Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The thermal conductivity of Cis and Trans Decahydronaphthalene Schoening, M. A. 1949

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1949_A7 S2 T4.pdf [ 2.43MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0059068.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0059068-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0059068-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0059068-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0059068-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0059068-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0059068-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0059068-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0059068.ris

Full Text

THE  THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF  CIS AND  TRANS  DECAHYDRONAPHTHALENE  by M.A. S c h o e n i n g ,  Thesis  B.A.Sc.  submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f  the requirements  f o r t h e degree o f  MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in CHEMICAL ENG-INEERING-  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1949  ABSTRACT  THE THERMAL  CONDUCTIVITY  OF CIS AND  TRANS  DECAHYDRONAPHTHALENE  M.A.  Schoening  A c o n v e n i e n t method f o r m e a s u r i n g ductivity of liquids 1923.  In t h i s procedure  a n n u l a r space  cylinder liquid,  the thermal  film  conductivity very  film  this  across the  i s o n l y 0.04 cms.  drop  across the f i l m  convection w i t h i n g the  The t e m p e r a t u r e  has the advantage  apparatuses  In that  s m a l l volume o f l i q u i d In  to the i n n e r  drop  drop  i s m e a s u r e d b y means o f d i f f e r e n t i a l  Bridgman's c e l l  By  c o n d u c t i v i t y o f t h e l i q u i d may be  one d e g r e e ,  i s prevented.  i n the  cylinders.  the temperature  t h i c k n e s s and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e  liquid  i s held  known r a t e  Because the l i q u i d  does n o t e x c e e d  of  the l i q u i d  at & d e f i n i t e l y  and m e a s u r i n g  determined.  i n t r o d u c e d by Bridgman i n  between two c o n c e n t r i c  supplying heat  in  i s that  the thermal con  across the thermocouple  over other  thermal  i t requires only a  f o r t h e measurement.  investigation the thermal  c i s - and t r a n s - d e c a h y d r o n a p h t h a l e n e  conductivities were m e a s u r e d .  When t h e r e s u l t s were compared w i t h t h o s e o f L e v e l t o n and  Perris,  who d e t e r m i n e d  method o f B a t e s ,  t h e same q u a n t i t i e s b y t h e  i t was f o u n d  that  been o b t a i n e d f o r b o t h t h e thermal the temperature  coefficients.  lower values had c o n d u c t i v i t i e s and  The d i f f e r e n c e  c o n d u c t i v i t y may be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t film  d i s c o v e r e d by B a t e s .  allowance  i s made f o r t h i s  i nthe  by the s u r f a c e  In Bridgman's a p p a r a t u s film  and t h e m e a s u r e d  no  temperature gradient  drop  r e p r e s e n t s the  f r o m one  boundary  Unless t h i s  surface f i l m  temperature  i t would  definite ients.  difference Attempts  average  temperature  o f the l i q u i d  changes  o f f e r no  to the o t h e r .  considerably with  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the v e r y  found i n the temperature  t o e x p l a i n the d i v e r g e n c e o f  on t h e b a s i s o f p u r i t y o f m a t e r i a l s meet w i t h success because An cell and  coefficresults little  of a lack of necessary data.  a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made t o d e s i g n a  b a s e d on the  same p r i n c i p l e s  i s offered herewith.  simplified  as B r i d g m a n ' s  cell  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The of  author wishes  the Standard  assistance  O i l Company o f B.C., L t d . , and t h e  o f D r . Wm.  t h i s work was  t o acknowledge t h e s p o n s o r s h i p  P. S e y e r u n d e r whose  performed.  supervision  TABLE OP  CONTENTS  Page I.  Introduction  «...  I I . Theory III.  1 2  Apparatus  • 10  IV. P r o c e d u r e  18  V.  Results (a)  VI. VII.  Calibration of Cell  21  (b) T h e r m a l  Conductivity  (c) Thermal  Conductivity of Cis Decalin  Discussion  of Results  Suggestions  V I I I . Proposed  Cell  IX. A p p e n d i x X. B i b l i o g r a p h y  o f Trans D e c a l i n  23 • 25 25 28 29 33 35  L I S T OP  ILLUSTRATIONS  Page Pig.  1  Details of Sell  13  Pig.  2  Assembly  16  Pig.  3  Electrical  Pig.  4  Photograph o f C e l l  19  Pig.  5  Photograph o f Equipment  19(a)  Pig.  6  Graph o f C e l l  22  Pig.  7  Thermal  Conductivity  of Trans D e c a l i n .  Pig.  8  Thermal  Conductivity  of Cis Decalin  Pig.  9  D e t a i l s o f Proposed C e l l  o f Apparatus C o n t r o l Diagram  17  Constant vs Temperature.  24  .. 26 31  I . INTRODUCTION Although the thermal c o n d u c t i v i t i e s of the m a t e r i a l s used i n t h i s work have been measured by L e v e l t o n i t was f e l t  that a check, u s i n g  was d e s i r a b l e .  an i n d e p e n d e n t  (9),  method,  A t l t h e same t i m e a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e  r e s u l t s b y t h e two m e t h o d s , t h a t o f B a t e s a s u s e d b y Levelton  and t h e m e t h o d o f B r i d g m a n a s was f o l l o w e d i n  t h i s work, s h o u l d g i v e  an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a t i o n t o  be e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e m e t h o d s were  used.  since i d e n t i c a l  materials  2.  II.  Experimental lead  s t u d i e s of the f l o w o f heat  to the f o l l o w i n g 1.  The to  THEORY  laws:  quantity of heat  i n a body i s p r o p o r t i o n a l  i t s mass and  to i t s temperature.  2.  Heat f l o w s from  a h i g h e r to a lower  3.  The  rate  to the i.e.,  we  t o the t e m p e r a t u r e  to d i s t a n c e , normal  get F o u r i e r ' s Q  =  =  ^ A  f  temperature  ~  flow gradient  a r e a o f the w a l l , p e r p e n d i cular  K  to the a r e a .  