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Combustion of lignin-oil-water mixtures in a rotary kiln Thammachote, Nualpun 1993

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COMBUSTION OF LIGNIN-OIL-WATER MIXTURES IN A ROTARY KILNbyNUALPUN THAMMACHOTEB.Eng., Chulalongkorn University, 1989A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCEinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department of Chemical Engineering)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAJuly, 1993© Nualpun Thammachote, 1993In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of^ 1,4^/neeThe University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate DE-6 (2/88)AbstractLignin recovery from black liquor has been proposed to de-bottleneck recoveryboiler limited Kraft mills. The precipitated lignin would be used as a fuel in the lime kiln,replacing the external fuel, such as natural gas or fuel oil, presently used. In this worklignin-oil-water mixtures were investigated as a fuel. The rheology of the lignin-oil-watermixtures was studied; and a pilot scale preparation facility and firing system were devised.Tests were then made in the 0.4 m inside diameter, 5.5 m long UBC pilot scale lime kiln.The lignin was purchased in dry powder form from Westvaco Co., USA; the oil used inthis experiment was No. 2 fuel oil; and a small amount of surfactant, Tergitol NP-9, fromSigma Chemical Co., was added to lignin-oil-water mixtures.The rheology of lignin-oil-water mixtures was found to be complex. The lignin-oil-water mixture viscosity was measured using the Haake (Model VT 500) viscometer.The viscosity results show time-dependent, both thixotropic and rheopectic, behaviordepending on the solid content in the mixture. The lignin-oil-water mixture viscosity atsteady state was found to be a function of shear rate. The higher the shear rate, the lowerthe viscosity of lignin-oil-water mixtures in the range of the shear rate studied (50-250 s-1). At 25°C, the steady state viscosity of 37-47% lignin, 10-20% oil, 43-47% watermixtures was in the range of 0.3-0.7 Pa•s at shear rate 100 s -1 .In the combustion experiments, lignin-oil-water mixture was prepared in a 43 litretank with a mixer from McMaster Carr Supply Co.. A Moyno pump was used to circulatethe mixture in the tank. A Masterflex pump system, which uses peristaltic action to propelfluid through the tubing, was used to control the volumetric flow rate of lignin-oil-waterto the kiln by a variable speed drive. A double pipe heat exchanger was installed to keepthe mixture temperature at about 30°C at steady state. Lignin-oil-water mixture was fedto the kiln via a nozzle inserted concentrically through a modified North America, ModeliiNA 223G-3, natural gas burner. The nozzle had a separate water cooling jacket, and wasconnected to a twin fluid type, round spray pattern, stainless steel atomizer from SpraySystems Co..The conditions for each combustion experiment were set at a limestone flow rate40 kg/h, kiln rotational speed 1.5 rpm and kiln inclination angle 1 degree. Natural gasfired tests were used as controls. The oxygen content in the flue gas was controlledbetween 2-3% for both natural gas and lignin-oil-water mixture firing. A gaschromatograph, an oxygen analyzer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer wereused to measure the oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogenoxides, and methane concentrations in the flue gas.The results from the combustion experiments in the pilot lime kiln show that lignin-oil-water mixtures burned satisfactorily with a long luminous flame. The mixturescontained about 37-41% lignin, 12-20% oil, 43-47% water, and 1000 ppm surfactant.The percent calcination of the lime product from lignin-oil-water mixture firing was 99%.The reactivity of lime product from lignin-oil-water firing was comparable to that fromnatural gas firing. The flue gas during lignin-oil-water mixture firing contained on average16 ppm CO, 352 ppm total NOx and 345 ppm SO2. Compared to natural gas firing, thehigher NOx level, and higher gas flue gas flowrates which could enhance dusting arepotential disadvantages of LOW firing. As well, in the present work the sodium andsulphur balances were not closed. Further work is needed to explore these issues beforemill scale trials are undertaken.A-P (K)att--=. --,_iiiTable of ContentsPageAbstract^  iiList of Tables  viiList of Figures^  ixAcknowledgements  xiiChapter 1 Introduction1.1 Lignin as a fuel in pulp mill lime kilns ^11.2 Combustion of dry lignin powder in a pilot lime kiln ^31.3 Development of lignin-oil-water mixture^  41.4 Scope of the present work^  9Chapter 2 Literature Review2.1 Kraft pulping process^  112.1.1 Process description  112.1.2 Removal of lignin from black liquor in a kraft mill^ 132.1.3 The roles of sodium and sulfur in lime kiln operation^ 162.2 Lignin-oil-water mixture preparation^  182.2.1 Lignin characteristics  182.2.2 Stability and rheology of coal slurry fuel^ 272.2.2.1 Characteristics of coal suspensions  282.2.2.2 Rheology of coal slurry fuel^  322.2.3 The roles of chemical additives in coal slurry fuel preparation. ^ 342.3 Combustion of slurry fuel^ 362.3.1 Fundamental of combustion reactions^  362.3.2 Combustion characteristics of coal slurry fuel^ 382.3.3 Atomization of slurry fuel^  442.3.3.1 Twin fluid atomizer  44iv2.3.3.2 The effect of slurry fuel properties on the mean drop size ^46Chapter 3 Experimental Facility3.1 Lignin-oil-water viscosity measurement^  493.2 Lignin-oil-water preparation facility ^503.3 Development of lignin-oil-water feeding system ^533.4 Pilot lime kiln facility3.4.1 General description^  603.4.2 Instrumentation 643.5 Flue gas analysis3.5.1 Oxygen analyzer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer^ 703.5.2 Gas chromatograph^ 70Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered4.1 Lignin-oil-water preparation^  724.2 Combustion experiments in the pilot lime kiln^ 734.3 Determination of percent calcination^ 764.4 Determination of slaking behaviour of lime products^ 774.5 Problems encountered^ 77Chapter 5 Results and Discussions5.1 Lignin-oil-water viscosity measurement^ 795.1.1 Time-dependent viscosity behavior 805.1.2 LOW viscosity as a function of shear rate^ 835.1.3 LOW viscosity as a function of composition 855.2 Lignin-oil-water combustion experiments^ 885.2.1 LOW firing at 60% natural gas replacement^ 935.2.2 LOW firing at 100% natural gas replacement  965.2.3 LOW firing at different % natural gas replacement^ 995.2.4 True bed temperature profiles^ 103v5.2.5 Flue gas analysis^  1065.2.6 Overall heat and mass balances in a pilot lime kiln^ 1155.3 The effect of LOW combustion on lime product quality5.3.1 Elemental analysis of lime product and dust from cyclone^ 1205.3.2 Reactivity test of lime product^  1255.4 Comparison of powdered lignin and LOW firing^  128Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations6.1 Conclusions^  1296.2 Recommendations  130References^  132Appendix A Sample calculations : moles flue gas and net heating value of lignin-oil-water mixture, natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil and Westvaco lignin^ 138Appendix B Coal water mixture heating value and the amount of heat requiredfor water evaporation calculation^  149Appendix C Atomization air flow rate calculation  150Appendix D Calibration charts^  151Appendix E Sample of calculation for residence time of limestone inside the kiln 155Appendix F Overall heat and mass balances in a pilot lime kiln^ 157Appendix G Data from the combustion experiments- Temperature profiles & flue gas analysis^  173- Slaking results^ 253- Calcination results 258Appendix H Sodium, sulfur and nitrogen balances for Run SL9B^ 259viList of TablesPageTable 1.1^^Moles of flue gas and CO2 produced from lignin-oil-water mixture,Westvaco lignin, natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil combustion andtheir heating values ^6Table 2.1^Ultimate analysis and calorific value of Westvaco lignin and othersolid fuels (as recieved basis) ^22Table 2.2^Proximate analysis of Westvaco lignin and high volatile Abituminous coal (as recieved basis) ^23Table 2.3^Metal analysis of Westvaco lignin ^23Table 3.1^Characteristic dimensions of Sensor system SV2 ^49Table 4.1^Typical ultimate analyses and heating value of No. 2 fuel oil ^73Table 4.2^Natural gas composition (from B.C. Gas) and its heating value ^75Table 4.3^Screening results of the limestone feed ^76Table 4.4^Elemental analysis of limestone feed ^76Table 5.1^LOW compositions in rheology study ^79Table 5.2^Viscosity results for LOW Sample 2 ^84Table 5.3^Viscosity results for LOW Sample 3 ^84Table 5.4^Viscosity results for LOW Sample 4 ^84Table 5.5^Viscosity results for LOW Sample 5 ^84Table 5.6^Viscosity results for LOW Sample 6 ^85Table 5.7^Chronology of combustion runs ^88Table 5.8^Combustion run conditions ^92Table 5.9^FTIR gas analysis results for Run SL9 ^108Table 5.10^Percent conversion of fuel-nitrogen in LOW combustion ^112Table 5.11^FTIR gas analysis results for Run SL8 ^114Table 5.12^Results from overall mass balances for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11A.^117Table 5.13^Results from overall energy balances for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11 A 118Table 5.14^Elemental analysis of lime product samples ^122viiTable 5.15^Elemental analysis of Westvaco lignin sample ^123Table 5.16^Elemental analysis of dust samples ^123Table 5.17^Sodium balance on a pilot lime kiln for Run SL9B ^124Table 5.18^Sulfur balance on a pilot lime kiln for Run SL9B ^124Table 5.19^Slaking results of lime products from the combustion experiments ^126viiiList of FiguresFigure 1.1Figure 1.2Figure 2.1Figure 2.2Figure 2.3Figure 2.4Figure 2.5Figure 2.6Figure 2.7Figure 2.8Figure 2.9Figure 2.10Figure 2.11Figure 2.12Figure 2.13Figure 3.1Figure 3.2Figure 3.3Figure 3.4Figure 3.5PageA schematic diagram of partial kraft process with lignin recovery  2Triangular composition diagram of lignin-oil-water mixture   8A schematic diagram of partial kraft process ^12Chemical structure of the three primary alcohols in lignin structure^ 19Schematic formula for spruce wood lignin ^20Effect of hygroscopicity on coal concentration in coal-water mixture^ 25Relationship between the oxygen:carbon atomic ratio and the inherentmoisture^  26Relationship between the oxygen:carbon atomic ratio and the contactangle of water droplets on a coal specimen^  26State of particle aggregation in coal liquid mixture  29Type of coarse suspensions in coal liquid mixture^ 29Influence of particle surface charge and flocculation on the sedimentationstability and properties of surfactant dispersed CWMs^ 31Rheograms for standard and fine grind CWMs progressively diluted^33Burning history of CWM droplet^  39Mechanisms of CWM droplet combustion^  41Dependence on CWM droplet size of : a. Cumulative times, andb. Distances required for the ignition and combustion processes ^43Schematic diagram of LOW preparation facility^  51Picture of the mixer used in LOW preparation process^ 52Original LOW nozzle design^  55Modified LOW nozzle  56Final LOW nozzle design^  57ixFigure 3.6Figure 3.7Figure 3.8Figure 3.9Figure 3.10Figure 3.11Figure 3.12Figure 5.1Figure 5.2Figure 5.3Figure 5.4Figure 5.5Schematic diagram of internal and external mixing twin fluid atomizerfrom Spray System Co^A simplified diagram of the pilot plant kiln^Diagram of solid dams at hot and cold ends of the kiln^Details of inlet air and burner arrangement^Axial thermocouple layout of the pilot lime kilnThermocouple locations at the cross-section of the kiln^Detail of thermocouples in wall probe^Time-dependent viscosity profiles of LOW samplel^Time-dependent viscosity profiles of LOW sample2Non-viscoelastic behavior of LOW sample 2^LOW viscosity as a function of shear rate at different % compositions(constant 10% oil content)^  86LOW viscosity as a function of shear rate at different % compositions59616263656669818283(constant 43% water content)  87Figure 5.6^Axial gas temperature profiles for 60% natural gas replacement ^94Figure 5.7^Axial bed temperature profiles for 60% natural gas replacement ^95Figure 5.8^Axial inside surface wall temperature profiles for 60% natuaral gasreplac ement^  96Figure 5.9^Axial gas temperature profiles for 100% natuaral gas replacement ^97Figure 5.10 Axial bed temperature profiles for 100% natural gas replacement ^98Figure 5.11 Axial inside surface wall temperature profiles for 100% natural gasreplacement^  99Figure 5.12 Axial gas temperature profiles at different % natural gas replacement^ 100Figure 5.13 Axial bed temperature profiles at different % natural gas replacement^ 101Figure 5.14 Axial inside surface wall temperature profiles at different % natural gasreplacement^  102xFigure 5.15Figure 5.16Figure 5.17Figure 5.18Figure 5.19Figure 5.20Figure 5.21Figure 5.22Axial calcination profiles inside the kiln^  103Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL3B^ 104Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL9B  105Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL1OB^ 105Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles,SL11B  106Carbon monoxide cencentration in the kiln flue gas, Run SL9B^ 109Nitric oxide cencentration in the kiln flue gas, Run SL9B^ 111Slaking temperature rise curves for Runs SL9, SL10 and SL11^ 127xiAcknowledgementsI would like to express my gratitude to my research supervisors, Dr. A.P.Watkinson and Dr. P.V. Barr for their guidance, support and patience throughout thisstudy; Dr. K.C. Teo for his encouraging advice; Dr. C.M.H. Brereton for his helpthroughout the process; and the other professors in the Department of ChemicalEngineering, UBC, for their teaching, support and concern.The rotary kiln experiments could not have been completed without the physicaland mental assistance of R. Cardeno, P. Wenman and C. Mui. Special thanks go to J.Baranowski, H. Lam and their colleagues for their expertise and advice; I. Hwang for herhelpful discussions and assistance on the flue gas analysis, and B. Richardson for hissupport and help with the slaking test.I would like to extend my thanks to my parents and all my teachers. Without theirlove and patience, I would not be here.This work was supported by an N.S.E.R.C. Co-operative Research andDevelopment Grant, with the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Paprican) asan industrial partner. Finally, I would like to thank the Canadian InternationalDevelopment Agency for giving me the opportunity to come to study at UBC.xiiChapter 1 IntroductionChapter 1Introduction1.1 Lignin as a fuel in pulp mill lime kilns.The pulping industry is one of the major industries in Canada. The high andfluctuating energy costs, since the first oil crisis of 1973, have a significant impact on theeconomy of the pulping processes. A concept for an energy self-sufficient modernbleached kraft pulp mill in which all fuel enters the mill in the form of pulp wood wasproposed by Chaudhuri (1). The cellulose portion of wood is converted to marketablepulp while the lignin and other constituents of wood become fuel for generation of steamand power for consumption within the mill, and for the regeneration of chemicals.However, at present external fuels such as natural gas and fuel oil are consumed forcalcination of lime sludge in most Kraft pulp mills. The idea discussed by Chaudhuri andby others (2,3,4) is to precipitate a part of the lignin from black liquor which wouldnormally go to the recovery boiler and thereby relocate the fuel to the lime kiln.In the kraft pulping process, lignin is extracted from wood chips in the form ofblack liquor which is burned in the recovery boiler to produce steam and recover thepulping chemicals. Recent study has shown that a small portion of lignin can beprecipitated from the black liquor without any adverse effect on black liquorcombustibility (4). After washing, this isolated lignin has sufficiently low inorganiccontent to be used as a substitute fuel at the lime kiln (3). Figure 1.1 shows a schematicdiagram of a partial kraft process with lignin recovery. In this figure, lignin is precipitatedby carbon dioxide in the kiln flue gas and then washed and dried prior to use as a fuel inthe lime kiln. Other acids may be used in lignin precipitation.Many kraft pulp mills have production capacity limited by their recovery boilers.The recovery boiler is a very expensive capital cost item and increasing its capacity1CO2 + FLUE GASChapter 1 IntroductionLIGNINPOWDERt1CaCO3LIME KILNLIQU kWOODCHIPSDIGESTERSLAKERCAUSTICIZERSMELTCa0RECOVERYBOILERBLACK LIQUOR(60% SOLIDS)EVAPORATORSPULPTOBLEACHING1^4-^PRECIPITATE, WASH & DRYFigure 1.1 A schematic diagram of partial kraft process with lignin recovery2Chapter 1 Introductionbeyond a certain point is not economically feasible. Removing some of the lignin presentin black liquor would reduce the heat load on the recovery boiler at a given pulpproduction rate and could permit increased pulp production (1,3,5). Results from apreliminary process design for a lignin recovery process which included carbon dioxideprecipitation, lignin separation, acid washing and product drying show that an incrementalprofit for increased pulp production is around 6 million $/year and the lime kiln fuel savingis another 1 million $/year (6). Pulp production can be increased about 8% without anymajor change in the main equipment items (6). The lignin recovered in such a process isnot cheaper than natural gas at current prices. The increased production is the mainbenefit of lignin precipitation. The favourable economics of this process depend on somelignin being marketed for non-fuel use (6).In brief, lignin has the potential to be used as a kiln fuel, after its mineral content isreduced to an acceptable level to avoid kiln operating problems (7,8). The ligninprecipitation process could reduce external energy costs for a large number of pulp millswhich have overloaded recovery boilers, with a gain in production capacity due todiverting some of the heat load from the recovery boilers.1.2 Combustion of dry lignin powder in a pilot lime kilnEarlier studies at University of British Columbia (UBC) have shown that drypowdered lignins from various sources can be successfully used as a fuel in a pilot limekiln (9,10). The lignins were fired in the kiln either on their own or in conjunction withnatural gas. Lignin was found to produce a long, bright, orange flame like that of fuel oil,in contrast to that of a premixed natural gas flame which was short and blue. The gas andbed temperature profiles with lignin fuel were slightly different from those with naturalgas. The extent of calcination along the kiln with lignin firing was found to be higher thanwith gas. This appeared to cause a small increment in fuel savings or throughput increase3Chapter 1 Introductionupon converting from natural gas to lignin. The limes produced by lignin firing wereequally as reactive in slaking as those produced by gas firing. From these results, drypowdered lignin seems to be a sensible alternative fuel for the lime kiln. However, thecost for drying lignin to a powder form is quite high ,and handling the lignin solid couldgive operational problems. A lignin slurry fuel which would eliminate the water-removalstep from the above process has certain advantages.1.3 Development of Lignin -Oil-Water (LOW) mixtureThe development of a lignin slurry mixture similar to that of coal slurry fuel suchas coal-oil-mixture fuels (COM), coal-oil-water fuels (COW), coal-water fuels (CWF) wasproposed as a part of a lignin utilization study (11). In preparing coal slurry fuels, coal isground to a required particle size distribution, typically with 75-80% less than 74 pm.Then it undergoes a beneficiation process to reduce the amount of mineral matter in thecoal. After this cleaning processes, the coal is mixed with fuel oil, water and somechemical additives for stabilization. Fuel oil aids ignition and flame stability while waterhelps reduce viscosity by acting as a lubricant between the coal particles. The mostimportant advantages of coal-slurry fuels are that they can be stored, pumped and readilyatomized in the furnace as liquids. Solids handling and dust explosions are minimized.Coal concentrations in the slurry vary but, typically, approach theoretical saturation limitsdue to the economic need of maximum heating value contributed by the solid in the slurryfuel (12).The objective of developing lignin-oil-water slurry is to produce a stable, pumpablelignin slurry fuel that will be used as an alternative for fossil fuels in the pulp mill lime kiln.As the lignin will eventually burn in the dry form, the ultimate effect of the slurry fuel is toshift the water evaporation step from an external dryer as shown in Figure 1.1, to withinthe kiln itself. To eliminate the drying step from the lignin recovery process, fuel oil and4Chapter 1 Introductionsome surfactant are mixed with precipitated lignin having a moisture content typical of afilter cake. Water helps to promote fluidity while the liquid fuel improves ignition and theheating value of the fuel. Whereas lignin-oil-water fuel is a novel concept for which patentprotection is being sought, studies on coal slurry fuel research and development have beenwidely discussed (13-20). In this work, they will be used as analogues for the study oflignin slurry fuel.There are some advantages of slurry fuel compared with a dry pulverized fuel. Inaddition to reducing the drying cost, other benefits are that slurry fuel is easier to handle,transport, and store. Similar to a liquid, slurry fuel can be pumped, stored in a tank,atomized and burned in a furnace in a small droplet form. Pulverized fuels sometimescause a problem at the preparation site because of dust emissions in the air and thepotential for spontaneous combustion. Moreover, operators may be more familiarworking with liquid fuel than solid fuel and flow and metering may well be more reliablewith fluids than with solids.However, the drawbacks of slurry fuel are its lower heating value (depending onits water content), longer time for combustion, and possible phase separation. Moreover,in the combustion process, lignin slurry fuel produces higher moles of flue gas comparedto lignin, natural gas and fuel oil. Table 1.1 shows the number of moles of flue gas andCO2 produced from lignin-oil-water mixture, Westvaco lignin, natural gas and No. 2 fueloil combustion and their net heating values. Sample calculations are provided in AppendixA. From Table 1.1, moles of flue gas from lignin-oil-water mixture combustion are about19% higher than those from Westvaco lignin combustion, 22% higher than those from No.2 fuel oil combustion and 17% higher than those from natural gas combustion. A largeamount of water in the lignin slurry fuel lowers its net heating value and gives a highermolar flow rate of the flue gas. The latter might cause some troubles in the lime kilnoperation due to a high dust loss with the flue gas if the kiln is operated at above the5Chapter 1 Introductionlimited freeboard gas velocity (75). The number of moles of carbon dioxide in the flue gaswith LOW and Westvaco lignin combustion are high compared to those with natural gasand No. 2 fuel oil combustion. However, CO2 from the lignin was the by-product of thepulping process, and not from the external fuel such as natural gas or fuel oil. For ligninslurry fuel combustion, 67.1% of the CO2 is from the lignin and the rest is from the oil inthe mixture.Table 1.1 Moles of flue gas and CO2 produced from lignin-oil-water mixture, Westvacolignin, natural gas, and No. 2 fuel oil combustion (at 10% excess stochiometric condition)and their net heating valuesFuel Mole flue gas(mole/MJ)Mole CO2(mole/MT)Net heating valueLOW with % composition(lignin:oikwater)=(41:14:45)16.15 2.10 14.82 MJ/kgWestvaco lignin 13.58 2.13 23.93 MJ/k4.Natural gas 13.81 1.22 35.00 MJ/m3No. 2 fuel oil 13.29 1.67 43.63 MJ/kgSlurry fuel differs from a true liquid fuel oil in that it is a suspension of a solid in aliquid. As a result, its physical and combustion properties depend on many factors(14,17), such as the properties of solids used in the preparation of the slurry (density, ashcontent, particle size, shape and particle size distribution) and the loading in the liquid. Ina lignin-oil-water mixture, the solid composition, concentration, the quantity and type offuel oil, and the quantity of water added in the mixture affect the heating value andviscosity of the fuel. Chemical additives such as stabilizers or polymers modify thestability and viscosity of the mixture. All these factors are of importance in developing asuitable specification for the slurry fuel because they influence the fuel transportation,storage, and flow properties, the atomization and flame characteristics, the energy density,and the emissions.6Chapter 1 IntroductionPrior to the present author's work, Teo and Watkinson (11) had described someinitial experiments in preparing lignin-oil-water mixture using various lignins and grades offuel oil. Preliminary atomization tests had been undertaken which showed that the lignin-oil-water mixtures would burn when injected into a pre-heated muffle oven. The lignin-oil-water mixture was classified as being pourable, or non-pourable, lumpy, or pourablebut with phase separation of water or oil. Figure 1.2 shows a triangular diagram (21)which outlined regions of lignin-oil-water mixtures which were satisfactory from theviewpoint of being non-lumpy, slurries which did not separate into phases and had theability to be poured from a container.7Ravisaa Nov 7q , 199 0Thick gel, less pourable;with or without lumps• Fuel including kerosene, fuel oil # 2, 4 & 5: \INATE R..61usAvo,LIGNIN;WestvacoGood pourable gel[LIgnogell^ Kerosene Nei oil #FVel oil # 4^ Net oil # 5• • " 'TAO oil. ,.4.XXUseful Lignogel composition range: weight %# Lignin Water FuelI 52 43 5II 45 50 5III 42 43 15IV 48 40 12LIQUID FUEL" XFigure 1.2 Triangular composition diagram of lignin-oil-water mixtureChapter 1 Introduction1.4 Scope of the present workThis work was divided into three parts. The first part involved a rheological studyof lignin-oil-water (LOW) mixtures. The objective was to understand the rheologicalproperties of LOW, the effects of time, shear rate, and composition on LOW viscosity,and to find a mixture composition suitable to be used in the combustion experiments. TheLOW compositions were selected from the triangular diagram shown in Figure 1.2. Sixdifferent mixture compositions were prepared and their viscosities measured using a rotaryviscometer (Haake's Viscoester VT500). Then, for the pilot scale trials in the rotary kiln,a few suitable compositions were chosen from the viscosity results, the calculated heatingvalues and the amount of lignin in the slurry.The second part of the research was to design a spray nozzle system for the UBCpilot-scale lime kiln and an apparatus for slurry preparation and pumping to the kiln. Acommercial atomizer was desired in preference to developing a novel design as part of theresearch. A suitable pump and mixer was also to be selected.The last part of the research is the actual combustion experiments using LOWmixtures in the UBC kiln. Natural gas fired tests were to be used as controls. The kiln is0.4 m inside diameter and 5.5 m long. It is refractory lined and equipped with a multitudeof thermocouples. The operating conditions for each experiment were set at a limestoneflow rate 40 kg/hr, kiln rotational speed 1.5 rpm and kiln inclination angle 1 degree. Theoxygen content in the flue gas was controlled between 2-3% for both natural gas firingand lignin slurry fuel firing. Experiments were to be run with partial and completereplacement of the natural gas fuel by the LOW mixture. Local gas, solid and walltemperatures and percent calcination of limestone along the kiln were measured andcompared at different levels of natural gas replacement and different compositions ofLOW. The flue gas composition at the exit of the kiln was analysed for oxygen, carbon9Chapter 1 Introductiondioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane fromboth natural gas and LOW combustion by an oxygen analyzer, a gas chromatograph and aFourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Elemental analyses of limestone, limeproducts, lignin powder and dust in the flue gas and slaking test of lime products werecarried out to analyse the effect of the inorganic content in the LOW mixture on the limeproduct purity.10Chapter 2 Literature ReviewChapter 2Literature Review2.1 Kraft pulping processThe Kraft process is an important chemical pulping process that produces a strongpulp with minimum damage to the pulp fibers. In the kraft process, the desired celluloseand hemicellulose wood components making up the wood fibers are chemically separatedfrom the undesired lignin and other extraneous wood components. A typical kraft pulpingprocess will remove about 50% of the wood mass. The spent materials, the dissolvedwood (mainly lignin) and exhausted cooking chemicals, are recovered and processedthrough a recovery cycle that regenerates the cooking chemicals and recovers the energyvalue of the wood components.2.1.1 Process descriptionA partial kraft process is presented in Figure 2.1. The process begins with thedigester where woodchips are reacted with an aqueous liquor composed mainly of sodiumhydroxide and sodium sulfide (NaOH and Na2S) under high pressure and temperature.After the cooking process, pulp product is separated from black liquor, which is acombination of lignin, spent cooking chemicals, and other dissolved wood components,and sent to the bleaching section. The black liquor is sent to multiple effect evaporatorswhere the liquor is concentrated to 60-70% solid before it is used as a fuel in the recoveryboiler to produce steam and regenerate the cooking chemical.The molten smelt from the bottom of the recovery boiler is removed and dissolvedin water to form a solution of Na2CO3 and Na2S. In the subsequent caustization step,the Na2CO3 is converted to the desired NaOH by reaction with Ca(OH)2. Ca(OH)2 isobtained from the slaking reaction. Both reactions are shown as follows:11Chapter 2 Literature ReviewWOODCHIPSCO2 + FLUE GAS11‘ LIME KILNCaCO 3SLAKERSrCAUSTICIZERCa0FUELLIQUORDIGESTERSMELTRECOVERYBOILER1 EVAPORATORS BLACK LIQUOR60% SOLIDSPULPTOBLEACHINGFigure 2.1 A schematic diagram of partial kraft process12Chapter 2 Literature ReviewCausticizing : Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 4--> 2NaOH + CaCO3Slaking :^CaO + H2O <---> Ca(OH)2 + heatThe CaCO3 from causticizing reaction is removed from the liquor by clarificationand reburnt in a lime kiln to regenerate CaO used to make Ca(OH)2 (slaking). Theclarified liquor, containing NaOH and Na2S, is recycled back to the cooking process.2.1.2 Removal of lignin from black liquor in a kraft millCurrently, many pulp mills operate at a limited production capacity due tooverloaded recovery furnaces (3). Removal of a part of the lignin from black liquor wouldreduce the heat load to the recovery furnace or permit an incremental increase in pulp milloperation at the same recovery furnace heat load. Moreover, the removed lignin can beused as a substitute fuel for an amount of external fossil fuel presently used in the limekiln or it can be sold for specialty chemicals, such as extenders in phenol resin bindersystems or an asphalt extender. It could also be a raw material for production of othervaluable chemicals.Mills which recover kraft lignin and market lignin products generally use sulphuricacid (3,4,22) or carbon dioxide (23,24) for acidulation of the kraft black liquor. Foreconomic reasons, the filtrate from lignin acidification must be returned to the chemicalrecovery plant after removal of the precipitated lignin salt, and thus the acid used must notinterfere with subsequent recovery processes. Hydrochloric acid could be used but itwould result in an accumulation of sodium chloride in the white liquor (25,26). In kraftpulp mills with chlorine dioxide bleaching, sulphuric acid has already been added to theblack liquor stream in the form of chlorine dioxide generator waste acid (GWA). Byadding the waste acid to a portion of the black liquor stream, instead of the whole stream,13Chapter 2 Literature Reviewthe pH of the black liquor could be lowered enough for lignin to precipitate. A recentstudy shows that GWA can be used to recover 10 to 15% of the total lignin (4).If greater than 15% of the total lignin is to be recovered, acidification using CO2would be desirable due to its minimal effect on the pulp mill chemical balance (4). CO2can be purchased as essentially pure form, or obtained from the lime kiln flue gas whichcould lower the operating cost of the process, however the effect of other gasconstituents on the lignin recovery process should be considered (25). A preliminaryprocess design and cost estimate for a lignin recovery process using purchased CO2 forprecipitation showed that based on the sale of 21% of the recovered lignin as a specialtychemical, with the remainder used as a fuel for the lime kiln, the pulp production capacitycould be increased by 8%. The payback time for the proposed process was 4 years (6).From mill data, 15% of lignin recovery, as a dry powder, would provide enoughnet heating value for greater than 95% fossil fuel replacement at the lime kiln (2).Removal of 15% of the total lignin reduced the liquor calorific value by about 10% toabout 13.5 MJ/kg of dry liquor solid (4). However, the liquor combustivity, evaluatedfrom the liquor swelling volume, is reported to change insignificantly until over 70% of thelignin is removed (4). As many mills burn black liquor with a calorific value below 13.5MJ/kg of dry liquor solid, 15% lignin removal would be expected to have little effect onliquid combustibility (4). However, if more than 15% total lignin is removed from blackliquor, an increase in the evaporation load at the multiple effect evaporator has to beconsidered.For the sulphuric acid precipitation process, the precipitated lignin had a 30-40%moisture content and contained a small amount of inorganic substances, depending on thecondition (pH) of the precipitation process (3). A decrease in the final pH of acidulationincreased percent lignin recovery and reduced sodium content in lignin. For pure14Chapter 2 Literature Reviewsulphuric acid precipitation, at a final pH 9, average lignin recovery was 72% with 3.9%sodium content left in the lignin while at a final pH 4, average lignin recovery was 94%with 1.1% sodium content. However, the lowest chemical costs for acid precipitation oflignin from black liquor and readjustment of the filtrate pH to 12 before returning it to therecovery plant were at final pH 7 of the acidulation process (3).After precipitation, the precipitated lignin is washed in a diluted sulphuric acidsolution and water to remove some inorganic materials attached. Diluted sulphuric acidwashing reduces the sodium content in the lignin product (3) and subsequent waterwashes remove the acid wash residuals. The use of water should be minimized, however,because an increase in pH can lead to some dissolution of the lignin precipitate, resultingin product loss (26). In contrast, washing with diluted sulphuric acid does not solubilizethe lignin (26).A computer program was developed to assess the potential effects of fossil fuelreplacement with high moisture content lignin (2). The results showed that the amount offossil fuel displaced by lignin decreased from 95 to 88-89% as the lignin moisture contentincreased from 0 to 50%. Lignin product from a simple acidulation plant, having moisturecontent between 40-50% (3), could permit fossil fuel replacement of greater than 85%without a drying process (2). However, feeding and firing a 50% solid cake lignin wouldbe difficult, if not impossible.Two key impurities to be expected in recovered lignin are sodium and sulphur,both of which are present in the cooking chemicals. The sodium content of recoveredKraft lignin is limited if the lignin is to be used in the lime kiln. By assuming that sodiumconcentrations greater than 1.35 to 1.45% in lime mud will cause excessive ring and ballformation in the kiln and the level of sodium in the lime mud averages 1.08%, theallowable sodium content in the kiln fuel could be calculated from the difference between15Chapter 2 Literature Reviewthe maximum tolerable and the average sodium content in the lime mud (3). If all thesodium in lignin ends up in the lime, the maximum sodium content of the fuel should notexceed 2% by weight (3).2.1.3 The roles of sodium and sulfur in lime kiln operationThe rotary lime kiln has been the prime method of lime sludge reburning in theKraft pulp and paper industry for years. Its popularity has continued unimpaired not onlybecause of the monetary savings it promotes, but also because of its simplicity ofoperation, low maintenance cost and reliability (28). The principal reaction in the kiln isthe limestone calcining reaction:CaCO3 + heat —> CaO + CO2This reaction is endothermic with a heat of reaction of 1766 kJ/kg limestone at 25°C or1636 kJ/kg limestone at the actual decomposition temperature, 900°C where partialpressure of CO2 = 1 atm (29).Sodium and sulphur enter the kiln as minor constituents in both limestone (or limemud) and fuel. Sulphur in limestone can be in the form of CaSO4.2H20 (gypsum), FeS2(pyrite) and sometimes as an organic compound (29). High sodium concentration in limemud results from poor mud washing and from low solid content in the lime mud (7).Sulphur can also be found in some fuels which are used in the kiln; such as coal and heavyfuel oil. The amounts vary from 0.5-5% for coal and 1.5-4.5% for heavy fuel oil. Naturalgas has negligible sulphur content.Organic sulphur compounds and pyrite decompose readily at temperatures rangingfrom 816-1260°C, while gypsum decomposes at temperatures in excess of 1371°C, atemperature seldom reached in a lime kiln and, therefore, most of the sulphur in the formof gypsum or anhydrite (CaSO4) can be expected to remain in the kiln product (29). It is16Chapter 2 Literature Reviewtherefore necessary to determine the amount of sulphur present in the fuel or the limestonein the form of sulphate in order to judge the degree of difficulty and, therefore, the needfor close operating control required when attempting to produce a very low sulphurcontent product.Sodium compounds in the kiln react with SO2, SO3 and CO2 in the flue gas toform Na2SO4 and/or Na2CO3. These compounds would melt at 820°C, the temperaturethat prevails in the calcination zone (8). This might cause dust particles to adhere to therefractory surface to form rings. It was found that sodium compounds in a lime muddecrease markedly at temperatures above 1200°C (7), indicating that they may vaporizefrom the lime mud or product lime near the front end of the kiln and condense on the limemud particles at the feed end. This finding coincided with mill data which showed adecrease in total sodium content in ring deposits closer to the hot end of the kiln (8).The key role of sulphur in lime kiln operation is ring hardening (7,8). The initiallyformed rings consist mostly of CaO and are generally soft. They cannot grow because ofthe abrasive action of the rotating and sliding motion of reburned lime pellets. With thecombustion of high sulphur fuel, however, the already formed rings react with SO2 andSO3 to form CaSO4. The dust particles are thus chemically bound together, formingharder rings which are resistant to the abrasion of the lime pellets and are able to growthicker over time.The kiln operating conditions are of importance in controlling the sulphur contentin the lime product (29). Decomposition of the sulphur compounds in limestone and fuelproduces either SO2 gas or SO3 gas, depending on the amount of oxygen (excess air)present in the atmosphere: a significant amount of excess air favors formation of SO3 gaswhich combines readily with lime to form gypsum. Because sulphate decomposes at alower temperature in a reducing atmosphere and because SO3 forms in the presence of17Chapter 2 Literature Reviewoxygen, the prime operating condition to produce low sulphur lime is an atmosphere in thekiln without oxygen.2.2 Lignin-oil-water mixture preparationA lot of research and development has been done on slurry fuel preparation,especially for coal liquid mixtures. This work can provide some guidance to answerquestions arising from lignin slurry mixture preparation and combustion. However, ligninproperties are very different from those of coal, and thus a review on coal liquid mixturepreparation can give only general characteristics which may apply to LOW preparation.2.2.1 Lignin characteristicsIt has long been known that lignins exist as polymeric cell wall constituents inalmost all dry-land plants, and among the natural polymers lignin is second only tocarbohydrates in natural abundance (30). Generally, lignin constitutes 24-33% ofsoftwoods and 19-28% of hardwoods (31). It acts as a "glue" binding cellulose andhemicellulose together and it imparts rigidity to the cell wall by generating a compositestructure outstandingly resistant towards impact, compression and blending.Chemically, lignin is a complex substance in which phenyl propane units arecondensed with the carbon-carbon bond or ether bond. Lignin contains methoxyl groups(32). Each molecule of lignin in wood is built up from probably several hundreds ofphenyl propane units. From various studies on its characteristics, lignin is defined as apolymeric natural product arising from an enzyme-initiated dehydrogenativepolymerization of three primary precursors: coniferyl, sinapyl and coumaryl alcohols (30).The chemical structure of these three alcohols are shown in Figure 2.2.At present, there is no exact chemical formula for lignin because the lignin polymerdoes not have a structure built up from a regularly repeating unit. Nevertheless,18Chapter 2 Literature Review1^2^3c c^cICI cccI cI cIrc60CH 3^H 3C0 OC H^y3 k10 0^0/^ I /Figure 2.2 Chemical structure of the three primary alcohols in lignin structure19Chapter 2 Literature ReviewO —CARBOHYDRATEH2CI OH H2COH ^0):FrE4--EoU0 42 r ^0M20\42142COHHO U0-12COCH2OHOMe042C1-21-10-10^1/2OMe COCHCI-120H 1/20OM2HiOHHCH— OHM20H2COH 0\42 H2COHI —0(0)?)