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A cultural analysis of faunal remains from three archaeological sites in Hesquiat Harbour, B.C. Calvert, Sheila Gay 1980

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A CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF FAUNAL REMAINS FROM THREE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN HESQUIAT HARBOUR, B.C.  i  by  I  SHEILA GAY CALVERT B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 M.A.,  U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1973  A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y , University of B r i t i s h  Columbia)  We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as^ebnforming v  t o the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  May, 1980 ©  S h e i l a Gay C a l v e r t , 1980  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  make i t  that permission  I agree  reference and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  It  for financial  is understood that copying or gain shall  not  permission.  Department o f  for  Columbia,  this  Anthropology aad. Sociology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  September 30, 1980  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  representatives. thesis  freely available  the requirements  or  publication  be allowed without my  ii  Abstract  T h i s study examines the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t among the p r e h i s t o r i c hunter-gatherers  o f Hesquiat Harbour, west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d ,  B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l resource  a r e a e x p l o i t e d , and hence animal  s e l e c t i o n , was c o n t r o l l e d by l a n d use p a t t e r n s  groups t o s p e c i f i c t r a c t s o f t e r r i t o r y . o f the l a n d use system w i t h  limiting  local  I t suggests t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  the environmental d i v e r s i t y o f Hesquiat  Harbour c r e a t e s a s u b - r e g i o n a l  l e v e l o f resource  specialization  recog-  n i z a b l e i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s as v a r i a t i o n i n emphasis on animals from d i f f e r e n t h a b i t a t s among the f a u n a l assemblages. A s p e c i f i c p r o p o s i t i o n , developed from p e r t i n e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c and environmental i n f o r m a t i o n ,  r e l a t e s l a n d use p a t t e r n s w i t h  t e r n o f d i v e r s i t y among t h e f a u n a l assemblages from t h r e e s i t e s , DiSo 1, DiSo 9 and DiSo 16.  comprising  pat-  archaeological  The emphasis on d i f f e r e n t h a b i t a t s  one would expect t o f i n d a t each s i t e a r e p r e d i c t e d . blages,  a specific  The f a u n a l assem-  49,770 s k e l e t a l elements and 135,777.4 grams o f s h e l l ,  are d e s c r i b e d and compared, u s i n g r e l a t i v e frequency o f s k e l e t a l element count and s h e l l weight.  The d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e d i s c u s s e d  i n r e l a t i o n t o sampling and p r e s e r v a t i o n f a c t o r s , l o c a l  environmental  change, season o f e x p l o i t a t i o n , change through time i n m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e and h a b i t a t s e x p l o i t e d . A statistically habitat  s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n o f assemblages w i t h  different  emphases i s found t o account f o r the major p r o p o r t i o n o f the i n t e r -  assemblage v a r i a t i o n .  Observed p a t t e r n s o f h a b i t a t emphases a r e compared  w i t h those p r e d i c t e d ^  Actual  and  emphases i n the assemblages o f DiSo 16  DiSo 1 a r e p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e p r e d i c t e d p a t t e r n s , b u t  iii  those o f DiSo 9 d i f f e r .  The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h demonstrated  l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l change and a w i d e r t e r r i t o r y o f e x p l o i t a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t a s i m p l e , autonomous l o c a l group  level  o f s o c i o p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was p r e s e n t i n H e s q u i a t Harbour a t l e a s t 1,200  y e a r s ago and demonstrates t h a t the n a t u r a l environment d e f i n e d  by s o c i o - c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i s an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on r e g i o n a l f a u n a l assemblage p a t t e r n i n g on the Northwest C o a s t .  iv  Table of Contents Page Abstract  i i  L i s t of Tables  v  i  i  X  1  1  x  v  L i s t of Figures  ". .  Acknowledgements Chapter I. II.  Introduction  1  The Study Area Present Environment Landforms and Geology Hydrography. . Climate. Flora Fauna Mammals Birds Fish Shellfish Summary of Faunal Resources Past Environment Landforms, Geology and Sea Levels Hydrography Flora Fauna Summary  9 9  9 14 1  7  1  8  1  9  2  1  3  5  49 59 6  4  70 71 7  3  7  4  7  ^  7  8  Ethnography General Nootkan Ethnography Hesquiat Local Group T e r r i t o r i e s and Settlement and Subsistence Patterns  79 79  Previous Archaeological Work  97  The Hesquiat Project III.  . . .  Statement of Problem  87  10O>1 105  General Theory  106  Predicted Faunal Assemblages  109  V  Chapter  Page  IV.  118  S i t e Context o f the F a u n a l Assemblages S i t e E x c a v a t i o n Methods, S t r a t i g r a p h y and D a t i n g DiSo 16 DiSo 9 DiSo 1  V.  . . . .  A s s o c i a t e d A r t i f a c t Assemblages  133  Summary  140  F a u n a l Assemblages  142  Methods o f I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  142  Methods o f Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n  144  D e s c r i p t i o n and Comparison  144  V e r t e b r a t e Fauna . . . . . . . . . . . Mammal Remains . . B i r d Remains F i s h Remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Shellfish . . . Assemblage Summaries . . . . . . . .  VI.  118 118 122 128  Interpretation Sampling F a c t o r s  • • • • • • • . . . .  205  . . . . . . . . . .  206  Preservation Factors  208  Diachronic V a r i a t i o n i n Material Culture E n v i r o n m e n t a l Change  . .  . . . . . . . .  212  . . . . . . .  218  Season o f E x p l o i t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mammals Birds . ' Fish Molluscs Summary  148 149 160 170 180 194  • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  221 223 225 227 229 233  Habitats Exploited V e r t e b r a t e Fauna S h e l l f i s h Fauna  234 235 251  Discussion o f Results  255  vi  Chapter  VII.  Page  Conclusions  . . . . . . .  265  References C i t e d  269  Appendix A:  280  Faunal Tables  vii  viii  Table  Page  19.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s by Weight o f Remains w i t h i n Major Classes, Clam/Oyster/Scallop Species.  184  20.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s by Weight o f Remains w i t h i n Major C l a s s , Mussel S p e c i e s .  185  21.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s by Weight o f Remains w i t h i n Major C l a s s , Sea S n a i l S p e c i e s .  186  22.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s by Weight.of Remains w i t h i n Major Class, Limpet.Species.  187  23.  C a l c i u m ppm and pH Ranges o f M a t r i x Samples From a l l Stratigraphic Units.  209  24.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f S e l e c t e d A r t i f a c t C l a s s e s by S i t e .  215  25.  Seasons Represented i n t h e Mammal Fauna o f A l l Assemblages, Presence o f Known Age o r M i g r a t o r y Mammals.  224  26.  Comparison o f Growth S t a t i s t i c s by Age f o r E a s t Coast Vancouver I s l a n d Clams ( b i o l o g i c a l samples) and West Coast Vancouver I s l a n d Clams ( a r c h a e o l o g i c a l samples).  230  27.  Seasons Represented  232  28.  Major H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s f o r S h e l l f i s h , A H R e l a t i v e Frequency by Weight i n Grams.  29.  Combined S h e l l f i s h H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by Weight i n Grams w i t h i n F a u n a l . C l a s s e s .  253  30.  Mammal Remains, F a m i l y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by S k e l e t a l Element Count.  281  31.  Mammal Remains, F a m i l y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by MNI.-  282  32.  Mammal,Remains, I n c l u d i n g N o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y I d e n t i f i e d Remains, R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s by MNI.  283  33.  B i r d Remains F a m i l y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by S k e l e t a l Element Count.  284  34.  B i r d Remains, F a m i l y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s by MNI.  285  35.  Fish.Remains, F a m i l y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s by S k e l e t a l Element Count.  287  i n . t h e V e r t e b r a t e Faunal Assemblages. Assemblages,.,  252  ix  Table  Page  36.  F i s h Remains, E x c l u d i n g H e r r i n g , Anchovy and S a r d i n e , F a m i l y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s b y S k e l e t a l Element Count.  288  37.  F i s h Remains, F a m i l y by Assemblage, by MNI.  289  38.  S h e l l f i s h Remains, F a m i l y by Assemblage, Frequency by Weight o f Remains.  39.  DiSo 16, Mammal Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  291  40.  DiSo 16, B i r d Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  292  41.  DiSo 16, F i s h Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  293  42.  DiSo 16, S h e l l f i s h Remains, Weight of.Remains.  294  43.  DiSo 9-1, Mammal Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count.and MNI.  295  44.  DiSo 9-1, B i r d Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  296  45.  DiSo 9-1, F i s h Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  298  46.  DiSo 9-1, S h e l l f i s h Remains, Weight o f Remains.  299  47.  DiSo 9-II, Mammal Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  300  48.  DiSo 9-II, B i r d Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  301  49.  DiSo 9-II, F i s h Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  302  50.  DiSo 9 - I I , S h e l l f i s h Remains, Weight o f Remains.  303  51.  DiSo 1-1, Mammal"Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  304  52.  DiSo 1-1, B i r d Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  305  53.  DiSo 1-1, F i s h R e m a i n s , " S k e l e t a l  307  54.  DiSo 1-1, S h e l l f i s h Remains, Weight o f Remains.  308  55.  DiSo l - I I , Mammal Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  308  56.  DiSo l - I I , B i r d Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  309  57.  DiSo l - I I , F i s h Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  310  58.  DiSo l - I I , S h e l l f i s h Remains, Weight o f Remains.  311  59.  DiSo l - I I I , Mammal Remains, S k e l e t a l , E l e m e n t Count and MNI.  311  R e l a t i v e Frequency  Relative  Element Count and,MNI.  290  Page  Table 60.  DiSo l - I I I ,  B i r d Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  312  61.  DiSo l - I I I , F i s h Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  314  62.  DiSo l - I I I ,  316  63.  DiSo 1-IV, Mammal,Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  317  64.  DiSo 1-IV, B i r d Remains,  S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  318  65.  DiSo 1-IV, F i s h Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  320  66.  DiSo 1-IV, S h e l l f i s h Remains, Weight o f Remains.  321  67.  DiSo 1-V, Mammal Remains, S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  321  68.  DiSo 1-V, B i r d Remains,  S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  322  69.  DiSo 1-V, F i s h Remains,  S k e l e t a l Element Count and MNI.  322  70.  DiSo 1-V, S h e l l f i s h Remains, Weight o f Remains.  323  71.  B i r d Remains, Season o f A v a i l a b i l i t y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by S k e l e t a l Element Count.  324  72.  B i r d Remains, Season o f A v a i l a b i l i t y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by MNI.  324  73.  F i s h Remains, Season o f A v a i l a b i l i t y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by S k e l e t a l Element Count.  325  74.  F i s h Remains, Season o f A v a i l a b i l i t y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by MNI.  325  75.  Mammal Remains, H a b i t a t C a t e g o r y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency o f S k e l e t a l E l e m e n t Count.  326  76.  Mammal Remains, H a b i t a t C a t e g o r y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by MNI.  326  77.  B i r d Remains, H a b i t a t C a t e g o r y b y Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency o f S k e l e t a l Element Count.  327  78.  B i r d Remains, H a b i t a t Category by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency-of MNI.  327  79.  F i s h Remains, H a b i t a t Category by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency o f S k e l e t a l Element Count.  328  80.  F i s h Remains, H a b i t a t Category by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency o f S k e l e t a l Element C o u n t - E x c l u d i n g H e r r i n g , Anchovy and S a r d i n e .  329  Shellfish  Remains, Weight o f Remains.  xi  Table  Page  81. •  F i s h Remains, H a b i t a t C a t e g o r y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency o f MNI.  330  82.  H a b i t a t C a t e g o r y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by S k e l e t a l Element.Count o f B i r d , F i s h and Mammal Fauna.  331  83.  H a b i t a t C a t e g o r y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by MNI, B i r d , F i s h and Mammal Fauna.  332  84.  P e r c e n t a g e s o f Animal Weight C o n t r i b u t e d by Mammal.Bird and F i s h S p e c i e s .  333  85.  Mammal:Remains, H a b i t a t C a t e g o r y b y Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency b y Animal Weight.  333  86.  B i r d Remains, H a b i t a t Category by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by Animal Weight.  334  87.  F i s h Remains, H a b i t a t C a t e g o r y by Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency by Animal Weight.-  335  88.  H a b i t a t C a t e g o r y b y Assemblage, R e l a t i v e Frequency o f Animal Weight, B i r d , F i s h and Mammal"Remains.  336  xii  L i s t of  Figures  Figure  Page  1.  Vancouver I s l a n d , Showing L o c a t i o n o f Hesquiat B r i t i s h Columbia.  2.  Topographic F e a t u r e s  3.  Hydrographic F e a t u r e s  4.  G e n e r a l i z e d D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Mammal H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s .  23  5.  Generalized D i s t r i b u t i o n of B i r d Habitat Categories.  36  6.  Generalized D i s t r i b u t i o n of F i s h Habitat Categories.  51  7.  Generalized D i s t i r b u t i o n of S h e l l f i s h Habitat Categories.  60  8.  G e n e r a l i z e d D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Combined V e r t e b r a t e Categories.  67  9.  G e n e r a l i z e d D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Combined S h e l l f i s h H a b i t a t Categories.  68  10.  Hesquiat  to D r u c k e r .  88  11.  H e s q u i a t L o c a l Group T e r r i t o r i e s A c c o r d i n g Recorded bv the H e s q u i a t E l d e r s .  to Information  92  12.  Known A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s i n H e s q u i a t  13.  R e l a t i o n s h i p o f . H e s q u i a t L o c a l Group T e r r i t o r i e s , Combined V e r t e b r a t e H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s and DiSo 1, DiSo 9 and DiSo 16.  110  14.  Expected Rank Orders o f Importance o f . V e r t e b r a t e Faunal H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s , S i t e s DiSo 1, DiSo 9 and DiSo 16.  113  15.  S i t e Map  119  16.  East/West P r o f i l e a t N o r t h 2.0 DiSo 16.  17.  Map  18.  T y p i c a l North/South P r o f i l e , Loon Cave, DiSo 9.  127  19.  Site.Map o f H e s q u i a t  130  20.  Typical  o f Hesquiat  Harbour,  Harbour.  o f Hesquiat  11  Harbour.  L o c a l Group T e r r i t o r i e s A c c o r d i n g  15  Habitat  Harbour.  103  o f Y a k s i s Cave, DiSo 16. Metres, Y a k s i s Cave,  121  o f Loon Cave, DiSo 9.  125  V i l l a g e , DiSo 1.  DiSo 1 P r o f i l e , A b s t r a c t e d  10  from E x c a v a t i o n  U n i t B.  131  xiii  Figure  Page  21.  Stone and S h e l l A r t i f a c t  Classes.  138  22.  Bone and A n t l e r A r t i f a c t  Classes.  139  23.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f Mammal Remains.  150  24.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f B i r d Remains.  161  25.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f F i s h Remains.  171  26.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f F i s h Remains E x c l u d i n g Anchovy and S a r d i n e .  27.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f S h e l l f i s h Remains.  182  28.  DiSo 16, R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f F a u n a l Remains w i t h i n Major Taxonomic C l a s s e s , S k e l e t a l Element Count o r S h e l l . Weight.  197  29.  DiSo 9-1, R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f Faunal Remains w i t h i n Major Taxonomic C l a s s e s , S k e l e t a l Element Count o r S h e l l Weight.-  198  30.  DiSo 9-II, R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f F a u n a l Remains w i t h i n Major Taxonomic C l a s s e s , S k e l e t a l Element Count o r S h e l l Weight.  199  31.  DiSo 1-1, R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f F a u n a l Remains w i t h i n Major Taxonomic C l a s s e s , S k e l e t a l Element Count o r S h e l l Weight.  200  32.  DiSo l - I I , R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f F a u n a l Remains w i t h i n Major Taxonomic C l a s s e s , S k e l e t a l Element Count o r S h e l l Weight.  201  33.  DiSo l - I I I , R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f Faunal Remains w i t h i n Major Taxonomic C l a s s e s , S k e l e t a l Element Count o r .Shell Weight.  202  34.  DiSo 1-IV, R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f Faunal Remains w i t h i n Major Taxonomic C l a s s e s , S k e l e t a l Element Count o r S h e l l Weight.  203  35.  DiSo 1-V, R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f F a u n a l Remains w i t h i n Major Taxonomic C l a s s e s , S k e l e t a l Element Count o r S h e l l Weight.  204  36.  Comparison o f Radiocarbon E s t i m a t e s from Three H e s q u i a t Harbour S i t e s .  214  Herring, .  174  xiv  Figure  Page  37.  Season of A v a i l a b i l i t y , Avifauna of A l l Assemblages, R e l a t i v e Frequency by S k e l e t a l Element Count.  226  38.  Season of A v a i l a b i l i t y of F i s h R e l a t i v e Frequency by S k e l e t a l  228  39.  Relative  Frequency  Category  by Assemblage,  40.  41.  of  Fauna of A l l Assemblages, Element Count.  I d e n t i f i e d Mammal R e m a i n s ,  Relative  Frequency  Category  by Assemblage,  of  Relative  Frequencies  Skeletal  Identified  Bird  Habitat  237  Counti.  Remains,.Habitat  239  Element.Count.. Category  241  42.  R e l a t i v e Frequency of F i s h E x c l u d i n g S a r d i n e , Anchovy and H e r r i n g H a b i t a t Category by Assemblage, S k e l e t a l Element Count.  242  43.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c y o f B i r d , F i s h and, Mammal R e m a i n s , H a b i t a t Category by Assemblage, S k e l e t a l Element Count.  244  44.  Relative Frequency of by Assemblage, Animal  246  45.  Relative Frequency Assemblage, Animal  o f B i r d Remains, Weight.  Habitat.Category  by  247  46.  Relative Frequency Assemblage, Animal  of Fish Weight.  Habitat Category  by  248  47.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c y o f B i r d , F i s h a n d Mammal R e m a i n s , , H a b i t a t Category by Assemblage, A n i m a l Weight.  249  48.  E x p e c t e d Rank O r d e r o f Importance f o r V e r t e b r a t e E a u n a l ' Habitat Categories, Compared w i t h t h e Observed' R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s , D i S o 16, D i S o 9 a n d D i S o 1.  257  by Assemblage,  of  Skeletal  Element  Skeletal  Identified Element  Fish,  Habitat  Count..  Mammal R e m a i n s , Weight.  Remains,  Habitat  Category  XV  Acknowledgements  The l a t e C a r l E. Borden and c o u n s e l l e d me,  f i r s t t u r n e d my  attention to faunal  remains  b r u s q u e l y , t o "be a p r o f e s s i o n a l " , thus b e g i n n i n g the  process r e s u l t i n g i n this d i s s e r t a t i o n .  Many o t h e r s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o  i t s completion. I s h o u l d l i k e t o thank the members o f my Matson  a d v i s o r y committee,  ( A d v i s o r ) , R i c h a r d J . Pearson, J . E . M i c h a e l Kew  N o r t h c o t e f o r t h e i r encouragement and guidance. logic rest with I thank my  R.G.  and Thomas  Any e r r o r s o f f a c t o r  me. c o l l e a g u e s a t the A r c h a e o l o g y D i v i s i o n , B r i t i s h  P r o v i n c i a l Museum, f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t .  Columbia  Nancy C o n d r a s h o f f drew the base  map  o f H e s q u i a t Harbour, w h i l e the photographs were taken by David H u t c h c r o f t . E l a i n e P a t t e r s o n and T e r r y Hanna typed the m a n u s c r i p t . "thank-you"  to Susan C r o c k f o r d .  I owe  a special  Her h e l p i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and h e r  ability  to d e a l w i t h seemingly e n d l e s s q u a n t i t i e s o f fragmentary bone were i n valuable.  Donald Abbott and Thomas Loy p r o v i d e d encouragement and  c u s s i o n , w h i l e N e a l C r o z i e r ' s work i n f i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y was I owe  a s p e c i a l debt t o James Haggarty, who  i n t r o d u c e d me  H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t and p r o v i d e d i n t e l l e c t u a l argument and  dis-  indispensible. t o the  stimulation.  Many i d e a s developed here s u r f a c e d d u r i n g l i v e l y d i s c u s s i o n s and I cannot claim sole authorship. spirited  Len Ham  and P a u l Gleeson a l s o shared hours o f  discussion.  More p e o p l e a s s i s t e d i n the f i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y than can be b u t those who  worked on the 1973  i n f a u n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , are Sam Marina Tom,  and 1974  listed,  e x c a v a t i o n crews, o r a s s i s t e d  Mickey, P a u l Lucas, Stephen  C a r o l Lucas, Verna S u t h e r l a n d , Ruby Lucas, Rob  Lucas,  Whitlam,  xvi  R i c k R o l l i n s , T e r r a n c e Sabbas, Bob F r a s e r , Dora G a l l e g o s , M a r i l y n Amos, K a r l a George, Buddy George, Heather Brewis,  'Nes Leonhardt,  Sennen  C h a r l e s o n , P a t Amos, James Amos, M a r i l y n Lucas and R u s s e l Amos. people  To these  and a l l the o t h e r s who c o n t r i b u t e d i n l a b and f i e l d , I o f f e r my  h e a r t f e l t thanks.  The work was o f t e n t e d i o u s b u t i n t h e i r company, never  dull. Financial  support was p r o v i d e d by the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l  ( A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board, F i r s t C i t i z e n ' s  Government  Fund, Summer  Programme), t h e F e d e r a l Government (Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  Student  Cultural  Grants Fund, L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e s Programme, O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Youth,  Secre-  t a r y o f S t a t e Summer Student Programme) and the F r i e n d s o f the P r o v i n c i a l Museum. J o r g Boehm, my f a m i l y , and Bruce F r e d e r i c k have had t o bear the worst o f t h i s endeavour, n e i t h e r d i r e c t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g effects.  n o r a b l e t o escape t h e  To them I o f f e r a p o l o g i e s and deep thanks f o r t h e i r support and  encouragement. Most i m p o r t a n t l y , I thank the Hesquiat People.  T h e i r a n c e s t o r s have  p r o v i d e d me w i t h a p r o f e s s i o n , b u t t h e i r p r e s e n t company has shown me much I might o t h e r w i s e the H e s q u i a t  n e i t h e r have seen=nor understood.  Cultural  Committee, i n p a r t i c u l a r  I especially  thank  Ruth Tom, L a r r y P a u l and  the Hesquiat E l d e r s , C h i e f B e n e d i c t Andrews, A l i c e P a u l , A l e x Amos, George Ignace, Mrs. Mike Tom, the l a t e Mary Amos and the l a t e Mike Tom S e n i o r . The  determination o f these people  t o guard  t h e i r cultural heritage f o r  f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s i s surpassed o n l y by t h e i r p r i d e i n b e i n g H e s q u i a t .  I  am honoured t h a t they have shared w i t h me the e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g a t "home" in  Hesquiat.  1  Chapter I Introduction  Archaeologists  have g e n e r a l l y r e l a t e d c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s among  contemporary f a u n a l assemblages i n the same r e g i o n  t o e i t h e r techno-  l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n o r the s e a s o n a l e x p l o i t a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t m i c r o e n vironments.  Less a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o the way i n which  organi-  z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i o c u l t u r a l systems might f u n c t i o n i n chans n e l i n g the s e l e c t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s by a p a r t i c u l a r group.  This d i s s e r -  t a t i o n examines the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t among t h e p r e h i s t o r i c h u n t e r g a t h e r e r s o f the west c o a s t , o f  Vancouver I s l a n d , the g e o g r a p h i c a l  area  e x p l o i t e d by a group, and thus the microenvironments and s e a s o n a l resources within  i t , was d e l i n e a t e d  o f l a n d use t h a t a s s o c i a t e d territory.  and c o n t r o l l e d by c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s  groups w i t h c l e a r l y d e f i n e d  tracts of  I t i s suggested t h a t because o f environmental d i v e r s i t y  a l o n g t h e west c o a s t o f the i s l a n d , the a c t u a l r e s o u r c e base o f a c u l t u r a l l y defined  sub-unit  of a regional adaptation  was n o t neces-  s a r i l y the same as the r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e base a v a i l a b l e t o t h e whole a d a p t i v e system.  T h i s would r e s u l t i n d i f f e r i n g i n t r a - r e g i o n a l  emphases on p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e s .  Consequently one might expect con-  s i d e r a b l e d i v e r s i t y among f a u n a l assemblages from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n the same r e g i o n , which c o u l d n o t be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d  sites by  t e c h n o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s o r v a r i a t i o n s i n season o f e x p l o i t a t i o n . Jochim, w r i t i n g o f t h e v a l u e o f an e c o l o g i c a l approach t o archaeology, recognizes  the d i f f e r e n c e between the e c o l o g i c a l l y  a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e base o f an a r e a and t h a t a c t u a l l y e x p l o i t e d by a group, b u t s t r e s s e s t e c h n o l o g y and v a l u e systems r a t h e r than the  2  o p e r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  as  the  defining factors: " T h i s approach focuses on the s t r u c t u r i n g o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a group t o i t s n a t u r a l environment, w i t h p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the n a t u r a l environment... i t must be remembered, however, t h a t the e x p l o i t e d n a t u r a l environment i s c c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d , so t h a t the " c o g n i z e d " e n v i r o n ment may d i f f e r from t h a t seen by the e c o l o g i s t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the d e f i n i t i o n o f e x p l o i t a b l e and d e s i r a b l e r e s o u r c e s depends,,to a l a r g e e x t e n t , upon t e c h n o l o g y and v a l u e systems, and t h i s p r o c e s s o f d e f i n i t i o n must be examined." (Jochim 1976:9) M a r t i n e z a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s a " c u l t u r a l environment" from the g i c a l environment, but  l i k e Jochim, focuses  on t e c h n o l o g i c a l  ecoloand  ideational variables. "Not a l l the environment t h a t surrounds a g i v e n s o c i e t y i s c o n s c i o u s l y r e a l i z e d by i t s members; t h e r e i s a n e u t r a l o r i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t of t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s t h a t does not a f f e c t the development o f t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e because the c u l t u r a l baggage o f the moment does not c o n t a i n the knowledge and t o o l s n e c e s s a r y f o r i t s exp l o i t a t i o n . ' On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s another p a r t o f the environment composed o f a s e r i e s of elements c o n s i d e r e d t o be s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s , which taken t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e s a " c u l t u r a l l y i n t e g r a t e d space"; the l a t t e r i s an a b s t r a c t i d e a o f the environment i n the c o l l e c t i v e mind of the group, which c o u l d be c a l l e d the " c u l t u r a l environment". (Martinez  1979:313)  I t i s a " c o g n i z e d " , " c u l t u r a l l y " d e f i n e d n a t u r a l environment t h a t i s here c o n s i d e r e d  the major c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to  inter-assemblage  v a r i a b i l i t y among e i g h t f a u n a l assemblages from t h r e e  archaeological  s i t e s i n Hesquiat Harbour, west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d , but d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y by  socio-cultural organizational p r i n c i p l e s rather  than t e c h n o l o g y o r i d e a s o f what i s or i s not Technological  one  and  value  l e v e l , a f f e c t i n g sub-regional  edible.  system v a r i a b l e s o p e r a t e a t the  regional  u n i t s e q u a l l y , except perhaps i n the  3  case o f i n d i v i d u a l o r f a m i l y food taboos o r the l i k e . c u l t u r a l organization of a regional population production  and  But  consumption w i t h s e t t e r r i t o r i e s , c r e a t e s a  sub-regional and  sumption w i t h i n a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and  bounded and  season  I f the autonomous s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l group i n h a b i t i n g a  s i t e i s a l s o the autonomous socio-economic u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n  the r e s o u r c e  socio-  i n t o d i s c r e t e u n i t s of  l e v e l o f v a r i a t i o n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s i t e use o f occupancy.  the  s t r i c t l y maintained  and  con-  territory,  base a v a i l a b l e t o the i n h a b i t i n g group i s t e r r i t o r i a l l y f i x e d by c u l t u r a l l y imposed l i m i t s .  When the  territories  so bounded a l s o d i f f e r among themselves i n h a b i t a t s , the r e s u l t must be d i f f e r i n g l o c a l group a d a p t a t i o n s  to l o c a l f a u n a l r e s o u r c e s  and  d i f f e r i n g f a u n a l assemblages i n the s i t e s o f d i f f e r e n t t e r r i t o r i a l u n i t s of the same r e g i o n a l An  adaptation.  examination o f Nootkan ethnography i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s was  case i n H e s q u i a t Harbour immediately p r i o r to c o n t a c t . here t h a t i t was  I t i s suggested  a l s o the case f o r the e a r l i e r p r e h i s t o r i c i n h a b i t a n t s  o f the harbour, and  t h a t the e f f e c t s o f such a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l o r g a n i -  z a t i o n are o b s e r v a b l e i n the manner i n which f a u n a l assemblages among a r c h a e o l o g i c a l The  the  s i t e s i n the  differ  harbour.  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s approach t o the H e s q u i a t f a u n a l assem-  b l a g e s are b r o a d e r than the a c c u r a t e regional p r e h i s t o r i c adaptation.  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r  In the Northwest Coast, where f a u n a l  assemblages are o f t e n l a r g e and w e l l p r e s e r v e d productive  and  records  of extractive,  consumptive a c t i v i t i e s , the importance and p o t e n t i a l  o f t h i s d a t a s e t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent. of faunal analyses  The  i n Northwest C o a s t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e  r a t h e r than b r i e f and  uninformative  inclusion studies,  l i s t s of species present,  is  bee  4  coming more common, as i s w i t n e s s e d by r e c e n t works (Friedman 1976; Gleeson 1970; Matson 1976; Monks 1977; Connover 1972).  I t i s accord-  i n g l y important t h a t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f a u n a l p a t t e r n i n g be improved, t a k i n g i n t o account a l l p o s s i b l e sources o f v a r i a t i o n . Customarily  we d i s t i n g u i s h f o u r major s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n i n  observed f a u n a l f r e q u e n c i e s  and d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i t h i n and among s i t e s :  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a d a p t i v e  systems r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e p o s i t i o n  o f the remains; v a r i a t i o n i n p r e s e r v a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e e f f e c t s o f the d e p o s i t i o n a l environment on d i f f e r e n t f a u n a l remains, o r t o d i f f e r i n g d e p o s i t i o n a l environments; v a r i a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from p o s t depositional disturbances; techniques  o f recovery  Archaeologists  and sample b i a s a r i s i n g from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  and q u a n t i f i c a t i o n .  a r e accustomed t o c o n s i d e r i n g the p a t t e r n i n g  e x h i b i t e d among f a u n a l assemblages i n t h e l i g h t o f the l a s t t h r e e s s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n , as a l l have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e recent l i t e r a t u r e  ( B i n f o r d 1977).  attention i n  The c l u s t e r i n g o f remains w i t h i n  s i t e s i n a c t i v i t y a r e a s and among s i t e s because o f v a r i e d s i t e use and purpose have been s t u d i e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n 1972;  B i n f o r d 1962; P l o g 1974; S t r e u v e r  (1976), S c h i f f e r (1976), Y e l l e n demonstrated t h e c o m p l i c a t e d  (Abbott  1971), w h i l e r e c e n t l y Jochim  (1977) and B i n f o r d  (1978) have a b l y  nature o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  l i v i n g systems and t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e i r m a t e r i a l remnants i n and on t h e ground.  Thus a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y knowledge-  a b l e about the d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a n s l a t i n g s t a t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f a c t s into l i v i n g The  systems.  first  to decipher.  source o f v a r i a t i o n i s , o f course,  t h a t which we seek  That a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f a u n a l assemblages a r e c u l t u r a l ,  5  r e p r e s e n t i n g the from the  selected  total available  exploitation  of c e r t a i n  animal r e s o u r c e s base, by  o f p e o p l e a t a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e and  time, has  l o n g time  Reed and  the  animalrresources  (Bokonyi 1973;  Daly 1969;  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f what s t r u c t u r e s  that  a p a r t i c u l a r group  been r e c o g n i z e d f o r a Braidwood 1960).  selection that  It is  i s impor-  tant. Many a r c h a e o l o g i s t s agree t h a t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the n a t u r a l  vironment i n t e r a c t w i t h s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s , d e f i n e the  adaptive structure  system, and sources.  to the  structures.  o f both s p h e r e s .  constraints  o f the  Such f a c t o r s  have a l l r e c e i v e d Stewart 1975;  portunities  natural  s e l e c t i o n of  re-  attention  (Coe  Yesner and  and  p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of  F l a n n e r y 1964;  been  A i g n e r 1976). (Kew  prey  The 1976;  (Casteel  have a l s o been c o n s i d e r e d .  The  emphasized t h e . c o m p l e x i t y and  multidirectional  a d a p t a t i o n s to p a r t i c u l a r environments. understand more c l e a r l y how  As  the  influence  and  Oswalt 1976) 1973;  Elder  and  the  1965;  interactions  data of  has  particular  archaeologists the  natural  faunal resources selected  on  op-  a p p l i c a t i o n o f systems  a result,  a p a r t i c u l a r p r e h i s t o r i c group.  s h o r t s h r i f t t o date, i s the  Schalk  constraints  technology,, s c h e d u l i n g , and  environment i n t e r a c t to s t r u c t u r e  resources  R o l l 1974;  a r e v i t a l i z e d c u l t u r a l ecology to a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  e x p l o i t a t i o n by  has  environment i n shaping a d a p t i v e  of p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n o l o g i e s  Shawcross 1973)  into  as s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s , m i c r o -  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e d a t o r and  t h e o r y and  socio-cultural  Considerable attention  e n v i r o n m e n t a l l o c a l i z a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and  1977;  the  interrelations  d e f i n i t i o n o f those i n t e r r e l a t i o n s , then, must take  account the v a r i a b l e s paid  s p e c i f i c to a p a r t i c u l a r  t h a t these i n t e r r e l a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e  The  t h a t the  en-  What has  for  received  r e s o u r c e s e l e c t i o n and  there-  6  f o r e f a u n a l p a t t e r n i n g i n s i t e s , o f the manner i n which a s o c i e t y o r g a n i z e s access t o i t s animal  resources.  Catchment a n a l y s i s has attempted, w i t h some s u c c e s s , t o d e f i n e c u l t u r a l l y d e l i n e a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l areas a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c In the c l a s s i c  catchment a n a l y s i s as used by V i t a - F i n z i  and  sites.  Higgs  (1970:667) and by Rossman (1976:98), g e o g r a p h i c a l areas l i k e l y t o have been e x p l o i t e d from a s i t e are d e f i n e d by measures o f e i t h e r o r p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e from the s i t e , w i t h o u t f l i c t i n g claims.  While Zarky  temporal  r e g a r d t o p o s s i b l y con-  (1976:118-120) r e f i n e s t h i s  c o n s i d e r i n g , i n a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t , the percentage  approach by  of v a r i o u s e n v i r o n -  mental zones c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a catchment a r e a , the assumption i s s t i l l t h a t the s i t e occupants have u n r e s t r i c t e d access t o a l l t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n i n a determined  d i s t a n c e of t h a t s i t e .  the s i t e occupants i n c u l t u r a l solely  These a n a l y s e s e s s e n t i a l l y  vacuums,;,with t e r r i t o r i e s  place  determined  by p h y s i c a l a c c e s s , i . e . d i s t a n c e .  The  approach used by F l a n n e r y ,  catchment areas  "empirical determination" of  (1976a.:103-104) , i s c l o s e r t o t h a t used i n t h i s  He a l s o begins w i t h the e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e o f r e s o u r c e  i n h i s u s e , o f the phrase  spacing, that s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  environmental  F l a n n e r y i s a l s o w e l l aware,  ''other f a c t o r s b e i n g e q u a l "  r e f e r e n c e t o the i n f l u e n c e of s o c i a l  study.  exploitation,  the f a u n a l and f l o r a l remains, to determine the types o f zones e x p l o i t e d by the s i t e i n h a b i t a n t s .  site  factors  (1976b:180) and  (1976a:117) on  a  village  f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the catchment a r e a a s -  s o c i a t e d w i t h s i t e s i n Mesoamerica. T h i s study d i f f e r s from p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i n examining the i n f l u e n c e on f a u n a l r e s o u r c e s e l e c t i o n o f s p e c i f i c in starting  socio-political  factors  from the dictum t h a t "other t h i n g s " are not e q u a l .  and Cultural  7  distance  and  s i t e catchment area i s d e f i n e d as much by  p r i n c i p l e s as by k i l o m e t r e s than a k i l o m e t r e organizes  or hours.  A resource  away from a h a b i t a t i o n s i t e , but  access to resources  organizational  l o c a t i o n may  be  i f the s o c i e t y  t h a t the r i g h t to use  that resource  less so loca-  t i o n i s not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s i t e , the r e s o u r c e  l o c a t i o n might as w e l l be  I t i s not a v a i l a b l e t o the s i t e 1  The  s e v e r a l hundred k i l o m e t r e s  inhabitants.  manner i n which a s o c i e t y o r g a n i z e s  animal r e s o u r c e s  and m a i n t a i n s a c c e s s to i t s  i s an important p o s s i b l e source o f v a r i a t i o n i n f a u n a l  assemblages, p a r t i c u l a r l y on ownership was  distant.  the Northwest Coast, where t e r r i t o r i a l  a s t r o n g l y developed p a r t o f the s o c i o c u l t u r a l systems.  I f p r e d i c t i v e r e g i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l models are b u i l t on as a r t i f a c t u a l d a t a ,  f a u n a l as  well  i t behooves us to understand the i n f l u e n c e s which  shape the f a u n a l d a t a i n s p e c i f i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s . f y i n g those f a c t o r s w i t h i n a r e g i o n , we the p r e d i c t i v e power o f these  By  identi-  w i l l be b e t t e r a b l e to  realize  data.  T h i s study uses e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a and  knowledge o f the p r e s e n t  and  p a s t environments o f H e s q u i a t Harbour t o p r e d i c t the d i f f e r i n g emphasis on animal r e s o u r c e s  from p a r t i c u l a r h a b i t a t s , t h a t one  would expect t o  f i n d among f a u n a l assemblages from H e s q u i a t Harbour s i t e s i f the graphically described  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f access t o r e s o u r c e s  ation prehistorically  as w e l l , a s  from t h r e e s i t e s i n two and  compared, and  kinds  more r e c e n t l y .  was  of h a b i t a t s being  i n oper-  Eight faunal  d i f f e r i n g environmental s e t t i n g s are  t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s characterised according e x p l o i t e d most h e a v i l y .  The  assemblages described  to  observed  the patterns  o f h a b i t a t emphasis are compared w i t h the expected p a t t e r n s and r e s u l t s discussed  i n r e l a t i o n t o the known changes i n l o c a l  ethno-  the  environment.  