UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The beginning of Bronze technology in East Asia Stark, Mary Verna 1976

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THE BEGINNING OF BRONZE TECHNOLOGY IN EAST ASIA  by MARY VERNA STARK B.A. , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  xn THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1976  0  Mary V e m a S t a r k , 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements f o r  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  this  written  representatives. thesis  A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y  University of B r i t i s h  1  9  7  6  Columbia  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  not be allowed without my  permission.  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  is understood that  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  Department of  The  It  ii  ABSTRACT  The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o r e v i e w t h e E n g l i s h  language  m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g o f bronze t e c h n o l o g y i n E a s t A s i a i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e e v i d e n c e f o r t h e b i r t h o f bronze m e t a l l u r g y i n East A s i a . The method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n was f i r s t t o s t u d y p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l on N o r t h , C e n t r a l and South E a s t A s i a .  This study  i n c l u d e d t h e h i s t o r y o f r e s e a r c h under t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f method, t h e o r y , and c h r o n o l o g y o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and hypotheses  on o r i -  g i n s and r o u t e s o f b r o n z e t e c h n o l o g y i n E a s t A s i a . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f bronze m e t a l l u r g y f o l l o w e d .  This  comprised  the r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c o p p e r - w o r k i n g , t h e p r o d u c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e a l l o y b r o n z e , t h e method o f p r o d u c t i o n . o f b r o n z e o b j e c t s , t h e d a t i n g o f bronze a r t i f a c t s and t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f bronze production. The n e x t s t e p i n t h e s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e t h e N e o l i t h i c s t a g e s o f c u l t u r e i n t h e d i v e r s e areas i n o r d e r t o examine t h e p r e c u r s o r s o f b r o n z e - p r o d u c i n g s o c i e t i e s and t o determine t h e e a r l i e s t b r o n z e assemblages. The e a r l i e s t b r o n z e assemblages were i n t u r n i n v e s t i g a t e d .  The  m e t a l o b j e c t s , b o t h copper and b r o n z e , i n t h e s e assemblages were t a b u l a t e d and compared c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y .  The c a t e g o r i e s o f m e t a l o b j e c t s were used  to i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i v e s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f each b r o n z e p r o d u c i n g group.  E v i d e n c e o f c a s t i n g o f t h e m e t a l i n t h e assemblages was  compared t o a s c e r t a i n t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s , i f any, among p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s .  iii  Chemical a n a l y s e s o f the b r o n z e i n t h e assemblages were t a b u l a t e d f o r comparison and e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F i n a l l y , s i m i l a r t y p e s o f a r t i f a c t s i n t h e assemblages were t a b u l a t e d f o r s t y l i s t i c comparison. The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s from t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e t h a t t h e f o u r assemblages o f e a r l i e s t b r o n z e t e c h n o l o g y i n E a s t A s i a a r e from M i n u s i n s k i n s o u t h e r n S i b e r i a , E r h - l i - t ' o u i n N o r t h C h i n a , Ta-p'o-na i n southwest C h i n a and Non Nok Tha i n n o r t h e a s t e r n T h a i l a n d .  Of t h e s e  assemblages, n e i t h e r M i n u s i n s k n o r Ta-p'o-na demonstrated the b e g i n n i n g of bronze production. The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e does not e s t a b l i s h t h e b e g i n n i n g o f b r o n z e m e t a l l u r g y as b e i n g shown at e i t h e r E r h - l i - t ' o u o r a t Non Nok  Tha  b u t the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s f o r e i t h e r i n d i g e n o u s development from e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s o r s e p a r a t e i n v e n t i o n w i t h no o u t s i d e s t i m u l u s o f any k i n d for e i t h e r area. T h i s s t u d y has demonstrated the e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t n o l o g i e s , d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s f o r b r o n z e i n a l l f o u r e a r l y assemblages.  tech-  social  Thus i t has a l s o demon-  s t r a t e d t h a t the b e g i n n i n g o f b r o n z e p r o d u c t i o n d i d not have t o o c c u r i n urban o r s t a t e environments.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page L i s t of Tables  vi  L i s t of F i g u r e s  v i i  Acknowledgement  viii  Introduction  1  H i s t o r y of Research  1  Hypotheses on O r i g i n s and Routes o f Bronze i n East A s i a Method o f P r e s e n t a t i o n  Technology 4 6  Chapter One:  Bronze M e t a l l u r g y  8  Chapter Two:  N e o l i t h i c to Bronze Technology  17  Siberia  17  Mongolia  22  Tungpei  23  Korea  23  Maritime Northeast A s i a  24  Japan  25  The Ryukyu I s l a n d s  25  China  26  Vietnam  28  Cambodia  29  Thailand  29  Chapter Three:  The E a r l i e s t Bronze Assemblages  North East A s i a :  Siberia  C e n t r a l and South E a s t A s i a :  33 33  China  35  N o r t h China  35  Southwest  38  China  South E a s t A s i a :  Thailand  39  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)  Page Chapter Four:  Conclusions  F i n a l Comparison  42 59  Figures  62  Bibliography  68  Appendix One  78  vi  LIST OF TABLES  Page  Table I . .  Changing M e l t i n g P o i n t s o f Bronze A l l o y s  Table I I .  Presence o r Absence o f A r t i f a c t Types i n the E a r l i e s t Assemblages  42  Dates o f E a r l i e s t Assemblages (Minusinsk, Non Nok Tha, Chien-ch'uan, E r h - l i - t ' o u , Ta-p'o-na)  44  Number o f C a t e g o r i e s o f A r t i f a c t F i v e E a r l i e s t Assemblages  44  Table I I I .  T a b l e IV.  T a b l e V.  T a v l e VI.  Table VII.  Types i n  C a t e g o r i e s o f Copper A r t i f a c t Types i n Three E a r l i e s t Assemblages  45  C a t e g o r i e s o f Bronze A r t i f a c t Four E a r l i e s t Assemblages  46  Types i n  E v i d e n c e o f C a s t i n g from the Four E a r l i e s t Bronze Assemblages  51  Table VIII.  Chemical A n a l y s i s o f E a r l y Bronze Assemblages  53  T a b l e IX.  Four A r t i f a c t s Than•3% T i n  56  T a b l e X.  Table XI.  Six Artifacts Than 3% T i n  from Ta-p'o-na With L e s s  from Ta-p'o-na With More  Appearance o f S i m i l a r A r t i f a c t s Four E a r l i e s t Assemblages  56 i n the 58  vii  LIST OF FIGURES  Page F i g u r e 1.  Minusinsk A r t i f a c t s  62  F i g u r e 2.  Erh-li-t'ou Artifacts  63  F i g u r e 3.  Ta-p'o-na A r t i f a c t s  64  F i g u r e 4.  Axes from Non Nok Tha  65  F i g u r e 5.  Map o f A s i a  66  F i g u r e 6.  Map o f the Four E a r l i e s t Bronze i n East A s i a  Assemblages 67  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e t o thank my a d v i s o r Dr. R i c h a r d J . Pearson f o r h i s e n t h u s i a s m and f o r h i s s u p p o r t i n t h i s endeavour.  I would a l s o l i k e t o  extend my thanks t o my committee memebers, Dr. P a t r i c i a H i t c h i n s and Dr. R.G. Matson f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and a i d w h i c h has r e s u l ted i n the production of a coherent, h e u r i s t i c  thesis.  1  INTRODUCTION The aim i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t o r e v i e w t h e E n g l i s h language i a l c o n c e r n i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g o f bronze t e c h n o l o g y i n E a s t A s i a — C e n t r a l , South — gin  and t o examine v a r i o u s hypotheses  of t h i s technology i n the v a r i o u s regions.  materNorth,  concerning the o r i -  To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s i t  w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y hypotheses based on archaeol o g i c a l excavations i n S i b e r i a to the east of the Y e n i s e i R i v e r , i n C h i n a and i n Southeast  Asia.  H i s t o r y o f Research Some o f t h e t r e n d s o f E a s t A s i a n a r c h a e o l o g y b e g i n n i n g i n t h e l a t e 1800's a r e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e o f f i e l d a r c h a e o l o g y , t h e t e n t a t i v e g r o u p i n g of c u l t u r e s i n t h e d i v e r s e r e g i o n s , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s t r a t i g r a p h y as t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c h r o n o l o g y , t h e use of  t y p o l o g i c a l comparison  as t h e b a s i c t o o l f o r t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  p a s t sequences and p a s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f d i f f u s i o n i s t t h e o r i e s , and t h e use o f m i g r a t i o n t o e x p l a i n v a r i a t i o n s i n c u l t u r e s . S i n c e t h e n , t h e methods and t h e o r i e s used t o e x c a v a t e and r e p o r t materi a l s from s i t e s have changed.  Bone, p l a i n p o t t e r y and v e g e t a b l e  remains  have a l l become as i m p o r t a n t as t h e more " e x o t i c " a r t i f a c t s i n t h e e x c a v a t i o n methods thus g i v i n g f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e f o o d s o u r c e s , t h e c l i m a t e and t h e s t a g e o f development o f t h e c u l t u r e s . c h r o n o l o g y , thermoluminescence  and archaeomagnetic  Carbon 14, dendro-  d a t i n g methods and  modern m i c r o - t e c h n i q u e s o f a n a l y s i s o f a n c i e n t m e t a l s , have g i v e n f u r t h e r  2  i n s i g h t i n t o the ages o f v a r i o u s s i t e s and c u l t u r e s . g i c a l t h e o r i e s on s i t e s and on s i t e comparisons  —  The new  archaeolo-  v i e w i n g c u l t u r e as a  system w i t h subsystems and the importance o f t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f and e f f e c t s i n the v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e c u l t u r e s — more r i g o r o u s approach  causes  have n e c e s s i t a t e d a  to t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e d i v e r s e  c u l t u r e s t o one another.  T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n i n t h e method and t h e o r y i n  a r c h a e o l o g y i s e v i d e n t i n t h e p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e on E a s t A s i a , n o t a b l y i n Bayard's (1972: 1411-1412) r e p o r t on Non Nok Tha, based on e l e c t r o n probe a n a l y s i s o f t h e e a r l i e s t m e t a l found a t t h e s i t e , s u b s t a n t i a t e d by carbon 14 and thermoluminescence  dates.  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n East A s i a began i n v a r i o u s r e g i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t times and p r o g r e s s e d a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s .  Systematic  d i e s i n the S o v i e t Far E a s t i n t h e Amur R i v e r V a l l e y began i n a l t h o u g h e a r l i e r work had been done by i n d i v i d u a l s i n 1855 t o 1932, 136). was  and by an e x p e d i t i o n under O k l a d n i k o v i n 1935  stu-  1954;  and from  (Derevianko  1899 1965:  I n Southern S i b e r i a , i n t h e upper Y e n i s e i R i v e r a r e a some work  done i n the 1880's by J.T. Savenko ( M a r i n g e r 1950:  areas o f S i b e r i a r e s e a r c h began around  3); i n other  1930.  A l t h o u g h Korean a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s t u d y s t a r t e d i n t h e e a r l y 1900's and e x c a v a t i o n s s t a r t e d i n the 1920's no l a r g e s c a l e work u s i n g a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d s o f r e s e a r c h and methodology has been undertaken (Kim Won-yong 1975:  61-62).  I n Japan e x t e n s i v e and i n t e n s i v e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work dates back t o 1879  (Chard 1974:  3).  yet  3  The Tungpei r e g i o n has had v e r y few s i t e s i n v e s t i g a t e d e x t e n sively.  F o r t h e most p a r t , s u r v e y s and s i t e s a m p l i n g o n l y have been  c a r r i e d out (Chard 1974: 1 0 6 ) . I n M o n g o l i a , t h e e a s t e r n b o r d e r r e s e a r c h was s t a r t e d i n 1906 by R. T o r i i b u t t h e e r a o f i n t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h and major d i s c o v e r i e s began about 1920 —  Andersson  1921 i n J e h o l , L i c e n t and T e i l h a r d de C h a r d i n 1922  and 1924 i n J e h o l , t h e Andrews E x p e d i t i o n 1922-1930 m a i n l y i n Outer Mong o l i a , L i c e n t and T e i l h a r d de C h a r d i n 1923 i n t h e Ordos, and t h e S i n o Swedish E x p e d i t i o n 1927-1935 i n I n n e r M o n g o l i a ( M a r i n g e r 1950: 3 ) . I n C h i n a . s c i e n t i f i c a r c h a e o l o g y began i n 1920 w i t h L i c e n t and T e i l h a r d de C h a r d i n and Andersson, b u t because o f w a r s , r e b e l l i o n s and r e v o l u t i o n s , was r e p e a t e d l y slowed down o r h a l t e d u n t i l a f t e r 1949, w i t h another slowdown i n t h e 1960's (Chang 1968: 5-6, 11-12). A r c h a e o l o g y i n Vietnam i s dated from t h e e a r l y 1900's and i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e 1960's (Pearson 1962: 35; S a u r i n 1969: 2 7 ) . Cambodian a r c h a e o l o g y s t a r t e d around 1875 and developed e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r World War I I (Mourer 1971: 35; S a u r i n 1969: 2 7 ) . The f i r s t e x c a v a t i o n s i n T h a i l a n d were by S a r a s i n i n 1933 and e x p a n s i o n o f r e s e a r c h began i n 1960 (Heekeren 1967:  13, 17). The r e l a t i v e p a u c i t y o f e x c a v a t i o n s , p l u s heavy r e l i a n c e on  d i f f u s i o n i s t and m i g r a t i o n t h e o r i e s , were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e a r l i e r b e l i e f s t h a t bronze t e c h n o l o g y i n E a s t A s i a must have been i m p o r t e d  from  the Near E a s t and Europe ( S o l h e i m 1967: 896) where " c l a s s i c a l b r o n z e s " o f e a r l y date had been known f o r many y e a r s .  These b e l i e f s were r e i n f o r c e d  4  by t h e e x c a v a t i o n s a t Anyang, n o r t h e r n Honan, from 1928 t o 1939 (Chang 1968: 1 0 ) , w h i c h exposed s u p e r i o r c a s t b r o n z e o b j e c t s w i t h no e v i d e n c e of a p r i o r r u d i m e n t a r y t e c h n o l o g y .  However, subsequent e x c a v a t i o n s a t  Y e n - s h i h , n o r t h w e s t e r n Honan i n 1958 t o 1964, and a t Cheng-Chou, c e n t r a l Honan from 1950 t o 1 9 5 9 , r e v e a l e d e v i d e n c e o f f o u n d r i e s , such as c r u c i b l e s and molds, and of b r o n z e t e c h n o l o g y a t an e a r l i e r s t a g e , whileh r e s u l t e d i n t h e s p c u l a t i o n t h a t bronze t e c h n o l o g y may have o r i g i n a t e d i n China.  Thus t h e m a j o r i t y o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s have i n t e n s i f i e d  t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e o r i g i n and t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of b r o n z e t e c h n o l o g y i n East A s i a .  T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a -  t i o n s and r e p o r t s and an i n c r e a s e i n t h e use o f t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a (Bayard 1972: 1411-1412) and a l s o r e s u l t e d i n a f l o o d o f c o n f l i c t i n g hypotheses as t o t h e o r i g i n s and t h e r o u t e s o f bronze technology i n East A s i a .  Hypotheses on O r i g i n s and Routes o f Bronze Technology i n E a s t A s i a  O k l a d n i k o v (1959: 2 3 ) , Chard (1974: 145-148), J e t t m a r (1950: 86, 113) and S u l i m i r s k i (1970: 261, 280-281, 286, 300) t h e o r i z e t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t bronze assemblage i n t h e E a s t e r n S i b e r i a n M i n u s i n s k B a s i n r e s u l t e d from t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s t o c k b r e e d i n g s u b s i s t e n c e economy and m e t a l p r o d u c t i o n from t h e West, from a r e a s such as t h e U r a l s and t h e K a z a k h s t a n Steppes. B a r n a r d (1972: v i ; 1967: 186, 203) and Cheng Te-k'un (1973: 208) conclude t h a t bronze m e t a l l u r g y was an independent i n v e n t i o n i n C h i n a .  5  Chang (1973: 528; l i t h i c t h e r e was  1975:  1969)  h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t d u r i n g the e a r l y Neo-  c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n between North China and  A s i a and although he s t a t e s  Southeast  (1968: 182-183) t h a t c u l t u r a l movements from  the I r a n / I r a q a r e a to N o r t h China were i n s i g n i f i c a n t , the N e o l i t h i c m i c r o lithic  assemblages o f Northwest  China seem t o resemble  the m i c r o b l a d e  assemblages o f Western Siberia,- Chang does n o t commit h i m s e l f as to the geographic o r i g i n o f m e t a l l u r g y (Chang 1963: orizes  44; 1975:  169).  (1975: 167-168) t h a t s t i m u l i from South China t o North  s t a r t e d p r i o r t o t h e E a r l y N e o l i t h i c and c o n t i n u e d through the stages o f the N e o l i t h i c and t h a t the e a r l y bronze  Bayard  the-  China later  i n Southwest C h i n a  was  the r e s u l t o f another s o u t h - t o - n o r t h p a t t e r n o f s t i m u l u s from T h a i l a n d and Vietnam. was  Solheim  (1973: 25-29) proposes  t h a t South China  p a r t o f both Southeast A s i a n and Chinese c u l t u r e s and t h a t  one o r more of the c u l t u r e s of South China was  culturally possibly  the primary a n c e s t o r of  a l l Chinese c u l t u r e from the N e o l i t h i c to the m e t a l l i c Shang. Solheim (1969: 136-137) h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t the Dongs'on c u l t u r e i n N o r t h Vietnam  dated to about 300 B.C.  m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the e a r l i e r bronze l a n d , combining  (Solheim 1967:  899) was  a late  t e c h n o l o g y seen i n n o r t h e a s t e r n T h a i -  f o r e i g n d e s i g n elements  ranean w i t h o l d Southeast A s i a n elements  from as f a r away as the M e d i t e r (Solheim 1967:  902).  (1966: 84-85) p o s t u l a t e s t h a t the Dongs'on bronze c u l t u r e was developed out o f the main N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e i n Vietnam.  Boriskovsky local  and  However, Pearson's  (1962: 44-45) h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t from the L a t e N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d onward, South China and North I n d o c h i n a was Dongs'on c u l t u r e was  formed  a s i n g l e c u l t u r e a r e a and t h a t  the  from c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t from C e n t r a l China.  6  Solheim where i n Southeast  (1974) s p e c u l a t e s t h a t m e t a l l u r g y was i n v e n t e d someA s i a around 4,000 B.C. and t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e  evi-  dence o f o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e u n t i l sometime d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e f i r s t m i l l e n n i u m B.C. ( S o l h e i m 1969: 1 3 7 ) . Thus t h e development o f m e t a l l u r g y i n T h a i l a n d i s u n r e l a t e d t o development o f m e t a l l u r g y i n I n d i a and t h e M i d d l e East  ( S o l h e i m 1974: 4 1 ; 1968: 6 2 ) . The h y p o t h e s i s o f  Bayard (1970: 139) i s t h a t i t appears p o s s i b l e t h a t a s e p a r a t e i n v e n t i o n of m e t a l l u r g y may have developed  i n Southeast  A s i a independently of  s t i m u l u s from e i t h e r C h i n a o r t h e Indus and e a r l i e r t h a n i n e i t h e r a r e a . The  c u l t u r e i n Western C e n t r a l T h a i l a n d has been p o s t u l a t e d by S^renson  and H a t t i n g (1967: 147) as t h e r e s u l t o f m i g r a t i o n c 1800 B.C. from t h e Proto-Lungshan phase o f t h e N e o l i t h i c i n C e n t r a l C h i n a , w i t h  later  c 1500 B.C. i n f l u e n c e s from t h e Lungshan c u l t u r e p r o p e r i n C h i n a ;  this  c u l t u r e t h e n i s t h e o r i z e d as t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e l a t e r b r o n z e c u l t u r e i n t h i s area of Thailand. These h y p o t h e s e s can o n l y be a c c u r a t e l y t e s t e d and new hypotheses made by f u r t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n E a s t A s i a and by i n t e r p r e t i n g the e v i d e n c e  i n t h e l i g h t of evidence  found by f u r t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  r e s e a r c h i n o t h e r areas as f a r away as t h e B l a c k Sea r e g i o n s . Method o f P r e s e n t a t i o n  I t i s my i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s t o d i s c u s s t h e t e c h n i c a l and s o c i a l aspects o f bronze m e t a l l u r g y , t o explore the N e o l i t h i c o r Late N e o l i t h i c s t a g e o f c u l t u r e i n t h e v a r i o u s areas i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n o r d e r  7  to d e t e r m i n e t h e c u l t u r a l c o n n e c t i o n s and l e v e l s o f development up t o t h e appearance o f bronze i n E a s t A s i a , and to t a b u l a t e the a r t i f a c t s c o m p r i s i n g t h e assemblages and compare them and make a s t y l i s t i c compari s o n between s i m i l a r types o f a r t i f a c t s i n t h e assemblages. w i l l be drawn on t h e b a s i s o f an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h i s d a t a .  Conclusions  8  CHAPTER ONE BRONZE METALLURGY  Copper-working  i s t h e e a r l i e s t b r a n c h o f m e t a l l u r g y (Smith  1967: 28; Young 1970: 85; Coghlan 1951: 12-13; Cushing 1967: 62,63); copper  (Cu) o c c u r s i n t h e m e t a l l i c s t a t e i n n a t u r e and t h e e a r l i e s t m e t a l  o b j e c t s would have been copper hammered i n t o shape.  The m e l t i n g o f n a t i v e  copper would have been t h e n e x t m e t a l l u r g i c a l s t e p , f o l l o w e d by t h e s i m p l e s m e l t i n g o f copper o x i d e o r e s , found i n open d e p o s i t s , t o produce (Coghlan 1951: 14; B a r n a r d 1961: 1 7 8 ) . Coghlan  copper  (1951: 15) s u g g e s t s t h a t  the o x i d e o r e s were t h e f i r s t o r e s t o be worked f o r they would have been a v a i l a b l e by s i m p l e c o l l e c t i o n o r o p e n - p i t w o r k i n g and w i t h o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t r u e m i n i n g ; a f u r t h e r advantage  i s t h a t they may be reduced t o  copper by a s i m p l e p r o c e s s o f d i r e c t s m e l t i n g i n a p r i m i t i v e f u r n a c e u s i n g c h a r c o a l as f u e l ; t h e s u l p h i d e o r e s r e q u i r e deep m i n i n g and t h e p r o c e s s o f r e d u c t i o n i s a d i f f i c u l t one.  A f t e r copper s m e l t i n g t h e  i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r y was t h a t o f t h e h a r d e r c o p p e r - t i n a l l o y , b r o n z e . Copper w i t h n a t u r a l i m p u r i t i e s from s e l e c t e d o r e s was an i m p o r t a n t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e advantages p e r c e n t a g e o f antimony  o f a l l o y s ; f o r example, copper w i t h a low  and/or a r s e n i c i s e a s i e r t o m e l t , g i v e s sounder  c a s t i n g s and i s m e c h a n i c a l l y s t r o n g e r and h a r d e r than pure copper; t h e advantages o f impure copper may have been r e c o g n i z e d and d e l i b e r a t e l y chosen as t h e b r i g h t c o l o u r s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t o r e s were obvious 1967: 31; Lambera-Karlovsky:  1967: 151).  (Smith  T i n (Sn) i s l e s s p l e n t i f u l than  copper ( C h a r l e s 1975: 19) and does n o t o c c u r i n t h e n a t u r a l s t a t e b u t i t  9  is  found i n v e i n s and i n a l l u v i a l  siterite); the o x i d e  t i n i s made by a simple i n a charcoal f i r e  sands and g r a v e l s as t i n oxide process  (cas-  o f d i r e c t r e d u c t i o n by h e a t i n g  (Coghlan 1951: 16-17).  Some t i n ores  con-  t a i n i m p u r i t i e s o f copper, i r o n , l e a d , antimony, bismuth, s u l p h u r and a r s e n i c ; these i m p u r i t i e s tend t o make t i n h a r d e r and l e s s Oxide ores for  malleable.  o f copper o n l y r e q u i r e a temperature between 700° and 800° C  t h e i r r e d u c t i o n t o m e t a l l i c copper; copper melts at 1083°C Steinberg  (Coghlan  1951:  21-23; Dougherty and C a l d w e l l 1966: 984).  (1970} 115)  lists  examples o f t h e changing met^Lng p o i n t s o f bronze a l l o y s w i t h t h e  d i v e r s e c o n s t i t u e n t s as f o l l o w s :  TABLE I .  CHANGING MEED ING  POINTS OF BRONZE ALLOYS.  A l l o y given by Weight Percent Copper Tin 93 92.6 91.7 88.9 82.4 73 84  M e l t i n g P o i n t °C Lead  7 6.4 6.3 6.1 6.6 5.0 16  The  0 1 2.0 5.0 11.0 22.0 0  1050 1035 1025 1015 980 950 950  temperature r e q u i r e d f o r p o t t e r y k i l n s would be more than  adequate f o r bronze p r o d u c t i o n  (Coghlan 1951: 21-23; Barnard 1961: 5 9 ) .  Watson (1971: 67, 70) s t a t e s t h a t E a r l y N e o t l i t h i c p e r i o d p o t t e r y was f i r e d between 950°C and 1050°C, w h i l e  Cheng Te-k'un (1973: 207) g i v e s  the temperatures f o r t h i s p o t t e r y p e r i o d as 1300-1400°C. Long b e f o r e bronze came i n t o g e n e r a l use, marked i n c l u s i o n s o f t i n i n t h e copper a r e found i n many p r e h i s t o r i c implements.  These a r e t h e  10  " a c c i d e n t a l " b r o n z e s w h i c h o c c u r r e d many times p r e h i s t o r i c a l l y when t h e " e n r i c h e d " o r e s , i n w h i c h t i n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h copper, were used the  b r o n z e produced c o n t a i n e d 3% o r l e s s t i n .  —  "True" b r o n z e i s d e f i n e d  as a c o p p e r - t i n a l l o y i n w h i c h t h e t i n c o n t e n t i s i n e x c e s s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3% (Coghlan 1951: 21-23).  Wheatley  (1971: 72) s t a t e s t h e customary  c o n n o t a t i o n o f b r o n z e i s r e s t r i c t e d t o an a l l o y w i t h 5-20% t i n i n copper. Lead (Pb) i n copper o r b r o n z e c a s t i n g produces c l e a n e r c a s t i n g s , improved c o l o u r and g i v e s g r e a t e r f a c i l i t y  i n m a c h i n i n g (Coghlan. 1951: 21-23;  B a r n a r d 1961: 49; Smith 1967: 22, 1970: 5 6 ) . I t has been c o n c l u d e d t h a t the  o u t s t a n d i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f b r o n z e were p r o b a b l y d i s c o v e r e d f i r s t  m e l t i n g n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g mixed o r e s , and l a t e r by a l l o y i n g  from  separately  s m e l t e d m e t a l s (Coghlan 1951: 24; Smith 1967: 31; Cushing 1967: 6 4 ) . In  c a s t i n g , b r o n z e i s s u p e r i o r t o a l l o t h e r m e t a l s ; as b r o n z e  solidifies  i t a l s o expands, f o r c i n g t h e m e t a l i n t o e v e r y c r e v i c e o f t h e mold, then i n c o o l i n g i t c o n t r a c t s s l i g h t l y , making removal from t h e mold  easier  (Savage 1968: 1 7 ) . There a r e a v a r i e t y o f molds t h a t can be used i n t h e c a s t i n g of bronze o b j e c t s ; s i n g l e o r t w o - p i e c e (double o r b i - v a l v e ) molds; comp o s i t e molds f o r p r o d u c i n g more than one o b j e c t a t a t i m e ; molds w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f c o r e s ; s i m p l e p i e c e molds and m u l t i - p i e c e molds.  The l e s s  complex molds, w i t h one d i r e c t pour c a s t i n g , were u s u a l l y used by t h e e a r l i e s t p r a c t i t i o n e r s of metallurgy. C i r e - p e r d u e , t h e l o s t wax p r o c e s s , and t h e s e c t i o n a l mold p r o cess a r e t h e two main methods f o r c a s t i n g b r o n z e ( B a r n a r d 1961: 86; Young 1970: 1 8 7 ) .  11  Awareness o f t h e s e d i v e r s e p o i n t s i n bronze m e t a l l u r g y can h e l p t h e s c h o l a r make d e c i s i o n s about t h e o r i g i n s and t h e r e l a t i v e age o f bronze  objects. The i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f a m e t a l o b j e c t can o f t e n throw more  l i g h t on i t s o r i g i n t h a n a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s (Smith 1967: 5 1 ) .  Infor-  m a t i o n on t h e s t r u c t u r e o f b r o n z e specimens may be o b t a i n e d by a v a r i e t y o f methods.  O p t i c a l s p e c t r o - c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s has been w i d e l y used f o r  over t h i r t y y e a r s ; i n i t i a l l y a sample was  e l e c t r i c a l l y burned and p r o -  duced c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l i g h t waves o f a l l elements p r e s e n t .  The  recent  i n v e n t i o n o f t h e O p t i c a l l a s e r m i c r o p r o b e p e r m i t s d i r e c t s a m p l i n g of t h e o b j e c t , removing  a sample o n l y 50 t o 80 microns i n diameter w i t h an a v e r -  age depth o f 80 t o 100 m i c r o n s , a l s o p r o d u c i n g an o p t i c a l e m i s s i o n s p e c trum (Young 1970:  93-94).  E m i s s i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h y w i t h an i n h e r e n t  a c c u r a c y o f o n l y c i r c a 10% t o 15% may  be s u f f i c i e n t i n some cases but  i f an a c c u r a c y o f c i r c a 1% i s r e q u i r e d , then methods such as p a l a r o g r a p h i c and atomic a b s o r p t i o n a n a l y s i s must be employed; t h i s a c c u r a c y may  be  n e c e s s a r y f o r such a p r e c i s e problem as e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n between a g i v e n p a t t e r n of t r a c e i m p u r i t i e s and a p a r t i c u l a r s o u r c e o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t a r e a (Werner 1970: 180, 184).  The s o l i d s t a t e x - r a y d e t e c t o r  l i k e t h e s p e c t r o g r a p h u t i l i z e s t h e spectrum,but  i t has t h e .added  advantages  o f r a p i d c h e m i c a l ' a n a l y s i s from s e l e c t e d areas of t h e o b j e c t , w i t h o u t damage t o t h e o b j e c t , and i t a l s o p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e t e c h n i q u e o f f a b r i c a t i o n and t h e t h e r m a l t r e a t m e n t s used i n p r o d u c t i o n ( O g i l v i e 1970:  87).  m i n i n g how  The m e t a l l u r g i c a l microscope can a l s o be u t i l i z e d f o r d e t e r an o b j e c t was  (Young 1970:  91-92).  produced  and f o r a u t h e n t i c a t i o n of t h e o b j e c t  12  Caley (1967: 167-171; 1970:  37-38) warns t h a t over h a l f of t h e  p u b l i s h e d a n a l y s e s o f a n c i e n t metals a r e d e f e c t i v e i n some way; s i z e and weight o f samples are not g i v e n i t may  a f f e c t the  c o n c l u s i o n s ; o f t e n i m p u r i t i e s are n o t determined  when  analytical  thus g i v i n g an i n c o n -  c l u s i v e a n a l y s i s ; d i f f e r e n t c l e a n i n g methods used f o r t h e sample o r samples may  a f f e c t the a n a l y s i s d i f f e r e n t l y and i f they are used t h e  method s h o u l d be s t a t e d ; t h e method o f a n a l y s i s i s o f t e n not r e p o r t e d . S l a t e r and C h a r l e s (1973: 221)  a l s o warn o f t h e danger of b a s i n g an  a n a l y s i s on s i n g l e s m a l l samples w h i c h may sults.  give nonrepresentative r e -  Chemical c o m p o s i t i o n f i g u r e s f o r b r o n z e a r t i f a c t s can show v a r -  i a t i o n depending on the p a r t i c u l a r l a b o r a t o r y w h i c h c a r r i e s out tests.  Chase (1974: 148)  the  found r e l a t i v e d e v i a t i o n ranges o f 4% f o r  copper up t o over 200% f o r some t r a c e elements when he s e n t 500 samples o f two bronzes  (one o f w h i c h was  a s k i n g them to t e s t f o r 48 elements. discrepancies.  mg.  Chinese); to 21 l a b o r a t o r i e s  Barnard  (1972: 21) found  similar  There i s a n e c e s s i t y f o r more s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s e s  and  p u b l i c a t i o n b e f o r e l a b o r a t o r y r e s u l t s on b r o n z e can be used e f f e c t i v e l y and w i t h c o n f i d e n c e by s c h o l a r s .  I t i s a l s o obvious t h a t t h e r e i s a  g e n e r a l d e a r t h o f t h i s type of a n a l y s i s f o r most a r c h a e o l o g i c a l b r o n z e s . The d a t i n g of a r t i f a c t s , e s p e c i a l l y b r o n z e , i s of utmost n e c e s s i t y f o r a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h the b e g i n n i n g o f b r o n z e m e t a l l u r g y i n any g i v e n a r e a .  Radiocarbon  (carbon 14, C 14) d a t i n g has been the main  d a t i n g t e c h n i q u e used s i n c e i t s i n i t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n by L i b b y i n  1949,  u s i n g t h e h a l f - l i f e of c a r b o n f i l 4 a t 5568+30 y e a r s and t h e p r e s e n t , b e f o r e w h i c h t h e s e dates o c c u r , as 1950.  More r e c e n t and presumably more a c c u r a t e  d 13  p h y s i c a l h a l f - l i f e v a l u e s of 5730+40 y e a r s a r e a v a i l a b l e b u t t h e o r i g i n a l L i b b y v a l u e s a r e r e t a i n e d by Western s c h o l a r s t o ensure u n i f o r m i t y and t o a v o i d the c o n f u s i o n o f a d a p t i n g each new becomes a v a i l a b l e ( L i b b y 1970:  8; Pearson  v a l u e o f t h e h a l f - l i f e as i t  1973:  141; B a r k e r 1970:  38).  However, i t has been found t h a t C 14 d a t i n g f o r a b s o l u t e dates can be i n c o r r e c t by as much as 600 or 700 y e a r s at t h e peak o f t h e d e v i a t i o n , some 7000 y e a r s ago  ( L i b b y 1970:  ago can be determined  7).  The d e v i a t i o n back t o 7500 y e a r s  and chronology  can be extended back t o agreement  at 10,000 o r 11,000 y e a r s ago by t h e B r i s t l e c o n e P i n e c a l i b r a t i o n ments ( L i b b y 1970:  7-9; B a r k e r 1970:  38; Barnard 1972:  12-14).  