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Fouling of heated stainless steel tubes with ferric oxide from flowing water suspensions Hopkins, Robert Montgomery 1973

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n/9f cl FOULING OF HEATED STAINLESS STEEL TUBES WITH FERRIC OXIDE FROM FLOWING WATER SUSPENSIONS by ROBERT MONTGOMERY HOPKINS B.E., Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia Technical College, 1956 M.S., University of Maine, 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the Department of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1973 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C^~/4<?sr7SC & / X?f &ss7 <T<r s^/s? The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date J/ s^&so, 73 ABSTRACT The fouling behaviour of ferric oxide (hematite) particles suspended in water flowing through 0.343 inch i.d. type 304 stainless steel tubes was experimentally investigated. Independent variables studied, using micron and submicron size particles, were ferric oxide concentration (15 - 3750 ppm), tube Reynolds No. (10090 - 37590) and heat flux (0 - 92460 BTU/ft2-hr). For selected runs, fouled tubes were sectioned and the fouling deposit subjected to "in situ" chemical analysis by means of an electron microprobe. During the fouling process, measurements were made of local and average thermal resistance as a function of time. The resulting fouling curves fell into three distinct categories, depending on the particle concentration and the mode of operation: (I) At ferric oxide concentrations below 100 ppm, no thermal fouling could be detected over experimental periods of up to 14 days. Microprobe examination of such tubes showed spotty deposits. i i (2) At ferric oxide concentrations of. 750 ppm and higher, using mixed size particles, measurable thermal fouling occurred at a steadily decreasing rate, similar to the asymptotic type behaviour reported previously in other fouling systems. In the present study, the asymptotic condition was achieved after about four hours of operation. Prolonged operation resulted in a sudden decrease in fouling resistance at localized positions on the test section, followed by refouling of the whole test section. (3) If the suspension was circulated through the test section at zero heat flux for approximately eight hours and then heating started, the tube commenced fouling thermally at a constant rate considerably greater than the previous decreasing rates. Microprobe results showed the deposits to contain, in addition to iron and oxygen, significant amounts of nickel and chromium. Chemical composition profiles typically showed nickel and chromium concentration gradients from the wall inwards, concentrations varying from the highest values at the wall to zero at the deposit-fluid interface. A test section used for a series of fouling trials, when examined under an electron microscope, was found to contain small but distinct pits. A hypothesis is presented according to which the fouling behaviour of water suspended ferric oxide on stain less steel is controlled by the rate at which crevice corrosion of the stainless steel occurs. The corrosion products precipitate within the initially loose deposit structure and thus serve to stabilize this structure. The corrosion rate is in turn controlled by the oxygen reduction rate at unfouled areas on the tube wall. Experiments specifically designed to test this hypothesis, such as increasing the unfouled area in an attempt to accelerate the corrosion rate, and removing oxygen with a scavenger in order to decrease the rate, gave results entirely consistent with the hypothesis. Mathe matical models based on the hypothesis are explored. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ii LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF FIGURES xiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xviii Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The Fouling Problem 1 1.2 Pertinent Prior Work 3 1.3 Problem Area Selected and Objectives of the Research 13 2 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS 17 2.1 Heat Transfer Loop2.2 Electron Microprobe 28 2.3 Properties of Ferric Oxide Fouling Materials 32 3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES 6 3.1 Test Section Preparation Procedure 36 3.2 Fouling Run Procedure 39 v Chapter Page 3.2.1 Cleaning of system. 40 3.2.2 Tank filling 43.2.3 Start-up 1 3.2.4 Elimination of thermal transients. 41 3.2.5 Addition of ferric oxide 43 3.2.6 Operating procedure during trials . . 43 3.2.7 Shut down procedure ......... 44 3.2.8 Fouling deposit sample preparation. . 44 4 COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES 46 5 EXPERIMENTAL ERROR STUDY 59 5.1 Influence of Thermal Transients. ...... in Determining Thermal Resistance 60 5.2 Errors Due to Variation in Line Voltage. . . 63 5.3 Errors Due to Flow Rate Variations 66 5.4 Errors Due to Inlet Temperature Variations . 68 5.5 Errors Caused by Wet Insulation 68 5.6 Miscellaneous Errors 70 5.7 Reproducibility and Validity of Thermal Fouling Data 70 6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 7 6.1 Summary of Fouling Trials 76.2 Thermal Fouling versus Time Behaviour. ... 82 6.2.1 Types of Thermal Fouling Curves Obtained 82 vi Chapter Page 6.2.2 Effect of Reynolds number and heat flux on fouling curves 86 6.2.3 Effect of ferric oxide concen tration on fouling curves 94 6.2.4 Effect of residual tube wall deposits on fouling curves 100 6.2.5 Effect of extended operating time on fouling curves . 104 6.2.6 Fouling behaviour using a pre-fouled tube 113 6.2.7 Effect of an oxygen scavenger (Na2S03) on fouling behaviour. . . . 117 6.2.8 Effect of ferric oxide particle size on fouling behaviour 121 6.2.9 Influence of local wall tempera ture on fouling behaviour 131 6.3 Pressure Drop Versus Time Fouling Behaviour 135 6.4 Fouling Deposit Examination Results .... 138 6.4.1 Type of information obtained .... 138 6.4.2 Results of light and electron microscopic examination of deposits 140 6.4.3 Electron microprobe results 141 6.4.3.1 Qualitative nature of fouling deposits 141 6.4.3.2 Quantitative analysis of fouling deposits -transverse sections .... 149 vii Chapter Page 6.4.3.3 Qualitative and quan titative analysis of deposits - core samples 154 6.4.4 Examination for pitting of tube used in fouling runs 32-70. 1 61 6.4.5 Deposit crystal structure 164 7 CORROSION CONTROLLED FOULING - A PROPOSED HYPOTHESIS 165 7.1 Outline of Working Hypothesis 165 7.2 Fundamentals of Crevice Corrosion 167 7.3 Proposed Mechanism for Ferric Oxide Fouling of 304 Stainless Steel 171 7.4 Mathematical Models 175 7.4.1 Model 1 177.4.2 Model II 186 7.4.3 Linear fouling 189 7.4.4 Compatibility of fouling model equations with experimental data 190 8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 195 REFERENCES 199 NOMENCLATURE 203 APPENDICES I ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS AND PRESSURE TAPS .... 209 II COMPUTER PROGRAMS 210 III COMPUTATION OF THERMOPHORETIC VELOCITY FOR RUN 63 221 IV EXPERIMENTAL DATA 226 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Tabl e Page I Equipment Component List 19 II Thermocouple Locations on Test Sections 24 III Data Logging System Components 27 IV Properties of Ferric Oxide Powder Allied Chemical Batch D344 33 V Properties and Preparation Instructions for Eccocoat 582 Epoxy Resin 37 VI Variance from Target Conditions Tolerated for Run 39 42 VII Typical Log Sheet Showing Run Objective and Target Conditions 47 VIII Output from Program PAR 49 IX Output from Datalogger 50 X Data Used for Fouling Curve Determination. ... 52 XI Output from Program STOMV -Input to Program FOUL 54 XII Output from Program FOUL 8 ix Tab! e Page XIII Variation in Electrical Power Supplied to the Test Section - Run 13 64 XIV Data from Run 15 to Determine Effect of Honing Tube Wall on Thermal Resistance 71 XV Reproducibility of Fouling Curve Parameters Obtained by Fitting Data to the Equation Rf = Rf*(l - e~bt) 74 XVI Summary of Fouling Trials Run at Low Ferric Oxide Concentrations 79 XVII Summary of Ferric Oxide Trials Using Mixed-Size Particles 80 XVIII Effect of Heat Flux and Reynolds Number on Fouling Behaviour for Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide 2130 ppm 88 XIX Influence of Ferric Oxide Concentration on Parameters b and R-* and Initial Fouling Rate Obtained by Least Squares Fit of Fouling Data to the Equation Rf = R**(l - e-bt). Heat Flux 90,000 BTU/fr-hr (Approx.) Re 26,500 (Approx.) .... 96 XX Influence of Ferric Oxide Concentration on Parameters b and Rf* and Initial Fouling Rate Obtained by Least Squares Fit of Fouling Data to the Equation Rf = Rf*(l - e"bt). Heat Flux 44,360 BTU/ft^-hr Re 19,550 97 XXI Parameters b and Rf* and Initial Fouling Rate Obtained by Least Squares Fit of Fouling Data to the Equation Rf = Rf*(l-e"bt) for Runs 39, 40 and 41. Heat Flux 44,870 BTU/ft2-hr Re 25,390, mixed size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 107 x Table Page XXII Effect of Particle Size on Fouling Behaviour. Ferric Oxide Cone. 15 ppm Re 25,000 (Approx.) 123 XXIII Deposition Coefficients for Ferric Oxide as a Function of Particle Size as Computed from Beal's Equation. Tube Reynolds Number 25,360, Bulk Velocity 3.28 ft/sec, Fluid Temperature 212°F 127 XXIV Local Fouling Resistances After One Hour as a Function of Tube Wall Position (and Hence Wall Temperature). Heat Flux 90,000 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 26,500 Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 132 XXV Local Fouling Resistances After One Hour as a Function of Tube Wall Position (and Hence Wall Temperature). Heat Flux 44,360 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 19,550, Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 133 xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Heat Transfer Loop Schematic 18 2 Test Section 23 3 Heat Transfer Loop Electrical and Data Logging System Schematic 26 4 The Jeol Electron Microprobe 29 5 Illustration Demonstrating Fundamental Principles of Electron Microprobe Analysis 30 6 Particle Size of Mixed Size Ferric Oxide in Feedstock and in Fouling Deposit 34 7 Apparent Thermal Resistance Versus Time for Run 1 on Tap Water 62 8 Thermal Resistance Versus Fluid Temperature Rise Run 4 (Tap Water) 67 9 Thermal Resistance Versus Inlet Temperature for Run 5 on Tap Water 69 10 Fouling Curve Reproducibility as Shown by Superimposing Data for Replicate Runs 34, 35, 38, 59 72 11 Fouling Curve Illustrating Asymptotic Type Behaviour 83 xii Figure Page 12 Effect of Prolonged Operation on Fouling Behaviour 84 13 Linear Fouling Behaviour , 85 14 Influence of Reynolds Number on Fouling Curves at Heat Fluxes Near 90,000 BTU/ft2-hr. Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 89 15 Effect of Heat Flux and Reynolds Number on Fouling Behaviour. Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 90 16 Effect of Heat Flux and Reynolds Number on Fouling Curves at Heat Fluxes < 44,360 BTU/ft2-hr. Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 91 17 Effect of Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Concentration on Fouling Behaviour. Heat Flux 90,000 BTU/ft2-hr (Approx.) Re 26,500 (Approx.) 98 18 Effect of Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Concentration on Fouling Behaviour Heat Flux 44,360 BTU/ft5-hr Re 19,550 99 19 Comparison of Fouling Behaviour for a Clean Honed Tube (No Residual Deposit) with a Prefouled Tube Subjected to High Velocity Cooling. Heat Flux 44,870 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 25,400, Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 103 20 Fouling Behaviour over an Extended Time Period for Run 34. Heat Flux 44,360 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 19,500, Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 105 xi i i Figure Page 21 Lower Portion of Test Section Fouling Behaviour Following Honing of Upper Portion at 2.5 Hours and High Velocity Cooling at 5.5 Hours. Heat Flux 44,870 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 25,390, Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 108 22 Upper Portion of Test Section Fouling Behaviour Following Honing at 2.5 Hours and High Velocity Cooling at 5.5 Hours Heat Flux 44,870 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 25,390, Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 109 23 Effect of Tube Condition at Time Zero on Fouling Behaviour. Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm Heat Flux 91400 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 26,580 1 1 5 24 Comparison of Fouling Rates for a Clean Honed Tube (Curve 1), a Prefouled Tube with an Oxygen Scavenger in the System (Curve 3), a Prefouled Tube with no Oxygen Scavenger (Curve 2). Mixed Size Ferric Oxide 2130 ppm, Heat Flux 89,670 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 26,580 1 19 25 Local Fouling Resistance After One Hour Versus Local Wall Temperature at Time Zero. Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 134 26 Pressure Drop Increase as a Function of Time for an Asymptotic Type Fouling Run (Run 63) and a Linear Fouling Run (Run 64) Heat Flux 91,400 BTU/ft2-hr Re 26,580, Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm 137 27 Scanning Electron Photomicrograph Showing the Nature of the Deposit Resulting from the Fouling of Aqueous Ferric Oxide Suspensions on 304 Stainless Steel (The Photomicrographs are a Stereo Pair) 142 xiv Figure Page 28 Image of a Core Sample Obtained with the Electron Microprobe 143 29 Electron Microprobe Photomicrograph of a Typical Deposit Showing the Back Scattered Electron Image or Topography (Above) and the Absorbed Electron Image or Physical Composition (Below). ... 144 30 Electron Microprobe X-Ray Intensity Photomicrograph of a Typical Deposit Showing the Distribution of Iron (Above) and Nickel (Below) 146 31 Electron Microprobe X-Ray Intensity Photomicrograph of a Typical Deposit Showing the Distribution of Chromium 147 32 Electron Microprobe Photomicrograph Showing for a Typical Deposit the Absorbed Electron Image (Above) and the Corresponding X-Ray Intensity Photomicrograph Depicting Oxygen Concentration (Below) 148 33 Electron Microprobe Photomicrograph of a Clean Tube Showing the Back-Scattered Electron Image (Above) and the Corresponding X-Ray Intensity Photomicrograph Depicting Iron Concentration (Below) 150 34 Concentration Profiles for Iron Nickel and Chromium for Run 70 - A Run Which Showed Linear Fouling 152 35 Chromium Concentration Profiles for Deposits from Run 15 - No Thermal Fouling Detected, Run 31 - Asymptotic Fouling, and Run 30 -Linear Type Fouling (Distance Scale is Arbitrary) 153 36 Physical Appearance of Core Sample (Upper Photomicrograph) and Relative Distribution of Chromium (Lower Photomicrograph) 155 xv Figure Page 37 Physical Appearance of Core Sample (Upper Photomicrograph) and Relative Distribution of Nickel (Lower Photomicrograph) 156 38 Physical Appearance of Core Sample (Upper Photomicrograph) and Relative Distribution of Iron (Lower Photo micrograph) 157 39 Physical Appearance of Core Sample (Upper Photomicrograph) and Relative Distribution of Oxygen (Lower Photomicrograph) 158 40 Relative Intensities of Iron and Chromium, and Nickel and Chromium, for a Scan Over a Core Sample (From Linear Fouling Run 70) ........ 160 41 Scanning Electron Photomicrographs Showing the Appearance of the Tube Wall of a Tube Used in 38 Fouling Runs (The Above Photo micrographs are a Stereo Pair) n . . . . 162 42 Scanning Electron Photomicrographs Showing the Appearance of a Clean Tube Never Used in Fouling Experiments (The Above Photo micrographs are a Stereo Pair) 163 43 Mechanism of Crevice Corrosion According to Fontana and Greene (37) . 170 44 Idealized Fouling Curve Illustrating the Nature of the Fouling Deposit at Various Time Intervals According to the Crevice Corrosion Hypothesis 172 45 Dependence of Initial Fouling Rate on Mass Flow Rate for. Runs 54, 55, 39, and 61. Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm. Wall Temperature at Time Zero 148°F ± 4 . . . . 192 xv i Figure Page 46 Dependence of Asymptotic Fouling Resistance on Mass Flow Rate for Runs 54, 55, 39 and 61. Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm. Wall Temperature at Time Zero 148°F ±4 193 xvi i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks are due to the following people for their co-operation and assistance throughout the course of this study. Dr. Norman Epstein, under whose direction this investigation was conducted, for his guidance and support. Mr. John Baranowski and the Chemical Engineering Workshop staff for their help with the experimental apparatus. Mr. Arvid Lacis of the Department of Metallurgy U.B.C. for his aid in operating the electron microprobe and his assistance in interpreting the results. Mr. Orestes Mayo and Dr. Paul Watkinson without whose prior work and help the results obtained here would not have been possible. I am indebted to the Department of Metallurgy U.B.C. for the use of the electron microprobe and the scanning electron microscope. I would like to thank the National Research Council and the University of British Columbia for financial assistance. xv i i i I am also indebted to my wife Barbara and my children Susan, Patricia, Michael and Rob for their con tinual support throughout this work. xix Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1 .1 The Fouling Problem Fouling, the accumulation of undesired deposits on heat transfer surfaces, is a major industrial problem. For example, in oil refineries coke-type deposits form on heat exchanger surfaces and impede the flow of heat. This results in higher capital costs, and can also result in costly plant shut-downs for cleaning. In nuclear reactors, fouling deposits can become radioactive, causing difficult and potentially hazardous maintenance problems. In pulp mills, chemical digester heat exchangers are prone to fouling, which results in increased steam costs. Processes with large cooling requirements, such as sulphuric acid production, also experience fouling problems, which generally manifest themselves by increasing process water requi rements. Although fouling problems are of economic impor tance in a large number of industries, no systematic 1 2 treatment of the subject is available in the literature. As pointed out by Taborek et al. (1) in their review paper, "Fouling: The Major Unresolved Problem in Heat Transfer," there is not, at the present time, a single reference book covering the subject of fouling, and heat transfer texts do little more than acknowledge the existence of fouling problems. As a consequence, designers of heat transfer equipment must resort to empirical methods in computing heat exchange surface areas for processes where fouling is experienced. These methods usually involve the assumption of a fouling resistance, which is added to the other heat transfer resistances to arrive at the total thermal resistance used as the basis for design. Such an approach frequently causes inaccurate design, not only because of the unreliability of the fouling resistance estimation, but also because it fails to take into account the unsteady state nature of the fouling process. In summary, fouling is a major problem in many process industries resulting in increased capital costs and process maintenance difficulties. At the same time, there is little information available which enables the engineer to design adequately for heat exchange where fouling is a problem. Because of current public concern regarding energy resources, process industries will face 3 growing pressures to conserve and reclaim process heat. To meet such an objective will require an increased under standing of fouling and how to control or eliminate it. 1.2 Pertinent Prior Work One of the earliest studies of fouling was made in 1924 by McCabe and Robinson (2). This study concerned the scaling of evaporators, and resulted in one of the first predictive equations for fouling resistance as a function of operating time. McCabe and Robinson considered the rate of change of fouling resistance with time to be proportional to the amount of liquid evaporated; that is, where Rf = fouling resistance Since Q varies as the heat transfer rate q, equation (1.1) can be written as t = time Q = rate of evaporation a q (1.2) 4 For q the basic heat transfer rate equation is invoked q' = q/A = UAT = RQAJ r (1.3) f where R0 = clean wall resistance AT = appropriate temperature difference across the total heat transfer resistance U = overall heat transfer coefficient A = heat transfer area Substitution of equation (1.3) into equation (1.2) yields dR* AT f - (1>4) dt R0 + R f For a constant heat flow, equation (1.2) predicts a linear increase of fouling resistance with time. In the more common evaporator situations, the overall temperature difference AT is constant and equation (1.4) predicts an increase in R^ with time at an ever decreasing rate. R^ does not, however, reach a finite limit. Hasson (3,4) has studied scale deposition on sensible heat exchanger surfaces using both calcium car bonate and calcium sulphate from water solutions as 5 foulants. He found that during the initial stages, little change in thermal resistance occurred. This Hasson re ferred, to as a nucleation period, during which it was considered that scaling nuclei form on the heat transfer surfaces. Following this period, scaling and thermal fouling were found to proceed at a non-uniform rate, being highest at the downstream end of a heated test section, due presumably to the inverse solubility effect. The existence of a nucleation (or induction) period is not included in the McCabe-Robinson approach. Kern (5) and Kern and Seaton (6) have studied the increase in fouling resistance as a function of time for oil refinery heat exchangers. In their approach, fouling is considered to be a dynamic process involving both deposition on, and release from, the heat transfer surface. When the release rate equals the deposition rate, a finite asymptotic fouling resistance is achieved. The basic differential equation of Kern and Seaton was = KjCW - K2xx (1.5) where x Ki = foulant deposit thickness = proportionality constant 6 K2 = proportionality constant W = mass flow rate x = shear stress at the tube wall t = time C = concentration of foulant in the fluid If it is assumed that all variables on the right-hand side of equation (1.5) are constant with the exception of x, integration from the initial condition, x = 0, at t = 0, yields x = KiCH K2 T 1 - e K2Tt (1.6) Assuming that, per unit area of heat transfer surface, Rf = x^'<d' wnere 15 tne thermal conductivity of the deposit, then KXCW K2k .T 1 - e K2xt (1.7) Kern found that the dependence of on t given by equa tion (1.7) not only described oil refinery fouling data, but also that of several unspecified aqueous fouling systems 7 Watkinson (7) studied particulate fouling in a laboratory heat transfer loop using an industrial sour gas-oil distillate and a sand-water mixture. In his attempt to fit his data to a Kern-Seaton type equation (such as equation (1.7), he obtained a good fit for the sand-water mixture, but a seemingly poor fit for the gas-oil distillate except under conditions of low heat flux. Further, the fdR t=0 initial fouling rate was found to vary directly dt with the flow rate for the lower velocity sand-water runs, in line with equation (1.7), but to vary inversely with the flow rate for the gas-oil runs. Through a study of the effect of mass flow rate on asymptotic fouling resis tance Rf = llC]i of equation (1 .7) t = oo K2Tkd , Watkinson found this resistance for the gas-oil runs to be inversely pro portional to the square of the flow rate. Equation (1.7) predicts that the asymptotic fouling resistance should be inversely proportional to the flow rate raised to the first power. The latter result was found for the sand-water runs. Other investigators, notably Parkins (8), Nijsing (9), Hatcher (10) and Charlesworth (11,12) have studied fouling associated with heat transfer surfaces in nuclear reactors. Parkins introduced the concept of fouling as 8 an interplay of the mass flux of particles to the heat transfer surface and the probability that a particle will stick to the surface. His basic equation is dR, \ ciNiuisi where dRf _ dt = fouling film formation rate N. = concentration of type i particles U. = velocity of a particle toward the surface in close proximity to the surface S. = sticking probability C.. = proportionality constant If subsequent removal is a factor, a removal term presumably should be included. Nijsing discusses the role of Brownian movement and the effect of such factors as velocity profiles on the deposition process. Charlesworth has derived an equation for fouling in nuclear reactors under boiling conditions by corrosion products of iron. His equation resembles that of Kern and Seaton. In order to reconcile their data for gas-oil and sand-water fouling with both the Kern-Seaton equation and the concepts of Parkins and Nijsing, Watkinson and Epstein (13) developed an equation incorporating: 9 (1) the deposition-release concept of Kern and Seaton, (2) the sticking probability approach of Parkins, and (3) implicitly, the influence of Brownian movement, as suggested by Nijsing. The basic differential equation in this model is ^| = aiJS - a2xx (1.9) ai and a2 are constants J = the mass flux of particles normal to the heated surface S = the sticking probability x = the deposit thickness J is represented by a mass transfer rate equation 0 = kc (Cb - Cw) (1.10) the mass transfer coefficient for radial transport of the particles the particle concentration difference between the bulk of the fluid and the tube wall . The mass transfer coefficient k is related to fluid velocity by a momentum-mass transfer analogy after Metzner and Friend (14). where In turn where k = c <Cb-Cw> • 10 u /m which applies for high S£ (low diffusivity). The sticking probability S is assumed to be re lated to the surface temperature Ts by an Arrhenius-type relationship, and inversely proportional to the hydro-dynamic forces on a particle at the instant the particle contacts the wall. Consequently -E/R T S = ^ (1.12) Ub2 f Since f, the Fanning friction factor, is related to the shear stress by the equation T = fPUb2/2 (1.13) combination of equations (1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12 and 1.13) leads to -E/R T . Ax C. - C ) e 9 s jf • b W A2fU.2x (1.14) dt Ub/f b 11 If it is assumed that (fouling film thermal conductivity) does not vary with x, and that f is not a function of (fully rough flow), then the initial fouling rate is -E/R T„ dRf IF Ai(C. Cw> t=0 (1.15) in keeping with the gas-oil data. •k The asymptotic fouling resistance Rf (defined as Rf ) is found from equation (1.14) to be proportional t = oo f r3 to Ujj/f . Experimentally the results for the sour gas-oil fouling showed Rf* to be proportional to b For the particular case where S = 1 and there fore Cw = 0, the combination of equations (1.9, 1.10 and 1.11) leads to the equivalent of the Kern-Seaton equation, which fitted the results for the lower velocity sand-water runs. Taborek and Associates (1,15) have approached fouling through an industrial experimental program supple mented with laboratory testing. For cooling water systems, they have found that city water deposits usually consist mainly of calcium carbonate, and that the fouling behaviour of such systems is described by the predictive equation 12 dR f _ dt C0(Cr) exp Vs. (i where C0 = a coefficient inversely proportional to velocity C = function of fouling concentration r 3 r = exponent E = activation energy R„ = gas constant Tg = heat transfer surface temperature dRf = fouling rate T = shear stress at the heat transfer surface R. = bonding resistance of the fouling deposit to shear Taborek et al. , using equation (1.16) as a starting point, were able to predict the fouling behaviour of cooling water systems with an accuracy of ±40% for the asymptotic fouling resistance and ±35% for the initial fouling rate. Both of these figures are based upon one standard deviation. Some investigators have studied fouling from a fluid dynamic-particle transport point of view. Beal (16,17), for example, has derived a mathematical model 13 designed to predict fouling rates as a function of particle size and fluid dynamic parameters. (Section 6.28 contains a review of this work.) Others, notably Gasparini et al. (18), have concerned themselves with the effect of surface forces on the adherence of foulants to various heat transfer surface materials. Yet another approach has been taken by Kabele and Bartlett (19), who consider contaminant coagulation to be a major factor in fouling. It is clear from the literature on fouling that the subject is indeed a broad and expanding one. A con sequence of this is that researchers in the area must be content to work toward narrow and well defined objectives if progress is to be made toward finding better means of dealing with fouling problems. 1.3 Problem Area Selected and Objectives  of the Research Upon completion of his investigation of the two fouling systems, gas-oil and sand-water, Watkinson (7) stated that further work was required to test the validity of the various fouling models he had developed. In par ticular, the type and magnitude of forces involved in adhesion had not been identified and the particle concen tration had not been varied, although it had been 14 incorporated in the models as a parameter. Also, the removal mechanism used as a hypothesis to explain asymptotic fouling behaviour had not been directly demonstrated to exist. Charlesworth (24), who is studying how iron corrosion products foul heat transfer surfaces in nuclear reactors (11,12), considers the following questions to be open: (1) What are the relative importance of dissolved and particulate matter? (2) What are the driving forces for contaminant deposition and release? (3) Does all the oxide layer on the fouling surface participate in the foul i ng process? (4) What type of bonding is involved? (5) What effect does heat transfer surface material and finish have? (6) Are there synergistic effects between fouling species? Nijsing (9) concludes his paper on the particle dynamics of fouling by stating that ". . . basic experi mental research on fouling requires the use of methods which enable the coolant impurity to be characterized." Taborek (1) believes that progress in fouling research requires the systematic collection of data on a wide variety of fouling systems and the subjection of 15 such data to the various predictive fouling models in the literature. From the above, it appears that the main problem area in the field of fouling is that of determining what causes the frequently observed induction period, what type of deposit bonding occurs and what factors influence deposit removal. Solutions to such problems require finding or, if necessary, developing means of characterizing fouling impurities and examining the manner in which they are deposited. In an attempt to answer some of these questions, the decision was made to investigate the fouling behaviour of a system consisting of a ferric oxide suspension in water circulating through a 304 stainless steel tube. The reasons for making this decision were as follows: (1) Ferric oxide has frequently been identified in fouling deposits in many systems such as boilers and coolers (20,21,22). Consequently the results of such a study could have practical application. (2) ^^2^3 was apparently available in pure form in a range of particle sizes, thus opening the possibility of studying the effect of particle size on fouling. 16 (3) Ferric oxide is practically insoluble in water and therefore the study was limited to particulate fouling uninfluenced by fouling from solution. The decision was also made to use the heat transfer loop constructed by Watkinson (7) and modified by Mayo (23) for his study, since this would give a degree of data continuity useful in the assessment of results. Specifically, the objectives of the proposed research were as follows: (1) To determine the effects of ferric oxide concentration, particle size, heat flux and. fluid velocity on the fouling characteristics of a ferric oxide-water-304 stainless steel system. (2) To determine how well the fouling results from such a system fit fouling models such as those pro posed by Kern and Seaton (6) and by BeaI (16,17). (3) To study, through use of the electron micro probe, the manner in which deposits are laid down in order to gain some insight into possible mechanisms for deposi tion and re I ease. Chapter 2 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS 2.1 Heat Transfer Loop All fouling runs were made in a heat transfer loop originally constructed by Watkinson (7) and modified by Mayo (23) and the present author to include automatic logging of data. Mayo (23) has given a detailed descrip tion of the experimental set-up, a summary of which follows. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the test loop and Table I lists the components along with details concerning size, specifications and materials of construction. The essential features of the heat transfer loop are given below. A steam coil jacketted storage tank insulated with fibre glass wool held the 200 kg of fluid used for each run. The storage tank was equipped with a fluid recirculation pipe and a compressed air line which extended to the bottom of the tank. Both of these features helped to minimize settling of the ferric oxide suspension and 1 7 MIXING CHAMBER EXIT THERMOCOUPLE TEST SECTION-TEST SECTION THERMOCOUPLES INLET THERMOCOUPLE PRESSURE GAUGE COOLER DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE CELL PRESSURE GAUGE CONTROL VALVE •=ixi PRESSURE r— CONTROL r ORIFICE PLATE SAMPLING VALVE DRAINING VALVE 1 TO SEWER — ROTAMETER 5L' WATER VENT COMPRESSED AIR 5 psig CO Figure 1. Heat Transfer Loop Schematic. 19 Table I Equipment Component List Component Description Storage Tank 45 gallon-316 stainless steel drum Pump Sieman and Hinsch Type CAD Model 3102 two-stage self-priming centri fugal pump, stainless steel Motor 3 HP Flow Meter Stainless steel sharp-edged orifice (3 = 0.301 , 3 = 0.602) Di fferenti al Pressure Cells Honeywell DP meter Y227X2-L2 Pump Pressure Gauge Marsh Bourdon tube, 0-200 psi Test Section 3/8 inch O.D. x 0.016 inch wall thickness type 304 stainless steel seamless tubing Pressure Taps Stainless steel, spaced 19-1/4 inches and 45-7/16 inches from lower end of tube (see Appendix I for drawings) Electri cal Termi nals Brass, soldered 20-3/4 inches and 44-1/32 inches from lower end of tube (see Appendix I for drawings) Electrical Cable Insulated copper cable size 000 (Conti nued) 20 Table I (Continued) Component Description Test Section Thermocouples 30 gauge copper-constantan heat fused thermocouples shielded with 11/64 inch diameter tinned copper brai di ng Fluid Thermocouples Copper-constantan 'Ceramocouples ,1 Thermoelectric Part No. Ce 50418-T with 304 stainless steel sheaths and shielded leads Globe Valves Power 1/2 inch stainless steel By-Pass Valve Farris No. 1870 spring loaded valve (100 psig rating) Pressure Transducer Viatran, model 209, 0-15 psi pressure transducer Pressure Switch Honeywell Pressure troll Model L404C Variacs Superior Electrical type 1156D mounted on a common shaft Primary Transformer General Electric Cat. No. 10M36 rated at 10KUA 220/110 volts Secondary Transformer Bartholomew and Montgomery 17 KVA 220/40 volts Ammeter Weston model 155, 0-2-1/2, 0-5 amp AC dual range meter Ammeter Transformer Instrument Service Laboratories 500/5 amps (Continued) Table I (Continued) 21 Component Descri pti on Voltmeter Fuji Denki 0-15, 0-30 volt AC dual range meter Cooler Double pipe cooler. Overall length 6 feet. Inside pipe 3/8 inch O.D. x 0.035 inch wall th i ckness stai nl ess steel tubing. Outside pipe 1/2 inch galvanized iron Cooler Rotameter Brooks Type 12-1110 Test Section Insulation Inside - Asbestos powder Outside - 1 inch thick Caposite Pipe and Tank Insulation 1 inch fibreglass Gasket and Seal Material Teflon 22 insured that the test fluid remained saturated with oxygen during the course of a run. A typical heat transfer fouling surface test section used for the trials is shown in Figure 2. It consisted of a 51-J-|- inch long 304 stainless steel seamless tube having an outside diameter of 3/8 inch and a wall thickness of 0.016 inch. Attached to the test section were two stainless steel pressure taps and two brass electrical contacts. Size and spacings for these compo nents are given in Table I. The test section can be sub divided into three parts, an entrance length of 194 inches (51 diameters I.D.) to establish the velocity profile, a 6i inch exit section, and a 23yj inch middle section used as the heated portion of the tube. Twelve copper-con stantan thermocouples constructed from 30 gauge wire were attached to the heated section at two-inch intervals. Precise locations are given in Table II. Thermocouples were bonded to the tube wall using "Eccocoat" epoxy resin according to a procedure given in Section 3.1. Insulation for the test section consisted of a 0.3 inch layer of asbestos powder adjacent to the tube held in place by a one-inch thick layer of "Caposite" pipe insulation. Caposite is a mineral wool-Amosite fibre bound with asbestos cement. To 1 x i FPT 8 2 Tube fitting Pressure tops Electrical Cobll Size OOO Terminal Bar soldered to tube Tube type 304 stainless $"o-t> x 0016" wall Current Transformer 9 2 3 32 To J x-^ MPT Tube fitting 24 16 4" 19-L 23 Figure 2. Test Section. Watkinson (7) Mayo (23) and for all • foul Watkinson (7) l ng (Test Section design by and used by Watkinson (7) the present investigator runs. Drawing from 24 Table II Thermocouple Locations on Test Section Thermocouple Number Test Section Position Des i gnati on Location: Distance From Lower, Tube End, Inches 1 T215 21 .5 2 T235 23.5 3 T255 25.5 4 T275 27.5 5 T295 29.5 6 T315 31 .5 7 T335 33.5 8 T355 35.5 9 T375 37.5 10 T395 39.5 11 T415 41 .5 12 T428 42.8 25 The middle portion of the test section was heated electrically using a power circuit shown in Figure 3. The electrical system consisted of a 220 volt single phase power source wired to two variacs mounted in parallel on a common shaft. The output from the variacs was stepped down to a maximum of 20 volts using two transformers in series. The first reduced voltage from 220 volts to 110 volts and the second reduced the voltage to 20 volts. Details concerning the electrical equipment, the wiring and the current and voltage measuring instruments are given in Table I. All thermal and pressure drop data were recorded automatically using a Solartron data logging system model LY1471. Mayo (23) gives a detailed description of this system. Specifications of its main components are given in Table III. Briefly, it consists of a digital voltmeter, a digital clock, a scanner, a system program pinboard, a thermocouple compensating unit and a solenoid-operated typewriter. The output from the heat transfer loop thermo couples and the pressure transducer were fed into the digital voltmeter through the pinboard assembly, according to a program established by the scanner. At a predeter mined interval, usually one minute, each input channel was monitored and the data transmitted through the system COPPER- CONSTANTAN TERMINAL BLOCK TYPEWRITER DATA LOGGER THERMOCOUPLE COMPENSATING UNIT TEST SECTION TRANSFORMER 110/20 VOLTS 17 KVA 0 CURRENT TRANSFORMER 500/5 AMP. L<A)J VARIACS IN TANDEM 220 V. AC r\ i) SINGLE wy PHASE TRANSFORMER 220/110 VOLTS 10 KVA THERMOCOUPLES ro cn Figure 3. Heat Transfer Loop Electrical and Data Logging System Schematic. (Arrangement designed by Watkinson (7) and modified by Mayo (23) and Hopkins to include data logging. Drawing from Mayo (23).) 27 Table III Data Logging System Components Component Model Number Thermocouple Compensati ng Unit Solartron LU 1468 Scanner Solartron LU 1461 System Program Pi nboard Solartron LX 1689 Digital Clock Solartron LU 1463 Digital Volt meter Solartron LM 1426 Typewri ter Drive Solartron LU 1469 Typewri ter IBM LX 1653 28 and printed. Recorded with each series of data was the time at which the monitoring sequence commenced. Recorded with the heated section thermocouple data were also the outputs of thermocouples located at the entrance to and exit from the test section, as well as a thermocouple indicating room temperature. Another feature of the heat transfer loop was a 6 foot double pipe heat exchanger installed after the test section on the return line to the tank. Table I gives details pertaining to this unit. System piping for the heat transfer loop con sisted of i inch 316 stainless steel schedule 40 pipe, with the exception of the inlet pipe to the pump, which was 1 inch 316 stainless steel pipe. All seals, gaskets, packing and the like were made of Teflon. 2.2 Electron Microprobe Deposits from selected ferric oxide fouling trials, and from a variety of other sources, were analyzed in a Japanese Electron Optical Limited (JEOL) electron micro probe located in the Metallurgy Department of the University of British Columbia. Figure 4 shows a schematic diagram of the probe and Figure 5 illustrates its principle of operation. Figure 4. The J EOL Electron Mi croprobe 30 INCIDENT ELECTRONS ABSORBED ELECTRONS Figure 5. Illustration Demonstrating Fundamental Principles of Electron Microprobe Analysis. 31 Briefly, the principle upon which the microprobe operates is as follows. Electrons, from an electron gun, are focused through a condensor lens into a i micron beam, accelerated through a potential, typically 25 KV, and directed upon the sample being analyzed. There, the bombarding electrons can: (1) collide with the nucleus of an atom and rebound, or (2) collide with and displace a planetary electron of an atom in the sample. If the electron rebounds, it can be picked up in a detector and used to form an optical image of the surface of the material being examined. If the bombarding electron displaces a planetary electron of an atom, that atom becomes excited and emits X-rays having a frequency characteristic of the element. Determination of this frequency, using a crystal system, gives positive identi fication of the element. Measurement of the intensity of these X-rays gives a quantitative estimate of the amount of that element present in the sample. For a detailed description of the microprobe, its principle of operation and fundamental theory, refer ence should be made to the work of Brown (25), Birks (26), ,van Olphen and Parrish (27) arid Castaing (28). 