rate of heat  =  r  to heat  flow.  a c o n s t a n t , which i s a p r o p e r t y of the m a t e r i a l the t h e r m a l  c o n s t a n t may  be  defined  difference  of  essing  through  a body by the  a greater kinetic  energy  i s called  conductivity. of  trans-  thickness,  across  temperature.  In t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n d u c t i o n t h e h e a t diffuses  and  as t h e t i m e r a t e  f e r o f h e a t by d o n d u c t i o n t h r o u g h u n i t area f o r unit  with  law w h i c h i s u s u a l l y g i v e n i n  K A  Q  where  unit  gradient,  t h e r a t e o f change o f t e m p e r a t u r e  the form:  This  temperature.  o f f l o w a c r o s s an a r e a i s p r o p o r t i o n a l  a r e a and  respect Prom t h i s  i n a body  energy  action of molecules on t h o s e w i t h  less.  poss-  In l i q u i d s  and g a s e s t h i s  between m o l e c u l e s  with  a net transfer of kinetic  i n the d i r e c t i o n o f heat Although quite  thermal  equations  f o r the l i q u i d  a gas.  i n a l i q u i d must be d i f f e r e n t  with  with  c o n d u c t i v i t y being and v i s c o s i t y  with  K - *\ C  i s the v i s c o s i t y C  i s the s p e c i f i c  t h e r e i s no s u c h  i n the f i r s t  be  that i n  The r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e i s  e x h i b i t e d by t h e e q u a t i o n : where:  flight,  the t r a n s f e r o f energy  t r a n s f e r o f momentum.  this  from  I n t h e g a s t h e r e i s an i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n  concerned  That  t o p r o d u c e any  phases which are completely  length of free molecular  the  phases,  I t h a s b e e n r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e mechanism  conduction  the  c o n d u c t i v i t y has been t r e a t e d  developments have f a i l e d  satisfactory.  energy  flow.  e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e g a s e o u s and s o l i d  theoretical  of  takes p l a c e by c o l l i s i o n  heat  relation  f o r l i q u i d s may be shown  p l a c e by s u b s t i t u t i n g n u m e r i c a l  equation;  the thermal  conductivity will  o f the order o f t e n f o l d  too s m a l l .  values  into  be f o u n d t o  The f a i l u r e  of a  r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n c o n d u c t i v i t y and v i s c o s i t y h a s a l s o been found  by experiments  i n which the v i s c o s i t y  of a  solution of gelatine  i n water h a s been v a r i e d by a  f a c t o r o f many f o l d ,  with only s l i g h t  thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y .  changes i n t h e  4. Probably the f i r s t ductivity  attempt  to other p h y s i c a l  t h a t p r o p o s e d by Weber  to r e l a t e  thermal  constants of a l i q u i d  (18) a b o u t 1 8 8 0 .  conwas  His equation  took the form o f : K  fSI)'  /  *  3  = where: /o  +.  a constant  i s the d e n s i t y o f the l i q u i d  M  i s i t s m o l e c u l a r weight  C  i s i t s specific  Subsequent  heat  i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a s shown t h a t  varies not only f o r d i f f e r e n t  compounds b u t a l s o  w i t h t e m p e r a t u r e f o r any s i n g l e I n 1923 B r i d g m a n  Weber's c o n s t a n t varies  compound.  (6) p u b l i s h e d  a paper  i n w h i c h he  suggested the equation: where:  o{ i s t h e g a s c o n s t a n t v £  i s t h e v e l o c i t y o f sound  i n the l i q u i d  i s t h e mean d i s t a n c e o f s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e c e n t e r s o f t h e m o l e c u l e s , assuming arrangement  c u b i c a l jL  o f t h e m o l e c u l e s , and c a l c u l a t i n g ^3  by t h e f o r m u l a where  S  -~  ("//>)  3  "m" i s the a b s o l u t e w e i g h t i n  grams o f one m o l e c u l e o f t h e l i q u i d . He a r r i v e d liquid The half  at t h i s  e q u a t i o n by c o n s i d e r i n g  i n which t h e r e  i s a temperature  a body o f  gradient  d@/dx.  e n e r g y o f a m o l e c u l e i s 2 < * £ ( h a l f p o t e n t i a l and kinetic),  difference  where 0 i s t h e a b s o l u t e  temperature.  The  i n energy between n e i g h b o r i n g m o l e c u l e s i n t h e  5  d i r e c t i o n o f the temperature T h i s energy row  of molecules  energy  a row  and  time  i s the product  t h e number o f s u c h  as h a n d e d down a  t r a n s f e r across unit  The  total  row  of  of the  energy  energy  steps  long, or 2 « £ (dO/dx)v/<T .  "v" cms.  transfer  conceived  a c r o s s a f i x e d p o i n t o f any  per unit  difference  i s t o be  w i t h the v e l o c i t y o f sound.  tranferred  molecules  in  difference  £ dQ/dx.  gradient i s 2  contained The  c r o s s s e c t i o n i s the p r o d u c t  across a single  row  and  , b u t by  the d e f i n i t i o n o f thermal  ductivity  transfer  i s also A C J ^ f •  c o n d u c t i v i t y we checked  get  against experimental  d e v i a t i o n o f 16$,  with  Bridgman a l s o for  the t h e r m a l  showed t h a t by the  solid  equation and  Z<*v*,  K=  values  substituting  v a l u e s used as h i s own  the problem.  Smith He  (15)  sion,  v a r i a b l e s may  a l l be  and  He  values f o r  o b t a i n e d the  same  f o r a constant |r i n s t e a d of  not  that thermal  a p p r o x i m a t e mag-  a n a l y s i s to  conductivity could  other variables;  t h e gas  expressed  2,  investigated further.  s p e c i f i c heat, molecular  compressibility,  average  equation  appropriate l i q u i d  g i v e n as a f u n c t i o n o f s e v e n  density,  was  to l i q u i d s .  applied dimensional  reasoned  con-  equation  Debye's  s i n c e Bridgman's e q u a t i o n g i v e s the  I n 1931  or  39$.  to adapt  by Debye, he  except  the  thermal  i t showed an  c o n d u c t i v i t y of a s o l i d  n i t u d e , Debye's e q u a t i o n was  be  Thus f o r  When t h i s  a maximum o f  attempted  of  t h e number o f rows,  2 vc< (dQ/dx) S this  total  weight,  thermal  constant.  