assess-  Barnard  (1972: 11, 31) suggests t h a t f u t u r e c o n v e r s i o n s o f r a d i o c a r b o n dates  may  be e f f e c t e d f a r more c o n v e n i e n t l y i n t o d e n d r o c h r o n o l o g i c a l c a l e n d a r y e a r s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t a b l e o f Damon, Long and W a l l i c k , p u b l i s h e d i n However the 8th I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on R a d i o c a r b o n  Dating  1972.  decided  t h a t no p a r t i c u l a r c a l i b r a t i o n curve or t a b l e s h o u l d be adopted a t p r e sent ( B u r l e i g h 1973:  55).  At p r e s e n t C 14 d a t i n g i s somewhat more a c c u r a t e than thermoluminescence  d a t i n g , however, thermoluminescence d a t i n g has t h e advantage  o f d a t i n g an a c t u a l a c t i v i t y o f man,  and t h e s h e r d samples n e c e s s a r y  abundant on most s i t e s ( A i t k e n 1970:  83; Bronson and Han  P r e c i s e d a t i n g can be attempted  1972:  are  325).  o n l y i f a p p r e c i a b l e knowledge o f t h e  b u r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the p o t t e r y i s known and i f some damage t o a complete o b j e c t i s undertaken  ( F l e m i n g 1970:  207-208).  Nevertheless,  thermolumi-  nescence d a t i n g methods c o u l d be v a l u a b l e i n t h e d a t i n g o f c l a y c o r e s e x i s t i n g i n a b r o n z e c a s t i n g ( B a r n a r d 1967:  still  1 8 5 ) , as c o u l d an archaeomagnetic  d a t i n g method be u s e f u l f o r d a t i n g baked c l a y i n s i t u ( A i t k e n 1970:  80).  14  A p a r t from t h e s e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f m e t a l l u r g y t h e r e i s t h e s o c i a l context of the occurrence o f bronze. With r e s p e c t t o t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f b r o n z e m e t a l l u r g y one o f the q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e s i s what s o r t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f metalwork.  Of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e answer f o r  t h i s q u e s t i o n would be e v i d e n c e o f s u b s i s t e n c e economy, s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n , t e c h n o l o g y , s o u r c e s of raw m a t e r i a l and t r a d e ; i n o t h e r words, metalwork  i s o n l y a subsystem w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r a l system and can-  n o t be s t u d i e d i n i s o l a t i o n .  Furthermore i t i s i t s e l f composed o f a  number o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s .  I t i s often d i f f i c u l t to obtain  t h i s e v i d e n c e from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e areas o f s o u r c e s o f raw m a t e r i a l s and t r a d e .  Rowlands (1971:  210-224),  b a s i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p r e h i s t o r i c m e t a l w o r k i n g on e t h n o g r a p h i c examples, d i v i d e s m e t a l w o r k i n g , as a s e p a r a t e c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n , i n t o a number of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f metalwork.  A considerable  v a r i a t i o n occurs i n the e a r l i e s t i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f metalworkers depending on t h e s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e k i n s h i p / d e s c e n t g r o u p s , which a r e t h e groups o r g a n i z e d f o r m e t a l w o r k i n g and s e r v i n g s m a l l c e n t e r s o f p o p u l a t i o n . The form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n , p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and economy, a l t h o u g h m e t a l w o r k i n g can appear a t t h e s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l o f economy.  A d i s p e r s e d s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n made up o f s m a l l autonomous o r  semi-autonomous u n i t s , such as hamlets o r v i l l a g e s , tends t o encourage  a  15  d i s p e r s e d c r a f t o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e presence  o f s m a l l o c c u p a t i o n groups  ( i b i d . : 217-218). P r o d u c t i o n , r e s u l t i n g from p a r t - t i m e o r f u l l - t i m e  specialists,  o c c u r s i n r e l a t i o n t o v a r i a t i o n s i n many v a r i a b l e s , such as s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e community and degrees o f economic i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i n the community b u t i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y accompanied by major changes i n s e t t l e m e n t s i z e o r s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( i b i d . : 219). The s t a t u s o f t h e s m i t h v a r i e s from l o w t o h i g h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v a r i o u s b e l i e f s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e c i s e o b j e c t s t h a t t h e s m i t h produces; ing  t h e importance  of t h e smith f o r supply-  t o o l s and weapons t o t h e community i s a s o u r c e o f i n f l u e n c e t h a t can  be p o l i t i c a l l y e x p l o i t e d as i n t h e N o r t h e r n C h i n t r i b e s o f Burma where the smiths a r e v i l l a g e o f f i c i a l s  ( i b i d . : 217).  h  There a r e many e t ^ o g r a p h i c examples o f t h e s m i t h o n l y  contri-  b u t i n g h i s s k i l l t o p r o d u c t i o n w h i l e t h e customer s u p p l i e s t h e raw materi a l and/or f u e l and/or l a b o u r ; one i n s t a n c e from t h e Congo showed t h e s m i t h w o r k i n g i n i r o n , b r a s s and copper w h i c h was s u p p l i e d by t h e customer who o b t a i n e d i t e i t h e r from t h e s m e l t e r o r by exchange (Rowlands 1971: 211).  The t r a d e o f raw m a t e r i a l s a a n d f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s need n o t be t h e  r e s u l t o f s p e c i a l i z e d t r a d e networks o r l o n g - d i s t a n c e t r a d e r o u t e s . The  s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e a r e a o f p r i m a r y exchange between  t h e s m i t h and h i s customers may be e x t e n s i v e , i n t r a v i l l a g e and/or i n t e r v i l l a g e , b u t i s o f course l i m i t e d by a c t u a l c o n t a c t between them, however, the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e m e t a l o b j e c t s themselves  may be much more  16  e x t e n s i v e , f o r example t h e demand f o r a s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y of m e t a l o b j e c t s r e s u l t i n g from s u p e r i o r ores w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d i n one a r e a o n l y .  In  some i n s t a n c e s , m e t a l o b j e c t s , as t h e y move f a r t h e r away from t h e i r p o i n t o f o r i g i n , l o s e t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e and become v a l u a b l e as raw m a t e r i a l o n l y ( i b i d . : 219-220).  CHAPTER TWO  j  NEOLITHIC TO BRONZE TECHNOLOGY  j I  I t i s imperative t o explore t h e N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s o f East A s i a t o determine t h e i r c u l t u r a l c o n n e c t i o n s and l e v e l s o f development i n o r der t o a s c e r t a i n where t h e e a r l i e s t b r o n z e assemblages o c c u r r e d and whet h e r t h e s e assemblages c o u l d have been t h e r e s u l t o f i n d i g e n o u s development or the r e s u l t of e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i . A number o f w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s , o c c u r r i n g i n v e r y d i f f e r e n t ecosystems,  can be seen i n t h e a r e a under s t u d y .  Siberia  The term " N e o l i t h i c " t o Russian,Korean  and some Japanese  archaeo-  l o g i s t s i n d i c a t e s s i m p l y t h e presence o f p o l i s h e d s t o n e and p o t t e r y p r e sent i n t h e c u l t u r e , whereas t o o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t h e " N e o l i t h i c " means food p r o d u c t i o n , u s u a l l y accompanied by p o l i s h e d s t o n e , c e r a m i c s ,  domesti-  c a t i o n o f a n i m a l s , a more s s e d e n t a r y l i f e , some p a r t - t i m e s p e c i a l i s t s and a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e w i t h l u x u r y goods.  Chard (1956: 406)  uses t h e term t o denote a l l remains t h a t seem t o a n t e d a t e a c t u a l knowl e d g e o f m e t a l w o r k i n g , w i t h no o t h e r c o n n o t a t i o n s i m p l i e d , when r e f e r r i n g t o t h e n o r t h e a s t p o r t i o n o f S i b e r i a from t h e l o w e r Lena R i v e r b a s i n t o t h e e a s t , . a n d he r e s t a t e s t h i s a g a i n (Chard 1974: 63) i n r e f e r e n c e t o N o r t h e a s t A s i a , when he says t h e " N e o l i t h i c " r e f e r s t o t h a t s t a g e o f c u l t u r a l development i n each a r e a from t h e f i r s t appearance o f p o t t e r y t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an e f f e c t i v e m e t a l l u r g y —  or t o t h e time o f h i s t o r i c  c o n t a c t i n t h o s e areas which d i d n o t adopt m e t a l w o r k i n g . "  18  The n o r t h e a s t e r n - m o s t  areas o f S i b e r a d u r i n g t h e N e o l i t h i c  s t a g e had h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g , s e m i s e d e n t a r y p o p u l a t i o n , and c e r a m i c s and had c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t i e s w i t h t h e B a i k a l - A n g a r a r e g i o n a t t h e Headwaters o f t h e Lena R i v e r b u t none w i t h t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t a l A r e a (Chard 1956: 406-407). A l o n g t h e S o v i e t M a r i t i m e Coast i n t h e Amur R i v e r V a l l e y ,  espe-  c i a l l y i n t h e M i d d l e Amur and i n t h e a r e a around V l a d i v o s t o k , t h e r e were w e l l - d e v e l o p e d h u n t i n g , g a t h e r i n g and r i v e r f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s o r i n c i p i e n t a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h some s t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t s and c e r a m i c s .  There was a p r o -  nounced d i v e r s i t y t o t h e N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s as a r e s u l t o f a c t i v e c o n t a c t between i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n s and o t h e r groups as f a r away as Y a k u t i a , the B a i k a l t a i g a , T u n g p e i , K o r e a and Japan  (Derevianko 1965: 139-140;  Chard 1974: 90; Chang 1968: 1 8 3 ) . O k l a d n i k o v (1959: 15-17) b a s i c a l l y agrees t o t h e s e f a c t s b u t he adds N o r t h C h i n a s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e c o n t a c t areas and he a l s o s t a t e s t h a t i n t h e S o v i e t M a r i t i m e Region were m a r i t i m e f i s h e r s , who m a i n t a i n e d s e d e n t a r y o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e a r e a .  Chard  (1974:  93) concludes t h a t t h e Amur V a l l e y and t h e M a r i t i m e T e r r i t o r y had. a subs t a n t i a l c o n t i n u i t y from N e o l i t h i c t o h i s t o r i c times i n t h e p a t t e r n o f l i f e ; t h e r e i s no mention o f t h e presence o f bronze. I n t e r i o r S i b e r i a n N e o l i t h i c , as shown i n Y a k u t i a i n t h e M i d d l e Lena R i v e r a r e a t o t h e A r c t i c , i s r e p r e s e n t e d by h u n t e r s and f i s h e r s who possessed p o t t e r y .  There i s much c o n t i n u i t y from t h e E a r l y N e o l i t h i c i n  s t o n e and bone-working  t e c h n o l o g y , b u t w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e a d d i t i o n s seemingly  borrowed from many d i r e c t i o n s (Chard 1974: 65; O k l a d n i k o v 1959: 3 2 ) . There  19  was no e s s e n t i a l change i n t h e c u l t u r e w i t h t h e f i r s t mid-second m i l l e n i u m B.C. of o b j e c t s o f copper l o c a l bronze  c a s t i n g on a s m a l l s c a l e  appearance i n t h e  and bronze  or the eventual  (Chard 1974: 74).  The N e o l i t h i c o f t h e Lake B a i k a l f o r e s t r e g i o n on t h e Angara R i v e r , another  r e g i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n , was i n f l u e n c e d by areas i n t h e  west and on t h e Y e n i s e i R i v e r , i n T r a n s - B a i k a l and as f a r as Inner Mong o l i a d u r i n g the S e r e v o - K i t o i stages second m i l l e n i u m )  ( t h i r d millenium to beginning of  according to Michael  (1958: 33); N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e  was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g economy w i t h permanent  here  settle-  ments and p o t t e r y .  The appearance o f s m a l l amounts o f copper  and bronze  d u r i n g t h e Glaskovo  p e r i o d , 18th-13th  no funda-  mental changes i n the c u l t u r e  c e n t u r i e s B.C., brought  (Chard 1974: 77; M i c h a e l 1958: 33).  Chard  (1974: 145, 207-208) concludes t h a t w i t h o n l y a few u s e f u l a d d i t i o n s from o u t s i d e , such as p o t t e r y , ground stone a r t i f a c t s and m e t a l , the p a t t e r n s o f a d a p t a t i o n s t o t a i g a environment p e r s i s t e d i n much o f t h e f o r e s t o f S i b e r i a u n t i l r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t times.  Only on t h e s o u t h e r n  d i d newpeconomic p a t t e r n s e v e n t u a l l y t a k e h o l d .  zone  steppe  L a r i c h e v (1962: 93-95)  s t a t e s t h a t i n C i s - B a i k a l , on t h e Angara R i v e r , s e t t l e m e n t s around B u r e t , although o c c u p i e d c o n t i n u o u s l y , had two markedly d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s of o c c u pation —  N e o l i t h i c and Bronze Age.  The N e o l i t h i c s e t t l e m e n t was a com-  p a r a t i v e l y permanent s e t t l e m e n t w i t h a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n p o s s e s s i n g p o t t e r y , stone t o o l s , and a h u n t i n g - f i s h i n g s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n and w i t h  cultural-  e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f C e n t r a l A s i a and Northwest China  ( i b i d . : 9 3 ) . The Bronze Age s e t t l e m e n t p e r i o d shows a marked  change, mainly  r e p r e s e n t e d by l o c a t i o n s o f s h o r t term s e t t l e m e n t s o r  20  s t o p p i n g p l a c e s ; however L a r i c h e v ( i b i d . : 95) s t a t e s t h a t a t c e r t a i n  sites  " f o u n d r i e s o f v a r i o u s s o r t s appear" b u t he g i v e s no s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e . These changes were brought  about by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c l o s e r connec-  t i o n s among C i s - B a i k a l and t h e T r a n s - B a i k a l , M i n u s i n s k B a s i n , M o n g o l i a and Tungpei ( i b i d . : 9 5 ) . Bronze t e c h n o l o g y t h e n , d i d n o t o r i g i n a t e i n t h e a r e a o f t h e Angara R i v e r b u t came from t h e M i n u s i n s k a r e a . The M i n u s i n s k B a s i n , an i s l a n d o f steppe on t h e upper Y e n i s e i R i v e r surrounded by f o r e s t e d mountains, west o f Lake B a i k a l , was t h e f i r s t a r e a o f food p r o d u c t i o n , brought  from t h e West by Europeans w i t h t h e  A f a n a s i e v culture a t t h e end o f t h e t h i r d m i l l e n i u m o r b e g i n n i n g o f t h e second m i l l e n i u m B.C. ( O k l a d n i k o v 1959: 22-23).  T h i s s u b s i s t e n c e economy,  which m i n g l e d w i t h t h e N e o l i t h i c h u n t i n g c u l t u r e , i n c l u d e d s t o c k b r e e d i n g as w e l l as h u n t i n g ; f a r m i n g i s s u s p e c t e d .  Stone and bone t e c h n o l o g y was  s t i l l predominant b u t some copper p r o d u c t s appeared,  p r i m i t i v e i n form  (Chard 1974: 145; O k l a d n i k o v 1959: 2 2 ) . A s p e c i a l development i n t h i s a r e a o f M i n u s i n s k and t h e A l t a i o c c u r r e d when an a l i e n group from! the a d j a c e n t f o r e s t zone s u p p l a n t e d t h e A f a n a s i e v c u l t u r e w i t h t h e Okunev c u l t u r e , t a k i n g o v e r t h e d o m e s t i c a t i o n o f a n i m a l s and p r a c t i c i n g a r u d i mentary b r o n z e t e c h n o l o g y and a l s o p r o d u c i n g r i c h a n i m a l and human a r t forms on bone and s t o n e (Gryaznov 1969: 39, 5 1 ; Chard 1974: 145,148). M e t a l l u r g y (copper, b r o n z e , t i n , g o l d ) became w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e s u c c e e d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l Andronovo c u l t u r e c. 1500-1200 B.C. i n M i n u s i n s k and i n t h e A l t a i , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d t h e e a s t e r n h a l f o f a b e l t o f s i m i l a r c u l t u r e and peoples e x t e n d i n g from t h e Don R i v e r t o t h e Y e n i s e i R i v e r (Chard 1974: 145, 148; O k l a d n i k o v 1959: 23; S u l i m i r s k i 1970: 100).  The  21  A f a n a s l e v p o t t e r y shows s t r o n g s i m i l a r i t y i n form and d e c o r a t i o n t o  Kel'ti-  minar p o t t e r y from the r e g i o n o f the A r a l Sea and b u r i a l ornaments i n c l u d e s h e l l s w h i c h c o u l d o n l y have been o b t a i n e d from the A r a l Sea.  Skeletons  from A f a n a s i e v b u r i a l s were of European r a c i a l type not o f the Mongoloid type found elsewhere i n E a s t e r n S i b e r i a (Chard  1974:  145;  Okladnikov  o 1959:  23-24; J e t t m a r 1950:  133).  