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Seasonality, shell midden layers, and Coast Salish subsistence activities at the Crescent Beach site,.. Ham, Leonard Charles 1982

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SEASONALITY, SHELL MIDDEN LAYERS, AND COAST SALISH SUBSISTENCE ACTIVITIES AT THE CRESCENT BEACH SITE, DgRr 1  by  LEONARD CHARLES  HAM  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 M.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1976  A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY. OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia)  We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1982  ©Leonard  C h a r l e s Ham,  1982  11  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be granted by  permission.  Department of  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  thesis  Department  I t i s understood that copying or  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n written  the Head of my  that  or  publication  s h a l l not be allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s concerned with the a n a l y s i s of a l a t e  portion  of the Crescent Beach s h e l l midden (DgRr 1 ) s i t u a t e d on Boundary Bay i n the southern F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The b a s i c  o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s study are the r e c o v e r y and a n a l y s i s of s h e l l midden l a y e r s and t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on Coast  Salish  s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s , and t o i n i t i a t e a b e t t e r understanding of s h e l l midden f o r m a t i o n . The c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y o f the S t r a i t o f Georgia r e g i o n i s viewed as a 5,000 year long T r a d i t i o n o f Coast S a l i s h C u l t u r e s .  To p l a c e the  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s from Crescent Beach i n t h e i r proper  cultural  e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the environmental, ethnographic and archaeological  s e t t i n g of the s i t e and surrounding r e g i o n i s examined.  The  h i s t o r i c e c o l o g i c a l communities o f Boundary Bay are r e c o n s t r u c t e d and the abundance and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s p e c i e s o f economic v a l u e  determined.  Ethnographic Coast S a l i s h C u l t u r e and economic s t r a t e g i e s are examined and p o s s i b l e settlement p a t t e r n s r e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r Boundary Bay. assist  To  i n i d e n t i f y i n g s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s at Crescent Beach a s h e l l  midden model i s presented o u t l i n i n g the systemic and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s i t e ' s development.  In  l i g h t of t h i s model and the above environmental and ethnographic  data  the most probable seasons o f s i t e o c c u p a t i o n a r e suggested. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l data were r e c o v e r e d by the hand t r o w e l e x c a v a t i o n of a b l o c k o f s h e l l midden l a y e r s and the m a t r i x , provenienced w i t h i n a 0.25 m  2  total  u n i t , was waterscreened  some 24 m  3  through a 1.45 mm mesh screen.  of s h e l l midden weighing  of midden c o n s t i t u e n t s was accomplished  28.8 t were excavated.  through a m u l t i p l e t i e r  In Recove sampling  iv  system.  Radiocarbon  estimates o f 1350 to 480 B.P., p l a c e the 31 l a y e r s r e -  covered from Crescent Beach i n the Developed Coast  Salish Culture.  S e a s o n a l i t y d a t i n g of s h e l l f i s h growth p a t t e r n s and a n a l y s i s o f l a y e r c o n s t i t u e n t s i n d i c a t e the s i t e was a s h e l l f i s h and h e r r i n g h a r v e s t ing camp o c c u p i e d i n February Beach r e f l e c t  and March.  Layers r e c o v e r e d from  s h e l l f i s h and h e r r i n g p r o c e s s i n g (steaming,  Crescent  sorting, refuse  d i s c a r d , and meat p r e s e r v a t i o n ) as w e l l as the immediate consumption of other foods.  Artifacts  a n t l e r , of t o o l s used  i n d i c a t e the manufacture, mostly  i n bone and  i n f i s h i n g , woodworking and hide p r o c e s s i n g , the  l a t t e r two a c t i v i t i e s conducted  at the s i t e .  Procurement of s h e l l f i s h , crab and most f i s h  s p e c i e s probably  took  p l a c e along the 3 km s t r e t c h o f beach south o f the s i t e where p r e s e n t e c o l o g i c a l communities c o n t a i n i d e n t i c a l r e s o u r c e s as found  i n the s i t e .  P e t r o g l y p h s and a f o r t - l o o k o u t s i t e a l s o a t t e s t to the use o f t h i s a r e a . S h e l l f i s h were the most common f a u n a l remain, q u a n t i t y o f f i s h , waterfowl  f o l l o w e d by a much l e s s e r  and some l a r g e mammals.  In a d d i t i o n to the Crescent Beach s i t e , the Deep Bay s i t e and Shoal Bay s i t e  (DcRt  1) may a l s o be seasonal s h e l l f i s h and h e r r i n g  h a r v e s t i n g camps, and i t i s suggested the Locarno and  Beach s i t e  t h a t Whalen I I (DfRs 3) and  (DhRt 6) may have had s i m i l a r uses.  the f a c t a d d i t i o n a l seasonal s i t e s d a t i n g to the Locarno  have been i d e n t i f i e d  (DiSe 7)  i n d i c a t e s the Proto-Coast  Beach C u l t u r e  S a l i s h had a s p e c i a l i z e d  economic system by 3,500 B.P. and p o s s i b l y e a r l i e r . r a n k i n g are a l s o e v i d e n t by t h i s  T h i s evidence  I n d i c a t i o n s of s o c i a l  time.  The approach f o l l o w e d i n t h i s study i n d i c a t e s a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on economic s t r a t e g i e s may be o b t a i n e d from s h e l l middens.  Where r e s e a r c h  i s i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n s e a s o n a l i t y , settlement p a t t e r n and s u b s i s t e n c e  V  the c o n t r o l l e d e x c a v a t i o n  of small b l o c k s of s h e l l midden  layers, fine  mesh water s c r e e n i n g , and a n a l y s i s of small numbers of s h e l l samples be adequate.  T h i s has important  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the study  management of the s h e l l middens of the S t r a i t of Georgia  and  region.  will  resource  vi  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  i i i  L i s t of Tables  viii  L i s t of P l a t e s  ix  L i s t of F i g u r e s  x  Acknowledgements  xvi  Chapter  1  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter  2  THE BOUNDARY BAY  AREA  8  2.1  Climate  9  2.2  Winds, Currents and T i d e s  11  2.3  Geological History  13  2.4  E c o l o g i c a l Communities  19  2.5  European Contact and Settlement  50  2.6  Ethnographic C u l t u r e s  53  2.7  P r e h i s t o r i c Cultures  72  2.8  The Crescent Beach S i t e and Neighbours  103  Chapter  3  ECONOMIC STRATEGIES, SHELL MIDDENS, AND  SEASONALITY .  .121  3.1  Halkomelem and S t r a i t s Adaptive Dynamics  124  3.2  S h e l l Middens and S h e l l Midden Layers  135  3.3  Seasonality Interpretations  166  EXPECTED STRATEGIES AND  174  Chapter 4  MIDDEN DEPOSITS  4.1  Nature  4.2  Possible  4.3  Seasons of Occupation and Expected A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Elements  181  Ethnographic Model of Settlement Pat-terns  184  4.4 Chapter  5  of Regional Energy Flows Seasons of S i t e Occupation  ANALYSIS OF SHELL MIDDEN LAYERS AT CRESCENT BEACH . . .  174 178  187  5.1  E x c a v a t i o n Procedures  187  5.2  Laboratory A n a l y s i s  192  5.3  S e a s o n a l i t y D a t i n g of B i v a l v e Remains  196  5.4  C o n s t i t u e n t s of the Crescent Beach Midden  206  vii  5.5  S t r a t e g i e s and A c t i v i t i e s : An I n i t i a l  Summary and  P o s s i b l e Layer Types  270  5.6  Types of Crescent Beach S h e l l Midden Layers  276  5.7  Summary of Layer Types and Midden Development  334  Chapter 6  CONCLUSIONS  344  6.1  Coast S a l i s h S u b s i s t e n c e S t r a t e g i e s a t Crescent Beach . . 344  6.2  Development of S h e l l Midden Layers  351  6.3  S h e l l f i s h and H e r r i n g H a r v e s t i n g S i t e s : A Coast S a l i s h Settlement Type  355  Summary  363  6.4 7  BIBLIOGRAPHY  8  APPENDIX I :  368 ARTIFACTS FROM THE CRESCENT BEACH SITE . . 401  viii  L i s t of Tables Chapter 2 II-I  Late P l e i s t o c e n e and Recent G e o l o g i c a l  Chronology  of the Western F r a s e r Lowlands  15  II-II  Developed Coast  95  II- III  DgRr 1, T e s t U n i t A A r t i f a c t s  S a l i s h A r t i f a c t Types  110  Chapter 3 III- I  B e h a v i o r a l Chain Model of a S h e l l f i s h H a r v e s t i n g S t r a t e g y . 141  III-II  B e h a v i o r a l Chain Model f o r Manufacturing Cooking Box  III-III  a Cedar 142  Some S e a s o n a l i t y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s from A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Sites  168  III-IV  Marine M o l l u s c Growth Ring Studies  171  III-V  Some S e a s o n a l i t y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s from Marine M o l l u s c s . . . 172  Chapter 5 V-I  Sampling  of Crescent Beach Layers  V-II  Crescent Beach Midden C o n s t i t u e n t s  214  V-III  Crescent Beach L i t h i c D e t r i t u s  220  V-IV  Non-Provenience and S l i t Trench A r t i f a c t s  247  V-V  U n i v a l v e Species and Estimated S i t e Weights  249  V-VI  B i v a l v e Species and Estimated Weights  251  V-VII  S h e l l Meat R a t i o s  253  V-VIII  Crescent Beach F i s h Species  255  V-IX  Crescent Beach B i r d C l a s s e s  260  V-X  E x o t i c B i r d Remains from Crescent Beach  264  V-XI  Crescent Eeach Mammal C l a s s e s  265  ••V-XII  Summary of Expected  273  V-XIII  Crescent Beach Layer Types  Layer Types  194  336  ix  L i s t of P l a t e s  Chapter  5  1  Crescent Beach E x c a v a t i o n  301  2  Feature 2-4  301  Hearth  X  L i s t of F i g u r e s  Chapter 1 1-1  B r i t i s h Columbia  2  1- 2  F r a s e r D e l t a and Crescent Beach S i t e  3  Chapter 2 2- 1  C l i m a t i c Summaries  f o r Crescent Beach  10  2-2  Wind and Ocean Currents i n Boundary Bay  2-3  Extent of the F r a s e r Lowlands, Southwestern B r i t i s h  12  Columbia and Adjacent Washington State  14  2-4  Approximate Extent of the F r a s e r D e l t a , 8,000 to 7,000 B.P.  17  2-5  Approximate Extent of the F r a s e r D e l t a , 5,000 to 4,000 B.P.  17  2-6  T i d a l F l a t s of Boundary Bay as Mapped by Thompson c a . 1912  2-7  Approximate Extent of the F r a s e r D e l t a , 1858 - 1880 A.D.  2-8  Boundary Bay E c o l o g i c a l Communities  2-9  P e l a g i c Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance  2-10  E e l g r a s s Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance.  . . .  28  2-11  A l g a l Mat Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance  . . .  33  2-12 2-13  Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance S a l t Marsh Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance.  2-14  G r a s s l a n d Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance  2-15  Sphagnum Bog Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance.  2-16  F o r e s t Communities Species A v a i l i b i l i t y  and Abundance.  . . .  46  2-17  E c o l o g i c a l Communities and Seasonal Resource Abundance  . . .  49  2-18  Ethnographic  Kalkomelem and S t r a i t s  2-19  Ethnographic  Groups, F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a  2-20  C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y of the S t r a i t of Georgia and Lower Fraser River Valley  . 20  . . 20  ( c a . 1850)  Territories  22 . . . .  24  36 . . 38  . . .  40  . 43  55 67  73  xi  L i s t of F i g u r e s  2-21  2-22  2-23  (Chapter 2 cont.)  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Some Old C o r d i l l e r a n and Other P r o t o western T r a d i t i o n C u l t u r e s  75  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Faunal C l a s s e s Through Time, S t r a i t of Georgia Area  79  D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n d u s t r i e s Through Time, S t r a i t of Georgia Area  79  2-24  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Charles C u l t u r e Type Assemblages  80  2-25  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Locarno Beach C u l t u r e Type Assemblages  2-26  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Marpole C u l t u r e Type Assemblages  2-27  D i s t r i b u t i o n of C r a n i a l Deformation and L a b r e t Wear,  . . .  85 89  Proto-Coast S a l i s h C u l t u r e s  92  2-28  Developed Coast S a l i s h Assemblages  94  2-29  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Trench-Embankment S i t e s  99  2-30  Temporal Overlap of Proto-Coast S a l i s h and Developed Coast S a l i s h Chronologies  103  2-31  The Crescent Beach S i t e  104  2-32  S u r f i c i a l D e p o s i t s and Extent of C u l t u r a l  (DgRr 1) and^Neighbours Deposits  at Crescent Beach  106  2-33  L o c a t i o n and Age of Trees Growing i n E x c a v a t i o n Area . . . .  108  2-34  DgRr 1 Test U n i t A, P r o f i l e of West Wall  109  2-35  DgRr 1 Test U n i t A, Chipped, Pecked and Ground Stone Artifacts  Ill  2-36  DgRr 1, Test U n i t A, Bone and A n t l e r A r t i f a c t s  112  2-37  DgRr 1, Test U n i t A, Ground Stone A r t i f a c t s  113  2-38  Test U n i t A, A r t i f a c t Residue A n a l y s i s  113  2-39  H i s t o r i c V e g e t a t i o n at Crescent Beach  115  2- 40 Boundary Bay Petroglyphs Chapter 3 3- 1 C-Transform Flowchart f o r S h e l l f i s h  119 138  xii  L i s t of F i g u r e s  (Chapter 3 cont.)  3-2  C-Transform Flowchart f o r a Bent Wood Cooking Box  138  3-3  Element Flow Through a S h e l l Midden  3-4  Energy Flow Through a S h e l l Midden  3-5  Model of S h e l l Midden Development  151  3-6  V a r i a t i o n i n Element L i f e s p a n  159  3-7  P a t t e r n s of S h e l l f i s h D i s c a r d  161  3- 8  A n a l y s i s of S h e l l Growth Bands  171  (Systemic Context) . . . 