A discuss ion of the geo log ica l , p h y s i c a l , chemical and morphological factors poss ib ly combining to create such growths i n the lake i s presented. It was general ly concluded that high l eve l s of n i trogen, phosphorus, calcium and dissolved so l ids were favouring the enhancement of eutrophicat ion i n Osoyoos Lake. Cl imate , lake morphology and the edaphic fac tor were also favourable to p r o d u c t i v i t y . There i s evidence to support the statement that sewage eff luent and i n d u s t r i a l wastes are sources of phosphorus and nitrogen bui ld-up i n the lake . In addi t ion to these sources, sewage seepage, a g r i c u l t u r a l drainage and nitrogen f i x a t i o n are bel ieved to be contr ibut ing to the accumulation of lake ni trogen. The continuous app l i ca t ion of water to the f e r t i l i z e d orchards surrounding the basin i s thought to be instrumental i n leaching f e r t i l i z e r s and minerals natura l to the land into the lake at an accelerated pace. - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . i - i i LIST OF TABLES i v - v i . LIST OF FIGURES v i i - v i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i x INTRODUCTION x - x i STUDY AREA 1-11 METEOROLOGICAL, HYDROLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC DATA 12-17 METHODS AND MATERIALS 18-3 9 A . Sampling L o c a t i o n s and t h e i r D e s i g n a t i o n s B. Sampling Procedures C . P h y s i c a l Data D e t e r m i n a t i o n s D. Chemica l Methods and M a t e r i a l s E . M i c r o s c o p i c A n a l y s i s RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4 0-94 P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Data f o r D i s c u s s i o n Algae I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n i n Osoyoos Lake The I n t e r r e l a t i o n o f F a c t o r s and A l g a l P o p u l a t i o n s A . NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN TRANSECTS OF OSOYOOS LAKE The E f f e c t s o f a Thermoc l ine i n D e t e r m i n i n g the D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Oxygen, Ammonia and Phytoplar ik ton The Movement o f Phosphorus from the Bottom D e p o s i t s The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f V a l l e y Hydro logy and Lake Morphometry t o C o n d i t i o n s i n Osoyoos Lake C h e m i c a l - P h y s i c a l - P h y t o p l a n k t o n R e l a t i o n s h i p s The T r o p h i c S ta tus o f Osoyoos Lake B. MISCELLANEOUS SAMPLING LOCATIONS R e s u l t s A g r i c u l t u r a l Dra inage and the Edaphic F a c t o r Sewage E f f l u e n t , I n d u s t r y and W i l d l i f e O v e r a l l E f f e c t s Produced by Incoming N u t r i e n t s CONCLUSIONS 95-96 97-101 BIBLIOGRAPHY - i v -LIST OF TABLES TABLE: 1 P r o f i l e Descr ipt ion of the Osoyoos Loamy Sand So i l s 2 Chemical Analys is of the Osoyoos Loamy Sand So i l s 3 P r o f i l e Descr ipt ion of the Skaha Gravel ly Sandy Loam So i l s - Ket t le Phase 4 Morphometric Data for Osoyoos Lake 5 Ranges of T o t a l P, Tota l N, CI , Ca, Mg and TDS (Conductivity) i n Waters Entering Osoyoos Lake (June 5-August 20) A l Sampling Schedule - Summer 19 6 8 A2 Dai ly Hours of Bright Sunshine at O l i v e r , B . C . A3 Dai ly P r e c i p i t a t i o n (inches) at Osoyoos, B . C . AU Dai ly Max., Min. and Mean A i r Temperatures ( ° F ) at Osoyoos, B . C . A5 Dai ly Discharges of the Okanagan River recorded at O l i v e r , B . C . and O r o v i l l e , Washington, U . S . A . A6 Osoyoos Lake Sampling Sites and t h e i r Sextant Angle Readings Bl Water Temperatures °C - Northern Transect B2 Depth of V i s i b i l i t y ( f t ) - Northern Transect B3 T o t a l Phosphate (ppm) - Northern Transect Bl Tota l Phosphorus (ppm)- Northern Transect B5 Ammonia (ppm) - Northern Transect B6 N i t r i t e (ppm) - Northern Transect B7 Ni trate (ppm) - Northern Transect B8 Tota l Nitrogen (ppm) - Northern Transect B9 Chloride (ppm) - Northern Transect BIO Calcium (ppm) - Northern Transect B l l Magnesium (ppm) - Northern Transect B12 S i l i c a (ppm) - Northern Transect B13 pH - Northern Transect B14(a E l e c t r i c a l Conduct ivi ty i n millimhos/cm at tempera-tures recorded in Table Bl - Northern Transect BlH(b E l e c t r i c a l Conductivi ty i n millimhos/cm at 18°C - Northern Transect B15 Dissolved Oxygen (ppm)- Northern Transect - V -TABLE B16 Tota l Calcium, Ni trate and Phosphate Present in the Bottom Deposits - Northern Transect B17 Units of Anabaena flos-aquae / m l . Northern Transect B18 Units of Dinobryon s e r t u l a r i a / m l . Northern Transect B19 Units of F r a g i l a r i a crotonensis /ml . Northern Transect CI Water Temperatures °C * - Southern Transect C2 Depth of V i s i b i l i t y ( f t ) - Southern Transect C3 Tota l Phosphate (ppm) . - Southern Transect C4 T o t a l Phosphorus (ppm) - Southern Transect C5 Ammonia (ppm) - Southern Transect C6 N i t r i t e (ppm) - Southern Transect C7 Ni tra te (ppm) - Southern Transect C8 Tota l Nitrogen (ppm) - Southern Transect C9 Chloride (ppm) - Southern Transect CIO Calcium (ppm) - Southern Transect C l l Magnesium (ppm) - Southern Transect C12 S i l i c a (ppm) - Southern Transect CI3 pH - Southern Transect C m ( a E l e c t r i c a l Conductivi ty i n millimhos/cm at tempera-tures recorded i n Table CI - Southern Transect Cl>+(b E l e c t r i c a l .Conductivity i n millimhos/cm at 18°C - Southern Transect C15 Dissolved Oxygen (ppm) - Southern Transect C16 . T o t a l Calcium, Ni tra te and Phosphate Present in the Bottom Deposits - Southern Transect C17 Units of Anabaena f los-aquae/ml . - Southern Transect C18 Units of Dinobryon s e r t u l a r i a / m l . - Southern Transect C19 Units of F r a g i l a r i a crotonensis /ml . Southern Transect C20 Units of Melosira i t a l i c a / m l . and units of O s c i l l a t o r i a acut iss ima/ml . - Southern Transect Dl Water Temperatures °C - American Transect D2 Depth of V i s i b i l i t y ( f t ) - American Transect D3 T o t a l Phosphate (ppm) - American Transect DM- T o t a l Phosphorus (ppm) - American Transect D5 Ammonia (ppm) - American Transect - VI -TABLE D6 N i t r i t e (ppm) - American Transect D7 Ni trate (ppm) - American Transect D8 Tota l Nitrogen (ppm) - American Transect D9 Chloride (ppm) - American Transect D10 Calcium (ppm) - American Transect D l l Magnesium (ppm) - American Transect D12 S i l i c a (ppm) - American Transect D13 PH - American Transect DIUCa E l e c t r i c a l Conductivi ty tures recorded i n Table in Dl mill imhos/cm at tempera-- American Transect D14(b E l e c t r i c a l C o n d i c t i v i t y - American Transect i n mill imhos/cm at 18°C D15 Dissolved Oxygen (ppm) - American Transect D16 T o t a l Calcium, N i t ra te Bottom Deposits and Phosphate Present - American i n the Transect D17 Units of Anabaena f l o s -aquae/ml. - American Transect D18 Units of Dinobryon s e r t u l a r i a / m l . - American Transect D19 Units of F r a g i l a r i a crotonensis /ml . American Transect D2 0 ' Units of Melos ira i t a l i c a / m l . units of O s c i l l a t o r i a acut iss ima/ml . - American Transect E l Water Temperatures ( ° C ) , E l e c t r i c a l Conduct iv i ty i n mill imhos/cm at 18 C and pH - Miscellaneous Sites E2 T o t a l Phosphate and T o t a l Phosphorus (ppm) - Miscellaneous Sites E3 Ammonia, N i t r i t e , N i t ra te and Tota l Nitrogen (ppm) - Miscellaneous S i tes EM- Chloride (ppm) - Miscellaneous Sites E5 Calcium and Magnesium (ppm) - Miscellaneous Si tes - v i i -LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE H a S u r f i c i a l Deposits of Late G l a c i a l and Recent Age - Southern Okanagan Val ley (b(c Maps of the Study Area Showing Sampling Locations 2 Dai ly Hours of Bright Sunshine at O l i v e r , B . C . 3 Dai ly Inches of P r e c i p i t a t i o n at Osoyoos, B . C . 4 Mean Dai ly A i r Temperatures ( ° F ) at Osoyoos, B . C . 5 Cross Sections of the Osoyoos Lake Basins North of the Highway Bridge and South of Haynes Peninsula at the Locations of the Northern and Southern Transects 6 Sampling Location OY - 1 7 Sampling Location OY - 2 8 Sampling Location OY - 3 9 Sampling Location OY - 4 10 Sampling Location OY - 5 11 Sampling Location OY - 6 12 Sampling Location OY - 7 13 Sampling Location OY - 8 14 Sampling Location - OY - 10 15 Sampling Location - OY - 12 16 Northern Transect Sextant Reference Point 17 Southern Transect Sextant Reference Point 18 American Transect Sextant Reference Point 19 Miscellaneous Sampling Location -MC 2 0 Miscellaneous Sampling Location PR 21 Miscellaneous Sampling Location OY - DD 22 Miscellaneous Sampling Location OY - SS 2 3 Miscellaneous Sampling Location OY - PL 24 Anabaena flos-aquae i n Lugol 1 s preservat ive 25 F r a g i l a r i a crotonensis i n Lugol 's preservat ive 26 Melos ira i t a l i c a i n Lugol 's preservat ive 27 Dinobryon s e r t u l a r i a in Lugol 's preservat ive - v i i i -FIGURE 2 8 Mean quant i t ies and succession of dominant algae at the northern transect of Osoyoos Lake (10' depth) 29 Mean quant i t i e s , v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and succession of dominant algae at the northern transect of Osoyoos Lake 30 Mean quant i t ies and succession of dominant algae at the southern transect of Osoyoos Lake (10' depth) 31 Mean q u a n t i t i e s , v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and succession of dominant algae at the southern transect of Osoyoos Lake 32 Seasonal changes i n the v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of temperature and dissolved oxygen at the northern transect of Osoyoos Lake 3 3 Seasonal changes i n the v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of temperature and disso lved oxygen at the southern transect of.Osoyoos Lake 34 Mean t o t a l n i trogen, t o t a l phosphorus and N:P r a t i o s occurr ing at the northern transect of Osoyoos Lake (10' depth) 35 Mean t o t a l n i trogen , t o t a l phosphorus and N:P r a t i o s occurring at the southern transect of Osoyoos Lake (10' depth) 36 Mean calc ium, magnesium and Ca/Mg r a t i o s occurring at the northern transect of Osoyoos Lake (10' depth) 37 Mean calc ium, magnesium and Ca/Mg r a t i o s occurring at the southern transect of Osoyoos Lake (10' depth) 38 Mean ammonia and n i t r a t e occurr ing at the northern transect of Osoyoos Lake (10' depth) 39 Mean ammonia and n i t r a t e occurr ing at the southern transect of Osoyoos Lake (10' depth) 40 Changes i n t o t a l nitrogen and t o t a l phosphorus occurr ing i n the Osoyoos drainage d i t ch waters (OY - DD) 41 Changes i n t o t a l ni trogen and t o t a l phosphorus occurr ing in Peanut Lake l i t t o r a l waters (OY - PL) 42 Changes i n t o t a l nitrogen and t o t a l phosphorus occurr ing i n Kiss inger Spring waters (OY - SS) 4 3 Changes i n t o t a l nitrogen and t o t a l phosphorus occurr ing i n Mclntyre Creek waters (MC) - ix -ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The wri ter wishes to express his apprec iat ion for ass istance i n th i s study by: Professor T . L . Coulthard (Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineering) and Dr. J . R . Stein (Department of Botany) who d irected th i s study and provided encouragement and advice . The Water Resources Service , B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Water Resources, for providing funds to conduct the study. Mr. V. Raudsepp (Deputy Min i s ter of Water Resources, B r i t i s h Columbia), Dr. J . D . Chapman (Department of Geography) and Dr. A . J . Renney (Department of Plant Science) for serving on the research committee, providing advice and reviewing th i s paper. Mr. Gordon Davis and Miss A . J . Myers for conducting-the chemical analyses. Mr. Guy Lautard and Mr. Jack Bone for a s s i s t i n g i n the c o l l e c t i o n of samples. Mr. Lorne Kastrukoff for a s s i s t i n g in the i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n and counting of algae. - X -INTRODUCTION Water p o l l u t i o n may be defined as man's a l t e r a t i o n of water qua l i ty so that the natural water environment i s changed i n a manner detrimental to the optimum u t i l i t y of the body of water (Warwick, 1967). The discharge of sewage in to a lake i s one means of a l t e r i n g the natural water q u a l i t y . Even though the sewage i s t rea ted , there can be secondary effects because the ef f luent contains r e l a t i v e l y large con-centrat ions of nutr ients that are not removed by primary or secondary treatment. The treated eff luent from a c i t y , or a few small towns, can thus contain s u f f i c i e n t nutr ients to enrich a lake and cause troublesome a l g a l growths (Edmondson, 1968). Drainage waters or surface runoff waters entering a lake from surrounding f e r t i l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p lots may also contribute to the enrichment of the lake and the subsequent development of nuisance algae (Sawyer, 1947). Osoyoos Lake i n the Okanagan Val ley of B r i t i s h Columbia i s current ly being enriched to such an extent that i t s waters are supporting large growths of algae. These a l g a l populations are creat ing serious problems for tourism and a g r i c u l t u r e . The unsight ly blooms discourage t o u r i s t s from enjoying the water f a c i l i t i e s . They also reduce the e f f i c i ency of i r r i g a t i o n by clogging f i l t e r s through which the lake water passes on i t s way to the crops (Mould, S . B . , personal communi-cat ion) . It was thought that a study of the lake ' s phyto-plankton, the factors in f luenc ing t h e i r growth, and the sources of incoming nutr ients to the lake might revea l some valuable information on which could be based possible methods of a l l e v i a t i n g the problem. It must be appreciated that a com-binat ion of geo log i ca l , chemical, p h y s i c a l , morphological and b i o l o g i c a l factors are contr ibut ing to the a l g a l growths and that th i s complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of factors make i t d i f f i c u l t to a r r i v e at de f in i t e conclusions . STUDY AREA Location and Phys ica l Features of the Okanagan V a l l e y . The Okanagan V a l l e y , s i tuated i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia (48°N - 5 0 ° 45*N by 1190 30'W) i s e s s e n t i a l l y a U-shaped trough (Figs , l a - l c ) . I t i s occupied by a series of g l a c i a l lakes connected by the Okanagan River , which flows south to j o i n the Columbia River i n the United States of America at the 4 8th p a r a l l e l . From the southern t i p of Okanagan Lake, the Okanagan River passes through Skaha, Vaseux and Osoyoos Lakes respec t ive ly (F igs , l b , l c ) . The va l l ey bottom ranges i n e levat ion from 911' above sea l e v e l at Osoyoos Lake to 112 3' above sea l e v e l at Okanagan Lake (Nasmith, 1962). In the region of Osoyoos Lake, where the actual f i e l d study was conducted, the va l l ey slopes moderately up to w e l l -drained t erraces . The upland consists of rounded and wooded h i l l s with r o l l i n g upper surfaces which r i s e to e levations of 4500' (Kel ly and Spi l sbury , 1949). Geological Formation of the South Okanagan V a l l e y . The o r i g i n a l Okanagan drainage system was created by erosion during the Eocene per iod . With the coming of the Middle T e r t i a r y p e r i o d , vo lcanic a c t i v i t y almost completely o b l i t e r a t e d the Eocene drainage system. During th i s per iod , a l i n e of weakness appeared along the present course of the Okanagan V a l l e y , and with extensive f a u l t i n g and f o l d i n g , a great depression was formed. The depression r e a d i l y became the out le t of a new drainage system, and by the end of the - 2 -Tertiary period the Okanagan had become an established r i v e r valley (Kelly and Spilsbury, 1949; Schofield, 1943). The Pleistocene period was marked by g l a c i a t i o n , i n which an ice sheet covered the valley to an elevation of 7 000 feet. Glaciation rounded o f f the surrounding h i l l s and made the Okanagan Valley U-shaped. The ice cover declined to a system of mountain g l a c i e r s , with the valley partly blocked by remnants of the ice sheet. While the present lake depressions remained blocked with i c e , the meltwater from the mountain glaciers accumulated t i l l which was redistributed i n the valley as f i l l i n g material. To the south of Kelowna, drainage took the form of slow moving r i v e r s at the valley sides, between the mountains and the i c e - f i l l e d lake depressions. These r i v e r s b u i l t up t h e i r beds with s i l t and fine sands from the mountain g l a c i e r s . The s t r a t i f i e d s i l t s are prominent i n the Oliver-Osoyoos area above Osoyoos Lake (Kelley and Spilsbury, 1949; Nasmith, 1962). Osoyoos Lake occupies a depression formed by the melting of an extensive segment of a stagnant ice lobe extend-ing from Oliver to the 4 9th p a r a l l e l . When meltwater ceased to flow south due to t h i s stagnant lobe of the g l a c i e r , a trib u t a r y of the Okanagan River deposited material across the valley south of the 49th p a r a l l e l . This i s believed to have dammed the lake and raised i t s l e v e l . The melting ice of this stagnant lobe deposited g l a c i a l d r i f t on the valley walls which ranged i n texture from fine sand to coarse gravel, thus - 3 -forming the outwash t e r r a c e s so predominant i n t h i s area ( F i g . l a ) . As the streams of meltwater were b u i l d i n g outwash te r r a c e s along the v a l l e y w a l l , t r i b u t a r y streams were b u i l d -i n g a l l u v i a l fans from the sides of the v a l l e y onto the out-wash and g l a c i a l lake d e p o s i t s . During the f i n a l melting o f . the i c e i n the v a l l e y , a meltwater stream flowed at the present l e v e l of the Okanagan R i v e r . Erosion by t r i b u t a r y streams of the Okanagan R i v e r formed fans which p a r t i a l l y blocked the r i v e r and created the Okanagan lakes (Nasmith, 1962). Climate of the South Okanagan V a l l e y . The climate of the South Okanagan i s a r i d to semi-a r i d . Summers are hot and dry and winters are m i l d . P r e c i p i -t a t i o n i s very sparse, e s p e c i a l l y i n summer, with an annual average of 9.42 inches recorded at O l i v e r over a twenty-three year p e r i o d ( K e l l e y and S p i l s b u r y , 1949). In the summer, temperatures w e l l above 10 0°F are common. During the w i n t e r , there may be one or two c o l d periods where temperatures f a l l below 0°F and i c e covers the la k e . Climate w i l l be r e f e r r e d to i n more d e t a i l i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s . N u t r i e n t Enrichment of Osoyoos Lake from Sewage E f f l u e n t . The Okanagan drainage system, of which Osoyoos Lake i s the f i n a l catch b a s i n , receives considerable e f f l u e n t from the numerous towns, c i t i e s and i n d u s t r i e s along i t s s h o r e l i n e . _ 14 _ The communities of Ol iver and Osoyoos are contr ibut ing most d i r e c t l y to the nutr ient enrichment of Osoyoos Lake due to t h e i r proximity to the lake . O l i v e r discharges secondari ly treated sewage d i r e c t l y into the Okanagan River above Osoyoos Lake ( F i g . l b ) . Sewage seepage from the Osoyoos lagoon i s thought to be making i t s way into the lake v i a groundwater flow o r i g i n a t i n g at Kiss inger Spring below the lagoon. Pent ic ton , which discharges i t s secondari ly treated sewage into the Okanagan River north of Skaha Lake ( F i g . l c ) , i s d e f i n i t e l y contr ibut ing to the f e r t i l i z a t i o n of the l a t t e r (Coulthard and S te in , 1969). Since Skaha Lake waters eventual ly flow into Osoyoos Lake, the Penticton sewage ef f luent may there-fore be i n d i r e c t l y contr ibut ing to the b u i l d up of nutr ients i n Osoyoos Lake. For s i m i l a r reasons, Penticton cannery e f f luent , which i s l ikewise contr ibut ing to the enrichment of Skaha Lake, may subsequently be adding to the nutr ient load in Osoyoos Lake. Ef f luent from the O l i v e r packing plant i s l i k e l y a primary source of nutr ients to Osoyoos Lake as w e l l . Vaseux Lake, a very shallow basin s i tuated between Skaha and Osoyoos Lake ( F i g . l c ) i s a b i r d sanctuary. This may be of some s ign i f i cance i n contr ibut ing to the enrichment of Osoyoos Lake. So i l s and P o s s i b i l i t i e s of Nutrient Enrichment from A g r i c u l t u r e . The s o i l s i n the v i c i n i t y of Osoyoos Lake are c l a s s i -f i e d i n the s o i l survey conducted by Kel ley and Spi lsbury (1949) as "Brown So i l s" . The s o i l s on the east side of the lake are - 5 -the Osoyoos Loamy Sand - Terrace Phase type. The Osoyoos Loamy Sand - Ket t le Phase i s present on the south-west side of the lake . The p r o f i l e descr ip t ion i s shown i n Table 1. A chemical analyses of the Osoyoos Loamy Sand i s presented i n Table 2. TABLE 1 PROFILE DESCRIPTION OF THE OSOYOOS LOAMY SAND SOILS (From Kel ley and Spi l sbury , 194 9) Horizon Depth Descr ipt ion A^ 0-8" Brown, coarse to medium loamy sand, pH 7.2. B.