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The beginning of Bronze technology in East Asia 1976

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THE BEGINNING OF BRONZE TECHNOLOGY IN EAST ASIA by MARY VERNA STARK B.A. , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS xn THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Anthropology and Sociology U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1976 0 Mary Vema St a r k , 1976 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of Anthropology and Sociology The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 1 9 7 6 i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to review the E n g l i s h language m a t e r i a l concerning the beginning of bronze technology i n East A s i a i n order to evaluate the evidence f o r the b i r t h of bronze metallurgy i n East A s i a . The method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n was f i r s t to study published and unpublished m a t e r i a l on North, C e n t r a l and South East A s i a . This study i n c l u d e d the h i s t o r y of research under the categories of method, theory, and chronology of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and hypotheses on o r i - gins and routes of bronze technology i n East A s i a . The examination of bronze metallurgy followed. This comprised the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the occurrence of copper-working, the production and a n a l y s i s of the a l l o y bronze, the method of production.of bronze o b j e c t s , the d a t i n g of bronze a r t i f a c t s and the s o c i a l context of bronze production. The next step i n the study was to explore the N e o l i t h i c stages of c u l t u r e i n the di v e r s e areas i n order to examine the precursors of bronze-producing s o c i e t i e s and to determine the e a r l i e s t bronze assem- blages. The e a r l i e s t bronze assemblages were i n t u r n i n v e s t i g a t e d . The metal o b j e c t s , both copper and bronze, i n these assemblages were tab u l a t e d and compared c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . The categories of metal objects were used to i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i v e s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n of each bronze pro- ducing group. Evidence of c a s t i n g of the metal i n the assemblages was compared to a s c e r t a i n the s i m i l a r i t i e s , i f any, among production procedures. i i i Chemical analyses of the bronze i n the assemblages were tabu- l a t e d f o r comparison and examination of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F i n a l l y , s i m i l a r types of a r t i f a c t s i n the assemblages were tab u l a t e d f o r s t y l i s t i c comparison. The general conclusions from these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are that the four assemblages of e a r l i e s t bronze technology i n East A s i a are from Minusinsk i n southern S i b e r i a , E r h - l i - t ' o u i n North China, Ta-p'o-na i n southwest China and Non Nok Tha i n northeastern Thailand. Of these assemblages, n e i t h e r Minusinsk nor Ta-p'o-na demonstrated the beginning of bronze production. The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence does not e s t a b l i s h the beginning of bronze metallurgy as being shown at e i t h e r E r h - l i - t ' o u or at Non Nok Tha but the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s f o r e i t h e r indigenous development from e x t e r - n a l stimulus or separate i n v e n t i o n w i t h no outside stimulus of any k i n d f o r e i t h e r area. This study has demonstrated the existence of d i f f e r e n t t e ch- n o l o g i e s , d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l contexts f o r bronze i n a l l f o u r e a r l y assemblages. Thus i t has a l s o demon- s t r a t e d that the beginning of bronze production d i d not have to occur i n urban or s t a t e environments. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page L i s t of Tables v i L i s t of Figures v i i Acknowledgement v i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 H i s t o r y of Research 1 Hypotheses on O r i g i n s and Routes of Bronze Technology i n East A s i a 4 Method of P r e s e n t a t i o n 6 Chapter One: Bronze M e t a l l u r g y 8 Chapter Two: N e o l i t h i c to Bronze Technology 17 S i b e r i a 17 Mongolia 22 Tungpei 23 Korea 23 Maritime Northeast A s i a 24 Japan 25 The Ryukyu Islands 25 China 26 Vietnam 28 Cambodia 29 Thailand 29 Chapter Three: The E a r l i e s t Bronze Assemblages 33 North East A s i a : S i b e r i a 33 C e n t r a l and South East A s i a : China 35 North China 35 Southwest China 38 South East A s i a : Thailand 39 V TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page Chapter Four: Conclusions 42 F i n a l Comparison 59 Figures 62 B i b l i o g r a p h y 68 Appendix One 78 v i LIST OF TABLES Page Table I. . Changing Melting Points of Bronze A l l o y s Table I I . Presence or Absence of A r t i f a c t Types i n the E a r l i e s t Assemblages Table I I I . Dates of E a r l i e s t Assemblages (Minusinsk, Non Nok Tha, Chien-ch'uan, E r h - l i - t ' o u , Ta-p'o-na) Table IV. Number of Categories of A r t i f a c t Types i n Five E a r l i e s t Assemblages Table V. Categories of Copper A r t i f a c t Types i n Three E a r l i e s t Assemblages Tavle VI. Categories of Bronze A r t i f a c t Types i n Four E a r l i e s t Assemblages Table VII. Evidence of Casting from the Four E a r l i e s t Bronze Assemblages Table VIII. Chemical Analysis of Early Bronze Assemblages Table IX. Four A r t i f a c t s from Ta-p'o-na With Less Than•3% T i n Table X. Six A r t i f a c t s from Ta-p'o-na With More Than 3% Tin Table XI. Appearance of Similar A r t i f a c t s i n the Four E a r l i e s t Assemblages 42 44 44 45 46 51 53 56 56 58 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Minusinsk A r t i f a c t s 62 Figure 2. E r h - l i - t ' o u A r t i f a c t s 63 Figure 3. Ta-p'o-na A r t i f a c t s 64 Figure 4. Axes from Non Nok Tha 65 Figure 5. Map of A s i a 66 Figure 6. Map of the Four E a r l i e s t Bronze Assemblages i n East A s i a 67 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thank my advisor Dr. Richard J . Pearson f o r h i s enthusiasm and f o r h i s support i n t h i s endeavour. I would a l s o l i k e to extend my thanks to my committee memebers, Dr. P a t r i c i a H i t c h i n s and Dr. R.G. Matson f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and a i d which has r e s u l - ted i n the production of a coherent, h e u r i s t i c t h e s i s . 1 INTRODUCTION The aim i n t h i s t h e s i s i s to review the E n g l i s h language mater- i a l concerning the beginning of bronze technology i n East A s i a — North, C e n t r a l , South — and to examine v a r i o u s hypotheses concerning the o r i - g i n of t h i s technology i n the various regions. To accomplish t h i s i t w i l l be necessary to review c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y hypotheses based on archaeo- l o g i c a l excavations i n S i b e r i a to the east of the Y e n i s e i R i v e r , i n China and i n Southeast A s i a . H i s t o r y of Research Some of the trends of East Asian archaeology beginning i n the l a t e 1800's are the establishment of a s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e of f i e l d archaeology, the t e n t a t i v e grouping of c u l t u r e s i n the d i v e r s e r e g i o n s , the establishment of s t r a t i g r a p h y as the p r i n c i p l e of chronology, the use of t y p o l o g i c a l comparison as the b a s i c t o o l f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of past sequences and past r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the prevalence of d i f f u s i o n i s t t h e o r i e s , and the use of mi g r a t i o n to e x p l a i n v a r i a t i o n s i n c u l t u r e s . Since then, the methods and t h e o r i e s used to excavate and rep o r t mater- i a l s from s i t e s have changed. Bone, p l a i n p o t t e r y and vegetable remains have a l l become as important as the more " e x o t i c " a r t i f a c t s i n the exca- v a t i o n methods thus g i v i n g f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the food sources, the climate and the stage of development of the c u l t u r e s . Carbon 14, dendro- chronology, thermoluminescence and archaeomagnetic d a t i n g methods and modern micro-techniques of a n a l y s i s of ancient metals, have given f u r t h e r 2 i n s i g h t i n t o the ages of various s i t e s and c u l t u r e s . The new archaeolo- g i c a l t h e o r i e s on s i t e s and on s i t e comparisons — viewing c u l t u r e as a system w i t h subsystems and the importance of the d e l i n e a t i o n of causes and e f f e c t s i n the v a r i a b i l i t y of the c u l t u r e s — have n e c e s s i t a t e d a more rigorous approach to the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the d i v e r s e c u l t u r e s to one another. This progression i n the method and theory i n archaeology i s evident i n the published l i t e r a t u r e on East A s i a , notably i n Bayard's (1972: 1411-1412) report on Non Nok Tha, based on e l e c t r o n probe a n a l y s i s of the e a r l i e s t metal found at the s i t e , s u b s t a n t i a t e d by carbon 14 and thermoluminescence dates. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l research i n East A s i a began i n various regions at d i f f e r e n t times and progressed at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s . Systematic s t u - dies i n the Soviet Far East i n the Amur Ri v e r V a l l e y began i n 1954; although e a r l i e r work had been done by i n d i v i d u a l s i n 1855 and from 1899 to 1932, and by an e x p e d i t i o n under Okladnikov i n 1935 (Derevianko 1965: 136). In Southern S i b e r i a , i n the upper Y e n i s e i R i v e r area some work was done i n the 1880's by J.T. Savenko (Maringer 1950: 3 ) ; i n other areas of S i b e r i a research began around 1930. Although Korean a r c h a e o l o g i c a l study s t a r t e d i n the e a r l y 1900's and excavations s t a r t e d i n the 1920's no l a r g e s c a l e work using acceptable standards of research and methodology has been undertaken yet (Kim Won-yong 1975: 61-62). In Japan extensive and i n t e n s i v e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work dates back to 1879 (Chard 1974: 3). 3 The Tungpei region has had very few s i t e s i n v e s t i g a t e d exten- s i v e l y . For the most p a r t , surveys and s i t e sampling only have been c a r r i e d out (Chard 1974: 106). In Mongolia, the eastern border research was s t a r t e d i n 1906 by R. T o r i i but the e r a of i n t e n s i v e research and major d i s c o v e r i e s began about 1920 — Andersson 1921 i n J e h o l , L i c e n t and T e i l h a r d de Chardin 1922 and 1924 i n J e h o l , the Andrews E x p e d i t i o n 1922-1930 mainly i n Outer Mon- g o l i a , L i c e n t and T e i l h a r d de Chardin 1923 i n the Ordos, and the Sino- Swedish E x p e d i t i o n 1927-1935 i n Inner Mongolia (Maringer 1950: 3 ) . In C h i n a . s c i e n t i f i c archaeology began i n 1920 w i t h L i c e n t and T e i l h a r d de Chardin and Andersson, but because of wars, r e b e l l i o n s and r e v o l u t i o n s , was repeatedly slowed down or h a l t e d u n t i l a f t e r 1949, w i t h another slowdown i n the 1960's (Chang 1968: 5-6, 11-12). Archaeology i n Vietnam i s dated from the e a r l y 1900's and i n - t e n s i f i e d by the 1960's (Pearson 1962: 35; Saurin 1969: 27). Cambodian archaeology s t a r t e d around 1875 and developed e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r World War I I (Mourer 1971: 35; Saurin 1969: 27). The f i r s t excavations i n T h a i l a n d were by Sar a s i n i n 1933 and expansion of research began i n 1960 (Heekeren 1967: 13, 17). The r e l a t i v e p a u c i t y of excavations, plus heavy r e l i a n c e on d i f f u s i o n i s t and mi g r a t i o n t h e o r i e s , were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e a r l i e r b e l i e f s that bronze technology i n East A s i a must have been imported from the Near East and Europe (Solheim 1967: 896) where " c l a s s i c a l bronzes" of e a r l y date had been known f o r many years. These b e l i e f s were r e i n f o r c e d 4 by the excavations at Anyang, northern Honan, from 1928 to 1939 (Chang 1968: 10), which exposed s u p e r i o r cast bronze objects w i t h no evidence of a p r i o r rudimentary technology. However, subsequent excavations at Yen-shih, northwestern Honan i n 1958 to 1964, and at Cheng-Chou, c e n t r a l Honan from 1950 to 1959,revealed evidence of f o u n d r i e s , such as c r u c i - b l e s and molds, and of bronze technology at an e a r l i e r stage, whileh r e - s u l t e d i n the s p c u l a t i o n that bronze technology may have o r i g i n a t e d i n China. Thus the m a j o r i t y of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l researchers have i n t e n s i f i e d the search f o r the o r i g i n and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of bronze technology i n East A s i a . This has r e s u l t e d i n an increase i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l excava- t i o n s and reports and an increase i n the use of the n a t u r a l sciences f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data (Bayard 1972: 1411-1412) and al s o r e s u l t e d i n a f l o o d of c o n f l i c t i n g hypotheses as to the o r i g i n s and the routes of bronze technology i n East A s i a . Hypotheses on O r i g i n s and Routes of Bronze Technology i n East A s i a Okladnikov (1959: 23), Chard (1974: 145-148), Jettmar (1950: 86, 113) and S u l i m i r s k i (1970: 261, 280-281, 286, 300) t h e o r i z e that the ear- l i e s t bronze assemblage i n the Eastern S i b e r i a n Minusinsk Basin r e s u l t e d from the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the stock breeding subsistence economy and metal production from the West, from areas such as the Urals and the Kazakhstan Steppes. Barnard (1972: v i ; 1967: 186, 203) and Cheng Te-k'un (1973: 208) conclude that bronze metallurgy was an independent i n v e n t i o n i n China. 