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Combustion of lignin-oil-water mixtures in a rotary kiln Thammachote, Nualpun 1993

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COMBUSTION OF LIGNIN-OIL-WATER MIXTURES IN A ROTARY KILN by NUALPUN THAMMACHOTE B.Eng., Chulalongkorn University, 1989  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Chemical Engineering)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1993  © Nualpun Thammachote, 1993  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  (Signature)  Department of^  1,4  ^  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  /nee  Abstract  Lignin recovery from black liquor has been proposed to de-bottleneck recovery boiler limited Kraft mills. The precipitated lignin would be used as a fuel in the lime kiln, replacing the external fuel, such as natural gas or fuel oil, presently used. In this work lignin-oil-water mixtures were investigated as a fuel. The rheology of the lignin-oil-water mixtures was studied; and a pilot scale preparation facility and firing system were devised. Tests were then made in the 0.4 m inside diameter, 5.5 m long UBC pilot scale lime kiln. The lignin was purchased in dry powder form from Westvaco Co., USA; the oil used in this experiment was No. 2 fuel oil; and a small amount of surfactant, Tergitol NP-9, from Sigma Chemical Co., was added to lignin-oil-water mixtures. The rheology of lignin-oil-water mixtures was found to be complex. The ligninoil-water mixture viscosity was measured using the Haake (Model VT 500) viscometer. The viscosity results show time-dependent, both thixotropic and rheopectic, behavior depending on the solid content in the mixture. The lignin-oil-water mixture viscosity at steady state was found to be a function of shear rate. The higher the shear rate, the lower the viscosity of lignin-oil-water mixtures in the range of the shear rate studied (50-250 s-1 ). At 25°C, the steady state viscosity of 37-47% lignin, 10-20% oil, 43-47% water mixtures was in the range of 0.3-0.7 Pa•s at shear rate 100 s -1 . In the combustion experiments, lignin-oil-water mixture was prepared in a 43 litre tank with a mixer from McMaster Carr Supply Co.. A Moyno pump was used to circulate the mixture in the tank. A Masterflex pump system, which uses peristaltic action to propel fluid through the tubing, was used to control the volumetric flow rate of lignin-oil-water to the kiln by a variable speed drive. A double pipe heat exchanger was installed to keep the mixture temperature at about 30°C at steady state. Lignin-oil-water mixture was fed to the kiln via a nozzle inserted concentrically through a modified North America, Model ii  NA 223G-3, natural gas burner. The nozzle had a separate water cooling jacket, and was connected to a twin fluid type, round spray pattern, stainless steel atomizer from Spray Systems Co.. The conditions for each combustion experiment were set at a limestone flow rate 40 kg/h, kiln rotational speed 1.5 rpm and kiln inclination angle 1 degree. Natural gas fired tests were used as controls. The oxygen content in the flue gas was controlled between 2-3% for both natural gas and lignin-oil-water mixture firing. A gas chromatograph, an oxygen analyzer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer were used to measure the oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and methane concentrations in the flue gas. The results from the combustion experiments in the pilot lime kiln show that ligninoil-water mixtures burned satisfactorily with a long luminous flame. The mixtures contained about 37-41% lignin, 12-20% oil, 43-47% water, and 1000 ppm surfactant. The percent calcination of the lime product from lignin-oil-water mixture firing was 99%. The reactivity of lime product from lignin-oil-water firing was comparable to that from natural gas firing. The flue gas during lignin-oil-water mixture firing contained on average 16 ppm CO, 352 ppm total NOx and 345 ppm SO2. Compared to natural gas firing, the higher NO x level, and higher gas flue gas flowrates which could enhance dusting are potential disadvantages of LOW firing. As well, in the present work the sodium and sulphur balances were not closed. Further work is needed to explore these issues before mill scale trials are undertaken.  A-P  iii  (K)  att--=. --,_  Table of Contents Page Abstract^  ii  List of Tables^  vii  List of Figures ^  ix  Acknowledgements ^  xii  Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Lignin as a fuel in pulp mill lime kilns  ^1  1.2 Combustion of dry lignin powder in a pilot lime kiln  ^3  1.3 Development of lignin-oil-water mixture^  4  1.4 Scope of the present work^  9  Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Kraft pulping process ^ 2.1.1 Process description ^  11 11  2.1.2 Removal of lignin from black liquor in a kraft mill ^ 13 2.1.3 The roles of sodium and sulfur in lime kiln operation^ 16 2.2 Lignin-oil-water mixture preparation ^  18  2.2.1 Lignin characteristics^  18  2.2.2 Stability and rheology of coal slurry fuel^ 27 2.2.2.1 Characteristics of coal suspensions ^ 28 2.2.2.2 Rheology of coal slurry fuel^  32  2.2.3 The roles of chemical additives in coal slurry fuel preparation. ^ 34 2.3 Combustion of slurry fuel^ 2.3.1 Fundamental of combustion reactions ^  36 36  2.3.2 Combustion characteristics of coal slurry fuel^ 38 2.3.3 Atomization of slurry fuel ^ 2.3.3.1 Twin fluid atomizer^ iv  44 44  2.3.3.2 The effect of slurry fuel properties on the mean drop size  ^46  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  3.1 Lignin-oil-water viscosity measurement^  49  3.2 Lignin-oil-water preparation facility  ^50  3.3 Development of lignin-oil-water feeding system  ^53  3.4 Pilot lime kiln facility 3.4.1 General description^ 3.4.2 Instrumentation ^  60 64  3.5 Flue gas analysis 3.5.1 Oxygen analyzer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer ^ 70 3.5.2 Gas chromatograph^  70  Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered  4.1 Lignin-oil-water preparation^  72  4.2 Combustion experiments in the pilot lime kiln ^  73  4.3 Determination of percent calcination^  76  4.4 Determination of slaking behaviour of lime products ^ 77 4.5 Problems encountered^  77  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  5.1 Lignin-oil-water viscosity measurement^ 5.1.1 Time-dependent viscosity behavior ^  79 80  5.1.2 LOW viscosity as a function of shear rate ^ 83 5.1.3 LOW viscosity as a function of composition ^ 85 5.2 Lignin-oil-water combustion experiments ^  88  5.2.1 LOW firing at 60% natural gas replacement ^ 93 5.2.2 LOW firing at 100% natural gas replacement ^ 96 5.2.3 LOW firing at different % natural gas replacement^ 99 5.2.4 True bed temperature profiles^ v  103  5.2.5 Flue gas analysis^  106  5.2.6 Overall heat and mass balances in a pilot lime kiln ^ 115 5.3 The effect of LOW combustion on lime product quality 5.3.1 Elemental analysis of lime product and dust from cyclone^ 120 5.3.2 Reactivity test of lime product ^  125  5.4 Comparison of powdered lignin and LOW firing ^  128  Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1 Conclusions ^  129  6.2 Recommendations ^  130  References^  132  Appendix A Sample calculations : moles flue gas and net heating value of lignin-oilwater mixture, natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil and Westvaco lignin ^ 138 Appendix B Coal water mixture heating value and the amount of heat required  for water evaporation calculation ^  149  Appendix C Atomization air flow rate calculation ^  150  Appendix D Calibration charts^  151  Appendix E Sample of calculation for residence time of limestone inside the kiln 155 Appendix F Overall heat and mass balances in a pilot lime kiln ^ 157 Appendix G Data from the combustion experiments  - Temperature profiles & flue gas analysis ^  173  - Slaking results^  253  - Calcination results^  258  Appendix H Sodium, sulfur and nitrogen balances for Run SL9B ^ 259  vi  ^  List of Tables  Page  Table 1.1^Moles of flue gas and CO2 produced from lignin-oil-water mixture, Westvaco lignin, natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil combustion and their heating values  ^6  Table 2.1^Ultimate analysis and calorific value of Westvaco lignin and other solid fuels (as recieved basis)  ^22  Table 2.2^Proximate analysis of Westvaco lignin and high volatile A bituminous coal (as recieved basis)  ^23  Table 2.3^Metal analysis of Westvaco lignin  ^23  Table 3.1^Characteristic dimensions of Sensor system SV2  ^49  Table 4.1^Typical ultimate analyses and heating value of No. 2 fuel oil  ^73  Table 4.2^Natural gas composition (from B.C. Gas) and its heating value  ^75  Table 4.3^Screening results of the limestone feed  ^76  Table 4.4^Elemental analysis of limestone feed  ^76  Table 5.1^LOW compositions in rheology study  ^79  Table 5.2^Viscosity results for LOW Sample 2  ^84  Table 5.3^Viscosity results for LOW Sample 3  ^84  Table 5.4^Viscosity results for LOW Sample 4  ^84  Table 5.5^Viscosity results for LOW Sample 5  ^84  Table 5.6^Viscosity results for LOW Sample 6  ^85  Table 5.7^Chronology of combustion runs  ^88  Table 5.8^Combustion run conditions  ^92  Table 5.9^FTIR gas analysis results for Run SL9  ^108  Table 5.10^Percent conversion of fuel-nitrogen in LOW combustion  ^112  Table 5.11^FTIR gas analysis results for Run SL8  ^114  Table 5.12^Results from overall mass balances for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11A. ^117 Table 5.13^Results from overall energy balances for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11 A 118 Table 5.14^Elemental analysis of lime product samples  vi i  ^122  Table 5.15^Elemental analysis of Westvaco lignin sample  ^123  Table 5.16^Elemental analysis of dust samples  ^123  Table 5.17^Sodium balance on a pilot lime kiln for Run SL9B  ^124  Table 5.18^Sulfur balance on a pilot lime kiln for Run SL9B  ^124  Table 5.19^Slaking results of lime products from the combustion experiments  viii  ^126  List of Figures Page  Figure 1.1  A schematic diagram of partial kraft process with lignin recovery 2  Figure 1.2  Triangular composition diagram of lignin-oil-water mixture 8  Figure 2.1  A schematic diagram of partial kraft process  Figure 2.2  Chemical structure of the three primary alcohols in lignin structure ^ 19  Figure 2.3  Schematic formula for spruce wood lignin  Figure 2.4  Effect of hygroscopicity on coal concentration in coal-water mixture ^ 25  Figure 2.5  Relationship between the oxygen:carbon atomic ratio and the inherent moisture^  26  Relationship between the oxygen:carbon atomic ratio and the contact angle of water droplets on a coal specimen ^  26  Figure 2.6  ^12  ^20  Figure 2.7  State of particle aggregation in coal liquid mixture ^ 29  Figure 2.8  Type of coarse suspensions in coal liquid mixture ^ 29  Figure 2.9  Influence of particle surface charge and flocculation on the sedimentation stability and properties of surfactant dispersed CWMs ^ 31  Figure 2.10  Rheograms for standard and fine grind CWMs progressively diluted^33  Figure 2.11  Burning history of CWM droplet ^  39  Figure 2.12  Mechanisms of CWM droplet combustion ^  41  Figure 2.13  Dependence on CWM droplet size of : a. Cumulative times, and b. Distances required for the ignition and combustion processes  ^43  Figure 3.1  Schematic diagram of LOW preparation facility ^ 51  Figure 3.2  Picture of the mixer used in LOW preparation process ^ 52  Figure 3.3  Original LOW nozzle design ^  55  Figure 3.4  Modified LOW nozzle ^  56  Figure 3.5  Final LOW nozzle design ^  57  ix  Figure 3.6  Schematic diagram of internal and external mixing twin fluid atomizer from Spray System Co^  59  Figure 3.7  A simplified diagram of the pilot plant kiln ^  61  Figure 3.8  Diagram of solid dams at hot and cold ends of the kiln ^  62  Figure 3.9  Details of inlet air and burner arrangement ^  63  Figure 3.10  Axial thermocouple layout of the pilot lime kiln ^  65  Figure 3.11  Thermocouple locations at the cross-section of the kiln ^  66  Figure 3.12  Detail of thermocouples in wall probe ^  69  Figure 5.1  Time-dependent viscosity profiles of LOW samplel ^  81  Figure 5.2  Time-dependent viscosity profiles of LOW sample2 ^  82  Figure 5.3  Non-viscoelastic behavior of LOW sample 2 ^  83  Figure 5.4  LOW viscosity as a function of shear rate at different % compositions (constant 10% oil content)^  86  Figure 5.5  LOW viscosity as a function of shear rate at different % compositions (constant 43% water content) ^ 87 ^ Figure 5.6 Axial gas temperature profiles for 60% natural gas replacement ^94 ^ Figure 5.7 Axial bed temperature profiles for 60% natural gas replacement ^95 ^ Figure 5.8 Axial inside surface wall temperature profiles for 60% natuaral gas replac ement^ 96 ^ Figure 5.9 Axial gas temperature profiles for 100% natuaral gas replacement ^97 Figure 5.10 Axial bed temperature profiles for 100% natural gas replacement Figure 5.11 Axial inside surface wall temperature profiles for 100% natural gas replacement ^  ^98 99  Figure 5.12 Axial gas temperature profiles at different % natural gas replacement ^ 100 Figure 5.13 Axial bed temperature profiles at different % natural gas replacement ^ 101 Figure 5.14 Axial inside surface wall temperature profiles at different % natural gas replacement^  x  102  Figure 5.15  Axial calcination profiles inside the kiln ^  Figure 5.16  Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL3B ^ 104  Figure 5.17  Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL9B ^ 105  Figure 5.18  Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL1OB ^ 105  Figure 5.19  Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles,SL11B ^ 106  Figure 5.20  Carbon monoxide cencentration in the kiln flue gas, Run SL9B ^ 109  Figure 5.21  Nitric oxide cencentration in the kiln flue gas, Run SL9B ^ 111  Figure 5.22  Slaking temperature rise curves for Runs SL9, SL10 and SL11 ^ 127  xi  103  Acknowledgements I would like to express my gratitude to my research supervisors, Dr. A.P.  Watkinson and Dr. P.V. Barr for their guidance, support and patience throughout this study; Dr. K.C. Teo for his encouraging advice; Dr. C.M.H. Brereton for his help throughout the process; and the other professors in the Department of Chemical Engineering, UBC, for their teaching, support and concern. The rotary kiln experiments could not have been completed without the physical and mental assistance of R. Cardeno, P. Wenman and C. Mui. Special thanks go to J. Baranowski, H. Lam and their colleagues for their expertise and advice; I. Hwang for her helpful discussions and assistance on the flue gas analysis, and B. Richardson for his support and help with the slaking test. I would like to extend my thanks to my parents and all my teachers. Without their love and patience, I would not be here. This work was supported by an N.S.E.R.C. Co-operative Research and Development Grant, with the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Paprican) as an industrial partner. Finally, I would like to thank the Canadian International Development Agency for giving me the opportunity to come to study at UBC.  xii  Chapter 1 Introduction  Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Lignin as a fuel in pulp mill lime kilns.  The pulping industry is one of the major industries in Canada. The high and fluctuating energy costs, since the first oil crisis of 1973, have a significant impact on the economy of the pulping processes. A concept for an energy self-sufficient modern bleached kraft pulp mill in which all fuel enters the mill in the form of pulp wood was proposed by Chaudhuri (1). The cellulose portion of wood is converted to marketable pulp while the lignin and other constituents of wood become fuel for generation of steam and power for consumption within the mill, and for the regeneration of chemicals. However, at present external fuels such as natural gas and fuel oil are consumed for calcination of lime sludge in most Kraft pulp mills. The idea discussed by Chaudhuri and by others (2,3,4) is to precipitate a part of the lignin from black liquor which would  normally go to the recovery boiler and thereby relocate the fuel to the lime kiln. In the kraft pulping process, lignin is extracted from wood chips in the form of black liquor which is burned in the recovery boiler to produce steam and recover the pulping chemicals. Recent study has shown that a small portion of lignin can be precipitated from the black liquor without any adverse effect on black liquor combustibility (4). After washing, this isolated lignin has sufficiently low inorganic content to be used as a substitute fuel at the lime kiln (3). Figure 1.1 shows a schematic diagram of a partial kraft process with lignin recovery. In this figure, lignin is precipitated by carbon dioxide in the kiln flue gas and then washed and dried prior to use as a fuel in the lime kiln. Other acids may be used in lignin precipitation. Many kraft pulp mills have production capacity limited by their recovery boilers. The recovery boiler is a very expensive capital cost item and increasing its capacity 1  Chapter 1 Introduction  CO  2  + FLUE GAS  LIGNIN POWDER LIME KILN CaCO  LIQU k WOOD CHIPS  SLAKER  3  1 Ca0  CAUSTICIZER  DIGESTER  SMELT  RECOVERY BOILER  BLACK LIQUOR EVAPORATORS  PULP TO BLEACHING  (60% SOLIDS)  1^4 -^PRECIPITATE, WASH & DRY  Figure 1.1 A schematic diagram of partial kraft process with lignin recovery  2  t  Chapter 1 Introduction  beyond a certain point is not economically feasible. Removing some of the lignin present in black liquor would reduce the heat load on the recovery boiler at a given pulp production rate and could permit increased pulp production (1,3,5). Results from a preliminary process design for a lignin recovery process which included carbon dioxide precipitation, lignin separation, acid washing and product drying show that an incremental profit for increased pulp production is around 6 million $/year and the lime kiln fuel saving is another 1 million $/year (6). Pulp production can be increased about 8% without any major change in the main equipment items (6). The lignin recovered in such a process is not cheaper than natural gas at current prices. The increased production is the main benefit of lignin precipitation. The favourable economics of this process depend on some lignin being marketed for non-fuel use (6). In brief, lignin has the potential to be used as a kiln fuel, after its mineral content is reduced to an acceptable level to avoid kiln operating problems (7,8). The lignin precipitation process could reduce external energy costs for a large number of pulp mills which have overloaded recovery boilers, with a gain in production capacity due to diverting some of the heat load from the recovery boilers.  1.2 Combustion of dry lignin powder in a pilot lime kiln Earlier studies at University of British Columbia (UBC) have shown that dry powdered lignins from various sources can be successfully used as a fuel in a pilot lime kiln (9,10). The lignins were fired in the kiln either on their own or in conjunction with natural gas. Lignin was found to produce a long, bright, orange flame like that of fuel oil, in contrast to that of a premixed natural gas flame which was short and blue. The gas and bed temperature profiles with lignin fuel were slightly different from those with natural gas. The extent of calcination along the kiln with lignin firing was found to be higher than with gas. This appeared to cause a small increment in fuel savings or throughput increase 3  Chapter 1 Introduction  upon converting from natural gas to lignin. The limes produced by lignin firing were equally as reactive in slaking as those produced by gas firing. From these results, dry powdered lignin seems to be a sensible alternative fuel for the lime kiln. However, the cost for drying lignin to a powder form is quite high ,and handling the lignin solid could give operational problems. A lignin slurry fuel which would eliminate the water-removal step from the above process has certain advantages. 1.3 Development of Lignin Oil Water (LOW) mixture -  -  The development of a lignin slurry mixture similar to that of coal slurry fuel such as coal-oil-mixture fuels (COM), coal-oil-water fuels (COW), coal-water fuels (CWF) was proposed as a part of a lignin utilization study (11). In preparing coal slurry fuels, coal is ground to a required particle size distribution, typically with 75-80% less than 74 pm. Then it undergoes a beneficiation process to reduce the amount of mineral matter in the coal. After this cleaning processes, the coal is mixed with fuel oil, water and some chemical additives for stabilization. Fuel oil aids ignition and flame stability while water helps reduce viscosity by acting as a lubricant between the coal particles. The most important advantages of coal-slurry fuels are that they can be stored, pumped and readily atomized in the furnace as liquids. Solids handling and dust explosions are minimized. Coal concentrations in the slurry vary but, typically, approach theoretical saturation limits due to the economic need of maximum heating value contributed by the solid in the slurry fuel (12). The objective of developing lignin-oil-water slurry is to produce a stable, pumpable lignin slurry fuel that will be used as an alternative for fossil fuels in the pulp mill lime kiln. As the lignin will eventually burn in the dry form, the ultimate effect of the slurry fuel is to shift the water evaporation step from an external dryer as shown in Figure 1.1, to within the kiln itself. To eliminate the drying step from the lignin recovery process, fuel oil and  4  Chapter 1 Introduction  some surfactant are mixed with precipitated lignin having a moisture content typical of a filter cake. Water helps to promote fluidity while the liquid fuel improves ignition and the heating value of the fuel. Whereas lignin-oil-water fuel is a novel concept for which patent protection is being sought, studies on coal slurry fuel research and development have been widely discussed (13-20). In this work, they will be used as analogues for the study of lignin slurry fuel. There are some advantages of slurry fuel compared with a dry pulverized fuel. In addition to reducing the drying cost, other benefits are that slurry fuel is easier to handle, transport, and store. Similar to a liquid, slurry fuel can be pumped, stored in a tank, atomized and burned in a furnace in a small droplet form. Pulverized fuels sometimes cause a problem at the preparation site because of dust emissions in the air and the potential for spontaneous combustion. Moreover, operators may be more familiar working with liquid fuel than solid fuel and flow and metering may well be more reliable with fluids than with solids. However, the drawbacks of slurry fuel are its lower heating value (depending on its water content), longer time for combustion, and possible phase separation. Moreover, in the combustion process, lignin slurry fuel produces higher moles of flue gas compared to lignin, natural gas and fuel oil. Table 1.1 shows the number of moles of flue gas and CO2 produced from lignin-oil-water mixture, Westvaco lignin, natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil combustion and their net heating values. Sample calculations are provided in Appendix A. From Table 1.1, moles of flue gas from lignin-oil-water mixture combustion are about 19% higher than those from Westvaco lignin combustion, 22% higher than those from No. 2 fuel oil combustion and 17% higher than those from natural gas combustion. A large amount of water in the lignin slurry fuel lowers its net heating value and gives a higher molar flow rate of the flue gas. The latter might cause some troubles in the lime kiln operation due to a high dust loss with the flue gas if the kiln is operated at above the 5  Chapter 1 Introduction  limited freeboard gas velocity (75). The number of moles of carbon dioxide in the flue gas with LOW and Westvaco lignin combustion are high compared to those with natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil combustion. However, CO2 from the lignin was the by-product of the pulping process, and not from the external fuel such as natural gas or fuel oil. For lignin slurry fuel combustion, 67.1% of the CO2 is from the lignin and the rest is from the oil in the mixture. Table 1.1 Moles of flue gas and CO2 produced from lignin-oil-water mixture, Westvaco lignin, natural gas, and No. 2 fuel oil combustion (at 10% excess stochiometric condition) and their net heating values Fuel LOW with % composition (lignin:oikwater)=(41:14:45) Westvaco lignin Natural gas No. 2 fuel oil  Mole flue gas (mole/MJ) 16.15  Mole CO2 (mole/MT) 2.10  Net heating value  13.58 13.81 13.29  2.13 1.22 1.67  23.93 MJ/k4. 35.00 MJ/m3 43.63 MJ/kg  14.82 MJ/kg  Slurry fuel differs from a true liquid fuel oil in that it is a suspension of a solid in a liquid. As a result, its physical and combustion properties depend on many factors (14,17), such as the properties of solids used in the preparation of the slurry (density, ash content, particle size, shape and particle size distribution) and the loading in the liquid. In a lignin-oil-water mixture, the solid composition, concentration, the quantity and type of fuel oil, and the quantity of water added in the mixture affect the heating value and viscosity of the fuel. Chemical additives such as stabilizers or polymers modify the stability and viscosity of the mixture. All these factors are of importance in developing a suitable specification for the slurry fuel because they influence the fuel transportation, storage, and flow properties, the atomization and flame characteristics, the energy density, and the emissions.  6  Chapter 1 Introduction  Prior to the present author's work, Teo and Watkinson (11) had described some initial experiments in preparing lignin-oil-water mixture using various lignins and grades of fuel oil. Preliminary atomization tests had been undertaken which showed that the ligninoil-water mixtures would burn when injected into a pre-heated muffle oven. The ligninoil-water mixture was classified as being pourable, or non-pourable, lumpy, or pourable but with phase separation of water or oil. Figure 1.2 shows a triangular diagram (21) which outlined regions of lignin-oil-water mixtures which were satisfactory from the viewpoint of being non-lumpy, slurries which did not separate into phases and had the ability to be poured from a container.  7  LIGNIN;  Westvaco  Useful Lignogel composition range: weight % # I II III IV  Lignin  Water  Fuel  52 45 42 48  43 50 43 40  5 5 15 12  • Fuel including kerosene, fuel oil # 2, 4 & 5  Ravisa a Nov 7q 1 99 0 ,  Thick gel, less pourable; with or without lumps Good pourable gel [LIgnogell  ^ Kerosene ^ Nei oil # FVel oil # 4 ^ Net oil # 5 • • " 'TAO oil. ,  .4.XX  LIQUID FUEL " X  : \INATE R ..61usAvo,  Figure 1.2 Triangular composition diagram of lignin-oil-water mixture  Chapter 1 Introduction  1.4 Scope of the present work  This work was divided into three parts. The first part involved a rheological study of lignin-oil-water (LOW) mixtures. The objective was to understand the rheological properties of LOW, the effects of time, shear rate, and composition on LOW viscosity, and to find a mixture composition suitable to be used in the combustion experiments. The LOW compositions were selected from the triangular diagram shown in Figure 1.2. Six different mixture compositions were prepared and their viscosities measured using a rotary viscometer (Haake's Viscoester VT500). Then, for the pilot scale trials in the rotary kiln, a few suitable compositions were chosen from the viscosity results, the calculated heating values and the amount of lignin in the slurry. The second part of the research was to design a spray nozzle system for the UBC pilot-scale lime kiln and an apparatus for slurry preparation and pumping to the kiln. A commercial atomizer was desired in preference to developing a novel design as part of the research. A suitable pump and mixer was also to be selected. The last part of the research is the actual combustion experiments using LOW mixtures in the UBC kiln. Natural gas fired tests were to be used as controls. The kiln is 0.4 m inside diameter and 5.5 m long. It is refractory lined and equipped with a multitude of thermocouples. The operating conditions for each experiment were set at a limestone flow rate 40 kg/hr, kiln rotational speed 1.5 rpm and kiln inclination angle 1 degree. The oxygen content in the flue gas was controlled between 2-3% for both natural gas firing and lignin slurry fuel firing. Experiments were to be run with partial and complete replacement of the natural gas fuel by the LOW mixture. Local gas, solid and wall temperatures and percent calcination of limestone along the kiln were measured and compared at different levels of natural gas replacement and different compositions of LOW. The flue gas composition at the exit of the kiln was analysed for oxygen, carbon  9  Chapter 1 Introduction  dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane from both natural gas and LOW combustion by an oxygen analyzer, a gas chromatograph and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Elemental analyses of limestone, lime products, lignin powder and dust in the flue gas and slaking test of lime products were carried out to analyse the effect of the inorganic content in the LOW mixture on the lime product purity.  10  Chapter 2 Literature Review  Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Kraft pulping process  The Kraft process is an important chemical pulping process that produces a strong pulp with minimum damage to the pulp fibers. In the kraft process, the desired cellulose and hemicellulose wood components making up the wood fibers are chemically separated from the undesired lignin and other extraneous wood components. A typical kraft pulping process will remove about 50% of the wood mass. The spent materials, the dissolved wood (mainly lignin) and exhausted cooking chemicals, are recovered and processed through a recovery cycle that regenerates the cooking chemicals and recovers the energy value of the wood components. 2.1.1 Process description  A partial kraft process is presented in Figure 2.1. The process begins with the digester where woodchips are reacted with an aqueous liquor composed mainly of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide (NaOH and Na2S) under high pressure and temperature. After the cooking process, pulp product is separated from black liquor, which is a combination of lignin, spent cooking chemicals, and other dissolved wood components, and sent to the bleaching section. The black liquor is sent to multiple effect evaporators where the liquor is concentrated to 60-70% solid before it is used as a fuel in the recovery boiler to produce steam and regenerate the cooking chemical. The molten smelt from the bottom of the recovery boiler is removed and dissolved in water to form a solution of Na2CO3 and Na2S. In the subsequent caustization step, the Na2CO3 is converted to the desired NaOH by reaction with Ca(OH)2. Ca(OH)2 is obtained from the slaking reaction. Both reactions are shown as follows:  11  Chapter 2 Literature Review  CO  2 + FLUE GAS  1  FUEL  1‘  LIME KILN CaCO  SLAKER Sr CAUSTICIZER  WOOD CHIPS  3 Ca0  LIQUOR  DIGESTER  1  SMELT  RECOVERY BOILER  EVAPORATORS BLACK LIQUOR 60% SOLIDS  PULP TO BLEACHING  Figure 2.1 A schematic diagram of partial kraft process  12  Chapter 2 Literature Review  Causticizing : Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 4--> 2NaOH + CaCO3 Slaking :^CaO + H2O <---> Ca(OH)2 + heat The CaCO3 from causticizing reaction is removed from the liquor by clarification and reburnt in a lime kiln to regenerate CaO used to make Ca(OH)2 (slaking). The clarified liquor, containing NaOH and Na2S, is recycled back to the cooking process. 2.1.2 Removal of lignin from black liquor in a kraft mill Currently, many pulp mills operate at a limited production capacity due to overloaded recovery furnaces (3). Removal of a part of the lignin from black liquor would reduce the heat load to the recovery furnace or permit an incremental increase in pulp mill operation at the same recovery furnace heat load. Moreover, the removed lignin can be used as a substitute fuel for an amount of external fossil fuel presently used in the lime kiln or it can be sold for specialty chemicals, such as extenders in phenol resin binder systems or an asphalt extender. It could also be a raw material for production of other valuable chemicals. Mills which recover kraft lignin and market lignin products generally use sulphuric acid (3,4,22) or carbon dioxide (23,24) for acidulation of the kraft black liquor. For economic reasons, the filtrate from lignin acidification must be returned to the chemical recovery plant after removal of the precipitated lignin salt, and thus the acid used must not interfere with subsequent recovery processes. Hydrochloric acid could be used but it would result in an accumulation of sodium chloride in the white liquor (25,26). In kraft pulp mills with chlorine dioxide bleaching, sulphuric acid has already been added to the black liquor stream in the form of chlorine dioxide generator waste acid (GWA). By adding the waste acid to a portion of the black liquor stream, instead of the whole stream,  13  Chapter 2 Literature Review  the pH of the black liquor could be lowered enough for lignin to precipitate. A recent study shows that GWA can be used to recover 10 to 15% of the total lignin (4). If greater than 15% of the total lignin is to be recovered, acidification using CO2 would be desirable due to its minimal effect on the pulp mill chemical balance (4). CO2 can be purchased as essentially pure form, or obtained from the lime kiln flue gas which could lower the operating cost of the process, however the effect of other gas constituents on the lignin recovery process should be considered (25). A preliminary process design and cost estimate for a lignin recovery process using purchased CO2 for precipitation showed that based on the sale of 21% of the recovered lignin as a specialty chemical, with the remainder used as a fuel for the lime kiln, the pulp production capacity could be increased by 8%. The payback time for the proposed process was 4 years (6). From mill data, 15% of lignin recovery, as a dry powder, would provide enough net heating value for greater than 95% fossil fuel replacement at the lime kiln (2). Removal of 15% of the total lignin reduced the liquor calorific value by about 10% to about 13.5 MJ/kg of dry liquor solid (4). However, the liquor combustivity, evaluated from the liquor swelling volume, is reported to change insignificantly until over 70% of the lignin is removed (4). As many mills burn black liquor with a calorific value below 13.5 MJ/kg of dry liquor solid, 15% lignin removal would be expected to have little effect on liquid combustibility (4). However, if more than 15% total lignin is removed from black liquor, an increase in the evaporation load at the multiple effect evaporator has to be considered. For the sulphuric acid precipitation process, the precipitated lignin had a 30-40% moisture content and contained a small amount of inorganic substances, depending on the condition (pH) of the precipitation process (3). A decrease in the final pH of acidulation increased percent lignin recovery and reduced sodium content in lignin. For pure  14  Chapter 2 Literature Review  sulphuric acid precipitation, at a final pH 9, average lignin recovery was 72% with 3.9% sodium content left in the lignin while at a final pH 4, average lignin recovery was 94% with 1.1% sodium content. However, the lowest chemical costs for acid precipitation of lignin from black liquor and readjustment of the filtrate pH to 12 before returning it to the recovery plant were at final pH 7 of the acidulation process (3). After precipitation, the precipitated lignin is washed in a diluted sulphuric acid solution and water to remove some inorganic materials attached. Diluted sulphuric acid washing reduces the sodium content in the lignin product (3) and subsequent water washes remove the acid wash residuals. The use of water should be minimized, however, because an increase in pH can lead to some dissolution of the lignin precipitate, resulting in product loss (26). In contrast, washing with diluted sulphuric acid does not solubilize the lignin (26). A computer program was developed to assess the potential effects of fossil fuel replacement with high moisture content lignin (2). The results showed that the amount of fossil fuel displaced by lignin decreased from 95 to 88-89% as the lignin moisture content increased from 0 to 50%. Lignin product from a simple acidulation plant, having moisture content between 40-50% (3), could permit fossil fuel replacement of greater than 85% without a drying process (2). However, feeding and firing a 50% solid cake lignin would be difficult, if not impossible. Two key impurities to be expected in recovered lignin are sodium and sulphur, both of which are present in the cooking chemicals. The sodium content of recovered Kraft lignin is limited if the lignin is to be used in the lime kiln. By assuming that sodium concentrations greater than 1.35 to 1.45% in lime mud will cause excessive ring and ball formation in the kiln and the level of sodium in the lime mud averages 1.08%, the allowable sodium content in the kiln fuel could be calculated from the difference between  15  Chapter 2 Literature Review  the maximum tolerable and the average sodium content in the lime mud (3). If all the sodium in lignin ends up in the lime, the maximum sodium content of the fuel should not exceed 2% by weight (3). 2.1.3 The roles of sodium and sulfur in lime kiln operation  The rotary lime kiln has been the prime method of lime sludge reburning in the Kraft pulp and paper industry for years. Its popularity has continued unimpaired not only because of the monetary savings it promotes, but also because of its simplicity of operation, low maintenance cost and reliability (28). The principal reaction in the kiln is the limestone calcining reaction: CaCO3 + heat —> CaO + CO2 This reaction is endothermic with a heat of reaction of 1766 kJ/kg limestone at 25°C or 1636 kJ/kg limestone at the actual decomposition temperature, 900°C where partial pressure of CO2 = 1 atm (29). Sodium and sulphur enter the kiln as minor constituents in both limestone (or lime mud) and fuel. Sulphur in limestone can be in the form of CaSO4.2H20 (gypsum), FeS2 (pyrite) and sometimes as an organic compound (29). High sodium concentration in lime mud results from poor mud washing and from low solid content in the lime mud (7). Sulphur can also be found in some fuels which are used in the kiln; such as coal and heavy fuel oil. The amounts vary from 0.5-5% for coal and 1.5-4.5% for heavy fuel oil. Natural gas has negligible sulphur content. Organic sulphur compounds and pyrite decompose readily at temperatures ranging from 816-1260°C, while gypsum decomposes at temperatures in excess of 1371°C, a temperature seldom reached in a lime kiln and, therefore, most of the sulphur in the form of gypsum or anhydrite (CaSO4) can be expected to remain in the kiln product (29). It is 16  Chapter 2 Literature Review  therefore necessary to determine the amount of sulphur present in the fuel or the limestone in the form of sulphate in order to judge the degree of difficulty and, therefore, the need for close operating control required when attempting to produce a very low sulphur content product. Sodium compounds in the kiln react with SO2, SO3 and CO2 in the flue gas to form Na2SO4 and/or Na2CO3. These compounds would melt at 820°C, the temperature that prevails in the calcination zone (8). This might cause dust particles to adhere to the refractory surface to form rings. It was found that sodium compounds in a lime mud decrease markedly at temperatures above 1200°C (7), indicating that they may vaporize from the lime mud or product lime near the front end of the kiln and condense on the lime mud particles at the feed end. This finding coincided with mill data which showed a decrease in total sodium content in ring deposits closer to the hot end of the kiln (8). The key role of sulphur in lime kiln operation is ring hardening (7,8). The initially formed rings consist mostly of CaO and are generally soft. They cannot grow because of the abrasive action of the rotating and sliding motion of reburned lime pellets. With the combustion of high sulphur fuel, however, the already formed rings react with SO2 and SO3 to form CaSO4. The dust particles are thus chemically bound together, forming harder rings which are resistant to the abrasion of the lime pellets and are able to grow thicker over time. The kiln operating conditions are of importance in controlling the sulphur content in the lime product (29). Decomposition of the sulphur compounds in limestone and fuel produces either SO2 gas or SO3 gas, depending on the amount of oxygen (excess air) present in the atmosphere: a significant amount of excess air favors formation of SO3 gas which combines readily with lime to form gypsum. Because sulphate decomposes at a lower temperature in a reducing atmosphere and because SO3 forms in the presence of  17  Chapter 2 Literature Review  oxygen, the prime operating condition to produce low sulphur lime is an atmosphere in the kiln without oxygen. 2.2 Lignin oil water mixture preparation -  -  A lot of research and development has been done on slurry fuel preparation, especially for coal liquid mixtures. This work can provide some guidance to answer questions arising from lignin slurry mixture preparation and combustion. However, lignin properties are very different from those of coal, and thus a review on coal liquid mixture preparation can give only general characteristics which may apply to LOW preparation. 2.2.1 Lignin characteristics  It has long been known that lignins exist as polymeric cell wall constituents in almost all dry-land plants, and among the natural polymers lignin is second only to carbohydrates in natural abundance (30). Generally, lignin constitutes 24-33% of softwoods and 19-28% of hardwoods (31). It acts as a "glue" binding cellulose and hemicellulose together and it imparts rigidity to the cell wall by generating a composite structure outstandingly resistant towards impact, compression and blending. Chemically, lignin is a complex substance in which phenyl propane units are condensed with the carbon-carbon bond or ether bond. Lignin contains methoxyl groups (32). Each molecule of lignin in wood is built up from probably several hundreds of phenyl propane units. From various studies on its characteristics, lignin is defined as a polymeric natural product arising from an enzyme-initiated dehydrogenative polymerization of three primary precursors: coniferyl, sinapyl and coumaryl alcohols (30). The chemical structure of these three alcohols are shown in Figure 2.2. At present, there is no exact chemical formula for lignin because the lignin polymer does not have a structure built up from a regularly repeating unit. Nevertheless, 18  Chapter 2 Literature Review  1^2^3  c c^c^ I I  c I  c  C  I c  cI c rc  3 ky 3^H 3C0 OC H^ 1 0^ 0^0 /^ I^/  60CH  Figure 2.2 Chemical structure of the three primary alcohols in lignin structure  19  Chapter 2 Literature Review  O —CARBOHYDRATE H2C I OH  H2COH ^ E4 0):Fr--EoU  CHCH —0 (0)CHCH — 0 (0)CHCH  ^0M2  0 42 r 0\42  142COH HO 042 HO U0-12COCH 2OH OMe  0\442^HLOH  C1-21-10-10^1/2  HO^— 0 OMe COCHCI-120H 1/2 0  OM2 H2COH 0\42 H2COH  HiOH  I —0(0)?)