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An examination of relationships between artifact classes and food resource remains at Deep Bay, DiSe… Monks, Gregory G. 1977

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AN EXAMINATION OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ARTIFACT CLASSES AND FOOD RESOURCE REMAINS AT DEEP BAY, DiSe 7 by GREGORY GERALD MONKS B.A., University of V i c t o r i a , 1967 M.A., University of V i c t o r i a , 1973  A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia)  We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1977 ©  Gregory Gerald Monks, 1977  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library  shall make it freely available for  reference and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Anthropology and fionlplngy  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  6 September 1977  ii  ABSTRACT This d i s s e r t a t i o n examines the idea that  ethnographically  reported relationships between a r t i f a c t classes and faunal food resource remains can be detected i n an archaeological context.  A d e t a i l e d s i t e report i s presented f o r Deep Bay  (DiSe 7), including analyses o f the a r t i f a c t and faunal assemblages, and quantitative techniques are employed to search f o r associations between faunal and a r t i f a c t variables in this s i t e .  The r e s u l t s of four analyses are compared, and  the recurring associations of variable p a i r s are interpreted i n the l i g h t of ethnographic and e c o l o g i c a l data.  The various  l i n e s of evidence relevant to the most l i k e l y season of s i t e occupation  are also examined.  I t i s concluded that some of  the ethnographically reported food resource procurement patterns can successfully be detected i n the archaeological record.  Evidence i s presented that suggests the existence of  food resource procurement systems centered around herring, deer, sea mammal, and migratory waterfowl.  The s i t e was most  l i k e l y occupied during the l a t e winter and e a r l y spring, primarily f o r deer hunting and herring f i s h i n g , and secondarily for sea mammal and waterfowl hunting.  The a c q u i s i t i o n of  molluscs i s considered t o be a given.  This subsistence  pattern  appears to have varied l i t t l e over the past 2000 years. I t i s also concluded that the same techniques could be used p r o f i t a b l y f o r s i m i l a r studies i n the future.  Ill  TABLE OF CONTENTS  1  Chapter I - Aims  21  Chapter II - Background To The Study S i t e Location and Description Vegetation Resources . . . . . . Cultural Deposits • H i s t o r i c S i t e Use Excavation Procedure  21 26 26 31 32 36  . . . . •  k2  Chapter III - Stratigraphy and Chronology Grouping of Strata Interpretation of Strata Chronology  ^ 5^ 2  6  70  Chapter IV - Description of A r t i f a c t s Historic Artifacts Aboriginal A r t i f a c t s . . . . . Chipped Stone Ground Stone Pecked Stone Incised Stone Bone Antler Shell Mineral Metal Wood Variations i n the A r t i f a c t Inventory . . . . . . . . Chapter V - Features Chapter VI - Faunal Remains  0  ?° 75 °° 99 Y° }?« W" 1J8 ^  L  1  6  6  179  iv  207  Chapter VII - Delineation of Components Component I Components II and III  207 209  . . . . . . . ••  Chapter VIII - Associations of A r t i f a c t and Faunal Data Quantitative Analyses - Method Quantitative Analyses - Results Theoretical Framework Synthesis of Results .• V e r i f i c a t i o n of Results Conclusion  245  «... • .  290  Chapter IX - Seasonal Aspects of S i t e Use Faunal Evidence  Bibliography  . . .  291  •  Chapter X - Conclusion  e  302  . . . . .  308  • . .  321 323  Appendix I - S o i l Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . pH Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Granulometric Analysis  . . . . .  246 256 270 274 282 287  0  331  . . . . . . . .  Appendix II - B u r i a l s  354  Appendix III - L i t h i c Debris Lot 81  369 .  372  Lot 73 Appendix IV - Clam S h e l l Seasonality  369  «  374  Appendix V - Composition of Transformed A r t i f a c t Classes, Lot 73 385  V  LIST OF TABLES  I . Wentworth S c a l e , P h i S c a l e , and D e s c r i p t i v e L a b e l s o f G r a i n S i z e s used i n G r a n u l o m e t r i c A n a l y s i s . . I I . Raw and R e l a t i v e F r e q u e n c i e s o f Recorded H i s t o r i c A r t i f a c t s , L o t 7 3 1 DiSe 7  72  I I I . A r t i f a c t C l a s s e s by E x c a v a t i o n U n i t and N a t u r a l S t r a t u m , L o t 7 3 1 DiSe 7  77-78  IV. A r t i f a c t C l a s s e s by E x c a v a t i o n U n i t and N a t u r a l S t r a t u m , L o t 81, DiSe 7  79  V. Dimensions and Weights o f L e a f Shaped P o i n t s w i t h Asymmetric Edges, DiSe 7 V I , Dimensions and Weights o f U n i f a c i a l T o o l s , DiSe 7  55  86  Chopping  89  V I I , Dimensions and Weights o f B i f a c i a l Chopping T o o l s , DiSe 7  90  V I I I . Dimensions and Weights o f C o r e s , DiSe 7 . . . . IX. Dimensions Unifacially X. Dimensions Bifacially  .  92  and Weights o f Medium Duty Retouched F l a k e s , DiSe 7 and Weights o f Medium Duty Retouched F l a k e s , DiSe 7  96  X I . Dimensions and Weights o f Medium Duty U t i l i z e d F l a k e s , DiSe 7  97  95  X I I . Dimensions and Weights o f L i g h t Duty U t i l i z e d F l a k e s , DiSe 7 X I I I . Dimensions and Weights o f A p p a r e n t l y A b r a s i v e S t o n e s , DiSe 7 . . .  98 Complete  XIV. Dimensions and Weights o f T r i a n g u l a r Ground S l a t e P o i n t s , DiSe 7 XV. Dimensions and Weights o f Corner Notched Ground S l a t e P o i n t s , DiSe 7  101 108 109  vi XVI. Dimensions and Weights of Bird Bone Bipoints, DiSe 7 124 XVII. Dimensions and Weights of Mammal Bone Bipoints, DiSe 7 . . . . . . . . . . XVIII. Dimensions and Weights of S p l i t Bone Awls, DiSe 7  124-126 128  IX. Dimensions and Weights of Wedge Base Bone Points, DiSe 7  129  XX. Dimensions and Weights of Bird Bone Points, DiSe 7  131  XXI. Dimensions and Weights of Antler Composite Toggling Harpoon Valves, DiSe 7 •  144  XXII. Comparison of D i s t i n c t i v e Archaeological Features of Three Culture Types from the Gulf of Georgia Area with A r t i f a c t Class D i s t r i b u t i o n Lot 73, DiSe 7 . . . 163-165 XXIII. L i s t of Generic and Common Names of Species Found i n Tables XXIV through XXX, Lots 73 and 81, DiSe 7 182-183 XXIV. Weight of Faunal Remains by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 81, DiSe 7 . . . . . 184 XXV. Estimated Weight of Usable Meat f o r each I d e n t i f i a b l e Mammal and Bird Species by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 81, DiSe 7 185 XXVI. Weight of Mammal and Bird Remains Not Present i n at Least Two Excavation Units by Natural Stratum and A r b i t r a r y Level, Lot 81, DiSe 7 . 186 XXVII. Weight of Fish and Mollusc Remains Not Present i n at Least Two Samples by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 81, DiSe 7 188 XXVIII. Weight of Faunal Remains by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 73, DiSe 7 . . . . .  192-193  XXIX. Weight of Mammal, Bird, F i s h , and Mollusc Remains Deleted from Table XXVIII, Lot 73, DiSe 7  194-196  vii XXX. Estimated Weight of Usable Meat for each I d e n t i f i a b l e Mammal and Bird Species by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 73, DiSe 7 . 201-203 XXXI. A r t i f a c t Classes S i g n i f i c a n t at °<=.05 Kruskal-Wallis Test of Cultural Components by A r t i f a c t Classes, Lot 73, DiSe 7 . . . .  219  XXXII. A r t i f a c t Class Frequencies by Component, Lot 73, DiSe 7  222-22*1-  XXXIII. Variable Pairs S i g n i f i c a n t at *<&.05 i n Two or More Analyses, A r t i f a c t Class by Faunal Species, Lot 73, DiSe 7 254-255 XXXIV. Pairs of Selected A r t i f a c t Classes, Lot 73, DiSe 7 <*^.05 . .  283  XXXV. Pairs of Selected Faunal Species, Lot 73, DiSe 7 <k^,05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  283  XXXVI. Variable Pairs Involving Deer and Selected Faunal Species, Lot 73, DiSe 7 «<^.05 . . . 8 5 2  XXXVII. S o i l pH, Lot 73, DiSe 7  . . .  jk 2  XXXVIII. S o i l pH, Lot 81, DiSe 7 XXXIX. Weight of Granulometric Constituents by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot DiSe 7  325 81,  33^  XL. Weight of Granulometric Constituents by Natural Stratum, S o i l Sample Data, Lot 73, DiSe 7 .  • • • • •  355-358  XLI. DiSe 7 B u r i a l s XLII. Weight of L i t h i e Debris by Excavation and Natural Stratum, Lot 81, DiSe 7 XLIII. Weight of L i t h i c Debris by Excavation and Natural Stratum, Lot 73, DiSe 7  335-337  Unit .... Unit ....  370 372  XLIV. Relative Frequencies of Butter Clam Valves i n each Growth Percentage Category, DiSe 7 . 383  viii  LIST OF FIGURES  1. Map of Gulf of Georgia showing Deep Bay i n r e l a t i o n to selected archaeological s i t e s . . .  22  2. Map of Deep Bay, Baynes Sound, and Mapleguard Point  23  3. Map of Mapleguard Point subdivision  34  4. Contour map of Lots 1 and 2, DiSe 7  37  5. Contour map of Lot 73, DiSe 7 ,  38  6. Contour map of Lot 81, DiSe 7  39  7. Stratigraphic p r o f i l e s of Lot 73, DiSe 7  ...  46-47  8. Stratigraphic p r o f i l e s of Lot 81, DiSe 7  ...  49  9. Selected frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of granulometric constituents, Lot 73, DiSe 7  . .  57  10. Radiocarbon dates, DiSe 7  6l  11. Chipped stone, DiSe 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . .  81  12. Chipped stone points, DiSe 7  83  13. Chopping t o o l s , DiSe 7  88 • . . . . 103  14. Abrasive stones, DiSe 7  15. Ground stone points, DiSe 7 . . . . . . . . . . 16. Ground slate knives and c e l t s , DiSe 7 « 17. Miscellaneous a r t i f a c t s , DiSe  106  . . . • ±±±  7 . . . . . . . . 1 1 7  18. Bone points and awls, DiSe 7  121  19. Miscellaneous bone a r t i f a c t s , DiSe 7  132  20. Antler a r t i f a c t s , DiSe 7,.  . • 139  ixx  ^57  21. Rock wall f i s h trap, DiSe 7 22. H i s t o r i c feature showing cement blocks, Lot 73, DiSe 7 23. Features and b u r i a l s , Lot 73, DiSe 7  . . . .  24. Dog remains i n cairn of Burial 5, Lot 73, DiSe 7  17^  25. Compacted sand, gravel, and clay f l o o r , Lot 73, DiSe 7  176  26. Depression i n natural stratum D, Lot 81, DiSe 7  177  27. Dendrogram of Gulf of Georgia Components and Components II and I I I , Lot 73, DiSe 7 . . . .  228  28. Relationships among selected a r t i f a c t classes, Lot 73, DiSe 7  284  29. Relationships among selected faunal species, Lot 73, DiSe 7  284  30. S o i l pH, Lot 73, DiSe 7  330  31. Furthest Neighbor Cluster A n a l y s i s . Granulometric data, Lot 81, DiSe 7 . . . . .  342  32. Metric Multidimensional Scaling based on Torgerson^s B* Matrix. Granulometric data, Lot 81, DiSe 7  344  33. Furthest Neighbor Cluster A n a l y s i s . Granulometric data, Lot 73, DiSe 7  346  34. Cluster membership by natural stratum, Lot 73, DiSe 7  348  35. Metric Multidimensional Scaling based on Torgerson's B* Matrix. Granulometric data, Lot 73, DiSe 7  351  36. Burial 1, Lot 73, DiSe 7  359  37. Burials, Lot 73, DiSe 7  360  X  38. Burial 9, Lot 73, DiSe 7 39. B u r i a l 4, Lot 73, DiSe 7  363  40. Burial 3, Lot 73, DiSe 7  354  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT While the prose of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n was written by myself, the labor of many people i s incorporated herein* F i r s t , I would l i k e to thank my committee members f o r their assistance and encouragement. Michael Kew,  They are David F. Aberle, J.E.  R.G. Matson (advisor), Donald H, M i t c h e l l ,  Richard J . Pearson, and E l v i Whittaker.  I would also l i k e  to thank my f i e l d crew f o r a very pleasant and p r o f i t a b l e summer.  They are Mona Childe, Ann-Marie Fenger, Yvonne  Heagle, Don Howes, Helen Lemon, Dan MacPherson, Heather Maximea, Laura Ann Recalma, Judy Reid, Ruby Reid, Val S i z e r t z (nee Patenaude), and Arlene Yip. My thanks also to the many employees of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum and the Archaeological S i t e s Advisory Board and a l l the volunteers who contributed t h e i r e f f o r t s to the project.  Thanks are  also due to the Archaeological Sites Advisory Board of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r granting me an excavation permit and funds f o r the p r o j e c t .  I further wish to express my appreciation to  the Qualicum and Comox Bands f o r permission to excavate i n their t e r r i t o r y , and to Mr. and Mrs. Tyerman (owners of Lot 73), Mr. and Mrs. Belyck (owners of Lot 81), and Mr. and Mrs. Thomas (owners of Lots 1 and 2) f o r permission to work on their properties.  xii My special thanks to Val Sivertz and Pat M i l l e r for their valuable assistance with the faunal and s k e l e t a l analyses, to Dr. Michael Church and Mr, Hans Schreier of the Department of Geography f o r their assistance with the s o i l a n a l y s i s , to Dr. C. Rowles of the Forestry Department for permission  to test s o i l pH i n the f o r e s t r y laboratory,  and to C. Moira Irvine for producing the figures and photographs.  Figure 1 was  o r i g i n a l l y drawn by Nancy Condrashoff  of the Archaeology D i v i s i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to express my deepest appreciation to my wife, Linda, f o r her assistance with the analyses for typing a l l drafts of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . Without her patience, encouragement, and hard work i t would not have been written. Any errors or omissions i n this d i s s e r t a t i o n are e n t i r e l y my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  and  1  CHAPTER I AIMS This study i s based on the analysis of data collected by the author from the s i t e at Deep Bay (DiSe 7), which i s situated on the east coast of Vancouver Island approximately f i v e miles north of Big Qualicum River.  The research design  c a l l e d f o r a quantitative search f o r relationships between a r t i f a c t and faunal variables.  These relationships were  then to be discussed i n terms of relevant ecological and ethnographic analogues i n order to gain some insights i n t o the portion of the aboriginal subsistence round  conducted  at Deep Bay. The ethnographic and ecological l i t e r a t u r e relevant to the Gulf of Georgia area indicates that food resources a v a i l able to the Coast S a l i s h were characterized by "1) a variety of types of food, including sprouts, roots, berries, s h e l l f i s h , f i s h e s , waterfowl, land and sea mammals; 2) l o c a l v a r i a t i o n i n the occurrence of these types, due to i r r e g u l a r shore l i n e s , broken topography, differences between fresh and s a l t water, l o c a l differences i n temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n ; 3) seasonal v a r i a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n vegetable foods and i n anadromous f i s h e s ; 4) f l u c t u a t i o n from year to year, i n part due to the regular cycles of the d i f f e r e n t populations  2 of f i s h , i n part to l e s s predictable changes, as i n weather" (Siittles 1960:302; also Suttles 1962:527-529).  In these  two  a r t i c l e s , Suttles builds the argument that an adaptive r e l a t ionship e x i s t s between v a r i a t i o n i n abundance of food  resources,  on one hand, and maintenance of complex systems of r e d i s t r i bution and s o c i a l rank on the other.  In p a r t i c u l a r , variations  i n prestige are seen p r i m a r i l y as an i n d i r e c t r e s u l t of unpredictable variations i n food resource a v a i l a b i l i t y .  Another  recent a r t i c l e has demonstrated at the .05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l that the rank of southern Ewakiutl l o c a l groups could be predicted from the rank of salmon a v a i l a b i l i t y i n each l o c a l group s t e r r i t o r y (Donald and M i t c h e l l 1975:344). f  The authors c i t e d above have dealt with such variables as kinship, population, rank, and prestige i n t h e i r discussions, but to date only one northwest coast study (Fladmark 1974)  has examined c u l t u r a l and environmental relationships  i n an archaeological context.  No archaeological study has  used quantitative methods to examine these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , nor have s p e c i f i c relationships between p a r t i c u l a r aspects of culture and environment been demonstrated archaeologically. This lack of close attention to s p e c i f i c e c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n ships has also meant that, u n t i l very recently, the faunal assemblages from archaeological excavations were l a r g e l y ignored  i n either excavation or analysis.  The  consequent  preoccupation with a r t i f a c t s as the primary data base on which archaeological analyses were conducted has  contributed  to,: f i r s t , a number of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n assigning assemblages  3  to their proper phases or culture types and establishing r e l i a b l e correspondences between these units (see M i t c h e l l 1971a,Table VI, Table XII) and, second, a tendency i n l o c a l archaeological research not to incorporate the proposed sources of environmental and c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n into archaeological interpretations.  The i n a b i l i t y of archaeology  to keep abreast of current ethnological models has been l a b e l l e d "paradigm l a g " (Leone 1972:16). The yast majority of faunal remains recovered from Gulf of Georgia middens belong to species that were exploited as food resources by the Coast S a l i s h .  These remains are  c l e a r l y not the entire range of exploited food resources, but they nevertheless are subject to the four types of v a r i ation outlined by Suttles.  I f one accepts his contention  that these variations are met by corresponding variations i n culture, then i t i s l i k e l y that material culture, as well as kinship, prestige, rank, and population, w i l l also vary i n r e l a t i o n to some aspects of the environment.  This v a r i a t i o n  may be temporal, r e s u l t i n g i n the changing composition of a r t i f a c t assemblages through time, or i t may be s p a t i a l , r e s u l t i n g i n d i f f e r i n g assemblages according to what a c t i v i t i e s were being performed at p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s at p a r t i c u l a r times of the year. The s p a t i a l and temporal v a r i a t i o n of food resource variables was exploited by the Coast S a l i s h by means of a seasonal subsistence round.  Despite the loss and d i f f e r e n t i a l  4 placement of material c u l t u r a l items through decay, i t i s reasonable to argue that the items of material culture found at a food resource procurement s i t e are p r i m a r i l y those that were used, broken, and/or l o s t during the a c q u i s i t i o n , and/or processing, and/or consumption of food resources taken at that s i t e .  Thus, within a, l o c a l g r o u p s  t e r r i t o r y during a yearly round the a r t i f a c t assemblages at the s i t e s v i s i t e d should exhibit v a r i a t i o n according, i n part, to the v a r i a t i o n i n the food resources dealt with at that s i t e .  Many of the Coast S a l i s h annual round a c t i v i t i e s  are described i n greater or lesser d e t a i l i n the  ethnographic  l i t e r a t u r e , andsspecific relationships between a r t i f a c t s and food resource species are also more or less w e l l described. Because these analogues are available f o r comparison, the argument f o r the co-occurence  of a c t i v i t y - r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s  and faunal remains should appear i n the archaeological record.  The aim of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to t e s t t h i s hypo-  thesis. The benefits to be derived from the t e s t i n g of t h i s idea are important f o r Gulf of Georgia prehistory.  F i r s t , the  r e s u l t s of t h i s t e s t should provide further^clues as to the uses to which a r t i f a c t classes were put by associating the a r t i f a c t classes with s p e c i f i c food resource remains.  Second,  i t should further help e s t a b l i s h the extent to which s p e c i f i c portions of the Coast S a l i s h ethnographic  literature  5  are applicable to the l o c a l archaeological record.  This w i l l  be done by examining associations between a r t i f a c t and faunal variables i n terms of the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e .  Third,  the r e s u l t s of t h i s examination w i l l provide clues f o r the possible faunal associations of^previously excavated a r t i f a c t assemblages that have not been associated with faunal assemblages.  This type of clue w i l l help to place these  a r t i f a c t assemblages i n t o an annual round context  consistent  with the sources of food resource v a r i a b i l i t y noted by S u t t l e s . In such a context the d i f f i c u l t i e s previously noted of assigning a r t i f a c t assemblages of varying composition to a single phase or culture type and the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n establishing d i s t i n c t i o n s between phases or culture types may  be  partially  overcome. The more general contribution to archaeology to be made by t h i s study i s twofold.  F i r s t , i t w i l l demonstrate s t a t i s -  t i c a l l y i n an archaeological context that s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l and environmental variables ( a r t i f a c t classes and resource species) do covary.  food  Second, i t w i l l provide a means  by which c u l t u r e - h i s t o r i c a l archaeological sequences can be re-appraised  i n more d e t a i l e d ecological terms.  The idea w i l l be tested with the a i d of quantitative methods.  A r t i f a c t variables and faunal variables w i l l be  analyzed f o r independence or c o r r e l a t i o n within a universe of a n a l y t i c a l u n i t s .  Associations of paired a r t i f a c t  and  faunal variables that are judged to be r e l i a b l e w i l l be  6  examined i n the l i g h t of l o c a l ethnographic and ecological data to determine whether s a t i s f a c t o r y analogues can established for the archaeological associations.  be  The ana-  logues so established w i l l serve as a basis f o r an i n t e r pretation of that portion of the annual subsistence round centered at Deep Bay  (DiSe 7).  This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l  test the hypothesis that relationships between a r t i f a c t  and  faunal variables reported i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e successfully be detected i n an archaeological  can  context.  Detecting patterns of association between archaeological variables using quantitative techniques i s a r e l a t i v e l y recent pursuit among archaeologists.  Usually  quantitative  techniques are used to detect relationships among a r t i f a c t s (Longacre 1970;  Freeman 1973;  Monks 1973), but r a r e l y are  such techniques used to treat faunal, f l o r a l , and data as w e l l . was  One  palynological  instance i n which the l a t t e r type of study  undertaken i s James H i l l ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n on Broken K  pueblo ( H i l l 1965).  In his work H i l l sought to detect  functional and s t y l i s t i c patterns  of relationships between  a r t i f a c t and non-artifact variables by means of factor analysis. Another a r t i c l e (Koyama 1974)  i s much more similar to  the present study i n terms of measures of association used and r e s u l t s sought.  The c o r r e l a t i o n of s p e c i f i c a r t i f a c t  classes and faunal species was  used to show that, on the basis  of Hogup Cave data, at least c e r t a i n Great Basin subsistence patterns were simple and consistent over the past 8500 years  7  (Koyama 1974:2£).  This study and the one undertaken here  are s i m i l a r to the extent that they seek associations between faunal and a r t i f a c t variables i n an archaeological context, they use quantitative methods to f i n d these associations, and;they resort to ethnographic analogues of a more or l e s s s p e c i f i c nature to interpret and support archaeological associations. On the other hand, they are d i f f e r e n t i n more ways than they are s i m i l a r .  The Hogup Cave study deals only  with selected a r t i f a c t classes where the Deep Bay study examines a l l a r t i f a c t classes.  The Hogup Cave study deals  with the faunal data only i n terms of minimum numbers of individuals of each species, but t h i s study examines faunal species i n terms of presence/absence, percentage of weight of bone, and percentage estimated weight of usable meat within each a n a l y t i c a l unit as w e l l . This study attempts to judge the r e l i a b i l i t y of variable pair associations not just i n terms of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , but also i n terms of whether a given variable pair i s found i n more than one analysis.  That i s , i f  variable pair A. i s found i n both the presence/absence  and  minimum numbers of individuals analyses then i t i s thought to be more r e l i a b l e than i f i t were found s i g n i f i c a n t i n only one of these analyses.  8 The Hogup Cave study r e l i e s only on the s t a t i s t i c a l significance of correlated variables i n a single analysis. The extent or d e t a i l of ethnographic analogues used to i n t e r pret the Hogup Cave associations implied  are not reported, but i t i s  that these analogues are of a general nature.  The  present study, on the other hand, seeks e x p l i c i t analogues i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e f o r each association of v a r i able p a i r s . L a s t l y , the Hogup Cave study uses the Pearson correlation c o e f f i c i e n t as the measure of correlation between a r t i f a c t and faunal variables.  One potential shortcoming of this s t a t i s t i c  i s noted by the author; namely, that the d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n the data are assumed, not demonstrated, to be normal (Koyama 1974: 23).  A second problem arises when the author treats the  correlation c o e f f i c i e n t as a proximity measure (Koyama 1974: 25).  The use of Pearson's r as a measure of taxonomic r e -  semblance has been shown to be f a u l t y (Eades 1965:98-100), and treating r as a proximity measure i s i n e f f e c t the same as treating i t as a measure of taxonomic resemblance.  Thus,  although the r e s u l t s of the Hogup Cave study seem reasonable, i t i s not clear whether these results are an a r t i f a c t of the s t a t i s t i c a l measure used or whether the r e s u l t s r e f l e c t c u l t u r a l patterning  accurately  i n the data.  The p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n using parametric s t a t i s t i c s i n general are discussed i n Bradley (1968:18).  The present  study, on the other hand, used non-parametric s t a t i s t i c a l  9  measures of correlation and independence,  Spearman's rank  order c o r r e l a t i o n , and the chi-squared t e s t of independence to analyze the data.  The l a t t e r test i s used i n analyzing  the presence/absence  data, while the former test i s used i n  analyzing the data pertaining to r e l a t i v e frequency and minimum numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s .  Thus, further r e l i a b i l i t y i s  added to the results by dealing with observed, rather than assumed, population d i s t r i b u t i o n s .  In summary, despite the  apparent s i m i l a r i t y of these studies, the method and results of the present study w i l l be s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n both r e l i a b i l i t y and d e t a i l . The interpretation of associated variable pairs by means of ethnographic analogues w i l l involve a discussion of procurement systems as outlined by Flannery (1972:222-234). One other study on the northwest coast has dealt with t h i s concept as well (Roll 1974), and i t s r e l a t i o n to the present study should be made clear.  Whereas Flannery perceives a  procurement system as centering around a s p e c i f i c food resource, Roll contends that each s i t e represents a procurement system (Roll 1974,V).  While a d e f i n i t i o n a l argument  can be developed around the most reasonable boundary f o r a procurement system i t i s thought advisable i n t h i s study to examine the smallest unit of analysis f i r s t , namely the relationships bwtween i n d i v i d u a l a r t i f a c t and faunal variables, before attempting to characterize an entire component or s i t e as a system of any p a r t i c u l a r sort.  10 The divergences  between the Deep Bay study and Roll's  Minard study continue from t h i s point.  The l a t t e r study  r e l i e s p r i m a r i l y on subjective assessment of relationships between a r t i f a c t and faunal variables and on estimates of the r e l a t i v e abundance of faunal species within the s i t e (Roll 1974:205).  The basis on which t h i s r e l a t i v e abundance  i s judged i s not made clear.  The conclusion i s reached that  the Minard s i t e , located on a s p i t at the mouth of Gray's Harbour, i n t o which flows the Chehalis River, represents a river/estuarine procurement system (Roll 1974:277ff). The present study goes beyond R o l l ' s Minard study by e s t a b l i s h i n g which a r t i f a c t and faunal variables are s t a t i s t i c a l l y and r e l i a b l y associated, by i n f e r r i n g which s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s occurred at the s i t e , and by showing which s p e c i f i c ethnographic and e c o l o g i c a l analogues are relevant to the associations found i n the archaeological context.  In short, the  only r e a l s i m i l a r i t y between the two studies l i e s i n a common use of the term "procurement system". In this study I have made the assumption that the material by-products of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s w i l l tend to be deposited together i n the archaeological record.  Some attention has  recently been devoted to t h i s topic with respect to a r t i f a c t s (Binford 1973;  Hayden 1975)  (Ascher 1968;  S c h i f f e r 1972,  and c u l t u r a l debris i n general 1976).  Binford argues that  technological e f f i c i e n c y — j u d g e d by the degree to which a r t i f a c t s are curated—has increased through time and that  i n highly curated technologies archaeological a r t i f a c t assemblages w i l l tend to exhibit l i t t l e inter-assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y (Binford 1973:249-250).  Hayden, arguing  that  the Nunamiut observed by Binford are a t y p i c a l hunters and gatherers because they possess technological items of an i n d u s t r i a l culture (steel,axes, f i l e s , snowmobiles), con* eludes that a r t i f a c t curation i n a t r u l y aboriginal context may not be nearly as important a f a c t o r i n inter-assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y as Binford indicates (Hayden 1975:54).  I tend  to support the l a t t e r point of view f o r two reasons.  First,  i t i s thought inappropriate to base models of hunter/gatherer a r t i f a c t curation behavior on groups whose material culture and behavior has c l e a r l y been altered to a considerable extent by products from i n d u s t r i a l i z e d society.  Consequently,  the law-like statements based on Binford*s observations  are  generalizations that cannot l e g i t i m a t e l y be applied i n an aboriginal  context.  C u l t u r a l remains, however, usually consist of more than just a r t i f a c t s .  A r t i f a c t s , faunal remains, structured remains,  and assorted debris are all^deposited (organized) during a habitation phase, modified  (more or less disorganized)  during  a ghost phase, and observed (interrupted at a point i n the process of disorganization) during an archaeological phase (Ascher 1968:46).  To make inferences about past  cultural  behavior, the archaeologist must separate natural and human agencies of disorganization while working backwards from the archaeological phase through the ghost phase to the inhabited  12 phase.  This task i s impeded by smearing and blending of  remains, cycling of serviceable materials, and broadcasting of debris (Ascher 1968:50-51).  Ascher contends that the  observation of analogous behavior i n contemporary communities can a i d i n reconstructing past habitation phases from present archaeological phases (Ascher 1968:52). i n a more comprehensive treatment of c u l t u r a l refuse* S c h i f f e r (1972:156-165) defines a systemic context i n which p o t e n t i a l refuse i s c i r c u l a t i n g within an ongoing behavioral system and an archaeological context which consists of refuse produced and deposited by a behavioral system (Schiffer 157, 1976:28).  1972:  Refuse that i s output from the systemic con-  text into the archaeological context i s deposited by what i s known as an S-A formation process.  This process i s one of  four c u l t u r a l formation processes that a f f e c t the eventual deposition of material i n the archaeological context.  It i s  the major c u l t u r a l formation process, although there are archaeological-systemic (A-S), systemic-systemic (S-S), and archaeological-archaeological (A-A) formation processes (Schiffer 1976:28-40).  Through S-A formation processes,  primary, secondary, and de facto refuse are produced.  Primary  refuse i s discarded at i t s location^of use, secondary refuse i s discarded away from i t s location of use, and de f a c t o refuse i s useful material l e f t behind upon s i t e abandonment (Schiffer 1972:160-161; 1976:30-33). The means by which refuse takes up i t s p o s i t i o n i n the  archaeological context i s regulated by c u l t u r a l and nonc u l t u r a l mechanisms.  In order to r e l a t e patterned  deposition  of variables i n the archaeological record to s p e c i f i c systemic or non-cultural behavior, i t i s necessary to define p r i n c i p l e s of deposition that transform ogical patterning.  systemic behavior i n t o archaeol-  These p r i n c i p l e s may be either statements  of fact or hypotheses that seek to account f o r a s p e c i f i c formation phenomenon.  P r i n c i p l e s r e l a t i n g to the c u l t u r a l  influence on archaeological deposition are c a l l e d C-transfofms. C-transforms " . . . permit an investigator to specify the ways i n which a c u l t u r a l system outputs the materials that eventually may be observed archaeologically.  Application of  these laws i s necessary to r e l a t e the past q u a l i t a t i v e , quantitative, s p a t i a l , and associational a t t r i b u t e s of mate r i a l s i n systemic context to materials deposited by the c u l t u r a l system" (Schiffer 1976:14). are:  Examples of C-transforms  as s i t e population, or s i t e s i z e , and i n t e n s i t y of s i t e  use increases, a decreasing  correspondence w i l l be found  between use and discard locations of a l l elements of a c t i v i t i e s conducted at the s i t e ( S c h i f f e r 1976:13); primary refuse i s most l i k e l y to be found at l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y s i t e s (Schiffer 1972:162). N-transforms are non-cultural formation processes.  They  permit " . . . the archaeologist to predict the interaction between variables of c u l t u r a l l y deposited materials and v a r i ables of the noncultural environment i n which they are found"  14 (Schiffer 1976:15-16).  An example of an N-transform i s the  tendency of acid s o i l s to preserve pollen but not bone (Schiffer 1976:15). D i f f e r i n g patterns of refuse deposition are thought to be the r e s u l t of outputs from d i f f e r i n g behavior within a systemic context.  The two examples of C-transforms noted  above are important to the following discussion.  The f i r s t  example suggests that the r e l a t i v e amount of secondary refuse increases as occupation i n t e n s i t y and s i t e population or s i t e size increases.  The second example suggests the converse of  the f i r s t ; namely, that the r e l a t i v e amount of primary refuse increases as i n t e n s i t y of occupation, and possibly s i t e popu l a t i o n or s i t e s i z e , decreases.  I t i s the pattern of refuse  deposition at limited a c t i v i t y s i t e s that i s presently of concern.  Within l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y s i t e s , the degree to which  a r t i f a c t and faunal by-products of a c t i v i t i e s tend to be found at t h e i r areas of use i s inversely related to the popu l a t i o n of the s i t e (an indicator of s i t e size) and the length of time the s i t e i s occupied (C-transform).  Thus, i n  small, seasonally occupied s i t e s the archaeological record w i l l reveal that there i s repeated clustering of a r t i f a c t s and faunal remains i n discrete and overlapping locations (C-transform) (Schiffer 1972:162). These transforms assume that materials used together w i l l tend to be deposited together under certain s p e c i f i c conditions.  Although i t i s an improvement over previous  archaeological p r a c t i c e to designate  s p e c i f i c conditions under  which the assumption i s true, i t i s nevertheless an assumption. Fortunately, i t can be operationalized and tested as an hypothesis, and some investigators are presently engaged i n t h i s pursuit.  When selected r e s u l t s of R-mode analyses of a r t i -  fact data from the three components at Glenrose Cannery were associated with appropriate faunal species, the Marpole and St. Mungo Component data indicated that deer and elk remains were negatively associated with a r t i f a c t s that were l i k e l y to have been used f o r hunting or butchering 252).  (Matson 1976:250,  There was no association between elk and deer remains  and hunting or butchering a r t i f a c t s i n the Old C o r d i l l e r a n Component (Matson 1976:257).  The negative association of  variables i n the Marpole and St. Mungo Components may r e s u l t from intensive s i t e occupation  (Matson 1976:257), i n accord-  ance with the C-transform set f o r t h by S c h i f f e r (1976:15). The lack of any association between a r t i f a c t and faunal v a r i ables i n the Old C o r d i l l e r a n Component i s not explained by t h i s C-transform (Matson 1976:257). that much of the material  was  I t should be remembered  found at least p a r t i a l l y i n  beach deposits that may have been subject to aquatic d i s u t r bance, that s o i l chemistry may have been less favorable to bone preservation i n the beach gravels, and that the sample size (N=23 l e v e l s ) was r e l a t i v e l y small compared to the Marpole and St. Mungo sample s i z e s . The ethnographic pattern of s i t e use on the lower Fraser  16 River indicates that many large winter v i l l a g e s were located there.  Also, large influxes of people during salmon spawning  runs would mean that many s i t e s were intensively occupied by large populations.  Judging from i t s dimensions, the Glenrose  Cannery s i t e may e a s i l y have been such a s i t e i f the ethnographic pattern was maintained f o r a considerable period of time.  I t may not be s u r p r i s i n g , then, to f i n d negative  associations between i n t u i t i v e l y related a r t i f a c t and faunal variables given S c h i f f e r ' s hypothesized relationship between large s i t e population and/or s i t e s i z e , intense occupation, and deposition of secondary refuse.  I f t h i s relationship  holds f o r a large, intensively occupied s i t e , the converse may also be true f o r limited a c t i v i t y s i t e s . these kinds of s i t e s , the assumption  In the case of  that materials used to-  gether are thrown away together may not be incorrect. Limited a c t i v i t y s i t e s consist of such e n t i t i e s as k i l l s i t e s , quarry s i t e s , and seasonally occupied s i t e s (Schiffer 1972:162).  At such s i t e s "curate behavior" i s present, but  to a lesser extent than at large, intensively occupied s i t e s (Schiffer 1976:56).  The s i t e to be examined by t h i s study  i s i n fact a d i s c r e t e physiographic portion of an extensive habitation area; however, the chronological and s p a t i a l r e lationships between portions of t h i s habitation area are unknown.  That portion of the area examined i n t h i s study  appears to have been used p r i m a r i l y f o r a seasonally s p e c i f i c , r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f , set of purposes.  In t h i s sense, occupation^  i n t e n s i t y of the portion under discussion appears to have been r e l a t i v e l y low, at least i n terms of duration.  For  these reasons i t i s argued that the portion of the habitation area investigated here can be treated as i f i t were a l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y s i t e that was occupied at a r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l of i n t e n s i t y f o r a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f period of time. Apart from the curation of material by-products of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s there are a number of other factors that w i l l tend to obscure r e l a t i o n s h i p s among by-products of a behavioral system.  F i r s t , only a portion of the a r t i f a c t  faunal remains are usually recovered  and  i n an archaeological  excavation unless the whole s i t e i s dug.  Therefore an i n -  complete record of by-product deposition must be dealt with, although t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s hardly new.  Second, the type of  material from which an a r t i f a c t i s made, as well as the use to which i t was put, w i l l a f f e c t the abundance of certain a r t i f a c t classes at a s i t e (N-transform).  Fragile artifacts  are proportionally more l i k e l y to be broken and l e f t behind i n the archaeological record than are durable a r t i f a c t s . Third, the material of which c u l t u r a l by-products consist w i l l a f f e c t their r e l a t i v e abundance i n the s i t e . extreme of decomposability extreme vegetable remains. f a l l i n between.  At  one  there i s stone, at the other S h e l l , bone, a n t l e r , and wood  Among these, some s h e l l s or bones decay  more r a p i d l y than others.  Fourth, the use of bone and antler  for a r t i f a c t s has the e f f e c t of removing items from the  18 faunal assemblage and adding them to the a r t i f a c t assemblage (C-transform).  Artifacts  of bone, antler, tooth, or s h e l l  can thus be analyzed as a r t i f a c t s , modified faunal remains, or both.  The research design of the study w i l l determine  which of these alternatives i s chosen.  F i f t h , both a r t i f a c t s  and faunal remains may tend not to be found at a s i t e although the s i t e inhabitants dealt commonly with them (C-transform). Examples of such items might be p r o j e c t i l e  points that were  most often used i n the pursuit of»game away from the s i t e , or trunk bones of larger game animals that were obtained and dismembered away from a s i t e with only certain portions, usually limb bones, being taken back to the s i t e . No implication i s made that material by-products of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y w i l l be found together, only that they w i l l tend to be found together.  Clearly, the curation of  a r t i f a c t s and refuse within a s i t e and between s i t e s w i l l take place no matter how many people occupy a s i t e or over what period of time a s i t e i s occupied.  When a considerable  time dimension i s added, e s p e c i a l l y at\a seasonally occupied s i t e , i t i s unreasonable to expect that exactly the same a c t i v i t i e s w i l l occur i n exactly the same l o c a t i o n year a f t e r year.  The deposition of the by-products of; these a c t i v i t i e s  w i l l therefore not occur i n exactly the same place each year. Over ifcime, however, the deposition of the by-products from a consistent set of a c t i v i t i e s w i l l nevertheless tend to r e f l e c t  the relationships between p a r t i c u l a r  by-products.  The foregoing arguments are phrased i n terms of tendencies, and t h i s i s not without reason.  It i s i n recognition of the  v i r t u a l absence of absolutes when dealing with archaeological interpretation that the tendency f o r events to co-occur i n time and/or space i s stressed. archaeology  The tentativeness with which  i s able to interpret p r e h i s t o r i c behavior  pat-  terns has also led to the use of i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s i n t h i s study to a i d i n data a n a l y s i s .  These s t a t i s t i c s deal  with the l i k e l i h o o d of an event occurring by chance, and as such they lend themselves r e a d i l y to statements of tendency. An attempt such as t h i s to detect ethnographic  patterns  in the archaeological record i s confronted with the problem of using variables that correspond  to recognizable units i n  the former c u l t u r a l system that i s being investigated.  In  the case of faunal remains the d i f f i c u l t i e s of establishing correspondences between archaeological variables and units i n the r e a l world  (species) i s generally not too d i f f i c u l t .  Thus, faunal remains that can be i d e n t i f i e d as to species can j u s t i f i a b l y be thought of as meaningful v a r i a b l e s . r e l i a b i l i t y with which a r t i f a c t s can be  The  correspondingly  c l a s s i f i e d i s unfortunately not as great.  Several  generations  of debate have taken place concerning the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a r t i f a c t s and what the products of such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are meant to s i g n i f y . The magnitude of the problem faced by archaeologists i s  20 amply i l l u s t r a t e d by an ^examination of Ingalik Material Culture (Osgood 1940).  I t i s clear from t h i s work that no  attempt at c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by an archaeologist could succeed i n segregating a r t i f a c t s on the same basis as they are segregated by the people who use them.  F a i l i n g t h i s , the  archaeologist must c l a s s i f y the data as best he can i n terms of the purposes of h i s research while at the same time avoiding doing violence to what he perceives as a reasonably emic classification.  This s i t u a t i o n i n i t s e l f i s an important  factor tending t o obscure relationships between material by-products i n an archaeological context.  In'-the present  study, the basic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s descriptive although f u n c t i o n a l aspects of a r t i f a c t classes are employed seconda r i l y when they can be taken from the relevant ethnographic literature.  21  \  CHAPTER II BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Introduction This chapter serves as a means of connecting  the aims  presented i n Chapter I with the data presented i n Chapter III and following.  The s i t e from which the data were recovered  i s described i n terms of i t s morphology and human h i s t o r y . The physical and c u l t u r a l context of the s i t e i s also continued, and a description of the excavation procedures i s given. S i t e Location and Description Located at 48*27' north l a t i t u d e and 123°16' west longitude, the Deep Bay s i t e i s designated Borden system (Figure 1).  DiSe 7 i n the  It consists of c u l t u r a l deposits  resting on a s p i t that projects from the east coast of Vancouver Island into Baynes Sound. This s p i t , known as Mapleguard Point, and the curve of the eastern shoreline of Vancouver Island enclose sheltered body of water c a l l e d Deep Bay  the  (Figure 2).  The  protection afforded Deep Bay by the s p i t and the i s l a n d i s considerable and, as a r e s u l t , a number of commercial f i s h i n g vessels and private c r a f t moor at the government wharf  22  Figure 1  Map of Gulf of Georgia showing Deep Bay i n r e l a t i o n to selected archaeological sites»  23  PART  OF  AIRPHOTO  Figure 2.  B.C. 7766  Map of Deep Bay, Baynes Sound, and Mapleguard Point.  24 throughout the winter  0  Only on rare occasions does major  disturbance occur within the bay  0  This disturbance takes  the form of a v i o l e n t west wind, c a l l e d a "Qualicum", that sweeps over the i s l a n d , presumably v i a the A l b e r n i Canal and Home Lake route.  On at least one occasion i n l i v i n g  memory this wind has caused commercial f i s h boats to be torn from t h e i r moorings and washed ashore against the i n s i d e of the s p i t .  Outside the s p i t i s the south end of Baynes Sound,  the body of water that separates Vancouver Island from Denman Island. The s p i t continues to be b u i l t up of sand and gravel c a r r i e d by the t i d a l current that flows northwest along the east side o f Vancouver Island*  The material being c a r r i e d  by the current comes from two sources.  One i s gravel, sand,  and sediment that i s c a r r i e d along the shore i n the continuing process of beach b u i l d up and decay.  The other i s the eroding  b l u f f s to the immediate southeast of the spite  Some parts o f  these b l u f f s are composed of g l a c i a l c l a y s , and other parts are composed of semi-consolidated  g l a c i a l sands and gravels.  These materials belong to the Bowser s e r i e s of s o i l s (Day, Farstad, and L a i r d 1959:Qualicum Alberni sheet, S o i l Map of Vancouver Island).  As these materials erode onto the beach  they become part o f the material borne by the t i d a l current. As the current proceeds along the coast of Vancouver Island i t encounters a small headland that forces the current into Baynes Sound  0  With i t s d i r e c t i o n deflected, the a b i l i t y  of the current to transport material i s reduced, thereby causing depositional b u i l d up at the t i p of the headland  0  This b u i l d up began as a submarine bar and, as the base o f the bar came above water, continued bar©  as a combined s p i t and  Current d i r e c t i o n and v e l o c i t y and wave d i r e c t i o n and  v e l o c i t y have combined over time to produce a s p i t that has i t s long axis aligned with the long axis of Baynes Sound (cf.  A l l e n 1968:394ff; Zenkovich 1967:393, 439).  It i s  composed of well sorted sands, gravels, and cobbles along i t s outer edge* The beaches that flank the s p i t are d i f f e r e n t i n composition within the i n t e r t i d a l zone  The beach outside  0  the s p i t i s subjected to f a r more forces of deposition and erosion than i s the beach on the i n s i d e  0  The outer beach  a l s o varies more i n composition than does the inside beach  0  The outside beach matrix i s coarse, containing many cobbles and much coarse and f i n e gravel, e s p e c i a l l y at the base of the s p i t .  Toward the point of the s p i t , the outside beach  i s composed of f i n e sand that l i e s i n f l a t s immediately next to the s p i t body and cobble ridges that mark the lower edge of the i n t e r t i d a l zone.  The i n s i d e beach i s predominantly  f i n e gravel, sands, and some s i l t *  R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e sorting  of these materials has occurred except f o r a small area o f steeply sloping f i n e sand j u s t inside the t i p of the s p i t and several areas of large boulders as one proceeds away from the s p i t along the shore of the bay.  26 Vegetation The present vegetation of the s p i t i s very l i m i t e d . Only toward the base of the s p i t are there trees, mostly maples.  They constitute the remains o f the second growth  that followed i n i t i a l logging a c t i v i t y .  Grasses, mosses,  and some scrub plants constitute the remaining natural vegetation, the only forms found on the d i s t a l two-thirds of the s p i t .  The small headland to which the s p i t i s attached  i s covered by the usual l o c a l second growth regime of f i r , hemlock, cedar, maple, blackberry, s a l a l , mosses, and, i n the rooister areas near the creek, willow, alder, stinging n e t t l e , fern, and c a t t a i l . Resources At the base of the s p i t , on the i n s i d e of the bay, a small stream debouches.  This stream flows year around and  thus provides a constant source o f fresh water.  Additional  fresh water i s available from Cook Creek about a mile along the shore o f the bay. The food resources available i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of the s i t e at various times throughout the year are considerable.  A variety of molluscs are found i n the wide range  of beach matrices at the s i t e .  Predominant among these are  both species of horse clam (Tresus capax and Tresus n u t t a l l i ) , basket cockle (Clinocardium n u t t a l l i ) , butter clam (Saxidomus giganteus), l i t t l e neck clam (Protothaca staminea), edible mussel (Mytilus e d u l i s ) , and, to a lesser extent, native oyster  27  (Ostrea l u r i d a ) , moon s n a i l (Polinices l e w i s i i ) , and several smaller species of marine s n a i l s (Carl 1965),  These resources  are available a l l year, as are crabs (Cancer s p ) , sea urchins 0  (Strongylocentrotus sp.), cod (Gadus s p ) , and rock f i s h e  (Sebastodes sp.)»  