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Lithics and livelihood : stone tool technologies of central and southern interior B.C. Magne, Martin Paul Robert 1983

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LITHICS AND LIVELIHOOD: STONE TOOL TECHNOLOGIES OF CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN INTERIOR B.C. by MARTIN PAUL ROBERT MAGNE B.Sc. , University of Toronto, 1976 M.A., University of Manitoba, 1978  A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia)  We accept this.thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1983 '© Martin Paul Robert Magne, 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree t h a t  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may  department or  by  h i s or  be  her  copying or shall  copying of  g r a n t e d by  not  be  Anthropology and  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  October 3,  1983  of  Sociology  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  the  representatives. publication  the  University  the  permission  f i n a n c i a l gain  the  I agree that  for scholarly  for  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  understood that  in partial  written  ABSTRACT  This study i s designed to investigate patterns of l i t h i c  techno-  l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n to settlement strategies that were employed by l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c inhabitants of central and southern regions of i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia.  The research contributes to current  archaeological method through an experimental program of stone tool manufacture, and also to current understanding of Interior Plateau prehistory, through a multiregiohal analysis of technological v a r i a b i l i t y . The f i r s t stage of the study involves conducting a controlled experiment , to determine the degree to which l i t h i c debitage can be used to predict stages of chipped stone tool manufacture,  and to devise an e f f -  i c i e n t means of c l a s s i f y i n g debitage into general reduction stages. experiment  The  i s unique i n providing control over the precise sequential  removal of flakes, and also i n examining quantitative v a r i a b i l i t y i n debitage that have been produced as the by-products of the manufacture of several tools and cores.  The r e s u l t of the experimental program i s the  formulation of a debitage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n that c l a s s i f i e s flakes into early, middle or l a t e reduction stages, and also into b i f a c i a l and bipolar reduction types. The archaeological analyses i n the second major stage of the research use the debitage reduction stage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the occurrence of various l i t h i c tools to examine the nature of interassemblage v a r i a b i l i t y across the 38 s i t e s from four regions of the Interior Plateau.  A t o t a l of 14,541 flakes,  164 cores and 861 tools from the Eagle Lake, Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n , L i l l o o e t and Hat Creek regions are analyzed, using multivariate and b i v a r i a t e quantitative methods.  Three hypotheses relevant to l i t h i c technology and hunter-  iii  gatherer archaeology are evaluated The analyses  i n this stage of the study.  f i r s t employ the experimental debitage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  to obtain interpretable patterns of inter-assemblage s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences.  Multivariate analysis shows that several kinds of s i t e s  defined on the basis of features can be grouped by t h e i r predominance of early/core reduction, middle/wide ranging reduction, and maintenance reduction  late/  debitage.  The f i r s t formal hypothesis tested i s that obsidian and chert materials should evidence patterns of conservation  raw  and economizing  behavior by v i r t u e of their geological s c a r c i t y i n r e l a t i o n to vitreous basalt raw material.  A series of chi-square  tests demonstrates that  debitage frequencies by reduction stage are proportionately equal for these three raw materials i n a l l but the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n region. In a l l regions, except L i l l o o e t where tool sample sizes are too small for r e l i a b l e t e s t i n g , t o o l sizes and scar counts show no difference a t t r i b u t a b l e to raw materials. for  A s l i g h t trend i s noted  chert tools to be larger and simpler than vitreous basalt or  sidian tools.  ob-  A set of b i v a r i a t e graphs demonstrates that while l i t h i c  raw materials may may  significant  be reduced i n highly similar manners, one raw material  have served to replace another. The second hypothesis,  that t o o l curation and maintenance strongly  a f f e c t s assemblage composition, i s f i r s t tested by examining t o o l assemblage measures that have been suggested by recent l i t h i c models.  technological  Assemblages are highly v a r i a b l e with respect to the numbers of  tools l e f t at s i t e s i n r e l a t i o n to the i n t e n s i t y of t o o l maintenance that occurred at s i t e s .  iv  The t h i r d hypothesis tested i s that a set of s i t e occupation  purposes  can be r e l i a b l y predicted on the basis of debitage reduction stages and a functional t o o l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Using multiple discriminant analysis, house-  p i t s i t e s are accurately predicted at an 80% rate, and l i t h i c scatters without features are accurately predicted at a rate of 60%. housepits  L i t h i c scatters with  achieve 86% correct c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; l i t h i c scatters with cachepits  are c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d at a rate of 75%; and l i t h i c scatters with f i r e cracked rock are accurately predicted 80% of the time.  The r e s u l t s of this  analysis are further strengthened by removing an ambiguous assemblage from consideration. The most s i g n i f i c a n t findings of the multiregional analyses  are those of  d e f i n i t e t o o l cuiration patterns as evidenced i n the raw material analysis, and the occupation  span inferences of the t o o l maintenance analysis.  a l l , i t has been demonstrated that an experimentally  obtained  Over-  stage c l a s s -  i f i c a t i o n of debitage enables the derivation of behavioral inferences that could not be currently obtained by other means.  In i t s multiregional per-  spective, this study has shown that processes of l i t h i c assemblage  formation  are l a r g e l y independent of regional provenience and more dependent on s e t t l e ment purpose.  Overall, the greatest determinant of assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y i s  inferred to be s i t e occupation  span.  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I owe a great deal to my advisory committee. Dr. David Pokotylo, chairman, steered my f l e d g l i n g interests i n l i t h i c technology ality  to constructive paths, and his demands for o r i g i n -  and thoroughness are appreciated. Dr. R.G.  Matson pro-  vided the opportunity for the Eagle Lake research, gave a great deal of advice, and always had his door open. Dr. David Aberle encouraged anthropological and l o g i c a l awareness, and lent an e d i t o r i a l hand. Dr. Richard Pearson provided an invaluable example and took the time to comment on drafts and generally assist throughout my program.  Dr. Arnoud Stryd trusted the L i l l o o e t c o l l e c t i o n s to  my care, read d r a f t s , and he and h i s wife Melanie graciously allowed me the use of their home i n Kamloops. For f i n a n c i a l support, I am grateful to the B.C. Heritage Trust for  awarding me the 1979-80 Charles Borden Scholarship i n Archaeology,  and I would also l i k e to thank the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for the 1980-81 Charles and A l i c e Borden Fellowship! >in Archaeology,  and  also for the Norman Mackenzie Fellowship. Unlike many people i n  B.C.,  I never knew Charles Borden, yet I must acknowledge his pioneering work and dedication to the f i e l d . The research conducted at Eagle Lake was  supported by a grant  from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada to Dr. R.G.  Matson, as was  the Shuswap Settlement Patterns Project. The  Hat Creek Project under Dr. D. Pokotylo's d i r e c t i o n was B.C. Hydro and Power Authority.  funded by the  Dr. A. Stryd has directed the L i l l o o e t  vi  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l P r o j e c t over t h e y e a r s w i t h f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l f u n d s . M o i r a I r v i n e deserves s p e c i a l mention f o r h e r q u a l i t y p r e p a r a t i o n s o f a l l t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s and photographs  t h a t a r e con-  t a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages. The t y p e s c r i p t has been p a t i e n t l y produced by C a r l i N i x o n . The e x p e r i m e n t a l program would n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f George K u r z e n s t e i n , and t h e s t u d e n t s o f ANTH 420, 1979:  Rhonda Aceman, C i n d y Bunbury, Mike Cook, Tony L a r o c , B r i o n y  Penn, C o l l e e n Rudy, T e r r y S e i d e l , L i s a Smedman, P a t r i c i a Ward, and Brigitte  Westergaard.  For t h e i r companionship," heated d i s c u s s i o n s , and o f t e n ramb u n c t i o u s senses o f humour, thanks t o M i c h a e l B r o d e r i c k , Gary  Coupland,  C a r o l Coupland, D a v i d F r i e s e n , Leonard Ham, Dana L e p o f s k y , Deanna Ludowicz, R i c h a r d M a c k i e , Lynda M a c C a u l l , C a r l i N i x o n , L a r r y Palmer, B r i o n y Penn, Donald P r i c e , L i n d a R o b e r t s , D a v i d Rozen and Robert Tyhurst.  S p e c i a l thanks t o Susan Matson a t E a g l e Lake.  I am g r a t e f u l t o a l l who m a i n t a i n e d correspondence  and exchanged  m a n u s c r i p t s , e s p e c i a l l y E i l e e n C a m i l l i , Dr. James C h a t t e r s , Dr. Knut Fladmark,  Dr. B r i a n Hayden, Dr. Joseph J o r g e n s e n , Dr. P a u l Katz,. Dr.  Raymond L e b l a n c , Dr. David S t a h l e , and Dr. David Thomas. My g r e a t e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n s a r e f o r my p a r e n t s C h a r l e s and D e l p h i n e , and my b r o t h e r s Jean, Gerard and L u c .  vii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  1  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . .  v  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES  1  i  ± x  x  i  i  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION  1  2.  LITHIC TECHNOLOGY AND HUNTER-GATHERER MOBILITY.  5  3.  4.  2.1.  Introduction  5  2.2.  The M o u s t e r i a n Problem  6  2.3.  L i t h i c s , L o g i s t i c s and L i v e l i h o o d  ETHNOGRAPHIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXTS  21 48  3.1.  R e g i o n a l Ethnography  48  3.2.  E t h n o g r a p h i c R e f e r e n c e s t o L i t h i c Technology.  64  3.3.  R e g i o n a l P r e h i s t o r i c Archaeology.  69  THE EXPERIMENTS IN DEBITAGE CLASSIFICATION  94  4.1.  Introduction  94  4.2.  Experimental Controls  95  4.3.  The P i l o t Study  9 9  4.4.  Experimental Products  100  4.5.  Stage D e f i n i t i o n  106  4.6.  Debitage V a r i a b l e s .  1°  4.7.  Hypothesis Testing  114  4.8.  Summary o f E x p e r i m e n t a l F i n d i n g s  127  8  viii  5.  6.  THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA BASE  130  5.1.  Site Descriptions  130  5.2.  Artifact Classification  159  A MULTIREGIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON LITHIC ASSEMBLAGE VARIABILITY  7.  195  6.1.  Introduction  195  6.2.  Reduction Factors  196  6.3.  Raw M a t e r i a l F a c t o r s  205  6.4.  Implement Maintenance and C u r a t i o n F a c t o r s .  222  6.5.  Settlement  231  6.6.  Assemblage F o r m a t i o n  6.7.  Summary  251  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  253  Strategy Factors Summaries  245  7.1.  Summary.....'.  253  7.2.  Conclusions  262  8.  REFERENCES CITED  267  9.  APPENDIX 1.  292  ix  LIST OF TABLES 1.  Seasonality of Interior Plateau groups as evidenced by general a c t i v i t i e s undertaken during "moons"  2.  61  Frequencies of general flake classes and reduction events f o r each experimental core and tool  3.  96  Mean number of flakes per reduction event and PRB/ Shatter r a t i o , i n grouped reduction types by raw material  105  4.  MDA c l a s s i f i c a t i o n results of a l l PRB's (N=-994)  117  5.  MDA c l a s s i f i c a t i o n results of obsidian PRB's, 25% random sample (N=28)  6.  MDA c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s , debitage produced by experienced knappers, 50% random sample (N=222)  7.  119  Chi-square contingency table, DOCO by Stage, Shatter produced by experienced knappers  9.  119  Chi-square contingency table, PLCO by Stage, PRB's produced by experienced knappers  8.  117  121  Mean, median and standard deviations of weight, p l a t form and scar counts, debitage produced by experienced knappers, broken down by stage of reduction  122  10.  Summary data for the 38 assemblages under study  135  11.  Assemblage debitage classes, raw counts, a l l raw materials  12.  162  Assemblage debitage classes, percent by count, a l l raw materials  163  X  13.  T o o l morphology c l a s s e s  1°5  14.  T o o l t y p e f r e q u e n c i e s by s i t e  166  15.  Assemblage c o n t e x t compared t o major r e d u c t i o n factors  16.  P e r c e n t raw m a t e r i a l . c o m p o s i t i o n of d e b i t a g e assemblages  17.  204  by counts  209  Raw m a t e r i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t o o l assemblages  by ? i n  percentages 18.  C h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f E a g l e Lake d e b i t a g e g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s by raw m a t e r i a l . .  19.  211  C h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s by raw m a t e r i a l  20.  211  Chi-square t e s t of L i l l o o e t general r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s by raw m a t e r i a l  212  21.  C h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f Hat Creek g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n  22.  s t a g e s by raw m a t e r i a l . . . . C h i - s q u a r e t e s t of E a g l e Lake t o o l s i z e s by  9 19  raw 214  m a t e r i. a l-i 23.  C h i - s q u a r e t e s t of E a g l e Lake t o o l s c a r counts O  1 /  by raw m a t e r i a l 24.  C h i - s q u a r e t e s t of Mouth o f t h e C h i l c o t i n  tool 215  s i z e s by raw m a t e r i a l 25.  C h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f Mouth o f t h e C h i l c o t i n  tool 215  s c a r counts by raw m a t e r i a l . . . . . 26.  C h i - s q u a r e t e s t of Hat Creek t o o l s i z e s by m a t«-e r i•a li  raw 216  xi  27.  Chi-square test of Hat .Creek tool scar counts by raw material  216  28.  Total tool weights and scar counts by s i t e  224  29.  Data employed i n the settlement component discriminant analysis  30.  236  Result of the multiple discriminant analysis based on functional tool classes and condensed debitage classes  31.  Chi-square test of independence,  237 f i v e settlement  types by personal gear and bipolar cores 32.  Results of multiple discriminant analyses with F8:1 removed  33.  240  Chi-square test of independence,  242 f i v e settlement  types by personal gear and bipolar cores with F8:l removed  244  xii  LIST OF FIGURES 1.  The g e n e r a l model o f l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n , maintenance and d i s p o s a l  2.  24  Comparison o f E b e r t ' s (1979) i n f e r e n t i a l p o i n t swarms w i t h a c t u a l comparative  3.  scale  P h y s i o g r a p h i c zones of B r i t i s h Columbia,  38 showing  the a r e a of s t u d y 4.  E t h n o g r a p h i c groups of I n t e r i o r B r i t i s h  49 Columbia,  showing the major bands o f i n t e r e s t 5.  50  F l a k e b l a n k s removed from l a r g e s i n g l e - p l a t f o r m basalt core.  Not a l l a r e shown  101  6.  B i p o l a r c o r e s and d e r i v e d b l a n k s  101  7.  Large b i f a c i a l t o o l p r o d u c t s  102  8.  Large u n i f a c i a l t o o l p r o d u c t s  102  9.  Large m a r g i n a l t o o l p r o d u c t s  103  10.  Small marginal t o o l products  103  11.  Debitage a t t r i b u t e s employed i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l program  12.  112  Graph of mean, median and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n v a l u e s f o r weight and p l a t f o r m s c a r count of PRB's  produced  by e x p e r i e n c e d knappers 13.  Graph of mean, median and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n v a l u e s f o r weight and d o r s a l s c a r count of S h a t t e r  14.  1-23  produced  by e x p e r i e n c e d knappers  1-24  The e x p e r i m e n t a l d e b i t a g e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  129  xiii  15.  Locations of the four regions under study  131  16.  Eagle Lake region s i t e s  13°  17.  Eagle Lake region s i t e EIRw 4  18.  Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n region s i t e s  19.  L i l l o o e t region s i t e s  20.  Hat Creek region s i t e s  21.  I  3  7  144  1  5  3  14:2 tools  1  7  0  22.  16:1 tools and cores  1  7  0  23.  19:1 tools  1  7  1  24.  19:1 tools and cores  1  7  1  25.  19:1 cores  1  7  2  26.  22:1 tools and cores.  1  7  2  27.  26:3 tools  1  7  3  28.  32:1 tools and cores  1  7  3  29.  CR28 tools  1  7  4  30.  CR64 cores  1  7  4  31.  CR40 tools  1  7  4  32.  CR73 tools  1  7  5  33.  EIRw 4 tools and cores  1  7  5  34.  CR92 tools and cores  1  7  6  35.  CR92 tools and cores  1  7  6  36.  EkRo 18 tools  1  7  7  37.  EkRo 31 tools and cores  1  7  7  38.  EkRo 48 tools and cores  39.  2:3 tools and cores  40.  2:3 tools..  •  178 178 179  xiv  41.  2:3 t o o l s and c o r e s  42.  4:2 t o o l s and c o r e s  1 8 0  43.  4:5 t o o l s and c o r e s  1 8 0  44.  4:1 t o o l s and c o r e s  45.  5:1 t o o l s and c o r e s  46.  9:1 t o o l s and c o r e s  47.  9:2 t o o l s and c o r e s  181 181  ' 1 8?  I Q O  48.  12:6 t o o l s and c o r e s . .  49.  EeRk 16 t o o l s  1 8 4  50.  E e R l 41 t o o l s and c o r e s  1 8 4  51.  EeRk 7 t o o l s  •  1 8 5  I Q C  52.  EeRk 7 t o o l s and c o r e s  53.  EeRk 7 t o o l s and c o r e s  54.  EeRk 4:38 t o o l s and c o r e s  55.  E e R l 40 t o o l s  56.  E e R l 40 t o o l s and c o r e s  57.  G21:9 t o o l s . .  58.  G23:l t o o l s and c o r e s  59.  G2:12 t o o l s and c o r e s  60.  G31:l t o o l s and c o r e s  61.  F8:l tools  62.  F 8 : l t o o l s and c o r e s  63.  F l 2 : 5 t o o l s and c o r e s  64.  J22:2 t o o l s .  65.  J38:2 t o o l s and c o r e s  1 8fi 1 8 6  1 87  < 187  188 189 189 190 190 191  l^l 192  XV  66.  K 2 : l t o o l s and c o r e s  192  67.  EeRj 1 t o o l s  193  68.  EeRj 1 t o o l s and c o r e s  193  69.  EeRj 1 t o o l s  194  70.  The g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f assemblage d e b i t a g e r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s as r e v e a l e d through TSCALE and Ward's HCLUS  71.  1 9 9  Graph o f t h e p e r c e n t o f d e b i t a g e d e r i v e d from v i t r e o u s b a s a l t v s . t h e p e r c e n t of t o o l s d e r i v e d from v i t r e o u s b a s a l t p e r assemblage  72.  218  P l o t o f t h e p e r c e n t o f d e b i t a g e d e r i v e d from c h e r t or o b s i d i a n v s . p e r c e n t o f t o o l s f o r t h e same raw m a t e r i a l p e r assemblage  73.  220-  Assemblage t o t a l t o o l w e i g h t p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t o t a l t o o l s c a r counts  ^25  74.  Graph o f t h e t o t a l number of t o o l s v s . t h e p e r c e n t  75.  R-Mode a n a l y s i s o f t h e presence o r absence o f 21 t o o l and f e a t u r e c l a s s e s i n t h e 38  assemblages..  1  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  The purpose o f t h i s study i s t o d i s c o v e r how l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g y v a r i e d w i t h i n a wide range o f s e t t l e m e n t s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were employed by l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c i n h a b i t a n t s o f c e n t r a l and s o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia.  To a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l ,  the r e s e a r c h proceeds i n two major s t a g e s .  The f i r s t s t e p i n -  v o l v e s c o n d u c t i n g an e x p e r i m e n t a l program i n chipped s t o n e m a n u f a c t u r e , t o determine  tool  t h e degree t o w h i c h t o o l manufacture  s t a g e s can be i n f e r r e d by a n a l y s i s o f t h e b y - p r o d u c t s  of that  p r o c e s s , and t o d e v i s e a r e l i a b l e , y e t r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e means of c l a s s i f y i n g d e b i t a g e i n t o r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s .  The second major  aspect of t h i s study i n v o l v e s the a p p l i c a t i o n of the experimental f i n d i n g s t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s from f o u r r e g i o n s o f t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u , t o e v a l u a t e a s e t o f g e n e r a l p r o p o s i t i o n s conc e r n i n g assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y . The major p o l e m i c t h a t i s advanced i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages i s t h a t t h e v a r i o u s uses o f s i t e s by h u n t e r s and g a t h e r e r s , r a t h e r than t h e a n t i q u i t y o r e t h n i c a f f i n i t y o f s i t e s a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s  o f l i t h i c assemblage c o m p o s i t i o n .  The s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r a l i n f e r e n c e s t h a t a r e d e r i v e d f o r assemblages a r e based on b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l s as w e l l as analogs w i t h r e c o r d e d e t h n o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s .  This d i s s e r t a t i o n  2  has a s t r o n g e m p i r i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  f o c u s , and t h e i n t e r -  r e g i o n a l research i s unique i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e extent to which p r e h i s t o r i c settlement  behavior  apparent i n one r e g i o n may be  comparable t o t h a t e x h i b i t e d i n o t h e r nearby and d i s t a n t r e g i o n s . The b e h a v i o r a l v i e w p o i n t  discussed  i n Chapter 2, has been  e v o l v i n g i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h f o r some two decades, b u t i s o n l y r e c e n t l y b e i n g a p p l i e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n s t u d i e s t h a t do more t h a n a l l u d e t o t h i s i m p o r t a n t the c r i t i c a l  concept.  Chapter 2 p r e s e n t s  o r i g i n s o f b e h a v i o r a l approaches t o s t o n e t o o l s , and  d e t a i l s t h e development o f s e v e r a l approaches, as w i t n e s s e d  mainly  i n t h e c o n t i n u i n g arguments o f Lewis B i n f o r d . The  t h i r d c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s background d i s c u s s i o n s , f o c u s i n g  on t h e e x i s t i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c Interior Plateau.  and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d s o f t h e  The r e v i e w o f e t h n o g r a p h i c  knowledge s e r v e s t o  demonstrate t h a t t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u had an e s s e n t i a l l y common l i f e s t y l e , t h a t was h i g h l y s e a s o n a l and v e r y m o b i l e .  Here a r e d i s c u s s e d p a r t i c u l a r  exceptions  to t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n , t h a t a r e i n e v i d e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e groups l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e f o u r r e g i o n s t h a t a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d . chapter  a l s o b r i e f l y reviews ethnographic  technology.  references  to l i t h i c  The development o f p r e h i s t o r i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  i n the central-southern I n t e r i o r Plateau i s discussed e a r l y h i s t o r i c observations v e s t i g a t i o n s , and s e t t l e m e n t  The  research  i n terms o f  and s p e c u l a t i o n s , c u l t u r e - h i s t o r y i n pattern studies.  portant i n p r o v i d i n g both the methodological  The l a t t e r a r e i m and e m p i r i c a l bases  3  for  the current  study.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l program i n d e b i t a g e a n a l y s i s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s presented  i n Chapter 4.  The t a s k o f r e n d e r i n g t h e  d e s c r i p t i o n o f chipped  stone t o o l m a n u f a c t u r i n g  stages i n t o a  q u a n t i t a t i v e method i s d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f i t s o r i g i n s and o u t s t a n d i n g problems, and a s o l u t i o n t o some o f these problems i s developed.  The e x p e r i m e n t s a r e p r e c e d e n t - s e t t i n g i n t h e i r  use o f s p e c i f i c c o n t r o l s and i n examining g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n stages i n t h e manufacture o f a wide range o f t o o l s and c o r e s , r a t h e r than s i n g l e t o o l types. In  Chapter 5, I d e s c r i b e t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a base o f  the r e s e a r c h program.  Each o f t h e 38 s i t e s under study i s d e s c r i b e d .  Summary q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a on t h e d e b i t a g e and t o o l assemblages a r e p r o v i d e d , as a r e p h o t o g r a p h i c  i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e t o o l and c o r e  assemblages. M u l t i r e g i o n a l a n a l y s e s o f l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y a r e presented  i n Chapter 6, where t h r e e hypotheses o f importance t o  model-building  i n hunter-gatherer  archaeology  are tested.  The  a n a l y s e s d i s c l o s e p a t t e r n s o f assemblage f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e s  with  r e s p e c t t o r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s , raw m a t e r i a l s , t o o l c u r a t i o n , and settlement s t r a t e g y f a c t o r s .  As a means o f summarizing t h e r e s u l t s  of t h e a n a l y s e s , t h e s i t e s a r e grouped i n terms o f i n f e r r e d spans,  occupation  and k i n d s o f c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s p r e s e n t , and c o n s i s t e n t and  p r e v a i l i n g p a t t e r n s o f l i t h i c assemblage f o r m a t i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d .  4  The f i n a l chapter concludes the study by summarizing i t s major contributions to current archaeological method and to Interior Plateau archaeology.  The o v e r a l l success of the  study i s evaluated here, and areas of research i n need of further consideration are i d e n t i f i e d .  5  CHAPTER 2  LITHIC TECHNOLOGY AND HUNTER-GATHERER MOBILITY  2.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y i n p r e h i s t o r i c human l o c a l e s i s one o f a r c h a e o l o g y ' s l e a d i n g p r o blem a r e a s .  U n t i l w e l l i n t o t h e 1960's, and s t i l l a v a l u a b l e  paradigm, t h e p r e v a i l i n g approach t o s t o n e t o o l s was c u l t u r e h i s t o r i c , and was r a r e l y based on q u a n t i f i e d e x p l a n a t i o n s o f meaning i n t o o l form.  The major t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  i n n o v a t i o n s t h a t i n i t i a t e d b e h a v i o r a l approaches t o l i t h i c assemblages were p r o v i d e d by B i n f o r d and B i n f o r d (1966, 1969), and c o n t i n u e t o be a c t i v e l y pursued by Lewis B i n f o r d , a l t h o u g h he would p r o b a b l y n o t p r e s e n t l y l a b e l h i s approach as b e h a v i o r a l (see  Binford  1981b).  T h i s s t u d y e x p l i c i t l y employs B i n f o r d ' s p e r s p e c t i v e and e x p e c t a t i o n s , and t h e purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o examine t h e development o f b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s e s o f l i t h i c assemblages. are  Here  f i r s t d i s c u s s e d t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e s h i f t i n paradigms,  t h a t f o c u s e d on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , o f s t r a t i g r a p h i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n assemblages from t h e M o u s t e r i a n o f Europe.  The M o u s t e r i a n  problem has been a t t h e f o r e f r o n t o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l awareness, and a thorough d i s c u s s i o n o f i t s development p r o v i d e s a s u i t a b l e anal o g o f t h e changes i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t h e o r y and method t h a t have  6  been brought about by m a i n l y Western a r c h a e o l o g i s t s i n t h e l a s t 20 y e a r s .  The d i s c u s s i o n a l s o r e v e a l s some v a l u a b l e  empirical  i n f o r m a t i o n , and r e i n f o r c e s t h e l a r g e - s c a l e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h i s study. To p r o v i d e t h e major t h e o r e t i c a l background t o t h i s s t u d y , I then r e v i e w c u r r e n t developments i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g y and t h e m o b i l i t y o f h u n t e r s and gatherers.  Again, Binford's c o n t r i b u t i o n s are extremely r e l e v a n t ,  and a r e d e t a i l e d enough t o p r o v i d e p r o p o s i t i o n s t h a t a r e examined i n future chapters, other researchers  2.2.  as a r e c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e d by  working along these l i n e s .  The M o u s t e r i a n Problem The  term M o u s t e r i a n i s used t o d e s c r i b e a r t i f a c t assemblages  o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e time o f t h e Eemian i n t e r g l a c i a l and e a r l y t o m i d d l e Wurm e n v i r o n m e n t a l e p i s o d e s i n Europe and Western A s i a . I t has a l s o been a p p l i e d t o assemblages i n China (Bordes 1969: 129 130).  The M o u s t e r i a n was f i r s t d e f i n e d by de M o r t i l l e t (1869) a t  Dordogne s h e l t e r , as a means o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i t s f l a k e t o o l i n d u s t r y from t h e e a r l i e r handaxe assemblages o f the A c h e u l i a n . Francois Bordes, the researcher  who was by f a r the most f a m i l i a r  w i t h t h e M o u s t e r i a n and a l l o f i t s v a r i a n t s , m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e M o u s t e r i a n i s - d e s c r i b e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y as an i n d u s t r y composed o f f l a k e s t h a t may o r may n o t have f a c e t t e d s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m s , variable proportions  with  of points, side-scrapers, denticulate t o o l s ,  7  bifaces, and burins (among other sub-types).  In a l l , 63 tool  types are used to describe Mousterian v a r i a b i l i t y (Bordes 1972:  48).  There are four recognized major kinds of Mousterian assemblages, or f a c i e s , that are based on cumulative frequency graphs of the 63 tool types, when they are arranged i n a s p e c i f i c order (Bordes 1972: 49 - 52; cf. Fish 1976). 1.  The Mousterian of Acheulian Tradition (MAT) was  thought  by Bordes (1961) to be derived from the l a t e Acheulian, and i s divided into two subtypes, A and B.  MAT  subtype A contains  r e l a t i v e l y intermediate amounts of sidescrapers and denticulates (20 to 40 % ) , well-made cordiform and triangular handaxes (8 - 40%), and rare backed knives.  MAT  subtype B contains very low frequencies  of sidescrapers, but large amounts of denticulates. Handaxes are rare. Occasionally, tool types more common i n the Upper P a l e o l i t h i c , such as burins and endscrapers, are present. 2.  The Typical Mousterian i s p r i n c i p a l l y defined by the absence  of tools such as handaxes, backed knives, and any tools with steep "Quina" retouch.  Sidescrapers range from 20 - 65% of the t o t a l  inventory of tools.  While MAT  subtypes A and B are thought to' occur  i n the Wurm I and Wurm II/III respectively, no chronological p o s i t i o n i s assigned to Typical Mousterian.  Furthermore, Bordes (1972) appar^^t  ently placed any assemblage that cannot be assigned to the other Mousterian types, into the Typical Mousterian. 3.  Denticulate Mousterian assemblages contain few sidescrapers ;  and many denticulate tools.  -  Notched and denticulated tools account  together for some 80% of a l l tools.  8  4.  I n t h e Charente Department o f France t h e r e occur  tools  of two k i n d s o f M o u s t e r i a n assemblages t h a t t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e the C h a r e n t i a n . the presence  Quina M o u s t e r i a n  i s readily identified  through  of s i d e s c r a p e r s w i t h a high angle of retouch.  F e r r a s s i e M o u s t e r i a n i s d i f f e r e n t from Quina in';:that t h e L e v a l l o i s t e c h n i q u e o f f l a k e manufacture i s much more predominant, and i t a l s o c o n t a i n s r e l a t i v e l y few Quina s c r a p e r s .  Both of  these types have r e l a t i v e l y few d e n t i c u l a t e s , handaxes, and Upper P a l e o l i t h i c t o o l t y p e s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted  t h a t these f o u r k i n d s o f f a c i e s  r e p r e s e n t a g e n e r a l l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l and t y p o l o g i c a l development amongst H. s a p i e n s n e a n d e r t h a l e n s i s p o p u l a t i o n s , h u t i t i s a l s o g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e s p a t i a l and t e m p o r a l / s t r a t i g r a p h i c o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e s e k i n d s o f assemblages i s ext r e m e l y complex.  As attempts  t o e x p l a i n v a r i a b i l i t y i n the  M o u s t e r i a n , t h r e e k i n d s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have been o f f e r e d , and t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f debate among a u t h o r s as t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of Mousterian  variability.  The f i r s t k i n d o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f e r e d i s t h e i d e a t h a t each k i n d o f M o u s t e r i a n r e p r e s e n t s a s e p a r a t e b u t l a r g e l y temporaneous c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n .  con-  Bordes (1961) a l s o examined t h e  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t each k i n d was an i n d u s t r i a l f a c i e s adapted t o a p a r t i c u l a r microenvironment,  and he a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h a t each type  could represent seasonally d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . r e j e c t b o t h o f these hypotheses.  He was a b l e t o  On t h e b a s i s o f m i c r o g e o l o g i c a l  9  work a t the i m p o r t a n t s i t e s of Combe G r e n a l and Pech de I'Aze (Bordes 1972), he demonstrated  t h a t t h e r e was no  correspondence  between M o u s t e r i a n type and i n d i c a t e d microenvironment.  Also,  some k i n d s of M o u s t e r i a n a r e w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout  France  and the L e v a n t , l e a d i n g one to doubt t h a t the e f f e c t s o f a s i n g l e environment erences.  t y p e c o u l d account f o r assemblage t y p e d i f f -  To t a c k l e the second h y p o t h e s i s , Bordes w i t h the a s s i s -  tance of Bouchud and P r a t ( c f . Bordes and P r a t 1965)  analysed  f a u n a l d a t a w h i c h t o :them showed t h a t some o f t h e M o u s t e r i a n o c c u p a t i o n s were y e a r - r o u n d .  W h i l e t h i s seemed q u i t e u n u s u a l  f o r what i s commonly thought o f as a h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g a d a p t a t i o n , Bordes found h i s o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s of t o o l t y p e s r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups most a c c e p t a b l e .  However,  Bouchud's f a u n a l a n a l y s i s of . c a r i b o u has been s t r o n g l y  criticised  by B i n f o r d (.1973: 238 - 240) on the b a s i s of c e r t a i n  assumptions  made c o n c e r n i n g t o o t h e r u p t i o n s t a g e , and i t seems more p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e M o u s t e r i a n samples a n a l y s e d a l l r e p r e s e n t s h o r t - t e r m o c c upations. The second major i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f M o u s t e r i a n v a r i a b i l i t y i s t h a t each k i n d o f M o u s t e r i a n o c c u r s i n a d i s c r e t e temporal T h i s p o s i t i o n has been m o s t l y defended who  span.  by M e l l a r s (1965, 1970) ,  argues t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e t e m p o r a l o v e r l a p i n the o c c u r r e n c e  o f Quina, F e r r a s s i e , and M o u s t e r i a n of A c h e u l i a n T r a d i t i o n .  This  h y p o t h e s i s i s based on the a n a l y s i s of 12 s i t e s i n s o u t h e r n F r a n c e , w h i c h suggest t h a t Quina e v o l v e d from F e r r a s s i e , and t h a t MAT  occurs  10  a f t e r Quina.  Doran and Hodson (1966) s u b s c r i b e t o e s s e n t i a l l y  the same h y p o t h e s i s .  I n t h e i r work, an e a r l y m u l t i v a r i a t e ana-  l y s i s o f 16 s i t e s from F r a n c e , Monaco, S p a i n and Greece  produced  t h r e e c l u s t e r s t h a t seemed t o b r o a d l y agree w i t h Bordes' facies.  Mousterian  W h i l e Doran and H o d s o n s r e s u l t s can be d i s m i s s e d as 1  p r o b a b l y f o r t u i t o u s due t o poor s a m p l i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , M e l l a r s ' r e s e a r c h was much more c a r e f u l l y thought out and e x e c u t e d , but has major problems as w e l l . ' F i r s t of a l l , M e l l a r s ignores the contemporaneity MAT  of t h e  and C h a r e n t i a n t y p e s a t Combe G r e n a l and Pech de l ' A z e ( c f .  Bordes 1972)  d u r i n g the e a r l y Wurm I p e r i o d .  Secondly,  Laville  (.1973) has shown t h r o u g h s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l work on t h e e a r l y Wurm c h r o n o l o g y a t t h e s e s i t e s and Caminade and Le M o u s t i e r t h a t the t h r e e t y p e s of M o u s t e r i a n d i d c o - e x i s t .  He was  a l s o a b l e t o demon-  s t r a t e t h a t Quina can precede F e r r a s s i e , and the MAT precede F e r r a s s i e and Quina ( L a v i l l e 1973). work seems t o c o n f i r m Bordes' e x p e c t a t i o n s of  subtype B can  In short, L a v i l l e ' s contemporaneity.  There i s s t i l l a major f l a w i n M e l l a r s ' argument, and t h a t i s t h a t even i f s e q u e n t i a l assemblage t y p e s were demonstrable, what would t h a t t e l l us about why  t h i s i s so?  B i n f o r d has s t a t e d the  problem  as f o l l o w s :  Time and space a r e r e f e r e n c e dimensions w h i c h we use f o r m o n i t o r i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f system dynamics. The d e m o n s t r a t i o n of c l u s t e r i n g a l o n g e i t h e r of these dimensions o n l y i n f o r m s us t h a t some s y s t e m i c p r o c e s s e s were a t work. Such a d e m o n s t r a t i o n does not i n f o r m us of the n a t u r e o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s ( B i n f o r d 19.73: 247 - 248).  11  The  t h i r d approach t o assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y  i n the  M o u s t e r i a n i s known as the " f u n c t i o n a l argument" ( B i n f o r d 1973,  Mellars  1970).  The o r i g i n o f t h i s argument i s the  now c l a s s i c a r t i c l e by B i n f o r d and B i n f o r d  (1966; see a l s o  Freeman 1966) b r i e f l y p r e s e n t e d i n B i n f o r d and B i n f o r d  (1969) .  The B i n f o r d s ' purpose was to show t h a t the M o u s t e r i a n assemblages'  v a r i a b i l i t y c o u l d be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p a r t i t i o n e d  according at ing  t o the k i n d s  of a c t i v i t i e s  s i t e s , w i t h the kinds proportions  t h a t had been undertaken  o f a c t i v i t y being  represented  o f t o o l s i n Bordes' type l i s t .  than assuming t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n s  Thus,  portions  of t o o l s  patterning,  should  There a r e two other  vary  rather  o f the 63 t o o l types  varied with ethnic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , chronological or s t r i c t l y s e a s o n a l  by v a r y -  the B i n f o r d s  according  ordering,  assume t h a t p r o -  t o d i s c r e t e functions.-  b a s i c assumptions h e r e .  t h a t " f u n c t i o n " i s m u l t i v a r i a t e and s y s t e m i c ,  :  The f i r s t i s  or t h a t t h e r e a r e  m u l t i p l e , l i n k e d "determinants o f any g i v e n s i t u a t i o n " ( B i n f o r d and  Binford  1966: 241).  The second i s " t h a t v a r i a t i o n i n the  s t r u c t u r e and content o f an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblage i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to form, n a t u r e and s p a t i a l arrangement o f human a c t i v ities"  (Ibid).  criticised  The r e a s o n i n g  behind t h i s argument has not been  except f o r the assumption t h a t Bordes' t o o l  expresses f u n c t i o n , which i s q u i t e u n t e s t e d  (Cowgill  typology  1968).  In t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f M o u s t e r i a n v a r i a b i l i t y among one s i t e from France ( H o u p e v i l l e )  and two from the Near E a s t  (Jabrud and  12  Shubbabiq) t h e B i n f o r d s  argued t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a l  proportional  f r e q u e n c i e s o f t o o l t y p e s were t h e r e s u l t o f d i f f e r e n t t a s k s b e i n g c a r r i e d out a t s i t e s .  The e s s e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n was be-  tween base camps, where maintenance t a s k s would be c a r r i e d o u t , and work camps, where e x t r a c t i v e t a s k s were u n d e r t a k e n .  To  demonstrate t h i s , i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r them t o f i n d f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s t h a t c o u l d be used t o compare s i t e assemblages.  This  was a c c o m p l i s h e d through f a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a , t o d i s cover w h i c h t o o l types tended t o c o v a r y ; t h a t i s , t o o l s used t o g e t h e r would tend t o be found t o g e t h e r , and t h r o u g h f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , the d i f f e r e n t t o o l s used i n any g i v e n t a s k s h o u l d constitute a d i s t i n c t factor. The p r i n c i p l e upon w h i c h the B i n f o r d s ' based was s t a t e d  a s s u m p t i o n was  e s s e n t i a l l y i n an e a r l y paper as f o l l o w s :  The l o s s , breakage and abandonment ments and f a c i l i t i e s a t d i f f e r e n t where groups o f v a r i a b l e s t r u c t u r e d i f f e r e n t tasks, leaves a " f o s s i l " the a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n o f an e x t i n c t ( B i n f o r d 1964: 4 2 5 ) .  of implelocations, performed record of society  T h i s p r i n c i p l e has been s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d by S c h i f f e r (1976: 1 1 ) , who makes e x p l i c i t t h a t t h e r e a r e c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l  trans-  f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e s w h i c h may a l t e r the s p a t i a l , q u a n t i t a t i v e , f o r m a l and r e l a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a r t i f a c t s subsequent ..to t h e i r primary deposition. systematically  the possible  The B i n f o r d s  made no a t t e m p t t o s t u d y  e f f e c t s o f n - t r a n s f o r m s such as geo-  13  l o g i c a l processes of erosion, nor such possible c-transforms as s i t e re-occupation and tool re-use.  Granted, these are  d i f f i c u l t problems, but i t i s clear that assumptions  about  the homogeneity of these processes between s i t e s of -different kinds ( i . e . sheltered and open) are:unwarranted^  even though  Schiffer (1976: 57) seems to imply that using s i n g l e occupation 'sites rather than d i v i s i o n s within stratigraphic layers as ana^ l y t i c units avoids most of such problems. Thus, the Binford's exercise was primarily methodological in i t s contribution (which they r e a d i l y admit; 1966: 289) .  It  shows the kinds of explanations that could be offered about Mousterian v a r i a b i l i t y given a processual perspective, but there i s no : claim to substantive or " f a c t u a l " additions to our knowledge at the time.  I mean that the tool types within the  f i v e factors isolated - 1. l i t h i c ) , 2. 4.  secondary tool manufacturing  hunting and butchering, 3.  shredding and cutting, and 5.  (non-  food processing,  other k i l l i n g and butchering -  cannot be used as interpretive units i n unrelated studies without computing an a l l new set of factor scores.  The Binfords  found a way to re-interpret Bordes' type l i s t . This e s s e n t i a l l y methodological aspect i s witnessed by the fact that Freeman's (.1966) factor analysis of Mousterian materials in Spain (see also Freeman 1978)  f a i l e d to produce factor load-  ings on tool types similar to those i n the Binfords study. 1  scope of v a r i a b i l i t y i n the Spanish s i t e s was  The  interpreted to re-  14  s u i t from a c t i v i t i e s r a n g i n g from " s c r a p i n g " t o " c u t t i n g c h o p p i n g " (Freeman 1966:  235).  A very i n t e r e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i s that i n both s e t s of r e s e a r c h , the i s o l a t e d f a c t o r s show broad  similarities  to Bordes' f o u r M o u s t e r i a n v a r i a n t s ( c f .  Freeman  234; B i n f o r d and B i n f o r d 1966:  259).  1966:  However, t h i s does  n o t o c c u r i n a l l f a c t o r s , and t h i s c o n f u s i o n i s r e c o n c i l e d by Freeman:  The two models ( i . e . e t h n i c i d e n t i t y and f u c t i o n a l s p e c i f i c i t y ) are not a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s of the same k i n d s of v a r i a t i o n . Both may be e q u a l l y c o r r e c t i n the most gene r a l sense, but t h e i r v a l i d i t y r e q u i r e s cons i d e r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f the d a t a (Freeman 1978: 58).  I n a s t u d y aimed m a i n l y a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g the e n t i r e P a l e o l i t h i c c o l l e c t i o n from Douara Cave i n S y r i a ( H a n i h a r a and Akazawa 1979), Akazawa (1979) f a c t o r a n a l y z e d 71 M o u s t e r i a n assemblages d e s c r i b e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o Bordes' type  list.  These assemblages were from t h e Douara Cave, Yabrud S h e l t e r 1, and i n c l u d e d Combe-Grenal from France. produced  The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s  f i v e f a c t o r s , and I t h i n k i t w o r t h w h i l e to e x t r a c t  some c r i t i c a l f i n d i n g s t h a t a r e based on t h e p l o t t i n g o f factor scores:  15  Although the Upper French Acheulian shows concrete evidence of c l u s t e r i n g , the other f i v e types of assemblages c l a s s i f i a b l e as French Mousterian and Yabrudian show-a wide range of d i s t r i b u t i o n and overlapping. In p a r t i c u l a r , d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Typical Mousterian assemblage Jisepeculiar^acharacterized by overlapping with assemblages c l a s s i f i e d as another major group (Levantine). This suggests that these assemblage types have more complex features, and therefore cannot be explained simply on the basis of typological characteristics.(Akazawa 1979: 42, emphasis added).  Akazawa r e f r a i n s from any functional interpretations, but adds that the groupings of assemblages are due mainly to their contained frequencies of sidescrapers, and L e v a l l o i s and denticulate tools (Akazawa 1979:  42).  It seems clear i n this discussion of factor analysis that the tjasic functional assumptions about the use of Bordes' type l i s t are unwarranted, do not produce consistent r e s u l t s , and may  i n fact complement c u l t u r e - h i s t o r i c interpretations. The Binfords' l o g i c a l argument that ethnic group i d e n t i t y  cannot account for d i f f e r e n t i a l assemblage composition has been countered by Fish (1976: 19) who  notes that the MAT  is  common i n the Dordogne region, but p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent Charente.  in  In this vein, however, there i s the question of  whether Bordes' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s one that would have been recognized by the s i t e s ' inhabitants.  In s o c i e t i e s using stone  tools today (granted, with much simpler l i t h i c  technologies),  16  there has been shown an appreciable difference between the producers' and the archaeologists' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s (Gould 1972;  White, Modjeska and Hipuya 1977).  Bordes' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and general scheme have other faults.  For example, the rigor of the method of assemblage  type d e f i n i t i o n i s weakened by the use at times of s i n g l e tool types l i k e denticulates while MAT  i s distinguished by  several, and Typical i s a sort of c a t c h - a l l . i s the problem of how  Further,  there  to c l a s s i f y multiple t o o l types occurr-  ing on single a r t i f a c t s .  The method i s not rigorous.  A recent a r t i c l e that i s already a c l a s s i c i n method (Cahen, Keeley and Van Noten 1979: Keeley 1980)  also Van Noten, Cahen and  describes a s i t e i n which three Upper P a l e o l i t h i c  end-scraper types (eight actual tools) were f i t t e d onto a single block and had a l l been used for hide-scraping 1979:  666).  This may  (Cahen jet a l  indicate that Bordes' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s  far too f i n e l y s p l i t for functional interpretation,.".and this has serious implications for those who  use the type l i s t essen-  t i a l l y unaltered for functional analyses 1966:  244).  formulated permitted  (cf. Binford and Binford  One.cannot deny the importance of Bordes' work - he a complex, more or less objective typology  that has  standardization and large-scale comparison and scholarly  communication.  His interpretations and theory however, are  rather organic and undemonstrable. been completely refuted (although  The ethnic hypothesis has  not  the temporal succession hypoth-  17  e s i s seems d e s t r o y e d ) ,  s i n c e i t s t i l l needs t o be t e s t e d  e m p i r i c a l l y w i t h t h e use o f e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a , as indeed does t h e f u n c t i o n a l argument.  T h i s p o i n t i s noted by B i n f o r d  and B i n f o r d , who observe t h a t " c u l t u r a l b o r r o w i n g " needs t o be u n d e r s t o o d s i n c e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e  t o imagine m o b i l e c u l t u r e s ,  depositing a l t e r n a t i n g assemblages, who n e v e r acknowleged t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s (1966: 2 4 0 ) . Indeed, t h e B i n f o r d s a p p l y t h e t y p e list  t o assemblages from France and t h e Near E a s t , w h i c h c o u l d  be i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e c o g n i t i o n o f some degree o f " b o r r o w i n g " of b a s i c t r a i t s . gatherers  There i s a l s o good e v i d e n c e t h a t h u n t e r s and  do m a i n t a i n  s o c i a l i d e n t i t i e s w i t h s p e c i a l membership  r e q u i r e m e n t s (Campbell 1968; Lee and DeVore 1976; J o r g e n s e n 1980), and  t h a t a c t u a l e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s can be demonstrated i n c h i p p e d  s t o n e p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s (Magne and Matson 1982; Greaves 1982), a l t h o u g h t h e r e have been few a t t e m p t s t o r e s o l v e t h i s with preservable  issue  material culture.  I n an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n where t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f the i n f o r m a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d  from s t o n e t o o l s , t h e r e has been an  amazing l a c k o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e  f o r the Mousterian.  I f t e c h n o l o g y i s d e f i n e d as a m e c h a n i c a l means o f a r t i c u l a t i n g human p o p u l a t i o n s  a d a p t i v e l y t o environments w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e  movement between h a b i t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e 113,  l o c a t i o n s (Munday 1976:  c f . B i n f o r d 1962: 3 2 8 ) , then i t i s apparent t h a t t h e above  s t u d i e s have n o t d e a l t w i t h t e c h n o l o g y .  A p a r t from t h e common  usage o f t h e L e v a l l o i s i n d e x (Bordes 1972), t h e r e has been m i n i m a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s o f stone t o o l s , how  18  t h e s e might v a r y i n space and t i m e , and the c o n d i t i o n s l e a d i n g to  such v a r i a b i l i t y . The u t i l i t y of l i t h i c d e b i t a g e i n b e h a v i o r a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  i s now  appreciated i n archaeology  (see Chapter 4 ) , and  debitage  has been a n a l y s e d i n an Upper P a l e o l i t h i c - Texas A r c h a i c comp a r a t i v e s t u d y by C o l l i n s (.1974, 1975).  W h i l e C o l l i n s ' work was  undertaken w i t h i n an e x p l i c i t b e h a v i o r a l framework a l a S c h i f f e r (1972) , F i s h  (1979) conducted  a s t u d y of M o u s t e r i a n  w i t h t h e purpose o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g i n Bordes'  four Mousterian types.  debitage  "technological" regularities F i s h ' s s t u d y , based on deb-  i t a g e and s c r a p e r s from f o u r s i t e s i n France and the Near E a s t , has s e r i o u s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems,  such as the use of b i a s e d  sampling t e c h n i q u e s , s m a l l samples, v e r y redundant measures, and no e x p l i c i t statement (i.e.  about the s i g n i f i c a n c e of L e v a l l o i s  debitage  what does c o r e p r e p a r a t i o n i n d i c a t e ? ) i n even a h y p o t h e t i c a l  manner. On i t s p o s i t i v e s i d e , F i s h ' s s t u d y shows t h a t d e b i t a g e v a r i a b i l i t y does not c o r r e s p o n d w e l l to t y p o l o g i c a l M o u s t e r i a n  facies.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e removal o f t o o l s from s i t e s i s a f a c t o r not w e l l controlled at  i n t r a d i t i o n a l and - b e h a v i o r a l s t u d i e s .  For example.,,  Pech de l ' A z e Bed 4, 43% o f t h e d e b i t a g e a n a l y s e d were f l a k e s of  b i f a c i a l r e t o u c h , y e t o n l y 5.8%  o f the t o o l s were handaxes; and i n  Bed 28 a t Combe-Grenal, no handaxes were found, y e t 13.5% o f t h e d e b i t a g e were b i f a c i a l r e t o u c h f l a k e s ( F i s h 1979:  133).  