^  8-24" Pale brown, coarse to medium loamy sand, occasional stones and grave l . 24-30" Grey brown, coarse to medium loamy sand, occasional stones and gravel , Lime i s indicated by s l i g h t cdmentation of the sand. C 30"-- Coarse to medium sand. Loose, porous and s t r a t i f i e d . Occasional layers of f ine or coarse grave l . pH 8.4. - 6 -TABLE 2 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OSOYOOS LOAMY SAND SOILS (from Kel ley and Spi l sbury , 1949) Horizon Organic N P 2 ° 5 S i 0 2 F e 2 0 3 A 1 2 0 3 CaO MgO K 2 0 Na 20 c o 2 Matter % % % % % % % % % % % A l 0.79 0. 050 0.13 71. 87 4.33 12.90 2.39 1.28 2.67 1.53 0.0 B l 0.24 0. 019 0.28 73.43 4.01 13.94 2. 34 1.40 2.7 0 1.91 0.0 B2 0 .33 0. 019 0 .26 69. 94 5.78 15. 38 3.51 1. 84 2 . 68 1.46 0.41 C 0.19 0. 008 0.14 69 . 37 4.19 12.90 3.23 1.23 2 .82 1.5 3 1.06 The terrace phase on the south-east side of the lake and the ke t t l e phase on the south-west side are i r r i g a t e d for f r u i t growing. Because of the porous nature and low moisture holding capacity of the s o i l , i r r i g a t i o n water is often used i n excess. The excess water leaches soluble inorganics from the s o i l as wel l as inorganics added i n the form of f e r t i l i z e r s . The water may then carry the leached nutr ients on top of a semi-impervious cemented layer in the B 2 horizon to a natural out le t into the lake (Kel ley and Sp i l sbury , 1949). The s o i l s of the north-west shore of the lake consist p r i m a r i l y of the Skaha Gravel ly Sandy Loam - Kett le Phase. The ke t t l e phase topography contains dry or ponded ke t t l e holes . This s o i l i s extremely porous and therefore has a low moisture holding capaci ty . The p r o f i l e descr ip t ion i s shown i n Table 3. A chemical analys is of the Skaha Gravel ly Sandy Loam p r o f i l e i s not a v a i l a b l e . - 7 -TABLE 3 PROFILE DESCRIPTION OF THE SKAHA GRAVELLY SANDY LOAM Ket t le Phase So i l s (from Kel ley and Spi l sbury , 194 9) Horizon Depth Descr ipt ion A l 0-6" Brown, sandy loam, granular s tructure B-D 6-18" Structureless sandy loam with stones and gravel i n the lower p a r t . D 18" — Coarse sand, gravel and stones. Lime plated stones i n the upper par t . Layers of cemented t i l l present or absent throughout the grave l . Selected portions of th i s area are i r r i g a t e d for orchard f r u i t s and vegetables. The gravel below the t h i n s o i l covering re su l t s i n excess drainage which again promotes the leaching of nutr ients and seepage into the surface waters. Due to the heavy leaching of nutr ients from the s o i l i n th i s reg ion , f e r t i l i z e r s must be used and they i n turn are leached into the grave l ly substrata and may eventual ly make t h e i r way to the lake v i a groundwater suppl ies . In such a way, f e r t i l i z e r s used for a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, with the a id of leaching by excess i r r i g a t i o n water, may i n d i r e c t l y contribute to lake enrichment (Sawyer, 1947). 8 -SURFICIAL DEPOSITS OF LATE GLACIAL AND RECENT AGE SOUTHERN O K A N A G A N VALLEY (from Nasmith, 1962) Fig. l a - 9 -FIGURES K b ) AND 1(c) MAPS OF THE STUDY AREA SHOWING SAMPLING LOCATIONS - 10 -F i g . lb - 11 -Fig. l c - 12 -METEOROLOGICAL, HYDROLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC DATA  Meteorology of the Osoyoos Lake Area (May 15-0ct .15) . Dai ly hours of br ight sunshine at O l i v e r , d a i l y p r e c i -p i t a t i o n (inches) at Osoyoos and da i ly max., m i n . , and mean a i r temperatures at Osoyoos are presented i n Tables A2-A4 (Appendix A) and F i g s . 2-4 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Dai ly Discharges of the Okanagan River Recorded at O l i v e r , B . C . and O r o v i l l e , Washington, U .STA . (May 15 -Oct . l 5 ) . Dai ly discharges i n "cubic feet per second" ( c . f . s . ) of the Okanagan River flowing into and out of Osoyoos Lake are recorded i n Table A5 (Appendix A ) . Peak discharges of 1910 and 1820 c . f . s . occurred at O l i v e r and O r o v i l l e respect ive ly during the month of June. The Morphology of Osoyoos Lake. Osoyoos Lake i s e s s e n t i a l l y three i n d i v i d u a l basins with near separations occurring at the Osoyoos highway bridge and Haynes peninsula ( F i g . l b ) . Morphometric data i s presented i n Table 4. Since the lake i s not to be considered as a s ingle bas in , the morphometric data i s l i s t e d for three separate basins with d iv i s i ons occurring at the highway bridge and Haynes peninsula . Cross sections of the basins north of the highway bridge and south of Haynes peninsula are presented i n F i g . 5. Sections were made at the locat ions of the northern and southern transect . • 13 - • TABLE 4 "MORPHOMETRIC DATA FOR OSOYOOS LAKE Parameter Basin north of Basin between Basin south of highway bridge highway bridge and Haynes peninsula - Haynes peninsula Surface Area 2446 acres 532 acres 2682 acres (106,547 ,760 sq -ft) (23 ,153 , 000 sq ft)(116,827,920 sq f t ) 710 acres (to border) (30,927,000 sq f t ) Volume 165,9 88 acre f t 10,419, acre f t 29,098 acre f t (to border) Mean Depth ( volume ) (surface area) 68 19.5' 41'(to border) Length 24,375' 4,875' 24,150' Breadth (Mean) 4 ,37 l ' 4,749' 4,838' Perimeter 67,4 35' 23,400' 70,948 Shoreline Development 3.27 2.43 3.28 Elevat ion 911' 911' 911' Calculated from a contour map supplied by the F i sh and Game Branch Department of Recreation and Conservation (August 1966). - 14 -!4 T  DAILY HOURS OF BRIGHT SUNSHINE AT OLIVER, B.C. - 15 -J U N E J U L Y A U G S E P T O C T Fig. 3 DAILY INCHES OF PRECIPITATION AT OSOYOOS, B.C. 10CH u. O 90H to LU QL r— < LU Q . LU < Z < UJ % JUNE JULY AUG SEPT O C T F i g . 4 MEAN DAILY AIR TEMPERATURES (°F) AT OSOYOOS, B.C West East northern transect 200H I a •8 225-1 southern transect F i g . 5 CROSS SECTIONS OF THE OSOYOOS LAKE BASINS NORTH OF THE HIGHWAY BRIDGE AND SOUTH OF HAYNES PENINSULA AT THE LOCATIONS OF THE NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN TRANSECTS - 18 -METHODS and MATERIALS - 19 -A. SAMPLING LOCATIONS AND THEIR DESIGNATIONS. Osoyoos Lake Sampling Sites and Their Designations; A ser ies of three transects was establ ished across the lake ( F i g . l b ) . These were l a b e l l e d the "northern transect", the "southern transect" and the "American transect" r e s p e c t i v e l y . The "American transect" was located below the i n t e r n a t i o n a l border i n the United States of America. On each of the transects , four sampling s i t es were se lec ted , with the s i t e s being r e l a t i v e l y evenly d i s t r i b u t e d along the transect . The s i t e s at each extremity were at l east 600 feet from the nearest shore. As each of the s i t e s on a transect was chosen, i t s l oca t ion was f ixed and recorded by means of an angle determined with a sextant. The angle recorded for a s p e c i f i c s i t e was the angle formed by the objects i n l i n e on shore as an extension of the transect , the s i t e i t s e l f and a t h i r d reference point to the r i g h t of the "objects i n l ine" on the same side of the lake . The sampling s i tes and t h e i r designa-t ions are presented i n F i g . l b . F i g s . 6-13 are views from each of the northern and southern transect sampling locat ions looking east along the transects . F i g s . 14 and 15 are views from two of the American transect locat ions looking west along the transect . F i g s . 16-18 are of the reference points along the shore from the northern, southern and American transects re spec t ive ly . A l i s t of the transect s i t e s with t h e i r respect ive sextant angle readings i s presented i n Table A6 (Appendix A ) . - 20 -- 23 -- 25 -REFERENCE POINTS FOR TEE OSOYOOS LAKE TRANSECTS F i g . 16 N o r t h e r n t r a n s e c t r e f e r e n c e n o i n t F i g . 17 Southe r n t r a n s e c t r e f e r e n c e •point F i g . 18 American t r a n s e c t r e f e r e n c e p o i n t - 26 -Miscellaneous Sampling Si tes and The ir Designations: With the object i n mind of gaining a rough estimate of nutr ients that may be entering the lake v i a sewage seepage, i r r i g a t i o n drainage, surface runoff , sewage ef f luent e t c . , some f i e l d samples were c o l l e c t e d at s p e c i f i c locat ions i n the watershed. These locat ions are pointed out i n F i g s , lb and l c . A b r i e f descr ip t ion of each i s as fol lows: a) Mclntyre Creek — Mclntyre Creek flows from the east slope into, the va l l ey bottom north of O l i v e r . Sampling from th i s l o c a t i o n might indicate the nutr ient load that i s being added to the Okanagan River above Osoyoos Lake by natura l mountain streams. The s i t e i s designated by MC ( F i g . 19). b) Park R i l l — Park R i l l i s a very small flow coming into the va l l ey bottom north of O l i v e r from the west s lope. It too may ind icate to some extent the nutr ient load that i s being added to the Okanagan River from small t r i b u t a r y flows. The s i t e i s designated by PR ( F i g . 20). c) Osoyoos Drainage Di tch — This s i t e i s s i tuated about 10 miles south of O l i v e r on a side road running west from the highway to Osoyoos. The sampling s i t e was reached by cross ing a small bridge passing over the i r r i g a t i o n cana l , and then continuing l e f t for about 20 yards. By removing the cover from a round concrete standpipe, access to the drainage water flowing through a buried t i l e l i n e could be made. Samples from th i s s i t e might roughly indicate the nutr ient load c o n t r i -buted to the lake by drainage waters. Mr. S .B. Mould ( D i s t r i c t - 27 -Water Resources Engineer) indicated that the drainage d i t c h water was probably not e n t i r e l y i r r i g a t i o n drainage but may have been comprised p a r t i a l l y of natural mountain waters. The s i t e i s designated by OY-DD ( F i g . 21) d) Kiss inger Spring — This sampling s i t e was located south of Osoyoos about one quarter of a mile from the Osoyoos v i l l a g e sewage lagoon. Samples were co l l ec t ed at the l oca t ion of a V-notch weir . It was thought that the spring might contain sewage seepage waters from the lagoon and that the nutr ient load contributed by the seepage could be roughly determined. The s i t e i s designated by OY-SS ( F i g . 22). e) Peanut Lake — Peanut Lake, s i tuated i n the north-west corner of the v i l l a g e of Osoyoos, i s probably a catch basin for a great deal of i r r i g a t i o n seepage before i t reaches Osoyoos Lake. Samples from the body of water would o f fer a further ins ight into the nutr ient load that i s perhaps being added to the lake from surface runoff and i r r i g a t i o n drainage. The Peanut Lake sampling s i t e i s designated by OY-PL ( F i g . 23). B. SAMPLING PROCEDURES. Osoyoos Lake Water Samples: Sampling dates for the respect ive s i t es are recorded i n Table A l (Appendix A ) . The f i r s t sampling date for a s p e c i f i c s i t e i s designated by code "A" and subsequent sampling dates by "B", " C " , "D", e tc . The American transect was not sampled u n t i l August 23 due to l e g a l delays. As a r e s u l t only - 28 -- 29 -- 30 -three sets of data are ava i lab le for th i s transect and i t i s therefore d i f f i c u l t to see p h y s i c a l , chemical and b i o l o g i c a l patterns developing. The data co l l ec ted i s , however, quite s i m i l a r to that of the southern transect for the August 19, August 29 and October 14 sampling per iods . The f i r s t sampling date for the American transect i s designated by code "F" and a l l data co l l ec t ed for th i s transect i s presented i n Appendix D. This data w i l l not be re ferred to i n the d i scuss ion . At each of the four locat ions on the southern and northern transec t s , samples were co l l ec ted at f ive l eve l s by means of a Nansen sampling bot t le (Ogawa S e i k i C o . , L t d . , Japan): 0' ( surface) , 10' , 20', 40' , and 60' depths. The purpose was to obtain depth p r o f i l e s and hor i zonta l d i s t r i b u t i o n of a l g a l populat ions , chemical concentrations and phys i ca l data at each of the transects . At the American transect , samples were co l l ec t ed only at depths of 0' , 10' , 20' and 40' , as the lake was very shallow i n th i s area. Approximately 50 ml. of 1000 ml . co l l e c t ed was poured into an 8 oz. wide-mouthed glass j a r and preserved for microscopic ana lys i s . Another 50 ml. was employed for a conduct iv i ty measurement and the remainder, to be used for chemical a n a l y s i s , was poured into each of two 500 ml. polyethylene bo t t l e s . An insulated shipment box l i n e d with styrofoam held the water samples u n t i l taken to O l i v e r for f reez ing . The time between sampling and freez ing was 1-4 hours. - 31 -Osoyoos Lake Bottom Deposits: Mud samples were co l l ec ted at each s i t e on a once a month bas i s . Sampling dates for the respect ive s i tes are recorded i n Table A l . An Eckman dredge (Ogawa S e i k i C o . , L t d . , Japan) was employed for the c o l l e c t i o n s . A port ion of the mud trapped was placed i n an 8 oz j a r , capped with a p l a s t i c l i d and taken to O l i v e r with the water samples for f reez ing . Miscellaneous Water Samples: The sampling dates for the miscellaneous s i t es are recorded i n Table A l . For each s i t e , the f i r s t sampling i s designated by "A" and subsequent samplings by "B", " C " , "D", e tc . C. PHYSICAL DATA DETERMINATIONS. Water Temperatures: Water temperatures were obtained i n s i t u at sampling depths by means of a thermocouple (Hydrographic Thermometer, Appl ied Research, Aust in Inc . ) during the May to July 17 samplings. For the l a t t e r h a l f of the sampling season, the temperature p r o f i l e s were recorded i n conjunction with the d isso lved oxygen measurements taken with the combination YSI thermistor and oxygen probe (YSI Model 54 Oxygen Meter, Yellow Springs Instrument Co. Inc . ) - 32 -Transparency: The t o o l used for the determination of the depth of v i s i b i l i t y i n the lake was the Secchi d i s c . This method i s not an actual measure of l i g h t penetration but i s useful as a rough index of v i s i b i l i t y in a lake and as a means of comparing transparencies at a s p e c i f i c s i t e at d i f f erent times (Welch, 1952). D. CHEMICAL METHODS AND MATERIALS. Preservat ion of Water Samples for Chemical Ana lys i s : Samples to be used for chemical analys is were pre-served by f reez ing . The frozen samples were placed i n insulated plywood shipping boxes and sent to the A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineering laboratory i n Vancouver for chemical analyses. The samples would remain i n the frozen state while i n the insulated boxes for a period of over 24 hours ( s u f f i c i e n t time for the samples to get to the laboratory before thawing). The purpose for freez ing was to prevent biochemical a c t i v i t y within the closed environment of the bot t l e that would appreciably change the chemical values of the water from i t s status at the time of sampling (S tr i ck land and Parsons, 19 65). Chemical Determinations: Water samples were analyzed for t o t a l phosphate, ammonia, n i t r i t e , n i t r a t e , c h l o r i d e , calc ium, magnesium, and s i l i c a . F i e l d measurements included pH, e l e c t r i c a l conduct iv i ty - 33 -and disso lved oxygen. a) Phosphate — Phosphate may be considered as an i n d i c a t o r of p o l l u t i o n since i t may occur as a breakdown product from organic m a t e r i a l , inc lud ing .animal wastes and f e r t i l i z e r s . I t i s thought to be a l i m i t i n g factor i n the growth of phyto-plankton since they require an adequate supply of phosphorus and the amount of ava i lab le phosphorus i n natural lake water i s very low (Welch, 1952). The method employed for t o t a l phosphate analys is was an adaptation of the stannous ch lor ide method (Gales J r . et a l . , 1966). b) Ammonia — Ammonia may be considered as an ind ica tor of nutr ient p o l l u t i o n since i t may occur as a breakdown product from animal and human wastes and f e r t i l i z e r s . In unpolluted waters, ammonia occurs i n r e l a t i v e l y small quant i t ies ( < 1 m g . / l . ) ; however, with the uptake of oxygen, as i n p o l l u t i o n , the concentration of ammonia may increase (Reid, 1961). The method employed for ammonia analys is i s presented i n "A Manual of Sea Water Analys is" (S tr ick land and Parsons, 1965, p. 83). c) N i t r i t e : — N i t r i t e may be a breakdown product from animal or human wastes and f e r t i l i z e r s . In unpolluted waters i t occurs i n minute q u a n t i t i e s . However, where n i t r a t e or - 34 -ammonia are abundant i t may be detected, as i t i s the bridge between the two i n the d e - n i t r i f i c a t i o n and n i t r i f i c a t i o n processes (Reid, 1961). The method employed for n i t r i t e analys is was taken from Str i ck land and Parsons (1965) p. 80. d) Ni trate - - Ni trate i s the f i n a l breakdown product i n the decomposition of organic matter by bacter ia i n lakes and i s an important source of N for some phytoplankton. The method employed for n i t r a t e analys is was the "Phenoldisulfonic ac id method (Method A)" found i n Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA, 1965). e) Chloride - - Chloride serves as an i n d i c a t o r of ch lor inated sewage ef f luent going into a lake and i s not a nutr ient d i r e c t l y concerned with the growth of organisms. The method employed for chlor ide analys is was the "Mercuric n i t r i t e method" (APHA, 1965). f) Calcium — Calcium i s a prime component of t o t a l hardness i n lake water. Since "hard water" lakes tend to be more productive than "soft water" lakes , calcium concentrations i n Osoyoos Lake may be of s ign i f i cance to the development of a l g a l blooms (Reid, 1961). Calcium forms a soluble complex with bicarbonate from which C0 9 may be taken for photosynthesis - 35 -when free CO^ i s absent (Welch, 1952). Under moderately a l k a l i n e condi t ions , i t t i e s up phosphate as calcium phosphate (Reid 1961). The method employed for calcium analys is was the E . D . T . A . Te tr imetr i c method (Method C) taken from "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater" (APHA, 1965). g) Magnesium - - Magnesium i s a component of t o t a l hard-ness which may be important to lake product iv i ty (Reid, 1961). It appears to act as a c a r r i e r of phosphorus (Welch, 1952). Magnesium behaves s i m i l a r l y to calcium with respect to i t s assoc iat ion with carbonates and bicarbonates; however, MgC03 does not r e a d i l y p r e c i p i t a t e as does CaCO^ when CO^ i s taken from the bicarbonate (Ruttner, 1953). The method employed for magnesium analys is was the "Atomic Absorption Method". h) S i l i c a - - S i l i c a i s required for the manufacture of diatom coatings (Hutchinson, 1957). P e a r s a l l (1932) and Jorgensen (1957) both found that concentrations of s i l i c a less than 0.5 m g . / l . l i m i t e d the growth o f diatoms. S i l i c a was determined by the c a l o r i m e t r i c molybdosi l icate method (Method B) i n "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater" (APHA, 1965). - 36 -i ) p_H - - pH i s a measure of the degree of a c i d i t y or a l k a l i n i t y . A portable pH meter (Radiometer, Model 28, Copenhagen) was employed for the ear ly part of the program. For the l a t t e r h a l f of the season., a second pH meter was used (Photovolt C o r p . , Model 125, New York C i t y ) . Measure-ments were made immediately a f ter the samples were brought into the laboratory each day a f ter sampling. j ) E l e c t r i c a l Conduct ivi ty - - E l e c t r i c a l conduct iv i ty i s a measure of the water's a b i l i t y to conduct an e l e c t r i c a l current . I t can be used as an i n d i r e c t method of determining the t o t a l d isso lved so l ids i n a sample of water (Camp, 1963) and i n turn r e f l e c t s the r e l a t i v e f e r t i l i t y of a lake (Smith, 1962). Conduct ivi ty readings were obtained with a conduct iv i ty bridge (Barnstead S t i l l and S t e r i l i z e r C o . , Boston, Mass. , Model PM-70CB). Readings were recorded i n the boat as the samples were brought to the surface. ' Since these readings were measured at lake water temperatures, and con-d u c t i v i t y values can not be compared unless adjusted to conductance at a s ingle temperature, a formula was employed to adjust conduct iv i ty values to a common temperature of 18°C (Smith, 1962) . k) Dissolved Oxygen — Dissolved oxygen measurements were taken simultaneously with temperature measurements at - 37 -depths of 0, 10, 20, 4 0 and 60 f t . The YSI oxygen meter employed (Model 54, Yellow Springs Instrument C o . , I n c . , Yellow Springs, Ohio) reads dissolved oxygen d i r e c t l y i n ppm and i s compensated for temperature effects on both membrance permea-b i l i t y and oxygen s o l u b i l i t y i n water. The sensing element i s a Clark type membrane-covered polarographic probe. Due to a delay i n de l ivery of the instrument, d issolved 0^ readings were not obtained u n t i l July 25. E . MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS. Preservat ion of Samples for Microscopic Analys i s : The samples to be used for microscopic analys is were preserved with Lugol 's s o l u t i o n . Lugol 1 s so lut ion preserves by k i l l i n g a l g a l foragers as wel l as bac ter ia which would decompose the a l g a l c e l l s before counting. I t k i l l s phyto-plankton so that the numbers present at prec i s e ly the time of sampling are recorded on counting. To ensure that numbers counted are the same as those present at the time of sampling, i t i s e s sent ia l that Lugo l 1 s so lut ion be added immediately a f t er the sample has been c o l l e c t e d . Lugol's so lut ion was added in an amount s u f f i c i e n t to impart a "whiskey" colour to the sample. This colour was obtained with 1 or 2 mis of a 1-4% s o l u t i o n . Lugol 's IKI (Coulthard and S te in , 1968) Iodine c r y s t a l s . . . 