5 Chang (1973: 528; 1975: 1969) hypothesizes that during the early Neo- l i t h i c there was c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n between North China and Southeast Asia and although he states (1968: 182-183) that c u l t u r a l movements from the Iran/Iraq area to North China were i n s i g n i f i c a n t , the N e o l i t h i c micro- l i t h i c assemblages of Northwest China seem to resemble the microblade assemblages of Western Siberia,- Chang does not commit himself as to the geographic o r i g i n of metallurgy (Chang 1963: 44; 1975: 169). Bayard the- orizes (1975: 167-168) that s t i m u l i from South China to North China started p r i o r to the Early N e o l i t h i c and continued through the l a t e r stages of the N e o l i t h i c and that the early bronze i n Southwest China was the r e s u l t of another south-to-north pattern of stimulus from Thailand and Vietnam. Solheim (1973: 25-29) proposes that South China c u l t u r a l l y was part of both Southeast Asian and Chinese cultures and that possibly one or more of the cultures of South China was the primary ancestor of a l l Chinese culture from the N e o l i t h i c to the m e t a l l i c Shang. Solheim (1969: 136-137) hypothesizes that the Dongs'on culture i n North Vietnam dated to about 300 B.C. (Solheim 1967: 899) was a l a t e manifestation of the e a r l i e r bronze technology seen i n northeastern Thai- land, combining foreign design elements from as f a r away as the Mediter- ranean with old Southeast Asian elements (Solheim 1967: 902). Boriskovsky (1966: 84-85) postulates that the Dongs'on bronze culture was l o c a l and developed out of the main N e o l i t h i c culture in Vietnam. However, Pearson's (1962: 44-45) hypothesis i s that from the Late N e o l i t h i c period onward, South China and North Indochina was a s i n g l e culture area and that the Dongs'on culture was formed from c u l t u r a l contact from Central China. 6 Solheim (1974) speculates that metallurgy was invented some- where i n Southeast A s i a around 4,000 B.C. and th a t there was l i t t l e e v i - dence of outside i n f l u e n c e u n t i l sometime during the f i r s t h a l f of the f i r s t millennium B.C. (Solheim 1969: 137). Thus the development of metallurgy i n Thailand i s unr e l a t e d to development of metallurgy i n I n d i a and the Middle East (Solheim 1974: 41; 1968: 62). The hypothesis of Bayard (1970: 139) i s that i t appears p o s s i b l e t h a t a separate i n v e n t i o n of metallurgy may have developed i n Southeast A s i a independently of stimulus from e i t h e r China or the Indus and e a r l i e r than i n e i t h e r area. The c u l t u r e i n Western C e n t r a l T h a i l a n d has been p o s t u l a t e d by S^renson and H a t t i n g (1967: 147) as the r e s u l t o f m i g r a t i o n c 1800 B.C. from the Proto-Lungshan phase of the N e o l i t h i c i n C e n t r a l China, w i t h l a t e r c 1500 B.C. i n f l u e n c e s from the Lungshan c u l t u r e proper i n China; t h i s c u l t u r e then i s t h e o r i z e d as the foundation of the l a t e r bronze c u l t u r e i n t h i s area of Thailand. These hypotheses can only be a c c u r a t e l y t e s t e d and new hypotheses made by f u r t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research i n East A s i a and by i n t e r p r e t i n g the evidence i n the l i g h t of evidence found by f u r t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research i n other areas as f a r away as the Black Sea regions. Method of P r e s e n t a t i o n I t i s my i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s to discuss the t e c h n i c a l and s o c i a l aspects of bronze metall u r g y , to explore the N e o l i t h i c or Late N e o l i t h i c stage of c u l t u r e i n the various areas i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n order 7 to determine the c u l t u r a l connections and l e v e l s of development up to the appearance of bronze i n East A s i a , and to t a b u l a t e the a r t i f a c t s comprising the assemblages and compare them and make a s t y l i s t i c compar- i s o n between s i m i l a r types of a r t i f a c t s i n the assemblages. Conclusions w i l l be drawn on the b a s i s of an examination of t h i s data. 8 CHAPTER ONE BRONZE METALLURGY Copper-working i s the e a r l i e s t branch of metallurgy (Smith 1967: 28; Young 1970: 85; Coghlan 1951: 12-13; Cushing 1967: 62,63); copper (Cu) occurs i n the m e t a l l i c s t a t e i n nature and the e a r l i e s t metal objects would have been copper hammered i n t o shape. The m e l t i n g of n a t i v e copper would have been the next m e t a l l u r g i c a l s t e p , f o l l o w e d by the simple smelting of copper oxide ores, found i n open d e p o s i t s , to produce copper (Coghlan 1951: 14; Barnard 1961: 178). Coghlan (1951: 15) suggests that the oxide ores were the f i r s t ores to be worked f o r they would have been a v a i l a b l e by simple c o l l e c t i o n or open-pit working and without the neces- s i t y of t r u e mining; a f u r t h e r advantage i s that they may be reduced to copper by a simple process of d i r e c t s m e l t ing i n a p r i m i t i v e furnace using charcoal as f u e l ; the sulphide ores r e q u i r e deep mining and the process of red u c t i o n i s a d i f f i c u l t one. A f t e r copper smelting the important discovery was that of the harder c o p p e r - t i n a l l o y , bronze. Copper w i t h n a t u r a l i m p u r i t i e s from s e l e c t e d ores was an important i n - t r o d u c t i o n to the advantages of a l l o y s ; f o r example, copper w i t h a low percentage of antimony and/or a r s e n i c i s e a s i e r to melt, gives sounder castings and i s mechanically stronger and harder than pure copper; the advantages of impure copper may have been recognized and d e l i b e r a t e l y chosen as the b r i g h t colours of the d i f f e r e n t ores were obvious (Smith 1967: 31; Lambera-Karlovsky: 1967: 151). T i n (Sn) i s l e s s p l e n t i f u l than copper (Charles 1975: 19) and does not occur i n the n a t u r a l s t a t e but i t 9 i s found i n veins and i n a l l u v i a l sands and gravels as t i n oxide (cas- s i t e r i t e ) ; t i n i s made by a simple process of d i r e c t reduction by heating the oxide i n a charcoal f i r e (Coghlan 1951: 16-17). Some t i n ores con- t a i n impurities of copper, i r o n , lead, antimony, bismuth, sulphur and arsenic; these impurities tend to make t i n harder and l e s s malleable. Oxide ores of copper only require a temperature between 700° and 800° C for t h e i r reduction to m e t a l l i c copper; copper melts at 1083°C (Coghlan 1951: 21-23; Dougherty and Caldwell 1966: 984). Steinberg (1970} 115) l i s t s examples of the changing met^Lng points of bronze a l l o y s with the diverse constituents as follows: TABLE I. CHANGING MEED ING POINTS OF BRONZE ALLOYS. All o y given by Weight Percent Melting Point °C Copper Tin Lead 93 7 0 1050 92.6 6.4 1 1035 91.7 6.3 2.0 1025 88.9 6.1 5.0 1015 82.4 6.6 11.0 980 73 5.0 22.0 950 84 16 0 950 The temperature required f o r pottery k i l n s would be more than adequate f o r bronze production (Coghlan 1951: 21-23; Barnard 1961: 59). Watson (1971: 67, 70) states that Early N e o t l i t h i c period pottery was f i r e d between 950°C and 1050°C, while Cheng Te-k'un (1973: 207) gives the temperatures for t h i s pottery period as 1300-1400°C. Long before bronze came into general use, marked inc l u s i o n s of t i n i n the copper are found i n many p r e h i s t o r i c implements. These are the 10 " a c c i d e n t a l " bronzes which occurred many times p r e h i s t o r i c a l l y when the "enriched" ores, i n which t i n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h copper, were used — the bronze produced contained 3% or l e s s t i n . "True" bronze i s defined as a coppe r - t i n a l l o y i n which the t i n content i s i n excess of a p p r o x i - mately 3% (Coghlan 1951: 21-23). Wheatley (1971: 72) s t a t e s the customary connotation of bronze i s r e s t r i c t e d to an a l l o y w i t h 5-20% t i n i n copper. Lead (Pb) i n copper or bronze c a s t i n g produces cleaner c a s t i n g s , improved colour and gives greater f a c i l i t y i n machining (Coghlan. 1951: 21-23; Barnard 1961: 49; Smith 1967: 22, 1970: 56). I t has been concluded that the outstanding p r o p e r t i e s of bronze were probably discovered f i r s t from melting n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g mixed ores, and l a t e r by a l l o y i n g s e p a r a t e l y smelted metals (Coghlan 1951: 24; Smith 1967: 31; Cushing 1967: 64). In c a s t i n g , bronze i s s u p e r i o r t o a l l other metals; as bronze s o l i d i f i e s i t a lso expands, f o r c i n g the metal i n t o every c r e v i c e of the mold, then i n c o o l i n g i t contracts s l i g h t l y , making removal from the mold e a s i e r (Savage 1968: 17). There are a v a r i e t y of molds that can be used i n the c a s t i n g of bronze o b j e c t s ; s i n g l e or two-piece (double or b i - v a l v e ) molds; com- p o s i t e molds f o r producing more than one object at a time; molds w i t h the a d d i t i o n of cores; simple piece molds and m u l t i - p i e c e molds. The l e s s complex molds, w i t h one d i r e c t pour c a s t i n g , were u s u a l l y used by the e a r l i e s t p r a c t i t i o n e r s of metallurgy. Cire-perdue, the l o s t wax process, and the s e c t i o n a l mold pro- cess are the two main methods f o r c a s t i n g bronze (Barnard 1961: 86; Young 1970: 187). 11 Awareness of these d i v e r s e p o i n t s i n bronze metallurgy can help the scholar make d e c i s i o n s about the o r i g i n s and the r e l a t i v e age of bronze o b j e c t s . The i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of a metal object can o f t e n throw more l i g h t on i t s o r i g i n than a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s (Smith 1967: 51). I n f o r - mation on the s t r u c t u r e of bronze specimens may be obtained by a v a r i e t y of methods. O p t i c a l spectro-chemical a n a l y s i s has been wi d e l y used f o r over t h i r t y years; i n i t i a l l y a sample was e l e c t r i c a l l y burned and pro- duced c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l i g h t waves of a l l elements present. The recent i n v e n t i o n of the O p t i c a l l a s e r microprobe permits d i r e c t sampling of the o b j e c t , removing a sample only 50 to 80 microns i n diameter w i t h an aver- age depth of 80 to 100 microns, also producing an o p t i c a l emission spec- trum (Young 1970: 93-94). Emission spectrography w i t h an inherent accuracy of only c i r c a 10% to 15% may be s u f f i c i e n t i n some cases but i f an accuracy of c i r c a 1% i s r e q u i r e d , then methods such as palarographic and atomic absorption a n a l y s i s must be employed; t h i s accuracy may be necessary f o r such a p r e c i s e problem as e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n be- tween a given p a t t e r n of t r a c e i m p u r i t i e s and a p a r t i c u l a r source of the c o n s t i t u e n t area (Werner 1970: 180, 184). The s o l i d s t a t e x-ray detector l i k e the spectrograph u t i l i z e s the spectrum,but i t has the .added advantages of r a p i d chemical'analysis from s e l e c t e d areas of the o b j e c t , without damage to the o b j e c t , and i t a l s o provides i n f o r m a t i o n i n the technique of f a b r i c a t i o n and the thermal treatments used i n production ( O g i l v i e 1970: 87). The m e t a l l u r g i c a l microscope can a l s o be u t i l i z e d f o r d e t e r - mining how an object was produced and f o r a u t h e n t i c a t i o n of the o b j e c t (Young 1970: 91-92). 12 Caley (1967: 167-171; 1970: 37-38) warns that over h a l f of the published analyses of ancient metals are d e f e c t i v e i n some way; when s i z e and weight of samples are not given i t may a f f e c t the a n a l y t i c a l c o n c l usions; o f t e n i m p u r i t i e s are not determined thus g i v i n g an i n c o n - c l u s i v e a n a l y s i s ; d i f f e r e n t c l e a n i n g methods used f o r the sample or samples may a f f e c t the a n a l y s i s d i f f e r e n t l y and i f they are used the method should be s t a t e d ; the method of a n a l y s i s i s o f t e n not reported. S l a t e r and Charles (1973: 221) a l s o warn of the danger of basing an a n a l y s i s on s i n g l e s m all samples which may give nonrepresentative r e - s u l t s . Chemical composition f i g u r e s f o r bronze a r t i f a c t s can show v a r - i a t i o n depending on the p a r t i c u l a r l a b o r a t o r y which c a r r i e s out the t e s t s . Chase (1974: 148) found r e l a t i v e d e v i a t i o n ranges of 4% f o r copper up t o over 200% f o r some t r a c e elements when he sent 500 mg. samples of two bronzes (one of which was Chinese); to 21 l a b o r a t o r i e s asking them to t e s t f o r 48 elements. Barnard (1972: 21) found s i m i l a r d i s c r e p a n c i e s . There i s a n e c e s s i t y f o r more s c i e n t i f i c analyses and p u b l i c a t i o n before l a b o r a t o r y r e s u l t s on bronze can be used e f f e c t i v e l y and w i t h confidence by s c h o l a r s . I t i s a l s o obvious t h a t there i s a general dearth of t h i s type of a n a l y s i s f o r most a r c h a e o l o g i c a l bronzes. The d a t i n g of a r t i f a c t s , e s p e c i a l l y bronze, i s of utmost neces- s i t y f o r attempting t o e s t a b l i s h the beginning of bronze metallurgy i n any given area. Radiocarbon (carbon 14, C 14) d a t i n g has been the main datin g technique used s i n c e i t s i n i t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n by Libby i n 1949, using the h a l f - l i f e of carbonfil4 at 5568+30 years and the present, before which these dates occur, as 1950. More recent and presumably more accurate d 13 p h y s i c a l h a l f - l i f e values of 5730+40 years are a v a i l a b l e but the o r i g i n a l Libby values are r e t a i n e d by Western s c h o l a r s to ensure u n i f o r m i t y and to avoid the confusion of adapting each new value of the h a l f - l i f e as i t becomes a v a i l a b l e (Libby 1970: 8; Pearson 1973: 141; Barker 1970: 38). However, i t has been found that C 14 d a t i n g f o r absolute dates can be i n c o r r e c t by as much as 600 or 700 years at the peak of the d e v i a t i o n , some 7000 years ago (Libby 1970: 7). The d e v i a t i o n back to 7500 years ago can be determined and chronology can be extended back to agreement at 10,000 or 11,000 years ago by the B r i s t l e c o n e Pine c a l i b r a t i o n assess- ments (Libby 1970: 7-9; Barker 1970: 38; Barnard 1972: 12-14). Barnard (1972: 11, 31) suggests that f u t u r e conversions of radiocarbon dates may be e f f e c t e d f a r more conveniently i n t o dendrochronological calendar years w i t h reference to the t a b l e of Damon, Long and W a l l i c k , p u b l i s h e d i n 1972. However the 8th I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on Radiocarbon Dating decided that no p a r t i c u l a r c a l i b r a t i o n curve or t a b l e should be adopted at pre- sent ( B u r l e i g h 1973: 55). At present C 14 d a t i n g i s somewhat more accurate than thermo- luminescence d a t i n g , however, thermoluminescence d a t i n g has the advantage of d a t i n g an a c t u a l a c t i v i t y of man, and the sherd samples necessary are abundant on most s i t e s ( A i t k e n 1970: 83; Bronson and Han 1972: 325). P r e c i s e d a t i n g can be attempted only i f appreciable knowledge of the b u r i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the p o t t e r y i s known and i f some damage to a complete object i s undertaken (Fleming 1970: 207-208). Neve r t h e l e s s , thermolumi- nescence dat i n g methods could be v a l u a b l e i n the d a t i n g of c l a y cores s t i l l e x i s t i n g i n a bronze c a s t i n g (Barnard 1967: 185), as could an archaeomagnetic dati n g method be u s e f u l f o r d a t i n g baked c l a y i n s i t u ( Aitken 1970: 80). 