-LO  HCH— O  0M2 OH^Of\ 42  H 0-12COCH2OH  M20 I  OH  HO^CHCH— OH  O  0\4,2  Figure 2.3 Schematic formula for spruce wood lignin  Chapter 2 Literature Review  Freudenberg (33) and Harkin (45) proposed a structured model of spruce wood lignin which later was used to predict chemical structure of other wood species. Figure 2.3 represents an average fragment of a spruce lignin molecule, containing altogether 20 monomeric units. The melting point and ignition temperature of lignin varies depending on its isolation method. Generally, lignin has no fixed melting point. It softens and melts in the range of 130-200°C (32). It was found that conditions of precipitation of lignin from the kraft black liquor, and the pH of washing dictates to a large extent the softening characteristics of the lignin (11). Acidic conditions which enhance removal of Na and other inorganic species promote low temperature softening. The ignition temperatures of lignin also depend on its inorganic content. The higher ash content increases the initial combustion temperature. Lignin samples prepared at pH 3 ignite at 465°C versus 777-850 °C for samples prepared at pH 5 to 8 (11). Thus the preparation of low ash content lignin, at low pH acidification, decreases both the softening temperature and the ignition temperature of lignin product. In this work, lignin was purchased from Westvaco company, South Carolina, USA. The lignin grade is "Indulin AT" which represents an acidified lignin with an ash content of reportedly less than 1% (30). Westvaco lignin is a carbon dioxide precipitated and acid washed lignin which required no further treatment prior to being used. The lignin is in the form of dry, free flowing dark brown colored powder. It contains an average 0.88 wt% of organically bound sulphur, and 0.64 wt% sulphate (10). The ignition temperature of Westvaco lignin observed from thermogravimetric analyzer experiments is 432°C (11). The mean particle size of Westvaco lignin, determined by an Elzone 80XY particle analyzer, is 26.05 gm (10).  21  Chapter 2 Literature Review  Table 2.1 shows ultimate analysis of Westvaco lignin, air dried hardwood, and high-volatile A bituminous coal. Table 2.2 shows proximate analysis of Westvaco lignin and high-volatile A bituminous coal and Table 2.3 shows metal analysis of Westvaco lignin. From the ultimate analysis, lignin is a highly oxygenated fuel containing about 22% weight oxygen compared to bituminous coal which contains only 6% oxygen. According to its heating value, lignin has better fuel quality than air-dried hardwood, however it cannot compete with coal. Lignin has less ash content than coals but its high oxygen content lowers the heating value due to the high concentration of oxygenated species in the gases released during the early stages of lignin devolatilization. From Table 2.3, the amount of sodium element in lignin, which is a critical factor in kiln operation, is 1.13%. Table 2.1 Ultimate analysis and calorific value of Westvaco lignin and other solid fuels Westvaco lignin  Air-dried hardwood  High Volatile A bituminous coal  C  61.34  40.4  75.8  H  5.76  5.18  4.83  0  22.25  33.89  8.2  N  1.71  0.3  1.5  S  1.69  -  1.6  Ash  3.85  0.2  7.8  Moisture  3.39  20  2.4  Calorific value (MJ/kg)  25.23  20.03  31.54  34  35,44  35  Composition weight %  Reference (as received basis)  22  Chapter 2 Literature Review  Table 2.2 Proximate analysis of Westvaco lignin and High volatile A bituminous coal (as received basis). (%)  Westvaco lignin  High-Volatile A bituminous coal  Moisture  3.39  2.4  Ash  3.85  7.8  Volatile  61.93  36.6  Fixed Carbon  30.83  53.2  34  35  Reference  Table 2.3 Metal analysis of Westvaco lignin (34) Metal  Mo  Cu  Pb  Zn  Ag  Ni  Co  Mn  Fe  (unit)  (1)Pm)  (ppm)  (PPIn)  (13 Pin)  (PPIn)  (1)Pm)  (ppm)  (1)Pm)  (%)  1  8  7  20  0.1  1  1  65  0.05  As  U  Au  Th  Sr  Cd  Sb  Bi  V  Ca  (13 Pin)  (1)Pm)  (1)Pm)  (W)  (PPIn)  (PPIn)  (PPIn)  (PPIn)  (PPIn)  (%)  2  5  1  3  0.2  2  2  46  0.04  P  La  Cr  Mg  Ba  Ti  Na  K  W  (%)  (PPIn)  (1)Pm)  (%)  (1)Pm)  (%)  Al (%)  (%)  (%)  (PPin)  0.006  2  4  0.03  10  0.01  0.09  1.13  0.19  2  Zr  Sn  Y  Nb  Be  Sc  (PPIn)  (1)Pnl)  (PPIn)  (PPm)  (PPin)  (PPIn)  1  2  1  1  0.2  0.2  In coal slurry fuel preparation, major factors determining slurry quality are coal particle size distribution, coal properties and chemical additives. Typically, CWM is composed of 60-75% coal, 24-39% water, and 1% chemical additives and requires a  23  Chapter 2 Literature Review  particle size distribution with 70% less than 74 gm (14). The mass-median coal particle diameter is 30-50 gm (16). The effect of coal particle size distribution on maximum coal loading was studied by Shoji et al. (19). It was found that, independent of coal type, the coal concentrations were maximum at the same distribution modulus, n=0.4, where the porosity of coal particles in a slurry was at minimum. The distribution modulus, n, is one of the two parameters in the Gaudin-Schuhmann distribution (P(x)=(x/k)n, where P(x) is the cumulative weight percent less than size x and k is the coal apparent top size) which was used to approximate the coal size distributions. Their results also showed that the value of maximum coal loading at a given viscosity depended on the type of coal. Other than size distribution, the coal properties that have strong effects on the solid loading or the dispersion of coal particles in an aqueous medium are the hydrophilicity of the coal surface, the oxygen content in the coal, and the inherent moisture (the amount of water absorbed by coal). The hydrophilicity of coal can be measured by its hygroscopicity which is defined as the amount of water absorbed per unit mass of dry coal. Figure 2.4 shows the variation of the coal concentration attained at a slurry viscosity of 1 Pa•s with the hygroscopicity of the coal (19). The higher the hygroscopicity of the coal, the lower the amount of coal loading at a given slurry viscosity. The reason is that less hygroscopic coal has a greater amount of free water in suspensions at a given coal concentration of suspensions, which lowers the viscosity of the slurries. The oxygen content in coal is expected to have a significant influence on it surface characteristics. As the oxygen content increases, the oxygen containing functional groups such as carboxyl and hydroxyl groups increase on the coal surface. The dissociation of these oxygenated surface functional groups into active ionic sites renders the coal particles hydrophilic (36). Figures 2.5 and 2.6 show the effect of the oxygen/carbon (0/C) ratio on the inherent moisture and contact angle of a water droplet on the surface of coal specimens(36). 24  Chapter 2 Literature Review  75 C  70  0  8 65 0  C.)  6 1  5^10 Hygroscopicity (g/g-coal)  50  Figure 2.4 Effect of Hygroscopicity on coal concentration  25  Chapter 2 Literature Review  10 0^  8  0  0  0  6 0  ^0  0 0  0  2  0  ^0  0  0.04 0.08 0.12^0.16 0.20 0.24 0/C ( - )  Figure 2.5 Relationship between the oxygen:carbon atomic ratio and the inherent moisture  100 r. 80 D)  0  0 60 0  15 40 0 C) 20  0.04^0.08^0.12^0.16^0.20^0.24 0/C ( - ) Figure 2.6 Relationship between the oxygen:carbon atomic ratio and the contact angle lof water droplets on a coal specimen  26  Chapter 2 Literature Review  At higher 0/C, the inherent moisture increases and the contact angle decreases, indicating the increased hydrophilicity. Moreover, it was found that the CWM viscosities increase with 0/C ratio (36). This result can be explained by the fact that coal is a porous material and absorbs water. As the coal surface becomes more hydrophilic with the increase in 0/C ratio, the hydrophilic nature of the pore surface within a particle also increases, and the coal absorbs more water. If water is absorbed within the coal particles, the amount of water acting as a fluidizing medium in CWM decreases and therefore the viscosity is expected to increase (36).  Thus, an increase in coal porosity and oxygen content in coal makes the suspension more difficult because it reduces the contact angle of a water droplet on a coal particle and increases the amount of water absorbed by the coal particles. Consequently, the amount of free water helping the particles disperse in the suspension decreases, which causes an increase in an apparent viscosity for a given solid loading. As mentioned previously, lignin is a highly oxygenated fuel; the oxygen:carbon atomic ratio for Westvaco lignin is 0.36. Moreover, compared to coal, lignin has a smaller average particle size and higher porosity (observed form a low lignin apparent density). According to these properties, lignin is more hydrophilic and has more surface area than coal, which may result in a lower percent solid loading in LOW as compared with coal slurry fuel. 2.2.2 Stability and rheology of coal slurry fuel  Two of the most important properties of slurry fuel are its stability and rheology (viscosity). Stability is defined as the maintenance of a homogeneous mixture (16). Viscosity is the resistance offered by a real fluid which undergoes continuous deformation when subjected to a shear stress (35). These two properties which influence  27  Chapter 2 Literature Review  transportation and handling, play a critical role in the atomization and combustion of slurry fuel. Knowledge of fundamental properties of coal slurry fuels such as the state of aggregation of coal particles is essential for understanding the stability and rheology of the coal suspension. 2.2.2.1 Characteristics of coal suspensions  By nature, solid particles in a suspension tend to settle out under the influence of external forces such as gravity or centrifugal forces. At very low concentrations, free settling occurs according to Stokes' law. However, as the solid concentration increases, setting becomes a complex phenomenon as interparticle interactions take place and hinder setting. Particles may also adhere to each other to form clusters (flocs or coagula), depending on the state in which the particles exist in the suspension. The state of aggregation of the coal particles in suspension can be broadly classified into three conditions (37): 1) the particles have no tendency to adhere to each other, hence they are well dispersed throughout the liquid (Figure 2.7-A); 2) the particles weakly interact (flocculate) and form loose, porous clusters, called flocs (Figure 2.7-B); or 3) the particles strongly interact (coagulate) and form compact, tightly-bound clusters called coagula (Figure 2.7-C). These three states of aggregation lead to three types of suspensions, as depicted schematically in Figure 2.8 (37).  28  Chapter 2 Literature Review  •••^•  •^•^•  (B)  (C)  Flocculated State  Coagulated State  (A) Aggregatively Stable State  Figure 2.7 State of Particle aggregation in coal liquid mixture  (A)  (B)  Aggregatively Stable Suspension  Flocculated Suspension  (C) Coagulated Suspension  Figure 2.8 Type of coarse suspensions in coal liquid mixture  29  Chapter 2 Literature Review  For aggregatively stable suspensions, particles do not adhere to each other due to repulsive forces and settle individually in a gravitational field. They settle at a rate dependent on size, and hence form hard compact sediments which are highly undesirable. For flocculated suspensions, particles interact weakly and form loose, porous flocs which settle relatively slowly due to additional drag forces which arise from the open structure of the floc. The sediment formed by these flocs is very loose and can be easily brought back to a uniform solids concentration by mechanical agitation. For coagulated suspensions, strong interparticle attractive forces promote formation of compact and tightly bound clusters. Settling rates are relatively fast and the sediment might be compact and difficult to break. Changing degrees of solidity in slurry fuels form different kinds of suspensions. For a high solid loading coal water mixture, typically an aggregatively stable suspension occurs because of the need to achieve high coal concentration (13). However, for a medium solid loading slurry, such as a coal-oil or a coal-oil water mixture (solid concentration usually less than 50% weight), a flocculated suspension containing voids forms which lead to lower maximum concentration (38). Figure 2.9 shows the influence of the degree of flocculation on the sedimentation stability, sedimentation volume, maximum solids content and apparent viscosity in surfactant stabilized coal water mixture (39). The impact of an increase in the apparent viscosity, despite a decrease in the maximum solid loading, for strongly flocculated suspensions, stems from the entrapment of immobilized liquid within particle flocs that reduces interparticle lubrication in the dispersed phase (40).  30  Chapter 2 Literature Review  HIGH •^  PARTICLE SURFACE CHARGE  Welldispersed  Weaklyflocculated  ^• ZERO  Stronglyflocculated  •e  •  •^ • * • •• • • 4. •  •• ;  1  ••  • ^HARD ^LOW  4^  •^  NATURE OF DEPOSITS SEDIMENT VOLUME  SOFT ----Ai. HIGH  POOR •^ SEDIMENTATION STABILITY^GOOD LOW •  ^APPARENT VISCOSITY  ^H I GH  HIGH •^ MAXIMUM SOLIDS CONTENT^LOW m  Figure 2.9 Influence of particle surface charge and flocculation on the sedimentation stability and properties of surfactant dispersed CWMs  31  Chapter 2 Literature Review  2.2.2.2 Rheology of coal slurry fuel The effects of particle size distribution and solids content on the rheological properties of coal water mixture (CWM) were investigated by Heaton and McHale (41). CWM viscosities were measured covering a shear range from 1 to 10 4 s-1 . It was found that the rheology of CWMs was very complicated. They exhibited non-Newtonian behavior, changing in character from pseudoplastic (viscosity decreasing with increasing shear rate) to dilatant (viscosity increasing with increasing shear rate), or vice versa, over the range of shear rate from 1 to 10,000 s-1 . Figure 2.10 shows the effect of solid content for standard and find grind coal water mixture fuels (41). The standard grind CWM has approximately 85% of its particle passing 200 mesh (74 gm) and the fine grind CWM has approximately 95% of its particles passing 325 mesh (44 gm). From Figure 2.10, it was noted that for the standard grind slurries, the low shear rate viscosity measurements were a good indicator of the viscosity at high shear rate whereas for the fine grind slurries, this was not true. For both coarse and fine grind slurries, a slight decrease in % solid concentration caused the viscosity to decrease dramatically. Moreover, slurries made from a finer grind of coal were more viscous and show much greater non-Newtonian behavior than slurries made with a coarser "standard" grind of coal.  32  Chapter 2 Literature Review  25 % SOUDS  SG-1 DILUTED 20  15 70% 10 69% 5  68% -67% a 66% 65%  0  •  35  FG-1 DILUTED • O  % SOUDS  30  8  70% 25  20  69%  15  68%  10  67% 66%  5  -441111.1•••••■•111101111.1...-----°°— 0  10^102^103  ^  65%  134  SHEAR RATE (SEC -1 )  Figure 2.10 Rheograms for standard and fine grind CWMs progressively diluted  33  Chapter 2 Literature Review  2.2.3 The roles of chemical additives in coal slurry fuel preparation  Two kinds of chemical additives, dispersing agents and stabilizing agents, are used in coal liquid fuel preparation to achieve the desired properties of good sedimentation stability at low shear rate to prevent settling, and low apparent viscosity at high shear rate to enhance atomization and combustion quality. Dispersing agents are surface active agents, having either ionic or nonionic character. The functions of dispersing agents have been well described by Tadros (42). In brief, first they disperse solid particles in the suspension by diffusing quickly to the solid/liquid interface and displacing any air in the channels between and inside the agglomerates. Once a dispersion process is completed (usually aided by high speed stirrers), they help maintain the particles formed in a dispersed state by creating an energy barrier that opposes aggregation and particle approach. The last and most important function of the dispersing agents is to lower the bulk viscosity of the suspension at the desirable volume fraction. This viscosity reduction results from a decrease in the degree of flocculation in the mixture. Stabilizing agents or polymer thickeners, e.g. non-ionic polymers, are usually applied to control of the settling of the suspension and the prevention of dilatant sediment (43). Once the desirable viscosity has been obtained, these polymeric materials are added to the suspension to prevent the formation of hard sediments in storage tank and piping (42). These polymers create a "structure" by flocculating the particles in a controlled manner, thus forming a loose sediment. As a result of the flocculation, they affect the rheology of the whole suspension, thus preventing the compaction of particles into a hard structure (42). The effect of additives packages on CWM rheology was investigated by Heaton (41). Three types of chemical additives were used: a dispersant, a dispersant aid and a stabilizer. The experimental results showed that the addition of approximately 50% more 34  Chapter 2 Literature Review  dispersant reduced viscosity over the entire shear rate range about a half, whereas, the addition of dispersant aid produced little or no effect. The addition of the stabilizer produced a dramatic effect in the low shear regime, causing viscosity and yield point to increase substantially. However, it had very little effect on the high shear viscosity in the range of several thousand per second. The results showed practical implications related to atomization and slurry stability that the addition of a stabilizer will improve slurry storage stability by creating a high yield point, but may not adversely affect the quality of atomization (41). In summary, two characteristics of slurry rheology are desired: a high viscosity at low shear to prevent settling for stability during storage and transportation, and a low viscosity at high shear for efficient pumping and burner atomization (14). Chemical additives play an important role in achieving these objectives. Dispersing agents help reduce the slurry viscosity by dispersing the aggregates which occur in the mixture while stabilizing agents help prevent hard sediments from forming during transportation and handling. However, the cost of chemical additives has to be considered in relation to the gain of high solid loading of slurry fuel. These findings which are based largely on coal liquid mixtures, may be expected to apply generally for lignin liquid mixtures, although the details will undoubtedly differ.  35  Chapter 2 Literature Review  2.3 Combustion of slurry fuel  The combustion of slurry fuel has different characteristics from gas, oil or pulverized coal combustion. For CWM, the presence of a high water content results in long ignition delay times, and the agglomeration of coal particles gives chars with burn-out times longer than equivalent oil fuel. This section is concerned with the fundamentals of combustion reactions, the mechanism of CWM droplet combustion, and the process of atomization, all of which have application to the use of LOW mixtures. 2.3.1 Fundamental of combustion reactions  Combustion may be defined as the rapid chemical combination of oxygen with the combustible elements of a fuel (46). There are just three combustible chemical elements of significance - carbon, hydrogen and sulphur. Sulphur is usually of minor significance as a source of heat, but it can be of major significance in corrosion and pollution problems. The objective of good combustion is to release all of fuel heat while minimizing losses from combustion imperfections and superfluous air. The general expression for combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel is: CmHnOp + ( 4m + - 2p )02 = mCO2 + ( n2 )H2O m, n and p being the number of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the fuel, respectively. However, if air is used, each mole of oxygen is accompanied by 3.76 moles of nitrogen. The volume of theoretical oxygen needed to burn any fuel can be calculated from the ultimate analysis of the fuel as follows: 22.4 ( C/12 + H14 - 0/32 + S/32) = m 3 oxygen / kg fuel where C, H, 0, and S are the decimal weight of these elements in 1 kg of fuel. The coefficient 22.4 is the volume in cubic meters of 1 kg mole of oxygen at 0°C and 1 atm. 36  Chapter 2 Literature Review  Practically, more than the theoretical amount of oxygen is required to achieve complete combustion. The amount of excess oxygen varies depending on the fuel properties and the furnace operating conditions. For example, the optimum combustion efficiency of pulverized coal in a given furnace was found to be determined principally by the excess air used (47). Higher percent excess oxygen increased thermal loss (with dry flue gas) but lowered unburned carbon loss. The combined loss was a minimum for a pulverized coal furnace at between 10 and 20% excess air (47). However, it is necessary to keep the excess at a minimum in order to hold down the stack loss. The excess air that is not used in the combustion of the fuel leaves the unit at the stack temperature. The heat required to heat this air from room temperature to the stack temperature serves no purpose and is lost heat. There are two certain kinds of heat losses : inherent ones over which there is no control, and avoidable ones which are subject to some control (46). The inherent losses are the result of the discharge of the products of combustion at a temperature higher than ambient, and the moisture content of the fuel plus the combination of some of the hydrogen with the oxygen in the fuel. The avoidable heat losses can be minimized by 1) careful control of excess air, 2) tolerating virtually no unburned solid combustible matter in ash or refuse, 3) permitting no unburned gaseous combustibles in the exit gases and 4) a good insulation to reduce radiation loss. In slurry fuels, the amount of water used as transporting media for solid particles is 30% for CWM and between 40 and 50% for LOW, causing an inherent heat loss which is unrecoverable. For the latter, the benefits to the overall lignin recovery process, as discussed in Section 2.1.2, however remain. A good burner design and careful operation will help achieve high combustion efficiency and reduce avoidable heat losses.  37  Chapter 2 Literature Review  Three factors that should be considered to obtain good combustion are: temperature high enough to ignite the fuel, turbulence or mixing, and time sufficient for complete combustion. An increase in ambient temperature reduced the combustion duration of CWM droplets, and increased the maximum combustion temperature, because the heat evolved during combustion would dissipate outwards at a decreasing rate as the ambient temperature increased due to its reduced temperature gradient (48). Turbulent mixing can be enhanced by installing vanes and baffles in the air stream. For difficult-toburn fuels, such as heavy hydrocarbon oils and coals, the function of turbulent air is not only to effect efficient and rapid mixing of the fuels and air, but also to enhance heat transfer to the incoming fuels to assure prompt and stable ignition (49). Time for combustion depends on fuel properties. Natural gas ignites more rapidly (because it does not have a devolatilization stage) than oil, following by coal and CWM. Coal is generally more difficult to ignite than oil; however, CWM droplets exhibit an even longer ignition delay time due to their high water content. 2.3.2 Combustion characteristics of coal slurry fuel  Figure 2.11 shows a burning history of a CWM droplet (48). The temperature and mass variation curves can be divided into four stages : a heating stage, an evaporating stage, a volatile escaping stage and a fixed carbon burning stage. In the heating stage, the droplet temperature increases gradually from room temperature to around 100°C and the percent mass loss remains unchanged. During the evaporating stage, the droplet temperature remains constant and the droplet weight decreases. In the volatile escaping stage, the droplet temperature goes up rapidly and volatile content escapes from the droplet and burns as the ambient temperature is high enough. In the fixed carbon burning stage, the droplet temperature reaches the highest value then descends slowly, and suddenly decreases to the ambient temperature, this indicates the end of the droplet  38  Chapter 2 Literature Review  burning process. The mass variation of coal reduces slowly at this stage. Within these four stages, the time for the fixed carbon burning stage is the longest one. The time for the heating stage is short enough to be neglected in medium and high temperature environments (48).  k  c  0  1000  Moisture Content 40%  tr) 0  35 m 50  100 0  -4- 3  4  32  64^go^112 time (sec)  Figure 2.11 Burning history of CWM droplet  39  Chapter 2 Literature Review  More detailed mechanisms of the CWM droplet combustion process are shown in Figure 2.12 (50). Based on high speed cinematography and from radiation intensity  traces, the different stages in the coal water fuel droplet combustion process can be described as follows: - Injection of the CWF droplet Drying of the CWF droplet - Agglomeration and swelling during the coal plasticity period - Localized ignition followed by spread of ignition - Volatile flame formation - Rotation induced by volatile evolution - Extinction of volatile flame and ignition of char - Fragmentation both during devolatilization and char burnout - Ash shedding and completion of char burnout  40  Chapter 2 Literature Review  e  (A  ky e's  AS  eND DRY AGGLOMERATE  COAL WATER FUEL  FUSED AGGLOMERATE  DROPLET  Rr  .^,  I'  ■ %  ,4;r4ly  IGNITION AT ONE CORNER  FOLLOWED BY 44(^ SPREAD OF IGNITION  PARTICLE ROTATION INDUCED BY VOLATILE EVOLUTION  , •^• •  D^•^•  FRAGMENTATION AND ROTATION DURING DEVOIAIILIZATION  O  a  O. • •  .  •  9  P^ .‘, P • • •  •  t)  • 0  D I  S  te  FRAGMENTATION DURING CIIAR BURN-OUT  CIIAR BURN-OUT AND ASII SHEDDING  Figure 2.12 Mechanisms of CWM droplet combustion  41  Chapter 2 Literature Review  Other factors influencing the combustion performance of CWM are: droplet diameter, coal particle size, moisture content and oxygen concentration in the surrounding atmosphere. Figure 2.13 shows the dependence of cumulative times and distances required for the ignition and combustion processes on CWM droplet size (51). The larger the CWM droplet size leaving the atomizer, the bigger is the agglomerated coal particle and the longer is the time required for combustion. Not including the atomization problem, the smaller is the coal particle size the shorter is the combustion time because of the higher specific surface area, which increases the reaction rate between carbon and oxygen (48). A lower moisture content in the droplet and a higher oxygen concentration in surroundings result in shorter combustion time due to lower evaporation time and higher diffusion rate into the flame front (48). The ignition of CWM is rather difficult due to the amount of heat required for the water evaporation. However, this percentage of heat consumed by water evaporating is negligibly small in an industrial furnace, hence the key factors for complete combustion in industrial furnace are both the finer CWM droplet size and the higher furnace temperature (48). A calculation of the amount of heat required for water evaporation compared to the heating value of CWM, with 30% water and 70% coal composition, is shown in Appendix B. The result shows that the amount of heat required for water evaporation is only 3% of the heating value of the CWM.  42  Chapter 2 Literature Review  0^20^40^60^80^100 DROPLET OR PARTICLE DIAMETER(km)  Figure 2.13 Dependence on droplet/particle size of : (a.) Cumulative times, and (b.) Distances required for the ignition and combustion process  43  Chapter 2 Literature Review  2.3.3 Atomization of slurry fuel  Atomization is the process whereby a volume of liquid is converted into a multiplicity of small drops. Its principal aim is to produce a high ratio of surface to mass in the liquid phase, which result in very high evaporation rates (52). The atomization process plays a very important role in slurry fuel combustion. Unlike a premixed, combustible gaseous fuel that distributes uniform composition during combustion, slurry fuel is present in the form of discrete slurry droplets which may have a range of sizes and they may move in different directions with different velocities to that of the main stream of gas. This lack of uniformity in the unburned mixture results in poor combustion characteristics such as irregularities in the propagation of the flame through the spray, low carbon burnout (53,54), and longer droplet burning time (51). In this section, the twinfluid atomizer is first discussed. Its advantages are compared to those of other types of atomizer, and the design criteria given for dealing with slurry fuel. In the second part, the effects of slurry fuel properties on atomization quality are discussed. 2.3.3.1 Twin fluid atomizer -  There are three main types of atomizers. With a conventional "pressure" type of atomizer, a high velocity is imparted to the liquid by discharging it under pressure through a fine orifice. In a "rotary" atomizer, liquid is fed onto a rotating surface where it spreads out fairly uniformly under the action of centrifugal force. The last type is generally known as "twin-fluid", "pneumatic", or "airblast" atomizer. Its approach is to expose the  relatively slow moving liquid to a high velocity air stream. The process of twin-fluid atomization can be considered to consist of the following stages (55): 1) Formation of thin liquid sheets along the inner walls of an internal mixed atomizer, or of free sheets (unattached) of liquid, or of fine jets. 2) Disintegration of these sheets or jets by aerodynamic forces to form ligaments and/or large droplets. 44  Chapter 2 Literature Review  3) Breakup of the ligaments and large droplets to form a spray. Twin-fluid atomizers have many advantages over pressure atomizers (55,56). They have a better turn down ratio. They require lower fuel pressure and produce smaller droplets than can be achieved by means of pressure jet atomizers. Generally, airblast systems produce fine droplets with Sauter mean diameters of 40-80 pm, which become finer with increasing gas velocity (55). Moreover, because twin-fluid atomization ensures thorough mixing of air and fuel, the ensuing combustion process is characterized by very low soot formation and minimum exhaust smoke. Furthermore these atomizers provide a relatively constant fuel distribution over the entire range of fuel flows and they have low sensitivity to variation in fuel viscosity. However, when a compressed gas is used to break up a liquid jet in an airblast atomizer, a considerably larger amount of air and energy is consumed than in a pressure nozzle (55,57). This problem occurs when applying twin-fluid atomization to break up large streams of liquid in an efficient manner to attain a desired particle-size distribution. The high cost is compensated for by the fine droplet size in the sprays obtained from this type of atomizer. Moreover, the spray from a twin-fluid atomizer has a tendency to penetrate a greater distance and with a smaller cone angle than from a pressure nozzle (57). When a liquid jet is disintegrated by an air or gas stream, the velocity of air is high relative to the liquid at the point where it encounters the jet. As a result, this type of atomizer generally discharges the spray and gas for a considerable distance before the momentum of atomizing fluid becomes dissipated or transferred to the surroundings. The compact narrow angle spray with high penetration is not a desirable spray pattern for spray combustion in some systems because the mixing between oxygen and spray droplets might not be complete in the combustion zone, which will cause low carbon conversion and high heat loss at the exit of the combustor. However, for rotary kiln systems, this is not a problem. In the kiln, the desired characteristic of sprays is a long narrow angle spray 45  Chapter 2 Literature Review  pattern because of the high ratio of kiln length to its diameter; so the liquid fuel will not burn at the surface of the kiln. The factors that should be considered in twin-fluid atomizer design for slurry fuel are: 1) Ability to obtain slurry droplets as fine as possible at an acceptable consumption rate of atomizing medium, 2) Ability to resist wear by erosive slurry fuel, 3) Ability to withstand repeated thermal shock by turning the burner on or off, 4) Ability to operate without giving rise to plugging problems, and 5) Ability to obtain stable combustion when heavy oil is fired instead of slurry fuel, since the use of a common burner gun and tip for slurry fuel and heavy oil may be preferable (58). The use of the common burner gun is not the case for many B.C. mills which use natural gas, however. 2.3.3.2 The effect of slurry fuel properties on the mean drop size  Generally, the three main factors which influence the mean drop size of the spray are liquid properties, air properties and atomizer geometry. The liquid properties of importance in twin-fluid atomization are viscosity, surface tension, and density. The air properties are air velocity, air/liquid mass ratio and air density which can be calculated from its pressure and temperature. The atomizer geometry depends on the design of the atomizer, i.e. the contact angle between air and fluid stream, the nozzle diameter, etc. A review on the effect of these variables on liquid atomization can be found in Lefebvre's paper (52). Unlike fuel oil, whose viscosity is an important property controlling atomization, the effect of viscosity on the spray of slurry fuel is still ambiguous. Mchale (15) pointed out that: first, oil is a Newtonian fluid whose viscosity is independent of shear rate, and  46  Chapter 2 Literature Review  therefore viscosity that was measured at a low shear rate, 100 s -1 , in a laboratory viscometer can represent the viscosity at a high shear rate, 10 4 s- 1 , which is typically encountered in atomizer passages. Secondly, viscosity of oil governs the rate of breakage of the bonds between liquid molecules and as such provides a measure of the tendency of the substance to be deformed and disintegrated by an atomizer air or steam blast. However, these conditions do not hold for slurry fuel. In the case of slurry fuels, they are non-Newtonian and they exhibit very complicated rheological behavior, as previously discussed in section 2.2.2.2. Moreover, it is not obvious how slurry fuel viscosity relates to the tendency of the material to be broken in droplets by a fluid blast. For a two-phase fluid of high solids content, viscosity depends on the ease with which particles can slip past one another under applied stress. This "viscosity" measured under flow conditions might not be related to the rate of breakage of intermolecular or interparticle bonds of slurry fuels, and therefore even viscosity measured at high shear rates may not correlate well with quality of atomization (15). Many studies have been done to find the relationship between coal slurry fuel properties and atomization quality. The effects of surface tension and low shear rate viscosity on CWM atomization were studied by Krishna and Sapienza (59) and Nystrom (60). Both results verified the complex nature of CWM atomization in that the spray data did not seem to correlate exclusively to the measured physical properties such as surface tension and apparent viscosity (measured at 60 s -1 and 450 s -1 respectively). Sato et al. (61) reported that as far as the CWM rheology was pseudo-plastic or Newtonian, mean droplet size diameter (d32 - Sauter mean diameter) was independent of coal type, concentration and viscosity (measured at 90 s -1 ). These results support the argument that the spray characteristics of CWM cannot be described well by an evaluation of viscosity, since the viscosity characteristics are generally evaluated in a lower shear field than those at the exit port of the twin-fluid atomizer.  47  Chapter 2 Literature Review  The effect of high shear rate viscosity on atomization quality of CWM has recently been reported by Yu et al. (62). Their results showed that the reliance on low shear rate viscosities would lead to the wrong order in predicting the fineness of atomized drop size. However, when the correct values of the viscosities (at high shear rate about 10,000 s -1 , measured by capillary tube viscometer) were taken into account, the droplet sizes could be well estimated from the measured viscosities. Furthermore, they concluded that the relationships between measured mean droplet sizes and high shear viscosities of CWM were linear for the effect of air/fuel ratio. The results from Yu's experiments were supported by Smith et al. (63) who studied the influence of fluid physical properties on coal-water slurry atomization on a plain-jet airblast research nozzle. They reported that the CWM spray Sauter mean diameter could be reasonably predicted from a knowledge of the slurry velocity, the relative velocity between the atomizing air and the slurry, the air/fuel mass flow ratio and the slurry rheologies which were represented by a power law expression characterized at the high shear rate (approximately 10,000 s -1 ).  48  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility 3.1 LOW Viscosity Measurement LOW viscosity was measured by Haake Viscoester VT500, a computer controlled rotary viscometer. The equipment consists of a stationary outer cup which contains the sample to be tested and an inner cup (rotor) which is placed in the fluid in the outer cup and rotated by a motor. The torque generated at the surface of the rotor by the fluid is measured by a force sensor and the data is logged to the computer. The system temperature was controlled by a temperature controlled water bath. The sensor system used in the experiments was SV2 which is primarily used for viscosity measurements of high viscosity liquids and pastes, working in the low to medium shear rate. The rotor surface was grooved to prevent slipping between the fluid sample and the rotor surface area. The picture and details for the SV2 sensor system is shown in Table 3.1. Table 3.1 Characteristic dimensions of Sensor system SV2 Sensor system Inner cylinder (Rotor) Radius Ri [mm] Height L [mm] Outer cylinder Radius Ra [mm] Radii ratio Ra/Ri Gap width [mm] Sample volumn [cm3] Temperature [°C] System factors f M  SV2 10.1 19.6 11.55 1.14 1.45 6 -30/100 7680 890  49  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  3.2 Lignin-oil-water preparation facility  Figure 3.1 shows the schematic diagram of the LOW preparation facility. A ligninoil-water slurry was prepared in a 43 litre cylindrical tank with a conical bottom. The tank dimensions were: 30 cm inside diameter, 46 cm cylinder height, and 36 cm cone height. Figure 3.2 shows the picture of the mixer used in the LOW preparation process, purchased from McMaster Carr Supply Company. The mixing head diameter was 12.7 cm and the shaft diameter was 1.25 cm. The mixer was rotated by a 1 hp, 1725 rpm, direct drive motor. A Moyno pump, with a 1 hp motor, was used to transport the desired amount of LOW to the burner and recycle the remainder back to the tank. First, the LOW flow rate was adjusted by a globe valve on the recycle line and a small ball valve on the LOW delivery line to the atomizer. Pressure gauges were used as a preliminary method to monitor the LOW flow. The tank, all piping, pump, and motors were mounted on a single frame and weighed by a digital scale to check the actual flow of LOW by mass difference every few minutes. The scale reading accuracy was +1- 5 g. To minimize solid separation in the transporting line, all the piping was designed to be as short as possible. Later in the experiments, some modifications were made to achieve better LOW flow control. A double pipe heat exchanger, 1 metre long, was installed along the recycling line to reduce the LOW temperature which increased due to the energy input from the Moyno pump and the mixer. A Masterflex pump system, which uses peristaltic action to propel fluid through the tubing, was connected to the LOW delivery line to an atomizer to control volumetric flow rate of LOW to the kiln by a variable speed drive. The pump tubing was size 16, thick walled, Tygon.  