0.5 grams Potassium Iodide . . . 1.0 grams G l a c i a l Ace t i c Acid . . . 4.0 mis Formalin . . . 24.0 mis D i s t i l l e d H o 0 . . . 400.0 mis - 38 -COUNTING PROCEDURE. A L e i t z compound microscope at 100 X magnif icat ion and a Sedgewick-Rafter counting chamber (Clay-Adams I n c . , New York) were employed. The j a r containing the water sample to be analysed was shaken i n a v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n to avoid centr i fug ing of the specimens. 1 ml (sub sample) was immediately pipetted from the centre of the j a r and placed i n the Sedgewick-Rafter counting c e l l . The cover s l i p was appl ied to the chamber to avoid a i r bubbles. A l l genera of algae present were recorded. 4 When numbers exceeded 1 X 10 c e l l s per m l . , only one sub sample was counted, otherwise two 1 ml a l iquots were counted and averaged. Problems Encountered with Counting Accuracy: Anabaena flos-aquae was the only alga that created some d i f f i c u l t y with respect to counting. This species grew i n c o i l e d chains of c e l l s which eventual ly formed great masses during bloom per iods . When one of these c lus ters appeared i n the microscopic f i e l d , numbers had to be estimated. The t o t a l mass was div ided into what seemed to be groups of about 100 c e l l s . These groups were then counted. This counting problem arose when c e l l s per ml were i n the " v i c i n i t y " of 4 2 X 10 . Time was also a fac tor which affected the counting accuracy as only two sub samples were counted per j a r . This method would have been far more accurate i f the average of - 39 -perhaps 10 counts could have been made. Owing to the number of samples that had to be counted, time did not permit this procedure. - 40 -RESULTS and DISCUSSION - 41 -Presentation of Data for Discuss ion. The chemical , phys ica l and b i o l o g i c a l data c o l l e c t e d for the four s i tes on a p a r t i c u l a r transect were averaged so that trends occurring i n that area of the lake could be more e a s i l y discerned. A discuss ion of the happenings at each par-t i c u l a r s i t e would r e s u l t i n unnecessary r e p e t i t i o n . Since data was gathered at i s o l a t e d periods during the spr ing , summer and f a l l , the data presented can therefore only be an i n d i c a t i o n of what i s occurr ing i n the lake . For th i s reason, d e t a i l s of each s i t e are not important and an average would provide a better i n d i c a t i o n of what i s happening at the transect l o c a t i o n . For the sake of s impl i fy ing the large amounts of data co l l ec ted for discuss ion purposes, the 10' sampling depth i s frequently s ingled out and graphs are p lo t ted for th i s depth. Of the f ive depths sampled, the 10' depth i s probably the most representat ive of the patterns occurring i n the lake re la ted to phytoplankton development. At 20' and be low, . l i gh t may be l i m i t i n g , whereas at the surface, wind may be i n t e r f e r i n g with the c h e m i c a l - p h y s i c a l - b i o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p patterns ( i . e . winds can skim surface algae to the lake margins so that microscopic samples co l l ec t ed at the surface , i n the middle of the lake , are not representat ive of what has occurred or i s occurring). - 42.-Algae I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n Osoyoos Lake (May 28-October 14). Five classes of algae were i d e n t i f i e d during the course of the sampling season. These are l i s t e d below with the genera of each c lass s ighted. 1. Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae) Anabaena flos-aquae (Lynbyge.) de Brebisson ( F i g . 24) O s c i l l a t o r i a acutissima Kufferath 2. Dinophyceae (d inof lage l la tes ) Ceratium h i r u n d i n e l l a (O.F. Mueller) Dujardin 3. Baci l lar iophyceae (diatoms) F r a g i l a r i a crotonensis Ki t ton ( F i g . 25) Melos ira i t a l i c a ( F i g . 26) A s t e r i o n e l l a formosa Hassa l l Stephanodiscus spp. Navicula spp. Cymbella spp. 4. Chrysophyceae (golden algae) Dinobryon s e r t u l a r i a Ehrenberg ( F i g . 27) 5. Chlorophyceae (green algae) Mougeotia spp. Gloeocyst is spp. Pediastrum spp. Staurastrum spp. Dictyospaerium spp. The fol lowing i s the basis used for counting the dominant algae to be considered in the d i scuss ion . - 43 -Anabaena flos-aquae every 10 c e l l s i n a filament = = 1 unit O s c i l l a t o r i a acutissima every 10 c e l l s i n a filament = = 1 unit F r a g i l a r i a crotonensis every 10 c e l l s i n a filament = = 1 unit A s t e r i o n e l l a formosa 1 colony (8 c e l l s ) : 1 unit Melos ira i t a l i c a every 10 c e l l s i n a fi lament : = 1 unit Stephanodiscus spp. 1 c e l l = 1 unit Dinobryon s e r t u l a r i a 1 c e l l (numerous c e l l s i n a branched colony) = = 1 unit A. f los-aquae, D. s e r t u l a r i a and F. crotonensis counts for the northern transect are presented in Appendix B (Tables B17-B19). Appendix C (Tables C17-C19) and Appendix D (Tables D17-D19) contain A. f los-aquae, D. s e r t u l a r i a and F. crotonensis counts for the southern and American transects re spec t ive ly . M. i t a l i c a and 0. acutissima counts for the southern and American transects are presented i n Tables C2 0 and D20 respec t ive ly . These two species were not detected at the northern transect i n s u f f i c i e n t quant i t ies to warrant being recorded in the appendices. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Phytoplankton i n Osoyoos Lake (May 2 8-October 14). "• " The d i s t r i b u t i o n of dominant phytoplankton at the northern and southern transects i s i l l u s t r a t e d graphica l ly i n F i g s . 28-31. At the northern transect , the greatest a l g a l populations were detected i n June and J u l y . Samples taken 3 during these months displayed counts ranging between 4 X 10 - 44 -3 and 6 X 10 u n i t s / m l . Considerably lower numbers were recorded at the 40' and 60 f l eve l s ( F i g . 29). On May 28, p r i o r to the A. flos-aquae bloom, A. f l o s -aquae had been present but not i n bloom concentrations as defined by Smith (1950). At that time, As . formosa (25 uni ts /ml) Stephanodiscus spp. (few) and D. s e r t u l a r i a (few) had been i d e n t i f i e d ; however, numbers were reduced to almost n i l a f t er the onset of the A. flos-aquae bloom. In ear ly August, the A. flos-aquae bloom had decl ined and was replaced by D. s e r t u l a r i a as the dominant form. An almost simultaneous increase i n F . crotonensis was noted i n mid-August; however, i t s appearance lagged somewhat behind that of D. s e r t u l a r i a . On August 15, 150-300 uni t s /ml of D. s e r t u l a r i a were detected i n the upper 2 0'. The highest recorded numbers of F . crotonensis were noted i n the August 28 sample when over 300 un i t s /ml were detected. At that time a l so , a sudden jump i n the A. flos-aquae population to over 2 50 uni t s /ml appeared to produce a mild la te summer bloom. In mid-September, units of t o t a l algae showed a decl ine from the la te August sampling with A. f los-aquae, F. crotonensis and D. s e r t u l a r i a s t i l l being the dominant forms. By October 14, units of t o t a l algae at the northern transect were extremely low. At the southern transec t , a s i m i l a r succession of phyloplankton forms occurred from May-September. Quantity - 4 5 -differences existed between the north and south however. An A. flos-aquae bloom was present for the June and July samplings; however, i t was approximately o n e - f i f t h the magnitude of that i n the north . On the May 3 0 sampling per iod , A. flos-aquae was not detected; however, four or f ive diatom species and D. s e r t u l a r i a W6?Ce i d e n t i f i e d . Such had been the case i n the north except that A. flos-aquae was present i n the May northern transect samples and not i n the south. In ear ly August, D. s e r t u l a r i a was again the dominant form rep lac ing A. flos-aquae i n the south. Counts of D. s e r t u l a r i a were greater than those at the north. A concentration of 10 0 0 uni t s /ml was recorded for the August 9 sampling, which was i n fact a bloom condi t ion . The samplings c a r r i e d out from mid-August to mid-September detected increases i n the F . crotonensis and A. flos-aquae populat ions; however, t o t a l counts were approximately one- th ird the concentration of those found in the north . On October 14, M. i t a l i c a and 0. acutissima were the dominant forms at the southern transec t . Approximately 125 un i t s /ml of M. i t a l i c a and 250 un i t s /ml of 0. acutissima were recorded at a l l sampling depths. A few units of As. formosa and F . crotonensis were also noted at th i s time. The I n t e r r e l a t i o n of Factors and A l g a l Populations. The population of algae occurring in a lake , at a given moment i s determined by a large number of factors operating - 46 -simultaneously. A change i n any one of the factors can quick ly change the populat ion (Edmondson, 1968). P r o d u c t i v i t y , or the rate of formation of organisms, i s affected by sun l ight , temperature, lake morphology, concentration of nutr ients and rate of supply of nutr ients (Mackenthum and Ingram, 1964). The abundance, or population of organisms, i s then determined by considering the rate of pro-duction and the rate at which organisms are consumed, decomposed, l o s t i n the outflow, s e t t l i n g e tc . Although product iv i ty and abundance are two e n t i r e l y d i f f erent terms, i t can be expected that lakes having a great abundance of organisms for a long period of time are indeed productive as c e l l s are continuously flowing out of the o u t l e t , s e t t l i n g to the bottom, decomposing or being grazed by zooplankton and f i s h (Edmondson, 1968). Due to the great abundance of phytoplankton observed i n Osoyoos Lake, throughout the spring and summer of 1968, i t would seem j u s t i f i a b l e to c l a s s i f y i t as a productive lake . - 47 -F i r . 2 5 F r a g i l a r i a ^ crotonensis i n Lugol's P r e s e r v a t i v e (X 6 0 0 ) - 48 -- 49 -6000-5000-2 cc L U Om L U < t-o 4000-3000-1 wo !Z 2000-) z 3 1000--t-MAY 28 Anabaena flos-aquae Dinobryon sertularia Fragilaria crotonensis •+- +-JUNE 17 JULY 4 JULY16 AUG 2 AUG 15 AUG 28 SEPT 12 OCT 13 Fig. 28 MEAN QUANTITIES AND SUCCESSION OF DOMINANT ALGAE AT THE NORTHERN TRANSECT OF OSOYOOS LAKE . (10.1 DEPTH) AUG 28 T 1 1 1 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 UNITS OF TOTAL ALGAE/ML. SEPT 12 OCT 13 — r -1000 T 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 UNITS OF TOTAL ALGAE/ML. 1 1 I 1 " I 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 UNITS OF TOTAL ALGAE/ML. • Anabaena flos-aquae H Dinobryon sertularia t^l Fragilaria crotonensis F i g . 29 MEAN QUANTITIES, VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION AND SUCCESSION OF DOMINANT ALGAE AT THE NORTHERN TRANSECT OF OSOYOOS LAKE - 51 -5000-p S 4000-L U Ou L U < 2 3000-< < I— O *" 2000-u. o r— z 3 1000-MAY28 JUNE 19 Anabaena flos-aquae Dinobryon sertularia Fragilaria crotonensis Melosira italica Oscillatoria acutissima JULY10 JULY 25 AUG 9 AUG 19 AUG 29 SEPT 12 OCT 14 F i g . 3 0 MEAN QUANTITIES AND SUCCESSION OF DOMINANT ALGAE AT THE SOUTHERN TRANSECT OF OSOYOOS LAKE (10' DEPTH) 0 10 ^ 20 x »-S40 60 MAY 30 - 52 -JUNE 19 T r JULY 10 i I I JULY 25 AUG 9 AUG 19 AUG 29 DOO 3000 40*0 UNITS OF TOTAL A L G A E / M L . SEPT 12 OCT 14 0 1000 20p0 4*00 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 UNITS OF TOTAL A L G A E / M L . UNITS OF TOTAL A L G A E / M L . Anabaena flos-aquae HI Dinobryon sertularia Fragilaria crotonensis Melosira italica HI Oscillatoria acutissima F i g . 31 MEAN QUANTITIES, VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION AND SUCCESSION OF DOMINANT ALGAE AT THE SOUTHERN TRANSECT OF OSOYOOS LAKE - 53 -A. THE NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN TRANSECTS OF'OSOYOOS LAKE. The Effects of a Thermocline i n Determining the D i s t r i b u t i o n  of Oxygen, Ammonia and Phytoplankton: Hutchinson (1957) defined a thermocline as the port ion of a thermal p r o f i l e i n which there i s a change of 1°C per meter of depth. A thermocline was present at the northern transect between the 40' and 50' depths throughout July and August ( F i g . 32). At no time during the 1968 sampling season was a thermocline detected at the southern transect , although ind ica t ions of i n i t i a l . a t t e m p t s between 20' and 40' were noted on May 30, June 19 and July 2 5 ( F i g . 33). The presence of a thermocline re su l t s i n the forma-t i o n of a density gradient such that two d i s t i n c t immiscible layers are created ( i . e . the epi l imnion above the thermocline and the hypolimnion below). Heat entering the lake at the surface i s c i r c u l a t e d throughout the epi l imnion by winds and does not make i t s way v i a c i r c u l a t i o n into the hypolimnion. This explains the maintenance of the sub 10°C temperatures at the 60' depth throughout June, Ju ly and August at the northern transect ( F i g . 32). Because of the absence of a thermocline at the southern transect , heat entering the lake at the surface was able to c i r c u l a t e to the lake bottom, r e s u l t i n g i n the r e l a t i v e l y high temperatures occurring at the 60' depth ( 1 5 ° C ) . The region of t r a n s i t i o n between the epi l imnion and the hypolimnion i s known as the metalimnion. When oxid izable mater ia l such as dead or l i v i n g plankton f a l l s - 54 -from the turbulent epi l imnion and enters the stable metalimnion, b a c t e r i a l decomposition of the organic matter occurs (Birge and Juday, 1911). At the northern transect of Osoyoos Lake, such a penomenon occurred. On August 2 and August 15 when a thermocline was present in the v i c i n i t y of 40' , negative heterograde oxygen curves were witnessed ( F i g . 32). At the 40' depth (metalimnion) there was a greater oxygen consumption than i n the hypolimnion (60') . Ammonia concentrations were also much greater at the 40' depth i n early August than i n the hypolimnion or ep i l imnion , (Table B5). These observations ind icate that the presence of a thermocline at th i s time resu l ted i n the temporary accumulation and decomposition of a great deal of organic matter ( i . e . a l g a l c e l l s ) i n the metalimnion. Since the organic matter had already been decomposed somewhat when i t f e l l into the hypolimnion, oxygen u t i l i z a t i o n and ammonia production were not as great at 60' as at 40' . The supply of ox id izable organic matter r e s u l t i n g in the high ammonia concentrations and metalimnetic oxygen minima, occurring at 4 0', was obviously provided by the A. f los-aquae bloom which had decl ined in la te Ju ly or early August. Since a thermocline d id not form at the southern transect , decomposable organic matter f e l l d i r e c t l y to the lake bottom undergoing decomposition. The almost complete deplet ion of oxygen near the lake bottom ( F i g . 33) and the extremely high concentrations of ammonia detected below 40' - 55 -i n Ju ly and August (Table C5) demonstrated that decomposition had occurred r a p i d l y on the bottom. The lack of a thermocline permitted water temperatures near the bottom to increase to 15°C and perhaps contribute to an increased rate of reac t ion at the southern transect 60' depth. - 56. -F i g . 32 SEASONAL CHANGES IN THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN AT THE NORTHERN TRANSECT OF OSOYOOS LAKE JULY 25 A U G 9 A U G 19 Temperature °C - - • Dissolved O x y g e n p p m F i g . 33 SEASONAL CHANGES IN THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN AT THE SOUTHERN TRANSECT OF OSOYOOS LAKE - 58 -The Movement of Phosphorus from the Bottom Deposits: In J u l y , a f ter the A. flos-aquae spring bloom had been present for approximately four weeks, considerable r i s e s i n the t o t a l phosphorus content of the water column were noted. On June 17 i n the northern transect (10') , less than .005 ppm t o t a l phosphorus was recorded whereas on July 4 and 16, more than .03 ppm was detected. The highest recorded value was .048 ppm on August 2 ( F i g . 34). On June 19 i n the southern transect (10') , .001 ppm t o t a l phosphorus was measured whereas on July 25 and August 9, more than .04 ppm was present- ( F i g . 35). These increas ing t o t a l phosphorus l eve l s i n the water column i n Ju ly and August were associated with reductions of t o t a l phosphate i n the bottom mud. In the northern transect bottom deposi ts , 3 344 ppm t o t a l phosphate was measured on June 17 as compared to 1244 ppm on August 2 (Table B16). In the southern transect bottom deposi ts , 2594 ppm t o t a l phosphate was recorded on June 20 as compared to 1097 ppm on August 9 (Table C16). During the period of t o t a l phosphorus b u i l d up i n the water column, water tempera-tures were at maximum recorded values (Tables B l , CI) and strong winds were consis tenly present to produce turbulence. Hutchinson (1941, 1957) suggests that the rate at which phosphorus enters the s u p e r f i c i a l layers of a lake i s increased when high temperatures cause the element to d i f fuse from the muds and currents carry i t to the surface. He also emphasizes the ro l e played by hor i zonta l water movements - 59 -created by winds i n carry ing phosphorus from the marginal waters to the main body of the lake . Phosphorus i n the marginal waters of Osoyoos Lake was probably very high i n July due to the decomposition of large quant i t ies of algae skimmed to the lake periphery by winds. The decomposition of organic debris i n the numerous weed beds i n the marginal waters would also contribute to t o t a l phosphorus there. A stable thermocline can serve somewhat as a b a r r i e r between the epi l imnion and muds i n contact with the hypolimnion. At the southern transect , there was no thermo-c l i n e to create such a b a r r i e r . When t o t a l phosphorus l eve l s were r i s i n g in the northern transect i n J u l y , a thermocline was only i n the ear ly stages of formation and1, may not have been s u f f i c i e n t l y stable to act as a b a r r i e r to phosphorus coming from the deeper muds. In August, however, a stable thermo-c l i n e was i n existence between 40' and 50' ( F i g . 32) and may have prevented further t o t a l phosphorus r i s e s i n the water column ( F i g . 