14 Apart from these t e c h n i c a l aspects of metallurgy there i s the s o c i a l context of the occurrence of bronze. With respect to the s o c i a l aspects of bronze metallurgy one of the questions t h a t a r i s e s i s what s o r t of o r g a n i z a t i o n i s necessary f o r the production of metalwork. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance to the answer f o r t h i s question would be evidence of subsistence economy, settlement pat- t e r n , technology, sources of raw m a t e r i a l and tra d e ; i n other words, metalwork i s only a subsystem w i t h i n the l a r g e r c u l t u r a l system and can- not be s t u d i e d i n i s o l a t i o n . Furthermore i t i s i t s e l f composed of a number of socioeconomic a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n t h i s evidence from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of sources of raw m a t e r i a l s and trade. Rowlands (1971: 210-224), basing a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of p r e h i s t o r i c metalworking on ethnographic examples, d i v i d e s metalworking, as a separate c u l t u r a l i n - s t i t u t i o n , i n t o a number of socio-economic a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g the o r - ga n i z a t i o n necessary f o r the production of metalwork. A cons i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n occurs i n the e a r l i e s t i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of metalworkers depending on the s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the kinship/descent groups, which are the groups organized f o r metalworking and s e r v i n g s m all centers of po p u l a t i o n . The form of o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e d by the settlement p a t t e r n , population d e n s i t y and eco- nomy, although metalworking can appear at the subsistence l e v e l of eco- nomy. A dispersed settlement p a t t e r n made up of s m a l l autonomous or semi-autonomous u n i t s , such as hamlets or v i l l a g e s , tends to encourage a 15 dispersed c r a f t o r g a n i z a t i o n and the presence of small occupation groups ( i b i d . : 217-218). Prod u c t i o n , r e s u l t i n g from part-time or f u l l - t i m e s p e c i a l i s t s , occurs i n r e l a t i o n to v a r i a t i o n s i n many v a r i a b l e s , such as s i z e and complexity of the community and degrees of economic interdependence i n the community but increased production i s not n e c e s s a r i l y accompanied by major changes i n settlement s i z e or s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( i b i d . : 219). The s t a t u s of the smith v a r i e s from low to high according to the various b e l i e f s of the d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and according to the p r e c i s e objects that the smith produces; the importance of the smith f o r supply- i n g t o o l s and weapons to the community i s a source of i n f l u e n c e that can be p o l i t i c a l l y e x p l o i t e d as i n the Northern Chin t r i b e s of Burma where the smiths are v i l l a g e o f f i c i a l s ( i b i d . : 217). h There are many et^ographic examples of the smith only c o n t r i - b u t i n g h i s s k i l l to production w h i l e the customer s u p p l i e s the raw mater- i a l and/or f u e l and/or labour; one instance from the Congo showed the smith working i n i r o n , brass and copper which was s u p p l i e d by the customer who obtained i t e i t h e r from the smelter or by exchange (Rowlands 1971: 211). The trade of raw materialsaand f i n i s h e d products need not be the r e s u l t of s p e c i a l i z e d trade networks or long-distance trade routes. The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the area of primary exchange between the smith and h i s customers may be e x t e n s i v e , i n t r a v i l l a g e and/or i n t e r - v i l l a g e , but i s of course l i m i t e d by a c t u a l contact between them, however, the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the metal objects themselves may be much more 16 e x t e n s i v e , f o r example the demand f o r a s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y of metal o b j e c t s r e s u l t i n g from supe r i o r ores which are l o c a t e d i n one area only. In some i n s t a n c e s , metal o b j e c t s , as they move f a r t h e r away from t h e i r point of o r i g i n , l o s e t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l value and become v a l u a b l e as raw mater- i a l only ( i b i d . : 219-220). CHAPTER TWO j NEOLITHIC TO BRONZE TECHNOLOGY j I I t i s imperative to explore the N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s of East A s i a to determine t h e i r c u l t u r a l connections and l e v e l s of development i n o r - der to a s c e r t a i n where the e a r l i e s t bronze assemblages occurred and whe- ther these assemblages could have been the r e s u l t of indigenous development or the r e s u l t of e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i . A number of widely divergent N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s , o c c u r r i n g i n very d i f f e r e n t ecosystems, can be seen i n the area under study. S i b e r i a The term " N e o l i t h i c " to Russian,Korean and some Japanese archaeo- l o g i s t s i n d i c a t e s simply the presence of p o l i s h e d stone and p o t t e r y pre- sent i n the c u l t u r e , whereas to other a r c h a e o l o g i s t s the " N e o l i t h i c " means food p r o d u c t i o n , u s u a l l y accompanied by p o l i s h e d stone, ceramics, domesti- c a t i o n o f animals, a more ssedentary l i f e , some part-time s p e c i a l i s t s and a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e w i t h luxury goods. Chard (1956: 406) uses the term to denote a l l remains that seem to antedate a c t u a l know- ledge of metal working, w i t h no other connotations i m p l i e d , when r e f e r r i n g to the northeast p o r t i o n of S i b e r i a from the lower Lena R i v e r b a s i n to the east,.and he r e s t a t e s t h i s again (Chard 1974: 63) i n reference to Northeast A s i a , when he says the " N e o l i t h i c " r e f e r s to that stage of c u l t u r a l development i n each area from the f i r s t appearance of p o t t e r y to the establishment of an e f f e c t i v e metallurgy — or to the time of h i s t o r i c contact i n those areas which d i d not adopt metal working." 18 The northeastern-most areas of S i b e r a during the N e o l i t h i c stage had hunting and f i s h i n g , semisedentary p o p u l a t i o n , and ceramics and had c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t i e s w i t h the Baikal-Angara region at the Headwaters of the Lena R i v e r but none w i t h the P a c i f i c C o a s t a l Area (Chard 1956: 406-407). Along the Soviet Maritime Coast i n the Amur R i v e r V a l l e y , espe- c i a l l y i n the Middle Amur and i n the area around V l a d i v o s t o k , there were well-developed hunting, gathering and r i v e r f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s or i n c i p i e n t a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h some s t a b l e settlements and ceramics. There was a pro- nounced d i v e r s i t y to the N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s as a r e s u l t of a c t i v e contact between indigenous populations and other groups as f a r away as Y a k u t i a , the B a i k a l t a i g a , Tungpei, Korea and Japan (Derevianko 1965: 139-140; Chard 1974: 90; Chang 1968: 183). Okladnikov (1959: 15-17) b a s i c a l l y agrees to these f a c t s but he adds North China s p e c i f i c a l l y to the contact areas and he a l s o s t a t e s that i n the Soviet Maritime Region were maritime f i s h e r s , who maintained sedentary occupations of the area. Chard (1974: 93) concludes that the Amur V a l l e y and the Maritime T e r r i t o r y had. a sub- s t a n t i a l c o n t i n u i t y from N e o l i t h i c to h i s t o r i c times i n the pa t t e r n of l i f e ; there i s no mention of the presence of bronze. I n t e r i o r S i b e r i a n N e o l i t h i c , as shown i n Y a k u t i a i n the Middle Lena R i v e r area to the A r c t i c , i s represented by hunters and f i s h e r s who possessed p o t t e r y . There i s much c o n t i n u i t y from the E a r l y N e o l i t h i c i n stone and bone-working technology, but w i t h considerable a d d i t i o n s seemingly borrowed from many d i r e c t i o n s (Chard 1974: 65; Okladnikov 1959: 32). There 19 was no e s s e n t i a l change i n the culture with the f i r s t appearance i n the mid-second millenium B.C. of objects of copper and bronze or the eventual l o c a l bronze casting on a small scale (Chard 1974: 74). The N e o l i t h i c of the Lake B a i k a l forest region on the Angara River, another regional manifestation, was influenced by areas i n the west and on the Yenise i River, i n Trans-Baikal and as far as Inner Mon- g o l i a during the Serevo-Kitoi stages ( t h i r d millenium to beginning of second millenium) according to Michael (1958: 33); N e o l i t h i c culture here was characterized by a hunting and f i s h i n g economy with permanent s e t t l e - ments and pottery. The appearance of small amounts of copper and bronze during the Glaskovo period, 18th-13th centuries B.C., brought no funda- mental changes i n the culture (Chard 1974: 77; Michael 1958: 33). Chard (1974: 145, 207-208) concludes that with only a few useful additions from outside, such as pottery, ground stone a r t i f a c t s and metal, the patterns of adaptations to ta i g a environment pe r s i s t e d i n much of the forest zone of S i b e r i a u n t i l r e l a t i v e l y recent times. Only on the southern steppe did newpeconomic patterns eventually take hold. Larichev (1962: 93-95) states that i n C i s - B a i k a l , on the Angara River, settlements around Buret, although occupied continuously, had two markedly d i f f e r e n t periods of occu- pation — N e o l i t h i c and Bronze Age. The N e o l i t h i c settlement was a com- par a t i v e l y permanent settlement with a large population possessing pottery, stone t o o l s , and a hunting-fishing subsistence pattern and with c u l t u r a l - ethnic r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the populations of Central A s i a and Northwest China ( i b i d . : 93). The Bronze Age settlement period shows a marked change, mainly represented by locations of short term settlements or 20 stopping p l a c e s ; however L a r i c h e v ( i b i d . : 95) s t a t e s that at c e r t a i n s i t e s "foundries of various s o r t s appear" but he gives no supporting evidence. These changes were brought about by the establishment of c l o s e r connec- t i o n s among C i s - B a i k a l and the T r a n s - B a i k a l , Minusinsk B a s i n , Mongolia and Tungpei ( i b i d . : 95). Bronze technology then, d i d not o r i g i n a t e i n the area of the Angara R i v e r but came from the Minusinsk area. The Minusinsk B a s i n , an i s l a n d of steppe on the upper Y e n i s e i R i v e r surrounded by f o r e s t e d mountains, west of Lake B a i k a l , was the f i r s t area of food p r o d u c t i o n , brought from the West by Europeans w i t h the Afanasiev culture at the end of the t h i r d m i l l e n i u m or beginning of the second m i l l e n i u m B.C. (Okladnikov 1959: 22-23). This subsistence economy, which mingled w i t h the N e o l i t h i c hunting c u l t u r e , i n c l u d e d stock breeding as w e l l as hunting; farming i s suspected. Stone and bone technology was s t i l l predominant but some copper products appeared, p r i m i t i v e i n form (Chard 1974: 145; Okladnikov 1959: 22). A s p e c i a l development i n t h i s area of Minusinsk and the A l t a i occurred when an a l i e n group from! the adjacent f o r e s t zone supplanted the Afanasiev c u l t u r e w i t h the Okunev c u l t u r e , t a k i n g over the domestication of animals and p r a c t i c i n g a r u d i - mentary bronze technology and a l s o producing r i c h animal and human a r t forms on bone and stone (Gryaznov 1969: 39, 51; Chard 1974: 145,148). Met a l l u r g y (copper, bronze, t i n , gold) became w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the succeeding a g r i c u l t u r a l Andronovo c u l t u r e c. 1500-1200 B.C. i n Minusinsk and i n the A l t a i , which represented the eastern h a l f of a b e l t of s i m i l a r c u l t u r e and peoples extending from the Don River to the Y e n i s e i R i v e r (Chard 1974: 145, 148; Okladnikov 1959: 23; S u l i m i r s k i 1970: 100). The 21 Afanaslev