UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cyclone scale-up and radial gas concentration profiles Engman, Randy W. 1990

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CYCLONE SCALE-UP AND RADIAL GAS CONCENTRATION PROFI BY RANDY W. ENGMAN B.A.Sc., The U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y ,  1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES . Department of Chemical  We accept  this  Engineering  t h e s i s as  conforming  to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 © R a n d y W. Engman, 1990  \  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  ABSTRACT  A two p a r t study was undertaken to e x p l a i n the of  cyclones  (CFBC)  operated  i n c i r c u l a t i n g f l u i d i z e d bed combustion  systems.  In  the f i r s t  performed on the  part, collection  efficiency  t e s t s were  a o n e - n i n t h s c a l e p o l y a c r y l i c c y c l o n e model of  i n d u s t r i a l s c a l e c y c l o n e at  the 22 MWe CFBC f a c i l i t y  Chatham, New Brunswick. Emphasis was p l a c e d on .considerations,  loading e f f e c t s ,  flow v i s u a l i z a t i o n t r i a l s . temperature w i t h i n l e t solids  agreement  and 7.5  efficiency  apparently associated cyclone.  experimental  inlet  results  and  and '5.5  m/s,  mass s o l i d s / m a s s  air  scaled obtained  There was a minimum i n the  particle  for p a r t i c l e s  of diameter  with agglomeration  with i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c l e  effects,  and the f i n d i n g s  Particle collection  Changes i n the  geometry  from the Chatham u n i t ,  a c c o r d i n g to Stokes Number s c a l i n g ,  collection  scale-up  systems. There was d i s a p p o i n t i n g  results  from the c o l d model u n i t .  at  Experiments were performed at room  0.05  solids  between the  inlet  v e l o c i t i e s between 3.7  l o a d i n g between  with two d i f f e r e n t  feeding  performance  efficiency  effects  2.5 in  to 3.0 um, the  was found to  l o a d i n g f o r the c o n d i t i o n s  geometry gave i n c o n c l u s i v e  increase  studied.  results.  were l i m i t e d by problems a s s o c i a t e d  and r e c y c l i n g the f i n e s  solids  system u s e d .  The with  —i ii—  In  the second p a r t r a d i a l  secondary cyclone  gas  concentration p r o f i l e s  s e r v i n g the UBC p i l o t  scale  F l u i d i z e d Bed Combustor were performed at  of a  Circulating  temperatures  of  about  870 <>C. C o n c e n t r a t i o n s of O2 , CO2 , NO , CH4 , CO and SO2 were x  measured. An i n c r e a s e  i n [CO], and to a l e s s e r  extent  [CO2],  was measured near the c y c l o n e w a l l . There appeared to be radial  v a r i a t i o n i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of other  F u r t h e r work i s continuously,  freely,  and to o b t a i n r a d i a l  the primary cyclone  species.  r e q u i r e d to allow the c o l d model  operate  of  with p a r t i c l e s gas  to  which can be fed more  concentration p r o f i l e s  the UBC CFBC  little  system.  within  - i vTABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  vii  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  xi  INTRODUCTION  1  PART I  4  COLLECTION EFFICIENCY TESTS 1.1  BACKGROUND AND THEORY  5  1.1.1  Introduction  5  1.1.2  Dimensional Similarity  1.1.3  Fluid - Particle Separators  1.1.4  Previous  1.1.5  Loading E f f e c t Efficiency  1.1.6  1.2  1.3  1.4  A n a l y s i s and P h y s i c a l  6  Separation Cyclonic 10  S c a l i n g Work on Cyclone  15 Collection  Summary  22 32  EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE  33  1.2.1  Introduction  33  1.2.2  Model Cyclone Apparatus  33  1.2.3  Particulate  45  1.2.4  Data A c q u i s i t i o n and A n a l y s i s  45  1.2.5  Error  50  1.2.6  Chatham Cyclone Data  Solids  Sensitivity  53  RESULTS and DISCUSSION  59  1.3.1  Scaling Consideration  64  1.3.2  Loading E f f e c t  74  1.3.3  Inlet Modifications  77  1.3.4  Flow V i s u a l i z a t i o n  83  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  85  - v PART II  HOT CYCLONE TESTS  87  2.1 INTRODUCTION  88  2.2 THEORY  88  2.3 APPARATUS AND DATA ACQUISITION  95  2.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  101  2.5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  110  Nomenclature  112  References  116  Appendix  120  -v i List of  of  Tables  important parameters  Page 7  Table 1.1  List  Table 1.2  Chatham o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r A p r i l 17, 1990. References as i n d i c a t e d .  58  Table 1.3  Experimental d a t a . Note that c y c l o n e c o n f i g u r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n can be found i n F i g u r e 1.10. ( V . F . = v o r t e x f i n d e r posi t i o n ) .  62  T a b l e 1.4  Cyclone O p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  70  T a b l e 1.5  Particle  74  T a b l e 1.6  Inlet modification  T a b l e 2.1  A n a l y t i c a l instrument  T a b l e 2.2  UBC CFBC o p e r a t i n g  l o a d i n g data tests description  conditions  80 98 101  -vi i LIST OF FIGURES page FIGURE  1.1a  C o l l e c t i o n E f f i c i e n c y vs. (NRBP)(NsT)0.5 C o n d i t i o n s : D = 50 mm, temperatures between 20 and 693 ° C , p r e s s u r e s between 140 and 2500 kPa, i n l e t v e l o c i t i e s between 0.18 and 5.2 m/s, dust l o a d i n g s between 0.04 and 9.56 g/m • (11)  18  C o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y curves w i t h " f i s h hook" shape f o r primary and secondary c y c l o n e s . C o n d i t i o n s : D = 1.2 m, temperatures between 640 and 9 0 0 ° C , i n l e t v e l o c i t i e s between 16.3 and 27.4 m/s, dust l o a d i n g s between 1.5 and 140 g / m . ( 1 2 )  19  3  FIGURE  1.1b  3  FIGURE 1.2  a, Gas and p a r t i c l e flow a c r o s s imaginary c y l i n d e r . (21)  21  FIGURE 1.2  b . Experimental grade e f f i c i e n c y as a f u n c t i o n of ( S ) ° * ( dimensionless p a r t i c l e diameter ) f o r i n d u s t r i a l s i z e d c y c l o n e s i n a i r at room temperature (21).  23  8  FIGURE  1.3  Loading e f f e c t on c y c l o n e c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y . Cyclone diameter up to 3.65 m d i a m e t e r . Eo i s zero load ( l e s s than 1 g r a i n / f t ) l o a d i n g , E L is higher loading e f f i c i e n c y . (18)  25  3  FIGURE  1.4  P r e d i c t e d s e p a r a t i o n e f f i c i e n c y of f i n e p a r t i c l e s swept out 23 of the gas by l a r g e p a r t i c l e s due to agglomeration ( 2 4 ) . C o n d i t i o n s as s t a t e d .  26  Figure  1.5  L e i t h and L i c h t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h and without l o a d i n g and s a l t a t i o n c o r r e c t i o n s . C o n d i t i o n s : D = 0.05 and 0.91 m, temperatures between 20 and 850 ° C , i n l e t v e l o c i t i e s between 1.8 and 46 m/s, dust l o a d i n g s from 0.43 and 4450 g / m . ( 2 3 )  31  3  -vi i i -  schematic  used  i n runs B l  FIGURE  1.6  UBC apparatus through B38.  Figure  1.7  P l o t of blower speed vs f l o w / p r e s s u r e (Pumps and Power I n c . ) .  Figure  1.8  Diagram of UBC s o l i d s runs B l through B35  Figure  1.9  Diagram of UBC model r e a c t o r cyclone.  Figure  drop.  34 36  in  37  top and model  39  1.10  Entrance geometry c o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r i n l e t m o d i f i c a t i o n t e s t s . Shaded areas show i n s e r t s . A l l dimensions i n mm. See s e c t i o n 1.3.3 f o r d e t a i l s .  40  Figure  1.11  S i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n of feed ( 22 um s i z e )  46  Figure  1.12  Photograph of FCC t e s t s o l i d s ( 22 micron diameter ) .  47  FIGURE  1.13  C o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y error estimates for equations 1-29, 1-30, 1-31, and 1-32.  52  Figure  1.14  Schematic of Chatham CFB B o i l e r  Figure  1.15  Photograph of f i n e s bed heat exchanger, A p r i l 17, 1990.  Figure  1.16  Catch hopper mass vs time i n d i c a t i n g steady s t a t e s o l i d s feed r a t e . Run B4.  Figure  1.17a  Catch p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r run B4 P a r t i c l e s i z e a n a l y s i s by E l z o n e a n a l y s i s machine.  Figure  1.17b  Catch p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r run BIO P a r t i c l e s i z e a n a l y s i s by image a n a l y z e r .  Figure  1.17c  C o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y f o r runs BIO and B4. Run B4 p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s determined by E l z o n e p a r t i c l e a n a l y s i s i n s t r u m e n t . Run BIO p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n by image a n a l y s i s methods. C o n d i t i o n s as s t a t e d i n T a b l e 1.3.  63  Figure  1.18  a.)  68  hopper used  solids.  (27)  from Chatham f l u i d sampled on  P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s from Chatham f l u i d bed heat exchangers sampled A p r i l 17, 1990. b.) C o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y curve d e r i v e d from p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . E = (Clt/(Clt + Lit))  54 56  61  - i xFigure  1.19  C o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y curves for run B4, the Chatham c y c l o n e and the Chatham c y c l o n e s h i f t e d a c c o r d i n g to Stokes Law s c a l i n g . S c a l i n g c o n d i t i o n s as per T a b l e 1.4.  69  Figure  1.20  UBC and Chatham data p l o t t e d a c c o r d i m to Abrahamson and A l l e n c o r r e l a t i o n s . a . ) UBC data (run B4 c o n d i t i o n s ) b. ) Chatham d a t a . See T a b l e 1.4 for operating conditions.  71  Figure  1.21  UBC Run B4 and Chatham data compared w i t h Parker et a l . d a t a . C o n d i t i o n s as s t a t e d i n T a b l e 1.4  72  Figure  1.22  Loading e f f e c t on c o l l e c t i o n ( UBC data ) . Vi = 5.0 m/s, T = 21 <>C, P = 1 atm.  75  Figure  1.23  Figure  2.1  Predicted p a r t i c l e trajectories in a v e r t i c a l plane w i t h i n a Stairmand type c y c l o n e , Low l o a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s . (25) a . Mean p a r t i c l e t r a j e c t o r i e s f o r p a r t i c l e s of diameter 1 to 10 m i c r o n s . b. Mean p a r t i c l e t r a j e c t o r i e s , 3 micron. c. Random p a r t i c l e t r a j e c t o r y of 2 microns p a r t i c l e i n t u r b u l e n t flow,  90  Figure  2.2  P r e d i c t e d gas flow p a t t e r n s i n a Stairmand type c y c l o n e . Low l o a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s ( 2 5 ) .  92  FIGURE  2.3  P r e d i c t e d combined a x i a l and r a d i a l v e l o c i t y v e c t o r diagram i n a Stairmand type c y c l o n e . Low l o a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s ( 2 5 )  93  FIGURE  2.4  UBC CFBC schematic  94  FIGURE  2.5  S c a l e drawing of secondary c y c l o n e of UBC CFBC system.  97  FIGURE  2.6  Gas  99  efficiency  Comparison of c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c i e s different inlet configurations. See T a b l e 1.3 f o r c o n d i t i o n s . ( s o l i d s loading corrected ).  for  (29).  sampling system s e r v i n g UBC CFBC system.  81  -xFIGURE 2. 7  Gas  concentration p r o f i l e s  for  run 17.  103  FIGURE 2. 8  Gas  c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i1es for  run 18.  104  FIGURE 2. 9  Gas  c o n c e n t r a t ion p r o f i1es for  run 5.  105  F i g u r e 2. 10  Gas  concentrat i o n prof i1es for  run 6.  106  F i g u r e 2. 11  Gas  c o n c e n t r a t ion p r o f i l e s  run 10.  107  for  APPENDIX FIGURES  120  FIGURE A l  Shake down t e s t before run B l .  summary. A l l runs performed  F i g u r e A2  P r e s s u r e drop vs a i r flow  F i g u r e A3  Data l o g g i n g program s e r v i n g UBC model c y c l o n e apparatus.  123  F i g u r e A4  Schematic of attempted r e c y c l e system schematic showing a h i g h s o l i d s l o a d i n g feed and measurement v e s s e l s , m u l t i c l o n e and bag f i l t e r arrangements.  124  F i g u r e A5  P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r runs B4 and B10 Run B4 p a r t i c l e s i z e a n a l y s i s by E l z o n e a n a l y s i s i n s t r u m e n t . Run B10 p a r t i c l e s i z e a n a l y s i s by image a n a l y s i s methods.  125  F i g u r e A6  UBC CFBC s o l i d f u e l  126  F i g u r e A7  Mass b a l a n c e , as performed on a per channel b a s i s for run B10. Image a n a l y s i s p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . F i n e s l o s s (below 15 microns) a t t r i b u t e d to f i l t e r i n e f f i c i e n c y .  127  F i g u r e A8  Temperature data f o r Part I  128  F i g u r e A9  Data summary f o r P a r t s I and I I .  for o r i f i c e p l a t e .  analysis  f o r run B17 ( 2 9 ) .  experiments.  121 122  129  -x i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I would l i k e to acknowledge the immense help of my a d v i s o r s D r . John R. G r a c e , D r . C . J . L i m , and D r . C l i v e M . H . B r e r e t o n . T h e i r time, energy, and p e r s o n a l commitment was c e n t r a l to the completion of t h i s work. As w e l l the s t a f f of the Department of Chemical E n g i n e e r i n g , The Pulp and Paper Center and other employees of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e d c o l o r f u l support throughout the progress of t h i s work. The f i n a n c i a l support of Energy, Mines and R e s o u r c e s , The New Brunswick E l e c t r i c Power Commission i s g r e a t l y acknowledged. F i n a l l y I would l i k e to thank my parents t h e s i s would not have been completed.  without  and  whom t h i s  i  "  "  1  INTRODUCTION  Cyclonic separators, have been used i n gas  cleaning operations  century l a r g e l y because efficiencies  g e n e r a l l y simply c a l l e d  they o f f e r  cyclones,  f o r well  good p a r t i c l e  over a  collection  under extreme and v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s  simple to d e s i g n , various designs,  fabricate,  and o p e r a t e .  and are  A good overview of  a p p l i c a t i o n s can be found i n r e f e r e n c e  Although they have been r e p l a c e d by more e f f i c i e n t many p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l a p p l i c a t i o n s , subject  of  renewed i n t e r e s t  cyclones  collection efficiency  application (1),  the  solids-gas  It was because  of  problems encountered i n one such  the Chatham C i r c u l a t i n g F l u i d i z e d Bed  Demonstration P r o j e c t , facility  in  and w i t h i n C i r c u l a t i n g  F l u i d i z e d Bed Combustor (CFBC) a p p l i c a t i o n s . particle  devices  have been  for h i g h temperature  s e p a r a t i o n i n combined power c y c l e s  33.  a 22 MWe CFBC e l e c t r i c  i n New Brunswick, that  the present  generation  study was  undertaken. In s p i t e still  of  the s i m p l i c i t y of  not p o s s i b l e  particle  operating conditions.  A great  and models  c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d geometries under c o n d i t i o n s of However,  little  and models  f o r a l l geometries  is  to  to p r e d i c t c y c l o n e performance f o r ( E g . Stairmand and Lappel  low s o l i d s  designs)  l o a d i n g and low temperature.  work has been done to v a l i d a t e  little  and  deal of work has been done  f o r extreme c o n d i t i o n s of  loading. Also,  it  to p r e d i c t from fundamental p r i n c i p l e s  collection efficiencies  develop equations  cyclonic separators,  these  equations  temperature and p a r t i c l e  work has been done to v e r i f y  the  models  -  for  cyclones  establish  scale  large  high loading,  Thus there  is  a need  the o p e r a t i o n of  l a r g e cyclones  high  from the o p e r a t i o n of  i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s .  efficiency  Part A deals  t e s t s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  Part B c o n s i d e r s measured combustion gas w i t h i n a h i g h temperature cyclone  of  with  scale-up.  concentration  serving a p i l o t  profiles  s c a l e CFBC  system and was intended to p r o v i d e data f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h the CFB f i e l d .  Part  I.  The o b j e c t i v e s  of  the two p a r t s are as  Collection efficiency Firstly,  and s c a l e - u p  to examine s c a l e - u p  studies.  considerations  i n d u s t r i a l h i g h temperature c y c l o n e .  demonstrate efficiency  the e f f e c t by means of  model c y c l o n e . modifications  of s o l i d s  l o a d i n g on s o l i d s  the e f f e c t  on capture e f f i c i e n c y .  by  to a  Secondly,  l a b o r a t o r y experiments  T h i r d l y to examine  to  capture  on a c o l d of  inlet  L a s t l y to perform  v i s u a l i z a t i o n of p a r t i c l e flows w i t h i n a c y c l o n e .  Part  II.  Gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s  w i t h i n a secondary  cyclone of a CFBC. To measure and r e p o r t combustion concentration p r o f i l e s pilot  s c a l e CFBC  gas  w i t h i n a secondary c y c l o n e of a  facility.  in  follows:  comparing the performance of a c o l d model c y c l o n e large  to  models.  This thesis collection  industrial scale.  s c a l i n g c r i t e r i a to p r e d i c t  temperature, lab  of  2 -  -  3 -  For each of p a r t s A and B, a d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t e d work and theory  is  previous  f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of  the apparatus and experimental are then presented  of  p r o c e d u r e . Experimental  and d i s c u s s e d  and c o n c l u s i o n s  findings  are drawn.  - 4 -  PART I  COLLECTION EFFICIENCY TESTS  i  1.1  BACKGROUND AND THEORY  1.1.1  Introduction  Cyclones particle  c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y , that  particles often  a r e examples of i n e r t i a l  caught  expressed  Ideally  to those  fed within  i s t h e mass r a t i o o f a given size range(6), i s  by a c o l l e c t i o n o r g r a d e e f f i c i e n c y c u r v e .  the designer  can p r e d i c t  the c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y curve first  s e p a r a t i n g d e v i c e s . The  p r i n c i p l e s , or lacking  c y c l o n e p e r f o r m a n c e , and thus f o r a l l s i z e s of p a r t i c l e s from  that,  from accurate  empirical  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s i s not always p o s s i b l e , the gas and p a r t i c l e b e h a v i o u r predict it  enough u n d e r s t o o d  p a r t i c l e t r a j e c t o r i e s under a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  always p o s s i b l e  are d e s i g n - s p e c i f i c designs  i s not well  t o r e l y on e m p i r i c a l  o n l y when  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Thus t h e r e  and f o r v a l i d  work d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s consideration  Nor i s  standard  See r e f e r e n c e 6 f o r a c o m p a r i s o n o f  p u b l i s h e d d a t a and e m p i r i c a l need f o r c o l d modeling  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as t h e y  and o f f e r g o o d a c c u r a c y  are considered.  