8  d u r i n g the p a s t 2,700 y e a r s and access t o r e s o u r c e Chapter  to the e t h n o g r a p h i c  locations.  I I d e s c r i b e s the study a r e a .  Both p r e s e n t and p a s t e n v i r o n -  ment are d e s c r i b e d i n terms of r e l e v a n t geology, f l o r a and  fauna.  t h e i r occurence  system o f o r g a n i z i n g  The  hydrography, c l i m a t e ,  f a u n a l s p e c i e s are covered i n some d e t a i l ,  relating  i n the harbour t o seasons and h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s i n  which they are most l i k e l y t o be  found.  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these h a b i -  t a t c a t e g o r i e s i n Hesquiat Harbour i s i l l u s t r a t e d and r e l a t e d to the l o c a t i o n of the s i t e s under study.  The  ethnographic  a d a p t a t i o n to the  harbour i s d i s c u s s e d and p r e v i o u s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work on the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d b r i e f l y In Chapter  detailed.  I I I the problem b e i n g examined i s o u t l i n e d i n r e l a t i o n  t o Nootkan p r e h i s t o r y , and  s p e c i f i c e x p e c t a t i o n s g i v e n f o r the  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s as r e g a r d s t h e i r . f a u n a l assemblages.  three  Chapter  IV  d e s c r i b e s the s i t e s from which the f a u n a l assemblages were r e c o v e r e d , the methods o f r e c o v e r y , s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , d a t i n g and sociated a r t i f a c t Chapter  assemblages.  V o u t l i n e s the methods used t o i d e n t i f y and q u a n t i f y the  f a u n a l remains, p r e s e n t s the f a u n a l assemblages, and i d e n t i f i e s d i f f e r e n c e s and  similarities.  Chapter  their  VI r e l a t e s these d i f f e r e n c e s and  s i m i l a r i t i e s t o p o s s i b l e sources o f v a r i a t i o n and  compares the assem-  b l a g e s w i t h the p r e d i c t e d p a t t e r n s of h a b i t a t emphasis.  The  results  are then d i s c u s s e d , and the success o f the approach e v a l u a t e d i n VII.  as-  D e t a i l e d f a u n a l d a t a are c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix  A.  Chapter  9  Chapter I I The  Study  Area  F o r t y - e i g h t k i l o m e t r e s n o r t h o f T o f i n o on Vancouver I s l a n d ' s west c o a s t a broad, l o w - l y i n g p e n i n s u l a reaches o u t i n t o the P a c i f i c Ocean, ending i n the bedrock o u t c r o p s o f E s t e v a n P o i n t ( F i g . 1 ) . T h i s western edge o f l a n d i s pounded by the f u l l  f o r c e o f winds and waves sweeping i n  fromtthe open P a c i f i c .  In t h e southern s h e l t e r o f the tongue o f l a n d  l i e s H e s q u i a t Harbour.  I t i s a s h o r t , broad i n l e t about 9.6 k i l o m e t r e s  l o n g and 6.4 k i l o m e t r e s wide, opening t o the s o u t h .  North o f L e C l a i r e  and Rondeau P o i n t s , which j u t o u t from the western and e a s t e r n shores r e s p e c t i v e l y , the harbour waters  and shores a r e p r o t e c t e d from t h e f u l l  e f f e c t s o f P a c i f i c winds and waves ( F i g . 2 ) . To the south, the i n l e t g r a d u a l l y widens, t h e e a s t e r n and western s h o r e l i n e s swinging outwards in  a p a t t e r n o f a l t e r n a t i n g beaches and s c u l p t u r e d rock o u t c r o p s . H e s q u i a t Harbour i s a b r i e f space o f s h e l t e r e d water,  on t h e west by the f l a t ,  low p l a i n o f H e s q u i a t P e n i n s u l a and on t h e  n o r t h and e a s t by t h e f e e t o f the mountains, headlands  bordered  and beaches f u l l y exposed  f l a n k e d on both s i d e s by  t o t h e open P a c i f i c .  The harbour  and s h o r t s t r e t c h e s o f the o u t e r c o a s t t o the n o r t h and south a r e c l a i m e d by the H e s q u i a t speaking p e o p l e s as t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l  territory.  PRESENT ENVIRONMENT Landforms and Geology H e s q u i a t t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y c o n t a i n s p o r t i o n s o f two major landforms, the E s t e v a n C o a s t a l P l a i n and t h e Vancouver I s l a n d  Mountains.  The E s t e v a n C o a s t a l P l a i n i s a narrow, l o w - r e l i e f c o a s t a l p l a i n ,  seldom  F i g u r e 1.  Vancouver I s l a n d , Showing  L o c a t i o n o f Hesquiat Harbour, B r i t i s h Columbia.  11  4i3r  171  m  Hesquiat^? Lake  Split Cape »i/4m  ;  Barchester^ Bay  Rondeau Point 'LeClaire Point  HESQUIAT  ...  HARBOUR  Anton's Spit Hesquiat Point  HESQUIAT PENINSULA  pillage .ak  M  Hesquiat ' A Village PACIFIC Estevan Point  0  ikm  g  1 L  F i g u r e 2.  OCEAN  70m  SCALE = 1:77.511  4  Boulder Point  Topographic F e a t u r e s o f Hesquiat Harbour. (From Hydrographic Survey Map 3640)  12  exceeding  46 metres i n h e i g h t above mean sea l e v e l , s t r e t c h i n g a l o n g  the o u t e r c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d from the Brooks P e n i n s u l a i n the n o r t h t o t h e a r e a o f P o r t Renfrew i n the s o u t h .  I t reaches i t s g r e a t e s t  width, 13 k i l o m e t r e s , a t H e s q u i a t P e n i n s u l a ( H o l l a n d 1976:32). Much o f the u n d e r l y i n g bedrock i s f l a t ,  gently t i l t e d  beds o f  r e l a t i v e l y s o f t T e r t i a r y s h a l e s , s i l t s t o n e s , limey sandstones and s h e l l y l i m e s t o n e s o f marine o r i g i n .  Where not exposed by e r o s i o n , the  bedrock i s o v e r l a i n by P l e i s t o c e n e b o u l d e r c l a y s and s t r a t i f i e d g r a v e l s and c l a y s , and by r e c e n t a l l u v i a l and beach d e p o s i t s 1954:2).  sands,  (Jeletzky  The areas o f H e s q u i a t P e n i n s u l a u n d e r l a i n by these r o c k s a r e  f l a t and almost f e a t u r e l e s s , w i t h many swampy a r e a s d r a i n e d by s l o w l y meandering streams.  Where such rock f o r m a t i o n s o c c u r a t the water's  edge, the s h o r e l i n e i s marked by broad, rocky f l a t s d o t t e d w i t h huge b o u l d e r s and l o n g s t r e t c h e s o f sand o r pebble beaches.  The b o u l d e r  beaches o f t h e i n n e r harbour p r o v i d e good s u b s t r a t a f o r rocky  shore  i n t e r t i d a l s h e l l f i s h t h a t p r e f e r a s h e l t e r e d h a b i t a t w h i l e the sandy beaches a r e good clam h a b i t a t .  The b o u l d e r beaches a l s o a t t r a c t s m a l l  f i s h e s such as s c u l p i n s , t o a d f i s h e s and s u r f  perches.  Throughout much o f H e s q u i a t Harbour, however, these s o f t e r a l t e r n a t e w i t h harder, more r e s i s t a n t sandstones T e r t i a r y age and marine o r i g i n .  and conglomerates  The beds o f sedimentary  here and t h e r e by s m a l l e r exposures  rocks of  rock a r e broken  o f the s t r o n g l y f a u l t e d and f o l d e d  g r a n i t i c r o c k s o f t h e o l d e r Coast I n t r u s i o n s and the p o r p h y r i t i c l a v a s , s c h i s t s and l i m e s t o n e s o f the Karmutsen Group o f Upper T r i a s s i c age ( J e l e t z k y 1954:2-3, 1 1 ) . The l a t t e r f o r m a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Vancouver I s l a n d Mountains, a r e found a l o n g the e a s t e r n and n o r t h e r n shores o f H e s q u i a t Harbour, s e p a r a t e d from the T e r t i a r y  siltstones,  13  s h a l e s , sandstones and conglomerates  u n d e r l y i n g the whole o f H e s q u i a t  P e n i n s u l a and the t i p o f H e s q u i a t P o i n t by a major d i s c o n f o r m i t y r u n n i n g northwest  s o u t h e a s t a c r o s s t h e harbour.  Where the h a r d e r sandstones, conglomerates  and igneous r o c k s o c c u r ,  the s h o r e l i n e i s t y p i c a l l y rugged w i t h l o n g s c u l p t u r e d rock promontories s t r e t c h i n g o u t i n t o t h e ocean.  Those promontories on t h e open c o a s t ,  such as B o u l d e r P o i n t , E s t e v a n P o i n t and H e s q u i a t P o i n t ( F i g . 2 ) , p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t s u b s t r a t a f o r r o c k y shore i n t e r t i d a l s h e l l f i s h such as C a l i f o r n i a Mussels, which a r e adapted t o t h e exposed  environment.  The  i n t e n s e l y f a u l t e d and c o n t o r t e d n a t u r e o f the f o r m a t i o n s , combined w i t h the r e s i s t a n t rock t y p e s , produced  a typically precipitous  shoreline  marked by wave c u t g u l l i e s , caves and b l u f f s eroded by marine a c t i o n along f a u l t l i n e s .  The d r a i n a g e system o f t h e l a n d a l s o f o l l o w s  this  c r i s s - c r o s s p a t t e r n o f f a u l t s and sheer zones, w i t h streams marked by w a t e r f a l l s and r a p i d s ( J e l e t z k y 1954:2-3).  The c o m p l i c a t e d t e c t o n i c  h i s t o r y o f t h e H e s q u i a t a r e a has l e f t t h e u n d e r l y i n g bedrock c u t by numerous f a u l t s and sheer l i n e s , a l o n g which l o c a l movement i s p o s s i b l y s t i l l occuring. The e a s t e r n edge o f t h e E s t e v a n C o a s t a l P l a i n i s formed by t h e western  f o o t h i l l s o f the Vancouver I s l a n d Mountain  Range.  At Hesquiat  Harbour these g l a c i a l l y rounded mountains r i s e upwards from the n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n shores o f t h e harbour waters t o h e i g h t s o f 900 metres above mean s e a l e v e l .  I t i s t h i s mountain bedrock  t h a t i s the source o f t h e  sedimentary f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e Estevan C o a s t a l P l a i n and the more r e cent Pleistocene deposits. Much o f t h e H e s q u i a t P e n i n s u l a bedrock  i s o v e r l a i n by P l e i s t o c e n e  b o u l d e r c l a y s and s t r a t i f i e d sands, g r a v e l s and c l a y s .  There a r e more  14  l o c a l i z e d a r e a s around stream mouths and i n the bays o f r e c e n t  alluvial  and beach d e p o s i t s , where they p r o v i d e s o f t , s u b s t r a t a f o r clams and good spawning beaches f o r h e r r i n g .  A l o n g the western s h o r e l i n e o f the  harbour between Anton's s p i t and L e C l a i r e P o i n t and a l o n g the e a s t e r n s h o r e l i n e , a s e r i e s o f P l e i s t o c e n e and r e c e n t beach r i d g e s a r e v i s i b l e i n a e r i a l photographs o f the f o r e s t b e h i n d and p a r a l l e l i n g t h e p r e s e n t shoreline.  The most prominent a r e a o f r e c e n t beach and a l l u v i a l  p o s i t s i s the a r e a b e h i n d Anton's S p i t now.occupied by V i l l a g e (Fig. 2).  de-  Lake  The p r e s e n t a l l u v i a l and beach areas o f the harbour are t o -  day b u i l d i n g outwards  i n many l o c a t i o n s , w i t h sea s t r a n d v e g e t a t i o n ,  f o l l o w e d by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t r a n d l i n e S i t k a Spruce, g r a d u a l l y c l o t h i n g the more r e c e n t l y formed beach r i d g e s .  In o t h e r a r e a s , n o t a b l y  a t the head o f the harbour and on the n o r t h e r n s i d e o f Anton's  Spit,  l o c a l wave a c t i o n , w i n t e r storm a c t i o n , c u r r e n t s and stream d e v e l o p ment are e r o d i n g e a r l i e r s h o r e l i n e and d e l t a d e p o s i t s .  Hydrography E i g h t s m a l l streams d r a i n the mountain s l o p e s o f the n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n shores o f H e s q u i a t Harbour between H e s q u i a t P o i n t on the e a s t and L e C l a i r e P o i n t on the west  (Fig. 3).  One o f the streams i s l a r g e ,  b u t a l l except one a r e o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e and o f s u i t a b l e t o s u p p o r t runs o f salmon.  formation  At present, Tofino F i s h e r i e s O f f i c e  show runs o f coho and/or dog salmon i n t h e s e streams o f about t o 10,000 f i s h a n n u a l l y .  records 1,000  Another t h r e e streams r i s e among the swampy  meadows i n the i n t e r i o r o f H e s q u i a t P e n i n s u l a , emptying i n t o the harbour a t l o c a t i o n s . a l o n g the western shore between L e C l a i r e and Boulder Point.  A l l t h r e e c o n t a i n s i m i l a r l y s i z e d cbho runs today and  one d r a i n s the meadows southwest o f Anton's S p i t on the western s h o r e .  15 F i g u r e 3.  Hydro-graphic F e a t u r e s o f H e s q u i a t  Harbour.  (From Hydrographic Survey Map-3640)  N  Rae < v^asin  v / 'Rondeau iHisrn  my (Ft HESQUIAT  PEIMINSULi  S C A L E S 1:77,511 km  J  \Lakt  11m  HESQUIAT HARBOUR  / 'Anton's Spit  /  I  HESQUIAT BAR  I/O  V.—*  V-  37m  /  /  16  S e v e r a l o t h e r streams, some s e a s o n a l l y  i n t e r m i t t e n t , e n t e r the P a c i f i c  a l o n g the o u t e r c o a s t n o r t h o f B o u l d e r P o i n t . B e s i d e s V i l l a g e Lake, a s h a l l o w l a k e w i t h a depth o f 2 t o 3 metres t h a t i s g r a d u a l l y f i l l i n g i n , t h e r e a r e t h r e e o t h e r l a k e s i n t h e study area.  H i s n i t Lake, a s m a l l , s h a l l o w l a k e very l i k e V i l l a g e Lake, i s  l o c a t e d on the e a s t e r n shore between Rondeau and H e s q u i a t P o i n t s H e s q u i a t Lake, l y i n g a t the head o f the harbour i n a deep, scoured v a l l e y , i s t h e l a r g e s t o f the l a k e s .  (Fig. 3).  glacially  I t i s connected t o s a l t  water a t h i g h t i d e by a s m a l l e x i t stream f l o w i n g i n t o Rae B a s i n and has a t r i b u t a r y network o f streams a l o n g the e a s t e r n shore and a t r i b u t a r y l a k e , Rae Lake, t o t h e west  (Fig. 3). According to F i s h e r i e s  r e c o r d s , o n l y the H e s q u i a t Lake system now c o n t a i n s sockeye  salmon,  but s t e e l h e a d r u n i n t o b o t h H i s n i t and H e s q u i a t Lake systems, w h i l e coho salmon spawn i n t h e streams o f a l l t h r e e  systems.  The waters o f H e s q u i a t Harbour a r e n o t deep.  Immediately o f f  B o u l d e r and H e s q u i a t P o i n t s the ocean waters r e a c h depths o f 11 t o 22 metres o v e r a g r a v e l and rock bottom.  Between Anton's S p i t and H e s q u i a t  P o i n t the g r a v e l and rock bottom s h e l v e s r a p i d l y upwards t o form H e s q u i a t Bar, s t r e t c h e d a c r o s s t h e harbour e n t r a n c e from shore t o s h o r e .  Here  the water has a depth o f about 7 metres and t h e r o c k y substratum p r o v i d e s attachment f o r two major western e n t r a n c e s h o r e l i n e s .  k e l p beds p a r a l l e l i n g t h e e a s t e r n and The k e l p beds a t t r a c t r o c k f i s h , g r e e n -  l i n g s and l i n g c o d from the deeper waters o f f s h o r e . P o i n t i s p a r t o f t h e e a s t e r n , seaward  A r e e f o f f Hesquiat  edge o f the b a r , w h i l e Anton's  S p i t i s b u i l d i n g up a l o n g the i n n e r , western edge o f the b a r .  Inside  H e s q u i a t Bar, the waters deepen t o 15 metres over a muddy bottom w i t h depths o f 2 t o 7 metres over a sandy bottom a l o n g the e a s t e r n i n n e r  17  shoreline.  The  numerous streams emptying i n t o the i n n e r harbour b a s i n  p r o v i d e the sand and bar.  s i l t d e p o s i t s c o v e r i n g the ocean f l o o r i n s i d e the  T h i s i s the s o f t bottom, shallow water type o f h a b i t a t  by s e v e r a l s p e c i e s o f Highest dom  March and is  flatfish.  t i d e s i n t h i s a r e a r e a c h 3.9  f a l l below 0.2 lowest  favoured  metres w h i l e low  tides sel-  metres, w i t h h i g h e s t . t i d e s o c c u r i n g i n November to  i n June and J u l y .  As the entrance  to Hesquiat  Harbour  wide and open, t h e r e are no r i p t i d e s i n the harbour i t s e l f ,  but  once o u t s i d e the i n n e r harbour t h e r e are s t r o n g o f f s h o r e c u r r e n t s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a l l i n g t i d e s and  the g e n e r a l l y s o u t h e r l y t r e n d o f  main o f f s h o r e c o a s t a l . c u r r e n t p a t t e r n s .  Within  asthe  the i n n e r harbour the,  l o c a l current pattern i s clockwise.  Climate The  c l i m a t e o f the study a r e a i s m i l d and wet.  c i p i t a t i o n i s 313.4  centimetres,  October through March, although colder years. o f 5° C and  m o s t . f a l l i n g i n the form o f r a i n the w i n t e r months may  The  a range o f ?7° C to 10° C.  t o 1976 The  fall  see some snow i n  J u l y and August a r e the h o t t e s t  average annual temperatures i s 9° C.  on the r e c o r d s o f the E s t e v a n 1940  during  January i s the c o l d e s t month w i t h an average temperature  months, w i t h an average temperature o f 14° C and 24°CC.  Average annual p r e -  (B.C.  a range o f 7° C to These d a t a are based  P o i n t Weather S t a t i o n f o r the  years  Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e 1940-1976).  through s p r i n g months are u s u a l l y times o f r a i n and  w i t h winds up t o 100  k i l o m e t r e s p e r hour.  In August and  September,  t h i c k banks o f f o g l i e h e a v i l y on the h o r i z o n j u s t o f f shore.  On  mornings the f o g bank moves i n t o the harbour i n a t h i c k b l a n k e t , most mornings a t h i n n e r , m i s t y  storm,  cool but  f o g t h a t burns o f f i n the sunshine by  18  noon d r i f t s i n t o the h a r b o u r . The most p l e a s a n t months a r e June and J u l y , when the storms a r e fewer and the s u n l i g h t s t r o n g .  In summer the p r e v a i l i n g winds are from  the n o r t h and northwest, b r i n g i n g sunshine tempered by b r i s k winds.  The  main storm t r a c k s come from the s o u t h and southwest, and i t i s t h e s e bad weather winds t h a t add t h e i r f o r c e t o the ocean wave p a t t e r n s t o produce huge r o l l e r s and pounding s u r f i n the w i n t e r months. In H e s q u i a t Harbour the weather p a t t e r n s a r e a major o f the n a t u r a l environment.  constraint  People l i v i n g here are dependent on and  must adapt t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to the v a g a r i e s o f the elements o v e r which they have no  control.  Flora The marine t e r r a c e s and mountain s l o p e s o f H e s q u i a t Harbour supp o r t a t y p i c a l temperate marine f o r e s t , c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n the C o a s t a l Western Hemlock B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone ( K r a j i n a 1965) Western Hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a Western Red Cedar Fir  Carriere).  (Rafinesque-Schmaltz) Sargent) and  (Thuja p i i c a t a Donn) w i t h l e s s e r amounts o f A m a b i l i s  (Abies a m a b i l i s  nootkatensis  (Douglas) F o r b e s ) , Y e l l o w Cedar  (D.Don) Spach) and S i t k a Spruce  (Chamaecyparis  (Picea s i t c h e n s i s  (Bongard)  These t r e e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a ground c o v e r o f shrubs,  among which the most abundant are S a l a l Salmonberry  involucrata  (Gaultheria shallon Pursh),  (Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s P u r s h ) , H u c k l e b e r r i e s  W i l d Gooseberry  Linnaeus)  and dominated by  (Vaccinium s p p . ) ,  (Ribes d i v a r i c a t u m . D o u g l a s ) , B l a c k Twinberry  (Richards) Banks) and Red E l d e r b e r r y  ( S z c z a w i n s k i 1970).  (Lonicera  (Sambucus racemosa  Higher up the mountain s l o p e s the shrub  underbrush i s r e p l a c e d by a t h i n n e r ground c o v e r o f shrubs, f e r n s and  19  o t h e r herbs, but on the lower s l o p e s and the marine t e r r a c e s the underbrush  i s t h i c k , choked w i t h w i n d f a l l s and almost  impenetrable.  In the i n t e r i o r o f the p e n i n s u l a the f o r e s t cover i s broken l a r g e swamp areas surrounded by boggy meadows.  by  Here the dominant v  v e g e t a t i o n cover i s Sweet Gale  ( Myrica g a l e Linnaeus) w i t h hemlock,  p i n e , v a r i o u s g r a s s e s , sedges,  f e r n s and o t h e r herbs  (Hebda and  Rouse 1976). Areas immediately  a d j o i n i n g the s h o r e l i n e are c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by  a f o r e s t cover dominated by s t r a n d l i n e S i t k a Spruce a s s o c i a t e d w i t h P a c i f i c Crab Apple Cedar,  (Pyrus f u s c a R a f i n e s q u e - S c h m a l t z ) , Western  Red A l d e r (Alnus r u b r a Bongard) and Douglas F i r  menziesii  (Mirbel) Franco).  Red  (Pseudotsuga  Dominant shrubs are those a l r e a d y men-  t i o n e d p l u s W i l d Rose (Rosa nutkana P r e s l . ) , Thimbleberry  (Rubus  p a r v i f l o r u s N u t t a l l ) , F a l s e A z a l e a ( M e n z i e s i a f e r r u g i n e a Smith), Willows  ( S a l i x s p p . ) , Saskatoon  and C a s c a r a  Berry  (Amelanchier  (Rhamus p u r s h i a n a de C a n d o l l e ) .  alnifolia  Nuttall)  A wide v a r i e t y o f  i s found i n these areas i n c l u d i n g v a r i o u s f e r n s , g r a s s e s , w i l d b e r r i e s , w i l d o n i o n s ; h o r s e t a i l and w i l d sweet pea  herbs straw-  ( S z c z a w i n s k i 1970).  The marine f l o r a c o n t a i n s many s p e c i e s o f a l g a e , c h i e f among which a r e the sea weeds B u l l Keibp ( N e r e o c y s t i s l e u t k e a n a P o s t e l a and R u p r e c h t ) , Rockweed Grass  ( Z o s t e r a marina L i n n a e u s ) .  (Mertens)  (Fuscus f u r c a t u s C. Agardh) and E e l As mentioned above (page 15)  the  p r i n c i p a l k e l p beds o c c u r on e i t h e r s i d e o f the entrance t o the harbour and p a r a l l e l i n g the o u t e r c o a s t s .  Fauna The p r e s e n t fauna o f the H e s q u i a t Harbour r e g i o n i s r i c h i n marine  20  and  intertidal  species.  Land s p e c i e s a r e l e s s abundant and l e s s v a r i e d .  Many s p e c i e s a r e o n l y p r e s e n t abundance.and c o n c e n t r a t i o n  during  c e r t a i n seasons o f t h e y e a r .  The  o f animals a l s o v a r i e s among t h e d i f f e r e n t  species. The  animal s p e c i e s . c a n  w i t h i n each major taxon  be grouped i n t o s e v e r a l main a s s o c i a t i o n s  ( i . e . b i r d , f i s h , mammal and s h e l l f i s h ) a c -  c o r d i n g t o the type o r types o f h a b i t a t t o which they a r e adapted. These h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s  a r e n o t communities i n t h e s t r i c t z o o l o g i c a l  sense, b u t group t o g e t h e r  those s p e c i e s l i k e l y t o be found most c o n s i s -  t e n t l y and i n greatest-abundance wherever the p a r t i c u l a r h a b i t a t cond i t i o n s occur.  I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t these h a b i t a t  categories,  w i t h the a s s o c i a t e d animal s p e c i e s , do n o t have s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s . s e r i e s o f h a b i t a t s may r e p r e s e n t  a continuum o f c o n d i t i o n s w i t h con-  s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p where one h a b i t a t grades i n t o another. gories describe availability  the o p t i m a l  The c a t e -  h a b i t a t s and t h e r e f o r e the o p t i m a l  f o r t h e s p e c i e s g r o u p i n g s , n o t , i n many cases,  areas o f a v a i l a b i l i t y .  A  Obviously,  areas of  the only a r  non-sedentary s p e c i e s a r e f r e e t o  move i n and o u t o f an area and many i n t e r t i d a l m o l l u s c s a r e t o l e r a n t o f a wide range o f v a r i a t i o n i n h a b i t a t c o n d i t i o n s . c a t e g o r i e s have both r e s i d e n t and s e a s o n a l  Many o f these h a b i t a t  populations,  and animals  found i n one h a b i t a t i n one season may be found i n another a t o t h e r seasons.  The  information  used t o p l a c e  c a t e g o r i e s was o b t a i n e d  i n h a b i t a t and s e a s o n a l  from d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n  d u r i n g May through August o f 1973, survey o f t h e i n t e r t i d a l  species  i n H e s q u i a t Harbour  May o f 1974 and J u l y o f 1975; a  zone o f H e s q u i a t Harbour t h a t i n v o l v e d w a l k i n g  21  the harbour s h o r e l i n e a t low t i d e s r e c o r d i n g s p e c i e s p r e s e n t  i n par-  t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s ; T o f i n o F i s h and W i l d l i f e O f f i c e r e c o r d s ; and published references. Banfield  The  s c i e n t i f i c . n a m e s , o f s p e c i e s are those used by  (1974) f o r mammals; Hart  f o r b i r d s and M o r r i s  (1975) f o r f i s h ; Godfrey  (1976)  (1966) f o r s h e l l f i s h .  Mammals: The  l a n d mammal fauna of Hesquiat  o f s p e c i e s t h a t are p r e s e n t . round and although  Harbour i s l i m i t e d i n the number  A l l are r e s i d e n t i n the study a r e a year  r  t h e r e do not appear to be major f l u c t u a t i o n s i n abundance, t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t to determine because of r e c e n t h a b i t a t d i s -  r u p t i o n by l o g g i n g .  A l l but the deer, herd animals,  would n o r m a l l y  be  encountered e i t h e r as i n d i v i d u a l s or as members o f s m a l l f a m i l y groups. Land mammals p r e s e n t record include:  i n the a r e a and  i d e n t i f i e d i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  C o a s t B l a c k - t a i l e d Deer,(Odocoileus  hemionus columbianus]  (Richardson));. B l a c k B e a r . ( U r s u s americanus P a l l a s ) ; Cougar c o n c o l o r L i n n a e u s ) ; Wolf (Canis lupus L i n n a e u s ) ; canadensis-(Schreber));  Marten  (Mustela v i s o n S c h r e b e r ) ; Squirrel  (Tamiasciurus  tus townsendii  River Otter  (Lontra  (Martes americana ( T u r t o n ) ) ; Mink  Raccoon (Procyon  lotor  hudsonicus.(Erxleben));  (Bachman)); and  (Felis  the N a v i g a t o r  (Linnaeus));  Red  Townsend's V o l e Shrew (Sorex  (Micro-  palustris  Richardson). More v a r i e d i n number o f s p e c i e s , the sea mammal p o p u l a t i o n s the r e g i o n are a l s o l a r g e r , more m i g r a t o r y s p e c i e s w i t h g r e a t p o t e n t i a l food v a l u e . a r e a and cord are:  and  in  composed o f l a r g e s i z e d  Sea mammals found i n the  i d e n t i f i e d or p o s s i b l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e N o r t h e r n Sea L i o n  (Eumatopias j u b a t a  (Schreber));  Cali-  22  f o r n i a Sea L i o n  (Zalophus c a l i f o r n i a n u s  (Lesson));  Northern Fur Seal  ( C a l l o r h i n u s u r s i n u s ( L i n n a e u s ) ) ; Harbour S e a l (Phoca v i t u l i n a naeus) ; N o r t h e r n E l e p h a n t . S e a l (Mirounga a n g u s t i r o s t r i s Otter  (Enhydra l u t r i s  ( L i n n a e u s ) ) ; Harbour.Porpoise  ( L i n n a e u s ) ) ; D a l l ' s P o r p o i s e (Phocoenoides (Orcinus o r c a ( L i n n a e u s ) ) ; Grey Whale borg)) and Humpback Whale  Lin-  ( G i l l ) ) ; Sea  (Phocoena  phocoena  d a l l i O ( T r u e ) ) ; K i l l e r Whale  (Eschrichtius  (Megaptera n o v a e a n g l i a e  robustus  (Lillje-  (Borowski)).  Some  o f these s e a mammals a r e e i t h e r s e a s o n a l l y a v a i l a b l e o r v a r y s e a s o n a l l y i n abundance and group  composition.  They tend t o occupy more d i s c r e t e  h a b i t a t s than t h e l a r g e r l a n d mammals. T a b l e 1 summarizes t h e s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y and the h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s i n which these mammals a r e most l i k e l y t o be found.  Accurate  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p r e s e n t abundance o f these animals i n H e s q u i a t Harbour and t h e immediately available.  s u r r o u n d i n g seas i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y n o t  A g r o s s measure o f t h e i r e s t i m a t e d r e l a t i v e abundance i s  g i v e n i n T a b l e 1, u s i n g t h e symbols C f o r Common, P f o r P r e s e n t and R f o r Rare.  The h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s themselves  a r e d e f i n e d below and  t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Hesquiat Harbour i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 4. Pelagic:  open ocean, o f f shore waters from about 15 t o 25 k i l o m e t r e s o f f shore.-well, i n t o the Pacif-ic.. - -  Pielagic-Littoral: t h e open ocean from about 20 k i l o metres o f f s h o r e t o t h e l i t t o r a l waters, may i n c l u d e deeper bays and e s t u a r i e s . Littoral:  t h e waters immediately a d j a c e n t t o shore, i n c l u d i n g s h a l l o w bays and e s t u a r i e s .  L i t t o r a l - F o r e s t Edge: t h e beaches and immediately ad|j j a c e n t ocean waters and f o r e s t edges. Forest:  t h e f o r e s t s , i n c l u d i n g open meadow and swamp areas w i t h i n t h e c o a s t a l f o r e s t s .  23 F i g u r e 4.  G e n e r a l i z e d D i s t r i b u t i o n of Mammal H a b i t a t  Categories.  24  As these mammals v a r y g r e a t l y i n s i z e and t h e r e f o r e p o t e n t i a l q u a n t i t y of 2.  food, the average weights  f o r males and females a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e  S p e c i f i c e c o l o g i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l d a t a f o r each s p e c i e s a r e d i s -  cussed under h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s below.  P e l a g i c Mammals: N o r t h e r n F u r S e a l s a r e t r u l y p e l a g i c animals w i t h a w e l l d e f i n e d annual m i g r a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h pupping range  extends  and b r e e d i n g .  Their pelagic  from southern C a l i f o r n i a t o the B e r i n g Sea, b u t t h e o n l y  b r e e d i n g grounds known today a r e i n the extreme n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e i r range on the i s o l a t e d P r i b i l o f , and Wilke 1953:85-86).  Robben and Commander I s l a n d s (Kenyon  F o r f i v e t o e i g h t months o f the y e a r t h e s e a l s  are s t r i c t l y p e l a g i c , g e n e r a l l y r a n g i n g f a r o u t t o s e a and o n l y i n v e r y r a r e and e x c e p t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s approaching c l o s e t o l a n d .  During  the summer and f a l l months the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f the p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n of  about one and a h a l f m i l l i o n animals i s c o n c e n t r a t e d a t o r near t h e  northern rookery i s l a n d s  (Kenyon and Wilke 1953:87; F i s c u s 1972:6).  Throughout much o f the y e a r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f mature males i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f mature females and j u v e n i l e s o f both  sexes.  D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r and f a l l months, a f t e r they l e a v e t h e r o o k e r i e s , the mature males a r e d i s p e r s e d and p e l a g i c , b u t today they remain  i n nor-  t h e r n waters, moving o n l y s h o r t d i s t a n c e s south o f the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s c h a i n (Kenyon and Wilke 1953:88).  There i s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  evidence from the O z e t t e s i t e on the Olympic a recent, possibly  post  Peninsula that t h i s i s  A.D. 1900, p a t t e r n f o r t h e males, as a d u l t  males over t e n y e a r s o f age form between twenty and t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f the f u r s e a l remains about  a t t h i s s i t e , which spans t h e time p e r i o d from  2,000 y e a r s ago t o about A.D. 1900 (Gustafson 1968).  25  Table  1.  Seasonal of  Availability  Mammals  found  in  and  the  Habitat  Hesquiat  Categories Harbour  Region HabitateCStegories  Taxa -  Common;  P  -  Present;  R  -  Rare  1  2  3  4  5  H  \ rH w  dge  C  \  o -H -m H w  Northern K i l l e r Gray  Fur  Whale,  Whale,  Humpback Harbour  Sea  Northern  Sea  Elephant  Otter,  Harbour  Enhydra  Seal,  River  Otter,  Mink,  Mustela  Raccoon,  Phoca Lontra  lotor  Canis  R,  Bear,  Marten>  Martes  American  Red  Townsend's Navigator  KEY:  (W)-Winter;  X(W) R  C  X(W) X  X X  P  X  X X  C  X  ?  X X  P  X  P  Tamiasciurus  Microtus Sorex  C  hemionus  P  americanus  Squirrel,  Shrew,  R  C  Odocoileus  americana  Vole,  X  angustirostris  formerly  formerly  concolor  Ursus  P  P  Wolf,  Black  X(S)  X  Deer,  Felis  iH  o  -H 0  X  C  Black-tailed  Cougar,  w (U  •p •p  X  californianus  canadensis  Coast  lupus  •P  0  X(F,SPj_  P  jubata  vitulina  vison  Procyon  R,  P  C  d a l l i  Mirounga  lutris  X(SP)  <d +J w <D  M  X(W,SP)  phocoena  Zalophus  o +J  •rH  X(W)  P  m u  •p  -P  ft  X  Eumetopias  Seal,  m -P  H  ft  C  Phocoenoides  Lion,  C  novaeangliae  Phocoena  Lion,  ursinus  robustus  Megaptera  Porpoise,  California  orca  Eschrichtius  Whale,  Northern  Callorhinus  Orcinus  Porpoise,  Dall's  Sea  Seal,  H  o nsH •H Cn o  townsendii  palustris  (SP)-Spring;  hudsonicus  X  P  X  P  X  P  (S)-Summer;  (F)-Fall;  otherwise  year  round  26  Table  2.  Weights o f S e l e c t e d  Mammals Weight i n Kg (unless i n d i c a t e d otherwise)  Taxa  A d u l t Males  A d u l t Females  Grey Whale  33.6  Humpback Whale  27.1(18.1-39.9) m e t r i c t o n s , male & female  K i l l e r Whale  No d a t a a v a i l a b l e ; s e v e r a l  Northern Elephant  Seal  m e t r i c t o n s , male and female  together  m e t r i c tons  ?  (up t o 3,629)  ? (up t o 907)  N o r t h e r n Sea L i o n  ?  (680 t o 999)  ? ( 2 7 2 — 365)  C a l i f o r n i a Sea L i o n  ?  (227 - 271)  ? (45 - 91)  Northern Fur Seal  192  (150 - 272)  43  (38 - 54)  Dall  110  (95 - 132)  95  (67 - 150)  Porpoise  Harbour  Porpoise  55  (27 - 88)  about the same s i z e  Harbour S e a l  72 (up t o 148)  58 (up t o 111)  Sea  34 (23 - 36)  20 (17 - 23)  Coast B l a c k - t a i l e d Deer  ? (50 - 215)  ? (32 - 72)  Black  169  136  Otter  Bear  (115 - 270)  (92 - 140)  ? (36 - 60)  Cougar  ? (67 - 103)  Wolf  ? (26 - 79) male and female  together  River Otter  8  7  Raccoon  9  8  Marten  .9  Mink  1.7 (1.7 - 2.3)  Red  Squirrel  Navigator *  Shrew  (.7 - 1.3)  16 (.6 - .8) .8 (.8 - 1.2)  .2  .2  .01  .01  ? means i n f o r m a t i o n n o t a v a i l a b l e . Weights i n b r a c k e t s are ranges. B a n f i e l d 1974; Cowan and Guiguet n.d.; B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum Archaeology D i v i s i o n r e c o r d s .  27  The a d u l t females, young o f the y e a r and immature animals o f b o t h sexes are f a r more w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d i n p e l a g i c waters o f f the west c o a s t d u r i n g the w i n t e r months, some t r a v e l l i n g as f a r south as the C a l i f o r n i a border.  At sea, they are u s u a l l y s o l i t a r y , o c c a s i o n a l l y forming tem-  p o r a r y groups o f up t o twenty t r a t i o n of food.  animals i n areas where t h e r e i s a  concen-  They are r a r e l y seen c l o s e r than s i x t e e n t o twenty-four  kilometres o f f shore.  The g r e a t e s t numbers o f s e a l s are found  scattered  i n a band s i x t e e n t o e i g h t y k i l o m e t r e s o f f s h o r e a l o n g the o u t e r edge o f the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f , a p p r o x i m a t e l y the 183 metre contour, where t h e r e are abundant food s u p p l i e s Baker  ( F i s c u s 1972:7; Kenyon and W i l k e 1953:87-88;  1957:16; T a y l o r , F u j i n a g a and W i l k e 1955:49; Bartholomew and  1953:417).  Hoel  P e l a g i c w i n t e r p o p u l a t i o n s are e s p e c i a l l y heavy a l o n g the  c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f between mid-Vancouver I s l a n d and C a l i f o r n i a , two  major  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s b e i n g o f f B a r k l e y Sound and o f f the Juan de Fuca S t r a i t Cape F l a t t e r y a r e a  ( T a y l o r 1971:1663).  O f f the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d , N o r t h e r n Fur S e a l s are p r e s e n t i n p e l a g i c waters  from December t o May,  c e n t r a t i o n d u r i n g March and A p r i l .  w i t h a peak p e r i o d o f con-  F o r as l o n g as the p r e s e n t p a t t e r n  has h e l d , the p o p u l a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o H e s q u i a t Harbour p e o p l e s would be composed o n l y o f y e a r l i n g s , immature animals and females.  D u r i n g the  peak p e r i o d o f abundance o f f the harbour, the mature females would be c a r r y i n g w e l l developed f o e t u s e s , two t o t h r e e months from b i r t h .  The  animals would be f e e d i n g on the h e r r i n g s c h o o l s gathered a l o n g the cont i n e n t a l s h e l f edge, and some p r o b a b l y f o l l o w e d the s c h o o l s i n t o H e s q u i a t Harbour.  Most o f t h e . a n i m a l s , however, would be p r e s e n t no c l o s e r  s i x t e e n t o twenty-four k i l o m e t r e s o f f shore.  Some immature animals  have been p r e s e n t y e a r round, b u t f a r out t o sea.  The  than may  archaeological  28  evidence from O z e t t e i n d i c a t e s mature males may  a l s o have been p r e s e n t i n  the w i n t e r and s p r i n g months, b u t t h i s p a t t e r n i s not y e t c l e a r . The K i l l e r Whale i s the l a r g e s t o f the D e l p h i n i d a e and a common r e s i d e n t o f B.C.  c o a s t a l waters, o f t e n h u n t i n g c l o s e r t o shore i n packs  o f up t o f o r t y i n d i v i d u a l s .  They f e e d on s e a l s , p o r p o i s e s and sea  lions  as w e l l as f i s h and f r e q u e n t the l i t t o r a l waters where these animals commonly found.  Young are born i n November and December.  are  Although some  K i l l e r Whale p o p u l a t i o n s are m i g r a t o r y , they are p r e s e n t t o f f the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d y e a r round, p o s s i b l y w i t h a l a r g e r summertime population  (Cowan and Guiguet n.d.:257-258; B a n f i e l d 1974:264-265).  P e l a g i c / L i t t o r a l Mammals: Both the Gray Whale and the Humpback Whale a r e l a r g e , m i g r a t o r y , b a l e e n whales i n h a b i t i n g the s h a l l o w c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l v e s , w i t h the Humpback f r e q u e n t l y e n t e r i n g bays and i n l e t s .  Gray whales w i n t e r i n the  lagoons o f B a j a C a l i f o r n i a where c a l v e s are born i n January, and i n the B e r i n g and Chukchi  Seas.  They are o f f the west c o a s t o f Van-  couver I s l a n d i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n A p r i l and e a r l y May, northwards c l o s e t o shore  summer  moving s l o w l y  ( w i t h i n 10 k i l o m e t r e s ) i n gams o f up t o a  dozen c a l v e s and females o r b u l l s , and a g a i n i n December, moving much more r a p i d l y southwards 264).  ( B a n f i e l d 1974:270-273; Cowan and Guiguet  There are i n d i v i d u a l s i g h t i n g s o f f the west c o a s t o f the  a t o t h e r times o f y e a r as w e l l .  The Humpback whale  n.d.:  island  spends the w i n t e r  months o f f the west c o a s t o f Mexico and summer i n the B e r i n g Sea. pass Vancouver I s l a n d i n May t o 150  They  and June, moving northwards i n gams o f up  i n d i v i d u a l s and r e t u r n south i n October and November.  The  young  are born i n February o r March, and a few Humpbacks w i n t e r a l o n g the  B.C.  29  coast  ( B a n f i e l d 1974:277-281; Cowan and Guiguet  n.d.:268-270).  The Harbour P o r p o i s e f r e q u e n t s i n s h o r e waters, channels, in  bays, harbours  seldom v e n t u r i n g more than 30 k i l o m e t r e s o f f s h o r e .  s m a l l groups o f two  They t r a v e l  to f i v e animals, w i t h groups o f mature males seg-  r e g a t e d from groups o f females, poise i s migratory,  and  c a l v e s and young males.  The Harbour Por-  some i n d i v i d u a l s w i n t e r i n g o f f the c o a s t o f Washington  and B r i t i s h Columbia and summering f u r t h e r n o r t h , b u t t h e r e i s a l s o a r e s i d e n t B.C. field  population.  The young are born i n May  1974:268-269; Cowan and Guiguet  to e a r l y J u l y  (Ban-  n.d.:260).  The D a l l P o r p o i s e f r e q u e n t s the waters o f the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f a t l e s s than 900 metres, seldom r a n g i n g f a r out to sea nor i n t o shallow bays. Gam  s i z e i s l a r g e r than those of the Harbour P o r p o i s e , up t o a dozen  individuals^ couver  sometimes as many as 100.  I s l a n d ' s west c o a s t i n the summertime, from June t o  Young are born Guiguet  I t i s r e g u l a r l y p r e s e n t o f f Van-  i n J u l y and August  ( B a n f i e l d 1974:269-270; Cowan and  n.d.:262-263).  The N o r t h e r n  Sea L i o n may  be p r e s e n t year round, b u t t h e r e are  no b r e e d i n g and pupping r o o k e r i e s near Hesquiat w i n t e r and in  October.  Harbour.  During  the  e a r l y s p r i n g , sea l i o n s are w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y o r  s m a l l groups throughout  the c o a s t a l waters,  u s u a l l y w i t h i n 20  kilo-  metres o f the shore and f e e d i n g i n l e s s than 180 metres o f water. s p r i n g and  fall  and would be p r e s e n t i n g r e a t e r numbers  in  the harbour a r e a d u r i n g the s p r i n g h e r r i n g spawning season and  in  the f a l l  d u r i n g the salmon runs.  again  During the s p r i n g season a d u l t  would be c a r r y i n g w e l l - d e v e l o p e d  p r o b a b l y be  In  they tend t o c o n c e n t r a t e i n the areas where t h e r e are  l a r g e s c h o o l s of spawning f i s h ,  females  today  f o e t u s e s and t h e r e would  few a d u l t (breeding) males, as these seem t o s h i f t  north-  30  wards d u r i n g the l a t e w i n t e r and s p r i n g months.  From May t o e a r l y Sep-  tember the b u l k o f the p o p u l a t i o n i s c o n f i n e d t o the b r e e d i n g r o o k e r i e s , but immature  (non-breeding)  animals  and v e r y o l d males a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  h a u l i n g o u t p l a c e s on Vancouver I s l a n d ' s west c o a s t t o the south, might w e l l o c c u r s p o r a d i c a l l y i n t h e harbour.  In the f a l l  season  a d u l t males  and immature i n d i v i d u a l s p r o b a b l y f o l l o w the salmon i n t o the harbour, b u t the a d u l t females  and pups o f t h e y e a r would s t i l l be c o n c e n t r a t e d a t  the b r e e d i n g r o o k e r i e s .  During the w i n t e r months i n d i v i d u a l s o f v a r i o u s  ages and b o t h sexes might a g a i n be a v a i l a b l e .  Although p r e s e n t  distri-  b u t i o n s may d i f f e r from p a s t p a t t e r n s , these animals were p r o b a b l y  never  a c o n c e n t r a t e d r e s o u r c e , b u t were p r o b a b l y s e a s o n a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n s m a l l groups and i n d i v i d u a l l y y e a r round  (Kenyon and R i c e 1961; P i k e 1958;  P i k e 1966; P i k e and Maxwell 1958; S p a l d i n g 1964; O r r arid P o u l t e r 1967). The west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d has p r e v i o u s l y been c o n s i d e r e d the extreme n o r t h e r n l i m i t o f the C a l i f o r n i a Sea L i o n , b u t t h e r e a r e r e c e n t l y r e p o r t s o f a f u r t h e r northward e x t e n s i o n .  F o r m e r l y , o n l y males  aged f o u r t o t e n y e a r s would be seen o f f t h e west c o a s t and then o n l y d u r i n g the w i n t e r months.  