p o t t e r y shows strong s i m i l a r i t y i n form and decoration to K e l ' t i - minar p o t t e r y from the region of the A r a l Sea and b u r i a l ornaments i n c l u d e s h e l l s which could only have been obtained from the A r a l Sea. Skeletons from Afanasiev b u r i a l s were of European r a c i a l type not of the Mongoloid type found elsewhere i n Eastern S i b e r i a (Chard 1974: 145; Okladnikov o 1959: 23-24; Jettmar 1950: 133). Andronoy^ s i t e s w i t h s i m i l a r p o t t e r y , metal o b j e c t s , and skeletons of Europoid r a c i a l type were found i n the U r a l s , i n the Kazakhstan steppes and i n the A l t a i and Minusinsk (Okladnikov 1959: 23-25). The copper i n d u s t r y , using molds, occurred i n the U r a l s about 1900-1700 B.C. w i t h a development of n o r t h Caucasian types of t o o l s and the tin-bronze i n d u s t r y had already appeared i n the south U r a l s , the lower Volga area and West S i b e r i a by the f i f t e e n t h century B.C. w i t h the production of sockets! lanceheads, axes and f l a t k n i v e s . The beginning of the S i b e r i a n mining and bronze i n d u s t r y was modest and i t s roots l a y i n the west as shown (Figure 1:1) by the e a r l i e s t of bronze products, f l a t k n i v e s , which are of North Caucasian type. The f o r e s t steppe and steppe t e r r i t o r y of the T r a n s - B a i k a l region east of Lake B a i k a l show c u l t u r a l l i n k s i n s u b s i s t e n c e , t o o l types and p o t t e r y , w i t h the Lena R i v e r , northern Tungpei, Mongolia (Maringer 1950: 205-208) and the B a i k a l N e o l i t h i c ; Chinese i n f l u e n c e i s not d i s c e r n a b l e i n T r a n s - B a i k a l during the N e o l i t h i c and i t s i n f l u e n c e i n the Bronze Age may be i n d i r e c t l y from western Tungpei (Chard 1974: 77, 82). The f i r s t evidence of food producers i n the T r a n s - B a i k a l and northern Mongolia are s t o c k - r a i s i n g , horse r i d i n g nomads d a t i n g from sometime i n the f i r s t 22 millennium BvC.; there i s no trace of farming. The Trans-Baikal region and northern Mongolia became the focus of a w e l l developed metallurgy with i t s own features sometime i n the f i r s t millennium B.C. (Chard 1974: 163- 165). At t h i s r e l a t i v e l y l a t e r time the l o c a l Mongoloid population r e - ceived d i r e c t influence from the Shang people of China as revealed by the presence of pottery _ l i tripods (Chard 1974: 165; Okladnikov 1959: 47). Continued strengthening r e l a t i o n s with the Minusinsk Basin, the A l t a i , Central A s i a and the Scythian t r i b e s of the Black Sea are r e f l e c t e d i n the bronze weapons, decorations and art objects (Okladnikov 1959: 47). Mongolia As already noted Northern Mongolia (Outer Mongolia) i s part of the Trans-Baikal steppe culture. Chard (1974: 62) and Maringer (1950: 206; 1963: 80) e s t a b l i s h s i m i l a r i t i e s i n N e o l i t h i c t o o l types between Inner Mongolia and South S i b e r i a and Maringer states that the economy was hunting and f i s h i n g , as was the case i n Trans-Baikal. However Late N e o l i t h i c Inner Mongoliaswas influenced by painted pottery and some axe types from N e o l i t h i c China according to Maringer (1963: 81). Chard (1974: 160) agrees with Maringer, however, he postulates that there was a g r i c u l - ture which was l a t e r replaced by the steppe nomad pattern. Maringer (1950: 207) denies the existence of a g r i c u l t u r e but also remarks (Maringer 1963: 80) that t h i s statement was not conclusive for every area. Any bronze objects found were from a l a t e r or a d i f f e r e n t culture (Maringer 1950: 13, 22, 34, 93, 208), with Chinaj.being suggested as the i n f l u e n c i n g culture (Maringer 1963: 82). A l l the hunting and gathering N e o l i t h i c 23 populations on the southern f r i n g e s of Inner Mongolia, i n c l u d i n g the Ordos and southern Tungpei, w i t h steppe v e g e t a t i o n were i n f l u e n c e d by contacts w i t h North China (Chang 1968: 162-166, 182; Chard 1974: 61, 105, 166). Tungpei Tungpei was an area of c u l t u r a l overlap showing v a r y i n g degrees of Chinese i n f l u e n c e ; the hunting, f i s h i n g , gathering population was i n - fluenced i n the south, as noted, by N e o l i t h i c Chinese farmers, and as a r e s u l t probably had farming at an e a r l y stage. I t i s presumed that the northern area was i n f l u e n c e d by the S i b e r i a n Maritime area, the western area was i n f l u e n c e d by the Mongolian steppe and the eastern area by Korea (Chard 1974: 105-107; Chang 1968: 166-168, 183, 351). The metal age appeared w i t h i n c r e a s i n g and spreading Chinese i n f l u e n c e i n the regions s u i t a b l e f o r farming (Chard 1974: 107; Chang 1968: 353). Korea The Korean pe n i n s u l a was a l s o an area of c u l t u r a l overlap during the Late N e o l i t h i c (c 1500-500 B.C.) w i t h the northeast area being part of the S i b e r i a n Maritime Coast c u l t u r e area; the northwest had c l o s e l i n k s w i t h Tungpei which was r e l a t e d to the North China c u l t u r e s ; the south had contacts w i t h Japan. T h e i r economy was mainly f i s h i n g and s h e l l c o l l e c t i n g but i n c l u d e d hunting and farming. The appearance of bronze was accompanied by the emergence of s e v e r a l new b u r i a l forms and the postu- l a t e d appearance of more developed a g r i c u l t u r e ; i t was introduced by 24 Tungus people from Tungpei and was influenced by S i b e r i a , Mongolia and Tungpei (Chard 1974: 103-104; Kim Won-yong 1975: 103-104; Pearson 1975: 7; Kim Jeong-hak 1972: 167; Chang 1968: 183; Kim Jung-bae 1975: 174). Maritime Northeast A s i a The culture of the coasts and islands of the North P a c i f i c coast down to Japan were oriented toward the sea. The p r e h i s t o r i c coas- t a l areas are l a r g e l y unknown but i n the Chukchi Peninsula and i n Kam- chatka a f u l l y developed N e o l i t h i c was present around the f i r s t m i l l e n - ium B.C. with pottery, ground stone and f i s h i n g subsistence economy i n Kamchatka and f i s h i n g and reindeer hunting economy i n the Chukchi Penin- su l a (Chard 1961: 213; 1974: 101-102). The Island of Sakhalin was populated by the N e o l i t h i c population of the Amur River who continued to be sedentary, hunting, r i v e r - f i s h i n g , gathering people u n t i l the f i n a l centuries B.C. and f i r s t few centuries A.D. At t h i s time i n South Sakhalin a f u l l - f l e d g e d maritime culture was introduced, possibly from the Bering Sea area, and merged with the l o c a l N e o l i t h i c culture before expanding to the northwestern t i p of Hokkaido and eventually up into the K u r i l e Islands (Chard 1961: 213-216, 1974: 99-100). At the end of the N e o l i t h i c metal could have been introduced into western and southern Sakhalin from the Maritime T e r r i t o r y of S i b e r i a and Northern Korea, or a r t i f a c t s made with metal could have been obtained from Hokkaido (Yoshizaki 1963: 145). 25 Japan The N e o l i t h i c Jomon c u l t u r e of Japan c o n s i s t e d of hunting, f i s h i n g , gathering cultures possessing p o t t e r y ; the P a c i f i c coast of northeast Honshu i n Late Jomon had a maritime c u l t u r e . In western Japan, where r i c e farming, new p o t t e r y s t y l e s and metal were f i r s t i n troduced, the Jomon ended about 400 B.C.; elsewhere i n northern Japan i t p e r s i s t e d longer (Chard 1974: 114, 131; Izumi 1961: 1). The succeeding E a r l y Yayoi c u l t u r e of Japan i s a mixture of indigenous Jomon and c o n t i n e n t a l l y - introduced c u l t u r a l elements such as paddy r i c e c u l t i v a t i o n , new p o l i s h e d stone t o o l types, and some b u r i a l types such as the dolmen i n a d d i t i o n to weaving and metallurgy. The appearance of co n t i n e n t a l ] , bronze goods did not occur u n t i l the Middle Yayoi stage (c 100 B.C. - 100 A.D. — on the b a s i s of associated ceramic t y p e s ) ; continued and c l o s e contact between Kyushu and Korea i s very apparent at the beginning of t h i s stage (Chard 1967: 11j 1974: 169-175; Kidder 1959: 90-91; Befu 1965: 42; Kaneko 1964: 26-33; Bleed 1972: 2-8). . The Ryukyu Islands The N e o l i t h i c i n the Ryukyus (c 1500 B.C. to 800 A.D.) had an economy of hunting and s h e l l c o l l e c t i n g ; the presence of a g r i c u l t u r e has . not been v e r i f i e d ; p o t t e r y and p o l i s h e d stone t o o l s were present. There appears to be a connection w i t h the Late Yayoi p e r i o d of Japan. Metal appeared l a t e (c 800 A.D.) presumably under the i n f l u e n c e of both Japan and China (Takamiya 1967: 14, 16). 25 China The Late N e o l i t h i c i n China i n c l u d e s food production but i t i s d i v i d e d i n t o m i l l e t growing' i n the n o r t h and r i c e growing i n the south according to the e c o l o g i c a l zones present. Permanent settlements, pot- t e r y , p o l i s h e d stone and domesticated animals are a l s o present. In North China the f i r s t appearance of bronze takes place i n an i n c i p i e n t form of production w i t h a bronze foundry at Yen-shih western Honan, i n the f i r s t E r h - l i - t ' o u phase (c 1850-1650 B.C.) of the Shang dynasty (Chang 1968: 128, 199, 231-232, 437; H s i a N a i 1963a: 16, 1963b: 181;,Fontein and Wu 1973: 28; L i Chu-tsing 1973: 419). H s i a Nai (1963a: 16; 1963b: 181) s t a t e s that the e a r l i e s t assemblages were found at Lo- ta-miao, Ching-chou and at E r h - l i - t ' o u , Yen-shih county, and at t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d the f i n d s already i n c l u d e s m a l l objects of copper and bronze. However, Loehr (1968: 14), Chang (1968: 204) and Wheatley (1971: 71) say t h a t Lo-ta-miao (one of 26 s i t e s at Cheng-chou) i s a p r e - m e t a l l i c s i t e , t h e r e f o r e copper and bronze cannot be present at Lo-ta-miao and so must be present at E r h - l i - t ' o u . Soper (1966: 10-12), who has taken h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from the K'ao-ku 1965/5 r e p o r t , does not mention the e x i s t e n c e of copper-made objects at a l l . The N e o l i t h i c i n the r e s t of China con- tinued f o r d i f f e r e n t lengths of time (Barnard 1972: 26-27). The Lungshan, the l a s t phase of the N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d provided the prototypes, i n implements of bone, stone and a n t l e r , f o r the bronze implements found at E r h - l i - t ' o u ( L i Chi 1957: 53; Cheng Te-k'un 1960: 169-170). The Lungshan v e s s e l s of p o t t e r y and wood ( C r e e l 1937: 105; Watson 1966: 44; Kidder 1956: 8; L i Chi 1970: 121; Kao Jen-tsun 1970: 97; Cheng Te-k'un 1973: 208; 27 Wheatley 1971: 71; Loehr 1968: 11) and the Lungshan designs on p o t t e r y , wood, bone and c l o t h ( L i Chi 1970: 121; Shih Hsio-yen 1972: 274) pro- vided models for. the bronze assemblages l a t e r i n time than E r h - l i - t ' o u , such as at Cheng-chou 50 miles east of E r h - l i - t ' o u . Chang (1968: 232) s t a t e s t h a t some N e o l i t h i c p o t t e r y types appear to be i m i t a t i n g metal types and t h a t the occurrence of bronze v e s s e l s e a r l i e r i n time cannot be r u l e d out. Chang (1964: 371) b e l i e v e s that i n southeast "China bronze metal- l u r g y emerged from connections w i t h North China. Solheim (1973: 25-29) and Bayard (1975: 167-168) have suggested connections w i t h Southwest China and Southeast A s i a f o r bronze metallurgy i n southeast China. In Southwest China, northwest Yunnan, the f i r s t steps i n metal- l u r g y have been found at the v i l l a g e s i t e o f Chien-ch'uan, dated to 1150+90 B.C. (ZK-10) (Chang 1973: 526); both hammered and cast copper objects were excavated (Chang 1968: 427; Barnard 1972: 29). The e a r l i e s t w e l l documented bronze assemblage i s from one tomb at the b u r i a l s i t e of Ta-p'o-na about 60 miles southeast of Chien-ch'uan, and i s dated to the middle period of the Eastern Chou dynasty c 600 B.C. (Chang 1968: 429; 1975: 170). The Chien-ch'uan s i t e has been c l a s s i f i e d as e s s e n t i a l l y Chinese Lungshan P e r i o d N e o l i t h i c i n c h a r a c t e r , based on the p o t t e r y and t o o l s present (Chang 1968: 427: Barnard 1972: 28). Chang (1968: 427) s t a t e s that the bronze c u l t u r e of Ta-p'o-na i s f a r advanced over that at • the Chien-ch'uan copper s i t e but i t i s a more p r i m i t i v e stage of metal- l u r g y and p o s s i b l y antecedent to the metallurgy found at nearby (about 130 miles southeast) Shih-chai-shan. This i s not f a r from North Vietnam, the 28 area of the advanced Dongs'on bronzes. However Von Dewall (1969: 10) warns that Yunnan i s a t e r r i t o r y with a widely d i v e r s i f i e d surface r e - l i e f , accounting for equally diverse c l i m a t i c zones and e c o l o g i c a l environ- ments and we may have to i n f e r a s i m i l a r s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of simultaneous, apart from successive, p r e h i s t o r i c cultures f or the region as a whole. At Ta-p'o-na,.the Chinese t r a d i t i o n of the Shang and the Chou i s repre- sented by the casting methods, the tomb construction, some of the bronze vessel types and the chopsticks but the forms of the axes and the other socio-technic items, and the decorative a r t characterizes an e s s e n t i a l l y indigenous c i v i l i z a t i o n (Chang 1968: 429). Taiwan's Late N e o l i t h i c and early metal stages came i n by way of China's southeast coast (Solheim 1963: 258; Chang 1963: 249, 1964: 373); some reportedly influenced by North China (Chang 1964: 371, 1968: 160-161) and some by northern Indochina and the Dongs'on culture ( S o l - heim 1963: 256,258). Vietnam The Late N e o l i t h i c i n Vietnam was characterized by two d i f f e r e n t economic types — one, s h e l l c o l l e c t i n g cave dwellers, and two, a g r i c u l - t u r a l open a i r dwellers — who possessed polished stone and ceramics. Bronze appearance i n North Vietnam dates from 1500 B.C. (Solheim 1974) and bronze working i n South Vietnam dates to 3950+250 B.P. (Solheim 1970: 148). Boriskovsky (1966: 84-85) states that the much younger Dongs'on culture (c 300 B.C. Solheim 1967: 899) developed out of the Main N e o l i t h i c culture i n Vietnam. 