Andronoy^ s i t e s w i t h s i m i l a r p o t t e r y ,  m e t a l o b j e c t s , and s k e l e t o n s of E u r o p o i d  r a c i a l type were found i n the  U r a l s , i n t h e K a z a k h s t a n s t e p p e s and i n t h e A l t a i and M i n u s i n s k 1959:  23-25).  The  about 1900-1700 B.C.  copper i n d u s t r y , u s i n g molds, o c c u r r e d i n the U r a l s w i t h a development o f n o r t h C a u c a s i a n t y p e s o f t o o l s  and t h e t i n - b r o n z e i n d u s t r y had  a l r e a d y appeared i n t h e south U r a l s , the  lower V o l g a area and West S i b e r i a by t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y B.C. p r o d u c t i o n of sockets! lanceheads, the S i b e r i a n mining  (Okladnikov  axes and f l a t k n i v e s .  and b r o n z e i n d u s t r y was  t h e west as shown ( F i g u r e 1:1)  with  the  The b e g i n n i n g  of  modest and i t s r o o t s l a y i n  by t h e e a r l i e s t o f b r o n z e p r o d u c t s ,  flat  k n i v e s , w h i c h are o f N o r t h C a u c a s i a n t y p e . The  f o r e s t steppe and steppe t e r r i t o r y o f the T r a n s - B a i k a l r e g i o n  e a s t o f Lake B a i k a l show c u l t u r a l l i n k s i n s u b s i s t e n c e , t o o l types  and  p o t t e r y , w i t h the Lena R i v e r , n o r t h e r n T u n g p e i , M o n g o l i a ( M a r i n g e r  1950:  205-208) and t h e B a i k a l N e o l i t h i c ; C h i n e s e i n f l u e n c e i s n o t  discernable  i n T r a n s - B a i k a l d u r i n g the N e o l i t h i c and i t s i n f l u e n c e i n the Bronze may  be i n d i r e c t l y from w e s t e r n Tungpei (Chard 1974:  77, 82).  The  Age  first  e v i d e n c e o f food p r o d u c e r s i n t h e T r a n s - B a i k a l and n o r t h e r n M o n g o l i a a r e s t o c k - r a i s i n g , h o r s e r i d i n g nomads d a t i n g from sometime i n t h e  first  22  m i l l e n n i u m BvC.;  t h e r e i s no t r a c e of f a r m i n g .  The T r a n s - B a i k a l r e g i o n  and n o r t h e r n Mongolia became the focus of a w e l l developed m e t a l l u r g y w i t h i t s own 165).  f e a t u r e s sometime i n t h e f i r s t  m i l l e n n i u m B.C.  (Chard 1974:  At t h i s r e l a t i v e l y l a t e r time the l o c a l Mongoloid  163-  population r e -  c e i v e d d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e from t h e Shang people o f China as r e v e a l e d by presence o f p o t t e r y _ l i t r i p o d s  (Chard 1974:  165;  O k l a d n i k o v 1959:  the  47).  Continued s t r e n g t h e n i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h the M i n u s i n s k B a s i n , the A l t a i , C e n t r a l A s i a and the S c y t h i a n t r i b e s o f the B l a c k Sea a r e r e f l e c t e d i n the bronze weapons, d e c o r a t i o n s and a r t o b j e c t s (Okladnikov 1959:  47).  Mongolia  As a l r e a d y n o t e d N o r t h e r n Mongolia t h e T r a n s - B a i k a l steppe c u l t u r e . 206;  1963:  Chard  (Outer Mongolia)  i s p a r t of  (1974: 62) and Maringer  (1950:  80) e s t a b l i s h s i m i l a r i t i e s i n N e o l i t h i c t o o l types between  Inner M o n g o l i a and South S i b e r i a and M a r i n g e r s t a t e s t h a t the economy was  h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g , as was  the case i n T r a n s - B a i k a l .  However L a t e  N e o l i t h i c Inner Mongoliaswas i n f l u e n c e d by p a i n t e d p o t t e r y and some axe types from N e o l i t h i c China a c c o r d i n g to Maringer 160)  (1950: 207)  l a t e r r e p l a c e d by the steppe nomad p a t t e r n .  80) t h a t t h i s statement was  (1974:  agricul-  Maringer  denies the e x i s t e n c e o f a g r i c u l t u r e but a l s o remarks not c o n c l u s i v e f o r every a r e a .  bronze o b j e c t s found were from a l a t e r o r a d i f f e r e n t 1950:  Chard  agrees w i t h Maringer, however, he p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e r e was  t u r e which was  1963:  (1963: 81).  culture  (Maringer Any  (Maringer  13, 22, 34, 93, 208), w i t h Chinaj.being suggested as the i n f l u e n c i n g  c u l t u r e (Maringer 1963:  82).  A l l t h e h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g N e o l i t h i c  23  p o p u l a t i o n s on t h e s o u t h e r n f r i n g e s o f I n n e r M o n g o l i a , i n c l u d i n g t h e Ordos and s o u t h e r n T u n g p e i , w i t h steppe v e g e t a t i o n were i n f l u e n c e d by c o n t a c t s w i t h N o r t h C h i n a (Chang 1968:  162-166, 182; Chard 1974:  61, 105,  166).  Tungpei  Tungpei was  an a r e a o f c u l t u r a l o v e r l a p showing v a r y i n g degrees  o f Chinese i n f l u e n c e ; t h e h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , g a t h e r i n g p o p u l a t i o n was i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e s o u t h , as n o t e d , by N e o l i t h i c Chinese f a r m e r s , and as a r e s u l t p r o b a b l y had f a r m i n g a t an e a r l y s t a g e . n o r t h e r n a r e a was a r e a was  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e S i b e r i a n M a r i t i m e a r e a , t h e w e s t e r n  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e Mongolian  (Chard 1974:  I t i s presumed t h a t t h e  105-107; Chang 1968:  steppe and t h e e a s t e r n a r e a by  166-168, 183, 351).  The m e t a l  Korea  age  appeared w i t h i n c r e a s i n g and s p r e a d i n g Chinese i n f l u e n c e i n t h e r e g i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r f a r m i n g (Chard 1974:  107; Chang 1968:  353).  Korea  The Korean p e n i n s u l a was t h e L a t e N e o l i t h i c (c 1500-500 B.C.)  a l s o an a r e a of c u l t u r a l o v e r l a p d u r i n g w i t h the northeast area being part  of t h e S i b e r i a n M a r i t i m e Coast c u l t u r e a r e a ; t h e n o r t h w e s t had c l o s e l i n k s w i t h Tungpei w h i c h was  r e l a t e d t o t h e N o r t h C h i n a c u l t u r e s ; the  s o u t h had c o n t a c t s w i t h Japan.  T h e i r economy was m a i n l y f i s h i n g and  c o l l e c t i n g but i n c l u d e d h u n t i n g and f a r m i n g . was  The  appearance o f  shell  bronze  accompanied by t h e emergence o f s e v e r a l new b u r i a l forms and t h e p o s t u -  l a t e d appearance of more developed  a g r i c u l t u r e ; i t was  i n t r o d u c e d by  24  Tungus people from Tungpei and was Tungpei  (Chard 1974:  i n f l u e n c e d by S i b e r i a , Mongolia  103-104; Kim Won-yong 1975:  7; Kim Jeong-hak 1972:  167;  Chang 1968:  103-104; Pearson  183; Kim Jung-bae 1975:  and 1975:  174).  Maritime Northeast A s i a  The c u l t u r e o f the c o a s t s and i s l a n d s o f the N o r t h coast down to Japan were o r i e n t e d toward tal  the s e a .  Pacific  The p r e h i s t o r i c  areas a r e l a r g e l y unknown but i n the Chukchi P e n i n s u l a and i n Kam-  chatka a f u l l y developed N e o l i t h i c was ium B.C.  w i t h p o t t e r y , ground  p r e s e n t around  the f i r s t  millen-  stone and f i s h i n g s u b s i s t e n c e economy i n  Kamchatka and f i s h i n g and r e i n d e e r h u n t i n g economy i n t h e Chukchi s u l a (Chard 1961:  213;  1974:  the Amur R i v e r who  p o p u l a t e d by the N e o l i t h i c p o p u l a t i o n  c o n t i n u e d t o be s e d e n t a r y , h u n t i n g , r i v e r - f i s h i n g ,  g a t h e r i n g people u n t i l the f i n a l c e n t u r i e s B.C. A.D.  and f i r s t  few  At t h i s time i n South S a k h a l i n a f u l l - f l e d g e d maritime  centuries culture  i n t r o d u c e d , p o s s i b l y from the B e r i n g Sea a r e a , and merged w i t h the Neolithic  c u l t u r e b e f o r e expanding  was  local  to the n o r t h w e s t e r n t i p o f Hokkaido  and e v e n t u a l l y up i n t o t h e K u r i l e I s l a n d s (Chard 1961: 99-100).  Penin-  101-102).  The I s l a n d o f S a k h a l i n was of  coas-  213-216,  1974:  At the end o f t h e N e o l i t h i c metal c o u l d have been i n t r o d u c e d  i n t o w e s t e r n and s o u t h e r n S a k h a l i n from the M a r i t i m e T e r r i t o r y o f S i b e r i a and N o r t h e r n Korea, o r a r t i f a c t s made w i t h m e t a l c o u l d have been o b t a i n e d from Hokkaido ( Y o s h i z a k i 1963:  145).  25  Japan The N e o l i t h i c Jomon c u l t u r e of Japan c o n s i s t e d o f h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , g a t h e r i n g c u l t u r e s p o s s e s s i n g p o t t e r y ; t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t of n o r t h e a s t Honshu i n L a t e Jomon had a m a r i t i m e c u l t u r e . where r i c e f a r m i n g , new  Japan,  p o t t e r y s t y l e s and m e t a l were f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d ,  t h e Jomon ended about 400 B.C.; l o n g e r (Chard 1974:  In western  elsewhere i n n o r t h e r n Japan i t p e r s i s t e d  114, 131; I z u m i 1961: 1 ) .  The  succeeding E a r l y  Y a y o i c u l t u r e o f Japan i s a m i x t u r e o f i n d i g e n o u s Jomon and i n t r o d u c e d c u l t u r a l elements  continentally-  such as paddy r i c e c u l t i v a t i o n , new p o l i s h e d  s t o n e t o o l t y p e s , and some b u r i a l t y p e s such as t h e dolmen i n a d d i t i o n to weaving and m e t a l l u r g y .  The  appearance o f c o n t i n e n t a l ] , b r o n z e  d i d n o t o c c u r u n t i l t h e M i d d l e Y a y o i s t a g e (c 100 B.C.  goods  - 100 A.D.  —  on  t h e b a s i s o f a s s o c i a t e d ceramic t y p e s ) ; c o n t i n u e d and c l o s e c o n t a c t between Kyushu and K o r e a i s v e r y apparent 1967:  11j 1974:  at the beginning of t h i s stage  169-175; K i d d e r 1959:  26-33; B l e e d 1972:  (Chard  90-91; B e f u 1965: 42; Kaneko  1964:  2-8). .  The Ryukyu I s l a n d s The N e o l i t h i c i n t h e Ryukyus (c 1500 B.C.  t o 800 A.D.)  had  an  economy of h u n t i n g and s h e l l c o l l e c t i n g ; t h e presence o f a g r i c u l t u r e has . not been v e r i f i e d ; p o t t e r y and p o l i s h e d s t o n e t o o l s were p r e s e n t . appears t o be a c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e L a t e Y a y o i p e r i o d o f Japan. appeared l a t e (c 800 A.D.) and C h i n a (Takamiya 1967:  There Metal  presumably under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f b o t h Japan 14, 16).  25  China  The L a t e N e o l i t h i c i n C h i n a i n c l u d e s f o o d p r o d u c t i o n but i t i s d i v i d e d i n t o m i l l e t growing' i n t h e n o r t h and r i c e growing i n t h e s o u t h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e c o l o g i c a l zones p r e s e n t .  Permanent s e t t l e m e n t s , p o t -  t e r y , p o l i s h e d s t o n e and d o m e s t i c a t e d a n i m a l s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t . I n N o r t h China t h e f i r s t appearance  o f bronze t a k e s p l a c e i n an  i n c i p i e n t form o f p r o d u c t i o n w i t h a b r o n z e foundry at Y e n - s h i h w e s t e r n Honan, i n the f i r s t E r h - l i - t ' o u phase ( c 1850-1650 B.C.)  o f t h e Shang  dynasty (Chang 1968: 128, 199, 231-232, 437; H s i a N a i 1963a: 16, 1963b: 1 8 1 ; , F o n t e i n and Wu 1973: 28; L i C h u - t s i n g 1973: 419). 16; 1963b: 181) s t a t e s t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t assemblages t a - m i a o , Ching-chou  Hsia Nai  (1963a:  were found a t L o -  and a t E r h - l i - t ' o u , Y e n - s h i h c o u n t y , and a t t h i s  early  p e r i o d the f i n d s a l r e a d y i n c l u d e s m a l l o b j e c t s of copper and b r o n z e . However, L o e h r (1968: 1 4 ) , Chang (1968: 204) and Wheatley say t h a t Lo-ta-miao  (1971:  71)  (one o f 26 s i t e s at Cheng-chou) i s a p r e - m e t a l l i c  s i t e , t h e r e f o r e copper and b r o n z e cannot be p r e s e n t at Lo-ta-miao must be p r e s e n t at E r h - l i - t ' o u .  Soper  and so  (1966: 10-12), who has t a k e n h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e K'ao-ku 1965/5 r e p o r t , does n o t mention the e x i s t e n c e of  copper-made o b j e c t s a t a l l .  The N e o l i t h i c i n t h e r e s t o f C h i n a con-  t i n u e d f o r d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s of t i m e ( B a r n a r d 1972: 26-27).  The Lungshan,  t h e l a s t phase o f t h e N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d p r o v i d e d t h e p r o t o t y p e s , i n implements  o f bone, s t o n e and a n t l e r , f o r t h e bronze implements  E r h - l i - t ' o u ( L i C h i 1957: 53; Cheng Te-k'un 1960: 169-170).  found a t  The Lungshan  v e s s e l s o f p o t t e r y and wood ( C r e e l 1937: 105; Watson 1966: 44; K i d d e r 8; L i C h i 1970: 121; Kao J e n - t s u n 1970: 97; Cheng Te-k'un 1973:  208;  1956:  27  Wheatley  1971: 71; Loehr 1968: 11) and t h e Lungshan d e s i g n s on p o t t e r y ,  wood, bone and c l o t h ( L i C h i 1970: 121; S h i h H s i o - y e n 1972: 274) v i d e d models for. t h e b r o n z e assemblages  pro-  l a t e r i n time t h a n E r h - l i - t ' o u ,  such as a t Cheng-chou 50 m i l e s e a s t o f E r h - l i - t ' o u .  Chang (1968:  232)  s t a t e s t h a t some N e o l i t h i c p o t t e r y t y p e s appear t o be i m i t a t i n g m e t a l types and t h a t the o c c u r r e n c e o f b r o n z e v e s s e l s e a r l i e r i n time cannot  be  r u l e d out. Chang (1964: 371) b e l i e v e s t h a t i n s o u t h e a s t "China b r o n z e m e t a l l u r g y emerged from c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h N o r t h C h i n a .  S o l h e i m (1973: 25-29)  and Bayard (1975: 167-168) have suggested c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h  Southwest  China and Southeast A s i a f o r b r o n z e m e t a l l u r g y i n s o u t h e a s t C h i n a . I n Southwest  C h i n a , n o r t h w e s t Yunnan, t h e f i r s t s t e p s i n m e t a l -  l u r g y have been found a t t h e v i l l a g e s i t e o f Chien-ch'uan, d a t e d t o 1150+90 B.C.  (ZK-10) (Chang 1973: 5 2 6 ) ; b o t h hammered and c a s t copper  o b j e c t s were excavated (Chang 1968: 427; B a r n a r d 1972: 2 9 ) .  The  earliest  w e l l documented b r o n z e assemblage i s from one tomb a t t h e b u r i a l s i t e o f Ta-p'o-na about 60 m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f Chien-ch'uan, m i d d l e p e r i o d o f the E a s t e r n Chou d y n a s t y c 600 B.C. 1975: 170).  The Chien-ch'uan  and i s dated t o t h e (Chang 1968:  429;  s i t e has been c l a s s i f i e d as e s s e n t i a l l y  C h i n e s e Lungshan P e r i o d N e o l i t h i c i n c h a r a c t e r , based on t h e p o t t e r y t o o l s p r e s e n t (Chang 1968: 427: B a r n a r d 1972: 2 8 ) .  Chang (1968:  s t a t e s t h a t t h e bronze c u l t u r e o f Ta-p'o-na i s f a r advanced t h e Chien-ch'uan  and  427)  over that a t •  copper s i t e but i t i s a more p r i m i t i v e s t a g e o f m e t a l -  l u r g y and p o s s i b l y antecedent t o t h e m e t a l l u r g y found a t nearby miles southeast) Shih-chai-shan.  (about  T h i s i s n o t f a r from N o r t h Vietnam,  130 the  28  area o f the advanced Dongs'on bronzes.  However Von  Dewall  (1969:  10)  warns t h a t Yunnan i s a t e r r i t o r y w i t h a w i d e l y d i v e r s i f i e d s u r f a c e r e lief,  a c c o u n t i n g f o r e q u a l l y d i v e r s e c l i m a t i c zones and  ments and we  may  ecological environ-  have to i n f e r a s i m i l a r s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f  simultaneous,  a p a r t from s u c c e s s i v e , p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s f o r the r e g i o n as a whole. At Ta-p'o-na,.the Chinese t r a d i t i o n o f the Shang and the Chou i s r e p r e sented by the c a s t i n g methods, the tomb c o n s t r u c t i o n , some o f t h e bronze v e s s e l types and the c h o p s t i c k s b u t the forms o f the axes and t h e o t h e r s o c i o - t e c h n i c items, and the d e c o r a t i v e a r t c h a r a c t e r i z e s an indigenous c i v i l i z a t i o n  (Chang 1968:  essentially  429).  Taiwan's L a t e N e o l i t h i c and e a r l y m e t a l s t a g e s came i n by o f China's s o u t h e a s t c o a s t (Solheim 1963:  258;  Chang 1963:  249,  373); some r e p o r t e d l y i n f l u e n c e d by N o r t h C h i n a (Chang 1964:  heim 1963:  1964:  371,  160-161) and some by n o r t h e r n I n d o c h i n a and the Dongs'on c u l t u r e  way  1968: (Sol-  256,258).  Vietnam  The L a t e N e o l i t h i c i n Vietnam was economic types —  one,  shell  t u r a l open a i r d w e l l e r s —  c o l l e c t i n g cave d w e l l e r s , and two,  who  possessed p o l i s h e d stone and  Bronze appearance i n North Vietnam and bronze working 148). culture  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by two  dates from 1500  i n South Vietnam  B.C.  agricul-  ceramics.  (Solheim  dates to 3950+250 B.P.  different  1974)  (Solheim  1970:  B o r i s k o v s k y (1966: 84-85) s t a t e s t h a t the much younger Dongs'on (c 300 B.C.  c u l t u r e i n Vietnam.  