A f t e r t h e b r e e d i n g season many males m i g r a t e  n o r t h o f t h e i r b r e e d i n g areas o f f t h e c o a s t s o f C a l i f o r n i a and Mexico. They tend t o h a u l o u t a t l o c a t i o n s used by t h e i r c o u s i n s the N o r t h e r n Sea L i o n , sometimes i n t e r m i n g l i n g w i t h the l a r g e r s p e c i e s (as a t B a r k l e y Sound), a t o t h e r l o c a t i o n s m a i n t a i n i n g s e p a r a t e groups 1973:12-17).  T h e i r presence  (Mate  i n t h e H e s q u i a t Harbour a r e a would be con-  f i n e d t o s p o r a d i c o c c u r r e n c e s - o f male animals i n t h e w i n t e r months. occupy t h e same c o a s t l i t t o r a l h a b i t a t as the Northern  Sea L i o n .  The Northern E l e p h a n t S e a l , t h e l a r g e s t o f the n o r t h e r n e a r l e s s s e a l s , breeds on s e v e r a l s m a l l i s l a n d s o f f t h e c o a s t s o f Mexico and  They  31  C a l i f o r n i a , b u t ranges  as f a r n o r t h as A l a s k a i n t h e w i n t e r .  I t .is  today r a r e , b u t was f o r m e r l y numerous t o t h e south and r e g u l a r l y r e p o r t e d off  t h e west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d i n w i n t e r .  I t has been r e c o r d e d  as f a r as 65 k i l o m e t r e s o f f shore b u t a l s o f r e q u e n t s t h e l i t t o r a l (Cowan and Guiguet n.d.:354-355).  A t s e a they f o r a g e a l o n e , f e e d i n g  i n waters 70 t o 185 metres deep, w h i l e on l a n d they a r e h i g h l y i o u s and slow moving. of  January  Littoral  waters  gregar-  Pups a r e born between mid-December and t h e end  ( B a n f i e l d 1974:380-382).  Mammals:  The Sea O t t e r was f o r m e r l y abundant a l o n g t h e west c o a s t o f Vancouver  I s l a n d , b u t t h e r e i s no i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on the former  tions o f breeding areas.  T h i s marine mammal e a t s and o f t e n s l e e p s a t  sea, and a l s o r e g u l a r l y h a u l s o u t on rocky p o i n t s , o r sometimes beaches, s p i t s and i s l e t s .  loca-  sand  They f a v o u r s h a l l o w waters a d j a c e n t t o t h e  c o a s t o r underwater rocky r e e f s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where k e l p beds o c c u r . (Kenyon 1969:57).  Sea o t t e r s tend t o remain i n s h a l l o w water and a r e  g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n t h e 55 metre l i n e .  They a r e g r e g a r i o u s and tend t o  form c o l o n i e s (Kenyon 1969:57, 64-69).  They d i v e f o r t h e i r f o o d o f  f i s h , m o l l u s c s , echinoderms and c r a b s i n waters o f 10 t o 45 metres deep, the m a j o r i t y f e e d i n g w i t h i n 1 k i l o m e t r e o f shore  (Kenyon 1969:105, 110;  B a n f i e l d 1974:345; Cowan and Guiguet n.d.:335).  Although  t h e r e does  not appear t o be a f i x e d b r e e d i n g season, w i t h new born young r e p o r t e d for  a l l seasons,  1969:230).  t h e r e does appear t o be ausummer peak i n b i r t h s  (Kenyon  The west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d was f o r m e r l y r i c h i n t h i s  marine mammal, p r i o r t o i t s near e x t i n c t i o n by p e l a g e h u n t e r s .  Although  they a r e g e n e r a l l y c l o s e t o shore, where underwater r e e f s p r o v i d e  shal-  low water f e e d i n g c o n d i t i o n s even f a r o f f s h o r e , they w i l l a l s o be found  32  there.  In H e s q u i a t Harbour the k e l p beds a l o n g the e a s t e r n entrance  s h o r e l i n e and a l o n g the o u t e r c o a s t between Boulder P o i n t and P o i n t would be i d e a l sea o t t e r  Estevan  habitat.  The Harbour S e a l i s the marine mammal most commonly seen i n B.C. c o a s t a l waters.  I t s h a b i t a t i s p r i m a r i l y l i t t o r a l marine,  r a t h e r than  p e l a g i c , and these animals are g e n e r a l l y c l o s e t o shore and i n s h a l l o w bays and i n l e t s  (Cowan and Guiguet n.d.:352).  It i s essentially  non-  m i g r a t o r y , a l t h o u g h l o c a l movements a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t i d e s , f l u c t u a t i o n s i n f o o d . s u p p l i e s , seasons and r e p r o d u c t i o n are documented  (Biggs 1969a:2).  F o r much o f the day i n d i v i d u a l s are solitary:,, d i s p e r s e d a l o n g the f o r a g i n g f o r food.  shores  I t i s o n l y a t the h a u l i n g o u t p l a c e s , the sand b a r s ,  r e e f s and e s t u a r i n e m u d f l a t s , t h a t they are found i n l o o s e l y g r e g a r i o u s herds.  In f a v o u r a b l e l o c a t i o n s these groups may  but are commonly much s m a l l e r , a v e r a g i n g about  be 100  t o 150  30 i n d i v i d u a l s .  individuals, They  i n c l u d e males and females o f a l l ages. Pupping formation.  t a k e s p l a c e o n ' i s o l a t e d sand b a r s and r e e f s , w i t h no harem The pupping  season  covers an a n n u a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e p e r i o d o f  one and a h a l f t o two months, the time o f y e a r v a r y i n g w i t h l a t i t u d e  and  becoming p r o g r e s s i v e l y e a r l i e r as one goes from Puget Sound n o r t h t o Alaska  (Biggs 1969b:450).  Although  t h e r e are no p u b l i s h e d d a t a  specific  to the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d , r e c o r d s f o r the areas t o the n o r t h and south suggest June and J u l y would be  the  months when most b i r t h s o c c u r i n t h i s area, w i t h a peak o f e a r l y t o  mid-  July  (Biggs 1969a:9; B i g g s 1969b:450; F i s h e r 1952:26-27). Hesquiat Harbour p r o v i d e s a few good h a u l i n g o u t p l a c e s f o r Harbour  S e a l s , i n c l u d i n g the r e e f s o f f E s t e v a n and Homeis P o i n t s , the r e e f s  and  r o c k s o f f H e s q u i a t P o i n t , and p o s s i b l y Anton's S p i t , although the s u r -  33  rounding waters  a r e too s h a l l o w t o be i d e a l .  a v a i l a b l e a t low t i d e .  These areas would o n l y be  A t o t h e r times one might expect t o see Harbour  S e a l s almost anywhere i n the harbour, o f t e n c l o s e t o s h o r e .  L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t Edge Mammals: The R i v e r O t t e r , the Mink and the Raccoon a r e common i n H e s q u i a t Harbour,  and w h i l e a l l t h r e e s p e c i e s i n h a b i t the f o r e s t s , t h e i r f a v o u r e d  h a b i t a t i n t h i s r e g i o n i s the seashore and t h e immediately a d j a c e n t forest fringe.  Both r i v e r o t t e r and mink f a v o u r the streams, beaches and  immediately a d j a c e n t l i t t o r a l waters, spending much time i n t h e water and f e e d i n g on f i s h and c r u s t a c e a n s .  A f a m i l y o f r i v e r o t t e r s was a  d a i l y s i g h t a t the head o f H e s q u i a t Harbour d u r i n g the summer months o f 1973. April  Mink young a r e born i n A p r i l and May, r i v e r o t t e r s i n March and (Cowan and Guiguet n.d.:320-321, 330-331; B a n f i e l d 1974:330, 340). Raccoons a r e a l s o common i n the harbour, b u t b e i n g p r i m a r i l y  t u r n a l , a r e l e s s f r e q u e n t l y seen. water course mid-April  noc-  They a r e commonly found a l o n g f o r e s t  and a l o n g t h e beaches.  Young a r e born from mid-March t o  ( B a n f i e l d 1974:315; Cowan and Guiguet n.d.:298).  F o r e s t Mammals::: Coast B l a c k - t a i l e d Deer i s the o n l y l a r g e ungulate found i n the study a r e a w h i l e B l a c k Bear, Cougar and Wolf a r e the o n l y l a r g e carnivores.  The Marten  i n undetermined  forest  and a number o f s m a l l rodents a r e a l s o p r e s e n t ,  abundance.  The Canada Land Inventory c l a s s i f i e s Hesquiat Harbour as C l a s s 4 l a n d w i t h moderate l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n . o f u n g u l a t e s C a p a b i l i t y f o r W i l d l i f e - Ungulates, Map Nootka Sound 92E).  (Land No a c c u r a t e  e s t i m a t e o f abundance i s a v a i l a b l e , b u t deer a r e c e r t a i n l y n o t p l e n t i f u l  34  i n the harbour today. young animals may the new 368).  Male deer shed t h e i r a n t l e r s i n March, a l t h o u g h  c a r r y them through A p r i l .  a n t l e r s i n August and e a r l y September  The v e l v e t i s s t r i p p e d (Cowan and Guiguet  from  n.d.:  Fawns are n o r m a l l y born i n June, a l t h o u g h the range i s from March  to November  ( B a n f i e l d 1974:390).  In the harbour, .the meadows t o the  northwest o f H e s q u i a t V i l l a g e on H e s q u i a t P e n i n s u l a a r e known as the b e s t deer h u n t i n g t e r r i t o r y , a l t h o u g h t r a c k s are a l s o seen on the beaches. B l a c k bears are the most f r e q u e n t l y seen today o f the l a r g e In 1976  carnivores.  the head o f the harbour s u p p o r t e d a t l e a s t one f a m i l y o f f o u r ,  and F i s h e r i e s r e c o r d s f r e q u e n t l y mention b l a c k bears a t the streams the f a l l  salmon r u n s .  I s l a n d b l a c k b e a r may  In the m i l d H e s q u i a t a r e a , the l a r g e  during  Vancouver  be a c t i v e throughout the w i n t e r , but i f h i b e r n a t i n g  from November t o A p r i l , the young are born i n h i b e r n a t i o n , u s u a l l y i n January o r F e b r u a r y (Cowan and Guiguet n.d.:290; B a n f i e l d 1974:305-308). Signs o f cougar are common and t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y more than one r i t o r y i n the harbour.  ter-  Cougars range o v e r wide areas and through v a r i o u s  h a b i t a t s , from swamps t o dense c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t , i n s e a r c h o f f o o d . A p a r t from the r e c e n t l y  (1900's)  i n t r o d u c e d domestic goats and cows, the  o n l y l a r g e p r e y i n the harbour i s deer. season the young may 336)  As cougars have no f i x e d b r e e d i n g  be born a t any time o f year (Cowan and Guiguet  n.d.:  a l t h o u g h t h e r e are r e p o r t e d t o be two peaks o f b i r t h , l a t e w i n t e r  and midsummer ( B a n f i e l d 1974:347). Wolves have not been seen here f o r y e a r s , b u t the t r a c k s o f a s o l i t a r y animal were seen i n 1975, w h i l e i n e a r l i e r t i m e s - t h e y were c e r t a i n l y more p l e n t i f u l .  Wolves, t o o , range throughout a v a r i e t y o f  h a b i t a t s , h u n t i n g i n packs t h a t average f o u r to seven i n numbers but can range from two t o f o u r t e e n  ( B a n f i e l d 1974:290).  Pups are born i n  35  April  and  May  (Cowan and  Guiguet n.d.:282).  The  low u n g u l a t e  i n the harbour i s r e f l e c t e d i n the r e l a t i v e l y low p r i n c i p a l predators,  w o l f and  range i n c l u d e s H e s q u i a t Harbour.  March and A p r i l  i n the a r e a .  t a l k i n g about an abundant  Although the p r e s e n c e o f Marten was  o c c a s i o n a l l y feeding along  the seashore.  The  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y and  The  the f o r e s t h a b i t a t ,  young are born i n l a t e Guiguet n.d.:301).  f o r the a r e a have been i d e n t i f i e d i n  the Townsend's V o l e ,  and p o s s i b l y the Deer Mouse.  resource.  T h i s animal f a v o u r s  Three o f the rodents r e p o r t e d  In none of these  not p e r s o n a l l y confirmed, i t s  ( B a n f i e l d 1974:316-317; Cowan and  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d ,  their  cougar, w h i l e b l a c k b e a r s , w i t h a v a r i e d  d i e t , have m a i n t a i n e d a h i g h e r p o p u l a t i o n i n s t a n c e s , however, are we  abundance o f  population  the American Red  N a v i g a t o r Shrew wasoalso  the S h o r t - t a i l e d Weasel seen i n 1973.  Squirrel  identified A l l o f these  animals are s m a l l f o r e s t d w e l l e r s .  Birds : Avian resources species,  o f the a r e a a r e d i v e r s e , i n c l u d i n g many d i f f e r e n t  from ocean g o i n g f l i e r s to f o r e s t r e s i d e n t s .  show v a r i a t i o n i n s e a s o n a l  a v a i l a b i l i t y , abundance and  The  h a b i t a t s o f the i n n e r harbour and  all  these f a c t o r s . The  tified  b i r d species present  i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  habitat.  The  those o f the o u t e r  also  iden-  to p r e f e r r e d  i n d i c a t e e t h e h a b i t a t s where  found i n g r e a t e s t abundance,  r a t h e r than the o n l y h a b i t a t s i n which they w i l l be T a b l e 3 groups the s p e c i e s  samples by  also  coast d i f f e r i n  samples can be grouped a c c o r d i n g  the l i s t e d s p e c i e s are most l i k e l y to be  archaeological  species  concentration.  i n Hesquiat Harbour today and  following habitat categories  h i g h l y mobile s p e c i e s .  The  found.  Birds  are  i d e n t i f i e d i n the  the h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s , w h i l e F i g u r e  5  36 F i g u r e 5.  Generalized D i s t r i b u t i o n of B i r d Habitat  Categories.  37  i l l u s t r a t e s the p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of the h a b i t a t s i n H e s q u i a t Harbour. Pelagic:  open ocean from about 15 t o 200 k i l o m e t r e s o f f shore, p a r t i c u l a r l y 20 t o 40 k i l o m e t r e s o f f s h o r e .  O p e n - L i t t o r a l Waters: the open, l i t t o r a l waters, i n c l u d i n g o u t e r p o r t i o n s of some l a r g e r bays and i n l e t s . Sheltered  L i t t o r a l Waters: the s h e l t e r e d l i t t o r a l o f bays and i n l e t s .  Sheltered  Shallow Waters: the shallow l i t t o r a l waters o f s h e l t e r e d bays and e s t u a r i e s , l a k e s , m u d f l a t s , marshes and streams.  Strand/Littoral Interface: the beaches and t o r a l waters and f o r e s t edge.  waters  adjacent  lit-  F o r e s t / U p l a n d : the f o r e s t , i n c l u d i n g the wooded a r e a s and open meadows w i t h i n the f o r e s t . Many of t h e s e b i r d s v a r y g r e a t l y i n s i z e . v a r i a b l e , even w i t h i n a s i n g l e day,  While b i r d weights are  highly  the mean weights p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4  g i v e a g r o s s measure o f r e l a t i v e s i z e s .  Pelagic The  Birds: p e l a g i c b i r d s are p r i m a r i l y the ocean f l i e r s ,  c l o s e t o shore i n H e s q u i a t waters.  While s p e c i e s  r a r e l y coming  such as the  albatross  are l a r g e , most are r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l b i r d s whose b i g wingspan b e l i e s t h e i r a c t u a l weight.  They i n c l u d e both the B l a c k - f o o t e d  n i g r i p e s Audubon) and N o r t h e r n Fulmar  (Fulmaris  (Puffinus griseus (Linnaeus)),  the S h o r t - t a i l e d A l b a t r o s s glacialis  (Gmelin)),  the A r c t i c T e r n (Sterna p a r a d i s e a  (Diomedea  (D. a l b a t r u s P a l l a s ) , the the Sooty Shearwater  the Northern Phalarope  the P a r a s i t i c Jaeger  wake ( R i s s a t r i d a c t y l a  (Linnaeus)),  Albatross  (Lobipes  (Stercorarius parasiticus  lobatus (Linnaeus)),  Pontopiddan), the Black-Legged  (Linnaeus)) and  storm p e t r e l s  Kitti-  (Hydrobatidae).  Open L i t t o r a l Water B i r d s : The  b i r d s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y are d i v i n g , f i s h e a t i n g b i r d s , sometimes  38  T a b l e 3.  H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s o f B i r d s found i n t h e H e s q u i a t Harbour Region Habitat 1  o  •H Cn rG H  Taxa  ft A l b a t r o s s , Diomedea sp.  X  N o r t h e r n Fulmar, F u l m a r i s g l a c i a l i s  X  Sooty Shearwater, P u f f i n u s g r i s e u s  X  Storm P e t r a l s , H y d r o b a t i d a e  X  Northern Phalarope, Parasitic  Lobipes  lobatus  2  3  rH  CO H rH rd QJ rH -P O rH -P <U +J Xi -H Cfl |ij  (0 U  0 C •p CD -p PH •H  O  X  Jaeger,  Stercorarius parasiticus A r c t i c Tern, Sterna paradisea  X X  Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa t r i d a c t y l a  X  A r c t i c Loon, G a v i a a r c t i c a  X  Western Grebe, Aechmophorus o c c i d e n t a l i s  X  Double-crested  Cormorant,  Phalaeroco rax a u r i t u s  X  B r a n d t ' s Cormorant, £. p e n i c i l l a t u s  X  P e l a g i c Cormorant,  X  pelagicus  Oldsquaw, Duck, C l a n g u l a h y e m a l i s  X  White-winged S c o t e r , M e l a n i t t a d e g l a n d i  X  S u r f S c o t e r , M. p e r s p i c i l l a t a  X  Common S c o t e r , Oidemia n i g r a  X  Common Murre, U r i a a a l g e  X  P i g e o n G u i l l e m o t , Cepphus columba  X  Marbled M u r r e l e t , Brachyramphus marmoratus  X  C a s s i n ' s A u k l e t , Ptychoramphus a l e u t i c a  X  Rhinoceros A u k l e t , C e r o r h i n c a monocerata T u f t e d P u f f i n , Lunda c i r r h a t a  X X  CO rH  <u  H-> ITS  Categories 4  5  t3 CO rH <U  -P  rd  0) O ^ IC MH C O rH -p 0) U H-l -P -P -H C H  rH 15 CD 0 co H rH rH rH <D <U ft)H-1  -P  rC £ co  6  w  <fl  \  CO J H  \ H-> T3 CO s rH rH O On  Cn D  39  Table 3.  (Continued) Habitat Categories 1  Taxa  o •rH  &>  n3 i—I a ) cu  2  -.3  4  'a <u H H rd H id w 4-1 w 0 M 0 !H a 4-> o H •P a) <u •P 4-> 4-> •p •H ft•H id id o CO  Common Loon, Gavia immer  X  Red-throated Loon, Gavia s t e l l a t a  X  Red-necked Grebe, Podiceps grisagena  X  Horned Grebe, P. auritus  X  Eared Grebe, P. caspicus  X  Greater Scaup, Aythya marila  X  Common Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula  X  Barrow s Goldeneye , B_. i s l a n d i c a  X  Bufflehead, B. albeola  X  Common Merganser, Mergus merganser  X  Red-breasted Merganser, M. serrator  X  1  TS < U rH a) 0 tuo p H H <u a) H 4-> (d ,fi (d co CO  Whistling Swan, Olor columbianus  X  Canada Goose, Branta canadensis  X  Brant, B. b e r n i c l a  X  White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons  X  Snow Goose,.Chen caerulescens  X  Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos  X  Gadwall, A. strepara  X  Blue-winged Teal, A. discors  X  P i n t a i l , A. acuta  X  American Widgeon, Mareca americana  X  Shoveler, Spatula- clypeata  X  American Coot, F u l i c a ' americana  X  5  CD O id (d -o r4 fi4-> o n <d 4J cu r4 4J •r4 -p c co H  Glaucous-winged G u l l , Larus.,glaucescens  X  Western G u l l , L. occidentalis  X  Herring G u l l , L. argentatus  X  > 6  \  p wC c u fo u rH 0 ft faP  40  T a b l e 3.  (Continued) Habitat Categories 22  o  Taxa  •H Cn rd i—1  CD  ft  3  rH (d  u  0  u  C 4J CD Q) 4-> 4-1  O ^  m  4  CD H & rd CD r4 CO 4J 0 S-l H 4-1 CD CD 4-1 4J . .G •H rd CO IH  £  5  T3  CD r4 CD 0 cn 4-1 H u H H CD CD id 4J rd Xi CO CO  £  \  rH rd  U  0 U fl rd 4-> CD  U 4-1 4-> 4-1 •H C co tA H  C a l i f o r n i a G u l l , L. c a l i f o r n i c u s  X  Mew  X  G u l l , L. canus  Bonaparte's  G u l l , L. P h i l a d e l p h i a  \ +J 05 CD  U 0  fo  X  Heerman's G u l l , L. heermanni  X  G r e a t B l u e Heron, Ardea h e r o d i a s  X  Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus  X  B l a c k O y s t e r c a t c h e r , Haematopus bachmani  X  G r e a t e r Y e l l o w l e g s , Totanus melanoleucus  X  Sandpipers, E r o l i a sp.  X  Northwestern  X  Crow, Corvus c a u r i n u s  CD O rd M-l  G r e a t Horned Owl,  Bubo v i r g i n i a n u s  X  Snowy Owl,  scandiaca  X  Nyctea  F l i c k e r , Colaptes cafer/auritus  X  P i l e a t e d Woodpecker, Dryocopus p i l e a t u s  X  V a r i e d Thrush,  X  Ixoreus naevius  Finches etc, F r i n g i l l i d a e  X  41  seen c l o s e r t o shore, b u t more abundant where t h e l a r g e s c h o o l s o f f i s h a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n deeper water. some o f t h e grebes, sitesaare:  l o o n s and ducks.  Those i d e n t i f i e d  A r c t i c Loon (Gavia a r c t i c a  phorus o c c i d e n t a l i s auritus  They i n c l u d e t h e cormorants, t h e murres, and  (Lawrence)),  ( L e s s o n ) ) , Brandt's  i n the archaeological  ( L i n n a e u s ) ) , Western Grebe (Aechmo-  Double-crested  Cormorant  Cormorant  penicillatus  (Phalacrocorax  (Brandt)'), P e l a g i c  Cormorant (P. p e l a g i c u s P a l l a s ) , Oldsquaw Duck ( C l a n g u l a hyemalis  (Linnaeus)),  White-winged S c o t e r  (M. p e r s -  picillata  ( L i n n a e u s ) ) , Common S c o t e r  Murre ( U r i a a a l g e Marbled  (Melanitta deglandi  Murrelet  (Bonaparte)), Surf Scoter  (Oidemia  n i g r a ( L i n n a e u s ) ) , Common  ( P o n t o p p i d a n ) ) , Pigeon G u i l l e m o t  (Cepphus columba P a l l a s ) ,  (Brachyramphus marmoratus (Gmelin)), C a s s i n ' s A u k l e t  (Ptychoramphus a l e u t i c u s ( P a l l a s ) ) , Rhinoceros ( P a l l a s ) ) , and T u f t e d P u f f i n  (Lunda c i r r h a t a  Auklet  ( C e r o r h i n c a monocerata  (Pallas)).  S h e l t e r e d L i t t o r a l Water B i r d s : The b i r d s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e a l s o d i v i n g , f i s h e a t i n g b i r d s , b u t they f a v o u r more s h e l t e r e d waters than t h e i r c o u s i n s . seen c l o s e t o shore, and most are m i g r a t o r y . (Gavia immer ( B r u n n i c h ) ) , Red-throated Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps g r i s a g e n a auritus  They a r e o f t e n  They i n c l u d e Common Loon  Loon (Gavia s t e l l a t a  (Boddaect)), Horned Grebe  ( L i n n a e u s ) ) , E a r e d Grebe (Podiceps c a s p i c u s  (B. i s l a n d i c a  (B. a l b e o l a ( L i n n a e u s ) ) , Common Merganser and Red-breasted  (Podiceps  (Hablizl)),  Scaup (Aythya m a r i l a ( L i n n a e u s ) ) , Common Goldeneye (Bucephala ( L i n n a e u s ) ) , Barrow's Goldeneye  (Pontoppidan)),  Greater  clangula  (Gmelin)), B u f f l e h e a d  (Mergus merganser  Linnaeus)  Merganser (M. s e r r a t o r L i n n a e u s ) .  S h e l t e r e d Shallow Water B i r d s : These b i r d s a r e t h e s u r f a c e f e e d i n g and d a b b l i n g ducks, geese and swans, whose p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t s a r e t h e shallow waters over e e l g r a s s  42  T a b l e 4.  Weights o f S e l e c t e d B i r d  Taxa  Species  X Weight i n Grams  X Weight i n Grams  Taxa  Common Loon  3330(2425-3677)  Common Goldeneye  1010(692-1452)  A r c t i c Loon  2000*  Barrow's Goldeneye  939!('499-1135)  Red-throated Loon  2000*  Bufflehead  466(332-636)  Western Grebe  656(520-793)  Pintail.  969(590-1462)  Red-necked Grebe  450*  Oldsquaw Duck  746(612-999)  Horned Grebe  369(N. A. )  White-winged S c o t e r  1373(953-1771)  Eared Grebe  350*  Surf Scoter  863(636-1135)  Short-tailed Albatross  2300*  Common S c o t e r  1068(863-1272)  Black-footed Albatross  2300*  Common Merganser  1430(953-2043)  Northern Fulmar  100*  Red-breasted Merganser  704(590-817)  100*  Hooded Merganser  704(681-726)  27  Great B l u e Heron  2340(1850-3062) 5549(4313-6356)  Sooty Shearwater Leach's P e t r e l D-C Cormorant  3000*  Bald  Eagle  Brandt's Cormorant  2979  Coot  493(434-551)  P e l a g i c Cormorant  1463(1250-1850)  Black Oystercatcher  559(524-577)  W h i s t l i n g Swan  6208(4072-8244)  Greater Yellowlegs  170  Canada Goose  3882(2134-5676)  Northern  6  Brant  1385(1317-1453)  Parasitic  White-fronted Goosel  2729(2134-2996)  Skua  Snow Goose  2254(1345-3314)  Glaucous-winged Gull  Mallard  1039(544-1725)  Western  Gull  Gadwall  863(636-1044)  Herring  Gull  Blue-winged T e a l  397(227-545)  California  Widgeon  817(544-1089)  Bonaparte G u l l  Shovellor  647(499-817)  Mew G u l l  G r e a t e r Scaup  806(726-1362)  Heerman's G u l l  Black-legged Kittiwake  400*  Great Horned Owl  Phalarope Jaeger  Gull  500* 500* 941(717-1120) 900* 1018(850-1184) 700* 300* 400* 510(430-554) 1291(973-1480)  43  T a b l e 4.  (Continued) X Weight i n Grams  Taxa  X Weight i n Grams  Taxa 1404  A r c t i c Tern  300*  Snowy  Common Murre  978(637-1195)  Flicker  142(108-163)  Pigeon  400*  P i l e a t e d Woodpecker  950*  500(470-530)  Northwestern Crow  866  Tufted P u f f i n  703(606-813)  Robin  78(74-82)  Marbled  Murrelet  216(206-226)  V a r i e d Thrush  75*  Cassin's  Auklet  Guillemot  Rhinoceros  Auklet  Owl  143  Measurements i n b r a c k e t s are ranges; a l l measurements i n c l u d e both male and female i n d i v i d u a l s ; * i n d i c a t e s an e s t i m a t e d weight based on l e n g t h r e l a t i v e to known weight s p e c i e s t h a t are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . P o o l e 1938; Baldwin and Kendeigh 1938; B e l l r o s e 1976; B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum, Archaeology D i v i s i o n records.  beds i n s h e l t e r e d bays and and  streams.  e s t u a r i e s , shallow  They i n c l u d e :  lakes, mudflats,  W h i s t l i n g Swan (Qlor columbianus  Canada Goose ( s e v e r a l sub-species)  (Branta canadensis  (B_. b e r n i c l a ( L i n n a e u s ) ) , W h i t e - f r o n t e d Snow Goose.(Chen c a e r u l e s c e n s  marshes (Ord)),  (Linnaeus)), Brant  Goose (Anser a l b i f r o n s ( S c o p o l i ) ) ,  (Linnaeus)), Mallard  (Anas  platyrhynchos  Linnaeus),  Gadwall  (A. s t r e p a r a L i n n a e u s ) ,  Linnaeus),  Pintail  (A. a c u t a Linnaeus) American Widgeon (Mareca americana  (Gmelin)),  Shoveler  (Spatula clypeata  ( F u l i c a americana Gmelin).  Blue-winged T e a l  (A. d i s c o r s  ( L i n n a e u s ) ) , and American Coot  These b i r d s are o f t e n found on shore a t  the  waters edge, as w e l l as i n the l i t t o r a l w a t e r s . Strand/Littoral Interface Birds: These are the beach scavengers and tidal flats,  the g u l l s and  the wading b i r d s who  the s h o r e b i r d s .  They i n c l u d e the  f e e d on  the  Glaucous-  winged G u l l (Larus g l a u c e s c e n s Naumann), Western G u l l (L. o c c i d e n t a l i s Audubon), H e r r i n g G u l l (L. a r g e n t a t u s  P o n t o p p i d a n ) , C a l i f o r n i a G u l l (L.  44  c a l i f o r n i c u s Lawrence), Mew G u l l  (L. canus L i n n a e u s ) , Bonaparte's G u l l  (L. P h i l a d e l p h i a ( O r d ) ) , Heermann's G u l l Blue Heron  (Ardeaaherodias  Linnaeus)  (Linnaeus)), Black Oyster-catcher Yellowlegs  (Totanus melanoleucus  (L. heermanni C a s s i n ) , Great  Ba<Ld E a g l e  (Hariaeetus  leucocephalus  (Haematopus bachmani Audubon), G r e a t e r (Gmelin)), Northwestern Crow  c a u r i n u s B a i r d ) and v a r i o u s sandpiper  (Corvus  species.  Forest/Upland B i r d s : Few  f o r e s t b i r d s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e samples, although t h e r e a r e  many s p e c i e s p r e s e n t i n the harbour.  Those i d e n t i f i e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y  i n c l u d e Great Horned Owl (Bubo v i r g i n i a n u s (Gmelin)), Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca pecker  (Linnaeus), F l i c k e r  (Dryocopus p i l e a t u s  (Gmelin))  (Colaptes c a f e r ( G m e l i n ) ) , P i l e a t e d Wood-  ( L i n n a e u s ) ) , V a r i e d Thrush  (Ixoreus  naevius  and v a r i o u s u n i d e n t i f i e d s m a l l f i n c h e s o r t h e l i k e .  A l l o f Hesquiat  Harbour except the l a k e s i s c l a s s i f i e d by t h e B.C.  Land D i r e c t o r a t e as C l a s s 7 l a n d i n c a p a b i l i t y f o r waterfowl meaning t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n s o f these lands a r e so severe production i s nearly precluded. (moderately  severe)  and C l a s s 6 (severe l i m i t a t i o n s )  (The Canada Land  f o r W i l d l i f e , Map Nootka Sound,  T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n takes i n t o account  w i n t e r i n g and m i g r a t o r y  that.waterfowl  The l a k e s a r e c l a s s i f i e d as C l a s s 5  I n v e n t o r y , Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 92E, Waterfowl).  production,  the breeding,  s t o p o v e r p o t e n t i a l o f an a r e a , and c l e a r l y  i n d i c a t e s t h e u n s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e Hesquiat Harbour t e r r a i n t o support l a r g e waterfowl  populations.  No a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e s o f s e a b i r d p o p u l a t i o n s s p e c i f i c t o H e s q u i a t Harbour a r e a v a i l a b l e , b u t they a r e c e r t a i n l y more common than Many o f both t h e waterfowl  waterfowl.  and the s e a b i r d s a r e m i g r a t o r y , o n l y a v a i l a b l e  i n Hesquiat Harbour a t c e r t a i n times o f y e a r .  45  The most r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i e s abundance and •occurrence is"'that gathered by H a t l e r , Campbell and D o r s t  seasonal  (1978) " f o r  P a c i f i c Rim N a t i o n a l Park on the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d south of  Hesquiat Harbour.  t h i s study all  T a b l e 5 p r e s e n t s s e a s o n a l abundance d a t a  from  (augmented by d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s i n H e s q u i a t Harbour) f o r  63 s p e c i e s of b i r d i d e n t i f i e d d i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l samples.  b i r d s are grouped i n t o 10 c a t e g o r i e s o f s e a s o n a l 1) P r e s e n t y e a r round  The  availability:  i n r o u g h l y e q u a l abundance  2) P r e s e n t y e a r round but l e s s common i n the summer months 3) Not p r e s e n t months  ( f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f time i n the summer  4) Only p r e s e n t l a t e f a l l  to very e a r l y s p r i n g  5) P r e s e n t y e a r round but more abundant i n the f a l l spring 6) Only p r e s e n t i n f a l l  and  and s p r i n g  7) Only p r e s e n t d i s c o n t i n u o u s l y i n the s p r i n g t o e a r l y f a l l months 8) P r e s e n t y e a r round but.more common i n the summer months 9) Only p r e s e n t s p r i n g through  fall  10) Only p r e s e n t summer through  fall  As can be seen from T a b l e 5, 36 o f the 63 s p e c i e s are p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e y e a r round.  Of t h e s e , 17 s p e c i e s are a v a i l a b l e i n r o u g h l y  c o n s t a n t q u a n t i t i e s throughout fluctuating quantities.  the y e a r , the remaining 19 i n s e a s o n a l l y  A l l o t h e r s p e c i e s are o n l y a v a i l a b l e f o r  r e s t r i c t e d p o r t i o n s o f the y e a r . In  a d d i t i o n t o s e a s o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n o c c u r r e n c e and/or abundance,  the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the s e a b i r d s i s a f f e c t e d by t h e i r  offshore/onshore  and s h o r t range l a t i t u d i n a l movements r e l a t e d t o the o c c u r r e n c e o f f e e d .  46  T a b l e 5.  Seasonal Abundance and A v a i l a b i l i t y o f S e l e c t e d B i r d S p e c i e s i n the H e s q u i a t Harbour Region * "Month  Seasonal Category  Species  1  Surf Scoter  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Northwestern Crow  XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX  J  F  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  O  N  D  Bald Eagle  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  Black Oystercatcher  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  B r a n d t ' s Cormorant  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  P e l a g i c Cormorant  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  Great B l u e Heron  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  Common Merganser  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  Glaucous-winged G u l l  XXXX  Mew G u l l  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  X X X X X X X X .  X X X X X X X X X  Western G u l l Herring Gull  •  •  Pigeon G u i l l e m o t Common S c o t e r  ?-??—?  Flicker Pileated  Woodpecker  Great Horned Owl 2  _ "  -  _  - -  _  _  _  - -  _  - -  Common Loon  X X X X X X XXXX  V a r i e d Thrush  X X X X X X X  G r e a t e r Scaup  X X X XXXXX X -  Mallard  X X X X X X X  Red-breasted Merganser  XX X X X X X -  ZZZZ.  Horned Grebe Brant Pintail  _  _  - -  _  _  - -  -  XXXX X X X  -  -  -  X X X  X X X X X X X X  -  -  -  - X X X  _ _ _ _ _  Red-necked Grebe  3  _  KXXXXXXX  Western Grebe  D o u b l e - c r e s t e d Cormorant  _  -  -  -  _  _  _  X XXX X _  _  _  American Widgeon  XXXXXXXXXXX I-i -  Common Goldeneye  X X X X X X X- -  X X X X  —  - - X XXXXXXXX -XXX  47  T a b l e 5.  Seasonal Category 3  (cont)  (Continued)  Month Species Barrow's Goldeneye  J  F  -_  _  M _  A  M  _  J  J  _  S  O  ? _  XXXXXXXXXXXX X X  Bufflehead  A  XX  N  D  _  _  XXXXXX  Oldsquaw Duck A  4  American Coot Snowy Owl White-winged S c o t e r  X X X  XXXX X X X  XXXXXXXX X X X X  H  X X XXXXX XXX X XXXX  Bonaparte's G u l l A r c t i c Loon  X XXXXX  Canada Goose  -  X XXXX X  W h i s t l i n g Swan White-fronted  Goose  Gadwall Shoveler Snow Goose —???— ? — •?—?—  Blue-winged T e a l Arctic  Tern  Northern  KXXXXX -  Phalarope  -?—  Common Murre  Marbled  -  -X X X X X X X  Black-legged Kittiwake  Red-throated  X XXX X -  Loon  Murrelet  — --  - ? - - X XXXXXXXXXX  ?-  X X X X X X X X X  —  - X X X X X X X X X X -  - -  Black-footed Albatross Northern Greater  Fulmar Yellowlegs  Parasitic Sooty  Jaeger  Shearwater  Cassin's Auklet Rhinoceros Tufted  Auklet  Puffin  x x x x x  x;:xxxxxx x x x x x  48  T a b l e 5.  (Continued)  Month  Seasonal Category 10  Species  J  F  M  A  M  Heermann's G u l l  J -  J  A  S  O  -XXXX-  N  D  -  Skua  KEY: *  Absent ; Rare ; P r e s e n t - - -; Uncommon Common X X X ; Abundant XXXXX E x t r a p o l a t e d from H a t l e r , Campbell and D o r s t 1978  No p r e c i s e d a t a a r e c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e on these l a t t e r movements f o r the Hesquiat  area, although  i t . i s known they can be abrupt, u n p r e d i c t a b l e  with  p r e s e n t knowledge and o f c o n s i d e r a b l e magnitude, w i t h f l o c k s o f s e v e r a l thousand Sooty Shearwaters f o r example, c o n g r e g a t i n g days, then d i s a p p e a r i n g  i n an a r e a f o r s e v e r a l  overnight.  A t h i r d f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y from a human p r e d a t o r ' s p o i n t o f view i s the c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n which a s p e c i e s o c c u r s .  For bird  species,  t h i s ranges from s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s through p a i r s , f a m i l y groups, s m a l l f l o c k s and l a r g e f l o c k s o f s e v e r a l thousand i n d i v i d u a l s , and may v a r y w i t h the season.  In general, l a r g e s t concentrations are a t nesting  grounds o r d u r i n g m i g r a t i o n .  A t sea, the f u l l y p e l a g i c b i r d s tend t o  d i s p e r s e i n t o s m a l l groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s , f l o c k i n g i n t o l a r g e r groups when t h e f e e d i s c o n c e n t r a t e d  o r when a c t u a l l y on m i g r a t i o n .  The murres,  a u k l e t s and cormorants a r e u s u a l l y found i n s m a l l f l o c k s w h i l e t h e grebes and  loons tend t o be s o l i t a r y , i n p a i r s , o r i n very s m a l l groups when n o t  actually migrating.  During m i g r a t i o n , a l l the duck and goose s p e c i e s  49  are found i n s m a l l t o v e r y l a r g e f l o c k s . move i n p a i r s o r s m a l l groups o f p a i r s .  A t o t h e r times they tend t o The g u l l s a r e found i n h i g h l y  v a r i a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s when o f f the n e s t i n g grounds, flocks.  favouring small  Sandpipers congregate i n s m a l l f l o c k s w h i l e t h e G r e a t e r Y e l l o w  Legs, the Great B l u e Heron and B l a c k O y s t e r C a t c h e r a r e s o l i t a r y o r i n pairs.  Other  or s o l i t a r y ,  s e a s t r a n d and f o r e s t b i r d s a r e g e n e r a l l y found i n p a i r s except f o r the crows, which a r e n o r m a l l y found i n s m a l l  flocks.  Fish: A t l e a s t f o r t y d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s o f f i s h were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l samples from Hesquiat Harbour, and r o c k f i s h t o anadromous salmon.  r a n g i n g from marine sharks  A l t h o u g h many more s p e c i e s a r e a v a i l -  a b l e , those p r e s e n t r e p r e s e n t a wide range o f h a b i t a t s and a good s e l e c t i o n o f food f i s h . o f v a r y i n g s i z e s .  A l t h o u g h most a r e marine f i s h ,  four  s p e c i e s o f anadromous f i s h spawn i n t h e Harbour streams and those e n t e r i n g Hesquiat, H i s n i t and V i l l a g e Lakes, i n c l u d i n g Sockeye (Hesquiat Lake o n l y ) , Coho and Chum Salmon, and S t e e l h e a d .  Some marine f i s h ,  such as  H e r r i n g , S a r d i n e and B l u e f i n Tuna, a r e a l s o o n l y s e a s o n a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n the  harbour. No a c c u r a t e d a t a on abundance o f i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s , a r e a v a i l a b l e  s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r H e s q u i a t Harbour except f o r F i s h e r i e s r e c o r d s f o r t h e salmon and s t e e l h e a d spawning i n t h e c r e e k s on t h e e a s t s i d e o f the h a r bour.  These r e c o r d s a r e n o t d i r e c t stream counts, b u t e s t i m a t e s , o f t e n  o b t a i n e d from l o c a l r e s i d e n t s o r from p l a n e s . accurate data.  They cannot be regarded as  They do, however, i n d i c a t e t h a t salmon r e s o u r c e s o f t h e  Harbour a r e n o t (and p r o b a b l y were not) v e r y e x t e n s i v e . The count e s t i m a t e s r e c o r d a steady d e c l i n e i n the number o f f i s h  50  e n t e r i n g the streams throughout to  1973,  i s e s t i m a t e d a t 1,247  (1963) t o 10,000 (1945) f i s h .  f i s h and the range 50  1944  f i s h , w i t h a range o f  F o r Chum, the annual  (1963) t o 20,000 (1946) f i s h .  i n the r e c o r d s i n f i v e o f the y e a r s s i n c e 1968, lings.  F o r the y e a r s  the average annual number o f Coho spawning i n the e a s t s i d e streams  and Hesquiat Lake d r a i n a g e 50  the p e r i o d o f r e c o r d s .  average i s  2,120  Sockeye o n l y appear  one year o n l y as  finger-  I t i s not c l e a r i f sockeye are newly u s i n g these spawning grounds  o r i f they were not r e c o r d e d i n e a r l i e r y e a r s . 30 t o 1,000  fish,  average 216  fish.  The range o f r u n s i z e i s  S t e e l h e a d a r e r e c o r d e d as p r e s e n t i n  the e a s t s i d e streams, but no n u m e r i c a l d a t a are g i v e n F i s h e r i e s O f f i c e Records, 1944  - 1973).  (Tofino Federal  Local residents indicate that  the streams on the n o r t h and west s i d e s o f Hesquiat Harbour are a l s o Chum and Coho streams, and t h a t the stream d r a i n i n g V i l l a g e Lake i s a good, though s m a l l run, Coho stream. H e r r i n g are v e r y abundant i n the l a t e w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g when they approach the Harbour beaches t o spawn.  Although  no f i g u r e s  specific  t o Hesquiat Harbour a r e a v a i l a b l e , i t i s known t o l o c a l fisherman as of  one  the b e s t p l a c e s f o r h e r r i n g on the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d .  Numerical  abundance d a t a are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the o t h e r s p e c i e s o f  fish  i d e n t i f i e d i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , but d o g f i s h and r o c k f i s h are c e r t a i n l y common i n the Harbour. Great v a r i a t i o n e x i s t s among s p e c i e s i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o c c u r r e n c e , r a n g i n g from the s o l i t a r y w o l f e e l t o the huge s c h o o l s o f spawning h e r r i n g . The  f i s h fauna can be grouped i n t o n i n e h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s as d e f i n e d  below, a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t . a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n s and do not take i n t o account  These h a b i t a t s r e f e r t o v e r t i c a l o r l o c a l movement  51 F i g u r e 6.  Generalized D i s t r i b u t i o n of F i s h Habitat  1 DEEP \A(jp"TEfl Of^FS~HORE  Categories.  -  2 MODERATELYvOeEP^BOCfTfVBQT; 3 MODERATELY DEEP VARIED BOTi 4 SHALLOWER INSHORE,VARIED^BOT. 5 S H A L L O W E R INSHORE, S O F T BOT. ^•.INTERTIDAI-^PULDER  74tVTERTlDAL, SOI^  \  S, S T R E A M S , L A K E S COBVfe-USJ  . . s  TO  52  w i t h i n the c a t e g o r i e s .  T a b l e 6 groups t h e s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d  archaeolo-  g i c a l l y by t h e h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s and i n d i c a t e s season o f a v a i l a b i l i t y . The p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s i n the harbour i s d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 6. (Hydrolagus  colliei  Dogfish. (Squalus a c a n t h i u s Linnaeus)  (Lay and Bennett))  a r e excluded from t h e h a b i t a t  t a b l e as they o c c u r i n a v e r y wide range o f h a b i t a t s . y e a r round.  and R a t f i s h  They a r e a v a i l a b l e  The h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s a r e :  Deep Water O f f s h o r e : t h e deep, o f f s h o r e waters o f the open c o a s t , over v a r i e d bottoms, i n c l u d i n g o f f s h o r e r e e f s and banks, o f t e n deeper than 300 metres. Moderately  Deep Water, Rocky Bottom: t h e moderately deep t o deep l i t t o r a l waters over r o c k y bottoms. F i s h a r e conc e n t r a t e d above 300 metres, o f t e n above 200 metres.  Moderately  Deep Water, V a r i e d Bottom: the moderately deep l i t t o r a l waters over v a r i e d bottom.  deep t o  Shallower Inshore Waters: the s h a l l o w waters o f bayssand over v a r i o u s s u b s t r a t a . Shallower  inlets  Inshore Waters, S o f t Bottom: t h e shallow waters o f bays and i n l e t s over muddy sand and g r a v e l bottoms.  I n t e r t i d a l , Boulder Bottom: the l i t t o r a l waters o f bays and i n l e t s over i n t e r t i d a l zones o f b o u l d e r s and r o c k s on s o f t bottom. I n t e r t i d a l , S o f t Bottom: t h e s h a l l o w l i t t o r a l waters o f bays and i n l e t s over i n t e r t i d a l zones o f sand and g r a v e l . Streams: Lakes:  (self (self  explanatory)  explanatory)  Deep Water O f f s h o r e F i s h : These f i s h i n c l u d e s e v e r a l s p e c i e s o f sharks, as w e l l as a number o f flatfish  and s m a l l e r s c h o o l i n g f i s h .  The west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d  i s t h e n o r t h e r n l i m i t o f t h e B l u e f i n Tuna's range, where i t o c c u r s i n f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g the summer months. Longnose Skate  The f i s h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e  (Raja r h i n a Jordan and G i l b e r t ) , S a r d i n e  (Sardinops Sagax  T a b l e 6.  Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y and  H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s of F i s h Found i n the Hesquiat Habitat 1  Taxa  a0  +>  u  CD 4-> rd  CD  U  S  Xi0 Qi cn CD MH CD MH Q O  Sharks, P l e u r o t r e m a t a  .  Sardinops  X(S)  P a c i f i c Hake, M e r l u c c i u s productus  X  B l u e f i n Tuna, Thunnus thynnus  X(S)  S a b l e f i s h , Anoplopoma f i m b r i a  X  Atheresthes  stomias  P e t r a l e Sole, Eopsetta jordani  P a c i f i c H a l i b u t , Hippoglossus  X X(W)  Flathead Sole, Hippoglossoides  elassodon  X  stenolepis  X  Dover S o l e , Microstomus p a c i f i c u s E n g l i s h S o l e , Parophrys v e t u l u s caurinus  X(S)  X X(W)  X(S) X  Y e l l o w t a i l R o c k f i s h , S. f l a v i d u s  X  S h o r t b e l l y R o c k f i s h , S_. j o r d a n i  X  Q u i l l b a c k R o c k f i s h , S_. m a l i g e r  X  B l a c k R o c k f i s h , S_. melanops  X  Bocaccio,  X  S_.  