Some preferences i n the seasonal c o l l e c t i o n  of these resources i s noted i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e s Herring (Clupea harengus p a l l a s i i ) are abundant, e s p e c i a l l y i n early spring, at which time they spawn i n large numbers along the beach at the base and to the southeast of the s p i t . The abundance of t h i s resource can be inferred from the presence of a large stone walled f i s h trap i n the i n t e r t i d a l zone just to the southeast of the base of the s p i t (see Figure 2)  a  One report mentions a school of herring one to one and  a h a l f miles long and twenty to twenty-five fathoms thick, with an estimated weight of over two thousand tons (Tester 1947)  0  This school was observed i n l a t e November and early  December and would probably winter i n the Baynes Sound-Denman Island area, spawning the following March  s  Salmon of several species are present i n l o c a l waters. The Baynes Sound, Chrome Island, Norris Rock area i s as abundant i n Spring and Coho salmon as any of the better known salmon f i s h i n g areas i n the Gulf of Georgia, e s p e c i a l l y i n August and September  6  Also, Mr  e  Albert Recalma  (1975,pers.  comm) informed the writer that t h i s area has long been known as one where salmon could always be obtainedo  Many of the  creeks and r i v e r s draining the east coast of Vancouver Island  28 support spawning runs of dog salmon (Qncorhynchus keta) i n l a t e October or early November, among them Cook Creek and the small creek at the base of the s p i t (A Recalma 1975, e  pers  9  comm). Harbour seals (phoca v i t u l i n a r i c h a r d i i ) and northern  sea l i o n (Eumetopias jubata) frequented Deep Bay as predators on the various f i s h species mentioned above  0  Dogfish  (Squalus  suckleyi) were a l s o very abundant i n the waters around Deep Bay (Carl 1965).  They are e a s i l y caught, and were of con-  siderable aboriginal importance as a source of technological materialso  Dogfish were s u f f i c i e n t l y abundant i n the area  to warrant the operation of a dogfish l i v e r o i l reduction plant a t Deep Bay i n the second quarter of t h i s century  e  Coast deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) are common i n the forest behind the base of the s i t e .  Although no deer  were seen while t h i s project was i n progress, i t can safely be i n f e r r e d that i f the extent o f habitation i n the area were reduced to a small section of the s p i t , then the abundance of deer would be more noticeable. Information on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of birds at Deep Bay i s meagre.  From the writer's observations, bald eagle (Haliaeetus  leucocephalus), seagull (Larus sp.), cormorant (Phalacrocoracidae), and heron (Ardea herodias) are present i n the summer. A wide range of diving waterfowl are thought to winter at Deep Bay (Guiget 1977,pers. comm).  According to the Christmas  bird  count of 1972-73 reported for the Comox area, the following  species were among the t o t a l l i s t e d :  loon (common, a r c t i c ,  and red-throated), grebe (red-neck, horned, eared, piedb i l l e d , and western), cormorant (double crested, brandt's, and p e l a g i c ) , heron (great blue), swan (trumpeter),  various  ducks (mallard, p i n t a i l , green-winged t e a l , American widgeon, shoveller, canvasback, greater scamp, common goldeneye, Barrow's goldeneye, bufflehead, old squaw, and harlequin), scoter (white-winged, surf, and black), merganser (hooded, common, and red-breasted), bald eagle, g u l l (glaucous-winged and herring), common murre, pigeon guillemot, and marbled murrelet  (Arbib 1973:179-180).  i n the 1973  Canada goose was not  count but was recorded i n 1973-74  9  present  Among the  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the 1972-73 count was Mrs. V. Chungranes, a resident of Deep Bay  (Arbib 1973:180)  0  Since the count  covered 192 miles on foot and by car and involved 56 hours of counting, i t seems reasonable  observer  to assume that many  of these species are found at Deep Bay during the winter. Vegetable foods would have been common at the s i t e , but their former abundance or importance i s d i f f i c u l t to assess• A number of species of seaweed are a v a i l a b l e a l l year i n the i n t e r t i d a l zone, and salmonberries huckleberries  (Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s (Pursh)),  (Vaccinium s p ) , s a l a l berries (Gaultheria e  shallon (Pursh)), wild blackberries (Rubus sp.), wild raspberries (Rubus spe), wild strawberries (Fragaria s p ) , 0  thimbleberries (Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s (Nutt)), b i t t e r  cherry  (Prunus s p ) , skunk cabbage (Lysichitum americanum (Hulteh 8  30  and St. John)), and fern rhizomes  (Pteridium and Polystichum),  can be assumed to have been available i n their respective seasons i n the past* Technological resources available near the s p i t deserve some mention as w e l l .  Dogfish skin can be used as an  abrasive when d r i e d , as can scouring rushes (Barnett 1975: 111).  Nettles (Urtica sp )» whose f i b e r i s used to make e  twine (Barnett 1975:88), are found at the s p i t , as are rushes that can be used f o r mats (Barnett 1975:122).  Willow, a l d e r ,  cedar, maple, f i r , and hemlock a l l provide useful wood and/ or bark.  B i t t e r cherry i s a l s o available to provide bark  f o r bindings on marine implements (Anderson 1937:73j Barnett 1975:86). The vast majority of stone a r t i f a c t s i n the Gulf of Georgia are made of either basalt or s l a t e .  The writer was  t o l d that quantities of s l a t e were a v a i l a b l e along the west coast of Denman Island (B. Recalma 1975,pers. comm). Basalt occurs i n the form of cobbles along the shore of the bay to the northwest of the base of the s p i t .  An examination of  the cobbles and boulders strewn on the beach gives the impression that more basalt cobbles have had large flakes removed from them than i s the case with the sandstone granite rocks.  and  In addition, the flakes removed from basalt  rocks seem to be more numerous per rock and to be arranged i n a more regular pattern v i s - a - v i s each other than i s the case f o r flakes removed from the other rocks  0  Undoubtedly,  31  a l l cobbles and boulders on this beach have been subjected to similar natural forces that remove random s p a l l s , but, unless the basalt rocks break more e a s i l y with more regular flake scars as a result of these forces, there may  be  evidence of non-random c u l t u r a l s e l e c t i o n of raw material on the beach.  As has just been mentioned, sandstone i s  available on t h i s and other l o c a l beaches. Bone and a n t l e r f o r the manufacture of a r t i f a c t s supplied as a by-product of the food quest.  was  Since deer are  l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e and can supply a substantial amount of bone per i n d i v i d u a l , there would be no problem acquiring t h i s material.  A n t l e r would be less a v a i l a b l e , however,  because males shed t h e i r antlers during the l a t e winter  and  early spring. Cultural Deposits In the Gulf of Georgia, i t i s customary but erroneous to consider the l i m i t s of a s h e l l midden deposit to be the l i m i t s of a s i t e .  The problems a r i s i n g from t h i s f a c i l e  equation are pointed out at Deep Bay.  F i r s t , the midden  deposits on the s p i t are contiguous with, i f not part of, midden deposits of varying depth that extend r i g h t along the shore of Deep Bay to Cook Creek and beyond.  Thus, to c a l l  the deposits on the s p i t "the s i t e " i s to a r b i t r a r i l y give boundaries to an area of midden deposit that i s a c t u a l l y just a portion of a much more extensive habitation area. It i s not presently known how much of the t o t a l midden area  32  seems to be r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d , nor i s i t known to which time periods the various portions of deposit belong.  This  p o t e n t i a l complexity must be remembered when r e f e r r i n g to "the s i t e " that was excavated at Deep Bay.  Second, the  extent of s h e l l midden i s not the extent of h a b i t a t i o n deposits, e s p e c i a l l y on the s p i t .  Cultural remains have  been found on and i n sand deposits that extend beyond and underneath the midden proper.  These findings suggest that  the term " s i t e " should encompass surrounding a c t i v i t y areas as w e l l as the main area of c u l t u r a l deposition.  The def-  i n i t i o n of "the s i t e " under these new terms i s r e l a t i v e l y easy on a s p i t where there are p r a c t i c a l l i m i t s to the p o t e n t i a l area f o r a c t i v i t y , but i n s i t u a t i o n s where such l i m i t s do not e x i s t , the task of defining " s i t e " becomes more d i f f i c u l t .  boundaries  In spite of problems recognized  i n the use of the term, "the s i t e " w i l l henceforth be taken to r e f e r to the c u l t u r a l deposits on the s p i t and on the headland at i t s base.  The reason f o r t h i s designation i s  i n t u i t i v e and pragmatic because that i s the area that seems most l i k e l y to have been used as a single h a b i t a t i o n unit, and because that i s the area within which the salvage excavation, on which t h i s report i s based, was  conducted.  H i s t o r i c Site Use H i s t o r i c use of the s i t e does not seem to have been considerable u n t i l t h i s century.  During the e a r l y part of  33 t h i s century the bay was the s i t e of a f i s h processing plant and a log dump.  The e f f e c t of the f i s h processing plant on  the s i t e was minimal, consisting p r i m a r i l y of the construction on the ground surface of accomodations f o r plant workers.  The  plant i t s e l f stood on cement foundations that rested i n the i n t e r t i d a l zone. The logging a c t i v i t y had a more disturbing e f f e c t .  Logs  were transported by r a i l , and the road bed f o r the tracks was cut through Lots 2, 3 , 4 , 5, and 6 (Figure 3 ) .  These tracks  ran out onto a t r e s t l e from which the logs were dumped. The remains of t h i s t r e s t l e are s t i l l v i s i b l e t o the north of the present government wharf.  Also, a maintenance shop f o r the  r a i l r o a d was located on Lot 83, and i t caused considerable disturbance to the midden there.  Another former l o g dump i s  evident along the inside edge of the s p i t on Lots 71, 72, and 73.  I t i s not known whether t h i s was a r a i l r o a d dump or a  truck dump, but the disturbance i s quite evident.  This d i s -  turbance, though, was, i f not minor, then at l e a s t peripheral to the s i t e . Hecently, however, the s p i t was purchased by Nanaimo Realty and subdivided into small l o t s that are now used f o r permanent homes or summer cabins (Figure 3 ) .  The construction  of roads, the i n s t a l l a t i o n of water mains, the excavation of foundations and septic tank f i e l d s , and clearing and l e v e l l i n g of the ground surface have disturbed the s i t e w e l l below the surface i n some places.  Large mounds of midden  &REAS  ©EACH • B 0  OF  COBBLES  WITH  B  PA  ES  *4.^0 EL SAN D  AND  BEACH  o o  FINE  r <« \76'  DEEP  CD  m j> o O I  BAY  <  3  81 T5j  cp T» m >  o  0  i  4  i  100  METRES  i  uj  - NORTH 0 METRES WEST 0 METRES  Figure 3.  [T03 2 8  V  Map of Mapleguard Point subdivision  (/>  35  and a complex of ditches associated with a f o r t i f i e d p o s i t i o n have thus been destroyed,, L i t t l e i s known ethnographically about the s i t e apart from the mention of a trench embankment there (Barnett 23; Smith 1907:323).  1975:  I t l i e s within the t e r r i t o r y known to  have belonged to the S:uckan, a group of Pentlatch (pronounced "puntlitch") speakers, whose t e r r i t o r y extended from Union Bay to Deep Bay  e  This group was flanked to the north by  the Pentlatch proper who to Kye Bay,  held the t e r r i t o r y from Union Bay  To the south, the Saa Lam,  also Pentlatch  speakers, held the t e r r i t o r y between Deep Bay and Englishman's River (Barnett 1975:23)« Equally lacking i s archaeological information on the site  e  It has been surface c o l l e c t e d f o r a number of years,  and the trench embankment has been discussed by Newcombe (1932:7-8) and Buxton (1969:45).  The 1975  excavations  constitute the f i r s t archaeological examination of the s i t e contents.  The s i t e i s situated within what has been defined  as the northern gulf archaeological area (Mitchell 1971a, Fig.15), an area containing r e l a t i v e l y few excavated s i t e s compared to other archaeological areas i n the Gulf of Georgia. Other excavated s i t e s i n the same area as Deep Bay are: Tsable River Bridge (Whitlam 1974), Buckley Bay  (Mitchell  1973), M i l l a r d Creek (Capes 1964), Sandwick Midden (Capes 1964), B l i s s Landing (Beattie 1971), Rebecca Spit (Mitchell 1968), L i t t l e Qualicum River (Bernick 1976), and Saltery Bay (Monks 1971).  36  Excavation  Procedure  The s i t e was chosen f o r salvage by the Archaeological S i t e s Advisory Board of B r i t i s h Columbia because of the extensive disturbance that had occurred, or was about to occur, to the midden d e p o s i t s  e  Since the writer's research  purposes could be achieved at Deep Bay, a proposal was submitted, and an excavation permit was granted.  Permission  to excavate was requested from a l l owners of l o t s i n the Nanaimo Realty development, but only the owners o f Lots 1, 2, and 73 gave their permission.  During the summer the  writer obtained permission to examine a portion of Lot 81. Contour maps of these l o t s were drawn (Figures 4, 5, 6 ) . No aboriginal sub-surface features were detected although h i s t o r i c disturbance was evident. To decide on the l o c a t i o n of excavation u n i t s i t was necessary to consider several f a c t o r s .  Because the s i t e  was chosen a r b i t r a r i l y f o r salvage reasons, and because the l o t s where permission to d i g was obtained were a r b i t r a r i l y selected, there seemed no point i n devising an elaborate and supposedly unbiased means of selecting the location of excavation u n i t s .  Furthermore, the apparent absence of  aboriginal sub-surface features meant that no parts of any of the four l o t s ought to be selected f o r or against. For these reasons, excavation units were located using l o g i s t i c criteria.  On Lot 73, the excavation units were l a i d out so  W  Figure 4.  DEEP  BAY  DRIVE  Contour map of Lots 1 and 2, DiSe 7.  Figure 5.  Contour map of Lot 73, DiSe 7.  Figure 6.  Contour map of Lot 81, DiSe 7.  40  as to encounter what appeared to be the deepest part of the midden deposits while at the same time avoiding major trees and shrubso  The excavation units on Lot 81 were situated  so as t o avoid inconvenience to the owner of the l o t and so as t o have a chance of detecting sub-surface features associated with the f o r t i f i c a t i o n that previously existed i n the vicinity.  Time d i d not permit excavation to be conducted on  Lots 1 or 2, The f i v e excavation units on Lot 73 were each 2m x 2m located so as to form a 2m x 10m trench, and the four units on Lot 81 were lm x 2m located end to end*  The use of  trenches on both l o t s was thought appropriate because i t i s the most e f f e c t i v e method of c o n t r o l l i n g complicated s t r a t i graphy such as that evident at t h i s s i t e  a  Excavation was  c a r r i e d out by means o f mason's trowels, the excavated matrix being screened through 1/8  H  mesh.  The matrix was removed  according to a combination of 10 cm a r b i t r a r y l e v e l s and natural s t r a t a .  A r b i t r a r y l e v e l s were numbered according  to t h e i r distance above datum (zero t i d e ) , and natural s t r a t a were given l e t t e r s of the alphabet according to the order i n which they were encountered.  When an apparent lens ;?of  material was found i n an already designated natural stratum, the lens was given a hyphenated number to indicate i t s a f f i l i a t i o n with the surrounding stratum ( i , e A - l i s a lens 0  i n natural stratum A ) , Screening the material was meant not simply as a check  41 for a r t i f a c t s missed during excavation  s  A l l land mammal,  sea mammal, f i s h , b i r d , l i t h i c , and f l o r a l debris was removed and bagged separately, and i n addition, large quantities of mollusc remains, e s p e c i a l l y unbroken or l i t t l e broken items, were placed i n separate l e v e l bags  0  The weight of firecracked  rock f o r each natural stratum i n each a r b i t r a r y l e v e l was recordedo  Level notes, including a f l o o r plan, were kept  a f t e r the removal of each natural stratum o f each a r b i t r a r y level  0  takeno  Carbon samples were c o l l e c t e d and photographs were S o i l samples two l i t r e s i n volume were removed from  each natural stratum of each excavation unit at the time the wall p r o f i l e s were drawn  0  42  CHAPTER I I I STRATIGRAPHY AND CHRONOLOGY Introduction The f i r s t of the empirical data are presented here.  The  stratigraphy and chronology of the s i t e provide a s p a t i a l and temporal framework within which the subsequent data can be discussed.  The section on stratigraphy contains the r e s u l t s  of chemical and physical analyses of natural s o i l constituents. The d e t a i l s of these analyses are found i n Appendix I, Grouping of Strata Figure 7 shows the p r o f i l e s of the trench on Lot 73 and Figure 8 shows those d f the trench on Lot 81.  The s t r a t i -  graphy on Lot 81 requires two points of c l a r i f i c a t i o n . F i r s t , natural stratum A i s overburden that has been bulldozed from other parts of the s i t e as a part of land c l e a r i n g . I t i s a very hard matrix, having been compacted by the weight of the bulldozer, and i t contains a mixture of aboriginal and recent h i s t o r i c material.  Second, natural stratum D i s  markedly d i f f e r e n t from the other s t r a t a because i t i s compact clay unlike the others which contain sand, gravel, charcoal, rocks, s h e l l , and humus. On Lot 73, the stratigraphy can subjectively be divided  43.  Key to Stratigraphy Lot 73, DiSe 7, Code  Description Brown sandy humus s o i l with grass roots, some crushed mollusc s h e l l , and some firecracked rock, Japanese oyster s h e l l s are found i n this stratum. Concentrated crushed clam and mussel s h e l l i n a grey sandy matrix; patches of l e s s grey sandy matrix, more pea gravel, more barnacle, and some whole clam valves. Whole and crushed mollusc s h e l l , scattered charcoal, and firecracked rock. Some s h e l l i s charred, and the s o i l i s grey and sandy with some ash. Dark brown compact s o i l with crushed s h e l l and ash, A lens of orange ash, charred crushed s h e l l , firecracked rock, and f l e c k s of charcoal i s found here. Concentrated crushed s h e l l and much charred s h e l l i n a grey sandy matrix with small, scattered pockets of ash. Grey sandy matrix; large quantities of herring remains and quantities of whole and crushed clam, mussel, and barnacle s h e l l . Brown sandy s o i l with l i t t l e s h e l l or firecracked rock. Fine grey sand Black s o i l and crushed mussel s h e l l with some clam and barnacle s h e l l . Coarse grey-yellow sand containing herring remains and some native oyster shell.  44  Key to Stratigraphy Lot 73 (continued) Description Black sandy s o i l with crushed mussel and clam s h e l l and scattered c h a r c o a l  s  Dark brown to black stained f i n e sand. Dark brown to black compact sandy s o i l with almost no s h e l l but quantities of firecracked rock. Dark brown to black compact sandy s o i l with dispersed crushed clam s h e l l and firecracked rock The amount of s h e l l decreases with depth. e  Black compact sandy s o i l with l i t t l e s h e l l and some firecracked rock. Dark brown sandy s o i l with large quantities of herring remains and firecracked rock and some crushed s h e l l , A series of discontinuous lenses characterized by whole clam valves and large valve fragments, and loose grey sandy s o i l with some ash, A f i n e lens of black s o i l and crushed mussel s h e l l was also noted, A series of discontinuous lenses characterized by compact black greasy s o i l and crushed mussel s h e l l with several lenses of dark brown sandy s o i l with crushed clam and mussel s h e l l . Dark brown coarse sandy s o i l with some pebbles but no s h e l l . Loose grey sand with some crushed clam and mussel s h e l l .  ^5 Key to Stratigraphy Lot 73 (continued) Code  Description Black s o i l and crushed mussel s h e l l ,  .  . p.  o o o o|  Coarse yellow-brown sand with gravel and cobbleso Coarse yellow-brown sand< Clay and sand f l o o r . Ash,, Sand Charcoal  46  57  56  Figure 7(a).  55  WEST 54  53  52  Stratigraphic p r o f i l e s of Lot 73, DiSe 7; N218 w a l l , W52-62 and N62 w a l l , N216-218.  Figure 7(b).  Stratigraphic p r o f i l e s of Lot 73, DiSe 7; N216 w a l l , W52-62 and W52 w a l l , N216-218.  48  Key to Stratigraphy Lot 81, DiSe 7» Description Disturbed matrix consisting of compact crushed mollusc s h e l l and s o i l containing grey ash and sand« Dark brown compact s o i l with crushed mollusc s h e l l and firecracked rock e  Black compact s o i l and pebbles with very l i t t l e shell« Crushed and charred clam s h e l l and orange ash found as a lens i n C e  Dark brown compact s o i l and large quantities of pebbles found as a lens i n C„ Hard yellow-orange clay and of crumbled sandstone«  fragments  Brown s o i l with crushed clam s h e l l  e  Loose black s o i l with crushed mollusc shello F i n e l y crushed charred s h e l l and dark clay soilo Dark charred s o i l with no shells Ash Sand Charcoal  49  Figure 8.  Stratigraphic p r o f i l e s of Lot 81, DiSe 7; excavation unit 3,  50  into two zones, the lower zone being composed of s t r a t a containing sand, gravel, and cobbles to the v i r t u a l exclusion of other materials, and the upper zone, composed b a s i c a l l y of  sandy humus deposits with considerable but varying amounts  of firecracked rock and c u l t u r a l debris.  Within the upper  zone there appear, on closer observation, to be two possible s t r a t i g r a p h i c subdivisions that might be made.  The clearest  of these i s the d i v i s i o n between the upper s t r a t a , showing a tendency to contain heavy concentrations  of mollusc s h e l l  (A, B & B - l , C, D, E, F, "G", I, J , K, M, N), and the lower s t r a t a containing r e l a t i v e l y l e s s concentrated (G/O,  mollusc remains  G with s h e l l , G-2, dark G, H, H-l, Q, R, S).  Still  further examination of the stratigraphy suggests that, within the topmost group of s t r a t a there may be yet another subd i v i s i o n ; that i s , between A, B & B - l , C, D, E, and F on one hand and "G", I , J , K, M, and N on the other. The fact that one stratum appears to be d i f f e r e n t from other s t r a t a that flank i t , and that groups of s t r a t a exhibiting i n t e r n a l s i m i l a r i t y can be distinguished suggests that c u l t u r a l and/or natural constituents of s t r a t a may vary over space or through time.  The majority of archaeological reports usually  examine the most obvious c u l t u r a l debris and use these observations  to separate and group s t r a t a into zones.  This  study moves beyond the subjective assessment of s t r a t i g r a p h i c d i v i s i o n s by seeking empirical evidence f o r such d i v i s i o n s i n the pH and grain s i z e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each natural  51  stratum.  The detailed r e s u l t s of these two analyses are  presented i n Appendix I.  The results of these two analyses  permit statements to be made concerning the grouping of natural s t r a t a and the geological  interpretation of s o i l  formation at the s i t e . The pH data for Lot 73 were useful i n establishing  that  a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t chemical boundary exists i n the matrix.  This boundary separates natural stratum Q and the  complex of P and T strata from the overlying Appendix I, Figure 3 0 ) sophisticated  e  s t r a t a (see  There i s reason to suspect that more  t e s t s , such as those outlined i n Cook and  Heizer (1965) and Cornwall (1958), would prove to be even more e f f e c t i v e i n distinguishing  groups of s t r a t a .  The analysis of the granulometric data provided tanta l i z i n g suggestions about stratigraphic groupings, but i t provided no i r r e f u t a b l e d i v i s i o n of stratigraphic The s c a l i n g analysis provided a clear depiction  groups.  i n two  dimensions of the dendrogram results and assisted i n i d e n t i fying granulometric constituents that seem to be important i n determining relationships between s t r a t a (see Appendix I, Figures 32 and 35).  On Lot 73 the major d i s t i n c t i o n between  cluster 1 and c l u s t e r 2  generally seems to divide  lower  * Cluster membership, Lot 73: cluster 1  = natural s t r a t a F, G/0, dark G, G-2, H. H-l, K, N, P, Q, R, S, T.  c l u s t e r 2a  = natural s t r a t a A, B & B - l , C, D, E  cluster 2b  = natural s t r a t a "G", G with s h e l l , I, J . M  52  s t r a t a , with r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e s h e l l , from upper strata containing substantial amounts of s h e l l (see Appendix I, Figure 33)o shell*  Exceptions to t h i s are s t r a t a F and G with  The former contains s h e l l but belongs to the lower,  less s h e l l y c l u s t e r , and the l a t t e r i s a s h e l l y stratum situated s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y amongst s t r a t a containing less shells  Since only granulometric  data i s under consideration,  however, i t appears that the abundance o f s h e l l i n a stratum and the r e l a t i v e proportions of granulometric  constituents  i n that stratum may be r e l a t e d . Inspection of the weights of sample constituents i n clusters 1 and 2 indicates that these two c l u s t e r s d i f f e r most often i n terms of .125mm and .063mm sieve constituents, cluster 2 having generally greater weights of them. finding i s supported by the s c a l i n g a n a l y s i s .  This  The subdivision  of cluster 2 into two parts appears to be based on the r e l a t i v e amounts of ©250mm, ,500mm, and 1mm sieve A l l members of c l u s t e r 2a are separated  contents.  from a l l other samples  on the basis of weight of these constituents.  The median  weight of constituents f o r cluster 2a i s 29.9 gm, whereas the median weight f o r a l l other samples i s 84.9 gm. The c l u s t e r i n g and scaling analyses of Lot 73 data indicate that i n dimension 1 the .125mm and063mm sieve contents are 0  l a r g e l y responsible f o r the d i v i s i o n between cluster 1 and cluster 2.  In dimension 2 the combined .250mm, .500mm, and  1mm sieve contents i s l a r g e l y responsible f o r the further  53 d i v i s i o n of cluster 2.  Cluster 2 members generally  more of the f i n e r grades of constituents members.  contain  than do cluster 1  Within cluster 2 the members of cluster 2a contain  less e250mm to 1mm material than do members of cluster 2b. The granulometric data can also provide information on the processes that have affected the deposition o f natural constituents  i n the s i t e  e  So f a r the granulometric data have  been referred to only i n terms of mesh s i z e  0  For subsequent  interpretation a discussion of these mesh sizes and their descriptive labels i s u s e f u l .  The system of using mesh sizes  that are h a l f the aperture of the next largest mesh size i s known as the Wentworth scale (Wentworth 1922).  The ever  decreasing difference between successive mesh sizes i s d i f f i c u l t to plot graphically, so another scale, known as the phi scale, was developed from the Wentworth scale. conversion formula i s :  The  p h i = log„ D  where D i s the class boundary (mesh s i z e ) .  The phi scale  thus consists of whole numbers that are either p o s i t i v e or negative and that can legitimately be evenly spaced on graph paper.  In the following discussion the data w i l l be spaced  on the graphs according to phi units, but the mesh size w i l l s t i l l be used to l a b e l class boundaries i n order to provide continuity with the foregoing analyses, and i n order to make the grain sizes easy to v i s u a l i z e .  The various gradations  i n grain size have been given d e s c r i p t i v e l a b e l s , and they are presented below along with the appropriate class boundaries  54  of the Wentworth and phi scales.  Although both scales extend  farther at both ends than i s shown here, the data involved i n t h i s study are described by Table I. that a l l the granulometric  I t w i l l be noted  constituents except pebble gravel  and granule gravel were important i n the s c a l i n g analyses. Interpretation of Strata Wind and^tide are the most l i k e l y natural forces to have transported the granulometric and deposited them there.  constituents to the s i t e  In the physical description of  the s i t e i t was suggested that the lowest s t r a t a on Lot 73, the P and T complex, represented  stages i n the t i d a l b u i l d  up of the s p i t , whereas the overlying deposits were heavily influenced by man.  The s o i l pH analysis also noted a d i v i s -  ion between these two groups of s t r a t a .  The c l u s t e r i n g and  scaling analyses d i d not detect t h i s boundary but i t suggested three other d i v i s i o n s i n the stratigraphy.  I t i s known that,  at a minimum v e l o c i t y of 15 cm/sec, wind w i l l begin to transport sand grains of .08mm diameter, and that the same minimum v e l o c i t y of water w i l l transport sand grains of diameter (King 1971:194).  .2mm  Sand, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , i s the  most common natural constituent i n almost a l l the sampled strata.  Comparatively larger sand grains are transported  by the same v e l o c i t y of water flow because the difference between the density of sand and water i s l e s s than between sand and a i r (King 1971:194).  I t has also been shown that  55 TABLE I Wentworth Scale, Phi Scale, and Descriptive Labels of Grain Sizes used i n Granulometric A n a l y s i s . Wentworth  phi  8mm 4 2 1 .500 o250 «125 •063 pan  -3 and larger -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 and smaller  label pebble gravel pebble gravel granule gravel very coarse sand coarse sand medium sand f i n e sand very f i n e sand s i l t s and clays  a straight l i n e relationship exists between p a r t i c l e size and c r i t i c a l sheer stress required to i n i t i a t e p a r t i c l e movement (King 1971:194).  It can therefore be expected that  water transported sands w i l l contain more p a r t i c l e s i n the medium and coarse sand ranges than w i l l wind transported sands, where p a r t i c l e s i n the f i n e sand range would be expected (Cornwall  1958:186).  The greater v e l o c i t y achieved by winds at Deep Bay, when compared to tides, i s one factor that would tend to mask the expected difference exhibited by these two means of transport.  This greater wind v e l o c i t y would increase  the amount of medium sand i n the matrix and thereby minimize differences between water and wind transported sands.  In  f a c t , 2 phi (.250mm) sand grains are often under represented i n samples of beach sands from s i x to twelve feet of water.  56 This condition i s thought to r e s u l t from the easy transport of t h i s s i z e by both wind and water  e  The easy transportation  of this grain s i z e , compared to other s i z e s , means that i f p a r t i c l e s of this s i z e reach shore they can e a s i l y be blown away by wind (King 1971:290). The graphs i n Figure 9 show t y p i c a l frequency d i s t r i b ution of natural constituents i n both wind-laid and waterlaid  deposits on Lot 73.  I t can be seen that the P and T  samples have the highest percentage of sand i n the .500mm sieve, whereas the other s t r a t a have the highest percentage of sand i n the .250mm sieve. f i e l d impression  This tends to confirm  the  that the P and T complex of s t r a t a were  probably l a i d down by t i d a l action as the s p i t b u i l t up. I t seems that the d i f f e r e n t genesis of the material i s r e f l e c t e d not only i n i t s grain s i z e s , but also i n i t s chemistry, the lower matrix being less basic than the overlying deposits. The e f f e c t of wind on the deposition of the major sand category i n the overlying s t r a t a i s enlightening for the f a c t that the s p i t may s t i l l be growing by this means.  Indeed, the  high p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n of f i n e sands with depth below surface on dimension 1 may support t h i s p o s i t i o n .  It also  suggests that sand lenses predominantly of .250mm grain s i z e may  indicate periods of s i t e abandonment. In c l u s t e r 2b (natural s t r a t a »G", I , J , K, M, and N),  a l l strata' but one exhibit extreme proportions o f .250mm sieve contents.  The exception to t h i s pattern i s natural  NATURAL STRATUM F EXCAVATION UNIT 4  8 -i  NATURAL STRATUM G/S EXCAVATION UNIT 2  4  2 2 2 H  I UJ N  co .300X  J°. .250-1 .125.063PAN  NATURAL STRATUM T EXCAVATION UNIT 2  I 40 20 WEIGHT (GM.)  NATURAL STRATUM P EXCAVATION UNIT 4  .063PAN-  1 20 WEIGHT  Figure 9.  I 40 (GM )  —1 60 WEIGHT (GM.)  Selected frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of granulometric constituents, Lot 73, DiSe 7.  stratum K which contains  ,500mm screen contents i n the  highest proportions, followed by 1mm contents, ,250mm contents.  then by  There exists the p r o b a b i l i t y , therefore,  that the genesis of natural stratum K i s more l i k e l y to have been due to forces o f marine deposition than to forces of wind deposition.  Given that these s t r a t a are composed  almost e n t i r e l y of sand and that they l i e on the slope o f the underlying s t r a t a that i s exposed to wind and waves, and given that they t h i n out and disappear at the crest of the underlying midden ridge, i t seems that they represent accumulations of material that have been l i t t l e a l t e r e d by cultural activity.  Whether t h i s i s due to an absence of  human a c t i v i t y at t h i s part of the s i t e or to s i t e abandonment i s d i f f i c u l t to determine. The presence of a stratum that appears to be water deposited must provoke conjecture,  A temporary r i s e i n sea  l e v e l i s one hypothesis that comes to mind, but i t leaves too many questions unanswered.  For example, why are there not  s i m i l a r sandy deposits on the west side of the old midden surface?  And where i s the evidence f o r t h i s change from  the rest of the coast?  Possibly, t i d a l and weather patterns  exceptionally favorable to the b u i l d up of a broad sloping beach would enable t i d a l effects to progress as f a r west as they have.  The apparent absence of habitation debris from  t h i s part o f the s i t e might also be accounted f o r by such an a l t e r a t i o n i n beach morphology.  The production o f a smoother,  f l a t t e r beach, however, would suggest r e l a t i v e l y calm marine conditions whereas the encroachment of waves p r a c t i c a l l y to the crest of the present s p i t surface would require excepti o n a l l y high tides and v i o l e n t wave conditions* As can be seen below, these s t r a t a were l a i d down i n a r e l a t i v e l y short period of time*  The absence of major sea  l e v e l changes i n the l a s t 1000 years i n the Gulf of Georgia (Heusser 1960:190; Mathews et a l  G  1970:693-699), the absence  of s i m i l a r sandy s t r a t a from above the western slope of natural stratum G/0,  the evidence f o r a r e l a t i v e l y  climate a f t e r about 3000 B,P  8  constant  (Heusser 1960,Table 6), and  the apparently short period of time involved i n the deposition of these s t r a t a a l l suggest that they represent the upper l i m i t of wave disturbance during a short period of r e l a t i v e l y stormy weather  0  During t h i s inclement  i n t e r v a l , the area  of the s i t e represented by these s t r a t a , and possibly the whole s i t e , appears to have been infrequently used* The preceding discussion indicates that the i n i t i a l occupation of the s p i t occurred at a time when the s p i t s t i l l subject to inundation*  was  The v i r t u a l absence of bone  from the basal water-laid deposits may  be related to the  r e l a t i v e l y low a l k a l i n i t y of these s t r a t a , or i t may related to the a c t i v i t i e s conducted at the s i t e *  be  This un-  certainty i s well worth the attention of future investigations* The granulometric  analysis indicates that a d i v i s i o n  may  e x i s t within upper, s h e l l bearing s t r a t a although the point  6o of d i v i s i o n i s not c l e a r .  Cluster 1 seems to represent  undisturbed aboriginal deposits, while c l u s t e r s 2a and 2b seem to represent disturbed/historic s t r a t a and l a r g e l y nonhabitation deposits respectively.  The location of c l u s t e r  2b between natural s t r a t a F and G/O may be important to the delineation of c u l t u r a l components. natural constituents  The homogeneity of  i n the wind-laid aboriginal  deposits  indicates that c u l t u r a l constituents, rather than natural constituents, are what cause one natural stratum to appear d i f f e r e n t from the next.  This suggests either that the  s i t e was occupied f o r a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t purposes, or that the purpose remained the same but the location of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s varied.  I t w i l l be seen i n chapters VIII  and IX that the l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e i s to be preferred.  This  finding i s consistent with the arguments on s i t e use presented by S c h i f f e r (1975:162), Chronology Six samples of wood charcoal were submitted to Gakushuin University f o r carbon-14 dating, a l l from Lot 73,  Figure 10  shows the reported ages f o r each of the samples, and i t also shows the range of each date to one and two standard deviation units.  The Libby half l i f e used f o r these age determinations  was 5570^30 years, and present was defined as 1950,  The  s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n of each dated sample i s shown on the p r o f i l e s (Figure 7 ) ,  61  GoK-6034 4601 90 8.P. i (5151205 BP.) 900  1000  f. GaK-6035 790*80 B.P. (725 + 190 B.P.)  i  f i  x  GaK-6036 900*90 BP. (860+205 B.P.)  1300 GaK-6037 1910 + 110 B.P. (1840+240 B.P.)  2000  £ 2300  GaK-6038 2630+IOOB.P. (2815*225 B.P.)  Q. ffl  3000  3900  4000  4900  T GaK-6039 j 4860 + 180 BP. (5645+380 B.P.)-L  5000(_1_ G/0 TRATUM  Figure 10.  H-l  FLOOR  Radiocarbon dates, DiSe 7. By natural stratum,, showing two standard deviation units; based on Libby half l i f e of 5570-30 years. Dates i n parentheses are recalibrated according to Clark (1975) by J . Baldwin.  62 The sample from natural stratum C i n excavation unit 3 (GaK-6034) came from the bottom of t h i s stratum and i t was collected from an area 33 x 60 x 4 cm.  As with a l l samples,  the f i e l d sample was cleaned with s t e r i l i z e d tweezers.  The  resulting sample consisted of small lumps of charcoal weighing 36 gm.  During the cleaning of the sample, f i n e rootlets  were noticed and a human hair was found.  However, because  t h i s sample was taken from a stratum that contained h i s t o r i c a l material (see H i s t o r i c A r t i f a c t s below), and because the date i s youngest of a l l sample dates (460-90 B.P.)—a finding consistent with i t s uppermost s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n — i t  i s thought that contamination has not been severe.  One  problem l i e s i n the association o f t h i s date with obviously recent h i s t o r i c material.  At two standard deviation units  the youngest possible date for t h i s sample i s 280 years B.P., but t h i s date preceeds substantial European contact, not to mention cement, wire, n a i l s , and t i n cans.  I t seems clear  that substantial disturbance of the h i s t o r i c s t r a t a has occurred.  I t i s not clear whether the h i s t o r i c material  has been intruded i n t o aboriginal s t r a t a containing appropr i a t e dates, or whether the charcoal material and surrounding matrix has been recently transported from another part of the s i t e .  I f the l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e were the case, then i t  would appear that young material from another part of the s i t e may have simply been relocated and, i n the process, mixed with recent h i s t o r i c material.  The physical appearance  63 of this stratum indicated that i t was not transported. Rather, i t seems to have had h i s t o r i c materials intruded i n t o i t as the disturbances shown i n the p r o f i l e s suggest. The aboriginal a r t i f a c t s associated with t h i s date are thus l i k e l y to be more or less c o r r e c t l y dated by t h i s sample, regardless of whether transportation of matrix or i n s i t u additions to the matrix has occurred. The sample GaK-6035 came from the bottom of natural stratum F i n excavation unit 4, immediately behind the cranium of B u r i a l 1.  The date of 790-80 B.P. f a l l s well  within the period of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a,Fig.17, Fig.18), and there i s no h i s t o r i c material from natural stratum F. 32.9 gm.  The sample weight was  I t consisted of several large chunks of wood char-  coal and was recovered from an area 50 x 50 x 4 cm, with no contamination apparent.  The condition of the sample and the  consistency between i t s date and i t s stratigraphic p o s i t i o n , r e l a t i v e to other dates and sample locations, indicates that t h i s date can be accepted with confidence.  As w i l l be noted  i n the discussion of component separation and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , t h i s date and the c u l t u r a l materials associated with i t are consistent with other findings i n the Gulf of Georgia area. the t h i r d sample (GaK-6036) produced a date of 900^90 B.P.  I t came from an area 80 x 80 x 5 cm, near the bottom  of natural stratum G/0 i n excavation unit 5, and consisted of small pieces of wood charcoal. The cleaned sample weighed  64 26.5 gm. was found.  During cleaning a small, red, synthetic thread The thread and the s t r a t i g r a p h i c location of  t h i s date are problems.  The thread suggests that the  reported date may be younger than the r e a l date by an unknown amount.  On the other hand, i t i s not out of order  with the other dates i n the s e r i e s , either s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y or chronologically.  I f contamination has occurred, i t does  not seem to have been s u b s t a n t i a l .  Possible minor contam-  ination: may account f o r the r e l a t i v e l y large stratigraphic distance between samples GaK-6035 and GaK-6036, but t h i s distance could also be accounted f o r by a period of r e l a t i v e l y rapid matrix deposition.  Such deposition could have been  extremely rapid i n the case of natural s t r a t a "G" through N« I t was noted at the end of the granulometric analysis that the group of sandy s t r a t a above stratum G/O may have b u i l t up quickly as a r e s u l t of beach encroachment on the site.  This would be a r e l a t i v e l y fast process, but GaK-6036  came from near the bottom of stratum G/O. that the remainder of stratum G/O,  I t seems unlikely  as well as the overlying  group of sandy s t r a t a , were deposited i n as short a period of time as the GaK-6036 date suggests.  I t w i l l a l s o be  r e c a l l e d that the granulometric cluster analysis found the samples of G/O to d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y between excavation units 2 and 4.  I t i s possible, but u n l i k e l y , that what passed  i n the f i e l d f o r a single homogeneous stratum may  actually  be two apparently similar s t r a t a , one of which was deposited  much more quickly than the other.  This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  would admittedly put a great deal of s t r a i n on the data. The a r t i f a c t s recovered from natural stratum G/O and underlying s t r a t a appear to be d i f f e r e n t from those above G/O.  From natural stratum G with s h e l l , which underlies  G/O, a f i x e d barbed antler point was recovered.  Such a r t i -  facts are thought to be d i s t i n c t i v e of the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:52).  From natural stratum K a f i x e d  barbed bone point was recovered, such tools being d i s t i n c t i v e of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:48). Although natural stratum G/O i s one of two s t r a t a separating G with s h e l l from K, and although the appearance of G/O suggests that i t i s more l i k e l y to share a c u l t u r a l genesis with G with s h e l l than K, the date from stratum G/O should not be rejected automatically even though t h i s date appears to be too young to indicate a f f i l i a t i o n with the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a•65).  Since both F and G/O  belong to granulometric c l u s t e r 1, however, i t i s possible that they also belong together c u l t u r a l l y despite the s i m i l a r i t y i n appearance between G/O and G with s h e l l . As w i l l be suggested l a t e r , there may be a greater cont i n u i t y of a r t i f a c t classes between these two culture types than i s common i n some other s i t e s i n the Gulf of Georgia. This c u l t u r a l continuity may be r e f l e c t e d i n the granulometric consistency of s t r a t a as w e l l .  Consequently, the  date may be i n l i n e with other dates from components of the  66 Gulf of Georgia Culture Type.  Analysis of a r t i f a c t s must  therefore be awaited before a f i n a l pronouncement of the v a l i d i t y of the date i s made*  Even i f G/O  i s found to belong  to such a component, the date must s t i l l be suspect because of the amount of matrix accumulation separating i t from  GaK-  6035. The fourth sample, GaK-6037, was c o l l e c t e d from an area 4 x 28 x 5 cm i n excavation unit 2*  The dated sample weighed  31.6 gm and consisted of large chunks of wood charcoal that appeared to be from a single chunk of wood. date was 1910-110 B.P.  The reported  The f i e l d sample was c o l l e c t e d from  very near B u r i a l 4, but the precise location of the sample and the apparent i n t r u s i o n of B u r i a l 4 into e a r l i e r s t r a t a suggests that t h i s sample predates the b u r i a l .  The b u r i a l  comes from natural stratum G with s h e l l , whereas the sample was c o l l e c t e d from natural stratum H - l . A few f i n e r o o t l e t s were noticed i n the f i e l d sample. of the sample i s indicated.  Otherwise, no contamination  Since B u r i a l 4 had a number of  grave inclusions d i s t i n c t i v e to the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:52), and the sample appears to be uncontaminated, with a date f a l l i n g around the middle of the time period occupied by the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a: 65), t h i s date can be regarded with confidence. The f i f t h sample i s composed of small and medium sized pieces of wood charcoal from an area 50 x 75 x 5 cm.  The  sample (GaK-6038) showed no evidence of contamination and  67  produced a date of 2630-100 B.P.  It was c o l l e c t e d from  natural stratum T i n excavation unit 3, one of the s t r a t a that was deposited by t i d a l action, to judge by the results of  the granulometric a n a l y s i s .  countered.  Two problems are thus en-  F i r s t , i s the charcoal i n s i t u , or was i t washed  i n from elsewhere?  Certainly the sample was scattered,  possibly by water, but i t i s impossible to t e l l whether the f i r e that produced the charcoal was a man made f i r e on the s p i t 2630 years ago or whether the charcoal was  produced  2630 years ago at some other location and washed onto the site.  Second, the e f f e c t on dated wood charcoal of what  may be repeated and prolonged contact with sea water and i t s various contents i s l i t t l e known.  In Hawaii i t i s known  that movement of ground water can cause bicarbonate carbon-14 to be exchanged with carbon-14 i n samples, e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of s h e l l and bone. dates.  This factor w i l l produce spurious  Dating discrepancies are also known to occur i n  samples that are frequently or continuously inundated (Emory and Sinoto 1969:4).  Also i n the P a c i f i c , s h e l l samples that  have been i n contact with ocean water since deposition should •to  be suspect because of the changes that occur i n the 0 14 12 r a t i o and the consequent change i n the C 1971:25).  /C  "If.  /0  r a t i o (Shutler  Since the exact means by which charcoal sample  GaK-6038 was deposited i n natural stratum T i s not known, the presence or absence of contamination through contact with sea water cannot be determined.  In l i g h t of the findings i n  68 Oceania, however, caution i n the use of these dates seems to be the wisest course. From the tables of a r t i f a c t s and faunal remains presented below i t w i l l be seen that a single piece of unidentif i a b l e land mammal bone i s the only item found i n t h i s stratum that could possibly be c u l t u r a l , apart from the charcoal.  There are a number of c u l t u r a l remains i n the  overlying natural stratum P, and there are a very few  cultural  remains i n the underlying natural stratum P - l . Although i t i s evident that the s i t e was occupied before and a f t e r the deposition of natural stratum T, the v i r t u a l absence of c u l t u r a l remains must leave open the p o s s i b i l i t y that the charcoal of GaK-6038 does not have a c u l t u r a l o r i g i n .  Because  GaK-6038 dates the wood but not necessarily natural stratum T, i t i s thought best to l e t the date stand as i t i s , q u a l i fying i t s acceptance with the acknowledgement that the actual date at which natural stratum T was l a i d down may diverge considerably from the one reported here. The s i x t h sample (GaK-6039) i s from the clay f l o o r feature i n excavation unit 4 beneath which no c u l t u r a l remains were recovered.  The sample consisted of small pieces of wood  charcoal embedded i n the sand and clay feature.  The dated  sample weighed 38.4 gm and was c o l l e c t e d over an area of 2m x 1.60m  x 2cm.  The date produced was 4860-180 B.P.  No  contamination was evident, but again no account can be made 7  for the effect of contact with sea water.  The problem of  6 c u l t u r a l versus non-cultural o r i g i n of the charcoal and  9  the  problem of whether or not the charcoal has been transported again appear.  The f l o o r , composed of a 2 cm thick mixture  of highly compacted clay, sand, and gravel, i s not unquestionably of c u l t u r a l o r i g i n . f i c u l t to explain why place and why While i t may  On the other hand, i t i s d i f -  such a feature exists i n the f i r s t  a l l c u l t u r a l materials are found above i t . be a natural feature, and while the charcoal  may be both non-cultural and transported from elsewhere, i t i s the writer's opinion that the charcoal i s i n s i t u i n a feature that i s probably c u l t u r a l .  For the reasons outlined  for sample GaK-6038 the date i s accepted as i s with the appropriate  qualifications.  70  CHAPTER IV DESCRIPTION OF ARTIFACTS Introduction This chapter presents descriptions of h i s t o r i c and aboriginal a r t i f a c t s .  Because the h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s ,  which are presented f i r s t , are peripheral to t h i s study, they w i l l be described i n much less d e t a i l than the aboriginal artifacts.  The classes of aboriginal a r t i f a c t s  follow and are described i n considerable d e t a i l .  Variations  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of various a r t i f a c t classes are d i s cussed as a prelude to the delineation of c u l t u r a l components i n Chapter V I I . Historic  Artifacts  A prodigious number o f h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s  was  recovered  from the upper s t r a t a on Lots 73 and 81. At the outset of excavations on Lot 73 each h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t was written up as an a r t i f a c t , but i t quickly became apparent that to do so was much too time consuming.  Subsequently, the procedure  was adopted of placing a l l h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s i n their own separate l e v e l bags.  Below the top of natural stratum F  a l l h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s were again recorded f o r provenience. A l l h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s on Lot 81 were placed i n l e v e l bags. Before recording of h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s on Lot 73 was d i s -  71 continued a t o t a l of 1399 a r t i f a c t s were recovered i n approximately three weeks„  Table II summarizes the recorded  h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s from Lot 73,  This table indicates that  n a i l s and miscellaneous metal fragments (mostly t i n can fragments) compose almost 70% of a l l h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s  e  Metal a r t i f a c t s i n general compose 72% of the h i s t o r i c assemblageo  Among these a r t i f a c t s was a 1922 n i c k e l .  Glass  a r t i f a c t s comprise another 12,5% of the assemblage with 3% being b o t t l e glass and 9,5% being pane glass. cement add another 5% to the assemblage,  Fragments of  A further 4,5% i s  added by the miscellaneous category which consists of asphalt roofing t i l e fragments,  linoleum fragments, and such other  items as h a l f of a pair of s c i s s o r s .  The impression received  while the excavation of these materials was i n progress  was  that the remains of a small cabin and i t s associated debris were being excavated.  This impression seems to be borne  out by the preceding f i g u r e s .  