can see an advantage o f d e b i t a g e a n a l y s i s ; i t i s a way  Thus, we.: of r e l i a b l y  19  demonstrating that the tools l e f t at a s i t e may not represent the f u l l range of a c t i v i t i e s that were performed there. As concerns the L e v a l l o i s index, or the proportion of items i n the assemblage exhibiting complex scar patterns other than deliberate retouch, I find this far too narrow a defining c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of "technological" differences between assemblages.  Nevertheless, Fish (1979: 128 - 130) found an i n t e r -  esting correspondence  between o v e r a l l low L e v a l l o i s occurrence  at Combe-Grenal and Pech de l'Aze and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of predominantly small cobbles as the l i t h i c resource for these loc-^ cations.  This seems to make a great deal of sense: the smaller  the cobbles used for tool manufacture, the more-  . conservative  tool-making w i l l r e s u l t i n complex "exhausted" debitage.  Obviously  this has implications for the use of standardized tool typologies. It can be expected that tools near locations where only small size raw materials are present, would be less "expedient" than those with larger cobbles available, but also that scarce l i t h i c resource areas would tend to exhibit more tool curation, paradoxi c a l l y r e s u l t i n g i n small, highly complex retouched items. For the Mousterian, an e x p l i c i t l y technological approach i s that of Munday (1976).  Working in the area of the Negev  desert of I s r a e l , Munday sought to explain the variable comps i t i o n of open-air s i t e s ,  rather than cave or shelter s i t e s  that are t y p i c a l of Mousterian studies (but see Binford and Binford 1966: Houpeville).  Jelinek (1976) notes that the  "value of ±n s i t u deposits i n open s i t e s (with few exceptions)  20  i s i n the c l e a r f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n of elements of s i n g l e or t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i n k e d o c c u p a t i o n s " Wobst 1979)!.  23; c f .  Among 11 s i t e s , Munday examined q u a n t i t a t i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c o r e s and resources.  ( J e l i n e k 1976:  debitage,  and  f l i n t and  U s i n g m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , i t was  t h a t d e b i t a g e s i z e and  water found  c o r e w e i g h t are h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o s i x  independent v a r i a b l e s t h a t e s s e n t i a l l y c o n t r o l the amount of work i n v o l v e d i n moving raw m a t e r i a l s between s i t e s : raw mate r i a l d i s t a n c e , s l o p e of s i t e t o raw m a t e r i a l , d i s t a n c e t o w a t e r , s l o p e t o w a t e r , a l t i t u d e t o water and  a l t i t u d e t o raw  These f a c t o r s accounted f o r 90% of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n and  80% of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n c o r e weight (Munday 1976:  material. debitage, 139).  I n r e l a t i o n t o F i s h ' s (.1979) f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g L e v a l l o i s t e c h n i q u e v a r i a b i l i t y , Munday (.1976: 139) far  found t h a t at s i t e s  from raw m a t e r i a l "more i n t e n s i v e c o r e p r e p a r a t i o n  took  p l a c e , as e x h i b i t e d by the more complex q u a l i t a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s ( p l a t f o r m t y p e s , d o r s a l s c a r p a t t e r n i n g and d o r s a l count) found w i t h the r e s u l t a n t d e b i t a g e " explained with reference 1949), or s i m p l y ,  This i s  t o the p r i n c i p l e of l e a s t e f f o r t ( Z i p f  i t seems t h a t assemblage c o m p o s i t i o n i s s t r o n g l y  a f f e c t e d by economizing We  (1976: 139).  scar  behavior.  thus see i n the M o u s t e r i a n example t h a t  archaeological  method has developed t o s e e k i n g ways of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g  behavioral  s i t u a t i o n s that lead to inter-assemblage v a r i a t i o n s i n l i t h i c contents.  The  c u l t u r e - h i s t o r i c and  e t h n i c paradigms of a r c h a e o -  21  l o g i c a l remains a r e not c o m p l e t e l y r e t i c a l sense and and New  r e f u t e d i n the t h e o -  a r e e s s e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t s i n b o t h the  W o r l d s , even i f o n l y as c o n v e n i e n t ways of d e s c r i b i n g  large-scale evolutionary trends.  The  t r a d i t i o n a l paradigms a r e  b a s i c a l l y complementary t o the b e h a v i o r a l v i e w p o i n t s , a l s o i n need of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  2.3.  Old  but  are  improvement.  L i t h i c s , L o g i s t i c s and L i v e l i h o o d  2.3.1.  Introduction I n many r e s p e c t s  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t s i n stone  t o o l s .as i n d i c a t o r s of s u b s i s t e n c e  and  social activities in  the 1960's were u n a b l e to answer w i t h much c e r t a i n t y the questions 1970's was  they posed.  Much of B i n f o r d ' s w r i t i n g t h r o u g h t h e  t h e o r e t i c a l , and  the advent of systems t h e o r y  appli-  c a t i o n s , as w e l l as a g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l awareness c o n t r i b u t e d a g r e a t d e a l to the q u a l i t y of the q u e s t i o n s asked.  being  B i n f o r d ' s c o n t i n u a l r e - e v a l u a t i o n s of the s t a t e of  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l conduct have r e c e n t l y been f o c u s e d on p r e c i s e l y methodological  problems and ways of " b r i d g i n g " e m p i r i c a l f a c t s ,  w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l demands.  T h i s p r o c e s s he c a l l s  t h e o r y b u i l d i n g " , and he c o n s i d e r s  i t to/represent  "middle-range a major s h i f t  i n s c i e n t i f i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l terms of r e f e r e n c e , models paradigms ( B i n f o r d 1972,  1977;  Kuhn 1962).  and  22  Throughout t h e development o f b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h  with  stone t o o l s , t h e r e i s an i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r p l a y o f i n d u c t i v e and d e d u c t i v e  reasoning,  i n t h e extreme:  t h a t i s ; between q u e s t i o n s  What can t h i s stone t o o l t e l l us about be-  h a v i o r , and; What a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r tools?  they a s k ,  f o r stone  However, I choose n o t t o r e v i e w s e p a r a t e l y h e r e t h e  philosophy  of s c i e n t i f i c reasoning  and t h e many t h e o r e t i c a l  i n t e r f a c e s of analogy, experimentation  and e t h n o a r c h a e o l o g y .  Recent •comprehensive d i s c u s s i o n s by C h a r l t o n (1981) and Salmon (1982) r e v e a l t h a t t h e i s s u e s a r e complex and beyond the scope o f t h i s 2.3.2.  study.  Experimental  lithic  research  R e p l i c a t i o n and s i m u l a t i o n experiments i n s t o n e t o o l manufacture g e n e r a l l y seek t o r e l a t e q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t o o l s and m a n u f a c t u r i n g b y - p r o d u c t s (debitage) the d e s i g n s  t o p r o c e s s e s o f p r o d u c t i o n , use and d i s p o s a l .  While  o f such e x p e r i m e n t s , and t h e methods o f a n a l y s i s  v a r y a g r e a t d e a l , most aim t o i n c r e a s e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  o f be-  h a v i o r a l i n f e r e n c e s t h a t can be made on t h e b a s i s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l p a t t e r n i n g (see Tringham 1978: C h a r l t o n 1981: 146 - 147).  C u r r e n t l y , b e h a v i o r a l i n s i g h t s p r o v i d e d by system-  a t i c s t o n e t o o l r e p l i c a t i o n (e.g. Muto 1971a; C r a b t r e e  1972) a r e  a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f many r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o r r e g i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g y  and s e t t l e m e n t  patterns  (e.g. Knuds  23  1973;  Gardener 1976;  Katz 1976;  Phagan 1976;  Chapman 1977;  Pokotylo 1978a; Kimball 1980). The general model of stone tool technology employed i n this research was roughly developed  by Holmes (1890) and  been refined by several researchers ( C o l l i n s 1974, Bradley 1975;  Gunn 1975;  Pokotylo 1978).  Sheets 1975;  Katz 1976;  has  1975;  Schiffer  1976;  Flow charts are used to model the various steps  involved i n stone tool manufacture, use, modification and d i s posal, and are linear i n nature because output products cannot resume a previous state.  Perhaps the clearest and most useful  such model i s that proposed by C o l l i n s (1974, 1975), here summarized in Figure 1. In C o l l i n s ' (1975) model, the f i r s t step i n making a stone tool i s aquiring the raw material.  As Binford (1979) has pointed  out, this a c t i v i t y can be embedded i n other subsistence tasks, or i t can be a d i r e c t , special purpose task such as i n v i s i t s to quarry locations. The next step in the model i s to prepare cores and reduce them.  Here, the cores themselves may  be desired pro-  ducts, or flakes removed from them can be used as tools, or as blanks for further reduction.  Following core or flake blank pro-  duction, primary trimming may  produce useful tools and/or preforms  ("unfinished"  , tools).  The next step i s secondary trimming, to pro-  duce complex tools, hafting provisions, serations, aesthetic flake scar patterns, and so on.  C o l l i n s ' model recognizes the use  of tools as a d i s t i n c t step i n their modification, and following  24  F i g u r e 1.  The g e n e r a l model o f l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n , maintenance and d i s p o s a l . Revised a f t e r C o l l i n s (1975) .  25  use, t o o l s may be r e s h a r p e n e d ,  or s u b s t a n t i a l l y refurbished.  The f i n a l p o s s i b l e step i n t h i s model i s s p e c i a l i z e d d i s p o s a l of a r t i f a c t s , i n caches, as grave goods, and;the l i k e . In  g e n e r a l , a g r e a t d e a l of p r o g r e s s has been made i n  the l a s t 20 y e a r s o f a c e n t u r y of l i t h i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ( s e e Johnson 1978), b u t s e v e r a l problems p e r s i s t i n e x p e r i m e n t a l stone t o o l s t u d i e s : 1.  There i s a s e r i o u s l a c k of adequate e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l s  (see Chandler and Ware 1976: 25; Dincauze 1978) .  Basically  t h i s problem stems from t h e h i s t o r y o f v i e w i n g stone  flaking,  or f l i n t k n a p p i n g as an " a r t " r a t h e r than a s c i e n t i f i c endeavor. L i t h i c use-wear a n a l y s t s have c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e v a l u e o f e x p l i c i t e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l s ( e . g . K e e l e y 1980; Tringham e t a l 1974;  O d e l l 1977) , and o n l y r e c e n t l y have l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n ex-  periments been conducted  w i t h f i r m c o n t r o l s (Speth 1972; Raab  et a l 1979; B u r t o n 1980; S t a h l e and Dunn 1981). 2.  B i f a c e s and p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s a r e t h e u s u a l s u b j e c t s o f i n -  v e s t i g a t i o n s ( e . g . Newcomer 1971; C a l l a h a n 1977; F l e n n i k e n 1978), and t h e r e i s a l a c k o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n aimed a t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y understanding  t h e manufacture o f many o t h e r t o o l forms, o r t h e  f u l l range of r e d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s .  A g a i n , t h i s i s r e l a t e d t o the  h i s t o r i c a l problem o f d e a l i n g w i t h items t h a t a r e perhaps b e s t s u i t e d t o t y p o l o g i c a l i s s u e s , y e t even some o f t h e b e t t e r c o n t r o l l e d experiments  such as S t a h l e and Dunn (1981) propose t o somehow  c h a r a c t e r i z e e n t i r e d e b i t a g e assemblages only" by d e a l i n g with, b i face production residues.  26  3.  There i s a s t r o n g tendency t o u s e redundant a n a l y t i c  v a r i a b l e s , e s p e c i a l l y s i z e v a r i a b l e s (e.g. F i s h 1976, 1979, 1981), o r m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y t i c value  v a r i a b l e s w i t h l i t t l e e x p l i c i t ana-  (e.g. P a t t e r s o n and S o l l b e r g e r 1978; B u r t o n 1980)  to d e s c r i b e d e b i t a g e v a r i a b i l i t y ;  T h i s problem i s by no means  l i m i t e d t o l i t h i c a n a l y s i s , s i n c e some a r c h a e o l o g i s t s study as many v a r i a b l e s as p o s s i b l e i n t h e hope o f d e r i v i n g m e a n i n g f u l p a t t e r n s , and o f t e n a s s i g n meaning t o v a r i a b l e s o n l y a f t e r p a t t e r n s have been d e t e c t e d .  At the l e a s t , expectations of  v a r i a b l e p a t t e r n i n g s h o u l d be proposed p r i o r t o c o m p l e t i n g a s e t of experiments. 4.  Many experiments do n o t i n c l u d e s t a t i s t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s o f  r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n t h e i r d e s i g n , and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e o f t e n s u b j e c t i v e ( e . g . Muto 1971a; K o b a y a s h i 1975; P a t t e r s o n and S o l l b e r g e r 1976, 1978; F l e n n i k e n  1980).  T h i s i s a s e r i o u s problem  but one t h a t i s b e i n g r e s o l v e d as a r c h a e o l o g i s t s g a i n  greater  f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h q u a n t i t a t i v e methods (e.g. Chandler and Ware 1976; 5.  S t a f f o r d and S t a f f o r d 1979; S t a b l e and Dunn 1981).  The f i e l d i s v e r y p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c , and e x p e r i m e n t a l  are u s u a l l y  results  a p p l i e d t o s m a l l - s c a l e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l samples such  as s i n g l e s i t e s , o r a r e used with, l i t t l e o t h e r purpose than t o demonstrate t h a t c e r t a i n t e c h n i q u e s in  t h e past  1978).  (e.g. C r a b t r e e  o f t o o l manufacture were used  1966, 1968; C a l l a h a n 1977; F l e n n i k e n  This kind of p a r t i c u l a r i s m i s necessary at a basic  level,  but t h e f i e l d has t o g e n e r a t e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  and  27  t h e o r e t i c a l awareness i f i t i s ever t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a r c h a e o l o g y i n a s c i e n t i f i c manner. Major c o n t r i b u t i o n s to l i t h i c assemblage i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d u r i n g the 1970's were made i n the a r e a of use-wear a n a l y s i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the work o f K e e l e y (.1980), O d e l l (1977, 1980) Tringham  e t a l (1974),.and  work of Cahen et^ a l (1979).  and  as d i s c u s s e d above, the i n n o v a t i n g The l i t e r a t u r e on use-wear i s v e r y  e x t e n s i v e , f a s c i n a t i n g , c o n t e n t i o u s and almost c o m p l e t e l y s i t e particular.  For t h e s e r e a s o n s , and because t h i s s t u d y i s con-  cerned w i t h i n t e r - a s s e m b l a g e l i t h i c m a n u f a c t u r i n g p a r t i c u l a r s and p a t t e r n s , the scope of use-wear r e s e a r c h (see Hayden  1979)  i s beyond d e t a i l e d e l u c i d a t i o n h e r e . L i t h i c use-wear a n a l y s i s c o n t r i b u t e s g r e a t l y t o t h e kinds; of models t h a t a r c h a e o l o g i s t s use, s i n c e t h e o r e t i c a l l y , i f we can observe s p e c i f i c t o o l f u n c t i o n s then we s h o u l d be a b l e to measure time and energy e x p e n d i t u r e s and r e t u r n s a n d seek to model and u n d e r s t a n d to stone t o o l s .  ;the o p e r a t i o n s of p o p u l a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n  However, the f i e l d i s not p r e s e n t l y a b l e t o r e -  s o l v e such i s s u e s , due t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n method, and t a t i o n of t h e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e .  interpre-  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y  the t y p e of m a t e r i a l worked by stone t o o l s , the motion  involved,  and l e s s s o , t h e g e n e r a l hardness of worked m a t e r i a l and presence of wear.  actual  The e x p e r i m e n t a l f o u n d a t i o n s of use-wear a n a l -  y s i s a r e r a p i d l y growing, and have always been s c r u p u l o u s l y r e examined ( e . g . H o l l y and D e l Bene 1981; K e e l e y 1981).  In intro-  28  d u c i n g a volume on t h e t h e n - c u r r e n t s t a t e of l i t h i c a n a l y s i s and p r e h i s t o r i c b e h a v i o r , D a v i s noted t h a t " w h i l e t h e major i s s u e s i n the a n a l y s i s o f l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y  are  t h e o r e t i c a l , the major d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l V ( D a v i s 1978:  i i i ) . I t seems t h e r e a r e g e n e r a l s c h o o l s of  agreement about what we want t o know, we j u s t do not know how  t o g a t h e r the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n , nor how  to i n t e r p r e t  what we have. 2.3.3. C u r r e n t models o f l i t h i c  t e c h n o l o g y and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s  A community's s e t t l e m e n t system can be d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s :  ...a s o l u t i o n t o the problem of l o c a t i n g s i t e s so as t o m i n i m i z e the amount o f energy t h a t must be expended t o p r o c u r e n e c e s s a r y r e s o u r c e s , be t h i s by j u d i c i a l c h o i c e o f a s i n g l e s i t e , l o c a t i o n o f s e v e r a l s i t e s a t d i f f e r e n t times i n d i f f e r e n t ^ s i t u a t i o n s , development of s t o rage and/or p r e s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , o r a comb i n a t i o n s t r a t e g y (Roper 1979: 16).  Hunter-gatherers  a r e c l a s s i f i e d by B i n f o r d (1980) i n t o two b a s i c  k i n d s of s o c i e t i e s : f o r a g e r s and c o l l e c t o r s .  Foragers  procure  r e s o u r c e s on a day-to-day b a s i s , do n o t p r a c t i c e extended food s t o r a g e , and move r e s i d e n c e s o f t e n as l o c a l r e s o u r c e s a r e pleted.  de-  Examples of f o r a g e r s i n c l u d e the K a l a h a r i Bushmen, (Lee  and DeVore 1968,  1976;  Y e l l e n 1977), and t h e A u s t r a l i a n Western  D e s e r t A b o r i g i n e s (Gould 1969,  1980; Hayden 1976,  1977), a t l e a s t  those t h a t remain and s t i l l engage i n h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g as the  29  p r i n c i p l e m a i n s t a y of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e .  C o l l e c t o r s maintain  r e s i d e n c e s , y e t move o f t e n f o r extended p e r i o d s tfo p r o c u r e i n d i v i d u a l or s e t s o f r e s o u r c e s , r e t u r n i n g to the Food s t o r a g e p r a c t i c e s a r e v a r i e d and extremes i n s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s the Nunamiut Eskimo ( B i n f o r d 1977, F o r e s t Cree (Bishop 1974, temperate h u n t e r s the B.C.  residences.  common, and more s e a s o n a l  are e x h i b i t e d .  For example,  1978a, 1978b), the B o r e a l  Leacock 1973,  Rogers 1973) and most  and g a t h e r e r s , i n c l u d i n g the groups i n h a b i t i n g  I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u , may  be c o n s i d e r e d r e s o u r c e  collectors.  C o l l e c t o r s employ a t l e a s t f i v e k i n d s of s i t e s : d e n t i a l bases;  2. l o c a t i o n s ( o f k i l l s or g a t h e r i n g s ) ;  camps, f o r t a s k groups;  3.  field gathered  and 5. caches ( B i n f o r d 1980:  B i n f o r d does not d i s c u s s r i t u a l i s t i c s i t e s such as or b u r i a l s , a l t h o u g h  resi-  4. s t a t i o n s , where i n f o r m a t i o n i s  and s c h e d u l i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e made;  10).  petroglyphs  the n a t u r e arid d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e s e i s to  a c e r t a i n e x t e n t c o n d i t i o n e d by m o b i l i t y . of s i t e can be r e - o c c u p i e d t e n t i a l way  1.  P r a c t i c a l l y every  f o r a n o t h e r purpose, a n d c t h i s i s a  t o measure s e t t l e m e n t m o b i l i t y , s i n c e g r e a t e r  assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y can be e x p e c t e d ,  kind po-  inter-  the g r e a t e r the number of  " g e n e r i c f u n c t i o n s " a s i t e undergoes ( B i n f o r d 1980: the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l problem i s t o " d e v e l o p a means o f  12).  Thus,  identifying  g e n e r i c types of f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n when they a r e encountered i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d " ( B i n f o r d 1979: The problem i s to o b s e r v e the o u t p u t s c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s , where the s y s t e m i c  271).  o f human b e h a v i o r c o n t e x t i s known.  in  30  Binford's method i s ethnoarchaeology, the conduct of ethnographic research to solve archaeological, anthropological even s o c i o l o g i c a l issues (see Gould and S c h i f f e r 1982; 1978;  Kramer 1979).  and  Gould  Although Binford does not seem to recog-  nize experimental archaeology as a means of approaching the same problems, there are several common t h e o r e t i c a l grounds to ethnoarchaeology and experimental archaeology (Tringham 1978). Tringham views both as "experimental" research, but  considers  that "behavioral experimentation"' i s r i s k i e r , since variables are more d i f f i c u l t  to c o n t r o l .  Armed with the experience gained i n his intensive Nunamiut ethnbarchaeological •1978a; 1981)  research with faunal assemblages (Binford  and with the success of that research i n providing  empirical evidence of subistence patterns operations, Binford has again focused on l i t h i c assemblages (Binford 1979).  The  im-  p l i c a t i o n s of the l o g i s t i c and highly mobile Nunamiut settlement pattern for l i t h i c technological inference are highly relevant to this and other e x p l i c i t l y technological studies of chipped stone, and are worth c i t i n g at length here. In his reconstruction of how  the Nunamuit used stone tools,  Binford (1979) r e l i e s heavily on interviews with elders, and p r a c t i c a l l y n i l on observation, since the Nunamiut have long since abandoned stone t o o l s , except for large hammers and a n v i l s , bed warmers, and occasional instances of " s u r v i v a l gear".  The  31  informants agreed that three basic kinds of gear are used, past or present.  Personal gear and s i t e furniture are  anticipatory items, and s i t u a t i o n a l gear i s responsive i n nature. As far as lithi.cs- are concerned, the following are considered to have been personal gear: cut  side-bladed tools to  bone, cores used as sources of flakes for butchering or  for manufacture into scrapers, axes, bows and arrows, stone points for bears (bone, antler or wood otherwise), pressure f l a k i n g tools with hafted scrapers on the end opposite the flaking end, and single flake knives. Personal gear i s curated, being recycled, reused, maintained.  and  It i s always brought into the f i e l d i n good  condition, and Binford (1979: 263) deduces from this that personal gear should be largely discarded i n r e s i d e n t i a l camps, and not at the locus of use.  It seems to me  however,  that some personal gear probably included items intended only for use at a distant locus, and that this material i s meant to be l e f t behind, and only i f not used, would be.returned idential  camp.  to res-  Binford's expectation also does not include  the breakage of personal gear beyond repair, or the disposal at least of fragments.  Keeley (1982), for example, would main-  tain that the haft portion only of a complex item of personal gear would be returned to replace a stone piece.  32  S i t e furniture "belongs" to a s i t e , and use by any occupants (Binford 1978a: 339).  i s available for Such items as  large bone-cracking rocks, a n v i l s , hearthstones, heavy marrow scrapers, and  tent weights are common'.items of s i t e furniture.  These objects enter the archaeological  record.when a s i t e  falls  into disservice, or as natural processes remove them from the active system.  S i t e furniture, in Schiffer's (1972, 1976:  14)  terms, i s de facto refuse, usable gear that i s abandoned. S i t u a t i o n a l gear i s t a s k - s p e c i f i c . (1979: 266)  For example, Binford  relates an anecdote of two hunters, hunting caribou  and needing knives to butcher the animals, but lacking a good s t e e l knife.  One  of them found suitable rock, broke i t , and  they used the r e s u l t i n g flakes.  No great deal of e f f o r t  was  expended, but i t provided gear suitable for the task at hand. In certain situations, personal gear or gear that has been cached can be modified for the required  purpose.  What of the interrelationships of these kinds of gear? ford  writes:  ...we can expect assemblages which are "curated" i n the broad sense to exhibit patterns of i n t e r assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y depending upon the organi z a t i o n of the technology as seen i n the proportion of s i t u a t i o n a l to more curated types of gear (.1979: 269) .  The notion of proportional  relationships i s important, since  s i t e s can be re-occupied or abandoned independent of  lithic  Bin-  33  technology.  The mere presence o f any p a r t i c u l a r gear i s  i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e o f t h e purpose o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n . The g e n e r a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l g o a l t h e n , i s t o r e c o n s t r u c t the a r c h a e o l o g y  of s p e c i f i c " p l a c e s " , bytstudying the i n t e r -  r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f l i t h i c s , f a u n a , e t c . and t h e i r s p a t i a l u t i o n ( B i n f o r d 1982). p a t t e r n archaeology  distrib-  I s B i n f o r d re-inventing settlement  ( c f . Gummerman 1971; E u l e r and Gummerman  1978), by a s k i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t o c o n s i d e r t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n ships of s i t e s ? Binford offers several detailed, particular l i t h i c  tech-  n o l o g i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o r " p r o b a b l e consequences" o f v a r i o u s "systems c o n d i t i o n s " o f t h e Nunamiut s e t t l e m e n t system:  1. Items o f p e r s o n a l and household gear a r e apt t o be b o t h produced and m a i n t a i n e d w i t h i n r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s , r e s u l t i n g i n an a s s o c i a t i o n at such l o c a t i o n s o f d e b r i s from m a n u f a c t u r e , r e p a i r , and f i n a l d i s c a r d o f worn-out i t e m s . 2. Items t h a t have r e l a t i v e l y l o n g use l i v e s are n o t l i k e l y t o be "worn o u t " a t s p e c i a l p u r pose l o c a t i o n s , s i n c e p r e t r i p gearing-up o p e r a t i o n s would r e s u l t i n t h e replacement o f heav i l y worn items b e f o r e l e a v i n g t h e r e s i d e n t i a l location. 3. M a n u f a c t u r i n g d e b r i s from l i t h i c p r o c e s s i n g i s apt t o v a r y i n content s e a s o n a l l y (representing d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s ) , s i n c e t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be s e a s o n a l l y v a r i a b l e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l areas and l i t h i c raw m a t e r i a l s would g e n e r a l l y be o b t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f normal s u b s i s t e n c e p r o c u r e ment s c h e d u l e s . Given r e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y , l i t h i c source v a r i a b i l i t y as i n d i c a t e d i n p r i m a r y d e b r i s , should he c o r r e l a t e d with, t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l posi t i o n of the r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e .  34  4. M a n u f a c t u r i n g d e b r i s o c c u r r i n g on s p e c i a l purpose s i t e s which, a r e i n t e r m e d i a t e between r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s and procurement s i t e s (such as h u n t i n g s t a n d s o r camps) may w e l l e x h i b i t c o n s i d e r a b l e l i t h i c d e b r i s from work on p a r t i a l l y f i n i s h e d or " s t a g e d " i t e m s . F l a k e s o r (.sic) b i f a c i a l r e t o u c h , c o r e r e d u c t i o n , or the use of a " d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e " number of t o o l s designed f o r the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f o t h e r raw m a t e r i a l s such as wood, a n t l e r , bone o r f i b e r might w e l l be a n t i c i p a t e d . On such " i n t e r m e d i a t e " l o c a t i o n s , work s c h e d u l i n g would genera l l y be c a r r i e d out i n "dead t i m e " on items i n t r o d u c e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of t h i s a c t i v i t y (see B i n f o r d 1978a). T h i s means t h a t many " i n complete" items would be f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d on such l o c a t i o n s , r e s u l t i n g i n " d i s j u n c t i v e " deb r i s to t o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 5. The h i g h e s t i n c i d e n c e of r e c y c l i n g and r e use of items of p e r s o n a l gear i s most l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n s p e c i a l purpose l o c a t i o n s . T h i s f o l lows from the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t p e r s o n a l gear i s f r e q u e n t l y " d r a f t e d " f o r use" as the s o u r c e of m a t e r i a l f o r s i t u a t i o n a l gear. 6. H i g h i n c i d e n c e s of f l a k e s from b i f a c i a l " c o r e s " a r e apt t o c h a r a c t e r i z e s p e c i a l p u r pose s i t e s . Such f l a k e s can be expected t o show r e l a t i v e l y h i g h use r a t i o s , t h a t i s , the number e v i d e n c i n g use s h o u l d be h i g h . 7. We might expect a g e n e r a l i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r o p o r t i o n s o f r e u s e and r e c y c l i n g of p e r s o n a l gear and the abundance o f s i t u a t i o n a l l y produced gear from immediately a v a i l a b l e raw m a t e r i a l s ( B i n f o r d 1979: 269 - 270).  These e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e a d m i t t e d l y not e x h a u s t i v e , and some a r e of vague u t i l i t y .  For example, i t i s no problem t o r e c o g n i z e  b i f a c i a l d e b r i s , but what e x a c t l y s e r v e d as p e r s o n a l gear, f u r n i t u r e or s i t u a t i o n a l gear i s not c l e a r from B i n f o r d ' s arguments.  site  35  Ethnoarchaeological reasoning has also been used by Ebert (.1979) to suggest that indices of tool sizes and comp l e x i t y are better indicators of group mobility, tool curation behavior, and s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s than t r a d i t i o n a l typological means of analysis.  This research, conducted  among the Botswana Bushmen, was aimed at providing some generalizations about stone tool use, discard, and loss by observing situations i n which s t e e l tools are employed today. The two major "bridging assumptions" between group mobility and l i t h i c assemblages that Ebert addresses are:  1. Tools manufactured with the object of being carried out are expected to be smaller than tools intended to be used i n one place.* 2. Tools intended for multiple episodes of use are expected to be the r e s u l t of greater input of energy during manufacture and maintenance than tools used once and then d i s carded (Ebert 1979: 68).  Thus, gear that i s analogous to Binford's personal gear should be small and complex, while expedient tools and habitation s i t e maintenance tools should be larger and simpler.  Site  furniture should also be r e l a t i v e l y complex. The p r a c t i c a l ways to measure such differences are: f o r complexity, the frequencies of tools' flake scars produced during manufacture and maintenance, and f o r size, the product of length, width and thickness measures.  I t i s suggested  later i n  36  t h i s study  t h a t a more a p p r o p r i a t e measure of a t o o l ' s s i z e i s  i t s w e i g h t , and t h a t s c a r c o u n t i n g r e q u i r e s r i g i d c u t - o f f s i n s i z e and c o n t i n u i t y .  L i k e B i n f o r d ' s argument, E b e r t ' s  (.1979)  makes t h e p o i n t t h a t i t i s o v e r a l l assemblage v a r i a t i o n t h a t i s important The  and t h a t i n d i v i d u a l t o o l measures a r e secondary. p r e d i c t i o n s t h a t E b e r t makes about t h e r e l a t i o n s be-  tween l i t h i c assemblages and s e t t l e m e n t m o b i l i t y a r e l e s s dependent on a b s t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n s , and may be summarized as follows:  1.  Assemblages w i t h s m a l l t o o l s e x h i b i t i n g h i g h  manufacture/maintenance energy i n p u t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y composed o f " c u r a t e d , s m a l l , s p e c i f i c - u s e t o o l s , p o s s i b l y p i e c e s of a m o b i l e t o o l k i t . Used i n jobs or tasks i n which a s p e c i f i c s e t of opera t i o n s i s c a r r i e d o u t " ( E b e r t 1979: 6 8 ) . 2.  Large t o o l s w i t h complex r e d u c t i o n p a t t e r n s a r e  " s p e c i f i c use o r s p e c i f i c j o b t o o l s p r o b a b l y n o t t r a n s p o r t e d as f a r as t h o s e £that a r e s m a l l and complex^ , but c u r a t e d " 3.  ( E b e r t 19.79: 6 9 ) .  S m a l l t o o l s w i t h l o w s c a r counts a r e " e x p e d i e n t ,  s i n g l e - u s e , i m m e d i a t e l y d i s c a r d e d t o o l s " ( E b e r t 1979: 69). "raw  E b e r t s u g g e s t s t h a t s m a l l s i z e h e r e may i n d i c a t e m a t e r i a l s t r e s s " , but i n such a case,  complexity  would be expected t o r e s u l t from extended maintenance. Thus, t h i s : e x p e c t a t i o n i s ambiguous.  37  4.  Ebert's. f i n a l e x p e c t a t i o n i s r a t h e r weak,  a l s o , s t a t i n g that l a r g e , simple t o o l s "should be manufactured e x p e d i e n t l y , used o n l y once, and n o t t r a n s p o r t e d " (J.979: 6 9 ) ; however, I t h i n k t h a t m u l t i p l e uses o f l a r g e items seem l i k e l y , over extended p e r i o d s o f time.  The method r e q u i r e s e a c h t o o l t o be p l o t t e d , w i t h r e s p e c t to s i z e  and "energy" a x e s , o b s e r v i n g t h e t r e n d s f o r each  assemblage, p a r t i c u l a r l y predominant extreme t r e n d s , and i n f e r r i n g t h e r e l a t i v e d u r a t i o n and i n t e n s i t y o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t produced them. T h i s seems s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d enough, b u t a c l o s e l o o k a t E b e r t ' s model r e v e a l s a s e r i o u s f l a w i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of two Botswana M i d d l e Stone Age s i t e s . scales of examination  I n t h i s case, the  o f t o o l s i z e s a r e d i f f e r e n t by a f a c t o r  of s i x (1979: 7 0 ) . T h i s e r r o r i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e  2.  E b e r t ' s s c a l e o f comparison f o r s i t e KP47 encompasses t h a t f o r s i t e KP48.  Thus, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h a t KP47 r e s u l t e d from  energy i n v e s t e d i n m o b i l e t o o l s , and .that KP48 i n d i c a t e s a minimum amount o f energy i n v e s t e d i n "medium-sized" and t o o l s ( E b e r t 1979: 7 0 ) , s h o u l d be r e v e r s e d .  non-portable  KP47 seems t o be  a l o n g e r term o c c u p a t i o n , o r r e - o c c u p a t i o n , k i n d of s i t e , whereas KP48 i s more r e s t r i c t e d i n v a r i a b i l i t y , and p r o b a b l y In " f u n c t i o n " .  Ebert's model-building  i s complementary t o  38  Ebert's  Graphs  200 Size  400 I xwx 1  KP48  a  ' 0  Z  20  40 Size  60  80  100  I xw x t  T3 C  O) CL K w  Actual  Figure 2.  Comparison  Scale  Comparison of Ebert's i n f e r e n t i a l point swarms with actual comparative scale.  39  B i n f o r d ' s , but w i t h a method o f " a n a l y t i c a l c o n v e n t i o n " , or " o b s e r v a t i o n a l language" t h a t e n a b l e s us t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e one k i n d o f gear from a n o t h e r , and thus add p r e c i s i o n t o our a b i l i t y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t e s one from a n o t h e r ( B i n f o r d 1982) . E b e r t ' s " c u r v e - f i t t i n g " approach i s t h e b a s i c method o f B i n f o r d ' s (1978, 1981) f a u n a l a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s o f r e c o n - : : structing  s i t e purpose, and l i k e them (see Gould 1979), has  a few problems w i t h c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l s .  However, approaches  l i k e E b e r t ' s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e l i t h i c assemblages  with  a " g e n e r i c " taxonomy comparable t o i d e n t i f y i n g s k e l e t a l ments w i t h bone fragments.  ele-  These k i n d s o f f a c t o r s a r e exam-  ined l a t e r i n t h i s study, i n I n t e r i o r Plateau  assemblages.  C o l l i n s (1975) has p r e s e n t e d a model o f l i t h i c  tech-  n o l o g y as a subsystem o f c u l t u r a l e c o l o g y t h a t i s r e m a r k a b l e i n i t s g e n e r a l i t y and i n i t s b a s i s i n b e h a v i o r a l a r c h a e o l o g y . I have r e v i e w e d t h e model e x t e n s i v e l y elsewhere (Magne 1978; see a l s o P o k o t y l o 1978), and d i s c u s s i t f u r t h e r and attempt to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e i t i n Chapter 4. is  Thus t h e p r e s e n t r e v i e w  brief. C o l l i n s (1975: 16 - 19) argues t h a t ongoing c u l t u r a l  systems u s i n g s t o n e t o o l s ( t h e s y s t e m i c c o n t e x t ; S c h i f f e r  1972,  1976) produce d i s t i n c t p r o d u c t groups t h r o u g h f i v e major  lithic  t e c h n o l o g i c a l s t e p s : 1. a c q u i s i t i o n : o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l ; 2.  c o r e p r e p a r a t i o n and i n i t i a l r e d u c t i o n ;  trimming;  4. o p t i o n a l secondary t r i m m i n g ;  3. o p t i o n a l p r i m a r y 5. o p t i o n a l  maintenance  40  and modification.  C o l l i n s supports the model i n a unique  cross-cultural comparison:  Archaic period materials from  Arenosa Shelter i n Texas, and Solutrean deposits at Laugerie Haute Ouest i n France (.Collins 1974) .  General patterns of  reduction through time are traced at both s i t e s , but d i f f i c u l t i e s are encountered i n i d e n t i f y i n g any but the e a r l i e s t and b i f a c i a l reduction strategies.  Substantive findings  include^ that even i n the Solutrean, known for i t s fine b i faces, less than 20% of the tool k i t s were produced by secondary trimming.  Furthermore, the Arenosa Archaic assemblages  average some 20% more secondary trimming debitage than Laugerie Haute Ouest ( C o l l i n s 1974). The value of l i t h i c debitage i n revealing basic stone tool manufacturing patterns i s made e x p l i c i t :  If isolated, product groups can be described in terms of their technological attributes and inferences can be drawn concerning the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s by which the p a r t i c u l a r manufacturing step was accomplished. The waste, or debitage i s p a r t i c u l a r l y amenable to this technological analysis (Collins 1975: 17).  Without ethnographic analogy, the " s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s " are  purely l i t h i c technological, and indeed such findings as  that b i f a c i a l manufacture  i n the Archaic levels was far more  e f f i c i e n t than i n the Solutrean occupations (.27 bifaces per 100 secondary stage flakes versus 2 per 100) and the observation  41  that Solutrean debitage i s more v a r i a b l e than the Archaic material, are valuable.  The further meaning of this pattern  in terms of human evolution i s not developed by C o l l i n s , but with a larger number of such analyses, i s quite possible, given such discussions of Old and New World s i m i l a r i t i e s i n c u l t u r a l '.evolution as that of Hayden (1981) .  The assemblages  analysed by C o l l i n s seem to indicate that Solutrean groups were less l o g i s t i c a l l y organized, and more r e s i d e n t i a l l y based than Archaic groups, and more expedient ative with their gear.  However, bifaces may  and less curhave been more  specialized, and more apt to removal from s i t e s i n the Solutrean, r e s u l t i n g i n the small number of such items i n comparison to late stage  debitage.  C o l l i n s ' a p p l i c a t i o n of his model was  fraught with tech-  n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n data reduction, a t t r i b u t e selection and stage inferences.  Successful refinement  in  method and outlook, but maintaining the behavioral approach and the general ^reduction model provided by C o l l i n s (1975), was achieved i n Pokotylo's Valley of B r i t i s h Columbia.  (1978) studies of the Upper Hat Creek Pokotylo's concern was with  ex-  plaining the "dispersal or aggregation of l i t h i c reduction steps at d i f f e r e n t s i t e locations" (.1978: 163) within the v a l l e y . Since this meant having i n hand some means of measuring reduction steps, a sample of archaeological debitage ( i n contrast to experimental materials as i n C o l l i n s 1974)  was  factor analysed to y i e l d  42  a reduced number of variables l i k e l y to y i e l d stage data.  The  tool data, as morphological types within raw material classes, were analysed separately to provide information on basic userelated patterns. Overall, the Hat Creek data exhibit high v a r i a b i l i t y . Five separate debitage s i t e groupings exist, ranging from single event, s i t u a t i o n a l kinds of assemblages, to quarry-like, to late-stage maintenance and occupation patterns (Pokotylo 1978). The tool data also revealed f i v e patterns of deposition, and again these are highly variable.  Several s i t e s of the 42 are  expedient, while many are abundant, high d i v e r s i t y assemblages, and microblade assemblages occur r e l a t i v e l y frequently. Pokotylo's (1978) "experimental" method of defining priate debitage attributes was similar to that of Katz who  appro-  (1976),  studied reduction stages of several Kansas City Hopewell  assemblages.  Both researchers solved the problem of providing  behavioral analogs for chipped stone processes by interpretation of patterns within a small archaeological sample.  This kind of  method has the advantage of l i m i t i n g extraneous, knapper-specific bias, but lacks generality to other assemblages.  Thus, within  each of Pokotylo's and Katz' f i n a l assemblage groupings, ambigu i t i e s occur (see Chapter 4) which are d i f f i c u l t to explain. Nevertheless these studies improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y on approaches of Fish (1976: 1981)  and C o l l i n s (.1974), which are t y p i f i e d by  analysis of redundant variables.  43  The  c o n t r i b u t i o n of Pokotylo's research i s that the  o p e r a t i o n o f two major p r o c e s s e s has been demonstrated:  of. assemblage f o r m a t i o n ,  d e p o s i t i o n o f manufacture d e b r i s , and  post-use d e p o s i t i o n of t o o l s .  I t i s apparent t h a t these  pro-  cesses a r e - p a r t i a l l y independent, but when combined, y i e l d p a t t e r n s i n t e r p r e t a b l e as " s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n " ( P o k o t y l o 1978: 321  - 322).  The p a t t e r n s a r e a l s o f a r more u s e f u l than  o b t a i n e d u s i n g e i t h e r p r o c e s s by i t s e l f .  The l i t h i c  those  sub-system  as a whole i s dependent on t h e s e t t l e m e n t system, but t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s i t e o c c u p a t i o n purposes a r e n o t as " f i n e - g r a i n e d " as p r e c i s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l a r g e mammal o r f l o r a l  resource  a c q u i s i t i o n , p r o c e s s i n g , s t o r i n g , consuming and d i s p o s a l would a l l o w , s i n c e use-wear, f a u n a l a n a l y s i s and o t h e r n o n - l i t h i c dence a r e n o t p a r t o f t h e argument.  However, i n t h e " g e n e r i c "  sense (basecamp, s t a g i n g camp, h u n t i n g / b u t c h e r i n g , pose), Pokotylo's  evi-  s p e c i a l pur-  (1978) r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Hat Creek s e t t l e -  ment system was h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l .  The e n t i r e c o m b i n a t i o n o f  t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e t a i l , a t a r e g i o n a l l e v e l , w i t h an e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s t r a t i f i e d s e t o f abundant l i t h i c assemblages, w i t h a f a i r degree of e t h n o g r a p h i c  a n a l o g y , i s an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r e c e d e n t i n Canada  comparable t o e a r l i e r s y s t e m i c  Great B a s i n s t u d i e s (Matson 1971;  Thomas 1973) . It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o observe t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n s t r u c t u r e o f  the r e s e a r c h b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n b y . C o l l i n s , P o k o t y l o , K a t z , F i s h , and the c u r r e n t s t u d y .  A l l f i r s t make c l e a r they a r e o p e r a t i n g under  44  the assumptions and l i m i t a t i o n s of a g e n e r a l l i t h i c  reduction  model, then propose means t o measure the d i s t r i b u t i o n of v a r i o u s " s t a g e s " or s t a t e s of c o m p l e x i t y .  F i n a l l y , the a n a l y s e s  performed  a r e m u l t i v a r i a t e and m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l , o f f e r i n g comparisons from the l e v e l s o f i n t e r - f e a t u r e , i n t r a - s i t e , to i n t r a - r e g i o n a l , i n t h i s study,  and  inter-regional.  S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s acknowledge t h a t l i t h i c  technology,  when a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s c r i b e d , not o n l y o f f e r s c l u e s as to the o p e r a t i o n o f the l a r g e r s e t t l e m e n t system, but i s a l s o a  resource  procurement and p r o c e s s i n g sub-system t h a t i t s e l f poses c o n s t r a i n t s on the l a r g e r system, and a t i t s s c a l e , i s worthy of a n a l y s i s as an economy ( S i n g e r and E r i c s o n 1977;  Goodyear 1979;  Gardener 1976).  The p r i n c i p a l argument i s t h a t p a t t e r n s of m o b i l i t y can be  tied  to  and  constant  l i t h i c sources  that succeeding  that are g e o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t ,  r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s s h o u l d be h i g h l y determined  c o n s e r v a t i o n and d i s t a n c e t o  by  sources.  Goodyear (1979) p r e s e n t s the g e n e r a l case f o r P a l e o - I n d i a n uses of v a r i o u s raw m a t e r i a l s , where the s i t u a t i o n was resources  that  lithic  e x h i b i t e d "some s e v e r e s p a t i a l i n c o n g r u e n c i e s " w i t h l o -  c a t i o n s where the stone was  a c t u a l l y used.  Note the c o n t r a s t  be-  tween t h i s and B i n f o r d ' s (1979) "embedded" argument f o r the Nunam i u t , i n t h a t the P a l e o - I n d i a n purpose t a s k .  a c q u i s i t i o n of stone i s a s p e c i a l  Yet Goodyear's p e r s p e c t i v e i s s i m i l a r to B i n f o r d ' s  i n a l s o b e i n g i n t e r e s t e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c u r a t e d or " c a r r y ing"  technologies.  F u r t h e r m o r e , B i n f o r d (1979), Goodyear (.1979) ,  45  and Pokotylo technology  (1978) and others see the need to model l i t h i c  as a f l e x i b l e , s i t u a t i o n a l l y responsive^ means of  solving other resource-related problems, yet as made clear by C o l l i n s (.1975), the operation of the technology ways independent of  i s i n many  - the subsistence and/or settlement model  under investigation. An important  substantive implication of Goodyear's con-  siderations i s that on a continental scale, Paleo-Indians  ex-  h i b i t ranges ( i . e . diameters) of mobility of 100 to 200 miles (.160 to 320 km),  and that during the following Archaic periods,  raw material use becomes increasingly l o c a l , indicating creased mobility (Goodyear 1979:  de-  9 - 10).  Goodyear uses h i s arguments to propose the hypothesis that:  Among mobile hunter-gatherers, the use of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e raw materials i s a s t r a t egy for creating portable and f l e x i b l e technologies to offset geographic incongruencies between resources and consumers (Goodyear 1979: 12) .  This kind of "economic" model i s e x p l i c i t i n Gardener's work on the F l i n t Run Complex (Gardener 1976)  as well as i n the research  of Kimball (1980), Raab, Cande and Stahle (1979), Chapman (1977), and Singer and Ericson (.1977) , who  investigate changes i n patterns  of reduction, mainly of bifaces, through time and space. The recent surge of technological awareness i n l i t h i c studies, in contrast to the technical emphasis of r e p l i c a t i o n studies (see  46  Chapter 4), poses methodological problems for p r e h i s t o r i c archaeologists wishing to reconstruct hunter-gatherer patterns of movement, and the evolution of such patterns.  With respect to  this study, the technological expectations of Nunamiut settlement and subsistence patterns can be contrasted with those of Interior Plateau ethnographic observations. Since Binford i s aware of the biases that can be introduced by "extreme cases" such as the Nunamiut (1979: 255), i t can be suggested that Interior Plateau peoples have been less mobile or d i f f e r i n g from the Nunamiut i n certain respects, and appropriate variations i n l i t h i c technology can be tested f o r i n this study. This assumes that Binford's (1979) information i s accurate and not induced to the informants, and demonstrating common features i n the two systems may be rendered d i f f i c u l t by a lack of d i r e c t ethnographic evidence from contemporary Plateau peoples. Cross-cultural research i n l i t h i c technology has reached a l e v e l of awareness such that " t r a d i t i o n a l " problem assemblage complexes appear to exhibit patterns comparable to independently derived deductions.  One such pattern or problem i s that revealed  i n the Mousterian discussion above and reinforced by Goodyear (1979), where raw material a v a i l a b i l i t y strongly determines the character of l i t h i c assemblages,  perhaps even masking settlement factors.  Binford concludes that major rethinking of current approaches to l i t h i c technology i s required, especially i n the areas of ...'cost/benefit' analysis of l i t h i c source reduction strategies, raw materials, tool design, recycling, reuse j.^and the r e l a t i v e contributions of each to 'assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y ' . We should expect d i f f e r e n t designs and reduction strategies f o r functionally s i m i l a r tools, depending upon their intended technological roles, given variable situations of tool demand and adequate gear provisions (Binford 1979: 271).  47  The Nunamiut s e t t l e m e n t system i s h i g h l y l o g i s t i c . Men  t r a v e l l i n g l o n g d i s t a n c e s on c a r i b o u hunts i n a s e v e r e  environment r e q u i r e caches and good knowledge of t h e i r l o c a t i o n s , t o i n s u r e t h e i r h u n t i n g endeavors a g a i n s t a c c i d e n t s , breakage, and t o l i g h t e n , l o a d s .  B i n f o r d (.1979: 258)  estimates  t h a t a t any p o i n t i n t i m e , about 60% to 70% of the gear known to a Nunamiut man  i s p a s s i v e , or not i n use.  Thus, p r o v i d i n g  t h a t t h e I n t e r i o r S a l i s h and C h i l c o t i n were somewhat l e s s " l o g i s t i c " than the Nunamiut, the amount of p a s s i v e gear would be expected may  t o be l o w e r , s i n c e fewer types o f s i t u a t i o n s  e x i s t where s e p a r a t e gear i s r e q u i r e d . To c o n t i n u e e x p l o r i n g and e v a l u a t i n g the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y , the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s ethnographic  the  and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s o f r e s e a r c h i n the  c e n t r a l and s o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  I think  t h a t the e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y of the P l a t e a u , has not been s u f f i c i e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d i n the g e n e r a l  archaeo-.  l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h e / d e t a i l i t p r o v i d e s of a f a s c i n a t i n g m o b i l e , salmon p r o c u r i n g , h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g c u l t u r e complex. The  i n f o r m a t i o n reviewed  p r o v i d e s e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t h a t bears  d i r e c t l y on the t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d above, c o m p l e t i n g the major terms of r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n w h i c h the ensuing a n a l y s e s were  undertaken.  48  CHAPTER 3  ETHNOGRAPHIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXTS  3.1.  Regional Ethnography  The archaeological assemblages examined i n this study were obtained from four regions of the Interior Plateau (Figure 3) that were h i s t o r i c a l l y occupied by the following groups: 1. C h i l c o t i n ; 4.  2. Canyon Shuswap;  3. Upper L i l l o o e t ;  Upper or Spences Bridge Thompson (Figure 4).  and  The C h i l c o t i n  are an i n t e r i o r Athapaskan speaking group and are currently the most southerly Athapaskans i n Canada. were the most southerly.  The Nicola, now  extinct,  The remaining three groups represent  l i n g u i s t i c and t e r r i t o r i a l d i v i s i o n s of Interior S a l i s h peoples. This section describes the subsistence practices and settlement patterns of these people as recorded mainly i n the l a t e 19th century, and indicates basic s i m i l a r i t i e s as well as important differences i n their l i f e s t y l e s .  Sub-sections discuss the results  of recent cross-cultural analyses and b r i e f l y review the i n t e r i o r ethnographic record of l i t h i c technology. The Thompson, L i l l o o e t and Shuswap are r e l a t i v e l y well known, mainly through the observations of James Teit (1900, 1906,  1909a),  who gathered information for the Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition under the general d i r e c t i o n of Franz Boas.  