viscosity, expan-  Since  i n terms o f f o u r  these  6.  fundamental groups.  d i m e n s i o n s , he d e v e l o p e d  Then b y p l o t t i n g  interpreted  the r e s u l t s K  equation:  where:  four dimensionless  e x p e r i m e n t a l v a l u e s he  i n the form o f the f o l l o w i n g ^  }  *~  r  K  i s the thermal  /o  i s the density  C  i s the s p e c i f i c  A  i s the constant  Z  i s the c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y  >  i s the thermal  M  i s the molecular  1  conductivity  heat  expansion weight  >\ i s t h e v i s c o s i t y I n 1936 S m i t h he  developed  from  (16) p u b l i s h e d a n o t h e r p a p e r  an e n t i r e l y new e q u a t i o n b y t a k i n g  approximate  mean v a l u e s .  He f o u n d t h a t  /s'^r  where V i s t h e k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y this  e q u a t i o n o n 46 l i q u i d s  found  i n which  the average  error  I n 1932 D a n i l o f f  variations  a t 3 0 ° G.  Q oo  /o,  i n centistokes.  ooo  Using  f o r w h i c h v a l u e s were known he  t o 6.7$.  (7) i n an a t t e m p t  to determine the  v a r i a t i o n o f t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y o f s u c c e s s i v e members o f homologous s e r i e s w i t h m o l e c u l a r weight tested  s e v e r a l o f the normal  When he p l o t t e d  and t e m p e r a t u r e ,  primary saturated  the thermal c o n d u c t i v i t i e s  alcohols.  against  m o l e c u l a r w e i g h t he f o u n d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a marked m i n i mum  of thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y f o r n-hexyl  alcohol.  7.  P o i n t i n g out  t h a t maxima andirimima o f p h y s i c a l  i n homologous s e r i e s f o r t h e  member c o n t a i n i n g  atoms are  not  explained  the  of molecular configuration.  basis  between t h e f o r m e d by exhibit  infrequent,  bonds o f  the  the  Since  c a r b o n atom a r e  singular spatial  time X-ray s t u d i e s  chain  the  120°, be  on  angles  the  spirals  number  i s a multiple  seemed t o  carbon  expected  r e l a t i o n s when the  i n the  six  t h i s minimum  open c h a i n h y d r o c a r b o n s c o u l d  c a r b o n atoms p r e s e n t At  he  properties  support  of  of  this  to  three.  explan-  ation. I n 1946  Denbigh  equation r e l a t i n g  (8) p r e s e n t e d  thermal  dimensionless  c o n d u c t i v i t y to the  of v a p o r i z a t i o n : where:  a  log  Pr  i s the  Prandtl  H  i s the  molal  (prj=- ^ J^-  l a t e n t heat +  ^  Cp 1_  number ~  K R Is the T  i s the  a and  This  coefficients  to  of  Palmer  and  -2.2  f o r water  1.20  and  -1.8  f o r organic  t r a n s f e r , but  i t i s not  the  thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y of l i q u i d s .  In  found that  liquids  film  made a r e v i e w o f  c o r r e l a t e the  divide  0.183  accurate  for  thermal c o n d u c t i v i t i e s .  In 1948 field  atm.  temperature  developed f o r estimating  f o r heat  at 1  constant  absolute  b are  e q u a t i o n was  predicting  gas  enthalpy of v a p o r i z a t i o n  there  i n t o two  (11)  r e s u l t s w h i c h had seemed t o be classes;  entire attempting  been o b t a i n e d  he  a tendency f o r l i q u i d s  those that  can  be  fitted  to  with  8.  empirical In the  equations  latter  i f there  those  c l a s s are  s u c h as w a t e r and for  and  are  m o l e c u l e s , the  the  f o u n d the  alcohols.  associated This  altered.  could  next w i l l  He  due  t o h y d r o g e n bonds t o e x p l a i n  t h e most  used the  important  work i t has  exceptions.  Symmetry may  tetrachloride  the  molecule  to  forces  c e r t a i n anomalies  b e e n shown t h a t  in  be  with a higher  a f a c t o r since m o l e c u l a r weight  trans-dichloroethylene  c o n d u c t i v i t y t h a n the  and  the  butyl  are  reversed,  alcohols the  are  Palmer thought  cause o f  abnormalities.  has  i s found  a  a substantially  previous  results  thermal  conduct-  this  afforded  or  to  the  compounds  aggregates.  Since  g r o u p s and  t o be  a clue  a l l hydroxyl  ethylene  glycol  and  s i m i l a r behaviour might  e x p e c t e d f o r them, r e s u l t i n g i n h i g h This  a l s o has  compared, t h e  p r o p l y e n e g l y c o l e a c h h a v e two,  ivities.  carbon  ether  that  hydroxyl  glaring  When e t h y l  some t e n d e n c y t o f o r m c h a i n s three  are  with  c i s form.  a r e s u l t of hydrogen bonding  g l y c e r o l has  of  Similarily,  alcohols having higher  ivities.  As  one  decreasing  However, t h e r e  c o n d u c t i v i t y than chloroform.  symmetrical  be  expected,  f a c t o r s i n thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i s  i n c r e a s i n g molecular weight.  have  be  additional  molecular weight, c o n d u c t i v i t y g e n e r a l l y  higher  liquids  conductivity.  Prom p r e v i o u s  higher  considerably.  constructing  o f h e a t f r o m one  the  thermal  deviate  additional forces  transmission be  that  true  thermal  for glycerol  conductand  9. ethylene It  was  glycol,  felt  bonding  but  t h a t t h i s m i g h t be  or chelation.  propylene  glycol  due  i s n e a r l y normal.  t o some  internal  Comparing t h e b o i l i n g p o i n t s ,  glycol,  boils  molecular  at a lower  tempera-  T h i s , t o g e t h e r w i t h d a t a f o r o t h e r compounds w h i c h  show e v i d e n c e to  glycol  although possessing a higher  weight than ethylene ture.  propylene  the  o f p r e f e r e n t i a l monomer f o r m a t i o n , gave  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the b o i l i n g p o i n t s o f  substances  c a n be  used  rise  isomeric  as an i n d e x o f r e l a t i v e  conduct-  ivities. T h e s e s p e c u l a t i o n s a b o u t t h e h y d r o g e n bond t h e n l e d to  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of water.  