paucispinus  Canary R o c k f i s h ,  a >  X(S)  N o r t h e r n Anchovy, E n g r a u l i s mordax mordax  Copper R o c k f i s h , Sebastes  a, o  CD ffl CD Q Ti CD • -H Tl r4 O rd  X  sagax  Arrowtooth Flounder,  • u, o Q S Pi  T> O  e  0 4-> 4-1  X  Longnose Skate, R a j a r h i n a Sardine,  04 4-) CD 0 CD ffl Q >i  pinniger  X  Categories  4  3  2  Harbour A r e a  6  7  H rd T) •H M 4-> CD iH Ti o CD rH 4-1 4-> 4J 0 0 H ffl ffl  rH 0 rd 4-> T i +J •H 0 4J ffl r4 CD 4-> 4-> 1+4  5  8  e  M CD S O rH H rd ^1 10  0 4-) 4-> 0 ffl  CD M Ti 0 CD ^ •H CO r4 fi rd H  >  U  CD 0 rH rH rd Xi co  g o  -P 4J CD 0 r4 ffl 0 4-> •fi w 0 H CO  e  fi  B  fl CO o  H  CO  e  rd CD r4 4-> W  CO CD  •s hH  co rt CD CD H  >ff  III CD  cn P)  P-  fr  P P  0  CD cQ P) s co P> P  1  5 -1 pi  3  co o ICD 1  n  ^  CD  >d CD rt rt  0) P  CO  PO  ff ff  CD P 3 -I fr 3 ro cn  ri-  •0  CD  P-  P  P-  PJ  cn  3  P  1  PJ  co  0 P  1  CD  s  5 tr fr fr fr JS CD Pl  1  tr  P  ^ H pi rt po ff rt  ff  k< CO  CO  1  1  CD  H P  Pi  ff  CO O  •d  P-  H fr Hi Hi CD PCO  £ 0  M O  c  J-  CD P. O  ff  1  co rt P  >;•  to CD fr co  >d  0  H Hi  1 CD CD P 1  CD  & to CD  t? 3P) P H  50 to P) p  0  cn CD rt rt P)  H  CO  3  CO  rt  pi ff S H  3 0 fr C O 3 s P-  1  ff v3 ff p- •< O  H ff p-  H e cn <  p) O  o PJ  1  pi 3  O  a tr  rt o o p) M P) rt CD p H PCO  rt  cn O  0 CD P M  1  pi rt C cn  0 p  po  3 0  O  P  tr CD  0 P) 3 s CD  Pi  pj  tr p3 0 O  3P-  3O  t-1  CD  o  0  cn  O  fr PCD ff  P-  0  fr  o  3  CD o M ff ri- 0 3 ff iQ CO P) rt 3 C P) CO  ff rt p) c CO ff riP 3 ff rt O cn CO P ff pi P) 3 0  rt pi  P-  3 -1 a  K CD H H o s; CD •< CD  H3  pi tr CD  (Ti  0»  H3  O  p)  O  0 3  PJ  Pi PCO  rt  P-  3  C  CD ff X pj . iQ ICO • P cu  0 CO  O  CD fr  ID K> 1  H* 1  H•  _J PJ  CO  CO  CD 3 H  H P) -1 o  rt C  rt  0  p3 iQ  co  a o P ) P LJ. ^0  ff C  *<  Pi  ff  alus  p3 Pri0 M •0 ff P> ^2 ff Hi >o P p- tr p- •< o p- fr cn P 0 ff ri- p- rt tr pff 3CD C CO CO CO P) 0 rt ff 3 CO P> CD 0 • 3 Pp P fr CD p-  o  N  3 -)  to s p •0 fr p- pi ff o ff ** Pp3 o o fr ff ff „ PO P  O  p3 Hi P-  p-  M P<£)  cha  rt CD H P P> rt  o  to CD  tus  cn rt pn rt •C cn  0 c 3  0 o w  pidotus  CO P-  PJ  3 0  PJ M  •d P) o pHi po co  dus  •to  P P  US  M P'  co rt PJ  Deep Water Offshore  K^A rS  Kjt  X  y  k'N  CO  KS  B  rN  »y( KS  Mod. Deep Rocky Bottom  Mod. Deep V a r i e d Bottom  co X co  X  X  Klj K > KS  K>< KN  Shallower Inshore V a r i e d Bottom  t^N  K'N  Shallower Inshore S o f t Bottom  K> K^<  X  x  CO  CO  Intertidal Boulder Bottom  X co 'd  ^  rt P) rt  oi  O  P) rt  CD iQ O P PCD CO  cn  Intertidal S o f t Bottom  X  PS  ffi pi tr p-  Streams  03  Lakes  CD  co  H O  0 o  ^  ><;  C rt co H  1  3 0  3  CO  t+ CD  CD CD to Pi  — I 1  3 o 3  o 0 o  o 3*  CO PJ  co  H  CD  1  3 0 3  3 CD H  I  pi  LO  8  1-3  3  o o 3  %  O  P)  p CO  i-3  cn  C ct o 3  1  o O n  rt H-  J  3  CD  3 O 3"  0  CO  H-  rV CD rt p)  3  Deep Water Offshore P)  Mod. Deep Rocky Bottom  O el-  s' CD n Hcn CD ^ CD  n o C 3 &  X  X  CO  CO  K> KN  KS  co  co co  rvJ  X co  ^—»  Kj( KN  Mod. Deep V a r i e d Bottom  Shallower Inshore V a r i e d Bottom  ^  & H-  rt P) rt O P) rt CD iQ O  Shallower Inshore S o f t Bottom Intertidal Boulder Bottom  HCD  cn  Intertidal S o f t Bottom  X  X  X —  99  X(F)  X  X Streams Lakes  oo  CO  56  (Jenyns)), Northern  Anchovy  Hake ( M e r l u c c i u s p r o d u c t u s  ( E n g r a u l i s mordax mordax G i r a r d ) , P a c i f i c ( A y r e s ) ) , B l u e f i n Tuna (Thunnus thynnus  ( L i n n a e u s ) ) , S a b l e f i s h (Anoplopoma f i m b r i a ( P a l l a s ) ) , A r r o w t o o t h ( A t h e r e s t h e s stomias jordani  (Jordan and G i l b e r t ) ) , P e t r a l e S o l e  (Lockington)), Flathead Sole  (Hippoglossoides  and G i l b e r t ) , P a c i f i c H a l i b u t (Hippoglossus Sole  (Microstomus p a c i f i c u s  vetulus Girard).  During  Flounder  (Eopsetta  elassodon  s t e n o l e p i s Schmidt),  ( L o c k i n g t o n ) ) , and E n g l i s h S o l e  Jordan Dover  (Parophrys  the summer months, the E n g l i s h and the P e t r a l e  S o l e s move i n t o s h a l l o w e r waters c l o s e r t o shore.  Moderately  Deep Water over Rocky Bottom F i s h :  This category larger sculpins.  i n c l u d e s the r o c k f i s h , g r e e n l i n g s and some o f t h e S p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d a r e Copper R o c k f i s h  caurinus Richardson), Shortbelly Rockfish  Yellowtail Rockfish  (Sebastes  (Sebastes  (Sebastes  flavidus (Ayres)),  jordani ( G i l b e r t ) ) , Quillback Rockfish  (Sebastes m a l i g e r  (Jordan and G i l b e r t ) ) , B l a c k R o c k f i s h , (Sebastes  G i r a r d ) , Bocaccio  (Sebastes  pinniger  ( G i l l ) ) , Yelloweye R o c k f i s h  Rock G r e e n l i n g elongatus  p a u c i s p i n u s A y r e s ) , Canary R o c k f i s h  (Hexagrammos l a g o c e p h a l u s  G i r a r d ) and Cabezon  Moderately  (Sebastes  ruberrimus  ( P a l l a s ) ) , Lingcod  (Scorpaenichthys  melanops  (Sebastes  (Cramer)), (Ophiodon  marmoratus ( A y r e s ) ) .  Deep Water Over V a r i e d Bottom F i s h :  This i s a l e s s w e l l d e f i n e d category  than o t h e r s .  The B i g Skate  (Raja b i n o c u l a t a G i r a r d ) and the Wolf E e l ( A n a r r h i c h t h y s o c e l l a t u s Ayres) are y e a r round r e s i d e n t s o f these waters, w h i l e P e t r a l e and E n g l i s h S o l e s a r e found here d u r i n g t h e summer months, S p r i n g Salmon tshawytscha and  (Oncorhynchus  (Walbaum)) d u r i n g t h e l a t e w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g months,  t h e P l a i n f i n Midshipman  ( P o r i c h t h y s n o t a t u s G i r a r d ) through t h e months  57  when i t i s n o t spawning, i n the s p r i n g and e a r l y summer. summer, j u s t p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g kisutch nerka  the streams, the Coho Salmon  (Walbaum)), Chum Salmon  (Walbaum)) and S t e e l h e a d  During the l a t e  (0. k e t a  (Oncorhynchus  (Walbaum)), Sockeye Salmon ( 0 .  (Salmo g a i r d n e r i Richardson) a r e a l s o  found i n t h i s c a t e g o r y .  S h a l l o w e r Inshore Waters over V a r i e d Bottom F i s h : These waters a r e the haunts o f t h e sea p e r c h e s , s m a l l e r some f l a t f i s h .  The Chum, Coho and Sockeye Salmon and S t e e l h e a d a r e a l s o  found i n t h i s h a b i t a t w h i l e they w a i t t o e n t e r the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l P i l e Perch  f r e s h water.  Identified i n  sample a r e S t r i p e d Seaperch (Embiotoca l a t e r a l i s  (Rhacochilus vacca ( G i r a r d ) ) , B u f f a l o S c u l p i n  ( G i r a r d ) ) , and Rock S o l e Lord  s c u l p i n s and  (Lepidosetta  (Hemilepidotus h e m i l e p i d o t u s  b i l i n e a t a (Ayres)).  (Enophrys  Agassiz), bison  The Red I r i s h  ( T i l e s i u s ) ) i s a l s o found here except  when spawning "in the s p r i n g .  Shallower Inshore Waters Over S o f t Bottom F i s h : Three s p e c i e s  of f l a t f i s h  i d e n t i f i e d i n the archaeological  samples  i n h a b i t these waters, the P a c i f i c Sanddab ( C i t h a r i c h t h y s s o r d i d u s  (Girard)),  the  Sole  Starry Flounder  ( P l a t i c h t h y s s t e l l a t u s ( P a l l a s ) ) and t h e Sand  (Psettichthys melanostictus  (Girard).  I n t e r t i d a l , B o u l d e r Bottom F i s h : A single species, the  the P l a i n f i n Midshipman, i n h a b i t s these areas  spawning time i n s p r i n g and e a r l y summer.  during  They burrow beneath the  b o u l d e r s , making n e s t s i n the s o f t muddy sand.  I n t e r t i d a l , S o f t Bottom F i s h : T h i s c a t e g o r y i s a l s o a s e a s o n a l c a t e g o r y , the i n t e r t i d a l  s o f t beaches  58  used f o r s p r i n g spawning by the Red (Clupea harengus p a l l a s i  I r i s h L o r d and  the P a c i f i c  Herring  Valenciennes).  Stream F i s h : The  Coho, Sockeye, and  Chum Salmon, the S t e e l h e a d  and  t r o u t (Salmo  sp.)  are found i n the streams, the former f o u r s p e c i e s d u r i n g the spawning season o n l y , i n F a l l , w h i l e o t h e r s t r o u t are y e a r round r e s i d e n t s .  Lake F i s h : Sockeye Salmon and  t r o u t s p e c i e s w i l l a l s o be found i n the l a k e s ,  former o n l y d u r i n g the f a l l  spawning season, as they w a i t to e n t e r  the  the  t r i b u t a r y spawning streams.  The  range o f f i s h s p e c i e s e x p l o i t e d by the i n h a b i t a n t s o f  Harbour v a r y g r e a t l y i n s i z e ,  from the 33 cm P a c i f i c H e r r i n g t o the 2.5  B l u e f i n Tuna and even l a r g e r s h a r k s . the f a u n a l remains, the f i s h  7.  -<10  7 below.  Taxa  < 1 Kg  5 Kg  To a s s i s t i n the l a t e r a n a l y s i s o f  SizesClasses of Selected F i s h  Size Class  1 Kg -<5  m  s p e c i e s were grouped i n t o major weight c l a s s e s .  These g r o u p i n g s are d e t a i l e d i n T a b l e  Table  Hesquiat  P a c i f i c H e r r i n g , S a r d i n e , Anchovy, P l a i n f i n Midshipman, S t r i p e d Seaperch, P i l e P e r c h , B u f f a l o S c u l p i n , Sanddab, F l a t h e a d S o l e , Red I r i s h L o r d Kg  Kg  P i n k Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye S a l mon, Copper R o c k f i s h , Y e l l o w t a i l Rockf i s h , Q u i l l b a c k R o c k f i s h , B l a c k Rockf i s h , G r e e n l i n g , Rock S o l e , E n g l i s h S o l e , Sand S o l e , Dover S o l e , P e t r a l e Sole, R a t f i s h , Shortbelly Rockfish D o g f i s h , Arrowtooth F l o u n d e r , S t a r r y F l o u n d e r , Hake, B o c a c c i o , Canary Rockf i s h , Yelloweye R o c k f i s h , B i g Skate  59  T a b l e 7.  (Continued) Taxa  Size Class 10 Kg -<20 Kg  Wolf E e l , S t e e l h e a d , Chum Salmon, LongS nose Skate, Cabezon, S a b l e f i s h  20 Kg -<60 Kg  S p r i n g Salmon, L i n g Cod, H a l i b u t (male)  60 Kg - 100 Kg  B l u e f i n Tuna (maximum 114 Kg), H a l i b u t (female, maximum 216 k g ) , Sharks  S i z e e s t i m a t e s a r e based on H a r t 1973 and r e c o r d s o f the BCPM Archaeology D i v i s i o n Comparative S k e l e t o n C o l l e c t i o n .  Shellfish; The  term s h e l l f i s h  i s used here t o i n c l u d e i n t e r t i d a l  and marine  i n v e r t e b r a t e s w i t h c a l c a r e o u s e x o s k e l e t o n s t h a t a r e p r e s e r v e d i n an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l context.  T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s b i v a l v e and u n i v a l v e m o l l u s c s ,  c h i t o n s , sea u r c h i n s , c r a b s and b a r n a c l e s . A l l the s h e l l f i s h i d e n t i f i e d  i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d a r e  a v a i l a b l e y e a r round, a l t h o u g h some may be c o n s i d e r e d u n p a l a t a b l e d u r i n g their  b r e e d i n g season.  Their a v a i l a b i l i t y  v e r t i c a l placement i n the i n t e r t i d a l Many s h e l l f i s h a r e adapted  i s , however, a f f e c t e d by t h e i r  zone and by s e a s o n a l t i d a l p a t t e r n s .  to very s p e c i f i c  habitats, while others are  t o l e r a n t o f a wider range o f c o n d i t i o n s . Regardless o f t h e i r  v e r t i c a l placement i n the i n t e r t i d a l  34 s p e c i e s o f s h e l l f i s h i d e n t i f i e d  zone, t h e  i n t h e . a r c h a e o l o g i c a l samples  from  H e s q u i a t Harbour can be grouped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e following  habitats:  Exposed Rocky Shores: t h e rock substratum i n t e r t i d a l zone exposed to heavy (outer coast) wave a c t i o n ; h i g h s a l i n i t y . S h e l t e r e d Rocky Shores: t h e rock substratum and b o u l d e r beach i n t e r t i d a l zone s u b j e c t t o l e s s wave a c t i o n ; v a r y i n g degrees o f s a l i n i t y .  60 F i g u r e 7.  Generalized D i s t r i b u t i o n of S h e l l f i s h Habitat  i  Categories.  C  }  EXPOSED ROCKY SHORES 2 SHELTERED ROCKY SHORES 3 EXPOSED SAND/ GRAVEL BEACH 4 SHELTERED SAND/ GRAVEL BEACH 5 SHELTERED MUD/ SAND/ GRAVEL BEACH 1  37  "0  m  61  Exposed Clean Sand/Gravel Beaches: sand o r g r a v e l substratum i n t e r t i d a l zone s u b j e c t to l e s s wave a c t i o n ; v a r y i n g degrees o f s a l i n i t y . S h e l t e r e d Sand/Gravel Beaches: p r o t e c t e d sand o r g r a v e l substratum i n t e r t i d a l zone s u b j e c t t o l e s s wave a c t i o n ; v a r y i n g degrees o f s a l i n i t y . S h e l t e r e d Mud/Sand/Gravel Beaches: p r o t e c t e d muddy sand and g r a v e l substratum i n t e r t i d a l zone s u b j e c t t o l e s s wave a c t i o n ; lower s a l i n i t y . Table  8 groups the s p e c i e s a c c o r d i n g  the p r e s e n t i n Figure  to these h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s ,  while  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the c a t e g o r i e s i n H e s q u i a t Harbour i s d i s p l a y e d  7.  Exposed Rocky Shores S h e l l f i s h : The The  exposed rocky  shores o f H e s q u i a t Harbour are o u t e r  coast.habitats.  s h e l l f i s h found o n l y on these shores are the C a l i f o r n i a Mussel  californianus  (Conrad)),  Northern Abalone stoma f o l i a t u m Limpet  sea u r c h i n s p e c i e s  (Strongylocentrotus  ( H a l i o t i s kamschatkana J o n a s ) ,  (Gmelin)),  D i r e Whelk  (A. Adams)), Red  Turban  (Astraea g i b b e r o s a  G o u l d ) , Black Katy  shores,  The  (Tegula f u n e b r a l i s  (Dillwyn)), Sitka Periwinkle (Bittium e s c h r i c h t i  ( M i d d e n d o r f f ) ) , Mossy C h i t o n  ( K a t h e r i n a t u n i c a t a Wood), and  (Mopalia  the G i a n t  but are a l s o found on l e s s open shores.  The  t e s t u d i n a l i s scutum E s c h s c h o l t z ) , Channeled Dogwinkle  (Gmelin) are f o u n d - e q u a l l y  shores.  rocky  P l a t e Limpet  (Acmaea  (Thais c a n a l i c u l a t a  ( D u c l o s ) , Emarginate Dogwinkle (Thais emarginata Deshayes) and Dogwinkle (Thais l i m a  muscosa  Chiton  s t e l l e r i M i d d e n d o r f f ) a l l p r e f e r the more exposed  p r o t e c t e d rocky  Finger  Hooked S l i p p e r S h e l l ( C r e p i d u l a adunca Sowerby), L u r i d  Rock S h e l l (Qcenebra l u r i d a  (Cryptochiton  (Cerato-  ( S e a r l e s l a v d i r a (Reeve)).  (Littorina sitkana P h i l i p p i ) , Eschricht's Bittium (Middendorff)),  sp.),  L e a f y Hornmouth  (Acmaea d i g i t a l i s E s c h s c h o l t z ) , B l a c k Turban  (Mytilus  the  on both exposed  File  and  62  T a b l e 8.  H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s f o r S h e l l f i s h i n the Hesquiat Harbour Region  Habitat 1  Category 4  3  2  5  H  CD  rH  > CD O  rC  TJ CO  CD CO >i O r*  Taxa  u ft X 8  w C a l i f o r n i a Mussel,  Mytilus californianus  Sea U r c h i n , S t r o n g y l o c e n t r o t u s Northern  sp.  Abalone, H a l i o t i s kamschatkana  X  w  X  B l a c k Turban, T e g u l a f u n e b r a l i s  XX  X  Red Turban,  XX  X  Sitka Periwinkle, L i t t o r i n a sitkana  XX  X  Eschricht's Bittium, Bittium eschrichti  XX  XX  Hooked S l i p p e r S h e l l , C r e p i d u l a adunca  XX  X  L u r i d Rock S h e l l , Ocenebra  XX  X  Mossy C h i t o n , M o p a l i a muscosa  XX  X  B l a c k Katy, K a t h a r i n a t u n i c a t a  XX  X  Giant Chiton, Cryptochiton  XX  X  P l a t e Limpet, A c a e a . t e s t u d i n a l i s scutum  X  X  Channeled Dogwinkle, T h a i s  canaliculata  X  X  emarginata  X  X  F i l e Dogwinkle, T h a i s l i m a  X  X  Bay Mussel, M y t i l u s e d u l i s  X  XX  S h i e l d Limpet, Acmaea p e l t a  X  XX  Frilled  X  XX  X  XX  Emarginate Dogwinkle, T h a i s  stelleri  Dogwinkle, T h a i s l a m e l l o s a  Purple-hinged S c a l l o p , Hinnites multirugosus •  co c rd  co  XX  lurida  O  •0 CO CD O  F i n g e r Limpet, Acmaea d i g i t a l i s  Astraea-gibberosa  >i  to G  H ,V CD O  X  D i r e Whelk, S e a r l e s i a  dira  •P  X  X  \  U  X  L e a f y Hornmouth, Ceratostoma f o l i a t u m  O  CD  to 0 CL) ,C U CO CU  3  CD  ftHCD U  CO CD  to CD U CD  rC  -P rH  CD  rC  o <d  PQ  >U rd  H CD  > rd  O \  to CO CD  CD  rC  co  m  q  CD  •P rH  to oid ed CO  o to G  rC  CD  CJ \  CD  CO  rd  CO CD  co rC \ o rd  to CD  am  63  T a b l e 8.  (Continued) H a b i t a t Category 1  2  cu  u 0  Xi Xi co cu CO >i  Taxa  o  ftQo X  w  3 . 4  cu  CD  rH  Xi cu  o Xi u CO  u  Xi CO  Pearly'Monia,. Pododesmus c e p i o  X  Mask Limpet, Acmaea p e r s o n a  X  ft X a cs  w  Bodega Clam, T e l l i n a bodegensis Lewis's Moon S n a i l , P o l i n i c e s l e w i s i i Purple Olive, Q l i v e l l a b i p l i c a t a  > rd  o  S  ,  rH CU  1—1  -0  Xi u cn cu o cu rC cn  cu  4J >1 H rM CU u  5  CO  o  ca cu  cu  u  >  cu C5 -p \  1—1  xi  xi CO  CO  cu  CO  cu  Xiu  rd fi rd cu  XX  XX  XX  X  XX  X  B u t t e r Clam, Saxidomus giganteus,  X  Sand Macoma, Macoma s e c t a  X  Rose-petaligemele,;::Semele r u b r o p i c t a  X  N a t i v e L i t t l e n e c k , P r o t o t h a c a staminea  X  m  Xi cu  o  rH fiw cu rd cu  4-> co rC rH \ o  cu -d  Xi co  a  X  Basket C o c k l e , C l i n o c a r d i u m n u t t a l l i  X  Horse Clam, T r e s u s c a p a x / n u t t a l l i  X  KEY:  rd cu CQ  X-Present; XX-More abundant-in t h i s c a t e g o r y when p r e s e n t i n more than one category,  S h e l t e r e d Rocky Shores The Mask Limpet (Pododesmus c e p i o  Shellfish:  (Acmaea p e r s o n a E s c h s c h o l t z ) and t h e P e a r l y Monia  (Gray)) both p r e f e r the s h e l t e r e d rocky shore h a b i t a t .  While the Bay Mussel  ( M y t i l u s e d u l i s Linnaues) -, S h i e l d Limpet  p e l t a E s c h s c h o l t z ) , F r i l l e d Dogwinkle (Thais l a m e l l o s a Purple-hinged Scallop  (Acmaea  (Gmelin)) and the  ( H i n n i t e s m u l t i r u g o s u s (Gale)) a r e sometimes found  i n t h e more exposed h a b i t a t s , they t o o p r e f e r t h e s h e l t e r e d r o c k y s h o r e s .  64  Exposed C l e a n Sand/Gravel Beaches S h e l l f i s h : The  exposed s o f t substratum  beaches a r e home t o few animals.  Their  c l e a n sands and g r a v e l s , v i r t u a l l y f r e e o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s , p r o v i d e little  food,for s h e l l f i s h .  Only t h r e e s p e c i e s found i n the samples p r e f e r  these beaches, the Bodega Clam Moon S n a i l  ( T e l l i n a bodegensis  (Polinices l e w i s i i  (Olivella biplicata  H i n d s ) , the Lewis's  ( G o u l d ) ) , and the P u r p l e O l i v e s n a i l  (Sowerby)).  A l l t h r e e s p e c i e s are a l s o found  less  f r e q u e n t l y on more s h e l t e r e d beaches.  S h e l t e r e d Sand/Gravel Beaches  Shellfish:  In a d d i t i o n t o the t h r e e s p e c i e s mentioned above, f o u r s p e c i e s o f clams p r e f e r t h i s h a b i t a t c a t e g o r y , the B u t t e r Clam  (Saxidomus  Deshayes), Sand Macoma (Macoma s e c t a (Conrad)), R o s e - p e t a l r u b r o p i c t a D a l l ) , and N a t i v e L i t t l e n e c k  giganteus  Semele (Semele  ( P r o t o t h a c a staminea  (Conrad)).  The N a t i v e L i t t l e n e c k i s e q u a l l y abundant i n more muddy h a b i t a t s .  S h e l t e r e d Mud/Sand/Gravel Beaches Two  s p e c i e s o f clams p r e f e r the more muddy h a b i t a t s of s h e l t e r e d  beaches, the Basket C o c k l e Clam  Shellfish:  (Tresus c a p a x / n u t t a l l i  neck i s a l s o found  Summary o f F a u n a l  (Clinocardium n u t t a l l i (Conrad)).  (Conrad))  As mentioned, the N a t i v e  Little-  here.  Resources  These are the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y e x p l o i t e d animal h a b i t a t s i n which they are most commonly found today, the study a r e a .  and the Horse  s p e c i e s and  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  I t i s a fauna o f f e r i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f food  resources  t o a human p o p u l a t i o n but o f f e r i n g them i n v a r y i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s throughout The  the Harbour a r e a and throughout  the  year.  shape, topography, geomorphology, l o c a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n o f  65  Hesquiat Harbour a r e such t h a t f a u n a l h a b i t a t s a r e unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout t h e g e n e r a l harbour r e g i o n .  While t h e e f f e c t s o f t h i s range  and l o c a l i z e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h a b i t a t s a r e l e s s n o t i c e a b l e on t h e l o c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a n d animal s p e c i e s , they a r e extremely important i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e r t i d a l and marine s p e c i e s .  The p h y s i c a l and  e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the harbour combine t o produce two g e o g r a p h i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s o f t h e harbour w i t h i n which c e r t a i n o f t h e h a b i t a t s c l u s t e r and w i t h i n which t h e a s s o c i a t e d a n i m a l s a r e most l i k e l y t o be found i n g r e a t e s t q u a n t i t i e s and most p r e d i c t a b l y . To o b t a i n a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f t h e harbour environment, t h e f a u n a l habitat categories f o r birdy  f i s h and mammal can be combined i n t o f i v e  major v e r t e b r a t e h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s as f o l l o w s : Pelagic:  i n c l u d e s mammals P e l a g i c ( 1 ) ; b i r d s P e l a g i c ( 1 ) ; and f i s h Deep Water O f f s h o r e ( 1 ) .  Palagic/Littoral: i n c l u d e s mammals P e l a g i c / L i t t o r a l ( 2 ) ; b i r d s Open L i t t o r a l Waters ( 2 ) ; and f i s h Modera t e l y Deep Waters o v e r Rocky Bottom ( 2 ) . Littoral:  i n c l u d e s mammals L i t t o r a l ( 3 ) ; b i r d s S h e l t e r e d L i t t o r a l Waters (3) and S h e l t e r e d Shallow Waters (4); and f i s h M o d e r a t e l y Deep Waters o v e r V a r i e d Bottom ( 3 ) , Shallower Inshore Waters, V a r i e d Bottom (4) and Shallower Inshore Waters, S o f t Bottom ( 5 ) .  L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t Edge: i n c l u d e s mammals L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t Edge (4); b i r d s S t r a n d / L i t t o r a l I n t e r f a c e ( 5 ) ; and f i s h I n t e r t i d a l B o u l d e r Bottom (6) and I n t e r t i d a l S o f t Bottom ( 7 ) . Streams/Lakes/Forests: i n c l u d e s mammals F o r e s t ( 5 ) ; b i r d s F o r e s t / U p l a n d (6); and f i s h Streams (8) and Lakes (9) . S i m i l a r l y , t h e s h e l l f i s h h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s can be grouped i n t o two major h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : Exposed Shores: i n c l u d e s c a t e g o r i e s Exposed Rocky Shores (1) and Exposed C l e a n Sand/Gravel Beaches ( 3 ) .  66  S h e l t e r e d Shores: i n c l u d e s c a t e g o r i e s S h e l t e r e d Rocky Shores (2), S h e l t e r e d Sand/Gravel Beaches (4), and S h e l t e r eddMud/S and/ G r a v e l Beaches ( 5 ) . The  g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n H e s q u i a t Harbour o f these major h a b i t a t c a t e -  g o r i e s i s mapped i n F i g u r e s 8 and 9. The  d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the combined h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s r o u g h l y  divide  the harbour r e g i o n i n t o two zones, an Inner Harbour Zone, n o r t h o f Anton's S p i t on t h e west and Rondeau P o i n t on the e a s t , and an Outer Coast Zone south o f these two p o i n t s o f l a n d .  The t r a n s i t i o n from one zone t o the  o t h e r i s n o t abrupt, w i t h some s e c t i o n s o f Exposed Shores h a b i t a t around L e C l a i r e P o i n t , b u t n o r t h o f b o t h L e C l a i r e and Rondeau P o i n t s , a l l t h e h a b i t a t s are sheltered.  Each zone o f f e r s a d i f f e r e n t combination o f hab-  i t a t s , as o u t l i n e d below.  Inner Harbour Zone: Here t h e more s h e l t e r e d harbour waters a r e q u i t e shallow, from 15 metres on the west t o 2 metres on t h e e a s t . surrounding of boulder  ranging  The s e a bottom and  beaches a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y muddy sand, w i t h some s t r e t c h e s on sand;  The s h o r e l i n e c o n t a i n s  beaches p a r t i c u l a r l y a l o n g  rocky p r o m o n t a r i e s between the  the western shore.  The b o r d e r i n g  land i s  m o s t l y mountain s l o p e , f r o n t e d i n some areas w i t h o l d beach r i d g e w i t h o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f the western s h o r e l i n e b a c k i n g land o f the Peninsula.  Mammals:  Birds:  onto the f l a t  Seven streams d r a i n t h e mountain s l o p e s and t h e  zone c o n t a i n s H e s q u i a t and Rae l a k e s , and t h e i r t r i b u t a r y T h i s zone c o n t a i n s  flats,  streams.  the f o l l o w i n g optimal h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s :  L i t t o r a l (3)., L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t Edge (4) and F o r e s t (5). S h e l t e r e d L i t t o r a l Waters (3), S h e l t e r e d Shallow Waters ( 4 ) , S t r a n d / L i t t o r a l I n t e r f a c e ( 5 ) , Forest/Upland (6).  67  68 F i g u r e 9.  G e n e r a l i z e d D i s t r i b u t i o n of Combined S h e l l f i s h H a b i t a t  Categories  69  Fish:  Shallower Inshore Waters, S o f t Bottom ( 5 ) , I n t e r t i d a l , B o u l d e r Bottom (6), I n t e r t i d a l , S o f t Bottom ( 7 ) , Streams (8) and Lakes ( 9 ) .  Shellfish:  S h e l t e r e d Rocky Shores and B o u l d e r Beaches ( 2 ) , S h e l t e r e d Mud/Sand/Gravel Beaches ( 4 ) .  In terms o f the combined v e r t e b r a t e  h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s , t h e Inner Harbour  Zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by L i t t o r a l , . L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t Edge, and F o r e s t / Streams H a b i t a t  Categories,  w h i l e i n the combined s h e l l f i s h  habitat  c a t e g o r i e s , i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y by S h e l t e r e d  Shores  H a b i t a t Category, w i t h b u t a s m a l l a r e a o f Exposed Shores around L e C l a i r e Point. In summary, the Inner Harbour Zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s h e l t e r e d i n t e r t i d a l and s h a l l o w water marine h a b i t a t s w i t h good s t r e t c h e s o f sand/ mud/gravel beaches and a p r e d o m i n a n t l y muddy ocean f l o o r .  Streams a r e  numerous, t h e r e a r e two l a k e s , and l a n d h a b i t a t s a r e f o r e s t and f o r e s t edge.  Outer C o a s t Zone: As w e l l as the e a s t e r n western S h o r e l i n e  s h o r e l i n e south o f Rondeau P o i n t and t h e  south o f Anton's S p i t , t h i s zone i n c l u d e s the complex  of offshore r e e f s f l a n k i n g the peninsula, across  the f u l l  s t r e t c h o f open water  the harbour mouth and the open ocean a r e a s o f f s h o r e .  The shore-  l i n e i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y rocky, w i t h many headlands separated by s t r e t c h e s o f c l e a n sand and g r a v e l beaches and l o n g exposures o f f l a t bedrock covered w i t h huge b o u l d e r s .  There a r e few s h e l t e r e d areas and few streams.  V i l l a g e Lake i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s Zone; f l a t peninsula,  On the west, t h e l a n d i s the low,  on the e a s t , the mountains  T h i s zone o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g h a b i t a t Mammals:  slopes. categories:  A l l habitat categories are a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s zone, b u t P e l a g i c (1) and P e l a g i c / L i t t o r a l (2) are o p t i m a l h e r e .  70  Birds:  Fish:  P e l a g i c (1), Open L i t t o r a l Waters (2) a r e o p t i m a l , w i t h some o c c u r r e n c e s o f S h e l t e r e d Shallow Waters (4) around t h e l a k e and o f S t r a n d / L i t t o r a l I n t e r f a c e (5) and F o r e s t / U p l a n d (6) h a b i t a t s . Deep Water, O f f s h o r e (1), Moderately Deep Waters, Rocky Bottom (2), and Moderately Deep Water, V a r i e d Bottom ( 3 ) .  Shellfish:  Exposed Rocky Shores (1) and Exposed C l e a n Sand/ G r a v e l Beaches (3) w i t h much more l i m i t e d o c c u r rences o f more s h e l t e r e d h a b i t a t s .  In terms o f the combined v e r t e b r a t e h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s , the Outer  Coast  Zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l l t h e h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s , b u t w i t h p a r t i c u l a r l y good access t o P e l a g i c and P e l a g i c / L i t t o r a l H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s .  Combined  s h e l l f i s h h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s here a r e almost e x c l u s i v e l y Exposed  Shores,  w i t h v e r y l i m i t e d o c c u r r e n c e s o f s h e l t e r e d beaches as i s o l a t e d  pockets.  In summary, t h i s zone o f f e r s good deep, open water p e l a g i c and p e l a g i c - l i t t o r a l h a b i t a t s and rocky exposed i n t e r t i d a l  habitats^  As can be seen from t h i s summary o f t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the two zones,  they a r e q u i t e d i s t i n c t one from the o t h e r as f a r as  f a u n a l r e s o u r c e s a r e concerned.  The Inner Harbour Zone has a more  l i m i t e d range o f h a b i t a t s a v a i l a b l e t o i t than the Outer Coast Zone, but both o f f e r v a r i e d , though d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s o u r c e b a s i s t o an i n h a b i t i n g human p o p u l a t i o n .  PAST ENVIRONMENT There i s as y e t a v e r y l i m i t e d amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on the e a r l y Recent and P o s t P l e i s t o c e n e environment o f t h e west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d , d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t . t o Hesquiat Harbour. study i s concerned  o n l y w i t h the l a s t 2,500 y e a r s , no attempt  As t h i s i s made t o  summarize what i s known o f the immediate p o s t - g l a c i a l h i s t o r y o f the a r e a . By 2,500 y e a r s ago, t h e west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d was p r o b a b l y much  71  as i t i s today, w i t h e a r l i e r s u c c e s s i o n a l stages o f the e x i s t i n g  first  growth f o r e s t w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and wide area l a n d - s e a r e l a t i o n s h i p s g e n e r a l l y s t a b i l i z e d a t about t h e i r p r e s e n t l e v e l s , a l t h o u g h r e c e n t evidence continuing u p l i f t  suggests  (Don Howes, p e r s . comm.).  As y e t t h e r e a r e no r e p o r t e d g e o l o g i c a l d a t a from t h e west c o a s t o f the i s l a n d t o support o r r e j e c t t h i s r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n e x t r a p o l a t e d from other areas.  Recent p a l y n o l o g i c a l work i n Hesquiat Harbour, however, has  p r o v i d e d evidence o f changes i n l o c a l topography discussion.  Whether these d a t a a r e r e g i o n a l l y o r o n l y l o c a l l y r e l e v a n t i s  not y e t known. until  d u r i n g t h e time p e r i o d under  I t seems b e s t t o c o n s i d e r t h a t they r e c o r d l o c a l  such time as work i n a d j a c e n t areas a l l o w s t h e i r  events  interpretation  w i t h i n a broader p e r s p e c t i v e .  Landforms, Geology and Sea L e v e l s The major landforms  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f H e s q u i a t Harbour, t h e E s t e v a n  C o a s t a l P l a i n and t h e Vancouver I s l a n d Mountains, were e s t a b l i s h e d w e l l b e f o r e 2500 y e a r s ago.  Any changes i n t h e l a n d - s e a i n t e r f a c e , however, may  have a f f e c t e d the a r e a l e x t e n t o f the p l a i n as r e p r e s e n t e d by H e s q u i a t P e n i n s u l a , as much o f t h i s p e n i n s u l a i s l e s s than 46 metres above p r e s e n t mean sea l e v e l .  P a l y n o l o g i c a l evidence from t h e swampy W h i c k n i t meadows  around Purdon Creek, behind the p r e s e n t v i l l a g e o f H e s q u i a t ,  indicates  t h a t the swamps began t o form about 1,000 y e a r s ago on the f l a t g r a v e l d e p o s i t s o v e r l y i n g t h e bedrock i n t h i s a r e a  (Hebda and Rouse 1976).  A  s i n g l e p o l l e n core o f 46 cm from these swampy meadows p r o v i d e d a b a s a l 14 C  e s t i m a t e o f 1080 + 100 B.P. (WSU 1588). 14 A second p o l l e n c o r e from V i l l a g e Lake w i t h a b a s a l C  estimate o f  2760 +_ 80 B.P. (I - 1977) r e c o r d s v e g e t a t i o n and m i c r o - f a u n a l changes i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e l o c a l d e p o s i t i o n a l environment o f the core sediments  72  changed from s a l t w a t e r t o b r a c k i s h t o f r e s h water w i t h i n t h e l a s t years.  2,700  The a c t u a l change from b r a c k i s h t o f u l l y f r e s h water, r e c o r d i n g  the f u l l emergence o f V i l l a g e Lake, i s n o t dated, 30 cm from t h e t o p o f t h e two metre core  but occurs  approximately  (Hebda and Rouse 1976:6).  This  i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s a r e c e n t phenomenon, p o s s i b l y o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h e l a s t 700 t o 500 y e a r s . The  bedrock and s u r f i c i a l geology o f t h i s a r e a o f Hesquiat  suggest t h a t t h e event r e c o r d e d  Peninsula  by t h e V i l l a g e Lake p o l l e n core i n v o l v e d  a t l e a s t the area now c o n t a i n i n g the l a k e , Anton's S p i t and t h e a d j a c e n t foreshore.  Southwest o f t h i s area t h e bedrock i s u p l i f t e d i n a prominent  escarpment. I t i s probable  t h a t u n t i l about A.D. 700 the escarpment i t s e l f  the western l a n d boundary t o t h e harbour entrance,  bordered  was  by s t r e t c h e s  of sand and g r a v e l beaches, w h i l e t h e a r e a now c o n t a i n i n g the mouth o f Purdon Creek, V i l l a g e Lake and the p r o j e c t i n g l a n d n o r t h e a s t o f V i l l a g e Lake would have been under the sea. and  T h i s a r e a was p r o b a b l y  s h i f t i n g sand b a r s u n t i l about 1,000 t o 1J.200 A.D.  involved i s uncertain.  tidal  The t o t a l  area  The l o c a l environment o f the V i l l a g e Lake b a s i n  changed from marine o r t i d a l marine t o a b r a c k i s h environment a lagoon  flats  o r embayment p e r i o d i c a l l y inundated  suggesting  during highest tides, to a  f u l l y f r e s h water l a k e surrounded by a l l u v i a l marine d e p o s i t s on which s t r a n d l i n e S i t k a Spruce f o r e s t then Cedar swamp v e g e t a t i o n took h o l d . Subsequently, o r c o t e r m i n o u s l y  w i t h t h e l a s t phases o f t h i s phenomenon,  Anton's S p i t began t o b u i l d up a l o n g t h e i n n e r edge o f Hesquiat  Bar.  g r a d u a l replacement i n t h e p o l l e n c o r e o f s a l t w a t e r p l a n t s p e c i e s b r a c k i s h then f r e s h water s p e c i e s suggests a continuous, ment o f the l a k e b a s i n .  gradual  The  with develop-  73  As y e t , no c l e a r evidence i s a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i c a t e whether t h i s o c c u r r e n c e i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the V i l l a g e Lake a r e a and e s s e n t i a l l y  records  l o c a l t o p o g r a p h i c changes dependent on s p i t f o r m a t i o n and the blockage the main lagoon o u t l e t o r i s more widespread, of  the l a n d r e l a t i v e t o the sea throughout  i n v o l v i n g a gradual  the a r e a o f H e s q u i a t  of  uplifting  Harbour.  Hebda and Rouse suggest the l a t t e r , c a l c u l a t i n g a r a t e o f u p l i f t o f approxi m a t e l y 1.1  metres p e r 1,000  years  (Hebda and Rouse 1979:129).  Archaeolo-  g i c a l t e s t e x c a v a t i o n s a t DiSo 21, j u s t n o r t h of H e s q u i a t P o i n t and a t DiSp 2 a t Homeis Cove on the o u t e r c o a s t n o r t h o f E s t e v a n P o i n t , r e v e a l e d c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s below the main midden d e p o s i t s and c l e a r l y from them by n o n - c u l t u r a l sand d e p o s i t s ( C r o z i e r 1977:13). the sand samples i s not complete,  separated Analysis of  the d e p o s i t s are not dated and the areas  t e s t e d too l i m i t e d t o a l l o w d e f i n i t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  These d e p o s i t s  r e p r e s e n t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n l a n d - s e a i n t e r f a c e s r e l a t e d to widespread rences o r may  may occur-  r e p r e s e n t f l u c t u a t i n g beach r i d g e d e p o s i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  l o c a l beach development.  They do suggest, however, t h a t the l a n d - s e a  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h i s r e g i o n have been f l u c t u a t i n g i n the r e c e n t p a s t i n a c o m p l i c a t e d p a t t e r n e i t h e r from l o c a l t e c t o n i c movements,  widespread  i s o s t a t i c movements o r s u c c e s s i o n a l topographic development o f a geomorphological  nature.  Hydrography O b v i o u s l y , no l a k e h a b i t a t ! w a s ' a v a i l a b l e near H e s q u i a t p r i o r t o about. A.D.  1200  and i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t Purdon Creek, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  develop-  ment o f the swampy meadows, i s a l s o a r e c e n t phenomenon i n i t s p r e s e n t form.  Other  Lake.  The  y e a r s ago.  streams p r o b a b l y d r a i n e d i n t o the area now  l a k e i t s e l f may  o c c u p i e d by  have been f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by about 700  Village to  T h i s time e s t i m a t e i s based on an assumed c o n s t a n t r a t e o f  500  74  emergence f o r the l a k e b a s i n and a c o n s t a n t r a t e o f d e p o s i t i o n o f ments i n the l a k e b a s i n . not be v a l i d .  One  sedi-  T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y an assumption t h a t may  or  may  would expect an i n c r e a s e d r a t e o f d e p o s i t i o n i n the  upper p o r t i o n o f the d e p o s i t s as the o u t l e t o f the embayment g r a d u a l l y became c l o s e d i n .  The  o f the p o l l e n c o r e may  sediments r e c o r d e d by the upper t h i r t y  centimetres  have b u i l t up a t a f a s t e r r a t e than the lower  ments r e l a t i n g t o a t i d a l e s t u a r y s i t u a t i o n and the a c t u a l amount of r e p r e s e n t e d by the 30 c e n t i m e t r e s o f d e p o s i t may  sediS time  be l e s s than 700/500  years. I f the emergence o f V i l l a g e Lake was o f l a n d , H e s q u i a t Bar may the bar may  associated with a l o c a l  a l s o have been a f f e c t e d .  have been deeper i n i t i a l l y  uplift  I f so, the waters over  than a t p r e s e n t .  Flora The  two p o l l e n cores from Hesquiat Harbour r e c o r d l o c a l . v e g e t a t i o n  changes t y p i c a l of s u c c e s s i o n a l developments w i t h i n a C o a s t a l Western Hemlock B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone. The  46 cm c o r e from W h i c k n i t Meadows r e c o r d s a l o c a l c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t  cover dominated by Western Hemlock a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e s s e r amounts o f Shore Pine  (Pinus c o n t o r t a Douglas),  P i n e and  spruce  ( P i c e a sp.)  and a l d e r (Alnus s p . ) .  spruce a r e s l i g h t l y more prominent i n the lowest l e v e l s o f the  c o r e , w h i l e a l d e r i s more prominent i n the upper 10 cm. dominated by h i g h l e v e l s o f Sweet Gale throughout, upper 10 cm and the lower  5 cm.  Grasses  The c o r e i s  w i t h a decrease  (Graminacea) and  sedges  i n the  (Cyperacea)  i n c r e a s e from bottom to top and a number o f o t h e r herbs and f e r n s a r e present.  A c c o r d i n g to Hebda and  Rouse,  "The W h i c k n i t c o r e shows l i t t l e change i n v e g e t a t i o n . .... ...Sweet g a l e , t o g e t h e r w i t h hemlock, g r a s s e s , sedges and  75  f e r n s seem t o have been the major v e g e t a t i o n a l components throughout the (1,000 year) i n t e r v a l . Near the top o f the c o r e the s i t e becomes more open, w i t h a p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e i n sedges t o the p r e s e n t . " (Hebda and Rouse 1976:7) The two meter c o r e from V i l l a g e Lake r e c o r d s f o u r d e p o s i t i o n a l zones c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i f f e r i n g p o l l e n f r e q u e n c i e s and r e c o r d i n g the ment o f V i l l a g e Lake.  develop-  The bottom 85 t o 90 cm o f the c o r e , Zone I , a r e  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t r e e p o l l e n dominated by hemlock and  spruce w i t h some  cedar, p i n e and a l d e r , w h i l e the nontree p o l l e n i s r e p r e s e n t e d by  signi-  f i c a n t l e v e l s o f g r a s s e s , Goosefoot  (Am-  brosia sp.).  (Chenopodiacaea) and Ragweed  T h i s p o r t i o n o f the c o r e r e l a t e s t o the i n t e r v a l when the  l a k e b a s i n was  i n f l u e n c e d by a marine environment.  The next 85 cm  of  the c o r e , Zone I I , r e c o r d the same t r e e s p e c i e s , but a much h i g h e r f r e quency o f cedar p o l l e n . next 17 cm,  Nontree p o l l e n i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same.  The  Zone I I I , r e c o r d t r e e p o l l e n f r e q u e n c i e s e s s e n t i a l l y the same  as Zone I I , but i n the nontree p o l l e n , the Chenopodiacaea, g r a s s e s  and  ragweed p o l l e n g r a d u a l l y d i s a p p e a r and Yellow Water L i l y p o l l e n becomes abundant.  I n the upper 13 cm,  except f o r the disappearance human a c t i v i t y i n the area)  Zone IV, t r e e p o l l e n remains the same  o f cedar p o l l e n  (possibly associated with  and f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s are apparent  l e v e l s o f Y e l l o w Water L i l y p o l l e n and polypody  fern spores.  i n the In summary,  Hebda and Rouse s t a t e : "The lower p a r t o f the V i l l a g e Lake c o r e i n d i c a t e s the presence o f a f o r e s t dominated by western hemlock d u r i n g the e a r l y phases o f d e p o s i t i o n . . . The h i g h l e v e l s o f spruce i n d i c a t e the presence o f c o a s t a l s i t k s spruce stands, s i m i l a r t o those t y p i c a l l y s t r u n g out a l o n g and behind sandy beach areas on the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d today. S i n c e t h e r e i s l i t t l e cedar p o l l e n i n the lowest p a r t o f the c o r e , o r i g i n a l l y .there were l i k e l y no wet swampy lowlands w i t h cedar stands, such as those p r e s e n t l y around the l a k e . However, the absence o f cedar  76  p o l l e n may be due t o n o n - p r e s e r v a t i o n i n the carbonate r i c h bottom sediments. There i s a s m a l l e r number o f s p e c i e s r e c o r d e d i n the b a s a l sediments than those immediately above. T h i s suggests t h a t the f o r e s t c l o s e d i n q u i c k l y a f t e r an i n i t i a l p e r i o d when l i t t l e v e g e t a t i o n grew i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f the l a k e . " (Hebda and  Rouse 1976:5)  While i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o e x t r a p o l a t e . t h e d e t a i l s from these c o r e s to the r e g i o n as a whole, as they r e c o r d l o c a l events, v i o u s t h a t the v e g e t a t i o n changes r e c o r d e d for  two  i t i s ob-  a r e w i t h i n expected ranges  s u c c e s s i o n a l developments w i t h i n a c o a s t a l western hemlock f o r e s t .  No major r e g i o n a l changes i n v e g e t a t i o n have o c c u r r e d .  