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Seasonality, shell midden layers, and Coast Salish subsistence activities at the Crescent Beach site,.. 1982

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SEASONALITY, SHELL MIDDEN LAYERS, AND COAST SALISH SUBSISTENCE ACTIVITIES AT THE CRESCENT BEACH SITE, DgRr 1 by LEONARD CHARLES HAM B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 M.A., Simon Fraser University, 1976 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY. OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia) We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1982 ©Leonard Charles Ham, 1982 11 In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v ailable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT This d i s s e r t a t i o n i s concerned with the analysis of a late portion of the Crescent Beach s h e l l midden (DgRr 1 ) situated on Boundary Bay in the southern Fraser River Delta of B r i t i s h Columbia. The basic objectives of th i s study are the recovery and analysis of s h e l l midden layers and t h e i r constituents to obtain information on Coast S a l i s h subsistence a c t i v i t i e s , and to i n i t i a t e a better understanding of s h e l l midden formation. The c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of the S t r a i t of Georgia region i s viewed as a 5,000 year long T r a d i t i o n of Coast Salish Cultures. To place the archaeological materials from Crescent Beach in t h e i r proper c u l t u r a l e c o l o g i c a l perspective, the environmental, ethnographic and archaeo- l o g i c a l setting of the s i t e and surrounding region i s examined. The h i s t o r i c e c o l o g i c a l communities of Boundary Bay are reconstructed and the abundance and a v a i l a b i l i t y of species of economic value determined. Ethnographic Coast Salish Culture and economic strategies are examined and possible settlement patterns reconstructed for Boundary Bay. To a s s i s t i n i d e n t i f y i n g subsistence a c t i v i t i e s at Crescent Beach a s h e l l midden model i s presented o u t l i n i n g the systemic and archaeological transformation processes responsible for the s i t e ' s development. In l i g h t of t h i s model and the above environmental and ethnographic data the most probable seasons of s i t e occupation are suggested. Archaeological data were recovered by the hand trowel excavation of a block of s h e l l midden layers and the matrix, provenienced within a 0.25 m2 unit, was waterscreened through a 1.45 mm mesh screen. In t o t a l some 24 m3 of s h e l l midden weighing 28.8 t were excavated. Recove of midden constituents was accomplished through a multiple t i e r sampling i v system. Radiocarbon estimates of 1350 to 480 B.P., place the 31 layers re- covered from Crescent Beach i n the Developed Coast Salish Culture. Seasonality dating of s h e l l f i s h growth patterns and analysis of layer constituents indicate the s i t e was a s h e l l f i s h and herring harvest- ing camp occupied i n February and March. Layers recovered from Crescent Beach r e f l e c t s h e l l f i s h and herring processing (steaming, sorting, refuse discard, and meat preservation) as well as the immediate consumption of other foods. A r t i f a c t s indicate the manufacture, mostly i n bone and antler, of tools used i n f i s h i n g , woodworking and hide processing, the l a t t e r two a c t i v i t i e s conducted at the s i t e . Procurement of s h e l l f i s h , crab and most f i s h species probably took place along the 3 km stretch of beach south of the s i t e where present ecological communities contain i d e n t i c a l resources as found i n the s i t e . Petroglyphs and a fort-lookout s i t e also attest to the use of t h i s area. S h e l l f i s h were the most common faunal remain, followed by a much lesser quantity of f i s h , waterfowl and some large mammals. In addition to the Crescent Beach s i t e , the Deep Bay s i t e (DiSe 7) and Shoal Bay s i t e (DcRt 1) may also be seasonal s h e l l f i s h and herring harvesting camps, and i t i s suggested that Whalen II (DfRs 3) and the Locarno Beach s i t e (DhRt 6) may have had similar uses. This evidence and the fact additional seasonal s i t e s dating to the Locarno Beach Culture have been i d e n t i f i e d indicates the Proto-Coast Salish had a speci a l i z e d economic system by 3,500 B.P. and possibly e a r l i e r . Indications of s o c i a l ranking are also evident by th i s time. The approach followed i n this study indicates accurate information on economic strategies may be obtained from s h e l l middens. Where research is interested primarily i n seasonality, settlement pattern and subsistence V the controlled excavation of small blocks of s h e l l midden layers, fi n e mesh water screening, and analysis of small numbers of s h e l l samples w i l l be adequate. This has important implications for the study and resource management of the s h e l l middens of the S t r a i t of Georgia region. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i i L i s t of Tables v i i i L i s t of Plates ix L i s t of Figures x Acknowledgements x v i Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter 2 THE BOUNDARY BAY AREA 8 2.1 Climate 9 2.2 Winds, Currents and Tides 11 2.3 Geological History 13 2.4 Ecological Communities 19 2.5 European Contact and Settlement 50 2.6 Ethnographic Cultures 53 2.7 P r e h i s t o r i c Cultures 72 2.8 The Crescent Beach Site and Neighbours 103 Chapter 3 ECONOMIC STRATEGIES, SHELL MIDDENS, AND SEASONALITY . .121 3.1 Halkomelem and S t r a i t s Adaptive Dynamics 124 3.2 Shell Middens and Shell Midden Layers 135 3.3 Seasonality Interpretations 166 Chapter 4 EXPECTED STRATEGIES AND MIDDEN DEPOSITS 174 4.1 Nature of Regional Energy Flows 174 4.2 Possible Seasons of Site Occupation 178 4.3 Seasons of Occupation and Expected Archaeological Elements 181 4.4 Ethnographic Model of Settlement Pat-terns 184 Chapter 5 ANALYSIS OF SHELL MIDDEN LAYERS AT CRESCENT BEACH . . . 187 5.1 Excavation Procedures 187 5.2 Laboratory Analysis 192 5.3 Seasonality Dating of Bivalve Remains 196 5.4 Constituents of the Crescent Beach Midden 206 v i i 5.5 Strategies and A c t i v i t i e s : An I n i t i a l Summary and Possible Layer Types 270 5.6 Types of Crescent Beach Shell Midden Layers 276 5.7 Summary of Layer Types and Midden Development 334 Chapter 6 CONCLUSIONS 344 6.1 Coast Salish Subsistence Strategies at Crescent Beach . . 344 6.2 Development of Shell Midden Layers 351 6.3 S h e l l f i s h and Herring Harvesting Sites: A Coast Salish Settlement Type 355 6.4 Summary 363 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 368 8 APPENDIX I: ARTIFACTS FROM THE CRESCENT BEACH SITE . . 401 v i i i L i s t of Tables Chapter 2 II-I Late Pleistocene and Recent Geological Chronology of the Western Fraser Lowlands 15 II-I I Developed Coast Salish A r t i f a c t Types 95 I I - III DgRr 1, Test Unit A A r t i f a c t s 110 Chapter 3 I I I - I Behavioral Chain Model of a S h e l l f i s h Harvesting Strategy. 141 III - I I Behavioral Chain Model for Manufacturing a Cedar Cooking Box 142 II I - I I I Some Seasonality Interpretations from Archaeological Sites 168 III-IV Marine Mollusc Growth Ring Studies 171 III-V Some Seasonality Interpretations from Marine Molluscs. . . 172 Chapter 5 V-I Sampling of Crescent Beach Layers 194 V-II Crescent Beach Midden Constituents 214 V-III Crescent Beach L i t h i c Detritus 220 V-IV Non-Provenience and S l i t Trench A r t i f a c t s 247 V-V Univalve Species and Estimated Site Weights 249 V-VI Bivalve Species and Estimated Weights 251 V-VII Shell Meat Ratios 253 V-VIII Crescent Beach Fish Species 255 V-IX Crescent Beach Bird Classes 260 V-X Exotic Bird Remains from Crescent Beach 264 V-XI Crescent Eeach Mammal Classes 265 ••V-XII Summary of Expected Layer Types 273 V-XIII Crescent Beach Layer Types 336 ix L i s t of Plates Chapter 5 1 Crescent Beach Excavation 301 2 Feature 2-4 Hearth 301 X L i s t of Figures Chapter 1 1-1 B r i t i s h Columbia 2 1- 2 Fraser Delta and Crescent Beach Site 3 Chapter 2 2- 1 Climatic Summaries for Crescent Beach 10 2-2 Wind and Ocean Currents in Boundary Bay 12 2-3 Extent of the Fraser Lowlands, Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia and Adjacent Washington State 14 2-4 Approximate Extent of the Fraser Delta, 8,000 to 7,000 B.P. 17 2-5 Approximate Extent of the Fraser Delta, 5,000 to 4,000 B.P. 17 2-6 T i d a l F l a t s of Boundary Bay as Mapped by Thompson ca. 1912 . 20 2-7 Approximate Extent of the Fraser Delta, 1858 - 1880 A.D. . . 20 2-8 Boundary Bay Ecological Communities (ca. 1850) 22 2-9 Pelagic Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance . . . . 24 2-10 Eelgrass Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. . . . 28 2-11 Algal Mat Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance . . . 33 2-12 Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance 36 2-13 Salt Marsh Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. . . 38 2-14 Grassland Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance . . . 40 2-15 Sphagnum Bog Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. . 43 2-16 Forest Communities Species A v a i l i b i l i t y and Abundance. . . . 46 2-17 Ecological Communities and Seasonal Resource Abundance . . . 49 2-18 Ethnographic Kalkomelem and S t r a i t s T e r r i t o r i e s 55 2-19 Ethnographic Groups, Fraser River Delta 67 2-20 Cultural History of the S t r a i t of Georgia and Lower Fraser River Valley 73 x i L i s t of Figures (Chapter 2 cont.) 2-21 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Some Old Cordilleran and Other Proto- western Tr a d i t i o n Cultures 75 2-22 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Faunal Classes Through Time, S t r a i t of Georgia Area 79 2-23 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Industries Through Time, S t r a i t of Georgia Area 79 2-24 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Charles Culture Type Assemblages 80 2-25 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Locarno Beach Culture Type Assemblages . . . 85 2-26 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Marpole Culture Type Assemblages 89 2-27 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Cranial Deformation and Labret Wear, Proto-Coast Salish Cultures 92 2-28 Developed Coast Salish Assemblages 94 2-29 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Trench-Embankment Sites 99 2-30 Temporal Overlap of Proto-Coast Salish and Developed Coast Salish Chronologies 103 2-31 The Crescent Beach Site (DgRr 1) and^Neighbours 104 2-32 S u r f i c i a l Deposits and Extent of Cultural Deposits at Crescent Beach 106 2-33 Location and Age of Trees Growing in Excavation Area . . . . 108 2-34 DgRr 1 Test Unit A, P r o f i l e of West Wall 109 2-35 DgRr 1 Test Unit A, Chipped, Pecked and Ground Stone A r t i f a c t s I l l 2-36 DgRr 1, Test Unit A, Bone and Antler A r t i f a c t s 112 2-37 DgRr 1, Test Unit A, Ground Stone A r t i f a c t s 113 2-38 Test Unit A, A r t i f a c t Residue Analysis 113 2-39 H i s t o r i c Vegetation at Crescent Beach 115 2- 40 Boundary Bay Petroglyphs 119 Chapter 3 3- 1 C-Transform Flowchart for S h e l l f i s h 138 x i i L i s t of Figures (Chapter 3 cont.) 3-2 C-Transform Flowchart for a Bent Wood Cooking Box 138 3-3 Element Flow Through a Shell Midden (Systemic Context) . . . 145 3-4 Energy Flow Through a Shell Midden (Archaeological Context). 149 3-5 Model of Shell Midden Development 151 3-6 Variation i n Element Lifespan 159 3-7 Patterns of S h e l l f i s h Discard 161 3- 8 Analysis of Shell Growth Bands 171 Chapter 4 4- 1 Main Energy Pathways in Halkomelem and S t r a i t s T e r r i t o r i e s 175 4-2 Nature of Seasonal Energy Blooms 175 4-3 Nature of a Sockeye Run as a Transient Energy Flow 177 4-4 Nature of a Berry Crop and Bird Migration as a Transient Energy Flow 177 4-5 Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance '. 179 4- 6 Possible Semiahmoo and Nicomekl Seasonal Strategies 185 Chapter 5 5- 1 Contour Map of 1977 Excavations 188 5-2 1977 Excavation Grid 188 5-3 Temperature and Variation i n Bivalve Growth in Boundary Bay 199 5-4 Seasonality Dating: Cluster I Shells 201 5-5 Seasonality Dating: Cluster II Shells 203 5-6 Seasonality Dating: Cluster III Shells 205 5-7 Harris Diagram of Crescent Beach Stratigraphic Layers. . . . 208 5-8 Crescent Beach Radiocarbon Dates 209 5-9 Mean Layer pH Values 211 x i i i L i s t of Figures (Chapter 5 cont.) 5-10 Mean Layer P Values 212 5-11 Sediment Analysis 216 5-12 Occurrences of Crescent Beach A r t i f a c t s at Other Late Components 217 5-13 Crescent Beach A r t i f a c t Industries 219 5-14 Manufacturing A r t i f a c t s I. . 222 5-15 Manufacturing A r t i f a c t s II 223 5-16 Woodworking A r t i f a c t s I 227 5-17 Woodworking A r t i f a c t s II 228 5-18 Basketry, Matting and Skin Working A r t i f a c t s 231 5-19 Decorative Items 234 5-20 P r o j e c t i l e Point Residue Analysis 238 5-21 Fishing A r t i f a c t s 239 5-22 Chipped Knives Residue Analysis 241 5-23 Miscellaneous Midden Remains 243 5-24 S l i t Trench A r t i f a c t s 244 5-25 S l i t Trench A r t i f a c t s Residue Analysis 246 5-26 Crescent Beach H i s t o r i c A r t i f a c t s . . . 247 5-27 Univalve Remains from Crescent Beach 249 5-28 Bivalve Remains from Crescent Beach 251 5-29 Major S h e l l f i s h Species Meat Weights 253 5-30 I d e n t i f i e d F i s h Remains from Crescent Beach 255 5-31 Layer D i s t r i b u t i o n of F i s h Species 257 5-32 Comparison of Fish Element Distributions 258 5-33 I d e n t i f i e d Bird Remains from Crescent Beach 260 5-34 Layer D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bird Species 262 5-35 Dabbling and Diving Duck Elements 263 xiv L i s t of Figures (Chapter 5 ccmt.) 5-36 I d e n t i f i e d Mammal Remains from Crescent Beach 265 5-37 Layer D i s t r i b u t i o n of Mammal Remains 266 5-38 Deer and Wapiti Elements 268 5-39 Shell Species/Sample Weight Ratios 278 5-40 Q Mode Cluster Analysis of Crescent Beach Layers 282 5-41 Torgerson's B* Metric Multidimensional Scaling of Crescent Beach Layers 282 5-42 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Crescent Beach A r t i f a c t s by Layer Clusters . 284 5-43 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Faunal Ranks by Layers and Clusters 285 5-44 Layer D2 287 5-45 Layer Gl ash 287 5-46 Extent of Layer D5 289 5-47 Extent of Layer F4 289 5-48 Layer G2 291 5-49 Extent of Layer L4fcr . 289 5-50 Extent of Layer L4 Carbon 289 5-51 Extent of Layer L356 289 5-52 Feature 2-1, Steaming Mound 295 5-53 Feature 2-2, Cobble and Charcoal Spread 298 5-54 Feature 2-3, Ash Spread and Post Molds 298 5-55 Cluster I l a Layer Boundaries 303 5-56 Cluster l i b Layer Boundaries 309 5-57 Cluster l i b A r t i f a c t s 311 5-58 Layers D and E Ash Spreads 312 5-59 Extent of Layer D4 314 5-60 Cluster I I I Layer Boundaries 317 5-61 Cluster III A r t i f a c t s I 318 XV L i s t of Figures (Chapter 5 cont.) 5-62 Cluster III A r t i f a c t s II 319 5-63 Bur i a l 2-1 from Layer F 322 5-64 Butchering Marks on Ungulate Bones 327 5-65 Layer DI F i r e p i t and Ash Spreads 330 5-66 Elbow Adze from Layer DI 331 5-67 Harris Diagram of Crescent Beach Layer Types 340 x v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS While two of my Vancouver Community College i n s t r u c t o r s , Mrs. Tony Pletcher and Ian P r a t t i s are responsible for s t a r t i n g the chain of events culminating i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , many others have assisted i n many ways. To a l l of you I o f f e r my sincere thanks and with apologies for any short- comings, I hope you f i n d t h i s study of worth. I wish to thank the members of my advisory committee, R.G. Matson (advisor), Michael Kew, and Wayne Suttles for t h e i r encouragement, guidance, and patience. I wish also to thank the following present and former members of Anthropology and Sociology; the late Charles Borden, Harvey Crew, P a t r i c i a Hitchins, Richard Pearson, Jay Powell, and E l v i whittaker. The excavations at Crescent Beach (DgRr 1) were conducted between May 2nd and August 31, 1977, under Permit No. 1977-6 issued by the B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Recreation and Conservation. Permission and approval to excavate on Lot 47 was granted by the D i s t r i c t of Surrey and the Semiahmoo Indian Band (and g r a t e f u l l y accepted). The University of B r i t i s h Columbia provided l i a b i l i t y coverage for the project while funding was obtained from: the Laboratory of Archaeology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia; the Heritage Conservation Branch; a Young Canada Works and a B r i t i s h Columbia Youth Employment Grant to Dr. P a t r i c i a Hitchins (then at U.B.C.); a B.C. Youth Employment Grant to Gordon Bryenton and Margo Chapman (Vancouver Community Colleg, Langara); and a Canada Council Grant to Dr. R.G, Matson (U.B.C.). Two volunteers were also obtained near the end of the project from the Canada World Youth Program. Equipment, maps and other supplies were provided by the Laboratory of Archaeology (U.B.C.), the Heritage Conservation Branch, the D i s t r i c t of Surrey, the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, Vancouver Community College, and the Department of Archaeology (Simon Fraser x v i i U n i v e r s i t y ) . I wish to thank Gordon Bryenton, Margo Chapman, P a t r i c i a Hitchins, Gerald Holdrinet, Rick Percy, R.G. Matson, and Bjorn Simonsen for making t h i s study possible. Special thanks are due Jean Bussey and Robert Wilson who were instructors for the Douglas Community College and Vancouver Community College f i e l d schools. The excavation crew consisted of 5 experienced supervisors and students from two archaeological f i e l d schools: Anthropology 190 (D.C.C.) and Anthropology 221 (V.C.C.), with each i n s t i t u t i o n providing an instructor for t h e i r classes. Grants from federal and p r o v i n c i a l student job t r a i n i n g programs allowed most of the students to be hired during July and August including a number of students from the U.B.C. f i e l d school held at another part of the Crescent Beach s i t e (Trace 1977b). I o f f e r my sincere thanks to S y l v i a Albright, Michael Broderick, Dan McPherson, W i l l Peacock, Valerie Patenaude, and Becky Wigen (Smith), whose assistance as f i e l d supervisors ensured the success of the excavation. We were a l l impressed with the following students who were crew members, and I wish to express my thanks to Greg Bennett, Lee Bolivar, Nick Braun, Sheila Brazier, Beth DeBeer, Dave DeWolf, Janis Doran, Norm Easton, E r i c E l l i n g t o n , Rose Gr i n d l , Nancy Gunn, Judy H o l l e t t , Alan Hood, Stephen Hopkins, Jane Hutton, Peter J a r v i s , Sharon Johnson, L e s l i e Krainer, Maureen MacPherson, Brian Martin, Helen Mason, Dave M e l l i s , Barb M c K i l l i p , Miguel Orrego, Peter Osmack, Margo P i f f e r , L e s l i e Prentis, Erika Schneider, Rob.Stuart, Pamela Travis, Rod Van Agteren, Audrey D i s c r o l l (Vycinas), Lynn Watkins, Jane Watson, Debi Yee, Stephanie Yip, and Monica Young. The success of the f i e l d project was also made possible by the cooper- ation and aid provided by the following people. To them I off e r my gratitude: Forbes Boyd (Director, Federal Habitat Protection Directorate); Bernard Charles (Chief, Semiahmoo Band); Wayne C l i f t o n (Streets Superintendent, x v i i i Surrey); Mrs. Dove (Planning, Surrey); Ingrid Fisher (B.C. Ministry of Labour); L.T. Harrington (Assistant Municipal Manager, Surrey); Moira Irvine (U.B.C.); Jim LeMaistre (Planning, Surrey); Tom Loy (B.C.P.M.); Bob Powell (B.C.P.M.); Douglas Sawyer (Project O f f i c e r , Manpower and Immigration); Colin Stewart (Provincial Water Resources Service); R.D. Spratley (Research Administrator, U.B.C.); Fraser Taylor (V.C.C.); G.A. West (Regional Director, B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch); Robert Wilkinson (Office Manager, V.C.C.); and Al McMillan (D.C.C.). I also wish to thank Surrey Council f or permitting excavations to be conducted on municipal lands, and f o r allowing the augering project along street right of ways. To the residents of Crescent Beach I must apologize for any inconvenience, and express my thanks for t h e i r warm reception and i n t e r e s t . Many others have contributed throughout the f i e l d project, analysis and writing of this d i s s e r t a t i o n , and I should l i k e to thank: Don Abbott (B.C.P.M.); Jack Armstrong (G.S.C., r e t . ) ; Owen Beattie (U. of A.); David Burley (Alberta Culture); Steve Cassidy (H.C.B.); Roy Carlson (S.F.U.); Michael Church (U.B.C.); John Clague (G.S.C.); Susan Crockford (B.C.P.M.); Richard Hebda (B.C.P.M.); Steve Heisser (Environment Canada); Alan Hoover (B.C.P.M.); Richard I n g l i s (N.M.C.); Sandra Johnson (Forest Products Lab); Gary Kaiser (C.W.S.); Andrew Lamb (Environment Canada); David Leen (Genoa Bay, B.C.); George MacDonald (N.M.C.); James Murray (U.B.C.); Margaret North (U.B.C.); Marion Parker (Forest Products Lab); the late James Point (Musqueam); David Pokotylo (U.B.C.); Michael Roberts (S.F.U.); George Sivertz (Prism Resources); Dawn Stoffer (B.C.P.M.); and Audrey D i s c r o l l (Vycinas) (U. of S.) . I wish to thank Michael Broderick, Gay Calvert, Jim Haggarty, Martin Magne, Valerie Patenaude, W i l l Peacock, and David Rozen for th e i r assistance. xix I have both enjoyed and benefitted from our many excursions into the uncharted past. To Mr. Peter Cook (Loans Manager, C.I.B.C.), and the st a f f s of the Awards Off i c e and Anthropology and Sociology, I extend my gratitude. Moira Irvine's contribution to th i s study i s evident from the many fine tables and figures, many including drawings done by Debi Yee and Margo P i f f e r . My gratitude for such fin e q uality work i s extended to a l l of you. I e s p e c i a l l y wish to thank Stephanie Yip for typing the f i r s t draft of th i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , for her patience and understanding, and for keeping me at i t . 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION This study concerns the analysis of a late portion of the Crescent Beach s h e l l midden (DgRr 1) situated on Boundary Bay i n the southern part of the Fraser River Delta, B.C. (Figures 1-1, 1-2). The basic goals of t h i s investigation were to obtain information concerning Coast Salish subsistence a c t i v i t i e s at Crescent Beach, and to develop an understanding of the formation of s h e l l midden layers. To meet these goals a c u l t u r a l ecological approach was used including a thorough evaluation of relevant environmental, h i s t o r i c , ethnographic and archaeological data. Also es s e n t i a l was the implementation of rigorous f i e l d methods including the wide area excavation of the s h e l l midden by str a t i g r a p h i c layers, waterscreening through fine mesh screens, the comprehensive analysis of fauna and other elements from layer samples, and seasonality studies of s h e l l f i s h remains. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study indicate that such an approach permits the accurate recovery of information on seasonality of occupation, subsistence a c t i v i t i e s , and s i t e formation processes. Crescent Beach and several other similar s i t e s are i d e n t i f i e d as seasonal s h e l l f i s h and herring harvesting settlements which were important components of Coast Salish economic systems. It i s suggested that a spe c i a l i z e d economic system was established among the Proto-Coast Salish people by 3,500 B.P. and perhaps e a r l i e r . The native peoples of the Northwest Coast attained c u l t u r a l complexity and population densities seldom equalled among known f i s h i n g , hunting, and food gathering so c i e t i e s (Borden 1975:112; Drucker 1963:1-3; Fladmark 1975:1; Suttles 1968:56). Driver and Massey (1957:173) state that "North- west Coast culture competes with that of the A r c t i c for the status of being the most d i s t i n c t i v e and at the same time the most foreign of any in North America". C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Coast Salish cultures in the S t r a i t of Georgia Lower Fraser River Valley were; permanent v i l l a g e s of more than a thousand 2 Figure 1-1. B r i t i s h Columbia. Figure 1-2. Fraser Delta and Crescent Beach S i t e . 4 people l i v i n g in large cedar plank houses, and often with smaller permanent or temporary cedar plank houses at important summer and autumn resource locations; s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n including a large upper class and a small group of slaves; well developed s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n various economic and c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s including f i s h i n g , hunting, woodworking, and other manufact- ures; s o c i a l units extending beyond the v i l l a g e ; elaborate ceremonialism, and one of the world's d i s t i n c t art styles (Lomax and Arensberg 1977:670; Suttles 1968). Suttles (1968:56) further adds that "...these features of Northwest Coast cultures and demography are generally thought to have been made possible or even inevitably produced,, by the richness of the habitat of the area and i n the e f f i c i e n c y of the subsistence techniques of i t s people". While there i s general agreement that culture and subsistence were related, there i s some disagreement as to the nature of t h i s r e l ationship (see Drucker 1963; Drucker and Heizer 1967; Matson 1981; Orans 1975; Piddocke 1965; Suttles 1960, 1968; Vayda 1961). Regardless, the annual round with i t s e x p l o i t a t i o n of s p e c i f i c resources at set locations at set times of the year was c l e a r l y defined and well established i n the southern S t r a i t of Georgia area ethnographically (Suttles 1974:105). The o r i g i n s and development of Coast S a l i s h culture are not well understood, in large part due to the s c a r c i t y and poor q u a l i t y of archaeological information on subsistence and seasonality (Matson 1974:113, 1981:85). Different o r i g i n theories and supporting data (in most cases poor) have been reviewed by M i t c h e l l (1971:67-70) who argues that on the whole there i s good indi c a t i o n of c u l t u r a l continuity between subsequent archaeological cultures. Recent work has shifted from the once popular migration model (Drucker 1963:20-21; Borden 1950a:26, 1962:19) to concentrate on environmental (Fladmark 1975:293-7), or c u l t u r a l factors, commingling and d i f f u s i o n of t r a i t s (Borden 1975:118) allowing for more l o c a l c u l t u r a l development. More 5 recent researchers have, with some q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , tended to follow M i t c h e l l ' s continuity model (Burley 1979; Monks 1977; Matson 1976). Recently Adams (1981:362-3) has pointed out the abandonment of migration theories by ethnologists to account for the ethnographic d i v e r s i t y of the Northwest Coast, r e a l i z i n g this d i v e r s i t y rests "...atop a deep material culture which, despite many fi n e s t y l i s t i c differences, b a s i c a l l y suggests an overwhelming s i m i l a r i t y and continuity". As Matson (1974, 1981) has suggested, there can be l i t t l e hope of c l a r i f y i n g our understanding of the development of Northwest Coast culture without attempting to improve our knowledge of seasonality and subsistence in the archaeological cultures spanning the 8-9,000 year hi s t o r y of this area. Both Borden (1975) and Fladmark (1975) r e l y on archaeologically reported subsistence patterns, which i s surprising when we take into account the fact that only two published studies and a handful of unpublished reports contain any detailed analysis of subsistence from the more than 100 s i t e s excavated in this area (Boehm 1973a, 1973b; Boucher 1976; Calvert 1980; Conover 1978; Matson 1976; Monks 1977). The weakness of depending on such a data base i s evident i n arguments presented by Borden (1950a:24) suggesting that Locarno Beach cultures were dependent upon sea mammal hunting. Although type s i t e material has not yet been examined, preliminary analysis of Locarno Beach faunal remains from Musqueam N.E. (DhRt 4) indicates sea mammals never represent more than 2% of a l l fauna by weight and less than 1% by count (Ham 1974:8,9). In f a c t , based upon what meager information has been reported to date, only in the e a r l i e s t pre 5,000 B.P. cultures do we f i n d any degree of sea mammal use ( see Figure 2-22). If the analysis of archaeological subsistence patterns on the Northwest Coast i s s t i l l i n i t s infancy, seasonality studies are even less developed. Suttles (1968:56) has indicated the nature of seasonal subsistence a c t i v i t i e s 6 may be to a great extent responsible for the success of Northwest Coast c u l t u r a l development. It has also been suggested that v a r i a t i o n i n seasonal a c t i v i t i e s may r e s u l t in d i f f e r e n t a r t i f a c t assemblages at s i t e s from similar time periods (Abbott 1972:274; Binford and Binford 1966:239; Clark 1975:16; Mi t c h e l l 1971b:50; Newell 1973; Taylor 1948:189; Thomson 1939). However, l i t t l e attention has been paid to how this might be r e f l e c t e d i n l o c a l c u l t u r a l history sequences (see Abbott 1972:273-4), even though aberrant assemblages do e x i s t . It has been widely demonstrated that f a i r l y accurate seasonality interpretations may be obtained from some marine mollusc sh e l l s from the Northwest Coast (Ham and Irvine 1975; Ham 1976; Keen 1979) as well as elsewhere (Barker 1964; Clark II 1968, 1974a,. 