-LO0M2 OH^Of\ 42CHCH —0 (0)CHCH — 0 (0)CHCH0-12COCH2OHIOHHO^CHCH—O OH 0\4,2Figure 2.3 Schematic formula for spruce wood ligninHO0\442^HLOHHO — 0Chapter 2 Literature ReviewFreudenberg (33) and Harkin (45) proposed a structured model of spruce wood ligninwhich later was used to predict chemical structure of other wood species. Figure 2.3represents an average fragment of a spruce lignin molecule, containing altogether 20monomeric units.The melting point and ignition temperature of lignin varies depending on itsisolation method. Generally, lignin has no fixed melting point. It softens and melts in therange of 130-200°C (32). It was found that conditions of precipitation of lignin from thekraft black liquor, and the pH of washing dictates to a large extent the softeningcharacteristics of the lignin (11). Acidic conditions which enhance removal of Na andother inorganic species promote low temperature softening. The ignition temperatures oflignin also depend on its inorganic content. The higher ash content increases the initialcombustion temperature. Lignin samples prepared at pH 3 ignite at 465°C versus 777-850°C for samples prepared at pH 5 to 8 (11). Thus the preparation of low ash content lignin,at low pH acidification, decreases both the softening temperature and the ignitiontemperature of lignin product.In this work, lignin was purchased from Westvaco company, South Carolina,USA. The lignin grade is "Indulin AT" which represents an acidified lignin with an ashcontent of reportedly less than 1% (30). Westvaco lignin is a carbon dioxide precipitatedand acid washed lignin which required no further treatment prior to being used. The ligninis in the form of dry, free flowing dark brown colored powder. It contains an average0.88 wt% of organically bound sulphur, and 0.64 wt% sulphate (10). The ignitiontemperature of Westvaco lignin observed from thermogravimetric analyzer experiments is432°C (11). The mean particle size of Westvaco lignin, determined by an Elzone 80XYparticle analyzer, is 26.05 gm (10).21Chapter 2 Literature ReviewTable 2.1 shows ultimate analysis of Westvaco lignin, air dried hardwood, andhigh-volatile A bituminous coal. Table 2.2 shows proximate analysis of Westvaco ligninand high-volatile A bituminous coal and Table 2.3 shows metal analysis of Westvacolignin. From the ultimate analysis, lignin is a highly oxygenated fuel containing about 22%weight oxygen compared to bituminous coal which contains only 6% oxygen. Accordingto its heating value, lignin has better fuel quality than air-dried hardwood, however itcannot compete with coal. Lignin has less ash content than coals but its high oxygencontent lowers the heating value due to the high concentration of oxygenated species inthe gases released during the early stages of lignin devolatilization. From Table 2.3, theamount of sodium element in lignin, which is a critical factor in kiln operation, is 1.13%.Table 2.1 Ultimate analysis and calorific value of Westvaco lignin and other solid fuelsCompositionweight %WestvacoligninAir-driedhardwoodHigh Volatile Abituminous coalC 61.34 40.4 75.8H 5.76 5.18 4.830 22.25 33.89 8.2N 1.71 0.3 1.5S 1.69 - 1.6Ash 3.85 0.2 7.8Moisture 3.39 20 2.4Calorific value(MJ/kg)25.23 20.03 31.54Reference 34 35,44 35(as received basis)22Chapter 2 Literature ReviewTable 2.2 Proximate analysis of Westvaco lignin and High volatile A bituminous coal(as received basis).(%) Westvaco lignin High-Volatile A bituminouscoalMoisture 3.39 2.4Ash 3.85 7.8Volatile 61.93 36.6Fixed Carbon 30.83 53.2Reference 34 35Table 2.3 Metal analysis of Westvaco lignin (34)Metal(unit)Mo(1)Pm)Cu(ppm)Pb(PPIn)Zn(13Pin)Ag(PPIn)Ni(1)Pm)Co(ppm)Mn(1)Pm)Fe(%)1 8 7 20 0.1 1 1 65 0.05As(13Pin)U(1)Pm)Au(1)Pm)Th(W)Sr(PPIn)Cd(PPIn)Sb(PPIn)Bi(PPIn)V(PPIn)Ca(%)2 5 1 3 0.2 2 2 46 0.04P(%)La(PPIn)Cr(1)Pm)Mg(%)Ba(1)Pm)Ti(%)Al(%)Na(%)K(%)W(PPin)0.006 2 4 0.03 10 0.01 0.09 1.13 0.19 2Zr(PPIn)Sn(1)Pnl)Y(PPIn)Nb(PPm)Be(PPin)Sc(PPIn)1 2 1 1 0.2 0.2In coal slurry fuel preparation, major factors determining slurry quality are coalparticle size distribution, coal properties and chemical additives. Typically, CWM iscomposed of 60-75% coal, 24-39% water, and 1% chemical additives and requires a23Chapter 2 Literature Reviewparticle size distribution with 70% less than 74 gm (14). The mass-median coal particlediameter is 30-50 gm (16). The effect of coal particle size distribution on maximum coalloading was studied by Shoji et al. (19). It was found that, independent of coal type, thecoal concentrations were maximum at the same distribution modulus, n=0.4, where theporosity of coal particles in a slurry was at minimum. The distribution modulus, n, is oneof the two parameters in the Gaudin-Schuhmann distribution (P(x)=(x/k)n, where P(x) isthe cumulative weight percent less than size x and k is the coal apparent top size) whichwas used to approximate the coal size distributions. Their results also showed that thevalue of maximum coal loading at a given viscosity depended on the type of coal.Other than size distribution, the coal properties that have strong effects on thesolid loading or the dispersion of coal particles in an aqueous medium are thehydrophilicity of the coal surface, the oxygen content in the coal, and the inherentmoisture (the amount of water absorbed by coal). The hydrophilicity of coal can bemeasured by its hygroscopicity which is defined as the amount of water absorbed per unitmass of dry coal. Figure 2.4 shows the variation of the coal concentration attained at aslurry viscosity of 1 Pa•s with the hygroscopicity of the coal (19). The higher thehygroscopicity of the coal, the lower the amount of coal loading at a given slurry viscosity.The reason is that less hygroscopic coal has a greater amount of free water in suspensionsat a given coal concentration of suspensions, which lowers the viscosity of the slurries.The oxygen content in coal is expected to have a significant influence on it surfacecharacteristics. As the oxygen content increases, the oxygen containing functional groupssuch as carboxyl and hydroxyl groups increase on the coal surface. The dissociation ofthese oxygenated surface functional groups into active ionic sites renders the coal particleshydrophilic (36). Figures 2.5 and 2.6 show the effect of the oxygen/carbon (0/C) ratio onthe inherent moisture and contact angle of a water droplet on the surface of coalspecimens(36).241 5^10Hygroscopicity (g/g-coal)5075C7008 650C.)6Chapter 2 Literature ReviewFigure 2.4 Effect of Hygroscopicity on coal concentration25Chapter 2 Literature Review0^0000^00 000^000.04 0.08 0.12^0.16 0.20 0.240/C ( - )Figure 2.5 Relationship between the oxygen:carbon atomic ratio and the inherent moisture10862100r. 80D)00 6015 400C) 2000.04^0.08^0.12^0.16^0.20^0.240/C ( - )Figure 2.6 Relationship between the oxygen:carbon atomic ratio and the contact angle lofwater droplets on a coal specimen26Chapter 2 Literature ReviewAt higher 0/C, the inherent moisture increases and the contact angle decreases, indicatingthe increased hydrophilicity.Moreover, it was found that the CWM viscosities increase with 0/C ratio (36).This result can be explained by the fact that coal is a porous material and absorbs water.As the coal surface becomes more hydrophilic with the increase in 0/C ratio, thehydrophilic nature of the pore surface within a particle also increases, and the coal absorbsmore water. If water is absorbed within the coal particles, the amount of water acting as afluidizing medium in CWM decreases and therefore the viscosity is expected to increase(36).Thus, an increase in coal porosity and oxygen content in coal makes the suspensionmore difficult because it reduces the contact angle of a water droplet on a coal particle andincreases the amount of water absorbed by the coal particles. Consequently, the amountof free water helping the particles disperse in the suspension decreases, which causes anincrease in an apparent viscosity for a given solid loading. As mentioned previously, ligninis a highly oxygenated fuel; the oxygen:carbon atomic ratio for Westvaco lignin is 0.36.Moreover, compared to coal, lignin has a smaller average particle size and higher porosity(observed form a low lignin apparent density). According to these properties, lignin ismore hydrophilic and has more surface area than coal, which may result in a lower percentsolid loading in LOW as compared with coal slurry fuel.2.2.2 Stability and rheology of coal slurry fuelTwo of the most important properties of slurry fuel are its stability and rheology(viscosity). Stability is defined as the maintenance of a homogeneous mixture (16).Viscosity is the resistance offered by a real fluid which undergoes continuous deformationwhen subjected to a shear stress (35). These two properties which influence27Chapter 2 Literature Reviewtransportation and handling, play a critical role in the atomization and combustion of slurryfuel. Knowledge of fundamental properties of coal slurry fuels such as the state ofaggregation of coal particles is essential for understanding the stability and rheology of thecoal suspension.2.2.2.1 Characteristics of coal suspensionsBy nature, solid particles in a suspension tend to settle out under the influence ofexternal forces such as gravity or centrifugal forces. At very low concentrations, freesettling occurs according to Stokes' law. However, as the solid concentration increases,setting becomes a complex phenomenon as interparticle interactions take place and hindersetting. Particles may also adhere to each other to form clusters (flocs or coagula),depending on the state in which the particles exist in the suspension.The state of aggregation of the coal particles in suspension can be broadlyclassified into three conditions (37):1) the particles have no tendency to adhere to each other, hence they are well dispersedthroughout the liquid (Figure 2.7-A);2) the particles weakly interact (flocculate) and form loose, porous clusters, called flocs(Figure 2.7-B); or3) the particles strongly interact (coagulate) and form compact, tightly-bound clusterscalled coagula (Figure 2.7-C).These three states of aggregation lead to three types of suspensions, as depictedschematically in Figure 2.8 (37).28Chapter 2 Literature Review •••^••^•^•(B)FlocculatedState(A)Aggregatively StableState(C)CoagulatedStateFigure 2.7 State of Particle aggregation in coal liquid mixture(A)Aggregatively StableSuspension(B)FlocculatedSuspension(C)CoagulatedSuspensionFigure 2.8 Type of coarse suspensions in coal liquid mixture29Chapter 2 Literature ReviewFor aggregatively stable suspensions, particles do not adhere to each other due torepulsive forces and settle individually in a gravitational field. They settle at a ratedependent on size, and hence form hard compact sediments which are highly undesirable.For flocculated suspensions, particles interact weakly and form loose, porous flocs whichsettle relatively slowly due to additional drag forces which arise from the open structure ofthe floc. The sediment formed by these flocs is very loose and can be easily brought backto a uniform solids concentration by mechanical agitation. For coagulated suspensions,strong interparticle attractive forces promote formation of compact and tightly boundclusters. Settling rates are relatively fast and the sediment might be compact and difficultto break.Changing degrees of solidity in slurry fuels form different kinds of suspensions.For a high solid loading coal water mixture, typically an aggregatively stable suspensionoccurs because of the need to achieve high coal concentration (13). However, for amedium solid loading slurry, such as a coal-oil or a coal-oil water mixture (solidconcentration usually less than 50% weight), a flocculated suspension containing voidsforms which lead to lower maximum concentration (38).Figure 2.9 shows the influence of the degree of flocculation on the sedimentationstability, sedimentation volume, maximum solids content and apparent viscosity insurfactant stabilized coal water mixture (39). The impact of an increase in the apparentviscosity, despite a decrease in the maximum solid loading, for strongly flocculatedsuspensions, stems from the entrapment of immobilized liquid within particle flocs thatreduces interparticle lubrication in the dispersed phase (40).30Chapter 2 Literature ReviewHIGH • ^Well-dispersed••^• e ••• • ;•*• • • 4. •• •1PARTICLE SURFACECHARGEWeakly-flocculated^• ZEROStrongly-flocculated•^HARD 4^^LOW •^ NATURE OF DEPOSITSSEDIMENT VOLUMESOFT----Ai. HIGHPOOR •^ SEDIMENTATION STABILITY^GOODLOW • ^APPARENT VISCOSITY H I GHHIGH •^ MAXIMUM SOLIDS CONTENT^LOWmFigure 2.9 Influence of particle surface charge and flocculation on the sedimentationstability and properties of surfactant dispersed CWMs31Chapter 2 Literature Review2.2.2.2 Rheology of coal slurry fuelThe effects of particle size distribution and solids content on the rheologicalproperties of coal water mixture (CWM) were investigated by Heaton and McHale (41).CWM viscosities were measured covering a shear range from 1 to 10 4 s-1 . It was foundthat the rheology of CWMs was very complicated. They exhibited non-Newtonianbehavior, changing in character from pseudoplastic (viscosity decreasing with increasingshear rate) to dilatant (viscosity increasing with increasing shear rate), or vice versa, overthe range of shear rate from 1 to 10,000 s-1 . Figure 2.10 shows the effect of solid contentfor standard and find grind coal water mixture fuels (41). The standard grind CWM hasapproximately 85% of its particle passing 200 mesh (74 gm) and the fine grind CWM hasapproximately 95% of its particles passing 325 mesh (44 gm).From Figure 2.10, it was noted that for the standard grind slurries, the low shearrate viscosity measurements were a good indicator of the viscosity at high shear ratewhereas for the fine grind slurries, this was not true. For both coarse and fine grindslurries, a slight decrease in % solid concentration caused the viscosity to decreasedramatically. Moreover, slurries made from a finer grind of coal were more viscous andshow much greater non-Newtonian behavior than slurries made with a coarser "standard"grind of coal.32Chapter 2 Literature ReviewSG-1 DILUTED % SOUDS70%69%68% -67%66%a65%FG-1 DILUTED% SOUDS70%69%68%67%66%-441111.1•••••■•111101111.1...-----°°—65%10^102^103^134SHEAR RATE (SEC -1 )Figure 2.10 Rheograms for standard and fine grind CWMs progressively diluted2520151050• 35• 30O8252015105033Chapter 2 Literature Review2.2.3 The roles of chemical additives in coal slurry fuel preparationTwo kinds of chemical additives, dispersing agents and stabilizing agents, are usedin coal liquid fuel preparation to achieve the desired properties of good sedimentationstability at low shear rate to prevent settling, and low apparent viscosity at high shear rateto enhance atomization and combustion quality. Dispersing agents are surface activeagents, having either ionic or nonionic character. The functions of dispersing agents havebeen well described by Tadros (42). In brief, first they disperse solid particles in thesuspension by diffusing quickly to the solid/liquid interface and displacing any air in thechannels between and inside the agglomerates. Once a dispersion process is completed(usually aided by high speed stirrers), they help maintain the particles formed in adispersed state by creating an energy barrier that opposes aggregation and particleapproach. The last and most important function of the dispersing agents is to lower thebulk viscosity of the suspension at the desirable volume fraction. This viscosity reductionresults from a decrease in the degree of flocculation in the mixture.Stabilizing agents or polymer thickeners, e.g. non-ionic polymers, are usuallyapplied to control of the settling of the suspension and the prevention of dilatant sediment(43). Once the desirable viscosity has been obtained, these polymeric materials are addedto the suspension to prevent the formation of hard sediments in storage tank and piping(42). These polymers create a "structure" by flocculating the particles in a controlledmanner, thus forming a loose sediment. As a result of the flocculation, they affect therheology of the whole suspension, thus preventing the compaction of particles into a hardstructure (42).The effect of additives packages on CWM rheology was investigated by Heaton(41). Three types of chemical additives were used: a dispersant, a dispersant aid and astabilizer. The experimental results showed that the addition of approximately 50% more34Chapter 2 Literature Reviewdispersant reduced viscosity over the entire shear rate range about a half, whereas, theaddition of dispersant aid produced little or no effect. The addition of the stabilizerproduced a dramatic effect in the low shear regime, causing viscosity and yield point toincrease substantially. However, it had very little effect on the high shear viscosity in therange of several thousand per second. The results showed practical implications related toatomization and slurry stability that the addition of a stabilizer will improve slurry storagestability by creating a high yield point, but may not adversely affect the quality ofatomization (41).In summary, two characteristics of slurry rheology are desired: a high viscosity atlow shear to prevent settling for stability during storage and transportation, and a lowviscosity at high shear for efficient pumping and burner atomization (14). Chemicaladditives play an important role in achieving these objectives. Dispersing agents helpreduce the slurry viscosity by dispersing the aggregates which occur in the mixture whilestabilizing agents help prevent hard sediments from forming during transportation andhandling. However, the cost of chemical additives has to be considered in relation to thegain of high solid loading of slurry fuel.These findings which are based largely on coal liquid mixtures, may be expected toapply generally for lignin liquid mixtures, although the details will undoubtedly differ.35Chapter 2 Literature Review2.3 Combustion of slurry fuelThe combustion of slurry fuel has different characteristics from gas, oil orpulverized coal combustion. For CWM, the presence of a high water content results inlong ignition delay times, and the agglomeration of coal particles gives chars with burn-outtimes longer than equivalent oil fuel. This section is concerned with the fundamentals ofcombustion reactions, the mechanism of CWM droplet combustion, and the process ofatomization, all of which have application to the use of LOW mixtures.2.3.1 Fundamental of combustion reactionsCombustion may be defined as the rapid chemical combination of oxygen with thecombustible elements of a fuel (46). There are just three combustible chemical elements ofsignificance - carbon, hydrogen and sulphur. Sulphur is usually of minor significance as asource of heat, but it can be of major significance in corrosion and pollution problems.The objective of good combustion is to release all of fuel heat while minimizing lossesfrom combustion imperfections and superfluous air.The general expression for combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel is:CmHnOp + ( 4m + - 2p )02 = mCO2 + ( n2 )H2Om, n and p being the number of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the fuel,respectively. However, if air is used, each mole of oxygen is accompanied by 3.76 molesof nitrogen. The volume of theoretical oxygen needed to burn any fuel can be calculatedfrom the ultimate analysis of the fuel as follows:22.4 ( C/12 + H14 - 0/32 + S/32) = m 3 oxygen / kg fuelwhere C, H, 0, and S are the decimal weight of these elements in 1 kg of fuel. Thecoefficient 22.4 is the volume in cubic meters of 1 kg mole of oxygen at 0°C and 1 atm.36Chapter 2 Literature ReviewPractically, more than the theoretical amount of oxygen is required to achievecomplete combustion. The amount of excess oxygen varies depending on the fuelproperties and the furnace operating conditions. For example, the optimum combustionefficiency of pulverized coal in a given furnace was found to be determined principally bythe excess air used (47). Higher percent excess oxygen increased thermal loss (with dryflue gas) but lowered unburned carbon loss. The combined loss was a minimum for apulverized coal furnace at between 10 and 20% excess air (47). However, it is necessaryto keep the excess at a minimum in order to hold down the stack loss. The excess air thatis not used in the combustion of the fuel leaves the unit at the stack temperature. The heatrequired to heat this air from room temperature to the stack temperature serves nopurpose and is lost heat.There are two certain kinds of heat losses : inherent ones over which there is nocontrol, and avoidable ones which are subject to some control (46). The inherent lossesare the result of the discharge of the products of combustion at a temperature higher thanambient, and the moisture content of the fuel plus the combination of some of thehydrogen with the oxygen in the fuel. The avoidable heat losses can be minimized by1) careful control of excess air,2) tolerating virtually no unburned solid combustible matter in ash or refuse,3) permitting no unburned gaseous combustibles in the exit gases and4) a good insulation to reduce radiation loss.In slurry fuels, the amount of water used as transporting media for solid particles is 30%for CWM and between 40 and 50% for LOW, causing an inherent heat loss which isunrecoverable. For the latter, the benefits to the overall lignin recovery process, asdiscussed in Section 2.1.2, however remain. A good burner design and careful operationwill help achieve high combustion efficiency and reduce avoidable heat losses.37Chapter 2 Literature ReviewThree factors that should be considered to obtain good combustion are:temperature high enough to ignite the fuel, turbulence or mixing, and time sufficient forcomplete combustion. An increase in ambient temperature reduced the combustionduration of CWM droplets, and increased the maximum combustion temperature, becausethe heat evolved during combustion would dissipate outwards at a decreasing rate as theambient temperature increased due to its reduced temperature gradient (48). Turbulentmixing can be enhanced by installing vanes and baffles in the air stream. For difficult-to-burn fuels, such as heavy hydrocarbon oils and coals, the function of turbulent air is notonly to effect efficient and rapid mixing of the fuels and air, but also to enhance heattransfer to the incoming fuels to assure prompt and stable ignition (49). Time forcombustion depends on fuel properties. Natural gas ignites more rapidly (because it doesnot have a devolatilization stage) than oil, following by coal and CWM. Coal is generallymore difficult to ignite than oil; however, CWM droplets exhibit an even longer ignitiondelay time due to their high water content.2.3.2 Combustion characteristics of coal slurry fuelFigure 2.11 shows a burning history of a CWM droplet (48). The temperatureand mass variation curves can be divided into four stages : a heating stage, an evaporatingstage, a volatile escaping stage and a fixed carbon burning stage. In the heating stage, thedroplet temperature increases gradually from room temperature to around 100°C and thepercent mass loss remains unchanged. During the evaporating stage, the droplettemperature remains constant and the droplet weight decreases. In the volatile escapingstage, the droplet temperature goes up rapidly and volatile content escapes from thedroplet and burns as the ambient temperature is high enough. In the fixed carbon burningstage, the droplet temperature reaches the highest value then descends slowly, andsuddenly decreases to the ambient temperature, this indicates the end of the droplet38c 10000Chapter 2 Literature Reviewburning process. The mass variation of coal reduces slowly at this stage. Within thesefour stages, the time for the fixed carbon burning stage is the longest one. The time forthe heating stage is short enough to be neglected in medium and high temperatureenvironments (48).k0Moisture Content 40% tr)035 m50100-4- 3 32464^go^112time (sec)Figure 2.11 Burning history of CWM droplet39Chapter 2 Literature ReviewMore detailed mechanisms of the CWM droplet combustion process are shown inFigure 2.12 (50). Based on high speed cinematography and from radiation intensitytraces, the different stages in the coal water fuel droplet combustion process can bedescribed as follows:- Injection of the CWF dropletDrying of the CWF droplet- Agglomeration and swelling during the coal plasticity period- Localized ignition followed by spread of ignition- Volatile flame formation- Rotation induced by volatile evolution- Extinction of volatile flame and ignition of char- Fragmentation both during devolatilization and char burnout- Ash shedding and completion of char burnout40Chapter 2 Literature Review(A ASky e's eeNDCOAL WATER FUELDROPLETDRY AGGLOMERATE FUSED AGGLOMERATERr.^,,4;r4lyI' IGNITION AT ONE CORNER■ %44(^FOLLOWED BYSPREAD OF IGNITIONFRAGMENTATION AND ROTATIONDURING DEVOIAIILIZATIONPARTICLE ROTATION INDUCEDBY VOLATILE EVOLUTION•, •^• •D^•^•P^O 9.‘, P ••• • a O. • •0 I.t)FRAGMENTATIONDURING CIIAR BURN-OUT•DSteCIIAR BURN-OUTAND ASII SHEDDINGFigure 2.12 Mechanisms of CWM droplet combustion41Chapter 2 Literature ReviewOther factors influencing the combustion performance of CWM are: dropletdiameter, coal particle size, moisture content and oxygen concentration in the surroundingatmosphere. Figure 2.13 shows the dependence of cumulative times and distancesrequired for the ignition and combustion processes on CWM droplet size (51). The largerthe CWM droplet size leaving the atomizer, the bigger is the agglomerated coal particleand the longer is the time required for combustion. Not including the atomizationproblem, the smaller is the coal particle size the shorter is the combustion time because ofthe higher specific surface area, which increases the reaction rate between carbon andoxygen (48). A lower moisture content in the droplet and a higher oxygen concentrationin surroundings result in shorter combustion time due to lower evaporation time andhigher diffusion rate into the flame front (48). The ignition of CWM is rather difficult dueto the amount of heat required for the water evaporation. However, this percentage ofheat consumed by water evaporating is negligibly small in an industrial furnace, hence thekey factors for complete combustion in industrial furnace are both the finer CWM dropletsize and the higher furnace temperature (48). A calculation of the amount of heat requiredfor water evaporation compared to the heating value of CWM, with 30% water and 70%coal composition, is shown in Appendix B. The result shows that the amount of heatrequired for water evaporation is only 3% of the heating value of the CWM.420^20^40^60^80^100DROPLET OR PARTICLE DIAMETER(km)Chapter 2 Literature ReviewFigure 2.13 Dependence on droplet/particle size of : (a.) Cumulative times, and (b.)Distances required for the ignition and combustion process43Chapter 2 Literature Review2.3.3 Atomization of slurry fuelAtomization is the process whereby a volume of liquid is converted into amultiplicity of small drops. Its principal aim is to produce a high ratio of surface to massin the liquid phase, which result in very high evaporation rates (52). The atomizationprocess plays a very important role in slurry fuel combustion. Unlike a premixed,combustible gaseous fuel that distributes uniform composition during combustion, slurryfuel is present in the form of discrete slurry droplets which may have a range of sizes andthey may move in different directions with different velocities to that of the main stream ofgas. This lack of uniformity in the unburned mixture results in poor combustioncharacteristics such as irregularities in the propagation of the flame through the spray, lowcarbon burnout (53,54), and longer droplet burning time (51). In this section, the twin-fluid atomizer is first discussed. Its advantages are compared to those of other types ofatomizer, and the design criteria given for dealing with slurry fuel. In the second part, theeffects of slurry fuel properties on atomization quality are discussed.2.3.3.1 Twin-fluid atomizerThere are three main types of atomizers. With a conventional "pressure" type ofatomizer, a high velocity is imparted to the liquid by discharging it under pressure througha fine orifice. In a "rotary" atomizer, liquid is fed onto a rotating surface where it spreadsout fairly uniformly under the action of centrifugal force. The last type is generally knownas "twin-fluid", "pneumatic", or "airblast" atomizer. Its approach is to expose therelatively slow moving liquid to a high velocity air stream. The process of twin-fluidatomization can be considered to consist of the following stages (55):1) Formation of thin liquid sheets along the inner walls of an internal mixedatomizer, or of free sheets (unattached) of liquid, or of fine jets.2) Disintegration of these sheets or jets by aerodynamic forces to form ligamentsand/or large droplets.44Chapter 2 Literature Review3) Breakup of the ligaments and large droplets to form a spray.Twin-fluid atomizers have many advantages over pressure atomizers (55,56). Theyhave a better turn down ratio. They require lower fuel pressure and produce smallerdroplets than can be achieved by means of pressure jet atomizers. Generally, airblastsystems produce fine droplets with Sauter mean diameters of 40-80 pm, which becomefiner with increasing gas velocity (55). Moreover, because twin-fluid atomization ensuresthorough mixing of air and fuel, the ensuing combustion process is characterized by verylow soot formation and minimum exhaust smoke. Furthermore these atomizers provide arelatively constant fuel distribution over the entire range of fuel flows and they have lowsensitivity to variation in fuel viscosity.However, when a compressed gas is used to break up a liquid jet in an airblastatomizer, a considerably larger amount of air and energy is consumed than in a pressurenozzle (55,57). This problem occurs when applying twin-fluid atomization to break uplarge streams of liquid in an efficient manner to attain a desired particle-size distribution.The high cost is compensated for by the fine droplet size in the sprays obtained from thistype of atomizer. Moreover, the spray from a twin-fluid atomizer has a tendency topenetrate a greater distance and with a smaller cone angle than from a pressure nozzle(57). When a liquid jet is disintegrated by an air or gas stream, the velocity of air is highrelative to the liquid at the point where it encounters the jet. As a result, this type ofatomizer generally discharges the spray and gas for a considerable distance before themomentum of atomizing fluid becomes dissipated or transferred to the surroundings. Thecompact narrow angle spray with high penetration is not a desirable spray pattern forspray combustion in some systems because the mixing between oxygen and spray dropletsmight not be complete in the combustion zone, which will cause low carbon conversionand high heat loss at the exit of the combustor. However, for rotary kiln systems, this isnot a problem. In the kiln, the desired characteristic of sprays is a long narrow angle spray45Chapter 2 Literature Reviewpattern because of the high ratio of kiln length to its diameter; so the liquid fuel will notburn at the surface of the kiln.The factors that should be considered in twin-fluid atomizer design for slurry fuelare:1) Ability to obtain slurry droplets as fine as possible at an acceptable consumption rate ofatomizing medium,2) Ability to resist wear by erosive slurry fuel,3) Ability to withstand repeated thermal shock by turning the burner on or off,4) Ability to operate without giving rise to plugging problems, and5) Ability to obtain stable combustion when heavy oil is fired instead of slurry fuel, sincethe use of a common burner gun and tip for slurry fuel and heavy oil may be preferable(58). The use of the common burner gun is not the case for many B.C. mills which usenatural gas, however.2.3.3.2 The effect of slurry fuel properties on the mean drop sizeGenerally, the three main factors which influence the mean drop size of the sprayare liquid properties, air properties and atomizer geometry. The liquid properties ofimportance in twin-fluid atomization are viscosity, surface tension, and density. The airproperties are air velocity, air/liquid mass ratio and air density which can be calculatedfrom its pressure and temperature. The atomizer geometry depends on the design of theatomizer, i.e. the contact angle between air and fluid stream, the nozzle diameter, etc. Areview on the effect of these variables on liquid atomization can be found in Lefebvre'spaper (52).Unlike fuel oil, whose viscosity is an important property controlling atomization,the effect of viscosity on the spray of slurry fuel is still ambiguous. Mchale (15) pointedout that: first, oil is a Newtonian fluid whose viscosity is independent of shear rate, and46Chapter 2 Literature Reviewtherefore viscosity that was measured at a low shear rate, 100 s -1 , in a laboratoryviscometer can represent the viscosity at a high shear rate, 10 4 s- 1 , which is typicallyencountered in atomizer passages. Secondly, viscosity of oil governs the rate of breakageof the bonds between liquid molecules and as such provides a measure of the tendency ofthe substance to be deformed and disintegrated by an atomizer air or steam blast.However, these conditions do not hold for slurry fuel. In the case of slurry fuels, they arenon-Newtonian and they exhibit very complicated rheological behavior, as previouslydiscussed in section 2.2.2.2. Moreover, it is not obvious how slurry fuel viscosity relatesto the tendency of the material to be broken in droplets by a fluid blast. For a two-phasefluid of high solids content, viscosity depends on the ease with which particles can slippast one another under applied stress. This "viscosity" measured under flow conditionsmight not be related to the rate of breakage of intermolecular or interparticle bonds ofslurry fuels, and therefore even viscosity measured at high shear rates may not correlatewell with quality of atomization (15).Many studies have been done to find the relationship between coal slurry fuelproperties and atomization quality. The effects of surface tension and low shear rateviscosity on CWM atomization were studied by Krishna and Sapienza (59) and Nystrom(60). Both results verified the complex nature of CWM atomization in that the spray datadid not seem to correlate exclusively to the measured physical properties such as surfacetension and apparent viscosity (measured at 60 s -1 and 450 s-1 respectively). Sato et al.(61) reported that as far as the CWM rheology was pseudo-plastic or Newtonian, meandroplet size diameter (d32 - Sauter mean diameter) was independent of coal type,concentration and viscosity (measured at 90 s -1 ). These results support the argument thatthe spray characteristics of CWM cannot be described well by an evaluation of viscosity,since the viscosity characteristics are generally evaluated in a lower shear field than thoseat the exit port of the twin-fluid atomizer.47Chapter 2 Literature ReviewThe effect of high shear rate viscosity on atomization quality of CWM has recentlybeen reported by Yu et al. (62). Their results showed that the reliance on low shear rateviscosities would lead to the wrong order in predicting the fineness of atomized drop size.However, when the correct values of the viscosities (at high shear rate about 10,000 s -1 ,measured by capillary tube viscometer) were taken into account, the droplet sizes could bewell estimated from the measured viscosities. Furthermore, they concluded that therelationships between measured mean droplet sizes and high shear viscosities of CWMwere linear for the effect of air/fuel ratio.The results from Yu's experiments were supported by Smith et al. (63) whostudied the influence of fluid physical properties on coal-water slurry atomization on aplain-jet airblast research nozzle. They reported that the CWM spray Sauter meandiameter could be reasonably predicted from a knowledge of the slurry velocity, therelative velocity between the atomizing air and the slurry, the air/fuel mass flow ratio andthe slurry rheologies which were represented by a power law expression characterized atthe high shear rate (approximately 10,000 s-1 ).48Chapter 3 Experimental FacilityChapter 3Experimental Facility3.1 LOW Viscosity MeasurementLOW viscosity was measured by Haake Viscoester VT500, a computer controlledrotary viscometer. The equipment consists of a stationary outer cup which contains thesample to be tested and an inner cup (rotor) which is placed in the fluid in the outer cupand rotated by a motor. The torque generated at the surface of the rotor by the fluid ismeasured by a force sensor and the data is logged to the computer. The systemtemperature was controlled by a temperature controlled water bath.The sensor system used in the experiments was SV2 which is primarily used forviscosity measurements of high viscosity liquids and pastes, working in the low to mediumshear rate. The rotor surface was grooved to prevent slipping between the fluid sampleand the rotor surface area. The picture and details for the SV2 sensor system is shown inTable 3.1.Table 3.1 Characteristic dimensions of Sensor system SV2Sensor system SV2Inner cylinder (Rotor)Radius Ri [mm] 10.1Height L [mm] 19.6Outer cylinderRadius Ra [mm] 11.55Radii ratio Ra/Ri 1.14Gap width [mm] 1.45Sample volumn [cm3] 6Temperature [°C] -30/100System factorsf 7680M 89049Chapter 3 Experimental Facility3.2 Lignin-oil-water preparation facilityFigure 3.1 shows the schematic diagram of the LOW preparation facility. A lignin-oil-water slurry was prepared in a 43 litre cylindrical tank with a conical bottom. The tankdimensions were: 30 cm inside diameter, 46 cm cylinder height, and 36 cm cone height.Figure 3.2 shows the picture of the mixer used in the LOW preparation process,purchased from McMaster Carr Supply Company. The mixing head diameter was 12.7cm and the shaft diameter was 1.25 cm. The mixer was rotated by a 1 hp, 1725 rpm,direct drive motor. A Moyno pump, with a 1 hp motor, was used to transport the desiredamount of LOW to the burner and recycle the remainder back to the tank. First, the LOWflow rate was adjusted by a globe valve on the recycle line and a small ball valve on theLOW delivery line to the atomizer. Pressure gauges were used as a preliminary method tomonitor the LOW flow. The tank, all piping, pump, and motors were mounted on a singleframe and weighed by a digital scale to check the actual flow of LOW by mass differenceevery few minutes. The scale reading accuracy was +1- 5 g. To minimize solid separationin the transporting line, all the piping was designed to be as short as possible.Later in the experiments, some modifications were made to achieve better LOWflow control. A double pipe heat exchanger, 1 metre long, was installed along therecycling line to reduce the LOW temperature which increased due to the energy inputfrom the Moyno pump and the mixer. A Masterflex pump system, which uses peristalticaction to propel fluid through the tubing, was connected to the LOW delivery line to anatomizer to control volumetric flow rate of LOW to the kiln by a variable speed drive.The pump tubing was size 16, thick walled, Tygon.50ScaleFigure 3.1 Schematic diagram of LOW preparation facilityChapter 3 Experimental FacilityFigure 3.2 Picture of the mixer used in LOW preparation processChapter 3 Experimental Facility3.3 Development of Lignin-Oil-Water feeding systemLOW was fed to the kiln by a nozzle inserted concentrically through a modifiedNorth America, Model NA 223G-3, natural gas burner. With this arrangement, LOWcould be fired in the kiln solely by itself or together with natural gas. Figure 3.3 shows theoriginal nozzle design. The earliest designed nozzle was composed of 5 concentricstainless steel tubes with 0.64, 0.95, 1.91, 2.54 and 3.18 cm outside diameter. Theatomization air and LOW were separately supplied to the nozzle and met each other at anatomizer. LOW was delivered in the 0.64 cm O.D. tube. The atomization air was carriedthrough an annulus area between the 0.95 and 1.91 cm O.D. tubes, and the cooling waterwas circulated among the 1.91, 2.54 and 3.18 cm tubes. The disadvantage of this nozzlewas that there was no cooling water at the tip of the atomizer. The stainless steel covercould not protect the atomizer tip sufficiently from the radiative heat from the kiln.Therefore, the LOW was heated and solidified at the atomizer exit.Subsequently, the nozzle was modified to have cooling water circulate as close tothe atomizer as possible to keep the temperature low at the atomizer tip. Figure 3.4shows the modified LOW nozzle. The LOW feeding tube was changed from a 0.64 cm toa 0.48 cm outside diameter stainless steel tube. The atomization air was fed via theannular area between the 0.48 and 0.95 cm O.D. tubes. The cooling water flowed inthrough the annular area between the 0.95 and 1.91 cm tubes and out via the annular areasamong the three outer tubes. The atomizer was also modified to be compatible with thenew feeding tube system. The original air holes at the atomizer were filled and the coolingwater channel was excavated so the cooling water could circulate closer to the atomizer.The new air holes were drilled closer to the fluid exit hole. However, the problem withthis modified nozzle was that the atomization quality was poor. The result from using this53Chapter 3 Experimental Facilitymodified nozzle in the combustion experiment showed that there were some unburnedlignin agglomerates coming out of the kiln with the lime product.The final nozzle design was separate from a water cooling jacket. Figure 3.5shows the schematic diagram of the final LOW feeding system. The nozzle consisted ofthree concentric stainless steel tubes, 0.64, 0.95 and 2.22 cm O.D., connected to anatomizer at the discharge end. LOW was delivered through the 0.64 cm O.D. tube andthe atomization air was carried through an annular area between the 0.95 and 2.22 cmO.D. tubes. The cooling jacket was composed of another 3 consecutive size stainless steeltubes, 2.54, 3.18 and 3.81 cm outside diameter, arranged concentrically. One end of thejacket had an open hole of diameter 0.64 cm for the spray discharge. The other end wasconnected to a ball valve to prevent the gas leaking out of the kiln when the inner nozzlewas not placed inside the jacket.54Atomization airCooling water outCooling water inAtomizer ^Lignin-Oil-Water mixtureAtomization air holesCross section viewFigure 3.3 Original nozzle designFigure 3.4 Modified LOW nozzleAtomizercooling water.Fluid exit- Atomization air holesLignin-Oil-Water mixtureCross section viewCooling water inCooling water outAtomization airFigure 3.5 Final nozzle designChapter 3 Experimental FacilityThe atomizers used in this experiment were twin fluid type, round spray pattern,stainless steel from Spray Systems Co.. The system was designed such that the atomizerair cap could be changed to use either external mixing or internal mixing atomizers.However, except for Run SL8 which used the external mixing atomizer, all the other Runsused the internal mixing one. Figure 3.6 shows the schematic diagram of internal andexternal mixing twin fluid atomizers from Spray System Co.. The atomizer assemblieswere designated 1/4J & 1/8J; with fluid cap No. 100150, air cap No. 1891125 for theinternal mixing, and No. 180 for the external mixing atomizer. The fluid cap contains a0.25 cm diameter fluid exit and six, 0.21 cm diameter, air holes.58Chapter 3 Experimental FacilityAir Cap^Fluid Cap3612Gasket1158 Retainer RingInternal mixing typeFluid CapAir Cap3612\ Gasket1158 Retainer RingExternal mixing typeFigure 3.6 Schematic diagram of internal and external mixing atomizers from SpraySystem Co.59Chapter 3 Experimental Facility3.4 Pilot lime kiln facility3.4.1 General descriptionThe combustion experiments were carried out at a pilot lime kiln located in theDepartment of Metals and Materials Engineering at the University of British Columbia.This kiln has been in service for over fifteen years in many calcination studies and heattransfer trials (64,65). Figure 3.7 shows a simplified diagram of the pilot lime kiln (10).The kiln has an inside diameter of 0.4 m and an overall length of 5.5 m. It is lined with acastable refractory and equipped with 70 thermocouples for gas, solid, refractory wall, andshell temperature measurement. Power for kiln rotation was provided by an electric motorand a variable speed gearbox with a chain and sprocket final drive.Limestone (CaCO3) was fed into the kiln from an overhead storage hopper via avariable speed belt conveyor to a collector and discharge chute. A dam was installed atthe feed-end of the kiln, providing an opening of 0.21 m inside diameter, to prevent spillback of solid material while an additional dam of 0.32 m inside diameter was installed atthe solid discharged end to promote uniform axial solids bed depth. Figure 3.8 shows adiagram of the solid dams at hot and cold ends of the kiln (10). No preheating of the feedmaterial was provided.Firing of the kiln was by natural gas and lignin-oil-water mixture with a burnerarrangement as shown in Figure 3.9 (10). Natural gas flow was monitored by a rotameter(model #BR-1/2-35G10 with flow tube #R-8M-25-4). Primary air was supplied by 8nozzles equally spaced around a circle of radius 7.5 cm and concentric with the 5.72 cminside diameter gas supply pipe and 3.81 cm. outside diameter lignin-oil-water mixturefeeder. Secondary air was introduced through 8 equally spaced nozzles, concentric withthe gas supply duct, on 15 cm radius circle. Combustion air was supplied at ambienttemperature and monitored by a calibrated ASTM standard orifice plate.60nBlowerBagHouse•■■••■••••••Cyclone1■••■••••• • • •o o 0 0 ' 0I3•0a0•0. •U4. 