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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Changing tides: the development of an archaeological exhibit Stevenson, Ann 1985

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bookie*. "CW*^  TctPi  CHANGING  u  enoehpe.  M  TIDES: THE DEVELOPMENT  OF AN  ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXHIBIT  By ANN MARIE STEVENSON B.A., Simon F r a s e r  University,  1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS  in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department  We  of Anthropology  accept t h i s  thesis  r.n the/? reqjj-irjed  THE  and S o c i o l o g y )  as c o n f o r m i n g ai^ajiclard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH September ©Ann  Marie  COLUMBIA  1985  Stevenson,  1985  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  A n t h r o p o l o g y and  Sociology  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956  Main Mall  V6T  1Y3  Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6  M/R-n  2 0 ,  ftf?  ii  ABSTRACT  This which  thesis report  includes  i s part  of a larger thesis project  t h e museum e x h i b i t C h a n g i n g T i d e s  UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y Museum Note Changing T i d e s : Fraser  Delta.  production on w h i c h  The Development This  of t h i s  report  o f A r c h a e o l o g y i n B.C.'s  c h r o n i c l e s t h e p l a n n i n g and  i t i s based.  development  discussion  of t h i s  p r o j e c t was t o a i d i n t h e  of public appreciation  Justification  and  entitled  e x h i b i t p r o j e c t and o u t l i n e s t h e c r i t e r i a  The main o b j e c t i v e  logy.  No. 13,  and t h e  f o r this  objective  of the r o l e of p u b l i c  f o r s c i e n t i f i c archaeology.  i s provided  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n archaeo-  Funding, e x h i b i t development,  scheduling,  exhibit conservation,  mnet, and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s  exhibit  o f Changing  are discussed  Tides.  co-ordination  Museum Note d e v e l o p -  A s e r i e s o f appendixes a r e i n c l u d e d which development  through a  and e v a l u a t e d . document t h e  iii TABLE OP  CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Acknowledgements  v  Section  INTRODUCTION  1  1.1  An E x h i b i t T h e s i s  2  1.2  Public  1  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and Academic A r c h a e o l o g y . . . 3  1. 3 Ob j e c t i v e s Section 2.1  2  4  FUNDING  7  The R e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e E x h i b i t  Section  3  EXHIBITION  7  DEVELOPMENT  3.1  Text  3.2  E x h i b i t Co-Ordination  12  Development  13 and S c h e d u l i n g  15  Section  4  THE MUSEUM NOTE  17  Section  5  RELATED A C T I V I T I E S  19  Section  6  CONSERVATION  21  Section  7  EVALUATION  23  7 . 1 Planning  23  7.2  Evaluation  24  7.3  Educational  7.4  Conclusion  Programming  25 26  8  BIBLIOGRAPHY  27  9  APPENDIXES  38  9.1  APPENDIX  1 : A r c h a e o l o g y Temporary  9.2  APPENDIX 2:NMC MAP  9.3  APPENDIX  3:Changing  Proposal Tides  Exhibit  1983  Storyline draft  38 40 51  iv  9.4  APPENDIX  4:NMC MAP  9.5  APPENDIX  5:B.C. H e r i t a g e (with  Proposal  1984  Trust  59  Proposal  1984  ....70  own a p p e n d i x e s )  Appendix  1  72  Appendix  II  76  Appendix  III  78  9.6  APPENDIX  6: E x h i b i t  Outline  79  9-7  APPENDIX  7:Section  Outlines  86  9.8  APPENDIX  8: E x h i b i t  Text: F i r s t  9.9  APPENDIX  9:Exhibit Text:Second  Draft  105  9.10  APPENDIX  10-.Exhibit  Draft  121  9.11  APPENDIX  11: P r o d u c t i o n  9.12  APPENDIX  12:Exhibit  9.13  APPENDIX  13:Illustration  9.14  APPENDIX  l4:Museum  Note: F i r s t  Draft  193  9.15  APPENDIX  15:Museum  Note: F i n a l  Draft  216  9.16  APPENDIX  16:Changing T i d e s  National  9.17  APPENDIX  17:Changing T i d e s  Lecture  9.18  APPENDIX  18-.Condition  9.19  APPENDIX  19:Museum  Draft  Text: Final  92  Schedule  138  Book  139 f o r Changing  Report  Note  No.  Form  13  Tides  184  Travel  230  Series  231  (Draft)  232 •  J  ^ r ^ ~ ~  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Since exhibit the  t h e main  Changing  products  UBC Museum first  Tides  of Anthropology,  f o r Changing  Assistance  and o f t h e B r i t i s h  greatly  appreciate  of this When  dozens attempt  t o thank  everyone I  with  who  owe  whom  I worked  a  only  great  grace  deal  under  friendship evitable I  am  site  also  all,  although  problems  replicas  Herb's  Museums o f I and  sup-  to the  planning,  grateful  individuals project,  Herb  Watson.  he t a u g h t  cope  of exhibit  a special  me  and t h e meaning o f  assistant, Colleen me  not  this  to l i f e ,  to Len McFarlane  added  I will  Tides.  designer  helped  and d e t a i l s  which  support  Trust.  I am v e r y  i n preparing  exhibit  humour  grateful  project.  acknowledgements,  t o mind.  of thanks  exhibits,  and good  this  patience  these  t o Changing  the exhibit  pressure.  very  to write  directly  about  t h e Museum  by g e n e r o u s  committee's  easily  debt  d i d he b r i n g  by t h e  of the National  came  t h e Museum's  Note a r e  t o thank  Heritage  the  project.  contributed  a special  especially Not  them  like  Columbia  s a t down  of individuals  Museum  sponsored  provided  advisory  unorthodox  I first  was  thesis,  to undertake  Programme  Canada,  to  venture  I would  Tides  my  Master's  and i t s companion  of a co-operative  t h e Museum  port  o f my  of a l l f o r the opportunity  Funding of  component  with  Day's  the  i n -  preparation. f o r h i s exqui-  dimension  to the  vi  to  the exhibit.  Ames  f o r their Gordon  the  Museum  wonderful as  advise  Miller's Note  t o thank  a n d many  I am  also  indebted  and f o r h e r h e l p labyrinth.  the University of V i c t o r i a  and  especially his  Crescent  to Moira  of  to  editing.  Beach,  of the poster  Archaeology's  thankful  of  are greatly appreciated,  of  am  hours  contributions to the exhibit  and p r o d u c t i o n  illustrations,  I  P r o f e s s o r s Matson and  painting of prehistoric  the design  Note.  I wish  as w e l l  a n d t h e Musuem  I r v i n e f o r h e r many  i n negotiating the  Prof.  Nicholas  undertook  f o r t h e speed, a t w h i c h  Laboratory  Rolland  the t r a n s l a t i o n s .  he r e t u r n e d  them  Mila  Lucy  me. I  am  Dufresne, Chris with  grateful  J e n n i f e r Doran,  Miller, many  Hindy  aspects  production. they  I  t o thank  the  have  exhibit's  Volunteers  Jean  Cave  Sandra  and Moya W a t e r s  like  t o thank  a l l been  very  supportive  Hamilton  f o r their  and Daphne  Shaw  support  f o r coping  t h e Musuem's  a n d Anne  refreshment  Malwani,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  also  Eleanor  Cotic,  Hawkes, Salma  of the exhibit's  opening  logy  Anderson,  Ratner,  I would  teers, wish  t o Ruth  of this Morse  committee,  volun-  project.  f o r heading  the Archaeo-  and commiseration,  for tackling  the video  and  produc-  tion . Other  members  encouragement,  o f t h e Museum's  advise  and support.  staff I am  have  offered  especially  grateful  vii  to Betsy  J o h n s o n and A u d r e y  the  t o work f o r them, and t o M i r i a m  hall  Halpin  and M a d e l i n e  Shane f o r a l l o w i n g  Rowan f o r t h e i r  me t o c r o s s  Clavir,  advice  Marjorie  and f o r t h e i r  encouragement. Although team w i t h o u t  a l l my f e l l o w equal,  Holm, Marg M e i k l e ,  s t u d e n t s have been a s u p p o r t  I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o M a r g a r e t Dana L e p o f s k y ,  and Mary-Ann T i s d a l e ,  who a l l made d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n s would a l s o English  like  100 (1984/85) f o r t h e i r  as Dan S a v a r d  Photographic Natural  constructive  a  s p e c i a l debt  Since with  encouragement  to this  The been v e r y like  with  this  David  oriented this  endeavour,  Pokotylo  I owe for his  t o combine  an a c a d e m i c  I am a p p r e c i a t i v e  of the  exhibit received  at i t s opening  from  R o b e r t M. W i l l  and f r o m C h a r l e s  W.  of the B r i t i s h  Archaeological supportive  t o thank K i t t y  exhibit.  project.  t h e s i s was an a t t e m p t  UBC's Dean o f A r t s , a Director  help  o f t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f  o f thanks t o Prof.  this  a public  Ham and H i l a r y S t e w a r t , as  Department  for their  many c o n t r i b u t i o n s  criticisms.  o f t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum, and t o t h e  Services  History  I  t o t h a n k t h e s t u d e n t s o f S e c t i o n .01Q,  Thanks a l s o goes t o L e o n a r d well  t o Changing T i d e s .  Columbia H e r i t a g e  Society  of B r i t i s h  o f Changing T i d e s . Bernick,  Nash,  Trust. C o l u m b i a has  I would e s p e c i a l l y  e d i t o r of the Midden, f o r the  numerous announcements o f t h e e x h i b i t  i n that  publication.  v i i i  such  I  would  a  project  support  of  parents  for  as  my  I  my  as  their  of  extremely  encouragement would  not  have  returned  Changing I  Tides  am  constant  skillful this  contributed  am  have  family.  mother's  especially has  never  late  report.  and  support  been  without  night,  to  the  her.  ..my  possible.  last  sister  the  support, minute  Sue's  involvement  my  as  well  typing,  this  editing project.  husband  with  .  my  expert  q u a l i t y of Without  tackled  enthusiastic  g r a t e f u l to  generous  My  g r a t e f u l to  u n i v e r s i t y and  extremely and  enormously  to  Gervais'  Changing  Tides  1  1.0  INTRODUCTION The  planning  Changing  Tides  and  The  Development  the  primary report  ning  process  used  in  serve  all  scope  aspects  of  some u s e f u l  this  Tides are  the  a  role how  the  discusses number  this  these  for  Fraser  thesis to  some  usually  in  are  Anthropology.  the  this  plan-  criteria  undertaken  thesis, this  experience. report  process, others  provide  Delta  document of  Tides:  projects.  not  brief  planning  a  to  report  Although critically  I hope  considering record  of  a  as  will  the also  i t is outline  i t will  provide  similar  a particular  associated  Museum  which  produced  were  development  Note.  A  of  variety  of  at  various  stages  this  section  dis-  development. organized  of  public  of  a  as  follows:  interpretation in  e x h i b i t was  follows  context  of  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y the  is  the  the  the  included  discussion  within  explain  this  follows  and  report  considers This  of  as  B.C.'s  Master's  are  exhibition  p u b l i c a t i o n Changing  in  a Master's  well  project's  The cusses  of  report  documents in  of  museum  development.  This Changing  of  the  opportunity  exhibits  the  as  my  briefly  information  undertaking, exhibit's  the  reflection  the  of  development museum  a  Archaeology  to  component  as  beyond  of  and  of  i t s companion  provides  the  primary  production  components  This  Since  and  conceived  brief  a M.A.  light  introduction  programme.  reconceptualization  considerations.  in  archaeology,  of  Section  the  The  to  of  this  and role.  the  exhibit  second  section  project  3 outlines  i n view the  of  exhibit's  2  development Note.  and p r o d u c t i o n , 5 looks  Section  at a c t i v i t i e s  project,  Section  6 discusses  provides  a brief  overall  The  bibliography  I  found  a  variety  delta,  most  useful  the history  natural  history  interpretation opment,  keys  evaluation  including:  appendixes  t o documenting  Salish  Changing  of readings  Tides.  the archaeology  material  the development  which  covers  of the Fraser  the role  the  of public  on e x h i b i t  c u l t u r e and  of this  It  and t h e o r y ,  the l i t e r a t u r e  are the core  section  of the project.  Mainland,  i n archaeology,  exhibit  and a f i n a l  o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l method  o f t h e Lower  t h e Museum  to this  the selection  i n developing  and on C o a s t  The  related  conservation,  contains  of subjects  4 discusses  and S e c t i o n  report  devel-  history.  and a r e the  of the exhibition  Changing  Tides. 1.1  AN  EXHIBIT  The of and  my  impetus  M.A.  thesis  museum formal  is  a formal  in  museum  resulted  studies  emphasis,  i n museum  a variety  practical  f o r c r e a t i n g an e x h i b i t  s t u d i e s , even  no  courses  THESIS  though  t h e M.A.  programme  specialization.  I pursued  this  I also  gained  experience  gained  was v e r y  Tides.  of i t s various  f o r producing and meeting  realistic crucial  element archaeology  a t UBC h a s  archaeology  and took  additional  practical  experience  of Anthropology.  important  A working staff  Since  route  t h e Museum  the roles  making  t o combine  within  and  for  a desire  of jobs  c u r a t i n g Changing  essential  from  studies.  for  as t h e major  preparation  knowledge  members budgets  deadlines.  The  o f t h e museum  and v o l u n t e e r s and s c h e d u l e s ,  was and  3  While practical also  curating museum  judged  an e x h i b i t  procedures,  competence i n  the r e s u l t i n g  Before  I discuss  exhibit  were  present  a justification  conceived  how  the ideas  and developed f o r venturing  of s c h o l a r s h i p t o produce  PUBLIC  INTERPRETATION  AND  Public  interpretation  i s constantly  ACADEMIC  1984:525;  1977:78),  Research,  p u b l i c a t i o n and t e a c h i n g  archaeology. logical of  endeavours,  reports  this least  on m a j o r  include  public  an  i s low. funding  This  or publicatons  acceptable  proj ects.  of the  rewarded  alternative  discipline. and  aspects  most  aimed  of  archaeo-  specifically  in British  (Charlton  1984).  important,  on-site  probably  increase.  at a general  to on-site  at  t o be c h a n g i n g , a t  archaeological research  aimed  relatively  at colleagues  appears  organization  becomes more  important  t o the p u b l i c , i n the form  trend  interpretation  as  i t i s a  finance  projects  accessible locations will  lectures  specific-  1980-81:18;  aspect  aimed  funds  the return  to supporting  accountability at  public  or interpretative  audience  committed  unrewarded  are the internally  Although  cited  nevertheless,  and a c a d e m i c a l l y  students  the normal  ARCHAEOLOGY  Fladmark  neglected  university  to  public.  (Feder  and Davis  i n the  logical  a t h e s i s developed  1.2  McGimsey  presented  outside  f o r the general  archaeology  thesis i s  .of t h e i d e a s  i t seems  ally  for  exhibit  by t h e s c h o l a r l y - a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  presented.  bounds  requires  Columbia i s designs  which  If public interpretation Public  audience  interpretation  may  prove  f o r some  4  Although  there  i s a great  deal  1977:120),  in  archaeology  (Fagan  is  detrimental  to the d i s c i p l i n e .  d e v o t e more a t t e n t i o n compete tional  with  flashy  i t often  takes  a form which  Even i f a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  to the p u b l i c , they  still  have t o  the r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , s p e c u l a t i v e ,  books and p r o d u c t i o n s  (1970),  Daniken  of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t  and B a r r y  treasure  oriented  and  sensa-  s u c h as t h o s e by E r i c h von  (1976),  Fell  exhibits like  as w e l l  as w i t h  the T r e a s u r e s of  Tutankhamen. Another relative foster cant for  detrimental  neglect  public  aspect  of the p u b l i c  support  archaeological  of academic i s that  i t has done l i t t l e  f o r the p r o t e c t i o n  objects.  effective legislation,  Public  archaeology's  of s i t e s  as i m p o r t a n t f o r  promoting  i n d i v i d u a l respect  f o r the p r o t e c t i o n  objects.  Awareness  education;  the It  scientific i s within  thesis 1.3  were  this  that  education  i n terms o f  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  the broad  and  objectives  resources. of  this  OBJECTIVES objective  of t h i s  thesis project  d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r e s t and knowledge  archaeology  through  methods and g o a l s , of  context  value  of s i t e s  developed.  The main the  and c u l t u r a l  signifi-  awareness i s n e c e s s a r y  but e q u a l l y  requires  or  to  archaeological  foster  e x p o s i n g museum v i s i t o r s as w e l l  research.  as t o p r e s e n t Also  an a w a r e n e s s o f a r c h a e o l o g y  positive  way  of  this  i s to a i d i n  scientific to archaeology's  some o f t h e r e s u l t s  e x p o s u r e aims t o  and c o n t r i b u t e  to p u b l i c understanding  of the  in a  discipline.  help  5 To a  acheive  these  objectives  p e r s p e c t i v e on a r c h a e o l o g y  that  archaeology  which  mation. an  To c o u n t e r  this  i s as i m p o r t a n t  to  that  and  once  alone  view,  a r e dug, whether  careless  relic  collection,  Flannery  puts i t :  that  they  that  or that  I t i s also  resources,  excavation forever.  the  important  are non-renewable  a r e gone  infor-  t o show  i s important,  by c a r e f u l  view  i s the view  the important  as t h e o b j e c t s .  archaeological sites  they  carry  to present  the popular  i t i s necessary  as a whole  context  counters  f o r tresure,  objects  archaeological site  show  which  i s a search  considers that  i t i s necessary  o r by  Or as  Archaeology i s the only branch of a n t h r o p o l o g y w h e r e we k i l l o u r informants i n the process of s t u d y i n g t h e m . ( F l a n n e r y 1982:275) In  view  of these  objectives  exhibit  was  thesis,  an e x h i b i t i o n  meet  considered  1983.  based  o n t h e 1977  an  outline  Exhibition  ruary  Ham  anacceptable  t h e N a t i o n a l Museums  Programme,  Some  ( s e e Ham exhibit  (Appendix  ideas  excavation From  would  Museums  these  f o r making  strategies  of prehistoric  existed  ideas,  historical  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  use  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c photographs  Beach  and o r i g i n a l  by  of  to  Feb-  exhibit Leonard  I developed  graphic,  graphics,  f o r an  I t would  an  Assistance  a plan f o r  modern  i n f e r e n c e s about  people.  produced  deadline  to the public  that  Master's  1) was  of Crescent  present  methods  as  of a  Assistance funding  aeological  both  of the fact  part  o f Canada,  tentative  1982).  which  and i n l i g h t  arch-  the economic  integrate  ethno-  i n f o r m a t i o n , and would collections,  illustrations.  as In  well  consultation Watson,  with  i t was  silkscreened  proposal my  also  panel  archaeological  decided  exhibition  that  construction,  exhibits,  (Appendix  advisor.  t h e Museum's  2)  was  would  be  modular used  designer, wooden  developed  frame  f o r other  employed. with  and  travelling  The  Prof.  Herb  funding  R.G.  Matson,  7 2.0  FUNDING Since  the archaeology g a l l e r y at the Museum of Anthro-  pology had not been updated s i n c e i t s i n s t a l l a t i o n , decided  i t was  that the e x h i b i t would be t i e d to a l a r g e r g a l l e r y  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n project.  The i n i t i a l  funding  (Appendix 2 ) was f o r funds to r e s e a r c h  application  and to produce the ex-  h i b i t , as w e l l as t o remove permanent d i s p l a y cases from one s e c t i o n of the g a l l e r y . Changing Tides The  T h i s g a l l e r y space would be used f o r  and f o r f u t u r e temporary archaeology e x h i b i t s .  N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada, Museums  Programme For E x h i b i t i o n A s s i s t a n c e funding  Assistance  (MAP) was approached f o r  s i n c e t h e i r s t a t e d purpose i s to provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of e x h i b i t i o n s which extend access to the c o l l e c t i o n s which r e f l e c t our n a t u r a l , c u l t u r a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l h e r i t a g e . ( N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada n.d.)  The  p r o j e c t was conceived  as a phased p l a n , which would i n c l u d e ,  as separate phases, a n a t i o n a l tour f o r the e x h i b i t and g a l l e r y revitalization. the funding  Although MAP expressed i n t e r e s t i n the e x h i b i t ,  a p p l i c a t i o n was d e c l i n e d .  During the summer of 1983, i t was decided reapply and  to MAP i n 1984 as w e l l as seek other  consider  using  2.1  sources of funds  i n t e r n a l funds f o r a s c a l e d down v e r s i o n of  the e x h i b i t , i f necessary. was separated  that we would  The g a l l e r y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  from the e x h i b i t .  project  ,  THE RECONCEPTION OF THE EXHIBIT Since  the f i r s t  funding  time to do f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  a p p l i c a t i o n was turned and to reconceive  down, I had  the e x h i b i t  8  during  t h e summer  portant  concern  accessibility  o f 1983-  was how  with  Appendix  to balance  academic  This  new  history  of archaeological of British  ing  perspectives  the  changing  about  have and  other  with  focussed  institutions  UBC  The numerous natural  new  theme  sources,  This  both  also  of sites  made  the  included  Professor Museum's  "commercial", I  archaeologists UBC  where  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and contributions to  since  I was  appropriate  to  working limit  i f possible.  covering  a n d museum  also  i n the area.  r e s u l t e d fundamentally  history,  questions  are a l l about,  valuable  i t was  a n d on  t o answer  through  however,  I felt  on t h e c h a n g -  time,  middens  done  delta  new v e r s i o n  I call  local  from  and g e n e r a l  h i s t o r y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  Provincial  f o r Changing  on p r o f e s s i o n a l  of the area;  t o them,  used  shell  on work  have  and  content.  through  or avocational  collections,  discussion  have  disappearance  Amateur  archaeology  they  on what  concentrated  appeal  i n the Fraser  i t focusses  s e c t i o n , which  specifically have  research  prehistory.  information  applicable.  the  techniques  the rapid  storyline  of archaeologists  a concluding  about  public  an i m -  of the exhibit outlines the  Columbia;  the region's  contains and  version  reconception,  archaeological  3 i s the revised  Tides.  region  In t h i s  Halpin's  review  galleries  Coast  Other  of the B r i t i s h  (Halpin  1978)  of  archaeology,  development,  exhibition literature.  research  and  Salish  influences Columbia  funding  9  considerations. of  Anthropology By  number the I  A  wanted  the  focus  to  use  material  exhibit  and  First most  i s scant  is virtually  were  collections  of  came  and  from  I hoped  to  of  since  all,  collections.  medium  emphasized  at  of  an  The  UBC.  i n the  old  a  collections  are  exhibit,  Crescent  a p p r o p r i a t e Coast  non-existent  Museum  accomplish  effectively. the  the  Archaeology  important  o b j e c t s more  material the  influence  Laboratory  objectives.  primary  Beach  and  changing of  primary  Since  Salish these  scheme, i t  i  appeared  necessary  collections of  i n the  Archaeology  lection this  from  the  also  i s used ideal  expand  have  an  is a  using replicas  long  they  were  used  to  f i l l  tantly,  excellent  also  used  too  be  great  Another  a  for  was  of  travelling  conservation risk of  i s that  a  A  the  type  of  exhibit, f o r the  collection  also  is  conas  Replicas could but  more  specimens whereas  impor-  could  i t would  originals  would  of  possibility  o b j e c t s from  originals  portion  I  such.  important  col-  collection  exhibit.  as  UBC  Laboratory  teaching  collection,  replicating the  of  large  distinct  labelled  i n the  replicas  for a  advantage  collections  clearly  i n gaps  This  travelling  that  be  region.  poorly provenienced  in a  use  extensive archaeological  for touchables.  f o r use  potential  F o r t u n a t e l y , the  Fraser delta  sidered as  the  exhibit.  does  collection  which  to  to  the  remain  be  travel. research  available  study. Secondly,  which  would  I wanted  aid visitor  to  provide  a  comprehension  conceptual (ROM  framework  1976:85).  Since  10  the  e x h i b i t would  exhibit This  should  i f they into  I  considered  Of ranging to  stages course, from  of  exhibit, dressed the  the nature  school  groups,  report  I wanted  i s complex,  who  them,  audience  them  up a n d i n t e r p r e t e d by m a k i n g  people,  interested  has a v a r i e t y  a museum  or a  specific  objectives  Although  be a d -  i t i s beyond  the complexity thought  interest  This  originally  as w e l l  to native  of ex-  to  this  Tides.  to stimulate  or discarded  to address  with  audiences  considerable  Changing  lost  hoped  allowed  through the  multiple  to discuss  I d i d give  to the people  Also,  approach  and t o o t h e r  diverse  "personalizing" the e x h i b i t .  objects  I  to scholars This  i n developing  Thirdly,  localities.  the viewer  to tourists,  i n e x h i b i t i o n development.  audiences,  question  o f museum  r e q u i r i n g that  of this  archa-  t o move  and i n t e r e s t s f o r v i s i t i n g  thereby  scope  hibit  help  own  of  research.  of the public.  motives  participating  in their  would  of the  audience.  developments  i n archaeology  u n i v e r s i t y students,  members  or  perspective  of  by  the developmental  o r no b a c k g r o u n d  various  be e n h a n c e d  developments  that  t h e theme  to a national  the h i s t o r i c a l  parallel  an h i s t o r i c a l  little  could  tied  eology also  to travel,  be c o m p r e h e n s i b l e  comprehension  museums  by  be d e s i g n e d  by  "humanizing"  t o be d o n e b y -  made,  traded,  as t o t h e p e o p l e  relating used,  who d u g  them.  the i n t e r p r e t a t i v e context  Professor  Halpin's  explicit,  perspective  that  11  archaeological show  a s much  prehistoric  about people  Finally, have  a broader  therefore  exhibits  are c u l t u r a l  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s as they under  study  I considered appeal  be m o r e  than  (Halpin  that  acceptable  t o MAP  British  Columbia  Trust  1 9 8 4 , were  scheme  was  an  both  show  about  the  scheme  would  exhibit,  and  agencies.  (Appendix (Appendix  s u c c e s s f u l , I concluded  improvement.  which  1978:42-3).  new  to funding  a p p l i c a t i o n s sent Heritage  this  the o r i g i n a l  funding  of  performances  would  Since  4 ) and t o t h e 5 ) i n the spring that  the  new  12  3.0  EXHIBITION Once  DEVELOPMENT  the funding  was  possible  to begin  and  to outline  amount  in detail  6 i s the f i n a l  sections  were  six this  next of for  this  search and of  were  Appendix  t o time  section  5.  Clavir.  Laboratory  i t was  decided  of Archaeology,  into  covers  to  The  are covered  i n the  the future how  necessary  mainly  ideas and  these  to limit  my  t o the Vancouver  not to venture  outside  or the Ethnology  col-  Coast  for artifacts, Salish  p i e c e s were  i n consultation  Audrey  down  middens.  photographs,  of Anthropology  f o r contemporary  collection  Documentation,  Miriam  I also  In t h e end, even  museum's  broken  of  section.  of photographs  o f t h e Museum  to search  f o r each  one.  which the  in detail  artifacts,  restrictions  area.  section  7 shows  i n each  as an i n t r o d u c t i o n  development  and a f i n a l  outlined  the Laboratory  except  of  sections,  Victoria  serves  sections,  the history  r e g i o n , was  section  of archaeological  f o r sources  lections  the  delta  the appropriate text,  Due  from  The s t o r y l i n e ,  The f i r s t  research.  graphics  outline  known, i t  into  be i n c l u d e d  and as an e x p l a n a t i o n o f s h e l l  stages four  would  exhibit  i n the Fraser  history  three  what  developed.  sections.  was  organizing the exhibit  Appendix  archaeology  f o r the exhibit  with  pieces f o r selected  the Curator  Shane, and t h e C o n s e r v a t o r ,  A l l other  o b j e c t s were  selected  from the  of Archaeology  collections,  or r e p l i c a t e d  by  from  13 the  Museum's  research  t e c h n i c i a n , Len McFarlane.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were  Conservation  paramount  i n this  and  selection  process. Many between the  changes t h e time  late  final  and rearrangements  fall  Appendix  when  artifacts,  7 was  the f i n a l  graphics  occurred  drafted  text  was  i n August  completed  and photographs  prepared.  The s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s p r o v i d e d  organizing  tool  searching to  f o r the appropriate  enhance  3.1  TEXT The  taken  f o r developing  the ideas  between  9).  draft  (Appendix  10)  than  From  fashion;  print  section. point  was  draft,  ideas,  and f o r  illustrations  approach  are mainly  under-  8), a n d t h e s e c o n d or  final  refinements  or short  an e a s i l y  allows  was  to strive  intention  approach  in a  paragraph read  only  t o be i n b o t h  to develop  (Watson  1978).  This  i s i n larger  or  f o r the entire  t o grasp  the f i r s t  the main  few  E n g l i s h and  f o r concision.  the  hierarchical  summary  the reader  s e c t i o n by s c a n n i n g  important  was  and seventh,  the information  sentence  the exhibit  text  to the text  (Appendix  i t was my  newspaper  and p r o v i d e s  This  o f each  Since it  selected or  revisions.  presents  the f i r s t  changes  the t h i r d  the changes  a modified  of exhibit  draft  Between  wholesale  the f i r s t  using  Major  the f i r s t  (Appendix  bolder  and  of the exhibit  o f 1984.  draft  style  and the  an i n v a l u a b l e  and a r r a n g i n g artifacts  and  presented.  w r i t i n g and e d i t i n g  occurred  text  were  1984  DEVELOPMENT  i n the f a l l  rather  t o be  i n the exhibit  lines. French,  The i l l u s i o n  of  14  brevity  was  parcels  with  the  longer One  on  While  to  write  with,  those  and  100  was  provided  which  research my  deficiencies replies  I had an  the text  class  any  were  not.  of  mainly  background to  instructed  comprehension  clear,  interesting,  the rest  and any  as w e l l  were  terminology,  to clarifying  a s an  had d i f f i c u l t y  Their replies  or defining  My  audience  were  d i d n o t seem  considered  opportunity  o r no  They  they  i n -  by t h e  i s composed  specified  they  the  students.  mid-range  text.  exhibits  reviewed  l i t t l e  a good  had o r any t e r m i n o l o g y where  being  class  with  the exhibit  f o r p o i n t i n g t h e way  class  some o f  to the viewing  university  the conclusion d i d not t i einto  Although same  up  didactic  t o h e r E n g l i s h 100  students  f o r eliminating  eological  i n smaller  i s presenting  and Matson),  o r memo w h i c h  of the text  aspects  helpful that  they  evaluate  they  draft  a n E n g l i s h 100  university  any p l a c e s  aspects  to break  are understandable  the text  a letter  problems  the text  developing  o u t on t w e n t y - s i x  Since  archaeology,  informally  with  the f i r s t  presented  assignment.  in  which  ( P r o f e s s o r s Ames  year  helped  or unfamiliar subjects  t r y the text  first  This  difficulty  i n terms  audience.  sister  by p r e s e n t i n g  sections.  technical  editors  attempted,  sub-headings.  major  formation  to  also  as  extremely f o r showing  of the exhibit,  the stages  of arca-  I had d e f i n e d .  official  editors  pointed  and o t h e r  critical  presented  a different  o u t many  problems, and  of the  the English  important  15  perspective. audience novel  I was  way It  Since  of  broader  views  addressing,  testing  i s beyond  audience  their  evaluation context  of  scope  of  text  drafts within  evaluation,  3.2  EXHIBIT  CO-ORDINATION  Another  critical  hibit.  of  hold-ups  book  what  in  we as  also the  and  aspects  aid and  serves  a  Herb  for  the  be  This  aspect  of  and  and  the  how  of  the  the  the  ex-  for  agreement  Designer  long  schedule  is  schedule  co-operative  done  co-ordination  record of  an  i t  (Herb  should  illustrates  exhibit  progressed. Watson's  of  and  exhibit  can  how  a  create  documentation  book w h i c h  The  system  considerable  successful exhibits.  co-ordinating  labels.  versions  one  production  (myself)  task.  developed  producing  graphics, as  the  exhibit on  to  believe  areas.  facilitate  invaluable  earlier  each  other  i s based  signing  needed  hold-up  in  exhibit, updated  various  represents  or  To  the final  Curator  I  study.  development  It  Exhibit  discuss  the  exhibit  Tides.  complete  problem  of  fully  in  i s the  the  to  timing  a  SCHEDULING  11  Watson), take  AND  to  nevertheless  in this  Appendix  Changing between  place  factor  the  response.  exhibit  a  of  provided  report  evaluations  and  evaluations  subset  this  museum  have  a  of  such  co-ordination  their  audience  the  represented  The  final  a l l the  this  the  text  version  could  used  experience This  with  the  (Appendix  book,  the  comments  the  be this de-  b o o k was  e x h i b i t ' s components.  exhibit  in  of  an  artifacts, 12)  also In  sections  16  listed  artifacts  photographs, left  t o be In  that  graphics  were  y e t t o be p r o d u c e d ,  (see  historic  activities  required  the compilation  Crescent able  Beach  area  photographs  and white  some  version  o f t h e Museum  photographs as w e l l  t o be  tasks  Miller's,  of the o r i g i n a l (Appendix  of  pre-  (D2-G3), from  archa-  of the as a l l  avail-  illustrated.  of the information  Gordon  Note  site  of material  today,  of the a c t i v i t i e s  f o r the a r t i s t ,  Beach  sources,  as i t l o o k s  compiled  15  and o t h e r  the i l l u s t r a t i o n  of a variety  and ethnographic  13 r e p r e s e n t s  page  pagel74)  at the Crescent  Appendix  black  or options f o r  completed.  s e c t i o n D2,  eological  not f i n a l i z e d ,  which  was  consideration. p a i n t i n g i s found  19).  A on  17 4.0  THE MUSEUM NOTE The  Museum Note C h a n g i n g T i d e s :  Archaeology lished  to provide  exhibit. the  i n B. C.'s F r a s e r  The  with  of archaeology  i n the Fraser  delta region i n  form than t h e e x h i b i t took three  The t e x t  emphasis p l a c e d  itself  presents.  d r a f t s t o complete.  t o the f i r s t  follows  t h e main c h a n g e s b e i n g  addition  travelling  introduction to  14 and 15 c o r r e s p o n d  i t s text.  t o a temporary  was pub-  an a c c e s s i b l e  Museum Note t e x t  Appendix  19),  (Appendix  provides  a more permanent  of  an enhancement  I t also  history  Delta  The Development o f  and f i n a l  the e x h i b i t quite  a new i n t r o d u c t i o n ,  of references,  closely, a  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l h i s t o r i c a l  drafts  greater  theme, t h e  and t h e s e l e c t i o n and r e v i s i o n o f  graphics. When p r o o f - r e a d i n g portion  problems appeared  of the e x h i b i t t e x t ,  Museum N o t e ' s F r e n c h  text  Although problems w i t h corrected, able as  I could  I subsequently  followed  and r e v i s e d  cessing Textform ated  text  t o have t h e  by an o u t s i d e  the e x h i b i t  have a v o i d e d  Both the e x h i b i t stored  I was c o m p e l l e d  proofed  e x p e n s e by u n d e r t a k i n g  i n the French  professional.  t e x t w e r e - c a u g h t and  the l o s t  t i m e and  consider-  t h e same p r o c e s s f o r t h e e x h i b i t with  t h e Museum  Note.  and t h e Museum Note t e x t  on t h e c o m p u t e r .  were  The T e x t f o r m word  pro-  programme a v a i l a b l e on UBC's MTS s y s t e m was u s e d . s a v e d many h o u r s o f l a b o u r i o u s  typesetting  errors  typing  as UBC's t y p e s e t t i n g  and e l i m i n -  s e r v i c e s had  18  direct ened  access  the turn-around  greatly  when  The the  to the f i l e s .  cover  final  Museum  was  from  processing drafts  Tying  t h e Museum  visually  helps  people  also  which  less-  helped  approached.  designed  by G o r d o n  the exhibition's  design.  exhibit.  between  deadlines  Note  adapted  time  Word  Note  Miller,  poster,  and t h e p o s t e r  to identify  the booklet  also  with ofh i s  together with the  19  5.0  RELATED A  in  ACTIVITIES  variety  of a c t i v i t i e s  conjunction  major the  with  enhancement  previous A  the e x h i b i t i o n  was  was  designed  veloped  specifically  an  f o r sale.  Ruth  Anderson,  primarily would  where  and  posters  to five  pology  museums  strip  fessor  G. M a t s o n  This  to the exhibit. and they  archaeologists current  than  officer,  was  and because  conceived  the exhibit  the country,  could  print  through  as  we  should  of the posters i n their on t h i s  i n the tour,  own e x -  proposal  up t o  fifty  the national  travel  schedule  de-  Tides. r u n a t t h e UBC Museum  series  lecture  was h e l d  series  and covered  provided  as w e l l  was  topics  The a t t e n d a n c e  to present  research,  Relations  on a number  followed  rather  the poster  across  participating  lecture  1 7 ) .  excellent,  We  the exhibition's  a public  Public  since  locations  1 6 outlines  f o r Changing  R.  in  own u s e .  (Appendix  ways  I t was d e -  that  a blank  for their  During  The  f o r the exhibit.  the exhibit,  information.  Appendix veloped  Tides.  i s discussed  t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g museums  offered  developed  which  T h e Museum's  suggested  leaving  hibition  Note  f o r p u b l i c i t y purposes  to advertise  travel  consider  t h e Museum  Changing  were  section.  poster  item  and enhancements  of Anthro-  a t t h e museum organized related  at these  an o p p o r t u n i t y  by  in  Pro-  various  lectures  was  f o r professional  to the public  aspects  as t o express  their  of their  views  on t h e  20  directions There exhibit the  archaeological research a r e a number o f o t h e r  Changing  organization  ing,  exhibition  tape  based  and  say  they  co-operative  not  requires  not deal  a seemingly  dates  exhibit,  and a f t e r  who  museums  f i t into After  licity  t o those  who  both  a logical  the tour  times  will  t o each  any  last  minute  was was  appropriate  these  come,  including  of a  type  phase  who  museums was  accepted  except  detailed  the  information  a final  series  the a v a i l a b l e times  to help  first  and  are interested i n the  across  the  curatorial museums,  someone a s s o c i a t e d  problems  work has  interested i n hosting  approved,  to host  does  schedule  of l e t t e r s ,  set,various sent  to  Tides  of the ground  who  progression  of  production.  of Changing  be  to provide  video  o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n and  series  might  open-  publicity,  S e t t i n g up t h e t r a v e l  museum  set-up  activities,  1 9 8 6 , much  funding  information  travel  to the  the exhibition  the opening,  as e x h i b i t i o n  endless  the second  possible  those  with  early  completed.  exhibit,  not discussed,  tour,  Since  t h e same  a n u m b e r o f museums  the  related  and t h e development  the t r a v e l l i n g until  been  I have  i s taking.  are p r i m a r i l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  agreement  commence  already  publicity,  require  Although  activities  of the n a t i o n a l  tape  I will  that  which  on t h e e x h i b i t .  the video  others,  to  Tides  i n the area  with  which  and  country. and pub-  a n d when t h e  with  the exhibit  publicity  might  to  be  and  with  encountered.  21  6.0  CONSERVATION The  in  m o d u l a r frame and  temporary,  travelling  panel  c o n s t r u c t i o n system  archaeological exhibits  t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y  incorporates fixed  facts  cases.  in  i n secured  plexiglas  s e v e r a l ways d e p e n d i n g  weight used  and  alone  fragility.  and  theoretically from  i n t h e main t h e s e m o u n t i n g reversible,  are  silicone-based  with f l e x i b l e  designed  mounted  upon t h e i r m a t e r i a l ,  or i n combination  Although,  residue  Wax  Artifacts  structure, adhesives  techniques  technique  this  collections  were two  already  temporary, of  used  to i l l u s t r a t e  sophisticated During  types  to mounting  the  travelling  exhibition,  noteably  artifacts  careful  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and  mens and  artifacts  necessitating not  to subject  Exceptions  w h i c h were  the rudiments  of removing  similar  the b a s i s of t h i s  i s an  i n Changing T i d e s which and  run.  of t h i s  to  had  used increas-  technique.  process  specimens,  1983)  adhesives.  undergone r e s i d u e a n a l y s i s  specifically ingly  (Loy  i t seemed i m p o r t a n t  artifacts  are  a lengthy e x h i b i t i o n  increasingly  research  are  straping.  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a r t i f a c t s  contamination,  arti-  attached  Since residue a n a l y s i s  minimal  at  i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o remove a l l t h e  mounted o b j e c t s a f t e r  important  used  review. was  an  damage was  shell  or specimens  artifacts  and  slate.  from noted  another on  several  Inclusion  i n C h a n g i n g T i d e s was  of  given  s e l e c t i o n s were o f t e n made  on  Although  speci-  important  the  s t u r d i n e s s of  consideration, i t  was  22  difficult fit  this  surface  criteria  are be  design  since  that  for travelling  o u t l i n e d more  lels  artifacts  objects  Tides  specifically  the  major  for  inspection  already  changes  Colour conservation  system  (see Appendix  t o be f o l l o w e d  the system  cases  used  which  are weathered,  i n this  standard  be m o d i f i e d .  than was 18).  of ex-  specifically for inspection  b y t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g museums s e t o u t b y t h e Museum  and i n emphasizing  inspection  types  T h e damage  are i n considering  photographs  the cases  f o r damage c a n  f o r other designed  exhibit  conservation Since  and t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  a conservation  Changing routine  of these  t h e Museum's  exhibits  n o t t o be o p e n e d ,  hibits,  many  of the a r t i f a c t  necessitated  forms  suitable non-provenienced  finds.  The also  to find  o f each  each  case  the s e c u r i t y  case  of  Anthropology;  as the u n i t o f t h e mounts.  are included  k i t to a i d i n this  paral-  damage  i n the inspection.  23  7.0  EVALUATION It  may  Changing  Tides  its  viewing  too  early  7.1  and  since  exhibit  the  ahead  evaluate  the not  the  the  important  tour,  of  give  i t .  the  a  final  has  evaluation  a major  process  of  of  portion  Nevertheless,  development  of  requirement  is a  co-operative just  the  the  enhancements times  Since create  veterans ment.  for  For  outline,  proposals,  the  line  the  to  of  must  create the  i t is  exhibit  well of  of  not  development.  a  Tides,  basis  which such to  on  other  to the  be  served  6), the to the  food  The  organizational devices, the  the  production  It the  opening,'  and  at  the  ap-  exhibition. key, and  was  i t is  to  a  crucial  plan  develop-  to  from  was  the  detailed  production text  necessary  canvass  exhibit  exhibit,  could  people. of  together  production,  the  7),  at  the  c r e a t i o n of  of  video  of  the  plan,  planning  facilitate  people  the  the  devices,  which  as  but  i s the  (Appendix  aspects  number  successful  exhibit  ways  a  storyline,  co-ordinated  a l l come  section outlines,  (Appendix  exhibit's  publicity,  effective  best  many  the  on  activities, even  most  of  also  basis  to  storyline  development  was  which  Changing  or  agreement  aspects  planning the  an  physical exhibit  various  propriate  It  to  PLANNING  most  to  premature  life  to  After  is  be  the  funding  schedules.  written,  and  additional publicity,  and  opening. such  as  the  schedule  section  out-  (Appendix  11),  24  and  the  exhibit  producing  the or  would  been  beyond the 7.2  ous  of  ing  for  other  the  minimum  Perhaps aspects  especially for  development  the  a more  evaluation  of  the  e x h i b i t was  that  nature  the  aids  to  of  delays,  similar  devices  of  the  Museum  also  the  layout  traffic It  did  is rather  vantage  point,  whole.  So  letters  have  Museum  review  not  of  the  the  Note's the  the  project  Note  and  requires  various a  for  exhibit  text a  in  instance, and  the  modified  the  the  panels  and  judge,  from  fund-  desire  the  to  exhibit  layout  i t was  the  of  students.  original after  such  informal  100  examing  being  these,  light  and  English  role  of  in  a s we'L'l a s  by  continu-  aspects  few  collections,  exhibit  of  observed  natural  flow  coincide. difficult success  f a r , however, been  of  played  reviewed of  the  exhibit,  For  exhibit  mentioned  of  exhibit  installation.  of  already  effective  Evaluation  the  a museum  evaluation  I have  criteria,  after  of  reconceptualization  create  A  useful  formative  the  the  with  invaluable  production.  undertaken.  of  time  were  EVALUATION The  as  on  12)  misunderstandings.  production,  video  (Appendix  exhibit  disasters, have  book  to or  failure  written  received  of  suitability  exhibition is  the  feedback  p r a i s i n g the for also  a  my  has  particular project been  exhibit's  national favorable  as  a  positive: clarity  and  audience. (Mason  1985:13).  25  Without ficult the  some  t o judge  public.  type  how  Since  is  to help  of  scientific  o f summative  well  the exhibit  the stated  foster public  test  the exhibit's effectiveness  some  of this  during  beyond  EDUCATIONAL Another  great  ming.  omission  tour  veloped,  by  host  museums  into  their  will  of time  i s a  and  con-  project.  has not r e c e i v e d  i s educational rectified  programf o rthe  c u r r e n t l y being  supplemental  curatorial  information,  are planning  educational  to incorporate  programmes.  are undertaken tour.  regions,  also  enhanced.  they By  emphasizing  value  of Changing  audience  the  appeal  parallel  research  in  of the exhibit  Tides  into  the  of Anthropology  use i n school  and by  educational  of archaeological  a t t h e Museum  to informal  expand  de-  the exhibit  I f these  could  the educational  incorporation  programmes  to  undertaken  evaluation  worthy  be p a r t i a l l y  various  stricted  been  goals  Perhaps  production  who  project  t o attempt  of the present  to date  of the development  school  museum  to  f o r the  terms.  have  of the e x h i b i t which  history  The  thesis  by a v i d e o  the national  be  ideas  PROGRAMMING  of attention  national  programmes  the l i m i t s  aspect  deal This  during  could  and c o n t r o v e r s i a l endeavour  sideration  a  logical  i n these  t h e e x h i b i t ' s r u n ; however,  complex  7.3  of evaluation  of this  and support  i t seems  i t i s dif-  communicates  purpose  awareness  archaeology,  type  evaluation,  programmes  would  existing  was r e -  which  focussed  26  specifically tours  given  familiar in  on a r c h a e o l o g y . by V o l u n t e e r  with  Associates  archaeology.  educational  p r i m a r i l y t o the time  the  lack  of i n i t i a l  educational This  i s due i n p a r t  ities the  associated  museum.  portant 7.4  may  with  U n f a m i l i a r i t y with  to undertake  stream  to  those  and these  co-ordinate  factor. of  activ-  of the rest  archaeology, these  was  o f t h e Museum's  separation  from  undertaking  were  of Anthropology  be a n u n d e r l y i n g  archaeology  into  use of the e x h i b i t  channel  t h e main  also  who  of the Curator,  f o r funds  to the perceived  f a c t o r f o r those  i s also  of  an i m -  programmes.  CONCLUSION In  conclusion,  I am  seemingly  incompatible  operative  venture  solitary Tides  firmly  pursuits  one o f a M a s t e r ' s  with  believe  of such  that  by t h e f a c t  exhibit  and support  within  two  such  and t h e u s u a l l y  c a n be c o m b i n e d .  a synthesis  o f an  Changing  intellectual  public-oriented venture.  the d i s c i p l i n e  from  that  as t h e n e c e s s a r i l y c o -  thesis  a co-operative,  of synthesis  awareness  struck  o f a museum  i s the r e s u l t  endeavour  kind  limited  constraints  into  incorporated  and o t h e r s  of a structural  exhibits  activities  also  a t t h e Museum  planning  The l a c k  archaeological  This  programmes  due  programmes.  I t was  needs  t o promote  i f i t i s to gain  i t so u r g e n t l y  requires.  this  the public  I  27  8.0  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Abbott,  1972  Adams,  Donald  Robert  1968  N. 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The S t r u c t u r e o f Twana C u l t u r e . Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Research S t u d i e s , M o n o g r a p h i c Supplement No. 2. V o l . XXV111. No. 3.  Fagan, B r i a n 1977  G e n e s i s 1:1; o r T e a c h i n g A r c h a e o l o g y to the Great Archaeology-Loving P u b l i c . A m e r i c a n A n t i q u i t y 42:1:119-125.  F e d e r , K e n n e t h L. 1984 I r r a t i o n a l i t y and P o p u l a r A r c h a e o l o g y . A m e r i c a n A n t i q u i t y 49:3:525-541. F e l l , Barry 1976  A m e r i c a B.C.: E u r o p e a n S e t t l e r s i n t h e New W o r l d . New Y o r k : Q u a d r a n g l e , The New Y o r k Times Book Co.  Fladmark,  Knut  R.  Flannery, 1982  Kent  V.  1980-81  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r c h a e o l o g y i n t h e 1970's. BC S t u d i e s W i n t e r No. 4 8 . Pp. 11-20. The G o l d e n M a r s h a l l t o w n : a P a r a b l e f o r t h e A r c h a e o l o g y o f t h e 1980's. American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 84:265-278.  Ford, Richard 1983  Freedman, J . 1979  The H u m a n i s t i c A p p l i c a t i o n s o f P r e h i s t o r i c Archaeology. U n p u b l i s h e d paper p r e s e n t e d at t h e X l t h ICAES c o n f e r e n c e , V a n c o u v e r .  The H i s t o r y Proceedings,  Greaves, 1983  Sheila  Gunther, 1927  Erna  of Canadian Canadian  Anthropology.  Ethnology  Society  No. 3  An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e A r c h a e o l o g y G a l l e r y and P r e l i m i n a r y C o n c e p t s f o r i t s Improvement. U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y Klallam ington,  Ethnography. Publications  U n i v e r s i t y o f Washi n Anthropology V o l .  1. No. 5. Pp. 171-314.  32  Haeberlin, 1930  Hermann and E r n a The I n d i a n s Washington, V o l . 4. No.  Gunther o f Puget Sound. U n i v e r s i t y of P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology 1. Pp. 1-84.  H a l p i n , M a r j o r i e M, The T w e l v e T h o u s a n d Y e a r Gap: A r c h a e o l o g y i n 1978 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A Review. Gazette Q u a r t e r l y o f t h e C a n a d i a n Museums A s s o c i a t i o n V o l . 11. No. 1. Pp. 40-48. Ham,  Leonard 1982  C, S e a s o n a l i t y , S h e l l M i d d e n L a y e r s , and C o a s t S a l i s h S u b s i s t e n c e A c t i v i t i e s at the C r e s c e n t Beach S i t e , DgRr 1. Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  1984  Ham,  M o d e l s o f t h e Development and D i s t r i b u t i o n of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s i n the F r a s e r R i v e r Delta. U n p u b l i s h e d paper p r e s e n t e d at the 17th A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e C a n a d i a n A r c h a e o l ogical Association, Victoria.  Leonard  1975  C. and M o i r a I r v i n e Techniques f o r Determining S e a s o n a l i t y of S h e l l M i d d e n s f r o m M a r i n e M o l l u s c Remains  Syesis  Harris  1979  Hart,  8:363-373.  E.C. P r i n c i p l e s of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s .  Stratigraphy,  J.L.  1973 Hester, 1970  P a c i f i c F i s h e s o f Canada. Fisheries R e s e a r c h B o a r d o f Canada, B u l l e t i n 180, James J . and K a t h r y n J . Conover E c o l o g i c a l S a m p l i n g o f M i d d e n s on t h e Northwest Coast. Northwest A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h Notes V o l . 4. No. 2. Pp. 137-152.  Hill-Tout,  Charles The G r e a t F r a s e r M i d d e n . Vancouver: The A r t , H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n  Hoos, L.M. 1974  and  1938  G.A. Packman The F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y , S t a t u s o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Knowledge t o 1974. Special Estuary S e r i e s No. 1. West V a n c o u v e r : Environment Canada.  