29 Cambodia The o l d e s t known N e o l i t h i c s i t e i n Cambodia i s the Laang Spean deposit i n northwest Cambodia dati n g from c 4290 B.C. to 830 A.D. and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by ceramics, f l a k e d stone and a hunting and gathering eco- nomy. Other N e o l i t h i c s i t e s w i t h a s h e l l gathering economy date from 3420 B.C. i n South Cambodia and from 1280 B.C. i n C e n t r a l Cambodia (Mourer 1971: 35-36, 41). The s i t e of Mlu P r e i i n northern Cambodia has s i m i l a r bronze axes, fragments of molds and associated a r t i f a c t s , such as p o t t e r y , that i n d i c a t e some r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Non Nok Tha i n northeast T h a i l a n d but the d a t i n g i s not known (Solheim 1967: 900; Bayard 1971: 17-18). Thailand The N e o l i t h i c i n Th a i l a n d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h o r t i c u l t u r e , domestication o f animals w i t h continued hunting, gathering, p o t t e r y , p o l i s h e d stone t o o l s and a v i l l a g e s o c i a l grouping; the N e o l i t h i c i n Thailand i s s a i d to have been e a r l i e r and thus d i s t i n c t i v e from the r e s t of East A s i a (Solheim 1970: 146-147, 1972: 34-36, 38; Gorman 1971: 315; Bayard 1970: 135, 141). There was an e a r l y p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t from the mountain v a l l e y s to the lowland p l a i n s t r i g g e r e d by r i c e a g r i c u l t u r e around 6500 B.C. (Gorman 1971: 316). The e a r l i e s t metal object found i n Thailand i s the socketed copper t o o l from Non Nok Tha i n d i r e c t l y dated to the f o u r t h m i l l e n i u m B.C. by supporting data such as p o t t e r y and metal work from other Southeast A s i a n l o c a t i o n s (Solheim 1970: 145-149) and a C 14 date of 3590+320 B.C. (GAK-1034) (Bayard 1972: 1411). E a r l y bronze 30 c a s t i n g i s evident also at Non Nok Tha d a t i n g from c 2300 B.C. (Bronson and Han 1972: 323; Solheim 1968: 62; Bayard 1972: 1412). There were i n - d i c a t i o n s of c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y from the N e o l i t h i c to the Bronze P e r i o d i n the stone adzes, s h e l l and stone beads and p o t t e r y (Bayard 1970: 125, 135-141). Although some po t t e r y s i m i l a r i n form to Chinese p o t t e r y ( i b i d . : 136) appeared i n the same l e v e l as the f i r s t bronze objects ( i b i d . : 125) , the e a r l i e s t bronze technology used i n North China, s e v e r a l hundred years l a t e r , w i t h c l a y molds and d i f f e r e n t bronze c o n s t i t u e n t s bears very l i t t l e resemblance to that used at Non Nok Tha (Bayard 1970: 139; 1971: 13). The importance of t h i s l a t e r evidence i s that i t shows p o s s i b l e routes of i n t e r a c t i o n and i n f l u e n c e from N e o l i t h i c times. S i m i - l a r l y , there i s no apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p to the bronze c u l t u r e s of the Indus V a l l e y i n I n d i a (Pakistan) at the end of the t h i r d millennium B.C. These u t i l i z e d , among other techniques not known i n T h a i l a n d , open s i n g l e - v a l v e molds to produce f l a t tanged axes, compared to the Non Nok Tha technology of b i v a l v e sandstone molds to produce socketed axes (Bayard 1970: 139, 1971: 3, 7-8, 13, 15-16, 1972: 1412; Solheim 1972: 35, 41; Lamberg-Karlovsky 1967: 151-152). In summary, the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d to the f i r s t appearance of metal production i n East A s i a show that the e a r l i e s t appearance of metal assemblages occur i n the Minusinsk B a s i n , East S i b e r i a , i n the E r h - l i - t ' o u s i t e , North China, at Ta-p'o-na, South- west China and at Non Nok Tha, Thailand. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of stock-breeding to the steppes of the Minusinsk o Basin from the West by Europid r a c i a l types during the N e o l i t h i c was to a 31 r e c e p t i v e environment, composed of a c u l t u r e w i t h a hunting subsistence and a steppe w i t h pasture l a n d , thus a pre-adaptive f a c t o r e x i s t e d i n the Minusinsk area f o r the s u c c e s s f u l adoption of the domestication of a n i - mals. This then r e s u l t e d i n the f i r s t food production area i n East S i b e r i a and paved the way f o r the f u r t h e r adoption of the c u l t u r a l pro- ducts of the West, such as p o t t e r y forms, decorations and metal objects and technology from the Caucasus, the A r a l Sea r e g i o n , the U r a l s and the Kazakhstan steppes. The e a r l i e s t bronze assemblage i n North China i s from the Erh- l i - t ' o u s i t e ; the bronze implement forms found t h e i r prototypes i n the implements made of bone, stone and ant&er. of the l a s t phase of the Neo- l i t h i c p e r i o d , the Lungshan. S l i g h t l y l a t e r bronze v e s s e l forms and designs on bronze from Cheng-chou s i t e s also had t h e i r prototypes i n po t t e r y and wood f o r the former, and i n p o t t e r y , wood, bone and c l o t h f o r the l a t t e r , i n the N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d . Thus the antecedents of the bronze production i n North China are the forms and designs of implements and v e s s e l s and the technology of p o t t e r y production f o u n d l i n the Late Neo- l i t h i c p e r i o d . In Southwest China, the e a r l i e s t copper assemblage at Chien- ch'uan appeared i n an e s s e n t i a l l y Chinese N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r a l context. The e a r l i e s t bronze assemblage at Ta-p'o-na i s apparently derived from the North Chinese t r a d i t i o n i n c a s t i n g methods, tomb c o n s t r u c t i o n and some of the v e s s e l types w h i l e other aspects of the assemblage, such as , axe forms, s o c i o t e c h n i c items and the d e c o r a t i v e a r t represent an i n d i - genous t r a d i t i o n . 32 The e a r l i e s t appearance of metal objects i n Southeast A s i a i s at Non Nok Tha. There were indications^of c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y from the N e o l i t h i c to the Bronze p e r i o d i n the forms and de c o r a t i o n of the p o t t e r y , i n the stone adzes, and the s h e l l and stone beads. The forms of the stone adzes are u n r e l a t e d to the forms of the bronze axes (Bayard 1970: 135) and they are both unrelated to the copper t o o l (Bayard 1971: 5). The methods of c a s t i n g and the forms of the bronzes at Non Nok Tha are unrelated to e i t h e r the Indus c i v i l i z a t i o n o r to the Chinese c u l t u r e s . 33 CHAPTER THREE THE EARLIEST BRONZE ASSEMBLAGES As mentioned e a r l i e r , the e a r l i e s t metal work done by ancient people was the hammering of n a t i v e copper. I t has a l s o been e s t a b l i s h e d that the e a r l i e s t bronze assemblages i n East A s i a were discovered i n southern S i b e r i a where they were preceded by copper working, i n North China where e a r l i e r evidence of copper working has not been documented as yet and i n southwest China and northeast Thailand where bronze working i s documented as preceded by copper working. North East A s i a : S i b e r i a In the steppe area o f the Minusinsk r e g i o n , the Afanasiev c u l t u r e at the end of the t h i r d millennium or beginning of the second millennium B.C. produced a few p r i m i t i v e copper objects — crude p l a t i n g s of wooden v e s s e l s , the simplest l e a f - l i k e k n i v e s , hanging r i n g s and needle cases (Okladnikov 1959: 22; Gryaznov 1969: 50). According to Jettmar (1950: 92) the end of the Afanasiev c u l t u r e i n the Minusinsk Basin i s u s u a l l y dated to 1700 B.C. Okladnikov (1959: 23) s t a t e s that the succeeding c u l t u r e i s the Andronovo ( e a r l i e s t c h r o n o l o g i c a l stage of i t being the Okunev), c 1500 - 1200 B.C., which produced metal c e l t s , f l a p - e a r e d axes, daggers and spearheads w i t h c o l l a r s . Gryaznov (1969: 39, 51) b e l i e v e s that the Afanasyevskaya (Afanasiev) stage at the end of the t h i r d millennium B.C. gave way at the beginning of the second millennium B.C. to the d i s t i n c t i v e 34 Okunev culture and that there was no l i n k between the Afanasiev and the Okunev nor was the Okunev culture an early phase of the Andronovo culture, since the Okunev skeletons were of the Mongoloid r a c i a l type. He also, states ( i b i d . ; 50, 51) that the metal objects of both the Afanasiev and Okunev cultures were copper — needles, awls, k n i f e blade, and a f i s h - hook, adding copper ornaments and copper repairs of wooden vessels f o r the Afanasiev period. He ( i b i d . : 90) adds needles and awls to the bronze inventory of implements and beads, pendants, ear-rings or plaques (hanging rings?) to the bronze inventory of ornaments i n the Andronovo period. Gryaznov (1969: 90) also noted that copper needles were present i n Andro- novo times at Minusinsk. Chard (197.4: 145, 148-194) notes that the c u l - ture succeeding the Afanasiev was the Okunevo (Okunev) with rudimentary bronze work, which he does not elaborate on, followed by the sedentary, a g r i c u l t u r a l Andronovo culture c 1500-1200 B.C. ? S u l i m i r s k i (1970: 261) remarks that the Andronovo culture began i n the eighteenth or seventeenth centuries B.C. with the e a r l i e s t period of i t s development l a s t i n g up to around 1500 B.C. Chard's date for the Andronovo culture i s the most r e - cently published one, and, although I suspect i t merely echoes Okladnikov's estimated date of c 1500-1200 B.C., that i s the one that w i l l be used i n t h i s discussion. Another problem that needs c l a r i f y i n g i s Okladnikov's l i s t i n g of c e l t s and flap-eared axes as separate items while S u l i m i r s k i (1970: 286) and Gryaznov (1969: 239) report c e l t s and axes as representing the same objects, thus axes ( c e l t s ) . These a r t i f a c t s w i l l be treated here as the indeterminate category of weapons/implements and l i s t e d i n the tables as weapons and implements. The daggers reported from Minusinsk w i l l be 35 equated with the reported knives of the other assemblages and w i l l also be treated as the indeterminate category of weapons/implements. No precise data are a v a i l a b l e on the analyses of bronze except for the "Minusinsk Bronze Age", which may or may not r e f e r to the ear- l i e s t assemblages i n the area, which states that the t i n content of bronze was not more than 6% (Voce 1951: 106, 109). Gryaznov (1969: 90) notes that Andronovo Minusinsk bronze was a " r e a l bronze", an a l l o y of copper and t i n . T i n , copper and other ores were abundant in the A l t a i and Trans- Baikal Mountains (Okladnikov ,'1959: 23; Chard 1974: 163) and smelting was ca r r i e d out at the mines. Mongait (1959: 146) reports that during Andro- novo times t i n mines were i n the upper reaches of the Y e n i s e i and copper mines were located on the Minusinsk steppes. There i s no mention of casting procedures s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the e a r l i e s t assemblages but the "Minusinsk Bronze Age" i s stated as using sand, clay or stone s p l i t moulds with clay cores (Voce 1951: 106-109). Central and South-East Asia: China North China E r h - l i - t ' o u , with a large settlement and a highly s t r a t i f i e d b u r i a l pattern, i n Yen-shih county of northwestern Honan, c 1850-1650 B.C., i s apparently c u l t u r a l l y ancestral to the l a t e r bronze phases of the Shang dynasty known from Cheng-chou and Anyang (Chang 1968: 196; Cheng Te-k'un 1975: 26; Soper 1966: 23). The small bronzes found include arrowheads, 36 fishhooks, knives whcih are a crudely angular version of the semi-lunar k n i f e , awls and b e l l s (Chang 1968: 199; Loehr 1968: 14; Fontein and Wu 1973: 28; Soper 1966: 12). Chang (1968: 199) adds spearheads, ornaments or art objects but no other source mentions ornaments or art objects so perhaps t h i s i s i n reference to the b e l l s , and Soper (1966: 23) states unequivocally that no bronze spearheads were present. Unfortunately the information i n the o r i g i n a l report i s not a v a i l a b l e to a non-Chinese l a n - guage reader but the i l l u s t r a t i o n i n Fang yu-sheng's report (1965: 215- 224, Plate 5) does not show spearheads. The presence of a bronze foundry i s i ndicated by fragments of clay c r u c i b l e s , bronze slugs and clay molds (Chang 1968: 199; L i Chu-tsing 1973: 419; Soper 1966: 12). No standardized composition existed i n Shang times for bronze a l l o y s , according to Cheng Te-k'un (1960: 158) and Kidder (1956: 18) a l - though Kidder ( i b i d . ) and L i Chung (1975: 259-263) state that early Chou dynasty sources (K'ao Kung Chi) give the already government prescribed r a t i o of t i n to copper, depending on the surface required and on the purpose of the object. D i f f e r e n t sources give varying r a t i o s for t i n i n ancient bronze —5-6% to 30% (Cushing 1967: 6 4 ) 7 - 2 0 % (Gettens 1967: 212), 10-20% (Kidder 1956: 18; Watson 1971: 79) with the percentages as high as 50% f o r mirrors. Barnard (1961: 191, 193, 197) reveals that according to tests the s i x K'ao Kung Chi formulae were merely u n r e l i a b l e conjectures and that by Late Shang times the t i n content s t i l l varied from 1.83% to 20.32% and the copper content varied from 76.7% to 95.2% i n 8 samples; ad d i t i o n a l information from tests showed that z i n c i s absent and lead 37 amounts to l e s s than 3% i n Shang bronzes w i t h the t i n content being lower i n weapons and u t e n s i l s . Ores, both copper and t i n , were present i n many areas around the Yen-shih area (Barnard 1961: 50; Shih Chang-ju 1955: 105). Nothing i s known of ore processing at t h i s time but i t i s presumed that s m e l ting was c a r r i e d out beside the mines (Barnard 1961: 179). The me'thod of c a s t i n g bronze i n E a r l y Shang timeswwas by d i r e c t c a s t i n g i n molds w i t h the sim p l e s t s o l i d c a s t i n g of weapons, t o o l s and ornaments being done i n two-piece molds. Often the molds i n such cases were carved from blocks of stone (Barnard 1961: 243). Barnard (1961: 243) s t a t e s that there i s no evidence yet f o r the use of open s i n g l e molds but Cheng Te-k'un (1960: 163, 1975: 26) s t a t e s that the simpler a r t i f a c t s at Yen-shih were cast i n open or va l v e molds and Chang (1968: 247) agrees that s i n g l e molds were used i n Shang times. The use of a clay core per- m i t t i n g the c a s t i n g of hollow objects such as b e l l s was the next stage i n m e t a l l u r g i c a l development (Barnard 1961: 250) and i s already seen i n the E r h - l i - t ' o u remains. Cire-perdue, the e a r l i e r c a s t i n g method of the West, was thought to have been introduced and p r a c t i c e d i n Shang and Chou China (Penniman 1951: 120; Kidder 1956: 19; Savage 1968: 20; Watson 1971: 77) but no bronze cast by the cire-perdue process has been unearthed from any pre-Han s i t e s yet (Barnard 1961: 86, 105). The f i r s t r e a l evidence of cire-perdue methods of c a s t i n g uncovered i n a pre-Han s i t e , i n Late Chou China (c 200 B.C.) was i n northwest Yunnan, southwest China, where the technique was introduced p o s s i b l y from I n d i a or the Ordos (Barnard 1961: 158, 1967: 186). 