4. 4. 4a■■••■•■••••■• •4•0 oLime Output -->1• •^•^no ^13• •^• );Natural GasDustFlue GasOutlet• Suction Pyrometer^• Sample Port El Wall Probe^Bed Probe • ShellNot to ScaleFigure 3.7 A simplified diagram of the pilot plant kilnrev0.216 m3Cold EndSolids Dam0.14 mHot End 0318 mSolids Dam0.14m0.406 m 0.609 mChapter 3 Experimental FacilityFigure 3.8 Diagram of solid dams at hot and cold ends of the kiln62Chapter 3 Experimental FacilityPrimary AirFiring BoxSecondary AirPrimary AirNatural GasLOW nozzleNatural GasPrimary AirSecondary AirFigure 3.9 Details of inlet air and burner arrangement63Chapter 3 Experimental FacilityPrimary combustion air was subsequently bled from the total combustion air supply andmetered through a rotameter (model #BR-1.5-35G10 with flow tube #R-12M-25-5S).Total available air supply was 0.06 m3/s. (130 SCFM).Atomization air was supplied from 3 air cylinders connected with a manifold. Forthe atomization air flow rate 2.4 dm3/s (5 cuft/min), the air supply lasted for 2.5 hours.Brooks air rotameter (model #BR -1/2-27G10 with flow tube #R-2M-25-2 and float #8-RS-14), with maximum capacity of 2.6 dm3/s (5.48 cuft/min) for air at pressure 105N/m2, temperature 294 K, was used to measure the air volumetric flow rate. A pressuregauge was installed after the rotameter to measure the air pressure, which was later usedin calculating the actual atomization air flow rate (Appendix C) All the rotametercalibration curves are provided in Appendix D.The kiln flue gas was drawn by a fan through a cyclone and a baghouse to collectdust particles before the flue gas was discharged. The experimental apparatus may permita small amount of leakage air to enter the kiln through the seals, the solids discharge andthe burner. Nevertheless, the oxygen content in the flue gas was measured at thelimestone feed end of the kiln and the result was used to calculate the percent excess air inthe kiln.3.4.2 InstrumentationAll temperature data acquired along the kiln were transferred to a remotemicrocomputer by a data acquisition unit located on the kiln. Figures 3.10 and 3.11 showthe thermocouple locations by axial distance and radical position in the kiln, respectively(10). A detailed description of the thermocouples, for gas, bed, wall and shellmeasurement, can be found in Richardson's and Barr's theses (10,66).640.Suction Pyrometer^0 Wall Probe^• Bed Probe^* Shell^o Sample PortsFigure 3. 10 Axial thermocouple layout of the pilot plant kilnRefractoryGas Suction ThermocoupleSteel ShellShell ThermocoupleRefractorySolids BedWall Probe with Thermocouples Solids ThermocoupleAll Thermocouplesare Type S or KChapter 3 Experimental FacilityFigure 3.11 Thermocouple locations at the cross-section of the kiln66Chapter 3 Experimental FacilityIn brief, gas temperatures were obtained by shielded suction thermocoupleslocated at ten fixed axial positions along the kiln. Thermocouple wires were type S(10%Pt, Pt-Rh), 31 gauge wire (0.33 mm), for the first four thermocouples located at thehot end of the kiln and type K (chromel-alumel), 22 gauge wire (0.7 mm), for the others.Each thermocouple was designed to slide radially, thus allowing temperaturemeasurements at various radial positions. Suction was provided by a small diaphragmvacuum pump located on the kiln shell. Each thermocouple was connected by stainlesssteel tubing with a shut off valve to a cold trap and a small particle filter before thevacuum pump. In the experiments, the gas temperature readings were generally measured10 cm off the kiln centerline, except at 2.2 and 4.0 m from the hot end, which were on thekiln centerline. This inconsistency was necessary due to an interference of the radial pathby other objects associated with the kiln. Each gas temperature was recorded for two kilnrevolutions, with a total of ten data points being obtained during each revolution. Anarithmetic average of the twenty temperatures obtained at each axial location was used togenerate the plots of axial gas temperature.Bed temperatures were measured by ten bare-tipped thermocouples at fixed axiallocations (Figure 3.10) again with allowance for radial movement. The same kind ofthermocouple wires were used along the kiln. The thermocouples were adjusted such thatthe tips were just under the top of the solids bed (Figure 3.11). In this research, they werefixed at a radial distance of 3.8 cm from the kiln wall. As in the case of the gastemperature measurement, twenty bed temperatures were obtained for each measurementon one thermocouple, which again represented two revolutions. From these data, thelowest value was assumed to represent the bulk bed temperature at each axial location,even though it might not represent true bed temperature because the response of thethermocouples within the bed was too slow to accurately describe the true bed67Chapter 3 Experimental Facilitytemperature (66). However, at the end of each run, the kiln was stopped for a short timeand the true bed temperatures along the kiln axial distance were measured.Ten refractory wall temperature probes were located at fixed axial positions alongthe kiln as shown in Figure 3.10. Each refractory wall probe was specially designed toaccommodate four thermocouples located at the radial distances of 0, 10, 28.8 and 47.6mm from the inside refractory, as shown in Figure 3.12 (10). The first three wall probesfrom the discharge end of the kiln were type S thermocouples made from 31 gauge wire(0.33 mm) and the other seven probes were type K thermocouples made from 22 gaugewire (0.7 mm).Ten type K thermocouples were used to measure kiln shell temperature. Thesethermocouples were set into small holes drilled to a depth of about 6 mm into the steelshell. Since the thermal resistance of the steel shell was less than 1% of the total wallresistance, it was assumed to be radially isothermal (66).68Chapter 3 Experimental FacilityFigure 3.12 Detail of thermocouples in wall probeChapter 3 Experimental Facility3.5 Flue gas analysisDuring the experiments, two methods were used for measuring the flue gascomposition from the kiln:3.5.1 Oxygen analyzer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR)The flue gas was sampled by a 1 m long, 1 cm outside diameter stainless steel tubeinserted through the solid feed end of the kiln. Vacuum was provided by a small pistonpump. A dust filter was installed before the pump with a nitrogen line for purging thefilter. After the pump, the gas sample was cooled down and some water vapor condensedin a 1 m long double pipe heat exchanger. Then, it was passed on to a drying tube, filledwith glass wool and drying chemicals, to minimize particle and moisture content, both ofwhich were detrimental to downstream analyzers. Drierite, composed of 97% CaSO4 and3% CoC12, was used in the drying tube when only the oxygen analyzer was used, whilemagnesium perchlorate, Mg(C104)2, was utilized when both oxygen analyzer and FTIRwere used because the calcium compound in Drierite could absorb sulfur components inthe flue gas (34).3.5.2 Gas chromatographA Perkin-Elmer 8400 series gas chromatograph equipped with a thermalconductivity detector was used to measure oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations inthe kiln flue gas. Flue gas samples were taken from the ninth suction thermocouple probeat distance 4 m from the lime product outlet end by the vacuum pump fixed on the kilnand passed through a drying tube before being delivered to the on-line gas chromatograph.An automatic valve was used for gas sampling. The gas components was separated bytwo columns in parallel. The first was a 2.4 m x 3.17 mm, column packed with 80/100mesh molecular sieves and used to measure carbon dioxide concentration. The second70Chapter 3 Experimental Facilitywas a 1.5 m x 3.17 mm, column packed with Porapack Q and used to measure oxygenconcentration in the flue gas. The oven temperature was set at 105°C.71Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems EncounteredChapter 4Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered4.1 Lignin-Oil-Water mixture preparationFirst, some LOW compositions from the rheological study were prepared in 20-30kg batches in the pilot scale LOW preparation facility. Then cold atomization tests weretried to observe the flow rate, atomization, stability, and steady state temperature of LOWfuel. In the tests, the LOW mixtures were sprayed with compressed air in an opencylindrical bin at different air/fuel ratio at ambient conditions.In the combustion experiments, LOW mixture was usually prepared in 30 kgbatches in the morning of the day of the experiment. The preparation procedures were asfollows:1. Westvaco lignin was sieved through a 2 mm x 2 mm mesh screen to removelumps which might cause clogging at the atomizer tip.2. Screened lignin, No. 2 fuel oil and water were weighed to prepare the desiredcomposition of LOW.3. The surfactant, Tergitol, a polyglycol ether, was first diluted in water before itwas used in LOW preparation (e.g. 30 g of surfactant was diluted in 1 litre of water forpreparing 30 kg LOW batch with surfactant concentration 1000 ppm).4. Water, No. 2 fuel oil and diluted surfactant solution were mixed in thepreparation tank for 10-15 minutes until the fluid in the tank became homogeneous(having a white color). The fluid was mixed both vertically and radially by the mixer andthe Moyno pump.5. Lignin was added to the fluid intermittently. After all the lignin had been added,the mixing was continued for about 1 hour before the LOW was ready to be fired into thekiln.72Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems EncounteredNo. 2 fuel oil used in this experiment was purchased from Esso Petroleum CanadaCo. Table 4.1 shows typical ultimate analyses and heating value of No. 2 fuel oil (35).The density of No. 2 fuel oil, measured at 25°C, was 0.839 kg/L.Table 4.1 Typical ultimate analyses and heating value of No. 2 fuel oilComposition^(%) No. 2 fuel oilCarbon 87.3Hydrogen 12.6Oxygen 0.04Nitrogen 0.006Sulfur 0.22Ash <0.01Gross heating value(MJ/m3)38913.24.2 Combustion experiments in the pilot lime kilnThe pilot lime kiln requires a long time to achieve steady state temperatures due toits large structure. To start up the unit, the kiln was heated overnight at a low fuel rate ofnatural gas. In the morning, the operating conditions were set at a limestone flow rate40kg/h, kiln rotational speed 1.5 rpm, kiln inclination angle 1 degree, and 2% oxygen inthe flue gas. Then the kiln was brought to a steady-state over about five hours by naturalgas firing. The steady condition was defined by the condition where the successive bedtemperatures measured 20-30 minutes apart differed by less than 20°C and the dischargerate of lime product was constant. The lime product discharge weight was measured overa period of time, which was typically 15-30 minutes. After the kiln was at the steady statecondition for 2-3 hours, two sets of data which included the bed, gas, wall, and shelltemperature profiles along the kiln, the flue gas analysis, and the lime product sample atthe product discharge tray were taken. After collecting the data for natural gas firing, thenatural gas flow was reduced or stopped entirely and the LOW flow was started. LOWwas fed into the kiln at the same amount of net heat inlet as natural gas. The net heat inlet73Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encounteredwas calculated from the total heat inlet to the kiln subtracting the heat of vaporization ofwater in the fuel.To prevent LOW from drying in the delivery tube to the atomizer, a small amountof water was left in the line to cool down the tube and the atomizer tip before feeding theLOW. The atomization air was turned on before starting to feed LOW to prevent thepressure in the LOW line from driving the slurry into the atomization air passage whichwould cause a plugging problem. The position of the LOW nozzle inside the kiln wasfixed at the end of the burner tile, a distance of 8.9 cm from the tip of the primary air jetsinto the kiln, for all the experimental runs (Figure 3.9).At limestone feed rate of 40 kWh, the total residence time of the solid in the kilnwas about 2 hours (calculated from the volume of the solid inside the kiln divided by thevolumetric flow rate of the solid, Appendix E). However the calcination reaction occurswithin the distance about 2.5 m from the solid discharge end (Figure 5.15), therefore theresidence time for the reaction section of the kiln is roughly about an hour.After switching the fuel from natural gas to LOW for about an hour all thetemperature profiles and the lime product output rate were checked. The oxygen in theflue gas was monitored continuously by the oxygen analyser and checked intermittently bythe gas chromatograph. For Runs SL8 and SL9, the FTIR was used to measure the tracegas pollutants every half an hour. After the kiln was at the steady state condition forabout 1 hour, two complete sets of data were collected for the bed, gas, wall, and shelltemperature profiles, the flue gas analysis and the lime product sample at the kilndischarge tray. Then the kiln rotation was stopped, and the true bed temperature profilewas collected while the thermocouples stayed in the bed and the LOW flow rate wascontinued. After that, all the fuels were shut off. The solid samples were collectedthrough the axial sampling ports along the kiln. The combustion air flow was maintained74Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encounteredovernight to cool down the kiln. The dust sample from the cyclone and the limestone feedwere collected in the following day. During the combustion experiments, some dust waslost because the flue gas flow was bypassed from the bag house.Natural gas used in this experiment was supplied from B.C. Gas Co. Table 4.2shows the gas composition (from B.C. Gas Co.) and its heating value. The gross and netheating values of the natural gas were calculated from heat of combustion of each gascomponent in the natural gas.Table 4.2 Natural gas composition (from B.C. Gas) and its heating valueComposition (%) Natural gasMethane 95.1Ethane 2.8Nitrogen 0.9Propane 0.8Butane 0.2Carbon dioxide 0.2Gross heating value (MJ/m3 ) 38.79Net heating value (MJ/m3) 35.00The limestone used in the combustion experiment was purchased from TexadaLime Co., B.C. The particle size ranges from 1.4 to 4.8 mm, with an average mass meandiameter of the limestone of 2.46 mm (10). Table 4.3 shows screening results of thelimestone feed (10). Calcium carbonate in the limestone was found to be about 98% fromloss on ignition. Chemical analysis of limestone feed is shown in Table 4.4. The methodof the analysis is shown in Section 5.3.1.75Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems EncounteredTable 4.3 Screening results of the limestone feedLimestone sampleSize (mm) Mass (g) (%)-6.30 +5.60 4.05 0.44-5.60 +2.83 154.7 16.80-2.83 +2.00 464.2 50.42-2.00 +1.41 256.9 27.9Pan 40.8 4.43dp (mm) 2.46Table 4.4 Elemental analysis of limestone feed(%) LimestoneCaO 55.23Si02 1.35M203 0.44Fe2O3 0.10MgO 0.28K9 0 <0.06Na^(ppm) < 40Loss on Ignition 43.05Total carbon 11.44Total sulfur 0.154.3 Determination of percent calcinationAfter each combustion experiment, samples of bed material were collected fromfive sample ports along the kiln, in addition to samples of the feed limestone and productlime. After collection, the samples were allowed to cool to ambient temperature thenplaced in sealed containers. The percent calcination was determined by the loss onignition (L01) of the samples, measured by heating 10-15 g of samples at 1000°C in afurnace overnight. The percent calcination was calculated according to the formula (67):% Calcination^100 [ 1-LOI(Product) / LOI(feed) ]76Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered4.4 Determination of slaking behavior of lime productsThe reactivity of lime is an important parameter and one which depends uponprocessing conditions. Overheating of the lime causes high shrinkage, low porosity, anddense structure which results in low reactivity. Contamination with fusible ash or otherproducts from the kiln freeboard also reduces pore area and reactivity. Slaking behaviorof product lime samples was determined at the Prince George Paprican laboratory. Theprocedures were as follows: dried (moisture free) lime sample weighing 44 grams wasadded to 750 ml of green liquor at a starting temperature of 80-85°C. The green liquorwas stirred at about 300 rpm. The temperature of the suspension was monitored forapproximately 1 minute prior to the addition of lime and 2 minutes following the point atwhich the temperature reached a maximum.4.5 Problems encounteredDuring the course of the experiments a number of problems were encounteredwhich required special corrective action. The key ones were as follows:1) LOW clogging problems at the atomizer:1.1) LOW is a heat sensitive fuel. From preliminary LOW viscosity measurements,LOW tended to solidify at temperatures around 75°C. At the hot end of the kiln the gastemperature was about 800°C with LOW firing and 1200°C with natural gas firing. Awater cooling jacket was designed to protect the LOW delivery line and atomizer from theradiative heat transfer inside the kiln.1.2) There were some large solid agglomerates (up to 1 cm in diameter) in the drylignin. After the dry lignin powder was sieved through the 2 mm x 2 mm mesh screen toremove these large lignin lumps, the clogging problem in the nozzle disappeared.77Chapter 4 Experimental Procedures and Problems Encountered2) LOW flow fluctuation:2.1) At the mixing tank, it was observed that if LOW was continuously mixed, itstemperature could rise to 50-60°C at steady state. To prevent water lost due toevaporation from the mixing tank, which could thicken the LOW product, a one meterlong double pipe heat exchanger was installed in the recycling line to cool LOWtemperature down to about 30°C at steady state condition.2.2) Earlier in the experiments, the LOW flow rate was controlled by manipulatingthe globe valve in the recycling line. The results showed that the LOW flow fluctuatedconsiderably. A peristaltic pump system with Tygon tubing was installed in the LOWdelivery line to control the LOW volumetric feed rate by a variable speed control drive.The results showed that after incorporating the pump, the LOW flow rate was nearlyconstant.3) LOW phase separation:From the preliminary viscosity measurements, at the same lignin, oil, and watercomposition, LOW sample with zero surfactant content produced the lowest viscosity.However, when this sample was prepared in a 30 kg batch for cold atomization tests, afterabout three quarters of the batch had been sprayed, the LOW left in the tank becamesolidified. This result showed that without the surfactant, it was impossible to use LOWas a stable, homogeneous fuel. Later in the experiments, 1000 ppm of surfactant wasadded to the LOW in the preparation process and no phase separation occurred during theruns.4) Lime product reverse reaction:The lime product samples should be kept in a sealed container because it wasfound that it reacted with CO2 in the air and became CaCO3 in a period of time.78Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsChapter 5Results and Discussions5.1 Lignin-oil-water viscosity measurementsLOW slurries were prepared in a laboratory mixer, in batches of 200 g. The LOWcompositions were selected from the triangular diagram (Figure 1.2). The LOWpreparation procedures are the same as those mentioned in Section 4.1.At 25°C, viscosity measurements were made at a range of fixed shear rateswhereby every shear rate was measured for approximately 10, 20 or 30 minutes(depending on the time the sample takes to reach the steady state condition), after whichthe viscosity readings were averaged at the steady state condition. Steady state wasdefined over an 8 minute period if the average viscosity of the first 4 minutes differed byless than 0.01 Pa•s from that of the following 4 minutes. For every condition, the LOWsample was changed to ensure that no effect from a previous measurement would interferewith the present one. Table 5.1 shows six different compositions of slurries used in therheology study. The lignin content in the sample varied from 37-52%, the oil contentvaried from 5-20%, and the water content varied from 43-47%.Table 5.1 LOW compositions in rheology studySample Lignin Oil Water Surfactant*(%) (%) (%) (ppm)1 52 5 43 10002 47 10 43 10003 42 15 43 10004 37 20 43 10005 45 10 45 10006 43 10 47 1000*Tergitol NP-979Chapter 5 Results and Discussions5.1.1 Time-dependent viscosity behaviorFigure 5.1 shows the time-dependent viscosity profiles of sample 1. From Figure5.1, the viscosity results of sample 1 (52% lignin, 5% oil and 43% water) show thixotropicbehavior, with a limited decrease in viscosity with time under a constant shear rate, of 50s-1 . However, at higher shear rates, the viscosities decrease to minimum values and thenincrease constantly, showing both thixotropic and rheopectic behaviors, i.e. an increase inviscosity with time under a constant shear rate. The increase in LOW viscosity with timemay be explained by the formation of large clusters (68) and the water evaporation fromLOW. Compared with others, sample 1 contains the highest solid content. For the samewater content in LOW, the higher the lignin content, the more the amount of waterabsorbed by lignin particles and the less the amount of free water in the suspension.Therefore, the large lignin clusters will form more easily, and the effect of waterevaporation on LOW viscosity will be more critical.8018•■ shear rate 50 1/s16 —^0■^o shear rate 100 1/s■ A shear rate 1501/s■ x shear rate 200 1/s■^ <> shear rate 250 1/s0.8 —^04 0^■^ XXAA 00M. X6:6 64,XXgENO^ 0•X 01:,^0..XX^00BOO ^• mmeft)^l,(komil^mm,m700 mm m<>^0°A^00^X>O<X^6660.0000°'<>^00L46,^0 00 gbotb owt. 00060000000-00°°°°0XXXXX9g219 >t^0 ^46'.6.6A06A4LPLA6',4.0 ,ev:)00'7-0.%, 00G00 'A0 ■•o •^^ „XX•• X.,AA■eeChapter 5 Results and Discussions0^2^46^8^.10Time (minute)Figure 5.1 Time-dependent viscosity profiles of LOW sample 181Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsFigure 5.2 shows the time-dependent viscosity profiles of LOW sample 2. ForLOW samples 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, the time-dependent viscosity profiles show only thixotropicbehavior for all shear rates. Tables 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6 show the steady state time,steady state viscosity, initial shear stress and initial time of LOW samples 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.The steady state time is the time at the beginning of the steady state condition. The steadystate viscosity is the arithmetic average of the measured viscosities over 8 minutes ofsteady state condition, in which the average viscosity in the first 4 minutes differs less than0.01 Pa•s from that of the following 4 minutes. The initial shear stress is the shear stressmeasured at the initial time. The latter is generally 0.4 minutes. The high initial shearstress will indicate the power requirement for the pump and the mixer during the LOWpreparation process.■ shear rate 50 1/s■ o shear rate 100 1/s•■ A shear rate 150 1/sx shear rate 200 1/s•• o shear rate 250 1/s■■■o^■■■1.61.4 —1.2 —tO —0.8 —0.6 —0.4 —A um..., •00 0,s,0::0:31,,X06:1XX6'.00000646<><MMXs)<5°C)<X)°(11111..111.1..XXXX... ."5".111106.66'644646.11111.°001 Min:EMI ..°)< : 0 7XX:::°°°°000000000000 00 0°X.•. n.x000000000000000000p1.1 , 1 , 1.11. I0^2^4^6^8^ID^V^14Time (minute)Figure 5.2 Time-dependent viscosity profiles of LOW sample 2-2 16^IS^20^22820.8-0•••U m0^•e(16-0.5mm• ••■ EE.Mom.Elms m ■MoRNE m Em Emmom00000000000 00000000000000 00000 oo ■ooe'oo000000007,I^I^I2 4 6Time (minute)0 8■ first measuremento second measurementChapter 5 Results and DiscussionsFigure 5.3 shows the viscosity of LOW sample 2 measured at fixed shear rate of100 s-1 for 10 minutes and then stopped for 5 minutes before it was measured again foranother 10 minutes. LOW viscosity shows non-viscoelastic fluid; this fluid exhibits noelastic recovery from deformations which occur during flow.Figure 5.3 Non-viscoelastic behavior of LOW sample 25.1.2 LOW viscosity as a function of shear rateFrom the results in Tables 5.2-5.6, LOW is a non-Newtonian fluid, as its steadystate viscosity is a function of the shear stress or equivalently of the shear rate. It showscharacteristics of a pseudoplastic fluid, since the viscosity decreases with increasing shearrate.83Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsTable 5.2 Viscosity results for LOW sample 2Shear rate(1/s)Steady statetime (min)Steady stateviscosity (Pa•s)Initial stress(Pa)Initial time(min)50 12 0.890 69.67 0.4100 12 0.536 98.32 0.4150 8 0.470 137.89 0.4200 12 0.352 160.71 0.4250 8 0.332 208.37 0.4Table 5.3 Viscosity results for LOW sample 3Shear rate(1/s)Steady statetime (min)Steady stateviscosity (Pa•s)Initial stress(Pa)Initial time(min)50 12 0.812 78.38 0.4100 12 0.535 106.83 0.4150 12 0.421 122.93 0.4200 8 0.333 132.34 0.4250 8 0.295 145.34 0.4Table 5.4 Viscosity results for LOW sample 4Shear rate(1/s)Steady statetime (min)Steady stateviscosity (Pa•s)Initial stress(Pa)Initial time(min)50 15 0.819 76.93 0.6100 4 0.726 109.93 0.4150 8 0.523 128.43 0.4200 12 0.411 158.99 0.4250 8 0.361 154.97 0.4Table 5.5 Viscosity results for LOW sample 5Shear rate(1/s)Steady statetime (min)Steady stateviscosity (Pa•s)Initial stress(Pa)Initial time(min)50 18.6 0.527 43.55 0.6100 12 0.300 56.51 0.4150 8 0.284 72.50 0.4200 4 0.274 85.08 0.4250 4 0.195 105.06 0.484Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsTable 5.6 Viscosity results for LOW sample 6Shear rate(1/s)Steady statetime (min)Steady stateviscosity (Pa•s)Initial stress(Pa)Initial time(min)50 15 0.485 34.83 0.4100 4 0.269 47.22 0.4150 8 0.210 49.64 0.4200 12 0.203 63.59 0.4250 8 0.197 72.66 0.45.1.3 LOW viscosity as a function of compositionFigure 5.4 shows the steady state viscosity of different LOWs as a function ofshear rate for 3 LOW samples having the same 10% oil content. The higher the % water,or the lower the % lignin, the lower is the viscosity. The viscosity of Sample 2 (43%water) averages about 70% higher than the viscosity of Sample 5 (45% water), while theviscosity of Sample 5 averages about 18% higher than Sample 6 (47% water). Therefore,the water content in the mixture becomes very critical at 43%; the higher the watercontent, the more fluid the LOW (at constant 10% oil content).850.2 —1.0•^U•4 0.4 —00.8 — —0— LOW sample 2 = (47:10:43)x--- LOW sample 5 = (45:10:45)----- • — LOW sample 6 = (43:10:47)0%composition (lignin : oil : water)0•-•.„x ______^x-Chapter 5 Results and Discussions50^p0^150^200^250Shear rate (1/s)Figure 5.4 LOW viscosity as a function of shear rate at different % composition(constant 10% oil content)860.3 - x-0.8 -% composition (lignin : oil : voter)—0— LOW sample 2 = (47:10:43)-- X-- LOW sample 3 = (43:15:43)— • LOW sample 4 = (37:20:43)cid^-a0.600.5 -LPr?' -0.4 -- •00.9 -Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsFigure 5.5 shows the viscosity of LOW mixtures as a function of shear rate for 3samples with the same 43% water content. The viscosity of Sample 2 (47% lignin) ishigher that that of Sample 3 (43% lignin). However, the viscosities of the two sampleswere less than those Sample 4 (37% lignin) at shear rates of 100, 150, 200, and 250 s -1 .This is probably due to the flocculation effect in Sample 4 that causes a higher viscosity,although this sample is lowest in lignin concentration (Figure 2.9).I^1^150 130 150^200^250Shear rate (1/s)Figure 5.5 LOW viscosity as a function of shear rate at different %compositions(constant 43% water content)87Chapter 5 Results and Discussions5.2 Lignin-oil-water mixture combustion experimentsTable 5.7 Chronology of combustion runsRun Date(d/m/yr)Objective :(% Nat. gasreplacement)LOW composition(lignin:oil:water)*Duration forLOW firing(hour)SL1 16/04/92 50 41:12:47 1.5SL2 12/05/92 50 41:12:47 2.0SL3 7/07/92 60 37:20:43 2SL4 14/07/92 85 37:20:43 2SL5 1/10/92 100 37:20:43 2SL6 5/10/92 100 37:20:43 2SL7 16/10/92 100 41:14:45 0.5SL8 22/10/92 100 41:14:45 2.5SL9 06/11/92 100 41:14:45 2.5SL10 18/11/92 100 37:20:43 2.5SL11 25/11/92 60 41:14:45 2.5* surfactant 1000 ppmTable 5.7 shows the chronology of combustion runs in the pilot lime kiln. In RunsSL1 to SL4 and in SL11, only part of the natural gas was replaced by lignin slurry. Forthe first six runs, the LOW flow fluctuated a great deal which caused unstable combustionconditions. The LOW flame was pulsating and sometimes there was a lot of black smokeat the kiln flue gas exit. The 02 concentration in the flue gas, readily controlled at 2% fornatural gas combustion, varied from 0-10% for LOW combustion. However, later on inthe experimental program, the feed problem for the slurry was fixed, and the combustionwas stable. The LOW flame was long, with a luminous bright orange color, comparing tonatural gas flame which was short and blue. The 02 in the flue gas varied between 2-3%.The conditions and results for each combustion run are discussed below.For Run SL1, the original nozzle design was used to feed LOW slurry to the kiln.The LOW did not flow continuously due to solidification with subsequent cloggingproblems at the atomizer exit. Black smoke was generated from incomplete combustion.88Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsThe natural gas flow rate was cut off intermittently because the flame sensor could not seethe flame.For Run SL2 the modified nozzle, with better cooling at the atomizer tip, wasused. However, this nozzle gave poor atomization. Some unburned LOW agglomerateswere found coming out of the kiln with the lime product.The final nozzle design with the separate cooling jacket was utilized after RunSL2. A detailed description of the nozzle is found in Section 3.3. There was no problemwith LOW solidification or poor atomization with this nozzle. However, the LOW flowrate was very difficult to control. At low flow rate, Run SL3 (60% natural gasreplacement), the variation in LOW flow rate was less than the runs with high LOW flowrate, SL4 and SL6 (85% and 100% natural gas replacement). For Run SL3, the 02concentration in the flue gas varied between 0.5-2.7% while for Runs SL4 and SL6 the 02concentration in the flue gas varied between 1-10%.For Run SL5, the LOW delivery tube became disconnected from the atomizer.The LOW flow rate was extremely erratic, therefore, the results from this run are notpresented.For Run SL7, the LOW flow rate fluctuation was markedly reduced by the use of aperistaltic pump (with variable speed control) to feed LOW to the kiln. A double pipeheat exchanger was installed in the LOW recycling line to cool down the slurrytemperature which otherwise rose to about 60°C due to the input energy from the Moynopump and the mixer. However, Run SL7 was interrupted by breakage of the plastic tubein the peristaltic pump. The tube first inflated and then ruptured inside the pump becauseof high pressure which built up at the atomizer tip when it became clogged (The pumpwas designed to run at a maximum continuous outlet pressure of 20 psig).89Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsFor Run SL8, the external mixing atomizer was used instead of internal mixingatomizer to reduce the pressure drop at the atomizer tip. The result was satisfactoryoperation. The LOW flow rate was very stable. The 02 concentration in the flue gas wasclosely controlled between 2.7-3.5%. The FTIR spectrometer was used to measuresulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and methane in the fluegas for this test and some results were obtained. However, some clogging at the atomizertip still occurred.After Run SL8, the Moyno pump was taken apart for cleaning. Some hard solidparticles were found inside the pump. These solid lumps were found to be Westvacolignin. Therefore, for the later runs, the lignin was screened through a 2 mmx2 mm meshscreen before mixing with water and oil. In the screening process, solid particles werefound with diameters up to 10 mm.For Run SL9, a new peristaltic pump head and tube that could operate at a higheroutlet pressure of 25 psig was used. The external atomizer was exchanged back to theinternal one. The lignin was screened before the LOW preparation process. With thisfeed preparation, and pumping arrangement, the combustion was very stable. No cloggingproblems occurred during the run. The FTIR spectrometer was used again to measure thecombustion products.For Runs SL10 and SL11, the run settings were essentially the same as for RunSL9. However, for Run SL10, the LOW composition was changed and for Run SL11, theLOW feed rate was decreased. The LOW flame was very stable with few observablesparks. The 02 concentration in the flue gas was controlled between 2-3%. No unburnedLOW agglomerates were found in the lime product. Therefore, for Runs SL9 to SL11,operation was satisfactory from all points of view - smooth operation with nointerruptions due to blockage, good control of excess air, etc.90Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsTable 5.8 shows the conditions for the combustion runs and the productcalcination results. The conditions for each run were divided into 2 parts: the first part isfor natural gas firing (e.g. SL2A) and the second part is for LOW firing with or withoutnatural gas co-firing (e.g. SL2B). The limestone feed rate was constant at 40 kg/h for allruns. From Table 5.8, the lime product calcinations were quite low for the first 7 runs dueto some adjustments to the combustion conditions. The limestone calcination is verysensitive to the dissociation temperature and the duration at this temperature. Smallvariations in LOW feed rate result in a great difference in percent product calcination. Forthe last three runs, the lime product calcinations were greater than 90% for both naturalgas and LOW firing. However, it was found that the percent lime product calcinationvaried depending on the size of the lime particle. The smaller the lime particle size, thelower its percent calcination in a pilot lime kiln, as shown in Table 5.8. This is due to thesegregation which occurs during kiln operation which gives rise to the formation of a"kidney-shaped" zone of the fine material which does not get exposed to the hot gas (69).91Table 5.8 Combustion run conditionsDate(d/111/Yr)Run Gas flow(m3/min)LOWcomp-osition*LOWflowrate(kg/min)Net heatinput(MJ/min)**Totalcombust-ion air(m3/min)Primary/secondary/atomization +air (m3/min)Limeproductoutlet(kg/h)% ProductCalcinationdp> 1.18mm% ProductCalcinationdp<1.18mm% 02 influe gas12/5/92 SL2A 0.150 - 5.25 1.274 0.91/0.37/ - 25.6 77.9 30.1 2.06SL2B 0.071 LOW1 0.277 6.33 1.826 1.13/0.57/0.13 25.2 89.6 59.9 1.5107/7/92 SL3A 0.164 - - 5.74 1.614 1.13/0.48/ - 23.25 - - 2.6SL3B 0.065 LOW2 0.236 6.17 1.897 0.99/0.79/0.11 22 72.4 59.8 0.5-2.714/7/92 SL4A 0.164 - - 5.74 1.472 1.08/0.40/ - 21.75 82.8 59.3 1.5SLAB 0.034 LOW2 0.28 5.81 1.982 0.99/0.85/0.14 22 74.5 39.1 1-601/10/92 SL5A 0.164 - - 5.74 1.472 1.13/0.34/ - 22.5 83.4 42.5 3.005/10/92 SL6A 0.164 - - 5.74 1.472 1.13/0.34/ - 21 - - 4.0SL6B - LOW2 0.37 6.105 1.841 0.99/0.71/0.14 20.5 94.6 69.1 2-1016/10/92 SL7A 0.150 - - 5.25 1.246 0.85/0.40/ - 23 83.4 59.5 1.022/10/92 SL8A 0.150 - - 5.25 1.303 0.85/0.45/ - 24 62.6 35.2 0.5SL8B - LOW3 0.35 5.19 1.807 0.99/0.71/0.11 26.7 60.2 33.4 2.7-3.506/11/92 SL9A 0.164 - - 5.74 1.642 1.22/0.42/ - 22.9 95.3 55.0 2.5SL9B - LOW3 0.38 5.63 1.818 0.99/0.71/0.12 24.1 99.3 93.2 2.0-3.518/11/92 SL10A 0.164 - - 5.74 1.642 1.22/0.42/ - 23.8 94.4 46.9 3.15SL1OB - LOW2 0.35 5.79 1.741 1.22/0.42/0.10 22.2 99.3 96.5 2.0-3.025/11/92 SL11A 0.164 - - 5.74 1.586 1.19/0.40/ - 22.8 99.4 86.9 2.6-2.7SL11B 0.065 LOW3 0.245 5.9 1.739 0.93/0.68/0.12 21.5 99.1 97.5 2.1-3Chapter 5 Results and Discussions*LOW composition Lignin Oil Water Surfactant(%) (%) (%) (ppm)LOW1 41 12 47 1000LOW2 37 20 43 1000LOW3 41 14 45 1000**Net heat inlet calculation is shown in Appendix F.5.2.1 LOW firing at 60% natural gas replacementFigures 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8 show axial gas temperature profiles, bed temperatureprofiles and inside wall surface temperature profiles for LOW firing at 60% natural gasreplacement. Two different compositions of LOW were used. For Run SL3B, LOWcomposition was 37% lignin , 20% oil and 43% water, and for Run SL11B, LOWcomposition was 41% lignin, 14% oil and 45% water. The comparison between thedifferent LOW compositions will not be discussed here because of the difference in thefeeding system, the total combustion air supply, the primary, secondary and atomizationair, between the two runs that might have affected the temperature profiles inside the kiln.From Figure 5.6, the highest gas temperatures for natural gas firing were at thefirst thermocouple, or 0.15 m from the lime product outlet, while the highest gastemperatures for LOW+natural gas co-firing were at the third thermocouple, or 0.92 mfrom the lime product outlet. After the third thermocouple, the temperature profiles ofLOW+natural gas co-firing were higher than those of natural gas firing. Also at the tenththermocouple, the temperature difference between the natural gas firing and LOW+naturalgas co-firing was about 100°C.931200 —^,. , 1100 —Liti)a).0 1900 -a)^-s. 900 —03;-,a)sz.E 600  —a)700 —----,.......:0,' 0 \\ \\ \\ •\ 0\oChapter 5 Results and Discussions0,o \\ so,,,, 111.