32 2.3 Properties of Ferric Oxide Fouling Materials The ferric oxide used in this study was obtained from two sources: (1) Bulk, mixed-size analytical grade ferric oxide supplied by Allied Chemical Co. Ltd. Table IV gives the physical and chemical properties of this material. (2) Presized, analytical grade ferric oxide obtained in two 10 gram batches from Particle Information Service. Batch No. I had a particle size range of 0.3-0.8 micron, and Batch No. 2 a range of 0.3 to 3.7 microns. The size of these particles was determined by the supplier using electron microscope examination techniques. The particle size of the bulk ferric oxide was determined by two methods. In method I, a water slurry of particles was prepared and sized by straining through a series of millipore filters. Results, which are shown in Table IV, are not considered a reliable measure of particle size because of the tendency of ferric oxide to coagulate. In method II, an ethanol dispersion of particles was placed on a glass slide, the ethanol evaporated and the particles examined in a scanning electron microscope. Figure 6 shows photomicrographs at magnifications of 14,400 and 60,000. The individual particle size of this ferric oxide 33 Table IV Properties of Ferric Oxide Powder Allied Chemical Batch D344 Fe203 Molecular Weight 159.69 Assay (Fe203) min. 99% Specific Gravity 5.12 Solubility Product 1.1 x 10~36 Fe(0H)3 Fe+++ + 30H~ Maximum Limit of Impurities Insoluble in HCl 0.2% Sulphate (SOi, )Copper (Cu) 0.005Zinc (Zn)Substances not precipitated by NH„0H (as Sulphates) 0.1% Manganese (Mn) 0.05Phosphates 0.02Particle Size Determination Retained on 10-15 micron millipore filter 99.0% Passed 10-15 micron millipore filter ) 1.0% retained on 4-5 micron millipore filter]" Passed 4-5 micron millipore filter 0% 6A 14400X 6B 14400X 6C 60000X Figure 6. Particle Size of Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide in Feedstock and in Fouling Deposit. (Ferric oxide particles added to the system have a minimum size of approximately 0.2 microns. Such particles however do not appear to deposit as single entities but rather as agglomerates. Figure 6a shows the particle size in the deposit while Figures 6b and 6c show that of feed ferricoxide.) -e» 35 is estimated by this method to be in the range of 0.2y. However, the 0.2 micron particles were almost never found to exist as distinct entities but rather as larger agglom erates. Consequently 0.2 micron represents a lower limit size estimate only, the effective upper limit being in the range of several microns. Chapter 3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES 3 .1 Test Section Preparation Procedure As stated in Section 2.1, all test sections were fabricated from 304 stainless steel seamless tubing by soldering pressure taps and electrical connections to the tubes as shown in Figure 2, and attaching copper-constantan thermocouples. In order to eliminate AC leakage from the electrically heated test section to the Solartron data logging system, a fault which causes the data logging system to give erroneous results, thermocouples were attached to the tube wall using a high electrical resis tivity epoxy resin. This resin, which has the trade name "Eccocoat," also has a comparatively high thermal con ductivity. Properties are shown in Table V. It was found that resin preparation and attach ment of thermocouples were the most critical operations in test section preparation. After several failures in volving poor bonds or thermocouples in electrical contact 36 37 Table V Properties and Preparation Instructions for Eccocoat 582 Epoxy Resin PROPERTIES Thermal Conductivity (BTU/ft-hr-°F) Dielectric Strength (volts/mil) Thermal Expansion Coefficient (ft/ft-°F) 19.0 x IO"6 0.9 420 Volume Resistivity (ohm-cm) Dielectric Constant at 1 kHz Dissipation Factor at 1 kHz Service Temperature, max °F 1015 6.5 0.02 325 PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS 1. Clean surface to be bonded with trich1oroethylene or toluene. 2. Mix contents of Eccocoat 582 Part A and use 100 parts by weight of Part A with 7 parts by weight of the catalyst (Part B) 3. Coat thermocouples and tube with resin and allow to harden overnight at room temperature. 38 with the tube wall, the following procedure was adopted: (1) All dirt and grease were removed from the outside of the tube by lightly sanding with fine emergy paper followed by scrubbing with an acetone-soaked cloth. Dirt and grease cause a poor bond between thermocouple and tube wall. (2) Epoxy resin was prepared exactly according to specifications given in Table V. (3) At each thermocoupIe location, a small amount of resin was dabbed on the tube and the thermocouple coated with sufficient resin to completely cover all bare metal. The thermocouples were then laid on the tube at the appropriate locations. (4) After 15 minutes, each thermocouple was lifted and allowed to settle back on the test section. This precaution reduced the risk of having electrical contact between tube wall and thermocouple tip. (5) The test section was then allowed to sit overnight at room temperature. This was sufficient time for the epoxy resin to harden. (6) Following hardening of the resin, the test section was fitted with electrical and piping connections, and i nsuIated. 39 (7) Prior to installation in the heat transfer loop, the test section was honed using a-38 calibre bronze pistol brush attached to a one-quarter inch drill, and then degreased using an acetone-soaked 'pull through' rifle kit. In order to insure that use of epoxy resin did not cause temperature drops of sufficient magnitude to cause inaccurate results, a special test section was pre pared which contained 12 silver-soldered thermocouples and 12 epoxy-coated thermocouples. Wall temperature values were found to be the same by both methods. The epoxy-coated thermocouples did tend to lag behind the silver-soldered ones when step changes were made in wall temperature. This lag was however small, in the range of four minutes. 3. 2 Fouling Run Procedure In total, 70 experimental trial runs were made during the course of this study. Although there were some variations in procedure to accommodate trials with unique objectives, most trials were performed using the procedure outlined below. 40 3.2.1 Cleaning of system. To clean the system, the test section was re placed by a plastic tube, the tank was filled with tap water and the circulation pump was started. Following one-half hour of circulation, the system contents were dumped. This operation was repeated until no trace of residual ferric oxide could be detected visually. It should be noted that 20 ppm ferric oxide is a brilliant red suspension, and that approximately 1 ppm gave water a red tint. The above refers to the procedure followed when the preceding run had been made with ferric oxide. Prior to the initial run, the system was cleaned with a 50% hydrochloric acid solution followed by a water rinse, a 10% sodium hydroxide cleaning followed by a water rinse, and by another 50% hydrochloric acid cleaning with a water rinse. The last water rinse was repeated until the pH of the discharged water equalled that of the input water, namely pH *\» 6.4. According to the Greater Vancouver Regional District analysis, this water contained only 18 ppm total residue, including 0.5 ppm chloride and 4.0 ppm total hardness as CaC03. 3.2.2 Tank filling. Twenty-four hours prior to start-up, the cleaned tank was filled with 200 kg of tap water and the steam heating jacket turned on. At this point, the test section was installed in the heat transfer loop. 41 3.2.3 Start-up. At start-up, the mixing air to the tank was turned on, the circulation pump started, the variacs turned up to give the desired test section heating, and the cooling water turned on. At this point, the Solartron data logging system was also switched on. Adjustments were then made to the flow rate and cooling water valves to bring the fluid to target inlet and outlet temperatures over the test section. 3.2.4 Elimination of thermal transients. In order to warm up the data logging system electronics, and to eliminate thermal transients associated with bringing the test section insulation to steady state, the heat transfer loop was operated for a minimum of three hours on tap water. During most of the runs, particularly those in which the influence of heat flux, Reynolds number and ferric oxide concentration was studied, this time was increased to 24 hours. Following this step, the system was adjusted so that flow rate, inlet temperature, outlet temperature and test section power consumption were precisely at target levels. Table VI shows the variance from target conditions 42 Table VI Variance From Target Conditions Tolerated for Run 39 Variable Target Value Maximum Value Minimum Value Inlet Fluid MV x 200 420 (127.0°F) 421 (127.2°F) 419 (126.8°F) Outlet Fluid MV x 200 470 (138.3°F) 471 (138.5°F) 470 (138.3°F) Test Section Volts 9.35 9.37 9.34 Test Section Amps 253 256 253 43 tolerated for a typical run. After one-half hour, the series of test section wall temperature readings obtained were considered to correspond to the clean wall condition and to be free from errors caused by thermal transients. 3.2.5 Addition of ferric oxide. Following determination of clean wall tempera tures, the desired weighed amount of ferric oxide was slurried in a 5 litre sample of system tap water and added to the heat loop tank as a slug dose. The time of addition was considered to be time zero for the fouling run. 3.2.6 Operating procedure during trials. During the run, the cooling water rate was varied to hold the inlet temperature to the test section at the target value. With power input and inlet temperature at their respective target values, flow rate variations mani fested themselves as variations in outlet temperature. Consequently, the flow could be precisely controlled by adjusting the flow control value to hold the outlet tem perature constant. Usually, runs required very few adjust ments to hold the system at the target conditions. 44 3.2.7 Shut-down procedure. At the end of the trial, the circulating pump and the test section heating were stopped simultaneously, and a series of wall temperatures taken to insure that there were no defective thermocouples. (At zero heat flux, all thermocouples should read approximately the same.) The test section was then removed from the heat transfer loop and rinsed with tap water from a squeeze bottle to remove residual ferric oxide suspension from the fouling deposit on the tube wall. The rinsed test section was set on an incline and allowed to dry. 3.2.8 Fouling deposit sample preparation. For tubes destined for electron microprobe analysis, the insulation and thermocouples were removed and the tube filled with 'Clear-Cast' liquid polyester resin. Following 24 hours for curing, the tube was cut with tube cutters at locations corresponding to the posi tions of the thermocouples. These sections were then recut into one-half inch samples, piaced in moulds and more polyester resin added. The resulting specimen, which was three-quarter inch in diameter and one-half inch thick, was then ground and polished by standard metallurgical 45 techniques, thereby exposing the fouling deposit and the tube wall to which it adhered. Such samples showed the structure of the deposit perpendicular to the direction of flow of the fluid. An alternate method of specimen preparation was to turn the polyester-filled tubes in a lathe to remove the burred edges caused by the tube cutters, and to press the polyester core out of the tube. The fouling deposit, which always adhered to the polyester core, then needed no polishing or grinding prior to examination. These samples were analyzed for chemical composition in the Electron Microprobe of the UBC Metallurgy Department. Chapter 4 DATA COLLECTION AND COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES The data-logging system made possible the collec tion of a large number of thermal measurements. Typically, in a three hour trial, over 3000 thermocouple readings would be logged. In addition, flow and electrical measure ments were recorded manually. To illustrate the proce dures followed in gathering and processing data, Run 63 has been selected as a typical run. The steps followed and main computational procedures adopted are outlined beiow. 4.1 Establishing Objectives of Trial and Setting  Trial Conditions The first step in making a run was to record the objective of the trial and set the conditions under which it was to be run. Table VII is a reproduction of this for Run 63 which had as its objective the determination of a fouling curve at a mixed-size ferric oxide concentration 46 47 Table VII Typical Log Sheet Showing Run Objective and Target Conditions Run No. 63 Date: 13 Sept. 1972 OBJECTIVE To determine the fouling curve for a ferric oxide concentra tion of 2130 ppm at a heat flux of 93,000 BTU/ft2-hr and a Reynolds number of 26000. TARGET CONDITIONS Flow Rate 86.0 (gauge units) Inlet Fluid MV x 200 420 Outlet Fluid MV x 200 526 Variac Setting 70 (gauge units) Test Section Volts 13.50 Test Section Amps 355 Steam Jacket Pressure 22 (lbs/in2) Fluid pH 6.2 Cooling Water Setting 30 (gauge units) NaCl added 0 (gms) Ferric Oxide added 426 (gms) Air On Inlet Fluid Pressure 62 (lbs/in2) 48 of 2130 ppm, a heat flux of 93,000 BTU/ft2-hr and a Reynolds number of 26,000. Following the selection of trial con ditions, computer program PAR (see Appendix II) was run to establish that the parameters selected did indeed correspond to the desired trial conditions. For Run 63, the basic input data to PAR was 063 x 13.50 x 355 02130 2.10 x 2.63 x 86.0 where the numbers shown have the following significance: Run No. = 0.63 Test Section Volts = 13.50 Test Section Amperes = 355 Ferric Oxide Concentration = 2130 ppm Thermocouple Reading Inlet Fluid (MV) = 2.10 Thermocouple Reading Exit Fluid (MV) = 2.63 Orifice Meter DP Cell Reading (gauge units) = 86.0 Blank spaces = x Stored in PAR are data covering orifice meter and thermocouple calibrations, test loop dimensions and thermal conductivity, and the properties of the test fluid. The output from PAR (see Table VIII), in addition to showing Table VIII Output from Program PAR i\jQ63. ******* FERRIC OXIDE CONC (PPM) 2130. VCLTS:13.50 AMPS: 355. HEAT FLOW SUPPLIED 16356.8 BTU/HR HEAT FLUX SUPPLIED 93897. BTU/SQFT-HR BETA0.301 TCR=TINLET127.0 DEG F DENSITY:0.986 GRAM/CC T OUTLET 150.3 DEG F FLOW RATE 0.1888 LBS.M/SEC AVG TEMP: 138.6 DEG F KINEMATIC VISC0SITY:0.479 SQ.CM/SEC FLUID VELOCITY 4.790 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 26534.0 PRANDTL NO 3.02 HEAT SUPP 16356.8 BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 15921.4 BTU/HR HEAT LOST 435.4 BTU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 2.66 HEAT FLUX TRANS. BTU/SQFT-HR 91397. NUSSELT NO 121.5 RFILM 0.623 RWALL 0.143 RTOTAL 0.765 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BTU 50 Tabic IX Output From Datalogger System Started up at 9:30 on Tap Water Following Honing of Tube 1140 Dili 0476 0461 0452 0466 0462 0461 0447 0133 0198 0203 0444 0402 0456 046} 0360 0198 00.00 000. Ileal Flux Turned Back on Following Thermocouple Check 1)10 0447 0331 0684 0682 0724 0724 0732 0707 0123 0210 0207 0708 0611 0749 0779 0287 0210 13.50 355. 1410 0421 0521 0612 0672 0709 0711 0719 0696 0110 0218 0206 0696 0603 0736 076} 029? 0218 13.30 155. 1420 0421 OS26 0668 0668 0707 0707 0716 0693 0131 0219 0207 0695 0601 0735 0763 0246 0219 1430 0416 0325 0667 0667 0706 0706 0712 0691 0130 0220 0209 0692 0600 0733 0760 0248 0219 1432 0421 0522 065S 0656 0697 06 9 9 0703 0677 0130 0220 0207 06 8 0 0573 0719 0753 . 0253 0220 1433 0421 0322 0661 0660 0599 0698 0705 06 8 0 0131 0001 0206 0683 0580 0721 0753 0252 0220 1434 0421 0523 0665 0663 0705 0704 0709 0684 0132 0001 0206 0685 0584 0723 0757 0294 0220 1435 0421 0524 0664 0661 0702 0102 07 OK 0685 0132 0001 0207 0687 0566 0726 0736 0295 0220 1436 0421 0524 0665 0664 0702 0704 0708 0685 0133 0001 0207 0687 0588 0724 0755 0296 0220 143? 0421 0523 0662 0661 06 9 8 06 9 9 0706 0682 0134 0001 0206 0685 0587 0724 0733 0294 0220 1438 0421 0523 0663 0661 0701 0700 0706 0683 0132 0001 0207 06E5 0588 0723 0754 0293 0220 143$ 0420 0523 0662 0661 0700 06 9 9 0707 0683 0132 0220 0208 0685 0568 0724 0753 0294 0220 13.50 355. 1440 0 0420 0523 0665 0661 0698 0697 0705 0683 0132 0001 0209 0685 0589 0724 0751 0289 0221 1441 0420 0522 0361 0662 06 9 9 0698 0706 0683 0130 0221 0210 0685 0589 0724 0751 0298 0221 1442 0420 0523 0664 0661 06 9 9 0699 0705 0683 0131 0001 0210 0686' 0589 0725 0733 0295 0221 426 Grams of Ferric Oxide ! Added to System 1443 0421 0525 0665 0663 0705 0704 0709 0684 0132 0001 0206 0085 0564 0725 075? 0294 0221 13.50 355. 1444 0420 0522 0662 0661 0702 0701 0708 0685 0132 0001 0210 06 88 0591 0728 0755 0293 0221 1445 0421 0525 0667 056? 0704 0701 0708 0687 0131 0001 0210 0688 0592 0727 0758 0294 0221 1444 0421 0526 0668 0666 0703 0705 0711 0689 0131 0001 0210 0599 0596 0737 0765 0291 0221 1447 0421 0530 0673 0673 0705 0703 0712 0691 0131 oooi 0210 0591 0596 0731 0761 0294 0221 1446 0421 0525 0667 0666 0703 0703 0712 0689 0131 0221 0212 0692 0596 0733 0763 0293 0221 D.50 353. 1449 0422 0525 0668 0666 0702 0704 0712 0689 0130 0221 0212 0697 0597 073S 0768 02 S5 0221 1430 0421 052} 0667 066? 0705 0706 0715 0692 0131 0221 0212 0695 0597 0734 0763 0295 0221 13.50 355. 1433 0421 0523 0670 0668 0705 0707 0714 0692 0129 0222 0211 0695 0598 0733 076] 0300 0221 13.50 355. 1457 0421 0325 0670 0670 070B 0709 0716 0693 0131 0222 0205 0695 0598 0735 0763 0294 0222 13.50 355. 1300 0420 0527 0673 0679 0715 0716 0723 07 OO 0131 0222 0209 0703 0602 0741 0769 0295 0222 1503 0420 0528 0679 0676 0715 0717 0724 0701 0130 0222 0211 0703 0603 0740 0771 0295 0222 1508 0420 0525 0671 0670 0712 0709 0717 0695 0132 0001 0209 06 9 7 0601 0735 0766 0295 0222 13.30 355. 1510 0420 0524 0674 0573 0711 0711 0718 0695 0133 0001 0209 0696 0601 0733 076] 0297 0223 1515 0420 0524 0673 06 7 0 0711 0708 0717 0593 0133 0001 0209 0696 0600 0732 0762 0295 0223 1520 0420 0525 0673 0673 0709 0111 0716 0694 0131 0001 0211 0696 0601 0734 0762 0296 0223 1525 0421 0525 0675 0674 0711 0712 0718 0695 0131 OOOI 0212 0697 0601 0733 0763 0296 0223 13.50 355. 1530 0420 0329 0684 0684 0720 0720 0727 0704 012? 0001 0210 0705 0607 0744 0773 0296 0223 1534 0421 0525 0675 0674 0710 0710 0716 0693 0125 0224 0211 0695 0600 0732 0762 0296 0224 13.30 353. 1540 0421 0525 0S74 0672 0709 070? 0713 0692 0125 0224 0212 0694 0600 0731 0758 0296 0224 1544 0421 032} 0674 0673 0712 0711 0718 0694 0121 0224 0210 0696 0600 0733 0762 0296 0224 13.30 355. 1530 0422 052} 0675 0674 0712 01" 0717 0694 0121 0224 0211 0696 0601 0734 0761 0296 0224 1600 0422 0527 0678 0677 0715 071] 0720 0697 0113 0224 0212 06 9 9 0603 0737 0765 0298 0224 1411 0421 0523 0676 0676 0712 0712 0718 0695 0103 0225 0213 06 97 06 02 0735 0762 0298 0225 13.30 353. 1620 0420 0523 0674 0671 0708 0708 0714 06 91 0101 0225 0212 0693 0599 0731 0758 0297 0225 1629 0420 052} 0679 0676 0714 0713 0719 0696 0096 0225 0212 0697 0601 0714 0761 0299 0226 13.30 355. 1715 Hours Trial Stopped 51 Reynolds number and heat flux, also computes a heat balance over the test section and predicts from the Sieder-Tate equation the film resistance. Since these computations are straightforward, no sample calculations are included here. 4.2 Data Gathering and Data Processing The method used to gather data was as follows: The equipment and data logging system were warmed up on tap water for a period of at least three hours and usually 12 hours. When the system was at steady state and at target conditions, as for example at time 1442 for Run 63 (see Table IX), the desired amount of ferric oxide was added to the system and the run commenced. As the run progressed, "lines of data" were selected at regular intervals and recorded on a separate log sheet, subject to the provision that voltage, current, flow rate, inlet thermocouple millivolt reading and outlet thermocouple millivolt reading were at or very near target conditions. The study of experimental errors summarized in Section 5 had shown that all of these variables have a bearing on the accuracy of the data. Table X shows this log sheet. The thermal and pressure drop data shown in Table X are in units of millivolts times 200. The program Table X Data Used for Fouling Curve Determi nation 1443 0421 0525 0665 0663 0705 0704 0709 0684 02C6 0685 0584 0725 0757 0294 1448 0421 0525 0667 0666 0703 0703 0 71? 0689 0212 0692 0596 0733 0763 0293 1450 0421 0525 06 67 0667 0 705 C706 0715 0692 C212 0695 0597 0734 0763 0295 1455 0421 05 25 0670 0668 0705 0707 0714 0692 C21 1 0695 0598 0735 0763 0296 1457 0421 0525 0670 06 70 0709 0709 0716 0693 0209 0695 0598 0735 0765 0294 1508 0420 0525 0671 0670 0712 0709 0717 0695 C2C9 0697 C601 0735 0766 0295 1524 0421 0525 0675 0674 0711 0712 0718 0695 C?12 0697 0601 0735 0763 0296 1534 0421 0525 0675 0674 0710 0710 C716 0693 0211 0695 0600 0732 0762 0296 1544 0421 0525 0674 0673 0712 0711 C718 0694 C21C C696 0600 0733 0762 0296 1604 0421 0525 0677 0675 0711 07 12 0719 0695 C212 0698 0603 073 5 0763 0298 1611 0421 0525 0676 0676 0712 0712 0718 0695 0213 0697 0602 0735 0762 0293 1629 0420 0525 0679 0676 0714 C713 0719 0696 C212 0697 0601 0734 0761 0299 1638 0420 0524 0677 0677 0712 0714 07L8 0695 0212 0697 0602 0735 0763 0299 53 STOMV (see Appendix II) was used to convert the time from real time to fouling run time, to transform the millivolt readings times 200 to millivolts, and to place the data in a standard format compatible with all subsequent pro grams. Table XI is the output from this program. Two methods were used to compute fouling resis tances from the thermal data. The first of these was the method developed by Watkinson (7) and used also by Mayo (23). It computes the fluid film resistance plus fouling resistance for the whole tube at any specified time. Since the program based on this method was availabl to this investigator, it was routinely run. However, since this method does not compute fouling resistances at localized positions on the tube, only limited use was made of the data thus generated. The second method used to compute fouling resis tance overcomes this difficulty and enables local fouling resistance to be found. This method is based upon the following considerations: At time zero, the total resis tance to heat transfer is given by where Table XI Output From Program STOMV Input to Program FOUL REAL RUN HV MV MILLIVOLT READINGS OF THERMOCOUPLES CN WALL CF TEST SECTION COOL INSL AMB DELT TIME TIME IN OUT T215 T235 T255 T275 T295 T315.T335 14.43 0.0 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.32 3.31 3.52 3.52 3;54 3.42 14.48 0.08 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.33 3.33 3.51 3.51 3.56 3.44 14.50 0.12 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.33 3.33 3.52 3.53 3.57 3.46 14.55 0.20 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.35 3.34 3.52 3.53 3.57 3.46 14.57 0.23 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.35 3.35 3.54 3.54 3.58 3.46 15.08 0.42 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.35 3.35 3.56 3.54 3.58 3.47 15.24 0.68 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.37 3.37 3.55 3.56 3;59 3.47 15.34 0.85 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.37 3.37 3.55 3.55 3.58 3.46 15.44 1.02 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.37 3.36 3.56 3.55 3.59 3.47 16.04 1.35 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.38 3.37 3.55 3.56 3.59 3.47 16.11 1.47 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.38 3.38 3.56 3.56 3.59 3.47 16.29 1.77 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.39 3.38 3.57 3.56 3.59 3.48 16.38 1.92 2.10 2.62 0.0 3.38 3.38 3.56 3.57 3.59 3.47 T355 T375 T395 T415 T428 KV MV MV MV 3.42 2.92 3.62 3.78 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .03 1.47 3.46 2.98 3.66 3.81 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .06 1.46 3.47 2.98 3.67 3.81 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .06 1.47 3.47 2.99 3.67 3.81 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .05 1.46 3.47 2.99 3.67 3.82 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .04 1.47 3.48 3.CO 3.67 3.83 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .04 1.47 3.48 3.00 3.67 3.81 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 . 06 1.48 3.47 3.CO 3.66 3.81 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .05 1.48 3.48 3.CO 3.66 3.81 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .05 1.48 3.49 3.01 3.67 3.81 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .06 1.49 3.4 8 3.01 3.67 3.81 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .06 1.4 9 3.48 3.00 3.67 3.80 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .06 1.49 3.48 3.01 3.67 3.81 0.0 0.0 0. c 1 .06 1.49 55 R0 = total resistance at time zero Twq = outer wall temperature at time zero T = fluid temperature at time zero q1 = heat flux transferred to the fluid = heat flux supplied minus heat losses As the tube fouls, a fouling resistance R^ is formed on the inside of the tube. If the heat flux is maintained constant, and the bulk temperature remains constant, the wall temperature must rise in response to the increase in thermal resistance to a new value, say T Equation (4.1) then becomes Ro + R = Twt " Tb0 (4, f q' Eliminating R0 between equations (4.1) and (4.2) gives R = Twt - Two(4 f q' that is, the fouling resistance is simply the outer wall temperature rise divided by the heat flux. An assumption implicit in this method of calculation is that the heat losses are negligible and/or do not increase significantly as the wall temperature increases, an assumption validated 56 by the fact that the difference between inlet and outlet temperatures remained constant throughout the course of a run. Another implicit assumption is that R0 is representative of the wall plus fluid film resistance throughout the course of a run. Since wall temperatures typically increased by about 2 F°, this latter assumption is believed to be valid. However, where large increases in wall temperatures were obtained, a correction might be required to account for possible blockage effects and for the effect of changing surface roughness on deposit-to-fluid heat transfer. For Run 63, time 1.92 hours, station T235, the fouling resistance is therefore T - T D _ wt wo q' 1 77.0 - 1 74.6 _ „ c .. ^ o, 91397 = 2.6 x 10-5ft2-hr-°F/BTU Table XII shows the output from program FOUL which computes these fouling resistances. The stations showing a resis tance of 0.0 after time zero are blanked stations not included in the calculations. Blanked stations are those containing defective thermocouples. 57 Included in Table XII, for the sake of complete ness, are the following data: WaI I Temperatu res Inlet Fluid Temperature (TIN) Outlet Fluid Temperature (TOUT) Mean Wall Temperature (TM) Fluid Temperature Rise (DELTA) Film plus Fouling Heat Transfer Coefficient (H) Film plus Fouling Thermal Resistance (R) T i me Units used throughout are BTU, DEGREE F, HOUR, FOOT. Table XII also includes a print-out of the local fouling resistance at each thermocouple station and the mean of these resistances (RFM). The mean fouling resistance is fitted by the least squares method to the equation The print-out from this subroutine, as shown in Table XII, contains the calculated value of mean fouling resistance and the fitted value as predicted from equation (4.4). (4.4) 58 Table XII Output from Program FOUL •«««»(*RUN N06).•»<•«•« FERRIC OXIDE CONC 1PPM1 2130. VCLTS:13.50 AKPS: 355. HEAT 1LCN SUPPLIED 16356.8 HEAT FLUX SUPPLIED 93897. BTU/HR BTU7SCFT-HR 0ETA0.301 I0R=T1NLE1127.0 DEC F DENSIIY:0.986 GRAP/CC 1 OUUET150.3 DEC F FLOW RATE 0.1888 LBS.H/SEC AVG TEPP:138.6 DCC F KINEMA1IC VISC0SI1Y:C479 SC.CM/SEC FLU1C VELOCITY 4.790 FT/SEC REYNOLDS KO 26534.0 PRANOTL NO 3.02 HEAT SUPP 16356.8 B1U/HR HEAT TRAMS 15921.4 BTU/HR HEAT LOST 435.4 BTU/HR PERCENT HEAT LDS1 2.66 HEA1 HUX TRANS> 81U/S0F1-HR 91397. KUSSELI NO 121.5 RFHP 0.623 RWALl 0.143 ItlOIAl 0.765 5QFT-HR-0EG F/BTU EST 1 MAI£S Of RCO! WEAN SCUARE STATISTICAL ERROR IN THE PAR ACE T ER .18660 .7B614 ES1IMATES CF ROCI PEAK SCUARE I01AL ERROR IN THE PARAMETERS .25054E-01 .1C544 ES11KA1E CF R0.R1NF.ANC G IN RF-R INF( ( 1 .-EXP l-8«T IKE 1 TIME HOURS 0.0 0.08 0.12 0.20 0.23 0.42 0.60 0.85 1.02 1.35 1.47 1.77 1.92 2.C669 5.7124 CALC. RESISTANCE FITTED VALUE I (SCFI-IIR-CECF/BTU 1X100,000 I CO -0.0 0.77 1.15 1.29 1.5B 1.82 2.01 1.77 1.92 2.11 2.16 2.25 2.20 0. 76 1. C3 1.41 1.51 1.88 2.02 2.05 2.06 2. C1 2.07 2.02 2.07 10CALI2E0 WALL 1215 1235 TEMPERATURES DEC.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 OEO.F 174.6 175.C 175.0 175.8 175.8 175.8 176.6 176.6 176.6 177.0 177.C 177.4 177.0 1255 OtC.F 174.2 175.0 175.0 175.4 175.8 175.B 176.6 176.6 176.2 176.6 177.0 177.0 177.0 T275 DEC.F 182.5 182. I 162.5 182.5 163. 3 184. I 18J.7 183.7 184. I 183.7 1K.I 184.5 184. 1 ICEG.FI 1295 OEG.F 182.5 162. 1 182.9 182.9 18 3. 3 183.3 1 84 .1 183. 7 183.7 184.1 184. I 184. I 184.5 T315 OEG.F 183.3 1 £4. I 184.5 184.5 184. 9 184.9 135.3 114. 9 105. 3 165.3 185. I 185.3 185.3 T3)5 OEG.F 178.6 179.4 ISO. 2 130.2 180.2 16C6 190.6 IRC.2 lec. t 160.6 lac.6 iec.9 ISO.6 T355 T3 75 T395 T415 T428 -TIN TOUT TM DELTA H R TI ME OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F X1C00 HOURS 1 78.6 0.0 186.5 192. 7 O.C 127.0 149.9 18 1.5 23.0 1676.2 0.5966 0.0 150.2 0.0 168.0 193.9 0.0 127.0 149.9 182.2 23.0 1648.0 C.6C68 C 06 inc.6 CO 166.4 193.9 O.C 127.0 149.9 182.6 23.0 1632.5 0.6125 0. 12 1BC6 0.0 188.4 193.9 0.0 127.0 149.9 182.7 23.0 1630.0 0.6135 C.20 ISO.6 0.0 186.4 194.3 0.0 127.0 149.9 183.0 23.0 1620.6 0.6170 0.23 I8C. 9 CO 188.4 19*.7 0.0 127.0 149.9 IBI.2 23.0 1612.1 0.6203 0.42 1BC.9 CO 188.4 19 1.4 O.C 127.0 149.9 181.3 23.0 1607.3 0.6222 0.6a 1B0.6 0.0 186.0 191.9 0.0 127.0 .49.9 183. 1 23.0 1616.9 0.6165 I. 65 I8C.9 CO lea.o 141.9 0.0 127.0 1--9.9 16J.1 23.0 1( 0.4 0.6210 1.C2 181.3 CO 166.4 193.9 O.C 127.0 149.9 183.4 23.0 1604.7 0.6232 1. 15 180.9 CO 188.4 193.9 0.0 127.0 149.9 181.5 21.0 1604. 1 0.6234 1.47 Inc. 9 CO 188.4 19 1.5 0.0 127.0 149.9 181.6 23.0 1601.4 0.6244 1. 17 180.9 0.0 188.4 191.9 0.0 127.0 149.9 183.5 23.0 1602.4 0.6241 1-92 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE CSOFI-HR-OEGF/DTUIX100,COO 1215 T235 1255 1275 T295 1315 1335 1355 1375 1345 1415 T428 TIN TCUI RFH OELTA H RIOT TIME OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F 11000 HOUKS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 149.9 0.0 23.0 1676.2 0.5966 0. ti 0.0 0.43 0.87 0.0 0.0 C.St o.et 1. 71 CO 1.72 1.28 0.0 127.0 149.9 0.7? 23.0 1648.0 0.6068 O.CR 0.0 C.43 0.87 0.0 0.43 1.29 1.7) 2.16 CO 2.15 1.28 0.0 127.0 149.9 1.15 23.0 1632.5 0.6125 0. 12 0.0 1.30 1.10 0.0 0.4) 1.29 1.73 2.16 0.0 2.15 1 .28 0.0 127.0 149.9 1.29 2 J.O I63C.0 0.6135 O./O 0.0 1.30 1.73 0.8b 0.B6 1.72 1.73 2.16 CO 2.15 1.71 0.0 127.0 149.9 1 .58 2).0 1020.6 0.6170 0.2) 0.0 1.30 1.73 1.72 0.66 1 . 72 2.16 2.59 0.0 2.15 2.14 0.0 127.0 149. 9 1.12 21.0 1612.1 0.620) 0. 42 0.0 2.1? 2.60 1.29 1. 12 2. 15 2.16 2.59 u.o 2.15 1.28 0.0 127.C 149.9 2.01 21.0 1607.3 C6//2 U. 'iM 0.0 2.1? 2.60 1.29 1.29 1. 72 1.7) 2.16 CO 1.72 1 .28 0.0 127.0 149.9 1.77 21.0 16 1 ft.9 0.61*15 0. 85 0.0 2. 17 2.1 7 1. 12 1.29 2.15 2.16 2.59 0.0 1.72 1.2B 0.0 127.G 149.9 1.92 21.0 I'. 10.4 0.6/10 1.11/ o.o 2.60 2.60 1.29 i. iz 2. 15 2.1'. 1.C7 0.0 2.15 1.78 0.0 127.0 149.9 2. 1 1 /).n IUJ4. ; 0.6/1/ 1. r. 0.0 2.1,0 3.03 1.72 1. 72 2. 15 2. 16 2.59 CO 2.15 1.28 CO 127.0 149.9 2.l>. 21.0 1 <//'.. 1 0.6/14 1.47 0.0 3.0) 3.0) 2.15 1. 72 2.15 ' - 2.59 2.59 u.o 2.15 0.85 U.O 127.0 .149.9 2.25 21.0 1'iUl .4 (1.6244 1. ll o.o 2.60 3.03 1. 72 2. 15 2. 15 2.16 2.59 0.0 2.15 1.2H 0.0 127.0 • 149.9 2.20 23.0 1602.4 0.6241 1.9/ 59 Chapter 5 EXPERIMENTAL ERROR STUDY In order to establish the precision with which thermal resistances could be determined, a series of water trials were made with the following objectives in view: (1) To isolate variables which, if inadequately controlled, would bear upon the accuracy of results. (2) To determine the extent to which changes in wall temperature and therefore changes in operating variables produce apparent or real changes in measured thermal resistance. Variables considered to be of prime importance were flow rate, heat flux, and inlet temperature to the test section. From experience in operating the heat transfer loop, it became evident that the values of the above vari ables were affected by fluctuations of the following type: (I) Variations in line voltage to the test section due to variations in input power supplied to the 60 building. This effect manifests itself as a variation in heat flux. • (2) Variations in flow rate caused by the ten dency of the flow control valve to close during the first few hours of a run. (3) Variations in cooling water temperature which cause cyclic fluctuations in the inlet temperature to the test section. In addition, a transient type behaviour was noted in which the apparent thermal resistance was found to rise at a decreasing rate from start-up to an elapsed time approaching three hours. Since this transient type behaviour was found to be the largest source of error in determining fouling resistances, it will be discussed first. 5.1 Influence of Thermal Transients in Determining  Thermal Resistance From trials made in co-operation with Mayo (23) using a solution of aluminium oxide in aqueous caustic soda, it was noted that, if for any reason the equipment was stopped, then upon restarting, the test section wall temperatures did not return to their pre-shutdown values. Rather, the wall temperatures remained depressed for periods 61 ranging from a few minutes to an hour or more, depending upon the length of the shutdown. Such behaviour indicated either adefouling process, or a thermal transient situa tion which caused the wall temperatures to be depressed. In order to determine the cause of this behaviour, a "fouling" run was made using tap water. The procedure followed was to by-pass the test section and heat the fluid to target inlet conditions. The fluid was then directed into the test section and a trial made in which, at time zero minus, the test section was at room tempera ture, and at time zero plus, the flow rate and heat flux were at their target values. Figure 7 shows the results of this trial plotted as apparent thermal resistance versus time. The die-away behaviour typical of electrical and thermal transients is clearly evident. Note that over a period of two hours, apparent thermal resistances range from 0.684 x 10~3 to 0.808 x lO-3 ft2-hr-°F/BTU — a difference of 0.124 x 10-3. This latter figure is of the same order of magnitude as the fouling resistances found for most ferric oxide trials studied here. Trials using tap water were made in which the test section was brought to thermal steady state, shut down and then honed to remove any possible fouling deposit. 62 Figure 7. Apparent Thermal Resistance Versus Time for Run 1 on Tap Water. 63 Results clearly showed that no fouling deposit was present, and that the transient behaviour discussed above is asso ciated with heat absorption by the insulation until thermal equilibrium is achieved. Although thermal transients were found to result in the largest source of inaccuracy in determining fouling resistance versus time curves, their elimination was easily effected. All fouling trials were made byeither: (1) bring ing the system to steady state by operating on tap water for over three hours and then adding the ferric oxide contaminant, or (2) if ferric oxide was already in the system, operating for a minimum of three hours and then removing any deposit by honing the hot tube. Either method gives the same fouling curve (see Section 6). 5.2 Errors Due to Variation in Line Voltage The next largest source of potential error in determining thermal resistance was caused by uncontrolled variations in input supply voltage to the test section. Table XIII shows values for test section voltage recorded for Run 13 at random intervals. Note that the range of power drawn, expressed as a heat flow, is from 1 5,687 BTU/hr to 16,283 BTU/hr. This difference of approximately 600 64 Table XIII Variation in Electrical Power Supplied to the Test Section - Run 13 Date Time H r s : M i n Volts Amps Power BTU/hr 24 March '71 16:00 13.52 344 1 5873 19:52 13.68 347 1 6201 20:43 13.70 348 1 6271 22:30 13.60 346 1 6060 25 March '71 10:17 13.44 342 1 5687 13:31 13.68 347 1 6201 14:33 13.71 348 1 6283 15:00 13.60 346 1 6060 18:00 13.44 342 15687 26 March '71 12:00 13.69 348 1 6259 15:00 13.52 344 1 5873 27 March '71 15:10 13.62 346 16083 65 BTU/hr, if not taken into account, will cause an error in measured thermal resistance of approximately 2 x 10~5 ft2-hr-°F/BTU. Since 2 x 10"5 ft2-hr-°F/BTU is the total fouling resistance found in some runs, line voltage varia tion errors had to be eliminated. To prevent errors due to line voltage variations, the following procedure was adopted; When the objective of a trial required precise data, the equipment was never left unattended. If the voltage varied by more than ±0.15 volts over the test section, the variacs were adjusted to return the power input to target conditions. As an added precaution, no data were used for thermal resistance computation if the test section voltage deviated by more than 0.02 volts from the target value. This procedure reduced the error from this source to approximately ±0.1 x I0~5 ft2-hr-°F/BTU, which is less than 5% of the lowest fouling resistance measured in the ferric oxide trials. Although line voltage errors could be thus sub stantially reduced by manual control, this procedure was tedious. It is recommended that a voltage regulator be added to the heat transfer loop prior to beginning any new investigation of the type presented here. 66 5.3 Errors Due to Flow Rate Variations Variations in flow rate cause variations in thermal resistance, which in turn cause errors in the measurement of fouling resistances. In the study made here, flow rate variations were usually the result of ferric oxide deposition on the flow control valve. Since elec trical power to the test section was held more or less constant, flow rate changes tended to produce variations in outlet temperature from the test section. In fact, the outlet temperature minus the inlet temperature was a more precise means of measuring flow rate than the orifice meter on the heat transfer loop. Figure 8 shows the relationship between thermal resistance and temperature rise for a tap water run (Run 4), with no attempt made to control flow rate. The variation in observed thermal resistance associated with the total change in flow rate was 5 x 10"5 ft2-hr-°F/BTU. This vari ation could be explained by the known relationship between film coefficient of heat transfer and fluid velocity. By making flow adjustments, and only using for computation data in which the temperature rise was at its target value, this source of error was effectively eliminated. Figure 8. Thermal Resistance Versus Fluid Temperature Rise, Run 4 (Tap Water). 68 5.4 Errors Due to Inlet Temperature Variations The inlet temperature to the test section could vary in response to cooling water temperature changes. Usually, such variations were small. Figure 9 shows the relationship between thermal resistance and inlet temperature. The drop in thermal resistance with temperature level can be explained by the corresponding changes in fluid pro perties, especially viscosity. Total variation during an uncontrolled run was 2 x 10-5 ft2-hr-°F/BTU. By holding inlet temperature at target values, this source of error too was effectively eliminated. 5.5 Errors Caused by Wet Insulation In one run, Run 16, a large amount of A.C. current was detected on some thermocouples. Thermocouple readings were obviously incorrect, even for those in which no A.C. leakage was detected. When the test section was dis mantled, it was found that the insulation was wet due to a leak in the top fitting of the tube. Consequently, current leaked from the test section to the thermocouple leads except for those liberally coated with Eccocoat epoxy resin. These tended to give steady but low values. To avoid errors of this type, all fittings were carefully inspected prior to test section installation. •°- 0.72 139.5 140.0 INLET FLUID TEMPERATURE (°F) Figure 9. Thermal Resistance Versus Inlet Temperature for Run 5 on Tap Water. CM 70 As a further precaution, thermocouple leads near the tube wall were coated with Eccocoat as outlined in Section 3. 5.6 Miscellaneous Errors In order to insure that the use of tap water and the test section honing procedure had no hidden pit falls, a trial was made on tap water for a period of 24 hours. The system was then stopped, the test section honed, and the trial restarted. Table XIV shows a series of thermal resistances before and after honing. There is no evidence from these data that tap water produces fouling deposits or that honing changes the tube. The possibility that deposits were formed which were not removed by honing is discounted, since even very hard scales were shown to be removable by this method. 5.7 Reproducibility and Validity of Thermal Fouling Data The reproducibility of ferric oxide fouling resistance versus time curves obtained in this study was established by analysis of four trials made over the course of the investigation. These trials, numbered 34, 35, 38 and 59, were replicates made using 2130 ppm of ferric oxide at a Reynolds number of 19550 and a heat flux of 44,360 71 Table XIV Data From Run 15 to Determine Effect of Honing Tube Wall on Thermal Resistance Inlet Temp Out!et Temp °F Mean Temp °F Fluid Temp. Rise op Thermal Resist, x 10*3 ft2-hr-°F/BTU Time hrs:mi n 157.7 1 57.3 157.7 157.7 157.3 157.7 157.7 157.7 157.3 157.7 188.5 188.5 188.5 188.5 188.5 188.2 187.8 188.5 189.3 188.2 225.1 224.7 224.9 224.6 224.6 224.1 222.9 224.8 224.4 224. 2 30.9 31 .3 30.9 30.9 31 .3 30.5 30.1 30.9 32.1 30.5 0.7313 0.7294 0.7298 0.7252 0.7274 0.7201 0.7059 0.7283 0.7200 0.7220 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 13 1 5 17 19 21 23 25 27 27 1 57.6 188.5 224.4 30.9 0.7239 -156.8 1 56.8 1 57.3 157.3 157.3 157.3 157.3 156.8 156.8 156.8 188.5 188. 2 189.3 188.2 187.8 188.2 188.2 187.8 187.4 187.8 224.3 223. 5 225. 5 223.7 222.3 223.4 222.9 222.7 222.3 223.0 31 .7 31 .3 32.1 30.9 30. 5 30.9 30.9 30.9 30.6 30.9 0.7256 0.7172 0.7329 0.7167 0.7004 0.7131 0.7064 0.7074 0.7059 0.7133 13:42 1 3: 50 14:00 14:10 14:20 14:30 14:40 14:50 1 5:00 15:10 157.1 188.1 223.4 31 .1 0.7140 -S-o •l— i S- i— Q_ ra CO +•> cr ra c +-> T-CO c o -o (O O <U 4-> +-> co s-QJ +-> <+- r— <C I— ro CD 3 -M ro CX +-> C CO T-£Z o •o IC ro d) 4-> co 72 BTU/ft2-hr. Figure 10 shows a composite plot of data from all four trials, and Table XV gives the parameters R.p* and b for the least squares fit of the data to the equation (4.4) As can be seen, the curves are fairly reproducible, with the parameter R.^* having a coefficient of variation of 11% and b a coefficient of variation of 29%. As will be discussed in Section 6, early ferric oxide fouling trials resulted in no detectable thermal fouling. These trials were made at ferric oxide concen trations of approximately 15 ppm. When wall temperature increases were detected in Run No. 31 at a concentration of 2130 ppm, the question arose as to whether these in creases reflected a fouling process or were caused by fluid property changes resulting from ferric oxide addition. From an analysis of the data from many trials, it is con cluded that the fouling curves obtained accurately reflect the build-up of fouling deposits. The reasons for this view are as follows: (I) Sectioning of the test section following Run 31 showed a uniform deposit measured as about 100 microns TIME (hours) Figure 10. Fouling Curve Reproducibility as Shown by Superimposing Data for Replicate Runs 34,35,38,59. Ferric Oxide Cone. = 2130 ppm, q' = 44,360 BTU/ft2-hr, Re = 19,550. 