as  scaling criteria  i s of b e n e f i t  of l a r g e , high temperature  cyclones with tangential  inlets.  and  isa ( 1 3 ) . The  f o r the non-standard  -  6 -  1.1.2 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND PHYSICAL SIMILARITY.  A p p l y i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of dimensional  analysis  to  the  problem of cyclone p a r t i c l e c o l l e c t i o n performance r e q u i r e s a complete of  list  particles  of  the p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t i e s  within a cyclone.  i n t o four groups:  (i)  These parameters  those d e s c r i b i n g the  the o p e r a t i n g parameters,  (iii)  being s e p a r a t e d ,  properties  the s o l i d s .  c o n t r o l l i n g the  and ( i v )  Table 1.1 l i s t s  properties of  can be d i v i d e d  cyclone of  fate  the  itself,  (ii)  particles  the gas which c a r r i e s  the most important  variables.  - 7 -  L i s t o f impor t a n t  T a b l e 1.1 Cyclone  parameters  dimensions:  Body d i a m e t e r  D  Inlet  depth  a  Inlet width  b  Outlet  diameter  Do  Outlet  length  Lo  Cylinder  length  Overall  height  Bottom d i a m e t e r Operating  Lc  j  Ho Db  parameters:  Inlet velocity  Vi  Gas s p l i t r a t i o  Qc  Loading R a t i o  L  Relative  Ae/A*  P  acceleration . (centrifugal/gravitational)  -Particulate  characteristics:  P a r t i c l e diameter  dp  Particle density  f  Shape f a c t o r  Gas  p  (T>  characteristics: Gas d e n s i t y Gas v i s c o s i t y  j>% Uc  -8The  seventeen v a r i a b l e s  complete surface  list,  above do not p r o v i d e a  as other v a r i a b l e s may be i m p o r t a n t . For example  roughness may p l a y a r o l e and the smooth p o l y a c r y l i c  s u r f a c e of l i n i n g of  the s c a l e model  i s not  s i m i l a r to the  the h i g h temperature Chatham c y c l o n e .  neglected.  If,  one geometric first  listed  however,  the d i m e n s i o n a l  applies  geometric  dimensions  (mass,  dimensionless analysis  underflow,  length,  o n l y one of  time),  i.e.  acceleration  similarity  factor  can be n e g l e c t e d  simplifications, The  listed  one assumes that  there  as w e l l .  four d i m e n s i o n l e s s  above  c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The the  l e a v i n g by way of is  the  s i m i l a r i t y of  shape  In a d d i t i o n i f  i n both cases ( i . e .  most Common independent  variables  if gas  and that  large  being  independent  systems c o n s i d e r e d . is  the  there are seven  the f r a c t i o n of  is n e g l i g i b l e  A /A c  the e  > 10)  With these  groups are r e q u i r e d .  groupings of  the remaining  are:  Flow Reynolds number  NREf  =  PeDVi/u  K  (1-1)  Density r a t i o  Np  =  PP/p«  Stokes number  N t  =  dp2Vi /(Du )  (1-3)  Loading  Lp  mass s o l i d s flow mass gas flow  (1-4)  ratio  to  fundamental  groups r e q u i r i n g separate  f o r the s o l i d s  relative this  limited  and three  can be s i m p l i f i e d f u r t h e r  ratio,  factor  is  is  between the c o l d model and the Chatham c y c l o n e  modeled. With ten i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s  .split  This  analysis  c o n f i g u r a t i o n or c y c l o n e d e s i g n ,  e i g h t need be c o n s i d e r e d s i n c e  refractory  8  (1-2) P p  l t  In a d d i t i o n to m a i n t a i n i n g geometric s i m i l a r i t y i t desirable  to have kinematic and dynamic s i m i l a r i t y . Kinematic  similarity  is  paths  representative  that  similar  s i m i l a r i t y i n m o t i o n , which i m p l i e s that particles  and are t r a v e l l e d i n a c o n s i s t e n t ,  Dynamic s i m i l a r i t y i n v o l v e s  order that similar, similar  must a l s o be s i m i l a r  s i m i l a r i t y of f o r c e s .  the magnitude of ( 2 0 ) . It  is  forces  at each p o i n t must a l s o be  commonly i m p o s s i b l e to s a t i s f y Thus ones of  lesser  all  importance are  o p e r a t i n g at h i g h flow Reynolds numbers ( i . e .  velocities),  are thought situations  In  high  c e n t r i f u g a l , as opposed to g r a v i t a t i o n a l ,  to dominate the motion of s m a l l e r p a r t i c l e s . where the v i s c o u s  significant  and i n e r t i a l f o r c e s  are most  p r o v i d e d the c o n d i t i o n s of  geometric  s i m i l a r i t y are met ( 2 0 ) . However, i t would be i n c o r r e c t assume t h a t ,  In  the flow Reynolds number may be used to compare  experimental o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  after  the onset of  collection efficiency fact  In  s a c r i f i c e d i n order to assure s i m i l a r i t y of o t h e r s .  cyclones inlet  s c a l e d p e r i o d of  the two systems under comparison be d y n a m i c a l l y  requirements s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . often  the  f o l l o w are g e o m e t r i c a l l y  time ( 2 0 ) . Thus p a r t i c l e a c c e l e r a t i o n s (20).  is  is  t u r b u l e n t flow i n  to  cyclones,  independent of Reynolds number. In  the c o n t r a r y was found, i . e .  found to vary with the h e l i c a l  collection efficiency  turbulent i n t e n s i t y  is  ( 3 4 ) . Thus  the Stokes number, combined with geometric and Reynolds number similarity,  may be used i n the s c a l i n g  process.  -  1.1.3  FLUID - PARTICLE SEPARATION CYCLONIC SEPARATORS  Before of  10 -  reviewing p r e v i o u s works on the s u b j e c t  c y c l o n e performance,  it  is useful  describing p a r t i c l e capture, relevance  of  to develop  i n order to demonstrate  i n t r o d u c e the e f f e c t s  assumptions  and i s  only  of v a r i o u s parameters on  s c a l e up  an e q u a t i o n  the key parameters. T h i s s i m p l i s t i c  makes some q u e s t i o n a b l e  of  the  description intended  to  collection  ef f i c i ency. Consider  the f a t e of a p a r t i c l e of diameter d r i t  caught with 50% e f f i c i e n c y tangential  that  c  i n a cyclone of diameter D w i t h an  entrance way having width b and height  the f o l l o w i n g assumptions  a. We make  (5):  1.  P a r t i c l e s move independently of one  2.  The drag on the p a r t i c l e can be d e s c r i b e d by Stokes law regime  . 3. 4.  The t a n g e n t i a l  5.  velocity  and equal  Secondary e f f e c t s walls,  Laminar flow  7.  R e l a x a t i o n time  8.  Particles  9. Once at of  of  to the  are  negligible.  the p a r t i c l e inlet  etc.  are  is  velocity.  such as r e - e n t r a i n m e n t  eddy c u r r e n t s ,  6.  another.  expression.  Buoyancy and g r a v i t y e f f e c t s  constant  is  from  the  negligible.  conditions. is  separate  negligible. at  constant  the w a l l p a r t i c l e s  reentrainment.  velocity  have n e g l i g i b l e  chance  -  10.  11  -  P a r t i c l e s must reach the w a l l by moving across gas  stream, which r e t a i n s  the  cyclone.  Upon e n t e r i n g a c y c l o n e p a r t i c l e s centrifugal  f o r c e equal to F  its  shape a f t e r  a  entering  are acted on by a  = m V i / R where: 2  c  m = p a r t i c l e mass Vi= t a n g e n t i a l R = radial  F  =  c  c o o r d i n a t e of  F  where V  =  D  is  p  coefficient  3  CD  (5)  radial  (Co A  P  force  (1-5)  force:  p  s  Vp )/2  (1-6)  2  radial  velocity  can be o b t a i n e d by n e g l e c t i n g equation for a r i g i d  component. The drag i n e r t i a l terms  sphere  in  the  i n an unbounded  i.e.  = 24/N  R e p  simplified explanation, distance  needed to  centrifugal  2  the p a r t i c l e towards the w a l l . Opposing  the drag  = drag c o e f f i c i e n t  In t h i s  the p a r t i c l e .  P  the p a r t i c l e ' s  Navier - Stokes fluid  velocity  ttdorit p Vi /6R  This force accelerates t h i s motion i s  particle  = 24p / (p s  V  p  d rit) c  (1-7) *  the p a r t i c l e must t r a v e l a  b during a residence  travel a circular  g  time d e f i n e d by the  time  path of d i s t a n c e nDN i n order to be  collected.  If not  c y c l o n e where the  it  will  radial  the s e p a r a t i o n zone  12 a zone near the bottom of  enter gas  velocity  ( See F i g u r e 2.3  the  i s much higher than i n ).  The p a r t i c l e motion  is  thus:  D  IT  S u b s t i t u t i n g for Co, A  = rr*d r i t  P  N  2  c  /4,  •  the drag f o r c e i s  seen to  be:  FD = 3j» d r i t Vi b/DN K  Stokes  c  law r e s i s t a n c e  (1-8)  where:  b  =  entrance width  N  =  Number of  Equating expressions particle F  c  = F  cut diameter as  1-5  revolutions  and 1-8  allows p r e d i c t i o n of  follows: (l-8a)  D  HtUri t f> Vi / 6 R = 3 ^ 8 d c r i t Vi b/DN  (l-8b)  dent  (l-8c)  3  2  P  2  = 18u,tbR/(tIJ>pDNVi )  l e t t i n g R = D/2 - b/2 der i t  2  dent  2  = 18u  R(D -  K  = 18u  e  such that b = D - 2R  2R)/(WJ> DNVi ) P  R ( l - 2R/D)/(Kp NVi ) P  (l-8d)  (l-8e)  or der  it  = 3f 2u,R ( 1 - 2R/D )]o.s [ ttp Vi N ] P  (i_ ) 9  -  i  13 -  T h i s equation has g e n e r a l l y experiments  have shown (6)  that  the r i g h t form as collection  cyclone  efficiency  improves  with :  1.  Increasing p a r t i c l e  2.  I n c r e a s i n g c y c l o n e v o r t e x speed  3. D e c r e a s i n g c y c l o n e  density.  conditions.  Inlet  such s i m p l i f i e d  descriptions  and do not d e s c r i b e performance f o r  The e f f e c t  that  all  each parameter has been found to  have on c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y loading is  Vi )  diameter.  However as one would expect, have l i m i t a t i o n s  (i.e.  will  considered separately  now be c o n s i d e r e d .  in section  Particle  1.1.4.  velocity Collection efficiency  i n c r e a s e with gas  inlet  has been found e x p e r i m e n t a l l y  velocity  in several  studies  to  -  (7,8,9). I n c r e a s i n g i n l e t velocity  velocity  increases  tangential  thereby improving s e p a r a t i o n . These improvements  not without particle  14 -  l i m i t , however,  as secondary e f f e c t s  re-entrainment and eddy c u r r e n t s work to  collection  efficiency  at higher Vi . The l e n g t h of  v o r t e x which e x i s t s below the v o r t e x f i n d e r inlet  velocity  and c y c l o n e geometry  is  are  such as offset the  gas  a f u n c t i o n of  . The v o r t e x end  is  e x p e r i m e n t a l l y d e f i n e d as the p o s i t i o n where the v o r t e x  core  seeks the w a l l  until  (16).  the end i n t e r f e r e s particles  I n c r e a s i n g Vi lengthens  the v o r t e x  with the w a l l c a u s i n g r e - e n t r a i n m e n t of  a l r e a d y caught,  thus c a u s i n g a r e d u c t i o n i n  collection  e f f i c i e n c y . , T h e observed peak i n curves of  efficiency  vs Vi have been s u c c e s s f u l l y  a d d i t i o n of an i n v e r t e d cone, exit  (14,  15).  wall.  it  thought  to anchor  from r e e n t r a i n i n g p a r t i c l e s  See drawing on Table 1.1  Particle  delayed w i t h  the  l o c a t e d a x i a l l y above the  The i n v e r t e d cone i s  v o r t e x end and prevent  the  f o r an example of  this  solids  the at  the  cone.  density  As s t a t e d  above the c e n t r i f u g a l  p a r t i c l e mass and hence collection efficiency experimentally this  force  is proportional  to p a r t i c l e d e n s i t y .  Theoretically  i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to p p * . However,  i s not confirmed  Gas V i s c o s i t y and D e n s i t y .  0  (10).  3  to  -  P a r t i c l e motion i s  resisted  p a r t i c l e Reynolds numbers, V  P  = particle velocity  dominate and Stokes  15 -  ( 10"  relative  by the v i s c o u s 5  < p dpV /u 8  P  to the g a s ) ,  < 0.1  ) ( where  viscous  effects  K  law can be used to p r e d i c t  p a r t i c l e behaviour i n a gas.  This  in  the performance of  the d i s c u s s i o n of s c a l i n g  do so at  large  Particles  cyclones  separated  lower p a r t i c l e Reynolds numbers  (considering similar size, c o l d models because of  individual  i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance  at h i g h temperature by small c o l d models. i n hot cyclones  d r a g . For low  density  and v e l o c i t y )  i n c r e a s e d gas v i s c o s i t y  than those i n  and reduced gas  dens i t y .  1.1.4.  PREVIOUS  One  of  CYCLONE SCALING WORK  the f i r s t  works on the s u b j e c t  performance was presented by Stairmand (2)  of s c a l i n g i n 1951.  f o l l o w i n g method for p r e d i c t i n g performance of similar  cyclones  efficiency  The  geometrically  o p e r a t i n g under v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s  proposed. To f i n d the s i z e of as the t e s t d u s t , /density / density /test J new  7  the dust  was  caught with the same  m u l t i p l y the t e s t dust of of  cyclone  the t e s t dust the new dust  s i z e by:  (1-10)  flow flow  (1-11)  new v i s c o s i t y test v i s c o s i t y  (1-12)  /diameter of \l diameter of  the the  new model t e s t model  (1-13)  -16These r e l a t i o n s  combined from the Stokes  that  efficiency  collection  g i v e n geometry.  a f u n c t i o n of N t o n l y f o r a  is  8  Stairmand was c a r e f u l  procedure to d e n s i t y d i f f e r e n c e s kg/m .  For c y c l o n e d i a m e t e r ,  3  "without made of  some experimental less  than expected  diameter g r e a t e r  than 1.22  Other attempts efficiency basis.  diameter c y c l o n e at  temperatures  al.  (11)  w i t h i n the ranges  1000 - 4000  recommended is  of  m diameter.(2) capture  groups and thus p r o v i d e a s c a l i n g  performed experiments low i n l e t  of d p  a  vs  on a 50 mm  velocities  up to 700 ° C , and p r e s s u r e s  ( 5 m/s)  up to 25 atm. Data  (Nst)(NRE)°• »  the  3  follows:  dp.  = dp(C p )o.5  Nst  = C'd  NRE  = Pz D V i / u ,  C  D  H  ,  P  P K  *  pp  (g/cm3)o.s  VI/(9U*DH)  = p a r t i c l e density  (1-15)  factor  g/cm  3  = 2ab/(a+b)  the p a r t i c l e * diameter  refers  the mass median diameter of  study and that DH i s  (1-17)  i n the Stokes the feed  number doso aerosol  the h y d r a u l i c diameter of  . For the small c y c l o n e s  (1-14)  (1-16)  = Cunningham c o r r e c t i o n  Note that  inlet  not  scaling  performance w i t h c y c l o n e s  at a r e l a t i v e l y  'PP  his  this  have been made to c o r r e l a t e  terms were d e f i n e d as  to  limit  c o n f i r m a t i o n " . Indeed mention  were p l o t t e d on a l o g l o g p l o t  where  to  the method i s  with dimensionless  Parker et  number N s t and imply  under c o n s i d e r a t i o n  the the  used  in  cyclone  -  resultant in this  17 -  p l o t was n e a r l y l i n e a r .  See F i g u r e 1.1a.  study was a minimum c o l l e c t i o n  efficiency  A l s o noted phenomenon^  o c c u r r i n g g e n e r a l l y between 2 and 4 m i c r o n s . T h i s was attributed  to  the b r e a k i n g up of  sample p r e p a r a t i o n for p a r t i c l e  agglomerated p a r t i c l e s analysis.  By examining the performance high e f f i c i e n c y " fluidized  cyclones  cyclones.  curves  two 1.2  3  used i n s e r i e s w i t h i n a p r e s s u r i z e d al.(  12)  were able  for both the primary and  temperatures  and 12 b a r . The authors relatively  of  FBC primary  t  = 4 to 10 x 10" = 8.6  to 19.6  N t5o  = 9.4  x  a  8  10  x 10~  shaped c o l l e c t i o n collection effect  in this  efficiency  Stokes is:  5  to p a r t i c l e  standard expressions  A l s o observed  are  loading sufficient  pressures  curves which shows improved  for s m a l l e r p a r t i c l e s .  of s m a l l e r p a r t i c l e s  and  study was a " f i s h hook"  (See  Figure 1.1b).  This  was a t t r i b u t e d to p a r t i c l e agglomeration w i t h i n  cyclones  in  5  to d e s c r i b e c y c l o n e performance under e l e v a t e d temperatures.  obtained  - 5  The author a t t r i b u t e d the d e v i a t i o n s and concluded that  of 6  obtained in a  The comparison of  FBC secondary N t 5 o Stairmand  of high l o a d i n g  caught w i t h 50% e f f i c i e n c y  N„ 5o  plot  secondary  to the Stairmand d a t a (2)  cyclones.  numbers f o r p a r t i c l e s  to  640 to 910 ° C and p r e s s u r e s  compared t h e i r d a t a ,  large cyclone,  ( 31.5 mm d i a . )  effects  m d i a . "Stairmand  The t e s t s were done under c o n d i t i o n s  ( 50 g / m ) ,  small  of  bed combustor, Wheeldon et  grade e f f i c i e n c y  during  the  on to much l a r g e r ones. A n a l y s i s  90% COLLECTION DIAMETER, ^jmA  -  8T -  PAATICIC  SIZC, a k r o n t .  FIGURE 1.1b C o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y curves w i t h i i s h nook" shape for primary and secondary c y c l o n e s ( 1 2 ) . C o n d i t i o n s : D - 1.2 m, temperatures between 640 and 9 0 0 ° C , i n l e t v e l o c i t i e s between 16.3 and 27.4 m/s, dust l o a d i n g s between 1.5 and 140 g / m . 3  -  20 -  procedures of the p a r t i c l e s caused some d i s a s s o c i a t i o n and suggested higher c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c i e s effect  was a l s o noted by Parker et  In an attempt of  for the f i n e s .  This  al.  to e x p l a i n performance from a wide v a r i e t y  c y c l o n e designs operated under i n d u s t r i a l  conditions  ( 160 <  D < 1600 mm, 20 < temperature < 950 °C ) Abrahamson and A l l e n (21)  p l o t t e d capture e f f i c i e n c y  diameter,  S°• , 3  vs a d i m e n s i o n l e s s  particle  d e f i n e d as : S° •  5  = [V  r p  /V  r ( C  ]o.5  (1-18)  where  These l a s t  Vrp  = Radial  Vr*  = R a d i a l gas  two q u a n t i t i e s  particle  velocity  are e v a l u a t e d at a r a d i a l  = D o / 2 just below the v o r t e x f i n d e r . VTK  is  velocity  assumed to be constant  r a d i u s R » , extending from the  (See F i g u r e 1.2 q)  over an imaginary c y l i n d e r , of l i p of  the v o r t e x f i n d e r to a  p o i n t on the cone having a diameter equal to that of finder.  V p is r  the  vortex  c a l c u l a t e d for the experimental d a t a u s i n g  Abraham drag c o e f f i c i e n t -  position R  expression  (16)  which accounts  the  f o r non  S t o k e s i a n f l u i d - p a r t i c l e behavior up to a p a r t i c l e Reynolds  number of 6000 and g i v e s V p without r  repetitive  calculations.  -  Zl  -  -  The 1.  procedure f o l l o w e d C a l c u l a t e G,a  x  constant 2.  [p*Ux2dp3p  = tangential  Calculate N mot i o n ) :  p  Calculate V g r  ]/(R,  p  U a  inlet  (1-19)  2 )  gas v e l o c i t y  and equal to the  Nrorp 3.  was:  •  =  where U  22 -  at R « , assumed to be  velocity.  (Reynolds number for r a d i a l  particle  = 2 0 . 5 [ ( G a ° • / 9 . 6 1 + 1)0•3 - 1]2  (1-20)  5  from  N R B T P .  