33  Ingle,  Robert The L i f e American  1954 Jenness, n.d.  The S a a n i c h I n d i a n s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Unpublished Manuscript. Ottawa:National Museum o f Man. W.A,  1921  1982  Sedimentation of the F r a s e r D e l a t a . G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada, Memoir No. 125. Ottawa Grant T h o u g h t s on t h e S t a t u s o f C u l t u r a l Cont i n u i t y and Change among P r e h i s t o r i c S a l i s h P o p u l a t i o n s . Midden Oct. V o l . XIV No. 4. Pp. 8-13.  Kennedy, D o r o t h y 1983 Loy,  Scientific  Diamond  Johnston,  Keddie,  o f an E s t u a r y . 190(5):64-68.  and Randy B o u c h a r d Sliammon L i f e , Sliammon Talonbooks.  Lands.  Vancouver:  Thomas H, P r e h i s t o r i c B l o o d R e s i d u e s : D e t e c t i o n on T o o l S u r f a c e s and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f S p e c i e s of O r i g i n . S c i e n c e 220(4603):  1983  1269-1271.  MacFarlane, 1977  N a t a l i e and E l e n a P e r k i n s Museum E v a l u a t i o n and E t h n o g r a p h y . Unp u b l i s h e d M a n u s c r i p t , V a n c o u v e r : UBC Museum of A n t h r o p o l o g y .  McGimsey, C h a r l e s R. . I l l and H e s t e r A. D a v i s , e d i t o r s The Management o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l R e s o u r c e s : 1977 The A i r l i e House R e p o r t Special Publication of the S o c i e t y f o r American A r c h a e o l o g y . Mason,  Phyllis A Re/View-ing. No. 3. P.13.  1985 Matson,  1974  M i d d e n June V o l .  XVII  R.G. C l u s t e r i n g and s c a l i n g o f G u l f o f s i t e s . S y e s i s 7:101-114.  Georgia  34  M a t s o n R.G. 1976  1980-81  The G l e n r o s e Cannery S i t e . N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man M e r c u r y S e r i e s , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada No. 52. P r e h i s t o r i c Subsistence Patterns i n the F r a s e r D e l t a : The E v i d e n c e f r o m t h e G l e n r o s e Cannery S i t e . BC S t u d i e s W i n t e r  No. 4 8 . Pp. 6 4 - 8 5 .  Maud, R a l p h , e d . 1978 The S a l i s h P e o p l e : The L o c a l C o n t r i b u t i o n of C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t . V o l . I l l The M a i n l a n d Halkomelem. Vancouver: Talonbooks, Mitchell, 1971  National n.d.  D o n a l d H. '. Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia area, a n a t u r a l r e g i o n and i t s c u l t u r a l t y p e s . S y e s i s V o l . 4 . Supplement 1. Museums o f Canada Museum A s s i s t a n c e Programme, E x h i b i t i o n s A s s i s t a n c e Programme, Programme D e s c r i p t i o n , Mimeo.  Osborn, Alan J . 1970  Percy, Richard 1974  Robinson, E l l e n 1975  1976  Development o f an A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Museum D i s p l a y Museum B r i e f s . No. 4~ Museum o f Anthropology. Columbia: U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i - Columbia. C.W. The P r e h i s t o r i c C u l t u r a l Sequence a t C r e s c e n t Beach, B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpubl i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s . Simon F r a s e r University. Wallace C h a r l e s E. B o r d e n : H i s F o r m u l a t i o n and T e s t i n g of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Hypotheses. U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s . Portland State University. H a r l a n I . S m i t h , B o a s , and t h e S a l i s h : Unweaving A r c h a e o l o g i c a l H y p o t h e s e s . Northwest A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Research Notes  V o l . 10. No. 2. Pp. 185-196. ROM 1976  Communicating w i t h t h e Museum V i s i t o r : G u i d e l i n e s f o r P l a n n i n g . T o r o n t o : ROM  35  Rudin, Emily 1979  B. A s i g n f o r A l l S e a s o n s : From W r i t e r ' s C l i p b o a r d t o Zoo E x h i b i t . C u r a t o r 22:4:  303-309.  Rudy, R o b e r t 1976 Schiffor, 1976 Shettel, 197 3  H. and John A. Brown Myron E e l l s and t h e Puget Sound I n d i a n s . S e a t t l e : S u p e r i o r P u b l i s h i n g Company.  Michael  B. Behavioral Press.  Archaeology.  New Y o r k :  H a r r i s H. E x h i b i t s : A r t Form o r E d u c a t i o n a l Museum News 52:1:32-41.  Smith, Harlan 1903  Academic  Medium.  I. S h e l l - H e a p s o f t h e Lower F r a s e r R i v e r , B r i t i s h Columbia. Memoirs o f t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y V o l . IV. The J e s u p N o r t h P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n , P a r t IV.  Pp.  133-199.  1907  A r c h a e o l o g y o f t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a and Puget Sound. Memoirs o f t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y V o l . 11. The Jesup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n , Part V I .  1913  The A r c h a e o l o g i c a l C o l l e c t i o n From t h e Southern I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ottawa: Museum o f t h e G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y . No. 1290.  Smith, Marian 1969  W. The P u y a l l u p - N i s q u a l l y . New Y o r k : P r e s s , ( f i r s t e d i t i o n 1940).  AMS  Stern, Bernhard J 1969 The Lummi I n d i a n s o f N o r t h w e s t W a s h i n g t o n . New Y o r k : AMS P r e s s , ( f i r s t e d i t i o n 1934). Suttles, 1955  Wayne Katzie Ethnographic Notes Anthropology i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Memoir No. 2. Victoria: BCPM.  36  S u t t l e s , Wayne 1968  '1974  Swan, James 1969  C o p i n g w i t h Abundance: S u b s i s t e n c e on t h e Northwest Coast. In Man t h e H u n t e r . R. B. Lee and I . D e v o r e , e d i t o r s . Chicago: A l d i n e P r e s s . Pp. 56-68 The Economic L i f e o f t h e C o a s t S a l i s h o f Haro and R o s a r i o S t r a i t s . Coast S a l i s h and W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n I n d i a n s I . New York: Garland P u b l i s h i n g Inc.  G. The N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . of Washington P r e s s ,  Seattle: University ( f i r s t e d i t i o n 1857).  Taylor, Walter 1948  W. A Study o f A r c h a e o l o g y . American pologist V o l . 50. No. 3- P a r t 2. No. 69.  Trigger, 1968  G. Major Concepts of Archaeology i n H i s t o r i c a l Perspective. Man 3:4:527-541.  Von  Bruce  Daniken, 1970  AnthroMemoir  Erich C h a r i o t s o f t h e Gods: U n s o l v e d M y s t e r i e s of the P a s t . New Y o r k : Bantam B o o k s .  Wade, L.K. 1976  The R i c h E s t u a r i e s i n M o u n t a i n s and S e a s . Harold Hosford, editor. H e r i t a g e Record  No. 5. BCPM. Pp. 32-38. Watson, 1978  Herb  Willey, 1958  Gordon R. and P h i l i p P h i l l i p s Method and T h e o r y i n A m e r i c a n Chicago Press.  How t o Communicate i n E x h i b i t i o n s . Unp u b l i s h e d BCMA workshop p a p e r , Nanaimo.  1974 W i l l i a m s , Anne 1980  Archaeology.  A H i s t o r y of American A r c h a e o l o g y . San F r a n c i s c o : W. H. Freedman and Company. M. C a r l B o r d e n and A r c h a e o l o g y i n B.C. p u b l i s h e d M.A. thesis. UBC  Un-  37  Zak, E l l e n 1980  Jeanette E d u c a t i o n Programs f o r S p e c i a l E x h i b i t i o n s on T o u r : A T o p i c o f Museum E d u c a t i o n . Unp u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of Washington.  38  9.1  APPENDIX 1  Jan.  1,  1983  ARCHAEOLOGY TEMPORARY EXHIBIT (Untitled The  primary  purpose of  this  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s make i n f e r e n c e s of p r e h i s t o r i c  people  o f methods and  techniques  archaeological  sites.  archaeological  exhibit w i l l  cavation viable  of  Coast  undertaken  mental of  also  important  aspects  Crescent  southern  and  ethnographically  the  Coast  Salish  aspect  can  of  of  and  be  with  of  the  w h i c h has  reflect  not  only  a complex  This  site  seasonally  specifically and  the  River the  general.  Boundary  Delta  system  boundaries  represents  an  of im-  differentially  utilization  concommitantly  a v a i l a b l e , though l e s s evidence  the  but  in  i s s i t u a t e d on  within  analysis  environ-  archaeological research  i s contained  that  and  i s o n g o i n g a t UBC  Fraser  ex-  prehistoric  of  the  the processing  important,  Significant  at  were a l s o d i s c e r n e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y .  site  1977  when midden  ethnographic  which  from  shown  s t r a t e g i e s of  exhibit will  how  temporary  resources. the  show  of a v a r i e t y  proposed  results  p o r t i o n of the  other  to  economic s t r a t e g i e s  obtained  c u l t u r e area.  strategy,  shellfish  the  economic  February-March h e r r i n g run of  of the  B e a c h midden s i t e  i n the  adaptive  be  research  Bay  portant  the  This  substantive  The  focus  in conjunction  kind  the  utilization  Beach s i t e ,  peoples,  information.  about  be  when a n a l y z i n g m a t e r i a l s  The  on  yet)  exhibit w i l l  through the  Crescent  information  Northwest is  the  as  f o r woodworking  activities  39  Archaeological supports  the  specialized for  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s at  t h e s i s that adaptive  a seasonally  strategy  has  and  other  diverse,  sites  complex  p e r s i s t e d i n the  and  region  several millenia. The  r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s of  the  basis  the  Northwest  fied  by  f o r the  development  Coast  i t s magnificent evidence  the  of  subject  this  methods u t i l i z e d The variety  line.  infer  the  will  evidence  be  clam  in  the  research  feature,  of  utilized be  shellfish  use. and  and  design  illustrated.  the  The  adaptation  is  archaeological  presented  to  in  enhance the  illustrated;  a  herring as  well  as are  ethnographic  and  a n a l y s i s at  Possible  logistics  the  or  and  and  pro-  archaeological  information Crescent be  Aspects utilized  Beach an  a reconstructed  permitting.  to  subsistence  inferred.  i n c l u s i o n s may  story-  utilized  of  procurement  faunal  for  is  procurement  Reconstruction  slide-tape presentation s p a c e and  this  as  from which these a c t i v i t i e s  environmental  ductory  be  represented,  the  be  identi-  ceremonies.  information  methods w i l l  site  of  also  will  season of  s u c h as  f l o u r i s h i n g of  growth r i n g a n a l y s i s , which  season of  activities cessing  the  aspect  are  example, maps, p h o t o s , d i a g r a m s ,  artifacts  determine  s t y l e and  contain  For  shellfish  subsequent  strategy  discern i t .  Archaeological  example,  art  f o r one  exhibit will  r e m a i n s and  and  adaptive  e x h i b i t , as w e l l  to  o f ways.  this  c u l t u r e - c u l t u r e which i s w i d e l y  prehistoric  to  this  will  intromidden  23/6/79  -2-  PRQJECT DESCRIPTION:  ( U s e o n l y s p a c e p r o v i d e d ; do n o t add a d d i t i o n a l s h e e t s . I n c l u d e I n f o r m a t i o n on need f o r p r o j e c t aim o r o b j e c t i v e s , a u d i e n c e t o be s e r v e d and a n t i c i p a t e d d u r a t i o n . If applicable explain need f o r r e s e a r c h , c o n s e r v a t i o n , s t a f f t r a v e l a n d / o r j u s t i f y why e x h i b i t i o n may n o t t r a v e l nationally.)  C h a n g i n g T i d e s r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t o f a t h r e e s t a g e p l a n t o r e v i t a l i z e and expand t h e e x h i b i t c a p a c i t y o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g y g a l l e r y i n t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . The o b j e c t i v e o f Phase One i s t o r e p a l c e p a r t o f t h e e x i s t i n g permanent a r c h a e o l o g y d i s p l a y i n s t a l l e d under s e v e r e t i m e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e museum i n 1976. I t i s i n f o r m a t i v e b u t s t a t i c , a s no space i s a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c r e p o r t s on c u r r e n t r e s e a r c l and o t h e r temporary d i s p l a y s o f g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t . However, minor changes t o t h e g a l l e r y and t o t h e e x h i b i t p h i l o s o p h y w i l l p e r m i t a more e f f e c t i v e u s e o f t h i s s p a c e . The Phase One temporary e x h i b i t w i l l draw upon t h e museum's r e s e a r c h c o l l e c t i o n s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p a s t e v e n t s and t h e analogous ethnographic a c t i v i t i e s . Phase Two w i l l c o n s i s t o f p a c k a g i n g t h i s e x h i b i t f o r t r a v e l , and Phase T h r e e w i l l be a r e c a s t i n g o f t h e e n t i r e a r c h a e o l o g y g a l l e r y , as funds become a v a i l a b l e . P h a s i n g d i s t r i b u t e s c o s t s o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d and a l l o w s e x h i b i t p l a n n i n g t o be more e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h r e s e a r c h and t e a c h i n g programmes The r e m o v a l o f one b u i l t - i n c a s e , so f l e x i b l e modular d i s p l a y u n i t s c a n be used f o r t h e temporary e x h i b i t , w i l l p r o v i d e f u t u r e space f o r c h a n g i n g d i s p l a y s , t h u s adding more v i t a l i t y t o t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s f e a t u r e w i l l be r e t a i n e d when t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e g a l l e r y i s upgraded as p a r t o f a p r o p o s e d Phase T h r e e . Phase One: Changing T i d e s w i l l show how a r c h a e o l o g i s t s p i e c e t o g e t h e r , from t h e p a t t e r n i n g o f s h e l l , s t o n e , c h a r c o a l , bones and a s h r e m a i n s , t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h s u p p o r t e d a d i s t i n c t i v e and complex c u l t u r e . By c o m b i n i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h went on at a s i t e a r e d i s c o v e r e d . The e x h i b i t w i l l t h u s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e t e c h n i q u e s and o r i e n t a t i o n o f modern archaeology w h i c h a r e used t o d i s c o v e r p a s t l i f e w a y s . The c u l t u r e s a l o n g t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o a s t c u l m i n a t e d i n a h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l andunique way o f l i f e w h i c h t h e p u b l i c t y p i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e s w i t h i t s m a g n i f i c i e n t a r t . P e o p l e a r e l e s s a c q u a i n t e d , however, w i t h t h e e q u a l l y f a s c i n a t i n g , complex s y s t e m w h i c h these people evolved f o r e x p l o i t i n g t h e i r environmnet. Changing T i d e s w i l l u t i l i z e m a t e r i a l s e x c a v a t e d from t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e t o d e m o n s t r a t e how a r c h a e o l o g i s t s d i s c o v e r t h e range and season o f a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h ( c o n t i n e d on page 2b)  PERSONNEL  List a l l permanent or part-time staff associated with the Project, their t i t l e and function If person(s) contracted for this project, please attach resumes) and l i s t duties. Curator: R e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s t o r y l i n e , r e s e a r c h and development and academic content of production. D i r e c t o r : R e s p o n s i b l e f o r e d i t i n g e x h i b i t copy ( D r . M.M. Ames) E x h i b i t D e s i g n e r : P r e p a r e s e x h i b i t d e s i g n and p a n e l l a y o u t , s u p e r v i s e s t e c h n i c a l aspects of production. Illustrator: D e p i c t s t h e p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h o c c u r r e d a t o r near t h e s i t e , i n w a t e r c o l o u r g r a p h i c s , from i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e C u r a t o r and Research A s s i s t a n t . Photographer D e s i g n e r : D e s i g n s and p r e p a r e s p h o t o g r a p h s f o r e x h i b i t . R e s e a r c h A s s i s t a n t : A s s i s t s i n t h e r e s e a r c h and development o f t h e s t o r y l i n e and i n d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f e x h i b i t m a t e r i a l a s w e l l as l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h . D e s i g n A s s i s t a n t : A s s i s t s t h e E x h i b i t D e s i g n e r , a r r a n g e s t e x t t y p e s e t t i n g and e x h i b i t p h o t o s , and p r e p a r e s and mounts e x h i b i t m a t e r i a l s . C u r a t o r i a l A s s i s t a n t : Prpares figures f o r d i s p l a y , proofreads t y p e s e t t i n g . A d m i n i s t a t i v e / C l e r i c a l S t a f f : A d m i n i s t r a t e s budget, r e q u i s t i o n s p u r c h a s e manuscripts f o r e x h i b i t t e x t . A.V. E d i t o r : E d i t s v i d e o and p r e p a r e s sound o v e r l a y .  orders, types  -2b-  s u c h a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s as s h e l l f i s h growth r i n g s t u d i e s , r e s i d u e a n a l y s i s o f s t o n e t o o l s , and c o n s t i t u e n t a n a l y s i s o f r e m a i n s . These a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s a r e c o m b i n e d w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n t o p r o v i d e a w i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e by s h o w i n g how v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s were i n t e r r e l a t e d , when and why p r e h i s t o r i c p e o p l e u s e d t h e s i t e , and how t h e s e p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o h i s t o r i c ones. P h o t o g r a p h s , g r a p h i c s , maps, and c o m m i s s i o n e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i l l accompany C r e s c e n t B e a c h a r t i f a c t s t o e n h a n c e t h e s t o r y l i n e and t o p r o v i d e a more c o m p l e t e v i e w o f how a r c h a e o l o g i s t s d i s c o v e r t h e p a s t . The i n s t a l l a t i o n o f a v i d e o a c c e s s u n i t w i l l p r o v i d e a w i d e r a n g e o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y a r c h a e o l o g i c a l programmes. A brief c a t a l o g u e w i l l a l s o be i s s u e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h C h a n g i n g T i d e s , a s p a r t o f t h e Museum N o t e S e r i e s . A p u b l i c l e c t u r e s e r i e s i n c l u d i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , e t h n o l o g i s t s , b i o l o g i s t s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t e x p e r t s w i l l be a r r a n g e d t o e n h a n c e t h e e x h i b i t . Once t h e e x h i b i t i s i n s t a l l e d i n t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , a p l a n f o r n a t i o n a l t r a v e l w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n a s Phase Two. T h i s e x h i b i t with i t s supplementary video and c a t a l o g u e w i l l be t h e f o u r t h i n a s e r i e s o f s u c c e s s f u l t r a v e l l i n g archaeology e x h i b i t s p r e p a r e d a t U.B.C. w i t h t h e a i d e o f t h e E x h i b i t i o n s A s s i s t a n c e Programme. T h i s s e c o n d p h a s e and t h e P h a s e T h r e e p l a n t o u p g r a d e t h e p e r m a n e n t a r c h a e o l o g y d i s p l a y w i l l be s c h e d u l e d a c c o r d i n g t o f u n d i n g and each p h a s e c a n be c o m p l e t e d b e f o r e the next b e g i n s . The Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t s u p p o r t o f C h a n g i n g T i d e s d o e s n o t e n t a i l a commitment t o s u p p o r t l a t e r p h a s e s , b u t t h a t e a c h must be j u d g e d on i t s own m e r i t s .  25/6779  -3-  LIST CF CONTENTS TITLE, TYPE OR DESCRIPTION OF  ARTIST OR PROVENANCE  OVlNED BY  AVAILABILITY CONFIRMED  OBJECTS  All  objects  trust  a r e o w n e i by  b y t h e Museum  or  t h e UBC Museutr o f t h e Semiahmoo  Anthropology  or held  in  band  I f a d d i t i o n a l space 1s r e q u i r e d , please attach a d d i t i o n a l sheets f o l l o w i n g the same format.  RUNNING OR SQUARE FEET (METRES) REQUIRED FOR EXHIBITION:  DURATION OF 300 s q .  ft.  EXHIBITION FROM:  Sept.  1984  TO:  May 1984  44  23/6/79 •4-  ITINERARY DURATION Cf ENTIRE TCJUR:  TO  FRCM . PtfflFCTrl) TfllR  LOCATION  ARRIVAL DATE  No c i r c u l a t i o n i s p l a n n e d present  application.  DEPARTURE DATE  CONFIRMED  UNCONFIRMED  within  A separate  application for exhibit  travel  w i l l be s u b m i t t e d a t a l a t e r  date  as Phase Two.  If  additional  space Is r e q u i r e d ,  please attach  additional  sheets  following  t h e same  format.  METHOD OF SHIPMENT: RAIL . AIR , ROAD .  OWN VEHICLE COMMERCIAL SHIPPER  (attach  quotes)  WEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EPP, THE ORGANIZER MUST NOT CHARGE SHIPPING COSTS TO THE BORROWING INSTITUTIONS  INSURANCE VALUE: $_ WHEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EAP, THE ORGANIZER MUST PAY ALL INSURANCE COSTS, EXCEPT WHEN A BORROWING INSTITUTION HAS BLANKET COVERAGE AND CAN INSURE THE BORROWED EXHIBITION WITHOUT ADDITIONAL COST TO THEIR ANNUAL PREMIUM.  WHEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EAP, THE ORGANIZER MAY NOT CHARGE A BORROWING FEE TO THE BORROWING INSTITUTIONS  -5CATALOGUES/BRXllURES/POSTESS TFN (IT) COP1FS OF ALL PRINTED CATALOGUES AND BROCHURES PRODUCED WITH EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE MUST BE FORWARDED, FREE OF CHARGE, TO THE EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME. THESE WILL B E DISTRIBUTED TO THE ffATIONAL filSEUMS LIBRARY, THE NATIONAL LIBRARY, AND TrE NATIONAL GALLERY LIBRARY. THE APPLICANT I S ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR DISTRIBUTING ONE COPY EACH, FREE OF CHARGE, TO ALL APPROPRIATE ASSOCIATE MUSEUMS. (A OJRRENT LIST OF ASSOCIATE MUSEUMS WILL^BE^ORWARDEn TO .SUCCESSFUL APPLICANTS WHEN F1.WDS. ARE RELEASED.) Describe  the educative value and o b j e c t i v e s .  An e x h i b i t catalogue i n the form of a museum note, w i l l provide information comparable to the e x h i b i t . This catalogue w i l l permit enhanced e x h i b i t a p p r e c i a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A b r i e f b i b l i o g r a p h y of relevant a r t i c l e s and other p u b l i c ations w i l l be included f o r the i n d i v i d u a l who wishes f u r t h e r information. The e x h i b i t poster w i l l feature one of the watercolour prehistoric activities.  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of  CATALOGUES  POSTERS  24" x 17"  8" x 10" DIMENSIONS  10  i'lUMBER O F PAGES  none  NUMBER OF COLOUR REPRODUCTIONS  14  I'LUMBER OF BLACK AND WHITE REPRODUCTIONS  3000  DUMBER OF CATALOGUES,BROCHURES,POSTERS ESTIMATED  P U B L I S H I N G COST  ESTIMATED  HANDLING COST  NUMBER TO B E SOLD..  100  2QQ  ?qno  inn  $ 1.00 1.25 Under General Administrative Costs  SELLING PRICE ADMINISTRATIVE  COST....  See  P R I C E QUOTES AND MOCK-UPS ATTACHED  TOTAL A N T I C I P A T E D REVENUE FROM A L L - P R I N T E D  NATIONAL T R A V E L L I N G E X H I B I T I O N MATERIAL  $ 100  45  A N T I C I P A T E D REVENUE  ALL  $ 790  3QQ  NUMBER TO B E G I V E N AWAY  ESTIMATED  300  3280  MATERIAL  attached  'Blood  From Stone'  145  SHOULD BE PRODUCED I N BOTH O F F I C I A L LANGUAGES.  * Revenue 3,625 l e s s costs 3580 F i n a l r e t a i l and wholesale p r i c e s to be e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r f i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n costs are known.  (1984)  estimate  23/6/79  -6-  ENHAflCEMENT ACTIVITIES AND MATERIALS WHICH FACILITATE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF AN EXHIBITION ARE SUPPORTED WHEN THEY CAN BE JUSTIFIED IN TERMS OF NEED, EXHIBITION OBJECTIVES AND THE AUDIENCE TO BE SERVED. FILM/ A-V PRODUCTIONS,PERFORMANCES, DEMONSTRATIONS, TAPES, ETC.  THEY MAY INCLUDE  IN THE SPACE BELOW DESCRIBE THE ENHANCE-  MENT PROPOSED AND ITEMIZE THE COSTS.  The a d d i t i o n o f a v i d e o a c c e s s u n i t w i i l n o t o n l y e n a b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a g r e a t e r range o f complementary i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Changing T i d e s but w i l l a l l o w o n g o i n g s h o r t l e n g h t v i d e o programmes t o be u t i l i z e d i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g y gallery. C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s a s w e l l a s s p e c i a l and g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t v i d e o t a p e s c a n be p r e s e n t e d . The p r e s e n t a p p l i c a t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e e d i t i n g and p r o d u c t i o n o f a v i d e o t a p e f r o m e x i s t i n g f o o t a g e o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n and l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s o f C r e s c e n t Beach m a t e r i a l s . S l i d e t a p e s w i l l be p r e p a r e d on t h e l o c a l h a b i t a t and on p r o c u r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s v i d e o package w i l l not o n l y e n h a n c e t h e t e m p o r a r y e x h i b i t b u t c a n be p a c k a g e d t o t r a v e l i n P h a s e Two. Some v i d e o m a t e r i a l i s a l l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e , i n c l u d i n g N o r t h w e s t C o a s t P r e h i s t o r y , A Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y p r o d u c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g t i t l e s w i l l be s r c e e n e d f o r s u i t a b l i t y and p o s s i b l e a v a i l a b i l i t y t o t r a n s f e r t o v i d e o ; A r c h a e o l o g i c a l D a t i n g : R e t r a c i n g T i m e, G a r b a g e and G a r f : A P a r a b l e f o r A r c h a e o l o g y . A p u b l i c l e c t u r e s e r i e s w i l l be a r r a n g e d t o e n h a n c e t h e e x h i b i t . Archaeologists, e t h n o l o g i s t s , b i o l o g i s t s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t e x p e r t s w i l l be i n c l u d e d . N e g o t i a t i o n s w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n t o a r r a n g e f o r Wayne S u t t l e s o f P o r t l a n d S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y and D o n a l d M i t c h e l l o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a t o l e c t u r e i n t h i s s e r i e s , as w e l l a s , s e v e r a l l o c a l speakers.  23/6/79  -7-  KSTRUCTIONS FOR CCrPLETION OF BUDGET 1.  BEGIN WITH PAGES 8 AND 9 - BUDGET.  