145 ( A r c h a e o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t ) . 149  Chapter 4 4- 1  Main Energy Pathways i n Halkomelem and S t r a i t s Territories  175  4-2  Nature of Seasonal Energy Blooms  175  4-3  Nature of a Sockeye Run as a T r a n s i e n t Energy Flow  177  4-4  Nature of a Berry Crop and B i r d M i g r a t i o n as a T r a n s i e n t Energy Flow  177  4-5  Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance  '.  4- 6  P o s s i b l e Semiahmoo and Nicomekl Seasonal S t r a t e g i e s  179 185  Chapter 5 5- 1  Contour Map of 1977 E x c a v a t i o n s  188  5-2  1977 E x c a v a t i o n G r i d  188  5-3  Temperature and V a r i a t i o n i n B i v a l v e Growth i n Boundary Bay  199  5-4  Seasonality Dating: Cluster I Shells  201  5-5  Seasonality Dating: Cluster II Shells  203  5-6  Seasonality Dating: Cluster I I I Shells  205  5-7  H a r r i s Diagram of Crescent Beach S t r a t i g r a p h i c L a y e r s .  5-8  Crescent Beach Radiocarbon Dates  209  5-9  Mean Layer pH Values  211  . . . 208  xiii  L i s t of F i g u r e s (Chapter 5 cont.)  5-10  Mean Layer P Values  212  5-11  Sediment A n a l y s i s  216  5-12  Occurrences  of Crescent Beach A r t i f a c t s a t  Other  Late Components  217  5-13  Crescent Beach A r t i f a c t I n d u s t r i e s  219  5-14  Manufacturing  A r t i f a c t s I. .  222  5-15  Manufacturing  A r t i f a c t s II  223  5-16  Woodworking A r t i f a c t s I  227  5-17  Woodworking A r t i f a c t s I I  228  5-18  Basketry, M a t t i n g and  231  5-19  D e c o r a t i v e Items  234  5-20  P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t Residue A n a l y s i s  238  5-21  Fishing  Artifacts  239  5-22  Chipped  Knives Residue A n a l y s i s  241  5-23  M i s c e l l a n e o u s Midden Remains  243  5-24  Slit  Trench A r t i f a c t s  244  5-25  Slit  Trench A r t i f a c t s Residue A n a l y s i s  246  5-26  Crescent Beach H i s t o r i c A r t i f a c t s .  5-27  U n i v a l v e Remains from Crescent Beach  249  5-28  B i v a l v e Remains from Crescent Beach  251  5-29  Major S h e l l f i s h Species Meat Weights  253  5-30  I d e n t i f i e d F i s h Remains from Crescent Beach  255  5-31  Layer D i s t r i b u t i o n  257  5-32  Comparison of F i s h Element D i s t r i b u t i o n s  258  5-33  Identified  260  5-34  Layer D i s t r i b u t i o n  5-35  Dabbling and D i v i n g Duck Elements  Bird  Skin Working A r t i f a c t s  of F i s h  . .  Species  Remains from Crescent Beach of B i r d  Species  247  262 263  xiv  L i s t of F i g u r e s (Chapter 5 ccmt.)  5-36  I d e n t i f i e d Mammal Remains from Crescent Beach  265  5-37  Layer D i s t r i b u t i o n of Mammal Remains  266  5-38  Deer and W a p i t i Elements  268  5-39  S h e l l Species/Sample  278  5-40  Q Mode C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s  5-41  Torgerson's B* M e t r i c M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l S c a l i n g of  Weight R a t i o s of Crescent Beach Layers  Crescent Beach Layers  282  282  5-42  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Crescent Beach A r t i f a c t s by Layer C l u s t e r s  . 284  5-43  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Faunal Ranks by Layers and C l u s t e r s  285  5-44  Layer D2  287  5-45  Layer G l ash  287  5-46  Extent of Layer D5  289  5-47  Extent of Layer F4  289  5-48  Layer G2  291  5-49  Extent of Layer L 4 f c r  5-50  Extent of Layer L4 Carbon  289  5-51  Extent of Layer L356  289  5-52  Feature 2-1, Steaming Mound  295  5-53  Feature 2-2, Cobble and Charcoal Spread  298  5-54  Feature 2-3, Ash Spread and Post Molds  298  5-55  C l u s t e r I l a Layer Boundaries  303  5-56  C l u s t e r l i b Layer Boundaries  309  5-57  Cluster l i b A r t i f a c t s  311  5-58  Layers D and E Ash Spreads  312  5-59  Extent of Layer D4  314  5-60  C l u s t e r I I I Layer Boundaries  317  5-61  Cluster III A r t i f a c t s I  318  . 289  XV  L i s t of F i g u r e s  (Chapter 5 cont.)  5-62  Cluster III A r t i f a c t s II  319  5-63  B u r i a l 2-1  from Layer F  322  5-64  B u t c h e r i n g Marks on Ungulate Bones  327  5-65  Layer DI F i r e p i t and Ash Spreads  330  5-66  Elbow Adze from Layer DI  331  5-67  H a r r i s Diagram of Crescent Beach Layer Types  340  xvi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  While  two of my Vancouver Community C o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s , Mrs. Tony  P l e t c h e r and Ian P r a t t i s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t a r t i n g the c h a i n o f events c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , many o t h e r s have a s s i s t e d To a l l of you I o f f e r my s i n c e r e thanks  i n many ways.  and w i t h a p o l o g i e s f o r any s h o r t -  comings, I hope you f i n d t h i s study of worth. I wish to thank the members o f my a d v i s o r y committee, R.G. Matson ( a d v i s o r ) , M i c h a e l Kew, and Wayne S u t t l e s f o r t h e i r encouragement, and p a t i e n c e .  guidance,  I wish a l s o to thank the f o l l o w i n g present and former members  of Anthropology  and S o c i o l o g y ; the l a t e C h a r l e s Borden, Harvey Crew, P a t r i c i a  H i t c h i n s , R i c h a r d Pearson,  Jay Powell, and E l v i  whittaker.  The e x c a v a t i o n s at Crescent Beach (DgRr 1) were conducted  between May 2nd  and August 31, 1977, under Permit No. 1977-6 i s s u e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . excavate  P e r m i s s i o n and approval to  on L o t 47 was granted by the D i s t r i c t o f Surrey and the Semiahmoo  Indian Band (and g r a t e f u l l y a c c e p t e d ) . p r o v i d e d l i a b i l i t y coverage  Columbia  f o r the p r o j e c t while funding was o b t a i n e d from:  the L a b o r a t o r y o f Archaeology, C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch;  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia; the H e r i t a g e  a Young Canada Works and a B r i t i s h Columbia Youth  Employment Grant  to Dr. P a t r i c i a H i t c h i n s (then at U.B.C.); a B.C. Youth  Employment Grant  to Gordon Bryenton  and Margo Chapman (Vancouver  C o l l e g , Langara); and a Canada C o u n c i l Grant  to Dr. R.G, Matson  Community (U.B.C.).  Two v o l u n t e e r s were a l s o o b t a i n e d near the end o f the p r o j e c t from the Canada World Youth Program.  Equipment, maps and other s u p p l i e s were p r o v i d e d  by the L a b o r a t o r y of Archaeology  (U.B.C.), the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n  Branch,  the D i s t r i c t of Surrey, the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, Vancouver Community C o l l e g e , and the Department of Archaeology  (Simon F r a s e r  xvii  University).  I wish to thank Gordon Bryenton, Margo Chapman, P a t r i c i a  H i t c h i n s , G e r a l d H o l d r i n e t , R i c k Percy, R.G. for  making t h i s study p o s s i b l e .  Robert Wilson who Vancouver  Matson, and B j o r n Simonsen  S p e c i a l thanks are due Jean Bussey  and  were i n s t r u c t o r s f o r the Douglas Community C o l l e g e and  Community C o l l e g e f i e l d s c h o o l s .  The e x c a v a t i o n crew c o n s i s t e d of 5 experienced s u p e r v i s o r s and students from two a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i e l d Anthropology 221 for  schools:  Anthropology 190  (D.C.C.) and  (V.C.C.), w i t h each i n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d i n g an  their classes.  instructor  Grants from f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l student job t r a i n i n g  programs allowed most of the students to be h i r e d d u r i n g J u l y and i n c l u d i n g a number of students from the U.B.C. f i e l d p a r t of the Crescent Beach s i t e I o f f e r my  (Trace  August  s c h o o l h e l d at another  1977b).  s i n c e r e thanks to S y l v i a A l b r i g h t , M i c h a e l B r o d e r i c k , Dan  McPherson, W i l l Peacock, V a l e r i e Patenaude, a s s i s t a n c e as f i e l d  and Becky Wigen (Smith), whose  s u p e r v i s o r s ensured the success of the e x c a v a t i o n .  were a l l impressed w i t h the f o l l o w i n g students who wish to express my  We  were crew members, and I  thanks to Greg Bennett, Lee B o l i v a r , Nick Braun,  B r a z i e r , Beth DeBeer, Dave DeWolf, J a n i s Doran, Norm Easton, E r i c  Sheila  Ellington,  Rose G r i n d l , Nancy Gunn, Judy H o l l e t t , A l a n Hood, Stephen Hopkins,  Jane  Hutton, P e t e r J a r v i s , Sharon Johnson, L e s l i e K r a i n e r , Maureen MacPherson, B r i a n M a r t i n , Helen Mason, Dave M e l l i s , Barb M c K i l l i p , Miguel Orrego, Peter Osmack, Margo P i f f e r , L e s l i e P r e n t i s , E r i k a Schneider, Rob.Stuart, Pamela T r a v i s , Rod Van Agteren, Audrey D i s c r o l l Watson, Debi Yee, The  ( V y c i n a s ) , Lynn Watkins,  Jane  Stephanie Y i p , and Monica Young.  success of the f i e l d p r o j e c t was  a l s o made p o s s i b l e by the cooper-  a t i o n and a i d p r o v i d e d by the f o l l o w i n g people.  To them I o f f e r my  gratitude:  Forbes Boyd ( D i r e c t o r , F e d e r a l H a b i t a t P r o t e c t i o n D i r e c t o r a t e ) ; Bernard Charles  ( C h i e f , Semiahmoo Band); Wayne C l i f t o n  ( S t r e e t s Superintendent,  xviii  S u r r e y ) ; Mrs. Dove (Planning, S u r r e y ) ; I n g r i d F i s h e r  (B.C. M i n i s t r y of  Labour); L.T. H a r r i n g t o n ( A s s i s t a n t M u n i c i p a l Manager, S u r r e y ) ; Moira Irvine  (U.B.C.); Jim L e M a i s t r e (Planning, S u r r e y ) ; Tom  Bob Powell (B.C.P.M.); Douglas Immigration); C o l i n Stewart Spratley  Loy  Sawyer ( P r o j e c t O f f i c e r , Manpower and  ( P r o v i n c i a l Water Resources S e r v i c e ) ;  (Research A d m i n i s t r a t o r , U.B.C.); F r a s e r T a y l o r  (Regional D i r e c t o r , B.C.  (B.C.P.M.);  R.D.  (V.C.C.); G.A.  West  F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch); Robert W i l k i n s o n  ( O f f i c e Manager, V.C.C.);  and A l M c M i l l a n (D.C.C.).  I a l s o wish to thank  Surrey C o u n c i l f o r p e r m i t t i n g e x c a v a t i o n s to be conducted on m u n i c i p a l lands, and f o r a l l o w i n g the augering p r o j e c t along s t r e e t r i g h t of ways. To the r e s i d e n t s of Crescent Beach I must a p o l o g i z e f o r any inconvenience, and express my  thanks f o r t h e i r warm r e c e p t i o n and  interest.  Many o t h e r s have c o n t r i b u t e d throughout the f i e l d p r o j e c t ,  analysis  and w r i t i n g of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , and I should l i k e to thank: Don (B.C.P.M.); Jack Armstrong  (G.S.C., r e t . ) ; Owen B e a t t i e  Abbott  (U. of A . ) ; David  Burley  ( A l b e r t a C u l t u r e ) ; Steve C a s s i d y (H.C.B.); Roy C a r l s o n (S.F.U.); M i c h a e l  Church  (U.B.C.); John Clague  (G.S.C.); Susan C r o c k f o r d  Hebda (B.C.P.M.); Steve H e i s s e r Richard I n g l i s  (Environment Canada); A l a n Hoover (B.C.P.M.);  (N.M.C.); Sandra Johnson  (Forest Products Lab); Gary K a i s e r  (C.W.S.); Andrew Lamb (Environment Canada); David Leen George MacDonald  (B.C.P.M.); R i c h a r d  (N.M.C.); James Murray  (Genoa Bay,  (U.B.C.); Margaret North  Marion Parker (Forest Products Lab); the l a t e James P o i n t  B.C.); (U.B.C.);  (Musqueam);  David P o k o t y l o (U.B.C.); M i c h a e l Roberts (S.F.U.); George S i v e r t z (Prism Resources); Dawn S t o f f e r  (B.C.P.M.); and Audrey D i s c r o l l  (Vycinas) (U. of  S.) . I wish to thank M i c h a e l B r o d e r i c k , Gay C a l v e r t , Jim Haggarty, M a r t i n Magne, V a l e r i e Patenaude,  W i l l Peacock, and David Rozen f o r t h e i r  assistance.  xix  I have both enjoyed and b e n e f i t t e d from our many e x c u r s i o n s i n t o the uncharted p a s t .  To Mr. P e t e r Cook (Loans Manager, C.I.B.C.),  s t a f f s of the Awards O f f i c e and Anthropology  and the  and S o c i o l o g y , I extend my  gratitude. Moira I r v i n e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s study i s e v i d e n t from the many f i n e t a b l e s and f i g u r e s , many i n c l u d i n g drawings Margo P i f f e r . a l l o f you. first  done by Debi Yee and  My g r a t i t u d e f o r such f i n e q u a l i t y work i s extended to I e s p e c i a l l y wish to thank Stephanie Y i p f o r t y p i n g the  d r a f t o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , f o r h e r p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  and f o r keeping me a t i t .  1  1.0  INTRODUCTION T h i s study concerns the a n a l y s i s of a l a t e p o r t i o n of the Crescent  Beach s h e l l midden (DgRr 1) s i t u a t e d on Boundary Bay  i n the southern p a r t  of the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a , B.C.  The b a s i c goals of t h i s  ( F i g u r e s 1-1,  1-2).  i n v e s t i g a t i o n were to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g Coast S a l i s h s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s at Crescent Beach, and to develop an understanding of the f o r m a t i o n of s h e l l midden l a y e r s . approach was  used  To meet these goals a c u l t u r a l  i n c l u d i n g a thorough e v a l u a t i o n of r e l e v a n t  h i s t o r i c , ethnographic and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a .  