This also  indi-  c a t e s t h a t no major c l i m a t i c changes have o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the r e l e v a n t time p e r i o d o f the p a s t 2,500 y e a r s .  Fauna There i s n o t h i n g to  i n the a v a i l a b l e g e o l o g i c a l and b o t a n i c a l  suggest environmental changes between 2500 B.P.  and  the p r e s e n t  s u f f i c i e n t magnitude t o e f f e c t s u b s t a n t i a l major changes i n the o f the study area.  T h i s i s supported  evidence of  fauna  by the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence  the f a u n a l remains from excavated s i t e s .  of  A l l s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n the  f a u n a l assemblages can be found i n the r e g i o n today or c o u l d have been p r i o r t o the h i s t o r i c f u r t r a d e p e r i o d when s p e c i e s such as the Sea Northern Fur S e a l and The  s e v e r a l s p e c i e s o f a l b a t r o s s were almost  r e g i o n a l animal r e s o u r c e base, then, was  2,500 y e a r s ago One  from the p r e s e n t  probably  little  exterminated.  different  base.  p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s g e n e r a l p i c t u r e i s the p r e s e n c e a t  the bottom o f the V i l l a g e Lake p o l l e n core o f the e s t u a r i n e clam F a l s e Mya  Otter,  (Cryptomya c a l i f o r n i c a  (Conrad)) which was  the area d u r i n g the i n t e r t i d a l beach survey.  not r e c o r d e d  the for  These animals a r e q u i t e  77  deep l i v i n g s p e c i e s , burrowing  t o a depth o f 0.5 m  (Quayle 1973),  so  may  w e l l have been missed d u r i n g the survey, but no dead s h e l l s were found either.  Whether o r not the s p e c i e s i s p r e s e n t i n the a r e a today,  no  specimens were i d e n t i f i e d i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l fauna, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t even though they may  have been p r e s e n t i n the Harbour d u r i n g the  initial  o c c u p a t i o n o f DiSo 1, they were not b e i n g e x p l o i t e d . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  evidence from O z e t t e does suggest t h a t the com-  p o s i t i o n o f the N o r t h e r n F u r S e a l p o p u l a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n the a r e a have been d i f f e r e n t  (Gustafson 1968),  may  and i f t h i s means o t h e r r o o k e r y  l o c a t i o n s c l o s e r t o the Hesquiat a r e a , the s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e s e animals may  a l s o have been d i f f e r e n t from the p r e s e n t p a t t e r n s .  Recent  changes i n the range o f the C a l i f o r n i a Sea L i o n suggest t h a t they a l s o  may  have been a v a i l a b l e i n d i f f e r i n g p a t t e r n s o f s e a s o n a l i t y and p o p u l a t i o n composition. The l a n d - s e a i n t e r f a c e or l o c a l t o p o g r a p h i c changes d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n would have a f f e c t e d the l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f some o f the s p e c i e s i n the study a r e a .  I t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t p r i o r t o the  f o r m a t i o n o f the p r o t e c t i v e prominence o f Anton's S p i t , the have been even more open than i t i s today.  I f the changes a l s o  H e s q u i a t Bar, the waters over t h i s a r e a o f the e n t r a n c e may been deeper.  involved  a l s o have  I t i s p o s s i b l e , then, t h a t the western beaches were even  more f u l l y exposed perhaps  harbour.would  t o the open P a c i f i c winds and waves than they are today,  as f a r n o r t h as L e C l a i r e P o i n t , perhaps  even f u r t h e r i n t o the  Harbour. One might expect t h a t p e l a g i c l i t t o r a l mammals and b i r d s now  not  c o n s i s t e n t l y found i n the i n s i d e harbour would have been more l i k e l y use the wider, more open waters.  F i s h s p e c i e s p r e f e r r i n g deeper  to  water  78  h a b i t a t s may a l s o have been more common i n the i n n e r harbour, w h i l e i n t e r t i d a l h a b i t a t s a l o n g the western n o r t h i n t o t h e harbour.  shore p o s s i b l y extended  exposed  further  A d d i t i o n a l h a b i t a t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the b r a c k i s h -  l a g o o n - e s t u a r y t h a t became V i l l a g e Lake would have been p r e s e n t i n t h e Outer Coast/Inner Harbour Zone b o u n d a r y a r e a and mud/sand f l a t s would have been more e x t e n s i v e here as w e l l . In terms o f g e n e r a l f a u n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , t h e whole,Outer Coast Zone p o s s i b l y extended  f u r t h e r i n t o the harbour,  the Inner Harbour Zone may  have been r e s t r i c t e d t o the n o r t h e a s t e r n p a r t o f the Harbour and the t r a n s i t i o n from Outer Coast h a b i t a t s t o Inner Harbour h a b i t a t s may have been more gradual, a l o n g t h e western  s h o r e , u u n t i l about 1200 t o 1400 A.D.  Summary Throughout  the time p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t e d by the f a u n a l samples from  DiSo 1, 9 and 16, the n a t u r a l environment  o f Hesquiat Harbour has been  much as i t i s today, w i t h a c l o s e l y s i m i l a r f l o r a and fauna, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f l o c a l t o p o g r a p h i c changes r e l a t i n g t o the development o f V i l l a g e Lake and Anton's S p i t .  The v e g e t a t i o n , t o p o g r a p h i c and hydro-  g r a p h i c changes r e c o r d e d by two p o l l e n c o r e s from Hesquiat P e n i n s u l a a r e summarized by Hebda and Rouse as f o l l o w s : " U n t i l a few thousand y e a r s ago, t h i s p a r t o f Hesquiat P e n i n s u l a was p r o b a b l y under s a l t water and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s h i f t i n g sand b a r s , s p i t s and beaches. I n i t i a l l y the V i l l a g e Lake b a s i n was a s a l t water bay w i t h a few streams running i n t o i t , which l a t e r became a b r a c k i s h water e s t u a r y . As l a n d became uncovered, stands o f s i t k a spruce o c c u p i e d a r e a s behind sandy beaches, w h i l e hemlock f o r e s t s grew on o l d e r mature s o i l s . As more f l a t l a n d became a v a i l a b l e , cedar swamps developed near t h e l a k e , behind a band o f s i t k a spruce. Very r e c e n t l y the V i l l a g e Lake b a s i n was c u t o f f from the s e a and developed a f r e s h water f l o r a . . . s m a l l boggy a r e a s such as W h i c k n i t developed on the lowlands." (Hebda and Rouse 1976:8)  79  P r i o r to the development of t h i s l a n d a r e a the harbour mouth  was  p r o b a b l y more open than today, a l l o w i n g s t r o n g e r i n f l u e n c e o f the open o ocean wind and wave a c t i o n i n the i n n e r harbour were p o s s i b l y e s t a b l i s h e d by about 500 y e a r s o  areas.  Present conditions  ago.  ETHNOGRAPHY The area o f the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d from  approximately  E s c a l a n t e i n the n o r t h t o mid-way between Hesquiat P o i n t and Refuge Cove i n the south i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be the t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y o f the  Hesquiat  speaking p e o p l e s , a l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l sub-group o f the Nootkan ethno-linguistic family.  C u l t u r a l l y the H e s q u i a t p e o p l e are c o n s i d e r e d  p a r t o f the C e n t r a l Nootkan T r i b e s (Drucker 1971:4). times, l i k e o t h e r Nootkan groups,  In p r e - c o n t a c t  they had a s o p h i s t i c a t e d  socio-cultural  a d a p t a t i o n i n v o l v i n g i n h e r i t a n c e o f r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s v a l i d a t e d  by  i  the p o t l a t c h system and a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n t o d i s c r e t e socio-economic  groups whose b i l a t e r a l l y r e l a t e d members were  bound t o g e t h e r by common r e s i d e n c e and economic a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a c h i e f l y family  (Drucker 1971:220).  T h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e economy was  h u n t i n g o f l a n d and sea mammals, g a t h e r i n g o f i n t e r t i d a l  based on  the  shellfish  and  o f b e r r i e s , and r o o t s , f o w l i n g , and f i s h i n g f o r both marine and anadromous s p e c i e s , w i t h a s t r o n g emphasis on marine r e s o u r c e s . Nootkan groups,  Hesquiat  As among o t h e r  s e t t l e m e n t , l a n d use and r e s o u r c e  exploitation  systems a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h a s p e c t s of t h e i r k i n s h i p , s o c i o political  and ownership systems.  G e n e r a l Nootkan Ethnography S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l l y the C e n t r a l Nootkan p e o p l e s were d i v i d e d i n t o u n i l i n e a l k i n groups who  non-  l i v e d i n the same house, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i s  80  l i n e a l l i n e s of high ranking i n d i v i d u a l s  (chiefs).  These k i n  groups,  o r l o c a l groups, were named e n t i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r  resources  and h a b i t a t i o n l o c a t i o n s t o which they c o n t r o l l e d access through e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s o f -ownership v e s t e d i n the c h i e f l y l i n e . f o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r such u n i t s , was  This unit, unless  independent  politically  and e c o n o m i c a l l y , m a i n t a i n i n g a s e p a r a t e w i n t e r v i l l a g e and e x p l o i t i n g a t the a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e s • t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e i r f i s h i n g and g a t h e r i n g p l a c e s (Drucker 1951:220-221; S. Kenyon 1976). By v i r t u e of t h e i r s t a t u s , L t h e h i g h e s t r a n k i n g male members o f the l o c a l group, the f a m i l y o f c h i e f s , owned r i g h t s o f access t o p a r t i c u l a r salmon streams,  sea f i s h i n g p l a c e s , s e a l r o c k s , o f f - s h o r e h a l i b u t banks,  l a k e s , areas o f f o r e s t , t r a c t s o f sea, clam beds and line.  Important  d r i f t e d ashore,  stretches of  shore-  among r i g h t s of access were s a l v a g e r i g h t s t o t h a t which such as a dead whale.  but every s e c t i o n o f the s h o r e l i n e was  Not o n l y a c t u a l r e s o u r c e named and owned.  While  locations, rights of  a c c e s s were e x c l u s i v e , p e r m i s s i o n f o r use o f the r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s c o u l d be g i v e n t o o u t s i d e r s by the c o n t r o l l i n g c h i e f .  On such o c c a s i o n s a  p o r t i o n o f the s t u f f s o b t a i n e d would be g i v e n t o the owning c h i e f . d a r i e s between l o c a l groups were c l e a r l y demarcated and to the p o i n t o f warfare  strictly  Boun-  upheld,  (Drucker 1951:333).  Among some Nootkan p e o p l e s the l o c a l groups were f o r m a l l y bound t o g e t h e r i n t o wider t e r r i t o r i a l u n i t s c a l l e d by Drucker.  " t r i b e s " and " c o n f e d e r a c i e s "  Im summarizing Nootkan p o l i t y , he  states:  "The fundamental Nootkan p o l i t i c a l u n i t was a l o c a l group c e n t e r i n g i n a f a m i l y o f c h i e f s who owned t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s , houses and v a r i o u s o t h e r p r i v i l e g e s . Such a group bore a name, u s u a l l y t h a t o f t h e i r " p l a c e " (a s i t e a t t h e i r f i s h i n g ground where they "belonged"), o r sometimes t h a t o f a c h i e f ; and had a t r a d i t i o n , f i r m l y b e l i e v e d , o f d e s c e n t from a common a n c e s t o r ... Among most Northern Nootkans these l o c a l groups were not autonomous. Each was f o r m a l l y  81  u n i t e d w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r s by p o s s e s s i o n o f a common w i n t e r v i l l a g e , f i x e d r a n k i n g f o r t h e i r assembled c h i e f s , and o f t e n a name. To such a f o r m a l union the term " t r i b e " i s a p p l i e d ... S e v e r a l such t r i b e s might be bound t o g e t h e r i n t o a c o n f e d e r a c y . " (Drucker 1951:220) At the c o n f e d e r a c y l e v e l o f f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n , s e v e r a l t r i b e s shared a summer v i l l a g e and i n t e g r a t e d r a n k i n g o f t h e i r c h i e f s . a s s o c i a t i o n was  T h i s type o f  n o t found south o f Nootka Sound.  In a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n Drucker makes the. f o l l o w i n g statements  about  the p o l i t y o f the H e s q u i a t p e o p l e : "Among the Muchalat, and i n H e s q u i a t Harbour, j u s t south o f Nootka Sound, t h e r e was no t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n whatsoever i n p r e h i s t o r i c times. There were simply f i v e o r s i x l o c a l groups, each independent o f the o t h e r s . " (Drucker 1951:221) "...the H e s q u i a t (hcckwT a t h ) , a modern f u s i o n o f s e v e r a l independent l o c a l groups o f the Hesquiat Harbour r e g i o n . . . " J  (Drucker 1951:5) "The p r e s e n t day g r o u p . l i v i n g a t H e s q u i a t Harbour r e p r e s e n t s a merging w i t h i n h i s t o r i c times o f f o u r o r f i v e f o r m e r l y independent l o c a l groups each o f whom had t h e i r own s e p a r a t e w i n t e r v i l l a g e s and s e a s o n a l camps and stations." (Drucker 1951:235) Drucker d e a l s f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h the g e n e r a l Nootkan annual round.  r  A l t h o u g h much o f t h i s i s not f u l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o the H e s q u i a t  s i t u a t i o n , i t i s summarized here as a b a s i c d e s c r i p t i o n from which the v a r i o u s H e s q u i a t l o c a l groups d i v e r g e d t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r The  degree.  s e a s o n a l use o f s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t h a b i t a t i o n and/or r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a -  t i o n l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n f i r m l y f i x e d t e r r i t o r i e s over which the owners had e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l i s common t o a l l Nootkan groups, groups.  As d e s c r i b e d by Drucker  i n c l u d i n g the Hesquiat  (1951:36-61) the annual round i n v o l v e d  82  a s e q u e n t i a l y e a r l y movement from a s h e l t e r e d i n s i d e w i n t e r v i l l a g e , s p r i n g and fall  summer o u t e r c o a s t f i s h i n g  and  sea mammal h u n t i n g p l a c e s , t o  salmon streams, back t o the w i n t e r v i l l a g e .  t h i s p a t t e r n a p p l i e d o n l y f o r those both o u t e r c o a s t and  In H e s q u i a t  and  Harbour  groups w i t h t e r r i t o r y t h a t i n c l u d e d  s h e l t e r e d i n n e r l o c a t i o n s , the groups  r e f e r r e d to as the k T q i n a t h  even then o n l y p a r t i a l l y .  collectively Two  other  l o c a l groups, the ma^apiath and v a - q s i s a t h . c o n t r o l l e d t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n the i n n e r harbour, and had no d i r e c t sources.  A f o u r t h , the homa^isath, had  access  basically  little  no s h e l t e r e d i n n e r l o c a t i o n s , but  s h e l t e r e d area w i t h i n t h e i r  outer coast.  the  haimai^isath,  t e r r i t o r y and were  Thus the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n f o l l o w i n g i s not  a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l Hesquiat The  solely  to outer coast r e -  o n l y exposed o u t e r c o a s t t e r r i t o r y , w h i l e the f i f t h , a l s o had very  fully  l o c a l groups.  w i n t e r v i l l a g e was  the main s e t t l e m e n t  f o r the l o c a l group, where  l a r g e wooden houses were c o n s t r u c t e d and p e o p l e l i v e d a r e l a t i v e l y tary l i f e  from November t o the end o f January.  t h i s time were s p o r a d i c and d r i e d salmon, h e r r i n g and snapper, k e l p f i s h  intended  cod.  and p e r c h ;  h u c k l e b e r r i e s ; and  to  t o add  Economic a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g  v a r i e t y t o the steady d i e t  Such a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d f i s h i n g  some deer h u n t i n g ;  the c o l l e c t i n g  seden-  the g a t h e r i n g o f  of  f o r red winter  o f the f o l l o w i n g i n v e r t e b r a t e s :  horse-  clams, c o c k l e s , "a medium s i z e d clam", b u t t e r clams, r a z o r clams, a l a r g e and  small pecten,  slippers, and  l a r g e and  s m a l l mussels, l i m p e t s , s m a l l abalones,  p e r i w i n k l e s , sea anenomes, l a r g e b a r n a c l e s , sea cucumbers,  s p i d e r crabs  (Drucker  1951:39).  According  t o Drucker, sea  "rock b o r e r s " and whale b a r n a c l e s were not eaten a l t h o u g h certainly  china  found i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e p o s i t s  The w i n t e r v i l l a g e was  occupied  (Drucker  crabs  snails,  sea s n a i l s  1951:37-39).  f o r a l o n g e r p o r t i o n o f the  year  are  83  than any o f the o t h e r l o c a t i o n s .  I t was  here, d u r i n g the dark,  wet  w i n t e r months t h a t c e r e m o n i a l a c t i v i t i e s such as f e a s t s , p o t l a t c h e s and the w o l f r i t u a l s v i v i d l y expressed t h e c c o m p l e x i t y and r i c h n e s s o f the Nootkan s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (Drucker 1951:40).  The m a n u f a c t u r i n g  of  t o o l s , gear and c l o t h i n g , as w e l l as c e r e m o n i a l r e g a l i a , a l s o took p l a c e a t the w i n t e r v i l l a g e s .  As the food procurement was  p e o p l e had more time and energy village,  less  intensive,  t o spend on manufactures.  The w i n t e r  then, c o n s i s t e d o f the g r e a t e s t a g g r e g a t i o n o f p e o p l e f o r the  l o n g e s t p o r t i o n o f the year and was  a p l a c e o f consumption, manufacture  and c e r e m o n i a l i s m more than o f economic food p r o d u c t i o n .  Many o f the  f o o d s t u f f s p r o c u r e d and p r e s e r v e d d u r i n g o t h e r seasons a t o t h e r l o c a t i o n s were consumed a t the w i n t e r v i l l a g e s . In l a t e w i n t e r s , p r e s e r v e d f o o d s t o r e s r a n low and the a r r i v a l o f the h e r r i n g s c h o o l s , the f i r s t major s p r i n g f o o d r e s o u r c e , was awaited.  The groups moved t o t h e i r f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s around  t o e x p l o i t t h i s important r e s o u r c e  (Drucker 1951:40-42).  eagerly  February  Both the  and the eggs were d r i e d f o r l a t e r consumption, as w e l l as eaten The h e r r i n g were s p l i t and d r i e d whole, not f i l l e t e d .  fresh.  Sea g o i n g  spring  salmon would a l s o be a v a i l a b l e a t t h i s time, and were eaten f r e s h 1951:41-42).  (Drucker  Towards the end o f the h e r r i n g season f l o c k s o f m i g r a t o r y  water fowl appeared exploited.  fish  T h i s was  and were hunted.  The new  growth o f seaweed  was-  a l s o the time when the m i g r a t i n g female f u r s e a l s  would be a v a i l a b l e c l o s e s t t o shore.  Towards the end o f A p r i l ,  b e g i n n i n g o f May,  those l o c a l groups w i t h  o u t e r c o a s t r e s o u r c e s t a t i o n s moved t h e r e t o f i s h f o r h a l i b u t and t r u e cod and t o hunt sea mammals.  The h a l i b u t and cod were s u n - d r i e d f o r  w i n t e r use, the sea mammals were eaten f r e s h a l t h o u g h the b l u b b e r  was  84  rendered t o o i l and s t o r e d f o r l a t e r use a l s o .  The  summer months were  the time f o r p i c k i n g b e r r i e s and d i g g i n g r o o t s , w h i l e l a t e summer the f i s h i n g o f p e r c h and the e a r l y runs o f coho salmon  (Drucker  saw  1951:  56-57). With the a r r i v a l o f the main coho, chum and sockeye September and October, streams  runs i n l a t e  i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s moved t o t h e i r . s a l m o n f i s h i n g  and began the s h o r t p e r i o d o f i n t e n s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f these  important r e s o u r c e s .  As w e l l as b e i n g eaten f r e s h , the f i s h were d r i e d  and smoked f o r w i n t e r use.  The f l e s h was  removed i n one p i e c e and  s e p a r a t e l y from the backbone, which w i t h head and t a i l  attached,  dried  was  eaten f r e s h a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the season but d r i e d and smoked towards the end o f the season.  A f t e r the end o f the salmon runs the p e o p l e r e -  t u r n e d t o the w i n t e r v i l l a g e s  (Drucker 1951:58-59).  Other economic a c t i v i t i e s such as h u n t i n g o f deer, bear, cougar  and  s m a l l f u r b e a r i n g animals, were c a r r i e d out i n a more o p p o r t u n i s t i c f a s h i o n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r year round a v a i l a b i l i t y , but a l s o t a k i n g i n t o  account  the s t a t e o f the animal f o r food, i t s h i d e o r p e l t f o r l e a t h e r o r c l o t h i n g and the g r e a t e r importance  of other, only seasonally a v a i l a b l e resources.  The f l e s h o f l a n d mammals-was not smoked o r d r i e d  (Drucker 1951:65).  I t i s obvious from t h i s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n t h a t t h e r e was  a continuum  of s e t t l e m e n t t y p e s as f a r as v a r i e t y o f s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s , l e n g t h « o f o c c u p a t i o n and s i z e o f o c c u p y i n g group i s concerned, w i t h the a c t i v i t y salmon f i s h i n g s t a t i o n a t one v i l l a g e a t the o t h e r . v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s l o c a l conditions.  single  end and the m u l t i - u s e "winter"  The amount o f time spent a t a l o c a t i o n and the v c a r r i e d out t h e r e o b v i o u s l y v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o  Length o f o c c u p a t i o n p r o b a b l y v a r i e d d i r e c t l y w i t h the  v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e s s e q u e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e from t h a t one l o c a t i o n and/or  85  the q u a n t i t y of a r e s o u r c e and the d u r a t i o n o f i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y . the economic procurement a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out from the w i n t e r  While village  were p r o b a b l y l e s s important i n p r o v i d i n g . q u a n t i t i e s o f food, the v a r i e t y appears  g r e a t e s t of a l l settlement types.  o b t a i n e d elsewhere pending may  on how  o r may  A d d i t i o n a l l y , many f o o d s t u f f s  were a c t u a l l y consumed a t the w i n t e r v i l l a g e s .  the r e s o u r c e s were p r e p a r e d  f o r p r e s e r v i n g , these  Defoods  not have l e f t c o n c r e t e evidence o f t h e i r consumption i n de-  p o s i t s associated with winter settlements. The  cooking o f meats and  under mats and stone b o i l i n g  f i s h was  simple—roasting, broiling,  (Drucker 1951:61).  steaming  Bones, s h e l l s and o t h e r  r e f u s e were simply t o s s e d o u t s i d e on the garbage heaps.  Smoked and  dried  f i s h were hung on r a c k s near the c e i l i n g s o f the b i g houses i n the smoke o f the c o o k i n g f i r e s u n t i l ready t o be packed away i n wooden boxes. The m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e o f c a p t u r e , w h i l e a l s o simple, was  yet sophis-  t i c a t e d i n the p r e c i s e working o f wood i n t o many d i v e r s e implements. Halibut, other f l a t f i s h ,  cod, r o c k f i s h and s p r i n g salmon wereecaught on  hand l i n e s t r o l l e d from canoes, armed w i t h a v a r i e t y o f composite w i t h bent wood, s t r a i g h t wood o r stone shanks and bone barbs 22).  Other  hooks  (Drucker  1951:  salmon were taken by harpoon o r i n traps--and w e i r s i n . t h e  spawning streams and a t the mouths o f streams  (Drucker 1951:16-18, 19-21).  F i r and spruce boughs were s e t i n frames l i k e fences a l o n g the beaches, j u s t under water, f o r the h e r r i n g t o spawn on and the eggs a d h e r i n g t o the boughs c o l l e c t e d .  The a d u l t f i s h were taken from canoes w i t h h e r r i n g  rakes armed w i t h bone or wooden t e e t h and w i t h d i p n e t s (Drucker 1951:23). P e r c h were caught  i n t i d a l beach t r a p s o f stone and l a t t i c e work w h i l e  g r e e n l i n g s were caught  i n submerged woven t r a p s (Drucker 1951:19).  o t h e r than d i p n e t s were a p p a r e n t l y not used  for fishing  Nets  (Drucker 1951:25).  86  There i s v e r y l i t t l e  i n f o r m a t i o n on how  b i r d s were c a p t u r e d .  and geese were taken a t n i g h t w i t h n e t s thrown from the bow a f t e r the b i r d s had been confused by a l i g h t and arrow from canoes  Ducks  o f a canoe  (Drucker 1951:43); w i t h  (Drucker 1951:43); and w i t h submerged t r a p s .  bow These  were f o r t a k i n g d i v i n g . d u c k s and were armed e i t h e r w i t h underwater nooses or  b a i t e d gorge hooks  (Drucker 1951:33-34).  l o o p s n a r e s o r grabbed  by t r i c k e r y  E a g l e s were shot, snared w i t h  (Drucker 1951:59).  Deer and b l a c k bear were hunted w i t h bow fall  t r a p s (Drucker 1951:32-33).  the t r a p s , as were r a c c o o n  and arrow, spear and dead-  Cougar were a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y taken i n  (Drucker 1951:61).  The h u n t i n g o f sea mammals was  done w i t h harpoons o f v a r i o u s s i z e s ,  from canoes a l s o o f d i f f e r e n t s i z e s f o r d i f f e r e n t game.  F o r a l l the h a r -  poons, the arming heads were t o g g l e heads w i t h bone o r wooden barbs a mussel s h e l l c u t t i n g b l a d e . :  l i o n s were hunted,  and  When l a r g e animals such as whales and,sea  s e a l s k i n f l o a t s were a t t a c h e d t o the heavy cedar  harpoon l i n e t o c r e a t e d r a g and t o h e l p buoy up the animal once dead (Drucker 1951:46, 48-55). and harbour  Harbour s e a l and p o r p o i s e were a l s o harpooned,  s e a l were a l s o clubbed a t t h e i r h a u l i n g out p l a c e s i f unlucky  enough t o be s t r a n d e d f a r from the water's  edge (Drucker 1951:45).  o t t e r s were taken e i t h e r w i t h harpoons o r w i t h bow (Drucker 1951:46). aboriginally  While Drucker  (1951:46),  logical sites.  and arrow, from  s t a t e s t h a t f u r s e a l were not  many f u r s e a l remains  are p r e s e n t i n the  Sea canoess  hunted archaeo-  Presumably they were taken w i t h harpoons as were o t h e r  sea mammals. A simple wooden d i g g i n g s t i c k was and f o r clams,  and t o p r y mussels,  (Drucker 1951:35). baskets.  The  used by the women t o d i g f o r r o o t s  c h i t o n s . a n d sea u r c h i n s from the r o c k s  s h e l l f i s h were c o l l e c t e d i n open weave cedar  87  A much f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i s g i v e n by Drucker, but perhaps  the most important p o i n t i s t h a t most o f t h e manufactures  were  e i t h e r e n t i r e l y o f p l a n t f i b e r s o r a t l e a s t major p o r t i o n s o f composite t o o l s were made from wood.  Such m a t e r i a l s r a r e l y s u r v i v e i n t h e archaeo-  l o g i c a l c o n t e x t o f a s h e l l midden, thus l e a v i n g no d i r e c t evidence o f the k i n d s o f implements used, o t h e r than the b i t s and p i e c e s t h a t were made from s h e l l o r bone o r s t o n e .  The e x c a v a t i o n s a t O z e t t e , on t h e Olympic  P e n i n s u l a i n Washington, where ..vegetal m a t e r i a l s have been p r e s e r v e d , have p r o v i d e d ample e v i d e n c e o f j u s t how much o f t h e m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i s n o t n o r m a l l y r e t r i e v e d by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s working w i t h northwest  coast s h e l l  middens.  H e s q u i a t L o c a l Group T e r r i t o r i e s and S e t t l e m e n t and S u b s i s t e n c e P a t t e r n s A c c o r d i n g t o Drucker the independent  (1951:235-238), p r i o r t o t h e amalgamation o f  groups a t H e s q u i a t i n the mid-1850's, t h e r e were f o u r ,  p o s s i b l y f i v e , l o c a l groups i n t h e harbour.  He l i s t s these as t h e k i q i n a t h ,  w i t h f o u r houses a t t h e i r w i n t e r p l a c e o f k T q i n a summer v i l l a g e a t hiZwina  (DiSo 21) and f a l l  (DiSo 3) and te'aitaifc (no s i t e i d e n t i f i e d ) ;  (DiSo 2) ( F i g . 10), a  f i s h i n g s t a t i o n a t kukuwah  t h e h a i m a i i s a t h , w i t h two 1  houses a t t h e i r w i n t e r p l a c e o f heckwl (DiSo l ) , ! . a summer p l a c e a t t a _ a t a (DiSp 1) and a cod f i s h i n g p l a c e a t t e a * a  (Boulder P o i n t ) ; the o u t e r c o a s t  homisath w i t h f i v e w i n t e r houses a t homls (DiSp 2 ) ; a summer p l a c e a t hahqi  (DiSp 4) and u n i d e n t i f i e d f i s h i n g p l a c e s ; t h e ma'apiath,  houses a t t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e o f ma'apl f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s , pa' a s t c i -  with four  (DiSo 8) and a t l e a s t t h r e e  (DiSo 6 ) , t s a i y a  (not i d e n t i f i e d a r c h a e o l o -  g i c a l l y ) and a i i s a q h (DiSo 25) b u t no summer p l a c e ; and the f a m i l y 1  owning the f i s h i n g r i g h t s t o the stream o f y a q h s i s  (DiSo 14) who were i n  the p r o c e s s o f becoming a s e p a r a t e l o c a l group s p l i t o f f from t h e m a a p i a t h . 1  88  N  yaqhsis  tsaiya  SCALE = 1:77,511  hahqi  ma'aplath  rpa'astciJ  U'amui ikukuwah  homisath  kiqinath hiJwina  p  kTqina homTs  KEY'. A  winter village  9  summer village  19  fishing station  h«ckwT . 0 ,  tca'a^  1  J  2  3  L  haimai'isath  F i g u r e 10.  H e s q u i a t L o c a l Group T e r r i t o r i e s A c c o r d i n g t o Drucker. Based on Drucker 1951:236.  4  5  89  He notes  t h a t i n summer the ma'apTath shared hi3/wina w i t h the k i q i n a t h ;  but i t i s u n c e r t a i n whether o r not t h i s i s s o l e l y a post-amalgamation pattern  (Drucker 1951:237).  A combination  o f war  and economic advantage  seems t o have drawn the l o c a l groups to amalgamate p r i o r t o the  establish-  ment o f the f i r s t C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n on the west c o a s t a t Hesquiat (Moser 1926), w i t h the k i q i n a t h m a i n t a i n i n g the f i r s t f o u r p o t l a t c h seats  (Drucker  in  1875  ( h i g h e s t ranking)  1951:237).  I n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d by the Hesquiat  e l d e r s has m o d i f i e d t h i s p i c t u r e ,  e s p e c i a l l y i n the matter o f the s e a s o n a l and l o c a l group a f f i l i a t i o n  of  p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s i n Hesquiat Harbour.  being  c o l l e c t e d and p r o c e s s e d ,  This information i s s t i l l  thus the t e n t a t i v e o u t l i n e o f s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s  d e s c r i b e d here i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r and i s s u b j e c t t o m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the f u t u r e .  The  f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Hesquiat  l o c a l groups and  r i t o r i e s are based on d a t a r e c o r d e d by the Hesquiat E f r a t , Andrea L a f o r e t and L a r r y P a u l , between 1973  elders with and  1978.  ter-  Barbara  The d e s c r i p -  t i o n s of H e s q u i a t s u b s i s t e n c e economy are based on i n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d by the H e s q u i a t e l d e r s and knowledge o f the harbour.  T r a n s l a t i o n s from  Hesquiat were done by L a r r y P a u l and Dora G a l l e g o s . The  s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d by the e l d e r s i s more c o m p l i c a t e d  than t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Drucker, c a l l e d k i q i n a t h by Drucker.  p a r t i c u l a r l y as regards the l o c a l group  A c c o r d i n g t o the e l d e r s t h e r e appear t o be  twelve named groups w i t h t e r r i t o r i a l Six  o f these groups i n the middle  village,  r i g h t s to p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e  t e r r i t o r y o f the harbour shared a w i n t e r  s u g g e s t i n g e i t h e r t h a t t h e r e was  a grouping  a k i n to  Drucker's  " t r i b e " i n the c e n t r a l a r e a , o r t h a t the named groups are i n f a c t r a t h e r than l o c a l groups.  stations.  families,  T h i s i s not y e t c l e a r .  By o r d e r o f t e r r i t o r i a l  affiliation  and from n o r t h to south t o n o r t h ,  90  starting guished  on the o u t e r c o a s t n o r t h o f E s t e v a n by the e l d e r s are l i s t e d below.  L a f o r e t and E f r a t .  F i g u r e 11 shows t h e i r  P o i n t , the groups d i s t i n -  Orthography i s t h a t used by l o c a t i o n s and  territories in  the harbour.  The  1)  the homa^isath  2)  the t ? a - X a - t ? a t h  3)  the c i k n u ? a t h  4)  the h a i m a i ? i s a t h  5)  the kinqo a s takams^ath  6)  the q a c •'astakama^ath -or  7)  the napulyutakemaTYath  8)  the qeyx^Tani s t akams^Ta t h  9)  the pasci)rath  w  10)  the c^asnoasath  H)  the ma?apiath  12)  the y a ^ q s i s a t h  homa?isath had  a small t e r r i t o r y  on the o u t e r c o a s t , w i t h p o r t i o n s o f  h a i m a i ? i s a t h t e r r i t o r y on e i t h e r s i d e t o the n o r t h and i s not c l e a r i f homa?isath t e r r i t o r y was i s a late pattern.  that haimai^isath t e r r i t o r y  1951:236-237).  i n c l u d e d hohqui  around t o and  pendent groups, the t a - / f a - t ? a t h and ?  P o i n t and  as  ( S p l i t Cape) and p a ? c i s t a  of H e s q u i a t .  the c i k n u ^ a t h ,  Smokehouse Bay  this  However, the e l d e r s r e c o r d  then s t r e t c h e d from E s t e v a n  i n c l u d i n g the p r e s e n t v i l l a g e  round a t E s t e v a n  Bay  and a s . f a r south as Perex Rocks on the o u t e r c o a s t ,  broken by the homa'isath t e r r i t o r y ,  It  s m a l l , o r whether  Drucker r e c o r d s both S p l i t Cape and B a r c h e s t e r  homa?isath l o c a t i o n s (Drucker  (Barchester Bay)  always t h i s  to the south.  Two  apparently  was  Point other lived  indeyear  r e s p e c t i v e l y , but were a s s o c i a t e d  91  w i t h the h a i m a i ? i s a t h .  The c i k n u ' a t h a l s o had f i s h i n g r i g h t s a c r o s s t h e  harbour south o f H e s q u i a t P o i n t a t a sockeye  stream c a l l e d t i • t a p i .  These  two groups seem t o be f a m i l y groups t h a t f u n c t i o n e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y b u t i t is  n o t c l e a r i f they had core c h i e f l y l i n e s and hence f i t Drucker's  tion of a local  group.  The kinqoastakama^iath, kamsfcath,  defini-  q ac?astakamafrath/mohatikfreyath, w  napulyuta-  and geyx^anistakamefrath a l l w i n t e r e d a t hifcwina and had v a r i o u s  summer, s p r i n g and f a l l  r e s o u r c e s t a t i o n s , s e p a r a t e , a l o n g t h e shores o f  the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f H e s q u i a t Harbour and south p a s t Hesquiat P o i n t . These a r e the groups c o l l e c t i v e l y c a l l e d t h e k i q i n a t h by Drucker.  The  p a s c i ^ a t h a p p a r e n t l y s t a y e d y e a r round a t pa-sci)rh b u t sometimes moved i n t o h i i w i n a a l s o , and a r e t h e r e f o r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o t h e r f o u r groups more c l o s e l y than w i t h any o t h e r i n n e r harbour group.  A p p a r e n t l y some  p e o p l e s t a y e d y e a r round a t hijtwina, b u t i t i s n o t c l e a r i f t h i s means some o f a l l t h e groups o r a p a r t i c u l a r group, n o r i s i t c l e a r who t h e c?asnoasath a r e , i f i n f a c t they a r e a s e p a r a t e The ma?apiath  group.  c o r r e s p o n d c l o s e l y t o Drucker's d e s c r i p t i o n ,  staying  y e a r round a t ma?api, w i t h some p e o p l e e x p l o i t i n g t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e f i s h i n g streams  a c r o s s t h e harbour  i n summer and f a l l :  Their .territory  began n o r t h o f pa'sci^th, s t r e t c h e d as f a r as y a ? q s i s , then s t a r t e d a g a i n south o f H e s q u i a t Lake, and from t h e r e c o n t i n u e d as f a r south as somewhere between Rondeau P o i n t and H i s n i t Lake. in  t h i s group,  streams  There were a t l e a s t t h r e e c h i e f s  each w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r i g h t s t o p o r t i o n s o f t h e s h o r e l i n e ,  and harbour  waters.  The y a ? g s i s a t h owned t h e t e r r i t o r y from y a ? q s i s stream near  their  y e a r round v i l l a g e , t o the e a s t e r n entrance o f H e s q u i a t Lake, i n c l u d i n g H e s q u i a t Lake and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s .  92  N  ya*qsisath ya'qsis  SCALE = 1:77,511  ?ma?api  V7  haimai^isath  ma?apiath y\  pasci/ta^th pasci>h<^D ^  middle groups kinqoastakama^Tath q ac?ast akams)5ath/ mohatik^eyat h w  napulyutakama^Tath c?asnoasath qey x)sa n is t a ka m aAa t h  homa?isath2 WW  J  homis  9  haimai^isatl KEY: r*_k*i t a*ata 7  year round(?) village  '  fishing  t a-3r_Rt_ath  station  ?  i  o t__2  1  L  ciknu atn 7  F i g u r e 11.  Hesquiat L o c a l Group T e r r i t o r i e s A c c o r d i n g t o I n f o r m a t i o n Recorded by the H e s q u i a t E l d e r s .  4  93  As f a r as s e a s o n a l movements a r e concerned,  i t would seem t h a t the  ma?apiath and y a ? q s i s a t h were e s s e n t i a l l y sedentary, u s i n g t h e  resources  o f t h e i r salmon streams but not a c t u a l l y s e t t i n g up permanent h a b i t a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s a t these l o c a t i o n s . salmon streams.  Both ma?api and y a ^ q s i s are themselves by  A f t e r amalgamation o f the l o c a l groups a t H e s q u i a t , how-  ever, these groups d i d e r e c t houses a t the i n s i d e f i s h i n g  stations.  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g o f these f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s , c o n f i r m s t h a t they h i s t o r i c a l , with f a c t o r here was The middle mobile,  no p r e h i s t o r i c d e p o s i t s .  Presumably the  are  controlling  distance. groups, who  w i n t e r e d a t hdjtwina, seem t o have been more  but i t i s not c l e a r i f they a c t u a l l y had p r e h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e s a t  Anton's S p i t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e midden d e p o s i t s t h e r e  (DiSo 2 ) .  There  a r e no p r e h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e s a t t h e i r salmon streams. A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n h o l d s f o r the h a i m a i ^ i s a t h and the homa?isath, t h e r e b e i n g midden d e p o s i t s a t t h e i r d e s i g n a t e d h i s t o r i c deposits at other resource  "winter" v i l l a g e s , but o n l y  stations.  Whether the p r e h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e s were but temporary and have little  evidence,  or were much removed from the p r e s e n t , u p - l i f t i n g ,  l i n e , or were n o n - e x i s t e n t , i s h o t y y e t c l e a r . permanent house frames a t w i n t e r ,  summer and f i s h i n g v i l l a g e s ,  The  shore-  But i t seems c e r t a i n t h a t  those d e s c r i b e d f o r the n o r t h e r n Nootkans by Drucker d i d not e x i s t i n Hesquiat Harbour.  left  (Drucker  such  as  1951:69),  s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n f o r each l o c a l  group seems to have been c e n t e r e d around a s i n g l e , permanent h a b i t a t i o n site  (marked by a s h e l l midden).  The  c o n s t e l l a t i o n of r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s  seems to have been e x p l o i t e d from the main l o c a t i o n , a t l e a s t u n t i l gamation a t H e s q u i a t  i n the l a t e 1800's.  The  the n o r t h e r n o u t s i d e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s suggest  amal-  l a c k o f midden d e p o s i t s a t t h a t the h a i m a i ? i s a t h use  94  o f these l o c a t i o n s may be a l a t e p a t t e r n and t h a t f o r m e r l y they were homa?isath, as h a i m a i ? i s a t h use would have demanded a c t u a l group movement. Some s p e c i f i c statements about animal r e s o u r c e s i n H e s q u i a t Harbour add d e t a i l t o Drucker's remarks.  They a r e based on i n f o r m a t i o n r e c o r d e d  by t h e H e s q u i a t e l d e r s w i t h L a r r y P a u l , M a r i l y n Amos and Cathy Amos i n 1977. Harbour s e a l s , s e a l i o n s ,  f u r s e a l s and whales were a l l hunted.  Har-  bour s e a l s c o u l d be found on t h e r o c k s o f f homis, o f f H e s q u i a t P o i n t and a t t h e head o f the harbour i n Boat B a s i n , sometimes They were speared or harpooned  even i n H e s q u i a t Lake.  (the d i s t i n c t i o n i s n o t always made) i n t h e  water and a l s o c l u b b e d a t h a u l i n g o u t p l a c e s .  A t t h e s e r o c k s , sharpened  s t i c k s might be p l a c e d hidden beneath seaweed, where t h e s t a r t l e d heading f o r t h e water would impale themselves.  seals  The same methods were used  f o r s e a l i o n s , b u t t h e y were n o t c l u b b e d , j u s t harpooned o r speared.  These  animals were c o n s i d e r e d dangerous, were s c a r c e , and were hunted l e s s quently.  fre-  There were no good p l a c e s f o r s e a l i o n s a t H e s q u i a t Harbour, t h e  n e a r e s t h a u l i n g o u t r o c k s b e i n g a t R e v e l P o i n t by Hot S p r i n g s Cove.  They  were n o t around i n the summer. Fur s e a l s were hunted f a r o u t a t sea, a l t h o u g h they were a l i t t l e c l o s e r t o H e s q u i a t "when the b e r r i e s were f u l l y r i p e " i n e a r l y summer. A t l e a s t f o u r d i f f e r e n t s i z e s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d , the l a r g e s t b e i n g found f u r t h e s t o u t t o sea, so f a r o u t t h a t o n l y t h e t i p s o f the snow capped mountains c o u l d be seen.  They d i d n o t come i n t o H e s q u i a t Harbour.  and humpback whales were harpooned a s . d e s c r i b e d by Drucker  Gray  (1951:48-56).  Sea o t t e r s were hunted o f f s h o r e between homis and H e s q u i a t , w i t h bow and arrow o r harpoon. Land game was hunted w i t h d e a d f a l l s , bow and arrow, and spear.  River  95  o t t e r s were common a t H e s q u i a t Lake stream and the mouth o f Purdon Creek, and were e s p e c i a l l y common i n the f a l l hunted m a i n l y i n e a r l y f a l l ma'api,  a t t h e salmon streams.  and w i n t e r .  They were most p l e n t i f u l around  i n t h e meadows n o r t h o f H e s q u i a t V i l l a g e ,  towards E s t e v a n P o i n t .  Deer were  Bear were a v a i l a b l e i n a l l  p l e n t i f u l a t t h e salmon streams i n f a l l .  