P a r t i c l e s which have an equal chance of b e i n g caught or l o s t • ( i.e. often  dp 5o  ) s h o u l d on average move towards the gas  as to the w a l l and thus the r a t i o V p / V r  v a l u e equal to one. dp 5o  The p l o t  shows b e t t e r  p o s i t i o n than at other p o i n t s  agreement  along the grade  Figure  differences  i n c y c l o n e geometry which g i v e d i f f e r e n t  l i m i t e d to  a factor  of dust  ( less  to r e t u r n flow designs with r e c t a n g u l a r s l o t  1.1.5  Loading e f f e c t s  on c y c l o n e c o l l e c t i o n  Improved p a r t i c l e c o l l e c t i o n o p e r a t i n g at h i g h dust workers.  this  the  efficiency  efficiency  is  s a i d to be  than 10 g / m ) , 3  entries.  efficiency for  effect  Perhaps the most is detailed  cyclones  comprehensive  i n an e f f i c i e n c y  l o a d i n g p l o t p u b l i s h e d by the American Petroleum  to  particle  l o a d i n g s has been noted by s e v e r a l  (2,3,6,7,11,13,).  d e s c r i p t i o n of  at  the authors a t t r i b u t e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The a n a l y s i s  low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  as  should have a  curve ( see  re-entrainment  1.2 » b ) ,  r K  exit  vs.  Institute  and  -  23 -  "j I I I I "  1 400 • 2 300 3 1600 O 3 31S a L 160 S 160 o 6 280 7 370 « 8 1S0 V 6 800 T 9 190 T 11 203 •  ><  w f  \  5S Ed  u  fa  COLLECT!  Es. Ed  -  • -  4  y  °£ *  ^  /  <^  ^  cyclone 0.  "  V  a«  +  l-* •  >  a  no.  * \ * * <* • * « o  \  4.*  O  o  *  4  V  I,  r  I  18 270 • 13 630 " 1 5 152. o 23 305  4  *  /  .  OfOps:  22 49S  a  t • I I  I 1  vr  flMn  •  I  I  I  I  I I I I  10  FIGURE 1.2 b . Experimental grade e f f i c i e n c y as a f u n c t i o n of ( S ) * * ( d i m e n s i o n l e s s p a r t i c l e diameter ) f o r i n d u s t r i a l s i z e d c y c l o n e s i n a i r at room temperature ( 2 1 ) . 0  -  (API)(17),  reproduced i n F i g u r e 1.3  capture e f f i c i e n c y loading is  efficiencies  This effect  (13).  A clear  increase  with l o a d i n g i s n o t e d . The i n f l u e n c e  seen to be g r e a t e r  zero load E o " Eo.  24 -  is  for cyclones  than for  operated at  those with very  a t t r i b u t e d to a s c r u b b i n g e f f e c t  of lower "  efficient of  large  p a r t i c l e s on f i n e r p a r t i c u l a t e and has been accounted f o r several  ways. An e x c e l l e n t  d i s c u s s i o n of  c o n s i d e r e d to be r e s p o n s i b l e (24).  They p o i n t out  particulate collection  that  tangential efficiency  a t t r i b u t e the e f f e c t plots, the expected  in spite  velocity increases  the  of  the observed r e d u c t i o n i n  ( and thus s e p a r a t i n g f o r c e  motion of  efficiency  1.4  f o r small p a r t i c l e s  (1  ( 15 p.m ).  a process  whereby  are f o r c e d towards the w a l l because  Either  of  the  through d i r e c t  impact with the  larger  (and the f o r m a t i o n of a l a r g e r s e p a r a t i n g mass) or by  entrainment  i n the flow f i e l d behind the l a r g e r p a r t i c l e ,  s m a l l e r p a r t i c l e moves increased  is  Figure  l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s which are s e p a r a t i n g out at a higher  velocities. particle  )  with i n c r e a s i n g l o a d i n g . They  "scrubbing e f f e c t "  smaller p a r t i c l e s  mechanisms  to agglomeration mechanisms.  collection  in  i s g i v e n by Mothes and L o f f l e r  to 4 jim) as separated by l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s Briefly  the  in  velocity.  toward the c y c l o n e w a l l with an  the  LOADING, GRAINS OF SOLIDS / CU. FT. OF GAS  FIGURE  1.3  Loading e f f e c t on c y c l o n e c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y . Cyclone diameter up to 3.65 m d i a m e t e r . E i s z e r o load ( l e s s than 1 g r a i n / f t ) l o a d i n g , E L i s h i g h e r loading e f f i c i e n c y . (18) 0  3  particle size  x/pm  FIGURE 1.4 Predicted separation e f f i c i e n c y of f i n e p a r t i c l e s swept o u t o f t h e gas by l a r g e p a r t i c l e s due a g g l o m e r a t i o n <24). T«(x> — p r e d i c t e d c o l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y — cyclone radius, r« ss r e s t i t u t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . ri vortex finder radius b_ i n l e t width i n l e t depth h. = inlet velocity V„ = mass median p a r t i c l e d i a m e t e r Xo — p a r t i c l e density Cn  s o l i d s loading  g/m  3  -  27 -  An e m p i r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n proposed by Ogawa (22) effect  of dust  loading in conventional  ( m o d i f i e d to g i v e  efficiency  efficiency(^)  cyclones  has  for  the  the  form  i n %):  = 100 - b i [ e x p ( - k i  (1-21)  C )1100 o  where bi  = 0.032  ki  = -.0157  Co = dust  for  dimensionless dimensionless  loading (  a 90 mm diameter  14 and 16 m/s. decrease d a t a of workers.  The n e g a t i v e  v a l u e f o r ki accounts  as Co i n c r e a s e s  noted  a u t h o r , c o n t r a r y to the e f f e c t  For c y c l o n e s  efficiency  3  cyclone operated w i t h f l y a s h w i t h between  in efficiency this  g/m )  with an a x i a l  was found to  inlet  for a  i n experimental noted by other  geometry,  collection  increase with loading.  Another e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was proposed by the in  1955 of  the  form:  efficiency Here the s u b s c r i p t arbitrarily  API(17)  = 100-  'o'  refers  taken as 1 g r / f t  from the API (18)  ( 100-  was of P(E)  the  3  to  e )[c«/c 0  f t  low l o a d i n g  ( 2.3  g/m ). 3  ]°•  2  (1-22)  conditions  Another c o r r e l a t i o n  form:  = P ( E ) + A log L 0  (1-23)  -  where A i s  the  L and was  and  2.11*E  -  L the dust  efficiencies  probabilities  the  o  relating  a s s o c i a t e d with the  cyclone  at  a given  [(l-x)/x]  follows:  and P ( E )  P(e)  0  collection  loading.  i.e.  the  These  the  as: = [1 - pass  probability] (l-24b)  P(x)] log[(l-x)/x]  ]  (l-24c)  that  1 -  1 -  log[(l-E)/E]  ] =  log[(l-Eo)/E ] 0  log[(l-E)/E]  ] + Alog(  = log[(1-Eo)/Eo]  -  L )  (l-24d)  log L  (l-24e)  A  = log[ ( 1 - E o ) / E o L * ]  (l-24f)  [(1-E)/E]  =  [(l-Eo)/EoLA]  (l-24g)  [1/E  = [(1-Eo ) / E o L * ]  (l-24h)  -  1]  E  such  = E o L / [ Eo L A  A  (1-241)  + 1 - Eo ]  that ln(l-E)  = ln[(l-E )/(l 0  +  E [L -1])] A  0  P(e)  (l-24a)  3  3  = [ 1 -  [  4.00*E  -  i n expressed g r a i n s / f t .  = [1 -  [  2  can be approximated by  (Catch p r o b a b i l i t y )  such  curves  at h i g h and low l o a d i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  f r a c t i o n passing  log of  linear  by a polynomial as  + 5.63*Eo  0  loading  are the p r o b a b i l i t i e s  -  the n e a r l y  empirically fitted  A = 0.67  and  s l o p e of  28  (l-25a)  -  29 -  Mansin and Koch(23) developed a c o r r e l a t i o n accounted for effective  the change  viscosity  of  in efficiency  the gas  by m o d i f y i n g  ji [l  =  (l-25b)  2  K  The model took the  the  as:  + 0.091ogL + . 0 2 ( l o g L ) ] . (note log base 10 i n e q u a t i o n l - 2 5 b )  U t . p p  that  form:  ln[ (1-E) (1+Eo [ L  A  -  1])°'  ] =  5  \  -2.3SFACTOR[N (n+1)AiG/(LFAC2D ) ] < o . 4 l / (n • l ) ) 2  S T  C  (1-26)  where: E  = collection  Eo  = low l o a d i n g e f f i c i e n c y  ln(l  efficiency  - E) = 2 [ [ N s T ( n + l ) / ( A i / 2 D c ) G ] < ° - s / < n i > > 2  L  = L loading  gr/f  f o r V-i / V  8  SFACTOR = [ ( V i / V ) / 2 . 5 ] - o • 5 1 = particle saltation  This  = =  G  = cyclone  LFAC  = 1 + 0.091ogioL  Do  =  n  = Vortex  Inlet  velocity  area c o n f i g u r a t i o n parameter. + .02(  logio)  2  Cyclone diameter  actually  modifications  < 2.5  8  Stokes number  Ai  is  (1-27)  otherwise  s  Vs  +  3  SFACTOR = [ ( V i / V ) / 2 . 5 ] ° • * i  Nst  as determined by:  for  the  exponent  L e i t h and  L i c h t (12)  model with  p a r t i c l e s a l tat i o n arid l o a d i n g  effects.  30 -  F i g u r e 1.5 without  compares the L e i t h and L i c h t  these m o d i f i c a t i o n s .  equation w i t h and  -  3x  -  Fraction passing - data a.) L e i t h / L i c h t model w i t h o u t c o r r e c t i o n s .  Legend o Ernst » Knowiton Ogawa - Parker Exxon Curt 0  4 ?  Fraction passing - data  b.) L e i t h / L i c h t model w i t h l o a d i n g and s a l t a t i o n corrections.  F i g u r e 1.5  L e i t h and L i c h t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h and without l o a d i n g and s a l t a t i o n c o r r e c t i o n s . C o n d i t i o n s : D = 0.05 and 0.91 m, temperatures between 20 and 850 ° C , i n l e t v e l o c i t i e s between 1.8 and 46 m/s, dust l o a d i n g s from 0.43 and 4450 g / m . (2$) 3  -  32  -  1 . 1 . 6 . Summary  When d e s c r i b i n g f l u i d p a r t i c l e s e p a r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s cyclones  it  has been found necessary  to  include  in  other  parameters b e s i d e s the Stokes number. P a r t i c l e l o a d i n g and secondary e f f e c t s  such as p a r t i c l e r e - e n t r a i n m e n t p l a y an  important r o l e and should be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . An increase  in c o l l e c t i o n  efficiency  with i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c l e  l o a d i n g has been r e p o r t e d by s e v e r a l  workers.  -  1.2  33 -  Apparatus and E x p e r i m e n t a l Procedure  1.2.1  Introduction Several  course of  experimental  the experimental program before  finalized.  Results  experiments  are not r e p o r t e d i n the body of  1.2.2  this  t h e s i s but do  the appendix and are d i s c u s s e d  1 . 3 . 1 . What f o l l o w s  particulate solids and  the s e t - u p was  from these p r e l i m i n a r y "shake down"  appear i n F i g u r e A l of section  arrangements were t e s t e d i n the  used,  is  a d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  in  equipment,  and the procedure f o r data a c q u i s i t i o n  analysis.  Model Cyclone Apparatus F i g u r e 1.6  m a j o r i t y of  shows a schematic of  the apparatus used f o r  t e s t s performed i n Part  The apparatus was comprised of  this  four separate  1.  Blower, p i p i n g , o r i f i c e  2.  Solids  feed  I of  thesis  the  project.  systems:  flow metering  system  system  3. P o l y a c r y l i c c y c l o n e 4. F i l t e r  system.  Each i s d e s c r i b e d below. For a l l positive  experiments,  displacement  50 hp) d i e s e l  engine.  compressed a i r was p r o v i d e d by a  Rootestype  blower,  powered by a 37 kW (  The a i r flow c o u l d be v a r i e d over a wide  range ( 0 - 1100 scfm or 0 - 0.52  m /s) 3  by c o n t r o l l i n g  the  SEE APPENDIX FOR DETAILED DIMENSIONS  PLEXIGLASS MODEL CYCLONE SIMULATED REACTOR TOP 0.61 m  FILTER BAG.  \ \ \ ,\ \ \ \ \ SOLIDS FEED HOPPER BYPASS DAMPER  RDDTS TYPE BLDWER  IT  .•AD CELLS  ORIFICE PLATE & WATER MANOMETER  CATCH HOPPER  150 MM DIA  PLASTIC PIPE  v \  FIGURE 1.6 UBC a p p a r a t u s s c h e m a t i c used i n runs B l t h r o u g h B38.  .•AD SCALE  -  engine  35 -  speed and a bypass damper. The bypass damper was  for a l l experiments  to ensure constant  flow.  blower speed curves are shown i n F i g u r e  The flow  m of s t r a i g h t  i n between,  vs.  1.7.  A 150 mm (nominal) d i a . p l a s t i c pipe connected to the feed hopper while  shut  the  blower  l o c a t e d a f t e r more than 4  pipe r u n , was the flow measurement  orifice  plate.  T h i s brass p l a t e ,  designed and i n s t a l l e d a c c o r d i n g to ASME  standards  had a 101.5  orifice  ( 28 ) ,  in.)  i . d . o r i f i c e . The  p r e s s u r e drop was measured by means of a water  manometer,  and because  fluctuations  the r e a d i n g was u s u a l l y u n s t a b l e ,  in pressure  i n the s i m u l a t e d r e a c t o r t o p ,  accuracy a t t a i n a b l e was +\orifice  mm (4  5 mm. The a b s o l u t e  p l a t e was observed to f l u c t u a t e  column p r e s s u r e . curve appears  tall  The  flow v s .  the  l o a d i n g and  to 24 inches)  water  o r i f i c e p l a t e p r e s s u r e drop  i n Appendix I ( F i g u r e A2 ) .  Solids  to be fed to the system were c o n t a i n e d i n a 3.05 m  by 0.36  m square hopper equipped with a manually operated  0.254 m d i a .  ( a p e r t u r e opening)  Located at the bottom of windbox,  cone v a l v e  (see  the hopper was a 0.36  c o n s t r u c t e d with a 30% f r e e  Figure  1.8.).  m square  area d i s t r i b u t o r p l a t e and  l i n e d with a 3 mm t h i c k l a y e r of commercial grade bleached kraft  to  the best  p r e s s u r e at  with s o l i d s  was i n the neighborhood of 30 to 60 cm (12  due  paper (softwood)  Additional  to ensure even d i s t r i b u t i o n of  air.  f l u i d i z a t i o n a i r was p r o v i d e d by a 6 mm diameter  pipe e n t e r i n g o p p o s i t e  to the s o l i d s  valve.  Fluidization air  flow r a t e s were measured by means of a r o t a m e t e r . runs the hopper was p r e s s u r i z e d ,  During  the  ( by means of a 32 mm d i a .  36  -  . SUTORBILf  Typical  ffti-foniiance  Standard  900  1000  J ion  i::fiO  7MF S E R I E S  1300  InlGt  r  BLOWER  - Pressure Conditions  1400  '  1500  OPERATING SPEED - RPM  Fic  Mode  1600  1700  REV. 1  7-15-85  1600  Mi-/  F i g u r e 1.7 P l o t o f b l o w e r speed v s f l o w / p r e s s u r e drop. ( Pumps and Power I n c . )  SDLIDS FEED VALVE  WINHBDX  DETAIL  k- 0,36 -H TRANSPARENT PLEXIGLASS FACE 0.35  3.05-  DISTRIBUTER PLATE < 30 7. FREE AREA ) 1  SUPPLEMENTARY FLUIDIZATION AIR :  1 50 MM T  CONE VALVE HAND CRANK  WIND BOX <SEE DETAIL)  150 MM DIA SOLIDS DICHARGE PIPE  F i g u r e 1.8 D i a g r a m o f UBC s o l i d s hopper used i n runs B l t h r o u g h B35.  -  38  -  pipe connected upstream of  the o r i f i c e p l a t e ) ,  slightly  t r a n s p o r t a i r to allow s t e a d i e r  above that  of  the  more r a p i d s o l i d s f e e d i n g . load c e l l s capacity)  9 mV output at  the experimental  1 kg,  1 s i n t e r v a l s . Error  is  estimated  l a r g e l y due to f r i c t i o n between the hopper and  j u n c t i o n to minimize t h i s  connection  friction.  pipe turned twice between the s o l i d s cyclone,  was  used  The a i r t r a n s p o r t  input p o i n t and the  once through 4 5 ° , then a g a i n through 9 0 ° .  In order to model the Chatham c y c l o n e more e f f e c t i v e l y polyacrylic section, of  and a s t e e l  e n c l o s u r e g e o m e t r i c a l l y s i m i l a r to the  slanting riser c e i l i n g piece, c y c l o n e as shown i n this  i n c l i n e d at  F i g u r e 1.9.  This  included a  1 0 ° towards  thereby m i n i m i z i n g  flow  interference.  was b u i l t as a s c a l e  the o r i g i n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n of  the entrance-way.  445 mm h i g h by 140 mm wide at the entrance p o i n t  to  to model proposed geometric  the Chatham  cyclone.  Details  s t u d i e d are g i v e n i n F i g u r e  1.10.  of  changes  being  the entrance  It  was  the  c y c l o n e . W i t h i n the entrance-way were i n s t a l l e d wooden  for  the  A 50 mm wide rubber s t r i p  The p o l y a c r y l i c e n t r a n c e - s e c t i o n  designed  top  r e a c t o r top to the c y c l o n e entrance way and was  i n s t a l l e d taut,  model of  the  c y c l o n e was preceded by a p o l y a c r y l i c entrance  a c i r c u l a t i n g f l u i d i z e d bed r i s e r s e c t i o n .  sealed  the  r u n s . Hopper mass i n f o r m a t i o n was  the pneumatic t r a n s p o r t p i p e . A f l e x i b l e this  rated  which allowed mass flow r a t e to be determined f o r  logged on an XT computer at  at  and  The hopper was supported by three  ( 1000 kg c a p a c i t y each,  d u r a t i o n of  to be +/-  to a p r e s s u r e  inserts,  considered geometries  FIGURE  1.9  DIAGRAM  DF M D D E L  REACTDR  AND MDDEL C Y C L O N E < ALL  DIMENSIONS IN MM  )  TOP  150  60  M  r 395 JL_  30  .ajsa:*:'»:ftsa*v-l  i  CONFIGURATION CI BASE CASE  CONFIGURATION C2  CONFIGURATION C3 CONFIGURATION C3 WITH LOVER ED V O R T E X FINUER  SEE FIGURE 1.1 FOR DIMENSIONS  Fzgure 1.10  Entrance geometry c o n f i g u r a t i o n s f o r i n l e t m o d i f i c a t i o n t e s t s . Shaded areas show i n s e r t s A l l dimensxons i n mm. See s e c t i o n 1.3.3 f o r d e t a i i s  -  The  model cyclone  r e p l i c a of  itself  41  -  was a o n e - n i n t h ( 0 . 1 1 )  the Chatham CFBC cyclone e x i s t i n g  scale  at Chatham New  Brunswick. The model cyclone was c o n s t r u c t e d from 6 mm t h i c k c l e a r p o l y a c r y l i c and dimensions were h e l d to a t o l e r a n c e of +/-  3mm. The s c a l e was decided upon by assuming that  cyclone Stokes number was roughly s i m i l a r NsT  Operating conditions  UBC  =  the  i.e.  NST CHATHAM  are presented  i n the r e s u l t s  section,  in  Table 1 . 4 . It  can be immediately n o t i c e d that  d e s i g n chosen is  squat,  the Chatham c y c l o n e  i s n o n - s t a n d a r d . Compared to standard designs  having a h e i g h t / d i a m e t e r  r a t i o of H o / D = 2 . 8 , w h i l e  standard designs  have  vortex f i n d e r or gas  e x i t duct does not extend below the  of  H o / D = 3.7  the entrance way, which r a i s e s  circuiting  the s e p a r a t i o n zone.  it  to 4 . 0 . In a d d i t i o n the  the p o s s i b i l i t y of gas  Extending the vortex  floor short  finder  below the entrance f l o o r by D / 1 0 i s not uncommon i n standard designs an  (5).  A l s o p e c u l i a r to t h i s  annular zone,  positioned ceiling.  design is  c o n c e n t r i c with the cyclone  the i n c l u s i o n of itself  but  above the entrance c e i l i n g but below the It  is believed  that  this  cyclone  squat d e s i g n was chosen  meet dimensional r e q u i r e m e n t s , but i t  to  u n c l e a r why the  c o n c e n t r i c annular r e g i o n near the top was i n c l u d e d . The first  model p r o v i d e d f o r two types of v o r t e x f i n d e r s ,  the  being made of s t e e l with p r o v i s i o n for an a d d i t i o n a l  section,  while the second made of p o l y a c r y l i c , c o u l d be  r e t r a c t e d from the cyclone body,  thereby s i m u l a t i n g other  -  configurations. steel  Gas e x i t e d  42 -  the cyclone  to a short 300 mm d i a .  duct which then turned 9 0 ° , t r a v e r s e d approximately 600  mm and f i n a l l y turned down 90° to a bag  filter.  For runs B l to B10, performed under h i g h l o a d i n g conditions filter  i t was necessary  to handle the higher s o l i d s  the dimensions of 0.78 cotton,  452 g/m  flows.  T h i s bag f i l t e r had  m d i a . by 4 m long and was made of  weight.  2  to the e x i t d u c t , runs,  to use a l a r g e sock shaped bag  The bag f i l t e r  thus p r e v e n t i n g s o l i d s  was s e c u r e l y losses.  