74 Table XV Reproducibility of Fouling Curve Parameters Obtained by Fitting Data to the Equation R^ = R^ (1 - e ). Ferric Oxide Cone. = 2130 ppm, Re = 19550, Heat Flux = 44,360 BTU/ft2-hr Run No. (ft2-hr-°F/BTU x 10s) b (hr-1) 34 3.9 1.3 35 3.1 1 .8. 38 3.5. 0.9 59 2.9- 1 .6 Avg 3.3 1 .4 Std. Dev. 0.4 0.4 Coeff. of Var. 11% 29% 75 thick over the whole tube. If 10 BTU/hr-ft-°F is taken as a reasonable thermal conductivity for the deposit, wall temperatures would have to rise by 1.3 F° to maintain the energy balance. The actual measured wall temperature rise was 1.8 F° , indicating that kd ^ 7-2 BTU/hr-ft-°F. (2) The time for the wall temperature to reach its asymptotic value following ferric oxide addition in Run 31 was nearly four hours. If the same wall tempera ture increase of l.8°F is obtained by a slight increase in heat flux, a new asymptote is reached in approximately 10 minutes. This indicates that the wall temperature versus time curve obtained is not a thermal transient set up by a sudden change in fluid properties and hence fluid resistance causedby the sudden addition of ferric oxide. (3) If a trial is stopped and the test section honed, wall temperatures return to the clean wall conditions existing prior to ferric oxide addition. (4) If the fluid properties change because of ferric oxide addition, the property most likely to be of importance with respect to heat transfer is the viscosity. Using Einstein's equation for the viscosity of dilute suspens ions, I u = u o ( I + 2 . 5<J>) (5.1 ) where \i0 is the viscosity with no solids, and <j> is the volume fraction of suspended solids, the percentage chan in viscosity caused by the addition of 2 130 ppm ferric oxide is computed to be 0.01? - a negligible change. Chapter 6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 6.1 Summary of Fouling Trials During the course of this investigation, 70 trial runs were made. These can be divided into five main categories: (1) Trials on tap water in order to identify and eliminate sources of error in measuring heat transfer coefficients. (The results of these trials have been pre sented and discussed in Section 5.) (2) Trials designed to determine the influence of ferric oxide concentration, heat flux and Reynolds number on the shape of fouling resistance versus time curves. (3) Trials to determine the effect of ferric oxide particle size on fouling. 77 78 (4) Specialty trials designed to test the validity of various hypotheses concerning fouling behaviour which were formed during the course of the investigation. (5) Miscellaneous trials using as foulants such materials as polystyrene and silicon dioxide. These are not discussed here, but the data are on file in data book No. 5 at UBC Chemical Engineering. Tables XVI and XVII show the operating conditions for each ferric oxide trial, give a short statement as to the purpose for making the trial and where appropriate state the outcome. For each trial which exhibited thermal fouling, the fouling curve obtained has been fitted to the Kern-Seaton type equation Rf = Rf*JT - e"b^| (4.4) where R^ = fouling resistance t = time Rf* = fitted constant = asymptotic fouling resistance b = fitted constant dR Included in Table XVII is the initial fouling rate f dt t = 0 Table XVI Summary of Fouling Trials Run at Low Ferric Oxide Concentrations Run Number Heat Flux (BTU/ft2-hr) ReynoIds Number Ferric Oxide Cone. (ppm) Ferric Oxide Particle Si ze (Mi crons) Maximum Approximate Deposit Thickness (Mi crons) Trial Ouration (hrs) Comments 1 91660 24700 15 Mixed1 70 48 Initial fouling run. No thermal fouling. 4 91660 25510 15 Mixed 70 24 Repeat of Run 1 with close control. No thermal fouling. 13 91250 25600 15 Mixed 70 72 Repeat of Run 1 with extended operating time. No thermal fouling. 15 92460 26470 375 Mixed 100 30 Repeat Run 1 - increased ferric oxide cone. No thermal fouling. 16 92310 25070 15 Mi xed 60 168 Repeat Run 1 - operating time one week. No thermal fouling. 17 92310 25070 15 Mixed 120 25 Repeat Run 1 with 3000 ppm NaCl . No thermal fouling. 19 9231 0 25070 15 0.3-0.8 0 48 Repeat Run 1 with presized particles. No deposit detected. No thermal fouli ng. 20 0 25000 approx 15 0.3-0.8 70 72 Repeat.Run 19 at 0 heat flux. Deposit detected. 21 92310 25070 15 0.3-3.7 0 24 Repeat Run 19 with larger presized particles. No deposit. No thermal fouli ng. 22 92310 25070 15 0.3-3.7 0 168 Repeat Run 21 with extended operating time. No deposit. No thermal fouling. 23 0 25000 approx 15 0.3-3.7 70 96 Repeat Run 22 at 0 heat flux. Deposit detected. Agglomerates of approximately 0.2u particles. Table XVII Summary of Ferric Oxide Tri'als Using Mixed-Size Particles Run Number Heat Flux (BTU/ft2-hr) Reynolds Number Mi xed-s i ze Ferric Oxide Cone. (ppm) Rf*X 105 (ft2-hr°F/BTU) b (hr"1) Initial F6u1i ng Rate c bRf* x 1CV (ft2-fcF/BTU) Comments 33 44360 19550 2130 8.5 0.3 2.6 Effect of high cone. Rf* and b inaccurate due to voltage f1uctuations 34 44350 19550 2130 5.7 1.3 7.4 Repeat of Run 33. R-* and b inaccurate because of limited data 35 44360 19550 2130 3.3 0.6 2.0 Repeat of Run 33. Oata not accurate. Tube not honed at time zero minus 38 44360 19550 2130 3.7 0.9 3.3 Repeat of Run 33. Tube honed at time zero. Air line in tank. First trial with accurate data 39 44870 25390 2130 4.4 2.3 10.1 Repeat Run 38 at higher Reynolds number 40 44870 25390 2130 7.0 1.6 11.2 Effect of Honing Portion of Deposit from a prefouled tube (Run 39) at time zero minus 41 44870 25390 2130 8.9 1 .2 10.7 Effect of high velocity cool ing on prefouled tube (Run 40) 42 89750 26490 2130 - - -Effect of increasing heat flux. Rf* and b inaccurate due to insufficient data 43 . 44360 19550 2130 - - -Repeat of Run 33. Loss of deposit indicated in upper region of tube. Rf* and b i naccurate (Continued) Table XVII (Continued) Run Number Heat Flux (BTU/ft2-hr) Reynolds Number Mixed-size Ferric Oxide Cone. (ppm) Rf*X 105 (ft2-hr°F/BTU) b (hr"1) Initial Fouling ' Rate . c b Rf* X 1CK (ft - F/BTU) Comments 44 • 89890 37590 2130 2.2 2.9 6.4 .Effect of high heat flux and high Reynolds number 45 89750 26490 250 0.5 2.2 1 .1 Effect of Cone, of 250 ppm 46 89750 26490 750 0.6 0.5 0.3 Effect of Cone; of 750 ppm 47 89750 26490 1000 1.0 3.6 3.6 Effect of Cone, of 1000 ppm 48 89750 26490 1750 0.4 3.4 1 .4 Effect of Cone, of 1750 ppm 49 89750 . 26490 2130 2.1 5.3 11.1 Effect of Cone, of 2130 ppm 50 89750 26490 2130 3.1 3.7 11.5 Repeat of Run 49 52 89750 26490 3750 3.3 0.9 3.0 Effect of Cone, of 3750 ppm 53 44360 1 9550 3750 5.9 2.7 15.9 Effect of reduced heat flux and Re at 3750 ppm 54 1 6540 1 0090 2130 8.8 0.9 7.9 First trial in a series at low heat flux and Re 55 25800 1 5740 21 30 5.4 1 .7 9.2 Effect of Raising heat flux 56 89860 20850 2130 2.3 4.1 9.4 Effect of raising heat flux and Reynolds number 58 88090 26440 2130 1 .6 8.4 9.7 Effect of Raising Re. Rf* and b inaccurate (limited data) 59 44360 19550 2130 3.1 1.6 5.0 Repeat of Run 38 61 41970 33700 2130 2.2 6.2 13.5 Effect of heat flux and Reynolds number 62 44360 1 9550 2130 - - - Attempt to repeat Run 59. Tube went into linear fouling (Continued) Table XVII (Continued) Run Number Heat Flux (BTU/ft2-hr) Reynolds Number Mixed-si ze Ferri c Oxide Cone. (ppm) Rf*X IO5 (ft2-hr°F/BTU) b (hr"1) Initial Fouling Rate c b Rf *x 1CV (ft^F/BTU Comments 63 91400 26500 2130 2.1 5.7 . 12.0 Repeat of Run 49 64 89860 20850 . 2130 - - - Successful attempt to induce linear fouling 70A 89670 26580 2130 - - - Linear fouling with oxygen in system 70B 89670 26580 2130 - - - Linear fouling with no oxygen 81 equivalent to bR^ for those runs which could be fitted by Equation (4.4). For those trials which showed a linear dependence of fouling resistance on time, the constant Rf* is meaningless since such curves do not approach an asymptote, and only the constant fouling rate is there fore reported. Following selected trials, the test section was removed, sectioned, and the deposit analyzed both quanti tatively and qualitatively in an electron microprobe. These results are presented in detail in Section 6.4. They point strongly to the conclusion that ferric oxide fouling of 304 stainless steel is intimately associated with corrosion of the stainless steel under the ferric oxide deposit. Consequently, many of the trial runs were made for purposes of determining how various changes in trial conditions, which should predictably alter the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel, would change the fouling resistance versus time curves. Such trials in cluded varying the Reynolds number and the heat flux, increasing the ferric oxide concentration, using an oxygen scavenger, and initiating fouling runs using a prefouled rather than a clean tube. 82 6.2 Thermal Fouling Versus Time Behaviour 6.2.1 Typesof thermal fouling curves obtained. Three distinct types of fouling curves were obtained for ferric oxide-tap water suspensions on 304 stainless steel. These are illustrated in Figures 11, 12 and 13, and each type is discussed below. The curve shown in Figure 11 was the most frequent type of fouling curve obtained. It illustrates classical fouling behaviour as described by Kern and Seaton (6). This curve is characterized by asymptotic type behaviour and can be fitted by the equation (4.4) For the ferric oxide-tap water-304 stainless steel system studied here this curve could be readily reproduced and, as will be described later, its shape was a function of heat flux, Reynolds number and ferric oxide concentration. Figure 12 shows the type of fouling curve obtained when an attempt is made to operate an asymptotically fouled tube for an indefinite period of time. Under such condi tions, fouling becomes an unsteady state process character ized by a sudden decrease in fouling resistance followed TIME (hours) Figure 11. Fouling Curve Illustrating Asymptotic Type Behaviour (Run 63, Heat Flux 91,400 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 26,500, Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm). in O Z> f-OQ RUN 63 RUN 49 FIRST 4 STATIONS RELEASED DEPOSIT o 00 TIME (hours) Figure 12. Effect of Prolonged Operation on Fouling Behaviour Re 26,500, Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone, 2130 ppm) (Heat Flux 89,750 BTU/ft2-hr TIME (hours) Tigure 13. Linear Fouling Behaviour (Run 64, Heat Flux = 89,850 BTU/ft2-hr, Re = 20,850, Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. = 2130 ppm). 00 86 by refouling. Taborek et al. (1) also show curves of this type. Figure 13 illustrates a third type of fouling curve obtained in a ferric oxide-tap water-204 stainless steel system. This curve was obtained at low heat fluxes, or by fouling the tube at zero heat flux for periods longer than about eight hours and then heating. It is character ized by a near linear dependence of fouling resistance with time. It should be stressed that all three types of fouling curves can be obtained whilst operating under identical conditions of heat flux, inlet temperature, flow rate and ferric oxide concentration. The curves differ because that shown in Figure 12 results from operating for extended time periods, and that shown in Figure 13 is the consequence of starting the run with a prefouled tube. 6.2.2 Effect of Reynolds number and heat flux on  fouling curves. In order to determine the effect of Reynolds number and heat flux on the shape of fouling curves, a series of trials were made using mixed-size ferric oxide at a concentration of 2130 ppm. Results are shown in 87 Table XVIII and plotted in Figure 14-16. An examination of these data shows the following: At high heat flux, in the range of 90,000 BTU/ ft2-hr, fouling curves depict asymptotic type behaviour. The curves obtained (see Figure 14) can be readily fitted to the equation The asymptotic fouling resistance does not appear to be a function of Reynolds number, but the initial fouling rate may be lowered slightly by an increase in Reynolds number. As either the Reynolds number or the heat flux is decreased (see Figure 15), the data can still be fitted by equation (4.4); the asymptotic resistance R^ then increases and the initial fouling rate yields no consistent pattern. A danger in fitting data to equation (4.4) is that a reasonably good fit can be achieved for virtually any curve which extrapolates to a positive value of R^ at t = 0, provided dR^./dt is not negative. If the view is taken that the use of equation (4.4) to fit the present data (which meet the above criteria) is not justified, the results can be replotted as shown in 4 runs in Figure 16, ignoring the zero point. The assumption now being made Table XVIII Effect of Heat Flux and Reynolds Number,on Fouling Behaviour for Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide 2130 ppm Cone. Run No. Heat Flux (BTU/ft2-hr) Reynolds Number Run Duration (hrs) Wal 1 Temc Clean( F°) AT Wall (F°) W LBm/sec Rf* ft2-hr-°F/BTU b 1/Hour 3Rf TT t = 0 54 16540 10090 3 42 145. 7 1 .1 0 .076 8.8 0 9 7 9 55 25800 1 5740 2 00 148. 0 1 .3 0 .118 5.4 1 7 ' 9 2 38 44360 1 9550 2 10 159. 1 1 .8 0 .144 3.7 0 9 3 3 59 44360 19550 . 2 90 159. 1 1 .6 0 .144 3.1 1 6 5 0 55 89860 20850 1 20 195. 0 2 .4 0 .144 2.3 4 1 9 4 39 44870 25390 2 25 152. 0 1 .7 0 .190 4.4 2 3 10 1 49 89750 26490 3 87 181 . 5 2 .8 0 .188 2.1 5 3 11 1 50 89750 26490 1 72 182. 6 2 .7 0 .188 3.1 3 7 11 5 63 91400 26530 1 92 181 . 5 2 .0 0 .188 2.1 5 7 12 0 61 41970 33700 2 48 144. 0 1 .1 0 .256 2.2 6 2 1 3 5 44 89900 37590 2 08 167. 5 2 .0 0 .275 2.2 2 9 6 4 CO co Figure 14. Influence of Reynolds Number on Fouling Curves at Heat Fluxes Near 90,000 BTU/ft2-hr, Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm. CO 1X5 o TIME (hours) Figure 15. Effect of Heat Flux and Reynolds Number on Fouling Behaviour. Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm. RUN 54 RUN HEAT FLUX RE SYMBOL NO. BTU/ft2- hr 54 1 6,540 10,090 O 55 25,800 15,740 9 59 44,360 19,550 A 61 I 41,970 I 33 ,700 A i 1 2 3 TIME (hours) o Figure 16. Effect of Heat Flux and Reynolds Number on Fouling Curves at Heat Fluxes < 44,360 BTU/ft2-hr, Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm. 92 is that the first few minutes of a run show a fouling at a rapidly declining rate, following which the rate becomes constant. Under such an assumption, the data show that as either the heat flux or Reynolds number is decreased, the constant fouling rate increases. It is believed that the reason for this behaviour is as follows: At time zero, when the tube wall is clean, ferric oxide particles adhere with difficulty. Increasing the Reynolds number increases the shear stress and hence the scouring action at the wall; consequently, the fouling rate decreases. The fact that increasing the heat flux similarly results in lower fouling rates is not as readily explained. At first it was thought that high heat fluxes resulted in a thermophoretic force on the particles which impeded their transport to the tube wall. However, as will be explained in Section 6.2.6, if the tube is pre-fouled at low heat flux prior to time zero and then high heat fluxes used, fouling occurs at a very rapid rate. Such behaviour would not be expected if thermophoresis were the sole reason for the inverse dependence of fouling rate on heat flux. A more probable explanation is that high heat fluxes are associated with high wall temperatures. Consequently, when operating with high heat flux, oxygen solubility is reduced near the tube wall. Since, as will 93 be shown in Sections 6.2.9 and 6.2.7, the fouling rate decreases with increasing temperature, and use of an oxygen scavenger also reduces the fouling rate, the above explana tion for the inverse dependence of fouling rate on heat flux appears to be reasonable. With respect to the shape of the curves, it is believed that neither of the methods used here to fit the data is entirely sound. Use of the asymptotic type equation (4.4) is difficult to justify as a generalization, since as out lined in Section 6.2.1, attempts to operate indefinitely at the asymptotic condition resulted in sharp drops in thermal resistance followed by refouling. Use of the method whereby the first few minutes of data are ignored and a linear equation applied for the remainder can be critized on the grounds that it simply does not fit all the data, though it does give a fair approximation of the fouling rate over much of the range covered. This aspect of fouling behaviour is discussed more fully in Section 7.0. 94 6.2.3 Effect of ferric oxide concentration on fouling  curves. The concentrations of mixed-size ferric oxide used in this study ranged from 15 ppm by weight to 3750 ppm, with 2130 ppm being the concentration most frequently tested. Pre-sized ferric oxide was used only at concen-I trations of 15 ppm because of the high cost of this material ($10 per gram). Consequently, the results presented here pertain to mixed-size ferric oxide only. Below 100 ppm, thermal fouling could not be de tected on a consistent basis, although sectioning of the tubes clearly showed the presence of spotty fouling de posits. In most trials, wall temperatures remained con stant during the entire course of the run, some of which lasted as long as 7 days. During two runs (Runs 1 and 4), behaviour indicative of fouling took place at localized positions on the tube wall, but such results could not be reproduced. For ferric oxide concentrations of approximately 750 ppm, thermal fouling could be detected but again, fouling curves were not reproducible and did not become so until a concentration in excess of 1750 ppm ferric oxide was used. At concentrations of 2130 ppm and higher, thermal fouling was readily detected and the resulting curves are 95 reproducible within the limits shown by Table XIX (compare Runs 49 and 63). Tables XIX and XX show the results of two series of fouling runs made at varying ferric oxide concentrations. The fouling curves themselves are shown in Figure 17 and 18. Again, as was the case with the dependence of fouling on heat flux and Reynolds number, the use of an asymptotic type relationship to fit these data is perhaps not entirely valid. However, the data clearly show that as the concen tration of ferric oxide is increased, the extent of fouling increases, the effect being much more pronounced for the lower heat flux and lower Reynolds number (Figure 18), where the fouling rate is consistently higher for the higher concentration. That the fouling rate should be a direct function of ferric oxide concentration was not unexpected. However, the fact that thermal fouling could not be detected at low concentrations (15 ppm) when operating times were extended for periods of up to two weeks (except occasionally at localized points) implies that the influence of concentra tion on fouling is not a simple relationship. If the reason for the inability to detect fouling at low concen trations was simply low mass transfer rate of ferric oxide towards the wall when the concentration driving force is 96 Table XIX Influence of Ferric Oxide Concentration on Parameters b and R^* and Initial Fouling Rate, Obtained by Least Squares Fit of Fouling Data to the Equation Rf = Rf*(l - e'bt). Heat Flux 90,000 BTU/ft2-hr (Approx.) Re 26500 (Approx.) Run No. Ferric Oxide Cone. (ppm) (hr"1) Asymptoti c Fouling Resistance Rf* (ft2)(hr)(°F) BTU Initial Fouling Rate dRv = bR, dt t = 0 (ft2)(°F) BTU 45 46 47 48 49 63 52 250 750 1500 1750 2130 2130 3750 0.5 0.5 3.6 3.4 5.3 5.7 0.9 0.5 0.6 1.0 0.4 2.1 2.1 3.3 1 .1 0.3 3.6 1 .4 11.1 12.0 3.0 97 Table XX Influence of Ferric Oxide Concentration on Parameters b and Rf* and Initial Fouling Rate, Obtained by Least Squares Fit of Fouling Data to the Equation Rf = Rf*(l - e"bt). Heat Flux 44,360 BTU/ft2-hr (Approx.) Re 19,550 Run No. Ferric Oxide Cone. (ppm) b (hr-1) Asymptoti c Fouli ng Res i stance Rf* (ft2)(hr)(°F) BTU Initial Fouling Rate dR. f - bR * dt t-o f (ft2)(°F) BTU 38 53 2130 3750 0.9 2.7 3.7 5.9 3.3 15.9 Figure 17. Effect of Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Concentration on Fouling Behaviour, Heat Flux 90,000 BTU/ft2-hr (Approx.), Re 26,500 (Approx.). 99 TIME (hours) Figure 18. Effect of Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Concentration on Fouling Behaviour, Heat Flux 44,360 BTU/ft2-hr, Re = 19,550. 100 low, then one would not expect to find fouling in localized positions, and it should be possible to detect fouling thermally simply by extending operating times for the trials. Such was not the case. A possible explanation is that at low concentrations deposits build to some asymptotic level which cannot be detected thermally. Another possibility is that the fouling process requires a relatively large accumulation of particles on the tube wall to trigger a bonding reaction between particles and tube wall and at low concentrations such an accumulation never occurs. The results of microprobe examination of deposits coupled with fouling experiments using prefouled tubes indicate that the latter explanation is probably correct. Further discussion of this point is contained in Section 7.0. 6.2.4 Effect of residual tube wall deposits on  fouling curves. In some early trial runs, the assumption was made that if the wall temperature readings indicated no tempera ture rise over the clean wall condition, as established with a clean honed tube on solids-free water, there were no deposits on the tube wall and it was unnecessary to hone 101 the tube prior to ferric oxide addition. When fouling data from Runs 31-38 were examined, however, it was found that reproducibility was better for those trials in which the tube was honed prior to time zero. To test whether deposits were present on the tube wall even though thermal data gave no indication of their presence, a fouled tube from a previous run was placed in the heat transfer loop and a "fouling" trial made using tap water. Thermal data gave no indication that the tube was in other than the clean wall condition. When the trial was stopped, the tube was honed and rinsed. Deposit was collected, which showed conclusively that thermal readings indicating clean wall temperatures did not necessarily signify the complete absence of deposits. It was therefore concluded that any tube used in a fouling run would always contain residual deposits unless the tube was honed prior to commencing a trial. In order to determine the effect of residual deposits on thermal fouling versus time curves, following Run 40 the heat flux was shut off and the flow rate raised to the maximum possible (control valve fully open) for a period of three minutes. Original settings of heat flux and flow rate were then restored. When trial target conditions were re-established, and sufficient time had elapsed to remove thermal transients, thermocouple data showed the tube 102 to be at the clean wall thermal condition. The trial run was then continued and the thermal fouling versus time curve generated. Figure 19 shows this curve for the above trial (Run 41), as compared to a curve generated under identical conditions except that the tube was honed prior to time zero (Run 39). These curves clearly demonstrate that residual deposit, which has previously been shown to be present on the unhoned tube wall, promotes fouling. (Because of this behaviour, only trials in which the tube was honed prior to time zero were used to establish the effect of Reynolds number, heat flux and ferric oxide con centration on thermal fouling.) It is believed that the return of the tube wall temperatures to the clean wall condition when the heat flux is shut off and the velocity increased is the result of deposit removal. It is postulated that the cooling of the tube cracks the deposit and the increased velocity tends to augment shearing and removal. The fact that the tap water trial on a fouled tube showed some deposit still to be present indicates that there is not 100% deposit removal by this procedure. Since such tubes foul at a higher initial rate than clean tubes, it appears that the fouling rate is a function of some process which is en hanced by the presence of spotty residual deposits on the 8 TIME (hours) Figure 19. Comparison of Fouling Behaviour for a Clean Honed Tube (No Residual Deposit) with a Prefouled Tube Subjected to High Velocity Cooling. Heat Flux 44870 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 25400, Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm. 104 tube wall. As will be outlined in more detail later, it is believed that this process is crevice corrosion, and that the rate of this crevice corrosion is governed by the rate at which oxygen is reduced on the unfouled metal. 6.2.5 Effect of extended operating time on fouling curves. It was stated in Section 6.2.1 that extension of fouling runs beyond approximately 3-4 hours resulted in an unsteady state fouling process. Typically, thermal data would indicate the tube to be either fouling or in an asymptotically fouled state, when suddenly wall temperatures at localized points would decrease and then gradually increase again. To study this behaviour in detail, Run 34 was made in which the operating time was extended over a period of 45 hours. Figure 20 shows a plot of the fouling resistance as a function of time for this run. Comments on this plot follow: During the first three hours of the trial, the tube fouled at a rapid rate. At 3 hours and 10 minutes following time zero, the wall temperature in the upper half of the test section decreased almost to the clean wall level. The fouling resistance then began to rise again and after 24 hours had risen to the same level as after 3 hours. It was then decided to hone the deposit from the to. c -i fD ro o CO TI -HO r+ 3 rcAO. I rr co -S fD - 3" Eu TO < (D -•• O —> £= VO -S en o cn < 0 fD " ~i 2 OJ -•• 3 X fD m CL X 1 <-+ OO fD i -"•3 1 N Q. fD fD Zp* CL —^ « ^m fD —I "* 3 =r -i. fD —' o O on)!; * loo CL O fD CL O -+, O O 3 -S O TO C ro 3 oo co o -P» TJ T3 3 =c fD EU rt X FOULING RESISTANCE (ft2-hr-°F/BTU ) x I05__ O ro & oo o o ai ro o Q-QT-— o-o T "0 m o o > o co -< CO —I \ DEPOSIT HONED FROM _r> TEST SECTION o m H O m X 00 o > 2 J oo O t SOL 106 test section and repeat the trial. Rapid fouling again occurred but did not reach its original levels. After 2 hours wall temperatures again dropped suddenly and then rose again slightly. The results of trial 34 suggested that sudden wall temperature drops were indicative of a loss of fouling deposit from the tube wall, and that once this happened refouling would occur. However, the results of this trial were not sufficiently precise to enable refouling rates to be accurately measured, because during much of the run the equipment was unattended and operating variables were not well controlled. It was therefore decided to study deposit release and refouling in a more direct manner by fouling a tube under carefully controlled conditions, honing the deposit from one-half of the tube only, and then continuing the fouling run. Since the series of trials involving this run was perhaps the most important series made, the procedure and results are presented here in detail, with data given in Table XXI and plotted in Figure 21 and 22. The first run of this series, Run No. 39, was a carefully controlled trial made at a ferric oxide concen tration of 2130 ppm, a heat flux of 44,870 BTU/ft2-hr and a Reynolds number of 25,390. After 2.25 hours, the run Table XXI Parameters b and R^* and Initial Fouling Rate Obtained by Least Squares Fit of Fouling Data to the Equation Rf = Rf*(l - e"bt) for Runs 39, 40 and 41. Heat Flux 44870 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 25390, Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm Run No. b (hr"1) Asymptoti c Fouli ng Res i stance Rf* (ft2-hr-°F/BTU) x 10s Initial Fouling Rate 3Rf 9t t = 0 (ft2-°F/BTU) x 10s Tube Surface Condition at Zero Time 39 Upper Portion 2.6 4.2 10.9 Honed of all Deposi t 39 Lower Portion 2.1 4.4 9.2 Honed of all Deposi t 40 Upper Porti on 2.4 4.8 11.5 Honed of all Deposi t 40 Lower Portion 1.4 8.8 12.3 Contains Residual Deposit from Run 39 41 Upper Porti on 1 -7 7.3 12.4 Contains Residual Deposit from Run 40 Only 41 Lower Portion 0.9 10.6 9.5 Contains Residual Deposit from Runs 39 and 40 FOULING RESISTANCE (ft2-hr-°F/BTU) x IO5 CO C -s fD c~> rc O fD 3 CD O rt ro —i -TJ ~a —'COO CO X "5 -$ O c+ c+ -£» -•• -•• X5 -P» O O "O >• 3 3 3 CO • sjoj O O r+ -h co ro —I —I • co to c+ oo fD O rt-cr cn -h rc r+ O N> C I -s 3- to -s <* co 73 3 rt> Gi ro rc cn -"• v tQ CO 3-CD O < » n> 3 O -•• o X fD c+ Q. I CO o _i. O N O ft) —' o m 5 o c co —\ fD CO 3" v > CD < 33 33 IV ccc -P^ -J> OJ — O CD -n 3 fD tQ -s o CL fD O tu _i. C+ 3 IQ cn • re cn o 3 rc -•• O 3 C CQ -5 to O HEAT FLUX SHUT OFF AND VELOCITY RAISED TO MAXIMUM FOR 3 MINUTES 80L to c s n> ro ro 70 rc cz ro o -a cz -o ro -s ft> on co -s co -a vo cu o 0 3 -s " CL c+ 2 XO _i. _i. 3 X CQ fD 3" O CL -h 1 < CO fD —I -•• —1 fD N O CO fD O rt-FOULING RESISTANCE (ft2-hr~°F/BTU) x IO5 o ro 4^ o) oo O tl rt CO fD C< CD 1 O -$ O c+ _i. O ->. O O O i —« 3 I o — x 3 -n <r -co o r^; fD OJ —1 O 3 13" o cncQ o o cn ca —^ fD (/) ro o cu —' cr < -s -'• CO O e CO o XJ rc n fD o OJ —• C 3 X CQ -p» rc o » 3 CO -•• >»J 3 Old CO CU ro -h • r+ cn to I UPPER PORTION HONED 30 ZD 33 e c c -J> OJ — O CO HEAT FLUX SHUT OFF AND VELOCITY RAISED TO MAXIMUM FOR 3 MINUTES 60L no was stopped and the deposit honed from the upper portion of the test section only. Dismantling, honing and reassembly of the equipment took 3 minutes. Run 40 then commenced under identical operating conditions to Run 39. Three minutes after start-up, the period found by experience on tap water to be sufficiently long to remove the thermal transient caused by shut-down, time zero was established. At this point it was noted that all thermocouples, those for the honed as well as for the unhoned portions of the test section, were at the clean wall condition. As the run progressed, the honed upper section retraced the pre vious fouling curve of Run 39. The unhoned lower section, during the same time period fouled to a higher level. At the end of Run 40, the test section was cooled by shutting off the heat flux for a period of 3 minutes while allowing the fluid to circulate at maximum velocity. When heating was restarted, original flow conditions re stored, and the thermal transient removed, the complete test section was found to be at the clean wall thermal condition. Run 41 was then made under identical conditions to Runs 39 and 40. During this run both upper and lower portions of the test section fouled to still higher levels. This series of trials showed that: Ill (1) Unhoned sections of the tube wall apparently do contain deposit which causes fouling to proceed to higher levels than for the honed tube wall. (2) The presence of a honed section of the tube adjacent to an unhoned section apparently results in fouling to levels on the unhoned section which are at least as high if not higher than when the unhoned section is adjacent to another unhoned section which has been subjected to cooling at high velocity. (Compare Run 40-lower portion with Run 41-lower portion and Run 41-upper portion.) (3) High velocity cooling of the tube wall removes some, but not all, of the fouling deposit. At this stage in the investigation the idea developed that the rate of fouling of 304 stainless steel tubes with ferric oxide was not being controlled by fluid dynamic factors affecting the rate at which particles were being deposited and released from the tube wall, but rather by some other factor. Since microprobe results had clearly shown that crevice corrosion was occurring beneath the deposit, it was speculated that the fouling rate was being controlled by the rate at which corrosion product immobi lized any potential deposit at the wall, rather than by the transport rate of ferric oxide particles. Since crevice 112 corrosion theory (see Section 7.2) predicts no corrosion when the tube wall is clean, and no corrosion when the tube wall is completely covered, such a mechanism would readily explain the results obtained up to that stage in the investigation. For example, the high shear stress at the wall associated with high Reynolds number would inhibit the initial deposition and hence make it difficult to obtain a crevice. High heat fluxes would tend to reduce oxygen solubility near the tube wall, which should predictably tend to reduce the rate of crevice corrosion. With this hypothesis, the experimental results presented in this section are also readily explainable, since the half of the tube unhoned would have crevices at time zero, and the half of the tube which was honed would serve as a site for oxygen reduction, thereby enhancing the rate of crevice corrosion. To test the validity of this hypothesis, it was decided to attempt control of the crevice corrosion rate by conducting a series of experiments using a prefouled tube at time zero, and another experiment using sodium sulfite as an oxygen scavenger. The results of these experiments are given in Sections 6.2.6 and 6.2.7. 113 6.2.6 Fouling behaviour using a prefouled tube. In the previous section, it was reported that if residual deposits were left on the tube wall, fouling occurred at a higher rate than when the fouling run was started with a clean tube. However, as the fouling run progressed, the fouling rate declined and in many cases the fouling resistance approached an asymptotic value. Most investigators who have obtained fouling curves of this type have interpreted the asymptotic condition as being due to a balance of deposition and release rates, the latter taken as proportional to deposit thickness. Kern and Seaton (6), for example, use this approach, as does Watkinson (7). In the ferric oxide-stainless steel system studied here, it was reasoned that if asymptotic fouling curves were the result of a balance between deposition and release rates, then at equilibrium some wall temperatures would fall as material was locally released while others would rise as material was locally deposited. Although the latter situation has been found, for example in Run 34 (see Appendix IV), it no longer corresponds to an asymptotic condition. Instead, for this situation the tube refouls, as reported in Section 6.2.5. It was there fore postulated that asymptotic fouling behaviour is the result of a suppression of fouling rather than a balance 114 between deposition and removal rates, and that this suppres sion is the result of a diminution of crevice corrosion as the tube fouls. A clue to the nature of the suppression mechanism was discovered accidently when it was found that if the wall temperature of an asymptotically fouled tube was in creased suddenly, the tube would commence fouling at a nearly constant rate. Since during the earlier experimental runs every attempt was made to hold conditions steady, sudden increases in wall temperatures were seldom encountered. In Run 64, a decrease in the cooling water inlet temperature to the system resulted in a drop in wal1, tempera ture which went undetected for about 6 hours. When condi tions were returned to normal, it was found that fouling occurred and persisted at a very rapid rate. This implied that the mechanism which caused fouling rates to decrease with time as fouling progressed was no longer operative. To study this phenomenon in a more controlled manner, Run 70 was made in which the fouling suspension was allowed to circulate through the test section for 6 hours at zero heat flux and then heating started. Results, which are plotted in Figure 23, show that fouling under this condition proceeds at a constant rate. For comparative purposes, the results of Run 63 are included. Run 63 was 1 15 60 in O ZD m LL: OJ LU O CO 00 LU or o o LL. 50 40 30 20 o RUN 70 © RUN 63 0 o 10 -@—© 0 Figure 23 TIME (hours) Effect of Behaviour ppm, Heat Tube Condition at Time Zero on Fouling Mixed Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 Flux 89,670 BTU/ft2-hr, Re = 26,580. 116 made under identical conditions to Run 70 except that the ^ tube wall was initially honed and therefore clean at zero time. The following is offered to explain why prefouling a tube at zero heat flux and then heating leads to rapid linear fouling: When deposition occurs from the fluid to the honed clean wal1, crevices are produced which result in crevice corrosion and the production of iron, nickel and chromium corrosion products. These corrosion products diffuse through the deposit, precipitate, and serve to strengthen the bond between the ferric oxide particles. (According to Charlesworth (11), it is well known that the incorporation of nickel in an iron oxide deposit results in a hard, tightly bonded structure.) As fouling proceeds, the clean wall area becomes progressively reduced and crevice corrosion ceases due to suppression of the cathode reacti on 02 + 2H20 + 4 e -> 40H" at the clean wall. (For the fundamentals of crevice corrosion, see Section 7.2.) With a cold prefouled tube, the situation is quite different. When the heat flux is turned on, the tube and 117 deposit expand, the deposit to a smaller degree than the metal tube. It is postulated that this results in a cracked deposit with exposed clean wall areas. It is furthermore suggested that these cracks are sufficiently small that they cannot be penetrated by the ferric oxide particles to block the clean wall sites, but readily allow the tran sport of oxygen to the surface of the metal. Consequently, oxygen reduction at the clean wall does not fall off as the tube fouls and fouling occurs at a constant rate. A conclusion which logically follows from the above hypothesis is that use of an oxygen scavenger should significantly change the fouling rate when the system is placed in the linear fouling condition, since this would block the cathode reaction 02 + 2H20 + 4 e + 40H" . The results of an experiment to test this corollary are given in the next section. 6.2.7 Effect of an oxygen scavenger (Na2S03) on  fouling behaviour. To test the effect of oxygen concentration on fouling behaviour, the test section was made to foul at a 118 constant rate by methods described in Section 6.2.6. After 3.28 hours, the air line to the suspension storage, which had the dual purpose of providing mixing and insuring that at all times the suspension was saturated with oxygen, was switched to a nitrogen cylinder. Forty-five minutes later 300 grams of sodium sulfite were added to the tank. After another 30 minutes, it was found that the system was still in a state of linear fouling, but that the rate had changed to less than one-half that of the previous rate. The results of this experiment are plotted in Figure 24. Included are curves made under identical condi tions of heat flux, particle concentration and Reynolds number, but differing in that curve 1 involved starting with a honed clean tube, curve 2 was for a prefouled tube placed in a situation conducive to linear fouling with the system saturated with oxygen, and curve 3 was for the same situation but with the system scavenged of oxygen.. It is concluded from these results that the fouling of 304 stainless steel with ferric oxide under the usual condi tions investigated here is associated with the presence of oxygen in the suspension. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the rate of fouling is controlled by the rate at which crevice corrosion proceeds, which is in turn con trolled by oxygen transport to the tube wall, is strengthened by the above results. LO O X TU) 40 OQ Lb °i ^_ -C CM 30 M— UJ CJ 20 < H C/) 00 LU rr 10 CD ino 0 Li_ Figure 24. Comparison of Fouling Rates with an Oxygen Scavenger in Oxygen Scavenger (Curve 2) BTU/ft2-hr, Re 26,580. TIME (hours) for a Clean Honed Tube (Curve 1), the System (Curve 3), a Prefouled Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide 2130 ppm LO a Prefouled Tube Tube with no , Heat Flux 89,670 120 Mahato (36), in his study of the corrosion of iron pipes in city water, concluded that the rate of cor rosion was a function of the rate at which oxygen could be transported through the rust layer to the metal surface. In Mahato's case, as the rust layer became thicker the diffusion of oxygen was correspondingly reduced with the result that the corrosion rate decreased. Although the explanation of Mahato can be used to account for the asymptotic type of fouling behaviour found here, it does not explain the linear fouling situa tion. For the latter situation, it is believed that oxygen transport is not significantly impeded as the fouling deposit grows because of cracks in the deposit induced by thermal expansion when heat is applied to a prefouled tube — a prerequisite for obtaining linear fouling. Also, the linear fouling situation would reasonably create new cracks in the deposit as a result of increases in wall temperature as the tube fouls. Consequently the mechanism proposed here, inasmuch as it depends upon oxygen delivery to the tube wall, is considered to be reasonable. The fact that the linear fouling rate did not fall to zero in the absence of oxygen is probably due to the occurrence of the alternative cathode reaction (37) 2H+ + 2e •* H2t . 121 6.2.8 Effect of ferric oxide particle size on  fouling behaviour. The first trial carried out in this study was made using mixed size ferric oxide at a concentration of 16 ppm, a heat flux of 91,66:0 BTU/ft2-hr and a Reynolds number of 24,700. No evidence of thermal fouling was found, although sectioning of the tube after the trial showed it to contain a spotty deposit having a maximum thickness of approximately 100 microns. Hindsight suggests that the conditions for this trial were perhaps the worst that could have been selected, since later work showed that such a low ferric oxide concentration and high heat flux would result in minimal fouling. However, this was not known at that time and it was assumed that the fouling process was limited by transport to the wall of ferric oxide particles, which were presumed too large to result in the minimum deposition rates necessary to cause thermal fouling. There were two reasons for this belief: (I) A cursory examination of the mixed size ferric oxide suggested its typical size to be in the range of 10 microns. Particles of this size are insignificantly subjected to Brown ian motion, a factor which was considered essential to obtaining a high flux of particles through the laminar sublayer to the tube wall. 1 22 (2) Particles of this size are prone to gravity settling, and it was felt that if such a particle did approach the wall, it would tend to settle rather than become attached to the vertical tube wall. To test the hypothesis that the fouling process was particle transport limited, presized ferric oxide was purchased in two batches, one with a specified particle size range of 0.3-0.8u and the other with a specified range of 0.3-3.7u. Fouling trials were made as summarized in Table XXII, with results as follows: Run 19 was made using presized particles of 0.3-0.8u at a concentration of 15 ppm. Following a trial of 48 hours, during which time no thermal fouling was detected, the tube was sectioned. No deposit could be found in the heated section of the tube although a spotty deposit was found in the unheated exit section. Repeating Run 19 with zero heat flux (Run 20) resulted in a tube having spotty deposits with thicknesses of about 70 microns. Runs 21, 22 and 23 were then made using the larger particle size (0.3-3.7 microns), with similar results. That is, at high heat flux no deposit could be detected when the tube was sectioned, while at zero heat flux a spotty deposit was found. 