„=......„• - o,`,^•-0,^•.....:,- o_.„— 0—natural gas, SL3A—•— LOW2+natural gas, SL3B— 0— natural gas, SL11A—•— LOW3+natural gas, SL11B/I.6000I1I2I3I^ I4Distance from lime product outlet (m)5Figure 5.6 Axial gas temperature profiles for 60% natural gas replacementThese gas temperature profiles showed that the natural gas flame was shorter thanthe LOW flame. The lower temperature of LOW+natural gas co-firing at distance lessthan 1 m from the lime product outlet was due to the lag time for slurry fuel combustion.LOW droplets from the atomizer must be partially evaporated, dried and heated to acertain temperature before the combustion reaction begins. By contrast, mixing of thenatural gas with air, and combustion take place in the burner. The higher gas temperatureof LOW+natural gas co-firing at the cold end of the kiln showed that there was moresensible heat loss with flue gas by LOW+natural gas co-firing than that by natural gasfiring alone. However, for a commercial kiln, which is much longer and for which the feedis wet, this problem may not occur.9411001000 -— 0 — natural gas, SL3A— ■ — LOW2+natural gas, SL3B- o--- natural gas, SL11A—0— LOW3+natural gas, SL11B500C..)bb 900-ti)-c$800 --1?)a)a^ 700 -E600 -Chapter 5 Results and Discussions0^1^2^3^4^5Distance from lime product outlet (m)Figure 5.7 Axial bed temperature profiles for 60% natural gas replacementFrom Figure 5.7, the highest bed temperatures for natural gas firing were at thefirst thermocouple for Run SL3A and at the second thermocouple for Run SL11A. Thisdifference in position of the highest bed temperature was due to the different proportion ofprimary and secondary combustion air. Run SL11A had higher primary and lesssecondary air flow than Run SL3A, which caused a longer flame and lower bedtemperature at the first thermocouple from the kiln. The highest bed temperatures forLOW+natural gas co-firing was between the third and the forth thermocouple. Thedifference in position for the highest bed temperature for gas firing and LOW+natural gasco-firing corresponded to the gas temperature profiles (Figure 5.6), and reflects the heatflows from the freeboard gas to the solid.950I^I^I^I1 2 3 4Distance from lime product outlet (m)N Ns.NNNN„--- ^ --- natural gas, SL3A— ■ — LOW2+natural gas, SL3B--- 0-- natural gas, SL1 IA—•— LOW3 +natural gas, SL1 1B5 61000 -900 -C.)oz 800 -h  700-§1.,600-H500 -400 -- ••Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsFigure 5.8 Axial inside surface wall temperature profiles for 60% natural gas replacementFrom Figure 5.8, the inside surface wall temperature profiles for LOW+natural gasco-firing, at the distance greater than 1 m from the lime product outlet were higher thanthose of natural gas firing. These data showed the same trend as both axial gas and bedtemperature profiles.5.2.2 LOW firing at 100% natural gas replacementFigure 5.9 shows the gas temperature profiles for LOW firing at 100% natural gasreplacement for 2 different LOW compositions. For Run SL9B, the LOW compositionwas 41% lignin, 14% oil and 45% water, and, for Run SL10, the LOW composition was37% lignin, 20% oil and 43% water. In general, the highest gas temperatures for LOWfiring were at the fourth thermocouple, or about 2.2 m from the lime product outlet, while964I^I^I1 2 3Distance from lime product outlet (m)700-600013001200 -ca 1100 -e-z) Iwo -a)900 -800 -E-4—0-- natural gas, SL9A- LOW3, SL9Bnatural gas, SL10A—0— LOW2, SL1OBChapter 5 Results and Discussionsthe highest temperatures for natural gas firing were at the first thermocouple or 0.15 mfrom the product outlet. The gas temperatures for LOW firing at the cold end of the kilnwas almost 100°C higher than those for gas firing. The reasons for these phenomena arethe same as those which explain the trends in Figure 5.6.Figure 5.9 Axial gas temperature profiles for 100% natural gas replacementFor Run SL10B, the LOW composition had a higher % oil, less % lignin and less% water than that for Run SL9B. The gas temperature profile of Run SL1OB was abovethat of Run SL9B for the first four thermocouples from the lime product outlet, whichindicated the effect of the LOW composition on its gas temperature profile. The higherthe water content in the slurry, the greater the heat required to evaporate the water andincrease the water vapor temperature to the kiln temperature and thus the longer thecombustion flame and the lower the gas temperature at the combustion end of the kiln.9711001000 —- natural gas, SL9A—•—LOW3, SL9B---o--- natural gas, SL10A—•—LOW2, SL1OBcol1^2^3^4Distance from lime product outlet (m)5a) 900 —a)1-■-le 800 —cv1a)ta.700Ei600 —Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsThe bed temperature profiles and the inside surface wall temperature profiles (Figures 5.10and 5.11) had a similar trend to the gas temperature profiles.Figure 5.10 Axial bed temperature profiles for 100% natural gas replacement98Chapter 5 Results and Discussions1000 -900 -U800V.141 700 -600 -F1500 -400 -`:o\—0—natural gas, SL9A—•— LOW3, SL9B- natural gas, SL10A—•— LOW2, SL1OB• •1^2^3^4^5^6Distance from lime product outlet (m)Figure 5.11 Axial inside wall surface temperature profiles for 100% natural gasreplacement5.2.3 LOW firing at different % natural gas replacementFigure 5.12 shows the axial gas temperature profiles for natural gas firing,LOW+natural gas co-firing (at 60% natural gas replacement by LOW) and LOW firinginside the kiln. The highest gas temperature shifted from the first thermocouple for naturalgas firing to the third thermocouple for LOW+natural gas firing and to the fourththermocouple for LOW firing. The maximum gas temperature was about 100°C lowerwith LOW firing, compared to that of natural gas firing. The gas temperature at the tenththermocouple, 4.5 m. from the lime product outlet, increased as the amount of LOW usedas a fuel in the kiln increased. From these results, it can be concluded that the higher the99------- natural gas, SL11A---•--- LOW3+natural gas, SL11B-A- LOW3, SL9BChapter 5 Results and Discussions% natural gas replacement by the LOW slurry, the longer is the combustion flame insidethe kiln.0^1^2^3^4^5Distance from lime product outlet (m)Figure 5.12 Axial gas temperature profiles at different % natural gas replacementThe axial bed temperature profiles (Figure 5.13) had a similar trend to the gastemperature profiles, except that the maximum bed temperature for natural gas firingmoved to the second thermocouple from the lime product outlet. For the inside surfacewall temperature profiles, Figure 5.14, the inside surface wall temperature for LOW firingdropped significantly at the distance less than 1.5 m. from the lime product outlet. At60% natural gas replacement, the inside surface wall temperatures at the firstthermocouple from lime product outlet was a little below those of natural gas firing;however, for the other eight thermocouples, the temperatures were about 50°C higherthan those of natural gas firing.100------ 0-- natural gas, SLI IA---•---LOW3+natural gas, SL11B- A LOW3, SL9BChapter 5 Results and Discussions0^1^2^3^4^5Distance from lime product outlet (m)Figure 5.13 Axial bed temperature profiles at different % natural gas replacement.1015 61000 -9000.)) 800 --o .700 -04 600 -E-1500 -0 natural gas, SL1 IA—0-- LOW3+natural gas, SL11B-A- LOW3, SL9B400 -I^I^I^I1 2 3 4Distance from lime product outlet (m)Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsFigure 5.14 Axial inside wall surface temperature profiles at different % natural gasreplacementFigure 5.15 shows the axial calcination profiles inside the kiln for LOW firings(Runs SL9B and SL10B), LOW+natural gas co-firing (Run SL11B) and typical naturalgas firing (10). It is shown that more than 90% of calcination reaction occurs within thedistance 2.5 m from the lime product outlet for all fuels. The total residence time forlimestone inside the kiln is about 2 hours (Appendix E). However, the residence time forthe calcination reaction is less than 1 hour because the reaction occurs in only half of thekiln length. The axial calcination profile for natural gas firing is found to be lower thanLOW firings and LOW+natural gas co-firing at ports 1-5 from the lime product outletdoor. This might be due to the long and luminious flame of LOW firing which enhances1025 6—A— L0W3, SL9B—0— LOW2, SL1 OB—x—LOW3+natural gas, SL11B—0—natural gas (10)I^I^I^•^I1 2 3 4Distance from lime product outlet (m)130 -80 -60 -40 -20 -0-10Chapter 5 Results and Discussionsthe radiative heat transfer and creates a broader burning zone. These effects could beexplained by an analysis of heat flow in the kiln.Figure 5.15 Axial calcination profiles inside the kiln5.2.4 True bed temperature profilesFigures 5.16, 5.17, 5.18 and 5.19 show the axial gas, bed and true bed temperatureprofiles for Runs SL3B, SL9B, SL1OB and SL11B, respectively. The "true" bedtemperatures were measured by halting kiln rotation as outlined in Section 4.2. Fromthese figures, it was observed that the true bed temperatures were much different from thebed temperatures measured transiently without correction, particularly for the third andfourth thermocouples where the gas and bed temperatures were the highest. Thetemperature differences at these positions were found to be 80-150°C, while for the otherthermocouples, the differences were much smaller. Because of the big difference between103Chapter 5 Results and Discussionsthe gas temperature and the true bed temperature at the third and the fourththermocouples, the uncorrected bed temperature readings were much higher than the truebed temperatures.12001100 —C.) 1000 —•IzSs-i 900800700 —600— 0-- gas temperature— x-- bed temperature—A— true bed temperatureX^0,,,-** --------, A^--__ ...._.O A^ ---__„___^-"-x 0A•***''''X'''s\-,...0X/^ -% A\,..... A^ X\o0I^I^I1^2 3 4Distance from lime product outlet (m)5Figure 5.16 Axial gas/bed/true bed temperature profiles, SL3B1041200— o— gas temperature—x— bed temperature— A— true bed temperature1100 —0bb11) 1000 —"CSa)$-1.e . 900 —als.toas 800 —Ey700—0^1^2^3^4Distance from lime product outlet (m)50^1^2^4^4^512 00 ——0— gas temperature—x— bed temperature—A— true bed temperature1100 -0N0S loco -0idb 900 —0F" 800 —700 —Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsFigure 5.17 Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL9BDistance from lime product outlet (m)Figure 5.18 Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL1OB10512 001100 -U611) 1000 -"cf15) 900‘.4Nai1:14800 -F-— o— gas temperature—x— bed temperature— A— true bed temperature700 -Chapter 5 Results and Discussions0^1^2^3^:t^5Distance from lime product outlet (m)Figure 5.19 Axial gas/ bed/ true bed temperature profiles, SL11B5.2.5 Flue gas analysisIn the combustion experiments in the pilot lime kiln, gas chromatography (GC)was used to measure the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the flue gas. Theresults are presented in Appendix G. The oxygen concentration was controlled between2-3% by adjusting the combustion air flow rate. The steady state CO2 concentrationvaried between 16-20% for natural gas firing and 20-24% LOW firing. An oxygenanalyzer which measures the oxygen concentration in the flue gas continuously by anelectrochemical cell was also used. The readings from the oxygen analyzer and the GCwere compared. The results showed that they were in the same range. The 02concentration from the GC was about 1.15 times as high as that from the oxygen analyzerwhen the reading from the oxygen analyzer showed about 2% oxygen in the flue gas. In106Chapter 5 Results and Discussionslater runs, the FTIR spectrometer was used to measure some gaseous pollutants such ascarbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxide and methane.Table 5.9 shows the FTIR gas analysis results for Run SL9. The COconcentration, for natural gas firing with 2.7% oxygen concentration in the flue gas, was25 ppm. For LOW firing, with oxygen concentrations in the flue gas varied from 1-3%,the CO concentrations were between 3.5-58 ppm. Figure 5.20 shows the COconcentration in the kiln flue gas at different oxygen concentrations for 8 gas samplesfrom Run SL9B. The results show that, as expected, the higher the oxygen concentration,the lower is the CO concentration in the flue gas.107Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsTable 5.9 FTIR gas analysis results for Run SL9 (dry basis)Samplename/time02%COppmNOppmNO2ppmTotalNOxppmSO2ppmCH4ppmNatural gas12:18 pm2.7 25 84 2 86 ntd ntdLOW test 183:14 pm2.8 5 309 42 351 28 ntdLOW test 193:18 pm2.4 19 256 98 354 172 ntdLOW test 203:30 pm1 58 219 39 258 287 ntdLOW test 214:08 pm2.9 5 229 57 286 223 ntdLOW test 224:16 pm3.1 13 328 75 403 124 ntdLOW test 23*4:38 pm3.1 13 162 131 293 158 ntdLOW test 244:41 pm3.2 3.5 320 111 431 150 ntdLOW test 255:09 pm1.8 15 242 125 367 204 ntdLOW test 265:16 pm3 8 323 98 421 345 ntdnote : - CO2 concentration was too high for the current gas cell to obtain anymeaningful data.- CO concentration are approximate (+/- 20 ppm)due to interference, only a small portion of the spectra was used for dataanalysis.- NO uncertainty is +/- 15 ppm.- NO2 has some interference due to water (+1-10 ppm).legend : ntd - not detected* This set of data was not used in plotting Figures 5.20 and 5.2110860 --a. -ao —CO^-30 -a'a)^-U0 20 -Oc.)0-Chapter 5 Results and Discussions1.0^1.5^2.0^2.5^3.0^35Oxygen concentration (%)Figure 5.20 Carbon monoxide concentration in the kiln flue gas, Run SL9BAt equilibrium, the CO concentration is given by the overall reaction:CO2 4--->^CO + 0.5 02^K1and thus [CO] = K1 [CO2]/[02] 0 . 5 where K1 is the equilibrium constant and [CO] etc.are the concentrations of the gases. The equilibrium concentration of CO in the flue gasdepends on the temperature and the level of excess air (55). The higher the flametemperature, the higher is the value of the equilibrium constant and so is the COconcentration. If the temperature is maintained constant, the low levels of excess air resultin the higher concentrations of CO. CO is formed rapidly in the reaction zone, and henceconcentrations of CO in the flame are usually above the equilibrium value (55). As the gasmoves along the kiln CO concentrations decrease as CO is oxidized to CO2. For a pilotlime kiln, the time available for burn out of the CO is short compared with that of an109Chapter 5 Results and Discussionsactual kiln, thus the CO levels from the actual kiln may be lower than those measured fromthe pilot lime kiln.The NO and NO2 concentrations, for natural gas firing with 2.7% oxygen in theflue gas, were 84 and 2 ppm respectively. The NO2 concentration is less than 3% of theNO. For LOW firing, with oxygen concentrations in the flue gas varied from 1-3%, theNO and NO2 concentrations were 219-328 and 42-125 ppm respectively. The NO2concentrations vary between 14-52% of the NO. The relatively high [NO2]/[NO] ratiosfor LOW firing may be explained by the long combustion flame of the LOW fuel. Fortypical flame temperatures (T > 1500 K), chemical equilibrium considerations indicate thatthe [NO2]/[NO] ratios are negligible (70). However, significant NO2 concentrations havebeen measured in gas turbine exhausts and in situ measurements of NO x concentration inturbulent diffusion flames (71,72) indicate that there are relatively large [NO2]/[NO]ratios near the combustion zone. Also, in probe sampling studies of one-dimensionalpremixed hydrocarbon-air flames, significant levels of NO2 have been found in the flamezone, with apparent conversion of the NO2 back in the postflame region (73).Figure 5.21 shows the NO concentration in the flue gas at different oxygenconcentrations for 8 gas samples taken from Run SL9B. The results show that the higherthe oxygen concentration in the flue gas, the higher the NO concentration. Nitrogenoxides in the flue gas are formed as a result of the oxidation of nitrogen compounds in thefuel (fuel NO), the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen at high temperatures (thermal NO),and the reaction of hydrocarbon fragments and molecular nitrogen in the flame (promptNO). However, the formation of the prompt NO has a weak temperature dependence, ashort life time of several microseconds, and is only significant in very fuel-rich flames (76).The formations of both fuel and thermal NO are dependent on the local combustionenvironment (temperature and stoichiometry). The higher the combustion temperatureand the level of the oxygen in the combustion zone, the more NOx will be formed in the110AA320 - A•+4 260 -N0 240 -UChapter 5 Results and Discussionsflue gas. At flame temperatures below 1800 K, the formation of the thermal NO isinsignificant compared with the fuel NO which is a principal source of NO emissions infossil fuel combustion (77).340Z 220 -200 -S1.10^1.5^2.0^2.5Oxygen concentration (%)Figure 5.21 Nitric oxide concentration in the kiln flue gas, Run SL9BAssume that all the nitrogen in the lignin-oil-water fuel reacts with oxygen andforms nitric oxide in the flue gas, the calculated NO concentration in the flue gas is 2405ppm (Appendix F). This number is much higher than the measured total NOxconcentration in the flue gas, average 352 ppm (Table 5.9). The big difference betweenthe calculated and the measured value of the NO x concentration in the flue gas indicatesthat not all the nitrogen in the LOW fuel converted to the NO x gases. Table 5.10 showsthe calculation of percent conversion fuel-nitrogen to NO x in the flue gas in Run SL9B.By assuming that the thermal NO formed in the flue gas during natural gas firing is equalto that formed during LOW firing, the fuel NOx gas formed during LOW firing was3.0^35111Chapter 5 Results and Discussions11.5% of the nitrogen entering to the kiln with LOW fuel. The detail calculation isprovided in Appendix H.Table 5.10 Percent conversion of fuel-nitrogen in LOW combustion, Run SL9BNatural gas firing (SL9A) :Total NOx measured^0.3449^mole/h (Thermal NO)LOW firing (SL9B):Average total NOx measured^1.6552^mole/h (Thermal + Fuel NO)Fuel NOx formed^1.3103^mole/hTotal N in with LOW 11.40^mole/h%N in LOW fuel converted to NO x^1.3103/11.40 x 10011.5^%The total NOx concentration, which is the sum equivalence of nitrogen oxides, ofLOW firing is high compared with that of natural gas firing in the pilot lime kiln.However in an actual kiln, some control methods such as staged combustion, burnermodifications, exhaust gas recirculation or injection of ammonia and related compoundscould be utilized to reduce the NO x formation in the flue gas.Sulfur dioxide was not detected in the flue gas during the natural gas firing.However, for the LOW firing, the SO2 concentration varied from 28 to 345 ppm. Arelation between the SO2 and the oxygen concentrations in the flue gas was not found.With the current sampling system, some SO2 is absorbed by condensed water inside theheat exchanger tube and some reacts with calcium compounds in the solid filter and thegas sampling line, thus the highest measured SO2 concentration is believed to moreclosely represent the actual SO2 concentration in the flue gas.Assume that all the organic sulfur in the lignin-oil-water fuel reacts with oxygenand forms sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, the expected concentration of SO2 is 594 ppm(Appendix H); however, the measured SO2 concentration was 345 ppm. The difference inSO2 concentration between the calculated value and the measured value is probably due112Chapter 5 Results and Discussionsto the SO2 loss in the gas sampling system. The sulfur balance around the kiln will beshown in Section 5.3.1.The high level of SO2 concentration with LOW firing, compared to that withnatural gas firing, indicates that there is not good contact between SO2, 02, and CaO inthe pilot lime kiln. However, in an actual lime kiln, whose residence time is much longerand the solid feed is moist, the SO2 concentrations in the flue gas may be lower because ofthe capture by the solid CaO or the wet mud.Table 5.11 shows the gas analysis results from Run SL8. There are someconditions different between the combustion in Runs SL8 and SL9. The heat load of RunSL9 is about 10% higher than that of Run SL8 and therefore the gas temperature profilesare higher for Run SL9. Also, the atomizer used in Run SL8 was the external mixingnozzle, while in Run SL9 the internal mixing nozzle was used. However, the effect ofdifferent type of atomizer on the LOW combustion was not established.113Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsTable 5.11 FTIR gas analysis results for Run SL8 (dry basis)Samplename/time02%COppmNOppmNO2ppmTotalNOxppmSO2ppmCH4ppmNatural gas11.26 pm0.5 2080 25 ntd 25 ntd ntdNatural gas*11:44 pm2.6 2450 29 ntd 29 ntd ntdLOW test 1112:20 pm2.9 58-70 141 4 145 ntd ntdLOW test 1212:22 pm2.9 62 139 ntd 139 22 ntdLOW test 1312:32 pm3.1 42-62 154 6 160 215 ntdLOW test 141:04 pm3.3 39-54 164 9-12 173-176 65 ntdLOW test 151:07 pm2.6 70 164 7 171 55.2 ntdLOW test 161:43 pm2.9 20-39 135 11 146 130 ntdLOW test 171:46 pm3 39 142 9 151 128 ntdnote : - * the lime product output door was open during the flue gasmeasurement.- CO2 concentration was too high for the current gas cell to obtain anymeaningful data.- CO concentration are approximate (+/- 17ppm)due to interference, only a small portion of the spectra was used for dataanalysis.- NO uncertainty is +/- 10 ppm.- NO2 has some interference due to water (+/-10 ppm).legend : ntd - not detected114Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsFrom Table 5.11, for natural gas firing the first sample was taken while the limeproduct outlet door was closed and the second sample was taken while the door wasopen. The other conditions such as natural gas, primary air and secondary air flow rateswere constant. The results show that the difference in oxygen concentration in the fluegas between the closed door and the open door is about 2%, however, the CO and NOxconcentrations in the flue gas are in the same range. This indicates that when the limeproduct outlet door is open, some air is drawn into the kiln, however, this air is not wellmixed with the fuel in the combustion zone and leaked to the flue gas. Later on, all theflue gas measurements were done with the lime product output door closed.For natural gas firing, Run SL8 with 0.5% oxygen concentration in the flue gas,the CO concentration is 2080 ppm and the NO concentration is 25 ppm, compared withthe CO and NO concentrations from Run SL9 with 2.7% oxygen concentration in the fluegas, which are 25 ppm and 86 ppm respectively. The high CO concentration and low NOconcentration for Run SL8 mainly result from its tight supply of combustion air in the kilnwhich reduces the amount of oxygen left from the combustion zone to react with carbonmonoxide or nitrogen gases to form carbon dioxide or nitrogen oxides. However, the lowNO concentration in Run SL8 may also result from its lower heat load.For LOW firing, Run SL8B, with the same range of oxygen concentration in theflue gas as that of Run SL9B, the total NO x concentrations were between 139-176 ppmcompared with 258-431 ppm from those of Run SL9B. The higher of the total NO xconcentration results from the increases in heat load and fuel-nitrogen from higher LOWfeed rate in Run SL9B.115Chapter 5 Results and Discussions5.2.6 Overall heat and mass balances in a pilot lime kilnTables 5.12 and 5.13 show the results of the overall material and energy balancesin a pilot lime kiln for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11A. Sample calculations are providedin Appendix F. In the calculation, it was assumed that both the combustion and thecalcination reactions were complete; all the nitrogen and the organic sulfur in LOWconverted to NO and SO2 in the flue gas. The combustion air supply was measured fromthe rotameters during the runs. The kiln boundaries were set at 4.521 m from limeproduct exit door for the limestone feed end and at 0.146 m from the door for the limeproduct outlet end due to the available gas and solid bed temperature measurements atthose points. Since the balance was not over the whole kiln, heat losses as a percentagemay be affected. Runs SL9B and SL1OB used LOW as a fuel in the kiln, however withdifferent compositions. Run SL11A used natural gas as a kiln fuel. From flue gasanalysis, it was found that the concentration of CO in the flue gas was very small (Table5.9); from elemental analysis of dust samples collected from cyclone (Table 5.16) %unburnt carbon in the dust samples (calculated from % total C - % C in carbonate form)varied from 0.4-1.1%, and from lime product calcination test (Table 5.8), the productcalcinations were higher than 99% for the lime particle with diameter greater than 1.8 mmfor all these runs, and higher than 93, 97 and 87% for the lime particle with diameter lessthan 1.8 mm for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11A respectively, therefore the assumptionsof complete combustion and calcination reactions are justified. Results of the material andenergy balances of Runs SL9A, SL10A and SL11B with all the same assumptions asmentioned above are also provided at the end of Appendix F.116Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsTable 5.12 Results from overall mass balances for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11ARun SL 9B Run SL 10B Run SL11AFuel in-natural gas (m3 /min) - - 0.164-mass flow rate (kg/min) - - 0.113-LOW-%composition (lignin:oil:water) 41:14:45 37:20:43 --mass flow rate (kg/min) 0.38 0.35 --mole Sorg in (mole/min) 0.047 0.040 --mole N in (mole/min) 0.19 0.16 -Air supply-air temperature inlet (K) 298 298 298-volumetric flow rate of air measured fromrotameters in combustion runs (m3/min)1.818 1.741 1.586-mass flow rate of air in (kg/min) 2.15 2.06 1.88Limestone in-total^(kg/h) 40.0 40.0 40.0-CaCO3 (kg/h) 38.8 38.8 38.8-inerts^(kg/h) 1.2 1.2 1.2Lime product out-total^(kg/h) 22.9 22.9 22.9-CaO (kg/h) 21.7 21.7 21.7-inerts^(kg/h) 1.2 1.2 1.2Mole flue gas out-total (mole/min) 95.55 91.18 78.15-CO2 (mole/min) 18.29 18.18 13.47-02^(mole/min) 1.04 0.14 - 0.21-N2^(mole/min) 58.06 55.60 50.71-Ar^(mole/min) 0.669 0.641 0.584-H2O (mole/min) 17.18 16.36 13.6-NO (mole/min) 0.19 0.16 0-SO2 (mole/min) 0.047 0.040 0-ash and sulphate (mole/min) 0.072 0.060 0Flue gas-flue gas temperature (K) 1047.4 1045.6 956.9-volumetric flow rate at Tg,out (m3/min) 8.206 7.819 6.137- mass flow rate of flue gas (kg/min) 2.82 2.70 2.27Dry flue gas composition-CO2 (%) 23.36 24.31 20.86-02^(%) 1.33 0.19 - 0.33-N2^(%) 74.15 74.38 78.56-NO^(ppm) 2405 2095 0-SO2 (ppm) 594 541 0117Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsMass balances- total mass in (fuel + air + limestone) 191.84 184.58 159.36- total mass out (flue gas + lime product) 191.84 184.57 159.33Table 5.13 Results from overall energy balances for Runs SL9B, SL1OB and SL11A*Run SL9B Run SL Run SL11AInlet fuel and air temperature (K) 298 298 298Inlet limestone temperature (K) 977.8 976.9 895.5Exit gas temperature (K) 1047.4 1045.6 956.9Exit lime product temperature (K) 1014.2 1053.6 1256Net heat released by fuel (MJ/min) 5.631 5.785 5.740Enthalpy of solids and gases flow in- solids (MJ/min) 0.497 0.496 0.430- gas (MJ/min) - - -Total heat input (MJ/min) 6.128 6.281 6.170Enthalpy of solids and gases flow out- solid (MJ/min) 0.249 0.263 0.340- gas (MJ/min) 2.527 2.413 1.776- total -(MJ/min) 2.776 2.677 2.116- % total heat input 45.30 42.61 34.29Heat consumed by calcination- (MJ/min) 1.153 1.153 1.153- % total heat input 18.82 18.36 18.69Heat loss- (MJ/min) 2.199 2.451 2.901- % total heat input 35.88 39.03 47.02* See page 116 for boundaries of the enthalpy balance.118Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsFrom Table 5.12, the 02 contents in the dry flue gas are quite low, compared withthe measured 02 contents from the combustion runs (Table 5.8) for all the runs. Thedifferences between these numbers are due to the leakage air which enters the kiln throughseals, product exit door, etc. The average flue gas volumetric flow rate of LOW firings(Runs SL9B and SL10B) is about 30% higher than that of natural gas firing (Run SL11A).The higher flow rate results from both the higher number of total moles flue gas and thehigher flue gas temperature of LOW firing. This may hinder lignin-oil-water mixture usedas a kiln fuel since some kilns have a limitation in the freeboard gas velocity due to thehigh dust loss with the freeboard gas (75). The CO2 and SO2 emissions from LOW firingare higher than those from natural gas firing due to the different fuel compositions. Fornatural gas firing, H2O in the flue gas is from the product of hydrocarbon combustion(e.g. CH4), however, for LOW firing (Run SL9B), about 55% of H2O in the flue gas isfrom the moisture in the fuel and the rest is from the product of combustion of hydrogenin the fuel.From Table 5.13, the heat loss in the pilot lime kiln is quite high; 36-39% of totalheat input for LOW firing and 47% for natural gas firing. The reason for higher heat lossfor natural gas firing than for LOW firing is still unclear since the amount of total heatinput and the temperature profile of both natural gas and LOW firing are not muchdifferent. The outlet flue gas enthalpy of LOW firing was higher than that of natural gasfiring due to both the higher mass flow rate of the outlet gases for LOW firing (about 16%higher than that of natural gas) and the higher flue gas temperature. The high % heat lossand fuel consumption per unit of production in a pilot lime kiln results from its small size(0.4 m inside diameter and 5.5 m length) and low length to diameter ratio (--, 14) comparedwith the commercial kilns, which have 2-4 m diameter, 40-115 m length and L/D variedfrom 19-40 (28).119Chapter 5 Results and Discussions5.3 The effect of LOW combustion on lime product quality5.3.1 Elemental analysis of lime product and dust from cysloneLimestone, lime product, dust and lignin samples were analysed for trace elementssuch as total S, total C, Si, Al, Fe, Mg , etc. by ACME Analytical Laboratories Ltd. inVancouver. The method used was Inductively Couple Plasma (ICP) analysis. 0.2 gsamples are fused with 1.2 g of LiBO2 and dissolved in 100 mL 5% HNO3. Ba is sum asBaSO4 and other metals are sum as oxides. Carbonate ion (measured as CO2) ismeasured by total C minus 15% HCl leach as carbon dioxide gas. Both total C and total Sare measured by Leco carbon and sulphur determinators respectively. The detection limitsof all oxides are 0.03%; Sr, Y 10 ppm; Zr 20 ppm; Ba 5 ppm; carbonate ion, total C andtotal S 0.01%. The Na content in the above samples was measured by ICP-ultrasonicnebulization method from Quanta trace laboratories. Samples were ground, thenapproximately 0.5 g was digested in the microwave using reverse aqua regia (IiNO3:HC13:1). Detection limit for this method is 40 ppm. The analytical results of both Na andtotal S correspond to those obtained by classical methods.Table 5.14 shows the elemental analysis of lime product samples from combustionruns. From Table 5.14, all the oxide and metal contents in the lime product with LOWfiring were not much different from those with natural gas firing. If all the sulphur inlimestone feed (Table 4.4) retains in the lime product after calcination, the sulphur contentof the lime product will be 0.27%. However, the maximum total sulphur in the limeproduct is 0.23% for LOW firing and 0.19% for natural gas. Compared with averagesulphur content of reburnt limes collected from ten Canadian mills, 0.44% (27), thesulphur content in the lime product from LOW firing is about a half of the average value.The sodium content in the limestone feed is less than 40 ppm (Table 4.4) and so is the limeproduct from natural gas firing. The sodium content in the lime product from LOW firing120Chapter 5 Results and Discussionsis very small, 210 ppm, compared with the average sodium content, 2.6% Na, in reburnedlime collected from ten Canadian mills (27). The latter figure reflects the high sodiumlevels of the mud fed to the kiln.Table 5.15 shows the elemental analysis of Westvaco lignin samples. Sample WV1is the lignin sample after passing through 2 x 2 mm mesh screen. Sample WV2 is thesample of lignin lumps left on the screen. From Table 5.15, lignin lumps contain highersilica, aluminium, ferrous oxides and total carbon contents but lower total sulphur contentcompared to powder lignin.Table 5.16 shows the elemental analysis of dust samples from the cyclone. Duringthe trials, the cyclone was the only equipment used to collect the dust particles from kilnflue gas. Therefore, not all the dust was collected with this system and some small dustparticles were discharged with the flue gas. However, the dust sample from the cyclonewas collected for each combustion run and analysed for some trace elements such assodium and total sulphur etc. which were added to the system from LOW fuel. Comparedwith lime product samples, Table 5.14, dust samples contain much higher sodium, totalsulphur, total carbon and oxides such as silica, aluminium, ferrous, etc.121Table 5.14 Elemental analysis of the lime product samples from combustion runs.Run# %Naturalgas replac-Na TotalSSiO2 Al203 Fe2O3 MgO 1(20 TiO2 P2O5 MnO Cr2O3 Ba Sr Zr Y Nb Total Cement ppm % % % % % % % % % % ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm %SL3B 60 ntt 0.14 1.00 0.36 0.22 0.39 <0.06 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.008 10 1175 14 <10 <10 0.97SL4B 80 ntt 0.14 1.01 0.49 0.08 0.36 <0.06 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.005 12 1091 344 <10 12 1.39SL6B 100 ntt 0.19 0.95 0.52 0.20 0.44 <0.06 0.06 0.03 0.01 0.004 8 1162 18 <10 <10 0.51SL8B 100 ntt 0.23 1.49 0.56 0.34 0.33 <0.06 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.004 8 1078 108 <10 15 3.31SL9B 100 210 0.22 0.72 0.48 0.22 0.33 <0.06 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.005 <5 1186 15 <10 <10 0.47SL1OB 100 320 0.22 2.24 0.58 0.25 0.37 <0.06 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.004 10 1144 145 <10 <10 0.43SL11B 100 280 0.19 1.15 0.51 0.20 0.60 <0.06 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.009 8 1148 95 <10 <10 0.49SL4A 0 ntt 0.10 0.44 0.23 0.07 0.34 <0.06 0.05 <0.01 0.01 0.010 7 1245 10 <10 <10 0.65SL8A 0 ntt 0.12 0.46 0.37 0.19 0.46 <0.06 0.02 <0.01 0.01 <0.002 8 1113 <10 <10 <10 2.47SL9A 0 < 40 0.14 1.01 0.36 0.18 0.34 <0.06 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.005 5 1162 100 <10 <10 0.9SL10A 0 165 0.15 1.84 0.47 0.19 0.33 <0.06 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.005 10 1178 131 <10 11 0.9SL11A 0 70 0.19 1.34 0.63 0.34 0.35 <0.06 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.007 10 1190 156 <10 13 0.48legend : ntt = not takenTable 5.15 Elemental analysis of Westvaco lignin samplesSample#Na TotalSSi02 Al203 Fe203 MgO 1(20 TiO2 P205 MaO Cr203 Ba Sr Zr Y Nb TotalCppm % % % % % % % % % % ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm %WV1 11300 1.76 0.86 0.06 <0.01 0.05 <0.06 0.01 <0.01 0.01 0.003 7 <10 14 <10 <10 58.36WV2 ntt 1.50 2.08 0.12 0.23 0.08 0.14 <0.01 0.01 0.01 0.002 8 13 12 <10 <10 64.57legend : ntt = not takenTable 5.16 Elemental analysis of dust samples from the cycloneRun# %Naturalgas repl-Na TotalSSi02 Al203 Fe203 MgO K20 TiO2 P205 MnO Cr203 Ba Sr Zr Y Nb Total C CO2acement ppm % % % % % % % % % % ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm % %SL3 60 ntt 1.77 1.75 1.15 0.39 0.57 <0.06 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.011 29 1054 63 <10 24 8.06 19.81SL4 80 ntt 2.09 2.98 1.93 0.43 0.70 <0.06 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.011 35 948 71 <10 32 12.55 16.67SL6 100 ntt 2.68 2.27 1.30 0.31 0.58 0.37 0.02 0.10 0.09 0.007 49 996 390 <10 51 8.45 21.96SL8 100 ntt 2.32 2.60 1.06 0.48 0.69 <0.06 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.007 32 1061 20 <10 15 6.23 18.66SL9 100 5750 1.83 1.73 0.77 0.28 0.46 <0.06 0.01 0.05 0.04 0.009 21 935 20 <10 <10 8.89 28.71SL10 100 10300 2.31 2.56 0.92 0.54 0.68 0.23 0.04 0.05 0.08 0.010 37 1046 20 <10 22 5.96 19.58SL11 100 9670 2.81 2.61 1.06 0.41 0.79 0.20 0.04 0.03 0.10 0.007 49 1163 13 <10 30 4.10 13.58legend : ntt = not takenChapter 5 Results and DiscussionsThe sodium and sulphur balances on a pilot lime kiln for Run SL9B are shown inTables 5.17 and 5.18 respectively. Detailed calculations are provided in Appendix H. Inruns subsequent to this thesis (74) it was found that the total dust rate was 107.5 g/h, ofwhich 25 g/h were collected in the cyclone and the remainder in the baghouse. In thepresent calculation, the assumptions are: the limestone feed rate is constant at 40 kg/h; thedust rate is 107.5 g/h and the Na and S levels of all the dust are those measured in thecyclone sample.Table 5.17 Sodium balance on a pilot lime kiln for Run SL9B.1.Na in with limestone = 0 g/h2. Na in with LOW = 105.63 g/h3. Na out with lime product = 5.06 g/h4. Na out with dust = 0.62 g/hTotal Na in^= 105.63^g/hTotal Na out^=^5.68^g/hNa out / Na in =^5.4%Table 5.18 Sulphur balance on a pilot lime kiln for Run SL9B.1. Total S in with limestone^602. Total S in with LOW 171.553. Total S out with lime product =^53.024. Total S out with dust^1.975. Total S out with SO2 in flue gas =^103.82.*. Total S in^231.55^g/hTotal S out 158.81^g/hTotal S out / total S in^68.6 %g/hg/hg/hg/hg/h124Chapter 5 Results and DiscussionsFrom Table 5.17, the ratio of Na outlet / Na inlet is 5.4%. The low accountableNa may result from: the accumulation of sodium compounds inside the kiln in the form ofNa2SO4 or Na2CO3, and the assumption that the Na concentration in the dust collectedfrom the cyclone is equal to that from the baghouse. However, it is suspected that somesodium compounds were accumulated in the dust inside the kiln which came out with thelime product periodically. This is being investigated in further experiments. From Table5.18, the ratio of S inlet / S outlet is 68.6%. The deviation may result from some SO2loss during the measurement of SO2 concentration in the flue gas and the assumption thatthe total S concentration in the dust collected from cyclone is the same as that frombaghouse.5.3.2 Reactivity test of lime productTable 5.19 summarizes the slaking results of lime products from the combustionexperiments. The slaking reaction, and its importance in the lime cycle are discussed inSections 2.1.1 and 4.4. The temperature rise is the temperature difference between thetemperature of the green liquor before adding the lime product and the maximumtemperature after adding the lime product. Slaking time is the time required for thesuspension to reach maximum temperature after adding the lime sample. Slaking rate,dT/dt, was calculated from the temperature rise divided by the slaking time. From Table5.19 the slaking rates of lime products from LOW firing during the early combustionexperiments were lower than those from the later experiments. This was probably due tothe unstable combustion conditions in the early runs. However, after some modificationsof the slurry feeding system, combustion was stable for the latter runs. The reactivity andthe percent calcination of the lime product were greatly improved. If there is no over-burning, the extent of lime product calcination may roughly indicate the reactivity of thelime product. The higher the percent product calcination, the better the reactivity of the125Chapter 5 Results and Discussionsproduct lime. However, the reactivity of over-burned lime is low even though it containshigh percent calcination.Table 5.19 Slaking results of lime products from the combustion experimentsRun Fuel* % Naturalgasreplace-meat% ProductCalcinationdp>1.18mm%ProductCalcinationdp<1.18mmTemper-ature rise(°C)SlakingTime(minutes)dT/dt(°C/min)SL2B LOW1 50 89.6 59.9 10.24 3.0 3.41SL3B LOW2 60 72.4 59.8 6.32 6.83 0.93SLAB LOW2 80 74.5 39.1 7.96 3.0 2.65SL6B LOW2 100 94.6 69.1 9.08 3.17 2.87SL8B LOW3 100 60.2 33.4 7.54 3.33 2.26SL9B LOW3 100 99.3 93.2 12.93 1.67 7.76SL10B LOW2 100 99.3 96.5 8.82 2.17 4.07SL1 IB LOW3 60 99.1 97.5 12.04 2.0 6.02SL5A Gas 0 83.4 42.5 7.7 2.83 2.72SL7A Gas 0 83.4 59.5 9.44 2.67 3.54SL8A Gas 0 62.6 35.2 9.57 2.33 4.10SL9A Gas 0 95.3 55.0 9.28 2.50 3.71SL1OA Gas 0 94.4 46.9 11.85 2.83 4.18SL11A Gas 0 99.4 86.9 11.71 2.5 4.68*LOW composition see Table 5.8.Figure 5.22 shows the slaking temperature rise curves of Runs SL9, SL10 andSL11. From the curves, lime products from LOW firing in the kiln give marginally highermaximum temperature and lower slaking times compared with those from natural gas12694 —•••98 —dzizttgan" o96 —on 92 —a)90 —4-)88 —13.)4.) 