ecological  environmental,  A l s o e s s e n t i a l was  the  implementation of r i g o r o u s f i e l d methods i n c l u d i n g the wide a r e a e x c a v a t i o n of the s h e l l midden by s t r a t i g r a p h i c l a y e r s , w a t e r s c r e e n i n g through f i n e mesh screens, the comprehensive samples,  a n a l y s i s of fauna and o t h e r elements  and s e a s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s of s h e l l f i s h remains.  from  layer  The r e s u l t s of t h i s  study i n d i c a t e that such an approach permits the a c c u r a t e r e c o v e r y of i n f o r m a t i o n on s e a s o n a l i t y of o c c u p a t i o n , s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s , and s i t e f o r m a t i o n processes.  Crescent Beach and  s e v e r a l o t h e r s i m i l a r s i t e s are i d e n t i f i e d  as  seasonal s h e l l f i s h and h e r r i n g h a r v e s t i n g s e t t l e m e n t s which were important components of Coast S a l i s h economic systems. economic system was B.P.  and perhaps  I t i s suggested that a s p e c i a l i z e d  e s t a b l i s h e d among the Proto-Coast S a l i s h people by 3,500  earlier.  The n a t i v e peoples of the Northwest  Coast a t t a i n e d c u l t u r a l  complexity  and p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s seldom e q u a l l e d among known f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g , and food g a t h e r i n g s o c i e t i e s 1975:1; S u t t l e s 1968:56).  (Borden  1975:112; Drucker  1963:1-3; Fladmark  D r i v e r and Massey (1957:173) s t a t e t h a t  "North-  west Coast c u l t u r e competes with t h a t of the A r c t i c f o r the s t a t u s of b e i n g the most d i s t i n c t i v e and at the same time the most f o r e i g n of any i n North America".  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Coast S a l i s h c u l t u r e s i n the S t r a i t of Georgia  Lower F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y were; permanent v i l l a g e s of more than a  thousand  2  F i g u r e 1-1.  British  Columbia.  F i g u r e 1-2.  F r a s e r D e l t a and  Crescent Beach S i t e .  4  people l i v i n g or temporary  i n l a r g e cedar plank houses, and o f t e n w i t h s m a l l e r permanent cedar plank houses at important summer and autumn r e s o u r c e  locations; social s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  i n c l u d i n g a l a r g e upper  c l a s s and a small  group of s l a v e s ; w e l l developed s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n v a r i o u s economic and craft activities  i n c l u d i n g f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g , woodworking, and o t h e r manufact-  ures; s o c i a l u n i t s extending beyond the v i l l a g e ; e l a b o r a t e ceremonialism, and one of the world's d i s t i n c t a r t s t y l e s Suttles  (Lomax and Arensberg  1977:670;  1968).  Suttles  (1968:56) f u r t h e r adds t h a t "...these f e a t u r e s of  Northwest  Coast c u l t u r e s and demography are g e n e r a l l y thought to have been made p o s s i b l e or even i n e v i t a b l y produced,,  by the r i c h n e s s of the h a b i t a t of the  area and i n the e f f i c i e n c y o f the s u b s i s t e n c e techniques of i t s people". While there i s g e n e r a l agreement that c u l t u r e and s u b s i s t e n c e were r e l a t e d , there i s some disagreement Drucker 1965;  as to the nature of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  1963; Drucker and H e i z e r 1967; Matson 1981;  S u t t l e s 1960,  1968;  Vayda 1961).  Orans 1975;  (see Piddocke  R e g a r d l e s s , the annual round w i t h  i t s e x p l o i t a t i o n of s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e s at set l o c a t i o n s at set times of the year was  c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the southern S t r a i t of  Georgia area e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y ( S u t t l e s  1974:105).  The o r i g i n s and development o f Coast S a l i s h c u l t u r e are not w e l l understood, i n l a r g e p a r t due to the s c a r c i t y and poor q u a l i t y of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on s u b s i s t e n c e and  seasonality  (Matson  1974:113, 1981:85).  D i f f e r e n t o r i g i n t h e o r i e s and s u p p o r t i n g data ( i n most cases poor) have been reviewed by M i t c h e l l  (1971:67-70) who  argues that on the whole there i s  good i n d i c a t i o n of c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y between subsequent cultures.  Recent work has  archaeological  s h i f t e d from the once popular m i g r a t i o n model  (Drucker 1963:20-21; Borden 1950a:26, 1962:19) to c o n c e n t r a t e on (Fladmark traits  1975:293-7), or c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , commingling  environmental  and d i f f u s i o n of  (Borden 1975:118) a l l o w i n g f o r more l o c a l c u l t u r a l development.  More  5  r e c e n t r e s e a r c h e r s have, w i t h some q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , tended to f o l l o w M i t c h e l l ' s c o n t i n u i t y model (Burley 1979; (1981:362-3) has  Monks 1977;  Matson 1976).  p o i n t e d out the abandonment of m i g r a t i o n t h e o r i e s by  e t h n o l o g i s t s to account f o r the ethnographic Coast,  R e c e n t l y Adams  d i v e r s i t y of the Northwest  r e a l i z i n g t h i s d i v e r s i t y r e s t s "...atop  a deep m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e which,  d e s p i t e many f i n e s t y l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s , b a s i c a l l y suggests  an overwhelming  s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t i n u i t y " . As Matson (1974, 1981)  has  c l a r i f y i n g our understanding without  attempting  suggested,  l i t t l e hope of  of the development of Northwest Coast c u l t u r e  to improve our knowledge of s e a s o n a l i t y and  i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s spanning area.  there can be  subsistence  the 8-9,000 year h i s t o r y of  this  Both Borden (1975) and Fladmark (1975) r e l y on a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y  r e p o r t e d s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s , which i s s u r p r i s i n g when we the f a c t that only two c o n t a i n any excavated  take i n t o account  p u b l i s h e d s t u d i e s and a h a n d f u l of unpublished  d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of s u b s i s t e n c e from the more than  i n t h i s area  Conover 1978;  (Boehm 1973a, 1973b; Boucher 1976;  Matson 1976;  Monks 1977).  100  Calvert  reports sites  1980;  The weakness of depending on  a data base i s evident i n arguments presented  such  by Borden (1950a:24) suggesting  that Locarno Beach c u l t u r e s were dependent upon sea mammal h u n t i n g .  Although  type s i t e m a t e r i a l has not yet been examined, p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of Locarno Beach f a u n a l remains from Musqueam N.E.  (DhRt 4) i n d i c a t e s sea mammals never  r e p r e s e n t more than 2% of a l l fauna by weight and (Ham  1974:8,9).  l e s s than  1% by  count  In f a c t , based upon what meager i n f o r m a t i o n has been  r e p o r t e d to date, only i n the e a r l i e s t pre 5,000 B.P. any degree of sea mammal use  c u l t u r e s do we  find  ( see F i g u r e 2-22).  I f the a n a l y s i s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s on the Northwest Coast  is s t i l l  Suttles  i n i t s i n f a n c y , s e a s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s are even l e s s  (1968:56) has  i n d i c a t e d the nature  of seasonal  subsistence  developed. activities  6  may  be to a great extent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the success of Northwest  c u l t u r a l development. a c t i v i t i e s may  result  time p e r i o d s (Abbott Mitchell little  I t has a l s o been suggested  that v a r i a t i o n i n seasonal  i n d i f f e r e n t a r t i f a c t assemblages at s i t e s from  similar  1972:274; B i n f o r d and B i n f o r d 1966:239; C l a r k 1975:16;  1971b:50; Newell  1973;  T a y l o r 1948:189; Thomson 1939).  a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d to how  h i s t o r y sequences (see Abbott do  Coast  However,  t h i s might be r e f l e c t e d i n l o c a l  cultural  1972:273-4), even though aberrant assemblages  exist. I t has been widely demonstrated t h a t f a i r l y a c c u r a t e s e a s o n a l i t y  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s may Northwest Coast elsewhere  (Ham  be o b t a i n e d from some marine mollusc and  (Barker 1964;  and Farrow 1968;  Koike  u s i n g these techniques area, and  I r v i n e 1975; C l a r k I I 1968,  1973,  1980;  Ham  1976;  s h e l l s from  Keen 1979)  the  as w e l l as  1974a,. 1974b, 1979a, 1979b; House  P a n n e l l a and MacClintock  1968).  Research  i s meeting w i t h a v a r i e d degree of success i n t h i s  i n view of the importance  of seasonal movement to l o c a l economic  s t r a t e g i e s , continued r e s e a r c h i n t o seasonal i n d i c a t o r s of s i t e  occupation  i s paramount. B a s i c a l l y t h i s study w i l l analyse the s e a s o n a l i t y and composition of a l a t e p e r i o d f a u n a l assemblage i n l i g h t of p r e d i c t i o n s generated  from  ethno-  graphic sources and from the r e c o n s t r u c t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of l o c a l resources.  I f S u t t l e s ' model a p p l i e s to e a r l i e r p e r i o d s , a t i g h t f i t  between s e a s o n a l i t y and r e s o u r c e s should be evident with a c l e a r  indication  as to which r e s o u r c e s were procured, and which were not.  show as  I will  t h i s study p r o g r e s s e s , that t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i s s t r o n g l y supported by data from the Crescent Beach  the  site.  S e v e r a l goals must be a t t a i n e d , or at l e a s t approached, to o b t a i n r e a l i s t i c results,  i n c l u d i n g : demonstrating  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the ethnographic  c o n t r o l over environmental  and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s ,  variables,  isolation  7  of d e p o s i t i o n a l u n i t s , and the c o r r e l a t i o n of these u n i t s with and  recovered c u l t u r a l elements.  seasonality  A r t i f a c t d e n s i t y was low at t h i s p o r t i o n  of the Crescent Beach s i t e , but w i l l a l s o play an important r o l e i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s a t the s i t e . Chapter 2 presents the background to the s i t e ,  i n c l u d i n g environmental  v a r i a b l e s , ethnographic c u l t u r e , and the h i s t o r i c and p r e h i s t o r i c settlement of the area. subsistence  Chapter 3 o u t l i n e s the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of t h i s study, i n c l u d i n g s t u d i e s , s h e l l midden development and s e a s o n a l i t y d a t i n g .  Based  on the review of environmental and ethnographic data i n Chapter 2, p o s s i b l e seasons of s i t e o c c u p a t i o n are presented i n Chapter 4. constituents, and  site  Analysis  o f midden  i n c l u d i n g a r t i f a c t s , fauna and l a y e r s i s presented i n Chapter 5,  subsistence  s t r a t e g i e s are summarized i n Chapter 6.  f o r s h e l l f i s h and h e r r i n g h a r v e s t i n g  The evidence  and other s p e c i a l i z e d s i t e s i n the  S t r a i t o f Georgia i s a l s o reviewed, and i t i s argued that a s p e c i a l i z e d economic system was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d among the Proto-Coast S a l i s h by 3,500 years ago. preservation and  Support f o r t h i s hypothesis i s o b t a i n a b l e of s h e l l midden c o n s t i t u e n t s ,  current  method, and the approach used i n t h i s study.  i n l i g h t of the good  archaeological  theory  8  2.0  THE  BOUNDARY BAY  Boundary Bay  AREA  i s s i t u a t e d on the i n a c t i v e southern f r o n t of the F r a s e r  R i v e r D e l t a and f a c e s southwards i n t o the S t r a i t of Georgia Rectangular  i n shape and approximately  i t s e a s t e r n e x t e n s i o n of Mud  Bay,  13 km by 8.5  km,  covers some 110 km . 2  ( F i g u r e 1-2).  Boundary Bay,  including  Headlands on  either  s i d e of Boundary Bay are composed of u n c o n s o l i d a t e d P l e i s t o c e n e d e p o s i t s r i s i n g 60 to 90 m above sea l e v e l  (see F i g u r e 2-2,  n o r t h e r n margins o f the Bay,  Nicomekl  Bay  ( F i g u r e 2-7).  i s a l s o composed of low l y i n g  At the mouth of the Nicomekl  Rock Uplands,  and sloughs  To  and are  the  l i e s the a c t i v e d e l t a of the Serpentine and  R i v e r s whose 6,400 ha v a l l e y  deposits.  Along the northwestern  approximately 4,400 ha of a l l u v i a l lowlands  d r a i n e d by a d e n d r i t i c p a t t e r n of streams n o r t h e a s t and f a c i n g Mud  2-3).  alluvial  R i v e r below the P l e i s t o c e n e White  on o l d beach and more r e c e n t a c c r e t i o n s p i t d e p o s i t s , i s the  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e of Crescent Beach. The  lowest low t i d e s i n Boundary Bay expose approximately 6,100  ha of  t i d a l f l a t s composed mainly of "...sand with l e s s e r amounts of s i l t y sandy muds..." ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:68). p o i n t out the uniqueness  of these t i d a l f l a t s  Swinbanks and Murray  z o n a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y c o n t r o l l e d by e l e v a t i o n and exposure.  