a t H e s q u i a t P o i n t , and areas b u t were e s p e c i a l l y  Raccoon and mink were caught i n  d e a d f a l l t r a p s s e t on t h e i r t r a i l s and were common everywhere. Wolves were s p e c i a l .  They had a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e o p l e and  were hunted o n l y f o r t h e i r s k i n s , f o r the dance r e g a l i a o f t h e Wolf  Rituals  Cougar were n o t hunted v e r y much. Dogs a r e s a i d t o have been r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t i m p o r t s .  I t i s not cer-  t a i n where they came from, but i t i s s a i d the Moachat p e o p l e t o t h e n o r t h saw them f i r s t ,  and p r o b a b l y g o t them from the Nimpkish p e o p l e o f the e a s t  c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d .  At f i r s t  t h e r e was o n l y one k i n d .  They were  used f o r h u n t i n g . L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n has y e t been r e c o r d e d on f i s h and b i r d s , b u t some of  the s p e c i e s abundant i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d s a r e d i s c u s s e d . D i v i n g b i r d s such as cormorants, s c o t e r s and o t h e r d i v i n g ducks were  taken m a i n l y from j u s t i n s i d e the harbour. set  They were caught on b a i t e d  s e v e r a l t o a hand l i n e , t r o l l e d from a canoe.  hooks  Loons, mergansers, and  grebes were a l s o caught t h i s way b u t were found a t the head o f the harbour. Canada geese o f a t l e a s t two s u b s p e c i e s and snow geese were n e t t e d from canoes i n V i l l a g e Lake, a t n i g h t , when storms kept the geese from f l y i n g . They were a l s o taken on the beach i n s i d e Anton's S p i t and between B o u l d e r P o i n t and homis, i n t h e s p r i n g and f a l l . in  the f a l l .  Swans o n l y came among t h e geese  B r a n t were common o n l y a l o n g the o u t e r beaches and i n s i d e  Anton's S p i t i n s p r i n g .  Other ducks, such as m a l l a r d s and s h o v e l e r s , were  96  taken i n t r a p s on the beaches, pole.  o r snared w i t h a hoop on the end o f a l o n g  Ducks were most abundant i n l a t e w i n t e r and s p r i n g , when the h e r r i n g  were i n the harbour p r i o r t o spawning.  Bow  and arrow was  a l s o used f o r  birds. A l b a t r o s s and shearwaters were seen and shot when p e o p l e were out f u r sealing.  A l b a t r o s s (the S h o r t - t a i l e d A l b a t r o s s ? ) f o r m e r l y a l s o came near  to B o u l d e r P o i n t and c o u l d be caught t h e r e on hook and l i n e a t sea.  They  were sought f o r t h e i r bones f o r raw m a t e r i a l as w e l l . a s t o e a t . H e r r i n g were taken w i t h d i p - n e t and rake from the i n s i d e harbour and t h e i r spawn c o l l e c t e d on bough f e n c e s from the sandy beaches. were a v a i l a b l e i n l a t e w i n t e r as w e l l as e a r l y s p r i n g . where.  waters,  They  D o g f i s h were e v e r y -  Sea perches were t r a p p e d i n t i d a l t r a p s o f stone and  "wicker",  e s p e c i a l l y between H e s q u i a t V i l l a g e and Anton's S p i t , where stone a l i g n ments are s t i l l  v i s i b l e on the beach.  The Midshipman was pecially.  They were used mainly f o r b a i t .  eaten b y t t h e y a ^ q s i s a t h and ma^apiath p e o p l e e s -  They were taken from beneath  s p r i n g spawning season.  the r o c k s a t low t i d e d u r i n g the  They were e s p e c i a l l y p l e n t i f u l i n Rae B a s i n a t  the head o f the harbour near the stream mouth from H e s q u i a t Lake. S m a l l f l a t f i s h were not common, but were sometimes taken i n s i d e Anton's S p i t i n the s h a l l o w water.  They were speared w i t h a s p e c i a l s h o r t spear.  H a l i b u t were not found i n the i n n e r harbour, o n l y a t the o f f s h o r e banks o f f E s t e v a n and homis.  Here a l s o was  r o c k f i s h l i k e the r e d snapper.  the b e s t p l a c e f o r sea cod and  large  The H e s q u i a t p e o p l e d i s t i n g u i s h e d a t l e a s t  f i v e d i f f e r e n t kinds of r o c k f i s h .  The  s m a l l ones were found more g e n e r a l l y  d i s t r i b u t e d , the l a r g e r e d snapper and another b i g s p e c i e s o n l y i n the deep waters  offshore.  Coho salmon were found i n most streams i n the harbour, but dog  salmon  97  o n l y i n those of the i n n e r harbour, n o r t h o f L e C l a i r e and Sockeye were s c a r c e and as were the few  found o n l y i n the Hesquiat  steelhead.  the head o f the harbour.  Pink The  Rondeau P o i n t s .  and H i s n i t Lake systems,  salmon were a l s o s c a r c e and  o u t s i d e streams o n l y had  seen o n l y a t  coho runs.  The  s p r i n g salmon d i d not spawn i n the harbour streams but were i n the harbour d u r i n g w i n t e r .  Salmon were taken i n s a l t w a t e r w i t h hook and  i n the streams w i t h spears/harpoons and of weirs  can be  harbour, and The  i n the stream i t s e l f as w e l l f o r one  B o u l d e r P o i n t was  According upheld.  One  t o the Hesquiat  The  remnants  streams i n the  of the  line,  inner  streams.  i n s i d e the harbour were known as good  good f o r mussels, c h i t o n s and  sea u r c h i n s .  e l d e r s , t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries were  c o u l d o n l y hunt o r f i s h or gather  group w i t h the p e r m i s s i o n records  t r a p s and w e i r s .  seen on the beaches i n f r o n t of two  beaches a t Anton's S p i t and  clam beds.  inner  strictly  i n the p l a c e s of another  o f t h a t group's c h i e f .  I t i s c l e a r from t h e i r  t h a t there.were d i f f e r e n c e s among the l o c a l groups i n emphasis on  c e r t a i n resources,  and  p l a c e , i n important  t h a t t r a d e between the i n s i d e and  r e s o u r c e s not g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e .  groups t r a d e d s e a l , sea l i o n and whale o i l and b l u b b e r f o r bear meat and  dog  o u t s i d e groups took Thus the  outside  t o the i n s i d e groups,  salmon, which were more p l e n t i f u l i n these  groups'  territories.  PREVIOUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL WORK Although the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d was  one  of the f i r s t  i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o see the meeting o f n a t i v e I n d i a n and European  areas cul-  t u r e s , the p r e h i s t o r y o f the n a t i v e c u l t u r e s has o n l y r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d s e r i o u s study.  There i s a r i c h l i t e r a t u r e o f ethnographic  reports  e a r l y h i s t o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the n a t i v e Nootkan i n h a b i t a n t s ' way life.  Speculation concerning  the o r i g i n s and  connections  and of  o f the Nootkan  98  speaking  p e o p l e s and o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n s  has been c o n s i d e r a b l e  (Borden 1951, 1962; Chard 1956, 1962; Drucker 1943, 1955; D u f f 1965; Huntsman 1963; and Swanson 1956). the f i r s t  systematic  Y e t i t was n o t u n t i l t h e 1960's t h a t  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l excavations  were c a r r i e d o u t i n what  i s known e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y as Nootkan t e r r i t o r y . In t h e summer o f 1966 t h e N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c S i t e s S e r v i c e o f t h e F e d e r a l Department o f N o r t h e r n and I n d i a n A f f a i r s funded e x c a v a t i o n s  a t the  h i s t o r i c a l l y famous v i l l a g e o f F r i e n d l y Cove, o r Yuquot, t h e summer v i l l a g e o f C h i e f Maquinna and the Moachat Confederacy.  D i r e c t e d by W i l l i a m  w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f John Dewhirst, t h e e x c a v a t i o n s  revealed  Folan  finely  s t r a t i f i e d c u l t u r a l s h e l l midden d e p o s i t s t o a depth o f f i v e and a h a l f metres, r e p r e s e n t i n g a t l e a s t t h e p a s t 4,000 y e a r s  (Dewhirst  1969:232, 239;  F o l a n 1969:217; F o l a n and Dewhirst 1970). As y e t , o n l y p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s o f t h e work a r e a v a i l a b l e . excavators  i n t e r p r e t the d a t a as r e p r e s e n t i n g an i n s i t u c u l t u r a l  The develop-  ment a n a l y t i c a l l y d i v i s i b l e i n t o f o u r p e r i o d s based on s t r a t i g r a p h i c zones and r a d i o carbon e s t i m a t e s  (Dewhirst  1977:12).  They i n t e r p r e t the d a t a  as i n d i c a t i n g c u l t u r a l s t a b i l i t y through time, w i t h a g r a d u a l o f the i n i t i a l  a d a p t a t i o n and an i n c r e a s i n g dependence on marine  as one n e a r s t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d  (Dewhirst  stone i n d u s t r y ; q u a n t i t i e s o f sandstone abraders  developed ground stone adze b l a d e s ;  resources  1977:12; 1978:7, 10, 2 0 ) .  A r t i f a c t t e c h n o l o g i e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y simple, w i t h a v e r y chipped  refinement  limited  and saws; a  i n d u s t r y c e n t e r i n g around f i s h hook shanks and  a developed ground s h e l l i n d u s t r y u s i n g mussel s h e l l f o r  harpoon p o i n t s and k n i v e s ;  and a s t r o n g bone sawing, s p l i t t i n g and g r i n d i n g  i n d u s t r y c e n t e r i n g on t h e p r o d u c t i o n  o f awls and u l n a t o o l s , numerous  simple bone p o i n t s o f v a r i o u s s i z e s , some barbed p o i n t s and a range o f b o t h  99  t o g g l e and tanged harpoon types  (Dewhirst 1978:8S15).  technology and the manufacturing  The  simple  stone  t o o l assemblages r e c o v e r e d .from Yuquot  suggest t h a t wood and v e g e t a l m a t e r i a l s t h a t have n o t s u r v i v e d were major components o f many t o o l s  (Dewhirst 1977:13).  This supposition i s given  g r e a t e r s u p p o r t by the r e c e n t e x c a v a t i o n s a t O z e t t e on the Olympic s u l a , a southern Nootkan  Penin-  (Makah) s i t e a t which wood and v e g e t a l m a t e r i a l s  as w e l l as bone and a n t l e r , a r e p r e s e r v e d and have been r e c o v e r e d . very high percentage  A  o f the O z e t t e a r t i f a c t s are made o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l s  t h a t would not n o r m a l l y s u r v i v e i n an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t . cedents and e x t r a - a r e a l c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the Nootkan t r a d i t i o n s are not y e t  The  ante-  artifact  apparent.  The f a u n a l remains  from Yuquot a r e as y e t u n r e p o r t e d i n , f u l l .  Prelim-  i n a r y a n a l y s e s suggest an i n c r e a s i n g use o f sea mammal r e s o u r c e s as nears the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . the f a u n a l remains,  one  S h e l l f i s h and f i s h are major c o n s t i t u e n t s o f  b i r d s l e s s abundant (Savage 1973,  1975).  A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e minor changes i n f r e q u e n c i e s , the b a s i c t o o l k i t a t Yuquot appears  t o have remained  period.  says o f t h i s  Dewhirst  remarkably  unchanged u n t i l the h i s t o r i c  "incredible cultural  continuity":  "The Nootkans o f today are p r o b a b l y the descendents o f the p e o p l e o c c u p y i n g the West Coast i n the E a r l y P e r i o d a t Yuquot ... The s u c c e s s f u l c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f the E a r l y P e r i o d have been g r a d u a l l y r e f i n e d d u r i n g the p a s t f o r t y c e n t u r i e s t o improve the a d a p t a t i o n s o f the Nootkans t o t h e i r c o a s t a l environment. T h i s p r o c e s s , f o r the most p a r t , has been one o f c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y , w i t h g r a d u a l change and some i n n o v a t i o n s . " (Dewhirst 1978:20) In 1966  A l a n M c M i l l a n c a r r i e d o u t . t h e second a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n  i n Nootkan t e r r i t o r y ,  a s m a l l t e s t e x c a v a t i o n a t Coopte i n Nootka Sound,  the w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g s i t e o f some o f the Moachat p e o p l e who  summered  100  a t Yuquot  (McMillan 1969).  Although t h e e x c a v a t i o n s  were l i m i t e d ,  they  r e v e a l e d c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s v a r y i n g i n depth from .5 t o 1.5 metres on t h e f i r s t beach t e r r a c e and 2.4 metres on t h e second beach t e r r a c e  (McMillan  1969:60-62).  The a r t i f a c t assemblage o f 273 o b j e c t s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t  from Yuquot.  The most common f a u n a l remains a r e r e p o r t e d t o be f i s h ,  i n c l u d i n g salmon, h e r r i n g , h a l i b u t and d o g f i s h .  Sea mammal remains, i n -  c l u d i n g p o r p o i s e , harbour s e a l and whale, a r e p r e s e n t ,  as a r e deer remains.  B i r d remains seem t o be l e s s common and s h e l l f i s h remains, though n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y abundant, i n c l u d e b u t t e r clam, n a t i v e l i t t l e n e c k clam, horse clam, b a r n a c l e and both bay and C a l i f o r n i a mussel  (McMillan  1969:100-105).  As t h e f a u n a l assemblage i s n o t r e p o r t e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i t i s d i f f i c u l t to  assess. Both t h e Yuquot and C o o p t e a m a t e r i a l s  ment o f t h e Nootkan c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n  suggest a l o n g in_ s i t u  d e s c r i b e d by Drucker i n h i s c l a s s i c  1951  monograph "The N o r t h e r n and C e n t r a l Nootkan T r i b e s " .  and  a r t i f a c t assemblages suggest t h a t t h e l a t e r p r e h i s t o r i c  differed l i t t l e orientation.  from t h e ethnographic  As i n t h e ethnographic  develop-  Site locations adaptation  p a t t e r n i n main f e a t u r e s o f economic pattern, habitation sites  probably  formed segments o f m u l t i - s i t e group s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s t h a t allowed exp l o i t a t i o n o f b o t h o u t e r c o a s t s e a mammal, f i s h and s h e l l f i s h and  resources,  i n l e t h e r r i n g spawning beaches, as w e l l as up i n l e t salmon spawning  streams (Dewhirst  1978:19).  As t h e s e . r e s o u r c e s  as w e l l as g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , s e a s o n a l  are separated  s h i f t s o f r e s i d e n c e were  seasonally necessary.  Thus d i f f e r e n t e x p l o i t a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d o u t a t d i f f e r e n t a l l y occupied  sites.  summer/fall and w i n t e r  season-  Dewhirst emphasizes t h i s o u t e r / i n n e r , s p r i n g and adaptive  s h i f t u t i l i z i n g t h e two major e n v i r o n m e n t a l  s e t t i n g s o f t h e west c o a s t s h o r e l i n e as a b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f  101  Nootkan e c o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n (Dewhirst Still,  1977:11).  the a r t i f a c t assemblages from o u t e r c o a s t Yuquot and i n s i d e  Coopte a r e v e r y  similar.  "Nearly every a r t i f a c t type found a t Coopte i s a l s o found a t Yuquot. The Coopte m a t e r i a l f i t s n i c e l y i n t o the L a t e P e r i o d (A.D. 800-1790) and the H i s t o r i c P e r i o d (post.A.D. 1790) a t Yuquot". (Dewhirst Dewhirst suggests t h a t t h i s s i m i l a r i t y  1978:19)  i n a r t i f a c t assemblages, d e s p i t e  the d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s , i s the r e s u l t o f u s i n g the same t o o l s f o r d i f f e r e n t t a s k s a t the d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . "There are o n l y a few i n s t a n c e s , such as w h a l i n g , h a l i b u t f i s h i n g , d e n t a l i u m f i s h i n g , i n which s p e c i a l i z e d p o r t a b l e a r t i f a c t s were used i n o n l y one major environmental s e t t i n g . . . I t would appear t h a t the Nootkans had e s s e n t i a l l y one " t o o l k i t " f o r environmental e x p l o i t a t i o n i n both o u t s i d e and inside settings". (Dewhirst He  1978:20).  f u r t h e r suggests t h a t Yuquot i s " f a i r l y t y p i c a l " o f the l a r g e o u t e r  c o a s t midden s i t e s a l o n g the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d i n Nootkan t e r r i t o r y ; t h a t the f o u r c u l t u r a l p e r i o d s d e f i n e d a t Yuquot, the E a r l y Period  (2300 - 1000  Late P e r i o d will  (A.D.  B.C.), the M i d d l e P e r i o d  800  - 1790)  and  (1000  B.C.  the H i s t o r i c P e r i o d  " l i k e l y a p p l y t o the archaeology  -_,A*.D. 800), (A.D.  1790  - 1966),  of o t h e r o u t s i d e s i t e s " ; and  i t i s o n l y the f a u n a l remains t h a t w i l l  the  that  i n d i c a t e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n  resource u t i l i z a t i o n at a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e  (Dewhirst  1978:7).  Faunal  re-  mains w i l l r e f l e c t l o c a l s i t e to s i t e v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l adaptat i o n t o a f a r g r e a t e r degree than  THE The  artifacts.  HESQUIAT PROJECT  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s r e s u l t i n g i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n were under-  taken as p a r t o f the Hesquiat  C u l t u r a l Recovery P r o j e c t , a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y  102  p r o j e c t i n i t i a t e d and d i r e c t e d by members o f the Hesquiat I n d i a n Band, in  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l i s t s i n many d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s from o u t s i d e t h e  Band (Haggarty 1978:3). Faced w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g l y f r e q u e n t d e s e c r a t i o n o f t h e i r a n c e s t o r s b u r i a l p l a c e s i n t h e i r remote t e r r i t o r y o f H e s q u i a t Harbour, p e o p l e took the i n i t i a t i v e .  In 1970 they formed  a Cultural  1  the Hesquiat Committee  and charged i t w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i n g t h e r e c o v e r y and p r e s e r v a t i o n o o f i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r p a s t , and making t h a t knowledge a m e a n i n g f u l p a r t o f today's way o f b e i n g H e s q u i a t . m i t t e e approached  The C u l t u r a l Com-  Donald Abbott a t the Archaeology D i v i s i o n ,  British  Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, and r e q u e s t e d a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e work o f p r e serving their heritage.  This f i r s t  h e s i t a n t c o n t a c t between t h e H e s q u i a t  C u l t u r a l Committee and the A r c h a e o l o g y D i v i s i o n was the b e g i n n i n g o f a unique c o - o p e r a t i v e endeavour t h a t i s now i n i t s t e n t h y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n . S i n c e t h a t time, the scope o f the p r o j e c t has grown beyond t h e initial 1978;  s a l v a g e work i n a r c h a e o l o g y and p h y s i c a l anthropology  C y b u l s k i 1978),  to include research i n l i n g u i s t i c s ,  botany, p a l y n o l o g y , dendrochronology,  (Haggarty  ethnography,  pedology and geomorphology.  a d d i t i o n t o academic r e s e a r c h , t h e p r o j e c t encompasses e q u a l l y  In  important  a c t i v i t i e s r a n g i n g from t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n Center at  H e s q u i a t V i l l a g e t o house the o b j e c t s , tapes and books r e s u l t i n g  the p r o j e c t ' s work; t o summer s c h o o l s f o r band c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n n a t i v e tongue,  from  their  a t H e s q u i a t , from the Band e l d e r s ; t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f  c a l e n d a r s , c o l o u r i n g books and a simple d i c t i o n a r y i n the H e s q u i a t  tongue.  C e n t r a l t o t h e p r o j e c t i s t h e assurance t h a t b e n e f i t s o f the p r o j e c t  will  accrue e q u a l l y t o b o t h the academic s p e c i a l i s t s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o j e c t and the H e s q u i a t People.  A t t h e c o r e o f t h e assurance i s t h e  103  DiSo1(  D i S o 14 I D i S o 15 So16  D i S o ^ = W D i S o 13 DiSo8J?\MDiSo 12 •DiSo 11 DiSp 4  DiSo:  D i S o 25 ' D i S o 22  D i S o 6] VDiSo4 DiSo 5  D i S o 17^ D i S o 18 DiSe19 D i S o 20  D i S o 21 DiSo 2 DiSo 27  K E Y :  Di'Sp 2  DiSo 1  &  cave/rock shelter  &  mfdden  gg h i s t o r i c fishing station JC petroglyph  D i S o 26  0 .  L!L2  F i g u r e 12.  1 I  2 L  Known A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s i n H e s q u i a t Harbour.  ©  f i s h weir/trap  0  ochre source  104  growth and maintenance o f a warm working r e l a t i o n s h i p between band members and  non-band members, based on mutual t r u s t and r e s p e c t . The  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work began i n 1971 under the d i r e c t i o n o f James  Haggarty, who has remained the p r i n c i p a l museum s t a f f member w i t h the p r o j e c t s i n c e t h a t time.  associated  The author j o i n e d t h e p r o j e c t i n 1973.  Between 1971 and 1977 t h i r t y - f o u r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s were l o c a t e d . They i n c l u d e open midden s i t e s , cave/rock s h e l t e r s i t e s w i t h b u r i a l complexes and/or h a b i t a t i o n d e p o s i t s , an ochre s i t e , a p e t r o g l y p h ,  surface  f i s h t r a p and weir remnants,  and h i s t o r i c f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s  (Figure 1 2 ) .  Seventeen o f t h e s i t e s have been t e s t e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y and the s u r f a c e b u r i a l s from a l l cave/rock s h e l t e r s i t e s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y removed f o r r e b u r i a l i n a c r y p t a t H e s q u i a t V i l l a g e ( C y b u l s k i 1978).  The f a u n a l a s -  semblages from t h r e e o f the s i t e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n 1973 and 1974 under t h i s j o i n t Hesquiat C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e / B r i t i s h p r o j e c t o f survey and e x c a v a t i o n , (DiSo 9) and Y a k s i s  Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum  H e s q u i a t V i l l a g e (DiSo 1 ) , Loon Cave  Cave (DiSo 16),  are the subject o f t h i s  study.  105  Chapter I I I Statement  o f Problem  An examination o f e i g h t f a u n a l assemblages from t h r e e s i t e s i n H e s q u i a t Harbour spanning a t t i m e range from a t l e a s t A.D. 100 t o h i s t o r i c shows t h e r e a r e major d i f f e r e n c e s among the assemblages, r e p r e s e n t e d and i n f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f s p e c i e s .  times,  both i n species The aim o f t h i s  study i s t o determine whether o r n o t the major p r o p o r t i o n o f the observed v a r i a t i o n among the f a u n a l assemblages can be r e l a t e d t o t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f animal r e s o u r c e s from d i f f e r e n t The  habitats.  s m a l l d i s t a n c e s between s i t e s , the homogeneity o f a r t i f a c t a s -  semblages,  t h e contemporaneity  the l i n g u i s t i c ,  o f a t l e a s t some o f the assemblages,  and  c u l t u r a l , and s o c i a l u n i t y o f r e c e n t i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e  harbour a l l suggest t h e s i t e s r e p r e s e n t e i t h e r temporal o r s p a t i a l ments o f the same r e g i o n a l a d a p t i v e system.  seg-  I t i s suggested t h a t the main  f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i n t e r - a s s e m b l a g e v a r i a b i l i t y i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblages i s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between a l a n d use system o f s t r i c t l y def i n e d and r e g u l a t e d c u l t u r a l t e r r i t o r i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f animal r e s o u r c e s .  and d i v e r s i t y i n the g e o g r a p h i c a l  Such a l a n d use system i s documented'  e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y f o r H e s q u i a t Harbour and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n conf i r m s t h a t t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f animal h a b i t a t s i n the harbour does n o t p r o v i d e each o f the e t h n o g r a p h i c t e r r i t o r i e s w i t h a c c e s s t o the same r e s o u r c e bases. This i n t e r a c t i o n r e s u l t s i n the c u l t u r a l c r e a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t resource bases a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c h a b i t a t i o n l o c a t i o n s i n t h e harbour.  Con-  s e q u e n t l y , one would expect d i f f e r i n g f a u n a l assemblages i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s , f o r as l o n g as a s i m i l a r i n t e r a c t i o n has taken p l a c e .  106  As d i f f e r i n g s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n  individual  t e r r i t o r i e s i s a l s o documented, i t i s f u r t h e r suggested t h a t some o f the v a r i a t i o n among the f a u n a l assemblages i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o season o f exploitation.  Changes i n the l o c a l environment  have been r e c o r d e d f o r  the r e l e v a n t time p e r i o d , and a l s o can be expected t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p a t t e r n of interassemblage v a r i a t i o n .  GENERAL THEORY The s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d here d i f f e r from those by Dewhirst f o r t h e west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d g e n e r a l l y 1978:20).  suggested  (Dewhirst  He p r e d i c t s , i n view o f a b r o a d l y based u n i f o r m i t y o f m a t e r i a l  c u l t u r e through time and space i n t h e Nootkan c u l t u r a l a r e a , t h a t  artifact  assemblages from Nootkan a r e a s i t e s w i l l v a r y m i n i m a l l y through both  time  and space, w h i l e f a u n a l assemblages w i l l d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o an o u t e r c o a s t l a t e s p r i n g and summer v e r s u s an i n n e r c o a s t f a l l , w i n t e r and e a r l y settlement p a t t e r n .  spring  He a l s o suggests t h a t f a u n a l assemblages w i l l p r o b a b l y  i n d i c a t e an i n c r e a s i n g use o f marine r e s o u r c e s as one n e a r s t t h e p p r e s e h t . These p r e d i c t i o n s a r e based on the 4,000 y e a r sequence a t Yuquot, t o t h e n o r t h o f Hesquiat  Harbour.  While t h e i n n e r c o a s t / o u t e r c o a s t s h i f t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l and e x p l o i t a t i o n p a t t e r n may i n d e e d be an u n d e r l y i n g c u l t u r a l p r i n c i p l e o f Nootkan e c o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , as Dewhirst suggests, i t i s u n l i k e l y t o have been so f o r the l o c a l group u n a l l i e d t o o t h e r l o c a l groups w i t h  territories  i n t h e d i f f e r e n t environmental s e t t i n g s , t h a t i s , u n t i l a t r i b a l o r conf e d e r a c y l e v e l o f s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n was a c h i e v e d . f o l l o w i n g Drucker  MacMillan,  (1951:228-231), o u t l i n e s the development o f such an  i n t e g r a t i o n f o r the Moachat l o c a l groups w i t h i n r e c e n t t r i b a l memory,  107  a c h i e v e d through 1969:14).  the i n t e r - g r o u p t r a n s f e r o f t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s  (McMillan  F o l a n a l s o sees t h i s p r o c e s s o f c o n f e d e r a t i o n a l t e r i n g  the  s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o f Nootka Sound from an i n i t i a l one o f independent l o c a l groups w i t h y e a r round r e s i d e n c e i n t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y i n a s i n g l e environmental  s e t t i n g t o one  contiguous  of integrated l o c a l  groups w i t h s e a s o n a l l y s h i f t i n g r e s i d e n c e i n d i s c o n t i n u o u s spanning  s e v e r a l environmental  s e t t i n g s (Folan 1973:13).  t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s were then guaranteed  blocks of  territories The  l o c a l groups'  by the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  alliances  o f the t r i b a l and c o n f e d e r a c y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . An examination i n Hesquiat  o f the e t h n o g r a p h i c  Harbour suggests  p a t t e r n o f s e t t l e m e n t and  t h a t Dewhirst's  l a n d use  p r e d i c t i o n s o f a dichotomous  o u t e r c o a s t summer/inner c o a s t w i n t e r s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n , are u n l i k e l y be a p p l i c a b l e i n the H e s q u i a t a r e a .  The  f i v e Hesquiat  to  l o c a l groups were  not bound p o l i t i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y i n t o a t r i b e o r confederacy  (although  such changes were b e g i n n i n g to take p l a c e and were i n t e r r u p t e d by the  estab-  l i s h m e n t o f F a t h e r Brabant's  1875)  C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a t Hesquiat V i l l a g e i n  b u t were independent l o c a l groups.  Each had t h e i r own  series of seasonally  used r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n and h a b i t a t i o n l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n c l e a r l y d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r i a l p o r t i o n s o f the wider Hesquiat As d e t a i l e d i n Chapter  territory.  I I , animal r e s o u r c e s are d i s t r i b u t e d  throughout  Hesquiat Harbour i n a c l u s t e r e d and d i s c o n t i n u o u s manner, r e f l e c t i n g h a b i t a t c o n d i t i o n s , j u s t as they are elsewhere on the west c o a s t o f Vancouver  Island.  But l o c a l group t e r r i t o r i e s were not n e c e s s a r i l y d i s c o n -  t i n u o u s and d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y p r o v i d e d i r e c t a c c e s s to b o t h o u t e r c o a s t and i n n e r c o a s t r e s o u r c e s f o r each l o c a l group.  On  the c o n t r a r y , f o u r o f  the f i v e groups h e l d b l o c k s o f t e r r i t o r y e n t i r e l y w i t h i n one environmental  s e t t i n g s (see pages >87  t o ;93) ..  o f the major  108  Given t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n o f s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l one would s t i l l  factors,  expect H e s q u i a t f a u n a l assemblages r e l a t i n g t o the  g r a p h i c p a t t e r n o f l a n d use o r ownership  ethno-  t o r e f l e c t an o u t e r c o a s t / i n n e r c o a s t  s p l i t i n r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n and consumption,  but t h i s d i v i s i o n s h o u l d o c c u r  a l o n g l o c a l group l i n e s , n o t w i t h i n the l o c a l group a d a p t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by a s e r i e s o f s i t e s , w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f those s i t e s r e l a t i n g t o the l o c a l group o c c u p y i n g the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f the harbour, by Drucker. political  called  kiginath  U n t i l the development o f a t r i b a l o r c o n f e d e r a c y l e v e l o f s o c i o -  s t r u c t u r e t h a t a l l o w e d the maintenance o f d i s c o n t i n u o u s t e r r i t o r i e s  o f e x p l o i t a t i o n , one would have t o expect major d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s u b s i s tence bases o f Nootkan autonomous l o c a l groups r e l a t e d to the o f t h e i r immediate l o c a l  exploitation  environment.  I f i t i s determined t h a t the major source o f v a r i a t i o n among H e s q u i a t f a u n a l assemblages i s i n f a c t - a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the exploitation-'on"a. y e a r round b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n t h a b i t a t s t h a t are but p o r t i o n s o f the a v a i l a b l e r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e base, then c u l t u r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d access t o the r e s o u r c e base seems the most l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n .  total  Such a p a t t e r n o f i n t e r -  assemblage v a r i a t i o n would suggest the p r e s e n c e o f c u l t u r a l l y bounded b l o c k s o f e x p l o i t a t i o n t e r r i t o r i e s w i t h i n s i n g l e environmental s e t t i n g s , would be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l o c a l group  such as  l e v e l of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l organi-  zations The works o f Drucker, Dewhirst, M c M i l l a n and F o l a n suggest t h a t the e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d Nootkan a d a p t a t i o n t o the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d may  have developed from a s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n c l o s e r t o t h a t  exhibited  by the Hesquiat p e o p l e s a t c o n t a c t than t h a t e x h i b i t e d by the Moachat and o t h e r n o r t h e r n groups, t h a t i s , one o f independent  l o c a l groups.  t i o n o f a l o n g time depth f o r t h i s l e v e l o f s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  Confirma-  organization  109  i n H e s q u i a t Harbour would  l e n d s u p p o r t t o the t h e o r y t h a t the s i m p l e r ,  autonomous l o c a l group s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  s t r u c t u r e was  the e a r l i e r a d a p t i v e  p a t t e r n over a widespread a r e a o f the west c o a s t o f Vancouver  Island.  To determine whether o r not the major p r o p o r t i o n o f o b s e r v e d v a r i a t i o n i n the f a u n a l assemblages  from H e s q u i a t Harbour can be r e l a t e d t o  y e a r round e x p l o i t a t i o n o f r e s t r i c t e d the  three s i t e s , Hesquiat V i l l a g e  p o r t i o n s o f the harbour  territory,  (DiSo 1 ) , Loon Cave (DiSo 9) and Y a k s i s  Cave (DiSo 16), are r e l a t e d t o the e t h n o g r a p h i c t e r r i t o r i e s and s e t t l e m e n t patterns.  These a r e r e l a t e d t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n  i n H e s q u i a t Harbour o f  a n i m a l s p e c i e s , grouped i n t o H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s as d e f i n e d i n Chapter I I . U s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r e d i c t i o n s o f Major H a b i t a t Category emphasis  at  each s i t e a r e made, a c c o r d i n g t o the e t h n o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n o f l a n d use and ownership.  These expected p a t t e r n s w i l l be compared w i t h the observed  v a r i a t i o n i n H a b i t a t Category emphasis,  and the d i f f e r e n c e s and  similarities  discussed.  PREDICTED FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGE EMPHASIS The f a u n a l remains s t u d i e d were excavated from the t h r e e s i t e s DiSo 9 and DiSo 16 d u r i n g the 1973 Project  (Boehm 1974;  and 1974  field  Haggarty and Boehm 1974;  DiSo 1 i s the t r a d i t i o n a l  "winter" v i l l a g e  and the p r e s e n t day v i l l a g e  of Hesquiat.  located within ya^qsis t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a t e d w i t h i n ma?apiath t e r r i t o r y .  DiSo 1,  seasons o f the H e s q u i a t  Haggarty and C r o z i e r 1975) .  o f the h a i m a i ^ i s a t h l o c a l DiSo 16 i s a s m a l l cave  group  site  t e r r i t o r y - and DiSo 9 a l a r g e r cave The l a t t e r two s i t e s were used as  burial  p l a c e s d u r i n g the e t h n o g r a p h i c p e r i o d and thus are not l i n k e d as h a b i t a t i o n l o c a t i o n s t o the e t h n o g r a p h i c s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n i n the harbour. however, c l e a r l y i n n e r harbour.  They a r e ,  w i t h i n the above mentioned l o c a l i g r o u p t e r r i t o r i e s i n the DiSo 1 i s on the o u t e r c o a s t , but because o f the o r i e n t a t i o n  110 F i g u r e 13.  R e l a t i o n s h i p o f H e s q u i a t L o c a l Group T e r r i t o r i e s , Combined V e r t e b r a t e H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s , and DiSo 1, DiSo 9 and DiSo 16.  Ill  o f t h e harbour, i s s l i g h t l y s h e l t e r e d . in relation  t o Hesquiat  F i g u r e 13 l o c a t e s t h e t h r e e  sites  l o c a l group t e r r i t o r i e s and combined v e r t e b r a t e  h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s i n the harbour. F o r t h e purposes o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , then, we a r e concerned w i t h t h e territories, Hesquiat  seasonal  s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s and r e s o u r c e bases o f t h r e e  l o c a l groups, the h a i m a i ^ i s a t h , the ma?apiath and the y a ? q s i s a t h .  Their.territories  and s e a s o n a l  above (pages 87-93).  s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s have been o u t l i n e d  The p r e s e n t  faunal d i s t r i b u t i o n s  i n Hesquiat  Harbour  have been d e s c r i b e d i n pages 19 to.64)^ With t h i s knowledge i t i s p o s s i b l e to suggest the major p a t t e r n s one would expect t o f i n d i n t h e f a u n a l a s semblages o f the t h r e e s i t e s i f the ethnographic  p a t t e r n s have a l o n g time  depth i n t h e harbour.  DiSo 1 and h a i m a i ^ i s a t h  Territory  Haimai''isath t e r r i t o r y d i f f e r s markedly from t h a t o f the ma^apiath and  the y a ^ q s i s a t h .  T h e i r t e r r i t o r y i s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the Outer Coast  Zone, w i t h good a c c e s s intertidal habitats. The  t o P e l a g i c and P e l a g i c - L i t t o r a l  marine and u n p r o t e c t e d  They have no chum salmon streams and few coho streams.  o u t e r beaches a r e not p a r t i c u l a r l y  good h e r r i n g spawning p l a c e s because  o f e x c e s s i v e wave a c t i o n . DiSo 1 i s e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y a "winter" a f a u n a l assemblage r e l a t i n g  season v i l l a g e .  t o t h i s ethnographic  One would expect  usage i n t h i s  territory  to demonstrate an emphasis on deep and moderately deep water sea f i s h , s h e l l f i s h , preserved preserved  herring.  and f r e s h coho salmon, p r e s e r v e d  h a l i b u t and cod, and  As the summer f i s h i n g p l a c e s o f t h i s group a r e unpro-  t e c t e d o u t e r c o a s t s t a t i o n s , one might a l s o expect the h e r r i n g and  some sea mammal h u n t i n g  well sheltered location.  t o take p l a c e , f r o m  S i n c e an important  t h i s , the o n l y  fishery relatively  coho stream i n h a i m a i ^ i s a t h  112  territory to  i s a t t h i s l o c a t i o n , one might expect the d e p o s i t s a t DiSo 1  represent the f a l l  s p r i n g and f a l l  season as w e l l .  The f a u n a l assemblages might  include  c a t c h e s o f m i g r a t o r y waterfowl o b t a i n e d i n the l a k e and  the meadows b e h i n d t h e v i l l a g e .  In s h o r t , t h i s  " w i n t e r " v i l l a g e i s so  s i t u a t e d as t o b e . h a b i t a b l e y e a r round, a t l e a s t f o r p o r t i o n s o f the population. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y one would expect a wide range o f r e s o u r c e s t o be r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a d e f i n i t e emphasis on o u t e r c o a s t marine and i n t e r - t i d a l resources.  U s i n g t h e c a t e g o r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n Chapter I I , one would expect  the f a u n a l assemblage t o be p r e d o m i n a n t l y from t h e f o l l o w i n g H a b i t a t Categories:  Mammal - P e l a g i c  Open L i t t o r a l Waters  (1) and P e l a g i c - L i t t o r a l  (2); B i r d - P e l a g i c ( 1 ) ,  (2), S h e l t e r e d Shallow Waters ( l a k e s and marshes) ( 3 ) ,  with l e s s e r frequencies o f S t r a n d / L i t t o r a l Interface  (5) and F o r e s t ( 6 ) ;  F i s h - Deep Water O f f s h o r e (1), Moderately Deep Waters, Rocky Bottom and V a r i e d Bottom (2 & 3 ) , Streams Rocky Shores  (1), Exposed  (8) and Lakes  (9); and S h e l l f i s h - Exposed  C l e a n Sand/Gravel Beaches  (3) and l e s s e r f r e q u e n -  c i e s o f s h e l t e r e d mud and sand beaches animals a l t h o u g h p o c k e t s o f these h a b i t a t s a r e found even on the o u t e r c o a s t . r e p r e s e n t e d , b u t these should  Other c a t e g o r i e s may w e l l be  predominate.  The v e r t e b r a t e fauna can be grouped  i n t o the more i n c l u s i v e  combined  h a b i t a t e c a t e g o r i e s and arranged i n rank o r d e r o f expected importance t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f the f a u n a l assemblages expected a t DiSo 1. T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 14C.  P e l a g i c i s expected t o be most important,  f o l l o w e d by P e l a g i c / L i t t o r a l , then L i t t o r a l ,  Streams/Lakes/Forests and  f i n a l l y L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t Edge.  DiSo 9 and ma^apiath Ma^apiath  Territory  t e r r i t o r y i s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the Inner Harbour Zone, s h e l -  113  A.  DiSo  16  PELAGIC PELAGIC/LITTORAL L I T T O R A L / FOREST E D G E 2  LITTORAL STREAMS/LAKES/FOREST  -  B. D i S o 9  PELAGIC PELAGIC/LITTORAL 3  L I T T O R A L / F O R E S T EDGE STREAMS/LAKES/FOREST LITTORAL  C  DiSo 1  PELAGIC  s  PELAGIC/LITTORAL  2  LITTORAL  3  S  STREAMS/LAKES/FOREST LITTORAL / FOREST EDGE  'Figure 14.  &y  Expected.Rank Orders o f Importance f o r V e r t e b r a t e F a u n a l H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s , S i t e s DiSo 1, DiSo 9, DiSo 16.  114  t e r e d , w i t h a t l e a s t f o u r good salmon streams, Lake o r the open ocean. o f b o u l d e r beach.  b u t no access t o H e s q u i a t  Beaches a r e predominantly  muddy sand w i t h  DiSo 9 a r t i c u l a t e s w i t h the e t h n o g r a p h i c  l a n d use p a t t e r n as a b u r i a l p l a c e .  areas  s e t t l e m e n t and  The e a r l i e r h a b i t a t i o n d e p o s i t s , i f  they b e l o n g w i t h i n . t h e ma ^ a p i a t h s e t t l e m e n t t r a d i t i o n , a r e expected  t o be  year round, as e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y the " w i n t e r " v i l l a g e o f the ma^apiath (DiSo 8) was o c c u p i e d y e a r round, w h i l e t h e many f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s were used but n o t l i v e d a t u n t i l h i s t o r i c t i m e s , and t h e r e i s a p p a r e n t l y no summer v i l l a g e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s l o c a l group u n t i l a f t e r amalgamation.  There  o  does n o t appear t o be any advantage t o moving about w i t h i n ma a p i a t h t e r r  o  r i t o r y as i t i s s m a l l , r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous and e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e Inner Harbour.  Strictly  speaking, the ma^apiath s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n p r i o r t o  amalgamation would seem t o be sedentary, w i t h use o f many r e s o u r c e from a c e n t r a l h a b i t a t i o n One  locations  location.  