I f this impression i s correct,  such a cabin could have been part of the community associated with the f i s h processing plant i n the 1920 s, ,  On Lot 73 the vast majority of h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s were found i n stratum A with lesser numbers found i n lower  strata.  Strata B and B - l , D, and E a l l contained substantial numbers of h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s and they have the appearance of being well disturbed, i f not imported recently from  elsewhere.  Natural stratum C, as noted i n the section on  chronology,  does not appear to have been well mixed l i k e the overlying  TABLE II Raw and Relative Frequencies of Recorded H i s t o r i c A r t i f a c t s , Lot 73, DiSe 7. Frequency Artifacts  Raw  Glass b o t t l e glass pane glass  42 133  3.0 9,5  Metal nails sheet metal bottle caps tin foil t i n cans miscellaneous  335 3 11 2G 1  24 0 0.2 0.8 1.4 0.1 45.6  Cement Brick Ceramics Plastic Miscellaneous Wood boards clothes pegs  N  638 70 12 21 21 63 7 22  1399  Relative  e  5.0 0.9 1.5 1.5 4.5 0.5 1.6  100.00%  s t r a t a , but i t does contain 57 h i s t o r i c items.  This number  i s not inconsequential, but compared to the hundreds of items recovered from stratum A i t represents a marked reduction i n frequency of occurrence of these a r t i f a c t s .  Almost a l l  h i s t o r i c materials from t h i s stratum were c o l l e c t e d i n separate l e v e l bags, so i t i s impossible to note the exact provenience of each a r t i f a c t .  The thinness of the stratum,  i t s consistency, i t s undisturbed appearance, and the subs t a n t i a l l y reduced number of h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s i t contains a l l suggest that the presence of these a r t i f a c t s may  be  accounted f o r better by intrusion of materials rather than by a l a t e post-contact deposition of the whole stratum. Bight h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s were recovered below the surface of natural stratum F.  A clear glass fragment  ( a r t i f a c t #944) was recorded from natural stratum F of excavation unit 4.  The fragment was found i n the extreme  northeast corner where the p r o f i l e indicates that natural stratum A has been disturbed i n t o lower s t r a t a .  A cement  n a i l , reportedly from natural stratum F, was a l s o found i n t h i s corner of the p i t . It seems l i k e l y that they were mistakenly assigned to natural stratum F, when they are i n f a c t from natural stratum A which intrudes into natural stratum F i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n .  An unidentified  rusty metal fragment was reported from natural stratum K i n excavation unit 5.  No provenience i s available f o r t h i s  a r t i f a c t , however examination of the north 218 m p r o f i l e  7^  shows a post mold of natural stratum A. intruding down through natural stratum K.  It i s probable that such a  disturbance  could account for the recovery of a metal a r t i f a c t i n natural stratum K.  A clear glass fragment was also reported from  natural stratum "G"  i n excavation unit 4.  Although complete  provenience i s not available f o r t h i s a r t i f a c t , the depth below surface measurement indicates that i t could have come from the disturbance  i n the northeast  corner where the  two  a r t i f a c t s reportedly from natural stratum F were recovered. A rusty n a i l ( a r t i f a c t #1026) was also reportedly from natural stratum "G" i n excavation unit 4.  The depth below  surface measurement indicates that i t also could be from the disturbance unit.  i n the northeast  corner of the  excavation  Three more rusty n a i l s ( a r t i f a c t #973, 974,  1020)  and  were reported from natural stratum "G" i n excavation unit 5. The depth below surface proveniences available f o r these a r t i f a c t s indicate that they are l i k e l y to have been found i n the post mold v i s i b l e i n the .north wall p r o f i l e .  Given  that so few h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s were recovered below the surface of natural stratum F, that they are, or are potenti a l l y , associated with obvious intrusions of h i s t o r i c s t r a t a into p r e h i s t o r i c s t r a t a , and that these eight a r t i f a c t s are reportedly from strata that are as old or older than 790^80 years B.P , #  there i s l i t t l e reason not to consider them  d e f i n i t e l y to be intrusions. The top of stratum F therefore marks the h i s t o r i c  horizon,  s t r i c t l y speaking.  But the d e f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t y of h i s t o r i c  material being intruded i n t o stratum C, the " i n s i t u " appearance of t h i s stratum, and the date obtained from the bottom of i t a l l suggest that t h i s horizon and the extent of abori g i n a l deposits do not coincide.  Instead, aboriginal deposits  and the h i s t o r i c horizon overlap, the former being at the top of stratum C and the l a t t e r being at the bottom. seems most reasonable  It  to emphasize aboriginal deposits rather  than h i s t o r i c horizons, e s p e c i a l l y since the material  may  be intruded, and to define the top of stratum C or F, whichever i s uppermost, as the boundary between a b o r i g i n a l and historic  occupation.  Aboriginal A r t i f a c t s The following a r t i f a c t descriptions are based l a r g e l y on the nomenclature presented by M i t c h e l l (1971a:89-216). The presence of a r t i f a c t classes at Deep Bay that are not present at Montague Harbour, and the v a r i a t i o n i n members of a given a r t i f a c t class between these two s i t e s w i l l require that appropriate modifications be made to the desc r i p t i v e terminology and that appropriate references be cited.  The format of the a r t i f a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l a l s o  be the same as M i t c h e l l (1971a:89-216).  The actual format  f o r a r t i f a c t d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l emphasize the c l a s s rather than the p a r t i c u l a r a r t i f a c t s ( c f . Matson 1973:10-22} 1974: 110) because the central purpose of t h i s study involves the  76  analysis of classes of t o o l s , not i n d i v i d u a l tools©  Because  subsequent analyses w i l l require the grouping of a r t i f a c t s i n d i f f e r i n g combinations of classes, the most detailed breakdown of these classes i s given i n the a r t i f a c t desc r i p t i o n s and Table I I I . I t i s thought wiser to present the smallest possible a n a l y t i c units f i r s t , then, when these units are combined f o r s p e c i f i c analyses, the exact contents of each new unit i s known.  The range of dimensions  and weights of a r t i f a c t class members w i l l be given along with references or j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r distinguishing the p a r t i c u l a r class&  Dimensions w i l l be presented i n the  following formats  range of lengths x range of widths x  range of thicknesses. Measurements were made to within .1 cm, therefore variations of less than t h i s amount are recorded as a s i n g l e measurement.  M i t c h e l l ' s (1971a)  Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia area, a natural region and i t s culture types w i l l be used as the primary reference because the present c l a s s i f i c a t i o n follows h i s and because his synthesis of references f o r each a r t i f a c t class at Montague Harbour i s excellent, leading the reader to the range of l i t e r a t u r e dealing with many s p e c i f i c a r t i f a c t classes.  TABLE III A r t i f a c t Classes by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 73, DiSe 7.  TABLE IV A r t i f a c t Classes by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 81, DiSe 7.  80 STONE Chipped Stone A) Bifaces 1* Heavy duty bifaces (Figure l i g - i ) These a r t i f a c t s are characterized by crude b i f a c i a l f l a k i n g and a broad lanceolate o u t l i n e .  Flake scars are  large and few i n r e l a t i o n to surface area.  No edge retouch  i s evident, flakes having the appearance of being removed by percussion.  The f i v e class members from Deep Bay are  a l l fragmentary, ranging i n weight from 16.6 to 28.6 gm and i n dimensions from 4.7 to 8.1 x 2.3 to 3.6 x .9 to 1.3 cm ( M i t c h e l l 1971a,Fig.31m). 2. Light duty bifaces (Figure n j - k ) These are much smaller than heavy duty bifaces but exhibit the same o u t l i n e , crudeness of f l a k i n g , and lack of edge retouch.  There are two fragments i n t h i s c l a s s  weighing 3.4 to 4.8 gm and measuring 2.5 to 2.9 x 1.1 to 2.3 x .7 to .9 cm.  They appear s i m i l a r to, but s l i g h t l y  smaller than, the point shown by M i t c h e l l (1971a,Fig.31n). Application o f the term "point", "biface", or " k n i f e " to a r t i f a c t s of t h i s s i z e and shape often depends on c r i t e r i a selected by the i n v e s t i g a t o r .  I t i s maintained here that  "point" and " k n i f e " can imply an undemonstrated function to the c l a s s , and, since "knives" and "points" are s p e c i a l b i f a c i a l t o o l s , the term "biface" i s preferable.  Crudeness  81  Figure 11*  Chipped stone, DiSe 7. a, heavy duty b i f a c i a l l y retouched f l a k e ; b„ heavy duty u n i f a c i a l l y retouched flake; c-d. l i g h t duty u n i f a c i a l l y retouched flake; e-f. l i g h t duty b i f a c i a l l y retouched flake; g - i . heavy duty biface; j-k. l i g h t duty biface.  82 of manufacture should also be a c r i t e r i o n on which to set apart "bifaces" and the p o t e n t i a l l y more refined "knives" and "points". B) Points As just suggested, the f i n i s h of these items i s more sophisticated than i s the case f o r b i f a c e s  There are more  e  f l a k e scars per surface area than i s the case f o r bifaces, and edge retouch i s common.  The general shape of points  may be s i m i l a r to bifaces or more elaborate. 1. Base fragments with u n i l a t e r a l shoulder (Figure 1 2  1-m)  These fragments have a rounded base with a small shoulder apparent on one edge.  The two specimens from Deep Bay  measure 2.0 x 1.8 x .7 cm and 2.2 x 1.9 x .8 cm and weigh 2.6 gm and 3.6 gm respectively.  These specimens most c l o s e l y  resemble Figure 6a i n M i t c h e l l (1971b). 2  © Base fragments with b i l a t e r a l shoulder (Figure I2n)  The shoulders are very weakly developed but give the abrupt base a s l i g h t l y pointed appearance.  The specimen  from Deep Bay i s 2.7 x 2.9 x .8 cm and i t weighs 6.2 gm. No s a t i s f a c t o r y reference can be made to other similar items. 3. Base fragment, side notched (Figure One item of this shape was found.  120)  I t i s similar to  the base of a point pictured by Borden (1970,Fig.32v). The Deep Bay specimen measures 2.5 x 2.5 x .7 cm and weighs 5.4 gm.  At  IA A  m  44 . Figure 12, Chipped stone points, DiSe 7. a-d, leaf-shaped asymmetric; e, broad leaf-shaped symmetric; f-g. p a r a l l e l edged; h - i , triangular stemmed; j-k, triangular unstemmed; 1-m, u n i l a t e r a l l y shouldered base; n. b i l a t e r a l l y shouldered base; 6, side-notched; p-t, f l a t base; u-w, t i p s .  84 4. Base fragments, f l a t base with contracting sides (Figure 12p-t) There are f i v e such items at Deep Bay, ranging i n dimensions from 2.1 to 3.2 x 2 4 to 2.9 x .7 to .9 cm and e  i n weight from 4.3 to 9.5 gm.  These fragments appear to  belong to points with gently excurvate sides and l e a f shaped outline.  The base i s f l a t and thick, unlike a straight base  which has been thinned.  Calvert (1970,Fig.19a) pictures an  a r t i f a c t , the base of which appears similar to those described here. 5. T i p fragments (Figure I2u-w) A l l items appear to be fragments of well made points of  l e n t i c u l a r cross section.  to have been gently excurvate. to t h i s category.  The sides of the points appear Five items from DiSe7 belong  They measure 2.1 to 3.2 x 1.2 to 3.3 x  .3 to .9 cm and they weigh 1.0 to 6.7 gm.  Tips of the  points pictured by M i t c h e l l (1971a,Fig.32a-d,g,l) are similar to the Deep Bay specimens. 6. Points with p a r a l l e l edges (Figure 12f-g) These points are narrow r e l a t i v e to t h e i r length. Their edges are p a r a l l e l f o r a large portion of the length of  the point.  The bases are rounded.  with t i p missing, come from DiSe7.  Two specimens, both  They could have been  classed as l i g h t duty bifaces, except that there i s retouch on both surfaces and along the edges, i n contrast to the  85 items classed as b i f a c e s .  Similar looking a r t i f a c t s are  shown by M i t c h e l l (1971a,Fig.31o;  1971b,Fig.5o;  1971c,Fig.9e)  The point i n Figure 5e i s much cruder, however, than those described here.  Dimensions are 4.0 to 4.7 x 2.0 to 2 1 x .9 0  cm, weight i s 7.7 to 8.7  gm.  7. Leaf shaped points, symmetric with excurvate edges (Figure 12e) This class of a r t i f a c t i s very broad i n r e l a t i o n to i t s length and the edges are smooth and evenly excurvate with the widest part of the a r t i f a c t at the midpoint of the long axis.  The one speciman from Deep Bay i s 6.1 x 3.3 x .9 cm  and weighs 18.4 gm.  No highly similar point i s found i n  the l i t e r a t u r e , but i f the point shown by Calvert (1970, Fig.l9h) were as broad as that shown i n Figure 19k (Calvert 1970), a close approximation would be reached. 8. Leaf shaped points, asymmetric  edges (Figure 12a-d)  This class of point reaches i t s maximum width approximately one t h i r d of i t s length from the base.  In t h i s r-  regard, the class i s similar to that described by Kidd (1969:44).  The edges are curved at the proximal end and  from the maximum width to the t i p they may be either s t r a i g h t or gently excurvate. at DiSe7.  Four members of t h i s c l a s s were found  They measure 5.2 to 7.4 x 2.0 to 2.8 x .8 to 1.0  cm and weigh 9.2 to 20.4 gm.  Examples of t h i s c l a s s of  point are given i n M i t c h e l l (1971a,Fig.31g;  1971b,Fig.5h),  and McMillan and Ste. C l a i r e (1975,Fig.3a-c).  86 TABLE V Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of Leaf Shaped Points with Asymmetric Edges, DiSe 7. Column D presents the distance along the long axis from the base to the point of maximum width. artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  D  9  6.4  2.0  0.8  11.6  2.2  1165  5.5  25 a  09 0  9.8  2.2  1361  5.2  2.4  0.8  9.2  1.9  1388  7.4  2.8  1.0  20.4  3.3  9. Triangular points , stemmed (Figure 12h-i) These points are small and triangular i n o u t l i n e .  The  edges are straight but the base has a weakly developed proj e c t i o n that can be c a l l e d a stem although the term i s barely justified.  The stem may be emphasized by the removal of  several small flakes from the junction of the stem and the base, otherwise the base tends to be straight across.  The  point shown i n McMillan and Ste. C l a i r e (Fig.3g) i s of the type described here. Bay c o l l e c t i o n .  There were two such points i n the Deep  They measure 2.3 to 4.1 x 1.4 to 1.5 x 0.5  to 1.0 cm and weigh 1.4 to 4.3  gm.  10. Triangular points» unstemmed (Figure I2j-k) These points are well described by the a r t i f a c t class label.  They are small, usually with straight edges but the  edges can also be s l i g h t l y excurvate©  The base i s straight  or s l i g h t l y concave, and i t i s usually b i f a c i a l l y thinnedo Two such points come from DiSe7.  They measure 2.8 to 2 9 e  x 1*5 to 1*9 x ,5 cm and weigh 2,0 to 3.3 gm.  This class  of point i s pictured i n M i t c h e l l (1971a,Fig,76a-c; Fig,104 a-e), McMillan and Ste, C l a i r e (1975,Fig,3h,i), and Carlson (1970,Fig,35c), C) Chopping tools These tools are usually c l a s s i f i e d as cobble tools, but since several of them are not made on cobbles, the present term was chosen, 1, U n i f a c i a l chopping tools (Figure 13a,c) U n i f a c i a l chopping tools are made on beach cobbles that r e t a i n a great d e a l of the o r i g i n a l cortex and that are fashioned by the u n i f a c i a l removal of a few large flakes to form a working edge. collection.  Five such a r t i f a c t s are i n the DiSe7  They weigh 509,7 to 1866,1 gm and measure 9,0  to 14,4 x 9,4 to 15,3 x 3,8 to 6,7 cm.  The largest specimen  ( a r t i f a c t #2) has been heavily pecked on both sides and may also have been used as an a n v i l .  Since i t was found on the  beach where pecking could be h i s t o r i c , i t seems safer to c l a s s i f y t h i s a r t i f a c t as a chopper than as an a n v i l .  Matson  (1973:16) distinguishes t h i s class of t o o l from other classes of cobble t o o l , but no pictures are a v a i l a b l e .  Figure 13.  Chopping tools, DiSe 7. a. u n i f a c i a l chopper; b. b i f a c i a l chopper; c. u n i f a c i a l chopper and a n v i l .  89 TABLE VI Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of U n i f a c i a l Chopping Tools, DiSe7 Length = maximum dimension p a r a l l e l to cutting edge Width = maximum dimension at right angles to length 0  artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  1  10.8  9.4  5.3  712.8  2  14.4  15.3  6.7  1866.1  44  10.1  9.5  4.7  582.1  1063  9.0  12.2  3.8  638.0  1079  11.9  10.7  4.5  509.7  2. B i f a c i a l chopping tools (Figure 13b) B i f a c i a l chopping tools are also made on cobbles, although heavy f l a k e s can a l s o be members of t h i s c l a s s . A few f l a k e s are removed b i f a c i a l l y to produce a working edge.  Again, most of the o r i g i n a l cortex of the rock remains.  Five such tools come from DiSe7.  They measure 6.8 to 14.6  x 6.7 to 12.0 x 2.4 to 6.3 cm and weigh 117.2 to 1312.2 gm. Similar implements are described as cobble core implements (Mitchell 1971a:106).  90  TABLE VII Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of B i f a c i a l Chopping Tools, DiSe7. Length and width defined as i n Table VI. artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  4  8.8  12.0  3.1  485.3  133  9.8  8.0  6.0  670.4  961  14.6  10.8  6.3  1312.1  1126  6.8  6.7  2.4  117.2  1421  8.2  8.4  3.7  320.0  D) Cores (Figure 17a,p) Cores exhibit scars where flakes have been removed. They a l s o show one or more s t r i k i n g platforms that are either natural or prepared.  They do not exhibit a working  edge i n terms of cutting, scraping, or p i e r c i n g .  Fifteen  cores that could be c a l l e d pebble or cobble cores were found at Deep Bay.  They range i n weight from 22.1 gm to greater  than 5 kg and they measure 4.2 to 15.8  cm.  to 22.1 x 2.6 to 16.0 x  1.2  Three cores, not included i n the above des-  c r i p t i o n , deserve special mention.  The f i r s t i s an obsidian  core showing the removal of long, uneven flakes using a bipolar technique.  The s t r i k i n g platform i s at one end of  the long axis, and the width and thickness are s i m i l a r , but considerably less than, the length (2.2 x 1.5 x 1.2 weight 3.5 gm).  This core may  cm,  represent an attempt to  91  prepare a microblade core, given i t s s i z e , shape, and material, but the flake scars cannot be attributed to the removal of blades«  The second core i s of quartz c r y s t a l  measuring 3.2 x 2*0 x l 6 cm and weighing 9.2 gm. The e  flake scars on t h i s core are i r r e g u l a r •  Probably the  quartz c r y s t a l f l a k e s described below were removed from cores such as t h i s .  The t h i r d core i s i n two fragments  that together measure 1 1 x 1 0 x .5 cm and weigh 6 gm. 0  0  e  This core i s a microblade core with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c scars where two small blades have been removed by bipolar f l a k i n g  0  Such cores were a l s o recovered from Argyle Lagoon and C a t t l e Point East B l u f f (Carlson 1960:572, 574). E) Retouched flakes Retouched flakes exhibit a varying number of f l a k e scars on t h e i r dorsal surface, but the ventral surface i s a single f l a k e scar except where edge retouch has occurred. These flakes can be sorted on the basis of whether edge retouch has been u n i f a c i a l or b i f a c i a l .  This d i s t i n c t i o n  i s made by Matson (1973:12-15), and i t i s also made, i n part, by Fladmark (1970:24-28, 31) who chooses to group b i f a c i a l l y retouched flakes with b i f a c e s .  The former author treats  retouched flakes on the basis of f l a k e s i z e and edge angle; the l a t t e r author places primary emphasis on the shape of the retouched edge.  For the present purposes, the longest  dimension of the f l a k e has been used to group retouched flakes  TABLE VIII Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of Cores, DiSe7. Length = maximum dimension; width = r i g h t angle to length on the same plane* artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  6  6*6  4.9  2.4  142.2  41  5*3  2.4  3.2  61.2  118  10.0  5.9  3.3  353.7  122  10*2  8.0  5.4  702.3  128  9*0  7.6  6.4  714.5  134  9.3  9.0  7.3  1078.3  955  20.8  13.2  7.0  1746.8  999  4.2  2.7  1.2  22.1  1139  8*3  4.5  3.5  190.6  1175  2.3  JL © 5  1.2  3.5  1197  4.3  4.0  2.6  49.1  1258  1.1  1.0  0o5  0.6  1318  8.2  2.6  1.9  95.2  1357  11.9  10.0  6.7  896.6  1376  3.2  2.0  1.6  9.2  1389  13.1  10.0  6.0  1128.6  1426  14.2  11.6  9.4  2426.3  1429  13.9  8.6  7.6  1442.1  1441  22.1  16.0  15.8  >5000.0  i n t o heavy duty, medium duty, and l i g h t duty classes. class boundaries are:  The  heavy duty, greater than 5 cm; medium  duty, l e s s than 5 cm but greater than 2 cm; l i g h t duty, smaller than 2 cm.  These boundaries quite c l o s e l y r e f l e c t  breaks i n the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of long axes of these flakes from Deep Bay. While thickness could also be a measure of how heavy or l i g h t duty a flake was, a case could also be made f o r developing some index to express more of the length, width, thickness, and weight of each f l a k e . Unfortunately, such indices are d i f f i c u l t to r e l a t e to a three-dimensional object.  Because the object of t h i s paper  i s to e s t a b l i s h reasonable a n a l y t i c units rather than establish the s u p e r i o r i t y of one method of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the use of the largest dimension of a f l a k e to e s t a b l i s h whether i t i s a member of one class or not seems j u s t i f i e d . Retouched  s l a t e flakes are included with basalt flakes even  though s l a t e may be less "heavy duty" than basalt f o r any given s i z e .  I t seems more sensible to include the slate  flakes than to set up a separate class f o r them only on the basis of material. 1. U n i f a c i a l l y retouched flakes Heavy duty (Figure l i b ) There are four members of t h i s class from DiSe7.  They  measure 5.6 to 10.0 x 5.4 to 7.4 x 1.2 to 2.4 cm and weigh 76.8 to 203.3 gm.  The working edges vary i n form from  concave to convex, but extreme curvature i s not present.  9^ Medium duty Sixteen members of t h i s c l a s s come from Deep Bay and the shape of t h e i r cutting edge varies considerably.  They  measure 2.4 to 4 6 x l 3 to 3.7 x .2 to l 2 cm and weigh e  e  8 to 19 5 gm 0  c  quartz crystals,  e  e  One of these flakes ( a r t i f a c t #1169) i s The r e s t are basalts  2« B i f a c i a l l y retouched flakes Heavy duty (Figure 11a) One basalt f l a k e measuring 11,9 x 8 1 x 1 4 cm#and*£ Q  Q  weighing 181 2 gm and one s l a t e f l a k e measuring 6 5 x 3 1 0  0  x ,3 cm and weighing 7*1 gm belong to t h i s class* implements  0  On both  the cutting edge i s s t r a i g h t .  Medium duty Nine flakes belong to t h i s c l a s s .  Their edges vary  from straight to convex, t h e i r measurements are 2.7 to 4.8 x 1.3 to 3.4 x .3 to .8 cm and t h e i r weight i s 1.1 to 11.0 gm.  Four flakes are basalt, one i s water worn obsidian, arid  four are s l a t e . Light duty (Figure l l e - f ) One f l a k e ( a r t i f a c t #1242) belongs to t h i s c l a s s . I t i s 1.8 x 1.2 x .4 cm, weighs .7 gm, and i s made of basalt.  95 TABLE IX Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of Medium Duty U n i f a c i a l l y Retouched Flakes, DiSe7. Length = maximum dimension; width = r i g h t angle to maximum dimensions artifact number  length  width  thickness  40  2.5  2.5  0.2  5.1  50  29  2.6  1.2  14.3  1118  4.1  3.5  1.1  16.5  1121  3.0  1.3  0.3  0.8  1169  2.6  1.5  0.3  0.9  1179  3.2  3.2  0.8  9.2  1182  3.2  1.9  0.5  3 o3  1189  3.1  2.3  0.6  3.1  1293  2.4  2.2  0.9  5.6  1297  3.4  1.8  0.5  2.5  1323  4.2  3.7  1.2  19.5  1335  2.9  2.8  0.9  6.3  1394  4.6  3.0  0.9  19.1  1371  2.9  1.5  0.3  1.2  1401  3.7  2.5  0.6  5.3  1422  2.4  1.3  0.3  0.8  0  weight  96 TABLE X Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of Medium Duty B i f a c i a l l y Retouched Flakes, DiSe7. Length a maximum dimension. artifact number  length  width  thickness  947  2.4  1.5  Oo5  1.7  1233  2.5  1*3  0.4  1.1  1256  2.5  2.3  0.5  8.6  1292  2.6  2.0  0.6  3.2  B06  4.1  1.6  0.8  7.1  weight  F) U t i l i z e d flakes These flakes show evidence of use through the removal of very small flakes along an edge that i s n a t u r a l l y t h i n . The flakes removed from the presumed working edge do not exhibit the same pattern of removal as purposeful retouch. Instead, they appear more random i n terms of t h e i r location and the side from which they are removed.  The heavy duty,  medium duty, and l i g h t duty c r i t e r i o n i s applied here as w e l l . Heavy duty One such f l a k e was found.  Made o f basalt, i t weighs  176.0 gm and measures 7.7 x 6.9 x 2.7 cm.  I t was found on z  the beach i n a waterworn condition.  Of the s i x a r t i f a c t s i n t h i s c l a s s , four are basalt and two are obsidian.  They measure 2.1 to 4.3 x 1.1 to 3.3  97  x .4 to l 0 cm and weigh 1.0 to 10.2 gm« o  on one edge of these a r t i f a c t s * straight or s l i g h t l y convex  Use i s evident only  Their edges tend to be  0  TABLE XI Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of Medium Duty U t i l i z e d Flakes, DiSe7. Length = maximum dimension, artifact number  length  width  39  3*9  2.5  0.1  4.3  1164  4.4  3.3  1.0  10.2  1291  3.2  3.1  0.5  5.1  1360  2.1  1.5  0.8  1.4  1372  2.4  1.1  0.4  1.0  1415  3.4  2.4  0.6  5.5  thickness  weight  Light duty A l l nine a r t i f a c t s i n t h i s class are obsidian.  Their  cutting edges tend to be straight or s l i g h t l y convex.  The  thinness of these flakes makes i t possible f o r more than one u t i l i z e d edge to appear on a single f l a k e .  They measure .7  to 1.6 x .4 to 1.1 x .1 to .4 cm and they weigh .1 to .4 gm.  98 TABLE XII Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of Light Duty U t i l i z e d Flakes, DiSe7 Length = maximum dimension. a  artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  1298  1.3  1.1  0.2  0.1  1332  1.2  0.4  0.4  0.4  1344  1.2  0.5  0.4  0.2  1345  1.6  0.8  0.3  0.2  1349  1.4  1.0  0.3  0.2  1350  0.8  0.7  0.2  0.1  1386  1.0  0.6  0.4  0.1  1396  1.5  0.4  0.4  0.3  1427  1.5  0.4  0.2  0.2  G) Microblades One medial fragment of what appears to be an obsidian microblade was found. weighs .1 gm.  I t measures 1.0 x .6 x .2 cm and  I t exhibits the customary trapezoidal cross  section and p a r a l l e l edges of microblades, but the ridges on the dorsal surface appear to converge gently toward what would be the d i s t a l end.  Given i t s appearance and raw  material, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of this a r t i f a c t as a microblade seems warranted.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  of microblades i s d i s -  cussed by M i t c h e l l (1968b, 1971as97, 99).  99 H) Obsidian flakes Twenty i r r e g u l a r , small flakes showingano evidence of u t i l i z a t i o n belong to t h i s class©  They are designated  as  a r t i f a c t s because the raw material i s not r e a d i l y available at Deep Bay* location*  This suggests importation from a more distant  These flakes measure .5 to 2*7 x .2 to 1.7 x «1  to ,7 cm and weigh l e s s than .1 to 2«2  gm.  I) Quartz c r y s t a l flakes The description of t h i s a r t i f a c t i s the same as that for obsidian flakes and has been included f o r the same reason.  There are twenty-nine of these f l a k e s , measuring  .9 to 2.8 x .4 to 2.2 x .1 to 1.3 .1 to 5.2  gm.  cm and weighing less than  Large quantities of obsidian and  quartz  c r y s t a l d e t r i t u s are also reported at Shoemaker Bay  (McMillan  and Ste. C l a i r e 1975:40) and from C a t t l e Point (Carlson  1960:  574).  Ground Stone A) Abrasive  stones  Abrasive stones are characterized by an area, on at least one surface, that i s r e l a t i v e l y smoother than the surrounding surface or that otherwise indicates use by abrasion.  These a r t i f a c t s are almost always of sandstone,  the texture of which shows considerable v a r i a t i o n .  A  100 s t y l i s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of such a r t i f a c t s i s presented by M i t c h e l l (1971a,Table XVI), but, since the emphasis of t h i s study i s d i r e c t e d more toward function than toward s t y l e , grain texture of the rock w i l l be used to c l a s s i f y abrasive stones.  This approach has been implied i n Matson (1973:20).  Estimation of grain texture i s subjective and i s only i n r e l a t i o n to other abrasive stones i n the DiSe7 c o l l e c t i o n . Although i n t e n s i t y of use may a f f e c t the evaluation o f grain texture, nevertheless, the f i n e r the grain the smoother the working surface.  The abrasive stones have been grouped into  coarse, medium, and f i n e texture c l a s s e s . (See Table X I I I ) . 1. Coarse texture abrasive stones These a r t i f a c t s have a grain texture that retains each piece of sand as a p h y s i c a l l y separate e n t i t y , the whole being cemented together by f i n e r material that i s often abraded more quickly than the sand grains.  This texture of  abrasive stone would leave d i s t i n c t , deep s t r i a t i o n s i n an abraded implement.  There are eight such items from Deep Bay,  measuring 5.5 to 39.1 x 3.5 to 22.9 x 1.4 to 8.8 cm and weighing 39.4 gm to more than 5 kg. The form of these a r t i f a c t s v a r i e s , most appearing  to be fragmentary.  The  largest abrasive stone i s an egg shaped sandstone cobble with a u t i l i z e d dorsal surface.  101 TABLE XIII Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of Apparently Complete Abrasive Stones, DiSe7. Length = maximum dimension. artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  12.4 13.0 18.1 39.5  5.8 8.6 57 23.0  2.7 1.8 3.2 8.5  237.6 345.4 607.7 5000.0  14.4 10.4 13.8 9.1 12.0  7.3 9.2 9.5 6.9 11.4  5.4 2.1 1.9 7.9 2.0  928.8 293.9 397.3 89.8 358.6  22.0 15.1 4.9 13.7  16.5 7.9 4.4 8.1  2.3 2.4 0.6 2.1  1149.8 472.1 19.3 363.0  coarse 956 1038 1114 1474  0  medium 132 943 1049 1423 1458 fine 46 998 1076 1515  2. Medium texture abrasive stones The texture of these a r t i f a c t s i s f i n e r than that of the f i r s t group.  The grains are smaller and more closely  spaced, although they s t i l l r e t a i n the appearance of being individual  sand grains.  The faster removal of cementing  material i s not evident i n t h i s c l a s s .  Objects abraded on  t h i s class of stone would exhibit f i n e , closely spaced striations.  There are ten such a r t i f a c t s at Deep Bay,  measuring 4.0 to 17.5 x 2.5 to 13.0 x .7 to 7.8 cm and weighing 10.2 to 928.8 gm.  Several of these a r t i f a c t s show  102 b i f a c i a l abrasion, and several also exhibit s l i g h t edge wear  e  3. Fine texture abrasive stones (Figure 14b) The largest number of abrasive stones, seventeen, f a l l s into this c l a s s .  The texture results from f i n e sand grains  that are very compacted.  The working surface i s extremely  smooth, and an a r t i f a c t abraded on such a stone would show a flattened surface whose s t r i a t i o n s would be i n v i s i b l e to the naked eye.  Within t h i s c l a s s , f a l l the grooved  shaped abrasive stones.  and  The Deep Bay a r t i f a c t s i n t h i s class  measure 2.4 to 15.8 x 1,4 to 16.0 x .6 to 6.0 cm and weigh 19.3 to 1600.2 gm. B) Abrasive stone/saw (Figure !4a) Three a r t i f a c t s belong to t h i s c l a s s .  They show  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c abrasive stone usage on one or both surfaces, but i n addition they show b i f a c i a l abrasion along a sharp, straight edge that contracts evenly from both sides.  These  a r t i f a c t s measure 9.0 to 19.5 x 7,8 to 10.2 x 1.1 to 5.6 and weigh 104.8  to 1268.2 gm.  cm  The largest i s coarse textured.  The other two are medium textured.  This class of a r t i f a c t  i s a l s o known from Shoemaker Bay (McMillan and Ste. C l a i r e 1975:44). C) Abrasive stone with edge retouch (Figure 14c-d) These a r t i f a c t s axe classed as sandstone knives and grouped with chipped s l a t e a r t i f a c t s by M i t c h e l l (1971a,  Figure 14.  Abrasive stones, DiSe 7. a. abrasive stone/saw; b. f i n e textured abrasive stone; e*d. edge retouched abrasive stone.  104 Table XVI).  They are discussed separately here because i t  i s clear that the Montague Harbour sandstone items are not abraded on either surface (Mitchell 1971a:102), and because the chipped and ground s l a t e items from Deep Bay were c l e a r l y not used f o r the same purposes as the edge retouched abrasive stones.  Two a r t i f a c t s of t h i s class were found, measuring  11.8 to 12.2 x 7.2 to 10.9 x 1.6 to 1.7 cm and weighing 185.7 to 320.7 gm.  On one implement  the retouch i s u n i f a c i a l and  i s confined to one straight edge; the other implement i s b i f a c i a l l y retouched on three out of four edges. D  ) Chipped and ground stone These two fragments are d i f f i c u l t t o c l a s s i f y on a  functional basis.  One ( a r t i f a c t #119) i s a basalt chunk  abraded roughly on one surface and b i f a c i a l l y retouched on a convex edge.  I t i s unlike an abrasive stone with edge  retouch because of the d i f f e r e n t material and because i t i s abraded rather than abrasive.  I t could be part of a heavy  duty b i f a c i a l l y retouched flake that has been abraded on both sides. cm.  I t weighs 69.2 gm and measures 5.2 x 4.4 x 1.9  The other member of t h i s class i s made of s l a t e .  thin and i t has b i f a c i a l retouch on four edges.  It i s  Both sides  are abraded, and one side also has a f i n e i n c i s i o n diagonally across i t as i f i t had been sawn. measures 4.1 x 2.3 x .3 cm.  I t weighs 3.6 gm and  105  E) Points In the Deep Bay c o l l e c t i o n ground stone points are a l l of slate*  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of these points c l o s e l y follows  M i t c h e l l (1971a), although fragments of such points w i l l be treated d i f f e r e n t l y *  I t i s customary simply to group f r a g -  ments together i n a "miscellaneous point fragments" c l a s s , but  information on thickness, edge shape, and base form i s  l o s t t h i s way*  The procedure followed i n this study i s to  separate t i p , medial, and base fragments from points that are s u f f i c i e n t l y whole so as to be treated as entire* 1* Tip fragments (Figure 15n-q,s) These class members consist of d i s t a l fragments of thin ground s l a t e points*  They exhibit the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h i n ,  f l a t cross section with b i f a c i a l l y bevelled edges*  Because  of the short edge presented on these fragments and because the base i s lacking, they cannot be assigned to a s p e c i f i c class of point*  There are seven such fragments, measuring  2*1 to 4.5 x .8 to 2.4 x .1 to .3 cm and weighing .3 to 2.8 gm* 2* Medial fragments (Figure I5r) These fragments lack proximal or d i s t a l ends.  A l l are  of the thin ground s l a t e point configuration with straight or s l i g h t l y convex edges.  There are three of these fragments,  measuring 3.4 to 3.9 x 1.4 to 2.9 x .2 to .3 cm and weighing 1.8 to 4o5 gm.  106  Figure 15.  Ground stone points, DiSe 7* a* thick; b-c. thick basal fragments; d. basal notched; e-h. corner notched; i-m. thin triangular; n-q,s t i p fragments; r . medial fragment* 0  107 3, Basal fragments (Figure 15b-c) This class exhibits l i t t l e of the edge of the former a r t i f a c t and nothing of the t i p . The base form of the  two  members of t h i s c l a s s i s unfinished i n one case and b i f a c i a l l y bevelled i n the other.  Both fragments are from large  points that were thicker than the previously described fragments and that appear to have been more p a r a l l e l sided than the thinner fragments. 3.3 gm.  to 3.6 x 2.4  The bases i n question measure  to 2.6 x .3 to .5 cm and weigh 3.7  to 5.9  No s a t i s f a c t o r y picture or d e s c r i p t i o n of these points  can be found i n the l i t e r a t u r e , although these basal f r a g ments are approximated i n M i t c h e l l (1971a,Fig.91) and Borden (1970,Fig.30ii) and are probably parts of thick ground s l a t e points. 4. Triangular ground s l a t e points (Figure 15i-m) These points are short and r e l a t i v e l y broad with a t h i n , f l a t cross section and b i f a c i a l l y bevelled edges. base i s thinned more or less abruptly.  Often  the  Bases and edges are  usually s t r a i g h t . Five members of t h i s c l a s s are found at Deep Bay.  They measure 3.1  cm and weigh 1.1  to 2.7 gm.  M i t c h e l l (1971a:189).  to 3.7 x 1.1  to 1.7 x .1 to .3  Such a r t i f a c t s are described by  108 TABLE XIV Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of Triangular Ground Slate Points, DiSe 7. ( ) = incomplete dimension. artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  1054  3.7  1.1  0.2  1.0  1263  3.4  1.6  0.1  1.2  1267  (3.1)  1.1  0.2  1.1  1411  3.6  1.7  0.2  1.6  1468  3.7  (1«5)  0.3  2.7  5. Corner notched ground s l a t e points (Figure 15e-h) This class i s characterized by an elongated triangular shape with straight to s l i g h t l y convex edges, a t h i n , f l a t cross section, and a b i f a c i a l bevel on the edges.  An acute  angled notch has been abraded into the corners of these points, producing an acute angled shoulder and an expanding base.  The narrowness of the base where i t joins the body  of the point weakens the point, often r e s u l t i n g i n breakage. Many of these points are found without bases.  Four of these  a r t i f a c t s were found at Deep Bay, measuring 3.1 to 4.6 x to 1.9 x 0.2 to 0.3 cm and weighing 1.3 to 2.6 gm.  1.4  Similar  points are described by M i t c h e l l (1971b,Fig.9j), McMillan and Ste. C l a i r e (1975,Fig.5d), and Smith  (1907,Fig.102b),  and were recovered at Saltery Bay (Monks, i n preparation). Points similar to these, but side notched instead of corner notched, are reported from Belcarra Park (Charlton 1972,  109  Fig«,50c), Buckley Bay ( M i t c h e l l 1973,Fig.21f), and Helen Point (Carlson 1970,Fig.36o). TABLE XV Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of Corner Notched Ground Slate Points, DiSe 7. ( ) = incomplete dimension. artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  1155  3.1  1.4  0.2  1.3  1163  (3.5)  1.4  0.3  17  1239  (4.4)  1.6  0.2  2.3  1404  (4.6)  2.0  0.2  26  0  0  6. Basally notched ground s l a t e points (Figure 15d) There i s one such point with a missing t i p . The point i s broad and thin with f l a t surfaces and b i f a c i a l l y bevelled edges.  The  overall form appears to have been t r i a n g u l a r .  The semi-circular notches abraded i n t o the base i s o l a t e a stem that i s roughly f l u s h with the shoulders.  The specimen  measures 3.0 x 2.2 x 0.2 cm and weighs 2.2 gm.  Illustrations  or descriptions of s i m i l a r points are not found i n the l o c a l literature. i  7. Thick ground s l a t e point fragments (Figure 15a) This class of point i s well known i n the Gulf of Georgia (Borden 1970:98, Fig.30hh-jj; M i t c h e l l 1971a:57).  Edge and  base form varies within the c l a s s ( M i t c h e l l 1971a:109, Fig.45d,  no e,g,k,l,m) but the thick hexagonal faceted cross section i s distinctive,.  The a r t i f a c t from Deep Bay i s very narrow,  r e l a t i v e to i t s length, and i s only s l i g h t l y convex along the edgeso  The base i s missing  „4 cm and weighs 4 6 e  0  I t measures 7.3 x 1,6  x  gm  0  F) Ground s l a t e knives This class of a r t i f a c t i s also well known i n the Gulf of Georgia area.  Members of the class have a working edge  that i s straight to convex and that has been sharpened by abrasion  0  The converging sides can be either convex or  bevelled i n cross section. knives may  Variations i n thickness of these  indicate temporal d i s t i n c t i o n , as may  the amount  of abrasion on both surfaces (Mitchell 1971a:48, 52, lo Thick ground s l a t e knives (Figure  57),  16f)  These two fragments are .6 to .7 cm thick and both are completely abraded on both surfaces. vary from 3.9 6,7  to 42.6  to 8.9 x 2.3  gm.  Their length and width  to 6.8 cm and t h e i r weights are  These two items are thicker and more com-  p l e t e l y abraded than that described by M i t c h e l l (1971a:113). 2. Thin ground s l a t e knives  (Figure 16d,g-h)  This class i s the commoner one at Deep Bay.  I t s eleven  members are .3 to .4 cm thick and they have p a r a l l e l surfaces. A l l but one are abraded over t h e i r e n t i r e surface and nine are fragmentary.  They measure 3.6  to 12.0 x 2.2  to 7.3 cm  and  g  h  Figure 16.  Ground s l a t e knives and c e l t s , DiSe 7, a-b, c e l t ; c, decorated slate; d,g~h, thin ground slate knife fragment; e, saw; f , medium thick ground slate k n i f e .  weigh 2.0 to 32.6 gm.  M i t c h e l l (1971a:191, Table XLII,  Fig.108) describes this c l a s s , and Barnett (1975:62) indicates that members of t h i s class were used as f i s h knives.  The  two complete members of t h i s class, a r t i f a c t s #8 and #1452, measure 11.3 x 5.4 x 0.4 cm and 12.0 x 4.9 x 0.4 cm and weigh 32.6 gm and 31.8 gm  respectively.  G) Ground s l a t e fragments It i s customary to class a l l ground s l a t e fragments together under "miscellaneous ground s l a t e " i f they are not subsumed i n a point fragment or knife fragment c l a s s , but here they are subdivided so as to use more of the information they can provide.  In examining ground s l a t e fragments that  are not c l e a r l y members of any s p e c i f i c a r t i f a c t c l a s s , four a t t r i b u t e s always e x i s t , separately or together, that can be used to subdivide them. 1. B i f a c i a l l y bevelled ground s l a t e fragments These fragments are abruptly bevelled at an edge, they are t h i n , and they have p a r a l l e l sides.  The sides are usually  completely worked, and the fragments are usually t h i n .  These  fragments could be from either thin knives or points, but t h e i r smallness makes their assignment to either class impossible. Bay.  There are f i v e fragments of t h i s class from Deep  They measure 1.2 to 2.7 x 1.2 to 2.0 x 0.1 to 0.3 cm  and weigh 0.2 to 2.4  gm.  113  2. U n i f a c i a l l y bevelled ground s l a t e fragments These fragments are also t h i n with p a r a l l e l surfaces but the bevel i s only u n i f a c i a l abraded.  0  Both surfaces are usually  There are f i v e of these a r t i f a c t s at DiSe7,  measuring 1.4 to 4,2 x .8 to 2,5 x ,1 to .3 cm and weighing .3 to 4,8  gm,  3, B i f a c i a l l y abraded ground slate,fragments This class of a r t i f a c t shows no edge abrasion but i s ground on both surfaces. the fragments are t h i n  e  These surfaces are p a r a l l e l and Two are from Deep Bay; they measure  3,8 to 3,9 x 2,2 to 2.4 x ,2 to ,3 cm.  These fragments, l i k e  the b i f a c i a l l y bevelled fragments, are probably parts of t h i n ground s l a t e points or knives but no diagnostic features allow them to be placed i n either category. 4  » U n i f a c i a l l y abraded ground s l a t e fragments  No edge abrasion i s evident on t h i s class of a r t i f a c t either and, i n addition, only one surface has been abraded. Although there are only three a r t i f a c t s i n t h i s class from Deep Bay, they appear to be s l i g h t l y thinner than the thin ground s l a t e a r t i f a c t s and b i f a c i a l l y abraded fragments. This, coupled with the lack of s u r f i c i a l abrasion on the three members of t h i s c l a s s , suggests that they may have been parts of the surface of other ground s l a t e tools at one time. They measure 2.3 to 3.0 x 1.4 to 2.3 x .1 to .2 cm and weigh .4 to 2,0  gm. \  114 H) Miscellaneous ground s l a t e (Figure 16c) This fragment i s ground on both surfaces, and the surface along one edge has been worked t o produce a longi t u d i n a l i n c i s i o n from which shorter i n c i s i o n s produce an edge that gives the appearance of having broad serrations on i t .  The fragment i s of s i l v e r s l a t e .  I t measures 5.3  x 4.9 x .8 cm and i t weighs 30.0 gm. I) C e l t (Figure 16a-b) This c l a s s of a r t i f a c t i s characterized by having a p o l l that i s usually f l a t and rectangular t o sub-rectangular i n transverse cross section, a b i t that i s usually straight and that may converge symmetrically or asymmetrically  from  each surface, and edges and surfaces that can be p a r t l y or completely polished.  Members of t h i s c l a s s are usually made  of jade or nephrite, and one edge often shows where the a r t i f a c t has been sawn from a larger piece of rock.  The  s i z e , shape, and cross section of c e l t s varies considerably, but since only three are represented from Deep Bay, no attempt w i l l be made to subdivide them. Of the three specimens one i s represented only by a fragment, but the other two are complete.  The fragment i s  of coarse grained nephrite with p o l i s h on part of a surface and an edge. gm.  I t measures 4.7 x 2.8 x .9 cm and weighs 15.4  One of the complete c e l t s i s small, rectangular i n cross  section, and quite t h i c k .  I t i s made of nephrite.  The  surfaces converge symmetrically t o the b i t , which i s damaged.  I t measures 4.8 x 3.1 x 1.3 cm and weighs 39.7 gm.  It i s similar i n plan view and i n dimensions to the one described by M i t c h e l l (1971a:113, Fig.45a, Fig.46a) but i n longitudinal cross section the Deep Bay specimen has p a r a l l e l surfaces and more even convergence at the b i t . I t was found associated with B u r i a l 5. The t h i r d c e l t i s a l s o made of nephrite and i s quite large, measuring 10.6 x 5.7 x 1.3 cm and weighing 149.6 gm.  I t has a f l a t t e n e d , sub-rectangular  transverse cross section, the edges diverge from the p o l l to the b i t , and the surfaces converge asymmetrically  to the b i t .  A similar c e l t i s pictured by Borden (1970,Fig.33dd).  This  c e l t was associated with B u r i a l 4. Jc)> Saw (Figure I6e) This c l a s s of t o o l i s characterized by a straight edge that has a convex or b i f a c i a l l y bevelled cross section. The edge i s s l i g h t l y dulled, and, along with the convex or bevelled area adjacent to the edge, i s formed by l o n g i t u d i n a l abrasion.  Usually the other surfaces of such a r t i f a c t s are  not abraded.  They are often made of sandstone.  of t h i s c l a s s were found at Deep Bay.  Two fragments  In both instances the  surfaces of the a r t i f a c t s are roughly p a r a l l e l and the a r t i f a c t s are not unusually thick, considering that they are made of sandstone.  They measure 8.2 to 9.9 x 4.3 to 5.1 x .7  116  to .9 cm and they?weigh 32*6 to 60.4 gm.  Artifacts  recog-  nizable as being only saws are made on slabs that are recognizable as abrasive stones ( M i t c h e l l 1971a:196, F i g . 115b;  McMillan and Ste. C l a i r e 1975:44).  K) Stone d i s c beads (Figure 17i-l) These beads axe small, f l a t , and c i r c u l a r with a perforation that has been b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d from each surface. They can be made using a v a r i e t y of stone types, but the ones from DiSe7 appear to be of f i n e grained sandstone and schist. beads.  They are of s i m i l a r s i z e and shape as s h e l l d i s c There are eight specimens from Deep Bay.  They measure  .5 to .6 cm i n diameter and .1 to .3 cm i n thickness and they weigh .1 gm or l e s s . L) Pendant (Figure 17b-c) This class of a r t i f a c t i s any ground stone object that appears to have been suspended as decoration. were found.  Two such items  One i s highly polished and convex l o n g i t u d i n a l l y  as well as transversely, but the thickness i s r e l a t i v e l y constant  throughout.  knob at the top.  I t i s roughly triangular with a rounded  I t was found with B u r i a l 1 and i t appears  to be made of black nephrite or s t e a t i t e . 1.7 x .4 cm and i t weighs 2.3 gm. i n outline was recovered (Simonsen 1973:42).  I t measures 3.6 x  A pendant s i m i l a r only  from the Grant Anchorage S i t e  The pendant described by McMillan and  117  Figure 17.  Miscellaneous a r t i f a c t s , DiSe 7. a. obsidian core; b-c. stone pendant; d-e. dentalia shells; f . s h e l l ring fragment; g. stone pipe fragment; h s h e l l d i s c beads; i - 1 . stone d i s c beads; m. copper fragments; n. Mytilus californianus s h e l l c e l t ; o. pecten s h e l l fragment; p. quartz c r y s t a l microblade core fragments. 0  118 Ste© C l a i r e (1975:43) also sounds s i m i l a r to the Deep Bay specimen.  The other pendant i s rectangular i n plan, elevation,  and cross section.  Two perforations at r i g h t angles to one  another near the junction of one end and a side of the a r t i f a c t were probably intended to meet and form the means by which t h i s object could be suspended.  The object i s crudely abraded  and gives the appearance of being unfinished.  It i s made of  c o a l , measures 2.4 x 1.4 x .4 cm, and weighs 4.4  gm.  Gulf  Island Complex items of l i g n i t e are reported from Montague Harbour ( M i t c h e l l 1971a:115, 117) and coal a r t i f a c t s are also reported from Buckley Bay (Mitchell 1973:91), and from Shoemaker Bay (McMillan and Ste. C l a i r e 1975:43-44). M) Pipe (Figure I7g) This c l a s s of a r t i f a c t i s an elongated c o n i c a l piece of stone that i s perforated l o n g i t u d i n a l l y and that has an expansion of the perforation at the base of the cone to accomodate the material being smoked. pipe were found at DiSe7.  Two  fragments of a  I t i s made of s i l v e r s l a t e that  i s coarsely abraded on the exterior surface. 7.4 x 1.7 x<\.8Scm and weighs 8.5 gm. i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  It measures  Few pipes are reported  An elbow pipe from the p r o t o - h i s t o r i c  period i s pictured by Borden (1970,Fig.33s); a decorated stone pipe bowl was  surface c o l l e c t e d at False Narrows from  deposits l i k e l y to contain material of the Marpole Culture Type.  One fragment i s a l s o reported from disturbed deposits  at Glenrose (Percy 1971:174).  Pecked Stone A) Hammerstone Hammerstones exhibit pecking and/or p i t t i n g of varying degrees of coarseness i n at least one place on an edge, an end, or a s u r f a c e  e  They are usually of a s i z e and weight  such that they can be e f f e c t i v e l y used with one hand  One  e  such a r t i f a c t i s from Deep Bay, but i t was found on the beach  0  It exhibits a l l the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f i n e pecking being evident on one corner  a  The shape of the a r t i f a c t i s that of  a long rectangle with a l l corners well rounded.  I t s regul-  a r i t y i s reminiscent of b a l l a s t weights f o r s a i l i n g ships or even sash weights, and the f a c t that i t was found on the beach leaves t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y open.  The pecking evident on  one corner, to the exclusion of evidence of u t i l i z a t i o n anywhere e l s e , argues f o r i t s i n c l u s i o n as an aboriginal a r t i f a c t . B) Stone bowl This object i s made of coarse, hard sandstone. e l l i p t i c a l i n plan with a shallow depression.  It i s  The ventral  surface i s smoothly curved i n two dimensions, suggesting that i t i s the natural exterior of the parent rock. or grinding are not obvious i n i t s manufacture.  Pecking  I t may  be  n a t u r a l l y formed, as i t was found i n the disturbed stratum on Lot 81.  But, i t s form i s s u f f i c i e n t l y bowl-like to  include here.  120 Incised Stone Two a r t i f a c t s f a l l into t h i s c l a s s , both with i n c i s i o n s on one surface that are of c u l t u r a l o r i g i n .  The f i r s t a r t i -  fact i s a chunk of s i l t s t o n e that has random s t r a i g h t l i n e s incised on one surface.  Unfortunately,  the person who  excavated t h i s a r t i f a c t added several thumbnail i n c i s i o n s to the same surface t o test the hardness of the stone. I t i s not possible a t present from the recent ones.  to d i s t i n g u i s h the o r i g i n a l l i n e s  This a r t i f a c t measures 16.7 x 11.0 x  3.4 cm and i t weighs 649.7 gm.  The second a r t i f a c t i s a f l a t  sandstone slab that has a s e r i e s of geometric i n c i s i o n s on one surface.  The i n c i s i o n s consist of two motifs that are  c l o s e l y spaced.  There are two rows of short s t r a i g h t l i n e s ,  one below the other, set side by side a t one end of the i n c i s e d surface.  The remainder of the surface shows the  other motif, a herring bone pattern, that i s presented i n columns.  The a r t i f a c t measures 9.4 x 4.1 x 1.0 cm and weighs  79.7  Geometric motifs are thought to be more common i n  gm.  the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type than i n the Marpole Culture Type ( M i t c h e l l 1971a:54). BONE A) Barbed bone point (Figure 18e*-f«) This class of point i s widely known and i s thought to be d i s t i n c t i v e of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type (Mitchell  121  i-k 1-n. o-u. v. Wo x-z. a'-d'. e*-f'. #  heavy duty bone points; b i r d bone bipoints; bone bipoints; b i r d bone awl; polished bone awl; s p l i t bone awl; wedge base bone points; u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed bone  points.  