50  Scale Figure 3.1 Schematic diagram of LOW preparation facility  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  Figure 3.2 Picture of the mixer used in LOW preparation process  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  3.3 Development of Lignin-Oil-Water feeding system  LOW was fed to the kiln by a nozzle inserted concentrically through a modified North America, Model NA 223G-3, natural gas burner. With this arrangement, LOW could be fired in the kiln solely by itself or together with natural gas. Figure 3.3 shows the original nozzle design. The earliest designed nozzle was composed of 5 concentric stainless steel tubes with 0.64, 0.95, 1.91, 2.54 and 3.18 cm outside diameter. The atomization air and LOW were separately supplied to the nozzle and met each other at an atomizer. LOW was delivered in the 0.64 cm O.D. tube. The atomization air was carried through an annulus area between the 0.95 and 1.91 cm O.D. tubes, and the cooling water was circulated among the 1.91, 2.54 and 3.18 cm tubes. The disadvantage of this nozzle was that there was no cooling water at the tip of the atomizer. The stainless steel cover could not protect the atomizer tip sufficiently from the radiative heat from the kiln. Therefore, the LOW was heated and solidified at the atomizer exit. Subsequently, the nozzle was modified to have cooling water circulate as close to the atomizer as possible to keep the temperature low at the atomizer tip. Figure 3.4 shows the modified LOW nozzle. The LOW feeding tube was changed from a 0.64 cm to a 0.48 cm outside diameter stainless steel tube. The atomization air was fed via the annular area between the 0.48 and 0.95 cm O.D. tubes. The cooling water flowed in through the annular area between the 0.95 and 1.91 cm tubes and out via the annular areas among the three outer tubes. The atomizer was also modified to be compatible with the new feeding tube system. The original air holes at the atomizer were filled and the cooling water channel was excavated so the cooling water could circulate closer to the atomizer. The new air holes were drilled closer to the fluid exit hole. However, the problem with this modified nozzle was that the atomization quality was poor. The result from using this  53  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  modified nozzle in the combustion experiment showed that there were some unburned lignin agglomerates coming out of the kiln with the lime product. The final nozzle design was separate from a water cooling jacket. Figure 3.5 shows the schematic diagram of the final LOW feeding system. The nozzle consisted of three concentric stainless steel tubes, 0.64, 0.95 and 2.22 cm O.D., connected to an atomizer at the discharge end. LOW was delivered through the 0.64 cm O.D. tube and the atomization air was carried through an annular area between the 0.95 and 2.22 cm O.D. tubes. The cooling jacket was composed of another 3 consecutive size stainless steel tubes, 2.54, 3.18 and 3.81 cm outside diameter, arranged concentrically. One end of the jacket had an open hole of diameter 0.64 cm for the spray discharge. The other end was connected to a ball valve to prevent the gas leaking out of the kiln when the inner nozzle was not placed inside the jacket.  54  Atomization air Cooling water out  Atomizer ^  Cooling water in  Lignin-Oil-Water mixture Atomization air holes  Cross section view Figure 3.3 Original nozzle design  Figure 3.4 Modified LOW nozzle  Atomizer  Cooling water in  cooling water.  Cooling water out Atomization air  Fluid exit - Atomization air holes  Lignin-Oil-Water mixture Cross section view  Figure 3.5 Final nozzle design  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  The atomizers used in this experiment were twin fluid type, round spray pattern, stainless steel from Spray Systems Co.. The system was designed such that the atomizer air cap could be changed to use either external mixing or internal mixing atomizers. However, except for Run SL8 which used the external mixing atomizer, all the other Runs used the internal mixing one. Figure 3.6 shows the schematic diagram of internal and external mixing twin fluid atomizers from Spray System Co.. The atomizer assemblies were designated 1/4J & 1/8J; with fluid cap No. 100150, air cap No. 1891125 for the internal mixing, and No. 180 for the external mixing atomizer. The fluid cap contains a 0.25 cm diameter fluid exit and six, 0.21 cm diameter, air holes.  58  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  Air Cap  ^Fluid Cap  3612 Gasket 1158 Retainer Ring  Internal mixing type  Fluid Cap Air Cap  3612 \ Gasket 1158 Retainer Ring  External mixing type Figure 3.6 Schematic diagram of internal and external mixing atomizers from Spray System Co.  59  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  3.4 Pilot lime kiln facility 3.4.1 General description  The combustion experiments were carried out at a pilot lime kiln located in the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering at the University of British Columbia. This kiln has been in service for over fifteen years in many calcination studies and heat transfer trials (64,65). Figure 3.7 shows a simplified diagram of the pilot lime kiln (10). The kiln has an inside diameter of 0.4 m and an overall length of 5.5 m. It is lined with a castable refractory and equipped with 70 thermocouples for gas, solid, refractory wall, and shell temperature measurement. Power for kiln rotation was provided by an electric motor and a variable speed gearbox with a chain and sprocket final drive. Limestone (CaCO3) was fed into the kiln from an overhead storage hopper via a variable speed belt conveyor to a collector and discharge chute. A dam was installed at the feed-end of the kiln, providing an opening of 0.21 m inside diameter, to prevent spill back of solid material while an additional dam of 0.32 m inside diameter was installed at the solid discharged end to promote uniform axial solids bed depth. Figure 3.8 shows a diagram of the solid dams at hot and cold ends of the kiln (10). No preheating of the feed material was provided. Firing of the kiln was by natural gas and lignin-oil-water mixture with a burner arrangement as shown in Figure 3.9 (10). Natural gas flow was monitored by a rotameter (model #BR-1/2-35G10 with flow tube #R-8M-25-4). Primary air was supplied by 8 nozzles equally spaced around a circle of radius 7.5 cm and concentric with the 5.72 cm inside diameter gas supply pipe and 3.81 cm. outside diameter lignin-oil-water mixture feeder. Secondary air was introduced through 8 equally spaced nozzles, concentric with the gas supply duct, on 15 cm radius circle. Combustion air was supplied at ambient temperature and monitored by a calibrated ASTM standard orifice plate.  60  Flue Gas Outlet  n  Blower Bag House Cyclone  Dust 1■••■••••  •■■••■•••••• ■■••■•■••••■•  •  •  •  o 0o ^no a  •  4  I3  o0  •  •  0  0  a  •  4.  4.  •  0  . 4.  0  '  0  •  •^•  •  •^•  ^13  • U  4  );  Natural Gas Lime Output -->1  • Suction Pyrometer^• Sample Port El Wall Probe ^Bed Probe • Shell Not to Scale  Figure 3.7 A simplified diagram of the pilot plant kiln  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  e r  v  Cold End  0.216 m  3  0.406 m  Solids Dam  Hot End 0318 m Solids Dam  0.14m  0.14 m  Figure 3.8 Diagram of solid dams at hot and cold ends of the kiln  62  0.609 m  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  Primary Air  Firing Box  Secondary Air Primary Air Natural Gas LOW nozzle  Natural Gas Primary Air Secondary Air  Figure 3.9 Details of inlet air and burner arrangement 63  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  Primary combustion air was subsequently bled from the total combustion air supply and metered through a rotameter (model #BR-1.5-35G10 with flow tube #R-12M-25-5S). Total available air supply was 0.06 m 3 /s. (130 SCFM). Atomization air was supplied from 3 air cylinders connected with a manifold. For the atomization air flow rate 2.4 dm3 /s (5 cuft/min), the air supply lasted for 2.5 hours. Brooks air rotameter (model #BR -1/2-27G10 with flow tube #R-2M-25-2 and float #8RS-14), with maximum capacity of 2.6 dm 3 /s (5.48 cuft/min) for air at pressure 10 5 N/m2 , temperature 294 K, was used to measure the air volumetric flow rate. A pressure gauge was installed after the rotameter to measure the air pressure, which was later used in calculating the actual atomization air flow rate (Appendix C) All the rotameter calibration curves are provided in Appendix D. The kiln flue gas was drawn by a fan through a cyclone and a baghouse to collect dust particles before the flue gas was discharged. The experimental apparatus may permit a small amount of leakage air to enter the kiln through the seals, the solids discharge and the burner. Nevertheless, the oxygen content in the flue gas was measured at the limestone feed end of the kiln and the result was used to calculate the percent excess air in the kiln. 3.4.2 Instrumentation  All temperature data acquired along the kiln were transferred to a remote microcomputer by a data acquisition unit located on the kiln. Figures 3.10 and 3.11 show the thermocouple locations by axial distance and radical position in the kiln, respectively (10). A detailed description of the thermocouples, for gas, bed, wall and shell measurement, can be found in Richardson's and Barr's theses (10,66).  64  0.  Suction Pyrometer^0 Wall Probe^• Bed Probe^* Shell^o Sample Ports  Figure 3. 10 Axial thermocouple layout of the pilot plant kiln  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  Gas Suction Thermocouple  Steel Shell Shell Thermocouple Refractory  Solids Bed Refractory  Solids Thermocouple  Wall Probe with Thermocouples  All Thermocouples are Type S or K  Figure 3.11 Thermocouple locations at the cross-section of the kiln  66  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  In brief, gas temperatures were obtained by shielded suction thermocouples located at ten fixed axial positions along the kiln. Thermocouple wires were type S (10%Pt, Pt-Rh), 31 gauge wire (0.33 mm), for the first four thermocouples located at the hot end of the kiln and type K (chromel-alumel), 22 gauge wire (0.7 mm), for the others. Each thermocouple was designed to slide radially, thus allowing temperature measurements at various radial positions. Suction was provided by a small diaphragm vacuum pump located on the kiln shell. Each thermocouple was connected by stainless steel tubing with a shut off valve to a cold trap and a small particle filter before the vacuum pump. In the experiments, the gas temperature readings were generally measured 10 cm off the kiln centerline, except at 2.2 and 4.0 m from the hot end, which were on the kiln centerline. This inconsistency was necessary due to an interference of the radial path by other objects associated with the kiln. Each gas temperature was recorded for two kiln revolutions, with a total of ten data points being obtained during each revolution. An arithmetic average of the twenty temperatures obtained at each axial location was used to generate the plots of axial gas temperature. Bed temperatures were measured by ten bare-tipped thermocouples at fixed axial locations (Figure 3.10) again with allowance for radial movement. The same kind of thermocouple wires were used along the kiln. The thermocouples were adjusted such that the tips were just under the top of the solids bed (Figure 3.11). In this research, they were fixed at a radial distance of 3.8 cm from the kiln wall. As in the case of the gas temperature measurement, twenty bed temperatures were obtained for each measurement on one thermocouple, which again represented two revolutions. From these data, the lowest value was assumed to represent the bulk bed temperature at each axial location, even though it might not represent true bed temperature because the response of the thermocouples within the bed was too slow to accurately describe the true bed  67  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  temperature (66). However, at the end of each run, the kiln was stopped for a short time and the true bed temperatures along the kiln axial distance were measured. Ten refractory wall temperature probes were located at fixed axial positions along the kiln as shown in Figure 3.10. Each refractory wall probe was specially designed to accommodate four thermocouples located at the radial distances of 0, 10, 28.8 and 47.6 mm from the inside refractory, as shown in Figure 3.12 (10). The first three wall probes from the discharge end of the kiln were type S thermocouples made from 31 gauge wire (0.33 mm) and the other seven probes were type K thermocouples made from 22 gauge wire (0.7 mm). Ten type K thermocouples were used to measure kiln shell temperature. These thermocouples were set into small holes drilled to a depth of about 6 mm into the steel shell. Since the thermal resistance of the steel shell was less than 1% of the total wall resistance, it was assumed to be radially isothermal (66).  68  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  Figure 3.12 Detail of thermocouples in wall probe  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  3.5 Flue gas analysis During the experiments, two methods were used for measuring the flue gas composition from the kiln: 3.5.1 Oxygen analyzer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) The flue gas was sampled by a 1 m long, 1 cm outside diameter stainless steel tube inserted through the solid feed end of the kiln. Vacuum was provided by a small piston pump. A dust filter was installed before the pump with a nitrogen line for purging the filter. After the pump, the gas sample was cooled down and some water vapor condensed in a 1 m long double pipe heat exchanger. Then, it was passed on to a drying tube, filled with glass wool and drying chemicals, to minimize particle and moisture content, both of which were detrimental to downstream analyzers. Drierite, composed of 97% CaSO4 and 3% CoC12, was used in the drying tube when only the oxygen analyzer was used, while magnesium perchlorate, Mg(C104)2, was utilized when both oxygen analyzer and FTIR were used because the calcium compound in Drierite could absorb sulfur components in the flue gas (34). 3.5.2 Gas chromatograph A Perkin-Elmer 8400 series gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector was used to measure oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the kiln flue gas. Flue gas samples were taken from the ninth suction thermocouple probe at distance 4 m from the lime product outlet end by the vacuum pump fixed on the kiln and passed through a drying tube before being delivered to the on-line gas chromatograph. An automatic valve was used for gas sampling. The gas components was separated by two columns in parallel. The first was a 2.4 m x 3.17 mm, column packed with 80/100 mesh molecular sieves and used to measure carbon dioxide concentration. The second 70  Chapter 3 Experimental Facility  was a 1.5 m x 3.17 mm, column packed with Porapack Q and used to measure oxygen concentration in the flue gas. The oven temperature was set at 105°C.  71  Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered  Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered 4.1 Lignin-Oil-Water mixture preparation  First, some LOW compositions from the rheological study were prepared in 20-30 kg batches in the pilot scale LOW preparation facility. Then cold atomization tests were tried to observe the flow rate, atomization, stability, and steady state temperature of LOW fuel. In the tests, the LOW mixtures were sprayed with compressed air in an open cylindrical bin at different air/fuel ratio at ambient conditions. In the combustion experiments, LOW mixture was usually prepared in 30 kg batches in the morning of the day of the experiment. The preparation procedures were as follows: 1. Westvaco lignin was sieved through a 2 mm x 2 mm mesh screen to remove lumps which might cause clogging at the atomizer tip. 2. Screened lignin, No. 2 fuel oil and water were weighed to prepare the desired composition of LOW. 3. The surfactant, Tergitol, a polyglycol ether, was first diluted in water before it was used in LOW preparation (e.g. 30 g of surfactant was diluted in 1 litre of water for preparing 30 kg LOW batch with surfactant concentration 1000 ppm). 4. Water, No. 2 fuel oil and diluted surfactant solution were mixed in the preparation tank for 10-15 minutes until the fluid in the tank became homogeneous (having a white color). The fluid was mixed both vertically and radially by the mixer and the Moyno pump. 5. Lignin was added to the fluid intermittently. After all the lignin had been added, the mixing was continued for about 1 hour before the LOW was ready to be fired into the kiln.  72  Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered  No. 2 fuel oil used in this experiment was purchased from Esso Petroleum Canada Co. Table 4.1 shows typical ultimate analyses and heating value of No. 2 fuel oil (35). The density of No. 2 fuel oil, measured at 25°C, was 0.839 kg/L. Table 4.1 Typical ultimate analyses and heating value of No. 2 fuel oil Composition^(%) Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Ash Gross heating value (MJ/m3)  No. 2 fuel oil 87.3 12.6 0.04 0.006 0.22 <0.01 38913.2  4.2 Combustion experiments in the pilot lime kiln  The pilot lime kiln requires a long time to achieve steady state temperatures due to its large structure. To start up the unit, the kiln was heated overnight at a low fuel rate of natural gas. In the morning, the operating conditions were set at a limestone flow rate 40kg/h, kiln rotational speed 1.5 rpm, kiln inclination angle 1 degree, and 2% oxygen in the flue gas. Then the kiln was brought to a steady-state over about five hours by natural gas firing. The steady condition was defined by the condition where the successive bed temperatures measured 20-30 minutes apart differed by less than 20°C and the discharge rate of lime product was constant. The lime product discharge weight was measured over a period of time, which was typically 15-30 minutes. After the kiln was at the steady state condition for 2-3 hours, two sets of data which included the bed, gas, wall, and shell temperature profiles along the kiln, the flue gas analysis, and the lime product sample at the product discharge tray were taken. After collecting the data for natural gas firing, the natural gas flow was reduced or stopped entirely and the LOW flow was started. LOW was fed into the kiln at the same amount of net heat inlet as natural gas. The net heat inlet 73  Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered  was calculated from the total heat inlet to the kiln subtracting the heat of vaporization of water in the fuel. To prevent LOW from drying in the delivery tube to the atomizer, a small amount of water was left in the line to cool down the tube and the atomizer tip before feeding the LOW. The atomization air was turned on before starting to feed LOW to prevent the pressure in the LOW line from driving the slurry into the atomization air passage which would cause a plugging problem. The position of the LOW nozzle inside the kiln was fixed at the end of the burner tile, a distance of 8.9 cm from the tip of the primary air jets into the kiln, for all the experimental runs (Figure 3.9). At limestone feed rate of 40 kWh, the total residence time of the solid in the kiln was about 2 hours (calculated from the volume of the solid inside the kiln divided by the volumetric flow rate of the solid, Appendix E). However the calcination reaction occurs within the distance about 2.5 m from the solid discharge end (Figure 5.15), therefore the residence time for the reaction section of the kiln is roughly about an hour. After switching the fuel from natural gas to LOW for about an hour all the temperature profiles and the lime product output rate were checked. The oxygen in the flue gas was monitored continuously by the oxygen analyser and checked intermittently by the gas chromatograph. For Runs SL8 and SL9, the FTIR was used to measure the trace gas pollutants every half an hour. After the kiln was at the steady state condition for about 1 hour, two complete sets of data were collected for the bed, gas, wall, and shell temperature profiles, the flue gas analysis and the lime product sample at the kiln discharge tray. Then the kiln rotation was stopped, and the true bed temperature profile was collected while the thermocouples stayed in the bed and the LOW flow rate was continued. After that, all the fuels were shut off. The solid samples were collected through the axial sampling ports along the kiln. The combustion air flow was maintained  74  Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered  overnight to cool down the kiln. The dust sample from the cyclone and the limestone feed were collected in the following day. During the combustion experiments, some dust was lost because the flue gas flow was bypassed from the bag house. Natural gas used in this experiment was supplied from B.C. Gas Co. Table 4.2 shows the gas composition (from B.C. Gas Co.) and its heating value. The gross and net heating values of the natural gas were calculated from heat of combustion of each gas component in the natural gas. Table 4.2 Natural gas composition (from B.C. Gas) and its heating value Composition (%) Methane Ethane Nitrogen Propane Butane Carbon dioxide Gross heating value (MJ/m3 ) Net heating value (MJ/m3 )  Natural gas 95.1 2.8 0.9 0.8 0.2 0.2 38.79 35.00  The limestone used in the combustion experiment was purchased from Texada Lime Co., B.C. The particle size ranges from 1.4 to 4.8 mm, with an average mass mean diameter of the limestone of 2.46 mm (10). Table 4.3 shows screening results of the limestone feed (10). Calcium carbonate in the limestone was found to be about 98% from loss on ignition. Chemical analysis of limestone feed is shown in Table 4.4. The method of the analysis is shown in Section 5.3.1.  75  Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered  Table 4.3 Screening results of the limestone feed Size (mm) -6.30 +5.60 -5.60 +2.83 -2.83 +2.00 -2.00 +1.41 Pan dp (mm)  Limestone sample Mass (g) 4.05 154.7 464.2 256.9 40.8 2.46  (%) 0.44 16.80 50.42 27.9 4.43  Table 4.4 Elemental analysis of limestone feed (%)  Limestone 55.23 1.35 0.44 0.10 0.28 <0.06 < 40 43.05 11.44 0.15  CaO Si02 M203 Fe2O3 MgO K9 0 Na^(ppm) Loss on Ignition Total carbon Total sulfur 4.3 Determination of percent calcination  After each combustion experiment, samples of bed material were collected from five sample ports along the kiln, in addition to samples of the feed limestone and product lime. After collection, the samples were allowed to cool to ambient temperature then placed in sealed containers. The percent calcination was determined by the loss on ignition (L01) of the samples, measured by heating 10-15 g of samples at 1000°C in a furnace overnight. The percent calcination was calculated according to the formula (67): % Calcination  ^  100 [ 1-LOI(Product) / LOI(feed) ]  76  Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered  4.4 Determination of slaking behavior of lime products  The reactivity of lime is an important parameter and one which depends upon processing conditions. Overheating of the lime causes high shrinkage, low porosity, and dense structure which results in low reactivity. Contamination with fusible ash or other products from the kiln freeboard also reduces pore area and reactivity. Slaking behavior of product lime samples was determined at the Prince George Paprican laboratory. The procedures were as follows: dried (moisture free) lime sample weighing 44 grams was added to 750 ml of green liquor at a starting temperature of 80-85°C. The green liquor was stirred at about 300 rpm. The temperature of the suspension was monitored for approximately 1 minute prior to the addition of lime and 2 minutes following the point at which the temperature reached a maximum. 4.5 Problems encountered  During the course of the experiments a number of problems were encountered which required special corrective action. The key ones were as follows: 1) LOW clogging problems at the atomizer: 1.1) LOW is a heat sensitive fuel. From preliminary LOW viscosity measurements, LOW tended to solidify at temperatures around 75°C. At the hot end of the kiln the gas temperature was about 800°C with LOW firing and 1200°C with natural gas firing. A water cooling jacket was designed to protect the LOW delivery line and atomizer from the radiative heat transfer inside the kiln. 1.2) There were some large solid agglomerates (up to 1 cm in diameter) in the dry lignin. After the dry lignin powder was sieved through the 2 mm x 2 mm mesh screen to remove these large lignin lumps, the clogging problem in the nozzle disappeared.  77  Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered  2) LOW flow fluctuation: 2.1) At the mixing tank, it was observed that if LOW was continuously mixed, its temperature could rise to 50-60°C at steady state. To prevent water lost due to evaporation from the mixing tank, which could thicken the LOW product, a one meter long double pipe heat exchanger was installed in the recycling line to cool LOW temperature down to about 30°C at steady state condition. 2.2) Earlier in the experiments, the LOW flow rate was controlled by manipulating the globe valve in the recycling line. The results showed that the LOW flow fluctuated considerably. A peristaltic pump system with Tygon tubing was installed in the LOW delivery line to control the LOW volumetric feed rate by a variable speed control drive. The results showed that after incorporating the pump, the LOW flow rate was nearly constant. 3) LOW phase separation: From the preliminary viscosity measurements, at the same lignin, oil, and water composition, LOW sample with zero surfactant content produced the lowest viscosity. However, when this sample was prepared in a 30 kg batch for cold atomization tests, after about three quarters of the batch had been sprayed, the LOW left in the tank became solidified. This result showed that without the surfactant, it was impossible to use LOW as a stable, homogeneous fuel. Later in the experiments, 1000 ppm of surfactant was added to the LOW in the preparation process and no phase separation occurred during the runs. 4) Lime product reverse reaction: The lime product samples should be kept in a sealed container because it was found that it reacted with CO2 in the air and became CaCO3 in a period of time.  78  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions 5.1 Lignin-oil-water viscosity measurements  LOW slurries were prepared in a laboratory mixer, in batches of 200 g. The LOW compositions were selected from the triangular diagram (Figure 1.2). The LOW preparation procedures are the same as those mentioned in Section 4.1. At 25°C, viscosity measurements were made at a range of fixed shear rates whereby every shear rate was measured for approximately 10, 20 or 30 minutes (depending on the time the sample takes to reach the steady state condition), after which the viscosity readings were averaged at the steady state condition. Steady state was defined over an 8 minute period if the average viscosity of the first 4 minutes differed by less than 0.01 Pa•s from that of the following 4 minutes. For every condition, the LOW sample was changed to ensure that no effect from a previous measurement would interfere with the present one. Table 5.1 shows six different compositions of slurries used in the rheology study. The lignin content in the sample varied from 37-52%, the oil content varied from 5-20%, and the water content varied from 43-47%. Table 5.1 LOW compositions in rheology study Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6  Lignin  Oil  Water  Surfactant*  (%)  (%)  (%)  5 10 15 20 10 10  43 43 43 43 45 47  (ppm)  52 47 42 37 45 43  *Tergitol NP-9  79  1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  5.1.1 Time dependent viscosity behavior -  Figure 5.1 shows the time-dependent viscosity profiles of sample 1. From Figure  5.1, the viscosity results of sample 1 (52% lignin, 5% oil and 43% water) show thixotropic behavior, with a limited decrease in viscosity with time under a constant shear rate, of 50 s -1 . However, at higher shear rates, the viscosities decrease to minimum values and then increase constantly, showing both thixotropic and rheopectic behaviors, i.e. an increase in viscosity with time under a constant shear rate. The increase in LOW viscosity with time may be explained by the formation of large clusters (68) and the water evaporation from LOW. Compared with others, sample 1 contains the highest solid content. For the same water content in LOW, the higher the lignin content, the more the amount of water absorbed by lignin particles and the less the amount of free water in the suspension. Therefore, the large lignin clusters will form more easily, and the effect of water evaporation on LOW viscosity will be more critical.  80  ^  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  18  •  ■ shear rate 50 1/s 16 —^0 ■^o shear rate 100 1/s ■  A  ■ ■^ A0  shear rate 1501/s  x shear rate 200 1/s ■  <> shear rate 250 1/s  ••^•^  o^• ■  „X X X.,AA  ■^ 0 XXg X XXAA 6 64, 04 0^ M.^ 0^ ENO^ 6: 0 1:,^0 ^• ..XX^ BO ^ O 00mm m mm eft)^l ,( komil^mm,m700 X0 <>^0° • 60.0000°'<>^00 A^00^X>O<X^  XXXXX9g219 >t  0  ^0  0.8 —  0  ^0 00 gbotb owt. L46, 46'.6.6A ^ 6A4LPLA6 ee ',4. 0 ,ev:)00'70.%, 00G0 0 '  66  0006000 0000-00°°°°0  ^ ^ 2 46^8^.10  Time (minute)  Figure 5.1 Time-dependent viscosity profiles of LOW sample 1  81  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  Figure 5.2 shows the time-dependent viscosity profiles of LOW sample 2. For LOW samples 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, the time-dependent viscosity profiles show only thixotropic behavior for all shear rates. Tables 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6 show the steady state time, steady state viscosity, initial shear stress and initial time of LOW samples 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The steady state time is the time at the beginning of the steady state condition. The steady state viscosity is the arithmetic average of the measured viscosities over 8 minutes of steady state condition, in which the average viscosity in the first 4 minutes differs less than 0.01 Pa•s from that of the following 4 minutes. The initial shear stress is the shear stress measured at the initial time. The latter is generally 0.4 minutes. The high initial shear stress will indicate the power requirement for the pump and the mixer during the LOW preparation process.  1.6  ■ shear rate 50 1/s o shear rate 100 1/s A shear rate 150 1/s x shear rate 200 1/s o shear rate 250 1/s  1.4 —  ■• ■  1.2 —  •  •  ■■ ■ o^■■■  tO —  A^  um..., •  EM  00  0.8 —  0.6 —  X 0 °00 .°)< : 0 7XX:::°°°°00000000000000000° ,s, .•. n.x 0 0::0 : X0 31,, 6:1XX '646<>< 6'.00000  0.4 —  000000000000000000p MMXs)<5°C)<X)°( 1.11.1.I 11111..111.1..XXXX ..14 0^2^4^6^8^ID^V^ 16^IS^20^22 . ."5 ".11 116.66'644646. 11111 . 1 Min 1.1  -2  ,  1  ,  Time (minute)  :  I  Figure 5.2 Time-dependent viscosity profiles of LOW sample 2  82  .  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  Figure 5.3 shows the viscosity of LOW sample 2 measured at fixed shear rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes and then stopped for 5 minutes before it was measured again for another 10 minutes. LOW viscosity shows non-viscoelastic fluid; this fluid exhibits no elastic recovery from deformations which occur during flow.  ■ first measurement  o  0  second measurement  •• •  0.8-  0^•  Um  e  mm  • ••  00000000000 0000  (160.5 0  ■  EE.  M om.  ■  E lms m M o RNE m E m E mmom 0000 000000 00000 oo ■ ooe' o o00000000  I^I^I 2^4^6  7,  8  Time (minute)  Figure 5.3 Non-viscoelastic behavior of LOW sample 2 5.1.2 LOW viscosity as a function of shear rate From the results in Tables 5.2-5.6, LOW is a non-Newtonian fluid, as its steady state viscosity is a function of the shear stress or equivalently of the shear rate. It shows characteristics of a pseudoplastic fluid, since the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate.  83  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  Table 5.2 Viscosity results for LOW sample 2 Shear rate (1/s) 50 100 150 200 250  Steady state time (min) 12 12 8 12 8  Steady state viscosity (Pa•s) 0.890 0.536 0.470 0.352 0.332  Initial stress (Pa) 69.67 98.32 137.89 160.71 208.37  Initial time (min) 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4  Table 5.3 Viscosity results for LOW sample 3 Shear rate (1/s) 50 100 150 200 250  Steady state time (min) 12 12 12 8 8  Steady state viscosity (Pa•s) 0.812 0.535 0.421 0.333 0.295  Initial stress (Pa) 78.38 106.83 122.93 132.34 145.34  Initial time (min) 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4  Table 5.4 Viscosity results for LOW sample 4  Shear rate (1/s) 50 100 150 200 250  Steady state time (min) 15 4 8 12 8  Steady state viscosity (Pa•s) 0.819 0.726 0.523 0.411 0.361  Initial stress (Pa) 76.93 109.93 128.43 158.99 154.97  Initial time (min) 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4  Table 5.5 Viscosity results for LOW sample 5 Shear rate (1/s) 50 100 150 200 250  Steady state time (min) 18.6 12 8 4 4  Steady state viscosity (Pa•s) 0.527 0.300 0.284 0.274 0.195  84  Initial stress (Pa) 43.55 56.51 72.50 85.08 105.06  Initial time (min) 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  Table 5.6 Viscosity results for LOW sample 6 Shear rate (1/s) 50 100 150 200 250  Steady state time (min) 15 4 8 12 8  Steady state viscosity (Pa•s) 0.485 0.269 0.210 0.203 0.197  Initial stress (Pa) 34.83 47.22 49.64 63.59 72.66  Initial time (min) 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4  5.1.3 LOW viscosity as a function of composition  Figure 5.4 shows the steady state viscosity of different LOWs as a function of shear rate for 3 LOW samples having the same 10% oil content. The higher the % water, or the lower the % lignin, the lower is the viscosity. The viscosity of Sample 2 (43% water) averages about 70% higher than the viscosity of Sample 5 (45% water), while the viscosity of Sample 5 averages about 18% higher than Sample 6 (47% water). Therefore, the water content in the mixture becomes very critical at 43%; the higher the water content, the more fluid the LOW (at constant 10% oil content).  85  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  1.0  %composition (lignin : oil : water) 0.8 —  —0— LOW sample 2 = (47:10:43) x--- LOW sample 5 = (45:10:45) ----- • — LOW sample 6 = (43:10:47)  0  0  U •4  0.4 —  0  •-•.„x ______^x•^  0.2 —  50^p0^150  ^  200  ^  250  Shear rate (1/s)  Figure 5.4 LOW viscosity as a function of shear rate at different % composition (constant 10% oil content)  86  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  Figure 5.5 shows the viscosity of LOW mixtures as a function of shear rate for 3 samples with the same 43% water content. The viscosity of Sample 2 (47% lignin) is higher that that of Sample 3 (43% lignin). However, the viscosities of the two samples were less than those Sample 4 (37% lignin) at shear rates of 100, 150, 200, and 250 s -1 . This is probably due to the flocculation effect in Sample 4 that causes a higher viscosity, although this sample is lowest in lignin concentration (Figure 2.9).  0.9 -  0.8 -  % composition (lignin : oil : voter) —0— LOW sample 2 = (47:10:43) -- X-- LOW sample 3 = (43:15:43) — • LOW sample 4 = (37:20:43)  -  cid^a 0.6  0 LP  0.5 -  r?'  -  0.4 -  -• 0  x  0.3 I^1^1 ^  50^130^150  200  ^  250  Shear rate (1/s)  Figure 5.5 LOW viscosity as a function of shear rate at different %compositions (constant 43% water content)  87  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  5.2 Lignin-oil-water mixture combustion experiments Table 5.7 Chronology of combustion runs Run  Date (d/m/yr)  SL1 16/04/92 SL2 12/05/92 SL3 7/07/92 SL4 14/07/92 SL5 1/10/92 SL6 5/10/92 SL7 16/10/92 22/10/92 SL8 SL9 06/11/92 SL10 18/11/92 SL11 25/11/92 * surfactant 1000 ppm  Objective : (% Nat. gas replacement) 50 50 60 85 100 100 100 100 100 100 60  LOW composition (lignin:oil:water)* 41:12:47 41:12:47 37:20:43 37:20:43 37:20:43 37:20:43 41:14:45 41:14:45 41:14:45 37:20:43 41:14:45  Duration for LOW firing (hour) 1.5 2.0 2 2 2 2 0.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5  Table 5.7 shows the chronology of combustion runs in the pilot lime kiln. In Runs SL1 to SL4 and in SL11, only part of the natural gas was replaced by lignin slurry. For the first six runs, the LOW flow fluctuated a great deal which caused unstable combustion conditions. The LOW flame was pulsating and sometimes there was a lot of black smoke at the kiln flue gas exit. The 02 concentration in the flue gas, readily controlled at 2% for natural gas combustion, varied from 0-10% for LOW combustion. However, later on in the experimental program, the feed problem for the slurry was fixed, and the combustion was stable. The LOW flame was long, with a luminous bright orange color, comparing to natural gas flame which was short and blue. The 02 in the flue gas varied between 2-3%. The conditions and results for each combustion run are discussed below. For Run SL1, the original nozzle design was used to feed LOW slurry to the kiln. The LOW did not flow continuously due to solidification with subsequent clogging problems at the atomizer exit. Black smoke was generated from incomplete combustion. 88  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  The natural gas flow rate was cut off intermittently because the flame sensor could not see the flame. For Run SL2 the modified nozzle, with better cooling at the atomizer tip, was used. However, this nozzle gave poor atomization. Some unburned LOW agglomerates were found coming out of the kiln with the lime product. The final nozzle design with the separate cooling jacket was utilized after Run SL2. A detailed description of the nozzle is found in Section 3.3. There was no problem with LOW solidification or poor atomization with this nozzle. However, the LOW flow rate was very difficult to control. At low flow rate, Run SL3 (60% natural gas replacement), the variation in LOW flow rate was less than the runs with high LOW flow rate, SL4 and SL6 (85% and 100% natural gas replacement). For Run SL3, the 02 concentration in the flue gas varied between 0.5-2.7% while for Runs SL4 and SL6 the 02 concentration in the flue gas varied between 1-10%. For Run SL5, the LOW delivery tube became disconnected from the atomizer. The LOW flow rate was extremely erratic, therefore, the results from this run are not presented. For Run SL7, the LOW flow rate fluctuation was markedly reduced by the use of a peristaltic pump (with variable speed control) to feed LOW to the kiln. A double pipe heat exchanger was installed in the LOW recycling line to cool down the slurry temperature which otherwise rose to about 60°C due to the input energy from the Moyno pump and the mixer. However, Run SL7 was interrupted by breakage of the plastic tube in the peristaltic pump. The tube first inflated and then ruptured inside the pump because of high pressure which built up at the atomizer tip when it became clogged (The pump  was designed to run at a maximum continuous outlet pressure of 20 psig).  89  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  For Run SL8, the external mixing atomizer was used instead of internal mixing atomizer to reduce the pressure drop at the atomizer tip. The result was satisfactory operation. The LOW flow rate was very stable. The 02 concentration in the flue gas was closely controlled between 2.7-3.5%. The FTIR spectrometer was used to measure sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and methane in the flue gas for this test and some results were obtained. However, some clogging at the atomizer tip still occurred. After Run SL8, the Moyno pump was taken apart for cleaning. Some hard solid particles were found inside the pump. These solid lumps were found to be Westvaco lignin. Therefore, for the later runs, the lignin was screened through a 2 mmx2 mm mesh screen before mixing with water and oil. In the screening process, solid particles were found with diameters up to 10 mm. For Run SL9, a new peristaltic pump head and tube that could operate at a higher outlet pressure of 25 psig was used. The external atomizer was exchanged back to the internal one. The lignin was screened before the LOW preparation process. With this feed preparation, and pumping arrangement, the combustion was very stable. No clogging problems occurred during the run. The FTIR spectrometer was used again to measure the combustion products. For Runs SL10 and SL11, the run settings were essentially the same as for Run SL9. However, for Run SL10, the LOW composition was changed and for Run SL11, the LOW feed rate was decreased. The LOW flame was very stable with few observable sparks. The 02 concentration in the flue gas was controlled between 2-3%. No unburned LOW agglomerates were found in the lime product. Therefore, for Runs SL9 to SL11, operation was satisfactory from all points of view - smooth operation with no interruptions due to blockage, good control of excess air, etc. 90  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  Table 5.8 shows the conditions for the combustion runs and the product calcination results. The conditions for each run were divided into 2 parts: the first part is for natural gas firing (e.g. SL2A) and the second part is for LOW firing with or without natural gas co-firing (e.g. SL2B). The limestone feed rate was constant at 40 kg/h for all runs. From Table 5.8, the lime product calcinations were quite low for the first 7 runs due to some adjustments to the combustion conditions. The limestone calcination is very sensitive to the dissociation temperature and the duration at this temperature. Small variations in LOW feed rate result in a great difference in percent product calcination. For the last three runs, the lime product calcinations were greater than 90% for both natural gas and LOW firing. However, it was found that the percent lime product calcination varied depending on the size of the lime particle. The smaller the lime particle size, the lower its percent calcination in a pilot lime kiln, as shown in Table 5.8. This is due to the segregation which occurs during kiln operation which gives rise to the formation of a "kidney-shaped" zone of the fine material which does not get exposed to the hot gas (69).  91  Table 5.8 Combustion run conditions Date Run Gas flow LOW LOW (d/111/Yr) (m3/min) compflow osition rate * (kg/min) 12/5/92  Net heat input (MJ/min) **  Total combustion air (m3/min)  Primary/ secondary/ atomization + air (m3 /min)  Lime product outlet (kg/h)  % Product Calcination dp> 1.18 mm  % Product Calcination dp<1.18 mm  % 02 in flue gas  5.25  1.274  0.91/0.37/ -  25.6  77.9  30.1  2.06  SL2A  0.150  -  SL2B  0.071  LOW1  0.277  6.33  1.826  1.13/0.57/0.13  25.2  89.6  59.9  1.51  SL3A  0.164  -  -  5.74  1.614  1.13/0.48/ -  23.25  -  -  2.6  SL3B  0.065  LOW2  0.236  6.17  1.897  0.99/0.79/0.11  22  72.4  59.8  0.5-2.7  SL4A  0.164  -  -  5.74  1.472  1.08/0.40/ -  21.75  82.8  59.3  1.5  SLAB  0.034  LOW2  0.28  5.81  1.982  0.99/0.85/0.14  22  74.5  39.1  1-6  01/10/92  SL5A  0.164  -  -  5.74  1.472  1.13/0.34/ -  22.5  83.4  42.5  3.0  05/10/92  SL6A  0.164  -  -  5.74  1.472  1.13/0.34/ -  21  -  -  4.0  SL6B  -  LOW2  0.37  6.105  1.841  0.99/0.71/0.14  20.5  94.6  69.1  2-10  16/10/92  SL7A  0.150  -  -  5.25  1.246  0.85/0.40/ -  23  83.4  59.5  1.0  22/10/92  SL8A  0.150  -  -  5.25  1.303  0.85/0.45/ -  24  62.6  35.2  0.5  SL8B  -  LOW3  0.35  5.19  1.807  0.99/0.71/0.11  26.7  60.2  33.4  2.7-3.5  SL9A  0.164  -  -  5.74  1.642  1.22/0.42/ -  22.9  95.3  55.0  2.5  SL9B  -  LOW3  0.38  5.63  1.818  0.99/0.71/0.12  24.1  99.3  93.2  2.0-3.5  SL10A  0.164  -  -  5.74  1.642  1.22/0.42/ -  23.8  94.4  46.9  3.15  SL1OB  -  LOW2  0.35  5.79  1.741  1.22/0.42/0.10  22.2  99.3  96.5  2.0-3.0  SL11A  0.164  -  -  5.74  1.586  1.19/0.40/  22.8  99.4  86.9  2.6 2.7  SL11B  0.065  LOW3  0.245  5.9  1.739  0.93/0.68/0.12  21.5  99.1  97.5  2.1-3  07/7/92 14/7/92  06/11/92 18/11/92 25/11/92  -  -  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  * LOW composition LOW1 LOW2 LOW3  Lignin (%) 41 37 41  Oil (%) 12 20 14  **Net heat inlet calculation is shown in Appendix F.  