the p o s i t i v e  temperature  The  high  coefficient  c o n d u c t i v i t y and  have always been  p r o b l e m , b u t no  s p e c u l a t i o n s as t o t h e mechanism h a v e  appeared  literature.  in  i n the  normal l i q u i d s  the p a r t i c l e s , altered. in  The  i s related  but  by  It  i n two  c a u s i n g o r i e n t a t i o n o f the m o l e c u l e s  by  affording  fer  of heat  an  flow,  bonds must be  assists  i n the  a d d i t i o n a l method f o r t h e t r a n s -  energy  to take  gradient i n heat  breaking  Is  and  place.  i s known t h a t h y d r o g e n bonds i n t h e l i q u i d  a temperature  of  ways:  b r o k e n down a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e s . is  the p i c t u r e  f o r m a t i o n o f h y d r o g e n bonds p r o b a b l y  d i r e c t i o n of heat 2.  conduction  to v i b r a t i o n o r c o l l i s i o n  f o r associated liquids  conduction of heat 1.  C e r t a i n l y heat  a  Therefore, conduction,  at the h i g h e r  state  are  since there hydrogen  temperatures,  10.  t a k i n g up h e a t ,  and r e f o r m i n g  g i v i n g up h e a t .  at lower  temperatures,  Thus, c o n t i n u a l l y changing  chains are  formed, which are o r i e n t a t e d i n the d i r e c t i o n o f heat flow,  so t h a t t h e e n e r g y  o f f o r m a t i o n o f h y d r o g e n bonds  i s handed a l o n g t h e c h a i n s . With t h i s p i c t u r e Palmer then proceeded  o f t h e mechanism o f h e a t  t o b u i l d up an e q u a t i o n w h i c h  include  the e f f e c t  entropy  o f v a p o r i z a t i o n ( i . e . Trouton's  provided  conduction,  o f hydrogen bonding.  t h e most p r o m i s i n g  Deciding that the constant)  f a c t o r , he m o d i f i e d  e q u a t i o n by i n t r o d u c i n g the f a c t o r  would  Weber's  21 Lv/T  However, f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l overall  constant  purposes  he d e t e r m i n e d t h e  t o be 0.0947 t o o b t a i n t h e e q u a t i o n :  K  =  0.0947 /=> C L  When t h e e q u a t i o n was c h e c k e d e r r o r was f o u n d  in  methods u s e d  the l i q u i d  five  general  1  5  v/T  f o r 48 l i q u i d s ,  t h e average  t o be 8.8$.  Ill The  (/VM) /  APPARATUS  to investigate  thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y  p h a s e may c o n v e n i e n t l y be c l a s s i f i e d headings:  (1)  Tall  column o r t h i c k d i s k methods.  (2)  Thin disk or shell  (3)  Cylindrical  (S)  C a l o r i m e t r i c methods  (5)  Impressed v e l o c i t y  methods  methods  methods  under  11.  However, i n v e s t i g a t o r s confined For  themselves  purposes  Bridgam w i l l accepted  o f the p a s t f o u r t y y e a r s have  almost  exclusively  of comparison be  to the f i r s t  t h e methods o f B a t e s  and  d i s c u s s e d , as t h e y a r e t h e most w i d e l y  today.  Bates'  apparatus  (1) c o n s i s t e d  essentially  c o n t a i n e r w h i c h was  the  c o o l e d by w a t e r c a l o r i m e t e r s f o r m i n g  t o p and  bottom o f the c o n t a i n e r .  Thermal  by u s i n g a g u a r d h e a t e r and were p l a c e d c o n c e n t r i c a l l y imeter r e s p e c t i v e l y . liquid  junctions  was  The  guard about  by  a t known d e p t h s .  were made o f m a t e r i a l w i t h low the heat  the  which  t h e h e a t e r and gradient  walls  at  achieved  calorimeter,  thermocouples The  heated  c o n t r o l was  temperature  determined  o r d e r to reduce  electrically  of a  drum shaped  the  two.  calorwithin  with  their  of the c o n t a i n e r  thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n  transferred  by them t o  a  minimum. Bates  states  t h a t by h a v i n g t h e h e a t  downward c o n v e c t i o n i n t h e f l u i d result  of h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ,  i s negligible.  by h i s  liquid.  found the temperature  gradient  accepted. at the  metal-  s u r f a c e much g r e a t e r t h a n i n t h e m a i n body o f Thus he  contended  a  apparatus  c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than those p r e v i o u s l y  liquid  As  Bates found the v a l u e s o f  thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y determined  However, he  conducted  that  the temperature  m e a s u r e d by o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s , who  the  gradient  m e r e l y measured  the  12.  temperature was  drop  from  metal  h i g h e r than the t r u e v a l u e  the thermal has  the disadvantage  material 1923  based used  that  and  Bridgman the  to  a n n u l a r space  The  cylinders  b e t w e e n two  concentric  thick.  i s 0.95  cms.  the o u t e r c y l i n d e r  i s 1.03  cms.,  cm.  The and  brass  i n c r e a s e d t o 6.36  a high resistance  cylinder. through  cylinders.  a  The h e a t  from  the o u t e r c y l i n d e r  and  cell  the  Heat i s s u p p l i e d  the wire passes the  the c e l l  to  electricity the  radially  annular l a y e r of jacket  into  the  liquid, bath  liquid. There i s o f course outer cylinder  some h e a t  a t t h e two  of  was  wire i n the c e n t e r o f  the i n n e r c y l i n d e r ,  of  film  investigation  cms.  German  the i n n e r diameter  giving  for this  in  outer diameter  Bridgman's o r i g i n a l  i n l e n g t h but  cell,  i s held  t h e i n n e r c y l i n d e r by p a s s i n g a c u r r e n t o f through  cell  a r e s e a l e d t o g e t h e r a t t h e ends by  t h i c k n e s s o f 0.04  large  adaption of h i s  1) t h e l i q u i d  the i n n e r c y l i n d e r  l e n g t h was  a relatively  a conductivity  In the  (see f i g .  s i l v e r w a s h e r s 0.005 cm.  cms.  apparatus  purify.  (6) d e v e l o p e d  i n t h i s work,  Bates'  be h a r d t o o b t a i n i f t h e  s h e l l method.  the  3.18  so t h e i r v a l u e s o f  i t requires  w h i c h may  is difficult  on  boundary to the o t h e r ,  c o n d u c t i v i t y were t o o l o w .  