122 1971a:48).  The predominance of t h i s a r t i f a c t class i n the  southern Gulf of Georgia (Mitchell 1971a:198) may simply be a function of the number of s i t e s excavated i n the southern Gulf, as opposed to the northern Gulf.  U n i l a t e r a l l y barbed  bone points are found at Rebecca S p i t , Sandwick Midden and Courtenay River (Mitchell 1971a:198-9), B l i s s Landing (Beattie 1971:28), and Comox (Smith 1907,Fig.104), as well as the two that have been found at Deep Bay.  Thus, i t seems that such  points are not uncommon i n the northern Gulf r e l a t i v e to the number of reports a v a i l a b l e .  The two specimens from Deep Bay  are quite d i f f e r e n t from one another. made a r t i f a c t of mammal bone.  The f i r s t i s a heavily  The barbs are crude and they  are low and enclosed. The a r t i f a c t appears to have been broken transversely at h a l f i t s former length, and an attempt to refashion the d i s t a l end has been made. s l i g h t l y tapered but i s s t i l l t h i c k . x .5 cm and weighs 3.7 gm. made.  The base i s  I t measures 5.2 x 1.2  The second®specimen  i s more f i n e l y  I t i s long and slender with a thinned base and low  enclosed barbs.  The edge of each barb has been serrated to  form two or three smaller barbs i n the same manner as that described by Smith (1907:310). cm and i t weighs 5.2 B  I t measures 12.6 x .8 x .5  gm.  ) Bipoints (Figure 181-u) These a r t i f a c t s are characterized by sharp points at  each end and a slender, elongated, diamond shaped p r o f i l e .  123  They are usually well f i n i s h e d over t h e i r entire surface, and they are more or less c i r c u l a r i n transverse cross s e c t i o n Their greatest width i s usually toward the mid-point of the long a x i s , although t h i s varies somewhat.  They are most often  made of s p l i t mammal bone, but b i r d bone bipoints are also common.  T h i r t y - f i v e mammal bone bipoints and seven b i r d bone  bipoints were found at Deep Bay,  None of these a r t i f a c t s  showed the removal of medial flakes to form f i s h M i t c h e l l 1971a:202),  gorges (see  There are two further a r t i f a c t s c l a s s i -  f i e d as bipoints f o r lack of a more appropriate  grouping.  They are both thick, made of mammal bone, and come to blunt points at either end.  One  of them ( a r t i f a c t #1113) may  been a pendant as there i s a s l i g h t c o n s t r i c t i o n at one where a break has occurred.  end  The other ( a r t i f a c t #832) was  surface c o l l e c t e d from the i n s i d e beach.  They measure 6,8  1,1 x ,8 cm and 6,8 x 1,0 x ,8 cm and weigh 5,1 respectively.  have  gm and 4,1  x gm  The following two tables present the measure-  ments f o r the b i r d bone and mammal bone bipoints.  0  124 TABLE XVI Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of B i r d Bone Bipoints, DiSe 7. ( ) = incomplete dimension, artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  430  3,1  0.2  0.1  0.1  983  (1,6)  0.2  0.1  0.1  1090  28 Q  0.2  0.2  0.1  1166  3,2  0.3  0.2  0.2  1187  3.2  0.2  0.2  0.1  1331  4.1  0.3  0.2  0.2  1484  3.0  0.4  0.1  0.3  The s i x complete specimens indicate a range i n length from 2.8 to 4.1 cm, i n width from 0.2 to 0.3 cm, and i n thickness from 0.1 to 0.2 cm.  Weights vary from 0.1 to 0.3 gm.  TABLE XVII Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of Mammal Bone Bipoints, DiSe 7. ( ) = incomplete dimension. artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  495  (3.3)  0.6  0.4  lol  625  (2.5)  0.7  0.6  0.7  792  (2.1)  0.4  0.2  0.4  810  (6.6)  0.6  0.1  2.2  840  7.3  0.6  0.5  2.1  TABLE XVII (continued) 855  5.1  0.5  0.4  0.7  946  3.6  0.6  0.4  0.5  969  (4.8)  0.6  0.4  1.0  988-A  (2.9)  0.5  0.2  0.7  997  (4.0)  0.4  0.2  0.5  1003  5.7  0.5  0.4  1.3  1004  4.4  0.7  0.4  0.7  1008  7.5  0.7  0.4  1.6  1012  5.6  0.7  0.5  1.2  1014  4.1  0.5  0.5  0.7  1030  (4.8)  0.7  0.4  1.8  1058  (2.8)  0.7  0.5  0.7  1074  3.7  0.6  0.4  0.6  1089  7.5  0.5  0.4  1.5  1096  (5.4)  0.6  0.4  1.4  1219  3.6  0.5  0.4  0.4  1267  (5.5)  0.6  0.6  1.6  1276  3.7  0.6  0.4  1.1  1280  5.4  0.5  0.4  1.2  1282  7.0  0.5  0.5  1.5  1290  (3.3)  0.5  0.5  0.7  1301  4.1  0.6  0.4  0.8  1307  4.3  0.6  0.4  0.9  1309  4.1  0.5  0.4  0.5  126 TABLE XVII (continued) 1310  (4*4)  0.6  0.4  1.6  1373  4.6  0.8  0.6  1.0  1374  (2.8)  0.7  0.4  0.6  1380  (4.0)  0.5  0.5  0.8  1398  4.0  0.6  0.4  0.4  1460  6.0  0.5  0.4  1.6  The twenty complete specimens indicate a range from 3.6 to 7.5 cm, i n width from 0.5 to 0.8 cm, and i n thickness from 0.4 to 0.6 cm. Weights of complete specimens range from 0,4 to 1.6 gm. C) Awl Awls are a c l a s s of hand held a r t i f a c t used f o r p i e r c i n g . The working point i s slender and of roughly c i r c u l a r transverse cross section.  The remainder of the implement may show  varying degrees of f i n i s h i n g .  Most awls are made of s p l i t  mammal bone (usually deer metatarsal), although awls made of unsplit b i r d bone do occur. Awls are usually large compared to other pointed bone implements with slender points. 1. Mammal bone awl This class includes polished bone awls and s p l i t bone awls.  There i s one polished bone awl and fourteen s p l i t bone  awls.  The polished bone awl ( a r t i f a c t #933) i s made of s p l i t  deer metatarsal polished over the e n t i r e surface.  From a f l a t  12? butt i t tapers gently to the point*  This a r t i f a c t measures  14*1 x 1*0 x *8 cm and weighs 6*6 gm (Figure 18w)  Q  The s p l i t bone awls are o f much cruder manufacture, being ground to a slender point only at the t i p * remainder of the a r t i f a c t i s unworked*  The  Measurements and  weights f o r these fourteen a r t i f a c t s are given i n Table XVIII (Figure 1 8 - z ) x  0  2c Bird bone awl (Figure I8v) Two of these awls were recovered a t Deep Bay*  The  complete one ( a r t i f a c t #1466) i s made on the radius of an unidentifiable bird*  The point i s made by abrading across  the bone a t an acute angle to the long axis* 11*6 x 6 x 4 cm and weighs 1*1 gm© 0  0  I t measures  The second awl ( a r t i f a c t  #1502) i s a d i s t a l fragment made on the ulna of an unidentif i a b l e species* gm*  I t measures 6*3 x .7 x ,5 cm and weighs 1*2  S i m i l a r a r t i f a c t s are reported i n M i t c h e l l (1971a:133,  172, 202)*  128 TABLE XVIII Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of S p l i t Bone Awls, DiSe 7. ( ) = incomplete dimensions artifact number  length  width  thickness  ;i3.9  1.7  0.4  5.3  884  ((5.0)  1.0  0.4  1.3  967  (4*2)  0.8  0.4  0.8  994  8.6  0.9  0.5  3.2  1037  8.8  1.3  0.1  5.2  1039  (6.0)  0.2  0.4  1.5  1065  (4«0)  0.7  0.4  1.4  1069  (4.5)  0.7  0.1  1.4  1084  11.0  1.1  0.7  6.3  1102  5.7  0.7  0.4  1.8  1141  (7.9)  0.6  0.4  2.1  1383  (3.9)  0.4  0.6  0.7  1437  (5.4)  1.0  0.5  1.7  1499  7.2  1.1  0.5  2.7  32  weight  Many of the points of these a r t i f a c t s show wear p o l i s h . The complete specimens show considerable v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e and shape.  Awls i n t h i s class are pictured i n M i t c h e l l  Fig.l8cc-hh)o  (1971a,  129  D) Wedge base bone points (Figure 18a*-d*) This class consists of well f i n i s h e d bone points that are pointed at one end and thinned at the other* mens from Deep Bay appear to be of two types*  The speci-  One  i s abruptly  pointed with the remainder of the body tapering gradually to a very t h i n , r e l a t i v e l y broad base (class A)*  The  other  type has a more gradual point, tapers over a lesser portion of the long a x i s , i s not as thin at the base as the previously described type, and i s often longer than the former type (class B).  The same two types are found i n the Montague  Harbour III assemblage (Mitchell 1971a,Fig.117a-f, 1968,Fig* 7p,t)*  I t i s my impression, despite the small sample s i z e ,  that the two forms of these points may be temporally the abrupt pointed ones being more recent* wedge based points from Deep Bay* given i n Table  distinct,  There are s i x  Their measurements are  XIX, TABLE XIX  Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) DiSe 7, artifact number  length  of Wedge Base Bone Points,  width  thickness  weight  3.8 3.9  0.8 0.9  0.6 0.4  1.1 1.5  5.2 6.7 5.6 6.2  0.8 1.0 0.8 0.6  0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3  Class A 965 1285 Class B 1146 1158 1299 1465  1.5 3.1 2.1 1.8  130  E) Bone points This class of a r t i f a c t includes fragments of bone that were obviously parts of p o i n t s .  Only one pointed end can be  attributed to t h i s c l a s s , unlike bone bipoints, and their s i z e i s usually small, unlike awls.  They are subdivided f o r  d e s c r i p t i v e purposes i n t o heavy duty and l i g h t duty categories Heavy duty points have abruptly converging of t h i c k pieces of mammal bone  0  edges and are made  Light duty points are small,  often c i r c u l a r i n transverse cross section, and gently tapered to the point. 1. Heavy duty points (Figure 18i-k) There are eleven of these points and fragments, a l l on thick pieces of bone. tip.  Abrasion i s not common away from the  They d i f f e r from awls i n being abruptly pointed.  They  measure 2.8 to 9.1 x .2 to 1.5 x .1 t o .9 cm and weigh .8 to 10.2  gm. 2. Light duty points This class of a r t i f a c t can be further divided i n t o mammal  bone and b i r d bone points. Mammal bone (Figure 18a-f) There are forty-three a r t i f a c t s i n t h i s c l a s s .  They a l l  appear to be fragmentary, although i t i s d i f f i c u l t to judge their original sizes.  They range i n f i n i s h from roughly  abraded to highly polished, and they are r e l a t i v e l y slender  e  131  i n proportion to their length.  M i t c h e l l (1971a:204, Fig.118  w-bb) c l a s s i f i e s such a r t i f a c t s as small, single-pointed bone objects.  The Deep Bay specimens measure 1.0 to 4.7 x  0.3 to 0.6 x 0.1 to 0.6 cm and weigh 0.1 to 1.5 gm. i B i r d bone (Figure 18g-h) Three b i r d bone point fragments were found.  A l l are  made on snail pieces of s p l i t long bone, and two appear to be fragmentary.  Measurements for t h i s class are given i n  Table XX. TABLE XX Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of B i r d Bone Points, DiSe 7. ( ) = incomplete dimension. artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  1177  (1.9)  0;3  0.1  0.1  1268  2.6  0.3  0.2  0.1  1475  (1.9)  0.5  0.2  0.1  F) Ulna tool (Figure 19l-m) This class of a r t i f a c t i s usually made on deer ulnae, although wapiti ulna tools are not uncommon  e  The d i s t a l end  i s worked t o a point or a wedge shape; sometimes the anterior d i s t a l edge i s b i f a c i a l l y ground t o produce a knife edge. D i s t a l ends are frequently broken o f f , leaving the proximal ends to be c l a s s i f i e d simply as " t o o l s " rather than "awls"  132  i  k  Figure 19.  I  m  Miscellaneous bone a r t i f a c t s , DiSe 7. a* zoomorphic pendant; b. b i r d bone tube bead; c. beaver incisor t o o l ; d sea mammal tooth; e. girdled bone bead; f - i . bone chisel/wedge; j . sea mammal bone implement; k. sea mammal bone wedge; 1-m. deer ulna t o o l . e  '  or "knife"o  133  Three a r t i f a c t s from t h i s c l a s s were found at  Deep Bay  ffl  Two are proximal fragments and one i s a d i s t a l  fragment*  One proximal fragment i s abruptly pointed only  a short distance from the condyles, the other i s missing the d i s t a l end but i t i s a much longer, more gently tapered artifact* shape*  The d i s t a l fragment has been abraded to a wedge  Similar a r t i f a c t s are described by M i t c h e l l (1971a,  Fig*63g, Fig*93,  Fig*118q,r),  G) Bird bone whistle This class of a r t i f a c t i s described by M i t c h e l l (1971as 136)*  I t s members are made on the long bones of birds  approximately  the s i z e of seagulls*  One or more V-shaped  notches are abraded transversely across the surface of the bone to form apertures from which a i r can escape*  The  specimen from Deep Bay i s broken at the center of the only v i s i b l e notch*  The e x t e r i o r of the bone i s i n i t s natural  state except f o r several coarse transverse i n c i s i o n s at the opposite end of the fragment* and i t weighs *7 gm.  I t measures 3*8 x *8 x *7 cm  A s i m i l a r l y fashioned a r t i f a c t i s  pictured by M i t c h e l l (1971a,Fig*64a)* H) Bone wedge/chisel (Figure 19f-i,k) j  Tools of t h i s c l a s s are made of mammal bone that i s usually s p l i t l o n g i t u d i n a l l y and abraded to a broad, thin d i s t a l end that i s often rounded*  V a r i a t i o n within the c l a s s  134  exists i n terms of s i z e , raw material, and degree of f i n i s h of the a r t i f a c t s , but their general form suggests that they may have been used as c h i s e l s or wedges.  There are seven  whole and fragmentary members of t h i s class from Deep Bay* One i s a large wedge of sea mammal bone with the b i t , and possibly the p o l l , missing. and i t weighs 38.2 gm. land mammal bone.  I t measures 10.7 x 4.1 x .3 cm  The remaining specimens are made of  Of these, two small ones are made on the  ends of bone s p l i n t e r s .  The b i t s are narrow and b i f a c i a l l y  bevelled on both specimens.  They weigh 1,2 to 1.7 gm and  they measure 3.7 to 4.8 x 1.0 to 1.2 x .4 cm.  The remaining  four wedges are made of s p l i t long bone, presumably deer, and they come to narrow, rounded b i t s that are u n i f a c i a l l y bevelled from the i n t e r i o r of the bone.  Three are b i t  fragments, measuring 1.5 to 2.8 x 1.0 to 1.1 x .2 to .5 cm and weighing .3 to .6 gm.  The fourth i s more complete,  measuring 10.9 x 1.0 x .8 cm and weighing 7.1 gm. of a r t i f a c t i s described by M i t c h e l l  This class  (1971a:133).  I) Beaver i n c i s o r t o o l (Figure 19c) Mitchell  (1971a:137, 207) describes this a r t i f a c t c l a s s .  The natural sharpening of the d i s t a l end of the tooth i s u t i l i z e d and often reground at a similar angle.  These  a r t i f a c t s are reported to be used as i n c i s i n g tools f o r woodwork (Barnett 1975:109). DiSe7.  One such a r t i f a c t comes from  i t i s abraded at an acute angle at the d i s t a l end  135  and broken a t the proximal end.  I t measures 3.4 x 0,9 x 0,7  cm and weighs 1,3 gm, J) Modified sea mammal tooth (Figure 19d) Two such a r t i f a c t s were found.  One i s a male northern  sea l i o n canine showing several small i n c i s i o n s at the proximal end f o r possible suspension as a pendant. I t measures 8,8 x 2.9 x 2,7 cm and i t weighs 60,2 gm  e  A  s i m i l a r l y modified tooth was recovered from the Marpole s i t e . The second specimen i s a northern sea l i o n lower premolar. On t h i s specimen the d i s t a l posterior section has been removed by abrasion to form a notch.  No decorative or  u t i l i t a r i a n purpose can be suggested f o r t h i s a r t i f a c t . I t measures 2,7 x 1,4 x 0,9 cm and weighs 2,3 gm.  No comparable  a r t i f a c t s from other s i t e s are presently known. K) Bone pendant (Figure 19a) Many forms of a r t i f a c t s belong to t h i s c l a s s .  Their  purpose i s presumably decorative, and they a l l indicate that they were meant to be suspended.  The a r t i f a c t from Deep Bay  belonging to t h i s category i s zoomorphic.  I t has the outline  of a sea mammal, and i t was probably suspended from the c o n s t r i c t i o n where the hind f l i p p e r s or flukes meet the body. It has two l i n e s i n c i s e d at right angles to the long axis j u s t behind the head, and a t h i r d i n c i s i o n runs diagonally across the same surface from the animal's throat to i t s back.  The a r t i f a c t was associated with B u r i a l 4* and measures 9 9 x 2.3 x 8 cm G  area has resulted  0  0  I t weighs 8*4 gm  A green s t a i n on i t s dorsal  from i t s proximity to the copper bead  fragments described below*  Stone f i s h e f f i g i e s are l i s t e d  as d i s t i n c t i v e of the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a: 52)  The pendant described here does not c l e a r l y represent  0  a f i s h nor i s i t made of stone, however, f i s h e f f i g i e s could also be c a l l e d zoomorphic e f f i g i e s * L  ) Bone beads (Figure 19b-e) These three beads are of a tubular variety, the tubes  being of varying lengths*  Two beads are made of mammal bone  and are about as long as they are wide* one i s divided into two segments*  They are small, and  With t h i s l a t t e r specimen,  i t i s not clear whether the segments were meant to be separated or whether i t i s one bead with a deeply i n c i s e d g i r d l e * The g i r d l e d bead measures *8 x *5 x *4 cm, and the p l a i n one *7 x 6 x *6 cm* 0  They each weigh *2 gm*  a short b i r d bone segment*  The t h i r d bead i s  I t i s made from the long bone of  a large b i r d , and i t i s unworked on the surface* 2*1 x .9 x *9 cm and weighs 1*1 gm*  I t measures  A fragment of t h i s kind  of b i r d bone i s described i n M i t c h e l l (1971a:136, Fig*61b), and a shorter bead of t h i s sort i s described i n McMillan and Ste. C l a i r e (1975:52)*  137  M) Sea mammal bone implement (Figure 19j) This a r t i f a c t i s made from a large piece of sea mammal bone, possibly a r i b . The proximal end i s narrower than the body, and there i s a c o n s t r i c t i o n from the dorsal surface 3 to 5 cm from the proximal end. has been adzed t o shape.  This portion of the implement  The broad, f l a t body of the a r t i -  fact thins and tapers to the distal end which i s gently convex. The d i s t a l end could have been used as an axe or wedge, and the proximal end may have been hafted l i k e an axe.  No con-  c l u s i v e use can be found for t h i s implement, although i t has an appearance s i m i l a r to "slave k i l l e r s " .  It measures 25.5  x 7.2 x 2.0 cm and weighs 197.4 gm. N) Slender polished bone objects Three fragments f a l l i n t o t h i s c l a s s .  They are char-  acterized by an extremely polished surface, a c i r c u l a r transverse cross section, and an almost imperceptible One  taper.  specimen appears to be a proximal fragment that has been  f i n i s h e d by a s l i g h t c o n s t r i c t i o n and transverse p o l i s h i n g . These a r t i f a c t s may have been awls or arrow points, but t h e i r f i n i s h and delicacy implies a l e s s rigorous function. Use as blanket pins or needles seems more probable.  These items  measure 4.5 to 9.2 x .5 to .6 x .5 cm and weigh 1.2 to 3.4 gm. O) Miscellaneous worked bone fragment This c l a s s of a r t i f a c t consists o f pieces of bone that  138 show evidence of having been modified. parts of l a r g e r , broken a r t i f a c t s .  Some may have been  In their present  condition  these fragments can not r e l i a b l y be assigned to any s p e c i f i c artifact class.  Generally small, there are seventy of these  a r t i f a c t s from Deep Bay.  A l l are of mammal bone.  Four have  been i n c i s e d randomly, one has been adzed or whittled, and the remaining s i x t y - f i v e have been abraded and/or polished. Sixteen of these specimens are end fragments, and f i f t y - f o u r are medial fragments.  ANTLER A) Barbed a n t l e r point (Figure 20s) This c l a s s of point i s thought to be d i s t i n c t i v e of the Marpole Component i n the Gulf of Georgia ( M i t c h e l l 1971a:52). The form i s s i m i l a r to that of barbed bone points and o v e r a l l s i z e i s approximately the same.  The specimen from Deep Bay  has a roughly c i r c u l a r transverse cross section with low barbs that are well than thinned. gm.  separated.  The base i s c o n i c a l l y tapered  rather  I t measures 15.2 x 1.0 x .7 cm and weighs 8.1  This point i s unlike those pictured by M i t c h e l l (1971a,  Fig.95d,e); i t i s more s i m i l a r i n form to the bone point shown i n McMillan and Ste. C l a i r e (1975,Fig.8c). B) Antler point  (Figure 201-m)  These a r t i f a c t s are s i m i l a r i n shape and s i z e to bone  139  Figure 20  e  Antler a r t i f a c t s , DiSe 7. a. foreshaft; b. tine flaker; c - i . composite toggling harpoon valves; J . ring; k. incised tine; 1-m. point; n-r. wedge; s. barbed point.  140 points, and i t i s possible that they were used One of these a r t i f a c t s i s heavy duty.  It i s a d i s t a l fragment  of a well f i n i s h e d point, measuring 5.2 x 1 1 0  weighing 3.1  gm.  interchangeably.  x 0.6  cm  and  The other two a r t i f a c t s can be described  as l i g h t duty; both are d i s t a l fragments.  The t i p s i n each  case would be roughly c o n i c a l , and the taper i s gentle. whole specimen measures 5.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 while the fragment weighs 0.4  The  cm and weighs 1.6  gm,  gm and measures 1.8 x 0.8 x  0.4  cm. C) Antler ring (Figure  20D)  This kind of a r t i f a c t i s rare, although bone rings are known from St. Mungo (Calvert 1970:61), Saltery Bay (Monks, n.d. a ) , and they are exhibited i n Marpole and Stselax Phase displays i n the U.B.C. archaeology laboratory.  S h e l l rings  are known from Deep Bay (described below), and one i s exhibited i n the Marpole Phase c o l l e c t i o n i n the U.B.C. archaeology laboratory.  The antler r i n g a r t i f a c t s from Deep Bay consist  of a whole r i n g and two fragments of another r i n g .  The whole  specimen i s well f i n i s h e d , but i t i s s l i g h t l y i r r e g u l a r i n thickness. gm.  It measures 3.9 x 3.8 x 0.5  cm and i t weighs  3.2  The two fragments appear to be i n an e a r l i e r state of  manufacture.  They are roughly square i n cross section, and  they indicate that the center part of a disc has been removed by b i f a c i a l i n c i s i n g to produce a r i n g . 0.8 x 0.9  cm and weigh 1.6 gm.  They measure 1.9  x  Suttles (1951:106) describes  141 an antler ring as part of the composite toggling sea mammal harpoon apparatus. D) Antler wedge (Figure 20n-r) These a r t i f a c t s are common i n the Gulf of Georgia. Both beam wedges and t i n e wedges are found at Deep Bay; however, the small numbers of each and their fragmentary state preclude t h i s subdivision. fragment.  A l l but one of the a r t i f a c t s i s a b i t  There are eight of these a r t i f a c t s from Deep Bay.  The one complete specimen measures 10.8 x 2.9 x 2.3 cm and weighs 32.5 gm. wapiti.  I t i s made on a thick antler t i n e , probably  The b i t i s square and u n i f a c i a l l y bevelled.  The  seven remaining b i t fragments, also showing u n i f a c i a l bevel and s l i g h t l y convex working edges, measure 2.7 to 5.8 x 1.6 to 3.1 x 0 3 to 2.3 cm and weigh 1.1 to 8.3 gm. 0  Antler  wedges are described by M i t c h e l l (1971a:212). E) Antler foreshaft (Figure 20a) This a r t i f a c t i s admittedly dubious for several reasons. F i r s t , i t was found just below the disturbed h i s t o r i c zone and, second, the base i s only roughly adzed or carved to shape despite the degree of f i n i s h on the shaft of the a r t i fact.  Antler foreshafts are l i s t e d as d i s t i n c t i v e of the  Locarno Beach Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:57).  However,  because the Deep Bay specimen was found i n natural stratum F, and because of i t s i n d i s t i n c t form, i t may not be a f o r e shaft.  142 F) Antler tine f l a k e r (Figure  20b)  These a r t i f a c t s are the d i s t a l fragments of a n t l e r s . They show coarse wear at the t i p of the implement, suggesting that they may  have been used to pressure f l a k e l i t h i c material.  It i s also conceivable that they were used as punches f o r i n d i r e c t percussion.  There are three of these a r t i f a c t s at  Deep Bay, measuring 5.8 and weighing 3.6  to 6.9  to 6.9 x 1.2  to 1.6 x 0.9  to 1.2  cm  gm.  G) Composite toggling harpoon valves These a r t i f a c t s exist i n a variety of forms i n the Gulf of Georgia.  They can be p l a i n or have lashing grooves on the  exterior, and the d i s t a l i n t e r i o r end may s l o t t e d to hold a p i e r c i n g point.  be channelled or  They a l l have f l a r i n g  proximal ends with an i n t e r i o r channel to receive a fore* shaft.  M i t c h e l l (1971aj48, 57) l i s t s these valves among the  d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological features of both the Locarno Beach and Gulf of Georgia Culture Types. The f i f t e e n valves and fragments from Deep Bay c-e) can be divided i n t o three groups. weights are presented  i n Table XXI.  of eleven fragmentary valves.  (Figure'*20  Their dimensions and  The largest group consists  They have p l a i n exterior  surfaces and shallow channels on the d i s t a l i n t e r i o r surfaces. The channel at the d i s t a l end of these a r t i f a c t s suggests that the arming point was most l i k e l y to have been a wedge base bone point.  Similar a r t i f a c t s are pictured by M i t c h e l l (1971a,  143  Figol21a) and Capes  (1964,Fig•20A-3).  The second group (Figure 2Qh-±)  consists o f two notched  valves that are much larger and more robust than the previous specimens.  They are much longer and broader than members of  the f i r s t group, although the exteriors are also p l a i n and the arming channels are also shallow.  I f r e l a t i v e size i s  any i n d i c a t o r , these valves were probably used i n the acquisi t i o n of larger animals than was the case for members of the preceding c l a s s .  A similar pair of valves i s pictured by  Borden (1970,Fig.33e). The t h i r d group consists of another matched p a i r of valves. are  They are as long as those i n the second group, but  more slender than those i n the f i r s t group.  The d i s t a l  i n t e r i o r ends are deeply channelled to receive an arming point of c i r c u l a r transverse cross section.  These two valves  and three members of the f i r s t group were recovered from natural stratum G/0.  This natural stratum also yielded a  f i x e d barbed antler point; t h i s class of a r t i f a c t i s thought to be d i s t i n c t i v e of the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a: 52).  No pictures or diagrams of t h i s type of valve could be  found (Figure'20f-g) .  TABLE XXI Dimensions (cm) and Weights (gm) of Antler Composite Toggling Harpoon Valves, DiSe 7, ( ) = incomplete dimension. artifact number  length  width  thickness  weight  (2.9) 5.0 (2.2) (l 6) (2.3) 5.2 (2 9) (3.5) (2.6) (2.0) (2,7)  1.0 1.0 0.9 0,8 1.1 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.0  0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5  0.8 2.1 0.7 0.3 0.6 1.4 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.4 0.4  6.8 (3.6)  1.2 1.2  0.7 0.4  2.5 0.7  6.2 (4.8)  0.7 0,7  0.6 0.6  1.5 1.0  group 1 590 1072 1115 1193 1278 1456 1461 1462 1479 1480 1503  e  0  group 2 505 513 group 3 1319a 1319b  H) Incised antler t i n e (Figure 20k) This d i s t a l t i n e fragment has a longitudinal i n c i s i o n that bisects the t i n e .  I t i s possible that t h i s a r t i f a c t  represents an i n i t i a l stage of manufacture of composite toggling harpoon valves. and weighs 9.2  gm.  I t measures 5.8 x 1.7 x 1.6 cm  145  I) Miscellaneous worked antler There are four abraded antler fragments,,  They show  r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e abrasion and no form that suggests membership i n a s p e c i f i c a r t i f a c t class*  There are many fragments  of adzed antler and one adzed antler tine*  Over one hundred  fragments were found i n a concentration i n excavation unit 4 on Lot 73 at the top of natural stratum M*  Eight additional  fragments are from excavation unit 5, natural stratum K on the same l o t * N i n unit 4.  One fragment was also found i n natural stratum Two fragments were found on Lot 81, both i n  the disturbed zone*  SHELL A) Shell d i s c beads (Figure 17h) These a r t i f a c t s are small, f l a t , b i c o n i c a l l y perforated c i r c l e s of clam s h e l l *  They are common i n the Gulf of Georgia  and are thought to be d i s t i n c t i v e of the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:52)  a  There are 51 such beads from Deep Bay,  48 of which were associated with B u r i a l 4.  These a r t i f a c t s  are too l i g h t to weigh i n d i v i d u a l l y , although 22 of them and a l a b e l tag weigh 0*8 gm*  They measure approximately 0*4 to  0*5 cm i n diameter and 0*1 to 0*2 cm i n thickness*  146 B) Dentalia (Figure 17d-e) Whole and fragmentary dentalia are often found i n Gulf of Georgia s i t e s .  Similar items were recovered from Montague  Harbour III (Mitchell 1971a:213, 215).  They are l i s t e d as  inclusions i n midden b u r i a l s d i s t i n c t i v e of the Marpole Culture Type ( M i t c h e l l 1971a:52).  They were probably imported from  the west coast of the i s l a n d .  There are 18 from Deep Bay,  12 of which were associated with Burial 4.  Most of these  a r t i f a c t s are too l i g h t to weigh accurately to the nearest tenth of one gram.  The longest specimen recovered was 3  and most s h e l l s are 0.4  cm,  cm or l e s s i n diameter.  ' C) S h e l l ring fragment (Figure 17f) This a r t i f a c t i s f l a t and represents only h a l f of the original artifact. shell the  As mentioned above, a s i m i l a r but larger  ring i s exhibited i n the Marpole Phase c o l l e c t i o n i n  UoBoCo  archaeology laboratory.  2.0 x 1.3 x 0.3  cm and weighs 0.5  The DiSe 7 specimen i s gm.  This a r t i f a c t may  part of a nose r i n g such as the one pictured i n Kew  be  and  Goddard (1974:48, 87). D) Sea mussel tool (Figure 17n) This a r t i f a c t i s made of Mytilus c a l i f o r n i a n u s . surface  The  of the s h e l l has been ground smooth, and the cutting  edge i s u n i f a c i a l l y bevelled. measures 3.3 x 2.4 x 0.3  cm.  The fragment weighs 4.1 gm A r t i f a c t #319  from Montague  and  14.7 Harbour III (Mitchell 1971a:178) i s also u n i f a c i a l l y bevelled and abraded on part of the e x t e r i o r .  The Deep Bay a r t i f a c t  may have been used f o r scraping, gouging, or cutting, E) Pecten s h e l l (Figure 170) One fragment of unmodified pecten s h e l l was found. Rattles made of pecten s h e l l were used by the Coast Salish (Barnett 1975:177),  Pecten s h e l l has been recovered from  the Stselax Phase, according to the a r t i f a c t exhibit i n the U.BoC, archaeology laboratory, and a pecten s h e l l was also found i n San Juan Phase deposits at Helen Point (Carlson 1970,Fig,36e),  MINERAL A) Ochre Ochre i s usually found i n small p a r t i c l e s and i s most often rusty red i n colour, although d i f f e r e n t colours are known.  I t smears e a s i l y on skin, distinguishing i t from  stones with iron oxide i n them.  Fifty-seven pieces were  found at Deep Bay, of which two were orange, one was white, and the remainder were red.  The uses of red ochre are noted  i n M i t c h e l l (1971a:198) and Barnett (1975:74, 89, 91, 105), B) Mica One mica flake was found.  It i s c l e a r at i t s thinnest  148 portions and s l i g h t l y irridescent at i t s thicker portions, No use can be attributed to the a r t i f a c t , but i t may have served as decoration ( c f , M i t c h e l l 1971a:198). 2,3 x 1,6 x 0,1 cm and weighs 0,1  I t measures  gm,  METAL A) Native copper (Figure  17m)  The remains of two slender tubes of copper were found i n association with B u r i a l 4, to measure or weigh.  The fragments were too f r a g i l e  Similar beads, but larger with s o l i d  wooden centers, were found at Prince Rupert Harbour (G, MacDonald 1976,pers, comm).  The s t a i n from these fragments i s found on  the zoomorphic bone pendant.  WOOD Two samples of wood were recovered. F i n excavation unit 1 of Lot 73, decomposed cedar fragments.  One came from stratum  I t consists of highly  The age of natural stratum F i s  such that wood preservation from a point some 800 years B,P, i s unlikely.  Since the s o i l pH i s the same i n t h i s stratum  as i n most others, and since no similar fragments of wood were recovered from other s t r a t a , except as noted below, i t seems l i k e l y that t h i s a r t i f a c t was intruded into natural  stratum F. The second sample consists of bark that was found wrapped around some s h e l l d i s c beads, dentalia beads, and the copper bead fragments associated with B u r i a l 4.  The copper  salts  probably helped preserve the bark (Matson 1975,pers. comm). This a r t i f a c t i s extremely f r a g i l e and i s now stored i n carbowax. Variations i n the A r t i f a c t Inventory Table IV presents the a r t i f a c t s from Lot 81 by excavation unit and natural stratum and Table III presents the same material f o r Lot 73. The portion o f a natural stratum i n an excavation unit i s hereafter referred to as an analyt i c a l unite  A n a l y t i c a l units from which no a r t i f a c t s and  no faunal remains were recovered were discarded from subsequent d i s c u s s i o n . The data are presented i n t h e i r most detailed form i n order that subsequent recombinations of a r t i f a c t classes w i l l be e x p l i c i t i n terms of t h e i r contents. A) Lot 81 Table IV indicates that 98 a r t i f a c t s were recovered from Lot 81 and that 66 of them, or 2/3, were found i n the disturbed h i s t o r i c stratum.  Of the remaining 32 a r t i f a c t s ,  none was found below natural stratum F, and most were found i n natural s t r a t a B and C.  The most numerous a r t i f a c t s , 16  i n t o t a l , are made of bone.  This figure represents half of  the undisturbed a r t i f a c t assemblage.  There are f i v e  abraded  150  bone fragments, four l i g h t duty bone points, and three bone bipoints.  There i s also one s p l i t bone awl, beaver i n c i s o r  t o o l , worked mammal tooth, and bone bead.  Ground stone i s  the next most common category with 12 a r t i f a c t s present. Five of these are abrasive stones, four are thin ground slate points and fragments, and thin ground s l a t e knife, pipe, and pendant are each represented once.  The t o t a l number of  chipped stone a r t i f a c t s was two, one quartz c r y s t a l f l a k e and one obsidian f l a k e .  Likewise, two antler a r t i f a c t s were  found, an antler tine f l a k e r and a composite valve.  toggling harpoon  No s h e l l or mineral a r t i f a c t s were found i n undisturbed  deposits. The c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n o f the undisturbed assemblage i s d i f f i c u l t to judge because of the small sample s i z e and the lack of radiocarbon dates.  Bearing i n mind the small  sample s i z e , i t i s s t i l l i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that chipped stone accounts f o r approximately 6% of the assemblage, ground stone f o r about 37.5%, bone f o r about 50%, and antler f o r another 6%.  The preponderance o f bone and ground stone  a r t i f a c t s , e s p e c i a l l y the r e l a t i v e abundance o f bone bipoints, l i g h t duty bone points, and thin ground slate a r t i f a c t s , suggests that the undisturbed assemblage could belong to the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type.  The presence of an antler  composite toggling harpoon valve and the r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y of chipped stone support t h i s suggestion.  The percentages  of chipped stone and bone also suggest t h i s (Mitchell 1971a:  151  47).  The type of chipped stone, namely quartz c r y s t a l and  obsidian, suggests on the other hand that an e a r l i e r culture type may be represented.  Without dates the issue cannot be  resolved, but the weight of evidence appears to f a l l on the side of the f i r s t of these two interpretations. The undisturbed assemblage i s almost equally divided i n t o stone and non-stone a r t i f a c t s , there being 14 of the former a r t i f a c t s and 18 of the l a t t e r .  However, there i s a  massive d i s p a r i t y between ground and chipped a r t i f a c t s , there being 29 of the former and two of the l a t t e r .  Of the  ground a r t i f a c t s , 5 are abrasive stones and 24 are abraded. The antler t i n e flaker may have been used to a s s i s t i n the manufacture of chipped stone a r t i f a c t s such as the obsidian and quartz c r y s t a l f l a k e r s . B) Lot 73 There were 518 a r t i f a c t s recovered from excavations on Lot 73.  Of these, 91 were from the disturbed h i s t o r i c  deposits (including natural stratum C). i s found below natural stratum P.  Only one a r t i f a c t  It i s a quartz c r y s t a l  found i n natural stratum P - l . No a r t i f a c t s were found i n natural stratum T.  As mentioned i n the section on chronology,  the oldest radiocarbon date was produced by a sample c o l l e c t e d from the clay and sand f l o o r underlying natural stratum P - l i n most places. Of the 427 a r t i f a c t s from d e f i n i t e l y aboriginal deposits,  152  135 are chipped stone, 62 are ground stone, 110 are bone, 25 are antler, 65 are s h e l l , 27 are mineral, 2 are wood, and 1 i s metal« The d i s t r i b u t i o n of these broad categories, and of some s p e c i f i c a r t i f a c t classes, suggests that assemblages representing three components can be recognized,,  Chipped stone  a r t i f a c t s are found throughout the deposits, although they are considerably more common i n s t r a t a G/O, and P  e  G with s h e l l ,  Among the chipped stone a r t i f a c t s are several classes  thought to be d i s t i n c t i v e of s p e c i f i c culture types i n the Gulf of Georgia area.  Microblades, and by inference micro-  blade cores, are reportedly d i s t i n c t i v e of the Marpole and Locarno Beach Culture Types (Mitchell 1971as52, 57)  The  0  microblade found at Deep Bay came from natural stratum P, while the microblade core came from natural stratum G-2© Leaf shaped chipped stone points are thought to be d i s t i n c t i v e of the Locarno Beach Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:57)  A  e  variety of these a r t i f a c t s , including l e a f shaped points and numbering 14, were found at Deep Bay.  One was found i n  natural stratum A, one was found i n natural stratum G-2, i n G/O,  and the remaining 11 i n natural stratum P  one  Cobble  0  tools are also d i s t i n c t i v e of the Locarno Beach Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:57). tools from DiSe  The u n i f a c i a l and b i f a c i a l chopping  7 correspond to t h i s a r t i f a c t class«  of these a r t i f a c t s were found i n s t r a t a I , M, G/O, with s h e l l .  Four  and G  Small, triangular chipped basalt points are  153  l i s t e d as being d i s t i n c t i v e o f the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a.48).  Three such a r t i f a c t s were found  at Deep Bay, a l l symmetrical. unstemmed.  Two are stemmed and one i s  The two stemmed specimens were found i n natural  stratum G with s h e l l , and the unstemmed specimen was found i n natural stratum G-2.  i t should be noted that the stem  on each of these points i s very weakly developed.  For  a n a l y t i c a l purposes they could be grouped with the unstemmed specimen. There were 72 ground stone a r t i f a c t s recovered from excavations on Lot 73. Of these, 10 were found above the surface of natural stratum F, leaving 62 i n d e f i n i t e l y aboriginal deposits. With the exception o f two abrasive stones and a stone d i s c bead found i n natural stratum P, ground stone a r t i f a c t s are not found below natural stratum H-l.  Although t h i s category o f a r t i f a c t i s present i n  natural strata dark G, H, and H-l, only four a r t i f a c t s are found i n these s t r a t a .  Combined with the three a r t i f a c t s  from natural stratum P, the t o t a l number o f a r t i f a c t s i n aboriginal deposits below natural stratum G with s h e l l i s only seven (11%). Natural strata F, G/O, and G with s h e l l contain 15, 12, and 19 a r t i f a c t s respectively, f o r a t o t a l of 46 a r t i f a c t s representing 74% o f a l l a r t i f a c t s from aboriginal deposits. These deposits contain 20 abrasive stones, 17 ground s l a t e points, of which two bases and one point are r e l a t i v e l y  15k thick and the rest are t h i n , 4 ground s l a t e knives, 9 abraded s l a t e fragments, 2 c e l t s , 2 saws, 5 d i s c beads, 2 i n c i s e d fragments, and 1 pendant. Thin triangular ground slate points are reported to be d i s t i n c t i v e of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:48)  Three specimens were recovered from Lot 73, one  e  from natural stratum G/O, one from G with s h e l l , and one from dark G.  Other thin ground s l a t e points and fragments were  also found, and their d i s t r i b u t i o n s are of i n t e r e s t here. Three corner notched thin ground s l a t e points were found, one from natural stratum N, one from G/O, and one from G with s h e l l .  The basal notched thin ground s l a t e point f r a g -  ment was recovered from natural stratum F.  T i p fragments  and medial fragments of t h i n ground s l a t e points came from natural strata F, G/O, G with s h e l l , and H.  Of the 14 thin  ground s l a t e points and fragments, four are from natural stratum F, one i s from N, three are from G/O, four are from G with s h e l l , one i s from dark G, and one i s from H. Thick ground s l a t e points are l i s t e d as d i s t i n c t i v e of the Marpole and Locarno Beach Culture Types (Mitchell 1971a: 52, 57).  Only one o f these items was recovered from Lot 73,  and i t came from natural stratum G with s h e l l .  Two point  bases that appear to be from thick points of t h i s class were a l s o recovered, one from natural stratum G with s h e l l and the other from natural stratum H.  155  Thin ground s l a t e knives are found i n both the Gulf of Georgia and Marpole Culture Types (Mitchell 1971a:48, 52). On Lot 73 t h i s class of a r t i f a c t was found i n natural s t r a t a A, F, "G", and G with s h e l l i n quantities of two, one, one, and one respectively.  One medium thick ground s l a t e knife  fragment was recovered from natural stratum I . Celts of various forms are d i s t i n c t i v e of each culture type.  Gulf of Georgia Culture Type c e l t s are f a i r l y large,  t h i n , and well made (Mitchell 1971a:48).  Marpole Culture  Type c e l t s are o f various s i z e s , but usually large.  They  are roughly made with a f l a t t e n e d oval cross section and sides that often taper t o a rounded, rough p o l l ( M i t c h e l l 1971a:52)  e  The Locarno Beach Culture Type c e l t s are small  and well made with rectangular plan and cross section (Mitchell 1971a:57)«  Two c e l t s were recovered  from Lot 73,  one from natural stratum "G", and the other from natural stratum G with s h e l l .  The former c e l t was small and r e c t -  angular i n plan and cross section and was well made. The l a t t e r was quite large and well made, with edges converging toward the well f i n i s h e d p o l l .  Unfortunately,  neither of  these forms corresponds s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y with the associations expected of them i n terms of other a r t i f a c t s .  These two  a r t i f a c t s do not seem t o conform to the d i s t r i b u t i o n expected of them on the basis of M i t c h e l l ' s proposed d i s t i n c t i v e features, but since only two c e l t s are involved, reliance should not be placed on them as indications of c u l t u r a l affiliation.  156  Stone d i s c beads are reportedly d i s t i n c t i v e of the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:52), Four were recovered from the Lot 73 excavations, one from natural stratum N, one from G/O, and two from G with s h e l l . There were 156 bone a r t i f a c t s recovered from Lot 73, f o r t y - s i x of them from the disturbed h i s t o r i c strata*,  Of  the remaining 110 a r t i f a c t s i n aboriginal deposits, only s i x are found below natural stratum dark G, and none were found below natural stratum S.  As with ground stone,  natural s t r a t a F, G/O, and G with s h e l l contain the majority of the bone a r t i f a c t s from aboriginal d e p o s i t s  s  There are  31 i n F, 28 i n G/O, and 29 i n G with s h e l l f o r a t o t a l of 88 (81%). The largest single a r t i f a c t class i s worked bone fragments, of which there are 38 i n aboriginal deposits. Light duty bone points are next most numerous with twenty, ten of which are from natural stratum F alone. bipoints were recovered.  F i f t e e n bone  Seven of these were from natural  stratum F, while the other eight were found i n s t r a t a G/O, G with s h e l l , and H.  The ten s p l i t bone awls from aboriginal  deposits were scattered evenly from natural stratum F down to natural stratum G with s h e l l .  This class of a r t i f a c t i s  reportedly d i s t i n c t i v e of the Gulf of Georgia and Marpole Culture Types (Mitchell 1971as48, 52). Heavy duty bone points accounted f o r 8 a r t i f a c t s , 5 of which were found i n natural stratum G/O of below  0  Five bone wedges/chisels were  157  found, and i t i s worth noting that they a l l came from natural s t r a t a N, G/O,  and G with shells  A l l four wedge base bone  points were found i n aboriginal deposits* One was found i n natural stratum F, two i n G/O,  and one i n dark G.  One d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological feature of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type i s "numerous single-and double-pointed bone objects of various sizes * • • " (Mitchell 1971a:48)* Aboriginal deposits on Lot 73 contained 47 of these a r t i f a c t s , or 43%, of the bone a r t i f a c t s i n aboriginal deposits* Natural stratum F contained 19, or 40%, of these a r t i f a c t s *  Ten of  them are l i g h t duty bone points, 7 are bipoints, 1 i s a heavy duty bone point, and 1 i s a wedge base bone point* stratum G/O  Natural  contains 8 of these points, 4 of which are l i g h t  duty, 2 are wedge base, 1 i s heavy duty, and 1 i s bipoint* Natural stratum G with s h e l l contains 14 of these a r t i f a c t s , only 3 of which are l i g h t duty while S are heavy duty*  Six  bipoints were recovered, but wedge base points were absent* The lowest bone point was found i n natural stratum Q* Two patterns seem to emerge from t h i s scrutiny of bone points*  F i r s t , bipoints, when they are found i n numbers,  seem to comprise approximately the same proportion of bone points f o r each natural stratum*  Second, there may be an  inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the proportions of heavy duty and l i g h t duty bone points through time*  Heavy duty points seem  to be more common i n e a r l i e r s t r a t a on Lot 73 and l i g h t duty points are more common i n l a t e r strata*  I f more than one  158  component i s represented i n the aboriginal s t r a t a , as w i l l presently be shown to be the case, then the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of the previously quoted archaeological feature should be reconsidered. U n i l a t e r a l l y barbed bone points are another class of a r t i f a c t thought to be d i s t i n c t i v e of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a;48).  Two were found on Lot 73,  one i n natural stratum K, and the other i n natural stratum H. The l a t t e r specimen had been broken transversely at about one-third to one-half i t s o r i g i n a l length, and the break had been abraded to form a new broad, wedge shaped t i p .  The  workmanship on t h i s point was i n f e r i o r to that of the former example.  A f i e l d assessment of component d i v i s i o n s places  one of these points i n a Gulf of Georgia component and another i n a Marpole component, thereby r a i s i n g the issue again of the r e l i a b i l i t y of d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological features for a l l cases. The remaining bone tools are found i n small numbers. It i s of interest to note that a bead and a pendant were found i n natural stratum G with s h e l l , and that a b i r d bone whistle fragment was recovered from H - l .  A l l three of these  items could be thought of as decorative or ceremonial, and a l l are from deep i n the midden deposits. The bead and the whistle are both of b i r d bone.  Two similar a r t i f a c t s were  recovered from Montague Harbour I (Mitchell 1971a:136). The unidentified sea mammal bone a r t i f a c t was recovered  159  from natural stratum J . With the sea mammal bone wedge from stratum N, there i s a suggestion that sea mammal u t i l i z a t i o n may have become important during the period when the l a t e r s t r a t a were being deposited  e  Only 33 antler a r t i f a c t s were recovered, and 25 of these came from aboriginal deposits.  The majority o f these a r t i -  f a c t s , ten, were from natural stratum G/O, followed by natural stratum P with s i x , and G with s h e l l with four. The most frequent a r t i f a c t c l a s s i s antler composite toggling harpoon valves, which are reportedly d i s t i n c t i v e o f the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:48). The seven specimens recovered from aboriginal deposits were evenly d i s t r i b u t e d i n natural s t r a t a F, G/O, and G with s h e l l . Since a component d i v i s i o n may f a l l i n between these s t r a t a , the universal a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s feature must again be questioned.  The two specimens from natural stratum G with  s h e l l are much more slender and elongated i n form, and they appear to be channelled to receive a piercing point of c i r c u l a r cross s e c t i o n . The other valves, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , have a shallow channel more suited to wedge base bone p o i n t s . Antler wedges are l i s t e d as d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological features of the Gulf of Georgia and Marpole Culture Types (Mitchell 1971a:48, 52). The f i v e recovered from aboriginal deposits on Lot 73 are evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between natural s t r a t a p and G with s h e l l . Three antler points, analogous to the bone points  160  discussed above, were recovered from natural stratum This may  G/O.  be another i n d i c a t i o n of a s h i f t through time from  antler to bone as a raw material f o r t o o l s .  These points  would be classed as l i g h t duty rather than heavy duty, however. A single barbed antler point was stratum G with s h e l l .  recovered from natural  This class of a r t i f a c t i s l i s t e d as  an archaeological feature d i s t i n c t i v e of the Marpole Culture Type ( M i t c h e l l 1971a;52).  Although a single example of t h i s  a r t i f a c t c l a s s cannot be conclusive, i t s l o c a t i o n i s suggestive when viewed r e l a t i v e to other a r t i f a c t classes that are i n d i c a t i v e of the Marpole and Gulf of Georgia Culture Types. As mentioned e a r l i e r , a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s are found more often i n the lower s t r a t a of t h e i r range.  This range i s also  of i n t e r e s t since no a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s are found below the bottom of natural stratum G with s h e l l .  This d i s t r i b u t i o n  seems unusual considering that substantial s h e l l midden deposits of s i m i l a r pH continue underneath G with s h e l l . Like the paucity of bone below t h i s point, the lack of antler a r t i f a c t s may  indicate c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n through time i n  the choice of raw material for a r t i f a c t manufacture. other hand, both bone and antler d i s t r i b u t i o n may  On  the  reflect  changes i n a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on at the s i t e . There are 67 s h e l l a r t i f a c t s , of which 65 are from aboriginal deposits. are s h e l l d i s c beads.  Of these undisturbed  a r t i f a c t s , 49  Thirteen whole or fragmentary dentalia  s h e l l s came from natural stratum G with s h e l l .  These a r t i f a c t s ,  161  l i k e the bone pendant and the copper beads, were associated with B u r i a l 4,  The v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s h e l l a r t i f a c t s  i s i d e n t i c a l to that of antler a r t i f a c t s , none being found below natural stratum G with s h e l l * beads were recovered, one from G/O natural stratum G with shells  A t o t a l of 49 s h e l l d i s c and the other 48 from  There were 14 dentalia a r t i -  f a c t s , the additional specimen coming from natural stratum Fe  Half a s h e l l ring segment was found i n natural stratum  K, and a Mytilus californianus c h i s e l or gouge fragment recovered from natural stratum F  0  was  Disc beads and dentalia  s h e l l s are often included with b u r i a l s i n the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:52), Twenty-seven mineral a r t i f a c t s were recovered from aboriginal deposits on Lot 73. remaining 26 were ochre  0  One was mica, and the  The v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of  mineral a r t i f a c t s i s almost i d e n t i c a l to that of s h e l l and antler a r t i f a c t s , only two pieces of ochre being recovered from natural stratum H  9  Natural s t r a t a F, G/O,  and G with  s h e l l contained the largest numbers of ochre a r t i f a c t s , eight, f i v e , and four respectively»  The mica f l a k e was  found  i n natural stratum G with s h e l l s Two wood a r t i f a c t s were recovered, both from aboriginal depositse  The cedar bark wrapping found i n natural stratum  G with s h e l l was associated with B u r i a l 4 and contained copper, s h e l l d i s c beads, and dentalia shells»  The wood  fragments from natural stratum H do not have any i d e n t i f i a b l e  162  appearance and may represent the remains of a stake that was driven i n t o t h i s stratum recently. Several fragments of native copper were treated as one a r t i f a c t because they were found with the cedar bark wrapping.  