Solheim 1967:  899)  developed out of the Main N e o l i t h i c  29  Cambodia  The o l d e s t known N e o l i t h i c s i t e i n Cambodia i s t h e Laang Spean d e p o s i t i n n o r t h w e s t Cambodia d a t i n g from c 4290 B.C. t o 830 A.D. and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c e r a m i c s , f l a k e d s t o n e and a h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g economy.  O t h e r N e o l i t h i c s i t e s w i t h a s h e l l g a t h e r i n g economy date from  3420 B.C. i n South Cambodia and from 1280 B.C. i n C e n t r a l Cambodia (Mourer 1971: 35-36, 4 1 ) .  The s i t e o f Mlu P r e i i n n o r t h e r n Cambodia has s i m i l a r  b r o n z e axes, fragments o f molds and a s s o c i a t e d a r t i f a c t s , s u c h as p o t t e r y , t h a t i n d i c a t e some r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Non Nok Tha i n n o r t h e a s t T h a i l a n d b u t the d a t i n g i s n o t known ( S o l h e i m 1967: 900; Bayard 1971: 17-18).  Thailand The N e o l i t h i c i n T h a i l a n d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h o r t i c u l t u r e , domestication o f animals w i t h continued h u n t i n g , gathering, p o t t e r y , p o l i s h e d s t o n e t o o l s and a v i l l a g e s o c i a l g r o u p i n g ; t h e N e o l i t h i c i n T h a i l a n d i s s a i d t o have been e a r l i e r and thus d i s t i n c t i v e from t h e r e s t o f E a s t A s i a ( S o l h e i m 1970: 146-147, 1972: 34-36, 38; Gorman 1971: 315; Bayard 1970: 135, 1 4 1 ) .  There was an e a r l y p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t from t h e  mountain v a l l e y s t o t h e l o w l a n d p l a i n s t r i g g e r e d by r i c e around 6500 B.C.  (Gorman 1971: 316).  agriculture  The e a r l i e s t m e t a l o b j e c t found i n  T h a i l a n d i s t h e s o c k e t e d copper t o o l from Non Nok Tha i n d i r e c t l y dated t o t h e f o u r t h m i l l e n i u m B.C. by s u p p o r t i n g d a t a such as p o t t e r y and m e t a l work from o t h e r Southeast A s i a n l o c a t i o n s ( S o l h e i m 1970: 145-149) and a C 14 d a t e o f 3590+320 B.C.  (GAK-1034) (Bayard 1972: 1411).  E a r l y bronze  30  c a s t i n g i s e v i d e n t a l s o at Non Nok Tha d a t i n g from c 2300 B.C. and Han 1972: 323; S o l h e i m 1968: 62; Bayard 1972: 1412).  (Bronson  There were i n -  d i c a t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y from the N e o l i t h i c t o t h e Bronze P e r i o d i n t h e s t o n e a d z e s , s h e l l and s t o n e beads and p o t t e r y (Bayard 1970: 135-141).  125,  A l t h o u g h some p o t t e r y s i m i l a r i n form t o Chinese p o t t e r y  ( i b i d . : 136) appeared i n the same l e v e l as t h e f i r s t b r o n z e o b j e c t s ( i b i d . : 125) , the e a r l i e s t b r o n z e t e c h n o l o g y used i n N o r t h C h i n a , s e v e r a l hundred y e a r s l a t e r , w i t h c l a y molds and d i f f e r e n t b r o n z e c o n s t i t u e n t s b e a r s v e r y l i t t l e resemblance t o t h a t used a t Non Nok Tha (Bayard 1970: 139; 1971: 1 3 ) .  The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s l a t e r e v i d e n c e i s t h a t i t shows  p o s s i b l e r o u t e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n and i n f l u e n c e from N e o l i t h i c t i m e s .  Simi-  l a r l y , t h e r e i s no apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e b r o n z e c u l t u r e s o f t h e Indus V a l l e y i n I n d i a ( P a k i s t a n ) at t h e end o f the t h i r d m i l l e n n i u m B.C. These u t i l i z e d , among o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s n o t known i n T h a i l a n d , open s i n g l e - v a l v e molds t o produce f l a t tanged a x e s , compared t o t h e Non  Nok  Tha t e c h n o l o g y of b i v a l v e sandstone molds t o produce s o c k e t e d axes (Bayard 1970: 139, 1971: 3, 7-8, 13, 15-16, 1972: 1412; S o l h e i m 1972: 35, 41; Lamberg-Karlovsky 1967: In  summary, t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e N e o l i t h i c  period to the f i r s t the  151-152).  appearance o f m e t a l p r o d u c t i o n i n E a s t A s i a show t h a t  e a r l i e s t appearance o f m e t a l assemblages o c c u r i n t h e M i n u s i n s k B a s i n ,  E a s t S i b e r i a , i n the E r h - l i - t ' o u s i t e , N o r t h C h i n a , a t Ta-p'o-na, Southwest C h i n a and at Non Nok Tha, T h a i l a n d . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s t o c k - b r e e d i n g t o t h e steppes of t h e M i n u s i n s k  o  B a s i n from the West by E u r o p i d r a c i a l t y p e s d u r i n g t h e N e o l i t h i c was  to a  31  r e c e p t i v e environment,  composed o f a c u l t u r e w i t h a h u n t i n g s u b s i s t e n c e  and a steppe w i t h p a s t u r e l a n d , thus a p r e - a d a p t i v e f a c t o r e x i s t e d i n t h e Minusinsk area f o r the s u c c e s s f u l adoption of the domestication of mals. Siberia  ani-  T h i s then r e s u l t e d i n t h e f i r s t f o o d p r o d u c t i o n a r e a i n E a s t and paved t h e way  f o r t h e f u r t h e r a d o p t i o n o f the c u l t u r a l p r o -  d u c t s of the West, such as p o t t e r y forms, d e c o r a t i o n s and m e t a l o b j e c t s and t e c h n o l o g y from t h e Caucasus, t h e A r a l Sea r e g i o n , t h e U r a l s and Kazakhstan  the  steppes. The e a r l i e s t b r o n z e assemblage i n N o r t h C h i n a i s from t h e E r h -  l i - t ' o u s i t e ; t h e b r o n z e implement forms found t h e i r p r o t o t y p e s i n t h e implements made o f bone, s t o n e and ant&er. o f t h e l a s t phase of the Neol i t h i c p e r i o d , t h e Lungshan.  S l i g h t l y l a t e r b r o n z e v e s s e l forms and  d e s i g n s on b r o n z e from Cheng-chou s i t e s a l s o had t h e i r p r o t o t y p e s i n p o t t e r y and wood f o r the f o r m e r , and i n p o t t e r y , wood, bone and c l o t h f o r the l a t t e r , i n t h e N e o l i t h i c  period.  Thus t h e antecedents  of t h e  bronze  p r o d u c t i o n i n N o r t h C h i n a a r e the forms and d e s i g n s o f implements and v e s s e l s and the t e c h n o l o g y o f p o t t e r y p r o d u c t i o n f o u n d l i n t h e L a t e Neol i t h i c period. In Southwest C h i n a , t h e e a r l i e s t copper assemblage a t C h i e n ch'uan appeared i n an e s s e n t i a l l y  Chinese N e o l i t h i c  c u l t u r a l context.  The e a r l i e s t b r o n z e assemblage a t Ta-p'o-na i s a p p a r e n t l y d e r i v e d from t h e N o r t h Chinese t r a d i t i o n i n c a s t i n g methods, tomb c o n s t r u c t i o n and some o f the v e s s e l t y p e s w h i l e o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the assemblage, such as , axe f o r m s , s o c i o t e c h n i c items and t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t r e p r e s e n t an genous t r a d i t i o n .  indi-  32  The e a r l i e s t appearance o f m e t a l o b j e c t s i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a i s at Non Nok Tha.  There were i n d i c a t i o n s ^ o f c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y f r o m t h e  N e o l i t h i c t o t h e Bronze p e r i o d i n t h e forms and d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e p o t t e r y , i n t h e s t o n e a d z e s , and t h e s h e l l and s t o n e beads.  The forms o f t h e  s t o n e adzes a r e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e forms o f t h e b r o n z e axes (Bayard 1970: 135) and t h e y a r e b o t h u n r e l a t e d t o t h e copper t o o l (Bayard 1971: 5 ) . The methods o f c a s t i n g and t h e forms o f t h e b r o n z e s a t Non Nok Tha a r e u n r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r t h e Indus c i v i l i z a t i o n o r t o t h e C h i n e s e c u l t u r e s .  33  CHAPTER THREE THE EARLIEST BRONZE ASSEMBLAGES  As mentioned e a r l i e r , t h e e a r l i e s t m e t a l work done by a n c i e n t p e o p l e was t h e hammering o f n a t i v e copper. t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t b r o n z e assemblages  I t has a l s o been e s t a b l i s h e d  i n E a s t A s i a were d i s c o v e r e d i n  s o u t h e r n S i b e r i a where they were preceded by copper w o r k i n g , i n N o r t h China where e a r l i e r e v i d e n c e o f copper w o r k i n g has n o t been documented as y e t and i n southwest China and n o r t h e a s t T h a i l a n d where b r o n z e w o r k i n g i s documented as preceded by copper w o r k i n g . North East A s i a :  Siberia  In t h e steppe a r e a o f t h e M i n u s i n s k r e g i o n , t h e A f a n a s i e v c u l t u r e at t h e end o f t h e t h i r d m i l l e n n i u m o r b e g i n n i n g o f t h e second m i l l e n n i u m B.C. produced a few p r i m i t i v e copper o b j e c t s —  crude p l a t i n g s o f wooden  v e s s e l s , t h e s i m p l e s t l e a f - l i k e k n i v e s , h a n g i n g r i n g s and n e e d l e cases ( O k l a d n i k o v 1959: 22; Gryaznov 1969: 5 0 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o J e t t m a r (1950: 92) the  end o f t h e A f a n a s i e v c u l t u r e i n t h e M i n u s i n s k B a s i n i s u s u a l l y d a t e d  to 1700 B.C. O k l a d n i k o v (1959: 23) s t a t e s t h a t t h e s u c c e e d i n g c u l t u r e i s the Andronovo ( e a r l i e s t c h r o n o l o g i c a l s t a g e o f i t b e i n g t h e Okunev), c 1500 - 1200 B.C., w h i c h produced m e t a l c e l t s , f l a p - e a r e d a x e s , daggers and spearheads w i t h c o l l a r s .  Gryaznov  (1969: 39, 51) b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e  A f a n a s y e v s k a y a ( A f a n a s i e v ) s t a g e a t t h e end o f t h e t h i r d m i l l e n n i u m B.C. gave way a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e second m i l l e n n i u m B.C. t o t h e d i s t i n c t i v e  34  Okunev c u l t u r e and t h a t t h e r e was Okunev nor was  no l i n k between the A f a n a s i e v and  the Okunev c u l t u r e an e a r l y phase o f the Andronovo  s i n c e the Okunev s k e l e t o n s were o f t h e Mongoloid states  (ibid.;  racial  type.  He  the  culture, also,  50, 51) t h a t t h e m e t a l o b j e c t s o f both the A f a n a s i e v and  Okunev c u l t u r e s were copper —  n e e d l e s , awls, k n i f e b l a d e , and a f i s h -  hook, adding copper ornaments and copper r e p a i r s o f wooden v e s s e l s f o r the A f a n a s i e v p e r i o d .  He  ( i b i d . : 90)  i n v e n t o r y o f implements and beads,  adds n e e d l e s and awls to t h e bronze  pendants,  e a r - r i n g s o r plaques  (hanging  r i n g s ? ) to the bronze i n v e n t o r y o f ornaments i n the Andronovo p e r i o d . Gryaznov  (1969: 90)  a l s o noted t h a t copper n e e d l e s were p r e s e n t i n Andro-  novo times at M i n u s i n s k .  Chard  (197.4: 145,  t u r e s u c c e e d i n g t h e A f a n a s i e v was  148-194) notes t h a t the  the Okunevo (Okunev) w i t h  cul-  rudimentary  bronze work, which he does n o t e l a b o r a t e on, f o l l o w e d by t h e s e d e n t a r y , a g r i c u l t u r a l Andronovo c u l t u r e c 1500-1200 B.C.  ?Sulimirski  (1970:  261)  remarks t h a t the Andronovo c u l t u r e began i n the e i g h t e e n t h or s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s B.C. around 1500  w i t h the e a r l i e s t  B.C.  Chard's  c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d one,  p e r i o d o f i t s development l a s t i n g up to  date f o r t h e Andronovo c u l t u r e i s t h e most r e -  and, although I s u s p e c t i t merely echoes  e s t i m a t e d date o f c 1500-1200 B.C., this discussion.  (1970: 286)  t h a t i s the one t h a t w i l l be used i n  Another problem t h a t needs c l a r i f y i n g  l i s t i n g o f c e l t s and  i s Okladnikov's  f l a p - e a r e d axes as s e p a r a t e items w h i l e  and Gryaznov  (1969: 239)  t h e same o b j e c t s , thus axes ( c e l t s ) .  Sulimirski  r e p o r t c e l t s and axes as r e p r e s e n t i n g These a r t i f a c t s  w i l l be t r e a t e d  as the i n d e t e r m i n a t e category o f weapons/implements and l i s t e d as weapons and implements.  The  Okladnikov's  daggers  here  i n the t a b l e s  r e p o r t e d from M i n u s i n s k w i l l  be  35  equated w i t h the r e p o r t e d k n i v e s of the o t h e r assemblages and w i l l  also  be t r e a t e d as the i n d e t e r m i n a t e category of weapons/implements. No p r e c i s e d a t a are a v a i l a b l e on t h e a n a l y s e s o f bronze f o r the "Minusinsk Bronze Age", which may liest was  or may  except  not r e f e r t o the e a r -  assemblages i n t h e a r e a , which s t a t e s t h a t the t i n content o f bronze  n o t more than 6%  (Voce 1951:  106,  t h a t Andronovo M i n u s i n s k bronze was  109).  Gryaznov  (1969: 90)  a " r e a l bronze", an a l l o y o f  notes copper  and t i n . T i n , copper and o t h e r ores were abundant i n the A l t a i and B a i k a l Mountains  (Okladnikov  c a r r i e d out at the mines.  ,'1959: 23; Chard 1974:  Mongait  (1959: 146)  163)  Trans-  and s m e l t i n g was  r e p o r t s t h a t d u r i n g Andro-  novo times t i n mines were i n the upper reaches o f the Y e n i s e i and  copper  mines were l o c a t e d on the M i n u s i n s k s t e p p e s . There i s no mention earliest  o f c a s t i n g procedures s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the  assemblages but the "Minusinsk Bronze Age"  i s s t a t e d as u s i n g  sand, c l a y o r stone s p l i t moulds w i t h c l a y cores (Voce 1951:  C e n t r a l and South-East A s i a : North  106-109).  China  China  E r h - l i - t ' o u , w i t h a l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t and a h i g h l y  stratified  b u r i a l p a t t e r n , i n Yen-shih county of n o r t h w e s t e r n Honan, c 1850-1650 i s a p p a r e n t l y c u l t u r a l l y a n c e s t r a l to t h e l a t e r bronze phases dynasty known from Cheng-chou and Anyang (Chang 1968: 1975:  26; Soper 1966:  23).  The s m a l l bronzes  196;  B.C.,  o f the Shang  Cheng Te-k'un  found i n c l u d e arrowheads,  36  f i s h h o o k s , k n i v e s whcih are a c r u d e l y angular v e r s i o n o f the k n i f e , awls and b e l l s  (Chang 1968:  1973:  12).  28;  Soper 1966:  or a r t o b j e c t s but no  199;  Loehr 1968:  Chang (1968: 199)  14;  semi-lunar  F o n t e i n and  adds spearheads, ornaments  other source mentions ornaments or a r t o b j e c t s  perhaps t h i s i s i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e b e l l s , and Soper (1966: 23) unequivocally  Wu  t h a t no b r o n z e spearheads were p r e s e n t .  so  states  Unfortunately  the  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the o r i g i n a l r e p o r t i s n o t a v a i l a b l e to a non-Chinese l a n guage r e a d e r but 224,  the i l l u s t r a t i o n i n Fang yu-sheng's r e p o r t  P l a t e 5) does not show spearheads.  i s i n d i c a t e d by (Chang 1968: No  The  presence o f a bronze  fragments o f c l a y c r u c i b l e s , b r o n z e s l u g s and  199;  L i Chu-tsing  standardized  1973:  composition  419;  Soper 1966:  c l a y molds  12).  and K i d d e r  (1956: 18) a l -  (K'ao  Kung Chi) g i v e t h e a l r e a d y government p r e s c r i b e d  r a t i o of t i n to copper, depending on the s u r f a c e r e q u i r e d and on purpose o f the o b j e c t . a n c i e n t bronze — 5 - 6 %  D i f f e r e n t sources to 30%  (Cushing  18; Watson 1971:  as 50%  B a r n a r d (1961: 191,  for mirrors.  t o t e s t s the s i x K'ao  the  give v a r y i n g r a t i o s f o r t i n i n  1967:  10-20% (Kidder 1956:  64)7-20%  79) w i t h 193,  (Gettens  1967:  the percentages as 197)  reveals that  212),  high  according  Kung C h i formulae were merely u n r e l i a b l e c o n j e c t u r e s  t h a t by L a t e Shang times the t i n content  20.32% and  foundry  ( i b i d . ) and L i Chung (1975: 259-263) s t a t e t h a t e a r l y Chou  dynasty sources  and  215-  e x i s t e d i n Shang times f o r bronze  a l l o y s , a c c o r d i n g to Cheng Te-k'un (1960: 158) though K i d d e r  (1965:  the copper content  s t i l l v a r i e d from 1.83%  v a r i e d from 76.7%  to 95.2%  to  i n 8 samples;  a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n from t e s t s showed t h a t z i n c i s absent and  lead  37  amounts t o l e s s t h a n 3% i n Shang bronzes w i t h t h e t i n c o n t e n t b e i n g l o w e r i n weapons and u t e n s i l s . Ores, b o t h copper and t i n , were p r e s e n t i n many areas around t h e Y e n - s h i h a r e a ( B a r n a r d 1961: 50; S h i h Chang-ju 1955: 1 0 5 ) . N o t h i n g i s known o f o r e p r o c e s s i n g a t t h i s time b u t i t i s presumed t h a t s m e l t i n g was c a r r i e d out b e s i d e the mines ( B a r n a r d 1961: 1 7 9 ) . The me'thod o f c a s t i n g bronze i n E a r l y Shang timeswwas by d i r e c t c a s t i n g i n molds w i t h t h e s i m p l e s t s o l i d c a s t i n g o f weapons, t o o l s and ornaments b e i n g done i n t w o - p i e c e molds.  O f t e n t h e molds i n such cases  were c a r v e d from b l o c k s of s t o n e ( B a r n a r d 1961: 2 4 3 ) .  Barnard  (1961:  243) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e y e t f o r t h e use o f open s i n g l e molds but Cheng Te-k'un (1960: 163, 1975: 26) s t a t e s t h a t t h e s i m p l e r a r t i f a c t s at Y e n - s h i h were c a s t i n open o r v a l v e molds and Chang (1968: 247) agrees t h a t s i n g l e molds were used i n Shang t i m e s .  