volume o f l i q u i d ,  In  one  l e a k from  i n n e r to  ends a c r o s s t h e r i n g s .  This  CONOuc  TIVITY  CELL Heater \rJell  Thermocoup/e  Fi//incj  We//s  Tube.  Rrng  Seal  14.  Is  s m a l l because  and  i t s poor  o f the t M n n e s s  thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y .  r e d u c e d by i n c r e a s i n g cylinders  the enlargement  conductivity  The  By  correctly,  ensate the i n c r e a s e d silver.  the r a d i a l  at both ends.  decreased  o f t h e German l e a k was  further  s e p a r a t i o n o f the  two  choosing the dimensions i t i s possible  exactly  c o n d u c t i v i t y t h r o u g h the were so c h o s e n  exact f o r the  of  t o make t h e  through the l i q u i d  dimensions  p e n s a t i o n / s h o u l d be  The  silver  that  average  comp-  German  this  com-  o f the  liquids  used. The  temperature  determined  by  assumed t h a t  difference  o f the c y l i n d e r s i s  three d i f f e r e n t i a l the temperature  thermocouples.  o f the i n n e r c y l i n d e r  diameter o f the i n n e r thermocouple same as t h a t temperature  that close  o f the o u t e r c y l i n d e r  i s the  at the o u t e r f a c e o f the l i q u i d .  This  a p p r o x i m a t i o n owing to the v e r y h i g h  thermocouples such  possible.  The  This  their  thermocouples  g l a s s - c o v e r e d duplex wire  that  i s a very thermal  were made o f  The  installed  came h a l f w a y  effects  down  as f a r as 30-gauge,  and were f u s e d t o g e t h e r u n d e r  r e d u c i n g f l a m e u s i n g powdered b o r a x  the  of  to the l i q u i d .  junctions  a v o i d e d end  and  same as  were c o p p e r - c o n s t a n t a n and were  a manner t h a t  the c y l i n d e r s .  relative  at the  i s the  at the diameter  junction ring  c o n d u c t i v i t y o f the metal  in  junction ring  at the i n n e r f a c e o f the l i q u i d ;  the o u t e r thermocouple  It i s  as a f l u x  and  a  i  15. Insulated with several thermocouples parallel  coats of g l y p t a l .  a t 120-degree  so t h a t  The t h r e e  i n t e r v a l s were c o n n e c t e d i n  a mean t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e  could  be o b t a i n e d . Filling the  filling  o f the c e l l  t u b e w h i c h was c o n n e c t e d t o a b r a s s  To e n s u r e c o m p l e t e was f i l l e d liquid  machined  F o r p r o t e c t i o n from the bath  was i n s t a l l e d  i n a brass  cylinder.  c o n t a c t was m a i n t a i n e d b y means o f a c l o s e l y slip  f i t between t h e c e l l  a s s e m b l y was m a i n t a i n e d a t f a i r l y by means o f a t h e r m o s t a t i c a l l y  and t h e c y l i n d e r .  controlled  r e g u l a t o r o f the DeKhotinsky type, which controlled  temperatures  bath o f water.  to  the atmosphere.  With t h i s  the bath temperature  w i t h i n 0.02 d e g r e e s The h e a t i n g storage b a t t e r y ,  current  this  arrangement  c o u l d be h e l d  (see f i g .  3).  losses  i t was f o u n d  constant to  centrigra.de.  was s u p p l i e d b y a s i x v o l t The c u r r e n t  the p o t e n t i a l  s t a n d a r d one-ohm r e s i s t o r heater.  At the h i g h e r  o f excessive heat  a t 30 d e g r e e s  d e t e r m i n e d by m e a s u r i n g  cell  a relay  I t was f o u n d n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p l e m e n t  an a d d i t i o n a l h e a t e r , b e c a u s e  that  thermo-  actuated  t h e 120-watt k n i f e h e a t e r .  by  The  constant temperature  R e g u l a t i o n was m a i n t a i n e d b y means o f a m e r c u r y  that  reservoir.  removal o f trapped a i r , the apparatus  u n d e r vacuum.  the c e l l  Thermal  was a c c o m p l i s h e d b y means o f  drop  flowing  lead was  across a  connected i n s e r i e s with the  The p o t e n t i a l  drop a c r o s s  the c e l l  be a t e r ,  Gloss  Tubes  Rubber  Stopper  / ? e 5 er v o / >  Cc// Thermae  o up le.  S/ee v e  h/o-bz. •• Heotzr wire and poten tiol tap thrcoded through grooves cut /ong/tuditj a/ly m s / e e v e .  Rubber  F, . 9  ASSEMBLY  OF  ^ APPARATUS  gasket  4  18 was m e a s u r e d b y means o f two t a p s a t t h e ends o f t h e heater wire.  F o r both o f these p o t e n t i a l  measurements  a L e e d s and Northwup t y p e K-2 p o t e n t i o m e t e r was  used.  A combira t i o n o f t h e s e measurements g i v e s t h e power input  to the c e l l .  the thermocouples emf.  t h e emf. d e v e l o p e d  t h e same p o t e n t i o m e t e r was u s e d .  was c o n v e r t e d t o t e m p e r a t u r e  calibration similar cell  To d e t e r m i n e  da a r t b a s e d  thermocouple  thermocouples,  This  r e a d i n g s b y means o f a  o n t h e emf. d e v e l o p e d  c o n s t r u c t e d from and c a l i b r a t e d  between 0 and 100 d e g r e e s .  by  by a  t h e same w i r e  at several  The t e m p e r a t u r e  ad t h e  temperatures  o f the b a t h  was m e a s u r e d b y means o f a n i c k e l - s h e a t h e d p l a t i n u m resistance of  thermometer, c a l i b r a t e d by t h e N a t i o n a l Bureau  Standards  i n 1947.  IV. Preliminary  PROCEDURE  to every r u n the c e l l  thoroughly with ether o r petroleum the l i q u i d and p l a c i n g  The c e l l  containing the c e l l . into  b y warming  repeating this  of  the c e l l  and e v a c u a t i n g t h e b e l l j a r  When a i r was r e a d m i t t e d t h e l i q u i d  cycle  was e n s u r e d .  jacket.  was t h e n f i l l e d b y p l a c i n g t h e  the annular  By  cell  on  i n a vacuum o f . 6 0 - 7 0 cms. f o r a p e r i o d o f  i n the r e s e r v o i r  was f o r c e d  e t h e r , depending  p r e v i o u s l y m e a s u r e d , and t h e n d r i e d  several hours. liquid  was washed  space  several  between t h e two  t i m e s , complete  The c e l l  cylinders.  filling  was t h e n p l a c e d i n t h e  19.  Pig.  4  PHOTOGRAPH  OF  CELL  19. Co*  20.  