Their fragmentary condition precluded  the p o s s i -  b i l i t y of establishing how many beads there were i n i t i a l l y . Native copper i s l i s t e d as an i n c l u s i o n with b u r i a l s of the Marpole Culture Type ( M i t c h e l l 1971a:52).  These specimens,  associated with B u r i a l 4, were found i n natural stratum G with s h e l l .  Table XXII summarizes the locations of M i t c h e l l ' s  d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological features i n the natural s t r a t a of Lot 73 at Deep Bay.  163  TABLE XXII Comparison of D i s t i n c t i v e Archaeological Features of Three Culture Types from the Gulf of Georgia Area (after M i t c h e l l 1971a:48, 52, 57) with A r t i f a c t Class D i s t r i b u t i o n , Lot 73, DiSe 7 e  a r t i f a c t class  culture type  stratigraphic association, DiSe 7.  small, triangular chipped basalt points  Gulf of Georgia  I, G-2  various chipped stone point Marpole forms; stemmed and unstemmed; common asymmetric triangular forms  G with s h e l l  contracting stem chipped basalt points  Locarno Beach  P, G/O, G-2  microblades and cores  Marpole Locarno Beach  P, G-2  chipped slate/sandstone knives or scrapers  Locarno Beach  H  cobble, s p l i t cobble, and boulder s p a l l tools  Locarno Beach  I, K, G/O, G with s h e l l , P  large faceted ground s l a t e and bone points  Locarno Beach  large ground s l a t e points, faceted on l e n t i c u l a r cross section  Marpole  G with s h e l l  t h i n , triangular ground s l a t e points  Gulf of Georgia  G/O, G with s h e l l , G-2, F, N  thin ground slate knives  Gulf of Georgia Marpole  A, F, "G", G with s h e l l  thick ground s l a t e knives, p a r t i a l abrasion  Locarno Beach  large, well made c e l t s  Gulf of Georgia  various sized, roughly finished celts  Marpole  G with s h e l l  164 TABLE XXII (continued) a r t i f a c t class  culture type  stratigraphic association, DiSe 7.  small, well made c e l t s  Locarno Beach  »«G"  labrets and earspools  Marpole Locarno Beach  Gulf Islands Complex items  Locarno Beach  flat-topped hand mauls  Gulf of Georgia  decorated-top hand mauls  Marpole  numerous, i r r e g u l a r abrasive stones  Gulf of Georgia  handstones and grinding slabs  Locarno Beach Marpole  d i s c beads of shale or clam s h e l l  Marpole  perforated stones, large and small  Marpole  grooved or notched sinkers  Locarno Beach  stone sculpture  Marpole  u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed bone points  Gulf of Georgia  u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed antler points  Marpole  b i l a t e r a l l y barbed antler points  Locarno Beach  numerous single and double pointed bone objects  Gulf of Georgia  s p l i t or sectioned bone awls Gulf of Georgia Marpole  A, D, C, F, K, N, G/O, G with shell, P  N, G/O, G with shell, P  K, H G with s h e l l  A, B, D, E, C, F, G/O, G with s h e l l , H, J , G-2, dark G B, F, "G", I, K G/O, G with s h e l l  165  TABLE XXII (continued) a r t i f a c t class  culture type  stratigraphic association, DiSe 7 0  large needles (bone)  Marpole  heavy bone wedges  Locarno Beach  antler wedges  Gulf of Georgia  barbed antler harpoons with l i n e attachment  Marpole  antler  Marpole  sculpture  antler composite toggling harpoons valves  Gulf of Georgia Locarno Beach  antler one piece toggling harpoon heads  Locarno  antler foreshafts for above harpoons  Locarno  A, F, K, G/O, G with s h e l l  A, D, F, G/O, G with s h e l l  Beach Beach  triangular ground sea mussel Gulf of Georgia points sea mussel s h e l l  celts  frequent use of native copper ornaments  Locarno Beach Marpole  G with s h e l l  loosely flexed midden b u r i a l Gulf of Georgia above ground deposition; few l a s t i n g inclusions midden b u r i a l , loose to Marpole tight f l e x ; often inclusions, sometdimes cairns s k u l l deformation  Gulf of Georgia Marpole  large post moulds and house outlines  Gulf of Georgia Marpole  clay l i n e d depressions and Locarno Beach v e r t i c a l rock slab alignments inland location occasionally Locarno Beach  F, K, G/O, G with s h e l l , P  166  CHAPTER V FEATURES Introduction Seven features are described i n t h i s section.  They  range i n s i z e from small basin-shaped depressions o f less than one meter i n diameter to rock alignments of 275 meters i n length.  These features are intended to show pertinent  aspects of the c u l t u r a l development at t h i s s i t e .  Two  features are included because their r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c u l t u r a l sequence i s unknown. Features Figure 21 shows i n plan the rock wall f i s h trap to the southeast of the s i t e .  I t i s believed that t h i s trap was  used t o harvest the abundant herring run that occurs along t h i s beach i n early spring each year.  A s i m i l a r f i s h trap  has been recorded approximately f i v e miles south o f the Big Qualicum River.  In each case, advantage has been taken of  natural inter»tidal beach formations.  The trap i s constructed  i n a large depression with a r e l a t i v e l y sandy bottom.  To  the water side of the trap i s a ridge o f cobble covered beach, the elevation o f which i s higher than the top of the rock walls forming the trap.  This beach ridge protects the rock walls  Figure 21.  Rock wall f i s h trap, DiSe 7  168  of the trap from wave destruction.  Even i n a large storm  the walls are covered by about one meter of water before large waves pass over them.  The f l o o r of the depression i n  which the trap i s constructed slopes down to the north. Water therefore enters and leaves the trap from the north end.  Following the current out of the trap, f i s h would come  to a r e l a t i v e l y narrow aperture i n the stone walls where they would be taken i n set nets, dip nets, or basketry  traps.  Present use of the Deep Bay f i s h trap as a low t i d e boat launching basin may have a l t e r e d t h i s portion o f the trap, but on the trap below Big Qualicum River the feature i s quite evident• At the high end of the trap the rock wall f l a r e s i n t o two wings that meet i n an abrupt V-shaped protrusion that points i n t o the f i s h trap.  This i r r e g u l a r i t y i n the wall  i s at approximately the deepest part of the depression i n which the trap i s b u i l t .  On an ebb t i d e the water inside  the trap drains at a faster rate than water comes into i t from the reservoir beyond t h i s w a l l , and the water coming into the trap passes mostly through the V formation i n the wall with considerable speed. uration i s unclear.  The purpose of t h i s config-  Possibly i t represents an i n i t i a l trap  for f i s h following the ebb t i d e out of the reservoir beyond the trap; possibly i t regulates draining i n the trap so that f i s h i n the trap w i l l seek an e x i t from the trap over a longer period of time than i f a school were to e x i t a l l at  169  once.  In either case, the r e s u l t would be a more e f f i c i e n t  procedure f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of f i s h within the trap,,  No  age can be assigned to the trap, but i t s ingenious construction would preserve i t f o r as long as the cobble ridge remained stable. An h i s t o r i c feature i s shown i n Figure 22.  A cement  block i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e i n the upper right corner of the p i c t u r e , and the edge of another one can be seen between two boulders just above and to the l e f t (west) of the stake i n the foreground.  To the l e f t of t h i s feature, i n excavation  unit 1, are a s e r i e s of disturbed s t r a t a that were probably dumped there recently as f i l l for the outside of the rock alignment.  To the r i g h t (east) of the feature, i n excavation  unit 2, the surface of natural stratum C i s v i s i b l e .  Although  h i s t o r i c materials are not uncommon i n C, they may be present as a r e s u l t of having been intruded i n t o an a b o r i g i n a l stratum that i s r e l a t i v e l y t h i n .  I t can be seen that the cobbles  and  at l e a s t one cement block r e s t on, rather than i n , natural stratum  C.  A concentration of adzed antler fragments, l a b e l l e d a r t i f a c t #1147, i s shown i n Figure 23b.  These fragments,  numbering w e l l over one hundred, were found lying on the surface of natural stratum M i n an area about 70 x 55  cm.  A crescent of crushed mussel s h e l l flanks the a n t l e r concent r a t i o n to the west.  Most of the fragments were small and  i n poor condition when c o l l e c t e d .  Subsequent preservation  Figure 22.  H i s t o r i c feature showing cement blocks, Lot 73, DiSe 7.  a LOT  73 R RT  ROCK ROOT  0 L  _1_  METRES  Figure 23  1.0 _J  Features and b u r i a l s , Lot 73, DiSe 7. a. plan of natural stratum G-2; b. concentration of adzed antler fragments  i n the laboratory managed to save most of them, but some simply disintegrated.  The few larger fragments i n d i c a t e  that an antler beam—probably of an e l k , judging from the reconstructed diameter of the beam—had been adzed along surface and diagonally at one end. have been s p l i t  the  Many fragments appear to  from the beam a f t e r i t was adzed.  The con-  centration of the debris and the manner i n which i t has been worked suggests that i t i s the d e t r i t u s of i n i t i a l antler manufacturing.  This process may  antler from the s k u l l , producing  have involved freeing the useful pieces of a n t l e r , or  roughing raw antler i n t o shape f o r abrasion.  The v a r i e t y i n  fragment s i z e and the very small size of most fragments suggests that t h i s material constitutes primary refuse. such, i t may  indicate a b r i e f , seasonal s i t e  As  occupation  (Schiffer 1972:162). Figure 23a shows the a r e a l extent of natural G-2 and some of i t s s t r a t i g r a p h i c associations.  stratum An appraisal  of the shape of t h i s feature, as shown by the p r o f i l e s and the f i g u r e , suggests that i t i s a shallow, roughly p i t excavated i n t o natural stratum H.  circular  As the plan shows,  there are numerous rocks i n t h i s feature, some of which are firecracked.  The feature also contains large quantities of  whole and fragmented clam s h e l l .  Butter clam, l i t t l e neck  clam, barnacle, and edible mussel are the predominant species. The matrix i s loose brown sandy s o i l .  This feature i s remin-  iscent of two features of s i m i l a r s i z e , shape, and content at  173  Saltery Bay (Monks i i . d . a ) . Clams were reported to have been steamed open over hot rocks i n earth ovens.  This process i s a prelude t o clam  storage preservation techniques  (Gunther 1927:206; Barnett  1975:61), but i t i s not inconceivable that clams were cooked i n t h i s manner on an everyday basis as w e l l .  The denial of  aboriginal stone b o i l i n g by four well informed sources (Barnett 1975:68) implies that cooking over hot rocks i n an earth oven may have been very common i n a b o r i g i n a l times.  Of the mollusc  species found to be abundant i n natural stratum G-2, basket cockle i s the only one that was even occasionally sought f o r storage (Stern 1934:47).  Thus, material stratum G-2 may  represent an earth oven or steaming p i t used to prepare several species of mollusc f o r everyday consumption. Figure 24 shows d i s a r t i c u l a t e d dog remains i n the upper cairn of B u r i a l 5.  The remains pictured here were found  between layers of cobbles covering the human remains. photograph was taken facing east.  The  A f u l l discussion of  these remains i s included with the discussion of B u r i a l 5 (see Appendix I I ) .  Cairn b u r i a l s , often with i n c l u s i o n s , are  l i s t e d by M i t c h e l l (1971a:52) as d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological features of the Marpole Culture Type.  Although dog remains  are not l i s t e d among the usual i n c l u s i o n s , dog b u r i a l s are ethnographically recorded (Barnett 1975:97). and i t i s conceivable that a dog might be buried with i t s owner. The clay f l o o r as i t was exposed i n excavation units 3  174  and 4 i s shown i n Figure 25.  As the f i g u r e shows, the f l o o r  was only several centimeters thick, and i t sloped down from i t s f i r s t appearance at about west 54.20 m.  I t was very t h i n  i n excavation unit 2 and consequently removed before i t was noticed.  No c u l t u r a l remains were found below t h i s f l o o r .  Carbon sample GaK-6039 was obtained from t h i s feature i n excavation unit 4.  The genesis of t h i s f l o o r i s unknown,  but i t s uniqueness among the water deposited s t r a t a , i t s impregnation with many small pieces of charcoal, the presence of c u l t u r a l material above i t , and the absence of such material below i t , a l l suggest that i t may not be of natural o r i g i n . Instead, i t may represent a compacted l i v i n g area at a period of r e l a t i v e l y low t i d e s . Figure 26 shows a depression i n the surface of natural stratum D on Lot 81.  This depression has a square outline  with rounded edges and corners and i s approximately one meter square.  I t i s set i n a clay stratum that i s discontinuous  throughout  the excavation u n i t .  Beside the feature i s a  large slab of disintegrated sandstone and a large hole through the clay stratum that may be a post hole or a cache p i t .  In  t h i s depression were found an abrasive stone, an antler composite toggling harpoon valve, whole butter clam and edible mussel s h e l l valves, and a cherry p i t (Prunus sp.). The feature i t s e l f i s 5 cm to 10 cm deep with sides that slope at approximately a 45 ° angle to a f l a t bottom.  The  perimeter of the depression i s orange, as i f the clay had  Figure 25.  Compacted sand, gravel, and c l a y f l o o r , Lot 73, DiSe 7.  178 been f i r e d , but the bottom of the depression and the clay away from the perimeter of the depression are yellowishbrown.  Combined with the t o t a l absence of charcoal and  firecracked rock, these findings seem to indicate that the depression was not used as a hearth or f i r e p i t .  What the  feature may have been used f o r i s not c l e a r , but i t was probably inside a shelter of some s o r t . face would probably be eroded.  Otherwise, i t s sur-  179  CHAPTER VI FAUNAL REMAINS Introduction This chapter presents a description of the faunal remains recovered from the excavations on Lots 73 and 81.  A l l the  mammal and b i r d remains were weighed i n d i v i d u a l l y and i d e n t i fied.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were based on comparative s k e l e t a l  c o l l e c t i o n s i n the Department of Zoology Vertebrate Museum and the Archaeology Laboratory at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum's Birds and Mammals D i v i s i o n .  Primary written references were  Olsen (1968), Howard (1929), G i l b e r t (1973), and Schmid (1972). The minimum numbers of individuals f o r each class of remains was calculated within each a n a l y t i c a l unit by how many of any given s k e l e t a l elements were present and whether the elements were adult or j u v e n i l e .  Estimating minimum numbers  of i n d i v i d u a l s on the basis of both natural stratum and excava t i o n unit boundaries produces a r e l a t i v e l y i n f l a t e d estimate compared to w i t h i n - s i t e or within-stratum estimates (Grayson 1973:432-439).  Consequently, the estimates presented i n t h i s  chapter should be used only to compare variations i n abundance of a class from one a n a l y t i c a l unit to another.  These  estimates hold no r e a l value i n terms of i n t e r - s i t e comparisons.  180 Estimates were also made of the grams of usable meat represented by each class of remains within each a n a l y t i c a l unit*  Multiplying the minimum numbers o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n a  given class by the l i v e weight of one i n d i v i d u a l produces a t o t a l l i v e weight.  This weight i s then m u l t i p l i e d by a  f r a c t i o n , representing the usable portion o f an i n d i v i d u a l animal of the c l a s s , to produce an estimate of usable meat represented by the remains i n question*  This procedure, the  estimates of l i v e weight, and the estimated f r a c t i o n of usable meat f o r each faunal class follow White (1953:346-348). As with minimum numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s , these estimates are intended to be used only as a measure of r e l a t i v e a v a i l a b i l i t y within t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t e *  Because these estimates  are based on figures f o r minimum numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s , d i s t o r t i o n s contained i n these estimates are inherent i n subsequent estimates of grams of usable meat* The f i s h and mollusc remains were not subjected to such rigorous treatment*  The prodigious amounts of these remains  made 100% i d e n t i f i c a t i o n impractical*  I t was decided to  sample these faunal remains i n conjunction with the s o i l samples reported i n Chapter I I I and Appendix I*  Consequently,  there were t h i r t y samples of these remains from a n a l y t i c a l units on Lot 73 and ten from a n a l y t i c a l units on Lot 81* A 500 cc sample o f matrix was mechanically s p l i t from the d r i e d 2 l i t e r f i e l d samples.  This was passed through a stack of  Canadian Standard Sieves containing 8mm, 4mm, and 2mm mesh  181 sizes.  Rocks were removed, and the remaining organic debris,  mostly f i s h and mollusc remains, were i d e n t i f i e d and separated according to faunal c l a s s . then weighed.  The remains i n each class were  No estimates of minimum numbers of individuals  or grams of usable meat were made. Faunal Remains Lot 81 Table XXIV presents the weights and minimum numbers of individuals of faunal remains from Lot 81.  Table XXV shows  the estimated grams of usable meat of each mammal and b i r d species i n each a n a l y t i c a l u n i t .  Except i n the case of e l k ,  White's estimates f o r mammals seem to be conservative. Therefore, the weights of individuals used f o r these e s t i mations are:  e l k , 500 l b (Cowan and Guiget 1968:361); mule  deer, 200 l b (White 1953:397); sea l i o n , 1500 l b (average adult male and female, Cowan and Guiget 1968:347); and s e a l , 185 l b (average adult male and female, Cowan and Guiget 1968: 353).  Estimates of l i v e weights of b i r d species are taken  from White (1953:398) and from inferences derived from Guiget (1958, 1967).  For both birds and mammals the estimated per-  centages of usable meat f o r each species (White 1953:397-398) were used.  Dogs are omitted because they are not ethno-  graphically known to be a subsistence resource. Mammal and b i r d remains not present at least twice w i l l be deleted from subsequent analyses and are presented i n Table XXVI.  Fish and mollusc remains not present i n at least two  TABLE XXIII L i s t of Generic and Common Names o f Species Found i n Tables. XXIV through XXX, Lots 73 and 81, DiSe 7, Generic Name  Common Name  Bos sp. Canis sp. Castor canadensis (Kuhl) Cervus elaphus (Linnaeus) Belphxnxdae Eumetopias jubata (Schreber) Microtus sp. Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Rafinesque) Phoca v i t u i i n a r i c h a r d i i (Linnaeus) Procyon l o t o r (Linnaeus) Anas sp. Aythya marila (Linnaeus) Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus) Brachyramphus sp. Branta sp. Corvus corax (Linnaeus) Dendragapus obscursus (Say) F u l i c a sp. Gavia sp. Haliaeetus leucocephalus '{ tLinnaeus) Larus sp. Mareca americana Melanitta sp. Olor sp. Phalacrocoracidae Podiceps/Colymbus Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus) U r i a sp. Clupea harengus p a l l a s i i (Valenciennes) Hemilepedotus sp. Oncorhynchus sp. Ophiodon elongatus (Girard) Pleuronectiformes Squalus suckleyi (Girard)  cow domestic dog beaver wapiti dolphins and porpoises northern sea l i o n mouse mule deer or coast black t a i l deer harbor seal or hair seal raccoon surface feeding ducks greater scaup duck ruffed grouse murrelet goose raven blue grouse coot loon bald eagle seagull american widgeon scoter swan cormorant grebe shoveller murre p a c i f i c herring red i r i s h l o r d salmon l i n g cod flounders and halibuts dogfish  183 TABLE XXIII (continued) Generic Name  Common Name  Acmaea sp. Balanus sp, Bittium sp, Clinocardium n u t t a l l i (Conrad) Echinarachinius exentricus (Eschscholtz) I s e l i c a obtusa laxa (Pall) Macoma nasuta (Conrad) Mytilus californianus (Conrad) Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) Nassarius mendicus (Gould) Ostrea l u r i d a (Carpenter) P o l i n i c e s l e w i s i i (Gould) Protothaca staminea (Conrad) Saxidomus giganteus (Deshayes) Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis (Muller) Thais sp. Tresus sp, Cancer sp,  limpet barnacle bittium basket cockle sand d o l l a r blunt or obtuse i s e l i c a bent nose clam sea mussel edible or bay mussel lean dog whelk native oyster moon s n a i l l i t t l e neck clam butter clam green sea urchin purple whelk horse clam crab  184 TABLE XXIV Weight (gm) of Faunal Remains by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 81, DiSe 7. MNI = minimum numbers of individuals F A U N  A  M A M M A L S  B I R D S  4 0 00 6 6 0 8 1.30 6 . 0 0 I 1 6 . 6 0 7 . 6 0 24.20' 5.50 147.20 189.90' 9.70 5170' 5 0 . 9 0 1 4 3 . 2 0 14.30 4 0 1 . 1 0 ' 2 8 . 0 0 5.00 6.60 4 1.10 I 10. 10 17.20 9.50 14.80 43.90 I 20 5.1 0 90 26 0 0 8.50 I I .50 14.90 2 . 3 0 26.60 8.60^ 30.20  I .40 9.60  I.10 1.70 8.50 5. 10 .54  4.90. 4.40 .27  1.20  10 I 80  10 .30 4 0 5.70 4 5 0 2.30 .60 .30 .50  .10 4.80 77TO 3 0 3 0 0 26. I I 7.90 35.60 .80 7 . 6 0 I 60 I .40 12.00 1.00 10 1 .30 5 . 0 0 . 10 .60 .10 . 9 0 ' 6 . 0 0  70  .80  .50 .30  2.50 .70  F A U N A FISH  .55 .07 .06 .37  21.42 2.35  .01 .36 .08 .03 .21 .78, .27, .10  .36, 5.35 .07' .24 I .49 27.45, 59.55 6. 70  .01 .01 .03 .06 . 16  .18  M O L L U S C A  3.28 8 . 4 5 . 0 5 .30 .90 4.22 . 10 .52 .09 .01 .10  CI C2  10  2 1.44 4 . 7 9 . 3 8 . 5 8 2 2~ II I .82 I .66 .04 ' ' .10' . 13  .04 . 0 8 , .50.05 .95, 2 4 "80* "  FI  M N 1 MAMMAL  BIRD  I I I I  CI C2 D E F F I G  TABLE XXV Estimated Weight of Usable Meat (gm) f o r each I d e n t i f i a b l e Mammal and B i r d Species by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 81, DiSe 7.  S!  0)  H 0  W  Natural Excavation Stratum Unit A  B C C-l C-2 D E F F-l G  1 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Total  CO  I Q) til  11364  mm  -  95454 47727  -  -  11364  11364  mm  -  --  -  -  ---  mm  -  —  34092 143181  (4  •A  10  a> H •H  3  04  >|  o o o  O  Si  8  13636 13636 9090 9090 4545 4545 9090 9090  mm  5910 5910  -  mm  mm  -  -  79  -  -  63  -  W to 3, M  95 95 95  -  -  63  -  95  -  -  79  -  95  -  <i +» •p  •H  .3 H  s 95 95  -  95  -  M O  -  79  63  -  -  -  -  -  90902 11820 237  189  475  285  04?  o  •H  •d  477  48 48  -  '-  -  48  -  —  954  S  O  8: S3  48 48  •-  •H <H •H +•»  •H  477  -- ---  -  -  (0  w  0  -  9090 4545 4545  H X)  CM  H •H M  Total  237 31464 79 109947 158 62980 158 20707 4735 79 5244 79 79 9169 79 20676 0 • 0 79 79 9169 4766 79 4545 0  240 1106 283481  186 TABLE XXVI Weight (gm) of Mammal and B i r d Remains Not Present i n at Least Two Excavation Units by Natural Stratum and A r b i t r a r y Level, Lot 81, DiSe 7. Species  Natural stratum Excavation unit  A 1 2  B F-l 3  4  2  3  -  0.6  -  -  -  -  -  0.1  -  -  2.8  -  1.4  -  Mammals Bos Castor  227.8 canadensis  Microtus  0.2  Procyon l o t o r  -  Dendragapus obscursus  -  -  Birds  Haliaeetus  1.5  -  leucocephalus  Mareca americana  -  0.1  -  Phalacrocoracidae Spatula clypeata  0.3 -  0.1  -  18? samples axe presented i n Table XXVII.  Thus, bixds and  mammals not present i n a t least 6.7% o f a l l a n a l y t i c a l units and f i s h and mollusc remains not present i n a t l e a s t 10% of a l l samples are found i n t h i s table.  I t can be seen that  land mammal remains are more common than sea mammal remains and that only 2.4 gm o f a t o t a l of 141.6 gm o f sea mammal remains were recovered from undisturbed deposits.  Land mammal  remains, p r i m a r i l y deer, dog, and unidentified land mammal, predominate i n the undisturbed deposits. remains, deer i s the more common.  Of the i d e n t i f i e d  Among b i r d s , u n i d e n t i f i a b l e  duck and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e b i r d are most common. A l l the i d e n t i f i e d species are water birds, and a l l but Larus sp. (seagull) are migratory.  The greatest weight of b i r d remains comes  from the disturbed stratum.  The f i s h remains i n d i c a t e that  a very narrow range of species was commonly exploited. No species i s l i m i t e d t o the disturbed stratum, but dogfish and salmon are uncommon i n the a b o r i g i n a l deposits.  The frequent  occurrence of herring remains suggest i t s importance as a subsistence resource.  The absence o f f i s h species from  natural stratum A i n excavation units 1, 2, and 4, and from s t r a t a B and C i n excavation unit 2 i s a r e s u l t of sampling procedure.  The same i s true f o r mollusc remains.  A l l species  are present i n both a b o r i g i n a l and h i s t o r i c deposits, with the exception o f I s e l i c a obtusa. i n a b o r i g i n a l deposits.  This species i s found only  Edible mussel i s the most frequently  represented species, followed c l o s e l y by barnacle.  Unidenti-  188 TABLE XXVII Weight (gm) of Fish and Mollusc Remains Not Present i n at Least Two Samples by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 81, DiSe 7. Species  Natural stratum Excavation unit  H 3  B 2  -  -  F 3  Fish Ophiodon elongatus Mollusc Clinocardium n u t t a l l i Ostrea l u r i d a Polinices lewisii ,  6.19 -  0.23 4.21  0.47  189  f i a b l e clam, not s u r p r i s i n g l y , i s p l e n t i f u l . B contains more mollusc species than any other  Natural stratum stratum,  although natural stratum C - l approaches the same species content. The minimum numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s were calculated only on i d e n t i f i e d mammal and b i r d species.  Among the mammals, i t  can be seen again that sea mammal remains are found only i n the disturbed stratum.  The c a l c u l a t i o n of minimum numbers of  individuals i s a good equalization mechanism of comparing r e l a t i v e abundance of species whose remains are o f markedly d i f f e r e n t weights (Imamoto 1974:31). examining dog and deer remains.  This can be seen i n  Whereas t h e i r t o t a l weights  on Lot 81 are 153.1 gm and 464.8 gm respectively, they both represent the remains of twenty i n d i v i d u a l s .  The range of  i n d i v i d u a l s i n a given stratum and excavation unit i s not as great f o r birds as i t i s f o r mammals.  Except f o r the presence  of u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck remains i n several instances, a l l other species remains represent single i n d i v i d u a l s .  Natural  s t r a t a C - l , C-2, F - l , and G contain no b i r d i n d i v i d u a l s , and Melanitta sp. remains, as noted before, are confined to the disturbed  stratum.  Table XXV indicates that sea l i o n accounts f o r the largest quantities of usable meat.  Half of the usable meat  represented by the Lot 81 mammal and b i r d remains comes from t h i s source.  Deer i s next most important as a meat source,  representing approximately one-third of the t o t a l usable meat  190  on Lot 81. Elk ranks t h i r d at 12% of the t o t a l , and seal i s the lowest ranking mammal a t 4%.  Thus, mammals represent  about 98% of the usable meat from birds and mammals on Lot 81.  This suggests that the taking of mammals was much more  l i k e l y to have been a major a c t i v i t y than fowling, i n terms of meat a c q u i s i t i o n . I t i s c l e a r from the t o t a l s f o r each a n a l y t i c a l unit that the greatest weights of remains occur i n the disturbed/ h i s t o r i c stratum.  Without chronological c o n t r o l , however,  i t i s impossible to say whether t h i s s i t u a t i o n represents d i f f e r e n t i a l deposition of faunal remains over space, or through time, or both.  I f the d i s t u r b e d / h i s t o r i c s t r a t a are  omitted from consideration, then deer becomes the most important source of meat, followed by e l k .  No sea mammals  were recovered from the aboriginal deposits.  However, mammals  continue to account for by f a r the largest amount of usable meat.  Although land mammals predominate i n the s t r i c t l y  a b o r i g i n a l context  ( i . e . they are found i n the undisturbed  natural s t r a t a ) , i t seems c l e a r that sea mammals were exploited at some time i n the past and that sea l i o n s e s p e c i a l l y could have accounted f o r large proportions of the t o t a l usable meat. Table XXVI and XXVII contain species that do not occur frequently enough to be included i n Table XXIV.  These species  are found only i n natural stratum A. Mouse i s included i n t h i s table rather than i n Table XXIV because these rodents are not reportedly used as food resources.  Their remains  191  are often found a r t i c u l a t e d , suggesting that they may have died i n burrows intruded into e a r l i e r s t r a t a .  I t i s somewhat  surprising that raccoon, a common species, occurs infrequently. On the other hand, the absence of beaver, which i s l o c a l l y uncommon, i s not too s u r p r i s i n g .  Of the f i v e b i r d species  represented, eagle and grouse are not migratory.  The single  f i s h species represented, l i n g cod, i s s u r p r i s i n g l y i n f r e quent considering i t s general a v a i l a b i l i t y throughout the Gulf of Georgia.  Equally surprising i s the infrequent  occurrence of basket cockle when i t i s so r e a d i l y available i n the i n t e r t i d a l zone on either side of the s i t e .  Native  oyster and moon s n a i l are not as commonly used f o r food as clams, according to ethnographic sources, so i t i s reasonable that they should occur infrequently i n archaeological deposits. Lot 73 The faunal remains from Lot 73 have been edited as w e l l . B i r d and mammal species not present a t least f i v e times ( i . e . those not having a chance of occurring a t least once i n each excavation unit) were omitted from Table XXVTII.  Thus, i n 63  possible occurrences, those occurring 6.3% of the time or l e s s are deleted. XXIX.  The deleted species are presented i n Table  Also, f i s h and mollusc remains not present i n at least  three out of t h i r t y samples (10%) are deleted and found i n Table XXIX as w e l l .  This table indicates that b i r d , f i s h ,  and mollusc remains are absent, except f o r one minute exception, from natural stratum P and e a r l i e r s t r a t a ,  i t i s also apparent  192  TABLE XXVIII  Weight (gm) of Faunal Remains by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 73, DiSe 7. MNI = minimum numbers of individuals F A U N A  M  A M M A L S  B I R D S  FISH  NATURAL STRATUM 3.50.  2 . 1 0  2.90 1 2.00' 38  7 0  14  6 0  26  60  2 3 0 0  38.70  . 4 0  3 7 9 0  ' 1 4. 1 0 '  II  51.70  15 1  12.50.  3 7 0 .  4 0  5.20'  2 2 2 . 3 0  ' 26.50'  30 3 30  71  1  1.30  78 9 0  10"  1  6 0  6 0  .53  , 0 3 . . 0 4 \ 0 9  .27;  ; 0 1 .'  .50 3 . 5 0  3.50  1 1 0 . 3 0 40  2 0 '  4 . 3 0  5 5 0  2 8 0  2 3 0  7 0  90  2  2 4 4 7  4 0 '  '  7  5 8 0  60  10  1  7 0  1  3 0  4 3 0  01  •!9.  ' 2 6  2  , 2 3  1  8 D  2  3 0  7 0 '  A  3 4 5 139  9 0  2  4 0 0  07  2 9 0  1 0 4  0 8  1  E  2 50 9  3 0  9 . 9 0  9 0 '  '  50'  ' 99  9 0  33  4 0 '  4  7 0 '  3 0 7 0  1  40'  '  70'  '  0 0 8 0  5 3  '  40'  8 . 5 0 '  1 8 0  3 2 4 0 '  '  3 3 8 0  1 2 0  3 10  3  6 4 0  0  2 . 0 0 5.80 2 0 5 . 0 0  ;  10  8 6 0 3 4 4 0  '  06  2 2 0  '  2 5 0 4  0  0  1  4  \ 10  4  . 0 3  4  2 8 0 0 26  0  '  1.60  06'.  [ 0 1  1  76;  2 0  ; 0 3  0 0 '  9 4 0 4 98 0 60"  13.60'  •  •  20  10  80  4 0  •  2  51 . 3 0 '  4 . 0 0  3 03;  ;  ; 0 2  N  4 5  Q  1  .90'  8 . 1 0  9.00  . 4 0 40  21 . 0 0  .10  .10  .70  5 . 0 0  .20 10  8 5 0 . 6 0 '  1.70  1.30  1.50  .00  7  :.U' 0 4  3 0  . 3 3  10  1  0 7  3 1  1  13' 04  3 0  5 8  10'  ' 0 2 '  II 2 1 2 2  10  1 .10'  i  i  o  '  1  0  2 .05  4  7 0  7 2 0  ' 6 0  '  10'  '  11.90'  3  60'  '  1  0 0  2  1 0 0 '  4 0  1.50  2  4 1 4  3 0  2 6 0  H H  1  0  R S P  4  9 7 0 . 1.20  G 2 G D  1 2 3  9 . 4 0 ' 3 5 0  3 0 0  90  7. 1 0  GS  3  1 3 0 40  3.60  1  0 3  2 4 0 2 3 0  GO  4  2  1.14  80  2  5 1 . 0 4 . 0 8  5 0 0 ' 5 . 1 0  5 0  2 . 5 0 '  OP.  14.00  40  2 3 0  ; 3 0 ; 2 3  3  3 . 4 0 !:6.  1.20  1 1  3 . 8 0  2 0 ;  6 . 7 0  2 . 2 0  ,50'  1  5.50  8 3 2 0 2 34 0  6 7 5 0 '  M  4  1  1 3 . 4 0  10'  K  4 5  8 0  2 40]  6 6 . 3 0  30'  J  3  6 0  18 0 0  60  1  5  8 4 . 0 0 3 1 . 0 0  0 0  G X  3  3  '  6 2 0  204.80' '  4  5  4 . 3 0 103.00  2 0 96 0 51.60  24.50  . 0 6  5  .10 60  0 3  io  50'  8 5 . 0 0 5 10  F  4 5  1 7 0 '  65.00'68.30' 10  . 0 2  5  5 60  ' 3 5 .1 0 ' 17. 1 0 ' 109.90 79,00  '  2 3  09^  2 5 0  10  10'  27.40  5 5 2 0  153.60  \ 1 9  4 3 0  43.70'  ' 1 5.90'  52.20'  6 9 . 3 0  4 0 0 2  7 0 20  5 0  '  5 9 3 0 ' 2 6 . 7 0 ' 3 6 . 4 0 '  1 3.20'  10'  21'  3 0  2 1 6 0  125 0 0  I  5 0 0  10 6 0 ' 2 0  6  2 0 . 6 0  '4  1  4 8 0  5 7 0  C  0 4 4  ' 0 3 '  2 8 7 0 '  190 6 0 '  0  2 3  54'  6 4 0  3 4 0  20  4 0 0 '  60'  4 7 2 0 149  '  2 9 0  4 6 10  60'  3  1 50  0  3 4 33  1 2 . 4 0  20  0 20  7 . 9 0  9 8 10 '  ' 7  1  ' 1 2 4 70 1 5 0  3 50'  10  4  ' 107 5 0 '  23.60  10'  13  6 0 ' 19 9 0  18 2 0 '  30'  .70  5.90  177 4 0  ' 34 60'  17.50  1 1  14  10  1 . 0 0 2.10  1.10' 54.70'  '  10'  1.20'  1.90'  2 0 . 9 0 '  17 10  8  10  4 4 . 9 0 '  17 8 0 61 0 0 1 4 1 0 9 6 I 0 ' 2 3  1 5 00' 2  '  4 . 7 0 '  1 7 7 0  10  4 9 . 3 0  2 2  T P  1  T P  2  1  193  TABLE XXVIII  7.1 4  27  2  74  35  60  3  75  7  9  30  .24  47  9.92  5.93  2.89  3.15  4  4.83  3.40  35  1 1 3  .55  8.25  52  36  1 4  65  12 5  96  20.49  47  02  23.2 1  1  .3 1 0 4  5.53  77  75 1 5.60.  7 7 . 9 7  16.54  1 1 9  67  70  9 8  13  21  4 4 . 7 7  78  1 .42  1 . 4 7^  2 3 . 6 0  \9  25  6 0 . 9 6  .49  L69  21.97'  1  2 '  ' 1 '  3  '2'  3'  ' 1 1  25  3  20  09'  5 7 . 7 2 ' 2.25  1 .40  .08'  .70  3.42'  29.70  4 1 '  2  ' 1 ' 2  1  1  2  5 1  .11'  1 1  60  ' 1 87  43.36;  24  1  1  2'  8  49  6  24  4  0 3  01  2 1  20  7.28  1 '  9.11;  13  .24  58  .03'  6.34  .01  2  1  2  2  1  1  >;  1 '  .6 1  l  0  .10  .  .30 22  0 3  . 18  2 3 . 7 3  2.78  .15  j  ; i;  .  .  i  .  .  5 4  i.  5  1 i'  4  i 1  .15  4.69  .0 8  .05  i  i  i  2  " 1'  1  1  1'  .38  8 6  1  1 .07  .20 1  .06  .50  4  7.36 34  1  86  39  2  1 1  55  1 2  09  1 .44  7 16  76  28  42 .72  .50  16.35 53  5 . 0 9 34.9 1  .66  1.10  3  9 4 . 1 7  .92 12.6 1  8.34 37.18  1.14 8 2 . 9 0 1 9.38  1 2 4 . 7 5 3  1.15  .05  97  07  46  06  3.28  11  3 1  2 1 1  2  ' 1  1  ' 1 '  1  2'l  2 2  2 2  1 1 2  2  1 1  1 0  1  45  1 3.98  .20  3  3.57  1'  i  2  i  3  '  .6 1  57.21 35.24  242.88 34.29 .36  3.68  8.80  1  0 2  1  1  '3  2  1 1 1 2 1  1 . 1 1  .22  2  49  . 1 7  3.30  .04  1 .40.  .8 1  1 .46  1  1 1  . 1  1 5  1 8.44  3  4.19  .03  .84  9.48  58  1 1  1  1 1 2 1  1  1  1  2  1  1  1  2 1  .03 1  2.97 1  T  i i  '  1  N  G  0  G S  3  1 1  1 .24  M  5  3 ' i'  3 .94  55  K  l'2 4 2  1 r  1 2  12  50  ' r ' 1 '  1  2  i 4 i 5 i 3 ; ; ; i; ; 4 5 i 3 ' i4 5 i 1 ' i'  Z  3  88  .77  1 .09  6 6 6 ;  2  3 2 2 '  15  5.46  03  65 30.67  2.27  .25  01 .  77  7.43  .95 1 .38  .15  16 4  1 3 1  1  59  J  5  i  f 4.20  .27 7 3  4 9  .02  5.03 .40  2.50  1  5 4  3 . 6 0  .32  G X  3  '  i'  .03  F  4  i,  i 1  3  2'  i'  C  2  2  1  10.  E  1  1  1 i.  1 •  D  4  3  2,  B  2 3  .  1 62  1 2  ' 1  3  2.31  4  2 5 1  .97  1  .80 2.35  A  3  ' i  1  ' 1 '  2  .20  76.12  '  1  2  1 '  .42  ' i'  5.72 3.1  1 2  i •  2 2  12  i i  03  88  4.94 2.80  1.31"  84.36  i  '2'  1  7  1  6 0  i  1 '  .72 19.07  1 1 9  50  2  .26  1 1 .78  4.67  1  .48  6.53  4  27  86  1.13 3.5 1  39.57  7  0 4 8.44  1 3  (continued)  G 2 G D H H  1  0  2  R  2  S  1 2 3  P  4 2 4  , 1 1 '  i  1 4 2 2  T P  1  T P  1 2  TABLE XXIX Weight (gm) of Mammal, Bird, F i s h , and Mollusc Remains Deleted from Table XXVIII, Lot 73, DiSe 7. Species  Natural stratum Excavation unit  Bos sp. Castor canadensis Cervus elaphus Delphinidae Microtus sp. Procyon lotor unidentifiable mammal Cancer sp. Anas sp. Bonasa umbellus Brachyramphus sp. Corvus corax F u l i c a sp. Gavxa sp. Melanitta sp. Uria sp. Mytilus californianus Ostrea l u r i d a Nassarius mendicus Hemilepidotus sp. Ophxodon elongatus Pleuronectiformes  1 1.7 0  .  A 3  A  -  -  0.1 -  4  17.1  0  .  -  -  -  .  -  -  -  D 1  E 1  C 2  16.1 . 4 - 5 o  -  -  .  -  -  3.1 -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  0  -  -  .  -  5  -  -  -  -  -  -  1.2  0 -  -  .  -  -  -  . 4  -  -  -  -  2-  B  -  -  2  -  2  s  -  0  0  6  -  -  B 1  -  9  2 . 0-  -  -  -  -  A  5  -  -  -  A  4  -  -  -  0.87 § -  -  -  9  -  -  -  -  -  -  TABLE XXIX (continued) Species  Natural stratum Excavation unit  Bos sp. v Castor canadensis Cervus elaphus Delphinidae Microtus sp. Procyon l o t o r unidentifiable mammal Cancer sp. Anas sp. Bonasa umbellus Brachyramphus sp. Coryus corax F u l i c a sp. Gavia sp. Melanxtta sp. Urxa sp. Mytilus californianus Ostrea l u r i d a Nassarius mendicus Hemilepidotus sp. Ophiodon elongatus PIeuronectiformes  C 3 -  0.3 -  C 4 -  F 2 -  0.5 -  1.4  -  -  -  0.01  F  3  -  F 4  —  F 5 32.4 -  -  "G" 4  J 5  K 4  G/O 2  5.7  -  -  -  -  2.5  0.4 2.6  0.1 0.1 - -  -  -  -  0.1  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  0.50  -  -  -  -  0.90  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  TABLE XXIX (continued) Species  Natural stratum Excavation unit  Bos sp. Castor canadensis Cervus elaphus Delphinidae "* Microtus sp. Procyon lotor unident i f i a b l e mammal Cancer sp. Anas sp. Bonasa umbellus Brachyramphus "sp. Corvus corax F u l i c a sp. Gavia sp. Melanitta sp. U n a sp. Mytilus californianus Ostrea lurida Nassarius mendicus Hemilepidotus sp. Ophiodon elongatus Pieuronecti formes  G/O 4  G/O G s h e l l 5 2  -  17.8  0.3  0.2  G shell 3  H  1  H  2  H-l H-l T - l 1 2 2  0.4  0.1 2.3  0.5  0.2  0.3 1.4  2.1 1*4  2.5 0.52  0.50 0.30  1.35  4.99 -  -  197  that b i r d and mammal remains are less common i n these s t r a t a compared with l a t e r s t r a t a . Among the mammals, the i d e n t i f i e d sea mammals are not found i n s t r a t a that have, to t h i s point, been treated as disturbed and/or h i s t o r i c s t r a t a .  This d i s -  t r i b u t i o n supports the previous treatment of the s t r a t a i n question.  Like Lot 81, dog, deer, and u n i d e n t i f i e d land  mammal remains occur most frequently.  I t i s worth noting  a l s o that s e a l remains are found i n natural stratum P along with dog, deer, and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e land mammal.  The p e r s i s -  tence of land mammal remains i n t o natural stratum P-2 suggests that, despite the absence of a r t i f a c t s below natural stratum P - l , c u l t u r a l deposits are being dealt with.  Within the  aboriginal s t r a t a , the frequency of mammal remains increases above and below natural stratum J , which contains  relatively  few remains. B i r d remains also tend not to be found i n natural stratum J and to increase i n frequency of occurrence on either side of t h i s stratum.  A very l i m i t e d range of species i s found  i n natural stratum P and below, only u n i d e n t i f i a b l e remains being found.  Like the remains from Lot 81, the u n i d e n t i f i a b l e  b i r d remains are most common on Lot 73, but among the i d e n t i f i e d species, seagull occurs most frequently.  Seagull, bald  eagle, and Canada Goose are non-migratory species. b i r d species represented  Like the  on Lot 81, the migratory birds rep-  resented on Lot 73 spend the winter on the coast.  They nest  i n the i n t e r i o r of the province and i n northern Canada.  198 Of the i d e n t i f i e d f i s h species, two out of three are also migratory,  Salmon remains are found occasionally  throughout the record, but herring remains are almost ubiquitous, being absent only from natural stratum I,  Dog-  f i s h , l i k e salmon, i s occasionally present. As noted previ o u s l y , no f i s h remains are found below natural stratum S. Mollusc remains are also v i r t u a l l y absent below natural stratum S,  The ,01 gm of u n i d e n t i f i a b l e clam s h e l l i n  natural stratum T hardly represents major c u l t u r a l deposition. Bivalve species occur more frequently i n the record than do gastropod species.  Among the bivalves, edible mussel remains  occur most frequently and are present i n greater quantity than any other species.  L i t t l e neck clam i s the next most  frequent i n occurrence.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that bent  nose clam, which has a high tolerance to polluted water cond i t i o n s , i s found only i n the disturbed and h i s t o r i c s t r a t a . Those familar with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of mollusc remains from archaeological context w i l l appreciate the d i f f i c u l t y i n distinguishing fragmentary horse clam and fragmentary butter clam remains.  One option i s to create a single category f o r  both remains (e.g, Connover 1972:276).  The d i s t i n c t i v e hinge  and siphon aperture of horse clams, however, often makes i t possible to assign some fragments to each of these species. Since the l o c a t i o n of the hinge, r e l a t i v e to the long axis of the s h e l l , i s a major physical distinguishing characteri s t i c , the existence of two species of horse clam i n the Gulf  of Georgia area i s seldom recognizable among horse clam fragments.  The fragmentary condition of most s h e l l s from  Deep Bay therefore precluded t h i s d i v i s i o n .  Fragments of  horse clam or butter clam s h e l l that were not c l e a r l y horse clam were assigned to the butter clam category.  This pro-  cedure may r e s u l t i n over representation of butter clam and under representation of horse clam.  On the other hand, large  fragments that appeared more l i k e l y to be horse clam s h e l l than butter clam s h e l l were added to the former category, thereby reducing the p o t e n t i a l d i s p a r i t y i n weight and frequency of occurrence between these two species.  The  procedure outlined above may also account f o r the infrequency of horse clam occurrences on Lot 81. Gastropods, i t has been noted, are less frequent than bivalves on Lot 73.  The exception to t h i s rule i s barnacle,  which i s present i n as many samples as edible mussel, and which i s often present i n considerable quantity as w e l l . Several species are not l i k e l y to be food resource species, f o r example Acmaea, Bittium, i s e l i c a obtusa, and Echarachinius exentricus, but they are included here because they occur s u f f i c i e n t l y i n the deposits to warrant their i n c l u s i o n . I s e l i c a obtusa, unlike the other species just noted, i s found on the rocky cobble beach to the northeast of the s i t e i n vast quantities at the present time.  The other species are  presently l i m i t e d to the i n t e r t i d a l zone on either side of the s p i t .  200 The data on minimum numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s f o r b i r d s and mammals show that only mammal individuals are found i n natural stratum P and below. The same pattern that was observed on Lot 81 can be seen with these data as w e l l . S p e c i f i c a l l y , dog and deer are the most frequently occurring mammal species, and most b i r d species are represented by only one i n d i v i d u a l i n any given natural stratum and excavation unit.  Sea l i o n and grebe are not found i n the disturbed  and h i s t o r i c s t r a t a , and seal i s represented by one i n d i v i d u a l i n these s t r a t a .  Several s t r a t a do not contain remains of  individuals of i d e n t i f i a b l e species. Natural strata £, dark G, R, S, and T f a l l into t h i s category where mammals are concerned.  No i d e n t i f i a b l e b i r d individuals were found i n  natural s t r a t a E, I, J , dark G, S, P, T, P - l , T - l , and P-2. Among the b i r d s , seagull i s again the most frequently represented species. The s i t u a t i o n regarding estimates of usable meat, as shown i n Table XXX, i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t than the s i t u a t i o n on  Lot 81. The disturbed/historic s t r a t a on Lot 73 do not  contain e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y large estimated amounts o f usable meat compared to the aboriginal natural s t r a t a .  In f a c t ,  the greatest estimates of usable meat are found i n natural s t r a t a F, G/O, and G with s h e l l .  These three natural s t r a t a  account f o r 67% of the estimated usable meat on Lot 73. I t i s noteworthy that sea mammals are found most often i n these natural s t r a t a .  These three natural s t r a t a represent the  TABLE XXX Estimated Weight (gm) of Usable Meat f o r each I d e n t i f i a b l e Mammal and Bird Species by Excavation Unit and Natural Stratum, Lot 73, DiSe 7*  Total A  B  1 2 3 4 5 1 o 1 2 1  - -  5910  -  4595 9090 4545 9090 4545 9090  254  -  -  -  -  mm  63  -  -•  95  - • -  95 95  -  -  254 254 mm  -  -  _  _  _  mm  -  -  -  _  mm  -  mm  -  79  -  79 158 158 158  m*  D E C F  •»G"  o  2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 4 5  mm  -  -  4545 4545  -  -  -  79  -  mm  -  -  47727 47727  Mi  -  4545 4545 4545 5910 9090 5910 9090 - 13635  -  5910 mm  -  9090 4545 9090  -  254 254  -  mm  mm  -  -  -  -  -  •  M»  254 mm  -  —  95  -  95 95  -  -  -  48  -  79 158  -  79 79  -  79  -  4624 9502 4878 9597 10708 9248 u 4624 4545 0 U 4624 4703 4545 62901 62981 14063 95 9423 10503 9090  TABLE XXX (continued)  fi  •H H  3  (0 rtJ •H  Natural Excavation Unit Stratum I J K M N G/O  withi s h e l l G-2  3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 1  +*  a 0 +» ©  3  «J  Xi  •n  --—  47727 47727  -  mm  •H  >  o 0 X! 0,  mm  5910 95454 11820 47727 5910 95454 95454 11820  -  - • -  (0 0)CO H 3 •rl C 0 •H 0 o 0a •rt O J5 4545 4545  -  4545 4545 4545 4545 4545 4545 mm mm  4545  -  4545 4545 4545 9090 9090 9090 9090 4545 4545  •  A (0 4 •H G ( U M CO  -  --  254  -254 -  H •H H  >  <  -  mm  —  mm  63  -  63 63  -  H  H CO (If  +» a >  0 J3 <«  (0  <« •H H <d  a  0J 0 o o 3 0) H  -• • . - -- - - - - - 95 - - - - - 254 - 95 - •-. - 285 - 95 254 95 - 95 mm;  mm  mm  CO  (A  ?M3 OJ o  •H  •H «H •H •H  (3 0J •O •H  48 -  48 48  -  -  48  -  O  /' -  •  -  -  79 79 79  -  —  79 79  -  79 79 158 158 79 237 158 79  Total 4545 4545 0 0 0 4545 4593 4878 4624 4624 4640 0 47806 52351 63 4545 4624 4926 15301 116585 63154 105130 112374 4719  CO S!  H O r+  -0  X  I  H  H  I H  J>l- 4>tOJ>WtOI-'tO J  a  tO+J to tO M tO M UJ  to  Ov 00 U)  o  I I I I I I I I I I I I I  I II  Ol Ol Oi I l l l l l t v O l l l l l l v O v O I M M H  O  ^Ji Ol H Ol  Ol H to H 00 4>  o £  H I  Ol I  J> Ol  I  I O I O I O I I  J> J> J> Ol Ol Ol  Eumetopias jubata Phoca v i t u l i n a  I  I  I  I  I  I a  CO Ol  I  to  I I I I I I I I I Ol I I I I I I I  Odocoileus hemionus Branta sp.  I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II  to  to  I I I I I I I I I I I I Oi I I Oi I  Aythya marila Haliaeetus leucocephalus  to  Ol  I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Ol I I  Larus sp.  to o  I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II  Podiceps/ Colymbus"  I I I I I I I I I I VO VO t I vO I  unidentifiable duck  vO  to 00  00 Ol vO 00 Ov Ol  E o  to to  3  H  OO  to  J> vO vO  g  r t r+ H» O »  VI  J> vO vO  H r+ 0> d  H H J> J> J> O Ov VO Oi Ol Oi 4> tO U) O 00 J> J> J> Oi Ol to O ^ l OOiOOOOiOiOiOJ>OvOU>OOiOOO  8 «+ H  §  1+ 3 C (D P,  204 major aboriginal s t r a t a on Lot 73. The l i k e l i h o o d seems great, then, that sea mammal hunting was an important aspect of the food quest f o r a large portion o f the time represented by the Lot 73 deposits.  Indeed, sea mammals are  represented i n natural s t r a t a N and P as well, implying a temporally extensive and continuous e x p l o i t a t i o n of t h i s type of food resource. Of the estimated weight of usable meat represented i n the aboriginal deposits, 76% i s sea mammal, most of i t sea lion.  Deer, the only land mammal represented on Lot 73,  represents 29% of the t o t a l estimated usable meat from a l l natural s t r a t a and 24% of the estimated usable meat from the aboriginal deposits.  Since sea mammals account f o r 70% of  a l l meat, a l l birds represent l e s s than 1% of the t o t a l usable meat represented on Lot 73. As f a r as the frequency with which the various species occur i n the table, deer seem to be the most frequently represented species.  Seal and sea  l i o n , although they comprise a large portion of the t o t a l usable meat estimation, occur much less frequently. As already noted, they tend t o occur only i n the major strata.  natural  The frequency of occurrence of mammal species i n  the Lot 73 deposits may represent their r e l a t i v e abundance i n the environment, however c u l t u r a l patterns i n the acquisi t i o n of these species may be indicated as well*  Because  sea mammals represent such large quantities of usable meat per i n d i v i d u a l , the opportunity to acquire them i s u n l i k e l y  205  to have been missed, despite t h e i r r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y when compared to deer.  On the other hand, i t should be kept i n  mind that c a l c u l a t i n g minimum numbers of individuals from infrequently occurring species, such as sea mammal, w i l l r e s u l t i n an i n f l a t e d estimate.  Extrapolating from these  estimates to estimates of usable meat, e s p e c i a l l y when the usable percentage of l i v e weight i s high (White 1953:398), r e s u l t s i n figures that may be unduly i n f l a t e d .  For these  reasons, the apparent abundance of sea mammal meat should be regarded with caution.  The a c q u i s i t i o n of deer, a more  ubiquitous but l e s s meaty species, seems l i k e l y to have occurred on a more routine basis.  Birds c l e a r l y represent  a peripheral dietary item and were probably taken as adjuncts to the main items of the food quest.  These generalizations  apply to the midden deposits but not to the P and T s t r a t a . In t h i s water-laid group o f s t r a t a birds are not represented, either through lack of a c q u i s i t i o n or lack of preservation. Table XXIX presents species not incorporated i n Table XXVIII.  The most notable feature of Table XXIX i s the  occurrence of cow remains i n natural stratum F.  Given the  degree of disturbance of t h i s stratum toward the eastern end of the trench, i t i s l i k e l y that these remains, l i k e the eight h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s , have been intruded i n t o abori g i n a l deposits. Again, beaver, raccoon, and mouse occur infrequently, but they are joined by crab, elk, u n i d e n t i f i a b l e mammal, and a sea mammal of the dolphin family.  Both the  206  Delphinidae and crab remains are found only i n the disturbed and h i s t o r i c s t r a t a . Half the b i r d species represented are migratory, the other h a l f being available a l l year.  Only two of the b i r d  species (crow and grouse) are land birds and neither i s migratory.  Even though crows are land birds they are very  common along the shore.  Infrequently occurring f i s h species  include l i n g cod, a species of sculpin, and a f l a t f i s h of u n i d e n t i f i a b l e species.  Since sculpin species are not ethno-  graphical l y repotted to be major food resources, and since f l a t f i s h species are rare around Deep Bay, r e l a t i v e to other f i s h species, i t i s reasonable that these two kinds of f i s h should not occur frequently i n the archaeological record. The infrequent occurrence of l i n g cod i s as surprising on Lot 73 as i t was on Lot 81.  Native oyster occurs infrequently  on Lot 73 as i t does on Lot 81.  I t i s joined, however, by  Mytilus c a l i f o r n i a n u s , which grows only on the open coast and dog whelk, which inhabits the lower i n t e r t i d a l and t i d a l zones of rocky beaches along the coast.  The  sub-  presence  of Mytilus californianus probably does not indicate i t s use as a subsistence resource.  Instead, i t was probably brought  from the outer coast to Deep Bay through an exchange network, and was probably intended f o r use i n a r t i f a c t manufacture.  207  CHAPTER VII DELINEATION OF COMPONENTS Introduction In this chapter the c u l t u r a l components thought to be represented by the material from Lot 73 are defined and identified.  Lines of evidence contained i n Chapters III  through VI and Appendices I through IV are brought together for this purpose.  I t i s thought that t h i s d i v e r s i f i e d approach  to component delineation w i l l help to avoid the tendency to define components primarily on the basis of a r t i f a c t d i s tributions.  Subsequent to the delineation of components,  an attempt i s made to establish c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n s between the Deep Bay components and other components i n the Gulf of Georgia  area.  Component I Although natural s t r a t a H through S contain only 17 a r t i f a c t s , the nature of these a r t i f a c t s and the composition of the matrices i n which they were found suggest a f f i n i t i e s with l a t e r , rather than e a r l i e r , deposits.  Unlike the over-  l y i n g s t r a t a , natural strata,P, T, P - l , T - l , and P-2 contain an a r t i f a c t assemblage that i s e n t i r e l y l i t h i c except f o r one worked mammal bone fragment.  Among the l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s ,  a l l but three are made by chipping.  