Bay,  i n Boundary Bay  the e r o d i n g Mud  Bay  S t r a i t of Georgia  flats,  flora/faunal  Current  sources  i n c l u d e the P l e i s t o c e n e Uplands at the head of the  saltmarsh, the Serpentine and Nicomekl  F r a s e r R i v e r s i l t s brought  (1978:1)  i n that u n l i k e most t i d a l  there i s v e r y s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n g r a i n s i z e with the r e s u l t that  of sediment  and  R i v e r s , and  i n t o the Bay by the g y r a l c u r r e n t s of the  Southern  ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:68; T a y l o r 1970:4-5).  Boundary Bay may  be c o n s i d e r e d a n a t u r a l system  (Church and Rubin  1970:  16) and combined w i t h i t s drainage b a s i n c o n t a i n s a wide range o f d i s t i n c t microenvironments.  These e c o l o g i c a l communities and t h e i r r e s o u r c e s are  d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 2.4  of t h i s chapter w h i l e the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s cover  9  the c l i m a t o l o g y , oceanography, g e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of the Boundary Bay 2.1  and Crescent  Beach a r e a .  CLIMATE T e c h n i c a l l y the c l i m a t e of the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a i s c l a s s i f i e d  Kbppen Mediterranean type  type  as  (Csb), but has been d e s c r i b e d as a m o d i f i e d maritime  (Hoos.and Packman 1974:30).  The  c l i m a t e of t h i s area i s i n f l u e n c e d by  s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g ; the presence of the land-sea boundary, the Olympic Mountains and Vancouver I s l a n d Ranges to the southwest and west, the Mountains to the n o r t h , and  Coast  the F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y to the e a s t , a l l i n t e r -  a c t i n g w i t h atmospheric c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n s on a seasonal b a s i s (Hoos and Packman 1974:30). During w i n t e r a southwesterly  a i r f l o w b r i n g s moist P a c i f i c  does a secondary storm t r a c k from the G u l f of A l a s k a . p r e c i p i t a t i o n , winter  Bringing increased  storms from the warm P a c i f i c Ocean modify  temperatures so t h a t w i n t e r s are m i l d  storms as  ( F i g u r e 2 - l a ) , although  annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s r e c e i v e d between October and March.  local  72% of the Normally  Coast Mountains b l o c k the flow of c o l d A r c t i c A i r masses onto the except  i n r a r e cases when a i r temperature may  Rock) (Environment Canada 1973a:123).  f o r a day or two.  be  9  (White  i s eroded away by a P a c i f i c  i n the form of snow which w i l l on o c c a s i o n remain  An annual average of 7 days of s n o w f a l l i s r e c o r d e d f o r  Ladner and 8 f o r White Rock (Environment Canada 1973b:283, In the summer an expanded P a c i f i c a n t i c y c l o n e normally storms w e l l o f f s h o r e w h i l e upper winds are dry and by land-sea breeze  coast  P e r i o d s under . A r c t i c c o l d a i r are  u s u a l l y short l i v e d and as the h i g h p r e s s u r e storm, p r e c i p i t a t i o n may  drop as low as -20 C  the  circulations  (Hay  and Oke  T h i s e x e r t s a c o o l i n g e f f e c t which prevents i n warm dry summers.  285). diverts Pacific  l o c a l wind flows dominated  1976:7; Hoos and Packman 1974:31). h i g h temperatures and  On o c c a s i o n the area experiences  hot  results  s p e l l s as w e l l  10  (a)  MEAN  J  (c)  F  FROST  (d)  T E M P E R A T U R E °C  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  O  N  PRECIPITATION  mm  D  DAYS  Note: Temperature, frost days, and precipitation values are an average of values reported for Ladner and White Rock, 12 km northwest and 5 km southeast respectively, from Crescent Beach. Bright sunshine values are for Vancouver International Airport, 25 km northwest of Crescent Beach. Sources:  F i g u r e 2-1.  a  Environment Canada 1973a:2, 4.  b  Hay and Oke 1976:19.  c  Environment Canada 1973a:167, 169.  d  Environment Canada 1973b:53, 55.  C l i m a t i c Summaries f o r Crescent  as periods cf wet, cool weather.  Beach.  Ladner has a recorded August temperature  maximum of 35°C as well as a July minimum of 1°C (Environment Canada  11  1973a:68,119),  w h i l e White Rock has recorded a maximum 24 hour  rainfall  of 47 mm f o r August, a month with a mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n of 42.7 mm (Environment Canada  1973b:55,87).  O v e r a l l the c l i m a t e of the Boundary Bay area i s m i l d e r and d r i e r than that of the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n s of the F r a s e r D e l t a and the Vancouver a r e a . Sunny s k i e s a r e common, w h i l e Vancouver i s e x p e r i e n c i n g r a i n as m o i s t u r e laden clouds a r e f o r c e d over the n o r t h s h o r e mountains, and have earned Boundary Bay the name of "Sunshine B e l t " . 2.2  WINDS, CURRENTS AND TIDES Surface wind p a t t e r n s i n the southern S t r a i t of Georgia a r e s t r o n g l y  i n f l u e n c e d by l o c a l topography (Hoos and Packman 1974:38; Waldichuk S o u t h e a s t e r l y winds c i r c u l a t i n g  1957:418).  i n a c o u n t e r - c l o c k w i s e d i r e c t i o n predominate  throughout the y e a r except f o r e a r l y and l a t e summer when n o r t h e a s t e r l y winds i n c r e a s e i n frequency (Waldichuk  1957:417-9).  Augmented by wind c i r c u l a t i o n as w e l l as i n f l u e n c e d by C o r i o l i s and c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s , s u r f a c e waters i n the southern S t r a i t of G e o r g i a a l s o c i r c u l a t e i n a counter-clockwise d i r e c t i o n  (Church and Rubin 1970:8, 9;  Waldichuk 1957:386).  T h i s c o u n t e r - c l o c k w i s e c i r c u l a t i o n moves a c r o s s  Bay from east to west  ( F i g u r e 2-2).  of the Bay longshore d r i f t Bay r e s u l t i n g  Boundary  Along the e a s t e r n and western margins  c u r r e n t s c a r r y sediments northwards i n t o the  i n a c c r e t i o n s p i t s a t both Crescent Beach and Beach Grove  (Swinbanks and Murray 1978:2).  U n c o n s o l i d a t e d P l e i s t o c e n e d e p o s i t s at the  head of Boundary Bay are the prime source f o r t h i s m a t e r i a l Murray 1969:68, 73; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:2).  ( K e l l e r h a l s and  W i t h i n Boundary Bay the  main c u r r e n t s a r e the a l t e r n a t i n g n o r t h - s o u t h f i l l i n g  and d r a i n i n g of t i d a l  f l a t s v i a f o r e s h o r e channels (Church and Rubin 1970:9, 14) and the southward flow of the submerged Figures  2-6,2-7).  channel of the Serpentine and Nicomekl R i v e r s (see  12  Figure 2-2.  Wind and Ocean Currents i n Boundary Bay.  The t i d a l p a t t e r n of the S t r a i t of Georgia i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the P a c i f i c c o a s t of North America c o n s i s t i n g of d i u r n a l and s e m i d i u r n a l t i d e s (Hoos and Packman 1974:77).  Known as a mixed s e m i d i u r n a l p a t t e r n , they  c o n s i s t of two highs and two  lows of unequal amplitude each day.  The  are most d i f f e r e n t d u r i n g p e r i o d s of s p r i n g t i d e s , becoming reduced e l i m i n a t e d by the next neap t i d e p e r i o d .  The two  and  s e t s of low t i d e s then  c r o s s over so that the low low t i d e s of one f o r t n i g h t become h i g h low of the next f o r t n i g h t .  lows  tides  There i s seasonal v a r i a t i o n i n the times and  magnitudes of the t i d e s , the lowest low t i d e s occur near midday d u r i n g the e a r l y  summer around the summer s o l s t i c e , w h i l e low t i d e s d u r i n g the  w i n t e r occur around midnight Packman 1974:77).  (Dayton 1971:355; Evans 1972:417; Hoos and  13  2.3  GEOLOGICAL HISTORY Boundary Bay i s p a r t of the F r a s e r Lowlands, a t r i a n g u l a r shaped  some 120 km by 90 km, c o n s i s t i n g of low l y i n g g e n t l y r o l l i n g h i l l s g e n e r a l l y under 155 m i n e l e v a t i o n separated and  by  On the n o r t h  1981:1; Blunden 1975a:1; H a l s t e a d  s h e l t e r e d waters of the S t r a i t of Georgia. p o s t g l a c i a l v a l l e y the e n t i r e n o r t h e r n F r a s e r R i v e r terminates  (Armstrong  I t s western edge borders the Following  a l a t e g l a c i a l and  l e n g t h of the F r a s e r Lowland, the  a t the S t r a i t of Georgia  long by 24 km wide (Armstrong 1981:1). having  by the Cascade and  1650 m above the v a l l e y f l o o r 1977:6).  Basin  the F r a s e r Lowland i s bounded  the Coast Mountains and on the east and southeast  Chuckanut Mountains, some r i s i n g  of d r i f t  by wide a l l u v i u m f i l l e d v a l l e y s ,  occupying the 70 m i l l i o n year o l d sedimentary F r a s e r Lowland  ( F i g u r e 2-3) (Armstrong 1981:1).  area  i n a growing d e l t a 31 km  Boundary Bay i s recent  i n age,  formed when the F r a s e r D e l t a reached P o i n t Roberts ( f o r m e r l y an  i s l a n d ) , thus p r e v e n t i n g  f u r t h e r Fraser River discharge  on the southern  delta front. P r i o r to 70 m i l l i o n years  ago the Coast and Cascade Mountain areas  of southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia formed an a r c of v o l c a n i c i s l a n d s . the Cretaceous, the b a s i n has been a low c o a s t a l p l a i n w i t h r i v e r s f l u s h i n g sediments from the surrounding (Blunden 1975:2).  Since  streams and  uplifting hills  and mountains  Repeated g l a c i a l advances from mountain v a l l e y s across  the F r a s e r Lowland d u r i n g the l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e destroyed  most of the  g e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d from the l a t t e r p a r t of the T e r t i a r y as w e l l as the e a r l y Pleistocene  (Armstrong 1975:377; Blunden 1975a:8).  The most e x t e n s i v e  l o c a l g e o l o g i c a l records of the Late  are found i n many of the h i l l s  i n the western F r a s e r Lowland (Mary H i l l ,  P o i n t Grey, P o i n t Roberts, Surrey composite h i l l s ,  Pleistocene  and White Rock Uplands), which are  each made up of a s e r i e s of o l d e r h i l l s  of u n c o n s o l i d a t e d  14  F i g u r e 2-3. Extent of the F r a s e r Lowlands, Southwestern B r i t i s h and Adjacent Washington S t a t e .  Pleistocene materials.  Columbia  Armstrong (1981) has r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d d e s c r i p t i o n s  of these d e p o s i t s i n the F r a s e r Lowland, a summary of which i s presented i n Table I I - I . E a r l y i n the F r a s e r G l a c i a t i o n , as the g l a c i e r s began to grow i n the mountains, outwash streams and r i v e r s may have b l a n k e t e d most of the S t r a i t of Georgia and adjacent areas with as much as 75 m of sands and s i l t s known as Quadra d e p o s i t s (Clague 1976, 1977). have been a wide p l a i n w i t h many b r a i d e d streams. to that found  The e n t i r e area may V e g e t a t i o n was s i m i l a r  today along the coast of A l a s k a suggesting a much c o o l e r  c l i m a t e than we now have (Armstrong  and Hicock  With the advance of the F r a s e r G l a c i a t i o n  1975:102; Clague  ( c l a s s i c a l Wisconsin)  1976:808). most of  these sediments were scoured from the S t r a i t of Georgia, although remnants form dominant l o c a l f e a t u r e s such as the uplands  at P o i n t Roberts, and  15  C l i m a t i c Period  Deposits  Fraser River Sediments Post G l a c i a l  S a l i s h Sediments  Capllano Sediments  18,000 - 26,000  Coquitlam D r i f t  19,000 - 23,000  Semlahmoo D r i f t  (Major G l a c l a t l o n )  11,000 ? - 13,000 13,000 - 18,000  Cowlchan Head Formation  (Major N o n g l a c l a l I n t e r v a l )  present - 12,000  Quadra Sand  Cowlchan Head Formation (7)  (Major G l a c l a t l o n )  present - 9,000  Vashon D r i f t  Fraser G l a c l a t l o n  Olympic I n t e r g l a c i a l Interval  Age (years B.P.)  Highbury Sediments  Westlynn D r i f t  25,800 - 36,200 40,000 - 58,800  62,000  pre-mlddle Wisconsin  pre-Sangamon  From Armstrong 1981:3  Table I I - I . L a t e P l e i s t o c e n e and Recent G e o l o g i c a l Chronology of the Western F r a s e r Lowlands.  Ocean Park (Armstrong and Clague 1977:1479). During the maximum extent of the F r a s e r G l a c i a t i o n the e n t i r e F r a s e r Lowland was mantled by i c e that extended through Juan de Fuca S t r a i t to the P a c i f i c Ocean (Clague 1981:14; Heusser 1973:284; Mathews e t a l . ,  1970:691).  Wastage of the western i c e margin had commenced by 14,460 B.P. and the i c e was gone from the Western F r a s e r Lowlands by 12,690 B.P. and from the F r a s e r Canyon by 11,400 B.P. (Heusser 1973:291; Mathewes 1973:2090; Mathewes et_ a l . ,  1970:1056).  F o l l o w i n g d e g l a c i a t i o n the area was s u b j e c t e d to  i s o s t a t i c , e u s t a t i c and t e c t o n i c changes i n r e l a t i v e sea l e v e l s which a r e not f u l l y understood.  The reader i s r e f e r r e d to Armstrong (1981) f o r a  summary of present knowledge, w h i l e i t should be noted that the land was submerged below the sea a t l e a s t once between 13,000 and 11,000 B.P.  By  9,000 B.P. the western F r a s e r Lowlands a r e thought to have been emergent to approximately 10.6 m below c u r r e n t sea l e v e l w h i l e present sea l e v e l s  16  were obtained by about 5,000 B.P.  (Armstrong 1981:32; Mathews et a l . ,  1970:696-7). Before  10,000 B.P.  