The  h e a t e r w i r e s and t h e r m o c o u p l e s  connected  to the e l e c t r i c a l  instruments.  circuits  the d e s i r e d temperature  and m e a s u r i n g  When t h e b a t h h a d r e a c h e d  the current  was t u r n e d o n and t h e c o m p l e t e to e q u i l i b r i u m  i n the c e l l  system  heater  a l l o w e d t o come  as e v i d e n c e d b y a c o n s t a n t r e a d i n g f o r  the thermocouple  emf.  When t h i s was a c h i e v e d t h e v a r i o u s  measurements were t a k e n and r e c o r d e d .  raised  then  The a p p a r a t u s was p l a c e d i n t h e b a t h and  the bath h e a t e r s t u r n e d on.  current  were  The c e l l  was t h e n t u r n e d o f f and t h e b a t h to the next  desired  temperature,  heater  temperature at which  point  t h e p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d . Due t o c e r t a i n tion,  c h a n g e s made t o f a c i l i t a t e c o n s t r u c -  there i s a c e r t a i n heat  l e a k a g e b e t w e e n t h e two  c y l i n d e r s other than through the l i q u i d . reason the c e l l , determine be  absolute thermal  calibrated  conductivity was c h o s e n  i n i t s p r e s e n t form,  against  since  cannot  be u s e d t o  c o n d u c t i v i t i e s b u t must  some l i q u i d  i s known.  For this  f o r which  first  the thermal  F o r t h i s work d i s t i l l e d  water  a g r e a t d e a l o f work h a s b e e n done o n  it.  The v a l u e s o f t h e t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y o f w a t e r  used  i n the c a l i b r a t i o n  are those o f Bridgman:  0.00144 c a l s . / c m . / s e c . / ° G . a t 3 0 ° C . cm./sec./°C.  a t 75°C.  and 0.00154  cals./'  The c a l i b r a t i o n u s e d was o f t h e  f o r m o f a c o n s t a n t i n t h e e q u a t i o n Q _ K At and was C determined at s e v e r a l temperatures i n the expected  range.  21.  RESULTS (a)  C a l i b r a t i o n of  Cell  The  f o r the  water used  purified  by  a double  been t r e a t e d w i t h to the  o x i d i z e any  and  d i s t i l l a t i o n process  a slight  used  electrical  by o t h e r w o r k e r s i n  repeated u n t i l c o n s i s t e n t  obtained,  that i s , thermscouple  t h e n e a r e s t 0.1 constant.  In c a l i b r a t i n g  f a c o t r was  determined  flow equation. t h i s work was  the  vapor  of the  results  been  r e a d i n g s ware c h e c k e d  cell  cell  from  impurities.  r e s u l t s had  to  remaining  an e x p e r i m e n t a l  to r e p l a c e the  Thus t h e Q_  permanganate  c o n d u c t i v i t y the  microvolt, other readings  do w i t h t h e d i m e n s i o n s  i t had  c o n d u c t i v i t y measurements,  a l l measurements o f t h e r m a l  work was  after  was  When w a t e r  showed t h a t t h e w a t e r c o n t a i n e d n e g l i g i b l e In  cell  amount o f p o t a s s i u m  organic material present.  same s o u r c e was  pressure  c a l i b r a t i o n o f the  shape  quantities having  to  i n the F o u r i e r heat  e q u a t i o n used  f o r heat  flow i n  K&£ C  where  Q  i s the r a t e o f heat  K  i s the  thermal  i s the  temperature  At  in C  flow i n cals./sec  c o n d u c t i v i t y i n cals./cm./sec./°C. difference  across the  film  °C.  i s the  cell  constant  measurement i n l / c m s .  at the  temperature  of  oof 25  CELL  CO/VSTANT v s  TEMPERATURE^  •oai/5  ooiio]  •oo/oe  1  4-0  SO  T e m p e r a t ure  60  ° C  23  (b)  Temp. ° C .  C l / cms.  19.97  0.001247  30.55  0.001201  39.99  0.001148  50.08  0.001100  60.06  0.001059  70.09  0.001023  Thermal The  Conductivity  trans  o f Trans  d e c a l i n was o b t a i n e d  Decalin. b y vacuum  l a t i o n o f a mixture o f both isomers obtained E a s t m a n Kodak Company. purified in  by f r a c t i o n a l  the p u r i f i c a t i o n  traces o f water. a freezing point freezing point by  The d i s t i l l a t e crystallization.  was d r y i n g  The f i n a l  over  was  distilfrom the  further  The f i n a l  s o d i u m t o remove a l l  m a t e r i a l was f o u n d t o h a v e  o f -31.60 ° C . as compared t o t h e t r u e  of trans  d e c a l i n o f -31.47 ° C . as  given  S e y e r and W a l k e r ( 1 3 ) . Temp. ° C .  step  K.  Cals./cm./sec./°C.  19.90  0.0009594  30.55  0.0009517  40.24  0.0009249  49.44  0.0009034  61.13  0.0008654  69.86  0.0008311  24-  (c)  Thermal C o n d u c t i v i t y The  of Cis Decalin.  c i s d e c a l i n u s e d was p u r i f i e d  manner as t h e t r a n s  i n t h e same  d e c a l i n and was f o u n d t o h a v e a  freezing point  o f -43.24 ° C . as compared  freezing point  o f c i s d e c a l i n o f -43.26 ° C . as  by  K.  Cals./cm./sec./°C.  20.12  0.001027  31.83  0.0009864  40.14  0.0009481  50.01  0.0009186  60.08  0.0008793  69.83  0.0008467 VI.  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  A comparison o f the c e l l the  calibration  runs, with  sions of the c e l l , the heat  will  this  constant  that  excessive  heat  leak  although o r i g i n a l  show t h a t  thickness  expediency, brass  in  the construction.  from t h e dimen-  a considerable b y a means  part other  o c c u r s t h r o u g h t h e end s e a l s ,  plans  specified  t h e same  German s i l v e r  was n o t o b t a i n a b l e  of  by  No d o u b t t h e m a j o r p a r t o f  as was u s e d i n B r i d g m a n ' s c e l l , correct  as o b t a i n e d  obtained  transfer i s taking place  than through the l i q u i d .  for  given  S e y e r and W a l k e r ( 1 3 ) . Temp. ° C .  of  to the true  material of the  and so f o r t h e sake  s e a l s , 0.0127 cms. t h i c k , were u s e d A f u r t h e r source o f heat  leakage  THERMAL  CONDUCTIVITY F E CAL  IN  27. is  p r e s e n t i n the thermocouple  the nature o f the m a t e r i a l w o u l d be v e r y d i f f i c u l t for  the rate of heat Upon c o m p a r i n g  used  With  f o r these c i r c u i t s i t  t o d e c i d e o n an a c c u r a t e v a l u e  l o s s by these r o u t e s . the r e s u l t s  w i t h those o f P e r r i s ' s to note  and h e a t e r w i r e s .  