The faunal remains also  208 exhibit a marked change i n frequency at the upper of natural stratum P.  surface  Below this boundary only a few land  mammal and b i r d remains and no f i s h or mollusc remains are found.  A l l these classes of remains are found i n abundance  above natural stratum P.  Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of grain  sizes i n s o i l samples (Figure 9) indicate that the surface of natural stratum P marks the top of the deposits  contain-  ing what are thought to be water borne natural constituents. Natural constituents of subsequent natural s t r a t a are thought to be p r i m a r i l y wind transported.  Analysis of s o i l pH also  indicated that a change i n degree of a l k a l i n i t y of matrices occurs at or near the surface of natural stratum P. Two dates were recovered below the top of natural stratum P.  A date of 2630^100 B.P. (GaK-6038) was recovered from  natural stratum T and a second date of 4860^180 B.P. (GaK-6039) was recovered from the clay f l o o r feature.  The younger of  these two dates i s thought to be a maximum age f o r natural stratum P, which contains almost a l l of the l i t h i c  assemblage.  The true age i s probably somewhat younger than t h i s date. The next carbon sample above GaK-6038 i s from natural stratum H and i s dated at 1910±110 B.P. (GaK-6037), or A.D. 40.  The  oldest r e l i a b l e date f o r the Marpole Culture Type i s 2310^105 B.P. (GaK-4646), or 360 B.C.,  (Matson 1976,Table 1-2), and  the youngest r e l i a b l e date f o r the Locarno Beach Culture Type i s 2200^120 B.P. (M-1515), or 250 B.C., Table XI).  (Mitchell 1971a:61,  Consequently, i t would seem that a c u l t u r a l d i s -  209 t i n c t i o n ought to e x i s t between GaK-6037 and GaK-6038.  The  preceding factors indicate quite c l e a r l y that the upper surface of natural stratum P should be considered  as the upper  boundary of what w i l l be l a b e l l e d here as Component I. Components II and III The cluster analysis of s o i l samples based on granulometric constituents, reported i n Appendix I, suggests that the group of natural s t r a t a consisting of "G", and N (cluster 2b) may  M,  form an important interruption i n the  deposition of aboriginal habitation deposits. may  I, J , K,  This suggestion  be a l l the more important i f natural stratum G/O,  which  contains almost no s h e l l and which l i e s under the natural s t r a t a of c l u s t e r 2b, i s interpreted as a buried s o i l surface (Abbott,pers. comm). natural stratum G/O  I cannot demonstrate, however, that  i s , i n f a c t , an o l d midden surface.  There i s a marked decrease i n the amount of s h e l l i n natural stratum G/O  from e a r l i e r s t r a t a .  The natural s t r a t a  of cluster 2b show a high v a r i a b i l i t y of s h e l l content, then natural stratum F and the natural s t r a t a of c l u s t e r 2a contain r e l a t i v e l y large amounts of s h e l l again.  These data suggest  that a d i v i s i o n of s t r a t a near the surface of natural stratum G/O  might legitimately be made.  In addition, the analysis of  clam s h e l l seasonality (Appendix IV) shows a possible change i n seasonal exploitation patterns between natural strata and G/O  G-2  on one hand, and natural s t r a t a F and I on the other  210 (Table XLIV)•  This further suggests a boundary a t the top  of natural stratum G/O. Major variations i n the types of f i s h , mammal, and b i r d remains are not apparent i n the aboriginal portion o f the s h e l l midden deposits.  Neither i s there any apparently major  v a r i a t i o n through time i n the r e l a t i v e amount of any one b i r d , f i s h , or mammal species i n the aboriginal deposits. Burials show r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n form through time.  Except f o r the abundant inclusions with B u r i a l 4 and  the several minor inclusions with Burials 1 and 5, c a i r n b u r i a l i n a t i g h t l y flexed p o s i t i o n without grave goods appears to have been the predominant form o f interment. Occasional c a i r n b u r i a l and occasional elaborate grave goods are thought to be d i s t i n c t i v e of the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a: 52).  Therefore, b u r i a l s from natural stratum F down through  natural stratum P could conceivably belong t o t h i s culture type.  The s k u l l deformation on Burial 1, however, does not  allow the possible presence of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type to be excluded.  That B u r i a l 4 also contained elaborate  grave goods of the type described by M i t c h e l l strengthens the p o s s i b i l i t y that the Marpole Culture may be represented by a t least a portion o f the Deep Bay deposits. The A.D. 40 date (GaK-6037) was recovered from the top of natural stratum H.  This date f a l l s i n the middle of the  time period ascribed t o the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:65).  The charcoal sample that produced t h i s date was  recovered  from the surface of natural stratum H, immediately  under B u r i a l 4, which lay at the bottom of natural stratum G with s h e l l .  This date and the nature of Burial 4 both sug-  gest that a second component may  be present at t h i s s i t e .  This component seems to be well established, at least by the time that natural stratum G with s h e l l was Probably the component was to the GaK-6037 date.  established e a r l i e r ,  deposited. according  Since the evidence of t h i s second  component i s recovered almost e x c l u s i v e l y from s h e l l midden deposits, the assignment of a component boundary to the top of natural stratum P receives further support. The a r t i f a c t inventory from the aboriginal deposits exhibits considerable continuity through time.  There are,  nevertheless, several variations i n t h i s inventory that are informative.  The r e l a t i v e abundance of chipped stone and  bone i n the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type has been discussed by M i t c h e l l .  This culture type tends to contain 4 to 8%  chipped stone and 50% to 70% bone (Mitchell 1971a:47).  An  examination of Table II reveals that the aboriginal natural s t r a t a above the surface of natural stratum G/O a r t i f a c t s , of which 8.6%  contain  are chipped stone and 41.3%  104  are bone.  Moving the boundary downwards to include natural stratum  G/O  decreases the percentage of bone a r t i f a c t s only s l i g h t l y (38.9%), but i t doubles the chipped stone percentage (17.5%). Moving the boundary upwards from the upper surface of natural stratum G/O  has almost no e f f e c t on r e l a t i v e frequencies of  212 bone and chipped stone i n the upper group of aboriginal s t r a t a . On t h i s b a s i s , j i t can be argued that the upper surface of natural stratum G/O  marks an important change i n the r e l a t i v e  amounts of chipped stone and bone a r t i f a c t s i n the deposits. Individual a r t i f a c t classes also indicate that a d i v i s i o n occurs i n the c u l t u r a l inventory.  Table XXII shows the d i s -  t r i b u t i o n i n the Lot 73 deposits of a r t i f a c t classes thought to be d i s t i n c t i v e of culture types i n the Gulf of Georgia (Mitchell 1971a:47, 52, 57).  Because the lower s h e l l midden  deposits appear to contain some material of the same age  as  the Marpole Culture Type, Table XXII can be examined i n terms of which a r t i f a c t classes serve to d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s culture type from succeeding ones.  Materials d i s t i n c t i v e only of  the Marpole Culture Type include various chipped stone point forms, large ground s l a t e points with faceted or l e n t i c u l a r cross section, d i s c beads of shale or clam s h e l l , u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed antler points, native copper ornaments, and midden b u r i a l i n flexed p o s i t i o n , sometimes with i n c l u s i o n s , sometimes under c a i r n s .  Except f o r d i s c beads and c a i r n b u r i a l s ,  the other a r t i f a c t s are found only i n natural stratum G with s h e l l on Lot 73.  One  stone d i s c bead i s found i n natural  stratum H, one i s natural stratum G/O, stratum P. G/O.  One  and one i n natural  s h e l l d i s c bead i s found i n natural stratum  Of 54 disc beads, one i s found above the surface of  natural stratum G/O stratum P.  andoone i s below the surface of natural  The evidence of b u r i a l s has already been discussed. It i s worth noting that only B u r i a l 1 showed evidence of s k u l l deformation.  This b u r i a l comes from natural stratum  F and i s dated at 790^80 B.P.  (GaK-6035).  This date f a l l s  within the time range of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:65). A r t i f a c t classes d i s t i n c t i v e only of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type are small, triangular chipped basalt points (rare), thin triangular ground s l a t e points, large well made c e l t s , numerous i r r e g u l a r abrasive stones, u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed bone points, and numerous single and double pointed bone objects.  None of these a r t i f a c t classes i s confined to  natural s t r a t a above the surface of natural stratum G/O.  The  only a r t i f a c t c l a s s to approach t h i s r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n i s u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed bone points.  One i s found i n natural  stratum K, and the other i n natural stratum H.  This l a t t e r  specimen was recovered from near the surface of the natural stratum very close to the west 64m wall of the excavation unit.  Inspection of the p r o f i l e (Figure 7) shows that natural  stratum F l i e s on top of H at t h i s p o i n t .  I t i s possible  that the a r t i f a c t was o r i g i n a l l y from natural stratum F and that i t has been intruded i n t o the surface of the underlying natural  stratum.  The Gulf of Georgia and Marpole Culture Types share a number of d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological features.  Thin ground  s l a t e knives, s p l i t or sectioned bone awls, antler wedges,  2 and s k u l l deformation are features from t h i s l i s t that are present on Lot 73.  Possibly some or a l l of the Gulf of  Georgia features that are present at Deep Bay should be added to this l i s t since they do not appear to be r e s t r i c t e d to a small group of natural s t r a t a .  D i s t i n c t i v e archaeolog-  i c a l features of the Marpole Culture Type, on the other hand do seem to suggest component boundaries similar to those detected by other a r t i f a c t u a l and non-artifactual c r i t e r i a . Art  styles are thought to d i f f e r between the Gulf of  Georgia and Marpole Culture Types,  In the former culture  type geometric design motifs seem to be emphasized, while i n the l a t t e r culture type the emphasis seems to be on representational forms (Mitchell 1971a:49, 54),  I t i s note-  worthy that of the two decorated a r t i f a c t s recovered from Lot  73, one i s geometric and the other i s zoomorphic.  geometric a r t i f a c t comes from natural stratum G/O, morphic one from natural stratum G with s h e l l . surface of natural stratum G/O  The  the zoo-  I f the upper  i s accepted as the top of a  component, then t h i s component contains decorated objects with both geometric and representational motifs. Antler composite toggling harpoon valves are rare from components of the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:52, 56, 72),  i f the upper surface of natural stratum G/O i s  accepted as the upper boundary of a component, then both components contained i n the s h e l l midden deposits contain antler composite toggling harpoon valves. Of the ten such  valves found on Lot 73, f i v e are from natural s t r a t a  G/O  or G with s h e l l , two are from natural stratum F, and three are from the disturbed/historic zone.  In the northern Gulf  of Georgia, at l e a s t , t h i s a r t i f a c t class appears to have a long and continuous h i s t o r y . The evidence examined so f a r suggests that a component boundary might be drawn at the upper surface of natural stratum G/O.  The component below t h i s boundary, but above  Component I, can be l a b e l l e d Component I I . The component i n the aboriginal deposits above the surface of G/O can be l a b e l l e d Component I I I . The preceding discussion makes i t clear that Component II i s thought to belong to the Marpole Culture Type and Component III to the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type. The Gulf of Georgia Culture Type i s thought to have evolved from the Marpole Culture Type, and no major c u l t u r a l changes are thought to e x i s t between these two types (Mitchell 1971a:72).  The evidence from Montague Harbour supports this  p o s i t i o n , and the d i f f i c u l t y i n establishing an obvious boundary between Components II and III at Deep Bay lends i t further support.  The d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological features  that successfully distinguished Component I I from Component III are p r i m a r i l y those l i s t e d f o r the Marpole Culture Type and are usually found i n small numbers.  Disc beads, f o r  instance, number 54, but of theses>48 were found i n association with B u r i a l 4.  Therefore, these a r t i f a c t s should probably  be thought of as one a r t i f a c t (possibly a necklace), bringing to seven the number of d i s c bead a r t i f a c t s .  Also, although  ten b u r i a l s were recovered, only Burial 4 conforms to the Marpole Culture Type pattern of having numerous grave goods, including s h e l l d i s c beads, d e n t a l i a s h e l l s , native copper ornaments, and a zoomorphic bone pendant.  There i s one  u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed a n t l e r point, one thick faceted ground s l a t e point, a few small fragments of native copper that are thought to be from one or two tube beads, and f i v e fragments of various chipped stone points.  This s i t u a t i o n indicates  f a i r l y c l e a r l y that v a r i a t i o n s i n the frequencies of r e l a t i v e l y abundant a r t i f a c t classes are probably not being recognized.  Consequently, components are being defined on the  basis of r e l a t i v e l y infrequent a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s . The lack of success met with i n trying to separate components on the basis of d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological features of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type i s puzzling.  This s i t -  uation suggests that the d i s t i n c t i o n between Components II and III may  r e s u l t from the termination of c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l  patterns at the end of Component I I ,  This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  i s supported by the fact that only a few d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological features of the Marpole Culture Type serve to d i s t i n g u i s h the two components.  These features, as already  mentioned, occur infrequently at the best of times.  The  interpretation i s further supported by the i n a b i l i t y of any d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological features of the Gulf of Georgia  217 Culture Type to d i s t i n g u i s h between these two components. These archaeological features seem not to be too d i s t i n c t i v e at Deep Bay, as they seem to have a more general d i s t r i b u t i o n through time.  This s i t u a t i o n may not be true at other s i t e s  i n the Gulf of Georgia area.  This lack of d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s  between Components II and I I I suggests that there may have been a great deal of c u l t u r a l continuity within the past 20002300 years.  These findings are i n accord with those offered  f o r the Gulf of Georgia area as a whole (Mitchell 1971a:72). While some i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s may exhibit d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s between a r t i f a c t assemblages of the two most recent components, these apparent differences tend to diminish as the range of Gulf of Georgia s i t e s i s examined. Up to t h i s point, components have been distinguished from one another by subjective means.  One wonders whether  t h i s subjective delineation of components can be objectively verified.  To evaluate t h i s problem a Kruskal-Wallis  test  was applied using a n a l y t i c a l units as the sample u n i t .  For  each a r t i f a c t class a l l sample units were ranked on the basis of a r t i f a c t class raw frequency.  The Kruskal-Wallis  test was  then applied to the three subjectively delineated components. A d e t a i l e d description of the method used to apply the KruskalW a l l i s test i s given i n the analysis of s o i l pH (Appendix I ) . The f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s between a r t i f a c t classes l i s t e d i n Table III were avoided by grouping some f i n e l y divided categories into the following transformed a r t i f a c t classes:  218 u t i l i z e d f l a k e s , u n i f a c i a l l y retouched f l a k e s , b i f a c i a l l y retouched f l a k e s , b i f a c e s , triangular chipped stone points, other chipped stone points and fragments, choppers, abrasive stones, t h i n ground s l a t e points and fragments, thick ground s l a t e points and fragments, ground s l a t e knives, ground s l a t e fragments, unbarbed bone points and fragments, and antler fragments*  This reorganization produced a new a r t i f a c t  list  containing 54 transformed a r t i f a c t classes (see Appendix V). Because of the experimental nature of t h i s t e s t , and because i t deals with only one o f many Gulf of Georgia area s i t e s , i t was thought prudent to run a moderate r i s k of Type II error (accepting the n u l l hypothesis when i t i s f a l s e ) . Subsequent work i n the area may r e f i n e the r e s u l t s produced here, therefore i t i s better to err by including as many d i s t i n c t i v e a r t i f a c t classes as possible rather than by excluding too many.  The chosen l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was  therefore set at«<#.05.  The s i g n i f i c a n t a r t i f a c t classes  and t h e i r p r o b a b i l i t i e s are presented i n Table XXXI. Bifaces, thick ground s l a t e points and fragments, and wood include such small a r t i f a c t frequencies that they should be excluded from further discussion.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to  note, however, that f i v e of the seven bifaces occur i n Component I and that a l l three thick ground s l a t e points and fragments occur i n Component I I . Seven a r t i f a c t classes remain that can d i s t i n g u i s h between components.  Six of these a r t i f a c t classes involve  TABLE XXXI A r t i f a c t Classes S i g n i f i c a n t at »<gr 05 Kruskal-Wallis Test of C u l t u r a l Components by A r t i f a c t Classes, Lot 73, DiSe 7. #  A r t i f a c t Class u t i l i z e d flake obsidian f l a k e quartz c r y s t a l f l a k e u n i f a c i a l l y retouched f l a k e biface l e a f shaped chipped point & fragment t h i n ground s l a t e point & fragment thick ground s l a t e point & fragment unbarbed bone point wood  N :0.0039 0.0009 0.0006 0.0008 0.0154 0.0256 0.0422 0.0208 0.0389 0.0247  17 19 27 18 7 20 14 3 44 2  220 stone as the material of manufacture and i n f i v e of the s i x instances the stone i s chipped.  Because the Kruskal-Wallis  test program ranks the values of each variable from smallest to largest, and because the one-tailed substantive hypothesis states that the d i s t r i b u t i o n function of one case w i l l be greater than either of the other two, the a r t i f a c t classes appearing i n Table XXXI have a larger rank sum i n one component than i n either of the other two.  The associated  p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s indicate the l i k e l i h o o d of occurrence of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these rank sums. From p r i o r knowledge of the a r t i f a c t d i s t r i b u t i o n s , one would expect that the chipped stone a r t i f a c t classes serve to separate Component I from the other two components. Indeed, between 58% and 82% of a l l chipped stone a r t i f a c t classes i n Table III are found i n Component I.  The thin  ground s l a t e points and fragments are found i n Components I and II only.  F i v e , or 36%, are from the former component  and nine, or 64%, are from the l a t t e r .  Thus, t h i n ground  s l a t e points serve to d i s t i n g u i s h Component II from the other two components at the °cs.05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l .  This finding  c o n f l i c t s with the d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological features of the Marpole Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:52) because t h i s class of a r t i f a c t i s customarily thought to indicate the Gulf of Georgia culture Type.  As the following analysis of  Deep Bay component a f f i l i a t i o n s w i l l show, and as the f o r e going discussions of the relationships between components  221 have indicated, the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two culture types may not be as great as i s implied by t h e i r separate l a b e l s . As already mentioned, the r e l a t i o n s between these two culture types are thought to be very close (Mitchell 1971a:72). The occurrence of t h i n ground s l a t e points i n both culture types, and the predominance of them i n Component II at Deep Bay, may not be altogether s u r p r i s i n g i n t h i s l i g h t (see Table XXXII). A s i m i l a r Kruskal-Wallis test on the weights of each faunal species i n each a n a l y t i c a l unit f a i l e d t o produce any new means of distinguishing between components.  The only  species that could d i s t i n g u i s h between components at «<^.05 were several mollusc species.  I t i s obvious, even without  t h i s t e s t , that Component I can be distinguished by the absence of mollusc remains i n the matrix.  These findings do  indicate, on the other hand, that the r e l a t i v e amounts of each b i r d , mammal, and f i s h species do not tend to increase or decrease i n a pattern between components.  This s i t u a t i o n  suggests that the subsistence patterns practiced at Deep Bay may have been w e l l developed when the s i t e was i n i t i a l l y occupied.  I t also suggests that subsistence patterns at  Deep Bay may not have a l t e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y throughout the occupation of the s i t e . This tendency away from substantial v a r i a t i o n between components of b i r d , mammal, and f i s h remains may be r e l a t e d to the great s i m i l a r i t y i n a r t i f a c t assemblages between Components II and I I I . Assuming that there i s a functional  TABLE XXXII A r t i f a c t Class Frequencies by Component, Lot 73, DiSe 7. Component A r t i f a c t Class  I  Chipped Stone u t i l i z e d f l a k e , heavy duty 1 medium duty 4 l i g h t duty 8 microblade 1 11 obsidian f l a k e quartz c r y s t a l f l a k e 20 u n i f a c i a l l y retouched f l a k e , heavy duty 3 medium duty 8 b i f a c i a l l y retouched f l a k e , 1 medium duty l i g h t duty retouched s l a t e f l a k e 2 biface, l i g h t duty heavy duty 3 core, cobble/flake 5 microblade point base, 1 u n i l a t e r a l l y shouldered b i l a t e r a l l y shouldered side notched 1 f l a t base, contracting edges 5 point t i p 4 broad l e a f shaped symmetric point 1 p a r a l l e l edged l e a f shaped point 2 asymmetric l e a f shaped point 2 triangular stemmed point triangular unstemmed point chopping t o o l , u n i f a c i a l bifacial 1  1 1 1  -  8 6 1 6  -  2 1 3  -  1 3 1  mm  -  Ground Stone abrasive stone, f i n e medium coarse  II  1 1  III disturbed/ Total historic  -  -  1  3 5 9 1 19 27  -  -  4 14  1 mm  1  mm  1 2 1  -  2  5 1 2  mm  mm  1  1  mm  mm  - 21 -  1  2 mm  -  mm  mm  mm  1 2  1  -  1 1 mm  1  -  mm  mm  -  2 1 1 5 5  -  1 2 3 2 2 2 3  3  12 4 6  mm  *"  4 2  5 1 5 2 5 11 1  mm  3  223 TABLE XXXII (continued) Component A r t i f a c t Class  I  II  abrasive stone/saw abrasive stone, edge retouched point, t i p fragment (thin) medial fragment (thin) basal fragment (thick) thin ground s l a t e point, triangular corner notched basal notched thick point ground s l a t e k n i f e , medium thick thin ground s l a t e fragment celt saw pendant d i s c bead 1 i n c i s e d stone object  1 1 3 1 2  mm  mm  mm  -  mm  —  Bone polished bone rod awl, s p l i t bone bone point, heavy duty l i g h t duty wedge base barbed bone bipoint ulna tool b i r d bone whistle worked tooth pendant bead chisel/wedge u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal bone implement worked fragment Antler point, unbarbed barbed ring wedge foreshaft  mm  —  mm  -  1  mm  3 2  1 -  1 5 1 1  -  3 2  5 7 8 3 1 8  1 -  1 1 4  I l l disturbed/ TOtc historic 2  -  2 1  -  1 1  -  1 2 4 1 1 1 1 •»  2 2  mm mm  1 2 13  1  -  1  2  . -  25  3 1  -  3 -  mm  5 1 10 1 1 7 2  1 12  mm  -  1 2 1  -  15 —  -  3 1 5 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 5 11 2 2 1 5 2  3 11 10 31 4 2 30 2 1 1 1 1 7  13  1 51  1 2  3 1 2 7 1  -  224 TABLE XXXII (continued) Component A r t i f a c t Class  composite toggling tine f l a k e r incised f i n e fragment, adzed abraded  I  harpoon valve  Shell d i s c bead pecten dentalium ring Mytilus californianus  Miscellaneous ochre mica wood copper Total  II  chisel/ gouge  III disturbed/ Total historic  5 1  2  3  -  1  3 2  1 1 1  -  49  -  13 -  1 1  1 1  1  i  H  1 1 1  88 234  15  49 1 15 1 1  19  1  105  10 1 1 4 3  91  45 1 2 1 518  225 r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a r t i f a c t s and faunal remains found at a s i t e , the tendency away from s i g n i f i c a n t variations i n either the a r t i f a c t or faunal assemblages at Deep Bay further supports the interpretation that the subsistence patterns at the s i t e are long standing and largely unaltered. situations may  Similar  subsequently be discovered at other s i t e s ,  and t h i s would not be surprising given the purposeful nature of the ethnographically described annual subsistence round. The s i t u a t i o n at Deep Bay may major environmental  be contrasted with s i t e s where  changes took place over the course of  time, thereby a l t e r i n g s i t e use patterns s u b s t a n t i a l l y .  Two  s i t e s of t h i s kind that come to mind are the St. Mungo Cannery S i t e (Calvert 1970)  and the Glenrose Cannery S i t e (Matson 1976)•  The tendency, i n both the a r t i f a c t assemblage and the faunal assemblage from Deep Bay, not to exhibit substantial v a r i a t i o n through time seems to support Mitchell's (1971a:72) hypothesis of a close c u l t u r a l l i n k between the Marpole and Gulf of Georgia Culture Types. The emphasis u n t i l now components.  has been on the delineation of  A case has been made f o r the existence of three  components at Deep Bay, and i t would now be desirable to e s t a b l i s h what c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n they have with other components i n the Gulf of Georgia area.  In a sense, the  delineation of components at Deep Bay has been a determination of component a f f i l i a t i o n .  It i s thus strongly suspected that  Component III i s a Gulf of Georgia Component and that Component  II i s a Marpole Component.  Recent work (Matson 1974)  has  indicated that clustering and multidimensional scaling of presence-absence data can substantiate  the subjectively  recognized relationships between components i n the Gulf of Georgia.  The following discussion i s an attempt to b u i l d  on the foundation provided by Matson. To the 29 components l i s t e d i n Table II (Matson 103)  can be added Component II (DBY2, N=31)  III (DBY3, N=29)»  1974:  and Component  Component I i s excluded because i t contains  only eight of the variables i n Table II (Matson 1974:103). The c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n s of Component I are discussed below. Confidence can be placed i n the correspondences between a r t i f a c t classes l i s t e d i n Matson's Table II and a r t i f a c t  classes  described i n t h i s study because his Table II i s derived from Mitchell's (1968) doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n .  The  classification  used i n t h i s study follows c l o s e l y the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n M i t c h e l l (1971a), which i s his d i s s e r t a t i o n revised for publication. was  One  conclusion of Matson's presence/absence study  that variables 6 through 17 were inconsistently  reported  i n the l i t e r a t u r e and that t h e i r removal helped to produce clusters that c l o s e l y approximated the subjectively establ i s h e d relationships between s i t e s (Matson 1974:107). was  It  decided to exclude these variables from the present  analysis of 31 components to produce r e s u l t s that were as c l o s e l y comparable as possible to those of the o r i g i n a l study. To t h i s end,  the same c l u s t e r i n g and s c a l i n g techniques were  227  applied to the data using the same computer programs 1974:102, 104-105)•  (Matson  The i n t r i c a c i e s of the techniques have  already been discussed i n Appendix I under the section on granulometric a n a l y s i s .  The dendrogram produced by c l u s t e r -  ing 1- dice c o e f f i c i e n t values using the Furthest Neighbor method i s shown i n Figure 27. Like Matson s revised dendrogram 1  (Matson 1974,Figure 4)  a l l the Gulf of Georgia Components are incorporated i n a single large c l u s t e r .  The two new components are found here.  That Component II from Deep Bay should be a member of t h i s cluster i s not as surprising as i t may f i r s t appear.  Inspect-  ion of Table III and a review of the subjective d i v i s i o n of Components II and I I I indicates how c l o s e l y a l l i e d they are i n terms of shared a r t i f a c t classes and faunal remains.  The  association of Helen Point 2 and 3 i n t h i s cluster i s another instance of close s i m i l a r i t y between components.  While coding  consistency within a single s i t e may be a factor producing these apparent anomalies, t h i s i s thought to be l e s s l i k e l y than genuine c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y .  In the case of Deep Bay,  the a r t i f a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was based on the same c l a s s i f i cation used i n Matson*s Table I I . One would not expect t h i s problem to appear at s i t e s where s i t e use has altered subs t a n t i a l l y over time, such as St. Mungo or Glenrose, The second cluster appears to be predominantly Marpole Culture Type assemblages, but from here on noticeable d i vergences from Matson's Figure 4 begin to appear.  This i s  228  1.0  I  A  o  .9  .8  .?  II  I  GULF OF GEORGIA CULTURE TYPE MARPOLE CULTURE TYPE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE TYPE UNKNOWN CULTURE TYPE  Figure 27.  .6  .5  .4  .0 - HP3 - HP2 - CP4 - PNCE • STS - SDWK - TRON - MH3 - SNJN - DBY2 - DBY3 - FXCE - CP3 - MHI - MH2 - CP2 - CP! - PTGY - MARP - L0C2 - HPI - FOBY - BG - WF2 - STMG - RICH - WFI - LOCI - CPTB - GARR - ARL2  *  • *  *  * * * *  • * *  • • • • •  .A  O  .A O  A/© O O O  • A A  • • e  Dendrogram of Gulf of Georgia Components and Components II and I I I , Lot 73, DiSe 7.  undoubtedly the r e s u l t of a) adding two assemblages to the study, and b) simply deleting the 12 "reportage" variables rather than r e c a l c u l a t i n g the input matrix using metric vectors.  Although these minor differences create a modi-  f i e d dendrogram, a number of s p e c i f i c c l u s t e r s remain i n t a c t . The most noticeable changes are the association of Argyie Lagoon, Garrison, and C a t t l e Point Island with three e a r l y assemblages as part of an outlying fourth c l u s t e r .  Also,  the i n c l u s i o n of the Richardson assemblage i n t h i s c l u s t e r i s a surprise. The t h i r d c l u s t e r consists of assemblages whose c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n s are unclear.  According  to the present analysis,  they are more c l o s e l y a l l i e d to the Marpole and Gulf of Georgia Culture Types than they are to e a r l i e r assemblages. The i n c l u s i o n of Locarno Beach assemblages (LOG 2 and MH 1) i n the l a r g e l y Marpole Culture Type c l u s t e r , and  the  opposite s i t u a t i o n i n the fourth c l u s t e r , suggests that the differences between these two culture types may abrupt as i s often thought.  not be as  Indeed, Locarno Beach 2 i s  recognized as a separate assemblage from Locarno Beach 1, and the former i s s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above the l a t t e r (Borden 1950:15).  I t i s quite possible that Montague Harbour I  represents a t r a n s i t i o n a l a r t i f a c t inventory as w e l l .  The  i d e n t i t y of Argyie Lagoon and C a t t l e Point East B l u f f are unclear as w e l l .  The former bears only l i m i t e d s i m i l a r i t i e s  to the Marpole Component (Carlson 1960:573), and of the  15  variables i n the o r i g i n a l l i s t , the number i s reduced to 11 by removing the "reportage" variables.  Cattle Point East  B l u f f i s also of dubious c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n (Carlson 1960: 571).  The Garrison assemblage (N=22) i s not affected by  the cut i n "reportage" variables, and i t contains material strongly similar to other assemblages of the Marpole Culture Type,  Richardson, on the other hand, consists of a very  small assemblage (N=14) from a disturbed s i t e .  In f a c t , the  investigator suspects the excavated assemblage represents more than one component, one of which i s probably Marpole (Carlson 1960:571),  Therefore, the apparent incongruities  of Figure 27 can, to a c e r t a i n extent, be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y resolved.  As a consequence, f a i r l y good general agreement  between subjective and objective analyses can be attained and the r e l a t i o n s of anomalous assemblages can be examined. The present analysis, however, was unable to separate Components II and III from Deep Bay into the culture types to which they were expected to belong.  Similar situations from other  s i t e s , and reasons f o r their occurrence, have been noted. The i n a b i l i t y of these objective techniques to d i s t i n g u i s h between the two components from Deep Bay does not mean that differences between them do not e x i s t .  The nature of t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r test simply does not exploit these differences. For instance, the l i s t of a r t i f a c t classes does not include scrapers or antler composite of  toggling harpoon valves.  Both  these occur often i n components of Gulf of Georgia s i t e s .  Also, presence/absence  analysis weights each a r t i f a c t class  equally, so one abrasive stone i n component X equals f i f t y from component Y. The dates obtained from Component III f a l l f a i r l y well within the range of dates f o r the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type.  The e a r l i e r date from Component II i s consistent with  the age range f o r the Marpole Culture Type, but the later date seems at f i r s t glance, to be too young for t h i s culture type.  From the section on chronology i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d  that GaK-6036 was dated at 900-90 B.P.,  or 1050 A.D.  Also,  there was some question of the v a l i d i t y of the date because a red synthetic thread was found i n the f i e l d sample.  If  the date from this sample i s not to be dismissed offhand as too recent, a consideration of components i n t h i s time period and a r t i f a c t continuity at the s i t e i s warranted.  The three  e a r l i e s t Gulf of Georgia Components have been dated at 370^ 100 A.D.  f o r Pedder Bay (although there i s some question as  to whether this assemblage i s r e a l l y a member of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type), 436-40 A.D. Component, and 550^90 A.D. 1971a,Table X I ) .  f o r F o s s i l Bay Late  for D i o n i s i o Point l i b (Mitchell  The next most recent Gulf of Georgia Com-  ponent i s Montague Harbour I I I , dated at 1160^130 A.D. (Mitchell 1971a,Table XI).  Thus, there i s a gap of at least  390 years at one standard deviation unit between these two dates.  No Gulf of Georgia Components are presently known  from t h i s time period.  On the other hand, the most recent  Marpole Culture Type component i s Beach Grove, dated at 560-  232 25 A.D.  Prior to this date an uninterrupted series o f dates  exists f o r the Marpole Culture Type, Because there i s no sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between the two culture types, and because one culture type i s d i r e c t l y ancestral to the other, i t i s only reasonable  to expect that  considerable temporal overlap should e x i s t between assemblages having Gulf of Georgia and Marpole c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Also,  c u l t u r a l adaptation, as r e f l e c t e d by remains of material culture, i s l i k e l y to be more or less gradual, a f f e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t aspects of culture at d i f f e r e n t rates.  Activities  common during the period of greatest Marpole Culture Type influence that retained t h e i r relevance, despite changes i n other aspects of culture, would thus p e r s i s t i n t o the Gulf of Georgia time period.  On the other hand, a c t i v i t i e s common  during the time period of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type are u n l i k e l y to have developed overnight, so i t i s not surp r i s i n g that some assemblages with a f f i n i t i e s to t h i s culture type are found at a r e l a t i v e l y early date.  This argument  i s consistent with the concept of culture types which are s t r i c t l y formal u n i t s . The present evidence suggests that recognizable changes i n the Marpole Culture Type adaptation began a f t e r 1600 B.P, and continued u n t i l at least 1400 B,P, The GaK-6036 date of 900-90 B.P, suggests that this period of change may have lasted longer than 200 years, possibly f o r as long as 700 years.  The difference i n age between GaK-6036 and the  233  youngest presently accepted Marpole Culture Type date (Beach Grove, 1390-25 B.P.)  i s only 490 years, whereas the d i f f e r -  ence i n age between the two oldest presently accepted Gulf of Georgia Culture Type dates (Dionisio Point l i b and Montague Harbour III) i s 610 years.  Since the larger time  gap i s accepted within a single culture type, i t does not seem unreasonable to accept the smaller time gap within another culture type.  I f GaK-6036 i s younger than the true  age of the sample due to contamination, the argument f o r accepting t h i s date i s strengthened because i t would reduce the time gap between late Marpole Components.  However, the  point remains that a period of change from the Marpole Culture Type seems to have begun about 1600 B.P. and ended between 1400 B.P. and 900 B.P.  Assemblages from t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l  period exhibit c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both culture types, and i t i s conceivable that t h i s change d i d not occur at the same time or at the same rate throughout the Gulf of Georgia area. Although a l a t e Marpole date of 900 B.P. seems unduly young now,  subsequent  research may f i n d that t h i s culture type  persisted longer i n the northern Gulf.  I t may also be deter-  mined that the t r a n s i t i o n period between these culture types was quite slow throughout the entire Gulf of Georgia.  The  considerable s i m i l a r i t y i n the a r t i f a c t assemblages between Components II and I I I suggests that a discussion of the " r e a l " culture type a f f i l i a t i o n of GaK-6036 may simply be academic.  234 The c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n of Component I i s more d i f f i c u l t to assess than was the case f o r Components II and I I I ,  The  l i t h i c character of the Component I assemblage suggests a possible a f f i l i a t i o n with the L i t h i c Culture Type (Mitchell 1971a:59),  This culture type i s composed of assemblages  containing abundant stone a r t i f a c t s , primarily medium to large f a i r l y well made chipped stone points that are usually leaf-shaped, various cobble implements, and sometimes chipped "crescents".  Ground stone a r t i f a c t s are often lacking  (Mitchell 1971a:59-60),  D i o n i s i o Point I contains a barbed  antler point fragment but i t i s classed i n the L i t h i c Culture Type,  I t would seem, then, that non-chipped stone a r t i f a c t s ,  i . e . ground stone and non-stone, can be part of assemblages legitimately belonging to the L i t h i c Culture Type,  On these  grounds, there seems to be l i t t l e reason not to c l a s s i f y Component I at Deep Bay as a member of the L i t h i c Culture Type, The only dated components of t h i s culture type are from the Fraser Canyon Sequence, to 7000 B.C.  They indicate a time range of 5400  (Mitchell 1971a,Table XI a f t e r Borden 1961:6),  Within t h i s time range, components of the Mazama and M i l l i k e n Phase are found.  The l i t h i c character of Component I at Deep  Bay i s also broadly similar to the Old C o r d i l l e r a n Component at the Glenrose Cannery S i t e , 8500 and 5500 B.P,  This component i s dated between  (Matson 1976:17),  The other components  from the Gulf of Georgia that are assigned to the L i t h i c Culture Type are undated (Mitchell 1971a,Table X),  The date  235 subsequent to which v i r t u a l l y a l l the a r t i f a c t s i n Component I were found, however, i s only 2630^100 B.P, (GaK-6038). This date suggests that a dominant adaptation from the e a r l i e s t portions of Gulf of Georgia prehistory continued as a useful part of subsequent, more technologically d i v e r s i f i e d adaptations.  While the L i t h i c Culture Type may have been  dominant between 8500 B.P, to 5500 B.P,, c e r t a i n aspects of i t may have continued to be useful for an a d d i t i o n a l 3000 years. The l i t h i c assemblage at Deep Bay appears to f a l l within the time range of the l a t e Locarno Beach and early Marpole Culture Types,  The former culture type occupies the time  period approximately between 3200 to 2200 B.P; the l a t t e r culture type occupies the time period 2300 B.P,  (Matson 1976;  Table 1-2) to 1400 B.P, (Mitchell 1971a,Table X I ) . Since Component I i s bracketed by dates of 2360-100 B.P. and 1910110 B.P., and the component seems l i k e l y to have been deposi t e d e a r l i e r , rather than l a t e r , during t h i s time period, i t seems safe to say that t h i s assemblage was i n use during the time when the t r a n s i t i o n from the Locarno Beach Culture Type to the Marpole Culture Type was being made i n some areas of the Gulf of Georgia.  I f the Component I assemblage i s  seen as a continuation of the formerly dominant L i t h i c Culture Type, then the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s represented by the assemblage may have been more or l e s s appropriate at least u n t i l the l a t e Locarno Beach and early Marpole Culture Type time periods•  236  There i s considerable continuity i n the stone a r t i f a c t s between Components I and I I . Except f o r chipped stone points, a l l stone a r t i f a c t classes are found i n both components.  The remaining chipped stone a r t i f a c t classes occur  i n greater numbers i n Component I.  The materials from which  stone a r t i f a c t s are made are a l s o continuous between these two components, although the q u a l i t y of the basalt tends to improve through time.  The l i m i t e d evidence from the faunal  assemblage indicates that s i m i l a r species were being exploited i n both components as w e l l .  These data suggest that there i s  substantial continuity, of material culture at l e a s t , between these two components.  As there i s good reason to argue,  Component II contains material thought to belong to the Marpole Culture Type.  The apparent continuity between Components  I and I I , and the estimated age range of Component I, suggest that t h i s component may belong to the Locarno Beach Culture Type time period. Given this background, i t i s argued that Component I at Deep Bay contains a specialized assemblage from the Locarno Beach time period.  Thus, while assemblages of the Locarno  Beach Culture Type are geographically l i m i t e d within the Gulf of Georgia area (Mitchell 1971a:59), there now i s evidence that varying adaptations from t h i s time period are more widely d i s t r i b u t e d .  The Component I assemblage appears to  be s p e c i a l i z e d , but the sample s i z e i s small and the physical context of the assemblage must be remembered.  The s p i t has  237  been building f o r at least the past 5000 years, probably longer.  At present, we are unaware of the s p i t morphology  at the time of occupation represented by Component I.  It  would seem u n l i k e l y , however, that the whole s p i t at that time was exactly the same as the deposits uncovered on Lot 73.  The older portion of the s i t e , closer to the base of  the s p i t , was probably permanently above water.  If this  were the case, i t i s reasonable to think that the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s conducted on the portion of the s i t e permanently above water would not be the same as those conducted on the p e r i o d i c a l l y inundated part.  The variations i n matrix con-  tent between the Glenrose Cannery Old C o r d i l l e r a n Component deposits i n excavation units 3, 4, and 6 on one hand and 1, 1/5, and 5 on the other (Matson 1976:11) are a good example of d i f f e r i n g use of s i t e areas early i n Gulf of Georgia prehistory.  Since the assemblage from Component I was  recovered  from the l a t t e r context, i t would seem to be a s p e c i a l i z e d portion of the whole s i t e assemblage at that time.  This s i t e  assemblage may also have been specialized i n terms of an annual seasonal round. The r e l a t i v e l y un-waterworn appearance of the a r t i f a c t s from Component I suggests that they may have been f a i r l y high up on the beach and therefore infrequently subjected to wave action.  The large cobbles on the i n s i d e beach of Deep Bay  that showed evidence of f l a k e removal may  therefore represent  the remains of a l a t e r but s i m i l a r manner and l o c a t i o n of  238 chipped stone a r t i f a c t manufacture. Many of the a r t i f a c t classes from the Component I assemblage appear i n t u i t i v e l y t o be associated with land hunting, e.g. chipped stone points, bifaces, retouched f l a k e s , and u t i l i z e d f l a k e s .  The predominant faunal remains  from t h i s component were u n i d e n t i f i a b l e land mammal and deer. The Coast S a l i s h are reported to have driven deer i n t o nets or ambushes i n r e s t r i c t e d areas (Barnett 1975:97, 103). This analogue suggests that the s p i t a t Deep Bay could have been used f o r a s i m i l a r purpose. on flyways (Barnett 1975:103).  Duck nets were a l s o erected Remains of u n i d e n t i f i a b l e  duck and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e b i r d comprise the remainder of the Component I faunal assemblages.  I f land mammal and b i r d  species were being sought at Deep Bay during t h i s time period, t h i s e x p l o i t a t i v e pattern would appear to be consistent with the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of seasonal exploitation patterns f o r  other Locarno Beach Components. The status of other l i t h i c assemblages i n the Gulf of Georgia needs to be discussed.  L i t h i c assemblages from the  Fraser Canyon sequence f a l l within the 9000 to 7350 B.P. time range (Borden 1961:6), and the assemblage from the Old Cordi l l e r a n Component at Glenrose f a l l s i n the 8500 t o 5500 B.P. time range.  At the other end of the time range within which  l i t h i c assemblages are found i s Component I dated at 2630 B.P. Undated l i t h i c assemblages i n the Gulf of Georgia consist of D i o n i s i o Point I , Olcott S i t e , James S i t e , and the Deception  239 Pass Phase ( M i t c h e l l 1971a,Table X). basis o f the present evidence,  I t would seem, on the  that t h i s kind of assemblage  can e x i s t almost anywhere within the 8500 B.P. time range.  to 2500 B.P.  This argument i s supported to some extent by  evidence f o r the existence of s p e c i a l i z e d a r t i f a c t assemblages as far back as 4100 245).  to 4200 B.P.  (Grabert and Larsen 1975:240,  To my knowledge, none of the l i t h i c assemblages l i s t e d  i n M i t c h e l l (1971a,Table X) i s followed by a Locarno Beach Component.  In f a c t , D i o n i s i o Point I i s followed by D i o n i s i o  Point I l a which i s suspected of being a Marpole Culture Type Component (Mitchell 1971c:167).  This s i t u a t i o n follows the  same pattern that i s observed at Deep Bay.  I t i s quite  possible, then, f o r Dionisio Point I also to be a s p e c i a l i z e d assemblage belonging period.  to the Locarno Beach Culture Type time  These data suggest that l i t h i c assemblages do not  always represent the c u l t u r a l remains of early, unspecialized, land-oriented hunters as suggested by Bryan (1957:7; 1963:89) and King (1950:79). U n t i l recently, Locarno Beach Components were known only from the Fraser Delta, southern Gulf Islands, and southern Vancouver Island ( M i t c h e l l 1971a,Table IX);  Evidence f o r  components of t h i s culture type, and technological s p e c i a l i z a t i o n among these components, i s now other areas.  coming to l i g h t from  The Cherry Point A component has a middle date  of 2630-420 (RL-272) and a minimum date of 2300 B.P.  The  assemblage consists of pebble t o o l s , chipped s l a t e knives,  240 d r i l l e d sinker stones, elongated hammerstones, large perforated cobbles, two heavy faceted ground s l a t e points, several f l a k e t o o l s , and some Gulf Islands Complex items.  This com-  ponent i s thought to represent a f i s h i n g s t a t i o n .  It falls  i n t o the time period of the Locarno Beach Culture Type, l i e s under deposits of the Marpole Culture Type, and contains a r t i f a c t classes thought to be d i s t i n c t i v e of the Locarno Beach Culture Type.  The abundance of the chipped stone tools  also suggests a f f i l i a t i o n s with the L i t h i c Culture Type. Grabert and Larsen conclude that Cherry Point A represents a s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y s i t e of the Locarno Beach Culture Type (Grabert and Larsen 1975:241-248).  That s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of  assemblages occurred at an even e a r l i e r time i s evidenced by the 4100^500 B.P. date from basal midden deposits at Semiamoo Point (45-WH-17) and by the 4180^120 B.P. date from early, s h e l l free s t r a t a containing f l a k e t o o l s , pebble t o o l s , proj e c t i l e points, and Marpole s t y l e harpoons at s i t e 45-WH-34 on the Nooksack River (Grabert and Larsen 1975:240, 245). Thus, M i t c h e l l ' s argument that v a r i a t i o n i n Locarno Beach assemblages may be related to seasonal pursuits appears to be supported (Mitchell 1971a:57).  Also, these data suggest  that large quantities of chipped stone a r t i f a c t s are found i n s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y assemblages that are as o l d as, or older than, the Locarno Beach Culture Type. The l i t h i c assemblage at Deep Bay i s also pre-dated by the assemblages from s t r a t i g r a p h i c unit 1 at the St. Mungo  241 Cannery S i t e (Boehm 1970) and the S t . Mungo Component at the Glenrose Cannery S i t e (Matson 1976).  I t seems safe to con-  clude that not a l l l i t h i c assemblages are e a r l y .  It also  appears that well developed specialized a c t i v i t y patterns precede at least one l i t h i c assemblage.  I t may be true that  the e a f l i e s t l i t h i c assemblages were products of r e l a t i v e l y unspecialized land-oriented hunters (Bryan 1957:7j 1963:89; King 1950:79), but subsequent l i t h i c assemblages seem to have been s p e c i a l i z e d constituents of increasingly more complex c u l t u r a l adaptations. .The L i t h i c Culture Type appears to have been the dominant adaptation f o r approximately 3000 years i n the i n i t i a l portion of Gulf of Georgia prehistory. Continued i n t e r a c t i o n between man and his surroundings produced progressively more refined and complex tool k i t s .  Part of these subsequent adaptations  continued to be pertinent aspects of the e a r l i e s t adaptation. Thus, between 5500 B.P. and 2500 B;P. l i t h i c assemblages, which can be interpreted as l a t e r modifications of the o r i g i n a l L i t h i c Culture Type, continue to be found as i n t e g r a l parts of l a t e r adaptations i n the Gulf of Georgia area.  The  L i t h i c Culture Type was i n i t i a l l y defined i n terms of the emphasis on chipped stone and the minor importance of ground stone.  The substantive data on l i t h i c assemblages suggests  that i n the 5500-2500 B;P. period more ground stone, pecked stone, a n t l e r , and probably bone came into use, although the bulk of each assemblage s t i l l consists of chipped stone a r t i facts.  242 The evidence now  seems to indicate that l i t h i c assem-  blages may p e r s i s t for a long time i n the Gulf of Georgia area.  The a c t i v i t i e s that these assemblages represent  have been more or less important  may  adjuncts to a series of  phases or culture types, including the Locarno Beach Culture Type.  