861-484 —82 —80 —o-o-o-Iii=lil1=4=4=•—• —•— •A,66.66.6.ACP231.4"46=4*-- -.4L-_-4__A■.0080 —•—•—•—•Se••— le —natural gas, SL 9A—0 —LOW 3, SL9B— 0—natural gas, SL 10A— o—LOW2, SL1OB—A—natural gas, SL11A—A—LOW 3+natural gas, SL11BChapter 5 Results and Discussionsfiring for both Runs SL9 and SL11. For Run SL10 because the initial green liquortemperature was quite different, the maximum temperature is difficult to compare;however the rate of temperature rise is nearly the same for both LOW and natural gasfiring. From these results, within the accuracy of the measurement, the slaking behaviourof the lime is not seen to be adversely affected by the use of LOW as a fuel in the pilotlime kiln.I^•^I^•^I^10 100 200 300^400^500Time (s)Figure 5.22 Slaking temperature rise curves, Runs SL9, SL10 and SL11127Chapter 5 Results and Discussions5.4 Comparison of powdered lignin and LOW firingThe results of this work show that many similarities exist between dry lignin (10)and LOW firing of the pilot lime kiln. Both lignin and LOW flames are longer andbrighter than that of natural gas, which considerably alters the axial temperature profileswithin the kiln, for the bed and freeboard gas when lignin is used. The maximum flametemperatures shift towards the cold end of the kiln with lignin and LOW firing. Themaximum freeboard gas temperature is about 100°C lower with LOW firing, comparedwith that of Westvaco lignin. The % calcination of the lime products from both LOW andlignin firing is greater than 99%. And at the same net heat input, the axial calcinationprofile of the limestone inside the kiln was found to be higher with lignin and LOW firing,compared to that with natural gas firing. This may be explained by the long and luminousflame of lignin and LOW firing which enables the heat to penetrate farther into the solidbed and creates a broader burning zone. The lime produced with lignin or LOW as a fuelwas found to be as reactive in slaking as those produced by natural gas firing. The highervolumetric flow rate of the flue gas during lignin-oil-water mixture combustion (about1.19 times) compared to that of Westvaco lignin combustion results from the high watercontent in the lignin slurry fuel (Table 1.1).128Chapter 6 Conclusions and RecommendationsChapter 6Conclusions and Recommendations6.1 ConclusionsIn order to assess the suitability of lignin-oil-water mixture as a potential fuel forthe lime kilns, a rheological study of this fuel was performed, a pilot scale LOWpreparation facility and burner was designed, and a series of combustion trials were carriedout in a 0.4 m inside diameter, 5.5 m long pilot scale rotary lime kiln. The lignin waspurchased from Westvaco Co., USA., in the dry powder form. The oil used in theexperiments was No.2 fuel oil. The surfactant used was Tergitol NP-9 from SigmaChemical Co.The rheology of lignin-oil-water mixtures was found to be complex. The viscosityshowed time-dependent behavior which was both thixotropic and rheopectic. A limiteddecrease followed by an increase in viscosity occurred with time under a constant shearrate, for a lignin content of 52%. However, when the lignin content decreased to 47% orless, the viscosity showed only thixotropic behavior. Moreover, the steady state viscosityof lignin-oil-water mixture is a function of shear rate. The viscosity decreased with anincrease in shear rate from 50 to 250 s -1 . The thixotropic and shear thinning behaviors arenecessary in the lignin-oil-water mixture pumping and atomization. At 25°C, the viscosityof 37-47% lignin, 10-20% oil and 43-47% water mixtures is in the range of 0.3-0.7 Pa•s atshear rate 100 s-1 .Once an appropriate feed system and burner configuration were developed, lignin-oil-water mixtures could be burned satisfactorily in the pilot lime kiln. The atomizationsystem was based on a commercial spray nozzle. With the feed handling system used,smooth operation was possible. The lignin-oil-water mixture flame was long with a129Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendationsluminous bright orange color. The combustion was stable. The percent calcination of thelime product is greater than 99% when using lignin-oil-water mixture as a kiln fuel.Compared to natural gas, the maximum combustion temperature shifts towards thecold end of the kiln with lignin-oil-water mixture firing. This is due to the longer timerequired for the slurry fuel combustion compared with that of natural gas. However, forthe pilot lime kiln, this shift does not affect the lime product calcination; however, it seemsto help improve the % calcination of the limestone along the kiln.From flue gas analysis, the NOx and SO2 concentrations in the flue gas during thelignin-oil-water mixture firing were higher when compared with those of natural gas firing.NOx emissions were generally in the range 250-430 ppm with lignin-oil-water mixturefiring, and 86 ppm with natural gas firing. SO2 emissions were around 300 ppm withlignin-oil-water mixture firing and not detected for natural gas firing. Therefore, if lignin-oil-water mixture is used in a commercial lime kiln, some control methods should beconsidered to reduce the NO x and SO2 formation in the flue gas.The limes produced with lignin-oil-water mixture as a filel were found to be asreactive in slaking as those produced by natural gas firing. The levels of sodium, sulphurand other inert elements found in lignin-oil-water mixture did not affect the kiln operationor the quality of lime. However, there is some uncertainty of whether some sodium andsulphur added by lignin-oil-water fuel to the kiln might be retained inside the kiln or leavethe kiln with the flue gas.6.2 RecommendationsBefore further tests are carried out in the UBC pilot lime kiln, the following modificationsshould be made:130Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations(a) The gas sampling system should be modified to ensure that no condensation ofwater occurs in the sampling lines. This includes the use of insulated filters and heatedsampling lines to keep the temperature above 100°C up to the point of water removal.(b) The direct contact condenser on the kiln should be changed because somegases such as CO2, SO2, NOx can be absorbed by water.(c) A proper solid sampling system at the cyclone and the baghouse should bedevised; e.g. with a by-pass line, such that a sample can be collected during the run.(d) If the gas chromatograph is used to measured CO2 concentration in the fluegas, it should be calibrated at a range of different known concentrations to ensure thelinearity correlation of the response. (In these experiments, the CO2 concentration wascalibrated at only 1 point.)(e) Lime product and dust samples along the length of the kiln should be analysedfor sodium and sulfur to find out if these components accumulate inside the kiln.Future research should aim to use the lignin-oil-water mixture as a fuel in a pilotlime kiln for longer periods of time, to improve the material balance for minor species.From an economic point of view, LOW mixtures with lower fuel oil content should beinvestigated. Full scale trials should then be undertaken to confirm the results of the pilotplant and to identify any potential long-term effects on the white liquor quality, the limecycle and the kiln operation.131References1. Chaudhuri, P. B., "Use of lignin as kiln fuel", 1986 Engineering ConferenceProceedings, Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 373-376.2. Richardson, B., and Uloth V. C., "Kraft lignin: A potential fuel for lime kilns",Tappi J., 73:10, pp 191-194, 1990.3. Uloth, V.C. and Wearing, J. T., "Kraft lignin recovery: Acid precipitation versusultrafiltration Part I: Laboratory test results", Pulp Paper Can., 90:9, pp 67-71, 1989.4. Uloth, V.C. and Wearing, J. T., "Kraft lignin recovery: Acid precipitation versusultrafiltration Part II: Technology and Economics", Pulp Paper Can., 90:10, pp 34-37,1989.5. Beaupre, M. F.and Cambron, E. A., "Kraft overload recovery process",Canadian Patent 1, 172, 808, assigned to Domtar Inc., 1984.6. Loutfi, H., Blackwell, B., and Uloth, V., "Lignin recovery from kraft blackliquor:preliminary process design", Tappi J., 74:1, pp 203-210, 1991.7. Tran, H. N. and Barham D., "An overview of ring formation in lime kilns",Tappi J., 74:1, pp131-136, 1991.8. Tran , H., Griffiths, J., and Budge, M., "Experience of lime kiln ringingproblems at E.B. Eddy Forest Products", Pulp Paper Can., 92:1, pp 78-82, 1991.9. Richardson, B., Watkinson, A. P., and Barr P. V., "Combustion of lignin in apilot lime kiln", Tappi J., 73:12, pp133-13'7, 1990.10.Richardson, B., "Kraft lignin as a fuel for the rotary lime kiln", M.A.Sc. Thesis,The University of British Columbia, 1991.11. Watkinson, A. P., "By-product Lignin as a lime kiln fuel", NSERC File #661-128/87, 1990.12. Scheffe, R. S., "Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries",First Int. Symp. on Coal-Oil-Mixture Combustion [Proc.], Blake J.C. and A.J. Sabadell,Eds., The MITRE Corp., McLean, VA, U.S.A., pp 222-233, 1978.13.Papachristodoulou, G., and Trass, 0., "Coal slurry fuel technology", Can. J.Chem. Eng., 65, pp 177-201,1987.14.Miller, B.G., "Coal-water slurry fuel utilization in utility and industrial boiler",Chem. Eng. Prog., Vol. 85, pp 29-38, 1989.13215.Mchale, E.T., "Coal-water fuel combustion", 21st Symp. (Int.) Combust.[Proc.], pp159-171, 1986.16.Handerson, C.B, Scheffee, R. S., and Mchale, E.T., "Coal-water slurries-Alow-cost liquid fuel for boilers", Eng. Prog., Vol.3, No.2, pp 69-75, 1983.17. Sapienza, R.S.,Krishna, C.R., Butcher, T., and Marnell, P., "Coal/water fuelsin America's future", Eng. Prog., Vol.5, No.2, pp 113-116, 1985.18.Henderson, J.S., "Coal-water fuel has potential for the pulp and paperindustry", Tappi J., 68:12, pp 94-96, 1985.19. Shoji, K., Takahashi, Y. and Azuhata, S., "Development of coal-water mixturepreparation and utilization technology", 7th Conference on Electric Power SupplyIndustry [Proc.], Australia, Vol. 2-A, Paper No. 2-47, 1988.20. Beer, J. M., "Coal-water fuel combustion : fundamentals and application, ANorth America overview", Second European Conference on Coal Liquid Mixtures, TheInstitution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 95, pp 377-406, 1985.21. Teo, K. C. and Watkinson, A. P., Personal communication, Department ofChemical Engineering, UBC.22. Santisteban, E. M., "Development of by-products from kraft unbleached blackliquor", 1979 Pulping Conference Proceedings, Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 85-88.23. Men, R., Patja, P., and Sjostrom, E., "Carbon dioxide precipitation of ligninfrom pine kraft black liquor", Tappi J., 62:11, pp 108-110, 1979.24. Tomlinson, G. H. and Tomlinson, G. H. Jr., "Method of treating lignocellusicmaterial", Canadian Patent 448, 476, assigned to Howard Smith Paper mills Ltd., 1948.25. Merewether, J. W. T., "The precipitation of lignin from Eucalyptus kraft blackliquors", Tappi J., 45:2, pp 159-163, 1962.26. Kim, H., Hill, M. K., and Fricke, A. L., "Preparation of kraft lignin from blackliquor", Tappi J., 70:12, pp 112-116, 1987.27. Dorris, G. M. and Allen, L. H., "The effect of reburned lime structure on therates of slaking, causticizing and lime mud settling", Journal of Pulp and Paper Science,11:4, pp 89-98, 1985.28. Kramm, D. 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Kaji, R., Muranaka, Y., Otsuka, K., Hishinuma, Y., Kawamura, T., Murata,M., Takahashi, Y., Arikawa, Y., Kikkawa, H., Igarashi, T. and Higushi, H., "Effects ofcoal type, surfactant, and coal cleaning on the theological properties of coal watermixture", 5th (Int.) Symp. Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology [Proc.], PittsburghEnergy Technology Centre, US Department of Energy, Vol 1., pp 151-175, 1983.37. Adams-Viola, M., Botsaris, G. D., Filmyer, W. G. Jr.,Glazman, Y. M., andNeuman, D., "Characterization of the various types of COM: its implication for utilizationand specification of formulations", 3th (Int.) Symp. on Coal-Oil Mixture Combustion[Proc.], U.S. Dept. of Energy, P.E.T.C., pp 623-639, 1981.38. Rowell, R. L., Kosman, J. J., Batra, S. K., and Tsai, T., "Stabilization of coal-oil mixtures by chemical additives", 3th (Int.) Symp. on Coal-Oil Mixture Combustion[Proc.], U.S. Dept of Energy, P.E.T.C., pp 336-341, 1981.39. Atlas, H., Casassa, E. Z., Parfitt, G. D., Rao, A. S. and Toor, E. W., "Thestability and rheology of coal/water slurries", Powder and Bulk Solids Conference [Proc.],USA., 1985.40. Thambimuthu, K. V. and Whaley, H., "The combustion of coal-liquidmixtures", Chapter 4. in Principles of Combustion Engineering for Boilers, (edited by C. J.Lawn), Academic Press, 1987.41. Heaton, H. L. and McHale, E. T., "Rheology of coal-water fuel", SecondEuropean Conference on Coal Liquid Mixtures, The Institution of Chemical EngineersSymposium Series No.95, pp 73-86, 1985.13442. Tadros, Th. F., "Use of surfactants and polymers for preparation andstabilization of coal suspensions", Second European Conference on Coal Liquid Nfixture,The Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No.95, pp 1-16, 1985.43. Tadros, Th. F., "Physical stability of suspension concentrates", Adv. ColloidInterface Sci. 12, pp 141-261, 1980.44. Boynton, R. S., Chemistry and Technology of Lime and Limestone, SecondEdition, Wiley, New York, 1980.45. Harkin, J. M., "Lignin - a natural polymeric product of phenol oxidation",Chapter 6 in Oxidative Coupling of Phenols, (W. I. Taylor and A. R. Battersby, Eds),Marcel Dekker, New York, 1967.46. "Principles of combustion", Chapter 6 in Steam : Its Generation and Uses,Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, Ohio, 1979.47. How, M. E. and Rawlings, C. M., "Combustion testing of p.f burners and itsrelevance to service operation", Proceedings of the Colloquium on Coal Burners held atMarchwood Engineering Laboratory (MEL), CEGB Report RD/M/M97, 1971.48. Gao, J., Huang, Z. X., and Yao, Y. Q., "Analysis on droplet burning historiesof different coal liquid mixtures", 7 th International Symposium on Coal Slurry FuelsPreparation and Utilization [Proc.], U.S., pp 463-478, 1985.49. Thambimuthu, K. V., Whaley, H. and Capes, C. E., "Pilot-scale combustionstudies of coal-water fuels: The Canadian R&D program", Second European Conferenceon Coal Liquid Mixtures, The Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No.95, pp 231-252, 1985.50. Kang, S. W., Sarofim, A. F., and Beer, J. M., "Fundamentals of coal-water fueldroplet combustion", Third European Conference on Coal Liquid Mixtures, TheInstitution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 107, pp 179-194, 1987.51. Walsh, P. M., Zhang, M., Farmayan, W. F. and Beer, J. M., "Ignition andcombustion of coal-water slurry in a confined turbulent diffusion flame", 20th Symp.(Int.)Combust. [Proc.], The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, pp 1401-1407,. 1984.52. Lefebvre, A. H., "Fuel atomization, droplet evaporation, and spraycombustion", Chapter 9 in Fossil Fuel Combustion, A Source Book, (W. Bartok and A. F.Sarofim Eds.), Wiley, New York, 1991.53. Laflesh, R. C. and Lachowicz, Y. V., "Combustion characteristics of coal-water fuels", 8th Int. Symp. on Coal-Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization [Proc.],U.S., pp 438-452, 1986.13554. Bortz, S., Engelberts, E. D. and Schreier, W., "A study of the combustioncharacteristics of a number of coal-water slurries", 6th Int. Symp.on Coal SlurryCombustion and Technology [Proc.], pp 710-730, 1984.55. Williams, A., Combustion of Liquid Fuel Sprays, Butterworths, Boston, 1990.56. Lefebvre, A. H., "Airblast atomization", Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., Vol. 6,pp 233-261, Pergamon Press, Britain, 1980.57. Marshall, W. R. Jr., Atomization and Spray Drying, Chemical EngineeringProgress Monograph Series No.2, Vol 50, AIChE, New York, 1954.58. Kiga, T., Saitoh, H., Miyamae, S.,Takahashi, K., and Kataoka, T.,"Combustion technology of coal water mixtures", 7 th Int. Symp.on Coal Slurry FuelsPreparation and Utilization [Proc.], U.S., pp 631-639, 1985.59. Krishna, C. R. and Sapienza, R. S., "A study of the effects of additives on coal-water mixture atomization", Second European Conference on Coal Liquid Mixture, TheInstitution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 95, pp 115-128, 1985.60. Nystrom, 0., "Atomization of highly loaded CWF's and the effect of type ofdispersant", Third European Conference on Coal Liquid Mixture, The Institution ofChemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 107, pp 357-372, 1987.61. Sato, K., Okiura, K., Baba, A., Takahashi, Y.,and Shoji K., "A study on spraycombustion of CWM", 8th Int. Symp. on Coal-Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization[Proc.], U.S., pp 178-191, 1986.62. Yu, T. U., Kang, S. W., Beer, J. M., Sarofim, A. F., and Teare, J. D.,"Atomization quality and high shear rate viscosity of coal water fuels", 12thInt.Conference on Slurry Technology [Proc.], U.S., pp 99-105, 1987.63. Smith, C. F., Sojka, P. E., and Thames, J. M., "The Influence of Fluid PhysicalProperties on Coal-Water Slurry Atomization", Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbinesand Power, Vol.112, pp 15-20, 1990.64. Brimacombe, J. K. and Watkinson, A. P., "Heat transfer in a direct fired rotarykiln: I - Pilot plant and experimentation", Met. Trans. B, 9B, pp 201-208, 1978.65. Barr, P.V., Brimacombe, J.K., and Watkinson, A.P., "A heat - transfer modelfor the rotary kiln : part 1. pilot kiln trials", Met. Trans. B, 20B, pp 391-402, 1989.66. Barr, P. V., "Heat transfer processes in rotary kilns", Ph.D. Thesis, TheUniversity of British Columbia, 1986.13667. Watkinson, A. P. and Brimacombe, J. K., "Limestone calcination in a rotarykiln", Met. Trans. B, 13B, pp 369-378, 1982.68. Pinder, K. L., Personal conversation, Department of Chemical Engineering,The University of British Columbia.69. Henein, H., Brimacombe, J. K. and Watkinson, A. P., "An experimental studyof segregation in rotary kilns", Met. Trans. B, 16B, pp 763-774, 1985.70. Bowman, C. T., "Chemistry of gaseous pollutant formation and destruction",Fossil Fuel Combustion, A Source Book, ( W. Bartok and A. F. Sarofim Eds.), Wiley,New York, 1991.71. Schefer, R. W. and Sawyer, R. F., "Lean premixed recirculating flowcombustion for control of oxides of nitrogen.", 16th Symp. (Int.) Combust. [Proc.], pp119-134, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1976.72. Cernansky, N. P. and Sawyer R. F., "NO and NO2 formation in a turbulenthydrocarbon/air diffusion flames.", 15th Symp. (Int.) Combust. [Proc.], pp 1039-1050,The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1975.73. Merryman, E. L. and Levy, A., "Nitrogen oxide formation in flames: The roleof NO2 and fuel nitrogen.", 15th Symp. (Int.) Combust. [Proc.], pp 1073-1083, TheCombustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1975.74. Mui, C., Personal communication, Department of Metals and MaterialsEngineering, UBC.75. Watkinson, A. P., Personal communication, Department of ChemicalEngineering, UBC.76. Fenimore, C. P., "Formation of nitric oxide in pre-mixed hydrogen flames",13th Symp. (Int.) Combust. [Proc.], pp 373-380, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh,1971.77. Wall, T. F., "The combustion of coal as pulverized fuel through swirl burners",Chapter 3 in Principles of Combustion Engineering for Boilers, (edited by C. J. Lawn),Academic Press, New York, 1987.137Appendix ASample Calculations: Mole flue gas and net heating value of lignin-oil-watermixture, natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil and Westvaco lignin.Information1. Chemical analysis and heating value of Westvaco lignin (10Composition (%)C 61.11H 5.550 26.44N 1.69Sorg 0.88SO4 0.64Ash* 3.93Gross heating value(IVIJ/m3)25.15* Assume molecular weight of ash = 1002. Typical ultComposition (%)C 87.3H 12.60 0.04N 0.006S 0.22Ash < 0.01Gross heating value(MJ/m3)38913.23. Density of no. 2 fuel oil measured at ambient temperature = 0.839 kg/LTherefore, heating value of no. 2 fuel oil^= 38913.2 MJ/m30.839 kg/L= 46.4^MJ/kg1384. Natural gasComposition (%)CH4 95.1C2H6 2.8N2 0.9C3Hs 0.8C4Hio 0.2CO2 0.2Gross heating value(MJ/m3 )38.79Net heating value(MJ/m3)35.005. Air composition:Composition (%)N2 78.102 20.9CO2 0.03Ar 0.9(a) Lignin-oil-water mixtureData from Run SL9B 1. LOW composition:lignin^41 %fuel oil no. 2 14 %water^45 %2. LOW flow rate^0.38 kg/minAssumptions1. Complete combustion reactions2. All nitrogen in LOW becomes NO in the flue gas.3. All organic sulphur in LOW becomes SO2 in the flue gas.4. Air supplied at 10% excess stochiometric condition1. Net heating value calculationBasis : 1 kg of lignin-oil-water mixturenet heating value^LOW higher heating value - ( 1/2 mole H in LOW +mole H2O added) x AHvap, water0.044 MJ/moleMlvap, water139LOW hhv^=^% lignin x hhv of lignin + % oil x hhv of No. 2 fuel oil=^(0.41 x 25.15) + (0.14 x 46.4)=^16.8 MJ/kgLOW net heating value =^16.8 - (0.0555/2 x 410 + 0.126/2 x 140 + 450/18) x 0.044= 14.8 MJ/kg...Heat released by fuel2. Mole flue gas calculationMaterial balanceCombustion reactions:=^LOW flow rate x LOW net heating value=^0.38 kg/min x 14.8 MJ/kg=^5.63 MJ/minC + 02 -3 CO22H + 1/2 02 -> H2ON (from LOW) + 1/2 02 -> NOSorg + 02 -> SO2(1) Fuel input1.1) mole H2O in^=^mole water in LOW fuel=^0.45 x 380 g/min x (1/18) mole H20/g=^9.5^mole/min1.2) mole C in^=^mole C in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2=^{0.611 x 0.41/12 + 0.873 x 0.14/12}x 380=^11.80^mole/min1.3) mole 0 in^=^mole 0 in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2=^{0.2644 x 0.41/16 + 0.0004 x 0.14/16}x 380=^2.57^mole/min1.4) mole N in^=^mole N in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2=^{0.0169 x 0.41/14 + 0.00006 x 0.14/14}x 380=^0.19^mole/min1.5) mole H in^=^mole H in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2=^{0.0555 x 0.41/1 + 0.126 x 0.14/1}x 380=^15.35^mole/min1.6) mole Sorg in^=^mole Sorg in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2=^{0.0088 x 0.41/32 + 0.0022 x 0.14/32} x 380=^0.047^mole/min1401.7) mole of SO4 and ash in =^mole SO4 and ash in with lignin{0.0064 x 0.41/96 + 0.0393 x 0.41/100) x 3800.072^mole/min(2) Mole 02 required for combustion2.1) at stochiometric conditionsmole 02 required=^{mole C + 1/4 mole H + mole Sorg +1/2 mole N - 1/2 mole 0}in the fuel{11.80+ 1/4x 15.35 + 0.047 + 1/2 x 0.19 - 1/2 x 2.57)14.49^ mole/min2.2) at 10% excess stochiometric conditionmole air required(3) Flue gas composition1.1 x 14.49 x 100 / 20.976.29^mole/min3.1) 02^mole 02 in - mole 02 required for combustion0.209 x 76.29 - 14.491.45^mole/min3.2) CO2^CO2 from combustion +CO2 in air11.80 + 0.0003 x 76.2911.82^mole/min3.3) N2^N2 from combustion air supply0.781 x 76.2959.58^mole/min3.4) H2O^water added to LOW + 1/2 x mole of H in the fuel9.5 + 1/2 x 15.3517.18^mole/min3.5) SO2^=^mole of Sorg in the fuel=^0.047^mole/min3.6) NO^=^mole of N in LOW=^0.19^mole/min3.7) Ar^=^mole of Ar in air supply=^0.009 x 76.291410.687 mole/min...total mole of flue gas out (ash free)^90.95^mole/min...Mole flue gas / Net heat released by LOW^90.95/5.6316.15^mole/min(b) Natural gasData from Run SL9A1. Natural gas flow rate^0.164 m3/minAssumption1. Complete combustion reactions2. Air supplied at 10% excess stochiometric condition1. Net heating value calculationNet heating value of natural gasTotal heat released by natural gas2.Mole flue gas calculationMass balance35.00^MJ/m335.00 x 0.1645.74^MJ/minCombustion reactions:CH4 +^2 02 —> CO2 + 2H20C2H6 +^7/2 02 --> 2CO2 + 3H20C31-18 +^5 02 --> 3CO2 + 41120C41110 + 13/2 02 --> 4CO2 + 51120(1) Mole of natural gas inletngas^PVRT(1 atm)(164 L/min)(0.08206 L atm )(298 K)mole K6.707 mole/min(2) Mole 02 required for combustion2.1) at stochiometric conditions14202 required =^2 x mole CH4 + 3.5 x mole C2H6 + 5 x mole C3H8 +6.5 x mole C41110=^{2 x 0.951 + 3.5 x 0.028 + 5 x 0.008 + 6.5 x 0.002} x 6.707=^13.77^mole/min2.2) at 10% excess stochiometric conditionsmole air required^=^1.1 x 13.77 x 100/ 20.9=^72.47^mole/min(3) Flue gas composition3.1) 02^=^02 in the air inlet - 02 required for combustion reactions=^0.209 x 72.47 - 13.77=^1.38^mole/min3.2) CO2^=^CO2 from Combustion + from Natural gas and AirCO2 from combustion =^{1 x 0.951 + 2 x 0.028 + 3 x 0.008 + 4 x 0.002} x 6.707=^6.97^mole/minCO2 in fuel^=^0.002 x 6.707=^0.013^mole/minCO2 in supplied air =^0.0003 x 72.47=^0.022^mole/min3.4) H2O3.5) Ar=^7.00^mole/min=^N2 from combustion + N2 in natural gas=^78.1/100 x 72.47 + 0.009 x 6.707=^56.66^mole/min=^{2 x 0.951 + 3 x 0.028 + 4 x 0.008 + 5 x 0.002} x 6.707=^13.60^mole/min=^0.009 x 72.47=^0.652^mole/min.•. total CO23.3) N2.*. total mole of flue gas out^=^72.29^mole/min.•. Total mole flue gas out / net heat released by the fuel ==72.29/5.7413.81 mole/MJ143(c) No. 2 Fuel oilBasis1. Fuel oil flow rate =^0.132 kg/minAssumptions1. Complete combustion reactions2. All nitrogen in fuel oil becomes NO in the flue gas.3. All organic sulphur in fuel oil becomes SO2 in the flue gas.4. Air supplied at 10% excess stochiometric condition1. Net heating value calculationnet heating value^=^oil higher heating value - 1/2 mole H in oil x AH vap, water'vap, water^=^0.044 MJ/moleoil hhv^=^46.4 MJ/kgLOW net heating value.*.Heat released by fuel2. Mole flue gas calculationMaterial balanceCombustion reactions:=^46.4 - (0.126/2 x 1000) x 0.044=^43.63 MJ/kg=^oil flow rate x oil net heating value=^0.132 kg/min x 43.63 MJ/kg=^5.76 MJ/minC + 02 ----> CO22H + 1/2 02 --> H2ON (from oil) + 1/2 02^-3^NOSorg + 02 -3 SO2(1) Fuel input1.1) mole C in1.2) mole 0 in1.4) mole N in0.873 x 132/12^9.60^mole/min0.0004 x 132/160.00^mole/min0.00006 x 132/140.00^mole/min1441.5) mole H in^0.126 x 132/116.63^mole/min1.6) mole Sorg in^0.0022 x 132/320.009^mole/min(2) Mole 02 required for combustion2.1) at stochiometric conditionsmole 02 required=^{mole C + 1/4 mole H + mole S org +1/2 mole N - 1/2 mole 0}in the fuel{9.6 + 1/4 x 16.63 + 0.009}13.77^ mole/min2.2) at 10% excess stochiometric conditionmole air required(3) Flue gas composition1.1 x 13.77 x 100 / 20.972.47^mole/min3.1) 02^mole 02 in - mole 02 required for combustion0.209 x 72.47 - 13.771.38^mole/min3.2) CO2^CO2 from combustion +CO2 in air9.6 + 0.0003 x 72.479.62^mole/min3.3) N2^N2 from combustion air supply0.781 x 72.4756.60^mole/min3.4) H2O^1/2 x mole of H in the fuel1/2 x 16.638.32^mole/min3.5) SO2^=^mole of Sorg in the fuel=^0.009^mole/min3.6) NO^=^mole of N in the fuel=^0.00^mole/min1453.7) Ar^mole of Ar in air supply0.009 x 72.470.652^mole/mintotal mole of flue gas out (ash free)^76.57^mole/min.'.Mole flue gas / Net heat released by LOW^76.57/5.7613.29^mole/min(d) Westvaco ligninBasis1.Lignin flow rate^0.24 kg/minAssumptions1. Complete combustion reactions2. All nitrogen in lignin becomes NO in the flue gas.3. All organic sulphur in lignin becomes SO2 in the flue gas.4. Air supplied at 10% excess stochiometric condition1. Net heating value calculationnet heating value^lignin hhv - 1/2 mole H in lignin x AHvap, waterAHvap, water^0.044^MJ/moleLOW net heating value =^25.15 - (0.0555/2 x 1000) x 0.04423.93^MJ/kg.'.Heat released by fuel2. Mole flue gas calculationMaterial balanceCombustion reactions:lignin flow rate x lignin net heating value0.24 kg/min x 23.93 MJ/kg5.74^MJ/minC + 02 —> CO22H + 1/2 02 -4 H2ON (from lignin) + 1/2 02 —>^NOSorg + 02 -4 SO2(1) Fuel input1.1) mole C in^0.611 x 240/1212.22^mole/min1461.2) mole 0 in = 0.2644 x 240/16= 3.97 mole/min1.3) mole N in = 0.0169 x 240/14= 0.29 mole/min1.4) mole H in = 0.0555 x 240/1= 13.32 mole/min1.5) mole Sorg in = 0.0088 x 240/32= 0.066 mole/min1.6) mole of SO4 and ash in =^0.0064 x 240/96 + 0.0393 x 240/100=^0.11^mole/min(2) Mole 02 required for combustion2.1) at stochiometric conditionsmole 02 required=^{mole C + 1/4 mole H + mole S org +1/2 mole N - 1/2 mole O}in the fuel=^{12.22 + 1/4 x 13.32 + 0.066 + 1/2 x 0.29 - 1/2 x 3.97}=^13.78^ mole/min2.2) at 10% excess stochiometric conditionmole air required^=^1.1 x 13.78 x 100 / 20.9=^72.53^mole/min(3) Flue gas composition3.1) 02^=^mole 02 in - mole 02 required for combustion=^0.209 x 72.53 - 13.78=^1.38^ mole/min3.2) CO2^=^CO2 from combustion +CO2 in air=^12.22 + 0.0003 x 72.53=^12.24^ mole/min3.3) N2^=^N2 from combustion air supply=^0.781 x 72.53=^56.64^ mole/min3.4) H2O^=^1/2 x mole of H in the fuel147= 1/2 x 13.32= 6.66 mole/min3.5) SO2 = mole of Sorg in the fuel= 0.066 mole/min3.6) NO = mole of N in LOW= 0.29 mole/min3.7) Ar = mole of Ar in air supply= 0.009 x 72.53= 0.653 mole/min•. total mole of flue gas out (ash free)^=^77.93^mole/min.*.Mole flue gas / Net heat released by LOW^=^77.93/5.74=^13.58^mole/min148Appendix B : Coal water mixture (CWM) heating value and the amount of heatrequired for water evaporation calculationBasis : 1 kg of CWM with 70% coal, 30% water compositionfrom Perry's handbook (35)- hhv of high volatile A bituminous coal^=^31.54 MJ/kg- Heat of vaporization of water^=^0.044 MJ/gmolehhv of CWM =^% coal in CWM x hhv of high volatile A bituminous coal=^0.7 x 31.54=^22.08^MJ/kgHeat of evaporation of water in CWM=^mole water in CWM x Heat of vaporization of water=^300 g x ( 1 gmole / 18 g) x 0.044 MJ/gmole=^0.73^MJ/kg:.Heat of water evaporation / hhv of CWM =^0.73/22.08 x 100=^3.32%149Appendix C : Calculation of atomization air flow rateData1. Details of atomization air flow meter:- Meter size^8- Tube no. R-8M-25-2- ISA tube nomenclature^BR-1/2-27G10- Float no.^8-RS-142. Maximum air flow rate at 14.5 psia and 70°F^=^5.48 SCFM3. Atomization air pressure was read from a pressure guage after the rotameter.4. Assume air temperature = 70 °F for all RunsWhen conditions at point of measurement are other than air at STP (T = 70°F and P =14.7 psia), maximum capacity can be calculated as follow:Maximum capacity^Stated capacity x{ ^P x 530  } 1/214.7 x T x SGSG^=^Specific gravity^1 for airpsia°F + 460The following table shows the maximum capacity of rotameter at different air pressuresAtomization air pressure(prig)Maximum capacity of rotameter(ft3/min)10 7.115 7.7920 8.4225 9.030 9.5640 10.5750 11.5Actual atomization flow rate Rotameter reading x Maximum capacityMaximum reading (250)150Appendix D Calibration chartsPageFigure D-1 Conveyor belt feeder calibration for limestone feed^ 152Figure D-2 Orifice plate calibration for total air flow^  153Figure D-3 Atomization air rotameter calibration  15415110090807060a r SO=04. .1 40N. ); :1 30201000^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10Feeder SettingFigure D-1 Conveyor belt feeder calibration for limestone feed2.0 ^1.51.010^20^30^40^50Total Air Flow, CFM0.00 7060Figure D-2 Orifice plate calibration for total air flow65a 3.)czt0 2• r..40xx772 ^0^50^100^150^200^250Rotameter readingFigure D-3 Atomization air rotameter calibration at atmospheric conditionAppendix E : Sample of calculation for residence time of limestone inside the kiln.Data1. Average bed height in the kiln^=^0.05 m2. Limestone feed rate^=^40^kg/h3. Limestone density =^1490 kg/m34. Lime product output rate^=^22.5 kg/h (Run SL5A)5. Lime product density =^990 kg/m36. Length of solid dams at both hot and cold end of the kiln=^0.14 m7. Height of solid dams at both hot and cold end of the kiln0.044 m8. Kiln inside diameter^0.406 m9. Kiln length^ 5.5Calculation1. Cross sectional area of limestone inside the kilnArea of segment of a circle =^h (3h2 + 4s2)6sbed height^=^5bed width2 r sin(a/2)a/2 =^arc cos(r-h)rkiln radius^=^20.3a/2^arc cos[(20.3-5)/20.3]41.12 x 20.3 sin(41.1)26.7area^5 (3 x 25 + 4 x 26.72)/(6 x 26.7)91.232. Volume of limestone bed =^cross sectional area x kiln length91.23 x (550-14)48,899^ cm33. Volumetric flow rate of limestone feed=^40 kg/h / 1490 kg/m3 x 106 cm3/m326,845^ cm3/hcmcmcmcm2155Volumetric flow rate of lime product=^22.5 kg/h / 990 kg/m3 x 106 cm3/m3=^22,727^ cm3/h4. Average solid flow inside the kiln=^(26,845 + 22,727)/2=^24,786^ cm3/h...Average residence time inside the kiln=^Volume of limestone bed/Average solid flow inside the kiln=^48,899/24,786=^1.97^ h156Appendix F : Overall heat and mass balances in a pilot lime kilnSample of Calculation for Run SL9BBasis1.Limestone feed rate 40 kg/h2. Percent inerts in limestone feed 3%3. Reference temperature 25 °C4. The kiln boundary at the limestone inlet end is at 4.521 m from the lime product exitdoor.5. The kiln boundary at the lime outlet end is at 0.146 m from the lime product exit door.6. Air supply was measured from the rotameters during the combustion runs.Assumptions1. Complete calcination reaction in the kiln2. Complete combustion reactions in the kiln3. All nitrogen in LOW becomes NO in the flue gas.4. All organic sulphur in LOW becomes SO2 in the flue gas.5. SO4 and inerts have the same heat capacities as CaCO3.6. Inert in limestone and lignin has molecular weight 100.7. Air, natural gas, and LOW inlet temperature^25 °C8. Air and natural gas inlet pressure^1^atm9. Flue gas pressure^ 1^atm10. Ar, NO and SO2 gases have the same heat capacities as N211. No leakage air entering the kiln through the product outlet door and sealsData from Run SL9B1.LOW composition :lignin 41 %fuel oil no. 2 14 %water 45 %2. LOW flow rate 0.38 kg/min3. Limestone feed temperature, Ts, in=^704.8 °C^977.8 K4. Gas outlet temperature, Tg^774.4 °C 1047.4 K5. Lime product temperature, T s^741.2 °C^=^1014.2 K6. Total combustion air flow rate 1.818 m3/min157Other information required for mass balance1. Chemical analysis and heating value of Westvaco (^10Composition (%)C 61.11H 5.550 26.44N 1.69Sara 0.88SO4 0.64Ash 3.93Gross heating value(MJ/m3)25.152. Typical ultimate analyses of no. 2 fuel oil 33 °API (35Composition (%)C 87.3H 12.60 0.04N 0.006S 0.22Ash < 0.01Gross heating value(MJ/m3)38913.23. Density of no. 2 fuel oil measured at ambient temperature = 0.839 kg/LTherefore, heating value of no. 2 fuel oil^= 38913.2 MJ/m30.839 kg/L= 46.4^MJ/kg4. Natural gasComposition (%)CH4 95.1C2H6 2.8N2 0.9CIHR 0.8C41110 0.2CO2 0.2Gross heating value(MJ/m3)38.79Net heating value(MJ/m3)35.005. Heat capacities of solid *Constants for equation Cp/R = A + BT + DT -2T(Kelvins) from 298 K to TChemical species Tmax A 103B 10-5DCaO 2,000 6.104 0.443 -1.047CaCO3 1,200 12.572 2.637 -3.1206. Heat capacities of gases in the ideal-gas state+Constants for the equation Cpkg/R = A + BT + CT2 + DT-2T(Kelvins) from 298 K to TChemicalspeciesT max A 103B 106C 10-5DCO2 2,000 5.457 1.045 - -1.157N2 2,000 3.28 0.593 - 0.0402,000 3.639 0.506 - -0.227SO, 2,000 5.699 0.801 - -1.015H2O 2,000 3.47 1.45 - 0.1217. The standard heat of the calcination reaction at 298 K = 178,3 2 1^J/mole CaOformed8. Air composition:Composition (%)N2 78.102 20.9CO2 0.03Ar 0.9* Selected from K. K. Kelley, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 584, 1960; L. B. Pankratz, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 672,1982.+ Selected from H. M. Spencer, Ind. Eng. Chem., 40: 2152, 1948; K. K. Kelley, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull.,584, 1960; L. B. Pankratz, U.S. Bur Mines Bull., 672, 1982.159Mass balance A. Calcination reactionCaCO3^—> CaO + CO2molecular weights CaCO3 = 100, CaO = 56, CO2 = 44weight CaCO3 reacted^=^40 kg/h x 0.97=^38.8 kg/hweight of inert in limestone•^40 kg/h x 0.03 =^1.2 kg/hweight CaO produced 38.8 kg/h x 56/100 21.73 kg/hweight CO2 produced^38.8 kg/h x 44/100^17.07^kg/hmole CaCO3 reactedmole of inert in limestoneB. Combustion reactions=^mole CaO produced=^mole CO2 produced=^38,800_g x 1 x mole CaCO3 x _1 1h 100^g^60 min=^6.47^mole/min1,20Qg x 1 x mole CaCO3 xh 100^g^60 min• 0.2^mole/minC + 02 —> CO2211 + 1/2 02 --> H2ON (from LOW) + 1/2 02 --> NOSorg + 02 --->^SO2(1) Fuel input1.1) mole H2O in^ mole water in LOW fuel0.45 x 380 g/min x (1/18) mole H20/g- 9.5^mole/min1.2) mole C in^ mole C in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2{0.611 x 0.41/12 + 0.873 x 0.14/12}x 380• 11.80^mole/min1.3) mole 0 in^ mole 0 in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2{0.2644 x 0.41/16 + 0.0004 x 0.14/16}x 3802.57^mole/min1601.4) 'mole N in^mole N in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2{0.0169 x 0.41/14 + 0.00006 x 0.14/14}x 3800.19^mole/min1.5) mole H in^mole H in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2{0.0555 x 0.41/1 + 0.126 x 0.14/1}x 38015.35^mole/min1.6) mole Sorg in^mole Sorg in with lignin and with fuel oil no.2{0.0088 x 0.41/32 + 0.0022 x 0.14/32} x 380• 0.047^mole/min^1.7) mole of SO4 and ash in =^mole SO4 and ash in with lignin{0.0064 x 0.41/96 + 0.0393 x 0.41/100} x 380• 0.072^mole/minmass of SO4 and ash in =^{0.0064 x 0.41 + 0.0393 x 0.41} x 380• 7.12^g/min(2) Mole 02 required for combustion2.1) at stochiometric conditionsmole 02 required=^{mole C + 1/4 mole H + mole S org +1/2 mole N - 1/2 mole O}in the fuel{11.80+ 1/4x 15.35 + 0.047 + 1/2 x 0.19 - 1/2 x 2.57}14.49^ mole/min(3) Volumetric flow rate of air inlet (measured from the rotameters)1.818'^m3/minmole air inletmass air in let ==PV/RT1 x 1818/(0.08206 x 298)- 74.34^mole/min74.34 x (0.781 x 28 + 0.209 x 32 + 0.0003 x 44 + 0.009 x 39.95)74.34 x 28.9292.15^ kg/min(4) Flue gas composition4.1) 02^mole 02 in - mole 02 required for combustion0.209 x 74.34 - 14.491.04^ mole/min1614.2) CO2^=^CO2 from combustion + CO2 from calcination +CO2 in air=^11.80 + 6.47 + 0.0003 x 74.34=^18.29^mole/min4.3) N2^=^N2 in natural gas + N2 from combustion air supply=^0.781 x 74.34=^58.06^mole/min4.4) H2O^=^water added to LOW + 1/2 x mole of H in the fuel=^9.5 + 1/2 x 15.35=^17.18^mole/min4.5) SO2^=^mole of Sorg in the fuel=^0.047^mole/nun4.6) NO^=^mole of N in LOW=^0.19^mole/min4.7) Ar^=^mole of Ar in air supply=^0.009 x 74.34=^0.669^mole/min4.8) Ash and sulphate=^mole ash and sulphate in lignin=^0.072^mole/min:. total mole of flue gas out (included fly ash)^=^95.55 mole/mintotal volumetric flow rate of flue gas^nitT/P=^(95.55 - 0.072) x 0.08206 x 1047.4/1=^8206.33^L/mintotal mass flow rate of flue gas^=^n x M^=^(1.04 x 32 + 58.06 x 28 + 0.669 x 39.95+ 0.19 x 30 + 18.29 x 44 + 17.18 x 18 + 0.047 x 64 + 7.12)/1000=^2.816^kg/mintotal mole of dry, ash free flue gas =^95.54 - 0.072 - 17.18=^78.30^mole/mindry flue composition:^02^=^1.33 %N2 =^74.15 %CO2^=^23.36 %SO2 =^594 ppmNO^=^2405 ppmfly ash + sulphate^=^7.12 g/min162Energy balanceNote: The kiln boundaries are set at 4.521 m from lime product exit door at the limestoneinlet end and at 0.146 m from the door at the lime outlet end due to the gas and solidtemperature measurements at those points.^Heat of^Sensible^Heat out of^Heat lost^HeatCombustion^heat input to^kiln by flow^from kiln^consumedreleased by + kiln by flow =^of solid^+^shell by^+ in reactionfuel^of fuel, air,^product, all^radiation andlimestone^gas and dust^convection(1)^(2) (3) (4)^(5)(1) Heat released by fuel^LOW flow rate x LOW net heating valueLOW net heating value^LOW higher heating value - ( 1/2 mole H in LOW +mole H2O added) x AH vap, waterAHvap, water^0.044 MJ/moleLOW higher heating value^% lignin composition x hhv. of lignin + % oilcomposition x hhv. of fuel oil no. 2(0.41 x 25.15) + (0.14 x 46.4)16.8 MJ/kgLOW net heating value^16.8 - (0.0555/2 x 410 + 0.126/2 x 140 + 450/18) x0.044• 14.8 MJ/kg..'. Heat released by fuel^0.38 kg/min x 14.8 MJ/kg- 5.63 MJ/min(2) Sensible heat inputsAir and fuel^0^since both Tair, in and Tfuel, in^TrefLimestone + inertsTs in- (nls ninerts) x^Cp, Is dTTrefTs in• (nis + ninerts) x R x {AT + B/2 x T2 -D/T} ITref163(6.47 + 0.2)mole x 8.314 J xmin^mole•K{ 12.572(977.8-298) + 2.637 x 10-3 (977.82- 2982) + 3.12 x 105 (  1  - 1 )}2^ 977.8 298=^0.497^MJ/minTotal heat input^Heat released fuel + Sensible heat input to the kiln5.63 + 0.4976.128^MJ/min(3) Heat output by flow3.1) Flue gas leaving the kiln at TgTg^=^1047.4^KTg.oxygen =^noxygen x S. Cp, oxygen dTTrefTRnoxygen R x {AT + B/2 x T2 + C/3 x T3 - D/T} rTref1.45 mole x 8.314  J xmin^mole•K{3.639(1047.4-298) + 0.506 x 10-3 (1047.42- 2982) + 0.227 x 10 5( 1  - 1 )}2^ 1047.4 298=^0.025^MJ/mincarbon dioxideN2, Ar, NO, SO2waterFly ashcarbon dioxide x Sg  Cp, carbon dioxide dTTref0.660^MJ/minTg• (nsum) x Cp, nitrogen dTTref- 1.356^MJ/minTgwater x I Cp, water dTTref- 0.480^MJ/minTg▪ nash x Cp, ash dTTref• 0.006^MJ/min164:. Total flue gas enthalpy^=^0.025 + 1.356 + 0.660 + 0.480 + 0.006=^2.527^MJ/min3.2) Solid products leaving at T sTslime productInerts=^1014.2^KTs=^nlitne x f Cp, lime dTTref=^0.233^MJ/minTs=^ninerts X 5 Cp, inerts dTTref=^0.016^MJ/min:. Total enthalpy of solid flow out^=^0.233 + 0.016=^0.249 MJ/min(5) Heat consumed in calcination=^"lime X aHr, 298 K=^1.153^MJ/min(4) Heat lost by Radiation & ConvectionQloss^=^Q1 + Q2 - Q3 - Q5=^2.199^MJ/minSample of Calculation for Run SL11A (natural gas firing)Data from Run SL1 IA1. Natural gas flow rate^=^0.164 m3/min2. Limestone feed temperature, T s, in= 622.5 °C = 895.5 K3. Gas outlet temperature, Tg^= 683.9 °C = 956.9 K4. Lime product temperature, T s = 983.0 °C = 1256 K5. Volumetric flow rate of total combustion air inlet (measured from the rotameters duringthe combustion runs)^=^1586^L/minMass balanceA. Calcination reactionCaCO3^—> CaO + CO2molecular weights CaCO3 = 100, CaO = 56, CO2 = 44weight CaCO3 reacted^=^40 kg/h x 0.97weight of inert in limestone 40 kg/h x 0.03weight CaO produced =^38.8 kg/h x 56/100kg/hweight CO2 produced^38.8 kg/h x 44/10038.8 kg/h1.2 kg/h=^21.7317.07 kg/hmole CaCO3 reactedmole of inert in limestoneB. Combustion reactionsmole CaO producedmole CO2 produced38,800_g x 1 x mole CaCO3 x 1 1h 100^g^60 min^6.47^mole/min1,200_g x 1 x mole CaCO3 x 1 hh 100^g^60 min0.2^mole/minCH4 +^2 02 —> CO2 + 2H20C2H6 +^7/2 02 —> 2CO2 + 3H20C3118 +^5 02 —> 3CO2 + 4H20C4H10 + 13/2 02 -+ 4CO2 + 5H20166(1) Mole of natural gas inletngas =^PVRT=^(1 atm)(164 L/min) (0.08206 L atm )(298 K)mole K=^6.707 mole/minAverage molecular weight of natural gas^=^16.864.*. Mass flow rate of natural gas in^=^0.113^kg/min(2) Mole 02 required for combustion2.1) at stochiometric conditions^02 required =^2 x mole CH4 + 3.5 x mole C2H6 + 5 x mole C3H8 + 6.5 xmole C4H10=^{2 x 0.951 + 3.5 x 0.028 + 5 x 0.008 + 6.5 x 0.002) x 6.707=^13.77^mole/min(3) Volumetric flow rate of air inlet (measured from the rotameters)=^1.586^m3/minmole air inlet^= PV/RT= 1 x 1586/(0.08206 x 298)= 64.86^mole/minmass air in let = 64.86 x (0.781 x 28 + 0.209 x 32 + 0.0003 x 44 + 0.009 x 39.95)= 64.86 x 28.929= 1.88^kg/min(4) Flue gas composition4.1) 02^=^02 in the air inlet - 02 required for combustion reactions=^0.209 x 64.86 - 13.77=^-0.21^mole/min4.2) CO2^=^CO2 from Combustion + Calcination + Natural gas and AirCO2 from combustion = {1 x 0.951 + 2 x 0.028 + 3 x 0.008 + 4 x 0.002) x 6.707=^6.97^mole/minCO2 from calcination^=^6.47^mole/min167CO2 in fuel^=^0.002 x 6.707=^0.013^mole/minCO2 in supplied air^=^0.0003 x 64.86=^0.019^mole/min.'