Two COPIES OF THESE PAGES ARE INCLUDED WITH THE APPLICATION FORM, SO THAT  ONE MAY BE USED AS A WORKING COPY FOR PREPARATION OF THE BUDGET. USE THE COMPLETED BUDGET ON PAGES 3 AND 9 AS A GUIDE IN FILLING OUT THE BUDGET S U M W ON PAGE 10. 2.  PLEASE BE ADVISED THAT IIATIONAL MUSEUMS OF CANADA WILL NOT FUND IOCS OF TOTAL COSTS OF ANY PROJECT. TOTAL COST  MEANS THE ENTIRE EXPENSE OF THE PROJECT, THAT IS, HOW MUCH IT WILL COST TO REALIZE THE PROJECT.  PLEASE INCLUDE  COSTS OF ALL ITEMS, INCLUDING SPACE, LABOUR, MATERIALS, CONSERVATION, PUBLICATIONS, EDUCATION ACTIVITIES, ETC., WHICH MAY BE DONATED OR CONTRIBUTED BY THE APPLICANT OR AN OUTSIDE SOURCE. THIS WILL NECESSITATE ASSIGNING MONETARY VALUES TO SUCH ITEMS AS DONATED EXHIBITION SPACE, CONTRIBUTED LABOUR, ETC. 3.  CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT i s THE AMOUNT CONTRIBUTED BY YOUR INSTITUTION OR ORGANIZATION IN EITHER SERVICES OR  M3NEY.  IN ORDER TO COMPLETE THIS COUWI, YOU WILL HAVE TO ASSIGN A MONETARY VALUE TO STAFF T I r E , MATERIALS,  SERVICES, ETC., WHICH WILL BE USED IN THE DEVELOPMENT, PREPARATION H.  AND ADMINISTRATION OF YOUR PROJECT.  OTHER INCOME i s MONEY OR SERVICES CONTRIBUTED BY OTHER DONORS OR GRANTING AGENCIES.  IT IS ALSO THE  REVENUE ANTICIPATED FROM THE SALE OF CATALOGUES, BROCHURES OR POSTERS.  5,  BALANCE i s THE AMOUNT OF MONEY NEEDED TO REALIZE THE PROJECT AFTER SUBTRACTION OF THE APPLICANT'S CONTRIBUTION.  FOR EXAMPLE, UNDER SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS, THE APPLICANT MAY CONTRIBUTE 4 DISPLAY CASES FOR AN EXHIBITION, VALUED AT $2<)Q0. $2800.  IN ORDER TO PREPARE AN ADEQUATE PRESENTATION, 4 ADDITIONAL DISPLAY CASES ARE REQUIRED, AT A COST OF  TOTAL COST OF DISPLAY CASES IS $5200, APPLICANT'S CONTRIBUTION IS $2100, AND BALANCE FOR DISPLAY CASES IS  $2800. 6,  EACH BUDGET CATEGORY MJST BE ITEMIZED. AS A GUIDE TO ITEMIZING THE CATEGORIES, SOME OF THE EXPENSE ITEMS  WHICH MIGHT BE INCURRED UNDER EACH CATEGORY ARE LISTED BELOW. PERSONNEL SALARIES AND FEES: CONTRIBUTED STAFF TIME CONTRACTED STAFF FEES OR HONORARIUM TO GUEST LECTURERS, ETC. FEES TO ARTISTS: MUST BE PAID BY THE APPLICANT TO CONTEMPORARY CANADIAN ARTISTS WHEN WORKS ARE LOANED BY THE ARTIST FOR INCLUSION IN EXHIBITIONS FUNDED BY THE NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF CANADA, SUCH FEES TO BE AGREED UPON BY BOTH THE ARTIST AND THE BORROWING INSTITUTION. PAYMENT OF FEES REQUESTED MUST BE INDICATED IN THE FINAL AUDIT OR FINANCIAL REPORT,  7,  PERSONNEL TRAVEL:  TRANSPORTATION AND PER DIEM FOR PROJECT EMPLOYEES OR CONTRACTED SPECIALISTS  RESEARCH COSTS:  EXPENSES NOT COVERED BY SALARIES OR TRAVEL  PRODUCTION COSTS:  EXPENSES NOT COVERED ABOVE THAT MJST BE INCURRED IN THE PROCESS OF CREATING THE FINISHED EXHIBITION (CRATES, DISPLAY UNITS, MOUNTING, EQUIPMENT RENTALS, CONSERVATION)  ENHANCEMENT COSTS:  EXPENSES NOT COVERED ABOVE THAT MIST BE INCURRED TO ENHANCE THE PUBLIC'S UNDERSTANDING OF THE OBJECTS DISPLAYED. (TRANSLATIONS, PRINTING, CATALOGUES, DEMONSTRATIONS, PERFORMANCES, A-V, FILM, POSTERS, ADVERTISING, PRESS KITS, INFORMATION KITS)  CIRCULATION:  EXPENSES NOT COVERED ABOVE AND INCURRED DURING THE PERIOD OF CIRCULATION (INSURANCE, SHIPPING, STORAGE, MAINTENANCE)  BE AS ACCURATE AS POSSIBLE.  IF YOU HAVE RECEIVED A QUOTATION FROM A CONTRACTOR OR SHIPPER ON A PARTICULAR  ITEM, PLEASE INCLUDE A COPY WITH YOUR COMPLETED BUDGET. 3.  ALL PROJECTS IN EXCESS OF $10,000 WILL HAVE 1D% WITHHELD UNTIL THE MUSEUM ASSISTANCE PROGRAMMES RECEIVE FINAL  AUDITING OF THE TOTAL AMOUNT REQUIRED. 9.  EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS DOES NOT GRANT FUNDS TO AID INSTITUTIONS TO BORROW EXHIBITIONS.  EXHIBITION ORGANIZERS MAY APPLY FOR ALL SHIPPING AND INSURANCE COSTS. NEITHER OF THESE COSTS NOR ANY OTHER PARTICIPATION FEE MAY BE CHARGED TO INSTITUTIONS BORROWING AN EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME FUNDED EXHIBITION. *  IF YOU HAVE FURTHER QUESTIONS PLEASE CONSULT YOUR REGIONAL OFFICER.  -8-  23/6779 BUDGET  P l e a s e read the I n s t r u c t i o n page b e f o r e completing the budget. TOTAL COST  CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT  CATEGORY  Itemize each c a t e g o r y . OTHER INCOME donations grants o r  BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P.  revenue  PERSONNEL SALARIES X FEES Curator  8  Exhibit  weeks  Designer  Photographer Illustrator Design  on  @$11.00 Research @S10.00  weeks  week contract  Assistant  Curatorial  A.V.  1  6  on  contrac  Assistant  105x11  &  105x11  &  week  benefits  Assistant  Editor  3  3  2  6,000  3,600  3,600  600  600  -  2,500  2,500  900  900  >  1,200  1,200  weeks  benifits  (contract)  Administration  6,000  weeks  SUB-TOTAL  1, 1 0 0  1,100  250  250  1,500  1,500  17,650  12,900  • -  4, 7 5 0  PERSONNEL TRAVEL  Travel  expenses  honoraria  and  f o r guest  speakers  SUB-TOTAL  RESEARCH COSTS  SUB-TOTAL  600  -  -  600  600  -  -  600  23/6779  r  \  BUDGET, CONTINUED TOTAL COST  CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT  OTHER INCOME donations grants revenue  BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P.  PRODUCTION COSTS Removal  of  6'  (&security b u i l t - i n where  wide w a l l  unit)  case.  and Repairs  necessary.  20  panels  10  modular  @  $75.00 frames  ing  and  (film,  Typesetting  6  text  plexiglas  Misc.  -  1,400  1,500  -  -  1,500  3,900  -  -  3,900  1,900  -  -  1,900  700  -  -  700  2,200  -  -  2,200  660  -  -  660  1,000  -  -  1,000  -  13,260  process-  enlarging)  Silkscreen  -  &  connectors Photography  1,400  and  labels  cases  & construction  SUB-TOTAL 13,260 ENHANCEMENT COSTS  3,580  Catalogue Poster Video  access  Video  tape  unit  production  300  45  3,235  790  -  100  690  6,700  -  -  6,700  350  -  -  350  SUB-TOTAL 11,450  300  145  10,975  CIRCULATION COSTS  SUB-TOTAL  J  50  -10-  23/5/79 SLTTIARY  CF BUDGET CONTRIBUTION  TOTAL COST  OF APPLICANT  17,650  -  12,900  600  OTHER INCOME donations grants or revenue  BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P, 4 , 700 600  -  -  13,260  -  -  13,260  11,420  300  145  10,975  -  -  -  -  42,930  13,200  145  29,585  100%  31%  1%  68%  TOTAL: % OF COSTS:  -  r SlfWRY OF OTHER INCOME LIST ALL DONATIONS, GRANTS AND/OR ANTICIPATED REVENUE  i  SHIRCF  ANTICIPATED DATES WHEN FINDS WILL E REQUIRED:  Project  t o commence  September  1983  CONFTRMFD  ANTICIPATED  51  9.3  APPENDIX 3  CHANGING TIDES February  Exhibit  18,  Storyline  draft  1984  Overview:  Ever working  s i n c e the  i n what  1880's when a r o a d  i s now  Marpole,  numerous p r e h i s t o r i c  artifacts,  i n v e s t i g a t i n g midden  sites  salvage  have r a n g e d  operations to l a r g e scale  ical  r e s e a r c h through  with  the  late  ending  This  with  exhibit  sites  and  outline  contents,  developed  complex  potential  of the  gained  through  promise  the  local  how  public  spectacular  unique  this  usually  also  Salish  and  I.  of l o c a l  important  Coast  people  the  they  Coast  in particular. culture  that less  culture  Whereas  i m p r e s s i v e woodwork, t h e  S a l i s h midden r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e  their  insights  because  of Northwest  Northwest  midden  o n l y of  The  Smith  site.  prehistoric  vicinity.  culture  identifies and  not  o f how  understanding  ceremonials  Beach  investigations  r e s e a r c h are  Coast  beginning  systems f o r e x p l o i t i n g  Fraser delta  t o expand our  g e n e r a l , and  of Coast  and  but  archaeolog-  stages,  Crescent  organ-  projects.  r e s e a r c h of Harlan  have l e d t o a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  composition  in  century  been  quickly  research  of t h i s  r e c e n t work a t t h e  will  from  s e v e r a l developmental  nineteenth  unearthed  Fraser delta region.  Changing T i d e s t r a c e s the h i s t o r y  and  Vancouver,  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have  i n the  T h e s e midden i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ized  south  c o n s t r u c t i o n crew  with results  impressive  52  artifacts  and o f t e n mundane r e m a i n s c a n p r o v i d e  appreciation Coast  of the complexity  Fraser  development  delta region  odological  and a n t i q u i t y o f N o r t h w e s t  of archaeological  applied  follows  these  and  developments through f o u r  research.  to their  formation.  This  to eliminate  from  research  archaeological  the  next  the  exhibit will  four  sections again  look  t o examine t h e i r  quiring  protection  archaeological  from  i f they  prefaced  a  by focus-  general composition,  components i n introduction to  t h e need f o r d i g r e s s i o n s and t h e i r  results in  The f i n a l  section of  at the areas'  midden s i t e s i n  as c u l t u r a l  are to play  resources r e -  a r o l e i n the f u t u r e  research.  i s divided  an i n t r o d u c t o r y  archaeological looks  general  techniques  future  Tides  Outline:  Changing Tides ses  provides  of the e x h i b i t .  general  Exhibit  stages,  and c u l t u r a l  middens i s d e s i g n e d  of  Changing  inno-  by a s e c t i o n w h i c h  The p r e f a c e  environmental  Existing  local  t o middens g i v i n g a s e n s e o f t h e i r  the general  trinsic  p r o c e s s o f meth-  results.  to p a r t i c u l a r situations.  o r i e n t a t i o n s e c t i o n and f o l l o w e d  introduction  i n the lower  methods have been a d o p t e d , w i t h  vations  on f u t u r e  research  h a s been t h e c u m u l a t i v e  d e v e l o p m e n t s and s u b s t a n t i v e  archaeological  ses  fuller  culture. The  an  a  s e c t i o n , through four  midden r e s e a r c h  at the f u t u r e  into s i x sections  of t h i s  t o a summary  research.  and  stages of  section  Section  progres-  which  one s e r v e s  to  53  -introduce visitor two  the  exhibit's  t o the  deals with  area's the  midden  content and  of a l o c a l  cultural  a series  to t y p i f y of  a change  utilized  adaptive viously  to provide  of r e c o v e r y utilized  Section five  focuses  at the  Crescent  Beach s i t e .  the  sourses  and  Section  One  This  The  f u t u r e of the t h e r e f o r e the  section  final  on  data,  the  These  as w e l l  information of  phases  the pre-  techniques  techniques  precise information of the  a r e a s ' middens as  exhibit  cultural  on will  re-  f u t u r e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h .  serves t o i n t r o d u c e the  theme, i n g e n e r a l t e r m s , and  to  lower  development  broadening  cultural  section  mental the  a  served  midden l a y e r s w h i c h were  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to determine  consider  defned  which  sees  artifact  to the  of s h e l l  use.  was  a more c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  analysis  site  traits  how  to subsistence r e s e a r c h .  and  prehistoric  and  arti-  development  data to environmental  stages which correspond outlined.  allowed  of t h i s  l e d t o the  fourth section  o f f a u n a l r e m a i n s and  correlation  Section  shows  This chronology  i n emphasis  the  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Section three  of d i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t s  Quantification  was  i n g e n e r a l terms.  excavations  The  orient  upon d e s c r i b i n g t h e  chronology.  each phase.  s c o p e and  as t h e  primarily  controlled  theme and  stage"  o f midden s i t e s .  systematic  by  sites  "descriptive  r e s e a r c h which focused factual  developmental  exhibit's  to o r i e n t  F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n ' s midden  the  sites.  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s  develop-  visitor As  the  region i s  54  b a s e d upon t h e almost this be  9,000  type  of  investigation  o f midden  year  p e r i o d , i t i s important  site  at the  outset  of c u l t u r a l  Northwest  Coast  of marine  shells  these  shells  middens a r e upland  sea  relatively tuary  and with  adjacent levels,  the  the  had  resource  present  interplay  o g i s t s have p e r c e i v e d and ways t h r o u g h point  time,  the  past  this  an  factors analyzed  Hill-Tout,  sites  layering  on  base  sites  these  sites  of  in  and the  eslocation  through  past.  these  remained  delta  i n the  development  abundance  Although  i n t r o d u c t i o n should  interest  time.  i s dependent As in  serve  of t h i s  but  Pacific  i n midden r e s e a r c h began w i t h  i t was  Harlan  I . S m i t h ' s work w i t h  E x p e d i t i o n which r e c e i v e d the  wider a r c h a e o l o g i c a l audience. Harlan  an  have  the  past.  Locally  impact  o f midden  the  at the  years,  important  are  archaeoldifferent as  a  focal  research.  Two  Local  North  by  can  events  into  intricate  resources  utilization  from which t o view the  Section  insights  formations.  5,500  define  Middens  natural  s h o r e l i n e and  location  of these  and  an  an  s i n c e they  other remains.  c l i m a t e and  has  o f h a b i t a t i o n and  and  to d e l t a  s t a b l e f o r the  development  Therefore,  soils  exhibit.  often recognized  u s u a l l y s e e n as  l o c a t e d along  areas  general,  middens a r e  to gain  spanning  to broadly  resources  activities  which a r c h a e o l o g i s t s u t i l i z e  on  of t h e  d e f i n e d as v a l u a b l e c u l t u r a l  complex r e c o r d s  of  sites  I. Smith's  Charles the  a t t e n t i o n of  Changing T i d e s w i l l  1 8 9 8 investigation  Jesup  of the Marpole  focus site,  a on  55  w h i c h was a l s o site.  known as t h e E b u r n e o r " G r e a t  S m i t h and a s m a l l  cavated  a portion  attention  force  of t h i s s i t e  was p a i d  there  facts the  appeared  i n the upper l a y e r s  site.  similar  indicated  that  saw t h i s c o n t i n u i t y  of  economic  he  equated  activities  than  that  that  this activity  he  saw as i n t e r i o r  migration of  continuity  i s that  they  to represent.  F o r example,  he p o s t u l a t e d  to the coast.  greater  established  arts  an e a r l y  The i m p o r t a n c e  concerning both c o n t i n u i t y  and d i s -  two themes w h i c h r u n  expressed  research.  These  b u t b a s i c a l l y depend on  i n c u l t u r a l remains e i t h e r  discontinuity  continuation  s t o n e and d e c o r a t i v e  themes have been v a r i o u s l y  cultural  of c u l t u r e  themselves can a t t e s t .  archaeological  differences  S a l i s h , and  t y p e s as a  t h r o u g h much o f t h e a r e a s '  viewing  were  o f woodworking t o o l s as  therefore,  peoples  Smith's c o n c l u s i o n s ,  a l l layers  has an a n t i q u i t y much  of chipped  traits;  of i n t e r i o r  l a y e r s of  i n t o the past.  t o w h i c h t h e wooden o b j e c t s  However, t h e p r e s e n c e  arti-  of r e t r i e v i n g harpoons w i t h sea  mammal h u n t i n g , and t h e p r e s e n c e evidence  Coast  the s i t e  of a r t i f a c t  extending  the presence  from  as t h e y  between  t h e r e was 'a c o n t i n u i t y  t h e 2,000 y e a r s he e s t i m a t e d  Smith  objects  little  to state  i n the lower  t o t h o s e made by t h e h i s t o r i c  therefore for  that  confident  difference  and t h o s e  Smith c o n c l u d e d  Although  of a r t i f a c t s  Smith f e l t  t o be l i t t l e  Midden"  l a b o u r r a p i d l y ex-  by s h o v e l .  to the provenience  were removed f r o m t h e s i t e , that  of hired  Fraser  o r as d i f f e r e n t i a l  site  i n terms o f use or  56  adaptational Section  responses.  Three  This  section w i l l  focus  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  sequence o f c u l t u r a l phases, p r i m a r i l y His  recognition  vious  that  a lack  work h a d p r o v i d e d  speculative controlled vations  interpretations excavations  established  local  sequence g e n e r a l l y  This  local  chronology used  year  but s t i l l  to explain  outline  today.  particular, other will  those  sections.  Farm s i t e  or t r a i t s .  will  Dur-  modifications.  discontinuity i n culture  allowed  sequence  11 component.  This  but w i l l  created  emphasized  Smith's  between t h i s s e c t i o n  chronology  and s u b s e q u e n t  will  comparable  to the  excavations  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and t h e Whalen  with  transition  section  emphasize i n  F o r example, B o r d e n ' s M a r p o l e  be c o n t r a s t e d  between  f o r t h e i n f l u x o f new g r o u p s , a t  d e l t a chronology  with  o r phase  the d i f f e r e n c e s  s i t e s which are d i r e c t l y  be c o n t r a s t e d  f o r the  E a c h component  artifacts  work i d e n t i f i e d  t h e Whalen  the Fraser  exca-  i s the foundation  t h e i n f l u x o f new g r o u p s , h i s l a t e r  least  and  i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  components as r e p r e s e n t i n g  continuity  systematic These  c u l t u r a l s e q u e n c e he made s e v e r a l  Whereas, h i s e a r l i e r  by  d e s c r i p t i o n s and  l e d him t o c o n d u c t  by a s e t o f d i a g n o s t i c  i n g Borden's t h i r t y this  i n pre-  components f r o m w h i c h he d e v e l o p e d a  chronology.  defined  general  by B o r d e n .  controls  at a series of s i t e s .  local  was  as d e r i v e d  of provenience  only  of a regional  Crescent  Beach.  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  ones, q u e s t i o n s w i l l  To make t h e of c u l t u r a l  be r a i s e d  57  about p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r t h e Whalen Section  Four  As in  d i f f e r e n c e s between  terms of c u l t u r a l  ation  r a t h e r than  site  adaptations  i n v e n t o r i e s became v i e w e d and  seasonal  methods were i n t r o d u c e d  to help  questions.  This  the  section deals with  r e s e a r c h which broadened gations.  This research  seasonality  studies.  artifactual,  on  innovations  i n the  will  Glenrose  on  the  techniques  Section  analysis  tant  quantification and  area.  of  subsistence investi-  and  correlation data  of  cultural  main f o c u s s i t e , with  of  i s under-  of o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  The  Cannery  and  environmental  development  adaptations  for this the major  which and  section emphasis  quantities  of t h i s  section.  o f a complex  and of  recovered.  midden l a y e r s a t t h e  specifically  run  refinements  a n a l y s i s w h i c h a l l o w more p r e c i s e  shell  focus  strategy,  i l l u s t r a t e recent  s t r a t e g i e s t o be  of  aspect  herring  advent  new  of a n a l y s i s .  and  economic  the  answer  scope of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  purpose  section w i l l  excavation  is  cultural  Five  This  on  the  utiliz-  emphasizes f a u n a l remains  The  express  sheds l i g h t  be  the  subsistence,  f o r the  site  as n e c e s s a r i l y d i f f e r e n c e s i n  g r o u p s , new  taken  11 m a t e r i a l .  the  recovery  Crescent  site  information  Beach  represents  seasonally differentiated  the  utilization  processing  shellfish.  This  The  of the  f o r storage  i n midden  an  and site impor-  adaptive  early spring  or t r a d e  of  large  58  The  reconstruction  clam or h e r r i n g as w e l l  of  subsistence  procurement  and  as  the  archaeological  activities  are  inferred.  communities illustrate The  how  sociations  by  models of  of  structure  complete artifacts  site  and  an  archaeologically defined  Section The of  final  only  as  the  exhibit  a t midden  Demonstrating artifact  The  that  tested.  direct  as-  looking  at  a wide v a r i e t y  an  Contrasting  ethnographic  Coast  valuable  o u t l i n e or  speculates sites  of  but  as  cultural  cultural  are  the  shows t h a t  local  on  i n the  midden s i t e s  content,  development  a basic  d e v e l o p e d , what t h a t  understood.  of  intrinsically  although  ment o f  to  rarely  inferred.  " t o o l k i t " with  prehistoric activities,  protection.  that  I t i s by  are  and  are  even by  incorporating  activities  research  for their  remains of regarded  by  necessary  principle difference.  section  archaeological  not  remains.  biotic  Six  delta region.  of  this  or  these  local  developed  activities  as  represented,  the  them a r e  are  "tool kits"  information  illustrates  use  remains of  of  one,  the  are  such  e v i d e n c e from which  uses of  o f r e m a i n s and that  processing  S p e c i f i c d a t a on  ethnographic  archaeological  represented  the  and  activities  i s only  future  lower  Fraser  important,  structured  they  can  resources,  archaeology  be worthy  shows  c h r o n o l o g y has  c h r o n o l o g y means i n t e r m s o f  Salish culture  the  beginning  to  the be  been  develop-  61  23/6/79  -2-  ProJECT DESCRIPTION:  ( U s e o n l y s p a c e p r o v i d e d ; do n o t add a d d i t i o n a l s h e e t s . I n c l u d e I n f o r m a t i o n on need f o r project, aim o r o b j e c t i v e s , a u d i e n c e t o be s e r v e d and a n t i c i p a t e d d u r a t i o n . If applicable explain n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h , c o n s e r v a t i o n , s t a f f t r a v e l a n d / o r j u s t i f y why e x h i b i t i o n may n o t travel nationally.J  Changing T i d e s t r a c e s t h e h i s t o r y o f Northwest c o a s t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h t h r o u g h f o u r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s . T h i s e x h i b i t o u t l i n e s how i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f midden s i t e s have l e d t o a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how p r e h i s t o r i c p e o p l e d e v e l o p e d complex and unique systems f o r e x p l o i t i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . The i n s i g h t s g a i n e d t h r o u g h t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e i m p o r t a n t because t h e y expand o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Northwest c o a s t c u l t u r e . Changing T i d e s i n t r o d u c e s t h e C a n a d i a n p u b l i c t o t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h and t o t h e i n s i g h t s i t has p r o v i d e d . Whereas t h e p u b l i c u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e s t h i s c u l t u r e w i t h s p e c t a c u l a r c e r e m o n i a l s and i m p r e s s i v e woodworking, t h e r e s u l t s o f midden r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e t h a t l e s s i m p r e s s i v e a r t i f a c t s and o f t e n mundane r e i u a i n s c a n p r o v i d e a f u l l e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y and a n t i q u i t y o f N o r t h w e s t c o a s t culturfe While t h i s e x h i b i t f o c u s s e s s p e c i f i c a l l y on N o r t h w e s t c o a s t midden r e s e a r c h , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s i l l u s t r a t e d a r e more w i d e l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e g e n e r a l h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n archaeology. Changing T i d e s c o n s i s t s o f s i x s e c t i o n s , p r o g r e s s i n g from an i n t r o d u c t i o n w h i c h d e s c r i b e s the n a t u r e and i m p o r t a n c e o f midden s i t e s t h r o u g h f o u r s t a g e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h t o a summary s e c t i o n w h i c h l o o k s a t t h e f u t u r e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . The i n i t i a l stage of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h f o c u s s e s on t h e d e s c r i p t i v e r e s u l t s o f H a r l a n I . S m i t h ' 1898 i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e M a r p o l e midden s i r e . The i m p o r t a n c e o f Smith's work i s t h a t h i s c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y and d i s c o n t i n u i t y e s t a b l i s h e d two themes w h i c h r u n t h r o u g h much o f Northwest c o a s t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . The second s t a g e shows how C h a r l e s E. Borden's subsequent e x c a v a t i o n s o f M a r p o l e and o t h e r s i t e s were i n s p i r e d by h i s r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a l a c k o f p r o v e n i e n c e c o n t r o l s i n p r e v i o u s work o n l y p r o v i d e d g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n and s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . H i s work e s t a b l i s h e d a r e g i o n a l sequence g e n e r a l l y u t i l i z e d t o d a y . The advent o f s u b s i s t e n c e r e s e a r c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e t h i r d s t a g e , o f Northwest c o a s t a r c h a e o l o g y . The main f o c u s f o r t h i s s t a g e i s the G l e n r o s e Cannery s i t e where q u a n t i f i c a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n o f a r t i f a c t u a l , subs i s t e n c e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a was u n d e r t a k e n f o r the e x p r e s s purpose o f o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h shed l i g h t on t h e development o f c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n s and i n n o v a t i o n s . The l a s t s t a g e i l l u s t r a t e s r e c e n t r e f i n e m e n t s i n midden e x c a v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s w h i c h a l l o w more p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n on economic s t r a t e g i e s . The r e c o v e r y and a n a l y s i s o f  PEESONftL L i s t a l l p e r m a n e n t o r p a r t - t i m e s t a f f a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e P r o j e c t , t h e i r t i t l e and f u n c t i o n . S c on t 1, D i r e c t o r : ^ISS n°SWl e f5¥ S!lMill> ellfflcfiiV t \ W ^ & ~ f f i S W a n d l 1 s t d u t 1 e s C u r a t o r : R e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x h i b i t t e x t , r e s e a r c h , development and academic c o n t e n t , also i n i t i a t e s t r a v e l i t i n e r a r y and p r o v i d e s academic c o n s u l t a t i o n t o h o s t i n s t i t u t i o n s . E x h i b i t D e s i g n e r : P r e p a r e s e x h i b i t d e s i g n and p a n e l l a y o u t , s u p e r v i s e s t e c h i c a l a s p e c t s of p r o d u c t i o n . ( H . W a t s o n ) I l l u s t r a t o r : For s t a g e t h r e e s e c t i o n o f e x h i b i t ; d e p i c t s p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s i n w a t e r c o l o u r g r a p h i c s , from i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the C u r a t o r . ( G . M i l l e r ) Photographer D e s i g n e r : Designs and p r e p a r e s photographs f o r e x h i b i t , museum note and pojstei Design A s s i s t a n t : A s s i s t s E x h i b i t D e s i g n e r , a r r a n g e s t e x t t y p e s e t t i n g and e x h i b i t photc p r e p a r e s and mounts e x h i b i t m a t e r i a l s . C u r a t o r i a l A s s i s t a n t : Prepares f i g u r e s f o r d i s p l a y , proofreads t y p e s e t t i n g . ( I r v i n e / T i s d k l e ; A d m i n i s t r a t i v e / C l e r i c a l S t a f f : A d m i n i s t r a t e s budget, r e q u i s i t i o n p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , t y p e s m a n u s c i p t s f o r e x h i b i t and a r r a n g e s t r a v e l l o g i s t i c s and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . (J.Kendon) Research A s s i s t a n t : A s s i s t s C u r a t o r i n d e v e l o p i n g academic c o n t e n t as w e l l as d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f e x h i b i t m a t e r i a l . (A. S t e v e n s o n )  62  -2a-  s h e l l midden l a y e r s a t t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e i s t h e f o c u s o f t h i s f o u r t h s t a g e . Changing T i d e s draws upon t h e museum's a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n s , a l l o w i n g t h e C a n a d i a n p u b l i c t o see a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a r t i f a c t s and s u b s i s t e n c e remains n o r m a l l y not e x h i b i t e d , and v i e w e t h n o g r a p h i c a r t i f a c t s i n a new c o n t e x t . E v e r y s t a g e of t h i s e x h i b i t examines a r t i f a c t s and/or f a u n a l rerains from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . For example, s t a g e t h r e e c o n t a i n s a r t i f a c t s w h i c h have undergone r e s i d u e a n a l y s i s t o d e t e r m i n e p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s , and f a u n a l remains w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h e season o f t h e s e activities. Such remains a r e r a r e l y seen by t h e p u b l i c a l t h o u g h t h e s e a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l t o o l s o f a r c h a e o l o g i ' a l r e s e a r c h . Stage f o u r compares a r c h a e o l o g l c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d t o o l k i t s w i t h e t h n o g r a p h i c ones t o i l l u s t r a t e p r i n c i p l e s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . T h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n of e t h n o g r a p h i c o b j e c t s w i t h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains w i l l p r o v i d e the p u b l i c w i t h a new p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e u n f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h and more f a m i l i a r e t h n o g r a p h i c a r t i f a c t s . Photographs, g r a h i c s , maps and commissioned i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i l l accompany t h e e x h i b i t t o enhance the s t o r y l i n e . Changing T i d e s w i l l u t i l i z e d i s p l a y p a n e l s mounted on f r e e - s t a n d i n g and l a q u e r e d cedar frames. T h i s system has been used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n s e v e r a l of t h e museum's t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t s , and a l l o w s c o n s i d e r a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y f o r e x h i b i t s e t up. The a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 square meters r e q u i r e d f o r Changing T i d e s w i l l t h e r e f o r e f i t i n t o a v a r i e t y o f temporary e x h i b i t s p a c e s .  