1974b, 1979a, 1979b; House and Farrow 1968; Koike 1973, 1980; Pannella and MacClintock 1968). Research using these techniques i s meeting with a varied degree of success in t h i s area, and in view of the importance of seasonal movement to l o c a l economic strategies, continued research into seasonal indicators of s i t e occupation is paramount. B a s i c a l l y t h i s study w i l l analyse the seasonality and composition of a late period faunal assemblage in l i g h t of predictions generated from ethno- graphic sources and from the reconstructed a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of l o c a l resources. If Suttles' model applies to e a r l i e r periods, a tight f i t between seasonality and resources should be evident with a clear i n d i c a t i o n as to which resources were procured, and which were not. I w i l l show as th i s study progresses, that t h i s expectation i s strongly supported by the data from the Crescent Beach s i t e . Several goals must be attained, or at least approached, to obtain r e a l - i s t i c r e s u l t s , including: demonstrating control over environmental variables, consideration of the ethnographic and archaeological contexts, i s o l a t i o n 7 of depositional units, and the c o r r e l a t i o n of these units with seasonality and recovered c u l t u r a l elements. A r t i f a c t density was low at th i s portion of the Crescent Beach s i t e , but w i l l also play an important role i n the interpretation of a c t i v i t i e s at the s i t e . Chapter 2 presents the background to the s i t e , including environmental variables, ethnographic culture, and the h i s t o r i c and p r e h i s t o r i c settlement of the area. Chapter 3 outlines the t h e o r e t i c a l basis of this study, including subsistence studies, s h e l l midden development and seasonality dating. Based on the review of environmental and ethnographic data i n Chapter 2, possible seasons of s i t e occupation are presented in Chapter 4. Analysis of midden constituents, including a r t i f a c t s , fauna and layers i s presented i n Chapter 5, and s i t e subsistence strategies are summarized i n Chapter 6. The evidence for s h e l l f i s h and herring harvesting and other specialized s i t e s i n the S t r a i t of Georgia i s also reviewed, and i t i s argued that a specialized economic system was well established among the Proto-Coast Salish by 3,500 years ago. Support for this hypothesis i s obtainable i n l i g h t of the good preservation of s h e l l midden constituents, current archaeological theory and method, and the approach used i n t h i s study. 8 2.0 THE BOUNDARY BAY AREA Boundary Bay i s situated on the inactive southern front of the Fraser River Delta and faces southwards into the S t r a i t of Georgia (Figure 1-2). Rectangular in shape and approximately 13 km by 8.5 km, Boundary Bay, including i t s eastern extension of Mud Bay, covers some 110 km2. Headlands on either side of Boundary Bay are composed of unconsolidated Pleistocene deposits r i s i n g 60 to 90 m above sea l e v e l (see Figure 2-2, 2-3). Along the northwestern and northern margins of the Bay, approximately 4,400 ha of a l l u v i a l lowlands are drained by a dendritic pattern of streams and sloughs (Figure 2-7). To the northeast and facing Mud Bay l i e s the active delta of the Serpentine and Nicomekl Rivers whose 6,400 ha v a l l e y i s also composed of low l y i n g a l l u v i a l deposits. At the mouth of the Nicomekl River below the Pleistocene White Rock Uplands, on old beach and more recent accretion s p i t deposits, i s the archaeological s i t e of Crescent Beach. The lowest low tides in Boundary Bay expose approximately 6,100 ha of t i d a l f l a t s composed mainly of "...sand with lesser amounts of s i l t y and sandy muds..." (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:68). Swinbanks and Murray (1978:1) point out the uniqueness of these t i d a l f l a t s i n that unlike most t i d a l f l a t s , there i s very s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n grain size with the r e s u l t that f l o r a / f a u n a l zonation i s primarily controlled by elevation and exposure. Current sources of sediment i n Boundary Bay include the Pleistocene Uplands at the head of the Bay, the eroding Mud Bay saltmarsh, the Serpentine and Nicomekl Rivers, and Fraser River s i l t s brought into the Bay by the gyral currents of the Southern S t r a i t of Georgia (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:68; Taylor 1970:4-5). Boundary Bay may be considered a natural system (Church and Rubin 1970: 16) and combined with i t s drainage basin contains a wide range of d i s t i n c t microenvironments. These ecological communities and th e i r resources are discussed in Section 2.4 of t h i s chapter while the following sections cover 9 the climatology, oceanography, geological hi s t o r y and c u l t u r a l history of the Boundary Bay and Crescent Beach area. 2.1 CLIMATE Technically the climate of the Fraser River Delta i s c l a s s i f i e d as Kbppen Mediterranean type (Csb), but has been described as a modified maritime type (Hoos.and Packman 1974:30). The climate of t h i s area i s influenced by several factors including; the presence of the land-sea boundary, the Olympic Mountains and Vancouver Island Ranges to the southwest and west, the Coast Mountains to the north, and the Fraser River Valley to the east, a l l i n t e r - acting with atmospheric c i r c u l a t i o n patterns on a seasonal basis (Hoos and Packman 1974:30). During winter a southwesterly a i r flow brings moist P a c i f i c storms as does a secondary storm track from the Gulf of Alaska. Bringing increased p r e c i p i t a t i o n , winter storms from the warm P a c i f i c Ocean modify l o c a l temperatures so that winters are mild (Figure 2-la), although 72% of the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s received between October and March. Normally the Coast Mountains block the flow of cold A r c t i c A i r masses onto the coast except i n rare cases when a i r temperature may drop as low as -20 9C (White Rock) (Environment Canada 1973a:123). Periods under .Arctic cold a i r are usually short l i v e d and as the high pressure i s eroded away by a P a c i f i c storm, p r e c i p i t a t i o n may be i n the form of snow which w i l l on occasion remain for a day or two. An annual average of 7 days of snowfall i s recorded for Ladner and 8 for White Rock (Environment Canada 1973b:283, 285). In the summer an expanded P a c i f i c anticyclone normally diverts P a c i f i c storms well offshore while upper winds are dry and l o c a l wind flows dominated by land-sea breeze c i r c u l a t i o n s (Hay and Oke 1976:7; Hoos and Packman 1974:31). This exerts a cooling e f f e c t which prevents high temperatures and r e s u l t s in warm dry summers. On occasion the area experiences hot s p e l l s as well 10 (a) MEAN TEMPERATURE °C (d) PRECIPITATION mm J F M A M J J A S O N D Note: Temperature, frost days, and precipitation values are an average of values reported for Ladner and White Rock, 12 km northwest and 5 km south- (c) FROST DAYS east respectively, from Crescent Beach. Bright sunshine values are for Vancouver International Airport, 25 km northwest of Crescent Beach. Sources: a Environment Canada 1973a:2, 4. b Hay and Oke 1976:19. c Environment Canada 1973a:167, 169. d Environment Canada 1973b:53, 55. Figure 2-1. Climatic Summaries for Crescent Beach. as periods cf wet, cool weather. Ladner has a recorded August temperature maximum of 35°C as well as a July minimum of 1°C (Environment Canada 11 1973a:68,119), while White Rock has recorded a maximum 24 hour r a i n f a l l of 47 mm for August, a month with a mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n of 42.7 mm (Environment Canada 1973b:55,87). Overall the climate of the Boundary Bay area i s milder and d r i e r than that of the northern portions of the Fraser Delta and the Vancouver area. Sunny skies are common, while Vancouver i s experiencing r a i n as moisture laden clouds are forced over the northshore mountains, and have earned Boundary Bay the name of "Sunshine Belt". 2.2 WINDS, CURRENTS AND TIDES Surface wind patterns i n the southern S t r a i t of Georgia are strongly influenced by l o c a l topography (Hoos and Packman 1974:38; Waldichuk 1957:418). Southeasterly winds c i r c u l a t i n g in a counter-clockwise d i r e c t i o n predominate throughout the year except f o r early and late summer when northeasterly winds increase i n frequency (Waldichuk 1957:417-9). Augmented by wind c i r c u l a t i o n as well as influenced by C o r i o l i s and cen t r i f u g a l forces, surface waters i n the southern S t r a i t of Georgia also c i r c u l a t e i n a counter-clockwise d i r e c t i o n (Church and Rubin 1970:8, 9; Waldichuk 1957:386). This counter-clockwise c i r c u l a t i o n moves across Boundary Bay from east to west (Figure 2-2). Along the eastern and western margins of the Bay longshore d r i f t currents carry sediments northwards into the Bay r e s u l t i n g in accretion spits at both Crescent Beach and Beach Grove (Swinbanks and Murray 1978:2). Unconsolidated Pleistocene deposits at the head of Boundary Bay are the prime source for this material (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:68, 73; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:2). Within Boundary Bay the main currents are the alternating north-south f i l l i n g and draining of t i d a l f l a t s v i a foreshore channels (Church and Rubin 1970:9, 14) and the southward flow of the submerged channel of the Serpentine and Nicomekl Rivers (see Figures 2-6,2-7). 12 Figure 2-2. Wind and Ocean Currents in Boundary Bay. The t i d a l pattern of the S t r a i t of Georgia i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the P a c i f i c coast of North America consisting of diurnal and semidiurnal tides (Hoos and Packman 1974:77). Known as a mixed semidiurnal pattern, they consist of two highs and two lows of unequal amplitude each day. The lows are most d i f f e r e n t during periods of spring tides, becoming reduced and eliminated by the next neap tide period. The two sets of low tides then cross over so that the low low tides of one fortnight become high low tides of the next fo r t n i g h t . There i s seasonal v a r i a t i o n i n the times and magnitudes of the tides, the lowest low tides occur near midday during the early summer around the summer s o l s t i c e , while low tides during the winter occur around midnight (Dayton 1971:355; Evans 1972:417; Hoos and Packman 1974:77). 13 2.3 GEOLOGICAL HISTORY Boundary Bay i s part of the Fraser Lowlands, a triangular shaped area some 120 km by 90 km, consisting of low l y i n g gently r o l l i n g h i l l s of d r i f t generally under 155 m in elevation separated by wide alluvium f i l l e d v a l l e y s , and occupying the 70 m i l l i o n year old sedimentary Fraser Lowland Basin (Figure 2-3) (Armstrong 1981:1). On the north the Fraser Lowland i s bounded by the Coast Mountains and on the east and southeast by the Cascade and Chuckanut Mountains, some r i s i n g 1650 m above the v a l l e y f l o o r (Armstrong 1981:1; Blunden 1975a:1; Halstead 1977:6). Its western edge borders the sheltered waters of the S t r a i t of Georgia. Following a late g l a c i a l and po s t g l a c i a l v a l l e y the entire northern length of the Fraser Lowland, the Fraser River terminates at the S t r a i t of Georgia i n a growing delta 31 km long by 24 km wide (Armstrong 1981:1). Boundary Bay i s recent i n age, having formed when the Fraser Delta reached Point Roberts (formerly an isl a n d ) , thus preventing further Fraser River discharge on the southern delta front. P r i o r to 70 m i l l i o n years ago the Coast and Cascade Mountain areas of southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia formed an arc of volcanic islands. Since the Cretaceous, the basin has been a low coastal p l a i n with streams and ri v e r s flushing sediments from the surrounding u p l i f t i n g h i l l s and mountains (Blunden 1975:2). Repeated g l a c i a l advances from mountain v a l l e y s across the Fraser Lowland during the late Pleistocene destroyed most of the geological record from the l a t t e r part of the Tertiary as well as the early Pleistocene (Armstrong 1975:377; Blunden 1975a:8). The most extensive l o c a l geological records of the Late Pleistocene are found i n many of the h i l l s i n the western Fraser Lowland (Mary H i l l , Point Grey, Point Roberts, Surrey and White Rock Uplands), which are composite h i l l s , each made up of a series of older h i l l s of unconsolidated 14 Figure 2-3. Extent of the Fraser Lowlands, Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia and Adjacent Washington State. Pleistocene materials. Armstrong (1981) has recently published descriptions of these deposits i n the Fraser Lowland, a summary of which i s presented i n Table I I - I . Early i n the Fraser G l a c i a t i o n , as the gla c i e r s began to grow i n the mountains, outwash streams and r i v e r s may have blanketed most of the S t r a i t of Georgia and adjacent areas with as much as 75 m of sands and s i l t s known as Quadra deposits (Clague 1976, 1977). The entire area may have been a wide p l a i n with many braided streams. Vegetation was similar to that found today along the coast of Alaska suggesting a much cooler climate than we now have (Armstrong and Hicock 1975:102; Clague 1976:808). With the advance of the Fraser G l a c i a t i o n ( c l a s s i c a l Wisconsin) most of these sediments were scoured from the S t r a i t of Georgia, although remnants form dominant l o c a l features such as the uplands at Point Roberts, and 15 Climatic Period Deposits Age (years B.P.) Post G l a c i a l Fraser River Sediments Salish Sediments present - 9,000 present - 12,000 Capllano Sediments 11,000 ? - 13,000 Fraser Glaclatlon Vashon D r i f t 13,000 - 18,000 Quadra Sand 18,000 - 26,000 Coquitlam D r i f t 19,000 - 23,000 Olympic Int e r g l a c i a l Interval Cowlchan Head Formation Cowlchan Head Formation (7) 25,800 - 36,200 40,000 - 58,800 (Major Glaclatlon) Semlahmoo D r i f t 62,000 (Major Nonglaclal Interval) Highbury Sediments pre-mlddle Wisconsin (Major Glaclatlon) Westlynn D r i f t pre-Sangamon From Armstrong 1981:3 Table I I - I . Late Pleistocene and Recent Geological Chronology of the Western Fraser Lowlands. Ocean Park (Armstrong and Clague 1977:1479). During the maximum extent of the Fraser G l a c i a t i o n the entire Fraser Lowland was mantled by ice that extended through Juan de Fuca S t r a i t to the P a c i f i c Ocean (Clague 1981:14; Heusser 1973:284; Mathews et a l . , 1970:691). Wastage of the western ice margin had commenced by 14,460 B.P. and the ice was gone from the Western Fraser Lowlands by 12,690 B.P. and from the Fraser Canyon by 11,400 B.P. (Heusser 1973:291; Mathewes 1973:2090; Mathewes et_ a l . , 1970:1056). Following deglaciation the area was subjected to i s o s t a t i c , eustatic and tectonic changes in r e l a t i v e sea levels which are not f u l l y understood. The reader i s referred to Armstrong (1981) for a summary of present knowledge, while i t should be noted that the land was submerged below the sea at least once between 13,000 and 11,000 B.P. By 9,000 B.P. the western Fraser Lowlands are thought to have been emergent to approximately 10.6 m below current sea l e v e l while present sea levels 16 were obtained by about 5,000 B.P. (Armstrong 1981:32; Mathews et a l . , 1970:696-7). Before 10,000 B.P. the Fraser River had found i t s way through the Port Mann Gap and over the next 2-3,000 years f i l l e d i n several large s e t t l i n g basins upstream from New Westminster (Armstrong 1981:25-9; Blunden 1975a:18; Mathews and Shepard 1962:1432) (for a description of the immediate p o s t - g l a c i a l period see Mathews 1977). During the early part of the post- g l a c i a l period the sediment load of the Fraser River was many times higher than i t i s at present. In a study of depositional landforms of I n t e r i o r Plateau r i v e r v a l l e y s , Church and Ryder (1972:3063) determined that the erosion and deposition which resulted in a l l u v i a l fans was complete by 6,600 B.P. Sediments in the Fraser and Thompson River valleys are up to 225 m thick while Mazama Ash (deposited 6,600 B.P.) i s found at an average depth of only 2 m indi c a t i n g most sedimentation took place before t h i s date (Church and Ryder 1972:3063-4; Ryder 1978:63-4). The intact state of these depositional landforms indicate that erosion since 6,600 B.P. has been s l i g h t , and that the Fraser River has been carrying sediment loads similar to those of today (Church and Ryder 1972:3068). Lower s i l t l evels a f t e r 6,600 B.P. would have been b e n e f i c i a l to salmon stocks throughout the Fraser River system. By 8,000 B.P., the Fraser River began building i t s delta past New Westminster into the S t r a i t of Georgia (Armstrong 1981:25-9; Blunden 1975b:12; Johnston 1921:44; Mathews and Shepard 1962:1433). Around 5,000 B.P., extensive t i d a l f l a t s became emergent including most of the areas in the eastern Fraser Delta now occupied by sphagnum bogs (see Figure 2-4, 2-5) .(Hebda 1977:155-7). Hebda (1977:170, 172) has suggested that by 4,000 B.P. the actual delta front (-10 m level) may have reached the lower slopes of the Point Roberts Uplands blocking Fraser River flow into Boundary Bay, 17 Q PEAT, 8290 B.P. © PEAT, 7300 B.P. Sources : Armstrong 1977:9, Blunden 1975a:18, 1975b:12, Mathews and Shepard 1962:1432, Matson 1976:18. Figure 2-4. Approximate Extent of the Fraser Delta, 8,000 to 7,000 B.P. o I — L ^ROBERTS WHITE ROCK UPLANDS I 1lU SEMIAHMOO B A Y © CRESCENT BEACH, DgRr I, 4270 BJ>. © PITT RIVER, DhRq 21, 4100 B.P. © 6LENR0SE, DgRr 6, 4240 B.P. @ ST MUNGO, DgRr 2, 4310 B.P. Cjj SALT MARSH PEAT, 4390 B.P. ® BURNS BOS, ® BURNS BOG, SOBS B.P. 3960 B.P. BURNS BOG, 4935 B.P. MT MAZAMA ASH, 6600 B.P. Sources : Blunden 197Sb:S, 12, C a l v e r t 1970:57, Hebda 1977 pp. 100, 122, 144, K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:76, Matson 1976:18, Patenaude, p e r s . c o m . , Percy 1976:7. Figure 2-5. Approximate Extent of the Fraser Delta, 5,000 to 4,000 B.P. 18 although evidence from Crescent Beach suggests that discharge into the Bay may have continued u n t i l as late as 2,500 B.P. It i s anticipated that the construction of the northward trending accretion s p i t at Crescent Beach did not begin u n t i l a f t e r Boundary Bay had been formed, as the southward flow of the Fraser River may have interfered with any spi t b u i l d i n g by longshore d r i f t (see Figure 2-2). The c u l t u r a l materials recovered by this study date a f t e r 1,400 B.P. and rest d i r e c t l y on s p i t sands near the base or o r i g i n point of the s p i t (Ham and Broderick 1976:4-5). Another s i t e which may shed some l i g h t on s p i t development i s Beach Grove (DgRs 1) located on the western side of Boundary Bay. B a l l (1979:49) has reported dates between 3,200 and 1,100 B.P. from the northern portion of this s i t e while additional dates of 1,600 to 1,390 B.P. have been reported for the southern portions (Smith 1964:56-7). These dates suggest north to south development of the sands (spit or bar?) underlying the c u l t u r a l materials at Beach Grove which could only occur i f the Fraser River was s t i l l flowing into Boundary Bay. The archaeological evidence then suggests a much l a t e r date for creation of Boundary Bay, perhaps between 3,000 and 2,000 B.P., although this date should be v e r i f i e d and refined with geological investigation. It i s int e r e s t i n g to note that mention of Point Roberts as an island i s made in both Katzie and Musqueam tr a d i t i o n s (Jenness 1955:2; Suttles 1982, pers. comm.). By the time Boundary Bay f i n a l l y became closed off from d i r e c t Fraser River flow, there were probably already extensive sand f l a t s , e s p e c i a l l y in the central and eastern portions of the Bay. Since the formation of the Bay, approximately 1 km of s a l t marsh has been eroded by currents from the eastern portion of the Bay, and redeposited in the western portion so that 19 the Beach Grove s i t e which o r i g i n a l l y faced the waters of the Bay i s now 1 km from the sea (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:83-4). With the exception of the above erosion and deposition, much of Boundary Bay appears to be in equilibrium and I suspect there has been minimal environmental change in the Bay for the l a s t 1,000 years. Extensive t i d a l f l a t s were noted by early explorers i n the Bay (Meany 1957:181-2; Newcombe 1923:60), while a map drawn pr i o r to 1912 by Thompson (1913:46) i s nearly i d e n t i c a l to present maps (see Figure 2-6). Thompson's description of faunal communities i s b a s i c a l l y the same as those described by l a t e r researchers (Kellerhals and Murray 1969; Swinbanks and Murray 1978). The approximate configuration of the Fraser Delta at the beginning of the H i s t o r i c Period i s provided in Figure 2-7. 2.4 ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES As the g l a c i e r s retreated from the Fraser Lowlands the area was quickly colonized by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), buffalo berry (Shepherdia canadensis), willow (Salix sp.) and alder (Alnus sp.) while the climate was probably cooler and wetter than present (Mathewes 1973:2099). After 10,500 B.P. Pinus contorta decreases and Douglas F i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) becomes dominant suggesting warmer temperatures although moisture was s t i l l abundant. Well before 6,600 B.P., palynological data indicate that c l i m a t i c conditions and vegetation were probably s i m i l a r to the present (Mathewes 1973:2099,2100). Mathewes (1973:2101) argues that there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence to support the occurrence of a Hypsithermal i n t e r v a l i n the western Fraser Lowlands, possibly because of the wide tolerance of the vegetation of the area and the modifying e f f e c t of the ocean. Hebda (1977:155-7) has outlined a successional sequence of saltmarsh- sedge-shrub-sphagnum communities which develop on the a l l u v i a l lowlands of the Fraser Delta with sphagnum communities present by 2,900 B.P. In the P i t t Meadows area sphagnum bog deposits have been dated at 8,290 B.P. some 20 (from: Thompson 1913, Plales XI I I and X I V ) Figure 2-6. T i d a l F l a t s of Boundary Bay as Mapped by Thompson ca. 1912. R e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m : K e l l e r h a l s and M u r r a y 1969 , N o r t h e t a l . 1979 , Thompson 1913. Figure 2-7. Approximate Extent of the Fraser Delta, A.D. 1858-1880 21 10.5 m below present sea l e v e l (Armstrong 1977:9). Thus the major ecological communities i n the western Fraser Lowlands noted at the time of European contact were present by at least 3,000 B.P. and probably even e a r l i e r . As Boundary Bay had formed by at least 2,500 B.P., i t i s possible to hypothesize what resources would have been available to p r e h i s t o r i c Coast Salish i n Boundary Bay, although i t may not be possible to p r e c i s e l y locate or determine the extent of these communities. The remainder of t h i s section discusses current knowledge about these communities and t h e i r resources using information from published and unpublished sources as well as f i e l d observation. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f i f t e e n major ecolo g i c a l communities of Boundary Bay which l i e within a 14-16 km radius of the Crescent Beach s i t e are presented in Figure 2-8. Some of these communities are now a l l but extinct (grassland), others have been heavily disturbed (forests) and a few have had minimal damage, or s t i l l have intact portions ( i n t e r t i d a l communities and bogs). An attempt i s made to determine the range of species available p r i o r to the disturbances associated with European contact using a variety of sources including; modern and h i s t o r i c ecological studies (Biggs 1976; Campbell et al_. 1972; Church and Rubin 1970; Forbes 1972; Hoos and Packman 1974; Kel l e r h a l s and Murray 1969; K i s t r i t z 1978; Northcote 1974; Swinbanks and Murray 1978; Webb 1976; Rathbun 1900; Stafford 1917; Thompson 1913; Weymouth 1915), reconstructed vegetation maps and accounts of early explorers and s e t t l e r s (North et a l . 1979; Johnson 1958; Lang 1967; McKelvie 1947; Meany 1957; Newcombe 1923; Pearson 1958; Treleaven 1978), f i s h e r i e s records and paleobotanical studies (Environment Canada, 1925-1970; Hebda 1977; Mathewes 1973). Species a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance are presented for each ecological community in Figures 2-9 to 2-16 based upon the references provided in each Figure. Although the ecological studies which were consulted tended COMMUNITIES = PELAGIC D DENDRASTER E EEL GRASS u UPPER SANDWAVE OYSTER ALGAL B SPAGNUM BOG R ROCKY INTERTIDAL OF DECIDUOUS FOREST S SALTMARSH SF SCRUB FOREST o GRASSLAND CF CONIFEROUS w GRASS/SHRUBLAND FOREST c CATTAIL MISCELLANEOUS SPAWNING GROUNDS ONCORHYNCHUS KETA @ O. KISUTCH isd SALMO GAIRDNERI CF CF CF CF BEAVER DAMS 0 3 KMS I ho r-o Sources: Kellerhals and Murray 1969, North et a l . 1979, Thompson 1913 and references In text. Figure 2-8. Boundary Bay Ecological Communities (ca. 1850). 23 to follow a 5 or 6 part ranking of species abundance, I have used a 4 part scheme i n t h i s study to accommodate the more poorly reported species. S h e l l - f i s h abundance b a s i c a l l y follows the descriptions given by Thompson (1913:46) who found 18 km2 of commercially productive s h e l l f i s h beds in Boundary Bay. In most cases I have t r i e d to segregate species to the community from which the Coast Salish may have obtained them. This problem exists only for a few groups of species such as some ducks, shorebirds and fishes which may be found i n d i f f e r e n t communities depending upon t i d a l stage. Similar are salmon and sea run trout which may pass through several communities en route to t h e i r spawning grounds, yet were probably obtained further downstream at weir s i t e s . As a rule exotic or introduced species are not discussed. Standard references used for species nomenclature include the following; Hart (1973) and Scott and Crossman (1973) for f i s h , Godfrey (1966) for b i r d s , Banfield (1974) for mammals, and Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) for plants. Boundary Bay Pelagic Community The pelagic region of the sea i s defined by Carefoot (1977:12) as that area extending from the low water tide mark and includes a l l offshore or open water areas. The Pelagic Community of Boundary Bay extends from the edge of the t i d a l f l a t s some 2 km south of Crescent Beach to the open waters of the S t r a i t of Georgia 15 km further south, an area of approximately 53 km2 (Figures 2-8, 2-9). E c o l o g i c a l l y , the sheltered Boundary Bay i s complex with a myriad of food webs consisting of marine plants, polychaete worms, crustaceans, molluscs and small f i s h which are preyed upon by larger f i s h as well as by birds and sea mammals. During the summer there i s an excessive buildup of s i l t due to outflow from the Serpentine and Nicomekl Rivers. Winter storms and wave action remove th i s f i n e sediment permitting d i n o f l a g e l l a t e blooms in the spring (Hoos and Packman 1974:81). Many species of f i s h spawn in the 24 S p e c i e s A v a i l a b i l i t y J F M A M J J A S O N D PISCES ( S q u a l i d a e - D o g f i s h ) S q u a l u s a c a n t h l a s ( C h i m a e r l d a e - R a t f i s h ) H y d r o l a g u a c o l l i e i ( A c i p e n s e r i d a e - S t u r g e o n s ) A c i p e n s e r m e d i r o s t i s A . t r a n s m o n t a n u s ( C l u p e i d a e - H e r r i n g ) C l u p e a h a r e n g u s ( S a l m o n i d a e - S a l o o n s ) O n c o r h y n c h u s k e t a 0 . k i s u t c h 0 . n e r k a Salmo c l a r k i S . g a i r d n e r i A V E S ( C a v l i d a e G a v i a immer G . a r c t i c a G . s t e l l a t a L o o n s ) ( P o d i c i p e d i a t e - G r e b e s ) P o d i c e p s g r i s e g e n a P . a u r l t u s Aechmophorus o c c i d e n t a l i s ( A y t h y i n a e - D i v i n g D u c k s ) A y t h y a m a r i l a A . a f f i n i s B u c e p h a l a a l b e o l a C l a n g u l a h y e m a l l s H i s t r i o n i c s h i s t r i o n i c s M e l a n i t t a d e g l a n d i M. p e r s p l c i l l a t a ( M e r g i n a e - M e r g a n s e r s ) L o p h o d y t e s c u c u l a t u s Mergua m e r g a n s e r M. s e r r a t o r ( L a r i d a e - G u l l s ) L a r u s g l a u c e s c e n s L . t h a y e r i L . d e l a w a r e n s i s L . P h i l a d e l p h i a MAMMALIA ( D e l p h i n i d a e - K i l l e r Whale) O r c i n u s o r c a ( P h o c i d a e - Harbour . S e a l ) P h o c a v i t u l i n a aosBuuuuu v e r y common ^ — — — — common — — — — — f r e q u e n t r a r e * r e a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n s a l s o S o u r c e s : A r o and S h e p a r d 1967 , B a n f i e l d 1974 , C a m p b e l l e t a l . 