Dawson (1891) also  49  Figure 3. Physiographic zones of B r i t i s h Columbia, showing the area of study. After Holland (1964)  50  Figure 4.  Ethnographic groups of B r i t i s h Columbia, showing the major bands of i n t e r e s t . After Duff (1964) .  51  contributed information on the Shuswap, obtained while undertaking reconnaissance  for the Geological Survey of Canada.  Teit's work i s especially valuable, for i t often contains comparisons of material culture, b e l i e f s , shelter and  food  acquisition. The C h i l c o t i n are reasonably 1981), but his research was  well described by Lane (1953,  conducted quite l a t e i n time (1951).  Teit's (1909b) C h i l c o t i n writings contain only minimal reference to subsistence and settlement, being mostly concerned with ry and motifs, and Farrand's  (1898, 1900)  legends provide l i t t l e substantive data.  basket-  accounts of myths and Ray  (1942) interviewed  only one C h i l c o t i n i n his Plateau culture t r a i t s study, and mentions that he considers h i s C h i l c o t i n data to be the least r e l i a b l e of his sample.  The Reverend A.G.  Morice compiled  detailed accounts  of the Carrier and C h i l c o t i n during his missionary work; however, his references to C h i l c o t i n are few and often offered i n comparison to Carrier (Morice 1893,  1906).  Morice's writing also has a  strong antiquarian and ethnocentric tone, at times leading one to suspect the accuracy of his statements.  A recent study of C h i l -  cotin ethnohistory by Tyhurst (n.d.) presents an in-depth examination of economic circumstances  that have led to current eastern  C h i l c o t i n culture. A l l the c l a s s i c authors take pains to point out that the c u l tures described were observed after large-scale decimations  in  population had occurred, mainly due to smallpox epidemics of the  52  1860's (see D u f f 1964).  Yet i t i s notable that s i g n i f i c a n t  a s p e c t s of the a b o r i g i n a l  c u l t u r e s remain t o d a y , w i t h  r e s p e c t t o the use of p l a n t , f i s h and mammal r e s o u r c e s , and certain oral traditions  (Bouchard and Kennedy 1979; Kennedy  and Bouchard 1978; T u r n e r , Kennedy and Bouchard 1977, 1978, 3.1.1.  1980; Turner  1979).  Chilcotin  The C h i l c o t i n o c c u p i e d the w e s t e r n edge of the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u and were w e s t e r n n e i g h b o u r s of the Canyon Shuswap and n o r t h e r n n e i g h b o u r s t o the Upper L i l l o o e t .  The C h i l c o t i n had  a c c e s s t o salmon', b o t h sockeye and kokanee, but Lane (1953: 42) observed t h a t t r o u t , w h i t e f i s h importance than were e i t h e r salmon.  Teit  and s u c k e r s were o v e r a l l of more  the a n n u a l r i v e r run or l a n d - l o c k e d  (1909b: 779) wrote t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of the salmon  used by the C h i l c o t i n were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t r a d e w i t h the B e l l a C o o l a and Shuswap.  J o r g e n s e n (1980) observed t h a t i n a sample  of 172 western.'Indian T r i b e s " . . . o n l y t h e C h i l c o t i n a q u i r e d more than 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r t o t a l d i e t from f i s h g a i n e d from t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s " (1980: 125). A c c o r d i n g t o Lane (1953: 172 - 173) the months o f J u l y t o September were the p e r i o d of g r e a t e s t a g g r e g a t i o n f o r the C h i l cotin.  W h i l e engaged i n r o o t g a t h e r i n g i n the mountains  salmon f i s h i n g a t f a v o r e d l o c a t i o n s a l o n g the C h i l k o and  and Chilcotin  r i v e r s , s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s would camp t o g e t h e r and c o o p e r a t e i n  53  food a q u i s i t i o n , processing and storage.  In October, and part  of November, individual families would hunt game, and from November through to February, encampments of one or two families would winter together.  Individual families would disperse to  f i s h i n g s i t e s from March to A p r i l and from then into July esp e c i a l l y productive f i s h i n g and berrying locales would be f r e quented by "semi-bands" comprising several f a m i l i e s . House structures of the Chilcotin.are reported o r i g i n a l l y to have been gabled plank houses, with rectangular and oval outlines.  Round semisubterranean pithouses were l a t e r copied  from the Shuswap (Lane 1953: 146; 1981: 403).  Lane's informants  claimed that their ancestors b u i l t their houses i n i s o l a t i o n near lakes, and denied that housepits found near f i v e r s were Chilcotin in origin.  Lane photographed  an abandoned but stand-  ing "bark house" near Puntzi Lake i n 1951 (Lane 1981: 403).  In  the summer, brush shelters were erected, but Lane notes that " . . . i n both summer and the winter, people often camped i n the open with no shelter " (1953: 46). To store salmon and other foods for winter months, caches were constructed that consisted of low log structures that Morice (1893: 179) says were placed on the ground.  Morice also noted  that these were constructed at some distance from regular v i l l a g e s , but Lane (1953: 46) claims caches were put up at planned future campsites.  In neither case i s i t mentioned whether or not caches  were located near winter camps.  Proximity of storage f a c i l i t i e s  54  t o l o n g term camps i s not a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y .  For  example,  Honigmann (1954) observed t h a t Kaska of n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia would t r a v e l as f a r as 35 m i l e s t o r e t r i e v e cached food d u r i n g w i n t e r s h o r t a g e s . The a r e a of E a g l e or C h o e l q u o i t Lake i s n o t mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the e t h n o g r a p h i c r e c o r d , and the word " C h o e l q u o i t " i s not known t o have any meaning i n C h i l c o t i n o r C a r r i e r ( T y h u r s t 1982, p e r s o n a l communication).  Lane  (1953)  p l o t s a C h i l c o t i n h o u s e p i t s i t e on the s o u t h edge o f the l a k e , but the s c a l e i s so i n n a c c u r a t e as t o be of no use i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h a t one s i t e from s e v e r a l o t h e r s c u r r e n t l y known near t h e l a k e (Matson e t a l 1980; Germann 1979). 3.1.2.  Thompson  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y was l a r g e l y a p a r t of the t e r r i t o r y c l a i m e d by t h e Spences B r i d g e d i v i s i o n of the Upper Thompson I n d i a n s ( T e i t 1900: 170), but t h e extreme n o r t h e r n p a r t of t h e v a l l e y and i t s lower r e a c h e s t o t h e Bonaparte R i v e r were w i t h i n Bonaparte Shuswap t e r r i t o r y ( T e i t 1909a: 456).  The v a l l e y i s  s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned by T e i t (1900: 170) as b e i n g an a r e a near the w e s t e r n l i m i t o f the Spences B r i d g e band.  Teit  clearly  regarded the Upper Thompson and the Bonaparte Shuswap as h i g h l y s i m i l a r i n m a n u f a c t u r e s , s u b s i s t e n c e p r a c t i c e s and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Shuswap (1909a), makes c o n t i n u a l r e f e r e n c e t o h i s volume on the Thompson (1900).  Strong  s i m i l a r i t i e s were a l s o p e r c e i v e d by J o r g e n s e n ( 1 9 6 9 ) , whose ieompre-  55  h e n s i v e q u a n t i t a t i v e study of S a l i s h c u l t u r e grouped b o t h i n t o a "Thompson C u l t u r e C l u s t e r " , w i t h i n w h i c h 70% t e c h n o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and t e r i s t i c s were shared.  of  ideological  Contemporary I n t e r i o r S a l i s h  characinfor-  mants a l s o c o n s i d e r themselves t o be a p a r t of a common c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n (see Brow 1972). The Upper Thompson and B o n a p a r t e Shuswap b o t h w i n t e r e d i n s h e l t e r e d major r i v e r v a l l e y s , w i t h most f a m i l i e s o c c u p y i n g p i t h o u s e s , a l t h o u g h mat-covered lodges p a r t l y banked w i t h e a r t h were a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d  ( T e i t 1909a: 493; Boas 1890:  saw o n l y a few p i t h o u s e s s t i l l h i s s t u d i e s , but he was  634).  Teit  i n use by the t i m e he u n d e r t o o k  a b l e to gather much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n .  For example, f o r the Thompson, T e i t o b s e r v e d :  The e x i s t e n c e of numerous r u i n s of underground houses might be c o n s i d e r e d as s u f f i c i e n t p r o o f o f the d e c r e a s e of the t r i b e , were i t not t h a t the same f a m i l y sometimes c o n s t r u c t e d s e v e r a l of these houses...(1900: 175).  Working t o g e t h e r , a group of 20 or 30 p e o p l e c o u l d c o n s t r u c t a p i t h o u s e i n a s i n g l e day  ( T e i t 1900:  192), and the d w e l l i n g s were  u s u a l l y i n h a b i t e d from December u n t i l F e b r u a r y or March, w h i c h f o r the Thompson and Shuswap was aggregation  ( T e i t 1900:  194,  the p e r i o d of g r e a t e s t  238).  population  P e o p l e r e l i e d h e a v i l y on  foods t h a t had been s t o r e d from the summer salmon runs and and b e r r y c r o p s , but on o c c a s i o n or i n p e r i o d s o f d u r e s s ,  root they  56  would hunt l a r g e game and t r a p s m a l l e r mammals.  Many k i n d s o f  s n a r e s , d e a d f a l l s and t r a p s were used f o r both k i n d s o f game, i n c l u d i n g deer f e n c e s and p i t t r a p s . By A p r i l , t h e p i t h o u s e v i l l a g e groups had d i s p e r s e d t o l a k e and stream f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s and were engaged i n t h e g a t h e r i n g o f r o o t s , new s h o o t s and cambium.  The c o m p o s i t i o n o f  such t a s k groups i s n o t d e t a i l e d , but i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d  single  f a m i l i e s s e t out a t f i r s t , and r e s o u r c e - r i c h a r e a s o f t h e summer were t h e scenes of  o f b a n d - l e v e l a g g r e g a t i o n on t h e o r d e r  20 t o 30 p e o p l e among two t o f o u r f a m i l i e s .  H u n t i n g and  t r a p p i n g were c a r r i e d out by men, w h i l e women u n d e r t o o k t h e c o l l e c t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g o f p l a n t foods (Dawson 1891: 19; T e i t 1900: 2 3 0 ) . Root r e s o u r c e s were e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y summer.  These were dug from t h e r o c k y s o i l s  they f a v o u r w i t h t h e h e l p o f d i g g i n g s t i c k s and p r o c e s s e d f o r immediate  consumption  and f o r s t o r a g e .  Root b a k i n g o r steaming  was a c c o m p l i s h e d by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e a r t h ovens.  These were  b u i l t by b o t h s e x e s , and were a l s o used t o cook mammals- (Dawson 1891:9;  Ray 1942).  At summer camps where an extended s t a y was p l a n n e d ,  temporary  s h e l t e r s o f mats, b a r k and s k i n s were c o n s t r u c t e d ( T e i t 1900: 195 197, 1909a: 493).  I n l a t e summer, about August, people  congregated  a l o n g t h e major r i v e r s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e a n n u a l salmon r u n s . L a r g e camps were s e t up on t h e banks o f t h e Thompson and F r a s e r R i v e r s , f a v o u r e d l o c a l e s b e i n g n a t u r a l n a r r o w i n g s i n t h e waterways.  57  The ascending salmon were caught with spears, nets and weirs, and dried by a i r and smoke to be preserved for the winter months. Salmon were also traded among Indian groups, as were o i l and other by-products, as well as dried roots.  The dried salmon  were stored i n underground p i t s that were lined with bark and were usually located close to winter habitation s i t e s (Teit 1900: 198 - 199). The remainder  of the year prior to the winter's  accumulation of snow, was spent hunting, trapping and gathering late season foods such as white-bark pine and ponderosa pine nutlets (Dawson 1891: 22). 3.1.3.  Shuswap  Concerning the general pattern of Shuswap subsistence and settlement, Teit wrote:  The Shuswap may be classed as a hunting and f i s h i n g t r i b e ; the former occupation, on the whole, predominating. The Fraser River and Canon bands were the most sedentary, the l a t t e r being almost e n t i r e l y so; while the North Thompson bands were the most nomadic (1909a: 513).  The Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n region assemblages that are analysed in Chapter 6 were recovered from the Canyon Shuswap t e r r i t o r y at the confluence of the Fraser and C h i l c o t i n r i v e r s .  Teit  c l e a r l y considered them to partake of a l i f e s t y l e somewhat different from other Shuswap and neighbouring  Chilcotin:  58  They controlled part of the C h i l c o t i n salmon supply, and the C h i l c o t i n traded extensively with them...they...did very l i t t l e t r a v e l l i n g or hunting (1909a: 535).  Yet i t was apparent that o v e r a l l , Shuswap band composition was f l u i d , i n part because of a very mobile pattern of settlement:  ...the small wintering places were frequently changed, and even the main l o c a l i t y of v i l l a g e of a band would have more families one winter and less another. Some families were more nomadic than others, and each band would have people from neighbouring v i l l a g e s l i v i n g with them every winter (Teit 1909a: 457).  Teit (1909a: 457) was of the opinion that 50 years p r i o r to'Uhis time ( i . e . about 1850) there were more, and smaller v i l l a g e s i n existence.  Before the smallpox epidemics of 1860 -  1863, the Canyon d i v i s i o n was estimated to number about 700 people i n four bands (.100 of these i n the band at the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n ) , and the Bonaparte d i v i s i o n was estimated at 700. people i n three bands (Teit 1909a: 464 - 465) . As for structures, Teit (1909a: 493 - 495) notes that the following were i n use among the Shuswap: conical mat lodges and semi-subterranean lodges for winter dwellings, long double lodges for several families at f i s h i n g resorts, trapping lodges b u i l t near deer fences, menstrual huts for young women, and sweat houses.  I t i s e x p l i c i t throughout the Shuswap descriptions  59  t h a t the Thompson used much the same k i n d s of s h e l t e r s . F i s h i n g i n l a k e s and streams was  g e n e r a l l y of g r e a t e r  importance to a l l Shuswap t h a n to Thompson ( T e i t 1909a: 513), and g a t h e r i n g may  have been.  T e i t (1909a: 513 - 514)  lists  15 mammals, 18 v a r i e t i e s of r o o t s , 18 k i n d s of b e r r i e s , as w e l l as mosses, l i c h e n s , c a c t i , n u t s and  the cambium of 8 t r e e  s p e c i e s t h a t were r e g u l a r l y used by the Shuswap. that  It is likely  more p l a n t s than those enumerated were used r e g u l a r l y .  D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of f l o r a l r e s o u r c e a q u i s i t i o n and c e s s i n g a r e p r o v i d e d by Turner 3.1.4.  pro-  (1977).  Lillooet  The Upper or F r a s e r R i v e r band of the L i l l o o e t t r i b e  occ-  u p i e d the e a s t and west s i d e s of the F r a s e r R i v e r from Seton Lake and the p r e s e n t  town of L i l l o o e t n o r t h t o . P a v i l i o n  F r a s e r R i v e r ( T e i t 1906).  T e i t (1906: 223)  L i l l o o e t made two k i n d s of food c e l l a r s . f u l l y b u i l t , and was o t h e r k i n d was  Creek and  the  n o t e s t h a t the Upper  One  k i n d was v e r y  care-  employed t o s t o r e food u n t i l s p r i n g ; the  used f o r the w i n t e r ' s food s u p p l y o n l y , and  l e s s c a r e f u l l y b u i l t , near the w i n t e r house.  was  Overall, Lillooet  c u l t u r e was much l i k e t h a t of the Thompson and Shuswap, e s p e c i a l l y the Upper L i l l o o e t , s i n c e the Lower L i l l o o e t i n t e r a c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h the Coast S a l i s h groups ( T e i t 1906).  The L i l l o o e t were  known t o hunt c a r i b o u i n the extreme n o r t h w e s t of t h e i r  hunting  grounds, a l o n g w i t h mule d e e r , mountain goat, mountain sheep, hoary marmot and b l a c k bear ( T e i t 1906:  223), a p r a c t i c e uncommon among  60  Shuswap or Thompson. It should be noted here that H i l l - T o u t ' s (1905) description of the L i l l o o e t does not o f f e r much d e t a i l about subsistence or settlement practices of the Fraser River band.  Boas (1906) con-  sidered H i l l - T o u t ' s account to contain inaccuracies i n content, r e l a t i v e to Teit's (1906) record of L i l l o o e t culture. Kennedy and Bouchard (1978) have added to the accounts of pithouses, by interviewing contemporary L i l l o o e t .  While most  information agrees with Teit's description of the Thompson, i t was noted that abandoned pithouses were at times used as workshops for the manufacture of implements (Kennedy and Bouchard 1978:  37), and also that at "potlatches" deer or horses were  tossed into pithouses, to be butchered by guests.  E l d e r l y people  are reported to have resided i n pithouses during the summer months. To keep snakes from frequenting the houses, ants' nests were placed about them (Kennedy and Bouchard 1978:  37).  Apparently  ants secrete  a substance that repels snakes. 3.1.5.  Cross-Cultural Discussion  From a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l perspective, i t i s apparent that the four groups under consideration were much a l i k e i n technological and economic adaptations.  A comparison of the general round of  seasonal a c t i v i t i e s conducted during the "moons" or months of the year for each of the groups, as e l i c i t e d by Teit (1900, 1906,  1909a,  1909b) and Morice (1893) , i s a convenient manner to demonstrate their subsistence and settlement patterns (see Table 1).  A l l four  61  -  CHILCOTIN ( M o r i c e 1893)  SHUSWAP THOMPSON ( T e i t 1909a) ( T e i t 1900)  LILLOOET ( T e i t 1906)  JANUARY  sun t u r n s  deer bucks shed a n t l e r s does l e a n  coldest weather  FEBRUARY  chinook winds  s p r i n g winds some p e o p l e l e a v e houses  p e o p l e come out o f houses  leave p i t houses, d i g roots  a l l people come o u t o f houses  some f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g  snow gone from h i g h ground, people d i g roots  f i s h trout with dip nets trap lake f i s h  MAY  people f i s h trout at lakes  root digging  f i r s t salmon small f i s h  JJUNE  service berries ripen  young deer born, b e r r i e s ripen  berries ripen  MARCH  APRIL  come o u t o f subterranean huts suckers fished  JULY  kokanee fished  salmon arrive  berries ripen some p e o p l e hunt  berry picking  AUGUST  salmon  fish a l l month  sockeye r u n  salmon r u n  cache f i s h hunt  cohos come  b o i l salmon, make o i l  hunt and trap i n mountains  t r a p , hunt  hunt and t r a p  e n t e r subterranean huts  going i n t i m e , deer rut  deer r u t  going i n time  ice  first cold  into winter houses  sun t u r n s  SEPTEMBER OCTOBER  NOVEMBER DECEMBER  TABLE 1.  -  real  S e a s o n a l i t y o f I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u groups as e v i d e n c e d by g e n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n d u r i n g "moons". Monthly e q u i v a l e n t s p r o vided i n the ethnographies c i t e d .  62  "entered p i t h o u s e s about t h e month of November, the Thompson p o s s i b l y w a i t i n g u n t i l a f t e r t h e deer r u t was o v e r .  Root d i g -  g i n g was a p r i o r i t y a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the months of March to w i t h the Thompson p o s s i b l y spending more time a t t h i s ,  May,  perhaps  because of t h e i r a c c e s s to good r o o t grounds such as Hat  Creek.  P r i o r to t h e a r r i v a l of the salmon i n August, they spent June and J u l y u n d e r t a k i n g a wide range of f o r a g i n g a c t i v i t i e s , but f o c u s i n g on b e r r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r v i c e b e r r y .  August  and  September was the time to c a t c h , p r o c e s s and s t o r e salmon, the  and  month or two p r i o r t o the commencement o f w i n t e r l i f e was  the  t i m e t o hunt l a r g e mammals w h i l e t h e y were r u t t i n g and d e s c e n d i n g to  lower e l e v a t i o n s . Jorgensen's (1980) m u l t i v a r i a t e s t u d y of 172 w e s t e r n I n d i a n  t r i b e s i n c l u d e s the most r e c e n t and perhaps the most o b j e c t i v e comparison o f the C h i l c o t i n , Shuswap, Upper L i l l o o e t and Upper Thompson.  I n r e l a t i o n t o the broad range of environments o c c u p i e d  by the I n d i a n s of w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a , Jorgensen shows t h a t these f o u r groups had s i m i l a r r e s o u r c e t y p e s and c l i m a t i c  conditions.  They had h i g h l y s i m i l a r t e c h n o l o g i e s , u.as w e l l as r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g resemblances  i n economic  and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The s u b s i s t e n c e  economy of t h e C h i l c o t i n and Shuswap was somewhat d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of t h e Upper L i l l o o e t and Upper Thompson, and i t i s n o t a b l e t h a t t h e L i l l o o e t and Thompson f a l l i n t o two c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e c l u s t e r s i n t h e s u b s i s t e n c e economy a n a l y s i s .  The Shuswap, Upper  L i l l o o e t and Upper Thompson a r e s i m i l a r to each o t h e r w i t h r e s p e c t  63  to ceremonialism and s p i r i t u a l i s m , but the C h i l c o t i n are d i f f e r e n t from them i n both these aspects. are  Yet the Shuswap and C h i l c o t i n  a l i k e i n p o l i t i c a l organization, and the Upper L i l l o o e t and  Upper Thompson diverge from these two groups as well as from each other i n this analysis. For  the purposes of this study, these are appealing results  of an exhaustive research programme, but Jorgensen's style of the quantitative study renders conclusions d i f f i c u l t .  Overall, the  four Plateau cultures under consideration show a communality i n culture that seems to be more attributable to environment  than  to language or ideology, and this i s not surprising for hunting and gathering s o c i e t i e s .  The four are loosely grouped i n Jorgensen's  C1980) analysis of economic and s o c i a l organization, but this i s perhaps where the Interior Plateau ethnographies are weak.  The  C h i l c o t i n here are somewhat more loosely linked to the three S a l i s h tribes. In a l l fairness, i t must be recognized that the attributes coded f o r the groups i n Jorgensen's analyses had to be "averaged out" for several bands and i n the face of sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g evidence, yet some problems do exist with the data codings. For example, Jorgensen (.1980: 356) classes the C h i l c o t i n as employing double lean-tos as winter habitations, the Shuswap, Upper L i l l o o e t and Upper Thompson as employing pithouses.  This i s perhaps  acceptable as f a r as the p r e h i s t o r i c use of such structures i s concerned, but i t i s clear from Morice and Teit as discussed above  64  that the C h i l c o t i n did l i v e i n pithouses, and eventhough  these were  "borrowed" from the Shuswap, the C h i l c o t i n c l e a r l y had t h e i r own patterns of using them, preferring isolated rather than grouped v i l l a g e s , and lake locations rather than r i v e r s .  This  problem appears to stem from Jorgensen's reliance on Ray's (1942) C h i l c o t i n evidence rather than that of Morice (1893).  Perhaps  also misleading i s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of C h i l c o t i n and Upper L i l l o o e t as lacking conical and subconical dwellings, both a t t ributed to the Shuswap and Upper Thompson, with 4-pole foundations. Furthermore the Shuswap are classed as obtaining aquatic animals only as a t e r t i a r y contribution to d i e t , and these are coded as secondary contributors to C h i l c o t i n and Upper L i l l o o e t d i e t s , and as the dominant food source among the Upper Thompson.  These cod-  i f i c a t i o n s are perhaps v a l i d for each " t r i b e " as a whole, but are  not the case for each band, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Canyon Shuswap.  In general, Jorgensen's (1980) analyses provide a panorama depicting  the groups of interest, and the u t i l i t y of the volume i s only  s l i g h t l y hampered by the few inconsistencies with known occurrences of  s p e c i f i c material culture.  I t i s clear that the four groups  examined are c l o s e l y related i n most aspects of material culture, technology and economy.  3.2.  Ethnographic References to L i t h i c Technology This d i s s e r t a t i o n i s concerned with p r e h i s t o r i c stone tools,  and i t i s appropriate to review what has been recorded about l i t h i c technology by both the c l a s s i c and the more recent ethnographers.  65  No p r e v i o u s c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u l i t h i c  tech-  n o l o g y r e f e r e n c e s e x i s t s , and I b e l i e v e i t i s u s e f u l here as a source o f f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e , t o l e n d i n s i g h t t o more complex p a t t e r n s t o be d i s c u s s e d , and f o r documentation  i n i t s own  r i g h t of t h i s p r a c t i c a l l y e x t i n c t s e t of tool-making  techniques.  The d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e l a t e 19th. c e n t u r y a r e o f t e n more i n f o r m a t i v e and l u c i d than some o f t h e c l a s s i c cases i n t h e c u r r e n t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e such as t h e Western D e s e r t A b o r i g i n e s (Gould e t a l 1971; Gould  1980, Hayden  1978).  Most o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n can be taken as a c c u r a t e , but some i s thought t o be m a r g i n a l l y s o . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from a r e c e n t l y c o l l e c t e d Shuswap i n t e r v i e w about h u n t i n g  techniques  (.Willard 1979) i s r e a s o n a b l y w e l l i n f o r m e d , y e t a l s o u n r e a l i s t i c .  B e f o r e t h e non-Indians came t o t h i s c o u n t r y , the Shuswap people used t o go t o Ta-Ta-CAIL-in, a mountain near Kamloops, t o c o l l e c t f l i n t r o c k s . The r o c k s t h a t were rounded on one end were used when t h e y tanned h i d e s , and t h e t h i n r o c k s were used f o r arrowheads. To make t h e arrowheads t h i n and s h a r p , t h e r o c k s were p l a c e d i n t h e f i r e u n t i l they were r e d hot and then they were dipped i n t o some c o l d water. The c h i p s t h a t broke o f f when t h e r o c k h i t t h e water were v e r y sharp and good f o r arrowheads . The p i e c e o f f l i n t was then f a s t e n e d t o a j u n i p e r s t i c k which had been s p l i t and w h i t t l e d . The f i n i s h e d arrow i s about t h r e e f e e t l o n g (.Willard 1979: 139; emphasis added).  H i l l - T o u t ' s i n f o r m a n t s i n t h e L y t t o n , and L i l l o o e t a r e a appear n o t to have been f a m i l i a r w i t h s t o n e t o o l s as s u b s i s t e n c e  implements,  but c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y were used i n p e r s o n a l s c a r i f i c a t i o n  (Hill—  66  Tout 1905:  64).  Teit provides descriptions of quarries, observations on functional s p e c i f i c i t y of t o o l types, and a good description of bipolar core reduction:  Arrowheads were made of glassy basalt which was obtained at a certain place north of Thompson River... Many were made out of large chipped heads, which are found i n great numbers i n the v a l l e y s (1900: 241). ...spearheads were similar i n shape and material to the arrowheads except that they were larger (1900: 236). The Indians are s t i l l familiar with the art of making arrowheads. When these were to be made from a boulder, the following method was employed. The boulder was s p l i t by being l a i d on a stone and struck with a hand-hammer, generally a pebble of handy s i z e . When a suitable piece had been obtained, i t s edges were trimmed o f f with a hard stone. Then i t was wrapped i n grass or hay, placed on edge on a stone, and large flakes were s p l i t o f f with a hand-hammer. After a suitable piece had been obtained, i t was placed on a pad i n the l e f t hand and held i n position with the fingers. I t was given i t s f i n a l shape by means of a flaker made of antler...which was used with a forward and downward pressure (1900: 182).  Teit was aware of the concept of stages i n stone tool manufacture, and compared what he witnessed among the Thompson to stone working described by Mor ice (.1893):  The blunt point served for f l a k i n g o f f larger chips, while the smaller one was used for the f i n a l stages of the work. In l a t e r times, iron flakers were used. The method of holding the flake was the same as that of the Carrier Indians of northern B r i t i s h Columbia (Teit 1900: 182).  67  Morice's  (1893: 51) d e s c r i p t i o n o f b i p o l a r r e d u c t i o n ,  w h i c h he m a i n t a i n e d  was used "almost i n v a r i a b l y " , i s compar-  a b l e t o T e i t ' s but l a c k i n g i n d e t a i l .  There i s a l s o e v i d e n c e  t h a t h a f t s were n o t the most v a l u e d p a r t o f a l l composite stone t o o l s , c o n t r a r y t o K e e l e y  (1982), who argues t h a t t h e  e f f o r t s o f r e h a f t i n g b l u n t t o o l s a r e l a r g e enough t o w a r r a n t extensive resharpening  prior to discard:  T h i s h a f t i n g i s temporary as t h e s t o n e p a r t o n l y o f t h e implement i s u s u a l l y kept among the f a m i l y c h a t t e l s ( M o r i c e 1893: 5 1 ) .  Morice i s here d e s c r i b i n g cobble s p a l l hide s c r a p e r s , f o r which contemporary c u r a t i o n o f t h i s s o r t has been r e c e n t l y r e c o r d e d . A l b r i g h t (1982) has observed a T a h l t a n woman i n T e l e g r a p h  Creek  u s i n g stone h i d e s c r a p e r s and s e a r c h i n g f o r s u i t a b l e stone on t r a p l i n e s .  while  The woman keeps h e r s p a l l t o o l s and has h e r mo^  t h e r ' s as w e l l , numbering some f i v e t o t e n i n a l l .  I should note  here t h a t a C h i l c o t i n woman o f t h e Nemiah band a t C h i l k o Lake i s . r e p o r t e d t o make and use s p a l l h i d e s c r a p e r s a l s o (D. L u l u a , p e r s o n a l communication 1979;  see Matson e t a l 1980: 2 3 0 ) .  There a r e r e f e r e n c e s t o t r a d i t i o n a l names f o r stone raw mate r i a l s such as / p i s / , w h i c h i s a " b l a c k resonant by Dawson as a u g i t e - p o r p h y r i t e ( M o r i c e 1893:  53).  rock"  identified  M o r i c e mentions  t h a t t h e C a r r i e r had s i x words f o r s u i t a b l e c h i p p i n g s t o n e ,  includ-  i n g / n a l r e / f o r o b s i d i a n (1.893: 5 3 ) , w h i c h i s a l s o known as /bez/  68  by Anahim Lake C h i l c o t i n (Wilmeth 1978), and Nemiah  Chilcotin  (personal observation) and / t s e - l k r a i / for chalcedony.  There i s  no r e a l contradiction i n the use of / p i s / for dark b a s a l t i c rock and /bez/ for obsidian, since the Athapaskan word applies to black rock i n general, v i z the Baezeko RiXjier, Beece Creek, places where quantities of glassy basalt and other volcanics can be found (Tyhurst, personal communication 1982); i . e .  these two words are cognates.  Teit (1909a: 473) noted that Shuswap and Thompson stone working  techniques were i d e n t i c a l , and that while rough s p a l l scrapers  were usually employed to scrape hides, occasionally fine basalt was used.  This i s evidenced archaeolbgically at the Mouth of the  C h i l c o t i n , where a very heavily worn scraper is a fine basalt b i face, the broad blunt end being the locus of considerable rounding (Matson, Ham and Bunyan 1979; Ham 1975: 160).  Morice, how-  ever maintained that such scrapers "receive no p o l i s h whatsoever" (1893: 50). F i n a l l y , Morice presents evidence that there was some ownership attached to s p e c i f i c quarries:  The material chosen in preference to fashion arrow or spear heads with was loose, broken pieces of rock such as were found on the s u r face. Of course, these were confined to a few l o c a l i t i e s only wherein were situated sorts of quarries which were very jealously guarded against any person, even of the same t r i b e , whose right to a share in their contents was not f u l l y established. A v i o l a t i o n of this t r a d i t i o n a l law was often considered a casus b e l l i between the co-clansmen of the trespassers and those of the proprieters of the quarry (1893: 65).  69  T h i s d i s c u s s i o n has not attempted to c o m p i l e a l l the known r e f e r e n c e s t o the c r a f t of stone w o r k i n g ethnographic  as p r a c t i c e d by  i n h a b i t a n t s o f the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u .  the  For example,  i t o f f e r s no d e s c r i p t i o n - o f stone g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e s , w h i c h t o j u d g e by the w r i t i n g s o f T e i t and M o r i c e , one gets the were more i n common p r a c t i c e than was  stone f l a k i n g .  impression The  evi-  dence i s o n l y s l i g h t l y a n a l y t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t t o the remainder of t h i s s t u d y , but the d e t a i l s of q u a r r i e s , c o r e r e d u c t i o n , f l a k i n g and p r e s s u r e r e t o u c h a r e p r o v i d e d to i l l u s t r a t e the n a t u r e o f the available information.  3.3.  Regional P r e h i s t o r i c  Archaeology  T h i s s e c t i o n r e v i e w s the development o f p r e h i s t o r i c r e s e a r c h i n areas of immediate r e l e v a n c e t o the p r e s e n t  study.  The d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s e s on s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n on the F r a s e r and Nechako P l a t e a u x , and e x c l u d e s r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d from the Okanagan and . Kootenay r e g i o n s , as w e l l as work done i n the Rocky Mountain and n o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r a r e a s .  The f o l l o w i n g des-  c r i p t i o n o f the growth of p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s s t r u c t u r e d i n terms o f e a r l y s t u d i e s , c u l t u r e h i s t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ,  and  settlement pattern research. 3.3.1. E a r l y S t u d i e s The  f i r s t o b s e r v a t i o n s on p r e h i s t o r i c s e t t l e m e n t on  I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u were r e c o r d e d by George Dawson i n 1877 of a r e p o r t on Shuswap ethnography (Dawson 1891).  the as p a r t  H a r l a n I . Smith  70  conducted excavations of several b u r i a l s i t e s in the southern Interior near Lytton, Spences Bridge and Kamloops, and he also undertook a limited survey of the Nicola Valley (Smith 1899,  1900).  Smith interrelated the b u r i a l remains he un-  covered with l o c a l Indian legends, and recognized the continu i t y of the prehistoric remains with the culture of the Thompson Indians as described i n James Teit's ethnographic research (Teit 1900). Farther to the north on the central Plateau, the Rev.  A.G.  Morice (1893) described selected aspects of Carrier prehistory, including stone tools and c u l t u r a l depressions.  Morice disputed  any claims for s i g n i f i c a n t antiquity of archaeological materials, c i t i n g as evidence the s i m i l a r i t y of abandoned s i t e s and a r t i facts to those i n use by the Athapaskans whom he was converting to C h r i s t i a n i t y (Morice 1893: 39 - 43). 3.3.2.  Culture History and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Studies  Central Plateau No archaeological research was conducted i n the central and southern Interior of the province u n t i l Borden's surveys of Tweedsmuir Park and the Nechako River system i n the early 1950's (Borden 1952a,b).  Borden's work was carried out to p a r t i a l l y o f f -  set environmental impacts caused by the construction of the Kenney Dam by the Aluminum Company of Canada, and can be seen as being inspired by the extensive r i v e r basin surveys and salvage archaeology projects that were being carried out by American archaeologists  71  of the time.  Borden's surveys on the central Plateau also  prompted him to devise a uniform s i t e recording scheme (Borden 1952c), now known as the Borden system. The most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s of Borden's research came from the excavations at Chinlac v i l l a g e (GaRv 1) and Natalkuz Lake ( F i S i 19).  Chinlac was recognized as a s i t e occupied during the  protohistoric and h i s t o r i c periods, and Natalkuz Lake revealed two periods of occupation.  The lower levels of F i S i 19 con-  tained micro- and macroblades, and were dated to 2415 + 160 BP. Borden c l a s s i f i e d the lower part of this s i t e , a c t u a l l y a large hearth feature, as the remains of a non-Carrier or C h i l c o t i n "Natalkuz Lake Culture", and considered the uppermost remains to represent a late p r e h i s t o r i c Carrier occupation (Borden 1952b). Chinlac was the s i t e of a h i s t o r i c a l l y recorded b a t t l e , ca. 1745 (see Wilmeth 1978: 6) between Carrier and C h i l c o t i n (Morice 1906: 14 - 15).  The v i l l a g e may have been v i s i t e d by  Simon Fraser sometime around 1806 or 1807 (Lamb 1960; Nechako Valley H i s t o r i c a l Society 1979).  Wilson Duff's fieldnotes on  Carrier Indians (Duff 1951) contain interviews with informants who claim that the s i t e was not reoccupied following the massacre. Duff's (1951) Carrier informants claim that the s i t e was a summer f i s h i n g s i t e located near a large weir on the Stewart River. Chinlac presently consists of ten shallow, large, rectangular depressions i n a clearing about an acre i n size, with well over 100 cachepit depressions  located i n the forest west of the  72  clearing.  I n h i s e x c a v a t i o n of one of t h e l a r g e r d e p r e s s i o n s  (House I I I ) a t C h i n l a c , Borden r e c o v e r e d items o f i r o n and copper,  g l a s s beads, b a r k r o l l s , f a u n a l remains and items o f s t o n e  and bone manufacture.  The m a t e r i a l s from t h i s s i t e have never  been f u l l y d e s c r i b e d o r a n a l y z e d , a l t h o u g h a 25 p e r c e n t sample of  t h e d e b i t a g e from f i e l d bags was examined  of  s e v e r a l P l a t e a u assemblages by t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r (Magne 1980).  A l s o , 14 o f the hundred-odd  i n a debitage study  p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s from C h i n l a c were  used as "known Athapaskan" items i n a s t u d y o f e t h n i c  homogeneity  i n s m a l l s i d e - n o t c h e d p o i n t s t y l e s (Magne and Matson 1982).  The  e n t i r e assemblage i s c u r r e n t l y u n d e r g o i n g s t u d y by Cranny (1982) , who  t h i n k s t h a t t h e s i t e i s multi-component.  I t seems r a t h e r  c l e a r t h a t t h e House I I I d e p r e s s i o n e x c a v a t e d by Borden was  built  and used by a s i n g l e C a r r i e r band, a l t h o u g h h e a r t h f e a t u r e s appear to have been used r e p e a t e d l y , p o s s i b l y w i t h s e a s o n a l l a p s e s . As concerns the 130 or so s i t e s t h a t he l o c a t e d i n h i s 1951 survey of some 400 m i l e s of r i v e r and l a k e s h o r e s , Borden n o t e s :  Most of the s i t e s . . . a r e h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , b e r r y - p i c k i n g and cambium-gathering camps w i t h out i n d i c a t i o n s of permanent h a b i t a t i o n . Sites are o f t e n l o c a t e d a t the head o f o u t l e t of l a k e s , near marshes or game c r o s s i n g s , i n s h e l t e r e d bays or coves w i t h sandy beaches, and near head l a n d s a f f o r d i n g a sweeping v i e w of the l a k e . Most s i t e s are found on the n o r t h s i d e of the l a k e s , i n d i c a t ing t h a t a s o u t h e r n exposure was a d e s i r a b l e f a c t o r CBorden 1952b: 3 4 ) .  73  The Punchaw Lake s i t e (FiRs 1), located 55 km  southwest  of Prince George, consists of A3 house platforms, 57 storage p i t s , and a h i s t o r i c t r a i l segment.  Two house platforms were  excavated at this s i t e (Fladmark 1976; Montgomery 1978).  Area  A, reported by Fladmark (1976) contained a b u r i a l , below which deposits were dated to 3980 + 100 BP, and "the l a s t major occupation" of the s i t e i s thought to have taken place between AD 1700 and AD 1800 (Fladmark 1976: 31).  Montgomery's (1978) ana-  l y s i s of the stone t o o l assemblage from Area C demonstrated  that  a l l stages of tool manufacture were present within the deposits. At  the T e z l i s i t e (FkSd 1 ) , several of A6 v i s i b l e c u l t u r a l  depression features were test excavated by Donahue (1977). Donahue posited that the s i t e was f i r s t occupied about 2500 BC by people using pithouses as winter habitations.  The a r t i f a c t s  from T e z l i were c l a s s i f i e d into many morphological types and compared v i s u a l l y with other c o l l e c t i o n s from western Canada and the U.S.  The results led Donahue to assert that no major popu-  l a t i o n displacements have occurred on the Interior Plateau within the l a s t A500 years, and that continuous c u l t u r a l evolution has occurred throughout the region (Donahue 1977) .  It i s clear that  Donahue also recognized certain "influences" and may have glossed over "diagnostic" a r t i f a c t s i n the T e z l i assemblage.  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  IA microblades were found at T e z l i , 12 of these being from the same stratigraphic layer that yielded a 3850 + 1 6 0  BP date, but " f o r a l l  intents and purposes" (Donahue 1977: 259) a m i c r o l i t h i c technology  74  i s not present.  Since Donahue discontinued screening of the  s i t e matrix early i n the excavation schedule (1977: 119), a bias towards large a r t i f a c t recovery i s not surprising.  A  s i g n i f i c a n t c o l l e c t i o n of microblades may yet exist at the s i t e . Donahue's investigations of Carrier prehistory through the direct h i s t o r i c approach (Steward 1973) were i n i t i a t e d at Ulkatcho, an early h i s t o r i c trading centre for Carrier.  Ulkatcho was v i s i t e d  by Mackenzie i n 1793 and by Dawson i n 1876 (Donahue 1973) , and the people of this v i l l a g e were the subjects of Goldman's (1940) ethnographic research. Wilmeth (1969, 1970, 1971, 1975, 1977, 1978) has investigated several s i t e s i n the Anahim Lake area.  He has attempted to date  the a r r i v a l of Athapaskan C h i l c o t i n i n the region, and to compile d e f i n i t i v e t r a i t s of prehistoric C h i l c o t i n material culture also v i a the d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l approach.  Using evidence obtained from  f i v e house remains at the Potlatch s i t e (FcSi 2), two houses from the Goose Point s i t e (FdSi 3), and another from the Daniktco s i t e (FdSi 3), Wilmeth's (1978) current interpretation i s that f i v e p r i n c i p a l phases, or "component c l u s t e r s " of human occupation are evident i n the area.  The e a r l i e s t of these spans a period of AD 1  to AD 400, and i s characterized by microblades, and the second, dating from AD 700 to AD 850, also contains microblades but i s d i s t i n c t by v i r t u e of an apparent temporal hiatus. phase dates around AD 1200 to AD 1800.  The third  The White River Ash  f a l l i n the Yukon that i s estimated to have occurred at about AD 700 i s said to be the major factor p r e c i p i t a t i n g C h i l c o t i n mi-  75  g r a t i o n t o the a r e a (Wilmeth 1978:  173).  Elsewhere on the c e n t r a l P l a t e a u , M i t c h e l l (.1969,  1970)  e x c a v a t e d t h r e e s i t e s , a s s i g n i n g each to a d i f f e r e n t phase of the N e s i k e p T r a d i t i o n t h a t i s d i s c u s s e d below. b a s i s of r a t h e r q u e s t i o n a b l e  S t r i c t l y on  the  t y p o l o g i c a l comparisons, M i t c h e l l  (1969) p l a c e d the P o p l a r Grove s i t e (FaRx 1) i n the Lower M i d d l e p e r i o d (5000 t o 3500 B P ) , the Horn Lake Southwest s i t e (EkSc 1) i n t h e Upper M i d d l e p e r i o d (3500 to 2000 BP), and  the  Natsadalia  C r o s s i n g s i t e ( F d S i 2) i n the L a t e N e s i k e p p e r i o d (2000 BP historic).  to  Wilmeth (1978) c o n s i d e r s F d S i 2 t o be a C h i l c o t i n  occupation. Prompted by h i s r e s e a r c h a t T e z l i and U l k a t c h o , Donahue (1975) examined c o l l e c t i o n s of s u r f a c e c o l l e c t e d items from 40 l o c a t i o n s t h a t had been donated to the N a t i o n a l Museum of Man W i t h l a c k of good p r o v e n i e n c e ,  i n Ottawa.  the r e s u l t i n g c a t a l o g u e  cannot  serve as a base f o r f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s , but the d e s c r i p t i o n of a S c o t t s b l u f f - E d e n p o i n t found near Vanderhoof on the Nechako R i v e r suggests a p o t e n t i a l o c c u p a t i o n c a . 9000 BP.  of the a r e a s t a r t i n g as e a r l y as  Wilmeth (.1978: 143)  of o b s i d i a n was  n o t e s t h a t an A l b e r t a p o i n t made  found near Anahim Lake, and  P o t l a t c h s i t e he r e c o v e r e d  This l a t t e r f i n d i s questionable  t o 6550 BC  154).  The  the  in Plains re-  g i v e n t h a t no  radiocarbon  d a t e s from the P o t l a t c h s i t e o l d e r t h a n AD 80 were o b t a i n e d 1978:  at  a broken b i f a c e t h a t he t y p e s as a  P r y o r Stemmed p o i n t , d a t i n g t o c a . 5610 gions.  i n excavations  p o s s i b i l i t y of P a l e o - I n d i a n  (Wilmeth  p e o p l e s i n the c e n t r a l  76  P l a t e a u i s a l s o r e i n f o r c e d by the d i s c o v e r y of P l e i s t o c e n e mammoth remains at Babine Lake (flarington  e t al.  1974), a l -  though no human a r t i f a c t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d . Whitlam (1976) a n a l y s e d m a t e r i a l s t h a t were r e c o v e r e d from t h r e e s i t e s excavated  as p a r t of a highway s a l v a g e p r o -  gram, near W i l l i a m s Lake.  A l l s i t e s were o c c u p i e d d u r i n g the  L a t e Nesikep  T r a d i t i o n , and h o u s e p i t s i t e s  FaRn 3 and ElRn 3  each appear to have been occupied t w i c e , a t times 1762 + 58 BP and  1180 + 58 BP.  averaging  Whitlam (1976) a p p l i e d SYMAP.  programs to the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of a r t i f a c t s o b t a i n e d from "mounds"  at s i t e FaRm 8 i n an attempt  to d i s c e r n o c c u p a t i o n , stone work-  ing and  storage a c t i v i t y areas.  In sum,  the c e n t r a l P l a t e a u has been the l o c u s of s e v e r a l  s t u d i e s i n c u l t u r e h i s t o r y and a r t i f a c t t y p o l o g y , but  still  l a c k s a c o h e s i v e r e g i o n a l scheme w i t h f i r m h o r i z o n markers, except perhaps f o r the l a s t 1000 y e a r s . that p r e h i s t o r i c  T h i s , i n e f f e c t , means  c u l t u r e s t h a t a r e d i r e c t l y and  unquestionably  a n c e s t r a l to e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y documented c u l t u r e s a r e the o n l y "phase" t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d .  The u t i l i t y  markers such as m i c r o b l a d e s , corner-notched  of temporal p o i n t s and  s i d e - n o t c h e d p o i n t s i s u n c e r t a i n f o r s e v e r a l reasons.  horizon  small Perhaps the  most c r i t i c a l , maybe even i n c o r r i g i b l e r e a s o n i s a l a c k of i f i e d , non-housepit intact  s i t e s such as caves, r o c k s h e l t e r s , middens, or  fluvial/deltaic sites.  d e t a i l below. '  ~  strat-  T h i s problem i s d i s c u s s e d i n more  77  Southern P l a t e a u W i t h i n t h e scope of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n ,  contemporary  a r c h a e o l o g y i n the s o u t h e r n P l a t e a u was i n i t i a t e d by Borden. I n 1954 and 1956 he e x c a v a t e d a b u r i a l s i t e i n the v i c i n i t y of Cache Creek (Sanger 1968a: 140).  D a v i d Sanger's  involve-  ment w i t h an I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u p r e h i s t o r y s t a r t e d w i t h a b u r i a l s u r v e y i n the L i l l o o e t and L y t t o n a r e a s of the F r a s e r R i v e r (Sanger 1963) and e x c a v a t i o n of a b u r i a l s i t e near Chase (Sanger 1968a). Sanger's r e s e a r c h , i n the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y  resulted  i n the b e s t documented c h r o n o l o g i c a l scheme p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e f o r the e n t i r e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u (Sanger 1963, 1966, 1969, 1970). T h i s scheme was based on e x c a v a t i o n s a t two d e e p l y s t r a t i f i e d h o u s e p i t s i t e s , Lochnore Creek (EdRk 7) and Nesikep Creek (EdRk 4 ) , as w e l l as two o t h e r s i t e s :  Cow S p r i n g s (EdRk 5) and Lehman (EdRk 8 ) .  Sanger (1970) c o n c l u d e d t h a t two major c u l t u r a l e p i s o d e s , the Lochnore Complex and the N e s i k e p T r a d i t i o n , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n the d e p o s i t s a t t h e s e s i t e s . The Lochnore Complex (5000 BC - 3000 BC) i s thought by Sanger to r e p r e s e n t an i n i t i a l p o p u l a t i o n moving northward i n n e a r l y immediate p o s t - g l a c i a l t i m e s .  Sanger proposed t h a t the Lochnore  Complex was d e r i v e d from t h e Old C o r d i l l e r a n C u l t u r e as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e U.S. n o r t h w e s t by B u t l e r ( 1 9 6 1 ) .  Borden (1969, 1979)  t o t h i s complex as the P r o t o w e s t e r n T r a d i t i o n .  The  refers  predominant  t r a i t s of t h e Lochnore Complex a r e l e a f - s h a p e d b i f a c e s and c o b b l e t o o l s t h a t a r e a t t i m e s found w i t h o t h e r components,  but Lochnore  78  Complex assemblages a r e d i s t i n c t i n t h a t o t h e r , more r e c e n t , complex t o o l forms a r e l a c k i n g .  Such assemblages have been  r e c e n t l y r e p o r t e d by E l d r i d g e (1974) and R i c h a r d s (1978).  Near  L i l l o o e t , the T e r r a c e s i t e i s dated a t 4145 + 205 BP, and c o n t a i n s an assemblage l a c k i n g m i c r o b l a d e s , and e x h i b i t s l a r g e c o b b l e c o r e s and l e a f - s h a p e d p o i n t s ( R i c h a r d s 1978).  S i m i l a r evidence i s to  be found a t the Moulton Creek s i t e ( E l d r i d g e 1974) Thompson R i v e r , where the assemblage was  on t h e South  l o c a t e d below Mt. S t .  Helen's "Y" t e p h r a , d a t i n g to about 4000 BP.  I t s h o u l d be noted  here t h a t E l d r i d g e i n i t i a l l y l o c a t e d the c u r r e n t l y o l d e s t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e i n the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u , the Gore Creek s k e l e t o n ( C y b u l s k i e t a l 1981).  The p o s t c r a n i a l remains o f a young a d u l t  male, a p p a r e n t l y caught i n a m u d s l i d e , were dated a t 8250 + 115 The Nesikep T r a d i t i o n i s thought t o r e p r e s e n t a movement of p e o p l e who Borden's (1969, 1979)  large  southward  employed a m i c r o b l a d e t e c h n o l o g y .  In  t e r m i n o l o g y , t h e s e p e o p l e a r e known as c a r r i e r s  of the E a r l y B o r e a l T r a d i t i o n . as t r a i t s  BP.  The E a r l y Nesikep T r a d i t i o n i n c l u d e s  d i s t i n c t p r o j e c t i l e points that are t h i n ,  and f i n e l y p r e s s u r e f l a k e d .  relatively  Sanger (1970) c o n s i d e r s t h e s e  p o i n t s t o be d e r i v e d from P i a n o c u l t u r e s , a l t h o u g h e x a c t t y p o l o g i c a l comparisons  are not p o s s i b l e .  The Lower and Upper p e r i o d s o f the  M i d d l e Nesikep T r a d i t i o n e x h i b i t an abundance of c o r n e r - n o t c h e d p o i n t s , some w i t h concave bases o r s h o u l d e r tangs t h a t resemble s e v e r a l M i d d l e P r e h i s t o r i c or A r c h a i c p o i n t s from P l a i n s r e g i o n s . The P l a t e a u M i c r o b l a d e t r a d i t i o n c o n t i n u e s to e x i s t through the  79  M i d d l e p e r i o d , and  i s suggested t o t e r m i n a t e about 2000 BP.  I n the L a t e N e s i k e p T r a d i t i o n (.2000 BP to AD cognizes  1800) , Sanger r e -  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r o t o h i s t o r i c and e t h n o g r a p h i c  h a b i t a n t s of the s o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r , pithouse v i l l a g e s , small side-notched  in-  such as l a r g e , numerous (Kamloops)  projectile  p o i n t s , and a v i s i b l e bone and a n t l e r i n d u s t r y . Phase of the L a t e N e s i k e p T r a d i t i o n ( c a . 1000  I n the Kamloops  BP t o 1800), c o r n e r -  notched p o i n t s a r e v i r t u a l l y absent and p o i n t s w i t h m u l t i p l e notches on the b l a d e s  a r e q u i t e common (Sanger 1970:  122).  In  t o t a l , the 7000 y e a r l o n g development of the N e s i k e p T r a d i t i o n i s thought t o r e p r e s e n t  the e v o l u t i o n of S a l i s h - s p e a k i n g  cultures  of the P l a t e a u . R e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n by S t r y d (1970, 1971a,b, 1972, 1973c, 1978,  1980)  1973a, 1973b,  i n the F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y near L i l l o o e t  was  aimed a t c l a r i f y i n g the p r e h i s t o r i c sequence of c u l t u r e s d u r i n g the L a t e N e s i k e p p e r i o d . housepits  L i k e Sanger, S t r y d focused  on  and c o m p i l i n g l i s t s of " d i a g n o s t i c " t r a i t s f o r e x c l u s i v e  c u l t u r a l phases, s u p p o r t e d  i n p a r t by r a d i o c a r b o n  dates.  (1973a) d e f i n e d t h r e e major components i n the h o u s e p i t s ooet r e g i o n .  The N i c o l a Phase (2750 BP t o 1750  of t h e s e , the L i l l o o e t Phase (.1750 BP t o 1150 and  excavating  the Kamloops Phase (.1150 BP t o 200 BP)  BP)  BP)  Stryd  of the  i s the  Lill-  earliest  i s intermediate,  i s the l a t e s t .  According  t o S t r y d (1973a), the N i c o l a Phase i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a c k of a microblade technology  and s m a l l arrow p o i n t s , and c o n t a i n s  notched a t l a t l p o i n t s ( l a r g e w i t h wide n e c k s ) .  corner-  I h the L i l l o o e t Phase,  80  the bow  and arrow was  introduced, leading to an abundance of  small p r o j e c t i l e points, both corner and side-notched, lack of large corner-notched points.  and a  The Kamloops Phase con-  tains abundant Kamloops p r o j e c t i l e points, which are relativelythin and well-made, and a f a i r number of zoomorphic figures i n bone and stone are also present.  