38 Southwest China In norhtwest Yunnan, north of Lake Erh at Chien-ch'uan, Hai- men-k'ou, a habita t i o n s i t e yielded 14 copper a r t i f a c t s including hammered curved knives, awls, c h i s e l s , rings, fishhooks, bracelets and cast c e l t s or axes, plus part of a clay mold. This s i t e , although c l a s s i f i e d as e s s e n t i a l l y Chinese Lungshan period N e o l i t h i c i n character, shows the e a r l i e s t phase of metallurgy i n the area. Barnard (1972: 24-25, 28-30) converts the C 14 date of 1150+90 B.C. (Z-10) into an e a r l i e r Bristlecone Pine date of 1353+154 B.C. b e l i e v i n g that t h i s gives a more accurate date for Chien-ch'uan. The e a r l i e s t bronze assemblage i n Yunnan, from a b u r i a l at Ta-p'o-na, Hsiang-yun, j u s t southeast of Lake Erh, includes a decorated house-shaped c o f f i n assembled from seven pieces, containing a bronze s t i c k . One hundred bronze a r t i f a c t s were recovered from the b u r i a l f i l l . The bronzes were implements — hoes, plow blades, axes, dibbles, knives; weapons — spearheads and ends, swords, picks, fan-shaped axes; vessels — tsuh goblets, cups, tou f r u i t s t a n d s , a cooking pot; spoons, chopsticks, kettledrums, 2 gourd-shaped musical sheng, a b e l l , models of houses, cat- t l e , horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, chickens, ornaments and "other miscel - laneous tiems" (Chang 1968: 428). Chang (1968: 429) notes that the composition of eleven selected bronzes from Ta-p'o-na appears to be uneven and uncontrolled, with copper ranging from 79.60% to 97.63% and the t i n ranging from 0.19% to 16.34%; lead i n 6 objects varied from 0.52% to 3.46% and one other object had a trace only. 4 39 No s c i e n t i f i c d a t i n g f o r the s i t e i s a v a i l a b l e but Chang (1968: 429) places i t i n Middle Eastern Chou times, and gives the estimated date as 600 B.C. (Chang 1975: 170). Sources of ores of copper and t i n are p l e n t i f u l i n Yunnan (Heekeren 1967: 117; Barnard 1961: 50; Shih Chang-ju 1955: 105). No molds, c r u c i b l e s or other evidence of bronze production were documented as being excavated. South East A s i a : Thailand In northeast T h a i l a n d , i n the s i t e of Non Nok Tha a copper socketed t o o l , recovered from a b u r i a l w i t h extensive grave f u r n i s h i n g s , and two small pieces of bronze were found at a lower l e v e l ( E a r l y P e r i o d I I I ) and dated i n d i r e c t l y to 3590+320 B.C. (GAK-1034) (Bayard 1972: 1411). A d i f f e r e n t date was obtained by using the thermoluminescence method, g i v i n g an estimated date of 2700 to 2500 B.C. (Bayard 1972: 1411-1412). The next l e v e l s , h a b i t a t i o n and b u r i a l (Middle P e r i o d I I I ) , produced 28 bronze b r a c e l e t s , 4 socketed bronze axes, numerous bronze lumps from c a s t - i n g s p i l l a g e , 6 p a i r s of double-valve sandstone molds and s i x c l a y c r u c i - b l e s ; the axes are suggested as having f u n c t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s (Bayard 1971: 5; Solheim 1968: 59-62, 1970: 147). The d a t i n g of Non Nok Tha has been queried by Loofs (1974: 59-60) as being based on c o n t r o v e r s i a l dates from other areas and on p r e l i m i n a r y evidence of thermoluminescence dates given by Bronson and Han (1972: 323). P i t t i o n i (1970: 158), i n h i s report on the a n a l y s i s of e i g h t b r a c e l e t s and one socketed axe from Non Nok Tha, has made a p u z z l i n g statement i n regard t o t h e i r age — he gives the t r a d i - 40 t i o n a l date of the e i g h t h century B.C. f o r bronze working i n Southeast A s i a but he does not say how h e . a r r i v e d at t h i s c o n c l u s i o n f o r these Non Nok Tha bronzes.other than by r e f e r r i n g to Solheim's 1967 and 1968 a r t i - c l e s ; Solheim (1967: 899, 1968: 62) gives a date "about 2500 B.C." f o r these o b j e c t s . Bayard (1975:168) s t a t e s t h a t there are now "37 dates from the s i t e and the tendency to support a pre-2000 B.C. date f o r bronze i s q u i t e c l e a r , although not c o n c l u s i v e . " A chart of Non Nok Tha dates, as of 1975 i s i n the Appendix. No evidence has been excavated to show the presence of warfare, u r b a n i z a t i o n , or any s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n although there were d i f f e r e n c e s i n wealth and p r e s t i g e shown i n the b u r i a l s (Solheim 1970: 147, 157-158). The f a c t that no t r a c e of copper, t i n or le a d ores has been found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the bronze c a s t i n g equipment leads to the assump- t i o n t h a t the ores were smelted at t h e i r source or the r e f i n e d metals or a l l o y e d bronze came i n by way of trade (Solheim 1972: 41). The sources of the ores are r a t h e r d i s t a n t from the s i t e ; copper deposits i n v e i n and f r e e copper were found 80-100 km. away ( P i t t i o n i 1970: 160), copper ore appeared 135 km northwest w i t h le a d ore not f a r away from t h i s copper de- p o s i t and t i n ore was noted 250 km. northwest (Solheim 1969: 135, 1970: 152). A n a l y s i s of two samples from the socketed copper t o o l showed i m p u r i t i e s of aluminum, i r o n , phosphorus, a r s e n i c and mercury. The traces of phosphorus, a r s e n i c and i r o n suggest t h a t the copper had been t r e a t e d i n some way, e i t h e r by r o a s t i n g or s m e l t i n g , before enough "pure" 41 copper was a v a i l a b l e f o r c o l d hammering (Solheim 1970: 152, 1972: 41; Bayard 1972: 1411). One of the small pieces of bronze from t h i s same e a r l y l e v e l ( E a r l y P e r i o d I I I ) was analyzed by using the e l e c t r o n probe, and spot a n a l y s i s revealed 94-96% copper and 4-6% t i n w i t h no a r s e n i c , phos- phorus, i r o n or l e a d present — i n d i c a t i n g a d e l i b e r a t e l y made t i n bronze (Bayard 1972: 1411). Spectrographic a n a l y s i s of 12 samples from f i v e of the bronze o b j e c t s from the next l e v e l (Middle P e r i o d I I I ) d i s p l a y e d that equal proportions of t i n and lead had been d e l i b e r a t e l y added i n most cases to copper c o n t a i n i n g a r s e n i c ( P i t t i o n i 1970: 158-159; Solheim 1970: 152; Bayard 1971: 7). The c a s t i n g of the socketed bronze axes was w i t h sandstone double molds and core, and the b r a c e l e t s were cast e i t h e r i n double molds or by the cire-perdue process (Bayard 1971: 3). 42 CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSIONS The conclusions from the, e a r l i e s t bronze assemblages w i l l be based on t a b u l a t i o n s of the presented inf o r m a t i o n . TABLE I I . PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF ARTIFACT TYPES IN THE EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES S i b e r i a China Chien- A r t i f a c t Minusinsk E r h - l i - t ' o u Ta-p'o-na ch'i Copper knives / / axes / awls / . / c h i s e l s / fishhooks / / socketed t o o l needles /. r i n g s / / needle case / b r a c e l e t s / p l a t e d wooden v e s s e l / axe mold / Bronze knives / / / axes / / spearheads / / spearends / swords /' p i c k / arrowheads / fishhook / needles / stock / axes / / Thailand Non Nok Tha Continued 43 TABLE I I (Continued) S i b e r i a China Thailand Chien- A r t i f a c t Minusinsk E r h - l i - t ' o u Ta-p'o-na ch'uan Non Nok Tha Bronze (continued) hoes / plow blades / awls / / d i b b l e s / cups / f r u i t s t a n d / cooking pot / spoons / chopsticks / goblets / b e l l s / / gourd sheng / kettledrum / a r t o b jects / ornaments / / / / c o f f i n / mold / / bronze slugs / / c r u c i b l e s / / miscellaneous / / In summary of Table I I , the f i r s t obvious f a c t i s that the b u r i a l at Ta-p'o-na i s represented by many more types of bronze a r t i f a c t s than the other assemblages. The second f a c t i s that the bronze assem- blages of Ta-p'o-na together w i t h the copper assemblage of Chien-ch'uan, both i n northwest Yunnan, y i e l d e d the m a j o r i t y of metal a r t i f a c t types. The assemblages w i t h the most types of copper items are Minu- s i n s k and Chien'ch'uan w i t h 7 types each, followed by Non Nok Tha w i t h one type and Ta-p'o-na and E r h - l i - t ' o u w i t h none. 44 The number of d i f f e r e n t bronze a r t i f a c t types i n the assem- blages i s represented i n descending order by Ta-p'o-na w i t h 23 types, Minusinsk w i t h 7, E r h - l i - t ' o u w i t h 6, Non Nok Tha with 3 types and Chien-ch'uan w i t h none. However there are other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s that are more important f o r understanding the beginning of bronze technology than the bronze a r t i f a c t type frequencies i n an assemblage. One of these i s the chrono- l o g i c a l age of the assemblage. I t i s evident that the m a j o r i t y of the dates given f o r the e a r l i e s t assemblages have been a r r i v e d at r e l a t i v e l y and s p e c u l a t i v e l y . There i s one C 14 date f o r the copper s i t e of Chien- ch'uan and an i n c o n c l u s i v e date f o r Non Nok Tha. However i f t h i s i s a l l we have to work w i t h at the moment, t h i s i s what we have to use. To s i m p l i f y the p o i n t s i n t h i s summary, smaller t a b l e s w i l l be used. A l l dates given are B.C. TABLE I I I . DATES OF EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES (Minusinsk, Non Nok Tha, Chien-ch'uan, E r h - l i - t ' o u , Ta-p'o-na) Copper Bronze Minusinsk e a r l y second m i l l e n i u m Non Nok Tha c 2700-2500 Chien-ch'uan 1150+90 E r h - l i - t ' o u no copper Ta-p'o-na no copper Non Nok Tha E r h - l i - t ' o u Minusinsk Ta-p'o-na pre 2000 c 1850-1650 c 1500-1200 c 600 Chien-ch'uan no bronze TABLE IV. NUMBER OF CATEGORIES OF ARTIFACT TYPES IN FIVE EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES Copper Bronze Minusinsk 4 Ch i en- ch' uan 3 Non Nok Tha 1 E r h - l i - t ' o u 0 Ta-p'o-na 0 Ta-p'o-na 7 E r h - l i - t ' o u 4 Minusinsk 3 Non Nok Tha 3 Chien-ch'uan 0 45 TABLE V. CATEGORIES OF COPPER ARTIFACT TYPES IN THREE EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES Minusinsk e a r l y second m i l l e n i u m weapons/implements implements domestic u t e n s i l ornaments Non Nok Tha c 2700-2500 weapon/implement Chien-ch'uan 1150+90 weapons/implements implements ornaments No conclusions can be made on categories of copper a r t i f a c t types based on c h r o n o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n . A c t u a l l y no v i a b l e comparison can be made among the three copper assemblages. As has been noted p r e v i o u s l y the e a r l i e s t metal work done by man was by hammering n a t i v e copper. Successive steps i n the development of metallurgy were proposed a l s o but there i s no assurance that these developmental stages w i l l be represented i n every area. Chien-ch'uan progressed no f u r t h e r than hammered and cast copper f o r unknown reasons. Minusinsk showed a development from a ham- mered copper stage to a bronze stage probably as the r e s u l t of the entry of these elements from the West, as shown e a r l i e r . The excavated area of Non Nok Tha i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and w i t h one example of copper o n l y , no conclusions can be drawn on i t f o r the beginning of bronze technology i n the area. Already i t has been noted that comparison among the e a r l i e s t centres of bronze production i s hampered by inadequacies i n sampling and dating. In a d d i t i o n , we are d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i e t i e s at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s 46 TABLE VI. CATEGORIES OF BRONZE ARTIFACT TYPES IN FOUR EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES Non Nok Tha pre 2000 weapons/implements implements ornaments E r h - l i - t ' o u c 1850-1650 weapons implements ornaments mus i c a l instruments Minusinsk c 1500-1200 weapons implements ornaments Ta-p'o-na c 600 weapons implements ornaments musical instruments domestic u t e n s i l s a r t o b j e c t s i d e o l o g i c a l symbol of development, i n which bronze production plays d i f f e r i n g r o l e s . E a r l i e r the way i n which bronze metallurgy can occur i n very d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l con- t e x t s was a l s o mentioned. We may now explore b r i e f l y the s o c i a l context of bronze production at the e a r l i e s t l o c a l e s . According to Steward (1955: 52-55) the l e v e l s of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n range from n u c l e a r f a m i l y through f o l k s o c i e t y to s t a t e o r - g a n i z a t i o n a l systems; they are q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t systems which represent successive developmental stages. P r o d u c t i v e processes may be- come patterned around c o l l e c t i v e hunting, f i s h i n g , herding or farming and s o c i e t y acquires a s t r u c t u r e appropriate to the p a r t i c u l a r kinds of i n t e r f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s that develop i n