1972 , C h u r c h and R u b i n 1970 , G o d f r e y 1966 , H a r t 1973 , Hoos and Packman 1 9 7 4 , N o r t h c o t e 1 9 7 4 , S c o t t and C r o s s m a n 1973 , T a y l o r 1970 . Figure 2-9. Pelagic Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. 25 Bay in the spring including the P a c i f i c herring (Clupea harengus), midshipmen (Porichthys notatus), sculpins (Enophrys bison, Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus, Leptocottus armatus) and f l a t f i s h (Lepidosetta b i l i n e a t a , Platichthys s t e l l a t u s ) , t h e i r young b e n e f i t t i n g from the warming waters and increasing food supplies. This concentration of spawning f i s h i s an important food source for thousands of diving ducks (Aythyinae) which migrate through the Bay in the spring, as well as for larger f i s h such as dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and r a t f i s h (Hydrolagus c o l l i e i ) . There i s also a resident population of harbour seal (Phoca v i t u l i n a ) in Boundary Bay estimated at 250-275 individuals (Church and Rubin 1970: 17'; Taylor 1970:24). The presence of this population was also reported in early b i o l o g i c a l studies of the bay (Stafford 1917:105). Numbers increase in late February and March as transient seals follow the spawning herring into the Bay. Many of the seals move to the mouth of the Fraser River in late A p r i l during the eulachon (Thaleichthys p a c i f i c u s ) run, returning to Boundary Bay for the summer where they haul up on secluded sandbars, the females giving b i r t h to pups in late July and early August (Taylor 1970:25). The k i l l e r whale (Orcinus orca) frequents the Bay, and occasionally other dolphin and whale species (Church and Rubin 1970:17; Taylor 1970:24). One of the most important economic resources of Boundary Bay i s the July-August run of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) which follows the gyral current through the southern part of the Bay passing over the shallow reefs off Cannery Point en route to the mouth of the Fraser River (see Figure 2-2) (Rathbun 1900:266). During the late summer, sea-run cutthroat trout (Salmo c l a r k i ) appear in the eastern portions of Boundary Bay to feed, spawning between November and May in small streams in the area (Northcote 1974:20-2; Taylor 1970:23). Steelhead (S. gairdneri) as well as coho and chum salmon (0. kisutch and 0_. keta) enter the bay in late summer and autumn, 26 spawning on t r i b u t a r i e s of the Nicomekl, Serpentine and Campbell Rivers (see Figure 2-8) (Environment Canada 1925-1970). Several species of Aythyinae are common in the deeper waters of Boundary Bay during the autumn and spring migrations while some species winter i n the bay (Taylor 1970:18). Most common are the scaups (Aythya marila and A. a f f i n i s ) , the oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) and the scoters (Melanitta deglandi and M. p e r s p i c i l l a t a ) (Taylor 1970:18). Small flocks of bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) were observed l o a f i n g offshore i n l a t e A p r i l of 1980. Also very common are several species of g u l l s , e s p e c i a l l y Bonaparte's Gull (Larus Philadelphia) which roost in large r a f t s of up to 26,000 individuals on Boundary Bay south of Crescent Beach between October and March (Campbell et a l . , 1972:154-5). Modern g u l l populations may r e f l e c t urbanization of the Vancouver area and the proximity of Boundary Bay to c i t y garbage dumps. Numerous other species of sea birds abound in the Bay including loons, cormorants, grebes and mergansers (Taylor 1970). The seasonal a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of the above species as well as several other v a r i e t i e s of w i l d l i f e common to this community are indicated i n Figure 2-9. Dendraster Community This community occupies the lower sand wave zone of Swinbanks and Murray (1978:31, 47), from 1.5 m above the lowest low tide mark into the subtidal, and i s thus continuously submerged except during the lowest low tides (see area 'D', Figure 2-8). Covering an area of approximately 1,000 ha, this community i s characterized by large sand waves and an absence of vegetation cover (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:83; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:31). Species common to this community include the sand d o l l a r (Dendraster excentricus), s t a r f i s h (Pisaster ochraceus), polychaete worms (Arenicola sp.), and the burrowing sea anemone (Anthopleura artemisia) (Kellerhals and Murray 27 1969:83; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:31-2; Taylor 1970:24; Hoos and Packman 1974:85-6). Species of economic value include the crab (Cancer magister) and the bivalve molluscs Tresus capax (horse clam), Saxidomus giganteus (butter clam) and Macoma secta (sand clam) (Hoos and Packman 1974:85-6; Kelle r h a l s and Murray 1969:83; Thompson 1913:48, Plate XIII). With the exception of C. magister, none of these species i s very abundant, in addition to the fact that they are seldom available to human predation as t h i s community i s only r a r e l y exposed. Eelgrass Community This community which also occupies the lower t i d a l f l a t s extends over some 2,100 ha from about 3.5 m above the lowest tide mark into the subtidal zone and i s one of the most productive ecological communities in Boundary Bay (see area 'E', Figures 2-8, 2-10) (Church and Rubin 1970:6; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:47). The eelgrass (Zostera sp.) beds are b a s i c a l l y f l a t except in the upper reaches of che t i d a l channels which cross through the zone producing broad, shallow water f i l l e d depressions (Swinbanks and Murray 1978:28). Plants are abundant i n t h i s community including several species of Zostera and sea lettuce (Ulva sp.) (Forbes 1972:44; Kell e r h a l s and Murray 1969:83; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:28-9; Taylor 1970:12). Z. americana, the dominant eelgrass of the upper part of t h i s zone dies back in the winter, sprouting from seedlings during the spring (Swinbanks and Murray 1978:7). Zostera rhizomes and stalks were eaten by the S t r a i t s S a l i s h and possibly other Coast S a l i s h , used sometimes as flavouring during steaming of other foods, and also made into cakes and dried for winter (Turner 1975:101-2). Widespread in this community are burrowing shrimp (Upogebia sp. and Callianassa sp.), polychaete worms ( P r o x i l l e l a sp., Abarenicola sp.) and the burrowing sea anemone Anthopleura artemisia (Kellerhals and Murray 28 Spec ies A v a i l a b i l i t y J F M A M J J A S O N D DECAPODA (Brachyura - Crabs) Cancer mag i s t er C. productus M01XUSCA (Neogastropoda - U n i v a l v e s ) Lacuna v a r i e g a t a P o l i n i c e s l e v i s i Ceratostomus folia t u r n T h a i s l a m e l l o s a (Pelecypoda - B i v a l v e s ) Macoma sec ta Tresus capax C l l n o c a r d l u m n u t t a l l i PISCES (Clupe idae - H e r r i n g ) Clupea harengus p a l l a s i ( B a t r a c h o i d l d a e - Midshipmen) P o r i c h t h v s nota tus — — — - - " — - ( G a s t e r o s t e i d a e * S t i c k l e b a c k ) Gas teros teus a c u l e a t u s (Embiotocidae - S u r f Perch) Cvtnatottaater a s s r e s a t a ( C o t t i d a e - S c u l p i n s ) Enophrys b i s o n Hemi lep idotus h e m i l e p i d o t u s L e p t o c o t t u s armatus ( P l e u r o n e c t i d a e - F l a t f i s h ) L e p i d o p s e t t a b i l l n e a t a P l a t i c h t h y s s t e l l a t u s AVES ( P o d l c i p e d i a t e - Grebes) Podlceps g r i s e g e n a P . a u r i t u s Aechmophorus O c c i d e n t a l l s (Anser inae - Geese) Branta b e r n i c u l a (Aythy inae - D i v i n g Ducks) Aythya m a r l l a A . a f f i n i s Bucephala a l b e o l a C l a n g u l a hyemails H i s t r i o n i c s h i s t r i o n i c s - ™ « — - « « - M e l a n l t t a d e g l a n d i M. p e r s p l c i l l a t a (Merginae - Mergansers) Lophodytes c u c u l a t u s Mergus merganser M. s e r r a t o r MAMMALIA (Phocldae - Harbour S e a l ) Phoca v i t u l i r t a • • very common common - - - - - f requent r a r e Sources : Godfrey 1966, G r l f l t h 1967, Hart 1973, Hoos and Packman 1974, K a i s e r C . W . S . , K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969, K o z l o f f 1973, Lamb 1980, p e r s . comm., S t a f f o r d 1917, Swinbanks and Murray 1978, T a y l o r 1970, Thompson 1913, Webb 1976, Weymouth 1915. Figure 2-10. Eelgrass Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. 29 1969:83; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:25, 29-30, 38). Crustaceans present in this community, in addition to Cancer magister, include the rock crab C. productus and the kelp crab Pugettia sp. (Hoos and Packman 1974:88; Kellerhals and Murray 1969:83). At present and h i s t o r i c a l l y the major crab f i s h i n g areas of Boundary Bay are below Ocean Park immediately south of Crescent Beach. In the late spring crabs (C. magister) are numerous in the shallower waters when the females molt and then mate (Hoos and Packman 1974:85; Ricketts and Calvin 1968:166-7; Stafford 1971:105; Weymouth 1915:129). Univalves present include whelks and leafy hornmouth (Thais lamellosa, Cerastostoma foliatum), moon snails (Polinices lewisi) and numerous tiny Nassarius mendicus (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:83; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:31). Among the bivalves, Clinocardium n u t t a l l i i s very common while Tresus capax and Macoma secta are present, as i s the s t a r f i s h Pisaster ochraceus (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:83; Thompson 1913:45, Plate XIV). Thompson (1913:45) indicates that the largest and densest Tresus beds were located south of Crescent Beach off Ocean Park at the low tide l e v e l . The eelgrass beds are important to a number of the f i s h species found in Boundary Bay. Taylor (1970:23) indicates several which show very d e f i n i t e associations with the eelgrass beds including GasterOsteus aculeatus, Syngrathus griseolineatus, Cymatogaster aggregatus, Clevelandia i o s , Leptocottus armatus, and Platichyhys s t e l l a t u s . Clupea harengus spawn on the eelgrass in Boundary Bay between February and the end of May. Various runs spawn on d i f f e r e n t beds with varying in t e n s i t y i n the bay during t h i s period (Church and Rubin 1970, Table 2; Webb 1976:13, 31). Leptocottus armatus and Lepidopsetta b i l i n e a t a are common year around in the beds while several opportunistic feeders from the rocky i n t e r t i d a l could be expected to be feeding on spawning Clupea and th e i r spawn, esp e c i a l l y , Porichthys 30 notatus, Enophrys bison, and H. hemilepidotus (Andrew Lamb, Environment Canada, March 1980, pers. comm.). Spawning Clupea are an a t t r a c t i v e source of food for many wintering and migrating Aythyinae, among them Aythya sp., Bucephala sp., Clangula hyemalis and Melanitta sp. (Gary Kaiser, Canadian W i l d l i f e Service, March 1980, pers. comm.), while the Zostera i t s e l f i s a key food for northward migrating Branta bernicula which are common from January u n t i l the end of A p r i l (Hoos and Packman 1974:156, Forbes 1972:17). Many species make up the complex food web of the eelgrass beds. A v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of the economically important ones are detailed i n Figure 2-10. Upper Sand Wave Community This community occupies the extensive intermediate sandy t i d a l f l a t s of Boundary Bay and covers an area of some 1,600 ha, 3.7 to 2.7 m above the lowest tide mark (see area 'U1, Figure 2-8) (Swinbanks and Murray 1978:61). These unvegetated f l a t s are dominated by very low amplitude sand waves which only seem to be active during the winter, and even then are apparently i n dynamic equilibrium (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:75; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:8, 24). The shallow wave troughs are f i l l e d with water, and the area i s characterized by numerous shallow and variable dendritic drainage channels which are subject to erosion on the ebb tide (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:70; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:38). Fauna i n this community consists largely of the lugworm Abarenicola p a c i f i c a and the burrowing shrimp Callianassa c a l i f o r n i e n s i s , and associated with i t the tiny bivalve Crypotomya c a l i f o r n i c a (Swinbanks and Murray 1978: 26, 28). Thompson (1913:48, also Plate XIII) reports that Macoma nasuta was found throughout these t i d a l f l a t s of Boundary and Mud Bays. Besides Macoma the only w i l d l i f e species of any economic value i n this community would be the various shorebirds which might be here during low t i d e . Some 31 of these species are presented i n Figure 2-11 for the Algal Mat Community where they would be more common. Oyster Community Occupying the firm s i l t y sands of the intermediate t i d a l f l a t s of Mud Bay, at the mouth of the Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers, i s a d i s t i n c t community containing both native and exotic species of oysters (see area '0', Figure 2-8) (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:75, 78, 82). Crassotrea v i r g i n i c a from New Brunswick and Connecticut were introduced into the beds in 1904 while the Japanese Oyster, £. gigas, was introduced i n 1936 (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:78, 82; Stafford 1917:106). These oyster beds accounted for 50% of B r i t i s h Columbia's oyster production u n t i l farming operations were closed down due to coliform b a c t e r i a l p o l l u t i o n i n the early 1960s (Hoos and Packman 1974:86; Taylor 1970:27). Extensive beds of oyster sh e l l s may s t i l l be observed in the northeastern portion of the Crescent Beach area r e s u l t i n g from t h i s industry (see Figure 2-32). Other common fauna i n this community include barnacles (Balanus sp.), Thais lamellosa, the bay mussel Mytilus edu l i s, and Macoma nasuta, while rooted f l o r a i s lacking (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:78, 83; Quayle 1970:43; Thompson 1913:48, also Plate XIII). O r i g i n a l l y Ostrea l u r i d a i n Mud Bay was sparsely d i s t r i b u t e d about the edges and deeper parts of the sloughs and occasionally along the low tide l e v e l , and here and there i n pools and sheets of low tide water held back, by s l i g h t l y raised sand rims, or by mats of eelgrass (Stafford 1917:105, 107; Thompson 1913:46). C u l t i v a t i o n of (). l u r i d a i n the early part of the 20th century resulted in more densely populated beds, but achieved only a moderate increase i n the size of the beds (Stafford 1917:107). Located in the intermediate t i d a l zone, this community and i t s fauna would be exposed to aboriginal predation throughout most of the year. 32 Algal Mat Community This community i n the uppermost (4.0-3.7 m) part of the i n t e r t i d a l f l a t s of Boundary Bay extends over approximately 850 ha (see s t i p l e d area, Figure 2-8). This community i s characterized by seasonal growths of blue green a l g a l mats which reach t h e i r f u l l e s t development between late summer and early winter, and are dominated by Microcoleus sp. and Phormidium sp. with lesser amounts of Enteromorpha sp. and RhizocIonium sp. (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:74, 81-2; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:21). The a l g a l mats die back i n the winter as storms smother them with sand r e s u l t i n g i n annual s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of organic r i c h and sandy laminae (Swinbanks and Murray 1978:21). Very s i m i l a r appearing laminae were observed i n the basal sandy deposits underlying the midden layers excavated i n 1976 at Crescent Beach (see area 2, Figure 2-32). Fauna i s scarce i n this community with Callianassa c a l i f o r n i e n s i s and the polychaete worm Spio sp. found i n shallow depressions (Swinbanks and Murray 1978:22, 26). Other rare fauna includes the bivalve Mya sp., as well as Mytilus edulis and Balanus glandula colonizing driftwood (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:81-2). A vari e t y of shorebirds u t i l i z e the l i t t o r a l , depending upon t i d a l stage, including several species of sandpipers and plovers (Charadriidae and Scolopacidae) which feed on polychaete worms and burrowing shrimp (Hoos and Packman 1974:164). Also common are several species of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) which loaf i n water up to 15 cm. deep, especi a l l y i n t i d a l margins adjacent to saltmarsh where they feed on vegetation and sedge seeds (Church and Rubin 1970:23; Hoos and Packman 1974: 157-161; Gary Kaiser, C.W.S., March 1980, pers. comm.; K i s t r i t z 1978:19). One of the more evident species of Boundary Bay i s the great blue heron, Ardea herodius, commonly seen f i s h i n g i n t i d a l pools and along the shallow t i d a l margins, and nesting i n densely wooded areas adjacent to Crescent 33 S p e c i e s A v a i l a b i l i t y J F M A M J J A S O N D AVES ( A r d e i d a e - H e r o n ) A r d e a h e r o d i a s ( A n a c i n a e - D a b b l i n g D u c k s ) Anas p l a t y r h y n c h o s A . a c u t a A . c a r o l i n e n s i s A . d i s c o r s M a r e c a a m e r i c a n a H U I U I J 1 I I H I U • ••••• II• • II • m • 1 IF 11 FT* 11 • TT TT 1 S p a t u l a c l v p e a t a ( C h a r a d r i i d a e - P l o v e r s ) C h a r a d r i u s s e m i p a l m a t u s C . v o c i f e r u s P l u v i a t e s d o m i n i c a S q u a t a r o l a s q u a t a r o l a ( S c o l o p a c i d a e - S a n d p i p e r s ) T o t a n u s m e l a n o l e u c u s T . f l a v i p e s E r o l i a m i n u t i l l a £. • a ± ^ x U a Limnodromus g r i s e u s Pfounofnc i t i a i T T ' i Ld JL C U U t S L c a lUaLi L X • • • • • • • • a v e r y common common - - - - - f r e q u e n t r a r e S o u r c e s : C a m p b e l l e t a l . 1972 , C h u r c h and R u b i n 1 9 7 0 , G o d f r e y 1 9 6 6 , Hoos and Packman 1974, N o r t h c o t e 1 9 7 4 , T a y l o r 1970 . Figure 2-11. A l g a l Mat Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. Beach and Beach Grove (Hoos and Packman 1974:166; Taylor 1970:21). The seasonal abundance and a v a i l a b i l i t y of these species i s presented in Figure 2-11, some of which may be found i n other i n t e r t i d a l communities depending on t i d a l stage. Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community Although the smallest ecological community in Boundary Bay, consisting of a few hundred ha, the Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community i s perhaps one of the most diverse and densely populated. This community i s located south of Crescent Beach at the foot of the White Rock Uplands below Ocean Park (see area 'R', Figure 2-8). The following description i s based upon observations made between March and May of 1980 during low tides which exposed a l l of the community as well as extensive portions of the adjacent Eelgrass Community. 34 The Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community may be divided into two areas, the southern part which i s completely covered with large boulders, cobbles and rocks; and the northern portion where the boulder/cobble beach i s interrupted by patches of sandy/cobble beach. The upper parts of both areas were found to be sparsely to moderately populated with the barnacles Chthamalus d a l l i and Balanus glandula, occasional Mytilus edulis and Ostrea l u r i d a while L i t t o r i n a sitkana was very common. This area also contains several petroglyphs which have been pecked into boulders along the beach (see Chapter 2.7). The lower portion of the southern part of t h i s community was densely populated with Thais lamellosa and Pisaster ochraeus while chiton (Mophalia muscosa) and limpets (Acmea sp.) were frequent. Midshipmen (Porichthys notatus) were very common beneath rocks where males were guarding eggs l a i d by the females. Midshipmen move into the i n t e r t i d a l zone in March, spending the r e s t of the year i n deeper waters of the bay (Andrew Lamb, March 1980, pers. comm.). The occasional Cancer magister was also noted under rocks but were much more common along the edge of the eelgrass channel at the foot of the Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community. The lower portion of the northern part of the Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community was found to be much more diverse. Many boulders were densely covered with Ostrea l u r i d a while Balanus cariosus, B_. glandula, Mytilus edulis and Thais lamellosa were also frequent. Cancer magister were also frequent here where they were found burrowed into the sand under the boulders and rocks. Sandy patches between the boulders were found to be densely populated with the clams Protothaca staminea, Saxidomus giganteus, Tresus capax, and r a r e l y Macoma secta. The sand d o l l a r Dendraster excentrius was also common while Clinocardium n u t t a l l i was widespread, often l y i n g on the surface. The lower edge of t h i s community next to the eelgrass channels was continuously 35 p a t r o l l e d by seagulls (Larus sp.) and crows (Corvus caurinus) at low ti d e . The a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of species of economic importance i n this community are presented i n Figure 2-12. Most species are more re a d i l y accessible during the spring and early summer when the lowest tides occur in the daytime. This i s also the time of year when p r a c t i c a l l y a l l species are spawning so that o v e r a l l biomass i s much greater than at other seasons. In general, observations made in 1980 and 1981 are i n agreement with those reported i n the early 1900s (Thompson 1913:45-8). Saltmarsh Community In most cases t h i s community i s bounded by the Algal Mat Community on one side and the Grassland Community on the other, and formerly extended over an estimated 1,000 ha p r i o r to h i s t o r i c disturbance (see area 'S', Figure 2-8). This area includes that c l a s s i f i e d by North et a l . (1979) as saltmarsh dominated by saltgrass, saltwort and sedges. P e r i o d i c a l l y this low-lying community i s innundated by winter storm waves and high tides which deposit substantial amounts of debris (Forbes 1972:49; Hebda 1977:60). The outer part of the saltmarsh consists of ir r e g u l a r hummocks of halophytes which give way to the halophyte mats of the inner marsh on a sustratum consisting of "...poorly s t r a t i f i e d massive brown peat and s i l t y c lay..." while slough bottoms are sandy (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:72). The outer portions are dominated by the saltwort S a l i c o r n i a v i r g i n i c a , arrowgrass T r i g l o c h i n maritima, and sandspurry, Spergularia maritima; the the landward portions by orache, A t r i p l e x patula, gumweed, Gri n d e l i a i n t e g r i f o l i a , dock, Rumex crispus, yarrow, A c h i l l e a millefolium, and Aster sp.; while the saltgrass D i s t i c h l i s spicata i s abundant throughout (Forbes 1972:49-50; Hebda 1974:60; K i s t r i t z 1978:19; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:20). Seeds of the sedge Carex lyngbyei, and the bullrushes Scirpus validus 36 Species Availability J F M A M J J A S O N D CRUSTACEA (Cirripedia - Barnacles) Balanus cariosus B. glandula DECAPODA (Brachyura - Crab) Cancer magister MOLLUSCA (Polyplacophora - Chiton) Mophalia muscosa (Archeogastropoda - Limpet) Acmea sp. (Neogastropoda - Univalves) Thais lamellosa (Pelecypoda - Bivalves) Mytilus edulis Ostrea lurida Macoma secta Tresus capax Clinocardium nuttalli Protothaca staminea Sa-cidomus Riganteus PISCES (Batracholdidae - Midshipman) Porlchthys nocatus AVES (Larildae - Gulls) Larus sp. (Corvldae - Crow) Corvus caurinua - - - - - - ---------- very common common _ _ _ _ _ frequent rare Sources: Thompson 1913; (additional community observations made in April and May 1980). Figure 2-12. Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community, Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. and Ŝ. americanus provide an important seasonal food source for Anas platyrhynchos, A. acuta and A. carolinensis ( K i s t r i t z 1978:19). Slough channels are important rearing habitats for Oncorhynchus sp. as well as other f i s h species and is a frequent feeding area for Ardea herbdius (Hoos and Packman 1974:166; K i s t r i t z 1978:19). The shore crab Hemigraspus oregonensis i s abundant along the marsh perimeter and around t i d a l channels and pools while Mya sp. and Mytilus edulis are occasionally found i n the outer marsh (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:81; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:20). Townsends' Vole (Microtus townsendii) i s common while mammalian predators would have included raccoon (Proycon l o t o r ) , wolf (Canis lupus) and the 37 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) (Banfield 1974; Cowan and Guiguet 1965). V i s i t s from raptors and owls (Falconiformes and Strigiformes) would be common while there would also be rare occurrences of swans (Cyginae) (Godfrey 1966). Many of the grasses i n t h i s community were used by the Coast S a l i s h in mat and basketry manufacture while the leafy base of T r i g l o c h i n maritima was eaten by some groups i n the l a t e summer (Turner 1979:28, 136, 1975:73). The wood of the crabapple Pyrus fusca was used for bows, wedges, and digging sticks while i t s f r u i t was gathered i n the autumn (Turner 1975:243, 1979:202). The a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of economically important species from t h i s community are presented i n Figure 2-13. Grassland Community There i s no modern equivalent to this community. Its p r e h i s t o r i c d i s t r i b u t i o n i s based upon that reconstructed by North et_ al_. (1979) and i s estimated to have extended over several thousand ha (see area 'G', Figure 2-8). This community was apparently composed of two sub-communities, the wetgrass p r a i r i e of bunchgrass, rushes, sedges and reeds, and the red top p r a i r i e dominated by Agrostis s t o l o n i f e r a (Hebda 1977:29-31; North 1980). Flooding of the grasslands was frequent, e s p e c i a l l y during freshet periods (North 1980). Raised areas were probably covered with Pyrus fusca as early s e t t l e r s i n the Nicomekl-Serpentine River Valleys reported that this species was abundant (Lang 1967:129). Grassland areas above the Campbell River may have contained Camas sp. (Suttles 1974:59), while early s e t t l e r s reported an abundance of the ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), a species which was probably common throughout t h i s community (Treleaven 1978:24). Insectivores and small rodents would have been common as would the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) (Banfield 1974, Cowan and Guiguet 1965). 38 S p e c i e s A v a i l a b i l i t y J F M A M J J A S O N D AVES ( A r d e i d a e - H e r o n s ) A r d e a h e r o d i a s B o t a u r u s l e n t i f c i n o s u s ( C y g i n a e - Swans) O l o r c o l u m b i a n u s 0. b u c c i n a t o r ( A n s e r i n a e - G e e s e ) B r a n t a c a n a d e n s i s ( A n a t i n a e - D a b b l i n g D u c k s ) Anas p l a t v r h y n c h o s A . a c u t a A . s t r e p e r a A . c a r o l i n e n s i s ( F a l c o n i f o r m e s - R a p t o r s ) H a l i a e e t u s l e u c o c e p h a l u s C i r c u s cyaneus F a l c o p e r e g r i n u s ( S t r i g i f o r m e s - Owls ) A s i o f lammeus MAMMALIA ( C a r n i v o r a - C a r n i v o r e s ) C a n i s l u p u s P r o c y o n l o t o r M e p h i t i s m e p h i t i s = - = = = = v e r y common common - f r e q u e n t r a r e S o u r c e s : B a n f i e l d 1 9 7 4 , C a m p b e l l e t a l . 