attached  For subsequent  performed under low l o a d i n g r u n s , a high e f f i c i e n c y  collection efficiency c l o t h area)  for 5 micron diameter p a r t i c l e s ,  v e n t i l a t i o n bag f i l t e r  higher c o l l e c t i o n  efficiency  100%  was used because  and c o u l d handle the  (99 %  4 m  it  2  offered  lower  solids  loadings. A 1.7 m l o n g , solids  e x i t of  100 mm d i a . f l e x i b l e  the cyclone  l o c a t e d below and  to the s i d e of  the p o s s i b i l i t y of s o l i d s to the c y c l o n e , solids  +/-  the c y c l o n e ,  re-entrainment  thus r e d u c i n g  from the hopper back  r e s t e d on a load s c a l e ,  the s o l i d s  caught.  the  hopper. The hopper was  a problem experienced by Stairmand ( 2 ) .  hopper i t s e l f  measurement of  to a storage  hose connected  The  allowing for  The s c a l e was c a l i b r a t e d to  10 grams, and values were logged on an XT computer at 1 s  intervals.  The data l o g g i n g program appears i n F i g u r e A3 of  the  Appendi x. In an e f f o r t  to s i m u l a t e  the h i g h l o a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s  the cyclone at Chatham a s o l i d s built.  in  r e c y c l e system was designed and  F i g u r e A4 i n the appendix shows a schematic  of  the  -  system.  Briefly  43  -  the setup e n v i s i o n e d r e c y c l i n g s e p a r a t e l y ,  two s i m i l a r systems,  the s o l i d s  caught and those p a s s i n g  p o l y a c r y l i c model c y c l o n e . Not only were the systems to the s o l i d s ,  they were a l s o  r e c y c l e system i n c l u d e d a f l u i d i z e d s e a l  recycle  d a t a . Each  flow  solids  equipped with dual  and a s o l i d flow measurement  equipped with a porous measurement swing p l a t e , solids  the  intended to measure the s o l i d s  to p r o v i d e l o a d i n g and c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y  distributor plates,  in  flow c o n t r o l , and a d i s t r i b u t o r p l a t e  vessel cone v a l v e  for  to d i s t r i b u t e  fluidization air. The s o l i d s measurement v e s s e l was intended to measure solids.flow  by means of a porous swing p l a t e p o s i t i o n e d w i t h i n  the measurement v e s s e l  (first  proposed by T u r n e r ( 4 0 ) ) . T h i s  porous paper l i n e d , 30 % free area punched hole p l a t e c o u l d be manually r o t a t e d to b l o c k s o l i d s  f a l l i n g w i t h i n the measurement  v e s s e l . Once the p l a t e was r o t a t e d c l o s e d , were to c o l l e c t  the f a l l i n g  solids  on the l i n e d p l a t e and be measured. Measurement  was to be performed by o b s e r v i n g the p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l across  the p l a t e and d e p o s i t e d s o l i d s  and thus  infer a solids  flow r a t e . The p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l was to a r i s e due to  the  upward flow of f l u i d i z i n g a i r o r i g i n a t i n g from the d i s t r i b u t o r plate  l o c a t e d at  the s o l i d s  the bottom of  below  exit.  While the l a r g e r s o l i d s solids  the measurement v e s s e l ,  r e c y c l e system was to  receive  d i r e c t l y from the p o l y a c r y l i c cyclone model, the  s m a l l e r r e c y c l e system was to handle f i n e s model. These f i n e s  that passed  were to be caught with a m u l t i c l o n e ,  second the  -  44 -  c o n t a i n i n g 120 small p l a s t i c c y c l o n e s , These high e f f i c i e n c y the f i n e s  fallen  measurement v e s s e l  seal,  continued i n t o the  and f i n a l l y  just downstream of  f a s h i o n as i n the  large  system.  work f o r two r e a s o n s . capture a l l of pass,  Firstly  the f i n e s  this  system d i d not  the m u l t i c l o n e was unable to  and l e t  an unacceptable amount of  o v e r l o a d i n g the f i l t e r . Attempts to i n c r e a s e  multiclone efficiency  by i n c r e a s i n g the i n l e t  cyclone were u n s u c c e s s f u l .  solids  feed  the m u l t i c l o n e . Fines flow  Upon commissioning i t was found that  small  fines  r e c y c l e d back into the  measurement was to occur i n a s i m i l a r  solids  were to have  The cleaned gas stream continued on to a bag f i l t e r ,  positioned  recycle  separate  them i n a s t e e l hopper  i n c l i n e d at 4 5 ° . From there the f i n e s  i n t o the f l u i d  stream.  Stairmand type cyclones were to  from gas stream, and d e p o s i t  with s i d e s  each 50 mm i n diameter.  the  v e l o c i t y to each  Secondly i t was found that  caught by the m u l t i c l o n e were so cohesive  that  remained i n the m u l t i c l o n e hopper. Other elements of  the  they the  system  such as the f l u i d i z e d s e a l s and the porous measurement swing plates  remain u n t e s t e d .  While i t was c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e  to r e c t i f y these problems  with another m u l t i c l o n e d e s i g n and d i f f e r e n t , s o l i d s was not c o n s i d e r e d to be a p r a c t i c a l objectives constraint)  of at  this  means to achieve  s t u d y , g i v e n the resources  hand.  system,  (i.e.  the  time  it  - 45 1.2.3  Particulate  solids  Fluid cracking catalyst cyclones  serving a f l u i d  fines,  catalytic  obtained from t e r t i a r y c r a c k i n g u n i t at  the Chevron  Canada L t d . o i l  r e f i n e r y were used i n the experiments  in  The e q u i v a l e n t  this  thesis.  volume sphere diameter,  determined u s i n g an Elzone p a r t i c l e a n a l y s i s  i n F i g u r e 1.11.  i n F i g u r e 1.12.  A photograph of  The bulk d e n s i t y  the  test dust  appears  was determined with the 3  of 0.5  the p a r t i c l e d e n s i t y  was  the feed m a t e r i a l  i n a loose form and was found to be 770 k g / m . voidage  as  instrument,  approximately 22 Jim. The s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n of appears  reported  solids  Assuming a  was estimated  to be  1540  kg/m . 3  1.2.4  Data a c q u i s i t i o n and a n a l y s i s Each t e s t of  the c o l d model cyclone was performed  a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g  1.  procedure:  As an i n i t i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e ,  the system was  cleaned out by rapping each component part s c o u r i n g the system with a i r . The mass of hopper, filter  feed and  bag were next r e c o r d e d . The wet and dry bulb  temperatures)  with aluminum f o i l and the  the  c a t c h hopper( with l i d connection o f f ) ,  temperature were then n o t e d . for  while  (See Appendix F i g u r e A8  The p l a s t i c  cyclone was wrapped  to reduce e l e c t r o s t a t i c  effects,  feed hopper pressur i zat i on l i n e was jthen  connected.  i  Mass f r a c t i o n ( % )  10  SIZE  a  6.78)* 7.32> -» 7.9D8.54> •fl 9,22)- — * 2 9.96) - -  110.75)-  CA  Zll.6l>  N> S  B  u  f* (0 "1  p>  3 cr e  (0 »*  N 0 (D P  CO  o  (X 12.53>•-13.53) » 14.61)15.77> E17.03)P 18.3y> | 19.86)™5:.44> ?23.15)"> 24.99> 26.99)29.14> •31.46) o 33.97) 36.66X o 39.60) ... 0 co 42.76) — * 46.17> * 49.85) * 53.83) X 58.12)  20  30  40  50  60  70  60  \  90  100  * .  * —«  -» -*  a  —  * .  ft  -* I  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  ?0  100  Figure  1.12 Photograph  of'FCC  test  solids  ( 22  um mean  size')  -  48 -  With the f l u i d i z a t i o n a i r turned on to the wind box, the feed hopper was charged by scooping s o l i d s barrel  and f e e d i n g ,  by means of a f u n n e l ,  50 mm d i a . feed port at  The r e c e i v i n g storage  the top of  hopper was  through the  the hopper.  sealed.  The blower was connected and s t a r t e d . flow was a d j u s t e d v i a . engine  from a  Then the a i r  speed.  The data l o g g i n g program was s t a r t e d on the XT computer.  The f l u i d i z a t i o n a i r was i n c r e a s e d u n t i l  solids  seen to be b u b b l i n g and c i r c u l a t i n g w i t h i n hopper,  were  the  ( f l u i d i z i n g a i r flow was approximately 100  lpm)  The s o l i d s  feed v a l v e was r a p i d l y opened and the  hopper rapped as s o l i d s  were r a p i d l y f e d .  Figure  1.8  shows the v a l v e arrangement.  The s o l i d s  v a l v e was q u i c k l y shut a f t e r  amount of s o l i d s  had been  fed.  the  desired  -  9.  49 -  With the blower s t i l l model c y c l o n e , dislodge  10.  running,  e x i t pipes  solids  ) was v i o l e n t l y  adhering to inner  The blower was stopped, r e c e i v i n g hopper mass, recorded.  the system  ( pipes, rapped to  surfaces.  and the f i l t e r  bag mass,  and feed hopper mass were  S o l i d s samples were taken from the  bag and r e c e i v i n g hopper f o r a n a l y s i s  of  filter  their  particle size distributions.  D e v i a t i o n s or unusual occurrences are r e p o r t e d i n Table  from the above procedure  1.3.  In order to d e r i v e the c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y for of  this  study,  the f e e d ,  curves  needed  both the p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n and masses  c a t c h and l o s s p a r t i c l e s needed to be o b t a i n e d . As  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned,  the  total  c a t c h and feed masses were  determined from the  load c e l l s and load s c a l e .  p a r t i c u l a t e passing  to the model cyclone was measured by  d e t e r m i n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e  The mass of  i n the f i l t e r mass before and a f t e r  each r u n . An Elzone p a r t i c l e a n a l y s i s  instrument  (model  286XY),  i n t e r f a c e d with an AT computer, was used to c h a r a c t e r i z e  the  p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n . The instrument was c a l i b r a t e d p r i o r to a n a l y s i s with p a r t i c l e s of mean diameter of 5 jim and 20 pm, to correspond approximately to the expected mean s i z e s of cyclone  l o s s and c a t c h r e s p e c t i v e l y .  the  ASTM standard CG90 -71 T  for p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n a n a l y s i s  by e l e c t r o n i c  counting  -  50 -  was f o l l o w e d . A L e i t z Tas Plus Image A n a l y s i s System was used to confirm the p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . The p a r t i c l e c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y  curve for each run was  o b t a i n e d by comparing the mass caught to that channel  ( i.e.  Ei  where  1.2.5  for each s i z e  = ( C ci  )/(  i n t e r v a l ) as  C  + L  Ei = c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y  )fi  f o r channel  L  = t o t a l mass l o s t  ci  = f r a c t i o n by mass for channel i of  fi  = f r a c t i o n by mass by channel of  i.  caught ( via. filter  bag measurement) catch,  feed  Sensitivity  As i n any experimental program, measurements must be s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n order for the r e s u l t s  experiments d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s mind. For example, between  (1-28)  = t o t a l mass  quantities  each  follows:  C  Error  fed f o r  allow a s i g n i f i c a n t  the s o l i d s  in  l e s s than the observed to be m e a n i n g f u l . The  t h e s i s were set  i n order that  experiments,  the e r r o r expected  up with t h i s  in  there be s u f f i c i e n t  resolution  chosen had to be f i n e  enough to  amount to pass the  cyclone.  -  As w e l l ,  the manner i n which the e f f i c i e n c y  was important. Given the f e e d , particular  51 -  test,  catch,  was  and p a s s i n g masses from a  there are four ways to c a l c u l a t e  dependent  variable collection efficiency.  a.)  E  =  calculated  the  primary  They a r e :  ( c a t c h mass)  (1-29)  (feed mass)  b.)  E  =  (catch mass)  (1-30)  ( c a t c h mass + l o s s mass)  c. )  E  =  (feed mass - l o s s mass)  (1-31)  (feed mass)  d. )  E  =  (feed mass -  l o s s mass)  (1-32)  ( c a t c h mass + l o s s mass)  In F i g u r e 1.13 efficiency  a comparison i s made of  e r r o r s r e s u l t i n g from h y p o t h e t i c a l  e r r o r s for equations  1-29  to 1-32.  95%. From these graphs i t  and 1-31 or  are l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e  collection  experimental  The graphs were prepared  while c o n s i d e r i n g the case with a gross of  the  collection  can be seen that to experimental  efficiency  equations error  than  1-30 1-29  1-32. The e r r o r  i n each v a r i a b l e depends on s o l i d s  the system,  a t t r i t i o n or agglomeration  measurement  error.  The e f f i c i e n c y  of  (if  caught up i n  any) and  the bag f i l t e r  influences  Efficiency i  i  error  S  ©  N  ©  1  s  e  0  Efficiency  ( % )  s>  o  G>  ©  9  0  /  |  o  5 9 1 '  S  U  s  u  s  S 6  0 s  0 s  0 s  s e  ^  \  n c  •1  n B  /  S3  O  0  w  z  ft f  M> ft _  /  i  ui  s  w  2  0  0  ri  *  o w  ps  y  o' 0  •  r. I'  n  ?'  ?  0  O fi  »: •  *  I CO  •J  o  •  ;  \  K »:  ii  »:  f  n  9  ft  s  W  r  *  CO  \ \  fi fi  \ \  \  Efficiency  ^  SI s  ©  \ \  ?'  ( % ) S  S  6 S  \a \  1  error  01  0  0' e>  ^  fi fi  Efficiency i  *  \  H,  / _  n  rt  \  f  /  \  *  7  ii n  *  /  I  \  _ » w  \  Cfl  1  rt  ' O PS Ul  V  ( % )  i r*  u  + B I  error  e  - zs  S  error  s  O  3  S  o o  to B  ( % ) G>  ©  O  ©  -  l o s s measurement accuracies  error.  53 -  As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d the  were:  feed s c a l e  +/-  1 kg  catch s c a l e  +/-  0.01  loss scale  +/-  0.001  The measurements  suffered  l o d g i n g i n the system. s u s c e p t i b l e to e r r o r .  kg kg  from the problem of  The feed measurement  entrance way,  thus reducing the a c t u a l  chamber i t s e l f .  solids  was p a r t i c u l a r l y  T h i s is because the s o l i d s  system had more o p p o r t u n i t y to be caught  cyclone  scale  fed to  up i n the p i p i n g and  amount r e a c h i n g  The c a t c h mass measurement  s o l i d s not  easily  that was r e t a i n e d . Measurement of  captured by the  cyclone was h i n d e r e d not  so much by  the s c a l e a c c u r a c y , but r a t h e r by the  inevitable  particles  T h i s rendered the  due to f i l t e r  the  f a r e d much  b e t t e r as the passage to the storage hopper c o u l d be c l e a r e d of any m a t e r i a l  the  inefficiency.  l o s s of loss  p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a c c u r a t e and u n r e l i a b l e . A mass balance,  performed on a per channel b a s i s f a i l e d  p a r t i c l e smaller collection  than 15 um d i a as  efficiency  calculations  feed p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s  1.2.6  Chatham cyclone F i g u r e 1.14  a complete  is  to c l o s e  for  shown i n F i g u r e A7 Thus  were based on the c a t c h and  as per equation  1-28.  data  shows a schematic  d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  of  the Chatham CFB B o i l e r ,  installation  can be found i n  i g u r e 1.14  Schematic o f Chatham  CFB  Boiler(32)  -  reference  1.  55 -  B r i e f l y the Chatham CFB b o i l e r c o n s i s t s of a  m high f l u i d i z e d bed furnace which d i s c h a r g e s  solids  and  combustion gases to a 5.6 m diameter  Solids  are  separated  from the combustion gases i n the cyclone and are  r e t u r n e d to the bottom of solids  cyclone.  23.8  the f u r n a c e . A p o r t i o n of  these  pass through the F l u i d Bed Heat Exchanger (FBHE).  The  c a t c h sample analyzed i n t h i s  the FBHE. A photograph of F i g u r e 1.15.  t h e s i s was taken from  the Chatham cyclone  fines  appears  in  The l o s s p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n was  established  by a n a l y z i n g p a r t i c u l a t e samples  from the bag house  with the Elzone p a r t i c l e a n a l y z e r . The c a t c h sample was  sieved  ( ASTM Standard Test Method f o r Sieve or Screen A n a l y s i s of F i n e and Coarse Aggregates: s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n . The f i n e s  C-136-76 (i.e.  ) to g i v e a rough p a r t i c l e  material passing  a #70  mesh  screen) were analyzed f u r t h e r with the Elzone p a r t i c l e analyzer.  E q u a t i o n 1-30  efficiency  flux  and found to be of  the order of 20 k g / m s .  as yet  STP, kg  u n p u b l i s h e d , found by  The  i n the cyclone  c a l c u l a t e d assuming 1600 m / s 3  and a r e a c t o r r i s e r area of  solids/  that  loading,  This  2  sampling t r i a l s performed by others solids  collection  i n the r e a c t o r was measured at s e v e r a l  be s i m i l a r to v a l u e s ,  The  gross  data.  Solids (32)  was used to c a l c u l a t e  16 m  2  is  levels said  to  isokinetic inlet gas  was estimated  flow  (35). at  to be 10  kg gas.  runs t y p i c a l l y l a s t e d  steady s t a t e c o n d i t i o n s  f o r weeks. Thus i t  prevailed.  It  is  is  assumed  assumed that  the  Figure  1.15  P h o t o g r a p h o f f i n e s f r o m Chatham f l u i d e x c h a n g e r , s a m p l e d on A p r i l 1 7 , 1 9 9 0 .  bed h e a t  -  size distributions  d i d not  57 -  significantly  change d u r i n g  transport  from the cyclone  transport  from New Brunswick to Vancouver. T h i s  could not be v e r i f i e d not p o s s i b l e cyclone other  the  assumption was  to o b t a i n samples d i r e c t l y from the base of  the  itself.  because at  sampling or d u r i n g  time of w r i t i n g i t  entrance  Data concerning the o p e r a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s configurations  completion of work at  had entrance  operating conditions  w i l l be a v a i l a b l e  or  pending  the U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick (35).  samples were taken on A p r i l cyclone  to the point of  17,  1990,  d u r i n g which time  c o n f i g u r a t i o n C3 (see  All  the  F i g u r e 1 . 1 0 ) . The  are summarized i n Table  1.2.  -  TABLE  58 -  1.2  CHATHAM OPERATING CONDITIONS FOR APRIL 17,  1990 REFERENCE  COMMENTS 850 C 1600 m / m i n . 0.000018 kg/ms 37.5 cm HjO 12.25 cm H 2 O 20 kg/m s  TEMPERATURE GAS FLOW GAS VISCOSITY GAS PRESSURE PRESSURE DROP SOLIDS FLUX GROSS COLLECTION EFFICIENCY  3  J  TOP OF FURNACE STP  (32) (32) (36) @ CYCLONE ENTRANCE (32) (32) (see note above) (32)  99.2 %  (1)  While the method f o r the cyclone e f f i c i e n c y not s t a t e d ,  it  i s b e l i e v e d that  the catch mass flow  c a l c u l a t e d from an energy balance across exchanger and thus The  the  3  is  is  f l u i d bed heat  i s not y_ery a c c u r a t e .  bulk p a r t i c l e d e n s i t y for Chatham s o l i d s  to be 1600 kg/m  calculation  and assuming a voidage of 0.4  d e n s i t y was c a l c u l a t e d to be 2650 k g / m . 3  was measured  theparticle  -  1.3.  RESULTS Part  of  59 -  INTRODUCTION  I of t h i s  study examines  the c o l l e c t i o n  two g e o m e t r i c a l l y s i m i l a r cyclones  o p e r a t i n g at  temperatures, with d i f f e r e n t  solids,  velocities.  the performance of  It a l s o  examines  c y c l o n e under d i f f e r e n t geometries.  inlet  changes  to match the  solids, and  analysis  inlet  was performed  guidance on s i m i l a r proposed S i g n i f i c a n t attempts were made  Problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  c o l l e c t i o n of the f i n e s  solids  the s m a l l e r  l o a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s of the Chatham u n i t but  was not completely p o s s i b l e .  