63  23/6779  LIST CF CCNTtTfTS TITLE, TYPE OR DESCRIPTION OF  ARTIST OR PROVENANCE  OWNED BY  OBJECTS  AVAILABILITY  VISUALS  CONFIRMED  ATTACHED  All objects are owned bythe U.B.C. Museumif Antropology are held in trus by the museum for the Sema ihmooTswwassen or Muse qalirn bands. The illustrations are produced in house, and the photographic credits will be confirmed before final select! n. I. Artifacts Section Two: -representative sanple of artifact s from the Marpolesite Section Three: •diagnostic artifa :ts for cultural phases Section Four: 1 remains to illustrate laborato y analysis -artifacts and f Section Five: -archaeological anftethnographic t|oo1 kits and fauna remains II•Photos(tentative sele tion) -composite photo irawn from the badof Section One: y -Harlan I. Smith i l midden excavat Lon the exhibit Section Two: -Borden's excavatim of Marpole aniWhalen Farm siteillustratir Section Three: g excavation technijue and sampling Section Four: -Glenrose Cannery ixcavation and 1aboratory analysis Section Five -Crescent Beach exavation layers, feature mapping a+d w ^ u e r screening. Also hotos of ethnographic activities Section Six -photos of midden sites as they apDear today III. Graphics & Illustraions -illustration of d lta/estuary dev lopment and illus ration Section One: in map form of se isonal round Section Three: •graphic represent tion of culture phase sequence Section Four: -graphical illustr tions of labora ory analysis eg; easonality studies of shellf .sh from middenssites (growth rin; studies) Section Five: •commissioned illu trations of et h lographic activiti s and other illustrations of nvironmental an 1ethnographic inf rmation  I f a d d i t i o n a l space 1s r e q u i r e d , p l e a s e a t t a c h a d d i t i o n a l sheets f o l l o w i n g t h e same format.  RUNN N IG OR SQUARE FEET M ( ETRES) REQU R IED FOR 70 sq. meters min. EXHB IT IO I N:  DURATION OF EXHIBITION  pprj,. January 1985r December 8 16 9 0 :  64  23/5/79 -4ITIrERAfiY DURATION  CF  ENTIRE  FRCM  TOUR!  M a y  PryitfTTFT, LOCATION  1)  M u s e u m  E d m o n t o n , 2 )  P r i n c e  3 )  W a l e s  M u s e u m  o f  M a n i t o b a  M u s e u m  R o y a l  Tnrntifn. 61  Q u e b e c ,  I f  OF  UNCONFIRMED  CONFIRMED  J u l y  1 / 8 5  *  1 5 / 8 5  S e p t . 1 / 8 5  O c t . 1 5 / 8 5  *  D e c .  J a n . 1 5 / 8 6  *  M a n  a n d  M a r c h l / 8 6  A p r i l l 5 / 8 6  *  J u n e  J u l y  1 5 / 8 6  *  O c t .  1 5 / 8 6  *  1 / 8 5  N a t u r e  M u s e u m  1 / 8 6  O u e b e c S e p t . 1 / 8 6  P . Q .  a d d i t i o n a l  METHOD  o f  Ontario  r i e  Musee  DATE  H i s t o r y  M a n i t o b a  O n t a r i o  DEPARTURE  H e r i t a g e  N . W . T .  S a s k a t c h e w a n  W i n n i p e g , 5 )  N o r t h e r n  N a t u r a l  R e g i n a , 4 )  J u n e  Y e l l o w k n i f e  DATE  A l b e r t a  A l b e r t a  o f  C e n t r e ,  o f  1 9 8 6  THIR  ARRIVAL,  P r o v i n c i a l  D e c e m b e r  TO  1 9 8 5  s p a c e  SHIPMENT:  1s  r e q u i r e d ,  R A I L  .  AIR  ,  p l e a s e  a t t a c h  X  ROAD  OWN  a d d i t i o n a l  s h e e t s  f o l l o w i n g  t h e  same  format.  VEHICLE  COMMERCIAL  SHIPPER  X  ( a t t a c h  q u o t e s )  C  o  s  t  b a s e d  s  v e r b a l  WHEN  AN  EXHIBITION  INSURANCE  WHEN  AN  VALUE!  * *  WHEN  HAS  AN  IS  .  h a v e  i n t e r e s t e d  FUNDED  BLANKET  EXHIBITION  F r o m  FUNDED  IS  b e e n  S t o n e i n  BY  EAP,  THE  ORGANIZER  MUST  NOT  CHARGE  EAP,  THE  ORGANIZER  MUST  PAY  A L L  AND  CAN  INSURE  SHIPPING  COSTS  TO  THE  ~ ~  BORROWING  INSTITUTIONS.  2 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 0  PREMIUM.  L e t t e r s B l o o d  $  EXHIBITION  INSTITUTION ANNUAL  IS  o n  q u o t e s  BY  COVERAGE  THE  BORROWED  INSURANCE  EXHIBITION  COSTS,  WITHOUT  EXCEPT  WHEN  ADDITIONAL  A  COST  BORROWING TO  THEIR  .  FUNDED s e n t  BY  EAP,  t o  e x h i b i t .  C h a n g i n g  THE  1 3  T i d e s  ORGANIZER  MAY  i n s t i t u t i o n s , T h e r e f o r e , .  w e  NOT t e n  CHARGE o f  A  BORROWING  w h i c h  a n t i c i p a t e  FEE  TO  e x p r e s s e d  a t : l e a s t  s i x  THE  BORROWING  i n t e r e s t  i n  i n s t i t u t i o n s  INSTITUTIONS. t h e t o  b e  -5-  f/7720  TFN  ( 1 0 ) COPIES-OF A L L PRINTED CATALOGUES AND BROCHURES PRODUCED WITH EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME  ASSISTANCE MUST BE FORWARDED, FREE OF CHARGE, TO THE EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAWE.  THESE WILL BE DISTRIBUTED  TO THE NATIONAL MISEUMS LIBRARY, THE NATIONAL LIBRARY, AND THE NATIONAL GALLERY LIBRARY.  THE APPLICANT I S  ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR DISTRIBUTING ONE COPY EACH, FREE OF CHARGE, TO A L L APPROPRIATE ASSOCIATE FTLSELMS. opasn  L I S T OF ASSOCIATE KUSFJUS WILL.BE FORWARDED TO .SUCCESSFUL APPLICANTS W E N  OescHbc  CA  FUNDS, ARE RELEASED.)  t h e e d u c a t i v e v a l u e and o b j e c t i v e s .  An exhibit brochure, i n the form of a museum note, w i l l provide information on the exhibit and a summary i n English and French of the e x h i b i t ' s contents. This brochur w i l l permit enhanced appreciation and interpretation by r e i t e r a t i n g the.exhibits ma points. A brief bibliography of relevant a r t i c l e s and other publications w i l l be 1 eluded for those who wish further Information. The exhibit poster w i l l feature one of the e x h i b i t ' s watercolour reconstructions of prehistoric a c t i v i t i e s .  CATALOGUES  BROCHURES  4"x9" DIMENSIONS  NUMBER OF COLOUR REPRODUCTIONS OF BLACX AND  24"xl7"  16  lU i' MBER OF PAGES luMBER  POSTERS  WHITE  REPR0DUCTICNS.C9n4.J4.ne  drawing)  'B-BER OF CATALTX&ES,8ROCHURES,POSTERS ESTIMATED PUBLISHING COST  *  ESTIMATED HANDLING COST  *  NUMBER TO BE GIVEN AWAY  %  ESTIMATED ADMINISTRATIVE COST.  *  ANTICIPATED REVENUE  i •  PRICE QUOTES AND MOCK-UPS ATTACHED  3000  300  2600  870  300 100  50  2900.  NUMBER TO BE SOLD SELLING PRICE  12  2 50 s l . nn si .no Under General Administrative Costs 250  125  For brochure format see attached Museum Guide-  TOTAL ANTICIPATED REVENUE FROM ALL-PRINTED MATERIAL  4LL NATIONAL TRAVELLING EXHIBITION MATERIAL SHOULD BE PPODUCED IN BOTH OFFICIAL LANGUAGES.  23/6779  -6-  ETIHA'ICEfEff ACTIVITIES AND MATERIALS WHICH FACILITATE A SETTER UNDERSTANDING OF AN EXHIBITION ARE SUPPORTED WHEN THEY CAN BE JUSTIFIED IN TERMS OF NEED, EXHIBITION OBJECTIVES AND THE AUDIENCE TO BE SERVED. THEY MAY INCLUDE FILM, A-V PftQTJUCT I ONS, PERFORMANCES, DEMONSTRATIONS, TAPES, ETC. IN THE SPACE BELOW DESCRIBE THE ENHANCEMENT PROPOSED AND ITEMIZE THE COSTS.  A p u b l i c l e c t u r e s e r i e s w i l l be a r r a n g e d t o enhance t h e e x h i b i t . Archaeologists, e t h n o l o g i s t s , and o t h e r r e l e v a n t e x p e r t s w i l l be i n c l u d e d . N e g o t i a t i o n s w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n t o a r r a n g e f o r Wayne S u t t l e s o f P o r t l a n d S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y and Don M i t c h e l l o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a t o l e c t u r e i n t h i s s e r i e s , a s w e l l a s , s e v e r a l l o c a l s p e a k e r s . The t r a v e l c o s t s w i l l be p r o v i d e d by U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's Laboratory of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l funding.  67  23/6/79 BUDGET  -3" Please read the Instruction page before completing the budget. Itemize each category. TOTAL COST  CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT  CATEGORY  OTHER INCOME donations grants or revenue  BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P.  PERSONNEL SALARIES S FEES Curator 6 weeks E x h i b i t Designer 6 weeks Photographer 2 weeks I l l u s t r a t o r on C o n t r a c t C u r a t o r i a l A s s i s t a n t 3 week 3 GSll.OO 105x11 & b e n e f i t s Design A s s i s t a n t on c o n t r a c : A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 4 weeks  SUB-TOTAL  5,400 3,600 1,200 1,500  5,400 3,600 1,200  1,200 900 3,000  1,200 3,000  16,800  14,400  -  1,500 900  2.400  PERSONNEL TRAVEL T r a v e l expenses and h o n o r a r i a f o r guest speaker : T r a v e l by C u r a t o r t o each exhibit location Vancouver-Edmonton ( r e t u r n ) Vancouver-Yellowknife (") Vancouver-Regina ( r e t u r n ) • Vancouver-Winnipeg ( r e t u r n ) Vancouver-Toronto ( r e t u r n ) Vancouver-Quebec ( r e t u r n ) Ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n H o t e l 8 days @$50/day Per diem 14 days @32/day SUB-TOTAL RESEARCH COSTS  SUB-TOTAL  600  282 622 308 490 778 890 144 400 448 $4962  600  -  282 622 308 490 778 890 144 400 4AA  600  4362  68  -923/S/79  f  S  BUDGET,  CONTINUED TOTAL COST  CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT  OTHER INCOME donst1ons grants revenue  BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P.  PRODUCTION COSTS  -  -  2,280  4,800  -  -  -  -  880  1,560  1,170  _  390  1,680  1,260  -  420  1,280  640  -  640  1,900  -  -  1,900  Typesetting  1,200  -  -  1,200  S i l k s c r e e n t e x t and l a b e l s Misc. & C o n s t r u c t i o n  2,600 1,000  -  -  2,600 1,000  19,180  7,870  -  11,310  2,900 870 1,000  300  24 panels  @ $ 95.00  2,280  12 modular frames and c o n n e c t o r s @ $400.00 8 plexlglas  4,800  cases  880  4 c r a t e s f o r frames @ $390.00 4 c o n t a i n e r s f o r 24 panel: <§ $420.00 4 c o n t a i n e r s f o r cases & a r t i f a c t s @ 320.00 Photography ( f i l m , process i n g and e n l a r g i n g )  -  SUB-TOTAL  ENHANCEMENT COSTS Brochure ( t r a n s l a t i o n i n c l . ) Poster T r a n s l a t i o n : e x h i b i t text  250 125  -  2,350 745 1,000  300  375  4,095  -  -  200  -  500  -  -  -  SUB-TOTAL 4,770 CIRCULATION COSTS Insurance premium d u r i n g circulation  200  Repair  500  & Maintenance  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n quote (CN- 300 cu f t• ) SUB-TOTAL  4,500 5,200  4,500 5.200  69  -1023/6/79  SLftWRY Cf BUDGET TOTAL COST  CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT  TOTAL:  OTHER INCOME donations grants o r revenue  BALANCE REQUESTED FROM  E.A.P.  16,800  14,400  -  2,4 0 0  4,962  600  _  4,362  19.180  7.870  4,770  300  375  5,200  _  _  SO,917  7 3,170 45%  % OF COSTS:  n  u  n  4,095  5,200  77 T i 7 1%  54%  '"  SLTWRr CF OTHER INCITE LIST ALL DONATIONS, GRANTS AND/OR ANTICIPATED REVENUE CONFIRM  SnjRCF  r  ANTICIPATED DATES WHEN FUNDS WILL E REQUIRED:  September  1984  ANTICIPATrTJ  \  9.5  APPENDIX 5 T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A 6395 N . W .  MARINE DRIVE  V A N C O U V E R , B.C., C A N A D A V6T 1W5 MUSEUM OF A N T H R O P O L O G Y  March  12  1984  J. Pauline Rafferty P r o g r a m Manager B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t Parliament Buildings V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8V 1X4 Dear P a u l i n e : I am r e q u e s t i n g f u n d s f r o m t h e B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t ' s A d d i t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s P r o g r a m t o h e l p p r o d u c e an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x h i b i t s c h e d u l e d t o open i n J a n u a r y 1985. T h i s e x h i b i t , e n t i t l e d Changing T i d e s t r a c e s the development o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n s o u t h w e s t e r n British Columbia. The e x h i b i t i s d e s i g n e d t o promote p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the a r e a ' s p r e h i s t o r i c h e r i t a g e t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e n e e d t o p r e s e r v e and p r o t e c t l o c a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s . This exhibit w i l l coincide with a public lecture series featuring current t o p i c s i n B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y . A d e t a i l e d c o s t e s t i m a t e w i t h c u r r e n t r e s o u r c e s and f u n d s r e q u e s t e d i s presented as Appendix I I . A l i s t o f p e r s o n n e l r e s o u r c e s i s o u t l i n e d i n A p p e n d i x I I I , and t h e e x h i b i t i s more f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n A p p e n d i x I a f t e r the f o l l o w i n g e x h i b i t overview. E v e r s i n c e t h e 1880's when a r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n crew w o r k i n g i n what i s now M a r p o l e , s o u t h V a n c o u v e r , u n e a r t h e d numerous p r e h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have b e e n i n v e s t i g a t i n g m i d d e n s i t e s i n the. F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n . These i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have r a n g e d f r o m q u i c k l y o r g a n i z e d s a l v a g e operations to large scale research projects. Changing T i d e s traces the h i s t o r y of t h i s l o c a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research through s e v e r a l developmental stages, beginning with the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e s e a r c h o f H a r l a n I . S m i t h and e n d i n g w i t h r e c e n t work a t t h e C r e s c e n t B e a c h s i t e . This e x h i b i t w i l l o u t l i n e how i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f l o c a l midden s i t e s have l e d t o a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g n o t o n l y o f t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n and c o n t e n t s , b u t a l s o o f how p r e h i s t o r i c p e o p l e d e v e l o p e d c o m p l e x and u n i q u e s y s t e m s f o r e x p l o i t i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e F r a s e r d e l t a and v i c i n i t y . The i n s i g h t s g a i n e d t h r o u g h t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e t h e y p r o m i s e t o expand o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f N o r t h west C o a s t c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l , and C o a s t S a l i s h c u l t u r e i n  72  APPENDIX I Exhibit  Outline:  Changing ductory  Tides i s divided  section,  through  summary s e c t i o n w h i c h to  Introduce  area's  the  s t a g e " of  controlled  content  served  s c o p e and  of the  shell  allowed  site  Section  general  sites.  based  they  utilized  fourth section  of  sees  systematic  and  of  this te  will  of of  data  to  understand-  phases p r e v i o u s l y and  analysis  Beach s i t e .  precise Information  r e s o u r c e s and  traits  a broadening  of r e c o v e r y  exhibit  and  chronology.  Quantification  at the C r e s c e n t  the  the  "descriptive  cultural  to the c u l t u r a l  techniques  to  upon d e s c r i b i n g t h e  t o p r o v i d e a more comp"  the  section  the  serves  on  These pre-  c o n s i d e r the  t h e r e f o r e the  future  f u t u r e of  research.  section  terms,  period, the  final  intro-  One  This  is  The  primarily  as w e l l as t h e c o r r e l a t i o n  a r e a s ' m i d d e n s as c u l t u r a l  archaeological  midden  The  f o c u s s e s on  an  the v i s i t b r  deals with  of a l o c a l  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to determine  use.  orient  of d i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t s  stages which correspond  Section five  from  S e c t i o n one  S e c t i o n t h r e e shows how  midden l a y e r s w h i c h were u t i l i z e d  historic the  theme and  to s u b s i s t e n c e r e s e a r c h .  data  i n f o r m a t i o n was  research.  S e c t i o n two  a series  each phase.  artifact  adaptive  techniques  of  d e f i n e d by  a change i n emphasis  r e m a i n s and  outlined. of  this  l e d to the development  to t y p i f y  environmental ing  developmental  o f midden s i t e s .  was  progresses  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l midden r e s e a r c h to a  f u t u r e of  i n g e n e r a l terms.  excavations  This chronology  faunal  the  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research which focused  artifactual  which  s i x s e c t i o n s and  four stages  l o o k s at  exhibit's  midden s i t e s  into  and As  upon t h e  serves  to o r i e n t  are  investigation  layering  middens a r e  of  o f midden  be  an  sites  l o c a t e d along  shells with  the  theme, i n  Fraser delta  spanning type  activities into  the  abundance o f m a r i n e  these  lower  of  region's  soils  s h o r e l i n e and  at  and  past.  shells and  an  almost  9,000  year  at the  outset  of  resources  since  n a t u r a l events Northwest  and  other  region  site  d e f i n e d as v a l u a b l e c u l t u r a l  to g a i n i n s i g h t s  by  to the  developmental  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s  the complex r e c o r d s of c u l t u r a l  are o f t e n recognized  exhibit's  to broadly d e f i n e t h i s  Middens can  archaeologists u t i l i z e  intricate  the v i s i t o r  the development  i t i s important  exhibit.  to i n t r o d u c e the  usually  remains.  the base of upland  which  Coast seen  middens as  Locally areas  an these  73 -2-  adjacent to d e l t a formations.  Although  i n g e n e r a l , sea l e v e l s , c l i m a t e and  r e s o u r c e s have r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e f o r t h e p a s t 5,500 y e a r s , d e l t a e s t u a r y d e v e l o p m e n t has had an i m p o r t a n t i m p a c t and of  resource u t i l i z a t i o n s i t e s through  time.  on t h e l o c a t i o n o f  habitation  T h e r e f o r e , the present  location  midden s i t e s i s dependent on t h e i n t e r p l a y o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t h e p a s t .  As a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have p e r c e i v e d and a n a l y z e d t h e s e s i t e s i n d i f f e r e n t ways t h r o u g h t i m e , t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n s h o u l d s e r v e as a f o c a l p o i n t f r o m w h i c h  to  view the development of t h i s r e s e a r c h . Section  Two  L o c a l i n t e r e s t i n midden r e s e a r c h began w i t h C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , but i t was  H a r l a n I . Smith's  work w i t h t h e J e s u p N o r t h P a c i f i c  E x p e d i t i o n which  c e i v e d the a t t e n t i o n of a wider a r c h a e o l o g i c a l audience. f o c u s on H a r l a n I . S m i t h ' s  1898  F r a s e r Midden" s i t e .  f o r c e of h i r e d l a b o u r r a p i d l y excavated Although  little  a t t e n t i o n was  were removed f r o m to  be l i t t l e  the s i t e ,  felt  Smith concluded  Smith  saw  S a l i s h , and  t h i s c o n t i n u i t y of a r t i f a c t  the presence  therefore indicated  o f w o o d w o r k i n g t o o l s as e v i d e n c e  However, t h e p r e s e n c e  t y p e s as a c o n t i n -  For example,  he  t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y has  t h e wooden o b j e c t s t h e m s e l v e s  an  can  o f c h i p p e d s t o n e and d e c o r a t i v e a r t s he saw  The  importance  of Smith's  c o n c l u s i o n s , concerning both  and d i s c o n t i n u i t y i s t h a t t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d two the areas' a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h .  themes w h i c h  attest. as  interior to  continuity  r u n t h r o u g h much  These themes have been v a r i o u s l y  p r e s s e d b u t b a s i c a l l y depend on v i e w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l r e m a i n s in  the  antiquity  t h e r e f o r e , he p o s t u l a t e d an e a r l y m i g r a t i o n o f i n t e r i o r p e o p l e s  the c o a s t .  the  o f r e t r i e v i n g h a r p o o n s w i t h sea mammal h u n t i n g , and  much g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t t o w h i c h  of  those i n  a c o n t i n u i t y o f c u l t u r e f o r t h e 2,000 y e a r s he e s t i m a t e d  s i t e to represent.  traits;  they  chat o b j e c t s from a l l l a y e r s  u a t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t i e s e x t e n d i n g i n t o t h e p a s t .  presence  o f a r t i f a c t s as  c o n f i d e n t to s t a t e t h a t t h e r e appeared  were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e made by t h e h i s t o r i c C o a s t t h a t t h e r e was  was  a small  a p o r t i o n o f t h i s s i t e by s h o v e l .  p a i d to the provenience  Smith  will  s i t e , which  S m i t h and  d i f f e r e n c e between a r t i f a c t s i n t h e u p p e r l a y e r s and  the lower l a y e r s of the s i t e .  equated  C h a n g i n g Tlde3  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Marpole  a l s o known as t h e Eburne o r " G r e a t  re-  exeither  t e r m s o f c u l t u r a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y o r as d i f f e r e n t i a l s i t e use o r a d a p t a t i o n a l  responses. S e c t i o n Three This section w i l l  f o c u s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a r e g i o n a l sequence of  74  -3cultural of and  phases,  provenience  controls  speculative  excavations  p r i m a r i l y as d e r i v e d i n previous  at a s e r i e s of s i t e s .  the l o c a l  fined  by a s e t o f d i a g n o s t i c  new g r o u p s , h i s l a t e r  section w i l l ticular, For  vestigation, To  local  work i d e n t i f i e d  and t h e Whalen Farm s i t e w i l l  ones, q u e s t i o n s  f o r t h e Whalen  II material.  Section As  d i f f e r e n c e s between s i t e and s e a s o n a l  ences i n c u l t u r a l questions. broadened  This  site  groups,  inventories  utilization  between  allowed f o r  emphasize  to the other  This  i n par-  sections.  with  Smith's i n -  with Crescent  be r a i s e d a b o u t  section deals  with  r e m a i n s and s e a s o n a l i t y subsistence,  purpose of o b t a i n i n g adaptations  became v i e w e d  rather  Beach.  of c u l t u r a l possible  inter-  the advent  and i n n o v a t i o n s  which sheds  i n the area.  the Glenrose Cannery s i t e ,  with  This  differ-  answer new research  research  which  emphasizes  The q u a n t i f i c a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a  information  to help  of subsistence  investigations.  studies.  i n terms o f c u l t u r a l  than as n e c e s s a r i l y  new methods were i n t r o d u c e d  the scope of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  artifactual,  Section  will  several  by t h e i n f l u x o f  be c o n t r a s t e d  be c o n t r a s t e d  year  Four  adaptations  faunal  thirty  the d i f f e r e n c e s  make t h e t r a n s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h i s . s e c t i o n on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and s u b s e q u e n t  foundation  s e q u e n c e he made  but w i l l  comparable  excavations w i l l  chronology  be  i s the  t h e Whalen I I component.  d e l t a chronology  s i t e s which a r e d i r e c t l y  Borden's Marpole  components  o r p h a s e was d e -  c o n t i n u i t y but s t i l l  at least to explain  pretations  of  cultural  descriptions  Borden's  d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n culture created  o u t l i n e the Fraser  those  example,  chronology  a lack  and c o n t r o l l e d  established  During  that  general  E a c h component  or t r a i t s .  