34). The r i s e i n t o t a l phosphorus noted in the water column i n July and ear ly August could not have determined the A. flos-aquae bloom which developed before the phosphorus r i s e began. However, i t may have permitted other, forms to develop a f ter the decl ine of A. flos-aquae ( i . e . D. s e r t u l a r i a and F. crotonens is ) . - 60 -The Relat ionships of Val ley Hydrology and Lake Morphometry to  Conditions in Osoyoos Lake: Skaha Lake, s i tuated north of Osoyoos Lake, contained large quant i t ies of algae during the summer of 1968 (Coulthard and S te in , 1969). Since Skaha Lake waters eventually reach the north end of Osoyoos Lake v i a the Okanagan River (23 mi les ) , the large store of nutr ients present i n Skaha Lake (Table 5) may have been c a r r i e d to Osoyoos Lake for the development of algae there. Vaseux Lake, a b i r d sanctuary s i tuated between Skaha and Osoyoos Lakes ( F i g . l c ) may also be a s i g n i f i c a n t source of nitrogen and phosphorus to Osoyoos Lake from "bombed in" excrement. The fact that Osoyoos Lake i s e s s e n t i a l l y three i n d i v i d u a l basins ( F i g . lb) may account for the dif ferences i n a l g a l populations between the north and the south. The most norther ly basin (basin 1) receives water from the Okanagan River which contains nutr ients contributed by a l l upstream sources ( i . e . Skaha Lake, Vaseux Lake, O l i v e r sewage e f f luent , a g r i c u l t u r a l drainage e tc . ) and would therefore be affected by upstream inf luences . These nutrients would eventually r e s u l t in the development of the large growths of algae i n the north Osoyoos Lake bas in . Water entering the basin between the highway bridge and Haynes peninsula (basin 2) would be of a higher qua l i ty since a great deal of algae and nutr ients would have se t t l ed to the bottom of the f i r s t basin or been blocked somewhat by the land c o n s t r i c t i o n at the highway bridge . Once the water had reached the basin - 61 -below Haynes peninsula (basin 3), i t would be of an even higher q u a l i t y , as a further percentage of nutr ients and algae would have se t t l ed out in the second basin or been blocked by Haynes peninsula . Rawson (1955) suggests that mean depth i s the morphometric parameter which can be used most success fu l ly to determine a lake's product iv i ty p o t e n t i a l . He states that the d i v i s i o n between o l igo trophic and eutrophic lakes comes at a mean depth of approximately 66'. The mean depth of the most northerly Osoyoos Lake basin (68', Table 4) i s s u f f i c i e n t l y shallow to be s i g n i f i c a n t i n contr ibut ing to the large growths of algae there . The mean depth of the basin south of Haynes peninsula (4-1' to border, Table 4) i s such that i t may have l ikewise contributed to the eutrophic tendencies. A shallow lake i s able to heat up fas ter than a deeper lake and therefore experience a fas ter metabolic r a t e . The high rate of lake metabolism that accompanies increas ing tempera-tures re su l t s i n the increased product iv i ty and oxygen deplet ion c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of eutrophic lakes (Figs . 32,33) (Hutchinson, 1957). - 62 -Chemical - Phys ica l - Phytoplankton Relat ionships: The A. flos-aquae blooms which occurred throughout June and July i n the north and south were accompanied by acce lerat ions i n the t o t a l nitrogen content i n the lake (F igs . 34, 35). Gorham et a l . (1964) observed i n cul ture that A. f l o s aquae f ixes nitrogen from the atmosphere. Through f i e l d studies c a r r i e d out i n Smith Lake, Alaska and Sanctuary Lake, Penn. , B i l l a u d X1967) and Dugdale and Dugdale (1962) provided further evidence to suggest that A. flos-aquae f ixes n i trogen. I t would therefore seem l i k e l y that corre la t ions between nitrogen and A. f los-aquae i n Osoyoos Lake were due to nitrogen f i x a t i o n by that species . In both sections of the lake , the A. flos-aquae bloom was i n i t i a t e d when t o t a l nitrogen was low ( <.005 ppm, F igs . 34, 35). Thus the a b i l i t y to f i x ' i t s nitrogen permits A. f los-aquae to grow when concentrations of nitrogen are s u f f i c i e n t l y low to l i m i t the development of other forms (Coulthard and Ste in , 1968). It appears that nitrogen brought into the lake by nitrogen f i x a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the development of the A. flos-aquae bloom. According to a scheme proposed by Ohle (19 34) lakes containing greater than 25 ppm calcium are b i o l o g i c a l l y " r i c h " . Reid (1961) stated that such hard-water lakes contain a l esser var ie ty of organisms but a greater t o t a l mass of organisms. In Osoyoos Lake, calcium concentrations were frequently over 30 ppm and sometimes as high as 40 ppm (Tables BIO and CIO). - 63 -The t o t a l mass of algae i n Osoyoos Lake was also high and the range of species l i m i t e d , which supports the statements made by Reid (19 61) concerning product iv i ty and hard-water lakes . The fact that Osoyoos Lake i s r i c h i n calcium may then be an important factor contr ibut ing to the excessive a l g a l growths. Calcium seems to be e spec ia l ly important to the growth of A. f los-aquae. As the A. flos-aquae bloom pro-gressed from ear ly June to mid-July , approximate drops of 15 and 12 ppm calcium were noted i n the northern and southern transects respec t ive ly (F igs . 36, 37; Tables BIO, CIO). A l l e n and Arnon (1955) demonstrated that nitrogen f i x i n g blue-green algae required large amounts of calcium for growth and that 20 ppm was necessary for optimum f i x a t i o n of n i trogen. There i s another poss ible explanation for the calcium drop i n the upper regions of the lake during the bloom. The pH of the Osoyoos Lake waters above 20' during the bloom (mid-June to la te July) ranged between 9.0 8 and 9.49 at the northern transect (Table B13) and 8.79 and 9.2 3 at the south (Table C13). According to Reid (1961), at pH values greater than 8.50, free CO2 i s almost absent and i s found as carbonate or bicarbonate. In Osoyoos Lake, CO2 would then be bound almost e n t i r e l y as CadiCOg^ (above pH 10 there would be a movement towards CO2 being bound as CaCO^). Since CO2 i s necessary for photosynthesis and i t may be l i m i t i n g as free C0_ for A. flos-aquae i n Osoyoos Lake, calcium bicarbonate i s - 64 -probably the source of C0 2 for photosynthesis. Both Hutchinson (1967) and Welch (1952) state that blue-green algae are capable of withdrawing C0 2 from Ca(HC0 3 ) 2 and Mg(HC0 3 ) 2 for photosynthesis. Af ter the extract ion of "half bound" C0 2 from bicarbonate, CaC0 3 or. MgCO^ are deposited. CaC0 3 i s inso luble and prec ip i ta te s e a s i l y . During the A. flos-aquae bloom i n the northern transec t , when calcium concentrations dropped i n the water column, a b u i l d up of calcium was noted i n the bottom deposits (June 17, 547 ppm Ca; J u l y 16, 841 ppm; Table B16). MgC0 3 , on the other hand, i s more soluble than CaC0 3 and does not p r e c i p i t a t e so eas i l y (Ruttner, 1953). This might explain why the magnesium concentrations remained r e l a t i v e l y stable at both transects during the mid-June to l a te Ju ly A. flos-aquae bloom (8-11 ppm; F i g s . 36, 37; Tables B l l , C l l ) . It i s not known i f the calcium b u i l d up i n the bottom deposits was due to the p r e c i p i t a t i o n of CaC0 3 or as organic Ca within the s e t t l i n g a l g a l c e l l s , ass imi lated during n i t r i g e n f i x a t i o n . I f C0 3 ~ had been measured i n the sediments, the answer may have been more apparent. It i s quite probable that both mechanisms contributed however. At both transects , the A. f los-aquae blooms occurring throughout June and July were associated i n the ear ly stages with low leve l s of t o t a l phosphorus ( < .01 ppm; F i g s . 34, 35; Tables B4, C4). This i s not s u r p r i s i n g however as Fogg (1966), - 65 -Lund (1965), and P e a r s a l l (1932) report that blue-green algae are able to grow at low concentrations of inorganic nutr ients ( i . e . phosphorus). P r i o r to and at the beginning of the A. flos-aquae blooms i n both transects ( late May and mid-June), conduct iv i ty readings were higher i n the surface waters than at any other time during the sampling season. On May 28, i n the northern transect , conduct iv i ty was over 2.1 mmhos/cm at 1 8 ° C . By mid-August, a f t er the decl ine of the bloom, conduct iv i ty was about 1.6 mmhos/cm at 18°C (Table B15). On May 30, p r i o r to the southern transect bloom, conduct iv i ty was over 2.3 mmhos/ cm at 1 8 ° C . By ear ly August a drop i n conduct iv i ty to approximately 1.9 mmhos/cm at 18°C was noted (Table C15). Conductivi ty denotes e s s e n t i a l l y the same information as i s suppl ied by t o t a l d issolved nutr ient determinations for a body of water (Rawson, 19 58). Rawson (1941,51) demonstrated that the abundance of plankton was general ly greater i n lakes when mineral content was h igh . Northcote and Larkin (19 56) i n t h e i r product iv i ty studies of one hundred B r i t i s h Columbia lakes , found a better c o r r e l a t i o n between disso lved so l ids (conduct iv i ty) and standing crops of plankton than with any other s ingle f a c t o r . These observations are suggestive that high conduct iv i ty readings detected i n Osoyoos Lake p r i o r to the A. flos-aquae bloom may have been s i g n i f i c a n t i n contr ibut ing "to i t s development. - 66 -Increasing water temperatures and high i n s o l a t i o n were apparently i n f l u e n t i a l i n br inging about the A. f l o s -aquae blooms i n Osoyoos Lake. The marked increase i n the A. f los-aquae populat ion i n June and July i n the northern transect wis associated with temperature r i s e s of 5 - 10°C in the surface waters (0 1 - 20') from late May to ear ly August (Table B l , F i g . 32). A s i m i l a r phenomenon was observed i n the southern transect (Table C I , F i g . 33). Dai ly hours of br ight sunshine were cons i s tent ly high i n la te June and ear ly July when maximum a l g a l numbers were recorded ( F i g . 2, Table A2) . B i l l a u d (1967) stated that high temperatures and high i n s o l a t i o n appeared to be prerequis i tes for the development of an A. flos-aquae bloom i n Smith Lake, Alaska . These phys ica l factors were apparently e s sent ia l for nitrogen f i x a t i o n by the speeies and the creat ion of the n i trogen-f i x i n g blooms. Hammer (19 64) found water temperatures to be a c o n t r o l l i n g fac tor i n the succession of A. flos-aquae blooms i n several Saskatchewan lakes . He noted that spring blooms appeared when water temperatures were r i s i n g between 15 - 2 0 ° C . This observation was also appl icable to Osoyoos Lake waters (Table B l , C I ) . At high temperatures, A. flos-aquae f ixes nitrogen more r a p i d l y than at lower temperatures, and i s able to grow when inorganic nitrogen i s l i m i t i n g for other forms. When temperatures are h igh , A. flos-aquae i s also very e f f i c i e n t at u t i l i z i n g inorganic nutrients that are not ava i lab le i n s u f f i c i e n t quant i t i es for incorporat ion by other. - 67 -algae (Hutchinson, 1967). , In such a way, A. flos-aquae can awoid competition from other forms when temperatures are high and inorganic nutr ients are low. A s i m i l a r combination of factors i n Osoyoos Lake probably resul ted i n the appearance of the spring bloom of A. f los-aquae. Considering the decl ine of the A. f los-aquae bloom, a l k a l i n i t y may have played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . Just p r i o r to the decl ine of the bloom, pH values i n the surface waters at the northern and southern transects were approaching 9.5. B i l l a u d (1967) suggested that high a l k a l i n i t y may increase the strength with which an e s sent ia l metal ion i s bound to a che lat ing agent, thus making i t unavailable to A. f los-aquae. Reid (1961) suggested that under a l k a l i n e condi t ions , calcium can t i e up phosphate and i n so doing make i t unavai lable to the organism even though i t i s present in s u f f i c i e n t quant i t i es for growth. A further suggested cause for the decl ine of the bloom i s that e x t r a c e l l u l a r toxins produced by A. flos-aquae may have i n i t i a t e d i t s own decl ine through a u t o i n h i b i t i o n ( F i t z g e r a l d , 1964; Gorham et a l . , 1964). It i s also poss ible that the addi t ion of nutr ients to the water column ( i . e . nitrogen through f i x a t i o n by A. flos-aquae) serves to benefit non n i t r o g e n - f i x i n g forms and allows them to compete with and eventual ly replace the aging A. f los-aquae. Af ter the decl ine of the A. flos-aquae bloom, D. s e r t u l a r i a appeared i n both transects (early August). P r i o r - 68 -to i t s appearance, t o t a l phosphorus and t o t a l nitrogen were approaching t h e i r highest measured concentrations i n the lake (Figs . 34, 35). This would suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus were i n f l u e n t i a l i n bringing about the D. s e r t u l a r i a populat ion. Since n i t r a t e and ammonia were r i s i n g at th i s time (Figs . 38, 39), i t seems l i k e l y that nitrogen previously f ixed by A. flos-aquae was made ava i lab le to D. s e r t u l a r i a as n i t r a t e and ammonia. Bozniak and Kennedy (196 8) corre la ted increases in populations of D. s e r t u l a r i a i n Muir Lake, A l b e r t a , with increases i n phosphate. Other species of Dinobryon have been shown to occur i n phosphate and n i t r a t e "r ich" waters ( P e a r s a l l , 1930; Hutchinson, 1944). Although D. s e r t u l a r i a occurred i n both transects i n ear ly August, the bloom detected i n the south on August 9 (Figs . 30, 31) was approximately 5 times the magnitude of the pulse noted in the north on August 15 (F igs . 28, 29). Assuming that a s i m i l a r bloom of D. s e r t u l a r i a had- not been present i n the north on an e a r l i e r date, the population dif ferences between the north and south may be explained as fol lows: Hutchinson (1967) stated that substances produced by blue-green blooms can af fect the p e r i o d i c i t y of other forms by providing i n h i b i t o r y or s t imulat ing e f f ec t s . Bozniak and Kennedy (1968) bel ieved that substances produced by A. f los-aquae in Muir Lake, A l b e r t a , suppressed the growth of cer ta in algae. In the northern transect of Osoyoos Lake, - 69 -there had been previous to the appearance of D. s e r t u l a r i a approximately 5 times the population of A. flos-aquae as was found in the south. There may therefore have been a fa r greater concentration of i n h i b i t o r y toxin present i n the north than i n the south, thus accounting for the population differences. The appearance of F. crotonensis i n both transects in August lagged s l i g h t l y behind that of D. s e r t u l a r i a . P r i o r to i t s development, t o t a l phosphorus was at the maximum recorded l e v e l for the sampling season, (Figs. 34, 35). On August 2, in the northern transect, .048 ppm was detected at the 10' depth. F. crotonensis was f i r s t observed on the following sampling period and t o t a l phosphorus had dropped considerably. In the southern transect, on July 25, .0 39 ppm t o t a l phosphorus was detected at the 10' depth. F. crotonensis was likewise f i r s t detected here on the following sampling date, and as the population progressed, a drop i n t o t a l phosphorus to .019 ppm recorded on August 2 9 was noted. Phosphorus therefore seems s i g n i f i c a n t i n contributing to the development of F. crotonensis i n Osoyoos Lake. It was also noted that p r i o r to the appearance of F. crotonensis, n i t r a t e and ammonia concentrations were r i s i n g Figs. 38, 39). As mentioned e a r l i e r these forms of nitrogen were probably made available due to nitrogen f i x a t i o n by the previous A. flos-aquae bloom. As the F. crotonensis population progressed from mid-August to mid-September, considerable drops i n the t o t a l nitrogen l eve l s i n both transects were noted (F igs . 34,35). On August 2, i n the northern transect (10') , .094 ppm t o t a l nitrogen were detected as compared to .038 ppm on September 12. In the southern transect on August 9 (10*), .065 ppm t o t a l nitrogen were measured as compared to .048 ppm on September 12. Since these t o t a l nitrogen drops were i n accordance with increases i n the F . crotonensis populat ion , nitrogen may have been quite s i g n i f i c a n t in promoting the growth of the species . Hutchinson (1944) suggests that n i t r a t e released by decaying n i trogen-f i x i n g blooms of Anabaena i n Lins ley Pond, Conn. was-, responsible for ensuing pulses of F. crotonensis . S i l i c a , e s sent ia l for the manufacture of diatom c e l l coverings , i s necessary for the formation of an F. crotonensis populat ion . When s i l i c a i s present i n concentrations below 0.5 ppm, diatoms can not mul t ip ly appreciably ( P e a r s a l l , 1932; Jorgensen, 1957). In Osoyoos Lake, concentrations of s i l i c a ranged from 3-6.5 ppm for the mid-July to mid-September sampling periods (Tables B12, C12). The element d id not therefore appear to be l i m i t i n g for F. crotonensis i n Osoyoos Lake. Considering the e f fects of phys ica l factors ( i . e . temperature, l i g h t ) on the p e r i o d i c i t y of F. crotonensis , temperature did not appear to be s i g n i f i c a n t . Hutchinson (1967) l i s t e d a number of researchers who had found F. crotonensis to grow wel l at various d i f f erent temperature ranges. L i g h t , on the other hand, d id appear to af fect the p e r i o d i c i t y of F . crotonensis . For the few days p r i o r to i t s detect ion i n the northern transect on August 15, there was a notable drop i n the da i ly hours of bright sunshine ( F i g . 2). On August 13 and August 14, zero hours of bright sunshine were recorded. For the two week period leading up to the August 28 sampling, when the maximum number of F. crotonensis -.was" detected, hours of br ight sunshine were, extremely low ( F i g . 2, Table A2) Both Vollenweider (1950) and Lund (1965) stated that F. crotonensis can be i n h i b i t e d by excess l i g h t i n mid-summer The drop i n i l l u m i n a t i o n during the F. crotonensis pulse i n Osoyoos Lake might very well have been an important fac tor leading to i t s development. The pulses of A. flos-aquae noted i n both transects i n la te August and early September were associated with high l eve l s of n i t r a t e (Figs . 38, 39). On August 28, in the northern transect , over .13 ppm n i t r a t e was detected (10*). As the pulse pers i s ted into September, n i t r a t e l eve l s dropped to almost .08 ppm measured on September 12 ( F i g . 38). 'On• August 29, i n the southern transect , over .13 ppm n i t r a t e was recorded (10') . However, a considerably lower concentra-t i o n of .04-3 ppm was noted on September 12 a f t er the pulse had been present for at least two weeks. It appears as : i f A. flos-aquae was u t i l i z i n g the ava i lab le n i t r a t e and not r e l y i n g e n t i r e l y on nitrogen f i x a t i o n . B i l l a u d (1967) stated that when n i t r a t e i s ava i lab le for A. flos-aquae nitrogen f i x a t i o n i s reduced. In mid-August, p r i o r to the l a t e r summer A. flos-aquae pulse , the a l k a l i n i t y of the surface waters had f a l l e n to approximately the same range as had been noted at the onset of the spring A. flos-aquae bloom (Tables B13, C13). It was observed that pH had been between 8.6 and 9.0 p r i o r to the spring A. flos-aquae bloom. Before the appearance of the la te summer pulse , pH had dropped to below 9.0 from values as high as 9.5 in J u l y . It was stated e a r l i e r that the extreme a l k a l i n e condit ions experienced during the spring bloom, may have led to i t s dec l ine . The return of more moderate a l k a l i n i t y i n mid-August may have favoured a reoccurrence o f . A . f los-aquae. Population differences were again apparent at th i s t ime, as the northern transect pulse was of a greater magnitude than the one detected in the south. Lake morphology i s probably of importance here. The M. i t a l i c a population observed i n the southern transect i n October (F igs . 30, 31) was associated with the f a l l turnover as shown by the isothermal condit ion throughout the water column (Table CI ) . The abundance of M. i t a l i c a i n lakes i s l arge ly determined by the degree of turbulence (Fogg, 1966). M. i t a l i c a produces re s t ing stages which remain dormant in the mud u n t i l autumn c i r c u l a t i o n when the dormant fi laments are c a r r i e d into suspension. Here they w i l l remain and reproduce i f turbulence keeps them i n suspension and other factors are favourable for growth (Lund, 1954, 1955). - 73 -Since M. i t a l i c a was present i n the southern transect of Osoyoos Lake a f t er the f a l l turnover, wind and the lake c i r c u l a t i o n , creat ing turbulence, seem to be p r i m a r i l y responsible for the f a l l populat ion. M. i t a l i c a has also been categorized by Lund (1954, 19 55) as an alga which occurs at low temperatures and low l i g h t i n t e n s i t i e s . At the time of i t s detect ion i n the southern transect , water temperatures had dropped to a r e l a t i v e l y low 1 3 ° C . Hours of br ight sunshine on the day i t was detected (October 14) were 0.0, and for the three days previous had been 0.0, 2.0 and 2.6 hours re spec t ive ly . The appearance of M. i t a l i c a i s explained l o g i c a l l y with respect to phys i ca l f a c t o r s . However, chemical factors may also be s i g n i f i c a n t . Af ter the f a l l turnover, extremely high concentrations of n i t r a t e (.14 ppm, F i g . 39) were brought to the productive regions of the lake . Phosphorus was not l i m i t i n g (.03 ppm, F i g . 35) and although a s i l i c a test was not made with the October 14 sample, at no time during the sampling season had s i l i c a even approached l i m i t i n g con-centrat ions for diatoms (Ricker , 1937). P e a r s a l l (1932) concluded general ly that diatoms ( i . e . M. i t a l i c a ) increase when waters are r i c h i n n i t r a t e , phosphorus and s i l i c a ; a s i t u a t i o n apparently ex i s t ing i n the southern transect on October 14. The population of 0. acutissima present i n the southern transect i n October (ca. 250 u n i t s / m l , F i g . 