Stryd l a t e r revised this scheme  in an unpublished paper (1973b) , by deleting the Nicola and  Lill-  ooet Phases, and preferring to place greater emphasis simply  on  the introduction of the bow  and arrow at ca. 2400 to 1800  thus extended the Kamloops Phase to 1800  BP.  BP, although Stryd  This may  presently include the L i l l o o e t Phase (Matson, personal communication 1983).  This l a t t e r scheme i s perhaps the most defensible,  p a r t i a l l y because Stryd no longer stresses the bone and antler i n dustry, and since i t i s clear that more of such a r t i f a c t s were present i n l a t e r assemblages, perhaps preservation factors were being reflected more than c u l t u r a l ones.  Thus, i n the f i n a l analysis,  Stryd's research added d e t a i l to the Late Nesikep T r a d i t i o n as defined by Sanger i n terms of material culture, but did l i t t l e to answer questions  pertaining to internal s i t e structure, housepit  contemporaneity, or s o c i a l implications of housepit arrangement within complex s i t e s , that were posed prior to the major portion of his research (Stryd 1971b). Stryd's l a t e s t assessment of the L i l l o o e t region sequence i s that microblade technology occurs as late as 1250  BP  (1973c: 8),  and that housepit structures have two basic forms: small ones with  81  c o n i c a l r o o f s , and l a r g e r ones with, a d i f f e r e n t , but undetermined o v e r s t r u c t u r e (1973c: 8 ) .  C e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s by S t r y d  concern-  i n g f i v e o f t h e L i l l o o e t r e g i o n s i t e s examined i n t h e p r e s e n t study a r e presented  i n t h e s i t e d e s c r i p t i o n s e c t i o n o f Chapter TV.  I n t h e Kamloops l o c a l i t y , W i l s o n (.1980) d e f i n e d two p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l phases s t a r t i n g a t c a . 2500 BP.  The Thompson  Phase (2500 t o 1400 BP) r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l area.  W h i l e t h i s phase i n c l u d e s t h e t r a i t s o f S t r y d ' s (1973a)  N i c o l a and L i l l o o e t Phases, i t a l s o i n c l u d e s macro- and m i c r o b l a d e s , l e a f shaped and stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , and some arrow p o i n t s ( W i l s o n 1980:  8).  H o u s e p i t s a r e s a i d t o be t y p i c a l l y s m a l l , round  and l a c k i n g r i d g e s .  The Kamloops Phase i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by W i l s o n  (.1980) as s t a r t i n g c a . 1400 BP, even though t h e e a r l i e s t  absolute  date o b t a i n e d was 1140 + 100 BP (1980: 9 ) . The phase i s o t h e r w i s e as d e f i n e d by S t r y d (1973a,b,c),  i n c l u d i n g t h e presence  of large  c i r c u l a r and o v a l h o u s e p i t s w i t h r i d g e s , and c a c h e p i t s .  Wilson  m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e Kamloops Phase was i n i t i a t e d l a t e r i n t h e Kaml o o p s l o c a l i t y "...because i n i t i a l i n t e n s i v e r i v e r i n e of t h e anadramous salmon o c c u r r e d much l a t e r . . . "  exploitation  (1980:9).  C. C a r l s o n (1980) takes W i l s o n (.1980) t o t a s k w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e Thompson and Kamloops phases, based on her e x c a v a t i o n s o f two s i t e s (EdRa 22 and EdRa 4) a l s o i n t h e Kamloops l o c a l i t y .  C a r l s o n argues t h a t t h e r e i s no good evidence f o r  a s h i f t from h u n t i n g t o f i s h i n g emphases i n t h e l o c a l economy, o r population increases.  C a r l s o n concludes  that the only  observable  82  trend from early to l a t e i n prehistory i s an increase i n frequency of small triangular side-notched  points (Carlson 1980: 120). Thus  the current Thompson-Kamloops Phase concept may be r e f l e c t i n g changes i n a rather small part of material culture (mammal hunting technology) but does not l i k e l y represent large scale changes i n settlement and subsistence practices.  In many respects this i s a  defensible argument.  No case for change i n the diet or seasonality  of people represented  i n the Nesikep T r a d i t i o n has ever been firmly  presented.  Perhaps the major reason for this i s poor preservation  of faunal remains, a problem noted by Ham (n.d.) i n an analysis of faunal remains from several L i l l o o e t region s i t e s excavated by Stryd.  Ham (n.d.) found deer and salmon to be the major species  represented  i n p r e h i s t o r i c assemblages, with deer being replaced  by horse i n h i s t o r i c period remains (see Stryd 1980). Whitlam (1980) radiocarbon dated a l l u v i a l deposits at Lopez Creek (EeRh 3) near the town of Cache Creek, obtaining an age of 3920 + 65 BP (1980: 34), corrected to solar years to y i e l d a date of 4448 + 144 BP.  Unfortunately, i t i s not possible to ascertain  whether or not any a r t i f a c t s are associated with the date. serious methodological  Other  problems render Whitlam's conclusion that  the s i t e exhibits time-transgressive occupation i n discrete areas, highly questionable  (see Magne 1982).  Culture h i s t o r y i n the southern Plateau i s currently tenuous before 3000 BP and only reasonably  controlled i n l o c a l areas f o r  components dating since that time.  Perhaps the most important  83  reason for this i s the continuing emphasis of housepit cavation.  ex-  Unlike the Columbia Plateau south of Wisconsinan g l a c i -  atiori, this emphasis i s due.to natural conditions of the Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia where few,  i f any rockshelters or caves s u i t -  able for human habitation are a v a i l a b l e , and where s o i l s  nearly  everywhere are t h i n l y developed since g l a c i a l times, alternatives have r a r e l y been considered.  There have been no concerted  system-  a t i c attempts to discover aeolian s i t e s , for example, nor has a research design to investigate cache p i t v a r i a b i l i t y i n age, form and location ever  been implemented.  As'Wilmeth (1978b) has pointed out, the re-occupation pithouse. depressions  of  one.,or more times can lead to severe d i s -  ruptions of c u l t u r a l stratigraphy and this can impede cultureh i s t o r i c a l methods.  Fladmark (1982a) and Von Krogh (1980) also  offer thoughts on d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with such s i t e s , including: „the f i l t e r i n g of materials from the roof to the i n t e r i o r ; the occurrence of this process once prior f i l l materials are used as roof i n s u l a t i o n ; d i f f e r e n t i a l decomposition of the structure, with intermittent p a r t i a l i n f i l l i n g by aeolian, a l l u v i a l or f l u v i a l processes;  and use of the house or r e s u l t i n g depression for non-  habitation purposes such as tool manufacturing or garbage disposal (see also Kennedy and Bouchard 1978).  Also, as Fladmark (1982a)  points out, housepit excavations w i l l l i k e l y never y i e l d data  be-  yond the 4000 years or so within which they are known to e x i s t . Although Sanger (1970) did h i s best to i s o l a t e some general  strat-  84  i g r a p h i c zones through, a r b i t r a r y l e v e l r e c o v e r y , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t Nesikep  T r a d i t i o n m a t e r i a l s o f e a r l i e r and l a t e r ages a r e  mixed, t h e same i s p r o b a b l y t r u e o f most o t h e r multi-component h o u s e p i t s i t e s t h a t have been e x c a v a t e d .  I n my o p i n i o n , t h e  mere e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s p r o b l e m — t h e c o n t i n u e d r e - u s e o f s i t e areas by v a r i o u s phases o f p r e h i s t o r i c i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e P l a t e a u speaks l o u d l y f o r some degree o f c o n t i n u i t y i n s e t t l e m e n t and s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s , r e g a r d l e s s of h a b i t a t i o n s t y l e or c u l t u r e "type".  A determined  e f f o r t , t o f u l l y excavate a t i m e - p r o g r e s s i v e  s e r i e s o f single-component h o u s e p i t s i s u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d . 3.3.3.  Settlement P a t t e r n Studies  C u r r e n t l y t h e r e a r e o n l y t h r e e p r o j e c t s t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l d a t a on t h e e n t i r e range o f s e t t l e m e n t - s u b s i s t e n c e patterns of the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u . p r o j e c t (.Matson e t a l .  The Shuswap S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n s  1979; Ham 1975), t h e Hat Creek p r o j e c t  ( P o k o t y l o 1978a; P o k o t y l o and B e i r n e 1978; B e i r n e and P o k o t y l o 1979) and t h e E a g l e Lake p r o j e c t (Matson e t a l . 1980) a l l employed r e g i o n a l sampling schemes t o p r o v i d e e s t i m a t e s o f t h e range o f s i t e occurring i n f a i r l y l a r g e areas.  types  A l l t h r e e o f these s t u d i e s a r e  of d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s i n c e some s i t e s from each o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s a r e a n a l y s e d  here.  The purpose o f t h e Shuswap S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n s p r o j e c t i n t h e southwest a r e a o f t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e C h i l c o t i n and F r a s e r r i v e r s (the  Mouth o f t h e C h i l c o t i n ) was t o s t u d y t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l  char-  a c t e r i s t i c s o f s i t e l o c a t i o n s and t o u s e t h i s d a t a and t h e m a t e r i a l  85  c u l t u r e e v i d e n c e t o t e s t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y of " s e d e n t a r y " and " m o b i l e " models o f Canyon Shuswap s e t t l e m e n t as p r o v i d e d i n the e x i s t i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c r e c o r d ( T e i t 1909a).  As d i s c u s s e d i n the  p r e v i o u s e t h n o g r a p h i c r e v i e w s e c t i o n , the Canyon Shuswap  may  have p a r t a k e n of a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n t h a n o t h e r Shuswap, maint a i n i n g a prime salmon a c q u i s i t i o n t e r r i t o r y , a c t i n g a s . t r a d i n g middlemen between C h i l c o t i n and o t h e r Shuswap and p o s s i b l e a l s o between t h e s e  and L i l l o o e t and Thompson.  The a n a l y s i s o f s i t e c o n t e x t and c o n t e n t by Matson e t a l . (1979) demonstrated  t h a t s i x s i t e c l a s s e s a r e p r e s e n t i n the  r e g i o n : r a v i n e c a c h e p i t s i t e s , ecotone c a c h e p i t s i t e s , h o u s e p i t sites, riverside sites  /Call but. one w i t h c a c h e p i t s ) , c h e r t deb-  i t a g e s i t e s , and unique s i t e s w i t h low a r t i f a c t f r e q u e n c i e s .  The  c h e r t d e b i t a g e s i t e s a r e argued to p r e - d a t e the o t h e r s i t e s ,  which  a r e s a i d to be Kamloops Phase, because the a r t i f a c t a n a l y s e s show t h e s e t o be d i f f e r e n t i n most r e s p e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n t a i n i n g l a r g e c o r n e r - n o t c h e d p o i n t s , and a l s o because Sanger (.1970) s t a t e d t h a t c h e r t i s most abundant as t o t a l d e b i t a g e m a t e r i a l i n p r e Kamloops Phase components of the Nesikep T r a d i t i o n .  Matson e t a l .  (1979) m a i n t a i n ; t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o m p o s i t i o n of the o t h e r assemblages does not f i t T e i t ' s (1909a) o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the Canyon Shuswap l i v e d i n f o u r l a r g e p i t h o u s e v i l l a g e s , and propose t h a t the more g e n e r a l i z e d , m o b i l e model of Shuswap s e t t l e m e n t i s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e Kamloops Phase o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e r e g i o n .  86  The information gathered by the Shuswap Settlement project was also used by Ham (.1975) i n an M.A. thesis. 220 - 222) concluded  Pattern Ham (.1975:  that during the Kamloops Phase, two major  settlement types prevailed: winter pithouse v i l l a g e s located on the upper benches of the Fraser River, and summer f i s h i n g camps next to the Fraser River.  Ham (.1975: 210) also postulated that  cachepit storage s i t e s were the scenes of limited a c t i v i t i e s s t r i c t l y focused on salmon procurement, processing and storage. While Matson e_t al. (.1979) and Ham (1975) present able evidence that the Canyon Shuswap were not e n t i r e l y  reasonsedentary,  I think that evidence  indicates a kind of settlement pattern that  has been overlooked.  I t i s established that there are several  .  kinds of subsistence orientations i n evidence within an area of 2 some 40 km .  Thus, given a maximum foraging radius of some 6 km,  and a centralized radius of about 3 km, rather intensive use of a small area i s indicated. estimated  This i s even more i n evidence  i f the  t o t a l of 247 s i t e s (Matson jit al. 1979) within the grass-  land zone i s taken into consideration. I t i s also interesting to extrapolate these figures even f u r ther.  Subtracting the estimate of 19.5 chert debitage or "pre-  Kamloops" phase s i t e s i n the grassland zone from the estimated i t can be estimated that approximately  total,  200 s i t e s were formed i n the  laat 2000 years, or about one s i t e every ten years.  Approximately  65 housepit s i t e s were constructed, inhabited and abandoned during this period or one housepit s i t e every 33 years, representing 266 housepits,  87  or 1.3 houses every ten years. Further, 1046 cachepIts are. estimated i n the grasslands population, representing approximately the use of one every two years, about four cachepits for each housepit.  I suggest that these figures are f a i r  estimates of housepit occupation spans and cachepit use spans for the region, and are i n d i c a t i v e of repeated use of the region.  Unfortunately, these estimates cannot be compared to  other areas, l e t alone other Shuswap occupation regions, but i f about 100 people were using the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n r e gion i n pre-smallpox times, as i s estimated by Teit  (1909a),  then perhaps Teit was describing intensive exploitation of a r e l a t i v e l y small area by a r e l a t i v e l y large group of people in early h i s t o r i c times, rather than purely "sedentary" people. Clearly, the answer to this problem requires a firm idea at least of housepit contemporaneity.  Radiocarbon dating does  not seem to be the complete answer, since wide standard deviations in dates and c o n f l i c t i n g mean estimates of charcoal ages are the norm for materials within the l a s t 1000 years (Stuiver 19.78).  A more precise way to deal with the issue i s dendro-  chronology, and as Matson et a l . (1980), Stryd (1980), and Matson (personal communication 19.82) indicate, the present state of this method looks promising for future research on the Interior P l a t eau. Settlement pattern studies In the Upper Hat Creek Valley were i n i t i a t e d as a c u l t u r a l resource management project designed to systematically recover archaeological data from a region planned  88  for development as an open p i t coal mine and thermal generation plant.  The region had not been the focus of any previous  professional archaeological research, and was p r a c t i c a l l y archaeologically unknown, yet was noted by Teit (1906) as being near the western edge of Spences Bridge Thompson t e r r i t o r y .  Current-  l y a great deal of data exists where none existed only seven years ago.  Two impact assessment reports (Pokotylo and Beirne  1978; Beirne and Pokotylo 1979)  and a Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n (Poko-  tylo 1978a) as well as shorter papers (Pokotylo 1978b, 1979a, 1981, Pokotylo and Beirne 1983) have been written that  discuss  the significance of the 200-odd s i t e s presently known, in a r e gion that has only seen ca. 15% areal sampling.  This discussion  is limited to the results that bear e x p l i c i t l y on the r e l a t i o n ships observed between settlement patterns and l i t h i c Pokotylo's research goals were stated as  technology.  follows:  1) describe patterns of settlement u t i l i z a t i o n reflected by byproducts of l i t h i c technology in Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y , and 2) compare t h i s with patterns of stone t o o l depo s i t i o n (1978a: 2)  As is discussed in previous and following chapters, the analytic methods were pioneering in several ways, p a r t i c u l a r l y in e x p l i c i t l y r e l a t i n g l i t h i c technological processes to the formation of l i t h i c scatters.  The results  surface  indicated that the s i t e classes f a l l  within the range of v a r i a b i l i t y expected from regional ethnographic  89  a c c o u n t s , and t h a t the s i t e s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of base camps, h u n t i n g and b u t c h e r i n g of l a r g e game and more g e n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d to r o o t c r o p a q u i s i t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g .  I t was  a l s o found t h a t s i t e s w i t h a wide range of t o o l m a n u f a c t u r i n g s t e p s a r e found i n a r e a s w i t h h i g h l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i v e r s i t y as measured by nearby v e g e t a t i o n community and d r a i n a g e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w h i l e s i t e s w i t h more l i m i t e d t o o l m a n u f a c t u r i n g assemb l a g e s a r e found i n a r e a s w i t h low l e v e l s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a bility.  S i t e s t h a t were i n f e r r e d t o r e p r e s e n t l o n g term o c c u -  p a t i o n s tend t o be s i t u a t e d c l o s e t o permanent s o u r c e s of water ( P o k o t y l o 1978a: 323).  Low  sample s i z e s o f s i t e t y p e s o c c u r r i n g  w i t h i n d i s c r e t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l zones p r e v e n t e d p r o b a b i l i s t i c u a t i o n o f these t r e n d s , y e t o v e r a l l the s t u d y demonstrated  evalquite  s u c c e s s f u l l y t h a t s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n upper and m i d d l e e l e v a t i o n a r e a s of t h e s o u t h e r n P l a t e a u produce p a t t e r n s o f l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y t h a t can be d e t e c t e d w i t h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l and t y p o l o g i c a l  approaches.  I t s h o u l d be noted i n t h i s r e v i e w t h a t s e v e r a l of the Hat Creek s i t e s a n a l y s e d c o n t a i n e d m i c r o b l a d e s and formed u n i f a c e s ( e n d s c r a p e r s ) , c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f E a r l y Nesikep p e r i o d assemblages.  P o k o t y l o (1978b) c o n s i d e r e d t h a t 66% of the Hat  assemblages c o l l e c t e d i n 1976 belonged  to the E a r l y Nesikep  Creek  Tradition.  P o k o t y l o ' s (1978a) a n a l y s e s showed t h a t u n i f a c e s and m i c r o b l a d e s tend t o be m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e i n t h e Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y .  Also,  w h i l e i t i s apparent t h a t the d e b i t a g e from these E a r l y Nesikep  90  s i t e s i n d i c a t e s e i t h e r i n i t i a l t o o l manufacturing  s t e p s , or  a wide range of s t a g e s , t h e s i t e s a r e not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d l s ^ C r e t e range of e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s ( P o k o t y l o 1978a: 328 - 329)• A g a i n , i t i s v a l u a b l e t o c o n s i d e r the broader i m p l i c a t i o n s of the t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n s of r e g i o n a l t r e n d s .  Assuming t h a t  the m i c r o b l a d e and formed u n i f a c e s i t e s a r e indeed E a r l y Nesikep i n age  (7000 t o 5000 B P ) , then i t appears t h a t two k i n d s of e a r l y  s i t e s a r e p r e s e n t , g i v e n the near-mutual e x c l u s i v e n e s s o f the two a r t i f a c t t y p e s :  s i t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the need f o r c u t t i n g  tools,  and o t h e r s where s c r a p i n g (or c h i s e l l i n g and adzing) were r e q u i r e d . I n the L a t e Nesikep  p e r i o d s o f t i m e , a much w i d e r range o f a c t i v -  i t i e s were u n d e r t a k e n .  T h i s i n c l u d e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of base  camps w i t h a l a r g e amount of "maintenance" a c t i v i t i e s , and s e v e r a l k i n d s of s a t e l l i t e camps a t w h i c h r o o t s were p r o c e s s e d o r l a r g e game b u t c h e r e d , and q u i t e s h o r t term o c c u p a t i o n l o c i used to s t a l k game, r e p a i r t o o l s , or s i m p l y manufacture t o o l s from l o c a l raw materials.  T h i s perhaps r e f l e c t s a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e i n s e t t l e m e n t  p a t t e r n s , where E a r l y Nesikep p o p u l a t i o n s used Hat Creek V a l l e y as an i m p o r t a n t but m a r g i n a l a r e a , and were c e n t e r e d more i n major w a t e r shed areas such as Lochnore-Nesikep, u n i f a c e s a r e found t o g e t h e r and of o t h e r t o o l s . V a l l e y was  where m i c r o b l a d e s and  formed  i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a wide range  I n M i d d l e and L a t e Nesikep p e r i o d s , t h e Hat  Creek  a more i m p o r t a n t range of the s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n , where  l a r g e r groups o f people s e t t l e d a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y , and  organ-  i z e d a complex s e t of s u b s i s t e n c e t a s k s r e q u i r i n g a g r e a t e r degree  91  of technological s p e c i f i c i t y . The Eagle Lake project (Matson et^ al. 1980) was aimed at describing the material culture, settlement and subsistence patterns of Athapaskan-speaking  C h i l c o t i n peoples i n the southern  area of their h i s t o r i c a l l y - r e p o r t e d t e r r i t o r y .  A major aspect  of the project was an examination of ways to define archaeologicallyobservable differences between C h i l c o t i n and Interior S a l i s h patterns, and thus a region that had environmental s i m i l a r i t i e s to those of the Shuswap Settlement Pattern project and the Upper Hat Creek Valley was chosen.  In t h i s manner, the open grassland and  dry pine forest environments could be used as a kind of constant, implying a limited range of potential subsistence and settlement practices, to enable ethnic differences i n material culture to appear more c l e a r l y . An area representing about 7 percent of the region around Eagle or Choelquoit Lake was surveyed using 400 m X 400 m quadrats, randomly sampled with replacement. 46 s i t e s .  A t o t a l of 35 quadrats yielded  Comparison of the numbers of p i t features and a r t i f a c t s  recorded within the quadrats showed the Eagle Lake region to be much more similar to the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n region than to Upper Hat Creek.  Cachepits and housepits are r e l a t i v e l y common, and l i t h i c  scatters usually do not contain a great many tools or debitage. At Hat'Creek, c u l t u r a l depressions other than roasting p i t s are quite rare, and surface scatters often contain hundreds of items. At Eagle Lake, s i t e s average 46 a r t i f a c t s , and at the Mouth of the  92  C h i l c o t i n each s i t e oh the average contains 90 a r t i f a c t s , while in the Hat Creek Valley, s i t e s contain an average of 1450 items (Matson e_t a l 1980: 208). Since i t was important also to be able to date the a r r i v a l of the C h i l c o t i n i n the area, a survey was conducted  along 30 km  of the Chilko River, i n the eastern end of the study area, i n an attempt to locate non-housepit ly  ., dated.  s t r a t i f i e d s i t e s that could be r e l i a b -  No such s i t e was found i n the 105 s i t e s recorded.  The finding of no microblades and only a few large, or a t l a t l , p r o j e c t i l e points, and l a t e radiocarbon dates from three s i t e s (.280 + 80 BP;  360  + 80 BP;  800 + 80 BP) a l l appear to indicate  that the l a s t half of the Late Nesikep period was the only time of major occupation of the region. The small size of most assemblages and the lack of good chronological control were l i m i t i n g factors i n terms of project goals, yet despite . these drawbacks, s i g n i f i c a n t contributions were made and ethnic differences were perceived.  In a m u l t i -  variate analysis of p r o j e c t i l e points, small, triangular sidenotched points were shown to be highly discrete with respect to S a l i s h (Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n and Hat Creek) and Athapaskan (Chinlac and Punchaw Lake) provenience, and Eagle Lake points occur in both these kinds of groups (Magne and Matson 1982).  Through  this information and other data, s p e c i f i c s i t e s were i d e n t i f i e d as Athapaskan occupations, including an isolated, shallow, r e c t angular depression s i t e near a small lake (also with a Kavik-style  93  point and a blue trade bead), a l i t h i c  scatter s i t e , and  a small isolated c i r c u l a r housepit s i t e with a single component that has been tentatively dendro-dated  to AD 1561  w  (outside very variable; Matson e_t a l 1980; Matson personal communication 1982).  Currently proposed research w i l l focus  on excavations at the two putative Athapaskan dwellings noted above and at another more t y p i c a l l y Kamloops Phase housepit site. Some of the research undertaken i n i t i a t e d the present study.  in the Eagle Lake project  The experimental debitage program  described i n the following chapter was piloted by a biface reduction experiment  f i r s t reported i n the Eagle Lake project  (Magne and Pokotylo 1980,  1981), and an analysis of the debitage  from 24 Interior Plateau assemblages (Magne 1980) was a t r i a l investigation of large scale technological patterns within s e t t l e ment types that i s more f u l l y developed i n Chapter  6.  94  CHAPTER 4  THE EXPERIMENTS IN DEBITAGE CLASSIFICATION  4.1.  Introduction The objective of the experiments described i n this chapter  i s to determine the degree to which general chipped stone tool manufacturing stages can be inferred from l i t h i c debitage.  The  s p e c i f i c goal of the program i s to devise an e f f i c i e n t debitage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of manufacturing stages that can be applied to archaeological c o l l e c t i o n s . A secure debitage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of reduction stages i s required to enable i n t e r s i t e comparisons of a multi-regional set of l i t h i c assemblages i n e x p l i c i t l y technological terms. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has relevance well beyond this study.  Such a The  general-  ized approach to the experiments i s i n contrast to the p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c and precise " r e p l i c a t i o n " concerns that characterize most other l i t h i c experiments (see Johnson 1978). This study, i n contrast to others, concentrates  on debitage, rather than on s p e c i f i c  tool forms, where debitage i s defined as non-utilized products of stone tool manufacturing and maintenance. The lack of attention that has been paid to debitage in l i t h i c technological research i s surprising, since i t has several q u a l i t i e s that are desirable for reconstructing past processes of l i t h i c reduction and settlement  technology, including:  1. Debitage i s not  95  transported, or otherwise curated to the same extent that tools are;  2. Since i t results from reductive, rather than additive  processes, debitage r e t a i n evidence of previous stages of manufacture;  and 3. Debitage i s very abundant and i s thus suited to  sampling and s t a t i s t i c a l procedures (Leach 1969; C o l l i n s 1975; 19;  4.2.  17,  Sheets 1975; Fish 1976).  Experimental Controls The f a u l t s of previous experimental work, as outlined i n  Chapter 2, and the above issues were kept i n mind when designing the following controls for the present experiment: 1. The most important control factor i s that flakes removed from cores, blanks, or preforms were gathered i n the precise order of their removal, i n contrast to studies that have gathered groups of flakes derived from estimated stages of reduction (e.g. C o l l i n s 1974; Burton  1980; Stahle and Dunn 1981).  Burton (1980:  132) mentions that he numbered flakes consecutively, but apparently t h i s information was not used i n h i s study.  This control factor  enables reduction stages to be precisely defined i n a uniform manner, regardless of the tool form being made (see below). Each blow that produced flakes i s termed an "event" of the reduction sequence, and as can be seen i n Table 2, events often produce several flakes. flakes greater than 5 mm  reduction  Following each event, a l l  i n their largest dimension were gathered  by a flake r e t r i e v a l person, placed i n order of removal on card-  96  TOOL TYPE  RAW MATERIAL  # OF EVENTS  FLAKE TOTAL  # OF PRB'S  Large Core Bipolar Core Bipolar Core Bipolar Core Bipolar Core Bipolar Core Bipolar Core Large Biface Large Biface Large Biface Large Biface Ovoid Biface Ovoid Biface Bimarginal Bimarginal Ovoid Uniface Ovoid Uniface Ovoid Uniface Endscraper Endscraper Endscraper Unimarginal Unimarginal Unimarginal Unimarginal Unimarginal Unimarginal  Basalt Basalt Basalt Basalt Obsidian Obsidian Obsidian Basalt Basalt Basalt Obsidian Basalt Obsidian Basalt Basalt Basalt Basalt Basalt Basalt Obsidian Chert Basalt Basalt Basalt Basalt Basalt Chert  42 3 2,8 7 4 6 12 186 44 97 80 60 67 36 35 45 47 29 13 17 16 9 25 9 44 11 17  317 36 62 54 43 54 137 399 87 590 207 105 82 43 58 64 70 43 21 21 18 10 26 14 55 16 25  144 1 12 5 3 5 10 116 33 150 45 44 37 25 25 29 43 11 9 12 11 6 22 9 32 6 11  2657  856  TOTALS PERCENTAGES OF TOTAL DEBITAGE  32.2  # OF # OF SHATTER BRF'S 173 33 43 47 36 48 118 246 35 425 143 52 39 12 23 35 27 32 12 9 7 4 4 5 23 10 14 1655 62.3  PRB'S = Platform remnant bearing flakes BRF'S = Biface reduction flakes BPO'S = Bipolar reduction flakes  TABLE 2.  Frequencies of General Flake Classes and Reduction Events f o r Each Experimental Core and Tool.  # OF BPO'I 2 7 2 4 1 7  2 37 19 15 19 9 6 6 10  123 4.6  23 0  97  board trays, and l a t e r catalogued.  Since an archaeological sample  of several thousand flakes was expected, a size cut-off of 5 mm was maintained in.the analysis of the experimental debitage, and this meant that pressure f l a k i n g could not be investigated. 2. A l l procedures involved i n knapping were recorded on a standardized reduction form, requiring the knapper to note.the event at which he or she prepared platforms, changed technique, and so on (Appendix 1)'. were used.  Only stone hammers and antler b i l l e t s  Knappers also recorded the event at which they f e l t  to have moved on to a sequent reduction stage, and were asked to note any d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced.  This information was gathered  mainly as back-up data, i n the event that the objective reduction stages did not produce useful r e s u l t s .  The knappers were also  asked to provide measurements and scale drawings of cores and blanks prior to reduction as well as of finished products, although not a l l did  so. 3. A t o t a l of 13 knappers of widely-ranging expertise produced  the materials rather than a single expert.  Nine of these were stu-  dents i n a course on archaeological laboratory methods (ANTH 406), instructed by Dr. R.G. Matson, and only the remaining four knappers can be considered t r u l y experienced i n the c r a f t .  These include  Matson, David Pokotylo, George Kurzenstein, and myself.  R.G.  This may  be  seen as a "randomizing" process rather than a true control factor, but i s desirable to eliminate the potential i n systematic error that could occur i n trying to apply the experimental r e s u l t s from a single  98  knapper t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l t h a t must have been produced by many knappers. 4. The knappers were shown p h y s i c a l models and were  given  w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e t o o l s they were t o attempt t o r e p l i cate.  These i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l k i n d s o f b i f a c e s , p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s ,  s c r a p e r s , and c o r e s from v a r i o u s s i t e s o f t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u . S e v e r a l p r o d u c t s were q u i t e inadequate r e p l i c a s and were promptl y removed from t h e a n a l y s i s . 5. The raw m a t e r i a l s employed were those t h a t were used by p r e h i s t o r i c peoples of the regions  of i n t e r e s t .  The most common  m a t e r i a l of the I n t e r i o r Plateau l i t h i c technologies  and i n t h e  experiments i s h i g h q u a l i t y b a s a l t t h a t ranges i n t e x t u r e from v i t reous t o g r a n u l a r , and t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e as g l a c i a l t i l l or stream bed c o b b l e s i n many a r e a s . study was o b t a i n e d Creek.  Obsidian  cobbles  The b a s a l t used i n t h i s  from t h e Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y and from Cache  c o b b l e s from O b s i d i a n  Creek i n t h e Anahim Lake  a r e a , and stream c o b b l e c h e r t d e r i v e d from t h e Cache Creek Forma t i o n were a l s o used. 6. D e b i t a g e t h a t were thought t o be o f a s i z e s u i t a b l e f o r f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n were removed from t h e a n a l y s i s .  This p r a c t i c e  i s meant t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t u s e o f s t o n e i n an a c t i v e l i t h i c technology.  A l l previous  debitage i n t h e i r analyses  experiments t h a t have used l a r g e  have n o t c o n s i d e r e d  c o u l d be formed i n t o a wide range o f i t e m s .  t h a t such l a r g e f l a k e s  The c u t - o f f used h e r e  i s u s u a l l y 30 grams, b u t t h i s was n o t s t r i c t l y m a i n t a i n e d .  99  4.3. The P i l o t  Study  An important preliminary step of the experiment was  to under-  take a p i l o t study, to enable more complete appreciation of the controls required, to refine the hypotheses to be tested, and to explore the range of v a r i a b i l i t y i n debitage i n a preliminary fashion. The p i l o t study als served to f a m i l i a r i z e the present researcher with multivariate data analyses, and i n some ways can be seen as the sort of exploratory data analysis that i s advocated by Clark (1982).  A f u l l description of the preliminary  study i s i n Magne and Pokotylo (1981). B r i e f l y , debitage that resulted from the manufacture of flake blanks and a single biface waseanalysed.  The major factors of quan-  t i t a t i v e v a r i a b i l i t y were derived from a judgemental, v i s u a l  comparison  of the data f o r eight flake variables. Instead of this search f o r major "alignments" with the reduction sequence, a more appropriate solution would have been to regress the raw data against the i n d i v i d u a l factor scores.  On the basis of the preliminary methods, a debitage c l a s s -  i f i c a t i o n was formulated using c r i t e r i a of flake weight and platform presence or absence, and scar counts and cortex cover were used as secondary c r i t e r i a .  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s now understood to contain  l o g i c a l f a u l t s such as non-exclusiveness of certain variables, btit i t was used to examine seven s i t e s of the 44 that were previously analysed by Pokotylo (1978).  The interpretations were very close  to those of Pokotylo's o r i g i n a l study, and patterns such as b i f a c i a l t o o l production were revealed, which were not previously evident. Overall, the p i l o t study was moderately successful!, given correspon-  100  dence with Pokotylo's (1978) interpretations, and also independently supported the findings of other studies, such as Burton (1980) that found flake s i z e to be a highly s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n debitage variability.  However, I thought that the sample size needed en-  larging, that bipolar f l a k i n g would need to be investigated,  and  that analytic .methods leading to a r e l i a b l e stage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of debitage would need to be refined.  4.4.  Experimental Products Seven cores and  l i t h i c reduction  20 " t o o l s " were the retained products of the  sessions.  These include one single platform  core, six bipolar cores, six large bifaces, two bi-marginally  re-  touched flakes, three large unifaces, three endscrapers, and s i x uni-marginally  retouched flakes.  5 to 10; unfortunately,  These items are shown in Figures  the single platform core was  reduced by an anonymous person and was  accidentally  not photographed.  After flakes that were thought to be suitable as blanks for further reduction were removed from the debitage, the f i n a l actual experimental sample comprised 2657 flakes greater metres i n their largest dimension.  than f i v e m i l l i -  Of these, 856 are platform  rem-^  nant bearing flakes or PRB's (see Knudson 1973); 1655  items are  shatter, that i s , flakes lacking s t r i k i n g platforms.  Another 1-23  biface reduction flakes, or BRF's, that are recognized by  are  extensively  facetted, narrow angle and often "lipped" platforms (see Crabtree 1972), and 23 are bipolar reduction flakes (BPO's) having evidence of taneous percussion  from opposite d i r e c t i o n s , often with  simul-  crushing.  F i g u r e 5.  F l a k e b l a n k s removed f r o m l a r g e single-platform basalt core. N o t a l l a r e shown.  Figure  6.  B i p o l a r c o r e s and d e r i v e d b l a n k s a , b , d , f : Cache C r e e k b a s a l t c o r e s . c,e: O b s i d i a n Creek o b s i d i a n c o r e s , 1-5; blanks  a  F i g u r e 7.  Large b i f a c i a l t o o l p r o d u c t s . a,b: O b s i d i a n ; c,d,e,f: V i t r e o u s b a s a l t ; d i s p i l o t study product.  b  F i g u r e 8. Large u n i f a c i a l t o o l p r o d u c t s . a,b: V i t r e o u s b a s a l t c: G r a n u l a r b a s a l t .  c  f  F i g u r e 9.  Large marginal t o o l products a: v i t r e o u s b a s a l t , b i m a r g i n a l b,c: g r a n u l a r b a s a l t , u n i m a r g i n a l d: Cache Creek c h e r t , u n i m a r g i n a l  F i g u r e 10.  9  Small marginal t o o l products a,c,d,e,f: v i t r e o u s b a s a l t b: O b s i d i a n ; g: Cache Creek c h e r t  104  The  f r e q u e n c i e s of these g e n e r a l f l a k e t y p e s are  i n T a b l e 2.  provided  I t can be seen t h a t i n the r e d u c t i o n of one of  b i p o l a r c o r e s , two  f l a k e s were c l a s s e d as BRF's.  T h i s i s not  e n t i r e l y s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e b i p o l a r r e d u c t i o n , c a r r i e d to  final  stages, i s often b i f a c i a l i n nature.  Only 32.2%  e x h i b i t remnant p l a t f o r m s , and  observed t h a t j u s t 48%  i t was  these PRB's have f e a t h e r t e r m i n a t i o n s .  the  of the f l a k e s of  G i v e n t h a t the f l a k e s were  produced i n l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t r e l a t i v e l y more a r e "complete" than i n most a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n s , where t r a m p l i n g may  b r e a k a l a r g e number of f l a k e s .  I t i s evident  a t any r a t e , t h a t s t u d i e s t h a t have s e l e c t e d o n l y "complete" f l a k e s (e.g. C o l l i n s 1974;  F i s h 1976;  S t a h l e and Dunn 1981)  for analysis  of r e d u c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s have l i k e l y i g n o r e d a g r e a t d e a l of d e b i tage v a r i a b i l i t y . Table 3 i l l u s t r a t e s another i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n .  Here the  average number of a l l f l a k e s removed per r e d u c t i o n event and shatter ratios^ erial.  a r e  PRB/  t a b u l a t e d by g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n type and raw mat-  I t appears t h a t c o r e r e d u c t i o n of any k i n d produces more  f l a k e s per blow than  b i f a c i a l r e d u c t i o n , w h i c h i n t u r n produces  more f l a k e s per blow than u n i f a c i a l  r e d u c t i o n . PRB/'shatter r a t i o s  do not s u p p o r t the same t r e n d observed i n the f l a k e s per event t a b u l a t i o n s , and may cedures may  i n d i c a t e t h a t the c o n t r o l e x e r t e d  in flaking  pro-  not be e a s i l y accounted f o r i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s .  However, i t i s apparent t h a t b i p o l a r r e d u c t i o n produces v e r y few PRB's i n r e l a t i o n to s h a t t e r (on the o r d e r of 10  s h a t t e r per PRB),  and  that  105  MEAN # OF ALL FLAKES PER EVENT  10.46  PRB/SHATTER RATIO  REDUCTION TYPE/ RAW MATERIAL  .09  Bipolar Obsidian  7.55  .83  Core Reduction Basalt  4.00  .15  Bipolar Basalt  2.80  .45  B i f a c i a l Basalt  1.97  1.16  Unifacial/marginal Basalt  1.30  1.05  Unifacial/marginal Chert  1.24  1.33  Unifacial/marginal Obsidian  TABLE 3.  Mean Number of Flakes Per Reduction Event and PRB/Shatter Ratio, In Grouped Reduction Types by Raw Material.  106  s i n g l e p l a t f o r m c o r e r e d u c t i o n , when a p p l i e d w i t h the purpose of d e r i v i n g l a r g e b l a n k s , can y i e l d about t w i c e as many PRB's per S h a t t e r as b i f a c i a l r e d u c t i o n . U n i f a c i a l - and  marginal  f l a k i n g produce about e q u a l numbers of PRB's and S h a t t e r .  These  a r e o b v i o u s l y not r e l i a b l e t r e n d s , s i n c e o n l y one u n i f a c i a l ,  and  no m a r g i n a l o b s i d i a n t o o l s a r e represented;, c h e r t f l a k e s were produced o n l y by u n i d i r e c t i o n a l knapping. reduction i s only represented  . Single platform  core  by one s e t of b a s a l t r e d u c t i o n  These p a r t i c u l a r d a t a were not f u r t h e r a n a l y s e d due t o these  events. limi-  t a t i o n s of the sample, and because such t r e n d s a r e a s i d e from the main d i r e c t i o n of the  4.5.  experiments.  Stage D e f i n i t i o n One  o f t h e purposes of t h i s study i s to c o n s t r u c t a  debitage  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h a t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s from a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e sample of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s . h i g h l y i m p r a c t i c a l to d i v i d e s t a g e s v e r y n a r r o w l y . Muto (1971b: 111)  I t would be I n the extreme,  has s t a t e d t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to r e g a r d each r e -  d u c t i o n event as a " s t a g e " .  I t was  t h e r e f o r e decided  to t e s t f o r  m e t r i c v a r i a b i l i t y i n q u i t e g e n e r a l terms, s i m p l y : e a r l y , m i d d l e and late reduction  stages.  E a r l y r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s a r e d e f i n e d as a l l events o f c o r e  reduc-  t i o n , i n c l u d i n g b o t h s i n g l e p l a t f o r m and b i p o l a r c o r e f o r m s , r e g a r d l e s s of the number of e v e n t s i n v o l v e d . primary  trimming  M i d d l e stages a r e  the  s t a g e s o f t o o l s , measured as a l l the r e d u c t i o n events  o f m a r g i n a l r e t o u c h t o o l s , and  the f i r s t h a l f o f the r e d u c t i o n events of  107  a l l other t o o l s , whether u n i f a c i a l or b i f a c i a l .  Late stage r e -  duction then, i s defined as the l a t t e r half of the reduction events of u n i f a c i a l and b i f a c i a l implements.  I believe that this i s a j u s t -  i f i a b l e way to divide the reduction process,  since core reduction  i s undertaken to derive flake blanks, regardless of method, marginal flaking and i n i t i a l u n i f a c i a l and b i f a c i a l flaking a l l involve straightening edges and removing the most of excessive mass, and the l a t e r events of u n i f a c i a l and b i f a c i a l flaking are undertaken to refine the intended shape of the t o o l .  This method of defining  stages requires no s u b j e c t i v i t y as to what exactly constitutes "primary" or "secondary" trimming,( . g. C o l l i n s 1975). e  The number of events in core reduction ranged from 4 to 42, and from 9 to 186 i n tool reduction (Table 2).  Middle stage events  range from 7 to 93, and late stage events vary i n frequency from 8 to 93.  These events, i t should be noted, are not the d i v i d i n g  points i n stages that were noted by i n d i v i d u a l knappers on the r e duction recording forms. In addition to the three stages, I thought i t useful to d i s tinguish b i f a c i a l and bipolar reduction flakes objectively.  Such a  d i s t i n c t i o n would add to the dimensions of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  per-  mitting more refined interpretations of archaeological assemblage variability.  Thus while biface reduction flakes  (BRF's) do exhibit  platforms and are generically "PRB's", several of the analyses to follow attempt to demonstrate the distinctiveness  of BRF's.  108  4.6. D e b i t a g e V a r i a b l e s S e v e r a l s t u d i e s r e p o r t t h e u s e o f u n i v a r i a t e , b i v a r i a t e and m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t o reduce d e b i t a g e v a r i a b l e l i s t s ( e . g . F i s h 1976; K a t z 1976; P o k o t y l o 1978).  Following  P o k o t y l o (1978) and t h e p i l o t s t u d y (Magne and P o k o t y l o 1981), I d e c i d e d t o s e l e c t v a r i a b l e s from t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e , t o develop a robust short l i s t of v a r i a b l e s .  Two weaknesses  charact-  e r i z e most approaches t o d e b i t a g e v a r i a b i l i t y : an over-emphasis on d i s c r e t e , r a t h e r than c o n t i n u o u s o r o r d i n a l v a r i a b l e s , and s t u d i e s o f b r i t t l e s o l i d f r a c t u r e dynamics w i t h l i t t l e  explicit  b e h a v i o r a l v a l u e ( e . g . Speth 1972, 1975; B o n n i c h s e n 1977; P a t t e r son and S o l l b e r g e r 1978). B a r t o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , B o n n i c h s e n (1977) and Speth (1972) attempt t o d e f i n e v a r i a b l e s t h a t can d i f f e r e n t i a t e hard-hammer and s o f t hammer p e r c u s s i o n , by  c o n t r o l l e d experiments, the l a t t e r  as f a r as u s i n g c u t g l a s s c o r e s .  two g o i n g  While a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i s type  of knapping may be i n t e r e s t i n g , t h e r e i s l i t t l e attempt t o s t a t e what d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d mean i n b e h a v i o r a l terms.  C o n t r o l over  l i t h i c f r a c t u r e i s a l s o t h e prime c o n c e r n i n Phagah's (1976) n o t a b l e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f 28 d i f f e r e n t f l a k e v a r i a b l e s .  However,  as i n most s i t u a t i o n s where v a r i a b l e s a r e a p p l i e d t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e b i t a g e w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t s , t h e meaning o f variability  i s u n t e s t e d , and m e r e l y s u g g e s t e d .  Thus, Phagan's (1976)  i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , and n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n f e r r e d r e s u l t s a r e weakened. Some o f t h e Ayacucho  assemblages seemed t o have been produced by  109  s p e c i a l i z e d groups a t l o n g - t e r m o c c u p a t i o n s i t e s , but when assemblages a r e mixed, no 1976:  104  - 110).  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e  Phagan n o t e s (1976: 110)  r o a c h to waste f l a k e s and u t i o n to behavioral  technological  (Phagan  h i s e x p l i c i t app-  systems i s a  contrib^  approaches to assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y  that  g r e a t l y improves upon t r a d i t i o n a l t o o l t y p o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e s , because i t seeks to c o n s i d e r a l l the t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of  flake  production. Two  studies  t h a t have d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s study i n  t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n and.purpose are P o k o t y l o (1978) and P o k o t y l o (1978) a p p l i e d  a 19 v a r i a b l e l i s t to 198  K a t z (1976).  flakes  with  r e m a i n i n g s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m s t h a t were o b t a i n e d from f i v e i n Upper Hat  Creek V a l l e y .  An R-mode f a c t o r a n a l y s i s  t h i s l i s t to f i v e v a r i a b l e s . settlement pattern  and  reduced  Nine were f i n a l l y used to  behavioral  information  sites  derive  f o r 44 s i t e s .  The  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f l a k e s i z e i s the most i m p o r t a n t m e t r i c f a c t o r i n d e b i t a g e (PRB) angle (platform  b u l b of f o r c e " s a l i e n c y "  flake scar  presence of v e n t r a l l i p p i n g ,  ( P o k o t y l o 1978:  204  -  and  208).  (.1976) s i m i l a r s t u d y e v a l u a t e d n i n e a t t r i b u t e s u s i n g a  sample of 293  f l a k e s from a r e f u s e p i t a t the D e i s t e r  sas C i t y H o p e w e l l o c c u p a t i o n . duced t h r e e m e a n i n g f u l v e c t o r s , sal  by  to d o r s a l or v e n t r a l f a c e s ) , d o r s a l f l a k e  count, d o r s a l scar p a t t e r n i n g ,  Katz'  v a r i a b i l i t y , followed  s c a r s , and  platform  s i t e , a Kan-  A P r i n c i p a l Components a n a l y s i s  pro-  c o n s i s t i n g of w e i g h t , number of d o r -  a n g l e ( K a t z 1976).  Sixteen  discrete  variables  110  were evaluated using a non-metric multidimensional  scaling  procedure, unlike Pokotylo's (1978) data reduction analysis, where continuous and ordinal variables were analysed eously.  simultan-  Three clusters of attributes were derived, including  raw material type, applied force, and control over flake r e moval. (Katz 1976).  Katz retained eight variables, and using  the presence of cortex to "pin down" the early stages of manufacture, posited a six-stage sequence of l i t h i c manufacturing for the assemblage. Overall, Katz' and Pokotylo s-findings are very s i m i l a r : 1  the s i z e of flakes, t h e i r evidence of p r i o r flake removals, and their platform angles are highly useful i n describing t o o l manufacturing sequences.  Both studies have the weakness of deriving  short variable l i s t s from archaeological debitage,  inferring  the meaning of those variables, and then applying them to alarger sample of archaeological debitage from the same region, or even the same s i t e .  This i s a rather c i r c u l a r process poss-  i b l y inducing a sample bias, and may have served to a f f i r m the consequent, e s p e c i a l l y i n Katz' (1976) analysis, where only one s i t e i s being examined.  Both studies, however, present  the most  robust examinations of debitage v a r i a b i l i t y presently available, yet i t i s clear that both pin-pointed  s p e c i f i c variables that,  when used, w i l l reduce o v e r a l l metric redundancy i n archaeological application, but s t i l l do not answer the basic question of sequent i a l v a r i a b i l i t y , except by inference gained by co-association of  Ill  variables. This .problem i s e s p e c i a l l y c r u c i a l \ f o f weight and s i z e variables.  As i n the p i l o t study f o r the present  experiment,  both studies indicate that weight or size i s the variable that accounts best for o v e r a l l metric v a r i a b i l i t y i n debitage. This means that a l l other variables co-vary with s i z e better than with other variables, and not necessarily that weight varies i n any other, independent d i r e c t i o n such as reduction sequence.  Such an interpretation then, s t i l l remains to be  tested by experimental means.  Pokotylo and Katz each e f f i c -  i e n t l y reduced the number of variables to be coded on each flake, and found a short hand way of measuring o v e r a l l debitage v a r i a b i l i t y , with some t h e o r e t i c a l grounds for proposing that the selected variables were correlated with  reduction  stages.  Six variables were retained for use i n the present yses (see Figure 11). These are defined below, with  anal-  expectations  of how each might pattern through sequential reduction.  Four-  l e t t e r abbreviations are also given, to be used as conventions in following discussions.  The l i s t  i s d e l i b e r a t e l y short.  I  think that quite enough redundancy has been demonstrated by p r i o r workers, and I needed to keep data gathering time r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f , since archaeological analysis was yet to come.  The application  of t h i s variable l i s t to the experimental debitage required s i x weeks of almost d a i l y work.  I estimate that recording time would  have been doubled simply by the addition of two variables such as length and width, that would have required the use of vernier c a l l -  112  FORCE APPLICATION  FLAKE REMOVAL  Dorsal  Side  PLATFORM REMNANT BEARING  SHATTER  Figure  .11.  Debitage  attributes  experimental  employed  program.  i n the  113  ipers.  Attributes of the variables were recorded on 80  column computer coding forms, along with flake termination type, knapper, raw material, tool number, event sequence, flake within event ( a r b i t r a r y ) , and f i n a l flake number (accurate to event only).  The data were keypunched and stored  as disk f i l e s . 1. Weight (WEIT):  The weight of each flake was  gram with an electronic balance.  taken to  .10  As reduction proceeds, i t  can be expected that the weight of individual items w i l l strongl y tend to decline.  This v a r i a b l e i s used as a general measure  of s i z e . 2. Dorsal Scar Count (DOCO): This i s the number of flake scars v i s i b l e on the dorsal face of the flakes, counting only those greater than 5 mm flake  in size.  One can expect that the number of  scars on dorsal faces w i l l tend to increase through the  reduction process. 3. Dorsal Scar Complexity (DOSC):  This i s a new v a r i a b l e , mod-  i f i e d from that of Munday (.1976: 123) and Pokotylo  (.1978) .  Here  flakes are centered on polar coordinate paper divided into 10 vectors, and the number of d i r e c t i o n s that flake scars originate from are counted. sequences.  This measure should increase with reduction  Note that a flake may  have several scars, but  low  complexity. 4. Platform Scar Count (PLCO):  This i s the number of scars r e -  gardless of size a c t u a l l y occurring on the flake platform, and i s  114  a p p l i c a b l e t o PRB's only*-- T h i s does not i n c l u d e f l a k e s c a r s formed on the d o r s a l s u r f a c e o f f l a k e s a d j a c e n t  to platforms,  sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as " p r e p a r a t i o n s c a r s " (Phagan 1976: Recording  t h i s v a r i a b l e was  f a c i l i t a t e d by u s i n g a 2X  nated m a g n i f i e r , a l t h o u g h p l a t f o r m s l e s s than 2 mm o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o code, and  49).  