Thus, l i t h i c assemblages could l e g i t i m a t e l y be consid-  ered as s i t e - s p e c i f i c , seasonal assemblages of various time periods>or culture types.  In t h i s sense, a l l l i t h i c assem-  blages need not be assumed to have great antiquity or to represent an unspecialized, land-oriented type of culture early i n the human history of the Gulf of Georgia  (Bryan  1957:  7, 1963:89; King 1950:74). E f f o r t s i n t h i s chapter have been directed toward del i n e a t i n g components at Deep Bay and establishing their cultural a f f i l i a t i o n .  Three components were distinguished,  although there i s very considerable continuity between the a r t i f a c t assemblages of the two most recent components. Component I i s thought to be a l a t e manifestation of the L i t h i c Culture Type from the time period when the l a t e portion of the Locarno Beach Culture Type predominated.  Component II  appears most similar to the Marpole Culture Type, and Component III seems most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type. A variety of information and techniques have been used i n the delineation of components.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , character-  i s t i c a r t i f a c t s and features have been used to d i s t i n g u i s h  components,  An attempt has been made here to add further  information such as s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and faunal variables (after Chang 1967:28),  A subjective method of component  delineation has been followed i n which the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of a r t i f a c t classes, faunal species, s o i l pH, granulometric constituents, clam s h e l l seasonality, and carbon-14 dates are  analyzed and compared to s t r a t i g r a p h i c d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s .  The c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n s of these components were then assessed using both monothetic and polythetic methods.  The  monothetic method consisted of comparing the d i s t i n c t i v e archaeological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each culture type i n the Gulf of Georgia with the three components from Deep Bay, The p o l y t h e t i c method consisted of comparing a series of a r t i f a c t assemblages from the Gulf of Georgia, including Components II and III from Deep Bay, by means of a furthest neighbor cluster analysis. not  Component I from Deep Bay could  be included i n t h i s analysis because of i t s small sample  size.  The polythetic set of variables used to determine  degree of component s i m i l a r i t y i s that presented i n Matson (1974,Table I I ) . It was concluded that each time period can be seen as a c o l l e c t i o n of assemblages, each of which represents a group of a c t i v i t i e s .  Such groups of a c t i v i t i e s , or even i n d i v i d u a l  a c t i v i t i e s , may p e r s i s t as a culture type for varying periods of time, may be related to seasonal a c t i v i t y , and may vary i n c u l t u r a l importance from one time period to another.  This  emphasis on c u l t u r a l continuity i s consistent with M i t c h e l l ' s model of c u l t u r a l development i n the Gulf of Georgia area (Mitchell 1971a:67-72).  The c u l t u r a l continuity suggested  by l i n g u i s t i c evidence, p a r t i c u l a r l y Jorgensen (1969:21, 52), also seems to be supported.  Because of the p o t e n t i a l contin-  u i t i e s of c u l t u r a l phenomena from one time period to another, i t seems doubly important to examine the widest possible spectrum of c r i t e r i a when attempting to e s t a b l i s h boundaries within the archaeological record.  The more c r i t e r i a that are  examined, however, the l e s s l i k e l y are such boundaries to be clear cut.  This lack of a r t i f i c i a l c l a r i t y i s i n keeping  with the idea that there i s considerable continuity of a c t i v i t i e s from one segment of the c u l t u r a l continuum to another. Therefore, the t r a n s i t i o n from the predominance of one culture type to another can be seen as a period of accelerated change. Based on the preceding discussion, the persistence of some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a given phase or culture type beyond t h e i r most common period of occurrence, such as the seemingly too recent material i n natural stratum G/O,  can be taken to  represent the continuance of .useful a c t i v i t i e s period of c u l t u r a l change.  through a  245  CHAPTER VIII ASSOCIATIONS OF ARTIFACT AND  FAUNAL DATA  Introduction This chapter i s concerned with relationships between a r t i f a c t classes and faunal species•  As stated i n Chapter  I, the aim of t h i s analysis i s to determine whether ethnographically recorded relationships between a r t i f a c t s and fauna can be detected i n the archaeological record.  This  chapter i s therefore divided i n t o two parts, the r e s u l t s of the quantitative analyses, and a discussion of these results.  Since the greatest amount of data i s available  for Lot 73, the following discussion w i l l deal only with that part of the s i t e . The preceding chapters have indicated that three components may  be represented i n the deposits on Lot 73.  These  components are thought to belong i n the Locarno Beach, Marpole, and Gulf of Georgia Culture Type time periods. Because these three culture types are thought to be manifestations of the same c u l t u r a l continuum, and because there i s considerable continuity of a r t i f a c t classes and faunal remains across component boundaries, the following analyses disregard component boundaries.  This procedure may  obscure  whatever variations occur through time i n the association of  246 a r t i f a c t and faunal variables, but since the culture types involved are thought to be c l o s e l y l i n k e d i n a c u l t u r a l sense, i t seems u n l i k e l y that t h i s procedure w i l l create serious d i s t o r t i o n s i n the r e s u l t s . Also, since this i s an exploratory study, i t seems more appropriate to present  generaliz-  ations about a l l the data as a f i r s t step, leaving more refined analyses of i n d i v i d u a l components to a l a t e r date. Quantitative Analysis:  Method  For the examination of the Lot 73 mammal and b i r d remains 63 a n a l y t i c a l units were included because 100% of these remains were i d e n t i f i e d and weighed.  Because the f i s h and  mollusc remains were sampled before i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and weighing, only t h i r t y a n a l y t i c a l units were e l i g i b l e f o r a n a l y s i s . In the following analyses, the data have been treated at two levels of measurement:  presence/absence within a n a l y t i c a l  units and rank order of r e l a t i v e frequency within a n a l y t i c a l units.  For each faunal variable r e l a t i v e frequencies were  calculated f o r weight of remains, minimum numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s , and estimated grams of usable meat.  The a r t i f a c t  classes presented i n Table I I I were regrouped so that the variable " u t i l i z e d f l a k e " consisted of heavy duty, medium duty, and l i g h t duty u t i l i z e d f l a k e s .  These transformed  a r t i f a c t classes are l i s t e d i n Appendix V and are hencef o r t h the only referent f o r the term " a r t i f a c t c l a s s " .  The  following analyses therefore consist of a presence/absence  analysis of a r t i f a c t classes by faunal species, a rank order analysis of a r t i f a c t classes by faunal species weight, a similar analysis substituting faunal species minimum numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s , and another similar analysis  substituting  faunal species estimated weight of usable meat. The data were analyzed by means of two computer programs, both of which were contained i n the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the S o c i a l Sciences (SPSS) (Nie, Bent, and Hull 1970). program used to treat the presence/absence data was square t e s t .  The  the c h i -  This test produces a s t a t i s t i c that i s compared  to a chi-square d i s t r i b u t i o n for the appropriate degrees of freedom.  The location of the test s t a t i s t i c on the ordinate  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n provides a p r o b a b i l i t y for the  difference  between the observed and the, expected d i s t r i b u t i o n s of  the  variables, given fixed marginals, i f the population d i s t r i r butions were a c t u a l l y independent (Nie, Bent, and Hull 275).  1970:  Where the number of cases i s larger than 21 the test  s t a t i s t i c i s calculated using Yates* correction f o r (Nie, Bent, and H u l l 1970:125) according to the  continuity  following  formula:  2  (A+D)(A+C)(B+C)(B+D) where X  i s the test s t a t i s t i c , N i s the number of cases, and  A, B, C, D are the contingency table c e l l frequencies (Siegel 1956:107).  This correction improves the approximation of  248 the computed value of X (Siegel 1956:107).  2  to the chi-squared d i s t r i b u t i o n  The advice of Cochran, c i t e d i n Siegel  (1956:110), has been followed i n t h i s study.  That i s , where  N>20<40 the Fisher Exact Test (two-tail) has been applied when one or more expected c e l l frequencies i n a 2 x 2 table are l e s s than 5. Chi-square, when used as a test of independence between variables, assumes that the variables have been sampled randoml y and independently from a universe that i s either i n f i n i t e l y large or that i s sampled with replacement  (Mueller, Schuessler,  and Costner 1970:437; Pierce 1970:189, 194, 196).  The Deep  Bay data were not acquired i n a manner that was consistent with these assumptions.  F i r s t , excavation units were chosen  on the basis of where i t was convenient to d i g on the l o t s where permission to excavate was granted.  A r t i f a c t classes  and faunal species were therefore not sampled independently since both these categories of variables were contained i n the chosen excavation u n i t s .  Since the universe of each  a r t i f a c t class and faunal species was not known, and excava t i o n units were not sampled randomly, i t i s impossible to claim that each variable was sampled randomly. lems are unavoidable i n archaeology.  These prob-  The results of analyz-  ing such data by means of such techniques, which are s t i l l the most appropriate ones despite their shortcomings, must be interpreted with these considerations i n mind.  Indeed,  the nature of the a n a l y t i c a l u n i t s , a n a l y t i c techniques, and  2^9 data must a l l be considered t o g e t h e r i n terms of t h e i r e f f e c t s on the r e s u l t s of any a n a l y s i s . The  chi-square t e s t i s one o f independence between  d i s t r i b u t i o n s of p a i r e d v a r i a b l e s . i t y allows f o r acceptance  I t s associated probabil-  o r r e j e c t i o n , at a chosen  signifi-  cance l e v e l , of the n u l l hypothesis t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the v a r i a b l e s are independent.  Besides t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n ,  c a l c u l a t i n g a c o e f f i c i e n t of a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l show the s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n of a s s o c i a t i o n between v a r i a b l e s . The Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , c r i b e d below, v a r i e s from -1 t o +1.  des-  Since a c o e f f i c i e n t of  a s s o c i a t i o n t o accompany chi-square should a l s o vary between these two v a l u e s , Yule's Q and p h i >(0) The  were c o n s i d e r e d .  former c o e f f i c i e n t i s a s p e c i a l case of gamma, a t e s t  of the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of rank order f o r v a r i a b l e p a i r s . T h i s measure i s based on data t h a t are assumed not t o have d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e marginal t o t a l s f o r a few c a t e g o r i e s of the v a r i a b l e s ( M u e l l e r , S c h u e s s l e r , and Costner 1970:287). Since the Deep Bay data seldom meet t h i s assumption, Yule's Q was r e j e c t e d as an a p p r o p r i a t e c o e f f i c i e n t . The  second c o e f f i c i e n t , p h i , i s p r e f e r a b l e t o Q  because of i t s a f f i l i a t i o n with the chi-square  statistic  according t o : 9  where 0 = p h i , X observations.  =  = c h i - s q u a r e , N = t o t a l number of  However, p h i c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s  250 formula by SPSS does not always p r o v i d e the same c o e f f i c i e n t compared to the r e s u l t o f :  0  =  AD - BC (A+C)(A+B)(B+D)(C+D)  where 0 = p h i , and A, B, C, and D = 2 x 2 c e l l (Monks n.d. b ) .  i frequencies  P h i i s i n f l u e n c e d by sample s i z e when  c a l c u l a t e d from chi-square with Yates' c o r r e c t i o n .  Cal-  c u l a t e d independently, however, p h i i s not s u b j e c t to sample s i z e . maintained  F u r t h e r , c o n s i s t e n c y o f p h i values can be  i n cases where the F i s h e r exact p r o b a b i l i t y has  been c a l c u l a t e d .  S u b s t a n t i a l d i s c r e p e n c i e s have been  noted between p h i values c a l c u l a t e d by the two p r e c e d i n g formulae (Monks n.d.  b).  In the f o l l o w i n g analyses, p h i  has been c a l c u l a t e d independently of c h i - s q u a r e . the p h i c o e f f i c i e n t i n c l u d e s D c e l l  frequencies; that i s , i t  i n c l u d e s n e g a t i v e matches of v a r i a b l e s . cell  Note t h a t  The i n c l u s i o n of D  f r e q u e n c i e s i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of a c o e f f i c i e n t of  a s s o c i a t i o n r e s t s on the argument that these c e l l  frequen-  c i e s should be i n c l u d e d when a l l v a r i a b l e s i n the data under study vary w i t h i n the data (Sneath and Sokal 1973:130-131).  Large numbers of negative matches  i n f l a t e the values of p h i and c h i - s q u a r e . the s t a t i s t i c a l  will  Consequently,  s i g n i f i c a n c e and the s t r e n g t h of  a s s o c i a t i o n of any v a r i a b l e p a i r i n the presence/ absence a n a l y s i s should not be accepted  uncritically.  One means of r e d u c i n g the number of p o t e n t i a l l y  spurious  251  associations i s to eliminate variable pairs involving i n f r e quent occurrence of one or both variables. i s set out  belowo  This c r i t e r i o n  Another means of evaluating the r e l i a b i l i t y  of any c o e f f i c i e n t of association i s to examine i t s data base* The data were also analyzed i n rank order form by the SPSS version of the Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c ient and i t s associated l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y .  The c o e f f i c i e n t  i s calculated by ranking a n a l y t i c a l units from lowest to highest on the basis of the r e l a t i v e frequencies  of one a r t i -  f a c t class and one faunal variable at a time, subtracting the ranks f o r each a n a l y t i c a l u n i t , squaring applying  the difference and  the following formula: 6 £D  2  3 N - N 2 where r  g  = Spearman's rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , D  =  the sum .of the squared differences i n rank, and N = the number of a n a l y t i c a l units involved.  For computational s i m p l i c i t y  and to allow f o r c o r r e l a t i o n of within-case t i e d ranks, the following formula i s substituted: -  r  s  =  ~  — 2(T T ) x  y  €  D  2  •  1/z  y  2 where D  = the sum of squared differences i n rank, T^ and T  y  = the correction values f o r t i e d ranks on either of the v a r i ables under a n a l y s i s .  T  v  or T„ may be computed by:  252 N (N -l) 2  £R(R -1) 2  where R = the number of t i e s at a given rank f o r X or Y. The p r o b a b i l i t y of r  can be determined by comparing  the value derived by the following formula with a student's t d i s t r i b u t i o n with N-2 degrees of freedom:  (Nie, Bent, and H u l l 1970:154). Spearman's rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t tests whether two observations are independent i n each of n randomly drawn u n i t s .  The measure assumes that there i s indep-  endence between both variates i n the b i v a r i a t e sampled popu l a t i o n , that samples are drawn randomly, that variables are continuous, and that measurement i s precise (Bradley 1968:91, 92).  The l a s t two assumptions, taken together, mean that  t i e d ranks among the observations for either v a r i a b l e are assumed not to occur.  The data from Deep Bay again do not  e n t i r e l y meet these c r i t e r i a .  The absence of a variable  from a number of a n a l y t i c a l units causes t i e d ranks f o r zero values to occur  e  These are corrected f o r , according to the  formulae presented above.  Therefore, the use of the measure  i s j u s t i f i e d on these grounds.  The problem of randomness,  as noted i n the discussion of chi-square, i s almost never  253  overcome i n studies such as t h i s one.  With respect to i n -  dependence between the variables under consideration, the arguments concerning  the deposition of primary refuse, out-  l i n e d i n Chapter I, are s u f f i c i e n t to show that t h i s cond i t i o n i s also not met  i n these data.  Although a correction f o r t t i e s i s made i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of r , i t i s s t i l l possible to obtain high values of the s c o e f f i c i e n t where one or both variables exhibit large numbers of zero values.  This procedure has been outlined under the  discussion of chi-square.  Omitting from consideration those  variable p a i r s where one or both variables have large numbers of zero values, and examining the data base of each variable p a i r are two means of overcoming t h i s problem. A moderately low l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y was  chosen i n  order to include as many p o t e n t i a l l y meaningful relationships as possible.  I t was  thought that the exploratory nature of  this study j u s t i f i e d running a moderate r i s k of Type II error. For t h i s reason, the «< =5.05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l i s again applied i n t h i s analysis.  The four analyses of the data were  performed, and the r e s u l t s were synthesized.  Those r e l a t i o n -  ships between a r t i f a c t classes and faunal species that occurred i n two or more analyses, excluding relationships based on more than 90% t i e d values f o r one or both variables, are presented i n Table XXXIII.  A l l the associations are d i r e c t  except those marked by a dash (-), which are inverse.  The  relationships i n t h i s table are not only s i g n i f i c a n t at l e s s  V  TABLE XXXIII Variable Pairs S i g n i f i c a n t at°t^:.05 i n Two or More Analyses, A r t i f a c t Class by Faunal Species. Lot 73, DiSe 7 (-) = inverse relationship Analysis +/Variable Pair u t i l i z e d flake x basket cockle (-) u t i l i z e d flake x mussel (-) u t i l i z e d flake x butter clam (-) quartz c r y s t a l flake x mussel (-) u n i f a c i a l l y retouched flake x mussel (-) u n i f a c i a l l y retouched flake x u n i d e n t i f i a b l e clam (-) u n i f a c i a l l y retouched flake x barnacle (-) abrasive stone x dog abrasive stone x unidentifiable duck abrasive stone x sea l i o n thin ground s l a t e point x sea l i o n thin ground s l a t e point x unidentifiable sea mammal thin ground s l a t e point x seagull thin ground s l a t e point x unidentifiable duck ground s l a t e k n i f e x seagull ground slate fragment x unidentifiable mammal  0  wt% c<  r  0.025 0.044 0.012 0.030 0.047  -  0.523 0.0489 0.4170 0.022  -  0.509 0.523 0.523 0.523 0.523 0.523 0.635 0.667 0.762 0.825  r  MNI  0.0336 0.0489 0.0489 0.0489 0.0489  g  0.4092 0.3704 0.4525 0.3977 0.3657  g  meat wt o<  r  -  -  -  -  -  g  ©<-  0.0489 0.4299 0.018 0.0052 .- 0.2938 0.019 0.0329 0.3043 0.015 0.0196 0.3130 0.013 0.0106 0.3873 0.002 0.3517 0.005 0.2965 0.018  0.746 0.0110 0.3636 0.003 0.809 0.0031 0.4069 0.001  -  -  0.667 0.0295 0.2632 0.037 0.809 0.0253 0.3055 0.015 0.762 0.0048 0.3938 0.001 0.4374 0.001 0.5014 0.001  (\3  TABLE XXXIII (continued) Analysis  +/-  wt%  MNI  meat wt  Variable Pair ground s l a t e fragment x grebe ground s l a t e fragment x sea l i o n ground s l a t e fragment x goose bone point x seagull bone point x unidentifiable duck bone bipoint x seagull bone bipoint x unidentifiable duck bone bipoint x unidentifiable b i r d worked bone fragment x sea l i o n worked bone fragment x unidentifiable sea mammal worked bone fragment x unidentifiable duck antler wedge x eagle antler wedge xr seagull antler wedge x grebe antler wedge x goose antler composite toggling harpoon valve x u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal antler composite toggling harpoon valve x grebe ochre x dog ochre x unidentifiable sea mammal ochre x unidentifiable duck  0.905 0.0280 0.3507 0.005 0.2735 0.030 0.2929 0.020 0.2733 0.030 0.2575 0.042 0.794 0.0002 0.4048 0.001 0.682 0.0151 0.2762 0.028 0.841 0.0000 0.4997 0.001 0*667 0.0331 0.3053 0.051 0.540 0.0260 0.2729 0.030 0.746 0.0075 0.2956 0.019 0.2854 0.023 0.3605 0.004 0.762 0.683 0.905 0.810 0.889  0.0008 0.0151 0.0048 0.0253 0.0123  0.3644 0.3468 0.4465 0.3062 0.3848  0.003 0.005 0.001 0.2519 0.046 0.015 0.002 0.3025 0.016 0.4699 0.001  0.778 0.0009 0.433 0.001 0.021 0.682 0.730 0.682  0.0001 0.0023 0.0021 0.0128  0.5411 0.2861 0.3531 0.3465  0.001 0.023 0.005 0.005  -  -  -  256 than °tsr«>05 i n their respective analyses, but they are also r e l i a b l e i n the sense that they have been observed i n more than one a n a l y s i s .  In addition, the relationships based on  excessively high t i e d values have been removed.  Therefore,  i t can be argued that these relationships r e f l e c t actual patterns i n the data.  These relationships can not be  ered as a r t i f a c t s of the techniques used i n the  consid-  analyses.  The data were analyzed using two d i f f e r e n t kinds of tests and, i n the case of the faunal remains, four d i f f e r e n t forms.  That  consistent r e s u l t s were produced under these conditions i n dicates that patterning i n the data, not patterning imposed by the a n a l y t i c techniques, has been detected. Quantitative Analysis:  Results  In the presence/absence analysis and weight of remains analyses, 52 a r t i f a c t classes were matched against 33 faunal variables.  Thus, 1716  combinations of variables were consid-  ered, and a chi-square p r o b a b i l i t y calculated f o r each one. I f the chosen s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s  .05, then one would  expect, at this l e v e l , to have 5%, or 86, relationships occur by chance alone.  In f a c t , the presence/absence analysis  produced 58 paired variables and the weight of remains analysis produced 150.  The minimum numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s analysis  involved 518 paired variables, of which 5%, or 26 p a i r s , could occur by chance.  A t o t a l of 68 p a i r s s i g n i f i c a n t at  CK.^.05 were produced i n t h i s a n a l y s i s .  The estimated weight  of" usable meat analysis involved 486 possible p a i r s of variables, of which 23 could occur by chance at the chosen significance l e v e l .  This analysis produced 72 p a i r s .  Thus,  only the presence/absence analysis produced fewer s i g n i f i c a n t pairs of variables than could be expected by chance at the chosen l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f a c t that the data do not e n t i r e l y meet the assumptions of the a n a l y t i c techniques, and the f a c t that v a r i a t i o n in  sample unit size can a f f e c t the l i k e l i h o o d of association  judged by chi-square, both suggest that any problem  perceived  as a r e s u l t of t h i s s h o r t f a l l i s s t r i c t l y academic.  Indeed,  even when more than 5% of the possible variable p a i r s are found to be s i g n i f i c a n t , one i s s t i l l never sure which are the s i g n i f i c a n t p a i r s .  When i t i s considered that a number  of the variable p a i r s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the presence/absence analysis are also found i n the other analyses, the possibi l i t y seems small that the s i g n i f i c a n t presence/absence v a r i able pairs are s t i l l due to chance alone. In the analysis that provided the relationships presented in Table XXXIII, three p o t e n t i a l reasons f o r the p a i r i n g of variables can be distinguished.  Variables can be associated  or correlated because they were involved i n the same a c t i v i t y , e.g. thin ground s l a t e knives and salmon remains.  In t h i s  instance the association could be c a l l e d "coterminous".  This  term i s used i n the following analysis to indicate a r e l a t ionship with an ethnographic analogue indicating that both  258 variables were used i n the same a c t i v i t y .  Variables can  also be associated because they were involved i n unrelated a c t i v i t i e s that occurred at the same time, e.g. herring remains and chipped stone points.  This association could be  c a l l e d "concomitant" because there i s an ethnographic analogue indicating that herring f i s h i n g and deer hunting were practiced by d i f f e r e n t members of a single group at the same time of year (Barnett 1975:29).  T h i r d l y , a variable pair can  associate, even below the chosen l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , on the basis of chance alone.  In this case, one would not expect  to f i n d ethnographic analogues f o r the relationship, and i t could be l a b e l l e d "coincident".  Such a relationship would  not exhibit an ethnographic or l o g i c a l basis.  While a number  of coincident relationships are obvious i n the i n d i v i d u a l analyses, they seem to be v i r t u a l l y eliminated i n the synthesized results (Table XXXIII).  Thus, the largest portion  of the relationships i n t h i s table appear to be due to either coterminous or concomitant a c t i v i t y . The above table presents pairs of a r t i f a c t classes and faunal species that occur at four analyses.  3^.05 i n at least two of the  F i s h and mollusc remains were not included  i n the MNI or estimated weight of usable meat analyses, therefore these paired variables occur i n two out of two analyses. The f i r s t seven pairs of variables are inversely related i n both analyses, and t h e i r occurrence i n both these analyses suggests that they are r e l i a b l e relationships;  Except f o r  259 the relationship of u t i l i z e d flake to basket cockle, however, a l l the c o e f f i c i e n t s of association and a l l the p r o b a b i l i t i e s for these pairs are the same.  This s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t s from  the similar d i s t r i b u t i o n among a n a l y t i c a l units of the mollusc species i n question, the similar d i s t r i b u t i o n of the l i t h i c a r t i f a c t classes among a n a l y t i c a l units, the almost t o t a l e x c l u s i v i t y of a r t i f a c t and faunal d i s t r i b u t i o n s , and the disproportionately large number of s h e l l bearing analytic units compared to those with the l i t h i c a r t i f a c t classes i n question.  The frequencies of the A, B, C, and D c e l l s are  1, 2, 25, and 2 respectively f o r these s i x p a i r s .  Intuitive-  l y , one would expect a high negative c o e f f i c i e n t of associ a t i o n , given the relationship of the B and C c e l l frequencies to those of the A and D c e l l s .  Indeed, the phi c o e f f i c i e n t  i s higher f o r each variable pair than the Spearman rank order correlation coefficient. The proper s t a t i s t i c a l interpretations of these r e l a t i o n ships states that where one variable i s found or where i t increases i n rank, the other variable tends to do the opposite.  This finding confirms the subjective impression  that most chipped stone a r t i f a c t classes are found i n Component I deposits, whereas most mollusc remains are found i n Component II and III deposits.  In terms of a c t i v i t i e s ,  these data imply that the a c t i v i t i e s conducted at t h i s p a r t i cular part of the s i t e changed through time.  Initially,  a c t i v i t i e s involving chipped stone a r t i f a c t s took place on  260 the beach, but a f t e r beach b u i l d up ended and midden b u i l d up started, t h i s location was used f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes. The continuity of simple chipped stone tools continues into Component I I , but not nearly i n the same numbers as are present i n Component I.  A s h i f t i n a c t i v i t y l o c i , or a  gradual decline i n the importance of such tools are seen as factors a f f e c t i n g the observed relationships.  These findings  support the suggestion made at the end of Chapter III that a c t i v i t y areas within the s i t e may have changed as the s p i t continued to b u i l d up.  I t should be noted that salmon remains  and coarse grained basalt debitage are negatively associated i n the St. Mungo Component at Glenrose Cannery.  This r e l -  ationship suggests that there i s v a r i a t i o n i n the areas of s i t e use within the component (Matson 1976:189).  The neg-  a t i v e relationships of c e r t a i n chipped stone categories and faunal species at Deep Bay and Glenrose seem to indicate that a c t i v i t i e s involving chipped stone and marine resources tend not to co-occur. Abrasive stones pair with dog, sea l i o n , and unidentif i a b l e duck.  The f i r s t two of these pairs occurs i n the  presence/absence  and MNI analyses, and the l a s t pair occurs  i n the presence/absence analyses.  and percentage weight of remains  No ethnographic accounts r e l a t e t h i s a r t i f a c t  class with these faunal species, and concomitant a c t i v i t y i s the only non-coincidental basis on which any of these rela;tLonships could reasonably occur.  Abrasive stones, being  common a r t i f a c t s , would have been used w h i l e dogs the s i t e .  inhabited  They c o u l d have been i n use w h i l e t h e other s p e c i e s  were b e i n g taken, and they may have been used t o make a r t i f a c t s t h a t were used t o take the l a t t e r two s p e c i e s .  This  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s tenuous and should n o t be g i v e n much confidence.  The v i r t u a l absence o f any o f these v a r i a b l e s  Component I suggests that these r e l a t i o n s h i p s p e r t a i n to Components I I and I I I . preting  from  mostly  The degree o f d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r -  these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s not r e l a t e d t o the r e l i a b i l i t y  o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  I t i s maintained t h a t , a l t h o u g h the  meanings t o be i n f e r r e d from these r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e obscure, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s themselves a r e r e l i a b l e and p o t e n t i a l l y meaningful. T h i n ground s l a t e p o i n t s  a r e r e l a t e d t o sea l i o n , u n i d -  e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal, s e a g u l l , and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck. While t h e l a t t e r t h r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p s occur i n t h e presence/ absence a n a l y s e s , the f i r s t analyses.  r e l a t i o n s h i p is-found, i n a l l four  Of a l l these v a r i a b l e s , o n l y s e a g u l l o c c u r s i n  a n a l y t i c a l u n i t s from Component I ,  I t occurs once.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these v a r i a b l e s , t h e r e f o r e , l a r g e l y t o the two most r e c e n t components. slate points  involved  The  apply  The t h i n ground  i n these p a i r s c o n s i s t o f t r i a n g u l a r ,  corner notched, and b a s a l notched forms as w e l l as fragments. These c l a s s e s o f p o i n t s  a r e o f t e n thought o f as arming  f o r e i t h e r arrows or composite t o g g l i n g arming p o i n t s  f o r composite t o g g l i n g  harpoons.  points  Blade type  harpoons, used i n t h e  262 quest f o r seals and sea l i o n s , are reported (Barnett  1975:  98-99), but i t should be pointed out that the composite toggling harpoon valves from Deep Bay do not have s l o t s to receive such arming points.  Arrow points of slate are  reported ethnographically (Barnett 1975:101), and  hunting  birds with arrows i s also reported (Barnett 1975:102),  How-  ever, the b i r d arrows described do not s p e c i f i c a l l y include ones with thin ground s l a t e points.  These points could have  armed arrows used to take seagulls and ducks, since both were taken f o r food (Barnett 1975:63), but the inference i s tenuous at best.  It seems most l i k e l y that these b i r d and  mammal species were being taken by other means at the same time as other species were being hunted with arrows.  Thus,  these variable p a i r s suggest concomitant a c t i v i t y . Since thin ground slate points occur p r i m a r i l y i n Component I I , these r e l a t i o n s h i p s should apply p r i m a r i l y to that archaeological u n i t .  There are none of these variables  to speak of i n Component I, and few members of the a r t i f a c t class i n Component I I I , The r e l a t i o n s h i p of ground s l a t e knife to seagull i s puzzling.  Occurring i n two analyses, the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of  these two variables suggests that the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s most pronounced i n Component I I I .  The minimal presence of ground  slate knives i n a n a l y t i c a l units indicates that heavy r e l i ance should not be placed on interpretations of t h i s v a r i * able p a i r .  Nonetheless, the i n t u i t i v e association of both  263 v a r i a b l e s w i t h f i s h c a t c h i n g and b u t c h e r i n g a c t i v i t y i m p l i e s that concomitant relationship. for this  a c t i v i t y may serve as the b a s i s f o r t h i s  No ethnographic s u b s t a n t i a t i o n can be found  idea.  Ground s l a t e fragments  a r e a s s o c i a t e d with s e a l i o n ,  u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal, grebe, and goose.  A l l these  v a r i a b l e s a r e absent from Component I . The two b i r d  vari-  a b l e s a r e m i n i m a l l y p r e s e n t i n Components I I and I I I .  There-  f o r e , the most r e l i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s occur between ground s l a t e fragments and I I I .  and sea mammal v a r i a b l e s i n Components I I  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o be p l a c e d on these r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s i s f a r from c l e a r .  Because ground s l a t e fragments a r e  n o n - f u n c t i o n a l a r t i f a c t s , and because, ethnographic analogues  not s u r p r i s i n g l y , no  e x i s t f o r these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the  most reasonable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these v a r i a b l e p a i r s i s t h a t they occur by c o i n c i d e n c e . Bone p o i n t s a r e r e l a t e d t o s e a g u l l and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck.  T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s c o n s i s t s o f both heavy duty and  l i g h t duty p o i n t s ; however, t h e l a t t e r  outnumber  t  h  e  former  by 34 t o 10. Of the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d , o n l y u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck i s found i n Component I , and here o n l y i n one analytical unit.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f these v a r i a b l e s appear  to be f a i r l y homogeneous throughout  Components I I and I I I  T h e r e f o r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s based on these p a i r s should r e f e r o n l y t o the two recent components a t Deep Bay.  W i t h i n these  two components, the p r o b a b i l i t y o f chance occurrence o f these  26k pairs i s quite low, and the strength of association i s moderate to high.  These two relationships may  r e f l e c t coter-  minous a c t i v i t y , with l i g h t duty bone points arming arrows with which birds were hunted.  This interpretation  seems  less l i k e l y than concomitant a c t i v i t y because bone points of a variety of s i z e s could have been used f o r a number of other a c t i v i t i e s .  For instance, ducks may  have been taken  at the same time as herring were being raked. Bone bipoints share relationships with seagull, unide n t i f i a b l e duck, and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e b i r d .  Bipoints are not  found i n Component I, and are evenly d i s t r i b u t e d i n Components II and I I I .  The b i r d remains are also evenly d i s t r i b u t e d  i n the two most recent components, but u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e birdijremains are also found i n Component I.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s , therefore, apply only i n Components II  and I I I . Bone bipoints are often thought of as f i s h gorges or herring rake teeth (Barnett 1975,Fig. 27, 86).  The bipoints  from Deep Bay show no medial g i r d l e , as i f they had been f i s h gorges (Mitchell 1971a:202). have been required for such a use. rake teeth.  But  g i r d l i n g may  not  They could be herring  They do not seem to be d i r e c t l y involved i n  a c t i v i t i e s concerned with acquiring, processing, or consuming the b i r d species involved here.  An interpretation based on  concomitant a c t i v i t y appears to be most reasonable. same time as f i s h i n g was  At  the  conducted using bone bipoints, the  265 b i r d s r e p r e s e n t e d by these f a u n a l v a r i a b l e s may have been taken. Worked bone fragments a r e p a i r e d w i t h sea l i o n , e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal, and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck.  unid-  Like  pairs  i n v o l v i n g ground s l a t e fragments, l i t t l e i n the way o f meani n g f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be d e r i v e d The  from these r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  absence o f a l l f o u r v a r i a b l e s from Component I , w i t h one  t r i v i a l e x c e p t i o n , suggests t h a t Components I I and I I I account f o r a l l o f these r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  I t may, however, be more than  c o i n c i d e n c e that sea l i o n and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal c o occur w i t h both m i s c e l l a n e o u s ground s l a t e and bone v a r i a b l e s . A n t l e r wedges share r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f o u r b i r d v a r i ables,  e a g l e , grebe, goose, and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck.  wedges, are not abundant a t Deep Bay.  Antler  They a r e absent from  Component I and evenly d i s t r i b u t e d i n Components I I and I I I . E a g l e , goose, and grebe a r e a l s o absent from Component I and uncommon but evenly d i s t r i b u t e d i n the o t h e r two components. U n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck i s almost absent from Component I but e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n the other two components. two  l a t e components c o n t a i n  Thus, the  a l l the v a r i a b l e p a i r s i n q u e s t i o n .  A n t l e r wedges are manufacturing t o o l s used i n woodwork (Barnett  1975:108).  They a r e u n l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e ,  been used i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f the b i r d v a r i a b l e s here.  t o have involved  The bases o f these r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be c o i n c i d e n c e ,  owing t o the minimal o c c u r r e n c e s o f a n t l e r wedges.  A t the  l e a s t , the high c o e f f i c i e n t s o f a s s o c i a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n  266 should be accepted with caution since so many common absences are involved i n these data.  However, the p o s s i b i l i t y should  not be discounted that woodworking and fowling may have been concomitant a c t i v i t i e s .  Woodworking s p e c i a l i s t s are known to  have exchanged their products f o r other resources that they needed (Barnett 1975:107).  Also, woodworking was often  undertaken at slack periods of the year (Barnett 1975:107), such as winter, when migratory species such as grebe were available (Munro and Cowan 1947:44-48). Antler composite toggling harpoon valves tend to cooccur with u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal and grebe. variables i s found i n Component I.  None of these  Unidentifiable sea mammal  remains occur i n a number of a n a l y t i c units i n Components II and I I I , but antler composite  toggling harpoon valves and  grebe occur only i n the minimum number of such u n i t s .  The  i n f l a t e d c o e f f i c i e n t values f o r these two p a i r s should therefore not be b l i n d l y accepted.  Instead, i t would be reasonable  to say that some r e l i a b l e patterns of co-occurrence exist between the a r t i f a c t and faunal variables, but the number of t i e d zero values causes i n f l a t e d c o e f f i c i e n t values and prob a b i l i t i e s to be produced. Composite toggling harpoon valves are reportedly used to hunt salmon, seals, and sea l i o n s (Barnett 1975:83, 98-99). Four Coast S a l i s h composite toggling harpoons used f o r salmon range i n length from 4.8 to 6.6 cm with an average of 5.7 (Hoover 1974,Table V).  cm  For the northwest coast i n general,  267 eight salmon harpoon head valve lengths range from 4.# t o 11.1 cm with an average of 6.9 cm (Hoover 1974,Table IV). Salmon composite toggling harpoon heads a l l belong to Type I (Hoover 1 9 7 4 : 3 9 ) .  The most common subtype of t h i s type i s  l a which has two valves of equal length, both of which are spurred.  They are mounted on a f i x e d foreshaft and have a  separate, shanked, unbarbed arming element (Hoover 1974:3#). They also lack lashing grooves, and the arming channel i s l a t e r a l l y bound ( i . e . i t i s closed along the edges where the valves meet); i (Hoover 1 9 7 4 : 9 7 ) . The four complete valves from Deep Bay range i n length from 5.0 t o 6.3 cm with an average of 5.3 cm.  Their form i s  that of Hoover's Subtype l a . The evidence therefore suggests that the Deep Bay valves were most l i k e l y t o have been parts of salmon harpoons.  I f t h i s i s the case, the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between antler composite toggling harpoon valves and sea mammals appears t o be based on concomitant a c t i v i t y . remains are not common at the s i t e .  Salmon  But, l i k e seals and? sea  l i o n s , salmon are known t o prey on herring.  I t i s reasonable  to expect salmon a c q u i s i t i o n t o o l s to associate with sea mammals under these circumstances. Indeed salmon are also prey t o seals and sea l i o n s , so the common presence of herring, salmon, and sea mammals i s to be expected. I t should be pointed out that the sample s i z e s involved i n the,calculations of ranges and averages f o r valve lengths are small i n both Hoover's case and my own.  Also, very few  268 of Hoover's valves are d e f i n i t e l y made of a n t l e r .  For these  two reasons his results should be applied with caution to the Deep Bay data.  Secondly, sea mammals were t i r e d and  hindered by means of f l o a t s t i e d to harpoon l i n e s (Barnett 1975:99).  When t i r e d , the animal could be brought alongside  and dispatched.  I contend that excessively robust harpoon  valves are not needed for t h i s purpose.  I f t h i s i s true,  then salmon harpoons could have doubled as expedient means for acquiring sea mammals.  In t h i s case, the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between sea mammal and antler composite toggling harpoon valve may be based on coterminous a c t i v i t y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the valves to grebe i s tenuous. Aside from s t a t i s t i c a l considerations and the p o s s i b i l i t y that the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s coincident, there may be another basis for the p a i r i n g of these two v a r i a b l e s .  Grebes prey  on small f i s h as an i n t e g r a l part of t h e i r diet (Carl 1963: 47), and i n this respect they are similar i n habit to seals and sea l i o n s .  Since herring are known to spawn near the  s i t e at a time when grebes are s t i l l on the coast, and since seals, sea l i o n s , and salmon could also be expected to be present as predators at t h i s time, i t i s possible that the relationship between the a n t l e r composite toggling harpoon valves and grebe remains i s based on concomitant a c t i v i t y . Ochre shares relationships with dog, u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal, and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck.  A l l of these variables are  common throughout Components II and I I I .  This abundance  269 suggests that the c o e f f i c i e n t s and the p r o b a b i l i t i e s are r e l i a b l e f o r the three variable p a i r s .  Unidentifiable sea  mammal and ochre are absent from Component I, and dog and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck each occur i n only one a n a l y t i c a l unit of Component I. Ochre was used as a cosmetic and as body ornamentation (Barnett 1975:74; Gunther 1927:224).  I t was also used i n  f i r s t f r u i t ceremonies (Barnett 1975:90-91, 105), and i n preparing houses and i n i t i a t e s f o r s p i r i t dance ceremonies. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that duck down i s spread on the f l o o r at  such ceremonies (Kew 1970:163-164).  Given the abundance  of the variables i n question and the extreme unlikelihood that ochre was used to acquire or process the faunal variables i n question, the relationships observed here seem most l i k e l y to be based on concomitant a c t i v i t y .  In the case of unidenti-  f i a b l e sea mammal and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck, f i r s t f r u i t ceremonies may have involved the use of ochre (coterminous activity).  This seems u n l i k e l y , however, since f i r s t  fruit  ceremonies seem to have been r e s t r i c t e d to salmon on Vancouver Island (Barnett 1975:107), and since f i r s t k i l l  ceremonies  (Barnett 1975:107) are u n l i k e l y to have accounted f o r the abundance of ochre at Deep Bay. Ochre may have been used f o r body care or ornamentation while subsistence a c t i v i t i e s were i n progress, or, given the suspected l a t e winter occupancy of the  s i t e , the association of ochre and duck may imply some  form of ceremonial a c t i v i t y .  270  A number of^subsequent analyses not reported here were conducted on these data.  A r t i f a c t classes were re-grouped  according to function and material, and faunal variables were re-grouped according to taxonomic andvecological s i m i l a r i t i e s . These re-grouped data were analyzed by the same means as the data reported above, and consistent r e s u l t s were again obtained among the analyses.  Further, the re-grouped data tended to  support the s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s reported here. Theoretical Framework The preceding analyses have pointed to a number of associations between s p e c i f i c a r t i f a c t classes and faunal species.  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are thought to r e s u l t from  a c t i v i t i e s that are coterminous, concomitant, or coincident. Because a l l the faunal species, except dog, that are considered here are ethnographically recorded food resource species, the t o p i c of subsistence comes immediately to mind.  The  following discussion attempts to place the r e s u l t s of the preceding analyses i n a more general, subsistence oriented context. A recent study by Flannery (1972) defines a procurement system as part of the complex adaptive system which i s culture. Each procurement system requires a technology involving implements and f a c i l i t i e s , and the f o c a l point of each system i s the plant or animal food resources being acquired (Flannery 1972:222-234).  Note here that the term "procurement system"  2?1 r e f e r s o n l y to f o o d r e s o u r c e procurement.  The  food  i s h e l d to be the focus o f the procurement system 1972:223), and s e a s o n a l i t y and  (Flannery  s c h e d u l i n g a r e s a i d to be  r e g u l a t i n g mechanisms of such s u b s i s t e n c e systems. mechanisms may  These  c o u n t e r a c t or a m p l i f y c u l t u r a l d e v i a t i o n  (Flannery 1972:228, 231; although  resource  a f t e r Maruyama 1963).  T h i s model,  v a l u a b l e as a f o u n d a t i o n and as a s t i m u l u s , has  number of f e a t u r e s that a r e  a  debatable.  F i r s t , the term "system", as d e f i n e d below, denotes a u s e f u l but overworked concept i n archaeology.  Most o f t h i s  overwork a r i s e s as a r e s u l t of assuming, r a t h e r than demons t r a t i n g , t h a t a system e x i s t s .  In many cases t h e r e i s no  a l t e r n a t i v e but t o make such an assumption i n order to account f o r an observed phenomenon, and  i n t h i s case the use of a  v e r b a l system model (von B e r t a l a n f f y 1968:24) i s a c c e p t a b l e . But,  i n many cases i t i s p o s s i b l e t o demonstrate t h a t  e x i s t s " . . . a complex o f elements d i r e c t l y or  there  indirectly  r e l a t e d i n a c a u s a l network, such t h a t a t l e a s t some o f  the  components a r e r e l a t e d t o some o t h e r s i n a more or l e s s s t a b l e way  a t any one  time.  The  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s may  be mutual or  u n i d i r e c t i o n a l , l i n e a r , n o n - l i n e a r or i n t e r m i t t e n t , and v a r y i n g i n degrees o f c a u s a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s or p r i o r i t y .  The  p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f more or l e s s s t a b l e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f components t h a t become e s t a b l i s h e d a t any  time c o n s t i t u t e  the p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e of the system a t t h a t time" 1968:493).  (Buckley  272  The archaeological record does not contain many elements, of what Flannery c a l l s procurement systems, because they are either non-observable or unpreserved.  For t h i s reason, i t  seems unwise to consider archaeological manifestations of what once may have been a system as the system i t s e l f , as he appears to do (Flannery 1972:227).  Instead, i t i s thought  more appropriate to consider the archaeological evidence a p o t e n t i a l indicator of a system.  as  Also, Flannery does not  demonstrate that causal relationships exist between variables i n what he c a l l s a system, even though techniques for detecting the association, and possible causation, of system v a r i ables are at hand and have been employed i n the present  study.  I t seems doubly inappropriate, therefore, to consider the phenomena discussed by Flannery as procurement systems. Instead, the archaeological i n d i c a t o r s of what may be procurement systems w i l l be c a l l e d procurement complexes.  It  i s argued here that by demonstrating the possible existence of procurement complexes i n the archaeological record, and by i n f e r r i n g from them the non-observable and unpreserved aspects of food resource a c q u i s i t i o n and processing, a more reasonable basis can be l a i d f o r evaluating whether or not relationships between variables imply the existence of procurement systems. Second, the designation of the food resource as the focus of a procurement complex i s subject to debate.  It i s reason-  able to argue that, without appropriate technology,  food  273  resources  could not be procured. (  In t h i s sense, technological  variables are as important i n a procurement complex as food resources.  The p a r t i c u l a r food resource may  serve as a con-  venient l a b e l for a procurement complex, but i t does not follow that technological variables are l e s s important. The procurement system concept assumes that a r e l a t i o n ship e x i s t s between a culture and the food remains that i t deposits archaeologically.  While t h i s i s undoubtedly true,  the p o s s i b i l i t y of establishing s p e c i f i c culture-food relationships must be kept i n mind.  resource  The method used i n the  f i r s t part of t h i s chapter avoids t h i s generalized assumption by demonstrating s p e c i f i c a l l y which material c u l t u r a l v a r i * ables and which food resource variables are associated.Having avoided t h i s assumption, inferences about non-observable and unpreserved variables involved i n food resource procurement rest on a firmer foundation  than those of Flannery, which rest  on the assumed r e l a t i o n s h i p of faunal remains and the r e s t of culture.  Furthermore, without the axiom that technological  variables are as important as environmental variables i n procurement complexes, the demonstration of s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n ships between material culture and food resources  i s made more  d i f f i c u l t , and the inferences drawn from the data about  non-  observable and unpreserved c u l t u r a l variables are consequentl y weaker. Third, seasonality i s a given non-cultural mechanism around which procurement systems develop and  scheduling  274  decisions are made (Flannery 1972:227).  