The use o f a c l a y core p e r -  m i t t i n g t h e c a s t i n g o f h o l l o w o b j e c t s such as b e l l s was t h e n e x t s t a g e i n m e t a l l u r g i c a l development ( B a r n a r d 1961: 250) and i s a l r e a d y seen i n the E r h - l i - t ' o u remains.  C i r e - p e r d u e , t h e e a r l i e r c a s t i n g method o f t h e  West, was thought t o have been i n t r o d u c e d and p r a c t i c e d i n Shang and Chou China (Penniman 1951: 120; K i d d e r 1956: 19; Savage 1968: 20; Watson 1971: 77) b u t no bronze c a s t by t h e c i r e - p e r d u e p r o c e s s has been unearthed any pre-Han s i t e s y e t ( B a r n a r d 1961: 86, 1 0 5 ) .  from  The f i r s t r e a l e v i d e n c e  o f c i r e - p e r d u e methods o f c a s t i n g uncovered i n a pre-Han s i t e , i n L a t e Chou C h i n a (c 200 B.C.) was i n n o r t h w e s t Yunnan, southwest C h i n a , where the t e c h n i q u e was i n t r o d u c e d p o s s i b l y from I n d i a o r t h e Ordos (Barnard 1961: 158, 1967: 186).  38  Southwest  China  In norhtwest Yunnan, n o r t h o f Lake E r h at Chien-ch'uan, H a i men-k'ou, a h a b i t a t i o n s i t e y i e l d e d 14 copper a r t i f a c t s  i n c l u d i n g hammered  curved k n i v e s , awls, c h i s e l s , r i n g s , f i s h h o o k s , b r a c e l e t s and c a s t  celts  or axes, p l u s p a r t of a c l a y mold.  as  e s s e n t i a l l y Chinese Lungshan  This s i t e , although c l a s s i f i e d  p e r i o d N e o l i t h i c i n c h a r a c t e r , shows t h e  e a r l i e s t phase o f m e t a l l u r g y i n t h e a r e a . c o n v e r t s the C 14 date o f 1150+90 B.C. P i n e date o f 1353+154 B.C. for  (Z-10) i n t o an e a r l i e r  Bristlecone  b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h i s g i v e s a more a c c u r a t e d a t e  Chien-ch'uan. The e a r l i e s t bronze assemblage  Ta-p'o-na,  stick.  i n Yunnan, from a b u r i a l a t  Hsiang-yun, j u s t s o u t h e a s t o f Lake E r h , i n c l u d e s a d e c o r a t e d  house-shaped  c o f f i n assembled  from seven p i e c e s , c o n t a i n i n g a bronze  One hundred b r o n z e a r t i f a c t s were r e c o v e r e d from t h e b u r i a l  The bronzes were implements weapons — —  Barnard (1972: 24-25, 28-30)  —  fill.  hoes, plow b l a d e s , axes, d i b b l e s , k n i v e s ;  spearheads and ends, swords, p i c k s , fan-shaped axes; v e s s e l s  tsuh g o b l e t s , cups, tou f r u i t s t a n d s , a cooking pot; spoons,  chopsticks,  k e t t l e d r u m s , 2 gourd-shaped m u s i c a l sheng, a b e l l , models o f houses, t l e , h o r s e s , sheep, p i g s , dogs, c h i c k e n s , ornaments laneous t i e m s " (Chang 1968:  cat-  and " o t h e r m i s c e l -  428).  Chang (1968: 429) n o t e s t h a t the c o m p o s i t i o n of e l e v e n s e l e c t e d bronzes from Ta-p'o-na appears t o be uneven  and u n c o n t r o l l e d , w i t h copper  r a n g i n g from 79.60% to 97.63% and the t i n r a n g i n g from 0.19% l e a d i n 6 o b j e c t s v a r i e d from 0.52% trace only.  t o 3.46%  t o 16.34%;  and one o t h e r o b j e c t had a  39  4  No s c i e n t i f i c d a t i n g f o r t h e s i t e i s a v a i l a b l e but Chang (1968: 429) p l a c e s i t i n M i d d l e E a s t e r n Chou t i m e s , and g i v e s t h e e s t i m a t e d d a t e as 600 B.C.  (Chang 1975: 170).  Sources o f o r e s o f copper and t i n a r e p l e n t i f u l i n Yunnan (Heekeren 1967: 117; B a r n a r d 1961: 50; S h i h Chang-ju 1955: 105). No molds, c r u c i b l e s o r o t h e r e v i d e n c e of b r o n z e p r o d u c t i o n were documented as b e i n g e x c a v a t e d . South E a s t A s i a :  Thailand  I n n o r t h e a s t T h a i l a n d , i n the s i t e of Non Nok Tha a copper s o c k e t e d t o o l , r e c o v e r e d from a b u r i a l w i t h e x t e n s i v e grave f u r n i s h i n g s , and two s m a l l p i e c e s o f b r o n z e were found at a l o w e r l e v e l ( E a r l y P e r i o d I I I ) and dated i n d i r e c t l y t o 3590+320 B.C.  (GAK-1034) (Bayard 1972:  1411).  A d i f f e r e n t date was o b t a i n e d by u s i n g the thermoluminescence method, g i v i n g an e s t i m a t e d date of 2700 t o 2500 B.C.  (Bayard 1972: 1411-1412).  The n e x t l e v e l s , h a b i t a t i o n and b u r i a l ( M i d d l e P e r i o d I I I ) , produced  28  b r o n z e b r a c e l e t s , 4 s o c k e t e d b r o n z e a x e s , numerous b r o n z e lumps from c a s t i n g s p i l l a g e , 6 p a i r s o f d o u b l e - v a l v e sandstone molds and s i x c l a y  cruci-  b l e s ; t h e axes are s u g g e s t e d as h a v i n g f u n c t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s (Bayard 1971: 5; S o l h e i m 1968: 59-62, 1970: 147).  The d a t i n g o f Non Nok Tha has  been q u e r i e d by L o o f s (1974: 59-60) as b e i n g based on c o n t r o v e r s i a l d a t e s from o t h e r areas and on p r e l i m i n a r y e v i d e n c e o f thermoluminescence dates g i v e n by Bronson and Han  (1972: 323).  P i t t i o n i (1970: 1 5 8 ) , i n h i s r e p o r t  on t h e a n a l y s i s o f e i g h t b r a c e l e t s and one s o c k e t e d axe f r o m Non Nok has made a p u z z l i n g s t a t e m e n t i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r age —  Tha,  he g i v e s t h e t r a d i -  40  t i o n a l d a t e of t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y B.C.  f o r b r o n z e w o r k i n g i n Southeast  A s i a but he does n o t say how h e . a r r i v e d a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n f o r t h e s e Nok Tha b r o n z e s . o t h e r t h a n by r e f e r r i n g t o Solheim's 1967  and 1968  arti-  c l e s ; S o l h e i m (1967: 899, 1968: 62) g i v e s a date "about 2500 B.C." these o b j e c t s .  Bayard (1975:168) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e now  the s i t e and the tendency t o s u p p o r t a pre-2000 B.C. q u i t e c l e a r , although not c o n c l u s i v e . "  Non  for  "37 d a t e s from  date f o r bronze i s  A c h a r t o f Non Nok Tha d a t e s , as  o f 1975 i s i n t h e Appendix. No e v i d e n c e has been e x c a v a t e d t o show t h e p r e s e n c e o f w a r f a r e , u r b a n i z a t i o n , or any s o c i a l o r p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h o u g h t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s i n w e a l t h and p r e s t i g e shown i n t h e b u r i a l s ( S o l h e i m 1970: 147,  157-158). The f a c t t h a t no t r a c e o f c o p p e r , t i n o r l e a d o r e s has been  found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the b r o n z e c a s t i n g equipment l e a d s t o the assumpt i o n t h a t t h e o r e s were s m e l t e d a t t h e i r s o u r c e o r t h e r e f i n e d m e t a l s o r a l l o y e d b r o n z e came i n by way o f t r a d e ( S o l h e i m 1972: 4 1 ) .  The s o u r c e s o f  t h e o r e s are r a t h e r d i s t a n t from t h e s i t e ; copper d e p o s i t s i n v e i n and f r e e copper were found 80-100 km.  away ( P i t t i o n i 1970: 1 6 0 ) , copper ore  appeared 135 km n o r t h w e s t w i t h l e a d o r e n o t f a r away from t h i s copper p o s i t and t i n o r e was n o t e d 250 km. n o r t h w e s t  ( S o l h e i m 1969: 135,  de-  1970:  152). A n a l y s i s o f two samples from t h e s o c k e t e d copper t o o l showed i m p u r i t i e s o f aluminum, i r o n , phosphorus, t r a c e s of phosphorus, t r e a t e d i n some way,  a r s e n i c and mercury.  The  a r s e n i c and i r o n suggest t h a t t h e copper had been e i t h e r by r o a s t i n g o r s m e l t i n g , b e f o r e enough "pure"  41  copper was a v a i l a b l e f o r c o l d hammering ( S o l h e i m 1970: 152, 1972: 41; Bayard 1972: 1411).  One o f t h e s m a l l p i e c e s o f b r o n z e from t h i s same e a r l y  l e v e l ( E a r l y P e r i o d I I I ) was a n a l y z e d by u s i n g t h e e l e c t r o n p r o b e , and spot a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d 94-96% copper and 4-6% t i n w i t h no a r s e n i c , phosphorus, i r o n or l e a d present — (Bayard 1972: 1411).  i n d i c a t i n g a d e l i b e r a t e l y made t i n b r o n z e  S p e c t r o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s o f 12 samples from f i v e o f  t h e b r o n z e o b j e c t s from t h e next l e v e l ( M i d d l e P e r i o d I I I ) d i s p l a y e d t h a t e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n s of t i n and l e a d had been d e l i b e r a t e l y added i n most cases t o copper c o n t a i n i n g a r s e n i c ( P i t t i o n i 1970: 158-159; S o l h e i m 1970: 152; Bayard 1971: 7 ) . The c a s t i n g of t h e s o c k e t e d b r o n z e axes was w i t h sandstone double molds and c o r e , and the b r a c e l e t s were c a s t e i t h e r i n double molds o r by t h e c i r e - p e r d u e p r o c e s s (Bayard 1971: 3 ) .  42  CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSIONS The c o n c l u s i o n s from the, e a r l i e s t bronze assemblages  w i l l be  based on t a b u l a t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . TABLE I I . PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF ARTIFACT TYPES IN THE EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES Siberia Artifact  Minusinsk  China Erh-li-t'ou  Ta-p'o-na  Thailand Chiench'i  Copper knives axes awls chisels fishhooks socketed t o o l needles rings n e e d l e case bracelets p l a t e d wooden vessel axe mold  / /  / / / / /  .  / /. / /  / /  / /  Bronze knives axes spearheads spearends swords pick arrowheads fishhook needles stock axes Continued  / / /  /  / / / / /' /  / / / /  / /  Non Nok Tha  43  TABLE I I (Continued) Siberia Artifact Bronze  China  Minusinsk  Erh-li-t'ou  Ta-p'o-na  Thailand Chiench'uan  Non Nok  (continued)  hoes plow b l a d e s awls dibbles cups fruitstand c o o k i n g pot spoons chopsticks goblets bells gourd sheng kettledrum art objects ornaments coffin mold bronze s l u g s crucibles miscellaneous  / / /  /  /  /  /  / / / / / / / / / / / / /  /  / / /  / / / /  /  In summary o f T a b l e I I , t h e f i r s t o b v i o u s f a c t i s t h a t t h e b u r i a l a t Ta-p'o-na i s r e p r e s e n t e d by many more t y p e s o f bronze a r t i f a c t s than the o t h e r assemblages.  The second f a c t i s t h a t the bronze assem-  b l a g e s o f Ta-p'o-na t o g e t h e r w i t h the copper assemblage o f  Chien-ch'uan,  b o t h i n n o r t h w e s t Yunnan, y i e l d e d t h e m a j o r i t y of m e t a l a r t i f a c t t y p e s . The assemblages  w i t h the most types o f copper items a r e Minu-  s i n s k and Chien'ch'uan w i t h 7 t y p e s each, f o l l o w e d by Non Nok Tha w i t h one type and Ta-p'o-na and E r h - l i - t ' o u w i t h none.  Tha  44  The number of d i f f e r e n t bronze a r t i f a c t t y p e s i n the assemb l a g e s i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r by Ta-p'o-na w i t h 23 t y p e s , M i n u s i n s k w i t h 7, E r h - l i - t ' o u w i t h 6, Non Nok Tha w i t h 3 t y p e s and Chien-ch'uan w i t h none. However t h e r e a r e o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t a r e more i m p o r t a n t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the b e g i n n i n g of b r o n z e t e c h n o l o g y t h a n the b r o n z e a r t i f a c t t y p e f r e q u e n c i e s i n an assemblage. l o g i c a l age o f the assemblage.  One of t h e s e i s the chrono-  I t i s evident that the m a j o r i t y of the  dates g i v e n f o r the e a r l i e s t assemblages have been a r r i v e d a t r e l a t i v e l y and s p e c u l a t i v e l y .  There i s one C 14 date f o r t h e copper s i t e o f C h i e n -  ch'uan and an i n c o n c l u s i v e d a t e f o r Non Nok Tha.  However i f t h i s i s a l l  we have t o work w i t h a t the moment, t h i s i s what we have t o use. To s i m p l i f y the p o i n t s i n t h i s summary, s m a l l e r t a b l e s w i l l used.  A l l dates given are  be  B.C.  TABLE I I I . DATES OF EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES ( M i n u s i n s k , Non Nok Tha, Chien-ch'uan, E r h - l i - t ' o u , Ta-p'o-na) Copper  Bronze  Minusinsk Non Nok Tha Chien-ch'uan Erh-li-t'ou Ta-p'o-na  e a r l y second m i l l e n i u m c 2700-2500 1150+90 no copper no copper  TABLE IV.  Copper Minusinsk Ch i en- ch' uan Non Nok Tha Erh-li-t'ou Ta-p'o-na  Non Nok Tha Erh-li-t'ou Minusinsk Ta-p'o-na Chien-ch'uan  pre 2000 c 1850-1650 c 1500-1200 c 600 no bronze  NUMBER OF CATEGORIES OF ARTIFACT TYPES IN FIVE EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES Bronze  4 3 1 0 0  Ta-p'o-na Erh-li-t'ou Minusinsk Non Nok Tha Chien-ch'uan  7 4 3 3 0  45  TABLE V.  CATEGORIES OF COPPER ARTIFACT TYPES IN THREE EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES  Minusinsk  e a r l y second m i l l e n i u m  weapons/implements implements domestic u t e n s i l ornaments  Non Nok Tha  c 2700-2500  weapon/implement  Chien-ch'uan  1150+90  weapons/implements implements ornaments  No c o n c l u s i o n s can be made on c a t e g o r i e s o f copper a r t i f a c t types based on c h r o n o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n .  A c t u a l l y no v i a b l e comparison can  be made among t h e t h r e e copper assemblages.  As has been n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y  the e a r l i e s t m e t a l work done by man was by hammering n a t i v e copper. S u c c e s s i v e s t e p s i n t h e development o f m e t a l l u r g y were proposed a l s o b u t t h e r e i s no a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s w i l l be r e p r e s e n t e d i n every area.  Chien-ch'uan p r o g r e s s e d no f u r t h e r t h a n hammered and c a s t  copper f o r unknown r e a s o n s .  M i n u s i n s k showed a development f r o m a ham-  mered copper s t a g e t o a b r o n z e s t a g e p r o b a b l y as t h e r e s u l t o f t h e e n t r y o f t h e s e elements from t h e West, as shown e a r l i e r .  The e x c a v a t e d a r e a  of Non Nok Tha i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and w i t h one example o f copper o n l y , no c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn on i t f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f b r o n z e t e c h n o l o g y i n the a r e a . A l r e a d y i t has been n o t e d t h a t comparison among the e a r l i e s t c e n t r e s o f bronze p r o d u c t i o n i s hampered by i n a d e q u a c i e s i n s a m p l i n g and dating.  I n a d d i t i o n , we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i e t i e s a t d i f f e r e n t  levels  46  TABLE V I . CATEGORIES OF BRONZE ARTIFACT TYPES IN FOUR EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES Non Nok Tha  pre 2000  weapons/implements implements ornaments  Erh-li-t'ou  c 1850-1650  weapons implements ornaments musical instruments  Minusinsk  c 1500-1200  weapons implements ornaments  Ta-p'o-na  c 600  weapons implements ornaments musical instruments domestic u t e n s i l s art objects i d e o l o g i c a l symbol  o f development, i n w h i c h bronze p r o d u c t i o n p l a y s d i f f e r i n g r o l e s .  Earlier  t h e way i n which b r o n z e m e t a l l u r g y can o c c u r i n v e r y d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l cont e x t s was a l s o mentioned.  We may now e x p l o r e b r i e f l y t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t  of bronze production at the e a r l i e s t l o c a l e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Steward (1955: 52-55) t h e l e v e l s o f s o c i o c u l t u r a l integration ganizational  range from n u c l e a r f a m i l y  through  folk society  to state o r -  systems; they a r e q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t systems w h i c h  represent successive developmental stages.  P r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s may b e -  come p a t t e r n e d around c o l l e c t i v e h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , h e r d i n g o r f a r m i n g and s o c i e t y  acquires a structure  appropriate to the p a r t i c u l a r kinds of  i n t e r f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t develop lower l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n  i n the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n .  then i s based on m u l t i k i n  structure.  This A still  47  larger  system of i n t e g r a t i o n ,  a folk society,  m u l t i k i n groups become f u n c t i o n a l l y  appears when these e a r l i e r  dependent on each o t h e r f o r food  p r o d u c t i o n , t r a d e goods and o f f e n s i v e and d e f e n s i v e w a r f a r e ; t h i s dependency c o u l d r e s u l t ferentiation.  i n p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r c h y and c l a s s  At t h e s t a t e  and s t a t u s d i f -  l e v e l new i n s t i t u t i o n s appear f o r c o n t r o l l i n g  those a s p e c t s o f l i f e t h a t a r e o f concern to t h e s t a t e ,  such as government  s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . Binford  (1972: 93-101) e x p l a i n s t h e t h r e e r e l e v a n t a r t i f a c t  types based on t h e i r primary f u n c t i o n a l technomic  context i n the s o c i e t y :  a r t i f a c t s used d i r e c t l y i n c o p i n g w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l  ment; v a r i a b i l i t y i s e x p l a i n e d by the e x i s t i n g —  one, environ-  ecology; two, s o c i o - t e c h n i c  a r t i f a c t s used i n the s o c i a l subsystems as " t h e means o f a r t i c u l a t i n g  individuals  into  c o h e s i v e groups capable o f m a i n t a i n i n g themselves and  m a n i p u l a t i n g the t e c h n o l o g y " and changes i n t h i s type o f a r t i f a c t related  can be  t o changes i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l system; t h r e e , i d i o -  technic —  a r t i f a c t s used i n t h e i d e o l o g i c a l  Formal s t y l i s t i c  characteristics  p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l system.  