obtained i n this  and L e v e l t o n ' s t h e two  work  differences  are the lower values o b t a i n e d f o r both the thermal  conductivity  and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e  both these d i f f e r e n c e s might comparison  o f the r e s u l t s  T h i s d e v i a t i o n might  doefficient.  be e x p e c t e d  o f Bates  However,  from  a  similar  and B r i d g m a n .  be a c c o u n t e d  f o r , i n part,  the b a s i s o f the p u r i t y o f the m a t e r i a l s used.  on  Although  L e v e l t o n d i d not s p e c i f y the exact f r e e z i n g p o i n t s o f h i s m a t e r i a l s he f e l t 98$ p u r e .  that  that  I n t h e c a s e o f the m a t e r i a l s u s e d  e n t work a c o m p a r i s o n  t h a t much o f t h i s  freezing point materials  d e v i a t i o n from  d u r i n g the f r e e z i n g p o i n t analysis  e l a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s  experience  the true  coefficient  h i g h e r temperature boundaries might  test.  t h e r e seems t o be no  o f t h e two a p p a r a t u s e s  a g e n e r a l 10$ d i f f e r e n c e  temperature  indi-  c a n be e x p l a i n e d b y s u p e r c o o l i n g o f t h e  In the f i n a l  than  F u r t h e r more,  than  i n the p r e s -  o f t h e f r e e z i n g p o i n t s would  c a t e b e t t e r t h a n 99$ p u r i t y . suggests  c o u l d n o t be b e t t e r  from  other  a t 30 ° C . and a much Bridgman's a p p a r a t u s .  g r a d i e n t found by Bates  a t the  e x p l a i n most o f the d i f f e r e n c e  the nature o f t h i s  corr-  surface film  i s more f u l l y  lower The liquid  but u n t i l  understood  28.  it  c a n be u s e d  o n l y as q u a l i t a t i v e  VII. The  SUGGESTIONS  most n e c e s s a r y  apparatus  explanation.  alteration  i s some improvement  determining  the temperature  the p r e s e n t  arrangement  i n the present  i n t h e method o f  drop  across the l i q u i d .  an e r r o r o f 0.1 m i c r o v o l t w o u l d  c a u s e an e r r o r o f n e a r l y 1 $ i n t h e d e t e r m i n e d conductivity.  T h i s i s due e n t i r e l y  the p o t e n t i o m e t e r potentials suggested  b e i n g used  c l o s e r than  s i n c e i t cannot  0.1 m i c r o v o l t .  thus  r e d u c i n g t h e e r r o r by t w o - t h i r d s  time  retaining  tate  does n o t show s u f f i c i e n t  improvement  f o r determing  a method i s s u g g e s t e d  with the present  If this  some o t h e r method Such  bath  i t was  a r r a n g e m e n t t h e r e was a m a x i -  the o u t e r c y l i n d e r o f the c e l l ,  0.02 ° C .  As t h i s  tempera-  instantaneously to  i t caused  d e v i a t i o n i n t h e t h e r m o c o u p l e emf. r e a d i n g s were t a k e n  thermopile.  temperature  t u r e d e v i a t i o n i s t r a n s m i t t e d almost  cycle  and at t h e same  by Smith ( 1 6 ) .  d e v i a t i o n o f approximately  cooling  i n series,  t h e t h e r m o c o u p l e emf.  With r e g a r d to the constant  mum  I t has been  T h i s , o f c o u r s e , would n e c e s s i -  t h e c a l i b r a t i o n o f an i d e n t i c a l  founqVthat  measure  t h e a d v a n t a g e o f .a mean v a l u e o f t h e  difference.  s h o u l d be u s e d  thermal  to the accuracy o f  t h a t t h e t h e r m o c o u p l e s be c o n n e c t e d  temperature  With  considerable  In the present  work,  a t t h e same p e r i o d o f t h e h e a t i n g -  i n an a t t e m p t  to prevent  this deviation.  29.  from causing the  present  erratic  replaced  is  suggested that  w h i c h was  by  one  of greater o i l be  effort  to  encountered  an o i l b a t h i t may without  be  introducing  circuit.  To  reduce t h i s  l i q u i d b a t h , w h i c h h o l d s 13  be  w a t e r i n an  results.  This  step  i n the  reduce the at the  higher  possible  accuracy could  be  VIII.  measurement o f  greater the  ments a t  could  to  i n the  It  was  desirable  be  constructed  required The  by two  Bridgman's  end  The  the  and  designed  the  author  the  very high  that  f o r measuresuch  several  the  to design  for  pressures  work, w h i l e  advantages o f  shell  a cell  degree o f  diffi-  at  the  method. that  could  skill  cell.  lay i n procuring  seals  satis-  equipment.  purpose of  main d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the  Bridgman's c e l l the  without  heaters.  at  simplified  present  the  a l s o thought  the  a more  was  by  eliminate  same t i m e r e t a i n i n g  for  cell  conductivity  considerably  encountered  heaters  thermocouple  l a g of  that  With  PROPOSED CELL  thermal  w o u l d be  present  evaporation  a t t a i n e d w i t h the  atmospheric pressure.  simplification culties  be  the  exposed  reduce the  than atmospheric, i t i s f e l t  cell  of  temperatures.  t o use  Because B r i d g m a n ' s o r i g i n a l the  place  s t r a y emf's. i n the should  should  Furthermore, i t  excessive  With these improvements i t i s f e l t factory  liters,  capacity.  used  deviation  the  construction correct  i n a s s e m b l i n g the  cell.  of  material Although  30.  great  care  was  taken In  make s u r e t h a t Furthermore, it  was  I t was  of  i n order  found that  to  eliminate  amount o f  could  this  cell  had  t o be  could  be  (see  f i g . 9).  would be  the  involves the  corrosion  o p e n e d up  after i t  attempt has  This  check the of  The  their  clearance  open i t of the  circumference,  possible one  cell  to  ensure  difficulty  this  a constant  d i f f i c u l t y may  be  liquid  overcome by  I n t h i s way  the  will  e x p a n d i n g and  any  will  the It  surplus  should  be  always  cell  has  continually o f by  arrangement p r o p o s e d i t i s n e c e s s a r y  that high  taken care  level  the  well.  channel f o r the is felt  be  be  at  procedure  been f i l l e d .  