inlet  and w i t h v a r i o u s  T h i s v a r i a t i o n i n i n l e t geometries  i n the Chatham c y c l o n e .  different  and w i t h d i f f e r e n t  velocities  i n order to p r o v i d e some i n i t i a l  efficiencies  not captured by the  l i m i t e d the accuracy of  the  this  feeding cyclone,  results.  The p o l y a c r y l i c c y c l o n e was s i z e d so as to not exceed the c a p a c i t y of the mobile blower while m a i n t a i n i n g a c y c l o n e v e l o c i t y between 5 and 10 m/s,  and yet be as l a r g e as  inlet  possible.  Less c o n s i d e r a t i o n was p a i d to the r e q u i r e d s o l i d s  loading  which proved to be very d i f f i c u l t  efforts  to meet.  Initial  focused on a system capable of r e c y c l i n g a l l those caught by the c y c l o n e and those l o s t , the appendix ) . a 'homebuilt'  of  50 mm d i a m e t e r ,  to capture a l l  the f i n e s .  each  The p a r t i c l e s  that  it  failed  the m u l t i c l o n e c a t c h hopper, adhering i n s t e a d  the hopper w a l l s , aggressive  F i g u r e A4 i n  m u l t i c l o n e , c o n s i s t i n g of 120 c y c l o n e s ,  caught by the m u l t i c l o n e s was so- cohesive out of  see  ( both  These attempts were thwarted by the i n a b i l i t y  of  fall  the s o l i d s  to to  which were i n c l i n e d at 4 5 ° , without  r a p p i n g . The f a i l u r e to achieve complete  recycle  -  meant that  the s o l i d s  60 -  c o u l d only be fed through once,  as a  short batch o p e r a t i o n . T y p i c a l l y each run i n v o l v e d f e e d i n g a p e r i o d of only a few minutes.  F i g u r e 1.16  plots  c a t c h hopper  mass vs time f o r run B4, g i v i n g an i n d i c a t i o n of i n the feed r a t e . T y p i c a l l y there was l i t t l e feed  for  the v a r i a t i o n  variation in  the  rate* The p a r t i c l e s were chosen as a compromise under a set  conflicting  requirements.  significant  losses  different  It had to be f i n e  ( and thus experimental  conditions  ) and yet  performed with FCC s o l i d s and r e s u l t e d  the  fraction  three runs were  efficiencies  too h i g h f o r the r e s o l u t i o n r e q u i r e d .  runs used FCC s o l i d s resulted  that  with a mean diameter of 60 microns  i n 99% and 98.3% capture  respectively,  allow  r e s o l u t i o n between  not so f i n e  p a s s i n g c o u l d not be h a n d l e d . The f i r s t  enough to  of  Subsequent  with a mean diameter of 22 microns and  in acceptable  lower e f f i c i e n c i e s .  f i n e s were more c o h e s i v e ,  Unfortunately,  and proved to be more d i f f i c u l t  these to  feed and a n a l y z e . Experimental  results  are summarized i n T a b l e  Experiments B l to B3 were shakedown runs u s i n g the solids  ( 60 micron mean ) .  high s o l i d s  loading rates,  focused on s o l i d s modifications  inlet  larger  Runs B4 to B l l attempted while  loading effects  on c o l l e c t i o n  the remaining and the  achieve  experiments  influence  performed before  with mean p a r t i c l e diameters  v e l o c i t i e s between 3.6  to  of  inlet  efficiency.  P r e l i m i n a r y "shakedown" t e s t s , used s o l i d s  1.3.  and 5.6 m/s.  of  run B l ,  11 jum and 50 nm, at  Inlet  geometry  - 61 -  128  20 %  F i g u r e 1.16  100  200 300 time (s)  400  500  Catch hopper mass vs time i n d i c a t i n g steady s t a t e s o l i d s feed r a t e . Run B 4 .  RUN 1 DATE ei B2 B3 IM B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BIO Bit Bl 2 Bll BH BIS BI6 BI7 BIS BI9 B20 821 B22 B21 B2 4 B25 B26 B27 B28 B29 D30 611 B32 B33 B34 B3S  15/5/90 22/5/90 23/5/90 24/5/90 24/5/90 20/6/90 20/5/90 02/7/90 10/7/90 10/7/90 12/7/90 18/1/90 18/7/90 18/7/90 18/7/90 18/7/90 18/7/90 18/7/90 18/7/90 18/7/90 4/8/90 4/8/90 4/8/90 4/8/90 4/8/90 4/8/90 4/8/90 4/8/90 4/8/90 4/8/90 4/8/90 29/08/90 29/09/90 29/08/90 29/08/90  PURPOSE  :ONPIGIIRATION SOLIDS LOADING FLON see Figure AVERAGE MASS SOLIDS) .10) DIAMETER HASS AIR) •3/s  SHAKE DOWN SHAKE DOWN SHAKE DOWN scaling scaling scaling scaling scaling scaling scaling scaling LOADING LOADING LOADING LOADING LOADING LOADING LOADING LOADING LOADING GEOV. CHNG. GEOH. CHNG. GEOH. CHNG. GEOU. CHNG. GEOH, CHNG. GEOU. CHNG. GEOU. CHNG. GEOU. CHNG. GEOU. CHNG. GEOU. CHNG. GEOU. CHNG. GEOH. CHNG. GEOU. CHNG. GEOU. CHNG. GEOU. CHNG.  CI, C3, CJ, CJ, CJ, C3, C3, C3, C3, CJ, C3, CJ, CJ, CJ, CJ, CJ, CJ, CJ, CI, CJ, C2, C2, C2, CJ, CJ, CI, CI, CI, CJ, CJ, CJ, CJ, CI, CI, CJ,  HIGH V.F. 60 UH HIGH V.F. 60 UU HIGH V.F. 60 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UU LOW V.F. 22 UH LOW V.F. 22 UU LOW V.F. 22 UH LOW V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UH HIGH V.F. 22 UU HIGH V.F. 22 UH  FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC FCC  2.60 0.63 3.14 1.25 n/a 1.96 n/a 7.17 7.49 5.38 n/a 0.23 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.44 0.18 1.30 0.048 0.66 0.36 0.26 0.15 0.23 0.23 0.20 0.20 0.24 0.36 0.34 0.11 0.17 0.17 0.096 0.097  0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.26 0.26 0.28 0.26 0.19 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24  UASSES EFF. COUUENTS INLET VELOCITY h k * •/s CAUGHT LOSS 3.67 n/a n/a FEED PROBLEMS "/» 3.67 79.6 0.80 99 BAD HASS BALANCE 3.67 SO 0.84 98 feed lass caught in pipes 3.67 83 1.96 98 •ass balance closes to 2.7H> 3.67 n/a »/« n/i feed probleis 5.04 85.15 3.69 96 GOOD RUN 5.04 n/a n/a n/a feed probleis 99 GOOD RUN 5.50 101.78 1.13 5.04 91.50 1.44 98 GOOD RUN 3.67 126.99 0.61 99.5 solids v a h e stuck open 5.04 n/a n/* n/a feed probleis 91 GOOD RUN 5.04 3.9481 0.3697 5.04 1.9692 0.2972 87 GOOD RUN 5.04 4.3351 0.4936 90 GOOD RUN 5.04 2.6652 0.14S 89 GOOD RUN 5.04 3.636 0.4035 90 GOOD RUN 5.04 4.8347 0.497S 91 GOOD RUN 5.04 9.513 0.4339 96 GOOD RUN 5.04 2.7358 0.5217 84 GOOD RUN 5.04 2.8295 0.2171 93 GOOD RUN 4.58 14.5138 0.7697 95 GOOD RUN 4.58 8.6637 0.7046 92 GOOD RUN 4.58 7.4569 0.(722 92 GOOD RUN 4.58 7.1836 0.4793 94 GOOD RUN 4.58 7.5607 0.603 93 GOOD RUN 5.41 6.8837 0.35 95 GOOD RUN 5.41 5.5855 0.294 95 GOOD RUN 5.41 4.3072 0.2865 94 GOOD RUN 4.58 6.0028 0.2812 96 GOOD RUN 4.58 5.6125 0.304 95 GOOD RUN 4.58 2.8368 0.229 93 GOOD RUN 4.58 6.2787 0.3067 95 GOOD RUN 3.81 4.3102 0.3403 93 GOOD RUN 3.81 4.2827 0.3315 93 GOOD RUN 4.58 3.9135 0.5S07 88 GOOD RUN  TABLE 1.3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS  - 63 -  configurations  CI and C3  were used with vortex f i n d e r  as a v a r i a b l e . P a r t i c l e loading rates were below 0.05 solids/kg  length kg  a i r . C o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c i e s were found to vary  between 41 and 96 %. A summary of t h i s test appears  in Figure  Al of the Appendix. Runs B4 and BIO were chosen for comparison i n the study because of p a r t i c l e a n a l y s i s (i.e.  and data logging  program f a i l e d to record data ) in the other  Specifically was greater diameters sample,  scaling  problems runs.  i t was found that the p a r t i c l e catch d i s t r i b u t i o n than the p a r t i c l e feed d i s t r i b u t i o n for  less than 15 microns.  which was taken before  It  is  thought  particle  that the  run B4, was f i n e r  feed  than that  a c t u a l l y fed in subsequent runs. This is a t t r i b u t e d to p r a c t i c e of r e c y c l i n g spent s o l i d s from one run to subsequent run. This was necessary as a l l  the  the  the a v a i l a b l e  had to be fed in each run in order to achieve the  solids  desired  loading l e v e l s . Unfortunately feed samples were not taken for each run as i t was assumed that c o l l e c t i o n  efficiency  c a l c u l a t e d from the catch and loss d i s t r i b u t i o n s that f r e s h , BIO.  could be  alone.  Note  unrecycled feed s o l i d s were used i n runs B4 and  -  1.3.1  64 -  S c a l i n g Considerations Catch p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s for runs B4 and BIO  appear i n Figure 1.17a 1.17c  and Figure 1.17b  shows the c o l l e c t i o n  efficiency  respectively.  Figure  curve for run B4 as  determined from p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s obtained with Elzone p a r t i c l e a n a l y s i s collection  efficiency  instrument( model 286 XY) and the  curve for run BIO as determined by the  Tas Plus Image analyzer ( model LSI -11 reports the  equivalent  ) . The f i r s t  volume sphere diameter,  second leads to an equivalent (37).  the  method  while  the  p r o j e c t e d - a r e a c i r c l e diameter  Figure A5 of the appendix d e t a i l s  the p a r t i c l e  size  information. Note that  i n Figure 1.17c  the masstfof  particles  greater  than 20 um i n diameter have been combined into one channel with mean diameter of 31 um. A s i m i l a r adjustment run BIO c o l l e c t i o n  efficiency  was made to  curve with p a r t i c l e s  the  larger than  15 jam diameter being combined into one channel of 31 jum mean diameter.  This grouping of  the higher end channels  performed because of the e r r a t i c nature of efficiency  curve above 20 microns.  1.17c  the cyclone was 50% e f f i c i e n t  that  the  collection  It can be seen from Figure for p a r t i c l e s  diameter. A s i m i l a r performance is noted i n the P  performance for a 0.61  m/s.  is  m diameter,  standard design cyclone operating with an i n l e t only 3.6  of 10 um  efficiency  curve for run BIO which shows a d 5o of 10 um. This surprisingly efficient  was  velocity  nonof  0.0 05  + +  + + + +  i  + +  cn  + +  +  + +  + + +  ++  +  35  0  p a r t i c l e diameter  Figure 1.17a  t -*-+i.++ 4 +  +  +t+++  ( microns )  Catch p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n for run B4 P a r t i c l e s i z e analysis by Elzone analysis •>i;i (>li i m».  4  ^t »  70  0.1  O  0.05  n O'-'  —i— 35  p a r t i c l e diameter  70  ( microns )  Figure 1.17b Catch p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n for run B I O P a r t i c l e s i z e analysis by image analyzer.  100 • •  90  m  :  0  •  80  • •  . " 43-  70  Via G la  60 50 40 30 20 10 0  0." •  • -  03  4*  O  a » —  10  i  20  30  40  1  i  50  60  P a r t i c l e diameter ( microns ) - RUN B4 Figure 1.17c  •  RUN BIO  C o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y curves for runs B4 and BIO'. Run B4 p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s determined by Elzone p a r t i c l e a n a l y s i s instrument. Run BIO p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n by image a n a l y s i s methods. Conditions as stated i n Table 1.3.  70  - 65 -  There is a minimum i n the c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y 2.5 um diameter i n the run BIO e f f i c i e n c y increase  in efficiency  probable reasons  curve, with a small  for smaller p a r t i c l e s . There are three  for t h i s . The f i r s t  cohesive nature of the s o l i d s ,  is that because of  significant  have adhered to larger p a r t i c l e s these fines  at about  the  amounts of fines may  i n the c a t c h . During  analysis  agglomerated with l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s may have broke  free and been counted as i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s . This would have increased the mass f r a c t i o n of fines The second p o s s i b l e  reported i n the c a t c h .  reason a r i s e s  from the problems of  d i s p e r s i n g the dust i n the feed gas stream. P a r t i c l e s fed to the cyclone came from the s o l i d s  feed hopper and were  maintained i n a bubbling f l u i d i z e d bed. It  is possible  that  smaller p a r t i c l e s s t a r t e d out i n an agglomerated s t a t e ,  the  were  fed into the gas stream i n t h i s s t a t e and f i n a l l y separated as large agglomerates.  It may be necessary  to provide a means of  d i s p e a r s i n g the p a r t i c u l a t e while i n the feed stream i n order that the fines  could be t r u l y d i s p e r s e d .  The t h i r d p o s s i b l e measured fines  reason for the s u r p r i s i n g l y high  collection efficiency  is  that the fines may have  been swept out of the gas stream by other larger p a r t i c l e s . This e f f e c t has been reported by others Mothes and L o f f l e r of  (24)  discuss  improved c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y  (12,  24).  in detail  the phenomenon  for small p a r t i c l e s  separated  i n cyclones with high p a r t i c l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . They s t a t e  that  p a r t i c l e separation mechanisms other than separation i n the vortex must have a major effect  on p a r t i c l e separation and  - 66 -  develop a model to describe t h i s e f f e c t .  Briefly  the  c a l c u l a t i o n of fine p a r t i c l e c o l l e c t i o n due to agglomeration involves three steps:  1. The i n i t i a l  d e p o s i t i o n e f f i c i e n c y of f i n e  on larger p a r t i c l e s s e t t l i n g  particles  towards the wall  is  calculated.  2. The gas volume cleaned by the l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s t r a v e l i n g towards the wall is determined.  3. The decrease  i n f i n e p a r t i c l e concentration caused by  the cleaning e f f e c t s of the l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s  is  estimated.  The model p r e d i c t e d that the separation e f f i c i e n c y of small p a r t i c l e s i n cyclones size,  small p a r t i c l e s i z e ,  is a function of scrubbing p a r t i c l e dust c o n c e n t r a t i o n , flow conditions  and m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s . As an example they considered the case of 15 um diameter p a r t i c l e s scrubbing out p a r t i c l e s s i z e d below 6 um diameter. The r e s u l t s are presented i n Figure 1.4 and show a peak i n the c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y  curves for p a r t i c l e s  between 2 to 3 um diameter. A s i m i l a r e f f e c t 1.17c  sized  is noted i n Figure  and occurs i n the same range of p a r t i c l e diameters. Considering the Chatham cyclone s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n  Figure 1.18(a) the loss d i s t r i b u t i o n was c l e a r l y separated from the catch p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n with l i t t l e o v e r l a p .  -  67  -  Comparison of the two d i s t r i b u t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n a t y p i c a l collection efficiency can  curve with a dpso value of 41 microns as  be seen i n Figure 1.18(b). This is  reference  1,  in the range reported i n  that being 30 to 45 microns.  Performance comparison The  collection efficiency  Chatham cyclone are p l o t t e d  curves for run B4 and the  i n Figure  1.19.  In order to v e r i f y Stokes s c a l i n g , Stairmand, to see  as i n t e r p r e t e d by  the performance of the Chatham cyclone was  shifted  i f the performance would be close to the performance of  the UBC cyclone. That Nt  is:  of s h i f t e d dpso = N s t of Chatham dpso  8  0 n 8 w*ppUBCVlUBC  dps  DuBC  dps  On • «  ~  1  =  dps  2  Pp C H A T H A M V l  DcHATHAM  UVBC  dps  O o l d  0 o 1d * p  P  C H A T H AM V1 C H A T H A M Du B C  J>pUBC Vi U B C D C H A T H AM  Table 1.4  JHQBC  UCHATHAM  states the assumed s c a l i n g c o n d i t i o n s . While the  curves are brought closer is s t i l l  CHATHAM  UCHATHAM  seen.  It  together,  is c l e a r that  a significant  discrepancy  the cold model with Stokes law  s c a l i n g p r e d i c t s too o p t i m i s t i c a l l y the performance of Chatham cyclone.  the  -  68  -  c o  «  w a  S  20  A.  40 60 80 100 120 140 P a r t i c l e diameter (microns) • Catch + loss  160  180  100 •  90 80  >> o e  v  • •  70 60 50  w G 0  V fl  o u  m  10  m %  0  B.  '  20  40  60  80  P a r t i c l e diameter  100  120  1  140  160  180  (microns)  F i g u r e 1.18 a.) P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s from Chatham f l u i d bed heat exchangers sampled A p r i l 17, 1990. b.) C o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y curve d e r i v e d from p a r t i c l e size d i s t r i b u t i o n s . E = ( C l i / ( C l i + Llx))  -  69  -  100  >o z  • •  UJ M  o  SHIFTED CHATHAM DATA*^.'  M  a.  u. LU  2  i '  50?•  O U LU _J _l  o o  tc J UBC. . RUN B4  •  paw—Jlm»H»  10  20  30  40  CHATHAM DATA  50  60-  70  PARTICLE DIAMETER (pm) F i g u r e 1.19 C o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y c u r v e s f o r r u n B4, t h e Chatham c y c l o n e and t h e Chatham c y c l o n e s h i f t e d a c c o r d i n g t o S t o k e s Law s c a l i n g . S c a l i n g c o n d i t i o n s as per T a b l e 1.4.  -  TABLE 1.4.  70 -  CYCLONE OPERATING CONDITIONS Chatham  CYCLONE DIAMETER TEMPERATURE GAS DENSITY GAS VISCOSITY PARTICLE DENSITY AIR FLOW (@STP) INLET VELOCITY STOKES NUMBER REYNOLDS NUMBER LOADING RATIO Note that  5.6 850 0.326 0.000045 2650. 1600 20.4 0.020 830 000 8.8  0.61 21 1.20 0.000018 1540. 11.2 3.66 0.0029 149 000 1.4  the Stokes Number i s d e f i n e d N S T so  and  UBC (Run B4) m «C kg/m kg/m/s kg/m m /min. m/s 3  3  3  kg/kg  as:  = d p 5 0 p p V i / ( 1 8 u D) ,  the Flow Reynolds number i s d e f i n e d  as:  Nae = p « V i D / / i  In F i g u r e 1.20  experimental d a t a are p l o t t e d a g a i n s t  p a r t i c l e s i z e dependent Abrahamson and A l l e n large,  dimensionless  (21)  h i g h temperature c y c l o n e s  proposed by  5  d a t a from  to those o p e r a t i n g at room discussed  in  section  Data from the Chatham c y c l o n e appears to c l o s e l y  the t r e n d shown i n F i g u r e 1.2b w i t h the dpso close  S°•  to c o r r e l a t e e f f i c i e n c y  temperature. T h i s approach was f i r s t 1.1.4.  number  the  value  follow  falling  to 1. However d a t a from Run B4 are l e s s comparable,  i n d i c a t i n g a much g r e a t e r  collection efficiency  than would be  expected* The Parker et  a l . . . study compared small  o p e r a t i n g at extreme  temperatures  data c o u l d be p l o t t e d a g a i n s t  cyclones  and found that  (NRB)(NST)°• . 5  the  efficiency  A p l o t of  the UBC  -  71 -  100 80  a \  >• u  z  /  LU  • «  M  U M  a•  20  lilt. UJ  0  1H -  1I  1I  1.0  0  S O  2.0 .5  A.  100  M g W " »  HUH*  80 >-  a  60  O  z  LU M  •  40  o UL  20  LU LU  0  II  a  a *  1  1.0  So.s  B Figure  **  1.20  2.0  UBC and Chatham data p l o t t e d a c c o r d i n g t o Abrahamson and A l l e n c o r r e l a t i o n s . a . ) UBC data ( r u n B4 c o n d i t i o n s ) . b. ) Chatham d a t a . See T a b l e 1.4 f o r o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s  -  72a -  and Chatham data on the same graph appears the UBC and Chatham data f a l l al.  d a t a . T h i s was a l s o  cyclones  i n F i g u r e 1.21.  Both  above the small cyclone Parker  found to be the case f o r other  compared i n t h e i r s t u d y . The authors suggest  c y c l o n e diameter must p l a y an important r o l e  et  larger that  (11).  