1 9 7 2 , G o d f r e y 1 9 6 6 , Hoos and Packman 1974, K i s t r i t z 1 9 7 8 : 1 9 , Covan and G u i g u e t 1965. Figure 2-13. Salt Marsh Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. Preying on- these.small animals and birds would have been several species of Falconiformes and Strigiformes and the timber wolf (Canis lupus) (Godfrey 1966; Cowan and Guiguet 1965:280; Treleaven 1978:13). The white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) would occasionally feed i n the grassland areas (Gary Kaiser, C.W.S., March 1980, pers. comm.), and rarely the swan, Olor buccinator (Godfrey 1966). John Work reported that beaver (Castor canadensis) and wapiti (Cervus elaphus) were numerous on the p r a i r i e s of the Nicomekl- Serpentine River Valleys, and they may have occasionally frequented the grasslands at the head of Boundary Bay as well (McKelvie 1947:23; Pearson 1958:16-7). A v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of w i l d l i f e species from this 39 community are summarized in Figure 2-14. Grass and Shrub Community As with the previous Grassland Community, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of this community also follows that reconstructed by North et a_l. (1979), and i s estimated to have covered several thousand ha (see area 'W, Figure 2-8). Hebda (1977:29, 31) describes t h i s community as mainly grass with willow, hardtack, crabapple and wild rose (Salix sp., Spirea d o u g l a s i i , Pyrus fusca, Rosa sp.) occurring i n clumps among the grasses or i n thickets. John Work who journeyed up the Nicomekl River i n December 1824 commented on the dense growth of willow along the r i v e r banks (McKelvie 1947:22). Early s e t t l e r s i n the Nicomekl-Serpentine River Valleys reported a wide range of w i l d l i f e including salmon and trout, geese, ducks and grouse, raptoral b i r d s , beaver, muskrat, raccoon, wolves, cougars, bear, martin, mink, skunk, r i v e r otter, wapiti and deer (Johnson 1958:130; Lang 1967:73, 88, 133; Pearson 1958:12, 18-9, 81; Treleaven 1978:7, 12, 13). As the majority of these species and some others could be found in most of the communities in the Nicomekl-Serpentine River Valleys, Figure 2-14 represents a composite l i s t of available species for the area. Although salmon and steelhead spawning beds are located i n the Forest Communities, f i s h i n g weirs would have been placed on the lower reaches of the Serpentine, Nicomekl and Campbell Rivers and th e i r t r i b u t a r i e s , areas located i n the Grassland and Grass and Shrub Communities and are thus included in Figure 2-14. Currently and h i s t o r i c a l l y chum (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning i s only recorded on the Campbell River, while coho ((). kisutch) and the steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) spawn on a l l three streams (Environment Canada, 1925-1970). It i s not known whether or not t h i s pattern r e f l e c t s the p r e h i s t o r i c one. Many of the other species common to these communities would have very d e f i n i t e associations with stream banks and adjacent areas. 40 Species Availability J F M A M J J A S 0 N D PISCES (Salmonidae - Salmons) Oncorhynchus kisutch 0. keta Salmo gairdneri AVES (Cyginae- Swans) Olor buccinator (Anserinae - Geese) Anser albifrons (Falconiforaes - Raptors) Acclpiter gentilis A. striatus Buteo j amaicens is B. lsgopus Haliaeetus leucocephalus Circus cyaneus Falco peregrinus F. columbarius F. sparverius (Gallifonnes - Grouse) Bonasa umbellus (Strigifonoes - Owls) Tyto alba Nyctea scandiaca Asio flammeus MAMMALIA (Leporidae - Snowshoe Hare) Lepus americanus (Rodentia - Rodents) Castor canadensis Ondata zibethica (Carnivora - Carnivores) Canis lupus Ursus americanus Procyon lotor Martes americana Mustela ermina M. frenata M. vison Spilogale gracilis Mephitis mephitis Lontra canadensis Felis concolor (Cervidae - Deer & Wapiti) Odocoileus hemionus Cervus elaphus — ? very common common - - - - - frequent Sources: Banfield 1974, Environment Canada 1925-1970, Godfrey 1966, Johnson 1958, Kaiser C.W.S., Lang 1967, McKelvie 1947, Cowan and Guiguet 1965, Pearson 1958, Treleaven 1978. Figure 2-14. Grassland Conmunity Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. 41 C a t t a i l Community The d i s t r i b u t i o n of this community i s based upon North e_t al_. (1979) who have indicated i t s presence at locations along the Nicomekl River (see area 'C', Figure 2-8). Less extensive stands of the c a t t a i l Typha l a t i f o l i a undoubtedly were also present, although i t i s u n l i k e l y that this community extended over more than 1-2000 ha. Forbes (1972:36) indicates that as a rule pure stands of T. l a t i f o l i a leave a s t e r i l e understory although he found grasses, sedges and bullrushes occupying hummocks. T_. l a t i f o l i a leaves and stems col l e c t e d i n the l a t e summer were used by the Coast Salish i n making mats, as well as twine, baskets, capes and hats (Turner 1979:148-152). These mats were widely used for covering canoes, temporary mat lodges and for l i n i n g walls i n the plank house (Suttles 1974: 241). As t h i s community would have been found scattered throughout the two previous ones, species which might be found here are included i n Figure 2-14. The muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) inhabits c a t t a i l marshes year around i f they do not freeze (Banfield 1974:199). Sphagnum Bog Community A unique feature of the Fraser Delta i s a series of raised sphagnum bogs, the largest, Burns Bog has been the focus of three recent studies (Biggs 1976; Hebda 1977; Hebda and Biggs 1981). The extent of Burns Bog as well as two lesser bogs in the Nicomekl-Serpentine River Valleys follow North et a l . (1979) and cover several thousand ha (see area 'B', Figure 2-8). Hebda (1977:155, 161-4) indicates that the i n i t i a l development of Burns Bog began around 5,000 B.P. and presents a general model of bog growth for the Fraser Delta characterized by an i n i t i a l s a l t marsh colonization phase, a wet grassland phase, a shrub phase and a sphagnum bog phase. As the Nicomekl-Serpentine bogs are surrounded by a shrub community, i t may be that 42 this model applies equally well for these bogs. Biggs (1976:141-7) has summarized the vegetation of Burns Bog which includes a range of plants whose f r u i t s were used by the Coast Salish including hawthorn (Crataegus d o u g l a s i i ) , crabapple (Pyrus fusca), cranberry (Viburnum edule), saskatoon (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) , s a l a l (Gaultheria shallon), and several species of Rubus and Vaccinium. Accounts from early s e t t l e r s i n the Nicomekl-Serpentine Valley indicate that Coast Salish people from as far away as Vancouver Island gathered blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) from bogs i n the area in the l a t e summer (Lang 1967:68; Treleaven 1978:19). W i l d l i f e i n the bog include Falconiformes, Strigiformes, Lepus americanus, Castor canadensis, Canis latrans, Vulpes vulpes, Procyon l o t o r , Mephitis mephitis, Ursus americanus and the mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus (Biggs 1976:86-96, 168-171). Both Canis latrans (coyote) and Vulpes vulpes (fox) are not indigenous to the Fraser Lowlands, th e i r current presence perhaps linked to the demise of the timber wolf (Canis lupus) in the area (Dalquest 1948:224-7). Suttles (1981, pers. comm.) has indicated the absence of Halkomelem or S t r a i t s names for these animals, while neither animal was mentioned by early s e t t l e r s (see above). A summary of the a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of various plants and animals of economic importance from this community i s presented in Figure 2-15. Woodland Forest Community This community i s based upon the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the four woodland communities of North ejt al_. (1979) including the early successional stages of the coniferous forests (see area 'DF', Figure 2-8). Common species of plants include maple (Acer macrophyllum and A. circirnatum), alder (Alnus rubra), cottonwood (Populus sp.), willow (Salix sp.), bir c h (Betula sp.), wild cherry (Prunus sp.) and Pyrus fusca, as well as several species of h o r s e t a i l (Equisetum sp.) and ferns (Polypodiaceae). Some conifers are also 43 S p e c i e s A v a i l a b i l i t y J F M A M J J A S O N D ANGIOSPERMS ( G r o s s u l a r i a c e a e - C u r r a n t ) R l b e s l a c u s t r e ( R o s a c e a e - R o s e s ) A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a * dssasnnfl so BS8-na_ * C r a t a e g u s d o u g l a s i i P y r u s f u s c a Rosa n u t k a n a Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s R. p a r v i f l o r u s ( C o m a c e a e - B u n c h b e r r y ) C o r n u s c a n a d e n s i s ( E r i a c e a e - H e a t h s ) G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n V a c c i n i u m o x y c o c c o s V . p a r v i f o l i u m V . u l i g n o s u m V . d e l i c i o s u m V . o v a l i f o l i u m ( C a p r i f o X i a c e a e - H o n e y s u c k l e s ) Sambucus r a c e m o s a * * * V i b u r n u m e d u l e ( L i l i a c e a e - Maiantheimim) Maianthemum d i X a t a t u n t AVES ( F a X c o n i f o r m e s - R a p t o r s ) Bu teo l a m a i c e n s i s C i r c u s c y a n e u s ( G a l l i f o r m e s - G r o u s e ) B o n a s a u m b e l l u s ( G r u i f o r m e s - C r a n e ) G r u s c a n a d e n s i s ( S t r i g i f o r m e s - Owls ) O t u s a s i o A s i o o t u s ( C h a r a d r i i f o r m e s - P l o v e r s ) C h a r a d r i u s v o c i f e r u s CapeXXa g a X X i n a g o E r e u n e t e s m a u r l MAMMALIA ( L e p o r i d a e - R a b b i t ) L e p u s a m e r i c a n u s ( R o d e n t i a - R o d e n t s ) E u t a m i a s amoenus T a m l a s c l u r u s d o u g l a s i i C a s t o r c a n a d e n s i s O n d a t r a z i b e t h i c u s E r i t h i z o n d o r s a t u m ( C a r n i v o r a - C a r n i v o r e s ) Canus l u p u s U r s u s a m e r i c a n u s P r o c y o n l o t o r S p i l o g a l e g r a c i l i s ( C e r v i d a e - D e e r ) O d o c o l l e u s t iemionus v e r y common : common - - - - - f r e q u e n t r a r e * f r u i t o r b e r r i e s S o u r c e s : B i g g s 1 9 7 6 , C a m p b e l l e t a l . 1972 . Figure 2-15. Sphagnum Bog Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. 44 present including; cedar (Thuja p l i c a t a ) , hemlock. (Tsuga heterophylla), Sitka spruce (Picea s i t c h e n s i s ) , and Douglas F i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii). - Many of these plants were important food sources to some Coast Salish peoples at d i f f e r e n t times of the year depending upon l o c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y and group preferences. Commonly eaten i n the spring were the young shoots of Equisetum sp., and of the ferns Athyrium f i l i x - f e m i n a and Pteridium aquilinum; the rhizomes of Polystichum muniturn; the sap of Alnus rubra; the cambium of Populus sp. and possibly of other species as well (Turner 1975:42, 44, 56, 64-5, 119, 226). Various parts of a l l of the tree species common to th i s community were important to the Coast Salish for l i t e r a l l y hundreds of uses including flavouring and smoking foods, for dyes and glues, and for the manufacture of a range of items from paddles and canoes, bowls and spoons, bows, arrows and spears, cordage, mats and baskets, to clothing and housing (see Turner 1979). The western red cedar Thuja p l i c a t a was probably the single most important species. W i l d l i f e species inhabiting this and the other forest communities are included i n Figure 2-16. As the d i s t r i b u t i o n of forest types would vary to some extent, depending upon forest f i r e s and stages of plant succession, no attempt has been made to separate species accordingly. Most common would be Odocoileus hemionus which may reach densities of up to 7.7 deer per km2 f i v e to ten years a f t e r a burn, while a climax forest w i l l support but 0.8 deer per km2 (Cowan 1956:552). Populations of most other species as well as the i r predators display similar density f l u c t u a t i o n s . The second most common species i n this area was probably Castor canadensis which extensively dammed many of the upper reaches of t r i b u t a r i e s of the Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers (see Figure 2-8). The locations of these dams are from North et a l . (1979) while those 45 on the Campbell River were reported i n Fisheries Reports on spawning grounds in the 1920s and 1930s (Environment Canada 1925-1970). Scrub Forest Community This community i s composed of the four scrub forest types reconstructed by North et al_. (1979) (see area 'SF', Figure 2-8). Most common species are Salix sp., the skunk cabbage (Lysichitum americanum), Alnus rubra, Polyodiaeae, hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), Prunus sp., and Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), while some Thuja p l i c a t a , hazel (Corylus cornuta), Pseudotsuga menziesii, Acer cireirnaturn, peavine (Lathyrus sp.), and clover (Trifolium sp.) were also present. Important economic species not discussed i n the previous community include Pinus contorta, Corylus cornuta, and Lysichitum americanum. The cambium of Pinus contorta was eaten by some Coast Salish although perhaps more important was the use of the trees' p i t c h f or waterproofing canoes and baskets and for f i x i n g stone p r o j e c t i l e points to arrow and harpoon shafts (Turner 1975:65, 1979:103-5). The sucker shoots of Corylus cornuta were used for making arrow shafts and some groups used them for making rope (Turner 1979:200-201). Leaves of Lysichitum americanum were widely used f o r l i n i n g steam cooking p i t s , l i n i n g baskets, f o r drying berries on, in fact used whenever food was to be covered or protected (Turner 1979:121-2). L. americanum i s not r e s t r i c t e d to this community and i s even now found wherever poor drainage occurs. W i l d l i f e which might be found frequenting this community are presented i n Figure 2-16. Coniferous Forest Community North et a l . (1979) reconstructed a t o t a l of 9 vegetation types which are combined into the Coniferous Forest Community of this study (see area 'CF 1, Figure 2-8). The most common species are Thuja p l i c a t a , Tsuga 46 Species A v a i l a b i l i t y J F M A M J J A S O N D SPENOPSIDA (Equise taceae H o r s e t a i l s ) Equisetum hyemale E . f l u v l a t i l e E . p a l u s t r e E . pra tense shoots - shoots - shoots - shoots - s t a l k s • s t a l k s - s t a l k s • s t a l k s ' PTEROPSIDA (Polypodlaceae - Ferns ) P t e r i d i u m a q u l l i n u m Blechnum s p i c a n t P o l y p o d i u a g l y c y r r h i z a P . he 3 per mn Athyr ium f i l i x - f e m i n a P o l y s t i c h u m muniturn D r y o p t e r i s a u s t r i a c a D. f l l i x - m a s - s h o o t s - - - s h o o t s - - - shoots — rhizomes - rhizomes - rhizomes rhizomes • rhizomes • rhizomes • rhizomes • rhizomes • GYMNOSPERMS (Taxaxeae - Yew) T a x i s b r e v i f o l i a (Cupressaceae - Red Cedar) Thuja p l i c a t a (Pinaceae - P ines ) A b i e s grandIs P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s Pinus c o n t o r t a Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a • *(wood used i n v a r i o u s manufactures) • • •(wood, b a r k , r o o t s used i n manufac tures ) - - - - - ( l i m i t e d use of wood i n m a n u f a c t u r e s ) - - cambium 11 ( p i t c h used as g lue) •• - cambium? — — — (wood and p i t c h used) 1 • ( v a r i o u s p a r t s used wide ly i n m a n u f a c t u r e ) « = « 1 cambium — — — — — — — ANGIOSPERMS ( S a l l c a c e a e - Wi l lows) Populus t remulo ides P. t r l c h o c a r p a S a l i x sp . (Betulaceae - B i r c h e s ) A lnus r u b r a B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a C o r l y l u s cornuta ( U r t i c a c e a e - N e t t l e ) U r t i c a d i p i c a (Berber idaceae - Oregon Grape) B e r b e r ! s nervosa (Rosaceae - Roses) Crataegus d o u g l a s i i Prunus sp . Pyrus fusca Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s R. p a r v i f l o r u s (Aceraceae - Maples) Acer macrophyl lum A . c l r c i r n a t u m (Leguminosae - C l o v e r ) T r i f o l i u m sp. (Cornaceae - Dogwood) Corpus n u t t a l l i ( E r i c a c e a e - S a l a l ) C a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ( C a p r i f o l l a c e a e - Cranberry ) Viburnum edule (Araceae - Skunk Cabbage) Lyelch i turn americanum ' cambium - cambium - • (used i n v a r i o u s m a n u f a c t u r e s ) 3 - s a p — — - — " • - • - • • • • - - • - • c a m b i u m - - (wood and bark sometimes used) ( v a r i o u s p a r t s used i n manufac ture ) - - - - - - nuts . « . • « . . . ( s t e m s used f o r making r o p e , t w i n e ) « - » • « • » • * • b e r r i e s - ( b a r k used In m a n u f a c t u r i n g ) - • s h o o t s - • • b e r r i e s * • shoots" " " b e r r i e s * • - • c a m b i u m - - ™ " " - " " " " - ( l e a v e s used i n c 0 0 k i n g ) . - • • • • • - • - • " - * • 1 (wood used i n manufactures) — (bark used as dye) ( leaves used l n cooking) ure 2-16. Forest Communities Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. 47 S p e c i e s A v a i l a b i l i t y M J J A AVES ( F a l c o n i f o r m e s - R a p t o r s ) A c c i p i t e r g e n t i l i s A . s t r i a t u s A . c o o p e r i i ( G a l l i f o r m e s - G r o u s e ) B o n a s a u m b e l l u s ( S t r i g i f o r m e s - Owls) Bubo v i r g i n i a n u s S t r i x o c c i d e n t a l l s S . n e b u l o s a A s i o o t u s ( P a s s e r i f o r m e s - J a y s & R a v e n s ) C y a n o c i t t a s t e l l e r i C o r v u s c o r a x MAMMALIA ( L e p o r i d a e - Snowshoe H a r e ) L e p u s a m e r i c a n u s ( R o d e n t i a - R o d e n t s ) A p l o d o n t l a r u f a E u t a m i a s t o w n s e n d i T a m i a s c i u r u s d o u j j l a s i G l a u c o m y s s a b r l n u s C a s t o r c a n a d e n s i s O n d a t r a z i b e t h l c a E r e t h i z o n d o r s a t u m ( C a m i v o r a - C a r n i v o r e s ) C a n i s l u p u s U r s u s a m e r i c a n u s P r o c y o n l o t o r M a r t e s a m e r i c a n a M . ' p e n n a n t ! M u s t e l a e n n i n a M. f r e n a t a M. v i s o n S p i l o g a l e g r a c i l i s M e p h i t i s m e p h i t i s F e l i s c o n c o l o r Lynx r u f u s ( C e r v i d a e - D e e r ) O d o c o l l e u s hemionus v e r y common f r e q u e n t S o u r c e s : B a n f i e l d 1 9 7 4 , C a m p b e l l e t a l . 1 9 7 2 , J o h n s o n 1958 , L a n g 1 9 6 7 , a l . 1 9 7 9 , P e a r s o n 1958 , T r e l e a v e n 1 9 7 8 , T u r n e r 1 9 7 5 , 1979. . . . . r a r e Cowan and G u i g u e t 1 9 6 5 , N o r t h e t Figure 2-16 cont'd. Forest Communities Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance. heterophylla, Picea sitchensis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Acer circirnatum, and Salix sp., while Pinus contorta, Acer macrophyllym, Populus sp., Pyrus fusca, dogwood (Cornus sp.), grand f i r (Abies grandis), and yew (Taxis b r e v i f o l i a ) are also present. Also common are Gaultheria shallon, Lysichitum americanum, Polypodiaceae, Oregon grape (Berberis sp.), Viburnum edule, and Crataegus do u g l a s i i . 48 The economic importance of many of these species has been discussed in the two previous communities and detailed discussions of each species are presented in Turner (1979). In addition, the wood of Taxis b r e v i f o l i a , Cornus sp., and the roots of Picea sitchensis were used in manufactures (Turner 1979:100, 117-8, 212-3). The berries of Viburnum edule, Crataegus dou g l a s i i, Berberis nervosa and Gaultheria shallon were eaten, as were many of the Polypodiaceae found i n th i s community (Turner 1975:44-59, 116, 127, 140, 194). W i l d l i f e productivity i s much lower than i n the two previous communities, although, some of the species outlined i n Figure 2-16 w i l l on occasion be found here as well. Several plant species found i n th i s community are important winter browse food for Odocoileus hemionus including P_. menziesii, T_. p l i c a t a , 13. nervosa, Pteridium aquilinum, and G. shallon (Cowan 1956:555). P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the lowland areas of th i s study are composed of fine a l l u v i a l s i l t s so that spawning grounds on the Serpentine, Nicomekl and Campbell Rivers are located near or in forested areas where the streams cut through g l a c i a l gravels. Several species of scavengers could be expected to frequent these areas i n the autumn including raptors and Ursus americanus. Summary Examination of species a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance presented i n Figures 2-9 to 2-16 indicates marked seasonal f l u c t u a t i o n . Approximately 140 species of f i s h , b i rds, mammals, and plants of economic value would have been present at various times of the year with abundance ranging from rare to very common (see Figure 2-17). Some very common and common species would be available i n s u f f i c i e n t quantities that actual harvesting of these resources could take place. These resource crops could have included herring, salmon and steelhead runs, deer and wapiti herds, migrating waterfowl, berries, and probably to a similar extent, some s h e l l f i s h species. Some resources would only be available i n certain seasons while others would be more read i l y 49 MARINE COMMUNITIES (Eelgrass Community) SO 30 J F U A U J J A S O N (Rocky Intertidal Community) J F U A M j J i S O N O (Algae Mat Community) finnnnnnnn*HFi J F M A W J J A S O N O (Pelagic Community) 1 • nun nnnn J F H 4 M J J A S 0 N D ( S a l t m a r s h Community) nnnnnnnnnnnn J F M A M J J A S O N O T E R R E S T R I A L C O M M U N I T I E S (Bog C o m m u n i t y ) nnnnnnnliMnnn J F « A M J J A S O N ( F o r e s t C o m m u n i t y ) J F M A U J J A S O N (Grassland 8 Grasslond-Shruo, Cat ta i l Communities) mm r i n n w n n J F M A M J J A S O T e r r e s t r i a l Communities Summary in. M O N T H S •I Marine Communities Summary 9 an m • I ' K A M J J A S O N O 1 = VERY COMMON SPECIES = COMMON SPECIES Figure 2-17. Ec o l o g i c a l Communities and Seasonal Resource Abundance. 50 available, or available i n greater numbers seasonally. Many resources would require monitoring, either to determine t h e i r a r r i v a l ( i . e . , herring runs), or to watch for optimal harvesting time (b e r r i e s ) . Some communities display increases i n species a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance i n the same seasons, while o v e r a l l both marine and t e r r e s t i a l communities peak at about the same time (see Figure 2-17) . A few communities do not follow t h i s trend such as the Bog Community (late summer b e r r i e s ) , and the Algae Mat Community (late summer migrating shorebirds). C l e a r l y , a human population depending upon these communities would have had to make scheduling choices as to what resources they might harvest i n some seasons. Although there must always be some doubt, i n general I am confident about the nature of the communities reconstructed above. This i s derived from the close correspondence between modern, h i s t o r i c (see below), paleobotanical and geological sources, a l l of which suggest minimal environment change i n the Boundary Bay area over the past 1,000 years. The data generated above w i l l be used i n conjunction with ethnographic information to make hypotheses concerning the nature of the archaeological record at Crescent Beach. The following sections of t h i s chapter w i l l review the human settlement of t h i s area. 2.5 EUROPEAN CONTACT AND SETTLEMENT The e a r l i e s t recorded v i s i t by Europeans to Boundary Bay i s that of the Spanish Expedition under E l i z a , who in July of 1791 named Point Roberts, I s l a de Zepeda, and noted the large numbers of Indians who were probably gathered to reef-net sockeye off Cannery Point (Wagner 1933: 186). The absence of soundings and an accurate shoreline on a chart made by Narvaez at that time suggests the Spanish did not enter Boundary Bay, but rather passed by i t s mouth (see Hastings 1975:59). This chart also indicates a settlement near the mouth of the Campbell River at the present s i t e of 51 the Semiahmoo Reserve. The following June the area was again v i s i t e d by the Spanish under Galiano and simultaneously by an English expedition led by Captain Vancouver who named the peninsula Cape Roberts (Newcombe 1923:60). Vancouver reported that the "...shoals attached to the shores...prevented our reaching within four or f i v e miles of th e i r head" (Meany 1957:181-2). Menzies who was with Vancouver described Boundary Bay and the summer reef net v i l l a g e ; "...a large shoal water Bay t i l l they came to a conspicuous White B l u f f / o f a moderate height forming the Western point of i t & which afterwards obtained the name of Cape Roberts. Here they landed to dine near a large deserted V i l l a g e capable of containing 4 or 500 Inhabitants,.." (Newcombe 1923:60). Although Simon Fraser arrived at the mouth of the Fraser River i n July, 1808 (Lamb 1960:105), there was no further recorded European contact with Boundary Bay u n t i l December 1824 when a Hudson's Bay Company party passed through the Bay and up the Nicomekl to the Salmon, and thence to the Fraser River i n search of a possible s i t e for a trading post (Johnson 1958:5-6; Nelson 1927:7-8). John Work, who was with the party, described the area around the head of Boundary Bay as "...low & f l a t (and) the bay appears to be shallow" (McKelvie 1947:22). The party found navigation of the Nicomekl River d i f f i c u l t as i t was nearly choked with driftwood and willows, for "...tho' the Indians had cut roads through i t for th e i r canoes yet they were too narrow for our boats" (McKelvie 1947:22). Work reported "...appearances of beaver being pretty numerous in t h i s r i v e r " and evidence of wapiti i n the p r a i r i e areas of the upper part of the v a l l e y (McKelvie 1947:22-3) . In 1827 the Hudson Bay Company established the o r i g i n a l Fort Langley at Derby (see Figure 2-19), the f i r s t European settlement in the Lower Mainland, and over the next 30 years a number of squatters and trappers l i v e d i n the area, th e i r abandoned log cabins reported by l a t e r s e t t l e r s 52 (Lang 1967:13; Nelson 1927:5-6; Treleaven 1978:10). In 1840, a f t e r f i r e destroyed the o r i g i n a l post, Fort Langley was r e b u i l t near the mouth of the Salmon River (Nelson 1927:15). In 1859 the new p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l was established at New Westminster, and with the subsequent le g a l surveys of the Lower Mainland numerous pre- emptions were made. Among the e a r l i e s t was one by Samuel Handy who i n 1861 pre-empted and s e t t l e d on 160 acres on the Nicomekl some 4 km from i t s mouth (Lang 1967:12-3; Treleaven 1978:9-12). The Serpentine - Nicomekl Valley attracted many farmers and by 1874 there were 14 names on the P r o v i n c i a l Voters L i s t for the Mud Bay area (Pearson 1958:20). A network of t r a i l s existed from Semiahmoo Bay to Brownsville (opposite New Westminster) by 1865, which by 1875 had been replaced by wagon roads (Draper 1943; Treleaven 1978:15, 18). The f i r s t reported European s e t t l e r at Crescent Beach was Alexander Annadale who pre-empted land in 1864 and l i v e d there for at least a part of the 1860s (Pearson 1958:24; Treleaven 1978:13). Another pre-emption was made i n 1871 to J.B. Musselwhite R.E. who sold his grant to Walter Blackie who apparently was already l i v i n g at Crescent Beach in an 1860s vintage log house on the beach front (Lang 1967:13-4, 41-2; Pearson 1958: 24-5; Treleaven 1978:13). Although logging of the area around E l g i n began in 1875, no reference could be found to logging at Crescent Beach u n t i l 1934 (Lang 1967:13, 132), early photographs show stands of large timber (see Lang 1967:41 and Treleaven 1978:75). After the road from E l g i n was completed in 1883, Crescent Beach became a popular p i c n i c spot under protest from Walter Blackie (Lang 1967:145; Pearson 1958:45, 157; Treleaven 1978:13, 36, 50). In 1909 the sea l e v e l route of the Great Northern Railroad was opened through Crescent Beach and shortly a f t e r the area was "surveyed" (sub-divided?) 53 (Lang 1967:24, 73; Pearson 1958:41; Roy 1968:57). In 1912 the Crescent Hotel opened on the beach front at the foot of Beecher Street and Crescent Beach became a popular holiday resort (Lang 1967:43, 73). In more recent years holiday homes have gradually been replaced by permanent residences. North et a l . (1979), i n t h e i r reconstruction of the o r i g i n a l vegetation of the Fraser Delta, divided Crescent Beach into two communities, grassland and coniferous f o r e s t . This corresponds to descriptions made by early s e t t l e r s who reported marshland areas where the "...farmers grazed t h e i r dry cows" (Lang 1967:133), and with early photographs which show stands of conifers (Lang 1967:41; Treleaven 1978:75). Over 100 years of modern settlement at Crescent Beach have erased any sign of the o r i g i n a l vegetation. 2.6 ETHNOGRAPHIC CULTURES When Europeans arrived i n the l a t e 1700s, the lower Fraser River Valley and the shores of the S t r a i t of Georgia, Puget Sound, and part of Juan de Fuca S t r a i t were peopled by speakers of Coast Salish languages (Boas 1887:288, 1889:9). M i t c h e l l (1971b:19-29), examining l i n g u i s t i c and ethnographic data, has outlined four main c u l t u r a l groups i n this area including: 1) Northern Gulf d i v e r s i f i e d fishermen, tapping, by a v a r i e t y of means, the smaller of the two streams of f i s h approach- ing the Fraser. They r e l y largely on the r e l a t i v e l y small salmon runs i n lesser r i v e r s and creeks north of the Fraser. 2) Central and southern Gulf r i v e r fishermen, r e l y i n g strongly on the Fraser River salmon runs and catching the f i s h i n the Fraser River or i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . This type might be further divided into those who remain on or near the r i v e r year around, away from s a l t water, and those at the r i v e r ' s mouth, some of whom winter away from the r i v e r . 3) S t r a i t s reef-net fishermen, obtaining an important part of t h e i r food from the larger, southern stream of Fraser River salmon, catching these f i s h with a special form of net while the salmon are s t i l l i n s a l t water. 