liquid  and  two  complete  a f t e r the  With the  b e e n made  of the  cell.  and  the  top  i s the m a i n t a i n e n c e o f  channel  interior  made.  working with i n c r e a s i n g temperatures  flow  had  l e a v i n g the  at a l l p o i n t s  cell.  desirable.  same p r i n c i p l e s .  to  to  leaks  the  simple  o f the  possible  b a s e d on  same t i m e i t w o u l d be  filling  in  By  quite  cylinders  cell  way  concentric.  s i m p l i f i e d a c l o s e r c h e c k on  corrosion  a new  no  I f access to the  W i t h t h e s e f a c t o r s i n m i n d an to d e s i g n  any  a c e r t a i n amount o f  when t h e  cell  was  more s o l d e r t h a n was  b e e n u s e d f o r some t i m e . the  there  c y l i n d e r s were a b s o l u t e l y  n e c e s s a r y t o use  taken place had  the  assembling  the  h e a t e r w i r e be  slightly off  thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y of the  enough so  that  the  temperature  that  center. metal  over-  32.  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the i n n e r c y l i n d e r the diameter  of the  However, i f t h i s be  s h o u l d be  i n n e r thermocouple  arrangement  causes  even at  junction  ring.  deviations i t could  c o r r e c t e d by u s i n g t h r e e h e a t e r w e l l s a r r a n g e d  the  same manner as t h e  three heater wires free  in parallel.  at t h e t o p o f the  cylinder seal  thermoucouple w e l l s w i t h  channel  a t the b o t t o m .  from  I n t h i s way  seen  that  between the  cylinders,  H e a t may  conducted  through  be the  the former reduced  sharpened cylinder It  so t h a t  serve  will  be  to  space used  f o r the h e a t e r c u r r e n t .  paths  cell  I t can  of heat  through  the  thermocouple  B r i d g m a n ( 6 ) has  considered.  The  be  conduction liquid.  wires shown  and  that  l a t t e r may  be  amount by u s i n g p i n s o f m a t e r i a l  conductivity their  the  and h a v i n g  them  well  area o f c o n t a c t w i t h the  inner  i s a minimum. i s realized  determined mental  along the  n e e d n o t be  also  itself  circuit  o t h e r than  support p i n s .  thermal  cell  possible  to a n e g l i g i b l e  w i t h low  i s soldered to  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the  t h e r e a r e two  remains  the l i q u i d - c o n t a i n i n g  the  as a p a r t o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l From a t h e r m a l  but  the  heater wire  This solder w i l l  the h e a t e r c h a n n e l  of the c e l l .  The  in  a shape f a c t o r w o u l d h a v e t o  f o r the p a r t i c u l a r  means.  s h o u l d be  that  Once t h i s h a s  quite capable  cell,  p r o b a b l y by  conductivities. - 0  experi-  been d e c i d e d upon, the  of determining  -  absolute  be  cell  thermal  33  I X . APPENDIX  (a) C a l i b r a t i o n Temp. °C.  K H 0  of Cell T.C.  2  Heater volts  Heater amps.  T.C. e q . /fv/ C.  Factor C  e  19.97  0.001418  13.1  1.1426  1.3818  39.48  0.001247  30.55  0.001441  12.6  1.1437  1.3832  39.98  0.001201  39.99  0.001462  12.0  1.1436  1.3829  40.43  0.001148  50.08  0.001485  11.4  1.1410  1.3799  40.91  0.001100  60.06  ©.001507  10.9  1.1385  1.3776  41.38  0.001059  70.09  0.001529  10.4  1.1330  1.3715  41.86  0.001023  (b) T h e r m a l C o n d u c t i v i t y o f T r a n s  Decalin  Temp. °C.  Factor C  T.C. v.  Heater volts  Heater amps.  T.C. e q . / f v / C.  19.90  0.001247  11.5  0.8814  1.0642  39.47  0.0009594  30.55  0.001201  11.2  0.8770  1.0590  39.98  0.0009517  40.24  0.001147  11.1  0.8736  1.0540  40.44  0.0009249  49.44  0.001109  11.0  0.8709  1.0497  40.88  0.0009034  61.13  0.001060  9.9  0.8230  0.9925  41.44  0.0008654  69.86  0.001023  10.9  0.8560  1.0378  41.86  0.0008311  K  34.  (c) Thermal  Conductivity  Temp. °C.  Factor C  20.12  T.C.  of Cis Decalin K.  •T'v.  Heater volts  Heater amps.  T.C. e q . //v/°C.  0.001232  10.0  1.0083  0.8685  39.53  0.001027  31.83  0.001183  10.1  1.0069  0.8673  40.03  0.0009864  40.14  0.001148  10.2  1.0059  0.8665  40.42  0.0009481  50.01  0.001106  10.3  1.0063  0.8670  40.91  0.0009186  60.08  0.001060  10.4  1.0040  0.8657  41.39  0.0008793  69.83  0.001023  10.4  1.0024  0.8638  41.73  0.0008467  (d)  Comparison Thermal  of Results  Conductivity  o f Trans  Temp.  Schoening  30  0.000948  35  0.000939  0.001155  0.00107  40  0.000928  0.001140  0.00097  45  0.000915  0.001080  0.00085  50  0.000900  0.001022  55  0.000885  0.00095  60  0.000868  0.000885  Thermal  Levelton  Decalin  Perris 0.00111  Conductivity  of Cis Decalin  Temp.  Schoenlng  30  0.000993  35  0.000974  0.001178  0.00112  40  0.000955  ' 0.001150  0.001005  45  0.000937  0.001091  50  0.000918  0.001040  55  0.000899  0.000958  60  0.000881  0.000899  Levelton  Perris 0.00114  0.00095  35.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1. B a t e s ,  I n d . E n g . Chem., 25, 431 (1933)  2. B a t e s , I n d . E n g . Chem., 28, 494  (1936)  3. B a t e s and H a z z a r d , I n d . E n g . Chem., 33, 375 (1941) 4. B a t e s and H a z z a r d , I n d . E n g . Chem., 37_, 193 (1945) 5. B a t e s , H a z z a r d  and P a l m e r , I n d . E n g . Chem., A n a l . E d . , 10, 314  6. B r i d g m a n , P r o c . Am. A c a d . A r t s  and S c i e n c e s ,  59, 141 7. D a n i l o f f ,  J.A.C.S.,  (1938)  (1923)  54, 1328 (1932)  8. D e n b i g h , J . S o c . Chem. I n d . , 65, 61 (1946) 9. L e v e l t o n , M.A.Sc. T h e s i s , U.B.C.  (1948)  10. M a r t i n a n d L o n g , P r o c . P h y s . S o c . o f L o n d o n , 45, 529 (1933) 1 1 . P a l m e r , I n d . E n g . Chem., 40, 89 12. P e r r i s ,  M.A.Sc. T h e s i s ,  (1948)  U.B.C. (1947)  1 3 . S e y e r and W a l k e r , J.A.C.S.,  60, 2125 (1938)  14. S m i t h , I n d . E n g . Chem., 22, 1246 (1930) 1 5 . S m i t h , I n d . E n g . Chem., 23, 416 (1931) 16. S m i t h , T r a n s . Am. S o c . Mech. E n g . , 58, 719 17. S t u l l ,  I n d . E n g . Chem., 39_, 517  18. Weber, W i e d . Ann,, 10, 101  (1947)  (1880)  (1936)  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0059068/manifest

Comment

Related Items