123 Table XXII Effect of Particle Size on Fouling Behaviour. Ferric Oxide Cone. 15 ppm Re 25,000 (Approx.) Run Trial Heat Flux Parti cle Deposit Thickness Duration Si ze No. (hrs) (BTU/ft2-hr) (mi crons) (microns) 19 48 92,310 0.3-0.8 0* 20 72 0 0.3-0.8 70 (spotty) 21 24 90,000 0.3-3.7 0 22 168 90,000 0.3-3.7 0 23 96 0 0.3-3.7 70 (spotty) A deposit was found in the exit section of the tube, but none in the heated section. 124 In an attempt to find a rationale for these observations, a review was made of selected papers con cerning the deposition of small particles from turbulent streams, concentrating primarily on the work of Beal (16,29). Beal's work was of particular interest since it suggested that particles differing only slightly in size could have greatly different rates of deposition. to a tube wall by integrating Fick's equation for turbulent flow. That is Beal developed an equation for particle flux (6.1) where N flux of particles D di f f us i vi ty e eddy diffusivity dC dy particle concentration gradient By using the correlation of Lin et al. (30) for eddy diffusivity: e = <i>(y+) (6,2) Reynolds analogy: 125 dC N dy" " 7P du Idy. (6.3) and the Lin universal velocity profile, he was able to integrate equation (6.1) to find an expression for particle flux to the tube wall. He expressed his final result in terms of a deposition coefficient, Nw = Kpv C K + pv avg r (6.4) where K = U. • ^(f, Sc, S+, h+) 'b Nw = flux of particles to the wall Cavg = avera9e particle concentration f = Fanning friction factor Sc = Schmidt number S+ = dimensionless Stokes stopping distance h+ = dimensionless pipe spacing = hU^/FTT/v p = sticking probability v = radial velocity of a particle Beal then evaluated v by assuming that the particle velocity is the sum of two components, one due to Brownian motion and one due to fluid motion. These were computed based upon the work of Jeans (31) and Laufer (32), 126 respectively. The Schmidt numberjSc, was based upon the Brownian diffusion coefficient, D. A computer program was written incorporating Beal's equation for the deposition coefficient, including his simplifying assumption that p = 1 (see Appendix II). An attempt was made to regenerate his Figure 3, to insure that the computer program contained no errors. For a bulk velocity of 100 cm/sec, the computed curve fitted Beal's curve for 30 cm/sec. However, Beal does not state the density of his particles or the pipe diameter, both of which bear upon the results. Consequently, the fit obtained was not considered unreasonable, and the program was assumed to be correct. Table XXIII shows the computed data for ferric oxide particles in water for conditions approximating those used in Runs 19-23. Comments are as follows: (I) In the range of 0.1-4 microns, the deposi tion coefficient as computed from Beal's equation lies between 0.16 x IO"3 and 1.0 x IO-3 cm/sec. Hence in the range of interest, the deposition rate as calculated by Beal's method is not overly sensitive to particle size changes since a 40-fold change in particle size results in only a 6-fold change in deposition coefficient. Con sequently, the particle size-particle transport dependence, Table XXIII Deposition Coefficients for Ferric Oxide as a Function of Particle Size as Computed From Beal's Equation. Tube Reynolds Number 25,360, Bulk Velocity 3.28 ft/sec, Fluid temp 212°F Parti cl e Size (microns) Schmidt No. Stokes Stopping Di stance (mi crons) Browni an Diffusion Coeffi ci ent cm2/sec Deposition Coefficient cm/sec 0.001 151 0.0005 0.19 X io-* 0.11 X 1 0" 1 0.01 1512 0.005 0.19 X 10"5 0.23 X io-2 0.10 15,120 0.050 0.19 X IO"6 0.48 X 10~3 1.0 151,200 0.55 0.19 X io-7 0.16 X IO"3 2.0 302,300 1 .20 0.97 X IO"8 0.24 X 10~3 3.0 453,500 1 .96 0.64 X IO"8 0.53 X 10"3 4.0 604,700 2.82 0.48 X 1 0" 8 0.10 X IO"2 5.0 755,900 3.77 0.38 X IO"8 0.18 X io-2 6.0 907,000 4.83 0.32 X io-8 0.30 X IO"2 7.0 1,058,000 6.00 0.27 X io-8 0.47 X io-2 8.0 1,209,000 7.26 0.24 X io-8 0.70 X IO"2 9.0 1,361,000 8.63 0.21 X io-8 0.99 X io-2 10.0 1,512,000 10.09 0X1 9 0.1\ X io-8 0.13 X IO"1 100.0 15,120,000 559.3 X \ io-9 0.99 X 10"° ro 128 as postulated by Bea I , does not explain why at high heat flux the mixed size ferric oxide resulted in a deposit, albeit spotty, while the 0.3-0.8y and 0.3-3.7u particles gave no deposit whatsoever. (2) Beal's approach, which does not contain heat flux as a parameter, sheds no light on why high heat fluxes gave minimal or no deposits, while a spotty deposit could always be found at zero heat flux. In the experiments run here, the higher the heat flux the higher is the average bulk fluid temperature. Raising the heat flux should therefore reduce viscosity and raise the Stokes stopping distance. Also, higher temperatures would raise the Brownian diffusion coefficient. Consequently, the deposition coef ficient should be higher at higher temperatures, which is in direct conflict with the experimental results. It is therefore concluded that the ferric oxide deposition process studied here is not controlled by the transport mechanism proposed by BeaI . An alternate possible explanation as to why high heat fluxes result in minimal or no fouling for the pre-sized particles follows from the work of McNab (33). McNab was able to demonstrate experimentally that thermo-phoresis can exist in liquids, and that micron-size ^ 129 particles, when exposed to a thermal gradient migrate away from the hot surface at a velocity given by thermophoretic velocity fluid thermal conductivity particle thermal conductivity fluid viscosity fluid density absolute temperature temperature gradient An order of magnitude calculation based on equation (6. 5) shows that for a heat flux of 91,400 and a Reynolds, number of 26,490, a particle in the vicinity of the tube wall would migrate away from the wall a distance of 3.7 microns in one second (see Appendix III). A one-micron ferric oxide particle in water at 70°F would migrate an average distance of 0.7 microns due to Brownian motion where u = VT = 130 and approximately 1.5 microns due to gravitational settling during the same time period. See Perry (35). Consequently, thermophoresis could well be a significant factor in the fouling process studied here, retarding fouling when the tube is hotter than the fluid and enhancing fouling for the reverse situation. The work done here with respect to particle size and fouling was beset with many difficulties not foreseen when the investigation was originally planned. Firstly, great difficulty was encountered in determining the size of particles used in the study. Sizing with millipore filters indicated the mean particle size of the mixed size ferric oxide to lie in the range of 10-100i_t. The micro probe photographs at a magnification of 500 indicated a particle size of about 5 microns, while the scanning electron microscope showed the particles to consist of agglomerates with a basic particle size of about 0.2 microns and an agglomerate size of approximately 3 microns. Consequently, no precise estimate of particle size was obtained for the mixed-size particles. Secondly, even if a precise estimate of particle size could be made, it would not be correct to assign this size to the depositing particle because of the tendency of ferric oxide to agglomerate. As pointed out by Adamson (34), colloidal ferric oxide particles sense the presence of each other at great distances and 131 tend to settle out in platelets. Also, the high dipole moment of ferric oxide would tend to result in an agglom erate which would be relatively stable. To estimate the size of such an agglomerate would be a difficult task. For reasons outlined above, the work done in this investigation with respect to the influence of particle size on fouling is quite inconclusive. Mixed-size particles gave spotty deposits at high heat fluxes, whereas presized particles of 0.3-0.8u and 0.3-3.7u did not. No adequate explanation could be offered for these results. 6.29. Influence of local wall temperature on fouling  behaviour. When heat transfer is effected at constant heat flux, the condition used for all runs in this investiga tion, the wall temperature increases in the direction of fluid flow. Consequently, by plotting the local fouling resistance at selected points along the tube wall against local wall temperature it is possible to determine the influence of local wall temperature on fouling behaviour. Results for two distinctly different operating conditions are shown in Tables XXIV and XXV, and plotted in Figure 25. The interesting aspect of these data is that for the lower Reynolds number, lower heat flux condition, where 132 Table XXIV Local Fouling Resistances After One Hour as a Function of Tube Wall Position (and Hence Wall Temperature). Heat Flux 90,000 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 26500. Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm Local Fouling Resistances (ft2-hr-°F/BTU) x 10s Run No. Posi tion 49 50 63 Rfavg Local Wall Temperature at t = 0 °F T235 2.6 3.9 2.2 2.9 174 T255 2.2 3.1 2.2 2.5 174 T275 0.4 3.1 1 .7 1 .7 182 T295 0.4 2.6 1.3 1.4 182 T315 1 .7 3.1 2.1 2.3 183 T335 2.6 3.1 2.2 2.6 178 T355 2.6 3.1 2.6 2.7 178 T375 - - - -T395 2.2 2.2 1.7 2.0 186 T415 1.7 2.2 1.3 1.7 192 133 Table XXV Local Fouling Resistances After One Hour as a Function of Tube Wall Position (and Hence Wall Temperature). Heat Flux 44,360 BTU/ft2-hr, Re 19,550, Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm Local Fouling Resistances (ft2-hr-°F/BTU) x 10s Run No. Position 36 38 59 Rfavg Local Wall Temperature at t = 0 °F T235 4.5 4.5 5.4 4.8 154 T255 3.6 3.6 4.5 3.9 154 T275 2.7 3.6 3.6 3.3 159 T295 1.8 2.7 2.7 2.4 159 T315 0.9 2.7 0.9 1.5 160 T335 0.9 1.8 0 0.9 157 T355 1.8 1.8 2.7 2.1 156 T375 - - - » -T395 0 1.8 2.7 1.5 162 T415 0 1.8 0 0.6 167 'I 1 1 1 yA I 1 I I I 150 160 175 185 195 LOCAL WALL TEMPERATURE AT TIME ZERO (°F) Figure 25. Local Fouling Resistance After One Hour Versus Local Wall Temperature at Time Zero. Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm. -P» 135 local wall temperatures ranged between 154 and 167°F, there is a sharp decrease in fouling resistance as a function of local wall temperature. For the higher heat flux, higher Reynolds number situation, where local wall tempera tures ranged from 174 to 192°F, this effect is not as pronounced. The reason for the inverse dependence of fouling rate on wall temperature is believed to be associated with the reduction in the solubility of oxygen at the tube wall as the temperature rises. This would tend to reduce the corrosion rate and thereby reduce the fouling rate. Since the rate of decrease of oxygen solubility with temperature between 174-192°F is only about one-third the rate of decrease in oxygen solubility between 154-167°F [see Perry (35)], this would explain the difference in slope between the two conditions. These results further strengthen the belief that the fouling of 304 stainless steel with ferric oxide is controlled by the rate at which oxygen can be supplied to the tube wall. 6.3 Pressure Drop vs. Time Fouling Behaviour During early runs, an attempt was made to use the pressure drop across the test section as an index of fouling. Usually, this resulted in failure since for most runs in 136 which thermal fouling occurred, no significant pressure drop change could be noted. However, for the linear foul ing situation encountered in Run 64, large and significant pressure drop changes occurred. Results are plotted in Figure 26, with results from Run 63 included for compara tive purposes. The following comments apply to Figure 26. For Run 63, in which typical asymptotic type fouling was dis played, the change in pressure drop is of the same order of magnitude as the manufacturer's stated error of the pressure transducer. Consequently, the slight upward trend may or may not be significant. For Run 64, in which the tube fouled thermally at a linear rate, the pressure drop change is large but is not linear with time. It is impor tant to note that during the 24 hour period between Runs 63 and 64, when fluid was circulated at zero heat flux, no pressure drop change occurred. Since thermal fouling, by the procedure used in this study, is calculated from heat flux and wall temperature readings, there is no record of fouling behaviour during the 24 hour circulating period at zero heat flux. The fact that the pressure drop did not change until after the heat flux was turned on is evidence that linear thermal fouling is associated with the heating of the tube, and that the thermal results obtained to. -s CD ro cr> c 3 JO fD -s CD to to cr -s CD ro O 00 co -s vn -—o O XJ 3 i—i 2 D-X fD D_ I co r. N fD I- QJ 1 —i. to ' to m -n -n eu .—. fD O -y -s c -n -s — e —i. —i. 3 L— ° 3 ° 73 o ->•*"— X ?3 O -J. c 3 D_ 3 ro o -b O 73 O S= —I 3 3 -'• O 3 • cn fD ro h —• • o co -s o zc a> ro 3 co 00 -n<< —' 3 C TJ X c+ O 00 c+ vo -;• >• o CD •ON—I -a —I cr: -n \ o r+ —1 -a T3 3 PRESSURE DROP (arbitrary units) O ro h 00 o ro o ro UJ f-^HEAT FLUX STOPPED >24 HR. CIRCULATION-NO HEAT FLUX HEAT FLUX RESTARTED • O c a z: CD CD Oi I 3 to LZ L 138 are not a transient response to a possible fouling build-up during the 24 hour period at zero heat flux. In fact, the non-change in the pressure drop readings taken immediately before and immediately after the 24 hour period indicates that any additional fouling which may have occurred during this period of zero heat flux was small compared with the subsequent linear fouling. 6.4 Fouling Deposit Examination Results 6.4.1 Type of information obtained. Fouling deposits from selected trial runs were examined 'in situ,' as well as on polyester cores pressed from fouled tubes, using (1) a Zeiss light microscope, (2) a scanning electron microscope, and (3) an electron microprobe. Procedures covering the preparation and examination of samples have already been given in Section 3. From the light microscope, the physical nature of the deposit could readily be observed. However, because of the granular nature of the deposits, problems with depth of field were encountered and no attempt was made to obtain photographs. 139 For a permanent record, photomicrographs of deposits were obtained with the scanning electron microscope. While this instrument gives no problem with depth of field, the photo micrographs are 'black and white.' Since the deposits themselves could be highly coloured, these photomicrographs are not entirely satisfactory. The electron microprobe gave three separate sources of information. These were: (1) An electron photomicrograph showing the physical appearance of the deposit. This is referred to as the absorbed electron image (AEI). (2) An electron photomicrograph showing the topography of the deposit. This is referred to as the back-scattered electron image (BEI). (3) X-ray intensity photomicrographs which show, in a qualitative way, the concentration of an element at any point in the deposit. In addition, through measure ment of X-ray intensities, a quantitative analysis of the deposit was obtained. 140 6.4.2 Results of light and electron microscopic  examination of deposits. When ferric oxide from an aqueous suspension fouls a 304 stainless steel tube, light and electron microscopic examination of the deposits, when viewed in cross-section, yielded the following results: (1) For fouling runs in which no thermal foul ing was detected, deposits invariably were spotty, that is, they did not cover the entire circumference or the entire length of the tube. They could, however, be quite thick at localized points, with measured thicknesses of up to 70 microns. In all cases, these deposits were black-in colour, in marked contrast to the ferric oxide (hematite) feed material, which showed as a brilliant red. (2) For fouling runs which yielded asymptotic type fouling curves, deposits were more uniformly distri buted around the circumference and length of the tube. Thicknesses were in the range of 100 microns. These deposits consisted of a black layer adjacent to the tube wall followed by a red layer at the fluid-deposit interface. (3) For fouling runs which gave constant foul ing rates, deposits were quite thick, 100 microns and upward, and were predominantly red in appearance. 141 Although the colour of the deposits varied accord ing to the type of fouling curve obtained, the physical nature of the deposit did not vary. Deposits tended to be granular in appearance, as shown in Figure 27. The pressed core samples, when viewed in both the light microscope and the electron microprobe, give a much different appearance in comparison to the cross-sectional samples. Figure 28 shows a typical photomicrograph. These samples are characterized by black 'islands' in a red matrix. Cores from runs which yielded no thermal fouling, asymptotic type fouling and linear fouling all had the same general appearance, except that the red matrix in the linear fouling case was thicker and therefore more intense. 6.4.3 Electron microprobe results. 6.4.3.1 Qualitative nature of fouling deposits. Following selected experimental runs, the fouled tube was removed from the heat transfer loop, sectioned according to the procedures given earlier and examined in the J.E.O.L. electron microprobe. This resulted in the following information concerning the deposits: 400X Figure 27. Scanning Electron Photomicrograph Showing the Nature of the Deposit Re sulting from the Fouling of Aqueous Ferric Oxide Suspensions on 304 Stain less Steel. (The above photomicrographs are a stereo pair.) ro 143 630X Figure 28. Image of a Core Sample Obtained with the Electron Microprobe. (Dark areas are black under light microscopy, grey areas are red.) 144 Figure 29. Electron Microprobe Photomicrographs of a Typical Deposit Showing the Back Scattered Electron Image or Topography (Above) and the Absorbed Electron Image or Physical Composi tion (Below). 145 (I.) Photographs showing the "in situ" appearance of the deposit. See Figure 29. These photographs, which are essentially electron photomicrographs, are in the case of the upper photograph in Figure 29, the topography of the deposit and in the case of the lower photograph, the physical appearance of the deposit. The essential features to note here are that the fouling deposit is rough and granular in nature and that there is a separa tion between the tube wall and the deposit. This separa tion, which was present in virtually all samples examined, is believed to be due to the difference in the thermal expansion characteristics of stainless steel and those of the deposit. (2) X-ray intensity photomicrographs showing the concentration of a particular element at any position in the sample relative to its concentration at any other position. Figures 30-32 show typical X-ray intensity photomicrographs for iron, nickel, chromium and oxygen. These photomicrographs cover the same area as the electron photomicrographs of Figure 29. Not surprisingly, the X-ray photomicrographs show the deposit to contain the constituents of ferric oxide, iron and oxygen. However, the deposits were also found, in all cases, to contain nickel and chromium, as typified by Figure 30 (lower • • • ry • J /j^WflSzSPvS^ '.i Figure 30. Electron Microprobe X-Ray Intensity Photo micrographs of a Typical Deposit Showing the Distribution of Iron (Above) and Nickel (Below). 147 Figure 31. Electron Microprobe X-Ray Intensity Photo micrograph of a Typical Deposit Showing the Distribution of Chromium. Figure 32. Electron Microprobe Photomicrographs Showing for a Typical Deposit the Absorbed Electron Image (Above) and the Corresponding X-Ray Intensity Photomicrograph Depicting Oxygen Concentration (Below). 149 photograph) and Figure 31. In examining these photomicro graphs, it should be noted that chromium concentration is greatest near the tube wall, and least at the edge of the deposit. The latter corresponds to the surface in contact with the circulating fluid. Nickel shows a similar pattern to chromium, but the concentration differences are not as pronounced. Iron and oxygen do not show such concentra tion g rad i ents. For comparative purposes, a photomicrograph of an unfouled tube is included (Figure 33). This was done as a precaution to insure that the nickel and chromium found in the deposit was not the result of the specimen preparation procedure, which involved grinding the tube, deposit and polyester resin simultaneously. The absence of tube material in the polyester matrix (Figure 33, lower photograph, shows only background intensity in the matrix) is an indication that the specimen preparation procedure did not invalidate the results. 6.4.3.2 Quantitative analysis of fouling deposits -transverse sections. By measuring X-ray intensity as a function of position, it is possible to obtain concentration profiles Tube Figure 33. Electron Microprobe Photomicrographs of a Clean Tube Showing the Back-Scattered Electron Image (Above) and the Corresponding X-Ray Intensity Photomicrograph Depicting Iron Concentration (Below). 151 for the various elements contained in a fouling deposit. Examples of such profiles are contained in Figure 34, which shows the results of scans on a specimen from a trial run in which asymptotic fouling was observed. Profil similar to these were obtained for the following: (1) Run 15, in which no thermally detectable foul i ng resuI ted . (2) Run 31, which resulted in asymptotic type fouling. (3) Run 70, in which linear fouling occurred. Unfortunately, concentration profiles for iron are not particularly informative since any iron released from the tube wall and precipitated in the deposit is indistinguishable from the iron in the ferric oxide de positing from suspension. This problem does not exist with nickel and chromium. To facilitate comparison, chromium profiles alone have been replotted for each type of run in Figure 35. Figure 35 shows that for spotty deposits (no thermal fouling detectable) chromium concen tration at the tube wall is quite high, about 8% by weight, and shows a slight concentration gradient throughout the deposit. The chromium profile for the asymptotic type Approximate Concentration as Indicated by X-Ray Intensity (Counts/10 seconds) o -4-o o o o o -4-o o o -+-> 7> O X cn O o to > o m 73 o — cn o O i o m -o o CO -H ro o' — o > o ro m cn, o o ya o z CO CO ^ o O Z9L DISTANCE FLUID-DEPOSIT INTERFACE TO DEPOSIT-TUBE INTERFACE + Figure 35. Chromium Concentration Profiles Thermal Fouling Detected, Run 31 Run 70 - Linear Type Fouling (Di for Deposits from Run 1 5 - No _, - Asymptotic Fouling, and stance Scale is Arbitrary). 00 1 54 fouling deposit is much more pronounced than for the spotty deposit. At the tube wall, the two profiles approach each other. At the deposit-fluid interface, however, the chromium concentration of the asymptotic type deposit approaches zero, while the spotty deposit is in excess of 4%. The linear fouling type of deposit is characterized by relatively low concentrations of chromium, below 1%, and a gradient from the tube wall to the deposit-fluid interface which is not particularly pronounced. The nickel concentration profiles were found to behave similarly, but concentration levels were lower than for chromium and gradients were not as distinct. 6.4.3.3 Qualitative and quantitative analysis of  deposits - core samples. For purposes of analyzing the surface of deposits in contact with the tube wall, core samples containing the fouling deposits were examined in the electron micro probe. To illustrate the nature of the deposit when viewed in this manner, sections from Run 70, a linear fouling run, have been selected as an example. Figures 36-39 are a series of photomicrographs showing the physical appearance of the core samples (upper photomicrograph), and the rela tive concentrations of iron, chromium, nickel and oxygen Figure 36. Physical Appearance of Core Sample (Upper Photomicrograph) and Relative Distribution of Chromium (Lower Photomicrograph). Figure 37. Physical Appearance of Core Sample (Upper Photomicrograph) and Relative Distribution of Nickel (Lower Photomicrograph). Figure 38. Physical Appearance of Core Sample (Upper Photomicrograph) and Relative Distribution of Iron (Lower Photomicrograph). 1 58 Figure 39. Physical Appearance of Core Sample (Upper Photomicrograph) and Relative Distribution of Oxygen (Lower Photomicrograph). 159 contained in the deposit (lower photomicrograph). As mentioned in Section 6.4.2., the black areas of Figure 36, when viewed in the light microscope, appear black, and the grey areas have the characteristic red appearance of ferric oxide. From Figure 36-39 it may be seen that the black islands, though primarily iron, are rich in chromium and contain significant, but smal 1, concentrations of nickel. There is some evidence that portions of these black areas are deficient in oxygen. However, oxygen profiles covering these areas, gave conflicting results. Since oxygen, because of its low atomic number, is not determined accurately with the microprobe, the above evidence is considered inconclusive. In order to place the information contained in Figures 36-39 on a quantitative basis, scans were made across core samples from Run 70. Results, which appear as Figure 40, show the following: (1) Nickel-rich areas only exist in areas having both a high chromium and a high iron content. (2) Chromium-rich areas exist only in conjunction with iron-rich areas. (3) able chromi um Iron-rich areas can or n i eke I present. exist without any detect-...g — | » I I 100 200 300 400 500 100 2fJ0 300 4~fr5 56o APPROXIMATE DISTANCE ACROSS SAMPLE (MICRONS) Figure 40. Relative Intensities of Iron and Chromium, and Nickel and Chromium for a Scan over a Core Sample from Linear Fouling Run 70 (Numbers indicate corresponding locations). 161 These results add further supporting evidence to the view that the fouling of 304 stainless steel by ferric oxide is associated with corrosion in crevices formed between the deposit and the tube wall. Regular transverse striations were observed on core samples and these were suggestive of deposit cracking due to thermal stress. 6.4.4 Examination for pitting of tube used in fouling  runs 32-70. Because the presence of nickel and chromium in fouling deposits suggests corrosion, a portion of the test section used in Runs 32-70 was examined for evidence of pitting. The procedure used was as follows: A section of the fouled tube was honed with a bronze brush to remove the deposit, and then split longitudinally to expose the inner surface. Likewise, a section of unused tube was honed and split to serve as a standard. After cleaning them with alcohol in a sonic bath, both specimens were examined in a scanning electron microscope and stereo photomicrographs obtained. These are shown in Figure 41 and 42 respectively. Results clearly show slight but unmistakable pitting in the sample used for the fouling runs. The material in the pits is fouling deposit (including corrosion products) immobilized by polyester resin. Probe examination 162 200X Figure 41. Scanning Electron Photomicrographs Showing the Appearance of the Tube Wall of a Tube Used in 38 Fouling Runs. (The above photomicrographs are a stereo pair.) 163 Figure 42, Scanning Electron Photomicrographs Showing the Appearance of a Clean Tube Never Used in Fouling Experiments. (The above photomicrographs are a stereo pair.) 164 showed it to be rich in chromium and nickel. The unused standard specimen shows an irregular surface, but no evidence o f p i t s . 6.4.5 Deposit crystal structure. In order to determine if the black material observed in core samples could be magnetite or some other spinel, scrapings were analyzed using X-ray diffraction techniques. Results failed to indicate the presence of a material having a spinel structure. In addition, a sample of deposit honed from a tube was tested for magnetic pro perties using a 30 kilogauss magnet. No response was obtained indicating the absence of magnetite. It is there fore believed that black material observed in the samples, rather than being magnetite, results from the incorporation of chromium into the deposit probably as an oxide or hydroxi de. Chapter 7 CORROSION CONTROLLED FOULING - A PROPOSED HYPOTHESIS 7.1 Outline of Working Hypothesis The presence of nickel and chromium in the fouling deposits, the presence of pits in the tube wall, and the fact that use of an oxygen scavenger reduces the fouling rate, all point to ferric oxide fouling of 304 stainless steel as being intimately associated with stainless steel corrosion. In order to explain the fouling results obtained in this investigation, a hypothesis based upon crevice corrosion theory has been developed. This hypothesis is presented in a general form below, expanded upon in Sections 7.2 and 7.3, and used as the basis for two mathematical models in Section 7.4. The hypothesis explaining fouling of 304 stain less steel with ferric oxide is as follows: (I) The initial process involves the physical adhesion of ferric oxide particles to the stainless steel. The transport of ferric oxide particles to the tube wall 165 166 is believed to be controlled by such variables as particle concentration, flow rate and heat flux. The release of particles from the tube wall is believed to be a function of the shear stress and the energy of adhesion between the depositing particle and the substrate. Watkinson and Epstein (13), and Kern and Seaton (6), use this approach to develop their fouling models. (2) Because spotty deposits have been found on the tube wall, particularly at low ferric oxide concen trations, it is believed that the fouling process is not one of uniform growth in deposit thickness. Rather, as is the case for crystallization, localized deposits are first formed and these serve as nucleation sites for further fouling. These sites then grow in area and thickness, eventually forming a deposit which completely covers the heat transfer surface. Consequently, during much of the fouling process there can be a relatively thick fouling deposit in one area which is in close proximity to another area having no fouling deposit. This results in differen tial oxygen concentration cells on the tube wall with fouled tube surfaces being less accessible to dissolved oxygen than unfouled surfaces. This sets up crevice corrosion in which the fouled areas undergo an anodic reaction resulting in tube wall corrosion, and the unfouled 167 areas undergo the cathodic reaction of oxygen reduction. The corrosion products generated under the fouling deposit diffuse through the deposit and become incorporated into it chemically, thereby serving to immobilize it. (3) Provided the cathodic reaction of oxygen reduction can be maintained, the fouling deposit will continue to grow. If, however, the unfouled area becomes reduced in size, the cathodic reaction rate falls. This causes a drop in corrosion rate which in turn reduces the rate at which the deposit becomes immobilized. The foul ing rate then declines as the deposition and release of particles to and from the fouling deposit come into ba I ance. 7 .2 Fundamentals of Crevice Corrosion According to Fontana and Greene (37), stainless steels are particularly prone to crevice corrosion in aqueous media provided the following conditions prevail: (1) There is, on the surface of the metal, a deposit which can create a stagnant area. (2) There exists in the fluid an aggressive ion such as the chloride ion. Trace amounts are sufficient. 168 (3) A relatively large cathodic area is avail able to consume electrons generated at the anode. All of these conditions are met in the ferric oxide-stain less steel system studied here. The spotty fouling deposits postulated and frequently observed create stagnant areas, with the unfouled areas available as a cathode. Since tap water was used for the experiments, there is a source ofchlorideion. Under the above conditions, stainless steel corrodes according to the following two electrode reactions: anode M -»- Mn+ + ne ••- (M = Fe, Ni , Cr) cathode 02 + 2H20 + 4e * 40H" overall M + 02 + 2H20 - Mn+ + nOH" Ordinarily, these reactions go on all over the stainless steel surface, and exposed metal is quickly attacked to form a metal ion. This metal ion then forms an insoluble oxide on the stainless steel surface which protects the metal from the corroding environment: Mn + nOH" •> M(0H)n 169 In the stagnant area under a deposit, however, the oxygen soon becomes depleted (see Figure 43). Conse quently, the metal ions produced do not form oxides, but remain in the stagnant area as positive ions, which are neutralized by the migration of the mobile chloride ions into the crevice. The chloride ion then attacks the protective oxide film exposing fresh metal surface.^ There is then within the crevice an anodic area, connected through the metal with a large cathodic area over the tube surface which has no deposit. Crevice corrosion therefore proceeds with a build-up of metal chloride within the crevice. This metal salt then hydrolzes in water according to the reaction: M+ Cl" + H20 -»- MOH + + H+ Cl" The net result is that the metal ion is removed from solution within the crevice and the hydrogen and chloride ions remain and promote further attack. ^The reason for accelerated corrosion of stainless steel in the presence of chloride ion has long been a subject of concern to corrosion scientists. A current theory, according to Vijh (38), is that the chloride ion penetrates the lattice to form a chloro-complex of iron or chromium which is susceptible to dissociation in solution. The chloride ion is thus regenerated and trace amounts are therefore capable of "portering" substantial amounts of metallic ions from the metal surface. 170 Crevice Corrosion - Later Stage Figure 43. Mechanism of Crevice Corrosion Fontana and Greene (37). According to 171 7.3 Proposed Mechanism for Ferric Oxide Fouling of 304  Stainless Steel In order to explain how the working hypothesis outlined in Section 7.1 leads to the type of fouling versus time behaviour obtained in this investigation, Figure 44 has been constructed showing a typical fouling curve. Superimposed on this figure are sketches of the fouling deposit as predicted by the hypothesis for various stages of the fouling process. The figure, which is not to scale, is divided into three regions as follows: (1) An induction region (2) A fouling reg i on (3) An asymptotic region. During the induction period, it is considered that ferric oxide physically adheres to the tube wall, forming crevice corrosion sites. During this period, there is too much unfouled wall present for the fouling deposit to cause detectable changes in fouling resistance. Since no appreciable induction period was actually observed during this investigation for runs exhibiting thermal fouling, it is concluded that this period was of short duration in the present experiments. The reason for postu lating its existence is that crevice corrosion cannot occur until a crevice site has been formed. INDUCTION REGION Fe2?3 UNFOULED WALL [TUBE WALL THERMAL FOULING REGION BARE WALL Cr AND Ni, RICH 3LACK DEPOST OF Fe, Cr AND Ni OXIDES OR HYDROXIDES ASYMPTOTIC REGION Fe203 TUBE WALL BLACK DEPOSIT. (NO UNFOULED TUBE WALL PRESENT) Figure 44. Idealized Fouling Curve Various Times According TIME *~ Illustrating the Nature of the Fouling to the Crevice Corrosion Hypothesis. Deposit at 173 In the fouling region, crevice corrosion occurs as outlined in Section 7.2, with the corrosion product becoming incorporated into the deposit. During this period, fouling can be detected thermally and proceeds at a de clining rate as the deposit grows, thereby reducing the unfouled wall area and progressively blocking the reduction of oxygen to hydroxl ions. In the asymptotic region, the tube wall has fouled to such an extent that oxygen reduction is eliminated No further corrosion occurs and the deposition and release of physically held ferric oxide come into balance. There is a great deal of evidence to support the proposed fouling mechanism: (1) Ferric oxide readily adheres to stainless steel, as can be observed by preparing a slurry of ferric oxide in a stainless steel beaker. Also, since the surface of stainless steels consists of iron, nickel and chromium oxides which have large dipole moments, the large dipole moment of ferric oxide would predictably result in a strong physical bond. Hence a brief induction period involving physical adhesion of ferric oxide to the surface is not an unreasonable assumption. (2) The coexistence of relatively thick deposits and clean wall areas side by side is also a reasonable 174 assumption. Tubes in which no thermal fouling was detected showed spotty deposits with thicknesses up to 70 microns. Also, in time lapse films of calcareous fouling of water-cooled heat exchangers, Taborek (15) shows conclusively that unfouled areas do coexist with relatively thick de posits. This point is essential to the hypothesis proposed here, since uniform deposition would imply that the deposit could not grow beyond a single layer, thus leaving no clean wall area to promote oxygen reduction. (3) The existence of an asymptotic region in which crevice corrosion is essentially blocked is also reasonable, since it has been shown experimentally that the fouling rate can be reduced with an oxygen scavenger and increased by honing a portion of the tube, thereby increasing the clean wall area. It should be pointed out here that the deposit itself cannot serve as a site for the cathode reaction since the ferric oxide, when tested, was found to be extremely non-conducting electrically. (4) The existence of linear fouling lends support to the hypothesis since a prerequiste for linear fouling is that an initially fouled tube be subjected to zero heat flux and then heated in order to obtain the linear fouling condition. Such a procedure is believed to produce cracks 175 in the deposit due to thermal stress, thereby making the tube wall accessible to dissolved oxygen from the fluid. Since under linear fouling the wall temperature increase is large (for Run 64, I IF° in one hour), it is reasonable to assume that cracking of the deposit will continue, and that dissolved oxygen will continue to be transported to the tube wall and the corrosion reaction thereby ma i nta i ned. 7.4 Mathematical Models 7.4.1 Model I. Let NR = the number of ferric oxide particles in the deposit held by physical forces per unit area of tube surface. and Let Ng = the number of ferric oxide particles in the deposit held by chemical forces due to the precipitation of corrosion product on and around the particles per unit area of tube surface. If it is assumed that only particles of the NR type are originally deposited and subject to release, and that particles of the Ng type are all formed from NR type par ticles already in the deposit and that when formed, Ng type particles are not subject to release, the following differential equation can be written: 176 dNR dNB where (|>D = rate of deposition of type NR particles per unit area <j>R = rate of release of type NR particles per unit area dNB —j-r- = rate of conversion of type NR particles to type Ng particles per unit area If NT represents the total number of particles making up the deposit per unit area, then NT = NR + NB (7.2) Equation (7.1) then becomes dNj that is, the rate of accumulation of all particles in the deposit is the difference between the deposition and release rates of type NR particles only. Equation (7.3) has been used by many investigators, notably Kern and Seaton (6), 177 Watkinson and Epstein (13), Taborek et al. (1) and Char!esworth (11), as the starting point for their models. In the Kern-Seaton model, for example, NT is interpreted as being proportional to the mean deposit thickness, x, rj>D = KiCW and <j)R = K2TX, where Kx and K2 are constants C = particulate concentration W = mass flow rate x = shear stress Then ^ = KXCW - K2xx (7.4) or x = J^jj _ e-.K*Tt] (1.6) In the Kern-Seaton approach, the assumption is made that the fouling thickness is uniform and that the deposition rate is not a function of fouling deposit thick ness but that the release rate is. In the mathematical models developed here, the assumption that the deposition rate, <f>n, is independent 178 of the number of particles in the deposit, is retained. The release term however is not assumed to be proportional to the total number of particles in the deposit, NT, but to the number of particles in the deposit held by physical (as opposed to chemical) forces, NR. The form of the release term is retained, and it is assumed that (f>R = K2TNr. The differential equation describing corrosion controlled fouling then becomes dNT sr = *D - K*TNR <7'5> Equation (7.5) can readily be solved provided a functional relationship between Ny and NR can be found. To find this relationship, equation (7.5) is differentiated to yield d2NT dNR "TET = " K2T"dF (7-6) Since Ny = NR + Ng (7.2) dNR dNT dN g "dF = -fJT _ ITT (7*7) 1 79 Substituting this result into equation (7.6) gives d2NT K2T ~dF dN B dt (7.8) According to the hypothesis concerning corrosion controlled fouling presented in Section 7.1, the rate of formation of immobilized particles Ng is controlled by the amount of unfouled wall area available to serve as a cathode for oxygen reduction. The assumption is therefore made that 0^ = OS dt So So (7.9) where h = rate constant Um = number of unfouled sites per unit area S0 = total number of sites per unit area. Substitution of equation (7.9) into equation (7.8) gives 180 d2N dNT hU ID dt2 = -K2T dt So (7.10) The problem is thereby reduced to finding a relationship between the fraction of unfouled area of the tube, Um/S0, and the total number of particles forming the deposit, NT. probability method similar to that employed by Langmuir (39) in his adsorption studies is adopted. In this method, a unit area of the metal surface is divided into an arbitrary number of adhesion sites, S0. It is then assumed that the probability that any specified site will be occupied by a depositing particle is proportional to the interaction energy (the energy of adhesion) between the particle and the surface of the site. If Um/S0 is the fraction of unfouled sites on the tube, the probability of a depositing particle occupying an unfouled site is To find an expression relating Um/S0 to N a P pm = A E pm S (7.11) where 181 pm probability of a depositing particle occupying any site A = proportionality constant E = energy of adhesion between a particle pm and the tube wal1. Similarly, the probability of a depositing particle occupying a site on the fouling deposit is Ppd = A Epd U ' So (7.12) Since a particle which deposits must occupy either a site on the deposit or a site on the unfouled tube wall P . + P = 1 pd pm (7.13) Hence A E pd U 1 DL ' So HE J=l pm So (7.14) Eliminating A between equations (7.14) and (7.11) gives 182 , _ m pm  pm Um Enm + [So - Um] E , r m pm L mJ pd (7.15) If at any time there are N-j. particles in the deposit, and U"m unfouled sites, then an alternate way of expressing the probability that a depositing particle will settle on the unfouled metal is given by the differential equation dU. m = P„m (7.16) dNT pm Equating this expression for Ppm with that given by equation (7.15) yields dU U E m = m pm (1 ,7% dNT Ll Enm + (S0 - UJ E. T m pm m pd Integrating equation (7.17) using the initial condition that at NT = 0, Um = 0, yields 1 • E m So - 1 • Um " • So ^ In "um" So pm • pmj pm (7.18) 183 If it is assumed that and Ep^ are very nearly equal, then 1 . 