. total CO2^ 13.47^mole/min4.3) N2•^N2 from combustion + N2 in natural gas78.1/100 x 64.86 + 0.009 x 6.70750.71^mole/min4.4) H2O^{2 x 0.951 + 3 x 0.028 + 4 x 0.008 + 5 x 0.002} x 6.70713.60^mole/min4.5) Ar^0.009 x 64.860.584total mole of flue gas outtotal volumetric flow rate of flue gasmole/min78.15^mole/minnRT/P78.15 x 0.08206 x 956.9/16136.76^L/mintotal mole of dry flue gas^78.15 - 13.6064.55^mole/mindry flue composition:02^-0.33 %N2 78.56 %CO2-20.86 %Energy balanceNote: The kiln boundaries are set at 4.521 m from lime product exit door at the limestoneinlet end and at 0.146 m from the door at the lime outlet end due to the gas and solidtemperature measurements at those points.^Heat of^Sensible^Heat out of^Heat lost^HeatCombustion^heat input to^kiln by flow^from kiln^consumedreleased by + kiln by flow =^of solid^+^shell by^+ in reactionfuel^of fuel, air,^product, all^radiation andlimestone^gas and dust^convection(1)^(2) (3) (4)^(5)(1) Heat released by fuel gas flow rate x gas net heating value1680.164 m3/min x 35.00 MJ/m35.74^MJ/min(2) Sensible heat inputsAir and fuel^0^since both Tom, in and Tfuel, in = TrefLimestone + inertsTs in(nls ninerts) x J Cp, Is dTTrefTs in+ ninerts) x R x {AT + B/2 x TL -D/T} ITref• (6.47 + 0.2)mole x 8.314 J x^min^mole•K{12.572(895.5-298) + 2.637 x 10'3 (895.52- 2982) + 3.12 x 105( 1  - 1298 ))2^ 895.5 =^0.430^MJ/min.'. Total heat input^Heat released by fuel + Sensibles heat inputs• 5.74 + 0.43- 6.17^MJ/min(3) Heat output by flow3.1) Flue gas leaving the kiln at TgTg^=^956.9^KTRoxygen =^noxygen x r Cp, oxygen dTTrefTgnoxygen R {AT + B/2 x T2 + C/3 x T3 - D/T}Tref-0.21 mole x 8.314 J xmin^mole•K{3.639(956.9-298) + 0.506 x 10 -3 (956.92- 2982) + 0.227 x 105( 1  - 1 ))2^ 956.9 298-0.005^MJ/mincarbon dioxideTncarbon dioxide x T Cp, carbon dioxide dTTref0.421^MJ/minN2 and Ar^•^nsum x P Cp, nitrogen dTTref169• 1.03^MJ/minwaterTotal enthalpy of flue gas out3.3) Solid products leaving at Tsnwater x 1 Cp, water dTTref0.329^MJ/min• -0.005 + 1.030 + 0.421 + 0.329• 1.776^M7/minTslime productInerts• 1256Ts• nlime x S Cp, lime dTTref^0.318^MJ/minTsninerts X f Cp, inerts dTTref0.022^MJ/minTotal enthalpy of solid flow out =^0.318 + 0.0220.340^MJ/min(5) Heat consumed in calcination▪ nlime x fir, 298 K1.153^MJ/min(4) Heat lost by Radiation & ConvectionQloss^Q1 + Q2 - Q3 - Q5=^2.901^MJ/minResults of overall mass balances for Runs SL9A, SL10A and SL11BRun SL 9A Run SL 10A Run SL 11BFuel in-natural gas (m3/min) 0.164 0.164 0.065-mass flow rate (kg/min) 0.113 0.113 0.045-LOW-%composition (lignin:oil:water) - - 41:14:45-mass flow rate (kg/min) - - 0.245-mole Sorg in (mole/min) - - 0.30-mole N in (mole/min) - - 0.12Air supply-air temperature inlet (K) 298 298 298-volumetric flow rate of air measured fromrotameters in combustion runs (m3/min)1.642 1.642 1.739-mass flow rate of air in (kg/min) 1.94 1.94 2.06Limestone in-total^(kg/h) 40.0 40.0 40.0-CaCO3 (kg/h) 38.8 38.8 38.8-inerts^(kg/h) 1.2 1.2 1.2Lime product out-total^(kg/h) 22.9 22.9 22.9-CaO (kg/h) 21.7 21.7 21.7-inerts^(kg/h) 1.2 1.2 1.2Mole flue gas out-total (mole/min) 80.44 80.44 89.79-CO2 (mole/min) 13.47 13.47 16.87-02^(mole/min) 0.27 0.27 0.06-N2^(mole/min) 52.50 52.50 55.56-Ar^(mole/min) 0.604 0.604 0.640-H2O (mole/min) 13.60 13.60 16.46-NO (mole/min) 0 0 0.12-SO2 (mole/min) 0 0 0.30-ash and sulphate (mole/min) 0 0 0.046Flue gas-flue gas temperarure (K) 961.3 958.3 1025-volumetric flow rate at Tg,out (m3/min) 6.346 6.326 7.549- mass flow rate of flue gas (kg/min) 2.34 2.34 2.63Dry flue gas composition-CO2 (%) 20.15 20.15 23.02-02^(%) 0.40 0.4 0.08-N2^(%) 78.55 78.55 75.82-NO^(ppm) 0 0 1657-S07 (ppm) 0 0 409171Mass balances- total mass in (fuel + air + limestone) 163.34 163.34 180.82- total mass out (flue gas + lime product) 163.31 163.31 180.81Results of overall energy balances for Runs SL9A, SL1OA and SL11BRun SL9A Run SL10A Run SL11BInlet fuel and air temperature (K) 298 298 298Inlet limestone temperature (K) 895 893.9 965.1Exit gas temperature (K) 961.3 958.3 1025Exit lime product temperature (K) 1230.7 1219.1 1154.1Net heat released by fuel (MJ/min) 5.74 5.74 5.91Enthalpy of solids and gases flow in- solids (M.1/min) 0.429 0.428 0.486- gas (MJ/min) 0 - -Total heat input (MJ/min) 6.169 6.168 6.392Enthalpy of solids and gases flow out- solid (MJ/min) 0.330 0.326 0.301- gas (MJ/min) 1.836 1.827 2.293- total^-(MJ/min) 2.166 2.153 2.594- % total heat input 35.11 34.896 40.589Heat consumed by calcination- (MJ/min) 1.153 1.153 1.153- % total heat input 18.69 18.69 18.04Heat loss- (MJ/min) 2.850 2.863 2.644- % total heat input 46.20 46.41 41.37172Appendix G: Data from the combustion runsPageTemperature Profiles & Flue gas analysisRun SL3Table of events^  174Cyclic bed temperature readings^  175Cyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings^  179Interior wall probe temperature readings  182Suction pyrometer temperature readings of flue gas  183Shell temperature readings^  187Flue gas analysis^  188Run SL9Table of events^  189Cyclic bed temperature readings^  191Cyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings^  198Interior wall probe temperature readings  204Suction pyrometer temperature readings of flue gas 207Shell temperature readings^ 213Flue gas analysis^ 214Run SL10Table of events 215Cyclic bed temperature readings^  216Cyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings^  221Interior wall probe temperature readings  225Suction pyrometer temperature readings of flue gas 227Shell temperature readings^ 231Flue gas analysis^ 232Run SL11Table of events 233Cyclic bed temperature readings^  235Cyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings^  240Interior wall probe temperature readings  244Suction pyrometer temperature readings of flue gas  246Shell temperature readings^  251Flue gas analysis^  252Note : This Appendix contains only the data from Runs SL3, SL9, SL10 and SL11. Datafrom all the Runs (SL2-SL11) are available on a high density disk (3.5 inches) in spreadsheetformat.173Table of eventsRun SL305/26/92 08:07:03.76Kiln speed (rpm) : 1.5 08:07:07.66SL3ASuction T/C, Pair : 1 11:33:14.25Suction T/C, Pair : 2 11:35:23.16Suction T/C, Pair : 3 11:37:23.94Suction T/C, Pair : 4 11:39:30.65Suction T/C, Pair : 5 11:41:29.24Read bed temperatures 11:42:57.61Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 11:44:49.88Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 11:46:12.87Read Shell Temperatures 11:46:47.69Read Shell Temperatures 13:13:57.86SL3BRead bed temperatures 13:14:02.64Suction T/C, Pair : 1 13:16:18.31Suction T/C, Pair : 1 13:17:50.03Suction T/C, Pair : 2 13:19:43.35Suction T/C, Pair : 3 13:21:43.91Suction T/C, Pair : 4 13:23:50.56Suction T/C, Pair : 5 13:25:40.97Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 13:27:05.33Read Colder'Heat Flux Temps. 13:28:28.27Read bed temperatures 13:30:03.84Read Shell Temperatures 13:32:01.71Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 13:32:20.49Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 13:33:43.38Suction T/C, Pair : 1 13:36:07.45Suction T/C, Pair : 2 13:37:54.93Suction T/C, Pair : 3 13:39:41.00Suction T/C, Pair : 4 13:41:40.62Suction T/C, Pair : 5 13:43:39.04174Cyclic bed temperature readings (Run SL3)11:42:57^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^48.92*^4170.21*^3906.49* 3517.40*^694.29*^629.38*^826.19*^789.79*^661.68*^578.50*48.92*^4210.37*^3925.16* 3534.04*^698.08*^633.62*^826.19*^789.79*^661.68*^578.50*1093.02^1149.47^1074.62^1024.05^943.19^886.42^850.95^804.46^699.03^634.331092.18^1149.47^1075.46^1023.20^942.19^885.93^848.03^803.98^696.89^627.501082.99^1155.25^1081.32^1022.35^937.94^882.24^839.52^798.68^688.38^615.951068.75^1126.29^1065.39^1018.96^930.46^877.34^833.21^794.36^672.07^591.931061.19^1008.75^1011.30^1004.49^919.52^865.83^826.19^788.59^659.09^580.391056.99^1051.10^1014.71^1004.49^918.53^864.61^834.18^791.47^669.47^603.471058.67^1087.17^1040.98^1010.45^926.23^870.48^842.92^796.52^680.81^616.431064.55^1100.52^1056.15^1015.56^933.20^877.34^849.97^801.33^688.85^624.201072.11^1120.49^1064.55^1020.65^940.19^882.73^853.14^804.22^694.76^631.271083.83^1141.20^1069.59^1021.50^943.19^885.93^854.60^806.63^699.97^636.69L.;^1089.68^1147.82^1072.94^1022.35^943.69^887.90^854.85^807.35^701.87^637.631089.68^1157.73^1073.78^1024.05^943.69^887.65^849.73^805.42^698.79^630.8048.92*^4205.89*^3849.00* 3515.56*^691.22*^618.78*^849.73^805.42^698.79^630.8048.92*^4165.77*^3798.45* 3482.55*^675.38*^595.70*^849.73^805.42^698.79^630.801057.83^1012.16^1014.71^1004.49^922.00^868.27^828.12^790.75^661.92^578.971051.10^1043.51^1013.01^1001.08^917.78^864.61^833.21^792.67^670.89^602.291052.78^1085.50^1037.60^1007.05^923.25^868.52^839.28^796.04^682.94^615.951061.19^1103.02^1050.25^1012.16^930.71^875.62^847.78^800.85^690.98^625.14Minimum^1051.10^1008.75^1011.30^1001.08^917.78^864.61^826.19^788.59^659.09^578.97Maximum^1093.02^1157.73^1081.32^1024.05^943.69^887.90^854.85^807.35^701.87^637.63Range 41.92^148.98^70.01^22.97^25.91^23.29^28.66^18.76^42.78^58.66Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)*This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.13:14:02^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^869.15^1039.07^1126.14^1099.51^1012.31^953.61^924.92^886.63^782.40^723.04856.64^1044.98^1130.28^1097.85^1014.10^957.12^926.41^888.35^783.36^723.280.00*^1050.89^1130.28^1097.85^1012.57^956.87^921.69^886.14.^779.76^716.64839.56^1054.26^1130.28^1097.85^1007.97^953.36^916.23^882.70^771.39^707.39830.52^990.56^1082.81^1092.00^1000.07^942.60^907.33^877.80^754.44^679.0152.08*^966.48^1047.51^1081.13^986.62^927.15^903.13^874.86^753.72^690.36824.18^1005.94^1076.10^1085.32^988.14^929.89^908.81^877.55^762.79^704.32827.81^1011.91^1094.51^1089.50^995.24^936.61^914.25^880.74^771.15^712.37836.85^1022.97^1101.18^1089.50^999.56^942.10^917.47^882.95^775.93^717.35848.56^1032.29^1107.02^1091.17^1003.89^946.60^919.95^884.67^779.05^720.67857.53^1035.68^1108.68^1088.66^1005.42^949.10^920.45^886.14^780.72^722.81870.04^1043.29^1108.68^1088.66^1005.68^950.85^919.70^885.89^781.20^721.62870.04^1046.67^1109.51^1086.99^1005.17^950.60^916.73^883.93^777.13^715.21852.15^1041.60^1106.18^1082.81^999.56^947.35^910.54^880.99^769.00^705.26842.26^982.84^1064.35^1075.27^990.42^937.36^901.15^875.60^753.25^677.590.^ 839.56^963.03^1033.14^1063.51^977.26^922.93^897.95^871.92^752.77^687.99842.26^993.98^1061.83^1070.23^980.79^925.66^904.86^874.86^762.07^701.47853.05^1005.94^1086.99^1078.62^989.40^933.12^910.79^877.55^769.00^709.53858.43^1017.02^1101.18^1088.66^999.56^941.10^917.22^881.23^774.74^715.93862.01^1022.12^1110.35^1093.67^1006.70^947.35^921.44^884.42^779.29^720.43Minimum^824.18^963.03^1033.14^1063.51^977.26^922.93^897.95^871.92^752.77^677.59Maximum^870.04^1054.26^1130.28^1099.51^1014.10^957.12^926.41^888.35^783.36^723.28Range 45.86^91.23^97.14^36.00^36.84^34.19^28.46^16.43^30.59^45.69Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)*This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.13:30:03+1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10853.62 1009.07 1088.39 1082.54 1010.07 954.18 925.98 889.90 785.61 725.27846.43 1007.37 1087.56 1079.19 1010.84 956.43 926.23 891.63 786.56 723.6152.64* 4870.24* 4538.32* 4229.83* 784.65* 718.87* 926.23 891.63 786.56 723.61821.12 981.69 1080.86 1073.32 1002.42 951.17 915.56 885.73 772.68 697.78816.58 946.27 1040.48 1063.24 989.47 935.19 904.93 879.11 760.49 681.94816.58 956.68 1035.41 1061.56 983.14 927.97 905.18 877.88 763.84 697.07822.94 979.11 1062.40 1068.29 986.68 931.70 908.88 879.60 770.05 707.49834.71 994.55 1075.84 1073.32 991.24 936.93 912.35 881.31 774.83 713.65845.53 998.83 1079.19 1075.00 998.35 942.92 917.30 884.01 778.90 718.63853.62 997.12 1080.86 1075.00 1002.42 947.17 919.78 885.73 782.25 721.95856.31 1006.51 1081.70 1073.32 1004.21 950.17 921.02 887.69 784.65 724.56850.03 999.68 1077.51 1068.29 1002.93 951.42 921.51 888.68 785.61 724.09835.62 983.41 1075.84 1064.92 998.35 949.67 917.79 886.71 784.17 720.05821.12 963.60 1071.64 1064.92 993.78 946.17 911.11 883.76 771.96 696.84816.58 940.18 1033.71 1055.67 982.88 931.70 902.22 877.39 759.78 680.53819.30 958.41 1029.47 1054.83 976.82 924.74 902.96 876.65 763.36 697.31823.85 977.39 1054.83 1062.40 981.36 928.96 906.91 878.12 769.09 706.78834.71 990.27 1069.12 1069.12 989.47 935.94 912.59 881.07 774.11 714.36846.43 996.26 1075.00 1072.48 996.57 941.92 916.56 883.76 777.94 718.63854.52 1001.39 1076.67 1073.32 1001.92 947.42 921.27 886.96 782.49 724.56816.58 940.18 1029.47 1054.83 976.82 924.74 902.22 876.65 759.78 680.53856.31 1009.07 1088.39 1082.54 1010.84 956.43 926.23 891.63 786.56 725.2739.73 68.89 58.92 27.71 34.02 31.69 24.01 14.97 26.79 44.750.15 0.46 0.92 1.49 2.21 2.55 2.92 3.27 3.99 4.52MinimumMaximumRangeDistance(m)*This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.Bed temperature - Kiln stopped13:43:39^1^2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10806.23 939.04 1011.38 1007.11 937.53 901.83 873.34 856.49 751.79 672.62782.36 914.56 960.74 946.00 895.92 877.99 854.30 835.36 742.27 661.53779.59 911.92 954.68 936.43 891.49 875.30 851.87 832.45 741.56 660.35776.82 908.41 949.47 929.45 887.80 873.09 849.68 830.03 741.08 659.41773.11 905.77 945.13 924.20 884.86 871.14 847.98 828.10 740.61 658.47770.33 903.12 940.78 918.95 882.16 869.43 846.04 826.16 740.37 657.99766.62 901.36 937.30 914.56 879.71 867.72 844.58 824.47 740.13 657.52763.83 898.71 934.69 910.17 877.74 866.25 843.12 823.02 739.89 657.29763.83 896.95 932.07 906.65 875.79 865.03 841.67 821.57 739.89 657.05761.04 895.18 929.45 904.00 874.07 863.81 840.69 820.61 739.89 656.81,.._, Minimum 761.04 895.18 929.45 904.00 874.07 863.81 840.69 820.61 739.89 656.81--100 Maximum 806.23 939.04 1011.38 1007.11 937.53 901.83 873.34 856.49 751.79 672.62Range 45.19 43.86 81.93 103.11 63.46 38.02 32.64 35.89 11.90 15.81Distance 0.15 0.46 0.92 1.49 2.21 2.55 2.92 3.27 3.99 4.52(m)Cyclic hot wall probe temperature readings (SL3)11:44:49 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 937.38 899.73 840.31 836.42 790.57 743.95 603.30 537.07 403.15n/a 942.60 901.50 840.55 836.42 791.29 744.67 603.30 538.01 407.21n/a 946.07 903.26 840.55 836.67 791.77 745.14 603.53 538.96 411.04n/a 946.94 905.02 840.55 836.91 792.25 745.62 603.77 539.90 414.63n/a 949.54 905.90 840.55 836.91 792.73 745.86 604.24 540.85 417.49n/a 947.81 906.78 840.55 837.15 792.97 745.86 604.47 541.55 419.64n/a 949.54 906.78 840.55 837.15 792.97 745.62 604.71 541.55 420.60n/a 944.34 906.78 840.55 836.91 792.49 744.90 604.94 540.85 412.48n/a 930.42 902.38 840.79 836.42 790.81 743.71 604.71 538.49 400.51n/a 925.18 898.85 840.79 836.18 790.09 743.48 604.24 536.83 396.92n/a 938.25 899.73 840.79 836.67 790.57 744.43 603.77 537.31 400.51n/a 943.47 901.50 840.79 836.67 791.29 745.14 603.77 538.49 404.82n/a 946.94 903.26 840.79 836.91 792.01 745.62 604.00 539.43 409.13n/a 948.67 904.14 840.79 837.15 792.49 746.10 604.24 540.37 412.95n/a 948.67 905.90 840.79 837.40 792.97 746.33 604.71 541.32 416.06n/a 951.27 906.78 840.79 837.40 793.22 746.33 604.94 542.03 418.69n/a 952.14 907.65 841.04 837.40 793.22 746.10 605.18 542.03 419.64n/a 951.27 907.65 841.04 837.15 792.73 745.38 605.42 541.32 411.52n/a 933.90 902.38 841.04 836.67 791.53 743.71 605.18 538.96 399.56n/a 928.67 898.85 841.04 836.42 790.57 743.48 604.47 537.31 396.20Minimum 0.00 925.18 898.85 840.31 836.18 790.09 743.48 603.30 536.83 396.20Maximum 0.00 952.14 907.65 841.04 837.40 793.22 746.33 605.42 542.03 420.60Range 0.00 26.96 8.80 0.73 1.21 3.12 2.86 2.12 5.19 24.40Average 0.00 943.15 903.74 840.73 836.85 791.93 745.07 604.34 539.63 409.64Distance 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21(m)Do13:27:05 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 931.41 947.08 888.37 888.12 855.59 822.60 693.94 631.17 480.84n/a 938.38 950.55 888.37 888.37 856.08 823.33 693.70 631.87 484.87n/a 940.99 953.15 888.37 888.62 856.81 824.05 693.70 632.82 489.14n/a 941.86 955.75 888.37 888.62 857.54 824.54 693.94 633.76 492.93n/a 942.73 957.48 888.37 888.86 858.27 825.02 694.18 634.47 496.24n/a 942.73 959.21 888.37 889.11 858.76 825.50 694.65 635.17 499.08n/a 942.73 960.08 888.37 889.35 859.00 825.75 694.89 635.64 500.98n/a 942.73 961.81 888.62 889.35 859.25 825.26 695.12 635.88 499.32n/a 935.77 957.48 888.62 888.37 858.03 823.81 695.12 634.47 487.48n/a 931.41 949.68 888.62 887.88 856.32 822.36 694.65 632.35 477.99n/a 931.41 947.08 888.62 888.37 855.84 823.09 694.18 631.64 480.84n/a 936.64 949.68 888.62 888.62 856.57 823.81 693.94 632.35 485.11n/a 939.25 953.15 888.62 888.62 857.30 824.29 694.18 633.29 489.37n/a 940.12 955.75 888.62 888.86 857.54 824.54 694.18 634.00 493.16n/a 939.25 956.62 888.62 888.86 858.03 824.78 694.41 634.70 496.48n/a 938.38 957.48 888.62 889.11 858.52 825.02 694.89 635.41 499.08n/a 939.25 958.35 888.62 889.11 858.76 825.02 695.12 635.88 500.98n/a 939.25 959.21 888.62 889.35 858.76 824.78 695.36 635.88 495.53n/a 934.03 955.75 888.62 888.62 857.54 823.09 695.36 634.23 477.28n/a 929.66 947.95 888.62 888.12 856.08 822.12 694.89 632.11 469.92Minimum 0.00 929.66 947.08 888.37 887.88 855.59 822.12 693.70 631.17 469.92Maximum 0.00 942.73 961.81 888.62 889.35 859.25 825.75 695.36 635.88 500.98Range 0.00 13.07 14.73 0.25 1.47 3.65 3.63 1.66 4.71 31.06Average 0.00 937.90 954.66 888.53 888.71 857.53 824.14 694.52 633.85 489.83Distance(m)0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.210013:32:20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 921.11 946.40 889.05 888.31 855.78 822.79 695.79 633.01 483.64n/a 918.48 941.18 889.05 888.31 855.05 822.79 695.08 631.83 484.35n/a 926.36 944.66 889.05 888.81 855.29 823.28 694.84 632.54 488.14n/a 928.98 947.27 889.05 888.81 855.78 823.76 694.84 633.24 491.93n/a 929.85 949.00 889.05 888.81 856.27 824.00 694.84 633.95 495.72n/a 929.85 950.74 888.81 889.05 856.76 824.24 695.08 634.66 498.80n/a 929.85 952.47 888.81 889.05 857.00 824.48 695.31 635.36 501.40n/a 928.10 953.34 888.81 889.05 857.24 824.73 695.55 635.83 503.53n/a 934.22 954.21 888.81 889.30 857.49 824.48 695.79 636.07 504.24n/a 928.10 952.47 888.81 888.56 856.51 823.52 695.79 634.89 493.59n/a 922.86 945.53 888.81 887.82 855.05 822.31 695.31 632.77 481.50n/a 920.23 941.18 888.81 888.07 854.08 822.55 694.84 631.83 482.21n/a 929.85 943.79 888.81 888.31 854.56 823.03 694.60 632.54 486.24n/a 933.34 946.40 888.81 888.31 855.05 823.52 694.60 633.48 490.51n/a 937.70 949.00 888.56 888.56 855.78 824.00 694.84 634.19 494.54n/a 940.31 952.47 888.56 888.81 856.76 824.73 695.08 635.13 498.09n/a 942.05 955.07 888.56 889.05 857.49 825.21 695.31 636.07 501.17n/a 942.92 956.81 888.56 889.30 857.97 825.45 695.79 636.54 503.53n/a 942.92 958.54 888.56 889.30 858.71 825.69 696.02 637.01 504.24n/a 935.96 956.81 888.56 888.81 857.97 824.24 696.26 636.07 491.93Minimum 0.00 918.48 941.18 888.56 887.82 854.08 822.31 694.60 631.83 481.50Maximum 0.00 942.92 958.54 889.05 889.30 858.71 825.69 696.26 637.01 504.24Range 0.00 24.45 17.35 0.49 1.47 4.63 3.38 1.66 5.18 22.74Average 0.00 931.15 949.87 888.79 888.72 856.33 823.94 695.28 634.35 493.97Distance 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21(m)Interior wall probe temperature readings (Run SL3)11:46:12 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 348.65 671.48 -1467.981.568 296.51 576.84 842.762.064 341.37 658.44 837.642.375 395.96 680.16 823.342.724 306.03 508.96 752.533.048 297.05 505.41 699.564.07 196.38 351.02 566.784.585 192.69 323.72 499.735.213 188.03 266.87 373.6513:28:28 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 364.54 686.64 -1436.351.568 320.67 614.43 890.982.064 326.61 667.95 882.23• 2.375 414.17 716.91 875.372.724 339.43 559.08 817.533.048 334.11 564.03 773.574.07 223.78 402.45 650.264.585 220.11 374.37 585.715.213 212.75 307.70 445.4313:33:43 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 363.62 687.79 -1438.311.568 322.00 617.59 889.402.064 327.28 669.56 882.182.375 416.04 719.00 875.812.724 340.82 561.15 817.963.048 335.75 566.58 774.964.07 225.44 405.27 651.864.585 221.77 376.97 587.315.213 213.92 309.35 448.00182Suction pyrometer temperature readings (SL3)Time^11:33:14.25^11:35:23.16^11:37:23.94^11:39:30.65^11:41:29.24Pair 1 2 3 4 5^1154.93^1075.14^1115.23^1079.38^919.86^881.59^835.04^809.17^756.71^633.811155.76^1084.34^1125.19^1078.54^933.29^889.70^841.84^813.75^768.90^639.701156.58^1095.20^1133.48^1081.05^941.78^893.64^845.73^814.24^772.01^643.471174.72^1104.37^1138.45^1085.23^945.78^895.12^848.16^811.82^770.33^644.891189.52^1114.35^1140.93^1086.90^947.78^896.11^848.40^811.34^755.04^643.711196.09^1122.66^1145.90^1085.23^948.53^897.34^848.89^810.62^731.71^643.001211.68^1130.12^1149.20^1076.03^948.03^898.33^848.40^812.55^732.66^641.821134.26^1097.70^1156.63^1087.74^947.03^898.57^848.16^814.96^747.41^642.531200.20^1116.84^1157.46^1087.74^947.03^898.82^848.89^818.82^756.00^643.241204.30^1127.63^1156.63^1086.90^949.04^900.79^850.59^821.00^770.57^643.951205.12^1126.80^1160.76^1095.25^951.29^903.51^851.81^821.97^778.71^647.481194.45^1128.46^1161.58^1083.56^952.54^904.50^853.52^822.93^782.78^650.7800 1176.36^1128.46^1160.76^1088.57^953.80^905.74^854.49^822.21^782.31^651.251202.66^1135.92^1169.82^1087.74^954.05^907.22^855.47^818.10^774.64^651.731206.76^1141.71^1174.77^1090.24^952.80^906.23^854.98^815.92^763.64^650.081221.52^1148.32^1177.24^1095.25^952.29^905.49^853.76^815.68^738.60^648.421228.07^1154.11^1173.94^1081.89^951.04^904.01^853.03^817.13^723.16^648.421244.44^1159.88^1169.00^1087.74^950.29^904.01^852.54^819.79^741.46^648.191236.26^1164.01^1168.18^1086.07^949.54^904.01^853.27^822.93^758.38^647.251246.89^1162.36^1169.00^1092.75^950.79^904.01^854.25^824.87^773.20^649.60Minimum^1134.26^1075.14^1115.23^1076.03^919.86^881.59^835.04^809.17^723.16^633.81Maximum^1246.89^1164.01^1177.24^1095.25^954.05^907.22^855.47^824.87^782.78^651.73Range^112.63^88.87^62.00^19.22^34.19^25.63^20.42^15.70^59.63^17.92Average^1197.03^1125.92^1155.21^1086.19^947.33^899.94^850.06^816.99^758.91^645.67Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Time^13:16:18.31^13:17:50.03^13:19:43.35^13:21:43.91^13:23:50.56Pair 1 1 2 3 4^920.54^1047.64^925.85^1123.01^1137.16^1133.02^984.91^322.54^909.93^900.30928.41^1069.52^931.96^1108.04^1156.18^1143.79^999.37^304.11^917.60^903.75930.15^1077.07^903.91^1088.01^1166.09^1143.79^1007.78^277.60^921.57^906.47931.90^1072.88^896.85^1073.78^1171.03^1145.44^1013.65^285.64^925.05^904.74926.66^1070.36^858.62^1066.23^1174.33^1145.44^1017.49^261.75^927.03^906.22906.49^1055.23^813.46^1064.54^1175.98^1151.23^1018.00^272.49^928.53^903.75920.54^1047.64^838.85^1093.03^1177.62^1150.40^1018.00^283.69^928.53^904.99862.14^1041.73^888.01^1109.70^1176.80^1144.61^1017.75^299.50^929.27^909.44828.84^1048.49^895.97^1124.67^1170.21^1137.99^1016.98^315.03^928.77^911.17828.84^1070.36^945.02^1134.62^1175.98^1155.36^1016.72^338.27^928.77^912.65922.29^1095.47^928.47^1129.64^1180.09^1153.71^1016.98^334.40^930.02^913.15944.96^1104.65^939.80^1115.53^1183.38^1159.49^1018.51^329.56^930.02^913.8900^938.00^1112.14^909.19^1090.52^1182.56^1157.01^1018.77^343.83^932.01^912.65936.26^1104.65^890.66^1070.42^1189.14^1156.18^1020.05^346.72^931.01^911.41938.87^1089.63^856.83^1067.07^1180.92^1153.71^1019.79^334.64^932.01^909.19930.15^1076.23^828.90^1068.74^1181.74^1145.44^1019.54^340.93^931.76^910.18892.37^1062.80^827.09^1075.46^1179.27^1156.18^1018.77^326.90^931.01^908.94879.96^1058.60^881.80^1103.87^1178.45^1147.09^1017.75^338.99^930.02^909.68834.27^1067.01^893.32^1124.67^1172.68^1161.14^1016.47^325.45^929.27^910.42857.66^1093.80^900.38^1124.67^1175.98^1157.01^1016.98^354.44^928.28^910.92Minimum^828.84^1041.73^813.46^1064.54^1137.16^1133.02^984.91^261.75^909.93^900.30Maximum^944.96^1112.14^945.02^1134.62^1189.14^1161.14^1020.05^354.44^932.01^913.89Range^116.12^70.41^131.56^70.07^51.98^28.12^35.14^92.69^22.08^13.59Average^902.97^1073.30^887.75^1097.81^1174.28^1149.90^1014.71^316.83^927.52^908.70Distance 0.15^0.46^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27(m)TimePair13:36:07.451826.77812.22846.63908.89958.61955.14935.16930.79881.49853.82816.78833.10828.58917.67900.96989.61914.16911.52943.86932.5413:37:54.932^1000.74^1117.011016.94^1125.321038.99^1125.321064.28^1119.501080.23^1131.121091.10^1124.491089.43^1131.121079.39^1140.241064.28^1150.171065.12^1150.171060.08^1151.821055.03^1146.031060.08^1140.241088.59^1136.921105.29^1133.611114.44^1136.101099.45^1149.341091.10^1150.171090.27^1152.641083.58^1150.1713:39:41.0031112.85^983.211112.85^993.601115.35^1000.721102.02^1005.561113.68^1007.851110.35^1008.871123.66^1008.621145.20^1009.131141.89^1008.111139.41^1006.831143.55^1006.581137.75^1006.581141.89^1007.851136.92^1009.381136.10^1009.891138.58^1010.151123.66^1009.131123.66^1007.601129.46^1006.831126.15^1007.6013:41:40.624719:91^901.38659.85^907.31644.28^911.01637.21^913.49642.63^915.47634.39^917.45635.56^918.94640.04^919.68632.74^918.94624.73^918.94624.02^918.19615.54^919.19607.53^918.69600.70^920.18582.56^920.92579.03^922.41565.83^922.66559.94^923.65533.99^922.91532.57^923.1513:43:39.045831.35844.68853.19856.36859.77861.72858.55850.27843.47839.34849.78858.30861.96862.21866.35864.65862.21854.65845.41847.84897.93902.12904.59904.59903.85903.85900.40897.93898.18898.18900.40900.15901.63900.89900.89901.14899.66898.18897.44899.17897.44904.597.15900.563.27MinimumMaximumRangeAverageDistance(m)812.22^1000.74^1117.01^1102.02^983.21989.61^1114.44^1152.64^1145.20^1010.15177.39^113.71^35.64^43.18^26.93894.92^1071.92^1138.07^1127.75^1005.700.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21532.57719.91187.34613.652.55901.38923.6522.27917.732.92831.35866.3535.01853.603.99731.43737.14740.70743.08744.99745.94746.65746.65746.18746.65747.13749.03750.23751.65752.61752.61752.13752.13751.89751.18731.43752.6121.17747.004.5213:25:40.975^836.34^732.04849.45^736.56856.99^739.65860.65^742.03862.36^743.45859.67^744.17853.58^744.41847.26^743.93842.40^744.17842.16^743.93854.56^745.36;3,^858.70^746.55a.^866.51^747.98866.75^749.41869.44^749.17865.04^749.88860.89^748.69852.61^748.45846.77^747.98853.34^747.98836.34869.4433.10855.273.99732.04749.8817.84744.794.52Shell temperature readingsRun: SL3Distance from lime product output (m)Time 0.146 0.921 1.492 2.21 3.99411:46:12.87 160.8487 183.9603 224.6935 110.9035 183.714511:46:47.69 174.7198 197.3277 227.4985 123.055 205.429413:30:03.84 176.2833 199.1356 227.0986 126.0953 209.1996187Flue gas analysisRun:SL3Equipment :Oxygen analyzerFuel Time % Oxygennat. gas 9:22 4.310:16 3.410:28 3.411:19 2.611:30 2.6LOW 12:15 6.212:19 7.812:25 2.7-3.512.38 0.8-3.512:55 0.5-2.513:03 0.5-2.21:15 0.5-2.21:30 2.7188Table of eventsRun SL911/06/92 07:57:51.05Kiln speed (rpm) : 1.5 07:57:54.18SL9ARead bed temperatures 13:45:05.39Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 13:46:58.15Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 13:48:21.14Read Shell Temperatures 13:48:48.99Suction T/C, Pair : 1 13:49:44.85Suction T/C, Pair : 2 13:52:27.59Suction T/C, Pair : 3 13:54:04.70Suction T/C, Pair : 4 13:56:33.22Suction T/C, Pair : 5 14:00:25.33Read bed temperatures 14:02:43.47Read Shell Temperatures 14:05:16.22Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 14:05:19.90Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 14:06:42.95Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:07:38.53Suction T/C, Pair : 2 14:10:43.85Suction T/C, Pair : 3 14:12:47.16Suction T/C, Pair : 4 14:14:49.15Suction T/C, Pair : 5 14:16:36.64SL9BRead bed temperatures 15:02:44.83Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 15:04:39.07Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 15:06:01.95Read Shell Temperatures 15:06:27.44Suction T/C, Pair : 1 15:06:43.48Suction T/C, Pair : 2 15:08:46.29Suction T/C, Pair : 3 15:10:45.92Suction T/C, Pair : 4 15:12:42.96Suction T/C, Pair : 1 15:54:21.74Suction T/C, Pair : 2 15:56:11.70Suction T/C, Pair : 3 15:58:25.06Suction T/C, Pair : 4 16:00:04.48Suction T/C, Pair : 5 16:01:59.93Read bed temperatures 16:03:26.44Read Shell Temperatures 16:05:21.95Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 16:05:26.40Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 16:06:49.39189Read bed temperatures 16:26:51.38Read Shell Temperatures 16:28:47.00Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 16:28:49.47Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 16:30:12.41Suction T/C, Pair : 1 16:30:39.32Suction T/C, Pair : 2 16:32:17.53Suction T/C, Pair : 3 16:34:04.91Suction T/C, Pair : 4 16:35:55.25Suction T/C, Pair : 5 16:37:46.31Read bed temperatures 16:52:17.81Read Shell Temperatures 16:54:13.65Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 16:54:17.17Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 16:55:40.05Suction T/C, Pair : 1 16:56:07.68Suction T/C, Pair : 2 16:57:46.05Suction T/C, Pair : 3 16:59:36.83Suction T/C, Pair : 4 17:01:33.49Suction T/C, Pair : 5 17:03:24.61190Cyclic bed temperature readings (SL9)13:45:05^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^951.00^1014.53^998.33^977.76^913.85^886.71^841.77^819.97^724.96^646.22971.74^1066.07^1027.27^989.77^933.97^902.47^851.49^828.92^734.23^663.44992.34^1092.87^1050.09^1000.04^944.71^909.89^857.34^834.00^743.98^672.881006.86^1112.03^1060.19^1006.86^949.96^914.59^862.22^838.37^751.61^682.101012.82^1117.85^1065.24^1012.82^954.48^916.33^865.39^840.80^755.90^686.351012.82^1120.34^1070.27^1015.38^951.47^916.58^867.10^842.50^759.48^688.481008.57^1117.85^1070.27^1016.23^948.96^913.35^864.91^839.83^757.81^686.35982.05^1114.53^1073.63^1017.93^940.46^905.19^859.05^833.28^750.41^673.12982.05^1107.87^1071.95^1014.53^931.73^900.01^854.66^827.95^741.13^650.94957.93^1038.27^1016.23^991.48^906.67^877.39^831.58^814.66^720.45^625.72946.66^1028.11^1007.71^980.34^921.29^892.12^849.30^825.29^733.04^654.95970.01^1071.95^1035.73^992.34^939.21^905.93^860.51^833.04^742.08^669.11992.34^1096.21^1051.77^1002.60^945.46^911.62^866.62^836.91^748.51^676.661003.45^1108.71^1061.03^1008.57^952.22^916.58^871.75^841.77^754.94^683.991007.71^1120.34^1067.75^1012.82^952.72^916.58^873.96^843.71^759.95^688.481010.27^1125.33^1070.27^1014.53^951.22^916.33^873.22^843.47^760.91^688.24997.47^1118.68^1069.43^1015.38^948.21^911.87^871.75^841.77^757.33^683.28996.62^1114.53^1072.79^1016.23^936.22^901.49^861.00^831.34^748.51^671.94970.87^1088.69^1056.83^1011.12^923.77^891.88^845.66^824.08^730.66^637.27954.47^1023.87^1006.01^979.48^907.42^879.59^839.83^818.52^726.15^636.56Minimum^946.66^1014.53^998.33^977.76^906.67^877.39^831.58^814.66^720.45^625.72Maximum^1012.82^1125.33^1073.63^1017.93^954.48^916.58^873.96^843.71^760.91^688.48Range^66.16^110.80^75.30^40.17^47.80^39.19^42.37^29.05^40.46^62.76Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)14:02:43^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^1031.85^1134.79^1075.65^1014.03^952.07^913.46^867.45^835.57^749.33^674.891040.31^1146.38^1081.52^1019.98^954.32^913.46^869.41^837.26^753.15^678.191035.24^1147.21^1084.86^1022.52^949.81^911.48^867.94^834.60^752.91^677.251031.85^1141.42^1086.53^1023.37^944.06^906.53^862.57^829.75^747.43^670.641029.31^1138.94^1084.03^1021.68^931.58^897.15^855.74^823.46^738.86^656.011010.62^1094.89^1057.18^1015.73^919.16^884.60^836.54^813.80^717.24^623.01988.41^1033.55^1013.17^981.55^910.98^881.66^838.96^813.56^721.04^631.72988.41^1075.65^1034.39^990.12^928.60^896.66^850.38^822.49^731.96^653.171010.62^1109.06^1057.18^1001.24^940.31^903.57^856.96^827.82^739.10^662.851024.22^1124.85^1071.46^1012.32^951.82^915.19^866.48^835.08^747.91^673.231031.00^1130.65^1077.33^1017.43^955.83^917.67^871.12^838.72^754.10^679.371031.85^1134.79^1078.17^1019.13^953.32^917.17^873.08^840.42^758.16^683.861024.22^1129.82^1074.81^1020.83^952.82^914.45^871.12^839.45^759.35^683.161025.92^1128.16^1076.49^1021.68^946.31^909.00^866.72^832.90^750.29^673.711005.51^1119.03^1076.49^1019.98^934.82^901.10^859.40^827.82^742.19^657.42981.55^1055.49^1028.46^1004.65^912.71^878.72^831.69^811.39^718.19^618.30968.64^1026.77^1007.21^980.69^918.41^892.23^847.71^822.49^730.78^646.57989.27^1081.52^1038.62^994.40^937.82^905.54^857.20^830.48^740.29^662.851008.06^1101.56^1056.34^1005.51^947.81^911.72^862.81^834.60^747.91^671.821019.98^1117.37^1066.42^1012.32^953.07^916.93^868.92^839.93^753.86^678.43Minimum^968.64^1026.77^1007.21^980.69^910.98^878.72^831.69^811.39^717.24^618.30Maximum^1040.31^1147.21^1086.53^1023.37^955.83^917.67^873.08^840.42^759.35^683.86Range^71.67^120.44^79.32^42.69^44.85^38.95^41.39^29.03^42.11^65.57Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)15:02:44^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^794.55^940.04^1029.31^1076.50^1018.01^978.59^935.42^899.48^810.79^735.67792.71^941.78^1029.31^1079.02^1014.17^978.59^936.17^901.21^809.11^733.05790.88^947.00^1031.01^1078.18^1010.08^971.27^928.20^892.83^801.40^721.89777.98^951.33^1031.01^1072.31^995.56^960.70^917.28^888.89^792.03^696.54779.82^933.08^990.97^1038.63^962.20^930.44^886.19^872.46^777.89^679.99780.75^936.56^985.83^1030.16^971.77^948.91^903.43^883.00^787.71^706.24949.60* 1013.17* 1041.16* 5217.48*^958.94*^913.32*^887.67*^794.91*^719.99*^706.24*788.12^948.73^1026.77^1051.29^996.58^963.96^920.50^890.86^800.44^726.88785.36^941.78^1032.70^1061.39^1006.00^971.01^928.70^895.54^805.49^731.63784.44^931.33^1032.70^1068.95^1008.81^972.53^931.19^897.26^808.14^735.90784.44^933.08^1032.70^1072.31^1009.32^973.28^932.68^898.49^809.35^735.90787.20^944.39^1036.09^1073.99^1008.30^971.77^929.94^894.80^804.77^728.780.00*^953.93^1039.47^1073.15^1002.43^967.24^924.72^891.11^798.52^719.28779.82^958.26^1024.22^1067.28^982.13^946.41^897.26^880.30^778.85^682.82780.75^933.08^984.97^1026.77^960.45^934.68^888.40^874.91^780.04^690.62780.75^951.33^1004.65^1035.24^978.84^952.17^902.19^883.98^789.39^711.930.00*^959.13^1023.37^1046.23^989.72^961.45^912.82^888.65^796.12^721.890.00*^953.07^1034.40^1057.19^996.33^964.47^917.78^890.37^801.64^728.54781.67^932.20^1035.24^1066.44^1006.51^971.77^924.72^896.52^806.46^733.29784.44^928.71^1034.40^1072.31^1011.36^974.29^928.20^899.23^808.63^734.95Minimum^777.98^928.71^984.97^1026.77^960.45^930.44^886.19^872.46^777.89^679.99Maximum^794.55^959.13^1039.47^1079.02^1018.01^978.59^936.17^901.21^810.79^735.90Range^16.57^30.42^54.50^52.25^57.57^48.14^49.98^28.74^32.91^55.92Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)* This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.16:03:26 1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^783.80^956.01^1025.43^1046.59^983.08^955.88^922.46^894.78^813.93^736.16786.57^956.01^1035.61^1053.34^990.68^962.41^930.66^899.46^819.24^742.35791.17^947.34^1038.99^1061.76^1000.84^969.20^936.88^903.65^824.55^747.11790.25^942.99^1037.30^1068.48^1004.15^972.22^939.88^905.63^826.97^748.06792.09^942.99^1036.45^1072.68^1005.43^972.22^939.13^905.38^826.73^747.58785.65^950.81^1038.14^1074.36^1005.17^970.46^935.89^901.92^822.14^740.92781.03^956.01^1039.84^1074.36^1000.84^964.92^928.42^897.24^815.38^731.41785.65^953.41^1019.49^1068.48^985.11^945.62^899.70^883.47^793.48^698.93943.86*^995.61* 1042.37* 5007.91*^940.12*^901.68*^884.46*^801.65*^714.80*^698.93*784.72^955.14^1017.79^1043.22^978.53^951.62^916.76^892.07^809.35^729.99789.33^958.61^1031.37^1049.97^985.61^958.14^924.69^895.76^815.62^737.83792.09^956.88^1038.99^1056.71^994.74^964.67^931.65^900.44^819.72^741.63793.92^946.47^1038.99^1065.96^1001.61^969.20^936.14^903.65^823.83^746.39792.09^940.38^1036.45^1071.84^1004.92^972.48^939.63^905.87^825.52^748.06794.84^947.34^1037.30^1074.36^1006.96^973.23^939.63^905.13^823.83^745.20789.33^953.41^1039.84^1076.04^1004.15^970.21^934.64^900.69^818.03^736.88779.19^960.34^1042.37^1074.36^997.54^963.67^923.95^895.27^809.59^715.04784.72^944.73^1010.12^1059.24^973.48^937.63^894.04^880.78^794.68^698.69786.57^949.07^1003.30^1042.37^971.47^944.12^907.85^887.65^804.30^721.44783.80^957.74^1022.89^1046.59^984.60^955.63^920.97^893.55^812.25^733.31Minimum^779.19^940.38^1003.30^1042.37^971.47^937.63^894.04^880.78^793.48^698.69Maximum^794.84^960.34^1042.37^1076.04^1006.96^973.23^939.88^905.87^826.97^748.06Range^15.65^19.95^39.07^33.66^35.49^35.60^45.84^25.10^33.49^49.37Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)* This data is not used in fmding the minimum bed temperature.16:26:51^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^768.48^934.69^1021.59^1047.84^993.87^965.32^934.04^903.80^823.99^747.98763.83^923.33^1020.74^1054.58^1000.99^969.60^937.53^905.53^827.61^752.03762.90^920.70^1019.89^1059.64^1002.52^970.86^939.03^906.27^828.10^752.030.00*^927.70^1021.59^1063.00^1002.01^969.35^936.04^904.05^825.20^747.51752.65^935.56^1024.14^1063.84^998.70^964.82^930.56^898.38^818.43^738.94760.11^941.65^1020.74^1063.00^993.62^957.29^912.45^891.73^802.53^712.36763.83^924.20^988.30^1046.15^970.36^937.28^898.63^884.36^800.61^714.25761.04^932.94^996.86^1037.70^970.61^947.27^914.68^891.98^809.27^732.52773.11^940.78^1014.78^1041.08^975.40^955.28^924.60^896.66^816.50^740.84777.74^938.17^1022.44^1045.31^984.49^961.80^931.80^901.09^822.30^746.56778.66^929.45^1023.29^1052.90^995.14^967.84^937.53^905.04^827.13^751.32772.19^923.33^1022.44^1058.80^1000.48^970.61^939.03^905.53^828.82^752.51926.83* 1021.59* 1062.16* 5369.30*^970.61*^939.03*^905.53*^828.34*^750.84*^752.51*761.04^929.45^1021.59^1062.16^998.70^966.08^933.05^900.60^822.78^743.22751.72^935.56^1024.14^1062.16^994.13^960.55^925.59^896.16^814.09^724.21761.04^925.95^996.86^1052.90^974.14^938.53^895.42^883.63^800.13^705.96761.04^930.32^987.44^1036.01^966.83^941.77^906.77^889.77^809.75^728.72765.69^937.30^1007.11^1035.16^970.61^951.02^918.64^894.44^816.26^739.65767.55^942.52^1019.89^1040.24^977.92^958.54^927.58^899.12^821.57^745.36771.26^937.30^1024.14^1046.99^990.57^965.32^934.04^903.31^825.68^749.41Minimum^751.72^920.70^987.44^1035.16^966.83^937.28^895.42^883.63^800.13^705.96Maximum^778.66^942.52^1024.14^1063.84^1002.52^970.86^939.03^906.27^828.82^752.51Range^26.95^21.82^36.70^28.68^35.68^33.58^43.60^22.64^28.70^46.55Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)* This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.16:52:17 1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^748.45^916.79^981.04^1035.63^976.12^947.99^913.66^892.94^811.19^729.67750.32^920.29^999.04^1035.63^986.48^957.00^923.82^898.36^817.94^738.46752.19^911.52^1005.88^1041.55^996.12^966.04^933.27^904.27^823.97^744.41754.99^910.64^1009.29^1049.15^1004.51^972.34^940.50^908.72^828.81^749.41757.79^906.24^1010.14^1055.05^1008.34^975.36^942.24^909.71^830.99^752.0353.71*^911.52^1010.14^1059.27^1008.85^975.11^941.49^908.47^828.81^749.88742.82^918.54^1011.85^1061.79^1005.53^972.09^937.25^903.53^823.49^743.45730.60^926.42^1016.10^1060.95^997.64^964.03^929.04^898.11^816.73^731.09738.13^919.42^993.05^1056.74^983.19^944.99^900.82^887.04^799.16^703.59742.82^910.64^975.88^1040.71^971.08^942.49^909.21^890.48^807.82^721.84741.89^921.17^995.62^1037.32^982.69^954.75^925.56^897.86^815.77^734.89742.82^917.66^1005.88^1041.55^991.30^961.77^932.52^901.31^820.11^740.60744.70^914.15^1010.99^1047.46^999.68^968.81^940.50^906.25^825.91^745.83749.38^909.76^1010.99^1053.37^1005.79^973.09^943.24^908.47^829.29^750.12754.05^911.52^1011.85^1058.42^1008.85^974.61^943.99^909.71^831.23^750.60746.57^919.42^1014.40^1060.95^1007.06^972.34^940.75^907.48^827.36^745.60755.92^927.30^1016.96^1060.95^1001.97^967.30^933.77^901.81^820.59^737.51743.76^929.04^1009.29^1060.11^991.80^956.75^911.93^893.43^802.28^709.03914.15*^978.46*^1045.78* 5030.28*^940.99*^902.55*^888.52*^804.93*^716.38*^709.03*754.05^925.55^988.77^1038.17^978.90^951.49^919.86^895.89^813.36^732.28Minimum^730.60^906.24^975.88^1035.63^971.08^942.49^900.82^887.04^799.16^703.59Maximum^757.79^929.04^1016.96^1061.79^1008.85^975.36^943.99^909.71^831.23^752.03Range^27.19^22.81^41.08^26.16^37.77^32.87^43.17^22.66^32.07^48.44Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)* This data is not used in fmding the minimum bed temperature.Bed temperatures - Kiln stopped17:03:24^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10762.78^907.46^973.63^1038.51^967.14^941.33^893.77^893.28^800.94^710.09763.71^899.52^960.68^1018.15^958.10^934.36^889.35^889.35^798.54^706.06764.64^895.11^952.02^1001.95^954.09^931.12^886.65^888.12^798.05^703.22765.57^890.68^945.07^990.82^951.58^929.13^884.93^886.40^798.30^701.09765.57^888.91^938.98^982.24^950.83^927.64^883.95^885.67^798.54^699.43766.50^886.25^934.62^975.36^949.33^927.14^882.97^885.67^799.02^698.25766.50^884.48^931.13^971.05^949.58^927.39^882.48^885.67^799.74^697.30766.50^883.59^927.64^966.73^950.33^927.14^882.23^885.17^800.22^696.59766.50^882.70^925.01^964.14^950.83^926.90^881.99^884.93^800.70^696.12765.57^881.81^922.39^962.41^951.58^927.14^881.74^885.91^801.66^695.65Minimum^762.78^881.81^922.39^962.41^949.33^926.90^881.74^884.93^798.05^695.65Maximum^766.50^907.46^973.63^1038.51^967.14^941.33^893.77^893.28^801.66^710.09Range^3.72^25.65^51.25^76.10^17.81^14.44^12.03^8.35^3.60^14.44Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Cyclic hot wall probe temperature readings (SL9)13:46:58 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 971.80 917.07 831.16 805.08 808.21 780.58 656.19 589.74 436.43n/a 967.49 912.69 831.40 805.32 807.97 780.34 655.72 587.86 431.90n/a 982.11 913.57 831.40 805.32 807.73 781.06 655.24 588.09 436.19n/a 987.26 915.32 831.40 805.32 807.73 781.54 655.01 589.04 440.72n/a 991.54 917.95 831.40 805.32 807.97 782.02 655.24 589.98 445.01n/a 993.26 918.83 831.40 805.08 807.97 782.50 655.48 590.92 448.82n/a 994.11 919.70 831.40 805.08 808.21 782.74 655.72 591.63 451.91n/a 994.11 920.58 831.40 805.32 808.21 782.74 655.95 592.10 