4) Puget Sound d i v e r s i f i e d fishermen, with no d i r e c t access to 54 Fraser River runs and r e l y i n g mainly on the lesser runs in l o c a l r i v e r s and streams. It i s Mi t c h e l l ' s second and t h i r d groups (see Figure 2-18) which are of primary interest here as Boundary Bay was used by members of both. The "central and southern Gulf r i v e r fishermen" spoke d i a l e c t s of the Coast Salish Halkomelem language and occupied the Fraser River Valley from the lower Canyon to the Delta and the opposite shore of the S t r a i t of Georgia (Cowichan in early l i t e r a t u r e ) (Boas 1889:10, 1894:454; H i l l Tout 1902:355; Latham 1848:156; Scouler 1848:234; Wilson 1866:278). Those Halkomelem groups who remained on the r i v e r away from s a l t water are the Upper Stalo reported on by Duff (1952). To the south of the Halkomelem were the " s t r a i t s reef-net fishermen" who occupied the Gulf Islands, San Juan Islands, as well as both shores of the S t r a i t of Georgia into Juan de Fuca S t r a i t and spoke d i a l e c t s of a cl o s e l y related Coast Salish language known as S t r a i t s (Lku'ngEn in early l i t e r a t u r e ) (Boas 1889:10, 1890:11; Suttles 1960:304, 1974:6) (see Figure 2-18). The remainder of this section describes subsistence a c t i v i t i e s , habitations, manufactures, society and seasonal rounds of the S t r a i t s and Halkomelem peoples. Fishing Like other Coast Sali s h , the Halkomelem and S t r a i t s speakers were fishermen supplementing t h e i r diet with hunting and gathering, but they were fishermen with a difference for they held access to the salmon runs of the Fraser River, e s p e c i a l l y the sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) (see Figure 2-18), up to 90% of this run approaching the r i v e r through Juan de Fuca S t r a i t (Ricker 1966:66"). Within 60 km of entering the S t r a i t and for the next 300 km through the southern S t r a i t of Georgia and up the Fraser River to the Canyon, f i r s t S t r a i t s fishermen with reef nets, and then Halkomelem with trawl nets and dip nets waited for th e i r a r r i v a l 55 • ethnographic fortification or • Straits reef net station — Sockeye migration route stockaded village « 2 0 0 » km from Pacific Ocean Sources: Barnett 1975, Boas 1894, Duff 1952, Hill Tout 1902, Jenness n.d., Stern 1934, Suttles 1949, 1955; 1974, 1977, Wilson 1866, Rozen pers. comm. Figure 2-18. Ethnographic Halkomelem and S t r a i t s T e r r i t o r i e s . 56 (Barnett 1975:86-7; Duff 1952:62-3; Jenness n.d., pp. 7-8; Suttles 1955:22, 1974:114). Detailed descriptions of dip nets, trawl nets, and reef nets may be found i n Suttles (1955:21; 1974:143-5, 155-161) and i n Duff (1952: 62-3, 69-70). On odd numbered years the sockeye run would have been greatly enlarged by the Fraser River run of pink (0. gorbuscha) (Neave 1966:72; Rathbun 1900:288-9). Ritual surrounded the a r r i v a l of these important runs, a l l Halkomelem and S t r a i t s performing the f i r s t salmon r i t u a l for the sockeye, and some S t r a i t s performing t h i s r i t e for pinks as well (Barnett 1975:89-90; Boas 1890:17, 1894:461; H i l l Tout 1902:358, 411, 1904:330; Jenness 1955:35, n.d., pp. 27-8, 116; Suttles 1955:22, 1974:175). The Katzie also performed a r i t u a l when the sockeye were la t e (Jenness 1975:75), while both Jenness (n.d., p. 115) and Barnett (1975:89) refer to a r i t u a l performed by the Nanaimo, t h e i r r i t u a l i s t rubbing red ochre on a petroglyph of a f i s h at Jack Point (near Nanaimo) when the chum salmon (0. keta) were l a t e i n a r r i v i n g (see H i l l and H i l l 1974:113-4). In addition to having access to the Fraser River runs of sockeye and pink, i n d i v i d u a l Halkomelem and S t r a i t s groups occupied the drainages of one or more of the smaller r i v e r s , streams and creeks flowing into the Fraser and S t r a i t of Georgia. Harpoons, l e i s t e r s , gaffs, trawl nets and dip nets, weirs and traps were used to catch springs, coho, chum salmon, and steelhead (0. tshawytscha, 0. kisutch, 0^. keta, Salmo gairdneri) which run into most of these streams (Barnett 1975:79-87; Boas 1889:20; Duff 1952:62-3, 67, 70; Jenness 1955:8, n.d., pp. 9-10, 24; Suttles 1955:22-3, 1974:133-151; Wilson 1866:283). In the summer f i s h were sun dried on raised frames while i n the autumn they were smoked, the preserved f i s h being stored i n baskets (Barnett 1975:62; Duff 1952:66-7; Jenness 1955: 8, n.d., p. 26; Suttles 1974:142). Halkomelem and some S t r a i t s fished 57 for sturgeon (Acipenser sp.) using harpoons, trawl nets, weirs, and a hook and l i n e while the herring rake and dip net were used for eulachon (Thaleichthys p a c i f i c u s) (Boas 1894:460; Duff 1952:68-9, 71; Jenness n.d., pp. 22-3). More important to S t r a i t s groups were halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and rock cod (Sebastes sp.) which were caught with a hook and l i n e (Boas 1889:19-20; Jenness n.d., pp. 21-2; Suttles 1974:114-8, 124-6). Members of both groups with access to coastal beaches took herring (Clupea harengus) with herring rakes and other f i s h which they could harpoon from the i r canoes at low tide (Curtis 1970:56; Jenness n.d., pp. 7-10, 23; Suttles 1974:126-132). Various species of s h e l l f i s h were also gathered and dug with digging s t i c k s , dried and smoked for winter (Barnett 1975:61; Jenness n.d., p. 30; Suttles 1974:65-9; Wilson 1866:283; see Hawthorn 1956:P1. 10 for an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a Kwakiult clam basket and digging s t i c k ) . S h e l l f i s h harvesting was not r e s t r i c t e d just to daytime periods of low t i d e , but also took place at night during the winter by moonlight and pitchwood torches (Matthews 1955:258, 280; Rozen 1978:179, 1982, pers. comm.). Clams were steamed open by placing them over heated rocks and covering them with kelp, f i r boughs or mats, and sand while the meat was rinsed of sand and skewered on sticks which were stuck around a f i r e to dry (or placed over a bed of coa l s ) , and then strung on a l i n e of cedar bark to be stored (Barnett 1975:61; Elmendorf 1960:133; Haeberlin and Gunther 1930:23; Regan 1917:27; Suttles 1974:66). Although f i s h , e s p e c i a l l y salmon, was the most important food source for the Halkomelem and S t r a i t s , a variety of other foods were also used (Barnett 1975:15, 78; Boas 1889:7; H i l l Tout 1904:316, 1905:234; Jenness 1972:347; Suttles 1974:114). Included were waterfowl, sea and land mammal and various plant foods, the emphasis varying from group to group dependin 58 upon the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these resources and a group's access to them. Birds Just as l o c a l f i s h resources are increased by anadromous f i s h runs, the b i r d populations of this area (on the P a c i f i c Flyway) are also greatly increased during the f a l l and spring migration periods with many species wintering here (Hoos and Packman 1974:152). Suttles' Semiahmoo informant l i s t e d 27 kinds of birds which were hunted including diving ducks (Aythyinae), dabblers (Anatinae), geese (Anserinae) and swans (Cyginae) (Suttles 1974:70). A v a r i e t y of hunting techniques i s reported, most used throughout the area, including: a raised net between two poles, or sometimes between two trees; a submerged net with sinkers and f l o a t s ; hand nets (sometimes attached to a hand held pole); bows and arrows armed with blunt wooden or bone l e i s t e r points; night hunting from a canoe with f i r e using l e i s t e r armed spears; hand nets and clubs; s l i n g shots armed with pebbles; and clubs (Barnett 1975:95-6, 98, 102-3; Duff 1952:72; Jenness n.d., pp. 15-7; Matthews 1955:250; Newcombe 1923:153; Suttles 1955:26, 1974:70-81; Wilson 1866:282). The raised net was popular on the coast (although good locations were limited) as was the submerged net, e s p e c i a l l y i n the spring, to catch diving ducks feeding on herring roe (Jenness n.d., p. 16; Suttles 1974:72-3). Generally caught from autumn to spring, ducks were usually eaten fresh although they were sometimes preserved by roasting and drying (Suttles 1974:80). Sea Mammals Sea mammals were hunted by Halkomelem and S t r a i t s on s a l t water and some Halkomelem took seals (Phoca v i t u l i n a ) on the lower Fraser River and in P i t t Lake (Jenness n.d., pp. 17-20; Suttles 1952:10, 18, 1955:25-6, 1974:106). Most commonly sought were seals, though both seals and porpoise 59 (Delphinidae) were hunted whenever they were found, while sea li o n s (Eumetopias jubata) were consistently hunted only by a Chemainus group and and whales (Cetacea) by a few Clallam and Saanich (Jenness n.d., pp. 17-20; Suttles 1952:10-1, 18). Harpoons, nets, and clubs were used for seals which were often hunted by 2-3 man crews i n canoes on moonlit nights, while porpoise was hunted on calm days using harpoons (Barnett 1975:98-9, 102-3; Jenness n.d., pp. 8, 10, 17-20; Suttles 1952:10-1, 1955:25-6, 1974:106-9). Both seals and sea li o n s were attacked with harpoons and clubs i f found on the beach while harpoons only were used for sea li o n s i n the water (Barnett 1975:98-9; Suttles 1952:10, 12, 1955:25-6). Land Mammals Although both S t r a i t s and Halkomelem groups hunted deer (Odocoileus hemionus), wapiti (Cervus elaphus), and black bear (Ursus americanus), hunting was probably more important among the mainland peoples. Bows and arrows with detachable stone heads, spears, clubs, p i t f a l l s , nets and snares were used for deer which were hunted in several ways including communal drives to waiting hunters at ambushes, nets or p i t f a l l s , by pairs of hunters at night using a canoe and f i r e to d i s t r a c t deer along the shore, or by a single hunter either by stalking, ambushing, or using dogs to f l u s h out the deer (Barnett 1975:96-7; Duff 1952:71; Jenness n.d., pp. 11-2; Suttles 1955:24-5, 1974:82). Wapiti were hunted using dogs, p i t f a l l s , deer nets and bows and arrows with detachable stone heads (Barnett 1975:96-7; Jenness n.d., p. 12; Suttles 1955:25, 1974:91). Seasonal preferences were reported for both ungulates. Bucks and stags were hunted i n the spring while does and hinds were hunted i n the f a l l and the meat preserved by steaming and drying (Suttles 1974:82-3, 90, 94). The lower leg bones were sometimes saved for making arrowheads and duck spear points (Suttles 1974: 91). 60 Dogs were used f o r badgering bears which were hunted with bows and arrows, deadfalls and p i t f a l l s , were ambushed on the salmon spawning grounds, and were smoked or otherwise flushed out of the i r winter dens (Barnett 1975:96-7; Suttles 1955:25, 1974:92-3; Wilson 1866:282). A baited trap with a deadfall was used for hunting small mammals such as marten and mink (Mustelidae), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), while beaver (Castor canadensis) were hunted with the bow and arrow and with a harpoon armed with a single three-piece head (Barnett 1975:99; Suttles 1955:25, 1974:96). Dogs were not eaten by either the S t r a i t s or Halkomelem who had at least one type, the small woolly one bred f o r i t s fur, and probably a larger one used f o r hunting (Barnett 1975:96-7; Suttles 1955:24, 1974:105). Plant Foods Plant foods may have ranked a poor t h i r d a f t e r f i s h and mammal among a l l S t r a i t s and Halkomelem although a range of plants was used as indicated in Chapter 2.4. The sprouts of salmonberry and thimbleberry (Rubus sp.), and of the h o r s e t a i l (Equisetum sp.) were commonly eaten fresh while various bulbs and roots were dug with digging s t i c k s , steamed and dried for winter including those of some ferns, the camas (Camassia quamash) among the S t r a i t s , and the wapato ( S a g i t t a r i a l a t i f o l i a ) among the Halkomelem on the Fraser River (Barnett 1975:64, 67; Duff 1952:73; Jenness n.d., pp. 7, 10; Suttles 1955:27, 1974:58; Wilson, 1866:282). Probably any berry available in s u f f i c i e n t quantities was used, eaten fresh or boiled and f i r e or sun dried on either a raised frame, or on cedar planks, into berry cakes which were stored for winter use (see various species i n Figures 2-15, 2-16) (Barnett 1975:63; Duff 1952:73-4; H i l l Tout 1905:234; Jenness n.d., p. 8, 1955:8; Suttles 1955:27, 1974:63-4; Wilson 1866:282). Numerous plants were 61 also important in manufacturing (see Material Culture below and Figure 2-16). Habitations • Both the S t r a i t s and Halkomelem peoples used a rectangular cedar plank house as a permanent dwelling, 9-15 m wide and 15-60 m or more i n length, i t s size varying according to the number of families to be accommodated (Barnett 1975:36-7, 41-3, 53-5; Boas 1889:22-3, 1890:11-3, 1894:456; Duff 1952:47-8; H i l l Tout 1902:360, 1904:331-2; Jenness n.d., pp. 31-7, 1955:6-7; Lamb 1960:103-4; Suttles 1955:9, 1974:256-260). The following description provided by Jenness (1955:6-7) i s t y p i c a l ; Each was a long barn-like structure with a roof that sloped gently from front to back. The frame was joined by two l i n e s of square or rectangular posts, often carved, that were joined by cross-beams, and these cross beams overlain i n turn by r a f t e r s . The walls were overlapping boards set h o r i z o n t a l l y between upright poles planted i n the ground just outside the l i n e of posts, so that they were r e a l l y quite separate from the frame. Heavy planks overlapped each other on the r a f t e r s , giving a f a i r l y rain-proof roof, even though every board was displaceable at need to l e t the smoke out. In the long side of the house facing the water were one or two doors; there was a door also at each end; and here and there a gap between the horizontal wall-boards served as a window, which could be closed at w i l l with a rush mat. Every dwelling sheltered several families,...each family occupied, as a r u l e , the space between two of the upright posts and, i n most Coast Salish v i l l a g e s , p artitioned off i t s portion of the house with boards or rush mats to form a separate room. In some houses these p a r t i t i o n s were permanent, i n others they were removed at feasts. Permanent v i l l a g e s consisted of one or more of these buildings, either alone, or attached in rows which sometimes stretched several hundred meters along the shore; most v i l l a g e s having one or two large houses and a number of smaller ones (Barnett 1975:21; Jenness n.d., pp. 4, 32-7; Suttles 1974:11, 23, 30, 43-5, 276). House fronts were sometimes painted with designs (Barnett 1975:54; Boas 1894:456; South 1970:37). Many groups also had permanent plank houses at important resource locations such as camas beds, reef net stations, or salmon weir s i t e s ; the 62 Nanaimo, Cowichan, Songhees, Saanich, Semiahmoo, Samish and Lummi, and probably most S t r a i t s groups had permanent house frames at summer salmon f i s h i n g v i l l a g e s , transporting the planks from t h e i r main v i l l a g e (Barnett 1975:40; Jenness n.d., pp. 7, 40; Suttles 1974:166, 194-5, 200, 204, 260). The Musqueam, Katzie, Lummi and Samish and probably others had permanent structures consisting of plank or bark covered houses at autumn f i s h i n g weir s i t e s (Barnett 1975:39-40, 53; Jenness 1955:8; Suttles 1955:10, 1974:39, 44, 150, 261). On shorter t r i p s a more temporary type of shelter was widely used and consisted of rush mats placed over a pole frame (Barnett 1975:40; Jenness n.d., pp. 9, 41, 1955:7; Suttles 1974:12, 192, 261; Wilson 1866:288). The mat lodge was also used by fishermen who were reef net f i s h i n g (Suttles 1974:192, 200, 204). A number of v i l l a g e s were stockaded to aid i n defense against attack, or had f o r t i f i c a t i o n s nearby (see Figure 2-18) (Barnett 1975:38, 270; Boas 1889:37; Jenness n.d., p. 4; Suttles 1974:322-3; Wilson 1866:286). Stockaded v i l l a g e s or f o r t s have been reported for the Clallam, Saanich, Samish, Lummi, Semiahmoo, Cowichan, Musqueam, and Sumas (Barnett 1975:20, 42; M. Kew, 1980, pers. comm.; James Point, 1973, pers. comm.; Stern 1934:101; Suttles 1974:12, 25, 30-1, 38, 43, 322-3; Wilson 1866:286). They have also been reported for other Coast Salish including the Squamish, northern S t r a i t of Georgia groups and among the Puget Sound groups (Barnett 1975:23, 49. 50; Gunther 1927:191, 1972:63; Haeberlin and Gunther 1930:12, 15; H i l l Tout 1900:490; Matthews 1955:113, 187, 200, 1959:26, 52). Although Suttles (1974:323) believes f o r t i f i c a t i o n s may be recent, the archaeological evidence may suggest otherwise (see Chapter 2.7 and Figure 2-29). 63 Society Among both S t r a i t s and Halkomelem, v i l l a g e s consisted of one or more extended f a m i l i e s , each as a rule occupying i t s own plank house. This house group was the most important and to a great extent the only s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l unit, and while residence was often, but not r i g i d l y p a t r i l o c a l , descent was reckoned b i l a t e r a l l y . (Barnett 1975:241-2; Duff 1952:76, 79, 84-5; Jenness n.d., pp. 1, 52, 1955:7; Suttles 1955:28, 1974:51, 273, 280, 290). In addition to i t s house, such a group also possessed through descent and kinship, c e r t a i n ancestral names or t i t l e s , legends, songs and dances, as well as rights to c e r t a i n resource locations, the majority of these rights generally held by the most important members of the family (Barnett 1975:241, 244; Jenness n.d., p. 51; Suttles 1974: 55-6) . Leadership within the family and v i l l a g e was provided by the most respected family heads known as siyam, of which there could be several in any p a r t i c u l a r house or v i l l a g e . Siyam held no p o l i t i c a l power beyond the support and respect of t h e i r families and other members of the community. Their influence was based on a range of factors such as prestige of t h e i r name and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , as well as that of t h e i r ancestors, and t h e i r own demonstrated wisdom, a b i l i t y , industry and generosity (Barnett 1975:243, 245; Duff 1952:80, 81; Jenness n.d., p. 55, 1955:6; Suttles 1974:271, 273, 277). Society as a whole consisted of three classes including a large upper class of good people, a smaller lower class of worthless people and a s t i l l smaller group of slaves (Suttles 1958:504, 1974:271, 302-2; see also Barnett 1975:246-250). Fronto-lambdoidal c r a n i a l deformation was practised among the upper c l a s s , accomplished by binding bark pads to infants' heads (Barnett 1975:75; Boas 1889:12, 1890:20, 95-6; Duff 1952:90, 64 91; Gunther 1927:236, 253; H i l l Tout 1902:366; Jenness n.d., p. 69; Matthews 1955:185, 202, 1959:6; Stern 1934:15, 73; Suttles 1974:286). The .use of labrets by women i s either denied or not mentioned for the Coast Salish (Barnett 1975:76; Haeberlin and Gunther 1930:40), although they were used by women (and sometimes men) and regarded as a sign of rank among the Haida, Tsimshian, T l i n g l i t and a few other northern coast peoples (Boas 1889:12; Drucker 1955:91, 196-7, 1965:41; G a r f i e l d and Wingert 1966:25; Keddie 1981; Krause 1970:96-100; Oberg 1973:83). Material Culture A va r i e t y of tools and implements, weapons, and hunting and f i s h i n g gear were manufactured by f l a k i n g stone, grinding slate and working bone, antler and s h e l l (Barnett 1975:83-8, 98-102; Duff 1952:58-61; Jenness n.d., p. 14; Suttles 1955:24, 1974:223-5). Normally these are the c u l t u r a l remains recovered from archaeological s i t e s i n th i s area, although i t i s acknowledged that these non-perishable remains represent but a minute portion of the material culture associated with Northwest Coast Cultures. The bulk of manufactures were derived from various plant materials, which has been borne out by the excavation of water-saturated deposits which have preserved organic a r t i f a c t s (see Croes 1976). Most important was wood-working, made possible by the red cedar (Thuja p l i c a t a ) which was used for house planks and posts, canoes and paddles, boxes, and numerous other items (Barnett 1975:107-118; Duff 1952:51-3, 55-9; Jenness n.d., pp. 38-9; Suttles 1974:225-9, 248-253; Wilson 1866:288-290). The nature of l o c a l housing was discussed above. The use of the dugout canoe was universal as mobility on the Northwest Coast was a l l but impossible without some form of water transportation. Lacking pottery, wooden boxes were used for water storage and cooking; heated rocks added to a h a l f - f i l l e d box of water brought i t to a rapid b o i l 65 and was an important cooking method (Duff 1952:58, 74; H i l l Tout 1905:234; Jenness n.d., p. 43; Suttles 1974:242). Cracked and broken cooking rocks are common at archaeological s i t e s of a l l time periods i n this area a t t e s t i n g to the antiquity of t h i s cooking technique. In addition to woodworking, a wide range of manufactures were made from other plant materials. Clothing, cordage, bags, baskets and mats among other items were made from cedar bark and roots, cherry bark, willow, n e t t l e , c a t t a i l s and tules or rushes to mention but a few (see Figure 2-16) (Barnett 1975:7-73, 121-2; Duff 1952:57-8; Jenness n.d., pp. 41, 45-9, 1955:7-8; Suttles 1974:231-244). Also important were blankets woven from dog and mountain goat h a i r and animal skins which were also prepared and used for clothing (Duff 1952:53, 57; Jenness n.d., pp. 45-9, 1955:7; Newcombe 1923:153-5; Suttles 1974:263, 265; Wilson 1866:288-9). Seasonal Rounds - Halkomelem and S t r a i t s The Fraser Delta area was occupied by Halkomelem groups, the Musqueam and Tsawwassen at the r i v e r mouth, Kwantlen, Coquitlam, Katzie and further upstream, the Nicomekl (see Figure 2-19). Several parts of this area were shared with outside groups who maintained summer v i l l a g e s at various resource locations; the Squamish in Burrard Inlet and English Bay, the Nanaimo and Cowichan at several places along the lower r i v e r , and the Saanich, Lummi and Semiahmoo on the eastern end of Point Roberts at Cannery Point (see references with Figure 2-19). Boundary Bay and the Crescent Beach s i t e (DgRr 1) l i e s within the t e r r i t o r y occupied by the Nicomekl, whose lands extended from the Fraser River about Fort Langley, up the Salmon River and v i a a portage into the Nicomekl, Serpentine and Campbell River Valleys (Duff 1952:27; H i l l Tout 1902:406; McKelvie 1947:22; Suttles 1949:3, 1955:9, 1974:28-9, 1977:1). Although this group has been c a l l e d the Snokomish, i t was recommended that 66 Nicomekl would be a more accurate name (Kew, Suttles, 1982, pers. comm.). This i s in l i n e with information which Suttles obtained from h i s oldest Semiahmoo informant that "...the o r i g i n a l inhabitants of Mud Bay, where the Nicomekl has i t s mouth, were a t r i b e c a l l e d Sf\9 K dtn^S and that t h e i r r i v e r was c a l l e d Sndk^mAjfs^ , now c a l l e d Nicomekl... "(1955:12). Previous references to the Nicomekl include; SnofclveV/n E+l ( H i l l Tout 1902:406), SnafkomdJ* (Duff 1952:27, v i l l a g e name), and SnokonxiSh (Suttles 1949:3, 1955:9, 12, 1974:28-9, 1977). The Nicomekl had a v i l l a g e on the Fraser at Derby, the o r i g i n a l s i t e of Fort Langley, and other v i l l a g e s (possibly seasonal) at Crescent Beach, Ocean Park, Kwu-uwuth at Point Roberts and at the mouth of the Campbell River (see Figure 2-19) (Duff 1952:27; H i l l Tout 1902:406; Suttles 1949:3-4, 1955:12, 1974:28-9, 150, 1977:1-3). The Nicomekl settlement at the mouth of the Campbell River i s presumably the habitation reported by the Spanish explorer Narvaez (see Chapter 2.7). The Nicomekl were decimated by smallpox by 1850 or before and only scattered references to them exist (Suttles 1974:29, 1977:3). It i s possible however to outline seasonal rounds for two neighbouring groups, the Katzie and Semiahmoo, based on the works of Suttles (1955) and Jenness (1955) for the Katzie, and Suttles (1974) for the Semiahmoo. A hypothethical seasonal round w i l l then be presented for the Nicomekl. Katzie Seasonal Round Beginning around mid-May small groups of 2 or 3 families began leaving the main Katzie v i l l a g e s moving to t h e i r deer, wapiti and goat hunting grounds where they l i v e d i n mat lodges. They also camped around the south end of P i t t Lake where they netted and harpooned sturgeon. Salmonberries were gathered i n the early summer. By the end of July the Katzie gathered on the Fraser for the sockeye season and while waiting for the runs the men 67 Squamish 3 Nicomekl village or campiite linguistic boundary group boundary shared resource areas Nooksack 8, 24 Map 9 10 Barnet t 1975:20 Barnet t 1975:22 B a r n e t t 1975:31 Barnet t 1975:33 Barnet t 1975:5 Boas 1894:654 Bouchard & Kennedy 1974:1, 5-6 Duff 1952:20 Duff 1952:23 Duff 1952:24 Harris 1978 11 Duff 1952:25 21 Kuipers '1969:33-39 " \ 31 S u t t l e s 1955 9 12 Duff 1952:26 22 Matthews 1955:8c. 40 32 S u t t l e s 1955 12 13 Duff 1952:27 23 Nelson 1927:5-6, 15 33 S u t t l e s 1955 13 14 Duff 1964:25 24 Smith 1950:332 34 S u t t l e s 1974 6 15 H i l l Tout 1902: 406 25 S u t t l e s 1949:3 35 S u t t l e s 1974 21 16 Jenness n . d . , p . 8 26 S u t t l e s 1949:7 36 S u c t l e s 1974 23-25 17 Jenness n . d . , p . 10 27 S u t t l e s 1949:8 37 S u t t l e s 1974: 27-33 18 Jenness n . d . , p 25 28 S u t t l e s 1977:1 38 S u t t l e s 1974: 33-34 19 Jenness n . d . , p 26 29 S u t t l e s 1977:3 39 S u t t l e s 1974: 28-29 20 Jenness n . d . , p 53 30 S u t t l e s 1955:8 40 Wi l son 1866:286 41 McKelv le 1947 :22 Figure 2-19. Ethnographic Groups, Fraser River Delta. 68 prepared th e i r nets and the stagings for drying the f i s h . Sockeye were netted and sun dried throughout August, whenever time permitted the women gathered large quantities of s a l a l b e r r i e s , huckleberries and other berries which were dried f or the winter. At the end of the Fraser River sockeye season, around the beginning of September, the Katzie moved to th e i r autumn f i s h i n g s i t e s . The South Alouette River formerly had an October run of sockeye, while both the North and South Alouette Rivers had autumn runs of coho, chum and steelhead, and in odd-numbered years pink salmon (Environment Canada 1925-1970). Through- out October the women preserved salmon, gathered wapato and picked cran- berries and crab apples while the men continued f i s h i n g and hunting deer and other game, and from time to time returned with stores of preserved food to th e i r main v i l l a g e s . About November the Katzie returned to the i r main v i l l a g e s on the Fraser and at P i t t Lake. Netting of ducks and some hunting and f i s h i n g continued as well while the women were busy making clothing, mats and baskets, and weaving blankets. Late i n the year chum salmon were speared at weirs and near t h e i r spawning grounds on the smaller streams, and the f i s h smoked i n small plank smoke houses erected at these locations. The steelhead continued spawning throughout much of the winter (Environment Canada 1925-1970). Throughout the Coast Salish area, early F a l l was the t r a d i t i o n a l time for potlatches when supplies of stored food were p l e n t i f u l (Jenness 1955: 8; Suttles 1974:313). During the winter months the women were busy with, the i r manufactures while the men did some hunting (including beaver and bear) and f i s h i n g , but remained near th e i r v i l l a g e s so they could attend the winter dances which were held n i g h t l y . With the a r r i v a l of spring the sprouts of salmonberry and thimbleberry I 69 were sought and for a short period around April-May the eulachon runs arrived. These were caught with rakes similar to those used for herring and dried on s t i c k s . After the eulachon runs the Katzie families again dispersed to t h e i r various early summer resource locations. Semiahmoo Seasonal Round The main Semiahmoo v i l l a g e s were at Semiahmoo Bay and Birch Bay. In the spring the sprouts of the h o r s e t a i l as well as those of salmonberry and thimbleberry were eaten and herring were taken with herring rakes from the eelgrass beds where they spawned. The submerged net was also used at th i s time to catch diving ducks feeding oni.the herring roe. T r o l l i n g f o r . spring and coho salmon was a common a c t i v i t y using herring as b a i t . In A p r i l and May the Semiahmoo harpooned sturgeon in Boundary Bay, during the daytime at low tide or on moonlit nights at any t i d e . In May the camas blooms, and the Semiahmoo dug them from p r a i r i e s near t h e i r winter v i l l a g e s or l e f t t h e i r v i l l a g e s and t r a v e l l e d to the San Juan Islands for them. While the women dug and steamed camas the men probably t r o l l e d for salmon or halibut. In June, deer and wapiti were hunted on the mainland, e s p e c i a l l y around Lake T e r r e l l . Bucks and stags were preferred at t h i s time of year and the meat was dried for the winter. S h e l l f i s h were also gathered in the summer from various beds at Birch Bay, Semiahmoo Bay and in Boundary Bay and dried for the winter. Late i n June or early July during the lowest tides of the year, anchors for the reef-netting r i g s were placed in preparation for the sockeye and pink salmon runs which began about the middle of July. The Semiahmoo had two reef net locations, one off Birch Point and the other at Cannery Point at Point Roberts which they shared with Saanich and Lummi fishermen. Most fishermen and t h e i r families stayed in mat lodges but there were a number of large plank houses at Cannery Point (Newcombe 1923:60). The f i s h were 70 f i l l e t e d by the women and sun-dried on large frames. Various kinds of berries were also gathered in the summer and sun dried into cakes. Crab- apples were gathered in August and stored in c a t t a i l bags to ripen i n the winter. After the sockeye and pink runs were over the Semiahmoo fished for spring, coho, and chum salmon using trawl nets and gaffs in C a l i f o r n i a and Dakota Creeks or shared access to the Nicomekl weir on the Campbell River. After the Nicomekl became extinct the Semiahmoo b u i l t weirs on the Campbell and Nicomekl Rivers. Later i n the autumn and during the winter beaver were hunted at Lake T e r r e l l and both beaver and bear in the Serpentine and Nicomekl Valleys. Deer and wapiti were hunted in the autumn, concentrating on does and hinds. Ducks were also taken using pole nets at several locations including Semiahmoo Bay. As among the Katzie and other Coast Salis h , autumn was the time for potlatches while winter was devoted to winter dances. Nicomekl Seasonal Round As the Nicomekl were extinct as a group by the mid 1800s, l i t t l e information on them exists and I am indebted to Dr. Suttles for that which he has gleaned from his f i e l d notes. The Nicomekl had v i l l a g e s at Derby on the Fraser River, at the butt of Blackie Spit at Crescent Beach, and at the mouth of the Campbell River (Duff 1952:27; H i l l Tout 1902:406; Suttles 1949:3, 1974:28-9, 150, 1977:1, 3). They also camped at Kwu-uwuth where they dug clams and harpooned sturgeon (Suttles 1949:4). In addition they had other camps (seasonal?) at Blackie Spit and Ocean Park south of Crescent Beach, as well as salmon weirs on the Nicomekl and Campbell Rivers (Suttles 1949:4, 1974:28-9, 150, 1977:1). Presumably they also had salmon weirs on the Salmon and Serpentine Rivers. However from here on we are dealing with speculation. 