for reinforcing  b e l i e f , custom and v a l u e s  c r o s s - c u t a l l these g e n e r a l c l a s s e s o f a r t i f a c t s . Binford  ( i b i d . : 95) t h e o r i z e s t h a t i f d u r a b l e metal  (copper)  a r t i f a c t s which r e q u i r e as much e f f o r t t o produce as l e s s d u r a b l e stone and  bone a r t i f a c t s , a r e made f o r n o n u t i l i t a r i a n  m a r i l y s o c i o - t e c h n i c items. is  a direct  relationship  sociocultural  integration  use then they a r e p r i -  He ( i b i d . : 99) f u r t h e r  proposes t h a t  there  between these s t a t u s symbols and t h e l e v e l o f of the culture;  s m a l l group s i z e a t a low l e v e l  .48  of i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l have a low number of s t a t u s symbols and l a r g e r groups a t a l a r g e r l e v e l o f s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h more t h a n an e g a l i t a r i a n system of s t a t u s g r a d i n g w i l l have a h i g h e r number o f s t a t u s symb o l s or s o c i o - t e c h n i c items.  B i n f o r d ( i b i d . : 100) i n r e f e r e n c e  Copper C u l t u r e o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , s t a t e s t h a t t h e f r e q u e n t  to the Old  occurrence i n  b u r i a l s o f copper a r t i f a c t s o f technomic form, w i t h apparent l a c k o f technomic e f f i c i e n c y and r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y , suggest t h e i r p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n was as s o c i o - t e c h n i c o r s t a t u s i t e m s . Binford's  I t appears t h a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n o f  can a l s o be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r c u l t u r e s , such as t h o s e o f E a s t  A s i a , and o t h e r m e t a l s , such as b r o n z e . F o l l o w i n g t h e e x p o s i t i o n s o f Steward and B i n f o r d we may expect t o f i n d i n t h e e a r l i e r l o w e r l e v e l s o f i n t e g r a t i o n , such as f a m i l y o r m u l t i k i n groups, t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of c a t e g o r i e s o f a r t i f a c t t y p e s w i l l be technomic, r e l a t i n g t o food p r o d u c t i o n  and w i l l be o f bone o r s t o n e  w i t h no e v i d e n c e o f " e x o t i c " m e t a l s t a t u s symbols b e i n g produced i n t h e culture.  The n e x t l a r g e r l e v e l o f s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e f o l k  s o c i e t y , w i t h some e v i d e n c e o f p o l i t i c a l  c o n t r o l and r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  a p p a r e n t , would i n c l u d e c a t e g o r i e s o f a r t i f a c t t y p e s r e l a t i n g t o food production symbols.  and w a r f a r e w i t h a minimum of s o c i o - t e c h n i c o r m e t a l s t a t u s As t h e l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n becomes l a r g e r and  l a t e r i n t i m e , a t t h e s t a t e l e v e l , we may e x p e c t t o f i n d e v i d e n c e o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s and a h i g h e r number o f s o c i o t e c h n i c i t e m s , o f m e t a l and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . two  Expectations,  based on t h e  l a r g e r l e v e l s o f s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , f o l k s o c i e t i e s and s t a t e  s o c i e t i e s , and on t h e development s t a g e s between, can be used t o e x p l o r e  49  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the categories o f bronze a r t i f a c t types t o the s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n a t Non Nok Tha, E r h - l i - t ' o u , M i n u s i n s k  and Ta-p'o-na i n  order t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e l e v e l s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e establishment  of the beginning of t h e i r bronze  technology.  T a b l e V I shows t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t o f t h e assemblages, Non Nok Tha^ w i t h p o s t u l a t e d r i c e a g r i c u l t u r e and d o m e s t i c a t e d p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  animals, (Bayard  a low l e v e l o f  1970: 1 4 1 ) , w h i c h  i s p o s s i b l y r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n r a t h e r than s t r a t i f i c a t i o n (thus a f o l k s o c i e t y ) , has produced t h e e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s —  the lowest l e v e l of s o c i o -  c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e fewest c a t e g o r i e s o f a r t i f a c t s , weapons/ implements, implements and s o c i o - t e c h n i c i t e m s , ornaments. E r h - l i - t ' o u , w i t h m i l l e t a g r i c u l t u r e , animal l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n and s l a v e b u r i a l s 1966:  domestication,  (Chang 1968: 196-198; Soper  11) i n d i c a t e s a s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y w i t h p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  t h e r e f o r e at t h e d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e l e v e l o f s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n . T h i s second o l d e s t s i t e a l s o produced t h e expected r e s u l t s —  a higher  l e v e l o f s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e second h i g h e s t number o f c a t e g o r i e s o f a r t i f a c t t y p e s , weapons, i m p l e m e n t a n d s o c i o - t e c h n i c c a t e g o r i e s o f ornaments and m u s i c a l  instruments.  M i n u s i n s k w i t h t h e t h i r d o l d e s t chronology expectations.  d i d not f u l f i l l the  A g r i c u l t u r e and a n i m a l d o m e s t i c a t i o n were p r e s e n t b u t  there i s small evidence f o r s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n or p o l i t i c a l  organiza-  t i o n s i n c e t h e o n l y c a t e g o r i e s were weapons, implements and s o c i o - t e c h n i c ornaments.  A lower l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , f o l k s o c i e t y , i s  50  shown, p o s s i b l y due t o t h e m e t a l l u r g y b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d t o a c u l t u r e w i t h limited  agriculture. Ta-p'o-na, t h e youngest s i t e r e p r e s e n t e d , a l s o f u l f i l l e d  the  e x p e c t a t i o n s by showing t h e most c a t e g o r i e s of a r t i f a c t t y p e s w i t h t h e most v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s .  Here were advanced a g r i c u l t u r e  and  a n i m a l d o m e s t i c a t i o n and t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f weapons, i m p l e ments and s o c i o - t e c h n i c items of ornaments, m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s ,  domestic  u t e n s i l s , and a r t o b j e c t s and t h e i d e o - t e c h n i c i t e m of a complex d e c o r a t e d c o f f i n , show a h i g h e r degree of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n and g i v e e v i d e n c e of i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s .  political  Thus Ta-p'o-na  r e p r e s e n t s the most advanced s t a g e o f s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n at t h e i n c i p i e n t s t a t e l e v e l w i t h t h e most complex t e c h n o l o g y of t h e f o u r e a r l i e s t b r o n z e assemblages. To summarize t h e e v i d e n c e t h e n , i t would seem t h a t Non Nok  Tha  and M i n u s i n s k were a t t h e f o l k s o c i e t y l e v e l o f s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n and possessed  t h e fewest c a t e g o r i e s of a r t i f a c t types —  and one c a t e g o r y of s o c i o - t e c h n i c i t e m s .  technomic  However, M i n u s i n s k has  three  t y p e s of a r t i f a c t s i n each of t h e two technomic c a t e g o r i e s of weapons and implements and Non Nok  Tha o n l y has one t y p e i n each and they each o n l y  have one t y p e o f a r t i f a c t i n t h e s o c i o - t e c h n i c c a t e g o r y .  Therefore,  M i n u s i n s k i s a t a l a r g e r or h i g h e r l e v e l of f o l k s o c i e t y i n t e g r a t i o n Non Nok  than  Tha. E r h - l i - t ' o u i s at a h i g h e r l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n a g a i n , showing  a d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e l e v e l w i t h two t y p e s o f a r t i f a c t s i n t h e weapons and  51  implements technomic  c a t e g o r i e s and one t y p e o f a r t i f a c t i n each o f t h e  two s o c i o - t e c h n i c c a t e g o r i e s . The Ta-p'o-na b r o n z e assemblage, a l t h o u g h r e p r e s e n t i n g o n l y one e x c a v a t e d b u r i a l , shows a more advanced l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l t e g r a t i o n e x i s t e d at Ta-p'o-na than a t E r h - l i - t ' o u ,  in-  and t h e a r t i f a c t s  a l s o r e p r e s e n t the most complex t e c h n o l o g y o f t h e f o u r e a r l i e s t assemblages.  There are s i x types of a r t i f a c t s i n the technomic  weapons and f i v e types i n t h e technomic  category of  c a t e g o r y o f implements and t h e  f o u r s o c i o - t e c h n i c c a t e g o r i e s c o n t a i n e l e v e n t y p e s of a r t i f a c t s .  The  Ta-p'o-na assemblage a l s o possesses one t y p e of a r t i f a c t i n t h e i d i o t e c h n i c category. There may  s t i l l be e a r l i e r s i t e s t h a n a l l o f t h e s e i n the same  a r e a s ; s i t e s t h a t have o n l y f l a t c a s t o b j e c t s t h a t were produced the use of a core w i t h a double mold was known.  M i n u s i n s k may  before  y e t be  shown t o be o f an e a r l i e r date than t h a t accepted at t h i s time and t h e lower l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l  i n t e g r a t i o n accompanied by t h e fewer c a t e -  g o r i e s o f a r t i f a c t t y p e s would then " f i t " t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s .  Or, w i t h a  change i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a r c h a e o l o g i s t s i n t h e r e g i o n , we may to l e a r n a g r e a t deal-more about s i t e s o t h e r than  begin  burials.  TABLE V I I . EVIDENCE OF CASTING FROM THE FOUR EARLIEST BRONZE ASSEMBLAGES Assemblages Non Nok Tha Erh-li-t'ou Minusinsk Ta-p'o-na  Molds  Bronze  Slugs  Crucibles  52  E v i d e n c e o f c a s t i n g i s found o n l y i n t h e t t w o e a r l i e s t  sites,  o r i s r e p o r t e d from o n l y t h e s e s i t e s , Non Nok Tha p r e 2000 B.C; and E r h - l i - t ' o u c 1850-1650 B.C. Sand, c l a y o r s t o n e s p l i t - m o l d s w i t h c l a y c o r e s have been r e p o r t e d from t h e " M i n u s i n s k Bronze Age" b u t a g a i n w i t h no s p e c i f i c mention o f t h e e a r l i e s t Andronovo p e r i o d o f t h e M i n u s i n s k b r o n z e s .  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f  t h e " o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s i t e m s " found a t Ta-p'o-na i n c l u d i n g e v i d e n c e o f bronze working  cannot be r u l e d o u t by a non-Chinese language r e a d e r .  bHowever, as t h e tomb appeared t o b e l o n g t o a p e r s o n r a t h e r h i g h up i n t h e h i e r a r c h y o f a s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e presence o f cores o r molds as e v i d e n c e f o r p r o d u c t i o n methods i s n o t l i k e l y .  Molds  used a t E r h - l i - t ' o u were c l a y , s i n g l e o r double f o r t h e weapons and t o o l s w i t h u t i l i z a t i o n o f two p i e c e v a l v e molds and c l a y c o r e s f o r t h e b e l l s b u t t h e r e i s no f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e b r o n z e s l u g s and c l a y c r u c i b l e s o t h e r than mention o f t h e i r presence.  Cheng Te-k'un (1960:  162) d e s c r i b e s E a r l y Shang c r u c i b l e s as b e i n g made w i t h s t r a w tempered c l a y . At Non Nok Tha t h e molds a r e d o u b l e - v a l v e sandstone types and t h e c r u c i b l e s a r e o f c l a y , h e a v i l y tempered w i t h r i c e c h a f f and s t r a w (Bayard 1971:  7 ) . The axes were made u s i n g t h e double-molds and cores  and t h e b r a c e l e t s u s i n g e i t h e r double molds o r t h e c i r e - p e r d u e p r o c e s s . No e x p l a n a t i o n has been g i v e n f o r t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t c i r e - p e r d u e was used —  one r e c e i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e o n l y reason t h i s was men-  t i o n e d was because e a r l i e r t h i n k i n g has assumed i n f l u e n c e s t o t h e a r e a came from t h e West where c i r e - p e r d u e was t h e p r e f e r r e d method o f c a s t i n g .  53  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t on the e v i d e n c e of "fragments o f c l a y c r u c i b l e s , b r o n z e s l u g s and c l a y molds" found a t E r h - l i - t ' o u , Chang (1968: 199) s t a t e s that t h i s i n d i c a t e s a foundry at t h e s i t e , w h i l e the s i m i l a r e v i d e n c e of whole c r u c i b l e s of c l a y , sandstone molds and bronze fragments d i s c o v e r e d a t Non Nok Tha o n l y produces the statement t h a t bronze working went on t h e r e (Solheim 1968: 62). more than t h i s r e p o r t e d " e v i d e n c e " was  I t i s obvious t h a t  used t o come t o t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s .  As has been demonstrated, E r h - l i - t ' o u was  at t h e s o c i o c u l t u r a l l e v e l o f  d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h a l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t and thus was beyond  t h e f o l k s o c i e t y i n t e g r a t i o n o f Non Nok  Tha where t h e k i n s h i p /  descent groups were o r g a n i z e d f o r metal working (Rowlands  TABLE V I I I . Assemblage Non Nok  Tha  Minusinsk  Cu 94-96%  Ta-p'S-na  (76.7-95.2%  C94%  1971:  217).  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF EARLY BRONZE ASSEMBLAGES  i ii  North C h i n a (Anyang)  advanced  Sn  Pb  4-6%  1.83-20.32%  one e a r l y fragment l a t e r o b j e c t s , 12 samples o f 5 o b j e c t s , equal proportions of Sri, Pb 3%  6%  79.60-97.63% 0.19-16.34%  Details  8 samples L a t e Shang)  2 samples "Minusinsk Bronze Age")0.52-3.40%  11 s e l e c t e d b r o n z e s ; t h i s percentage o f l e a d i n 6 samples, trace i n 1 other  54  I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o come t o any c o n c l u s i o n s on the c o m p a r i sons o f the c o n t e n t of bronze from the  assemblages.  The one e a r l y s m a l l fragment from E a r l y P e r i o d I I I , Non Nok  Tha,  i s a p p a r e n t l y pure t i n - b r o n z e as a r e the two samples from t h e " M i n u s i n s k Bronze Age" — i n the a r e a .  a g a i n t h e s e may  o r may not be from the e a r l i e s t  assemblages  However, i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t the two assemblages  that  appeared to be o f s i m i l a r low l e v e l s o f s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n ,  folk  s o c i e t i e s , and s i m i l a r i n the c a s t i n g method, may bronze a n a l y s i s .  a g a i n be s i m i l a r i n  The l a t e r Non Nok Tha bronze o b j e c t s from M i d d l e P e r i o d  I I I a r e a n a l y z e d by presence and absence o n l y , t h e r e f o r e comparisons of the p e r c e n t a g e s of the c o n s t i t u e n t elements a r e not p o s s i b l e i n t h i s case. The a n a l y s i s l i s t e d f o r N o r t h C h i n a i s not on m a t e r i a l from E r h l i - t ' o u but i s on samples from L a t e Shang Anyang, and as such can g i v e o n l y a p o s s i b l e g e n e r a l i d e a o f the bronze c o n t e n t f o r E a r l y Shang t i m e .  This,  t h e n , p r e c l u d e s u s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r comparison w i t h o t h e r e a r l i e s t assemblages.  However, i t has been s t a t e d ( B a r n a r d 1961: 190-192) t h a t  copper c o n t e n t decreased c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y from L a t e Shang times (c 14011122 B.C.)  t h r o u g h Western Chou and E a s t e r n Chou t i m e s and t h a t t h e t i n  c o n t e n t v a r i e d w i d e l y i n Shang times and t h a t L a t e Chou samples (18) cont a i n e d more t i n than E a r l y Chou samples ( 1 8 ) .  A l l Anyang samples (8) con-  t a i n e d l e s s than 3% l e a d w i t h a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e i n b o t h Chou periods.  B a r n a r d ( i b i d . : 192) warns t h a t the f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e  c o n c l u s i o n s cannot be a s s e s s e d w i t h o u t i n f o r m a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s p r o p e r g r o u p i n g of l i k e  artifacts.  