sequence emphasized  o f new g r o u p s ,  This  today.  artifacts  Whereas, h i s e a r l i e r  components a s r e p r e s e n t i n g  influx  used  only  systematic  These e x c a v a t i o n s  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s  modifications.  the  work had p r o v i d e d  a l o c a l chronology.  sequence g e n e r a l l y  investigation  His recognition  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s l e d him t o conduct  f r o m w h i c h he d e v e l o p e d for  by B o r d e n .  light  i s undertaken  f o r the express  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  The main f o c u s  for this  of c u l t u r a l  section  will  t h e m a j o r e m p h a s i s on t e c h n i q u e s o f a n a l y s i s .  Five  This  section w i l l  a n a l y s i s which allow recovered. Beach s i t e  illustrate  more p r e c i s e  The r e c o v e r y i s the focus  recent  r e f i n e m e n t s i n midden e x c a v a t i o n  information  and a n a l y s i s o f s h e l l of t h i s  section.  This  on e c o n o m i c midden site  and  s t r a t e g i e s t o be  l a y e r s at the Crescent  represents  an i m p o r t a n t  75 -4-  aspect the or  of  a complex  utilization trade  of  The curement  large  are  models of  processing  site  are  or  by  looking  at  of  information  are  e v e n by the  that  as w e l l  uses of  them a r e  and  r e m a i n s of  the  "tool k i t " with  of  specifically  processing  for  storage  s u c h as  as  the  clam or  herring  archaeological  necessary  on to  the  local  pro-  evidence biotic  illustrate  how  tested.  activities  r e m a i n s and  activities an  strategy,  the  S p e c i f i c data  direct associations  structure  and  activities  inferred.  developed  archaeological  run  shellfish.  represented  ethnographic use  herring  subsistence  these a c t i v i t i e s  kits"  defined  q u a n t i t i e s of  and  and  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d adaptive  early spring  of  communities  The  seasonally the  reconstruction  from which  "tool  of  are  are  artifacts  by  i ;;,;orporating  inferred.  ethnographic  r a r e l y represented  of  one,  and  a wide  Contrasting  illustrates  by  remains.  an  this  complete  It i s  variety  archaeologically  principle dif-  ference. Section  Six  The ogical that the as  final  s e c t i o n of  research  midden s i t e s structured  of  are  exhibit  valuable  local  not  cultural  archaeology  only  for their  resources,  shows t h a t  b e e n d e v e l o p e d , what  development  Coast  on  lower F r a s e r  prehistoric activities,  c h r o n o l o g y has of  speculates  i n the  important,  remains of  intrinsically  velopment  the  at midden s i t e s  that  the  future  of  delta region.  archaeolDemonstrating  artifact  content,  but  shows t h a t  they can  be  worthy of  protection.  although a basic  o u t l i n e or  c h r o n o l o g y means i n t e r m s o f  S a l i s h culture i s only  beginning  t o be  The  as regarded de-  cultural the  understood.  76  APPENDIX I I E x h i b i t Cost3 and Funding Requirements  Exhibit  Costs;  Total costs  , Museum,of AntTjropology contribution  Funds r e q u i r e d  Personnel ( e x c l u d i n g permanent s t a f f ) I l l u s t r a t o r on c o n t r a c t Design a s s i s t a n t on contrac Research a s s i s t a n t - 3 wks. 0510 per h r . 105x10 & benefits SUB-TOTAL  Production  $1,500 900  1,500 900  1,100  -  1,100  3,500  -  3,500  Costs  24 panels 8 $95 12 frames & connectors <a $400 8 p l e x i g l a s cases @ $110 Typesetting Photography Silkscreen text & l a b e l s Construction costs  2.280 4,800 880 800 1,900 2,200 1,000  4,800  SUB-TOTAL  13,860  4,800  9,060  600 870  125  600 745  1,470  125  1,345  Enhancement  2.280  880 800 1,900 2,200 1,000  Costs  T r a v e l expenses and h o n o r a r i a f o r guest speakers Poster SUB-TOTAL  77  APPENDIX I I con't  Summary of C o s t s :  Personnel Production Enhancement  TOTAL  Summary of Funding  Total costs  Funds r e q u i r e d  _  33,500 13,860 1,470  4,800 125  3,500 9,060 1,345  18,830  4,925  13,905  Requirements  Total exhibit costs Less Museum of Anthropology c o n t r i b u t i o n The Charles and A l i c e Borden Museum of Anthropology Fund (committed) Required funds  contribution  $18,830 4,925 6, 700 7,205*  *Funds requested from B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t under A d d i t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s t o t a l $7,205  Program  APPENDIX I I I Exhibit  Personnel  Director:  ( D r . M.  Curator:  ( D r . R. G. M a t s o n ) R e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x h i b i t ' s s u p e r v i s i n g r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t .  Research  Exhibit  H a l p i n / D r . M.  M.  Ames)  Responsible  for editing  exhibit  academic  copy.  content,  Assistant: (A. S t e v e n s o n ) R e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t o f e x h i b i t , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e C u r a t o r ; as p a r t i a l requirement for Master's t h e s i s i n Archaeology/Museology. Designer: (H. Watson) P r e p a r e s e x h i b i t d e s i g n and v i s e s t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of p r o d u c t i o n .  panel  layout,  super-  Illustrator: (G. M i l l e r ) D e p i c t s p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s i n w a t e r c o l o u r g r a p h i c s , f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e C u r a t o r / R e s e a r c h A s s i s t a n t f o r s e c t i o n f i v e of the e x h i b i t . Photographer Designer: e x h i b i t and Design  (B. McLennan) D e s i g n s poster.  Assistant: Assists Exhibit hibit materials.  Curatorial  Assistants: proofreads  Designer,  and  prepares  arranges  (M. I r v i n e / M . T l s d a l e ) typesetting.  text  Prepares  photographs  f o r the  typesetting  and  figures  for  ex-  display,  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e / C l e r i c a l S t a f f : ( J . Kendon e t a l ) A d m i n i s t r a t e s b u d g e t , r e q u i s i t i o n p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , t y p e s m a n u s c r i p t s f o r e x h i b i t and h a n d l e s public relations. ,  9.6  APPENDIX 6  Exhibit' Outline: Changing T i d e s ses  from  an  i s divided into  s i x s e c t i o n s and  i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n , through  three  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l midden r e s e a r c h t o a summary looks to  at the  f u t u r e of t h i s  i n t r o d u c e the  the  visitor  Section ogical  to the  two  content  systematic  and  served  of  artifact  data,  environmental  Section  focusses  Crescent  Beach s i t e .  shell  final  or  the  on  archaeol-  upon d e s c r i b i n g t h e  Section three  The  shows  l e d to the This  de-  chronology and  traits  fourth section  sees  i n emphasis t o s u b s i s -  correlation  of the  terms.  of t h i s  and data  to  utilized  to provide  a more  adaptive  strategies  which  phases p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d .  the  techniques  of r e c o v e r y  midden l a y e r s w h i c h were u t i l i z e d  to determine The  a change  cultural  of  use.  stage"  chronology.  i n f o r m a t i o n was  analysis  ogists  orient  excavations  each phase.  as w e l l as  t o the  five  theme and  Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of f a u n a l remains  complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g correspond  serves  of d i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t s  s c o p e and  research.  sites.  of  s e c t i o n which  i n general  primarily  cultural  a series  sites  "descriptive  controlled  to t y p i f y  a broadening tence  the  o f midden  of a l o c a l  d e f i n e d by  which  midden  stages  S e c t i o n one  developmental  r e s e a r c h which focused  velopment was  area's  deals with  artifactual how  exhibit's  research.  progres-  These t e c h n i q u e s  allowed  p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n on  s e c t i o n of the  exhibit  will  and at  the  archaeol-  prehistoric consider  site  the  80  future fore  of the  the  s e c t i o n serves  to introduce  theme, i n g e n e r a l  lower  t e r m s , and  upon t h e  type  investigation  year of  at the  outset  of the  of c u l t u r a l  Northwest  Coast  dance o f m a r i n e layering Locally the  middens a r e shells  of these these  middens a r e  i n general,  remained r e l a t i v e l y estuary  location through sites past. sites  and  As  soils  on  the  and  l o c a t e d along  has  had  resource the  the  interplay  ways t h r o u g h  events the  past.  abun-  shoreline  and  formations. resources  5,500 years, impact  location  of these  the  ramains.  utilization  time,  an  be  intricate  other  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have p e r c e i v e d and  in different  an  important  present  this  are  into  to d e l t a  past  devel-  almost  natural  c l i m a t e and  an  an  by  to  i s based  define  insights  adjacent  the  s i n c e they and  develop-  M i d d e n s can  often recognized  s t a b l e f o r the  Therefore,  i s dependent  to gain  sea l e v e l s ,  o f h a b i t a t i o n and time.  exhibit.  u s u a l l y seen as  areas  development  region  to broadly  activities  s h e l l s with  base o f u p l a n d  Although  and  there-  visitor  As  spanning  resources  which a r c h a e o l o g i s t s u t i l i z e  the  sites.  o f midden s i t e s  as v a l u a b l e c u l t u r a l  complex r e c o r d s  at  and  exhibit's  to o r i e n t  in this  p e r i o d , i t i s important  site  defined  the  F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n ' s midden  opment o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h  9,000  resources  One  This  the  cultural  f u t u r e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h .  Section  mental  a r e a s ' middens as  have  delta on  the  sites o f midden  factors analyzed  in  the  these  this introduction  81  should  serve  as a f o c a l  opment o f t h i s Section  p o i n t from  research.  interest  Hill-Tout,  but  i n midden r e s e a r c h began w i t h  i t was  Harlan  Pacific  E x p e d i t i o n which r e c e i v e d the  wider  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l audience. I. Smith's  w h i c h was  also  was  the  the  Smith  site,  t o be  t o t h o s e made by indicated  2,000 y e a r s  saw  this  of  economic  he  equated  mammal h u n t i n g , evidence  and  he  estimated  that this  the  Coast  the  site  into  of r e t r i e v i n g presence  activity  has  presence  of chipped  arti-  layers  of  culture  as a c o n t i n u a t i o n  past.  For  harpoons w i t h  antiquity  stone  and  were  and  example, sea  o f woodworking t o o l s an  of  to represent.  types the  they  state  Salish,  as  much g r e a t e r  t h a t t o w h i c h t h e wooden o b j e c t s t h e m s e l v e s  However, t h e  as  a l l layers  a continuity  of a r t i f a c t  extending  presence  lower  ex-  little  between  that objects.from  on  site,  c o n f i d e n t to  i n the  the h i s t o r i c  continuity  and  those  focus  Although  difference  a  F r a s e r Midden"  of a r t i f a c t s  Smith f e l t  of  labour r a p i d l y  shovel.  t h a t t h e r e was  activities the  by  little  Smith concluded  therefore  "Great  provenience  i n the upper l a y e r s  similar  than  the  t h e r e appeared  site.  for  site  p a i d to the  were removed f r o m  facts  Eburne or  Jesup  attention  of the Marpole  a small f o r c e of h i r e d  a p o r t i o n of t h i s  attention  that  the  the  Changing T i d e s w i l l  investigation  known as  S m i t h and  cavated  1898  Charles  I . S m i t h ' s work w i t h  North  site.  devel-  Two  Local  Harlan  which to view the  can  decorative  attest. arts  he  saw as i n t e r i o r  migration of  traits;  of i n t e r i o r  peoples  Smith's c o n c l u s i o n s ,  continuity i s that  therefore,  they  he p o s t u l a t e d  to the coast.  concerning established  themes have been v a r i o u s l y  expressed  cultural  Section  b u t b a s i c a l l y depend on  i n c u l t u r a l remains e i t h e r  section w i l l  Borden.  focus  His recognition  speculative  and  c o n t r o l l e d excavations  cavations  established  local  sequence g e n e r a l l y  was d e f i n e d  This  a lack  chronology used  year  only  general  con-  descriptions systematic  These e x -  i s a foundation  today.  f o r the  E a c h component  artifacts  o r phase  or t r a i t s .  Dur-  i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  work i d e n t i f i e s  components as r e p r e s e n t i n g  modifications.  the d i f f e r e n c e s  discontinuity i n culture  t h e i n f l u x o f new g r o u p s , h i s l a t e r but s t i l l  Charles  of provenience  c u l t u r a l s e q u e n c e he made s e v e r a l  Whereas, h i s e a r l i e r  continuity  by  at a s e r i e s of s i t e s .  by a s e t o f d i a g n o s t i c  Borden's t h i r t y local  as d e r i v e d  components f r o m w h i c h he d e v e l o p e d a  chronology.  by  that  of a r e g i o n a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , l e d him t o c o n d u c t  local  this  use or ad-  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  i n p r e v i o u s work had p r o v i d e d  and  ing  site  i n terms o f  responses.  sequence o f c u l t u r a l phases, p r i m a r i l y  trols  These  Three  This  E.  research.  d i s c o n t i n u i t y o r as d i f f e r e n t i a l  aptational  and d i s -  two themes w h i c h r u n  archaeological  differences  The i m p o r t a n c e  both c o n t i n u i t y  t h r o u g h much o f t h e a r e a s '  viewing  an e a r l y  allowed  sequence  f o r the infux  between created  emphasized  o f new g r o u p s ,  83 at  l e a s t to  will in  outline  explain the  the  Fraser  p a r t i c u l a r , those  the  other  ions  be  11  component.  d e l t a chronology  s i t e s which are  sections.  will  Whalen  For  contrasted be  but  with  Smith's  t r a n s i t i o n between t h i s s e c t i o n  contrasted  ment o f  c u l t u r a l chronology  will  r a i s e d about  comparable  and  possible  with  Crescent  subsequent  on  to  excavatthe  Beach.  the  ones,  develop-  questions  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r the  Whalen  material.  Section  Four  As in  emphasize  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and  To  11  section  example, B o r d e n ' s M a r p o l e  site  be  will  directly  Whalen Farm make the  will  This  differences  terms of  ation  rather  between  site  c u l t u r a l adaptations than  as  necessarily  inventories and  differences  methods were i n t r o d u c e d  to help  questions.  This  the  sistence ogical  research  investigations. seasonality  correlation  of  ural  This  which  adaptations  f o r the  the  m a j o r emphasis  on  be  The  the  answer  advent  new sub-  archaeolfaunal  quantification and  of  and  environmental obtaining  development area.  Glenrose  techniques  of  emphasizes  i n the  the  utiliz-  in cultural  express purpose of on  site  scope of  subsistence,  innovations  focus f o r t h i s section w i l l with  research  sheds l i g h t and  the  studies.  artifactual,  i s undertaken  information  with  which broadened  r e m a i n s and  data  deals  viewed  seasonal  g r o u p s , new  section  became  of  The  Cannery  analysis.  cultmain site,  84  Section  Five  This  section w i l l  excavation on  the  egy? run  of t h i s  midden l a y e r s section.  o f a complex  specifically  of The  clam  f o r storage  reconstruction  represents  of the e a r l y or trade  of subsistence  procurement  site i s an  important  spring  of large  are i n f e r r e d .  activities  and p r o c e s s i n g  as t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  activities tivities  Beach  and  stratherring  quant-  shellfish.  or h e r r i n g  as w e l l  information  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d adaptive  the u t i l i z a t i o n  and t h e p r o c e s s i n g  ities  site  i n midden  The r e c o v e r y  at Crescent  This  seasonally  refinements  more p r e c i s e  s t r a t e g i e s t o be r e c o v e r e d .  of s h e l l  focus  aspect  recent  and a n a l y s i s w h i c h a l l o w  economic  analysis  illustrate  evidence  are  by c o m p l e t e  "tool kits"  of a r t i f a c t s  by  o f r e m a i n s and by  at the s t r u c t u r e  a wide v a r i e t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n Contrasting  that  one, i l l u s t r a t e s  this  and r e m a i n s .  or It i s  incorporating  the a c t i v i t i e s  an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y d e f i n e d  ethnographic  these  remains of ac-  even by d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s looking  represented,  from which  The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  are r a r e l y represented  s u c h as  are i n f e r r e d .  " t o o l k i t " w i t h an  principle difference.  Section Six The of  final  archaeological  delta region. not  section  only  of the e x h i b i t  research  a t midden s i t e s  Demonstrating  for their  artifact  speculates  that  midden  content,  remains of p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s ,  on t h e f u t u r e  i n the lower  sites  Fraser  are important,  but as t h e s t r u c t u r e d  shows t h a t  they  c a n be  regarded  as i n t r i n s i c a l l y  of p r o t e c t i o n . that  although  The d e v e l o p m e n t a basic  been d e v e l o p e d , development understood.  valuable cultural  what  of Coast  outline that  of l o c a l  or c u l t u r a l  chronology  Salish  culture  r e s o u r c e s , worthy  archaeology chronology  shows has  means i n t e r m s o f t h e i s only beginning  t o be  OHAKJGIKJGT T/bdS Text  Section I  General  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o middens and Lower F r a s e r d e l t a  and d e s c r i p t i o n  Photographs and I l l u s t r a t i o n s  A b r e l f overview of the e x h i b i t introducing the f o u r s t a g e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h which f o l l o w .  Middens w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d as complex r e c o r d s of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and n a t u r a l e v e n t s . They a r e r e c o g n i z e d by t h e i r abundance of s h e l l and by t h e i r i n t r i c a t e l a y e r i n g . Some f a c t o r s w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and/or i l l u s t r a t e d a r e p r e s e r v a t i o n ( r o l e of s h e l l i n n e u t r a l i s i n g a c i d f o r e s t s o i l s and w a t e r l o g g i n g c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s such as s e a s o n a l s i t e use^and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s p a r t i c u l a r i t y the development of t h e F r a s e r d e l t a / e s t u a r y .  taken from t h e f o u r s t a g e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , showing changes i n e x c a v a t i o n methods through t i m e . . H a r l a n I Smith's e x c a v a t i o n o f Marpole (1896) . Borden's e x c a v a t i o n at M a r p o l e o r Whalen Farm. . G l e n r o s e o r Lab a n a l y s i s . Open area e x c a v a t i o n a t C r e s c e n t Beach A r t i f a c t s and f a u n a l remains w i l l be used t o show t h e t y p e s of m a t e r i a l s archaeologists find: For example:  stone  wood others-  artifacts cooking stones artifacts f a u n a l remains artifacts f a u n a l remains netting etc. f l o r a l remains  Graphic p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an i d e a l i z e d s e a s o n a l round f o r t h e Coast S a l i s h ( R i v e r - F i s h e r m e n emphasis) -Four Seasons i l l u s t r a t i o n s o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s are a p o s s i b i l i t y or Jomon type l i n e d r a w i n g To o r i e n t t h e v i s i t o r t o t h e e x h i b i t s l o c a t i o n a l f o c u s a s w e l l as i l l u s t r a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s w h i c h have e f f e c t e d the l o c a t i o n of s i t e s and t h e p r e h i s t o r i c u t i l i z atton of the Fraser d e l t a .  The g e n e r a l area and s p e c i f i c s i t e l o c a t i o n s w i l l be shown I n r e l a t i o n the development of t h e F r a s e r d e l t a y estuary. - a map s e r i e s ( l i n e d r a w i n g s ) o f t h r e e main s t a g e s of t h i s developrnt  archaeology  Section I I  Text and  description  D e s c r i p t i v e stage  Artifacts  H a r l a n I . Smith's 1898 e x c a v a t i o n of the Marpole ( a l s o Eburne or G r e a t F r a s e r Hidden) s i t e i s used t o show i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of l o c a l midden s i t e s  Photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s  Notes  P h o t o - H a r l a n I . Smith's e x c a v a t i o n of Marpole showing man i n midden with shovel. Stratigraphic layers and f o r e s t growth on midden a r e evident.  S m i t h 1903 P l a t e V I I Fig. 1  F a c t o r s t o be c o v e r e d : A r t i f a c t d e s c r i p t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n s was the p r i m a r y outcome of S m i t h ' s work i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H i s s i m u l t a n e o u s study of h i s t o r i c Coast S a l i s h s o c i e t y e n a b l e d him t o p o s t u l a t e economic c o n t i n u i t y t h r o u g h t i m e , but he saw d i f f e r e n c e s as e v i d e n c e of an e a r l y m i g r a t i o n of p e o p l e from the I n t e r i o r . T h i s a s s e r t i o n was mere s p e c u l a t i o n as he had not c o n t r o l l e d f o r stratigraphy. In o t h e r words he d i d not keep r e c o r d s t o show what a r t i f a c t s had come from which l a y e r s . Smith's a n a l y s i s : E s t i m a t e d s i t e age- f o r e s t growth, d e l t a development, tnidden a c c u m u l a t i o n and degree of decay.  - w i l l be grouped i n economic c a t e g o r i e s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some o v e r l a p of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . Tiie a r t i f a c t s S m i t h l i s t s as "most common"will be grouped i n h i s economic c a t e g o r i e s Tor example: Men's T o o l s Woodworking-"Eburne t y p e maul a n t l e r wedge bone c i s e l c e l t s (adze b l a d e ) Hunting & F i s h i n g chipped p o i n t s ground s l a t e p o i n t s bone p o i n t s s i n k e r stones Women's T o o l s , awls ne--dles fish knife Decorative & a r t objects Engraved s t o n e , bone & s h e l l bead3 pendants harpoon p o i n t s etc.  See S m i t h  1913  CO  —J  88  s  3  X w to c 7 MI a 3 >a * J c « *J OJ «~ D  «  » «  C ti -c ci V i* •H 3 -H U U CS O (I U h E H a  to C •H t-< 3 ID CO  •c £  *J  H ^ -H  ID  V a u ^ I- C 1u V n n k- n 01 * J 4) >f *H 4J H-i X> «H *H ^ « YJ a  u  4J  O. Id  H T) T3 ^ IP •-H  O  c  OJ  oa  C l- O O W  a  01 C O 1-1 W4  l-  S e c t i o n IV  Text and  description  Subsistence  Research  Artifacts  The G l e n r o s e Cannery and C r e s c e n t are the f o c u s of t h i s s e c t i o n .  Photographs and  Illustrations  Beach s i t e s  R e c e n t l y a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have developed a g r e a t e r concern w i t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g past a d a p t a t i o n s and changes i n economic s t r a t e g i e s through time. G l e n r o s e , a deep, multi-component s i t e appeared to be the l o g i c a l c h o i c e t o b e g i n r e s e a r c h i n t o the development of the Northwest C o a s t ' s u n i q u e subsistence pattern.  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on t e c h n i q u e s of a n a l y s i s f o r e x c a v a t i n g and examining a r t i f a c t s and n o n - a r t i f a c t remains w h i c h have been d e v e l oped t o a i d i n s u b s i s t e n c e r e s e a r c h . Techniques t o be p r e s e n t e d Excavation: Sampling-column Water s c r e e n i n g  (under r e v i s i o n ) -photo showing column sample removal photo of waters*reening  sampling  Laboratory: Residue a n a l y s i s Shell seasonality Faunal s t u d i e s , r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of d i e t . C o m p u t e r s - c o r r e l a t i o n of data  -those used t o determine a c t i v i t i e s -prepared s h e l l s e c t i o n s - f a u n a l remains  •photo of l a b w o r k e r s - i l l u s t r a t i o n of r e s i d u e a n a l y s i s i l l u s t r a t i o n of s h e l l s e c t i o n s g r a p h i c r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of d i e t change t h r o u g h time at G l e n r o s e  (Glenrose) ( C r e s c e n t Beach)  (Crescent  Beach) or  Glenrose  OO  Section V  A c t i v i t i e s anc Hidden  Layers  P h o t o g r a p h s and  Text and d e s c r i p t i o n  C r e s c e n t B e a c h - r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s .  Excavation (photo)  subsistence  To show how the e x c a v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of midden l a y e r s can p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e use.  S i t e development i n terms of c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l processes i s a l s o a p o s s i b i l i t y .  Ethnographic t o o l k i t s w i l l be compared to the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains of a c t i v i t i e s .  illustrations  showing l a y e r removal  Midden f e a t u r e mapping ( p h o t o )  For example: clam basket and d i g g i n g s t i c k w i l l be compared t o t h e d e b r i s of clam p r o c e s s i n g woodworking t o o l s w i l l be compared t o the broken and incomplete t o o l k i t s found a t C r e s c e n Beach. Ethnographic a c t i v i t i e s - h i s t o r i c photographs -commissioned i l l u s t r a t i o n s For example - h e r r i n g f i s h i n g and p r o c e s s i n g -clam d i g g i n g and p r o c e s s i n g  S i t e development w i l l be g r a p h i c a l l y presented. A r e a map i n d i c a t i n g s e a s o n a l a r e a of optimum u s e - e e l g r a s s beds w i t h r e l e v a n t s p e c i e s p r e s e n t and r o c k y foreshore with resources.  (See Four Seasons e x h i b i t )  Text and  description  Looks at the f u t u r e of middens as c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i n need of p r o t e c t i o n . P o s s i b l y s p e c u l a t i o n on a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t r e n d s f o r the f u t u r e ???  