1 E So -1 -I PmJ Pm. m (7.19) Equation (7.18) then becomes N_ E - _I . _££ s E A Um = S0e pd m (7.20) gives Substitution of this result into equation (7.10) d2NT dNT + K2T- 1 dt2 dt - K2 T h e So pd = = 0 (7.21) This differential equation is non-linear and cannot be solved in terms of familiar functions. An approximate solution can be obtained by expressing the exponential term as a series and truncating after two terms in the series, that is, 184 N_ E - JL . _EH1 K2x he pd = K2 t h 1 -NT E , S° Epd 21 E ~ 2 T pm _ • • • So Epd] K2xh NT E ~ 1 _ _I . _p_m S0 E pdj (7.22) Substituting this approximation into equation (7.21) gives d2NT dNT Enm NT K2T_^+ K2Th_M . _I= K2Th (7.23) The solution to this differential equation is of the form (x + /x*-4y)t . (x - /xz-4y)t , r ' _ + < + L 3 NT = Cxe z + C2e 2 (7.24) where x = K2x , y = K2xh • • -1 Epd S° 185 For the initial conditions Ny = 0 at t = 0 and dN T dt t = 0 the constants in equation can be readily evaluated. A major disadvantage of the analytical solution to equation (7.23) offered by equation (7.24), however, is that the approximation upon which equation (7.23) is based, namely N_ E So E , NT En Pd ~ i _L . Pm S° Epd NT E is only valid if * TT2^ « 1 S° Epd As fouling proceeds and Ny increases, the above inequality becomes progressively more invalid. Consequently, in general, equation (7.24) cannot be relied upon to hold, and therefore it offers no advantage over a numerical solution of equation (7.21). 186 7.4.2 Model II. If it is assumed that crevices must first be formed before thermal fouling can be detected, or alternately that ferric oxide deposition and release rates are very much higher than the rate at which ferric oxide particles become immobilized to form a permanent structure, then an induction period followed by a time dependent fouling period can be assumed. If, during the induction period, no immobilization of ferric oxide is considered to occur, equation (7.1) can be written as Integrating, using the initial condition that NR = 0 at 9=0, gives Te = *D ~ K* T N R (7.25) where 6 = time of induction (7.26) If K2x0 is assumed to be large, the number of mobile ferric oxide particles in the deposit will be a constant given by 187 NR = K£ <7-27> Assuming, as in Model I, that the uncovered metal fraction can be expressed as N_ E _ _L . _p_m = E S° EPD (7.20) and that the rate of particle immobilization is given by d N D h U , _§l = 7.9 dt So where t = time of thermal fouling (following induction period) then combining equations (7.20) and (7.9) results in N_ E I . pm dNR S° E„H -HT = h e (7'28) Since NT = NB + NR (7.2) 188 combining equations (7.28), (7.2) and (7.27) yields D . J_ . pm B # pm dNR " K2T S0 E " S0 ' E , P- = h e Pd • e Pd (7.29) dt Integrating equation (7.29), using as the initial condition that Ng = 0 at t = 0, leads to the result NR = So-^- In B Epm <- EPd - Soir^- * c Pd ^ 0 £ pm h e K2x pm x t + 1 (7.30) Since NT = NR + Ng, and N R K2T if follows that So^- ln\ pm pm - So h e E K2T pm x t + 1 (7.31) 189 It should be noted that when t = 0, K2T = N R (7. which is consistent with the initial condition, Ng = 0 at t = 0. 7.4.3 Linear fouling. As stated in Section 6.2.6, linear fouling is believed to be a result of expanding the tube to create uncovered metal sites which are protected from mobile ferric oxide by the deposit, but can still serve as sites for the cathode reaction Under such a hypothesis, U^So, the fraction of uncovered sites is constant with time. Thus 02 + 2H20 + 4 e -> 4(0H") dN B h U m (7 dt So integrated directly to obtain 190 h IJ NB = * + CL (7 1 o When t = 0, Ng = 0, and hence Cx = 0. The total number of particles on the surface, Ny, then becomes Here, consistent with results, thermal fouling shows a linear dependence with respect to time. Again, by use of an oxygen scavenger, h should be reduced by a constant amount due to an abrupt change in the cathode reaction, giving a lower constant rate of fouling. This prediction is also consistent with the experimental data. 7.4.4 Compati1ibity of fouling model equations with  experimental data. Since the Kern-Seaton type of equation, * - h t Rf = Rf (1 - e" ), was routinely fitted to the fouling data for each run, it was decided to test this equation first against the experimental data to see whether the Kern-Seaton model would correctly predict the dependence of Rf* and b on mass flow rate. In the Kern-Seaton model, 191 = K!CW/K2T and b = K2x, where Ki and K2 are constants, C is the concentration, W is the mass flow rate and T is the shear stress. Assuming the Blasius expression for friction factor to hold, then T = PU 2f b 2 0.79 ., 2 —2~-pUb (DUbP -0. 25 y (7.35) or Hence, the Kern-Seaton model predicts the asymptotic foul-ing resistance, R, , to vary as W 'IJ and the initial fouling rate (bR,*) to vary directly with W. In an attempt to determine whether the data bear out this predicted dependence, log-log plots of initial fouling rate and asymptotic fouling resistance were made against mass flow rate for four Runs (Runs 54, 55, 39, 61) using a mixed-size ferric oxide at a concentration of 2130 ppm (see Figure 45 and 46). The reason for limiting the analysis to these runs is that they showed a three-fold range in mass flow rate, with the clean wall temperature at time zero being relatively constant (148 ± 4°F). Since, 192 LU I-O CD „ <<M» 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30 MASS FLOW RATE (lbs m/sec) Figure 45. Dependence of Initial Fouling Rate on Mass Flow Rate For Runs 54,55,39 and 61. Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm. Wall Temperature at Time zero, 148°F ± 4. 193 10 8 UJ o 6 00 00 or o 4 CD * • => O CQ u- \ pcvj1 r— -•-CL ^ >-CO < 2 h SLOPE =-0.9 J I I I I 1 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30 MASS FLOW RATE (lbsm/sec) Figure 46. Dependence of Asymptotic Fouling Resistance on Mass Flow Rate for Runs 54,55,39 and 61. Mixed-Size Ferric Oxide Cone. 2130 ppm. Wall Temperature at Time Zero, 148°F ± 4. 194 as has already been shown, fouling behaviour appears to be temperature dependent, a proper test of the influence of mass flow rate on initial fouling rate and asymptotic fouling resistance requires that the wall temperature be constant. From Figure 45, it can be seen that the initial fouling rate increases with mass flow rate to the 0.3 power. The Kern-Seaton model predicts 1.0. It thus appears that the Kern-Seaton model does not correctly predict the dependence of initial fouling rate on mass velocity. The results of the log-log plot of asymptotic fouling resistance versus mass flow rate are more supportive of the Kern-Seaton model. The data show a dependence index on W of -0.9 while the Kern-Seaton model predicts -0.75 (or -1 for fully rough flow). However, because of the limited amount of data upon which this analysis is based, firm conclusions are not warranted. Tests of models I and II as predictive methods for fouling behaviour have not been made because such tests, in order to be meaningful, would require a large amount of data, four constants being involved (Ki, K2, h and Epm/Epfj)' Since, as already indicated, there are insufficient controlled data to test even the simpler Kern-Seaton model, it is felt that no quantitative test of models I and II can be meaning fully made with the present data. Nevertheless these models could serve as starting points towards the development of predictive equations for corrosion controlled fouling. Chapter 8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS An investigation was made of the fouling behaviour of aqueous suspensions of ferric oxide in 0.343 inch i.d. 304 type stainless steel tubes. Variables studied, using submicron to micron size particles, were ferric oxide con centration (15 - 3750 ppm), Reynolds number (10,090 -37,590) and heat flux (0 - 92,460 BTU/ft2-hr). Following selected runs, fouled tubes were sectioned and the chemical composition of the fouling deposit determined "in situ" in an electron microprobe. Microprobe results showed the deposit to contain, in addition to iron and oxygen, significant amounts of nickel and chromium. Chemical composition-deposit distance profiles showed nickel and chromium concentration gradients, with levels highest at the tube wall, falling to zero at the deposit-fluid interface. A test section used for a series of fouling trials was found, when examined with an electron microscope, to have small, but distinct, pits. 195 196 During the fouling process, measurements were made of thermal resistance as a function of time. The resulting fouling curves fell into three distinct categories, depending upon the particle concentration and the mode of operati on: (1) At ferric oxide concentrations below 100 ppm, no thermal fouling could be detected over experimental periods of up to 14 days. Microprobe examination of such tubes showed spotty deposits. (2) At ferric oxide concentrations of 750 ppm and higher, using mixed size particles, asymptotic type fouling behaviour occurred, similar to that reported by Kern and Seaton, and by Watkinson, for different fouling systems. This type of fouling occurs at a steadily de creasing rate. In the ferric oxide system studied here, the asymptotic condition occurred after approximately four hours of operation. Prolonged operation resulted in a sudden decrease in fouling resistance at localized positions on the test section, followed by refouling of the whole test section. The sudden decrease in thermal fouling resistance was taken to be indicative of release of material f rom the tube wall. (3) If the suspension was circulated through the test section at zero heat flux for approximately eight 197 hours and then heating started, the tube commenced fouling at a constant rate considerably greater than the previous decreasing rates. To explain the results, a hypothesis was developed which states that the fouling behaviour of water suspended ferric oxide on stainless steel is controlled by the rate at which crevice corrosion of the stainless steel occurs. The corrosion products produced serve to bind ferric oxide from the fluid to the wall or to the previous fouling deposit. In turn, the corrosion rate is controlled by the cathode reaction 02 + 2H20 + 4 e -y 4(0H") which occurs on unfouled areas of the tube wall. Experiments designed to test this hypothesis, such as increasing the unfouled cathode area in an attempt to accelerate the corrosion rate, and removing oxygen with a scavenger in order to decrease the rate, gave results consistent with the hypothesis. Two mathematical models of the fouling process have been developed in line with the corrosion hypothesis. A rigorous test of these models would require more con trolled experiments. 198 The results of this study indicate that crevice corrosion plays an important role in the fouling of 304 stainless steel with ferric oxide. Further work with ferric oxide fouling should include a more detailed study of the linear fouling situation to determine how best to inhibit the fouling process. The results from such a study might well have practical benefits for fouling situa tions involving corrosion products of iron. The techniques developed for examining fouling deposits 'in situ1 should also be extended, since the possibility exists that many fouling situations could be eliminated or controlled by a judicious selection of materials of construction combined with selective removal of a troublesome foulant. A wider variation, and more deliberate control, of wall temperature should be undertaken, as well as a more satisfactory study of particle size effects. In addition, the corrosion hypothesis should be further tested, for example by varying the pH of the circulating suspension. REFERENCES Taborek, J., T. Knudsen, T. Aoki, and J. Pakn. Foul ing - The Major Unsolved Problem in Heat Transfer. Chem. Eng. Progress, 68, Feb., July (1 972). McCabe, W.L. and G.S. Robinson. Ind. Eng. Chem, 16, p. 478 (1924). Hasson, D. et al. Mechanism of Calcium Carbonate Scale Deposition on Heat Transfer Surfaces. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamentals, 17, No. 1, pp. 59-65, Feb. (1968). Hasson, D. and J. Zahavi. Mechanism of Calcium Sulphate Scale Deposition on Heat Transfer Surfaces. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamentals, 9^, No. 1 (1 970). Kern, D.Q. Heat Exchanger Design for Fouling Service. Chem. Eng. Progress, ^2, No. 7, pp. 51-56, July (1966). Kern, D.Q. and R.E. Seaton. A Theoretical Analysis of Thermal Surface Fouling. British Chemical Engineering, 4, pp. 258-262, May (1959). Watkinson, A.P. Particulate Fouling of Sensible Heat Exchangers. Ph.D. Thesis - Univ. of British Columbia (1968). Parkins, W.E. Surface Film Formation in Reactor Systems. Proceedings of the Tripartite Conference on Transport of Materials in Pressurized-Water Nuclear Systems. AECL - 1265, pp. 115-189, June 1961 . 199 200 9. Nijsing, R. Diffusional and Kinetic Phenomena Associated with Fouling. Euratom Report No. EUR 543e (1964). 10. Hatcher, S.R., B.A. Findlay and J.L. Smee. Heat Transfer, Impurities and Fouling in Organic Coolants. AECL - 2642, May 1966. 11. Charlesworth, D.H. The Deposition of Corrosion Products in Boiling Water Systems. Paper pre sented at the 65th National AICHE Meeting on Chemical Engineering Aspects of Reactor Coolant Systems, Cleveland, Ohio, 5 May 1969. 12. Charlesworth, D.H. Fouling in Organic-Cooled Systems, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Report AECL -1761 , April 1 963. 13. Watkinson, A.P. and N. Epstein. Particulate Fouling of Sensible Heat Exchangers. Paper presented at 4th International Heat Transfer Conference, Paris-Versailles, Sept. 1970. 14. Metzner, A.B. and W.L. Friend. Theoretical Analogies Between Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer and Modifications for Fluids of High Prandtl or Schmidt Numbers. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, pp. 235-240, December 1 958. 15. Taborek, J. and R.B. Ritter. Review of Fouling Studies by HTRI. Paper presented at the AICHE 65th Annual Meeting, Nov. (1972). 16. Beal , S.K. Transport of Particles in Turbulent Flow to Channel or Pipe Walls. Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburg, Pa. Westinghouse Electric Corporation Report WAPD-TM-765 (1968). 17. Beal, S.K. Prediction of Heat Exchanger Fouling Rates - A Fundamental Approach. Paper presented at the AICHE 65th Annual Meeting, Nov. (1972). 201 18. Gasparini, R., C. Della Rocca and E. loannilli. A New Approach to the Study and Prevention of Deposits in Modern Power Stations. Combustion, 41, No. 5, pp. 12-18, Nov. (1969). 19. Kabele, T.J. and J.W. Bartlett. Deposition of Iron Corrosion Products from an Aqueous Stream. Paper presented at the 65th National Meeting AICHE, Cleveland, Ohio, 4-7 May, 1969. 20. Mankina, N.N. Investigation of Conditions of Forma tion of Iron Oxide Deposits. Teploenergetika , 9, No. 1 1 (1962) . 21. Margulova, 0. and 0.1. Martynova. Behaviour of Iron Oxides in the Power Plant Steam-Water Cycle and Methods of Removing them from the Cycle. Thermal Engineering, Vo. 14, No. 10, pp. 38-43, 1967. 22. Margulova, T. Kh. and A.A. Belyaev. The Causes of Iron Oxide Deposits in T.P. 80 Boilers and Measures for Preventing them. Thermal Engineering, Vol . 11, No. 9, pp. 55-62, 1 964. 23. Mayo Abad, 0. Thermal Fouling Studies: Computations on Roughness Effects, Modifications of a Test Loop and Tests on a Process Liquor. MASc Thesis -University of British Columbia, Nov. (1971). 24. Charlesworth, D.H. Personal Communication, 10 April, 1 970. 25. Brown, L.C. and H. Thresh. Tools and Techniques in Physical Metallurgy, edited by F. Weinberg. Marcel Dekker Inc. (1970). 26. Birks, L.S. Electron Probe Microanalysis. Inter Science Publishers, second edition (1971). 27. van Olphen, H. and W. Parrish. X-ray and Electron Methods of Analysis. Progress in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. I, Plenum Press (1968). 202 28. Castaing, R., P. Deschamps and J. Philibert. X-ray Optics and Microanalysis. Hermann (Paris), 1 966. 29. Beal, S.K. Agglomeration of Particles in Turbulent Flow. Westinghouse Atomic Power Division Report, WAPD-TM-904, September 1969. 30. Lin, C.S., Rl'W. Moulton and G.L. Putnam. Industrial Eng. Chem, Vol. 45, p. 636 (1953). 31. Jeans, J. An Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases, Cambridge University Press (1940). 32. Laufer, J. The Structure of Turbulence in Fully Developed Pipe Flow. NACA Report 1174 (1954). 33. McNab, G.S. Thermophoresis in Liquids. MACs Thesis -University of British Columbia (1972). 34. Adamson, A.W. Physical Chemistry of Surfaces. Inter-science Publishers, 2nd edition (1967). 35. Perry, R.H. ed. Chemical Engineers Handbook. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 3rd Ed. (1 950) , p. 1020 and p. 67 5. 36. Mahato, B.K. Mass Transfer Analysis of Iron Corrosion Process. Ph.D. Thesis - University of New Brunswick, March (1967). 37. Fontana, M.G. and W.D. Greene. Corrosion Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1967). 38. Vijh, A.K. A Possible Interpretation of the Influence of Chloride Ions on the Anodic Behaviour of Some Metals. Corrosion Science, Vol. 11, pp. 161-167 (1971). 39. Langmuir, J. Journal American Chem. Soc, Vol. 40, p. 1361 (1918). 40. Keng, E.Y.H and C. Orr. J. Colloid Science, 17, 768 (1962). NOMENCLATURE Typical Units A, Ax, Ai', A2 constants heat transfer area ft2 parameter of equation (4.4) hr"2 ferric oxide concentration ppm constant constant coefficient inversely proportion f., _i to velocity tt/sec particle concentration close to wall PPm function of fouling concentration ppm particle concentration in bulk fluid PP"1 particle concentration at wall ppm tube diameter ft Brownian diffusion coefficient ft2/sec particle diameter203 204 energy of adhesion particle to metal energy of adhesion particle to deposit base of natural logarithms activation Energy fanning friction factor rate constant pipe diameter dimensionless pipe diameter heat transfer coefficient mass flux of particles thermal conductivity deposit thermal conductivity particle thermal conductivity fluid constants deposition coefficient Boltzman constant 1.38 x 10'1 mass transfer coefficient Typical Units lbs-ft"1 lbs-ff1 dimensionless BTU/lb-mole dimensionless hr"1 ft dimensionless BTU ft-2 hr"1 °F~ lbs ft"2 hr"1 BTU ft"2 hr"1 °F" ft2 sec"1 gm/cm2/molecule-°K-sec2 ft sec"1 205 Typical Units N particle mass flux lb ft"2 hr"1 N0 particle mass flux in wall region " N particle mass flux depositing „ on wall N. concentration of type i particles ppm Nj total number of deposited particles ft-2 per unit area N„ number of deposited particles „ per unit area held by physical forces Ng number of deposited particles per „ unit area held by chemical forces p sticking probability dimensionless P probability of particle deposi- „ p tion on unfouled tube Pnd probability of particle deposi- „ p tion on previous deposit q' heat flux BTU ft.-2 hr-1 q heat flow BTU hr"1 Q liquid evaporated lbs-hr"1 R total thermal resistance ft2 hr °F BTU"1 Ro total thermal resistance at „ time zero 206 fouling resistance asymptotic fouling resistance exponent universal gas constant bonding resistance of fouling deposi t sticking probability sticking probability of type i particle total number of potential foul ing sites per unit area stopping distance dimension!ess stopping distance time wall temperature fluid bulk temperature absolute temperature temperature temperature difference fluid temperature at time zero Typical Units ft2 hr °F BTU"1 II dimensi on!ess BTU(lb-mole-°R)-Ibs ft"2 dimensi onless II ft"2 ft hours °F °F °R °F °F °F 207 T outer wall temperature at time zero Tg heat transfer surface temperature U overall heat transfer coefficient U. velocity of a particle toward the surface in close proximity to the surface U number of unfouled sites on tube surface Uuj bulk velocity U+ dimensionless velocity = u/U^/f/2 u local fluid velocity thermophoretic velocity W mass flow rate x deposit thickness x distance co-ordinate y distance co-ordinate y+ y Ub/f72/v DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS Nu Nusselt number Pr Prandtl number Typical Units °F BTU-ff 2-°F"1-hr-1 ft"2 ft-sec~1 ft-sec-1 ft/sec Ibm-hr-1 ft ft ft dimensionless hd/k Cpy/k 208 Typical Units Re Reynolds number d U^p/y Sc Schmidt number v/D GREEK LETTERS e eddy diffusivity of momentum ft2 sec-1 A difference <J>D deposition rate ft2-°F BTU-1 <f)D release rate " p density lb ft-3 0 time of induction hrs v kinematic viscosity ft2 hr-1 u viscosity lb ft-1 hr"1 T shear stress b ft-1 hr-2 APPENDIX I ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS AND PRESSURE TAPS (DRAWING FROM WATKINSON (7)) 209 PRESSURE TAPS Stainless steel Dimensions - inches Two required TERMINAL BARS Brass Dimensions - inches Two required APPENDIX II COMPUTER PROGRAMS PROGRAM PAR 210 C PROGRAM 'PAR* TO CALCULATE THE PARAMETERS OF A RUN C AND THE HE A T BALANCE DATA BETA/.602/,D2/.3 75/,Cl/.8056/,C2/.97i82I,CP/1.002/ 1 READ(5, 10l,END=lll)R,V,A 101 FORMAT(F3.0,IX,F5.1,IX,F5.1 ) WRITE(6,103)R WRITE!6,104)V,A 103 FORMAT!IHl,T7,7(•*'),'RUN NO*,T3.0,7!'*')) 104 FORMAT( 1H0,T7,•VOLTS:•,F5.2,T25,'AMPS :'F5.0) READ(5,102)ZIN,Z0UT,DP0R DPOHG = -0.0761768 + 0.074429*DPOR + 0.000467069*DPGR*DPOR 102 F0RMAT(F4.2,IX,F4.2,1X,F5.2) TIN=26.8988+(51.3 55-1.76738*71N)*ZIN TOUT=24.7309+15 3.2881-2.103*ZUUT)*Z0UT TBULK=(TIN + TOUT)/2.0 TQR= T IN Q=3.413*V*A QF=Q/.1742 WRITE(6,105)0,QF 105 FORMAT(IHO,T7,'HEAT FLOW*, F 8.1,T?7,•BTU/HR'/ 1T7,'HEAT FLUX',F9.0,T2 7,•BTU/SOFT-HR') CALL PROP(RHO,VISK,THKtTOR) ALPHA=1.0-BETA**4 RE0RC=D2/12/VISK*RH0/6.7197/1£-4*5QRT!64.348*70.727* 162.43*DP0HG*RH0/ALPHA) RE0RC=C1*RE0RC**C2 W=D2*RE0RC*3.1416*VISK*6.7197/(12E4*RH0*4) WRITE(6,106)BETA,TOR,RHO,TOUT 106 FORMAT(IHO,T7,'BETA•,F5.3,T25,*TUK=TINLET•,F5.I,T43, I'DEG F',/T7,'DENSITY:•,F5.3,T21,'GRAM/CC'/ 2T25,«T OUTLET',F5.1,T43,'DEG F•) WRITE(6,107 )W 107 FORMAT!IHO,T7,'FLOW RATE',F7.4,T25,* LBS.M/SEC *) CALL PROP(RHO,VISK»TKK,TBULK) UBULK=W/(RH0*62.43*6.425E-4) RE=UBULK*0.343*3600./{12.*VISK*0.03875) PR=2.42*CP*VISK*RHO/THK WRITE(6,108)TBULK,VISK 108 FORMAT!IHO,T7,'AVG TEMP:•,F5.1,T25,•OEG F', 1/T7, 'KINEMATIC ,/T 7, • VI SCOSI TY: ' , F5 . 3 , T25 , • SG .C M/SEC ' ) WRITE(6,109)UBULK,RE,PR 109 FORMAT! IHO,T7,'FLUID VELOCITY',F6.3,T30,'FT/SEC, 1/T7,'REYNOLDS NO•,F9.1,/T7,•PRANDTL NO',F7.2) HTTR=W*3600.*(T0UT-TIN)*CP HLOSS=Q-HTTR PERL=HL0SS/Q*100. WRITE(6,110)Q,HTTR,HLOSS,PERL 110 FORMAT(IHO,T7,'HEAT SUPP F10.1,T30,•BTU/HR',/ IT7,'HEAT TRANS',F10.1,T30,'BTU/HR*,/ 2T7,'HEAT LOST •,F10.1,T30,•BTU/HR•,/ 3T7,•PERCENT HEAT L0ST',F8.2) C PREDICTED CLEAN WALL RESISTANCES FROM THE C SIEDER-TATE EQUATION XNU=0.023*!RE**0.8)*!PR**0.33) CALL PROP(RHO,VISK,THK,TBULK) 211 XH=XNU*THK*12.0/0.343 TWALL=QFLUX/XH+TBULK A=VISK C=THK CALL PR0P(RH0,VlSK,THK,TWALL) B=VISK XNU=XNU*l{A/B)**0. 14) RF I LM=1000.0/(XNU*C*l2.0/0.34 3) RWALL=(0.016/12.0/(8.45+0.00455*TWALL))*1000. RTDTAL=RFILM+RWALL XHTOT=1000.0/RTOTAL WRlTE(6,120JXNU 120 F0RMAT(//T7,'NUSSELT N0',F9.l) WRIf E(61121)KFILM|RWALL»RTOTAL 121 FORMAT(T7,•RFILM',F9.3,/T7,•RW4LL•,F9.3,/T7,»RTOTAL•» 1F9. 3,T27, • SQ-FT-DEG F/BTU' ) GO TO 1 111 STOP END SUBROUTINE PROP(RHO,V ISK,FHK,T) RH0=0.98d-(((T-32.)/1.8)-50.)*0.0006 T=(T-32.)/1.8 V ISC=10.**({1.3272*(20.-T)-0.001053*(T-20.)**2) 1/(T+105)) VISK=VISC/RHO T=T*1.8+32.0 THK=0. 296938+0.834355c-3*T-0.180265E-5*T*T RETURN END PROGRAM STOMV 212 C THE FOLLOWING PROGRAM CONVERTS SOLARTRON READINGS TO C MILLIVOLTS,CHECKS FOR KEYPUNCHING ERRORS AND PLACES C INTO A STANDARD FORMAT FOR PROCESSING C CODED BY RMH 19 JAN 1971 LL = 0 IUL=110OOO 3 RUNLAS=0.0 TZERG=0.0 2 K=0 DIMENSION I READ(20),ZSTOREI20),Z(20),X(20) NL INE = 0 1 READ(5,101,END=111)TIME»( I READ<I ),I = 1,14) IF LAG = 0 Y=TI ME MY = Y YY = MY TIME=YY+(Y-YY)*100.0/60.0 IF(K.EQ.0)TZER0=TIME IF(TIME.GT.99.98)G0 TO 3 IF(TI ME.LT.TZERO.AND.K.NE.OJTI ME = TIME + 24.00 RUNTIM=TI ME-TZERO IF(RUNTIM.LT.RUNLAS.AND.K.NE.0)RUNTIM=RUNTlM+24.00 J=0 RLTIME=TIME IF(RLTIME.GT.24.00)RLTIME=RLTIME-24.00 RUNLAS=RUNTIM K = K + 1 NLINE=NLINE + 1 00 6231=1,14 IF( IREADI I ) .GE.LL.AND. IREAD( I ) .LT-IUDGO TC 632 J = J+1 IFLAG=I GO TO 623 632 ZSTORE(I ) = IREAD(I) 623 CONTINUE DO 6251=1,20 625 Z( I) = ZSTORE 11 )/2000. C THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS PLACE DATA IN STD. FORMAT C CHECK NEXT 20 LINES BEFORE EACH NEW DATA SET X( 1) = Y X(2)=RUNTIM X(3)=Z(1) X( 4)=Z(2) X(5)=0.0 X(6)=Z(3) X( 7) = Z(4) X(8)=Z(5) X(9)=Z(6) X(10)=Z(7) X(11)=Z(8) X(12)=Z(10) X( 13)=Z(11) X(14)=Z(12) X(15)=Z(13) XI 16)=0.0 X(17)=0.0 X(18J=0.0 X!19)=Z!9) X(20)=Z(14) IF(NLINE.E0.57)NLINE=1 213 IF(NLINE.N6-1)GD TO 150 WRITE(6, 103) WRITE!6,104) 150 WRITE(6,102)X,J,IFLAG WR ITE(7,102 ) X,J, IFLAG 101 FGRMAT!F5.3,14I5) 102 FORMAT!2X,F5.2,F6.2,3X,18F5.2,13,2X,I 3) 103 FORMAT! • 1ST 3, 'REALS Til, 'RUM', T19, 'MV » T 2 4» *MV , T28, l'MILLIVOLT READINGS OF THERMOCOUPLES ON WALL OF TEST SECTION 2',T88,'COOL',T93,'INSL' ,T98,»ANH*,T103,•DELT»,T109,•FLAGS•) 104 FORMAT(T3,•TIME',T11, «TI ME•,T1h,•IN•,T23,'OUT•,T28, 2'T21t>' ,T3 3, «T235» ,T38, »T255' ,T43, • T275' ,T48, «T295 • , 3T53,,T315,«T58,'T335',T63,'T355*,T60,•T375•,T73,»T395• , 4178,^415*^8 3, •T4281 t T89, • MV , T94, » M V , T99, • M V , T104,,MV , 5T108,'NO',T11 3,'LINE*,/) GO TO 1 111 STOP ENO PROGRAM FOUL 214 C HEAT TRANSFER. FOULING C COOED BY 0. MAYO 23-10-1970 C UPDATED BY R.M. HOPKINS SEPT 1971 DIMENS I ON Z( 16),I READ(l6),M!l6),r!l2),TC!l2),X!12),Y(12),T8(12),* 10T(700),TIM(700),TCON(12),COR(12),W(700>,FCUL!700) DIMENSION TZERO(12)» D T(12),RF( 12) C PROGRAM 'PAR* TO CALCULATE THE PARAMETERS OF A RUN C AND THE HEAT BALANCE DATA BETA/.301/,D2/.1875/,Cl/.8056/,C2/.97182/,CP/1.002/ 1 READ(5,101,END=10C)R,V,A READ(5,417)CONC 417 FORMAT(F6.0) 101 F0RMATIF3.0,IX,F5.1,IX,F5.1) WHITE!6,103)R WRITE(6,418 JCONC 418 FORMAT!1H0,T7,"FERRIC OXIDE CONC !PPM)»,F8.0) WRITE!6,104)V,A 103 FORMAT( 1HI,T7,7( •*•),'RUN NO',F3.0,7(* *•)) 104 FORMAT(1H0,T7,'VOLTS:•,F5.2,T2 5,»AMPS:•F5.0) READ(5,102)ZIN,ZOUT,DPOR DPOHG= 0.076 1768+0.074429*DPQR+ 0.000467069*DPOR* DPOR 102 FQRMAT(F4.2,1X,F4.2,IX,F 5.2) TIN=26.8988+(51.355-1.76738*ZIN)*ZIN T0UT=24. 7309+1 53.2881-2. 103*ZC)UT) *ZOUT TBULK=(TIN+T0UT)/2.0 TOR=TIN Q=3.413*V*A QF=Q/.1742 WRITEI6,105)0,OF 105 FORMAT!1H0,T7,'HEAT FLOW SUPPLIED»,F8.1,T37,'BTU/HR» / 1T7,'HEAT FLUX SUPPLIED'»F9.0,T37,•BTU/SQFT-HR') CALL PROP(RHO,VISK,THK,TOR) ALPHA=1.0-BETA**4 RE0RC=02/12/VISK*RH0/6.7197/lE-4*SyRT(64. 348*70. 72 7* 162.43*DP0HG*RH0/ALPHA) RE0RC=C1*RE0RC**C2 WW=D2*RE0RC*3.1416*VISK*6.7197/(12E4*RH0*4) WRITE(6,106)BETA,T0R,RH0,T0Ur 106 FORMAT!IH0,T7,•BETA'»F5.3»T25»* TOR=TINLET',F5.1,T43, 1 * DEG F',/T7,'UENSITY: •,F5.3,T21,'GRAM/CC/ 2T25,'T OUTLET',F'5.I,T43,'DEG F') WRITE!6,107)WW 107 F0RMAT!1H0,T7,'FLOW RATE•,F7.4,T25,•LBS.M/SEC') CALL PROP(RHO,VISK,THK,TbULK) UBULK=WW/(RH0*62.43*6.425E-4) RE=UBULK*0.343*3600./!12.*VISK*0.03875) PR=CP*VISK*RH0/THK*2.42 WRITE(6,108)T8ULK,VISK 108 FORMAT(1H0,T7,'AVG TEMP:• ,F5.I,T25,•DEG F• , 1/T7,•KINEMATIC',/T7,'VISCOSITY:',F5.3,T25,•SO.CM/SEC•) WRITE(6,109)UBULK,RE,PR 109 FORMAT !IH0,T7,'FLUID VELOCITY•,F6.3,T30,•FT/SEC•, 1/T7,'REYNOLDS NO•,F9.I,/T7,•PRANDTL NOf,F7.2) HTTR=WW*3600.*!TOUT-TIN)*CP HLOSS=Q-HTTR PERL=HL0SS/Q*100. QF T = H TTR /.. 1742 WR ITE(6,110)Q,HTTR,HLOSS,PERL,QFT 110 FORMAT(1H0,T7,"HEAT SUPP ',F 10.1,T30,•BTU/HR',/ 1T7,'HEAT TRANS',F10.1,T30,'BTU/HR',/ 2T7, 'HEAT LOST ', F10.1,T30 ,'BTU/HR',/ 3T7,'PERCENT HEAT L0ST',F8.2,/ 4T7, 'HEAT FLUX TRANS. BTU/SQF T-l IR' , F9 .0 ) C PREDICTED CLEAN WALL RESISTANCES FRO" THE C SIEDER-TAT E EwUATION XNU=0.02 3*(RE**0.8)*(PR**0.33) CALL PROP(RHO,VISK,THK,TBULK) XH=XNU*THK*12.0/0.343 TWALL=QFT/XH+TBULK A=VISK C = THK CALL PROP(RHO,VISK,THK,TWALL) B=VISK XNU=XNU*(IA/B)**0.14) RF I LM= 1000.0/(XNU*C*12.0/0.343) RWALL=(0.016/12.0/(8.45+0.004 55*1WALL))*1000. RTQTAL=RFILM+RWALL XHT0T=1000.0/RT0TAL WRITE(6,120)XNU 120 FORMAT l//T7,'NUSSELT N0',F9.i) WRITE(6,121 )RFILM,RWALL,RTOTAL 121 FORMAT(T7,'RFILM',F9.3,/T7,'RWALL',F9.3,/T7,'RTOTAL', 1F9.3,T27,* SQFT-HR-DEG F/ETU*) WRITE(6,150) WRITE(7,151) DO 830 1=1,12 DT( I ) = 0.0 RF(I )=0.0 TZEROlI)=0.0 830 CONTINUE C DATA TRANSFORMATION AND LINES ELIMINATION NLINE=0 READ(5,171)M JP=0 ZERO=0.0 2 READ(4,U2,ENU=10)RLTIM,(Z(I),1=1,16) JP=JP+1 TIME=Z(1) 112 F0RMAT(2X,F5.2,F6.2,3X,15F5.2) NLINE=NLINE+1 C TEMPERATURE EVALUATIONS TIN=26.8988+(51.355-1.767 38*Z(2))*Z(2) TUUT=24.7309+(53.2881-2.103*Z(3))*Z(3) CALL TEMP(Z,T) DELTA=TOUT-TIN C CORRECTION FOR OROP THROUGH TU8E WALL DO 5 1=1,12 TCON( I ) = 8.45+0.00455*T(I) COR(I)=QDIS*0.0411755/{2.*3.1416*I.9488*TC0N(I)) TC(I)=T(IJ-CORlI) IF(M(1+3).NE.O)TC(I)=0. IF(JP.EQ.1)TZER0(I)=T(I) DT( I ) = T(I)-TZER0(I) IF(M(1+3).NE.O)DT(I)=0.0 IF(DT(I).LE.0.0)G0 TO 87 RFU )=L)T( I )/OFT* 100000. GO TO 5 RF(I )=0.0 CONTINUE M1 = 0 X0= 1.27 00 6 1=1,10 X0=X0+5.08 X(I) = XO TBU) = DELTA/57.7 85*X(I)+TIN M1=M1+M(1+4) Y( I ) = TC(1 + 1)-TB(I) 6 CONTINUE TM=0 SY = 0. SX1=0. SX2=0. SX1Y=0. SX2Y=0. SXIX2=0. SSX1=0. SSX2=0. DO 7 1=1,10 IF(M( I+4J.NE.0) GO TO 7 TM=TM+ TC ( I + l) SY=SY+Y(I) SX1=SX1+X(I) SSX1=SSX1+X(I)*X(I) SSX2= SSX2 + X(I)**4 SX1X2=SX1X2+X(I)**3 SX1Y=SXIY+X(I)*Y(I) SX2Y=SX2Y+X(I)*X(I)*Y(I) 7 CONTINUE FN=10-M1 TM=TM/FN IF(JP.EQ.1)ZER0=TM F0UL(NLINE)={TM-ZER0)/QFT*100000. F0UX = F0UHNL1NE) SX2=SSX1 B=SSXl-{(SX1**2 )/FN) C=SX1X2-SX1*SX2/FN D=SX1Y-SXI*SY/FN F=SSX2-(SX2**2)/FN G=SX2Y-SX2*SY/FN 82=(D*C-G*B)/(C*C-F*6) Bl=(D-B2*C)/B B0=(SY-B1*SX1-B2*SX2)/FN A A = B 2 BB=B 1 CC = BO VV1=2*AA*52.07+BB VV2=2*AA*6.35+BB DISC=BB**2-4.*AA*CC IF{DISC.GT.O) GO TO 8 RMDIS=SQRT(-1.*DISC) AREA1=2./RMDIS*(ATAN(VV1/RMDIS)) AREA2=2./RMDIS*(ATAN(VV2/RMDIS)) GO TO 9 8 CONTINUE RDIS=SQRTIDISC) EXTERNAL AUX CALL DPLQFt X, Y , YF , W, E1 , E2 , P,0 .0, N, M , N I , ND, tP, AUX ) 217 WRITE!6,100) WRITE(6,20) 20 FORMAT(• ESTIMATES OF ROOT MCAN SQUARE STATISTICAL ERROR IN THE 1RAMETER • ) WRITE(6,103){E1(I),I=1,M) WRITE(6,30) 30 FORMAT!• ESTIMATES OF ROOT MEAN SwUARE TOTAL ERROR IN THE PARAME IRS * ) WRITE(6,103)!E?(I),I=1,M) A=EXP(Pl1))*1000 B=EXP!P(2))*1000 C=EXP(P(3)) WRITE!6,60) 60 FORMAT{ • ESTIMATES UF PARAMETERS RO , RINF AND B' ) WRITEl6,103)A,B,C WRITE(6,40) 40 FORMAT(T6,'TIME»,T20,'CALC. RESISTANCE*,T4G,'FITTED VALUE•,/T6,•I 1URS',T25,'((SQFT-HR-OEGF/BTU)X1000)',/) DO 50 1=1,N Y(I)=Y(I)*1000 YF(I)=YF(I)*1000 50 WRITE!6,102)X(I),Y(I),YF(I) WRITE(6,100) 100 FORMAT(1H1) 102 FORMAT!F10.2,2!10X,F10.4)) 103 FORMAT(3(F10.5,10X)) RETURN END FUNCTION AUX(P,D,X,L) DIMENSION P(3),D(3) D(1)=EXP(P(1)) D(2)=-EXP(P!2))*EXP!-EXP!P(3))*X) D(3)=D!2)*(-EXP(PI3)) )*X AUX=D(l)+0!2) RETURN END SUBROUTINE TEMP(Z,T) DIMENSION Z(16),T(12) DO 6201=1,12 T(I)=-0.59362*Z(l+3)*Z<I+3)+43.551*Z(I+3)+36.5808 620 CONTINUE RETURN END SUBROUTINE PFIT(Y,X,N) C PROGRAM TO FINO THE BEST FIT OF AN EXPONENTIAL CURVE FOR THE C FOULING TOTAL RESISTANCE VS. TIME DATA C N=NUMBER OF POINTS,NI=NUMBER OF ITERATIONS,EP=ERROR PERM ITED C THE EXPONENTIAL EQ. IS Y= B( 1- EXP( -C*X )) C AB£C ARE SUBSTITUTED BY B=EXP(P(l)), C=EXP(P(2)) DIMENS ION X( 700),Y(700),YF(700),W1700),El(2),E2(2 ) ,P(2) OATA M,NI,EP/2,20,0.001/ P(1)=1.79 P(2)=0.0 EXTERNAL PAUX CALL DPLQF(X,Y,YF,W,E1,E2,P,0.0,N,M,NI,ND,EP,PAUX) WRITE(6,100) WRITE(6,20) 20 FORMAT(• ESTIMATES CF ROOT MEAN SOUARE STATISTICAL ERROR IN THE P 1RAMETER') 218 WRITE(6,103MEi(I),I = l,M) WRITE(6,30) 30 FORMA T( • ESTIMATES OF ROOT MEAN SQUARE TOTAL ERROR IN THE PARAME1 IRS' ) WRITE(6,103)(E2(I),1=1,M) A = 0. 0 B = EXP(P(D) C=EXP(P(2)) WRITE(6,60) 60 FORMAT ( 'ESTIMATE OF RO,RINF,A.\D B IN RF=R INF ( ( I . - EX P (-B*T I ME ) • ) WRITE16,103 )A,B,C WRITE(6,40) 40 F0RMAT(T6,'TIME',T20,'CALC. RE SI STANCE• ,T4C,»FITTED VALUE',/T6,M 1URS',T22,'((SdFT-HR-DEGF/BTU)X100,000)•,/) DO 50 1=1,N 50 WRITE(6,102)X(I),Y(I),YF(I) WRITE(6,100) 100 FORMAT(IH1) 102 FORMAT(F10.2,2(10X,F10.2)) 103 FORMAT(2X,3(G10.5,10X)) RETURN END FUNCTION PAUX(P,D,X,L) DIMENSION P(2),D(2) D(1)=EXP(P(1))*(1.0-EXP(-(EXP(P(2))*X))) D(2)=EXP{P(l))*EXP(P{2))*X*EXP(-EXP(P(2))*X) PAUX=D(1) RETURN END VV3=AHSHVV1-RDIS)/(VV1+RDIS)) VV4=ABS{(VV2-RDIS)/(VV2 + KDIS)) AREA1=1/RDIS*AL0G<VV3) 219 AR EA 2=1/RDIS*ALOG!VV4) 9 AREA=AREAL-AREA2 QW=QFT*45.72/57.785 DTM=57.785/AREA*(TB(lOJ-TB(L))/(DELTA) H=QW/DTM R=1000/H TI M( NLINE)=TIME IFINLINE.EQ.l)W(NL INE)=1 IF(NLINE.GT.l)W(NL.INE) = (TIM(NLINE)-TIM(NLINE-l))/.6 WRITE!6,113)(TC(I) ,1 = 1 ,12),TI N,TOUT,TM,DELTA,H,R,TIME WRITE(7,114)(RF(I),1=1,12),TIN, TOUT,FOUX,DELTA,H,R,TIME RT0T(NLINE)=1/H GO TO 2 10 WRITE(6,73) 73 FORMAT('1 * ) CALL PFITIFOUL,TIM,NLINE) CALL BFITIRTOT,TIM,NLINE) GO TO 100 150 FORMAT! •1«,T3,•LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERATURES (DEG . F ) • 1,/T3,'T215',T10,'T2 35',T17,'T2 55»,T24,'T2 75', 2T31,»T295«,T38,'T315',T45,'T335',T52,'T355',T59,•T375*,T66, 3'T395« ,T73, • T415' , T80, • T42 8' , T88, 'TIN*,T94 »' TOUT • ,T102, 2T88,'TIN',T94,'TOUT',T102,'TM•,TI00,•DELTA',TII6,'H», 3 T12 3, ' R1,T12 8,*TIME,,/16(2X,* DEG.F *),T121,•X 1000',T128,'HOURS• 151 FORMAT!•1«,T3,•LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE (SQFT-HR-OFGF/BTU) UT50, 'X100, 000' ,/T3, • T215' ,T10,» T235' , T17 , • T255 • , T24 , • T275* , 2T31,'T295',T38,'T315',T45,*T335',T52,'T355',T59,'T375' ,T66, 3'T395«,T73,'T415',T80,•T42 8',T88,»TIN',T94,'TOUT•,T102, 4'RFM »,T108,'DELTA',T116,«H',T120,'RT0T» ,T128,•TIME' ,/T85, 5(2X, 'DEG.F *,2X,'DEG.F',9X,'DEG.F•),T120,•X1000•,T128,•HOURS',/ 171 FORMAT(1211) 113 FORMAT(15F7.1,F6.1,F7.1,F7.4,F7.2) 114 FORMAT(12F7.2,2F7.1,F7.2,F6.1,F7.1,F7.4,F7.2) 100 STOP C END SUBROUTINE PROP(RHO,V ISK,THK,T) RH0=0.988-(({T-32.)/1.8)-50.)*0.0006 T=(T-32.)/1.0 V1SC=10.**((1.32 72*(20.-T)-0.0C1053*(T-20.)**2) l/IT+105)) VISK=VISC/RH0 T = T*1.8 + 32.0 THK=0.296938+0.834355E-3*T-0.180265E-5*T*T RETURN END SUBROUTINE BFIT(Y,X,N) C PROGRAM TO FIND THE BEST FIT OF AN EXPONENTIAL CURVE FOR THE C FOULING TOTAL RESISTANCE VS. TIME DATA C N=NUMBER OF POI NTS,NI = NUMBER OF ITERATIONS,EP = ERROR PERM I TED C THE EXPONENTIAL EQ. IS Y= A + B( 1- EXPt -C*X )) C AB&C ARE SUBSTITUTED BY A = EXP(P(D), B=EXP(P(2)J, C = EXP(P(3)J DIMENS I ON X( 700),Y(700),YF(700),W(700),E1(3),E2(3),P(3) DATA M,NI,EP/3,20,0.001/ P(I ) = ALOG(Y(I)) P(2)=0.0 P(3)=0 PROGRAM MODEL 220 C RUNGE KUTTA METHOD FOR FITTING FOULING EQUATIONS REAL K2T,KH,Kl COMMON K2T,KH » Kl,NT DIMENSION XHNT(240) ,Y( 3) »F ( 3) ,0(3) , XNT ( 2 4 0 ) , T(240) , XK-SNT ( 24 0 ) DIMENSION XENT(240) I READ(5,101,ENU=lll) PHID,K2T,KH,KI PHlD=PHID/60. K2T=K2T/60.0 XKSNT(1)=0.0 XHNTl 1 )=PHID/K2T DO 801 J=2,240 XHNT{J)=ALOG(K1*KH*(J-l)*60 . + EXP(Kl*PHI0/K2T))/Kl 801 XKSNT(J)=(l.-EXP(-K2T*(J-l)))*PHID/K2T J = 0 00 802 J=l,240 802 T( J) = ( J-D/60. 101 FORMAT(F20.5) H=l. M=l N=3 DO 11 NT=1,2 Y(1)=0.0 Y(2)=0.0 Y(3)=PHI0 J=0 DO 10 1=1,240 CALL RK(Y»F,Q,H,N,M) J=J + 1 IF(NT.EQ.1)XNT(J)=Y(2) IF(NT.EQ.2)XENT(J)=Y(2) 10 CONTINUE II CONTINUE DO 623 J=l,240,10 623 WRITE(6,103)T(J),XKSNT(J),XNT(J),XENT(J),XHNT(J) 103 F0RMAT(G13.3,4X,4G13.4) GO TO 1 III STOP . END SUBROUTINE AUXRK(Y,F) REAL K2T,KH,K1 COMMON K2T,KH,K1,NT DIMENSION Y(3),F(3) F(2)=Y(3) IF(NT.E0.2)F(3)=K2T*KH*EXP(-Y(2)*Kl)-K2T*Y(3) IF(NT.EQ.1)F(3)=K2T*KH-K2T*Y(3)-K2T*KH*K1*Y(2) -RETURN END APPENDIX III COMPUTATION OF THERMOPHORETIC VELOCITY FOR RUN 63 According to McNab (33), the thermophoretic velocity of a particle in a thermal gradient is indepen dent of particle diameter and given by V^. = -0.26 or—T-E- • -4- VT (6.5) th — 2kf + kp pTK where V^ = thermophoretic velocity kf = thermal conductivity of the fluid kp = thermal conductivity of the particle u = fluid viscosity p = fluid density TK = absolute temperature VT = = temperature gradient 221 222 Assuming that the region of prime interest with respect to fouling is the viscous sublayer adjacent to the heat transfer surface, the temperature gradient can be found by noting that '<•' ' h(Tw - V • kf f wa 1 1 (III.D where q' = heat flux Hence h = heat transfer coefficient Tw = wall temperature Tb = bulk temperature dT dy 11 =VTw-T>} wa I 1 T (III.2) Substituting equation (III.2) into equation (111.1 ) gives th 2kf + kn pT ^— • -rr- (T - TJ K k v w b' (III.3) 223 Equation (III.3) can be made dimension!ess by multiplying through by D/DU, , which yields th = +0.26 2kf + kP u fhD] [DUbpJ (Tw - V (III.4) where Ub = bulk velocity D = tube diameter In terms of dimension!ess groupings, equation (III.4) becomes v + h r kf 1 fN„WT,, Thl b v f • p-1 v eJ v K ; For Run 63, the heat flux used was 91,400 BTU/ft2-hr and the maximum temperature rise was 2.6F°. If the deposit thickness is taken to be 100 microns, a typical figure based upon microscopic measurements, the thermal conductivity of the deposit k^ can be computed from the relationship 224 "•--"<„& (III-6) where ^ = thermal gradient across the deposit Therefore k . = %T = 9-s 91 ,4°° = 11.5 BTU/hr-ft-°F ~ k ' £ TWX 10* x 2'54 x 12 = P which somewhat exceeds the estimate of 7.2 on page 75. From program PAR, the remaining variables in .equation (III. ) are as foilows: kf = 0.388 BTU/hr-ft-°F Nu - 121 Rft = 26490 e T, = 181 °F w Tfa = 138 °F TK = 640 °R Ub = 4.79 ft/sec Substituting these values into equation (III.5) gives 225 v - 0-26 x 0.388 x 121 x (181 - 138)  vth ' (2 x 0.388 + 1 1.5) x 26,490 x 640 = 2.58 x 10"6 The thermophoretic velocity is therefore Vth = 2.58 x 10~6 x Ub = 2.58 x 10~6 x 4.79 x 1 2 x 2.54.x 10" = 3.7 microns/second That is, under the operating conditions of Run 63, a particle in close proximity to the wall will tend to migrate away from the wall at a velocity of 3.7 microns/ second. It has been pointed out by Keng and Orr (40) that use of an equation such as (6.6) to compute thermophoretic velocities leads to low results when the thermal conduc tivity of the particle is more than ten times the thermal conductivity of the fluid. For the example used here, this ratio is approximately thirty. The estimate of thermo-phoretic velocity computed for Run 63 is therefore con sidered to be conservative. •" "r APPENDIX IV EXPERIMENTAL DATA 226 t»*»*t*RUN N033.••••»*• FERRIC OXIDE CCINC I PP11 ?130. VOLIS: 9.33 HHPS: 254. HEAT flDU SUPPLIED fOUB.? HtAI 7LUX SUPPLIED 43430. BTU/HR BIU/SwFT-HR ESMKAIES or ROOT .4I6H2E-U1 ESTIHAIES tir KOC'I .14264 ESI1MA1E (IF RO.RI' .0 HIE HULKS >ICAN SO'JARE SIATISUCAl ERROR IN HIE PARAMETER . 19634 •<EA'J SUU41E 13IAL EIWOR IH THE PA4AKTICRS .6711.1 ,F,A\l> B IH Rf'Rlrir It l.-CXP(-ll«riH£l 8.5010 .2642? CALC. RESISTANCE F1TTE0 VALUE. I(SyFI-HK-UEGF/BIU)XIOntOCOI BEIA0.301 TCS.ll>iLETl?7.u DEG F 0.0 0.0 -0.0 OENSI IV.0.986 GRAN/CC 2.53 5.52 4.14 I UUILEM41.8 ' OEG F 4.92 5.72 6.18 5.08 5.82 6.28 FlOW RATE 0.1442 LBS.1/SEC 6.96 6.7? 7. 16 23.08 10.72 8.48 AVG Tt»tP:134.4 DEG F 27.50 11.02 8.50 KINCMAIIC 32.50 11.72 8.50 VISCUSII»:0.496 SU.CM/SEC 35.08 9.62 8.50 47.08 10.72 8.50 FIU10 VELOCITY 3.655 FT/SEC 47.75 11.02 8.50 RtYNOLDS VO. 19550.0 24.33 2.51 8.49 PRANUH ND 3.15 46.75 1.00 8.50 HEAT S'JPP 8088.2 BIU/HR HE AI 1 RAMS 7727.9 BIU/HR HtAI LOSI 360.3 BIU/HR PERCEM HEAT LOST 4.45 HEAT UUX 1RANS. BTU/SJFI-HR 44362. NUSSELI NO 94.6 RFILH 0.S03 RWAll 0.144 RIOIAL U.947 SOFI-HR-DEG f/OTU LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERATURES IUEG.FI 1215 1235 1255 1275 1295 1315 1135 DEG.F OEG. F DEG.F DEG.F UEG.F DEG.F DEG.F 0.0 154.3 153.9 159. 1 159.1 160. 7 157.5 0.0 157.1 156.3 161.9 161.5 163.1 159. 5 0.0 156.7 156.3 161.5 161.5 163.1 159.9 0.0 157.5 156. 3 162. 3 161.5 163. 3 159.9 0.0 157.1 156.3 162. 3 162.3 163.9 160. 3 0.0 158. 7 157.5 163.5 164.3 165. 1 161.9 0.0 159.1 15f.. 3 164. 3 164.3 165. 1 162. 7 0.0 160.7 159.5 163. 1 1&4. 3 165.5 162. 3 0.0 159.9 158. 7 163.9 163. 1 163.9 160. 7 0.0 159.9 158.7 163.5 164.3 165. 1 162.3 0.0 159.5 158.7 163.9 163.5 1 66. 3 161.5 0.0 157.1 154.7 15V.9 159.5 161.1 159. 7 0.0 154.3 153.9 159.5 159.1 loi. 1 158. 3 1355 1375 T395 T415 1428 TIN TOUT TH DELTA H R TIKE DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F UEG.F DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F X1000 HOURS 156.3 0.0 16Z.1 165.9 0.0 127.0 141.8 158.8 14.9 1434.5 0.6971 0.0 158.7 0.0 164.3 168.7 0.0 127.4 142.2 161.2 14.8 1328.1 0.7530 2.53 158.7 0.0 164.7 169.5 0.0 126.5 141.8 161.3 15.3 1290.5 0.7749 4.92 157.1 0.0 165.1 169.1 0.0 127.0 142.2 161.4 15.3 1313.9 0.7611 5.08 159.1 0.0 165.1 169.5 0.0 127.0 142.2 161.8 15.3 1288.4 0.7762 6.98 161.1 0.0 166.7 171.1 0.0 127.0 142.2 163.5 15.3 1211.2 0.6256 23.08 161.5 0.0 167.1 170.7 0.0 126.5 141.4 163.7 14.9 1176.7 0.8493 27.50 161.5 0.0 167.9 171.1 0.0 127.8 142.7 164.0 14.8 1223.4 0.8174 32.50 159.9 0.0 166.7 170.7 0.0 126.5 141.8 163.0 15.3 1221.7 0.8135 35.08 161.1 0.0 167.1 169.9 0.0 127.4 142.2 163.5 14.8 1221.0 0.8190 47.08 161.9 0.0 165.9 171.9 0.0 127.4 142.2 163.7 14.8 1215.1 0.8230 47.75 157.9 0.0 163.1 167.1 0.0 126.5 141.8 159.9 15.3 1367 4 0.7313 24.33 157.5 0.0 162.7 166.7 0.0 127.0 141.8 159.2 14.9 1405.1 0.7117 46.75 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISOFT-HR-OfGF/BTUIX1U0.0OO 1215 1*35 1255 1275 1295 1315 T315 1 355 T375 1395 T4I5 1428 TIN OEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 0.0 6.34 5.44 6.3? 5.41 5.41 4.52 5.43 0.0 4.50 6.28 0.0 127.4 0.0 5.43 5.44 5.41 5.41 5.41 5.4? 5.43 0.0 5.40 a.ce 0.0 126. 5 0.0 7.24 5.44 7.22 5.41 6.11 5.42 1.81 0.0 6.30 7. 18 0.0 127.0 0.0 6.34 5.44 7.22 7.?2 7-21 6. J2 6.33 0.0 6.30 8.08 0.0 127. 0 0.0 9.96 12.67 9.92 11.7? 9.91 9.9 1 10.84 0.0 9.90 1 1.64 0.0 127.0 0.0 10. B6 9.96 11.72 11.72 9.91 11.7) 11. 74 0.0 10. 79 10.7? 0.0 126.5 0.0 14.47 12.67 9.02 11.7? 10. 81 10. 9 1 11.74 0.0 12.59 11 .66 0.0 127.8 0.0 12.66 10. b6 10. H? 9.02 7.21 7.23 8. 14 0.0 3.90 10. 77 0.0 176.5 0.0 12.66 10. lib 9.9? 11.7? 9.91 10.83 10.84 0.0 10. 79 8.97 0.0 127.4 0.0 11.76 10.86 10.«2 9.92 12.60 9.0 1 12.65 0.0 a. 10 13.45 0.0 127.4 O.D 6.34 1.81 1.81 0.90 0.90 2. 71 1.6? >;. o 1.80 2. 70 0.0 126.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.90 0.0 0.90 1.81 2.71 0.0 0.90 1 .80 0.0 127.0 TOUT DEG.F 141.8 142.2 141.8 142.2 142.2 142.2 141.4 14?. 7 141.8 142.2 142.2 141.8 141.B RFH 0.0 5.52 5.72 5.62 6.72 10.72 11.0? 11.72 9.6? 10. 7? 11.0? ?.51 1.00 OELTA DEG.F 14.9 14.8 15. 3 15.3 15. 3 15.3 14.9 14.8 15. 3 14.8 14.8 15. 1 14.9 1434.5 13?8. 1 1290.5 1313.9 1288.4 1211.2 1176.7 1223.4 1221.7 1221.0 1215.I 1167.4 1405.1 RIOT XI000 0.6971 0.7530 0.7749 0.7611 0.7762 0.3256 0.8493 0.8114 0.8185 0.8190 0.8230 0.7313 0.7117 TIKE HOURS 0.0 2.5] 4.92 S.Ofl 6.98 2 3.08 27.30 32.50 15.08 4 7.08 4 7. 75 24. 13 46. 75 227 ««»i«».KUN fj034. ••»•«•» FCRR1C UxlUE CONC (PPMI 2130. VOLTS: 9.35 AMPS: 253. HEAI UOrf SUPPLIED 807).6 8RJ/IM HE*I i LUX surJ'Lito 46347. niu/scri-HR BETA0.30) 7llk=I INLE1 127.0 OEGF 0ENSIIr:0.986 GRAf'/CC I OUILtTMl.8 DEC F FLDll RAU 0.1442 LBS.I/SEC AVC TtvP:l)4.4 DEC F X. 1NEKAT IC VISC0Sllir:0.496 SO.C.1/SEC FLUID VELDCIlr 3.655 FI/SEC REYNOLDS TO 19550.U PRANOTL NU 3.15 HEAT SUPP 8073.6 31U/HR HEA1 IRASS 7721.9 CTU/HR HEAT LOST 345.7 BTU/HR PERCEM HEA1 LOST 4.28 MEAI FLUX TRANS. P.TU/SOFI-ltR 44)62. NUSSCLT 94.6 RF1LH 0.603 RWALL O.ltt RI01AL 0.947 SOFT-HR-OEC F/BTU ESTIMATES liF Kjm KCAH SCUIVRE STATISTICAL ERROR .20350 ,4t.3J7 EST 1 MAI [S ur RUJI "CAN SOUA-U mUL ERROR IN T r IC P .1)583 .3092 1 E ST I HA I E LIE RO (R1 ';F , .V40 ft I1* «r - k 1 NM I 1.