Port Mann Gap  and  the F r a s e r R i v e r had  found i t s way  over the next 2-3,000 years  s e t t l i n g b a s i n s upstream from New 1975a:18; Mathews and  filled  through  the  i n several large  Westminster (Armstrong 1981:25-9; Blunden  Shepard 1962:1432) ( f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the  p o s t - g l a c i a l p e r i o d see Mathews 1977).  During  the e a r l y p a r t of the  g l a c i a l p e r i o d the sediment l o a d of the F r a s e r R i v e r was than i t i s at p r e s e n t .  In a study  immediate post-  many times h i g h e r  of d e p o s i t i o n a l landforms of  Interior  P l a t e a u r i v e r v a l l e y s , Church and Ryder (1972:3063) determined t h a t  the  e r o s i o n and  d e p o s i t i o n which r e s u l t e d i n a l l u v i a l fans was  6,600 B.P.  Sediments i n the F r a s e r and Thompson R i v e r v a l l e y s are up  225 m t h i c k w h i l e Mazama Ash  ( d e p o s i t e d 6,600 B.P.)  depth of only 2 m i n d i c a t i n g most sedimentation  complete by  i s found a t an average  took p l a c e b e f o r e t h i s date  (Church and Ryder 1972:3063-4; Ryder 1978:63-4).  The  i n t a c t s t a t e of  d e p o s i t i o n a l landforms i n d i c a t e t h a t e r o s i o n s i n c e 6,600 B.P. s l i g h t , and  6,600 B.P.  has  Lower s i l t  these  been  that the F r a s e r R i v e r has been c a r r y i n g sediment loads  to those of today (Church and Ryder 1972:3068).  to  similar  levels  after  would have been b e n e f i c i a l to salmon stocks throughout the F r a s e r  R i v e r system. By 8,000 B.P.,  the F r a s e r R i v e r began b u i l d i n g i t s d e l t a past  Westminster i n t o the S t r a i t of Georgia Johnston 1921:44; Mathews and  (Armstrong 1981:25-9; Blunden 1975b:12;  Shepard 1962:1433).  Around 5,000  B.P.,  e x t e n s i v e t i d a l f l a t s became emergent i n c l u d i n g most of the areas e a s t e r n F r a s e r D e l t a now .(Hebda 1977:155-7).  occupied  by  i n the  sphagnum bogs (see F i g u r e 2-4,  Hebda (1977:170, 172)  the a c t u a l d e l t a f r o n t (-10  New  m l e v e l ) may  has  2-5)  suggested that by 4,000  B.P.  have reached the lower slopes of  the P o i n t Roberts Uplands b l o c k i n g F r a s e r R i v e r flow i n t o Boundary  Bay,  17  Q  PEAT,  Sources:  F i g u r e 2-4.  8290 B.P.  ©  Armstrong 1977:9, Blunden  PEAT, 7300 B.P.  1 9 7 5 a : 1 8 , 1 9 7 5 b : 1 2 , Mathews and Shepard  Approximate Extent  1962:1432, Matson  1976:18.  o f the F r a s e r D e l t a , 8,000 t o 7,000 B.P.  o  WHITE  I—L  ROCK  UPLANDS  I 1lU  ^ROBERTS  SEMIAHMOO B A Y © © © @ Cjj  CRESCENT BEACH, DgRr I, 4270 BJ>. PITT RIVER, DhRq 21, 4100 B.P. 6LENR0SE, DgRr 6, 4240 B.P. ST MUNGO, DgRr 2, 4310 B.P. SALT MARSH PEAT, 4390 B.P.  ® ®  BURNS BOS, SOBS B.P. BURNS BOG, 3960 B.P. BURNS BOG, 4935 B.P. MT MAZAMA ASH, 6600 B.P.  Sources: B l u n d e n 1 9 7 S b : S , 1 2 , C a l v e r t 1 9 7 0 : 5 7 , Hebda 1977 p p . 1 0 0 , 122, 144, K e l l e r h a l s 1 9 6 9 : 7 6 , Matson 1 9 7 6 : 1 8 , P a t e n a u d e , p e r s . c o m . , P e r c y 1 9 7 6 : 7 .  F i g u r e 2-5.  Approximate Extent  and M u r r a y  o f the F r a s e r D e l t a , 5,000 t o 4,000 B.P.  18  although  evidence  from Crescent  may have continued  Beach suggests that d i s c h a r g e  i n t o the Bay  u n t i l as l a t e as 2,500 B.P.  I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d that the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the northward a c c r e t i o n s p i t a t Crescent  trending  Beach d i d not begin u n t i l a f t e r Boundary Bay  had been formed, as the southward flow of the F r a s e r R i v e r may have with any s p i t b u i l d i n g by longshore m a t e r i a l s recovered  by t h i s study  drift  interfered  (see F i g u r e 2-2). The c u l t u r a l  date a f t e r 1,400 B.P. and r e s t  on s p i t sands near the base or o r i g i n p o i n t of the s p i t  directly  (Ham and B r o d e r i c k  1976:4-5). Another s i t e which may shed some l i g h t on s p i t development i s Beach Grove (DgRs 1) l o c a t e d on the western s i d e of Boundary Bay. has  Ball  r e p o r t e d dates between 3,200 and 1,100 B.P. from the n o r t h e r n  of t h i s s i t e while a d d i t i o n a l dates f o r the southern  portions  (Smith  (1979:49) portion  of 1,600 t o 1,390 B.P. have been r e p o r t e d  1964:56-7).  These dates  suggest n o r t h to  south development of the sands ( s p i t or bar?) u n d e r l y i n g the c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s a t Beach Grove which c o u l d only occur still  i f the F r a s e r R i v e r was  f l o w i n g i n t o Boundary Bay. The  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence  then suggests a much l a t e r date f o r  c r e a t i o n of Boundary Bay, perhaps between 3,000 and 2,000 B.P.,  although  t h i s date should be v e r i f i e d and r e f i n e d w i t h g e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that mention of P o i n t Roberts as an i s l a n d i s made i n both K a t z i e and Musqueam t r a d i t i o n s pers.  (Jenness 1955:2; S u t t l e s 1982,  comm.). By  the time Boundary Bay f i n a l l y became c l o s e d o f f from d i r e c t  R i v e r flow, t h e r e were probably  already extensive  i n the c e n t r a l and e a s t e r n p o r t i o n s of the Bay. Bay,  approximately  sand f l a t s ,  Fraser  especially  Since the formation  of the  1 km of s a l t marsh has been eroded by c u r r e n t s from the  e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of the Bay, and r e d e p o s i t e d  i n the western p o r t i o n so that  19  the Beach Grove s i t e which o r i g i n a l l y faced the waters of the Bay 1 km  from the sea ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:83-4).  is  now  With the e x c e p t i o n of  the above e r o s i o n and d e p o s i t i o n , much of Boundary Bay appears  to be i n  e q u i l i b r i u m and  change i n the  Bay  f o r the l a s t  I suspect there has been minimal 1,000  e x p l o r e r s i n the Bay  years.  environmental  E x t e n s i v e t i d a l f l a t s were noted by  early  (Meany 1957:181-2; Newcombe 1923:60), w h i l e a map  drawn  p r i o r to 1912  by Thompson (1913:46) i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l to present maps (see  F i g u r e 2-6).  Thompson's d e s c r i p t i o n of f a u n a l communities i s b a s i c a l l y  same as those d e s c r i b e d by l a t e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray Swinbanks and Murray 1978).  1969;  The approximate c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the F r a s e r  D e l t a a t the b e g i n n i n g of the H i s t o r i c P e r i o d i s p r o v i d e d i n F i g u r e 2.4  the  2-7.  ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES As the g l a c i e r s r e t r e a t e d from the F r a s e r Lowlands the area was  c o l o n i z e d by lodgepole pine (Pinus c o n t o r t a ) , b u f f a l o b e r r y  quickly  (Shepherdia  c a n a d e n s i s ) , w i l l o w ( S a l i x sp.) and a l d e r (Alnus sp.) w h i l e the c l i m a t e probably c o o l e r and wetter than present B.P.  Pinus c o n t o r t a decreases  and Douglas F i r (Pseudotsuga  dominant suggesting warmer temperatures Well b e f o r e 6,600 B.P.,  (Mathewes 1973:2099).  was  A f t e r 10,500  m e n z i e s i i ) becomes  although moisture was  still  abundant.  p a l y n o l o g i c a l data i n d i c a t e t h a t c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s  and v e g e t a t i o n were probably s i m i l a r to the present Mathewes (1973:2101) argues  (Mathewes 1973:2099,2100).  t h a t there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence to support  the occurrence of a Hypsithermal  i n t e r v a l i n the western  F r a s e r Lowlands,  p o s s i b l y because of the wide t o l e r a n c e of the v e g e t a t i o n of the area and  the  modifying e f f e c t of the ocean. Hebda (1977:155-7) has o u t l i n e d a s u c c e s s i o n a l sequence of sedge-shrub-sphagnum communities which develop on the a l l u v i a l  saltmarshlowlands  the F r a s e r D e l t a w i t h sphagnum communities present by 2,900 B.P.  of  In the  P i t t Meadows area sphagnum bog d e p o s i t s have been dated at 8,290 B.P.  some  20  (from: Thompson  F i g u r e 2-6.  Reconstructed  F i g u r e 2-7.  1 9 1 3 , Plales X I I I and X I V )  T i d a l F l a t s o f Boundary Bay as Mapped by Thompson c a . 1912.  from:  K e l l e r h a l s and Murray  Approximate Extent  1969, North  e t a l . 1 9 7 9 , Thompson 1 9 1 3 .  of the F r a s e r D e l t a , A.D. 1858-1880  21  10.5 m below present sea l e v e l  (Armstrong 1977:9).  Thus the major e c o l o g i c a l communities i n the western F r a s e r  Lowlands  noted at the time of European c o n t a c t were present by at l e a s t 3,000 B.P. and probably even e a r l i e r . B.P.,  As Boundary Bay had formed by at l e a s t 2,500  i t i s p o s s i b l e to h y p o t h e s i z e what r e s o u r c e s would have been a v a i l a b l e  to p r e h i s t o r i c Coast S a l i s h i n Boundary Bay, a l t h o u g h i t may not be p o s s i b l e to p r e c i s e l y l o c a t e or determine the extent of these communities. of t h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s c u r r e n t knowledge  The remainder  about these communities and  their  r e s o u r c e s u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from p u b l i s h e d and unpublished sources as w e l l as f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n .  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f i f t e e n major  ecological  communities of Boundary Bay which l i e w i t h i n a 14-16 km r a d i u s of the Crescent Beach s i t e a r e presented i n F i g u r e Some of these communities are now have been h e a v i l y d i s t u r b e d  2-8.  a l l but e x t i n c t  ( g r a s s l a n d ) , others  ( f o r e s t s ) and a few have had minimal damage,  or s t i l l have i n t a c t p o r t i o n s  ( i n t e r t i d a l communities and b o g s ) .  An attempt  i s made to determine the range of s p e c i e s a v a i l a b l e p r i o r to the d i s t u r b a n c e s a s s o c i a t e d with European c o n t a c t u s i n g a v a r i e t y of sources i n c l u d i n g ; modern and h i s t o r i c e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s  (Biggs 1976; Campbell et al_. 1972; Church  and Rubin 1970; Forbes 1972; Hoos and Packman 1974; K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969; K i s t r i t z Rathbun  1978; Northcote 1974;  1900; S t a f f o r d  Swinbanks and Murray 1978; Webb 1976;  1917; Thompson 1913; Weymouth 1915), r e c o n s t r u c t e d  v e g e t a t i o n maps and accounts of e a r l y e x p l o r e r s and s e t t l e r s  (North et a l .  1979; Johnson 1958; Lang 1967; McKelvie 1947; Meany 1957; Newcombe 1923; Pearson 1958; T r e l e a v e n 1978), f i s h e r i e s records and p a l e o b o t a n i c a l (Environment Canada,  studies  1925-1970; Hebda 1977; Mathewes 1973).  Species a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance  are presented f o r each e c o l o g i c a l  community i n F i g u r e s 2-9 to 2-16 based upon the r e f e r e n c e s p r o v i d e d i n each F i g u r e .  Although the e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s which were c o n s u l t e d tended  ho r-o  COMMUNITIES = PELAGIC D DENDRASTER E EEL GRASS u UPPER SANDWAVE OYSTER Sources:  R S o w c  ALGAL ROCKY INTERTIDAL SALTMARSH GRASSLAND GRASS/SHRUBLAND CATTAIL  B OF SF CF  SPAGNUM BOG DECIDUOUS FOREST SCRUB FOREST CONIFEROUS FOREST  @ isd  ONCORHYNCHUS KETA O. KISUTCH SALMO GAIRDNERI  K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969, North et a l . 1979, Thompson 1913 and r e f e r e n c e s In t e x t .  F i g u r e 2-8.  Boundary Bay E c o l o g i c a l Communities  ( c a . 1850).  CF  MISCELLANEOUS SPAWNING GROUNDS  CF  CF  BEAVER DAMS  0  3 KMS I  CF  23  to  f o l l o w a 5 or 6 p a r t ranking of s p e c i e s abundance, I have used a 4 p a r t  scheme i n t h i s study  to accommodate the more p o o r l y r e p o r t e d s p e c i e s .  Shell-  f i s h abundance b a s i c a l l y f o l l o w s the d e s c r i p t i o n s given by Thompson (1913:46) who  found  18 km  o f commercially  2  In most cases I have t r i e d which the Coast  S a l i s h may  productive s h e l l f i s h to segregate  have o b t a i n e d  beds i n Boundary  s p e c i e s to the community from  them.  T h i s problem e x i s t s o n l y  for  a few groups of s p e c i e s such as some ducks, s h o r e b i r d s and  may  be found  i n d i f f e r e n t communities depending upon t i d a l  are salmon and  sea run t r o u t which may  route to t h e i r  spawning grounds, y e t were probably  at weir  sites.  Standard Hart  and C r o n q u i s t  from the low water t i d e mark and  the S t r a i t of Georgia  ( F i g u r e s 2-8,  some 2 km  (1973) f o r p l a n t s .  15 km  (1977:12) as that  extends from the  south of Crescent Beach to the open waters  f u r t h e r south, an area of approximately  53  km  2-9).  E c o l o g i c a l l y , the s h e l t e r e d Boundary Bay  i s complex with a myriad of  food webs c o n s i s t i n g of marine p l a n t s , polychaete and  (1966) f o r b i r d s ,  i n c l u d e s a l l o f f s h o r e or  The P e l a g i c Community of Boundary Bay  edge of the t i d a l f l a t s  due  discussed.  P e l a g i c Community  open water a r e a s .  silt  en  o b t a i n e d f u r t h e r downstream  Scott and Crossman (1973) f o r f i s h , Godfrey  (1974) f o r mammals, and H i t c h c o c k  area extending  b i r d s and  Similar  pass through s e v e r a l communities  The p e l a g i c r e g i o n of the sea i s d e f i n e d by C a r e f o o t  molluscs  stage.  r e f e r e n c e s used f o r s p e c i e s nomenclature i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g ;  Boundary Bay  of  f i s h e s which  As a r u l e e x o t i c or i n t r o d u c e d s p e c i e s are not  (1973) and  Banfield  Bay.  worms, c r u s t a c e a n s ,  small f i s h which are preyed upon by l a r g e r f i s h as w e l l as by  sea mammals.  