Water (%) 47 43 45  Surfactant (ppm) 1000 1000 1000  5.2.1 LOW firing at 60% natural gas replacement  Figures 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8 show axial gas temperature profiles, bed temperature profiles and inside wall surface temperature profiles for LOW firing at 60% natural gas replacement. Two different compositions of LOW were used. For Run SL3B, LOW composition was 37% lignin , 20% oil and 43% water, and for Run SL11B, LOW composition was 41% lignin, 14% oil and 45% water. The comparison between the different LOW compositions will not be discussed here because of the difference in the feeding system, the total combustion air supply, the primary, secondary and atomization air, between the two runs that might have affected the temperature profiles inside the kiln. From Figure 5.6, the highest gas temperatures for natural gas firing were at the first thermocouple, or 0.15 m from the lime product outlet, while the highest gas temperatures for LOW+natural gas co-firing were at the third thermocouple, or 0.92 m from the lime product outlet. After the third thermocouple, the temperature profiles of LOW+natural gas co-firing were higher than those of natural gas firing. Also at the tenth thermocouple, the temperature difference between the natural gas firing and LOW+natural gas co-firing was about 100°C.  93  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  0,  o \  1200 —  ^,.  ,  \  o,,, , 111.„=......„ • - o,`,^•  s  1100 —  Li  ti) a) 1900 .0  /  I  .  a)^-  s.  03 ;-,  -0,^•  900 —  a) sz.  .....:,-  E 600 —  a)  700 —  600  — 0—natural gas, SL3A  ---,.......:0,  -  ' 0 \  —•— LOW2+natural gas, SL3B — 0— natural gas, SL11A —•— LOW3+natural gas, SL11B I  0  I 1  o_.„  I 2  \ \ \ \ \ • \ 0 \  o  I^ I  3  4  5  Distance from lime product outlet (m)  Figure 5.6 Axial gas temperature profiles for 60% natural gas replacement These gas temperature profiles showed that the natural gas flame was shorter than the LOW flame. The lower temperature of LOW+natural gas co-firing at distance less than 1 m from the lime product outlet was due to the lag time for slurry fuel combustion. LOW droplets from the atomizer must be partially evaporated, dried and heated to a certain temperature before the combustion reaction begins. By contrast, mixing of the natural gas with air, and combustion take place in the burner. The higher gas temperature of LOW+natural gas co-firing at the cold end of the kiln showed that there was more sensible heat loss with flue gas by LOW+natural gas co-firing than that by natural gas firing alone. However, for a commercial kiln, which is much longer and for which the feed is wet, this problem may not occur.  94  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  1100  1000 C..) bb 900ti) -c$ 800 -1?)  a)  a^ 700 E  — 0 — natural gas, SL3A — ■ — LOW2+natural gas, SL3B - o--- natural gas, SL11A  600 -  —0— LOW3+natural gas, SL11B 500 0  ^  1^2^3^4  ^  5  Distance from lime product outlet (m) Figure 5.7 Axial bed temperature profiles for 60% natural gas replacement From Figure 5.7, the highest bed temperatures for natural gas firing were at the first thermocouple for Run SL3A and at the second thermocouple for Run SL11A. This difference in position of the highest bed temperature was due to the different proportion of primary and secondary combustion air. Run SL11A had higher primary and less secondary air flow than Run SL3A, which caused a longer flame and lower bed temperature at the first thermocouple from the kiln. The highest bed temperatures for LOW+natural gas co-firing was between the third and the forth thermocouple. The difference in position for the highest bed temperature for gas firing and LOW+natural gas co-firing corresponded to the gas temperature profiles (Figure 5.6), and reflects the heat flows from the freeboard gas to the solid.  95  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  1000 -  900 -  - ••  C.)  oz 800  h §1., H  N  Ns.  -  700-  600-  500 -  400 -  0  NNN  --- ^ --- natural gas, SL3A — ■ — LOW2+natural gas, SL3B --- 0-- natural gas, SL1 IA —•— LOW3 +natural gas, SL1 1B  N„  I^I^I^I 1^2^3^4  5  6  Distance from lime product outlet (m)  Figure 5.8 Axial inside surface wall temperature profiles for 60% natural gas replacement From Figure 5.8, the inside surface wall temperature profiles for LOW+natural gas co-firing, at the distance greater than 1 m from the lime product outlet were higher than those of natural gas firing. These data showed the same trend as both axial gas and bed temperature profiles.  5.2.2 LOW firing at 100% natural gas replacement Figure 5.9 shows the gas temperature profiles for LOW firing at 100% natural gas replacement for 2 different LOW compositions. For Run SL9B, the LOW composition was 41% lignin, 14% oil and 45% water, and, for Run SL10, the LOW composition was 37% lignin, 20% oil and 43% water. In general, the highest gas temperatures for LOW firing were at the fourth thermocouple, or about 2.2 m from the lime product outlet, while 96  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  the highest temperatures for natural gas firing were at the first thermocouple or 0.15 m from the product outlet. The gas temperatures for LOW firing at the cold end of the kiln was almost 100°C higher than those for gas firing. The reasons for these phenomena are the same as those which explain the trends in Figure 5.6.  1300  —0-- natural gas, SL9A LOW3, SL9B natural gas, SL10A — 0— LOW2, SL1OB  1200 -  ca 1100 -  e  -z) Iwo  -  a)  900 -  E-4  800 -  700-  600  0  I^I^I 1^2^3  4  Distance from lime product outlet (m) Figure 5.9 Axial gas temperature profiles for 100% natural gas replacement For Run SL10B, the LOW composition had a higher % oil, less % lignin and less % water than that for Run SL9B. The gas temperature profile of Run SL1OB was above that of Run SL9B for the first four thermocouples from the lime product outlet, which indicated the effect of the LOW composition on its gas temperature profile. The higher the water content in the slurry, the greater the heat required to evaporate the water and increase the water vapor temperature to the kiln temperature and thus the longer the combustion flame and the lower the gas temperature at the combustion end of the kiln.  97  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  The bed temperature profiles and the inside surface wall temperature profiles (Figures 5.10 and 5.11) had a similar trend to the gas temperature profiles.  1100  1000 —  a) 900 — a) 1-■  -le cv1  800 —  a) ta.  -  700  natural gas, SL9A  —•—LOW3, SL9B ---o--- natural gas, SL10A  Ei 600 —  —•—LOW2, SL1OB l  co  1^2^3^4  5  Distance from lime product outlet (m) Figure 5.10 Axial bed temperature profiles for 100% natural gas replacement  98  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  1000 900 U  `:o  \  •  •  800  V 41 700 .1  600 F1  500 -  — 0—natural gas, SL9A —•— LOW3, SL9B natural gas, SL10A —•— LOW2, SL1OB  400 1^2^3^4  ^ ^  5  6  Distance from lime product outlet (m)  Figure 5.11 Axial inside wall surface temperature profiles for 100% natural gas replacement 5.2.3 LOW firing at different % natural gas replacement  Figure 5.12 shows the axial gas temperature profiles for natural gas firing, LOW+natural gas co-firing (at 60% natural gas replacement by LOW) and LOW firing inside the kiln. The highest gas temperature shifted from the first thermocouple for natural gas firing to the third thermocouple for LOW+natural gas firing and to the fourth thermocouple for LOW firing. The maximum gas temperature was about 100°C lower with LOW firing, compared to that of natural gas firing. The gas temperature at the tenth thermocouple, 4.5 m. from the lime product outlet, increased as the amount of LOW used as a fuel in the kiln increased. From these results, it can be concluded that the higher the  99  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  % natural gas replacement by the LOW slurry, the longer is the combustion flame inside the kiln.  ------- natural gas, SL11A ---•--- LOW3+natural gas, SL11B A LOW3, SL9B -  0  ^  -  1^2^3  ^ ^ 4 5  Distance from lime product outlet (m)  Figure 5.12 Axial gas temperature profiles at different % natural gas replacement The axial bed temperature profiles (Figure 5.13) had a similar trend to the gas temperature profiles, except that the maximum bed temperature for natural gas firing moved to the second thermocouple from the lime product outlet. For the inside surface wall temperature profiles, Figure 5.14, the inside surface wall temperature for LOW firing dropped significantly at the distance less than 1.5 m. from the lime product outlet. At 60% natural gas replacement, the inside surface wall temperatures at the first thermocouple from lime product outlet was a little below those of natural gas firing; however, for the other eight thermocouples, the temperatures were about 50°C higher than those of natural gas firing.  100  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  ------ 0-- natural gas, SLI IA ---•---LOW3+natural gas, SL11B - A LOW3, SL9B 0^1^2^3^4  ^  5  Distance from lime product outlet (m) Figure 5.13 Axial bed temperature profiles at different % natural gas replacement.  101  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  1000 -  900  0.)) 800 -o  .  700 -  04 600 E-1  500 -  0 natural gas, SL1 IA —0-- LOW3+natural gas, SL11B LOW3, SL9B A -  -  400 I^I^I^I 1^2^3^4  5  6  Distance from lime product outlet (m)  Figure 5.14 Axial inside wall surface temperature profiles at different % natural gas replacement Figure 5.15 shows the axial calcination profiles inside the kiln for LOW firings (Runs SL9B and SL10B), LOW+natural gas co-firing (Run SL11B) and typical natural gas firing (10). It is shown that more than 90% of calcination reaction occurs within the distance 2.5 m from the lime product outlet for all fuels. The total residence time for limestone inside the kiln is about 2 hours (Appendix E). However, the residence time for the calcination reaction is less than 1 hour because the reaction occurs in only half of the kiln length. The axial calcination profile for natural gas firing is found to be lower than LOW firings and LOW+natural gas co-firing at ports 1-5 from the lime product outlet door. This might be due to the long and luminious flame of LOW firing which enhances  102  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  the radiative heat transfer and creates a broader burning zone. These effects could be explained by an analysis of heat flow in the kiln.  130 -  —A— L0W3, SL9B —0— LOW2, SL1 OB —x—LOW3+natural gas, SL11B —0—natural gas (10)  80 -  60 -  40 -  20 -  01  0  I^I^I^•^I 1^2^3^4  5  6  Distance from lime product outlet (m) Figure 5.15 Axial calcination profiles inside the kiln 5.2.4 True bed temperature profiles  Figures 5.16, 5.17, 5.18 and 5.19 show the axial gas, bed and true bed temperature profiles for Runs SL3B, SL9B, SL1OB and SL11B, respectively. The "true" bed temperatures were measured by halting kiln rotation as outlined in Section 4.2. From these figures, it was observed that the true bed temperatures were much different from the bed temperatures measured transiently without correction, particularly for the third and fourth thermocouples where the gas and bed temperatures were the highest. The temperature differences at these positions were found to be 80-150°C, while for the other thermocouples, the differences were much smaller. Because of the big difference between  103  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  the gas temperature and the true bed temperature at the third and the fourth thermocouples, the uncorrected bed temperature readings were much higher than the true bed temperatures.  1200  1100 —  C.)  1000 —  •IzS s-i 900  O  ,,,-**  . . _. ---__„___^-"-x ,.....  X^0 ----, A^--__  ----  A^  0  A  •  ***''''X'''s\-,...  800  A^  gas temperature — x-- bed temperature A true bed temperature —  700 —  —  600  0  0  -% A\  X/^  X\  0--  o  —  I^I^I 1^2^3^4  Distance from lime product outlet (m)  5  Figure 5.16 Axial gas/bed/true bed temperature profiles, SL3B  104  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  1200  1100 — 0 bb  11)  "CS  1000 —  a)  $-1 .  e  al s. to .  900 —  as  800 —  Ey  — o— gas temperature —x— bed temperature —  A—  true bed temperature  700— 0^1^2^3^4  Distance from lime product outlet (m)  5  Figure 5.17 Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL9B  12 00 — 1100 0 N 0 S loco 0 id b 900 — 0 F" 800 —  700 —  —0— gas temperature —x— bed temperature A true bed temperature —  0^1  —  ^ ^ 2  4^4^5  Distance from lime product outlet (m)  Figure 5.18 Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL1OB 105  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  12 00  1100 -  U 611) 1000 -  "cf  15) 900 ‘.4 N 1:14  ai  F-  800 -  — o— gas temperature —x— bed temperature — A— true bed temperature  700 -  :t^5 Distance from lime product outlet (m)  0^1^2^3^  Figure 5.19 Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL11B  5.2.5 Flue gas analysis In the combustion experiments in the pilot lime kiln, gas chromatography (GC) was used to measure the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the flue gas. The results are presented in Appendix G. The oxygen concentration was controlled between 2-3% by adjusting the combustion air flow rate. The steady state CO2 concentration varied between 16-20% for natural gas firing and 20-24% LOW firing. An oxygen analyzer which measures the oxygen concentration in the flue gas continuously by an electrochemical cell was also used. The readings from the oxygen analyzer and the GC were compared. The results showed that they were in the same range. The 02 concentration from the GC was about 1.15 times as high as that from the oxygen analyzer when the reading from the oxygen analyzer showed about 2% oxygen in the flue gas. In  106  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  later runs, the FTIR spectrometer was used to measure some gaseous pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxide and methane. Table 5.9 shows the FTIR gas analysis results for Run SL9. The CO concentration, for natural gas firing with 2.7% oxygen concentration in the flue gas, was 25 ppm. For LOW firing, with oxygen concentrations in the flue gas varied from 1-3%, the CO concentrations were between 3.5-58 ppm. Figure 5.20 shows the CO concentration in the kiln flue gas at different oxygen concentrations for 8 gas samples from Run SL9B. The results show that, as expected, the higher the oxygen concentration, the lower is the CO concentration in the flue gas.  107  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  Table 5.9 FTIR gas analysis results for Run SL9 (dry basis) Sample  02  CO  NO  NO2  name/time  %  ppm  ppm  Natural gas 12:18 pm  2.7  25  LOW test 18 3:14 pm  2.8  LOW test 19 3:18 pm  SO2  CH4  ppm  Total NO x ppm  ppm  ppm  84  2  86  ntd  ntd  5  309  42  351  28  ntd  2.4  19  256  98  354  172  ntd  LOW test 20 3:30 pm  1  58  219  39  258  287  ntd  LOW test 21 4:08 pm  2.9  5  229  57  286  223  ntd  LOW test 22 4:16 pm  3.1  13  328  75  403  124  ntd  LOW test 23* 4:38 pm  3.1  13  162  131  293  158  ntd  LOW test 24 4:41 pm  3.2  3.5  320  111  431  150  ntd  LOW test 25 5:09 pm  1.8  15  242  125  367  204  ntd  LOW test 26 5:16 pm  3  8  323  98  421  345  ntd  note : - CO2 concentration was too high for the current gas cell to obtain any meaningful data. - CO concentration are approximate (+/- 20 ppm) due to interference, only a small portion of the spectra was used for data analysis. - NO uncertainty is +/- 15 ppm. - NO2 has some interference due to water (+1-10 ppm). legend : ntd - not detected * This set of data was not used in plotting Figures 5.20 and 5.21  108  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  60 -  -  a. C  -  ao —  O^-  30 a' a)^U 0 20 O  c.) 01.0^1.5^2.0^2.5^3.0  ^  35  Oxygen concentration (%)  Figure 5.20 Carbon monoxide concentration in the kiln flue gas, Run SL9B At equilibrium, the CO concentration is given by the overall reaction: CO2 4--->^CO + 0.5 02^K1 and thus [CO] = K1 [CO2]/[02] 0 . 5 where K1 is the equilibrium constant and [CO] etc. are the concentrations of the gases. The equilibrium concentration of CO in the flue gas depends on the temperature and the level of excess air (55). The higher the flame temperature, the higher is the value of the equilibrium constant and so is the CO concentration. If the temperature is maintained constant, the low levels of excess air result in the higher concentrations of CO. CO is formed rapidly in the reaction zone, and hence concentrations of CO in the flame are usually above the equilibrium value (55). As the gas moves along the kiln CO concentrations decrease as CO is oxidized to CO2. For a pilot lime kiln, the time available for burn out of the CO is short compared with that of an  109  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  actual kiln, thus the CO levels from the actual kiln may be lower than those measured from the pilot lime kiln. The NO and NO2 concentrations, for natural gas firing with 2.7% oxygen in the flue gas, were 84 and 2 ppm respectively. The NO2 concentration is less than 3% of the NO. For LOW firing, with oxygen concentrations in the flue gas varied from 1-3%, the NO and NO2 concentrations were 219-328 and 42-125 ppm respectively. The NO2 concentrations vary between 14-52% of the NO. The relatively high [NO2]/[NO] ratios for LOW firing may be explained by the long combustion flame of the LOW fuel. For typical flame temperatures (T > 1500 K), chemical equilibrium considerations indicate that the [NO2]/[NO] ratios are negligible (70). However, significant NO2 concentrations have been measured in gas turbine exhausts and in situ measurements of NO x concentration in turbulent diffusion flames (71,72) indicate that there are relatively large [NO2]/[NO] ratios near the combustion zone. Also, in probe sampling studies of one-dimensional premixed hydrocarbon-air flames, significant levels of NO2 have been found in the flame zone, with apparent conversion of the NO2 back in the postflame region (73). Figure 5.21 shows the NO concentration in the flue gas at different oxygen concentrations for 8 gas samples taken from Run SL9B. The results show that the higher the oxygen concentration in the flue gas, the higher the NO concentration. Nitrogen oxides in the flue gas are formed as a result of the oxidation of nitrogen compounds in the fuel (fuel NO), the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen at high temperatures (thermal NO), and the reaction of hydrocarbon fragments and molecular nitrogen in the flame (prompt NO). However, the formation of the prompt NO has a weak temperature dependence, a short life time of several microseconds, and is only significant in very fuel-rich flames (76). The formations of both fuel and thermal NO are dependent on the local combustion environment (temperature and stoichiometry). The higher the combustion temperature and the level of the oxygen in the combustion zone, the more NOx will be formed in the 110  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  flue gas. At flame temperatures below 1800 K, the formation of the thermal NO is insignificant compared with the fuel NO which is a principal source of NO emissions in fossil fuel combustion (77).  340 •  A  320 -  A  A  +4 260 N  0 240 U Z 220 -  S  200 -  1.10  ^  1.5^2.0^2.5  3.0  ^  35  Oxygen concentration (%)  Figure 5.21 Nitric oxide concentration in the kiln flue gas, Run SL9B Assume that all the nitrogen in the lignin-oil-water fuel reacts with oxygen and forms nitric oxide in the flue gas, the calculated NO concentration in the flue gas is 2405 ppm (Appendix F). This number is much higher than the measured total NO x concentration in the flue gas, average 352 ppm (Table 5.9). The big difference between the calculated and the measured value of the NO x concentration in the flue gas indicates that not all the nitrogen in the LOW fuel converted to the NO x gases. Table 5.10 shows the calculation of percent conversion fuel-nitrogen to NO x in the flue gas in Run SL9B. By assuming that the thermal NO formed in the flue gas during natural gas firing is equal to that formed during LOW firing, the fuel NO x gas formed during LOW firing was  111  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  11.5% of the nitrogen entering to the kiln with LOW fuel. The detail calculation is provided in Appendix H. Table 5.10 Percent conversion of fuel-nitrogen in LOW combustion, Run SL9B Natural gas firing (SL9A) : Total NOx measured^0.3449^mole/h (Thermal NO) LOW firing (SL9B): Average total NOx measured^1.6552^mole/h (Thermal + Fuel NO) Fuel NOx formed^1.3103^mole/h 11.40^mole/h Total N in with LOW^ %N in LOW fuel converted to NO x^1.3103/11.40 x 100 11.5^% The total NOx concentration, which is the sum equivalence of nitrogen oxides, of LOW firing is high compared with that of natural gas firing in the pilot lime kiln. However in an actual kiln, some control methods such as staged combustion, burner modifications, exhaust gas recirculation or injection of ammonia and related compounds could be utilized to reduce the NO x formation in the flue gas. Sulfur dioxide was not detected in the flue gas during the natural gas firing. However, for the LOW firing, the SO2 concentration varied from 28 to 345 ppm. A relation between the SO2 and the oxygen concentrations in the flue gas was not found. With the current sampling system, some SO2 is absorbed by condensed water inside the heat exchanger tube and some reacts with calcium compounds in the solid filter and the gas sampling line, thus the highest measured SO2 concentration is believed to more closely represent the actual SO2 concentration in the flue gas. Assume that all the organic sulfur in the lignin-oil-water fuel reacts with oxygen and forms sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, the expected concentration of SO2 is 594 ppm (Appendix H); however, the measured SO2 concentration was 345 ppm. The difference in SO2 concentration between the calculated value and the measured value is probably due  112  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  to the SO2 loss in the gas sampling system. The sulfur balance around the kiln will be shown in Section 5.3.1. The high level of SO2 concentration with LOW firing, compared to that with natural gas firing, indicates that there is not good contact between SO2, 02, and CaO in the pilot lime kiln. However, in an actual lime kiln, whose residence time is much longer and the solid feed is moist, the SO2 concentrations in the flue gas may be lower because of the capture by the solid CaO or the wet mud. Table 5.11 shows the gas analysis results from Run SL8. There are some conditions different between the combustion in Runs SL8 and SL9. The heat load of Run SL9 is about 10% higher than that of Run SL8 and therefore the gas temperature profiles are higher for Run SL9. Also, the atomizer used in Run SL8 was the external mixing nozzle, while in Run SL9 the internal mixing nozzle was used. However, the effect of different type of atomizer on the LOW combustion was not established.  113  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  Table 5.11 FTIR gas analysis results for Run SL8 (dry basis) NO ppm  NO2 ppm  Total  %  CO ppm  Natural gas 11.26 pm  0.5  2080  25  ntd  Natural gas* 11:44 pm  2.6  2450  29  LOW test 11 12:20 pm  2.9  58-70  LOW test 12 12:22 pm  2.9  LOW test 13 12:32 pm  Sample name/time  02  SO2 ppm  CH4 ppm  25  ntd  ntd  ntd  29  ntd  ntd  141  4  145  ntd  ntd  62  139  ntd  139  22  ntd  3.1  42-62  154  6  160  215  ntd  LOW test 14 1:04 pm  3.3  39-54  164  9-12  173-176  65  ntd  LOW test 15 1:07 pm  2.6  70  164  7  171  55.2  ntd  LOW test 16 1:43 pm  2.9  20-39  135  11  146  130  ntd  LOW test 17 1:46 pm  3  39  142  9  151  128  ntd  NOx  ppm  note : - * the lime product output door was open during the flue gas measurement. - CO2 concentration was too high for the current gas cell to obtain any meaningful data. - CO concentration are approximate (+/- 17ppm) due to interference, only a small portion of the spectra was used for data analysis. - NO uncertainty is +/- 10 ppm. - NO2 has some interference due to water (+/-10 ppm). legend : ntd - not detected  114  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  From Table 5.11, for natural gas firing the first sample was taken while the lime product outlet door was closed and the second sample was taken while the door was open. The other conditions such as natural gas, primary air and secondary air flow rates were constant. The results show that the difference in oxygen concentration in the flue gas between the closed door and the open door is about 2%, however, the CO and NO x concentrations in the flue gas are in the same range. This indicates that when the lime product outlet door is open, some air is drawn into the kiln, however, this air is not well mixed with the fuel in the combustion zone and leaked to the flue gas. Later on, all the flue gas measurements were done with the lime product output door closed. For natural gas firing, Run SL8 with 0.5% oxygen concentration in the flue gas, the CO concentration is 2080 ppm and the NO concentration is 25 ppm, compared with the CO and NO concentrations from Run SL9 with 2.7% oxygen concentration in the flue gas, which are 25 ppm and 86 ppm respectively. The high CO concentration and low NO concentration for Run SL8 mainly result from its tight supply of combustion air in the kiln which reduces the amount of oxygen left from the combustion zone to react with carbon monoxide or nitrogen gases to form carbon dioxide or nitrogen oxides. However, the low NO concentration in Run SL8 may also result from its lower heat load. For LOW firing, Run SL8B, with the same range of oxygen concentration in the flue gas as that of Run SL9B, the total NO x concentrations were between 139-176 ppm compared with 258-431 ppm from those of Run SL9B. The higher of the total NO x concentration results from the increases in heat load and fuel-nitrogen from higher LOW feed rate in Run SL9B.  115  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  5.2.6 Overall heat and mass balances in a pilot lime kiln  Tables 5.12 and 5.13 show the results of the overall material and energy balances in a pilot lime kiln for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11A. Sample calculations are provided in Appendix F. In the calculation, it was assumed that both the combustion and the calcination reactions were complete; all the nitrogen and the organic sulfur in LOW converted to NO and SO2 in the flue gas. The combustion air supply was measured from the rotameters during the runs. The kiln boundaries were set at 4.521 m from lime product exit door for the limestone feed end and at 0.146 m from the door for the lime product outlet end due to the available gas and solid bed temperature measurements at those points. Since the balance was not over the whole kiln, heat losses as a percentage may be affected. Runs SL9B and SL1OB used LOW as a fuel in the kiln, however with different compositions. Run SL11A used natural gas as a kiln fuel. From flue gas analysis, it was found that the concentration of CO in the flue gas was very small (Table 5.9); from elemental analysis of dust samples collected from cyclone (Table 5.16) % unburnt carbon in the dust samples (calculated from % total C - % C in carbonate form) varied from 0.4-1.1%, and from lime product calcination test (Table 5.8), the product calcinations were higher than 99% for the lime particle with diameter greater than 1.8 mm for all these runs, and higher than 93, 97 and 87% for the lime particle with diameter less than 1.8 mm for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11A respectively, therefore the assumptions of complete combustion and calcination reactions are justified. Results of the material and energy balances of Runs SL9A, SL10A and SL11B with all the same assumptions as mentioned above are also provided at the end of Appendix F.  116  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  Table 5.12 Results from overall mass balances for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11A Run SL 9B  Run SL 10B  Run SL11A  -  -  0.164 0.113  41:14:45 0.38 0.047 0.19  37:20:43 0.35 0.040 0.16  -  298 1.818  298 1.741  298 1.586  2.15  2.06  1.88  40.0 38.8 1.2  40.0 38.8 1.2  40.0 38.8 1.2  22.9 21.7 1.2  22.9 21.7 1.2  22.9 21.7 1.2  95.55 18.29 1.04 58.06 0.669 17.18 0.19 0.047 0.072  91.18 18.18 0.14 55.60 0.641 16.36 0.16 0.040 0.060  78.15 13.47 - 0.21 50.71 0.584 13.6 0 0 0  1047.4 8.206 2.82  1045.6 7.819 2.70  956.9 6.137 2.27  23.36 1.33 74.15 2405 594  24.31 0.19 74.38 2095 541  20.86 - 0.33 78.56 0 0  Fuel in -natural gas (m3 /min) -mass flow rate (kg/min) -LOW -%composition (lignin:oil:water) -mass flow rate (kg/min) -mole S org in (mole/min) -mole N in (mole/min) Air supply -air temperature inlet (K) -volumetric flow rate of air measured from rotameters in combustion runs (m 3 /min) -mass flow rate of air in (kg/min) Limestone in -total^(kg/h) -CaCO3 (kg/h) -inerts^(kg/h) Lime product out -total^(kg/h) -CaO (kg/h) -inerts^(kg/h) Mole flue gas out -total (mole/min) -CO2 (mole/min) -02^(mole/min) -N2^(mole/min) -Ar^(mole/min) -H2O (mole/min) -NO (mole/min) -SO2 (mole/min) -ash and sulphate (mole/min) Flue gas -flue gas temperature (K) -volumetric flow rate at Tg,out (m 3 /min) - mass flow rate of flue gas (kg/min) Dry flue gas composition -CO2 (%) -02^(%) -N2^(%) -NO^(ppm) -SO2 (ppm)  117  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  Mass balances - total mass in (fuel + air + limestone) - total mass out (flue gas + lime product)  191.84 191.84  184.58 184.57  159.36 159.33  Table 5.13 Results from overall energy balances for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11A*  Inlet fuel and air temperature (K) Inlet limestone temperature (K) Exit gas temperature (K) Exit lime product temperature (K) Net heat released by fuel (MJ/min) Enthalpy of solids and gases flow in - solids (MJ/min) - gas (MJ/min) Total heat input (MJ/min) Enthalpy of solids and gases flow out - solid (MJ/min) - gas (MJ/min) - total -(MJ/min) - % total heat input Heat consumed by calcination - (MJ/min) - % total heat input Heat loss - (MJ/min) - % total heat input  Run SL9B 298 977.8 1047.4 1014.2 5.631  Run SL11A 298 895.5 956.9 1256 5.740  0.497 6.128  0.496 6.281  0.430 6.170  0.249 2.527 2.776 45.30  0.263 2.413 2.677 42.61  0.340 1.776 2.116 34.29  1.153 18.82  1.153 18.36  1.153 18.69  2.199 35.88  2.451 39.03  2.901 47.02  * See page 116 for boundaries of the enthalpy balance.  118  Run SL 298 976.9 1045.6 1053.6 5.785  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  From Table 5.12, the 02 contents in the dry flue gas are quite low, compared with the measured 02 contents from the combustion runs (Table 5.8) for all the runs. The differences between these numbers are due to the leakage air which enters the kiln through seals, product exit door, etc. The average flue gas volumetric flow rate of LOW firings (Runs SL9B and SL10B) is about 30% higher than that of natural gas firing (Run SL11A). The higher flow rate results from both the higher number of total moles flue gas and the higher flue gas temperature of LOW firing. This may hinder lignin-oil-water mixture used as a kiln fuel since some kilns have a limitation in the freeboard gas velocity due to the high dust loss with the freeboard gas (75). The CO2 and SO2 emissions from LOW firing are higher than those from natural gas firing due to the different fuel compositions. For natural gas firing, H2O in the flue gas is from the product of hydrocarbon combustion (e.g. CH4), however, for LOW firing (Run SL9B), about 55% of H2O in the flue gas is from the moisture in the fuel and the rest is from the product of combustion of hydrogen in the fuel. From Table 5.13, the heat loss in the pilot lime kiln is quite high; 36-39% of total heat input for LOW firing and 47% for natural gas firing. The reason for higher heat loss for natural gas firing than for LOW firing is still unclear since the amount of total heat input and the temperature profile of both natural gas and LOW firing are not much different. The outlet flue gas enthalpy of LOW firing was higher than that of natural gas firing due to both the higher mass flow rate of the outlet gases for LOW firing (about 16% higher than that of natural gas) and the higher flue gas temperature. The high % heat loss and fuel consumption per unit of production in a pilot lime kiln results from its small size (0.4 m inside diameter and 5.5 m length) and low length to diameter ratio (-- 14) compared ,  with the commercial kilns, which have 2-4 m diameter, 40-115 m length and L/D varied from 19-40 (28).  119  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  5.3 The effect of LOW combustion on lime product quality 5.3.1 Elemental analysis of lime product and dust from cyslone  Limestone, lime product, dust and lignin samples were analysed for trace elements such as total S, total C, Si, Al, Fe, Mg , etc. by ACME Analytical Laboratories Ltd. in Vancouver. The method used was Inductively Couple Plasma (ICP) analysis. 0.2 g samples are fused with 1.2 g of LiBO2 and dissolved in 100 mL 5% HNO3. Ba is sum as BaSO4 and other metals are sum as oxides. Carbonate ion (measured as CO2) is measured by total C minus 15% HCl leach as carbon dioxide gas. Both total C and total S are measured by Leco carbon and sulphur determinators respectively. The detection limits of all oxides are 0.03%; Sr, Y 10 ppm; Zr 20 ppm; Ba 5 ppm; carbonate ion, total C and total S 0.01%. The Na content in the above samples was measured by ICP-ultrasonic nebulization method from Quanta trace laboratories. Samples were ground, then approximately 0.5 g was digested in the microwave using reverse aqua regia (IiNO3:HC1 3:1). Detection limit for this method is 40 ppm. The analytical results of both Na and total S correspond to those obtained by classical methods. Table 5.14 shows the elemental analysis of lime product samples from combustion runs. From Table 5.14, all the oxide and metal contents in the lime product with LOW firing were not much different from those with natural gas firing. If all the sulphur in limestone feed (Table 4.4) retains in the lime product after calcination, the sulphur content of the lime product will be 0.27%. However, the maximum total sulphur in the lime product is 0.23% for LOW firing and 0.19% for natural gas. Compared with average sulphur content of reburnt limes collected from ten Canadian mills, 0.44% (27), the sulphur content in the lime product from LOW firing is about a half of the average value. The sodium content in the limestone feed is less than 40 ppm (Table 4.4) and so is the lime product from natural gas firing. The sodium content in the lime product from LOW firing 120  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  is very small, 210 ppm, compared with the average sodium content, 2.6% Na, in reburned lime collected from ten Canadian mills (27). The latter figure reflects the high sodium levels of the mud fed to the kiln. Table 5.15 shows the elemental analysis of Westvaco lignin samples. Sample WV1 is the lignin sample after passing through 2 x 2 mm mesh screen. Sample WV2 is the sample of lignin lumps left on the screen. From Table 5.15, lignin lumps contain higher silica, aluminium, ferrous oxides and total carbon contents but lower total sulphur content compared to powder lignin. Table 5.16 shows the elemental analysis of dust samples from the cyclone. During the trials, the cyclone was the only equipment used to collect the dust particles from kiln flue gas. Therefore, not all the dust was collected with this system and some small dust particles were discharged with the flue gas. However, the dust sample from the cyclone was collected for each combustion run and analysed for some trace elements such as sodium and total sulphur etc. which were added to the system from LOW fuel. Compared with lime product samples, Table 5.14, dust samples contain much higher sodium, total sulphur, total carbon and oxides such as silica, aluminium, ferrous, etc.  121  Table 5.14 Elemental analysis of the lime product samples from combustion runs. Run#  %Natural gas replacement  ppm  SL3B  60  SL4B  Na  Total SiO2 Al203 Fe2O3 MgO 1(20 TiO2 P2O5 MnO S % % % % % % % % %  Cr2O3  ntt  0.14  1.00  0.36  0.22  0.39 <0.06 0.02  0.02  0.01  0.008  10  1175  14  <10  <10  0.97  80  ntt  0.14  1.01  0.49  0.08  0.36 <0.06 0.04  0.05  0.01  0.005  12  1091  344  <10  12  1.39  SL6B  100  ntt  0.19  0.95  0.52  0.20  0.44 <0.06 0.06  0.03  0.01  0.004  8  1162  18  <10  <10  0.51  SL8B  100  ntt  0.23  1.49  0.56  0.34  0.33 <0.06 0.04  0.02  0.01  0.004  8  1078  108  <10  15  3.31  SL9B  100  210  0.22  0.72  0.48  0.22  0.33 <0.06 0.03  0.01  0.01  0.005  <5  1186  15  <10  <10  0.47  SL1OB  100  320  0.22  2.24  0.58  0.25  0.37 <0.06 0.05  0.03  0.01  0.004  10  1144  145  <10  <10  0.43  SL11B  100  280  0.19  1.15  0.51  0.20  0.60 <0.06 0.04  0.01  0.01  0.009  8  1148  95  <10  <10  0.49  SL4A  0  ntt  0.10  0.44  0.23  0.07  0.34 <0.06 0.05  <0.01  0.01  0.010  7  1245  10  <10  <10  0.65  SL8A  0  ntt  0.12  0.46  0.37  0.19  0.46 <0.06 0.02  <0.01  0.01  <0.002  8  1113  <10  <10  <10  2.47  SL9A  0  < 40  0.14  1.01  0.36  0.18  0.34 <0.06 0.03  0.01  0.01  0.005  5  1162  100  <10  <10  0.9  SL10A  0  165  0.15  1.84  0.47  0.19  0.33 <0.06 0.04  0.01  0.01  0.005  10  1178  131  <10  11  0.9  SL11A  0  70  0.19  1.34  0.63  0.34  0.35 <0.06 0.04  0.02  0.01  0.007  10  1190  156  <10  13  0.48  legend : ntt = not taken  %  Ba  Sr  Zr  Y  Nb  ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm  Total C %  Table 5.15 Elemental analysis of Westvaco lignin samples Sr  Zr  Y  Nb  %  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  ppm  Total C %  0.01  0.003  7  <10  14  <10  <10  58.36  0.01  0.002  8  13  12  <10  <10  64.57  TiO2  P205  %  %  %  %  %  <0.01  0.05  <0.06  0.01  <0.01  0.23  0.08  0.14  <0.01  0.01  Si02 Al203 Fe203 MgO  ppm  %  %  %  WV1  11300  1.76  0.86  0.06  WV2  ntt  1.50  2.08  0.12  Na  Ba  1(20  Total S %  Sample #  MaO Cr203  legend : ntt = not taken  Table 5.16 Elemental analysis of dust samples from the cyclone Total Si02 Al203 Fe203 MgO K20 TiO2 P205 MnO Cr203 Ba Sr Zr Y Nb Total C CO2 S ppm % % % % % ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm % % % % % % %  Run#  %Natural gas replacement  Na  SL3  60  ntt  1.77  1.75  1.15  0.39  0.57 <0.06 0.05  0.03  0.04  0.011  29  1054  63  <10  24  8.06  19.81  SL4  80  ntt  2.09  2.98  1.93  0.43  0.70  <0.06 0.03  0.02  0.05  0.011  35  948  71  <10  32  12.55  16.67  SL6  100  ntt  2.68  2.27  1.30  0.31  0.58  0.37  0.02  0.10  0.09  0.007  49  996  390  <10  51  8.45  21.96  SL8  100  ntt  2.32  2.60  1.06  0.48  0.69 <0.06 0.04  0.05  0.07  0.007  32  1061  20  <10  15  6.23  18.66  SL9  100  5750  1.83  1.73  0.77  0.28  0.46  <0.06 0.01  0.05  0.04  0.009  21  935  20  <10  <10  8.89  28.71  SL10  100  10300 2.31  2.56  0.92  0.54  0.68  0.23  0.04  0.05  0.08  0.010  37  1046  20  <10  22  5.96  19.58  SL11  100  9670  2.61  1.06  0.41  0.79  0.20  0.04  0.03  0.10  0.007  49  1163  13  <10  30  4.10  13.58  legend : ntt = not taken  2.81  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  The sodium and sulphur balances on a pilot lime kiln for Run SL9B are shown in Tables 5.17 and 5.18 respectively. Detailed calculations are provided in Appendix H. In runs subsequent to this thesis (74) it was found that the total dust rate was 107.5 g/h, of which 25 g/h were collected in the cyclone and the remainder in the baghouse. In the present calculation, the assumptions are: the limestone feed rate is constant at 40 kg/h; the dust rate is 107.5 g/h and the Na and S levels of all the dust are those measured in the cyclone sample. Table 5.17 Sodium balance on a pilot lime kiln for Run SL9B.  1. Na in with limestone  =  0  2. Na in with LOW  =  3. Na out with lime product  =  5.06  g/h  4. Na out with dust  =  0.62  g/h  g/h  105.63  g/h  Total Na in^= 105.63^g/h Total Na out^=^5.68^g/h Na out / Na in =^5.4% Table 5.18 Sulphur balance on a pilot lime kiln for Run SL9B. 1. Total S in with limestone^60  g/h  2. Total S in with LOW^171.55  g/h  3. Total S out with lime product =^53.02  g/h  4. Total S out with dust^1.97  g/h  5. Total S out with SO2 in flue gas =^103.82  g/h  .*. Total S in^231.55^g/h Total S out^158.81^g/h Total S out / total S in^68.6 %  124  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  From Table 5.17, the ratio of Na outlet / Na inlet is 5.4%. The low accountable Na may result from: the accumulation of sodium compounds inside the kiln in the form of Na2SO4 or Na2CO3, and the assumption that the Na concentration in the dust collected from the cyclone is equal to that from the baghouse. However, it is suspected that some sodium compounds were accumulated in the dust inside the kiln which came out with the lime product periodically. This is being investigated in further experiments. From Table 5.18, the ratio of S inlet / S outlet is 68.6%. The deviation may result from some SO2 loss during the measurement of SO2 concentration in the flue gas and the assumption that the total S concentration in the dust collected from cyclone is the same as that from baghouse. 