-E KP I - V » T 1 .0 5.1,77', 1 .2677 IN ll!C PARAMETER 11 ME CALC. RESISTANCE. FITTED V.UUO HOURS 1< SUFI-HR-.JLGF/3TUIX10C.0001 0.0 0.0 -0.0 o.na 1.30 0.55 0.13 0. 30 0.66 0.17 I .20 1. 10 0.2S 0.70 I.JO 0.38 1.60 2. 1 J 0.52 2.91 2. J4 0.58 4.21 2.96 1.30 3.91 4.58 1.45 5.11 4. JJ 1.67 5.21 4.91 2.10 5.11 5.28 Only data for first 2.1 hours are processed here. LOCALUEO KALI TEH.PERATURE5 1OEG.F) 1215 1235 1255 1275 T295 T315 OEG.F DEG.F DEG. F OEG.F DEC.F DEG.F 0.0 154.7 154.3 159.9 159.9 161.1 0.0 155. 1 155.1 160.3 160.3 161.9 0.0 155.1 154.7 159.) 159.9 161 .5 0.0 155.5 155.1 160. 3 160.3 161.9 0.0 155. 1 154.7 160. 1 159.9 161.5 0.0 155.5 155.1 160. 7 160. 3 161.9 0.0 155.9 155.5 161.1 161.1 1*2. 7 0.0 156.7 156.3 161.9 161.9 lo3. 1 0.0 156.3 155.9 161.5 161.5 163.1 0.0 156.7 156.7 162.3 161.9 163.5 0.0 157.1 156.7 162.3 162. 3 163.9 0.0 156.7 157.1 162.3 162.3 163.9 T3J5 1355 1375 T395 T415 1428 TIN OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F 15P.7 157.9 0.0 162.7 166. 7 0.0 126.5 159. 1 157.9 0.0 161.5 167.9 0.0 126.5 15B.7 157.5 0.0 162.7 167.1 0.0 126.5 159. 1 157.9 0.0 163. 5 167. 1 0.0 126.5 158.7 157.9 0.0 161.5 167.1 0.0 126.5 15 1. 1 158.1 CO 163.5 167.9 0.0 126.5 159.9 158. 7 0.0 163.9 168.7 0.0 127.0 160. 3 159.1 0.0 164.3 169. 1 0.0 127.0 160. 1 159.1 0.0 164.7 169. 1 0.0 127.0 160. 7 159.9 0.0 165.1 169.5 0.0 127.0 160. 7 159.5 0.0 165.1 169. 1 0.0 126.5 160. 7 159.5 0.0 164.7 169.1 0.0 127.0 TOUT IM DELTA H R TIRE DEG .F OEG.F OEG.F X1000 HOURS 141 .8 159.5 15.3 1376.4 0. 7266 0.0 141 .8 160.1 15.3 1347.0 0.7424 O.Ofi 141 .4 159.7 14.9 1359.8 0.7354 0.13 141 .4 160.1 14.9 1138.6 0.7471 0. 17 141 .4 159.8 14.9 1349.6 0.7410 0.2! 141 . 4 160.2 14.9 1329.6 0.7521 0. 11 141 . 4 160.8 14.4 1310.2 0.7612 0.52 141 .9 161.4 14.9 1 . 14.7 0. 7724 0.51 141 .8 161.3 14.9 1299.3 0. 7696 1.30 141 .a 161.8 14.9 1274.2 0.7848 1.45 141 .8 161.8 15.3 1263.2 0.7917 1.67 141 .8 161.8 14.9 1274.4 0.7847 2.10 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISOFI-IM-CEGFInIUIX I GO.000 J215 1235 1255 1275 1295 1315 1335 (155 T375 1)95 J415 1426 TIN TOUT RFM DELTA M RTOT TIHE OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F 11000 HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 126.5 141 . 8 0.0 15.3 1)76.4 0.7266 0.0 0.0 0.91 1 .Cl 0.90 0.90 1.60 0.90 o.n n.o 1.80 2.69 0.0 176.5 141 . 8 1. 30 15.1 1)47.0 0.7474 0.06 0.0 0.91 0.91 O.O 0.0 0.90 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.90 0.0 126.5 141. 4 0.30 14.9 1)59.8 0.7354 0. 1 i 0.0 1.81 1.81 0.90 0.90 l.hO 0.90 0.0 o.n 1.80 0.90 0.0 126.5 141. 4 1 .70 14.9 1)38.6 0.7471 0. 1 7 0.0 0.91 0.91 0.90 o.n 0.90 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .80 0.90 0.0 126.5 141. 4 0. 70 14.9 1)49.6 0.7410 0.2E 0.0 1.81 1.61 1.10 0.90 1.60 0.90 0.90 0.0 1.80 2.69 0.0 126.5 14 1. 4 1 .60 14.9 1)29.6 0.7521 0. »* 0.0 2-/2 2.72 2. 11 2.71 1.61 2. 71 1 .81 0.0 2.10 4.49 0.0 177.0 141. 4 7.91 14.4 1310.2 u.7632 0. 52 0.0 4.53 4.53 4.51 4.51 4.51 . 1.61 7. 71 u.o 3.60 5. IB 0.0 127.0 141 . 8 4.21 14.9 1294.7 0.7(24 0.5* 0.0 3.62 1.62 3.61 1.1,1 4.51 3.61 2.11 0.0 4.50 5.38 0.0 177.0 14|. 8 1. VI 14.9 1299.1 0.7696 1. >0 0.0 4.53 5.43 5.41 4.51 5.41 4.51 4.52 0.0 ' 5.40 6.71 0.0 127.0 141. 8 5. 11 14.9 1274.2 0. 7648 1.45 0.0 5.43 5.43 5.41 5.41 6.11 4.51 3.61 0.0 5.40 5.38 0.0 176.5 14| . 8 5.21 15.) 126).2 0. 7917 1.67 o.o 4.5) 6. J4 5.41 5.41 6.11 4.51 J.6I 0.0 4.50 5.38 0.0 127.0 141. 8 5. 11 14.9 12 74.4 0. 164 7 2. 10 228 •••••••RUN N034.•*•«••• FERRIC 0X°I0E CONC (PPNI 2130. VOLTS: 9.35 A.IRS! 253. HEAT FLOW SUPPLIED 8073.6 HEAT ILUX SUPPLIED 46347. BTU/HR OTU/SCfT-HR HCIA0.301 I0R»IINLCTI27.0 OEG F 0ENS11Y:0.936 GRAH/CC T UUTLEI141.8 OEG F FLOW RATE 0.1442 LBS.M/SEC AVG TEHPM34.4 DEG F KINEMATIC V1SC0SITT:0.496 SO.CM/SEC FLUID VELOCITY 3.655 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 1955U.0 PRAflOIl NO 3.15 HEAT SUPP 8073.6 BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 7727.9 BIU/HR HEAT LOST 345.7 BTU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 4.28 HCA1 FLUX TRA.'iS. B7U/S0FI-IIR 44162. NUSSELT m 94.6 RFILH O.BOI RWALL 0.144 R10IAL 0.947 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BIU EST1MA1ES OF RUOI .66787C-01 tSIIHATCS OF R-J01 .77697E-0I ESIIMAIE UF R0.R1 .0 I IME HOURS 0.0 0.08 0.13 0.17 0.28 0.38 0.5? 0.58 1.30 1.45 1.67 2.10 2.40 2.6? J.43 3.52 1.60 4.20 4.67 6.50 23.68 MEAN SOJARE STATISTICAL ERKOK IN HIE PARA* .?9f*?0 P.EAN SCJARE lOIAL EK«OR IN THE I'Aft AME IE RS .34691 IF.ANL- Q IN RF = RINF-I I I ,-EXPI-H»l I »:E I 4.6395 1.8926 CALC . RESISTANCE FITTED VALUE I(SUFI-hR-UEGF/BTUIX100.000l 0.0 -O.C 1.30 0.30 1.20 0. 70 1.60 2.91 4.21 3.91 5.11 5.21 5.11 6.11 6.41 3.41 3.51 2.91 4.51 . 3.91 .2.71 6.71 0.65 1.01 1 .20 1.91 2.38 2.91 3.09 4.24 4.34 4.44 4.55 4.59 4.61 4.63 4.63 4.63 4.64 4.64 4.64 4.64 LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERATURES t?15 1235 1255 1275 DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DE3.F 0.0 154.7 154.3 1 59.9 0.0 155.1 155.1 160.3 0.0 155.1 154.7 159.9 0.0 155.5 155. 1 160.3 0.0 155.1 154.7 160. 3 0.0 155.5 155.1 160. 7 0.0 155.9 155.5 161.1 0.0 156.7 156.3 161.9 0.0 156.3 155.9 161.5 0.0 156.7 156. 7 162.3 0.0 147.1 156.7 162 .3 0.0 156.7 157.1 162.3 0.0 157.1 157. 1 163. 1 0.0 157.1 157. 1 163.1 0.0 157.1 156.7 161.9 0.0 157.1 156.7 161.9 0.0 157.1 157. 1 161.9 0.0 157.5 157.5 162. 7 0.0 157.1 156. 7 162. 3 0.0 157. 1 156. 3 161.1 0.0 157.1 156.7 163.1 IUEG.F1 1295 DEG.F |}9.9 160.3 159.9 160. 3 159.9 160. 3 161. 1 161.9 161.5 161.9 16?.3 16?. 3 16?.7 163.1 161.5 161.5 161.5 162. 3 161.9 160.7 162. 7 7)15 OEG.F 161.1 161.9 161. 5 161.9 161.5 161.9 162. 7 loi. 1 163.1 163.5 163.9 161.9 164. 3 164.3 162. 7 162.7 162.1 163.1 161.1 162. 3 164.7 1335 DEG.I 1 58. 7 159. I 158. I 159. 1 158.7 159.1 159.9 160.3 160. 3 160. 7 160. I 160.7 161.1 161.5 159.9 159.9 159.5 159. 9 159.9 159. 5 161.9 1355 T375 T395 7415 T42B TIN TOUT TM DELTA H OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG .F OEG.F DEG.F XI 157.9 0.0 162.7 166.7 0.0 126.5 141 .8 154.5 15. 3 1376.4 0. 1 1 57.9 CO 163.5 167.9 0.0 126.5 141 .8 160. 1 15.3 1347.0 0. 7 157.5 0.0 162.7 167.1 0.0 126.5 141 .4 159.7 14.9 1359.8 0. 7 157.9 0.0 163.5 167.1 0.0 126.5 141 .4 160.1 14.9 1336.6 0. 7 157.9 0.0 163.5 167. 1 0.0 1?6.5 141 .4 159.8 14.9 1349.6 0.7 158.3 0.0 163.5 167.9 0.0 126.5 141 .4 160.2 14.9 1329.6 0. 7 158.7 0.0 163.9 168.7 0.0 127.0 141 .4 I6C.6 14.4 1310.2 0. 7 159.1 0.0 164.1 169. 1 0.0 1?7.0 141 .8 161.4 14.9 1294.7 0. 7 159.1 0.0 164.7 169. 1 0.0 127.0 141 .8 161.3 14.9 1299.3 0.7 159.9 0.0 165.1 169.5 0.0 12 7.0 141 .8 161.a 14.9 1274.2 0.7: 159.4 0.0 165.1 169.1 0.0 126.5 141 .8 161.6 15. 3 1263.' 0.7' 159.5 0.0 164. 7 169.1 0.0 127.0 141 .8 161.8 14.9 12 74. . 0. 71 159.9 0.0 165.5 169.5 0.0 126.5 141 .8 162.2 15.3 1244.2 o. ec 159.9 0.0 165.5 169.9 0.0 127.0 141 .6 162.4 14.9 1247.0 O.Br 15 8.7 0.0 163.5 1 67.5 0.0 127.0 141 .8 161.0 14.9 1315.6 0. 71 158.7 0.0 163. 5 167.9 0.0 127.0 141 .8 161. 1 14.9 1311.6 0.76 157.9 0.0 163.1 157.1 0.0 127.0 141 .8 160.8 14.4 1330.3 0. 75 156. 7 0.0 1 63.9 168. 3 0.0 126.5 141 .8 161.5 15.3 1284.1 0.77, 1 58. 7 0.0 163.9 167.9 0.0 127.0 141 .6 161. 3 14.9 1104.0 0. 76<, 158.1 0.0 161.5 167.9 0.0 127.0 141 .8 160.7 14.9 1 112.9 0. 75C 160. 7 0.0 165.9 169.9 0.0 127.0 141 .6 162.5 14.9 1236.7 0.807 229 •••••••RUN N035.**•*••• FERRIC OX10E CONC (PP*I 2130, VOLTS: 9.35 AHPS: 254. HEAT FLOW SUPPLIED 8105.5 HEAT FLUX SUPPLIED 465J0. BIU/HR 8TU/S0FT-HR BE1A0.10] TOR=TINLET127.0 DEG F DCNSIIr:0.9S6 GRAM/CC 1 0UUEI141.8 DEG F flOW RAJE 0.1442 LBS.M/SEC AVG IEMP:134.4 DEC F KINEKAIIC VISC0SITY:0.496 SQ.CH/SEC FLUID VELOCITY 3.655 FI/SEC REVNDLDS NO 19550.0 PRANOIL NO 3.15 HEAT SUPP 8105.5 BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 7727.9 BIU/HR HEAT IUST 377.6 BIU/HR PERCEM HEAT LOST 4.66 HE AT HUX 1RA\S. B1U/S3FT-HR 44362. NUSSElT NU 94.6 RFIIM 0.80) RHAll 0.144 R10TAI 0.947 SCFI-HR-DEC F/BIU ESTISAUS OF R-JJI MEAN SCUARE STATISTICAL ERRUR IN THE PARAMETER -20)31 .68319 ESTIMATES Or ROUT MEAN SUU44E TOTAL EKRCR IN THL PARAMETERS •1'012 .41024 ESTIMATE OF RO.RINF.ANO 0 IN R F =R INF I I 1 .-E XP <-D« IIME I I INE HOURS 0.0 0.18 0.48 0.70 0.7B 1.37 1.58 1.65 2.33 3.65 4.05 4.12 4.28 3.7942 .6105J CALC. RESISTANCE F11 TED VALUE I I SOFI-H«-L>EGF/BIU)XICO,OOOI -0.0 -0.20 0.90 -0.20 0.70 2.41 2.21 3.01 2.71 2.81 3.11 2.51 3.11 0.34 0.84 1.15 1.25 1.82 2.04 2.09 2.50 2.94 3.02 3.03 3.05 LOCALIZED kAll TEMPERATURES IDEG.F1 T215 12 35 T255 T275 1295 T315 T335 1355 T375 DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F UEG.F OEC-F 0.0 154.3 15).9 159.5 159.5 160.7 157.9 156.7 0.0 0.0 154.3 15).9 159.1 159. 1 160. 3 157.9 156. 7 0.0 0.0 154.7 154.3 159.9 159.9 161. 1 158. ) 157.1 CO 0.0 154.3 15).9 159.5 159. 1 160. 3 157.9 156.7 0.0 0.0 154.7 154. ) 159.9 159.5 160. 7 158. 3 157.1 0.0 0.0 155.5 155.1 160.7 160. 3 161.5 158. 7 157.9 0.0 0.0 155.5 155.1 160. 7 160.3 161.5 158. 7 157.5 0.0 0.0 155.5 155.5 161. 1 160.7 161.9 159.1 157.9 0.0 0.0 155.5 155. 1 160. 7 160.7 161.9 159. 1 157.9 0.0 0.0 155.5 155.1 160. 7 160.7 161.9 159. 5 157.9 0.0 0.0 155.5 155. 1 161.1 161. 1 161.9 159. 5 158.3 0.0 0.0 155.5 155. 1 160. 7 160. 7 161.9 159. 1 157.9 0.0 0.0 155.5 155.1 161.5 161.1 161.9 159. 5 157.9 0.0 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISUFI-HR-OEGF/BTUIX100,000 1215 1235 1255 1275 T295 T315 1335 1)55 1375 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 O.O 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.91 0.91 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.91 0.91 0.90 U.O 0.0 0.90 0.90 0.0 0.0 2.72 2.72 2.71 1.81 1.80 I.M 2.71 0.0 0.0 2.72 2.72 2.71 I.B1 1.80 1 .HI I.ni 0.0 0.0 2. 72 3.62 3.61 2.71 2. 71 2. 71 7. II 0.0 0.0 2.72 2.72 2.71 2.71 2. 71 2. 71 2. 71 0.0 o.o 2.72 2. 72 2.71 2. II 2.11 3.61 7.71 0.0 0.0 2. 72 2.72 3.61 1.61 2. 71 ).61 1.62 0.0 o.o 2.72 2. 72 2.71 2. 11 2. 71 2.71 7. 71 0.0 0.0 2.72 2.72 4.51 3.61 2.71 ).6I 2. 11 0.0 T395 1415 T428 TIN 10UT IN DELTA H R TINE DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG F DEG.F OEG.F X1000 HOURS 162.3 167.5 0.0 127.0 141 8 159.1 14.9 1413.6 0.7074 0.0 162.7 167.S 0.0 126.5 141 8 159.0 15. ) 1407.4 0.7105 0.18 162.7 167.9 0.0 127.0 141 3 159.5 14.9 1391.1 0.7188 0.48 162.3 167.5 0.0 127.0 141 e 159.0 14.9 1419.7 0.7044 0. 70 162.7 167.9 0.0 127.0 141. 8 159.4 14. 9 1397.1 0.7158 0. 78 163.5 168.7 0.0 127.0 142. 2 160.2 15. 3 1368.7 0. 7)06 1.32 163.5 168.) 0.0 127.0 141. 8 160. 1 14.9 1362.0 0.7342 1.58 163.9 168.7 0.0 127.0 142 2 16U.5 15. ) 1 353.5 0.7)»8 1.65 161.5 168.7 0.0 127.0 142. 2 160.3 15. ) 1359.9 0.7)53 2.3) 163.5 168.7 0.0 126.5 141 . 6 160.4 15. 1 1334.4 0.7494 ).65 163.5 168.7 0.0 126.5 141. 4 160.5 14.9 1315.7 0.7600 4.05 161.1 168. ) 0.0 126.5 141. 8 160.2 15. ) 1341.8 0.7453 4.12 163.5 168.7 0.0 126.5 141 .8 160.5 15.) 1)27.5 0.753) 4.28 1)95 T415 1426 UN TOUT RFH OELTA H RIOT TIKE OEG.F OEG. F OEG.F KIOOO MOU<S 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 141. A 0.0 14.9 1413.6 0.7074 0.0 0.90 0.0 0.0 126.5 141. 8 -0.20 15. 3 1407.4 0. 7105 0. 1 5 0.90 0.90 0.0 127. 0 141. 8 0.90 14.9 1391.1 o.'iaa 0.48 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 141. 8 -0.20 14.9 1419.7 0.7044 0. 70 0.90 0.90 0.0 • 77.0 141. 8 0.10 14.9 1197.1 0.7158 0. 78 2. TO 2.69 0.0 127.0 142. 7 2.41 15. ) I 368.7 0. 7 306 1. 37 2. 70 1.79 0.0 127.0 I4|. 8 2.21 14.9 1)67.0 0.7)42 1 .58 ).60 2.69 0.0 121.0 142. 2 3.01 15. 3 1)51.5 0. 7 J<18 1.65 2. 10 2.69 0.0 121.0 142. 2 2.71 15. 3 1)59.9 0. 7 J4 3 2.)) 7.70 7.69 0.0 126.5 141. 8 2.81 15. 3 13)4.4 0.7494 1...5 2.70 2.69 0.0 126.5 141. 4 3.11 14.9 t 115.7 0.1600 4.05 1 .80 1.79 0.0 176.5 I4|. 8 2.51 15. 3 1)41.8 0.7453 4.12 7.70 2.69 0.0 126.5 141. 8 3.11 15.3 1)2 1.5 0.7533 4.28 230 • ••••••RUN 11036. •»•»••• FERRIC OXI0E CONC (PPMI 2130. VOUS! 9.35 AMPS! 25*. MEAT IIOK SUPPLIED 8105.5 BIU/HR HEAT ILUX SUPPLIEO 465)0. BTU/SCFI-HR BEIA0.301 T0R.TINLEU27.0 OCC F DCNSIlv:0.936 GRAK/CC I 0UILEH41.8 OEC F FLO* R*1E 0.1442 LBS.M/StC AVG UHP:I)4.4 DEG F KINEMATIC YISCUSIIY:0.496 SU.CM/SEC FLUID VELOCITY 3.655 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NU 19550.0 PRAHUTL NO 3.15 HEAT SUPP 8105.5 BTU/HR HEAT 1RANS 7121.1 blU/HR HEAT LOSI 377.6 OTU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 4.66 HEAT FLUX TRANS. BTU/SOFT-HR 44362. NUSSELT NO 94.6 RF 1LM 0.603 RWALl 0.144 RIOTAl 0.947 SOFT-HR-DEG F/8TU ESiiMAirs ur ROOT MEAN .40053E-0I .1 ESTIMAICS OF ROOT MEAN .47fltl!:-()l .1 ES1INAIL 01 RO.RINF.AND 7. TIKE HOURS 0.0 0.10 0.35 0.63 0.06 1.03 1.6T 1.75 2.17 2.45 22.07 22.25 22.75 25.92 26.25 27.42 28.92 29.92 45.98 46.22 24.25 25.72 CALC. IIS SUUARC SIATISTICAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETER B652 SCUARE I01AL ERROR IM THE PARAHEItRS 9936 IN Rf.R INFII 1.-EXC(-B»1INEI 7243 .33106 RESISTANCE FITTED VALUE FI-IIR-UECF/BTUIX100.000I 0.0 1.41 0.81 1.41 3.31 1.71 3.91 3.41 3.01 3.01 5.61 5.9i 5.51 7.42 7.12 7.22 6.12 6.92 9.42 9.12 7.62 6.B2 -0.0 0.24 0. 79 1.36 1.83 2.09 3.07 3. 16 3.70 4.01 7.22 7.22 7.22 7.22 7.22 7.22 7.22 7.22 7.22 7.22 7.22 7.22 LOCAL I ZED WALL 1215 T235 DEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TEMPERATURES T255 T275 DEG.F 154.7 155.5 156.3 156.7 157.9 156.7 157.1 156. 3 156.7 157.1 157.5 157.5 157.5 158.7 158.3 157.9 159.1 158.7 159.9 159.5 159.1 157.5 DEG.F 154.7 155.5 155.9 155.9 156. 7 156.3 156.7 156. 3 155.9 156. 3 157. 1 157.1 157.1 157.9 158.3 157.9 158.3 158. 3 159. 1 158.7 15S. 3 157.5 DEG.F 160.3 161.1 161.1 161.1 161.9 161.5 161.9 161.5 161.9 161.5 162.7 162.3 162.3 163. 5 161.1 163. I 163.9 163. 1 164. 7 164. 7 163.9 163.9 (OEG.F) 1 295 CEG.F 159.9 160. 7 160. 7 160.7 161.5 160.7 161.5 161.5 161.5 lui. I 162. 3 161.9 162.) 162.7 163.1 163.5 163.5 163.5 163.9 163.9 163.5 163.5 T315 T335 T355 DEG.F DEG.F UEG.T 161.1 157.9 156.7 161.5 158. 7 157.5 161.1 158. 3 156.7 161.5 158.7 157.1 162.3 159. 1 157.9 161.5 158. 3 157.5 162. 7 159.9 158.7 162. 7 159.9 158.7 162.) 159.5 15B.) 162.3 159.5 158.) 161.5 160. 7 159.5 163.9 161.1 159.9 163.5 160. 7 159.5 164.3 161.5 160. 3 164. 3 161.5 159.9 164.3 161. 1 160.3 164. 3 161.9 160.3 163.5 161.1 159.9 164.7 162.7 161.5 165. 1 162. 3 161.1 164.7 161.5 160.3 164.3 161. 1 160. 3 T375 DEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T395 OEG.F 162.7 163. 1 162.) 162.7 163.5 162. 7 164. ) 16).9 16).5 163.5 165.1 165.5 165.1 166.) 165.5 165.9 166.3 165.5 166.3 166. 3 165.1 165.1 T4I5 OEG.F 167.5 167.5 166.3 166.7 167.9 167.1 168.3 168.3 167.9 167.9 169.5 169.9 169.5 169.9 169.9 1 70. 3 170.3 169.5 170.3 1 70. 3 169.5 169.5 T428 OEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TIN DEG.F 126.5 126.5 126.5 126.5 127.0 126.5 127.0 127.0 126.5 127.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 126 .5 127.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 126.5 TOUT OEG.F 141.8 141.8 141.4 141.4 142.2 141.8 141.8 141.8 141.4 141.8 141.8 141.8 141.4 141.8 141.8 141.8 141.8 141.8 141 .8 141.8 141.8 141.4 TM OELTA H ft TIME DEG.F DEG.F X1000 HOURS 159.5 15.3 1)8).9 0.7226 0.0 I6C.I 15 3 1)50.9 0.7402 0. 10 159.8 14.9 1)59.6 0.7355 0.35 160.1 14 9 1)45.0 0.7435 0.63 161.0 15. 3 1)38.1 0.7473 0.86 160.2 15.3 1)51.0 0.7402 1.03 161.2 14 9 1)06.8 0.7652 1.67 161.0 14 9 1314.5 0.7606 1.75 160.8 14 9 1304.5 0.7666 2.17 160.8 14 9 1 328.3 0.7529 2.45 162.0 14 9 1269.4 0.7S7Q 22.07 162.1 14 9 1261.9 0.7924 22.25 161.9 14 4 1261.2 0.7929 22. 75 162.8 14 9 1234.8 0.8099 25.92 162.6 15 ) 12)1.4 0.8121 26.23 162.7 14 9 1236.7 0.E086 27.42 163.1 14 9 1222.4 0.B191 28.72 162.6 14.9 124 .8 0.6G20 29.92 163.7 14 9 1 198.3 0.8345 45. JS 163.5 14 9 1202.8 0.8314 46.22 162.9 14.9 1232.2 0.6116 24.25 162.5 14. 9 1223.9 0.8171 25. 72 LOCALIZED FOJLING RESISTANCE ISOFT-HR-DEGF/BTUIXI00.000 1275 1215 1235 1255 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.81 1.61 0.0 3.62 2.72 0.0 4.53 2.72 0.0 7.24 4.53 0.0 4.53 3.62 0.0 5.43 4.53 0.0 3.62 3.62 0.0 4.53 2.72 0.0 5.43 3.62 0.0 6.34 5.43 0.0 6.34 5.4) 0.0 6.34 5.43 0.0 9.05 7.24 0.0 8.15 8.15 n.o 7.24 7.74 0.0 9.95 8.15 0.0 9.05 8.15 0.0 11.16 9. 15 0.0 IU.P.6 9.05 0.0 9.95 8. 15 0.0 6,)4 6. 34 3.6 2.7 ).6 2.7 5.4 H. I 8.1 1295 T315 1335 1)55 1375 T395 T415 1426 TIN TOUT RFM OELTA H RIOT TIME OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F X100O HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 176.5 141 .8 0.0 15. 3 1)8).9 0.7226 0.0 I.BO 0.90 I.BI 1 .81 0.0 0.90 0.0 0.0 126.5 141 .8 1 .41 15.3 1)50.9 0.7402 0.10 I. 80 0.0 0.90 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 126.5 141 .4 0.81 14.9 1359.6 0.7355 0.35 1.80 0.90 I.R1 0.90 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 126.6 141 .4 1.41 14.9 1)45.0 0.74)5 U.63 ).6I 2. 70 2. 71 2. 71 0.0 1 .80 0.90 0.0 127.0 147 .2 3.31 1 5. 3 13)8.1 0.7471 0.88 l.RO 0.90 0.90 1.81 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 126.5 14 1 .8 1 . '1 15. 1 1)51.0 0.7402 l.u) 3.61 3.61 4.52 4.52 0.0 3.60 1.79 0.0 127.0 141 .8 3.91 14.9 1)06.8 0.'642 1.67 3.61 ).6I 4.52 4.52 0.0 7. 10 1 .79 0.0 127.0 14) .8 3.41 14.9 1)14.5 0.7605 1. 75 ).61 2.70 3.61 ).67 0.0 1.80 0.90 0.0 126.5 141 .4 3.01 14.9 1104.5 0.7666 2.17 2. 71 2. 70 3.61 ).62 0.0 I.BO 0.90 0.0 127.0 141 .8 1.01 14.9 1 128. ) 0.767 1 2.45 5.41 5.41 6. 32 6. 1 3 0.0 5.40 4 .49 0.0 12 1.0 I4| .8 5.61 14.9 1269.4 0.7H76 72.0 7 4.61 6. 31 7.2/ 7.2) 0.0 6.30 5. 3B 0.0 177.0 141 .8 5.91 14.9 1261.9 0. 1974. 77.25 5.41 5.41 6. 32 6.33 0.0 5.40 4.49 0.0 127.0 141 .4 5.51 14.4 126 1.2 0.7979 22. r. 6. 31 7.21 8. 1 1 6.1) 0.0 8.10 5.311 0.0 177.0 141 .8 7.42 14.9 12 14.6 0.«C99 75.97 7.21 /.21 II. 1 ) 1.7) 0.0 6. 30 5. 38 0.0 176.5 I4| . 8 7.17 1 5. > 1/ 11 .4 0.81/1 76.75 rf. 1 1 7.21 7.7/ 8. 11 0.0 7.70 6.78 n.o 127.0 14 1 .8 7. 77 14.9 1/14.7 O.ROI'6 7 7.4/ 6.1 1 /.2l 9.0 1 8.11 u.o 8.10 6.7B 0.0 177.0 I4| .8 8. 1? 14.9 1/22.4 0.81*1 7'l. 97 II. 1 1 5.41 l.tt 7.7 1 0.0 6. 30 4.49 0.0 177.0 14 1 .8 6.97 14.9 1/46.6 O.HO/0 79.97 I.ni 8.11 in.II i l n. 04 0.0 B.l'l 6.78 0.0 177.0 141 .8 9.42 14.9 1111,1 ll.H 145 45. 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ON OOOOOOOOOOOOOO 232 •••••••RUN N039.•»•••.. FERRIC OX IOE CONC IPP1I 21)0. VOUS: 9.35 AMPS: 253. HEAT FLOW SUPPLIED 8073.6 FLUID VELOCITY 4.817 FI/SEC REYNOLOS NO 25394.5 PRANDIL NO 3.20 HEAT SUPP 8073.6 PTU/HR HEAT IP7NS 7817.1 BTU/HR HEAT LOST 256.5 BIU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 3.18 HEAT FLUX TRANS. BIU/SOFT-HR 44674. NUSSFLT NO 116.5 RFILK 0.653 ft*! All 0.14* RTOTAL 0.798 SOFI-HR-OCG F/BTU EST 1 SAT ES OF ROOT ME AN SCUARE STATISTICAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETER .1)462 .49466 ESTIMATES OF ROOT MEAN SQUARE TOTAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETERS .57654E-0I ESTIMATE UT .0 .21184 Ar:0 Fi IN 4.2464 -EXP l-ll* 1 I MC I 2.6190 HEAT TLUX SUPPLIED 46)4/. B1U/SIFT-HR TIME CALC. RESISTANCE F IITEO VALUE HOURS 1 IS0H-HR-UEGF/BTUIX1O0, 00U1 PE! AO. 301 TOR-TINIETI27.0 DEC f 0.0 0.0 -0.0 DENSJTY:0.936 CRAM/CC 0.25 1.79 2.05 T OUTLET138.3 DEC F 0.42 2.91 2.84 0.62 3.5" 3.42 FLOW RATE 0.1902 LBS.M/SEC 0.S2 4.03 3. 76 1.12 3.59 4.03 AVG IEMPM32.6 DEG F 1.58 1 4.26 4.18 KINEMAIIC 2.08 4.9) 4.23 VISCOSITV:0.504 SO.CM/SEC 2.25 3.59 4.24 Data processed for top half of tube only. 10CA117F0 WALL 1EMPCRMURES lUEG.Ft T215 1235 1255 T275 1295 1315 T3)5 T)55 T375 1395 1415, 1428 TIN TOUI IM OELTA H R TIKE DEG.r OEG.F OEG.F DFG.F OEG.F OEG.F DEC.F DEG.F OEC.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F XI000 HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 150.6 149. B 0.0 154. 7 158.) 0.0 127.0 1)8.3 153.4 11.4 1677.4 0.5962 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 151.5 150.6 0.0 155.1 159.5 0.0 127.0 138.) 154.2 11.4 1576.1 0.6345 0.25 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 151.9 151.1 0.0 155.9 159.9 0.0 127.0 138.3 154.7 11.4 1561. 4 0.6404 0.42 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 152.3 151.5 O.O 156.) 159.9 0.0 127.0 138.3 155.0 11.4 15". 1 0.6447 0.62 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 152.7 151.5 0.0 156.) 160. ) 0.0 127.0 138.3 155.2 11.4 14S9.2 0.6670 0.82 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 O.n 0.0 152.3 151.5 0.0 156.) 159.9 0.0 127.0 138.3 155.0 11.4 155 1.1 0.644 7 1. 12 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 152.7 151.9 0.0 156.) 160.) 0.0 127.0 138.3 155.3 11.4 1506.0 0.6640 1.56 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 152. 1 151.9 0.0 157.1 160. 7 0.0 127.0 138.) 155.6 11.4 1521.6 0.6572 2. 08 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 152.) 151.5 CO 156.) 159.9 0.0 126.5 138.3 155.0 11.8 1538.3 0.6501 2.25 IDCA112ED FOULING RESISTANCE ISOFT-HR-DEGF/DTUIX100.000 1215 1235 1255 1275 1295 1315 T335 1355 1)75 1395 1415 T428 TIN TOUT REM OELTA M RTOI TIME OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F X1000 HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 138.3 0.0 11.4 1677.4 0.5962 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.80 1. 30 0.0 0.90 2.68 0.0 127.0 1 38.3 1.79 11.4 1576.1 0.6345 0.25 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.69 2. 70 0.0 2.69 3.57 0.0 127.0 1 31.3 2.91 11.4 1561.4 0.6404 0.42 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.59 3.59 0.0 3.68 3.57 0.0 127.0 138.3 3.59 11.4 1551.1 0.644 7 0.62 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4. 49 3.59 0.0 3.5R 4.46 0.0 127.0 13a.) 4.0) 11.4 1499.2 0.66 70 0.6 2 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.59 1.59 0.0 ).5» 3.57 0.0 127.0 l)a.3 ).59 11.4 1551.1 0.6447 1.12 O.O 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.49 4.49 0.0 3.5B 4.46 0.0 127.0 138. 3 4.26 11.4 1506.0 0.6640 1.5* 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4. 49 4.49 0.0 5. )7 5.36 0.0 127.0 1 3B.3 4.93 11.4 1521.6 0.6572 2.08 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.59 3.59 0.0 3.56 3.57 0.0 126.5 1)6.3 3.59 11.8 15)8. ) 0.6501 2.25 / oooeoooeo MO OOOOOOOOO SA> to PC NI/WVWU-I-OO OOOCOCOOO OOCOOOGOO OOOOOOOOO toe * -OOOOOOOOO v> <• c e ooeoooooe w OOOOOOOOO \1\ OOOOOOOOO Ku • ••*•*••• ,0 OOOOOOOOO t/i OOOOOOOOO * OOOOOOOOO O * • ••*>*••* fS> 000000000 a> 'si»s/"v'>jlx^r\j»u^s>T-< z J-OOOOOOOO"" — —  a-* ^#WW«.V-M<-0 JO J cr J J J .O »- O X — — — oo * • » o »-OO-fftyOO-J-^OB 4»»-J'*'*'*-OwO ~oaoooA cn i oooooooooxn ffl — i « -£ -O O v/* *-J O ~rw — — OOOOOC — C X o -«r» oooooooooo—r> • < ' • « mOOOOOOOOO** f OOOOOOtf-eraOw • * U<E N1 ^'y'vr«\i/-00,'Ti > r-— >-»*.-»-»-»'0~> r -f /•*^j«*<>mN^ — c — i> W JO — — — o -> — ui V> o u;. Vi i/i JI <#• vr rt. C vCi — - "n » o -« OOOOOOOOO <••••••••• o OOOOOOOOO-" C -H m w OOOOOOOOOO^ OOOOOOOOO*** C -i OOOOOOOOOO-J OOOOOOOOOtl o -« OOOOOOOOOO^ OOOOOOOOOTI o -< m * OOOOOOOOOO-' ••*•• v/l ooooooooo-n o -» m OOOOOOOOOOM OOOOOOOOOti — _ — — _ o 0^-«-«-«J-<-w-»J-^CI — z WIOOOOOOOOTI CDOBccaooiaicsuecvoC «4.--^.»J-J-*.0^O""* • *•••<>•• Cl r-OOOOOO-^-^CO ^••->/-r-/-owo »uc J O O O /* « X OOOOOOOOO X OO^OOOtrv/itni— OMOOCO(B-JVJ'0?9 «OOOOOCD*-^>0 X Mg-"-000000" C X rvv o »~ CD O IM o * rn inrrcONiMrjrij^ I/I 234 •At..*.KUN .\'039.«•*»»*• FERRIC OXIOE CONC IPPM 2130. VOLTS: 9.35 AMPS: 253. MEAT FLOW SUPPLI ED 8073.6 HEAT FLUX SUPPLIEU 46347. 8TU/HR ETU/SCFI-HR BETA0.301 IDR»IINLET127.0 DEG F DENSIIr:0.9B6 GRAK/CC T OUTLET138.3 OEG F FLOW RATE 0.1902 LBS.M/SEC AVG TEMP:132.6 DEG F KINEMATIC VISCOSIIY:0.504 SO.CM/SEC FLUID VELOCITY A.817 FT/SEC RLYNOLDS ND 25394.5 PRANDU NO 3.20 HEAT SUPP 8073.6 BIU/HR HEAT TRANS 7817.1 8TU/IIR HEAT LOST 256.5 8IU/HR PERCENT MEAT LOST 3.IR HEAT FLUX TRANS. BIU/SOFI-HR 44874. NUSSELI NO 116.5 RFILH 0.653 RWALl 0.145 RI01AL 0.798 SOFI-HR-DEG T/BIU ESI1KA1CS Ul ROOt MEAN SOUARt" STATISTICAL ERROR IN IHE PARAfEIEK .14226 .48191 ESTIMATES Cf RCOI MEAN S3U1RE 131AL ER-lUR IN IME PAKAMEIERS .59295E-0I .20016 ESTIMATE OF RO.RI^ . AND 6 IN Rf=RINFUI.-EXPl-H»1 IKCI •0 4.3522 2.2862 TIME CALC. RESISTANCE FITIEO VALUC-HOURS 11SQFl-HR-OEGF/aTUlX100.0001 0.0 0.0 -0.0 0.25 1.49 1.90 0.42 2.49 2.69 0.62 3.79 3.30 0.82 3.99 3.69 1.12 3.79 4.0? 1.58 4.09 4.24 2.08 4.88 4.31 2.25 3.79 4.33 Data processed for whole tube. LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERATURES (DEG.F1 T?15 T235 T255 T275 1295 T3I5 T335 1355 T375 OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F 0.0 148.6 147.8 152. 7 152.7 153.1 150.6 149.8 0.0 0.0 149.0 148.2 153.5 153.1 153.9 151.5 150.6 CO 0.0 149.4 148.6 153.9 153.5 1 54. 3 151.9 151.1 0.0 0.0 150.2 149.4 154.7 154. 3 155. 1 152. 1 151.5 C. 0 0.0 150.? 149.4 154.7 154.3 155. 1 152. 7 151.5 CO 0.0 150.? 149.4 154. 7 154.3 155.1 152.3 151.5 0.0 0.0 150.2 149. 4 154. 7 154. 3 155.1 152.7 141.9 0.0 0.0 150.6 149.8 155. 1 154. 7 153.5 152. 7 151.9 0.0 0.0 150.2 149.8 154.7 153.9 155.1 152.3 151.5 0.0 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE (SUFI -H*-DEGF/BTUIXIOO,000 1215 T235 T255 1275 1295 1315 1 335 1355 T3 75 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.n 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.90 0.90 1.79 0.90 1.79 l.HO 1 .80 0.0 0.0 1.80 1.80 2.69 1. 79 ?.69 7.69 2. 7(1 0.0 0.0 3.60 i.60 4.44 1.59 4.46 3.59 1.59 0.0 0.0 3.60 1.60 4.4H 1.59 4.46 4.49 3.59 0.0 0.0 3.60 3.60 4.48 1.59 4.48 3.39 1.49 0.0 0.3 3.60 3.60 4.48 >. 59 4.48 4.49 4.49 0.0 0.0 4.50 4.50 5. 1« 4.4A 5.36 4. 49 4.49 0.0 0.0 3.60 4.50 4.4a 2.69 4.48 3.59 3.59 0.0 1395 1415 T428 TIN TOUT TM DELTA H R TIME OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F XI000 HOURS 154. 7 156. 1 0.0 127.0 138. 3 152.0 1 1.4 1829.4 0.5466 0.0 155.1 159.5 0.0 127.0 138. 3 152.7 11.4 1766.2 0.5662 0.25 155.9 159.9 0.0 127.0 138. 3 153.2 11.4 1727.5 0.5789 0.42 156.3 159.9 0.0 127.0 138.3 151.7 11.4 '681 .2 0.5948 0.62 156.3 160.3 0.0 127.0 138.3 153.8 11.4 1671.5 0.5975 0. 6? 156. 3 159.9 0.0 127.0 1 18. 3 153.7 11.4 1631.2 0.5943 1.12 156.3 160. 3 0.0 127.0 116.3 153.9 11.4 1669.0 0.5992 1.38 157.1 160.7 0.0 127.0 138.3 154.2 11.4 1643.3 0.6085 2.08 156.3 159.9 0.0 126.5 118.3 153.7 11.8 1666.0 0.600? 2.25 1395 1415 T428 TIN TOUT RFM 0EL7A H RIOT TIME OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F X1000 MU'JR S 0.0 0.0 0.6 127.0 131.3 0.0 11.4 1629.4 0.5466 U.O 0.90 2.68 0.0 12 7.0 118.3 1.49 11.4 1766.? 0. 5662 U.23 2.69 1.57 0.0 127.0 116.1 2.49 11.4 1127.5 0.5769 U.4? 3.58 1.57 0.0 127.0 138.1 3. 79 11.4 1681.? 0.5946 0.6? 1.58 4.46 0.0 127.0 118.1 3.99 11.4 1673.5 0.5973 0.62 3.58 3.57 0.0 127.0 1 19. t 3. 79 11.4 1611.2 0.5943 1.12 3.58 4.46 0.0 127.0 11". 1 4 .09 11.4 1669.0 0.5992 1.38 5.37 5. 16 0.0 127.0 1 18.1 4.68 11.4 1641.3 0.6063 2.08 3.58 3.57 0.0 126.5 118. 1 3.79 11.8 1666.0 0.6002 2.25 «»* r* O O O O O O O O O O O O O MS • ••*•****•••• o o o o o o o O O O O O O O u>> f m »v O 00000000000000--0 • »••* • • • • Ul J» ooooooooooooo-n i— a ^ a * ft • •i II "M o o o «« — JC-^tt-«-«iU'-v--00 IM -« * V V> «C u •^-.-••."i"«i-^U'N-»00 OC003OC300C00 COQOOCOOOOCOO o o o o o a o c coot: o o o o o o O O O O O U * • • • • u O o o Q "n ooooooooooooo ooooooooooooo o o o o o o o < o o o c o o o a o o O O O O C7> L O © O O TI ooooacQoocoos w O C O O O O O O O O O O O vi o o o o o o o c © o o c a o o o o o o o o o o -* • . • t vj 0 0 0 0"" COOOOOOOOCOOO w OOOOOOOOOOOOO Ui O O o o o o o c o o o c GOO o o o O O O O O J O O O O fx OOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOO O O o o o © O C O o o < O O O O O o o o o O Cl -O O O O Tl OOOOOOOOOOOOO oeooooocooooo o o o o a o o c o o o c o o o o o o o o o o o » C O O O Ti N «g Ni \ fg , -WCOOOUtOOOOOOO" 4-4 1-1^-1-4 o 3 O O O UlOOOOOOOTl » 33 Cl C 3 v CO M 13 - -- ~ o o ' * 4f • -t J" V. Pv — U CCufw^K'^wO ooooooooooooox-o i?> ^ t> e* ? c- ^ 1,1 ui >/. o o v" ^ C — -u » * f w >J4" JiO -vivjru — — — oooooooo — * • • • C Jl a * c » * «• ^, nj c- *• iv — c M m Ul Cr U* U1 ^«iv>iWl^i>^*J ooooooooooooo • ••••<•*•>••<>< (ro*C,t*O"i>cj,^0>,u*uiuiw»-« J> .T »- O- * »J r'v-.>C-gw'lOS rv">>'u'0--wj>^'0<ouij>>--o T -* iN,rV>Vi------>OOOOOOOC]>--' • • c * t»#'Off*'---JJ>i<0'J>-*j--OJCr-fi U'-*f»UI«J,WU*"»i\>U'. CO 00 lyi 236 ....•••HUN N040.**••*•• FERRIC OX IOC CONC IPPKI 2li0'. VOUS: 9.)5 AMPS: 253. HE*I FIOJ SUPPLIED aOM.6 HEAT FLUX SUPPLIED ".(,347. STU/HR OIU/SUFI-HR RETA0.30I T0R=TINLET127.0 OEG F DENSITV:0.9S6 GRAK/CC I OUILCII38.) DEC F FLOW RATE 0.1902 L8S.K/SEC AVC TCMP:132.6 DEG F K1NERAI IC V1SC0S1TY:0.504 SQ.CM/SEC FIUIO VELOCITY 4.617 FT/SEC REYNOLDS 90 25394.5 PRANOll HO 3.20 HEAT SUPP 8073.6 BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 7817.1 8IU/ICR HEAT 10ST 256.5 BTU/HR PERCENT HEAT 10ST 1.18 HEAT FLUX TRANS. bTU/SCFT-HR 44674. NUSSCII NO 116.5 RFILH 0.653 RWALl 0.145 RIOIAl 0.798 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BTU ESTIHA1ES TE ROOT ME.AN SuU\RE STATISTICAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETER .97/871-01 .366)9 ESTIMATES or RO'.II MEAN SSUAl'.l li)TAl ERROR 111 THE PARAMETERS .423A0E-O1 .158/5 ESIII'.ME 0: ROiKlNF.ANO [1 l-l Rr-RINFI I l.-f XP|-P«I l«EI .0 4.8267 2. .1710 ' . 11 ME CALC. RLSISIA'.Cf U I if 0 VALUt HOURS II SUF l-hR-UCOh'/HTUl XI00, 0001 0.0 0.0 -0.0 0.18 1.57 1.68 0.26 2.24 2.34 0.45 3.14 3.17 0.62 4.03 3. 77 0.88 4.48 4.23 0.95 4.48 4.32 1.13 4.26 4.50 1.47 4.26 4.68 . 1.65 4.03 4.73 2.08 4.93 4.79 2.47 4.48 4.81 2.85 5.82 4.62 Data processed for top half of tube only. LOCALIZED WALL TEKPERAIURES IDCG.FI 1215 1235 1255 1215 1295 1315 7335 1355 T375 13 95 DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F CEG.F OEG.F DLG.F DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEC.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 150.6 149.4 CO 154. 7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 151.5 150.2 0.0 t55.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 151.9 150.6 0.0 155.5 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 152. 3 151.1 CO 155.9 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 157. 7 151.5 0.0 155.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 152.7 151.5 0.0 156.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 152.7 151.5 0.0 156.) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 O.C 0.0 152.7 151.5 0.0 156. ) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 152. 7 151.5 0.0 156.) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 152.7 151.5 0.0 156.) 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 15). 1 151.9 0.0 156.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 153. 1 15 1.9 0.0 156.) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 153.5 152.) o.o 157.1 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISOFT-HR-OSGF/B101X100,000 1215 1235 1255 1775 1295 1315 1335 1355 1375 7)95 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .BO 1.80 0.0 1 . 19 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.69 2.70 0.0 1. 79 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 O.O 0.0 3.59 ).60 0.0 2.69 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.49 4.49 0.0 2.69 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.49 4.49 0.0 3.58 0.0 0.0 0.0 n.o 0.0 0.0 4.49 4.4 9 n.o 1.48 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.0 0.0 0.0 4. 49 4.49 0.0 ).58 0.0 o.n 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.49 4.49 0.0 ).5B 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.n 0.0 4.49 4.49 0.0 ).5B 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o U.O 5. 39 5. )9 0.0 4.48 0.0 0.0 o.n 0.0 0.0 u.o 5. 19 5.)9 o.o ).58 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 u.o 6./B 6.29 0.0 5.)7 7415 T42S TIN TOUT IH DELTA H R TIME DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEG. F OEG.F OEG.F XIOOO HOURS 158.7 0.0 127.0 13B. 3 153.4 11.4 1649.5 0.6062 0.0 159. 1 0.0 I2T.0 1)8. 3 154.1 11.4 1603.1 0.6238 0. 13 159.5 0.0 127.0 1 38. 3 154.4 11.4 1556.9 0.6423 0.28 159.9 0.0 127.0 1 31. ) 154.8 11.4 1527.5 0.6547 0.45 160. 7 0.0 127.0 1)8. 3 155.7 11.' 14 72.0 0.6 79 3 0.62 161.1 0.0 127.0 138. 3 155.4 11.4 1468.9 0.6808 0. 81 161.1 0.0 127.0 1 38. 3 155.4 11.4 1468.9 0.6608 0.95 160. 7 0.0 126.5 1)8. ) 155. 3 11.8 1471.9 0.6794 1. 1) 160.7 0.0 127.0 13). 3 155. 1 11.4 1463.6 0.6741 1.47 160. ) O.C 127.0 13B. ) 155.2 11.4 1499.2 0.6670 1.65 160.7 0.0 127.0 1 38. ) 155.6 11.4 1472.1 0.6793 2.UB 160.) 0.0 127.0 1)8. 3 155.4 11.4 1474.5 0.6782 2.47 161.1 0.0 126.5 138. ) 156.0 11.8 1434.9 0.6969 2.85 1415 1426 TIN TOUT RFM DELIA H RTOT 1 IKE OEG.F ore. F OEG.F XIOOO HOURS 0.0 0.0 177.0 I3R. ) 0.0 11.4 1649.5 0.6062 0.0 0.B9 0.0 177.0 1 3B. ) 1.57 11.4 1603.I 0.6731 0.11 1. 79 0.0 127.0 1 38. ) 2.24 11.4 1556.9 0.642) 0.21 2.68 0.0 127.0 1 38. ) 3.14 11.4 1527.5 0.6547 0. 45 4.46 0.0 127.0 1)8. ) 4.0) 11.4 1477.0 0.679) 0.67 5. 35 0.0 177.0 1 38. 3 4.48 11.4 1461.9 0.6808 0.81 5. 35 0.0 127.0 1)8. ) 4.4H 11.4 146ft.9 0.6108 0.96 4.46 0.0 1/6.5 1 38.) 4.26 11.8 1471.9 0.6794 l.l) 4.46 0.0 177.0 1 )B. 3 4.76 11.4 1411.6 0.6741 1.47 3.67 0.0 177.0 1 JR. 3 4.0) 11.4 14 19.2 0.667U 1.65 4.46 0.0 177.0 1 31. 3 4.9 3 11.4 1 4 77. 1 0.6 III 7.0" 3.67 0.0 177.0 1 in. ) 4.46 11.4 1474.5 0.6 IB7 2.47 5.35 0.0 176.6 138. 3 5.82 11.8 1434.9 0.6969 2.85 237 •••••••RUN N040.•«**»•• FERRIC OXIOE CONC IPPMI 7130. VOLIS! 9.3S AMPS: ?53. MEAT I LOM SUPPLIED b073.b MEAT FLUX SUPPLIEU 46147. BETAO.301 TOR=IINLEIl?7.0 DSN$IIY:0.986 GRAM/CC I OuriEI138.3 FLOW RATE 0.1902 L8S.M/SEC AVG TEMP:132.6 DEG F KINEMATIC VISC0SITY:0.504 SO.CVSEC FLUIO VELOCITY A.817 FT/SEC REYNOLDS ND 25399.5 PRANOTL NO 3.20 DEG F OEG f EST1MAHS OF ROOT MEAN SOUARE STATISTICAL ERROR IN THE PARAMEIER .869451-01 .76154 ES1IHAIIS OF ROOI MEAN SGUARE TOTAL ERROR IN I ME P AR AM FIFR 5 . 4/.on».c _n i .14218 RU.RINF.ANO 8 IN RI >R 1 ;IF I I 1 .-E XP I -.46906E-0I ESIIMAIF OF .0 --IIME I TIME 7.0171 1.6332 CALC. RESISTANCE FITTED VALU MUURS 11SQFI-HR-uEGF/CUU1X100.0001 0.0 0.0 -0.0 0.18 1.40 1. 79 0.26 1.89 2.58 0.45 2.99 3.65 0.62 4.70 4.47 0.68 5.98 5. 35 0.95 5.98 5.53 1.13 6.58 5.91 1.4 7 6. 38 6.38 1.65 5.88 6.54 2.08 6.68 6.78 2.47 6.28 6.89 2.85 7.37 6.95 HEAT SUPP 8073.6 8TU/HR HEAT IRANS 7817.L 9IU/HR HEAT LOST 256.5 BIU/HR PERCENT HEAT I OS I 3.IB HEAT FLUX IRANS. BIU/SOFT-HR 44874. T1USSELT NO 116.5 RFILM 0.653 RWAll 0.145 RTOTAL 0.798 SCFT-MR-OEG F/BTU Data processed for whole tube. LOCAL I ZED WALL T21S 1235 OEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 OEG.F 148.2 149.0 149.0 149.4 150.6 161.5 151.5 152.3 152.1 151.9 151.9 151.9 152.1 TEMPERATURES T255 T275 DEG.F 147.4 143.2 148.2 149.0 149.8 150.6 150.6 151.5 151.5 151.1 151.5 151.5 151.9 OEG.F 153.1 151.5 153.5 154.3 155.5 156.3 156. 1 156. 7 156. 7 156. 3 156.7 156. 3 157. I IDEG.FI T295 OEG.F 152. 7 153.1 153.5 153.9 155. I 155.9 135.9 156. 3 155.9 135.5 156. 3 155.9 155.9 T3I5 DEG.F 133.5 153.9 134.3 154.7 135.9 156.7 156. 7 137.1 154.7 136. 7 136. 7 156.7 157. I T135 DEG.F 150.6 151.5 151.9 152. 3 157. 7 15?. 7 15?.? 152.7 152. 7 152.7 153. I 153.1 153.5 T355 DEG.F 149.4 150.2 150.6 151.1 151.5 151.5 151.5 151.5 151.5 151.5 151.9 151.9 152.3 T375 DEG.F CO 0.0 0.0 CO CO CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. J 0.0 0.0 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISOFT-MR-OEGF/BTU)XIOO,000 1215 1235 1255 1275 1295 TJ1S 1315 1155 1)75 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 1.80 1. no ?.70 5.40 7.19 7.19 8.49 0.0 1.60 1.60 1.60 5.40 7.20 7./0 6.09 8.10 8.09 8.99 0.0 0.90 0.90 ?.G9 5. 18 7.1 7 7.11 6.06 6.06 7.17 0.0 0.90 1.79 2.69 5. 16 7. I 7 7.17 6.06 7.17 I. I 7 0.0 0.90 1.79 2.69 5.38 7.17 1.17 6. 7. 1 7 7.17 2.69 1.59 0.0 1 .80 2. 70 1.60 4.49 4.49 4.49 4.49 4.49 4.49 5. 19 4. 19 6.29 0.0 U.O CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.u 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 0.0 T395 DEG.F 154.7 155.5 155.5 155.9 155.9 156. 1 156.3 156.3 156. 1 156.3 156.7 156.1 157.1 0.0 1.79 2.69 2.69 T415 T428 TIN TOUT TH DELTA H R TIME DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F X1000 HOURS 158.7 0.0 127.0 1 33. 3 152.0 11 4 1826.6 0.5475 0.0 159. I 0.0 127.0 119. 1 152.7 11 4 1770.4 0.5648 0. 13 159.5 0.0 127.0 138. 3 152.9 11. 4 1 747.6 0.5722 0.28 159.9 0.0 127.0 133. 1 153.4 11 4 1707.4 0.5657 0.45 160.7 0.0 127.0 113. 3 154.2 11. 4 •64 7.1 0.6071 0.6? 161.1 0.0 127.0 138. 3 154.7 11. 4 .611.1 0.6207 0.66 161.1 0.0 127.0 1)8. 3 154. 7 11. 4 1611.1 0.6207 U.95 160.7 0.0 126.5 na. 3 155.0 11. 8 1531.9 0.6)21 1.1) 160. 7 0.0 127.0 1)8. 3 154.9 11. 4 1604.4 0.62)1 1.47 160. 3 0.0 127.0 113. 3 154.7 11. 4 1617.) 0.6 16) 1.65 160. 7 0.0 127.0 1)3. 1 155.0 11 . 4 1569.7 0.6291 ?.03 160.3 0.0 127.0 1)8. 3 154.8 11. 4 1602.6 0.62)9 2.47 161.1 0.0 126.5 133. 3 155.3 11. 8 1554.2 0.6434 ?.85 7415 T428 UN TOUT RFM DELTA H RIOT TIME CEG.F DEG.F DEG.F X 1000 HOURS 0.0 0.0 127.0 1)3. 3 0.0 11. 4 1826.6 0.54 74 O.U 0.89 0.0 127.0 lid. 3 1.40 11. 4 1 7 70.4 0.6643 o. in 1.79 0.0 127.0 133. 3 I.HI 11. 4 1 74 7.6 0.5772 0.28 7.68 0.0 127.0 1)3. 3 2.99 11 . 4 1707.4 0.5857 0.45 4.46 0.0 127.0 1 13. 1 4.78 11. 4 1647.1 0.6071 0.62 5. 15 0.0 127.0 111. 3 5.96 11. 4 1611.1 U. 4/0 7 0.6" 5. 35 0.0 177.0 1 13. 1 5 . 'II 1 1 . 4 1611.1 0.670 7 0. #5 4.46 0.0 126.5 1)8. 1 6.48 11. 8 1481.9 0.6 121 1.1) 4.46 o.u 127.0 1 18. 1 6 . J8 II. 4 1604.4 0.6/3) 1.47 3.47 0.0 127.0 1 18. 1 5.68 1 1 . 4 1617.) 0.616) 1.65 4.46 0.0 12 7.0 I 18. 1 6.66 11 . 4 1589.7 0.679 1 2.06 1.47 0.0 127.0 1 13. 1 6.28 11. 4 1607.8 0.6717 7.47 5. 15 0.0 126.5 1 18. 3 7.)7 11. 8 1554.2 0.6414 ?.65 OOOOOOO WO OOOOOOO V J*-m M O 0000©©00*-><""t «••••••• vi > OOOOOOOtl r-OOOOOOO "VO • **>••* w OOOOOOO V* "»* rt Ni O OOOOOOO I'w • V* JC OOOOOOO*" I* COOOOOO "lh * • 1 • 1 • * V OOOOOOO v OOOOOOOOO rr-• »*•»*> tVIJC OOOOOOO"** -o OOOOOOO ruf QCOOOOO V * OOOOOOO IV — • * Out OOOOOOO v o — X OOOCOOO U * OOOOOOO wo * w »- O w a * o o o o o o w • -J 7 O O C O O O Vi C/i'J'wiOO w « N J> W ^ t>* 4 O W C * w O O *• "V W V J* V 9 O VI 4* V O* -«J J OOOOOOO * OOOOOOO 03 ~ — — — — — o ^rsj»N«i\irvr\>*v"*Ti"* • • z VOOOOVOTl » o» <** *• w o » o ** ** ^ — o 3: PV V <C 00 o> rsi ^. _ .- — r- O O .....,« o «-»*•*-•** -• T> t» J- * *• * V V1 0» O O O -a «J v> *• -J *• to I- 31 IV I OOCOOOOK7> -••^^o^^ooa — ^-O-v-AOO-* O — -C -.---zO W <0 9- W N / I — — — OOOOOO — C X fxj a> SJ *• — O » -JO " IV OOOOOOOO-^C • • VI W OOOOOOOTi m U" O — — oooooooo-om V o OOOOOOO"" ^ o -* OOOOOOOO"-VI OOOOOOOTi — — — — — o-t .1 gl wl V" / Hi v" "> W J>- W M — — O W « VI N*,n.to — — .0*--l ,-,._»..-»-.- o -« vviv^v^^omto ylWuiNI*OOg«l • t VI V>V>w"*W-flO*\)TI O -i IT U> OOOOOOOO-J • •••<<**Vi OOOOOOO*!* — — — vvivivviviuiniui to V* .O •— * Vi Tl — ~ — O -t . — — — O-O-flO.— t*t*****Vi 0 — r-i > OOOOOOOON* t ••>»••* n OOOOOOOTI — >- — "- — "-"-(D •JfU"OI\iW*JrJrTi^ tr^-j-g-*o--Nin — z VOOOOViOT H-HMr-i-i-OH saouiDiiaciC .-.- — .-o vi ui vn ui ^ w v1 ra ^ O-J-OOOlAOT* — ~ — ~ oo i— *— M ^ i- « rn in o «-•n > O O o x *J VI > ^ /• w J> ni N X " OOOOOOO Fc-S-uli-OOTJ o*-'v*-''-»o 1 -t — — OOOOOO — C T* •4"\<CBv/iJ>*-~OArn IX) OJ CO 239 .......RUN N041.•»»«*»• (E«K1C OXIOE COHC IPPM) 2130. VOLTS: 9.35 AMPS: 233. HEAT HOW SUPPLIED 80/3.6 8 KINEMATIC V1SC0SI1«:0.504 ESTIMATES OF ROOT MEAN SCUAKE STATISTICAL ERROR IN I HE PARAMETER .2244) . A A b19 ESTIMATES OF ROOI MEAN SCUA3E [DIAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETERS .12887 .25621 ESTIMATE OF RO.RINF.ANO 8 IN RF = RINF I I I,-EXPI-8*11 ME 1 8.9096 1. 1 9'. I HEAT FLUX SUPPLIED 46)47. 5TU/ SFT-HR TIME CALC. RESISTANCE FITTED VALUE HOURS I1SCFT-Hk-oEoP/HlulX100. 0001 BETAO.301 TOR«It.Nlf.H27.0 DEC F 0.0 0.0 -0.0 DENSI1Y:0.986 CRAM/CC 0.18 1.30 1.72 T 0UILEU38.3 DEC F 0.42 3.09 3.51 0.57 A. 08 A.AO FLOW RATE 0.1902 LBS.M/SEC 0.87 6.77 5.76 1.20 6.87 6.78 AVC TEMP:132.6 DEC F 1.77 7.47 7.83 FLUIO VELOCIIT 4.817 REYNOLDS NO 25394.5 PSAND1L NO 3.20 Data processed for whole tube. HEAT SUPP 8073.6 BIU/HR HEAT IRANS 7817.1 BIU/HR HEAI LUSI 256.5 BTU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOSI 1.18 HEAI FLUX TRANS. OTU/SOFI-HR 44874. NUSSELT NO 116.5 RfllH 0.653 RWALL 0.145 BIOTAl 0.798 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BTU LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERATURES (0EG.F1 1215 1235 1255 T275 T295 T315 T135 1355 T375 T395 T415 1428 TIN TOUT TM DELTA H R TIME DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.r DEG.F OEG.F UEG.F DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OCG. F DEG.F DEG.F X100O HOURS 0.0 148.6 148.2 153.5 153.1 153.5 151.1 150.2 0.0 155.5 159.1 0.0 127.0 118. 3 152.5 11.4 1782.3 0.5611 0.0 0.0 149.4 148.6 154.1 153.5 154.3 151.9 150.6 0.0 155.9 159.5 0.0 126.5 138. 3 153. 1 11.8 1714.1 0.5e34 0. 1 8 0.0 149.8 149.4 154.3 154.3 155.1 152.7 151.9 0.0 157.1 160.7 0.0 177.0 1 38. 3 153.9 11.4 1663.7 0.6011 0.42 0.0 150.2 149.8 155. 1 154.7 155.S 151.1 152.1 0.0 157.5 161.1 0.0 127.0 138. 3 154.4 11.4 1629.6 0.6136 0.57 0.0 151.9 151. 1 156.7 155.9 157.1 154.3 143.5 0.0 157.9 161.9 0.0 127.0 133. 1 155.6 11.4 1544.9 C6473 0.87 0.0 152.3 151.9 156.7 156. 3 156. 7 154. 1 151.5 CO 157.5 161.5 0.0 127.0 133. 3 155.6 11.4 154'.6 0.6470 1.20 0.0 152.7 151.9 157.1 136.1 157.1 154. 3 153.5 0.0 158.3 161.9 0.0 126.5 138. 3 155.9 11.a 1515. 1 0.6600 1.77 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISOFl-MR-OEGF/OTUIXI CO,000 7215 1235 1255 1275 1295 T3I5 1315 1155 T375 T395 T41S 1428 TIN TOUT RFM DELTA H RIOT TIME OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F X1000 HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 . CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 1 IS. 3 0.0 11.4 1762.3 0.5611 0.0 0.0 1.80 O.90 1.79 0.90 1.79 1.60 0.90 0.0 0.90 0.89 0.0 176.5 133.1 1.10 11.8 1114. 1 0.46)4 0.18 0.0 2.70 2.70 1. 79 2.69 3.58 3.59 1.59 0.0 3.56 3.57 0.0 12 7.0 1)3.1 3.09 11.4 1661.7 0.6011 0.42 0.0 3.60 3.60 3.58 1.59 4.48 4. 49 4.49 0.0 4 .47 4.46 0.0 171.0 133.3 4.08 11.4 1629.6 C6116 0.57 0.0 7.19 6.29 7.17 6.27 6.06 7. 16 7.16 CO 5.37 6.74 0.0 127.0 1 13.) 6.17 1 1.4 1544.9 0.647) 0.87 0.0 8.09 8.09 7.17 7. 1 7 7.17 7.18 7.16 0.0 4.47 5.35 0.0 12 7.0 113.1 6.87 11.4 1545.6 0.6470 1.20 0.0 8.99 6.09 8.06 7.17 6.06 7. 16 7.13 0.0 6.26 6.24 0.0 126.5 1)6.) 7.47 11.8 1515.1 0.6600 1.77 ooooooo s>a • •**••« t-ri OOOOOOO » -J w o *»J c n 69 o u \ o o N z O -sl Cf> ./• w •— O \f JO • ....«. l-l O — O *• V — O V c * c* a 0) j "i m fs» O OOOOOOOO—O *••••• I • VI )T* ooooooo***. <— WVi*!"* V> A n r\, c N' ,M » O < i£ » r< to V" TC ^ M !» M> tl P-— g- — C -I WVi*** *> •— -"^ jattOviiti » V'vflV'Vvntf'vi'TiiV-' wi a. totou»-- m v \r <j i,1 tf, v' n \ 3 0- [*• \V» Jh to u# Ci on • ••••••• V< O toto^-WtolXi— Tl • Tl wf.»/« vf. ii, u> ui m w -sj t> « yi LB /• u. C -* « * Ul OOOOOOO to I >••<••< u» occoooc V C OOOOOOoOto V oooooco-n OOOOOOO wo • ••»••« u, • OCOOOOO o OOOOOOOOd OOOOOOOTI OOOOOOO to OOOOOOO v*. oooooooo->>>*>**>u OOOOOOOTi OOOOOOO to * o OOOOOOO 0*1 o -* m to OOOOOOOCMS S/l OOOOOOOTi OOOOOOO *• OOOOOOO S" Oooooooo— * • . V OOOOOOOTI OOOOOOO > OOOOOOO » OOOOOOOTi 2 l"*0000\/»OTt _ _ o totos.toWtou.rWO cottcoaiCDicDOC -NNWMfO "° Tl o N"* o o > o rc o -C r — — ^---i-OO . O r-t> ui ty <J* ~* •o » O O Jiw » N 44-ISUi JO X Hg O CO — <0 •— -0 OOOOOOOXJO O i> r/. in> ui ui o a V>N»t>0~-g)'VO-*: OQ— OO ISi IS* JJ 43 ttf -4 e*> I -» •-—oooooa — ex XNi{ilv,^> O X rn V*OOOOJiOTi 0<BV — 00*-TI n > v" *• I" C P> -J >ll •» O O <" to J-M ^ OB ->J -0 *- •« OOOOOOO - — OCOOOC c g M Oi I" * - O ) 241 •««****RUN N042.