During  the summer there i s an e x c e s s i v e b u i l d u p of  to o u t f l o w from the Serpentine  and Nicomekl R i v e r s .  Winter storms  and wave a c t i o n remove t h i s f i n e sediment p e r m i t t i n g d i n o f l a g e l l a t e blooms i n the s p r i n g (Hoos and Packman 1974:81).  Many s p e c i e s of f i s h  spawn i n the  2  24  Availability  Species J  F  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  O  N  D  *  rearing  PISCES (Squalidae Squalus  -  Dogfish)  acanthlas  (Chimaerldae Hydrolagua  -  Ratfish)  colliei  (Acipenseridae Acipenser A.  -  Sturgeons)  medirostis  transmontanus  (Clupeidae Clupea  -  Herring)  harengus  (Salmonidae  -  Saloons)  Oncorhynchus  keta  0. kisutch 0. nerka Salmo c l a r k i S. gairdneri AVES  (Cavlidae  Loons)  G a v i a immer G. arctica G. stellata (Podicipediate Podiceps  -  Grebes)  grisegena  P. aurltus Aechmophorus  occidentalis  (Aythyinae  Diving  -  Ducks)  Aythya marila A. affinis Bucephala Clangula  albeola hyemalls  Histrionics histrionics Melanitta deglandi M. persplcillata (Merginae Lophodytes Mergua M.  Mergansers) cuculatus  merganser  serrator  (Laridae  -  Gulls)  Larus glaucescens L. thayeri L. delawarensis L. Philadelphia MAMMALIA (Delphinidae Orcinus  (Phocidae Phoca  -  Killer  Whale)  orca -  Harbour.  Seal)  vitulina  aosBuuuuu v e r y  common  ^ — — — —  common  — — — — —  frequent  rare  Sources: A r o and S h e p a r d 1967, B a n f i e l d 1974, C a m p b e l l e t a l . 1972, C h u r c h and R u b i n 1 9 7 3 , Hoos a n d P a c k m a n 1 9 7 4 , N o r t h c o t e 1 9 7 4 , S c o t t a n d C r o s s m a n 1 9 7 3 , T a y l o r 1970.  F i g u r e 2-9.  P e l a g i c Community  Species A v a i l a b i l i t y  1970,  populations also G o d f r e y 1966, Hart  and Abundance.  25  Bay  i n the s p r i n g i n c l u d i n g the P a c i f i c h e r r i n g (Clupea harengus), midshipmen  ( P o r i c h t h y s n o t a t u s ) , s c u l p i n s (Enophrys b i s o n , Hemilepidotus Leptocottus  armatus) and  stellatus),  t h e i r young b e n e f i t t i n g from the warming waters and  food s u p p l i e s . source Bay  flatfish  hemilepidotus,  (Lepidosetta b i l i n e a t a , Platichthys  T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n of spawning f i s h i s an  f o r thousands of d i v i n g ducks (Aythyinae)  important  and  ratfish  food  which migrate through the  i n the s p r i n g , as w e l l as f o r l a r g e r f i s h such as d o g f i s h  acanthias)  increasing  (Squalus  (Hydrolagus c o l l i e i ) .  There i s a l s o a r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n of harbour s e a l (Phoca v i t u l i n a ) i n Boundary Bay  estimated  T a y l o r 1970:24).  The  at 250-275 i n d i v i d u a l s (Church and Rubin 1970: 17';  presence of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n was  b i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s of the bay  ( S t a f f o r d 1917:105).  also reported  in early  Numbers i n c r e a s e i n l a t e  February and March as t r a n s i e n t s e a l s f o l l o w the spawning h e r r i n g i n t o the Bay.  Many of the s e a l s move to the mouth of the F r a s e r R i v e r i n l a t e  April  during the eulachon ( T h a l e i c h t h y s p a c i f i c u s ) run, r e t u r n i n g to Boundary f o r the summer where they h a u l up on secluded b i r t h to pups i n l a t e J u l y and e a r l y August k i l l e r whale (Orcinus orca) frequents and whale s p e c i e s One  The  and o c c a s i o n a l l y other  economic resources  of Boundary Bay  i s the  run of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) which f o l l o w s the  g y r a l c u r r e n t through the southern  p a r t of the Bay  p a s s i n g over the  r e e f s o f f Cannery P o i n t en route to the mouth of the F r a s e r R i v e r 2-2)  dolphin  (Church and Rubin 1970:17; T a y l o r 1970:24).  of the most important  July-August  sandbars, the females g i v i n g  ( T a y l o r 1970:25).  the Bay,  Bay  (Rathbun 1900:266).  During  1974:20-2; T a y l o r 1970:23).  (see F i g u r e  the l a t e summer, sea-run c u t t h r o a t t r o u t  (Salmo c l a r k i ) appear i n the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n s of Boundary Bay spawning between November and May  shallow  i n small streams i n the area  Steelhead  to feed, (Northcote  (S. g a i r d n e r i ) as w e l l as coho  chum salmon (0. k i s u t c h and 0_. keta) enter the bay  i n l a t e summer and  and autumn,  26  spawning on t r i b u t a r i e s of the Nicomekl, Serpentine (see F i g u r e 2-8)  (Environment Canada 1925-1970).  S e v e r a l s p e c i e s of Aythyinae Bay  d u r i n g the autumn and  bay  ( T a y l o r 1970:18).  affinis),  are common i n the deeper waters of Boundary  s p r i n g m i g r a t i o n s w h i l e some s p e c i e s w i n t e r  (Bucephala  i n the  Most common are the scaups (Aythya m a r i l a and  the oldsquaw ( C l a n g u l a hyemalis) and  d e g l a n d i and M.  and Campbell R i v e r s  perspicillata)  the s c o t e r s ( M e l a n i t t a  ( T a y l o r 1970:18).  a l b e o l a ) were observed  A.  Small f l o c k s of b u f f l e h e a d  l o a f i n g o f f s h o r e i n l a t e A p r i l of  1980.  A l s o very common are s e v e r a l s p e c i e s of g u l l s , e s p e c i a l l y Bonaparte's G u l l (Larus P h i l a d e l p h i a ) which r o o s t i n l a r g e r a f t s of up to 26,000 i n d i v i d u a l s on Boundary Bay et a l . ,  south of Crescent Beach between October and March  1972:154-5).  Modern g u l l p o p u l a t i o n s may  (Campbell  r e f l e c t u r b a n i z a t i o n of  the Vancouver area and the p r o x i m i t y of Boundary Bay Numerous other s p e c i e s of sea b i r d s abound i n the Bay  to c i t y garbage dumps. i n c l u d i n g loons,  cormorants, grebes and mergansers ( T a y l o r 1970). The  seasonal a v a i l a b i l i t y and  abundance of the above s p e c i e s as w e l l  as s e v e r a l other v a r i e t i e s of w i l d l i f e common to t h i s community are indicated i n Figure Dendraster  2-9.  Community  T h i s community occupies (1978:31, 47), from 1.5 and  the lower sand wave zone of Swinbanks and Murray  m above the lowest  i s thus c o n t i n u o u s l y submerged except  area  'D',  F i g u r e 2-8).  low  t i d e mark i n t o the  d u r i n g the lowest  Covering an area of approximately  subtidal,  low t i d e s  1,000  ha,  (see  this  community i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l a r g e sand waves and an absence of v e g e t a t i o n cover  ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:83; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:31).  common to t h i s community i n c l u d e the sand d o l l a r starfish  ( P i s a s t e r ochraceus),  (Dendraster e x c e n t r i c u s ) ,  polychaete worms ( A r e n i c o l a s p . ) , and  burrowing sea anemone (Anthopleura  Species  a r t e m i s i a ) ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray  the  27  1969:83; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:31-2; T a y l o r 1970:24; Hoos and Packman 1974:85-6).  Species of economic v a l u e i n c l u d e the crab  (Cancer m a g i s t e r )  and the b i v a l v e molluscs Tresus capax (horse clam), Saxidomus ( b u t t e r clam) and Macoma s e c t a  giganteus  (sand clam) (Hoos and Packman 1974:85-6;  K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:83; Thompson 1913:48, P l a t e X I I I ) .  With the  e x c e p t i o n of C. magister, none of these s p e c i e s i s v e r y abundant, i n a d d i t i o n to the f a c t that they are seldom a v a i l a b l e to human p r e d a t i o n as  t h i s community  i s only r a r e l y exposed.  E e l g r a s s Community T h i s community  which a l s o occupies the lower t i d a l  f l a t s extends over  some 2,100 ha from about 3.5 m above the lowest t i d e mark i n t o the s u b t i d a l zone and i s one of the most p r o d u c t i v e e c o l o g i c a l communities i n Boundary Bay  (see area  'E', F i g u r e s 2-8, 2-10)  and Murray 1978:47).  The e e l g r a s s  (Church and Rubin 1970:6; Swinbanks  ( Z o s t e r a sp.) beds are b a s i c a l l y  flat  except i n the upper reaches of che t i d a l channels which c r o s s through the zone producing broad, shallow water f i l l e d depressions Murray  (Swinbanks and  1978:28).  P l a n t s are abundant i n t h i s community Z o s t e r a and sea l e t t u c e  i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l s p e c i e s of  (Ulva sp.) (Forbes 1972:44; K e l l e r h a l s and Murray  1969:83; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:28-9; T a y l o r 1970:12). the  Z. americana,  dominant e e l g r a s s of the upper p a r t of t h i s zone d i e s back i n the w i n t e r ,  s p r o u t i n g from s e e d l i n g s d u r i n g the s p r i n g  (Swinbanks and Murray  1978:7).  Z o s t e r a rhizomes and s t a l k s were eaten by the S t r a i t s S a l i s h and p o s s i b l y other Coast S a l i s h , used sometimes as f l a v o u r i n g d u r i n g steaming of other foods, and a l s o made i n t o cakes and d r i e d f o r winter Widespread i n t h i s community  (Turner  1975:101-2).  are burrowing shrimp (Upogebia sp. and  C a l l i a n a s s a s p . ) , polychaete worms ( P r o x i l l e l a sp., A b a r e n i c o l a sp.) and the  burrowing sea anemone Anthopleura a r t e m i s i a  ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray  28  Species  Availability J  F  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  O  N  D  DECAPODA (Brachyura -  Crabs)  Cancer m a g i s t e r C. p r o d u c t u s M01XUSCA (Neogastropoda  -  Univalves)  Lacuna v a r i e g a t a Polinices levisi Ceratostomus f o l i a t u r n Thais  lamellosa  (Pelecypoda  -  Bivalves)  Macoma s e c t a T r e s u s capax Cllnocardlum n u t t a l l i PISCES (Clupeidae - Herring) Clupea harengus  pallasi  ———--  "—-  ( B a t r a c h o i d l d a e - Midshipmen) Porichthvs  notatus  (Gasterosteidae Gasterosteus  *  (Embiotocidae Cvtnatottaater (Cottidae -  Stickleback)  aculeatus Surf  Perch)  assresata Sculpins)  Enophrys b i s o n Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus L e p t o c o t t u s armatus (Pleuronectidae  -  Flatfish)  Lepidopsetta b i l l n e a t a Platichthys stellatus AVES (Podlcipediate  -  Grebes)  Podlceps grisegena P. a u r i t u s Aechmophorus O c c i d e n t a l l s (Anserinae -  Geese)  -™«—-««-  Branta b e r n i c u l a (Aythyinae -  D i v i n g Ducks)  Aythya m a r l l a A. affinis Bucephala a l b e o l a Clangula hyemails Histrionics histrionics Melanltta deglandi M. p e r s p l c i l l a t a (Merginae -  Mergansers)  Lophodytes cuculatus Mergus merganser M. s e r r a t o r MAMMALIA (Phocldae -  Harbour  Seal)  Phoca v i t u l i r t a  •  • v e r y common  common  -  -  -  -  -  frequent  rare  Sources: G o d f r e y 1966, G r l f l t h 1967, H a r t 1973, Hoos and Packman 1974, K a i s e r C . W . S . , K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969, K o z l o f f 1973, Lamb 1980, p e r s . comm., S t a f f o r d 1917, Swinbanks and M u r r a y 1978, T a y l o r 1970, Thompson 1913, Webb 1976, Weymouth 1915.  F i g u r e 2-10.  E e l g r a s s Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y  and Abundance.  29  1969:83; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:25, 29-30, 38). t h i s community, i n a d d i t i o n to Cancer magister, C. productus  and  the k e l p crab P u g e t t i a sp.  K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:83).  present i n  i n c l u d e the rock crab  (Hoos and Packman 1974:88;  At present and h i s t o r i c a l l y  crab f i s h i n g areas of Boundary Bay of Crescent Beach.  Crustaceans  the major  are below Ocean Park immediately  In the l a t e s p r i n g crabs  south  (C. magister) are numerous  i n the shallower waters when the females molt and then mate (Hoos and Packman 1974:85; R i c k e t t s and C a l v i n 1968:166-7; S t a f f o r d 1915:129).  1971:105; Weymouth  U n i v a l v e s present i n c l u d e whelks and l e a f y hornmouth (Thais  l a m e l l o s a , Cerastostoma  f o l i a t u m ) , moon s n a i l s  (Polinices lewisi)  and  numerous t i n y N a s s a r i u s mendicus ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:83; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:31).  Among the b i v a l v e s , C l i n o c a r d i u m n u t t a l l i  i s very  common w h i l e Tresus capax and Macoma s e c t a are p r e s e n t , as i s the P i s a s t e r ochraceus XIV).  starfish  ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:83; Thompson 1913:45, P l a t e  Thompson (1913:45) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l a r g e s t and densest  Tresus  beds were l o c a t e d south of Crescent Beach o f f Ocean Park a t the low  tide  level. The  e e l g r a s s beds are important  i n Boundary Bay.  to a number of the f i s h s p e c i e s found  T a y l o r (1970:23) i n d i c a t e s s e v e r a l which show v e r y  a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the e e l g r a s s beds i n c l u d i n g GasterOsteus Syngrathus  g r i s e o l i n e a t u s , Cymatogaster aggregatus,  L e p t o c o t t u s armatus, and P l a t i c h y h y s s t e l l a t u s . the e e l g r a s s i n Boundary Bay between February  and  definite  aculeatus,  Clevelandia ios,  Clupea harengus spawn on the end of May.  Various  runs spawn on d i f f e r e n t beds w i t h v a r y i n g i n t e n s i t y i n the bay d u r i n g t h i s period  (Church and Rubin 1970,  Table 2; Webb 1976:13, 31).  