and  55  The Ta-p'o-na a n a l y s i s , which d i f f e r s from the p e r c e n t a g e s o f c o n s t i t u e n t elements g i v e n f o r Non Nok Tha and M i n u s i n s k , a l s o s h o u l d n o t be used f o r comparisons w i t h e a r l y s i t e s as i t has been shown as the e a r l i e s t assemblage  i n i t s a r e a b u t n o t a t an e a r l y s t a g e o f m e t a l l u r g y .  The c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s of e l e v e n s e l e c t e d b r o n z e s (Chang 1968: 429) Ta-p'o-na w i t h an e s t i m a t e d d a t e o f 600 B.C.  from  i n L a t e E a s t e r n Chou t i m e s  does n o t appear to conform t o t h e r e l a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c o n s t i t u e n t s from Shang to L a t e Chou t i m e s g i v e n by B a r n a r d and j u s t p r e s e n t e d above; the copper c o n t e n t o f the Ta-p'o-na s e l e c t e d b r o n z e s does not d e c r e a s e but i n c r e a s e s i n s t e a d ; the v a r i a t i o n i n the t i n and l e a d c o n t e n t i s d i f f i c u l t to a s s e s s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e s i m i l a r i t i e s between the L a t e Shang Anyang a n a l y s i s and the Ta-p'o-na a n a l y s i s ; t h e p e r c e n t a g e s of t h e cons t i t u e n t s o f the b r o n z e a r e not c o m p l e t e l y d i s s i m i l a r .  What i s of p a r t i -  c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s t h a t the t i n range s t a r t s a t 1.3% and 0.19%  respectively  and thus comes under what Coghlan (1951: 21-23) terms " a c c i d e n t a l " b r o n z e , produced p r i o r t o g e n e r a l knowledge o f b r o n z e , by u s i n g the e n r i c h e d ores from a l o d e i n w h i c h t i n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the copper; " t r u e " bronze has been d e f i n e d as c o n t a i n i n g i n excess of 3% t i n .  The  objects  of L a t e Shang which produced t h e s e a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s a r e not n o t e d by B a r n a r d (1961: 190-191) b u t the Ta-p'o-na b u r i a l o b j e c t s , n o t e d by Chang (1968: 4 2 9 ) , w i t h l e s s than 3% t i n c o n t e n t a r e shown i n T a b l e I X and the o b j e c t s w i t h more than 3% t i n a r e shown i n T a b l e X.  56  TABLE I X .  FOUR ARTIFACTS FROM TA-P'O-NA WITH LESS THAN 3% TIN  Artifact  Cu  hoe spearhead gourd sheng horse f i g u r i n e  Sn  92.77% 93.79% 97.63% 93.80% TABLE X.  Pb  0.19% 2.35% 1.32% 1.92%  0.62% 0.52% 1.12%  SIX ARTIFACTS FROM TA-P'O-NA WITH MORE THAN 3% TIN  Artifact  Cu  adze spoon bell kettledrum ring coffin  94.20% 84.13% 79.96% 87.96% • 79.60% 89.60%  Sn  Pb  3.71% 13.69% 16.34% 6.87% 14.75% 5.02%  trace 3.46% 2.89% 2.25%  These two t a b l e s show t h a t b o t h u t i l i t a r i a n , technomic items hoe,  spearhead, a d z e — and s o c i o - t e c h n i c items —  b e l l , kettledrum, idio-technic  ring —  i t e m , t h e c o f f i n , c o n t a i n s more than 3% t i n .  tin?  spoon,  c o n t a i n l e s s t h a n 3% t i n and more than 3%; t h e  e x p l a n a t i o n why some a r t i f a c t s i n t h e b u r i a l contain less  sheng, f i g u r i n e ,  —  I s t h e r e an  c o n t a i n more t i n and why some  As shown, i t cannot be e x p l a i n e d on t h e p r i m a r y  func-  t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f t h e a r t i f a c t s i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f technomic and s o c i o -  e technic functions.  The i d ^ o - t e c h n i c a r t i f a c t , b e i n g a s i n g l e  may o r may n o t be d e f i n i t i v e . may e x p l a i n t h i s .  example,  There appears t o be s e v e r a l hypotheses t h a t  57  As n o t e d e a r l i e r by B a r n a r d (1961: 197) t h e t i n c o n t e n t i n bronze d u r i n g Shang, Western Chou and E a s t e r n Chou t i m e s i s l o w e r i n the  weapons and u t e n s i l s than i n r i t u a l v e s s e l s .  The a n a l y s i s o f t h e  v e s s e l s a t Ta-p'o-na has n o t been g i v e n b u t i f we use the a n a l y s i s f o r the  o t h e r s o c i o - t e c h n i c i t e m s as r i t u a l b u r i a l i t e m s , we f i n d t h a t B a r -  nard's statement does not h o l d t r u e i n t h e case of t h e spearhead, and the  adze, b o t h c o n t a i n i n g more t i n than the sheng and the f i g u r i n e ,  b u t i t does h o l d t r u e i n the case of the hoe which c o n t a i n s l e s s t i n than any o t h e r a r t i f a c t .  I t a l s o h o l d s t r u e i n t h e case of t h e c o f f i n ,  e an i d ^ o - t e c h n i c i t e m and as such may be termed a r i t u a l i t e m .  Before  B a r n a r d ' s statement can be e f f e c t i v e f o r a n s w e r i n g the q u e s t i o n o f the v a r y i n g amounts of t i n found i n bronze b u r i a l i t e m s , the term " r i t u a l " must be more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . Thus we a r r i v e a t o t h e r h y p o t h e s e s ; t h a t t h e b r o n z e c r a f t s m e n were n o t aware o f the f u n c t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s of more t i n i n b r o n z e o r i f they were aware o f them, they d i d n o t u t i l i z e them by p r o d u c i n g h a r d e r , more d u r a b l e u t i l i t a r i a n i t e m s than s o c i o - t e c h n i c i t e m s .  I t may  also  be a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the low p e r c e n t a g e o f t i n was an e f f o r t by some c r a f t s m e n to c o n s e r v e the s c a r c e r t i n o r s i m p l y r e s u l t e d from u s i n g the " e n r i c h e d " copper o r e s as a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e t o produce " b r o n z e " a r t i f a c t s , i n w h i c h case they a r e not what may be termed " a c c i d e n t a l " . may  It  a l s o be a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r e n t s m i t h s produced d i f f e r e n t s p e -  c i f i c items and had t h e i r own f a v o u r i t e f o r m u l a f o r making b r o n z e . Craftsmen may have d e l i b e r a t e l y used more t i n t o enhance the and/or v a l u e o f the o b j e c t s .  appearance  58  C o n c l u s i o n s on c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s o f m e t a l a r e t h a t the  indivi-  d u a l a r t i f a c t must be a n a l y z e d and c o m p i l a t i o n s of c a t e g o r i e s o f a r t i f a c t s must then be compared as t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n w i t h i n an assemblage and tween assemblages.  be-  I t i s a l s o o b v i o u s t h a t much, much more work must  be done i n the a r e a of a n a l y s i s b e f o r e any workable hypotheses  can be  forthcoming.  TABLE X I . APPEARANCE OF SIMILAR ARTIFACTS IN THE FOUR EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES Artifact  Minusinsk  Erh-li-t'ou  / / /  /  axes knives spearheads bells  K n i v e s appeared  Tha  /  the l i m i t e d appearance o f s i m i l a r  o f a r t i f a c t s i n more than one assemblage. Ta-p'o-na and Non Nok Tha.  Non Nok  / / / /  /  T h i s t a b l e demonstrates  Ta-p'o-na.  Ta-p'o-na  types  Axes were p r e s e n t i n M i n u s i n s k , i n M i n u s i n s k , E r h - l i - t ' o u and  Spearheads were found i n M i n u s i n s k and Ta-p'o-na and  were e x c a v a t e d o n l y a t E r h - l i - t ' o u and Ta-p'o-na.  bells  The appearance of  c a t e g o r i e s o f a r t i f a c t t y p e s i n assemblages has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . A comparison  of the forms of t h e a r t i f a c t s e x h i b i t few v i s i b l e  s i m i l a r i t i e s ( F i g u r e s 1, 2, 3, 4 —  any s c a l e g i v e n i n t h e o r i g i n a l pub-  l i c a t i o n for a r t i f a c t s i s included). p'o-na ( F i g u r e 3:1)  and a t Non Nok Tha  The round ended axe appears a t Ta( F i g u r e 4:1, 6) but the s i m i l a r i t y  ends a t t h e top c u t t i n g edge; the d e s i g n of t h e l o w e r p o r t i o n o f t h e heads  59  is entirely different.  The axes ( c e l t s ) of M i n u s i n s k ( F i g u r e 1:3)  no r e l a t i o n i n appearance to any o t h e r axe i n the  bear  assemblages.  The l e a f - s h a p e d k n i v e s o r daggers from M i n u s i n s k ( F i g u r e 1:1,  2)  a r e c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t i n form from the c r u d e l y a n g u l a r k n i f e o f the E r h - l i - t ' o u assemblage ( F i g u r e 2:1) (Figure  and from the t r u e daggers o f Ta-p'o-na  3:3). As no i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r M i n u s i n s k spearheads,  v i s u a l comparison  no  i s possible.  The b e l l of E r h - l i - t ' o u ( F i g u r e 2:2)  i s s i m p l e and  undecorated  w i t h one f l a n g e on the s i d e and s l i g h t l y f l a r i n g towards the base.  The  Ta-p'o-na b e l l ( F i g u r e 3:4) has s t r a i g h t s i d e s , no f l a n g e and i s d e c o r a t e d a l l over.  Thus the o n l y s i m i l a r i t y i s t h a t they a r e b o t h b e l l s and b o t h  from assemblages i n C h i n a . The c o n c l u s i o n of the s t y l i s t i c comparison based on t h e  appear-  ance o f s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t s i n the f o u r e a r l i e s t assemblages i s t h a t they appear to be d i f f e r e n t and p r o b a b l y a r e u n r e l a t e d . F i n a l Comparison  T h i s s t u d y has examined s i t e s of e a r l y b r o n z e t e c h n o l o g y i n East A s i a .  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n have shown t h a t t h e f o u r  e a r l i e s t bronze assemblages o c c u r over a wide g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a u r e 6:  Map),  (Fig-  s o u t h e r n S i b e r i a t o n o r t h e a s t T h a i l a n d , and cover a r e l a -  t i v e l y broad time span, p r e 2000 B.C.  to c 600  B.C.  The southern S i b e r i a n assemblage of M i n u s i n s k cannot be  accepted  f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g of bronze m e t a l l u r g y i n E a s t A s i a as the t e c h n o l o g y  was  60  r e p o r t e d l y I n t r o d u c e d from t h e West and t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s b u t no e v i d e n c e t o t h e c o n t r a r y ; t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f t i e s w i t h C h i n a o r South A s i a a t e a r l y  d a t e s a l t h o u g h t h e r e were some apparent s i m i l a r i -  t i e s between M i n u s i n s k and Non Nok Tha, i n c a s t i n g methods and i n bronze composition. The c o n c l u s i o n based on t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t e c h n o l o g y i s t h a t the c 600 B.C. assemblage a t Ta-p'o-na, southwest C h i n a cannot be i n c l u d e d as showing t h e b e g i n n i n g o f b r o n z e p r o d u c t i o n . Two assemblages a r e l e f t f o r c o m p a r i s o n , E r h - l i - t ' o u , N o r t h C h i n a and Non Nok Tha, n o r t h e a s t T h a i l a n d .  E r h - l i - t ' o u d i s p l a y e d an  e a r l y s t a t e development l e v e l o f s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , based on e v i d e n c e o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and c a t e g o r i e s of a r t i f a c t types.  Non Nok Tha e v i d e n c e d a f o l k s o c i e t y l e v e l o f  s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h copper p r e c e d i n g b r o n z e , and o n l y one category of s o c i o - t e c h n i c items.  The c a s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r b o t h assem-  b l a g e s a r e d i f f e r e n t i n t h a t e i t h e r s i n g l e o r double c l a y molds were used a t E r h - l i - t ' o u and double sandstone molds were u t i l i z e d a t Non Nok Tha; c l a y c o r e s were used i n b o t h assemblages; c i r e perdue has been mentioned as a p o s s i b i l i t y a t Non Nok Tha ( M i d d l e P e r i o d I I I ) w h i l e i t has been s t a t e d as an i m p o s s i b i l i t y a t E r h - l i - t ' o u .  S m e l t i n g does n o t  appear t o have o c c u r r e d i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f e i t h e r assemblage.  As f a r  as t h e c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f . t h e b r o n z e can be compared d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e apparent.  I n a d d i t i o n , s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t t y p e s d i d n o t appear i n t h e  two assemblages.  61  The c o n c l u s i o n s from t h i s f i n a l comparison a r e t h a t E r h - l i - t ' o u cannot r e p r e s e n t t h e v e r y e a r l i e s t bronze p r o d u c t i o n s i t e i n N o r t h C h i n a or  i n East A s i a .  The bronze produced i s u n d e c o r a t e d and s i m p l e i n form  and t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y few p i e c e s i n t h e assemblage b u t i t does i n c l u d e two c a t e g o r i e s o f s o c i o - t e c h n i c a r t i f a c t s , one o f w h i c h u t i l i z e d t h e more advanced c o r e t e c h n i q u e o f manufacture.  I t appears p o s s i b l e t h a t  earlier  s i t e s w i t h f l a t , u t i l i t a r i a n i t e m s o n l y may s t i l l appear and i t may a l s o be p o s s i b l e t h a t s i t e s w i t h t h e e a r l i e s t t y p e s o f metalwork, hammered copper, s t i l l may be d i s c o v e r e d i n N o r t h C h i n a .  T h e r e f o r e , Non  Nok Tha a l t h o u g h a l s o u s i n g t h e c o r e t e c h n o l o g y was preceded by copper w o r k i n g and appears t o be an e a r l i e r bronze assemblage than E r h - l i - t ' o u . However t h e d i f f e r e n c e s apparent i n t h e assemblages show t h a t t h e y a r e p r o b a b l y u n r e l a t e d and independent assemblages and do n o t a l l o w t h e assumption t h a t o n l y one o f t h e s e a r e a s was t h e s i t e f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g of  bronze t e c h n o l o g y i n E a s t A s i a .  The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s f o r e i t h e r  i n d i g e n o u s development from e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s o r s e p a r a t e i n v e n t i o n w i t h no o u t s i d e s t i m u l u s o f any k i n d f o r e i t h e r a r e a . T h i s s t u d y has demonstrated t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t n o l o g i e s , d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s f o r bronze o b j e c t s f o r a l l  tech-  social  f o u r e a r l y b r o n z e assemblages.  Thus  i t has a l s o demonstrated t h a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f b r o n z e p r o d u c t i o n d i d n o t have t o o c c u r i n urban o r s t a t e environments.  1.Bronze daggers or knives from West Siberia of earliest stage of metallurgical development representing Western (Caucasian) types. (Sulimirski 1970:301)  3.Andronovo Axes (celts) (Sulimirski 1970:286)  Figure 1. Minusinsk Artifacts  63  2.Bell  ("Fang 1965:P1.5>  Figure 2. E r h - l i - t ' o u A r t i f a c t s  64  l.Axe  3.Dagger or Knife  Figure 3. Ta-p»o-na A r t i f a c t s  2. Axe  4.Bell  (Hsiung and Sun 1964:607-614).  liSolheim 1967:899)  2.  (Solheim 1968:611  Mold shapes for axeheads  5o  (Solheim 1972:AO)  7iSolheim 1967i898) Figure 4. Axes from Non Nok Tha  \  66  67  68  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A i t k e n , M.J. 1970 Dating impact posium Oxford B a r k e r , H. 1970  by archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescent methods. The o f the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s on a r c h a e o l o g y . A j o i n t symo f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y and t h e B r i t i s h Academy. London: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , pp. 77-88.  C r i t i c a l assessment o f r a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g . The impact o f the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s on a r c h a e o l o g y . A j o i n t symposium o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y and the B r i t i s h Academy. London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , pp. 37-45.  Barnard, Noel 1961 Bronze c a s t i n g and bronze a l l o y s i n a n c i e n t C h i n a . Canberra: A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y . Monumenta S e r i c a Monograph 14. 1967  The s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f m e t a l l u r g y i n a n c i e n t C h i n a . W.J. Young ( e d . ) , A p p l i c a t i o n o f s c i e n c e i n e x a m i n a t i o n o f works of a r t . B o s t o n , Mass.: Museum o f F i n e A r t s , pp. 184-204.  1972  F i r s t r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s from C h i n a . Canberra: Department o f F a r E a s t e r n H i s t o r y Research S c h o o l o f S t u d i e s . Monographs on F a r E a s t e r n H i s t o r y 8.  B a y a r d , Donn T. 1970 E x c a v a t i o n s a t Non Nok Tha, n o r t h e a s t e r n T h a i l a n d , 1968: interim report. 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P r e s s , pp. 85-94.  APPENDIX ONE  EARLY  I  M I D D L E  IGAPI LATE. 7_8X_JJL_2_^  6  1000  •  Ha  -1- fa  ~=t.->r LAIESL.—• — - /  A.D. B.C.  r  y  JF* A*  /  Displaced j . «5f — J_ Upward? -f- T  1000  2000  3000  4000  5000  6000  +  7000  Absolute dates from Non Nok.2fca a, apatite, c, collagen, t l , thermoluroinescence; others charcoal. Circled dates are those thought to hava been affected by modern contamination. Range shown i s one standard deviation (Bayard 1975:163). 6  

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