Artifacts  P h o t o g r a p h s and  Notes  illustrations  S e v e r a l p h o t o g r a p h s of middens t h e y appear t o d a y .  as  Possibilities: Marpole ( B e e r p a r l o r p a r k i n g  lot)  S t . Mungo ( A c t i v e b r i d g e c o n s t r u c t i m) Beach Grove ( V i s i b l e  features)  C r e s c e n t Beach ( P a r k - s i t e  and  residences)  ^5  .8  APPENDIX 8  Changing Exhibit  text - F i r s t  Section  I a:  Changing T i d e s  draft  Introduction  o u t l i n e s the h i s t o r y of a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h  Columbia's F r a s e r hundred y e a r s  Tides  delta region.  of s h e l l  Each e r a r e p r e s e n t s  This exhibit traces nearly  midden r e s e a r c h  through three  a major change i n f o c u s  p e r i o d b u i l d i n g on the l a s t .  basic  and t e c h n i q u e s ,  one eras. each  93 -2Section The  I b:  site  What i s a s h e l l midden?  i s the  important  basic resource  type of s i t e  midden which p r o v i d e s  i n the the  f o r the Fraser  delta region  archaeologist  of c u l t u r a l  activities  back n e a r l y  nine  Middens are  commonly viewed as a n c i e n t  can  and  thousand  be much more.  The  result For  up  and  steaming mound may In t h i s way,  of c o n t i n u o u s ,  salmon f i s h i n g  site  dates  occur  but  archaeologist  leaves  and  same p l a c e refuse  c o v e r e d by  Other s i t e s may use.  a different  other activities  patterns  over  of an the  These  must i n t e r p r e t  Different layer  l a y e r s accumulate,  seasonal  they  of abandonment.  at the  l a t e r be the  shells  both from the v a r i o u s  from p e r i o d s  activities  to f i v e meters i n depth.  pattern  record  This record  example, i n a c o a s t a l s h e l l midden the  a nearby house.  shell  garbage dumps, but  to determine a s i t e ' s h i s t o r y .  shellfish  i s the  most  years.  complex c l u e s which the  when v a r i o u s  The  a complex  complex l a y e r s of s o i l s ,  which have occurred t h e r e  i n order  with  n a t u r a l events.  remains found i n t h e s e s i t e s r e s u l t  layers contain  archaeologist.  time.  old  debris  from  reaching  show a more r e g u l a r  For  instance,  pattern  a  of d e b r i s  fall than  a spring herring fishing location.  Investigating processes  these middens i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d  of decay.  quickly unless  by  natural  Most o r g a n i c  materials  decay  special conditions  aid their  preservation.  c o a s t a l middens the  p r e s e n c e of s h e l l s h e l p s  relatively  to p r e s e r v e  In bone  94 -3-  Section I b con't.  and a n t l e r , but wood and f i b e r s waterlogged.  T h e r e f o r e , the wooden a r t i f a c t s  w i t h Northwest  Coast c u l t u r e s  more mundane remains play a v i t a l development  s u r v i v e o n l y i f they a r e c o n s t a n t l y  role  are r a r e l y  usually  found.  identified  Consequently,  such as s h e l l s , bones and c o o k i n g s t o n e s  i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p a t t e r n s and  of p r e h i s t o r i c  cultures.  95 -it-  Section  I c: Beyond the midden  To u n d e r s t a n d the r o l e a r c h a e o l o g i s t s must For  of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e  consider  the Fraser d e l t a r e g i o n  e n v i r o n m e n t a l and g e o g r a p h i c i t i s important  e v o l u t i o n of the F r a s e r  d e l t a estuary.  has  i n the l o c a t i o n ,  played  a v i t a l role  of r e s o u r c e s thousand  used by the r e g i o n ' s  years.  within a region, changes.  t o l o o k a t the d r a m a t i c  The d e v e l o p i n g stability  and  estuary quantity  inhabitants f o r nearly  nine  96 -5Section I I :  The  Descriptive Period  H a r l a n I Smith's 1 8 9 8 i n v e s t i g a t i o n  o f the Marpole  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f e a r l y midden r e s e a r c h . p e r i o d , he was  primarily  concerned  site is  Characteristic  w i t h f i n d i n g and  of  this  describing  artifacts.  Smith  e s t i m a t e d the i n i t i a l  o c c u p a t i o n of the Marpole  h a v i n g o c c u r r e d 2,000 y e a r s ago. f a c t o r s as the age  more r e f i n e d  and  degree  t h i s e s t i m a t e on  over the midden,  structure  site  l a b o u r , Smith  by s h o v e l .  Little  rapidly  at l e a s t  economic c o n t i n u i t y based b a s k e t r y and mat those he saw  people and  two  He  However, he  concluded  of a s t a b l e argued  still  i n use  by l o c a l  the p r e s e n c e  t o the c o a s t .  These two  discontinuity  Coast  fishing,  S a l i s h people.  to On  themes of economic  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h undertaken  the  of c h i p p e d stone p o i n t s and  f o r an e a r l y m i g r a t i o n o f  reappear  economic  for this  on the r e c o v e r y of woodworking,  d e c o r a t i o n as e v i d e n c e  cultural  millenia.  paid  making t o o l s , many o f which were s i m i l a r  o t h e r hand, he viewed geometric  depth  excavated  a t t e n t i o n was  of a l l l a y e r s provided evidence  spanning  such  o f midden m a t e r i a l decay.  t o the l a y e r s i n which a r t i f a c t s were found. that a r t i f a c t s  as  techniques support h i s estimate.  U s i n g a s m a l l f o r c e of h i r e d a p o r t i o n of t h i s  based  of the t r e e s growing  a f midden a c c u m u l a t i o n , Recent,  He  site  i n much of the in this  area.  Interior  continuity later  97 -6-  S e c t i o n I I I a: The Development  of a C u l t u r a l  Sequence  1 9 ^ 0 ' s work at Marpole and o t h e r F r a s e r  Since the l a t e  delta  s i t e s by C h a r l e s E. Borden has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the  basic  cultural  sequence s t i l l  used today.  sequence, Borden used s y s t e m a t i c c o n t r o l l e d with c a r e f u l these  documentation of a r t i f a c t s  To e s t a b l i s h  excavations,  coupled  and f e a t u r e s found w i t h i n  sites.  Borden r e a l i z e d t h a t t o move beyond Smith's  speculative  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , he must keep a c c u r a t e r e c o r d s o f where were found i n a s i t e . are  this  Artifacts  grouped i n t o components,  e x c a v a t e d from a s e r i e s o f l e v e l s  with s i g n i f i c a n t  and i m p o r t a n t changes i n a r t i f a c t components.  stratigraphic  R a d i o - c a r b o n d a t i n g h e l p e d t o o r d e r the components  Borden c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s e f f o r t s  a r t i f a c t s he f e l t  were d i s t i n c t i v e  sequence by i s o l a t i n g  of a p a r t i c u l a r time p e r i o d .  These phases were u s u a l l y named f o r the f i r s t characteristic  components  s e v e r a l phases.  it  was f i r s t  defined.  on e s t a b l i s h i n g a c u l t u r a l  c h r o n o l o g y , d e f i n i n g each phase o f t h i s  many s i t e s  breaks  i n v e n t o r i e s s i g n a l l i n g new  and t h e r e f o r e the phases which t h e s e components  at  artifacts  site  were found, but anyone  i n which  site  F o r example, marpole phase components  i n the r e g i o n , defined  could  contain  a r e found  i n c l u d i n g t h e Marpole s i t e where  and the G l e n r o s e Cannery s i t e f u r t h e r  upriver.  98 -7-  Section I l i a  On  con't.  the o t h e r hand, the Whalen I I phase i s c o n f i n e d t o the Whalen  Farm  site.  L i k e Smith, trait  Borden r e l a t e d  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  complexes, w i t h the a r r i v a l  As a r e s u l t , he corresponding  of p a r t i c u l a r  d e f i n e d a s e r i e s of c u l t u r a l  t o h i s v a r i o u s phases.  By  the e a r l y  phase r e p r e s e n t i n g an region.  1 9 7 0 ' s , he  influx  of new  traits,  cultural  or  groups.  displacements  However,as a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  work i n a d j a c e n t r e g i o n s p r o g r e s s e d , he continuity.  of c e r t a i n  allowed f o r greater  still people  saw  cultural  the Whalen I I  i n t o the F r a s e r  delta  99 -8-  Section  Illb:  The  Borden's r e l i a n c e a cultural  on a s p e c i f i c  phase made c u l t u r a l  However, a growing s i t e use  Whalen I I Phase  the Whalen I I problem.  fishing,  fish  r e g i o n has  determine  the o b v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n .  l e d t o new  For example, the absence  k n i v e s , now  r a t h e r t h a n an i n f l u x  these k n i v e s .  discontinuity  to  c o n c e r n w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r o l e  i n the F r a s e r d e l t a  particularily  s e t of a r t i f a c t s  p e o p l e who  insights  o f ground  s u g g e s t s the absence of new  of s e a s o n a l into slate,  o f salmon  d i d not  use  100 -9-  Section  IV:  Subsistence  Archaeologists techniques with  Research  i n v e s t i g a t i n g midden s i t e s a r e now a p p l y i n g  t o answer new q u e s t i o n s .  u n d e r s t a n d i n g the p r o c e s s  There i s a g r e a t e r  of c u l t u r a l  than the events o f c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y .  archaeologists  concern rather  The development o f the  Northwest C o a s t ' s unique s u b s i s t e n c e to u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c u l t u r a l  adaptation,  new  pattern  pattern  i s considered  as a whole.  are f o c u s s i n g t h e i r research  on  critical  Therefore,  subsistence  strategies.  Although the Fraser  delta cultural  sequence i s now i n p l a c e ,  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s u b s i s t e n c e is  just  beginning  a good s t a r t i n g  point  6,000 y e a r r e c o r d resources,  t o take shape.  s t r a t e g y each phase  The G l e n r o s e Cannery s i t e  f o r such r e s e a r c h  o f the c o n t i n u i n g  because i t p r o v i d e s  of s e a s o n a l  a shellfish  To  a i d subsistence  excavation the  site,  research  and h e r r i n g p r o c e s s i n g  archaeologists  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t i f a c t s ,  completely  techniques.  Investigating  f a u n a l remains and o t h e r  i s complex but c r i t i c a l  analyzied;  camp.  employ more r e f i n e d  to t h i s  Due t o c o s t s and time c o n s t r a i n t s , a l l l a y e r s w i t h i n be  Beach  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a p a r t i c u l a r type  p r o c e d u r e s and new l a b o r a t o r y  midden c o n s t i t u e n t s  a  l a n d and s e a mammals.  More r e c e n t l y , i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t the C r e s c e n t a greater  proved  but v a r i a b l e use o f c e r t a i n  such as salmon, s h e l l f i s h ,  s i t e has p r o v i d e d  represents  therefore representative  research. a site  cannot  samples a r e  101 -10-  S e c t i o n IV c o n ' t .  taken.  F o r i n s t a n c e , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s use column samples t o  reconstruct  the r e l a t i v e  in  of the s i t e ' s  the d i e t  waterscreening  through  importance  o f s h e l l f i s h , f i s h and game  occupants,  at a p a r t i c u l a r  f i n e mesh p r o v i d e s a r e f i n e d  time. A l s o , technique  which a l l o w s g r e a t e r r e c o v e r y o f f i s h v e r t e b r a e and o t h e r i t e m s , than increasingly by such  t r a d i t i o n a l l y d r y s c r e e n i n g methods. important  techniques.  research.  and  are a l s o being developed  F o r example, t h e growth r i n g s  can a c c u r a t e l y show the season  determining tools,  Computers become  f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e masses o f d a t a c r e a t e d  New l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s  shell  small  the season  of s i t e use.  such as b l o o d , f a t s  and p i t c h ,  i n a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of  of c o l l e c t i o n ,  sites.  thereby  D e t e c t i n g r e s i d u e s on stone h e l p s t o show t o o l f u n c t i o n  i n t u r n what a c t i v i t i e s may have been preformed  seasonal  to a i d subsistence  at these  102 -11-  S e c t i o n V:  The  Midden l a y e r s and past  1977 e x c a v a t i o n  at the C r e s c e n t type  activities  and subsequent a n a y y s i s o f s h e l l midden l a y e r s  Beach s i t e  provides  specific  i n f o r m a t i o n on the  and season o f a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n at t h a t s i t e .  reflects  a c u r r e n t concern  with developing  strategy  for investigating a particular  a specific  important  refinement  research  site.  In most p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s s i t e s were dug by a r b i t r a r y One  This project  at the Crescent  Beach s i t e  levels. involved  c a r e f u l removal o f the n a t u r a l midden l a y e r s , a l l o w i n g g r e a t e r accuracy  i n determining  the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f v a r i o u s midden  c o n s t i t u e n t s , and from them the s p e c i f i c  a c t i v i t i e s which  occurred  at the s i t e .  A n a l y s i s o f d a t a from the s i t e was a i d e d by p r e d i c t i o n s o f what s h o u l d be found  i n this  location.  l a y e r t y p e s were d e v e l o p e d to the s i t e  Models f o r p a r t i c u l a r  by s t u d y i n g the r e s o u r c e s  expected  available  inhabitants, taking into consideration h i s t o r i c  S a l i s h use o f the a r e a and those  times  o f t h e y e a r when  resources  a r e most abundant. In o t h e r words, c e r t a i n  features,  artifacts  and f a u n a l remains a r e e x p e c t e d  group o f p r e d i c t e d a c t i v i t i e s .  However, due t o such  Coast  certain  layer  types,  fora particular factors  as decay, humus b u i l d - u p d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f d i s u s e , and the removal of many t o o l s and s t r u c t u r e s onced used a t the s i t e , e x p e c t a t i o n s cannot be t o t a l l y  realized.  these  F o r example, a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Section V con 1. 1  evidence that  shell-fish  processing  occurred at a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e  or wood working  o f t e n bears l i t t l e  activities  d i r e c t resemblance  to the t o o l s and s t r u c t u r e s a c t u a l l y used f o r such  activities.  104 -13-  Section VI:  The Future  o f the Past  A major and c o n t i n u i n g problem f a c i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s working i n urban a r e a s ,  such  as the F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n , i s the c o n t i n u i n g  d e s t r u c t i o n o f midden s i t e s . have been e x c a v a t e d other s i t e s  with  Important  sites,  such  as Marpole  the b u l l d o z e r s a l r e a d y a t work.  are destroyed  by urban e x p a n s i o n  Many  b e f o r e any  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i s p o s s i b l e .  Archaeologists are just  beginning  understanding  o f the l o n g , r i c h  understanding  results  past r e s u l t s  t o p r o v i d e us w i t h  p r e h i s t o r y of t h i s region.  from a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s  by a s k i n g new q u e s t i o n s  to answer them.  our p r o t e c t i o n .  these  This  o f b u i l d i n g on  and d e v e l o p i n g new  In o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h  view a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s  some  techniques  ends, we need t o  as non-renewable r e s o u r c e s which r e q u i r e  9  APPENDIX 9 October Changing  Exhibit  t e x t - Second  Section l a :  Tides  draft  Introduction  Changing T i d e s o u t l i n e s the h i s t o r y Columbia's F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n . one  1,1984 .  hundred y e a r s  This exhibit  As you move through  in British  traces nearly  o f s h e l l midden research through  p e r i o d s : the D e s c r i p t i v e , C u l t u r a l Research e r a s .  of archaeology  three basic  Sequence, and S u b s i s t e n c e the e x h i b i t , you w i l l see  how each subsequent e r a b u i l d s on p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h w h i l e i t a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a major change i n f o c u s and t e c h n i q u e s .  106 -2-  Section For  lb:  What i s a s h e l l midden  the a r c h a e o l o g i s t ,  e v i d e n c e o f past site  a site  i s any l o c a t i o n which  human a c t i v i t y .  i n the F r a s e r  delta region  the  a r c h a e o l o g i s t with  and  n a t u r a l events.  site? contains  The most i m p o r t a n t  type o f  i s the s h e l l midden which  a complex r e c o r d o f c u l t u r a l  This record  provides  activities  dates back n e a r l y nine  thousand  years.  A l t h o u g h middens a r e commonly viewed as a n c i e n t they can be much more. and  other  The complex l a y e r s o f s o i l s ,  remains found i n s h e l l middens r e s u l t  a c t i v i t i e s which have o c c u r r e d s i t e was not used. ologist  at  there  layer patterns  the same p l a c e  result  over time.  from both the  c l u e s which the a r c h a e -  to discover  a site's  when d i f f e r e n t  the r e f u s e  of a s h e l l  F o r example, i n a c o a s t a l  continuous,  In t h i s  up t o f i v e meters i n depth.  a s i t e may show a more r e g u l a r p a t t e r n o f  but s e a s o n a l  associated with  shell  f i s h steaming mound which i n t u r n ,  way, the l a y e r s accumulate, r e a c h i n g cases,  occur  be c o v e r e d  may be c o v e r e d by t h e remains o f a campsite h e a r t h .  In o t h e r  history.  activities  midden the remains o f an abandoned house may l a t e r by  shells  and from times when the  These l a y e r s c o n t a i n  must i n t e r p r e t i n o r d e r  Different  garbage dumps,  fall  s i t e use.  salmon f i s h i n g  of d e b r i s which d i f f e r s  from t h a t  For i n s t a n c e , leave  left  the a c t i v i t i e s  a distinctive  by s p r i n g h e r r i n g  pattern fishing.  107 - 3 -  S e c t i o n l b : con't Investigating  t h e s e middens i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by n a t u r a l  p r o c e s s e s o f decay.  Most o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s decay  relatively  quickly unless special conditions a i d their preservation. In c o a s t a l  s h e l l middens the p r e s e n c e  bone and a n t l e r ,  of s h e l l s helps to preserve  but wood and f i b e r s u s u a l l y  they a r e c o n s t a n t l y w a t e r l o g g e d .  s u r v i v e only i f  T h e r e f o r e , the wooden  most commonly i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Northwest Coast rarely  found.  Consequently,  bones and c o o k i n g  c u l t u r e s are  more mundane remains  stones play a v i t a l  role  artifacts  such as s h e l l s ,  i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the p a t t e r n s and development o f p r e h i s t o r i c  cultures.  108 _4-  Section  To  I c : Beyond the midden  u n d e r s t a n d the r o l e o f a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e w i t h i n  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s must c o n s i d e r factors.  The r i c h  t h a t o f the F r a s e r  both e n v i r o n m e n t a l and c u l t u r a l  environment o f the Northwest C o a s t , i n c l u d i n g delta region,  i s o f t e n seen as fundamental  to the development o f the u n i q u e c u l t u r e s o f t h i s the  past  a region,  one hundred y e a r s ,  archaeologists  t h a t understanding- how t h e s e s p e c t a c u l a r r e q u i r e s an awareness o f the s e a s o n a l  area.  Over  have come t o r e a l i z e  cultures  developed  c y c l e o f Northwest  Coast  life.  For  the F r a s e r  delta region,  in particular,  i t i s important  to l o o k a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l change i n terms o f the e v o l u t i o n o f the  Fraser  this  development.  tidal  The  delta.  l o c a t i o n o f midden s i t e s  F o r example, a s i t e  that  f l a t s may now be s e v e r a l k i l o m e t e r s  developing  surrounding stability  variety  estuary—the  and q u a n t i t y  a vital  of important  The F r a s e r  once f r o n t e d on  upriver.  r o l e i n the l o c a t i o n ,  resources  f o r over  seven  d e l t a and e s t u a r y  provided  a rich  o f s e a and l a n d r e s o u r c e s  which were e x t e n s i v e l y  the Coast S a l i s h i n h a b i t a n t s o f the r e g i o n .  resources  reflects  t i d a l mouth o f the r i v e r and  w a t e r s — h a s played  thousand y e a r s .  by  The p r e s e n t  used  A l t h o u g h many  were abundant, they were o f t e n a v a i l a b l e o n l y  seasonally,  109  -5Section  and  very  Ic:  o f t e n were d i f f i c u l t  wide v a r i e t y to take fish  con't,  of  ingenious  and  to acquire.  o f t e n complex methods were  advantage of abundant but  runs.  spring runs,  Herring and  and  eulachon  short  salmon were n e t t e d , t r a p p e d  the  l o c a t i o n where the were  the  fished.  a developed  term resources, such  were n e t t e d  h a r p o o n e d , o r h o o k e d , d e p e n d i n g on and  Consequently,  or raked in weirs,  season, the  as  during speared,  species,  110 -6-  Section I I :  The  Archaeological  Descriptive  Era  investigation  i n the F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n began  i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . concerned  w i t h f i n d i n g and  H a r l a n I. Smith's  1898  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s  T h i s e a r l y work was  describing  investigation early  artifacts.  of the Marpole  by s h o v e l .  Little  artifacts  based  N e v e r t h e l e s s , he  spanning  at l e a s t  h i s e s t i m a t e f o r the 1,000  f o l l o w e d by  1,000  of t r e e s growing and the degree  p a i d t o the  two  layers  concluded  from a l l l a y e r s p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e of a  economic s t r u c t u r e  Using  excavated a p o r t i o n  a t t e n t i o n was  i n which a r t i f a c t s were found. that  site is  e r a of midden r e s e a r c h .  a small f o r c e of h i r e d labour,Smith r a p i d l y of the s i t e  primarily  thousand  stable  years.  Smith  years of s i t e occupation,  y e a r s o f d i s u s e on such f a c t o r s as the over the midden, depth o f midden  of midden m a t e r i a l decay.  Recent  age  accumulation, research supports  his estimate.  Smith used  the a r t i f a c t s which he r e c o v e r e d from  answer q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the economic and of the a r e a .  He  argued  tools  similar  p e o p l o e . On He viewed  to those he  saw  based  b a s k e t r y , and mat  still  i n use  the o t h e r hand, he argued  the presence  cultural  f o r economic s t a b i l i t y  r e c o v e r y of woodworking, f i s h i n g ,  the s i t e  by l o c a l  for cultural  of c h i p p e d stone p o i n t s and  to  stability on  the  making Coast  Salish  change. geometric  d e c o r a t i o n as e v i d e n c e f o r an e a r l y m i g r a t i o n of I n t e r i o r  people  Section  II:  to the c o a s t .  con't.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the D e s c r i p t i v e  q u e s t i o n s were i m p o r t a n t speculative. techniques.  More  E r a , Smith'  ones , but h i s c o n c l u s i o n s  c o n c l u s i v e answers r e q u i r e d  remained  more r e f i n e d  112 -8Section  Since  Ilia:  The.Development  the late  1940's w o r k  and o t h e r  Fraser  the  cultural  basic  this  delta  sequence  found w i t h i n  these s i t e s .  Borden r e a l i z e d tations, found  helped  He g r o u p e d l a y e r s call  in  excavations,  Smith's speculative  Borden grouped s i m i l a r  interpre-  o f where a r t i f a c t s were  with  similar  components  artifacts  He u s e d  to distinguish  significant  between  components.  from d i f f e r e n t  or c u l t u r a l phases, which radio-carbon  to establish  each phase  a particular the f i r s t  a c u l t u r a l sequence  b y i s o l a t i n g a r t i f a c t s he f e l t  time period.  These  sites  dating  example, Marpole phase the region,  including  o t h e r hand,  involved were d i s t i n t i v e  phases were u s u a l l y  s i t e i n which the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c several  components  named  c o m p o n e n t was  components  or phases.  a r e f o u n d atomany  sites  t h e M a r p o l e s i t e w h e r e i t was  first  d e f i n e d and t h e G l e n r o s e Cannery the  establish  controlled  a component.  f o u n d , b u t any s i t e c o u l d c o n t a i n For  To  i n establishing  to order.  defining  for  t o move b e y o n d  i n a r t i f a c t inventories  Borden's e f f o r t s  of  used today.  he m u s t k e e p a c c u r a t e r e c o r d s  cultures  instrumental  d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e a r t i f a c t s and f e a t u r e s  what a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  turn,  into  that  i n a site.  changes In  still  sequence, Borden used s y s t e m a t i c careful  Sequence(methods)  b y C h a r l e s E. B o r d e n a t M a r p o l e  s i t e s has been  coupled with  into  of a C u l t u r a l  t h e Whalen  site further  I I phase  upriver.  i s confined  On  to a single  site.  113 -9Section  Illb:  Although  The D e v e l o p m e n t o f a C u l t u r a l  Borden f i r s t  distinctive  cultures,  viewed h i s c u l t u r a l  cultural  s e q u e n c e r e m a i n s an i m p o r t a n t  phases as a s e r i e s o f  development.  of c e r t a i n  o p e r a t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k f o r more  conclusions, like  artifact  groups i n t o  types  the area.  Smith's,  Although  o f new  cultural  He l a t e r m o d i f i e d h i s p o s i t i o n ,  hypotheses concerning  originated.  equated the i n t r o d u c t i o n  with the a r r i v a l  when a r c h a e o l o g i c a l w o r k i n a d j a c e n t  regions  the regions  failed  however,  to  support  from which c e r t a i n  he e v e n t u a l l y v i e w e d m o s t l o c a l l y  phases as o u t g r o w t h s o f p r e v i o u s  o n e s , he c o n t i n u e d  t h e W h a l e n I I p h a s e a s r e p r e s e n t i n g an i n f l u x into  His cultural  research.  Borden's e a r l y  his  (results)  he e v e n t u a l l y m o d i f i e d h i s p o s i t i o n t o  allow f o r greater local  recent  Sequence  o f new  people  the r e g i o n , from the i n t e r i o r .  