30) l i k e - 74 -M. i t a l i c a may have been c a r r i e d from the sediments to the water column during turnover. Bozniak and Kennedy (196 8) reported O s c i l l a t o r i a spp. to be i n the bottom of Muir Lake, A l b e r t a , when bottom temperatures approached 1 3 ° C . I f such a population had been in the Osoyoos Lake sediments, i t could have been c a r r i e d to the surface waters during lake c i r c u l a -t i o n . According to Fogg (1966), the fac t that the blue-green O s c i l l a t o r i a , unl ike A. f los-aquae, i s unable to f i x n i trogen, places a great deal of importance on the nitrogen l eve l s i n the lake i n contr ibut ing to O s c i l l a t o r i a growth. On October 14, ammonia was at a concentration of .194 ppm i n the southern transect (10') as compared to .043 ppm on September 12 ( F i g . 39). . N i trate was also higher at th i s time i n the surface waters than had been recorded p r i o r to turnover on September 12 ( F i g . 39). Vollenweider (1950) concluded that nitrogen i s l i m i t i n g for th i s alga and that n i t r a t e or ammonia are e s s e n t i a l . Eberly (1967) and Edmondson (1961) state that the presence of O s c i l l a t o r i a i n lakes i s associated with increas ing rates of eutrophicat ion due to nutr ient addit ives present i n treated sewage eff luent and a g r i c u l t u r a l drainage ( i . e . nitrogen and phosphorus). - 75 -TOTAL N TOTAL P N - P RATIO F i g . 34 MEAN TOTAL NITROGEN, TOTAL PHOSPHORUS AND N:P RATIOS OCCURRING AT THE NORTHERN TRANSECT OF OSOYOOS LAKE (10' DEPTH) - 76 -— T O T M . M TOTAL P N - P Mmo TO . 1 * 3 MAY 30 JUNE 19 JULY 10 JULY25 AUG 9 AUG 19 AUG 29 SEPT 12 OCT 14 Fig. 35 MEAN TOTAL NITROGEN, TOTAL PHOSPHORUS AND N:P RATIOS OCCURRING AT THE SOUTHERN TRANSECT OF OSOYOOS LAKE (10' DEPTH) - 77 -F i g . 36 MEAN CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM AND Ca/Ms RATIOS OCCURRING AT THE NORTHERN TRANSECT OF OSOYOOS LAKE (10' DEPTH) - 78 -60-5<H 4<H E a a 30' 20 10H \ e \ \ \ C M C t U M h5 I I / — i 1 1 1 r~ 1 JULY 10 JULY 25 AUG 9 AUG 19 AUG 29 SEPT 12 D U y-2 - j 0 OCT 14 — r 1 MAY 30 JUNE 19 Fig. 37 MEAN CALCIUM,MAGNESIUM AND Ca/Mg RATIOS OCCURRING AT THE SOUTHERN TRANSECT OF LAKE (10* DEPTH) - 79 -MAY 28 JUNE 17 JULY4 JULY 16 AUG 2 AUG 15 AUG 28 SEPT 12 OCT 13 Fig. 38 MEAN AMMONIA AND NITRATE OCCURRING AT THE NORTHERN TRANSECT OF OSOYOOS LAKE (10' DEPTH) - 80 -MAY 30 JUNE 19 JULY10 JULY 25 AUG9 AUG 19 AUG 29 SEPT 12 OCT 14 F i g . 39 MEAN AMMONIA AND NITRATE OCCURRING AT THE SOUTHERN TRANSECT OF OSOYOOS LAKE (10' DEPTH) - 81 -The Trophic Status of Osoyoos Lake: Rawson (1956) concluded a f ter surveying several Western Canadian lakes i n 1953 that the presence of the diatom F. crotonensis , the blue-green Anabaena spp. and the diatom C. h i r u n d i n e l l a (among others) indicated the mesotrophic state of lake enrichment. A. formosa, two species of Melos ira other than M. i t a l i c a , and a species of Dinobryon other than D. s e r t u l a r i a were i n d i c a t i v e of the o l igo troph ic s tate . Microcys t i s f los-aquae was considered to be a species i n d i c a t i n g eutrophicat ion . I f Rawson's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s appl ied to Osoyoos Lake, i t i s d e f i n i t e l y mesotrophic. Some o l i go troph ic species were present ( i . e . A. formosa). However, these were overshadowed by the mesotrophic species ( i . e . Anabaena spp . , F . crotonens is ) . C. h i r u n d i n e l l a , another mesotrophic species , was also detected in Osoyoos Lake, but in l imi t ed numbers. The eutrophic species M i . f los-aquae was not detected in 1968. However, i t has appeared i n the northern sect ion of Osoyoos Lake i n 1969 (Ste in , J . R . , personal communication). Osoyoos Lake then appears to be in a t r a n s i t o r y . s t a t e leading to eutrophicat ion . It i s presently a mesotrophic lake having some remnants of o l i go troph ic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and some ind icat ions of ensuing eutrophicat ion . A comparison between northern and southern Osoyoos Lake, based on a l g a l types as a means of determining trophic s tatus , indicates that the north has advanced further towards - 82 -ult imate eutrophicat ion than has the south. The numbers of mesotrophic species ( i . e . Anabaena spp . , F. crotonensis; F i g s . 28-31) were far greater i n the north , whereas the o l i go troph ic species were more abundant i n the south ( i . e . Dinobryon, Melos i ra , A. formosa; Figs 28-31). Tota l units of algae in the north great ly outnumbered those in the south, i n d i c a t i n g further that the north end of the lake has deter iorated further from ol igotrophy than has the south. - 83 -B. MISCELLANEOUS SAMPLING LOCATIONS. Results: Table 5 summarizes the range of t o t a l phosphorus, t o t a l n i trogen, c h l o r i d e , calc ium, magnesium and t o t a l d isso lved so l ids (conduct iv i ty) i n waters eventually entering Osoyoos Lake. A discuss ion of the probable sources of nutr ients contr ibut ing to the eutrophicat ion of Osoyoos Lake w i l l folbw: Indicat ions of Enrichment: 'from A g r i c u l t u r a l Drainage and • the Influence of the Edaphic Factor: Rawson (1941) emphasized the importance of geo logica l surroundings and s o i l s i n contr ibut ing to the nutr ient enrichment of lakes . I f the s o i l s and geology of the area are such that the effects of a g r i c u l t u r e are enhanced by easy access of f e r t i l i z e r s into the lake v i a groundwater flow, and minerals are disso lved r e a d i l y from the rocks and s o i l s adjacent to the bas in , the area has an edaphic fac tor favour-able for accelerated lake p r o d u c t i v i t y . It was reported by Rawson (1942) that such a favourable edaphic fac tor was present i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . He stated that the high mineral content (conduct iv i ty) of Okanagan Lake was due to the edaphic fac tor and was favourable for plankton p r o d u c t i v i t y . Rawson (1939, 1942) implied however that the great depth of the lake (mean depth of 2 28') l i m i t e d the maximum development of plankton, thus explaining the paucity of organisms detected by Clemens et a l . (19 39). Osoyoos Lake, which i s i n the same TABLE 5 RANGES OF TOTAL P, TOTAL N, CI , Ca, Mg AND TDS (CONDUCTIVITY) IN WATERS ENTERING OSOYOOS LAKE (JUNE 5 - AUGUST 20) LOCATION Range of Range of Range of Range of Range of Tota l P Tota l N CI Ca Mg (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) Range of Conductivity (mmhos/cm/ 18°C) Osoyoos Drainage Ditch (OY-DD) 0.01-0.03 Peanut Lake (OY-PL) Kiss inger Spring (OY-SS) 0.00-0.02 Park R i l l (PR) 0.00-0.01 0.01-0.02 Mclntyre Creek (MC) Skaha Lake South (SK) (above 20' ) 0.04-4.74 2.6 -10.5 48.1-89.6 20 -38.6 4.24-6.50 0.00-0.05 0.06-0.46 3.9 - 5.8 24.0-56.8 16.5-20.4 2.42-3.28 0.16-1.53 35.0 -44.2 128.0-216.0 50 -130.0 6.38-11.69 0.05-0.06 3.6 - 4.1 32.2- 46.3 31.8- 33.3 - to 4.69 0.01-0.12 0.3 - 2.5 4.2- 24.0 1.6- 5.1 0.28- 1.08 0.01-0.06 0.01-0.09 CO * (Coulthard and Ste in , 1969) - 85 -geographical l oca t ion as Okanagan Lake, would l ikewise be subjected to a favourable edaphic fac tor for plankton pro-d u c t i v i t y . Since the mean depths of the Osoyoos Lake basins are 6 8', 19.5' and 41' respec t ive ly (Table 4) , depth would not l i m i t phytoplankton development but would, ins tead , place Osoyoos Lake i n the category of a p o t e n t i a l l y eutrophic lake (Rawson, 1955). It seems therefore that none of the factors considered by Rawson (1939) to be most s i g n i f i c a n t in determining a lake 's p r o d u c t i v i t y ( i . e . edaphic f a c t o r , morphometry and climate) are l i m i t i n g for Osoyoos Lake. As described i n the "Study Area", the s o i l s surrounding Osoyoos Lake range i n texture from coarse or medium loamy sand to gravel and stones (Tables 1, 3). The terraces s tre tch ing along the Okanagan River between Skaha and Osoyoos Lakes ( F i g . l a ) , and the slopes on both sides of Osoyoos Lake, are f e r t i l i z e d heavi ly and i r r i g a t e d continuously for f r u i t growing. Because of the porous nature of the p r o f i l e s , i r r i g a t i o n water i s often used i n excess due to the poor moisture holding capacity of the s o i l . As a r e s u l t , f e r t i l i z e r s are r e a d i l y leached from the s o i l s and must be reappl ied frequent ly . The perco la t ing water w i l l then carry these leached f e r t i l i z e r s to the lake. The minerals common to the area (Table 2) are l ikewise leached i n acce lerat ion of the natura l process due to the continuous app l i ca t ion of water (Kel ley and Spi l sbury , 1949). I f the a g r i c u l t u r a l drainage water entering the lake contains concentrations of - 86 -nutrients ( i . e . phosphorus, nitrogen, t o t a l dissolved solids) greater than contained i n a unit volume of lake water, the drainage w i l l contribute to the eutrophication of the lake. A volume of concentrated drainage coming into the lake w i l l displace a l i k e volume of lesser concentration i n the outlet, thus increasing the absolute nutrient load i n the lake (Sawyer, 1947). In such a way, f e r t i l i z e r s used i n a g r i c u l -ture, i n combination with a favourable edaphic factor and leaching by excess i r r i g a t i o n water, may contribute to the enrichment of Osoyoos Lake. Samples coll e c t e d from the Osoyoos drainage ditch (OY-DD) contained, at times^ concentrations of phosphorus greater than those present i n the lake waters (Table 5, Fi g . 40). These waters are increasing the phosphorus load within the lake. Nitrogen concentrations were sometimes 100 times (or more) greater than those i n the lake (Table 5, Fi g . 40). S i m i l a r l y , then, there i s a build up of lake nitrogen. There i s also strong evidence for the transportation of natural minerals from the land to the lake v i a a g r i c u l t u r a l drainage. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were two to f i v e times greater i n the drainage waters than i n the lake i t s e l f (Table 5). The conductivity of the drainage water was also two to three times higher than that of the lake water p r i o r to the spring bloom (Table 5). These observations for the Osoyoos drainage ditch, assuming they are i n d i c a t i v e of nutrients present i n drainage waters i n the valley i n general, - 87 -are suggestive of a g r i c u l t u r a l drainage contributing to the bu i l d up of t o t a l dissolved s o l i d s , nitrogen and phosphorus in Osoyoos Lake. Park R i l l (PR) and Mclntyre Creek (MC) did not appear to be contributing s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of phosphorus, nitrogen and dissolved solids to the Okanagan River between Skaha and Osoyoos Lakes (Table 5, Fig. 43). A r e l a t i v e l y high conductivity" reading recorded at Park R i l l on July 5 (3 times lake concentration; Table El) was taken at a time when the r i l l was almost dry and i t i s believed that the high reading was due to evaporation. Water coll e c t e d from the Peanut Lake (PL) l i t t o r a l waters indicated t o t a l nitrogen concentrations to be, at certain periods, 10 times greater than those detected i n Osoyoos Lake (Table 5, Fig. 41). Total phosphorus leve l s were at times greater than observed i n Osoyoos Lake (Table 5, Fig. 41). These r e l a t i v e l y high nutrient lev e l s detected in Peanut Lake (a kettle) are probably due to f e r t i l i z e r s carried in i r r i g a t i o n seepage. The water l e v e l i n the kettle r i s e s during the summer when water i s applied to the land for i r r i g a t i o n and f a l l s again a f t e r the termination of the growing season (Coulthard, T.L., personal communication). This implies that Peanut Lake i s a temporary catch basin for i r r i g a t i o n seepage before i t reaches Osoyoos Lake and that the nutrients contained therein are largely due to a g r i c u l -t u r a l drainage. The high n i t r a t e levels (Table E3) - 88 -provide evidence to support the theory that a g r i c u l t u r a l drainage waters 'are carrying large levels of nutrients to Osoyoos Lake. Indications of Enrichment from Sewage Effluent, Industry  and W i l d l i f e : The town of Oliver, situated on the Okanagan River north of Osoyoos Lake (Fig. l b ) , discharges secondarily treated sewage d i r e c t l y into the r i v e r . Although the Oliver sewage effluent was not chemically analysed, i t i s believed that nitrogen and phosphorus present i n the discharge are contributing to the nutrient load of Osoyoos Lake. Penticton sewage effluent i s d e f i n i t e l y contributing to the f e r t i l i z a -t i o n of Skaha Lake (Coulthard and Stein, 1969) and since Skaha Lake waters eventually flow into Osoyoos Lake, the effluent may be i n d i r e c t l y contributing to the build up of nutrients in Osoyoos Lake. .It was also reported by Coulthard and Stein (1969) that untreated cannery effluent i s likewise contributing to the enrichment of Skaha Lake and may subsequently be a f f e c t i n g Osoyoos Lake to some degree. Although effluent from the Oliver packing plant was not analysed, i t i s l i k e l y that the nutrients contained therein are adding to the enrichment of Osoyoos Lake. Kissinger Spring (OY-SS), s small flow situated below the Osoyoos sewage lagoon (Fig. lb) contained extremely high ...concentrations of chloride (35.0-44.2 ppm). I t seems - 89 -unlikely that natural s o i l chlorides i n this v i c i n i t y would be of such a magnitude when other flows i n the area a l l contained considerably less chloride (Table 5). Since chloride i s added to the lagoon for sanitary purposes and nitrogen l e v e l s are high i n Kissinger Spring (Table 5), there i s a strong suggestion that seepage from the lagoon was present i n the discharge. Although samples were not collected from other flows i n the v i c i n i t y of lagoons or septic tanks i n the valley, the Kissinger Spring data implies that sewage seepage from these sources i s a contribution to the build up of nutrients i n Osoyoos Lake. Kissinger Spring did not appear to be an important source of phosphorus to the lake. Vaseux Lake (Fig. l c ) i s a bird sanctuary located on a heavily used migratory duck and geese flyway. Lakes and reservoirs located on such flyways receive " f l y i n g " or "bombed i n " nutrients from the transient bird populations (Mackenthum and Ingram, ^SU). Since Osoyoos Lake receives water from Vaseux Lake v i a the Okanagan River, such nutrients from migratory birds may be adding to the enrichment of Osoyoos Lake. Osoyoos Lake also serves as a resting place for migratory birds and therefore receives nutrients d i r e c t l y from duck and geese populations. Overall Effects Produced by Incoming Nutrients: In view of the previous discussion regarding nutrient contributions from.various sources i n the Okanagan Valley, i t - 90 -can be reported that absolute values of n i trogen, phosphorus and t o t a l d isso lved so l ids i n Osoyoos Lake are increas ing . The nutr ients accumulate i n the bottom deposits and when released to the waters above, by d i f f u s i o n due to r i s i n g temperatures and hor izonta l water movements created by winds, contribute to the development of phytoplankton communities (Hutchinson, 1941). As nutr ients accumulate i n the muds, greater concentrations w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be c a r r i e d into the water column y e a r l y , thus increas ing product iv i ty i f other factors are favourable ( i . e . cl imate) (Sawyer, 1947). It should also be appreciated that a continued high rate of nutr ient supply i s not necessary for continued a l g a l product ion. I f the inflow of nutrients from contr ibut ing sources i s reduced, the r e c y c l i n g of previously accumulated nutrients within the basin i s s u f f i c i e n t to promote a l g a l blooms for. a number of years to come (Mackenthum and Ingram, 1964). - 91 -F i g . 40 CHANGES IN TOTAL NITROGEN AND TOTAL PHOSPHORUS OCCURRING IN THE OSOYOOS DRAINAGE DITCH WATERS (OY - DD) - 92 -6.0-5.0-4.0-O 15 3.0-E a a 2.0-1.0-0.0-TOTAL N TOTAL P i « i JUNE 5 JUNE 19 JULY 5 -.10 — , 1 1 JULY 24 AUG6 AUG 20 -.15 O O t— E a a, -.05 -.00 Fig. 41 CHANGES IN TOTAL NITROGEN AND TOTAL PHOSPHORUS OCCURRING IN PEANUT LAKE LITTORAL WATERS (OY - PL) - 93 -f i g . 4 2 CHANGES IN TOTAL NITROGEN AND TOTAL PHOSPHORUS OCCURRING IN KISSINGER SPRING WATERS (OY - SS) - 94 -6.0-5.0-4.0-2 3.0 E a o. 2.0 1.0-0.0' T O T A L N T O T A L P / / s 1 \ 1 JUNE 6 JUNE 19 JULY 5 -.10 JULY 24 AUG 5 AUG 20 .15 O O (— E a a -.05 -.00 F i g . 4 3 CHANGES IN TOTAL NITROGEN AND TOTAL PHOSPHORUS OCCURRING IN McINTYRE CREEK WATERS (MC) - 95 -CONCLUSIONS Osoyoos Lake appears to be in the t rans i tory state leading to complete eutrophicat ion . Its a l g a l f l o r a indicate that i t i s presently a mesotrophic lake; a stage bordering between o l i go troph ic and eutrophic . T o t a l d isso lved s o l i d s , hardness, nitrogen and phosphorus are the chemical factors which appear to contribute most to the excessive a l g a l growths i n Osoyoos Lake. High temperatures and wind are also combining e f f e c t i v e l y to warm the lake to such a degree that i t s metabolic processes are speeding up and producing the a l g a l growths observed. In order to minimize condit ions leading to the eutrophicat ion of Osoyoos Lake, an understanding of the problem and co-operation by a l l who use the water i s necessary. Sewage and i n d u s t r i a l wastes should not be discharged into the watercourse, as they are supplying large concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus for the promotion of nuisance a l g a l growths. A method should be devised to minimize runoff and drainage from the f e r t i l i z e d orchards as these, too, are contr ibut ing to the nutr ient b u i l d up i n the lake due to a favourable edaphic fac tor . I f such act ion i s taken to reduce the inflow of f e r t i l i z i n g nutr i en t s , the lake may correct i t s e l f in time. The damage has already been done for the moment as can be seen from the large store of nutr ients i n the bottom deposits . This supply of nutr ients w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t to promote a l g a l - 96 -blooms f o r a number of years to come through r e c y c l i n g w i t h i n the lake b a s i n . 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A P P E N D I X A TABLE A l SAMPLING SCHEDULE - SUMMER 196 8 OSOYOOS LAKE AND MISCELLANEOUS FIELD SITES LOCATIONS PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY 1-4 May 28 Jun 17 J u l 4 J u l 16 Aug 2 Aug 15 Aug 2 8 Sep 12 Oct 13 OY 1-4 (Mud) Jun 17 J u l 16 Aug 15 Sep 12 OY 5-8 May 30 Jun 18 J u l 10 J u l 25 Aug 9 Aug 19 Aug 2 9 Sep 13 Oct 14 20 OY 5-8 (Mud) Jun 20 Aug 9 Aug 2 9 Sep 12 OY 9-12 Aug 23 Aug 30 Oct 14 OY 9-12(Mud) Aug 23 OY - DD, Jun 5 Jun 19 J u l 5 J u l 24 Aug 6 Aug 20 OY - PL Jun 5 Jun 19 J u l 5 J u l 24 Aug 6 Aug 20 OY - SS J un 5 Jun 19 J u l 5 J u l 24 Aug 6 Aug 20 PR Jun 6 Jun 24 J u l 5 DRY DRY DRY MC Jun 6 Jun 19 J u l 5 J u l 24 Aug 5 Aug 20 OR - 1 Jun 6 Jun 19 J u l 5 J u l 24 Aug 5 Aug 20 OR - 2 Jun 6 J un 19 J u l 5 J u l 24 • Aug 5 Aug 20 OR - 3 Jun 6 Jun 19 J u l 5 J u l 24 Aug 5 Aug 20 - 102 -TABLE A2 DAILY HOURS BRIGHT SUNSHINE #2 OLIVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA DATE HOURS OF SUNSHINE DATE HOURS OF SUNSHINE MAY JUNE 15 11. 7 1 0.0 16 13.2 2 4.3 17 13. 3 3 13.5 18 13.3 4 9.7 19 10.4 5 12.1 20 5.4 6 13. 6 21 8.0 7 2.1 22 1.3 8 3.4 23 7.1 9 10.6 24 3.7 10 8.7 25 3.7 11 4.9 26 7.8 12 8.2 27 7.9 13 3.3 28 8.5 14 12.1 29 11. 5 15 11.6 30 11. 8 16 6.8 31 7.9 17 7.6 18 13.5 19 3.1 20 13.5 21 1.5 22 2.8 23 12 .9 24 10.6 25 8.9 26 5.0 27 10. 7 28 8.0 29 9.3 30 9.7 TOTAL 146. 5 242 .0 - 103 -TABLE A2 (cont'd) DAILY HOURS BRIGHT SUNSHINE #2 OLIVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA DATE HOURS OF SUNSHINE DATE HOURS OF SUNSHINE JULY AUGUST 1 13.5 1 13.0 2 13.6 2 11. 3 3 13. 5 3 8.2 4 12. 2 4 9.5 5 11.1 5 7.1 6 13. 5 6 9.8 7 13.4 7 12.1 8 13.6 8 12.1 9 9.4 9 12.4 10 10.2 10 7.8 11 5.4 11 11.1 12 5.7 12 10.4 13 13.1 13 5.7 14 9.5 14 0.0 15 4.9 15 0.0 16 10. 8 . 16 5.9 17 10. 5 17 8.4 18 4.6 18 2.9 19 2.0 19 4.5 20 3.1 20 4.5 21 7.9 21 3.0 22 10.6 22 3.3 23 12.5 23 1.2 24 12.9 24 0.0 25 13.1 25 0.0 26 11.9 26 5.5 27 13. 3 27 3.9 28 13.0 28 9.4 29 11.1 29 10.9 30 13.1 30 11.4 31 12.9 31 10.9 TOTAL 325.9 216.2 - 104 -TABLE A2 (cont'd) DAILY HOURS BRIGHT SUNSHINE #2 OLIVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA DATE HOURS OF SUNSHINE DATE HOURS OF SUNSHINE SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 1 8.5 1 6.1 2 10.7 2 8.8 3 9.1 3 8 . 3 4 11. 5 4 5.2 5 11. 5 5 2.7 6 1.3 6 1.3 7 9.3 7 3.5 8 10. 6 8 5.9 9 9.7 9 0.0 10 6.8 10 6.6 11 4.5 11 0.0 12 7.2 12 2.0 13 1.0 13 2.6 14 5.9 14 0.0 15 3.2 15 5.1 16 1.8 17 2.4 18 2.6 19 7 . 7 20 0.0 21 7.8 22 1.4 23 6.1 24 8.0 25 8 . 8 26 6.7 27 6.0 28 8.8 29 8.6 30 7.3 TOTAL 194.8 58.1 DATA COMPILED BY THE D . O . T . (Can. ) , METEOROLOGICAL BRANCH, AT OLIVER STATION #2. - 105 -TABLE A3 DAILY PRECIPITATION (INCHES) OSOYOOS, BRITISH COLUMBIA DATE PRECIPITATION (INCHES) DATE PRECIPITATION (INCHES) MAY JUNE 15 0.0 1 Trace 16 0.0 2 Trace 17 0.0 3 0.0 18 0.0 4 0.0 19 0. 