illumi-  deep were  c l a s s e d as s h a t t e r . T h i s measure  i s expected t o i n c r e a s e as r e d u c t i o n p r o c e e d s . 5. P l a t f o r m Angle (PLAN):  The d o r s a l a n g l e of PRB's i s measured  t o the n e a r e s t 5 degrees w i t h a goniometer t h a t makes c o n t a c t a t 1 cm,  5 mm  or 2 mm  d i s t a n c e s a l o n g t h e p l a t f o r m and•: d o r s a l f a c e s  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , depending on p l a t f o r m depth.  Again, f l a k e s w i t h  p l a t f o r m s l e s s than 2 mm  deep were d i f f i c u l t t o measure and were  o f t e n coded as s h a t t e r .  T h i s v a r i a b l e should d e c r e a s e w i t h sequen-  t i a l f l a k e removal (see Raab, Cande and S t a h l e 1979) , a l t h o u g h Katz (1976) i n f e r r e d t h a t p l a t f o r m a n g l e i n c r e a s e s t h r o u g h subsequent s t a g e s . 6. C o r t e x Cover (COCO): T h i s i s the amount of weathered s u r f a c e e v i d e n t on the f l a k e s ' d o r s a l s u r f a c e s , measured i n s i x i n c r e m e n t s of 25%  ( i n c l u d i n g 0% and  100%), and assessed  visually.  T h i s mea-  sure i s expected to d e c r e a s e v e r y s h a r p l y f o l l o w i n g c o r e r e d u c t i o n .  4.7.  Hypothesis  Testing  Following the completion conducting  o f the p i l o t s t u d y , and p r i o r to  the experiment i n i t s e n t i r e t y , the f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h -  eses were f o r m u l a t e d w i t h the g o a l of d e m o n s t r a t i n g  t h a t stone  tool  115  manufacturing stages can be reconstructed  from quantitative  analysis of l i t h i c debitage, employing the six continuous and ordinal variables.  HI:  The weights of i n d i v i d u a l flakes are the best indicators  of the reduction stages from which they originated.  H2:  B i f a c i a l reduction  flakes and bipolar reduction  flakes  are discrete items i n d i c a t i v e of each type of reduction and can be accurately i d e n t i f i e d by the same variables used to predict early, middle and late stages.  H3:  Reduction stage quantification i s independent of raw material  type.  The kind of s t a t i s t i c a l technique that i s required to test these hypotheses, and e s p e c i a l l y the general stage question i s some kind of factor analysis, where the "factors" are known ( i . e . stages, BRF's, BPO's), but the significance of variables i s not. This technique w i l l also need to be able to i d e n t i f y variables that best sort factors.  Also needed i s some form of non-normal  or non-parametric test of significance to i d e n t i f y discrete patterning of the variables, with respect i f i c a t i o n can be constructed.  to stages, so that a c l a s s -  The two techniques chosen to sat-  i s f y these requirements are multiple discriminant analysis (MDA:  116  Klecka 1975), and the chi-square test of independence i n contingency  tables (Mendenhall 1975).  Discriminant  analyses have been used i n l i t h i c experimentation  studies by Chandler and Ware (1981), and i n a combined experimental and archaeological study by Burton (1980). method) was  Stepwise MDA  (Wilk's  used to see i f differences exist between groups, and  discover which variables are most useful.  Simply stated, MDA  to  uses  the s i x variables to c l a s s i f y i n d i v i d u a l flakes into the pre-set classes as defined by within-group co-variance parameters (see Klecka 1975).  4.7.1.  Stage Prediction  Five groups were i d e n t i f i e d for t h i s analysis: early, middle and l a t e stages, as well as biface reduction reduction  (BPO)  flakes.  and bipolar  The f i r s t stepwise discriminant  employed a l l flakes with platforms, (N = 994).  (BRF)  analysis  including a l l BRF's and 15 BPO's.  An o v e r a l l accuracy of 58.15% i n discriminating the  f i v e flake classes was  achieved (Table 4).  This i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  r e s u l t , 38% above the 20% " p r i o r p r o b a b i l i t y " of accurate c l a s s i f i cation, and t h i s i s well above the 25% mark recommended by Hair et a l (1979).  PLCO i s the most important discriminating variable i n t h i s  analysis, and accounts for 66.7%  of the variance of a l l variables  combined, as well as accounting for 95% of the variance of the f i r s t canonical discriminant function derived for t h i s sample. Table 4 shows that early PRB's and BRF's are the most accurately c l a s s i f i e d groups (75% and 84.6%  respectively) followed by BPO's (66.7%) and  117  Actual group  // o f cases  P r e d i c t e d Group Membership  EARLY  MIDDLE  LATE  BRF  BPO  EARLY  180  135 75.0%  25 13.9%  3 1.7%  MIDDLE  484  96 19.8%  237 49.0%  115 23.8%  15 13.1%  21 4.3%  LATE  192  12 6.3%  57 29.7%  92 47.9%  28 14.6%  3 1.6%  BRF  123  0 0.0%  3 2.4%  16 13.0%  104 84.6%  0 0.0%  BPO  15  1 6.7%  0 0.0%  10 66.7%  2 13.3%  2 13.3%  2 1.1%  15 18.3%  PERCENT OF GROUPED CASES CORRECTLY CLASSIFIED: 58. TABLE 4 . MDA C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e s u l t s of A l l F l a k e s with Platforms. N = 994)  Actual group  # o f P r e d i c t e d Group Membership cases EARLY  MIDDLE  EARLY MIDDLE LATE  BRF  LATE  BRF  83.3%  16.7%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  12  0 0.0%  9 75.0%  2 16.7%  1 8.3%  4  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  3 1 75.0% 25.0%  0 0.0%  2 33.3%  1 3 15.7% 50.4„%  PERCENT OF GROUPED CASES CORRECTLY CLASSIFIED: 71.43% TABLE 5.  MDA C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e s u l t s o f O b s i d i a n PRB's 25% Random Sample (N = 2 8 ) .  118  then middle stage PRB's (49%) and l a t e stage PRB's (47.9%). When sorted into basalt and obsidian raw materials and sampled randomly at a 25% rate, e s s e n t i a l l y the same r e s u l t i s achieved with basalt PRB's (56.72% o v e r a l l ) , but obsidian PRB's are more accurately c l a s s i f i e d at 71.43% (Table 5).  I t should  be noted here that BPO's were not adequately represented i n the sampling to be worth testing i n the obsidian sample, nor was the chert sample adequate.  PLCO i s the best discriminating variable  i n both these analyses, and as MDA i s very prone to more accurate discrimination of small samples (basalt 25% PRB = 201; obsidian 25% PRB = 28; see Magne and Matson 1982), this difference i n accuracy of the two analyses does not seem very important. Analysis of shatter, using only three groups (no BRF's or BPO's) and four variables (no PLCO or PLAN), and sampled at 10% rates, gave very similar r e s u l t s .  In basalt shatter, o v e r a l l  correct discrimination was obtained i n 54.24% of the flakes (N = 118). In the smaller obsidian sample (N = 33), 78.79% of the shatter were correctly c l a s s i f i e d .  DOCO i s the most important  discriminating variable i n both analyses. These analyses show that debitage can be assigned to the defined reduction groups with ca. 60% accuracy.  However, i t i s apparent that  the results are not very robust, especially i n prediction of middle and l a t e stages. To f i n a l i z e r e s u l t s , only that set of PRB's resulting from the reduction events of experienced knappers were selected, and randomly sampled at 50% (N = 222).  In this analysis (Table 6),  119  Actual group  # of cases  Predicted Group Membership EARLY  MIDDLE  EARLY  73  68 93.2%  5 6.8%  MIDDLE  73  6 8.3%  LATE  36  BRF  40  LATE  BRF  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  51 69.09%  12 16.4%  4 5.5%  0 0.0%  11 30.6%  17 47.2%  8 22.2%  0 0.0%  1 2.5%  6 15.0%  13 82.5%  PERCENT OF GROUPED CASES CORRECTLY CLASSIFIED: 76.13% TABLE 6.  MDA C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Results, Debitage Produced by Experienced Knappers, 50% random Sample (N = 222).  STAGE EARLY 0-1 2 3 Or more  MIDDLE  LATE  139  (87)  65  (90)  14  (41)  4  (38)  60  (39)  30  (18)  1  (19)  23  (19)  23  (9)  144  148  67  Chi-Square = 146.13, d.f. = 4, p = .001 TABLE 7.  Chi-Square contingency table, PLCO by STAGE, PRB's Produced by Experienced Knappers (bracketed values are expected, rounded to nearest whole number).  120  PRB's were a c c u r a t e l y c l a s s i f i e d a t an o v e r a l l r a t e o f 76.13%, and a g a i n PLCO i s s i n g l e d o u t as t h e most i m p o r t a n t d i s c r i m i n ating variable.  I t c a n be seen i n T a b l e '6 t h a t m i d d l e and l a t e  s t a g e PRB's a r e t h e l e a s t w e l l c l a s s i f i e d  (69.09% and 4 7 . 2 % ) ,  t h a t t h e s e two c l a s s e s mix m o d e r a t e l y among t h e m s e l v e s , and t h a t l a t e s t a g e PRB's s l i g h t l y tend t o be c l a s s e d as BRF's ( 2 2 . 2 % ) . To a s c e r t a i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the v a r i a b l e s PLCO and DOCO, c h i - s q u a r e t e s t s were u n d e r t a k e n . s t a t i s t i c on a l l PRB's produced  U s i n g the c h i - s q u a r e  by e x p e r i e n c e d  knappers  (N =  359, no BRF's o r BPO's) and c o l l a p s i n g c e l l s a t b o t h extremes of the PLCO range t o meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e t e s t , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f PLCO by r e d u c t i o n s t a g e i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t p = .001 (Table 7).  The same procedure o n . s h a t t e r from e x p e r i e n c e d knap-  p e r s , u s i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f DOCO by r e d u c t i o n s t a g e , showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , a l s o a t p = .001 ( T a b l e 8 ) . By i n s p e c t i n g the c h i - s q u a r e t a b l e s , and the means and medians o f PLCO and DOCO w i t h i n s t a g e s ( T a b l e 9, Figures"12 and 13) , i t c a n be seen t h a t e a r l y PRB'§ can be c l a s s e d as those h a v i n g 0 o r 1 d o r s a l s c a r s , m i d d l e PRB's have 2, and l a t e PRB's have 3 o r more. E a r l y s h a t t e r have 0 o r 1 d o r s a l s c a r s , m i d d l e g u t t e r have 2, and l a t e s h a t t e r have 3 o r more.  The l e s s e r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power o f t h e  weight v a r i a b l e i s d i s c u s s e d below. I n sum, the g e n e r a l problem o f s t a g e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s r e s o l v e d , and o r d i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a l l t y p e s o f d e b i t a g e c a n i d e n t i f y g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s , u s i n g p l a t f o r m and d o r s a l s c a r  121  STAGE EARLY  D 0'  MIDDLE  LATE  0-1  23  (14)  21  (.23)  2  2  13  (.15)  26  (26)  (14)  24  (23)  (10  46  12  (11)  51  16  (10)  46  C 0  3 or more  6 42  71  30  143  Chi-Square = 21.73, d.f. = 4, p = .001  TABLE 8.  Chi-Square contingency table, DOCO by STAGE Shatter produced by Experienced Knappers, (Bracketted values are expected, rounded to nearest whole number) 50% random sample.  122  STAGE  SHATTER  LATE  MIDDLE  EARLY  Weight (grams)  CO PH  m  PRB'S Dorsal Scar Count  Weight (grams)  Platform Scar Count  Mean  1.104  1.514  1.34  ,0.201  Median  0.165  1.492  0.227  0.095  Standard Deviation  3.086  0.906  3.764  0.510  Mean  0.123  2.409  0.162  1.770  Median  0.039  2.265  0.069  1.650  Standard Deviation  0.532  1.446  0.482  0.874  Mean  0.77  3.320  0.090  2.194  Median  0.031  3.222  0.032  2.150  Standard Deviation  0.327  1.498  0.417  0.839  Mean  0.693  3.427  Median  0.158.  3.379  Standard Deviation  2.541  1.002  TABLE 9.  .  :  „  Mean, Median and Standard Deviations of Weight, P l a t form and Dorsal Scar Counts, Debitage Produced by Experienced Knappers, Broken Down by Stage of Reduction.  123  5 -i  4i  < *  3H  C3  x  o  2H  UJ  3 I  H  0-  1  f O . 23  M  0.Q7T  EARLY  STAGE  0"."03 t~ —  MIDDLE  L ATE  + BRF  5 "I  4H  2  O  3  CC  <  </) 2H /  2 cr o  -r-  i H  < _J  o.  o-  1  Figure  12.  Graph of of  weight  produced  mean,  median  and  platform  by  and  experienced  standard  scar  count  knappers.  deviation variables,  values PRB's  0.16  124  5-1  4 4  co  2 <  3H  o ix o UJ  5  2H  H  O-  1  STAGE  M  4 0.17  EARLY  -0-03 MIDDLE  LATE  5-1  3H 3  o tr < u co  <  CO  tr  o Q  Figure 13.  Graph of mean, median and standard deviation values of weight and dorsal scar count v a r i a b l e s , Shatter produced by experienced knappers.  125  counts, and recognition of b i f a c i a l and bipolar reduction techniques. apparently  The power of the experimental discriminations i s higher i n the debitage produced by experienced  knappers than i n that produced by novices.  HI:  Weight as a Stage-discriminating  variable:  Negated  Nowhere i n the tests of HI does the weight of i n d i v i d u a l flakes appear to be a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n i d e n t i f y i n g r e duction groups.  In a l l the MDA analyses, weight was the t h i r d  or fourth important v a r i a b l e , contributing less than 5% to o v e r a l l variance, and achieving correlations on the order of 0.1 with d i s criminant  function c o e f f i c i e n t s , while PLCO and DOCO contributed on  the order of 90% to o v e r a l l variance, and correlated with discriminant functions with about 0.9  correlations.  This contradicts the r e s u l t s  of the p i l o t study, which was i n several ways less rigorous than the present one, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l y i n g on professional judgement to evaluate v a r i a b l e significance., Thus; while i t i s only l o g i c a l that as tools are reduced, they w i l l become smaller, the same i s not necessarily true of the debitage.  Similar r e s u l t s are reported by Baker (1981) i n an exper-  imental analysis of cement block reduction.  Furthermore, while other r e -  searchers have supported weight as a v a l i d indicator of reduction stages i n experimental situations (Burton 1980, Stahle and Dunn 1981), the control factor i n this and the pilot- study of removing from the analyses a l l large  flakes of debitage that would be suitable f o r  shaping i n an " i d e a l " technological-system,  as far as I am aware, has  126  not been previously applied. Table 9. and Figures 12 and 13 depict the reason why platformscar counts and dorsal scar counts are more accurate r e f l e c t i o n s of general manufacturing strategies than i s weight of debitage.  The  figures also lend some insight to how the weight factor may be approached i n future studies.  F i r s t of a l l , i t i s apparent that  weight declines sharply from early to middle stages, and then f l a t tens out to a nearly equal value f o r late stages, i n both PRB and Shatter samples from the experienced knappers.  Platform scar counts  on PRB's, when plotted by stage (Figure 12), show an  increase.from  early to late that r i s e s s l i g h t l y to l a t e , and sharply to biface r e duction.  The shatter' flakes show a clearer progress i n dorsal scar  counts (Figure 13), sharper than do the PRB's curve. A secondary f a i l i n g of the weight factor i s that the values of the central tendency measures are i n 100 ths of grams.  This i s  unwieldy for macro-debitage analysis, and i s a clear i n d i c a t i o n of some data l i m i t a t i o n s , since weight i n this study was recorded to 10 ths of grams only.  This finding i s also supportive of micro-  debitage analysis, and more research along the l i n e s of that undertaken by Fladmark (1982c) i s required to determine the u t i l i t y and stage prediction c a p a b i l i t i e s of small  H2:  debitage.  BRF's and BPO's as indicators of b i f a c i a l and bipolar reduction:  Supported There i s ample evidence that BRp's and BPO's are excellent i n dicators of b i f a c i a l and bipolar reduction, respectively (Table 2),  127  with the s l i g h t p o s s i b i l i t y that some bipolar events w i l l produce BRF's. These classes also seem to be quite objective classes i n themselves, with BRF's accurately c l a s s i f i e d 84.6% time among a l l PRB's (Table 4).  of the time and BPO's 66.7%  I t must be noted that these analyses  provide only some indications of how duction stages.  of the  BRF's and BPO's pattern across re-  However, when m i s c l a s s i f i e d i n the discriminant analyses,  BRF's tend to be " l a t e " and BPO's tend to be "early" (Tables 4 and 6).  H3:  Stage d e f i n i t i o n as independent of raw materials:  Supported  The differences observed between raw materials i n stage v a r i a b i l i t y are not very great.  There are d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the experiment  with the sample sizes of raw materials, especially with chert, for which the sample was  considered too small for testing i n any case but  i n c l u s i o n i n the f i r s t MDA  evaluation of HI.  The s l i g h t l y better d i s -  criminating power of obsidian i n comparison to basalt i s considered to be a sort of systematic error factor, due to greater f a c i l i t y i n actu a l l y observing flake scars on the black glossy Anahim Lake region obsidian than on basalt.  This factor can be evaluated archaeologically  by testing for differences i n assemblage complexity by raw materials.  4.8.  Summary of Experimental  Findings  This experiment was designed to test ideas about using debitage to i d e n t i f y general stone tool manufacturing  stages, and to develop  units of measure that are technologically meaningful and r e l i a b l e . Previous work r e l i e d on professional judgement and impressions from experience i n l i t h i c r e p l i c a t i o n . BRF's and BPO's, experience  gained  As i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  c e r t a i n l y plays a r o l e  i n any complex  128  and  s p e c i a l i z e d a n a l y s i s , but by d e v i s i n g an o b j e c t i v e way  of  c l a s s i f y i n g debitage  types and v a r i a b l e s , t h i s r o l e can  be  greatly diminished.  The most m e a n i n g f u l r e s u l t s o f the  ex-  periment a r e t h a t stone t o o l m a n u f a c t u r i n g  s t a g e s can be  u r a t e l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h a minimum number o f d e b i t a g e  acctypes  and v a r i a b l e s , and t h a t the w e i g h t of i n d i v i d u a l f l a k e s i s uns u i t a b l e f o r t h i s t a s k , w h i l e f l a k e p l a t f o r m and d o r s a l s c a r counts appear t o be much more a p p r o p r i a t e . To a p p l y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s experiment t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e b i t a g e , the d e b i t a g e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n F i g u r e 14 i s used. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n groups a l l types of d e b i t a g e  into reduction  The stages,  f i r s t by s o r t i n g f l a k e s i n t o PRB's, S h a t t e r , BRF's and BPO's, having  the l a s t two as i d e n t i f i e r s o f d i s t i n c t k i n d s of r e d u c t i o n , and  s o r t i n g the PRB's and S h a t t e r i n t o e a r l y , m i d d l e or l a t e s t a g e s t h e i r p l a t f o r m and d o r s a l s c a r c o u n t s . groups a r e o f t e n lumped or pooled  In l a t e r chapters,  by  these  to provide g e n e r a l i z e d stages.  In  such cases,BPO's a r e pooled w i t h e a r l y S h a t t e r arid PRB's, m i d d l e S h a t ter  and PRB's a r e grouped, and BRF's a r e added t o l a t e S h a t t e r and  PRB's.  The r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment were g e n e r a l l y p r e d i c t e d by John Speth, a pioneer i n c o n t r o l l e d l i t h i c experimental  r e s e a r c h , who  mented t h a t :  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o the t e c h n o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f f l a k e production should lead to a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n the t o t a l number o f a t t r i b u t e s needed t o q u a n t i f y t e c h n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y , and to the r e placement of dozens o f a r b i t r a r i l y chosen and r e dundant measurements p r e s e n t l y i n vogue w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r numbers of a t t r i b u t e s c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of sound t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p a l s (Speth 1972: 5 7 ) .  com-  DISTINCT S T A G E REDUCTION TYPE  EARLY  Platform P R B  O-l  MIDDLE  LATE  >3  BIFACIAL  BIPOLAR  BRF  Scar  ro  Count  Dorsal S H A T T E R  0-1  2 3  BPO  Scar Count  F i g u r e 14.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l d e b i t a g e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , d e m o n s t r a t i n g f l a k e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s required to sort debitage into e a r l y , middle and l a t e r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s , and a l s o i n t o b i f a c i a l and b i p o l a r reduction classes.  130  CHAPTER 5 THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA BASE  In this chapter the archaeological sources of data and the a r t i f a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme are described to provide background information for the following analytic chapter. Each of the 38 s i t e s from the Eagle Lake, Mouth of the C h i l cotin, L i l l o o e t and Hat Creek regions of the Interior Plateau (Figure 15) i s described; then the a r t i f a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i s presented. The reduction stage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of debitage developed in the previous chapter i s used to measure the dominant stages of t o o l manufacture represented i n the 38 assemblages.  Several  tool classes that are based primarily on the extent of retouch exhibited are defined, and tool attributes that were i n d i v i d u a l l y gathered are also described.  The frequencies of a r t i f a c t s are  tabulated for each s i t e , and photographs of the tools and cores are presented at the end of this chapter.  5.1.  Site Descriptions This section provides descriptions of the locations where  the assemblages under study were collected, including the size of the s i t e s , features associated with the s i t e s , the area within the s i t e s that was collected or excavated, the number of tools, cores and debitage analysed i n t h i s study, radiocarbon dates i f  Figure  15.  L o c a t i o n o f the f o u r r e g i o n s under T h i s f i g u r e i s keyed to F i g u r e 3.  study  132  such are available, and some general l o c a t i o n a l information. The information was compiled from various sources including project reports (Matson et al  1979; Matson et a l 1980; Poko-  tylo and Beirne 1978; Beirne and Pokotylo 1979; Stryd 1972) , graduate theses (Pokotylo 1978a; Stryd 1973; Ham  1975), B.C.  P r o v i n c i a l archaeological s i t e forms (Keddie 1972; others from Eagle Lake, Shuswap Settlement Patterns and Hat Creek Projects), and personal communications with the o r i g i n a l c o l l e c t o r s of the artifacts.  An e f f o r t was made to use s i t e s that were l a t e pre-  h i s t o r i c i n age, or from the Kamloops Phase, although i t cannot be certain that a l l s i t e s analysed here date to within the l a s t 2000 years.  Given the current poor state of culture history i n  the I n t e r i o r Plateau, t h i s i s a weakness of the present data, but does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e r f e r e with the purpose of this study: to examine assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y within and across several regions of the Plateau. The frequencies of tools, debitage and cores that are given in the following discussion may not match those reported i n o r i g i n a l reports or detailed analyses for three major reasons.  The  f i r s t of these i s that only chipped stone tools, cores, debitage and hammerstones were analysed, and ground stone, bone and antler tools were not.  The second reason f o r possible discrepancies i s  that the assemblages were completely r e - c l a s s i f i e d for this study, and my t o o l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s do not necessarily agree with those of previous researchers.  In p a r t i c u l a r , this study distinguishes be-  133  tween complete and fragmentary tools, and also c l a s s i f i e s many items as debitage that were previously classed as u t i l i z e d flakes, when edge damage was not continuous.  Furthermore,  i t was apparent  that bipolar cores were not well recognized i n previous analyses. The t h i r d major reason i s that this study only analyses debitage greater than 5 mm i n size along their largest dimension.  This  was thought necessary to l i m i t the amount of material that would be studied, to provide continuity with the experimental program, and to provide some control over screen size differences between projects and the size of material that i s gathered by d i f f e r e n t persons i n surface c o l l e c t i o n situations. The assemblages are referred to by the designations assigned by f i e l d investigators, and Borden s i t e numbers are provided as well.  In the case of most Eagle Lake, Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n and  Hat Creek s i t e s , the i d e n t i f i e r s used here refer to quadrats and s i t e s within quadrats.  For certain s i t e s within these three pro-  j e c t areas and for a l l L i l l o o e t s i t e s , Borden s i t e numbers are used when the s i t e s were known prior to project surveys.  Maps showing  i n d i v i d u a l s i t e locations are found i n figures 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20.  The assemblages are discussed here simply i n the order that  they were f i r s t examined, and that order i s maintained i n most f u r ther tables.  This practice helped to minimize the amount of editing  that was required of the data, and i s no great impedence to understanding the analyses since s i t e designations are quite arbitrary i n any case.  S i t e types, radiocarbon dates (uncorrected, uncalibrated),  134  s i t e areas and general debitage tool frequencies are shown in Table 10. In a l l of the following pages, the kinds of s i t e s from which l i t h i c assemblages were obtained are defined as follows:  1. Housepits:  L i t h i c assemblages have been obtained  from excavated housepit depressions. 2. L i t h i c scatters:  These are surface scatters of stone  a r t i f a c t s , with no associated c u l t u r a l  depressions.  Occ-  a s i o n a l l y , very small areas of these have been test excavated to depths never exceeding 20 3. L i t h i c scatters with housepits:  cm. These are surface  scatters only at s i t e s that also have associated house depressions. 4. L i t h i c scatters with cachepits:  These s i t e s ' assem-  blages also occur i n surface contexts, but with associated cachepits only. 5. L i t h i c scatters with fire-cracked rock:  These are sur-  face scatters of l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s , with associated f i r e related features, usually including fire-cracked rock and burnt mammal bone.  One of these from Hat Creek (F8:l) i s  an actual roasting p i t , with associated surface l i t h i c r e mains.  EAGLE I  135  CHE CH][LCOl  S3 M  o  8 W  o  r CREEl  •J  SITE  SITE TYPE  14:2 16:1 19:1 22:1 26:3 32:1 CR28 CR64 CR40 CR73 ElRw 4 CR92  LS LS LSCP LS LSCP LSHP LSFCR LSFCR LSFCR HP LSHP LSHP  EkRo 18 EkRo 31 EkRo 48  HP HP HP  2:3 4:2 4:5 4:1 5:1 9:1 9:2 12:6  LSCP LS LS LSHP LSHP LSHP LSHP LSHP  EeRk EeRl EeRk EeRk EeRl  16 41 7 4:38 40  G21:9 G23:l G2:12 G31:l F8:l  F12:5 <: J22:2 EC J38:2 K2:l EeRj 1  HP HP HP HP HP LS LS LS LS LSFCR LS LS LSFCR LS HP  C14 AGE (B. P.)  360 + 80 280 + 80 860 + 80 1290 + 80 870 + 60 1459 + 75 770 + 65  1290 + 85 c a . 150 920 + 80 395 + 80  2120 + 65 2245 + 50  140 + 50  LS - L i t h i c s c a t t e r HP - Excavated housepit LSHP - L i t h i c s c a t t e r w i t h housepits TABLE 10.  COLLECTION/ EXCAVATION AREA (m ) TOOLS  CORES & TOTAL DEBITAGE ARTIFACTS  168 2750 5000 150 9375 400 3575 "2 100 4 2 240  2 5 56 2 4 13 5 0 6 4 19 46  11 32 1063 83 108 167 34 42 117 53 646 1260  3 37 1119 85 112 180 39 42 123 57 665 1306  3 2  17 22  65 130  82 152  5 1250 300 6000 8750 12500 9750 3750 2500  18 37 35 16 24 25 12 13 12  330 122 954 340 122 85 141 151 24  348 159 989 356 146 110 153 164 36  5 16 36 2 18  20 29 116 20 76  24 23 2802 218 1300  44 52 2918 238 1376  2252 284 244 376  26 4 8 22  356 323 259 281  382 327 267 303  1676 84 20 12 33200 10  53 6 2 7 10 69  641 346 12 23 1142 875  694 352 14 30 1152 944  LSCP - L i t h i c s c a t t e r w i t h cachepits LSFCR - L i t h i c s c a t t e r w i t h f i r e c r a c k e d rock  Summary data f o r the 38 assemblages under study.  136  F i g u r e 16.  E a g l e Lake r e g i o n s i t e s . r ight.  F i g u r e 17 j o i n s upper  137  Figure 17.  Eagle Lake region s i t e EIRw 4. at bottom l e f t .  Joins Figure 16  138  5.1.1.  E a g l e Lake S i t e s  The 16 and 1979  12 assemblages from the E a g l e Lake r e g i o n ( F i g u r e s  17) t h a t a r e a n a l y s e d here were c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g  season o f the E a g l e Lake p r o j e c t (Matson et^ a l .  As i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3, t h i s p r o j e c t was  the  1980).  designed  to  d e s c r i b e the s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s and m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e o f l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c C h i l c o t i n i n the a r e a , t o date t h e i r a r r i v a l  and  to compare the p a t t e r n s t o Mouth o f the C h i l c o t i n and Hat regions.  1.  Creek  For f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n see Matson e t a l . (1980).  14:2  (EkSb 4)  T h i s s i t e i s a s m a l l (10.5 m X 16 m)  l i t h i c scatter loc-  a t e d a t t h e w e s t e r n end of E a g l e Lake, 25 m n o r t h of the l a k e shore.  L o c a t e d a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 1190 m a . s . l . , the s i t e  occurs  i n g r a s s l a n d environment near d i s c o n t i n u o u s l o d g e p o l e p i n e  and  aspen f o r e s t near the l a k e s h o r e .  sur-  The s i t e was  completely  f a c e c o l l e c t e d , and the assemblage c o n s i s t s of two p i e c e s of  2.  16:1  t o o l s and  11  debitage.  (EkSb 5)  T h i s s i t e i s l o c a t e d a t the west end of E a g l e Lake, a t an e l e v a t i o n of 1200 m a . s . l . , and a t a d i s t a n c e o f about 850 n o r t h of the l a k e s h o r e . l a r g e open meadow was  m  An a r e a measuring 75 m X 50 m i n a  completely surface c o l l e c t e d , y i e l d i n g  assemblage of f i v e t o o l s , f i v e c o r e s , and 27 d e b i t a g e  items.  an  139  3.  19:1  (EkSa  27)  A l a r g e (200 m X 200 m)  l i t h i c scatter with associated  c a c h e p i t s , r o c k c l u s t e r s and p o s s i b l e r o a s t i n g p i t s , t h i s  site  i s s i t u a t e d on a low t e r r a c e o f the C h i l k o R i v e r a t 1160 m about 2.5 km east o f E a g l e Lake.  The s i t e was  completely  a.s.l., sur-  f a c e c o l l e c t e d , and t h r e e a d j o i n i n g 1 m X 1 m u n i t s were e x c a v a t e d t o 25 cm d e p t h below s u r f a c e .  One  of the e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s  c o n t a i n e d an ash f e a t u r e 15 cm i n diameter w i t h e x t r e m e l y c a l c i n e d bone fragments.  fragile  T h i s i s the second l a r g e s t assemblage  from E a g l e Lake, w i t h 56 t o o l s , f i v e l a r g e c o r e s , 15 b i p o l a r c o r e s and  4.  22:1  1043  p i e c e s of  debitage.  (EkSb 6)  T h i s s i t e i s l o c a t e d about 200 m from the n o r t h s h o r e E a g l e Lake, a t 1190 m a . s . l . n o r t h e a s t shore o f the l a k e . 10 m) and was  of  i n an open g r a s s l a n d a r e a near the The  s i t e i s s m a l l i n s i z e (.15 m X  c o m p l e t e l y s u r f a c e c o l l e c t e d , y i e l d i n g two  tools,  t h r e e l a r g e c o r e s , and 80 p i e c e s of d e b i t a g e .  5.  26:3  (EkSa  31)  L o c a t e d on a s m a l l e s k e r - l i k e f e a t u r e a t the e a s t end  of  E a g l e L a k e , t h i s s i t e i s a l i t h i c s c a t t e r measuring 125 m X 75 m i n a r e a , a t 1190 m a . s . l . , and o c c u r s about 25 m. shore.  Complete s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i o n  from the l a k e  of the s i t e produced 3 t o o l s ,  108 p i e c e s o f d e b i t a g e , and one hammerstone.  140  6.  32:1 (EkSa 36) This i s a unique s i t e situated 50 m west of a small lake  i n lodgepole pine forest environment, and about 1 km east of Eagle Lake.  The s i t e contains a rectangular shallow house de-  pression, two cachepits, a firecracked rock feature and a l i t h i c scatter.  Altogether, the s i t e area i s about 40 m X 40 m.  s i t e was tentatively  The  i d e n t i f i e d as representative of an Athapaskan  occupation l o c a t i o n , on the basis of the large rectangular f e a ture, the presence of a contracting stem Kavik p r o j e c t i l e point and a blue glass trade bead, among other features.  The l i t h i c  scatter was completely surface c o l l e c t e d , y i e l d i n g 162 flakes, five bipolar cores and 13 t o o l s .  7.  CR28 (EkSa 98) This s i t e i s a l i t h i c scatter at 1190 m a . s . l .  located on a  high bluff on the east side of the Chilko River, about 5 km southsoutheast of Eagle Lake.  Five tools and 34 flakes were collected  within an area measuring 55 m X 65 m that also exhibited f i r e cracked rock, burnt bone and a game t r a i l .  8.  CR64 (EkSa 34) This s i t e i s located on the west side of the Chilko River,  at 1070 m a . s . l . ,  about 200 m north of the r i v e r ' s edge, and  approximately 10 km northeast of Eagle Lake.  The s i t e was r e -  vealed i n a roadcut exhibiting bone and firecracked rock, and  141  may  have o r i g i n a l l y extended over an e s t i m a t e d a r e a of 50 m X  40 m.  Two  e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s each m e a s u r i n g 1 m X 1 m were dug  to depths of about 30 cm below s u r f a c e , and produced two l a r g e c o r e s , one b i p o l a r c o r e , and 39 p i e c e s of d e b i t a g e , but no  tools.  S e v e r a l b u r n t fragments o f l a r g e mammal l o n g bone were a l s o r e covered  9.  from the u n i t s .  CR40 (EkSa  89)  T h i s s i t e i s on the e a s t s i d e of the C h i l k o R i v e r , about 2.5 km e a s t - n o r t h e a s t of E a g l e Lake, and i s l o c a t e d about 100 s o u t h o f s i t e 19:1, a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 1130 m a . s . l .  m  Complete  s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i o n of t h e l i t h i c s c a t t e r p a r t of t h e s i t e p r o duced s i x t o o l s , and  117 f l a k e s .  A l t o g e t h e r , the s i t e encom-  passes an a r e a measuring 120 m X 90  10.  CR73 (EkSa  m.  35)  T h i s s i t e r e p r e s e n t s the o n l y excavated h o u s e p i t assemblage from the E a g l e Lake r e g i o n a t p r e s e n t .  L o c a t e d a t 1080 m  on the e a s t s i d e of the C h i l k o R i v e r , a p p r o x i m a t e l y the mouth of B r i t t a n y Creek, t h e h o u s e p i t was  a.s.l.,  1 km s o u t h of  p a r t i a l l y eroded by  the C h i l k o R i v e r , r e v e a l i n g the s t r a t i g r a p h y o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n . The s i t e i n c l u d e s a s m a l l c a c h e p i t , and i n a l l c o v e r s an a r e a of 40 m X 20 m.  Four e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s 1 m X 1 m i n s i z e were dug i n  t h e house d e p r e s s i o n , e x p o s i n g r o o f f i l l m a t e r i a l , w e l l b u r n t r o o f beams and a s i n g l e o c c u p a t i o n l a y e r .  preserved  C h a r c o a l from  one  142  of the beams was radiocarbon dated to 360 + 80 BP (SFU 15), and a dendrochronological date from the beam of AD 1561 w very variable) was obtained as well.  (outside  The assemblage from the  s i t e consists of four tools and 53 flakes, as well as two net sinkers, and fragments of incised slate and bone, and two small edge fragments of ground stone tools.  Faunal remains included  f i s h and mammal bone that have not been i d e n t i f i e d  11.  to species.  EIRw 4 This s i t e i s located on the north bank of the Chilko River,  well outside the immediate area of the Eagle Lake region, but was studied as part of the Eagle Lake project.  The s i t e covers  an extensive area (.about 750 m X 400 m) , and contains 169 housep i t s , cachepits and possibly other kinds of depression features as well as firecracked rock and a l i g h t but extensive l i t h i c scatter.  Three 1 m X 1 m excavation units were dug at the s i t e ,  one on a high terrace and two others on a large slump bank next to the r i v e r .  Only materials from the lower two units are  analysed here, and these include 19.tools, f i v e bipolar cores and 641 flakes.  A radiocarbon date of 280 + 80 BP (SFU 16) was ob-  tained from one of these units.  12.  CR92 (EkSa 33) This s i t e i s a large l i t h i c scatter (about 400 m X 100 m)  located on the east side of the Chilko River, about 500 m south  143  of B r i t t a n y Creek.  Some 20 c a c h e p i t s a r e l o c a t e d nearby ( r e -  corded as CR98, but c o n s i d e r e d here t o be a p a r t of CR92), and the m a t e r i a l s a n a l y s e d here were r e c o v e r e d from 250 s u r f a c e u n i t s , and  from two  1 m X 1 m  1 m X 1 m excavation u n i t s .  This  i s the l a r g e s t assemblage from the E a g l e Lake r e g i o n s t u d i e d , and i t i n c l u d e s 46 t o o l s , one 1244  p i e c e s of d e b i t a g e .  (SFU  14) was  l a r g e c o r e , 15 b i p o l a r c o r e s  A r a d i o c a r b o n date at 860 + 80  o b t a i n e d on c h a r c o a l removed from one  and  BP  of the  exca-  vation units.  5.1.2.  Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n  The  Sites  11 s i t e s a n a l y s e d from  the r e g i o n immediately  south-  west of t h e c o n f l u e n c e of the C h i l c o t i n and F r a s e r r i v e r s from c o l l e c t i o n s r e c o v e r e d by Matson, Ham  and Bunyan  (1979).  In c e r t a i n cases d i f f e r e n t s i t e s r e c o r d e d w i t h i n survey bear  are  quadrats  i d e n t i c a l B o r d e n - s i t e numbers, because they had been p r e -  v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d by Keddie area.  (1972) i n a judgemental  suvey of the  The o r i g i n a l quadrat d e s i g n a t i o n s a r e r e t a i n e d here to  f a c i l i t a t e comparisons w i t h the f i n d i n g s of the Shuswap S e t t l e ment P a t t e r n p r o j e c t  1.  EkRo  ( F i g u r e 18).  18  T h i s s i t e c o n s i s t s of 15 h o u s e p i t s and an a r e a measuring a p p r o x i m a t e l y an e l e v a t i o n of 685 m a . s . l . ,  eight cachepits i n  300 m X 80 m.  1.5  km  I t i s located at  southwest of the  Chilcotin  144  Figure  18.  Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n r e g i o n  sites.  145  and F r a s e r R i v e r s c o n f l u e n c e i n an open r a n g e l a n d  setting.  The  assemblage s t u d i e d h e r e c o n s t i t u t e s o n l y those m a t e r i a l s r e c o v ered from t h r e e 1 m X 1 m e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s p l a c e d i n a h o u s e p i t d e p r e s s i o n , measuring  4.5 m i n d i a m e t e r .  v e a l e d no h o r i z o n t a l l y c o n t i n u o u s  The e x c a v a t i o n s r e -  o c c u p a t i o n f l o o r , and a d a t e  of 1290 + 80 BP (Gak 5325) was o b t a i n e d from a c h a r c o a l sample. The assemblage i n c l u d e s 17 t o o l s and 65 f l a k e s .  2.  EkRo 31 T h i s s i t e i s l o c a t e d i n open g r a s s l a n d , a t 595 m a . s . l . ,  approximately River.  4 km s o u t h - s o u t h e a s t  o f t h e Mouth o f t h e C h i l c o t i n  The s i t e f e a t u r e s 11 h o u s e p i t s and f o u r c a c h e p i t s i n an  a r e a 225 m X 50 m.  One o f t h e h o u s e p i t s was t e s t excavated  by  means o f two 1 m X 1 m u n i t s , y i e l d i n g t h e assemblage s t u d i e d h e r e , and no r a d i o c a r b o n samples were p r o c e s s e d .  N  The assemblage  c o n s i s t s of 22 t o o l s , one b i p o l a r c o r e , and 129 p i e c e s o f d e b i t a g e .  3.  EkRo 48 T h i s s i t e c o n s i s t s o f seven h o u s e p i t s and e i g h t c a c h e p i t s  a t 655 m a . s . l . on an open t e r r a c e near t o s i t e EkRo 18, approxi m a t e l y 1.5 km southwest o f t h e Mouth o f t h e C h i l c o t i n R i v e r . EkRo 48 was t h e most e x t e n s i v e l y excavated S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n p r o j e c t i n 1974. excavated  F i v e 1 m X 1 m u n i t s were  i n one o f t h e h o u s e p i t s , exposing  3.5 m i n d i a m e t e r .  s i t e o f t h e Shuswap  a continuous  floor  C h a r c o a l from t h e f l o o r was r a d i o c a r b o n  dated  146  at 1459 + 75 BP (Gak 5327) and miscellaneous  charcoal from  the p i t was dated at 870 + 60 BP (Gak 5326).  The materials  studied here include 17 t o o l s , one hammerstone, eight bipolar cores and 322 pieces of debitage.  4.  2:3  (EkRo 87)  S i t e 2:3  i s located 1.75  km downstream from the C h i l c o t i n -  Fraser r i v e r s ' confluence, overlooking the Fraser River at m a.s.l.  365  The s i t e consists of two cachepits and the surface  l i t h i c assemblage studied here, within an area measuring 50 m X 25 m.  The assemblage was  obtained from an eroding bank area,  and includes 36 tools, one hammerstone, four cores, four bipolar cores, and 114 flakes. eroding bank, and was was  A charcoal sample was  removed from the  dated at 770 + 65 (Gak 5324).  This s i t e  classed as a r i v e r s i d e s i t e i n the analyses by Matson et a l .  (1979).  5.  4:2  (EkRo 31)  S i t e 4:2  i s one of three l i t h i c scatters from Quadrat 4  of the Shuswap Settlement Pattern project that are studied here.  The scatter occurs here on a low r i s e near a creek bed,  at 550 m a . s . l .  The assemblage was  c o l l e c t e d by means of 12  grid units 25 m X 25 m i n s i z e , and was  also studied by Bunyan  (1974) i n a moderately successful attempt to delimit technologi c a l l y d i s t i n c t areas within the scatter area. the chert debitage s i t e s considered  4:2  i s one of  to be "pre-Kamloops" by  147  Matson et_ al.  (1979) and the m a t e r i a l s a n a l y s e d i n t h i s s t u d y  i n c l u d e 35 t o o l s , one c o r e , two b i p o l a r c o r e s and 951  debitage  items.  6.  4:5  (EkRo  31)  This s i t e i s a surface l i t h i c s c a t t e r located approximately 75 m s o u t h of s i t e 4:2, et  a l . 1979).  and i s a l s o a c h e r t d e b i t a g e s i t e  The assemblage was  (Matson  c o l l e c t e d from a low h i l l  approx-  i m a t e l y 100 m X 60 m i n a r e a , and c o n s i s t s o f 16 t o o l s , two  bipolar  c o r e s and 338  flakes.  7.  31)  4:1  (EkRo  S i t e 4:1  i s a h o u s e p i t s i t e (Matson e t a l . 1979)  n e a r t h e two h i l l s where t h e 4:2  and 4:5  that occurs  assemblages were c o l l e c t e d .  E i g h t h o u s e p i t s and f o u r c a c h e p i t s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e low a r e a . The assemblage s t u d i e d h e r e i n c l u d e s 24 t o o l s , two c o r e s , t h r e e b i p o l a r c o r e s and 117  8.  5:1  flakes.  (EkRo 5 and EkRo  10)  T h i s s i t e o c c u r s i n open g r a s s l a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 km s o u t h o f the c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e C h i l c o t i n and E r a s e r R i v e r s . The s i t e f e a t u r e s t h r e e h o u s e p i t s and s i x c a c h e p i t s i n an a r e a measuring a p p r o x i m a t e l y 125 m X 100 m, and i s p a r t i a l l y d i s e c t e d by a s m a l l g u l l y .  The a r t i f a c t s a n a l y s e d h e r e i n c l u d e  24 t o o l s , one hammerstone, two b i p o l a r c o r e s and 83 p i e c e s of  148  debitage.  S i t e 5:1 was also classed as a housepit s i t e i n  Matson et_ al.'s  9.  9:1  (1979) f i n a l analysis  (EkRo 31)  S i t e 9:1  i s another housepit s i t e that occurs alongside  s i t e 4:1, next to a small and densely forested creek v a l l e y . Within an area of about 150 m X 60 m, the s i t e contains three housepits and four cachepits, as well as the surface l i t h i c assemblage studied here, which includes 12 tools, seven bipolar cores and 134 flakes.  10.  9:2  (EkRo 30)  This s i t e i s located 250 m north of s i t e 9:1,  i n an open  area approximately 75 m X 50 m i n size, between a small road and a forested creek gully. s i t e 4:6,  The s i t e may be continuous with  a small s i t e that i s not addressed here.  9:2 features  a single housepit arid a surface l i t h i c assemblage, however Keddie (1972) recorded EkRo 30 as exhibiting three housepits and 13 cachepits.  The assemblage studied here consists of 13 tools, one  core, three bipolar cores and 146 pieces of debitage.  9:2  was  considered to be another chert debitage s i t e by Matson jit al.. (1979) .  5.1.3.  L i l l o o e t Sites  The f i v e s i t e s from the L i l l o o e t region that are studied here occur on the east bank of the Fraser River near Gibbs Creek  149  and Kettlebrook Creek (Figure 19).  These are a l l housepits  excavated by Stryd at various times throughout his extended research i n the area.  These s i t e s were chosen from the many  that have been excavated, with Stryd's assistance, on the basis of r e l a t i v e l y wide excavation areas and single component occupation horizons.  Overall, these c o l l e c t i o n s are those with  which I am least f a m i l a i r , yet I chose to study them since this study required several housepit assemblages to contrast with the several l i t h i c scatter s i t e s available from the other three regions.  1.  EeRk 16 This i s a single housepit s i t e that was excavated i n 1973.  The excavations are not well described and the exact area excavated i s not known.  Apparently, a single occupation f l o o r  was  present, and this was dated to 1290 + 85 BP (1-8060) (A. Stryd, personal communication).  The assemblage from this s i t e that i s  studied here includes 20 tools and 24 pieces of debitage.  2.  EeRl 41 EeRl 41 i s a single housepit s i t e , with two exterior cache-  p i t s , that i s situated on the south bank of Gibbs Creek at an e l evation of 360 m a . s . l .  The housepit  i s 8.8 m X 7.2 m i n area,  and 90 cm deep, and the cachepits average 2.5 m i n diameter. cavation of 16 m^ revealed a single-house f l o o r at 30 cm below  Ex-  150  Figure 19.  L i l l o o e t region s i t e s .  151  s u r f a c e w i t h a c a c h e p i t i n s i d e the house d e p r e s s i o n . u p a t i o n i s thought  to be p r o t o h i s t o r i c and  The  occ-  the assemblage here  i n c l u d e s 29 t o o l s , one b i p o l a r c o r e and 23 f l a k e s .  Stryd also  r e c o v e r e d a beaver i n c i s o r t o o l , an a n t l e r wedge, a b i r d bone bead and an a n t l e r h a f t h o l d i n g an i r o n t i p . S t r y d (.1972) cons i d e r s t h a t E e R l 41 may  have been a " s p e c i a l i z e d t a s k s t r u c t u r e "  because of h i g h f a u n a l m a t e r i a l f r e q u e n c i e s and low l i t h i c mate r i a l frequenices.  3.  EeRk 7 T h i s s i t e f e a t u r e s t h r e e h o u s e p i t d e p r e s s i o n s on the n o r t h 2  bank o f Gibbs Creek. #1,  An a r e a o f 36 m  was  excavated  i n Housepit  from w h i c h t h e a r t i f a c t s s t u d i e d h e r e were o b t a i n e d .  o f 920 + 90 BP  (Gak 3284) was  A  date  o b t a i n e d from the base of the s i n g l e  o c c u p a t i o n f l o o r , t h a t o c c u r r e d 30 cm to 40 cm below s u r f a c e . T h i s i s the l a r g e s t assemblage from a l l the s i t e s i n t h i s  study,  w i t h 116 t o o l s , two cores,- e i g h t b i p o l a r c o r e s , and 2792 p i e c e s of debitage. 4.  EeRk 4: 38 EeRk 4 i s a l a r g e s i t e w i t h 28 h o u s e p i t d e p r e s s i o n s and num-  erous c a c h e p i t s .  The assemblage s t u d i e d h e r e i s from F e a t u r e  a depression approximately  2 m i n diameter  a 1 m X 2 m e x c a v a t i o n u n i t t h a t was  dug  i n t o w h i c h was  to a depth of 1.5  #38,  placed m.  The presence o f f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k i n upper l e v e l s and a g r e a t e r  152  number o f a r t i f a c t s i n lower l e v e l s l e a d S t r y d communication) t o suspect  (personal  t h a t the d e p r e s s i o n may  have s e r v e d  as a " r e f u s e p i t " . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the f e a t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e , and forwarded t o me  the c o n t e x t o f the assemblage  o n l y a f t e r the a n a l y s e s  t o f o l l o w were completed.  Thus, throughout the remainder of t h i s s t u d y , EeRk 4:38 as a h o u s e p i t assemblage.  EeRl  216  flakes.  40  This i s a s i n g l e housepit 9.6  i s treated  The a r t i f a c t s examined h e r e c o n s i s t of  20 t o o l s , two b i p o l a r c o r e s , and  5.  was  m X 8.9  m.  s i t e w i t h a p i t f e a t u r e measuring  S e v e r a l c a c h e p i t s a r e nearby on the same f l a t 2  above Gibbs Creek.  An a r e a of 18 m  was  excavated  i n the house-  p i t , w i t h the o c c u p a t i o n f l o o r o c c u r r i n g a t 35 cm below s u r f a c e . A d a t e o f 395 + 80 BP osit.  (.1-9025) was  o b t a i n e d from the f l o o r dep-  A r t i f a c t s examined i n ' . t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e 75 t o o l s ,  hammerstone, f o u r b i p o l a r c o r e s and 5.1.4. The  Hat  1296  one  flakes.  Creek S i t e s  10 s i t e s s t u d i e d from the Hat  l e c t e d as p a r t o f the Hat Most s i t e s r e c o r d e d  Creek V a l l e y were a l l c o l -  Creek A r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t ( F i g u r e 2 0 ) .  d u r i n g the t h r e e year o p e r a t i o n were l i t h i c  s c a t t e r s , some of enormous s i z e , and  the assemblages a n a l y s e d  here  were chosen w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of Dr. David P o k o t y l o on the b a s i s of p r o b a b l y  late prehistoric  age, and manageable s i z e .  F i g u r e 20.  Hat  Creek r e g i o n  sites.  154  Six of these ten were also studied previously by Pokotylo (1978a).  1.  G21:9  (EeRj 42)  This s i t e i s located on the north s i t e of Anderson Creek in an open grassland area at 1035 m a . s . l . elevation.  Lithic 2  materials were surface collected from an area of 2252 m . was  one of the assemblages studied by Pokotylo (1978a).  study, the s i t e was  G21:9  In that  characterized as exhibiting a wide range of  stone t o o l manufacturing processes as well as indications of intensive t o o l use.  The assemblage studied here consists of 26  tools, and 359 flakes. 2.  G23:l  (EeRj 52)  Surface a r t i f a c t s from this s i t e were collected ^rom  a  284  2 m  area on a high ridge at 1130 m a . s . l . , 250 m south of Ambusten  Creek.  The s i t e also features a rock cairn, the only such feature  observed to date i n the Hat Creek Valley.  Pokotylo's (1978a) ana-  lyses characterized this s i t e as featuring debitage i n d i c a t i v e of late stages of tool manufacture, and the t o o l assemblage was i n ferred to have resulted from short term hunting and activities.  butchering  The materials included i n this study are four t o o l s ,  f i v e cores, three bipolar cores and 315 flakes. 3.  G2:12  (EeRj 20) 2  G2:12  i s a small (244 m ) l i t h i c scatter located about 350 m  north of Finney Creek at 975  m a.s.l.  The s i t e contains no fea-  155  tures other than the surface l i t h i c assemblage, that consists of eight tools, one bipolar core and 258 pieces of debitage. In Pokotylo's (1978a) analyses, G2:12 ranging manufacturing  was one of the wide-  assemblages as revealed i n the debitage,  and the tools were inferred to have resulted from expedient, short-term usage.  4.  G31:l (EeRj  64)  This s i t e i s situated on an open grassland bench west of Hat Creek at an elevation of 1005 m a . s . l .  Materials were c o l -  2 lected from an area measuring 376 m .  This s i t e was also i n -  cluded i n Pokotylo's (1978a) d i s s e r t a t i o n , where i t was said to exhibit debitage resulting from late stage manufacturing  pro-  cesses, and the tools were part of the cluster of s i t e s inferred to represent a wide range of intensive a c t i v i t i e s .  The assem-  blage consists of 22 tools, four cores, three bipolar cores and 274 flakes. 5.  F8:l (EeRj  71)  This s i t e was one of the few recorded i n the Hat Creek proj e c t forest stratum quadrats, although the majority of the s i t e occurs on open ground.  F8:l contains a l i t h i c scatter measuring  2 1676 m  i n areav and a c i r c u l a r c u l t u r a l depression that i s 5.6 m  in diameter.  The depression feature was test excavated by means  of four 1 m X 1 m units, that revealed a main firecracked rock  i  156  b a s i n and a d d i t i o n a l s m a l l e r r o c k - l i n e d b a s i n s .  Charcoal  the p r i m a r y and secondary b a s i n s were dated a t 2120 + 65 (S-1453) and 2245 + 50 BP  (S-1642) r e s p e c t i v e l y . The  from BP  deposits  c o n t a i n e d f a u n a l bone m a t e r i a l of w h i c h one speciman was  iden-  t i f i e d as mule deer ( O d o c o i l e u s hemionus), p l u s c a r b o n i c  and  p l a n t remains.  Thus, the f e a t u r e appears t o have served as a  s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e p r o c e s s i n g l o c a t i o n , and the p r e s e n c e of s m a l l b a s i n s w i t h i n i t i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was used p o s s i b l y several  times. The F 8 : l a r t i f a c t s from the s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i o n were a l s o  i n c l u d e d i n P o k o t y l o ' s (1978a) s t u d y , where the assemblage c h a r a c t e r i z e d as b e i n g s i m i l a r t o t h a t from G21:9.  was  The F 8 : l deb-  i t a g e appeared t o r e s u l t from a wide range of r e d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and the t o o l s were i n d i c a t i v e of a wide range of i n t e n s i v e u s e s . The m a t e r i a l s examined i n t h i s study i n c l u d e 53 t o o l s , s i x l a r g e c o r e s , s i x b i p o l a r c o r e s and  6.  F12:5  (EeRj  629 p i e c e s o f d e b i t a g e .  8)  T h i s s i t e a l s o o c c u r r e d i n a f o r e s t quadrat of the 1976 Creek P r o j e c t s u r v e y .  Located  Hat  a t 850 m a . s . l . , 250 m west o f  Hat Creek, the s u r f a c e a r t i f a c t s were c o l l e c t e d from an a r e a of 2 84 m .  Pokotylo's  (1978a) a n a l y s i s found t h i s s i t e t o e x h i b i t  a wide range of d e b i t a g e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and a s e t of t o o l s f e a t u r i n g low d i v e r s i t y , p r o b a b l y  i n d i c a t i n g a b r i e f p e r i o d of use.  The assemblage a n a l y s e d h e r e i n c l u d e s s i x t o o l s , one c o r e , f i v e b i p o l a r c o r e s and 340  flakes.  157  7.  J22:2 (EeRj 176) This small (6 m X 11.5 m) l i t h i c scatter was found i n the  northwest end of the Hat Creek Valley i n an area called the Houth Meadows.  The s i t e was not completely surface c o l l e c t e d ,  and a r t i f a c t s were only removed from a 2 m X 10 m wide transect placed through the center of the surface scatter, across a b u l l dozed logging road.  The s i t e was collected i n 1977, and thus i s  not a part of Pokotylo's (1978a) study.  The assemblage consists  of two tools, and 12 pieces of debitage.  8.  J38:2 (EeRj 180) J38:2 i s also a small (7 m X 5 m) l i t h i c scatter i n the  northwest end of the Hat Creek Valley.  