would expect a t DiSo 9 a f a i r l y wide range o f r e s o u r c e s r e p r e s e n t e d  i n t h e d e p o s i t s , b u t o n l y those a v a i l a b l e i n t h e s h e l t e r e d , s h a l l o w water marine and i n t e r t i d a l h a b i t a t s and i n streams and f o r e s t s .  Surface feeding  ducks and geese s h o u l d be f a i r l y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d , as s h o u l d s h e l t e r e d mudsand beach m o l l u s c s .  One would n o t expect t h e s e a l i o n s , p o r p o i s e s and  whales t o be w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d , a l t h o u g h harbour w e l l be p r e s e n t .  F u r s e a l might a l s o be p r e s e n t i f they a r e f o l l o w i n g t h e  h e r r i n g i n t o H e s q u i a t Harbour i n the s p r i n g . and/or f o e t a l .  s e a l and s e a o t t e r might  These animals  s h o u l d be female  As l a r g e sea mammals a r e not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s zone,  one might expect a g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e on l a r g e l a n d mammals, p a r t i c u l a r l y deer, a t t h i s s i t e than a t DiSo 1. represented, p a r t i c u l a r l y  H e r r i n g and salmon s h o u l d be w e l l  chum.salmon.  Summarizing, a l l seasons  a r e expected t o be r e p r e s e n t e d and the f o l -  115  lowing H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s a r e expected t o be emphasized: (3),  Mammal - L i t t o r a l  L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t Edge (4) and F o r e s t s (5) p o s s i b l e w i t h some P e l a g i c -  Littoral  (2) i n t h e form o f f u r s e a l ; B i r d - S h e l t e r e d L i t t o r a l Waters ( 3 ) ,  S h e l t e r e d Shallow Waters ( 4 ) , S t r a n d / L i t t o r a l I n t e r f a c e Upland  (6); F i s h - S h a l l o w e r Inshore Waters  w i t h S o f t Bottom Bottom  B o u l d e r Beaches  ( 4 ) , S h a l l o w e r Inshore Waters  ( 5 ) , I n t e r t i d a l , B o u l d e r Bottom  ( 7 ) , and Streams  ( 5 ) , and F o r e s t /  (6), I n t e r t i d a l ,  Soft  (8); and S h e l l f i s h - S h e l t e r e d Rocky Shores and  ( 2 ) , S h e l t e r e d Sand/Gravel Beaches  (4) and S h e l t e r e d Mud/  Sand/Gravel Beaches ( 5 ) . The expected combined v e r t e b r a t e p a t t e r n i s i l l u s t r a t e d 14B.  I t i s expected t h a t L i t t o r a l r e s o u r c e s w i l l rank f i r s t  f o l l o w e d by Streams/Lakes/Forests  i n Figure i n importance,  r e s o u r c e s , then L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t Edge  r e s o u r c e s , and f i n a l l y P e l a g i c / L i t t o r a l r e s o u r c e s .  Pelagic resources are  not expected t o be r e p r e s e n t e d .  DiSo 16 and y a ? g s i s a t h T e r r i t o r y Ya'c'qsisath t e r r i t o r y i s even more r e s t r i c t e d than ma ^ a p i a t h and a l s o e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e Inner Harbour Zone.  territory  I t does, however, i n c l u d e  the sockeye and o t h e r salmon r e s o u r c e s o f t h e H e s q u i a t Lake system. r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s a r e streams intertidal  Principal  and s h e l t e r e d s h a l l o w water marine and  habitats.  The h a b i t a t i o n d e p o s i t s o f DiSo 16 presumably e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e ya ^ q s i s a t h s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n . as t o suggest a s i n g l e  (extended?)  r e p r e s e n t an e a r l y The cave i s so s m a l l  family occupation.  might expect y e a r round o c c u p a t i o n o f t h i s  As a t DiSo 9, one  s m a l l cave, w i t h a f u l l  range o f  the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f a u n a l assemblage, b u t as t h e t e r r i t o r y i s more r e s t r i c t e d , a l e s s e r v a r i e t y than a t DiSo 9.  A g a i n , one  would n o t expect t o f i n d emphasis on sea mammal r e s o u r c e s , b u t a g r e a t e r  116  emphasis on deer, salmon, and p o s s i b l y h e r r i n g , a l t h o u g h t h i s i n c l u d e s few s t r e t c h e s o f good sandy beach herring.  territory  such as t h a t f a v o u r e d by  spawning  Much o f the beach s h o r e l i n e i s b o u l d e r .  The H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s expected t o be p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d a r e : Mammal - L i t t o r a l  (3), L i t t o r a l - F o r e s t Edge (4) and F o r e s t s (5); B i r d  S h e l t e r e d L i t t o r a l Waters Shores  (3), S h e l t e r e d Shallow Waters and A d j a c e n t  (4), S t r a n d / L i t t o r a l I n t e r f a c e  S h a l l o w e r Inshore Waters  (6), I n t e r t i d a l , S o f t Bottom ( 7 ) , Streams ( 8 ) r  ( 9 ) ; and S h e l l f i s h - S h e l t e r e d Rocky Shores  G r a v e l Beaches F i g u r e 14A  importance,  ( 2 ) , S h e l t e r e d Sand/  (4) and S h e l t e r e d Mud/Sand/Gravel Beaches ( 5 ) . i l l u s t r a t e s the expected p a t t e r n f o r the combined v e r t e b r a t e  faunal categories.  Streams/Lakes/Forests a r e expected t o rank f i r s t i n  f o l l o w e d by L i t t o r a l r e s o u r c e s , then L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t Edge and  finally Pelagic/Littoral. to  (5) and F o r e s t / U p l a n d ( 6 ) ; F i s h -  (4), Shallower Inshore Waters, S o f t Bottom ( 5 ) ,  I n t e r t i d a l , B o u l d e r Bottom and Lakes  -  As a t DiSo 9 , , P e l a g i c r e s o u r c e s are not expected  be p r e s e n t .  Summary These are the expected f a u n a l assemblages g i v e n a c o n t i n u a t i o n back through time o f the e t h n o g r a p h i c s e t t l e m e n t and l a n d use systems t h a t p r e v a i l e d p r i o r t o amalgamation o f the H e s q u i a t l o c a l groups V i l l a g e sometime i n the e a r l y 1800's.  at Hesquiat  G e n e r a l l y , one would expect the  w i d e s t range o f r e s o u r c e s and g r e a t e s t emphasis on marine p e l a g i c pelagic l i t t o r a l  and  r e s o u r c e s a t DiSo 1, w i t h DiSo 9 and 16 e x h i b i t i n g  i n n e r harbour assemblages,  b u t w i t h the DiSo 16 assemblage l e s s  similar  varied.  One would expect a l l seasons t o be r e p r e s e n t e d a t a l l s i t e s , a l t h o u g h the more l i m i t e d the range o f r e s o u r c e s e x p l o i t e d the l e s s l i k e l y i t i s t h a t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o document a l l seasons.  I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t  117  t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l seasons i s a r e c o r d o f the seasons o f e x p l o i t a t i o n , not n e c e s s a r i l y the seasons o f o c c u p a t i o n .  Wherever a s t o r a g e t e c h n o l o g y i s  e i t h e r known o r l o g i c a l l y presumed t o have been i n use, the season o f o c c u p a t i o n must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the season o f e x p l o i t a t i o n o f animal resources i n i n t e r p r e t i n g faunal  assemblages.  These f a u n a l p a t t e r n s s h o u l d p e r s i s t f o r as l o n g as the p e o p l e o c c u p y i n g the s i t e s have had d i r e c t a c c e s s t o s i m i l a r l y r e s t r i c t e d t e r r i t o r i e s have used the l o c a t i o n s d u r i n g the ,same.seasons.  and  In summary, one would  expect t o f i n d a p a r t i c u l a r type o f fauna a t each s i t e , grouped by the types o f h a b i t a t s t h a t they f a v o u r and p o s s i b l y , t o a l e s s e r degree, the seasons a t which they are a v a i l a b l e .  by  I f i t i s found t h a t the a r c h a e o l o -  g i c a l f a u n a l assemblages from these s i t e s d i f f e r p r i m a r i l y i n h a b i t a t groupings o f fauna, then one must conclude t h a t d i f f e r e n t h a b i t a t s are b e i n g e x p l o i t e d by the occupants o f each s i t e .  I f such i s the case, the  b e s t e x p l i c a t i o n o f such a , p a t t e r n would seem t o b e , c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r i e s that associate r e s t r i c t e d resource e x p l o i t a t i o n w i t h each h a b i t a t i o n  location.  territories  118  Chapter IV  S i t e C o n t e x t o f the F a u n a l  Assemblages  B i r d , f i s h , mammal and s h e l l f i s h remains were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d u r i n g the e x c a v a t i o n o f a l l  collected  s i t e s t e s t e d i n the seven y e a r s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  f i e l d r e s e a r c h undertaken as p a r t o f the H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t .  Partial  samples  from the excavated samples r e c o v e r e d from DiSo 1 and DiSo 9 and the f u l l from DiSo 16, c o m p l e t e l y excavated, a r e used h e r e .  The sampling and e x c a v a t i o n  methods by which the f a u n a l samples were r e c o v e r e d v a r i e d s l i g h t l y from t o s i t e , b u t adhered to t h r e e g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s : the c o l l e c t i o n o f an r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample; the maintenance and the c o l l e c t i o n of c o n t r o l samples  sample  site areally  of c u l t u r a l s t r a t i g r a p h i c provenience; to ensure the i n t e r - s i t e  comparability  of Faunal data.  SITE EXCAVATION METHODS, STRATIGRAPHY AND  DATING  DiSo 16 i s a s m a l l cave s i t e l o c a t e d a t the head o f H e s q u i a t Harbour approximately  .4 k i l o m e t r e s e a s t o f the mouth o f y a q s i s stream and 1.1  metres e a s t of DiSo 9 ( F i g . 13).  The cave i s s e t back some 10 metres  kilofrom  the p r e s e n t s h o r e l i n e and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.5 metres above p r e s e n t h i g h h i g h water  level.  I n o u t l i n e the i n t e r i o r o f the cave i s narrow and s h a l l o w l y  bilo-  bate a t the back, w i t h a maximum l e n g t h o f 3.5 metres and a maximum w i d t h o f 2.8 metres  ( F i g . 15).  The d r i p l i n e marking the entrance overhang angles back-  wards from west to e a s t so t h a t there a r e only about f i v e square' metres o f s h e l t e r e d a r e a w i t h i n the cave.  The h a b i t a t i o n d e p o s i t s r e a c h a maximum t h i c k -  ness o f one metre a t the f r o n t o f the cave. upwards towards shallower.  The cave f l o o r s l o p e s unevenly  the back o f the cave and the d e p o s i t s here are c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y  No c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s were l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t h e cave a l t h o u g h the  s l o p e i n f r o n t was  sampled u s i n g a power auger.  119  F i g u r e 15.  S i t e Map  o f Y a k s i s Cave, DiSo  16.  120  ,The d e p o s i t s a t DiSo 16 were completely angles t o t h e western edge o f the d r i p l i n e .  excavated  within a line at right  A one metre square  g r i d was de-  f i n e d i n s i d e t h e cave and d e p o s i t s removed by t r o w e l l i n g i n a l t e r n a t e one metre square levels.  u n i t s , u s i n g a combined system o f t e n c e n t i m e t r e . a r b i t r a r y and c u l t u r a l A l l m a t e r i a l removed was d r y screened  through  1/4 i n c h mesh. A l l  v e r t e b r a t e remains uncovered d u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n o r r e t a i n e d i n the screens were collected for analysis.  Representative  samples o f molluscan.remains were  c o l l e c t e d , t h e d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s b e i n g sampled a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p e r c e i v e d r e l a t i v e frequency o f o c c u r r e n c e  i n the d e p o s i t s .  M a t r i x samples o f the  s t r a t i g r a p h i c l a y e r s were c o l l e c t e d from the e x c a v a t i o n u n i t e s d u r i n g excavation.  I n a d d i t i o n , two 20 cm by 20 cm v e r t i c a l columns, one i n the c e n t r a l  a r e a o f the cave and t h e o t h e r o u t s i d e the d r i p l i n e , were c o l l e c t e d i n t o t a l by combined a r b i t r a r y and c u l t u r a l l e v e l s , f o r m a t r i x a n a l y s i s .  These a l s o  serve as c o n t r o l samples f o r the r e c o v e r y o f s m a l l f a u n a l remains:and the s u b j e c t i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f molluscan were excavated  remains.  down t o the cave f l o o r .  The c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s a t DiSo 16  The f u l l  sample o f f a u n a l remains  from e i g h t 1 m by 1 m e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s i s d i s c u s s e d here. The p h y s i c a l s t r a t i g r a p h y o f the d e p o s i t s i s r e l a t i v e l y simple b u t i s p a r t i a l l y c o m p l i c a t e d by the e f f e c t s o f the a n g l e d d r i p l i n e areas immediately  ( F i g . 1 6 ) . In t h e  o u t s i d e the d r i p l i n e , an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d m a t r i x of. dark,  s l i g h t l y sandy s o i l h i g h i n o r g a n i c content and c o n t a i n i n g s c a t t e r e d c h a r c o a l , f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k s and very o c c a s i o n a l p o c k e t s o f s h e l l , extended from the s u r f a c e t o the cave f l o o r o r t o the n o n c u l t u r a l sands and g r a v e l s f i l l i n g t h e uneven p o c k e t s  o f the cave f l o o r .  I n the c e n t e r o f t h e cave a complex o f rock  spread h e a r t h s was uncovered a t 10 cm below the s u r f a c e , e x t e n d i n g down t o 50 cm below the s u r f a c e o f the d e p o s i t s .  To the n o r t h and west o f t h i s  complex a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d s h e l l l e n s e s u n d e r l a i n by a dark,  hearth  s l i g h t l y sandy  s o i l and o v e r l a i n by a brown humus w i t h s c a t t e r e d s h e l l remains.  A t t h e back  G E i g u r e 16.  — beach pebbles , sand  East/West P r o f i l e a t North 2.0 Metres, Yaksis Cave, DiSo 16.  122  o f t h e cave i n the two s m a l l l o b e s , t h e c o n c e n t r a t e d s h e l l l e n s e s l i e d i r e c t l y upon the n o n c u l t u r a l sand and g r a v e l d e p o s i t s Two wood c h a r c o a l samples complex  from the s i t e , one a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the h e a r t h  and the o t h e r from beneath i t ,  1375 - 85  (1-8114) and A.D.  (Haggarty and Boehm 1974).  1265 - 80  returned radiocarbon estimates of (1-8113) r e s p e c t i v e l y .  A.D.  See T a b l e 9 f o r  d e n d r o c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t e d ranges f o r these e s t i m a t e s . The s i z e o f the cave, the depth o f the c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s and  their  r e l a t i v e l y simple, continuous n a t u r e , and t h e two r a d i o c a r b o n e s t i m a t e s , which c o u l d be e s t i m a t e s o f the same date, a l l suggest t h a t the d e p o s i t s a t DiSo 16 r e p r e s e n t a s i n g l e s h o r t term o c c u p a t i o n . a s i n g l e assemblage to 14th C e n t u r i e s  The f a u n a l remains are c o n s i d e r e d  r e p r e s e n t i n g a s h o r t p e r i o d o f o c c u p a t i o n i n the 12th A.D.  DiSo 9 i s a l a r g e r cave l o c a t e d immediately e a s t o f ma^api,  the t r a d i -  t i o n a l " w i n t e r " v i l l a g e o f the ma?apiath l o c a l group, a t the head o f H e s q u i a t Harbour it  ( F i g . 13).  I t i s about 1.1 k i l o m e t r e s west o f DiSo 16.  L i k e DiSo  16,  i s s e t back from the p r e s e n t s h o r e l i n e and i s 4.2 metres above p r e s e n t  h i g h h i g h water.  The i n t e r i o r o f the cave i s l o n g and narrow, b e i n g about  t h r e e metres a t i t s w i d e s t p o i n t and about twelve metres l o n g .  The r o o f o f  the cave i s low and extremely uneven. P r i o r t o e x c a v a t i o n , o f the h a b i t a t i o n d e p o s i t s , i t was  i m p o s s i b l e t o s t a n d u p r i g h t i n the cave, an obvious r e a s o n  f o r i t s abandonment some time i n the e i g h t h a b l y i n the 18th and 19th c e n t u r i e s as a r e s t i n g p l a c e f o r the dead.  A.D.,  centuryA.D. the cave was  Much l a t e r , proba g a i n used, t h i s  time  The cave f l o o r s l o p e s upwards towards the  back o f the cave, so t h a t the e a r l i e s t o c c u p a t i o n l a y e r s are t h i c k e s t a t the f r o n t of the cave, up t o two metres deep, where, beyond the d r i p l i n e  marking  the cave e n t r a n c e they become almost i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from and grade the n a t u r a l s o i l b u i l d up i n f r o n t t o f the cave.  into  As a t DiSo 16, power auger  t e s t i n g o f the s l o p e i n f r o n t o f the cave r e v e a l e d no c u l t u r a l  debris.  123  T a b l e 9.  Site  Radiocarbon E s t i m a t e s f o r H e s q u i a t Harbour  Strat. Unit  DiSo 1  ?  14 C Estimate  Age o f Sample  1-8113  685 - 80  AD 1265  AD 1355  AD 1210  1-8114  575 - 85  AD 1375  AD 1420  AD 1300  I  GaK-4395  1180. - 60  AD  770  AD 910  AD 730  I  1-8109  1200 - 85  AD  750  AD 915  AD 690  I  1-8111  1285  - 85  AD  665  AD 820  AD 620  II  WSU-1543  1740  - 60  AD  210  AD 380  AD 200  II  1-8110  1790  - 90  AD  160  AD 350  AD 140  II  WSU-1544  1800 - 70  AD  150  AD 290  AD 140  II  1-8112  1810  AD  140  AD 355  AD 95  - 115  Dendrochronology C o r r e c t e d range  ***  Lab. No.  DiSo 16  DiSo 9  Sitess*  II  WSU-2286  520 - 90  AD 1430  AD 1440  AD 1340  III  WSU-2287  520 t 90  AD 1430  AD 1440  AD 1340  III  WSU-2290  540 - 65  AD 1410  AD 1420  AD 1345  IV  WSUir2291  780 - 90  AD 1230  AD 1330  AD 1190  IV  WSU-1542  820 - 70  AD 1130  AD 1240  AD 1090  IV  WSU-2288  1065 - 70  AD  885  AD 1020  AD 860  IV  WSU-2289  1220 - 65  AD  730  AD 880~  AD 700  2430 - 200  480 BC  2 30 BC  800 BC  V/IV **GaK-4394  *Dates taken from C o n d r a s h o f f and Abbott 19 78. • * * T h i s date i s seemingly  unreliable.  ***Ralph, M i c h a e l and Han 1973.  124  DiSo 9 was  excavated i n 2 m by  a x i s o f the cave ( F i g . 17). l e v e l was The  1 m u n i t s a l i g n e d p a r a l l e l to the  A system o f combined 5 cm a r b i t r a r y and  used t o remove the d e p o s i t s and  d e p o s i t s were t r o w e l l e d and  t o r e c o r d and  dry screened  c o l l e c t the  through 2 mm  mesh.  v e r t e b r a t e remains uncovered or r e t a i n e d i n the s c r e e n s , and samples o f m o l l u s c a n remains, were c o l l e c t e d . whole, umbo and  In 1974  and  In 1973 a l l  representative  Matrix  cultural level  during  columns randomly s e l e c t e d w i t h i n 2 m  ments o f the cave m i d l i n e were c o l l e c t e d i n t o t a l a f t e r e x c a v a t i o n matrix  data.  s p i r e fragments o f m o l l u s c a n remains were r e t a i n e d .  f i v e 20 cm by 20 cm  cultural  a l l v e r t e b r a t e and a l l  samples were c o l l e c t e d from each combined a r b i t r a r y and excavation  long  seg-  for control  samples.  Approximately f i f t y per cent of the d e p o s i t s a t DiSo 9 had been excavated by  the end o f the 1974  u n i t s , 1, 2, 3, 8 and  season, but the sample from o n l y f i v e of the 10,  i s r e p o r t e d on here.  These f i v e u n i t s p r o v i d e  samples from the f r o n t , middle and back of the cave d e p o s i t s and area as w e l l as t h a t a d j a c e n t  matrices  they o c c u r r e d .  f o l l o w e d h o r i z o n t a l l y throughout the cave wherever  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , but because o f the l e v e l n a t u r e  of t h e i r d e p o s i t i o n  s t r a t a can be c o r r e l a t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y from e x c a v a t i o n  Inside  18).  fine these  u n i t to excavation  unit  excavated.  the cave the c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s s i t d i r e c t l y on top of the cave  f l o o r o r the n a t u r a l sands and g r a v e l s o r i g i n a l l y (Fig.  In  cultural  Thus i n two metres o f v e r t i c a l d e p o s i t t h e r e i s v e r y  throughout the a r e a  midline  and c o m p l i c a t e d .  p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h v e r t i c a l l y 23 d i s t i n c t  t h a t c o u l d be  the  to the e a s t e r n cave w a l l .  The p h y s i c a l s t r a t i g r a p h y o f DiSo 9 i s both simple the f i e l d i t was  excavation  The  lowest  l a i d down by wave a c t i o n  c u l t u r a l l e v e l s a t the f r o n t o f the cave can b e s t  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as b l a c k t o brown s o i l w i t h v a r y i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s g r a v e l , h i g h carbon and ash content,  and  little  o f sand  be and  s c a t t e r e d s h e l l but a c o n s i d -  125  «  F i g u r e 17.  Map o f Loon Cave, DiSo 9  126  e r a b l e number o f pockets o f c o n c e n t r a t e d  shellfish-remains.  In these  lower  d e p o s i t s almost the e n t i r e f r o n t and  c e n t r a l a r e a o f t h e cave i s taken up by:  a s e r i e s of l a r g e s t r u c t u r e d hearths  associated with extensive  coal deposits.  A t the back o f the cave are c o n c e n t r a t e d  p o s i t s contemporary w i t h  the h e a r t h  structures.  ash and  s h e l l and  char-  sand  de-  S c a t t e r e d s h e l l content  in  the f r o n t area i n c r e a s e s towards the top o f t h i s major s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t . Approximately one metre below the s u r f a c e of the d e p o s i t s t h e r e o c c u r s stratigraphic discontinuity.  I t i s marked by a l l a y e r o f sand t h a t caps  lower d e p o s i t s , s e p a r a t i n g them from the upper c u l t u r a l l a y e r s . l a y e r i s very  t h i n , about one  c o n t a i n s v e r y few faunal content  centimetre  f a u n a l remains.  The  a  the  sand'  t h i c k , a t the f r o n t o f the cave  I t gradually increases i n thickness  and and  towards the back o f the cave, where i t reaches a maximum  t h i c k n e s s o f 20 c e n t i m e t r e s . sand l a y e r i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e ,  I n the p r o f i l e s , t h e capping the sand f i l l i n g  i n the o r i g i n a l s u r f a c e on which i t was  e f f e c t of  small depressions  the  and  holes  deposited.  Above the sand l a y e r l i e s a s e r i e s o f c u l t u r a l l a y e r s w i t h v a r y i n g cons c e n t r a t i o n of f a u n a l remains, ash and c h a r c o a l , i n a dark and soil.  In t h i s upper zone the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s h e l l i s v i s i b l y g r e a t e r than  i n the f r o n t and hearth  sometimes sandy  c e n t r a l p o r t i o n s o f the lower u n i t .  complexes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ash  spreads o c c u r s  A s e r i e s o f rock i n the c e n t r a l and  p o r t i o n s o f the cave i n t h i s s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t a l s o and  shell  spread frontal  concentration  i s a g a i n h e a v i e s t towards the back o f the cave. The  upper s u r f a c e o f the d e p o s i t s has been somewhat d i s t u r b e d by  subsequent use o f the cave as a' b u r i a l p l a c e and  the  the top t e n t o twenty  centi-  metres o f the d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n fragments o f cedar bark rope, matting,  planks,  h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s and a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f decayed wood p a r t i c l e s  from  d i s i n t e g r a t e d b u r i a l boxes, a l l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  the s u r f a c e b u r i a l  complex.  127  N 6M ^ R F A C E _  a  :  O F _ D  £  p  N 5M 0  r!  s  |  T  A-duff B-whole clam, mussed, brown soil C-black soil, ash, charcoal  D-  El=GV.  whole clam, mussel sea snail, hearth ash, sand, charcoal yellow sand black soil, sand, gravel, shell black soil; sand, shell, charcoal  j - sandy soil,ash, charcoal, low density shell  sandy soil, carbon, K~ash, traces of shell  l_-sand. dam she 11 7  0 1  F i g u r e 18.  10 cm  I  20 _I  30  40  50  L_  T y p i c a l North/South P r o f i l e , Loon Cave, DiSo 9.  128  There i s l i t t l e  a c t u a l d i s t u r b a n c e from d i g g i n g o r m i x i n g o f l a y e r s , r a t h e r  materials o r i g i n a l l y  l y i n g on the s u r f a c e o f the h a b i t a t i o n d e p o s i t s have  g r a d u a l l y f i l t e r e d down i n t o the u n d e r l y i n g l a y e r s . Seven r a d i o c a r b o n e s t i m a t e s were o b t a i n e d f o r DiSo 9.  Three wood c h a r -  c o a l samples a s s o c i a t e d w i t h rock spread h e a r t h s o f the upper u n i t r e t u r n e d e s t i m a t e s o f A.D. 85  (1-8111),  750 - 85  (1-8108),  A.D  770 - 60  (GaK-4395) and A.D.  160 - 90  -  w h i l e f o u r wood c h a r c o a l samples a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t r u c t u r e d  h e a r t h s from the lower u n i t r e t u r n e d e s t i m a t e s o f A.D. A.D.  665  (1-8110),  A.D.  150 - 70  D e n d r o c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t e d ranges  140 - 115  (WSU-1544) and A.D.  210  - 60  (1-8112), (WSU-1543).  f o r t h e s e e s t i m a t e s are g i v e n i n Table  9. The p h y s i c a l s t r a t i g r a p h y and the r a d i o c a r b o n e s t i m a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t the d e p o s i t s a t DiSo 9 s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as two i n g two p e r i o d s o f o c c u p a t i o n , an e a r l y one and a l a t e r one  i n the 7th and  c o n s i d e r e d t o be two  stratigraphic units represent-  i n the 2nd and  8th C e n t u r i e s A.D.  The  3rd C e n t u r i e s  f a u n a l remains are  assemblages r e s u l t i n g from these two  occupations.  DiSo 1 i s a l a r g e open midden s i t e l o c a t e d on a low sandstone approximately  8 metres above mean sea l e v e l on the western  mouth ( F i g . 13). area approximately the b l u f f ;  The  bluff  shore of the  harbour  c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s are c o n c e n t r a t e d i n two a r e a s : a h i g h  40 m by more than 160 metres s t r e t c h e d a l o n g the top o f  and a shallow area t o the e a s t , a t the bottom o f the b l u f f ,  s t r e t c h e d atop the more r e c e n t beach d e p o s i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the ment of V i l l a g e Lake and now water.  A.D.  approximately  1.5  - 2.2  develop-  metres above h i g h h i g h  Both areas were used h i s t o r i c a l l y , b u t the d e p o s i t s o f the low  area  are v e r y s h a l l o w and appear t o be e n t i r e l y h i s t o r i c , w h i l e those on top of the b l u f f r e a c h a depth o f about one and a h a l f metres, w i t h h i s t o r i c lying prehistoric deposits. here.  over-  Only m a t e r i a l from the b l u f f a r e a i s d i s c u s s e d  129  Atop t h e b l u f f , a 2 m by 2 m g r i d was e s t a b l i s h e d over an a r e a 106 m l o n g by 32 m t o 44 m wide i n t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f t h e known e x t e n t o f t h e midden d e p o s i t s .  S i x u n i t s w i t h i n t h i s g r i d were s e l e c t e d u s i n g  random numbers, and excavated. 12 and 18, p l u s extension  a table of  The f a u n a l remains from two o f these u n i t s ,  remains from a:.third u n i t s e l e c t e d from the 1973 southward  o f the g r i d , u n i t B, a r e d i s c u s s e d  here.  Excavation Unit  12 i s  74 metres n o r t h o f E x c a v a t i o n U n i t 18, 86 metres n o r t h o f E x c a v a t i o n U n i t B and  10 metres west o f the edge o f the b l u f f .  Excavation Units  18 and B a r e  l o c a t e d 12 and 18 metres r e s p e c t i v e l y f u r t h e r back from the seaward edge o f the midden t h a n E x c a v a t i o n U n i t 12, so t h a t a r e a s o n a b l y wide a r e a ^ i s ~ sample'd by  the t h r e e u n i t s  ( F i g . 19).  D e p o s i t s werecexcavated by t r o w e l  i n combined 10 cm a r b i t r a r y and c u l t u r a l  l e v e l s and d r y s c r e e n e d through 1/4 i n c h mesh.  A l l vertebrate  remains un-  c o v e r e d o r r e t a i n e d i n the s c r e e n s were c o l l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s , and repre-s sentative deposit  samples o f m o l l u s c a n remains were r e t a i n e d .  As e x c a v a t i o n proceeded,  samples were o b t a i n e d from each combined a r b i t r a r y and c u l t u r a l l e v e l  f o r m a t r i x a n a l y s i s and a check on t h e r e c o v e r y o f s m a l l s i z e f a u n a l I n the areas sampled by the three  e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s , the midden  range i n maximum depth from 1.1 m t o 1,6 m. o f h a r d packed sand, c l a y and g r a v e l .  They o v e r l y g e o l o g i c a l  remains.  deposits deposits  S t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y the c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s  can be d i v i d e d on the b a s i s o f m a t r i x c o n t e n t and d e p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i n t o f o u r major s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s , o v e r l y i n g t h e b a s a l u n i t o f n a t u r a l o r i g i n . All  f o u r o f the major c u l t u r a l s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s a r e p r e s e n t i n each o f the  three  units reported  here  ( F i g . 20).  Stratigraphic Unit I, varying brown humus c o n t a i n i n g artifacts.  i n thickness  from 3 t o 40 cm, i s a l a y e r o f  some s h e l l and f i r e c r a c k e d rock, and many h i s t o r i c  Some a r e a s o f t h i s u n i t a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y  d i s t u r b e d from t h e p l a n t -  i n g o f v e g e t a b l e gardens and h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y .  I n E.U. 12 ,  130  to Village Lake  to the meadows  excavation units 12,t8,B extent of shell midden sample area 021 • buildings A - prehistoric and historic deposit on top of bluff B - historic deposit on recent beach deposits  40  _L  F i g u r e 19.  S i t e Map o f H e s q u i a t V i l l a g e , DiSo 1.  80  120  J  160  I  200  !  131  S 147 M  S 146 M brown soil, shell traces, — historic and disturbed - b r o w n soil, scattered shell, some shell lenses  100 stratified brown soil, Q f ^ C - l e n s e s of concentrated shell and f i s h bone  dark brown soil,many D - f i r e - c r a c k e d rocks, shell and bone pockets — dark brown s o i l , many f i r e - c r a c k e d rocks and pebbles, few scattered faunal remains p - g r e y sandy soil and gravel  G — y e l l o w orange  LIMIT  OF  0  10  I^LJ  F i g u r e 20.  EXCAVATION  20  L  30  I  40  I  5.0  1  T y p i c a l DiSo 1 P r o f i l e , A b s t r a c t e d  from E x c a v a t i o n  U n i t B.  sand  13 2 t h i s layer- i's. v e r y disturbed--,-; c o n t a i n i n g a'post h o l e approximately i n diameter e x t e n d i n g 80 cm  75 cm down from the s u r f a c e , and a p i t o f  diameter extending  85 cm down from the s u r f a c e .  The  fill  20 cm .  approximately o f these  fea-  t u r e s i s mixed and homogeneous and o b v i o u s l y c o n t a i n s b o t h h i s t o r i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l from v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f the s i t e .  The whole o f t h i s  pre-  strat-  i g r a p h i c u n i t i s c o n s i d e r e d b a s i c a l l y h i s t o r i c , but a l s o d i s t u r b e d . S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t I I i s a major u n i t o f s t r a t i f i e d d e p o s i t s o f brown soil,  s h e l l l e n s e s and  hearth  f i r e c r a c k e d rock, c o n t a i n i n g a t l e a s t one  f e a t u r e . - I t v a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s from 7 t o 65 cm,  and E.U.  and  i n b o t h E.U.  12, much o f the u n i t has been t r u n c a t e d and removed by  occupational a c t i v i t i e s . t h i s u n i t and  Excavation  18,  18  subsequent-  the s e p a r a t i o n between the remnant of  the u n d e r l y i n g d e p o s i t s was  v a t i o n , thus E.U. as d i s t u r b e d .  In E.U.  sand p i t  not c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d d u r i n g  18 U n i t I I l e v e l s have had  to be lumped w i t h U n i t I  excalevels  S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t I I , then, o n l y c o n t a i n s ^ f a u n a l remains from  U n i t s 12 and B.  returned a radiocarbon  A wood c h a r c o a l sample from the h e a r t h  estimate  o f 520  Stratigraphic Unit III i s a finely  - 90 B.P.  feature  (WSU-2 286).  s t r a t i f i e d u n i t of Highly  concentrated  s h e l l l a y e r s , v a r y i n g i n t h i c k n e s s from 3 to 70 cm.  I t i s w e l l represented  E.U.  18.  B but i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s  carbon e s t i m a t e s 540  - 65 B.P.  i n b o t h E.U.  f o r t h i s u n i t , one  12 and E.U.  o f 520  - 90 B.P.  There are two  (WSU-2 289)  radio-  and one  d e n s i t y s c a t t e r e d s h e l l l e n s e s and v e r y heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f f i r e I t also contains v a r y i n g l y concentrated  I n the E.U. thick.  of  (WSU-2290).  S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t IV i s a s t r a t i f i e d u n i t of brown sandy s o i l s w i t h  rocks.  in  cracked  l e n s e s o f v e r t e b r a t e remains.  18 a r e a , i t i s the b u l k o f the midden, b e i n g from 80 to 140  In the o t h e r two  in thickness.  u n i t s i t i s l e s s extensive, ranging  Radiocarbon e s t i m a t e s on  u n i t date i t t o between 1200 f u s i n g as two  dates, one  and  o f 720  from 20  cm  to 65  cm  f o u r wood c h a r c o a l samples from t h i s  700 years - 90 B,P.  low  ago.  These dates  (WSU-2291X and one  are somewhat conof 1065  - 70  B.P.  133  .(WSU-22 88) 1220  both come from middle l a y e r s o f t h i s u n i t , w h i l e the o t h e r two,  - 65 B.P.  (WSU-2289) and  occupation layer.  820  - 70 B.P.  (WSU-1542) b o t h date the  A f i f t h estimate o f 2430 - 200  from near the c o n t a c t  of U n i t s  IV o v e r l i e s the g e o l o g i c a l  (GaK-4394) on wood  IV and V seems out o f l i n e .  initial charcoal  Stratigraphic  g r a v e l s , a r b i t r a r i l y ended by  b a s i c a l l y s t e r i l e , but contains i n t r u s i v e from U n i t  a few  the  l i m i t of excavation.  sands,  It is  p o c k e t s o f f a u n a l remains t h a t may  be  IV.  While these f i v e major s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d p a r t l y s t r a t i g r a p h i c d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , the d e p o s i t i o n a l breaks are not the development o f s t e r i l e s o i l h o r i z o n s . and  The  considered  continuous  o f s i t e usage through time. faunal  separation  o f the  remains  f i v e s e p a r a b l e assemblages, f o u r c u l t u r a l and  n o n c u l t u r a l , w i t h i n a s i n g l e more or l e s s continuous d e p o s i t i o n a l The  one b a s i c a l l y sequence.  f a u n a l remains by Major S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t a l l o w s  examination o f changes through time i n the  with  r e o c c u p a t i o n s o f the whole  p h y s i c a l s t r a t i g r a p h y o f DiSo 1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the  s h o u l d be  associated  s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequence i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e l a t i v e l y  d e p o s i t i o n a l sequence e x h i b i t i n g changing p a t t e r n s The  on  They p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t changing types  i n t e n s i t i e s o f o c c u p a t i o n , not abandonments and  site.  Unit  deposits.  S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t V i s the g e o l o g i c a l u n i t o f s e m i - c o n s o l i d a t e d c l a y s , and  of  the  f a u n a l r e c o r d o f t h i s major midden  site. ASSOCIATED ARTIFACT ASSEMBLAGES The  samples o f p r e h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s from the e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s  produced the 9;  and  282  f a u n a l samples are  from DiSo 1.  s m a l l : 34 a r t i f a c t s from DiSo .16.; 172  Bone, a n t l e r , stone and  F u l l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the assemblages are s t i l l b r i e f summary and  T a b l e 10  that from DiSo  s h e l l a r t i f a c t s were r e c o v e r e d .  i n preparation,  but  the  following  serve t o demonstrate the r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f  the  134  assemblages.. Table  F i g u r e s 21 and 22 i l l u s t r a t e  10 l i s t s  the a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s d i s t i n g u i s h e d and i l l u s t r a t e s  d i s t r i b u t i o n and a c t u a l f r e q u e n c i e s the f a u n a l remains. Where they d i f f e r , The stone  the a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s . their  i n the s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s used t o group  A r t i f a c t c l a s s e s are as d e f i n e d i n M i t c h e l l (1971). they a r e b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d a t t h e end o f T a b l e 10.  g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r s o f a l l the assemblages a r e v e r y s i m i l a r .  Chipped  o b j e c t s a r e e i t h e r absent o r extremely r a r e , and there i s no c h i p p i n g  detritus.  The few stone a r t i f a c t s o t h e r than a b r a s i v e s t o n e s ,  are many, a r e manufactured by g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e s . slate points or knives. and k n i v e s .  Instead  Other ground stone  t h e r e a r e ground C a l i f o r n i a Mussel s h e l l p o i n t s a r t i f a c t s a r e c e l t s and f i s h h o o k  barbs o f v a r y i n g s i z e s and s t y l e s . i n two s i z e s .  there  There a r e no ground  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e bone and a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s a r e simple  present  o f which  shanks.  bone p o i n t s o r  Composite t o g g l i n g harpoon heads are a l s o  Other a r t i f a c t s i n c l u d e n e e d l e s ,  awls, u n i l a t e r a l l y  barbed f i x e d p o i n t s , b i p o i n t s , and the deer u l n a t o o l s e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as f i s h c u t t i n g k n i v e s .  There i s support  f i c a t i o n f o r the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t o o l s as w e l l . from the H e s q u i a t bone s u r f a c e s . The  samples were r e c o v e r e d w i t h  for this functional identi-  Two o f the deer u l n a t o o l s f i s h s c a l e s adhering  to the  Bone a r t i f a c t s a r e more common than a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s .  a r t i f a c t assemblages, then,  are r e l a t i v e l y  simple.  In fact the  s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e assemblages suggests t h a t they a r e remnants o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e s t h a t used many p l a n t f i b r e s , which have n o t s u r v i v e d i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l context, ethnographic  i n t h e i r manufactures.  This suggestion  data and t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence  complex a r t i f a c t s ,  among which are many wooden  i s supported  from the H e s q u i a t  items.  by b o t h burial  135  T a b l e 10.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A r t i f a c t s by Major S t r a t i g r a p h i c  Class  DiSo 16  DiSo 9 I  STONE Chippedostoneo- c Quartz flake/nodule Chipped-slate k n i f e Notched stone  Units  DiSo 1  II  I  II  I I I IV  1  1 1 1  Ground Stone Fishhook shank* Celt M i s c . ground stone o b j e c t s  1  Pecked and Ground Stone A b r a s i v e s t o n e s and s l a b s  5  5  4  3  1  2 1 8  13  1 3  3 1  1 27  1 8  16  62  BONE AND ANTLER Mammal bone needle B i r d bone n e e d l e D o g f i s h s p i n e awl?* B i r d bone awl, t i n y B l u n t "awl" Deer u l n a t o o l P o i n t e d bone o b j e c t Bone wedge o r c h i s e l b i t B i r d bone h a n d l e ? * Sea mammal bone dagger?* Polished porpoise auditory b u l l a Ground c a r n i v o r e t o o t h U n i l a t e r a l l y barbed p o i n t Composite t o g g l i n g harpoon v a l v e 6 cm t o 13 cm Composite t o g g l i n g harpoon v a l v e 4 cm t o < 6 cm Wedge- o r c o n i c a l - b a s e d p o i n t <;5 cm M i s c . bone p o i n t *Angled b a r b <3 cm A n g l e d barb 3 - <5 cm A n g l e d barb >5 cm S t r a i g h t barb <5 cm Bone b i p o i n t < 7 cm P o i n t o r barb fragments B i p o i n t fragments M i s c . worked human bone M i s c . worked a n t l e r M i s c . worked s e a mammal bone M i s c . worked l a n d mammal bone  2 1  7 1 1 1  1 3  1  1 1 1  1 2  1  1 1 1 1 1 1  5  2  3  2  1  2  2  1 1  16  7 2  4  1 4  9  2 1  1 3  3  3 1 1 6 5 20  1 2 19  7  3 1 5  3 2  4  1 4 3  3 3  3 6  1 10 2  7 6  18 2  2  7  1  2  3 4 4  1 5  9 3  V  136  T a b l e 10.  (Continued)  DiSo 16  Class  DiSo 9 I  DiSo 1 I  II  III  IV  V  97 27  55  99  4  II  SHELL Mussel s h e l l p o i n t Mussel s h e l l k n i f e Mussel s h e l l adze b l a d e Mussel s h e l l k n i f e / a d z e fragment S h e l l bead Dentalium Clam s h e l l scoop?*  2 1  1 1  34  Totals  1. i: 4  2 1  89  83  A r t i f a c t s o f n o n - a b o r i g i n a l manufacture were p r e s e n t i n the d e p o s i t s o f DiSo 1-1, p r o b a b l y i n t r u s i v e i n t o DiSo l - I I and DiSo l - I I I , and i n t r u s i v e from the s u r f a c e b u r i a l complex i n DiSo 16 and DiSo 9-1.  ^Ground stone  f i s h h o o k shank:  These a r e c y l i n d r i c a l stone shanks b e v e l e d  or  grooved a t one end t o r e c e i v e a bone barb and m o d i f i e d a t the o p p o s i t e to p r o v i d e an a r e a f o r l i n e attachment * D o g f i s h s p i n e awl?: extremely  end  ( F i g . 21 b ) .  T h i s i s a d o r s a l f i n s p i n e from a d o g f i s h which i s  worn a t the t i p .  The wear i s uneven and seems more e x t e n s i v e  the u s u a l wear, e x h i b i t e d n a t u r a l l y by  these s p i n e s , a l t h o u g h  i t may  be  than just  an anomalously worn n a t u r a l s p i n e . * B i r d bone h a n d l e ? :  T h i s i s made from the r i g h t t i b i a of a P e l a g i c Cormorant  (Phalacrocorax p e l a g i c u s ) . angles  The  l o n g bone i s n e a t l y ground o f f a t r i g h t  to the l o n g a x i s o f the s h a f t so t h a t the p r o x i m a l  removed.  The  d i s t a l a r t i c u l a r s u r f a c e s are unmodified.  n a t u r a l l y s o c k e t e d s h a f t approximately  l / 5 t h has been The  result i s a  8 cm l o n g w i t h a s l i g h t l y  curved  137  handle  ( F i g . 22 m).  *Sea mammal bone dagger?:  T h i s i s a 29.5 cm l o n g by 3.5 cm wide by 1.2 cm t h i c k  s e c t i o n o f whale r i b w i t h a s h a r p l y p o i n t e d end.  I t would make a v e r y  • e f f i c i e n t dagger o r bark p e e l e r . *Angled b a r b s : described  These a r e bone barbs f o r f i s h h o o k shanks, o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h s as ( F i g . 22 o - r ) .  The bases a r e shaped w i t h one s t r a i g h t s i d e and  one ground smooth a t a 10 t o 20 degree a n g l e t o the l o n g a x i s o f the s h a f t . *Clam  s h e l l scoop?:  T h i s may a l s o be n a t u r a l .  I t i s a Basket C o c k l e s h e l l  ( C l i n o c a r d i u m n u t t a l l i i ) w i t h a worn v e n t r a l edge t h a t appears modified.  artificially  As w i t h t h e d o g f i s h s p i n e , however, i t may be n a t u r a l l y worn.  