31 5 0.0 20 1.29 6 0.0 21 Trace 7 0.33 22 Trace 8 0.0 23 0.03 9 0.0 24 0.26 10 0.0 25 0.17 11 Trace 26 0.06 12 0.16 27 Trace 13 0. 09 28 Trace 14 0.0 29 0.0 15 0.0 30 Trace 16 0.0 31 Trace 17 0.0 18 0.0 19 0.15 20 0.0 21 0.11 22 0.0 23 0.0 24 0.0 25 0.0 26 Trace 27 0.03 28 0.01 29 0.02 30 0.0 TOTAL 2.12 0 . 90 - 106 -TABLE A3 (cont'd) DAILY PRECIPITATION (INCHES) OSOYOOS, BRITISH COLUMBIA DATE PRECIPITATION (INCHES) DATE PRECIPITATION (INCHES) JULY AUGUST 1 0.0 1 0.0 2 0.0 2 0.0 3 0.0 3 0.0 i+ 0.0 4 0.0 5 0.0 , 5 0.0 6 0.0 6 0.0 7 0.0 7 0.0 8 0.0 8 0.0 9 0.0 9 0.0 10 0.0 10 0.05 11 0.05 11 0.0 12 0.20 12 0.0 13 0.0 13 0.0 14 0.08 14 0.07 15 Trace 15 0.01 16 0.0 16 Trace 17 0.0 17 0. 04 18 0.0 18 0. 37 19 0.42 19 0.08 20 0.0 20 0.32 21 0.0 21 Trace 22 0.0 22 Trace 23 0.0 23 0. 31 24 0.0 24 0. 54 25 0.0 25 0. 36 26 0.0 26 0. 71 27 0.0 27 0.0 28 0.0 28 0.0 29 0.0 29 0.0 30 0.0 30 0.0 31 0.0 31 0.0 TOTAL 0.75 2.86 - 107 -TABLE A3 (cont'd) DAILY PRECIPITATION (INCHES) OSOYOOS, BRITISH COLUMBIA DATE PRECIPITATION (INCHES) DATE PRECIPITATION (INCHES) SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 1 0.0 1 0.0 2 0.0 2 0.0 3 0.0 3 Trace 4 0.0 4 0.03 5 0.0 5 0.0 6 0.0 6 Trace 7 0.0 7 0.0 8 0.0 8 0.0 9 0.0 9 0.0 10 0.0 10 Trace 11 0.05 11 0.18 12 0.0 12 0.06 13 0.02 13 0.04 14 0.02 14 0.04 15 Trace 15 0.0 16 Trace 17 0.0 18 0.06 19 . 0.0 20 0.0 21 0.0 22 Trace 23 0.0 24 0.0 25 0.0 26 0.0 27 0.0 28 0.0 29 0.0 30 0.0 TOTAL 0.15 0.35 DATA COMPILED BY THE D . O . T . (Can. ) , METEOROLOGICAL BRANCH, AT THE OSOYOOS STATION. - 108 -TABLE A4 AIR TEMPERATURES - °F OSOYOOS, BRITISH COLUMBIA DATE T max. T . mm. T av. DATE T max. T . mm. T av. MAY JUNE 15 71 45 58 1 73 59 66 16 78 44 61 2 80 84 72 17 84 47 65.5 3 73 49 61 18 84 54 69 4 75 46 60.5 19 85 52 68.5 5 78 52 65 20 68 53 60.5 6 80 54 67 21 66 47 56.5 7 72 61 66. 5 22 69 43 56 8 68 57 62 . 5 23 67 54 60.5 9 79 50 64.5 24 70 47 58.5 10 78 58 68 25 69 45 57 11 74 59 66 .5 26 68 44 56 12 68 44 56 27 70 44 57 13 65 49 57 28 73 46 59.5 14 71 43 57 29 72 52 62 15 75 50 62 . 5 30 68 51 59 . 5 16 73 53 63 31 70 43 56.5 17 79 57 68 18 87 59 73 19 70 63 66. 5 20 77 52 64.5 21 73 57 65 22 71 59 65 23 79 57 68 24 82 54 68 25 89 62 75.5 26 86 66 76 27 72 57 64.5 28 64 46 55 29 68 50 59 30 78 51 64.5 MEANS 7 9 , (17 d a y s ) ' 0 47.7 60.1 MEANS 75.2 54. 6 64.9 - 109 -TABLE A4 (cont'd) AIR TEMPERATURES - ° F OSOYOOS, BRITISH COLUMBIA DATE T T . T DATE T T . T max. mm. av. max. mm. av. JULY AUGUST 1 84 52 68 1 93 58 75 . 5 2 90 53 71. 5 2 96 67 81.5 3 93 62 77 . 5 3 91 67 79 4 94 64 79 4 88 63 75 . 5 5 96 66 81 5 80 64 72 6 98 67 82.5 6 78 60 69 7 93 68 80.5 7 83 57 70 8 96 67 81.5 8 81 63 72 9 91 66 78.5 9 87 61 74 10 86 68 77 10 90 55 72.5 11 84 64 74 11 87 57 72 12 76 60 68 12 82 59 70.5 13 76 51 63.5 13 78 58 68 14 76 56 65 14 67 57 62 15 74 56 65 15 71 58 64. 5 16 76 52 64 16 76 58 67 17 81 60 70.5 17 70 55 62.5 18 83 57 70 18 71 51 61 19 73 63 68 19 64 49 56.5 20 74 63 68 . 5 20 69 53 61 21 80 56 68 21 68 50 59 22 78 58 68 22 75 50 62.5 23 82 56 69 23 73 53 63 24 85 57 71 24 65 57 61 25 90 57 73.5 25 63 56 50.5 26 93 64 78 . 5 26 72 54 63 27 95 64 79.5 27 72 55 63.5 28 97 68 82. 5 28 74 51 62.5 29 84 67 75.5 29 77 50 63.5 30 84 62" 73 30 80 54 67 31 89 58 7 3.5 31 84 54 69 MEANS 85.5 60.7 73.1 MEANS 77.6 56.6 67.1 - 110 -TABLE A4 ( c o n t ' d ) AIR TEMPERATURE - °F OSOYOOS, BRITISH COLUMBIA DATE T T . T DATE T T . T max. m i n . a v . max. m m . a v . SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 1 79 66 72.5 1 60 53 56 . 5 2 73 56 64 . 5 2 62 35 48 . 5 3 76 49 62.5 3 69 35 52 4 77 55 66 4 65 44 54.4 5 82 54 68 5 60 40 50 6 72 60 66 6 55 45 50 7 76 60 68 7 60 41 50 . 5 8 79 52 65.5 8 59 35 47 9 81 56 68 . 5 9 55 39 47 10 79 5 5 67 10 59 41 50 11 76 58 67 11 53 40 46.5 12 79 55 67 12 51 42 46 . 5 13 64 54 59 13 55 39 47 14 72 56 64 14 50 36 43 15 65 49 57 15 56 42 49 16 65 48 56.5 15 56 42 49 17 67 56 61. 5 18 65 52 58.5 19 63 37 50 20 56 45 50.5 21 64 47 55.5 22 59 40 49.5 23 71 41 56 24 74 43 58. 5 25 75 49 62 26 77 49 63 27 66 58 62 28 68 48 58 29 73 42 57 . 5 30 73 47 60 MEANS 71.5 51.3 61.4 MEANS 57.9 40.5 49.2 (15 d a y s ) DATA COMPILED BY THE D . O . T . (Can . ) , METEOROLOGICAL BRANCH, AT THE OSOYOOS STATION. - I l l -TABLE A5 DAILY DISCHARGES OF THE OKANAGAN RIVER - c . f . s . OLIVER, B . C . (INFLOW) AND OROVILLE, WASH., U . S . A . (OUTFLOW) DATE DISCHARGE ( c . f . s . ) DATE DISCHARGE ( c . f . s . ) OLIVER OROVILLE OLIVER OROVILLE MAY JUNE 15 269 205 1 686 893 16 277 197 2 697 806 17 322 193 3 701 729 18 371 222 4 819 884 19 422 182 5 1040 861 20 601 100 6 1300 852 21 932 572 7 1330 932 22 775 757 8 1440 1070 23 869 793 9 1430 1140 24 962 843 10 1490 1220 25 1060 938 11 1630 1290 26 1070 974 12 1850 1400 27 1020 1020 13 1910 1570 28 864 1010 14 1900 1800 29 705 1020 15 1700 1820 30 653 1000 16 1640 1760 31 697 934 17 1640 1700 18 1670 1770 19 1480 1820 20 1450 1860 21 1430 1740 22 1590 1620 23 1680 1580 24 1610 1570 25 1470 1570 26 1400 1610 27 1200 1640 28 1100 1560 29 940 1380 30 906 1270 MEANS 698 645 MEMS 1370 1391 (17 days) - 112 -TABLE A5 (cont'd) DAILY DISCHARGES OF THE OKANAGAN RIVER - c . f . s . OLIVER, B . C . (INFLOW) AND OROVILLE, WASH.., U . S . A . (OUTFLOW) DATE DISCHARGE ( c . f . s . ) DATE DISCHARGE ( c . f . s . ) OLIVER OROVILLE OLIVER OROVILLE JULY AUGUST 1 823 1190 1 690 484 2 743 1040 2 597 489 3 667 912 0 416 479 4 634 879 4 325 469 5 612 818 5 277 454 6 597 725 6 295 429 7 593 686 7 341 414 8 557 613 8 357 341 9 397 545 9 371 279 10 319 484 10 438 266 11 325 380 11 724 279 12 335 308 12 751 303 13 360 266 13 747 322 14 363 270 14 682 346 15 360 275 15 540 360 16 354 270 16 458 459 17 377 270 17 382 514 18 385 270 18 391 504 19 394 279 19 394 479 20 416 279 20 385 459 21 422 289 21 407 459 22 426 294 22 413 459 23 435 322 23 413 454 24 438 346 24 419 459 25 448 355 25 445 469 26 451 375 26 394 504 27 451 390 27 435 530 28 442 390 28 432 5 30 29 505 399 29 365 524 30 679 444 30 371 504 31 690 474 31 442 504 MEANS 484 479 MEANS 455 436 - 113 -TABLE A5 (cont'd) DAILY DISCHARGES OF THE OKANAGAN RIVER - c . f . s . OLIVER, B . C . (INFLOW) AND OROVILLE, WASH., U . S . A . (OUTFLOW) DATE DISCHARGE ( c . f . s . ) DATE DISCHARGE ( c . f . s . ) OLIVER OROVILLE OLIVER OROVILLE SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 1 448 509 1 571 2 445 499 2 597 3 429 459 3 576 4 416 449 4 576 5 407 444 5 576 6 397 429 6 576 7 407 424 7 545 8 401 419 8 514 9 404 394 9 505 10 401 390 10 499 11 401 304 11 494 12 413 399 12 489 13 416 394 13 484 14 432 385 14 484 15 432 390 15 484 16 432 394 17 435 404 18 409 19 414 20 429 21 434 22 429 23 434 24 434 25 444 26 454 27 469 28 459 29 464 30 494 MEANS 4 31 MEANS (15 days) 5 31 DATA COMPILED BY THE CANADIAN DEPT. OF ENERGY, MINES AND RESOURCES (INLAND WATERS BRANCH) AT GAUGE STATION NUMBER 08NM085, OLIVER,AND THE UNITED STATES DEPT. OF THE INTERIOR GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (WATER RESOURCES D I V . ) , OROVILLE, WASHINGTON GAUGE STATION. - 114 -TABLE A6 OSOYOOS LAKE SAMPLING SITES AND THEIR SEXTANT ANGLE READINGS SITE DESIGNATION LOCATION SEXTANT ANGLE READINGS OY - 1 Northern Transect 4 1 ° 35' 00" OY - 2 Northern Transect 5 3° 45' 00" OY - 3 Northern Transect 6 9 ° 10' 00" OY - 4 Northern Transect 9 1 ° 14' 00" OY - 5 Southern Transect 1 4 ° 11' 00" OY - 6 Southern Transect 2 2 ° 32 * 00" OY - 7 Southern Transect 3 1 ° 10' 00" OY - 8 Southern Transect 5 7 ° 5' 00" OY - 9 American Transect 8 0 ° 00' 00" OY - 10 American Transect 7 4 ° 50' 00" OY - 11 American Transect 7 1 ° 10' 00" OY - 12 American Transect 6 9 ° 10' 00" A P P E N D I X B - 115 -TABLE Bl WATER TEMPERATURES °C NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION OY-1 OY-2 OY-3 OY-4 MEANS DEPTH PERIOD B D H 0 16 .1 16 .7 24 .4 21 .1 23 .7 21 .0 19 . 8 21. 8 12 . 5 10 15 .3 16 .1 18 .3 20 .0 22 .0 20 .6 19 .2 19. 8 12 .7 20 14 .4 16 .1 17 .8 20 21 .5 20 .2 19 .1 19. 6 12 . 5 40 8 .6 13 . 3 13 .9 15 .0 17 .5 17 .9 18 .3 17. 2 12 .6 60 . 7 .2 8 .3 7 .8 8 .0 10 .0 9 9 .2 11. 5 12 . 2 0 17 .2 16 .7 24 . 7 21 .1 24 21 .2 19 .8 21. 0 12 .8 10 14 .4 16 .1 18 .9 20 22 20 .6 19 .2 20. 0 12 .9 20 13 .9 15 .6 17 .8 19 .4 21 .2 20 .2 19 .0 19. 4 12 .9 40 8 .9 13 .9 15 .0 13 .9 17 .5 17 .9 18 .2 18. 2 12 .9 60 7 .0 7 . 8 8 .0 8 . 3 10 .0 9 .1 9 .2 10. 2 12 .9 0 18 .6 17 . 5 25 .6 22 .2 25 21 .7 20 .0 19. 7 12 .5 10 14 .7 16 .1 18 .6 19 .4 22 .5 20 .5 19 .3 19. 7 12 . 8 20 14 .2 15 .6 17 . 8 19 .4 21 .5 20 .2 19 .0 19. 3 12 .8 40 9 .4 13 . 3 13 .6 14 .4 17 .5 18 .0 17 .7 18. 5 12 . 8 60 7 .0 7 .8 7 . 8 8 .0 10 .0 10 .5 9 .5 10. 3 12 . 8 0 20 .0 18 .9 26 .1 22 . 8 25 .2 21 .5 20 .5 21. 5 12 .5 10 15 .4 17 .0 18 .3 19 .4 23 .2 20 .5 19 .5 19. 7 12 .8 20 13 .6 16 .1 17 .8 19 .4 21 .5 20 .2 19 .0 19. 5 12 .8 40 9 .4 14 .4 14 .4 13 .9 16 .0 18 .1 17 .9 18. 7 12 .8 60 7 .2 7 .8 8 .3 8 . 0 9 .0 9 .5 10 .0 10. 7 12 .5 0 18 .0 17 .5 25 .2 21 . 8 24 .5 21 .4 20 .0 21. 0 12 .6 10 15 .0 16 . 3 18 .5 19 .7 22 .4 20 .6 19 . 3 19. 8 12 .8 20 14 .0 15 .9 17 .8 19 .6 21 .4 20 .2 19 .0 19. 5 12 .8 40 9 .1 13 .7 14 .2 14 . 3 17 .1 18 .0 18 .0 18. 2 12 .8 60 7 .1 7 .9 8 .0 8 .1 9 .8 9 .5 9 .5 10. 7 12 .6 - 116 -TABLE B2 DEPTH OF VISIBILITY IN FEET (SECCHI DISC) NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION PERIOD A D G H J OY - 1 OY - 2 OY - 3 OY - 4 7.5' 4.0' 7.5? 4.0' 10.0' 8.0* 7.0' 7.5' 11.0* 5' 4.0' 7.0' 3.5' 8.5' 8.0' 8.5' 8.0' 11.0 9.0* 4.0' 8.0' 3.5' 10.0* 7.0' 8.5' 8.5' 11.0' 7.5' 4.0' 8.0' 4.0' 8.0' 7.0' 10.0' 8.0' 11.0' MEANS .1' 4.0' 7.6' 3.75' 9.1' 7.5' 8.5' 8.0s 11.0' - 117 -TABLE B3 TOTAL PHOSPHATE ( P 0 4 = ) - PPM NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY-1 0 .028 .033 .01 .206 .057 .06 .107 .062 .082 10 .038 - .013 .166 .119 .03 .039 .044 .069 20 .015 .028 .057 .099 .083 .04 .098 .026 .059 40 .025 - '.01 .08 .123 .03 .133 .147 .045 60 .03 — .01 .046 .006 .029 .117 .073 .04 OY-2 0 .028 .012 .084 .125 .027 .081 .059 .038 10 .025 - .065 .041 .083 .029 .178 .08 .03 20 .03 .028 .068 .095 .135 .048 .069 .062 .061 40 . 028 .031 .043 .069 .048 .055 .117 .116 .03 60 .039 — .068 .064 .018 .038 .133 .08 .038 OY-3 0 .032 .013 .103 .027 .023 .058 .10 .022 10 .038 .025 .067 .103 .243 .01 .104 .047 .09 20 .033 .025 .057 .131 .119 .065 .215 .073 .061 40 .03 - .043 .095 .285 .027 .075 .097 . 038 60 .038 .21 .223 .103 .123 .04 .088 .137 .025 OY-4 0 .04 .025 .01 .11 .252 .032 .085 .111 .027 10 .04 - .25 .11 .135 .076 .065 .097 .025 20 .025 .038 .23 .10 .06 .042 .120 .077 .043 40 .038 .038 .065 .105 .088 .068 .114 .023 .066 60 .04 .053 .01 .07 .057 .023 .069 .05 .063 - 118 -TABLE B4 TOTAL PHOSPHORUS (P) - PPM NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY-1 0 .009 .011 .003 .067 .019 .020 .035 .020 . 027 10 .012 - .004 .054 .037 .009 .013 .014 .023 20 .005 .009 .018 .032 .025 .012 .032 .008 .020 40 .008 - .003 .026 .040 .009 .043 .048 .015 60 .009 — .003 .015 .002 .009 .038 .024 .013 OY-2 0 .009 .004 .027 .040 .008 .025 .019 .013 10 .008 - .021 .013 .027 .009 .058 .026 .010 20 .010 .009 .022 .031 .044 .016 .023 .020 .020 40 .010 .010 .014 .023 .015 .018 .038 .038 .010 60 .012 — .022 .021 .006 .012 .043 .026 .013 OY-3 0 .011 .004 .034 .008 .007 .019 .031 .007 10 .012 .009 .022 .034 .079 .003 .034 .015 .03 20 .011 .008 .019 .040 .039 .021 .07 .024 .02 40 .010 - .014 .029 .093 .008 .025 .032 .013 60 .012 .069 .068 .034 .040 .013 .029 .045 .008 OY-4 0 .013 .008 .003 .036 .082 .010 .028 .036 .009 10 .013 - .082 . 036 .044 .025 .021 .032 .008 20 .008 .012 .075 .031 .020 .014 .039 .024 .014 40 .013 .013 .020 .032 .029 .022 .037 .007 .022 60 .013 .017 .003 .023 .019 .007 .023 .016 .021 MEANS 0 .011 .005 .003 .041 .037 .011 .027 .027 .014 10 .011 .002 .032 . 032 .048 .012 .032 .022 .018 20 .009 .010 .035 .034 .032 .016 .041 .019 .019 40 .010 .006 .013 .027 .044 .015 .036 .031 .015 60 .012 .022 .024 ,023 .022 .010 .033 .028 .014 - 119 -TABLE B5 AMMONIA (NHg) - PPM NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY-1 0 .095 .003 .012 .086 .053 .031 .073 .019 10 - .064 .049 .037 .088 .054 .027 .036 .023 20 - .028 .042 .035 .096 . 066 .025 .024 .014 40 - - .02 . 012 .194 .176 .018 .025 .018 60 — .012 — — .031 .037 .002 — .013 OY-2 0 .049 .01 .061 .102 .078 .029 .112 .01 10 — .049 .067 .047 .093 .068 .031 .009 .016 20 - .047 .074 .065 .096 .07 .029 .112 .017 40 - - .027 .051 .177 .153 .031 .104 .018 60 — — — .039 .093 .03 .013 .071 .014 OY-3 0 .054 . 215 . 068 .046 .049 .038 .035 .023 10 - - .067 . 062 .072 .047 .008 .024 .015 20 - .033 .08 .082 .093 .058 .045 .034 .015 40 - .007 .028 .051 .180 .122 .042 .016 .038 60 — . 002 .006 — .053 .063 .004 .012 .017 OY-4 0 .018 .036 .078 .046 .056 .027 .019 10 - .033 .065 .065 .077 .043 .04 .021 .02 20 - .017 .08 .078 .135 .051 .04 .017 .015 40 - - .024 .057 .181 .172 .04 . 009 .022 60 .046 .037 .046 .004 .022 .004 .016 MEANS 0 .050 .062 .044 .078 .057 .039 .062 .018 10 - .037 .062 .053 .083 .053 .027 .023 .019 20 - .031 .069 .065 .105 .061 .035 .047 .015 40 - .002 .025 .043 .183 .156 .033 .039 .024 60 .004 .013 .019 .056 .034 .010 .022 .015 - 120 -TABLE B6 NITRITE (N0 2) - PPM NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY-1 0 .008 .004 .005 .007 .004 .009 .002 .008 10 - .002 .007 .006 - .009 .017 .001 .010 20 .002 .005 .010 .003 .004 - .015 - .008 40 - .002 .009 .003 .008 . 007 .014 .020 .007 60 — .006 .001 .006 .014 .004 .003 .001 .009 OY-2 0 .006 .005 .004 .006 .007 10 - - .014 .003 .006 - .005 .002 .008 20 - - .003 .007 - - .014 .002 .007 40 .002 - .008 .002 .001 - .020 .023 .008 60 — .006 .005 .003 .022 .005 .003 .002 .008 OY-3 0 .002 .002 .004 .002 .010 .001 .008 10 .004 .001 .012 .007 .001 - .019 .001 .008 20 .003 . 003 .014 .007 .006 - .010 .006 .008 40 - .001 - .004 .002 .005 - .016 .006 60 .001 .003 .008 .006 .021 — .020 — .007 OY-4 0 .006 .005 .014 .002 .014 .004 .008 10 - .003 .007 . 008 .004 - .012 .001 .008 20 - .001 .007 - .001 - NT .003 .008 40 — .004 .006 - .006 .005 .036 .015 .008 60 — .005 .003 .003 .020 — .006 .002 .008 MEANS 0 .006 .004 . 001 .007 .002 .010 . 002 .008 10 .001 .002 .010 .006 .003 .002 .013 .001 .009 20 .001 .002 .009 .004 .003 .000 .010 .003 .008 40 .001 .002 .006 .002 .004 .004 .018 .019 .007 60 — .005 .004 .005 .019 .002 .008 .001 .008 - 121 -TABLE B7 NITRATE (N03> - PPM NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY-1 0 .018 .027 .047 .058 .235 .106 .018 .137 10 - .018 - .022 .08 .217 .208 .142 .164 20 - - - .038 .093 .221 .098 - .169 40 - .180 - .022 .115 .155 .625 .164 .182 60 — — .071 .149 .213 .602 1.25- 1.391 .359 OY-2 0 .213 .146 .111 .044 .217 10 - - - .02 .221 .133 .142 .049 .195 20 .031 .009 .013 .069 .115 .146 .226 .115 .169 40 - .053 - - .235 .08 .283 .071 . 213 60 — — — .024 .142 .483 .625 .523 .483 OY-3 0 .049 .05 8 .137 .279 .12 .151 10 .062 .044 - .071 .106 .115 .098 .022 .106 20 - .027 - .080 .133 .274 .106 .013 .120 40 - .018 .013 .056 .128 .137 .461 .013 .133 60 .035 .029 .159 .354 .917 .475 .133 OY-4 0 .009 .029 NT .075 .089 .018 .142 10 - .053 - .387 .035 .102 .075 .12 NT 20 - - - .16 - .089 .221 .032 .137 40 - .035 - .029 - .093 .452 .058 .093 60 - - .040 .076 - .483 1.25 .217 .102 MEANS 0 .005 .009 .031 .111 .148 .146 .050 .162 10 .016 . 028 - .125 .111 .142 .131 .083 .155 20 .008 .009 .003 . 087 .085 .183 .163 .040 .149 40 - .078 .003 .027 .120 .116 .455 .077 .155 60 - .009 .028 .070 .129 .481 1.011 .652 .269 - 122 -TABLE B8 TOTAL NITROGEN (N) - ppm NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J O Y - 1 0 .004 .086 .003 . 023 .086 .098 .055 .065 .050 10 - .058 .042 .037 . 091 .097 . 074 .062 .059 20 .001 .025 .038 .039 .101 .104 .048 .020 .051 40 - . 042 . 014 .018 .187 . 192 .160 . 064 .058 60 — .012 .016 .036 . 078 .168 .289 . 314 .095 O Y - 2 0 _ .042 .010 .084 .133 .0 97 .051 .101 .059 10 - .040 .059 .045 .129 .086 .060 .019 .059 20 .007 .041 . 065 .072 .105 . 091 .079 .019 .054 40 . 001 . 012 . 025 .043 . 201 . 118 .096 .129 .066 60 — .002 .007 . 006 .083 .163 .183 .178 .122 O Y - 3 0 .045 . 178 .067 .052 . 072 .097 .056 .056 10 .015 . 010 .059 .069 .083 .065 .034 .025 .038 20 .001 .034 .070 .088 .109 .110 .063 .033 .041 40 - . 010 .026 .056 .178 .133 .139 .021 .063 60 — .011 .007 .009 .086 .130 . 216 .117 .056 OY - 4 0 .004 .017 .037 . 068 .055 . 070 .027 .050 10 - . 040 . 056 .144 . 072 . 058 .054 . 044 NT 20 - .014 .068 .100 .111 . 062 .083 . 022 .046 40 - . 009 . 022 . 054 .151 . 165 .146 . 025 .042 60 .001 . 048 .048 . 044 .112 . 306 .053 .046 MEANS 0 .001 .042 . 052 .053 . 085 . 081 .068 . 062 .055 10 .004 .037 . 054 .074 .094 .077 . 056 .038 .054 20 . 002 .029 . 060 . 075 .133 . 092 .068 . 024 .048 40 .001 .018 .023 .043 .179 .150 .135 .060 .058 60 .001 .007 .020 .025 .07 3 .143 .241 .166 .076 - 123 -TABLE B9 CHLORIDE (CI") - ppm NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J O Y - 1 0 1. 71 2.4 3.89 1.9 1.6 1.4 1.3 2.3 1.3 10 1.86 2.8 1.68 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.1 20 1. 84 3.0 1.59 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1. 3 1.0 40 2 . 02 2 . 8 1. 59 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 60 1.94 3.0 1.71 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.0 1.2 O Y - 2 0 1.9 2.5 1.68 0.7 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.1 1.2 10 1.86 2 . 8 1.93 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 0.6 20 2.12 2.7 1.76 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.1 40 2.8 5.0 1.73 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.1 60 2.0 2 . 5 1. 68 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.1 O Y - 3 0 1.90 2 . 5 1.59 1.7 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.1 10 1. 04 2.5 1.50 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.3 0.9 20 1.79 2.5 1. 64 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.3 40 1. 94 2.7 1.48 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.1 60 2.02 2 . 5 1.56 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.0 OY - 4 0 1.75 3.0 1.45 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.0 10 1.97 2 . 5 1.61 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.1 20 2.02 2.2 1.59 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.9 40 1.94 3.0 1.59 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.4 0.9 60 2.12 2.5 1.88 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.0 MEANS 0 1.82 2 . 60 2.16 1.50 1.50 1.45 1. 38 1.48 1.15 10 1.88 2.65 1.68 1.43 1.40 1. 35 1. 30 1. 30 0.93 20 1.94 2.60 1.65 1. 30 1.35 1.33 1. 35 1. 38 1.08 40 2.18 3. 40 1.60 1.40 1.40 1. 38 1. 30 1. 23 1.10 60 2.20 2.60 1. 71 1. 60 1.48 1.53 1.40 1.25 1.08 - 124 -TABLE BIO CALCIUM (Ca) - ppm NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C • D E F G H J OY - 1 0 25.0 27. 6 17 . 7 16.0 24.0 32 . 0 25.6 52.0 29.6 10 29.9 26. 9 13.1 12. 8 22.4 27.2 27.2 54.4 34 .4 20 29.2 26. 9 19. 3 18.4 23.2 34.4 26.4 40.0 31. 2 40 27.1 30. 5 19. 3 21.6 23.2 38.4 28 . 0 42.4 24.0 60 26.6 31. 1 23.1 19.2 22.4 32.8 47 . 2 24.0 OY - 2 0 18. 8 28 . 3 16 .9 16 . 8 22.4 28.8 26.4 41. 6 27.2 10 21.6 28 . 3 14.6 14.4 23.2 31. 2 28.0 38.4 28.8 20 21.6 28 . 3 17.7 14.4 24. 0 32 .4 28.0 43. 2 21. 6 40 25.7 29. 7 22 . 3 23.1 21. 6 31. 2 26.4 44. 8 30.4 60 26 . 6 29. 7 23.1 24.0 24.0 37.6 29.6 45.6 30.4 OY - 3 0 23.7 25. 5 20. 8 16.0 27.2 21. 6 24.0 27 . 2 33.6 10 29.2 29. 7 17.7 12.0 26.4 28.8 24.0 33.6 40.0 20 27.8 29. 4 20 . 0 15 .2 30.8 24.0 24.0 38 .4 31. 2 40 29.9 29. 7 20.8 24. 8 24.8 34.4 30.4 21.6 33.6 60 23.7 29 . 4 24.6 21.6 25.6 35.2 32 .0 48.8 48.0 OY - 4 0 24.3 25. 5 16. 9 13. 5 20.0 24.0 24.0 32.0 36.8 10 30.6 24. 8 16.2 13.5 20. 8 28.0 25 . 6 30.4 30.4 20 31. 3 27. 6 20.0 11. 2 20.0 28 . 8 23.2 37.6 44. 8 40 25.7 32. 6 21. 5 20.0 24. 8 27.2 21.6 44.0 29.6 60 20.9 30. 5 21.5 24. 8 25.6 34.4 30.4 34.4 28.0 MEANS 0 2 3.0 26. 7 18.1 15 . 6 2 3.4 26.6 25.0 38 . 2 31. 8 10 27.8 24. 9 15.4 13.2 23.2 28.8 26.2 39.2 33.4 20 27.5 28. 1 19. 3 14 . 8 24 . 5 29.4 25.4 39.8 32.1 40 27.1 30 . 6 20.2 22.4 23.6 32 . 8 26 . 6 38. 2 29.4 60 24.5 30. 2 23.8 22.4 24.4 35 . 7 31. 3 44.0 32 . 6 - 125 -TABLE B l l MAGNESIUM (Mg) - ppm NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J O Y - 1 0 10.5 8.0 9.1 8.5 9.9 8.6 8.9 9.2 9.4 10 10.4 9.0 8 . 75 8.3 10.5 8.7 9.4 6.4 9 . 3 20 9.5 8.1 8 . 25 8 . 3 10. 3 9 . 0 9.0 9.2 9.2 40 9 . 0 8.5 8 . 7 8 . 8 10.5 8 . 8 9 . 0 9.0 9.5 60 9.5 9 . 8 10. 38 9 . 5 11. 8 9.6 9.9 8.4 9.4 O Y - 2 0 10. 0 8.1 8.9 8.5 10. 5 8.4 8.8 8.0 9 . 2 10 9.5 8.4 8 . 9 8.4 10.0 8.6 8.9 9.0 9 . 2 20 9. 37 9.1 8 . 7 8 . 6 10.0 8.6 8.9 8.3 9.5 40 10. 4 9 . 3 8 . 75 O 0 u • o 13.4 8.8 9.0 9.2 9.3 60 10. 8 10. 0 9.9 10. 0 13.1 9.9 9.8 8 . 5 10 .4 O Y - 3 0 9 . 88 8 . 4 8.25 8 . 3 11. 3 8.5 8.6 7.7 9.5 10 9.0 8 . 3 8.75 8.3 10 .5 8.7 9.0 8.7 9.4 20 9.63 8 . 3 9. 38 8 . 8 10.1 7.4 9.0 8.8 9.3 40 10. 3 9.0 8.5 8.6 10.0 8.9 9.4 6.2 9.8 60 10.8 10. 3 9.9 9 . 6 11. 0 9.3 9.9 9 . 7 9.8 OY - 4 0 9.5 8.5 8.4 8.6 10.4 8.7 9.0 8.3 9 . 5 10 9.6 8 . 3 8.4 8 . 3 10.9 8.7 9.2 9.4 9. 5 20 9.7 8.3 8.4 8 . 3 9.8 8 . 8 9.2 9.9 9. 2 40 10. 3 9.6 8 . 6 8 . 8 10 . 6 8.8 9 . 0 9.6 9.4 60 11. 0 10.0 9. 38 10.3 12. 3 9.7 10.0 10 . 3 9.6 MEANS 0 10. 0 8 . 3 8 . 7 8.5 10. 5 9.5 8 . 8 8.3 9.4 10 9.6 7.9 8.8 8.4 10 . 5 8 . 7 9.1 8.4 9.4 20 9.6 8 . 5 8.4 8 . 5 10.1 8.5 9.0 9.1 9.3 40 10.0 9.1 7.9 8.6 11.1 8 . 8 9.1 8-. 5 9.5 60 10.5 10.0 10.2 9.9 11. 2 9.6 9.9 9.2 9 . 