454.29n/a 992.40 921.45 831.40 805.08 808.45 782.50 656.19 592.33 455.00n/a 982.97 920.58 831.40 805.32 808.45 781.78 656.19 591.39 441.67n/a 971.80 914.44 831.16 805.08 807.97 780.82 655.95 589.04 430.71`e.0 n/a 968.35 911.81 831.40 805.32 807.73 780.82 655.48 587.86 431.90n/a 914.44 n/a 805.32 807.73 781.54 655.24 588.56 436.43 431.90n/a 990.69 917.07 831.40 805.32 807.73 782.02 655.24 589.51 440.96n/a 990.69 917.95 831.40 805.08 807.97 782.26 655.24 590.21 445.25n/a 994.11 919.70 831.40 805.08 807.97 782.74 655.48 591.16 449.05n/a 995.82 920.58 831.40 805.08 808.21 782.74 655.72 591.86 452.15n/a 995.82 921.45 831.40 805.08 808.45 782.74 656.19 592.33 454.29n/a 992.40 922.33 831.40 805.08 808.45 782.50 656.42 592.33 453.57n/a 976.96 918.83 831.16 805.08 808.45 781.54 656.19 590.68 440.24Minimum n/a 914.44 911.81 805.32 805.08 781.54 655.24 588.56 436.43 430.71Maximum n/a 995.82 922.33 831.40 807.73 808.45 782.74 656.42 592.33 455.00Range n/a 81.38 10.52 26.08 2.65 26.91 127.49 67.86 155.90 24.29Average n/a 982.41 917.99 830.06 805.31 806.77 775.56 652.37 582.72 443.60Distance 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21(m)14:05:19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 1003.86 922.68 832.48 805.19 807.84 781.41 652.53 585.15 440.83n/a 1003.86 924.43 832.48 805.19 807.84 781.65 652.76 585.85 444.17n/a 1006.42 925.30 832.48 805.19 808.08 781.89 653.00 586.56 446.79n/a 1005.57 926.17 832.48 805.43 808.32 781.89 653.47 587.03 448.45n/a 1004.71 926.17 832.48 805.43 808.32 781.17 653.47 586.56 443.69n/a 985.04 921.80 832.48 805.43 808.08 779.97 653.23 584.20 431.54n/a 979.89 916.55 832.48 805.43 807.84 779.73 652.76 582.32 426.29n/a 992.75 917.42 832.48 805.43 807.59 780.21 652.29 582.55 430.34n/a 1000.45 920.05 832.72 805.43 807.59 780.93 652.29 583.73 434.64n/a 1001.30 920.93 832.48 805.43 807.59 781.17 652.53 584.67 439.16n/a 1003.86 922.68 832.48 805.43 807.84 781.65 652.76 585.62 442.98n/a 1004.71 923.55 832.48 805.43 808.08 781.89 653.00 586.32 446.07n/a 1005.57 924.43 832.48 805.43 808.08 781.89 653.23 587.03 448.45n/a 1004.71 925.30 832.48 805.43 808.32 781.65 653.47 587.27 449.17n/a 995.32 924.43 832.48 805.43 808.32 780.69 653.71 586.09 439.16n/a 984.18 919.18 832.72 805.43 808.08 779.73 653.47 583.73 426.05n/a 980.75 916.55 832.72 805.67 807.84 779.73 653.00 582.55 425.81n/a 997.88 918.30 832.72 805.43 807.59 780.45 652.53 583.03 430.34n/a 1001.30 920.05 832.72 805.43 807.84 780.93 652.53 584.20 434.87n/a 1004.71 921.80 832.72 805.43 807.84 781.41 652.76 584.91 439.40Minimum n/a 979.89 916.55 832.48 805.19 807.59 779.73 652.29 582.32 425.81Maximum n/a 1006.42 926.17 832.72 805.67 808.32 781.89 653.71 587.27 449.17Range n/a 26.53 9.63 0.24 0.48 0.72 2.16 1.42 4.95 23.36Average n/a 998.34 921.89 832.55 805.40 807.94 781.00 652.94 584.97 438.41Distance(m)0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.2115:04:39 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 905.98 964.37 861.77 836.72 848.37 827.27 699.67 637.58 495.35n/a 907.74 966.10 861.77 836.72 848.62 827.76 700.15 638.29 498.19n/a 908.62 966.96 862.02 836.96 848.86 827.76 700.38 638.76 500.09n/a 913.01 967.82 862.02 836.96 849.10 827.27 700.62 638.53 495.35n/a 900.69 960.92 862.02 836.72 848.86 826.06 700.38 636.64 481.37n/a 897.16 953.13 862.02 836.96 848.13 825.34 700.15 634.75 475.20n/a 904.22 953.99 862.02 836.96 848.13 825.82 699.67 634.99 479.71n/a 909.50 957.46 862.02 836.96 847.89 826.31 699.67 635.70 484.22n/a 909.50 960.92 862.02 836.96 848.13 827.03 699.67 636.64 488.96n/a 906.86 963.51 862.02 836.96 848.37 827.27 700.15 637.58 492.98n/a 905.10 965.24 862.02 836.96 848.62 827.76 700.38 638.29 496.54n/a 908.62 966.10 862.26 836.96 848.86 828.00 700.62 639.00 499.38n/a 910.37 967.82 862:26 837.20 849.10 828.00 701.09 639.23 500.56n/a 906.86 966.96 862.26 836.96 849.35 827.52 701.09 638.53 489.19n/a 899.81 958.32 862.26 837.20 848.86 826.06 701.09 636.17 476.86n/a 897.16 953.13 862.26 837.20 848.37 826.06 700.62 634.99 476.86n/a 906.86 955.73 862.26 837.20 848.37 826.55 700.38 635.46 481.61n/a 910.37 959.19 862.26 837.20 848.13 826.79 700.15 636.40 486.35n/a 907.74 962.65 862.50 837.20 848.37 827.27 700.38 637.35 490.85n/a 905.98 964.37 862.50 837.20 848.62 827.76 700.62 638.05 494.41Minimum n/a 897.16 953.13 861.77 836.72 847.89 825.34 699.67 634.75 475.20Maximum n/a 913.01 967.82 862.50 837.20 849.35 828.00 701.09 639.23 500.56Range n/a 15.85 14.70 0.73 0.48 1.46 2.66 1.42 4.48 25.36Average n/a 906.11 961.73 862.12 837.01 848.56 826.98 700.35 637.15 489.20Distance(m)0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.2116:05:26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 921.18 975.01 878.81 851.47 859.51 841.99 725.24 659.48 507.15n/a 915.92 977.59 879.06 851.47 859.75 842.48 725.24 660.42 511.18n/a 914.16 980.17 879.06 851.47 859.99 842.72 725.71 661.37 514.72n/a 915.92 981.03 879.06 851.47 860.24 842.96 725.95 661.84 517.32n/a 916.79 981.89 879.06 851.47 860.48 842.96 726.19 662.31 519.21n/a 917.67 982.75 879.06 851.47 860.48 842.48 726.19 662.08 514.25n/a 912.40 975.87 878.81 851.47 860.24 841.02 726.19 660.19 502.89n/a 909.77 968.97 878.81 851.47 859.51 840.54 725.71 658.30 496.98n/a 914.16 968.97 878.81 851.47 859.26 841.02 725.24 658.54 500.76n/a 917.67 972.42 879.06 851.71 859.26 841.51 725.24 659.48 505.26n/a 918.55 975.01 878.81 851.47 859.51 841.99 725.24 660.42 509.76n/a 915.04 977.59 878.81 851.23 859.75 842.48 725.47 661.13 513.30n/a 913.28 980.17 878.81 851.23 859.75 842.72 725.71 661.84 516.38n/a 915.92 981.03 878.81 851.23 859.99 842.96 725.95 662.31 518.98n/a 916.79 981.89 878.81 851.23 860.24 842.72 726.19 662.55 520.16n/a 915.04 981.03 878.81 851.47 860.48 841.99 726.42 661.84 510.23n/a 910.65 973.28 878.81 851.47 859.99 840.54 726.19 659.95 497.21n/a 908.89 967.25 878.81 851.47 859.26 840.54 725.47 658.77 497.45n/a 916.79 969.84 878.81 851.47 859.26 841.02 725.24 659.24 501.95n/a 919.42 973.28 878.81 851.47 859.26 841.51 725.24 660.19 506.68Minimum n/a 908.89 967.25 878.81 851.23 859.26 840.54 725.24 658.30 496.98Maximum n/a 921.18 982.75 879.06 851.71 860.48 842.96 726.42 662.55 520.16Range n/a 12.29 15.50 0.24 0.49 1.22 2.43 1.19 4.25 23.18Average n/a 915.30 976.25 878.89 851.43 859.81 841.91 725.70 660.61 509.09Distance 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21(m)t)16:28:49 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 904.00 976.27 877.25 851.14 859.91 843.61 729.44 666.72 520.09n/a 902.24 977.99 877.25 851.14 860.15 843.85 729.67 667.43 522.92n/a 904.89 978.85 877.25 851.14 860.39 843.85 729.91 667.90 524.81n/a 905.77 978.85 877.25 851.38 860.64 843.36 730.15 667.67 518.67n/a 900.48 973.68 877.50 851.38 860.15 841.67 729.91 665.54 504.24n/a 896.95 965.06 877.25 851.38 859.66 841.42 729.67 664.13 500.22n/a 904.89 965.92 877.25 851.38 859.42 841.91 729.20 664.36 504.95n/a 907.53 969.37 877.25 851.38 859.42 842.39 729.20 665.07 509.68n/a 904.00 971.96 877.25 851.14 859.42 843.12 729.20 665.78 514.18n/a 903.12 974.55 877.25 851.14 859.66 843.36 729.44 666.72 518.20n/a 903.12 977.13 877.25 851.14 859.91 843.61 729.67 667.19 521.50n/a 902.24 977.99 877.25 851.14 860.15 843.61 729.91 667.67 523.63n/a 904.00 978.85 877:25 851.14 860.39 843.36 730.15 667.67 524.34n/a 901.36 976.27 877.25 851.38 860.39 842.15 730.15 666.49 510.87n/a 896.95 966.79 877.25 851.38 859.66 840.94 729.67 664.36 499.27n/a 900.48 964.20 877.25 851.38 859.42 841.67 729.20 664.13 503.06n/a 907.53 968.51 877.25 851.38 859.18 842.39 729.20 664.83 507.79n/a 908.41 971.10 877.25 851.38 859.42 842.88 729.20 665.54 512.52n/a 904.00 973.68 877.25 851.14 859.66 843.36 729.20 666.25 516.78n/a 902.24 976.27 877.25 851.14 859.91 843.85 729.44 666.96 520.09Minimum n/a 896.95 964.20 877.25 851.14 859.18 840.94 729.20 664.13 499.27Maximum n/a 908.41 978.85 877.50 851.38 860.64 843.85 730.15 667.90 524.81Range n/a 11.46 14.65 0.24 0.24 1.46 2.91 0.95 3.78 25.54Average n/a 903.21 973.16 877.27 851.26 859.85 842.82 729.58 666.12 513.89Distance 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21(m)16:54:17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 892.11 970.71 874.30 850.39 860.13 843.83 729.19 665.30 512.99n/a 890.34 973.29 874.05 850.15 860.13 844.32 729.19 666.25 517.48n/a 886.80 975.88 874.05 850.15 860.38 844.81 729.43 666.96 521.27n/a 886.80 977.60 874.30 850.15 860.62 845.05 729.91 667.66 524.34n/a 887.68 979.32 874.30 850.15 861.11 845.29 730.14 668.14 526.70n/a 890.34 979.32 874.30 850.15 861.35 845.05 730.38 668.37 526.46n/a 885.02 975.88 874.30 850.39 861.35 843.59 730.38 666.72 510.86n/a 881.47 967.26 874.30 850.39 860.62 842.38 730.14 664.83 504.24n/a 883.25 965.53 874.30 850.64 860.38 843.11 729.67 664.60 508.26n/a 890.34 968.98 874.54 850.64 860.38 844.08 729.67 665.54 513.23n/a 888.57 972.43 874.54 850.39 860.38 844.56 729.67 666.25 517.48n/a 886.80 975.02 874.54 850.39 860.62 845.05 729.91 667.19 521.50n/a 885.91 977.60 874:54 850.39 861.11 845.53 730.14 667.90 524.81n/a 886.80 978.46 874.54 850.39 861.35 845.53 730.38 668.37 527.41n/a 889.46 979.32 874.54 850.39 861.60 845.29 730.62 668.84 528.83n/a 889.46 979.32 874.54 850.64 861.84 844.56 730.86 668.14 521.74n/a 883.25 970.71 874.54 850.64 861.35 843.11 730.62 665.78 509.21n/a 880.58 965.53 874.79 850.88 860.86 843.11 730.14 664.83 508.97n/a 885.91 968.12 874.79 850.88 860.62 843.83 729.67 665.54 512.75n/a 890.34 971.57 874.79 850.88 860.86 844.56 729.91 666.25 517.01Minimum n/a 880.58 965.53 874.05 850.15 860.13 842.38 729.19 664.60 504.24Maximum n/a 892.11 979.32 874.79 850.88 861.84 845.53 730.86 668.84 528.83Range n/a 11.53 13.79 0.73 0.73 1.71 3.16 1.66 4.25 24.59Average n/a 887.06 973.59 874.44 850.45 860.85 844.33 730.00 666.67 517.78Distance(m)0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21Interior wall probe temperature readings (SL9)13:48:21 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 377.98 728.32 -1600.751.568 319.72 608.37 862.212.064 297.36 608.82 825.832.375 326.21 592.80 776.992.724 338.54 552.51 788.013.048 332.99 552.74 740.714.07 225.61 400.12 618.244.585 224.14 372.04 551.805.213 190.04 283.98 407.3014:06:42 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 381.64 734.32 -1640.921.568 320.07 608.72 865.242.064 297.95 609.88 826.912.375 327.05 593.15 777.102.724 339.62 554.04 787.883.048 334.54 554,27 740.114.07 227.68 402.62 616.474.585 225.96 373.60 548.145.213 192.35 286.28 402.6220415:06:01 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 379.18 699.16 -1398.781.568 323.19 618.49 898.052.064 300.99 620.15 856.162.375 329.83 604.13 804.112.724 344.57 565.73 825.343.048 338.78 566.67 777.954.07 232.94 412.09 655.034.585 229.51 382.85 588.355.213 196.89 296.13 443.1116:06:49 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 372.58 693.62 -1378.551.568 334.52 644.25 916.792.064 308.93 639.20 871.722.375 339.20 622.95 819.482.724 356.10 586.44 838.353.048 350.79 589.97 797.094.07 243.39 437.59 683.324.585 240.45 407,74 615.175.213 211.78 318.15 464.4816:30:12 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 339.44 688.26 -1354.961.568 1165.36 647.58 914.562.064 341.78 640.55 870.162.375 359.15 625.23 819.642.724 354.81 588.96 839.003.048 247.70 593.20 798.214.07 244.76 443.23 687.514.585 217.58 413.40 620.765.213 520.09 324.85 471.0616:55:40 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 367.90 677.18 -1316.861.568 341.03 646.09 912.392.064 312.23 639.84 867.702.375 343.45 624.99 819.152.724 361.06 589.66 839.953.048 357.45 594.61 798.444.07 250.86 447.27 687.744.585 248.41 417,69 621.235.213 222.46 329.92 472.71206Suction pyrometer temperature readings (SL9)Time^13:49:44.85^13:52:27.59^13:54:04.70^13:56:33.22^14:00:25.33Pair 1 2 3 4 5^1181.61^1143.67^1123.02^1063.73^943.95^893.59^860.51^829.16^760.24^675.771209.54^1156.89^1124.68^1072.13^954.21^897.78^862.95^834.24^771.24^678.131225.94^1166.79^1136.28^1083.02^960.99^901.73^863.19^836.91^788.96^681.681213.64^1164.32^1134.62^1091.38^965.02^904.69^867.59^840.07^799.29^684.751221.02^1172.56^1145.38^1088.04^966.78^905.68^868.32^841.77^805.07^688.061221.02^1176.68^1151.17^1104.72^967.28^907.66^868.57^842.25^807.47^689.711172.56^1163.49^1160.25^1084.69^964.77^907.90^870.52^842.98^806.51^691.611196.41 . 1161.84^1156.13^1080.51^963.51^908.40^871.75^842.74^804.83^691.131224.30^1168.44^1157.78^1145.38^963.00^908.64^871.26^842.01^794.72^690.191244.76^1180.79^1156.13^1082.18^966.53^909.39^870.28^842.49^775.54^688.771244.76^1185.73^1161.90^1080.51^969.05^910.38^870.03^842.98^780.81^687.82No^ 1257.84^1190.66^1161.90^1082.18^972.58^911.37^868.81^844.19^792.32^688.771248.85^1193.95^1156.13^1081.35^974.85^912.36^870.52^844.92^803.38^689.481224.30^1188.19^1164.38^1085.53^975.86^912.85^871.75^846.38^809.88^692.081240.67^1189.84^1160.25^1078.83^975.60^913.84^873.95^846.38^812.54^693.971225.12^1188.19^1164.38^1079.67^975.35^914.09^873.95^847.84^813.26^695.391217.74^1179.97^1164.38^1085.53^974.09^913.84^875.17^847.60^811.57^696.101234.94^1183.26^1169.32^1088.04^971.31^913.59^875.66^846.38^800.25^694.921252.94^1188.19^1165.20^1083.02^971.06^914.09^874.44^844.92^786.80^693.971260.30^1194.77^1170.15^1085.53^971.82^913.59^873.22^844.44^770.28^692.08Maximum^1260.30^1194.77^1170.15^1145.38^975.86^914.09^875.66^847.84^813.26^696.10Minimum^1172.56^1143.67^1123.02^1063.73^943.95^893.59^860.51^829.16^760.24^675.77Range 87.74^51.10^47.13^81.65^31.91^20.50^15.16^18.68^53.02^20.33Average^1225.91^1176.91^1154.17^1086.30^967.38^908.77^870.12^842.53^794.75^689.22Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Time 14:07:38.53 14:10:43.85 14:12:47.16 14:14:49.15 14:16:36.64Pair 1 2 3 4 51180.32 1144.85 1122.48 1066.54 946.49 894.13 863.30 834.84 763.89 672.761196.76 1153.11 1134.91 1069.06 956.26 898.32 866.96 838.72 782.07 676.311204.97 1163.02 1139.88 1073.26 962.54 901.28 867.45 840.66 795.27 680.091231.20 1172.91 1145.67 1076.61 966.57 904.24 870.38 841.39 801.52 683.871246.75 1181.14 1151.46 1074.93 968.33 906.96 870.63 842.36 806.33 686.941225.47 1176.20 1148.98 1076.61 969.34 908.44 868.18 840.66 807.53 688.121235.29 1175.38 1151.46 1079.96 968.33 909.68 867.45 840.42 805.37 687.891234.47 1184.43 1157.24 1079.12 967.57 910.42 869.65 841.14 790.94 687.651187.72 1172.91 1155.59 1080.80 967.07 910.67 868.67 843.33 775.84 686.231202.51 1169.61 1158.89 1077.45 965.56 909.92 869.65 844.54 778.24 687.181248.38 1176.20 1158.07 1076.61 968.08 910.67 870.38 845.52 791.42 687.181251.65 1181.96 1156.42 1076.61 971.10 911.16 873.08 846.49 799.11 688.361245.93 1191.83 1163.84 1079.96 973.37 912.65 874.79 846.97 806.33 690.01t.) 1251.65 1194.30 1166.32 1083.31 974.38 913.88 874.30 846.49 810.67 692.3800 1277.80 1198.40 1164.67 1081.64 973.88 914.13 875.52 845.52 811.87 693.801260.65 1193.47 1162.19 1082.47 973.37 915.12 872.59 844.30 812.35 693.561231.20 1194.30 1161.37 1084.98 969.59 913.88 873.08 844.79 807.05 693.561244.29 1193.47 1164.67 1082.47 967.32 913.64 870.38 844.79 796.23 691.671227.92 1183.61 1167.96 1079.96 967.32 913.39 872.10 846.49 779.67 690.251224.65 1178.67 1165.49 1078.29 967.82 913.14 873.08 847.70 785.18 689.54Maximum 1277.80 1198.40 1167.96 1084.98 974.38 915.12 875.52 847.70 812.35 693.80Minimum 1180.32 1144.85 1122.48 1066.54 946.49 894.13 863.30 834.84 763.89 672.76Range 97.49 53.56 45.49 18.44 27.89 20.99 12.23 12.87 48.47 21.03Average 1230.48 1178.99 1154.88 1078.03 967.21 909.29 870.58 843.36 795.34 687.37Distance 0.15 0.46 0.92 1.49 2.21 2.55 2.92 3.27 3.99 4.52(m)Time^15:06:43.48^15:08:46.29^15:10:45.92^15:12:42.96Pair 1 2 3 4^845.48^951.39^1031.14^1080.82^981.05^933.87^890.81^879.27847.28^950.53^1033.68^1084.17^983.07^934.37^891.30^879.76855.36^949.66^1037.06^1085.84^984.59^935.12^892.04^880.25858.05^957.46^1040.45^1096.70^985.86^936.36^893.02^880.74852.67^965.24^1042.98^1099.20^987.13^937.61^894.00^881.23849.98^970.41^1042.14^1097.54^987.89^938.61^894.74^881.47838.28^967.82^1042.14^1096.70^988.39^939.60^895.48^881.72849.08^962.65^1040.45^1095.87^988.65^939.85^895.48^881.72849.98^962.65^1039.60^1088.35^988.39^938.86^892.77^880.74852.67^961.78^1036.22^1087.51^988.14^937.11^891.30^880.00856.26^961.78^1035.37^1087.51^988.14^936.11^891.05^879.76853.57^957.46^1037.06^1089.19^988.14^936.11^891.54^879.760^849.98^958.32^1040.45^1092.53^988.14^936.86^892.28^879.76860.73^963.51^1042.98^1094.20^988.90^937.86^893.27^880.00853.57^970.41^1041.29^1093.36^989.41^938.86^894.00^880.25843.68^971.27^1039.60^1096.70^989.91^939.85^894.50^880.25840.08^967.82^1038.76^1088.35^990.17^940.35^894.99^880.49842.78^962.65^1037.91^1089.19^989.66^940.60^895.73^879.76836.47^961.78^1034.53^1086.68^989.15^939.10^892.53^879.51844.58^963.51^1033.68^1090.02^988.39^937.36^891.79^879.51Maximum^860.73^971.27^1042.98^1099.20^990.17^940.60^895.73^881.72Minimum^836.47^949.66^1031.14^1080.82^981.05^933.87^890.81^879.27Range 24.26^21.61^11.84^18.38^9.12^6.73^4.92^2.45Average^849.03^961.90^1038.37^1091.02^987.66^937.72^893.13^880.30Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27(m)Time^15:54:21.74^15:56:11.70^15:58:25.06^16:00:04.48^16:01:59.93Pair 1 2 3 4 5^800.14^957.54^1078.42^1135.07^995.12^950.24^927.85^904.57^831.26^754.90830.19^934.96^1097.65^1169.77^1014.23^961.27^931.33^908.77^816.76^755.38778.06^904.29^1103.49^1154.10^1021.91^966.05^931.83^910.50^848.97^758.72747.38^885.73^1110.15^1172.25^1026.78^969.83^933.08^912.23^868.22^763.97754.85^900.76^1112.65^1176.37^1027.81^972.09^936.07^913.22^874.34^766.11801.97^916.59^1101.82^1171.42^1027.81^972.09^939.06^913.96^875.07^767.31831.09^935.83^1109.32^1161.53^1027.81^972.09^937.81^913.71^870.42^767.31885.73^951.48^1106.82^1158.23^1027.81^972.09^940.05^914.21^862.85^767.55837.42^954.08^1101.82^1164.00^1027.81^972.09^940.30^914.95^862.61^767.79802.89^954.94^1105.99^1159.05^1027.81^972.09^935.57^915.20^864.80^768.27841.93^943.66^1106.82^1156.57^1027.81^972.09^938.31^916.44^872.13^769.46796.48^924.48^1113.48^1161.53^1027.81^972.09^940.05^917.68^877.03^771.13751.12^896.35^1124.29^1166;48^1027.81^972.09^939.81^918.17^880.95^773.29tL,)^760.44^894.58^1131.75^1167.30^1027.81^972.09^941.30^918.92^883.40^774.48, 813.84^906.05^1118.47^1168.95^1027.81^972.09^943.30^919.41^882.91^774.72761.37^909.57^1103.49^1163.18^1027.81^972.09^943.05^919.41^880.46^774.96818.40^927.97^1112.65^1159.05^1027.81^972.09^943.30^918.42^874.09^774.00822.94^953.21^1107.66^1159.88^1027.81^972.09^943.05^918.42^865.78^773.52785.45^946.27^1107.66^1148.31^1027.81^972.09^940.80^917.68^866.51^773.29825.66^947.14^1109.32^1146.66^1027.81^972.09^938.56^917.92^869.93^773.52Maximum^885.73^957.54^1131.75^1176.37^1027.81^972.09^943.30^919.41^883.40^774.96Minimum^747.38^885.73^1078.42^1135.07^995.12^950.24^927.85^904.57^816.76^754.90Range^138.35^71.82^53.33^41.30^32.69^21.85^15.45^14.84^66.65^20.06Average^802.37^927.27^1108.19^1160.98^1025.15^970.04^938.22^915.19^866.43^768.48Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Time^16:30:39.32^16:32:17.53^16:34:04.91^16:35:55.25^16:37:46.31Pair 1 2 3 4 5^783.34^891.70^1064.81^1178.67^999.34^952.15^922.99^899.25^848.42^757.72718.84^897.01^1073.21^1177.03^1008.76^957.42^925.72^903.44^859.62^761.06775.02^910.23^1084.94^1152.28^1015.15^960.43^928.70^907.39^868.89^763.44710.30^919.88^1078.24^1157.23^1018.98^963.94^928.45^908.63^876.97^766.31763.89^931.25^1074.05^1158.06^1021.54^966.96^931.68^909.61^879.66^768.22764.82^922.51^1074.05^1148.97^1023.08^968.47^935.67^911.34^880.89^769.89736.78^919.01^1080.76^1147.32^1023.34^970.49^934.67^912.09^879.91^770.13793.47^900.54^1081.59^1150.63^1023.85^972.00^933.18^910.60^871.34^769.65756.44^879.28^1081.59^1157.23^1022.57^971.49^934.17^910.85^861.81^770.13751.78^873.05^1091.63^1155.58^1021.80^970.49^931.93^911.59^861.33^769.65771.32^897.01^1099.98^1163.84^1024.36^970.49^934.92^913.32^868.89^770.13821.78^905.83^1097.48^1167.14^1027.44^971.75^934.42^913.82^875.50^771.80787.95^908.47^1093.30^1163.01^1028.47^972.75^935.67^915.06^880.15^773.00c\.)^705.54^904.06^1085.78^1159.71^1028.47^972.75^937.91^915.55^883.34^774.43740.54^910.23^1089.96^1154.76^1028.47^972.75^938.91^916.29^886.28^775.63744.29^911.98^1094.14^1151.45^1028.47^972.75^938.66^915.30^883.58^775.15795.30^903.18^1086.62^1147.32^1027.44^976.29^938.16^914.81^878.68^775.63789.79^891.70^1087.45^1144.84^1025.65^976.29^936.42^913.57^868.89^774.67751.78^873.95^1092.47^1160.54^1023.59^975.78^936.67^914.31^862.06^774.43759.24^877.51^1096.64^1171.26^1024.62^974.77^936.17^915.30^866.69^773.72Maximum^821.78^931.25^1099.98^1178.67^1028.47^976.29^938.91^916.29^886.28^775.63Minimum^705.54^873.05^1064.81^1144.84^999.34^952.15^922.99^899.25^848.42^757.72Range^116.24^58.20^35.17^33.84^29.13^24.13^15.92^17.05^37.86^17.91Average^761.11^901.42^1085.44^1158.34^1022.27^969.51^933.75^911.61^872.14^770.24Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Time^16:56:07.68^16:57:46.05^16:59:36.83^17:01:33.49^17:03:24.61Pair 1 2 3 4 5^755.99^867.29^1042.47^1151.86^998.22^957.07^928.92^903.17^842.99^759.31740.08^866.40^1052.60^1169.20^1011.98^965.11^935.89^911.57^866.12^766.47759.72^877.10^1066.06^1171.67^1023.75^970.14^939.63^916.76^875.41^770.29755.06^888.64^1075.30^1190.60^1023.75^970.14^941.37^918.99^882.51^773.40786.59^907.19^1076.14^1190.60^1023.75^970.14^943.12^920.98^886.44^775.79806.77^915.10^1076.14^1176.61^1023.75^970.14^944.62^921.23^891.60^777.23728.78^919.49^1065.22^1177.44^1023.75^970.14^946.62^922.71^891.35^779.14757.86^918.61^1070.26^1179.08^1023.75^970.14^947.12^923.46^886.68^778.90735.38^897.49^1079.49^1168.37^1023.75^970.14^947.62^923.46^879.81^779.14755.06^880.65^1078.65^1160.12^1023.75^970.14^945.37^924.45^873.69^778.90731.61^867.29^1078.65^1170.84^1023.75^970.14^943.87^925.69^875.90^779.38749.45^876.21^1079.49^1174.14^1023.75^970.14^946.37^926.44^883.25^779.62783.82^889.53^1087.86^1183.20^1023.75^970.14^. 946.37^926.69^890.37^781.77799.45^907.19^1090.37^1184.02^1023.75^970.14^950.62^927.68^893.32^783.45805.86^923.87^1080.33^1187.31^1023.75^970.14^953.37^928.18^895.78^784.89834.95^929.11^1087.86^1177.44^1023.75^970.14^952.87^928.18^895.29^784.89733.49^917.73^1076.14^1174.96^1023.75^970.14^954.13^928.18^890.61^784.41773.65^918.61^1083.68^1163.42^1023.75^970.14^951.62^927.18^883.00^784.41760.65^899.25^1080.33^1172.49^1023.75^970.14^949.37^927.43^877.61^784.17737.26^878.88^1079.49^1166.72^1023.75^970.14^948.87^928.67^881.04^783.93Maximum^834.95^929.11^1090.37^1190.60^1023.75^970.14^954.13^928.67^895.78^784.89Minimum^728.78^866.40^1042.47^1151.86^998.22^957.07^928.92^903.17^842.99^759.31Range^106.17^62.72^47.90^38.74^25.53^13.07^25.20^25.50^52.79^25.58Average^764.57^897.28^1075.33^1174.51^1021.88^969.24^945.89^923.05^882.14^778.47Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Shell temperature readingsRun : SL9Distance from lime product outlet (m)Time 0.146 0.921 1.492 2.21 3.99413:48:21.14 172.10 194.21 256.19 125.11 155.3714:02:43.47 172.94 196.28 257.27 127.92 156.7015:06:01.95 175.02 198.61 256.66 131.72 167.6416:03:26.44 179.68 203.75 240.52 136.38 191.9716:26:51.38 180.56 205.86 233.08 137.76 195.5516:52:17.81 181.95 207.50 230.06 140.63 198.91213Flue gas analysisRun : SL9Equipment :Oxygen analyzer - % oxygenGas chromatograph - % carbon dioxide*Result from FTIR analyzer is shown in Table 5.9Fuel Time % Oxygen % Carbon dioxidenat.gas 11:40 4 -12:57 2.6 -1:50 2.6 -2:05 2.5 20.05LOW 2:50 3.5 -4:00 3.5 -4:30 3.2 -5:00 2 23.61Table of eventsRun SL1011/18/92 14:40:07.23Kiln speed (rpm) : 1.5 14:40:10.47SL10ARead bed temperatures 14:28:10.34Read Shell Temperatures 14:30:08.43Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 14:30:13.27Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 14:31:37.08Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:32:22.56Suction TIC, Pair : 2 14:34:10.22Suction T/C, Pair : 3 14:35:59.30Suction T/C, Pair : 4 14:37:24.60Suction TIC, Pair : 5 14:40:41.67Read bed temperatures 14:42:12.08Read Shell Temperatures 14:44:08.74Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 14:44:13.02Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 14:45:36.78Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:50:14.54Suction T/C, Pair : 2 14:52:07.41Suction T/C, Pair : 3 14:54:04.46Suction T/C, Pair : 4 14:55:42.45Suction T/C, Pair : 5 14:57:26.31SL1OBRead bed temperatures 17:10:37.09Read Shell Temperatures 17:12:34.80Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 17:12:39.52Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 17:14:03.01Suction T/C, Pair : 1 17:15:13.81Suction T/C, Pair : 2 17:17:09.15Suction T/C, Pair : 3 17:19:05.48Suction TIC, Pair : 4 17:20:40.56Suction T/C, Pair : 5 17:22:40.96Read bed temperatures 17:24:09.44Read bed temperatures 17:28:13.31Read Shell Temperatures 17:30:09.42Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 17:30:12.83Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 17:31:36.64Suction T/C, Pair : 1 17:32:02.24Cyclic bed temperature readings (SL10)14:28:10 1^2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10975.48^1059.69 1024.19 975.48 913.89 881.61 850.84 827.79 734.11 651.31996.07^1073.97 1036.06 979.78 921.82 889.71 855.71 832.88 740.29 657.441003.76^1081.51 1043.67 984.07 928.77 896.60 858.63 835.06 744.34 662.871011.44^1089.04 1048.74 989.22 929.27 900.30 862.04 836.75 747.91 666.171013.14^1091.55 1051.27 992.65 929.27 900.55 861.07 833.84 748.62 667.821017.40^1098.23 1055.48 995.22 923.81 894.63 856.92 825.86 743.86 662.871013.14^1099.06 1056.32 996.93 919.34 889.22 852.05 816.44 734.35 650.84984.93^1076.48 1046.20 996.93 897.59 875.00 837.48 808.24 715.12 622.56964.27^1008.88 1011.44 988.36 880.63 859.12 833.36 800.30 711.57 616.900.00*^1041.98 1008.03 977.20 899.31 872.30 845.25 811.86 723.90 637.16972.89^1061.37 1024.19 97/.20 914.38 883.08 851.08 820.54 733.16 648.951,L." 989.22^1073.13 1035.22 979.78 918.84 888.98 854.24 824.41 739.34 656.261002.91^1085.70 1043.67 984.07 926.29 897.84 858.39 827.79 743.15 660.981003.76^1086.53 1047.05 988.36 929.02 900.30 860.58 828.76 746.72 665.461006.32^1089.04 1050.42 991.79 928.53 900.79 861.56 832.15 747.91 666.171017.40^1097.39 1053.79 994.36 926.04 897.84 858.39 826.10 742.43 662.391019.95^1098.23 1056.32 996.07 918.35 889.22 851.32 814.75 732.92 651.311004.62^1091.55 1052.11 996.93 902.77 878.42 841.36 808.72 717.49 625.38974.62^1019.10 1015.70 990.08 882.35 857.17 831.66 803.19 709.91 613.84966.86^1036.06 1006.32 978.92 897.34 869.12 844.52 817.40 722.71 635.04Minimum 964.27^1008.88 1006.32 975.48 880.63 857.17 831.66 800.30 709.91 613.84Maximum 1019.95^1099.06 1056.32 996.93 929.27 900.79 862.04 836.75 748.62 667.82Range 55.68^90.18 50.00 21.45 48.64 43.63 30.38 36.45 38.72 53.98Distance 0.15^0.46 0.92 1.49 2.21 2.55 2.92 3.27 3.99 4.52(m) *This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.14:42:12^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^927.91^994.49^991.07^975.61^887.63^866.81^842.70^819.95^727.59^637.29934.03^1020.93^1000.48^970.44^906.85^878.55^850.24^829.86^738.04^650.26954.88^1043.80^1014.97^972.16^916.25^886.16^853.64^834.22^744.94^658.51969.58^1056.45^1026.87^975.61^923.19^892.80^858.27^838.09^749.47^664.17979.91^1066.55^1033.65^979.91^926.42^898.95^862.17^841.01^753.04^668.42983.35^1069.90^1036.19^983.35^927.66^902.16^864.86^842.95^756.38^671.96978.19^1069.90^1038.73^985.92^926.92^901.17^863.64^838.82^756.14^672.67987.64^1076.61^1041.27^988.49^923.19^896.49^858.52^828.16^748.99^668.66976.47^1076.61^1042.11^989.35^915.75^888.86^854.62^821.88^740.18^658.75950.55^1020.93^1019.23^987.64^887.63^864.37^832.04^808.61^715.01^629.75938.38^993.63^992.78^976.47^886.16^865.59^841.25^816.33^726.16^628.58941.86^1026.87^1001.33^970.44^905.12^876.84^848.29^825.99^735.43^644.60961.81^1056.45^1014.97^971.30^914.76^884.93^851.70^829.86^740.42^654.03979.05^1065.70^1026.87^974.75^921.95^893.78^857.05^834.94^744.94^659.93988.49^1076.61^1034.50^979.05^925.67^899.20^860.22^836.64^748.51^664.65996.20^1082.48^1040.42^983.35^928.16^901.17^862.17^837.12^750.18^667.011003.89^1085.83^1045.49^986.78^925.92^898.95^860.71^832.52^748.75^667.241008.16^1085.83^1048.87^990.21^923.19^897.23^858.76^827.68^744.47^663.001008.16^1088.33^1049.71^991.92^917.49^890.58^852.91^817.29^735.43^654.27973.89^1039.58^1027.72^990.21^889.84^865.59^832.76^804.76^712.41^627.87Minimum^927.91^993.63^991.07^970.44^886.16^864.37^832.04^804.76^712.41^627.87Maximum^1008.16^1088.33^1049.71^991.92^928.16^902.16^864.86^842.95^756.38^672.67Range^80.25^94.70^58.64^21.48^42.00^37.79^32.82^38.19^43.97^44.80Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)17:10:37^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^790.65^956.41^1052.90^1062.16^990.83^966.33^935.29^907.26^823.99^734.90795.24^960.74^1060.48^1063.84^1002.26^977.42^941.52^912.95^830.76^741.08800.74^963.33^1065.52^1066.36^1007.87^983.48^944.77^914.93^835.12^744.89803.49^962.47^1068.05^1070.56^1012.20^987.28^946.77^915.42^838.51^748.46804.40^964.20^1068.89^1074.76^1013.23^987.53^947.77^914.68^839.00^749.17786.97^967.65^1068.05^1077.27^1009.40^984.49^943.52^907.51^832.21^745.13772.19^973.68^1071.40^1078.95^1003.02^974.89^936.29^897.39^823.99^737.040.00*^970.24^1068.89^1080.63^979.44^957.29^922.86^889.52^805.66^711.64780.51^949.47^1043.62^1071.40^943.27^926.58^907.26^884.86^802.77^705.96782.36^952.94^1038.54^1061.32^967.59^945.77^922.11^895.18^813.85^721.84785.12^951.21^1049.53^1059.64^988.04^962.56^933.05^903.80^822.06^732.5200^789.73^952.94^1057.95^1060.48^1000.73^973.88^939.28^908.74^827.86^738.70797.99^960.74^1065.52^1064.68^1007.87^981.71^943.52^912.95^832.94^742.980.00* 5182.89* 4765.15* 4452.51*^836.57*^747.03*^943.52^912.95^832.94^742.98803.49^965.06^1070.56^1073.08^1015.02^987.53^947.52^914.18^837.78^747.75796.16^968.51^1071.40^1076.44^1012.20^982.72^942.27^905.53^831.73^744.41780.51^972.82^1072.24^1078.95^1006.59^974.14^935.54^895.67^823.26^736.56775.89^975.41^1072.24^1080.63^990.32^965.83^927.33^891.49^811.20^715.44782.36^953.81^1047.84^1073.92^946.02^925.59^905.04^883.14^799.65^702.64786.05^952.08^1037.70^1063.00^959.29^941.02^918.64^893.21^810.72^718.76Minimum^772.19^949.47^1037.70^1059.64^943.27^925.59^905.04^883.14^799.65^702.64Maximum^804.40^975.41^1072.24^1080.63^1015.02^987.53^947.77^915.42^839.00^749.17Range^32.22^25.93^34.55^20.99^71.74^61.94^42.73^32.28^39.35^46.53Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)^*This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.17:28:13^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10789.86^955.67^1038.67^1066.49^956.66^941.15^918.03^893.83^810.37^721.50790.78^962.60^1050.50^1063.13^981.34^959.42^930.44^902.70^819.29^732.65799.96^970.37^1062.29^1064.81^996.29^972.75^937.91^908.63^825.33^739.78798.12^962.60^1068.18^1068.18^1005.19^981.34^943.15^913.08^830.41^744.78807.28^966.05^1071.53^1072.37^1012.33^987.41^946.90^915.55^834.76^748.59811.84^968.64^1074.05^1077.40^1015.15^989.18^947.90^914.56^835.98^750.50812.75^972.95^1074.89^1080.76^1011.57^986.65^944.90^909.12^834.04^748.59805.45^979.84^1075.73^1083.27^1007.23^980.07^940.41^901.47^827.02^741.21793.54^981.56^1075.73^1084.11^997.81^970.74^933.43^894.82^819.53^726.95794.45^960.00^1055.56^1079.92^955.91^930.69^906.40^883.27^797.86^705.14796.29^954.81^1035.29^1068:18^947.15^934.67^907.88^887.69^808.92^718.17796.29^961.73^1047.12^1063.97^967.47^954.91^922.00^895.06^818.08^730.28800.87^965.19^1058.93^1064.81^989.69^969.98^934.67^902.45^823.39^737.17801.79^961.73^1066.49^1067.34^1003.66^979.57^941.15^910.60^829.68^743.11805.45^962.60^1071.53^1072.37^1010.55^985.64^944.65^913.32^833.55^746.92814.57^964.33^1073.21^1076.57^1013.36^988.42^947.40^914.81^835.25^748.83817.31^969.50^1074.89^1080.76^1012.85^985.89^945.15^910.11^834.28^748.11814.57^976.40^1076.57^1083.27^1008.76^981.59^940.65^903.44^828.71^742.88788.94^980.70^1077.40^1084.11^1003.15^973.76^935.42^896.29^822.43^735.03793.54^967.78^1062.29^1083.27^966.46^941.65^910.36^885.48^798.34^709.17Minimum^788.94^954.81^1035.29^1063.13^947.15^930.69^906.40^883.27^797.86^705.14Maximum^817.31^981.56^1077.40^1084.11^1015.15^989.18^947.90^915.55^835.98^750.50Range^28.37^26.75^42.12^20.97^68.00^58.49^41.50^32.28^38.12^45.35Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Bed temperatures - Kiln stopped17:39:46 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10791.05 955.08 1011.78 1039.79 927.23 906.92 895.82 882.80 793.32 701.15794.72 953.34 1000.68 1020.29 920.53 902.23 891.64 883.05 792.36 697.84796.56 951.61 992.13 1004.95 915.33 899.03 888.69 883.29 792.12 695.24798.39 951.61 985.26 992.13 911.61 896.81 886.48 883.78 792.36 693.11800.23 950.74 979.25 981.83 908.40 895.09 885.01 883.78 792.60 691.45801.14 949.87 974.95 973.22 905.93 893.86 883.54 884.03 793.08 690.27802.06 949.87 970.64 966.32 903.96 893.12 882.56 885.01 793.80 689.09802.97 949.87 967.19 960.27 902.23 892.38 881.58 885.26 794.28 688.14802.97 949.87 963.73 955.94 900.75 891.64 880.84 885.50 795.00 687.43ts.)c) .^.Minimum803.89791.05949.01949.01961.14961.14951.61951.61899.52899.52891.15891.15880.11880.11886.24882.80795.72792.12686.96686.96Maximum 803.89 955.08 1011.78 1039.79 927.23 906.92 895.82 886.24 795.72 701.15Range 12.84 6.07 50.64 88.18 27.71 15.77 15.72 3.44 3.60 14.19Distance 0.15 0.46 0.92 1.49 2.21 2.55 2.92 3.27 3.99 4.52(m)Cyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings (SL10)14:30:13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 978.92 901.45 817.64 814.27 795.49 771.05 644.94 574.98 424.79n/a 978.92 902.33 817.64 814.03 795.49 771.29 645.18 575.92 429.09n/a 981.50 904.10 817.64 814.03 795.49 771.77 645.41 576.86 432.91n/a 981.50 904.98 817.64 814.27 795.73 772.25 645.89 578.04 436.48n/a 982.36 905.86 817.64 814.27 795.97 772.25 646.12 578.75 438.87n/a 984.07 906.74 817.64 814.27 796.21 772.25 646.36 579.22 440.54n/a 983.22 906.74 817.64 814.27 796.21 771.77 646.59 578.98 435.29n/a 964.27 903.21 817.64 814.27 795.97 770.57 646.36 576.63 422.41n/a 957.35 899.69 817.64 814.27 795.73 770.10 645.89 574.74 416.43n/a 966.00 898.81 817.64 814.27 795.73 770.81 645.65 574.74 420.26n/a 975.48 900.57 817.64 814.27 795.73 771.29 645.41 575.45 424.79n/a 979.78 902.33 817.64 814.27 795.73 771.77 645.65 576.39 429.09n/a 980.64 903.21 817.64 814.27 795.73 772.25 645.89 577.57 433.15n/a 980.64 904.98 817.64 814.27 795.97 772.49 646.12 578.27 436.48n/a 980.64 905.86 817.64 814.27 795.97 772.73 646.36 578.98 439.11n/a 981.50 906.74 817.64 814.27 796.21 772.73 646.83 579.69 441.01n/a 981.50 906.74 817.64 814.27 796.21 772.25 647.06 579.45 436.96n/a 964.27 904.10 817.64 814.27 796.21 771.05 646.83 577.57 425.51n/a 956.49 899.69 817.64 814.27 795.97 770.34 646.36 575.45 417.63n/a 963.41 898.81 817.64 814.51 795.73 770.81 645.89 575.21 421.21Maximum n/a 984.07 906.74 817.64 814.51 796.21 772.73 647.06 579.69 441.01Minimum n/a 956.49 898.81 817.64 814.03 795.49 770.10 644.94 574.74 416.43Range n/a 27.59 7.93 0.00 0.48 0.72 2.63 2.12 4.95 24.58Average n/a 975.12 903.35 817.64 814.25 795.88 771.59 646.04 577.14 430.10Distance(m)0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.2114:44:13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 954.02 898.94 817.05 815.36 796.34 771.66 650.26 580.29 426.36n/a 965.26 898.05 817.05 815.36 796.34 772.14 649.79 580.29 429.46n/a 975.61 899.82 817.05 815.36 796.34 772.38 649.55 581.00 433.28n/a 979.91 901.58 817.05 815.36 796.10 772.86 649.55 581.70 437.09n/a 984.20 903.34 817.05 815.12 796.34 773.10 649.79 582.64 440.19n/a 983.35 904.23 817.05 815.12 796.34 773.33 650.02 583.12 443.05n/a 982.49 905.11 817.05 815.12 796.58 773.57 650.26 583.82 445.43n/a 984.20 905.99 817.05 815.12 796.58 773.33 650.49 584.06 446.86n/a 987.64 906.87 817.05 815.12 796.58 773.10 650.49 583,82 440.90n/a 966.13 903.34 817.05 815.36 796.58 771.90 650.49 582.17 428.98n/a 957.48 898.94 817.05 815.12 796.34 771.42 650.02 580.05 422.78n/a 966.99 898.94 817.05 815.12 796.10 771.66 649.32 579.82 426.36n/a 976.47 900.70 817.05 815.12 796.10 772.38 649.32 580.52 430.65t.) n/a 982.49 902.46 817.05 815.12 796.10 772.62 649.32 581.23 434.47N n/a 983.35 903.34 817.05 815.12 796.10 772.86 649.32 581.94 438.28n/a 984.20 905.11 817.05 815.12 796.10 773.10 649.55 582.64 441.38n/a 985.06 905.99 817.05 815.12 796.34 773.10 649.79 583.35 443.76n/a 985.06 906.87 817.05 815.12 796.34 773.10 650.02 583.82 445.43n/a 986.78 906.87 817.05 815.12 796.34 772.62 650.02 583.35 442.81n/a 966.99 905.11 817.29 815.36 796.58 771.90 650.26 581.70 433.04Maximum n/a 987.64 906.87 817.29 815.36 796.58 773.57 650.49 584.06 446.86Minimum n/a 954.02 898.05 817.05 815.12 796.10 771.42 649.32 579.82 422.78Range n/a 33.62 8.81 0.24 0.24 0.48 2.15 1.18 4.24 24.08Average n/a 976.88 903.08 817.06 815.19 796.33 772.60 649.88 582.07 436.53Distance 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21(m)17:12:39 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 944.26 981.43 876.52 870.16 860.39 846.28 730.15 661.77 500.93n/a 947.74 985.72 876.77 870.16 860.39 846.76 730.15 662.71 505.66n/a 946.00 987.44 876.52 869.91 860.39 847.01 730.15 663.18 509.92n/a 945.13 989.15 876.52. 