•*•**•• FERRIC OXIDE CONC IPPMI 2130. VOIIS:13.50 ANPS: 355. HEAT FLCW SUPPLIED 16356.6 BTU/HH HEAT FLUX SUPPLIED 9)697. BIU/SOFT-HR BETAO.301 TCR=TINLET127.0 CEC F DENSITY:!).986 CRAK/CC 1 0UILEU49.9 CEG F FLOW RATE 0.1888 LBS.K/SEC AVG TEMPU38.4 CEC F K II.EKAI IC VISC051IY:0.4B0 SO.CM/SEC FLUIC VELOCITY 4.790 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 26466.8 PRANOIl NO 3.03 HEAT SUPP 16356.8 BTU/HR HEAI TRANS 15633.8 BTU/HR HEAT LOST 723.0 BTU/HR PERCENT FEAT LOSI 4.42 HEAT FLUX TRANS. BIU/SOFT-HR B9746. NUSSELI NO 121.3 RFILH 0.624 RUALL 0.143 RTOTAL 0.766 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BTU ESTIMATES CF ROOT MEAN SCUARI-2.6492 3.4941 ESTIMATES CF ROOT MEAN SCUARE 1.2636 1.5747 ES1IKAIE Cr RO,RINF,A,\C 8 19 RF - R INF I 11 .-EX P I-C • I I PE I STATISTICAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETER I01AL ERROR IN THE PARAMETERS TIME HOURS 0.0 0.18 0.35 0.55 0.70 0.83 1.06 1.30 1.47 .4646 .35411 CALC. RESISTANCE FIITEO VALUE IISCFI-IIR-DEGF/BTUIXICO.OOOI .0 1.17 1.41 1.27 1.07 1.46 2.68 2.67 3.02 -0.0 0.46 0.87 1.32 1.64 1.90 2.37 2.76 3.03 LOCALI2FD WALL TEMPERATURES IDEG.FI 1215 T235 1255 1275 1295 1315 T335 T355 T375 DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F CEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F 0.0 175.0 174.6 182. 1 187.5 104.1 130.6 179.8 CO 0.0 175.8 175.8 183.7 183. 7 185. 3 181.3 180.9 0.0 0.0 176.2 176.2 183. 7 163.3 185. 3 181.7 131.3 CO 0.0 176.2 175.8 183. 7 163.7 135.3 181.3 180.9 0.0 0.0 176.6 175.8 UJ. 3 183.7 184.9 181.7 180.6 CO 0.0 177.0 176.6 183.7 163.7 165. 3 181.7 181.3 cc 0.0 177.8 177.4 ie4.9 186.3 166.5 182.9 182. 1 CO 0.0 171.8 177.8 1E5.7 184.9 166.5 162.9 162.1 CO 0.0 176.2 177.8 166. 1 185.3 let.6 183.3 182.1 CO T395 1415 T428 TIN TOUT TM DELTA H R TIME DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F CEG. F IEG.F DEG.F OEG.F X1C00 HOURS 167.6 143.5 0.0 127.0 149.9 182.2 23.0 1616.3 0.618? 0.0 168.4 194.3 0.0 127.0 149.9 1B3. 3 23.0 1578.1 0.6337 0. 18 188.8 194.7 o.c 127.0 1 0.3 183.5 23.4 1576.6 0.63)4 0. 35 ite.e 194.3 0.0 121.C 1 0.3 183. 3 23.4 1563.5 0.6315 0.55 133.0 193.9 0.0 127.0 1< • .9 183.2 73.0 1583.2 0.6316 0. 70 I8R.4 193.9 0.0 127.0 149.9 183.5 23.0 1571.4 0.6364 0.83 169.2 195.5 o.c 127.0 149.9 164.6 23.0 15)3.5 0.6521 1.06 190.0 195.5 0.0 127.0 149.9 184.8 23.0 1526.3 0.6543 1. 30 189.6 195.1 0.0 127.0 150.3 184.9 23.4 1531.1 0.6531 1.47 LOCALI2E0 FOULING RESISTANCE ISOFT-HR-OEGF/BTUIXI 00,COO 1215 1235 1255 1775 1295 T315 T335 1355 1375 0.0 0.0 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 co 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.88 1.32 1.75 1.32 1.31 0.68 1.3? CO 0.0 1.32 1.76 1. 75 0.68 1.31 1.32 1.76 0.0 0.0 1.32 1.32 1.75 1. 32 1.31 ces 1. 17 0.0 0.0 1.76 1.32 1.32 1.3? 0.86 1.32 0.88 CO 0.0 2.20 7.71 1.75 1.3? 1.31 1.3? 1 . 76 0.0 0.0 3.09 3.C9 3.C7 3.C7 2.61 7.61 7.64 0.0 0.0 3.09 3.53 3.94 2.63 2.63 2.63 7.64 CO 0.0 3.53 3.53 4. 38 3.07 3.06 J.OT 2.64 0.0 T395 T415 1426 TIN I0U7 RFM 0ELT1 H RTOT TIME OEG.F OF.G.F DEG.F XICOO HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 149.9 0.0 73.0 1616.3 0.6167 CO 0.87 0.87 0.0 l?7.0 149.9 1.17 ?3.0 1578.1 0.633? 0. 16 1.31 1.30 CO 127.0 150.3 1.41 23.4 1573.8 0.61)4 0. 15 1.31 0.67 0.0 127.0 150.3 1.77 23.4 I5S1.5 C.63I5 0. 55 0.44 0.43 0.0 177.0 149.9 1 .07 73.0 1533.2 0.6)16 0. 70 0.67 0.43 0.0 127.0 149.9 1.46 21.0 1571.4 0.6364 0.6 ) 1.75 7.1 7 0.0 127.0 149.9 7.68 23.0 151).5 0.6571 1.08 7.6? 7.17 0.0 127.0 149.9 7.B7 71.0 1573.3 0.654) 1. )0 2.18 1.74 0.0 127.0 150.3 3.02 23.4 15)1.1 0.6511 1.47 242 «*****»RUN N043. »*••«*• FERRIC OXIDE CONC I CPS I 2130. VOLIS: 9.35 IMPS: 253. HEAT HOW SUPPLIFl. E073.6 HtAl FLUX SUPPLIEU 46347. CIU/HR BTU/SCfT-HR BETAO.301 10R=riNlCII27.0 OENSIIY:D.9S6 GRAH/CC I 0UILEU41.8 FLOW RATE 0.1442 LBS.M/SEC AVG TEMPII34.4 DEG F KINEMA1IC VISC0SIIY:0.496 SO.CM/SEC FlUID VELOCITY 3.655 FT/SEC REYNOLOS NO 1955C.0 PRANOTl NO 3.15 OEG F DEG F ESTIMATES OF ROOT MEAN SOUARE STATISIICAL ERROR IN I HE PARAMETER .70252E-OI .2R279 ESTIMATES CF R001 MEAN SOUARE IOIAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETERS .13059 .52568 ESTIMATE OF RO, R 1 'IF , AND 3 IN RF =-R 1NF I I 1 . - E XPI-h • 11 *E I TIME HOURS 0.0 0.07 0.12 0.1? 0.27 0.45 0.83 1.17 1.27 1.45 1.58 1.78 5.9149 4.8757 CALC. RESISTANCE FIIICO VALUE I ISOFI-HR-OEGF/RTUIXIOO.OOOI 0.0 1.40 2.41 2.81 4.61 6.92 4.32 3.21 3.91 5.7? 6.92 10.02 -0.0 I.71 2.62 3.33 4.33 5.26 5.81 5.90 5.90 5.91 5.91 5.91 HEAT SUPP 8073.6 BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 7727.9 BIU/HR HEAT LOSI 345.7 BTU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 4.28 HEAT FLUX TRANS. BIU/SOFT-HK 44362. NUSSELT NO 94.6 RF ILK 0.803 RUALL 0.144 RTOTAL 0.947 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BIU LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERATURES IUEG.FI 1215 T235 T 2 55 1275 1295 1315 1335 1355 T375 DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEG F OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F 0.0 154.7 153.9 159.9 159. 5 160 7 157. 1 156.3 0.0 0.0 154.7 154.3 160.3 159.9 161 1 157.9 157. 1 CO 0.0 155.5 165. 1 160.7 160.3 161 5 158. 3 1 57.5 0.0 0.0 155.9 155. 1 161. 1 160.7 16 1 9 158. 7 157.5 0.0 0.0 156.3 155.5 161.9 161.5 162 7 159. 5 154.7 cc 0.0 157. 1 156. 7 163. 1 16?. 7 16) 9 160. 3 149.5 0.0 0.0 156.7 156. 7 161.9 161. 1 161 9 156.7 157.9 0.0 0.0 157.1 155.5 161.5 161. 1 161. 5 153.7 157.9 0.0 0.0 157.1 155.9 161.9 161. 1 161. 9 159. 1 158. 3 0.0 0.0 157.5 156.7 162.7 161.9 162 7 149.9 159.1 0.0 0.0 157.9 157. 1 162. 7 162. 7 161.5 160. 1 149.5 o.c 0.0 159.1 158.3 164.7 163.9 165. 1 161.5 160. 7 0.0 T395 T415 T42B TIN TOUT TM DELTA H R TIKE DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEG ,F OEG.F DEG.F X1000 HOURS 161.9 167.1 D.O 127.0 141 .8 159.0 14.9 1425.1 0.7017 0.0 163.1 168.3 0.0 127.0 141 . 4 159.6 14.4 1)75.4 0.7271 0.07 161.5 168.3 0.0 127.0 14 1 .8 160. 1 14.9 365. 1 0.7)26 0.12 163.5 167.9 0.0 126.5 141 .8 160.2 15. ) 1)44.2 0.74 3 9 0.17 164.) 169.1 0.0 12? .0 141 .6 161.0 14.9 1312.2 0.7621 0.27 165.5 1 69.9 0.0 127.0 141 .e 16?. 1 14.9 1263.6 0.7914 0.45 163.5 167.9 ' 0.0 127.0 141 .8 160.9 14.9 13)3.6 0.7493 0.8 t 163.1 167.5 0.0 126.5 141 .4 160.4 14.9 1323.4 C.7526 1.17 163.5 167.9 0.0 127.0 141 .4 160.7 1 4.4 1)22.2 0. 756) 1.27 164. 3 169. 1 0.0 124.5 141 .4 161.5 14.9 12 72.6 0.7C56 1.45 165.1 169.9 0.0 12 7.0 141 . 4 162. 1 14.4 1257.1 0.7955 l.'56 166. 7 171.1 0.0 • ??.o 141 .6 163.4 14.9 1206.7 0.3287 1.78 lOCALIZED FOULING RE i t 51 A.NC E C SOF T-HK-DEGF/fl Til] XI 00.000 1215 1235 1255 1275 1 29 6 1315 133S 1 )55 1)75 1395 1415 1426 TIN TOUT RFM DELTA H RIOT TIME DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F X1000 IIUURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 177.0 141.8 0.0 14.9 1475.1 0.701 7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.91 0.90 0.90 0. 90 1.81 1.61 0.0 2.70 2.69 0.0 127.0 141.4 1 .40 14.4 1)75.4 0.7271 U.U7 0.0 1.81 2.7? 1 .60 1.61 1 . 60 7. 71 7. 71 0.0 3.60 2.69 0.0 127.0 141 .8 2.41 14.9 1165.1 0. 7)26 0.12 0.0 2.7? ?./? 2. 71 t. 71 t. 71 3.6? 7.71 0.0 3.60 1.60 0.0 176.5 141.8 7.6 1 15. 1 1144.7 0. 74 19 0.17 0.0 3.6? 3.67 4.51 4.51 4. 41 5.42 6.4 1 0.0 5.40 4.49 0.0 127.0 141.8 4.61 14.9 1112.7 0.7621 0.2 7 0.0 5.43 6.34 7.71 7. 27 7. 21 7.23 7.71 O.U 6.10 6.78 0.0 171.0 141.8 6.9? 14.4 1261.6 0.7914 0.44 0.0 9.05 6. 14 4.51 1. 61 7. 7 1 1.67 1.42 0.0 1.60 l.fU 0.0 177.0 14 1.6 4. 1? 14.9 1 1)1.6 0.7496 0.3) 0.0 5.4) ).6? J.ol 1.61 1. 80 1.6? 1.62 9.0 2. 10 0.90 0,0 174.5 141.4 1.7 1 14.9 1)73.4 0.7423 1.17 0.0 5.43 4.6) 4.41 ).6I 7. 71 4.42 4.57 0.0 1.60 1.60 0.0 177.0 141.4 1.91 14.4 1)/?.? 0. 756 1 1.77 0.0 6.34 6. )4 6.31 3.41 4. 31 6. 11 6.31 0,0 4.40 4.49 0.0 176.5 141.4 5. 7? 14.9 1 2 77.6 0.7646 1.44 0.0 7.24 7.74 6. 11 7. 77 6. )l 7.7) 7.71 0.0 7.7 0 6.23 0.0 177.0 141.4 6.97 14.4 1 74 7. 1 0.7943 1.5 8 0.0 9.93 9.96 10.61 9.92 9. 91 9.9 1 9.94 0.0 10.80 8.97 0.0 177.0 141.8 10.02 14.9 1206.7 0.8267 1 . 76 CD fc-OOOOOOOQ — — — ro. *- z Oi"^ — ^ — ^C0»Q> — l* — rsl O O — -\ «>»- — — — rvj »<•«•*•*•*•** OOOOOOOOOOO ON> O * /-• I— .•'.'•». #»> — — o o c ,^0000 •* u. 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FFRRIC OXIDE CONC <PPM| 150. VOLIS-.ll.SO AMPS: 155. HEAI llth' SUPPLIED 16156.8 HEAT riux SUPPL1LU NISI/. BIU/HR BIU/SUFI-HR BEIA0.10I TOR= TINLCI 121.0 • OEG F OENSIIY:0.986 GRAH/CC I UUILET149.9 DEG F F LOW RAlE 0.1888 LBS.M/SFC AVG TEMP:1 IB.* DEG F MNEHAIIC VISCUSIIY:0.460 SU.CH/SEC FLUID VFLUCITY 4.790 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 26486.6 PRANDIL NU 3.01 HEAT SUPP 16356.B BTU/HR HEAT IRANS 15633.8 BIU/HR HEAT LOST 723.0 PTU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 4.47 HEAT FLUX IRANS. BIU/SOFT-HR 89746. NUSSELI NO 121.3 RFILH 0.624 ftWALL 0.143 RTOTAL 0.766 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BTU ESIIKA1ES OF ROOT PE AN SOUARE SIAIISIICAL ERROR IN I HE PARAHEIER 1.6940 1.5I37 ESTIMATES OF ROOT MEAN SI.NIARE IDIAL ERROR IN THE P AK AME I ER 5 .42800 .90/79 ESIIHA1E OF RO.RINF.ANU 6 IN RF•RINF I (1.-CXP(-H•!IMF I T I ME HOURS 0.0 0.05 0.08 0. 18 0.23 0.33 0.52 0.90 1.05 1.38 1.43 1.78 2.17 2.40 2.60 3.27 3.43 4.32 4.73 .67021 .52417 CALC. PES 1 STANCE PITIED VALUE I I SOF T-HR-UCGf /I'.TUIXIOO, 0001 0.0 0.20 -0. 39 -0.05 0.10 0.10 0. 14 0.6 3 0.00 -0. 10 0.19 0.54 0.59 0.44 0. 73 0.98 0.34 0.34 0.64 0.02 0.03 0.06 O.OS 0.11 0.16 0.25 0.28 0.35 0.35 0.41 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.55 0.56 0.60 0.61 LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERATURES 1215 DEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1235 OEG.F 174.6 175.0 174.6 175.C 1 74.6 174.6 175.0 175.0 1 74.6 174.6 175.0 I 75.0 175.4 175.0 175.4 175.8 175.0 175.C 175.4 1255 OEG.F 174.6 175.0 174.2 174.6 174.6 174.6 175.0 1 75.4 174.6 174.6 174.6 175.4 175.4 175.0 175.4 174.4 175.0 1 75.0 175.4 1215 1235 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.44 0.0. 0.88 I .32 0.44 1255 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.88 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.88 0.38 0.44 0.38 0.8H 0.44 0.44 0.88 7275 DEG.F 182. 1 182. 5 181.1 182.1 162. 1 182.1 162. 1 182.5 132. 1 162. 1 162.1 162.5 162.5 132.5 ie2. 5 162.5 1H2. I 182. 1 182.9 1215 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.44 0.44 U.44 0.44 0.0 0.0 U.86 1UEG.F T295 UEG.F 182.1 102. 1 101.7 162.1 162. 5 132. 1 182. 5 132.9 182. 1 182.5 132.1 162.5 132.9 1 62. 5 ie2.9 182.9 182. 1 132. 1 182.9 0.0 0. 0 0.0 .38 .0 U. 8H 0.66. 0.0 1315 T335 1155 T375 OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F 183.7 160.2 1 79.4 0.0 164. 1 160.2 179.4 0.0 161.3 179.8 179.4 0.0 183.7 180.2 1 79.4 0.0 iei.7 180.2 179.e 0.0 16 1.7 180. 2 179.8 0.0 164. 1 160.6 179.6 CO 184. 1 180.6 180.2 0.0 luj.7 180.2 179.6 0.0 162.9 179. B 1 79. 8 0. c 164. 1 1B0.2 1 79.3 0.0 11). 7 180.6 160.2 0.0 164.1 180.9 1 79. 6 0.0 164. 1 180.6 160.? 0.0 If 4.5 180.9 160.2 0.0 164.5 160.9 1 80.6 0.0 164. 1 160.6 180.2 0.0 163. 7 IB0.2 1 30.2 0.0 164. 1 180.9 180.2 0.0 •HR-DEGF/OTUIXIOO.OOO 1315 13)5 1 155 T175 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.44 U.44 0.44 0.0 0.44 0.44 0.63 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.44 0.0 U.O 0.4 4 0.83 CO 0.44 0.H3 0.44 0.0 0.44 0.44 0.6 3 u.o 6. 66 0. 38 U.63 0.0 0. 86 0.63 1 . )? 0.0 0.44 0.44 0.68 u.o 0.0 O.O 0.3 3 0.0 U.44 0. 68 0.86 u.o T395 OEG.F 187.2 186.B 186.8 1B6.5 186.8 1 87.2 187.2 187.6 166.8 187.2 187.2 167.6 107.2 167.2 187.6 188.0 187.2 16 7.6 187.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.8 7 0.0 U.44 0.0 T4I5 OEG.F 192.7 193.1 192. 3 19?. 7 193.1 193.1 193.1 193.5 192.7 192. 3 193. 1 193.5 193.1 193.1 193.1 193.9 19). 1 191.5 192.7 T395 T4I5 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.67 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.87 0.44 0.44 0. 44 1. II 0.44 0.81 0.0 T428 DEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TIN TOUT TH OELTA H R TIME DEG.F DEG.F DEC .F OEG.F X1000 HOURS 127.0 149.5 181 .9 22.5 1621.5 0.6167 0.0 127.0 149.9 182 .0 23.0 1624.5 0.6156 0.05 127.0 149.5 181 .5 22.5 16)5.0 0.6116 0.08 127.0 149.9 18 1.8 23.0 1632.5 0.6126 o.ie 127.0 149.9 181 .9 23.0 1626.0 0.6150 0.23 127.0 149.9 161 .9 23.0 1626.1 0.6150 0.33 127.0 149.9 162 .2 23.0 1616.3 0.6179 0.52 127.0 149.9 182 .4 23.0 1606.6 0.6217 0.90 127.0 149. 5 181 .9 22. 5 1621.1 C6169 1.05 127.0 149.5 181 .8 22.5 1625. 1 0.615) 1.33 127.0 149.9 182.0 23.0 1623.4 0.6160 1.43 127.0 149.9 1 82 . 3 23.0 1(2.4 0.6202 1. 73 127.0 149.9 182 .4 23.0 1611.0 0.6207 2.1 7 127.0 149.9 182.3 23.0 1614.6 C6193 2.40 127.0 149.9 182 .5 23.0 16U5.2 0.6230 2.^0 127.0 149.9 , 182 .7 23.0 1598.1 0.6257 3.27 l?7.0 149.9 162 .? 23.0 1618.0 0.6180 3.43 127.0 149.9 182. .2 23.0 1619.1 0.6176 4. 12 127.0 149.9 182 .4 23.0 1608.8 0.6216 4. 73 UN OEG.F 127.0 l?7.0 127.0 127.0 I?7 .0 l?7.0 l?7.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 177.0 177.0 177.0 177.0 177.0 127.0 TOUT OEG.F 149.5 149 .9 149.5 149.9 149.9 1*9.9 149.9 149.9 149.5 149.5 1*9.9 149.9 1*9.9 149.9 1*9.9 149.9 1*4.9 149.9 1*9.9 RFH 0.0 0.20 -0. 39 -0.05 0. 10 0.10 0.1* 0.6) 0.00 -0. 10 0.19 0.5* 0.59 0.44 0. /) 0.93 0. )4 0. 14 0.64 DELTA H OEG.F 22.5 1621. 2).0 1624. 22.5 16)5. 2).0 16)2. 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VOIIS-.13.50 AMPS: 355. HEAT FlErf SUPPLIED 16156.1) HEAT TLUX SUPPLIED 93897. BIU/HR UIU/SCTI-HR BHAO.30I ICR=I1NLET127.0 DEC F 0ENSIIV:0.986 GRAM/CC [ OUILEI149.9 DEC F FLOW RA1E 0.1888 LBS.M/SEC AVG TEMP:138.A DEG F KINEMAIIC VISC0SIIY-.0.460 SQ.CH/SCC FLUID VELOCITY 4.790 Fl/SEC REYNOLDS NO 26486.8 PRAN01L NO 3.03 HEAT SUPP 16356.8 OTU/HR HEAT 1 RAN S 15633.8 OTO/HR HEAT LOST 723.0 BTU/HR PERCINI HEAT LOST 4.4? IICA1 FLUX TRANS. BTU/SOF T-HR 89746. NUSSELI NO 121.3 RFILM 0.624 RWALL 0.143 RTOIAL 0.766 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BTU ESTIMATES OF ROOT MEAN SOUARE STATISTICAL ERROR IN I HE PARAGEIER .12740 .18465 ESTIHATFS CF HUOT MEAN SOUAKC IOTAL ERR CR IN IHC PARAMETERS .64190E-0I .39516 ESTIMATE OF RO.RINF.ANO B IN RE•RINFI I I.-EXPI-e»1 IM£I T INE HOURS 0.0 0.02 0.15 0.20 0.23 0.53 0.63 0.80 0.97 1.25 1.43 1.55 1.75 2.13 2.47 3.00 3.12 3.25 3.38 3.63 3.87 2.0657 5.3409 CALC. RESISTANCE FITIED VALUE IISOFI-MR-OEGF/BIUIX100,OOOl 0.0 -O.O 1.02 1.41 1.46 1.22 1.56 1.51 1.95 1.85 2.20 2.00 1.90 2.34 2.54 2.10 1.61 1.56 1.71 1.51 3.22 3.07 .21 ,14 , 36 1.44 1.94 1.99 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.06 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 LOCALIZED WALL 1215 T235 TEMPERATURES T255 T275 OEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 OEG.F 174.6 175.4 175.8 175.8 175.8 175.8 176.2 177.0 177.0 177.0 177.4 176.6 177.4 177.4 17 7.8 175.8 175.8 176.2 176.2 1)8.2 178.6 DEG.F 174.2 175.0 175.8 175.8 175.4 175.8 175.8 176.2 176.2 176.6 171.0 176.2 177.0 177.4 116.6 175.8 176.2 175.8 175.8 177.B 177.8 DEG. 182.5 182.5 182.9 182.9 162.5 182.9 182.9 103. 3 1E2. 9 183.7 16).7 1 P). ) 183.7 164.5 183. 7 183. 3 182.9 163.7 193.3 184.9 184.9 I DEG. T295 OEG.F 182.5 162.5 182.9 183.3 162.9 132.9 183. 3 1 83.) 182.9 18). 7 18). 7 18).7 184.1 1U4.1 183.7 183. 3 183.3 183.3 183.3 IB4.9 184.5 FI T3I5 OEG.F 163.3 184. 1 164.5 164.5 164. 1 184.5 let. S 184.9 IS4.9 ie4. 9 164.9 164. 9 185. 3 165. 3 1C4.9 184.9 164.5 164.9 184.5 166. 1 186. 1 T335 DEG.F 178.6 180.6 180.6 180.9 180.6 160.9 18C. 9 161.3 180.9 181. 1 U0.9 180.9 181.3 131.7 1B0.9 iao.9 180.9 160.9 IHO.9 182.1 182.1 T)55 T)75 1)95 1415 7428 TIN TOUT DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F DEC.F DEG.F OEG.F 178.6 0.0 166.5 192. 7 0.0 127.0 149.9 1B0.2 0.0 188.0 193.5 O.D 127.0 149.9 100.6 CO 166.4 193.5 0.0 126 .5 149.9 180.6 0.0 1B8.0 193.5 0.0 126.5 149.9 180.6 0.0 167.6 193.9 0.0 126. 5 149.9 180.9 0.0 IBB.4 193.9 0.0 126.5 149.9 180.6 CO 188.0 193.5 0.0 126.5 149.9 180.9 0.0 188.4 193.9 0.0 126.5 149.9 180.9 0.0 188.4 194.) 0.0 126.5 149.9 181.3 CO 1BH.4 193.9 0.0 126.5 149.9 180.6 0.0 1B8.0 19).5 0.0 126.5 149.5 180.9 0.0 168.0 194.3 0.0 126.5 149.9 180.9 0.0 IBB.4 194.) 0.0 127.0 149.9 130.9 co 168.4 194.3 0.0 126.5 149.5 180.9 0.0 168.0 19).9 0.0 127.0 149.9 IB0.6 0.0 188.0 193.9 0.0 127.0 149.9 140.6 CO 188.0 19).9 0.0 127.0 149.9 180.6 0.0 188.4 193.5 0.0 127.0 149.9 130.6 0.0 187.6 19).5 0.0 127.0 149.9 181.7 CO 169.2 194.7 0.0 121.0 149.9 181.7 0.0 188.4 194. 3 0.0 127.0 149.9 TH DEG.F 181.5 182.4 182.8 182.8 162.6 182.9 182.9 183. 3 183.2 183.5 183.3 163.2 183.6 163.6 183.4 18).0 182.9 183.0 182.9 184.4 184. 3 DELTA H OEC.F 23.0 1645. 23.0 1609. 23.4 1589. 23.4 23.4 1587 , 1596. 23.4 1584 23.4 1586 1574. 1576. 1566. 1567. 15 75. 1570. 1550. 1579. 1590. 23.0 1592. 23.0 1587. 23.0 1594. 23.0 154). 23.0 1549. ft X 1000 9 0.60 76 2 0.6214 6 0.6291 5 0.6299 2 0.6265 3 0.6312 9 0.6)02 2 0.6352 1 0.6337 0 0.6366 6 0.6379 4 0.6346 7 0.6367 0 0.6452 6 0.6330 3 C6263 6 0.6279 8 0.6298 6 C6271 7 0.6478 3 0.6454 Tl HE HOURS 0.0 0. 02 0. 15 0.2C 0.23 0.53 0.63 0.80 0. 9 7 1.25 1.43 1.55 1. 75 2.13 2.47 3. CC 3. 17 3.25 3.)» 3.6) 3.67 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISIANCE IS0FT-HR-0EGF/8 TUIXI 00. COO 1215 1235 1255 1275 1295 1315 13)5 1)55 1375 1395 T415 o.o 0.0 0.0 O.O 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.ee 0.68 0.0 0.0 0.88 2.20 1 . 76 0.0 1.75 0.B7 0.0 1.32 1. 76 0.44 0.44 1. 31 2. 2U 2.20 0.0 2.19 0.87 0.0 1.32 1.76 0.44 0.68 1.31 2.64 2.20 0.0 1.75 0.87 0.0 1.32 1 .32 0.0 0.44 0.88 2.20 7.20 0.0 1.31 1.31 0.0 1.32 1. 76 0.44 0.44 1.31 2.64 2.64 0.0 2.19 1.31 0.0 1.76 1.76 0.44 0.88 1.31 2.64 2.70 0.0 1.15 0.67 0.0 2.65 2.21 0.88 0.68 1.75 ).08 2.64 0.0 2.19 1.31 0.0 2.65 2.21 0.44 0.44 1.75 2.64 7.64 0.0 2.19 1. 74 0.0 2.65 2.65 1. 12 1. 12 1. 75 1.62 1.08 0.0 2.19 1 .31 0.0 3.09 3.09 1. 12 1. 32 1. 75 2.64 7.70 0.0 1 .75 0.87 0.0 7.71 2.71 0.88 1. 17 1. 75 2.64 7.64 0.0 1 . 75 1. 74 0.0 3.09 3.09 1. 37 1. '5 t. 19 t. 06 7.64 0.0 2.19 1 . 74 0.0 3.09 1.53 2.19 1. 75 2. 19 ).5/ 7.64 0.0 2.19 1 . 14 0.0 3.5) 7.65 1. 37 1 . 17 1.75 2.64 7.64 n.o 1. 15 1.31 0.0 1.37 1.76 0. 88 U.RB 1. 75 2.64 2.71) o.o I. 75 1 . II o.o 1.32 7.21 0.44 0.81) 1.11 2.64 /./(> 0.0 1 . /5 1.11 0.0 1.76 1 . 16 1. 1/ li. 88 1.75 2.64 7.70 n.o , 2.19 0.6 7 0.0 1. 76 1 . 76 0 . 'I M U.RB 1. 11 2.44 /./f) 0.0 1.31 0.8 7 0.0 1.97 1. 17 7.4 1 /. 6 1 1.0/ 1. 95 1.5/ o.n 1 ,»>4 7.11 0.0 4.41 3.9 7 7.6 1 2. 19 1.1)1 1.95 1.5/ 0.0 7.19 1. 74 1*28 TIN TOUT RFH DELTA H RTOT TIME DEC.r DEC.F DEC.F X1000 HOURS 0.0 127.0 149.9 0.0 23.0 1645.4 0.6076 0.0 0.0 127.0 1*9.9 1.02 23.0 1(709.2 0.6214 0.02 0.0 126.5 1*9.9 1.41 2J.4 1509.b 0.6291 0.15 0.0 126.5 149.9 1.46 23.4 15-37.5 C.6299 0.20 0.0 126.5 149.9 1.22 23.* 1596.2 0.6265 0.23 0.0 126.5 149.9 1.56 23.4 15d4.3 0.6112 0.53 0.0 126.5 147.9 1.51 23.4 15W6.9 0.6302 O.bJ 0.0 126.5 149.9 1.95 23.4 1574.2 0.6352 0.«0 0.0 126.5 149.9 1.65 23.4 15 *8. 1 0.6337 O.V<* 0.0 126.5 149.9 2.20 23.4 1566.0 0.63H6 1.25 0.0 176.5 141.5 2.00 23.0 IV/'.fi 0.6)('l 1.43 0.0 126.5 149.9 1.90 23.4 1WJ.4 0.634K !.->'/ 0.0 127.0 149.9 2.14 23.0 157C.7 0.6J67 1.75 0.0 126.5 149.5 2.54 23.0 1550.0 0.6*52 2.11 0.0 127.0 .149.9 2. 10 23.0 157 '.« U.6HU 2.47 0.0 127.0 149.9 1.61 23.0 15*0.3 0.6i"lB 3.00 0.0 127.0 I4-J.9 |.56 23.0 1592.6 0.6/ 79 3. 1 2 0.0 127.0 149.'I 1.7| 23.0 1 Vl / . B 0.629H 3.25 0.0 12 7.0 149.9 1.51 J 1.11 1 V*4.6 (J. t/ 11 I. VI 0.0 12/ .0 14'*.'/ 1.22 2 !.»» I. I 4, .6<W* 1.6 I 0.0 127.0 149.9 3.U7 23.0 1549.1 U.6 4 54 |.d/ 249 ••«a«**KUN N050.******* FERRIC OXIOE CONC IPPMI 2130. VOLTS:11.50 AMPS: 355. HEAT FLOW SUPPLIED 16)46.6 HEAT FLUX SUPPLIEU 9)691. BTU/HR BIU/SOFT-HR BETAO.301 FORM INLET177.0 DEC F 0ENS[7Y:0.9b6 CRAh/CC T OUTLE T1 A9.9 DEG F FLOW RATE 0.1866 LBS.M/SEC AVG ILMPU38.4 OEG F KINEKATIC VISCOSIIY:0.460 SO.CM/SEC F1UI0 VELOCITY A.790 FT /SEC REYNOLOS NO 26486.8 PRANOIl NO 3.03 HEAT SUPP 16356.8 BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 15633.8 BTU/HR HEAT ICS! 723.0 BtU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 4.42 HEAT FLUX TRANS. BT'J/SCt'T-HK 89746. NUSSELT NO 121.3 RF I LP. 0.624 RWALl 0.143 RIOTAl 0.766 SOFT-HR-DEG F/8TU ESTIMATES Or ROOT ME AN SCUARE STATISTICAL ERROR I.N THE PARAMETER .14037 .60704 ESTIMATES UT- ROOT MEAN SCUARE IOTAL cRROR IN 1 HE PARAMETERS .43249E-01 .18704 ESTIMATE OF KOiRIIir.ANO B IN RF =R INF 1 I I.-EXP I-»* I I ME I TIME HOURS 0.0 0.07 0.15 0.30 0.43 0.67 0.73 0.97 1 .17 " 1.28 1.40 1.57 1.72 3.0913 3.6707 CALC. RfSISIANCC FI1TE0 VALUE I1S0FI-HR-UEGF/BTU)X100,C00I 0. 0.73 1.51 1.51 3.07 2.92 2.39 2.92 3.02 3.22 3.26 3.02 3.07 -0.0 0. 70 1.31 2.06 2.45 2.83 2.88 3.00 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 LOCALIZED WALL 1215 T235 DFG.F DFG.F 175.4 176.6 177.0 178.2 179.0 119.0 176.2 179.0 179.0 179.0 179.0 1 79.4 179.0 TEMPERATURES 1255 T275 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 O.O 0.0 0.0 DEO. F 175. B 176.2 177.0 177.e 179.0 179.0 178.6 17*.6 176.6 179.0 176.6 176.6 17e.6 OEG.F 183.3 183.7 1B4.5 164.5 lb5.7 185.7 165. j 166. 1 I 66. 1 185.7 166.1 165.7 185.7 IDEG.FI 7295 DEG.F 182.9 la).3 184. 1 1 63. 7 165.3 1U5. 3 I 64 . 9 165.3 165.7 165.7 165. 7 I 65. 7 166. 1 T315 DEG.F lb4. 1 184.9 1F.5.7 165. 7 166.8 ICO.5 loo. 5 166.6 187.2 167.6 167.2 lno.8 167.2 T335 DEG.F 160.2 180.9 iei. 7 161.3 1S2.9 182.9 1R2.5 182.9 162.9 183. 3 IB). 1 182. > 182.9 1355 OEG.F 1 79. 8 I 80.6 181.3 161.3 107.9 182.5 182. 1 162.5 182.5 162.9 162.9 182.9 182.5 T375 OEG.F 0.0 C. 0 0.0 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 CO T395 DEG.F 186.0 166.4 169.2 IBS.4 190.0 190.0 189.6 1 90.0 190.0 190.0 190.8 190.0 190.0 7415 DEG.F 193.5 194.3 194.7 194.3 196.7 195.8 194.7 194.5 194.5 195.8 195.8 193.5 195.8 T428 OEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TIN DEG.F 127.4 127.0 127.0 127.0 126.5 126.5 126.5 176.5 126.5 126.5 177.0 177.0 126.5 TOUT DF.G.F 149.9 149.5 149.5 149.5 149.5 149.5 149.5 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 TH DEG.F 182.6 183.2 163.9 183.9 135.3 185.2 184.7 135.2 185.3 1B5.4 185.5 16 5.3 185.3 OELTA H DEG.F 22.5 1613 22.5 1575 22.5 1530 22.5 1554 2 3.0 1500 X1000 0.6196 0.6346 0.6449 0.6431 .2 0.6646 1505. 1513. 1511. 1607. 1601 23.0 1506. 23.0 1515. 23.4 1506, 0.6645 0.6564 0.6617 0.6632 0.6660 0.66)7 0.6599 0.6639 TIME HOURS 0.0 0.07 0. 15 0. 30 0.43 0.67 0. 7) 0. 97 1.17 1.2F. 1.40 1.57 1. 72 LUCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISCFI-HR-OEGF/BTUI X100,000 1215 1235 1245 1275 T?95 1)15 T)15 1 155 T175 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3? 0.44 0.44 0.44 . 0.68 0. 83 0.66 0.0 0.0 1.76 1.3? 1. 11 1.3? 1.75 1. 16 1 . 76 0.0 0.0 3.06 2.70 1.11 0.68 1. 75 1. )? 1. 76 0.0 0.0 3.96 ).52 2.61 2.6 1 ). 06 ).07 1.41 0.0 0.0 3.96 3.5? 7.6) 7.63 7.6) ).H7 1.01 0.0 0.0 3.06 3.03 7.19 2. 19 2.61 7.6 1 7.64 0.0 o.o 3.96 1.03 1.07 2.1.1 J.06 3.0 7 1.01 U.O 0.0 3.96 ).UR 3.07 3.0 1 1.50 1.117 3.07 0.0 0.0 3.46 1.4? 7.61 1.07 i. 94 1.41 1.41 0.0 0.0 1.96 ). 03 1.07 1.07 J.40 1.41 1.4 1 U.O 0.0 4.40 1.08 2.6 1 1.07 1.06 ).<!( 1.41 O.O 0.0 J.96 3.06 2.61 3.40 1.50 1.0/ 1.07 u.o TJ95 1415 T4?8 TIN TOUT RFH OELTA H RIOT T THE OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F X 1000 HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 177.4 149.9 0.0 22.5 1611.9 0.6196 0.0 0.44 0.67 0.0 177.0 149.5 0.71 77.5 1475.7 0.6)46 0.07 1.31 1.30 0.0 177.0 149.5 1.51 22.6 1550.5 0. 6449 0. 14 0.44 0.67 0.0 177.0 149.5 1.61 22. 5 1554.9 0.6431 0. )0 7.18 3.04 0.0 176.5 149.5 3.07 71.0 16C0.7 0.6666 U.41 7.16 2.61 0.0 176.5 149.5 ?.92 ?).0 I5U4.0 0.6646 0.67 1 .75 I . )0 u.o 176.5 14 4.5 ?. )9 2 ).0 1 518.9 0.6434 0. 7) 2.13 2.17 0.0 126.5 144.9 7.97 7).4 1511.7 0.60 17 0.97 2.18 7.11 0.0 176.4 149.9 ).0? ?).4 1 30 7. 8 0.66)2 1.17 7.16 7.61 0.0 176.5 149. 1 1.72 ?).4 14UI.6 0.6660 1.23 ).05 7.61 0.0 177.0 149.9 1.26 71.0 1406.7 0.6617 1.40 7.16 7.1 1 0.0 171.0 149.9 1.02 71.0 15 14.) 0.4599 1.41 ?. 18 2.61 0.0 126.5 149.9 3.07 21.4 1404.3 0.6639 1.72 250 • ••••••RUN NOM. ••••••• FERRIC OXIOE CONC IPPK) 3750. V0L1S:|3.50 AHPSJ 355. MEAT FLO'.' SUPPLIED 16356.8 BTU/HR HEAT FLUX SUPPLIED 9)897. BIU/SOFT-HR BETAO.301 TOR*TINLET127.0 DEC F OENSHY:0.986 &RAM/CC T 0UTLET149.9 DEC F FLOV.' RATE O.IBBB LBS.K/SFC AVG TEMP:138.4 DEC F KINEMATIC VISCOSITY:0.46O SO.CM/SEC FLUID VELOCITY A.790 FT/SEC REYNOIDS NO 26436.8 PRANOIL NO 3.03 HEAT SUPP 16356.B BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 15633.8 BIU/HR HEAT LOST 723.0 R7U/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 4.42 HEAT FLUX TRANS. BIU/SOFT-HR B9746. NL'SSELI NO 121.3 RFILH 0.624 RWALL 0.143 RTOTAL 0. 766 SOFI-HR-OEC F/BIU LOCALIZED WALL 1215 1235 TEMPERATURES 1255 T275 OEC.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 OEC.F 179.8 179.4 174.0 179.0 179.0 17B.6 179.0 I 76-6 176.2 177.4 178.2 177.8 OEG.F 1 79.4 178.6 174.6 178.2 176.2 177.B 177.8 177.8 177.4 177.0 177.8 177.0 DEC.F 186.5 186. 1 135.7 185.3 185. 7 185. 3 184.5 184.5 184. I 164.1 184.5 184. 1 IOEG.F 1295 UEG.F 166.1 loS. 7 1J5.7 165.3 165.) 184.9 164. 1 I d4 . 5 U4. 1 163.7 I 34. 5 163.7 T315 Dfc&.F 187.6 187.6 166.8 166.5 186.5 136.5 135.7 16S.7 185. 3 165.3 165.7 185.3 T335 DEG 164 163. 163 18? 18? 13? 161 161 181 181 182 181 1355 UEG.F 184. I 183.3 132.9 132.5 1 82.5 182. 1 181.7 181.7 161.7 181.3 18). 7 181.3 T375 DEG.F O.C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 C. 0 0.0 O.'J 1395 OEG.F 191.2 190.4 190.4 139.6 189.6 133.8 168.8 168.8 138.8 188.8 1 38. 6 188.4 T4I5 DEG.F 197.0 195.8 195.6 I 95. I 195.1 194 . 3 193.9 194. 3 194.3 193.9 19).9 193.5 T428 DEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TIN DEG.F 127.0 126.5 127.0 176.5 126.5 126 .5 177.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 127.0 TOUT OEG.F 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.5 14 9.9 149.9 TM DEC.F 186.2 185.6 185.4 164.9 164.9 164.5 184.1 184.2 134.0 183.7 184. I 183.6 DELTA H OEG.F 23.0 1485, 1495, 1511, 1519 1519, 1532 I 555, 2).0 1552. 2).0 1559, 22.5 1561, 23.4 23.0 23. 23. 23. 23.0 23.0 1532 :571. X1000 0 0.6734 6 0.6686 3 0.6617 4 0.6562 9 0.6579 0 0.6527 4 0.6429 9 0.6440 5 0.6412 1 0.6406 8 0.6440 1 0.6365 TIME HOURS 0.0 0.03 0.13 0.30 0.45 0.5? 0.68 0.90 1.07 1.23 1.1? 1.55 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISOFI-HR-OEGF/PTUIXI00,000 1215 1735 1255 1715 1295 1315 1135 1155 1)75 1195 T4I5 T428 TIN TOUT RFM OELTA H RIOT TIME DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F XI000 HOURS * 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 177.0 149.9 0.0 21.0 1465.0 0.67 14 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 u.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 126.5 149.9 -0.63 23.4 1495.6 0.6684 0.03 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12 7.0 149.9 -0.92 21.0 1511.3 0.661 1 0. 13 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 176.5 149.9 -1.41 7).4 1519.4 0.6632 0. 30 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 176.5 149.9 -1.41 71.4 1519.9 0.6579 0.45 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1?6.5 149.9 -i.e5 ?). 4 16)2.0 0.6527 0.57 o.o 0.0 0.0 o.o 0.0 u.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 177.0 149.9 -7.78 71.0 1535.4 0.647 9 0.66 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 u.o 0.0 0.0 177.0 149.9 -7.74 73.0 1557.4 0.6440 0.9G 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.n 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 177.0 14 9.9 -2.48 ?).0 1559.5 0.6412 1 .07 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 . O.U 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 177.0 149.5 -7.8? ??.5 1361.1 0.6406 1.2) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 149.9 -2.26 2).0 1537.6 0.644U 1.17 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.u U.O 0.0 0.1) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 177.0 149.9 -2.67 21.0 16 71.1 0.6365 1.35 m,i:o'MsTift?'v^ ji & i\ *r -0 <o & ID -000O0O"-t-HNf<i\mN •— r 0<«.i>J,'M — — *oO«r — — ~«3 Of O — Aj, IM rt «r ,jr j id 1(1 «i « VI 1(1 — O-GO^O-OO^-O-O-OOOO X . « • 00000000000000 V\t-0-t**,rvOoBrvo*o + + ,r — X ^<N.O,<\it>org-oocO'*' — — * < u. 1- •oooo-rooooooooo -I O .....4. 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A OO — — — lVrMIS.PS,^fS-N-Jf»? r"i- T* - •» C 111 V /x**- ^ * »-o — — — — — — — —.— — — — — — LkOOCOtAOOOOCOACO 1— i^r^rsirv^is.rv'Nics.rv'V's.'vv-s, OO OO0C0O0OCO0C30 -f OOOOOCOOCOOCOC it\ c PA r"> I- — ••< — OCCCCC «r o — — — <M — PM -i « — - *C LA OVttrtN.". — C J C «C .C J t? • rt 0OO«--\NN«NNNV (A ooooooccoccocc rt oooocococcocr. o O O 3 # % \ f P ;* ? ? OIA \ Jii>^f?""r**" • lA » t • O — O — N N * - rtrt^^rt^rt*-c — X — A-iO-r^- — — ^-*v.---^ iA Ort — 's,o«ro-',.-*r7*?r,r* X rt O — — ^N^rtrtrt^ — rt — — O JI O -r * » " a: rt o o o o -. — — CCJOCO «A>N OOOOO — — — — %*srtiN-u. VA o o <r » " rt • • . * ON O O O O-4Ajrv^O'~M'M£0 < wA OOOOOOOOOOOOOO o — *••••••••.*••* O A* OOOOOOOOOOOOOO 252 ••4*»««RUN N053.«•••*»• FEKtt IC OXIDE CONC (PPMI 1750. VOUS: 9.35 AMPS: 253. HE AT ELCH SUPPLIED 8013.6 IICAT ILUX SUPPLIED 46)41. BIU/HR B1U/SCFT-HR PET40.301 TOR.T1NLE1127.0 DEG F DENSIIY:0.9S6 GRAH/CC I Our Ll 11 M .8 OEG f FLOW RATE 0.1442 LBS.M/SEC AVG TFHP:134.4 OEG F KlNE MAI IC VISC0SITY:0.496 SU.CH/SEC FLU I 0 VELOCITY 3.655 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 19550.0 PRANDTL NO 3.15 HEAT SJPP 8073.6 BTU/HR HE Al TRANS 7721.9 UTU/HR HEAT LOST 345.7 BTU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 4.28 HEAT FLUX TRANS. BTU/SOFT-HR 44362. IIUSSELT NO 94.6 RFILH 0.803 RWALL 0.144 RIOIAL 0.947 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BTU ESTIHAItS OF ROOT .74717E-0I ES1IHATES OF R007 .4016HE-01 ES1IMATF OF RO.RI.' .0 I 1HE HOURS 0.0 0.05 0.12 0.20 0.33 0.50 0.65 0.82 1.00 1.33 1.43 1 .68 1 .87 2.05 2.25 MEAN SOUARE STATISTICAL ERROR IN IIIC PARAMETER .76786 MEAN SUUAKE I01AL ERROR IN 1 HE PARAMETERS . I 55110 F . AND 11 IN RF = RINI II l.-EXP(-P»l |HC I 5.0664 2.7244 CALC. RESISTANCE TIMED VALUE IISCri-MR-UCGE/blU1X100,0001 0. 0 O. 30 1.61 01 21 41 91 62 92 42 6.62 5. 62 5.62 -0.0 0.75 1.64 2.46 3.48 4.36 4.67 5.24 5.48 5.71 5.75 5.81 5.B3 5.84 5.65 LOCAL IZEO WALL 7215 12)5 TEMPERATURES 1255 T275 IOEG.FI T295 DEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 DEG.F 154.3 154.7 155. 1 155.5 155.5 156.3 156. 7 156.7 167.1 157.9 158.3 158.7 159.5 159.5 159.9 OEG.F 154. 3 154.3 154.7 155. 1 155.5 155.9 155.9 156. 3 156.7 157.5 157.9 156.3 156.7 15e. 3 157.9 DEG.F 159.9 159.9 160.3 160.3 160.7 161.5 161.9 161.9 162.3 163. I 163.5 163.5 163.1 162. 3 161.5 OEG.F 159. 5 159. 5 159.9 160.3 160. 7 161.1 161.6 167. ) 167. 3 162. 7 161. I 167.7 161.9 161.5 161. 1 1315 DEG.F 160.) 160.7 161.1 16 1.1 161.9 162. ) 162.7 16). 1 163.1 16).5 163.1 162.) 161.9 161.9 161.5 T))5 OEG.F 157.5. 157.5 151. ) 156.) 159. I 159. 5 159.5 159.9 161.1 159.9 159.9 159.5 153. 7 158. 7 158. 7 1 355 OEG.F 156.7 157.1 157.9 157.9 158.7 159.1 159.4 159.9 159.5 159.5 159.5 I5B.7 15 6.7 15B.7 158.3 T375 DEG.F 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 0. 0 CO 0.0 0.0 CO CO 1395 DEG.F 161.9 161.9 162.7 163. 1 163.9 164.3 164. 3 164.7 164. ) 164. ) 164.) 163.1 16). 5 163.5 16).5 T4I5 DEG.F 166.7 166. 7 167.5 167.5 167.9 166.7 168.7 166.7 163.) 168.) 167.9 167.5 167.5 167.5 167.5 T428 DEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TIN TOUT IM DELTA H R T 1 HE OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F XIOOO HOURS 127.0 141.4 159.0 14.4 1410.2 0.7091 0.0 127 .0 141.4 159.1 14.4 1402.8 0.7129 0.05 127.0 14 1.4 159.7 14.4 1)69.8 0.7300 0.12 127.0 141.6 159.9 14.9 1)73.6 0.7279 0.20 17.7 .0 141.8 160.4 14.9 1)42.2 0.7451 U.33 127.0 141.8 161.0 14.9 1317.0 0.759) 0. 50 127.0 141.8 161.2 14.9 1)06.0 0.7651 0.65 127.0 141.8 161.5 14.9 1269.1 0.7757 0. 62 177.0 141.8 161.6 14.9 1283.5 0.7791 l.OO 126.5 141.8 161.6 15.) 1268.8 C.7861 1.13 127.0 141.8 161.9 14.9 1276.6 0.76)3 1.43 126.5 141.8 16 1.6 15. ) 1290.2 0.7751 1.66 127.0 141.8 161.5 14.9 1310.3 0.7632 1.87 127.0 141.8 161.) 14.9 1316.1 0.7587 2.05 127.0 141.8 161.1 14.9 1331.5 C 7511 2.25 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISCFT-HR-OECF/CTOIX100,COO 1215 1235 T255 1275 1295 T31S T336 1356 T375 T395 T415 T42B 3 IN TOUT RFM DELIA 1. RIOT ll"E OEG.F OCG.F OEG.F X 1000 HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 141 .4 0. 0 14.4 1410.2 0.7091 0.0 0.0 0.91 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.90 O.O 0.90 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 141 . 4 0. 10 14.4 1402.8 0.7129 0.05 0.0 1.81 0.91 0.90 0.90 1.80 1.61 2. 71 0.0 I .60 I.BO 0.0 127 .0 141 .4 1.61 14.4 1169.8 0.7)00 0.17 0.0 2.72 1.61 0.90 1.81 1 .60 1.81 7.71 0.0 2. 70 1.20 0.0 127.0 1 4 1 .3 2. 01 14.9 I 3 73.8 0.7279 0.20 0.0 2.72 2.72 1.80 2. 71 3.61 3.62 4.52 0.0 4.50 2.69 0.0 127.0 141 .3 3. 21 14.9 1)47.2 0.74SI 0. 13 0.0 4.5) 3.62 3.61 3.61 4.51 4.52 5.4 7 0.0 5.40 4.49 0.0 127.0 141 .8 4 . 4 1 14.9 1317.0 0. 159) 0. 69 0.0 5.4) 3.62 4.51 4.51 5.41 4.57 6.3) 0.0 5.40 4.49 0.0 127.0 141 .3 4. 91 14.9 1306.0 0.165 7 0.65 0.0 5.4) 4.63 4.51 6.31 6.31 5.42 1.2) O.O 6. 30 4.49 0.0 127.0 141 .8 5. 62 14.9 1219.1 0.77>7 0.17 0.0 6.34 5.43 5.41 6. 31 6. 31 8. 1 1 6.3) CO 5.40 3.59 0.0 177.0 141 .8 5. 92 14.9 178).5 C.7791 1. UO o.o 8.15 7.24 1.21 7.27 7.21 5. 4? 6. 1) 0.0 5.40 3.69 0.0 176.5 141 .B 6. 42 15. 1 1268.8 0.76M I 1. 1 1 0.0 9.05 8.15 e.n 3.12 6.31 5.47 6.33 CO 5.40 2.69 0.0 177.0 141 .8 6. 62 14.9 12 76.6 u. /en 1.4) 0.0 9.96 9.06 8.11 1.27 4.61 4.67 4.52 U.O 2.10 1 .ilO 0.0 126.5 141 .8 5. 82 15.1 1290.2 0.7 16 1 1.63 0.0 1 1 .16 9.96 7.71 5.41 3.61 2. 71 4.5? 0.0 3.60 1 .60 0.0 127.0 141 .6 5. 62 14.9 1 UN. 3 0.7617 1.6/ 0.0 11.76 9.05 5.41 4.61 3.61 2. 71 4.57 0.0 3.60 1.80 0.0 177.0 14 1 .8 5. 22 14.9 1113.1 0. 156 1 2.05 0.0 12.66 6.16 3.61 3.61 2.71 2. 71 3.62 0.0 3.60 I .80 0.0 127.0 141 .8 4. 72 14.9 1331.3 0.161 1 2.25 253 •««»*t»RUN N0S4.»••••»• TCKKIC UXIOE CONC IPPHI 21)0. VOLTS! 5.75 AMPS: 162. HEAT ElOU SOPPlirP 31 71.2 HEAT fLOX SUlVLUO 16250. BIU/HR MU/SUFI-IIR 6EIA0.301 TDlLT INLET127.0 OENSIIY:0.986 CRAM/CC I 0UHEI131.5 DEC F OEC F FLOK RA1E 0.0759 LOS.N/SEC OCC F SO.CM/SEC FT/SEC AVC TLHPM32.2 KINCMAIIC VISCUSI1Y:0.506 FIU10 VEIOCIIY I.921 REYNOLDS NO 10091.5 PRAND1L NO 3.21 HEAT SUPP 3179.2 BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 28S0.5 BTU/HR HEAT LOST 296.6 BIU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 9. AO HEAT FLUX TRANS. riTU/SOFT-HR 16535. NUSSELT NO 55.A RF1LH 1.376 RHALL 0.146 RIOTAL 1.520 SOFT-KR-OCC F/BTU ESTIMATES OF ROOT MEAN SUJARC STATISTICAL ERROR IN TIIC PAR A*'E I ER .6601*1-01 ..'060/ ESIIMAHS Of ROOT MIAN SC'JAU ICIAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETERS .754791-01 .IliCi.n ESTIMATE UP RO.RINF, ANII D IN RF.RINFI11.-EXP1-P•11 ME I .0 I I ME HOURS 0.0 0.07 0.13 0.28 0. 38 0.53 0.62 0.72 0.92 1 .03 1.10 1.26 1.35 1.65 2.06 2.23 2.42 2.58 2.77 2.92 3.42 .796 1 .89 365 CA1C. RESISTANCE MIIIO VALUL I ISCFI-HR-DICF/fi101XI00.COCI 0.0 -0.0 1.90 0.54 2.99 2.99 3.53 3.26 3.53 3.00 5.71 5.17 5.44 5.98 6.52 8.42 8.42 9.51 8.15 8.42 7.61 6.52 0.53 0.97 1.95 7.51 3.32 3.14 4.18 4.93 5.29 5.51 6.00 6.17 6. 76 7.43 7.60 7.79 7.92 8.06 6. 15 8.38 LOCAL 1215 DEC.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 I2ED WALL 1235 DEC.F 142.6 142.6 142.6 142.6 143.0 14 3.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.4 143.4 143.4 143.4 143.4 143.6 14 3.6 143.6 143.6 143.8 143.8 143.4 1EMPERA TURE S T255 OEG.F 141.7 142.2 141.7 142.6 142.6 142.6 142.2 142.6 142.6 142. 6 142.6 142.6 143.0 143.0 141.0 143.0 143.4 143.0 143.0 143.0 142.6 1275 OEG.F 146.2 147.0 147.0 147.0 147.0 147.4 147.4 147.4 147.0 147.4 147.4 147.4 147.8 147.8 147.8 148.2 148. 2 146.2 147.8 147. 4 147.8 IDEG.FI 1295 DEG.F 146.2 146.6 146.6 147.0 146.6 14 6.6 146.6 146.6 146.6 147.0 147.0 147.0 147.0 147.4 147.8 147.4 147.8 147.8 147.4 147.4 147.0 1315 DEG.F 14 7.0 147.0 146.6 141.4 147.4 147.4 147. 4 147.4 147.4 147.8 14 7.8 147.4 147.8 147.8 148.2 148.2 146.6 148.2 14e.2 148.2 148.2 I 335 OEC.F 144.2 144.2 144.2 144.6 144.6 144.6 144.6 144.6 144.6 145.0 145.0 145.0 145.0 145.0 145.4 145.4 145.4 145.4 145.4 145.4 145.0 1355 T375 7395 T415 T428 TIN TOUT OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEC.F 143.8 0.0 146.2 151.5 0.0 127.0 137.5 144.2 0.0 148.6 151.9 0.0 127.0 137.5 143.8 0.0 148.2 151.5 0.0 127.0 137.5 144.2 0.0 148.6 151 .9 0.0 127.0 137.5 144. 2 0.0 148.6 151.9 0.0 127 .0 1 37.5 144.2 0.0 148.6 152.3 0.0 127.0 137.5 144.2 0.0 148.6 152.3 0.0 127.0 137.5 144.2 0.0 148.6 152.3 0.0 127.0 137.5 144.2 0.0 149.0 152.7 0.0 127.0 137.5 144.6 0.0 149.4 152.7 0.0 127.0 137.5 144.6 0.0 149.0 152.3 0.0 127 .0 137.5 144.6 0.0 149.4 152.7 0.0 127.0 137.5 144.6 0.0 149.0 152.7 0.0 127.0 137.5 144.6 0.0 149.4 152.7 0.0 127.0 137.5 145.0 CO 149.R 153. 1 0.0 127.0 137.5 145.0 0.0 149.8 153.1 0.0 127.0 137.5 145.0 0.0 149.8 153.5 0.0 127.0 137.5 145. C 0.0 149.4 152.7 0.0 127.0 137.5 145.0 CO 149. 8 153.5 0.0 127.0 137.5 145.0 0.0 149.4 153.1 0.0 127.0 137.5 144.6 0.0 149.4 153.1 0.0 127.0 137.5 TH OEG.F 145.7 146.0 145.8 146.2 146.2 146. 3 146.2 146. 3 146.3 146.7 146.6 146.6 146.7 146.8 147.1 147. 1 14 7. 3 147.1 147. 1 147.0 146.8 DELTA H R 7IHE DEG.F XIOOO HOURS 10. 5 967.8 1.0332 0.0 10.5 945.8 1.0573 0. 07 10.5 962.2 1.039) 0. 13 10.5 932.3 1.0726 0.2B 10.5 934.7 1.0696 0.36 10.5 929. 3 1.0760 0.53 10.5 931.4 1.0737 0.62 10.5 929. 3 1.0160 0. 72 10.5 926.6 1.0792 0.92 10.5 905. 0 1. 1050 1.03 10.5 910.4 1.C964 1.10 10.5 900.6 1.1C06 1.28 10.5 903. 3 1.1070 1. 35 10.5 897.1 1.1141 1.65 10.5 877.3 1.1399 2. 08 10.5 S77.8 1.1193 2.2 3 10.5 867.4 1.1529 2.42 10.5 £79.8 1.1366 2.58 10.5 876.2 1.1367 2.77 10.5 685. 7 I.1290 2.92 10.5 696.4 1.1155 3.42 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISOFT-HR-DEGF/BTOIX100,000 T215 1235 1255 1275 129 5 1315 T335 1155 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.45 4.69 2.45 0.0 0.0 2.45 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.69 2.45 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.91 4.69 4.69 2.44 2.45 2.45 0.0 2.45 4.91 4.89 2.45 2.44 2.45 2.45 0.0 2.45 4.91 7.14 2.45 2.44 2.45 2.45 0.0 2.45 2.45 7. 34 2.45 2.44 2.45 2.45 0.0 2.45 4.91 7. 34 2. 45 2.44 2.45 2.45 0.0 2.45 4.91 4.89 /.45 2.44 2.45 2.45 0.0 4.90 4.91 7. 34 4.69 4.69 4.90 4 .90 0.0 4.90 4.91 7. 14 4.89 4. 69 4.90 4.90 0.0 4.90 4.91 7. 34 4.69 2.44 4.90 4. 90 0.0 4.90 7.16 9. 78 4.89 4 .89 4.NO 4.90 o.o 4.90 7. 36 9. 78 7.34 4. 69 4. 90 4.90 0.0 7.36 7.36 • 9.78 9. 78 7.3) 7. 35 7. 35 0.0 7.36 7. 36 17.27 7. 14 7.33 7. 35 7.35 0.0 7.36 9.61 12.22 9. 18 9.7 7 7. 1 . 7.16 0.0 7.36 7. 36 17.77 9. 78 7. 13 7. V, 7. IS 0.0 7.36 7.36 9. 76 1. )4 7.33 7. 15 7.35 0.0 7. 36 7.36 7. 34 7.34 1.33 7. 1'. 1. 35 0.0 4.90 4.91 9. IH 4.H9 7. 1) 4.90 4.NO T375 1395 T41S T428 TIN TOUT RFH OEG.F DEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 137.5 0.0 CO 2.44 2.44 0.0 127.0 137.5 1 .90 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 137.5 0.54 0.0 -2.44 2.44 0.0 127.0 137.5 2.99 CO 2.44 2.44 0.0 127.0 137.5 2.99 0.0 2.44 4.87 0.0 127.0 137.5 3.53 0.0 2.44 4.67 0.0 127.0 137.6 3.26 0.0 2.44 4.67 0.0 127.0 137.5 3.53 0.0 4.88 7.31 0.0 127.0 1)1.5 ).60 0.0 7.)) 7.31 0.0 127.0 137.5 5.71 0.0 4.B8 4.87 0.0 127.0 117.5 5.17 0.0 7.)) 7.)1 0.0 127.0 1)7.5 5.44 0.0 4.68 7.)1 0.0 177.0 1)7.5 5.98 0.0 7.)) 7.)1 0.0 177.0 1)1.6 6.57 CO 9. 17 9. 74 0.0 177.0 1 )7.5 6.42 0.0 9.77 9.74 0.0 177.0 1)7.5 8.42 0.0 9.77 12.18 0.0 127.0 IV.3 9.61 0.0 7.1) 7.)1 0.0 121.0 117.5 8.15 0.0 9.77 12.18 0.0 121.0 1)1.5 8.42 0.0 7.13 9.74 0.0 127.0 117.5 7.61 0.0 7.)) 9.74 0.0 127.0 1)7.5 6.52 OELTA H RTOT TIME DEC.F XIOOO HOURS 10.5 967. 6 1.0)32 0. 0 10.5 945. 8 1.0573 0.07 10.5 962.2 1.0393 0. 1 3 10.5 932.3 1.0726 0. 28 10.5 93 .7 1.0698 0. )R 10.6 929.3 1.0760 0.53 10.5 931.4 1.0717 0.62 10.5 929. 3 1.0760 0. 72 10.5 926.6 1.0192 0.9? 10.6 905. 0 1.1050 1.0) 10.5 9IC4 1.C964 1. 10 10.5 908.6 1.1006 1.26 10.6 903. 3 1.10 10 I. 35 10.5 897. 1 1.114 7 1.65 10.5 8 7 7 .3 1 . 1 399 2.08 10.5 617.8 1.1391 2.23 10.5 661.6 1.1579 2.47 10.5 8 /9. 8 1. 1 166 7.66 10.4 8/6.7 1.11" 1 2. 77 10. 4 685. 7 1 . 12 IU 2.97 10.3 896.4 1.1165 3.42 254 ••••«4tRUN ND55.»•«•••» FCRRIC OXIOE CONC IPPMI 21)0. VOLTS: 7.35 AMI'S: 203. HC AT FLOW SUPPLIED 5012.4 HEAT FLUX SUPPLIED 2923). BTU/HR BIU/SCFI-HR BETA0.301 TOR"!1NLET127.0 DENSITY:0.986 CRAM/CC I OUILET137.5 FLOW RATE 0.1104 LBS.M/SEC AVC TEMP:132.2 DEC F KlNEHATIC V1SC.OSITY:0.506 SQ.CH/SEC FLU I 0 VELOCITY 2.997 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 15744.0 PRANDIL NO 3.21 OEG F DEG F ESTIMATES OF ROOT MEAN SOUARE STATISTICAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETER .15197 .41471 ESTIMATES CF ROOT MEAN SOU ARE TOTAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETERS .69557E-01 . 18931 ESIIHAIE OF RO.RIHF.ANO 0 IN RF=RINFI I I.-EJPI-6»TI MO I T 1 ME HOURS 0.0 0.13 0.20 0.48 0.5S 0.70 1.07 1.45 1.87 2.00 5.4)61. 1.7417 CALC. RESISTANCE FITTED VALUE I ISOFt-HR-DEGF/BTU1X100,0001 0.0 -0.0 1.22 1.91 2.96 3.63 3.31 4.70 4.S2 6.09 4.67 1.10 1.60 3.08 3.46 3.6) 4.59 5.00 5.23 5.27 HEAT SUPP 5092.4 BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 4493.9 BTU/HR MEAT LOST 593.5 BTU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 11.75 HEAI FLUX TRANS. BTU/SCFT-HR 25797. NUSSELI NO 79.2 RFILM 0.960 RWALL 0.145 RTOIAl 1.106 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BTU LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERAlORES (0EG.F1 1215 1235 1255 1275 1295 1)15 T))5 T)55 T 375 OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F UEG.F DEG.F 0.0 14 5.0 143.6 14 9.0 146.6 149.4 146.2 145.4 0.0 0.0 145.0 144. 2 149.4 148.6 149. 8 146.6 145.6 0.0 0.0 145.4 144.6 149.8 149.0 149.6 146.6 145.8 CO 0.0 145.6 144.6 150.2 149.4 150.2 147.0 14 6.2 0.0 0.0 145.6 145.0 150.2 149. 4 1 50. 6 147.0 14 6.6 CO 0.0 145.6 145.0 150.2 149.4 I5U.2 147.0 146.6 CO 0.0 146.2 146.6 150.2 149. 8 151.1 147.0 146.6 CO 0.0 145.6 145. 4 150.2 149.4 1 SC. 6 147.0 147.0 0.0 0.0 146.2 145.4 150.6 150.2 161.1 147.4 147.4 CO 0.0 146.2 145.4 150.2 149.8 130.6 147.4 147.0 0.0 1395 1415 T428 T IN TOUT TN DELTA H R » TIME OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F DEG. F OEG.F XIOOO HOURS 160.6 154.3 O.C 126.5 1)7.5 148.0 11.0 1273.3 0.7853 0.0 151.1 154.7 0.0 126.5 1)7.5 146.4 1 1.0 1247. 1 C.8CI6 0. 13 151.1 154.7 0.0 126.5 1)7.5 143.5 11.0 1236.4 0.8038 0.20 151.1 154. 7 0.0 126.5 1)7.5 148. 6 11.0 1215.4 O.E22e 0.4E 151.5 155.1 0.0 126.5 1)7.5 149.0 11.0 1198.6 0.8343 0. 53 151.1 154.7 0.0 126.5 137.5 148.9 11.0 1208.9 0.6272 0. 7G 151.5 155. 1 0.0 126.5 137.5 149.3 11.0 1165.7 0.e434 1.07 151.9 155.5 0.0 126.5 1)7.9 149.2 11.4 1202.I C.8319 I. 45 152.3 155.9 0.0 126.5 1)7.5 149.6 11.0 U'7.7 0.8638 1.87 151.9 155.1 0.0 126.5 137.5 149. 3 U.O 11.0.2 0.8473 2.00 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE I SQF 1-HR-DEGF/P. TU1 X100, COO 7215 1235 1255 1275 1295 1)15 T))5 1)55 1375 1395 1415 1428 TIN TOUT RFM OELTA H RIOT TIME OEG.F OEG.F DEC.F X 1000 HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 126.5 1)7.5 0.0 11.0 1273.3 0.7651 0. 0 0.0 0.0 1.57 1.56 0.0 1.56 1.57 1.57 0.0 1 .56 1.56 0.0 126.5 1)7.5 1 .22 11.0 1247.1 0.6018 0.1) 0.0 1.57 3.14 3.13 1.57 1.56 1.51 1 .67 CO 1.56 1.56 0.0 126.5 1)7.5 1.91 11.0 1216.4 0.8086 0. 26 0.0 3.14 3.14 4.69 3. 1 3 3. 13 1. 14 ). 14 0.0 1 .56 1 .66 0.0 126.5 1)7.5 2.96 u.o 1215.4 0.8228 0.4* 0.0 3.14 4.71 4.6 1 3.13 4.69 3. 14 4.71 0.0 3.1) ).I2 0.0 176.5 1 )7.5 ).83 1 1 .0 1198.6 0.8 34 1 0.54 0.0 3. 14 4.71 4.69 3.13 3. 1) 3.14 4.71 0.0 1.66 1.66 0.0 126.6 137.5 ). 