5.3.2 Reactivity test of lime product  Table 5.19 summarizes the slaking results of lime products from the combustion experiments. The slaking reaction, and its importance in the lime cycle are discussed in Sections 2.1.1 and 4.4. The temperature rise is the temperature difference between the temperature of the green liquor before adding the lime product and the maximum temperature after adding the lime product. Slaking time is the time required for the suspension to reach maximum temperature after adding the lime sample. Slaking rate, dT/dt, was calculated from the temperature rise divided by the slaking time. From Table 5.19 the slaking rates of lime products from LOW firing during the early combustion experiments were lower than those from the later experiments. This was probably due to the unstable combustion conditions in the early runs. However, after some modifications of the slurry feeding system, combustion was stable for the latter runs. The reactivity and the percent calcination of the lime product were greatly improved. If there is no overburning, the extent of lime product calcination may roughly indicate the reactivity of the lime product. The higher the percent product calcination, the better the reactivity of the  125  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  product lime. However, the reactivity of over-burned lime is low even though it contains high percent calcination. Table 5.19 Slaking results of lime products from the combustion experiments Run  Fuel*  % Natural gas replacemeat  % Product %Product TemperCalcination Calcination ature rise dp>1.18 dp<1.18 (°C) mm mm  Slaking Time (minutes)  (°C/min)  dT/dt  SL2B  LOW1  50  89.6  59.9  10.24  3.0  3.41  SL3B  LOW2  60  72.4  59.8  6.32  6.83  0.93  SLAB  LOW2  80  74.5  39.1  7.96  3.0  2.65  SL6B  LOW2  100  94.6  69.1  9.08  3.17  2.87  SL8B  LOW3  100  60.2  33.4  7.54  3.33  2.26  SL9B  LOW3  100  99.3  93.2  12.93  1.67  7.76  SL10B  LOW2  100  99.3  96.5  8.82  2.17  4.07  SL1 IB  LOW3  60  99.1  97.5  12.04  2.0  6.02  SL5A  Gas  0  83.4  42.5  7.7  2.83  2.72  SL7A  Gas  0  83.4  59.5  9.44  2.67  3.54  SL8A  Gas  0  62.6  35.2  9.57  2.33  4.10  SL9A  Gas  0  95.3  55.0  9.28  2.50  3.71  SL1OA  Gas  0  94.4  46.9  11.85  2.83  4.18  SL11A  Gas  0  99.4  86.9  11.71  2.5  4.68  *LOW composition see Table 5.8. Figure 5.22 shows the slaking temperature rise curves of Runs SL9, SL10 and SL11. From the curves, lime products from LOW firing in the kiln give marginally higher maximum temperature and lower slaking times compared with those from natural gas  126  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  firing for both Runs SL9 and SL11. For Run SL10 because the initial green liquor  temperature was quite different, the maximum temperature is difficult to compare; however the rate of temperature rise is nearly the same for both LOW and natural gas firing. From these results, within the accuracy of the measurement, the slaking behaviour of the lime is not seen to be adversely affected by the use of LOW as a fuel in the pilot lime kiln.  98 —  dzizttgan  " o  96 — A,66.66.6.  ACP231.4"46 =4*---.4L-_-4__A  94 —  ■ on 92 — a)  •• •  90 —  •  88 —  4.) 86 1-4 84 — 82 — 80 —  —•—•—•—•  •  4-) 13.)  .0080  e S  o-o-oIii=lil  — le —natural gas, SL 9A —0 —LOW 3, SL9B 1=4=4= — 0—natural gas, SL 10A — o—LOW2, SL1OB — A—natural gas, SL11A — A—LOW 3+natural gas, SL11B I^•^I^•^I^1 ^ ^ 0^100^200^300 400 500  •—• —•— •  Time (s)  Figure 5.22 Slaking temperature rise curves, Runs SL9, SL10 and SL11 127  Chapter 5 Results and Discussions  5.4 Comparison of powdered lignin and LOW firing  The results of this work show that many similarities exist between dry lignin (10) and LOW firing of the pilot lime kiln. Both lignin and LOW flames are longer and brighter than that of natural gas, which considerably alters the axial temperature profiles within the kiln, for the bed and freeboard gas when lignin is used. The maximum flame temperatures shift towards the cold end of the kiln with lignin and LOW firing. The maximum freeboard gas temperature is about 100°C lower with LOW firing, compared with that of Westvaco lignin. The % calcination of the lime products from both LOW and lignin firing is greater than 99%. And at the same net heat input, the axial calcination profile of the limestone inside the kiln was found to be higher with lignin and LOW firing, compared to that with natural gas firing. This may be explained by the long and luminous flame of lignin and LOW firing which enables the heat to penetrate farther into the solid bed and creates a broader burning zone. The lime produced with lignin or LOW as a fuel was found to be as reactive in slaking as those produced by natural gas firing. The higher volumetric flow rate of the flue gas during lignin-oil-water mixture combustion (about 1.19 times) compared to that of Westvaco lignin combustion results from the high water content in the lignin slurry fuel (Table 1.1).  128  Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations  Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1 Conclusions  In order to assess the suitability of lignin-oil-water mixture as a potential fuel for the lime kilns, a rheological study of this fuel was performed, a pilot scale LOW preparation facility and burner was designed, and a series of combustion trials were carried out in a 0.4 m inside diameter, 5.5 m long pilot scale rotary lime kiln. The lignin was purchased from Westvaco Co., USA., in the dry powder form. The oil used in the experiments was No.2 fuel oil. The surfactant used was Tergitol NP-9 from Sigma Chemical Co. The rheology of lignin-oil-water mixtures was found to be complex. The viscosity showed time-dependent behavior which was both thixotropic and rheopectic. A limited decrease followed by an increase in viscosity occurred with time under a constant shear rate, for a lignin content of 52%. However, when the lignin content decreased to 47% or less, the viscosity showed only thixotropic behavior. Moreover, the steady state viscosity of lignin-oil-water mixture is a function of shear rate. The viscosity decreased with an increase in shear rate from 50 to 250 s -1 . The thixotropic and shear thinning behaviors are necessary in the lignin-oil-water mixture pumping and atomization. At 25°C, the viscosity of 37-47% lignin, 10-20% oil and 43-47% water mixtures is in the range of 0.3-0.7 Pa•s at shear rate 100 s -1 . Once an appropriate feed system and burner configuration were developed, ligninoil-water mixtures could be burned satisfactorily in the pilot lime kiln. The atomization system was based on a commercial spray nozzle. With the feed handling system used, smooth operation was possible. The lignin-oil-water mixture flame was long with a  129  Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations  luminous bright orange color. The combustion was stable. The percent calcination of the lime product is greater than 99% when using lignin-oil-water mixture as a kiln fuel. Compared to natural gas, the maximum combustion temperature shifts towards the cold end of the kiln with lignin-oil-water mixture firing. This is due to the longer time required for the slurry fuel combustion compared with that of natural gas. However, for the pilot lime kiln, this shift does not affect the lime product calcination; however, it seems to help improve the % calcination of the limestone along the kiln. From flue gas analysis, the NO x and SO2 concentrations in the flue gas during the lignin-oil-water mixture firing were higher when compared with those of natural gas firing. NOx emissions were generally in the range 250-430 ppm with lignin-oil-water mixture firing, and 86 ppm with natural gas firing. SO2 emissions were around 300 ppm with lignin-oil-water mixture firing and not detected for natural gas firing. Therefore, if ligninoil-water mixture is used in a commercial lime kiln, some control methods should be considered to reduce the NO x and SO2 formation in the flue gas. The limes produced with lignin-oil-water mixture as a filel were found to be as reactive in slaking as those produced by natural gas firing. The levels of sodium, sulphur and other inert elements found in lignin-oil-water mixture did not affect the kiln operation or the quality of lime. However, there is some uncertainty of whether some sodium and sulphur added by lignin-oil-water fuel to the kiln might be retained inside the kiln or leave the kiln with the flue gas. 6.2 Recommendations  Before further tests are carried out in the UBC pilot lime kiln, the following modifications should be made:  130  Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations  (a) The gas sampling system should be modified to ensure that no condensation of water occurs in the sampling lines. This includes the use of insulated filters and heated sampling lines to keep the temperature above 100°C up to the point of water removal. (b) The direct contact condenser on the kiln should be changed because some gases such as CO2, SO2, NOx can be absorbed by water. (c) A proper solid sampling system at the cyclone and the baghouse should be devised; e.g. with a by-pass line, such that a sample can be collected during the run. (d) If the gas chromatograph is used to measured CO2 concentration in the flue gas, it should be calibrated at a range of different known concentrations to ensure the linearity correlation of the response. (In these experiments, the CO2 concentration was calibrated at only 1 point.) (e) Lime product and dust samples along the length of the kiln should be analysed for sodium and sulfur to find out if these components accumulate inside the kiln. Future research should aim to use the lignin-oil-water mixture as a fuel in a pilot lime kiln for longer periods of time, to improve the material balance for minor species. From an economic point of view, LOW mixtures with lower fuel oil content should be investigated. Full scale trials should then be undertaken to confirm the results of the pilot plant and to identify any potential long-term effects on the white liquor quality, the lime cycle and the kiln operation.  131  References 1. Chaudhuri, P. B., "Use of lignin as kiln fuel", 1986 Engineering Conference Proceedings, Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 373-376. 2. Richardson, B., and Uloth V. C., "Kraft lignin: A potential fuel for lime kilns", Tappi J., 73:10, pp 191-194, 1990. 3. Uloth, V.C. and Wearing, J. T., "Kraft lignin recovery: Acid precipitation versus ultrafiltration Part I: Laboratory test results", Pulp Paper Can., 90:9, pp 67-71, 1989. 4. Uloth, V.C. and Wearing, J. T., "Kraft lignin recovery: Acid precipitation versus ultrafiltration Part II: Technology and Economics", Pulp Paper Can., 90:10, pp 34-37, 1989. 5. Beaupre, M. F.and Cambron, E. A., "Kraft overload recovery process", Canadian Patent 1, 172, 808, assigned to Domtar Inc., 1984. 6. Loutfi, H., Blackwell, B., and Uloth, V., "Lignin recovery from kraft black liquor:preliminary process design", Tappi J., 74:1, pp 203-210, 1991. 7. Tran, H. N. and Barham D., "An overview of ring formation in lime kilns", Tappi J., 74:1, pp131-136, 1991. 8. Tran , H., Griffiths, J., and Budge, M., "Experience of lime kiln ringing problems at E.B. Eddy Forest Products", Pulp Paper Can., 92:1, pp 78-82, 1991. 9. Richardson, B., Watkinson, A. P., and Barr P. V., "Combustion of lignin in a pilot lime kiln", Tappi J., 73:12, pp133-13'7, 1990. 10.Richardson, B., "Kraft lignin as a fuel for the rotary lime kiln", M.A.Sc. Thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1991. 11. Watkinson, A. P., "By-product Lignin as a lime kiln fuel", NSERC File #661128/87, 1990. 12. Scheffe, R. S., "Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries", First Int. Symp. on Coal-Oil-Mixture Combustion [Proc.], Blake J.C. and A.J. Sabadell, Eds., The MITRE Corp., McLean, VA, U.S.A., pp 222-233, 1978. 13.Papachristodoulou, G., and Trass, 0., "Coal slurry fuel technology", Can. J. Chem. Eng., 65, pp 177-201,1987. 14. Miller, B.G., "Coal-water slurry fuel utilization in utility and industrial boiler", Chem. Eng. Prog., Vol. 85, pp 29-38, 1989.  132  15. 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Gao, J., Huang, Z. X., and Yao, Y. Q., "Analysis on droplet burning histories of different coal liquid mixtures", 7 th International Symposium on Coal Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization [Proc.], U.S., pp 463-478, 1985. 49. Thambimuthu, K. V., Whaley, H. and Capes, C. E., "Pilot-scale combustion studies of coal-water fuels: The Canadian R&D program", Second European Conference on Coal Liquid Mixtures, The Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 95, pp 231-252, 1985. 50. Kang, S. W., Sarofim, A. F., and Beer, J. M., "Fundamentals of coal-water fuel droplet combustion", Third European Conference on Coal Liquid Mixtures, The Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 107, pp 179-194, 1987. 51. Walsh, P. M., Zhang, M., Farmayan, W. F. and Beer, J. M., "Ignition and combustion of coal-water slurry in a confined turbulent diffusion flame", 20th Symp.(Int.) Combust. [Proc.], The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, pp 1401-1407,. 1984. 52. Lefebvre, A. H., "Fuel atomization, droplet evaporation, and spray combustion", Chapter 9 in Fossil Fuel Combustion, A Source Book, (W. Bartok and A. F. Sarofim Eds.), Wiley, New York, 1991. 53. Laflesh, R. C. and Lachowicz, Y. V., "Combustion characteristics of coalwater fuels", 8th Int. Symp. on Coal-Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization [Proc.], U.S., pp 438-452, 1986.  135  54. Bortz, S., Engelberts, E. D. and Schreier, W., "A study of the combustion characteristics of a number of coal-water slurries", 6th Int. Symp.on Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology [Proc.], pp 710-730, 1984. 55. Williams, A., Combustion of Liquid Fuel Sprays, Butterworths, Boston, 1990. 56. Lefebvre, A. H., "Airblast atomization", Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., Vol. 6, pp 233-261, Pergamon Press, Britain, 1980. 57. Marshall, W. R. Jr., Atomization and Spray Drying, Chemical Engineering Progress Monograph Series No.2, Vol 50, AIChE, New York, 1954. 58. Kiga, T., Saitoh, H., Miyamae, S.,Takahashi, K., and Kataoka, T., "Combustion technology of coal water mixtures", 7 th Int. Symp.on Coal Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization [Proc.], U.S., pp 631-639, 1985. 59. Krishna, C. R. and Sapienza, R. S., "A study of the effects of additives on coalwater mixture atomization", Second European Conference on Coal Liquid Mixture, The Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 95, pp 115-128, 1985. 60. Nystrom, 0., "Atomization of highly loaded CWF's and the effect of type of dispersant", Third European Conference on Coal Liquid Mixture, The Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 107, pp 357-372, 1987. 61. Sato, K., Okiura, K., Baba, A., Takahashi, Y.,and Shoji K., "A study on spray combustion of CWM", 8th Int. Symp. on Coal-Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization [Proc.], U.S., pp 178-191, 1986. 62. Yu, T. U., Kang, S. W., Beer, J. M., Sarofim, A. F., and Teare, J. D., "Atomization quality and high shear rate viscosity of coal water fuels", 12th Int.Conference on Slurry Technology [Proc.], U.S., pp 99-105, 1987. 63. Smith, C. F., Sojka, P. E., and Thames, J. M., "The Influence of Fluid Physical Properties on Coal-Water Slurry Atomization", Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol.112, pp 15-20, 1990. 64. Brimacombe, J. K. and Watkinson, A. P., "Heat transfer in a direct fired rotary kiln: I - Pilot plant and experimentation", Met. Trans. B, 9B, pp 201-208, 1978. 65. Barr, P.V., Brimacombe, J.K., and Watkinson, A.P., "A heat - transfer model for the rotary kiln : part 1. pilot kiln trials", Met. Trans. B, 20B, pp 391-402, 1989. 66. Barr, P. V., "Heat transfer processes in rotary kilns", Ph.D. Thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1986.  136  67. Watkinson, A. P. and Brimacombe, J. K., "Limestone calcination in a rotary kiln", Met. Trans. B, 13B, pp 369-378, 1982. 68. Pinder, K. L., Personal conversation, Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of British Columbia. 69. Henein, H., Brimacombe, J. K. and Watkinson, A. P., "An experimental study of segregation in rotary kilns", Met. Trans. B, 16B, pp 763-774, 1985. 70. Bowman, C. T., "Chemistry of gaseous pollutant formation and destruction", Fossil Fuel Combustion, A Source Book, ( W. Bartok and A. F. Sarofim Eds.), Wiley, New York, 1991. 71. Schefer, R. W. and Sawyer, R. F., "Lean premixed recirculating flow combustion for control of oxides of nitrogen.", 16th Symp. (Int.) Combust. [Proc.], pp 119-134, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1976. 72. Cernansky, N. P. and Sawyer R. F., "NO and NO2 formation in a turbulent hydrocarbon/air diffusion flames.", 15th Symp. (Int.) Combust. [Proc.], pp 1039-1050, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1975. 73. Merryman, E. L. and Levy, A., "Nitrogen oxide formation in flames: The role of NO2 and fuel nitrogen.", 15th Symp. (Int.) Combust. [Proc.], pp 1073-1083, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1975. 74. Mui, C., Personal communication, Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, UBC. 75. Watkinson, A. P., Personal communication, Department of Chemical Engineering, UBC. 76. Fenimore, C. P., "Formation of nitric oxide in pre-mixed hydrogen flames", 13th Symp. (Int.) Combust. [Proc.], pp 373-380, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1971. 77. Wall, T. F., "The combustion of coal as pulverized fuel through swirl burners", Chapter 3 in Principles of Combustion Engineering for Boilers, (edited by C. J. Lawn), Academic Press, New York, 1987.  137  Appendix A Sample Calculations: Mole flue gas and net heating value of lignin-oil-water mixture, natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil and Westvaco lignin. Information 1. Chemical analysis and heating value of Westvaco lignin (10 Composition (%) C 61.11 H 5.55 0 26.44 N 1.69 S o rg 0.88 0.64 SO4 Ash* 3.93 Gross heating value 25.15 (IVIJ/m3) * Assume molecular weight of ash = 100 2. Typical ult Composition  (%) 87.3 12.6 0.04 0.006 0.22 < 0.01 38913.2  C H 0 N S Ash Gross heating value (MJ/m3)  3. Density of no. 2 fuel oil measured at ambient temperature = 0.839 kg/L Therefore, heating value of no. 2 fuel oil ^= 38913.2 MJ/m3 0.839 kg/L = 46.4^MJ/kg  138  4. Natural gas Composition CH4 C2H6 N2 C3Hs C4Hio CO2 Gross heating value (MJ/m 3 ) Net heating value (MJ/m3 ) 5. Air composition: Composition N2 02 CO2 Ar  (%) 95.1 2.8 0.9 0.8 0.2 0.2 38.79 35.00  (%) 78.1 20.9 0.03 0.9  (a) Lignin-oil-water mixture  Data from Run SL9B  1. LOW composition: lignin^41 % fuel oil no. 2 14 % water^45 % 2. LOW flow rate^0.38 kg/min  Assumptions 1. Complete combustion reactions 2. All nitrogen in LOW becomes NO in the flue gas. 3. All organic sulphur in LOW becomes SO2 in the flue gas. 4. Air supplied at 10% excess stochiometric condition 1. Net heating value calculation  Basis : 1 kg of lignin-oil-water mixture net heating value  Mlvap, water  ^  LOW higher heating value - ( 1/2 mole H in LOW + mole H2O added) x AHvap, water 0.044 MJ/mole  139  LOW hhv ^=^% lignin x hhv of lignin + % oil x hhv of No. 2 fuel oil =^(0.41 x 25.15) + (0.14 x 46.4) =^16.8 MJ/kg LOW net heating value =^16.8 - (0.0555/2 x 410 + 0.126/2 x 140 + 450/18) x 0.044 = 14.8 MJ/kg =^LOW flow rate x LOW net heating value =^0.38 kg/min x 14.8 MJ/kg =^5.63 MJ/min  ...Heat released by fuel  2. Mole flue gas calculation  Material balance  Combustion reactions: C + 02 -3 CO2 2H + 1/2 02 -> H2O N (from LOW) + 1/2 02 -> NO Sorg + 02 -> SO2 (1) Fuel input 1.1) mole H2O in^=^mole water in LOW fuel =^0.45 x 380 g/min x (1/18) mole H20/g =^9.5^mole/min 1.2) mole C in^=^mole C in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2 =^{0.611 x 0.41/12 + 0.873 x 0.14/12}x 380 =^11.80^mole/min 1.3) mole 0 in^=^mole 0 in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2 =^{0.2644 x 0.41/16 + 0.0004 x 0.14/16}x 380 =^2.57^mole/min 1.4) mole N in^=^mole N in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2 =^{0.0169 x 0.41/14 + 0.00006 x 0.14/14}x 380 =^0.19^mole/min 1.5) mole H in^=^mole H in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2 =^{0.0555 x 0.41/1 + 0.126 x 0.14/1}x 380 =^15.35^mole/min 1.6) mole Sorg in^=^mole Sorg in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2 =^{0.0088 x 0.41/32 + 0.0022 x 0.14/32} x 380 =^0.047^mole/min  140  1.7) mole of SO4 and ash in =^mole SO4 and ash in with lignin {0.0064 x 0.41/96 + 0.0393 x 0.41/100) x 380 0.072^mole/min (2) Mole 02 required for combustion 2.1) at stochiometric conditions mole 02 required =^{mole C + 1/4 mole H + mole S org +1/2 mole N - 1/2 mole 0}in the fuel {11.80+ 1/4x 15.35 + 0.047 + 1/2 x 0.19 - 1/2 x 2.57) 14.49^ mole/min 2.2) at 10% excess stochiometric condition mole air required  1.1 x 14.49 x 100 / 20.9 76.29^mole/min  (3) Flue gas composition 3.1) 02^mole 02 in - mole 02 required for combustion 0.209 x 76.29 - 14.49 1.45^mole/min 3.2) CO2^CO2 from combustion +CO2 in air 11.80 + 0.0003 x 76.29 11.82^mole/min 3.3) N2^N2 from combustion air supply 0.781 x 76.29 59.58^mole/min 3.4) H2O^water added to LOW + 1/2 x mole of H in the fuel 9.5 + 1/2 x 15.35 17.18^mole/min 3.5) SO2^=^mole of S org in the fuel =^0.047^mole/min 3.6) NO^=^mole of N in LOW =^0.19^mole/min 3.7) Ar^=^mole of Ar in air supply =^0.009 x 76.29  141  0.687 mole/min ^ 90.95^mole/min ...total mole of flue gas out (ash free) ...Mole flue gas / Net heat released by LOW^90.95/5.63 ^ 16.15 mole/min (b) Natural gas  Data from Run SL9A ^ 0.164 m3 /min 1. Natural gas flow rate Assumption  1. Complete combustion reactions 2. Air supplied at 10% excess stochiometric condition 1. Net heating value calculation  Net heating value of natural gas Total heat released by natural gas  35.00^MJ/m3 35.00 x 0.164 5.74^MJ/min  2.Mole flue gas calculation  Mass balance Combustion reactions: CH4 C2H6 C31-18 C41110  +^2 02 +^7/2 02 +^5 02 + 13/2 02  —> CO2 + 2H20 --> 2CO2 + 3H20 --> 3CO2 + 41120 --> 4CO2 + 51120  (1) Mole of natural gas inlet ngas^PV RT (1 atm)(164 L/min) (0.08206 L atm )(298 K) mole K 6.707 mole/min (2) Mole 02 required for combustion 2.1) at stochiometric conditions  142  02 required =^2 x mole CH4 + 3.5 x mole C2H6 + 5 x mole C3H8 + 6.5 x mole C41110 =^{2 x 0.951 + 3.5 x 0.028 + 5 x 0.008 + 6.5 x 0.002} x 6.707 =^13.77^mole/min 2.2) at 10% excess stochiometric conditions mole air required  ^  =^1.1 x 13.77 x 100/ 20.9 =^72.47^mole/min  (3) Flue gas composition 3.1) 02^=^02 in the air inlet - 02 required for combustion reactions =^0.209 x 72.47 - 13.77 =^1.38^mole/min 3.2) CO2^=^CO2 from Combustion + from Natural gas and Air CO2 from combustion =^{1 x 0.951 + 2 x 0.028 + 3 x 0.008 + 4 x 0.002} x 6.707 =^6.97^mole/min CO2 in fuel  ^  =^0.002 x 6.707 =^0.013^mole/min  CO2 in supplied air =^0.0003 x 72.47 =^0.022^mole/min .•. total CO2  =^7.00^mole/min  3.3) N2  =^N2 from combustion + N2 in natural gas =^78.1/100 x 72.47 + 0.009 x 6.707 =^56.66^mole/min  3.4) H2O  =^{2 x 0.951 + 3 x 0.028 + 4 x 0.008 + 5 x 0.002} x 6.707 =^13.60^mole/min  3.5) Ar  =^0.009 x 72.47 =^0.652^mole/min  .*. total mole of flue gas out  ^  =^72.29^mole/min  .•. Total mole flue gas out / net heat released by the fuel  143  = =  72.29/5.74 13.81 mole/MJ  ^  (c) No. 2 Fuel oil  Basis  1. Fuel oil flow rate =^0.132 kg/min  Assumptions 1. Complete combustion reactions 2. All nitrogen in fuel oil becomes NO in the flue gas. 3. All organic sulphur in fuel oil becomes SO2 in the flue gas. 4. Air supplied at 10% excess stochiometric condition 1. Net heating value calculation net heating value ^=^oil higher heating value - 1/2 mole H in oil x AH vap, water 'vap, water  ^=^0.044 MJ/mole  oil hhv^=^46.4 MJ/kg LOW net heating value  =^46.4 - (0.126/2 x 1000) x 0.044 =^43.63 MJ/kg  .*.Heat released by fuel  =^oil flow rate x oil net heating value =^0.132 kg/min x 43.63 MJ/kg =^5.76 MJ/min  2. Mole flue gas calculation  Material balance Combustion reactions: C + 02 ----> CO2 2H + 1/2 02 --> H2O N (from oil) + 1/2 02^-3^NO Sorg + 02 -3 SO2 (1) Fuel input 1.1) mole C in  0.873 x 132/12 9.60^mole/min  1.2) mole 0 in  0.0004 x 132/16 0.00^mole/min  1.4) mole N in  0.00006 x 132/14 0.00^mole/min  144  1.5) mole H in^0.126 x 132/1 16.63^mole/min 1.6) mole Sorg in^0.0022 x 132/32 0.009^mole/min (2) Mole 02 required for combustion 2.1) at stochiometric conditions mole 02 required =^{mole C + 1/4 mole H + mole S org +1/2 mole N - 1/2 mole 0}in the fuel {9.6 + 1/4 x 16.63 + 0.009} 13.77^ mole/min 2.2) at 10% excess stochiometric condition mole air required  1.1 x 13.77 x 100 / 20.9 72.47^mole/min  (3) Flue gas composition 3.1) 02^mole 02 in - mole 02 required for combustion 0.209 x 72.47 - 13.77 1.38^mole/min 3.2) CO2^CO2 from combustion +CO2 in air 9.6 + 0.0003 x 72.47 9.62^mole/min 3.3) N2^N2 from combustion air supply 0.781 x 72.47 56.60^mole/min 3.4) H2O^1/2 x mole of H in the fuel 1/2 x 16.63 8.32^mole/min 3.5) SO2^=^mole of Sorg in the fuel =^0.009^mole/min 3.6) NO^=^mole of N in the fuel =^0.00^mole/min  145  3.7) Ar^mole of Ar in air supply 0.009 x 72.47 0.652^mole/min total mole of flue gas out (ash free)^76.57^mole/min .'.Mole flue gas / Net heat released by LOW^76.57/5.76 13.29^mole/min (d) Westvaco lignin  Basis  1.Lignin flow rate^0.24 kg/min  Assumptions 1. Complete combustion reactions 2. All nitrogen in lignin becomes NO in the flue gas. 3. All organic sulphur in lignin becomes SO2 in the flue gas. 4. Air supplied at 10% excess stochiometric condition 1. Net heating value calculation net heating value AHvap, water  ^  lignin hhv - 1/2 mole H in lignin x AHvap, water  ^0.044^  MJ/mole  LOW net heating value =^25.15 - (0.0555/2 x 1000) x 0.044 23.93^MJ/kg .'.Heat released by fuel  lignin flow rate x lignin net heating value 0.24 kg/min x 23.93 MJ/kg 5.74^MJ/min  2. Mole flue gas calculation  Material balance  Combustion reactions: C + 02 —> CO2 2H + 1/2 02 -4 H2O N (from lignin) + 1/2 02 —> ^NO Sorg + 02 -4 SO2  (1) Fuel input 1.1) mole C in  ^  0.611 x 240/12 ^ 12.22 mole/min  146  1.2) mole 0 in 1.3) mole N in 1.4) mole H in 1.5) mole S org in  = =  0.2644 x 240/16 3.97  mole/min  = =  0.0169 x 240/14 0.29  mole/min  = =  0.0555 x 240/1 13.32  mole/min  = =  0.0088 x 240/32 0.066  mole/min  1.6) mole of SO4 and ash in =^0.0064 x 240/96 + 0.0393 x 240/100 =^0.11^mole/min (2) Mole 02 required for combustion 2.1) at stochiometric conditions mole 02 required =^{mole C + 1/4 mole H + mole S org +1/2 mole N - 1/2 mole O}in the fuel =^{12.22 + 1/4 x 13.32 + 0.066 + 1/2 x 0.29 - 1/2 x 3.97} =^13.78^ mole/min 2.2) at 10% excess stochiometric condition mole air required  ^  =^1.1 x 13.78 x 100 / 20.9 =^72.53^mole/min  (3) Flue gas composition 3.1) 02^=^mole 02 in - mole 02 required for combustion =^0.209 x 72.53 - 13.78 =^1.38^ mole/min 3.2) CO2^=^CO2 from combustion +CO2 in air =^12.22 + 0.0003 x 72.53 =^12.24^ mole/min 3.3) N2^=^N2 from combustion air supply =^0.781 x 72.53 =^56.64^ mole/min 3.4) H2O^=^1/2 x mole of H in the fuel  147  3.5) SO2 3.6) NO 3.7) Ar  = =  1/2 x 13.32 6.66  mole/min  = =  mole of S org in the fuel 0.066  mole/min  = =  mole of N in LOW 0.29  mole/min  = = =  mole of Ar in air supply 0.009 x 72.53 0.653  mole/min  •. total mole of flue gas out (ash free) ^=^77.93^mole/min .*.Mole flue gas / Net heat released by LOW^=^77.93/5.74 =^13.58^mole/min  148  Appendix B : Coal water mixture (CWM) heating value and the amount of heat required for water evaporation calculation  Basis : 1 kg of CWM with 70% coal, 30% water composition from Perry's handbook (35) - hhv of high volatile A bituminous coal^=^31.54 MJ/kg - Heat of vaporization of water^=^0.044 MJ/gmole hhv of CWM =  ^  % coal in CWM x hhv of high volatile A bituminous coal =^0.7 x 31.54 =^22.08^MJ/kg  Heat of evaporation of water in CWM =^mole water in CWM x Heat of vaporization of water =^300 g x ( 1 gmole / 18 g) x 0.044 MJ/gmole =^0.73^MJ/kg :.Heat of water evaporation / hhv of CWM =  149  ^  0.73/22.08 x 100 =^3.32%  Appendix C : Calculation of atomization air flow rate Data  1. Details of atomization air flow meter: - Meter size^8 - Tube no.^R-8M-25-2 - ISA tube nomenclature^BR-1/2-27G10 - Float no.^8-RS-14  2. Maximum air flow rate at 14.5 psia and 70°F ^=^5.48 SCFM 3. Atomization air pressure was read from a pressure guage after the rotameter. 4. Assume air temperature = 70 ° F for all Runs When conditions at point of measurement are other than air at STP (T = 70°F and P = 14.7 psia), maximum capacity can be calculated as follow: Maximum capacity^Stated capacity x{ ^P x 530 } 1/2 14.7 x T x SG SG^=^Specific gravity^1 for air psia °F + 460 The following table shows the maximum capacity of rotameter at different air pressures Atomization air pressure (prig) 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 Actual atomization flow rate  Maximum capacity of rotameter (ft3/min) 7.1 7.79 8.42 9.0 9.56 10.57 11.5 Rotameter reading x Maximum capacity  Maximum reading (250)  150  Appendix D Calibration charts  Page Figure D-1 Conveyor belt feeder calibration for limestone feed ^ 152 Figure D-2 Orifice plate calibration for total air flow ^  153  Figure D-3 Atomization air rotameter calibration ^  154  151  100 90 80 70 60 a r SO = 0 4. . 1 40 N .)  ; :1 30 20 10  0 ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 2^3^4^5^6 1 0 7 8 9 10 Feeder Setting  Figure D-1 Conveyor belt feeder calibration for limestone feed  2.0 ^  1.5  1.0  0.0 0  10^20^30^40^50  Total Air Flow, CFM  Figure D-2 Orifice plate calibration for total air flow  60  70  6  5  a.) 3  x  czt  x  0 2 • r..4  77  2  ^  0  0  ^  50^100^150  ^  200  ^  250  Rotameter reading Figure D-3 Atomization  air rotameter calibration at atmospheric condition  Appendix E : Sample of calculation for residence time of limestone inside the kiln. Data  1. Average bed height in the kiln^=^0.05 m 2. Limestone feed rate^=^40^kg/h 3. Limestone density^=^1490 kg/m 3 4. Lime product output rate^=^22.5 kg/h (Run SL5A) 5. Lime product density^=^990 kg/m3 6. Length of solid dams at both hot and cold end of the kiln =^0.14 m 7. Height of solid dams at both hot and cold end of the kiln 0.044 m 8. Kiln inside diameter^0.406 m 5.5 9. Kiln length^ Calculation  1. Cross sectional area of limestone inside the kiln Area of segment of a circle =^h (3h2 + 4s2) 6s bed height^=^5 bed width 2 r sin(a/2) a/2 =^arc cos(r-h) r kiln radius^=^20.3 a/2^arc cos[(20.3-5)/20.3] 41.1  cm  cm  2 x 20.3 sin(41.1) 26.7  cm  area^5 (3 x 25 + 4 x 26.72)/(6 x 26.7) 91.23  cm2  2. Volume of limestone bed =^cross sectional area x kiln length 91.23 x (550-14) 48,899^  cm3  3. Volumetric flow rate of limestone feed =^40 kg/h / 1490 kg/m 3 x 10 6 cm3 /m3 26,845^ cm3/h  155  Volumetric flow rate of lime product =^22.5 kg/h / 990 kg/m 3 x 10 6 cm 3 /m3 =^22,727^ cm3/h 4. Average solid flow inside the kiln =^(26,845 + 22,727)/2 ^ =^24,786  cm3/h  ...Average residence time inside the kiln =^Volume of limestone bed/Average solid flow inside the kiln =^48,899/24,786 =^1.97^ h  156  Appendix F : Overall heat and mass balances in a pilot lime kiln Sample of Calculation for Run SL9B Basis  1. Limestone feed rate 40 kg/h 2. Percent inerts in limestone feed 3% 3. Reference temperature 25 °C 4. The kiln boundary at the limestone inlet end is at 4.521 m from the lime product exit door. 5. The kiln boundary at the lime outlet end is at 0.146 m from the lime product exit door. 6. Air supply was measured from the rotameters during the combustion runs. Assumptions  1. Complete calcination reaction in the kiln 2. Complete combustion reactions in the kiln 3. All nitrogen in LOW becomes NO in the flue gas. 4. All organic sulphur in LOW becomes SO2 in the flue gas. 5. SO4 and inerts have the same heat capacities as CaCO3. 6. Inert in limestone and lignin has molecular weight 100. 7. Air, natural gas, and LOW inlet temperature ^25 °C 8. Air and natural gas inlet pressure ^1^atm 9. Flue gas pressure^ 1^atm 10. Ar, NO and SO2 gases have the same heat capacities as N2 11. No leakage air entering the kiln through the product outlet door and seals Data from Run SL9B  1. LOW composition : lignin 41 % fuel oil no. 2 14 % water 45 % 0.38 kg/min 2. LOW flow rate 3. Limestone feed temperature, T s, in =^704.8 °C^977.8 K 4. Gas outlet temperature, Tg^774.4 °C^1047.4 K 5. Lime product temperature, T s^741.2 °C^=^1014.2 K 6. Total combustion air flow rate^1.818^m3/min  157  Other information required for mass balance 1. Chemical analysis and heating value of Westvaco ^(10 Composition (%) C 61.11 H 5.55 0 26.44 N 1.69 Sara 0.88 0.64 SO4 Ash 3.93 Gross heating value 25.15 (MJ/m 3 ) 2. Typical ultimate analyses of no. 2 fuel oil 33 °API (35 Composition (%) 87.3 C H 12.6 0 0.04 N 0.006 S 0.22 Ash < 0.01 Gross heating value 38913.2 (MJ/m 3 ) 3. Density of no. 2 fuel oil measured at ambient temperature = 0.839 kg/L Therefore, heating value of no. 2 fuel oil^= 38913.2 MJ/m3 0.839 kg/L = 46.4^MJ/kg 4. Natural gas Composition CH4 C2H6 N2 CIHR C41110 CO2 Gross heating value (MJ/m 3 ) Net heating value (MJ/m3)  (%) 95.1 2.8 0.9 0.8 0.2 0.2 38.79 35.00  5. Heat capacities of solid * Constants for equation C p/R = A + BT + DT -2 T(Kelvins) from 298 K to T Chemical species Tmax A  103B  10-5D  CaO CaCO3  0.443 2.637  -1.047 -3.120  2,000 1,200  6.104 12.572  6. Heat capacities of gases in the ideal-gas state+ Constants for the equation C p kg/R = A + BT + CT 2 + DT -2 T(Kelvins) from 298 K to T Chemical T max A 103B 106C species 2,000 5.457 1.045 CO2 2,000 3.28 0.593 N2 2,000 3.639 0.506 2,000 SO, 5.699 0.801 H2O 2,000 3.47 1.45 -  10-5D -1.157 0.040 -0.227 -1.015 0.121  7. The standard heat of the calcination reaction at 298 K = 178,3 2 1^J/mole CaO formed 8. Air composition: Composition N2 02  CO2 Ar  (%) 78.1 20.9 0.03 0.9  * Selected from K. K. Kelley, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 584, 1960; L. B. Pankratz, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 672, 1982. + Selected from H. M. Spencer, Ind. Eng. Chem., 40: 2152, 1948; K. K. Kelley, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull., 584, 1960; L. B. Pankratz, U.S. Bur Mines Bull., 672, 1982.  159  •^  Mass balance  A. Calcination reaction CaCO3^—> CaO + CO2 molecular weights CaCO3 = 100, CaO = 56, CO2 = 44 weight CaCO3 reacted^=^40 kg/h x 0.97=^38.8 kg/h weight of inert in limestone^40 kg/h x 0.03 =^1.2 kg/h weight CaO produced^38.8 kg/h x 56/100^21.73 kg/h weight CO2 produced^38.8 kg/h x 44/100^17.07^kg/h =^mole CaO produced =^mole CO2 produced =^38,800_g x 1 x mole CaCO3 x _1 1 h 100^g^60 min =^6.47^mole/min  mole CaCO3 reacted  mole of inert in limestone •  1,20Qg x 1 x mole CaCO3 x h 100^g^60 min 0.2^mole/min  B. Combustion reactions  C + 02 —> CO2 211 + 1/2 02 --> H2O N (from LOW) + 1/2 02 --> NO S org + 02 --->^SO2  (1) Fuel input 1.1) mole H2O in^ mole water in LOW fuel 0.45 x 380 g/min x (1/18) mole H20/g 9.5^mole/min 1.2) mole C in^ • 1.3) mole 0 in^  mole C in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2 {0.611 x 0.41/12 + 0.873 x 0.14/12}x 380 11.80^mole/min mole 0 in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2 {0.2644 x 0.41/16 + 0.0004 x 0.14/16}x 380 2.57^mole/min  160  ^  1.4) 'mole N in^mole N in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2 {0.0169 x 0.41/14 + 0.00006 x 0.14/14}x 380 0.19^mole/min 1.5) mole H in^mole H in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2 {0.0555 x 0.41/1 + 0.126 x 0.14/1}x 380 15.35^mole/min 1.6) mole Sorg in^mole Sorg in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2 {0.0088 x 0.41/32 + 0.0022 x 0.14/32} x 380 • 0.047^mole/min 1.7) mole of SO4 and ash in =^mole SO4 and ash in with lignin {0.0064 x 0.41/96 + 0.0393 x 0.41/100} x 380 • 0.072^mole/min mass of SO4 and ash in =^{0.0064 x 0.41 + 0.0393 x 0.41} x 380 • 7.12^g/min (2) Mole 02 required for combustion 2.1) at stochiometric conditions mole 02 required =^{mole C + 1/4 mole H + mole S org +1/2 mole N - 1/2 mole O}in the fuel {11.80+ 1/4x 15.35 + 0.047 + 1/2 x 0.19 - 1/2 x 2.57} 14.49^ mole/min (3) Volumetric flow rate of air inlet (measured from the rotameters) 1.818'^m3/min mole air inlet mass air in let = =  PV/RT 1 x 1818/(0.08206 x 298) 74.34^mole/min  74.34 x (0.781 x 28 + 0.209 x 32 + 0.0003 x 44 + 0.009 x 39.95) 74.34 x 28.929 2.15^ kg/min  (4) Flue gas composition 4.1) 02^mole 02 in - mole 02 required for combustion 0.209 x 74.34 - 14.49 1.04^ mole/min  161  ^  4.2) CO2^=^CO2 from combustion + CO2 from calcination +CO2 in air =^11.80 + 6.47 + 0.0003 x 74.34 =^18.29^mole/min 4.3) N2^=^N2 in natural gas + N2 from combustion air supply =^0.781 x 74.34 =^58.06^mole/min 4.4) H2O^=^water added to LOW + 1/2 x mole of H in the fuel =^9.5 + 1/2 x 15.35 =^17.18^mole/min 4.5) SO2^=^mole of S org in the fuel =^0.047^mole/nun 4.6) NO^=^mole of N in LOW =^0.19^mole/min 4.7) Ar^=^mole of Ar in air supply =^0.009 x 74.34 =^0.669^mole/min 4.8) Ash and sulphate =^mole ash and sulphate in lignin =^0.072^mole/min :. total mole of flue gas out (included fly ash)^=^95.55 mole/min total volumetric flow rate of flue gas  ^nitT/P =^(95.55 - 0.072) x 0.08206 x 1047.4/1 =^8206.33^L/min  total mass flow rate of flue gas^=^n x M =^(1.04 x 32 + 58.06 x 28 + 0.669 x 39.95 + 0.19 x 30 + 18.29 x 44 + 17.18 x 18 + 0.047 x 64 + 7.12)/1000 =^2.816^kg/min total mole of dry, ash free flue gas =^95.54 - 0.072 - 17.18 =^78.30^mole/min dry flue composition:^02^=^1.33 % N2^=^74.15 % CO2^=^23.36 % SO2^=^594 ppm NO^=^2405 ppm fly ash + sulphate^=^7.12 g/min  162  ^  Energy balance Note: The kiln boundaries are set at 4.521 m from lime product exit door at the limestone inlet end and at 0.146 m from the door at the lime outlet end due to the gas and solid temperature measurements at those points.  Heat of^Sensible^Heat out of^Heat lost^Heat Combustion^heat input to^kiln by flow^from kiln^consumed released by + kiln by flow =^of solid^+^shell by^+ in reaction fuel^of fuel, air,^product, all^radiation and limestone^gas and dust^convection (1)^(2)^(3)^(4)^(5) (1) Heat released by fuel^LOW flow rate x LOW net heating value LOW net heating value^LOW higher heating value - ( 1/2 mole H in LOW + mole H2O added) x AH vap, water AHvap, water  ^0.044 MJ/mole  LOW higher heating value^% lignin composition x hhv. of lignin + % oil composition x hhv. of fuel oil no. 2 (0.41 x 25.15) + (0.14 x 46.4) 16.8 MJ/kg LOW net heating value^16.8 - (0.0555/2 x 410 + 0.126/2 x 140 + 450/18) x 0.044 • 14.8 MJ/kg. .'. Heat released by fuel^0.38 kg/min x 14.8 MJ/kg 5.63 MJ/min (2) Sensible heat inputs Air and fuel^0^since both Tair, in and Tfuel, in^Tref Limestone + inerts  •  Ts in (nls ninerts) x^Cp, Is dT Tref  Ts in (ni s + ninerts ) x R x {AT + B/2 x T 2 -D/T} I Tref  163  (6.47 + 0.2)mole x 8.314 J x min^mole•K { 12.572(977.8-298) + 2.637 x 10 -3 (977.8 2 - 298 2) + 3.12 x 10 5 ( 1 - 1 )} 2^ 977.8 298 =^0.497^MJ/min Total heat input  ^  Heat released fuel + Sensible heat input to the kiln 5.63 + 0.497 6.128^MJ/min  (3) Heat output by flow 3.1) Flue gas leaving the kiln at T g Tg^=^1047.4^K Tg. oxygen^=^noxygen x S. Cp, oxygen dT Tref  r  TR  noxygen R x {AT + B/2 x T 2 + C/3 x T3 - D/T} Tref 1.45 mole x 8.314 J x min^mole•K {3.639(1047.4-298) + 0.506 x 10 -3 (1047.4 2 - 298 2) + 0.227 x 10 5 ( 1 - 1 )} 2^ 1047.4 298 =^0.025^MJ/min carbon dioxide  N2, Ar, NO, SO2  carbon dioxide x Sg Cp, carbon dioxide dT Tref 0.660^MJ/min  -  Tg (nsum) x Cp, nitrogen dT Tref 1.356^MJ/min  -  Tg water x I Cp, water dT Tref 0.480^MJ/min  •  water  Tg  Fly ash  ▪ •  nash x Cp, ash dT Tref 0.006^MJ/min 164  :. Total flue gas enthalpy^=^0.025 + 1.356 + 0.660 + 0.480 + 0.006 =^2.527^MJ/min 3.2) Solid products leaving at T s Ts lime product  Inerts  =^1014.2^K Ts =^nlitne x f Cp, lime dT T ref =^0.233^MJ/min Ts =^ninerts X 5 Cp inert s dT Tref =^0.016^MJ/min  :. Total enthalpy of solid flow out  ,  ^  =^0.233 + 0.016 =^0.249 MJ/min  (5) Heat consumed in calcination =^"lime X aHr, 298 K =^1.153^MJ/min (4) Heat lost by Radiation & Convection Qloss^=^Q1 + Q2 - Q3 - Q5 =^2.199^MJ/min  ^  Sample of Calculation for Run SL11A (natural gas firing) Data from Run SL1 IA  1. Natural gas flow rate^=^0.164 m 3 /min 2. Limestone feed temperature, T s, in= 622.5 °C = 895.5 K Gas outlet temperature, Tg^= 956.9 K 3. 683.9 °C = 4. Lime product temperature, T s = 983.0 °C = 1256 K 5. Volumetric flow rate of total combustion air inlet (measured from the rotameters during the combustion runs)^=^1586^L/min Mass balance  A. Calcination reaction CaCO3^—> CaO + CO2 molecular weights CaCO3 = 100, CaO = 56, CO2 = 44 weight CaCO3 reacted^=^40 kg/h x 0.97 weight of inert in limestone^40 kg/h x 0.03 weight CaO produced^=^38.8 kg/h x 56/100 kg/h weight CO2 produced^38.8 kg/h x 44/100  38.8 kg/h 1.2 kg/h =^21.73 17.07 kg/h  mole CaCO3 reacted  mole CaO produced mole CO2 produced 38,800_g x 1 x mole CaCO3 x 1 1 h 100^g^60 min 6.47^mole/min  mole of inert in limestone  1,200_g x 1 x mole CaCO3 x 1 h h 100^g^60 min 0.2^mole/min  B. Combustion reactions  CH4 +^2 02 C2H6 +^7/2 02 C3118 +^5 02 C4H10 + 13/2 02  —> CO2 + 2H20 —> 2CO2 + 3H20 —> 3CO2 + 4H20 -+ 4CO2 + 5H20  166  ^  (1) Mole of natural gas inlet ngas =^PV RT =^(1 atm)(164 L/min) (0.08206 L atm )(298 K) mole K =^6.707 mole/min Average molecular weight of natural gas^=^16.864 .*. Mass flow rate of natural gas in ^=^0.113^kg/min (2) Mole 02 required for combustion 2.1) at stochiometric conditions 02 required =^2 x mole CH4 + 3.5 x mole C2H6 + 5 x mole C3H8 + 6.5 x mole C4H10 =^{2 x 0.951 + 3.5 x 0.028 + 5 x 0.008 + 6.5 x 0.002) x 6.707 =^13.77^mole/min (3) Volumetric flow rate of air inlet (measured from the rotameters) =^1.586^m3/min mole air inlet^= = =  PV/RT 1 x 1586/(0.08206 x 298) 64.86^mole/min  mass air in let = = =  64.86 x (0.781 x 28 + 0.209 x 32 + 0.0003 x 44 + 0.009 x 39.95) 64.86 x 28.929 1.88^kg/min  (4) Flue gas composition 4.1) 02^=^02 in the air inlet - 02 required for combustion reactions =^0.209 x 64.86 - 13.77 =^-0.21^mole/min 4.2) CO2 ^=^CO2 from Combustion + Calcination + Natural gas and Air CO2 from combustion = {1 x 0.951 + 2 x 0.028 + 3 x 0.008 + 4 x 0.002) x 6.707 =^6.97^mole/min CO2 from calcination^=^6.47^mole/min  167  ^  -^ •^  CO2 in fuel^=^0.002 x 6.707 =^0.013^mole/min CO2 in supplied air^=^0.0003 x 64.86 =^0.019^mole/min .'. total CO2^ 13.47^mole/min 4.3) N2^  4.4) H2O 4.5) Ar  ^  N2 from combustion + N2 in natural gas 78.1/100 x 64.86 + 0.009 x 6.707 50.71^mole/min  {2 x 0.951 + 3 x 0.028 + 4 x 0.008 + 5 x 0.002} x 6.707 13.60^mole/min  ^  0.009 x 64.86 0.584  mole/min  total mole of flue gas out  78.15^mole/min  total volumetric flow rate of flue gas  nRT/P 78.15 x 0.08206 x 956.9/1 6136.76^L/min  total mole of dry flue gas^78.15 - 13.60 64.55^mole/min dry flue composition: 02^-0.33 % N2^78.56 % CO2^20.86 %  Energy balance Note: The kiln boundaries are set at 4.521 m from lime product exit door at the limestone inlet end and at 0.146 m from the door at the lime outlet end due to the gas and solid temperature measurements at those points. Heat of^Sensible^Heat out of^Heat lost^Heat Combustion^heat input to^kiln by flow^from kiln^consumed released by + kiln by flow =^of solid^+^shell by^+ in reaction fuel^of fuel, air,^product, all^radiation and limestone^gas and dust^convection (1)^(2)^(3)^(4)^(5) (1) Heat released by fuel  gas flow rate x gas net heating value  168  ^  •^  0.164 m3 /min x 35.00 MJ/m 3 5.74^MJ/min (2) Sensible heat inputs Air and fuel^0^since both Tom, in and Tfuel, in = T ref T s in (nls ninert s) x J Cp, I s dT Tref  Limestone + inerts  Ts in + ninerts) x R x {AT + B/2 x TL -D/T} I T ref • (6.47 + 0.2)mole x 8.314 J x min^mole•K {12.572(895.5-298) + 2.637 x 10' 3 (895.5 2 - 298 2) + 3.12 x 10 5 ( 1 - 1 )) 2^ 895.5 298 =^0.430^MJ/min .'