869.67 860.39 847.49 730.39 663.89 513.70n/a 945.13 990.87 876.52 869.67 860.64 847.74 730.62 664.60 516.54n/a 946.00 992.58 876.52 869.67 860.88 847.49 730.86 664.83 518.67n/a 946.87 993.44 876.52 869.91 861.13 847.49 731.34 665.07 517.49n/a 942.52 989.15 876.77 870.40 861.13 845.79 731.10 663.18 500.69n/a 938.17 980.57 876.52 869.91 860.64 844.82 730.62 660.82 491.93n/a 937.30 977.13 876.52 870.16 860.15 845.31 730.15 660.35 495.24n/a 944.26 980.57 876.77 870.16 860.39 846.28 730.15 661.30 500.69n/a 948.61 984.86 876.77 870.16 860.39 846.76 730.15 662.00 505.19n/a 946.87 986.58 87652 869.91 860.39 847.01 730.15 662.71 509.68n/a 946.87 989.15 876.52 869.67 860.64 847.49 730.39 663.66 513.23n/a 945.13 990.87 876.77 869.91 860.88 847.74 730.62 664.36 516.54n/a 946.00 991.73 876.52 869.91 860.88 847.74 730.86 664.83 518.67n/a 946.87 992.58 876.52 869.91 861.13 847.49 731.34 665.07 519.61n/a 945.13 992.58 877.01 870.40 861.37 846.52 731.57 663.89 508.26n/a 939.04 983.15 876.52 870.16 860.64 844.82 730.86 661.30 496.43n/a 937.30 977.13 876.77 870.16 860.15 845.06 730.39 660.12 496.90Maximum n/a 948.61 993.44 877.01 870.40 861.37 847.74 731.57 665.07 519.61Minimum n/a 937.30 977.13 876.52 869.67 860.15 844.82 730.15 660.12 491.93Range n/a 11.31 16.31 0.49 0.73 1.22 2.92 1.43 4.95 27.69Average n/a 944.26 986.83 876.62 870.00 860.65 846.66 730.60 662.98 507.80Distance 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21(m)17:30:12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 940.11 986.78 878.92 872.80 862.06 846.96 733.20 665.27 499.47n/a 939.24 982.49 878.92 872.80 861.81 847.21 732.72 664.56 501.36n/a 943.59 984.21 878.92 872.56 861.57 847.94 732.72 665.27 505.86n/a 946.20 988.50 879.17 872.80 861.81 848.91 732.72 666.21 510.36n/a 991.07 n/a 872.56 861.81 849.15 732.72 666.69 514.61 510.36n/a 945.33 992.78 878.92 872.32 862.06 849.64 732.96 667.39 518.40n/a 946.20 994.49 878.92 872.56 862.30 850.12 733.20 668.10 521.70n/a 947.07 996.21 878.92 872.56 862.55 850.12 733A4 668.57 523.83n/a 948.81 997.06 878.92 872.56 862.79 849.88 733.67 668.81 525.01n/a 946.20 997.06 879.17 873.05 863.03 848.91 734.15 668.10 513.43n/a 940.98 986.78 878.92 872.80 862.30 846.96 733.44 665.51 502.07n/a 938.37 980.77 878.92 872.80 861.81 846.96 732.96 664.33 501.13n/a 942.72 982.49 878.92 872.80 861.81 847.94 732.72 665.03 505.86n/a 945.33 986.78 879.17 873.05 862.06 848.91 732.96 666.21 510.83n/a 944.46 990.21 879.17 872.80 862.06 849.39 733.20 666.92 515.09n/a 944.46 992.78 879.17 872.80 862.30 849.88 733.20 667.63 518.63n/a 945.33 994.49 879.17 872.80 862.30 850.12 733.44 668.34 521.94n/a 946.20 996.21 879.17 872.80 862.55 850.12 733.67 668.81 524.30n/a 947.94 997.06 879.17 872.80 863.03 850.12 734.15 669.05 525.72n/a 948.81 997.06 879.17 873.05 863.28 849.39 734.39 668.57 518.87Maximum n/a 991.07 997.06 879.17 873.05 863.28 850.12 734.39 669.05 525.72Minimum n/a 938.37 980.77 872.56 861.81 849.15 732.72 666.69 514.61 499.47Range n/a 52.70 16.29 6.61 11.24 14.13 117.40 67.70 154.43 26.25Average n/a 946.92 990.75 878.72 872.22 861.63 843.11 729.98 659.37 513.71Distance 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21(m)Interior wall probe temperature readingsRun : SL1014:31:37 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 362.18 728.39 -1552.041.568 315.99 598.37 848.942.064 290.81 596.65 812.102.375 349.68 631.74 778.472.724 334.46 546.45 780.143.048 329.87 543.62 729.834.07 228.06 397.77 609.134.585 221.20 365.10 538.905.213 185.86 278.15 393.2114:45:36 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 364.54 728.52 -1556.341.568 317.26 599.50 848.172.064 291.18 597.48 811.742.375 347.40 630.70 779.562.724 335.56 547.99 780.993.048 330.96 545.64 731.864.07 229.17 399.81 613.034.585 222.31 366.92 543.755.213 185.99 279.25 399.3322517:14:03 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 360.74 713.09 -1461.551.568 338.31 647.58 925.082.064 304.96 634.66 868.692.375 359.63 662.71 830.762.724 356.02 587.78 843.853.048 352.40 590.61 800.134.07 246.97 442.28 687.744.585 241.83 410.29 617.935.213 211.94 318.79 465.1217:31:36 Radius (m)Position 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.616 n/a n/a n/a1.01 338.51 710.44 -1448.401.568 1148.21 649.73 928.772.064 367.06 636.98 871.342.375 357.90 671.17 833.382.724 354.77 590.10 846.243.048 249.12 593.63 802.494.07 244.48 446.05 691.024.585 215.82 414.08 621.435.213 518.87 323.11 470.78226Suction pyrometer temperature readings (SL10)Time^14:32:22.56^14:34:10.22^14:35:59.30^14:37:24.60^14:40:41.67Pair 1 2 3 4 5^1141.43^1062.21^1062.28^1040.36^891.75^889.05^845.80^830.52^775.91^678.991107.40^1066.42^1070.68^1046.27^891.26^889.78^849.45^836.09^786.44^681.351124.03^1068.09^1079.91^1049.65^891.75^891.26^851.39^838.03^801.33^683.481086.53^1070.61^1083.26^1049.65^894.95^893.47^853.34^839.25^811.68^685.601106.56^1064.73^1087.44^1053.02^897.66^896.18^854.07^839.49^816.99^687.501104.90^1063.05^1086.60^1047.12^900.37^897.91^855.78^839.97^819.16^689.151138.12^1061.37^1092.45^1052.18^902.59^899.88^856.99^838.76^820.13^690.331185.16^1066.42^1089.95^1053.86^903.82^899.14^857.24^838.28^818.44^690.571190.92^1072.29^1084.09^1053.02^905.06^898.89^857.48^838.76^810.96^690.811186.80^1076.48^1087.44^1053.86^904.81^897.41^855.29^837.55^802.53^690.571182.69^1078.16^1091.62^1057.23^903.82^899.88^855.78^840.22^795.80^690.811198.31^1077.32^1092.45^1056.39^901.85^899.38^855.29^840.70^799.17^690.331174.46^1072.29^1094.12^1055.55^899.88^898.89^856.99^842.64^808.55^691.041166.22^1071.45^1095.79^1053.86^901.60^901.36^857.24^842.40^818.20^691.991140.61^1063.89^1097.46^1050.49^903.58^902.10^858.70^843.13^823.03^692.931110.73^1053.79^1098.30^1053.02^906.29^903.08^858.94^842.40^824.23^694.351111.56^1050.42^1098.30^1056.39^907.28^902.84^860.41^842.64^824.72^695.061206.52^1053.79^1091.62^1053.86^909.01^904.07^861.38^842.89^821.34^695.771195.85^1057.16^1094.96^1053.86^907.28^899.38^859.19^841.92^814.58^695.541208.16^1061.37^1092.45^1056.39^902.84^889.05^860.16^842.89^806.39^694.59Maximum^1208.16^1078.16^1098.30^1057.23^909.01^904.07^861.38^843.13^824.72^695.77Minimum^1086.53^1050.42^1062.28^1040.36^891.26^889.05^845.80^830.52^775.91^678.99Range^121.63^27.74^36.01^16.87^17.75^15.02^15.58^12.61^48.81^16.78Average^1153.35^1065.57^1088.56^1052.30^901.37^897.65^856.04^839.93^809.98^690.04Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Time 14:50:14.54 14:52:07.41 14:54:04.46 14:55:42.45 14:57:26.31Pair 1 2 3 4 51132.51 1052.30 1084.21 1044.71 890.40 881.56 839.19 822.25 756.68 671.081191.93 1057.35 1088.39 1042.17 892.12 884.50 842.83 824.91 755.25 672.261198.50 1063.24 1089.23 1052.30 890.40 885.24 844.29 826.60 767.42 672.971203.43 1069.96 1093.41 1051.46 891.63 887.94 845.51 825.63 779.14 674.151200.96 1075.00 1098.42 1055.67 893.84 888.43 846.23 826.12 789.44 676.511226.39 1079.19 1102.59 1058.20 896.79 890.64 846.96 825.88 794.96 678.641224.75 1083.38 1106.75 1057.35 899.75 891.38 846.23 824.42 798.33 681.711236.21 1086.72 1110.08 1058.20 900.98 893.10 846.48 826.84 798.09 682.421250.94 1082.54 1112.58 1059.04 902.46 892.86 845.26 826.84 796.64 683.121221.47 1072.48 1115.91 1061.56 903.70 893.84 846.48 829.02 788.24 682.421191.93 1067.45 1112.58 1060.72 904.19 893.84 847.69 829.99 771.72 681.001237.85 1069.96 1110.92 1055:67 902.71 893.35 849.15 831.20 769.57 680.29IN)oo1241.121226.391073.321077.511109.251112.581056.511061.56900.00899.26893.84894.09849.39850.12830.96831.68776.98787.04679.58680.761215.73 1080.86 1110.92 1060.72 900.74 894.33 850.12 829.26 795.92 682.421215.73 1083.38 1115.08 1065.76 902.46 895.07 850.85 829.50 800.73 684.071232.12 1087.56 1116.74 1059.88 904.68 896.55 851.10 831.20 802.41 686.201240.31 1090.07 1117.57 1059.88 906.17 897.29 850.37 829.50 802.90 687.141246.85 1087.56 1116.74 1064.08 907.40 896.55 848.42 830.23 801.21 687.851216.55 1076.67 1120.89 1064.08 908.14 895.81 849.15 831.68 796.89 686.67Maximum 1250.94 1090.07 1120.89 1065.76 908.14 897.29 851.10 831.68 802.90 687.85Minimum 1132.51 1052.30 1084.21 1042.17 890.40 881.56 839.19 822.25 755.25 671.08Range 118.43 37.77 36.68 23.59 17.75 15.73 11.90 9.43 47.65 16.77Average 1217.58 1075.83 1107.24 1057.48 899.89 892.01 847.29 828.19 786.48 680.56Distance 0.15 0.46 0.92 1.49 2.21 2.55 2.92 3.27 3.99 4.52(m)Time^17:15:13.81^17:17:09.15^17:19:05.48^17:20:40.56^17:22:40.96Pair 1 2 3 4 5^736.78^939.10^1119.89^1148.90^973.63^961.30^914.24^910.04^849.25^752.33793.47^939.97^1135.66^1171.19^974.89^960.55^920.69^912.51^864.60^759.01807.21^939.97^1152.21^1178.60^972.12^962.56^924.16^913.75^873.89^762.82802.63^944.32^1159.64^1184.36^970.61^964.57^928.13^917.22^880.75^765.93803.55^940.84^1166.24^1191.77^972.37^965.83^929.62^916.72^883.69^767.84811.77^956.47^1166.24^1193.41^975.90^968.85^930.62^916.97^882.95^769.03773.17^959.07^1161.29^1192.59^978.93^970.86^932.36^917.46^881.97^770.47776.88^970.30^1157.99^1193.41^982.47^972.37^930.87^915.48^873.40^769.75767.61^978.91^1158.82^1188.48^984.75^973.63^931.12^915.98^867.29^770.23727.36^965.98^1150.56^1181.90^986.27^973.13^929.13^916.22^864.36^770.47756.44^969.43^1155.51^1178.60^986.52^972.37^928.63^917.96^868.51^769.75745.23^943.45^1156.34^1182.72^987.03^972.12^928.63^917.22^877.56^770.71786.11^952.14^1162.94^1177.78^983.99^970.61^931.37^919.20^883.20^772.38810.86^943.45^1169.54^1192.59^979.69^972.37^933.36^920.69^887.86^774.53791.63^945.19^1172.84^1190.12^980.20^973.13^934.85^920.69^891.06^775.97748.04^950.40^1174.48^1191.77^982.72^974.64^935.35^920.44^890.56^776.21723.58^952.14^1168.72^1190.94^985.76^975.40^937.09^918.95^888.35^776.45710.30^957.34^1161.29^1190.12^988.04^976.16^934.85^918.70^880.01^776.21775.95^973.74^1157.16^1186.01^990.83^977.16^934.85^918.95^869.73^775.25806.29^968.57^1155.51^1181.07^991.84^976.66^934.85^919.69^866.55^774.77Maximum^811.77^978.91^1174.48^1193.41^991.84^977.16^937.09^920.69^891.06^776.45Minimum^710.30^939.10^1119.89^1148.90^970.61^960.55^914.24^910.04^849.25^752.33Range^101.47^39.81^54.59^44.51^21.23^16.62^22.85^10.65^41.80^24.12Average^772.74^954.54^1158.14^1184.32^981.43^970.71^930.24^917.24^876.28^770.01Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Time^17:32:02.24^17:34:14.99^17:36:12.81^17:38:13.54^17:39:46.25Pair 1 2 3 4 5^810.93^972.95^1097.55^1151.52^967.54^954.98^916.36^906.97^870.17^763.50868.67^978.98^1118.37^1173.80^966.03^957.23^921.32^911.91^878.74^767.32776.95^983.28^1134.97^1182.04^965.52^960.25^922.31^912.90^885.12^770.43771.39^965.19^1142.42^1177.10^969.30^962.76^924.30^915.62^888.55^772.34761.17^953.07^1144.08^1189.44^973.08^966.03^926.04^916.61^887.82^773.30785.25^943.52^1149.04^1187.79^977.62^969.30^930.26^919.09^885.61^774.02788.94^937.43^1148.21^1181.21^981.41^971.06^932.00^920.08^879.72^774.02787.10^933.94^1149.87^1171.33^983.68^972.07^933.00^920.33^871.40^774.02729.31^947.87^1141.60^1166.38^985.45^971.06^934.99^921.07^868.22^773.78710.37^960.87^1139.94^1175.45^986.47^972.32^933.00^919.34^870.17^774.02792.62^972.95^1142.42^1184.50^985.96^972.07^933.00^918.59^880.95^774.97845.36^980.70^1150.70^1181.21^981.91^971.31^932.50^919.09^886.59^776.651-4^ 758.38^979.84^1156.48^1185.33^978.12^970.05^931.51^920.33^891.99^778.32727.43^967.78^1161.43^1190.26^979.13^970.56^931.51^921.07^894.95^779.52738.73^954.81^1168.03^1192.73^982.42^973.58^932.50^921.57^894.95^780.24758.38^932.20^1159.78^1190.26^985.20^974.84^934.24^923.06^892.24^780.24734.97^931.32^1153.17^1194.37^988.24^977.11^936.49^923.31^885.85^779.52736.85^939.17^1149.04^1182.86^990.27^976.10^936.49^922.81^876.78^779.04765.82^940.04^1144.08^1181.21^992.30^976.86^938.23^923.06^873.35^778.80801.79^959.14^1140.77^1178.74^992.55^976.10^937.48^920.58^877.51^778.80Maximum^868.67^983.28^1168.03^1194.37^992.55^977.11^938.23^923.31^894.95^780.24Minimum^710.37^931.32^1097.55^1151.52^965.52^954.98^916.36^906.97^868.22^763.50Range^158.29^51.95^70.48^42.85^27.03^22.13^21.87^16.34^26.73^16.73Average^772.52^956.75^1144.60^1180.88^980.61^969.78^930.88^918.87^882.03^775.14Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Shell temperature readingsRun : SL10Distance from lime product outlet (m)Time 0.146 0.921 1.492 2.21 3.99414:42:12.08 171.97 192.62 256.81 127.93 131.3817:10:37.09 177.06 201.88 236.20 137.45 189.1017:28:13.31 178.42 202.25 231.68 138.57 191.69231Flue gas AnalysisRun : SL10Equipment : Gas chromatographFuel Time Port % oxygen % carbon dioxide % nitrogen*nat. gas 11:02 9 5.91 16.5 77.5911:38 9 4.02 15.7 80.2812:38 9 4.18 14.72 81.112:44 9 4.31 14.58 81.1113:42 2 6.13 8.33 85.5413:48 9 4.43 12.9 82.6714:02 9 4.6 13.91 81.4914:12 2 6.83 9.54 83.6314:18 9 4.4 13.6 8214:50 9 3.35 14.87 81.7815:11 9 3.15 15.87 80.98LOW 15:29 9 1.87 22.56 75.5715:52 9 2.76 20.43 76.8116:25 9 1.94 24.29 73.7717:02 9 3.03 17.41 79.5617:45 9 2.69 18.08 79.2317:52 9 2.13 21.71 76.16*% nitrogen are calculated from 100 - % oxygen - % carbon dioxide232Table of EventsRun SL1111/25/92 09:55:28.37Kiln speed (rpm) : 1.5 09:55:31.99SL11ARead bed temperatures 14:32:29.43Read Shell Temperatures 14:34:26.58Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 14:34:29.93Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 14:35:53.97Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:37:01.42Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:45:22.39Suction T/C, Pair : 2 14:47:00.05Suction T/C, Pair : 3 14:48:44.90Suction T/C, Pair : 4 14:50:35.63Suction T/C, Pair : 5 14:52:19.00Read bed temperatures 14:53:56.94Read Shell Temperatures 14:56:21.94Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 14:56:26.33Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 14:57:50.42Suction T/C, Pair : 1 14:58:20.36Suction T/C, Pair : 2 15:00:30.04Suction T/C, Pair : 3 15:02:28.40Suction T/C, Pair : 4 15:04:39.78'Suction T/C, Pair : 5 15:06:25.24233SL11BRead bed temperatures 16:47:00.56Read Shell Temperatures 16:48:57.67Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 16:49:01.56Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 16:50:25.44Suction T/C, Pair : 1 16:50:55.86Suction T/C, Pair : 1 16:53:03.40Suction T/C, Pair : 2 16:54:55.29Suction T/C, Pair : 3 16:56:42.77Suction T/C, Pair : 4 16:58:20.05Suction T/C, Pair : 5 17:00:02.37Suction T/C, Pair : 5 17:04:32.83Read bed temperatures 17:08:19.61Read Shell Temperatures 17:10:28.80Read Hot Face Heat Flux Temps. 17:11:05.05Read Colder Heat Flux Temps. 17:12:29.25Suction T/C, Pair : 1 17:13:14.78Suction T/C, Pair : 2 17:14:54.64Suction T/C, Pair : 3 17:16:41.14Suction T/C, Pair : 4 17:18:28.63Suction T/C, Pair : 5 17:20:12.22234Cyclic Bed Temperature Readings (run SL11)14:32:29^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^1017.34^1099.83^1052.05^994.30^937.18^908.14^876.16^833.78^750.94^662.571020.74^1104.84^1057.95^996.01^938.43^908.39^876.65^835.24^754.04^666.581024.98^1112.33^1062.15^997.72^939.67^908.88^874.45^833.06^753.80^667.051028.38^1112.33^1065.51^999.43^937.18^904.68^868.58^827.97^746.90^660.921023.29^1119.81^1067.20^1001.14^927.47^896.05^857.59^816.86^737.85^647.00990.02^1053.73^1047.83^1000.29^896.79^879.35^837.18^794.23^725.74^622.73978.86^1052.05^1026.68^995.16^905.92^888.67^854.91^813.00^735.48^637.34991.73^1083.13^1036.00^992.59^922.26^898.52^867.35^824.59^742.37^648.181008.82^1096.50^1046.99^992.59^929.21^902.46^872.98^830.15^746.18^655.020.00* 1103.17^1055.42^993.44^936.93^908.14^878.86^835.00^751.90^660.681018.19^1109.00^1059.63^995.16^939.92^909.87^879.59^835.96^753.80^663.98ts.)^0.00* 4383.31* 4083.72* 3732.37*^752.37*^663.75*^879.59^835.96^753.80^663.981030.92^1116.49^1065.51^999.43^935.69^904.19^866.38^824.59^743.80^657.381012.23^1114.83^1066.36^1000.29^927.47^896.79^857.35^815.65^734.53^639.46983.16^1048.68^1041.08^999.43^897.78^880.82^839.60^797.12^725.74^622.97^979.72^1060.47^1024.13^994.30^910.86^890.15^856.13^814.69^735.71^634.510.00* 4295.41* 3997.94* 3662.28*^742.61*^645.59*^856.13^814.69^735.71^634.511012.23^1102.34^1044.46^992.59^929.71^901.23^869.80^828.46^747.13^654.55^1017.34^1107.34^1052.05^992.59^936.43^906.16^874.94^833.30^751.42^660.451023.29^1112.33^1057.10^994.30^937.68^908.39^877.14^835.24^754.28^664.69Minimum^978.86^1048.68^1024.13^992.59^896.79^879.35^837.18^794.23^725.74^622.73Maximum^1030.92^1119.81^1067.20^1001.14^939.92^909.87^879.59^835.96^754.28^667.05Range^52.06^71.14^43.06^8.55^43.13^30.53^42.41^41.73^28.55^44.32Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)*This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.14:53:56^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^1027.20^1112.85^1068.55^1002.52^938.20^905.70^866.16^825.11^747.42^660.731017.01^1109.52^1069.39^1005.08^929.98^899.53^855.68^811.11^735.05^635.97992.25^1038.21^1040.75^1001.66^900.27^886.00^846.19^799.32^730.53^629.14987.97^1060.99^1028.90^996.53^915.34^896.57^862.02^812.32^739.32^646.111005.93^1084.48^1040.75^996.53^927.74^903.23^870.81^821.97^745.51^655.541017.01^1095.35^1050.88^996.53^937.95^910.39^879.62^833.82^752.66^662.151021.26^1104.52^1057.62^997.39^940.19^912.37^882.07^838.18^757.66^668.041021.26^1106.19^1062.67^999.95^942.94^914.10^883.54^840.36^760.29^671.351019.56^1107.02^1064.35^1001.66^942.19^912.12^878.88^836.97^758.14^670.171022.11^1109.52^1066.88^1003.37^935.71^904.71^866.16^825.11^746.23^660.731007.64^1097.02^1064.35^1005.08^921.54^894.85^849.59^806.05^731.48^632.44987.11^1034.83^1034.83^999.95^902.49^885.51^848.14^804.37^731.48^633.38993.11^1075.27^1031.44^996.53^917.32^896.08^860.55^817.86^737.66^646.11ts.)^1002.52^1094.51^1044.13^995.68^927.49^902.24^868.36^826.32^743.37^654.831019.56^1107.02^1055.10^995.68^934.46^906.19^873.25^830.91^747.65^659.791031.44^1115.35^1062.67^997.39^938.95^910.14^877.66^835.27^751.94^664.271032.29^1121.16^1067.72^999.95^940.19^909.65^875.70^834.30^751.70^665.681038.21^1123.66^1071.91^1001.66^937.70^905.20^869.58^828.25^746.70^661.911040.75^1131.95^1076.94^1004.22^930.98^897.31^858.11^819.31^737.66^651.061013.60^1097.02^1067.72^1005.93^911.13^886.24^839.15^797.40^724.59^622.31Minimum^987.11^1034.83^1028.90^995.68^900.27^885.51^839.15^797.40^724.59^622.31Maximum^1040.75^1131.95^1076.94^1005.93^942.94^914.10^883.54^840.36^760.29^671.35Range^53.64^97.12^48.05^10.25^42.67^28.59^44.39^42.97^35.69^49.04Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)16:47:00^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10^887.28^1031.87^1090.78^1048.79^986.71^952.72^921.08^881.15^801.80^717.57882.84^1027.63^1087.44^1050.48^972.31^943.22^900.81^861.10^788.59^690.82875.73^985.81^1058.06^1045.41^944.47^929.77^892.68^852.33^787.16^690.11877.51^1005.50^1053.01^1041.19^964.76^939.48^909.45^861.34^793.15^701.70881.95^1016.58^1067.31^1041.19^976.60^945.72^917.61^874.29^799.88^710.23884.62^1022.54^1079.06^1042.88^983.67^950.22^924.80^883.84^803.00^714.960.00* 4874.40*^4615.66* 4226.88*^808.05*^719.47*^924.80^883.84^803.00^714.96884.62^1024.24^1089.11^1046.26^991.02^956.73^929.27^890.47^809.26^721.60884.62^1028.48^1092.45^1048.79^991.02^956.23^927.04^888.01^806.37^720.89890.82^1034.41^1093.29^1050.48^989.50^954.48^920.58^882.86^800.36^715.44884.62^1026.78^1088.27^1051.32^967.03^941.23^895.88^859.15^785.96^690.35878.40^988.39^1058.90^1046.26^946.22^930.02^893.67^858.66^787.64^690.581007.21* 1057.22*^1042.03* 4974.53*^939.98*^910.68*^872.33*^793.87*^702.41*^690.58875.73^1014.03^1069.83^1042.03^975.59^944.22^917.11^877.23^799.64^710.94877.51^1019.99^1080.74^1043.72^983.17^950.72^925.30^886.30^804.45^715.91881.06^1022.54^1086.60^1044.57^986.46^953.72^927.28^889.73^807.57^720.18881.95^1027.63^1090.78^1047.10^989.75^956.48^929.02^890.72^809.26^722.32893.48^1032.72^1092.45^1049.63^989.75^956.48^927.78^889.49^807.33^721.13893.48^1038.65^1093.29^1052.16^987.72^955.73^925.05^885.07^801.08^715.68884.62^1024.24^1083.25^1053.01^961.00^939.23^896.13^856.47^785.96^688.46Minimum^875.73^985.81^1053.01^1041.19^944.47^929.77^892.68^852.33^785.96^688.46Maximum^893.48^1038.65^1093.29^1053.01^991.02^956.73^929.27^890.72^809.26^722.32Range^17.75^52.83^40.28^11.82^46.55^26.96^36.59^38.38^23.30^33.86Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)*This data is not used in finding the minimum bed temperature.17:08:19^1^2^3^4^5^6^7^8^9^10891.85^1029.47^1098.44^1053.15^994.45^958.63^931.15^893.07^813.49^727.91894.50^1033.71^1099.27^1055.67^990.40^955.37^925.19^886.93^806.51^723.40891.85^1028.62^1095.10^1058.20^974.22^946.61^904.15^865.88^794.25^699.47890.08^994.53^1066.61^1053.15^945.86^932.15^898.98^861.00^794.49^699.00886.53^1008.20^1060.73^1048.93^968.17^942.36^915.27^875.41^802.66^710.37890.96^1023.53^1071.65^1047.24^976.49^947.86^921.47^883.25^807.47^718.90898.04^1032.86^1082.55^1047.24^982.55^950.61^924.44^886.93^809.16^722.69899.80^1035.40^1090.92^1048.08^987.36^953.86^927.18^889.87^811.81^725.78903.33^1035.40^1097.60^1050.62^989.64^954.62^926.68^890.12^812.77^726.96905.09^1035.40^1100.94^1053.15^992.17^956.37^927.42^890.12^810.12^725.07895.39^1039.63^1101.77^1055.67^991.41^955.87^925.69^887.66^805.79^720.08894.50^1032.01^1095.93^1057.36^968.17^942.11^899.22^862.95^791.85^695.69892.73^999.66^1067.45^1053:15^949.11^932.15^897.25^861.48^794.25^698.29891.85^1021.83^1064.93^1048.93^968.68^941.61^913.79^875.41^801.70^709.1800^897.15^1032.01^1075.85^1047.24^975.73^945.86^920.72^882.27^806.27^717.24902.45^1038.79^1085.90^1047.24^983.05^950.86^926.18^888.40^810.36^722.69903.33^1039.63^1093.43^1048.08^989.38^956.87^932.64^894.05^813.25^726.01901.57^1037.94^1099.27^1050.62^991.92^958.38^932.64^894.05^813.74^727.91905.09^1039.63^1100.94^1052.30^990.90^956.12^929.16^891.84^811.08^726.25905.09^1041.33^1101.77^1054.83^986.60^952.11^921.47^884.47^804.83^720.79Minimum^886.53^994.53^1060.73^1047.24^945.86^932.15^897.25^861.00^791.85^695.69Maximum^905.09^1041.33^1101.77^1058.20^994.45^958.63^932.64^894.05^813.74^727.91Range^18.57^46.80^41.05^10.96^48.60^26.48^35.39^33.06^21.88^32.22Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Bed temperature readings - Kiln stopped1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10911.47 997.31 1053.36 1053.36 923.41 920.69 879.04 847.09 777.69 678.41910.59 984.45 1031.38 1038.15 914.74 913.01 876.35 844.91 775.06 673.45909.71 975.85 1015.23 1025.44 909.05 908.56 875.13 843.94 774.10 669.91908.83 968.95 1003.29 1013.53 904.86 906.09 874.39 843.69 774.10 667.31907.95 963.77 993.88 1003.29 901.65 904.12 873.90 843.69 774.10 665.43907.95 959.44 985.31 994.74 899.43 903.13 873.66 843.94 774.58 664.01907.07 955.98 978.43 987.88 897.46 901.90 873.66 844.18 775.06 662.83907.07 954.24 972.40 981.87 896.23 901.40 873.42 844.42 775.77 661.89906.19 951.64 968.09 976.71 895.00 901.16 873.66 844.66 776.49 661.18906.19 950.77 963.77 973.26 894.26 901.16 873.66 845.15 777.21 660.71W Minimum 906.19 950.77 963.77 973.26 894.26 901.16 873.42 843.69 774.10 660.71Maximum1/4° 911.47 997.31 1053.36 1053.36 923.41 920.69 879.04 847.09 777.69 678.41Range 5.28 46.53 89.59 80.10 29.15 19.53 5.63 3.40 3.59 17.70Distance 0.15 0.46 0.92 1.49 2.21 2.55 2.92 3.27 3.99 4.52(m)oCyclic hot face wall probe temperature readings (Run SL11)14:34:29 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 996.01 913.71 835.24 827.25 799.28 777.69 649.36 581.98 445.95n/a 983.16 911.07 835.24 827.49 799.04 776.25 649.13 580.10 432.37n/a 974.56 906.68 835.24 827.49 799.04 775.78 648.89 577.98 426.17n/a 980.58 906.68 835.24 827.49 799.04 776.49 648.42 577.98 429.99n/a 990.02 907.56 835.48 827.49 799.04 776.97 648.18 578.92 434.04n/a 993.44 909.32 835.24 827.25 799.04 777.45 648.42 579.86 438.09n/a 995.16 910.20 835.24 827.25 799.04 777.69 648.65 580.57 441.91n/a 996.01 911.95 835.24 827.25 799.04 777.93 648.89 581.51 444.76n/a 995.16 912.83 835.48 827.25 799.28 777.93 649.13 581.98 446.91n/a 996.87 913.71 835.48 827.49 799.28 777.45 649.36 581.98 445.24n/a 982.30 910.20 835.24 827.49 799.28 776.25 649.36 580.33 432.37n/a 973.70 906.68 835.48 827.49 799.04 776.02 648.89 578.45 427.84n/a 984.01 906.68 835.48 827.49 799.04 776.73 648.65 578.69 431.66n/a 991.73 908.44 835.48 827.49 799.04 776.97 648.42 579.39 435.71n/a 994.30 910.20 835.48 827.49 799.04 777.45 648.65 580.33 439.76n/a 996.01 911.07 835.48 827.25 799.28 777.93 648.89 581.04 443.10n/a 996.87 911.95 835.48 827.25 799.28 778.17 649.13 581.75 445.95n/a 996.87 912.83 835.48 827.49 799.28 777.93 649.36 582.22 447.86n/a 999.43 913.71 835.48 827.49 799.52 777.45 649.60 581.98 443.34n/a 979.72 910.20 835.48 827.49 799.28 776.25 649.60 579.86 431.42Maximum n/a 999.43 913.71 835.48 827.49 799.52 778.17 649.60 582.22 447.86Minimum n/a 973.70 906.68 835.24 827.25 799.04 775.78 648.18 577.98 426.17Range n/a 25.74 7.03 0.24 0.24 0.48 2.39 1.41 4.24 21.69Average n/a 989.79 910.28 835.38 827.41 799.16 777.14 648.95 580.35 438.22Distance 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21(m)IN)14:56:26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 989.74 913.41 837.76 828.55 800.34 777.07 649.47 578.09 425.31n/a 988.03 910.78 838.00 828.55 800.34 777.31 649.00 577.38 428.18n/a 1001.72 911.65 837.76 828.55 800.10 777.55 648.76 577.85 432.00n/a 1005.99 913.41 837.76 828.31 800.10 778.03 648.76 578.56 436.05n/a 1008.55 915.17 837.76 828.31 800.10 778.27 649.00 579.50 439.63n/a 1009.40 916.05 837.76 828.31 800.10 778.51 649.23 580.21 442.72n/a 1011.11 916.92 837.76 828.31 800.34 778.51 649.47 580.91 444.87n/a 1010.25 917.80 837.76 828.55 800.34 778.27 649.71 580.91 445.58n/a 1000.01 916.92 838.00 828.55 800.34 777.31 649.71 579.74 434.86n/a 988.03 912.53 837.76 828.55 800.10 776.36 649.23 577.62 426.51n/a 990.60 910.78 837.76 828.55 800.10 777.07 648.76 577.38 428.90n/a 1001.72 912.53 838.00 828.55 800.10 777.55 648.53 578.09 432.71n/a 1008.55 914.29 837.76 828.31 800.10 777.79 648.76 578.79 436.53n/a 1010.25 915.17 837.76 828.31 800.10 778.27 648.76 579.74 439.86n/a 1011.96 916.92 837.76 828.31 800.10 778.51 649.00 580.44 442.72n/a 1011.96 917.80 837.76 828.31 800.34 778.51 649.47 580.91 444.87n/a 1013.66 918.68 838.00 828.55 800.34 778.27 649.71 580.91 444.63n/a 997.45 916.05 837.76 828.55 800.34 777.31 649.47 579.27 431.28n/a 988.03 911.65 837.76 828.55 800.10 776.83 649.23 577.15 425.31n/a 994.02 911.65 838.00 828.55 800.10 777.31 648.76 577.15 428.90Maximum n/a 1013.66 918.68 838.00 828.55 800.34 778.51 649.71 580.91 445.58Minimum n/a 988.03 910.78 837.76 828.31 800.10 776.36 648.53 577.15 425.31Range n/a 25.64 7.90 0.24 0.24 0.24 2.15 1.18 3.77 20.27Average n/a 1002.05 914.51 837.82 828.46 800.20 777.73 649.14 579.03 435.57Distance(m)0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.2116:49:01 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 977.22 953.03 867.69 858.91 839.22 826.39 707.15 639.85 487.43n/a 981.52 956.49 867.93 858.91 839.22 826.63 707.15 640.79 491.93n/a 981.52 959.09 867.93 858.91 839.22 826.87 707.15 641.50 495.96n/a 981.52 960.82 867.69 858.91 839.22 827.36 707.38 642.20 499.51n/a 981.52 962.55 867.93 858.91 839.46 827.60 707.86 642.91 502.35n/a 981.52 963.42 867.93 858.91 839.70 828.08 708.09 643.38 504.24n/a 980.66 964.28 867.93 859.15 840.67 827.36 708.09 642.91 498.33n/a 971.19 957.36 867.93 859.15 840.43 825.90 708.09 640.79 485.29n/a 967.74 952.16 867.93 859.15 840.19 826.15 707.62 639.61 484.58n/a 976.36 953.89 867.93 859.15 840.92 826.63 707.38 640.32 488.85n/a 979.80 957.36 868.18 859.15 840.92 826.87 707.38 641.03 493.12n/a 979.80 959.09 867.93 858.91 840.92 827.36 707.62 641.73 496.91ts..) n/a 979.80 960.82 867.93 858.91 840.92 827.60 707.86 642.44 500.46N n/a 979.80 962.55 867.93 858.91 841.16 828.08 708.09 643.15 503.06n/a 981.52 964.28 867.93 859.15 841.40 828.08 708.33 643.62 504.72n/a 979.80 964.28 867.93 859.15 841.64 827.60 708.57 643.15 496.43n/a 970.32 957.36 867.93 859.15 841.64 826.15 708.33 641.03 483.40n/a 967.74 952.16 868.18 859.15 841.16 826.15 707.86 640.08 484.82n/a 978.08 954.76 868.18 859.15 841.16 826.87 707.86 641.03 489.32n/a 982.38 957.36 868.18 859.39 840.92 827.11 707.62 641.50 493.35Maximum n/a 982.38 964.28 868.18 859.39 841.64 828.08 708.57 643.62 504.72Minimum n/a 967.74 952.16 867.69 858.91 839.22 825.90 707.15 639.61 483.40Range n/a 14.64 12.12 0.49 0.49 2.43 2.18 1.42 4.01 21.32Average n/a 977.99 958.66 867.96 859.05 840.50 827.04 707.77 641.65 494.20Distance 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21(m)t.)17:11:05 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10n/a 993.74 961.90 872.79 862.53 843.31 831.19 713.28 648.07 500.43n/a 994.60 963.63 872.79 862.53 843.31 831.44 713.52 648.78 504.22n/a 994.60 966.22 872.79 862.53 843.31 831.68 713.75 649.49 507.53n/a 994.60 967.95 872.79 862.77 843.55 831.92 713.99 649.96 510.13n/a 994.60 969.67 872.79 862.77 843.80 831.92 714.23 650.43 511.79n/a 990.31 968.81 873.03 863.02 843.80 830.95 714.46 649.72 501.38n/a 984.31 961.90 872.79 863.02 843.55 829.98 714.23 647.36 488.82n/a 981.73 957.57 872.79 862.77 843.31 830.47 713.75 646.66 491.43n/a 990.31 960.17 873.03 863.02 843.31 830.95 713.52 647.60 495.93n/a 993.74 962.76 872.79 862.53 843.07 830.95 713.52 648.31 499.96n/a 994.60 964.49 872.79 862.53 843.07 831.19 713.52 .648.78 503.74n/a 995.45 966.22 872.79 862.53 843.31 831.68 713.75 649.49 507.06n/a 994.60 967.95 872:54 862.53 843.31 831.68 713.99 650.19 509.66n/a 994.60 968.81 872.79 862.53 843.55 831.68 714.23 650.43 511.08n/a 991.17 968.81 872.79 862.77 843.55 830.95 714.46 649.96 500.90n/a 983.45 961.90 873.03 863.26 843.55 829.98 714.46 647.84 490.01n/a 983.45 958.44 873.03 863.02 843.31 830.47 713.99 647.36 492.85n/a 991.17 961.03 873.03 862.77 843.31 830.71 713.75 647.84 496.88n/a 993.74 963.63 873.03 863.02 843.31 831.19 713.75 648.78 501.38n/a 995.45 964.49 872.79 862.53 843.07 831.19 713.75 649.25 505.16Maximum n/a 995.45 969.67 873.03 863.26 843.80 831.92 714.46 650.43 511.79Minimum n/a 981.73 957.57 872.54 862.53 843.07 829.98 713.28 646.66 488.82Range n/a 13.73 12.10 0.49 0.73 0.73 1.94 1.18 3.77 22.97Average n/a 991.51 964.32 872.85 862.75 843.38 831.11 713.89 648.81 501.52Distance 0.62 1.01 1.57 2.06 2.38 2.72 3.05 4.07 4.59 5.21(m)Interior wall probe temperature measurement (SL11)14:35:53 Radius (m)Position (m) 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.62 n/a n/a n/a1.01 362.12 733.99 -1610.071.57 315.93 601.31 854.272.06 348.17 634.28 834.512.38 379.47 663.28 765.732.72 336.34 550.16 787.513.05 327.39 543.32 734.054.07 224.08 394.59 611.194.59 217.71 362.15 540.735.21 182.35 277.60 400.1014:57:50 Radius (m)Position (m) 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.62 n/a n/a n/a1.01 364.93 740.21 -1176.891.57 317.65 602.89 858.432.06 348.51 635.33 837.032.38 382.69 663.86 767.272.72 338.37 552.63 788.573.05 330.14 , 546.73 735.344.07 226.38 398.29 612.244.59 220.01 365.38 541.075.21 185.15 279.89 399.4816:50:25 Radius (m)Position (m) 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.62 n/a n/a n/a1.01 361.69 728.25 -1572.491.57 330.22 628.90 897.902.06 357.45 653.99 865.982.38 384.63 680.42 793.632.72 351.42 576.48 827.843.05 344.18 575.54 780.214.07 240.09 427.49 665.784.59 234.21 395.91 596.975.21 202.83 306.89 450.3717:12:29 Radius (m)Position (m) 0.2506 0.2318 0.2130.62 n/a n/a n/a1.01 365.25 735.06 -1583.431.57 332.69 633.05 904.282.06 355.01 654.91 870.592.38 377.16 678.74 796.002.72 353.80 580.22 831.443.05 347.04 580.46 785.214.07 242.74 432.71 671.904.59 237.60 401.15 603.785.21 208.93 314.13 457.96Suction pyrometer temperature readings of flue gas (SL11)Time^14:45:22^14:47:00^14:48:44^14:50:35^14:52:19Pair 1 2 3 4 5^1223.18^1166.48^1117.70^1068.41^906.30^884.14^851.96^834.23^773.90^665.681218.26^1171.42^1123.52^1068.41^911.49^887.82^856.83^836.66^786.59^671.351240.38^1180.48^1129.32^1075.97^915.20^891.02^856.34^836.66^792.83^674.651226.46^1178.01^1129.32^1077.64^919.41^894.95^859.99^840.29^796.67^677.731228.91^1185.42^1131.81^1079.32^921.15^896.68^861.70^840.54^797.64^678.431251.01^1190.35^1138.44^1082.67^922.39^898.65^861.70^839.32^793.55^678.671201.86^1179.66^1143.41^1080.99^921.89^897.91^860.73^838.11^776.54^677.731203.50^1178.84^1145.06^1077.64^921.15^896.68^858.53^837.63^764.34^676.541233.01^1183.77^1147.54^1084.34^920.16^898.90^858.78^839.08^786.36^679.381257.55^1193.64^1152.50^1086.02^919.16^900.87^863.17^843.45^799.80^682.211256.73^1194.46^1153.33^1091.03^920.65^902.10^863.90^843.45^809.18^686.231257.55^1200.21^1154.16^1090.20^923.88^903.09^864.87^844.66^815.21^689.300\^1262.46^1200.21^1150.85^1087.69^925.37^902.84^866.58^844.91^816.90^691.671214.98^1194.46^1150.03^1085.18^927.85^905.06^866.83^845.64^816.17^692.381271.44^1200.21^1150.03^1086.02^927.35^904.57^865.36^841.75^809.18^692.141249.37^1192.82^1155.81^1083.51^926.86^903.83^864.14^841.27^794.51^691.431263.27^1196.11^1151.68^1078.48^926.11^902.59^863.41^841.75^785.16^690.961255.92^1198.57^1150.03^1084.34^922.88^903.58^863.41^843.21^797.64^690.961273.90^1203.50^1159.11^1088.52^922.64^903.33^865.36^845.88^808.70^693.321259.19^1198.57^1156.63^1091.87^924.13^904.82^866.34^846.12^818.83^696.40Maximum^1273.90^1203.50^1159.11^1091.87^927.85^905.06^866.83^846.12^818.83^696.40Minimum^1201.86^1166.48^1117.70^1068.41^906.30^884.14^851.96^834.23^764.34^665.68Range 72.04^37.02^41.41^23.45^21.56^20.92^14.87^11.89^54.48^30.71Average^1242.45^1189.36^1144.51^1082.41^921.30^899.17^862.00^841.23^796.99^683.86Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Time^14:58:20^15:00:30^15:02:28^15:04:39^15:06:25Pair 1 2 3 4 5^1186.57^1136.23^1087.12^1036.65^901.20^877.11^843.54^827.06^757.21^668.071191.51^1147.81^1097.98^1045.11^908.11^881.28^847.18^831.66^777.75^671.851193.15^1151.12^1105.49^1052.70^912.31^884.22^850.10^833.11^790.45^675.621203.01^1151.95^1109.65^1040.04^913.55^885.45^852.53^834.81^796.69^678.691212.85^1157.73^1119.63^1071.20^912.56^888.40^854.48^835.53^798.14^681.531198.08^1156.90^1120.46^1097.98^911.32^889.87^855.45^835.53^798.38^682.471211.21^1151.95^1125.45^1087.96^908.85^891.59^856.18^836.02^790.69^681.531183.28^1147.81^1123.79^1067.85^908.36^892.33^853.99^833.60^774.64^680.821221.05^1158.56^1126.28^1069.52^910.33^894.55^854.23^833.60^765.32^679.871216.95^1161.03^1127.11^1071.20^912.81^896.52^854.72^836.02^774.40^679.871227.61^1168.46^1128.76^1072.04^915.03^897.99^854.23^835.78^791.41^683.181212.03^1166.81^1129.59^1073 ..72^916.27^897.99^857.16^838.20^805.35^685.781213.67^1171.75^1132.08^1075.40^917.26^897.75^858.13^837.96^809.20^689.091234.98^1174.22^1134.57^1074.56^917.26^899.23^860.32^840.62^812.33^691.461248.07^1174.22^1132.08^1098.82^915.28^897.50^860.32^839.90^808.72^691.691244.80^1168.46^1133.74^1071.20^912.06^897.01^859.84^836.74^804.63^691.461218.59^1163.51^1133.74^1076.24^912.56^899.23^859.11^837.71^787.09^690.271230.06^1169.28^1137.05^1078.75^914.04^899.96^858.62^838.20^781.58^689.561239.89^1175.05^1133.74^1073.72^916.02^900.70^858.13^839.90^794.77^690.751229.24^1176.70^1137.88^1078.75^917.76^901.44^858.62^839.65^802.22^691.93Maximum^1248.07^1176.70^1137.88^1098.82^917.76^901.44^860.32^840.62^812.33^691.93Minimum^1183.28^1136.23^1087.12^1036.65^901.20^877.11^843.54^827.06^757.21^668.07Range 64.79^40.47^50.76^62.16^16.56^24.33^16.79^13.56^55.13^23.86Average^1215.83^1161.48^1123.81^1070.67^912.65^893.51^855.34^836.08^791.05^683.77Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Time^16:53:03^16:54:55^16:56:42^16:58:20^17:04:32Pair 1 2 3 4 5^953.96^1081.65^1144.07^1132.47^946.29^937.80^903.59^894.23^871.49^721.51996.17^1102.54^1157.30^1139.10^951.29^944.54^906.06^898.66^870.27^721.741025.16^1111.70^1160.60^1142.42^954.80^946.04^909.02^901.37^865.39^722.221013.25^1106.71^1162.25^1142.42^957.80^949.29^911.99^903.84^860.27^722.22992.75^1100.04^1162.25^1134.13^960.06^949.54^912.48^904.08^854.42^721.98966.08^1095.03^1159.78^1137.45^961.82^953.04^914.21^905.07^855.39^721.27953.10^1091.69^1160.60^1145.73^962.07^953.04^915.20^903.34^860.51^720.56957.43^1092.52^1161.43^1134.96^958.56^952.29^915.45^903.34^866.36^720.32951.36^1087.51^1164.73^1131.64^957.80^955.80^916.19^905.07^870.03^720.56943.54^1089.18^1172.15^1149.86^959.81^956.30^916.69^905.32^871.49^720.791003.01^1104.21^1175.44^1153.99^962.32^956.30^916.44^907.05^871.49^721.031018.36^1118.36^1175.44^1152.34^964.58^958.31^916.44^906.30^865.39^721.27988.46^1118.36^1175.44^1157.30^966.34^957.80^917.68^908.77^845.43^721.5100 972.12^1111.70^1168.85^1149.03^968.10^958.81^918.18^907.54^835.72^721.27986.74^1107.54^1166.38^1139.93^968.10^957.55^919.66^908.03^830.64^720.56979.01^1102.54^1165.55^1144.07^967.10^958.81^920.41^909.02^826.77^719.85943.54^1097.53^1164.73^1140.76^963.08^958.31^920.90^906.80^823.87^719.61941.80^1090.85^1167.20^1148.21^961.57^957.80^919.66^908.28^821.70^719.85944.41^1097.53^1172.97^1151.52^963.33^959.56^920.65^907.79^820.01^720.32991.03^1109.21^1178.74^1149.03^965.84^961.82^918.67^907.79^818.32^720.79Maximum^1025.16^1118.36^1178.74^1157.30^968.10^961.82^920.90^909.02^871.49^722.22Minimum^941.80^1081.65^1144.07^1131.64^946.29^937.80^903.59^894.23^818.32^719.61Range 83.35^36.71^34.67^25.66^21.81^24.02^17.31^14.79^53.18^2.61Average^976.06^1100.82^1165.80^1143.82^961.03^954.14^915.48^905.09^850.25^720.96Distance^0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Time^17:13:14^17:14:54^17:16:41^17:18:28^17:20:12Pair 1 2 3 4 5^941.94^1074.24^1130.12^1121.82^947.68^937.45^906.45^897.08^822.49^740.10967.08^1083.46^1135.93^1125.98^949.18^939.44^906.94^898.06^829.02^742.241021.05^1094.33^1145.87^1129.30^947.93^941.19^907.68^900.03^832.65^744.381015.09^1093.50^1152.48^1127.64^949.93^944.43^909.90^901.26^841.13^747.00989.46^1088.48^1159.92^1136.76^952.43^946.43^912.13^902.00^845.98^749.62995.45^1085.97^1161.57^1140.07^955.19^948.43^912.62^903.24^850.11^751.29982.59^1084.30^1159.09^1140.90^957.69^951.43^913.12^903.98^851.08^752.24985.17^1085.97^1155.79^1134.27^959.95^951.68^915.34^904.47^851.08^752.95973.98^1085.97^1154.13^1125.15^962.46^954.18^916.58^905.70^850.84^753.67980.87^1086.81^1150.00^1123.48^963.72^954.69^915.59^904.96^842.58^752.721025.30^1097.67^1156.61^1129.30^960.45^954.94^915.84^905.46^843.31^752.95t,)^1029.54^1107.68^1156.61^1121.82^958.19^955.94^915.84^906.94^843.80^753.671025.30^1107.68^1163.22^1140.07^959.20^956.44^915.34^906.45^850.35^754.38996.31^1100.18^1167.34^1141.73^961.21^955.44^917.57^908.67^852.79^756.05992.89^1097.67^1164.87^1139.24^963.72^958.45^918.81^909.90^856.19^757.48989.46^1090.99^1162.39^1140.07^965.48^959.20^919.80^908.91^857.41^758.20951.50^1089.32^1163.22^1140.90^966.73^959.70^919.31^907.19^855.71^757.96993.74^1092.66^1157.44^1135.10^968.75^962.21^919.80^908.67^851.08^757.48990.31^1094.33^1155.79^1126.81^967.74^957.94^920.55^908.67^847.20^757.011009.98^1107.68^1159.09^1142.56^964.22^959.95^912.62^912.13^843.55^756.53Maximum^1029.54^1107.68^1167.34^1142.56^968.75^962.21^920.55^912.13^857.41^758.20Minimum^941.94^1074.24^1130.12^1121.82^947.68^937.45^906.45^897.08.^822.49^740.10Range 87.60^33.44^37.22^20.73^21.07^24.76^14.10^15.05^34.92^18.10Average^992.85^1092.45^1155.57^1133.15^959.09^952.48^914.59^905.19^845.92^752.40Distance 0.15^0.46^0.92^1.49^2.21^2.55^2.92^3.27^3.99^4.52(m)Time^14:37:01^16:50:55^17:00:02Pair 1 1 5^1035.29^1066.48^933.02^1017.44^825.49^740.671035.29^1069.00^933.89^1019.14^830.57^742.821037.82^1073.20^936.51^1021.69^836.14^744.481041.21^1076.55^939.12^1024.24^842.44^746.381044.59^1080.74^939.99^1022.54^847.54^749.001048.81^1083.26^938.25^1017.44^849.73^750.671052.18^1085.77^936.51^1016.58^850.94^751.391049.65^1077.39^935.64^1017.44^848.51^751.861044.59^1070.68^936.51^1018.29^844.87^751.861043.74^1071.52^936.51^1019.14^840.26^751.151045.43^1074.88^937.38^1021.69^840.99^752.341047.96^1079.07^938.25^1023.39^846.57^752.341050.49^1082.42^940.86^1025.93^850.46^753.531053.86^1085.77^941.73^1024.24^854.84^755.201056.39^1087.44^940.86^1019.99^857.03^755.671058.92^1087.44^939.12^1019.14^856.30^756.871055.55^1079.07^939.12^1019.14^852.65^756.631050.49^1074.04^937.38^1019.14^848.03^756.151047.96^1074.04^937.38^1019.14^842.44^755.911047.96^1077.39^937.38^1020.84^844.14^755.91Maximum^1058.92^1087.44^941.73^1025.93^857.03^756.87Minimum^1035.29^1066.48^933.02^1016.58^825.49^740.67Range 23.63^20.95^8.72^9.35^31.54^16.19Average^1047.41^1077.81^937.77^1020.33^845.50^751.54Distance^0.15^0.46^0.15^0.46^3.99^4.52(m)Shell temperature readingsRun : SL11Distance from lime product outlet (m)Time 0.146 0.921 1.492 2.21 3.99414:32:29.43 193.90 261.75 178.18 122.58 141.2814:53:56.94 194.48 261.84 178.51 124.63 146.0416:47:00.56 199.14 248.89 183.91 131.76 179.7317:08:19.61 200.58 246.90 185.35 133.69 184.86251Flue gas analysisRun : SL11Equipment : Gas chromatographFuel Time Port % oxygen % carbon dioxide % nitrogen*nat. gas 11:42 9 2.77 16.91 80.3211:49 9 3 16.5 80.511:55 9 2.56 18.49 78.9515:14 9 2.68 18.26 79.06LOW 15:34 9 4.15 16.28 79.5715:47 9 3.23 19.25 77.5215:52 9 3 20.94 76.0616:34 9 2.53 18.54 78.9317:03 9 2.17 18.56 79.2717:22 9 2.06^_ 19.81 78.13* % nitrogen is calculated from 100 - % oxygen - % carbon dioxide252Slaking results of lime productsTime Run SL2B Time Run SL3B0 85.04 0 79.81 500 86.4230 85.04 30 79.94 510 86.4260 85.07 60 80.04 520 86.4290 85 90 80.1 530 86.42150 88.29 150 82.47 540 86.42160 88.76 160 82.9 550 86.42170 89.48 170 83.29 560 86.42180 90.4 180 83.69 570 86.42190 91.45 190 84.08 580 86.42200 92.44 200 84.44 590 86.42210 93.36 210 84.81 600 86.42220 94.02 220 85.1 610 86.42230 94.48 230 85.33 620 86.42240 94.81 240 85.53 630 86.42250 95.04 250 85.66 640 86.42260 95.17 260 85.79 660 86.42270 95.24 270 85.89 690 86.42280 95.24 280 85.96 720 86.42300 95.24 290 86.02 750 86.42330 95.14 300 86.06 780 86.39360 95.04 310 86.09 810 86.39390 94.94 320 86.16 840 86.39420 94.81 330 86.19340 86.19350 86.22360 86.25370 86.29380 86.29390 86.32400 86.32410 86.32420 86.35430 86.35440 86.35450 86.39460 86.39470 86.39480 86.39490 86.39253Time Run SL4B Run SL5A Run SL6B Run SL7A Time Run SL8A0 84.61 84.25 84.71 83.23 0 85.2730 84.64 84.25 84.71 83.26 30 85.2760 84.64 84.25 84.71 83.29 60 85.2790 84.64 84.25 84.71 83.33 90 85.27150 88.13 87.34 88.59 88.29 150 90.99160 89.02 88.23 89.45 89.64 160 92.14170 89.87 89.02 90.37 90.5 170 93.1180 90.7 89.68 91.35 91.32 180 93.76190 91.45 90.43 92.11 91.95 190 94.32200 91.91 90.99 92.77 92.34 200 94.61210 92.21 91.39 93.16 92.54 210 94.74220 92.41 91.65 93.39 92.64 220 94.81230 92.51 91.78 93.53 92.7 230 94.84240 92.54 91.88 93.62 92.74 240 94.81250 92.57 91.91 93.69 92.77 270 94.74260 92.57 91.95 93.76 92.77 300 94.64270 92.6 91.95 93.76 92.77 330 94.51280 92.57 91.91 93.79 92.74 360 94.41290 92.57 91.91 93.79 92.74300 92.57 91.88 93.76 92.74330 92.51 91.81 93.72 92.7360 92.44 91.75 93.66 92.67390 92.37 91.68 93.59 92.6420 92.28 91.62 93.49 92.54Time Run SL8B Time Run SL9A Time Run SL9B0 81.09 0 84.28 0 84.5830 81.15 30 84.28 30 84.5860 81.19 60 84.28 60 84.5890 81.22 90 84.28 90 84.58150 84.31 150 89.71 150 95.17160 84.81 160 90.56 160 96.39170 85.4 170 91.55 170 97.11180 85.96 180 92.24 180 97.41190 86.52 190 92.8 190 97.51200 87.08 200 93.16 200 97.47210 87.6 210 93.33 210 97.41220 88 220 93.46 220 97.38230 88.26 230 93.53 230 97.28240 88.46 240 93.56 240 97.24250 88.59 250 93.56 270 97.05260 88.66 260 93.56 300 96.88270 88.69 270 93.53 360 96.26280 88.72 300 93.49290 88.76 330 93.43300 88.76 360 93.36310 88.76 390 93.3320 88.76 420 93.23330 88.76360 88.76390 88.76420 88.72450 88.72255Time Run SL10A Time Run SL1OB0 80.53 0 85.5330 80.6 30 85.560 80.63 60 85.4690 80.66 90 85.46150 86.39 150 90.66160 87.54 160 91.95170 88.59 170 92.97180 89.54 180 93.66190 90.4 190 94.02200 91.09 200 94.18210 91.68 210 94.25220 92.05 220 94.28230 92.31 230 94.25240 92.44 240 94.22250 92.47 270 94.15260 92.51 300 94.05270 92.51 330 93.95300 92.44 360 93.85330 92.34360 92.28390 92.18Time Run SL11A Time Run SL11B0 82.47 0 82.7730 82.5 30 82.7760 82.54 60 82.890 82.57 90 82.83150 88.95 150 90.56160 90.24 160 92.08170 91.39 170 93.36180 92.34 180 94.15190 93.16 190 94.58200 93.69 200 94.78210 94.02 210 94.87220 94.18 220 94.87230 4.25 230 94.87240 94.28 240 94.87250 94.28 270 94.74260 94.28 300 94.64270 94.25 330 94.55300 94.15 360 94.41330 94.05360 93.95390 93.85Distance Run SL3B Run SL9B Run SL1OB Run SL11B Natural^as (10)(m) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)5.5 42.99 43.55 43.36 42.64 43.5400^ Loss on IgnitionLimestone feedAxial Calcination ResultsSampleLime productport #1port #2port #3port #4Distance Run SL3B Run SL9B Run SL1OB Run SL11B Natural gas (10)(m) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)0 97.82 99.1 99.29 99.1 98.10.46 93.65 85.67 99.95 92.43 61.660.92 48.73 46.82 73.6 63.03 37.411.49 24.22 30.84 39.22 24.91 6.792.21 9.57 9.86 10.86 9.03 1.14Appendix H : Sodium, sulfur and nitrogen balances for Run SL9BBasisLimestone flow rate inlet^40^kg/hSodium and Sulfur balancesAssumption1. The sodium and sulfur concentrations of the dust collected from the cyclone are thesame as the dust collected from the bag house.Data1.LOW compositionLignin^41%No. 2 fuel oil^14%Water^45%Surfactant 1000 ppm2. LOW flow rate^0.38 kg/min3. Lime product output^24.1 kg/h4. Total dust collected from the cyclone and the bag house during LOW firing' 107.9 g/h(Dust collected from the cyclone 25 g/h, and from the baghouse 82.5 g/h)5. SO2 collected from the flue gas during the combustion run^345 ppm6. Calculated mole flow rate of dry flue gas from Run SL9B =^78.37 mole/min7. From Elemental analysisNa (ppm) Total S (wt%)Limestone feed < 40 0.15Lignin 11300 1.76No. 2 fuel oil - 0.22Lime product 210 0.22Dust from cyclone 5750 1.83Total S Balance1. Total S in with limestone feed 0.0015 x 40,000^g/h60^g/I12. Total S in with LOW {0.0176 x 0.41 + 0.0022 x 0.14}x 380 x 60171.55^g/h3. Total S out with lime product 0.0022 x 2410053.02'Communication, Cliff Mui, Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, UBC.2591. Na in with limestone feed2. Na in with LOW3. Na out with lime product0.0183 x 107.5^g/h1.97^g/h345/106 x 78.37 mole/min x 60 min/h• 1.622 mole/h x 64 g/mole103.82^g/h60 + 171.55• 231.55^g/h53.02 + 1.97 + 103.82158.81^gfh• 158.81/231.55• 68.6%00.0113 x0.41 x 380 g/min x 60 min/h• 105.63^g/h210/106 x 24,100 g/h5.06^g/h4. Total S out with dust5. SO2 out with flue gas.". Total S inTotal S outS out / S inNa Balance4. Na out with dust collected from cyclone & baghouse5750/106 x 107.5 g/h0.62^g/hTotal Na in^ 105.63Total Na out 5.68Na out / Na in 5.4 %Nitrogen balanceAssumption- Thermal NOx formed in Run SL9B is equal to that formed in Run SL9AData- total NOx measured from natural gas^ 86^ppm- average total NOx measured from LOW firing^352 ppm- calculated mole flow rate of dry flue gas from Run SL9A =^66.84 mole/min- calculated mole flow rate of dry flue gas from Run SL9B =^78.37 mole/min2601. Natural gas firing (SL9A):Total NOx measured2. LOW firing (SL9B):Average total NOx measured86^ppm (Table 5.9)• 86/106 x 66.84 mole/min x 60 min/h• 0.3449^mole/h352^ppm (Table 5.9)352/106 x 78.37 mole/min x 60 min/h1.6552^mole/h3. Fuel NOx formed^ 1.6552 - 0.3449• 1.3103^mole/h4. Total N in with LOW^ 0.19 mole/min x 60 min/h• 11.40^mole/h (Table 5.12)%N in LOW fuel converted to NOx^1.3103/11.40 x 100• 11.5^%261

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