The assemblage here was  also collected from a transect (2 m X 6 m), rather than completely collected. ing  Also found at this s i t e was a surface feature contain-  several small fragments of burnt and calcined bone, and f i r e -  cracked rock.  The a r t i f a c t s studied here include seven tools, one  core and 22 flakes.  9.  K2:l (EeRj 90) The l i t h i c scatter covers a large area (400 m X 100 m)  immediately east of Hat Creek, opposite i t s confluence with Anderson Creek.  An area thought to represent 83% of the s i t e  surface was collected by means of 2 m X 2 m grid units.  The  s i t e occurred along the edge of a survey quadrat and a r t i f a c t s  158  are known to extend beyond i t s a r t i f i c i a l boundaries but no attempt was made to record them.  The assemblage here consists  of 10 tools, six bipolar cores arid 1136 pieces of debitage.  10.  EeRj 1 EeRj 1 i s a complex s i t e approximately  200 m X 200 m i n  size that i s located at the north end of the Hat Creek Valley, just i n the bend where the creek turns to flow northeast t o wards the Bonaparte River. scatter approximately depressions.  The s i t e exhibits a large l i t h i c  100 m X 100 m i n area, and 15 c u l t u r a l  Four of these depressions are thought to be house-  p i t s , the other 11 are inferred to be roasting p i t s since they contain abundant charcoal and firecracked rock.  The assemblage  studied here was obtained from test excavations i n one of the housepits (Culture Feature #10). Culture Feature #10 was tested by means of 10, 1 m X 1 m excavation units that were placed i n a discontinuous l i n e across the depression.  Both t r a d i t i o n a l stone and bone a r t i f a c t s and  h i s t o r i c age goods were found, as well as many fragments of both f l o r a l and faunal materials.  The depression also contained at  least one hearth feature, from which a radiocarbon date of 140 + 50 BP (S-1582) was derived.  Thus, by a l l evidence the depression  feature appears to have been occupied during the early h i s t o r i c period.  The l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s analysed i n this study include 69  tools, one core, four bipolar cores and 870 flakes.  This is? the  159  only excavated housepit assemblage from the Hat Creek Valley.  5.2  Artifact Classification The data base of the archaeological component of this  study consists of 15,566 chipped stone a r t i f a c t s , of which 861 are t o o l s , and 14,705 are flake and core debitage.  This section  provides descriptions of the assemblage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, and provides the basic frequency data for the analyses  to follow.  For a l l 38 assemblages, as required, the a r t i f a c t categories were maintained across the f i v e raw material classes: granular basalt, obsidian, chert/chalcedony and  vitreous basalt, quartzite/other.  In addition to a r t i f a c t type and raw material, a l l tools were described by eight continuous and ordinal variables. Gathering  the data took the greater part of about four months  of straight laboratory time, and would have been lessened by perhaps no more than 25% if. a 10 mm, cut-off had been applied. d i v i d u a l l y catalogued  rather than 5 mm  debitage s i z e  Debitage c o l l e c t i o n s that were not i n -  and wrapped were much faster to tabulate;  however, recent damage was noted i n assemblages that had been excavated on the order of 10 years ago.  Assemblages that have a  cumulative history of archaeological c o l l e c t i n g also posed some f r u s t r a t i n g but resolveable problems by exhibiting changing Borden numbers, a l t e r i n g cataloguing, removed and altered cataloguing, several means of storage.  and  Data were written onto 80-column by 28  row blank forms onto which appropriate categories had been added.  160  These were keypunched, and were stored as cards, and as disk f i l e s , at the UBC Computing Centre.  5.2.1.  Debitage (N = 14705)  The system of general stage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r debitage developed i n Chapter 4 i s applied here, y i e l d i n g eight classes for flakes and two f o r cores.  To be sorted i n early, middle or  l a t e reduction stages, flakes are sorted into PRB and Shatter categories.  PRB's with c o r t i c a l or p l a i n platforms are early,  those with two platform scare are middle stage, those with three or more platform scars are late stage, and those with three or more platform scars on acute angled platforms are BRF's, or b i face reduction flakes.  Shatter with c o r t i c a l dorsal faces or  with only p l a i n dorsal faces are early stage, Shatter with two dorsal scars are middle, and those with three or more dorsal scars are counted as l a t e .  Bipolar reduction flakes (BPO's) are con-  sidered Shatter (as opposed to PRB's), because platforms are crushed, and include those flakes with evidence of simultaneous, opposing percussion and at least one dorsal face platform area that exhibits irregular hinge and step scarring.  As i s discussed  in the experimental study, PRB's with platforms less than 2 mm wide were often d i f f i c u l t to code r e l i a b l y and were often coded as Shatter and stage-evaluated by their dorsal scar counts. Cores and bipolar cores are also debitage.  By d e f i n i t i o n  these items bear no evidence of.use, or hafting retouch,  161  and have flake scars adequate to have yielded useful blanks. Hand-held cores (CORES) usually bear cortex, one or two percussion planes, minimal platform preparation and no b i f a c i a l flaking.  Bipolar cores (BPCO) are pieces with evidence of sim-  ultaneous percussion, with f u l l - l e n g t h scars, and extensively battered platforms. Pieces esquillees (PEEQ) are addressed as a tool c l a s s , and the contentions bearing on their i d e n t i t y are discussed below. Of the 14,705 pieces of debitage, the PRB and Shatter flake frequencies combined y i e l d 5217 early stage items, 4991 stage, and 3325 late stage.  middle  BRF's total'595 f o r the 38 assemb-  lages, and there are a t o t a l of 413 BPO's.  A l l together, 164  cores were examined, of which 120 are BPCO's and 44 are CORES. Tables 11 and 12 show the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for the debitage of each assemblage, and the percentage of the frequency categories per assemblage.  5.2.2.  Tool C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (N = 861)  Tools are analysed i n two manners, each designed to reveal d i f f e r e n t kinds of trends i n implement occurrence, and assemblage complexity.  The typological c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of tools combines  attributes of retouch and u t i l i z a t i o n extent ( f a c i a l , marginal, u t i l i z e d ) with attributes of shape and occasionally, plausible function (e.g. p r o j e c t i l e point, endscraper), and size.  In and  of themselves most classes do not y i e l d much "functional" i n f o r -  162  PRB Site 14:2 16:1 19:1 22:1 26:3 32:1 CR28 CR64 CR40 CR73 EIRw 4 CR92 EkRo J8 EkRo 31 EkRo 48 2:3 4:2 4:5 4:1 5: 1 9:1 9:2 12:6 EeRk 16 EeRl 41 EeRk 7 EeRk 4:38 EeRl 40 21:9 23:1 2: 12 31:1 F8:1 F12:5  J22:2 J38:2 K2: 1 EeRj 1 TOTALS  E  M  Shatter L  BR  E  M  L  Cores BP  BC  CO  Total  110- .. 107... 107 273. • • 275.• 115 20. • . . . o . . . . . 0.... . 0 . 36.. . . 21. ... 3. .. . . , 0 . . . . . o. • . . . 3 . . • • • 83- • • 6.. . . 10.. ..23.. ... 8 . 15.... 18...28.. . . . o. • . . . 0- •• • • 0-• •• -108- • • 9.. .. 13... . 10. ....4 . 39.... 37...34.. .. 16.. . . . 5. ... . 0- •• • 167- • • 4.. .. . 2.... .3.. ... 0 . 12. 7. .. 11..... 0. .. . . 1.. . . . 2-. •. . 42- • • 6. ...17.. .. 13... . 15. . 13.... 24... 29.. . .. 0.... . o . • . . . 0 . • . . 1 1 7 . . . ... 8.. 55.. .. 53... . 52.. .. 32 117. .. 161.. 164 .. . 7.. . 135.. .. 83. . .. 57.. ..39 418. .. 256. . 210. .. .46.... 15. •... 1..• 1260- • • ..19.. . .. 7.. 8 33.. ..26.. ... 5. ... 13.. 94....81. ..47.. ..23... .. 8...  . .  0 . .  • • 330- • •  45.. ..44.. .. 60.. .. 22.259. . . 311. . 192 .. 18... 20.. ..18.. .. 20..... 3 106. ..110. . 56 ...5... 7, , . . . 6 . . 4. . . . .3. . 8, , ...6.. . .. 0. 31 10. . ..20.. ..13.. ... 4..39. ...35. ..25.. . ..1..... 3-- .. 1... . 1 5 1 . . . . . . 2. . 4 1 . . . 2.... .4. . 4 ...5.. ...3.. . . . 1. 0 4. 467. ..241.. ..83.. . . 22. 918. . .683..279 • 2802. • • 26 . .25... . 17. . . .8.48 ...57. 138.. .132.. ..68.. ..51. 273. ..408. .194.. ..32... • 1300- • • 18.. ..54.. ..41.. . . 12. .49. .. 109 ..73.. . . . 0. . .. 0. . 32.. .. 16....10.. ..16. .85. . . i o o ..56.. . . .0..... 3. .. . . 5 . . 11 ..37.. ..52.. . . .9.71 27. . .. 11....11.. . . 15. . 72.. . .64. ..67.. . . . 7 . . . .. 3.. . . 4. .. . 281. .. 62. . . . 7 7 . . ..64.. . .55..63. . .140..163 . . . 5 . . . . . 6... . 6.. 641. .. 52. . ..21.. . . . 2.... .5. 114 ...95. ..46.. . . . 5 . . . . 2 . . . 1.... .0. .. . . 1. 5 0 . . . 2.... .0. . . . 1. 3 9. ...7.. .. .0. .. 68. . ..78.. ..45.. .133. 229. . .325..231.... .27. . ..£> . . . . 0 . . . 1142. .. 119. .. . 77. ...55.. . .89.201. . .147..151.. -.31. . .. . 4 . . . 1. ... 875. . . 1557 1250 871 595 3660 3741 2454 413 44 120 E M L BR  = = = =  Early Middle Late B i f a c i a l Reduction  BP = B i p o l a r Flakes BC = B i p o l a r Cores CO = Cores  TABLE 11. Assemblage debitage c l a s s e s , raw counts, a l l raw m a t e r i a l s .  163  PRB Site 14:2 16:1 19:1 22:1 26:3 32:1 CR28 CR64 CR40 CR73 EIRw, 4 CR92 EkRo 18 EkRo 31 EkRo 48 2:3 4:2 4:5 4:1 5:1 9:1 9:2 12:6 EeRk 16 EeRl 41 EeRk 7 EeRk 4:38 EeRl 40 21:9 23:1 2:12 31:1 F8; 1 F12:5 J22:2 J38:2 K2:l EeRj - I  E 18.18 35.48 10.35 24.10 5.56 5.39 8.82 9.52 5.13 7.55 8.51 10.71 24.62 7.69 10.00 4.92 4.72 5.88 5.73 4.71 5.67 6.67 25.00 4.17 17.39 16.67 11.93 10.62 5.06 9.91 4.25 9.61 9.67 15.03 16.67 0 5.95 13.60  E M L BR  = = = =  M 9.09 0 10 07 0 .9.26 7.78 5.88 4.76 14.53 15.09 •8.20 6.59 7.69 14.62 7.88 8.20 4.61 5.29 4.10 11.76 11.35. 13.33 8.33 8.33 21.74 8.60 11.47 10.15 15.17 4.95 14.29 3.91 12.01 6.07 8.33 8.70 6.83 8.80  SHATTER L 36.36 0 10 .07 0 21.30 5.99 11.76 7.14 11.11 16.98 8.05 4.52 9.23 5.38 1.52 6.56 6.29 5.88 4.92 3.53 4.26 8.67 0 16.67 13.04 2.96 7.80 5.23 11.52 3.10 20.08 3.91 9.98 .58 0 0 3.94 6.29  BR  E  0 0  9.09 35.48 25.68 43.37 13.89 23.35 20.59 28.57 11.11 16.98 18.11 33.17 9.23 11.54 28.48 13.93 27.15 31.18 23.77 22.35 21.99 26.00 16.67 12.50 0 32.76 22.02 21.00 13.76 26.32 10.42 25.62 9.83 32.95 41.67 13.04 20.25 22.97  28 0 7.41 2.40 5.88 0 12.82 9.43 4.95 3.09 13.85 6.15 3.94 6.56 2.31 .88 1.64 0 0 2.67 0 0 4.35 .79 3.67 3.92 3.37 4.05 3.47 5.34 8.58 1.45 8.33 4.35 11.64 10.17  Early Middle Late B i f a c i a l Reduction  M 9.09 12.90 25.87 25.30 16.67 22.16 11.76 16.67 20.51 16.98 24.92 20.32 9.23 18.46 24.55 19.67 32.60 32.35 28.52 34.12 32.62 23.33 25.00 12.50 17.39 24.38 26.15 31.38 30.62 30.96 22.78 22.78 21.84 27.46 16.67 39.13 28.46 16.80  CORES  L  BP  BC  CO  18.18. 3.23 10.82 3.61 25.93 20.36 35.29 26.19 24.79 16.98 25.39 16.67 24.62 30.00 14.24 25.41 20.13 16.47 16.39 20.00 13.48 16.67 0 45.83 21.74 9.96 12.39 14.92 20.51 17.33 24.32 23.84 24.43 13.29 8.33 30.43 20.32 17.26  0 & 4 .99 0 0 9 .58 0 0 0 0 1 .08 3 .65 1 .54 5 .38 6 .97 8 .20 1 89 1 47 82 1 18 5 67 67 8 33 0 0 3 53 3. 67 2. 46 0 0 0 2. 49 .78 1.45 0 0 2.36 3. 54  0 0  . 0 12.90 .47 3.61 0 0 0 4.76 0 0 0 .08 0 0 0 3.28 .10 0 1.64 0 0 .67 0 0 0 .07 0 0 0 1.55 0 1.42 .94 .29  BP = B i p o l a r Flakes BC = B i p o l a r Cores CO = Cores  TABLE 12. Assemblage Debitage C l a s s e s , Percent by Count, A l l Raw M a t e r i a l s  1.41 0 0 2.00 0 2.38 0 0 .77 1.19 0 .77 2.42 3.28 .21 .59 2.46 2.35 4.96 2.00 16.67 0 4.35 .29 .92 .31 0 .93 .39 1.07 .94 1.45 0 0  .53 .46  0  4.35 0 .11  -164  mation, (Table 13), but such w i l l be attempted by searching for co-occurrence of types.  Fragment type was also recorded for the  tools, but i n the analyses to follow only a d i s t i n c t i o n between complete and fragmentary t o o l -classes i s maintained.  The 23  tool class frequencies across the 38 s i t e s are shown i n Table 14. Photographs of the tools and cores, minus some u t i l i s e d flakes, appear i n Figures 21 to 69.  1.  Lanceolate bifaces (LANC) and fragments (LABF) Complex bifaces with straight, or s l i g h t l y curved edges,  and extensive f a c i a l flaking (>5 mm from edges).  - 2.  Large bifaces (LABC) and fragments (LABF) These are b i f a c i a l tools i n assemblages that are markedly  larger than other tools, or i f they were complete, would be. There i s not a s t r i c t l i m i t imposed here, but objects on the order of 10 cm i n any dimension, or fragments suggesting such a s i z e are classed as large.  3.  Bifaces (BIFC) and fragments (BIFF) These are items with flaking on two adjoining faces that  extend over 5 mm from the edge.  4.  Bimarginal tools (BIMC) and fragments (BIMF) These have adjoining—face retouch that extends between 5 mm  and 2 mm from the edge, regardless of the actual number of edges bearing marginal retouch on both faces.  165  1.  Lanceolate  biface  2.  Large  3.  B i f a c i a l retouch t o o l  4.  Bimarginal retouch t o o l  5.  Large u n i f a c e  6.  U n i f a c i a l retouch t o o l  7.  Unimarginal retouch t o o l  8.  Utilized  9.  P r o j e c t i l e point  biface  flake  10.  Graver/drill  11.  Endscraper  12.  Piece  esquillee  13.  Spall  tool  14.  Core t o o l  15.  Hammerstone  16.  U t i l i z e d b i f a c i a l reduction flake  NOTE:  F a c i a l r e t o u c h i s g r e a t e r than 5 mm; m a r g i n a l i s between 2 mm and 5 mm, and u t i l i z e d i s l e s s than 2 mm l e n g t h s o f f l a k e s c a r s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e edge.  TABLE 13.  T o o l morphology c l a s s e s  166  TOOL TYPE  u fa < J  Site ,  14:2 16: 1 19:1 22:1 26:3 32:1 CR28 CR64 CR40 CR73 EIRw 4 CR92 EkRo 18 EkRo 31 EkRo 48. 2:3 1 4:2 • 4:5 4:1 5:1 9:1 9:2 12:6 EeRk 16 EeRl 41 EeRk 7 EeRk 4:38 1 EeRl 40 G21:9 G23:1 G2:12 G3i:l F8:l F12:5 J22:2 J38:2 K2: 1 EeRj 1 TOTALS  rH  CJ  fa oa  < i J  < •J  1 2  1  fa o fa s Ma fa fa M r-1 M CJ  03  2  1 11 1  1  3  1  2 1 5 15 2 1 1 1 1 7  1 2  1  1  1 1  1  2 1 1  2 1  1 6  2 2  2 1 1 2 2 1 7 3 2 1  1 1 1 2  2  1 1 2  2 2  1 3 6  1  1 CN rH •H r-l  1 1 4  1 1  rH CM .-'  ca  ca  rH  IT!  CQ  VD  CJ  D  1 1 1 1  2  00  fa s  rJ  H  EH 3  fa  CJ  o oi  O ai CU  C/3  OS  Q  Q  erf  55 W  Cf  w  fa  OH  o EH  o  PH C/}  O  H  cj  s <3 rc S  EH  Oi  CO  1  2 4  5 4 20 2  1 1  1 1  4 1  1 1 4 4 2 4 2 2 12 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 6 .1 1 1 7 2 1 4 9 8 3 2 2 10 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 2 1 1 1 8 2 2 1 14 2 8 1 1 2 63 4 2 8 4 42 3 1 2 2 7 1 1 1 1 5 7 3 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 4 4 4 2 24 2 o r o - i m oo  1 2 8  1  1  2  1 1  2  2 2 1 1 3  1 1  2 3 2 2 1 3 5 1 5 9 5 6 2 8 2 2 4 37 1 2 5 13 m  fa fa fa 55 CJ  55  2 3  2  1 o r-l  TABLE 14 .  1 ro  m  ro  rH  CM  m  ro  1 1  4 2 6 5 6  1  3  2  1 1 2  4 1 5 1  3  4  3  1 3  2 3  1  1  1 2  4 1 6 1  1 1  1 1  1  1 3  2 1  1  1 4  3  3  1  1  2  1  2 1  1  2  1  1 2 2 m T -ai  rH  Tool type frequencies by s i t e  1 2 00 i-i  CM  CO  u  o  EH  2 5 56 2 4 13 5 0 6 4 19 46 17  22 18 37 35 16 24 25 12 13 12 20 29 116 20 76  26  1  2  00  1 1  rH  1 4 OS  rH  1  4 8 22 53 6 2 7 10 69 rH  167  5.  Large unifaces (LAUN) This i s an uncommon tool class, consisting of only two  items that are large and exhibit u n i f a c i a l f l a k i n g .  6.  Unifaces (UNFC) and fragments (UNFF) These are items with u n i f a c i a l retouch that extends greater  than 5 mm from the edge.  7.  Unimarginal tools (UNMC) and fragments (UNMF) These are items with retouch between 5 mm and 2 mm fromithe  edge, on one face only, regardless of the number of edges bearing marginal retouch.  8.  U t i l i z e d flakes without retouch damage that extends over 2 mm  from the edge, regardless- of number of damaged faces.  Continuity  along edges must be maintained f o r the extent of the damage.  9.  P r o j e c t i l e points (PROC) and fragments (PROF) These are p r o j e c t i l e points, regardless of type, and side-  notched, corner-notched and stemmed points are included i n the c o l l e c t i o n s , although types of points do not form analytic u n i t s .  10.  G r a v e r s / d r i l l s (GRDR) These are items with deliberately retouched projections, and  not happenstance durable points.  168  11.  Endscrapers  (ENDS)  These a r e items t h a t have been r e t o u c h e d  i n t o rounded ends,  u s u a l l y u n i f a c i a l l y , and at times o n l y e x h i b i t m a r g i n a l  12.  retouch.  P i e c e s e s q u i l l e e s (PEEQ) These a r e items t h a t have b i p o l a r b a t t e r i n g , where s i n g l e  f l a k e s c a r s do not extend a c r o s s the e n t i r e f a c e s o f the  artifact.  P i e c e s e s q u i l l e e s o f t e n e x h i b i t b i p o l a r f l a k i n g from p e r p e n d i c u l a r axes, w i t h f o u r edges b e i n g about e q u a l i n l e n g t h , and o t h e r s have s p l i t s on l a t e r a l margins the l e n g t h of the i t e m .  These r i g h t -  a n g l e d s p l i t s a r e not c o n s i d e r e d t o be s c a r s r e s u l t i n g from the detachment of u s e f u l b l a n k s . P i e c e s e s q u i l l e e s and b i p o l a r c o r e s a r e a t o p i c of l a s t i n g debate i n l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g y 1976;  (Hayden 1980;  B i n f o r d and Quimby 1963).  S o l l b e r g e r and  Patterson  I w i l l not add t o the c o n s i d e r a b l e  d i s c u s s i o n , but i n d i c a t e t h a t b i p o l a r r e d u c t i o n i s and was  a con-  t r o l l a b l e t e c h n i q u e f o r f r a c t u r i n g s t o n e , and t h a t p i e c e s esqu i l l e e s owe  t h e i r form t o some u t i l i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , but t h a t has  eluded  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to d a t e .  13.  S p a l l T o o l s (SPTO) These a r e l a r g e f l a k e s , u s u a l l y o b t a i n e d from g r a n u l a r b a s a l t s  and o t h e r dense igneous r o c k s , t h a t bear r e t o u c h i n v a r i o u s ways to p r o v i d e a h a f t end and a s c r a p i n g end.  The ends i n f a c t a r e r a r e l y  b o t h worked, and o f t e n r e t o u c h i n d i c a t e s d e l i b e r a t e b l u n t i n g of  the  169  s c r a p i n g end.  S e v e r a l o f t h e s p a l l t o o l s s t u d i e d h e r e have con-  s i d e r a b l e u s e p o l i s h , both a c t u a l r o u n d i n g o f t h e s t o n e and apparent  14.  d e p o s i t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s ( s e e Ham 1975: 153 - 156).  Core T o o l s (COTO) These a r e l a r g e i t e m s , u s u a l l y w i t h much o r i g i n a l s u r f a c e  of a c o b b l e p r e s e n t , f a s h i o n e d i n a rough manner, and e x h i b i t i n g l e s s e r r e t o u c h t h a t s t r a i g h t e n e d edges, o r t h a t r e s u l t e d from heavy u s e .  15.  Hammerstones (HAMM) These a r e n o t f l a k e d s t o n e p i e c e s , b u t pebbles and s m a l l  c o b b l e s o f dense r o c k , t h a t bear b a t t e r i n g on one o r b o t h ends. Hammerstones were c o n s i d e r e d f r e q u e n t enough t o add as a p o t e n t i a l c l u e t o l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s by p a t t e r n s o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r t y p e s , b u t l a c k i n g chipped stone a t t r i b u t e s  themselves,  are not included i n a l l analyses.  16.  U t i l i z e d B i f a c e R e d u c t i o n f l a k e s (BRUT) These a r e BRF f l a k e s as r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e d e b i t a g e  classifi-  c a t i o n , that e x h i b i t u t i l i z a t i o n or marginal retouch, on f l a k e edges a p a r t from t h e p l a t f o r m .  170  Figure 21 a: b:  14:2 tools piece esquillee uniface  171  4& c  g  h  i  j  s  r  t  k  u  v  l  m  w  x  n  o  M  e  d  «  p  y  q  z  a  o  c  Figure 2 3 a,b c d e,f g-c' d'-q' r'-v' w'-a'  19:1 t o o l s lanceolate bifaces graver/drill piece esquillee bimarginals p r o j e c t i l e points bifaces unifaces u t i l i z e d flakes  Figure 2 4 a-o p.q  19:1 t o o l s and c o r e s b i p o l a r cores spall tools core t o o l  1  ^  ^  ^  ^  n  m  u'  o  v  b  w  c  o  x*  d  e  1  f  q  p  9  a  h  172  173  * l B  Figure 27 a: b,c:  26:3 tools lanceolate biface unimarginals  174  *  1  it  F i g u r e 29 a,b c d e  CR28 t o o l s lanceolate bifaces biface p r o j e c t i l e point uniface  F i g u r e 30 a: b,c:  CR64 c o r e s b i p o l a r core cores  CR40 t o o l s lanceolate biface bifaces unifaces  175  b  a  c  M d  f  e  9y  F i g u r e 32 a,b: c: d:  CR73 t o o l s p r o j e c t i l e points biface utilized flake  F i g u r e 33 a-f g,h i-n o p-s  EIRw t o o l s and c o r e s bifaces unifaces p r o j e c t i l e points graver/drill u t i l i z e d flakes b i p o l a r cores  h  * I I M * | i  j  k  I  P  m  n  t  q  * • «• w  •  f  t-x  176  Wm  c  d  e  f  g  h  J  •; i t % * q  I  s  x  y  z  •  b  U  t  e  I II ^ 4 A  h'  j  m  f'  n  M  o  p  * q  t » # » l t t l s'  t'  u"  v'  w'  x  y  *  r  z  k  1 m-o p-f g'-i j'-l m' -p q'-r s'-g*  w  v  Figure 34  CR92 tools and cores p r o j e c t i l e points graver/drill endscraper pieces esquillees bifaces bimarginals unifaces unimarginals u t i l i z e d flakes bipolar cores  177  a  b  e  d  > » » * • I  f  g  *  f  a  b  c  d  EkRo 18 tools biface uniface u t i l i z e d BRF's u t i l i z e d flakes  I  h  *  Figure 36 a b c ,d e-n  *  4  e f  4  4 # 4 t • n  o  Figure 37 a: b--e: f: g--1: m--p: q: r: s: t:  EkRo 31 tools and core biface unifaces unimarginal p r o j e c t i l e points u t i l i z e d flakes piece esquillee graver d r i l l bipolar core s p a l l tool  178  Figure 38 a  b  i  b  q  r  a  k  j  »  a,b: c,d: e,f: g: h-n: o: p: q-v:  I  t  u  v  b  4 * * «M f n  t  r  w  4 U  EkRo 48 tools and cores bifaces p r o j e c t i l e points unifaces unimarginal u t i l i z e d flakes s p a l l tool piece esquillee bipolar cores  w  #1 x  V  I  q  r  y  z  s  0  . b  I  c  Figure 39 a-m n-s t u-v w-c'  2:3 tools and cores bifaces p r o j e c t i l e points uniface unimarginal u t i l i z e d flakes bipolar cores  Figure 40 a-d: e:  Figure 41 a-d: e:  2:3 tools s p a l l tools core t o o l  2:3 tools and cores cores core t o o l  180  F i g u r e 42  9  h  m  ^  x  y  a  z  b  t  c  <%j  U  b'  a'  o  1|  4 S  n  V  c'  d  k-o p-r s-v w-e f g'-h i j k  e'  d'  I  f  I  F i g u r e 43 a,b c-g h-o J  *  m  4:2 t o o l s and c o r e s bifaces p r o j e c t i l e points unifaces unimarginals u t i l i z e d flakes u t i l i z e d BRF b i p o l a r cores piece e s q u i l l e e core spall tool  n  o  p,q r  4:5 t o o l s and c o r e s bifaces p r o j e c t i l e points u t i l i z e d flakes b i p o l a r cores graver/drill  181  #•4 c  i  h  g  n  i  o  I  P  s  r  k  j  t  I  I m  n  I o  B p  4:1 tools and cores bifaces p r o j e c t i l e point u t i l i z e d BRF's unifaces unimarginals u t i l i z e d flakes bipolar cores cores  Figure 45 a-f g,h i-k l,m n-p q,r s,t u-w  5:1 tools and cores bifaces bimarginals pieces esquillees p r o j e c t i l e points u t i l i z e d flakes bipolar cores unifaces s p a l l tools core tool  a  u  v  • • • t  4  m  Figure 44 a,b c d,e f-k 1 ,m n-w x-z a\b'  |  K  i 9  X  182  f  m  It  n  4  Figure 46 a: b-d: e: f,g: h: i: j-1: m-s:  9:1 tools and cores lanceolate biface bifaces bimarginal unifaces unimarginal u t i l i z e d flake p r o j e c t i l e points bipolar cores  o  a b  e  d  Figure 47 a-d e,f g-j k 1-n o P q  9:2 tools and cores bifaces unifaces u t i l i z e d flakes u t i l i z e d BRF bipolar cores core graver/drill core tool  183  V • « t  * f  tr g  i  F i g u r e 48 a-h i 1  m-p  12:6 t o o l s and c o r e s bifaces piece e s q u i l l e e unifaces u t i l i z e d flake b i p o l a r cores  184  F i g u r e 49 a-c d-f h i-p q  r-t e  EeRk 16 t o o l s bifaces p r o j e c t i l e points uniface utilized flakes spall tool u t i l i z e d BRF's  h  9  * h t b  d  e  e  f  g  F i g u r e 50 I  J  i  ¥$m o  p  q  m  if r  a: b-g: h: i,j: k: l,m: n-r: s: t: u:  E e R l 41 t o o l s and cores large biface bifaces bimarginal p r o j e c t i l e points unimarginal unifaces u t i l i z e d flakes endscraper graver/drill b i p o l a r core  185  Mi*/ e  f  g  h  1  u  w  v  i  m  x  F i g u r e 51 a-d e-t u-b'  EeRk 7 t o o l s large bifaces bifaces p r o j e c t i l e points  F i g u r e 52 a-1 j-l m-p q-t  EeRk 7 t o o l s unifaces unimarginals u t i l i z e d flakes pieces e s q u i l l e e s  ~  n  i  y  o  b  §« # 4 • ** 4  b  e  f  g  Mr j  4  d  h  i  » k  1 I  14  186  b  e  d  Figure 53 a b-e f-m n-r s,t u,v w,x  EeRk 7 tools and cores s p a l l tool endscrapers bipolar cores u t i l i z e d BRF's graver/drill u t i l i z e d BRF's cores  r Figure 54  J  k  t m »•  m  n  o  p  VI  a-h: i: j-k: 1-p: q: r,s:  EeRk 4:38 tools and cores bifaces p r o j e c t i l e point unifaces u t i l i z e d flakes u t i l i z e d BRF's bipolar cores  187  h  p  i  q  j  r  k  s  I  t  m  u  v  w  E e R l 40 t o o l s large bifaces bifaces bimarginals p r o j e c t i l e points unimarginals  F i g u r e 56  E e R l 40 t o o l s and cores u t i l i z e d flakes spall tools graver/drills b i p o l a r cores  o  x  b  a  b  n  F i g u r e 55 a-c d-k l-o p-x y-b'  c  h  i  a-i  j,k 1-n o-r  m  n  188  F i g u r e 57 a-i  j-l m n o-q r,s t-z  G21:9 t o o l s bifaces bimarginals p r o j e c t i l e point lanceolate biface unifaces unimarginals u t i l i z e d flakes  1# u  v  VI  f  i  F i g u r e 58 a,b c,d e-i j-l  G23:l t o o l s and bifaces unifaces cores b i p o l a r cores  cores  189  > M  F i g u r e 59 a-c d,e f g h  d  c  e  b  h  W  c  I  1  9  f  e  d  h  f  g  —  ***** dfr k  I  G2:12 t o o l s and c o r e s bifaces p r o j e c t i l e points endscraper uniface utilized flake b i p o l a r core  m  n  o  F i g u r e 60 a-g h-j k-o p-v w-z  G31:l t o o l s and c o r e s bifaces p r o j e c t i l e points unifaces u t i l i z e d flakes cores b i p o l a r cores  190  F i g u r e 61 a-i': j  k  I  m  n  s^ ^ ^ ^  A v  4 w  F8:l tools bifaces  t *  *  u^^^^r  4 y  x  4  k  I  m  F i g u r e 62 a-h i.j l,m n,o p»q r-w x-c'  F 8 : l t o o l s and c o r e s bifaces unimarginals u t i l i z e d flakes p r o j e c t i l e points graver/drills cores b i p o l a r cores spall tool  Figure  63 a b c d  g h-1  Figure  64 a: b:  F12:5 t o o l s and cores biface p r o j e c t i l e point u t i l i z e d BRF large biface large unifaces core b i p o l a r core  J22:2 t o o l s p r o j e c t i l e points unimarginal  192  4  j j  a  g  J38:2 t o o l s and c o r e s bifaces p r o j e c t i l e points core  b  b  t  F i g u r e 65 a-c d,e f  •  e  d  e  I »  h  |  f  |  f  l  |  F i g u r e 66 a-f i j k-p  K 2 : l t o o l s and c o r e s bifaces p r o j e c t i l e points uniface u t i l i z e d BRF b i p o l a r cores  193  i  I li k  |  b  i  Q  $  X  w  d  c  f  e  I  I  EeRjI tools bifaces bimarginal p r o j e c t i l e points  I  i a  Figure 67 a-s t u-x  g  h  i  Figure 68 a-p q r-u v-w x-a*  m  I  s  * «  t  > l *  y  o  4  J  •  EeRj 1 tools and cores u t i l i z e d flakes core bipolar cores pieces esquillees u t i l i z e d BRF's  194  c  d  e  a - i  Figure 69 j-o p-w  h  P  Q  r  i  s  unifaces EeRjI tools unimarg inals u t i l i z e d flakes  195  CHAPTER 6  A MULTIREGIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON LITHIC ASSEMBLAGE VARIABILITY  6.1. Introduction The t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks developed by Binford  (1979),  Ebert (1979), Goodyear (1979) and Pokotylo (1978) provide the behavioral perspective within which the analyses i n this chapter are undertaken.  The analyses seek an understanding of the basic causes  of l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y i n the central and southern Int e r i o r Plateau, through the derivation of consistent multivariate and bivariate patterns from which technological strategies can be inferred.  The analyses proceed by exploring inter-assemblage var-  iations with respect to major factors thought to determine the character of l i t h i c technological practices, including stages of l i t h i c reduction, kinds of raw materials, tool maintenance, and tool and debitage co-occurrences within major settlement s i t e types. Three general hypotheses are tested i n the following analyses of the context and l i t h i c content of the 38 assemblages from the four regions of study.  This part of the study evaluates the u t i l i t y  of the debitage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n that has been formulated i n the experimental program of this study of  as a useful and r e l i a b l e means  i n f e r r i n g l i t h i c technological strategies that were employed by  the p r e h i s t o r i c residents of the central and southern Interior Plateau.  196  The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses of  have been f o r m u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s  t h e c u r r e n t models o f l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g y and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s  t h a t have been developed by E i n f o r d year  (1979), E b e r t (1979) and Good-  (1979), d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h i n Chapter 2:  1.  O b s i d i a n and c h e r t raw-materials- e x h i b i t v a r i a -  b i l i t y that is- the r e s u l t of practices.  ' extensive  economizing  T h i s i s expected becaus-e these m a t e r i a l s -  a r e r e l a t i v e l y r a r e o r c o m p l e t e l y absent w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n s o f s t u d y , w h i l e v i t r e o u s b a s a l t i s t h e domin a n t raw m a t e r i a l w i t h i n a l l of t h e r e g i o n s . 2.  R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e importance o f raw m a t e r i a l f a c t o r s ,  l i t h i c maintenance p r a c t i c e s a r e i m p o r t a n t of  t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f assemblages.  determinants  These s h o u l d be  emphasized d i f f e r e n t i a l l y among s i t e s w i t h i n and a c r o s s regions. 3.  G e n e r a l s i t e o c c u p a t i o n purposes  across the four r e -  g i o n s can be r e l i a b l y p r e d i c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f d e b i t a g e and t o o l c o - v a r i a t i o n s .  6.2.  Reduction Factors The major i s s u e o f i n f e r r i n g l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g i c a l b e h a v i o r  by means o f r e d u c t i o n s t a g e measures o f l i t h i c d e b i t a g e i s b e s t answered i n a m u l t i v a r i a t e manner, t o d e r i v e major f a c t o r s o f v a r i a b i l i t y , from d a t a t h a t can be p a r t i t i o n e d i n many ways.  197  In the present case, i t i s major patterns of inter-assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y that are sought (see Matson 1980), and i n d i v i d u a l assemblage inferences are offered only a f t e r the entire set of hypotheses has been evaluated. There exist many possible ways of computing s i m i l a r i t i e s between assemblages,  including various c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s  and s i m i l a r i t y and difference measures (see Sneath and Sokal 1973) . I selected a City Block distance measure calculated on  standard-  ized percentages of the 10 debitage classes within each assemblage (Table 12).  Percentage calculations are necessary because  variable sampling rates and wide v a r i a t i o n i n sample size would otherwise automatically severely bias the analysis.  Visual group-  ings and data reduction or " f a c t o r i n g " are accomplished by f i r s t clustering the s i t e s , using Ward's Error Sum  of Squares method  (Sneath and Sokal 1973) , an algorithm option available i n a package of c l u s t e r routines developed by Wood (1973). distance matrix was ing (Matson 1978;  The City Block  also factored by Metric Multidimensional  Matson and True 1974;  scal-  Torgerson 1958), following  standardization of the percentage data, i n which the mean of each variable becomes zero with a standard deviation of one. I t i s important  that what i s being reflected i n the multivariate analyses  i s generalized reduction stage patterning and not sheer abundance of material.  Standardization was  conducted on the percentage data  to emphasize v a r i a b i l i t y within s i t e units, rather than within the debitage variables, because i n t e r - s i t e patterns are being sought  198  ( S o k a l and Sneath 1973:  178) . When t h i s i s done, t h e problem  w i t h s i z e f a c t o r b i a s e s t h a t i s p r e v a l e n t i n s c a l i n g and o r d i n a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i s g r e a t l y reduced  ( S o k a l and Sneath 1973:  the c l u s t e r and s c a l i n g a n a l y s e s a r e conducted  178).  Both  i n Q-mode f a s h i o n  where t h e s i t e cases a r e grouped on t h e b a s i s o f t h e d e b i t a g e variables.  F o r d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f c l u s t e r i n g and s c a l i n g  t e c h n i q u e s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e used h e r e , see Matson and True ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Matson e t a l . ( 1 9 7 9 ) , Matson e t a l . (1980) and P o k o t y l o (1978). The c l u s t e r diagram i s n o t reproduced h e r e , but t h e t h r e e major c l u s t e r s d e r i v e d i n "that a n a l y s i s a r e shown i n t h e TSCALE p l o t o f t h e f i r s t two dimensions o f v a r i a b i l i t y ( F i g u r e 70).  To  i n t e r p r e t t h e major f a c t o r s o f v a r i a b i l i t y , r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Spearman's r ) , a r e computed on t h e d e b i t a g e c l a s s e s ' percentages a g a i n s t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e assemblages on t h e dimensions.  T h i s r e v e a l s t h a t Dimension  I accounts b e s t f o r t h e amount  of l a t e s t a g e d e b i t a g e i n s i t e s , o f PRB and S h a t t e r p e r c e n t a g e s comb i n e d ( r = 0.95), and Dimension s  I I i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e p e r c e n t a g e  of combined PRB and S h a t t e r m i d d l e s t a g e d e b i t a g e ( r = 0.76). s  of t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t p : .005.  Both  These two dimen-  s i o n s account f o r 47% and 22% o f Trace v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e d a t a o v e r all.  The r e m a i n i n g 3 1 % o f Trace r e q u i r e s a f u r t h e r f o u r d i m e n s i o n s ,  none o f w h i c h i s r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e i n terms o f t h e r e d u c t i o n classes.  I t i s n o t a b l e a l s o i n t h i s m e t r i c s o l u t i o n , t h a t no t r i a n g l e  i n e q u a l i t i e s (Anderberg in the interpretations.  1973) were v i o l a t e d , a d d i n g t o t h e c o n f i d e n c e The s o l u t i o n shows t h a t i f g e n e r a l i n t e r -  199  O  CC  CO  CM — O ro o  E \  rr  \  ro  CO CM  rr CM  '  CJ  / I  ro CM  *  / ~  3  cr  ' ro  *  I \  I  CM  ro  ^  \  \  CO ro  CM  i  6S  PJ  \  \  o rr  cr  \"-'-  ro  w  CM  \"  V-  \  DC  ' /  co  y  E  —  H  <->• CC o»  — ro  -  CO  sz O)  0>  UJ  lO  \  Q Q 2  •  5  LU I• <  I CO  \  <T o CC  \ \  \ UJ \ \  in  \  CC  \  CVJ CM  \  CJ O  cj  \  cn LU  2 — — E  _i  x  _ \  CM \  "  • • -4 * Figure 70.  Torgerson's Metric Multidimensional Scaling o f debitage c l a s s percentages, City Block Distance. Dimension 1 accounts for 47% of Trace, Dimension 2 for 22%. Broken l i n e s indicate Ward's c l u s t e r s .  \  200  assemblage v a r i a t i o n i s being investigated, i t i s f e a s i b l e to reduce the 10-state debitage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n somewhat, to the two major factors of e a r l y / l a t e and middle, but i t also indicates that general v a r i a b i l i t y i n BRF's, BPO's, BPCO's and CORES i s harder to account f o r , and thus these classes should be retained. The s i t e s from a l l four regions are distributed across the scaling diagram, with the Eagle Lake s i t e s appearing to exhibit most v a r i a b i l i t y , ranging from 3.23%  l a t e debitage to 54.54%,  12.9% to 35.94% middle debitage, and 16.24% to .83.68% early debitage.  The Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n s i t e s are also highly variable,  ranging from 0% to 35.38% l a t e , 16.92% to 45.88% middle, and 19.23% to 41.67% early stage material.  Among the L i l l o o e t s i t e s , v a r i a -  b i l i t y i s constrained, perhaps bedause only f i v e assemblages are represented, but these are s t i l l quite varied i n content, with r e duction ranges of 12.92% to 62.50% l a t e , 20.83% to 41.53% middle and 16.67% to 49.5% early stage debitage. assemblages,  Among the Hat Creek  a great deal of v a r i a b i l i t y i s also exhibited, with  the s i t e s having reduction ranges of 8.33%  to 44.04% l a t e ,  25.0%  to 47.83% middle, and 14.67% to 58.43% early reduction stage items. Sites 16:1 and 22:1 from Eagle Lake are the extreme cases of early reduction s i t e s .  These are low frequency debitage assemblages  with large flakes and cores.  Sites 14:2, CR28, CR40, CR73 and  26:3  from Eagle Lake are a l l at the l a t e stage end of the TSCALE diagram. These assemblages have no cores, and are small c o l l e c t i o n s .  Site  CR92, while within the "early" cluster, i s c l e a r l y more related to  201  s i t e 19:1 and s i t e s CR64, 32:1 and EIRw 4.  These s i t e s , ex-  cept for CR64 and 32:1, have r e l a t i v e l y abundant a r t i f a c t s , some cores and/or bipolar cores, and while not exceptionally high on the middle reduction stage scale, exhibit broader spreads of the r e l a t i v e percentages of the debitage classes. The Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n patterns are d i f f e r e n t from the ELP case.  Here s i t e 12:6  i s c l e a r l y by i t s e l f , with a small  assemblage containing a r e l a t i v e l y large number of bipolar cores and no l a t e stage debitage at a l l .  EkRo 48 and 9:2 are s p l i t i n  the cluster analysis, but i n the TSCALE diagram are related to each other perhaps more than to the group of s i t e s 4:2, and 9:1.  4:5,  5:1  A l l of these s i t e s exhibit wide ranges of reduction  stages within their assemblages, and have cores and/or bipolar cores, but the f i v e l a t t e r s i t e s are c l e a r l y very similar i n most respects, and especially i n the high amounts of middle stage debitage present."  Sites EkRo 18, EkRo 31 and'2:3 have predominantly  late stage trends, however 2:3 contains the greatest percentage of CORES of a l l of the MOC  assemblages.  The f i v e L i l l o o e t assemblages occur i n three separate c l u s t e r s . EeRk 7 emphasizes early stages and has a very abundant assemblage that contains cores, bipolar cores and bipolar flakes i n r e l a t i v e l y large quantities.  EeRl 40 and EeRk 4:38  contain r e l a t i v e l y low  amounts of l a t e stage debitage, high middle stage percentages, and moderately high early stage percentages of debitage. have bipolar cores and flakes, but no hand-held  Both s i t e s  cores.  EeRl 41 and  202  EeRk 16 are most interesting, with very l i t t l e early, and r e l a t i v e l y large amounts of late stage debitage.  These two s i t e s  also contain r e l a t i v e l y few core materials. Among the Hat Creek s i t e s , J22:2 and F12:5 are similar early stage-predominant  l i t h i c scatters, both with very l i t t l e  late  stage material, but each i s very d i f f e r e n t from the other i n terms of actual abundance of t o t a l debitage.  Sites EeRj 1, G31:l,  G23:l, K2:l, and J38:2 a l l occur within the "middle" stage c l u s t e r , but are widely spaced within i t .  EeRj 1 i s r e l a t i v e l y low on the  middle scale, and J38:2 i s the highest middle stage content assemblage of the entire 38 s i t e s .  J38:2 also contains a f a i r amount of  late stage material, and has the highest number of CORES for a l l Hat Creek s i t e s .  Sites G21:9, F8:l and G2:12  are the late stage  s i t e s from Hat Creek, with F8:l being the odd one here with several cores and bipolar cores. On the whole, the s i t e s clustering i n the "middle" cluster have more-or-less evenly spread debitage stage d i s t r i b u t i o n s ; those in the "early" cluster and i n the " l a t e " cluster have more r e s t r i c t e d patterns.  Most s i t e s i n association withlate stage reduction have  biface reduction flakes, although these range from being r e l a t i v e l y common to being completely absent.  The following s i t e s are out-  standingwlth regard to the high percentages of BRF's contained i n their assemblages: at HAC,  CR40 at ELP, EkRo 18 at MOC,  K2:l and EeRj 1  and none are outstanding i n the LIL sample.  The assemblages' major patterns of reduction stage v a r i a b i l i t y  203  can be i n t e r p r e t e d as emphasizing e a r l y / c o r e r e d u c t i o n , m i d d l e / w i d e range and l a t e / m a i n t e n a n c e . to  When t h e s i t e s a r e grouped w i t h r e s p e c t  t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and by t h e i r c o n t e x t , s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g  p a t t e r n s a r e apparent ( T a b l e 1 5 ) . No h o u s e p i t s e x h i b i t t h e extreme o f e a r l y s t a g e predominance i n t h e i r assemblages (except p o s s i b l y EkRo 4 8 ) , b u t t h e 10 excavated  h o u s e p i t assemblages a r e s p l i t be-  tween m i d d l e / w i d e r a n g i n g and those w i t h l a t e / m a i n t e n a n c e inance.  L i t h i c s c a t t e r s without  f e a t u r e s a r e spread  predom-  among t h e  t h r e e major r e d u c t i o n f a c t o r s , b u t o t h e r l i t h i c s c a t t e r s a r e more l i m i t e d i n content.  L i t h i c s c a t t e r s with housepits  include both  e a r l y / c o r e r e d u c t i o n and m i d d l e / w i d e r a n g i n g assemblages, b u t o n l y one o f these i s an e a r l y / c o r e r e d u c t i o n type o f s i t e .  The l i t h i c  s c a t t e r s w i t h c a c h e p i t s and those w i t h f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k f e a t u r e s a r e spread  among t h e m i d d l e / w i d e r a n g i n g f a c t o r and t h e l a t e / m a i n -  tenance f a c t o r . At t h i s s t a g e o f the a n a l y s e s , t h e d e b i t a g e  classification  appears t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e a b i l i t y t o r e v e a l b a s i c p a t t e r n s o f l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g i c a l processes  o f assemblage f o r m a t i o n .  I t should  be n o t e d h e r e t h a t t h e p a t t e r n s r e v e a l e d among t h e Hat Creek s i t e s do n o t c o m p l e t e l y agree w i t h P o k o t y l o ' s  (1978a) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f  the s i x s i t e s h e r e t h a t were i n c l u d e d i n h i s study. for  t h i s apparent d i s c r e p e n c y  i s that the debitage  One r e a s o n classification  employed i n t h i s s t u d y i s much more d e f i n i t e i n i t s assignment o f d e b i t a g e t o s t a g e s * whereas P o k o t y l o ' s ing  i n f e r e n c e s depended on choos-  p a t t e r n s from s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s (1978: 250 - 2 5 8 ) .  204  ASSEMBLAGE CONTEXT Excavated Housepits  16:1 22:1 F12:5 J22:2  EARLY/ CORE  MIDDLE/ WIDE RANGE  LATE/ MAINTENANCE  Lithic Scatters  EkRo EeRk EeRk EeRl EeRj  48 7 4:38 40 1  CR73 EkRo EkRo EeRk EeRl  18 31 16 41  TABLE 15.  4:2 4:5 G23:l G31:l K2:l  14:2 G21:9 G2:12  Lithic Scatters with Housepits  Lithic Scatters with Cachepits  Lithic Scatters with Firecracked Rock  12:6  32:1 EIRw 4 4:1 5:1 9:1 9:2  19:1 CR92  CR64 J38:2  2:3  26:3  CR28 CR40 F8:l  Assemblage context compared with major reduction factors.  205  In a cluster analysis of Hat Creek debitage assemblage attributes, Pokotylo found four of the s i x s i t e s to occur i n a c l u s t e r (Cluster 3) interpretable as exhibiting a "wide range" of reduction steps, with no one stage predominating (F8:l, F12:5, G21:9, G2:12).  In this study, G21:9, G2:12,  and F8:l appear to contain debitage indicative of l a t e stages. Sites G23:l and G31:l are not as extreme i n diversion from Pokotylo's findings, i n that both here are understood  to con-  t a i n middle stage debitage, and i n the purely Hat Creek study both are "wide ranging", with G23:l trending towards l a t e steps (Pokotylo 1978:  250 - 258).  In sum,  I think the danger of using  large a t t r i b u t e l i s t s i s that factors other than reduction stageare being measured, such as core geometry and raw material characteristics. flake  In fact I think i t f e a s i b l e to eventually use other  morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as platform angles and  size variables to reconstruct core and tool shapes, and this i s c e r t a i n l y an area where concise experimentation and  mathematical  derivation i s required.  6.3.  Hypothesis 1: Raw Material Factors Since vitreous basalt i s widely recognized as having been the  primary l i t h i c raw material that was used i n stone tool manufacture in the Interior Plateau, other raw materials such as cherts and obsidians may have been d i f f e r e n t i a l l y conserved, or used i n d i f f e r ent manners, simply by v i r t u e of their r e l a t i v e regional s c a r c i t y .  206  T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s w o r t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g f o r what i t can t e l l  us  about h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r m o b i l i t y , g i v e n the arguments of B i n f o r d (1979) and Goodyear (1979) d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2.  In t h i s  s t u d y , I cannot c o n t r o l f o r p r e c i s e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s of any m a t e r i a l s , a l t h o u g h i n a s e p a r a t e paper (Magne 1979)  raw  I have d i s -  cussed raw m a t e r i a l o c c u r r e n c e i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . G e n e r a l l y , throughout- the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u , b a s a l t ,  either  v i t r e o u s o r g r a n u l a r , i s found as c o b b l e s i n g l a c i a l t i l l s i n stream beds.  or  Apparent c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of good q u a l i t y b a s a l t ,  such as i n the Arrowstone H i l l s e a s t o f the Hat Creek V a l l e y , o r i n t h e Baezeko R i v e r of the n o r t h - c e n t r a l I n t e r i o r , have y e t to be s t u d i e d w i t h a combined g e o l o g i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c tive.  W i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia, o b s i d i a n i s known to have two  main s o u r c e s , Mount E d z i z a i n the f a r n o r t h w e s t (Fladmark  1982b),  and O b s i d i a n Creek near Anahim Peak i n the c e n t r a l I n t e r i o r son and W i l l 1976).  (Nel-  The o b s i d i a n m a t e r i a l s s t u d i e d here from the  E a g l e Lake r e g i o n a r e b e l i e v e d to have o r i g i n a t e d from the O b s i d i a n Creek a r e a , but t h i s i s based on m a c r o s c o p i c and s o u r c e s t u d i e s have not been u n d e r t a k e n .  characteristics,  The v e r y few o b s i d i a n  p i e c e s from the Mouth of t h e C h i l c o t i n were s o u r c e d by X-Ray f l u o r escence, and p r o b a b l y came from t h e O b s i d i a n Creek s o u r c e a r e a . O b s i d i a n i s p r e s e n t , but v e r y r a r e , i n s i t e s from the L i l l o o e t Hat Creek r e g i o n s . blages studied here. glacial t i l l  and  However, i t does h o t o c c u r i n any o f t h e assemC h e r t raw m a t e r i a l s o c c u r b o t h as  c o b b l e s , and as o u t c r o p s .  stream.and  I n the Hat Creek V a l l e y r e -  207  gion, outcrops occur i n the northern and eastern parts of the region, i n association with jaspers and agates that are a c t i v e l y mined by rockhounds (Danner 1970; Learning 1971).  I t i s notable  that i n the Cache Creek streambed east of Hat Creek, both chert and basalt cobbles can be obtained.  A .comprehensive study of  l i t h i c raw material sources of the Interior Plateau i s urgently needed, to provide fixed geographical l o c i from which the spread of materials can be studied, such as Choquette (1981) has i n i t iated i n the Kootenay d i s t r i c t of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia. The proposition that differences i n debitage and tool assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y  are due to -raw materials i s tested here, by  comparing vitreous basalt to obsidian at Eagle Lake, and to chert at the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n , L i l l o o e t and Hat Creek. Granular basalts are not tested for differences, since these are already recognized.  Granular basalt occurs almost  s o l e l y as early  stage debitage, and i n r e s t r i c t e d tool classes such as s p a l l tools and core t o o l s .  As can be seen i n Tables 16 and 17, this raw mat-  e r i a l comprises most of the 16:1 and 22:1 assemblages (89% and 99%), which are considered predominantly early/core reduction s i t e s , based on the scaling analysis of debitage.  S i t e CR64 contains a  moderate amount of granular basalt, as do s i t e s 19:1, CR92 and CR73. Among the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n s i t e s , EkRo 48 debitage i s 95% granular basalt and the other two housepits lack i t e n t i r e l y .  Sites  2:3, 5:1 and 9:1 contain moderate amounts of the material. -With-in the L i l l o o e t and Hat Creek s i t e s , only one assemblage i n each r e -  208  gion (EeRl 41 and K2:l) contains a minimal amount of granular basalt (Tables 16,17). The f i r s t question to ask i s : Are obsidian and chert conserved?  I f so, according to Binford's (1979) and Goodyear's  (1979) models, then these materials should be l a t e itage more often than vitreous basalt.  stage deb-  This question i s add-  ressed by Chi-square tests of independence i n contingency tables (Mendenhall 1975), where the flakes of each material are grouped into the general early, middle and l a t e stage classes (Tables 18,19, 20, 21). The tests show that among the Eagle Lake, L i l l o o e t and Hat Creek assemblages, there are no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the stage d i s t r i b u t i o n of debitage by vitreous basalt or obsidian/chert materials.  In the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n  sample there are s i g n i f i c a n t differences, and vitreous basalt i s brought to l a t e stages proportionately more often than the chert debitage, and the chert materials occur proportionately more often as early stage than i s to be expected.  Thus i t i s apparent i n the  debitage, that obsidian and chert are not extensively maintained, and that i n the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n region, there i s a tendency to maintain vitreous basalt, such that i t i s brought to late stages quite often, while chert materials are used more expediently. The second question i s : Are the patterns of conservation and maintenance evident i n the tools l e f t at sites?  Again, i f chert and  obsidian are conserved, then we could expect the tools to be small and complex i n r e l a t i o n to those made of vitreous basalt.  The tools  209  Vitreous Basalt  Granular Basalt  Obsidian  100 11.1 61.7 0 94.4 92.6 83.8 76.9 90.6 49.1 95.6 70.3  0 88.9 14.9 98.7 1.0 1.2 0 17.9 0 9.4 0 8.8  0 0 22.1 1.2 4.6 6.2 10.8 5.1 9.4 33.9 4.2 20.8  EkRo 18 EkRo 31 EkRo 48 2:3 4:2 4:5 4:1 5:1 9:1 9:2 12:6  63.1 79.1 4.3 52.6 20.5 22.2 40.2 78.3 70.1 42.2 95.0  0 0 94.7 21.9  EeRk EeRl EeRk EeRk EeRl  95.8 90.9 99.5 94.9 99.5  14:2 16:1 19:1 22:1 26:3 32:1 CR28 CR64 CR40 CR73 ElRw 4 CR92  16 41 7 4:38 40  1.6  .4 3.4 10.8 15.7  Chert  Quartzite  1.2  5.4  7.5 0.2  36.9 19.4 25.4 79.1 77.8 56.4 10.8 14.2 57.8  5.0  4.5  4.2 4.5 .1 5.1 .5  .4  41.2 61.0 14.0 66.8 26.7  G21:9 G23.-1 G2-.12 G31:l f8:l F12:5 J22:5 J38:2 K2:l EeRj 1  5878 39.0 86.0 33.2 73.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 20.2 76.5  TABLE 16.  P e r c e n t raw m a t e r i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f d e b i t a g e assemb l a g e s by c o u n t s .  4.9  74.8 23.5  210  % Vitreous Basalt  Site 14:2 16:1 19:1 22:1 26:3 32:1 CR28 CR64 CR40 CR73 EIRw 4 CR92  50.00 20.00 67.86 75.00 69.23 100 66.67 50.00 94.74 67.39  % Granular Basalt 50.00 20.00 10.71 100- -  16.67 5.26 8.70  76.47 68.18 35.29 48.65 54.29 50.00 41.67 40.00 75.00 46.15 66.67  EeRk EeRl EeRk EeRk EeRl  85.00 79.31 96.55 90.00 93.42  5.00  57.69 75.00 75.00 77.27 84.91 100 100 85.71 60.00 84.06  3.85  G21:9 G23:l G2-.12 G31:l F8:l F12:5 J22:2 J38:2 K2:l EeRj 1  % Chert  % Other  60.00 21.43 25.00  30.77  EkRo 18 EkRo 31 EkRo 48 2:3 4:2 4:5 4:1 5:1 9:1 9:2 12:6 16 41 7 4:38 40  % Obsidian  18.18 58.82 22.86 5.71 12.50 12.50 40.00 8.33 15.38 33.33  1.32  4.55  14.29 40.00 1.45  16.67 25.00 23.91 4.55  23.53 9.09 22.86 37.14 37.50 41.67 4.00 16.66 38.46 10.00 17.24 1.72 10.00 2.63 38.46 25.00 25.00 18.18 13.21  14.49  TABLE 17. Raw material composition of tool assemblages by percentages.  5.88 8.11 2.86 4.17 16.00 7.69  3.45 1.72 2.63  "1.39  211  Debitage General Reduction Stage EARLY  MIDDLE  LATE  Vitreous Basalt  885 (871.55);  844 (843.28)  716 ; i:'2445 (730.17)  Obsidian  163 (176.45)  170 (170.72)  162 (147.83)  1048  1014  X  N= 2940  TABLE 18.  = 11.07  878  495 2940  p = not s i g n i f i c a n t at .05  Chi-square test of Eagle Lake debitage general reduction stages by raw material.  Debitage General Reduction Stage EARLY Vitreous Basalt Chert  MIDDLE  LATE  187 (229.20)  278 (277.34)  228 (186.45)  451 (408.80)  494 (494.68)  291 (332.55)  638 N = 1929  TABLE 19.  X  2  772 = 26.58  519. p = .05  Chi-square test of Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n debitage general reduction stages by raw material.  212  Debitage General Reduction Stages EARLY  CO  u  OJ  4J Ct)  Vitreous Basalt  & co  LATE  1869 (1863.45)  1545 (1547. 07)  684 (685. 49)  4098  4 (9. 55)  10 ( 7.93)  7 (3. 51)  21  S Pi  MIDDLE  Chert  1555  1873 X  N = 4119  TABLE 20.  691  4119  p = not s i g n i f i c a n t at .05  = 7.26  Chi-square test of L i l l o o e t debitage general reduction stages by raw material.  Debitage General Reduction Stages EARLY u CD  cd Pi  MIDDLE  LATE  Vitreous Basalt  696 (693.37)  756 (793.97)  677 (641. 66)  2129  -Chert  524 (526.63)  641 (603.03.)'.  452 (487. 34)  1617  1220  1397  1129  3746  N = .3746  X  2  = 8.74  p = not s i g n i f i c a n t at .05  TABLE 21. Chi-square test of Hat Creek debitage general reduction stages by raw material.  213  are also analysed  by Chi-square tests of independence.  Here  weights and scar counts are pooled into regular i n t e r v a l s by raw materials (Tables 22,23, 24, 25, 26, and 27).  The  Lillooet  materials are not analysed because the sample sizes are too small to f i t the requirements of the t e s t . The Chi-square tests demonstrate that there are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the sizes or Complexity of tools due to raw material f a c t o r s .  This finding generally supports  the debitage t e s t s , and indicates that the differences observed between the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n chert and vitreous basalt are not consistent.  The contingency tables do indicate that Eagle  Lake obsidians and basalts r e l a t e to each other d i f f e r e n t l y than do the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n and Hat Creek basalt and chert materials.  In the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n and Hat Creek regions  (Tables 24, 25, 26 and 27) chert tools tend to be larger and less complex than basalt t o o l s , while at Eagle Lake, both basalt and obsidian tools tend to be small.  I suggest that the p r o b a b i l i t y  tests are generally r e l i a b l e , given the variety and s i z e of the entire tool- sample, and that separate study i s required of v a r i a b i l i t y of such factors within specified tool types.  