. Total heat input  ^ • -  Heat released by fuel + Sensibles heat inputs 5.74 + 0.43 6.17^MJ/min  (3) Heat output by flow 3.1) Flue gas leaving the kiln at T g Tg^=^956.9^K  r  TR  oxygen^=^noxygen x Cp, oxygen dT Tref  Tg noxygen R {AT + B/2 x T 2 + C/3 x T 3 - D/T} Tref -0.21 mole x 8.314 J x min^mole•K {3.639(956.9-298) + 0.506 x 10 -3 (956.9 2 - 298 2 ) + 0.227 x 10 5 ( 1 - 1 )) 2^ 956.9 298 -0.005^MJ/min  carbon dioxide  T ncarbon dioxide x T Cp, carbon dioxide dT  Tref  0.421^MJ/min N2 and Ar^  nsum x P Cp, nitrogen dT Tref 169  ^  • water  1.03^MJ/min  nwater x 1 Cp, water dT Tref 0.329^MJ/min  Total enthalpy of flue gas out  • •  -0.005 + 1.030 + 0.421 + 0.329 1.776^M7/min  3.3) Solid products leaving at Ts Ts lime product  • •  Inerts  1256 Ts nlime x S Cp, lime dT Tref 0.318^MJ/min Ts ninerts X f Cp, inerts dT Tref 0.022^MJ/min  Total enthalpy of solid flow out = ^0.318 + 0.022 0.340^MJ/min (5) Heat consumed in calcination ▪  nlime x fir, 298 K 1.153^MJ/min  (4) Heat lost by Radiation & Convection Qloss^Q1 + Q2 - Q3 - Q5 =^2.901^MJ/min  Results of overall mass balances for Runs SL9A, SL10A and SL11B Run SL 9A  Run SL 10A  Run SL 11B  0.164 0.113  0.164 0.113  0.065 0.045  -  -  41:14:45 0.245 0.30 0.12  298 1.642  298 1.642  298 1.739  1.94  1.94  2.06  40.0 38.8 1.2  40.0 38.8 1.2  40.0 38.8 1.2  22.9 21.7 1.2  22.9 21.7 1.2  22.9 21.7 1.2  80.44 13.47 0.27 52.50 0.604 13.60 0 0 0  80.44 13.47 0.27 52.50 0.604 13.60 0 0 0  89.79 16.87 0.06 55.56 0.640 16.46 0.12 0.30 0.046  961.3 6.346 2.34  958.3 6.326 2.34  1025 7.549 2.63  20.15 0.40 78.55 0 0  20.15 0.4 78.55 0 0  23.02 0.08 75.82 1657 409  Fuel in -natural gas (m3/min) -mass flow rate (kg/min) -LOW -%composition (lignin:oil:water) -mass flow rate (kg/min) -mole S org in (mole/min) -mole N in (mole/min) Air supply -air temperature inlet (K) -volumetric flow rate of air measured from rotameters in combustion runs (m 3/min) -mass flow rate of air in (kg/min) Limestone in -total^(kg/h) -CaCO3 (kg/h) -inerts^(kg/h) Lime product out -total^(kg/h) -CaO (kg/h) -inerts^(kg/h) Mole flue gas out -total (mole/min) -CO2 (mole/min) -02^(mole/min) -N2^(mole/min) -Ar^(mole/min) -H2O (mole/min) -NO (mole/min) -SO2 (mole/min) -ash and sulphate (mole/min) Flue gas -flue gas temperarure (K) -volumetric flow rate at Tg,out (m3/min) - mass flow rate of flue gas (kg/min) Dry flue gas composition -CO2 (%) -02^(%) -N2^(%) -NO^(ppm) -S07 (ppm)  171  Mass balances - total mass in (fuel + air + limestone) - total mass out (flue gas + lime product)  163.34 163.31  163.34 163.31  180.82 180.81  Results of overall energy balances for Runs SL9A, SL1OA and SL11B  Inlet fuel and air temperature (K) Inlet limestone temperature (K) Exit gas temperature (K) Exit lime product temperature (K) Net heat released by fuel (MJ/min) Enthalpy of solids and gases flow in - solids (M.1/min) - gas (MJ/min) Total heat input (MJ/min) Enthalpy of solids and gases flow out - solid (MJ/min) - gas (MJ/min) - total^-(MJ/min) - % total heat input Heat consumed by calcination - (MJ/min) - % total heat input Heat loss - (MJ/min) - % total heat input  Run SL9A 298 895 961.3 1230.7 5.74  172  Run SL10A 298 893.9 958.3 1219.1 5.74  Run SL11B 298 965.1 1025 1154.1 5.91  0.429 0 6.169  0.428 6.168  0.486 6.392  0.330 1.836 2.166 35.11  0.326 1.827 2.153 34.896  0.301 2.293 2.594 40.589  1.153 18.69  1.153 18.69  1.153 18.04  2.850 46.20  2.863 46.41  2.644 41.37  Appendix G: Data from the combustion runs Temperature Profiles & Flue gas analysis  Page  Run SL3 Table of events^ Cyclic bed temperature readings^ Cyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings ^ Interior wall probe temperature readings ^ Suction pyrometer temperature readings of flue gas ^ Shell temperature readings ^ Flue gas analysis^  174 175 179 182 183 187 188  Run SL9 Table of events^ Cyclic bed temperature readings^ Cyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings^ Interior wall probe temperature readings ^ Suction pyrometer temperature readings of flue gas ^ Shell temperature readings ^ Flue gas analysis^  189 191 198 204 207 213 214  Run SL10 Table of events^ Cyclic bed temperature readings ^ Cyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings ^ Interior wall probe temperature readings ^ Suction pyrometer temperature readings of flue gas ^ Shell temperature readings ^ Flue gas analysis^  215 216 221 225 227 231 232  Run SL11 Table of events^ Cyclic bed temperature readings ^ Cyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings ^ Interior wall probe temperature readings ^ Suction pyrometer temperature readings of flue gas ^ Shell temperature readings ^ Flue gas analysis^  233 235 240 244 246 251 252  Note : This Appendix contains only the data from Runs SL3, SL9, SL10 and SL11. Data from all the Runs (SL2-SL11) are available on a high density disk (3.5 inches) in spreadsheet format.  173  Table of events Run SL3 05/26/92 08:07:03.76 Kiln speed (rpm) : 1.5 08:07:07.66 SL3A Suction T/C, Pair : 1 11:33:14.25 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 11:35:23.16 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 11:37:23.94 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 11:39:30.65 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 11:41:29.24 Read bed temperatures 11:42:57.61 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 11:44:49.88 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 11:46:12.87 Read Shell Temperatures 11:46:47.69 Read Shell Temperatures 13:13:57.86 SL3B Read bed temperatures 13:14:02.64 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 13:16:18.31 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 13:17:50.03 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 13:19:43.35 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 13:21:43.91 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 13:23:50.56 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 13:25:40.97 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 13:27:05.33 Read Colder'Heat Flux Temps. 13:28:28.27 Read bed temperatures 13:30:03.84 Read Shell Temperatures 13:32:01.71 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 13:32:20.49 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 13:33:43.38 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 13:36:07.45 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 13:37:54.93 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 13:39:41.00 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 13:41:40.62 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 13:43:39.04  174  ^  Cyclic bed temperature readings (Run SL3)  11:42:57^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 48.92*^4170.21*^3906.49* 3517.40*^694.29*^629.38*^826.19*^789.79*^661.68*^578.50* 48.92*^4210.37*^3925.16* 3534.04*^698.08*^633.62*^826.19*^789.79*^661.68*^578.50* 1093.02^1149.47^1074.62^1024.05^943.19^886.42^850.95^804.46^699.03^634.33 1092.18^1149.47^1075.46^1023.20^942.19^885.93^848.03^803.98^696.89^627.50 1082.99^1155.25^1081.32^1022.35^937.94^882.24^839.52^798.68^688.38^615.95 1068.75^1126.29^1065.39^1018.96^930.46^877.34^833.21^794.36^672.07^591.93 1061.19^1008.75^1011.30^1004.49^919.52^865.83^826.19^788.59^659.09^580.39 1056.99^1051.10^1014.71^1004.49^918.53^864.61^834.18^791.47^669.47^603.47 1058.67^1087.17^1040.98^1010.45^926.23^870.48^842.92^796.52^680.81^616.43 1064.55^1100.52^1056.15^1015.56^933.20^877.34^849.97^801.33^688.85^624.20 1072.11^1120.49^1064.55^1020.65^940.19^882.73^853.14^804.22^694.76^631.27 1083.83^1141.20^1069.59^1021.50^943.19^885.93^854.60^806.63^699.97^636.69 L.;^1089.68^1147.82^1072.94^1022.35^943.69^887.90^854.85^807.35^701.87^637.63 1089.68^1157.73^1073.78^1024.05^943.69^887.65^849.73^805.42^698.79^630.80 48.92*^4205.89*^3849.00* 3515.56*^691.22*^618.78*^849.73^805.42^698.79^630.80 48.92*^4165.77*^3798.45* 3482.55*^675.38*^595.70*^849.73^805.42^698.79^630.80 1057.83^1012.16^1014.71^1004.49^922.00^868.27^828.12^790.75^661.92^578.97 1051.10^1043.51^1013.01^1001.08^917.78^864.61^833.21^792.67^670.89^602.29 1052.78^1085.50^1037.60^1007.05^923.25^868.52^839.28^796.04^682.94^615.95 1061.19^1103.02^1050.25^1012.16^930.71^875.62^847.78^800.85^690.98^625.14 Minimum^1051.10^1008.75^1011.30^1001.08^917.78^864.61^826.19^788.59^659.09^578.97 Maximum^1093.02^1157.73^1081.32^1024.05^943.69^887.90^854.85^807.35^701.87^637.63 Range^41.92^148.98^70.01^22.97^25.91^23.29^28.66^18.76^42.78^58.66 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52  (m) *This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.  ^  13:14:02^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 869.15^1039.07^1126.14^1099.51^1012.31^953.61^924.92^886.63^782.40^723.04 856.64^1044.98^1130.28^1097.85^1014.10^957.12^926.41^888.35^783.36^723.28 0.00*^1050.89^1130.28^1097.85^1012.57^956.87^921.69^886.14.^779.76^716.64 839.56^1054.26^1130.28^1097.85^1007.97^953.36^916.23^882.70^771.39^707.39 830.52^990.56^1082.81^1092.00^1000.07^942.60^907.33^877.80^754.44^679.01 52.08*^966.48^1047.51^1081.13^986.62^927.15^903.13^874.86^753.72^690.36 824.18^1005.94^1076.10^1085.32^988.14^929.89^908.81^877.55^762.79^704.32 827.81^1011.91^1094.51^1089.50^995.24^936.61^914.25^880.74^771.15^712.37 836.85^1022.97^1101.18^1089.50^999.56^942.10^917.47^882.95^775.93^717.35 848.56^1032.29^1107.02^1091.17^1003.89^946.60^919.95^884.67^779.05^720.67 857.53^1035.68^1108.68^1088.66^1005.42^949.10^920.45^886.14^780.72^722.81 870.04^1043.29^1108.68^1088.66^1005.68^950.85^919.70^885.89^781.20^721.62 870.04^1046.67^1109.51^1086.99^1005.17^950.60^916.73^883.93^777.13^715.21 852.15^1041.60^1106.18^1082.81^999.56^947.35^910.54^880.99^769.00^705.26 842.26^982.84^1064.35^1075.27^990.42^937.36^901.15^875.60^753.25^677.59 0.^ 839.56^963.03^1033.14^1063.51^977.26^922.93^897.95^871.92^752.77^687.99 842.26^993.98^1061.83^1070.23^980.79^925.66^904.86^874.86^762.07^701.47 853.05^1005.94^1086.99^1078.62^989.40^933.12^910.79^877.55^769.00^709.53 858.43^1017.02^1101.18^1088.66^999.56^941.10^917.22^881.23^774.74^715.93 862.01^1022.12^1110.35^1093.67^1006.70^947.35^921.44^884.42^779.29^720.43 Minimum^824.18^963.03^1033.14^1063.51^977.26^922.93^897.95^871.92^752.77^677.59 Maximum^870.04^1054.26^1130.28^1099.51^1014.10^957.12^926.41^888.35^783.36^723.28 Range^45.86^91.23^97.14^36.00^36.84^34.19^28.46^16.43^30.59^45.69 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m) *This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.  13:30:03  1 853.62 846.43 52.64* 821.12 816.58 816.58 822.94 834.71 845.53 853.62 856.31 850.03 835.62 821.12 816.58 819.30 823.85 834.71 846.43 854.52  2 1009.07 1007.37 4870.24* 981.69 946.27 956.68 979.11 994.55 998.83 997.12 1006.51 999.68 983.41 963.60 940.18 958.41 977.39 990.27 996.26 1001.39  3 1088.39 1087.56 4538.32* 1080.86 1040.48 1035.41 1062.40 1075.84 1079.19 1080.86 1081.70 1077.51 1075.84 1071.64 1033.71 1029.47 1054.83 1069.12 1075.00 1076.67  4 1082.54 1079.19 4229.83* 1073.32 1063.24 1061.56 1068.29 1073.32 1075.00 1075.00 1073.32 1068.29 1064.92 1064.92 1055.67 1054.83 1062.40 1069.12 1072.48 1073.32  5 1010.07 1010.84 784.65* 1002.42 989.47 983.14 986.68 991.24 998.35 1002.42 1004.21 1002.93 998.35 993.78 982.88 976.82 981.36 989.47 996.57 1001.92  6 954.18 956.43 718.87* 951.17 935.19 927.97 931.70 936.93 942.92 947.17 950.17 951.42 949.67 946.17 931.70 924.74 928.96 935.94 941.92 947.42  7 925.98 926.23 926.23 915.56 904.93 905.18 908.88 912.35 917.30 919.78 921.02 921.51 917.79 911.11 902.22 902.96 906.91 912.59 916.56 921.27  8 889.90 891.63 891.63 885.73 879.11 877.88 879.60 881.31 884.01 885.73 887.69 888.68 886.71 883.76 877.39 876.65 878.12 881.07 883.76 886.96  9 785.61 786.56 786.56 772.68 760.49 763.84 770.05 774.83 778.90 782.25 784.65 785.61 784.17 771.96 759.78 763.36 769.09 774.11 777.94 782.49  10 725.27 723.61 723.61 697.78 681.94 697.07 707.49 713.65 718.63 721.95 724.56 724.09 720.05 696.84 680.53 697.31 706.78 714.36 718.63 724.56  Minimum Maximum Range Distance  816.58 856.31 39.73 0.15  940.18 1009.07 68.89 0.46  1029.47 1088.39 58.92 0.92  1054.83 1082.54 27.71 1.49  976.82 1010.84 34.02 2.21  924.74 956.43 31.69 2.55  902.22 926.23 24.01 2.92  876.65 891.63 14.97 3.27  759.78 786.56 26.79 3.99  680.53 725.27 44.75 4.52  +  (m) *This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.  Bed temperature - Kiln stopped  ,.._, --1 00  13:43:39^1^2 806.23 939.04 914.56 782.36 779.59 911.92 908.41 776.82 773.11 905.77 770.33 903.12 766.62 901.36 763.83 898.71 763.83 896.95 761.04 895.18  3 1011.38 960.74 954.68 949.47 945.13 940.78 937.30 934.69 932.07 929.45  4 1007.11 946.00 936.43 929.45 924.20 918.95 914.56 910.17 906.65 904.00  5 937.53 895.92 891.49 887.80 884.86 882.16 879.71 877.74 875.79 874.07  6 901.83 877.99 875.30 873.09 871.14 869.43 867.72 866.25 865.03 863.81  7 873.34 854.30 851.87 849.68 847.98 846.04 844.58 843.12 841.67 840.69  8 856.49 835.36 832.45 830.03 828.10 826.16 824.47 823.02 821.57 820.61  9 751.79 742.27 741.56 741.08 740.61 740.37 740.13 739.89 739.89 739.89  10 672.62 661.53 660.35 659.41 658.47 657.99 657.52 657.29 657.05 656.81  895.18 939.04 43.86 0.46  929.45 1011.38 81.93 0.92  904.00 1007.11 103.11 1.49  874.07 937.53 63.46 2.21  863.81 901.83 38.02 2.55  840.69 873.34 32.64 2.92  820.61 856.49 35.89 3.27  739.89 751.79 11.90 3.99  656.81 672.62 15.81 4.52  Minimum Maximum Range Distance (m)  761.04 806.23 45.19 0.15  Cyclic hot wall probe temperature readings (SL3) 11:44:49  1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  n/a  n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  n/a  n/a n/a n/a  n/a Minimum Maximum Range  Average Distance (m)  0.00  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.62  2 937.38 942.60 946.07 946.94 949.54 947.81 949.54 944.34 930.42 925.18 938.25 943.47 946.94 948.67 948.67 951.27 952.14 951.27 933.90 928.67  3 899.73 901.50 903.26 905.02 905.90 906.78 906.78 906.78 902.38 898.85 899.73 901.50 903.26 904.14 905.90 906.78 907.65 907.65 902.38 898.85  4 840.31 840.55 840.55 840.55 840.55 840.55 840.55 840.55 840.79 840.79 840.79 840.79 840.79 840.79 840.79 840.79 841.04 841.04 841.04 841.04  5 836.42 836.42 836.67 836.91 836.91 837.15 837.15 836.91 836.42 836.18 836.67 836.67 836.91 837.15 837.40 837.40 837.40 837.15 836.67 836.42  6 790.57 791.29 791.77 792.25 792.73 792.97 792.97 792.49 790.81 790.09 790.57 791.29 792.01 792.49 792.97 793.22 793.22 792.73 791.53 790.57  7 743.95 744.67 745.14 745.62 745.86 745.86 745.62 744.90 743.71 743.48 744.43 745.14 745.62 746.10 746.33 746.33 746.10 745.38 743.71 743.48  8 603.30 603.30 603.53 603.77 604.24 604.47 604.71 604.94 604.71 604.24 603.77 603.77 604.00 604.24 604.71 604.94 605.18 605.42 605.18 604.47  9 537.07 538.01 538.96 539.90 540.85 541.55 541.55 540.85 538.49 536.83 537.31 538.49 539.43 540.37 541.32 542.03 542.03 541.32 538.96 537.31  10 403.15 407.21 411.04 414.63 417.49 419.64 420.60 412.48 400.51 396.92 400.51 404.82 409.13 412.95 416.06 418.69 419.64 411.52 399.56 396.20  925.18 952.14  898.85 907.65  840.31 841.04  836.18 837.40  790.09 793.22  743.48 746.33  603.30 605.42  536.83 542.03  396.20 420.60  26.96 943.15 1.01  8.80 903.74 1.57  0.73 840.73 2.06  1.21 836.85 2.38  3.12 791.93 2.72  2.86 745.07 3.05  2.12 604.34 4.07  5.19 539.63 4.59  24.40 409.64 5.21  13:27:05  1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  2 931.41 938.38 940.99 941.86 942.73 942.73 942.73 942.73 935.77 931.41 931.41 936.64 939.25 940.12 939.25 938.38 939.25 939.25 934.03 929.66  3 947.08 950.55 953.15 955.75 957.48 959.21 960.08 961.81 957.48 949.68 947.08 949.68 953.15 955.75 956.62 957.48 958.35 959.21 955.75 947.95  4 888.37 888.37 888.37 888.37 888.37 888.37 888.37 888.62 888.62 888.62 888.62 888.62 888.62 888.62 888.62 888.62 888.62 888.62 888.62 888.62  5 888.12 888.37 888.62 888.62 888.86 889.11 889.35 889.35 888.37 887.88 888.37 888.62 888.62 888.86 888.86 889.11 889.11 889.35 888.62 888.12  6 855.59 856.08 856.81 857.54 858.27 858.76 859.00 859.25 858.03 856.32 855.84 856.57 857.30 857.54 858.03 858.52 858.76 858.76 857.54 856.08  7 822.60 823.33 824.05 824.54 825.02 825.50 825.75 825.26 823.81 822.36 823.09 823.81 824.29 824.54 824.78 825.02 825.02 824.78 823.09 822.12  8 693.94 693.70 693.70 693.94 694.18 694.65 694.89 695.12 695.12 694.65 694.18 693.94 694.18 694.18 694.41 694.89 695.12 695.36 695.36 694.89  9 631.17 631.87 632.82 633.76 634.47 635.17 635.64 635.88 634.47 632.35 631.64 632.35 633.29 634.00 634.70 635.41 635.88 635.88 634.23 632.11  10 480.84 484.87 489.14 492.93 496.24 499.08 500.98 499.32 487.48 477.99 480.84 485.11 489.37 493.16 496.48 499.08 500.98 495.53 477.28 469.92  Minimum Maximum Range Average Distance (m)  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.62  929.66 942.73 13.07 937.90 1.01  947.08 961.81 14.73 954.66 1.57  888.37 888.62 0.25 888.53 2.06  887.88 889.35 1.47 888.71 2.38  855.59 859.25 3.65 857.53 2.72  822.12 825.75 3.63 824.14 3.05  693.70 695.36 1.66 694.52 4.07  631.17 635.88 4.71 633.85 4.59  469.92 500.98 31.06 489.83 5.21  Do  13:32:20  1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  2 921.11 918.48 926.36 928.98 929.85 929.85 929.85 928.10 934.22 928.10 922.86 920.23 929.85 933.34 937.70 940.31 942.05 942.92 942.92 935.96  3 946.40 941.18 944.66 947.27 949.00 950.74 952.47 953.34 954.21 952.47 945.53 941.18 943.79 946.40 949.00 952.47 955.07 956.81 958.54 956.81  4 889.05 889.05 889.05 889.05 889.05 888.81 888.81 888.81 888.81 888.81 888.81 888.81 888.81 888.81 888.56 888.56 888.56 888.56 888.56 888.56  5 888.31 888.31 888.81 888.81 888.81 889.05 889.05 889.05 889.30 888.56 887.82 888.07 888.31 888.31 888.56 888.81 889.05 889.30 889.30 888.81  6 855.78 855.05 855.29 855.78 856.27 856.76 857.00 857.24 857.49 856.51 855.05 854.08 854.56 855.05 855.78 856.76 857.49 857.97 858.71 857.97  7 822.79 822.79 823.28 823.76 824.00 824.24 824.48 824.73 824.48 823.52 822.31 822.55 823.03 823.52 824.00 824.73 825.21 825.45 825.69 824.24  8 695.79 695.08 694.84 694.84 694.84 695.08 695.31 695.55 695.79 695.79 695.31 694.84 694.60 694.60 694.84 695.08 695.31 695.79 696.02 696.26  9 633.01 631.83 632.54 633.24 633.95 634.66 635.36 635.83 636.07 634.89 632.77 631.83 632.54 633.48 634.19 635.13 636.07 636.54 637.01 636.07  10 483.64 484.35 488.14 491.93 495.72 498.80 501.40 503.53 504.24 493.59 481.50 482.21 486.24 490.51 494.54 498.09 501.17 503.53 504.24 491.93  Minimum Maximum Range Average Distance  0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.62  918.48 942.92 24.45 931.15 1.01  941.18 958.54 17.35 949.87 1.57  888.56 889.05 0.49 888.79 2.06  887.82 889.30 1.47 888.72 2.38  854.08 858.71 4.63 856.33 2.72  822.31 825.69 3.38 823.94 3.05  694.60 696.26 1.66 695.28 4.07  631.83 637.01 5.18 634.35 4.59  481.50 504.24 22.74 493.97 5.21  00  (m)  Interior wall probe temperature readings (Run SL3) 11:46:12 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  13:28:28 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 • 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  13:33:43 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  0.2506 n/a 348.65 296.51 341.37 395.96 306.03 297.05 196.38 192.69 188.03  Radius (m) 0.2318 n/a 671.48 576.84 658.44 680.16 508.96 505.41 351.02 323.72 266.87  0.213 n/a -1467.98 842.76 837.64 823.34 752.53 699.56 566.78 499.73 373.65  0.2506 n/a 364.54 320.67 326.61 414.17 339.43 334.11 223.78 220.11 212.75  Radius (m) 0.2318 n/a 686.64 614.43 667.95 716.91 559.08 564.03 402.45 374.37 307.70  0.213 n/a -1436.35 890.98 882.23 875.37 817.53 773.57 650.26 585.71 445.43  0.2506 n/a 363.62 322.00 327.28 416.04 340.82 335.75 225.44 221.77 213.92  Radius (m) 0.2318 n/a 687.79 617.59 669.56 719.00 561.15 566.58 405.27 376.97 309.35  0.213 n/a -1438.31 889.40 882.18 875.81 817.96 774.96 651.86 587.31 448.00  182  ^  Suction pyrometer temperature readings (SL3) Time^11:33:14.25^11:35:23.16^11:37:23.94^11:39:30.65^11:41:29.24 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 1154.93^1075.14^1115.23^1079.38^919.86^881.59^835.04^809.17^756.71^633.81 1155.76^1084.34^1125.19^1078.54^933.29^889.70^841.84^813.75^768.90^639.70 1156.58^1095.20^1133.48^1081.05^941.78^893.64^845.73^814.24^772.01^643.47 1174.72^1104.37^1138.45^1085.23^945.78^895.12^848.16^811.82^770.33^644.89 1189.52^1114.35^1140.93^1086.90^947.78^896.11^848.40^811.34^755.04^643.71 1196.09^1122.66^1145.90^1085.23^948.53^897.34^848.89^810.62^731.71^643.00 1211.68^1130.12^1149.20^1076.03^948.03^898.33^848.40^812.55^732.66^641.82 1134.26^1097.70^1156.63^1087.74^947.03^898.57^848.16^814.96^747.41^642.53 1200.20^1116.84^1157.46^1087.74^947.03^898.82^848.89^818.82^756.00^643.24 1204.30^1127.63^1156.63^1086.90^949.04^900.79^850.59^821.00^770.57^643.95 1205.12^1126.80^1160.76^1095.25^951.29^903.51^851.81^821.97^778.71^647.48 1194.45^1128.46^1161.58^1083.56^952.54^904.50^853.52^822.93^782.78^650.78 00 1176.36^1128.46^1160.76^1088.57^953.80^905.74^854.49^822.21^782.31^651.25 1202.66^1135.92^1169.82^1087.74^954.05^907.22^855.47^818.10^774.64^651.73 1206.76^1141.71^1174.77^1090.24^952.80^906.23^854.98^815.92^763.64^650.08 1221.52^1148.32^1177.24^1095.25^952.29^905.49^853.76^815.68^738.60^648.42 1228.07^1154.11^1173.94^1081.89^951.04^904.01^853.03^817.13^723.16^648.42 1244.44^1159.88^1169.00^1087.74^950.29^904.01^852.54^819.79^741.46^648.19 1236.26^1164.01^1168.18^1086.07^949.54^904.01^853.27^822.93^758.38^647.25 1246.89^1162.36^1169.00^1092.75^950.79^904.01^854.25^824.87^773.20^649.60 Minimum^1134.26^1075.14^1115.23^1076.03^919.86^881.59^835.04^809.17^723.16^633.81 Maximum^1246.89^1164.01^1177.24^1095.25^954.05^907.22^855.47^824.87^782.78^651.73 Range^112.63^88.87^62.00^19.22^34.19^25.63^20.42^15.70^59.63^17.92 Average^1197.03^1125.92^1155.21^1086.19^947.33^899.94^850.06^816.99^758.91^645.67 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)  ^  Time^13:16:18.31^13:17:50.03^13:19:43.35^13:21:43.91^13:23:50.56 Pair^1^ 1^2^3^4 920.54^1047.64^925.85^1123.01^1137.16^1133.02^984.91^322.54^909.93^900.30 928.41^1069.52^931.96^1108.04^1156.18^1143.79^999.37^304.11^917.60^903.75 930.15^1077.07^903.91^1088.01^1166.09^1143.79^1007.78^277.60^921.57^906.47 931.90^1072.88^896.85^1073.78^1171.03^1145.44^1013.65^285.64^925.05^904.74 926.66^1070.36^858.62^1066.23^1174.33^1145.44^1017.49^261.75^927.03^906.22 906.49^1055.23^813.46^1064.54^1175.98^1151.23^1018.00^272.49^928.53^903.75 920.54^1047.64^838.85^1093.03^1177.62^1150.40^1018.00^283.69^928.53^904.99 862.14^1041.73^888.01^1109.70^1176.80^1144.61^1017.75^299.50^929.27^909.44 828.84^1048.49^895.97^1124.67^1170.21^1137.99^1016.98^315.03^928.77^911.17 828.84^1070.36^945.02^1134.62^1175.98^1155.36^1016.72^338.27^928.77^912.65 922.29^1095.47^928.47^1129.64^1180.09^1153.71^1016.98^334.40^930.02^913.15 944.96^1104.65^939.80^1115.53^1183.38^1159.49^1018.51^329.56^930.02^913.89 00 ^938.00^1112.14^909.19^1090.52^1182.56^1157.01^1018.77^343.83^932.01^912.65 936.26^1104.65^890.66^1070.42^1189.14^1156.18^1020.05^346.72^931.01^911.41 938.87^1089.63^856.83^1067.07^1180.92^1153.71^1019.79^334.64^932.01^909.19 930.15^1076.23^828.90^1068.74^1181.74^1145.44^1019.54^340.93^931.76^910.18 892.37^1062.80^827.09^1075.46^1179.27^1156.18^1018.77^326.90^931.01^908.94 879.96^1058.60^881.80^1103.87^1178.45^1147.09^1017.75^338.99^930.02^909.68 834.27^1067.01^893.32^1124.67^1172.68^1161.14^1016.47^325.45^929.27^910.42 857.66^1093.80^900.38^1124.67^1175.98^1157.01^1016.98^354.44^928.28^910.92 Minimum^828.84^1041.73^813.46^1064.54^1137.16^1133.02^984.91^261.75^909.93^900.30 Maximum^944.96^1112.14^945.02^1134.62^1189.14^1161.14^1020.05^354.44^932.01^913.89 Range^116.12^70.41^131.56^70.07^51.98^28.12^35.14^92.69^22.08^13.59 Average^902.97^1073.30^887.75^1097.81^1174.28^1149.90^1014.71^316.83^927.52^908.70 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27 (m)  ^ ^  Time Pair  Minimum Maximum Range Average Distance (m)  13:36:07.45 1 826.77 812.22 846.63 908.89 958.61 955.14 935.16 930.79 881.49 853.82 816.78 833.10 828.58 917.67 900.96 989.61 914.16 911.52 943.86 932.54  13:37:54.93 2 ^ 1000.74 1117.01 ^ 1016.94 1125.32 ^ 1038.99 1125.32 ^ 1064.28 1119.50 ^ 1080.23 1131.12 ^ 1091.10 1124.49 ^ 1089.43 1131.12 ^ 1079.39 1140.24 ^ 1064.28 1150.17 ^ 1065.12 1150.17 ^ 1060.08 1151.82 ^ 1055.03 1146.03 ^ 1060.08 1140.24 ^ 1088.59 1136.92 ^ 1105.29 1133.61 ^ 1114.44 1136.10 ^ 1099.45 1149.34 ^ 1091.10 1150.17 ^ 1090.27 1152.64 ^ 1083.58 1150.17  13:39:41.00 3 ^ 1112.85 983.21 ^ 1112.85 993.60 ^ 1115.35 1000.72 ^ 1005.56 1102.02 ^ 1113.68 1007.85 ^ 1110.35 1008.87 ^ 1123.66 1008.62 ^ 1009.13 1145.20 ^ 1008.11 1141.89 ^ 1139.41 1006.83 ^ 1143.55 1006.58 ^ 1137.75 1006.58 ^ 1141.89 1007.85 ^ 1136.92 1009.38 ^ 1136.10 1009.89 ^ 1138.58 1010.15 ^ 1123.66 1009.13 ^ 1123.66 1007.60 ^ 1129.46 1006.83 ^ 1126.15 1007.60  812.22^1000.74^1117.01^1102.02^983.21 989.61^1114.44^1152.64^1145.20^1010.15 177.39^113.71^35.64^43.18^26.93 894.92^1071.92^1138.07^1127.75^1005.70 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21  13:41:40.62 4 ^ 719:91 901.38 ^ 659.85 907.31 ^ 644.28 911.01 ^ 637.21 913.49 ^ 642.63 915.47 ^ 634.39 917.45 ^ 635.56 918.94 ^ 640.04 919.68 ^ 632.74 918.94 ^ 624.73 918.94 ^ 624.02 918.19 ^ 615.54 919.19 ^ 607.53 918.69 ^ 600.70 920.18 ^ 582.56 920.92 ^ 579.03 922.41 ^ 565.83 922.66 ^ 559.94 923.65 ^ 533.99 922.91 ^ 532.57 923.15  897.93 902.12 904.59 904.59 903.85 903.85 900.40 897.93 898.18 898.18 900.40 900.15 901.63 900.89 900.89 901.14 899.66 898.18 897.44 899.17  532.57 719.91 187.34 613.65 2.55  897.44 904.59 7.15 900.56 3.27  901.38 923.65 22.27 917.73 2.92  13:43:39.04 5 831.35 844.68 853.19 856.36 859.77 861.72 858.55 850.27 843.47 839.34 849.78 858.30 861.96 862.21 866.35 864.65 862.21 854.65 845.41 847.84 831.35 866.35 35.01 853.60 3.99  731.43 737.14 740.70 743.08 744.99 745.94 746.65 746.65 746.18 746.65 747.13 749.03 750.23 751.65 752.61 752.61 752.13 752.13 751.89 751.18 731.43 752.61 21.17 747.00 4.52  ^ ^  13:25:40.97 5 836.34^732.04 849.45^736.56 856.99^739.65 860.65^742.03 862.36^743.45 859.67^744.17 853.58^744.41 847.26^743.93 842.40^744.17 842.16^743.93 854.56^745.36 ;3,^858.70^746.55 a.^866.51^747.98 866.75^749.41 869.44^749.17 865.04^749.88 860.89^748.69 852.61^748.45 846.77^747.98 853.34^747.98 836.34 869.44 33.10 855.27 3.99  732.04 749.88 17.84 744.79 4.52  Shell temperature readings Run: SL3 Distance from lime product output (m) 0.921 1.492 2.21 3.994  Time  0.146  11:46:12.87  160.8487  183.9603  224.6935  110.9035  183.7145  11:46:47.69  174.7198  197.3277 227.4985  123.055  205.4294  13:30:03.84  176.2833  199.1356  126.0953  209.1996  187  227.0986  Flue gas analysis Run:SL3 Equipment :Oxygen analyzer Fuel nat. gas  LOW  Time 9:22 10:16 10:28 11:19 11:30 12:15 12:19 12:25 12.38 12:55 13:03 1:15 1:30  % Oxygen 4.3 3.4 3.4 2.6 2.6 6.2 7.8 2.7-3.5 0.8-3.5 0.5-2.5 0.5-2.2 0.5-2.2 2.7  188  Table of events Run SL9 11/06/92 07:57:51.05 Kiln speed (rpm) : 1.5 07:57:54.18 SL9A Read bed temperatures 13:45:05.39 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 13:46:58.15 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 13:48:21.14 Read Shell Temperatures 13:48:48.99 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 13:49:44.85 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 13:52:27.59 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 13:54:04.70 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 13:56:33.22 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 14:00:25.33 Read bed temperatures 14:02:43.47 Read Shell Temperatures 14:05:16.22 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 14:05:19.90 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 14:06:42.95 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:07:38.53 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 14:10:43.85 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 14:12:47.16 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 14:14:49.15 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 14:16:36.64 SL9B Read bed temperatures 15:02:44.83 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 15:04:39.07 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 15:06:01.95 Read Shell Temperatures 15:06:27.44 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 15:06:43.48 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 15:08:46.29 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 15:10:45.92 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 15:12:42.96 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 15:54:21.74 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 15:56:11.70 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 15:58:25.06 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 16:00:04.48 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 16:01:59.93 Read bed temperatures 16:03:26.44 Read Shell Temperatures 16:05:21.95 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 16:05:26.40 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 16:06:49.39  189  Read bed temperatures 16:26:51.38 Read Shell Temperatures 16:28:47.00 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 16:28:49.47 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 16:30:12.41 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 16:30:39.32 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 16:32:17.53 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 16:34:04.91 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 16:35:55.25 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 16:37:46.31 Read bed temperatures 16:52:17.81 Read Shell Temperatures 16:54:13.65 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 16:54:17.17 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 16:55:40.05 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 16:56:07.68 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 16:57:46.05 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 16:59:36.83 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 17:01:33.49 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 17:03:24.61  190  ^  Cyclic bed temperature readings (SL9) 13:45:05^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 951.00^1014.53^998.33^977.76^913.85^886.71^841.77^819.97^724.96^646.22 971.74^1066.07^1027.27^989.77^933.97^902.47^851.49^828.92^734.23^663.44 992.34^1092.87^1050.09^1000.04^944.71^909.89^857.34^834.00^743.98^672.88 1006.86^1112.03^1060.19^1006.86^949.96^914.59^862.22^838.37^751.61^682.10 1012.82^1117.85^1065.24^1012.82^954.48^916.33^865.39^840.80^755.90^686.35 1012.82^1120.34^1070.27^1015.38^951.47^916.58^867.10^842.50^759.48^688.48 1008.57^1117.85^1070.27^1016.23^948.96^913.35^864.91^839.83^757.81^686.35 982.05^1114.53^1073.63^1017.93^940.46^905.19^859.05^833.28^750.41^673.12 982.05^1107.87^1071.95^1014.53^931.73^900.01^854.66^827.95^741.13^650.94 957.93^1038.27^1016.23^991.48^906.67^877.39^831.58^814.66^720.45^625.72 946.66^1028.11^1007.71^980.34^921.29^892.12^849.30^825.29^733.04^654.95 970.01^1071.95^1035.73^992.34^939.21^905.93^860.51^833.04^742.08^669.11 992.34^1096.21^1051.77^1002.60^945.46^911.62^866.62^836.91^748.51^676.66 1003.45^1108.71^1061.03^1008.57^952.22^916.58^871.75^841.77^754.94^683.99 1007.71^1120.34^1067.75^1012.82^952.72^916.58^873.96^843.71^759.95^688.48 1010.27^1125.33^1070.27^1014.53^951.22^916.33^873.22^843.47^760.91^688.24 997.47^1118.68^1069.43^1015.38^948.21^911.87^871.75^841.77^757.33^683.28 996.62^1114.53^1072.79^1016.23^936.22^901.49^861.00^831.34^748.51^671.94 970.87^1088.69^1056.83^1011.12^923.77^891.88^845.66^824.08^730.66^637.27 954.47^1023.87^1006.01^979.48^907.42^879.59^839.83^818.52^726.15^636.56 Minimum^946.66^1014.53^998.33^977.76^906.67^877.39^831.58^814.66^720.45^625.72 Maximum^1012.82^1125.33^1073.63^1017.93^954.48^916.58^873.96^843.71^760.91^688.48 Range^66.16^110.80^75.30^40.17^47.80^39.19^42.37^29.05^40.46^62.76 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m )  ^  14:02:43^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 1031.85^1134.79^1075.65^1014.03^952.07^913.46^867.45^835.57^749.33^674.89 1040.31^1146.38^1081.52^1019.98^954.32^913.46^869.41^837.26^753.15^678.19 1035.24^1147.21^1084.86^1022.52^949.81^911.48^867.94^834.60^752.91^677.25 1031.85^1141.42^1086.53^1023.37^944.06^906.53^862.57^829.75^747.43^670.64 1029.31^1138.94^1084.03^1021.68^931.58^897.15^855.74^823.46^738.86^656.01 1010.62^1094.89^1057.18^1015.73^919.16^884.60^836.54^813.80^717.24^623.01 988.41^1033.55^1013.17^981.55^910.98^881.66^838.96^813.56^721.04^631.72 988.41^1075.65^1034.39^990.12^928.60^896.66^850.38^822.49^731.96^653.17 1010.62^1109.06^1057.18^1001.24^940.31^903.57^856.96^827.82^739.10^662.85 1024.22^1124.85^1071.46^1012.32^951.82^915.19^866.48^835.08^747.91^673.23 1031.00^1130.65^1077.33^1017.43^955.83^917.67^871.12^838.72^754.10^679.37 1031.85^1134.79^1078.17^1019.13^953.32^917.17^873.08^840.42^758.16^683.86 1024.22^1129.82^1074.81^1020.83^952.82^914.45^871.12^839.45^759.35^683.16 1025.92^1128.16^1076.49^1021.68^946.31^909.00^866.72^832.90^750.29^673.71 1005.51^1119.03^1076.49^1019.98^934.82^901.10^859.40^827.82^742.19^657.42 981.55^1055.49^1028.46^1004.65^912.71^878.72^831.69^811.39^718.19^618.30 968.64^1026.77^1007.21^980.69^918.41^892.23^847.71^822.49^730.78^646.57 989.27^1081.52^1038.62^994.40^937.82^905.54^857.20^830.48^740.29^662.85 1008.06^1101.56^1056.34^1005.51^947.81^911.72^862.81^834.60^747.91^671.82 1019.98^1117.37^1066.42^1012.32^953.07^916.93^868.92^839.93^753.86^678.43 Minimum^968.64^1026.77^1007.21^980.69^910.98^878.72^831.69^811.39^717.24^618.30 Maximum^1040.31^1147.21^1086.53^1023.37^955.83^917.67^873.08^840.42^759.35^683.86 Range^71.67^120.44^79.32^42.69^44.85^38.95^41.39^29.03^42.11^65.57 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m  )  ^  15:02:44^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 794.55^940.04^1029.31^1076.50^1018.01^978.59^935.42^899.48^810.79^735.67 792.71^941.78^1029.31^1079.02^1014.17^978.59^936.17^901.21^809.11^733.05 790.88^947.00^1031.01^1078.18^1010.08^971.27^928.20^892.83^801.40^721.89 777.98^951.33^1031.01^1072.31^995.56^960.70^917.28^888.89^792.03^696.54 779.82^933.08^990.97^1038.63^962.20^930.44^886.19^872.46^777.89^679.99 780.75^936.56^985.83^1030.16^971.77^948.91^903.43^883.00^787.71^706.24 949.60* 1013.17* 1041.16* 5217.48*^958.94*^913.32*^887.67*^794.91*^719.99*^706.24* 788.12^948.73^1026.77^1051.29^996.58^963.96^920.50^890.86^800.44^726.88 785.36^941.78^1032.70^1061.39^1006.00^971.01^928.70^895.54^805.49^731.63 784.44^931.33^1032.70^1068.95^1008.81^972.53^931.19^897.26^808.14^735.90 784.44^933.08^1032.70^1072.31^1009.32^973.28^932.68^898.49^809.35^735.90 787.20^944.39^1036.09^1073.99^1008.30^971.77^929.94^894.80^804.77^728.78 0.00*^953.93^1039.47^1073.15^1002.43^967.24^924.72^891.11^798.52^719.28 779.82^958.26^1024.22^1067.28^982.13^946.41^897.26^880.30^778.85^682.82 780.75^933.08^984.97^1026.77^960.45^934.68^888.40^874.91^780.04^690.62 780.75^951.33^1004.65^1035.24^978.84^952.17^902.19^883.98^789.39^711.93 0.00*^959.13^1023.37^1046.23^989.72^961.45^912.82^888.65^796.12^721.89 0.00*^953.07^1034.40^1057.19^996.33^964.47^917.78^890.37^801.64^728.54 781.67^932.20^1035.24^1066.44^1006.51^971.77^924.72^896.52^806.46^733.29 784.44^928.71^1034.40^1072.31^1011.36^974.29^928.20^899.23^808.63^734.95 Minimum^777.98^928.71^984.97^1026.77^960.45^930.44^886.19^872.46^777.89^679.99 Maximum^794.55^959.13^1039.47^1079.02^1018.01^978.59^936.17^901.21^810.79^735.90 Range^16.57^30.42^54.50^52.25^57.57^48.14^49.98^28.74^32.91^55.92 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m) * This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.  ^  16:03:26  1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 783.80^956.01^1025.43^1046.59^983.08^955.88^922.46^894.78^813.93^736.16 786.57^956.01^1035.61^1053.34^990.68^962.41^930.66^899.46^819.24^742.35 791.17^947.34^1038.99^1061.76^1000.84^969.20^936.88^903.65^824.55^747.11 790.25^942.99^1037.30^1068.48^1004.15^972.22^939.88^905.63^826.97^748.06 792.09^942.99^1036.45^1072.68^1005.43^972.22^939.13^905.38^826.73^747.58 785.65^950.81^1038.14^1074.36^1005.17^970.46^935.89^901.92^822.14^740.92 781.03^956.01^1039.84^1074.36^1000.84^964.92^928.42^897.24^815.38^731.41 785.65^953.41^1019.49^1068.48^985.11^945.62^899.70^883.47^793.48^698.93 943.86*^995.61* 1042.37* 5007.91* ^940.12*^901.68*^884.46*^801.65*^714.80*^698.93* 784.72^955.14^1017.79^1043.22^978.53^951.62^916.76^892.07^809.35^729.99 789.33^958.61^1031.37^1049.97^985.61^958.14^924.69^895.76^815.62^737.83 792.09^956.88^1038.99^1056.71^994.74^964.67^931.65^900.44^819.72^741.63 793.92^946.47^1038.99^1065.96^1001.61^969.20^936.14^903.65^823.83^746.39 792.09^940.38^1036.45^1071.84^1004.92^972.48^939.63^905.87^825.52^748.06 794.84^947.34^1037.30^1074.36^1006.96^973.23^939.63^905.13^823.83^745.20 789.33^953.41^1039.84^1076.04^1004.15^970.21^934.64^900.69^818.03^736.88 779.19^960.34^1042.37^1074.36^997.54^963.67^923.95^895.27^809.59^715.04 784.72^944.73^1010.12^1059.24^973.48^937.63^894.04^880.78^794.68^698.69 786.57^949.07^1003.30^1042.37^971.47^944.12^907.85^887.65^804.30^721.44 783.80^957.74^1022.89^1046.59^984.60^955.63^920.97^893.55^812.25^733.31  Minimum^779.19^940.38^1003.30^1042.37^971.47^937.63^894.04^880.78^793.48^698.69 Maximum^794.84^960.34^1042.37^1076.04^1006.96^973.23^939.88^905.87^826.97^748.06 Range^15.65^19.95^39.07^33.66^35.49^35.60^45.84^25.10^33.49^49.37 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m) * This data is not used in fmding the minimum bed temperature.  ^  16:26:51^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 768.48^934.69^1021.59^1047.84^993.87^965.32^934.04^903.80^823.99^747.98 763.83^923.33^1020.74^1054.58^1000.99^969.60^937.53^905.53^827.61^752.03 762.90^920.70^1019.89^1059.64^1002.52^970.86^939.03^906.27^828.10^752.03 0.00*^927.70^1021.59^1063.00^1002.01^969.35^936.04^904.05^825.20^747.51 752.65^935.56^1024.14^1063.84^998.70^964.82^930.56^898.38^818.43^738.94 760.11^941.65^1020.74^1063.00^993.62^957.29^912.45^891.73^802.53^712.36 763.83^924.20^988.30^1046.15^970.36^937.28^898.63^884.36^800.61^714.25 761.04^932.94^996.86^1037.70^970.61^947.27^914.68^891.98^809.27^732.52 773.11^940.78^1014.78^1041.08^975.40^955.28^924.60^896.66^816.50^740.84 777.74^938.17^1022.44^1045.31^984.49^961.80^931.80^901.09^822.30^746.56 778.66^929.45^1023.29^1052.90^995.14^967.84^937.53^905.04^827.13^751.32 772.19^923.33^1022.44^1058.80^1000.48^970.61^939.03^905.53^828.82^752.51 926.83* 1021.59* 1062.16* 5369.30* ^970.61*^939.03*^905.53*^828.34*^750.84*^752.51* 761.04^929.45^1021.59^1062.16^998.70^966.08^933.05^900.60^822.78^743.22 751.72^935.56^1024.14^1062.16^994.13^960.55^925.59^896.16^814.09^724.21 761.04^925.95^996.86^1052.90^974.14^938.53^895.42^883.63^800.13^705.96 761.04^930.32^987.44^1036.01^966.83^941.77^906.77^889.77^809.75^728.72 765.69^937.30^1007.11^1035.16^970.61^951.02^918.64^894.44^816.26^739.65 767.55^942.52^1019.89^1040.24^977.92^958.54^927.58^899.12^821.57^745.36 771.26^937.30^1024.14^1046.99^990.57^965.32^934.04^903.31^825.68^749.41 Minimum^751.72^920.70^987.44^1035.16^966.83^937.28^895.42^883.63^800.13^705.96 Maximum^778.66^942.52^1024.14^1063.84^1002.52^970.86^939.03^906.27^828.82^752.51 Range^26.95^21.82^36.70^28.68^35.68^33.58^43.60^22.64^28.70^46.55 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m) * This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.  ^  16:52:17  1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 748.45^916.79^981.04^1035.63^976.12^947.99^913.66^892.94^811.19^729.67 750.32^920.29^999.04^1035.63^986.48^957.00^923.82^898.36^817.94^738.46 752.19^911.52^1005.88^1041.55^996.12^966.04^933.27^904.27^823.97^744.41 754.99^910.64^1009.29^1049.15^1004.51^972.34^940.50^908.72^828.81^749.41 757.79^906.24^1010.14^1055.05^1008.34^975.36^942.24^909.71^830.99^752.03 53.71*^911.52^1010.14^1059.27^1008.85^975.11^941.49^908.47^828.81^749.88 742.82^918.54^1011.85^1061.79^1005.53^972.09^937.25^903.53^823.49^743.45 730.60^926.42^1016.10^1060.95^997.64^964.03^929.04^898.11^816.73^731.09 738.13^919.42^993.05^1056.74^983.19^944.99^900.82^887.04^799.16^703.59 742.82^910.64^975.88^1040.71^971.08^942.49^909.21^890.48^807.82^721.84 741.89^921.17^995.62^1037.32^982.69^954.75^925.56^897.86^815.77^734.89 742.82^917.66^1005.88^1041.55^991.30^961.77^932.52^901.31^820.11^740.60 744.70^914.15^1010.99^1047.46^999.68^968.81^940.50^906.25^825.91^745.83 749.38^909.76^1010.99^1053.37^1005.79^973.09^943.24^908.47^829.29^750.12 754.05^911.52^1011.85^1058.42^1008.85^974.61^943.99^909.71^831.23^750.60 746.57^919.42^1014.40^1060.95^1007.06^972.34^940.75^907.48^827.36^745.60 755.92^927.30^1016.96^1060.95^1001.97^967.30^933.77^901.81^820.59^737.51 743.76^929.04^1009.29^1060.11^991.80^956.75^911.93^893.43^802.28^709.03 914.15*^978.46*^1045.78* 5030.28*^940.99*^902.55*^888.52*^804.93*^716.38*^709.03* 754.05^925.55^988.77^1038.17^978.90^951.49^919.86^895.89^813.36^732.28  Minimum^730.60^906.24^975.88^1035.63^971.08^942.49^900.82^887.04^799.16^703.59 Maximum^757.79^929.04^1016.96^1061.79^1008.85^975.36^943.99^909.71^831.23^752.03 Range^27.19^22.81^41.08^26.16^37.77^32.87^43.17^22.66^32.07^48.44 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m) * This data is not used in fmding the minimum bed temperature.  ^ ^  Bed temperatures - Kiln stopped 17:03:24  1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 762.78^907.46^973.63^1038.51^967.14^941.33^893.77^893.28^800.94^710.09 763.71^899.52^960.68^1018.15^958.10^934.36^889.35^889.35^798.54^706.06 764.64^895.11^952.02^1001.95^954.09^931.12^886.65^888.12^798.05^703.22 765.57^890.68^945.07^990.82^951.58^929.13^884.93^886.40^798.30^701.09 765.57^888.91^938.98^982.24^950.83^927.64^883.95^885.67^798.54^699.43 766.50^886.25^934.62^975.36^949.33^927.14^882.97^885.67^799.02^698.25 766.50^884.48^931.13^971.05^949.58^927.39^882.48^885.67^799.74^697.30 766.50^883.59^927.64^966.73^950.33^927.14^882.23^885.17^800.22^696.59 766.50^882.70^925.01^964.14^950.83^926.90^881.99^884.93^800.70^696.12 765.57^881.81^922.39^962.41^951.58^927.14^881.74^885.91^801.66^695.65  Minimum^762.78^881.81^922.39^962.41^949.33^926.90^881.74^884.93^798.05^695.65 Maximum^766.50^907.46^973.63^1038.51^967.14^941.33^893.77^893.28^801.66^710.09 Range^3.72^25.65^51.25^76.10^17.81^14.44^12.03^8.35^3.60^14.44 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)  Cyclic hot wall probe temperature readings (SL9) 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  2 971.80 967.49 982.11 987.26 991.54 993.26 994.11 994.11 992.40 982.97 971.80 968.35 914.44 990.69 990.69 994.11 995.82 995.82 992.40 976.96  3 917.07 912.69 913.57 915.32 917.95 918.83 919.70 920.58 921.45 920.58 914.44 911.81 n/a 917.07 917.95 919.70 920.58 921.45 922.33 918.83  4 831.16 831.40 831.40 831.40 831.40 831.40 831.40 831.40 831.40 831.40 831.16 831.40 805.32 831.40 831.40 831.40 831.40 831.40 831.40 831.16  5 805.08 805.32 805.32 805.32 805.32 805.08 805.08 805.32 805.08 805.32 805.08 805.32 807.73 805.32 805.08 805.08 805.08 805.08 805.08 805.08  6 808.21 807.97 807.73 807.73 807.97 807.97 808.21 808.21 808.45 808.45 807.97 807.73 781.54 807.73 807.97 807.97 808.21 808.45 808.45 808.45  7 780.58 780.34 781.06 781.54 782.02 782.50 782.74 782.74 782.50 781.78 780.82 780.82 655.24 782.02 782.26 782.74 782.74 782.74 782.50 781.54  8 656.19 655.72 655.24 655.01 655.24 655.48 655.72 655.95 656.19 656.19 655.95 655.48 588.56 655.24 655.24 655.48 655.72 656.19 656.42 656.19  9 589.74 587.86 588.09 589.04 589.98 590.92 591.63 592.10 592.33 591.39 589.04 587.86 436.43 589.51 590.21 591.16 591.86 592.33 592.33 590.68  10 436.43 431.90 436.19 440.72 445.01 448.82 451.91 454.29 455.00 441.67 430.71 431.90 431.90 440.96 445.25 449.05 452.15 454.29 453.57 440.24  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  914.44 995.82 81.38 982.41 1.01  911.81 922.33 10.52 917.99 1.57  805.32 831.40 26.08 830.06 2.06  805.08 807.73 2.65 805.31 2.38  781.54 808.45 26.91 806.77 2.72  655.24 782.74 127.49 775.56 3.05  588.56 656.42 67.86 652.37 4.07  436.43 592.33 155.90 582.72 4.59  430.71 455.00 24.29 443.60 5.21  13:46:58  `e.0  Minimum Maximum Range Average Distance (m)  1  n/a n/a  2 1003.86 1003.86 1006.42 1005.57 1004.71 985.04 979.89 992.75 1000.45 1001.30 1003.86 1004.71 1005.57 1004.71 995.32 984.18 980.75 997.88 1001.30 1004.71  3 922.68 924.43 925.30 926.17 926.17 921.80 916.55 917.42 920.05 920.93 922.68 923.55 924.43 925.30 924.43 919.18 916.55 918.30 920.05 921.80  4 832.48 832.48 832.48 832.48 832.48 832.48 832.48 832.48 832.72 832.48 832.48 832.48 832.48 832.48 832.48 832.72 832.72 832.72 832.72 832.72  5 805.19 805.19 805.19 805.43 805.43 805.43 805.43 805.43 805.43 805.43 805.43 805.43 805.43 805.43 805.43 805.43 805.67 805.43 805.43 805.43  6 807.84 807.84 808.08 808.32 808.32 808.08 807.84 807.59 807.59 807.59 807.84 808.08 808.08 808.32 808.32 808.08 807.84 807.59 807.84 807.84  7 781.41 781.65 781.89 781.89 781.17 779.97 779.73 780.21 780.93 781.17 781.65 781.89 781.89 781.65 780.69 779.73 779.73 780.45 780.93 781.41  8 652.53 652.76 653.00 653.47 653.47 653.23 652.76 652.29 652.29 652.53 652.76 653.00 653.23 653.47 653.71 653.47 653.00 652.53 652.53 652.76  9 585.15 585.85 586.56 587.03 586.56 584.20 582.32 582.55 583.73 584.67 585.62 586.32 587.03 587.27 586.09 583.73 582.55 583.03 584.20 584.91  10 440.83 444.17 446.79 448.45 443.69 431.54 426.29 430.34 434.64 439.16 442.98 446.07 448.45 449.17 439.16 426.05 425.81 430.34 434.87 439.40  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  979.89 1006.42 26.53 998.34 1.01  916.55 926.17 9.63 921.89 1.57  832.48 832.72 0.24 832.55 2.06  805.19 805.67 0.48 805.40 2.38  807.59 808.32 0.72 807.94 2.72  779.73 781.89 2.16 781.00 3.05  652.29 653.71 1.42 652.94 4.07  582.32 587.27 4.95 584.97 4.59  425.81 449.17 23.36 438.41 5.21  14:05:19 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  Minimum Maximum Range Average Distance (m)  15:04:39  1  n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  2 905.98 907.74 908.62 913.01 900.69 897.16 904.22 909.50 909.50 906.86 905.10 908.62 910.37 906.86 899.81 897.16 906.86 910.37 907.74 905.98  3 964.37 966.10 966.96 967.82 960.92 953.13 953.99 957.46 960.92 963.51 965.24 966.10 967.82 966.96 958.32 953.13 955.73 959.19 962.65 964.37  4 861.77 861.77 862.02 862.02 862.02 862.02 862.02 862.02 862.02 862.02 862.02 862.26 862:26 862.26 862.26 862.26 862.26 862.26 862.50 862.50  5 836.72 836.72 836.96 836.96 836.72 836.96 836.96 836.96 836.96 836.96 836.96 836.96 837.20 836.96 837.20 837.20 837.20 837.20 837.20 837.20  6 848.37 848.62 848.86 849.10 848.86 848.13 848.13 847.89 848.13 848.37 848.62 848.86 849.10 849.35 848.86 848.37 848.37 848.13 848.37 848.62  7 827.27 827.76 827.76 827.27 826.06 825.34 825.82 826.31 827.03 827.27 827.76 828.00 828.00 827.52 826.06 826.06 826.55 826.79 827.27 827.76  8 699.67 700.15 700.38 700.62 700.38 700.15 699.67 699.67 699.67 700.15 700.38 700.62 701.09 701.09 701.09 700.62 700.38 700.15 700.38 700.62  9 637.58 638.29 638.76 638.53 636.64 634.75 634.99 635.70 636.64 637.58 638.29 639.00 639.23 638.53 636.17 634.99 635.46 636.40 637.35 638.05  10 495.35 498.19 500.09 495.35 481.37 475.20 479.71 484.22 488.96 492.98 496.54 499.38 500.56 489.19 476.86 476.86 481.61 486.35 490.85 494.41  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  897.16 913.01 15.85 906.11 1.01  953.13 967.82 14.70 961.73 1.57  861.77 862.50 0.73 862.12 2.06  836.72 837.20 0.48 837.01 2.38  847.89 849.35 1.46 848.56 2.72  825.34 828.00 2.66 826.98 3.05  699.67 701.09 1.42 700.35 4.07  634.75 639.23 4.48 637.15 4.59  475.20 500.56 25.36 489.20 5.21  n/a n/a n/a n/a  n/a  n/a n/a  n/a  Minimum Maximum Range Average Distance (m)  1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  2 921.18 915.92 914.16 915.92 916.79 917.67 912.40 909.77 914.16 917.67 918.55 915.04 913.28 915.92 916.79 915.04 910.65 908.89 916.79 919.42  3 975.01 977.59 980.17 981.03 981.89 982.75 975.87 968.97 968.97 972.42 975.01 977.59 980.17 981.03 981.89 981.03 973.28 967.25 969.84 973.28  4 878.81 879.06 879.06 879.06 879.06 879.06 878.81 878.81 878.81 879.06 878.81 878.81 878.81 878.81 878.81 878.81 878.81 878.81 878.81 878.81  5 851.47 851.47 851.47 851.47 851.47 851.47 851.47 851.47 851.47 851.71 851.47 851.23 851.23 851.23 851.23 851.47 851.47 851.47 851.47 851.47  6 859.51 859.75 859.99 860.24 860.48 860.48 860.24 859.51 859.26 859.26 859.51 859.75 859.75 859.99 860.24 860.48 859.99 859.26 859.26 859.26  7 841.99 842.48 842.72 842.96 842.96 842.48 841.02 840.54 841.02 841.51 841.99 842.48 842.72 842.96 842.72 841.99 840.54 840.54 841.02 841.51  8 725.24 725.24 725.71 725.95 726.19 726.19 726.19 725.71 725.24 725.24 725.24 725.47 725.71 725.95 726.19 726.42 726.19 725.47 725.24 725.24  9 659.48 660.42 661.37 661.84 662.31 662.08 660.19 658.30 658.54 659.48 660.42 661.13 661.84 662.31 662.55 661.84 659.95 658.77 659.24 660.19  10 507.15 511.18 514.72 517.32 519.21 514.25 502.89 496.98 500.76 505.26 509.76 513.30 516.38 518.98 520.16 510.23 497.21 497.45 501.95 506.68  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  908.89 921.18 12.29 915.30 1.01  967.25 982.75 15.50 976.25 1.57  878.81 879.06 0.24 878.89 2.06  851.23 851.71 0.49 851.43 2.38  859.26 860.48 1.22 859.81 2.72  840.54 842.96 2.43 841.91 3.05  725.24 726.42 1.19 725.70 4.07  658.30 662.55 4.25 660.61 4.59  496.98 520.16 23.18 509.09 5.21  16:05:26  n/a  Minimum Maximum Range Average Distance (m  )  1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  2 904.00 902.24 904.89 905.77 900.48 896.95 904.89 907.53 904.00 903.12 903.12 902.24 904.00 901.36 896.95 900.48 907.53 908.41 904.00 902.24  3 976.27 977.99 978.85 978.85 973.68 965.06 965.92 969.37 971.96 974.55 977.13 977.99 978.85 976.27 966.79 964.20 968.51 971.10 973.68 976.27  4 877.25 877.25 877.25 877.25 877.50 877.25 877.25 877.25 877.25 877.25 877.25 877.25 877:25 877.25 877.25 877.25 877.25 877.25 877.25 877.25  5 851.14 851.14 851.14 851.38 851.38 851.38 851.38 851.38 851.14 851.14 851.14 851.14 851.14 851.38 851.38 851.38 851.38 851.38 851.14 851.14  6 859.91 860.15 860.39 860.64 860.15 859.66 859.42 859.42 859.42 859.66 859.91 860.15 860.39 860.39 859.66 859.42 859.18 859.42 859.66 859.91  7 843.61 843.85 843.85 843.36 841.67 841.42 841.91 842.39 843.12 843.36 843.61 843.61 843.36 842.15 840.94 841.67 842.39 842.88 843.36 843.85  8 729.44 729.67 729.91 730.15 729.91 729.67 729.20 729.20 729.20 729.44 729.67 729.91 730.15 730.15 729.67 729.20 729.20 729.20 729.20 729.44  9 666.72 667.43 667.90 667.67 665.54 664.13 664.36 665.07 665.78 666.72 667.19 667.67 667.67 666.49 664.36 664.13 664.83 665.54 666.25 666.96  10 520.09 522.92 524.81 518.67 504.24 500.22 504.95 509.68 514.18 518.20 521.50 523.63 524.34 510.87 499.27 503.06 507.79 512.52 516.78 520.09  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  896.95 908.41 11.46 903.21 1.01  964.20 978.85 14.65 973.16 1.57  877.25 877.50 0.24 877.27 2.06  851.14 851.38 0.24 851.26 2.38  859.18 860.64 1.46 859.85 2.72  840.94 843.85 2.91 842.82 3.05  729.20 730.15 0.95 729.58 4.07  664.13 667.90 3.78 666.12 4.59  499.27 524.81 25.54 513.89 5.21  16:28:49  t)  Minimum Maximum Range Average Distance (m)  16:54:17  Minimum Maximum Range Average Distance (m)  1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  2 892.11 890.34 886.80 886.80 887.68 890.34 885.02 881.47 883.25 890.34 888.57 886.80 885.91 886.80 889.46 889.46 883.25 880.58 885.91 890.34  3 970.71 973.29 975.88 977.60 979.32 979.32 975.88 967.26 965.53 968.98 972.43 975.02 977.60 978.46 979.32 979.32 970.71 965.53 968.12 971.57  4 874.30 874.05 874.05 874.30 874.30 874.30 874.30 874.30 874.30 874.54 874.54 874.54 874:54 874.54 874.54 874.54 874.54 874.79 874.79 874.79  5 850.39 850.15 850.15 850.15 850.15 850.15 850.39 850.39 850.64 850.64 850.39 850.39 850.39 850.39 850.39 850.64 850.64 850.88 850.88 850.88  6 860.13 860.13 860.38 860.62 861.11 861.35 861.35 860.62 860.38 860.38 860.38 860.62 861.11 861.35 861.60 861.84 861.35 860.86 860.62 860.86  7 843.83 844.32 844.81 845.05 845.29 845.05 843.59 842.38 843.11 844.08 844.56 845.05 845.53 845.53 845.29 844.56 843.11 843.11 843.83 844.56  8 729.19 729.19 729.43 729.91 730.14 730.38 730.38 730.14 729.67 729.67 729.67 729.91 730.14 730.38 730.62 730.86 730.62 730.14 729.67 729.91  9 665.30 666.25 666.96 667.66 668.14 668.37 666.72 664.83 664.60 665.54 666.25 667.19 667.90 668.37 668.84 668.14 665.78 664.83 665.54 666.25  10 512.99 517.48 521.27 524.34 526.70 526.46 510.86 504.24 508.26 513.23 517.48 521.50 524.81 527.41 528.83 521.74 509.21 508.97 512.75 517.01  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  880.58 892.11 11.53 887.06 1.01  965.53 979.32 13.79 973.59 1.57  874.05 874.79 0.73 874.44 2.06  850.15 850.88 0.73 850.45 2.38  860.13 861.84 1.71 860.85 2.72  842.38 845.53 3.16 844.33 3.05  729.19 730.86 1.66 730.00 4.07  664.60 668.84 4.25 666.67 4.59  504.24 528.83 24.59 517.78 5.21  n/a  Interior wall probe temperature readings (SL9)  13:48:21 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  14:06:42 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  0.2506 n/a 377.98 319.72 297.36 326.21 338.54 332.99 225.61 224.14 190.04  Radius (m) 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a 728.32 -1600.75 862.21 608.37 608.82 825.83 592.80 776.99 552.51 788.01 552.74 740.71 400.12 618.24 372.04 551.80 283.98 407.30  Radius (m) 0.2506 0.2318  n/a  381.64 320.07 297.95 327.05 339.62 334.54 227.68 225.96 192.35  n/a  734.32 608.72 609.88 593.15 554.04 554,27 402.62 373.60 286.28  204  0.213  n/a  -1640.92 865.24 826.91 777.10 787.88 740.11 616.47 548.14 402.62  15:06:01 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  16:06:49 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  0.2506 n/a 379.18 323.19 300.99 329.83 344.57 338.78 232.94 229.51 196.89  Radius (m) 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a 699.16 -1398.78 618.49 898.05 620.15 856.16 604.13 804.11 565.73 825.34 566.67 777.95 412.09 655.03 382.85 588.35 296.13 443.11  0.2506 n/a 372.58 334.52 308.93 339.20 356.10 350.79 243.39 240.45 211.78  Radius (m) 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a 693.62 -1378.55 644.25 916.79 639.20 871.72 819.48 622.95 586.44 838.35 589.97 797.09 437.59 683.32 407,74 615.17 318.15 464.48  16:30:12 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  0.2506 n/a 339.44 1165.36 341.78 359.15 354.81 247.70 244.76 217.58 520.09  Radius (m) 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a 688.26 -1354.96 647.58 914.56 640.55 870.16 625.23 819.64 588.96 839.00 593.20 798.21 443.23 687.51 413.40 620.76 324.85 471.06  16:55:40 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  0.2506 n/a 367.90 341.03 312.23 343.45 361.06 357.45 250.86 248.41 222.46  Radius (m) 0.213 0.2318 n/a n/a 677.18 -1316.86 646.09 912.39 639.84 867.70 624.99 819.15 589.66 839.95 594.61 798.44 447.27 687.74 417,69 621.23 329.92 472.71  206  ^  Suction pyrometer temperature readings (SL9) Time^13:49:44.85^13:52:27.59^13:54:04.70^13:56:33.22^14:00:25.33 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 1181.61^1143.67^1123.02^1063.73^943.95^893.59^860.51^829.16^760.24^675.77 1209.54^1156.89^1124.68^1072.13^954.21^897.78^862.95^834.24^771.24^678.13 1225.94^1166.79^1136.28^1083.02^960.99^901.73^863.19^836.91^788.96^681.68 1213.64^1164.32^1134.62^1091.38^965.02^904.69^867.59^840.07^799.29^684.75 1221.02^1172.56^1145.38^1088.04^966.78^905.68^868.32^841.77^805.07^688.06 1221.02^1176.68^1151.17^1104.72^967.28^907.66^868.57^842.25^807.47^689.71 1172.56^1163.49^1160.25^1084.69^964.77^907.90^870.52^842.98^806.51^691.61 1196.41 . 1161.84^1156.13^1080.51^963.51^908.40^871.75^842.74^804.83^691.13 1224.30^1168.44^1157.78^1145.38^963.00^908.64^871.26^842.01^794.72^690.19 1244.76^1180.79^1156.13^1082.18^966.53^909.39^870.28^842.49^775.54^688.77 1244.76^1185.73^1161.90^1080.51^969.05^910.38^870.03^842.98^780.81^687.82 1257.84^1190.66^1161.90^1082.18^972.58^911.37^868.81^844.19^792.32^688.77 No^ 1248.85^1193.95^1156.13^1081.35^974.85^912.36^870.52^844.92^803.38^689.48 1224.30^1188.19^1164.38^1085.53^975.86^912.85^871.75^846.38^809.88^692.08 1240.67^1189.84^1160.25^1078.83^975.60^913.84^873.95^846.38^812.54^693.97 1225.12^1188.19^1164.38^1079.67^975.35^914.09^873.95^847.84^813.26^695.39 1217.74^1179.97^1164.38^1085.53^974.09^913.84^875.17^847.60^811.57^696.10 1234.94^1183.26^1169.32^1088.04^971.31^913.59^875.66^846.38^800.25^694.92 1252.94^1188.19^1165.20^1083.02^971.06^914.09^874.44^844.92^786.80^693.97 1260.30^1194.77^1170.15^1085.53^971.82^913.59^873.22^844.44^770.28^692.08 Maximum^1260.30^1194.77^1170.15^1145.38^975.86^914.09^875.66^847.84^813.26^696.10 Minimum^1172.56^1143.67^1123.02^1063.73^943.95^893.59^860.51^829.16^760.24^675.77 Range^87.74^51.10^47.13^81.65^31.91^20.50^15.16^18.68^53.02^20.33 Average^1225.91^1176.91^1154.17^1086.30^967.38^908.77^870.12^842.53^794.75^689.22 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)  Time Pair  t.) 00  Maximum Minimum Range Average Distance  (m)  14:07:38.53 1 1180.32 1196.76 1204.97 1231.20 1246.75 1225.47 1235.29 1234.47 1187.72 1202.51 1248.38 1251.65 1245.93 1251.65 1277.80 1260.65 1231.20 1244.29 1227.92 1224.65 1277.80 1180.32 97.49 1230.48 0.15  1144.85 1153.11 1163.02 1172.91 1181.14 1176.20 1175.38 1184.43 1172.91 1169.61 1176.20 1181.96 1191.83 1194.30 1198.40 1193.47 1194.30 1193.47 1183.61 1178.67  14:10:43.85 2 1122.48 1134.91 1139.88 1145.67 1151.46 1148.98 1151.46 1157.24 1155.59 1158.89 1158.07 1156.42 1163.84 1166.32 1164.67 1162.19 1161.37 1164.67 1167.96 1165.49  1198.40 1144.85 53.56 1178.99 0.46  1167.96 1122.48 45.49 1154.88 0.92  1066.54 1069.06 1073.26 1076.61 1074.93 1076.61 1079.96 1079.12 1080.80 1077.45 1076.61 1076.61 1079.96 1083.31 1081.64 1082.47 1084.98 1082.47 1079.96 1078.29  14:12:47.16 3 946.49 956.26 962.54 966.57 968.33 969.34 968.33 967.57 967.07 965.56 968.08 971.10 973.37 974.38 973.88 973.37 969.59 967.32 967.32 967.82  1084.98 1066.54 18.44 1078.03 1.49  974.38 946.49 27.89 967.21 2.21  894.13 898.32 901.28 904.24 906.96 908.44 909.68 910.42 910.67 909.92 910.67 911.16 912.65 913.88 914.13 915.12 913.88 913.64 913.39 913.14  14:14:49.15 4 863.30 866.96 867.45 870.38 870.63 868.18 867.45 869.65 868.67 869.65 870.38 873.08 874.79 874.30 875.52 872.59 873.08 870.38 872.10 873.08  915.12 894.13 20.99 909.29 2.55  875.52 863.30 12.23 870.58 2.92  834.84 838.72 840.66 841.39 842.36 840.66 840.42 841.14 843.33 844.54 845.52 846.49 846.97 846.49 845.52 844.30 844.79 844.79 846.49 847.70  14:16:36.64 5 763.89 782.07 795.27 801.52 806.33 807.53 805.37 790.94 775.84 778.24 791.42 799.11 806.33 810.67 811.87 812.35 807.05 796.23 779.67 785.18  672.76 676.31 680.09 683.87 686.94 688.12 687.89 687.65 686.23 687.18 687.18 688.36 690.01 692.38 693.80 693.56 693.56 691.67 690.25 689.54  847.70 834.84 12.87 843.36 3.27  812.35 763.89 48.47 795.34 3.99  693.80 672.76 21.03 687.37 4.52  ^  Time^15:06:43.48^15:08:46.29^15:10:45.92 ^15:12:42.96 Pair^1^2^3^4 845.48^951.39^1031.14^1080.82^981.05^933.87^890.81^879.27 847.28^950.53^1033.68^1084.17^983.07^934.37^891.30^879.76 855.36^949.66^1037.06^1085.84^984.59^935.12^892.04^880.25 858.05^957.46^1040.45^1096.70^985.86^936.36^893.02^880.74 852.67^965.24^1042.98^1099.20^987.13^937.61^894.00^881.23 849.98^970.41^1042.14^1097.54^987.89^938.61^894.74^881.47 838.28^967.82^1042.14^1096.70^988.39^939.60^895.48^881.72 849.08^962.65^1040.45^1095.87^988.65^939.85^895.48^881.72 849.98^962.65^1039.60^1088.35^988.39^938.86^892.77^880.74 852.67^961.78^1036.22^1087.51^988.14^937.11^891.30^880.00 856.26^961.78^1035.37^1087.51^988.14^936.11^891.05^879.76 853.57^957.46^1037.06^1089.19^988.14^936.11^891.54^879.76 ^ 849.98^958.32^1040.45^1092.53^988.14^936.86^892.28^879.76 0 860.73^963.51^1042.98^1094.20^988.90^937.86^893.27^880.00 853.57^970.41^1041.29^1093.36^989.41^938.86^894.00^880.25 843.68^971.27^1039.60^1096.70^989.91^939.85^894.50^880.25 840.08^967.82^1038.76^1088.35^990.17^940.35^894.99^880.49 842.78^962.65^1037.91^1089.19^989.66^940.60^895.73^879.76 836.47^961.78^1034.53^1086.68^989.15^939.10^892.53^879.51 844.58^963.51^1033.68^1090.02^988.39^937.36^891.79^879.51 Maximum^860.73^971.27^1042.98^1099.20^990.17^940.60^895.73^881.72 Minimum^836.47^949.66^1031.14^1080.82^981.05^933.87^890.81^879.27 Range^24.26^21.61^11.84^18.38^9.12^6.73^4.92^2.45 Average^849.03^961.90^1038.37^1091.02^987.66^937.72^893.13^880.30 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27  (m  )  ^  Time^15:54:21.74^15:56:11.70^15:58:25.06^16:00:04.48^16:01:59.93 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 800.14^957.54^1078.42^1135.07^995.12^950.24^927.85^904.57^831.26^754.90 830.19^934.96^1097.65^1169.77^1014.23^961.27^931.33^908.77^816.76^755.38 778.06^904.29^1103.49^1154.10^1021.91^966.05^931.83^910.50^848.97^758.72 747.38^885.73^1110.15^1172.25^1026.78^969.83^933.08^912.23^868.22^763.97 754.85^900.76^1112.65^1176.37^1027.81^972.09^936.07^913.22^874.34^766.11 801.97^916.59^1101.82^1171.42^1027.81^972.09^939.06^913.96^875.07^767.31 831.09^935.83^1109.32^1161.53^1027.81^972.09^937.81^913.71^870.42^767.31 885.73^951.48^1106.82^1158.23^1027.81^972.09^940.05^914.21^862.85^767.55 837.42^954.08^1101.82^1164.00^1027.81^972.09^940.30^914.95^862.61^767.79 802.89^954.94^1105.99^1159.05^1027.81^972.09^935.57^915.20^864.80^768.27 841.93^943.66^1106.82^1156.57^1027.81^972.09^938.31^916.44^872.13^769.46 796.48^924.48^1113.48^1161.53^1027.81^972.09^940.05^917.68^877.03^771.13 751.12^896.35^1124.29^1166;48^1027.81^972.09^939.81^918.17^880.95^773.29 760.44^894.58^1131.75^1167.30^1027.81^972.09^941.30^918.92^883.40^774.48 ,tL,)^ 813.84^906.05^1118.47^1168.95^1027.81^972.09^943.30^919.41^882.91^774.72 761.37^909.57^1103.49^1163.18^1027.81^972.09^943.05^919.41^880.46^774.96 818.40^927.97^1112.65^1159.05^1027.81^972.09^943.30^918.42^874.09^774.00 822.94^953.21^1107.66^1159.88^1027.81^972.09^943.05^918.42^865.78^773.52 785.45^946.27^1107.66^1148.31^1027.81^972.09^940.80^917.68^866.51^773.29 825.66^947.14^1109.32^1146.66^1027.81^972.09^938.56^917.92^869.93^773.52 Maximum^885.73^957.54^1131.75^1176.37^1027.81^972.09^943.30^919.41^883.40^774.96 Minimum^747.38^885.73^1078.42^1135.07^995.12^950.24^927.85^904.57^816.76^754.90 Range^138.35^71.82^53.33^41.30^32.69^21.85^15.45^14.84^66.65^20.06 Average^802.37^927.27^1108.19^1160.98^1025.15^970.04^938.22^915.19^866.43^768.48 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m )  ^  Time^16:30:39.32^16:32:17.53^16:34:04.91^16:35:55.25^16:37:46.31 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 783.34^891.70^1064.81^1178.67^999.34^952.15^922.99^899.25^848.42^757.72 718.84^897.01^1073.21^1177.03^1008.76^957.42^925.72^903.44^859.62^761.06 775.02^910.23^1084.94^1152.28^1015.15^960.43^928.70^907.39^868.89^763.44 710.30^919.88^1078.24^1157.23^1018.98^963.94^928.45^908.63^876.97^766.31 763.89^931.25^1074.05^1158.06^1021.54^966.96^931.68^909.61^879.66^768.22 764.82^922.51^1074.05^1148.97^1023.08^968.47^935.67^911.34^880.89^769.89 736.78^919.01^1080.76^1147.32^1023.34^970.49^934.67^912.09^879.91^770.13 793.47^900.54^1081.59^1150.63^1023.85^972.00^933.18^910.60^871.34^769.65 756.44^879.28^1081.59^1157.23^1022.57^971.49^934.17^910.85^861.81^770.13 751.78^873.05^1091.63^1155.58^1021.80^970.49^931.93^911.59^861.33^769.65 771.32^897.01^1099.98^1163.84^1024.36^970.49^934.92^913.32^868.89^770.13 821.78^905.83^1097.48^1167.14^1027.44^971.75^934.42^913.82^875.50^771.80 787.95^908.47^1093.30^1163.01^1028.47^972.75^935.67^915.06^880.15^773.00 c\.)^705.54^904.06^1085.78^1159.71^1028.47^972.75^937.91^915.55^883.34^774.43 740.54^910.23^1089.96^1154.76^1028.47^972.75^938.91^916.29^886.28^775.63 744.29^911.98^1094.14^1151.45^1028.47^972.75^938.66^915.30^883.58^775.15 795.30^903.18^1086.62^1147.32^1027.44^976.29^938.16^914.81^878.68^775.63 789.79^891.70^1087.45^1144.84^1025.65^976.29^936.42^913.57^868.89^774.67 751.78^873.95^1092.47^1160.54^1023.59^975.78^936.67^914.31^862.06^774.43 759.24^877.51^1096.64^1171.26^1024.62^974.77^936.17^915.30^866.69^773.72 Maximum^821.78^931.25^1099.98^1178.67^1028.47^976.29^938.91^916.29^886.28^775.63 Minimum^705.54^873.05^1064.81^1144.84^999.34^952.15^922.99^899.25^848.42^757.72 Range^116.24^58.20^35.17^33.84^29.13^24.13^15.92^17.05^37.86^17.91 Average^761.11^901.42^1085.44^1158.34^1022.27^969.51^933.75^911.61^872.14^770.24 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52  (m)  ^  Time^16:56:07.68^16:57:46.05^16:59:36.83^17:01:33.49^17:03:24.61 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 755.99^867.29^1042.47^1151.86^998.22^957.07^928.92^903.17^842.99^759.31 740.08^866.40^1052.60^1169.20^1011.98^965.11^935.89^911.57^866.12^766.47 759.72^877.10^1066.06^1171.67^1023.75^970.14^939.63^916.76^875.41^770.29 755.06^888.64^1075.30^1190.60^1023.75^970.14^941.37^918.99^882.51^773.40 786.59^907.19^1076.14^1190.60^1023.75^970.14^943.12^920.98^886.44^775.79 806.77^915.10^1076.14^1176.61^1023.75^970.14^944.62^921.23^891.60^777.23 728.78^919.49^1065.22^1177.44^1023.75^970.14^946.62^922.71^891.35^779.14 757.86^918.61^1070.26^1179.08^1023.75^970.14^947.12^923.46^886.68^778.90 735.38^897.49^1079.49^1168.37^1023.75^970.14^947.62^923.46^879.81^779.14 755.06^880.65^1078.65^1160.12^1023.75^970.14^945.37^924.45^873.69^778.90 731.61^867.29^1078.65^1170.84^1023.75^970.14^943.87^925.69^875.90^779.38 749.45^876.21^1079.49^1174.14^1023.75^970.14^946.37^926.44^883.25^779.62 783.82^889.53^1087.86^1183.20^1023.75^970.14^ 946.37^926.69^890.37^781.77 799.45^907.19^1090.37^1184.02^1023.75^970.14^950.62^927.68^893.32^783.45 805.86^923.87^1080.33^1187.31^1023.75^970.14^953.37^928.18^895.78^784.89 834.95^929.11^1087.86^1177.44^1023.75^970.14^952.87^928.18^895.29^784.89 733.49^917.73^1076.14^1174.96^1023.75^970.14^954.13^928.18^890.61^784.41 773.65^918.61^1083.68^1163.42^1023.75^970.14^951.62^927.18^883.00^784.41 760.65^899.25^1080.33^1172.49^1023.75^970.14^949.37^927.43^877.61^784.17 737.26^878.88^1079.49^1166.72^1023.75^970.14^948.87^928.67^881.04^783.93 .  Maximum^834.95^929.11^1090.37^1190.60^1023.75^970.14^954.13^928.67^895.78^784.89 Minimum^728.78^866.40^1042.47^1151.86^998.22^957.07^928.92^903.17^842.99^759.31 Range^106.17^62.72^47.90^38.74^25.53^13.07^25.20^25.50^52.79^25.58 Average^764.57^897.28^1075.33^1174.51^1021.88^969.24^945.89^923.05^882.14^778.47 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)  Shell temperature readings Run : SL9 Distance from lime product outlet (m) 0.921 1.492 2.21 3.994  Time  0.146  13:48:21.14  172.10  194.21  256.19  125.11  155.37  14:02:43.47  172.94  196.28  257.27  127.92  156.70  15:06:01.95  175.02  198.61  256.66  131.72  167.64  16:03:26.44  179.68  203.75  240.52  136.38  191.97  16:26:51.38  180.56  205.86  233.08  137.76  195.55  16:52:17.81  181.95  207.50  213  230.06  140.63  198.91  Flue gas analysis Run : SL9 Equipment : Oxygen analyzer - % oxygen Gas chromatograph - % carbon dioxide *Result from FTIR analyzer is shown in Table 5.9 Fuel nat.gas  LOW  Time 11:40 12:57 1:50 2:05 2:50 4:00 4:30 5:00  % Oxygen % Carbon dioxide 4 2.6 2.6 2.5 20.05 3.5 3.5 3.2 2 23.61  Table of events Run SL10 11/18/92 14:40:07.23 Kiln speed (rpm) : 1.5 14:40:10.47 SL10A Read bed temperatures 14:28:10.34 Read Shell Temperatures 14:30:08.43 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 14:30:13.27 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 14:31:37.08 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:32:22.56 Suction TIC, Pair : 2 14:34:10.22 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 14:35:59.30 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 14:37:24.60 Suction TIC, Pair : 5 14:40:41.67 Read bed temperatures 14:42:12.08 Read Shell Temperatures 14:44:08.74 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 14:44:13.02 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 14:45:36.78 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:50:14.54 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 14:52:07.41 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 14:54:04.46 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 14:55:42.45 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 14:57:26.31 SL1OB Read bed temperatures 17:10:37.09 Read Shell Temperatures 17:12:34.80 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 17:12:39.52 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 17:14:03.01 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 17:15:13.81 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 17:17:09.15 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 17:19:05.48 Suction TIC, Pair : 4 17:20:40.56 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 17:22:40.96 Read bed temperatures 17:24:09.44 Read bed temperatures 17:28:13.31 Read Shell Temperatures 17:30:09.42 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 17:30:12.83 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 17:31:36.64 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 17:32:02.24  Cyclic bed temperature readings (SL10) 14:28:10  1^2 975.48^1059.69 996.07^1073.97 1003.76^1081.51 1011.44^1089.04 1013.14^1091.55 1017.40^1098.23 1013.14^1099.06 984.93^1076.48 964.27^1008.88 0.00*^1041.98 972.89^1061.37 989.22^1073.13 1002.91^1085.70 1003.76^1086.53 1006.32^1089.04 1017.40^1097.39 1019.95^1098.23 1004.62^1091.55 974.62^1019.10 966.86^1036.06  3 1024.19 1036.06 1043.67 1048.74 1051.27 1055.48 1056.32 1046.20 1011.44 1008.03 1024.19 1035.22 1043.67 1047.05 1050.42 1053.79 1056.32 1052.11 1015.70 1006.32  4 975.48 979.78 984.07 989.22 992.65 995.22 996.93 996.93 988.36 977.20 97/.20 979.78 984.07 988.36 991.79 994.36 996.07 996.93 990.08 978.92  5 913.89 921.82 928.77 929.27 929.27 923.81 919.34 897.59 880.63 899.31 914.38 918.84 926.29 929.02 928.53 926.04 918.35 902.77 882.35 897.34  6 881.61 889.71 896.60 900.30 900.55 894.63 889.22 875.00 859.12 872.30 883.08 888.98 897.84 900.30 900.79 897.84 889.22 878.42 857.17 869.12  7 850.84 855.71 858.63 862.04 861.07 856.92 852.05 837.48 833.36 845.25 851.08 854.24 858.39 860.58 861.56 858.39 851.32 841.36 831.66 844.52  8 827.79 832.88 835.06 836.75 833.84 825.86 816.44 808.24 800.30 811.86 820.54 824.41 827.79 828.76 832.15 826.10 814.75 808.72 803.19 817.40  9 734.11 740.29 744.34 747.91 748.62 743.86 734.35 715.12 711.57 723.90 733.16 739.34 743.15 746.72 747.91 742.43 732.92 717.49 709.91 722.71  10 651.31 657.44 662.87 666.17 667.82 662.87 650.84 622.56 616.90 637.16 648.95 656.26 660.98 665.46 666.17 662.39 651.31 625.38 613.84 635.04  Minimum Maximum Range Distance (m)  964.27^1008.88 1019.95^1099.06 55.68^90.18 0.15^0.46  1006.32 1056.32 50.00 0.92  975.48 996.93 21.45 1.49  880.63 929.27 48.64 2.21  857.17 900.79 43.63 2.55  831.66 862.04 30.38 2.92  800.30 836.75 36.45 3.27  709.91 748.62 38.72 3.99  613.84 667.82 53.98 4.52  ,1L."  *This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.  ^  14:42:12^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 927.91^994.49^991.07^975.61^887.63^866.81^842.70^819.95^727.59^637.29 934.03^1020.93^1000.48^970.44^906.85^878.55^850.24^829.86^738.04^650.26 954.88^1043.80^1014.97^972.16^916.25^886.16^853.64^834.22^744.94^658.51 969.58^1056.45^1026.87^975.61^923.19^892.80^858.27^838.09^749.47^664.17 979.91^1066.55^1033.65^979.91^926.42^898.95^862.17^841.01^753.04^668.42 983.35^1069.90^1036.19^983.35^927.66^902.16^864.86^842.95^756.38^671.96 978.19^1069.90^1038.73^985.92^926.92^901.17^863.64^838.82^756.14^672.67 987.64^1076.61^1041.27^988.49^923.19^896.49^858.52^828.16^748.99^668.66 976.47^1076.61^1042.11^989.35^915.75^888.86^854.62^821.88^740.18^658.75 950.55^1020.93^1019.23^987.64^887.63^864.37^832.04^808.61^715.01^629.75 938.38^993.63^992.78^976.47^886.16^865.59^841.25^816.33^726.16^628.58 941.86^1026.87^1001.33^970.44^905.12^876.84^848.29^825.99^735.43^644.60 961.81^1056.45^1014.97^971.30^914.76^884.93^851.70^829.86^740.42^654.03 979.05^1065.70^1026.87^974.75^921.95^893.78^857.05^834.94^744.94^659.93 988.49^1076.61^1034.50^979.05^925.67^899.20^860.22^836.64^748.51^664.65 996.20^1082.48^1040.42^983.35^928.16^901.17^862.17^837.12^750.18^667.01 1003.89^1085.83^1045.49^986.78^925.92^898.95^860.71^832.52^748.75^667.24 1008.16^1085.83^1048.87^990.21^923.19^897.23^858.76^827.68^744.47^663.00 1008.16^1088.33^1049.71^991.92^917.49^890.58^852.91^817.29^735.43^654.27 973.89^1039.58^1027.72^990.21^889.84^865.59^832.76^804.76^712.41^627.87 Minimum^927.91^993.63^991.07^970.44^886.16^864.37^832.04^804.76^712.41^627.87 Maximum^1008.16^1088.33^1049.71^991.92^928.16^902.16^864.86^842.95^756.38^672.67 Range^80.25^94.70^58.64^21.48^42.00^37.79^32.82^38.19^43.97^44.80 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52  (m  )  ^  17:10:37^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 790.65^956.41^1052.90^1062.16^990.83^966.33^935.29^907.26^823.99^734.90 795.24^960.74^1060.48^1063.84^1002.26^977.42^941.52^912.95^830.76^741.08 800.74^963.33^1065.52^1066.36^1007.87^983.48^944.77^914.93^835.12^744.89 803.49^962.47^1068.05^1070.56^1012.20^987.28^946.77^915.42^838.51^748.46 804.40^964.20^1068.89^1074.76^1013.23^987.53^947.77^914.68^839.00^749.17 786.97^967.65^1068.05^1077.27^1009.40^984.49^943.52^907.51^832.21^745.13 772.19^973.68^1071.40^1078.95^1003.02^974.89^936.29^897.39^823.99^737.04 0.00*^970.24^1068.89^1080.63^979.44^957.29^922.86^889.52^805.66^711.64 780.51^949.47^1043.62^1071.40^943.27^926.58^907.26^884.86^802.77^705.96 782.36^952.94^1038.54^1061.32^967.59^945.77^922.11^895.18^813.85^721.84 785.12^951.21^1049.53^1059.64^988.04^962.56^933.05^903.80^822.06^732.52 00^789.73^952.94^1057.95^1060.48^1000.73^973.88^939.28^908.74^827.86^738.70 797.99^960.74^1065.52^1064.68^1007.87^981.71^943.52^912.95^832.94^742.98 0.00* 5182.89* 4765.15* 4452.51*^836.57*^747.03*^943.52^912.95^832.94^742.98 803.49^965.06^1070.56^1073.08^1015.02^987.53^947.52^914.18^837.78^747.75 796.16^968.51^1071.40^1076.44^1012.20^982.72^942.27^905.53^831.73^744.41 780.51^972.82^1072.24^1078.95^1006.59^974.14^935.54^895.67^823.26^736.56 775.89^975.41^1072.24^1080.63^990.32^965.83^927.33^891.49^811.20^715.44 782.36^953.81^1047.84^1073.92^946.02^925.59^905.04^883.14^799.65^702.64 786.05^952.08^1037.70^1063.00^959.29^941.02^918.64^893.21^810.72^718.76 Minimum^772.19^949.47^1037.70^1059.64^943.27^925.59^905.04^883.14^799.65^702.64 Maximum^804.40^975.41^1072.24^1080.63^1015.02^987.53^947.77^915.42^839.00^749.17 Range^32.22^25.93^34.55^20.99^71.74^61.94^42.73^32.28^39.35^46.53  Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)^*This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.  ^  17:28:13  1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 789.86^955.67^1038.67^1066.49^956.66^941.15^918.03^893.83^810.37^721.50 790.78^962.60^1050.50^1063.13^981.34^959.42^930.44^902.70^819.29^732.65 799.96^970.37^1062.29^1064.81^996.29^972.75^937.91^908.63^825.33^739.78 798.12^962.60^1068.18^1068.18^1005.19^981.34^943.15^913.08^830.41^744.78 807.28^966.05^1071.53^1072.37^1012.33^987.41^946.90^915.55^834.76^748.59 811.84^968.64^1074.05^1077.40^1015.15^989.18^947.90^914.56^835.98^750.50 812.75^972.95^1074.89^1080.76^1011.57^986.65^944.90^909.12^834.04^748.59 805.45^979.84^1075.73^1083.27^1007.23^980.07^940.41^901.47^827.02^741.21 793.54^981.56^1075.73^1084.11^997.81^970.74^933.43^894.82^819.53^726.95 794.45^960.00^1055.56^1079.92^955.91^930.69^906.40^883.27^797.86^705.14 796.29^954.81^1035.29^1068:18^947.15^934.67^907.88^887.69^808.92^718.17 796.29^961.73^1047.12^1063.97^967.47^954.91^922.00^895.06^818.08^730.28 800.87^965.19^1058.93^1064.81^989.69^969.98^934.67^902.45^823.39^737.17 801.79^961.73^1066.49^1067.34^1003.66^979.57^941.15^910.60^829.68^743.11 805.45^962.60^1071.53^1072.37^1010.55^985.64^944.65^913.32^833.55^746.92 814.57^964.33^1073.21^1076.57^1013.36^988.42^947.40^914.81^835.25^748.83 817.31^969.50^1074.89^1080.76^1012.85^985.89^945.15^910.11^834.28^748.11 814.57^976.40^1076.57^1083.27^1008.76^981.59^940.65^903.44^828.71^742.88 788.94^980.70^1077.40^1084.11^1003.15^973.76^935.42^896.29^822.43^735.03 793.54^967.78^1062.29^1083.27^966.46^941.65^910.36^885.48^798.34^709.17  Minimum^788.94^954.81^1035.29^1063.13^947.15^930.69^906.40^883.27^797.86^705.14 Maximum^817.31^981.56^1077.40^1084.11^1015.15^989.18^947.90^915.55^835.98^750.50 Range^28.37^26.75^42.12^20.97^68.00^58.49^41.50^32.28^38.12^45.35 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52  (m)  Bed temperatures - Kiln stopped 7  8  9  10  902.23 899.03 896.81 895.09 893.86 893.12 892.38  895.82 891.64 888.69 886.48 885.01 883.54 882.56 881.58  882.80 883.05 883.29 883.78 883.78 884.03 885.01 885.26  793.32 792.36 792.12 792.36 792.60 793.08 793.80 794.28  701.15 697.84 695.24 693.11 691.45 690.27 689.09  900.75 899.52  891.64 891.15  880.84 880.11  885.50 886.24  795.00 795.72  688.14 687.43 686.96  951.61 1039.79  899.52 927.23  891.15 906.92  880.11 895.82  882.80 886.24  792.12 795.72  686.96 701.15  50.64  88.18  27.71  15.77  15.72  3.44  3.60  14.19  0.92  1.49  2.21  2.55  2.92  3.27  3.99  4.52  1 791.05  2 955.08  3 1011.78  4 1039.79  5 927.23  6 906.92  794.72 796.56 798.39 800.23 801.14 802.06 802.97  953.34 951.61 951.61 950.74 949.87 949.87 949.87  1000.68 992.13 985.26 979.25 974.95 970.64 967.19  1020.29 1004.95 992.13 981.83 973.22 966.32 960.27  920.53 915.33 911.61 908.40 905.93 903.96 902.23  802.97 803.89  949.87 949.01  963.73 961.14  955.94 951.61  ts.) .^. c) Minimum Maximum  791.05 803.89  949.01 955.08  961.14 1011.78  Range  12.84  6.07  0.15  0.46  17:39:46  Distance (m)  Cyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings (SL10) 1  14:30:13 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  n/a  n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Maximum Minimum Range Average Distance (m)  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  2 978.92 978.92 981.50 981.50 982.36 984.07 983.22 964.27 957.35 966.00 975.48 979.78 980.64 980.64 980.64 981.50 981.50 964.27 956.49 963.41 984.07 956.49 27.59 975.12 1.01  3 901.45 902.33 904.10 904.98 905.86 906.74 906.74 903.21 899.69 898.81 900.57 902.33 903.21 904.98 905.86 906.74 906.74 904.10 899.69 898.81 906.74 898.81 7.93 903.35 1.57  4 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 817.64 0.00 817.64 2.06  5 814.27 814.03 814.03 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.27 814.51  6 795.49 795.49 795.49 795.73 795.97 796.21 796.21 795.97 795.73 795.73 795.73 795.73 795.73 795.97 795.97 796.21 796.21 796.21 795.97 795.73  814.51 814.03 0.48 814.25 2.38  796.21 795.49 0.72 795.88 2.72  7 771.05 771.29 771.77 772.25 772.25 772.25 771.77 770.57 770.10 770.81 771.29 771.77 772.25 772.49 772.73 772.73 772.25 771.05 770.34 770.81 772.73 770.10 2.63 771.59 3.05  8 644.94 645.18 645.41 645.89 646.12 646.36 646.59 646.36 645.89 645.65 645.41 645.65 645.89 646.12 646.36 646.83 647.06 646.83 646.36 645.89 647.06 644.94 2.12 646.04 4.07  9 574.98 575.92 576.86 578.04 578.75 579.22 578.98 576.63 574.74 574.74 575.45 576.39 577.57 578.27 578.98 579.69 579.45 577.57 575.45 575.21  10 424.79 429.09 432.91 436.48 438.87 440.54 435.29 422.41 416.43 420.26 424.79 429.09 433.15 436.48 439.11 441.01 436.96 425.51 417.63 421.21  579.69 574.74 4.95 577.14 4.59  441.01 416.43 24.58 430.10 5.21  14:44:13  1  n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  t.) N  Maximum Minimum Range Average Distance  (m)  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  2 954.02 965.26 975.61 979.91 984.20 983.35 982.49 984.20 987.64 966.13 957.48 966.99 976.47 982.49 983.35 984.20 985.06 985.06 986.78 966.99 987.64 954.02 33.62 976.88 1.01  3 898.94 898.05 899.82 901.58 903.34 904.23 905.11 905.99 906.87 903.34 898.94 898.94 900.70 902.46 903.34 905.11 905.99 906.87 906.87 905.11 906.87 898.05 8.81 903.08 1.57  4 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.05 817.29 817.29 817.05 0.24 817.06 2.06  5 815.36 815.36 815.36 815.36 815.12 815.12 815.12 815.12 815.12 815.36 815.12 815.12 815.12 815.12 815.12 815.12 815.12 815.12 815.12 815.36 815.36 815.12 0.24 815.19 2.38  6 796.34 796.34 796.34 796.10 796.34 796.34 796.58 796.58 796.58 796.58 796.34 796.10 796.10 796.10 796.10 796.10 796.34 796.34 796.34 796.58 796.58 796.10 0.48 796.33 2.72  7 771.66 772.14 772.38 772.86 773.10 773.33 773.57 773.33 773.10 771.90 771.42 771.66 772.38 772.62 772.86 773.10 773.10 773.10 772.62 771.90 773.57 771.42 2.15 772.60 3.05  8 650.26 649.79 649.55 649.55 649.79 650.02 650.26 650.49 650.49 650.49 650.02 649.32 649.32 649.32 649.32 649.55 649.79 650.02 650.02 650.26 650.49 649.32 1.18 649.88 4.07  9 580.29 580.29 581.00 581.70 582.64 583.12 583.82 584.06 583,82 582.17 580.05 579.82 580.52 581.23 581.94 582.64 583.35 583.82 583.35 581.70 584.06 579.82 4.24 582.07 4.59  10 426.36 429.46 433.28 437.09 440.19 443.05 445.43 446.86 440.90 428.98 422.78 426.36 430.65 434.47 438.28 441.38 443.76 445.43 442.81 433.04 446.86 422.78 24.08 436.53 5.21  1  17:12:39 n/a n/a n/a  n/a  n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Maximum Minimum Range Average Distance  (m  )  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  2 944.26 947.74 946.00 945.13 945.13 946.00 946.87 942.52 938.17 937.30 944.26 948.61 946.87 946.87 945.13 946.00 946.87 945.13 939.04 937.30 948.61 937.30 11.31 944.26 1.01  3 981.43 985.72 987.44 989.15 990.87 992.58 993.44 989.15 980.57 977.13 980.57 984.86 986.58 989.15 990.87 991.73 992.58 992.58 983.15 977.13  4 876.52 876.77 876.52 876.52. 