8 - 126 -TABLE B12 SILICA (S i0 2 ) - ppm NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 1 0 N N N 6.5 5.7 4.6 4.1 2.8 N 10 n n n 6.4 5.8 4.5 3.8 2.8 20 u u u 6 . 45 5.8 4.6 4.1 2 . 8 u 40 60 T T T T E E E E OY - 2 0 S S S 6.1 5.8 4.2 3.6 2.7 S 10 T T T 6.1 5.7 4.1 6.0 2.9 T 20 6.45 5.7 4.1 3.9 3.2 40 60 OY - 3 0 6.1 5.7 3.9 3.8 3.1 10 6.15 5.9 4.1 4.2 2.9 20 6.4 5.6 3.8 3.6 2.9 40 60 OY - 4 0 6.5 5 . 6 3.9 3.9 2 . 7 10 6. 35 5 . 6 4.2 3.6 2.8 20 6.5 5.7 5.2 4.1 2.8 40 60 MEANS 0 NT NT NT 6 . 30 5 . 70 4.15 3.83 2 . 85 NT 10 6. 35 5. 75 4.23 4.40 2.85 20 6 .45 5. 70 4.43 3.93 2 .93 40 60 - 127 -TABLE B13 pH NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J O Y - 1 0 8.58 9.05 9.45 9. 33 9. 05 9.05 8.90 9. 05 8.41 10 8.69 8. 99 9.45 9.25 8.85 8.95 8. 81 8. 90 8.28 20 8.67 9.00 9.08 9.16 8.85 8.87 8 . 80 8 . 80 8.21 40 8.67 8. 71 8.72 8.40 8 . 32 8 . 00 8.12 8 . 35 8. 20 6 0 8.62 8.45 8. 39 8.18 8.03 7 . 89 7.80 7.. 80 8 .08 O Y - 2 0 8 .53 9.05 9.52 9. 32 9.08 9.05 8 . 77 8.75 8.40 10 8.58 9.07 9.40 9 .19 8 . 89 8.92 8 . 80 8.75 8.24 20 8.53 9. 01 9.12 9.16 8.82 8.85 8.75 8.70 8.20 40 8.65 8 . 66 8.78 8.49 8. 32 8.51 8.30 8. 30 8.16 60 8.69 8 .47 8 .33 8.21 8.02 7.90 7.75 7.75 7.87 O Y - 3 0 8.49 9.12 9.48 9.39 8. 96 8.92 8.71 8.80 8 . 20 10 8.55 9.15 9.40 9.27 8.90 8.95 8.76 8. 75 8.18 20 8.52 8.95 9.20 9.19 8.81 8 . 90 8.77 8.70 8.16 40 8 .60 8.61 8.71 8 . 69 8.22 8.20 8.11 8. 30 8.17 60 8.56 8.48 8. 33 8.29 8.02 7.83 7 . 70 7.70 8.16 OY - 4 0 8.49 9.12 9.49 9.28 8 . 90 8 .91 8.80 8.80 8.29 10 8.58 9.09 9. 38 9.21 9 .10 8.92 8. 80 8 .75 8.20 2 0 8. 56 8 .98 9 . 29 9.19 8.95 8 .90 8 . 79 8.70 8.18 40 8.62 8.74 8.78 8.72 8.35 8.00 8.15 8 . 35 8.18 60 8.62 8. 33 8 . 20 8.07 7. 81 7.76 7.65 8.18 MEANS 0 8.52 9.09 9.49 9 .33 9.00 8.98 8.80 8.85 8.33 10 8.60 9.08 9.41 9.23 3 . 94 8.94 8 . 79 8 . 79 8.23 20 8.57 8.99 9.17 9.18 8.86 8.88 8.78 8.73 8.19 40 8.64 8 . 68 8 .75 8.58 8. 30 8.18 8 .17 8.33 8 .18 60 8.62 8.47 8 . 35 8.22 8.04 7.86 7. 75 7.73 8.07 - 128 -TABLE B14 (a) ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN MILLIMHOS/CM. AT TEMPERATURES RECORDED IN TABLE Bl NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 1 0 2.11 1.76 2.06 1.83 1. 91 1.69 1.65 1.71 1.23 10 1.97 1. 75 2.06 1.93 1.97 1.69 1.67 1.79 1.27 20 1.90 1.75 2.00 1.88 1.99 1.70 1.69 1.75 1.31 40 2 . 02 1.79 2.02 1.88 1.98 1.72 1. 74 1. 77 1.33 60 1.99 1.81 2.16 1.88 2.10 1.71 1.76 1.73 1.35 OY - 2 0 2.12 1.77 2.10 1.86 2.02 1. 76 1.75 1. 87 1. 34 10 2.01 1.77 2.12 1. 85 2.03 1. 78 1.78 1.87 1. 34 20 1.89 1.77 2.11 1.90 1. 99 1.80 1. 81 1. 84 1. 35 40 2,05 1. 81 2.08 1.97 2.03 1.77 1.80 1.79 1. 36 60 1. 96 1.88 2.15 1. 99 2.03 1.87 1.82 1. 71 1. 38 OY - 3 0 2.25 1.32 2.13 1.93 2.05 1.75 1. 80 1.85 1.37 10 1.84 1.78 2.08 1.92 2.09 1.77 1. 81 1.84 1.37 20 1.95 1.79 2.10 1.94 2.19 1. 80 1.79 1. 81 1. 38 40 1.97 1.84 2.12 2 . 01 2.05 1.79 1.78 1.79 1.38 60 2.09 1.92 2.21 2.03 2.13 1. 77 2.00 1. 74 1.39 OY - 4 0 2.23 1.96 2.22 2 . 04 2. 08 1.73 1.82 1. 84 1.40 10 1.99 1.88 2.06 1.93 2.12 1.73 1.82 1.80 1. 38 20 1. 89 1.88 2. 06 2.01 2.04 1.74 1. 81 1.76 1.40 40 1. 99 1.9] ].12 3.05 ].06 1.7] 1. 87 1.75 1.40 60 1. 92 i 1.99 2.19 2.13 2.14 1. 74 1.86 1.71 1.41 - 129 -TABLE B14 (b) ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN MILLIMHOS/CM. AT 18°C NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 1 0 2 . 215 1. 819 1. 776 1.698 1. 672 1. 572 1. 579 1. 562 1. 426 10 2 .113 1. 837 2. 045 1. 838 1. 791 1. 587 1. 621 1. 713 1. 464 20 2 . 088 1. 837 2. 010 1.790 1. 830 1. 611 1. 645 1. 683 1. 519 4 0 2 .641 2 . 028 2 . 251 2.032 2 . 005 1. 724 1. 727 1. 806 1. 538 60 2 .726 2. 389 2 . 899 2.507 2. 638 2. 206 2 . 256 2. 066 1. 579 OY - 2 0 2 .163 1. 829 1. 799 1.726 1. 757 1. 630 1. 675 1. 740 1. 540 10 2 .209 1. 858 2. 073 1. 762 1. 845 1. 671 1. 728 1. 781 1. 536 20 2 .106 1. 883 2 . 121 1.836 1. 843 1. 706 1. 766 1. 778 1. 547 40 2 . 654 2. 017 2. 249 2.195 2. 056 1. 774 1. 791 1. 781 1. 559 60 2 .703 2. 523 2 . 867 2 .627 2 . 538 2. 328 2 . 333 2. 124 1. 582 OY - 3 0 2 . 217 1. 843 1. 790 1. 747 1. 745 1. 602 1. 714 1. 775 1. 588 10 2 .005 1. 869 2 . 049 1.855 1. 879 1. 666 1. 753 1. 765 1. 575 20 2 . 155 1. 904 2 . 111 1. 874 2. 014 1. 706 1. 746 1. 753 1. 586 40 2 . 510 2. 085 2. 382 2. 209 2. 076 1. 790 1. 793 1. 768 1. 586 60 2 .883 2. 577 2. 966 2.707 2 . 663 2. 178 2. 540 2 . 155 1. 598 OY - •4 0 2 .124 1. 917 1. 846 1.821 1. 763 1. 591 1. 713 1. 692 1. 623 10 2 .128 1. 928 2. 044 1.854 1. 876 1. 628 1. 754 1. 727 1. 586 20 2 .124 1. 974 2. 070 1.942 1. 876 1. 649 1. 765 1. 696 1. 609 40 2 .535 2. 110 2. 341 2. 284 2 . 168 1. 716 1. 874 1. 720 1. 609 60 2 .630 2. 671 2. 891 2.840 2. 761 2. 210 2. 325 2. 092 1. 634 MEANS 0 2 .18 0 1. 852 1. 803 1. 748 1. 734 1. 599 1. 671 1. 692 1. 544 10 2 .114 1. 873 2. 053 1. 830 1. 848 1. 638 1. 714 1. 747 1. 540 20 2 . 118 1. 900 2. 078 1.861 1. 891 1. 668 1. 731 1. 728 1. 565 40 2 .5 85 2. 060 2. 306 2.180 2. 076 1. 751 1. 796 1. 796 1. 573 60 2 .736 2. 540 2. 906 2. 670 2. 650 2. 231 2. 364 2. 109 1. 598 - 130 -TABLE B15 DISSOLVED 0 2 - ppm NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 1 0 8.3 7.6 8.2 7.6 9.8 10 8.0 7.5 8.2 6.8 9.7 20 7 . 2 7.4 8 . 0 6.65 9.7 40 3.4 3.2 6.8 3.6 9.7 60 4.4 5.3 4.8 2.5 8.8 OY - 2 0 6.9 8.3 8.6 8 . 36 10.0 10 5.6 8.3 8 . 6 7.5 9.8 20 4.5 8.2 8.4 7.1 9.7 40 2.1 3.2 7.1 4.2 9.7 60 2.6 5.3 4.9 3.1 9.4 OY - 3 0 6.9 8.1 7.7 8 . 3 9.9 10 5.7 7.9 7.8 7. 2 9.9 20 4.0 7.8 7. 7 7.0 9. 8 40 1.9 3.3 4.4 4.8 9.8 60 2.2 5.1 0.8 3.0 9.8 OY - 4 0 7.5 8.6 7.7 7.7 10. 0 10 5.8 8 . 5 7.8 7.3 9.9 20 4.0 8.4 7.7 6.8 9.9 40 1.6 3.6 3.2 6.3 9.9 6 0 2.1 5.1 3.9 3.3 10.0 MEANS 0 7.4 8.2 8.1 8.0 9.9 10 6.3 8.1 8.1 7.2 9.8 20 4.9 8.0 8.0 6.9 9.8 40 2.3 3.3 5.4 4.7 9.8 60 2.8 5.2 3.6 3.0 9.5 - 131 -TABLE B16 TOTAL CALCIUM, NITRATE AND PHOSPHATE PRESENT IN THE BOTTOM DEPOSITS - ppm NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION TEST PERIOD A B C D E F G H J O Y - 1 Ca 633 888 496 448 NO 3 3. 55 4.43 3.76 9.4 P 0 4 3900 1438 1250 1975 O Y - 2 Ca 568 1013 568 472 N0 3 5.32 4 . 89 4.15 9.25 P O 4 3600 988 15 2 5 2040 O Y - 3 Ca 440 727 312 294 N0 3 - 4 . 35 6.2 8.2 P O 4 2994 1305 1100 2450 OY - 4 Ca 546 735 616 608 NO 3 - 3.89 7. 39 8.8 P O 4 3390 1169 1100 2630 MEANS Ca 547 841 498 456 N0 3 2.22 4 . 39 5 . 38 8 .91 P O 4 3471 1225 1244 2274 - 132 -TABLE B17 UNITS OF Anabaena flos-aquae /ml . NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J O Y - 1 0 55 4124 470 4430 20 5 340 180 _ 10 121 4100 4260 4220 70 50 315 75 2 20 224 4100 5900 4020 150 30 250 160 -40 15 1700 2810 2410 120 5 155 90 -60 — 84 340 590 40 — 5 2 1 OY - 2 0 23 XS4000 410 4640 30 15 300 100 10 110 XS4000 6110 3310 140 40 290 65 -20 152 XS4000 7690 4960 190 60 320 95 -40 - 1800 1850 1950 110 3 45 65 -60 — 92 490 660 60 — — 5 — O Y - 3 0 22 XS4000 100 4280 25 30 180 65 10 253 XS4000 4110 3980 90 50 180 210 -20 121 XS3000 8080 4000 300 60 360 80 8 40 7 1348 1450 1610 160 5 135 25 5 60 2 30 — — 30 — — — 1 OY - 4 0 44 XS4000 130 3310 40 20 210 115 2 10 67 XS4000 6350 4800 90 30 240 105 -20 92 XS4000 6480 4520 160 50 220 95 1 40 1 1805 1870 2210 80 50 15 100 -60 56 370 490 90 MEANS 0 36 XS4000 278 4165 29 18 258 115 1 10 138 XS4000 5208 4078 98 43 256 114 1 20 147 XS4000 7038 4375 200 50 288 108 2 40 6 1663 1995 2045 118 16 88 70 1 60 66 300 435 55 1 2 1 - 133 -TABLE B18 UNITS OF Dinobryon s e r t u l a r i a / m l . NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J O Y - 1 0 30 _ — — 227 59 17 _ 10 10 - - - 134 113 21 -20 8 - - 10 245 88 27 -40 - - - - 4 12 - -60 — — — — - — — — O Y - 2 0 8 17 50 79 5 10 50 - - 10 95 96 20 -20 3 - - - - 303 60 29 -40 - - - - - 31 26 - -60 — — — — — — 3 2 — O Y - 3 0 11 6 90 35 10 5 - - 48 276 74 36 -20 - - - 19 414 50 43 -40 - - - - 75 12 - -60 — — — — — — — - — OY - 4 0 223 55 10 10 - - - 25 237 70 15 -20 - - - - - 309 75 10 -40 - - - - 6 4 5 -60 3 MEANS 0 12 6 148 57 8 10 16 - - 21 186 88 23 -20 3 - - 7 318 68 27 -40 - - - - 9 14 1 -60 2 1 - 134 -TABLE B19 UNITS OF F r a g i l a r i a crotonensis / m l . NORTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 1 0 _ _ _ 3 129 160 197 14 10 - - - 11 110 307 221 4 20 - - - 23 94 285 258 2 40 7 - 1 18 157 90 1 60 — — — 27 25 2 OY - 2 0 1 9 55 184 106 11 10 - - 2 21 79 328 242 6 20 - 1 1 25 103 339 253 3 40 - - - 30 189 128 -60 — — 1 18 63 1 OY - 3 0 6 52 125 176 9 10 - 1 - 6 116 279 194 10 20 - - - 3 14 107 362 185 7 40 - - 1 165 101 2 60 — — — — 25 27 — OY - 4 0 14 I l l 120 104 10 10 - - - 10 99 362 187 7 20 - - - 14 181 333 224 4 40 - - 4 15 188 178 2 60 25 28 MEANS 0 8 87 147 146 11 10 - - 1 12 101 319 211 7 20 - - - 1 19 121 330 230 4 40 2 - 2 21 175 124 1 60 24 36 1 A P P E N D I X C - 135 -TABLE CI WATER TEMPERATURES °C SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 16.1 19 .4 22 . 2 22.0 21.2 20.5 20 . 8 21. 5 13. 6 10 15.6 17 .8 20.0 21. 2 21. 0 20 . 5 20.1 20.4 13. 6 20 15.6 17 . 0 18.9 20. S 20. 7 20. 3 19. 9 19.6 13 . 5 40 12.5 12 . 8 15.9 15.5 19.9 18 .1 17.8 19.0 13. 4 60 12.2 12. 0 13.9 14. 5 16. 9 15. 7 15.9 13. 4 OY - 6 0 16.4 20 . 0 22 . 2 22.0 21.9 20 .0 20. 8 21. 3 13. 5 • 10 16.1 17 . 8 21.2 21.0 21.0 20.2 20.1 20.5 13. 6 20 15. 6 17.0 18 . 9 20. 5 20. 5 2 0.2 19. 8 20.0 13. 5 40 12. 2 13 . 3 15.9 16.0 18 . 5 18 .0 17. 5 19 .3 13 . 2 60 14.5 OY - 7 0 16.1 21.1 22.8 24.0 22 . 5 19.5 20.8 19.8 13. 5 10 16.1 20.0 22.2 22 . 0 21.1 19.8 20.0 20 . 3 13. 5 20 15. 9 19.4 13 .9 21.0 20.7 19. 8 19. 5 19.8 13. 5 40 11.7 16.1 15.6 16.0 17.5 18.1 17 . 6 19.0 13. 5 60 10. 6 14.4 13. 3 14 . 5 15.0 14. 0 14. 8 16.0 13. 4 OY - 8 0 16. 7 21.1 23 . 2 24.0 23 . 0 19 .1 21.5 20. 5 13 . 2 10 16.1 19.4 22 . 8 21. 5 21. 5 19 .0 20.0 20.0 13. 3 20 15.9 18 . 9 20. 3 20.5 20 . 8 19.2 19 . 7 19.8 13. 3 40 11.7 15.6 14.4 16. 5 17.8 17. 2 17.9 10.0 13. 4 60 10. 3 13.9 13 . 3 14 . 5 15.0 13.2 15.0 15.5 13. 3 MEANS 0 16. 3 20.4 22 . 6 23.0 22 . 2 19 . 8 21. 0 20 . 8 13. 5 10 16.0 18.8 21. 6 21.4 21. 2 19.9 20.1 20.3 13. 5 20 15. 8 18.1 19 . 3 20.7 20.7 19.9 19.7 19.8 13. 5 40 12. 0 14.5 15.5 16.0 18 .4 17.9 17.7 19 .1 13. 5 60 11. 0 13.4 13.5 14. 5 15.6 14. 3 15. 2 15. 8 13. 3 - 136 -TABLE C2 DEPTH OF VISIBILITY IN FEET (SECCHI DISC) SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 15.0' 14.0' 6.5" 8.5' 9.0' 10.0' 8.5' 9.5' 8.5 OY - 6 OY - 7 OY -15.0' 15.0' 7.0' 7.5' 8.5' 9.5' 8.5' 9.5' 8.5' 17.0' 12.0' 8.0' 8.0' 8.0' 9.5' 8.5' 9.5' 8.5' 13.0' 10.0' 9.0' 7.0' 8.0' 9.0' 9.5* 9.5' 8.5' MEANS 15.0' 12.8' 7.6' 7.8' 8.4' 9.5' 9.5' 8.5' - 137 -TABLE C3 TOTAL PHOSPHATE (PO^ 3) - ppm SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 . 323 - . 013 . 07 . 042 .073 . O i l . 088 .138 10 .14 - . 015 . 09 .115 .093 .025 .053 .165 20 .07 - . 015 . 067 .148 .104 .053 .162 .090 40 NT - . 063 .120 .08 .10 .028 .137 .075 60 .083 . 04 .068 .133 . 381 . 077 .274 OY - 6 0 .03 _ .134 . 047 . 209 .10 . 065 . 097 . 06 10 .04 - . 015 . 085 .169 .083 .163 .074 .035 20 .03 . 05 .015 .095 .198 .104 . 003 . 088 . 046 40 .04 - .021 .143 .106 . 11 . 006 .088 .028 60 OY - 7 0 _ .035 . 343 .120 . 162 .028 . 094 .042 10 - - .011 .195 .135 . 093 . 02 .155 . 118 20 - - .025 . 20 .104 .083 .016 . 056 .046 40 - - .039 .175 .198 . 097 .068 .071 . 05 60 .021 . 095 .163 . 097 .068 .142 . 063 OY - 8 0 .01 .013 . 085 . 085 .104 . 075 . 053 . 067 10 • - - .015 . 105 .109 .146 .018 . 056 . 042 20 - - .011 -.08 . 097 .08 .033 .01 .05 40 - - .021 . 095 .169 .107 . 071 .125 . 052 60 . 063 . 215 .151 .17 .099 .179 . 078 - 138 -TABLE C4 TOTAL PHOSPHORUS (P) - ppm SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 • 0 .106 _ .004 .023 .014 .022 .003 . 029 .046 10 .043 - .005 .029 .038 .029 .008 .017 .055 20 .035 - .005 .022 .048 .032 .017 .053 .030 40 NT - .021 .039 .026 .031 .009 .045 .025 60 .026 .013 . 023 NT .043 .124 .025 NT .091 OY - 6 0 .010 — .004 . 015 . 068 .033 . 021 .032 . 020 10 .013 - . 005 . 028 .055 . 027 .053 . 023 . 012 20 . 010 - . 005 .031 . 065 .034 . 001 .027 . 015 40 . 015 - . 007 . 047 .035 .036 .021 . 027 . 009 60 OY - 7 0 .011 .112 . 029 .020 .009 .031 .014 10 - - - .004 .064 . 044 .030 .007 .051 .039 20 - - .008 .061 .034 .027 .005 .018 . 015 40 - - .013 .057 .065 .032 .022 .023 .017 60 — .007 .031 .053 .032 .022 . 046 . 021 OY - 8 0 .003 . 004 .028 .026 .034 .025 . 017 . 022 10 - - .005 .034 .036 .048 . 006 .018 . 014 20 - - .004 . 076 .030 . 025 .011 . 003 . 013 40 - - .007 .031 . 055 .035 .023 .041 .017 60 . 021 .070 . 049 . 055 .032 .058 .026 MEANS 0 .03 .001 .006 .045 .037 . 027 . 015 .027 . 026 10 .014 .001 .005 .039 . 043 .034 .019 .027 .030 20 .011 .001 .006 .035 .049 .030 .009 .025 .018 40 .003 . 001 .012 . 044 .052 .033 .019 .034 .017 60 .009 .004 . 017 . 050 . 048 .062 .026 .052 . 046 - 139 -TABLE C5 AMMONIA (NH 3) - ppm SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B c D E F G H J OY - 5 0 NT - .017 .079 .117 .050 .019 . 076 .062 10 NT - .025 .031 . 063 . 058 . 021 .045 .196 20 NT - .035 .044 .056 . 042 .025 .049 .127 40 NT - . 066 .235 .197 .189 .435 .125 . 082 60 NT — . 339 .632 .470 .923 . 074 OY - 6 0 NT _ .080 . 047 . 067 .050 .080 .041 .010 10 NT - .103 .05 . 065 .060 .034 . 055 . 215 20 NT - .224 . 042 .122 . 064 . 047 .069 . 206 40 NT - .254 . 208 . 313 .225 .178 .197 .190 60 OY - 7 0 NT .008 .170 . 019 .066 .044 .054 .027 .099 10 NT - .013 . 026 .080 .043 . 041 .039 .187 20 NT - .063 .019 .110 .053 .045 .056 .106 40 NT - .126 .146 .257 .234 .455 .142 .109 60 NT . 306 . 326 .430 . 380 .958 .609 .152 OY - 8 0 NT — . 013 ,019 . 100 .044 . 057 . 054 .153 10 NT — .078 . 023 . 029 . 042 . 050 .039 .181 20 NT - . 069 . 027 .110 .054 . 068 .087 .185 40 NT - .147 .127 .485 .145 . 348 .156 .199 60 NT .401 . 310 . 743 . 284 . 940 .602 . 203 MEANS 0 NT .002 . 070 . 041 . 087 . 047 . 053 . 050 .081 10 NT - .054 .032 . 059 .051 .038 .045 .194 20 NT - .097 .033 . 099 . 053 . 046 .065 . 156 40 NT - .148 . 179 . 313 .198 . 354 .156 .157 60 NT . 348 . 318 . 618 .284 . 940 . 606 . 143 - 140 -TABLE C6 NITRITE (N0 2) - ppm SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B r D E F G H J OY - 5 0 - - - - . 003 .002 . 005 . 005 . 008 10 - - - - .009 .006 . 003 .003 . 008 20 - - - - . 008 - .004 .004 . 007 40 - - .005 - .003 . 001 . 005 . 002 . 008 60 .022 .006 . 042 . 006 .007 OY - 6 0 _ _ _ .005 .004 .003 .006 10 - - - - - .002 .003 . 003 . 006 20 - - - - .005 .003 . 002 . 002 .004 40 - - - .006 .005 .001 .003 .002 .008 60 OY - 7 0 _ . 005 _ _ .001 . 005 .005 . 006 10 - - - - .003 . 004 . 005 .006 . 005 20 - - . 001 - .00 3 . 005 .007 . 006 . 007 40 - - .003 - - .002 .006 . 006 . 006 60 .002 .031 — . 003 . 004 . 006 . 006 . 005 OY - 8 0 _ .003 . 001 .005 .008 10 - - - - - . 001 .004 .004 .006 20 - - - - . 006 . 004 .003 .007 . 005 40 - - .003 .001 . 005 .002 . 006 .006 . 006 60 .015 . 001 .037 .006 .009 .005 . 005 MEANS 0 .001 .002 .001 .004 .005 .007 10 - - - - .002 .003 . 004 .004 . 007 20 - - - - .006 .003 .004 .005 .006 40 - - .003 . 002 .002 .002 .005 .004 .007 60 .004 .030 .003 .017 .007 . 006 . 006 - 141 -TABLE C7 NITRATE (NOg) - ppm SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 - .120 .128 — - .031 . 049 . 098 .067 10 - - .089 •- - .124 .190 . 027 . 067 20 - .097 .252 . 024 .093 .115 .115 . 284 . 067 40 - .120 .168 - - .127 .190 .576 .089 60 — . 319 .110, — — .168 .204 . 098 OY - 6 0 _ . 084 _ .089 .102 .027 . 213 10 - . 044 - - - .067 .049 .115 .142 20 - - - - - .035 .190 .032 .195 40 .020 .142 .062 .084 .102 .248 .111 Oy - 7 0 .030 .035 .049 .122 .035 . 102 .452 .293 10 . 024 . 066 - .071 .132 . 044 .173 . 022 .182 20 - - - - .157 .177 . 098 .013 .177 40 - .120 - .058 . 211 . 080 . 058 . 802 .226 60 — .097 — .089 .122 . 067 . 055 .093 . 217 OY - 8 0 _ .106 .157 .013 .120 .027 . 253 10 .010 .009 - .098 .130 .089 .115 . 009 .168 20 - - - .062 . 349 . 022 .208 .111 . 160 40 .01 .044 - .035 .202 .004 . 142 . 013 .142 60 . 044 .140 .226 .067 .115 MEANS 0 .008 .039 .053 .039 .070 .042 . 093 .151 .207 10 . 009 .030 . 022 . 042 . 066 .081 .132 .043 .140 20 - .024 . 063 . 022 .150 . 087 .153 .110 .150 40 .00 5 .107 . 042 .023 . 119 . 049 .123 . 410 .142 60 .153 .037 .030 . 097 .154 .109 .047 .143 - 142 -TABLE C8 TOTAL NITROGEN (N) - ppm SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 - .027 .043 . 065 .097 .049 . 029 .087 .068 10 - - . 041 . 026 .055 .078 . 061 . 044 .178 20 - .022 .081 .036 . 069 .061 . 048 .105 .121 40 - .027 . 094 .197 .163 .162 .403 .234 .089 60 — .072 . 311 — . 522 .438 . 808 - .085 OY - 6 0 _ .085 .039 .059 .061 .090 .041 .058 10 - .010 .085 .041 .054 .065 .040 .072 .210 20 - - .184 .035 .102 . 062 .083 . 065 .214 40 .005 .032 .209 .174 . 274 .204 .171 .219 .183 60 OY - 7 0 .007 . 016 .14 .027 . 082 . 044 . 070 .126 .149 10 .006 .015 . O i l .037 .097 .046 .075 .039 .195 20 - - . 052 .016 .127 . 086 . 061 . 051 .129 40 - .027 .105 .133 . 260 . 212 . 390 . 200 .142 60 .001 .022 .261 .288 .426 .329 .804 .593 .175 OY - 8 0 . O i l .106 .118 .038 .074 .053 .185 10 .002 .002 . 064 . 041 .053 . 055 .072 .035 .188 20 - - .057 .036 .172 . 051 .104 .099 .189 40 .002 .010 .123 .112 .447 .121 . 319 .135 .197 60 . 004 .011 . 341 . 260 . 650 .287 . 793 .497 .194 MEANS 0 . 002 .011 . 095 .059 . 089 . 048 . 066 . 077 .115 10 .002 .007 .05 .036 . 065 .063 .062 .048 .193 20 .001 .006 .093 .056 .118 .065 .074 .080 .164 40 .002 . 024 .133 .154 .295 .175 . 301 .197 .163 60 . 001 .026 . 304 .183 .533 . 351 .801 .545 .151 - 143 -TABLE C9 CHLORIDE (CI") - ppm SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 2 .75 2.6 1.60 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.2 0.9 10 3.2 2.7 1.72 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.3 20 3.2 2.5 1. 69 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.1 40 3.2 2.5 1.67 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.6 60 3.5 2.5 1.72 1.4 2.2 1.7 1.4 OY - 6 0 3.7 2.5 1.72 1.2 1. 5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.1 10 3.5 2.5 1. 74 1.3 1.4 1.7 1.2 1.2 1.1 20 3.5 2.4 1.67 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.2 40 3.0 2.3 1.69 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.1 60 OY - 7 0 3.2 1.9 1.62 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.2 10 3.2 2.7 1.66 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.2 20 3.0 2.5 1.69 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.2 40 3.5 2.4 1.61 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.0 60 3.3 2.4 1.72 1.8 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.4 0.9 OY - 8 0 3.5 3.0 1.67 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.3 0.9 10 3.5 2.7 1. 61 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.2 20 3.5 3.0 1. 66 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.0 40 3.7 2.4 1.63 1.0 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.2 1.1 60 3.5 3.0 1.74 1.5 0.9 1.6 1.4 1.3 1. 3 MEANS 0 3.29 2 . 50 1.65 1.50 1.48 1. 60 1.43 1. 38 1.03 10 3. 35 2.65 1.68 1.40 1.45 1.48 1.40 1. 30 1.20 20 3. 30 2.43 1.68 1.45 1.40 1.48 1.40 1.40 1.13 40 3. 35 2.48 1.65 1.43 1. 60 1. 60 1.48 1. 35 1.20 60 3.43 2.63 1.73 1.65 1.27 1.80 1.58 1. 35 1.20 - 144 -TABLE CIO CALCIUM (Ca) - ppm SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 29.6 25. 5 19.2 17.6 21.6 25.8 28.8 20 . 0 43.2 10 33.6 26. 9 17 . 6 19. 2 28.8 22.4 37.6 38 .4 27.2 20 27.2 28. 3 23.2 17. 6 20. 8 21.6 38.4 35.2 28. 8 40 32.9 27. 6 23.2 19.2 24. 8 25.8 35.2 35 .2 35.2 60 32.9 32. 9 25.6 27.4 30.4 37.6 36. 3 OY - 6 0 27.2 27. 6 2 2.4 20.0 24 .0 20.0 44.0 22.4 32.0 10 32.1 27. 6 19.2 20 . 0 20.8 22.4 35. 2 38.4 42.4 20 28. 9 28. 3 21.6 14.4 23.2 22.4 37.6 43.2 27. 2 40 31. 3 32. 9 23.2 21.6 24. 0 20.8 38.4 40.8 31.2 60 OY - 7 0 28.0 21. 8 20.0 20.8 25.6 19. 2 41.6 37.6 31. 2 10 32.1 28. 3 20.0 18.4 25.6 20.8 37 .6 37.6 47.6 20 32.1 28 . 3 22.4 16.8 2-4.0 20.0 32. 8 40.0 37.6 40 24.0 33. 3 24.0 23.2 25.6 21.6 42 .4 36.0 36 .0 60 32.1 32 . 6 26.4 24.0 24. 8 20.8 44 . 8 40.0 36.8 OY - 8 0 26.4 26. 7 21.6 16.8 20.8 17.6 33.6 32.8 31.2 10 27.2 25. 5 19.2 17.6 24.8 17.6 30.4 33.6 36.0 20 28.0 28. 3 19.2 19.2 21.6 17. 6 32.0 28.8 43.2 40 32.1 29. 0 23.2 18 .4 28.0 22.4 29.6 33.6 38. 4 60 30. 5 30. 4 24. 0 20.8 25.6 22.4 37,6 32 .0 40. 8 MEANS 0 27.8 25. 4 20. 8 18. 8 23.0 20.7 37.0 28 . 2 34.4 10 31. 3 27. 1 19.0 18. 8 25.0 20. 8 35.2 37.0 38 . 3 20 29.1 28 . 3 21. 6 18.0 22.4 20.4 35 .2 36.8 34. 2 40 30.1 30. 7 23.4 20.6 25.6 22.7 36.4 36.4 35.2 60 31.8 32. 0 25.3 22 .4 25.9 24.5 40 .0 36.0 38.1 -.145 -TABLE C l l MAGNESIUM (Mg) - ppm SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 7.13 9.40 8.88 9.5 10.5 8.8 9.4 10.4 9.6 10 8 . 30 9.3 9.13 9.5 11.8 8.9 9.7 9.4 9.6 20 6.95 9.3 8 . 72 9.6 11. 5 9.7 9.5 9 . 5 9.9 40 6.37 9.7 9.5 9.3 11. 0 10.1 9.4 10.0 9 . 8 •60 8.13 10. 5 10. 38 13.0 11. 3 10.9 9.8 OY - 6 0 6.92 9 . 8 9.4 9 . 3 11.0 8.8 9.7 9.1 9.8 10 9. 39 9.4 9.88 9.0 12.0 9.8 9.4 9.5 9.5 20 7.80 9.8 9. 38 9.0 12 . 5 9.3 9.8 9.5 9.8 40 6.1 10.4 10.0 9.6 10. 5 9.1 10.2 9 . 5 9.6 60 OY - 7 0 7.6 9.25 9. 35 9.1 11. 3 8.9 9.7 9.0 9.8 10 7.2 9 . 6 9.42 9.0 10.0 9.0 9.7 9.4 9.7 20 6.6 9.6 9.95 9.0 10.5 9.0 9.9 9.5 9.7 40 7.4 10.1 9 .45 9.5 11. 5 9. 3 9 . 9 9.4 9.2 60 6.8 10. 7 10.88 9.9 10. 2 9.8 10.1 10.5 9.4 OY - 8 0 7.4 9.1 9.63 8 . 8 12.0 9.4 9.2 8.6 9.7 10 7.5 9.1 8.7 17.2 15. 8 9.4 9.4 9.5 9.4 20 6.4 9.1 9.0 9.2 13.5 9.3 17 . 3 10.0 9.7 40 9.9 9.5 9.75 9.2 11.0 9.5 9.7 8.8 9.2 60 6.6 10.5 9.75 9.6 13.7 11.0 10. 2 9.9 9.4 MEANS 0 7.3 9.4 9 . 3 9.3 11. 2 9 . 0 9 . 5 9.3 9.7 10 8.1 9.4 9 . 2 11. 2 12.4 9.3 9.6 9.5 9.6 20 7.0 9 . 5 9.3 9.2 12. 0 9.3 11. 6 9.6 9.8 40 7.5 9.9 9.7 9.4 11. 