Again, the  data have been gathered for such analyses, but their manipulation i s currently beyond the scope of this study. These findings do not necessarily indicate that raw conservation and maintenance was  material  not practiced, but only that i n  r e l a t i o n to each other, vitreous basalt and obsidian/chert are r e -  214  Weight Intervals (Grams) 2  0 - 1 cd  •H cu  3  4  £5  Vitreous Basalt  68 (67. 67)  28 (30.69)  8 25 (15. 74) (8. 66)  25 (21.25)  144  Obsidian  18 (18. 33)  11 (8.31)  5 3 (4. 26) (2. 34)  2 (5.75)  | 39  39  30  •u cd  a  S co  86 N = 183  X  TABLE 22.  = 4.62  11  27  183  p = not s i g n i f i c a n t at .05  Chi-square test of Eagle Lake tool sizes by raw material.  Scar Count Intervals 0  1-5  6 -'10  11 - 15  16 - 20  >21  <j} Vitreous _ 18 rt Basalt (17.31)  12 (16.52)  38 (42.49)  40 (36.20)  22 (18. 10)  rt Obsidian  9 (4.48)  16 (11.51)  6 (9.80)  1 (4. 90)  3 (3. 62)  39  46  23  17  183  P5  4 (4.69) 22  N = 183  TABLE 23.  21 X  2  = 14.1  54  p = not s i g n i f i c a n t at .05  Chi-square test of Eagle Lake t o o l scar counts by raw material.  14 144 (13. 38)  215  Weight Intervals (Grams)  ca  •H  u  ai  cd S  2  0 - 1  Vitreous Basalt  54  IS Chert  4  3  21  (50.51)  (20.76)  15 (13.15)  19 (22.49)  9 (9.24) 30  25  16 (14.53)  (38.06)  137  (5.85)  5 (6.45)  24 (16.94)  6V  19  21  4  31  Pi 73 N=  198  X  TABLE 2 4 .  =  55  198  p = not s i g n i f i c a n t at . 0 5  6.37  Chi-square test of Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n tool sizes by raw material  Scar Count Intervals 0  i-H  1 - 5  6 - 1 0  11 -  15  16 -  20  521 ... .  cd  •H  '.QJ. "Vitreous % Basalt  a £  Chert  45 (49.82)  27 (22.18)  72 N  =  198  TABLE 2 5 .  15 (17.30)  13  10 (  30 (29.75)  7.70)  25  (13.25)  43 X  =  12.88  20 (16.61)  7  20 (14.53)  (8.99)  (7.39)  1 (6.47)  (4.01)  24  21  13  4  137  6  p = not s i g n i f i c a n t at . 0 5  Chi-square test of Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n t o o l scar counts by raw materials.  61  198  216-  Weight I n t e r v a l s (Grams)  0-1 Vitreous Basalt &  £5  40 (31.98)  Chert  1521 (16.38) (17.94)  11 (12. 98)  2 (5.06)  5 (3. 52)  39 (30.79)  16  140  1 (9.02)  6 (4.02)  41  21  23  x = 2  241-  TABLE 26.  15.65  101 (109.21  188  53 ' 241  P = not s i g n i f i c a n t at .05  C h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f Hat Creek t o o l s i z e s ' b y raw m a t e r i a l  Scar Count I n t e r v a l s  0  1-5  6-10  11 - 15  >15  CO  u 0J 4J  ca  V i t r e o u s 47 (48. 37) Basalt  12 (15.60)  49 (49.93)  42 (42. 90)  38 (31.20)  188  8 (4.40)  15 (14.07)  13 (12. 10)  2 (8.80)  53  S  § on  Chert  15 (13. 63)  62 N = 241  TABLE 27.  20 X  = 10.86  64  55  40  p = not s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05  C h i - s q u a r e ofsHat Creek t o o l s c a r by raw m a t e r i a l .  counts  241  217  duced i n the same ways, and used to make tools of the same orders of s i z e and complexity. What the previous tests do not show i s that one raw mate r i a l may serve to replace another. the r e l a t i v e amount of debitage  Consider Figure 71, where  composedNof  vitreous basalt,  and the r e l a t i v e amount of tools composed of vitreous basalt are plotted per s i t e .  Here and i n following figures, l i n e s  indicating 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 ratios\;are provided reference.  to f a c i l i t a t e  Sites low on both scales have r e l a t i v e l y large  amounts of granular basalt (16:1 and EkRo 48), as discussed above, and the "chert debitage" (Matson et_ a l . 1979) s i t e s from the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n (4:1, 4:2, 4:5, 9:2) occur as two groups.  One of these groups has r e l a t i v e l y high vitreous basalt  tool contents and low vitreous basalt debitage contents (4:2, 4:5), and the ether two s i t e s are composed of about 50% vitreous basalt tools and also about 40% vitreous basalt debitage.  S i t e K2:l from  Hat Creek occupied a place on t h i s graph that i s similar to 4:2 and 4:5, but even though i t contains a large amount of chert debitage, no chert tools were found there.  Sites G23:l and G31:l are also similar  to these three s i t e s , but contain r e l a t i v e l y more vitreous basalt tools and debitage. Sites 14:2 and 5:1 are at the opposite ends of the scale, with r e l a t i v e l y low numbers of vitreous basalt tools, but r e l a t i v e l y large amounts of vitreous basalt debitage.  Other s i t e s are not as  extreme with respect to these measures, and cluster around the 1:1 l i n e of the graph. no teds whatsoever.  CR64 i s the exceptional s i t e , i n that i t contains  218  %  Figure 71.  vitreous basalt all tool counts  Graph of the percent of debitage derived from v i t r e o u s b a s a l t v s . the percent of t o o l s derived from v i t r e o u s b a s a l t per assemblage.  219  From this graph i t appears that s i t e s 4:2, 4:5, K2:l, G23:l and G31:l are places where the vitreous basalt tools that were deposited were replaced by tools made of chert, while at 16:1 and EkRo 48, granular basalt i s the replacement material. Another way of checking these patterns i s to plot the r e l a t i v e amounts of tools versus the r e l a t i v e amounts of debitage that are composed of obsidian or chert (Figure 72).  Here we  see  that at 16:1, obsidian and vitreous basalt tools were replaced by granular basalt, and that s i t e s 4:2, 4:5, G23:1, G31:1.. and K2:l are c l e a r l y separated from the other assemblages, i n that chert tools appear to have been removed from the s i t e s following their manufacture. so.  S i t e 9:2 also patterns out i n this way,  but less strongly  The other assemblages occur close to the 1:1 l i n e on the graph,  or exhibit such low percentages of obsidian/chert debitage and tools as to be beyond accurate interpretations here. Note that use of the term "replacement"  i n discussing the  above patterns does not imply that such occurred i n a single e p i sode of s i t e occupation.  Since the present analyses deal only with  complete c o l l e c t i o n s , at times from large areas and at others from small s i t e areas, I cannot control for the influences of s i t e r e occupation, but only the combined r e s u l t s of a l l s i t e occupations. Overall, I assume that s i t e s were reoccupied for the same reasons as their i n i t i a l establishment, i f at a l l .  To a lesser degree, i t  can also be assumed that succeeding occupants are aware of and use the materials l e f t by prior occupants, whether by design or circum-  220  FIGURE 72.  P l o t of the percent of debitage derived from Chert or Obsidian v s . percent of t o o l s f o r the same raw m a t e r i a l per assemblage.  221  stance.  These i d e a s do not r u l e out d i s c o v e r i n g the r e l a t i v e  average d u r a t i o n o f s i t e o c c u p a t i o n s , nor do they e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of comparing s i t e t o t a l l e n g t h s of o c c u p a t i o n s .  Thus,  when raw m a t e r i a l X i s b e i n g r e p l a c e d by m a t e r i a l Y, then i n the l o n g r u n t o o l s of X a r e b e i n g brought i n and d e p o s i t e d , t o o l s of Y a r e b e i n g made and e x p o r t e d . h e r e why  while  I t s h o u l d be apparent  p r e c i s e raw m a t e r i a l source l o c a t i o n s would be u s e f u l i n  a c t u a l l y mapping m o b i l i t y and  trade patterns.  O v e r a l l , the r e s u l t s a r e a p p e a l i n g because a t E a g l e Lake s i t e s , where o b s i d i a n i s imported  probably  from the O b s i d i a n Creek  a r e a , i t can be expected t h a t o b s i d i a n would be c o n s e r v e d . 72 shows t h a t t h i s i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e , w^th  s e v e r a l o f the  source Figure  Eagle  Lake assemblages e x h i b i t i n g o b s i d i a n t o o l s c u r a t i o n whereas o b s i d i a n debitage  i s being deposited  (.22:1, 26:3,  32:1,  CR28, CR64, ElRw 4 ) .  T h i s i s t r u e a l s o of c h e r t t o o l and d e b i t a g e p a t t e r n s a t s i t e s EkRo31, 4:2,  4:5  and 5:1  from the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n and s i t e s  G 2 3 : l , F 8 : l and K2:1  a t Hat  Creek.  G31:l,  W i t h r e s p e c t t o those s i t e s t h a t  do e x h i b i t m e a n i n g f u l p a t t e r n s , some s u b s t a n t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s can drawn.  S i t e 16:1  be  appears t o be an e x c e l l e n t example of B i n f o r d ' s  " s i t u a t i o n a l " type of s i t e , where t o o l s of h i g h q u a l i t y m a t e r i a l s were r e p l a c e d by the c o a r s e r g r a n u l a r b a s a l t . the C h i l c o t i n Matson est al.'s  As f o r the Mouth of  " c h e r t d e b i t a g e " s i t e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e , i n support  of  (1979) p o s i t i o n , and c o n t r a r y to my p o s i t i o n i n Chap-  t e r 3, t h a t the s i t e s a r e e v i d e n c e of h i g h m o b i l i t y , i f c h e r t m a t e r i a l s from a f a r were brought i n t o the r e g i o n , and  then used t o make t o o l s  222  that o r d i n a r i l y would be made of vitreous basalt.  Concerning  such a p o s s i b i l i t y , Binford (1979: 260) has written of raw mate r i a l s that he i s convinced "that v a r i a b i l i t y i n the  proportions  of raw materials found at a given s i t e i s primarily a function of the scale of the habitat which was  exploited from the s i t e  location, possibly coupled with a founder e f f e c t r e s u l t i n g from discard on the s i t e of items which had been manufactured previously at some other l o c a t i o n " .  On the other hand, given that  the Canyon Shuswap were great traders, i f these s i t e s are l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c , then i t i s equally possible that the chert acquired by trade.  Knowing chert source  was  locations would great-  l y aid i n such a debate.  6.4.  Hypothesis 2: Implement Maintenance and Curation Ebert's  Factors  (1979) model of stone t o o l v a r i a b i l i t y holds that  implements meant to be transported and re-used w i l l tend to be small and complex, while those that are used once and l e f t at':the l o c i of use w i l l tend to be large and simple.  In Binford's (1979)  terms, the small, complex items are curated personal gear, the larger, simpler tools are expedient types.  A sort that Ebert does  not consider, s i t e f u r n i t u r e , probably i s quite variable in size and complexity, depending on their s p e c i f i c intended Ebert's  purposes.  (1979) approach to i n f e r r i n g the r e l a t i v e degrees of  b i l i t y that produced assemblages r e l i e s on size and measures for i n d i v i d u a l tools.  mo-  complexity  However, i t i s l o g i c a l as i n Bin-  223  f o r d ' s (1978b) f a u n a l assemblage s t u d i e s , t h a t s i m i l a r measures can be a p p l i e d t o e n t i r e assemblages t o c h a r a c t e r i z e s i t e forma t i o n p r o c e s s e s a t r e g i o n a l and  i n t e r - r e g i o n a l s c a l e s of compar-  ison. I n F i g u r e 73, a r e p l o t t e d e n t i r e assemblage a n a l o g s of Ebert's  (1979) suggested s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y measures ( T a b l e  28),  w i t h the m o d i f i c a t i o n t h a t weight of t o o l s has been s u b s t i t u t e d f o r Ebert's  s i z e index  (volume), s i n c e volume can be expected  to be n e a r l y p e r f e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h w e i g h t , v a r y i n g o n l y w i t h s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of the raw m a t e r i a l s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  At  the s c a l e of a n a l y s i s u n d e r t a k e n h e r e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t spec i f i c g r a v i t y of the raw m a t e r i a l s v a r i e s enough t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r m i n a n t of assemblage The  content.  f i g u r e shows t h a t assemblages v a r y a g r e a t d e a l w i t h  r e s p e c t to the r e l a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y size.  S i t e s CR28, ElRw 4, 4:2,  of t o o l s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r  4:5,  9:1,  12:6,  G2:12  and  J22:2  c o n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y complex t o o l s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r s i z e , s i t e s 16:1, F12:5  22:1,  EkRo 31, EkRo 48, 4:1  5:1,  c o n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e , heavy t o o l s .  of s i t e s , t h i s p a t t e r n i s due  E e R l 40, 2:3  and  I n the l a t t e r group  t o the presence of g r a n u l a r  and/or s p a l l t o o l s i n the assemblages.  while  basalt  Other s i t e s a r e not r e a d i l y  i n t e r p r e t a b l e , except as b e i n g " t y p i c a l " , c l u s t e r i n g a l o n g the of one  s c a r per gram, however s i t e s CR92, EeRj 1, 19:1,  EeRk 7 a r e e x c e p t i o n a l i n terms of sheer abundance. t i v e l y complex and  F8:l  Thus the  line  and rela-  s m a l l assemblages can be i n t e r p r e t e d as the r e s u l t  224  SITE  TOTAL WEIT (grams)  TOTAL DOCO (#)  TOTAL COUNT  15.0 101.1 648 .'5 114.7 1.4 152.5 15.7 0 50.7 44.8 77.5 390.1  14 48 692 10 12 130 99 0 67 43 182 406  2 5 56 2 4 13 5 0 6 4 19 46  EkRo 18 EkRo 31 EkRo 48 2:3 4:2 4:5 4:1 5:1 9:1 9:2 12:6  29.4 413.0 142.4 2728.9 245.6 32.9 322.2 778.1 51.0 63.3 43.8  15 151 65 399 250 99 78 180 88 72 114  17 22 18 37 35 16 24 25 12 13 12  EeRk EeRl EeRk EeRk EeRl  106.5 211.0 1114.9 92.4 685.2  120 231 723 96 366  20 29 116 20 76  167.0 24.3 38.8 166.4 814.3 675.6 3.9 44.5 156.9 441.4  136 • 33 78 155 725 120 22 63 132 385  14:2 16:1 19:1 22:1 26:3 32:1 CR28 CR64 CR40 CR73 ElRw 4 CR92  16 41 7 4:38 40  G21:9' G23:l G2:12 G31:l F8:l F12:5 J22:2 J38:2 K2:l EeRj 1  26 4 8 22 53 6 2 7 10 69  TABLE 28. Total tool weights and scar counts by s i t e .  225  Figure 73.  Assemblage t o t a l t o o l weight p l o t t e d against t o t a l t o o l scar counts.  226  of highly mobile tasks, or as the depositional l o c i of no longer useful personal gear, while the r e l a t i v e l y simple, heavy assemblages can be interpreted as the results of expedient tasks or r e s i d e n t i a l generalized tasks, employing  furniture along  with expedient t o o l s . One of the problems with Ebert's model i s that i t does not consider debitage, which reveal immediate deposition patterns at s i t e s .  I f we consider that tools, regardless of types, are  used and deposited, and that l a t e stage debitage can r e s u l t from the maintenance of tools, then archaeologically-expected r e l a t i o n ships between actual numbers of tools at s i t e s , and the r e l a t i v e abundance of l a t e debitage i n assemblages, can serve as an i n f e r e n t i a l model of maintenance and curation behavior with more prec i s i o n than Ebert's model.  In t h i s way, we can understand that  assemblages resulting from r e l a t i v e l y short-term tool maintenance a c t i v i t i e s should exhibit few tools, and r e l a t i v e l y large amounts of l a t e stage debitage, whereas assemblages that are simply shortterm manufacturing  l o c i should exhibit few tools, since the manu-  facturing products should have been then transported to use-locations. Sites with many tools and large amounts of l a t e stage debitage should have resulted from re-occupied t o o l maintenance locations, and assemblages with many tools and l i t t l e l a t e stage debitage should be the products of long term t o o l use "locations where tool maintenance was not undertaken. The archaeological s i t u a t i o n with respect to the 38 s i t e s i s shown i n Figure 74. Here s i t e s occur i n more or less discrete c l u s —  227  •  EeRk ?  116 tools  •  Eagle Lake  •  mouth of the  A  Lillooet  *  Hat Creek  Chilcotin  (ELP)  (MOC) (LIL) (HAC)  EeRl 4 0  EeRj I  19:1 ,F-8:  .CR92  4:2  2:3  •  G2I:9  X  . E e R l 41 4:1  •  EeRk  G3I:I  EkRo 4 8  EkRo  31  4:5,  " EkRo 18  9:2 ••32:1 *K2:I  #  I6:I #  FI2:5 X  G23:l  . G2:I2 #  J38:2  2 2 : l * J22:2  CR40  *CR73  -1 15  -  %  Figure  EeRk 16  ,EIRw 4  9:1-  I 12:6  B  4:38^  74.  Graph the  CR64 —i— 30 Late Debitage  of  the  percent  assemblage.  total of  late  ,CR28 '26:3  #  i  4  :  2 I— 60  45 Count  number  of  debitage  tools in  vs.  each  228  t e r s t h a t a r e r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e i n t h e terms above. vated  Exca-  h o u s e p i t s i t e s EeRk 7, E e R l 40 and EeRj 1 appear a t  upper l e f t , w i t h many t o o l s , b u t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e l a t e d e b i t a g e . However, n o t a l l excavated h o u s e p i t s i t e s f o l l o w t h i s p a t t e r n e x pected o f l o n g - t e r m r e s i d e n c e s .  S i t e s EkRo 48 and EeRk 4:38  o c c u r a t lower l e f t , w i t h few t o o l s and r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e  late  d e b i t a g e , w h i l e s i t e s CR73, EkRo 18, EkRo 3 1 , EeRk 15 and E e R l 41 occur near t h e lower r i g h t , w i t h few t o o l s , b u t r e l a t i v e l y h i g h amounts o f l a t e d e b i t a g e .  This p a t t e r n i s i n support of i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n s made i n p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s , t h a t these a r e d i f f e r e n t from what i s expected  on h o u s e p i t s i t e s , and t h e s e a r e perhaps  r e l a t i v e l y short-term occupation h a b i t a t i o n s . S i t e s 12:6, 16:1, 22:1, J22:2, F12:5 and G23:1 appear t o be l o c a t i o n s where t o o l making was a p r i o r i t y i n i t s e l f , whereas s i t e s J 3 8 : 2 , CR64, CR73, CR40, G2:12, CR28, 26:3 and 14:2 a r e l o c a t i o n s where t o o l maintenance and low d i s c a r d r a t e s o c c u r r e d i n probably r e l a t i v e l y short periods of time.  S i t e s 4:1, 5:1, G 3 1 : l ,  9:1, 4:5, 9:2, 32:1 and K 2 : l , g r o u p i n g w i t h EkRo 48 and EeRk 4:38, appear t o be o c c u p a t i o n l o c a t i o n s , but o f s h o r t e r term than 19:1, F8:l,  CR92, 4:2, G21:9 and 2:3.  These l a t t e r s i t e s , by t h e i r po-  s i t i o n s on t h i s graph, below EeRk 7, E e R l 40 and EeRj 1, must be c o n s i d e r e d t o have r e s u l t e d from l o n g o c c u p a t i o n s over s e v e r a l episodes, but i n open-air s i t u a t i o n s .  EeRk 16 seems t o be a s h o r t e r  term h o u s e p i t s i t e , and h o u s e p i t s i t e s E e R l 4 1 , and EkRo 31 o n l y s l i g h t l y l o n g e r term than EeRk 16, a l o n g w i t h l i t h i c s c a t t e r and  229  housepit s i t e ElRw 4. It should be noted that the raw t o o l frequency values are highly subject to sampling biases, and these are only p a r t i a l l y cancelled by using them against debitage percentages.  This i s  an example of where precise functional tool data i s required (but unfortunately not available i n this study), for i f standardized measures of functional tool groups were compared to the debitage stage values, then the range of l i t h i c tool related tasks that occur i n d i f f e r e n t kinds of s i t e s would be much better understood. For example, greater or lesser occurrences of chopping, scraping or cutting tools i n r e l a t i o n to resharpening stages would y i e l d r e l a t i v e data on the rates at which tools are exhausted tasks.  i n various  Regardless of the sampling bias, I think that the resolution  of the patterns i s high and would no doubt be increased with f u l l e r samples, especially from the excavated housepit s i t e s .  The problem  could perhaps be resolved by multiplying the samples obtained by the appropriate portion of s i t e area that they represent, but such requires assuming homogeneity across s i t e areas and would be most r e l i a b l e i f more sample units were available. ple  In an i d e a l f u l l sam-  or equally random sampled set of s i t e s , I would expect that the 0  graph i n Figure 74 would sort housepit s i t e s more d i s c r e t e l y , but would not substantially a l t e r the interpretations of most of the l i t h i c scatters with or without features.  S i t e 2:3 from the Mouth  of the C h i l c o t i n and possibly other grassland s i t e s could be biased by thick grass growth and poor surface v i s i b i l i t y , but as at Eagle  230  Lake and most Hat Creek s i t e s , an attempt was made to c o l l e c t a l l v i s i b l e l i t h i c remains.  With the 5 mm  cut-off applied i n  t h i s study, this bias should not be serious. In sum,  a model of assemblage formation that i s based on  the abundance of tools at s i t e s i n r e l a t i o n to the amount of maintenance debitage present appears to have greater interpretive abi l i t y than one that i s based solely on the size and complexity of tools.  This i s because immediate deposition processes as revealed  in debitage are considered along with tool deposition processes, which t h e o r e t i c a l l y are not as immediate and more influenced by curation and transport.  The new model has the a b i l i t y to allow  inferences that include the lengths of occupation of s i t e s , where length of occupation includes a l l of the separate durations of s i t e occupations.  It i s apparent that there i s a great deal of  overlap i n lengths of occupation, by s i t e type, but this i s e a s i l y explained, since for example a t o t a l of 10 separate years of four month housepit occupations (40 month length of occupation) i s i n this sense equal to 20 occurrences of two month stays at f i s h i n g or root gathering camps, where these be annual or multiple annual in nature. The evidence presented i n this section demonstrates that tool maintenance and curation factors strongly affect the character of l i t h i c tool and debitage assemblages, and i t also shows that readi l y interpretable patterns can be obtained here also with r e l a t i v e l y simple measures, once-reduction stages are known from debitage. .'  231  Therefore, while sampling biases should be Considered i n future studies, the second hypothesis i s supported and the value of the experimental study i s again evident.  6.5.  Hypothesis 3:  Settlement Strategy Factors  Before I offer s i t e formation interpretations for each s i t e , and p r i o r to discussing the similarities and differences of technological strategies of the four regions of study, I think i t i s necessary to consider the general hypothesis that settlement strategies can be predicted on the basis of l i t h i c content of the assemblages.  It i s hypothesized that the 38 assemblages can  be consistently interpreted as r e s u l t i n g from f i v e settlement strategies on the basis of their context and presence of s i t e features alone: itations;  1.  Excavated housepits, which represent winter hab-  2. L i t h i c scatters without features, which represent  short-term occupations, or possibly pre-housepit habitation areas; 3. L i t h i c scatters with associated housepit features, which represent long-term open a i r habitation l o c i , perhaps i n early h i s t o r i c times when housepits were no longer constructed, yet stone tools were s t i l l used, or representing outdoor a c t i v i t i e s conducted during winter pithouse occupations;  4. L i t h i c scatters with assoc-  iated cachepits, which represent salmon processing and storage l o c i ; and 5.  L i t h i c scatters with firecracked rock, which represent poss-  i b l y large mammal and f l o r a l resource processing locations.  232  The analysis requires that tools be considered along with debitage so that a l l aspects of the l i t h i c technology are i n ^ eluded i n "predicting" s i t e types, and thus a meaningful c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of tools, i n functional terms, i s required.  This i s  accomplished by R-mode cluster analysis i n so that meaning can be assigned to groups of t o o l types on the basis of t h e i r coassociation.  The cluster analysis i s performed on those tool  types and s i t e features that occur greater than f i v e times across the 38 s i t e s , to reduce the p r o b a b i l i t y of spurious associations, and  i s thus based on 21 classes (see Table 14).  The analysis i s  based on the presence or absence of the classes, and uses Jaccard's Complement  (Sneath and Sokal 1973), as a pseudo-distance measure.  The Furthest Neighbour c l u s t e r i n g routine (Wood 1973) i s used to produce the groups of classes.  The dendrogram i s shown i n Figure  75 where four clusters of tools and features are i d e n t i f i e d .  Fea-  tures are included with the l i t h i c tools because such was the pract i c e with Matson et ail. (1979), i n a similar R-mode analysis. comparisons can be made between the two studies, and since  Thus  features  in general represent more labour input than stone tool manipulation per se, features can be expected to be associated with "labour intensive" tools. Cluster I consists of unimarginal fragments, pieces esquillees, bimarginal fragments, u t i l i z e d BRF's, and lanceolate biface fragments. These can be interpreted as exhausted, fragmented, f u l l y used items that would be incapable of p a r t i c i p a t i n g further i n subsistence tasks,  233  D i s s i m i l a r i t y  S c a l e  1.0 I  0.5 I  I  I  I  I  I  0.0 !  I complete  unifaces  complete  bifaces  biface  fragments  utilized IV  flakes  p r o j e c t i l e point uniface  fragments  fragments  firecracked  rock  housepits cachepits complete p r o j e c t i l e spall  p  III  points  tools  gravers/drills complete  rC  II  unimarginals  complete l a r g e large biface  bifaces  fragment  hammerstones unimarginal pieces  fragments  esquillees  bimarginal utilized flakes  fragments  biface  reduction  lanceolate biface  Figure  75.  R-Mode a n a l y s i s of  21  tool  38  assemblages.  of the presence or  classes  and  site  features  absence i n the  fragments  234  and would not be worth further curation.  Cluster IT contains  complete and fragmentary large bifaces, and hammerstones.  This  appears to be a group of large items, possibly r e f l e c t i n g the use of large bifaces as cores for the derivation of useful flakes. This cluster can be interpreted as the closest there i s to " s i t e furniture" items that are l e f t at s i t e s because they are too.lbulky to transport, yet that are useful i n settlement  strategies for par-  t i c u l a r purposes at either r e s i d e n t i a l or special-purpose (Binford 1979).  sites  Cluster III i s composed of complete p r o j e c t i l e  points, s p a l l tools, g r a v e r / d r i l l s , and complete unimarginal  tools.  These items can be interpreted as large mammal hunting and processing equipment, and also as "personal gear", that i s extensively curated and maintained.  Cluster IV contains a sub-cluster of s i t e  features, and a larger c l u s t e r of complete unifaces, complete b i faces, biface fragments, u t i l i z e d flakes, p r o j e c t i l e point fragments, and uniface fragments.  These are interpreted as general purpose  items that are useful i n several kinds of tasks, although the proj e c t i l e point fragments are d i f f i c u l t to interpret i n this sense, and this cluster may  contain personal gear that i s discarded  been replaced or repaired. are present  once i t has  Generally, Cluster IV items are those that  in most assemblages, but the association of the tools with  the s i t e features, along with the co-associations of complete and f r a g mentary bifaces and unifaces, allows the interpretation that these items r e s u l t from generalized  activities.  235  The R-Mode a n a l y s i s by Matson et a l . (1979) a t the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n d e r i v e d "maintenance", " s p e c i a l i z e d " , and dance f a c t o r s , comparable t o those d e r i v e d above.  Their  4 i s c l o s e t o the above C l u s t e r IV, except w i t h o u t s i t e w h i c h are c l a s s i f i e d s e p a r a t e l y sample a l o n e , and grouping.  The  abun-  Cluster features,  i n the Mouth of t h e C h i l c o t i n  t h e s e are a good " m a i n t e n a n c e / g e n e r a l i z e d "  above C l u s t e r I e x h a u s t e d , d i s c a r d e d  t o o l s may  p a r t i a l l y subsumed i n Matson et a l . ' s (1979) C l u s t e r IV, and  be the  r e m a i n i n g c l u s t e r s of each s t u d y appear mixed, a l t h o u g h the sepa r a t e t o o l t y p o l o g i e s t h a t were a p p l i e d i s an  uncertainty.  U s i n g the condensed t o o l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , minus s i t e and  features  the condensed d e b i t a g e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Table 2 9 ) , t h e propo-  s i t i o n of assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y b e i n g r e l a t e d t o s e t t l e m e n t  strat-  egies i s tested with m u l t i p l e discriminant a n a l y s i s (Klecka  1975)  t h a t was  introduced  i n Chapter 4.  I n t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n , the known  groups a r e the f i v e s i t e t y p e s as i d e n t i f i e d by f e a t u r e s , and w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t method ( W i l k s ) i s u s e d . t h a t a t t e m p t s t o the s i t e t y p e s on the b a s i s of the f r e q u e n c i e s  a  step-  identify  of items w i t h i n con-  densed t o o l and d e b i t a g e c l a s s e s . T a b l e 30 shows t h a t o v e r a l l c o r r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d a t a r a t e of 74%,  w h i c h i s a good s o l u t i o n , s i n c e t h i s i s 54% above  the " p r i o r p r o b a b i l i t y " of a c c u r a t e The  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( H a i r et  s t e p w i s e t e c h n i q u e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t o o l c l u s t e r s I I I and  al.1979). bipolar  c o r e s are the most i m p o r t a n t d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s , f o l l o w e d c o r e s , and m i d d l e s t a g e  debitage.  by  236 TI . T i l T i l l CR73 EkRo 18 EkRo 31 EkRo 48 EeRk 16 EeRl 41 EeRk 7 EeRk 4:38 EeRl 40 EeR.i 1 TOTALS 14:2 16:1 22:1 4:2 4:5 G21:9 G23:l G2:12 G31:l F12:5 J22:2 K2:l TOTALS 32:1 EIRw 4 4:1 5:1 9:1 9:2 12:6 TOTALS 19:1 26:3 CR92 2:3 TOTALS CR28 CR64 CR40 F8:l J38:2 TOTALS  XIV  E  M  L  BR  BP  BC  CO  Pl  P2  0. . .0. . .1. .. .3.. . .13. . .17. .18.. .5.. . . 0 . . , . 0 . . . .0 .LSFCR LSFCH 3- • -0-• • -0-• • -14-• • -22• • -11• -22-• -9-...1.. • - 0 - • • -0 1- • -0-.. -8- • • -13-• • -25• • -43• -14-. -8-. ..7. . • -0 3- • -1-.. .1.• • -12-• -127• -107• -52-•13- •-23- • . .8- •• -0 •LSCP--LSHP 4- • -0-.. .3. • • -134 5• -15-• -0-••-0-• • -0- •• -0 TJ 0- • -1 •.. .4. ••-224 9• • -8-• -1-••-0-• . .1..• -0 7- • -5-• • -8-••-92- •1385 • -924•362- •22- . .99. .. -8- •• -2 1- • -0-• ••0-•••19- • • -74• • -82• -44-• -8-•.-8- • . .2- •• -0 2- . .4.• ••8-• • • 60 •• -411• -540•262- •32- •-32-• . .4.. • -0 9- • -2-• .-6-••-52- • -320• -224•206- •31- • -31- •. .4. •• -1 30 13 35 3 300 2385 1962 1003 206 201 28 12 • • -6-. -0-.. .0-• . .0..• .0.LSFCR.LSFCR 1- • -0-• • -03 1- • -0-... . 4. •••22 4.. .1.. .0-...0-• . .0- •• .4 - • • -56• • -21.. .3. . -0-...0-• . .0- •• -3 0- • -0-• • -07- • -3-...1. • • -24-• -304• -355•252- •22- •-18-• . .2- •• •1 2- • -0-• • -0-•••14- ••126 • -128••76- . .3....5.. . .2- •• -0 LSFCR.LSFCR rcn 6- • -0-• • -0-••-20- • • - 67••166 • 114-•12- ...0-• . .0. •• -0 0- • -0-• • -04. • -117• -116•156- •16- ..-0-• , .3. •.-5 0- •-0- • • -07.• --38• • -96• 115-• 19-••-0-• , . 1.• .-0 LSFCR-LSFCR0- • -0-.. .3. •••19- .. .99 ... 75 • -78-•15- ...7.. , .3. ,. .4 LSFCR 1. ••166 ••116 ••48- . .5....5.. , .5- •• • 1 1- • -1-... 1. 01- • -0-•••17 3... 1.• - l -. . .0- •• -0- •• -0 LSFCR LSFCR 1- • -0-• • -09. •297 • -403•276- • 133f-27-• • 6- •• -0 4 20 6 105 1302 1485 1126 226 62 22 18 0- • -0-...3....10.• • - 48• • - 50. .44.. .4.- 1 6 - . L.5.. • -0 0- • -0-.. .5. •••14- • • 172••214 •216- •32- ...7.• ..5.. • .0 3- • • 1-». .3.•••17- - -36 ... 52• -26- • • 2-.. .1... .3- •. • 2 r 3- • -2-u . .5. • • • 12-...23 L..39• • 20-. .0-... 1... .2- • • 0 CC 2- - -0-» . -09.* • -39>--62 • •25-. .0-.. .8- •..7-. • 0 LSFCR 13 1- • -0-... 1.•••10- .. .49•••55 ••38- . .4.... 1.... 3- • . 1 .. . 1- • • 1-• • -0-• • •10-• • • 10L . . - 8 .. - 0-. -0.4. • ^ -0 4 17 377 480 369 42 3 10 82 36 29 5- • • 1. . .7. ...43.• -383• -382• 222-..3...53..• 15- •••5 r 0- • • -21•• - 28u .41-. .8-. . . o - . •. 0-.L -0 LS 3- • • 1-• . - o LSFCR ncn 8- • • 1-...5. •••29- ••553 ••339 267- • 39-. .46- •• 15- •• • 1 1- • • 5-...9. ••-21- •••23 .. .34..39..-8- • • 10- •..4... .4 8 34 17 93 10 21 980 783 569 58 109 2- • • • 10 6* • 16-. . 2 . .. . 0- •. • 0- •• • 0 2- • • 1-• • - 0cn "1 . • 0-. . . o - - . . 1. .• • 2 LS 0- • • • 16 0- - -0-• • - 09. . 14. 0 pa 1- • -0-•--05.•••19 . . . 41••42- • 15-..-0-- . 0- •• • 0 0- • -0-. . . u..48• • 125• • 217• 227-• 55-.. . 5... 6- •• • 6 5. 0- • -0-. . . 2-U...4. • • 1-... 0- • . 0- • • 1 3• • • 11...7. 1 7 7 3 173 284 306 73 5 59 9 0  2  1  1  1  K  TI = Tool C l u s t e r 1 TII = Tool C l u s t e r I I T i l l = Tool C l u s t e r I I I Pl  L - Late TIV = Tool C l u s t e r IV E = Early BR = B i f a c i a l Reduction Flakes M = Middle BP = B i p o l a r Flakes CO = Cores BC = B i p o l a r Cores = P r e d i c t e d Class MDA A l l S i t e s P2 = P r e d i c t e d Class MDA F 8 : l removed.  TABLE 29.  Data employed i n the settlement component d i s c r i m i n a n t  analysis.  237  Predicted Group Membership u  H  cu  0) 4-1 4J  4-1  CO 4J 4-1 M i  OO  0)  CU  CO  ca •H o O.  cu cu  Actual HP  LS  LSHP  LSCP LSFCR  # of  CO  3 O 33  O  U  CO  o  OJ  •H -C 4J  4-1 4J  ca  JZ  •H  CJ  •rl  3  •H  4J  HH CO  o W  —^  ca •H o CM  o CcaJ ,c u 4-1 •H  •H rJ  cu cu  4J 4->  O  CJ •H  U - H  ca ca o n 00 CJ cu Xi 4J  •H •J  PM CJ  3  o  PH  10  8 (80%)  0  0  1 (10%)  1 (10%)  12  0  7 (58.3%)  0  0  5 (41.7%)  7  0  0  4  0  1 (25%)  0  3 (75%)  0  5  0  1 (20%)  0  0  4 (80%)  Overall Correct C l a s s i f i c a t i o n :  TABLE 30.  0  6 (85.7%)  1 (14.3%)  73.68%  Results of multiple discriminant analysis based on functional tool classes and condensed debitage classes.  238  Overall, l i t h i c scatters with housepits are most  accurately  c l a s s i f i e d (85.7%) followed by housepits and l i t h i c scatters with firecracked rock (each 80%), l i t h i c scatters with cachepits and f i n a l l y l i t h i c scatters (.58.3%).  (75%) ,  The i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 29 also. The stepwise discriminant  analysis showed that four  were derived to discriminate the f i v e groups. two functions account for 90% of variance highest  functions  Of these, the f i r s t  of the solution.  The  loading variable i n the f i r s t function i s tool Cluster I I I ,  and f o r the second function i s bipolar cores.  The analysis appears  to have selected the opposition of highly curated personal gear with early stage bipolar core reduction,  to be the most e f f i c i e n t way  of distinguishing the s i t e types, but note that c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of unknown s i t e s would require entering as many as f i v e more variables (Tool 1, Tool 4, middle debitage, bipolar flakes and single  platform  cores) . It i s valuable misclassified.  In this case to consider which sites have been  Table 29 shows f i r s t of a l l , that most m i s c l a s s i f i -  cations are l i t h i c scatters, which tend to be classed as l i t h i c scatters with firecracked rock (41.7%).  One  excavated housepit (CR73)  and one l i t h i c scatter with housepits (9:2) are also c l a s s i f i e d as l i t h i c scatters with firecracked rock.  EkRo 48 i s classed as a  l i t h i c scatter with cachepits, and 26:3 (LSCP) and s i t e CR64 (LSFCR) are classed as l i t h i c scatters alone.  I t i s also important to note  that except for housepits, the s i t e type classes are a l l improperly c l a s s i f i e d into one other class at the most.  Yet the housepit class  i s secure, since no other s i t e classes are improperly classed into i t .  239  The  power of the two v a r i a b l e s d e r i v e d by the  discriminant  a n a l y s i s t o demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the  settle-  ment components i s t e s t e d by the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t of independence, i n c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s i n T a b l e 31.  The  t a b l e shows t h a t the  h y p o t h e s i s of no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s III  and  of t o o l C l u s t e r  b i p o l a r c o r e s i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to s i t e t y p e , i s r e j e c t e d  at the l e v e l of p = .01.  The  t a b l e a l s o can be r e a d as showing  t h a t almost 40% of the c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e a c h i e v e d i s t a k e n up the HP/BCO c e l l .  quencies.  A g a i n , t h i s a n a l y s i s has  s i t e s and  by  I t appears t h a t the LSHP, LSCP and LSFCR c e l l s  do not c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the observed t o o l and  pit  null  lithic  core f r e -  f a c t o r e d out extremes, i n house-  scatters.  I t i s thus not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t does not 2  r e j e c t HO  a t the p = .001  l e v e l (X  >18.46 r e q u i r e d ) .  Thus, i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n s on the t a b l e cannot be pushed much beyond o b s e r v i n g h o u s e p i t s c o n t a i n more p e r s o n a l  gear and  fewer b i p o l a r c o r e s than  i s t o be e x p e c t e d , w h i l e l i t h i c s c a t t e r s w i t h o u t f e a t u r e s less personal  exhibit  gear than i s e x p e c t e d , and more b i p o l a r c o r e s .  f i n d i n g s mesh v e r y w e l l w i t h B i n f o r d ' s t a t i o n s , that personal  that  These  (1979) Nunamiut Eskimo expec-  gear i s e v e n t u a l l y d e p o s i t e d  at  residences,  w h i l e the b i p o l a r c o r e f a c t o r i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of ample use  of  l o c a l small materials at l i t h i c scatter s i t e s . To f u r t h e r c o n f i r m  the r e l i a b i l i t y  of the f u n c t i o n a l t o o l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  the condensed d e b i t a g e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n p r e d i c -  t i o n of settlement  s i t e t y p e s , another d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s of  the  240  TOOL CLUSTER I I I 39 (28. 7)  Housepits  L i t h i c Scatters  6 (12)  BIPOLAR CORES 28 (38 .3)  22 (12 .6)  L i t h i c Scatters with Housepits  17 (19. 7)  29 (26 .3)  L i t h i c Scatters with Cachepits  21 (23. 6)  34 (31 .4)  L i t h i c Scatters with Firecracked Rock  7 (6)  90  X  2  =  2 X =  (Q - E )  2  E  17.92,  TABLE 31.  =  7 (8)  120  3.69+ 2.76+ 30 + 7.01+ .37+ .28+ .29+ .22+ .17+ .13  2 Ho i s rejected at p = .01 (X > 13.28)  Chi-square test of independence, f i v e settlement types by personal gear and bipolar cores  241  same f i v e s i t e t y p e s i s u n d e r t a k e n .  In this analysis, s i t e F8:l  has been removed from the l i t h i c s c a t t e r w i t h f i r e c r a c k e d group, and thus o n l y 37 assemblages a r e  rock  included. F8:l i s r e -  moved h e r e even though i t i s not m i s c l a s s i f i e d i n the f i r s t  dis-  c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , because i t c l e a r l y c o n t a i n s a l i t h i c assemb l a g e i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a r o a s t i n g p i t w i t h p l a n t and mammal remains,  i t i s p r o b a b l y on the o r d e r of 500 to 1000 y e a r s o l d e r  than most o t h e r s i t e s h e r e , and  i t s assemblage s i z e r e n d e r s i t  much d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s m a l l l i t h i c s c a t t e r s w i t h f i r e c r a c k e d rock.  Note t h a t F 8 : l i s removed from t h i s a n a l y s i s c o m p l e t e l y ,  and i s not e n t e r e d as an unknown to see where i t i s c l a s s e d . The r e s u l t o b t a i n e d i n t h i s second d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , ( T a b l e 3 3 ) , a l s o W i l k ' s s t e p w i s e method, i s indeed c l e a n e r than the f i r s t .  Here, o v e r a l l c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s 81.08%, and  a g a i n T o o l c l a s s I I I and b i p o l a r c o r e s a r e the most s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h e f i r s t two f u n c t i o n s , w h i c h account f o r 88% of the v a r i a n c e among the f o u r f u n c t i o n s .  A g a i n , most m i s c l a s s i f i -  c a t i o n s ( T a b l e 29) a r e i n t o the l i t h i c s c a t t e r w i t h f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k c l a s s , and most of t h e s e a r e l i t h i c s c a t t e r s w i t h o u t f e a t u r e s (14:2, 4:5, and 26:3 rock.  G2:12, J 2 2 : 2 ) .  G31:l  i s properly c l a s s i f i e d at this  i s a g a i n m i s c l a s s i f i e d as a l i t h i c s c a t t e r w i t h f i r e c r a c k e d  The o n l y o t h e r m i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a g a i n EkRo 48, w h i c h i n  t h i s r u n i s c l a s s e d as a l i t h i c s c a t t e r w i t h h o u s e p i t s . now  time,  However,  l i t h i c s c a t t e r s w i t h housepits are a l l c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d ,  a r e the a c t u a l l i t h i c s c a t t e r s w i t h f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k .  as  242  Predicted Group Membership  u cu  4J 4J  cd  •H  Actual Group HP LS LSHP LSCP LSFCR  # of Cases  CM OJ CQ  O  CJ CO CJ  •H  Xi  4J  •H  CJ  •H  rC3 4-)  cu  4-1  4J 4J  CM CU  o CO  ca  cd  CJ CO  M  n  n  CU 4J 4J  •H  ca O  •H  cd  CO 4-1  •H CM  cu  u  CU  i-J  rJ  •H  cd  8 (80%)  0  1 (10%)  0  12  0  8 !66.7%)  0  0  •H  5  o o  PM  1 (10%) 4 (33.3%)  7  0  0  4  0  0  0  0  0  0  7 (.100%)  0  0  3  1 (.25%)  (75%)  Overall Correct C l a s s i f i c a t i o n :  TABLE 3 2 i  o cd cd u o CO  u .fi 4-1  10  4  TJ CU  o •rl •H CM x: 4-1  CJ  CJ  •H  rJ  CU 4J 4-1  0  4 (100%)  81.08%  Results of multiple discriminant analysis based on functional tool classes and condensed debitage classes, with F8:1 removed.  243  The chi-square test performed  on the data with F8:l  removed, by tool Cluster I I I and bipolar cores (Table  34),  shows that the f i v e s i t e types are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t with respect to the proportional frequencies of these a r t i f a c t classes.  Again, the major portions of the chi-square  value are obtained i n the top four c e l l s of the table.  Also,  the chi-square value barely achieves a l e v e l s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .01,  and does not pass at p = .001.  I b e l i e v e that this  i s not as important as demonstrating that the directions of v a r i a t i o n are consistent with those of the f i r s t discriminant analysis, which they are. The multiple discriminant analyses performed  above have  their greatest value i n o v e r a l l r e s u l t s , since large-scale patterns are being sought.  The analyses do achieve high  success rates i n assigning assemblages to pre-defined classes on the basis of tool and debitage classes obtained by dent l i n e s of evidence.  indepen-  The mathematical manipulations required  to achieve these r e s u l t s are much more complex than the b i v a r i a t e analyses of raw material factors and t o o l maintenance and curation processes, however, the discriminant analyses operate on multiple covariation measures and are thus not as subj e c t to sampling biases.  In sum,  i t i s apparent that settlement  categories of s i t e s can be d i s c r e t e l y i d e n t i f i e d by the methods employed i n this section of the study.  244  TOOL CLUSTER I I I  BIPOLAR CORES  39. (.28.62)  28 (38. 38)  6 (.11.96)  22 (16. 04)  L i t h i c Scatters w/ Housepits  17 (19.65)  29 (26. 35)  L i t h i c Scatters w/ Cachepits  21 (23.49)  34 (31. 51)  Housepits Lithic Scatters  L i t h i c Scatters w/ Firecracked Rock  85  X  2  = (0-E)  2  E  X  2  = 13.55,  1 . (1.72)  2 (1.28)  114  = 3.76+ 2.81 + 2.97 + 2.21 + .36 + .27 + .26 + .20 + .41 + .30 = 13.55 Ho i s rejected at p = .01 ( X > 13.28) 2  TABLE 33. Chi-square test of independence, f i v e settlement types without F8:1, by personal gear and bipolar cores.  245  6.6.  Assemblage Formation Summaries The preceding analyses have examined the nature of general  technological factors that have contributed to  interassemblage  v a r i a b i l i t y , and have successfully related l i t h i c technological processes and patterns of tool deposition to settlement strategies. The presence of features at many of the s i t e s serves as a control factor, through ethnographic analogy, against which the technologi c a l and functional variations show consistent patterning.  Exca-  vated housepit assemblages provide the firmest association of context with assemblage deposition, and the v a r i a b i l i t y that i s exhibited within this s i t e type, and the s i m i l a r i t y of housepit assemblages to others provides insight to s i t e occupation processes that would be otherwise d i f f i c u l t  to i n f e r .  S c h i f f e r (1975) has discussed i n a theoretical manner, the kinds of behavior that could lead to marked differences i n content of s i t e s , when similar a c t i v i t i e s are undertaken at them, and concluded that "occupation span", the length of time that a s i t e i s occupied at any one time, and "curate behavior", the removal of a r t i f a c t s from s i t e s , should be the most important and v i s i b l e determinants of assemblage differences.  The methods of analysis em-  ployed i n this study very closely p a r a l l e l those that S c h i f f e r (1975: 268) suggested would be of use to the study of occupation span. Schiffer (.1975: 268) proposed that'debitage, u t i l i z e d flakes and waste products of various kinds" are of the greatest u t i l i t y in i n f e r r i n g s i t e functions, and as we have seen, debitage reduction  246  stages, cores and personal gear discards are quite useful. Secondly, Schiffer offered that " i f curate behavior i s widespread, then the variety of items present at s i t e s should vary with occupation span" (1975: 268).  In terms of the assemblage  measures employed i n this study, i t i s apparent that s i t e s vary a great deal i n the predominance and intra-assemblage spread of reduction stages, and that some of this v a r i a b i l i t y i s due to economizing behavior, where tools of one raw material were replaced with those from other raw materials. Schiffer's (1975) suggestion to study tool "uselives" i s only barely considered i n this study i n the examination of Ebert's (1979) model, yet comparing assemblages i n terms of t o o l quantities and variety of debitage, as S c h i f f e r suggests,does  r e l a t e to s i t e s '  lengths of occupation and perhaps provides the clearest ordering of s i t e s along these l i n e s (.Figure 74).  The point that s i t e s '  assemblages may be the products of several occupations appears to me to require a refinement of Schiffer's (1975) d e f i n i t i o n of occupation span, where I would define i t as the sum of occupation durations, and not as the duration of single episodes of use. The following summaries present each assemblage within a general group, representing major assemblage formation processes with respect to tool manufacturing  stages, tool maintenance and  curation, and occupation span as evidenced i n the variations of the l i t h i c technological patterns within s i t e types containing c u l t u r a l depressions or firecracked rock features.  247  1.  Long Term Housepits: EeRk 7, EeRl 40, EeRj 1 These three assemblages are d i s t i n c t i n their s i m i l i a r i t e s  to each other i n a l l analyses, being abundant, wide-ranging i n manufacturing  stages, and containing diverse tool types.  These  assemblages do not exhibit marked patterns of tool curation or conservation, and can be considered to be " t y p i c a l " assemblages that resulted from repeated winter occupations. 2.  Moderate Term Housepits:  EkRo 48, EeRk 4:38  These two s i t e s exhibit debitage that i s wide-ranging i n reduction stage, but that tends to early, and these also contain r e l a t i v e l y sparse tool assemblages.  I would suggest, from  the "refuse p i t " context of EeRk 4:38, that both assemblages received t h e i r f i n a l character as the r e s u l t of deliberate d i s posal processes, and not from in-house habitation a c t i v i t i e s . 3.  Short Term Housepits:  CR73, EkRo 18, EkRo 31, EeRk 16, EeRl 41  These assemblages have predominantly l a t e stage debitage and sparse t o o l content f o r housepits.  Excavation area sampled  i s not a factor here, since EeRl 41 i s a r e l a t i v e l y large area excavation, much larger than EkRo 48 and EeRk 4:38 above. i s somewhat of an anomaly  EeRk 16  and i s perhaps the b r i e f e s t occupation  housepit of the l o t . 4.  Moderate Term L i t h i c Scatters:  4:2, 4:5, G21:9, G31:l, K2:l  These are r e l a t i v e l y abundant assemblages with wide-ranging reduction stages evidenced i n the debitage.  4:2, 4:5, G31:l and  K2:l exhibit chert tool manufacture and curation, while G21:9 ex-  248  h i b i t s the manufacture and disposal of about equal amounts of vitreous basalt and chert tools.  These appear to be s i t e s i n  the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n and Hat Creek regions that were r e occupied several times. 5.  Short Term L i t h i c Scatters:  14:2, 16:1, 22:1, G23:l, G2:12, F12:5, J22:2  These s i t e s are of two basic kinds. 1. Late stage/tool maintenance s i t e s 14:2 and G2:12, where granular basalt and chert tools were replaced by vitreous basalt tools, which were then maintained and curated.  2. Early reduction/replacement  s i t e s 16:1, 22:1, G23:l, F12:5 and J22:2, where early reduction stages predominate.  At 16:1 and 22:1, obsidian and vitreous  basalt tools were replaced by granular basalt, and at G23:l, chert tools were made, then exported.  At F12:5 and J22:2, only  vitreous basalt was employed, but i n a replacement  s i t u a t i o n at  J22:2, while F12:5 appears to be a good example of a simple "quarrying/manufacturing" 6.  location.  Moderate Term L i t h i c Scatters with Housepits:  32:1, ElRw 4,  4:1, 5:1, 9:1, 9:2 These are r e l a t i v e l y abundant surface assemblages with wideranging reduction stages, that a l l exhibit the curation of chert or obsidian from them, but not i n the extreme.  I would suggest that  the assemblages r e s u l t p r i n c i p a l l y from a c t i v i t i e s that were undertaken p r i o r to winter pithouse occupations, including "gearing up" for long-distance hunts, and the maintenance of the pithouses themselves .  249  7.  Short Term L i t h i c S c a t t e r s w i t h H o u s e p i t s :  12:6  12:6 i s an assemblage much l i k e 16:1 and 22:1, except w i t h housepits  present.  I n t h i s case, the c u r a t i o n of v i t -  reous b a s a l t t o o l s and t h e import o f g r a n u l a r b a s a l t t o o l s does n o t seem t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e h o u s e p i t  f e a t u r e s , but  the s i t e was p r o p e r l y c l a s s i f i e d i n b o t h t h e MDA a n a l y s e s , whereas s i t e 9:2 was n o t . T h i s , a l o n g w i t h w i t h presence o f s e v e r a l s p a l l t o o l s , lends support to the idea that short-term  occu-  p a t i o n s may n o t l e a v e e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m a t e r i a l s b e h i n d , and  t h a t such i s a c h i e v e d  only w i t h repeated  occupations  (Schiffer  1975) . 8.  Long Term L i t h i c S c a t t e r s w i t h C a c h e p i t s :  19:1, CR92, 2:3  These assemblages e x h i b i t wide ranges o f t o o l m a n u f a c t u r e , d i v e r s e and abundant t o o l assemblages, and no extreme p a t t e r n s of t o o l c u r a t i o n o r i m p o r t .  These s i t e s .were l i k e l y o c c u p i e d  to  p r o c e s s salmon r e s o u r c e s , and a l s o l i k e l y served as l a r g e mammal h u n t i n g base camps. 9.  Short Term L i t h i c S c a t t e r s w i t h C a c h e p i t s :  26:3  T h i s assemblage i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n b e i n g s i m i l a r i n s e v e r a l respects  ( l a t e debitage  predominant, improper MDA  classification  i n t o LSFCR) t o s i t e s CR28 and CR40, a l s o from t h e E a g l e Lake samp l e (see b e l o w ) .  S i t e s 26:3 and CR28 e x h i b i t o b s i d i a n maintenance  and e x p o r t , w h i l e CR40 i s a l o c a t i o n o f o b s i d i a n t o o l d e p o s i t i o n . I suggest t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n t adjacent  d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t 26:3 i s l o c a t e d  t o E a g l e Lake w i t h c a c h e p i t s , w h i l e CR28 and CR40 a r e l o -  250  cated next to the Chilko River, with firecracked rock features. If the associations are correct, then perhaps 26:3  resulted from  the same kind of a q u i s i t i o n a c t i v i t y at CR28 and CR40, but resource was  cached rather than immediately processed.  the  Unfortu-  nately, more information i s required of the actual resource  being  obtained. 10.  Long Term L i t h i c Scatter with Firecracked Rock: F8:l This i s a unique assemblage, with abundant tools and  late  stage debitage i n association with a reused roasting p i t . i p l e discriminant analysis of settlement cantly improved when this s i t e was F8:l  components was  Mult-  signifi-  removed from consideration.  appears to be a biface manufacturing location, where chert  tools tend to replace vitreous basalt t o o l s .  That i s , basalt b i -  faces are being l e f t at the s i t e with late stage debitage, early stage chert debitage i s also being deposited. patterns each r e l a t e to a separate episode of s i t e I believe that the parsimonious explanation  and  Possibly these occupation,,yet  i s that upon exhaustion,  available basalt resources were replaced by l o c a l chert materials. 11.  Short Term L i t h i c Scatters with Firecracked Rock:  CR28, CR64, CR40, J38:2  These are small assemblages, each with r e s t r i c t e d ranges of debitage reduction stages.  CR28 and CR40 emphasize late/maintenance  stages, CR64 emphasizes early/core reduction stages, and J38:2 phasizes middle reduction stages. result of single occupations.  A l l of these appear to be  em-  the  At CR64, vitreous basalt tools were  251  manufactured and removed, whereas at CR28, obsidian tools were made and exported, at CR40 obsidian tools were maintained and deposited, and at J38:2 chert tools were imported but not maintained.  I suggest that a l l of these s i t e s are related to large  mammal procurement and processing. 6.1'. Summary The analyses of inter-regional v a r i a b i l i t y i n stone tool and debitage assemblages have yielded r e s u l t s i n support of previous research and current t h e o r e t i c a l models, and also r e sults that are inconsistent with such. produced  The debitage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i n the experimental program of Chapter 4 i s of great u t -  i l i t y i n allowing inferences to be made concerning technological processes of assemblage formation, especially when extremes of the reduction processes are considered i n r e l a t i o n to tool occurrence patterns. outset  As such, the general proposition stated at the  of this chapter i s supported.  The f i r s t hypothesis does not fare nearly as well.  In a l l  four regions, obsidian and chert raw materials appear to have been reduced and used to make tools no d i f f e r e n t l y than vitreous basalt. Overall, this indicates that regardless of source, raw material acquisition  w  a  s  n  o  t  a  m  aj°  r  subsistence a c t i v i t y i n i t s e l f , but was  undertaken during the course of other a c t i v i t i e s .  