876.52 876.52 876.52 876.77 876.52 876.52 876.77 876.77 87652 876.52 876.77 876.52 876.52 877.01 876.52 876.77  993.44 977.13 16.31 986.83 1.57  877.01 876.52 0.49 876.62 2.06  5 870.16 870.16 869.91 869.67 869.67 869.67 869.91 870.40 869.91 870.16 870.16 870.16 869.91 869.67 869.91 869.91 869.91 870.40 870.16 870.16 870.40 869.67 0.73 870.00 2.38  6 860.39 860.39 860.39 860.39 860.64 860.88 861.13 861.13 860.64 860.15 860.39 860.39 860.39 860.64 860.88 860.88 861.13 861.37 860.64 860.15 861.37 860.15 1.22 860.65 2.72  7 846.28 846.76 847.01 847.49 847.74 847.49 847.49 845.79 844.82 845.31 846.28 846.76 847.01 847.49 847.74 847.74 847.49 846.52 844.82 845.06 847.74 844.82 2.92 846.66 3.05  8 730.15 730.15 730.15 730.39 730.62 730.86 731.34 731.10 730.62 730.15 730.15 730.15 730.15 730.39 730.62 730.86 731.34 731.57 730.86 730.39 731.57 730.15 1.43 730.60 4.07  9 661.77 662.71 663.18 663.89 664.60 664.83 665.07 663.18 660.82 660.35 661.30 662.00 662.71 663.66 664.36 664.83 665.07 663.89 661.30 660.12 665.07 660.12 4.95 662.98 4.59  10 500.93 505.66 509.92 513.70 516.54 518.67 517.49 500.69 491.93 495.24 500.69 505.19 509.68 513.23 516.54 518.67 519.61 508.26 496.43 496.90 519.61 491.93 27.69 507.80 5.21  1  17:30:12 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Maximum Minimum Range Average Distance (m)  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  2 940.11 939.24 943.59 946.20 991.07 945.33 946.20 947.07 948.81 946.20 940.98 938.37 942.72 945.33 944.46 944.46 945.33 946.20 947.94 948.81 991.07 938.37 52.70 946.92 1.01  3 986.78 982.49 984.21 988.50 n/a 992.78 994.49 996.21 997.06 997.06 986.78 980.77 982.49 986.78 990.21 992.78 994.49 996.21 997.06 997.06 997.06 980.77 16.29 990.75 1.57  4 878.92 878.92 878.92 879.17 872.56 878.92 878.92 878.92 878.92 879.17 878.92 878.92 878.92 879.17 879.17 879.17 879.17 879.17 879.17 879.17 879.17 872.56 6.61 878.72 2.06  5 872.80 872.80 872.56 872.80 861.81 872.32 872.56 872.56 872.56 873.05 872.80 872.80 872.80 873.05 872.80 872.80 872.80 872.80 872.80 873.05 873.05 861.81 11.24 872.22 2.38  6 862.06 861.81 861.57 861.81 849.15 862.06 862.30 862.55 862.79 863.03 862.30 861.81 861.81 862.06 862.06 862.30 862.30 862.55 863.03 863.28 863.28 849.15 14.13 861.63 2.72  7 846.96 847.21 847.94 848.91 732.72 849.64 850.12 850.12 849.88 848.91 846.96 846.96 847.94 848.91 849.39 849.88 850.12 850.12 850.12 849.39 850.12 732.72 117.40 843.11 3.05  8 733.20 732.72 732.72 732.72 666.69 732.96 733.20 733A4 733.67 734.15 733.44 732.96 732.72 732.96 733.20 733.20 733.44 733.67 734.15 734.39 734.39 666.69 67.70 729.98 4.07  9 665.27 664.56 665.27 666.21 514.61 667.39 668.10 668.57 668.81 668.10 665.51 664.33 665.03 666.21 666.92 667.63 668.34 668.81 669.05 668.57 669.05 514.61 154.43 659.37 4.59  10 499.47 501.36 505.86 510.36 510.36 518.40 521.70 523.83 525.01 513.43 502.07 501.13 505.86 510.83 515.09 518.63 521.94 524.30 525.72 518.87 525.72 499.47 26.25 513.71 5.21  Interior wall probe temperature readings Run : SL10 Radius (m) 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a 728.39 -1552.04 598.37 848.94 596.65 812.10 631.74 778.47 546.45 780.14 543.62 729.83 397.77 609.13 365.10 538.90 278.15 393.21  14:31:37 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  0.2506 n/a 362.18 315.99 290.81 349.68 334.46 329.87 228.06 221.20 185.86  14:45:36 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  Radius (m) 0.2506 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a n/a 364.54 728.52 -1556.34 317.26 599.50 848.17 291.18 597.48 811.74 347.40 630.70 779.56 335.56 547.99 780.99 731.86 330.96 545.64 229.17 399.81 613.03 222.31 366.92 543.75 399.33 279.25 185.99  225  17:14:03 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  17:31:36 Position 0.616 1.01 1.568 2.064 2.375 2.724 3.048 4.07 4.585 5.213  0.2506 n/a 360.74 338.31 304.96 359.63 356.02 352.40 246.97 241.83 211.94  Radius (m) 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a 713.09 -1461.55 647.58 925.08 634.66 868.69 662.71 830.76 587.78 843.85 590.61 800.13 687.74 442.28 410.29 617.93 318.79 465.12  0.2506 n/a 338.51 1148.21 367.06 357.90 354.77 249.12 244.48 215.82 518.87  Radius (m) 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a 710.44 -1448.40 649.73 928.77 636.98 871.34 671.17 833.38 846.24 590.10 593.63 802.49 691.02 446.05 621.43 414.08 470.78 323.11  226  ^  Suction pyrometer temperature readings (SL10) Time^14:32:22.56^14:34:10.22^14:35:59.30^14:37:24.60 ^14:40:41.67 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 1141.43^1062.21^1062.28^1040.36^891.75^889.05^845.80^830.52^775.91^678.99 1107.40^1066.42^1070.68^1046.27^891.26^889.78^849.45^836.09^786.44^681.35 1124.03^1068.09^1079.91^1049.65^891.75^891.26^851.39^838.03^801.33^683.48 1086.53^1070.61^1083.26^1049.65^894.95^893.47^853.34^839.25^811.68^685.60 1106.56^1064.73^1087.44^1053.02^897.66^896.18^854.07^839.49^816.99^687.50 1104.90^1063.05^1086.60^1047.12^900.37^897.91^855.78^839.97^819.16^689.15 1138.12^1061.37^1092.45^1052.18^902.59^899.88^856.99^838.76^820.13^690.33 1185.16^1066.42^1089.95^1053.86^903.82^899.14^857.24^838.28^818.44^690.57 1190.92^1072.29^1084.09^1053.02^905.06^898.89^857.48^838.76^810.96^690.81 1186.80^1076.48^1087.44^1053.86^904.81^897.41^855.29^837.55^802.53^690.57 1182.69^1078.16^1091.62^1057.23^903.82^899.88^855.78^840.22^795.80^690.81 1198.31^1077.32^1092.45^1056.39^901.85^899.38^855.29^840.70^799.17^690.33 1174.46^1072.29^1094.12^1055.55^899.88^898.89^856.99^842.64^808.55^691.04 1166.22^1071.45^1095.79^1053.86^901.60^901.36^857.24^842.40^818.20^691.99 1140.61^1063.89^1097.46^1050.49^903.58^902.10^858.70^843.13^823.03^692.93 1110.73^1053.79^1098.30^1053.02^906.29^903.08^858.94^842.40^824.23^694.35 1111.56^1050.42^1098.30^1056.39^907.28^902.84^860.41^842.64^824.72^695.06 1206.52^1053.79^1091.62^1053.86^909.01^904.07^861.38^842.89^821.34^695.77 1195.85^1057.16^1094.96^1053.86^907.28^899.38^859.19^841.92^814.58^695.54 1208.16^1061.37^1092.45^1056.39^902.84^889.05^860.16^842.89^806.39^694.59 Maximum^1208.16^1078.16^1098.30^1057.23^909.01^904.07^861.38^843.13^824.72^695.77 Minimum^1086.53^1050.42^1062.28^1040.36^891.26^889.05^845.80^830.52^775.91^678.99 Range^121.63^27.74^36.01^16.87^17.75^15.02^15.58^12.61^48.81^16.78 Average^1153.35^1065.57^1088.56^1052.30^901.37^897.65^856.04^839.93^809.98^690.04 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52  (m)  Time Pair  IN)  oo  Maximum Minimum Range Average Distance (m)  14:50:14.54 1 1132.51 1191.93 1198.50 1203.43 1200.96 1226.39 1224.75 1236.21 1250.94 1221.47 1191.93 1237.85 1241.12 1226.39 1215.73 1215.73 1232.12 1240.31 1246.85 1216.55 1250.94 1132.51 118.43 1217.58 0.15  1052.30 1057.35 1063.24 1069.96 1075.00 1079.19 1083.38 1086.72 1082.54 1072.48 1067.45 1069.96 1073.32 1077.51 1080.86 1083.38 1087.56 1090.07 1087.56 1076.67  14:52:07.41 2 1084.21 1088.39 1089.23 1093.41 1098.42 1102.59 1106.75 1110.08 1112.58 1115.91 1112.58 1110.92 1109.25 1112.58 1110.92 1115.08 1116.74 1117.57 1116.74 1120.89  1090.07 1052.30 37.77 1075.83 0.46  1120.89 1084.21 36.68 1107.24 0.92  1044.71 1042.17 1052.30 1051.46 1055.67 1058.20 1057.35 1058.20 1059.04 1061.56 1060.72 1055:67 1056.51 1061.56 1060.72 1065.76 1059.88 1059.88 1064.08 1064.08  14:54:04.46 3 890.40 892.12 890.40 891.63 893.84 896.79 899.75 900.98 902.46 903.70 904.19 902.71 900.00 899.26 900.74 902.46 904.68 906.17 907.40 908.14  881.56 884.50 885.24 887.94 888.43 890.64 891.38 893.10 892.86 893.84 893.84 893.35 893.84 894.09 894.33 895.07 896.55 897.29 896.55 895.81  1065.76 1042.17 23.59 1057.48 1.49  908.14 890.40 17.75 899.89 2.21  897.29 881.56 15.73 892.01 2.55  14:55:42.45 4 839.19 842.83 844.29 845.51 846.23 846.96 846.23 846.48 845.26 846.48 847.69 849.15 849.39 850.12 850.12 850.85 851.10 850.37 848.42 849.15 851.10 839.19 11.90 847.29 2.92  822.25 824.91 826.60 825.63 826.12 825.88 824.42 826.84 826.84 829.02 829.99 831.20 830.96 831.68 829.26 829.50 831.20 829.50 830.23 831.68 831.68 822.25 9.43 828.19 3.27  14:57:26.31 5 756.68 755.25 767.42 779.14 789.44 794.96 798.33 798.09 796.64 788.24 771.72 769.57 776.98 787.04 795.92 800.73 802.41 802.90 801.21 796.89 802.90 755.25 47.65 786.48 3.99  671.08 672.26 672.97 674.15 676.51 678.64 681.71 682.42 683.12 682.42 681.00 680.29 679.58 680.76 682.42 684.07 686.20 687.14 687.85 686.67 687.85 671.08 16.77 680.56 4.52  ^  Time^17:15:13.81^17:17:09.15^17:19:05.48^17:20:40.56 ^17:22:40.96 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 736.78^939.10^1119.89^1148.90^973.63^961.30^914.24^910.04^849.25^752.33 793.47^939.97^1135.66^1171.19^974.89^960.55^920.69^912.51^864.60^759.01 807.21^939.97^1152.21^1178.60^972.12^962.56^924.16^913.75^873.89^762.82 802.63^944.32^1159.64^1184.36^970.61^964.57^928.13^917.22^880.75^765.93 803.55^940.84^1166.24^1191.77^972.37^965.83^929.62^916.72^883.69^767.84 811.77^956.47^1166.24^1193.41^975.90^968.85^930.62^916.97^882.95^769.03 773.17^959.07^1161.29^1192.59^978.93^970.86^932.36^917.46^881.97^770.47 776.88^970.30^1157.99^1193.41^982.47^972.37^930.87^915.48^873.40^769.75 767.61^978.91^1158.82^1188.48^984.75^973.63^931.12^915.98^867.29^770.23 727.36^965.98^1150.56^1181.90^986.27^973.13^929.13^916.22^864.36^770.47 756.44^969.43^1155.51^1178.60^986.52^972.37^928.63^917.96^868.51^769.75 745.23^943.45^1156.34^1182.72^987.03^972.12^928.63^917.22^877.56^770.71 786.11^952.14^1162.94^1177.78^983.99^970.61^931.37^919.20^883.20^772.38 810.86^943.45^1169.54^1192.59^979.69^972.37^933.36^920.69^887.86^774.53 791.63^945.19^1172.84^1190.12^980.20^973.13^934.85^920.69^891.06^775.97 748.04^950.40^1174.48^1191.77^982.72^974.64^935.35^920.44^890.56^776.21 723.58^952.14^1168.72^1190.94^985.76^975.40^937.09^918.95^888.35^776.45 710.30^957.34^1161.29^1190.12^988.04^976.16^934.85^918.70^880.01^776.21 775.95^973.74^1157.16^1186.01^990.83^977.16^934.85^918.95^869.73^775.25 806.29^968.57^1155.51^1181.07^991.84^976.66^934.85^919.69^866.55^774.77 Maximum^811.77^978.91^1174.48^1193.41^991.84^977.16^937.09^920.69^891.06^776.45 Minimum^710.30^939.10^1119.89^1148.90^970.61^960.55^914.24^910.04^849.25^752.33 Range^101.47^39.81^54.59^44.51^21.23^16.62^22.85^10.65^41.80^24.12 Average^772.74^954.54^1158.14^1184.32^981.43^970.71^930.24^917.24^876.28^770.01 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)  ^  Time^17:32:02.24^17:34:14.99^17:36:12.81^17:38:13.54^17:39:46.25 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 810.93^972.95^1097.55^1151.52^967.54^954.98^916.36^906.97^870.17^763.50 868.67^978.98^1118.37^1173.80^966.03^957.23^921.32^911.91^878.74^767.32 776.95^983.28^1134.97^1182.04^965.52^960.25^922.31^912.90^885.12^770.43 771.39^965.19^1142.42^1177.10^969.30^962.76^924.30^915.62^888.55^772.34 761.17^953.07^1144.08^1189.44^973.08^966.03^926.04^916.61^887.82^773.30 785.25^943.52^1149.04^1187.79^977.62^969.30^930.26^919.09^885.61^774.02 788.94^937.43^1148.21^1181.21^981.41^971.06^932.00^920.08^879.72^774.02 787.10^933.94^1149.87^1171.33^983.68^972.07^933.00^920.33^871.40^774.02 729.31^947.87^1141.60^1166.38^985.45^971.06^934.99^921.07^868.22^773.78 710.37^960.87^1139.94^1175.45^986.47^972.32^933.00^919.34^870.17^774.02 792.62^972.95^1142.42^1184.50^985.96^972.07^933.00^918.59^880.95^774.97 845.36^980.70^1150.70^1181.21^981.91^971.31^932.50^919.09^886.59^776.65 758.38^979.84^1156.48^1185.33^978.12^970.05^931.51^920.33^891.99^778.32 1-4^ 727.43^967.78^1161.43^1190.26^979.13^970.56^931.51^921.07^894.95^779.52 738.73^954.81^1168.03^1192.73^982.42^973.58^932.50^921.57^894.95^780.24 758.38^932.20^1159.78^1190.26^985.20^974.84^934.24^923.06^892.24^780.24 734.97^931.32^1153.17^1194.37^988.24^977.11^936.49^923.31^885.85^779.52 736.85^939.17^1149.04^1182.86^990.27^976.10^936.49^922.81^876.78^779.04 765.82^940.04^1144.08^1181.21^992.30^976.86^938.23^923.06^873.35^778.80 801.79^959.14^1140.77^1178.74^992.55^976.10^937.48^920.58^877.51^778.80 Maximum^868.67^983.28^1168.03^1194.37^992.55^977.11^938.23^923.31^894.95^780.24 Minimum^710.37^931.32^1097.55^1151.52^965.52^954.98^916.36^906.97^868.22^763.50 Range^158.29^51.95^70.48^42.85^27.03^22.13^21.87^16.34^26.73^16.73 Average^772.52^956.75^1144.60^1180.88^980.61^969.78^930.88^918.87^882.03^775.14 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)  Shell temperature readings Run : SL10 Distance from lime product outlet (m) 0.921 2.21 1.492 3.994  Time  0.146  14:42:12.08  171.97  192.62  256.81  127.93  131.38  17:10:37.09  177.06  201.88  236.20  137.45  189.10  17:28:13.31  178.42  202.25  231.68  138.57  191.69  231  Flue gas Analysis Run : SL10 Equipment : Gas chromatograph Fuel nat. gas  LOW  Time 11:02 11:38 12:38 12:44 13:42 13:48 14:02 14:12 14:18 14:50 15:11 15:29 15:52 16:25 17:02 17:45 17:52  Port 9 9 9 9 2 9 9 2 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9  % oxygen % carbon dioxide % nitrogen* 5.91 16.5 77.59 4.02 15.7 80.28 4.18 14.72 81.1 4.31 14.58 81.11 6.13 8.33 85.54 82.67 4.43 12.9 13.91 4.6 81.49 6.83 9.54 83.63 4.4 13.6 82 3.35 14.87 81.78 3.15 15.87 80.98 1.87 22.56 75.57 2.76 20.43 76.81 1.94 24.29 73.77 3.03 17.41 79.56 2.69 18.08 79.23 2.13 21.71 76.16  *% nitrogen are calculated from 100 - % oxygen - % carbon dioxide  232  Table of Events Run SL11 11/25/92 09:55:28.37 Kiln speed (rpm) : 1.5 09:55:31.99 SL11A Read bed temperatures 14:32:29.43 Read Shell Temperatures 14:34:26.58 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 14:34:29.93 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 14:35:53.97 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:37:01.42 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:45:22.39 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 14:47:00.05 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 14:48:44.90 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 14:50:35.63 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 14:52:19.00 Read bed temperatures 14:53:56.94 Read Shell Temperatures 14:56:21.94 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 14:56:26.33 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 14:57:50.42 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:58:20.36 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 15:00:30.04 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 15:02:28.40 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 15:04:39.78' Suction T/C, Pair : 5 15:06:25.24  233  SL11B Read bed temperatures 16:47:00.56 Read Shell Temperatures 16:48:57.67 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 16:49:01.56 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 16:50:25.44 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 16:50:55.86 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 16:53:03.40 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 16:54:55.29 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 16:56:42.77 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 16:58:20.05 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 17:00:02.37 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 17:04:32.83 Read bed temperatures 17:08:19.61 Read Shell Temperatures 17:10:28.80 Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 17:11:05.05 Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 17:12:29.25 Suction T/C, Pair : 1 17:13:14.78 Suction T/C, Pair : 2 17:14:54.64 Suction T/C, Pair : 3 17:16:41.14 Suction T/C, Pair : 4 17:18:28.63 Suction T/C, Pair : 5 17:20:12.22  234  ^ ^  Cyclic Bed Temperature Readings (run SL11)  14:32:29^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 1017.34^1099.83^1052.05^994.30^937.18^908.14^876.16^833.78^750.94^662.57 1020.74^1104.84^1057.95^996.01^938.43^908.39^876.65^835.24^754.04^666.58 1024.98^1112.33^1062.15^997.72^939.67^908.88^874.45^833.06^753.80^667.05 1028.38^1112.33^1065.51^999.43^937.18^904.68^868.58^827.97^746.90^660.92 1023.29^1119.81^1067.20^1001.14^927.47^896.05^857.59^816.86^737.85^647.00 990.02^1053.73^1047.83^1000.29^896.79^879.35^837.18^794.23^725.74^622.73 978.86^1052.05^1026.68^995.16^905.92^888.67^854.91^813.00^735.48^637.34 991.73^1083.13^1036.00^992.59^922.26^898.52^867.35^824.59^742.37^648.18 1008.82^1096.50^1046.99^992.59^929.21^902.46^872.98^830.15^746.18^655.02 0.00* 1103.17^1055.42^993.44^936.93^908.14^878.86^835.00^751.90^660.68 1018.19^1109.00^1059.63^995.16^939.92^909.87^879.59^835.96^753.80^663.98 ts.)^0.00* 4383.31* 4083.72* 3732.37*^752.37*^663.75*^879.59^835.96^753.80^663.98 1030.92^1116.49^1065.51^999.43^935.69^904.19^866.38^824.59^743.80^657.38 1012.23^1114.83^1066.36^1000.29^927.47^896.79^857.35^815.65^734.53^639.46 983.16^1048.68^1041.08^999.43^897.78^880.82^839.60^797.12^725.74^622.97 ^979.72^1060.47^1024.13^994.30^910.86^890.15^856.13^814.69^735.71^634.51 0.00* 4295.41* 3997.94* 3662.28*^742.61*^645.59*^856.13^814.69^735.71^634.51 1012.23^1102.34^1044.46^992.59^929.71^901.23^869.80^828.46^747.13^654.55 ^1017.34^1107.34^1052.05^992.59^936.43^906.16^874.94^833.30^751.42^660.45 1023.29^1112.33^1057.10^994.30^937.68^908.39^877.14^835.24^754.28^664.69 Minimum^978.86^1048.68^1024.13^992.59^896.79^879.35^837.18^794.23^725.74^622.73 Maximum^1030.92^1119.81^1067.20^1001.14^939.92^909.87^879.59^835.96^754.28^667.05 Range^52.06^71.14^43.06^8.55^43.13^30.53^42.41^41.73^28.55^44.32 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m) *This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.  ^  14:53:56^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 1027.20^1112.85^1068.55^1002.52^938.20^905.70^866.16^825.11^747.42^660.73 1017.01^1109.52^1069.39^1005.08^929.98^899.53^855.68^811.11^735.05^635.97 992.25^1038.21^1040.75^1001.66^900.27^886.00^846.19^799.32^730.53^629.14 987.97^1060.99^1028.90^996.53^915.34^896.57^862.02^812.32^739.32^646.11 1005.93^1084.48^1040.75^996.53^927.74^903.23^870.81^821.97^745.51^655.54 1017.01^1095.35^1050.88^996.53^937.95^910.39^879.62^833.82^752.66^662.15 1021.26^1104.52^1057.62^997.39^940.19^912.37^882.07^838.18^757.66^668.04 1021.26^1106.19^1062.67^999.95^942.94^914.10^883.54^840.36^760.29^671.35 1019.56^1107.02^1064.35^1001.66^942.19^912.12^878.88^836.97^758.14^670.17 1022.11^1109.52^1066.88^1003.37^935.71^904.71^866.16^825.11^746.23^660.73 1007.64^1097.02^1064.35^1005.08^921.54^894.85^849.59^806.05^731.48^632.44 987.11^1034.83^1034.83^999.95^902.49^885.51^848.14^804.37^731.48^633.38 993.11^1075.27^1031.44^996.53^917.32^896.08^860.55^817.86^737.66^646.11 ts.)^1002.52^1094.51^1044.13^995.68^927.49^902.24^868.36^826.32^743.37^654.83 1019.56^1107.02^1055.10^995.68^934.46^906.19^873.25^830.91^747.65^659.79 1031.44^1115.35^1062.67^997.39^938.95^910.14^877.66^835.27^751.94^664.27 1032.29^1121.16^1067.72^999.95^940.19^909.65^875.70^834.30^751.70^665.68 1038.21^1123.66^1071.91^1001.66^937.70^905.20^869.58^828.25^746.70^661.91 1040.75^1131.95^1076.94^1004.22^930.98^897.31^858.11^819.31^737.66^651.06 1013.60^1097.02^1067.72^1005.93^911.13^886.24^839.15^797.40^724.59^622.31 Minimum^987.11^1034.83^1028.90^995.68^900.27^885.51^839.15^797.40^724.59^622.31 Maximum^1040.75^1131.95^1076.94^1005.93^942.94^914.10^883.54^840.36^760.29^671.35 Range^53.64^97.12^48.05^10.25^42.67^28.59^44.39^42.97^35.69^49.04 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)  ^  16:47:00^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 887.28^1031.87^1090.78^1048.79^986.71^952.72^921.08^881.15^801.80^717.57 882.84^1027.63^1087.44^1050.48^972.31^943.22^900.81^861.10^788.59^690.82 875.73^985.81^1058.06^1045.41^944.47^929.77^892.68^852.33^787.16^690.11 877.51^1005.50^1053.01^1041.19^964.76^939.48^909.45^861.34^793.15^701.70 881.95^1016.58^1067.31^1041.19^976.60^945.72^917.61^874.29^799.88^710.23 884.62^1022.54^1079.06^1042.88^983.67^950.22^924.80^883.84^803.00^714.96 0.00* 4874.40*^4615.66* 4226.88*^808.05*^719.47*^924.80^883.84^803.00^714.96 884.62^1024.24^1089.11^1046.26^991.02^956.73^929.27^890.47^809.26^721.60 884.62^1028.48^1092.45^1048.79^991.02^956.23^927.04^888.01^806.37^720.89 890.82^1034.41^1093.29^1050.48^989.50^954.48^920.58^882.86^800.36^715.44 884.62^1026.78^1088.27^1051.32^967.03^941.23^895.88^859.15^785.96^690.35 878.40^988.39^1058.90^1046.26^946.22^930.02^893.67^858.66^787.64^690.58 1007.21* 1057.22*^1042.03* 4974.53*^939.98*^910.68*^872.33*^793.87*^702.41*^690.58 875.73^1014.03^1069.83^1042.03^975.59^944.22^917.11^877.23^799.64^710.94 877.51^1019.99^1080.74^1043.72^983.17^950.72^925.30^886.30^804.45^715.91 881.06^1022.54^1086.60^1044.57^986.46^953.72^927.28^889.73^807.57^720.18 881.95^1027.63^1090.78^1047.10^989.75^956.48^929.02^890.72^809.26^722.32 893.48^1032.72^1092.45^1049.63^989.75^956.48^927.78^889.49^807.33^721.13 893.48^1038.65^1093.29^1052.16^987.72^955.73^925.05^885.07^801.08^715.68 884.62^1024.24^1083.25^1053.01^961.00^939.23^896.13^856.47^785.96^688.46 Minimum^875.73^985.81^1053.01^1041.19^944.47^929.77^892.68^852.33^785.96^688.46 Maximum^893.48^1038.65^1093.29^1053.01^991.02^956.73^929.27^890.72^809.26^722.32  Range^17.75^52.83^40.28^11.82^46.55^26.96^36.59^38.38^23.30^33.86 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m *This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature. )  17:08:19^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10 891.85^1029.47^1098.44^1053.15^994.45^958.63^931.15^893.07^813.49^727.91 894.50^1033.71^1099.27^1055.67^990.40^955.37^925.19^886.93^806.51^723.40 891.85^1028.62^1095.10^1058.20^974.22^946.61^904.15^865.88^794.25^699.47 890.08^994.53^1066.61^1053.15^945.86^932.15^898.98^861.00^794.49^699.00 886.53^1008.20^1060.73^1048.93^968.17^942.36^915.27^875.41^802.66^710.37 890.96^1023.53^1071.65^1047.24^976.49^947.86^921.47^883.25^807.47^718.90 898.04^1032.86^1082.55^1047.24^982.55^950.61^924.44^886.93^809.16^722.69 899.80^1035.40^1090.92^1048.08^987.36^953.86^927.18^889.87^811.81^725.78 903.33^1035.40^1097.60^1050.62^989.64^954.62^926.68^890.12^812.77^726.96 905.09^1035.40^1100.94^1053.15^992.17^956.37^927.42^890.12^810.12^725.07 895.39^1039.63^1101.77^1055.67^991.41^955.87^925.69^887.66^805.79^720.08 894.50^1032.01^1095.93^1057.36^968.17^942.11^899.22^862.95^791.85^695.69 892.73^999.66^1067.45^1053:15^949.11^932.15^897.25^861.48^794.25^698.29 891.85^1021.83^1064.93^1048.93^968.68^941.61^913.79^875.41^801.70^709.18 00^897.15^1032.01^1075.85^1047.24^975.73^945.86^920.72^882.27^806.27^717.24 902.45^1038.79^1085.90^1047.24^983.05^950.86^926.18^888.40^810.36^722.69 903.33^1039.63^1093.43^1048.08^989.38^956.87^932.64^894.05^813.25^726.01 901.57^1037.94^1099.27^1050.62^991.92^958.38^932.64^894.05^813.74^727.91 905.09^1039.63^1100.94^1052.30^990.90^956.12^929.16^891.84^811.08^726.25 905.09^1041.33^1101.77^1054.83^986.60^952.11^921.47^884.47^804.83^720.79 Minimum^886.53^994.53^1060.73^1047.24^945.86^932.15^897.25^861.00^791.85^695.69 Maximum^905.09^1041.33^1101.77^1058.20^994.45^958.63^932.64^894.05^813.74^727.91 Range^18.57^46.80^41.05^10.96^48.60^26.48^35.39^33.06^21.88^32.22 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)  Bed temperature readings - Kiln stopped  W Minimum Maximum Range Distance (m) 1/4°  1 911.47 910.59 909.71 908.83 907.95 907.95 907.07 907.07 906.19 906.19  2 997.31 984.45 975.85 968.95 963.77 959.44 955.98 954.24 951.64 950.77  3 1053.36 1031.38 1015.23 1003.29 993.88 985.31 978.43 972.40 968.09 963.77  4 1053.36 1038.15 1025.44 1013.53 1003.29 994.74 987.88 981.87 976.71 973.26  5 923.41 914.74 909.05 904.86 901.65 899.43 897.46 896.23 895.00 894.26  6 920.69 913.01 908.56 906.09 904.12 903.13 901.90 901.40 901.16 901.16  7 879.04 876.35 875.13 874.39 873.90 873.66 873.66 873.42 873.66 873.66  8 847.09 844.91 843.94 843.69 843.69 843.94 844.18 844.42 844.66 845.15  9 777.69 775.06 774.10 774.10 774.10 774.58 775.06 775.77 776.49 777.21  10 678.41 673.45 669.91 667.31 665.43 664.01 662.83 661.89 661.18 660.71  906.19 911.47 5.28 0.15  950.77 997.31 46.53 0.46  963.77 1053.36 89.59 0.92  973.26 1053.36 80.10 1.49  894.26 923.41 29.15 2.21  901.16 920.69 19.53 2.55  873.42 879.04 5.63 2.92  843.69 847.09 3.40 3.27  774.10 777.69 3.59 3.99  660.71 678.41 17.70 4.52  Cyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings (Run SL11) 1  n/a n/a n/a n/a  2 996.01 983.16 974.56 980.58 990.02 993.44 995.16 996.01 995.16 996.87 982.30 973.70 984.01 991.73 994.30 996.01 996.87 996.87 999.43 979.72  3 913.71 911.07 906.68 906.68 907.56 909.32 910.20 911.95 912.83 913.71 910.20 906.68 906.68 908.44 910.20 911.07 911.95 912.83 913.71 910.20  4 835.24 835.24 835.24 835.24 835.48 835.24 835.24 835.24 835.48 835.48 835.24 835.48 835.48 835.48 835.48 835.48 835.48 835.48 835.48 835.48  5 827.25 827.49 827.49 827.49 827.49 827.25 827.25 827.25 827.25 827.49 827.49 827.49 827.49 827.49 827.49 827.25 827.25 827.49 827.49 827.49  6 799.28 799.04 799.04 799.04 799.04 799.04 799.04 799.04 799.28 799.28 799.28 799.04 799.04 799.04 799.04 799.28 799.28 799.28 799.52 799.28  7 777.69 776.25 775.78 776.49 776.97 777.45 777.69 777.93 777.93 777.45 776.25 776.02 776.73 776.97 777.45 777.93 778.17 777.93 777.45 776.25  8 649.36 649.13 648.89 648.42 648.18 648.42 648.65 648.89 649.13 649.36 649.36 648.89 648.65 648.42 648.65 648.89 649.13 649.36 649.60 649.60  9 581.98 580.10 577.98 577.98 578.92 579.86 580.57 581.51 581.98 581.98 580.33 578.45 578.69 579.39 580.33 581.04 581.75 582.22 581.98 579.86  10 445.95 432.37 426.17 429.99 434.04 438.09 441.91 444.76 446.91 445.24 432.37 427.84 431.66 435.71 439.76 443.10 445.95 447.86 443.34 431.42  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  999.43 973.70 25.74 989.79 1.01  913.71 906.68 7.03 910.28 1.57  835.48 835.24 0.24 835.38 2.06  827.49 827.25 0.24 827.41 2.38  799.52 799.04 0.48 799.16 2.72  778.17 775.78 2.39 777.14 3.05  649.60 648.18 1.41 648.95 4.07  582.22 577.98 4.24 580.35 4.59  447.86 426.17 21.69 438.22 5.21  14:34:29 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  o  n/a  Maximum Minimum Range Average Distance  (m)  1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  2 989.74 988.03 1001.72 1005.99 1008.55 1009.40 1011.11 1010.25 1000.01 988.03 990.60 1001.72 1008.55 1010.25 1011.96 1011.96 1013.66 997.45 988.03 994.02  3 913.41 910.78 911.65 913.41 915.17 916.05 916.92 917.80 916.92 912.53 910.78 912.53 914.29 915.17 916.92 917.80 918.68 916.05 911.65 911.65  4 837.76 838.00 837.76 837.76 837.76 837.76 837.76 837.76 838.00 837.76 837.76 838.00 837.76 837.76 837.76 837.76 838.00 837.76 837.76 838.00  5 828.55 828.55 828.55 828.31 828.31 828.31 828.31 828.55 828.55 828.55 828.55 828.55 828.31 828.31 828.31 828.31 828.55 828.55 828.55 828.55  6 800.34 800.34 800.10 800.10 800.10 800.10 800.34 800.34 800.34 800.10 800.10 800.10 800.10 800.10 800.10 800.34 800.34 800.34 800.10 800.10  7 777.07 777.31 777.55 778.03 778.27 778.51 778.51 778.27 777.31 776.36 777.07 777.55 777.79 778.27 778.51 778.51 778.27 777.31 776.83 777.31  8 649.47 649.00 648.76 648.76 649.00 649.23 649.47 649.71 649.71 649.23 648.76 648.53 648.76 648.76 649.00 649.47 649.71 649.47 649.23 648.76  9 578.09 577.38 577.85 578.56 579.50 580.21 580.91 580.91 579.74 577.62 577.38 578.09 578.79 579.74 580.44 580.91 580.91 579.27 577.15 577.15  10 425.31 428.18 432.00 436.05 439.63 442.72 444.87 445.58 434.86 426.51 428.90 432.71 436.53 439.86 442.72 444.87 444.63 431.28 425.31 428.90  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  1013.66 988.03 25.64 1002.05 1.01  918.68 910.78 7.90 914.51 1.57  838.00 837.76 0.24 837.82 2.06  828.55 828.31 0.24 828.46 2.38  800.34 800.10 0.24 800.20 2.72  778.51 776.36 2.15 777.73 3.05  649.71 648.53 1.18 649.14 4.07  580.91 577.15 3.77 579.03 4.59  445.58 425.31 20.27 435.57 5.21  14:56:26 n/a n/a  IN)  Maximum Minimum Range Average Distance (m)  1  n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  2 977.22 981.52 981.52 981.52 981.52 981.52 980.66 971.19 967.74 976.36 979.80 979.80 979.80 979.80 981.52 979.80 970.32 967.74 978.08 982.38  3 953.03 956.49 959.09 960.82 962.55 963.42 964.28 957.36 952.16 953.89 957.36 959.09 960.82 962.55 964.28 964.28 957.36 952.16 954.76 957.36  4 867.69 867.93 867.93 867.69 867.93 867.93 867.93 867.93 867.93 867.93 868.18 867.93 867.93 867.93 867.93 867.93 867.93 868.18 868.18 868.18  5 858.91 858.91 858.91 858.91 858.91 858.91 859.15 859.15 859.15 859.15 859.15 858.91 858.91 858.91 859.15 859.15 859.15 859.15 859.15 859.39  6 839.22 839.22 839.22 839.22 839.46 839.70 840.67 840.43 840.19 840.92 840.92 840.92 840.92 841.16 841.40 841.64 841.64 841.16 841.16 840.92  7 826.39 826.63 826.87 827.36 827.60 828.08 827.36 825.90 826.15 826.63 826.87 827.36 827.60 828.08 828.08 827.60 826.15 826.15 826.87 827.11  8 707.15 707.15 707.15 707.38 707.86 708.09 708.09 708.09 707.62 707.38 707.38 707.62 707.86 708.09 708.33 708.57 708.33 707.86 707.86 707.62  9 639.85 640.79 641.50 642.20 642.91 643.38 642.91 640.79 639.61 640.32 641.03 641.73 642.44 643.15 643.62 643.15 641.03 640.08 641.03 641.50  10 487.43 491.93 495.96 499.51 502.35 504.24 498.33 485.29 484.58 488.85 493.12 496.91 500.46 503.06 504.72 496.43 483.40 484.82 489.32 493.35  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  982.38 967.74 14.64 977.99 1.01  964.28 952.16 12.12 958.66 1.57  868.18 867.69 0.49 867.96 2.06  859.39 858.91 0.49 859.05 2.38  841.64 839.22 2.43 840.50 2.72  828.08 825.90 2.18 827.04 3.05  708.57 707.15 1.42 707.77 4.07  643.62 639.61 4.01 641.65 4.59  504.72 483.40 21.32 494.20 5.21  16:49:01 n/a  n/a  n/a n/a n/a n/a  n/a  ts..) N  Maximum Minimum Range Average Distance (m)  1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a  2 993.74 994.60 994.60 994.60 994.60 990.31 984.31 981.73 990.31 993.74 994.60 995.45 994.60 994.60 991.17 983.45 983.45 991.17 993.74 995.45  3 961.90 963.63 966.22 967.95 969.67 968.81 961.90 957.57 960.17 962.76 964.49 966.22 967.95 968.81 968.81 961.90 958.44 961.03 963.63 964.49  4 872.79 872.79 872.79 872.79 872.79 873.03 872.79 872.79 873.03 872.79 872.79 872.79 872:54 872.79 872.79 873.03 873.03 873.03 873.03 872.79  5 862.53 862.53 862.53 862.77 862.77 863.02 863.02 862.77 863.02 862.53 862.53 862.53 862.53 862.53 862.77 863.26 863.02 862.77 863.02 862.53  6 843.31 843.31 843.31 843.55 843.80 843.80 843.55 843.31 843.31 843.07 843.07 843.31 843.31 843.55 843.55 843.55 843.31 843.31 843.31 843.07  7 831.19 831.44 831.68 831.92 831.92 830.95 829.98 830.47 830.95 830.95 831.19 831.68 831.68 831.68 830.95 829.98 830.47 830.71 831.19 831.19  8 713.28 713.52 713.75 713.99 714.23 714.46 714.23 713.75 713.52 713.52 713.52 713.75 713.99 714.23 714.46 714.46 713.99 713.75 713.75 713.75  9 648.07 648.78 649.49 649.96 650.43 649.72 647.36 646.66 647.60 648.31 .648.78 649.49 650.19 650.43 649.96 647.84 647.36 647.84 648.78 649.25  10 500.43 504.22 507.53 510.13 511.79 501.38 488.82 491.43 495.93 499.96 503.74 507.06 509.66 511.08 500.90 490.01 492.85 496.88 501.38 505.16  n/a n/a n/a n/a 0.62  995.45 981.73 13.73 991.51 1.01  969.67 957.57 12.10 964.32 1.57  873.03 872.54 0.49 872.85 2.06  863.26 862.53 0.73 862.75 2.38  843.80 843.07 0.73 843.38 2.72  831.92 829.98 1.94 831.11 3.05  714.46 713.28 1.18 713.89 4.07  650.43 646.66 3.77 648.81 4.59  511.79 488.82 22.97 501.52 5.21  17:11:05  t.)  Maximum Minimum Range Average Distance (m)  Interior wall probe temperature measurement (SL11) 14:35:53 Position (m) 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21  14:57:50 Position (m) 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21  0.2506 n/a 362.12 315.93 348.17 379.47 336.34 327.39 224.08 217.71 182.35  Radius (m) 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a 733.99 -1610.07 601.31 854.27 834.51 634.28 663.28 765.73 550.16 787.51 543.32 734.05 394.59 611.19 362.15 540.73 277.60 400.10  0.2506 n/a 364.93 317.65 348.51 382.69 338.37 330.14 226.38 220.01 185.15  Radius (m) 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a 740.21 -1176.89 602.89 858.43 837.03 635.33 663.86 767.27 552.63 788.57 , 546.73 735.34 398.29 612.24 365.38 541.07 279.89 399.48  Radius (m) 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a 728.25 -1572.49 628.90 897.90 653.99 865.98 680.42 793.63 576.48 827.84 575.54 780.21 427.49 665.78 395.91 596.97 306.89 450.37  16:50:25 Position (m) 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21  0.2506 n/a 361.69 330.22 357.45 384.63 351.42 344.18 240.09 234.21 202.83  17:12:29 Position (m) 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21  Radius (m) 0.2506 0.2318 0.213 n/a n/a n/a 365.25 735.06 -1583.43 332.69 633.05 904.28 355.01 654.91 870.59 377.16 678.74 796.00 353.80 580.22 831.44 785.21 347.04 580.46 242.74 432.71 671.90 237.60 401.15 603.78 208.93 457.96 314.13  ^  Suction pyrometer temperature readings of flue gas (SL11) Time^14:45:22^14:47:00^14:48:44^14:50:35^14:52:19 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 1223.18^1166.48^1117.70^1068.41^906.30^884.14^851.96^834.23^773.90^665.68 1218.26^1171.42^1123.52^1068.41^911.49^887.82^856.83^836.66^786.59^671.35 1240.38^1180.48^1129.32^1075.97^915.20^891.02^856.34^836.66^792.83^674.65 1226.46^1178.01^1129.32^1077.64^919.41^894.95^859.99^840.29^796.67^677.73 1228.91^1185.42^1131.81^1079.32^921.15^896.68^861.70^840.54^797.64^678.43 1251.01^1190.35^1138.44^1082.67^922.39^898.65^861.70^839.32^793.55^678.67 1201.86^1179.66^1143.41^1080.99^921.89^897.91^860.73^838.11^776.54^677.73 1203.50^1178.84^1145.06^1077.64^921.15^896.68^858.53^837.63^764.34^676.54 1233.01^1183.77^1147.54^1084.34^920.16^898.90^858.78^839.08^786.36^679.38 1257.55^1193.64^1152.50^1086.02^919.16^900.87^863.17^843.45^799.80^682.21 1256.73^1194.46^1153.33^1091.03^920.65^902.10^863.90^843.45^809.18^686.23 1257.55^1200.21^1154.16^1090.20^923.88^903.09^864.87^844.66^815.21^689.30 0\^1262.46^1200.21^1150.85^1087.69^925.37^902.84^866.58^844.91^816.90^691.67 1214.98^1194.46^1150.03^1085.18^927.85^905.06^866.83^845.64^816.17^692.38 1271.44^1200.21^1150.03^1086.02^927.35^904.57^865.36^841.75^809.18^692.14 1249.37^1192.82^1155.81^1083.51^926.86^903.83^864.14^841.27^794.51^691.43 1263.27^1196.11^1151.68^1078.48^926.11^902.59^863.41^841.75^785.16^690.96 1255.92^1198.57^1150.03^1084.34^922.88^903.58^863.41^843.21^797.64^690.96 1273.90^1203.50^1159.11^1088.52^922.64^903.33^865.36^845.88^808.70^693.32 1259.19^1198.57^1156.63^1091.87^924.13^904.82^866.34^846.12^818.83^696.40 Maximum^1273.90^1203.50^1159.11^1091.87^927.85^905.06^866.83^846.12^818.83^696.40 Minimum^1201.86^1166.48^1117.70^1068.41^906.30^884.14^851.96^834.23^764.34^665.68 Range^72.04^37.02^41.41^23.45^21.56^20.92^14.87^11.89^54.48^30.71 Average^1242.45^1189.36^1144.51^1082.41^921.30^899.17^862.00^841.23^796.99^683.86 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)  ^  Time^14:58:20^15:00:30^15:02:28^15:04:39^15:06:25 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 1186.57^1136.23^1087.12^1036.65^901.20^877.11^843.54^827.06^757.21^668.07 1191.51^1147.81^1097.98^1045.11^908.11^881.28^847.18^831.66^777.75^671.85 1193.15^1151.12^1105.49^1052.70^912.31^884.22^850.10^833.11^790.45^675.62 1203.01^1151.95^1109.65^1040.04^913.55^885.45^852.53^834.81^796.69^678.69 1212.85^1157.73^1119.63^1071.20^912.56^888.40^854.48^835.53^798.14^681.53 1198.08^1156.90^1120.46^1097.98^911.32^889.87^855.45^835.53^798.38^682.47 1211.21^1151.95^1125.45^1087.96^908.85^891.59^856.18^836.02^790.69^681.53 1183.28^1147.81^1123.79^1067.85^908.36^892.33^853.99^833.60^774.64^680.82 1221.05^1158.56^1126.28^1069.52^910.33^894.55^854.23^833.60^765.32^679.87 1216.95^1161.03^1127.11^1071.20^912.81^896.52^854.72^836.02^774.40^679.87 1227.61^1168.46^1128.76^1072.04^915.03^897.99^854.23^835.78^791.41^683.18 1212.03^1166.81^1129.59^1073 .72^916.27^897.99^857.16^838.20^805.35^685.78 1213.67^1171.75^1132.08^1075.40^917.26^897.75^858.13^837.96^809.20^689.09 1234.98^1174.22^1134.57^1074.56^917.26^899.23^860.32^840.62^812.33^691.46 1248.07^1174.22^1132.08^1098.82^915.28^897.50^860.32^839.90^808.72^691.69 1244.80^1168.46^1133.74^1071.20^912.06^897.01^859.84^836.74^804.63^691.46 1218.59^1163.51^1133.74^1076.24^912.56^899.23^859.11^837.71^787.09^690.27 1230.06^1169.28^1137.05^1078.75^914.04^899.96^858.62^838.20^781.58^689.56 1239.89^1175.05^1133.74^1073.72^916.02^900.70^858.13^839.90^794.77^690.75 1229.24^1176.70^1137.88^1078.75^917.76^901.44^858.62^839.65^802.22^691.93 .  Maximum^1248.07^1176.70^1137.88^1098.82^917.76^901.44^860.32^840.62^812.33^691.93 Minimum^1183.28^1136.23^1087.12^1036.65^901.20^877.11^843.54^827.06^757.21^668.07 Range^64.79^40.47^50.76^62.16^16.56^24.33^16.79^13.56^55.13^23.86 Average^1215.83^1161.48^1123.81^1070.67^912.65^893.51^855.34^836.08^791.05^683.77 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)  ^  00  Time^16:53:03^16:54:55^16:56:42^16:58:20^17:04:32 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 953.96^1081.65^1144.07^1132.47^946.29^937.80^903.59^894.23^871.49^721.51 996.17^1102.54^1157.30^1139.10^951.29^944.54^906.06^898.66^870.27^721.74 1025.16^1111.70^1160.60^1142.42^954.80^946.04^909.02^901.37^865.39^722.22 1013.25^1106.71^1162.25^1142.42^957.80^949.29^911.99^903.84^860.27^722.22 992.75^1100.04^1162.25^1134.13^960.06^949.54^912.48^904.08^854.42^721.98 966.08^1095.03^1159.78^1137.45^961.82^953.04^914.21^905.07^855.39^721.27 953.10^1091.69^1160.60^1145.73^962.07^953.04^915.20^903.34^860.51^720.56 957.43^1092.52^1161.43^1134.96^958.56^952.29^915.45^903.34^866.36^720.32 951.36^1087.51^1164.73^1131.64^957.80^955.80^916.19^905.07^870.03^720.56 943.54^1089.18^1172.15^1149.86^959.81^956.30^916.69^905.32^871.49^720.79 1003.01^1104.21^1175.44^1153.99^962.32^956.30^916.44^907.05^871.49^721.03 1018.36^1118.36^1175.44^1152.34^964.58^958.31^916.44^906.30^865.39^721.27 988.46^1118.36^1175.44^1157.30^966.34^957.80^917.68^908.77^845.43^721.51 972.12^1111.70^1168.85^1149.03^968.10^958.81^918.18^907.54^835.72^721.27 986.74^1107.54^1166.38^1139.93^968.10^957.55^919.66^908.03^830.64^720.56 979.01^1102.54^1165.55^1144.07^967.10^958.81^920.41^909.02^826.77^719.85 943.54^1097.53^1164.73^1140.76^963.08^958.31^920.90^906.80^823.87^719.61 941.80^1090.85^1167.20^1148.21^961.57^957.80^919.66^908.28^821.70^719.85 944.41^1097.53^1172.97^1151.52^963.33^959.56^920.65^907.79^820.01^720.32 991.03^1109.21^1178.74^1149.03^965.84^961.82^918.67^907.79^818.32^720.79 Maximum^1025.16^1118.36^1178.74^1157.30^968.10^961.82^920.90^909.02^871.49^722.22 Minimum^941.80^1081.65^1144.07^1131.64^946.29^937.80^903.59^894.23^818.32^719.61 Range^83.35^36.71^34.67^25.66^21.81^24.02^17.31^14.79^53.18^2.61 Average^976.06^1100.82^1165.80^1143.82^961.03^954.14^915.48^905.09^850.25^720.96 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52  (m  )  ^  Time^17:13:14^17:14:54^17:16:41^17:18:28^17:20:12 Pair^1^2^3^4^5 941.94^1074.24^1130.12^1121.82^947.68^937.45^906.45^897.08^822.49^740.10 967.08^1083.46^1135.93^1125.98^949.18^939.44^906.94^898.06^829.02^742.24 1021.05^1094.33^1145.87^1129.30^947.93^941.19^907.68^900.03^832.65^744.38 1015.09^1093.50^1152.48^1127.64^949.93^944.43^909.90^901.26^841.13^747.00 989.46^1088.48^1159.92^1136.76^952.43^946.43^912.13^902.00^845.98^749.62 995.45^1085.97^1161.57^1140.07^955.19^948.43^912.62^903.24^850.11^751.29 982.59^1084.30^1159.09^1140.90^957.69^951.43^913.12^903.98^851.08^752.24 985.17^1085.97^1155.79^1134.27^959.95^951.68^915.34^904.47^851.08^752.95 973.98^1085.97^1154.13^1125.15^962.46^954.18^916.58^905.70^850.84^753.67 980.87^1086.81^1150.00^1123.48^963.72^954.69^915.59^904.96^842.58^752.72 1025.30^1097.67^1156.61^1129.30^960.45^954.94^915.84^905.46^843.31^752.95 t )^1029.54^1107.68^1156.61^1121.82^958.19^955.94^915.84^906.94^843.80^753.67 1025.30^1107.68^1163.22^1140.07^959.20^956.44^915.34^906.45^850.35^754.38 996.31^1100.18^1167.34^1141.73^961.21^955.44^917.57^908.67^852.79^756.05 992.89^1097.67^1164.87^1139.24^963.72^958.45^918.81^909.90^856.19^757.48 989.46^1090.99^1162.39^1140.07^965.48^959.20^919.80^908.91^857.41^758.20 951.50^1089.32^1163.22^1140.90^966.73^959.70^919.31^907.19^855.71^757.96 993.74^1092.66^1157.44^1135.10^968.75^962.21^919.80^908.67^851.08^757.48 990.31^1094.33^1155.79^1126.81^967.74^957.94^920.55^908.67^847.20^757.01 1009.98^1107.68^1159.09^1142.56^964.22^959.95^912.62^912.13^843.55^756.53 ,  Maximum^1029.54^1107.68^1167.34^1142.56^968.75^962.21^920.55^912.13^857.41^758.20 Minimum^941.94^1074.24^1130.12^1121.82^947.68^937.45^906.45^897.08.^822.49^740.10 Range^87.60^33.44^37.22^20.73^21.07^24.76^14.10^15.05^34.92^18.10 Average^992.85^1092.45^1155.57^1133.15^959.09^952.48^914.59^905.19^845.92^752.40 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52 (m)  ^  Time^14:37:01^16:50:55^17:00:02 Pair^1^1^5 1035.29^1066.48^933.02^1017.44^825.49^740.67 1035.29^1069.00^933.89^1019.14^830.57^742.82 1037.82^1073.20^936.51^1021.69^836.14^744.48 1041.21^1076.55^939.12^1024.24^842.44^746.38 1044.59^1080.74^939.99^1022.54^847.54^749.00 1048.81^1083.26^938.25^1017.44^849.73^750.67 1052.18^1085.77^936.51^1016.58^850.94^751.39 1049.65^1077.39^935.64^1017.44^848.51^751.86 1044.59^1070.68^936.51^1018.29^844.87^751.86 1043.74^1071.52^936.51^1019.14^840.26^751.15 1045.43^1074.88^937.38^1021.69^840.99^752.34 1047.96^1079.07^938.25^1023.39^846.57^752.34 1050.49^1082.42^940.86^1025.93^850.46^753.53 1053.86^1085.77^941.73^1024.24^854.84^755.20 1056.39^1087.44^940.86^1019.99^857.03^755.67 1058.92^1087.44^939.12^1019.14^856.30^756.87 1055.55^1079.07^939.12^1019.14^852.65^756.63 1050.49^1074.04^937.38^1019.14^848.03^756.15 1047.96^1074.04^937.38^1019.14^842.44^755.91 1047.96^1077.39^937.38^1020.84^844.14^755.91 Maximum^1058.92^1087.44^941.73^1025.93^857.03^756.87 Minimum^1035.29^1066.48^933.02^1016.58^825.49^740.67 Range^23.63^20.95^8.72^9.35^31.54^16.19 Average^1047.41^1077.81^937.77^1020.33^845.50^751.54 Distance^0.15^0.46^0.15^0.46^3.99^4.52 (m)  Shell temperature readings Run : SL11 Time  Distance from lime product outlet (m) 0.146 0.921 1.492 2.21  3.994  14:32:29.43  193.90  261.75  178.18  122.58  141.28  14:53:56.94  194.48  261.84  178.51  124.63  146.04  16:47:00.56  199.14  248.89  183.91  131.76  179.73  17:08:19.61  200.58  246.90  185.35  133.69  184.86  251  Flue gas analysis Run : SL11 Equipment : Gas chromatograph Fuel nat. gas  LOW  Time 11:42 11:49 11:55 15:14 15:34 15:47 15:52 16:34 17:03 17:22  Port 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9  % oxygen % carbon dioxide 2.77 16.91 3 16.5 2.56 18.49 2.68 18.26 4.15 16.28 3.23 19.25 3 20.94 2.53 18.54 2.17 18.56 2.06^_ 19.81  * % nitrogen is calculated from 100 - % oxygen - % carbon dioxide  252  % nitrogen* 80.32 80.5 78.95 79.06 79.57 77.52 76.06 78.93 79.27 78.13  Slaking results of lime products Time 0 30 60 90 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 300 330 360 390 420  Run SL2B 85.04 85.04 85.07 85 88.29 88.76 89.48 90.4 91.45 92.44 93.36 94.02 94.48 94.81 95.04 95.17 95.24 95.24 95.24 95.14 95.04 94.94 94.81  Time  Run SL3B  0 30 60 90 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490  79.81 79.94 80.04 80.1 82.47 82.9 83.29 83.69 84.08 84.44 84.81 85.1 85.33 85.53 85.66 85.79 85.89 85.96 86.02 86.06 86.09 86.16 86.19 86.19 86.22 86.25 86.29 86.29 86.32 86.32 86.32 86.35 86.35 86.35 86.39 86.39 86.39 86.39 86.39  253  500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 660 690 720 750 780 810 840  86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.42 86.39 86.39 86.39  Time 0 30 60 90 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 330 360 390 420  Run SL4B Run SL5A Run SL6B Run SL7A 84.61 84.64 84.64 84.64 88.13 89.02 89.87 90.7 91.45 91.91 92.21 92.41 92.51 92.54 92.57 92.57 92.6 92.57 92.57 92.57 92.51 92.44 92.37 92.28  84.25 84.25 84.25 84.25 87.34 88.23 89.02 89.68 90.43 90.99 91.39 91.65 91.78 91.88 91.91 91.95 91.95 91.91 91.91 91.88 91.81 91.75 91.68 91.62  84.71 84.71 84.71 84.71 88.59 89.45 90.37 91.35 92.11 92.77 93.16 93.39 93.53 93.62 93.69 93.76 93.76 93.79 93.79 93.76 93.72 93.66 93.59 93.49  83.23 83.26 83.29 83.33 88.29 89.64 90.5 91.32 91.95 92.34 92.54 92.64 92.7 92.74 92.77 92.77 92.77 92.74 92.74 92.74 92.7 92.67 92.6 92.54  Time 0 30 60 90 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 270 300 330 360  Run SL8A 85.27 85.27 85.27 85.27 90.99 92.14 93.1 93.76 94.32 94.61 94.74 94.81 94.84 94.81 94.74 94.64 94.51 94.41  Time 0 30 60 90 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 360 390 420 450  Run SL8B 81.09 81.15 81.19 81.22 84.31 84.81 85.4 85.96 86.52 87.08 87.6 88 88.26 88.46 88.59 88.66 88.69 88.72 88.76 88.76 88.76 88.76 88.76 88.76 88.76 88.72 88.72  Time  Run SL9A  0 30 60 90 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 300 330 360 390 420  84.28 84.28 84.28 84.28 89.71 90.56 91.55 92.24 92.8 93.16 93.33 93.46 93.53 93.56 93.56 93.56 93.53 93.49 93.43 93.36 93.3 93.23  255  Time 0 30 60 90 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 270 300 360  Run SL9B 84.58 84.58 84.58 84.58 95.17 96.39 97.11 97.41 97.51 97.47 97.41 97.38 97.28 97.24 97.05 96.88 96.26  Time 0 30 60 90 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 300 330 360 390  Run SL10A 80.53 80.6 80.63 80.66 86.39 87.54 88.59 89.54 90.4 91.09 91.68 92.05 92.31 92.44 92.47 92.51 92.51 92.44 92.34 92.28 92.18  Time 0 30 60 90 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 270 300 330 360  Run SL1OB 85.53 85.5 85.46 85.46 90.66 91.95 92.97 93.66 94.02 94.18 94.25 94.28 94.25 94.22 94.15 94.05 93.95 93.85  Time 0 30 60 90 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 300 330 360 390  Run SL11A 82.47 82.5 82.54 82.57 88.95 90.24 91.39 92.34 93.16 93.69 94.02 94.18 4.25 94.28 94.28 94.28 94.25 94.15 94.05 93.95 93.85  Time 0 30 60 90 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 270 300 330 360  Run SL11B 82.77 82.77 82.8 82.83 90.56 92.08 93.36 94.15 94.58 94.78 94.87 94.87 94.87 94.87 94.74 94.64 94.55 94.41  Axial Calcination Results Sample Lime product port #1 port #2 port #3 port #4  ^ 00  Loss on Ignition Limestone feed  Distance (m) 0 0.46 0.92 1.49 2.21  Run SL3B Run SL9B (%) (%) 97.82 99.1 93.65 85.67 48.73 46.82 24.22 30.84 9.57 9.86  Run SL1OB (%) 99.29 99.95 73.6 39.22 10.86  Run SL11B (%) 99.1 92.43 63.03 24.91 9.03  Natural gas (10) (%) 98.1 61.66 37.41 6.79 1.14  Distance (m) 5.5  Run SL3B Run SL9B (%) (%) 42.99 43.55  Run SL1OB (%) 43.36  Run SL11B (%) 42.64  Natural^as (10) (%) 43.54  Appendix H : Sodium, sulfur and nitrogen balances for Run SL9B  Basis Limestone flow rate inlet^40^kg/h Sodium and Sulfur balances  Assumption 1. The sodium and sulfur concentrations of the dust collected from the cyclone are the same as the dust collected from the bag house. Data 1. LOW composition Lignin^41% No. 2 fuel oil^14% Water^45% Surfactant^1000 ppm 2. LOW flow rate^0.38 kg/min 3. Lime product output^24.1 kg/h 4. Total dust collected from the cyclone and the bag house during LOW firing' 107.9 g/h (Dust collected from the cyclone 25 g/h, and from the baghouse 82.5 g/h) 5. SO2 collected from the flue gas during the combustion run^345 ppm 6. Calculated mole flow rate of dry flue gas from Run SL9B =^78.37 mole/min 7. From Elemental analysis Limestone feed Lignin No. 2 fuel oil Lime product Dust from cyclone Total S Balance 1. Total S in with limestone feed  Na (ppm) < 40 11300 210 5750  Total S (wt%) 0.15 1.76 0.22 0.22 1.83  0.0015 x 40,000^g/h 60^g/I1  2. Total S in with LOW  {0.0176 x 0.41 + 0.0022 x 0.14}x 380 x 60 171.55^g/h  3. Total S out with lime product  0.0022 x 24100 53.02  'Communication, Cliff Mui, Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, UBC.  259  4. Total S out with dust  0.0183 x 107.5^g/h 1.97^g/h  5. SO2 out with flue gas •  345/10 6 x 78.37 mole/min x 60 min/h 1.622 mole/h x 64 g/mole 103.82^g/h  •  60 + 171.55 231.55^g/h  .". Total S in  53.02 + 1.97 + 103.82 158.81^gfh  Total S out S out / S in  • •  158.81/231.55 68.6%  Na Balance 0  1. Na in with limestone feed 2. Na in with LOW • 3. Na out with lime product  0.0113 x0.41 x 380 g/min x 60 min/h 105.63^g/h 210/10 6 x 24,100 g/h 5.06^g/h  4. Na out with dust collected from cyclone & baghouse 5750/10 6 x 107.5 g/h 0.62^g/h ^ Total Na in ^ Total Na out ^ Na out / Na in  105.63 5.68 5.4 %  Nitrogen balance Assumption - Thermal NOx formed in Run SL9B is equal to that formed in Run SL9A Data - total NOx measured from natural gas^ 86^ppm - average total NO x measured from LOW firing^352 ppm - calculated mole flow rate of dry flue gas from Run SL9A = ^66.84 mole/min - calculated mole flow rate of dry flue gas from Run SL9B = ^78.37 mole/min  260  1. Natural gas firing (SL9A): Total NO x measured  86^ppm (Table 5.9) 86/10 6 x 66.84 mole/min x 60 min/h 0.3449^mole/h  • • 2. LOW firing (SL9B): Average total NO x measured  352^ppm (Table 5.9) 352/10 6 x 78.37 mole/min x 60 min/h 1.6552^mole/h  3. Fuel NO x formed^ • 4. Total N in with LOW^ •  1.6552 - 0.3449 1.3103^mole/h 0.19 mole/min x 60 min/h 11.40^mole/h (Table 5.12)  %N in LOW fuel converted to NO x^1.3103/11.40 x 100 • 11.5^%  261  

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