Leptocottus  armatus and L e p i d o p s e t t a b i l i n e a t a are common year around i n the beds w h i l e s e v e r a l o p p o r t u n i s t i c f e e d e r s from the rocky i n t e r t i d a l c o u l d be to be f e e d i n g on spawning Clupea and  expected  t h e i r spawn, e s p e c i a l l y , P o r i c h t h y s  30  n o t a t u s , Enophrys b i s o n , and H. hemilepidotus  (Andrew Lamb, Environment  Canada, March 1980, p e r s . comm.). Spawning Clupea  a r e an a t t r a c t i v e source of food f o r many w i n t e r i n g  and m i g r a t i n g Aythyinae, hyemalis 1980,  among them Aythya sp., Bucephala sp.,  and M e l a n i t t a sp. (Gary K a i s e r , Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , March  p e r s . comm.), w h i l e the Z o s t e r a i t s e l f  m i g r a t i n g Branta b e r n i c u l a April  Clangula  i s a key food f o r northward  which a r e common from January u n t i l the end of  (Hoos and Packman 1974:156, Forbes 1972:17).  complex food web of the e e l g r a s s beds. economically  important  Many s p e c i e s make up the  A v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of the  ones a r e d e t a i l e d i n F i g u r e 2-10.  Upper Sand Wave Community T h i s community occupies  the e x t e n s i v e i n t e r m e d i a t e sandy t i d a l  flats  of Boundary Bay and covers an area of some 1,600 ha, 3.7 t o 2.7 m above the lowest  t i d e mark (see area  'U , F i g u r e 2-8) (Swinbanks and Murray 1978:61). 1  These unvegetated f l a t s a r e dominated by very low amplitude  sand waves which  only seem to be a c t i v e d u r i n g the w i n t e r , and even then a r e a p p a r e n t l y i n dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:75; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:8, 24). The shallow wave troughs  a r e f i l l e d with water, and the area  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by numerous shallow and v a r i a b l e d e n d r i t i c drainage which are s u b j e c t to e r o s i o n on the ebb t i d e  channels  ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:70;  Swinbanks and Murray 1978:38). Fauna i n t h i s community c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of the lugworm A b a r e n i c o l a p a c i f i c a and the burrowing shrimp C a l l i a n a s s a c a l i f o r n i e n s i s , and a s s o c i a t e d with 26,  i t the t i n y b i v a l v e Crypotomya c a l i f o r n i c a  (Swinbanks and Murray 1978:  28). Thompson (1913:48, a l s o P l a t e XIII) r e p o r t s that Macoma nasuta  was found  throughout these t i d a l f l a t s of Boundary and Mud Bays.  Macoma the only w i l d l i f e  Besides  s p e c i e s of any economic v a l u e i n t h i s community  would be the v a r i o u s s h o r e b i r d s which might be here d u r i n g low t i d e .  Some  31  of these s p e c i e s are presented  i n F i g u r e 2-11  f o r the A l g a l Mat  Community  where they would be more common. Oyster  Community  Occupying the f i r m s i l t y Bay,  sands of the i n t e r m e d i a t e t i d a l f l a t s of  a t the mouth of the Nicomekl and  community c o n t a i n i n g both n a t i v e and '0', F i g u r e 2-8) virginica i n 1904  Serpentine R i v e r s , i s a d i s t i n c t e x o t i c s p e c i e s of o y s t e r s (see area  ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:75, 78, 82).  from New  Brunswick and  Stafford  Crassotrea  Connecticut were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the beds  w h i l e the Japanese Oyster, £ . g i g a s , was  and Murray 1969:78, 82;  1917:106).  i n t r o d u c e d i n 1936  These o y s t e r beds  f o r 50% of B r i t i s h Columbia's o y s t e r p r o d u c t i o n u n t i l farming were c l o s e d down due  s t i l l be observed  (Kellerhals  accounted operations  to c o l i f o r m b a c t e r i a l p o l l u t i o n i n the e a r l y  (Hoos and Packman 1974:86; T a y l o r 1970:27). may  Mud  1960s  E x t e n s i v e beds of o y s t e r s h e l l s  i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of the Crescent Beach area  r e s u l t i n g from t h i s i n d u s t r y (see F i g u r e 2-32). community i n c l u d e b a r n a c l e s  (Balanus  Other common fauna i n t h i s  s p . ) , Thais l a m e l l o s a , the bay  M y t i l u s e d u l i s , and Macoma nasuta, w h i l e rooted f l o r a  is lacking  mussel  (Kellerhals  and Murray 1969:78, 83; Quayle 1970:43; Thompson 1913:48, a l s o P l a t e X I I I ) . O r i g i n a l l y Ostrea l u r i d a i n Mud  Bay was  s p a r s e l y d i s t r i b u t e d about  the edges and deeper p a r t s of the sloughs and o c c a s i o n a l l y along the t i d e l e v e l , and here and  there i n pools and  sheets of low t i d e water h e l d  back, by s l i g h t l y r a i s e d sand rims, or by mats of e e l g r a s s ( S t a f f o r d 107;  Thompson 1913:46).  20th century r e s u l t e d  low  1917:105,  C u l t i v a t i o n of (). l u r i d a i n the e a r l y p a r t of the  i n more densely populated beds, but achieved only a  moderate i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e of the beds ( S t a f f o r d i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e t i d a l zone, t h i s community and to a b o r i g i n a l p r e d a t i o n throughout  1917:107).  Located  i t s fauna would be exposed  most of the y e a r .  32  A l g a l Mat Community T h i s community i n the uppermost (4.0-3.7 m) p a r t of the i n t e r t i d a l of Boundary Bay extends 2-8).  over approximately  flats  850 ha (see s t i p l e d a r e a , F i g u r e  T h i s community i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by seasonal growths of b l u e  green  a l g a l mats which reach t h e i r f u l l e s t development between l a t e summer and e a r l y w i n t e r , and are dominated by M i c r o c o l e u s sp. and Phormidium sp. w i t h l e s s e r amounts of Enteromorpha sp. and RhizocIonium  sp. ( K e l l e r h a l s  and Murray 1969:74, 81-2; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:21).  The a l g a l mats  d i e back i n the w i n t e r as storms smother them w i t h sand r e s u l t i n g i n annual s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of o r g a n i c r i c h and sandy laminae 1978:21).  (Swinbanks and Murray  Very s i m i l a r appearing laminae were observed  d e p o s i t s u n d e r l y i n g the midden l a y e r s excavated  i n the b a s a l sandy  i n 1976 a t Crescent Beach  (see area 2, F i g u r e 2-32). Fauna i s s c a r c e i n t h i s community with C a l l i a n a s s a c a l i f o r n i e n s i s and the p o l y c h a e t e worm Spio sp. found  i n shallow depressions  (Swinbanks and  Murray 1978:22, 26). Other r a r e fauna i n c l u d e s the b i v a l v e Mya sp., as w e l l as M y t i l u s e d u l i s and Balanus and Murray 1969:81-2).  glandula c o l o n i z i n g driftwood  (Kellerhals  A v a r i e t y of s h o r e b i r d s u t i l i z e the l i t t o r a l ,  depending upon t i d a l stage, i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l s p e c i e s of sandpipers and plovers  ( C h a r a d r i i d a e and Scolopacidae) which feed on polychaete worms and  burrowing  shrimp  (Hoos and Packman 1974:164).  A l s o common a r e s e v e r a l  s p e c i e s of d a b b l i n g ducks (Anatinae) which l o a f i n water up to 15 cm. deep, e s p e c i a l l y i n t i d a l margins adjacent to saltmarsh where they feed on v e g e t a t i o n and sedge seeds (Church and Rubin 1970:23; Hoos and Packman 1974: 157-161; Gary K a i s e r , C.W.S., March 1980, p e r s . comm.; K i s t r i t z One  1978:19).  of the more e v i d e n t s p e c i e s of Boundary Bay i s the great b l u e  heron,  Ardea h e r o d i u s , commonly seen f i s h i n g i n t i d a l p o o l s and along the shallow t i d a l margins, and n e s t i n g i n densely wooded areas adjacent to Crescent  33  Availability  Species J  F  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  O  N  D  AVES (Ardeidae Ardea  (Anacinae Anas  -  Heron)  herodias -  Dabbling  Ducks) • • • • • • II• • II • m • 1 IF 11 FT* 11 • TT  H U I U I J 1 I I H I U  platyrhynchos  TT  1  A. acuta A. carolinensis A.discors Mareca americana Spatula clvpeata (Charadriidae Charadrius  -  Plovers)  semipalmatus  C. v o c i f e r u s Pluviates dominica Squatarola  squatarola  (Scolopacidae -  Sandpipers)  Totanus melanoleucus T. flavipes Erolia minutilla £. •  a±^xUa  Limnodromus  Pfounofnc  Ld JL C U U t S L c a  • • • • • • • • a  griseus  lUaLi L X itiaiTT'i  very  common  Sources: Campbell et Taylor 1970.  F i g u r e 2-11.  common al.  1972,  -  -  C h u r c h and R u b i n 1970,  A l g a l Mat Community  -  -  -  Godfrey  frequent 1966,  rare  Hoos and Packman 1974,  Northcote  1974,  Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance.  Beach and Beach Grove (Hoos and Packman 1974:166; T a y l o r 1970:21). seasonal  abundance and a v a i l a b i l i t y of these  s p e c i e s i s presented  The  i n Figure  2-11, some of which may be found i n other i n t e r t i d a l communities depending on t i d a l  stage.  Rocky I n t e r t i d a l  Community  Although the s m a l l e s t e c o l o g i c a l community i n Boundary Bay, c o n s i s t i n g of a few hundred ha, the Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community most d i v e r s e and densely Crescent area  populated.  i s perhaps one of the  T h i s community i s l o c a t e d south of  Beach a t the f o o t of the White Rock Uplands below Ocean Park (see  'R', F i g u r e 2-8).  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i s based upon  observations  made between March and May of 1980 d u r i n g low t i d e s which exposed a l l of the community as w e l l as e x t e n s i v e p o r t i o n s of the adjacent  Eelgrass  Community.  34  The Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community may  be d i v i d e d i n t o two  areas, the  southern p a r t which i s completely covered with l a r g e b o u l d e r s , cobbles and r o c k s ; and  the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n where the boulder/cobble beach i s  i n t e r r u p t e d by patches of sandy/cobble  beach.  areas were found to be s p a r s e l y to moderately Chthamalus d a l l i and Balanus  The upper p a r t s of both populated with the b a r n a c l e s  g l a n d u l a , o c c a s i o n a l M y t i l u s e d u l i s and  l u r i d a w h i l e L i t t o r i n a s i t k a n a was  v e r y common.  Ostrea  T h i s area a l s o c o n t a i n s  s e v e r a l p e t r o g l y p h s which have been pecked i n t o b o u l d e r s along the beach (see Chapter The  2.7).  lower p o r t i o n of the southern p a r t of t h i s community was  populated w i t h T h a i s l a m e l l o s a and P i s a s t e r ochraeus muscosa) and l i m p e t s (Acmea sp.) were f r e q u e n t .  densely  w h i l e c h i t o n (Mophalia  Midshipmen ( P o r i c h t h y s  n o t a t u s ) were v e r y common beneath rocks where males were guarding eggs by the females.  Midshipmen move i n t o the i n t e r t i d a l zone i n March,  the r e s t of the y e a r i n deeper waters of the bay p e r s . comm.).  The o c c a s i o n a l Cancer magister was  laid  spending  (Andrew Lamb, March  1980,  a l s o noted under r o c k s  but were much more common along the edge of the e e l g r a s s channel a t the foot of the Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community. The was  lower p o r t i o n of the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the Rocky I n t e r t i d a l Community  found to be much more d i v e r s e .  O s t r e a l u r i d a while Balanus  Many b o u l d e r s were densely covered  c a r i o s u s , B_. g l a n d u l a , M y t i l u s e d u l i s and  l a m e l l o s a were a l s o f r e q u e n t .  Thais  Cancer magister were a l s o frequent here where  they were found burrowed i n t o the sand under the boulders and r o c k s . patches between the boulders were found to be densely populated with clams P r o t o t h a c a staminea, Macoma s e c t a .  The  Saxidomus giganteus, Tresus capax, and  sand d o l l a r Dendraster  C l i n o c a r d i u m n u t t a l l i was  with  widespread,  lower edge of t h i s community next  e x c e n t r i u s was  Sandy the  rarely  a l s o common while  o f t e n l y i n g on the s u r f a c e .  to the e e l g r a s s channels was  The  continuously  35  p a t r o l l e d by s e a g u l l s (Larus sp.) and crows (Corvus c a u r i n u s ) a t low t i d e . The  a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of s p e c i e s of economic importance i n  t h i s community a r e presented  i n F i g u r e 2-12.  Most s p e c i e s are more r e a d i l y  a c c e s s i b l e d u r i n g the s p r i n g and e a r l y summer when the lowest t i d e s i n the daytime.  occur  T h i s i s a l s o the time of year when p r a c t i c a l l y a l l s p e c i e s  are spawning so t h a t o v e r a l l biomass i s much g r e a t e r than a t other  seasons.  In g e n e r a l , o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n 1980 and 1981 a r e i n agreement w i t h r e p o r t e d i n the e a r l y 1900s Saltmarsh  those  (Thompson 1913:45-8).  Community  In most cases t h i s community i s bounded by the A l g a l Mat Community on one s i d e and the G r a s s l a n d Community on the o t h e r , and f o r m e r l y  extended  over an estimated 1,000 ha p r i o r to h i s t o r i c d i s t u r b a n c e (see area 'S', F i g u r e 2-8).  T h i s area i n c l u d e s t h a t c l a s s i f i e d by North e t a l . (1979) as  saltmarsh dominated by s a l t g r a s s , s a l t w o r t and sedges.  