As t h e samples a r e v e r y s m a l l , comparisons a r e made w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s , b u t a few d i f f e r e n c e s seem noteworthy. c o v e r e d from the b u r i a l complex  Ground  assemblages  stone f i s h h o o k shanks, a l t h o u g h r e a t DiSo 9, o n l y o c c u r i n t h e  h a b i t a t i o n d e p o s i t s o f DiSo 1, even though they a r e r e p o r t e d from Yuquot as e a r l y as 1,000 B.C. (Dewhirst 1978:12). these samples  U n i l a t e r a l l y barbed p o i n t s , n o t p r e s e n t i n  a t DiSo 9, and DiSo 16, a r e found i n o t h e r e x c a v a t i o n u n i t  samples a t DiSo 9, w h i l e stone c e l t s , n o t p r e s e n t i n t h i s sample from DiSo 1, are  s i m i l a r l y p r e s e n t i n o t h e r e x c a v a t i o n u n i t samples a t t h i s s i t e .  Large  t o g g l e harpoon v a l v e s , , l i k e t h e f i s h h o o k shanks, a r e a l s o found o n l y i n t h e h a b i t a t i o n d e p o s i t s o f DiSo 1, a l t h o u g h r e c o v e r e d w i t h the b u r i a l complex a t DiSo 9.  These a r t i f a c t s a r e n o t p r e s e n t a t Yuquot u n t i l a f t e r A.D. 800  (Dewhirst 1978:14).  Bone b i p o i n t s , a n g l e d barbs and a b r a s i v e s t o n e s a r e a l l  more common a t . D i S o 1 i n t h i s sample.  Wedge- o r c o n i c a l - b a s e d p o i n t s and  s t r a i g h t barbs l e s s than 5 cm i n l e n g t h , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e more common a t DiSo 9.  The s h e l l beads and d e n t a l i u m found a t DiSo 9 and DiSo 16 a r e most  p r o b a b l y i n t r u s i v e from t h e s u r f a c e b u r i a l complexes  a t these s i t e s .  138  F i g u r e 21. a. b. c.  Stone and S h e l l A r t i f a c t C l a s s e s  a b r a s i v e s t o n e , DiSo 1 f i s h h o o k shank, DiSo 1 c e l t , DiSo 9  d. e. f.  a b r a s i v e stone, DiSo 16 C a l i f o r n i a Mussel s h e l l adze b l a d e , DiSo 9 C a l i f o r n i a Mussel s h e l l k n i f e , DiSo 9  139  F i g u r e 22. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.  Bone and A n t l e r A r t i f a c t  deer u l n a t o o l , DiSo 9 mammal bone n e e d l e , DiSo 9 b i r d bone awl, DiSo 9 misc. bone p o i n t , DiSo 9 c o n i c a l - b a s e d bone p o i n t , DiSo 1 c o n i c a l - b a s e d bone p o i n t , DiSo 9 wedge-based bone p o i n t , DiSo 9 s t r a i g h t barb<5 cm, DiSo 9  Classes k. 1. m. n. o. p. q,r. s. t.  composite t o g g l i n g harpoon v a l v e 6 cm, DiSo 9 composite t o g g l i n g harpoon v a l v e >6 cm, DiSo 1 b i r d bone h a n d l e ? , DiSo 16 s t r a i g h t b a r b 5 cm, DiSo 1 a n g l e d barb<3 cm, DiSo 16 a n g l e d b a r b 3-5 cm, DiSo 1 a n g l e d barbs>5 cm, DiSo 1 u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed bone p o i n t , DiSo 1 bone wedge o r c h i s e l b i t , DiSo 1  140  These d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y  i n Chapter V I , b u t i t i s  worth n o t i n g here t h a t n e a r l y every a r t i f a c t c l a s s found i n t h e s e H e s q u i a t samples  i s present  i n the Yuquot s i t e a t a comparable o r e a r l i e r time p e r i o d  (Dewhirst 1978:8-17).  The s i m i l a r i t y o f the assemblages  i s , as p r e d i c t e d by  Dewhirst, q u i t e remarkable.  SUMMARY The f a u n a l remains d i s c u s s e d d i s t i n c t assemblages  i n t h i s study a r e c o n s i d e r e d  from t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s :  DiSo 16 : d a t i n g t o t h e 13th and 14th C e n t u r i e s 2.  DiSo 9-1  *  A.D.  DiSo 1-1 : the upper h i s t o r i c and d i s t u r b e d l a y e r s a t DiSo 1, d a t i n g primarily  •  A.D.  DiSo 9-II : the lower d e p o s i t s a t DiSo 9, d a t i n g t o the 2nd and 3rd Centuries  4  A.D.  : the upper d e p o s i t s and t h e sand l a y e r a t DiSo 9, d a t i n g t o  the 7th and 8th C e n t u r i e s 3*  t o be e i g h t  t o t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d from t h e l a t e 1700's t o the p r e s e n t .  DiSo l - I I : the upper, low d e n s i t y s h e l l l a y e r s a t DiSo 1, d a t i n g t o the 1400's A.D., r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e p r e h i s t o r i c r e c o r d and comparable  6.  DiSo l - I I I  t o the e t h n o g r a p h i c  "present".'  : the heavy s h e l l l a y e r s a t DiSo 1, a l s o d a t e d t o the  1400's A.D. 7  *  DiSo 1-IV : the f i r e - c r a c k e d rock,  c o b b l e and f a u n a l l a y e r s dated t o  between 700 A.D. and about 1250 A.D.,  (but p o s s i b l y b e g i n n i n g as e a r l y  as 400 B.C. i n some a r e a s o f the s i t e ? ) ^-  DiSo 1-V : the e s s e n t i a l l y s t e r i l e g e o l o g i c a l d e p o s i t s u n d e r l y i n g the c u l t u r a l midden d e p o s i t s , c o n t a i n i n g a few f a u n a l remains t h a t may have o r i g i n a t e d from DiSo 1-IV.  141  The f a u n a l assemblages•are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t assemblages differing slightly but  obviously  i n r e l a t i v e frequencies  of p a r t i c u l a r a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s ,  p a r t o f the same r e g i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i c a l  tradition.  142  Chapter V  Faunal  Assemblages  The f a u n a l assemblages o f each o f the t h r e e s i t e s i n c l u d e mammal, f i s h and s h e l l f i s h remains.  bird,  A t o t a l o f 49,770 s k e l e t a l elements were r e -  covered from t h e t h r e e s i t e s and i d e n t i f i e d t o F a m i l y o r more s p e c i f i c  taxa.  Of t h e s e , 5,061 elements a r e mammal, 6,913 a r e b i r d and 37,796 a r e f i s h . 135,777.4 grams o f s h e l l f i s h remains were r e t a i n e d f o r a n a l y s i s .  METHOD OF IDENTIFICATION All  f a u n a l remains were i d e n t i f i e d by the author o r a s s i s t a n t s  and s u p e r v i s e d by t h e a u t h o r .  trained  The comparative s k e l e t a l c o l l e c t i o n s i n t h e  V e r t e b r a t e Zoology D i v i s i o n and the A r c h a e o l o g y D i v i s i o n o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , were used f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  Use  was a l s o made o f the f i s h s k e l e t o n c o l l e c t i o n o f the Zoology Department o f the  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, and o f the d e s c r i p t i v e i l S  l u s t r a t e d key d e v i s e d by Dr. N.J. Wilimovsky, I n s t i t u t e o f Animal Resource E c o l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., and h i s s t u d e n t s , d u r i n g t h e i r  identifica-  t i o n o f the f i s h remains from t h e Yuquot e x c a v a t i o n s . No attempt was made to  i d e n t i f y r i b s , r a y s and s p i n e s o f f i s h o t h e r than the f i r s t i n t e r h a e m a l  and f i r s t skates. to  i n t e r n e u r a l s p i n e s and the d o r s a l s p i n e s o f d o g f i s h , r a t f i s h and A l l elements o f mammal remains were i d e n t i f i e d i f complete enough  r e t a i n c r i t i c a l morphological features.  bird ribs.  No attempt was made t o i d e n t i f y  A l l s h e l l f i s h remains r e t a i n e d d u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n were a n a l y s e d .  Where t h e r e i s doubt, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s a r e c o n s e r v a t i v e . Four age c a t e g o r i e s a r e used f o r mammals, augmented where p o s s i b l e by more s p e c i f i c ages d e r i v e d from p a t t e r n s o f d e n t a l e r u p t i o n and wear o r e s t a b l i s h e d ages o f e p i p h y s e a l u n i o n .  These f o u r c a t e g o r i e s a r e :  143  1.  Adult:  element  i sfull  s i z e , w i t h epiphyses f u l l y f u s e d and a r t i c u l a r  f a c e t s and muscle r i d g e s 2.  Sub-Adult:  element  is full  developed.  s i z e o r n e a r l y so, b u t ephiphyses a r e n o t  f u l l y j o i n e d , a r t i c u l a r f a c e t s and muscle r i d g e s  developed.  With s e a mammals, the c r i t e r i o n o f e p i p h y s e a l u n i o n i s l e s s u s e f u l than f o r l a n d mammals; as they r e t a i n unfused of  many elements w e l l i n t o a d u l t h o o d .  epiphyses  Thus many sea mammal  elements have had t o be c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r a d u l t o r s u b - a d u l t . The s u b - a d u l t c a t e g o r y i s n o t used f o r r o d e n t s , r a c c o o n o r t h e s m a l l m u s t e l i d s as i t i s r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e J u v e n i l e c a t e g o r y f o r these a n i m a l s . 3.  Juvenile:  element  i s l e s s than a d u l t s i z e , s t i l l  r e t a i n s the j u v e n i l e  c o r t e x , epiphyses a r e unfused, and muscle attachments developing. their f i r s t 4.  New B o r n / F o e t a l :  still  The c a t e g o r y r o u g h l y corresponds t o animals i n year o f l i f e .  element  i s of very small s i z e , morphological features  and a r t i c u l a r s u r f a c e s s t i l l and epiphyses absent.  forming, j u v e n i l e c o r t e x e v i d e n t  The l a c k o f comparative  material,  p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r sea mammals, o f d e f i n i t e l y new born o r d e f i n i t e l y f o e t a l ages has n e c e s s i t a t e d combining groupings.  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so f o r sea mammals, as u n l i k e  most l a n d mammals, they a r e p r e c o c i o u s . for  these age  The n o r t h e r n f u r s e a l ,  example, sheds i t s deciduous t e e t h i n u t e r o .  Sex d i s t i n c t i o n s f o r mammals a r e based p r i m a r i l y on w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d s e x u a l dimorphism  augmented where p o s s i b l e by d i r e c t evidence such as a n t l e r  f o r m a t i o n and b a c c u l a .  No attempt was made t o age o r sex b i r d s and f i s h .  144  METHODS OF  The  faunal  QUANTIFICATION  remains a r e q u a n t i f i e d  u s i n g major s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s  above Pages 130 t o 131) as t h e u n i t o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n . and  minimum number o f i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t e d  Skeletal  (defined  element count  (MNI) f o r v e r t e b r a t e s and weight  of remains f o r s h e l l f i s h , a r e used as t h e u n i t s o f measurement.  The c a l c u l a ^  t i o n o f s k e l e t a l element c o u n t i s c o n s e r v a t i v e , i n t h a t two n o n - o v e r l a p p i n g fragments o f t h e same element o f a s p e c i e s , within Size,  a major s t r a t i g r a p h i c  r e c o v e r e d from d i f f e r e n t  u n i t , a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t one element.  age and sex d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e taken i n t o account wherever For  DiSo 9 and DiSo 16, MNI  or major s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t  levels  i s calculated  possible.  on the t o t a l s i t e  (DiSo 9) sample f o r each d i s t i n g u i s h e d  regarding i n t r a - s i t e or i n t r a - u n i t h o r i z o n t a l  (DiSo 16) taxon,  and v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s .  DiSo 1, where w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d , randomly s e l e c t e d  dis-  For  u n i t s were e x c a v a t e d ,  MNI  is calculated  on the e x c a v a t i o n u n i t major s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t sample f o r each  distinguished  taxon, w i t h s i t e major s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t  of i n d i v i d u a l excavation unit t o t a l s . sions are disregarded. are  t o t a l s b e i n g the sum  Vertical intra-stratigraphic unit  As w i t h element count, age,.-5sex, and s i z e  taken i n t o account wherever  distinctions  possible.  S h e l l f i s h remains a r e r e p o r t e d i n grams o f remains by s i t e o r major graphic u n i t .  divi-  strati-  T h i s method o f measurement has problems, o v e r - r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e  larger, heavier-shelled  species,  b u t as two d i f f e r e n t c o l l e c t i o n methods were  used f o r s h e l l f i s h remains i t was f e l t t o be a more  representative unit of  measurement i n t h i s case than element count o r MNI.  DESCRIPTION AND COMPARISON Given t h e number o f s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d , many o f which are p r e s e n t i n  145  v e r y low f r e q u e n c i e s , a comparison o f the f a u n a l assemblages l e v e l can be c o n f u s i n g .  Comparison  a t the s p e c i e s  a t the z o o l o g i c a l F a m i l y l e v e l s e r v e s  to e l u c i d a t e t h e major d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s among t h e e i g h t assemblages.  The comparisons a r e p r e s e n t e d i n b a r graphs.  each assemblage  Detailed discussions of  f o l l o w the g e n e r a l comparisons, b u t the s p e c i f i c d a t a a r e r e -  p o r t e d i n Appendix A.  Here, raw and r e l a t i v e  frequencies o f occurrence f o r  each i d e n t i f i e d taxon o f each f a u n a l assemblage  are presented i n tabular  form.  Only remains i d e n t i f i e d t o s p e c i e s , genus o r F a m i l y a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e t o t a l counts f o r p e r c e n t a g e purposes, b u t l e s s also reported.  s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d remains a r e  Unless s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d ,  c e t a c e a n and d e l p h i n i d remains  are  n o t i n c l u d e d i n the p e r c e n t a g e c o u n t s , and a l t h o u g h t e c h n i c a l l y  the  k i l l e r whale i s q u a n t i f i e d under cetacean because o f t h e s i z e o f i t s e l e -  ments.  Both s k e l e t a l  element count and MNI r e l a t i v e  a delphinid,  frequencies are reported  i n Appendix A, b u t throughout Chapters V and VI element count a l o n e i s g e n e r a l l y ' used t o compare assemblages. results  Where there a r e marked d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  o f these two methods o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n , t h i s  i s noted.  DiSo 16 Assemblages A t o t a l o f 286 mammal, 516 b i r d and 3188 i d e n t i f i a b l e fragments was r e c o v e r e d from t h e s m a l l cave DiSo 16.  f i s h bones o r bone  T h i s i s an average o f  831 bones o r bone fragments l a r g e r than 6 mm p e r c u b i c metre o f d e p o s i t , a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of remains t h a t p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s the c o n f i n e d n a t u r e o f the o c c u p a t i o n and d e p o s i t i o n a r e a .  A t o t a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample w e i g h t o f  5,338.2 grams o f s h e l l f i s h remains were r e c o v e r e d .  The remains were concen-  t r a t e d i n t h e back and western h a l f o f t h e cave and i n the upper f i f t y  centi-  metres o f d e p o s i t .  DiSo 9 Assemblages A t o t a l count o f 785 mammal, 2,626 b i r d and 19,285 i d e n t i f i a b l e  fish  146 remains and 114,791.5 grams o f s h e l l f i s h remains were c o l l e c t e d from excavat i o n u n i t s 1, 2, 3, 8 and 10 a t DiSo 9.  T h i s i s an average o f 1,513 bones  l a r g e r than 2 mm p e r c u b i c metre o f d e p o s i t , a v e r y h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f f a u n a l remains.  E x c e p t f o r b i r d remains, t h e remains a r e f a i r l y  equally  d i v i d e d between S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t s I and I I . Stratigraphic Unit;I: T h i s u n i t c o n t a i n s 53 p e r c e n t o f the mammal, 73 p e r c e n t o f t h e b i r d and 43 p e r c e n t o f t h e f i s h remains by bone count and 45 p e r c e n t o f t h e s h e l l f i s h remains by weight.  H o r i z o n t a l l y , t h e s e remains i n c r e a s e i n con-  c e n t r a t i o n towards the back o f t h e cave. Stratigraphic Unit I I : T h i s u n i t c o n t a i n s 47 p e r c e n t o f t h e mammal remains, 27 p e r c e n t o f the b i r d remains and 57 p e r c e n t o f t h e f i s h remains by bone count, w h i l e 55 p e r c e n t o f t h e s h e l l f i s h remains by weight a r e from t h i s u n i t . seems  This  anomalous as t h e f r o n t p o r t i o n s o f t h e s e lower l e v e l s o f t h e cave  d e p o s i t s a r e v i s u a l l y n e a r l y s h e l l - f r e e , b u t r e s u l t s from t h e c o n c e n t r a t e d s h e l l l e n s e s a t t h e back o f t h e cave i n t h e s e l a y e r s .  DiSo 1 Assemblages A t o t a l o f 3,990 mammal(17 p e r c e n t ) , 3,772 b i r d ( 1 6 p e r c e n t ) and 15,323 i d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h ( 6 6 p e r cent) bones were.recovered from E x c a v a t i o n  U n i t s 12,  18 and B a t DiSo 1, f o r a t o t a l v e r t e b r a t e sample o f 23,085 bones.  This i s  an average o f 1,282 bones l a r g e r than 6 mm p e r c u b i c metre.  The d i s t r i b u -  t i o n o f v e r t e b r a t e fauna among t h e Major S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table  11. S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t s I I I and IV c o n t a i n e d  remains.  a greater p r o p o r t i o n o f the  As expected, U n i t I I c o n t a i n s a r e l a t i v e l y lower p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e  remains, p a r t l y a r e s u l t o f t h e s m a l l volume o f d e p o s i t r e p r e s e n t e d  by t h i s  u n i t . U n i t V, b e i n g p r i m a r i l y n o n - c u l t u r a l , c o n t a i n s a v e r y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l sample,  and t h a t p r i m a r i l y f i s h . The lower p r o p o r t i o n o f remains  147  Table  11.  Percentage o f Bone,by S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t o f DiSo 1 and Type o f Bone  Stratigraphic Units  Taxa Mammal  Bird  Fish  A l l Bone  I  28  37  12  19  II  23  7  17  16  III  19  40  40  36  IV  30  15  25  24  V  1  1  6  5  N  3,990  3,772  15,325  23,085  A l l columns t o t a l 100%  i n U n i t I i s perhaps p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e p o s i t s , h i s t o r i c and d i s t u r b e d .  I n r e l a t i o n t o sample s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n , I  U n i t I c o n t a i n s a s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e b i r d remains and U n i t s I and I I h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s  o f t h e mammal remains, w h i l e U n i t I I con-  t a i n s a r e l a t i v e l y low p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e b i r d and I I I a low p r o p o r t i o n o f the mammal remains. 15,722.9 grams o f s h e l l f i s h remains were r e t a i n e d f o r a n a l y s i s from the t h r e e e x c a v a t i o n  units.  S t r a t i g r a p h i c Unit I contained  U n i t I I 2.2 p e r c e n t . U n i t I I I 61.2 p e r c e n t , U n i t V 0.1 p e r c e n t  10.7 p e r c e n t ,  U n i t IV 25.8 p e r c e n t and  o f t h e s h e l l f i s h remains by weight.  The numbers o f mammal, b i r d and f i s h bone elements and t h e weight of s h e l l f i s h remains r e c o v e r e d are i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 12.  from each S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t a t DiSo 1  148  T a b l e 12.  Numbers o f Bone Elements and Weights o f S h e l l from S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t s a t DiSo 1  Stratigraphic Unit I  Weight o f Shell  Mammal Bone  1,681.5 g  1,117(26)*  II  342.1  B i r d Bone  897(24)  F i s h Bone  T o t a l Bone  1,386(32)  1,853(42)  4,356  276(8)  2,527(68)  3,700  1,516(18)  6,081(73)  8,360  III  4,061.7  IV  4,061.7  1,190(21)  565(10)  3,865(69)  5,620  V  9.7  23(2)  29(3)  947(95)  1,049  *  763(9)  Recovered  F i g u r e s i n b r a c k e t s a r e p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e t o t a l bone element count f o r t h e S t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t  Vertebrate  Fauna  In a l l assemblages, f i s h remains a r e t h e most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g v e r t e b r a t e remains, v a r y i n g from 42 p e r c e n t t o 95 p e r c e n t o f t h e v e r t e b r a t e remains by element count.  I n t h e assemblages o f DiSo 16, DiSo 9-1 and  DiSo 9-II and DiSo 1-1, I I I and V, b i r d remains a r e more common than mammal remains by bone count, w h i l e i n assemblages DiSo l - I I and IV t h e r e v e r s e i s true.  T a b l e 13 p r e s e n t s t h e s e r e l a t i v e  T a b l e 13.  frequencies.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e r t e b r a t e Bone by Major Taxa, i n S i t e Assemblages  Taxa DiSo 16 i  DiSo 9 III  I  Assemblage DiSo 1 II III  IV  V  7  4  3  26  24  9  21  2  Bird  13  18  6  32  8  18  10  3  Fish  80  78  91  42  68  73  69  95  3,990  10,703  11,993  4,355  3,700  8,360  5,620  1,049  Mammal  N All  columns t o t a l 100%  149  Mammal Remains: A f u r t h e r breakdown o f mammal remains i n t o l a n d and s e a mammal, r e v e a l s t h a t by b o t h bone count and MNI, t h e DiSo 16 assemblage  i s h e a v i l y weighted  towards l a n d mammal remains, w h i l e a l l DiSo 1 assemblages a r e e q u a l l y h e a v i l y weighted towards s e a mammal remains.  Both DiSo 9 assemblages  have  a more equable s p l i t between l a n d and s e a mammals, w i t h s e a mammals s l i g h t l y predominant.  T a b l e 14.  T a b l e 14 and 15 i l l u s t r a t e  these p a t t e r n s .  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f Land and Sea Mammal Remains, A l l Assemblages, Bone Count  Taxa DiSo 16  DiSo 9 I :. I I  I  Assemblages DiSo 1 II III  IV  V  3  36  39  81  84  68  84  74  Land Mammal  97  41  32  11  7  16  10  13  Undetermined Mammal  _  8  9  16  6  13  1117  8897  763  1190  23  Sea Mammal  N  All  2  286  3  2  416  g  369  columns t o t a l 100%  T a b l e 15.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f Land and Sea Mammal Remains, A l l A l l Assemblages, MNI  Taxa DiSo 16  DiSo 9 I II  I  Assemblages DiSo 1 II III  IV  V  Sea Mammal  11  58  70  72  70  83  84  75  Land Mammal  89  42  30  28  30  17  16  25  9  26  23.  39  23  47  57  4  MNI  A l l columns t o t a l 100%  A S S E M B L A G E T A X A  Columns t o t a l ,100% S k e l e t a l Element Count F i g u r e 23.  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f Mammal Remains.  151  F i g u r e 23 compares the mammal remains o f a l l assemblages a t the F a m i l y t'axonomie l e v e l .  I t i s apparent  t h a t the major d i f f e r e n c e s among  the assemblages are the s h i f t s i n h i g h e s t frequency from deer and m u s t e l i d s  (Mustelidae) a t DiSo 16 and DiSo 9-1  (Cervidae)  t o the eared s e a l s  ( O t t a r i d a e ) a t DiSo 9-II and a l l DiSo 1 assemblages.  T h i s s h i f t i n focus  from l a n d t o sea mammals i s a c t u a l l y sharper than i t l o o k s , as the m u s t e l i d s at DiSo 16 are R i v e r O t t e r w h i l e those o f the o t h e r assemblages are p r i m a r i l y Sea O t t e r .  T h i s s h i f t i s even more d r a m a t i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n  T a b l e 16, which i n c l u d e s n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d whale and d o l p h i n (Cetacea) and s e a l s , sea l i o n s and/or sea o t t e r E_. l u t r i s ) remains i n the sample  T a b l e 16.  (Pinnepedia, Pinnepedia/  ( s e e . a l s o T a b l e s 30-32, Appendix A ) .  R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f Mammal Remains I n c l u d i n g N o n - S p e c i f i c a l l y I d e n t i f i e d Sea Mammals, Bone Count,  Taxa DiSo 16  DiSo 9 II I  I  Assemblages DiSo 1 III II  IV  V  Shrews, Insectivora  - -  1  -  -  —  —  —  Rodents, Rodentia  -  - - •  1  1  1  -  —  -  -  5  3  40  31  31  51  39  56  29  20  23  24  56  8  1  23  44  24  9  29  17  3  2  18  14  -  22  23  5  4  5  3  6  172  181  492  413  417  848  18  Whales and D o l -  c  p h i n s, Cetacea S e a l s and Sea Lions,Pinnepidia  c  5 5 —  Small Sea Mammal, Pinnepedia/E.lutris C a r v i n o r e s, Carnivora Deer, Artiodactyla N  All  ^^  4  8  133  columns t o t a l  344  100%  152  The  assemblages o f t h e t h r e e s i t e s , then, a r e d e c i d e d l y d i f f e r e n t  each from t h e o t h e r s i n the emphasis on s e a mammals and l a n d mammals. There i s a s t r o n g emphasis on a l l k i n d s o f s e a mammals i n a l l t h e DiSo 1 assemblages; a s t r o n g emphasis on s e a l s and sea l i o n s DiSo 9 b u t l i t t l e little  emphasis on whales and d o l p h i n s  emphasis on s e a mammals a t DiSo 16.  (Pinnepedia) a t  (Cetacea); and v e r y  Emphases do d i f f e r among a s -  semblages o f t h e same s i t e b u t major d i f f e r e n c e s seem t o be between s i t e s .  DiSo  16: Of t h e 286 mammal bones r e c o v e r e d from DiSo 16,  were i d e n t i f i e d t o s p e c i e s , 7 (2.4 to  probable  species.  percent)  153 bone fragments  (34.6  t o o r d e r and 27  (53.3  percent) (9.4  percent)  p e r c e n t ) were n o t i d e n -  t i f i a b l e beyond t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l a n d mammal. sample, then, was i d e n t i f i e d .  99  46.5  percent o f the  Of t h e t o t a l sample, i n c l u d i n g both  c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d and u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments,  specifi-  97 p e r c e n t by bone count and  89 p e r c e n t by MNI a r e l a n d mammal, 3 p e r c e n t by bone count and 11 p e r c e n t by MNI a r e s e a mammal.  Deer, R i v e r O t t e r and Mink and an u n i d e n t i f i e d  whale s p e c i e s a r e p r e s e n t .  T a b l e 39,  page 291r  • Appendix A, p r e s e n t s  the raw and r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s by s k e l e t a l element count  and MNI f o r  i d e n t i f i e d mammal remains.  Of the two deer r e p r e s e n t e d , one i s a l a r g e animal, p r o b a b l y male, the o t h e r a s m a l l e r animal more than 14 months o l d . The R i v e r O t t e r s i n c l u d e one s u b - a d u l t , one j u v e n i l e , two v e r y young j u v e n i l e s and one'new born o r f o e t a l a n i m a l . I n a d d i t i o n , 27 bones o r bone f r a g ments o f a very young j u v e n i l e and a new born o r f o e t a l animal t h a t are p r o b a b l y R i v e r O t t e r were r e c o v e r e d . A l l these bones c o u l d be p a r t o f the p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l o t t e r s . The s i n g l e Mink i s an a d u l t , p r o b a b l y male. Whale i s r e p r e s e n t e d by s i x fragments o f r i b and one m i s c e l l a n e o u s fragment, a l l o f which c o u l d be from t h e same i n d i v i d u a l . The s i x r i b fragments come from t h e same e x c a v a t i o n u n i t w i t h i n t h e t o p 10 c e n t i m e t e r s o f d e p o s i t . No o t h e r s e a mammal remains were.recovered. The 153 fragments c l a s s i f i a b l e o n l y t o l a n d mammal i n c l u d e fragments of l o n g bone s h a f t , r i b , s k u l l , v e r t e b r a e and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e f r a g ments. The m a j o r i t y a r e p r o b a b l y deer. Many o f t h e l o n g bone f r a g ments a r e s p l i n t e r s d e x h i b i t i n g s p i r a l f r a c t u r e s .  :  153  The  s m a l l sample o f mammal remains suggests  r e s o u r c e s and no use o f s e a mammal r e s o u r c e s . are more l i k e l y t o be imported  The whale bone r i b fragments  raw m a t e r i a l than f o o d r e f u s e .  mammal r e s o u r c e i s c l e a r l y deer. a b l e i n the immediate s i t e  l i m i t e d use o f l a n d game  The major  A l l s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d a r e today  avail-  area.  DiSo 9pl: 416 mammal bone o r bone fragments were r e c o v e r e d from t h i s upper s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t a t DiSo 9.  Of t h e s e , 139 bones (33.4 p e r c e n t )  repre-  s e n t i n g a t - l e a s t 25 i n d i v i d u a l s were i d e n t i f i e d t o s p e c i e s o r genus, 31 (7.5 p e r c e n t ) fragments  t o f a m i l y and two (1 p e r c e n t )  to order.  The remaining 244  (58.7 p e r c e n t ) were n o t i d e n t i f i a b l e w i t h c e r t a i n t y beyond t h e  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n sea, l a n d o r i n d e t e r m i n a t e mammal.  Of t h e t o t a l  sample,  i n c l u d i n g both s p e c i f i c a l l y and n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d remains, 36 p e r c e n t by count a r e s e a mammal, 41 p e r c e n t l a n d mammal and 23 p e r c e n t i n determinate. Twelve s p e c i e s o f mammal a r e p r e s e n t , p l u s u n s p e c i f i c a l l y whale, p o r p o i s e and p i n n i p e d remains. these d a t a by bone count and MNI. frequently occurring species by Coast Deer  (27.3 percent/16  T a b l e 43, Appendix A, p r e s e n t s  By both methods, Sea O t t e r i s the most  (29.5 percent/20 percent).  percent), followed  r e p r e s e n t e d by MNI (10.8 percent/16  88.5  (20.9 percent/12 p e r c e n t ) .  percent)  F u r S e a l more s t r o n g l y  and Harbour S e a l by bone  These f o u r s p e c i e s t o g e t h e r  p e r c e n t by bone count and 64 p e r c e n t by MNI o f t h e sample  to species.  closely  Harbour S e a l and Northern F u r  S e a l a r e b o t h a l s o w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d , w i t h Northern  count  identified  comprise identified  A l l o t h e r s p e c i e s a r e much l e s s s t r o n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d .  154  Of t h e i n d i v i d u a l Sea O t t e r s , two a r e a d u l t (one male and one f e m a l e ) , one a d u l t o r s u b - a d u l t , and two j u v e n i l e , one o f these 5 t o 6 months o l d . The Deer a r e one a d u l t , two s u b - a d u l t s o f l e s s than 34 months and 12 t o 14 months o l d and one j u v e n i l e o f no more than 6 months o l d . Of t h e t h r e e Harbour S e a l s , two a r e a d u l t (one male) and the t h i r d j u v e n i l e . One o f the f o u r N o r t h e r n F u r S e a l s i s a d u l t (male?), one a s u b - a d u l t male o f 5 t o 7 y e a r s , one a j u v e n i l e (male) o f about 13 weeks o l d and one newborn o r f o e t a l . One o f t h e two dogs(?) i s a d u l t , one s u b - a d u l t , and the Mink and t h e Red S q u i r r e l a r e j u v e n i l e individuals. The R i v e r O t t e r i s an a d u l t female and the C a l i f o r n i a Sea L i o n an a d u l t male. Both the N a v i g a t o r Shrew and t h e Harbour Porpoise are adults. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f B l a c k Bear i s u n c e r t a i n , b e i n g based on a s i n g l e d i s t a l p o r t i o n o f a r i g h t m e t a c a r p a l o r metatarsal.  The major mammal r e s o u r c e s i n t h i s assemblage, then, a r e Sea O t t e r , ; Deer, Harbour S e a l and N o r t h e r n F u r S e a l , by bone count.  DiSo  9-II: 369 mammal bones were r e c o v e r e d from t h e DiSo 9-II l a y e r s .  169 bones  45.8 p e r c e n t ) r e p r e s e n t i n g a minimum o f 22 i n d i v i d u a l s , were i d e n t i f i e d t o s p e c i e s o r genus, 9 (2.4 p e r c e n t ) t o f a m i l y and 3 ( I I p e r c e n t ) t o order.  The remaining 188 fragments  (50.9 p e r c e n t ) were n o t i d e n t i f i a b l e  beyond l a n d , s e a o r i n d e t e r m i n a t e mammal.  Of both s p e c i f i c a l l y  identified  and n o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d remains, 144 bones (39 p e r c e n t ) a r e s e a mammal, 117 (31.7 p e r c e n t ) l a n d mammal and 108 (29.3 p e r c e n t ) i n d e t e r m i n a t e mammal. Nine s p e c i e s o f mammal a r e p r e s e n t , p l u s u n s p e c i f i c a l l y whale, p o r p o i s e and pinneped remains  (Table 47, Appendix A ) .  identified Northern F u r  S e a l i s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g mammal, b o t h by bone count, 85 bones (50.3 p e r c e n t ) and MNI, seven i n d i v i d u a l s  (31.8 p e r c e n t ) .  Deer and Sea  O t t e r a r e t h e next most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g s p e c i e s , w i t h Deer more s t r o n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d by count by MNI (15.9 percent/18.2  (24.3 p e r cent/13.6  percent).  p e r c e n t ) and Sea O t t e r  Harbour S e a l i s the o n l y o t h e r mammal  r e p r e s e n t i n g more than f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e sample, w i t h n i n e bones  155  (5.3 p e r c e n t ) r e p r e s e n t i n g two i n d i v i d u a l s  (9.1 p e r c e n t ) .  s p e c i e s a r e l e s s than two p e r c e n t by bone count.  A l l other  The cetaceans and  d e l p h i n i d s a r e n o t s t r o n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d , a l t h o u g h e i t h e r Harbour o r D a l l ' s P o r p o i s e was i d e n t i f i e d . comprise  N o r t h e r n F u r S e a l , Deer and Sea O t t e r t o g e t h e r  90.5 p e r c e n t by bone count and 63.6 p e r c e n t by MNI o f t h e s p e c i -  fically identified  sample.  Of t h e 7 Northern F u r S e a l s , two a r e a d u l t s (one female, one male), one i s a s u b - a d u l t (male), one a j u v e n i l e and t h r e e a r e new born o r foetal. The two Harbour S e a l s a r e one a d u l t and one s u b - a d u l t female. The f o u r Sea O t t e r s a r e two a d u l t s (one female?, one male?), one j u v e n i l e and one new born o r f o e t a l . The s i n g l e N o r t h e r n Sea L i o n i s an a d u l t female and t h e Raccoons a r e one a d u l t and one j u v e n i l e . Of t h e t h r e e Deer, two a r e a d u l t (one.female?), and t h e t h i r d i s a s u b - a d u l t o f no more than 29 months o l d . The Dog i s an a d u l t .  The main mammal r e s o u r c e s f o r t h i s assemblage a r e N o r t h e r n F u r S e a l , Deer and Sea O t t e r .  DiSo 1-1: Of t h e 1,117 mammal bones r e c o v e r e d from DiSo 1-1, 112 (10.0 p e r c e n t ) were i d e n t i f i e d t o s p e c i e s or,genus f u r t h e r 625 fragments  and 380 (34 p e r c e n t ) t o Order.  A  (56 p e r c e n t ) were n o t c l a s s i f i a b l e beyond t h e c a t e -  g o r i e s l a n d , sea o r i n d e t e r m i n a t e mammal.  Of t h e s e , 94 (15 p e r c e n t ) a r e  l a n d mammal, 439 (70 p e r c e n t ) s e a mammal and 92 (15 p e r c e n t ) mammal, general. fically  Of the t o t a l sample, i n c l u d i n g b o t h s p e c i f i c a l l y and n o t s p e c i i d e n t i f i e d remains,  81 p e r c e n t by bone count a r e s e a mammal; 11 pe  p e r c e n t l a n d mammal and 8 p e r c e n t i n d e t e r m i n a t e . A t l e a s t t e n s p e c i e s o f mammal a r e p r e s e n t , p l u s u n s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d whale, p o r p o i s e and pinneped remains. p r e s e n t s bone counts and MNI f o r these s p e c i e s . are t h e most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g  T a b l e 51, Appendix A, N o r t h e r n F u r S e a l remains  (34.9 p e r c e n t / 2 6 . 5 ) .  Deer (19.6 p e r c e n t /  156  8.8 p e r c e n t ) , Harbour S e a l Lion  (11.6 percent/11.8 p e r c e n t )  (11.6 percent/14.7 p e r c e n t )  and Northern Sea  are a l s o s t r o n g l y represented.  Other  s p e c i e s a r e p r e s e n t i n f r e q u e n c i e s o f l e s s than t e n p e r c e n t , most l e s s than two p e r c e n t o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d sample.  Northern  Fur Seal,  Northern  Sea L i o n , Harbour S e a l and Deer t o g e t h e r comprise 77.6 p e r c e n t by bone count and 61.8 p e r c e n t by MNI o f the i d e n t i f i e d  sample.  Of t h e n i n e Northern F u r S e a l s , t h r e e a r e a d u l t females, one a d u l t . m a l e , two.sub-adult o r a d u l t males, and t h r e e j u v e n i l e s , a t l e a s t one of.which i s male. The n o r t h e r n Sea L i o n s a r e two a d u l t males, one s u b - a d u l t o r a d u l t male and two j u v e n i l e s . Of t h e two C a l i f o r n i a Sea L i o n s , one i s an a d u l t male, t h e o t h e r a j u v e n i l e . The f o u r Harbour S e a l s a r e t h r e e a d u l t s (at l e a s t one male) and a j u v e n i l e o f undetermined sex. One o f the Sea O t t e r s i s a d u l t , the.second j u v e n i l e and the t h i r d p r o b a b l y a d u l t o r s u b - a d u l t . The t h r e e Deer a r e one a d u l t , one s u b - a d u l t and one e i t h e r a d u l t o r s u b - a d u l t . The two B l a c k Bear a r e an a d u l t and a s u b - a d u l t o r a d u l t , w h i l e t h e Dog? i s an a d u l t , p o s s i b l y female. The remaining i n d i v i d u a l s a r e e i t h e r a d u l t o r o f undetermined age.  In t h i s assemblage from DiSo 1 t h e most important mammal r e s o u r c e s a r e Northern  F u r S e a l , Deer, Harbour S e a l and Northern  Sea L i o n .  Whale remains  not s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d , a r e a l s o common.  DiSo l - I I : Of t h e 897 mammal bone and bone fragments r e c o v e r e d from DiSo l - I I , 1  104  (12 p e r c e n t ) were i d e n t i f i e d t o s p e c i e s o r genus and 309 (34 p e r c e n t )  to o r d e r .  The remaining  484 fragments  (54 p e r c e n t ) were n o t c l a s s i f i a b l e  beyond t h e c a t e g o r i e s l a n d , s e a and undetermined mammal. (75 p e r c e n t )  a r e s e a mammal bone, 39 (8 p e r c e n t )  (17 p e r c e n t )  undetermined mammal.  Of t h e s e , 362  l a n d mammal and 83  Of t h e t o t a l sample o f 897 bones, 84  p e r c e n t a r e sea mammal, 7 p e r c e n t l a n d mammal and nine p e r c e n t undetermined E i g h t s p e c i e s o f mammal a r e r e c o r d e d f o r t h i s u n i t , w i t h t h e 104 bones r e p r e s e n t i n g a minimum o f 18 i n d i v i d u a l s  (Table 55, Appendix A ) .  157  U n s p e c i f i e d whale, p o r p o i s e and p i n n i p e d remains a r e a l s o p r e s e n t .  Northern  Fur S e a l remains a r e by f a r t h e most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g elements (69.2 percent/33.3 p e r c e n t ) .  Deer i s the second m o s t . f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g  mammal (14.1 percent/16.7 p e r c e n t ) , w h i l e Harbour S e a l , a t 6.7 p e r c e n t and 16.7  p e r c e n t i s t h e o n l y o t h e r s p e c i e s o c c u r r i n g i n bone count  above f i v e p e r c e n t . are  frequencies  As t h e MNI t o t a l i s so low, these r e l a t i v e  frequencies  distorted.  Of t h e s i x Northern F u r S e a l s , one i s an a d u l t female, two a r e s u b - a d u l t o r a d u l t (one male and one f e m a l e ) , one i s a s u b - a d u l t (Male?), one j u v e n i l e male, and one a new born o r f o e t a l i n d i v i d u a l . The t h r e e Harbour S e a l s i n c l u d e an a d u l t male, an a d u l t o r s u b - a d u l t and a j u v e n i l e o f undetermined sex. Both t h e s i n g l e N o r t h e r n Sea L i o n and the s i n g l e Sea O t t e r a r e a d u l t males. The t h r e e Deer i n c l u d e one a d u l t , one j u v e n i l e and one new born o r f o e t a l i n d i v i d u a l s , a l l o f undetermined- sex. The Mink i s a d u l t , t h e B l a c k Bear s u b - a d u l t (male?) and t h e Dogs? a s u b - a d u l t and a newborn o r ..foetal i n d i v i d u a l . Although n o t counted i n t h e MNI t o t a l s , one o f t h e D e l p h i n i d a e i s a j u v e n i l e animal.  In t h i s s m a l l assemblage, N o r t h e r n F u r S e a l i s c l e a r l y t h e most import a n t r e s o u r c e , w i t h Deer and Harbour S e a l a l s o  DiSo  important.  l-III: Of t h e 763 mammal bones o r bone fragments r e c o v e r e d from DiSo 1-OJII,  178  (23.3.percent)  were i d e n t i f i e d t o genus o r s p e c i e s , 239 (31.3  to o r d e r and 346 (45.33 p e r c e n t ) 57 fragments  (16.5 p e r c e n t )  and the remaining  to gross category only.  Of t h e l a t t e r ,  a r e l a n d mammal, 168 (49 p e r c e n t )  121"fragments  (35 p e r c e n t )  percent)  s e a mammal  u n s p e c i f i e d mammal.  67.8  p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l mammal sample i s s e a mammal bone o r bone fragment 16.4  p e r c e n t l a n d mammal and 15.9 p e r c e n t u n s p e c i f i e d mammal.  T a b l e 59  Appendix A, p r e s e n t s bone counts and MNI f o r the mammal remains. A t l e a s t 41 i n d i v i d u a l s from n i n e s p e c i e s o f mammal a r e r e p r e s e n t e d . Northern  F u r S e a l and Harbour S e a l a r e the two most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g  \. , f  158  s p e c i e s , w i t h t h e former c o m p r i s i n g 17.4 p e r c e n t by bone count o r 26.8 p e r c e n t by MNI and t h e l a t t e r 21.9 p e r c e n t by bone count o r 19.5 p e r c e n t by MNI, o f the i d e n t i f i e d sample. and Deer dog  Sea O t t e r  (10.7 percent/12.2 p e r c e n t )  i s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by bone count  (14.0 percent/17.1 p e r c e n t )  are also w e l l represented.  Although  (25.2 p e r c e n t ) , t h e f o r t y - f i v e  t i f i e d elements a r e a l l from a s i n g l e l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l .  Northern  idenS  Sea L i o n ,  Mink, K i l l e r Whale and p o s s i b l y Northern E l e p h a n t S e a l a r e a l s o p r e s e n t , a l t h o u g h t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l a s t , based on a s i n g l e phalanx, i s n o t positive.  U n i d e n t i f i e d whale and p o r p o i s e and p i n n i p e d a r e a l s o p r e s e n t .  Of t h e element Northern F u r S e a l s , t h e r e a r e two a d u l t s m a l e s , two a d u l t females, one a d u l t o r s u b - a d u l t o f undetermined sex, one sub-a-;. a d u l t male, one s u b - a d u l t o r j u v e n i l e (male?), one j u v e n i l e male, two j u v e n i l e s o f undetermined sex, and one new born o r f o e t a l a n i m a l . A l l t h r e e Northern Sea L i o n s a r e a d u l t males. The two C a l i f o r n i a Sea L i o n s a r e a s u b - a d u l t and an i n d i v i d u a l o f g r e a t e r than j u v e n i l e age. The Northern E l e p h a n t S e a l would be an a d u l t ( f e m a l e ? ) . E i g h t Harbour S e a l s i n c l u d e t h r e e a d u l t s , one male and two o f undetermined sex, two s u b - a d u l t s o f undetermined sex and t h r e e j u v e n i l e s o f undetermined sex. The Sea O t t e r s a r e t h r e e a d u l t s , one male, one female and one.of undetermined sex; two s u b - a d u l t s o f undetermined sex; two j u v e n i l e s , one male and t h e o t h e r o f undetermined sex. The Deer i n c l u d e two a d u l t s , one s u b - a d u l t and o n e , j u v e n i l e , a l l o f undetermined sex. The Dog i s a j u v e n i l e , t h e Canis s p . o f undetermined sex and s u b - a d u l t age, and both the Mink and t h e K i l l e r Whale a r e a d u l t s . One o f the u n i d e n t i f i e d D e l p h i n i d a e i s a j u v e n i l e .  Northern  F u r S e a l , Harbour S e a l , Sea O t t e r and Deer a r e a g a i n t h e most  important mammal r e s o u r c e s i n t h i s assemblage, d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e u n i d e n t i f i e d whale remains.  DiSo 1-IV: 324  (27.2 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e 1,190 mammal bones were i d e n t i f i e d t o s p e c i e s  o r genus and 524 (44 p e r c e n t )  to order.  An a d d i t i o n a l 342 (29 p e r c e n t )  fragments were c l a s s i f i e d o n l y a c c o r d i n g t o gross c a t e g o r y . (12 p e r c e n t )  a r e l a n d mammal, 235 (69 p e r c e n t )  Of t h e s e , 40  s e a mammal and 67 (19 p e r -  159  cent) undetermined mammal. and bone fragments,  Of t h e t o t a l mammal samples o f 1,190 bones  83.9 p e r c e n t a r e s e a mammal, 10.4 p e r c e n t a r e l a n d  mammal and 5.6 p e r c e n t undetermined. E i g h t s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d mammal s p e c i e s a r e p r e s e n t , t h e 324 bones r e p r e s e n t i n g a t l e a s t 48 i n d i v i d u a l s  (Table 63, Appendix A ) . Uniden-