The major d i s c r e p a n c y between the UBC and Chatham collection efficiency  curves,  and the f a c t  that  the  model's  performance was much s u p e r i o r to other c o l d models compared i n the Abrahamson study leads data.  It  is  suspected  one to suspect the  t h a t , i n the UBC t e s t s ,  separated i n an agglomerated form, rather  than independent  entities.  experimental particles  s e p a r a t i n g as  l a r g e masses  Sample p r e p a r a t i o n , which  r e q u i r e d s o n i c a t i n g the sample i n a l i q u i d media, may w e l l resulted  in disassociation  individually. evident  of p a r t i c l e s which were then counted  Indeed a c e r t a i n degree of agglomeration  i n the photographs of  the t e s t  A means of d e t e r m i n i n g the l e v e l  of agglomeration w i t h i n  agglomeration may have been i n f l u e n c e d by two Electrostatic forces,  factors.  induced by the motion of  i n the p o l y a c r y l i c c y c l o n e , may have  particles  to agglomerate.  the caused  Repeating the experiments  c y c l o n e or with the a d d i t i o n of an  compound may reduce these 2.  Particle  particles  Steel  is  dust.  the c y c l o n e would be needed to c o n f i r m t h i s .  1.  have  in a  anti-static  effects.  Poor d i s p e r s i o n of p a r t i c l e s being fed to the c y c l o n e may have r e s u l t e d  i n the p a r t i c l e s  agglomerated s t a t e .  e n t e r i n g the c y c l o n e  Changing the experimental  i n an  apparatus  to  b '  1  ""'I  i ) i 11111  i  ~i—i  i i 11111  1—i i i  M 11 j  1 — i i i mi)  CHATHAM oo  UBC^  •  6  • • 3  A  °o°(b  O  AAT. OATA  A  EXXON D A T A  KMOWLTOM DATA  ci i—i 2  2 10  i i iml  S 4 •  1  i—i i i i m l  2 2  to  3  4 «  t  i  2  4  10  5  i i i im l  4  *  1  i 2 «  D  i i i i iiii 3  4  7  i *  4  10  1  2  i i i 11nl J  4  6  '  (N j ( N j " DMENSJONLESS  Figure  1.21  T  10  UBC Run B 4 a n d Chatham d a t a c o m p a r e d w i t h P a r k e r e t a l . data. Conditions as stated i n Table 1.4  -  73 -  i n c l u d e a s e c t i o n where p a r t i c l e s are smashed a g a i n s t a baffle  or d i s a s s o c i a t e d by s o n i c a c t i o n may r e s o l v e  problem.  this  -  1.3.2  Loading  74  -  effect  Runs B9 and B12 through B20 were performed f o r particle 1.22  l o a d i n g study and the r e s u l t s  and the data i s presented  in c o l l e c t i o n  efficiency  are p l o t t e d  i n Tabel  1.5.  the in Figure  A clear  increase  i s noted as p a r t i c l e l o a d i n g  is  increased. Table 1.5  P a r t i c l e Loading Data run #  loading  collection effficiency  MASS SOLIDS MASS AIR B12 B13 B14 B15 B16 B17 B18 B19 B20 B9  0.235 0.124 0.134 0.147 0.437 0.376 1.303 0.049 0.658 7.49  These r e u l t s works (18)  are c o n s i s t a n t  i n two ways i n that  l o a d i n g to l e v e l s g r e a t e r  not s u c c e s s f u l The  due to s o l i d s  loading effect  particle-particle allow the s o l i d s rather  is  efficiency  r e p o r t e d i n other increases  with  found. Attempts to  than 7.5 feeding  kg s o l i d s /  increase  kg a i r were  limitations.  commonly a t t r i b u t e d to the a c t i o n of  collisions  and agglomeration mechanisms which  to s e t t l e out  than i n d i v i d u a l  91 87 90 89 90 91 96 84 93 98  w i t h that  l o a d i n g and no l i m i t or maximum i s the  %  in large c l u s t e r s  particles  and s t r a n d s  ( 2 3 , 2 4 ) . C o n f i r m a t i o n of  this  100  98 96 94 92 90|  88 86 84 0.01  0.1 Loading r a t i o Figure  (kg s o l i d s /  1.0 kg a i r  10  )  1.22 L o a d i n g e f f e c t o n c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y ( UBC d a t a ) . V i = 5.0 rn/s, T = 21 ° C , P = 1 atm  - 76 -  theory i s not p o s s i b l e be p o s s i b l e  to v e r i f y t h i s  agglomeration inlet  from t h i s  levels  if  experimental  work, but i t may  a method of measuring  i n the s e p a r a t i o n zone as a f u n c t i o n of  l o a d i n g can be found. Unfortunately  loadings  i t was not p o s s i b l e  ( 1 gr/ft ,  2.3  3  g/m  3  to achieve  ) r e p o r t e d i n the API study  F i g u r e 1.3)  because of problems with the  cone v a l v e .  An improved experiment  feeding  solids  on the  1 to 10 g r / f t  s m a l l e r cone v a l v e ,  one tenth  v a l v e would l i k e l y  suffice.  the very low  large s o l i d s  (see  feeding  would i n c l u d e a means of 3  (2.3  the s i z e of  to 23 g/m ) 3  the 0.25  range. A  m diameter  -  1.3.3  Inlet Modifications Table 1.6  summarizes the experiments devoted to  modifications. for  77 -  In order to compare the c o l l e c t i o n  the d i f f e r e n t  inlet  efficiencies  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s the e f f i c i e n c i e s  here have been m o d i f i e d to account f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n procedure was as  All  inlet  l o a d i n g e f f e c t s . The  follows:  runs are compared on a b a s i s of  i n run B24 i . e .  listed  the  l o a d i n g found  0.232 (mass s o l i d s / mass a i r ) . T h i s  run was chosen because  its  l o a d i n g value f e l l  i n the  middle of a l l the other l o a d i n g s encountered i n the inlet modification tests.  A best f i t  l i n e was drawn through the l o a d i n g d a t a  found i n s e c t i o n established  1.3.2  and the equation of  as:  E( L ) = ( 0 . 0 3 0 1 ) l n ( L )  + 0.9097  where E( L ) = c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y L  at  = Loading (mass s o l i d s / m a s s  Taking the d e r i v a t i v e one o b t a i n s : dE( L ) dL  =  0.0301 L  loading L air)  this  line  -  78  Corrected e f f i c i e n c y according Eoorr .  =  -  values  (E orr.) C  were o b t a i n e d by  to: Egiper.  + 0.0301(Lexper .  -  LB 24 ) / L e x p e r .  where Eexper.  = efficiency  Lesper.  = loading in test  During the run the were a l t e r e d ,  inlet  determined at other  geometry and vortex f i n d e r  resulting in different  p a r t i c l e paths w i t h i n the c y c l o n e . order of  increasing inlet  differing  from the r e s t  212 mm i n t h i s Inlet briefly  velocity,  i n that  situation.  inlet  velocities  length  and  The runs have been p l a c e d i n with the f i n a l  three runs  the v o r t e x f i n d e r was  The d a t a i s p l o t t e d  geometry d e t a i l s  loading  elongated  in Figure  are shown i n F i g u r e 1.10  1.25.  and  d e s c r i b e d below.  C o n f i g u r a t i o n C I . The base case s i t u a t i o n w i t h no i n l e t or  v o r t e x f i n d e r changes  See F i g u r e 1.9  C o n f i g u r a t i o n C2. The i n l e t  inserts  have been made.  for dimensions.  f l o o r has been r a i s e d 50 mm above  the o r i g i n a l  f l o o r and the c e i l i n g  lowered  30 mm f o r a short s e c t i o n near the r e a c t o r . The  r e a r w a l l has been s t r a i g h t e n e d out  r e d u c i n g the 150mm.  i n l e t width to 110 mm from  -  7 9  -  C o n f i g u r a t i o n C3. As per c o n f i g u r a t i o n C2 but with the width enlarged  to 135 mm.  C o n f i g u r a t i o n C4. As per c o n f i g u r a t i o n C3 but with the finder  inlet  lowered 212 mm.  vortex  -  TABLE 1.6  Inlet Modification  80 -  Tests  RUN  CONFIGURATION  B26  cl cl cl cl cl  96 96 94 94 97  c3 c3 c3  94 93 92  B21 B22 B23  c2 c2  94 92 93  B29 B30 B31 B32  c3 -c3 c3 c3  B27 B28 B33 B34 B24 B25 B35  \  COLLECTION EFFICIENCY  c2  It would be expected i n c r e a s e as the entrance  & & & &  low low low low  vortex vortex vortex vortex  finder finder finder finder  94 94 96 96  that c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y would inlet  area was d e c r e a s e d ,  that  is  as  the c o n f i g u r a t i o n was changed from C l to C3 to C2. However, this  was not evident  lowest  inlet  i n the d a t a and the base case with  v e l o c i t y performed b e t t e r  than e i t h e r C2 or C 3 .  C o n f i g u r a t i o n C3 coupled with a lower vortex f i n d e r better  collection efficiency  significantly different For  offered  than C2 or C 3 , alone but s t i l l  not  than the base c a s e .  the same geometric c o n f i g u r a t i o n i t was not  to reproduce the same c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y F i g u r e 1.25.  the  as i s  possible  seen i n  Only i n runs B26, B27, B28 and B33, f o r  c o n f i g u r a t i o n C l , were s i m i l a r c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c i e s This v a r i a t i o n is  a t t r i b u t e d to d i f f e r e n c e s  noted.  i n the experimental  Collection  Efficiency  (Q  c  -<  OJ o a o o H. o  -h 3 CL -h TI  3  (D 0) r+ -( -1 (t> 0 3 to ft o CO 3  ^  3  <t>  O -h  W ft  0  H.  O O  o o  H-  a 3 a>  CO -h O H« ft  0 C 0 0) -<  CL B> H- ft 3 H. (Q O -h 3 H  o wo o  -1 (P -1 </> 3 (6  < I > O o (D H' ft <p  o  0 W  o  z  ft c » H~ w  o 0  0  0  z  -o  0) H W  a 0)  cr -h O  W H-  V r-  ( % )  - 82 -  c o n d i t i o n s between these r u n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y the  the v a r i a t i o n s  in  loading r a t e . While i t  seems c l e a r that  than 90% f o r a l l r u n s , collected  to d a t e ,  it  collection efficiency  i s not p o s s i b l e ,  is  greater  based on the data  to d e c l a r e a "winner" among those  These p u z z l i n g r e s u l t s  suggest that  approach i s n e c e s s a r y .  An improved experimental program would  result  in a steadier  feeder  as i t was d i f f i c u l t  present  solids  feed r a t e ,  a different  tried.  perhaps by way of a mechanical  to repeat  l o a d i n g l e v e l s with  v a l v e f e e d i n g arrangement. As w e l l ,  system l e s s prone to agglomeration would allow curves,  which span a f u l l  determined. Examination of offer  better  experimental  answers.  range of e f f i c i e n c i e s ,  a  the  solids  efficiency to be  these improved e f f i c i e n c y  curves may  -  1.3.4  83 -  Flow v i s u a l i z a t i o n Separate runs of the cyclone apparatus were performed f o r  the purpose of flow v i s u a l i z a t i o n . C o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y  was  not e v a l u a t e d d u r i n g these r u n s . These runs were performed at low l o a d i n g i n order that  flows  i n the i n t e r i o r c o u l d be  observed.  During the t r i a l s the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s were made f o r all  geometries:  R e c i r c u l a t i o n zone below r o o f : seen that a d i s t i n c t  It  annular r e g i o n e x i s t s ,  c o n c e n t r i c with the c y c l o n e i t s e l f s i t u a t e d above the roof and below the roof Suspended s o l i d s fall  from i t  of  of the  either  the  but  entrance  cyclone.  enter  this  zone or  to the s e p a r a t i o n r e g i o n  below. Any s o l i d s this  c o u l d be  that  found t h e i r way i n t o  zone are e v e n t u a l l y r e e n t r a i n e d i n the  incoming flow,  but spend c o n s i d e r a b l e  time  i n the r e g i o n .  Reentrainment  i n t o incoming flow:  Solids  that manage to reach the outer w a l l must drop below the bottom of  the entrance  if  they are not to be r e e n t r a i n e d a g a i n by the incoming flow.  The Stokes number s c a l i n g  - 84 -  approach i s u n l i k e l y to apply to p a r t i c l e p a r t i c l e and p a r t i c l e - w a l l Their effect  interactions.  may cause performance to be  somewhat u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of performance i n the f u l l that  scale  cyclone.  It  can be argued  those p a r t i c l e s whose m i s f o r t u n e  it  was to r e e n t r a i n e d must then be s e p a r a t e d once again with p a r t i c l e s flow,  i n the incoming  and thus may be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of  matters at Chatham.  For the base c a s e , where no i n l e t  i n s e r t s were used, a  r e c i r c u l a t i o n zone c o u l d be seen p o s i t i o n e d i n the entrance way near the top of  the model combustor. T h i s r e c i r c u l a t i o n was not  evident w i t h the i n s e r t s There was no great  i n p l a c e as i n C o n f i g u r a t i o n C2 or C3.  v i s i b l e difference  i n the p a r t i c l e paths  the e x i s t i n g and m o d i f i e d vortex f i n d e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n . may be due to the d i f f i c u l t y i n s e e i n g  flow p a t t e r n s  This  i n the  d i l u t e r e g i o n c l o s e to the vortex f i n d e r . More advanced techniques techniques)  for flow v i s u a l i z a t i o n  (e.g..  l a s e r Doppler  would be r e q u i r e d to study t h i s  video tape sent to Energy, M i n e s , observations discussed  above.  i n d e t a i l . The  and Resources shows the .  for  -  1.4  85 -  C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations. The main f e a t u r e s 1.  A  of p a r t I of  this  study are as  o n e - n i n t h s c a l e p o l y a c r y l i c model of  standard d e s i g n  follows:  the non-  i n d u s t r i a l cyclone operated at  the  MWe CFBC f a c i l i t y at Chatham, New Brunswick has  22  been  c o n s t r u c t e d and operated at room temperature. P a r t i c l e c o l l e c t i o n performance has been t e s t e d under various s o l i d s 2.  A solids  loadings and i n l e t  r e c y c l e system,  capture f i n e s  geometries.  u t i l i z i n g a multiclone  to  and a r e c y c l e system to p r o v i d e  continuous o p e r a t i o n was b u i l t , but d i d not work well because  of s o l i d s  nature of results 3.  air),  the f i n e  solids.  As a r e s u l t ,  presented are f o r a batch  At i n l e t solids  capture problems and the  velocities  for FCC s o l i d s  and 7.5  and 5.5  (kg  m/s,  solids/kg  from the Chatham u n i t ,  22 jim,  remained above 90%.  There was d i s a p p o i n t i n g agreement  Number s c a l i n g ,  the  having a mean diameter of  cyclone c o l l e c t i o n e f f i c i e n c i e s 4.  a l l of  system.  v a r i e d between 3.7  loadings between 0.05  cohesive  between the  s c a l e d a c c o r d i n g to  results  Stokes  and the f i n d i n g s o b t a i n e d from  the  c o l d model u n i t . 5.  The grade e f f i c i e n c y efficiency  curve showed a minimum  for fine p a r t i c l e s ,  diameter. This  is  2.5  to 3.0  um i n  l i k e l y due to agglomeration  as a mass balance performed on a per channel  effects (i.e.  -86-  size  interval)  b a s i s d i d not c l o s e for  particles  s m a l l e r than 15 um d i a m e t e r . 6.  Increasing p a r t i c l e collection  7.  Inconclusive  l o a d i n g led to an i n c r e a s e  in  efficiency. results  were found when the  inlet  c o n f i g u r a t i o n was changed while u s i n g 22 um mean p a r t i c l e diameter FCC s o l i d s . 8.  Flow v i s u a l i z a t i o n t r i a l s were performed with p o l y a c r y l i c cyclone.  Reentrainment  flow of captured s o l i d s observed. A videotape  i n t o the  the  incoming  s k i p p i n g along the w a l l was  of  these o b s e r v a t i o n  was  prepared and sent to Energy, Mines and Resources  in  Ottawa.  It  is  criteria,  recommended t h a t , the experiments  i n order to v e r i f y the  be repeated with a d i f f e r e n t  system l e s s prone to a g g l o m e r a t i o n . efficiency loadings material.  scale-up  Successful  collection  s t u d i e s have been performed u s i n g f l y a s h at  (11,  12)  s u g g e s t i n g that  solids  f l y a s h might be a  lower  suitable  -  87  PART  II  -  HOT CYCLONE TESTS  -  2.1  88 -  INTRODUCTION C i r c u l a t i n g F l u i d i z e d Bed Combustors (CFBC)  inertial  separation devices  to separate  from e n t r a i n e d s o l i d p a r t i c l e s  r e l y on  combustion gases  and to r e t u r n those s o l i d s  to  the r e a c t o r . Cyclones are u s u a l l y chosen to perform t h i s h i g h temperature, h i g h l o a d i n g and sometimes h i g h p r e s s u r e s e p a r a t i o n because  they o f f e r  collection efficiency  reasonably good p a r t i c l e  and are easy to d e s i g n ,  m a i n t a i n . When used i n such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i n e v i t a b l y occurs w i t h i n the In order to b e t t e r w i t h i n the c y c l o n e ,  operate and  some combustion  cyclone.  understand the combustion  radial  combustion gas  processes,  concentration  p r o f i l e s were measured w i t h i n a secondary cyclone s e r v i n g a pilot  s c a l e CFBC system operated at the U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia. The p r o f i l e s all  in this  t h e s i s were  o b t a i n e d with H i g h v a l e c o a l , a low sulphur c o a l  A l b e r t a as a f u e l . see  presented  See F i g u r e A 6 of  For d e t a i l s  the appendix.  review of gas and s o l i d s  flows  f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n of p r e s e n t a t i o n of profiles.  of p r o p e r t i e s of In t h i s  is  a brief given,  the apparatus and a  the measured combustion gas  The p r o f i l e s  the c o a l  section  w i t h i n a cyclone  from  are then d i s c u s s e d  combustion  and c o n c l u s i o n s  presented.  2 . 2 Theory Combustion processes o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n cyclones dependent  on the nature of  the s o l i d s ,  are  the composition of  -  the gas as well system.  and  as the o p e r a t i o n mode of  Gas and s o l i d s  functions  of s e v e r a l  geometry,  gas  flow p a t t e r n s  variables  flow  rates,  used i n a CFBC system, unreacted f u e l  particles,  sorbent m a t e r i a l  (if  gas  composition depends  the gas  l o a d i n g . When  ( E g . sand and ash)  is used).  type,  The combustion  combustor  it  is  first  necessary  flow p a t t e r n s  to present  gas to  briefly  within a  the o v e r a l l  reverse  combustion  which c h a r a c t e r i z e CFBC systems.  and s o l i d s  intimately  related.  flow p a t t e r n s Solids  w i t h i n a cyclone  flow p a t t e r n s  a c o l d model by the author (see  documented by s e v e r a l tangential,  and a x i a l components  of  of v a r i o u s  sizes.  observed  25).  The r a d i a l , velocity  P r e d i c t i o n s of  p o s i t i o n of  vary  low  appear i n F i g u r e 2.1  show the p r e d i c t e d a x i a l and r a d i a l  particles  are  1 . 3 . 4 ) and  the s o l i d s  l o a d i n g (15).  l o a d i n g p a r t i c l e mean t r a j e c t o r i e s  have been  section  other workers (2,  with p o s i t i o n and s o l i d s  and  dimensions  are a combination of  a sorbent on f u e l  are  patterns Gas  in  and p a r t i c l e  inert solids  and s o l i d s  r e t u r n cyclone and  Flow  w i t h i n cyclones  In order to understand the  concentration p r o f i l e s ,  equations  combustion  mode of o p e r a t i o n , o p e r a t i n g temperature and  other parameters.  