31 u.o 1208.9 O.fc/72 o. /': 0.0 4.71 7.65 4.69 4. 69 6.25 1.14 4 . /I 0.0 1.13 3.12 0.0 176.5 1)7.5 4. 70 u.o 1 1 35.7 0.6434 1.07 0.0 3.14 6.28 4.69 3. 1 3 4.69 3. 14 6.77 0.0 4.69 4 .67 0.0 126.6 1)7.9 4.62 11.4 1202.1 C. 8 119 1.45 0.0 4.71 6.26 6.26 6.24 6.25 4. 70 7.34 0.0 6.25 6.2) 0.0 176.5 1)1.5 6.09 II .0 1157.7 0.8638 1.87 0.0 4.71 6.26 4.69 4.69 4.69 4. 70 6.27 0.0 4.69 3.12 0.0 126.5 1)7.5 4.81 u.o 1160.2 0.641) 2.00 255 »t****»RUN N0S6.«•••»«« FERRIC OXIDE CONC (PPM 2130. V0LTS:13.50 AMPS: 347. HEAT FLOW SUPPLIED 16986.2 HEAT FLUX SUPPLIED 91781. PTU/HR DIU/SUF1-HR BETAO.301 TCR»TINLETI27.0 DEC F 0EhSIIY:0.98f> GRAH/CC T OUTLET157.0 DEG F FLOW RATE 0.1442 LBS.M/SEC AvG TEMP:142.0 L'EG F KINEMAlIC VISCOSI IV.0.467 SO.CM/SEC FLUID VELO:ilY 1.664 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 208S0.6 PRANDTL NO 2.93 HEAT SUPP 15938.2 BTU/HR HEAI TRANS 15653.1 BTU/HR HEAT LOST 335.1 3TU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 2.10 HEAT FLUX TRANS. BTU/SOFT-HR 89857. NUSSELT NO 100.0 RFILH 0.75* RWALL 0.1*1 RTOTAL 0.395 SfcFT-hR-DEG F/BTU ESTIMATES CF ROOT MEAN SQUARE STATISTICAL ERROR IN IME PARAMEIER .28973 .95107 ESIIKAIES CF ROOI KE AN SCUARC 101AL ERROR IN T HE PARAMETERS .69**3E-01 .227)5 ESTIMATE OF RO.KIliF, AND 0 IN RF = RINF I I 1.-EXPI-B«11 ME I .0 TIME HOURS 0.0 0.07 0.13 0.30 0.37 0.45 0.58 0.77 0.9B 1.20 2.2601 4.1606 CALC. RESISTANCE FIITEO VALUE IISCFI-HR-OEGF/BIUIXICO. 0001 0.0 -0.0 0.96 1.01 1.30 1.97 1.88 2.02 1.98 2.17 2.60 0.5S 0.95 1.63 1.79 1.93 2.08 2.19 2.24 2.26 LOCALIZED WALL 1215 T235 OEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TEMPERATURES 1255 T275 OEG.F 186.6 187.2 188.0 187.6 168.0 188.0 188.4 186.0 188.0 188.4 OEG.F 186.C 167.6 187.6 166.0 166.0 133.4 168.8 183.4 1(8.4 186.8 OEG.F 195.5 196.2 197.0 196.6 197.0 197.4 197.0 197.0 197.0 198.2 (DEC.F T295 UEC..F 195.5 196.2 196.6 196.6 197.4 147.0 197.0 197.6 197.6 198.2 1315 OEG.F 197.4 193. 2 193.2 196.6 199.3 199. 1 199.3 I 99.7 199. 7 199.3 T335 OEG.F 1 12.7 193.9 193.9 194. 7 194. 7 194. 7 145. I 195.1 195. 1 195.5 T355 OFG.F 193. 1 193.9 191.9 194. 7 195. I 195. 1 195. 1 195.1 195. I 195.5 T375 DEG.F CO CO 0.0 T395 DEG.F 201.7 202.8 ?02.5 202.8 204.4 201.6 203.6 203.6 204.4 204.8 T415 DEG.F 209.4 210.6 209.4 209.8 211.0 210.6 211.0 210.2 211.0 211.3 1428 DEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TIN OEG.F 126.5 126.5 126 .5 127.0 126.5 126.5 126.5 126.5 126.5 126.3 TOUT DEC.F 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 151.0 TM DEG.F 195.4 196.3 196.3 I 96.6 197.2 19 7.1 197.1 197.2 197.4 197.8 OELTA DEG.F 30.5 30.5 30.5 30. 1 30.5 30.5 30.5 30.5 30. 5 30.5 H 1322.8 1300.9 1300.8 1297.8 1278.3 1760.8 1278.5 1277.9 1274.0 1265.7 R TIME X1000 HOURS 0.7560 0.0 0.7687 0.07 0.7666 0. 13 0.77C6 0.30 0.7823 0.37 0.7607 0.45 0.7622 0.55 0. 7826 0.77 0.7B50 0.96 0.7901 1.20 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISUFT-HR-OEGF/BTUIXI 00,000 T215 T235 1255 12 75 T295 1)15 T333 (153 1175 T395 1415 1426 TIN TCUI RFH DELTA H RTOT TIME DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F 11000 HOUR S 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 126.5 157.0 0.0 30.5 1322.3 0.7560 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.87 0.67 0.87 0.87 1. 10 0.87 0.0 1.29 1.29 0.0 126.5 15 7.0 0.96 30.5 1100.9 0. 763 7 0.0/ 0.0 1.11 0.67 1.7) 1. 10 0.87 I. VI 0.87 0.0 0.66 0.0 0.0 126. 5 157.0 1.01 10.5 1100.8 0.7633 0.1) 0.0 0.87 1.31 1.30 1. 30 1.30 2. 1 7 1 . 74 0.0 1 .29 0. 4 3 0.0 127.0 157.0 1.10 30.1 1297.8 0. 7706 0. 10 0.0 1.31 1.31 1.73 7. 1 7 7.16 2. 1 7 7.17 CO 3.02 1.77 0.0 126.5 157.0 1.47 30.5 1216.3 0.78?) 0.)/ 0.0 1.31 1. 75 2. 1 7 1.71 2. 16 2. 1 7 7.17 0.0 2.16 1.79 0.0 126.6 151.0 1 .88 10.5 1280.8 0.7807 0.45 0.0 1.75 2. 18 1.71 1.71 2.16 2.61 2.17 0.0 7.16 1.72 0.0 125.5 157.0 2.02 30.5 1278.5 C.7672 0. 38 0.0 1.11 1. 75 1.73 7.60 2.60 7.61 7.17 0.0 2.14 0. 66 0.0 126.5 157.0 1.98 30.5 12 7 7.9 0.7826 U. 77 0.0 1.11 1. 75 1. 71 2.60 2.60 2.61 2.17 0.0 3.02 1.72 0.0 126.5 167.0 2. 1 7 )0.S 12/4.0 0.7630 0.-13 0.0 1.75 2. 18 3.01 1.03 2.16 3.04 7.61 0.0 1.45 2.14 0.0 126.5 157.0 2.60 30.5 1264.7 U.7401 1.2U 256 ««*«*««KUN NOW.««*•••• FERRIC OXIDE CONC IPPMI 2130. VDL1S:13.50 AMPS: 356. HE AT FLOW SUPPllfO 16402.9 BTU/HR • HEAT ILUA SUPPUIO 94161. 8TU/S0H-HR BETA0.301 TI)R'I INLET 127.0 CE G r PENSI1Y:0.986 GRAM/CC I 0UILEI149.5 DEC F FLOW RATE 0.1BS8 LBS.M/SEC AVC TIMP!138.2 DEC F KIKEMAIIC VISC0SITY:0.481 SO.CH/StC ESIIKATIS OF ROOT MEAN SCUARE STATISTICAL [RRCR IN THE PARAKEIER .71200 2.7S7? ESTIMATES CF RUOI MLAN SOUA-tE IOTAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETERS .12661 .48643 ESTIMATE OF RO i 1 NE i A.'tU ri IN RF = R I NE ( I I. - E XPI-e* T I ME I .0 .99129 7.4673 TIME CALC. RESISTANCE F1ITE0 VALUE HOURS IISCFT-HK-OECr/BTUIXlCO.OOOl 0.0 -0.0 0.40 0.40.65 0.73 1.09 0.91 0.94 0.07 0.18 0.33 0.40 0.53 0.63 0.85 1.19 0. 75 0.97 0.9S FLJID VELOCITY 4.769 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 26439.5 PRANOTL NO 3.03 HEAT SUPP 16402.9 BTU/HR HEA1 TRANS 15345.6 OTU/HR HEAT LOST 1051.0 BIU/HR PERCEII1 HE AT LOST 6.44 HEAT FLUX TRANS. E1U/S2FT-HR 88093. NUSSELI NO 121.1 RFILM 0.625 RWALL 0.143 RIOT AL 0.767 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BTU LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERATORES IDEG.FI 1215 T235 1255 1275 T/95 T3I5 T335 1355 T375 T395 T415 1426 TIN TOUT TM DELTA H R 11 ME DEC.F OEG.F DEG.r OEG.F UtC.F DE G.F DEG.F OEG.F Ot G.F DCG.f OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG. ,F DEG.F XIOOO HOURS 0.0 1 75.4 175.4 1 82. 5 167.5 164 . 1 179.4 1 79.8 0.0 137.2 193.5 0.0 126.5 149.5 1 62. 2 23.0 1574.6 0.6351 0.0 0.0 176.B 175.6 182.9 Ia2.9 164.5 1/9.6 130.2 0. 0 137.6 193.5 0.0 126 .6 149.5 182.6 23.0 1562.0 0.6402 0.07 0.0 176.6 176.2 163.3 U3.3 164.5 180.2 160.2 CO 137.6 193.1 CO 176.5 149.5 1 82. .8 23.0 1555.9 0.6427 0. 1 6 0.0 177.0 176.6 131.7 163.7 184.9 180.6 l»0.6 0.0 108.0 193.5 0.0 176.5 149.5 183. 2 23.0 1542.1 0.6464 0.13 0.0 177.4 176.6 183. 3 111. 3 184.5 180.6 180.6 0.0 In/.6 192.7 0.0 176.5 149.5 181. .0 23.0 1551.1 0.644 7 0.40 0.0 177.4 176.6 163.7 1 S3. 7 184.9 180.9 180.6 C. 0 188.0 193.5 0.0 176.5 149.5 16). , 1 23.0 1539.6 0.6494 0. 53 0.0 1 71.0 176.2 162.9 163.3 104.9 180.6 180.2 CO 187.6 193. 1 0.0 126.5 149.5 ie2. .9 23.0 1552.9 0.6440 0.63 LOCALI7.E0 FOULING RESISTANCE I SCF T-HK-OEGf/BTU I XI 00, 000 1215 1235 1255 1275 T295 1)15 T135 I 355 T375 1395 T415 T426 TIN TOUT RF« DELTA H RIOT TIME OEC.F DEG.F DEG.F X 1000 HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 126.5 149.5 0.0 21.0 1574.6 0.63SI 0.0 0.0 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.45 0.4 5 0.45 0.0 0.45 0.0 0.0 126.5 149.5 0.40 23.0 1562.0 0.6402 0.07 0.0 1.35 0.90 0.89 U. 89 0.45 0. 90 0.45 0.0 0.45 0.0 0.0 176.5 149.5 0.65 21.0 1555.9 0.647/ 0. 1 3 0.0 1.80 1.35 1.34 1 . 14 0.89 1. 14 0.90 0.0 0.89 0. 0 0.0 176.5 14 1.5 1.09 21.0 1642.1 0.64*4 0. 13 0.0 2.25 1. 35 0.89 0.E9 0.45 1.34 0.90 0.0 0.45 0.0 0.0 176.5 149.5 0. 65 21.0 1651.1 0.644/ 0.4O 0.0 2.25 1.36 1. )4 I. 14 0.89 1. 79 0.90 0.0 0.89 0.0 0.0 126.5 149.5 1.19 21.0 1639.8 0.6494 0. 53 0.0 1.60 0.90 0.45 0.69 0.89 1. 34 0.46 0.0 0.45 0.0 0.0 176.5 149.5 0.74 23.0 1552.9 0.6440 0.63 257 ***«»*»KUN N058.»*••»*• FERRIC OXIDE CONC IPPM.l 21)0. V0LTS:|3.50 AMPS: 356. HEAT FlUW SUPPLIED 164C7.9 HEAT ILUX SUPPLIED 94161. BTU/HR HTU/SLFT-HR BETA0.301 TORMINLETI27.0 OENSIIV:0.9a6 CRAM/CC T 0UILEI149.5 FLOW RATE 0.1888 LBS.M/SEC DEG F SO.CM/SEC FT/SEC AVG TEMP:l38.2 KINEMATIC VISC0S1TV:0.481 FLU10 VELOCITY 4.789 REYNOLDS NO 264 19.5 PRAN01L NO 3.03 DEG F OEG F ES1IMATLS OF ROOT MEAN SOUARC STATISTICAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETER . 34707 1 . 7667 ESTIMATES CE ROOT MEAN SuU\RE TOTAL ER<UR IN THE PARAMETERS .51046E-0I .75935 ESTIMATE Of RO.RINF.ANO 6 IN RF-RINFII 1,-EXPI-B*TIMC I .0 TIME HOORS 0.0 0.02 0.10 0.32 0.43 0.55 0.58 0.72 1.5661 8.4 349 CALL. RESIS1ANCE FllltO VALUE I (SGH-HR-UEGF/BTUIXIOO.OOOI 0. 0.20 1.04 1.19 1.49 1.54 1.59 1.74 -0.0 0.24 0.69 1.46 1.52 1.55 1.55 1.56 HE AT SUPP 16402.9 BTU/HR HE AT TRANS 15345.8 BTU/HR HEAT LOST 1057.0 BIU/HK PERCENT HEAT LOST 6.44 HEAT FLUX IRANS. BlU/SOTT-HR 88093. NUSSELT NO 121.1 RFILM 0.625 RWALL 0.143 STOTAL 0.767 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BTU LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERATURES IOEC.FI T215 T235 T255 T275 T/95 1315 T3 35 1355 T375 DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG. T 0.0 175.0 174.6 162.5 162.5 161. 7 179.0 179.4 0.0 0.0 175.0 174.6 162.5 182.5 16). 7 179.4 1 79. a C. 0 0.0 176.2 1 75.8 162.9 163.3 164.5 180.7 1 P0.2 0.0 0.0 177.0 176.6 163.3 167.9 164. 1 130.2 180.6 0.0 0.0 177.4 176.6 16 3*3 183. 3 164. 5 160. 2 160.6 0.0 0.0 177.4 1 76.6 131.7 163. 7 U4.5 18C.6 1 30.6 0.0 0.0 177.8 176.6 18). 7 183. 3 184.5 130.6 160.6 CO 0.0 117.4 176.2 184.1 163.3 185.3 180.6 180.9 CO L0CAL1ZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISOfT-HR-DEGF/RTU)XI00.COO 7215 1235 1265 T275 1295 1315 1315 1365 1375 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.45 0.46 0.0 0.0 1.35 1.15 0.45 0.89 0. 89 1. 14 0.90 0.0 0.0 2.25 2.75 0.8 9 0.45 0.46 1. 14 1. 34 CO o.o 2.69 7.75 0.89 0.89 0.89 1. 14 1 . 14 0.0 0.0 2.69 2.25 1.34 1. 34 0.69 1. 7 1 1 . 14 0.0 0.0 3.14 7.75 1.34 0.69 0.69 1. 79 1 . 34 0.0 0.0 2.69 1.60 1.79 0.89 1.79 1. 79 1 . 79 0.0 T395 74 15 T426 TIN TOUT TH 0EL7A H R TIME DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F DEG. F OEG.F XIOOO HOURS 186.8 192.3 0.0 127.0 149.5 181.6 77.5 1597.0 0.6262 0.0 166.6 193. 1 0.0 127.0 149.5 181.9 22.5 1590.0 0.6789 0.0? 187.6 193.5 0.0 177.0 149.5 162.7 27.5 1565.0 0.6390 0. 10 137.6 193.1 0.0 127.0 149. 5 187.6 22.5 1563.3 0.6397 0. 12 188.0 193.9 0.0 127.0 149.5 183.1 72.5 1554.7 0.643? 0.4) 136.0 19).1 0.0 126.5 149.5 183.1 23.0 1545.0 0.6473 0.55 188.0 193.5 0.0 126.5 149.5 163.2 23.0 1544.8 0.647 3 0.58 186.4 191.5 0.0 126.5 149.5 183.3 23.0 1537.6 0.6503 0. 7? T395 1415 I42B UN TOUT RF H DELTA H RT OT I 1 ME DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F X10C0 HOU-tS 0.0 0.0 0.0 177.0 149.4 0.0 22.5 1597.0 0.676 2 0.0 0.0 0. 89 0.0 177.0 149.5 0. 20 22.5 1590.0 0.6269 0.07 0.89 1.13 0.0 127.0 149.5 1.04 27.5 1565.0 0.6 390 0. 1 0 0.89 0. 69 0.0 127.0 149.5 1 .19 77.5 1561.3 0.6 19 7 0. 1? 1.34 1 .77 0.0 127.0 149.5 1.49 72.5 1554.7 0.6432 0.43 1.14 0.89 0.0 176.5 149.5 1.54 2 3.0 1545.0 0.647 1 0.55 1.34 1.33 0.0 174.5 149.5 1 .59 73.0 1644.8 0.647 3 0.58 1.76 1.33 0.0 176.5 149.5 1.14 23.0 1537.6 0.6503 0. 7? 258 •••••••RUN N059. FERRIC OXIDE CONC (PPMI 2130. VOLTS: 9.35 AMPS: 253. HEAT HB SUPPLIED 8073.6 HEAI ILUX SUPPLIED 46)47. MU/HR 9IU/SUFI-IIR 6£TA0.)OI 1CH«IINLET1?7.0 DECF 0ENS11Y:0.966 GRAK/CC I 00117114 1.8 CEC F FLOW RATE 0.1442 LBS."/SEC AVO TEMP:1)4.4 OEG F KINEMAIIC V1SCOSIIY:0.496 SO.CM/SEC FLUID VELOCITY 3.655 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 19550.0 PRANDIL NO 3.15 HEAT SJPP 8073.6 BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 7727.9 CIU/HR HEAT LOSI 345.7 P1U/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 4.28 HEAT FLUX TRANS. UIU/SOFT-IIR 44362. NUSSELI NO 94.6 RFILH 0.60) RKALl 0.144 RTOTAL 0.947 SOFI-hR-OEC F/B1U ESIIMAUS .186)8 ESTIMATES ET KU'JT .10211 ESTIMATE TIME HOURS 0.0 0.02 0.05 0.1? 0.40 0.68 0.73 0.98 1.12 1.33 1.50 1.75 1.9B 2.18 2.47 2.90 Pt'Ul MEAN Sl.UA*E STATISTICAL I R RDM IN THE PARAVC1EH .616)8 MEA.4 S-HIA-lt 101AL ERROR IN THE PARAMETERS .33769 ROiRlNF.Af.il 6 IN KT-H INF I 1 1.-EXPl-B* T l"E I 3.0701 1.597? CALC. RLSIS1ANCE rilTIO VAIUC 1t SulI-HR-VFCI /R7U1X160,0001 0.0 -0.10.70 0.10 1.21 0.24 1.11 0.73 1.41 1.45 2.41 2.03 2.11 2.11 2.31 2.43 2.51 2.56 2.11 2.70 2.31 2.79 2.71 2.8B 2.11 2.94 3.21 2.98 3.91 3.01 3.52 3.04 LOCALIZED MALL TEMPERATURES I0EC.FI 1215 T235 T255 T275 1295 T3I5 T335 1)55 T375 DEC.F DEC.F DEC.F UEG.F OEG. F DEG.F OEG. r OEG.F D1G.F 0.0 154.3 153.9 159.5 159. 5 1 60. 7 157.9 136. 7 0.0 0.0 155.1 154.3 160.3 159.9 160. 7 157. 1 157. 5 C. 0 0.0 155.5 154.7 160. 1 160.) 161.1 157.5 157.5 CO 0.0 155.5 155. 1 160. ) 160. ) 161. 1 157.5 157.5 0.0 0.0 155.5 155. 1 160. 7 160. 3 160.7 157.5 15 7.9 CO 0.0 156.3 155.5 161.1 160.7 161.1 157.9 157.9 CO 0.0 156.3 155.5 160. 7 160. ) 161.5 157.9 157.9 CO o.o 156.7 135.9 161.1 160. 3 161.1 15 7.9 157.9 0.0 0.0 156.7 155.9 161. 1 160. 7 161.1 157.9 157.9 0.0 0.0 156. 7 155.5 160. 7 160. 3 161.1 157.5 157.9 0.0 0.0 156.7 155.9 161.1 160. 3 161.1 157.9 157.9 0.0 0.0 157. 1 155.9 161.5 160.7 161.5 157.9 157.5 C. 0 0.0 156.7 155.5 I6C. 7 1 60. ) 161.1 157.5 157.9 CO 0.0 157. 1 156.9 161.6 loi. 1 161.9 15R. 1 158.3 0.0 o.o 157. 1 156. 7 161.9 161 .4 162.3 158. ) 158. 3 0. 0 o.o 157.9 157.1 161.5 161. 1 161.5 157.9 153. 3 CO L0CAL12E0 FOULING RESISTANCE I SOFT-HR-OEGF/BTUI XI00.000 1215 1235 1255 1215 T295 1)15 T))5 1)55 T375 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.81 0.91 1.81 0.90 0.0 0.0 1.81 0.0 0.0 2.72 1.8 1 1.81 l."l U.90 0.0 1 .81 0.0 0.0 2.7? 2.72 1.81 1.81 0.90 0.0 1.61 0.0 0.0 2.72 2.72 2.71 1.81 U.O o.c 2.71 0.0 0.0 4.53 3.62 ).6I 2. 71 U. 90 o.o 2.71 0.0 0.0 4.53 3.62 2.71 1.81 1.60 0.0 2.71 (1.0 0.0 5.43 4.43 1.61 1.61 0.90 0.0 2.71 0.0 0.0 5.43 4.5) 1.61 2. 71 0.90 0. 0 7. 71 U.O 0.0 5.43 3.6? /.7I 1.81 U.90 0.0 2. 71 0.0 0.0 5.4 3 4.3) ).6I 1.81 0.90 O.u 2.71 0.0 0.0 6.34 4.53 4.51 2. 71 1 . 80 0.0 1.81 0.0 o.o 5.4 ) 3.62 2.71 1.1:1 0. 90 7). 0 2.71 0.0 0.0 6.14 4.33 4.41 1.61 2.71 0. 90 1.6? 0.0 0.0 6. )4 6. 14 5.41 4.51 1.61 0.9U 1.6/ 0.0 0.0 8.15 7.25 4.51 1.61 1.80 0.0 1.6? 0.0 T395 T4 15 T428 TIN TOUT TH DELTA H R TIME OEG.F DEG.F UEG.F DFG.F DE G F OEG.F DEG.F X1000 HOURS 162.3 167.5 0.0 127.0 1 4 1 8 159. 1 14.9 1413.6 0.7074 0.0 163.1 167.1 0.0 126.5 141. 6 159.4 1 5. 3 1337.3 0.7208 0.02 163.1 16 7.1 0.0 127.0 141. 8 159.7 14.4 1 3 e 7. 2 0.7209 U.05 161.1 167.1 0.0 127.0 141. 3 159.7 14.9 1335.5 0.7213 0. 17 16). 1 167.1 0.0 126.5 141. 8 159.8 15. 3 1371.7 0.7? IC 0.40 16). 5 167.9 0.0 127.0 141 . 3 160.2 14.9 136 1.8 0.734) 0.68 16). 1 167.5 0.0 127.0 14 1. 3 160. 1 14.9 1368.3 0.7)08 0.7) 16).1 167.5 0.0 127 .0 141. 8 160.2 14.9 1366.7 0.7317 0. 96 16).5 167.5 0.0 127.0 141. 3 160.2 14.9 1361.4 0.7344 1.1? 16).5 167.5 0.0 1?7.0 141. 8 160.1 14.9 1371.1 0. 729 ) 1.3) 16). 1 167.5 0.0 127.0 141. 8 160.2 14.9 1366.7 0.7)17 1.50 16).5 167.5 0.0 127.0 141. 8 16C.) 14.9 1353.5 0.7301 1. 74 16). 5 167.5 0.0 127.0 141. 6 160. 1 14.9 1371.1 0.779) 1.96 16).5 167.5 0.0 127.0 141. 3 160.6 14.9 1343.7 0.7442 2. 18 16).9 167.9 0.0 127.0 141. 8 160. 9 14.9 1326.6 0.7577 2.47 163.5 167.5 0.0 127.0 141. 8 160. 7 14.9 1343.7 0.7442 2.90 1)95 T415 T42» TIN TOUT RFM DELTA H R TOT TIME DEG.F OEG. F DEG.F X1000 HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 14 1. 8 0.0 14.9 1413.6 0. 70 74 O.U I .80 0.0 0.0 126.4 141. 3 0. 70 15. 1 1387.3 0.7/C8 0.U2 1.60 0.0 0.0 127.0 141. 8 1.21 14.9 1337.2 0. I7C9 0.05 1.60 0.0 0.0 l?7.0 141 8 1.31 14.9 1365.5 0.72 16 0. 1 7 1 .30 0.0 0.0 1?6.5 141. 8 1.41 15. 1 1371.7 0.7/wo 0.40 2.70 0.90 O.D 177.0 14 1 6 2.41 14.9 1)61.8 0.7)4) 0.68 1.80 0.0 0.0 177.0 141 .3 7. 11 14.9 1 166.3 0.7303 0. 7) 1. "0 0.0 0.0 177.0 141. 8 2. )1 14.9 I 166. 1 0.7)17 0.98 2.70 O.U 0 .0 17 7.0 141. 8 7.51 14.9 1)61.4 0. 1 345 1. 12 2. 70 0.0 0.0 177.0 141 . 6 2.11 14.9 1171.1 0. 724 3 1 . )) I. 60 0.0 0.0 177.0 141. H 2.31 14.9 1366.7 0. 7)1 1 1.30 2.70 0.0 0.0 17 7.0 141 . n 7.71 14.9 1356.5 0. 7 36 1 1. 14 J. 70 n.o 0.0 177.0 I4|. 3 2.11 14.9 1)11.1 0. 7 79 1 1. '3 2. 70 o.o 0.0 17 7.0 141 . 8 1.71 14.9 I 14). 7 0.7447 2. I* ),60 U.90 0.0 177.0 141. 3 ).4l 14.9 I 326.6 0.737 7 2.47 2. 70 n.o 0.0 127.0 14 1. 8 1.52 14.9 1341.7 0.7447 2.90 259 «**««*9RUN N061. FERRIC OXIDE CONC (PPH1 ?130. VOLTS: 9.35 AMPS: 23A. HEAI IICW SUPPLIED 7467.3 HEAI FLUX SUPPLIED 42066. BTU/llA BIU/SOFT-HR BEIAO.301 TCR=TINLET1?7.0 OEG F DE.NSIIY:0.485 GRA»/CC I OUILEII34.9 DEG F FLOW KA1E 0.2563 LBS.M/SEC AVG IEMP:130.9 OEG F KINEMATIC V1SC0SIIY:0.511 SQ.CM/SLC FLUID VELOCITY 6.487 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 337CI.3 PRANDIL NO 3.25 HEAT SUPP 7467.3 BTU/HR HEAT IRANS 7311.3 DIU/HR HEAT LOSI 156.0 OIU/HK PERCENT HEAI LOST 2.09 HEAI FLUX TRANS. BIU/SOFT-HR 41971. NUSSELI NO 145.8 RFILM 0.522 RWALL 0.146 RIQTAL 0.668 SCFT-BP.-DEG F/8TU ESTIMAIES OF RCOT MEAN SOUARE STATISTICAL ERROR IN IHE PARAMETER .16295 .81869 ESTIMATES OF- ROOT MEAN SCUARE IDEAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETERS .52425E-0I .26339 E ST I HA TE OF ROt RINF.AND 3 IN RF«R1NFI 11.-EXPI-R»TI ME I .0 T I HE HOURS 0.0 0.03 0.17 0.25 0.28 0.40 0.58 0.65 0.97 1.15 1.37 1.43 1.65 2.48 2.2)85 6.1736 CALC. RESISTANCE FITTED VALUE 1 (SCFI-HR-UEGF/MUtXICO.OOUI 0.0 -0.0 0.75 0.38 1.12 1.45 1.61 1.76 1.72 1.64 1.82 2.05 2.14 2.IS 1.82 2.23 2.04 2.22.15 2.74 1.93 2.22.36 2.24 2.69 2.22.68 2.24 LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERATURES IDEG.FI T2I5 12 35 T255 1275 1795 T3I5 T335 T355 T375 DEG.F DEG. F DEG.F OEG.F DEC.F DEC.F OEC.F UEG.F OEC.F 0.0 141.7 140.5 145.4 145.0 145.0 141.7 141.3 0.0 0.0 142.2 140.9 145.4 145.0 145.4 147.2 141.7 0.0 0.0 142.6 141.3 145.8 145.4 145.8 142.6 142.2 CO 0.0 147.6 141.3 145. 3 145.4 145.8 142.6 142.2 0.0 0.0 142.6 141.3 145.6 145.4 145.6 147.6 142.6 0.0 0.0 147.6 141.3 146.2 145.4 144.8 142.6 142. 6 C. 0 0.0 142.6 141.3 146.7 145.4 145.8 14 J.C 142.6 0.0 0.0 142.6 141.3 146.2 146.4 145.6 142.6 142.6 0.0 0.0 147.6 141.3 146.2 145.4 145.6 14).0 147.6 CO 0.0 142.6 141.7 146.2 1 46.4 144.3 14).!! 142.6 CO 0.0 142.6 14 1.7 •145.6 145. 3 145.8 14).0 142.6 0.0 0.0 142.6 141.7 146.2 145. 8 146. 2 1 4 ) . 0 142.6 0.0 0.0 143.0 141.7 146.6 145.8 146.2 14).0 143.0 0.0 o.o 143.0 141.7 146.2 145.8 146.2 14 3.0 143.0 0.0 LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE ISUFI -HK-OEf.r/Riuixioo.ooo T215 1235 1265 1215 T296 1315 1))5 1 355 T375 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.97 0.47 0.0 0.0 0.96 0.47 0.97 0.0 0.0 1.93 1.9] 0.96 0.96 1.9) 1.9) 1.9) 0.0 0.0 1.93 1.91 0.46 U.96 1.9) 1.91 1 .9) o.o 0.0 1.93 1. 11 0.94 U.46 1.9) 1.4 1 7.90 U.O 0.0 1 .93 1.9 1 1.9) 0. 96 1.9) 1.4 1 2.90 0.0 0.0 1.9) 1 .4 ) 1.9) 0.44 1.9) 2.'10 7 . -10 11.0 0.0 1.91 1 .9) 1.91 0.94 1.9 1 1.9 1 2 .90 0.0 0.0 1 .91 1 .9 ) 1.9 3 0.94 l.9| 7. 41! 7.90 O.O 0.0 I.I) 7.40 1.9 1 0.96 1.91 7.90 7.90 0.0 0.0 1.9) 7.90 0. 46 1.4 1 1.91 7. 4f 7.90 u.o 0.0 1.9 1 7.40 1.9 1 1.91 / . »l 4 7.411 7.40 0.0 0.0 7.99 7.90 7.69 1.4 1 7.H-I 7.-Ml 1.9 7 0.0 n.n 7.40 7. -10 1.9 1 1.9 1 /."9 7.10 1.6 7 u.o T395 T415 T428 TIN TOUT TH OELTA H R TIME DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F DFG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F XIOOO HOURS 145.3 149.0 0.0 127.0 134.9 144.0 7.9 2556.8 0.3911 U.O 146.2 149.4 0.0 127.0 1)4.9 144.3 7.9 2497.2 0.4004 0.U3 146. 6 149. 3 0.0 127.0 I 34.9 144.7 7.9 2423.3 0.4127 0.17 146. 6 149.4 0.0 127.0 1 34.9 144.6 7.9 2429.8 0.4116 0.25 146.6 149.4 0.0 127.0 134.9 144. 7 7.9 2419.2 0.4134 0.26 146.6 149.4 0.0 127.0 1 34.9 144.7 7.9 7411.6 0.4147 0.40 147.0 149.8 0.0 127.0 134.9 144.9 7.9 2366.5 0.4190 0.3d 146.6 149.4 0.0 127.0 1 34.9 144. 7 7.9 2411.6 0.41*7 0.34 146.6 149.8 0.0 127.0 1)4.9 144.6 7.9 2 34 .6 0.4176 0. 97 146.6 149.8 0.0 127.0 1 )4.9 144.9 7.9 2339.2 0.4165 1.15 146.2 149.4 0.0 127.0 1 )4.9 144.3 7.9 2402.5 0.4162 1.37 146.6 149.8 0.0 127.0 1)4.9 144.9 7.9 2370.5 0.4219 1.43 14 7.0 150.7 0.0 177.0 1 J4.9 145.2 7.9 23)6.5 0.4280 1.65 147.0 149.8 0.0 127.0 1)4.9 145. 1 7.9 2349.8 0.4256 2.46 H95 1415 1426 TIN TOUT RFM DELTA H R TOT TIME DEG.F DEG .F OEG.F XIOOO HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 114.9 0. C 7.9 7656.6 0. 391 1 0.0 0.96 0.96 0.0 127.0 114.9 0. 75 7.9 7447.7 0.4CO4 0.0) 1.91 1.42 0.0 17 1.0 1 14 .9 1. 72 7.9 7473.3 0.417 7 0.17 1.91 0.96 0.0 l?7.0 134.9 1 . 61 7.9 7429.8 0.4116 0.74 1.41 0.46 0.0 177.0 1 34.9 1 . 72 7.9 7414.7 0.41 14 0.2 6 1 .4) 0.94 0.0 177.0 1 34.9 1 . 6? 7.9 741 1.6 1). 4 14 7 U. 4C 7.69 1.9? U.O 177.0 1 14.4 7. 14 7.9 7 36 6.4 0.4 1'10 II.If-1 .91 0.96 0.0 17 7.0 1 14.9 1. U2 7.9 7411.6 0. 4 14 7 0.65 1.9) 1.4? 0.0 177.0 1 14.9 ?. 04 7.9 7 1'I4.6 0.4 176 U. 4 7 1.9) 1 .92 0.0 177.0 134.9 2. 15 7.9 7)39.2 0.4164 1.14 0.44 0.46 o.u 177.0 1 14.9 1 . 4 1 7.9 7407.5 0.416/ 1.1' 1.9 1 1 .97 0.0 17 7.0 1 )4 .9 7. 36 7.4 7 1 70. 5 0.47CI 1.41 7.64 2.86 U.O 177.0 1 14.9 7. 6-1 7.4 7 1 16.6 II. 4/l'U 1 .64 7.'19 1.4/ II.u 1 7 7 . II 134.9 7. 4 6 7.4 i 144.6 II. 4 246 7.4 3 260 t»**»*«RUN N002.•«*•••• FERRIC OXIDE CONC (PPM1 21)0. VOLTS: 9.35 AMPS: 254. HE A T FlOW SUPPIICO 8105.5 OTU/IM HEAT fLUX SUPPLIED 46510. 3IU/SWFI-HR BETA0.301 "TOR.I INLET 127.0 DEG F DENS117:0.986 GRAM/CC T UUTLET141.8 DEG F FLOW RATE 0. 1442 LBS.M/StC AVG IEMP:134.4 DEG F KINEMAIIC VISCOSITY:0.496 SO.CM/SEC FLUID VELUCIIY ).655 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 19550.0 PRANDTL NO 3.15 HEAT SUPP 8105.5 BTU/HR HE AT TRANS 7727.9 UIU/HR HEAT LOST )77.6 BTU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 4.66 HEAT FLUX TRANS. BTU/SOFT-HR 44362. NUSSIH NO 94.6 RFILM 0.803 RWALL 0.144 RTOTAL 0.947 SOFT-HR-DEG F/BTU LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERA TORES IOEG.FI 1215 T235 1255 T275 1/95 1315 1335 T355 1375 T395 DEG.F OEG.F DE G.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F 0.0 147.8 146.6 154.7 161.1 155. 1 149.4 151.9 0.0 160.3 0.0 149.0 150.2 155.5 161.9 156.7 151.5 163. 1 CO 161.1 0.0 150.2 151.5 156.) 162. I 157.5 153. I 154. 7 CO 162.7 0.0 151.1 152.7 156. 7 163. 1 156.3 154.7 153.9 0.0 16).5 0.0 151.5 153. 1 156.7 163.1 158.3 155. 1 155.5 0.0 163.5 0.0 160.7 162.3 166. 7 1 72.6 166.7 165.9 166.3 CO 175.0 0.0 160. 7 162.3 167.5 1 71.0 169. 1 166. 3 166.7 0.0 1 75.0 0.0 178.6 179.8 166.6 192. 3 186. 8 185.1 IS6. 1 0.0 197.4 LOCAL 17.1:0 FOULING RESISTANCE ISCFT -I'R-DEGF/ETUIXIOO.OOO 1215 1235 1235 12 75 1295 T3I5 I 335 1355 1375 T395 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.73 1.64 1.61 1.60 3.62 4.55 2. 72 0.0 1.80 0.0 5.46 6. )7 3.62 1.61 6.4) 8.16 6.35 CO 5.41 0.0 7.28 9.09 4.5) 4.41 7.24 11.HO 9.07 0.0 7.21 0.0 8.19 10.00 4.5) 4.51 7.24 12. 71 8.16 CO 7.21 0.0 29.01 JO. 79 27.07 26.04 30.65 3 7.07 12.52 o.o 3).21 0.0 29.01 30. 79 26.66 26.44 31 .54 17.97 11.42 0.0 3).21 0.0 69.34 70. 19 72.5) 10. 42 76.04 01.66 77.11 0.0 63.65 T415 T428 TIN TOUT TM OELTA H R TIME OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F CEG.F DEG.F XIOOO HOURS 167.9 0.0 127.0 141.8 155.2 14.9 1684.8 0.5936 0.0 168.3 0.0 127.0 141.6 156.4 14.9 1591 6 0.6283 0.02 165.5 0.0 127.0 142.2 157. 1 15.3 1545.3 0.6471 0.07 164.7 0.0 127.0 142.2 157.8 15. 3 1495.0 0.6669 0.16 163.9 0.0 127.0 142.2 157.8 15.3 1496 6 0.6662 0.25 175. S 0.0 127.4 142.2 168.2 14.8 1041 1 0.9605 4.03 176.2 0.0 127.0 141.8 168.5 14.9 1017. 7 0.9826 4.20 199.0 0.0 127 .0 141.8 188.3 14.9 646 9 1.5459 13. 75 1415 T42B TIN TOOT RFH DELTA ». RIOT TIME OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F X1000 HOUR 5 0.0 0.0 127.0 141.8 0.0 14.9 1684 . 8 0.5936 0.0 0.90 0.0 127.0 141.8 2.62 14.9 1591 .6 0.6233 0.02 0.0 0.0 127.0 142.2 4. 34 15.3 1545.3 0.6471 0.07 0.0 0.0 127.0 142.2 5.95 15.1 1494.0 0.6639 0. 15 0.0 0.0 127.0 142.2 5.95 15.3 1476 .6 0.66*2 0.25 1 7.89 0.0 127.4 142.2 29. 16 14.8 104 1 . 1 0.9605 4.U) 18.79 0.0 127.0 141.8 30.06 14.9 1017.7 0.9626 4.2G 70.06 0.0 127.0 141.8 74.36 14.9 646 .9 1.6459 13. 75 261 .......RUN N063.••••«.. FERRIC OXIDE CONC IPPMI 21)0. VCL1SU3.50 AMPS: 355. ESTIMATES CF RCOI MEAN SCUARE STATISTICAL ERROR IN THE PARAMETER .16680 .78614 ESTIMATES CF ROCT MEAN SCUARE IOIAL ERROR IN TFE PARAMETERS •75054E-01 .1C544 ESTIMATE CF RO.RINF.AI.C E IN RF = R INF I I 1 .-EXP I -HEAT FLCW SUPPLIED 16)56.8 HEA1 FLUX SUPPLIED 9)817. BIU/HR BTU'/SCF T—HR eElAO.301 TOR«TINLE1 127.0 DEC F 0ENS1IY.0.986 CRAH/CC T OUUEI150.3 OEG F FLOW RATE 0.1868 LBS.M/SEC AVG TEMP:|)8.6 OEG F KINEMATIC VISCOSITY:©.479 SC.CM/SEC . FIU1C VELOCITY 4.790 FT/SEC REYNOLDS NO 265)4.0 PRANDTL NO 3.02 HEAT SUPP 16356.8 BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 15921.4 BTU/HR HEAT LOST 435.4 BTU/HR PEPCEM HEAT LOST 2.66 HEAT FLUX TRANS. BTU/SOFI-HR 91397. KUSSELI NO 121.5 RFILM 0.623 RWALL 0.143 R10IAL 0.765 SQFT-HR-DEG F/BTU .0 TIME HOURS 0.0 0.06 0.12 0.20 0.23 0.42 0.6B 0.65 1.02 1.35 1.47 1.77 1.92 2.C669 5.7124 CALC. RESISTANCE FITTED VALUE ((SCFT-HR-CECF/BIUIXICO,000 I CO -0.0 0.77 0.76 1.15 1.C3 1.29 1.41 1.68 1.51.82 1.68 2.01 2.02 1.77 .05 1.92 2.06 2.11 .01 2.16 2.07 2.25 2.02.20 .07 LOCALIZED WALL 1215 T235 TEMPERATURES T255 T275 OEG. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 DEC.F 174.6 175. C 175.0 175.8 175.6 175.6 176.6 176.6 1 76.6 17 7.0 177.C 177.4 177.0 OEG.F 174.2 175.0 175.0 175.4 175.8 175.8 176.6 176.6 176.2 1 76.6 177.0 177.0 17 7.0 DEG.F 182.5 182. 1 182.5 182.5 IE).3 184. 1 183.7 163.7 184. 1 183.7 164. 1 184.5 164.1 ICEG.F 1295 DtG.F 182.5 162. 1 162.9 182.9 16). 3 le). ) 184.1 18). 7 16). 7 184.1 164.| 164. 1 164.3 T315 OEG.F 183.3 ie4. l 164.6 184.5 184. 9 184.9 185.3 It4.9 18 5.3 165.3 185. 3 165. 3 185. 3 73)5 OEG.F 176.6 179.4 180.2 160.2 180.2 18C.6 180.6 1RC2 18C.6 180.6 160.6 18C.9 180.6 T355 T375 T395 T415 7428 TIN OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F 1 18.6 0.0 ie6.5 192.7 0.0 127.0 150.2 0.0 188.0 193.9 0.0 127.0 18C6 CO 188.4 193.9 O.C 127.0 I8C6 0.0 168.4 191.9 0.0 127.0 160.6 0.0 186.4 194.7 0.0 121.0 I8C. 9 CO 188.4 194.7 0.0 127.0 18C9 CO 166.4 193.9 O.C 127.0 180.6 0.0 188.0 193.9 0.0 127.0 IBC.9 CO lee.o 193.9 0.0 127.0 181.3 CO 168.4 193.9 0.0 127.0 180.9 CO 186.4 193.9 0.0 127.0 18C.9 CO 188.4 191.5 CO 127.0 180.9 0.0 188.4 193.9 0.0 127.0 TOUT 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 .49.9 I '• 9 .9 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9 TM 0EL7A H R T 1 ME OEG.F OEG.F X1C00 HOURS 181.5 23.0 1676.2 0.5966 0.0 182.2 23.0 1648.0 C.6G68 C. 06 182.6 23.0 1632.5 0.6125 0. 12 182.7 23.0 1630.0 0.6135 C.20 183.0 23.0 1620.6 0.6170 0. 23 183.2 23.0 1612.1 0.62C3 C42 183.3 23.0 1607.3 0.6222 0.68 183. 1 23.0 1616.9 0.6165 6.85 183.3 23.0 11 0.4 0.6210 1.C2 183.4 23.0 1604.7 0.6212 1. 35 183.5 23.0 1604. 1 0.6234 1.47 183.6 23.0 1601.4 0.6244 1. 17 163.5 23.0 1602.4 0.6241 1.92 LCCALI7EC FOULING RESISTANCE ISCFT-HR-OEGF/BTUIX100.COO 1213 1235 1255 1275 1295 1)15 1)35 1)55 1)75 1)95 1415 1426 UN 7CUI RFM 0EL1A H RI01 7IME DEG.F OEG.F DEG.F X 1000 HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 127.0 149.9 0.0 21.0 1676.2 0.5966 0. 0 0.0 0.4) 0.67 0.0 0.0 C.B6 O.P.I 1. 7) CO 1.72 1.28 0.0 127.0 141.9 0.77 21.0 1648.0 0.60 6 6 0.06 0.0 C.41 0.67 0.0 0.4) 1.29 1.7) 2.16 CO 2.15 1.28 0.0 127.G 149.9 1.15 23.0 1632.5 0.6125 0. 12 0.0 1.30 1.10 0.0 0. 4) 1.29 1.7) 2.16 0.0 2.15 1 .28 0.0 127.0 149.9 1.29 23.0 I63CO 0.6115 0.70 0.0 1.30 1.73 0.66 0.66 1.72 1.11 2. 16 CO 2. 15 1.71 0.0 127.0 149.9 1 .68 23.0 1620.6 0.6110 0.7 3 0.0 1.30 1.73 1.72 0.66 1.72 2.16 2.59 0.0 2.16 2. 14 0.0 127.0 149.9 1.62 21.0 1612.1 0.6203 0.47 0.0 2.17 2.60 1.29 1. 72 2.15 2.16 2.59 0.0 2.15 1.28 0.0 121.0 149.9 2.01 21.0 1667.3 C.6222 0. 61 0.0 2.17 2.60 1.29 1.79 1. 72 1.1) 7. 16 CO 1.72 1.28 0.0 127.0 149.9 1.71 73.0 1616.9 0.6IH5 0. 66 0.0 2.17 7.17 1.12 1.79 2.15 2.16 2.59 0.0 1.72 1.26 0.0 127.0 149.9 1.92 7 1.0 1410.4 0.6/10 I.U2 0.0 2.60 2.60 1.29 1. 12 2. 15 2. 16 1.C7 0.0 2.15 I .78 0.0 127.0 149.9 2.11 /). II 161.4. 1 0.6/12 I. 13 0.0 2.60 3.03 1.72 1. 12 2. 16 2. 16 7.69 CO 2.15 1.28 r.o 127.0 14 1.9 2.16 7 1.0 1604.1 0.6/34 1.47 0.0 3.0) ).0) 2.16 1.77 2.15 • 2.69 7.69 U.O 2.15 0.65 0.0 171.0 .14 9.9 2.25 23.0 1401.4 11.6244 1.77 o.o 2.60 3.03 1.72 2. 15 2. 15 2.16 7.39 0.0 2.15 I.7B 0.0 127.0 149,9 2.20 23.0 1602.4 0.6241 1.9/ 262 i • •••(••RUN N064. ••••••• FERRIC OXIOC CONC IPPMI 2130. VOL1S113.50 AMPS: 153. MEAT FLOW SUPPLIED 16264.6 HEAI TLUX SUPPLIED 93363. BIU/HR MTU/SOFT-HR BETAO.301 TOR=TINLE1127.0 OENSllr:0.9B6 GRAM/CC I UUILEU57.0 (LOU RATE 0.1442 LBS.M/SEC AVC. I EVP: 142.0 OEG F Kl NEC AT IC VISCOSIIY:0.46T SO.CM/SCC FU1D VELOCITY 3.664 FT/SEC REYND1OS NO 20350.6 PRANJIL NO 2.93 OEG F OEG F ESTIMATES OF ROOT MEAN SOIJ.vn STATISTICAL CR ROM IN THE PARAMETER •••«•••••• *c*t«**ct« ESTJMAIES ^.T R30T MEAN SO'JMt THTAl tRROR IN THE PARAMETERS ESTIMATE Of RO.RINliANu 0 IN RF = R INF I I I.-E XP1 - G» 11 ME I TIME HOURS 0.0 0.02 0.23 0.45 0.67 1.15 1.95 2.76 3.43 3.95 4.45 .2T44HE 14 .I097 3E-56 CALC. R1SISTANCE FITTED VALUC ItSorl-HR-UEGF/BTUlXlCO.OnOl 0.0 7.18 12. B4 18. 19 21.46 30. 6B 47.86 58.22 70.10 64.11 71.62 -0.00 -O.CO -0.00 -0.00 -0.00 -0.00 -0.00 -0.00 -O.CO -0.00 -0.00 HEAT 5UPP 11264.4 BTU/HR HEAT TRANS 15653.1 BTU/HR HEAI LOSI 611.6 BIU/HR PERCENT HEAI LOST 3.76 HEAI FLUX TRANS. BTU/S3FI-HR 89857. NUSSELI NO 10O.0 RF1IM 0.754 RkALL 0.141 R10IAL 0.895 SOFT-HR-UEG F/8IU LOCALIZED WALL TEMPERATURES (UEG.F1 T216 12 35 T255 1273 T295 1315 T 3)5 T355 T)75 T395 T415 T428 TIN DEG.F DEG.F DEG.F OEG.F OtG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEC.F DEG.F OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F 0.0 174.6 1 74.6 162. 1 162.1 163.7 160.2 179.4 0.0 167.2 197.7 0.0 127.0 0.0 183. 7 135. 1 164.6 in). 1 J 49. 3 16). ) 131.3 0.0 183.8 200. 1 0.0 127.0 0.0 190.8 186.0 165.3 169.6 205.9 197. ) 166.4 CO 196.2 704.0 0.0 127.4 0.0 194.7 192.7 190.4 191.6 2 1 C. 7 147.4 19).5 0.0 201. 7 209.6 0.0 127.4 0.0 197.4 195.8 143.5 145.6 211.) 700.5 146.6 0.0 205.2 217.1 0.0 127.0 0.0 204.4 202.8 200.4 203. 2 220.9 7C3. ) 2U5.5 C 0 215.9 222.6 0.0 177.0 0.0 216.7 215.6 215.6 717.5 7 34.9 774.0 771.3 CO 234.6 241.7 0.0 126.3 0.0 224.0 221.2 224.4 227.0 24o. 2 7)2. 7 231.7 0.0 244.9 25 3.0 0.0 177.4 0.0 232.7 231. 1 211.8 7)7.6 253.7 242.4 74 1.6 0.0 256.3 267.0 0.0 177.4 0.0 236.7 239.1 240.6 742.9 202.2 244.4 74 7.0 0.0 211.3 778.9 0.0 177.0 0.0 247.4 246.6 228.2 242.5 2 72.9 25).) 255.9 0.0 227.4 24 1.7 0.0 127.4 TOUT OEG.F 149. I 10.9 1^0. 1 l*.9.9 149.9 1 10. 8 1*9.5 144 . 1 IM OELTA H R TIME OEG.F OEG.F XIOOO HOURS 18 1.9 22.5 162" 5 0.6160 0.0 188.3 22. 1 1422.1 0.7C32 0.02 19 1.4 22.5 1798.6 0.7701 0.2 1 196.2 22.9 1147. ) 0. 5352 0.45 201.1 2).0 1137.5 0. E630 0.67 209 .4 2).0 949. 7 1.0C01 1.15 224.9 22.5 8)0. 2 1.2044 1.95 234.2 77. 1 7 39.9 1.3316 2. 76 244.0 21.7 66). 1 1.5C6I 3.41 2)9.5 21.7 702. 1 1.4244 3.95 246.2 22.1 657.0 1.5220 4.45 LOCUI/tO f CJl IN 6 Pt SI STAFJCf ISOFI-HK-DEGF/RTUlXI CO.000 1215 12 35 T254 Ti 75 1295 1)15 1335 1 154 1175 1)45 1415 1428 TIN TOUT RFM DELTA H RTOI TIME OEG.F OEG.F OEG.F XIOOO HOURS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 O.C 0.0 171.0 14 4.5 0. 0 22.5 1621.5 0.6160 0.0 0.0 10.10 11.35 6. )0 1. M 1 1 4 0 3.51 ?.I9 0.0 I .75 8.74 0.0 177.0 149. | 7 . 16 22. 1 142/.1 0. ?C 12 0.07 0.0 1 7.96 14.41 3.30 6 . 10 74 74 13.54 10.07 CO 10.01 17.45 0.0 177.4 149.9 1? . 64 27. 5 17V6.6 0. 7 K.I 0.2) 0.0 27.11 70.14 9. 13 17.66 74 46 14. 14 1 '.. 71 u.n 16.06 19.00 0.0 177.4 150. ) 16. 19 2 2.9 11/7.3 0. 6)37 0.44 0.0 25.14 7). 6 1 12.66 15. 26 17 .67 7 7.65 19.70 O.o 19.94 21.41 o.o 177.0 14 1.9 21 . 46 73.0 11 17.5 0. «310 0.67 0.0 13. 12 31.40 70.39 71.46 4 1 . 4 7 11.76 74. 1 1 0.0 11.94 13.41 0.0 177.0 144.9 30. 68 2 3.0 944. 7 1.000 ) 1.15 0.0 46.e4 45.66 J 7 . 70 34. 14 6 1 14 48. 76 4 6.6? 0.0 5?. 70 44.46 0.0 173. 1 1 '.0.8 47. 66 22.5 8)0.2 1.7043 1.45 0.0 54.97 54.til 47,. 44 44.44 44 4U 56. 4M 4 7.67 o.o 46.76 47.04 0.0 177.4 14 1.5 43. ?? 27.1 1 39. 9 1. 1316 2. 73 0.0 64.6) 65.06 4 7.4 4 4 1. 14 6/ . M4 64. 74 71.41 CO 76.86 67.47 o.o 127.4 149. | 70 . 30 21.7 66). 1 I.408 1 3.4 1 0.0 11.15 71 . 77 63.04 6 7. 40 6 7 13 11.46 74.74 0.0 76.81 40. ?H 0.0 177.0 148.4 44. 1 1 71.7 707. 1 1.4/44 ).44 0.0 60.95 60. 12 61.2? 6 7.16 49 .2) 61.4 1 64.70 0.0 44.69 64.46 o.o l?7.4 149.5 71 . 62 22.1 651.0 1.5220 4.45 263 ««*«»**RUN N065.*•***•• f ERR IC OXIDE CONC (PPHI 2110. VOLIS.13.50 AMPS: 354. HEM now suppiitr I6H0.i HEM IlUX SUPPlllD 936)2. aru/im BIU/SOFT-MR BETAO.IO! 10R = TINLE1127.0 DENSI1Y:Q.986 GRAM/cf. 1 OUUEU57.0 DEC f DEC r FLOW RATE 0.1442 10S.-VSEC AVG IEHP: 142.0 OCC F KINEMAT IC VISC0SITY:0.467 SO.CM/SEC FIUIO VELOCITY 3.666 FT/SEC REYNOLOS NO 2C850.6 PRANDK NO 2.13 HEAT SUPP 16310.7 BTU/HR HE AI TRANS IS653.I BIU/HR HEAT LOST 63 7.7 BIU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST 4.03 HEAT F LOX TRANS. C10/SQFI-HR 89BS7. NUSSEll NO 100.0 RF I LH 0.T54 RMA1L 0.141 RTOTAL 0.893 SOFI-hR-DEC F/BIU LOCAL 1215 DEC.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 I2E0 WALL 1235 OEG.F 186.8 187.6 187.2 187.6 186.0 167.6 187.6 186.0 168.8 lft.4 189.2 190.0 190.0 190.4 190.4 TEMPERATOKES 1255 1275 CCG.F 18 7.2 168.0 187.6 ISR.O 168.4 193.4 169.4 169.4 189.2 166.4 189.2 190.4 190.0 190. 4 190.6 OEO.r 196.6 196.6 196.6 197.0 196.6 196.2 197,0 196.6 197.4 I 97. 0 197.8 199.0 199.0 199.0 199.0 IDEC.F T2<5 DIG. I 196.6 196.6 196.6 1)7.4 19 7.4 196.2 197.0 197.0 197.4 197.4 197.8 199.0 198.6 191.0 199. 7 T3I5 DtG.F 199.6 199.0 I 7 7.0 199.3 199. 3 19;.6 19 1.3 191. 3 19^. 1 199. 3 19*. I 260. 9 2C0.5 ?un. 9 1 335 OEG.F I 84.5 184.9 184. 7 1 05 . > 135. 1 164.1 185. 3 185. I 136. 1 165. ) 135. 7 1 36. 5 186.5 136.6 186.5 1355 ilEG.F 194. 3 194. 7 194. ) 195. 1 195. I 114. 3 194.7 194. 7 194. I 194. 7 195. 1 196.2 195.8 196.8 196.2 T375 OEG.F 0.0 C. 0 0.0 0.0 CO C. 0 0.0 n.o CO CO 0.0 0.0 T)95 OEG.F 203.2 203.2 203. 6 203 .6 204. 4 204.0 204.0 203.6 204.0 204.0 204 .4 205.7 204.6 704.3 205.2 T4I5 DEG.F 2 10.2 209. 3 710.2 210.6 211.0 2 11.0 210.2 2 10.2 210.6 210.6 210.6 211.7 21 1.0 211.7 212.1 T42B OEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TIN DEG.F 127 .0 17 1.0 177.0 127.0 127.4 127.4 177.4 177 .0 177.4 127.0 12 I .0 127.0 127.4 177.4 127.0 TOUT DEG.F 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 157.0 147.0 151.0 156,6 1S7.0 15 7.0 157.0 161.0 TP CEG.F 195.3 195.5 195.6 196.0 196.7 195.7 195.9 196.0 I 96. 1 196. I 196.6 197.6 197.3 197.6 197.9 DELTA H OEG.F 10.I 1135. 30.1 1)37. 30.1 13)0. 30.1 1119. 29.6 1321. 21.6 13 34. 29.6 1 326. 30.1 1321 29.6 132C. 30.1 1313. 29.7 1302. 30.1 12d2. 29.6 1295. 79.6 1209. 30.I 12 7 8. X 1000 0.7486 0.'5Go 0.7515 0.7579 0. 1363 0.7492 0.76)9 0.7567 0.'5)7 0.7536 0. 76 'i 0.7/95 0.7/21 0.7751 0.7820 T I HE HOURS O.U 0.10 0. 15 O.lf 0.23 0. 33 0. 37 0.45 0.3? L.l' 1.35 1.4) 1.60 1 . LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE I SOT T-HH-OE Gl/RTUI XI on, 090 1715 1235 1255 1/75 1296 TJI5 1335 1355 1375 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.37 (1.44 0.87 1.31 0.87 0. 81 1.11 2.18 1. 75 2.6? 1.49 3.41 3.91 3.1) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 4 1 0.0 0.0 0. 4 3 0.0 0. 0.4 ) 7.60 7.60 0.0 0.0 0.87 0.91 U.O 0.41 6.4 ) 0.6/ 0. 67 1. 30 /.6» 2. I I 7.61) J.46 0.0 U.4I 0.4 1 U.67 0. 67 0.0 0.6/ 0. H / I . 10 / . 49 0.44 0.44 0.6/ 0.3 1 0. 44 n.67 1. II 0. 87 7.19 2. IV n.o 0.67 0.8/ o.n 0.4 1 0.4 1 0.41 0.4 1 11.9 7 7.17 I . /4 I . 74 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 n.o C.ll n. n o.o o.o 1)15 0.0 0.0 0.4) 0.4) 1.21 0.86 0.P6 0.4 1 0.66 0. B6 1 .21 2.15 1. /2 I . 72 7.14 UN EG.F 0.0 0.43 0.U6 0. 86 0.0 0.0 0.41 0.4 I 0.4) 1.11 0. 86 1. 'I 7.14 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 n.o 0.0 77.0 77.u ^7.4 TOUT OEG.F .47.0 157.0 ; I .o 15'.0 13 '. 0 I 5 /.0 I 6 /.I Ii. n l'.6.6 ',1.11 •. r .0 DELIA OEG.F 10. I )0. I 10. I 30. 1 0.24 0. /2 0.97 2 1.6 0.31 79.6 0.66 /1.6 >0. I 79.6 O.M 10.1 1.40 ?')./ 2.3 3 JO.I 7.7? />.4 7.31 /).6 7.60 10,1 0.68 I .1)6 13)5.8 11J7.2 11)0.6 1119.5 I 3/1.4 1334.8 I 1/6.4 13/1.5 1J/0.6 111".) I 11)/. 5 1 /'I/. 9 1/93.| I / 'I /. 9 12/8.1 RIOT XIOOO O.7436 0. '566 0.'313 0. '3' I 0. 7368 0.'4)7 0. /3 19 0. 736 / 0.'3/7 (J. V,Vh U.ILta I). 7 793 0. 7/71 II. 7/3) O./b/0 TIME HOURS 0.0 0. 10 0. 13 0.18 O./F 0. 11 U. 3 / 0.43 . 97 264 fCRRIC UXIllE CONC IPPM| 21)0. VOITS.13.50 AMPS: 356. HEA1 ILOW Sl'PPlli.0 16)56.« HEM flUX SurPllLO 91691. BIU/HR PlU/SOf l-t-R BE1A0.301 TL'R.TINLE1I77.4 UFNSI IY:0.9B6 GRAM/CC r 0U11E1150.1 DEC r OEG f HOW SMC 0.1887 LOS.M/SEC AVG TEMP:I la.9 DEG F KINtKAI IC VISC0S1TY:0.479 SU.CM/SEC FLUID VCIOCIIV A.790 FI/SEC REYNOLDS NO 26573.5 PRANUIl NO 3.02 HEAT SUPP 16356.6 BIU/HR HEAT 1RANS 15619.7 BTU/HR HE Al LOSI 737.1 BTU/HR PERCENT HEAT LOST A.51 HEA1 flUX TRANS. BlU/SCH-HR 89665. NUSSELT N3 121.6 RFILM 0.623 RWALL 0.143 R10IAL 0.765 SOFT-HR-OEG F/BTU LOCALIZED FOULING RESISTANCE I 5CFT-HR-DECF/BTOIXI00,000 1215 T235 1255 1275 T/95 T315 T335 T355 T375 1395 7*15 T428 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.25 10.56 10.56 7.05 9.25 9.25 12.76 13.19 14.51 16.25 19.31 21.92 23.23 24.96 26.70 30.60 31.89 34.46 35.35 37.93 40.06 44.60 49.07 52.06 36.01 59.28 59.70 60.97 61.67 62.66 63.61 65.19 0.0 8.37 9.25 9.25 e.37 9.69 7.93 10.13 11.44 11.68 I 3.63 18.01 14.88 20.67 19.75 20.62 25.41 27.58 28.68 30.17 32.77 35. 36 38.60 43.53 46.95 52.07 52.60 52.92 34.20 53.48 56.75 37. 17 68.45 0.0 7.88 8. 76 6.32 5.70 6.57 7.45 12.24 11.1 1 14.42 17.74 14. 65 16.72 16. 16 19.31 18. 76 27.65 24.38 26.54 27.83 30.41 32.56 36.13 43.75 47.06 34.26 15.11 35.56 17. 70 38.96 39.64 41.12 43.75 0.0 6.57 7.01 7.01 5.70 7.45 7.88 8.76 10.94 9. 63 IC.04 16. 16 16. 59 1 7.89 20. 06 21. 79 26. I I 26. 26 10. 4 I 31.70 1). 85 35.56 41. 54 46. 65 50.47 44. 52 45. 38 45.80 4 7.30 48. 35 49. 70 50.47 67. 16 0.0 7.00 7.88 7.88 7.88 10.49 10.49 6.57 9.62 10. 06 16. 58 14.41 15.71 17.45 19.61 24. 17 26.52 25.23 27.38 29.96 32.97 38. 53 44.50 46. 32 24.60 25.66 26.09 26.67 30.39 31.25 30.19 32.11 0.0 4.40 6. I 5 7.03 3.96 6. 59 7.91 10.97 14.03 13. 59 16.n 20. 35 23. 16 24. 46 26. 19 20. 35 31.60 34.81 3 7. 3 1 38.67 40.61 43.81 4e.92 54.44 59.75 42.53 42.33 47. 53 43. 38 45.09 46.61 46. 79 0.0 6.59 Z.47 7.03 7.03 10.09 11.41 14.46 1 7.08 1 7.51 17.25 23.16 27.05 28. 78 30.07 31.37 31. 37 34.61 36.96 39.5) 42. 10 43.81 49. 77 55.29 39. 10 59.32 3).95 33.52 34.81 16. 10 36.96 17.62 39.96 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CO 0.0 CO CO 0.0 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.42 7 .86 8.29 4.81 8.73 10.47 15.24 1 7.41 1 7.64 .3.70 25.17 26.46 28.19 29.89 32.46 38.86 41.84 4 1.96 46.08 44.62 47.79 55.37 60.4 | 65.01 30.32 30. 37 30. 75 37.03 31.74 34.60 35.68 36.01 0.0 6.95 7.39 6.3? 7.82 12.15 14.74 17.75 16.18 1 0.42 13.01 19.90 24.19 26. 76 28.69 31 .45 25.47 30.60 34.00 36.98 39.52 4 1 .64 50.07 55.52 60.94 46.28 47. I 2 47.54 49.27 51.31 51.75 52.56 54.68 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7IN TOUT DEG.F OEG.F 127.0 149.9 127.4 150.3 127.4 150.3 127.4 150.3 127.4 160.3 127.4 150.3 127.4 150.3 127.8 150.6 127.4 150. 3 127.4 149.9 127.4 :;9.9 127.4 150.3 127.4 149.9 127.4 149.9 127.4 150. 1 127.4 149.9 127.4 149.9 127.0 149. 5 127.4 149.9 127.4 149.5 127.4 149.9 127.4 149.5 127.4 149.9 127.6 149.9 127.6 149.9 127.4 150.3 127.4 150.3 127.4 149.9 127.4 149.9 127.4 149.9 127.4 149.9 127.4 149.9 127.4 150.3 RFM 0. 0 7. 16 6.04 7.99 6.48 9.00 9.72 12. 10 13.69 13.32 14.67 19.30 20.93 22.42 23.95 25.68 28.52 31.19 3 3.09 34 .86 37. 33 39.28 45.10 50. 29 54.24 43.59 41. 32 41.60 43.17 44.69 45. 39 46.19 48.03 DELIA OEG.F 23.0 22.9 22.9 22.9 22.9 22.9 22.9 22.9 22.9 22.5 22.5 22.9 22.5 22.5 22.9 22.5 22.5 22.5 27.5 22. 1 27.5 22. 1 22.5 22.1 22. 1 22.9 22.9 22.3 22.5 27.5 22.5 22.5 22.9 1644.4 1452.7 1429.3 1429.6 1466.7 1399.8 1379.9 1 342.0 1266.7 1292.0 1203.9 1180.4 1150.9 1127.2 1105.9 1076.5 10)4. 1 992. 7 976.8 953.0 929. 2 904.6 830. 3 606.6 7 75.5 881.2 916.3 911.2 894. 7 8 79. 9 8 72. ) 664. 8 849.6 RTOT X 100. S 0. 60 1 0.66 35 0.69 .12 0.69 22 C. 68 65 0.T1 to 0.72 . ,37 0. 74 .17 C. 77 ' . 32 0. 71 - .4) 0. 7' • * G 0.8'- . 70 0. 9< 1.92 o.ei • 1.97 0. 9' 2.03 0. 9 . 2.20 0.9- 2.40 1.0' 2.53 1.0 . 2.67 1.0 2. 17 1.0 2.65 l.l! 3.03 1.1 3.26 1.7 3.55 1. 21 1. 72 i. i: 3.93 1.0' 4.03 1. 0'. •. 4.12 i.n 4. JO 1.13-.. 4.42 1.14 4.32 1.15 4.66 1.17 4. 38 LOCALIZED WAll 7715 1235 TEMPERATURES T255 T275 DEC.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 OEG. 174.6 182.9 164. 1 164. 1 160.9 162.9 187.9 U6.1 166.5 187.6 169.2 191.9 194.3 195.3 197.0 196.6 202.1 703.2 705.5 206.3 206.6 210.6 214.6 218.6 721.1 2/6.6 227.8 2/6.7 279. 3 710. I 7)0.6 7)1.6 73J.I OEG. 174.2 191.7 162.5 182. 5 181.7 182.9 161.3 183.3 184.5 184.9 186.5 190.4 191.2 192. 7 191.9 112. 7 191.0 199.0 700.1 201. 3 20 1.6 206.9 709.0 21 I. I 716. 3 220.9 221.1 771. 7 277.6 724.0 776. I 7/4.3 776.6 OEG.F 162.5 189.6 190.4 190.0 191.6 166.4 189.2 191.5 194. ) 196.5 193.5 196.6 196.6 197.0 199.6 199. 3 202. H 204.4 206. I 207.3 209. R 211.1 216. I 221.) 224.7 211.1 /I4.II 2 14.4 214. I 21 7.5 /1".'/ 719.4 7/1.1 IOEG.FI 1795 DIG.F 162.5 186.4 IB".8 IU8.8 167.6 109.2 139.6 190. 4 197.3 191.7 197. 3 197.0 197.4 199.6 760.5 707.1 /05.1 20/.9 709.6 211.0 717.9 714.4 719.6 7/4.4 777. fl 7/7.4 723.2 // 1.6 //'.. I 7/s. 9 7/6.'. 7/1.1 7/9.) T315 7335 7355 OEG.F D^G.r DEG.F 163.3 176.6 1 76.6 169.6 182.5 186.5 190.4 194.1 185.3 190.4 134.9 134.9 190.4 182. 1 134.9 192. 7 164. 5 187.6 19?. 7 135. 1 188.6 169.2 138. 4 191.5 191 .9 191.2 193.9 192. 3 190.9 194. 1 193.9 111. 1 195. 6 116.2 197.0 199. 3 196.2 199. 3 202.6 197.4 200.5 204.4 199.0, 20?. 1 205.5 209.9 204.0 206. 7 203.2 207.1 706.7 707.1 2C9.M 709. 8 20>.9 217.1 711.1 20 7.9 21 1. 1 714.0 210.2 713.7 716.1 217.9 ?17.1 ?1 7.9 21 7.9 222.4 271.2 723.2 277. 4 778.2 226.4 7 lo. H 7)1.6 703.5 716. 1 711.9 704. 3 714.1 7D9.0 706. 7 716. 1 /DR. 6 209.0 717.'. 709. 8 /III.6 719.0 711.0 /I 1 . 1 7 11. 4 /II./ 2 1II. 6 270.3 717.3 /I/. 1 7/7. 1 714.4 T375 OEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 CO CO 0.0 0.0 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 u.o 7395 OEG.F 166.5 113.1 1.3. 5 113.9 170.8 194. 3 195.9 200.1 202. 1 202.5 203.2 201.0 210.2 2II.7 2I3.3 2I5.6 22I.) 274.0 225.9 22 '.8 230. I 22 I. 3 2 I6.l 240.6 744. 7 7l I.6 ?l 1.6 7I4.0 7I3.7 7I6.7 71 '.3 /III. 6 770.5 7415 DEC.F I92.7 I99.0 199.3 I9B.6 199. 7 203.6 205.9 708.6 209.0 202.1 204.4 2I0.6 2I4.4 2I6.7 21 8.6 220.9 713.6 220.2 223.2 226.9 22R.2 230.1 7 3 7 .6 747.5 24 7.4 734.7 213.0 733.4 716.9 7 111.7 7 19.1 7 19.9 741.1 T428 OEG.F 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 0.0 0.0 o.o 0.0 0.0 TIN DEG.F 127.0 127.4 127.4 127.4 127.4 127.4 127.4 127.8 127.4 127.4 127.4 127.4 177.4 127.4 177.4 127.4 127.4 177.0 127.4 127.4 127.4 121.4 127.4 177.3 177.6 177.4 177.4 177.4 177.4 1?».4 177.4 177.4 127.4 TOUT TM DELTA H R T IME OEG.F OEG.F DEG.F XI00 ' (' u-ts 149.9 161.5 23.0 1644.4 0.608 0 150.3 18 7.9 22.9 143?.? 0.666' 05 150. 3 IBS. 7 22.9 1479.3 0.699(. 12 150. 3 188.7 22.9 1429.6 0.699! 22 150.3 181.3 22.9 1466.7 0.631; .5 150.3 189.6 22.9 1399.8 0.7 144 0 150.) 190.2 22.9 1379.9 0.7247 150.8 192.4 22.9 1'42.C 0.7452 150.) 194.0 22.9 1.66.7 0.777? 149.9 193.4 22.5 1292.0 0.7749 149.9 194.7 22.5 1261.9 0.791? 150.) 198.8 72.9 1180.4 0.e4 72 149.9 200.3 22.5 1130.9 C 6 6 9 '* 149.9 201.6 22.5 1127.2 0.9672 4 130.) 701.0 22.9 1105.9 0.9042 03 149.9 204.5 22.5 10'6.5 0.9290 • .70 149.9 20 1.1 22.5 1014. 1 0.96 7 I >. 4 0 149.5 209.5 77.5 197. 7 1.00' 1 2. 3) 14 9.9 21 1.2 22.5 9 76. 8 1.021 1 7. 47 141.5 212.8 72.1 953.0 1.041 1 2. 17 14 9.9 215.1 22.5 978.7 1.0774 7. 85 14 9.5 216.7 22.1 904.6 I.1063 3. 0) 149.9 221.9 22.5 650. 3 1.1'61 S./B 149.9 276.6 22. 1 806.6 1.7393 3. 53 141.9 2)0. 1 77. 1 7 76.S 1.2694 3. 17 130. 3 220.6 22.9 8dl.7 1. 1 148 3. 9 ) 150.1 716.6 77.9 916. 3 I.O'll ) 4. 1)3 147.9 716.6 27.5 911.7 l.09'4 4. 17 1.49.1 7/0.2 77.3 694. 7 1.11)1 4 . 10 I 4 9. 9 7/1.6 77.6 8 '9. 9 1.1)65 4. 42 I 49.9 277.7 77.5 017. 3 1. 146) 4. 5/ I49.9 777.9 77.5 664.6 1. 1364 4. 45 150. 3 774.6 72.9 849.6 I.I'M 4. .IN 

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