Although scheduling  can r e s u l t i n either deviation amplifying or deviation counteracting situations, the phenomenon c a l l e d "scheduling" by Flannery (1972:227) appears i n f a c t t o be two d i f f e r e n t but related things.  Part of Flannery»s concept of scheduling  appears to be the c u l t u r a l decisions that are made concerning where t o be at what time of year i n accordance with the seaso n a l i t y of various food resources. c a l l e d "annual round".  This concept can be  The second concept, also affected by  seasonality, r e l a t e s t o the decisions as t o who w i l l be at which place a t which time of year t o e x p l o i t resources. concept can be l a b e l l e d "organization of labor".  This  The adopt-  ion of these two terms would not only s p e c i f y the c u l t u r a l mechanisms that regulate the use of procurement complexes and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but i t would also provide a means by which the sources of v a r i a t i o n i n food resource a v a i l a b i l i t y noted by Suttles (1960:302) can be incorporated into archaeological usage.  Synthesis of Results In the l i g h t of t h i s discussion, many mf the associations detected i n the f i r s t part of t h i s chapter may be seen as implying procurement complexes.  Associations that are  thought t o represent both coterminous and concomitant food resource a c q u i s i t i o n and processings a c t i v i t i e s f a l l into t h i s category.  However, not a l l coterminous and concomitant r e l -  275  ationships are necessarily involved i n subsistence  activities.  Relationships involving non-subsistence species, such as dog, would not be involved i n procurement complexes, although dogs could be considered as a technological item i n terms of hunting.  Nor would non-subsistence oriented a r t i f a c t classes be  involved i n procurement complexes.  Into t h i s category f a l l  antler wedges, abrasive stones, ground s l a t e fragments, worked bone fragments, and ochre.  Also, inverse relationships, such  as those between simple flake tools and various mollusc species, cannot be considered as procurement complex indicators because they imply temporal v a r i a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s conducted at the same part of the s i t e .  The remaining associations that may  imply procurement complexes are:  t h i n ground s l a t e point and  sea l i o n , t h i n ground s l a t e point andsunidentifiable sea mammal, t h i n ground s l a t e point and seagull, t h i n ground s l a t e point and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck, ground s l a t e knife and seagull, bone point and seagull, bone point  anduunidentifiable  duck, bone bipoint and seagull, bone bipoint and unidentif i a b l e duck, bone bipoint and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e b i r d , antler composite toggling harpoon valves and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal, and antler composite toggling harpoon valves and grebe. C l e a r l y , the range of species involved i n these associ a t i o n s i s limited*  Therefore,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  variable associations and procurement complexes i s not one to one.  That i s , a number of such associations may imply a  276 s i n g l e procurement complex. associations,  The s p e c i e s i n v o l v e d  along w i t h t h e a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s  w i t h them, a r e :  associated  s e a l l i o n - t h i n ground s l a t e p o i n t ;  f i a b l e sea mammal-thin ground s l a t e p o i n t , toggling  i n these  harpoon v a l v e ;  antler  s e a g u l l - t h i n ground s l a t e  ground s l a t e k n i f e , bone p o i n t , bone b i p o i n t ; composite t o g g l i n g  harpoon v a l v e ;  unidenticomposite point,  grebe-antler  u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck-thin  ground s l a t e p o i n t , bone p o i n t , bone b i p o i n t ;  unidentifiable  bird-bone b i p o i n t . The u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal v a r i a b l e i s l i k e l y t o c o n s i s t almost e x c l u s i v e l y o f s e a l i o n and s e a l because these s p e c i e s comprise a l l the i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal remains. T h e r e f o r e i t i s n o t unreasonable t o combine sea l i o n and l a b e l the r e s u l t sea mammal; class associations toggling  t h i s v a r i a b l e and Thus, the a r t i f a c t  o f t h i s v a r i a b l e a r e a n t l e r composite  harpoon v a l v e s and t h i n ground s l a t e  These a s s o c i a t i o n s  points.  may r e p r e s e n t a procurement  complex.  However, t h e s i z e o f most o f the v a l v e s and the absence o f an arming s l o t on them l e a v e s open the q u e s t i o n o f whether t h i s procurement complex i s a r e s u l t o f coterminous o r concomitant a c t i v i t y ^ the  I f i t i s a r e s u l t o f coterminous a c t i v i t y ,  s i z e and form o f a number o f a n t l e r composite  harpoon v a l v e s and t h i n ground s l a t e p o i n t s  seem  toggling inappropriate.  I f i t i s a r e s u l t o f concomitant a c t i v i t y , what r e s o u r c e s were b e i n g taken w i t h the a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s i n q u e s t i o n , and by what means were t h e s e a mammal s p e c i e s taken?  Small a n t l e r com-  /  277 p o s i t e t o g g l i n g harpoon v a l v e s may imply that salmon were b e i n g taken.  These f i s h prey on h e r r i n g , as do s e a l s and  sea l i o n s , t h e r e f o r e they a r e l i k e l y t o be a v a i l a b l e a t Deep Bay a t the same time as these s p e c i e s .  If a relation-  s h i p between a n t l e r composite t o g g l i n g harpoon v a l v e s and sea mammals was based on concomitant a c t i v i t i e s o f sea mammal and salmon a c q u i s i t i o n , one would expect s u b s t a n t i a l quant i t i e s o f salmon remains t o have been r e c o v e r e d from the Deep Bay e x c a v a t i o n s .  In f a c t , salmon remains a r e not common  compared t o other f i s h remains.  I t i s not c l e a r whether  this  s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t s from salmon not being taken a t Deep Bay or from salmon being p r o c e s s e d and removed from the s i t e . T h i n ground s l a t e p o i n t s , l a r g e l y t r i a n g u l a r and corner notched, may have armed hunting arrows (Duff 1952:59).  Their  s m a l l s i z e and l i g h t weight v i r t u a l l y p r e c l u d e s t h e i r use i n a p r o j e c t i l e more robust than an arrow.  Such arrows would  have been e f f e c t i v e i n hunting deer, the remains o f which a r e p l e n t i f u l i n the Deep Bay d e p o s i t s .  Bucks were p r e f e r r e d i n  the s p r i n g when they were w e l l f e d ( S u t t l e s  1951:82-83).  The Slaiamman a r e r e p o r t e d t o have a c q u i r e d deer and h e r r i n g d u r i n g March (Barnett 1975:29). at Deep Bay i n March a l s o .  H e r r i n g are known t o spawn  Therefore, i t i s possible  that  s e a l s and sea l i o n s , p r e y i n g on the h e r r i n g as they spawned, were taken a t the same time as deer were being hunted by means o f bows and arrows. A l t h o u g h the p a i r i n g o f t h i n ground s l a t e p o i n t s and  278 a n t l e r composite  t o g g l i n g harpoon v a l v e s w i t h s e a l and sea  l i o n v a r i a b l e s seems d e f i n i t e l y t o imply a procurement complex, the exact nature o f t h e procurement system or systems r e p r e s e n t e d by t h i s complex i s not c l e a r .  The  ethnographic and e c o l o g i c a l analogues p r o v i d e f o r a v a r i e t y of  interpretations. The b i r d remains,  except f o r u n i d e n t i f i a b l e b i r d ,  also  co-occur w i t h t h e same a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s as t h e sea mammal remains.  In a d d i t i o n , however, the b i r d s p e c i e s share r e -  l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h bone p o i n t s and bone b i p o i n t s .  Relation-  s h i p s o f the b i r d s p e c i e s w i t h these l a t t e r two a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s may suggest a coterminous  b i r d procurement complex,  but t h e r e i s l i t t l e ethnographic support f o r t h i s ation.  interpret-  I n s t e a d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n some i n s t a n c e s , o f  b i r d and sea mammal s p e c i e s w i t h the same a r t i f a c t  classes  i m p l i e s that t h e r e may be some i n d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n between the a c q u i s i t i o n o f these f a u n a l s p e c i e s .  S e a l s and sea l i o n s  are known t o p r e y on h e r r i n g (Cowan and Guiget 1968:348, 353; B a r n e t t 1975:15), and t h e b i r d s p r e s e n t l y under d i s c u s s i o n commonly f e e d on h e r r i n g and t h e i r r o e ( C a r l 1966:47; Guiget 1967:8).  Among the Lummi and other s o u t h e a s t e r n Coast  Salish  groups, n e t s were suspended underwater on h e r r i n g spawning beaches i n order t o t r a p and drown b i r d s f e e d i n g underwater on h e r r i n g and t h e i r eggs ( S t e r n 1934:41; S u t t l e s 1951:73-74). H e r r i n g a r e known t o i n h a b i t Baynes Sound ( T e s t e r 1947) and t o spawn on the beach t o the southeast o f t h e s i t e i n e a r l y  279 spring (March i n 1976).  The migratory b i r d species presently  under discussion leave the coast between March and May (Munro and Cowan 1947).  I t seems highly l i k e l y , therefore, that  both the b i r d species and the sea mammal species i n question were present at the s i t e as predators  on the herring.  Man, too, was present as a predator as the faunal remains indicate.  on a l l these species,  Herring were reportedly  taken by means of rakes made of a wooden shaft set with pointed bone "teeth" (Stern 1934:50; Barnett 1975:86; Gunther 1927:202; Suttles 1951:126), and i t i s almost c e r t a i n that herring were also taken by means of the f i s h trap to the southeast of the s i t e .  Herring remains are p r o l i f i c i n  the s h e l l midden deposits of the s i t e , attesting to their heavy e x p l o i t a t i o n by man.  Also present i n the midden de-  p o s i t s are large numbers of single and double pointed bone objects that could e a s i l y have served as herring rake teeth. Herring remains do not share relationships with bone points or bone b i p o i n t s — i . e . f i s h procuring a r t i f a c t —as  classes  might " i n i t i a l l y be expected, because of their omni-  presence.  The massive amounts of these f i s h that could be  caught i n the f i s h trap, compared to the amounts that could be caught with herring rakes, probably made their remains so abundant that they do not covary with any a r t i f a c t  class.  Also, the l i k e l i h o o d that herring were preserved whole by smoking and drying (Stern 1934:50; Gunther 1927:208; Suttles 1951:127) would account i n large part f o r the lack of r e lationships between herring remains and f i s h  processing  280 a r t i f a c t classes.  Therefore,  because these f i s h could be  taken i n large numbers, possibly without related a r t i f a c t classes being l e f t i n the archaeological deposits, i t i s not surprising that herring remains share no relationships with a r t i f a c t classes. The relationships of seagull, grebe, unidentifiable duck, and unidentifiable b i r d with bone points and bone bipoints seem to suggest, on the basis of the preceding discussion, that a procurement complex e x i s t s and that t h i s complex i s based on concomitant a c t i v i t y .  While herring were being  taken, birds preying on herring and herring eggs were probably also taken as a subsidiary  resource.  The same argument can be applied to the a c q u i s i t i o n of seals and sea l i o n s .  Although these species may have been  less peripheral than waterfowl to the subsistence base of the s i t e inhabitants, and although the sea mammal procurement complex appears most l i k e l y to r e f l e c t concomitant a c t i v i t y (sea mammal and salmon a c q u i s i t i o n ) , i t can be strongly argued that sea mammals were probably exploited, l i k e waterfowl, as they followed the spawning herring. It was suggested i n the discussion of the sea mammal procurement complex that thin ground s l a t e points might imply hunting a c t i v i t y , since none of the antler composite toggling harpoon valves had s l o t s to receive this kind of armament. I f arrows are implied by these points, then a consideration of land hunting evidence i s i n order.  Tables XXVIII and XXX  281 i n d i c a t e t h a t deer i s the major l a n d mammal s p e c i e s sented i n the Deep Bay  d e p o s i t s and  repre-  that t h i s resource  was  heavily exploited.  In s p i t e of t h i s heavy e x p l o i t a t i o n ,  deer remains do not  "share s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  same a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s i n more than one reasons f o r t h i s a r e :  analysis.  the  Possible  1) because the d u r a b l e a r t i f a c t s used  to a c q u i r e deer were v a l u a b l e beyond the p e r i o d of time t h a t p e o p l e stayed a t Deep Bay  they were p r o b a b l y c u r a t e d ,  because non-durable a r t i f a c t s , such as snares, n e t s (Barnett  traps,  and  2)  and  1975:96-98, 99-103), c o u l d be used to take  s u b s t a n t i a l numbers of deer without being archaeological record.  evident  i n the .  T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s the same as  that  o u t l i n e d f o r the absence o f v a r i a b l e p a i r s i n v o l v i n g h e r r i n g . Deer limb bones, as p o i n t e d out  i n Chapter VI, are found  i n d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e numbers compared to trunk bones i n the Deep Bay d e p o s i t s .  T h i s suggests t h a t a number o f  the  a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s used t o hunt and p r e l i m i n a r i l y butcher deer are u n l i k e l y to be found a t the s i t e . s e l e c t i v e importation  Furthermore,  the  o f deer bones to the s i t e would mean  that not a l l remains of these animals have the same chance t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s compared to s p e c i e s were whole when brought to the s i t e .  The  abundance o f deer  remains i n the s i t e , combined w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t hunting may  have taken p l a c e a t the same time as s e a l s  sea l i o n s were being  that  taken, suggests that deer hunting  have been an important procurement complex a t Deep  Bay.  land and may  The abundance of dog remains, a species that could be interpreted as an a r t i f a c t i n the sense that dogs were often used as aids i n deer hunting (Barnett 1975:96-97), further supports the inference that considerable deer hunting have been undertaken at Deep Bay.  In f a c t , deer and  remains co-occur at ^ = +0.398, °^ = 0.001 absence data and at r  = +0.321, ©< = 0.010  may dog  i n the presence/ i n the weight of  s remains data. a c t i v i t y may  I t has already been pointed out that this have occurred i n the spring when herring were  available and when bucks are at their prime (Barnett 29; Suttles 1951:82-83). procurement system may  1975:  I t appears, therefore, that a deer  be implied by the sea mammal and water-  fowl procurement complexes. V e r i f i c a t i o n of Results I f the preceding discussion i s an accurate interpretation of past c u l t u r a l and environmental relationships at Deep Bay, one could reasonably expect that relationships would occur among the a r t i f a c t classes and among the faunal remains i n question.  Using the same techniques as were used to detect  relationships between a r t i f a c t classes and faunal species, the four forms of the data were examined.  No relationships  were found i n the minimum numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s and mated weight of usable meat data.  esti-  The presence/absence and  weight of remains data, however, produced the relationships shown i n Tables XXXIV and XXXV.  Table XXXIV indicates that  a l l the a r t i f a c t classes pair with at least one other  artifact  283 TABLE XXXIV Pairs of Selected A r t i f a c t Classes, Lot 73, DiSe 7 <\. ^ 05 a  Analysis +/Variable  wt%  Pair  t h i n ground slate point x bone point t h i n ground s l a t e point x bone bipoint ground slate knife x bone bipoint bone point x bone bipoint bone point x toggling harpoon valve bone bipoint x toggling harpoon valve  +0,478 +0.367 +0.308 +0.516 +0.379 +0.432  0.002 +0.3048 0.015 0.011 +0.2745 0.029 0.051 +0.2824 0.025 0.000 +0.3949 0.001 0.023 +0.2501 0.048 0.003 +0.3793 0.002  TABLE XXXV Pairs of Selected Faunal Species, Lot 73, DiSe 7 <=\^ .05 Analysis +/Variable  0  Pair  sea l i o n x unidentifiable, sea mammal sea l i o n x. seagull sea l i o n x u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal x seagull u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal x grebe u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal x u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal x unidentifiable bird seagull x u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck x u n i d e n t i f i a b l e bird l  «*<  wt% r  «*  +0.404 0.005 +0.4114 0.001 +0.2478 0.050 +0.2745 0.029 +0.292 0.047 +0.2877 0.022 +0.410 0.005 +0.3871 0.002 +0.374 0.007 +0.4031 0.001 +0.391 0.025 +0.309 0.032 +0i2740 0.030 +0.384 0.006 +0.3438 0.006  284 class i n both analyses of the data  These relationships may  e  be diagrammed as follows: ground s l a t e k n i f e thin ground' slate point  I  bone bipoint I  -  composite toggling harpoon valve  -bone point Figure 28.  Relationships among selected a r t i f a c t classes, Lot 73, DiSe 7.  These relationships tend to support the view that these a r t i f a c t classes are mutually i n t e r r e l a t e d because of their involvement i n r e l a t e d subsistence a c t i v i t i e s . I f one accepts only those paired faunal species that occur i n both analyses, a l l faunal species are nevertheless found to p a i r with at least one other species (Table XXXV). The relationships among these variables can be shown as follows: u n i d e n t i f i a b l e b i r d - u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck - seagull  /  u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal  \  sea l i o n  I grebe Figure 29. Relationships among selected faunal species, Lot 73, DiSe 7. The remains of these species tend to co-occur  i n the arch-  aeological record because, l i k e the selected a r t i f a c t classes, they were part of a related set of subsistence a c t i v i t i e s .  285 It remains to show that deer and herring remains are related to these selected faunal species and to each other. Table XXXVI shows those variable pairs involving deer that occur at ^ i j r ,05 i n the presence/absence and weight of remains data, TABLE XXXVI Variable Pairs Involving Deer and Selected Faunal Species, Lot 73, DiSe 7 .05 Analysis • +/Variable Pair deer x u n i d e n t i f i a b l e sea mammal deer x u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck deer x u n i d e n t i f i a b l e b i r d  wt%  ft  r  ^  g  +0,285 0,0479 +0,365 0.0085 +0.359 0.0104 +0.3247 0.009  I f one accepts only those variable pairs that are found i n both analyses, then deer s t i l l i s related to the selected faunal species through i t s co-occurrence with u n i d e n t i f i a b l e bird.  I f a l l three variable pairs i n Table XXXVI are accepted,  then deer i s seen as t i g h t l y i n t e r r e l a t e d with selected  faunal  species. Herring remains pair only with seagull remains.  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p should not be considered as a strong one because of the minimal occurrence of seagull remains.  However, there  does seem to be a relationship between these variables that i s s i g n i f i c a n t at *K = .006 with a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of  286 r  g  = +0.345 i n the weight of remains data.  This r e l a t i o n -  ship i s also found i n the presence/absence data to have a s i g n i f i c a n c e of °^ = .022 of <ji - +0.329.  and a c o e f f i c i e n t of association  These data indicate that the seagull pro-  curement complex, and by extension the waterfowl procurement complex, may  indeed be linked to the a c q u i s i t i o n of herring.  Consequently, these data are thought to support the preceding concomitant a c t i v i t y interpretation that was derived for variable pairs involving waterfowl. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between herring  and  deer could not be detected i n either the presence/absence or weight of remains data.  The lack of a variable p a i r involving  these two species does not necessarily indicate that they were unrelated  to one another i n terms of subsistence a c t i v i t i e s  at the s i t e . be made.  In f a c t , quite the opposite interpretation can  I f the ethnographic analogy with the Slaiamman  holds for the former inhabitants of Deep Bay,  i t i s possible  that d i f f e r e n t groups within the s i t e inhabitants were i n volved i n the independent a c t i v i t i e s of herring f i s h i n g and deer hunting.  The number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each type of  a c t i v i t y could vary randomly through such mechanisms as i n herited rights to s p e c i f i c resource locations, access to a number of resource locations through b i l a t e r a l kinship t i e s , and s p e c i a l i s t pursuits of both types of a c t i v i t y .  Also,  predictable and non-predictable fluctuations i n the abundance of each resource may  obscure whatever potential relationships  287 exist between the remains of these two species. Because these two resources were l i k e l y to have been pursued independently, they can be seen as a l l the more important i n terms of subsistence. Even i f the harvest was poor from one of these resources, the abundance of the other resource would not be affected. Conclusion It seems reasonable to i n f e r that the procurement complexes discussed above represent the tangible evidence of several food resource procurement systems.  Several of these  systems are c l e a r l y more important than the others;  These  systems can be defined and i n t u i t i v e l y ranked as follows: l a . The herring procurement system.  A r t i f a c t class data,  faunal data, ethnographic analogues and ecological analogues a l l suggest that herring were a primary food resource and that a well developed set of tools and behavior was associated with t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n . l b . The deer procurement system.  Ethnographic and eco-  l o g i c a l analogues and faunal data indicate that deer, as well as herring, were acquired independently as basic components of the subsistence strategy at Deep Bay. 2. The sea mammal procurement system. l i o n belong within t h i s system.  Both seal and sea  Faunal data, possibly the  a r t i f a c t class data, ethnographic and e c o l o g i c a l analogues a l l support the view that t h i s procurement system was  closely  288 t i e d to the herring procurement system.  Although more usable  meat on Lot 73 i s represented by sea mammals compared to deer, the dependent r e l a t i o n s h i p of sea mammals and herring suggests that the sea mammal procurement system should be assigned less importance than the deer procurement system; 3. The waterfowl procurement system.  A l l four types of  data indicate the existence of such a procurement system. An examination of the weights of remains of these species, their frequency of occurrence, and the amount of usable meat they contribute to the food resource inventory c l e a r l y shows that these species form a minor part of the subsistence base. 4. The mollusc procurement system.  This system i s added  here, not because i t seems to be the least important food resource procurement system at Deep Bay, but rather to indicate that mollusc gathering a c t i v i t y was undoubtedly an important day to day a c t i v i t y (Gunther 1927:206; Stern 1934:47).  This  system i s also included as a reminder that i t i s possible f o r a coastal s i t e to have been occupied without evidence of s h e l l f i s h having been gathered, e.g. Component I . These procurement systems are thought to constitute the subsistence base at Deep Bay.  The absence from Component I  of p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the variables involved means that the relationships discussed here apply to Components II and I I I . The d i s t r i b u t i o n s of sea l i o n remains and t h i n ground s l a t e points indicate that at least part of the sea mammal procurement system, andrpossibly the deer procurement system, may  have been more prevalent i n component II than i n Component III,  Bone bipoints appear i n greater numbers i n Component  III than i n Component I I , This suggests that the waterfowl procurement system may have developed through time i n conjunction with the herring procurement system.  On the other  hand, l i g h t duty bone points are evenly d i s t r i b u t e d through Components II and I I I ;  Therefore, changes may have been  minor i n the procurement systems i n which they were involved. The i n a b i l i t y of the Kruskal-Wallis test to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between components on the basis of many a r t i f a c t classes or faunal remains seems to indicate that only minor s h i f t s are l i k e l y to have occurred i n the procurement systems throughout Components II and I I I ,  290  CHAPTER IX SEASONAL ASPECTS OF SITE USE Introduction The purpose of this chapter i s to bring together the various l i n e s of evidence pertaining to the seasonal ion of Deep Bay,  occupat-  The data on which t h i s discussion i s based  consist of the various attributes of the faunal assemblage recovered from the midden deposits on Lot 73.  The v i r t u a l  absence of faunal remains from the Component I deposits means that the findings presented here are applicable p r i marily to Components II and I I I ,  Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and the ecology of selected b i r d s , f i s h , and mammal species are examined and the conclusion i s reached that, at least during the time when Components II and I I I were deposited, the Deep Bay s i t e was occupied during the l a t e winter and early spring.  During the period of Component I I I , however,  the s i t e may have been occupied less i n t e n s i v e l y at various other times of year as w e l l .  An attempt i s a l s o made, i n  l i g h t of seasonal implications drawn from the faunal assemblage, to place the Deep Bay s i t e into an annual subsistence round context.  This context w i l l be general i n the sense  that i n s u f f i c i e n t information i s a v a i l a b l e f o r meaningful d i s t i n c t i o n s to be made between the r o l e s played by Components  291  II and III i n the annual round. Faunal  Evidence  The clam s h e l l seasonality analysis suggested  that at  least 50%, and as much as 80%, of a l l clams recovered from the midden were taken i n the f i r s t growth quarter.  That i s ,  they were gathered during the period during which the winter check ring was being formed or during the i n i t i a l stages of post-winter growth.  This evidence would imply that clams  were being most heavily exploited during mid-to-late winter and e a r l y spring. time of year may was  The heavy e x p l o i t a t i o n of clams at t h i s  indicate that l a t e winter and e a r l y spring  the period of most intensive occupation of the s i t e , or  i t may  indicate that other more desirable subsistence resources  were not a v a i l a b l e at t h i s time of year.  The decrease i n the  emphasis on the spring quarter, and the increase i n the emphasis on l a t e r quarters, of clam e x p l o i t a t i o n from the Gulf of Georgia Component might be accounted f o r by l o c a l environmental of  change a f f e c t i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y <5f the range  subsistence resources.  c u l t u r a l change.  Or, i t may be accounted f o r by a  One p o s s i b i l i t y i s that increased population  pressure and increased inter-group^conflict prompted the construction of defensive structures such as earthworks. One  such earthwork, reportedly very large, formerly existed  on the s p i t at Deep Bay.  With a need f o r greater security,  the e a r l i e r annual round may have been s l i g h t l y modified to  include longer occupation, by some or a l l l o c a l group members, of s i t e s such as Deep Bay that could be defended easily.  relatively  Thus, although there may be a s l i g h t change through  time i n the seasonal occupation of the s i t e , i t appears mainly to have been used during the l a t e winter and early spring. From Lot 73 the remains of fourteen b i r d species or genera were i d e n t i f i e d .  In keeping with previous usage,  the term "variables" w i l l be used to refer to genus and species remains.  Eight variables were found i n three or less  a n a l y t i c a l u n i t s , thus suggesting their lack of i n terms of subsistence.  importance  Five variables are sedentary while  the remaining three are migratory.  Six variables found i n  f i v e or more a n a l y t i c a l units are included i n Table XXVIII, and i t i s i n f e r r e d from their increased frequency of occurrence that they were r e l a t i v e l y important i n terms of subsistence.  Three of the s i x variables are migratory and  three are sedentary.  Because of their importance f o r sub-  sistence purposes, as well as seasonal dating purposes, the migratory variables from t h i s table w i l l be examined c l o s e l y here.  The three variables i n question are Aythya marila,  Podiceps/Colymbus, and u n i d e n t i f i a b l e duck.  Aythya marila,  or greater scaup duck, i s a winter v i s i t o r to the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia (Godfrey 1966:69).  I t appears on the coast  between September and November and departs between March and May  (Munro and Cowan 1947:67; Guiget 1958:55).  The greater  scaup duck i s a s a l t water b i r d when on the coast. I t s d i e t i s almost e n t i r e l y animal matter such as s h e l l f i s h , insects, and crustaceans (Godfrey 1966:56).  This preference  for animal foods i s l i k e l y to include herring and their roe. Podiceps/Colymbus, or grebe, consists of some s i x species i n the province.  A l l are migratory, however, spending the  period from September t o November through March t o May on the coast (Munro and Cowan 1947:44-48).  The red-necked grebe  and p i e d - b i l l grebe, however, are known to nest on the coast as well (Godfrey 1966:16, 19).  When on s a l t water, grebes  feed on small fishes that they chase and capture underwater (Carl 1963:47), as well as on crustaceans (Godfrey 1966:17, 18).  Unidentifiable duck i s a variable covering Anseriformes  not belonging to the swan or goose category.  These ducks a l l  have a tendency to winter on the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia and to migrate north f o r nesting purposes i n the summer. Nevertheless, some members of the various species involved, usually immature i n d i v i d u a l s , stay on the coast during the summer as well (Munro and Cowan 1947:59-72).  Ducks i n this  category feed on a v a r i e t y of plants, crustaceans, and s h e l l fish.  The migratory birds that are found i n abundance on  Lot 73 therefore appear to frequent the coast between October and A p r i l and to subsist there, to a considerable extent, on animal foods. The frequently exploited sedentary species are Branta sp. Larus sp., and Haliaeetus leucocephalus.  The f i r s t of these  294 variables i s most l i k e l y to be the greater Canada goose, although subspecies of t h i s genus are imperfectly understood (Godfrey 1966:49).  The second i s most l i k e l y to be  the glaucous-winged g u l l , and the l a s t i s the bald eagle. While the Canada goose feeds on vegetable matter (Guiget 1958:16), both the bald eagle and glaucous-winged g u l l feed i  to a greater or lesser extent on animal food, e s p e c i a l l y f i s h (Guiget 1967:8; Godfrey 1966:98; Carl 1963:68).  Another  notable feature of these sedentary birds i s t h e i r large size.  They are larger than almost any other l o c a l l y a v a i l -  able sedentary birds except herons and possibly cormorants. Thus, whereas the preferred migratory birds appear i n large numbers, the preferred sedentary birds appear to be of large size. Among the infrequently occurring b i r d variables, Brachyramphus sp. (murrelet), Gavia sp. (loon), Melanitta sp. (scoter), and U r i a sp. (murre) are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . Murrelet i s a sedentary b i r d , o f i n t e r e s t because i t s d i e t consists o f crustaceans and small f i s h such as herring (Carl 1966:83).  The common loon, the a r c t i c loon, and the red-  throated loon are common winter residents on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast.  The a r c t i c loon i s known but uncommon on  the coast i n summer.  The y e l l o w - b i l l e d loon winters on the  coast, a l b e i t i n small numbers.  The point of i n t e r e s t about  loons i s t h e i r capacity to swim underwater i n pursuit of f i s h , which form a major portion of t h e i r d i e t .  The white-  295 winged scoter, known as M. fusca (Munro and Cowan 1947:72) and M. deglandi (Godfrey 1966:79), i s a winter resident of the coast.  Both white-winged and surf scoters are common  winter coastal v i s i t o r s (Godfrey 1966:79-80; C a r l 1966:6466).  The white-winged scoter inhabits the coast between  September-October and March-April.  I t s d i e t consists of  animal foods such as s h e l l f i s h and crustaceans.  The surf  scoter i s present on the coast at the same time of year, but i t s d i e t i s extended to include insects and small f i s h (Guiget 1958:73).  L a s t l y , murres—most l i k e l y the common  murre (uria a a g l e ) — i n h a b i t d i f f e r e n t parts of the coast during d i f f e r e n t seasons.  During the summer breeding season  they are usually found i n colonies along the open ocean and are usually absent from more protected waters.  In the e a r l y  f a l l , however, they move to protected i n s i d e waters where they remain for the winter. eating birds (Carl 1966:82).  Murres are c l a s s i f i e d as f i s h As noted i n Chapter I I , a l l  these b i r d species are recorded i n Audubon Society Christmas b i r d counts (eg. Arbib 1973:179-180). Turning to migratory f i s h , herring i s the only species a v a i l a b l e i n great numbers at the s i t e .  Herring remains were  very abundant i n the deposits, sometimes appearing almost carpet-like.  The f i s h trap on the beach to the southeast of  the s i t e i s a possible means by which they were acquired. Evidence has already been c i t e d to the e f f e c t that, although herring were present i n Baynes Sound adjacent to the s i t e  ,  296  during the l a t e f a l l and winter, the spawning of these schools, and therefore their greatest a c c e s s i b i l i t y , d i d not occur u n t i l early spring.  In 1976 the height of the  spawn occurred about March 21st ( J , Reid,pers, comm).  Herring  spawn on the seaweed and sand deposits surrounding and i n the f i s h trap, and t h e i r abundance during t h i s time can probably be judged by the a b i l i t y of present day people to dip herring from the trap with trout nets and bare hands. It has been noted that seals and sea l i o n s prey on f i s h , including herring, during the spawning periods (Cowan and Guiget 1956:348, 353).  Since the Deep Bay s i t u a t i o n i s  u n l i k e l y to be d i f f e r e n t from any other herring spawning area, i t can be i n f e r r e d that the seal and sea l i o n remains i n the deposits represent individuals taken while following the schools of spawning herring. Since the herring spawn occurs about March, i t seems reasonable to conclude that seals and sea l i o n s are most r e a d i l y available at the s i t e at t h i s time of year. Not only seals and sea l i o n s preyed on spawning herring. Stern (1934:41) notes that the Hurnrni set nets underwater to trap birds feeding on herring and t h e i r roe.  These birds  consume animal foods, including f i s h , that are obtained i n underwater pursuit.  Thus, the migratory birds may  easily  have been taken while they fed on the herring or t h e i r eggs. Seagulls and eagles, both scavengers and consumers of f i s h , can be assumed to have been present i n substantial numbers  297  while herzing spawned because of the r e l a t i v e l y abundant and concentrated food supply. Barnett reports f o r the Slaiaman that, while herring were caught at the mouth of Powell River during March to mid-May, deer were hunted on Powell Lake.  The products of  both pursuits were l a t e r exchanged (Barnett 1975:29).  In  the Deep Bay faunal assemblage, deer remains were among the most frequently and abundantly represented remains of any species.  As has been pointed out by S u t t l e s , bucks were  preferred i n the spring because of t h e i r well nourished condition, i n contrast to does that had just given b i r t h . Does, which were f a t i n the f a l l , were hunted i n December f o r immediate consumption (Suttles 1951:82-83).  Although  there i s no information on the sex of deer i n the Deep Bay faunal assemblage, the two ethnographic  reports of deer  hunting i n the spring, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n conjunction with herring a c q u i s i t i o n , and the abundance of both deer and herring remains i n the faunal assemblage, suggest that the seasonal a c q u i s i t i o n pattern may also have been followed at Deep Bay. Age composition of selected species i s another means by which seasonal inferences can be made from the faunal assemblage,  i n the Deep Bay faunal assemblage, i t i s possible  to examine the dog and deer remains and, to some extent, sea mammal remains i n t h i s l i g h t .  Juvenile i n d i v i d u a l s , i d e n t i -  f i e d on the basis of bone s i z e and f u s i o n of epiphises, are  present f o r dog and deer and to a lesser extent f o r sea l i o n , s e a l , and beaver.  Given the rather generalized  seasonal  range outlined by these c r i t e r i a i t i s desirable to accumul a t e more s p e c i f i c evidence ( c f . Ham In one instance, however, i t was  and Irvine 1975:371).  possible to assign  one  canine i n d i v i d u a l to the one to f i v e month age bracket the basis of tooth eruption. deer were i d e n t i f i e d . (Odocoileus  Also, the remains of a f e t a l  Mule deer, or coast black t a i l deer  hemionus columbianus) give b i r t h i n the spring  (Banfield 1974:389). suggesting  on  While t h i s i s only an i s o l a t e d instance  a season of s i t e occupation,  i t does support the  other l i n e s of evidence that suggest a l a t e winter and early spring occupation. may  The i s o l a t e d instance of a f e t a l deer  support S u t t l e s ' report that male deer were preferred i n  the spring. The migratory birds imply a l a t e f a l l to e a r l y spring time period.  Within that time period the clam s h e l l s and  the herring remains imply a l a t e winter to early spring time period.  The presence i n the faunal assemblage of two  sea  mammal species and two sedentary b i r d species known to prey on small f i s h , including herring,supports  the p o s i t i o n that  the species i n question were most l i k e l y to have been taken at  the s i t e .  The conclusion can be made, therefore, that the  s i t e was p r i m a r i l y occupied during the l a t e winter and early spring for the purpose of taking advantage of the  concentration  of food resource species centered around spawning herring.  299 The faunal and ethnographic evidence also suggests that deer hunting may have occurred i n conjunction with herring fishing. I f Deep Bay represents a s i t e occupied during l a t e winter to e a r l y spring, i t s place i n an annual subsistence round should be examined.  Not only i s i t of interest to reconstruct  an annual round on the basis of what i s known from Deep Bay, but i t i s a l s o important to give some c u l t u r a l context to the a r t i f a c t assemblage. to be developed  This context w i l l enable hypotheses  that help account f o r v a r i a t i o n among assem-  blages • There are c e r t a i n f i x e d points of reference that can be dealt with i n reconstructing an annual round i n the Deep Bay area.  F i r s t , there i s the cessation of vigorous subsistence  related a c t i v i t y during the height of winter, December through February.  approximately  There are no i n d i c a t i o n s of where  a winter v i l l a g e s i t e might be located, but i t would have to be r e l a t i v e l y large i n area and f a i r l y protected from northern and southwestern winds.  The entire l o c a l group could be  expected to spend the main winter months there.  In the e a r l y  spring the i n i t i a l subsistence a c t i v i t i e s would take place. There are several other herring spawning areas near Deep Bay, notably Comox Harbour and Nanoose Bay.  Depending on size  and composition, the l o c a l group could move en masse to one or more such locations to e x p l o i t the concentration of resources centered around herring.  Possibly deer would a l s o  300  be exploited from the same s i t e s at the same time. From approximately May  to November the largest portion  of stored provisions, aside from salmon, had to be acquired. P r i n c i p a l among these would be clams, which are p l e n t i f u l i n the area and could be gathered and processed by small d i v i s i o n s of the l o c a l group, possibly one or two nuclear families.  The Buckley Bay s i t e (Mitchell 1973) may have been  used f o r such a c t i v i t y given i t s proximity to extensive t i d a l f l a t s i n Fanny Bay,  The gathering of berries and other veg-  etable foods, t r o l l i n g for salmon, and deer hunting occupied much of the summer as w e l l .  The major salmon species spawning  i n the area i s dog salmon (Qncorhynchus keta) , which ascends l o c a l r i v e r s and streams i n November,  The main r i v e r s i n  t h i s regard are the Puntledge, Big Qualicum, and L i t t l e Qualicum.  i n addition, t h i s species was known to frequent  a l l the smaller streams i n abundance (A, Recalma,pers. comm). Hunting of does may the e a r l y f a l l .  have consumed a f a i r amount of time i n  This a c t i v i t y could have been c a r r i e d out  almost anywhere by r e l a t i v e l y small segments of the l o c a l * The name "Qualicum" i s derived from an Indian word that refers to the place where dog salmon spawn (G, Reid,pers, comm). Within the Halkomelem l i n g u i s t i c group the Cowichan and Musqueam d i a l e c t s share the same word f o r dog salmon (K^^ax***) and the Chilliwack have only a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t word I^X*** ) (Elmendorf and Suttles 1960:24).  301  group.  A concentration of people could be expected again  i n the l a t e f a l l at the major already noted.  dog  salmon f i s h i n g locations  Excavated s i t e s such as Sandwick Midden  (Capes 1964), Tsable River Bridge (Whitlam ms.), and L i t t l e Qualicum River (Bernicfc- ms.) may activities,  represent the l o c i of such  prom these s i t e s , the l o c a l group probably moved  more or less d i r e c t l y back to the winter v i l l a g e s i t e s where repair and manufacture of a r t i f a c t s and social-ceremonial a c t i v i t i e s may have been focused. In this chapter I have examined the faunal assemblage from Lot 73 at Deep Bay and have concluded that the s i t e was probably occupied i n l a t e winter and early spring during the past 2000 to 2500 years.  There i s also some evidence that,  during the past 1000 years, seasonal occppation of the s i t e may have been prolonged to include portions of the summer and fall.  Evidence f o r the seasonal use of Deep Bay enables i t  to be placed i n a hypothetical reconstructed annual subsistence round based on ethnographic, environmental, and archaeo l o g i c a l data.  The chapter has also demonstrated a range of  sources f o r data pertaining to seasonal aspects of s i t e use. The synthesis of these data i s seen as an appropriate method for i n f e r r i n g seasonality of s i t e use.  302  CHAPTER X CONCLUSION The aim of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n was to see whether ethnog r a p h i c a l l y reported relationships between a r t i f a c t classes and food resource remains could be observed i n the archaeolo g i c a l record. were detected  On the basis of the procurement systems that i n Chapter VIII, i t i s concluded that t h i s aim  has met with moderate success.  The archaeological data reveal  relationships between a r t i f a c t classes and food  resource  remains that are interpretable by means of ethnographic and e c o l o g i c a l analogues.  I t i s concluded that procurement systems  involving herring, deer, sea mammals, and waterfowl, i n addition to predictable clam gathering a c t i v i t i e s , are represented at the Deep Bay s i t e .  The a r t i f a c t classes involved i n these  procurement systems are antler composite toggling harpoon valves, t h i n ground s l a t e points, bone points, bone bipoints, and possibly t h i n ground s l a t e knives.  An analysis of the  seasonal indicators i n the faunal assemblage points to a late winter and e a r l y spring occupation  of the s i t e .  A possible  extension of seasonal s i t e occupation may have occurred  within  the l a s t 1000 years. The f i s h trap to the southeast of the s i t e was probably  of major importance i n terms of subsistence at the s i t e .  If  the abundance of herring remains i s a v a l i d indicator, i t would seem that the f i s h trap, or a f i s h trap, may  have existed  at the s i t e f o r 20GG years or more.  trench  The elaborate  embankments that formerly existed at the s i t e suggest a need f o r defense, possibly i n the face of population expansion. This embankment may  be related to the evidence from clam .shell  seasonality that, during the time period of the Gulf of Georgia Culture Type, the period of s i t e occupation was to the l a t e spring and early summer.  l e s s confined  The need f o r protection  and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a defensible l o c a t i o n may  have  prompted populations to inhabit a formerly seasonal camp f o r s l i g h t l y extended periods of time.  This s i t u a t i o n would not  necessarily have meant a major change i n subsistence  patterns.  The absence of most faunal remains from Component I, and the d i f f e r e n t character of i t s a r t i f a c t assemblage, suggest that the findings presented here are not applicable to t h i s component. I may  However, since the material from Component  be a t y p i c a l because i t was  recovered  from what has been  interpreted as a beach, i t ds possible that the procurement systems found i n Components I I and I I I might also be found i n midden deposits associated with Component I.  There i s  some minor evidence to suggest that the sea mammal procurement system may  have been favored i n Component I I and that  the herring and waterfowl procurement systems may  have been  304 favored i n component I I I . However, the i n a b i l i t y of any major a r t i f a c t class or faunal species to d i s t i n g u i s h between these two components suggests that any s h i f t s i n preference among procurement systems probably was minor. Lot 73 supplied the data on which the seasonal and procurement system interpretations are based.  The findings  of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , therefore, apply s t r i c t l y to the Lot 73 material.  Although a similar range of a r t i f a c t classes and  faunal species are found on Lot 81, i t i s not safe to apply the Lot 73 findings to the whole s i t e .  The type of analyses  undertaken here are not yet duplicated elsewhere i n the Gulf of Georgia area.  For t h i s reason i t would be unwise to imply  that similar relationships between a r t i f a c t classes and faunal remains are l i k e l y to be found at other s i t e s .  It i s note-  worthy, i n t h i s regard, that an inverse relationship between basalt debris and salmon remains was found i n the St. Mungo Component at Glenrose Cannery (Matson 1976:189).  This com-  ponent, i n units 1, 1/5, and 5 i s also interpreted as beach deposit.  Future work i n the Gulf of Georgia may  subsequently  show that evidence of procurement systems can be detected at other s i t e s as w e l l . The methods used to detect relationships between a r t i f a c t classes and food resource remains are judged both appropriate and e f f e c t i v e .  to have been  The use of the chi-square  test of independence between samples and the Spearman rank order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t with an associated p r o b a b i l i t y  305  has proven e f f e c t i v e i n f i n d i n g variables that are associated at high l e v e l s of p r o b a b i l i t y .  The use of these techniques  to examine the a r t i f a c t and faunal data i n t h e i r presence/ absence, minimum numbers of individuals, weight of remains, and estimated weight of usable meat forms has shown that a nucleus of consistent r e s u l t s can be produced from four d i f f e r e n t forms of the same data.  The existence of t h i s  nucleus*of r e s u l t s indicates that the method and techniques employed i n t h i s study can detect associations between a r t i f a c t and faunal variables that are l i k e l y t o be s i g n i f i c a n t and r e l i a b l e .  The use of quantitative techniques, such as  those employed here, to examine the a r t i f a c t and faunal data has proven to be a successful procedure f o r e f f e c t i n g the aims set f o r t h at the beginning of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n .  This  conclusion i s reinforced by the existence of a nucleus of consistent r e s u l t s from a l l four analyses. The quantitative measures used to analyze the data are appropriate, although the data contained some features that tended t o weaken the e f f e c t of the s t a t i s t i c a l measures. R e l a t i v e l y large numbers of common absences tend to i n f l a t e the values of phi and chi-square.  Therefore, the strength  of association of some variable pairs may be due i n part to few common presences and many common absences.  The p r o b a b i l i t y  f or\ the chi-square s t a t i s t i c i n such instances indicates too low a p r o b a b i l i t y f o r chance occurrence of two variables. This problem i s common, e s p e c i a l l y i n archaeology, where there are often many variables that are found r e l a t i v e l y infrequently  306  among excavation u n i t s .  The procedure applied i n t h i s d i s s e r -  t a t i o n , that i s , screening  out variables that occur very  infrequently and examining variable pairs to assess r e l a t i v e reliability,  i s the most e f f e c t i v e procedure to control for  these d i s t o r t i o n s .  Although Spearman s rank order c o r r e l a t i o n f  c o e f f i c i e n t i s also sensitive to t i e d values, the formula corrected for t i e s adequately compensates for the t i e d zero values i n the data. with r  g  Consequently, the p r o b a b i l i t y associated  appears to be accurate.  In looking back on the quantitative techniques employed and the r e s u l t s produced, the p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y of s t i l l more sophisticated a n a l y t i c a l techniques i s apparent.  Combining  a r t i f a c t and faunal variables into a single assemblage of variables, and applying R-mode c l u s t e r i n g and s c a l i n g techniques subsequent to the procedures employed i n t h i s study, would help detect meaningful groupings of a r t i f a c t and faunal species.  The  classes  information thus derived would  p o t e n t i a l l y illuminate the complex network of i n t e r r e l a t i o n ships that e x i s t between the a r t i f a c t and faunal variables i n the archaeological record.  A consistent nucleus of r e s u l t s  produced by t h i s method could be expected to conform even more c l o s e l y than the present r e s u l t s to subsistence related ethnographic reports. Different re-organization a l s o be u s e f u l .  of the data for analysis would  The examination ofOeach component  separately  would r e f i n e the preliminary r e s u l t s produced i n t h i s d i s sertation.  A check on the r e l i a b i l i t y of variable pairs  307  could be accomplished by redefining the a n a l y t i c a l u n i t s . obvious transformation i s the natural stratum.  One  These a n a l y t i c a l  u n i t s could be examined both within components and over a l l components. The implications of t h i s study f o r future work i n the Gulf of Georgia are promising,  A. s e r i e s of s i m i l a r studies  would help c l a r i f y relationships between a r t i f a c t assemblages by i n d i c a t i n g to which aspects of the annual subsistence round the a r t i f a c t assemblages were r e l a t e d .  In addition,  valuable information would be gained on the nature of s p e c i f i c annual subsistence rounds throughout the region.  This i n f o r -  mation, i n turn, would form a s o l i d foundation f o r more detailed studies of adaptation within the region at various times i n the past.  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