describe  the  i n c l u d i n g cyclone  the s o l i d s  and  configuration,  89 -  (25)  -  F i g u r e 2.1  90 -  P r e d i c t e d p a r t i c l e t r a j e c t o r i e s i n a v e r t i c a l plane w i t h i n a Stairmand type c y c l o n e . Low l o a d i n g conditions. (25) a . Mean p a r t i c l e t r a j e c t o r i e s for p a r t i c l e s of diameter 1 to 10 m i c r o n s . b. Mean p a r t i c l e t r a j e c t o r i e s , 3 m i c r o n . c . Random p a r t i c l e t r a j e c t o r y of 2 microns p a r t i c l e i n t u r b u l e n t flow.  -  In F i g u r e 2.2  91 -  the a x i a l gas v e l o c i t y  is  seen to be a  f u n c t i o n of r a d i u s , with downward motion o c c u r r i n g i n the outer r e g i o n s ,  while w i t h i n the core the flow r e v e r s e s and  t r a v e l s up with i n c r e a s e d v e l o c i t y finder.  The t a n g e n t i a l  towards the  vortex  v e l o c i t y has been found to  increase  with d e c r e a s i n g r a d i u s , r e a c h i n g a maximum i n the c e n t r a l core r e g i o n below the vortex f i n d e r .  Increased p a r t i c u l a t e  l o a d i n g has been found to reduce the t a n g e n t i a l gas v e l o c i t y axial  (24).  velocity  Particle  F i g u r e 2.3  vector  shows the combined r a d i a l  trajectories  depends on gas l o a d i n g (15).  and p a r t i c l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , As s o l i d s  loading increases,  become more f r e q u e n t ,  have reached the w a l l  and on  solids  particle-particle  Once the  and  particles  they may be r e - e n t r a i n e d should some  d i s t u r b a n c e o c c u r , f o r c i n g the s o l i d s D i s t u r b a n c e s such as  i n t e r i o r wall surface  patterns  forming l a r g e r c l u s t e r s  strands which a s s i s t p a r t i c l e c o l l e c t i o n .  flow.  and  field.  P a r t i c l e motion w i t h i n these complex flow  collisions  component of  back i n t o the  gas  l a r g e bouncing p a r t i c l e s ,  imperfections  and i n t e r f e r e n c e  of  the  gas vortex with the cyclone w a l l have been d i s c u s s e d by v a r i o u s authors  ( 2 , 2 4 ) . At the w a l l a dense l a y e r of  forms, with p a r t i c l e s body,  eventually  concentrating into a d i s t i n c t i v e  s t r a n d which "snakes" base.  t r a v e l l i n g around and down the  its  way down to the s o l i d s  solids cyclone  dense e x i t at  the  - 92 -  F i g u r e 2.2  P r e d i c t e d r a d i a l and a x i a l gas flow p a t t e r n s i n a Stairmand type c y c l o n e . Low l o a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s (25).  -  93 -  ::;iwi  ii tnitti j« .iMiitti . I j l i l t t i  ,ninth ittttittt 111  11111  111  Itltl  ii  jtllti.,  ttti  F i g u r e 2.3  P r e d i c t e d combined a x i a l and r a d i a l v e l o c i t y ' v e c t o r diagram i n a Stairmand type c y c l o n e . Low l o a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s ( 2 5 )  -  Summary of combustion While i t  equations.  i s not w i t h i n the scope or i n t e n t  t h e s i s to d i s c u s s coal  primary r e a c t i o n s  of  this  heterogeneous combustion mechanisms  combustion w i t h i n a C F B C , affecting  it  is useful  SO2 , and N O ,  CH*,  for  to d e s c r i b e  the gases measured w i t h i n  The gases C02 , C O ,  cyclone.  94 -  the  the  are a l l  formed d u r i n g c o a l combustion. CO2 i s p r i m a r i l y formed by the two r e a c t i o n s ( 2 6 ) : + Oj -> CO2  C* CO  CO can be formed as  +  1/2  + CO2 ->  CO2  CH4  2  .  2CO  ->  CO +  1/2  O2  the burning c h a r .  can be formed from: C*  +  or r e l e a s e d as v o l a t i l e s SO2  C0  + HiO -> C O + H2  C  represents  ->  2  follows: C*  C*  0  2 H  are  CHJ ,  ->  2  evolved.  can be c o n s i d e r e d to form v i a : S + O2 -> SO2 .  while N O  S  is  formed by r e a c t i o n s 1/2  At temperatures of nitrogen,  N2 + x / 2  interest  of  O2 ->  the NO,  .  in FBC processes,  r a t h e r than n i t r o g e n present  predominantly r e s p o n s i b l e  type  for NO*  it  is  fuel  i n the a i r , which  formation  (38).  is  -  95 -  Because most combustion w i t h i n the CFBC system before  the secondary c y c l o n e ,  originates  before  occurs  much of each gas measured  the c y c l o n e . A l e s s e r amount i s  w i t h i n the c y c l o n e c o n t r i b u t i n g to the measured  formed  values.  2.3 Apparatus and Data A c q u i s i t i o n The apparatus used i n t h i s the p i l o t  high temperature study  s c a l e f l u i d i z e d bed combustor at  is  the U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia i n i t s m o d i f i e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n ( 3 0 ) . A schematic  is  shown i n F i g u r e 2 . 4 .  In b r i e f ,  the  set-up  i n c l u d e s a r e f r a c t o r y l i n e d r e a c t o r (152mm square i n -crosss e c t i o n by 7.3m t a l l ) , p r o v i s i o n for s o l i d s  r e c i r c u l a t i o n v i a an L - v a l v e and jet  educator r e s p e c t i v e l y , sorbent, is well  a primary and secondary c y c l o n e with  hoppers for f e e d i n g  the f u e l and  and primary and secondary a i r i n j e c t i o n . The system i n s t r u m e n t e d . Comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n s  found elsewhere (27,  29).  can be  The secondary cyclone was  chosen  over the primary c y c l o n e f o r these experiments because the probe p l u g g i n g problems a s s o c i a t e d regions  of h i g h s o l i d s  density  The i n s u l a t e d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l after  (e.g..  with gas  sampling i n  at the c y c l o n e  secondary cyclone  the primary c y c l o n e and thus r e c e i v e s  of  is  wall).  situated  the r e a c t o r  flue  gases and p a r t i c l e s not captured i n the primary c y c l o n e . A s c a l e drawing of 2.5.  T h i s 0.2  the secondary c y c l o n e appears i n F i g u r e  m i . d . cyclone was m o d i f i e d to allow  i n s e r t i o n of a gas several  levels.  sampling probe through the w a l l  The probe i t s e l f  was connected  the at  via cooling  - 96 secondary air water  liquid  natural  primary  fuel  Q  gas  air  Simplified schematic diagram of circulating fluidized bed combustion facility 1. Reactor; 2. Windox; 3. Primary cyclone; 4. Secondary cyclone; 5. Recycle hopper; 6. Standpipe; 7. Eductor; 8. Secondary air preheater; 9. Flue gas coolers; 10. Baghouse; 11. Induced draught fan; 12. Fuel hopper; 13. Sorbent hopper; 14. Rotary values; 15. Secondary air ports; 16. Membrane wall; 17. Pneumatic feed line; 18. External burner; 19. Ventilation; 20. Calorimetric section  FIGURE 2.^ CFBC Schematic ( 2 7 )  -  97  -  PORTS LDCATED BELLTW THIS POSITION (PDRTS SHOWN 90° C V IN ELEVATION BELOW)  EXIT INLET V I D T H = 50 MM  650  SDLIDS FIGURE 2.5  EXIT"H S c a l e drawing of secondary c y c l o n e of UBC CFBC system.  -  98 -  and f i l t r a t i o n stages to a gas sampling t r a i n . shows a schematic of  Figure  2.6  this apparatus.  The gas sampling t r a i n leads  to f i v e  analyzers for  the  measurement of C O 2 , CO, C H 4 , S O 2 , N 0 , and O2 g a s e s . A b r i e f X  summary of key f e a t u r e s Table 2 . 1 .  of  these instruments i s presented  A more d e t a i l e d review i s  TABLE 2 . 1 :  found i n r e f e r e n c e  in  34.  DESCRIPTION OF ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS  GAS  MAKE/ MODEL  RANGE OPERATION (ACCURACY) PRINCIPAL (% f u l l s c a l e )  RESPONSE t ime  02  HORIBA PMA 200 OXYGEN ANALYZER  0 - 25 % ( 1% )  PARAMAGNETIC TYPE  20s  C02  FUJI  732  0 - 20 % ( 1 % )  NDIR  5 s  CO  FUJI  732  0 - 1000 PPM NDIR ( 1 % )  5 s  CH4  FUJI  730  0-0.5 % ( 1 % )  NDIR  5 s  S02  HORIBA PIR 2000  0-1000 PPM ( 1 % )  NDIR  5 s  NOX  MONITOR LABS INC. MODEL 8840  0-500 PPM ( 1 % )  CHEMILUMINESCENCE  3 min  Each of these instruments was c a l i b r a t e d u s i n g standard gases p r i o r  to each r u n .  The procedure f o l l o w e d to o b t a i n d a t a was as  follows:  STAINLESS STEEL PROBE: 6HM DIA.  HEAT EXCHANGER SECONDARY CYCLDNE Nn  SD  2.  PUMF  CH-  CO  /  4  °  r  2  i  GAS ANALYSIS METERS  FIGURE 2.6 Gas sampling system s e r v i n g UBC CFBC system.  FRDM DTHER SAMPLING PLTINTS  -100 -  1.  With the p i l o t  plant operating  as  n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e  under steady  conditions  a n a l y z e r s prepared  and gas  state  a c c o r d i n g to manufacturers' instructions,  c a l i b r a t e d , the  probe was i n s e r t e d p o s i t i o n and gas  2.  to the d e s i r e d  lines  3.  the  gas  were assumed to be  purged and the gas a n a l y z e r s steady s t a t e  radial  sampling commenced.  a p e r i o d of 4 minutes  After  transport  sample  reading  values.  Gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n values  were  recorded.  4.  A f l u e gas  [02] measurement  o b t a i n e d from a separate  gas  was  meter  o p e r a t i n g on a separate  sampling  connected downstream of  the c y c l o n e . The  sampled gas cooled.  line  stream was f i l t e r e d and  -  5.  101  -  The sample probe and f i l t e r  purged with compressed a i r , to the next r a d i a l  position.  order was f o l l o w e d  i n probe  in  2.4 R e s u l t s The  order to a v o i d s y s t e m a t i c  CFBC o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s  f o r each of  The  A random positioning variations.  under which the  were o b t a i n e d are o u t l i n e d  the f i v e  T a b l e 2.2 RUN #  then moved  and D i s c u s s i o n  concentration p r o f i l e s 2.2  were  AIR RATIO 2nd/prim.  conditions RUN SUPERFICIAL VELOCITY IN RISER (M/S)  17  870  1  6  18  870  1  6  5  886  2  6  6  870  2  6  10  870  0.5  7  secondary a i r p o r t s ,  between 50 to 100 % of  in Table  runs where data were o b t a i n e d .  UBC CFBC o p e r a t i n g  RUN TEMPERATURE ( C )  gas  as shown i n F i g u r e 2 . 4 ,  supplied  the primary flow and were l o c a t e d  m above the primary a i r d i s t r i b u t o r . The r i s e r v e l o c i t y  0.9 is  -  the s u p e r f i c i a l v e l o c i t y  102  -  i n the upper part of  the column  above the secondary a i r p o r t s . The gas  concentration p r o f i l e s  and 10 appear i n F i g u r e s 2 . 7 , respectively.  For each gas  i s p l o t t e d against refers  2.8,  f o r runs 17, 2.9,  2.10,  and  the measurements sample gas  gas  taken r i g h t  flow was p o s s i b l e  10 minutes at most before blockage o c c u r r e d , purging. This  r e g i o n of s o l i d s  affected  e x i s t s at  i n the v i c i n i t y of  by e x c e s s i v e s o l i d s  p o r t i o n s of  the sampling system  values w h i l e ,  effect  the w a l l  than i n the to o b t a i n  the w a l l the values may be  itself.  Char caught  i n the  thereby i n c r e a s i n g the CO and  reducing the measured O2 v a l u e s . however,  and p a r t i c u l a t e were q u i c k l y c o o l e d a f t e r  reactive.  necessitating  was p o s s i b l e  i s assumed to be n e g l i g i b l e ,  cooling section  for  i n the probe and f i l t e r  probe c o u l d continue to b u r n , C02  at  i s understandable s i n c e a  i n t e r i o r of the c y c l o n e . While i t measurements  to  flow to allow easy  the w a l l . For these measurements  denser  2.11,  level.  i t was p o s s i b l e  with the exception of readings  probe and f i l t e r  6,  the non-dimensional r a d i u s r / R , where R  maintain s u f f i c i e n t measurement,  5,  the a c t u a l measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n  to the c y l i n d e r or core r a d i u s at that For a l l of  18,  This  as the gases  e x t r a c t i o n i n the  of the probe and thus were much l e s s  Typically  the s o l i d s  caught by the  secondary  cyclone had a mean diameter between 40 to 58 pm  (29).  Trends f o r the v a r i o u s components measured were as  follows:  103  -  ( CO  r/R  vs  CCCLI  e  e  °  r/R  1 vs  180  25 20  -  $  a? ^  15 }  -2"  10 <  O  904  CM  o  o  O  O  -  o C  o  5+  0.5  0.5  0  r/R  r/R [  [  Oj  NOx  1 vs  ] vs  f S0  r/R  [  r/R  CH*  2  ] vs  FIGURE E.7 Gas Concentration Profiles for run 17. port  #  4  r/R  ] vs  r/R  - 104 f  CO  J vs  [  r/R  COj  1 vs  r/R  uo  [ SOs  1 vs  S a a 0.5f  ~  O 00  250 a*  05f  200  a a a  150 4-  O*  100  55  50f  33 U  —  0  FIGURE 3.8 Gas Concentration P r o f i l e s for run 18.  port # 4  r/R  tA  Qi  u  -ia  o  •dd  |  'QM  o  8  |  Pi  •dd  I  I  'OM  "'III  |  "OH  |  Pi  -  t.  o  in  d  o *  (  'ID  I  X I  I  MO  •dd J l  add | to J  %I  0  \  •dd |  in  |  !  MI3  add (  IQ  |  •dd f IQ |  ei  tA o ft.  -_*_fO •dd (  •dd  «OD  (  I  OD 1  O M  •dd I IQ3 J  •dd (  03  1  •dd  J  03  |  add (  0 3  -i  O add I IQD J  | •dd  |  03  |  O  o  -  [CO  1 vs  106  [ CO*  r/R  ] vs  r/R  203?  15 10  u  5  O 5 r/R [  SOt  }  vs  200  o o  w  10D  t  o  50 + 0.5 r/R  [ CHU  Figure S.10  ] vs  r/R  Gas Concentration P r o f i l e s f o r run 6.  port # 5  r/R  [  GO  ] vs  *"  r/R  1 0  I  1  COr  vs  r/R  20  "  T  o o  S a a —  o  30 O  o u  05 .  1  r Qt  [ vs  r/R  SOz  r/R  1  v?  200  -* 7' ~  6  «  5  B  o  o o  a a  o  —  100}  o  -  «4  o  2i-  1  0  0.5  r/R  r/R [  CH4  o  o  1  vs  r/R  o o  i  o  5  2+  —'  1  to  9  as  ,  0  5  1 r/R  Figure 2 . 1 1 Gas Concentration P r o f i l e s f o r run 1 0 . port  #  4  r/R  -  108  -  NO, : No r a d i a l traverses  t r e n d f o r NOx  performed i n the f i v e  i s apparent from the  experiments.  Values i n the  200 to 225 ppm range were t y p i c a l , with the e x c e p t i o n of t r a v e r s e performed at port # 8 near the bottom of cyclone.  The d i s c r e p a n c y at  difficulties  this  level  i n m a i n t a i n i n g flow at  is  this  the  the  a t t r i b u t e d to port due  to  b l o c k i n g by p a r t i c l e s .  SOj : Values between 0 and 140 ppm [ S O 2 ] were observed w i t h i n the c y c l o n e , F i g u r e 2.10  but with no evidence the  of a c l e a r  lowest SO2 c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  observed near the w a l l , probably because solids  t r e n d . In  were of  the  often denser  r e g i o n e x i s t i n g near the w a l l . While no sorbents  were  added d u r i n g the r u n s , there may be s o r p t i o n by c a l c i u m or other elements i n the ash a c c o u n t i n g f o r the reduced v a l u e s .  CH4 :  During most t e s t s the gas analyses d e t e c t measurable [ C H 4 ] . detectable  values,  to  Only i n runs 10 and 18 there  these being of  0.004 p e r c e n t . No r a d i a l  were unable  the  order of 0.002  were to  trend i s  evident.  and 19.3  percent were measured  CO2 :  Values between 16.1  w i t h i n the cyclone and a s l i g h t  radial  trend i s observed  in  -  three of denser for  the  traverses.  solids  109  -  Combusting char p a r t i c l e s  r e g i o n near  the observed small  the w a l l are l i k e l y  increase  near the  in  the  responsible  wall.  CO: [CO2],  As w i t h the the w a l l  than i n the  traverses.  [CO] tends to be somewhat g r e a t e r  interior  Four t r a v e r s e s  in five  of  the  radial  show a d o u b l i n g of  i n d i c a t i n g some char combustion i n s i d e  the  at  the  [CO], again  secondary  cyclone.  Os :  No c l e a r indicating the  trends  that  cyclone  is  i n the  the extent of  residence  riser  that  of  the  well  is  clear  riser,  circuiting extent of  times of  is  for the  a greater  fuel.  cyclone  and the  l e s s than  that  the r i s e r volume. As  chance f o r gas  than i n the r e a c t o r  short the  reduced  combustion i s not s u r p r i s i n g . for each run l a s t e d  hours and d u r i n g that as p o s s i b l e  i n d i c a t i o n of  at  readings,  less  steady s t a t e c o n d i t i o n s .  steady o p e r a t i o n was the f l u e  and 3.5  than  three  time the combustor was maintained as  c o n c e n t r a t i o n which was h e l d between 3.5 all  this  the cylone volume i s  i n the cyclone  Gas sampling  closely  least  approximately 60 % of  because there  profiles  combustion o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n  r a t h e r s m a l l , at  Comparing the gas it  [ O2 ] were seen i n the  to 4 . 5 percent  The primary  gas 02  and 6 percent  for  f o r more than 90% of  -  110  -  the time. Due to the nature of the experiments i n the measured values was i n e v i t a b l e trends that may have e x i s t e d .  some  scatter  and clouded any  As w e l l ,  the flow  subtle  in a cyclone  i s very w e l l mixed and any r e g i o n a l combustion a c t i v i t y would be d i f f i c u l t  to d e t e c t .  For example i f  combustion was  p r e f e r r e d at a g i v e n r a d i u s , one would only expect to i n c r e a s e d combustion products c o n c e n t r a t i o n s sufficiently cyclones  segregated.  as the flow  segregated.  This  i s not  the flow was  t y p i c a l l y the case i n  i s more t u r b u l e n t and well mixed than  An improved experiment would see  m o n i t o r i n g at s e v e r a l than s e q u e n t i a l l y ) ,  if  find  radial  points  continuous  simultaneously  (rather  with the focus being p l a c e d on the  r e g i o n near the w a l l .  2.5 C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations The main f e a t u r e s  of p a r t II of  t h i s work are as  follows:  1.  R a d i a l gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s w i t h i n a secondary cyclone s e r v i n g a h i g h temperature C i r c u l a t i n g F l u i d i z e d Bed Combustor o p e r a t i n g with a low sulphur coal as f u e l  have been measured and  presented.  2.  Radial  gradients  were n e g l i g i b l e  i n the gas for  [NO ], x  concentration p r o f i l e [SOj],  [CH41,  and [ O j ] .  -  3.  Near the w a l l  Ill  -  [CO] l e v e l s  increased,  as d i d  [CO2],  s u g g e s t i n g i n c r e a s e d char combustion i n t h i s  It  is  similar  recommended that  radial  cyclone of  gas  attempts be made to  concentration p r o f i l e s  the UBC p i l o t  zone.  determine  i n the  primary  s c a l e CFB combustor. T h i s would  r e q u i r e a probe capable of sampling gases i n the much denser solids  regions  of  recommended that points  the primary c y c l o n e . simultaneous  also  be performed as opposed to a s e q u e n t i a l  profiles  operation). (e.g.  Profiles  flow  (i.e.  the  radial  species  non-steady  should be a t t a i n e d w i t h a l e s s  anthracite)  and a high sulphur c o a l  (e.g.  Cyclone r e a c t i o n s may p l a y a more important r o l e  these  fuels.  radial  sampling.  imposed on the  due to the time v a r y i n g nature of  c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h i n the gas  ).  is  m o n i t o r i n g at s e v e r a l  T h i s would reduce the u n c e r t a i n t y  coal  It  state reactive Minto for  -112-  NOMENCLATURE a  Inlet  A  Coefficient  ^A  depth  ( m ) ( -  )  c  Centrifugal acceleration  B  Gravitational acceleration  A  Ai  Inlet  A  P a r t i c l e Area  P  area ( m  2  (  m/s ) 2  (  m/s ) 2  )  (m ) 2  b  Inlet  width  ( m )  be  Inlet  width ( m )  bi  Coefficient  ci  F r a c t i o n by mass f o r channel  cm  Solids  Co  " Zero load " dust  concentration  ( grains/ft ,  )  ( m )  loading  3  3  g/m  3  Dust c o n c e n t r a t i o n  C  T o t a l mass caught  C  Cunningham c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r  C  Dust c o n c e n t r a t i o n  CD  Drag c o e f f i c i e n t  dcrit  Critical  dp  P a r t i c l e ' diameter  d a  Aerodynamic diameter  dp  Feed a e r o s o l  C  dpso  ( grains/ft  ( - )  ( grains/ft , 3  g/m  )  ( m )  ( um ) ( g /cm  3  )o.5  mass medial diameter  P a r t i c l e diameter  3  ( - )  p a r t i c l e diameter  Body diameter  )  3  ( kg )  caught w i t h 50%  (mi crons) D  ( - )  (g/m )  c«  P  i of c a t c h .  ( m )  ( cm ) efficiency  - 113 Db D  •  c  Bottom diameter  ( m )  Cyclone diameter  ( m )  DH  H y d r a u l i c diameter of  Do  O u t l e t diameter  Dz  Imaginary c y l i n d e r diameter  e  Zero load c o l l e c t i o n  0  cyclone  inlet  ( m )  ( m ) ( m )  efficiency  ( %)  E  Collection efficiency  Eoorr.  Loading c o r r e c t e d c o l l e c t i o n  E xper .  Experimental c o l l e c t i o n  Ei  Collection efficiency  f o r channel  Eo  Collection efficiency  at  fi  Feed mass for  i  Fo  C e n t r i f u g a l force  FD  P a r t i c l e drag f o r c e  G  Cyclone c o n f i g u r a t i o n parameter.  Ga  G a l i l e o number ( -  he  Inlet  Ho  Overall  ki  Coefficient  ( - )  kpi  Restitution  coefficient  li  F r a c t i o n by mass for channel  L  Experimental s o l i d s  loading ( kg/kg s o l i d s / a i r  )  LB 2 4  P a r t i c l e l o a d i n g i n run B24 ( k g / k g s o l i d s / a i r  )  Ley  Cylinder  Lni  T o t a l mass p a s s i n g  Lo  Outlet  L  Particle  e  P  channel  ( %) efficiency  efficiency  ( %)  ( %) i.  ( %)  low l o a d i n g ( % ) ( kg )  ( N ) ( N ) ( -  )  )  depth ( m ) height  ( m )  length  length  Apparent gas  m  P a r t i c l e mass  ) i of  loss.  ( kg )  ( m ) cyclone  ( kg )  ( m )  loading r a t i o  LFAC  ( -  viscosity  ( kg/kg s o l i d s / a i r coefficient  ( kg )  ( -  )  )  -114-  n  Vortex exponent ( -  )  N  P a r t i c l e path r e v o l u t i o n s  ( -  NR  E  t  Flow Reynolds number ( - )  NR  e  p  P a r t i c l e Reynolds number ( -  N  )  R a d i a l p a r t i c l e Reynolds number ( - )  grp  NR  )  Stokes number ( - )  B t  Stokes number for cut diameter  Ns t 5 0  P(e)  ^  ( - )  P r o b a b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d with h i g h l o a d i n g E ( - )  P(Eo)  P r o b a b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low l o a d i n g E ( - )  Q  Gas flow  Qc  Gas s p l i t  ( m /s ratio  cyclone r a d i u s ri  Vortex f i n d e r  R  Radial  R.  Radius of  S° •  3  )  3  ( - ) ( m )  radius  ( m )  co-ordinate  ( m )  imaginary c y l i n d e r  Dimensionless  ( m )  p a r t i c l e diameter  ( m )  SFACTOR  Saltation factor  T A ( X )  Predicted c o l l e c t i o n  efficiency  V,  I n l e t V e l o c i t y ( m/s  )  Vi  Inlet v e l o c i t y  )  v  Radial p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y  component  V,p  Radial  ( m/s  V  R a d i a l gas v e l o c i t y  P  r e  ( - )  ( m/s  particle velocity ( m/s  ( - )  ( m/s  )  )  Vtp  Tangential p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y  Vfl  Particle saltation  velocity  ( m/s ( m/s  ) )  )  -115-  Greek symbols p p  Gas d e n s i t y P  ( kg/m ) 3  P a r t i c l e density  ( kg/m ) 3  XG  Mass median p a r t i c l e diameter ( m )  x  Shape f a c t o r  u  K  u t;p t  Gas v i s c o s i t y  ( - ) ( kg/ms)  E f f e c t i v e gas v i s c o s i t y  ( kg/ms )  -  116 -  References 1.  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T . , " E f f e c t of Dust C o n c e n t r a t i o n Upon the Gas Flow C a p a c i t y of a c y c l o n i c C o l l e c t o r , " J . A i r Po11. C o n t r o l A s s n . 16 ( 8 ) , pp. 439-441 (1966).  20.  Massey, B . S . , Mechanics of f l u i d s , 4th ed. New York: Van Nostrand R e i n h o l d Company, 1979 pp. 222 -227.  21.  Abrahamson, J . , A l l e n , R . W . K . , "The e f f i c i e n c y of c o n v e n t i o n a l r e v e r s e r e t u r n c y c l o n e s at h i g h temperatures," ChemE SYMPOSIUM S e r i e s No. 99. (1988) .  22.  Ogawa, A . , " T h e o r e t i c a l approach with Markov Process Model to S e p e r a t i o n Processes of Cyclone dust c o l l e c t o r depending on feed dust c o n c e n t r a t i o n , " J . Col 1. Engineer i n g , Nihon U n i v . , A - 2 6 , (March 1985). Note: Referenced i n 41.  -  118  -  23. M a s i n , J . G . , Kock, W . H . , "Cyclone E f f i c i e n c y and Pressure Drop C o r r e l a t i o n s i n O i l Shale R e t o r t s , " Environmental Progress Vol 5, No. 2, (May 1986), pp. -122.  116  24]. Mothes, M. , L O f f l e r , F . , "Motion and d e p o s i t i o n of p a r t i c l e i n c y c l o n e s , " G e r . Chem. E n g . , 8 (1985,) pp. 223 -233. 25.  Boysan, F . , A y e r s , W . H . , Swithenbank, J . , "A Fundamental Mathematical M o d e l l i n g Approach to Cyclone D e s i g n , " T r a n s . IChem Engg. V o l . 60, 1982.  26.  Laurendeau, N . M . , "Heterogeneous K i n e t i c s of coal g a s i f i c a t i o n and combustion," Prog Energy Combust. V o l . 4 , pp. 221-270 (1978).  27.  G r a c e , J . R . and Lim C . J . , " C i r c u l a t i n g F l u i d i z e d Bed Combustion of C o a l , Woodwastes and P i t c h , " F i n a l report prepared for Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, under c o n t r a c t 24ST.23440-6-9007 (1987).  28.  A . S . H . R . A . E . , "Flow measurements, instruments and a p p a r a t u s , " ASME Power Test Codes. Part 5 of Ch. 4. (1959).  29.  J . R. G r a c e , C . M . H . B r e r e t o n , C . J . L i m , R. L e g r o s , R . C . S e n i o r , R . L . Wu, J . R . M u i r , R. Engman " C i r c u l a t i n g F l u i d i z e d Bed Combustion of Western Canadian F u e l s , " F i n a l report prepared for Energy Mines and Resources Canada, under c o n t r a c t 52 SS.23440-7-9136 August 1989.  30.  R. L e g r o s , C . M . H . B r e r e t o n , C . J . L i m , H . L i , J . R . Grace and E . J . Anthony . "Combustion c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of different fuels in a P i l o t Scale C i r c u l a t i n g F l u i d i z e d Bed Combustor," P r o c . Conference on F l u i d i z e d Bed Combust i o n . 661-666 (1989)  char Sci,  31. Wu, L . R . , PhD. t h e s i s , "Heat T r a n s f e r i n C i r c u l a t i n g F l u i d i z e d Beds" U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Chemical E n g i n e e r i n g (1989). 32.  M. F . C o u t u r i e r , B. Doucette and S. P o o l p a l , " A Study of Gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n , S o l i d s Loading and Temperature p r o f i l e s w i t h i n the Chatham CFB Combustor," a report to ENERGY MINES AND RESOURCES CANADA, (Nov. 1989).  33.  S t e r n , A . C , gen. ed. , A i r P o l l u t i o n 3rd e d i t i o n , New York: Academic P r e s s , 1977, chapter 3, pp. 98-136.  -  34.  119  -  R a z g a i t i s , R . , Guenther, D . A . , "Separation E f f i c i e n c y of a Cyclone Separator with a T u r b u l e n c e - S u p p r e s s i n g R o t a t i n g I n s e r t , " T r a n s a c t i o n s of the ASME Vol. 103, (July  1981).  3 5 . M . F . C o u t u r i e r , Professor,Department of Chemical E n g i n e e r i n g U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick, Personnel commun i cat i on. 36.  Sucec, J . , Heat T r a n s f e r , WM.C.Brown Dubuque, Iowa ( 1 9 8 5 ) , p . A l l  37.  S e v i l l e , J . , et a l . , ( 1 9 8 4 ) P a r t i c l e Characterization V o l . 1 , n o . l Weinheim, F e d e r a l r e p u b l i c of Germany (July 1984)  38.  J . Zhao, J . R. G r a c e , C . J . L i m , C . M . H . B r e r e t o n , R. L e g r o s , and E . J . Anthony "NO emissions i n a p i l o t s c a l e c i r c u l a t i n g f l u i d i z e d bed combustor," i n Proceedings of EPRI/EPA 1 9 8 9 J o i n t Symposium on S t a t i o n a r y Combustion NOx C o n t r o l .  Publishers:  x  39.  L e i t h , D . , W. L i c h t , "The C o l l e c t i o n E f f i c i e n c y of Cyclone Type P a r t i c l e C o l l e c t o r s - A New T h e o r e t i c a l Approach," A i r P o l l u t i o n and I t ' s C o n t r o l , AIChE Symposium S e r i e s 1 2 6 , 6 8 , 1 9 7 2 .  40.  Turner  41.  P a t t e r s o n , P . A . , PhD. T h e s i s , "High Temperature C y c l o n e s " , Department of Chemical E n g i n e e r i n g , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Montreal ( 1 9 8 9 ) .  - 120 -  APPENDIX  PRELIMINARY TESTS PART I CONDITIONS SOLIDS: 11 um mean d i a . f l y a s h . I n l e t v e l o c i t y : ^.4-5 m/s C o n f i g u r a t i o n : CI ( base c a s e ) v a r i a b l e vortex finder length.  V.F. position L/D L/H  collection efficiency  C F U L L Y A D J U S T A B L E V.f.>  o.is  0.11  50.0  0,59  0.54  73.9 i  0.81  0.74  96.3  !  i  PART I I CONDITIONS SOLIDS: 50 um mean d i a . f l y a s h . I n l e t v e l o c i t y : 5.^ m/s Configuration: 1. C3 w i t h o u t extended vortex f i n d e r . S. v a r i a b l e v o r t e x finder length.  '.nodl'FlcQ "tions V.F. posliior: | L / D  L/H  collection efficiency  EXISTING  0.21 0.23  41 V.  PROPOSED  O.o3 0.57  47 y.  FIGURE Al  Shake down test summary. A l l runs performed before run B l .  ORFICE FLOW  0  4  8  12  16  20  24  PRESSURE DROP (cm water manometer)  FIGURE AS  O r i f i c e f l o w c u r v e . M /s v s p r e s s u r e 3  drop.  28  -  Figure A3 REM  123 -  Data logging program s e r v i n g UBC model apparatus.  cyclone  PROGRAM FOR INSTANTANEOUS SAMPLING OF LOAD C E L L S OPEN " c y c o . Q U T " FOR OUTPUT AS #2 OPEN C O r f l : 9 6 0 0 , N , 8 , l , C S D S " FOR RANDOM AS t l INPUT " r u n n u e b e r ? " , ni PRINT I E . " r u n n u a b e r = " , ' n t a  t  5  T I K E $ = "00:00:00" ta« = TIME*.  7  s e c o n d s = VAL(KID$(ts$, 1, 2)) * 3600 + VAL(NID$(tB$, 4, 2)1 t 60 • V S L < H I D $ ( t s $ , ?, 2)>  3  9  I F ( s e c o n d s - hh) = 1 THEN 20  20  PRINT " l o g g i n g d a t a " hh = s e c o n d s PRINT II, "2"; INPUT #1, bt PRINT t l , "3"; INPUT t l , c * PRINT 12, V A L ( M I D $ ( b $ , 5, 6)), VfiL(MID$(c«, 5, 61) PRINT V A L ( M I D $ ( b $ , 5, 61), V A L ( M I D $ ( c $ , 5, 6)1 GOTO 5  30  PLEXIGLAS MODEL CYCLONE  /  MULTICLONE  TO BAGHOUSE  FLUIDIZED SEAL PLATE  VALVE  PLATE VALVE SMALL MEASUREMENT VESSEL  LARGE MEASUREMENT VESSEL  WIND BOX -4-—  F i g u r e A4  3 Schematic of attempted r e c y c l e system schematic showing a high s o l i d s loading feed and measurement v e s s e l s , m u l t i c l o n e and bag f i l t e r arrangements.  FROM BLOWER  -125PAGE 12S INSERTED FOR PAGE NUMBER CONTINUITY  -  F i g u r e A6  126  UBC CFBC s o l i d f u e l  -  analysis  for  Proximate and Ultimate Analyses of Solid Fuel  Highvale Coal Proximate Analyses (as received) Volatile Matter Fixed Carbon Ash Moisture  30.5 42.1 12.2 15.2  Ultimate Analyses (dry basis) Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulphur Oxygen (by difference) Ash  62.4 3.6 0.8 0.2 18.7 14.3  Higher Heating Value (MJ/kg)  24.0  run B17  (29).  -  127  -  -1 Gl 9 8 7  + U  6  5 4-  3 2 -t +  '0 F i g u r e A7  "3  l b l b 2 b 2 ^ 3 b 3»  p a r t i c l e  4Q  dLi-aw^ t < j u » m >  45  Mass b a l a n c e , as performed on a per channel b a s i s for run BIO. Image a n a l y s i s p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Fines loss (below 15 microns) a t t r i b u t e d to f i l t e r inefficiency.  -  128  -  F i g u r e A8 Temperature data for Part I RUN #  Bl B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BIO Bll B12 B13 B14 B15 B16 B17 B18 B19* B20 B21 B22 B23 B24 B25 B26 B27 B28 B29 B30 B31 B32 B33 B34 B35  Dry bulb temperature  experiments. Wet bulb temperature  »C  »C  12 15 12 11 11 16 16 16 19 19 22 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 15 15 15 15  10 11 8 7 7 12 12 12 15 15 18 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 11 11 11 11  -  129 -  FIGURE A9 COLLECTION EFFICIENCY DATA &0N B4 sixe  croDS  1.7 7.9 8.11 8.32 8.53 8.75 8.98 9.21 9.45 9.(9 9.94 10.2 10.46 10.73 11.01 11.29 11.58 11 19 11. od 12.19 12.5 12.8! 13.IS 13.49 13.84 14.2 14.57 14.94 15.53 15.72 16.13 16.54 16.97 17.41 17.86 18.32 18.79 19.28 19.77 20.28 20.81 to  S.4  efficiency %  0 0 35 32 39 35 32 44 46 48 49 54 54 65 62 69 75  80 78 86 88 89 90 92 94 95 93 96 99 99 99 100 98 98 100 99 100 98 100  RON B10 sixe  efficiency  •icrons  0.74 2.23 3.71 5.2 6.68 8.16 9.65 11.13 12.62 14.1 15.59 to  46.76  100  - 130 FIGURE A9 DATA SUMMARY FOR PARTS ( AND (I (CONTINUED) CHATHAM COLLECTION EFFICIENCY DATA CATCH DATA LOSS size FRACTION FRACTION MICRONS 0.008+00 7.32 7.51 5.97E-05 0.008+00 7.70 5.97E-05 0.008+00 7.90 9.42E-05 0.00E+00 8.11 6.59E-05 0.00E+00 8.32 9.89E-05 O.OOE+00 8.53 9.89E-05 8.75 1.04E-04 0.00E+00 8.98 1.08E-04 O.OOE+00 9.2L 1.44E-04 0.1 9.45 1.51E-04 0.1 9.69 1.518-04 O.OOE+00 9.94 1.96E-04 5.55E-06 10.20 2.45E-04 0.00E+00 10.46 2.45E-04 5.77E-06 10.73 2.97E-04 O.OOE+00 11.01 3.52E-04 6.21E-06 11.29 3.96E-04 O.OOE+00 11.58 5.01B-04 O.OOE+00 11.88 5.65E-04 O.OOE+00 12.19 7.30E-04 O.OOE+00 12.50 7.79E-04 6.88E-06 12.82 9.55E-04 O.OOE+00 13.16 1.12E-03 O.OOE+00 13.49 1.30E-03 O.OOE+00 13.84 1.65E-03 O.OOE+00 14.20 2.03E-03 7.99E-06 14.57 2.21E-03 O.OOE+00 14.94 2.73E-03 O.OOE+00 15.33 3.31E-03 O.OOE+00 15.72 3.86E-03 O.OOE+00 16.13 4.70E-03 9.10E-06 16.54 5.348-03 16.97 6.82R-03 O.OOE+00 17.41 7.94E-03 O.OOE+00 17.86 9.61E-03 9.99E-06 18.32 1.16E-02 1.27E-06 18.79 1.34E-02 O.OOE+00 19.28 1.61E-02 O.OOE+00 19.77 1.88E-02 1.09E-05 20.28 2.19E-02 20.81 2.58E-02 1.46E-06 21.34 2.85E-02 O.OOE+00 21.89 3.23E-02 O.OOE+00 22.46 3.69E-02 1.57E-06 23.04 3.95E-02 0.00E+00 23.63 4.26E-02 1.63E-06 24.24 4.62E-02 25E-06 24.87 4.73E-02 0.001+00 25.51 4.72E-02 ..76E-06 26.17 4.92E-02 1.65E-05 26.84 4.78E-02 69E-06 27.54 4.718-02 93B-06 28.25 4.74E-02 [.046-05 28.97 4.54E-02 3.97E-06 29.72 4.34E-02 4.13E-06 30.49 3.698-02 1.34E-05 31.28 3.39E-02 6.53E-06 32.08 2.69E-02 1.39E-05 32.91 2.25E-02 t.148-05 33.76 1 67E-02 1:718-05 34.63 . 228-02 1.208-05 35.52 2.28E-05 8.94E-03 36.44 2.618-05 37.38 7.80E-03 2.93E-05 6.05E-03 38.35 3.29E-05 39.33 5.33E-03 6.93E-0S 40.35 3.38E-03 6.578-05 4.00E-03  EFFICIENCY 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.19 0.78 0.00 0.17 1.58 0.34 0.19 1.00 0.38 0.42 1.40 0.81 1.85 1.92 3.37 3.20 7.95 11.84 14.7205 19.9943 37.4109 47.1316  CHATHAM COLLECTION EFFICIENCY DATA DATA CATCH LOSS siie FRACTION FRACTION MICRONS 41.39 3.10E-03 8.50E-05 42.46 3.198-03 1.148-04 43.55 2.22E-03 1.07E-04 44.68 2.13E-03 1.128-04 45.83 1.628-03 9.92E-05 47.01 1.858-03 9.768-05 48.23 9.588-04 1.318-04 49.47 9.73E-04 2.148-04 50.75 1.418-03 2.298-04 52.05 1.028-03 2.958-04 53.40 4.248-04 3.678-04 54.78 6.508-04 4.128-04 56.19 1.338-03 5.108-04 57.64 1.148-03 6.558-04 59.13 1.178-03 8.238-04 60.65 7.168-04 9.928-04 62.22 9.86E-04 1.288-03 63.82 1.008-03 1.638-03 65.47 1.04E-03 2.128-03 67.16 2.398-03 2.828-03 68.89 5.438-04 3.398-03 70.67 1.688-03 4.538-03 72.49 1.148-03 6.188-03 74.36 0.008+00 7.788-03 76.28 1.518-03 9.238-03 78.25 1.558-03 1.078-02 80.26 1.89E-03 1.278-02 82.34 6.538-04 1.398-02 84.46 1.66E-03 1.57E-02 86.64 2.408-03 1.678-02 88.87 1.058-03 1.68E-02 91.17 1.088-03 1.938-02 93.52 0.008+00 1.838-02 95.93 2.278-03 1.908-02 98.41 1.56E-03 1.76E-02 1.538-02 100.95 1.50E-02 103.55 0.1 106.22 0.008+00 2.068-02 108.96 O.OOE+00 2.528-02 111.77 0.008+00 3.10E-02 114.66 O.OOE+00 3.12E-02 117.62 0.008+00 3.61E-02 120.65 O.OOE+00 4.43E-02 123.76 0.008+00 4.97E-02 5.09E-02 126.96 0.1 4.60E-02 130.23 0.1 133.59 0.008+00 4.668-02 137.04 0.008+00 4.76E-02 140.57 O.OOE+00 5.638-02 144.20 O.OOE+00 6.14E-02 147.92 O.OOE+OO 6.248-02 151.74 O.OOE+00 6.36E-02 155.65 O.OOE+00 4.278-02 159.67 O.OOE+00 3.38E-02 163.79 O.OOE+00 7.408-03 168.01 0.008+00 8.33E-03  EFFICIENCY %  49.40 62.84 60.67 69.80 68.17 73.40 76.48 91.12 91.53 90.59 94.29 97.81 97.30 95.77 97.08 97.50 98.79 98.79 98.98 99.21 98.49 99.74 99.41 99.68 100.00 99.69 99.74 99.70 99.91 99.78 99.69 99.88 99.87 100.00 99.72 99.78 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00  -  131 r  GAS CONCENTRATION DATA FOR ION 17 READING  r/1  0.13 O.SO 0.S7 0.83 1.00 O.SO 0.83 0.33 0.67 1.00 O.SO 0.83 1.00  0! %  4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3  CO ppy 41 48 47 46 16S 41 41 4! 41 134 31 37 88  CB4  20 21 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 !l  S02 ppy 107 297 305 297 132 109 205 130 203 66 S3 155 176  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o. 0 0 0 0 0  HOX PPM 209 214 219 214 209 211 215 214 215 215 216 216 203  CB4  NOX  CO! %  %  GAS CONCENTRATION DATA FOR RON 18 reading t  r/R 0 0 0 1 1 I  02  CO!  S02  %  Dpi  CO  %  ppa  4 4 5 4 3 2  36 34 41 46 54 134  20 19 19 20 21 22  0 0 0 0 0 0  Radial Gas Concentration profiles RON 5 PORT 2 r/R 02 CO C02 S02 1.0 4.1 35 18.4 50 0.8 4.1 20 18.4 116 0.7 4 20 18.4 113 0.5 4 19 18.5 114 0.3 3.9 20 18.5 112 0.2 3.9 22 18.4 104 0.0 3.9 24 18.4 101 0.0 3.9 26 18.3 90 0.3 4.3 21 18.4 112 0.7 4.1 20 18.6 120 0.2 4.2 !l 18.5 116 1.0 4.3 39 18.3 40 0.5 4.3 !l 18.5 101 0.0 4.3 21 18.3 111 1.0 4.2 SO 18.5 40  t  ppi  0 0 0 0 0 0  196 207 201 207 201 190  CR4 0 0.002 0.002 0.002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  NOX 198 195 195 190 190 185 180 180 18S 200 200 200 189 201 20S  cm  NOX 201 204 202 201 200 200  Radial Gas Concentration p r o f i l e s , Run 5 Port 4 r/R 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0  02 4.7 4.5 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.3  CO 25 33 34 40 42 51  C02 17.8 18 18.1 17.8 18.1 17.8  F i g u r e A 9 D a t a summary f o r P a r t s N o t e : A l l gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n d a t a for 0 2 , C H 4 , and COz .  S02 78 89 41 34 10 10  0 0 0 0 0 0  I and I I . in ppm  except  values  -  132  -  Radial Gas Concentration profiles, Ran 5 Port 5  CO! 17.1 17.9 17.8 17.9 18.1 18.1 18.1 18.1  SO! 40 48 77 87 89 . 90 90 73  CH4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  NOX 1!0 195 201 202 203 203 204 205  >S CONCENTRATION DATA RON 5, PORT 6 02 CO C02 til  S02  CH4  NOX  19.78 19.34 19.22 20.01 20.90 21.57  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  195.59 206.76 201.18 206.76 101.18 190.00  CO! 17.7 17.9 17.8 17.5  SO! 90 96 88 !!  CH4 0 0 0 0  NOX 170 !0! 203 145  S02  CU4  NOX 175.00 225.00 220.00 225.00 230.00 230.00 230.00 220.00  CO 24 25 22 19 18 17 19 20  02 5.7 4.6 4.5 4 4.5 4.6 4.5 4.7  0.33 0.50 0.67 0.83 1.00 0.50  3.58 3.91 4.58 4.25 2.91 2.12  35.76 33.53 41.35 45.82 53.65 134.12  GAS CONCENTRATION DATA RON 5, PORT 8 I  1 2 3 4  02 4.8 4.3 4.5 4.6  til 0.46 0.67 0.83 1.00  CO 30 24 !7 59  (  RON t 6 RADIAL GAS CONCENTRATION DATA CO! O! CO r/R 1.00 0.83 0.67 0.33 0.17 0.00 0.00 1.00  4.10 4.!0 4.20 4.40 5.20 4.00 2.80 NA  63.00 39.00 32.00 31.00 29.00 40.00 48.00 78.00  17.30 17.00 16.90 17.20 16.40 17.60 18.40 18.40  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00  CO  C02  S02  CB4  16.8 16.4 16.9 16.1 16.4 17.8 17.3  50 120 140 135 90 140 140  0.004 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003  GAS CONCENTRATION DATA FOR RON 6 RON t  t/l  02  2 6 8 10 12 14 16  1.00 0.29 0.50 0.79 0.13 1.00 0.29  4.6 5 4.6 5.5 5.1 3.5 4.2S  23 23 18 16 22 13 16  Figure A 9 Data summary f o r Par t s I and Note: A l l gas concentration data in 1p p m f o r 0 , CH* , a n d C0 • 2  2  except  values  

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