Periodically  this  l o w - l y i n g community i s innundated by w i n t e r storm waves and h i g h t i d e s which d e p o s i t s u b s t a n t i a l amounts of d e b r i s (Forbes 1972:49; Hebda 1977:60). The  outer p a r t of the saltmarsh c o n s i s t s of i r r e g u l a r hummocks of  halophytes which g i v e way to the halophyte mats o f the i n n e r marsh on a sustratum c o n s i s t i n g of " . . . p o o r l y s t r a t i f i e d massive brown peat and s i l t y c l a y . . . " w h i l e slough bottoms a r e sandy ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:72). The outer p o r t i o n s a r e dominated by the s a l t w o r t S a l i c o r n i a arrowgrass  T r i g l o c h i n maritima,  and sandspurry,  virginica,  S p e r g u l a r i a maritima; the  the landward p o r t i o n s by orache, A t r i p l e x p a t u l a , gumweed, G r i n d e l i a integrifolia,  dock, Rumex c r i s p u s , yarrow, A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m , and A s t e r  sp.; w h i l e the s a l t g r a s s D i s t i c h l i s  s p i c a t a i s abundant throughout  (Forbes  1972:49-50; Hebda 1974:60; K i s t r i t z  1978:19; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:20).  Seeds of the sedge Carex l y n g b y e i , and the b u l l r u s h e s S c i r p u s v a l i d u s  36  Availability  Species J  F  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  O  N  D  CRUSTACEA (Cirripedia - Barnacles) Balanus cariosus B. glandula DECAPODA (Brachyura - Crab) Cancer magister MOLLUSCA (Polyplacophora - Chiton) Mophalia muscosa (Archeogastropoda - Limpet) Acmea sp. (Neogastropoda - Univalves) Thais lamellosa (Pelecypoda - Bivalves) Mytilus edulis Ostrea lurida Macoma secta Tresus capax Clinocardium nuttalli Protothaca staminea Sa-cidomus Riganteus PISCES (Batracholdidae - Midshipman) Porlchthys nocatus AVES (Larildae - Gulls)  --  Larus sp.  --  --  (Corvldae - Crow) Corvus caurinua  ---------- very common Sources:  _ _ _ _ _ frequent  Rocky I n t e r t i d a l  Community, Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and  S^. americanus provide an important  seasonal food source f o r Anas  p l a t y r h y n c h o s , A. acuta and A. c a r o l i n e n s i s channels  are important  other f i s h  (Kistritz  1978:19).  Slough  r e a r i n g h a b i t a t s f o r Oncorhynchus sp. as w e l l as  s p e c i e s and i s a frequent f e e d i n g area f o r Ardea herbdius  and Packman 1974:166; K i s t r i t z oregonensis  rare  Thompson 1913; (additional community observations made in April and May 1980).  F i g u r e 2-12. Abundance.  and  common  1978:19).  (Hoos  The shore crab Hemigraspus  i s abundant along the marsh perimeter and around t i d a l  and pools w h i l e Mya sp. and M y t i l u s e d u l i s are o c c a s i o n a l l y found  channels i n the  outer marsh ( K e l l e r h a l s and Murray 1969:81; Swinbanks and Murray 1978:20). Townsends' Vole  (Microtus townsendii)  would have i n c l u d e d raccoon  (Proycon  i s common w h i l e mammalian predators lotor),  wolf  (Canis lupus) and the  37  s t r i p e d skunk ( M e p h i t i s m e p h i t i s )  ( B a n f i e l d 1974;  Cowan and Guiguet  1965).  V i s i t s from r a p t o r s and owls ( F a l c o n i f o r m e s and S t r i g i f o r m e s ) would be common w h i l e there would a l s o be r a r e occurrences of swans (Godfrey  (Cyginae)  1966).  Many of the grasses i n t h i s community were used by the Coast i n mat was  and b a s k e t r y manufacture w h i l e the l e a f y base of T r i g l o c h i n  eaten by some groups i n the l a t e summer (Turner 1979:28, 136,  The wood of the crabapple Pyrus f u s c a was s t i c k s w h i l e i t s f r u i t was  gathered  maritima 1975:73).  used f o r bows, wedges, and d i g g i n g  i n the autumn (Turner 1975:243, 1979:202).  The a v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of economically important community are presented i n F i g u r e  Salish  s p e c i e s from  this  2-13.  G r a s s l a n d Community There i s no modern e q u i v a l e n t to t h i s community.  Its prehistoric  d i s t r i b u t i o n i s based upon that r e c o n s t r u c t e d by North et_ al_. (1979) and i s estimated to have extended F i g u r e 2-8).  over s e v e r a l thousand  T h i s community was  1980).  F l o o d i n g of the g r a s s l a n d s was  periods  (North 1980).  the red  (Hebda 1977:29-31; North  frequent, e s p e c i a l l y during freshet  Raised areas were probably covered w i t h Pyrus  as e a r l y s e t t l e r s i n the Nicomekl-Serpentine  fusca  River V a l l e y s reported that  abundant (Lang 1967:129).  G r a s s l a n d areas above the  have contained Camas sp. ( S u t t l e s 1974:59), w h i l e  s e t t l e r s r e p o r t e d an abundance of the r u f f e d grouse s p e c i e s which was  'G',  sub-communities,  rushes, sedges and reeds, and  top p r a i r i e dominated by A g r o s t i s s t o l o n i f e r a  Campbell R i v e r may  (see area  a p p a r e n t l y composed of two  the wetgrass p r a i r i e of bunchgrass,  t h i s s p e c i e s was  ha  probably common throughout  early  (Bonasa umbellus),  a  t h i s community (Treleaven  1978:24). I n s e c t i v o r e s and snowshoe hare  small rodents would have been common as would the  (Lepus americanus) ( B a n f i e l d  1974,  Cowan and Guiguet  1965).  38  Species  Availability J  F  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  O  N  D  AVES (Ardeidae Ardea  Herons)  herodias  Botaurus  lentifcinosus  (Cyginae Olor 0.  Swans)  columbianus  buccinator  (Anserinae Branta  -  Geese)  canadensis  (Anatinae  -  Dabbling  Ducks)  Anas p l a t v r h y n c h o s A. acuta A.  strepera  A.  carolinensis  (Falconiformes  -  Raptors)  Haliaeetus leucocephalus C i r c u s cyaneus Falco  peregrinus  (Strigiformes Asio  -  Owls)  flammeus  MAMMALIA (Carnivora  -  Carnivores)  Canis lupus Procyon l o t o r Mephitis  mephitis  = - = = = =  very  common  Sources: B a n f i e l d 1974, Covan and G u i g u e t 1965.  F i g u r e 2-13.  common Campbell  et  al.  frequent  rare  1 9 6 6 , Hoos and Packman 1 9 7 4 ,  Kistritz  1978:19,  S a l t Marsh Community Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance.  P r e y i n g on- these.small animals of F a l c o n i f o r m e s 1966;  -  1972, Godfrey  and b i r d s would have been s e v e r a l s p e c i e s  and S t r i g i f o r m e s and the timber wolf  Cowan and Guiguet 1965:280; T r e l e a v e n  1978:13).  (Canis lupus)  (Godfrey  The w h i t e - f r o n t e d  goose (Anser a l b i f r o n s ) would o c c a s i o n a l l y feed i n the g r a s s l a n d  areas  (Gary K a i s e r , C.W.S., March 1980, p e r s . comm.), and r a r e l y the swan, Olor buccinator  (Godfrey  and w a p i t i (Cervus  1966).  John Work r e p o r t e d t h a t beaver (Castor  canadensis)  elaphus) were numerous on the p r a i r i e s of the Nicomekl-  Serpentine R i v e r V a l l e y s , and they may have o c c a s i o n a l l y frequented the g r a s s l a n d s a t the head of Boundary Bay as w e l l (McKelvie 1958:16-7).  1947:23; Pearson  A v a i l a b i l i t y and abundance of w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s from  this  39  community are summarized i n F i g u r e  2-14.  Grass and Shrub Community As w i t h the p r e v i o u s G r a s s l a n d Community, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  this  community a l s o f o l l o w s t h a t r e c o n s t r u c t e d by North et a_l. (1979), and i s estimated to have covered  s e v e r a l thousand  ha  (see area 'W,  Figure  2-8).  Hebda (1977:29, 31) d e s c r i b e s t h i s community as mainly grass w i t h w i l l o w , hardtack, crabapple and w i l d rose ( S a l i x sp., S p i r e a d o u g l a s i i , Pyrus f u s c a , Rosa sp.) o c c u r r i n g i n clumps among the grasses or i n t h i c k e t s . who  journeyed up the Nicomekl R i v e r i n December 1824  growth of w i l l o w along the r i v e r banks (McKelvie E a r l y s e t t l e r s i n the Nicomekl-Serpentine wide range of w i l d l i f e  John Work  commented on the dense  1947:22).  River Valleys reported a  i n c l u d i n g salmon and t r o u t , geese, ducks and  r a p t o r a l b i r d s , beaver, muskrat, raccoon, wolves, cougars, bear, mink, skunk, r i v e r o t t e r , w a p i t i and deer 88,  133; Pearson  1958:12, 18-9,  m a j o r i t y of these s p e c i e s and  martin,  1958:130; Lang 1967:73,  81; T r e l e a v e n 1978:7, 12,  some o t h e r s c o u l d be found  communities i n the Nicomekl-Serpentine a composite  (Johnson  grouse,  13).  As  i n most of the  R i v e r V a l l e y s , F i g u r e 2-14  l i s t of a v a i l a b l e s p e c i e s f o r the a r e a .  the  Although  represents  salmon and  s t e e l h e a d spawning beds are l o c a t e d i n the F o r e s t Communities,  fishing  weirs would have been p l a c e d on the lower reaches of the S e r p e n t i n e , Nicomekl and Campbell R i v e r s and t h e i r t r i b u t a r i e s , areas l o c a t e d i n the G r a s s l a n d and Grass and  Shrub Communities and are thus i n c l u d e d i n F i g u r e  2-14.  C u r r e n t l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y chum (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning i s o n l y recorded on the Campbell R i v e r , w h i l e coho ((). k i s u t c h ) and the s t e e l h e a d (Salmo g a i r d n e r i ) spawn on a l l three streams (Environment  Canada, 1925-1970).  I t i s not known whether or not t h i s p a t t e r n r e f l e c t s the p r e h i s t o r i c Many of the other s p e c i e s common to these communities would have very d e f i n i t e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h stream banks and adjacent  areas.  one.  40  Species  Availability J  F  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  0  N  D  PISCES (Salmonidae - Salmons) Oncorhynchus kisutch 0. keta Salmo gairdneri AVES (Cyginae- Swans) Olor buccinator (Anserinae - Geese) Anser albifrons (Falconiforaes - Raptors) Acclpiter gentilis A. striatus Buteo j amaicens is B. lsgopus Haliaeetus leucocephalus Circus cyaneus Falco peregrinus F. columbarius F. sparverius (Gallifonnes - Grouse) Bonasa umbellus (Strigifonoes - Owls) Tyto alba Nyctea scandiaca Asio flammeus MAMMALIA (Leporidae - Snowshoe Hare) Lepus americanus (Rodentia - Rodents) Castor canadensis Ondata zibethica (Carnivora - Carnivores) Canis lupus Ursus americanus Procyon lotor Martes americana Mustela ermina M. frenata M. vison Spilogale gracilis Mephitis mephitis Lontra canadensis Felis concolor (Cervidae - Deer & Wapiti) Odocoileus hemionus Cervus elaphus  —  very common  common  ?  - - - - - frequent  Sources: Banfield 1974, Environment Canada 1925-1970, Godfrey 1966, Johnson 1958, Kaiser C.W.S., Lang 1967, McKelvie 1947, Cowan and Guiguet 1965, Pearson 1958, Treleaven 1978.  F i g u r e 2-14.  Grassland Conmunity Species A v a i l a b i l i t y and Abundance.  41  Cattail  Community  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s community i s based upon North e_t al_. who  (1979)  have i n d i c a t e d i t s presence at l o c a t i o n s along the Nicomekl R i v e r  (see  a r e a 'C', F i g u r e 2-8).  latifolia  Less e x t e n s i v e stands of the c a t t a i l  Typha  undoubtedly were a l s o p r e s e n t , although i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t  community extended  over more than 1-2000 ha.  t h a t as a r u l e pure stands of T. l a t i f o l i a  Forbes  this  (1972:36) i n d i c a t e s  leave a s t e r i l e u n d e r s t o r y  although he found g r a s s e s , sedges and b u l l r u s h e s occupying hummocks. T_. l a t i f o l i a l e a v e s and stems c o l l e c t e d i n the l a t e summer were used by the Coast S a l i s h i n making mats, as w e l l as twine, b a s k e t s , capes hats  (Turner 1979:148-152).  temporary 241).  mat  and  These mats were w i d e l y used f o r c o v e r i n g canoes,  lodges and f o r l i n i n g w a l l s i n the plank house ( S u t t l e s  1974:  As t h i s community would have been found s c a t t e r e d throughout the  two  p r e v i o u s ones, s p e c i e s which might be found here are i n c l u d e d i n F i g u r e 2-14. if  The muskrat  (Ondatra z i b e t h i c a ) i n h a b i t s c a t t a i l marshes year  they do not f r e e z e  Sphagnum Bog  (Banfield  around  1974:199).  Community  A unique f e a t u r e of the F r a s e r D e l t a i s a s e r i e s of r a i s e d  sphagnum  bogs, the l a r g e s t , Burns Bog has been the focus of three r e c e n t s t u d i e s (Biggs 1976;  Hebda 1977;  as w e l l as two  Hebda and Biggs 1981).  The extent of Burns Bog  l e s s e r bogs i n the Nicomekl-Serpentine R i v e r V a l l e y s  North et a l . (1979) and cover s e v e r a l thousand ha  follow  (see area 'B', F i g u r e 2-8).  Hebda (1977:155, 161-4) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the i n i t i a l development of Burns Bog began around 5,000 B.P.  and p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l model of bog growth f o r  the F r a s e r D e l t a c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n i t i a l s a l t marsh c o l o n i z a t i o n phase, a wet  g r a s s l a n d phase, a shrub phase and a sphagnum bog phase.  As the  Nicomekl-Serpentine bogs are surrounded by a shrub community, i t may  be  that  42  t h i s model a p p l i e s e q u a l l y w e l l f o r these bogs. Biggs (1976:141-7) has summarized the v e g e t a t i o n of Burns Bog which i n c l u d e s a range of p l a n t s whose f r u i t s were used by the Coast  Salish  i n c l u d i n g hawthorn (Crataegus d o u g l a s i i ) , c r a b a p p l e (Pyrus f u s c a ) , c r a n b e r r y (Viburnum  e d u l e ) , saskatoon  (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) ,  salal  s h a l l o n ) , and s e v e r a l s p e c i e s of Rubus and Vaccinium.  (Gaultheria  Accounts  from  e a r l y s e t t l e r s i n the Nicomekl-Serpentine V a l l e y i n d i c a t e that Coast people from as f a r away as Vancouver I s l a n d gathered b l u e b e r r i e s  Salish  (Vaccinium  sp.) from bogs i n the a r e a i n the l a t e summer (Lang 1967:68; T r e l e a v e n 1978:19).  W i l d l i f e i n t