the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n . This lower l e v e l of i n t e g r a t i o n then i s based on m u l t i k i n s t r u c t u r e . A s t i l l 47 l a r g e r system of int e g r a t i o n , a f o l k society, appears when these e a r l i e r multikin groups become f u n c t i o n a l l y dependent on each other f o r food production, trade goods and offensive and defensive warfare; t h i s de- pendency could r e s u l t i n p o l i t i c a l hierarchy and class and status d i f - f e r e n t i a t i o n . At the state l e v e l new i n s t i t u t i o n s appear f o r c o n t r o l l i n g those aspects of l i f e that are of concern to the st a t e , such as government structure and s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . Binford (1972: 93-101) explains the three relevant a r t i f a c t types based on t h e i r primary fu n c t i o n a l context i n the soci e t y : one, technomic a r t i f a c t s used d i r e c t l y i n coping with the ph y s i c a l environ- ment; v a r i a b i l i t y i s explained by the e x i s t i n g ecology; two, socio-technic — a r t i f a c t s used i n the s o c i a l subsystems as "the means of a r t i c u l a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s into cohesive groups capable of maintaining themselves and manipulating the technology" and changes i n t h i s type of a r t i f a c t can be re l a t e d to changes i n the structure of the s o c i a l system; three, i d i o - technic — a r t i f a c t s used i n the i d e o l o g i c a l part of the s o c i a l system. Formal s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r r e i n f o r c i n g b e l i e f , custom and values cross-cut a l l these general classes of a r t i f a c t s . Binford ( i b i d . : 95) theorizes that i f durable metal (copper) a r t i f a c t s which require as much e f f o r t to produce as less durable stone and bone a r t i f a c t s , are made f o r n o n u t i l i t a r i a n use then they are p r i - marily socio-technic items. He ( i b i d . : 99) further proposes that there i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between these status symbols and the l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the culture; small group s i z e at a low l e v e l .48 of i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l have a low number of status symbols and l a r g e r groups at a l a r g e r l e v e l of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h more than an e g a l i - t a r i a n system of st a t u s grading w i l l have a higher number of st a t u s sym- bo l s or s o c i o - t e c h n i c items. B i n f o r d ( i b i d . : 100) i n reference to the Old Copper Culture of North America, s t a t e s that the frequent occurrence i n b u r i a l s of copper a r t i f a c t s of technomic form, w i t h apparent l a c k of technomic e f f i c i e n c y and r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y , suggest t h e i r primary f u n c t i o n was as s o c i o - t e c h n i c or st a t u s items. I t appears that t h i s c onclusion of Bin f o r d ' s can al s o be a p p l i e d to other c u l t u r e s , such as those of East A s i a , and other metals, such as bronze. Fol l o w i n g the e x p o s i t i o n s of Steward and B i n f o r d we may expect to f i n d i n the e a r l i e r lower l e v e l s of i n t e g r a t i o n , such as f a m i l y or m u l t i k i n groups, t h a t the m a j o r i t y of categories of a r t i f a c t types w i l l be technomic, r e l a t i n g to food production and w i l l be of bone or stone w i t h no evidence of " e x o t i c " metal s t a t u s symbols being produced i n the c u l t u r e . The next l a r g e r l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , the f o l k s o c i e t y , w i t h some evidence of p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l and r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n apparent, would i n c l u d e categories of a r t i f a c t types r e l a t i n g to food production and warfare w i t h a minimum of s o c i o - t e c h n i c or metal s t a t u s symbols. As the l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n becomes l a r g e r and l a t e r i n time, at the s t a t e l e v e l , we may expect to f i n d evidence of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s and a hi g h e r number of s o c i o - t e c h n i c items, of metal and other m a t e r i a l s . Expectations, based on the two l a r g e r l e v e l s of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , f o l k s o c i e t i e s and s t a t e s o c i e t i e s , and on the development stages between, can be used to explore 49 the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the categories of bronze a r t i f a c t types to the s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n at Non Nok Tha, E r h - l i - t ' o u , Minusinsk and Ta-p'o-na i n order to a s c e r t a i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e l e v e l s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the establishment of the beginning of t h e i r bronze technology. Table VI shows th a t the e a r l i e s t of the assemblages, Non Nok Tha^ w i t h p o s t u l a t e d r i c e a g r i c u l t u r e and domesticated animals, a low l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n (Bayard 1970: 141), which i s p o s s i b l y r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n r a t h e r than s t r a t i f i c a t i o n (thus a f o l k s o c i e t y ) , has produced the expected r e s u l t s — the lowest l e v e l of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the fewest categories of a r t i f a c t s , weapons/ implements, implements and s o c i o - t e c h n i c items, ornaments. E r h - l i - t ' o u , w i t h m i l l e t a g r i c u l t u r e , animal domestication, l a r g e settlement p a t t e r n and s l a v e b u r i a l s (Chang 1968: 196-198; Soper 1966: 11) i n d i c a t e s a s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y w i t h p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e at the developing s t a t e l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n . This second o l d e s t s i t e also produced the expected r e s u l t s — a higher l e v e l of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the second highest number of categories of a r t i f a c t types, weapons, i m p l e m e n t a n d s o c i o - t e c h n i c categories of ornaments and musical instruments. Minusinsk w i t h the t h i r d o l d e s t chronology d i d not f u l f i l l the expectations. A g r i c u l t u r e and animal domestication were present but there i s small evidence f o r s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n or p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a - t i o n s i n c e the only categories were weapons, implements and s o c i o - t e c h n i c ornaments. A lower l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , f o l k s o c i e t y , i s 50 shown, p o s s i b l y due to the metallurgy being introduced to a c u l t u r e w i t h l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r e . Ta-p'o-na, the youngest s i t e represented, a l s o f u l f i l l e d the expectations by showing the most categories of a r t i f a c t types w i t h the most v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the c a t e g o r i e s . Here were advanced a g r i c u l t u r e and animal domestication and together w i t h the categories of weapons, imple- ments and s o c i o - t e c h n i c items of ornaments, musical instruments, domestic u t e n s i l s , and a r t objects and the id e o - t e c h n i c item of a complex decor- ated c o f f i n , show a higher degree of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and give evidence of i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s . Thus Ta-p'o-na represents the most advanced stage of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n at the i n c i p i e n t s t a t e l e v e l w i t h the most complex technology of the f o u r ear- l i e s t bronze assemblages. To summarize the evidence then, i t would seem that Non Nok Tha and Minusinsk were at the f o l k s o c i e t y l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a - t i o n and possessed the fewest categories of a r t i f a c t types — technomic and one category of s o c i o - t e c h n i c items. However, Minusinsk has three types of a r t i f a c t s i n each of the two technomic categories of weapons and implements and Non Nok Tha only has one type i n each and they each only have one type of a r t i f a c t i n the s o c i o - t e c h n i c category. Therefore, Minusinsk i s at a l a r g e r or higher l e v e l of f o l k s o c i e t y i n t e g r a t i o n than Non Nok Tha. E r h - l i - t ' o u i s at a higher l e v e l of i n t e g r a t i o n again, showing a developing s t a t e l e v e l w i t h two types of a r t i f a c t s i n the weapons and 51 implements technomic categories and one type of a r t i f a c t i n each of the two s o c i o - t e c h n i c c a t e g o r i e s . one excavated b u r i a l , shows a more advanced l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n - t e g r a t i o n e x i s t e d at Ta-p'o-na than at E r h - l i - t ' o u , and the a r t i f a c t s a l s o represent the most complex technology of the four e a r l i e s t assem- blages. There are s i x types of a r t i f a c t s i n the technomic category of weapons and f i v e types i n the technomic category of implements and the f o u r s o c i o - t e c h n i c categories c o n t a i n eleven types of a r t i f a c t s . The Ta-p'o-na assemblage a l s o possesses one type of a r t i f a c t i n the i d i o - t e c h n i c category. There may s t i l l be e a r l i e r s i t e s than a l l of these i n the same areas; s i t e s t hat have only f l a t cast objects that were produced before the use of a core w i t h a double mold was known. Minusinsk may yet be shown to be of an e a r l i e r date than that accepted at t h i s time and the lower l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n accompanied by the fewer cate- gories of a r t i f a c t types would then " f i t " the e xpectations. Or, w i t h a change i n the expectations of a r c h a e o l o g i s t s i n the r e g i o n , we may begin to l e a r n a great deal-more about s i t e s other than b u r i a l s . The Ta-p'o-na bronze assemblage, although r e p r e s e n t i n g only TABLE V I I . EVIDENCE OF CASTING FROM THE FOUR EARLIEST BRONZE ASSEMBLAGES Assemblages Molds Bronze Slugs C r u c i b l e s Non Nok Tha E r h - l i - t ' o u Minusinsk Ta-p'o-na 52 Evidence of c a s t i n g i s found only i n thettwo e a r l i e s t s i t e s , or i s reported from only these s i t e s , Non Nok Tha pre 2000 B.C; and E r h - l i - t ' o u c 1850-1650 B.C. Sand, c l a y or stone s p l i t - m o l d s w i t h c l a y cores have been reported from the "Minusinsk Bronze Age" but again w i t h no s p e c i f i c mention of the e a r l i e s t Andronovo p e r i o d of the Minusinsk bronzes. The p o s s i b i l i t y of the "other miscellaneous items" found at Ta-p'o-na i n c l u d i n g evidence of bronze working cannot be r u l e d out by a non-Chinese language reader. bHowever, as the tomb appeared to belong to a person r a t h e r h i g h up i n the hi e r a r c h y of a s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y , the p o s s i b i l i t y of the presence of cores or molds as evidence f o r production methods i s not l i k e l y . Molds used at E r h - l i - t ' o u were c l a y , s i n g l e or double f o r the weapons and t o o l s w i t h u t i l i z a t i o n of two piece v a l v e molds and c l a y cores f o r the b e l l s but there i s no f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n or a n a l y s i s of the bronze slugs and clay c r u c i b l e s other than mention of t h e i r presence. Cheng Te-k'un (1960: 162) describes E a r l y Shang c r u c i b l e s as being made w i t h straw tempered c l a y . At Non Nok Tha the molds are double-valve sandstone types and the c r u c i b l e s are of c l a y , h e a v i l y tempered w i t h r i c e chaff and straw (Bayard 1971: 7). The axes were made using the double-molds and cores and the b r a c e l e t s using e i t h e r double molds or the cire-perdue process. No explanation has been given f o r the suggestion that cire-perdue was used — one receives the impression that the only reason t h i s was men- ti o n e d was because e a r l i e r t h i n k i n g has assumed i n f l u e n c e s to the area came from the West where cire-perdue was the p r e f e r r e d method of c a s t i n g . 53 It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that on the evidence of "fragments of clay c r u c i b l e s , bronze slugs and clay molds" found at E r h - l i - t ' o u , Chang (1968: 199) states that t h i s indicates a foundry at the s i t e , while the s i m i l a r evidence of whole cr u c i b l e s of clay, sandstone molds and bronze fragments discovered at Non Nok Tha only produces the statement that bronze working went on there (Solheim 1968: 62). I t i s obvious that more than t h i s reported "evidence" was used to come to these conclusions. As has been demonstrated, E r h - l i - t ' o u was at the s o c i o c u l t u r a l l e v e l of developing state i n t e g r a t i o n with a large settlement and thus was advanced beyond the f o l k society i n t e g r a t i o n of Non Nok Tha where the kinship/ descent groups were organized f o r metal working (Rowlands 1971: 217). TABLE VIII. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF EARLY BRONZE ASSEMBLAGES Assemblage Cu Non Nok Tha 94-96% i i i North China (76.7-95.2% (Anyang) Minusinsk C94% Sn 4-6% 1.83-20.32% 6% Pb 3% Ta-p'S-na 79.60-97.63% 0.19-16.34% 0.52-3.40% Detai l s one early fragment l a t e r objects, 12 samples of 5 objects, equal proportions of Sri, Pb 8 samples Late Shang) 2 samples "Minusinsk Bronze Age")- 11 selected bronzes; t h i s percentage of lead i n 6 samples, trace i n 1 other 54 I t i s very d i f f i c u l t to come to any conclusions on the compari- sons of the content of bronze from the assemblages. The one e a r l y s m a ll fragment from E a r l y P e r i o d I I I , Non Nok Tha, i s apparently pure tin-bronze as are the two samples from the "Minusinsk Bronze Age" — again these may or may not be from the e a r l i e s t assemblages i n the area. However, i t i s worth n o t i n g that the two assemblages that appeared to be of s i m i l a r low l e v e l s of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , f o l k s o c i e t i e s , and s i m i l a r i n the c a s t i n g method, may again be s i m i l a r i n bronze a n a l y s i s . The l a t e r Non Nok Tha bronze objects from Middle P e r i o d I I I are analyzed by presence and absence o n l y , t h e r e f o r e comparisons of the percentages of the c o n s t i t u e n t elements are not p o s s i b l e i n t h i s case. The a n a l y s i s l i s t e d f o r North China i s not on m a t e r i a l from Erh- l i - t ' o u but i s on samples from Late Shang Anyang, and as such can give only a p o s s i b l e general idea of the bronze content f o r E a r l y Shang time. T h i s , then, precludes using t h i s i nformation f o r comparison w i t h other e a r l i e s t assemblages. However, i t has been s t a t e d (Barnard 1961: 190-192) that copper content decreased c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y from Late Shang times (c 1401- 1122 B.C.) through Western Chou and Eastern Chou times and that the t i n content v a r i e d widely i n Shang times and that Late Chou samples (18) con- tained more t i n than E a r l y Chou samples (18). A l l Anyang samples (8) con- tained l e s s than 3% le a d w i t h a s l i g h t l y higher percentage i n both Chou periods. Barnard ( i b i d . : 192) warns that the f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of these conclusions cannot be assessed without i n f o r m a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s and proper grouping of l i k e a r t i f a c t s . 55 The Ta-p'o-na a n a l y s i s , which d i f f e r s from the percentages of c o n s t i t u e n t elements given f o r Non Nok Tha and Minusinsk, a l s o should not be used f o r comparisons w i t h e a r l y s i t e s as i t has been shown as the e a r l i e s t assemblage i n i t s area but not at an e a r l y stage of metallurgy. The chemical a n a l y s i s of eleven s e l ected bronzes (Chang 1968: 429) from Ta-p'o-na w i t h an estimated date of 600 B.C. i n Late Eastern Chou times does not appear to conform to the r e l a t i v e percentages of c o n s t i t u e n t s from Shang to Late Chou times given by Barnard and j u s t presented above; the copper content of the Ta-p'o-na s e l e c t e d bronzes does not decrease but increases i n s t e a d ; the v a r i a t i o n i n the t i n and lead content i s d i f - f i c u l t to assess. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Late Shang Anyang a n a l y s i s and the Ta-p'o-na a n a l y s i s ; the percentages of the con- s t i t u e n t s of the bronze are not completely d i s s i m i l a r . What i s of p a r t i - c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s that the t i n range s t a r t s at 1.3% and 0.19% r e s p e c t i v e l y and thus comes under what Coghlan (1951: 21-23) terms " a c c i d e n t a l " bronze, produced p r i o r to general knowledge of bronze, by using the enriched ores from a lode i n which t i n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the copper; " t r u e " bronze has been defined as c o n t a i n i n g i n excess of 3% t i n . The o b j e c t s of Late Shang which produced these a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s are not noted by Barnard (1961: 190-191) but the Ta-p'o-na b u r i a l o b j e c t s , noted by Chang (1968: 429), w i t h l e s s than 3% t i n content are shown i n Table IX and the objects w i t h more than 3% t i n are shown i n Table X. 56 TABLE IX. FOUR ARTIFACTS FROM TA-P'O-NA WITH LESS THAN 3% TIN A r t i f a c t Cu Sn Pb hoe 92.77% 0.19% spearhead 93.79% 2.35% 0.62% gourd sheng 97.63% 1.32% 0.52% horse f i g u r i n e 93.80% 1.92% 1.12% TABLE X. SIX ARTIFACTS FROM TA-P'O-NA WITH MORE THAN 3% TIN A r t i f a c t Cu Sn Pb adze 94.20% 3.71% spoon 84.13% 13.69% b e l l 79.96% 16.34% t r a c e kettledrum 87.96% • 6.87% 3.46% r i n g 79.60% 14.75% 2.89% c o f f i n 89.60% 5.02% 2.25% These two ta b l e s show that both u t i l i t a r i a n , technomic items — hoe, spearhead, a d z e — and s o c i o - t e c h n i c items — sheng, f i g u r i n e , spoon, b e l l , kettledrum, r i n g — conta i n l e s s than 3% t i n and more than 3%; the i d i o - t e c h n i c item, the c o f f i n , contains more than 3% t i n . I s there an explanation why some a r t i f a c t s i n the b u r i a l c o n t a i n more t i n and why some contain l e s s t i n ? As shown, i t cannot be explained on the primary func- t i o n a l context of the a r t i f a c t s i n the cat e g o r i e s of technomic and s o c i o - e t e c h n i c f u n c t i o n s . The i d ^ o - t e c h n i c a r t i f a c t , being a s i n g l e example, may or may not be d e f i n i t i v e . There appears to be s e v e r a l hypotheses that may e x p l a i n t h i s . 57 As noted e a r l i e r by Barnard (1961: 197) the t i n content i n bronze during Shang, Western Chou and Eastern Chou times i s lower i n the weapons and u t e n s i l s than i n r i t u a l v e s s e l s . The a n a l y s i s of the v e s s e l s at Ta-p'o-na has not been given but i f we use the a n a l y s i s f o r the other s o c i o - t e c h n i c items as r i t u a l b u r i a l items, we f i n d that Bar- nard's statement does not h o l d true i n the case of the spearhead, and the adze, both c o n t a i n i n g more t i n than the sheng and the f i g u r i n e , but i t does ho l d true i n the case of the hoe which contains l e s s t i n than any other a r t i f a c t . I t a l s o holds t r u e i n the case of the c o f f i n , e an i d ^ o - t e c h n i c item and as such may be termed a r i t u a l item. Before Barnard's statement can be e f f e c t i v e f o r answering the question of the va r y i n g amounts of t i n found i n bronze b u r i a l items, the term " r i t u a l " must be more c l e a r l y defined. Thus we a r r i v e at other hypotheses; that the bronze craftsmen were not aware of the f u n c t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s of more t i n i n bronze or i f they were aware of them, they d i d not u t i l i z e them by producing harder, more durable u t i l i t a r i a n items than s o c i o - t e c h n i c items. I t may a l s o be a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the low percentage of t i n was an e f f o r t by some craftsmen to conserve the s c a r c e r t i n or simply r e s u l t e d from using the "enriched" copper ores as a matter of course to produce "bronze" a r t i - f a c t s , i n which case they are not what may be termed " a c c i d e n t a l " . I t may a l s o be a p o s s i b i l i t y that d i f f e r e n t smiths produced d i f f e r e n t spe- c i f i c items and had t h e i r own f a v o u r i t e formula f o r making bronze. Craftsmen may have d e l i b e r a t e l y used more t i n to enhance the appearance and/or value of the o b j e c t s . 58 Conclusions on chemical analyses of metal are that the i n d i v i - dual a r t i f a c t must be analyzed and compilations of categories of a r t i f a c t s must then be compared as to t h e i r f u n c t i o n w i t h i n an assemblage and be- tween assemblages. I t i s a l s o obvious that much, much more work must be done i n the area of a n a l y s i s before any workable hypotheses can be forthcoming. TABLE XI. APPEARANCE OF SIMILAR ARTIFACTS IN THE FOUR EARLIEST ASSEMBLAGES A r t i f a c t Minusinsk E r h - l i - t ' o u Ta-p'o-na Non Nok Tha axes / / / knives / / / spearheads / / b e l l s / / This t a b l e demonstrates the l i m i t e d appearance of s i m i l a r types of a r t i f a c t s i n more than one assemblage. Axes were present i n Minusinsk, Ta-p'o-na and Non Nok Tha. Knives appeared i n Minusinsk, E r h - l i - t ' o u and Ta-p'o-na. Spearheads were found i n Minusinsk and Ta-p'o-na and b e l l s were excavated only at E r h - l i - t ' o u and Ta-p'o-na. The appearance of categories of a r t i f a c t types i n assemblages has already been discussed. A comparison of the forms of the a r t i f a c t s e x h i b i t few v i s i b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s (Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 — any s c a l e given i n the o r i g i n a l pub- l i c a t i o n f o r a r t i f a c t s i s i n c l u d e d ) . The round ended axe appears at Ta- p'o-na (Figure 3:1) and at Non Nok Tha (Figure 4:1, 6) but the s i m i l a r i t y ends at the top c u t t i n g edge; the design of the lower p o r t i o n of the heads 59 i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . The axes ( c e l t s ) of Minusinsk (Figure 1:3) bear no r e l a t i o n i n appearance to any other axe i n the assemblages. The leaf-shaped knives or daggers from Minusinsk (Figure 1:1, 2) are completely d i f f e r e n t i n form from the crudely angular k n i f e of the E r h - l i - t ' o u assemblage (Figure 2:1) and from the true daggers of Ta-p'o-na (Figure 3:3). As no i l l u s t r a t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e f o r Minusinsk spearheads, no v i s u a l comparison i s p o s s i b l e . The b e l l of E r h - l i - t ' o u (Figure 2:2) i s simple and undecorated w i t h one flange on the s i d e and s l i g h t l y f l a r i n g towards the base. The Ta-p'o-na b e l l (Figure 3:4) has s t r a i g h t s i d e s , no flange and i s decorated a l l over. Thus the only s i m i l a r i t y i s that they are both b e l l s and both from assemblages i n China. The c o n c l u s i o n of the s t y l i s t i c comparison based on the appear- ance of s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t s i n the f o u r e a r l i e s t assemblages i s that they appear to be d i f f e r e n t and probably are unrelated. F i n a l Comparison This study has examined s i t e s of e a r l y bronze technology i n East A s i a . The r e s u l t s of t h i s examination have shown that the four e a r l i e s t bronze assemblages occur over a wide geographical area ( F i g - ure 6: Map), southern S i b e r i a to northeast Thailand, and cover a r e l a - t i v e l y broad time span, pre 2000 B.C. to c 600 B.C. The southern S i b e r i a n assemblage of Minusinsk cannot be accepted f o r the beginning of bronze metallurgy i n East A s i a as the technology was 60 r e p o r t e d l y Introduced from the West and there i s some evidence f o r t h i s but no evidence to the con t r a r y ; there i s no evidence of t i e s w i t h China or South A s i a at e a r l y dates although there were some apparent s i m i l a r i - t i e s between Minusinsk and Non Nok Tha, i n c a s t i n g methods and i n bronze composition. The conclusion based on the complexity of technology i s that the c 600 B.C. assemblage at Ta-p'o-na, southwest China cannot be i n - cluded as showing the beginning of bronze production. Two assemblages are l e f t f o r comparison, E r h - l i - t ' o u , North China and Non Nok Tha, northeast Thailand. E r h - l i - t ' o u d i s p l a y e d an e a r l y s t a t e development l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , based on evidence of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and c a t e g o r i e s of a r t i f a c t types. Non Nok Tha evidenced a f o l k s o c i e t y l e v e l of s o c i o c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h copper preceding bronze, and only one category of s o c i o - t e c h n i c items. The c a s t i n g procedures f o r both assem- blages are d i f f e r e n t i n that e i t h e r s i n g l e or double c l a y molds were used at E r h - l i - t ' o u and double sandstone molds were u t i l i z e d at Non Nok Tha; c l a y cores were used i n both assemblages; c i r e perdue has been mentioned as a p o s s i b i l i t y at Non Nok Tha (Middle P e r i o d I I I ) w h i l e i t has been s t a t e d as an i m p o s s i b i l i t y at E r h - l i - t ' o u . Smelting does not appear to have occurred i n the v i c i n i t y of e i t h e r assemblage. As f a r as the chemical a n a l y s i s of.the bronze can be compared d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s are apparent. In a d d i t i o n , s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t types d i d not appear i n the two assemblages. 61 The conclusions from t h i s f i n a l comparison are that E r h - l i - t ' o u cannot represent the very e a r l i e s t bronze production s i t e i n North China or i n East A s i a . The bronze produced i s undecorated and simple i n form and there are r e l a t i v e l y few pieces i n the assemblage but i t does i n c l u d e two c a t e g o r i e s of s o c i o - t e c h n i c a r t i f a c t s , one of which u t i l i z e d the more advanced core technique of manufacture. I t appears p o s s i b l e that e a r l i e r s i t e s w i t h f l a t , u t i l i t a r i a n items only may s t i l l appear and i t may al s o be p o s s i b l e that s i t e s w i t h the e a r l i e s t types of metalwork, ham- mered copper, s t i l l may be discovered i n North China. Therefore, Non Nok Tha although a l s o using the core technology was preceded by copper working and appears to be an e a r l i e r bronze assemblage than E r h - l i - t ' o u . However the d i f f e r e n c e s apparent i n the assemblages show that they are probably unrelated and independent assemblages and do not a l l o w the assumption t h a t only one of these areas was the s i t e f o r the beginning of bronze technology i n East A s i a . The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s f o r e i t h e r indigenous development from e x t e r n a l stimulus or separate i n v e n t i o n w i t h no outside stimulus of any k i n d f o r e i t h e r area. This study has demonstrated the existence of d i f f e r e n t t e ch- n o l o g i e s , d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l contexts f o r bronze o b j e c t s f o r a l l four e a r l y bronze assemblages. 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APPENDIX ONE E A R L Y I M I D D L E IGAPI L A T E . • 6 7 _ 8 X _ J J L _ 2 _ ^ 1000 Ha -1- fa L A I E S L . — • ~=t.->r A.D. — - r / / Displaced j . y «5f — J_ Upward? -f- T B.C. 1000 JF* A* 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 + 7000 Absolute dates from Non Nok.2fca6 a, apatite, c, collagen, t l , thermoluroinescence; others charcoal. Circled dates are those thought to hava been affected by modern contamination. Range shown is one standard deviation (Bayard 1975:163).

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