0 9.5 9.8 9.4 9.5 60 7.2 10.6 10. 3 9.8 12. 3 10.7 10.4 10.2 9.5 - 146 -TABLE CI2 SILICA (S i0 2 ) - ppm SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH. PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 N N N 5.5 5.4 4.1 4.7 4.0 N 10 0 0 0 5.3 6 . 3 5.1 5.3 4.0 0 20 3 . 8 5.7 5.7 4.8 4.3 40 T T T 6.1 T 60 E E E 10.5 E S S S S T T T T OY - 6 0 5 . 5 5.1 5.6 5.0 3.9 10 5.3 5.5 4.4 7.8 3.9 20 5.0 5.6 3.0 4 . 8 3.8 40 5.6 60 OY - 7 0 5.5 6.5 3.9 4.7 3.9 10 5.0 7.1 3.1 4.7 4.0 20 5 . 6 7.0 3.9 4.6 4.3 40 6.8 60 10. 3 OY - 8 0 5.3 5.0 4.9 4.5 3.8 10 5 . 0 5.4 6.7 5.0 3.7 20 5 . 0 5.4 2.4 4.7 3.9 40 6.8 60 9.8 MEANS 0 5.45 5.50 4.68 4.73 3.90 10 5.15 6.08 4.83 5.70 3. 90 20 4.85 5.93 3.75 4.73 4.08 40 6. 33 60 10 .20 - 147 -TABLE CI3 PH SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 8.47 8.80 9.20 8.95 8.71 8. 80 8. 89 8.55 8.20 10 8.59 8.85 9.21 8.70 8. 61 8.79 8.74 8.50 8.19 20 8.61 8.81 9.09 8.90 8.58 8.75 8.72 8.40 8.18 40 8.53 8. 28 8.25 7.80 8 .09 7. 80 7.81 8.10 8 .17 60 8.50 8.08 7. 77 7.60 7. 60 7.67 8.15 OY - 6 0 8.45 8.78 9.21 9. 01 8 . 61 8.82 8 . 71 8. 55 8. 20 10 8. 60 8 . 81 9.26 9.15 8.62 8.79 8.73 8 . 55 8.20 20 8.63 8.83 9.21 8.99 8.49 8. 70 8.62 8.50 8.18 40 8.45 8.22 8.18 7.30 7.90 7.70 7.71 8.00 8.18 60 OY - 7 0 8.45 9.25 8.99 8.82 8.72 8.70 8 . 55 8.20 10 8.54 9.20 9 .10 8.63 8.70 8.66 8. 50 8.20 20 8.60 9.10 8.95 8.58 8.70 8.68 8. 50 8.20 40 8. 38 8. 20 7. 83 8.00 7 . 79 7.82 8 .05 8.19 60 8.12 7.78 7.65 7.57 7.5 3 7 . 60 7.65 8.10 OY - 8 0 8.49 9.26 8.95 8.60 8.73 8 .69 8.50 8.26 10 8.58 9.21 9.10 8.60 8 . 70 8 .63 8.55 8.26 20 8.59 9.20 8.98 8 . 58 8.69 8.60 8 . 50 8. 20 40 8.27 8 .33 7.92 7 . 75 7.75 8.01 8.00 8.21 60 8.02 7.78 7.65 7 . 50 7.51 7.61 7.60 8.18 MEANS 0 8.47 8 .79 9.23 8 .98 8.68 8 . 77 8 .75 8.54 8 .22 10 8.58 8.83 9.2 2 9. 06 8.62 8.75 8.69 8.53 8.21 20 8.61 8 .82 9.15 8.96 8.56 8 .71 8.66 8.48 8.19 40 8.41 8. 25 8.24 7.84 7.94 7 . 76 7 . 84 8 . 04 8.19 60 8.21 8. 08 7.78 7.65 7 . 56 7 . 55 7.63 7.63 8 .17 - 148 -TABLE C14 (a) ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN MILLIMHOS/CM. AT TEMPERATURES RECORDED IN TABLE CI SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 2 . 22 2.15 1.93 1.99 2.03 1.70 1.77 1.88 1.49 10 2.21 2.06 1.96 2.02 2.09 1.71 1.82 1.86 1.50 20 2 .18 2.03 1.99 2.03 2.06 1. 74 1. 84 1.83 1. 50 40 2.16 2.11 2.15 2.26 2.18 1.86 2.03 1.83 1.50 60 2.12 2 .22 2.26 1.89 1.99 1.51 OY - 6 0 2.26 2.15 2.03 2.13 2.08 1.78 1. 84 1.86 1.50 10 2 . 21 2.15 2.05 2.06 2.13 1.78 1.86 1.87 1. 51 20 2.20 2.11 2.03 2 .05 2 .11 1.77 1.87 1.82 1.52 40 2.14 2.17 2. 24 2 .29 2.21 1.87 2.01 1.83 1. 51 60 — — — — — — - - — OY - 7 0 2.20 2.13 2.06 2.17 2.09 1.77 1.91 1.85 1.50 10 2.18 2.09 2.08 2.18 2.13 1.75 1.87 1.84 1.52 20 2.15 2.07 2.08 2.15 2.16 1.76 1.89 1. 82 1.51 40 2 .10 2 .11 2. 30 2.35 2.28 1.88 2.00 1.82 1.51 60 2.08 2.13 2. 38 2 . 30 2.34 1.91 2.10 1.90 1.51 OY - 8 0 2. 27 2.14 2.11 2.12 2.14 1. 75 1. 88 1.86 1.50 10 2. 21 2.15 2.13 2.17 2.16 1.71 1.86 1.83 1. 50 20 2.18 2.14 .2.11 2.12 2.18 1.75 1.90 1.82 1.50 40 2.13 2.26 2 .25 2.28 2.27 1. 84 1.97 1. 82 1.51 60 2.09 2.21 2. 37 2.28 2.43 1. 87 2.11 1.89 1.52 - 149 -TABLE CI4 (b) ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN MILLIMHOS/CM AT 18°C SOUTHERN TRANSECT - OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J 5 0 2 . 331 2 .077 1. 747 1. 809 1 880 1 600 1. 654 1. 729 1. 674 10 2 . 351 2 .070 1. 867 1. 870 1 944 1 609 1. 729 1. 755 1. 685 20 2 . 319 2 . 082 1. 946 1. 897 1 930 1 645 1. 757 1. 760 i 690 40 2. 504 2 .425 2 . 269 2 . 411 2 081 1 855 2. 040 1. 785 1 . 695 60 2 . 480 2 . 474 2 324 2 005 2. 100 1. 706 6 0 2. 354 2 .048 1. 837 1. 936 1 895 1 695 1. 720 1. 718 1. 690 10 2 . 320 2 .161 1. 898 1. 916 1 981 1 687 1. 767 1. 760 1. 697 20 2. 340 2 . 164 1 . 985 1. 929 1 986 1 678 1. 790 1. 733 1. 713 40 2. 503 2 .459 2. 364 2 . 411 2 183 1 870 2 . 035 1. 772 1. 716 60 7 0 2. 310 1 .977 1. 839 1. 887 1 879 1 706 1. 785 1. 770 1. 690 10 2 . 289 1 .990 1. 88 2 1. 982 1 977 1 675 1. 781 1. 740 1. 713 20 2. 269 2 . 000 2. 034 2. 000 2 023 1. 684 1. 822 1. 742 1. 701 40 2. 493 2 . 215 2. 447 2 . 474 2 309 1 875 2 . 020 1. 776 1. 701 60 2 . 552 2 . 341 2. 697 2 . 521 2 530 2 123 2 . 283 2. 000 1. 706 8 0 2. 346 1 .986 1. 867 T_ # 843 1 902 1 703 1. 729 1. 751 1. 705 10 2. 320 2 . 077 1. 902 1. 995 1 936 1 668 1. 771 1. 743 1. 700 20 2. 301 2 .093 1. 995 1. 995 2. 037 1 699 1. 823 1. 742 1. 700 40 2. 528 2 .404 2. 473 2. 369 2 281 1 878 1. 975 1. 776 1. 706 60 2 . 588 2 .462 2. 686 2. 499 2 627 2 125 2. 281 2 . 016 1. 722 MEANS 0. 2 . 3 35 2 .022 1. 823 1. 869 1 889 1 676 1. 722 1. 742 1. 690 10 2. 320 2 .075 1. 887 1. 941 1 972 1 665 1. 762 1. 750 1. 699 20 2. 307 2 .085 1. 990 1. 955 1 994 1 677 1. 886 1. 744 1. 701 40 2. 507 2 . 376 2. 383 2. 416 2 213 1 870 2 . 018 1. 777 1. 705 60 2. 540 2 . 402 2. 619 2. 510 2 494 2 084 2 . 221 2 . 008 1. 711 - 150 -TABLE CI5 DISSOLVED 0 2 - ppm SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 8.1 8.0 8.1 7.5 8 . 0 9.5 10 8 . 3 8 . 0 8 . 6 7.4 7.0 9.4 20 7 . 2 7.2 8.6 7 . 2 5.8 9.4 40 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.8 4. 0 9.4 60 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.5 9.4 OY - 6 0 8.0 6.8 8.4 8 . 6 8.1 9.4 10 6.7 6.1 8.2 8.6 7.3 9.4 20 6.4 5.8 8.0 8 . 3 6 . 8 9.4 40 0.7 0 . 7 0.3 0.6 3 . 0 9.4 60 0.6 OY - 7 0 6 . 9 6.7 8.4 8.5 8 . 9 9.4 10 6 . 0 5.8 8.2 8 . 2 7.6 9.4 20 5.4 5.6 7.8 8.1 7.5 9.3 40 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 3.3 9.2 60 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3 1.1 9.2 OY - 8 0 7 . 8 6.9 8.5 7.7 9.5 9.4 10 6.2 6.2 8.4 7 . 5 8 . 0 9.3 20 5 . 8 5.8 8.0 7 . 3 7.6 9.3 40 0 . 7 0.4 0 . 7 0.5 3.0 9.3 60 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.3 1.3 9.3 MEANS 0 7 . 7 7.1 8.4 8.1 8.6 9.4 10 6.8 6.5 8.4 7.9 7.5 9.4 20 6.2 6.1 8.1 7.7 6.9 • 9.4 40 0 . 7 0.6 0.6 0.6 3 . 3 9.3 60 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.4 1.2 9.3 - 1 5 1 -TABLE CI6 TOTAL CALCIUM, NITRATE AND PHOSPHATE PRESENT IN THE BOTTOM DEPOSITS - ppm. SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION TEST PERIOD A B C D E F G H OY - 5 Ca 5 1 0 6 1 6 7 0 3 5 4 6 4 4 0 NO 3 . 8 8 6 1 . 7 7 1 . 7 7 6 . 4 7 6 . 3 2 8 7 5 1 0 0 0 9 6 9 1 0 2 5 1 7 6 2 OY - 6 Ca NO 3 1 3 6 0 7 2 0 3 . 9 9 1 2 7 2 1 . 6 1 3 4 2 6 . 1 P O 4 1 8 1 4 1 1 2 5 1 0 2 5 1 6 9 0 OY - 7 Ca NO 3 6 0 4 8 1 7 1 . 2 4 5 2 0 3 . 3 7 4 4 8 1 9 . 7 P O 4 2 4 1 5 9 0 6 1 0 2 5 1 9 6 4 OY - 8 Ca NO 3 5 5 4 7 2 8 2 . 1 3 5 8 4 1 3 . 5 9 3 9 2 5 . 9 P O , 3 2 7 0 1 3 8 8 8 7 5 1 7 6 2 MEANS Ca 7 5 7 6 1 6 7 4 2 7 3 5 6 5 6 NO 3 . 2 2 2 1 . 7 7 2 . 2 8 6 . 2 6 9 . 5 P O 4 2 5 9 4 1 0 0 0 1 0 9 7 9 8 8 1 7 9 5 - 152 -TABLE CI7 UNITS OF Anabaena flos-aquae / m l . SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 79 640 210 15 25 10 30 4 10 483 1270 330 15 10 90 35 2 20 504 3000 560 20 5 10 30 -"40 - • 791 620 40 - - 40 -60 438 OY - 6 0 65 550 290 10 10 220 45 10 199 800 420 10 - 40 35 -20 567 2270 740 20 - 20 35 -UO 1002 730 10 - - 10 -60 — OY - 7 0 910 420 100 310 50 15 10 884 440 310 20 5 20 15 -20 951 2880 550 10 5 15 135 -40 759 770 - - — 10 -60 195 80 — — — — — OY - 8 0 825 230 370 5 5 30 35 1 10 998 530 410 35 - 140 70 -20 1742 1300 630 25 2 20 55 -40 944 740 - - - - -60 105 30 MEANS 0 470 460 243 8 10 143 40 5 10 641 760 368 20 4 73 39 1 20 941 2363 620 19 3 16 64 -40 874 715 13 - - 15 -60 246 55 - 153 -TABLE CIS UNITS OF Dinobryon s e r t u l a r i a / m l . SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A n. B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 4 995 7 54 9 — 10 12 8 - 615 6 88 24 -20 - - - 7 773 5 25 - -40 - 2 - 24 - 17 - -60 — — — OY - 6 0 5 1061 2 37 6 _ 10 21 14 - 1047 5 91 3 -20 6 12 - 935 16 20 9 -40 6 — 16 10 " OY - 7 0 5 9 1222 6 52 15 10 9 - - 1090 - 34 20 -20 27 - - 747 14 18 5 -40 - - - 4 - - - -60 — — — — — — — _ OY - 8 0 23 1155 5 38 4 10 16 - - 1366 - 15 8 -20 22 - - 1079 - 18 6 -40 - 8 - 7 - - - -60 MEANS 0 9 2 1108 5 45 9 10 15 6 - 1030 3 57 14 -20 14 3 - 2 884 9 20 5 -40 2 3 - 13 3 4 - -60 - 154 -TABLE C19 UNITS OF F r a g i l a r i a crotonensis / m l . SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD A B C D E F G H J OY - 5 0 1 7 4 33 69 36 3 10 — 1 - 1 14 31 81 113 18 20 - — — - 12 31 103 140 18 40 2 2 5 7 20 53 15 60 2 16 OY - 6 0 1 11 30 47 88 1 10 2 - 2 6 17 30 70 90 4 20 3 4 - 4 15 28 82 103 6 40 - - 6 5 21 41 4 60 OY - 7 0 2 1 10 34 44 74 1 10 1 6 - 2 9 27 85 101 6 20 1 1 - 7 29 81 116 12 40 - - 2 3 28 73 8 60 12 - — — — 7 8 OY - 8 0 4 2 2 17 29 33 75 6 10 _ - - 2 18 27 78 116 2 20 - 1 1 1 10 31 85 107 8 40 3 1 3 3 13 68 7 60 4 6 4 MEANS 0 2 1 3 11 32 48 68 3 10 1 2 1 3 15 29 79 105 8 20 1 2 - 2 11 30 88 117 11 40 2 1 4 5 21 59 9 60 8 6 3 - 155 -TABLE C2 0 UNITS OF Melos ira i t a l i c a / m l . and UNITS OF O s c i l l a t o r i a acut iss ima/ml. SOUTHERN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE Melos ira i t a l i c a O s c i l l a t o r i a acutissima LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD J LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD J OY - 5 0 130 OY - 5 0 285 10 138 10 224 20 144 20 325 40 125 40 265 60 — 60 -OY - 6 0 150 OY - 6 0 273 10 161 10 293 20 129 20 244 40 148 40 247 60 — 60 -OY - 7 0 86 OY - 7 0 201 10 109 10 235 20 128 20 211 40 164 40 225 60 132 60 286 OY - 8 0 97 OY - 8 0 235 10 94 10 303 20 107 20 222 40 147 40 362 60 154 60 216 MEANS 0 116 MEANS 0 249 10 126 10 264 20 127 20 251 40 146 40 275 60 123 60 256 A P P E N D I X D - 156 -TABLE Dl WATER TEMPERATURES °C AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 20.2 21. 0 13. 2 10 20.0 20.1 13. 3 20 19. 9 19.9 13. 3 40 19. 3 19.1 13.1 60 OY - 10 0 20.0 20.8 13.0 10 20.0 20 . 2 13.2 20 20.0 19.9 13.3 40 18. 9 18. 5 13.3 60 OY - 11 0 20.2 2 0.3 13.0 10 20.1 20 . 0 13.2 20 20.1 19. 7 13.2 40 18 . 5 18. 9 13.1 60 OY - 12 0 20.3 20.3 13.0 10 20.2 20.0 13.2 20 20.0 19.7 13.2 40 18 . 9 19 . 0 60 MEANS 0 20 . 2 20. 6 13.1 10 20.1 20.1 13.2 20 20.0 19 . 8 13.3 40 18 . 9 18 . 9 13.2 60 - 157 -TABLE D2 DEPTH OF VISIBILITY IN FEET (SECCHI DISC) AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 10.0* 10.0* 8.5' OY - 10 10.0' 11. 0' 8.5' OY - 11 10.0' 11.5' 8.5' OY - 12 11.0 ' 11. 0 ' 8.5' MEANS 10.0' .11.0' 8.5' - 158 -TABLE D3 TOTAL PHOSPHATE (PO^) - ppm AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G ' H J OY - 9 0 .037 .127 . 012 10 .057 .155 -20 . 072 .182 -40 .031 . 242 OY - 10 0 .036 .067 .095 10 .087 .092 -20 .050 .121 .053 40 .182 .465 OY - 11 0 .021 .082 10 .072 .036 . 017 20 .142 . 067 -40 .137 .218 OY - 12 0 .092 .050 .031 10 .067 .137 . 019 20 .050 .142 . 029 40 .031 .076 .034 MEANS 0 .059 .082 .035 10 .071 .105 .009 20 . 079 .128 .021 40 . 095 .250 . 009 - 159 -TABLE D4 TOTAL PHOSPHORUS (P) - ppm AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 .029 . 042 . 004 10 . 019 . 052 -20 .024 .061 -40 . 010 .081 OY - 10 0 .012 . 022 .032 10 . 029 .031 -20 .017 . 040 . 018 40 . 061 .155 OY - 11 0 .007 .027 10 .024 . 012 .006 2 0 . 047 .022 -40 .046 .073 OY - 12 0 .031 . 017 . 010 10 . 022 . 046 . 006 20 . 017 .047 .010 40 .010 .025 . 011 MEANS 0 . 020 .027 . 015 10 .024 .035 . 003 20 .026 . 043 .007 40 .032 . 083 . 003 - 160 -TABLE D5 AMMONIA (NH 3) - ppm AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 . 079 .049 .115 10 .0 39 . 050 . 125 20 . 045 .036 .168 40 .135 . 050 .180 OY - 10 0 .032 . 044 .166 10 . 064 . 047 .216 20 . 065 .058 .135 40 .284 . 365 .187 OY - 11 0 . 014 .063 .254 10 . 016 . 044 .227 20 .052 . 043 .185 40 . 310 . 196 .172 OY - 12 0 .033 .098 .199 10 .035 .056 .234 20 .050 .056 . 166 40 . 339 . 118 MEANS 0 . 040 .064 .184 10 .039 . 049 .2 0 0 20 . 05 3 .048 .164 40 .267 .182 .180 - 161 -TABLE D6 NITRITE (N0 2) - ppm AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 - . 002 .007 10 .0 04 - .008 20 - - .006 40 .005 . 005 .006 OY - 10 0 .007 . 008 10 - - .007 20 - . 002 .007 40 . 004 .008 OY - 11 0 -. 007 10 - . 004 .007 20 . 002 - . 007 40 . 007 OY - 12 0 . 005 . . 007 10 - - .008 20 - - .007 40 . 003 MEANS 0 .002 . 002 . 007 10 . 001 . 001 .008 20 .001 . 001 .007 40 .002 . 002 . 007 - 162 -TABLE D7 NITRATE (NO ) - ppm AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 .177 . 053 .142 10 .173 . 213 .129 20 .115 .155 . 133 40 .151 .173 .111 OY - 10 0 . 168 .200 .093 10 .115 .155 -20 .155 .075 -40 .195 .275 .031 OY - 11 0 .155 .177 .036 10 .155 .129 . 009 20 . 195 . 098 .036 40 . 213 . 293 . 022 OY - 12 0 . 155 .129 .036 10 . 040 . 200 .031 20 . 213 .177 .022 40 1.170 .293 .053 MEANS 0 .164 . 140 .077 10 .121 .174 .042 20 . 170 .126 .048 40 .432 .259 .054 - 163 -TABLE D9 CHLORIDE (CI") - ppm AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD p G H J OY - 9 0 1.5 1.3 1.2 10 1.4 1.3 0 . 7 20 1.4 1.5 0.8 40 1.4 1.5 1.1 OY - 10 0 1.3 1.1 1.0 10 1.3 1.5 1.2 20 1.2 1.2 1.4 40 1.4 1.4 1.2 OY - 11 0 1.3 1.4 1.3 10 1.4 1.3 1.2 20 1.3 1.3 1.4 40 1.2 1.4 1.2 OY - 12 0 1.2 1.6 1.0 10 1.6 1.3 1.3 20 1.2 1.4 1.3 40 1.3 1.5 MEANS 0 1.33 1.35 1.13 10 1.63 1,35 1.10 20 1.28 1.35 1.23 40 1.33 1.45 1.17 - 164 -TABLE D10 CALCIUM (Ca) - ppm AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 30. 4 4 3.2 27.2 10 32.0 26 . 4 40.0 20 28.8 36 . 0 40.0 40 29 . 6 33.6 28.8 OY - 10 0 31. 2 36 . 0 32 .0 10 31. 2 36. 0 44. 8 20 31.2 37 . 6 40.0 40 32.0 39.2 36.0 OY - 11 0 36. 8 36.0 33.6 10 31. 2 33.6 40.0 20 33.6 33.6 40.0 40 32. 8 40. 0 36.0 OY - 12 0 36.0 38.4 39.2 10 34.4 38.4 40.8 20 34.4 36 . 0 43.2 40 36.8 40.0 MEANS 0 33.6 38 . 4 33.0 10 32 . 2 33.6 41.4 20 32.0 35.8 40.8 40 32 . 8 38.2 33.6 - 165 -TABLE D l l MAGNESIUM (Mg) - ppm AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 9.7 9.5 8.7 10 9 . 6 9.0 8.7 20 9.4 9 . 3 7.4 40 9 . 2 9.4 6.2 OY - 10 0 9.2 9 . 3 9.0 10 9 . 8 9.4 7.3 20 9.7 9.4 5 . 0 40 10. 0 9.7 7.2 OY - 11 0 10 20 40 9.7 9.4 9.3 0.7 9.5 9.4 9.4 9 . 3 8.5 6.6 2.9 8.9 OY - 12 0 10 20 40 9 . 3 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.0 9 . 3 9.5 9.4 9.2 8 . 7 MEANS 0 10 20 40 9 . 5 9.6 9.4 9.5 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.5 8.0 6.0 7.4 - 166 -TABLE D12 SILICA (S i0 2 ) - ppm AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 5 . 0 3 . 7 10 4.6 4 . 7 N 20 4.1 3 . 5 O 40 5 . 7 4.5 T E S OY - 10 0 4 .1 4.1 T 10 4.9 3.7 20 4.6 3.9 40 6.7 6 . 0 OY - 11 0 4.9 3.7 10 4.5 4.3 20 4.1 4.2 40 6.1 4.9 OY - 12 0 4.1 5.2 10 3.9 4.3 20 4.9 4.0 40 7.6 • 5.0 MEANS 0 4.53 4.18 10 4.48 4.25 20 4.43 3. 90 40 6.53 5.10 - 167 -TABLE D13 pH AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE i LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 8.70 8.71 8 . 75 10 8 .61 8.65 8 .40 20 8.62 8.62 8 .33 40 8.02 8.57 8 . 30 OY - 10 0 8.73 8.59 8 .53 10 8. 69 8.59 8. 35 20 8 .60 8 . 57 8 . 31 40 7.72 7.83 8.29 OY - 11 0 8.70 8 .60 8. 30 10 8.70 8.60 8 .29 20 8.60 8 . 59 8.25 40 7 .78 8. 05 8.28 OY - 12 0 8.70 8.60 8. 30 10 8.70 8.60 8.26 20 8. 61 8.58 8 . 29 40 7.70 8.22 MEANS 0 8. 71 8.63 8 . 47 10 8.68 8.61 8 .33 20 8.61 8 . 59 8. 30 40 7 . 81 8 .17 8 .29 - 168 -TABLE D14 (a) ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN MILLIMHOS/CM AT TEMPERATURES RECORDED IN TABLE Dl AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J. OY - 9 0 1.70 1.89 1.41 10 1.70 1.88 1. 38 20 1.71 1.90 1.40 40 1.72 1. 91 1.41 OY - 10 0 1. 71 1.86 1.43 10 • 1.70 1.87 1.43 20 1.72 1.88 1.43 40 1.78 1.94 1.44 OY - 11 0 1.73 1.81 1.43 10 1.7 3 1. 82 1.43 20 1.73 1.84 1.44 40 1.73 1.84 1.44 OY - 12 0 1. 64 1.77 1.46 10 1.67 . 1.79 1.44 20 1.67 1.77 1.45 40 1.75 1.83 MEANS 0 1.70 1.83 1.43 10 1.70 1. 84 1.42 20 1.70 1.85 1.43 40 1.76 1. 89 1.43 - 169 -TABLE D14 (b) ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN MILLIMHOS/CM. AT 18°C AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 1. 611 1. 758 1.602 10 1. 619 1.786 1. 564 20 1.633 1. 814 1. 586 40 1.666 1.859 1.607 OY - 10 0 1.629 1.738 1.634 10 1.619 1.773 1.625 20 1.638 1.795 1.620 40 1. 741 1.916 1. 632 OY - 11 0 1. 640 1. 712 1. 6 34 10 1. 644 1.733 1.625 20 1.644 1.765 1.636 40 1.748 1. 819 1. 641 OY - 12 o • 1.551 1.674 1.669 10 1.583 1.705 1. 636 20 1.591 1.698 1. 648 40 1. 712 1.785 MEANS 0 1.608 1. 721 1. 635 10 1.616 1. 749 1. 613 20 1. 627 1.768 1.623 40 1. 717 1. 845 1. 627 - 170 -TABLE D15 DISSOLVED 0 2 - ppm. AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 8.5 7 . 9 9.7 10 8 . 5 8.0 9.7 20 8.3 8 . 0 9.7 40 2.8 5.8 9.7 OY - 10 0 8.7 7.8 9.8 10 8.9 7 . 7 9.7 20 8.4 7 . 5 9.7 40 0 . 6 0.7 9.7 OY - 11 0 8.9 8 . 3 9.6 10 9 . 0 8.1 9 . 5 20 8 . 3 7.1 9.5 40 0 . 5 5.9 9 . 6 OY - 12 0 8 . 9 7 . 8 9.5 10 9.2 7.6 9.5 20 8.7 7.1 9.5 40 1.2 5.9 MEANS 0 8.7 8.0 9 . 7 10 8 . 9 7.9 9.6 20 8.4 7.4 9.6 40 1.3 4.6 9.7 - 171 -TABLE D16 TOTAL CALCIUM, NITRATE AND PHOSPHATE PRESENT IN THE BOTTOM DEPOSITS - ppm. AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION TEST PERIOD A B C D E F G H OY - 9 Ca NO 3 P O 4 192 950 OY - 10 Ca N0 3 P O 4 528 8.66 450 OY - 11 Ca N0 3 P O 4 544 3.54 1075 OY - 12 Ca NO 3 P O 4 560 1.68 1200 MEANS Ca N0 3 P O 4 456 3.47 919 - 172 -TABLE D17 UNITS OF Anabaena flos-aquae / m l . AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 _ 10 2 10 15 60 -20 35 40 -40 ~ 10 OY - 10 0 15 10 10 5 10 -20 10 20 -40 2 " OY - 11 0 30 50 1 10 20 40 1 20 20 70 -40 20 5 OY - 12 0 45 15 10 25 10 8 20 15 50 -40 MEANS 0 23 21 1 10 16 30 2 20 20 45 -40 5 4 - 173 -TABLE D18 UNITS OF Dinobryon s e r t u l a r i a / m l . AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F 6 H J OY - 9 0 _ _ 10 - - -20 - - -40 OY - 10 0 10 1.0 - - -20 - - -40 OY - 11 0 10 - - -20 - - -40 OY - 12 0 10 - - -20 - - -40 MEANS • 0 3 10 - - -20 - - -40 - 174 -TABLE D19 UNITS OF F r a g i l a r i a crotonensis / m l . AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD F G H J OY - 9 0 68 52 5 10 46 94 10 20 45 73 12 40 25 91 6 OY - 10 0 48 62 3 10 53 76 6 20 34 100 1 40 16 47 3 OY - 11 0 45 54 2 10 40 79 7 20 43 130 11 40 14 43 5 OY - 12 0 38 66 5 10 29 82 2 20 35 82 9 40 8 29 4 MEANS 0 50 59 4 10 42 83 6 20 37 96 8 40 16 53 5 - 175 -TABLE D2 0 UNITS OF Melos ira i t a l i c a / m l . and UNITS OF O s c i l l a t o r i a acutissima / m l . AMERICAN TRANSECT OSOYOOS LAKE Melos ira i t a l i c a O s c i l l a t o r i a acutissima LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD J LOCATION DEPTH PERIOD J OY - 9 0 122 OY - 9 0 260 10 136 10 242 20 141 20 295 40 119 40 211 OY - 10 0 133 OY - 10 0 209 10 160 10 272 20 152 20 285 40 144 40 316 OY - 11 0 95 OY - 11 0 235 10 110 10 219 20 131 20 272 40 161 40 226 OY - 12 0 103 OY - 12 0 211 10 121 10 283 20 154 20 301 40 148 40 245 MEANS 0 113 MEANS 0 229 10 132 10 254 20 14 5 20 288 40 143 40 250 A P P E N D I X E - 176 -TABLE E l WATER TEMPERATURE ( °C) ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN MILLIMHOS/CM AT 18°C AND pH MISCELLANEOUS SITES LOCATION MEASURE PERIOD A B C D E F OY - DD T e m p . ( ° C ) 10.0 10 . 0 11.1 11.1 12.5 13. 3 E . C . 6.500 - 6.453 5.547 6.006 4.238 pH 7 .65 7 . 54 7.51 7.58 7.45 7 . 60 OY - PL T e m p . ( ° C ) 21.0 20.0 26.1 23.4 22.0 19. 7 E . C . 3 .200 - 3.277 3.013 2.773 2.417 pH 3. 74 8 . 72 8 . 79 8 . 69 8.97 8 , 30 OY - SS T e m p . ( ° C ) 13.3 12 . 0 12 . 5 11.1 11.4 11. 8 E . C . 10. 731 - 11.687 10.357 11.557 6. 379 pH 7 . 8 7.85 7. 82 7 . 92 8.00 7.79 PR T e m p . ( ° C ) - 10.9 20 . 0 E . C . - - 4. 695 DRY DRY DRY pH • 8.5 - 8. 71 MC T e m p . ( ° C ) 9 . 8 11.1 21.2 15. 5 18. 3 12 . 2 E . C . .277 - .630 . 960 1.082 . 842 pH i 7.2 7 .82 8.55 8.10 8.79 7.78 - 177 -TABLE E2 PPM TOTAL PHOSPHATE AND TOTAL P MISCELLANEOUS SITES LOCATION MEASURE PERIOD A B C D E F OY - DD P 0 4 .035 .03 .052 .076 .076 .098 P . O i l .01 .017 . 025 .025 .032 OY - PL P ° 4 .052 .048 .123 .135 .145 P .017 . 016 . 04 . 044 . 047 OY - SS p 0 4 .049 . 067 P . 016 . 022 PR P ° 4 .04 DRY DRY DRY P . 013 DRY DRY DRY MC P ° 4 . 065 .031 .031 .065 P .021 .01 .01 .021 - 178 -TABLE E3 AMMONIA, NITRITE, NITRATE AND TOTAL N - ppm MISCELLANEOUS SITES LOCATION MEASURE PERIOD A B C D E F OY - DD NH 3 - NO TEST - . 042 - .001 N0 9 . 004 - . 007 .004 . 006 . 00 3 N 0 3 14.2 12 . 3 21.0 2 .66 1.55 20.2 Tota l N 3. 201 2. 78 4 . 742 .636 .037 4. 562 OY - PL NH 3 .056 NO TEST .136 - . 165 .245 N0 2 .038 . 022 .045 .069 . 077 .119 N0 3 .62 . 24 .75 . 275 .053 .97 Tota l N .197 . 061 . 296 . 083 .171 .457 OY - SS NH 3 .075 NO TEST . 077 - - . 011 N0 2 .068 . 037 .140 .150 .161 .14 3 N0 3 6.5 6.0 4.43 2.44 . 683 5.19 T o t a l N 1.5 34 1. 377 1.106 . 555 .159 1.183 PR NH 3 . 006 .027 .028 N0 2 . 001 . 004 . 007 DRY DRY DRY N0 3 . 180 .180 . 090 Tota l N . 046 . 064 . 045 MC NH 3 - NO TEST . 061 . 011 - -N0 2 .005 - .004 - - .011 N0 3 . 31 .11 . 31 . 08 .049 .159 Tota l N .071 .025 .121 .027 .011 .039 - 179 -TABLE E4 CHLORIDE - ppm MISCELLANEOUS SITES LOCATION PERIOD A D OY - DD OY - PL OY - SS PR MC 6.4 4.4 6.0 5 . 8 6.5 4.3 2.6 3.9 5.0 10.5 4.1 3.9 35.0 41.1 40.0 38.5 44.0 44.2 3.6 0.8 4.0 2.5 4.1 1.1 DRY DRY 0.3 0.4 DRY 0.3 - 180 -TABLE E5 CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM - ppm MISCELLANEOUS SITES LOCATION MEASURE PERIOD A B C D E F OY - DD Ca 52.6 48 .1 61.6 48 .0 89.6 73.6 Mg 37.75 = 20 31.5 30.6 38 .6 35.7 OY - PL Ca 30.2 36.9 33.8 28.8 24.0 56.8 Mg 19. 0 16.5 19.6 20.0 20.4 18 .0 OY - SS Ca 186.0 168.2 216.0 209.0 216.0 128 .0 Mg 130.0 =^50 58.43 90.8 66.0 54.8 PR Ca 46. 3 32.2 32.2 DRY DRY DRY Mg 31.8 33.3 31.8 MC Ca 4.2 6.41 10.9 13.6 14.4 24.0 Mg 1.63 1.6 3.6 4.0 5.1 5.0 

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