71 A few scattered references exist in h i s t o r i c a l sources which comment on the use of th i s area by the Coast Sali s h , but these a c t i v i t i e s cannot be d i r e c t l y attributed to the Nicomekl. Work mentions encountering two Indian boys i n a lodge on the Nicomekl when he t r a v e l l e d up the r i v e r i n December of 1824 (McKelvie 1947:22). Johnston (1958:13) reports the find i n g of old camp f i r e s along the Salmon River which contained burnt beaver s k u l l s , while Work reported numerous signs of beaver i n the v a l l e y , as well as wapiti (McKelvie 1947:22-3). Lang (1967:68) mentions Indians f i s h i n g i n the Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers as well as gathering blueberries from the bog between the two r i v e r s (see Figure 2-8). Pearson (1958:3) states that early s e t t l e r s to the area observed tree b u r i a l s at Blackie Spit as well as several b u r i a l huts i n the Mud Bay area. One of Suttles' Semiahmoo informants reports seeing house ruins at Crescent Beach while another claimed there was a smokehouse there i n the 1890s (Suttles 1974:258, 1977:1-2). During the winter the Nicomekl probably casually hunted beaver and wapiti and perhaps deer i n the Nicomekl, Serpentine and Salmon River Valleys. In the spring Fraser River groups would have partic i p a t e d i n the eulachon fishe r y while those i n Boundary Bay could have obtained herring and ducks. Early summer was probably spent hunting deer and wapiti i n the v a l l e y and digging clams and harpooning sturgeon i n Boundary Bay. In late July and August the Nicomekl would have netted sockeye and pink with other Halkomelem groups on the Fraser River and obtained blueberries and other berries from the Nicomekl-Serpentine bog. In the autumn they would have obtained salmon from th e i r weirs on the Salmon, Serpentine, Nicomekl and Campbell Rivers. In fact the v i l l a g e at the mouth of the Campbell River may have been an autumn f i s h i n g weir camp l i k e those of the Musqueam and Katzie, while the two Indian boys reported by Work may have been i n a plank smoke house near a weir s i t e , although as David Rozen (U.B.C.) has pointed out they could as 72 e a s i l y have been on a s p i r i t quest. The above seasonal round i s only one of many possible given the va r i e t y of resources within Nicomekl t e r r i t o r i e s . It i s l i k e l y that t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were more l i k e those of the Katzie than the Semiahmoo. Some doubt i s , of course, cast by the fact that the very scant information we do have on the Nicomekl i s separated from the archaeological record of t h i s study by as much as 400 years. A hypothetical seasonal round for both the Nicomekl and the Semiahmoo i s presented i n Figure 4-6. 2.7 PREHISTORIC CULTURES Archaeological research into the p r e h i s t o r i c cultures of the S t r a i t of Georgia, Lower Fraser River Valley and adjacent areas dates back to the 1890s to the early work of Harlan I. Smith and others (see Thompson 1978: 7-8). The work of over 40 scholars, greatly influenced by more than 30 years of research by the late Charles Borden, has provided us with a 9,000 year c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y o u t l i n i n g the development of Coast Salish Culture (see Carlson 1979:3-12; Fladmark 1981; M i t c h e l l 1971b:29-74; Burley 1979: 19-31). This section b r i e f l y examines the C u l t u r a l Traditions which span th i s period (Figure 2-20). PROTOWESTERN TRADITION U n t i l 14,460 B.P., a l l of southern B r i t i s h Columbia was mantled by ice from the Fraser Glaciation (Figure 2-21) while to the south the unglaciated plateaus and r i v e r v a l l e y s of the western c o r d i l l e r a were populated by people belonging to the Protowestern C u l t u r a l T r a d i t i o n (Borden 1969:8, 1979:964). A number of temporal and regional l i t h i c type cultures belong- ing >:o t h i s T r a d i t i o n have been i d e n t i f i e d including the "Old C o r d i l l e r a n , Windust, San Diequito, Mohave Lake, and Lind Coulee" cultures (Matson 1976:281; also M i t c h e l l 1971b:59-60; Pettigrew 1974:40-1; Swanson 1961:142-3, 73 Cultural Tradition Time B.P. Scale A.D./B.C. Local Cultures Locations Modern Coast Salish present numerous modern villages and reserves (see Duff 1964:25-73) 200 1,800 Developed Coast Salish 1,000 1,000 _ ,„ , (Esilao) G u l f o f (Stselax) (San Juan) Georgia ( w h a l e n n ) Fraser Canyon Fraser Delta San Juan Is. Boundary Bay 2,000 0 AD/BC Marpole Strait of Georgia 3,000 1,000 Locarno Beach Strait of Georgia Proto Coast Salish 4,000 2,000 5,000 3,000 (Eayem) Charles (St Mungo) (Mayne) Fraser Canyon Fraser Delta Gulf Islands 6,000 4,000 ? Lithic Cultures ? ? Olcott Complex ? Strait of Georgia Puget Sound Protowestern 7,000 8,000 5,000 6,000 Q l d (Mazama) Cordilleran Cultures (Glenrose III) (Bear Cove Early) Fraser Canyon Fraser Delta Northern Vancouver Is. 9,000 7,000 (Milliken) Fraser Canyon 10,000 8,000 11,000 9,000 12,000 10,000 Manis Olympic Pen. Sources: Borden 1970, 1975, Butler 1961, C. Carlson 1979, Carlson 1970, Gustafson et al. 1979, Matson 1976, Mitchell 1971b. Cultural boundaries are approximate as considerable overlap exists between dated assemblages. See Figure 2-30. Figure 2-20. Cul t u r a l History of the S t r a i t of Georgia and Lower Fraser River Valley. 74 1962:153-7). Along the Lower Columbia River were people of the Old C o r d i l - leran Culture who spread northward as the ice retreated (Borden 1979:965; Butler 1961:63-4; Warren 1968:27-8). By 8,000 B.P. southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia had been populated by descendents of these people to the north end of Vancouver Island on the coast and into the southern I n t e r i o r Plateau (C. Carlson 1979:183, 190; Sanger 1969:192, 1970:112, 126). In addition to the Early Bear Cove and Lochnore III cultures, other l o c a l occurrences of this T r a d i t i o n include the M i l l i k e n and Mazama Phases i n the Fraser Canyon, Glenrose III i n the Fraser Delta, and the Olcott Complex i n Puget Sound (see Figure 2-21 references). The most common a r t i f a c t s from these early s i t e s include: large asymmetric and symmetric biface knives, l a u r e l - l e a f points or knives (Cascade or Olcott points), formed and unformed flake scrapers, pebble tools, pebble cores, cortex s p a l l tools, hammerstones, edge-battered cobbles, and large quantities of l i t h i c d e t ritus (Borden 1957:107, 113, 1961:4, 1962:10, 1969:8, 1975:63-70; Bryan 1965:175; C. Carlson 1979:183; Matson 1976:289-292). Less common are leaf-shaped shouldered points or knives, contracting stem points or knives, occasionally crude or well made macro- blades, stone wedges and/or bipolar cores, a n v i l stones, abrasive stones, ground and polished s t e a t i t e objects ( M i l l i k e n Phase), quartz c r y s t a l , notched sinker stones, ochre, obsidian flakes ( M i l l i k e n obsidian from Oregon), and a few ground stone fragments (Glenrose III) (Borden 1975:63-70, 107; C. Carlson 1979:183; Matson 1976:158, 289-292). Preservation of bone and antler a r t i f a c t s i s rare, C. Carlson reporting 1 piece each of worked bone and antler (1979:183), while Matson has reported several pieces of worked bone and antler as well as bone awls, antler wedges, and a u n i l a t e r - a l l y barbed bone point (1976:291-2). The lack of preservation of faunal remains at the M i l l i k e n s i t e has 75 A POSSIBLE MIGRATION ROUTES 1 INTO BRITISH COLUMBIA FOLLOWING ICE RETREAT /» . . MAXIMUM EXTENT OF ICE ; > 14,000 BP (Butler 1978, Figure 15) Milliken (DjRi 3) 9000-7190 B.P. (Borden 1975:62) Lochnore (EdRk 7) no dates (Sanger 1969:192, 1970:112,126) Bear Cove (EeSu 8) 8020 B.P. (Carlson 1979:183, 190) Glenrose (DgRr 6) 8150-5730 B.P. (Matson 1976:17-18 Olcott (45SN14) no C u dates (Butler 1961:47-49) Manis (45CA218) 6000-12,000 B.P. (Gustafson et al. 1979:158, 162) Five Mile Rapids (35WS1) 9785-6090 B.P. (Cressman et al. 1960:60,66) 8 Ash Cave (45WW61) 7940 B.P. (Butler 1962:71) 9 Marmes (45FR50) 10,810-7400 B.P. (Rice 1972:31) Figure 2-21. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Some Old Co r d i l l e r a n and Other Protowestern Tr a d i t i o n Cultures. r e s t r i c t e d our knowledge about subsistence a c t i v i t i e s , although from the presence of charred cherry p i t s Borden inferred the s i t e was occupied durin the salmon season in August and September, salmon being important as i t was during ethnographic times (Borden 1961:4, 1962:10, 1975:63, 1979:966). Borden (1961:4, 1975:63) also reported stake molds which perhaps indicate 76 that the salmon were being sun or a i r dried on raised frames similar to the practice of recent S a l i s h (Duff 1952:66). Fortunately preservation i s somewhat improved on the coast. At Bear Cove, C. Carlson (1979:188) has reported 332 f i s h bones and fragments, 72% rockcod (Sebastes sp.), and 10% salmon with lesser quantities of P a c i f i c cod, pollock, sculpin, greenling, dogfish and r a t f i s h . Mammalian remains are dominated by sea mammals (78%), mostly porpoise and dolphin, with some northern fur seal, sea l i o n , sea otter and harbour seal. Land mammals consist mostly of deer with some dog and r i v e r otter while b i r d remains include loon, g u l l , and common murre. Carlson (1979:189) inf e r s that the s i t e occupants had watercraft and sea mammal hunting technology, and that the s i t e was seasonally occupied although the season i s not indicated. The Glenrose III layers provide a glimpse of the subsistence a c t i v i t i e s of these early people i n the Fraser Delta area. Wapiti, deer, and seal are most important with traces of beaver, mink, and unide n t i f i e d b i r d remains (Imamoto 1976:26, 32). Salmon are the most common f i s h remains which also include stickleback, eulachon, starry flounder and sturgeon (Casteel 1976: 85-6). These layers also contain the e a r l i e s t evidence of the use of s h e l l - f i s h , mostly Mytilus edulis although butter clam (Saxidomus giganteus), cockle (Clinocardium n u t t a l l i ) , l i t t l e n e c k (Venerupis tenerrima) and barnacles (Balanus sp.) are also present, and a few pieces of sea mussel (M. californianus) suggesting contact with the outer San Juan Islands or Juan de Fuca S t r a i t (Ham 1976:58-60). Combining seasonal indicators Matson infers that these deposits resulted from early summer and summer occupations by several canoe t r a v e l l i n g nuclear families (1976:298-9). With our present knowledge of these early people i t i s clear that by 8,000 B.P. and probably e a r l i e r they possessed the technologies and pro- curement strategies to obtain p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the resources used by the 77 Coast Sali s h , although not necessarily the same technologies nor as wide a range. Some form of watercraft, perhaps dugouts, was used and probably some form of plank or bark covered frame dwelling, which may account for the presence of antler wedges at Glenrose. Although, t h e i r implements and weapons were manufactured largely from pebble core and biface industries, a r a r e l y preserved bone and antler industry was present as well as the f i r s t traces of a ground stone industry. Population density was probably low, and with the widespread s i m i l a r i t y of archaeological cutlures from Puget Sound and the Fraser River to northern Vancouver Island, i t i s apparent that these groups may have exploited very similar types of resources, and t r a v e l l e d long distances i n the i r annual round, frequently encountering other groups with whom they traded goods and ideas, and with whom they would have intermarried. PROTO-COAST SALISH TRADITION Beginning some 5,500 years ago and for the next 4,000 years we f i n d a series of cultures which share many basic t r a i t s with Developed Coast Salish Culture. Subsistence r e f l e c t s the importance of f i s h and land mammals (especially salmon and deer), followed by s h e l l f i s h and waterfowl with a weak dependence upon sea mammals (see Figure 2-22). The archaeological fauna assemblages i n Figure 2-22 are ranked from most common to least common as reported i n the c i t e d sources and should be regarded with caution. Very r a r e l y preserved are plant foods which were probably at least as important as s h e l l f i s h . Preserved material culture r e f l e c t s i t s o r i g i n s i n the e a r l i e r Proto- western T r a d i t i o n (Borden 1975:72, 87; Matson 1976:285), and through successive cultures we can trace the development and increasing importance of ground stone, worked bone and antler industries at the expense of chipped stone (see Figure 2-23). By inference and some limited archaeological data, 78 i t i s also during t h i s time that woodworking and plant f i b e r industries develop. In the e a r l i e s t Proto-Coast S a l i s h cultures we may f i n d the f i r s t evidence of ascribed status (see Figure 2-27 below). The existence of a single, long t r a d i t i o n has been recognized by previous researchers (Adams 1981:362-3; Calvert 1970:75; Burley 1979:30-1, 102-3; Carlson 1975; Kidd 1965:189; Matson 1976:305, 1981:84-5; McMurdo 1974:161; M i t c h e l l 1971b:61-74). In l i g h t of this c u l t u r a l continuity throughout most of the area t r a d i t i o n a l l y occupied by the S t r a i t of Georgia S a l i s h , I propose we consider these cultures as members of a Proto-Coast Salish Cultural T r a d i t i o n . Charles Culture Type The e a r l i e s t of these cultures are members of the Charles Culture Type composed of three l o c a l cultures including the Eayem, St. Mungo, and Mayne Phases which Borden grouped into h i s Charles Phase (Borden 1975:71-6, 97; Carlson 1970:115-7; Matson 1976:283). M i t c h e l l (1971b:46-7) establishes the use of Culture Type to c l a s s i f y s i m i l a r and temporally related assemblages i n the S t r a i t of Georgia and as I believe we may f i n d regional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s such as phases of value i n dealing with l o c a l cultures, the Culture Type lab e l i s used for Borden's Charles Phase. Dated assemblages range from 5,490 to 3,280 B.P. and are found along the Lower Fraser River Valley and the S t r a i t of Georgia (see Figure 2-24). A r t i f a c t forms retained from e a r l i e r times include pebble tools, cortex s p a l l tools, large and small biface knives and points, single-shouldered knives or points, stone wedges and/or bipolar cores, quartz c r y s t a l a r t i f a c t s , large and small abrasive stones, bone awls, antler wedges, u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed bone points, and an increase i n decorative items of bone and stone (Boehm 1973a:50-2; Borden 1975:71-6; Carlson 1970:115; Matson 1976:289-292, 299; Percy 1974:256-9). New a r t i f a c t s include contracting-stem points, 79 C u l t u r e O l d C o r d l l l e r a n C h a r l e s L o c a r n o M a r p o l e _ . G e o r g i a 1 L . M . F . L . M . L . M . L . M . 2 F . L . M . F . F . F . . 3 S . M . S . F . S . F . S . F . S . F . e ts M 4 B . S . M . B . B . B . 5 S . F . B. S . M . S . M . S . M . t 8 i t e s (1) (3) (3) (7) (6) Key : L . M. — l a n d msD w a p i t i , m a l , d o m i n a t e d t h r o u g h o u t by d e e r and f o l l o w e d by b e a v e r and b e a r . F . - f i s h , d o m i n a t e d by s a l m o n o n t h e r i v e r , h e r r i n g and f o l l o w e d by s t u r g e o n r o c k c o d on t h e c o a s t . S . F . - s h e l l f i s h , a l l t y p e s , e x c e p t f o r O l d C o r d i l l e r a n (1 s i t e ) w h i c h i s m a i n l y M y t i l u s e d u l i s . B . - b i r d , d o m i n a t e d t h r o u g h o u t by d u c k s , f o l l o w e d by g e e s e . S . M . — s e a mams s e a l . a l , low f r e q u e n c y t h r o u g h o u t , m a i n l y S o u r c e s : B o u c h e r 1976 , Capes 1 9 6 4 , 1 9 7 7 , Boehm 1 9 7 3 a , 1 9 7 3 b , Ham 1 9 7 4 , 1976 , t h i s s t u d y , Imamoto 1 9 7 6 , M a t s o n 1 9 7 6 , M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 1 a , 1 9 7 1 b , Monks 1977. Figure 2-22. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Faunal Classes Through Time, S t r a i t of Georgia Area. 50 O l d C o r d i l l e r a n ' Charles 111 Marpole Gul f of G e o r g i a ll 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Key: 1 • chipped s t o n e , 2 • ground s t o n e , 3 • pecked and ground s tone , 4 - bone a r t i f a c t s , 5 - a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s . Sources : A r c h e r 1974, A . S . B . C . 1975, Boehm 1973a, Bur ley 1979, Capes 1964, C . C a r l s o n 1979, C h a r l t o n 1977, Haggarty & Sendey 1976, Ham, t h i s s t u d y , Kew 1955. L e C l a l r 1976, Matson 1974, 1976, McMurdo 1974, M i t c h e l l 1971a, 1971b, 1979, Monks 1976, 1977, Percy 1974, 1977, Seymour 1976, S p u r l i n g 1976. Figure 2-23. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Industries Through Time, S t r a i t of Georg Area. 80 APPROXIMATE BOUNDARY OF STRAITS AND (9) C 1 4 DATED ASSEMBLAGE ^ HALKOMELEM SPEAKERS AT CONTACT 1 DgRr 6 Glenrose (Matson 1976) 3280-4240 B.P. 7 DgRr 1 Crescent Beach (Percy 1974) 4270 B.P. 2 DgRr 2 St Mungo (Boehm 1973b) 3970-4310 B.P. 8 45WH17 Semiahmoo Spit (Grabert & Larsen 4100 B.P. 1975) 3 DhRs 1 Marpole no dates 9 45WH37 Nooksack River 4180 B.P. DhRk 8 (Burley 1979) (Grabert & Larsen 1975) 4 Maurer (LeClair 1976) 3860-4780 B.P. 10 DfRu 8 Helen Point (Borden 1975) 3950-5420 B.P 5 DjRi 5 Esilao (Borden 1975) 3790-5490 B.P. 11 EaSe 2 Bliss Landing (Beattie 1972) no dates 6 DhRq 21 Pitt River (Patenaude pers. 3300-4390 comm.) B.P. ' 12 DiSe 7 Deep Bay (Monks 1977) 4860 B.P. ? Figure 2-24. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Charles Culture Type Assemblages. 81 small end scrapers, chipped stone d r i l l s , chipped and ground sl a t e knives and points, f l a t - p o i n t e d awls, large and small bone unipoints and bipoints, antler tine wedges, s h e l l disc beads and s h e l l adze blades, b i l a t e r a l l y barbed antler harpoons, bone blades or points, bone wedges, a few ground stone disc beads and ground stone adzes (Boehm 1973a:50-2; Borden 1975:71-6; Carlson 1970:115; Matson 1976:289-292; Percy 1974:256-9). Extended b u r i a l s and the use of labrets are also reported for Mayne phase materials by Carlson (1970:115; see also Keddie 1981:66), and by Beattie (1979:314) who reports labret wear on the teeth of an extended male b u r i a l from B l i s s Landing (EaSu 2) (see also Beattie and Percy n.d.). Another male b u r i a l from Mayne Phase deposits at t h i s same s i t e exhibits lambdoidal c r a n i a l deformation (Beattie 1979:313). Lambdoidal c r a n i a l deformation of a male i s also reported at Deep Bay (DiSe 7) where Monks (1977:354-368; Beattie 1979:308) recovered a c a i r n b u r i a l which he places in the " L i t h i c Culture Type" although the associated radiocarbon date of 4860 B.P. f a l l s well within the range of the Charles Culture Type. Clearly, additional evidence i s required to securely e s t a b l i s h the presence of ascribed status in the Charles Culture. M i t c h e l l (1971b:54) and Matson (1976:302) have suggested c r a n i a l deformation as a possible indicator of ranking, while ethnographically labrets were considered a sign of rank on the northern coast (see Ethnography above). Carlson (1970:115) also reports the presence of a microblade industry for the Mayne Phase and other researchers have reported i t for other Proto- Coast S a l i s h Cultures (Borden 1962:16-7, 1970:109; Matson 1976:126-8; M i t c h e l l 1968, 1971b:52, 57). Sanger (1968:111) has pointed out that S t r a i t of Georgia microblade technology represents a d i f f e r e n t technology from the prepared core and blade industry of the I n t e r i o r Plateau, a view often repeated by Magne (1980, 1981, pers. comm.). 82 Magne's argument i s that a microblade-like blade may be f o r t u i t o u s l y produced during the manufacture of chipped stone tools such as bifaces, and thus microblade industries should not be inferred unless microblade cores are also present. To test Magne's hypothesis, I examined the detritus from the experimental manufacture of 4 bifaces (1 basalt, 3 obsidian) and 1 obsidian bipolar core (see Magne 1981). A t o t a l of 5 blades were removed with mean measurements of 1.52 x 0.71 x 0.14 cm, comparing well with ranges of 1.50 to 1.70 cm x 0.57 to 0.69 cm x 0.14 to 0.19 cm reported by Magne (1979) for In t e r i o r Plateau microblades. Review of the archaeological l i t e r a t u r e revealed the proverbial can of worms. Microblades are commonly reported from assemblages lacking microblade cores of the same material while many of the blades are of quartz c r y s t a l (Archer 1974:23-4; Beattie 1972:30; Borden 1962:Plate 7; Burley 1979:355-6, 582; Capes 1977:72; Carlson 1960:572, 574; M i t c h e l l 1968:13, 1971b:47, 156, 1979:83; Monks 1977:98). Some reported micro- blade cores are i n f a c t described as bipo l a r cores, many are of quartz c r y s t a l , some of which are reported as bipolar cores, some as quartz c r y s t a l cores, some as quartz c r y s t a l pieces esq u i l l e e s, and thrown i n for good measure are stone wedges and pieces esquillees of various materials, some apparently suited to production of mi c r o l i t h s , others which are not, yet a l l exhibiting some degree of bipolar damage (Beattie 1972:30; Borden 1962:pl. 7 i ; Burley 1979:368, 582, 593-4; Capes 1977:72; Carlson 1960:572, 574; Haggarty and Sendey 1976:18, 27; Kenny 1974:277; Mi t c h e l l 1968:13; 1979:85, 87; Monks 1977:91). Insofar as I could t e l l , the evidence for microblade cores consists of the following: one "problematic obsidian core fragment" from Cattle Point (Carlson 1960:574), 83 three cores from Cadboro Bay (Mitchell 1968:13, also Borden 1962: PI. 7 j ) , one basalt core from the Royal V i c t o r i a Yacht Club, DcRt 8 (Mitchell 1968:13), one "not convincing" basalt keel-shaped microblade core from Glenrose I (Matson 1976:128), three c y l i n d r i c a l microblade cores of obsidian also from Glenrose I (Matson 1976:128), and one basalt core found "...out of s i t u i n an area disturbed by bulldozing" at the P i t t River s i t e (Patenaude 1982:7-8). Seven of the ten cores, three from Cadboro Bay and four from Glenrose I are associated with dated Marpole assemblages. Thus, evidence for at least the manufacture of microblades would appear r e s t r i c t e d to the Marpole Phase where even there i t was rare, 2 out of 16 dated Marpole assemblages y i e l d i n g microblade cores. We must also consider the very good p o s s i b i l i t y that prepared microblades were being traded from the Interior Plateau which would account for the fin e obsidian microblades Borden (1962:P1. 7a) reports from Whalen II, and probably some others from the S t r a i t of Georgia as well. It i s apparent that t h i s issue requires a more detailed examination. However, throughout the entire Proto-Coast Salish Cultural Tradition there appears to be consistent, although poorly reported evidence for a quartz c r y s t a l m i c r o l i t h or blade industry ( o r i g i n a l l y noted by Carlson, 1954:21-2) which also sometimes includes materials of obsidian and basalt of various q u a l i t i e s . In the majority of cases these blades appear to have been produced using bipolar technology. Patenaude (n.d.) has described a bipolar quartz c r y s t a l blade industry from the P i t t River s i t e which lends additional support to the above suggestion that the role of these a r t i f a c t s i n the S t r a i t of Georgia area requires re-evaluation. Flenniken (1981) has discussed the production of microliths from vein quartz pebbles using bipolar percussion at the Hoko River s i t e (45CA213). 84 The lack of vein quartz materials, and to my knowledge the lack of "pie shaped s p l i t cobble cores" (Flenniken 1981:37) from the Fraser Delta area suggests some differences between the nature of this industry at Hoko River and the Delta s i t e s . Flenniken (1981:56) does however point out the l i k e l y p r e h i s t o r i c existence of "...stone tools employed as bone, antler, and wood wedges (pieces esquillees) but bipolar cores are not the same t o o l " . Unfortunately Flenniken's (1981:51-56) experimental studies of pieces esquillees f a i l e d to provide clues which would allow us to segregate them from exhausted bipolar cores. In addition to th e i r possible use with bone, antler and wood as suggested by Flenniken, t h e i r possible connection with the pecked-ground stone industry should be investigated, in p a r t i c u l a r i n pecking out stone bowls, sinkers and other items. As with the microblade industry, bipolar core and stone wedge industries in the S t r a i t of Georgia also require some specialized attention. It was not possible to segregate these two a r t i f a c t s i n the archaeological l i t e r a t u r e and thus the reason they are lumped together here. It seems though that one or both types are present i n the Protowestern Tradition and p e r s i s t through the following Proto-Coast Salish and Developed Coast Salish Traditions. Locarno Beach Culture Type Occupying the intermediate period of the Proto-Coast Salish Cultural Tradition i s the Locarno Beach Culture Type named for the Locarno Beach s i t e (DhRt 6), f i r s t excavated by Borden in 1948 (Borden 1950:14; M i t c h e l l 1971b:56). Similar assemblages have been recovered from s i t e s i n the Fraser Delta and southern S t r a i t of Georgia with radiocarbon dates ranging from 3520 to 2200 B.P. (Figure 2-25). Unfortunately most of these assemblages remain poorly reported including the type s i t e and the large c o l l e c t i o n from Zone A of the Musqueam NE s i t e (DhRt 4), although these assemblages contain some of the more in t r i g u i n g a r t i f a c t s from the region. 85 1 ShRt 6 2 Doit 4 3 DhRq 21 4 DhRr 6 S DgRs 14 6 DgRs 1 7 DgRr 1 8 45HH48 9 45WH17 10 45WH9 Locarno Beach 2270-2450 B.P. (Borden 1970) Kuaqueaa KE 2550-2970 B.P. (Borden & Archer 1975) Pitt River 2630-2960 B.P. (Patenaude I960, pers. coon.) Belcarra 1710 B.P. (re- jected) (Charlton 1977) Vhalen F a n 2450 B.P. (Vllaeth 1977) Beach Grove 2810-3200 B.P. (Ball 1979) Crescent Beach 2350-3150 B.P. (Trace 1977a. 1977b) Slmonarson 3495 B.P. (Montgomery & Grabert 1977) Sealahaoo Spit no dates (Montgomery 4 Grabert 1977) Birch Bay 3125 B.P. (Grabert 4 Spear 1976) 11 45WB74 12 45WH1 13 DcRu 38 14 DcRt 10 15 DcRt 13 16 DfRu 23 17 DfRu 13 18 DeSt 2 19 DkSf 2 Blackwood Add. no dates (Montgomery 4 Crabert 1977) Cherry Point 2630 B.P. (Schwartz & Grabert 1973) no dates Quick's Pond (Mitchell 1971b) Willow'B Beach (Kenny 1974) Bowker Creek (Mitchell 1979) Georgeson Bay (Haggarty 4 Sendey 1976) Montague Barbour 2890-3160 B (Mitchell 1971b) Pender Canal (Mitchell 1971b) Millard Creek (Capes 1977) 2490-2630 B.P. 2740-2910 B.P. 2820 B.P. 2200 B.P. 3480-3520 B.P. Figure 2-25. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Locarno Beach Culture Type Assemblages. M i t c h e l l (1971b:57) has provided a l i s t of d i s t i n c t i v e t r a i t s for the Locarno Beach Culture Type including: medium-sized chipped basalt points, many with contracting stems; microblades and cores (but see above ); chipped slate or sand- stone knives, or scrapers of generally ovoid or ulu shape; crude cobble, s p l i t cobble and boulder s p a l l implements; large, faceted 86 ground sl a t e points and sim i l a r points of bone; thick ground slate knives, often only p a r t i a l l y ground; small, well made c e l t s , rectangular i n plan and cross-section; Gulf Islands complex a r t i f a c t s . . . ( s e e also Duff 1956); labrets of several forms; earspools; grooved or notched sinkers; handstones and grinding slabs; heavy bone wedges; b i l a t e r a l l y barbed antler points; toggling harpoons of unarmed, one-piece toggling or composite form; antler foreshafts for above harpoons; sea mussel s h e l l c e l t s ; clay line d depressions and alignment of v e r t i c a l l y placed rock slabs;... It has been suggested (Matson 1981, pers. comm.) that some researchers may be contemplating assigning some early Marpole assemblages to the late Locarno Beach Phase. I do not f i n d this surprising and expect that future research and reevaluation of recovered c o l l e c t i o n s may re s u l t i n several realignments of l o c a l c u l t u r a l phases. This i s highly l i k e l y given the poor reporting of many assemblages and the noise created by our current lack of control over seasonality, settlement pattern, as well as v a r i a t i o n in s o c i a l status and dominance of various p r e h i s t o r i c family groups at various times and places. Possible evidence of ascribed status during the Charles Culture was discussed above, while i n the Locarno Beach Cultures this evidence i s much more substantive, thanks to studies conducted by Beattie (1980). The presence of labrets as a Locarno Beach Culture t r a i t has been pointed out above. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t eresting i s that of the 7 crania examined by Beattie from Crescent Beach II; 5 male crania exhibit evidence of labret wear, one of which also has lambdoidal c r a n i a l deformation, as well as one additional male cranium with deformation but lacking signs of labret wear (Beattie 1980:190-206). One female cranium exhibits s l i g h t lambdoidal deformation but no labret wear (Beattie 1980:200). Also of interest i s b u r i a l 5 from Crescent Beach II; a male with labret wear and lambdoidal c r a n i a l deformation, with which were associated 1 chipped stone point, 3 bone awls, 2 pebble core tools, 3 stone and 2 s h e l l beads, 2 abraders, 2 retouched flakes, 8 u t i l i z e d flakes and 3 fragments of worked bone 87 (Beattie 1980:197; Percy 1974:39). Grave goods were also associated with some of the other Crescent Beach II male b u r i a l s including b u r i a l 3 (with labret wear), b u r i a l 8 (with labret wear), and b u r i a l 10 (an old male without labret wear or c r a n i a l deformation, but with 57 stone and 14 s h e l l beads) (Beattie 1980:194, 201; Percy 1974:35, 39). Other t a n t a l i z i n g examples of possible high status male b u r i a l s from Locarno Beach deposits i s a t i g h t l y flexed, eastward facing c a i r n b u r i a l from Montague Harbour I (Mitchell 1971b:147, b u r i a l 6). Haggarty and Sendey (1976:18, 66) report a c a i r n - l i k e structure from Georgeson Bay I containing unsexed scattered human remains, ochre, a pointed bone fragment, a notched stone, quartz c r y s t a l , and a rectangular nephrite object, but r i g h t l y are reluctant to interpret this feature as a b u r i a l c a i r n . In addition, Capes (1977:66) reports a male b u r i a l with c r a n i a l deformation from the basal deposits of the M i l l a r d Creek s i t e (DkSf 2). It was pointed out e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter that the bulk of the material culture of the Coast Salish consisted of items manufactured from perishable plant materials which are not preserved at most archaeological s i t e s i n t h i s area, except under a few exceptional circumstances. A r t i f a c t s of plant materials recovered from water-saturated deposits at Musqueam NE (DhRt 4) i n 1973 and 1974 indicate well developed cordage, basketry and woodworking industries dating back to 2970 B.P. (Borden and Archer 1975:1; Borden 1976a:235). Recovered material includes small baskets, large heavy duty u t i l i t y baskets, large gauge (6-9 cm) netting, wrapped sinker stones, cordage of a v a r i e t y of gauges, yew wood wedges, possible tool hafts, pieces of s p l i t cedar and numerous cedar chips (Borden 1976a). A test unit excavated at a portion of the P i t t River s i t e (DhRq 21) i n 1980 also encountered water-saturated deposits dating to 2930 B.P. containing carved wooden objects, basketry, and adzed stakes (Patenaude 1980, pers. comm.). 88 Croes and Blinman (1980:206, 208, 212, 247-9) have pointed out the di s t i n c t i v e n e s s of S t r a i t of Georgia/Puget Sound cordage and basketry over the l a s t 3000 years when compared to north coast and west coast material. This i s supportive of the suggestion that we consider S t r a i t of Georgia cultures over the l a s t 5000 years as part of a continuous Proto-Coast S a l i s h Cultural T r a d i t i o n . Marpole Culture Type The l a s t Proto-Coast Salish Culture i s the Marpole Culture Type named for the Marpole Midden in Vancouver (DhRs 1) (Borden 1950:18; Burley 1979; M i t c h e l l 1971b:52-6). With dates between 2630 and 1100 B.P., Marpole assemblages have been recovered throughout the southern S t r a i t of Georgia (Figure 2-26). Based to a great extent on i t s elaborate antler and pecked-ground stone art, Marpole Culture has sometimes been regarded as a c l a s s i c stage or developmental plateau of S t r a i t of Georgia cultures, followed by somewhat of a decline (Borden 1962:13, 1968:19, 1976b; Burley 1979:73; M i t c h e l l 1971b:72). While there i s no doubt that the art observed i n early Proto- Coast Salish Cultures i s greatly expanded upon in Marpole Cultures, M i t c h e l l prefers to view the evidence as an early achievement, while l a t e r art at least equals that of Marpole (1971b:72). This stance i s strongly supported by the ethnological c o l l e c t i o n of Coast Salish art recently displayed by the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology (Visions of Power, October 1980-April 1981). Much of the stone sculpture from this area i s poorly dated (Borden 1963:19; Burley 1979:72; Duff 1956:94; M i t c h e l l 1971b:53-4, 72), while of 58 pieces reported by Duff (1975:168-177), 5 may be assigned date estimates between 3,000 and 1,000 B.P., while 5 more are associated with Marpole assemblages. Duff (1956:55-9) has discussed the ethnographic information 89 1 DhRs 1 Marpole 1510-2450 B . P . ( B u r l e y 1979) 2 DhRs 19 L i q u i d A i r no dates (Archer 1974, Percy 1977) 3 DhRt 4 Musqueam NE no dates (Borden 4 A r c h e r 1974) 4 DhRt 3 Musqueam N 1910-2350 B . P . (Monks 1976) 5 DhRt 5 P o i n t Grey 1970 B . P . (Wilmeth 1977) 6 DgRr 2 St Mungo 1120 B . P . (Boehm 1973b) 7 DgRr 6 Glenrose 2030-2310 B . P . (Matson 1976) 8 DhRq 1 Noons Creek no dates ( C h a r l t o n 1977) 9 DgRs 11 E n g l i s h B l u f f no dates ( A . S . B . C . 1975) 10 DgRs 1 Beach Grove 1390-2170 B . P . (Bur ley 1979) 11 DgRr 1 Crescent Beach no dates (Trace 1977b) 12 DfRs 3 Whalen Farm no dates (Seymour 1976) 13 45VH5 Sumas R i v e r no dates (Grabert 4 L a r s e n 1975) 14 45WH17 Semiahmoo S p i t no dates (Montgomery 4 Graber t 1977) 15 45WH48 Simonarson no dstes (Montgomery & Graber t 1977) 16 45WB9 B i r c h Bay 1945 B . P . (Gaston 4 Graber t 1976) 17 45WH1 Cherry P o i n t 2340 B . P . (Grabert 4 L a r a e n 1975) 18 45WH34 Nooksack R i v e r (Grabert 4 L a r s e n no dates 1975) 19 45SK41 S o l e r (Thompson 1978) 2680 B . P . 20 45SJ2 A r g y l e Lagoon ( C a r l s o n 1960) no dates 21 45SJ1 C a t t l e P o i n t 1880-2310 B.P. (Robinson 4 Thompson 1978) 22 45SJ185 Richardson ( C a r l s o n 1960) no dates 23 45SJ25 G a r r i s o n (Bur ley 1979) 1580-2100 B.P. 24 Fox•Cove (Bur ley 1979) 1710 B . P . 25 45SJ105 F o s s i l Bay (Kldd 1969) no dates 26 DcRt 15 Cadboro Bay 1810 B.P. (Bur ley 1979) W i l l o w ' s Beach (Kenny 1974) 27 DcRt 10 2490-2630 B.P. 28 DfRu 8 Helen P o i n t (Bur ley 1979) 1100-2110 B . P . 29 DfRu 13 Montague Barbour ( M i t c h e l l 1971b) no dates 30 DgRv 3 D l o n l s l o P o i n t ( M i t c h e l l 1971a) 1880-2160 B . P . 31 DgRv 4 F a l s e Narrows ( M i t c h e l l 1971b) 1710 B . P . 32 DISe 7 Deep Bay (Monks 1977) 1910-2630 B . P . 33 DkSf 2 M i l l a r d Creek (Capes 1977) 1780 B . P . 34 DcRu 12 Maple Bank (Abbott 1980, pers 2055-2245 . comm.) B.P. Figure 2-26. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Marpole Culture Type Assemmblages. 90 on the use of stone fi g u r i n e bowls and other stone sculpture by Coast Salish r i t u a l i s t s i n a wide range of p u r i f i c a t i o n and l i f e c r i s i s ceremonies. Care should be taken in associating s c a r c i t y of ethnographic information of stone sculpture with decline in use. To my knowledge, no ethnographer ever talked to a t r a d i t i o n a l Coast Salish r i t u a l i s t , and given the nature of the use of these items including those representing guardian s p i r i t s , i t i s doubtful how much information would have been obtained. Also present in Marpole assemblages are microblade cores (see above); triangular chipped stone knives and points, although they are not as frequent and point size decreases r e f l e c t i n g introduction of the bow and arrow; perforated stones; nipple-top hand mauls; nephrite c e l t s i n a range of sizes; uniformly t h i n ground slate knives; large quantities of ground disc beads; small to medium sized triangular and eared ground slate points with f l a t surfaces and faceted edges, as well as some medium size stemmed or notched, and large faceted or l e n t i c u l a r shaped ground slate points; several types of u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed nontoggling harpoons (Marpole harpoons); large fixed u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed antler points; a v a r i e t y of toggling harpoons, a l l of which are rare; while missing are Gulf Islands complex a r t i f a c t s , and some types of ground stone and bone points common in Locarno assemblages, while small bone points, arming t i p s and composite fish-hook barbs are more common in late deposits (Burley 1979:59-85; Matson et a l , n.d., p. 65: M i t c h e l l 1971b:52). Also found i n Marpole assemblages are many of the bone, antler and bipolar tools common throughout Proto-Coast Salish assemblages. As more assemblages are recovered archaeologists have found that most "diagnostic" t r a i t s are not exclusive to the phase or Culture Type they are supposed to define, which led Matson (1974) to attempt multivariate forms of analysis. 91 Matson (1974) was able to demonstrate f a i r l y good agreement between the r e s u l t s of h i s cl u s t e r and scaling analysis and the established chronological sequence. In l i g h t of our lack of control over settlement pattern, season- a l i t y , and v a r i a t i o n i n status (not to mention sample s i z e ) , such agreement i s at the very least reassuring. Future research w i l l hopefully use more of t h i s type of analysis although many c o l l e c t i o n s must be re-examined f i r s t . Evidence of high status individuals i s widely evident in Marpole Culture with various forms of c r a n i a l deformation and labret wear present on both male and female remains (see Figure 2-27). Also present i s a vari e t y of b u r i a l practises as might be expected in a s t r a t i f i e d society including flexed midden b u r i a l s , c a i r n b u r i a l s , b u r i a l s with grave goods, and scattered human remains suggesting above-ground inhumation (Burley 1979: 86-7). Many b u r i a l s are r i c h l y endowed with grave goods, several fi n e examples coming from the Beach Grove s i t e (DgRs 1). Abbott (1962:48-54) has reported several, among them an infant b u r i a l containing copper fragments and 580 whole and 33 sectional Dentalium beads, and an adult male with a copper gorget covered with more than 80 Dentalium beads. Another b u r i a l from t h i s same s i t e was a double b u r i a l containing two s t e a t i t e beads, a carved antler r i n g , a few Dentalium beads, and "...a profusion of clam s h e l l disc beads..." which covered the b u r i a l s from head to foot (Smith 1964:51). Beattie (1980:220) has noted evidence that these two young adult males may have been s i b l i n g s . A c a i r n b u r i a l of an adult male from the Marpole s i t e (DhRs 1), surmounted by a large seated f i g u r i n e , was reported by Burley (1979:561). H a l l and Haggarty (1981) have recently reported on Marpole interments at the H i l l s i t e (DfRu 4) which had associated labrets, disc beads, an earspool, and other a r t i f a c t s . Several Marpole Culture Type s i t e s from the western Fraser Delta area 92 20 15 + 10 + 5 + Early (Charles and Locarno) Late (Marpole) Jfl- 1 20 + 15 + 10 + 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 .1 - lambdoidal 3 = bifrontolambdoidal 2 « frontolambdoida1 4 = labret wear (data from Beattie 1980:190-325) Figure 2-27. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Cranial Deformation and Labret Wear, Proto- Coast S a l i s h Cultures. may have been f o r t i f i e d v i l l a g e s , or were perhaps purposely placed in e a s i l y defendable locations. Five s i t e s , Marpole, Liquid A i r , Musqueam North, Point Grey and English Bluff are a l l situated between 15 and 40 m above sea l e v e l (see Figure 2-26, numbers 1, 2, 4, 5, and 9). I t i s not clear i f these s i t e s were the forerunners of late period trench embankment sites (see Figure 2-29). George MacDonald (1982, pers. comm.) has pointed out that i t i s during this time that defensive s i t e s are noted on the north coast of B r i t i s h Columbia. 93 DEVELOPED COAST SALISH TRADITION Gulf of Georgia Culture Type In the m i l l e n i a preceeding European contact, Coast Salish culture i n the Lower Fraser River Valley and S t r a i t of Georgia consisted of several l o c a l archaeological cultures which M i t c h e l l (1971b:47) has c a l l e d the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type, including the San Juan, Stselax, and E s i l a o Phases (Borden 1970, Carlson 1970). These cultures exhibit strong geographic c o r r e l a t i o n with the S t r a i t s and Halkomelem groups discussed above. An additional culture, the Whalen II Phase t e n t a t i v e l y classed as Marpole Type by M i t c h e l l (1971b:56), may represent a seasonal assemblage (see Chapter 6). Developed Coast S a l i s h Culture i s synonymous with ethnographically reported Coast S a l i s h Culture, the culmination of the developments observed i n the Proto-Coast Salish Cultures. Dating between 1600 and 200 B.P. (Figure 2-28), Developed Coast S a l i s h assemblages exhibit a continuation of many t r a i t s found i n Proto-Coast Salish material culture, but with an increase i n the percentage of bone a r t i f a c t s and a decrease i n those made of chipped stone (Figure 2-23). Not a l l assemblages conform to t h i s generalization, either because of preservation, or because of the seasonal use of some si t e s and the r e s t r i c t e d or speci a l i z e d range of a c t i v i t i e s and a r t i f a c t s at these s i t e s . Well i n excess of 100 a r t i f a c t types have been recovered from late assemblages which I have grouped into 8 major classes based on the archaeological l i t e r a t u r e and the ethnographic sources consulted above (Table I I - I I ) . A r t i f a c t s have been classed as very common (reported i n 5 or more assemblages), common (3-4 assemblages), and uncommon (1-2 assemblages) based upon 18 reported late assemblages (see Table I I - I I references). I recognize f u l l y that many of these a r t i f a c t s are multipurpose, some have unknown uses, and that many assemblages are incompletely reported or contain very small samples. There i s no doubt that future research w i l l succeed in 94 APPROXIMATE BOUNDARY Of STRAITS AND © C " DATED ASSEMBLAGE ^ HALKOMELEM SPEAKERS AT CONTACT 1 DhRt 2 Stselax 660 B.P. 22 DcRv 1 Pedder Bay 140-1580 B.P. (Borden 1970) (Wilmeth 1978) 2 DgRr 1 Crescent Beach 480-1350 B.P. 23 DhSe 2 Shoemaker Bay 500-820 B.P. (Ban, this study) (McMillan 1981, pers. comm.) 3 DhRr 6 Belcarra 1070-1620 B.P. 24 45SJ105 Fossil Bay 1514 B.P. (Charlton 1977) (Kidd 1969) 4 DhRq 21 Pitt River 216-1190 B.P. 25 45SJ24 English Camp 820-1030 B.P. (Patenaude 1980, pers. comm.) (Thompson 1978) 5 DhRp 11 Carruthers no datea 26 45SK51 Pedersen 1160-1190 B.P. (Crowe-Swords 1974) (Thompson 1978) 6 DhRq 1 Noons Creek no dates 27 45SK53 Oscerhof 675-1120 B.P. (Charleton 1972) (Thompson 1978) 7 DgRr 2 St Mungo 390-800 B.P. 28 45SK33 Plshtown 425 B.P. (Boehm 1973b) (Thompson 1978) 8 DgRs 9 Tsswwaasen Beach no datea 29 45SK59A Conway 800-1270 B.P. (A.S.B.C. 1975) (Thompson 1978) 9 DgRw 4 False Narrows no dates 30 4SSK37A Tronsdal 400-640 B.P. (Burley 1979) (Thompson 1978) 10 DISC 1 l i t t l e Qualicum R. no dates 31 45SK77 Rideroat 1080-1340 B.P. (Bemick 1977) (Thompson 1978) 11 EaSe 2 Bliss landing no dates 32 45WH17 Semiahmoo Spit no dates (Beattle 1972) (Montgomery 4 Crabert 1977) 12 DISe 7 Deep Bay 460-900 B.P. 33 45WH9 Birch Bay 1285 B.P. 13 (Monks 1977) (Grabert 4 Spear 1976) DkSg 2 Sandwlck 400 B.P. 34 45WH1 Cherry Point 960-1300 B.P. (Capea 1964) (Schwartz 4 Grabert 1973) 14 DgRv 3 Dlonlslo Point 1400 B.P. 35 45SJ5 Moore no daces (Mitchell 1971a) (Carlson 1960) 15 DfRu 13 Montague Harbour 730-790. B.P. 36 45SJ4 Turn Point no dates (Mitchell 1971b) (Carlson 1960) 16 DfRu 24 Georgeson Bay 750 B.P. 37 45SJ99 Lime Kiln no dates (Haggarty 4 Sendey 1976) (Carlson 1960) 17 DfRu 8 Helen Point 640-700 B.P. 38 45SJ1 Cattle Point no dates (Carlson 1981, pers. comm.) (Carlson 1960) 18 DeRu 36 Towner Bay no dates 39 45SJ3 Jekyl l ' s Lagoon no dates (Mitchell 1968) (Carlson 1960) 19 DcRt 10 Willow's Beach 270 B.P. 40 45SJ186 Mackaye no dates (Kenny 1974) (Carlson 1960) 20 DcRu 12 Maple Bank 170-1460 B.P. 41 DfRs 3 Whalen II 1580 B.P. (Abbott 1981, pers coffin.) (Borden 1970) 21 DcRu 2 Esqulsalt Lagoon - no dates 42 DcRt 1 Shoal Bay no dates (SpurUng 1976) (Mitchell 1980) 43 DeRv 107 Cowichan Bay 780-1240 B.P. (Tip 1982) Figure 2-28. Developed Coast S a l i s h Assemblages. 95 VERY COMMON COMMON UNCOMMON Manufacture ( I n c l u d i n g c h i p p i n g , p e c k i n g , g r i n d i n g , and s a v i n g of s tone , bone, a n t l e r , s h e l l ) ground s l a t e d e t r i t u s bone d e t r i t u s a n t l e r d e t r i t u s chipped stone d e t r i t u s M. c a l i f o r n i a n u s fragments hammerstones cobble c o r e s / p e b b l e t o o l s b i p o l a r c o r e s / s t o n e wedges sandstone saws s m a l l i r r e g u l a r a b r a s i v e s shaped a b r a s i v e s q u a r t z c r y s t a l m a t e r i a l s s l a t e rods a b r a s i v e s l a b s cobbles w i t h f l a t t e n e d faces a n v i l stones a n t l e r t i n e t i p chipped stone gravers chipped stone d r i l l s abraded whale bone i n t e r v e r t e b r a l d i s c Woodworking ( I n c l u d i n g po le and and p lank manufacture aa w e l l as canoes , boxes , e t c . ) s e r p e n t i n e c e l t s or adzes a n t l e r wedges n i p p l e and f l a t top hand mauls bone c h i s e l s or wedges M. c a l i f o r n i a n u s c e l t s a n t l e r s l e e v e ha f t s bone d r i l l s a n t l e r ha f t f o r beaver i n c i s o r a n t l e r h a f t s f o r c h i s e l s or adzes T e x t i l e s ( I n c l u d i n g s k i n work ing , m a t t i n g , baske try and weaving) s p i l t and s e c t i o n e d bone awls deer u l n a awls retouched f l a k e s , s c r a p e r s u t i l i z e d f l a k e s b i r d bone awls , b i r d bone s p l i n t e r awls d l e t a l l y i n c i s e d eye , bone needles a n t l e r awls c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s C e r e m o n i a l - D e c o r a t i v e Items Dental ium beads d i s c beads ( s t o n e / s h e l l ) bone b lanke t p i n s Pecten s h e l l ochre s t e a t i t e p ipes bone pendants l a b r e t s a n t l e r pendants O l i v e l l a s h e l l beads b i r d bone w h i s t l e s b i r d bone tubes , beads e a r s p o o l fragment Hunting ( i n c l u d i n g gear f o r bows and arrows , spears and l a n c e s , deer ne t s ) s m a l l barbed bone l e i s t e r s f o r arrows l a r g e barbed bone l e i s t e r s f o r spears wedge based b l u n t b i r d p o i n t s chipped stone s i d e - n o t c h e d p o i n t s bone, a n t l e r harpoons w i t h l i n e guards , or l i n e groove chipped stone c o r n e r - n o t c h e d p o i n t s bone, a n t l e r r i n g s f i x e d bone and a n t l e r u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed p o i n t s s m a l l , barbed a n t l e r p o i n t s l a r g e bone spear (?) p o i n t s s i d e notched ground s l a t e p o i n t s stemmed, chipped stone arrow p o i n t s stemmed, ground s l a t e arrow po in t s F i s h i n g ( i n c l u d i n g gear f o r n e t s , composite f i s h hooks, f i s h s p e a r s , t a n g e d / i n c i s e d bone and s n t l e r harpoons , t o g g l i n g harpoons Csee below]) t o g g l i n g harpoons bone b i p o i n t s bone u n i p o i n t s t h i n , round bone and a n t l e r p o i n t s b a s a l l y th inned bone p o i n t s b i r d bone p o i n t s notched s i n k e r s tones bone, a n t l e r harpoons w i t h l i n e guards , or l i n e groove bone, a n t l e r r i n g s f i x e d , bone and a n t l e r u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed p o i n t s I n c i s e d bone p o i n t s T o g g l i n g Harpoons ( s i n g l e 3 p i e c e head harpoon used f o r s a l o o n , t r o u t , s e a l , sea l i o n , beaver) s l o t t e d , c h a n n e l l e d , and tapered a n t l e r harpoon v a l v e s t h i n , round bone and a n t l e r p o i n t s t r i a n g u l a r ground stone p o i n t s s m a l l t r i a n g u l a r chipped stone p o i n t s wedge based bone p o i n t s l a r g e t r i a n g u l a r chipped stone p o i n t s b a s a l notched ground stone p o i n t s a n t l e r f b r e s h a f t s corner notched ground s l a t e p o i n t s M. c a l i f o r n i a n u s p o i n t s one p i e c e s l o t t e d t o g g l i n g harpoon Food P r e p a r a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g hand kn ives and other t o o l s ) broken b o i l i n g s tones l e a f shaped b i f a c e s stemmed b i f a c e s ch ipped s l a t e knives ground s l a t e k n i v e s l e a f shaped, ground s tone , bone and a n t l e r kn ives a n t l e r t i n e k n i f e haf t s p e r f o r a t e d stone microblades Sources : B e a t t i e 1972, Boehm 1973a, Borden 1950, C a l v e r t 1970, Capes 1964, C a r l s o n 1954, 1960, 1970, C h a r l t o n 1977, Crowe-Swords 1974, Haggarcy S Sendey 1976, Ham, t h i s s t u d y , Kew 1955, M i t c h e l l 1971a, 1971b, Monks 1977. Table I I - I I . Developed Coast S a l i s h A r t i f a c t Types. 96 r e f i n i n g t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Most a r t i f a c t s are as described by previous researchers, although a few warrant discussion here. Disc beads (under Ceremonial-Decorative Items) reported in a number of assemblages are r e l a t i v e l y rare, except for late deposits from the P i t t River s i t e (DhRq 21) where 76 beads were recovered (Patenaude n.d.). Five ground stone disc beads were also recovered from Layers A and B at Crescent Beach, in association with, or l a t e r than a date of 480 B.P. from Layer B (see Figure 5-8). Burley (1979:69) has suggested that disc beads should be expected i n l a t e period assemblages, while Jenness (n.d., p. 50) reported that women sometimes wore necklaces of small stone beads. Yip (1982) recovered disc beads from the Cowichan Bay s i t e which dates between 780 and 1,240 B.P. Overall there i s a decrease i n decorative items i n late assemblages which may in part be related to possible changes i n b u r i a l p r a c t i s e s , and to the increase i n use of wood and other perishable materials. It was noted above that the use of labrets was not observed among the Coast Salish at contact, and.their presence in late assemblages are rare. A portion of a stone labret stem was recovered from Layer A at Crescent Beach, while labrets were also recovered from late deposits at the P i t t River Site (Patenaude n.d.), and the Cowichan Bay s i t e (Yip 1982). The one reported earspool i s a fragment of worked bone, also from Layer A at Crescent Beach, and i s very similar to one reported by Duff (1956:D49). Other a r t i f a c t s requiring some discussion here are perforated stones, sometimes reported as perforated sinker stones. Matthews (1955:94) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r use as described to him by August Jack Khahtsahlano, cedar dust beneath the stone being ignited from the f r i c t i o n of t w i r l i n g a s t i c k i n the top ha l f of the stone. The same use for these a r t i f a c t s was indicated by a group of Musqueam elders while touring the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology, c a l l i n g the perforated stones "Indian matches" (Steve August to Valerie 97 Patenaude, February 21, 1977). A number of these a r t i f a c t s in the U.B.C. co l l e c t i o n s were examined and found to have polished wear in one half of t h e i r b i c o n i c a l holes, but no evidence of carbon was observed. An undetermined number of a r t i f a c t s was very l i k e l y traded, either as fi n i s h e d products, or as raw material. A r t i f a c t s which may f i t into t h i s group include Dentalium, Pecten, Olive11a, and Mytilus californianus s h e l l s , whale bone blanks, s t e a t i t e pipes, serpentine c e l t s , small triangular side- notched chipped stone arrow points, microblades (Whalen I I ) , and possibly others. In addition to the above s h e l l species several others were apparently traded as well. Tresus capax, Venerupis tennerima, Saxidomus giganteus and Mytilus edulis have been i d e n t i f i e d from archaeological s i t e s in the In t e r i o r Plateau (Ham 1975:180-2, n.d.). Locally, unmodified s h e l l valves were used as spoons and la d l e s , as bowls to catch grease from roasting meat, and to transport l i v e coals for s t a r t i n g f i r e s (Barnett 1975:63-4, 74, 125; Elmendorf 1960:131, 135-6; Haeberlin and Gunther 1930:24; Jenness n.d., p. 43; Stern 1934:52). Duff (1952:95) reports that dried clams were an important item traded to the Upper Stalo by coastal groups. Coast Salish trade practises are not well known, but i f t h e i r widespread s o c i a l contacts are any i n d i c a t i o n , trade in raw materials and fini s h e d a r t i f a c t s was no doubt very important throughout a l l of Coast Salish prehistory. B u r i a l practises of Developed Coast Salish Culture appear as varied as they were during the Marpole Phase. The archaeological evidence indicates several b u r i a l styles including; loosely flexed midden b u r i a l s , s i t t i n g p o s i t ion and c a i r n midden b u r i a l s , and scattered incomplete interments suggesting above ground b u r i a l s ; while a l l have r e l a t i v e l y few grave goods (Burley 1979:337-8; Haggarty and Sendey 1976:66; Ham, this study; M i t c h e l l 1971b:218-9; Monks 1977:355). Borden (1970:112) has reported the h i s t o r i c use of small plank mortuary 98 houses at Stselax while mortuary houses as well as tree b u r i a l s have been reported for Crescent Beach and Mud Bay (Pearson 1958:3). Tree b u r i a l s , canoe b u r i a l s , mortuary houses, wooden grave figures and carved wooden c o f f i n s (Barnett 1975:217; Jenness n.d., p. 90; Suttles 1974:473-5) are a l l more compatible with designated b u r i a l grounds rather than with midden b u r i a l s . These would be separate from midden-habitation areas and thus not as l i k e l y to be encountered during archaeological excavations. Suttles (1977:1) had indicated that the southeastern portion of Crescent Beach was a b u r i a l ground, a contention supported by a test unit excavated there in 1975 (see s i t e description below). It i s quite conceivable that l a t e midden b u r i a l s are those of people of much lower rank than those persons buried in tree b u r i a l s or mortuary houses at designated family graveyards. Even though the archaeological information i s scant, i t does indicate a va r i e t y of b u r i a l practises as might be expected from a ranked society. In the ethnographic portion of this chapter i t was pointed out that c r a n i a l deformation was practised by anyone of good family in Coast Salish society, regardless of sex. Fronto-lambdoidal or the Cowichan type of c r a n i a l deformation appeared with Marpole crania (see Figure 2-27) and i n the l a t e period became the dominant form (Beattie 1980:45-6, 61). Matthews (1955: 202) reports that Tim Moodie from the Squamish v i l l a g e i n North Vancouver who died i n December 1936 was one of the l a s t surviving Coast Salish with a deformed s k u l l , apparently of the Cowichan type, while Suttles (1982, pers. comm.) indicated two of his S t r a i t s informants in the 1940s had deformed s k u l l s . Scattered throughout the S t r a i t of Georgia are numerous trench-embankment structures which probably served as defensive s i t e s (Figure 2-29). A l l of these s i t e s appear to rest on b l u f f s facing the sea and are bounded on two other sides either by the sea or ravines. Trenches have been excavated 99 Sources: Bryan 1963: PI. 12, Mitchell 1968:41, Smith 1907:323, fieldnotes Box 9, files 2, 3, 4. Figure 2-29. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Trench-Embankment Si t e s . across the landward sides of these s i t e s and the f i l l heaped up to form an embankment (Bryan 1963:75; Buxton 1969; M i t c h e l l 1968:29-30, 41; Smith 1907: 323, fieldnotes, Box 9, f i l e s 2, 3, 4). Excavations at two of these s i t e s by M i t c h e l l (1968:32, 42, 44) revealed pcst-stake molds which he suggests may be the remains of posts which supported a plank wall similar to those of Coast Salish plank houses (see Spanish i l l u s t r a t i o n i n Gunther 1972:63). 100 Also associated with these s i t e s are thin s h e l l midden deposits and occasionally house outlines (Bryan 1963:73-4; M i t c h e l l 1968:45; Smith f i e l d - notes, Box 9, f i l e s 2, 3, 4). Bryan (1963:77) concludes that these structures are post contact while M i t c h e l l (1968:45) cautiously suggests they date to the l a t e portion of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type. Given t h e i r wide d i s t r i b u t i o n , the scanty ethnographic information about them, and the fact that they are quite numerous (although poorly dated), we should be prepared for the p o s s i b l i t y that they may have been i n use for most i f not a l l of the time period represented by Gulf of Georgia Culture. Detailed study and archaeological dating of these s i t e s w i l l be somewhat hampered by the fact that many have been destroyed by modern development. Summary, L i n g u i s t i c and Physical Anthropology In summary, i t i s apparent that people of the Old C o r d i l l e r a n Cultures had populated the S t r a i t of Georgia area by 8-9,000 years ago. Between 4,500 and 5,500 years ago we f i n d evidence for the f i r s t signs of the development of Coast Salish Culture. Although there have probably been some small population movements i n and out of the area, there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of any massive population i n f l u x or replacement. B a s i c a l l y , the archaeological data to date favour i n s i t u development of Coast S a l i s h Culture, and even though many pages have been devoted to d i s l o c a t i o n versus continuity, no one has presented any concrete evidence to support a foreign presence i n the area p r i o r to European contact. The reader interested i n these arguments w i l l f i n d them thoroughly handled in several sources (see Burley 1979:94- 118; Fladmark 1975:263-280; M i t c h e l l 1971b:67-79). Following European contact and the introduction of guns, disease and whiskey, most groups shifted t h e i r boundaries to include desirable resource locations which belonged to t h e i r vanished neighbours. Such movements have been reported for the southern Kwakiutl, Kwantlen, Comox, Chilliwack, Sheshalt, Semiahmoo, 101 Sooke, Clallam, and Lummi (Barnett 1975:24-5; Boas 1890:584, 1894:455; Duff 1952:21, 43-4; McMillan 1981:89; Suttles 1974:9-10, 29, 35). Agreeing cl o s e l y with the archaeological interpretations presented here are several l i n g u i s t i c studies which point to the Fraser Delta/southern S t r a i t of Georgia/Puget Sound as the o r i g i n a l homeland of the Salish speaking peoples (Jorgensen 1969:23, 90; Kincade and Powell 1976:91, 93; Suttles and Elmendorf 1963:45; Suttles 1979:27). These same studies suggest early separation of Coastal and I n t e r i o r Salish although some contact has been maintained. Swadesh (1950) in an analysis of l e x i c a l relationships arrived at a separation date of 6,900 years, a value l a t e r revised to 5,500 years (Swadesh 1953:42). Although l e x i c o s t a t i s t i c s have been rejected as being based on f a l s e assumption (Kinkade and Powell 1976:84), this l a t t e r date i s c l o s e l y compatible with our e a r l i e s t radiocarbon estimates of 4780-5490 B.P. for assemblages belonging to the Charles Culture Type, the f i r s t of the Proto-Coast Salish T radition Cultures (Figure 2-24). I w i l l leave evaluation of l e x i c o s t a t i s t i c s to l i n g u i s t i c studies although an i n t e r e s t i n g test of divergence values would be comparison of B e l l a Coola c u l t u r a l history to that of the Fraser D e l t a / S t r a i t of Georgia. A divergence value of 5,500 years i s suggested by Suttles and Elmendorf (1963:47) while Jorgensen (1969:45) argues the B e l l a Coola moved north from a southern point. H i l l - T o u t (1902:407) relates a Kwantlen b e l i e f about a group he argues may have been the ancestors of the B e l l a Coola, while Jenness (1955:88) has pointed out s i m i l a r i t i e s between B e l l a Coola and Katzie cosmogenic myths. Boas (1891, 1897) also noted the B e l l a Coola language was more clo s e l y related to Coast Salish than Interior S a l i s h as has Kuipers (1981:328) in a recent study. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s are c e r t a i n l y i n t r i g u i n g and at the very least suggest closer t i e s between archaeologists and l i n g u i s t s would be mutually b e n e f i c i a l . 102 Additional support for continuity of Coast Salish populations i n this area may be found i n physical anthropology studies of Northwest Coast ske l e t a l materials. Overall there i s general agreement that the Coast S a l i s h , I n t e r i o r Salish, Nootka and Kwakiutl are of common population (Cybulski 1975:v; Finnegan 1972:91-2; Heglar 1957:70; l a s t two sources c i t e d i n Beattie 1980:19, 22). Based on c r a n i a l morphology Beattie (1980:88-92, 165) makes a general conclusion that his Early (Charles and Locarno) and Late (Marpole and Late Period) samples tend to diverge less from Coast Salish samples than from any other. Although Beattie (1980:170) i s not prepared to argue for or against a continuity model, there i s some question as to whether his sample sizes were adequate to i d e n t i f y the range of v a r i a t i o n present i n the o v e r a l l population. As Beattie (1980:28) points out, this unfortunate problem w i l l probably always plague physical anthropologists. One other item deserves a b r i e f discussion at this point. A recurring issue i n the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of th i s area concerns the temporal overlap of various Proto-Coast Salish and Developed Coast Salish Cultures. An ind i c a t i o n of the extent of this phenomenon may be obtained from Figure 2-30. Some lessening of temporal overlap would r e s u l t i f early Marpole assemblages were assigned to lat e Locarno cultures as mentioned above, and i f Whalen II is included with Marpole Cultures following M i t c h e l l (1971b:56). I included i t with the Developed Coast Salish Cultures as I f e e l i t i s no more divergent than l a t e materials from Crescent Beach. A persistent culture h i s t o r i a n could probably make a case for placing the basal deposits of th i s study i n Marpole as we l l . Overall I f e e l t h i s concern arises from our desire f or neat tidy boundaries which would approve of a clear l i n e a l development such as i s represented by l i n e (X) i n Figure 2-30. This does not face up to the r e a l issues involved however. When we take into account our near t o t a l ignorance 103 Old Cordilleran Cultures H Marpole -| Charles Developed Coast Salish Modern Coast Salish o o o o o o o -3" c o o vO c c o CO (years B.P.) Figure 2-30. Temporal Overlap of Proto-Coast S a l i s h and Developed Coast Sa l i s h Chronologies. of settlement pattern, va r i a t i o n s i n seasonal a c t i v i t i e s and associated a r t i f a c t assemblages, and factors such as c u l t u r a l lag and the v a r i a t i o n in wealth and status of various groups both ethnographically and pre- h i s t o r i c a l l y , i t i s doubtful such culture h i s t o r i c a l refinements w i l l contribute much substantive information to our knowledge of the evolution of Coast Salish Culture. 2.8 THE CRESCENT BEACH SITE AND NEIGHBOURS DgRr 1, The Crescent Beach Site The Crescent Beach Site i s situated at the mouth of the Nicomekl River approximately 6 km north of the Canada-U.S.A. border (Figures 1-1, 1-2, 2-31). The modern community of Crescent Beach i s part of the Municipality of Surrey and occupies some 70 ha of lowland at the northwest t i p of the White Rock Uplands. O r i g i n a l l y s h e l l midden mounds and other c u l t u r a l deposits extended over some 18 ha, the majority of these deposits being now destroyed or seriously disturbed. Detailed area by area descriptions of c u l t u r a l deposits at Crescent Beach may be found elsewhere (Ham 1977:62-81, 104 Figure 2-31. The Crescent Beach Site (DgRr 1) and Neighbours. 1978:6-8). Harlan I. Smith v i s i t e d this " . . . r i c h large shell-heap..." on August 7, 1915, and found that the northeastern deposits had already been destroyed during construction of the Great Northern Railway (Smith, fie l d n o t e s : Box 10, f i l e 5). Over the next 65 years urban growth has destroyed most remaining c u l t u r a l deposits, the l a s t surviving midden mounds having been leveled for a park early i n 1980. During 1976 and 1977, observation of deposits exposed by water and sewer l i n e excavations, examination of l o c a l garden plots and flower beds, as well as augering, coring and shovel testing made i t possible to compile a map of the o r i g i n a l extent of s h e l l midden deposits (see Figure 2-32). At 105 the south end of the Burlington Northern t r e s t l e (northeastern portion of Crescent Beach) i s an extensive deposit of oyster and clam she l l s from a h i s t o r i c s h e l l f i s h cannery which operated there u n t i l the early 1960s (Hoos and Packman 1974:86; Taylor 1970:27). Some portions of these deposits are as yet unvegetated (1976) while i n adjacent areas substantial quantities of f i l l have been imported including s h e l l midden material from other parts of Crescent Beach. (Figure 2-32 i s based on a municipal contour map which i s not necessarily t i e d into the same datum as th i s study). The oldest dated deposits at Crescent Beach rest upon beach sands at the base of the White Rock Uplands. Materials associated with Mayne and Locarno Beach phases were recovered during excavations conducted by Percy in 1972 (1974, see location 1, Figure 2-32), by Ham i n 1976 (Trace 1977a, 1977b, see location 2), and by W i l l and Trace i n 1977 (Trace 1977b, see location 3). Shell midden deposits to the west of the above excavations are suspected of containing materials dating to the Marpole phase, although they have not been tested archaeologically except for a b u r i a l salvage conducted by Abbott and the U.B.C. Archaeology Club i n 1958 (U.B.C. Books N6, A24; see location 6, Figure 2-32). Late period deposits at Crescent Beach rest on accretion s p i t sands b u i l t by the northward moving longshore d r i f t currents i n Boundary Bay (Kellerhals and Murray 1969:68, 73; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:2). Test Unit A excavated near the foot of the spi t deposits recovered c u l t u r a l materials similar to lat e period materials from Musqueam (Ham and Broderick 1976:5, see location 4, Figure 2-32). Test Unit B excavated between Maple Street and the Burlington Northern Railway encountered poorly s t r a t i f i e d dark humus with scattered s h e l l , firecracked rock, ash, and several human bu r i a l s including one with grave goods (Ham and Broderick 1976:6, see location 5, Figure 2-32). Although these deposits are undated i t i s suspected they 106 " SHELL MIDDEN BOUNDARY ' ' • BURLINGTON NORTHERN• RAILWAY A EXPOSED QUADRA DEPOSITS © LOCATION OF EXCAVATION PROJECTS CONTOURS ARE IN METRES ABOVE SEA LEVEL UP TO 2.0 M OF SHELL MIDDEN OVER LYING BEACH SANOS Figure 2-32. S u r f i c i a l Deposits and Extent of Cultural Deposits at Crescent Beach. 107 might f a l l within the Marpole phase (Ham and Broderick 1976:5). The recovery of no less than four human interments i n a 1.5 x 1.5 m test unit i s i n t e r e s t - ing i n l i g h t of Suttles' information that the southeastern portion of Crescent Beach was used as a b u r i a l ground (1977:1). Presumably the loose forest s o i l f a c i l i t a t e d the excavation of graves. The midden mound i n the v i c i n i t y of Test Unit A was selected f o r th i s study as recovered a r t i f a c t s (see Table II-III) were similar to those from la t e period deposits at Stselax (DhRt 2). In order to determine whether the contours of the mound were the r e s u l t of p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s , or had resulted from h i s t o r i c disturbance, a series of s i x tree ring cores were removed from trees growing on the s i t e (Figure 2-33). Dates between 1820 and 1904 were obtained i n d i c a t i n g that the midden mound i s the r e s u l t of pr e h i s t o r i c refuse deposition, undisturbed by modern a c t i v i t i e s except for the south end destroyed by the construction of Maple Street. Overall, there i s a good c o r r e l a t i o n between surface contours and the boundary of s h e l l midden deposits at Crescent Beach (Figure 2-32). The excavation of Test Unit A i n 1976 encountered c l e a r l y defined stratigraphic layers of s h e l l , broken cooking stones, ash, humus and sand to a depth of 2.16 m below the surface (see Figure 2-34). This test unit was excavated by hand trowel i n 10 cm ar b i t r a r y levels and the matrix was s i f t e d through 6.35 mm ( i " ) mesh screens (Ham and Broderick 1976:4). Yellow- brown beach sands mixed with some crushed s h e l l were reached at approximately 2.05 m below the surface (ca. 2.24 m above sea l e v e l ) . In t o t a l 28 a r t i f a c t s of stone, bone, antler and s h e l l were recovered from this excavation (see Table I I - I I I ) . Included are chipped stone a r t i f a c t s , and pecked/ground stone a r t i f a c t s (Figure 2-35), bone and antler a r t i f a c t s (Figure 2-36), a ground stone point and a fragment of a ground sl a t e knife (Figure 2-37). P a r t i c u l a r l y useful f o r dating purposes i s a cache(?) of at 108 Treecore Species year number First Year of Growth No. taken of rings (A.D.) 1 Pseudotsuga menziesii 1976 96+2 1880 (1878 - 1882) 2 Acer macrophyllum 1977 147±10 1830 (1820 - 1840) 3 P. menziesii 1977 116±2 1861 (1859 - 1863) 4 P. menziesii 1977 97±2 1880 (1878 - 1882) . 5 A. macrophyllum 1977 143±10 1834 (1824 - 1844) 6 P. menziesii 1977 70+3 1907 (1904 - 1910) Al l ages are minimum values as a l l cores missed the pith. Readings were provided by Marion Parker and Sandra Johnson of the Western Forest Products Laboratory, Vancouver. Parker, October 21, 1976, and Johnson, November 22, 1977. Figure 2-33. Location and Age of Trees Growing i n Excavation Area. least four bone blanket pins recovered from ar b i t r a r y levels 13 and 14 (ca. 3 m a.s.l.) (Figure 2-36). Blanket pins have been reported from the late deposits at Stselax (DhRt 2) (Kew 1955:19, 34). In addition blanket pins have also been reported from la t e deposits at the St. Mungo Cannery Site (DgRr 2) and the Belcarra s i t e (DhRr 6) (see Figure 5-12). Also of (Elevations In rn above sea level, from G.S.C. Monument 6629) (4.24) Y Humus Silt Sand Ash 4.0 x Gravel Block carbon stain CS Crushed shell CC Crushed clam CM Crushed Mytilus edulis 3.0- Black silt with crushed clam' Flrecracked rock -— Black carbon stain with red and while ash 30 cm I From Horn and Broderick 1976 2.0-J (4.295) j^ _ _ _ _ ^ j ^ ^ D a r k brown humus and finely crushed shell Dark brown humus with gravel and crushed shell CS. K \ \ \ \ \ —^—^—^—v-\ \ \ \ \ unexcavated beach sands ——Black humus with crushed shell -Oark brown silt and crushed clam shell -Crushed Mytilus edulis -Black sill wllh crushed clam -Light grey silt with crushed shell -Whole and partial clam valves -Black tilt with crushed clam Oark brown sill with ash, whole clams, large clam fragments -Block carbon slain with silt and crushed shell Dark brown sandy silt with gravel and 'crushed shell Yellow brown sand and gravel and finely 'crushed shell Figure 2-34. DgRr 1 Test Unit A, P r o f i l e of West Wall. 110 Artifact No. Class Provenience 4001 worked antler tine A.L. 2 4002 sectioned bone A.L. 2 4003 faceted ground stone point A.L. 2 4004 antler wedge fragment A.L. 2 4005 1929 penny (U.S.A.) A.L. 2 4006 ground slate knife fragment A.L. 2 4008 bipolar core/stone wedge A.L. 4 4010 sectioned antler A.L. 5 4011 composite toggling harpoon valve A.L. 6 4012 abrasive stone A.L. 9 4013 bone chisel/wedge A.L. 10 4014 bifacial reduction flake A.L. 13 4015 bone blanket pin (2) A.L. 13 4016 worked whale bone (9) A.L. 12-A.L. 13 4017 wedge based bone unipoint A.L. 5 4019 worked bone fragment A.L. 14 4020 worked whale bone (8) A.L. 14 4023 bone blanket pin (2) A.L. 13-A.L. 14 4024 bone blanket pin (2) A.L. 14 4025 worked bone fragments (3) A.L. 15 4026 bone blanket pin fragment A.L. 14 4027 split bone awl A.L. 15 4028 perforated stone A.L. 15 4029 antler pendant A.L. 18 4030 abrasive stone ' A.L. 18 4031 heavy duty chopping tool A.L. 21 4032 bifacial reduction flake A.L. 21 4325 Pecten shell fragment A.L. 21 A.L. = Arbitrary Level Dropped or unused artifact numbers: ( ) = number of fragments 4 0 0 7 ' 4 0 0 9 ' 4 0 1 8 • 4 0 2 1 » 4 0 2 2 - Table I I - I I I . DgRr 1, Test Unit A A r t i f a c t s (n=28). interest are two badly fragmented slabs of whale bone which may have been blanks for the manufacture of barbed points (cf, Figures 2-36 and 5-24). O r i g i n a l l y 15 cm or more in length, and 0.7 cm thick these blanks appear to have been cut into rectangular shapes and were possibly traded from the West Coast. Three a r t i f a c t s from Test Unit A were examined as part of a study of I l l Figure 2-35. DgRr 1 Test Unit A. Chipped, Pecked and Ground Stone A r t i f a c t s . 112 Figure 2-36. DgRr 1 Test Unit A. Bone and Antler A r t i f a c t s . 113 + presence or positive reaction * * strong indication of presence absent or negative reaction all artifacts - for iodine test for plant starch 0 I L 2 cm —I • pitch • pitch -pitch 4 0 3 2 b i f a c i a l r e d u c t i o n f l a k e s -pitch 4 0 1 4 -blood *fat 4 0 0 6 ground s la te knife f r a g m e n t Figure 2-38. DgRr 1 Test Unit A. A r t i f a c t Residue Analysis. 114 blood, f a t , r e s i n , and starch residues on a r t i f a c t s conducted by Broderick (1980). Benzidine was used to test for the presence of blood, Sudan III for resins and f a t s , and iodine for starch, following the techniques described by Broderick (1980). Test Unit A a r t i f a c t s tested for residues included the two b i f a c i a l reduction flakes and the ground slate knife fragment (see Figure 2-38). A l l a r t i f a c t s were negative for the iodine test for plant starches while the ground sl a t e knife fragment yielded positve r e s u l t s for fats only. The b i f a c i a l reduction flakes gave p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s for both blood and tree p i t c h (resin) suggesting they may have been hafted t o o l s . A t o t a l of 31 pieces of l i t h i c d e t ritus was recovered, of which 90% were basalt, but also included were two pieces of quartzite and one piece of chert (Ham and Broderick 1976:16). Faunal material was dominated by s h e l l f i s h remains including Clinocardium n u t t a l l i , Saxidomus giganteus, Tresus capax, Protothaca staminea, Mytilus edu l i s, Ostrea l u r i d a , Thais lamellosa, Balanus sp., and Acmea sp. (Ham and Broderick 1976:17). Other faunal material included land and sea mammal, bi r d and f i s h remains, land s n a i l (Helix sp.) t u r t l e , Cancer sp., and Cervus elaphus (Ham and Broderick 1976:17). Plant communities at Crescent Beach have been altered by h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s although i t i s possible to reconstruct the o r i g i n a l vegetation (see Figure 2-39). The main source for this reconstruction i s North et a l . (1979) whose map c l o s e l y agrees with published photographs and h i s t o r i c descriptions of the area (Lang 1967: Treleaven 1978). Plants and animals native to these communities which might have been used by the Coast Salish are discussed above. The top of the Surrey Uplands was covered by a Douglas F i r f o r e s t . Douglas F i r dominated the canopy and Oregon grape the understory, while 115 locolion of 1977 ticovotions Boundary Bay A 1 mixed wet coniferous A A mixed slope coniferous j w * forest V * forest Jj^ Douglas Fir forest Based on Lang 1967, North et al. 1979, Treleaven 1978, B.C. Airphoto A-2240-83 (1930). Figure 2-39. H i s t o r i c Vegetation at Crescent Beach. s a l a l was also present with minor occurrences of red cedar and hawthorn (North e_t al_. 1979). The steep slopes of the uplands were vegetated by a slope coniferous forest with a canopy dominated by red cedar and broadleaf maple while western hemlock, alder, vine maple and ferns were also present with minor occurrences of Douglas F i r (North e_t a l . 1979). The older s h e l l midden deposits at Crescent Beach were vegetated with a mixed wet coniferous forest with red cedar and western hemlock dominating the canopy while other species included spruce, alder, willow, yew and ferns with minor occurrences of cottonwood and crabapple (North e_t al_. 1979) . This description of the vegetation i n the central part of Crescent Beach i s in agreement with early photographs which show heavy stands of timber (Lang 1967:41, 45; Treleaven 1987:75). The north-central portions of Crescent Beach were grassland (Lang 967:133; North et a l . 1979), while to the west at the base of Blackie's Spit 116 were clumps of mature alders (Treleaven 1978:50). North of the grassland were t i d a l mud f l a t s (Algal Community), while vegetation between the coniferous forests and the beach would have consisted of shrub growth including salmonberry, wild rose and ocean spray. Vegetation around Test Unit A included Douglas f i r , broadleaf maple, wild rose, and giant wild rye grass while much of the area has been lawn for at least 50 years. Suttles (1977:1) has reported that a spring was present at Crescent Beach and from general descriptions by residents i t was located approximately as indicated i n Figure 2-39. The area i n the v i c i n i t y of the spring may have been rather marshy. In addition one small creek and at least two lesser ones flow off the uplands so that freshwater would have been e a s i l y obtained except perhaps during the d r i e s t portions of the summer. Anthropology Creek, just south of the area excavated by this study, was reduced to a t r i c k l e during July and August of 1981. DgRr 5 The Indian Fort Site Located on the b l u f f at the western edge of the Surrey Uplands approximately 1 km south of Anthropology Creek, this s i t e was a f o r t i f i c a t i o n and lookout consisting of earth embankments, trenching, and scattered s h e l l midden deposits (see Figure 2-31). These features were destroyed during the construction of a house i n 1974, although i t i s possible to obtain some idea of the nature of the s i t e . The only published references to the s i t e are too general to be of any value here (Buxton 1969; Pearson 1958:3; Treleaven 1978:8), although some information may be obtained from Harlan Smith's fieldnotes on f i l e at the National Museum of Man i n Ottawa (Smith fieldnotes, Box 10, f i l e 5, and Box 9, f i l e 1). Smith was informed of the s i t e i n 1913 by a G.H. Whyte of Calgary who had v i s i t e d i t i n 1896 and 1906. On August 7, 1915 Smith v i s i t e d the s i t e and concluded " I t should be restored by f i l l i n g i n paths made by c a t t l e , 117 and saved i n a Dominion or Pr o v i n c i a l Park". The Federal Government considered purchasing the s i t e i n the mid 1970's, but the l o t was sold, developed and the s i t e destroyed before any negotiations could be undertaken (George MacDonald, Bjorn Simonsen, July 1976, pers. comm.). Situated approximately 37 m above sea l e v e l , the s i t e i s bounded by a steep c l i f f on the west overlooking Boundary Bay, and by ravines on the north and south sides. Across the eastern edge was an earth embankment about 2.4 m across i t s base (my estimate from Smith's photographs ca. 1 m high), and i n front of the embankment a 3.6 m wide trench (appears about 2 m deep i n Whyte's photographs). A deep cut ran through the embankment which may have had a wooden stockade along i t s top. Smith reports that there was some s h e l l midden material "...inside on the north edge and i n the ridge at east and south". The o v e r a l l s i t e dimension reported on the B.C. s i t e form recorded by Don Abbott (B.C.P.M.) i n 1964 i s 18 x 24 m while the depth of deposit i s unknown. The same s i t e form reports a shallow rectangular depression within the s i t e which suggests there may have been a plank house here. Perhaps th i s i s the Nicomekl house outline remembered by S u t t l e s 1 Semiahmoo informant (1974:258, 1977:1). No excavations have been conducted at this s i t e and according.to the current residents a r e l i c c o l l e c t o r from Seattle obtained many a r t i f a c t s from the s i t e when the present house was constructed. Considering that the s i t e was a grassy area f a i r l y clear of trees when Whyte and Smith v i s i t e d i t i n 1896, 1906 and 1915, i t was probably i n use during the early h i s t o r i c period as well as in precontact and perhaps e a r l i e r times. It i s probably the Nicomekl camp at Ocean Park reported by Suttles (1974:28-9, 1977:1). •DgRr 7 White Rock Petroglyph A large boulder (2.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 m) with a number of pecked holes and c i r c l e s , this petroglyph was formerly situated on the beach near the western 118 boundary of White Rock, some 4 km southwest of Anthropology Creek (Figure 2-31). Presently, i t i s in Petroglyph Park at Crescent Beach at the junction of Beecher St. and the Burlington Northern Railway. Photographs of DgRr 7 are published i n H i l l and H i l l (1974:56). According to the B.C. s i t e form i t o r i g i n a l l y contained many more carvings when photographed i n 1915, but has suffered from erosion and vandalism. No date i s reported f o r i t s move to Crescent Beach. DgRr 9 Ocean Park Beach Petroglyph This petroglyph consists of a pecked face(?) surrounded by a sunburst on a small shiny boulder (0.6 x 0.6 x 0.36 m) and was found on the beach below DgRr 5 i n 1957 (B.C. s i t e form, Figure 2-31). At present t h i s petroglyph i s i n the Surrey Museum at Cloverdale while photographs have been published i n H i l l and H i l l (1974:56) and Treleaven (1978:119). A rough sketch of DgRr 9 from the B.C. s i t e form i s presented i n Figure 2-40a. DgRr 11 Thousand Steps Petroglyph This petroglyph which consists of a f i s h - l i k e design i s pecked into a small boulder (ca. 1.20 x 0.48 m) and i s located just south of the o r i g i n a l l o cation of DgRr 9 (Figure 2-31). Located i n the summer of 1978, DgRr 11 is one of several newly discovered petroglyphs at Ocean Park (Leen 1979:3). A drawing of this f i s h - l i k e design with a pecked out bowl for an eye i s presented i n Figure 2-40b. DgRr 12 Sunburst Petroglyph DgRr 12 i s located about 700 m south of Anthropology Creek (Figure 2-31) and was discovered by Ann and Rene Savenye of Surrey i n 1978 (White Rock Sun 1978:5). Also pecked into a small boulder ( 0.50 x 1.00 x 0.40 m) this petroglyph consists of a face and sunburst (see Figure 2-40c) and has also been reported by Leen (1979:3). Several other boulders i n the v i c i n i t y 119 20 CM For approximate l o c a t i o n of petroglyphs see Figure 2-31. Figures b and c reproduced with permission of Daniel Leen. a) DgRr 9, Ocean Park Beach Petroglyph (from B.C. s i t e form). 20CM 20 CM b) DgRr 11, Thousand Steps Petroglyph. c) DgRr 12, Sunburst Petroglyph. Figure 2-40. Boundary Bay Petroglyphs. 120 of DgRr 12 have small bowl-like holes pecked into them (see Leen 1979:4, and B.C. s i t e form). 121 3.0 ECONOMIC STRATEGIES, SHELL MIDDENS, AND SEASONALITY The Theoretical Background The ultimate energy source f o r organisms on earth i s the small f r a c t i o n of solar r a d i a t i o n manufactured into energy r i c h molecules by green plants, algae and phytoplankton (Gates 1971:89; Odum 1971:1-2). Bennett (1976:138- 9) has divided human so c i e t i e s into two ide a l types; the eq u i l i b r i o u s type (in equilibrium with the environment) that r e l y primarily upon transformed sunlight as an energy source, and the d i s e q u i l i b r i o u s type that uses new sources of energy based on technology and f o s s i l f u e l s . In the eq u i l i b r i o u s type of human society energy i s obtained from the stored supplies i n plants and animals; i n f a c t , throughout most of human hist o r y subsistence depended upon hunting, f i s h i n g , and gathering a c t i v i t i e s (Lee and Devore 1968:3). Many of these cultures maintained human wants and needs at l o c a l l y generated lev e l s evolving into "...sustained-yield resource management systems main- tained by sanctioned r e c i p r o c i t y " (Bennett 1976:275). The archaeological study of subsistence a c t i v i t i e s i s concerned with r e l a t i o n s between human soci e t i e s and t h e i r environment, an area of study commonly regarded as the ecological approach or c u l t u r a l ecology paradigm (Binford 1962:219; Clarke 1968:40, 1972:7; Meighan et