The novel app-  roach of comparing the r e l a t i v e amounts of tools and debitage that are made of p a r t i c u l a r raw materials i s a very useful means of i n f e r r i n g replacement  and curation behaviors, and again i s most r e -  vealing when extremes of the patterns are considered.  252  Tool maintenance behavior i s seen as being a major determinant of l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y .  Ebert's (1979)  model of the effects of mobility on tools i s not an e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y way of accounting for v a r i a b i l i t y , and a refined model that considers the mere amounts of tools i n comparison to the amounts of maintenance debitage i n assemblages i s a much more revealing method of understanding assemblage formation processes.  In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s new model appears to be able to  gauge the t o t a l lengths of time that s i t e s were occupied, but may  be sensitive to sampling  restrictions.  F i n a l l y , general settlement strategies can be r e l i a b l y predicted from l i t h i c assemblages, i n a complex mathematical manner. This requires tools to be assigned functional meaning, and also requires debitage reduction stages to be considered simultaneously with the t o o l types.  The s i t e occupation purposes predicted on."  the basis of these kinds of variables are of greater precision than those achieved solely on the basis of b i v a r i a t e tool and debitage variables.  253  CHAPTER 7  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  7.1.  Summary The objective of this study was to examine the nature  of l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n to late preh i s t o r i c settlement patterns of the Interior Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The research has proceeded with a behavioral  perspective that assumffi the major conditioners of assemblage variations are human a c t i v i t i e s .  The development of behav-  i o r a l approaches to l i t h i c c o l l e c t i o n s has been reviewed, and shown to have reached a l e v e l of sophistication where several models are a v a i l a b l e for empirical v e r i f i c a t i o n . (1975) general model of the operations of l i t h i c  Collins' technologies  i s encompassed by current models of the relationships between stone tools and settlement behavior, especially those of Binford (1979) , Ebert (.1979) , Goodyear (.1979) , and Pokotylo  (1978) .  These  models, varying i n explicitness, argue that the mobility of human groups d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y causes v a r i a t i o n s i n assemblages and that the operations of settlement systems can be monitored by the a p p l i c a t i o n of non-arbitrary measures designed to reveal regional s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n s i n manufacturing ation patterns, and disposal processes.  stages, cur-  254  The e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u immediately  r e l e v a n t t o t h e a r e a o f s t u d y has been r e v i e w e d  w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e o f showing t h a t t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c  Chilcotin  and I n t e r i o r S a l i s h had v e r y s i m i l a r l i f e s t y l e s . The C h i l c o t i n , Canyon Shuswap, Upper Thompson and Upper L i l l o o e t hunted and g a t h e r e d e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same r e s o u r c e s , o b t a i n e d anadromous salmon as a p r i n c i p a l food s u p p l y , had a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d s t o r a g e t e c h n o l o g y , and w i n t e r e d i n p i t h o u s e s . the e t h n o g r a p h i e s do not p r e - c o n t a c t s e t t l e m e n t systems.  I t i s recognized that  p r o v i d e a complete p i c t u r e o f N o n e t h e l e s s , they c o n t a i n  much i n v a l u a b l e , i f o f t e n i n d i r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n . A s e p a r a t e r e v i e w o f e t h n o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s o f stone t o o l m a n u f a c t u r i n g has been i n c l u d e d h e r e , and a g a i n , w h i l e t h e d a t a a r e not f u l l y and  pristine,  d e t a i l . • i s a problem, m a n u f a c t u r i n g t e c h n i q u e s and owner-  s h i p o f l i t h i c r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s have been d e s c r i b e d w i t h a c l a r i t y e q u a l t o t h a t found i n most o t h e r N o r t h American  sources.  The development o f I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u p r e h i s t o r i c r e s e a r c h has focused p r i m a r i l y on c u l t u r e h i s t o r y .  Most p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has  sought t o d e r i v e c o n s i s t e n t t y p o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s o f t o o l o c c u r r e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e age o f t h e assemblages.  The problems a s s o c -  i a t e d w i t h h o u s e p i t a r c h a e o l o g y , and a l a c k o f cave and r o c k s h e l t e r assemblages have s e r i o u s l y hampered c u l t u r e h i s t o r y schemes. the l a s t  2000  y e a r s of o c c u p a t i o n can be r e l i a b l y i d e n t i f i e d .  Only Settle-  ment p a t t e r n a r c h a e o l o g y o f t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u has a s h o r t e r h i s t o r y than c u l t u r e h i s t o r i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n , but appears t o be on a s u r e r  255  methodological footing.  Based firmly on the d i r e c t h i s t o r i c  approach, through the application of d i r e c t ethnographic analogy, Interior Plateau settlement pattern research appears to have strong predictive a b i l i t i e s , models.  and the a b i l i t y to test ethnographic  In p a r t i c u l a r , Matson et_ a l . (.1979) argue  that the l a t e  p r e h i s t o r i c Canyon Shuswap had a highly mobile settlement pattern, in contrast to the "sedentary" pattern that can be inferred from T e i t ' s (1909a) descriptions.  I argue that the evidence  indicates  settlement behavior that was both mobile and intensive i n a r e l a t i v e l y small area.  Also, estimates of housepit and cachepit  use-spans were obtained by extrapolating data obtained in the Shuswap Settlement Patterns project. viously unstudied middle  Pokotylo (1978) studied pre-  elevation environments, using a techno-  l o g i c a l approach to stone tools and debitage to demonstrate  settle-  ment strategies analogous to Bonaparte Shuswap and Upper Thompson summer and f a l l subsistence p r a c t i c e s .  Pokotylo's (1978a) research  was innovative i n using a large number of surface assemblages, and also in the e x p l i c i t application of l i t h i c debitage variables to y i e l d important clues to the past operations of mobile group subsistence tasks. al.  More recently, the Eagle Lake project (Matson et^  1980) was directed at describing the settlement patterns of l a t e  p r e h i s t o r i c C h i l c o t i n i n environments d i r e c t l y comparable to those studied i n the Shuswap Settlement Patterns and Hat Creek projects. This research provided preliminary means of identifying the ethnic i identities  of s i t e inhabitants, and also served as a p i l o t study for  256  the c u r r e n t study (Magne 1980). One important aspect of the E a g l e Lake r e s e a r c h was a preliminary investigation of v a r i a b i l i t y i s produced The p i l o t  i n l i t h i c debitage that  i n v a r i o u s r e d u c t i o n stages o f chipped stone  tools.  study (Magne and P o k o t y l o 1981) was much e n l a r g e d i n  scope and sample s i z e i n the p r e s e n t study, w i t h t h e purpose o f p r o v i d i n g a r e l i a b l e means o f c l a s s i f y i n g d e b i t a g e i n t o of r e d u c t i o n . weight  stages  T h i s g o a l was a c h i e v e d , and i t was found t h a t the  o f f l a k e s i s n o t a good p r e d i c t o r o f r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s , and  t h a t p l a t f o r m s c a r counts and d o r s a l s c a r counts a l l o w about 80% reliability  i n stage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n when d e b i t a g e a r e s o r t e d i n t o  PRB.'s and s h a t t e r f l a k e s .  B i f a c i a l and b i p o l a r types o f r e d u c t i o n  a r e a l s o v e r y d i s c r e t e , and a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e problems w i t h samp l e s i z e s , v i t r e o u s b a s a l t , o b s i d i a n and c h e r t raw m a t e r i a l s appear to v a r y i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n .  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f d e b i t a g e t h a t i s  formulated as a r e s u l t o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l program i s c o n s i d e r e d adequate f o r t h e l a r g e s c a l e a p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h i s study, but i s c e r t a i n l y i n need o f independent While  verification.  some doubt may be expressed as to the r e l i a b i l i t y  of i d e n t i f y i n g middle and l a t e stages o f r e d u c t i o n , t h i s i s minimized  problem  when BRF's a r e c l a s s e d s e p a r a t e l y , and a l s o because  e a r l y stage f l a k e s appear to be h i g h l y d i s c r e t e .  C e r t a i n l y , the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y f o o l p r o o f i n t h a t mistakes i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i l l o c c u r , but i n low r e l a t i v e frequency.  So l o n g  as t h i s i s a c c e p t a b l e and extreme concern w i t h p a r t i c u l a r s i s a v o i d e d ,  257  then t h i s s t u d y has been s u c c e s s f u l . l i k e l y that future research  employing  I think i t i s quite a  similar- research  design,  a l s o w i t h p r e c i s e f l a k e removal c o n t r o l , perhaps new v a r i a b l e s , and  g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over raw m a t e r i a l samples, w i l l e n a b l e more  p r e c i s e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of stone t o o l manufacturing  behavior.  P a r t i c u l a r l y r e q u i r e d a r e more s t u d i e s o f raw m a t e r i a l f a c t o r s , pressure  f l a k i n g e v e n t s , sub-stage v a r i a b i l i t y , u s e - r e s h a r p e n i n g  s t a g e s , m i c r o b l a d e manufacture and o t h e r s o r t s o f s p e c i a l i z e d t o o l manufacture. E x p e r i m e n t a l work must c l e a r l y c o n t i n u e  t o enable r e f i n e m e n t  of t h e i d e a s developed h e r e , y e t t h e s t u d y i s a p r e c e d e n t i n cont r o l l e d l i t h i c s experimentation,  and t h e need f o r a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of t h i s k i n d i s w i t n e s s e d i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o assemblages from Texas ( K a t z , p e r s o n a l communication 1982) , A l b e r t a ( S t r y d , communication 1982), n o r t h e r n  personal  B. C.(Magne 1982a) and Lower M a i n l a n d  B. C. (Peacock 1982). The  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblages t h a t a r e a n a l y z e d  i n t h i s study  were c o l l e c t e d i n t h e E a g l e Lake, Mouth o f t h e C h i l c o t i n , and Hat Creek r e g i o n s .  I n t o t a l , 14,541 f l a k e s o f d e b i t a g e ,  c o r e s and 861 t o o l s have been examined. and  analyses  164  D e s c r i p t i o n s of each s i t e ,  summary t a b u l a t i o n s o f a r t i f a c t f r e q u e n c i e s The  Lillooet  have been  provided.  were u n d e r t a k e n t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h r e e g e n e r a l hy-  p o t h e s e s , u s i n g t h e d e b i t a g e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as a u s e f u l means o f o b t a i n i n g p a t t e r n s o f assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y t h a t a r e i n t e r p r e t a b l e . Assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y i n terms o f r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s i s examined by  258  means o f m u l t i v a r i a t e c l u s t e r i n g and s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s ,  and  s i t e s a r e grouped on the b a s i s o f e a r l y , m i d d l e and l a t e r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s , w h i l e a t t h i s p o i n t of the study, b i f a c i a l and b i p o l a r r e d u c t i o n do not here appear t o be important f a c t o r s , i n v a r i a b i l i t y a t the m u l t i r e g i o n a l l e v e l o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  When  s i t e s a r e grouped on the b a s i s of predominant r e d u c t i o n stages presence o f absence of h o u s e p i t s , several i n t e r e s t i n g patterns ranging  and l a t e r e d u c t i o n  c a c h e p i t s and f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k ,  emerge. stages,  H o u s e p i t s e x h i b i t both widelithic  scatters exhibit early/  c o r e r e d u c t i o n , wide-ranging and late/maintenance p a t t e r n s , scatters with housepits wide r a n g i n g lithic  and ,. -  lithic  e x h i b i t e a r l y / c o r e r e d u c t i o n and m i d d l e /  p a t t e r n s , and l i t h i c  s c a t t e r s w i t h c a c h e p i t s and  s c a t t e r s w i t h f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k e x h i b i t both middle/wide  ranging  and l a t e / m a i n t e n a n c e p a t t e r n s o f stone t o o l manufacture.  The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s raw m a t e r i a l s should patterns  examined i s t h a t c h e r t and o b s i d i a n  e x h i b i t extensive  c u r a t i o n and maintenance  i n r e l a t i o n to"vitreous b a s a l t , since i n the regions  s t u d i e d , n a t u r a l sources o f c h e r t s and o b s i d i a n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y rare.  T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i s not supported, and i n the Mouth o f the  C h i l c o t i n r e g i o n , t h e r e i s a s l i g h t tendency f o r v i t r e o u s b a s a l t m a t e r i a l s to be c a r r i e d to l a t e r stages  of r e d u c t i o n than c h e r t  material.. .However, > the Mouth o f the C h i l c o t i n t o o l s , .4l£'. ?-J of a  e s s e n t i a l l y comparable s i z e and complexity, erial.  ;  r e g a r d l e s s o f raw mat-  T h i s a n a l y s i s demonstrates t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n of raw mat-  e r i a l s i s l a r g e l y embedded i n other  settlement  and s u b s i s t e n c e a c -  259  tivities.  This i s not to say that tools were not economically  made nor curated ;  . b i v a r i a t e graphs of the raw material compo-  s i t i o n of debitage and tool assemblages demonstrate d e f i n i t e tool curation and t o o l replacement patterns. The second hypothesis tested i s that regardless of raw material factors, curation and maintenance of tools was a major determinant of assemblage composition.  This proposition i s par-  t i a l l y supported i n the raw material bivariate graph analysis, and i s also supported i n an application of Ebert's (1979) model of tool v a r i a b i l i t y .  In t h i s analysis, s i t e s are e s s e n t i a l l y s p l i t  between those with small, complex tools and those with larger^ simpler tools.  A new model of assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n  to group mobility i s presented, where debitage figure prominently in r e l a t i o n to the simple abundance of tools i n assemblages.  I  suggest that the t o t a l length of time that a s i t e i s occupied w i l l determine how much l a t e stage/maintenance debitage, i n r e l a t i o n to other debitage, w i l l be deposited, and also that the number of tools deposited at s i t e s , regardless ofirtype, i s also determined length of occupation.  by  This analysis provides groupings of assem-  blages that are most interesting i n that housepits appear to be of three d i f f e r e n t sorts:  long term, moderate term and short term.  Other assemblages are interpreted i n similar fashion by t h e i r simi l i a r i t y to the various housepit assemblages. The f i n a l hypothesis tested i s that a set of f i v e s i t e occupation purposes across the four regions can be r e l i a b l y predicted  on the  260  basis of t o o l and debitage co-associations.  The f i r s t step  here i s to devise a shortened, f u n c t i o n a l l y interpretable tool c l a s s i f i c a t i o n from the o r i g i n a l l i s t of t o o l types.  This i s  accomplished by a presence/absence cluster analysis of most t o o l types, and  four clusters of tools are interpretable, using  ford's (1979) terms of reference.  Bin-  Tool clusters are inferred to  be personal gear, s i t e furniture, generalized maintenance tools, and broken, exhausted tools. These tool groups are then combined with a condensed debitage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as suggested i n the reduction factors analysis, and used to predict s i t e types of housepits, l i t h i c scatters, l i t h i c scatters with housepits, l i t h i c scatters with cachepits, and scatters with firecracked rock.  lithic  An o v e r a l l success rate of 73.68%  accurate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s achieved with stepwise multiple  discrim-  inant analysis, that shows peesonal gear and bipolar cores are most useful variables i n the analysis.  the  The significance of these  variables i s then tested with a chi-square test, which o f f e r s support for the more complex mathematical solution of the analysis.  The significance of Binford's  discriminant  suggested variables of  personal gear, and core reduction variables are supported i n t h i s analysis.  F i n a l l y , the analysis attempts discriminant  analysis of  the f i v e s i t e types using the same variables and s i t e s , but without site F8:l.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n accuracy now  r i s e s to 81.08%, and  personal gear and bipolar cores are the s i g n i f i c a n t variables tained.  again ob-.  261  The most s i g n i f i c a n t findings of the multiregional analyses are the t o o l curation and replacement patterns evidenced i n the raw material analysis, and the occupation duration findings of the evaluation of Ebert's (1979) model.  Most findings are i n  agreement with Binford's (1979) expectations for assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y based on h i s Nunamiut Eskimo studies, except that h i s expectation that r e s i d e n t i a l locations should demonstrate the least amount of v a r i a b i l i t y (1979: 267) i s contradicted here.  It i s  clear i n the analyses that excavated housepit assemblages are highly variable.  I f l i t h i c scatters with housepits are also con-  sidered r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s , then r e s i d e n t i a l assemblages among Interior Plateau groups are much d i f f e r e n t from Nunamiut Eskimo patterns.  I f the Interior Plateau peoples were less mobile than  the Nunamiut, then more kinds of a c t i v i t i e s , and thus greater v a r i a bility  , i s expected at residences.  To summarize the findings of the multiregional analyses, housep i t v a r i a b i l i t y patterns are used as a "baseline" to group s i t e s by inferred occupation spans and presence or absence of housepit/cachep i t and firecracked rock features.  Small, short term s i t e s offer  the best evidence of discrete a c t i v i t e s , since tool  replacement  and curation processes are clear when only a few items are l e f t at sites.  Large, long term assemblages such as those r e s u l t i n g from  extended housepit occupations are e s s e n t i a l l y a blend of multiple technological and subsistence processes.  Short term housepit occu-  pations reveal s p e c i f i c instances of the kinds of behavior that re-"" occurred i n housepits.  This appears mainly to be "gearing up" a c t i v i t y ,  but housepits also evidence instances of outright garbage disposal.  262  L i t h i c s c a t t e r s r e s u l t i n g from t h e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h p r o c e s s i n g and s t o r i n g salmon and p r o b a b l y s o u r c e s must be c o n s i d e r e d  associated  l a r g e mammal r e -  a d i f f e r e n t sort of r e s i d e n t i a l residue,  but t h e s e a l s o e v i d e n c e extreme p a t t e r n s .  Those l i t h i c s c a t t e r s  w i t h c a c h e p i t s t h a t a r e i n f e r r e d t o r e s u l t from s h o r t term o c c u p a t i o n s seem t o be more c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o those w i t h f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k f e a t u r e s i n t h a t they c o n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e amounts of maintenance r e s i d u e s . I n a l l c a s e s , t h e c u r a t i o n , replacement and r e p a i r o f t o o l s made o f d i f f e r e n t raw m a t e r i a l s i s a c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r i n understanding the e f f e c t s of settlement I t i s important tools.  s t r a t e g i e s on l i t h i c  assemblages.  t o know c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f abandoned v e r s u s  Unfortunately,  time l i m i t a t i o n s p r e c l u d e d  curated  a study o f t h e  t o o l s t h a t would i d e n t i f y r e l a t i v e s t a t e s o f e x h a u s t i o n .  I n any  e v e n t , w h i l e a l l . r a w m a t e r i a l s except g r a n u l a r b a s a l t appear t o be e q u a l l y maintained  and used t o make s i m i l a r k i n d s o f t o o l s , c u r a t i o n  and maintenance appear t o o p e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y  of settlement  strat-  egy, except i n t h e s h o r t term o c c u p a t i o n s i t u a t i o n s . 7.2.  Conclusions T h i s s t u d y has made two major c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o c u r r e n t a r c h a e o -  l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n g e n e r a l and t o I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u a r c h a e o l o g y i n particular.  The f i r s t  u r i n g stages o f chipped  i s t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t g e n e r a l manufactstone t o o l s o f s e v e r a l forms can be r e l i a -  bly  i n f e r r e d from t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f l i t h i c  debitage.  The  second i s t h a t r e d u c t i o n s t a g e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v e r y  informative  263  means of i n f e r r i n g past processes of assemblage formation to l i t h i c technology and settlement  strategy factors.  due  The r e -  search shows that there are many cross-regional r e g u l a r i t i e s i n such processes,  and  implies that large scale attempts to derive  r e l i a b l e culture h i s t o r i e s can use multiregional data, yet need to consider more f u l l y the kinds of s i t e s that the i s retrieved from.  information  The most r e l i a b l e data would appear to be i n  small assemblages, regardless of context.  I would suggest that  future studies be directed more i n t e n s i v e l y at small s i t e s , so that the cumulative assemblages at larger s i t e s can be better understood.  The point i s that since the analyses  i n the  present  study have shown l i t h i c technology to be l a r g e l y embedded i n settlement  strategies, l i t h i c remains can be expected to change  as the operations of settlement  and  subsistence systems change, and  in predictable fashions. The reduction stage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can be seen as being analogous to Binford's anatomy.  (1978a) " u t i l i t y  indices" for caribou  The reduction stage model and measures enable techno-r  l o g i c a l strategies to be modelled i n new  ways, and l i k e the  "bulk"  and "gourmet" curves of caribou usage, the curation and replacement graphs for tools and debitage of various raw materials  provide  fine-grained evidence of the operational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e t t l e ment systems i n general. I would suggest that future research on the I n t e r i o r Plateau be directed to providing d e t a i l e d information on l i t h i c raw mate r i a l sources, so that patterns of mobility can be t i e d to  constant  264  locations.  Secondly, more experimentation along the l i n e s of  that i n t h i s study needs to be undertaken, tool forms need to be more closely related to debitage v a r i a b i l i t y , and raw mate r i a l factors need to be more intensively examined. This study has several ' d e f i c i e n c i e s that can be corrected with future work at separate locations, and with the assemblages analysed here.  The most severe of these concerns data, sampling  and the representativeness of the individual l i t h i c assemblages as well as that of the/sites within the separate regions;- and across the central and southern I n t e r i o r Plateau In general. Some of the interpretations offered here for the transect-collected Hat Creek s i t e s would perhaps be altered with more complete Equally important i s the completeness of the regional  samples.  samples.  The Eagle Lake, Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n , and Hat Creek s i t e s were located with regional sampling methods, but the L i l l o o e t assemblages were not.  Furthermore, most ELP surface l i t h i c assemblages,  and  MOC  assemblages have been studied, only about 1/20 of the known  HAC  s i t e s and very few LIL region s i t e s have been analysed here.  The rationale i n a l l cases was to study s i t e s believed to be late p r e h i s t o r i c or "Kamloops Phase" (less than about ,2000 years) i n age, but this i s by no means certain for most s i t e s . As for methodological shortcomings, the debitage reduction stage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e l i e s on a meagre sample of tools i n r e l a t i o n to the quantity of archaeological material that was analysed, yet the sample of 2657 experimental flakes i s 18% of the archaeological sam-  265  p i e of 14,541 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f l a k e d e b i t a g e .  However, the  r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n here i s spread across s e v e r a l kinds of t o o l p r o d u c t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t s , and than any o t h e r r e p o r t e d  l i t h i c reduction  Time l i m i t a t i o n s and patterns precluded Two  i s t h u s more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e experiment.  the d e s i r e t o i n v e s t i g a t e l a r g e - s c a l e  more i n t e n s i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n  of the d a t a base.  p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s of a n a l y s i s were not u n d e r t a k e n .  i s a t t r i b u t e a n a l y s i s of the t o o l assemblages..  The  first  U s i n g the v a r i a b l e s  gathered f o r each t o o l , major p a t t e r n s of v a r i a b i l i t y c o u l d have been examined to a l l o w t o o l s t o be c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s of r e d u c t i o n and u s e - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . omitted  The  second a n a l y s i s t h a t  i s d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of the r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s  i n each raw m a t e r i a l a t each s i t e .  evident  T h i s approach would have  p l e d the d e b i t a g e d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e , and pretations.  was  tri-  g r e a t l y complicated  inter-  I b e l i e v e t h a t the d e b i t a g e v s . t o o l raw m a t e r i a l com-  p o s i t i o n analyses  a l l e v i a t e most of the l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n  c o u l d have been o b t a i n e d  that  i n such a n a l y s e s , but t h i s should be r e -  garded as a p r o p o s i t i o n f o r f u t u r e s t u d y . The  r e s e a r c h p r e s e n t e d i n the p r e c e d i n g  pages has  shown  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l awareness of meaning i n l i t h i c assemblages has  how de-  v e l o p e d , from n o r m a t i v e o r i g i n s where i n f e r e n c e s were framed i n c u l t u r e - h i s t o r i c a l and  organic  e v o l u t i o n a r y t e r m s , to c u r r e n t models  of assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r mobility.  The  settlement  c u r r e n t s t u d y has added e v i d e n c e o f the i m p o r t a n c e of  t o o l maintenance and  c u r a t i o n f a c t o r s , such as have been n o t e d i n  266  Mousterian (Fish 1976, Munday 1976),. Acheulian, Archaic (Collins 1974), Paleo-Indian (Goodyear 1979) and the Hat Creek (Pokotylo  1978)  assemblages, and has provided an advanced method of reconstructing t o o l and debitage manufacturing, maintenance and disposal patterns with complete samples -j, of archaeological materials.  The Mousterian  problem i s not unique to European Middle P a l e o l i t h i c cultures, but i s basic to l i t h i c assemblages everywhere.  Stone tool remains can  be used to inform us of h i s t o r i c a l , i d e o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l and technol o g i c a l processes, but relevance and accuracy i n reconstruction require adequate empirical c r i t e r i a .  Furthermore, those c r i t e r i a are subject  to change, and both new models and proper analytic methods cannot be constructed i n i s o l a t i o n from archaeological history i t s e l f .  267  CHAPTER 8  REFERENCES CITED  Akazawa, T. 1979  Middle P a l e o l i t h i c assemblages from Douara Cave.. 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In Approaches to Algonquin Archaeology, edited by M. Hanna and B. Kooyman, pp. 57 - 79. Univers i t y of Calgary Archaeological Association. Magne, M. and D.L. Pokotylo 1980 L i t h i c reduction sequences; a controlled experiment. In The Eagle Lake Project: Report on the 1979 season, by R.G. Matson, M. Magne, D. Ludowicz and D.L. Pokotylo, pp. 134 - 166. Unpublished m.s. Archaeology Laboratory, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver.  282  Magne, M. and D.L. Pokotylo 1981 A p i l o t study i n b i f a c i a l l i t h i c reduction sequences. L i t h i c Technology X (2-3): 34 - 47. Matson, R.G. 1971 Adaptation and environment i n the Cerbat Mountains, Arizona. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Davis. 1978  1980  T - S c a l e Scaling ombia, Vancouver.  Routine.  University of B r i t i s h Col-  The proper place of multivariate techniques i n archaeology. American Antiquity 45: 340 - 344.  Matson, R.G. and D.L. True 1974 S i t e relationships at Q u e b r a d a . Tarapaca, Chile: comparison of clustering and scaling techniques. American Antiquity 39: 51 - 74.  A  Matson, R.G., L. Ham and D. Bunyan 1979 P r e h i s t o r i c settlement patterns at the Mouth of the C h i l c o t i n River, B.C. Occasional Papers of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum. i n press. Matson, R.G., M. Magne, D. Ludowicz and D.L. Pokotylo 1980 The Eagle Lake project: Report on the 1979 season. Unpublished m.s. Archaeology Laboratory, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Report to Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. Mellars, P. 1965 Sequence and development of Mousterian t r a d i t i o n s i n southwestern France. Nature. 2 - 5 : 626 - 627. 1970  Some comments on the notion of functional v a r i a b i l i t y in stone tool assemblages. World Archaeology 2: 7 4 - 8 9 .  Mendenhall, W. 1975 Introduction to p r o b a b i l i t y and s t a t i s t i c s . Press, North Scltuate.  Duxbury  M i t c h e l l , D. 1969 Excavations on the C h i l c o t i n Plateau: three s i t e s , three phases. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 4: 99 - 116.  283  Mitchell, 1970  D. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on :the C h i l c o t i n P l a t e a u , 1968. S y e s i s 3: 45 - 66.  Montgomery, P. 1978 Stone a r t i f a c t s from the Punchaw Lake s i t e (Area C ) : a l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c o c c u p a t i o n i n c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s . Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . M o r i c e , A. 1893 Notes a r c h a e o l o g i c a l , i n d u s t r i a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l on the Western Denes. T r a n s a c t i o n s of the R o y a l S o c i e t y of Canada, 1892 - 1893. 1906  The h i s t o r y of the n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia 1660 - 1880. Ye G a l l e o n P r e s s , Washington.  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National Museum of Man, Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper 73  1980  A review of the recent a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by the L i l l o o e t archaeological project. The Midden XII(2): 5-19.  Stuiver, M. 1978 Radiocarbon timescale tested against magnetic and other dating methods. Nature 273: 271 - 274. Teit, J. 1900  The Thompson Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. American Museum of Natural History, Jesup North P a c i f i c Exped i t i o n , Memoirs, Vol. 2, Part 4: 163 - 392.  289  Teit, J . 1906  The L i l l o o e t Indians. American Museum of Natural History, Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition, Memoirs, Vol. 2, Part 5: 193 - 300.  1909a  The Shuswap. American Museum of Natural History, Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition, Memoirs, Vol. 2, Part 7: 447 - 789.  1909b  Notes on the C h i l c o t i n Indians. In the Shuswap. American Museum of Natural History, Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition, Memoirs, Vol. 2, Part 7: 758 - 789.  Thomas, D.H. 1971 Prehistoric subsistence-settlement patterns of the Reese River Valley, Central Nevada. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Davis. Torgerson, 1958  W. Theory and methods of scaling.  John Wiley. Toronto  Tringham, R. 1978 Experimentation, ethnoarchaeology and the leapfrogs in archaeological methodology. In Explorations i n ethnoarchaeology, edited by R.A. Gould, pp. 169 - 199. University of New Mexico Press. Albuquerque. Turner, N. 1978 Food plants of B r i t i s h Columbia Indians. Part 2. Interior Peoples. B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook 36. V i c t o r i a . 1979  Plants i n B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Technology. B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum Handbook No. 38. V i c t o r i a .  T u r n e r , N., R. Bouchard and D.I.D. Kennedy 1980 Ethnobotony of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Museum 21. V i c t o r i a . 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Smith, pp. 56-59, University of Calgary Archaeological Association  291  Wilmeth, R. 1975 The p r o t o h i s t o r i c and h i s t o r i c Athapaskan occupation of B r i t i s h Columbia: the archaeological evidence. Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology 5(344):4-20. 1977  Pit-house construction and the disturbance of s t r a t i f i e d s i t e s . Canadian Journal of Archaeology 1: 135 - 150.  1978  Anahim Lake archaeology and "the early h i s t o r i c C h i l cotin Indians. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 82.  Wilson, R. 1980 The archaeology of Kamloops, Simon Fraser University Department of Archaeology Publication 7. Wobst, H.M. 1979 Computers and coordinates: strategies for the analysis of P a l e o l i t h i c stratigraphy. In Computer graphics i n Archaeology. Edited by S. Upham, pp. 61 - 67. Anthropological Research Papers 15, Arizona State University. Wood, J . 1979  HCLUS-Hierarchical clustering routines programs. Museum of Northern Arizona.  Yellen, J . 1977 Archaeological approaches to the present. Press. New York  Academic  Zipf, G.K. 1949 Human behavior and the p r i n c i p l e of least e f f o r t . Addison-Wesley, New York.  292  APPENDIX I.  ANTHROPOLOGY 406 Reduction Experiment Outline October 1980 •  293  Anthropology  406  A n a l y t i c a l Techniques i n A r c h a e o l o g y : R. G. Matson, P r o f e s s o r LABORATORY ASSIGNMENT -OUTLINE - October LITKIC REDUCTION ANALYSIS  27  ( w i t h Marty Magne, ANSO 0307)  The purpose of t h i s l a b assignment  i s to t e a c h you ways of  r e c o g n i z i n g s t a g e s i n the r e d u c t i o n - manufacture stone t o o l s .  of c h i p p e d  We w i l l be c o n d u c t i n g c o n t r o l l e d experiments i n  t o o l making and d e b i t a g e r e c o v e r y , u s i n g methods I have p r e v i o u s l y used and found t o be v e r y i n f o r m a t i v e . By t h i s t i m e , you s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h c h i p p e d s t o n e t o o l making t o be a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e importance o f p l a t f o r m p r e p a r a t i o n , d e c i s i o n s t o use s o f t o r hard hammers, how  t o remove t h i c k s p o t s from b i f a c e s , and the s l i g h t  d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e c h n i q u e r e q u i r e d t o work o b s i d i a n and I f you f e e l you are s t i l l h a v i n g problems  basalt.  t h a t are not s i m p l y  r e l a t e d t o l a c k of a c q u i r e d s k i l l , f o r example, i f you don't  under-  s t a n d the m e c h a n i c a l l o g i c behind p l a t f o r m p r e p a r a t i o n , then p l e a s e do not h e s i t a t e to c o n s u l t m y s e l f or Dr. Matson. The g o a l of t h e s e experiments i s t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n towards i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t o o l manu-  f a c t u r i n g s t a g e s u s i n g l i t h i c d e b i t a g e , and a t the same time dec r e a s i n g the amount of time r e q u i r e d t o u n d e r t a k e d e b i t a g e a n a l y s i s . T h i s assignment r e q u i r e s you t o u n d e r t a k e an i n i t i a l s t e p o f t h e exp e r i m e n t s - I w i l l be t a k i n g t h e a n a l y s i s to f u r t h e r and f i n a l s t e p s .  294  O u t l i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g pages are the kinds of t o o l s I want you  to make, the procedures  t o o l s and  you are to f o l l o w w h i l e making the  r e c o v e r i n g the d e b i t a g e , and  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  d e b i t a g e t h a t w i l l complete your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  A. T o o l s to make:  Each person  of the f o l l o w i n g t o o l s : one  experiments.  should t r y to make a t l e a s t  two  from o b s i d i a n , the o t h e r ifrom b a s a l t .  P l e a s e , no m i n i - t o o l s r e s u l t i n g from m u l t i p l e e r r o r s i n manuf a c t u r e . In t h i s b u s i n e s s , knowing where to stop i s j u s t as  im-  p o r t a n t as knowing where to b e g i n .  T o o l Code  Description  UF  F l a k e , u n i f a c i a l l y retouched s t r a i g h t margin.  BF  F l a k e , b i f a c i a l l y retouched s t r a i g h t margin  EF  F l a k e , made i n t o an endscraper, u n i f a c i a l l y retouched at l e a s t along one end which i s convex i n p l a n view.  UC  Ovoid u n i f a c e , c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l l y  BC  Ovoid b i f a c e , c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l l y  BL  Lanceolate b i f a c e , extensively flaked, thinned  PP  Stemmed or notched p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t , t h i s need not be too complex  BP  B i p o l a r c o r e - u s i n g b i p o l a r r e d u c t i o n , remove f l a k e s which you f e e l would be s u i t a b l e f o r use as c u t t i n g / w h i t t l i n g t o o l s .  PE  P i e c e e s q u i l l e € - make t o o l s you f e e l would be s u i t a b l e f o r use as wedges used to s p l i t open wood o r bone materials..  along  along  one  one  retouched. retouched,  295  B. Procedures: 1. Core Reduction: I.  Select basalt and obsidian cores, 1 of each large  enough to supply you with the material needed to make the tools, plus, two small pebbles f o r bipolar reduction. II.  Weigh, measure, and draw the cores.  Include a scale  on your drawings, but do not attempt too much d e t a i l . III.  Lay out a clean canvas tarp or p l a s t i c over which to  do the f l a k i n g .  At this point teams w i l l be made up con-  s i s t i n g of two people each - one to do the f l a k i n g , another to recover each flake upon i t s removal and place the flakes from each reduction event i n individual cardboard trays. Each team should also have an assortment of hammerstones, antler hammers, leather pads, goggles, (to be worn by both team members), small cardboard trays, and recording forms. The forms are to be used by the knapper, to indicate by flake number at which point i n the manufacturing process he/she feels they are changing technique or moving to a d i s t i n c t new stage of manufacture.  There i s also ample room f o r  rough notes d e t a i l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , changes i n hammer type, etc. It i s quite probable that at some time during the experiment, the person recovering debitage w i l l not be sure of the order of removal of certain flakes.  The best way to  solve this problem i s to place the flakes back on the core or blank being reduced, but do not s t a l l f o r long trying to  296  f i g u r e t h i s out.  The knapper s h o u l d t r y n o t t o o v e r -  load the recovery person. have, on t h e forms.  A g a i n , note any t r o u b l e you  I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t some blows  w i l l remove more than one f l a k e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , o r t h a t f l a k e s w i l l b r e a k upon removal.  Here assignment may be  arbitrary.  A t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f c o r e r e d u c t i o n , each team s h o u l d have s e v e r a l s t a c k s o f t r a y s (do n o t p i l e them so h i g h they t i p o v e r ) , o r d e r e d f i r s t t o l a s t from bottom to  t o p , w i t h s l i p s o f paper i n t h e t r a y s numbering t h e  flakes.  Be s u r e t o i d e n t i f y your s t a c k s by your  last  name.  2. B l a n k I.  Reduction From t h e core d e b i t a g e , s e l e c t t h e b l a n k s you i n t e n d  to u s e f o r f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n , w r i t i n g down w h i c h f l a k e s you have removed. II.  Weigh, measure and draw these b l a n k s .  I n drawing,  c o n c e n t r a t e on a c c u r a t e l y o u t l i n i n g f l a k e s c a r s on t h e dorsal faces of the.blanks.  Do n o t attempt  shading even i f you a r e a g i f t e d III.  any k i n d o f  artist.  Reduce each b l a n k t o t h e d e s i r e d t o o l form, u s i n g  the two-man p r o c e d u r e .  Use t h e forms a g a i n t o note any  p l a t f o r m p r e p a r a t i o n , type o f p e r c u s s o r , p r e s s u r e etc.  I f breakage o c c u r s , do n o t attempt  flakers,  to salvage the piece  297  u n l e s s I t i s q u i t e l a r g e , but keep the d e b i t a g e  produced  up t o t h a t p o i n t i n t a c t - i t i s s t i l l u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . IV.  At the end >of t h i s p a r t of the e x p e r i m e n t , each team  s h o u l d have a s e t of t r a y s f o r each t o o l produced, each s e t of t r a y s c l e a r l y l a b l l e d as t o knapper, t o o l , and der of f l a k e r e m o v a l , and a s e t of forms d e t a i l i n g  or-  the  knapping methods.  C.  Cataloguing: Now  you w i l l have to c a t a l o g u e  the m a t e r i a l s , so  t h a t they can be used i n the l a t t e r p a r t of t h i s ment w i t h no f e a r of l o s i n g p r o v e n i e n c e .  assign-  Cataloguing  s h o u l d proceed u s i n g a s e t of codes, as f o l l o w s :  I  Basalt  I  Event  o b s i d i a n f l a k e number  M: B: UF: 36: 1 / / / ° your ID tool f l a k e no. (Magne) ( u n i f a c i a l w i t h i n event ret. flake) n n  R :  I  C a t a l o g u e o n l y t h o s e f l a k e s g r e a t e r than 5 mm. d i m e n s i o n , on t h e i r v e n t r a l f a c e s . but l a r g e r than 2 mm. catalogue  i n any  F l a k e s s m a l l e r than  s h o u l d be i n d i v i d u a l l y bagged w i t h  numbers p l a c e d on a p i e c e of paper.  s m a l l e r than 2 mm.  f  M: 0: C: 110 / / ID Core reduction  can be c a t a l o g u e d  Flakes  t o g e t h e r , by  or b l a n k from w h i c h they were produced.  core  5mm.  298  D. Analysis - (The results of this are not used i n the dissertation) Once everyone has completed  a set of tools and  debitage, the next step w i l l be to swap debitage (not tools) with another person from another team. I.  Take the debitage given to you, and sort the debitage  into flakes with remnant s t r i k i n g platforms (PRB's), and flakes without s t r i k i n g platforms (Shatter). II.  Weigh each piece of debitage to the nearest gram, and  sort the debitage into the following classes: less than 1 gm.  1-2 2-5 grams grams  5-10 grams  greater than 10 grams.  SHATTER PRB's III.  Count and weigh the debitage f a l l i n g - i n t o each class.  IV.  Using raw counts and weights, and r e l a t i v e measures such as percentages or indices, what inferences can you make concerning the kinds of tools made, the stages of reduction represented, and techniques used?  299  C o m p l e t i n g t h e " R e d u c t i o n R e c o r d i n g Form"  Event:  The u s e o f t h e s e rows and columns s h o u l d become  .clear;.in t h e r e a d i n g o f the remainder o f t h i s n o t e .  Briefly,  whenever you s t a r t a new, s t a g e i n t o o l m a n u f a c t u r e , OR change t e c h n i q u e , c i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f l a k e number, w h i c h s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e fromi.the d e b i t a g e r e c o v e r y p e r s o n .  Stage:  I n g e n e r a l , f o l l o w C o l l i n s ' (1975) u s e o f t h e terms  " p r i m a r y " and "secondary" t r i m m i n g .  I suggest the f o l l o w i n g  s t a g e c u t - o f f s f o r t h e t o o l s you a r e g o i n g to be making: UF:  Stage 1: Retouch t h e f l a k e a l o n g one m a r g i n . COMPLETE  BF:  Stage 1: Retouch t h e f l a k e b i f a c i a l l y ' a l o n g one margin. COMPLETE  EF:  Stage 1: Retouch the f l a k e a l o n g t h e r i g h t and l e f t  lat-  e r a l margins to produce an e l o n g a t e , s y m m e t r i c a l form i n p l a n v i e w . Stage 2: Choose e i t h e r t h e d i s t a l o r p r o x i m i n a l end to r e t o u c h u n i f a c i a l l y to an edge w h i c h i s convex i n p l a n v i e w . COMPLETE , (Note: 1  endscrapers o f t e n  have i n t a c t s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m s , w i t h the " s c r a p e r " formed a t t h e d i s t a l end o f t h e f l a k e , b u t choose w h i c h e v e r end seems e a s i e s t . ) UC:  Stage 1: Retouch t h e f l a k e on a l l margins u n i f a c i a l l y . COMPLETE  .300  BC: Stage 1: Stage 2:  Retouch the f l a k e on a l l margins u n i f a c i a l l y . Retouch the f l a k e on the opposite face, on a l l margins.  BL: Stage .1:  COMPLETE  Retouch the f l a k e on whatever margins or faces required to produce a generalized lanceolate form i n plan view. thinning procedures.  Do not bother here with Platform Preparation may  be required (see Below). Stage 2:  Using appropriate platform preparation (SEE BELOW), remove flakes required to thin the biface,while retaining a lanceolate o u t l i n e .  Stage 3:  Straighten edges, a l i g n and sharpen point, prepare platforms as required.  (Note: you may f i n d  that you need more "stages" to complete your b i face. PP: Stage 1:  Describe these i n "additional comments".)  Retouch a f l a k e along whatever margins, or faces required to produce a triangular form i n plan view. This f l a k e should be f a i r l y thin to begin with. Use platform preparation as required.  Stage 2:  Remove f l a k e required to thin the f l a k e blank b i facially. f  Stage 3:  Use appropriate platform preparation.  Make notches, stem using pressure f l a k i n g .  This  requires careful i s o l a t i o n of f l a k e platforms. Stage 4:  Straighten edges, pressure flake the faces of the point.  COMPLETE (Note:  Again, you may find that  301  you go through more stages than outlined here, but please try to keep i t simple. For a good idea of how f a r one can go i n d e t a i l ing stages of manufacture of complex items, see:  Flenniken, J. Jeffrey; "Reevaluation of  the Lindenmeier Folsom:  A Replication Experi-  ment i n L i t h i c Technology." 43 (3): 473 - 480. 1978.  American Antiquity  Don't even t r y to copy  Flenniken!)v BP: Stage 1:  Seat the pebble on a firm a n v i l , preferably with a " p i t " so the cobble w i l l not s l i p .  Strike the  proximal "end of the pebble with a hard hammer, remove flakes. Stage 2:  The pebble can be rotated, or more blows can be directed from the same orientation as i n Stage 1. Continue u n t i l you can no longer hold the core for fear of damaging your fingers.  You might t r y  to think of ways the core could be held with no danger of harming yourself.  Use here the "other"  column i n "technical d e t a i l s " , to mark those flakes you think would be useful as blanks f o r other tools. PE: Stage 1:  Use the bipolar technique described above, but t h i s time your intention i s to form a tool that can be used as a wedge.  Stage 2:  Any retouch you need to straighten the edges of the t o o l .  302  3. Technical D e t a i l s :  Technical d e t a i l s are to be checked o f f  in rows corresponding to the "flake numbers" of flakes produced while the p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l i s operative.  These de-  t a i l s are not mutually exclusive; usually several columns /  w i l l be checked o f f f o r any single f l a k e number.  For example,  i f an antler b i l l e t i s used to remove flakes from the proximal end, dorsal surface of a f l a k e blank, then the three columns "soft-hammer", "proximal mar.", and "dorsal" would be checked off.  Any techniques you used that are not covered here, can  be added i n either of the three columns l e f t i n "other". Hard-hammer:  Using a stone to remove flakes by percussion.  Soft-hammer:  Using an antler b i l l e t to remove flakes by pressure.  Pressure:  Using a pointed antler tool to remove flakes by pres-  sure. Platform Preparation:  The terms "platform preparation" encom-  pass- .several ways of modifying flake blank (or "preform") edges to provide more secure platforms f o r either percussion or pressure f l a k i n g .  Edges can be abraded or "scrubbed" u n i f a c i a l l y or  b i f a c i a l l y with a rough stone, s t a r t i n g at one end of the blank and working to the other, or circumferentially; i n d i v i d u a l platforms can be "strengthened" f o r pressure f l a k i n g or the removal of thick spots by removing material which overhangs the dorsal face of  the f l a k e you intend to remove, using either a stone or antler.  Crabtree (1972: 84) defines platform preparation as follows:  303  " The grinding, polishing, f a c e t t i n g , bevelling of that part of the platform to receive the applied force. done to strengthen the platform  Usually  i n order to carry off a l a r -  ger f l a k e . " Isolated:  This i s meant to be i n opposition  to "circumfer-  e n t i a l " , or l a t e r a l or end margins when these are used to i n dicate that a technique has been applied a l l along that part i c u l a r margin.  For example, i f you are removing a thick spot  with soft-hammer percussion,  and that thick spot i s on the d i s -  t a l margin, then the columns "soft-hammer", " i s o l a t e d " , and " d i s t a l mar." w i l l be checked o f f . Right margin:  This refers to the r i g h t margin of the flake  blank when the ventral face of the flake i s facing you.  Can  be used alone to indicate that the p a r t i c u l a r technique was applied along the margin, or i n conjunction  with " i s o l a t e d "  to indicate that the technique was applied to a s p e c i f i c location. Left margin:  Similar to above, but r e f e r r i n g to l e f t margin  of the blank when i t s ventral face i s facing you. Proximal margin:  The end with the s t r i k i n g platform,  or i n  the case of flake shatter, the end of the flake where the p l a t forms should be, as indicated by r i p p l e s or what i s l e f t of the bulb of percussion. D i s t a l margin: the  platform.  Similar to above, but refers to the end opposite  304  C ircumf er entIal:  This column i s to be checked when you  apply a technique to a l l the edges of a flake blank. Dorsal:  Refers to the dorsal face of the flake blank;  the face bearing evidence of previous flake Ventral:  removals.  Refers to the v e n t r a l face of the flake blank;  the face that i s fresh from the core; bears no evidence of previous flake removals, and exhibits the bulb of percussion, r i p p l e s and perhaps e r a i l l u r e flakes or hackles. Thinning:  This column i s to be checked off whenever you are  attempting, by percussion or pressure, to conciously t h i n the cross-section of any of the tools. Notching:  Check this column off when you start to produce  the notches or stem of your p r o j e c t i l e point, by either percussion or pressure f l a k i n g . Other:  There are here three potential columns that you can  use to indicate techniques that are not covered here.  Check  with me or Dr. Matson before you t r y anything too o r i g i n a l . # of Flakes:  The number of debitage items produced each time  the "core" i s struck, or eachi:time reduction of some sort i s even, attempted. counted.  Only flakes greater than 5 mm. should be  305  ANTH. 406 REDUCTION RECORDING FORM Knapper_  Recorder  Item being Reduced (Material,.Core or Blank No.) .Item being Manufactured (Tool Code)  Reduction Event Number C i r c l e Row ' Number  Stage (Check off stage i n i t i a t i o n i n same row as flake number  Technical  u  PH  o  U  1  1  21  2  22  3  23  4  24  5  25  6  26  7  27  8  28  9  29  10  30  11  31  12  32  13  33  14  34  15  35  16  36  17  37  18  38  19  39  20  40  l  2  3  Flake Blank Orientation ^ Platform'^/ > PROXIMAL^ } 4 DISTAL ^Ue+Ac**  4  5  cd  rH  PH  Other  tu  0)  4H  1  Details  60 U cd  S  o  to  cd PH  rH CO  4-> Xi  60  •H  PH  U  •M  a QJ  >  Additional Comments:  60  c  ti  •H Xi  H  60  C  •H  O  +J  O  a  cd rH PHI  PUBLICATIONS 1983 (with B. Penn) FIintknapping: a hobby f o r survival. B.C. Outdoors August 1983, pp. 49-50, 55. 1982 Review of Whitlam, R.G. Archaeological i n v e s t i g a t i o n s at Cache Creek (EeRh 3 ) , 1980. Occasional Papers of the Heritage Conservation Branch No. 5. In Canadian Journal of Archaeology 6: 229-233. 1982 (with R.G. Matson) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of " S a l i s h " and "Athapaskan" p r o j e c t i l e points from the I n t e r i o r Plateau of B r i t i s h Columba. In Approaches to Algonquian Archaeology, edited by M. Hanna and B. Kooyman, pp. 57-59. U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary Archaeological Assocation. 1981 (with D.L. Pokotylo) A p i l o t study i n b i f a c i a l l i t h i c reduction sequences. L i t h i c Technology 10 (2-3): 3 4 - 4 7 . 1980 (with C.T. Shay) FdMg 5: A Blackduck workshop i n the Porcupine Mountains. Manitoba Archaeological Quarterly 4 ( 1 ) : 14 - 25. 1978 Archaeological research i n the Porcupine H i l l s , Manitoba. Archae-Facts 5 92-3): 14 - 15. 1978 Comments on the experimental method i n c u l t u r a l anthropology. MASA 4: 24 - 33. University of Manitoba. 1977 A h o l i s t i c pun - h a l f i s m . of Manitoba.  MASA 3: 1.  University  1976 Forecast. Scarborough F a i r 3: 53. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press.  

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