why a r e l a t i v e l y site.  question, to  recent  Although they  cultural  questions  local  concerning  appear at only this  h a v e b e g u n a s k i n g new q u e s t i o n s w h i c h may o f t h e Whalen I I problem.  a s how t h e o c c u p a n t s  e n v i r o n m e n t o r why t h e s e  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s had f i r s t  Despite  this  of a s i t e  activities  to shift  categorizing artifacts  as w e l l .  phase s h o u l d  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have y e t t o answer  a better understanding  such  and  defined  t o view  Borden's view o f t h e Whalen I I phase c r e a t e s q u e s t i o n s  one  traits  their  To a s k  e x p l o i t e d the  changed through  focus  time,  from d e s c r i b i n g  t o i n v e s t i g a t i n g m o r e mundane  new f o c u s , r e c e n t  lead  research r e l i e s  remains on  114 -10-  Section  Illb:  con't.  Borden's c h r o n o l o g y example, various Fraser  i s an important  operational tool.  h i s chronology allows a r c h a e o l o g i s t s phases w i t h major e n v i r o n m e n t a l  delta.  For  t o match the  developments of the  115 - l i -  S e c t i o n IVa:  Subsistence  Research  Since the e a r l y 1970's, a r c h a e o l o g i s t s i n v e s t i g a t i n g midden s i t e s have been a p p l y i n g new There i s a g r e a t e r concern cultural The  t o answer new  with understanding  a d a p t a t i o n , r a t h e r than  the events  development of the Northwest C o a s t ' s  pattern i s considered p a t t e r n as a whole. t h e i r r e s e a r c h on prehistoric with  the p r o c e s s  of  of c u l t u r e h i s t o r y .  unique  subsistence  to understanding  Therefore,  subsistence  other  the  cultural  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s are f o c u s s i n g  strategies,  t h a t i s on how  the  necessities.  the F r a s e r d e l t a c u l t u r a l  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g just  critical  questions.  i n h a b i t a n t s of the r e g i o n f u r n i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s  food and  Although  is  techniques  beginning  of the  sequence i s now  subsistence  to take  shape.  i n place,  s t r a t e g y each phase  The  Glenrose  Cannery  represents site  proved a good s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r such r e s e a r c h because i t p r o v i d e s a 6 , 0 0 0 y e a r r e c o r d of c o n t i n u i n g but  v a r i a b l e use  resources,  l a n d and  such as salmon, s h e l l f i s h ,  of  certain  sea mammals.  More r e c e n t l y , i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n at the C r e s c e n t s i t e has  provided  of s e a s o n a l To  site,  a greater understanding a shellfish  and  Beach  of a p a r t i c u l a r  type  h e r r i n g p r o c e s s i n g camp.  a i d s u b s i s t e n c e r e s e a r c h , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s employ more r e f i n e d  excavation  procedures  and  new  laboratory techniques.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t i f a c t s ,  animal,  fish  and  Investigating shell,  r e m a i n s , as w e l l as o t h e r midden c o n s t i t u e n t s i s complex  but  116 -12-  S e c t i o n IVa:  critical all  con't.  to t h i s research.  layers within a site  representative use  Due t o c o s t s and time  cannot  be c o m p l e t e l y  samples a r e t a k e n .  constraints,  analyzied; therefore  For i n s t a n c e , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  a s e r i e s o f column samples i n o r d e r t o r e c o n s t r u c t the  relative  importance  of the s i t e ' s  of s h e l l f i s h ,  occupants,  fish  and game i n t h e d i e t  at a p a r t i c u l a r  time.  Also,  waterscreen-  i n g t h r o u g h fine mesh p r o v i d e s a r e f i n e d t e c h n i q u e which f o r g r e a t e r r e c o v e r y o f f i s h v e r t e b r a e and o t h e r s m a l l than t r a d i t i o n a l creasingly by  such  dry s c r e e n i n g methods.  important  s e c t i o n of s h e l l  stone  Computers become i n -  techniques.  sistence research.  on  F o r example, t h e growth r i n g s  can a c c u r a t e l y show the season  determining tools,  are a l s o being developed  t h e season  o f s i t e use.  t o a i d subi n a cross-  of c o l l e c t i o n ,  Detecting residues  such as b l o o d , f a t s and p i t c h , h e l p s t o show  t o o l f u n c t i o n and i n t u r n what a c t i v i t i e s may have been at these  items  f o r analyzing the masses o f d a t a c r e a t e d  New l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s  thereby  allows  seasonal  sites.  performed  117 -13-  S e c t i o n IVb:  The  Midden l a y e r s and past  activities  1977 e x c a v a t i o n and subsequent a n a l y s i s o f s h e l l  l a y e r s a t the C r e s c e n t  Beach s i t e  on the type and season  o f a c t i v i t i e s undertaken  T h i s p r o j e c t r e f l e c t s both  the ongoing  r e f i n e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l techniques developing a s p e c i f i c particular  povides  specific  information  at that  site.  development o f more  and the c u r r e n t c o n c e r n  with  research strategy f o r investigating a  site.  In most p r e v i o u s studies., s i t e s were dug by a r b i t r a r y One  midden  important  refinement  at t h e C r e s c e n t  levels.  Beach s i t e i n v o l v e d  c a r e f u l removal o f the n a t u r a l midden l a y e r s , a l l o w i n g . g r e a t e r accuracy  i n determining  constituents. the s p e c i f i c  This detailed  what s h o u l d be found  i n v e s t i g a t i o n h e l p e d t o determine  t h e s i t e was a i d e d by p r e d i c t i o n s o f i n this  location.  l a y e r t y p e s were d e v e l o p e d  available historic  o f v a r i o u s midden  a c t i v i t i e s which o c c u r r e d a t the s i t e .  A n a l y s i s o f d a t a from  expected  the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p  to the s i t e Coast  Models f o r p a r t i c u l a r  by s t u d y i n g the r e s o u r c e s  inhabitants, taking into consideration  S a l i s h use o f the a r e a and those  y e a r when c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e s a r e most abundant. certain  layer  are e x p e c t e d  types, f e a t u r e s , a r t i f a c t s  times  o f the  In o t h e r words,  and f a u n a l remains  f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group of p r e d i c t e d a c t i v i t i e s .  However, due t o such f a c t o r s as decay, humus b u i l d - u p d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f d i s u s e , and the removal' o f many t o o l s and s t r u c t u r e s once used  a t he s i t e ,  these e x p e c t a t i o n s cannot  be t o t a l l y  118 -14-  Section  IVb:  realized. fish  con't.  F o r example, a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  processing  particular  site  evidence that  or wood w o r k i n g a c t i v i t i e s often  bears l i t t l e  t o o l s and s t r u c t u r e s a c t u a l l y  direct  occurred  shellat a  resemblance  used f o r such  t o the  activities.  119 -15-  S e c t i o n V:  The F u t u r e  Archaeologists of  by  are beginning  the long, r i c h  results  from  of the Past  t o p r o v i d e u s w i t h some  p r e h i s t o r y of t h i s  a continuing process  region.  This  of building  understanding  understanding  on p a s t  results  a s k i n g new q u e s t i o n s a n d d e v e l o p i n g new t e c h n i q u e s  t o answer  them.  The  D e s c r i p t i v e e r a not only provided  tions, and  but a l s o asked  cultural  Cultural and is  change.  questions concerning  from  more r e f i n e d  new l a b o r a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s . ' beginning  based.  to outline  changes a r e j u s t  Unfortunately,  Recent S u b s i s t e n c e  economic  regional techniques  Research  Northwest  Coast  cultures are considered  f o r thousands of years, important beginning  t o be  f o r many a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y  t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f midden s i t e s .  important  sites,  at work.  Many o t h e r s i t e s  developmental  understood.  urban ones,  t h e F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n , a major and c o n t i n u i n g  involves  both  excavation  t h e b a s i c s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n i s now  t o have p e r s i s t e d  descrip-  the development of the s e a s o n a l l y d i v e r s e  p a t t e r n upon w h i c h  While  artifact  The s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f a  Sequence r e s u l t e d  subsistence  as  important  initial  have been e x c a v a t e d  Marpole,  such  problem and o t h e r  with the bulldozers already  are destroyed  before  any a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  work i s p o s s i b l e .  I f a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the development  of Northwest  cultures  must c o n t i n u e  Coast  to investigate  i s t o be a c h e i v e d , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a cross—section of sites  within  120  -16-  Section  V:  a region.  con't  In o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h  archaeological our  protection.  sites  t h e s e ends, we  as non-renewable  need to view  r e s o u r c e s which r e q u i r e  9.10  APPENDIX 10 CHANGING  THE D E V E L O P M E N T  TIDES  OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN B.C.'S FRASER  Exhibit Text Ann Stevenson November 2,1984  DELTA  Section A l :  Changing  Tides  examines the history of archaeological research in British  Columbia's Fraser delta region by tracing our evolving knowledge of its prehistory. Each stage of this research has changed and refined our perception of the past.  As you move through the exhibit, you will see how each stage of research-here titled the "Descriptive", "Cultural Sequence", and "Subsistence" stages-not only builds on earlier knowledge but also introduces new ideas and new techniques.  123  Section A2: THE  SIGNIFICANCE  O F S H E L L MIDDENS  Shell midden sites provide the most important evidence for prehistoric human activity in the Fraser delta region. These sites contain the remains of dwellings,  work areas and garbage dumps, providing a record of human  habitation spanning nearly 9,000 years.  In midden sites, different activities  created characteristic  patterns of  remains. These remains resulted in the build up of midden layers archaeologist  interprets in order to discover a site's history.  Different  layer  patterns  result  when  diverse  activities occur  in a c o a s t a l shell  midden  the r e m a i n s of a n a b a n d o n e d  over t i m e .  F o r example,  may  be covered by the refuse of a s h e l l f i s h  later  be covered b y r e m a i n s  of a campsite hearth.  r e a c h i n g u p to 5 m e t e r s  In  other  shells a n d other naturally  In this  c a s e s , a site m a y show a more  differs  from  remains  deposited  debris.  steaming mound  a t the s a m e place house  that, in turn, m a y  w a y the l a y e r s  accumulate,  i n depth.  seasonal u s e . F o r i n s t a n c e , debris w h i c h  which the  fall s a l m o n  t h a t left result  regular  f i s h i n g activities  by spring  not only f r o m  pattern  of c o n t i n u o u s , b u t  leave a d i s t i n c t i v e  herring fishing. these h u m a n  T h e complex  pattern  of  l a y e r s o f soil,  a c t i v i t i e s , b u t also  from  THE  CONTENTS OF S H E L L MIDDENS  Investigating M o s t organic t h e m . In antler,  materials  coastal shell  but  wood and  waterlogged. T h u s , known  shell  are  rarely  decay  plant  fibers  carved  found  further complicated  quite q u i c k l y  m i d d e n s , the  the  E x h i b i t e d here  m i d d e n s is  are a  shells helps  survive  wooden objects  in archaeological  natural  unless special conditions  presence of  usually  by  for  only which  if  processes of help  to p r e s e r v e  they  are  to  found  shell  and  constantly  the N o r t h w e s t  in c o a s t a l  preserve  bone  C o a s t is  sites.  range of i t e m s  decay.  middens.  well  125  Section  A3:  SHELL  MIDDENS AND  To  THEIR SETTING  understand the role of a particular  site within a region, archaeologists  must consider the changing natural environment lived. The rich and diverse environment  in which the site's occupants  of the Northwest Coast, including that  of the Fraser delta region, influenced the development of the area's  unique  cultures.  The Fraser river delta and estuary provided a wide variety of sea and land resources which were extensively used by the region's inhabitants. The estuary-the tidal mouth of the river and surrounding for over  THE  7,000 years in the location, stability  developing  ocean waters-played  and quantity of these  a vital role  resources.  SEASONAL ROUND  Although  many resources were abundant, they  were often available only  seasonally, and even then, they could be difficult to acquire. The Coast Salish inhabitants of the region used diverse, and often complex methods to harvest short-term resources. For example, during spring fish runs, herring or eulachon  these were  netted and raked; salmon were netted, trapped in weirs, speared, harpooned or hooked, depending on the species, the season and location.  126  THE DEVELOPING DELTA In examining the Fraser delta region, it is important to consider the evolution of the delta itself. The present location of midden sites reflects this development. For instance, a site that fronted on tidal flats at the river's mouth 2,000 years ago may now be several kilometers upriver.  127  Section B: THE  DESCRIPTIVE STAGE  Archaeological investigation in the Fraser delta region began in the late 1800's. This early work was mainly concerned with finding artifacts, describing them, and speculating about their  The  significance.  1898 investigation of the Marpole site by the American Museum of Natural  History's Harlan  I. Smith is representative of this early research. Using  a small force  of hired labour, Smith rapidly excavated a portion of the site b}' shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that artifacts from all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure beginning at least 2,000 years ago.  Smith based his estimates  for the 1,000 years of occupation, followed by  1,000  years of disuse, on such factors as the age of trees growing over the midden, the depth of accumulation, supports  his estimate.  and the degree of midden material decay. Recent research  128  DESCRIPTION AND SPECULATIONS Smith  used the artifacts that he recovered from the site to answer questions  concerning the economic and cultural stability of the area. He argued for economic stability based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry, and mat making tools similar to those he saw still in use by the local Coast Salish residents of the area. On the other hand, Smith  also argued for cultural replacement.  chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence  He viewed the presence of  for early migration of interior  people to the coast.  Smith  asked  important questions, but his answers were speculative, in a manner  characteristic of early descriptive archaeology. More conclusive answers would require more refined theories and research techniques, which were introduced as archaeology developed.  129  Section C l : THE  CULTURAL  SEQUENCE  STAGE  British Columbia's first archaeologist, Charles E . Borden, worked at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites, from the late  1940's to the 1970's, and  was instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. He realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpretations of the area's prehistory, accurate records must be kept of where artifacts or tools, and features—such as hearths—were found in a site.  To establish  a cultural sequence, Borden grouped layers  what archaeologists call a component. He then grouped  with similar artifacts into  similar components from different  sites into cultures or cultural phases. Radio-carbon dating, invented i n 1948, was used to verify the order of these phases, as well as to date them.  DEFINING  The  CULTURAL PHASES  phases Borden defined are the Locarno Beach phase, the Marpole  phase, the Whalen II phase, and the Stselax phase. These phases were usually named after the first site in which the characteristic component was found, but any  site could contain several components or phases.  For example, Marpole phase components, first defined at the Marpole site, are found at many sites in the region including the Glenrose Cannery site upriver. The Whalen II phase, on the other hand, is confined to a single site.  Shown here is a selection of artifacts Borden considered representative of each cultural phase.  Section C2: REFINING T H E C U L T U R A L  SEQUENCE  Initially, Borden viewed his cultural phases as representing a series of migrations into the region. He eventually modified his postion, however, recognizing that cultural change could also result from local development.  This change in Borden's postion resulted when archaeological work in adjacent areas failed to support eventually allowed he continued  his hypotheses about the origin of certain traits. Although he  that most phases could have developed locally out of previous ones,  to argue that the Whalen II phase represented  the arrival of new people  from the interior.  B3' considering the Whalen II phase to represent the entire region during one time period, Borden ignored other possible explanations. The presence of particular artifacts might have resulted from trade, and absence of others might be due to the season of site use.  For example, the presence of small chipped  stone  points, commonly found in  interior sites, were also found at the Whalen F a r m site, and could be accounted for by trade between coast and interior peoples. On the other hand, the absence of thin ground slate knives usually associated with salmon processing and found in earlier and later phases in the region may simply indicate that the site in question was not used for salmon  A  fishing.  recognition of the potential importance of seasonal  site use  distinquishes the  next stage of archaeological research. This new focus provides an alternative explanation for the uniqueness of the Whalen II component, while adding a new dimension to complement Borden's basic cultural  sequence.  Section DI: THE  SUBSISTENCE R E S E A R C H  STAGE  Since the 1970's, archaeologists have been applying new techniques to midden sites in order to answer new questions about the process of cultural adaptation in the region. Their investigations focussed on how the prehistoric inhabitants of the area supplied themselves with food and other necessities.  An  understanding  of the subsistence strategy each phase of the Fraser delta  sequence represents is just beginning to take shape. The Glenrose a good starting point for such  Cannery site  proved  research 'because it provided a 6,000 year record of  continuing but variable use of resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp.  133  REFINING  To procedures  EXCAVATION AND LABORATORY  TECHNIQUES  aid subsistence research, archaeologists and new  laboratory techniques.  discovering the relationships  employ more refined  excavation  A critical aspect of this research  among artifacts,  is  food remains, and other midden  materials.  Because these techniques are expensive, all layers within a site cannot be analyzed with the same intensity. Archaeologists therefore select representative samples in order to reconstruct the relative importance  of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of  the site's occupants. The use of waterscreening through fine mesh allows for greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items than do traditional dry screening methods. Computers are increasingly important for analyzing the masses of data generated by such  New  field  techniques.  laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid subsistence research.  For example, the growth rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby indicating the season of site use. Detecting residues such as blood, fats, and resins on stone tools helps to show tool function and, consequently, what activities might have been performed  at these seasonal sites.  134  Section D2: INVESTIGATING  The  A SEASONAL  SITE  excavation of shell midden layers at the Cresent Beach site shows  how the type and season of activities by  undertaken at a site may be determined  careful analysis.  One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site was the careful removal of midden layers following the natural contours of the site. Previous sites were excavated by removing flat, even layers, usually 10 to 20 cm. thick. This refinement helped to isolate the specific activities which had occurred at this site.  135  MIDDEN L A Y E R S A N D P A S T ACTIVITIES  To understand each layer type, models of site use were developed. Models are used to predict what activities might have occurred at the site during different times of the year. Important considerations  include the historic Coast  Salish use of the area and those times of the year, when certain- resources were most abundant. Certain layer types, can  features, artifacts, and faunal remains thus  be predicted for a particular group of expected  activities.  Although such factors as decay, and the removal of many tools and structures once at the site, might make analysis difficult, the prediction of site use helps to overcome this problem. For example, if shellfish harvesting and processing are predicted for a site, the baskets, digging sticks and drying racks might have been removed or have decayed. On the other hand, other evidence will remain, such as the remains of steaming mounds, discarded clam shells, and the post holes for the drying racks.  If the problematic Whalen II component at the Whalen F a r m  site were  re-examined in this manner, it might now be seen as a seasonal variant of another cultural phase rather than as an unique cultural  phase.  136  Section E: THE  F U T U R E OF T H E P A S T  Archaeological research in the Fraser delta region has developed through several stages paralleling general changes in North American archaeology. Each stage has built on previous results. These results have laid the foundation upon which new questions are raised  The  and new techniques are developed.  Descriptive stage not only provided initial descriptions, but asked  important  questions concerning both economic and cultural change. The subsequent development of a regional Cultural Sequence resulted from  more refined excavation techniques and  laboratory procedures. Recent Subsistence Research  is beginning to outline the  development of the Northwest Coast's seasonally diverse subsistence pattern.  While we now know that a similar range of resources was used in this area for thousands of years critical changes occurred in resource use, for instance the development of large scale salmon processing for storage, these changes have only recently received attention. A new focus on social questions, such as on how social organization and subsistence stategies interrelate, suggests that a new stage of archaeological research is also taking shape. The future of such research, however, is seriously threatened.  137  HERITAGE  The  DESTRUCTION  destruction of midden sites, especially in urban areas like the Fraser delta,  is a major problem. Marpole and other important sites were excavated just before bulldozers moved in. Unfortunately,  many other  sites were destroyed  before any  archaeological investigation could take place. A s a result, valuable heritage has  information  been lost forever.  If a greater appreciation of the development of Northwest Coast cultures is to be achieved, archaeologists must continue  to investigate a cross-section of sites within a  region. But to do this, archaeological sites must be viewed as non-renewable that, require our protection.  resources  1 9.11  APPENDIX 11 J  5  1:  o  V9LU ft  •UJ  on  UJ  o  o  r  2 ?  2"  c  2  -7  £3  <  2rT -I  5i 0.  "7  r  2 3  2E  o £ S 3 i-  2^  0>  o -<  S. a o  % 2  Q_ QU  8-2  a. *•  c.  o £w  EI si  a n a. a u3<  i s  ZE  ski  -J  " PI -- J  3  < 5 7\  J  — Ui U. o 'V.  a: £ ~7T;—  i7K~  u-  5  £ to o.  3E 9-  ui  Ci •  10  ^) 3  r  <  31 s o s- 3 «  O O  H  5:  7 \  -2.  Jul u>  u-  o o  3 ^  or Ui  O VU S  o  a.  4T  o  ui  CD  n  2E O  el  O 09  £y  01  8  7 s.  o_  at  T Ui 5  _)  Q  r  31  UJ  U.  ^ -r ^>  C  5D  12  APPENDIX  CuflMbiMei  E X H I B I T  S E C T  lOrJ  Pii.  SuBTECr TEXT  TIDES  T-<?OI>OTiO/0  OR  CHANGING TIDES AI-TI  e  Changing Tides examines the history of archaeological research in British Columbia's Fraser delta region by tracing our evolving knowledge of its prehistory. Each stage of this research has changed and refined our perception of the past As you move through the exhibit, you will see how each stage of research—here titled the "Descriptive", "Cultural Sequence", and "Subsistence" stages—not only builds on earlier knowledge but also introduces new ideas and new techniques.  MAREES CHANGEANTES  A1-T1F Maries Changeantes passe en revue l'histoire de la recherche archeologique dans la region du delta du fleuve Fraser, en Colombie Britannique, en suivant revolution de notre connaissance de sa prehistoire. Chaque etape de cette recherche a modifie et raffine notre perception du passe. En parcourant l'exposition, vous observerez comment chaque etape de recherche, portant les titres "La Description", "La Succession des cultures" et "Les Strategies de Subsistance" ont non seulement consolide les connaissances acquises mais aussi innove au niveau des idees et des techniques.  140  SECT'OK)  /)X  SUriOTECT A.  tio.  /\f>-f-| PACTS NONE  G. WO Al-Gl  GRAPHICS Harlan I. Smith's Marpole excavation (mural)  No photo c r e d i t t h i s s e c t i o n , see s e c t i o n B.  EXHIBIT  T/DE-S  CMA^CnlfiJG,  ft  SECT/OrJ  £  PAGE  A 2 - /  SUBJECT TEXT  O R Aftm-'Acr  L/IBEL(S)  A2-Ti£ TIIK SIGNIFICANCE OF SHELL MIDDENS Shell midden sites provide Die most important evidence for prehistoric human activity in the Fraser delta region. These sites contain the remains of dwellings, work areas and garbage dumps, providing a record of human habitation spanning nearly 9,000 years. In midden sites, different activities created characteristic patterns of remains. These remains resulted in I lie build up of midden layers which the archaeologist interprets in order to discover a site's history.  AZ  - ri  F  LA SIGNIFICATION D F S A M A S  DE  COQUTIXES  I^s anas de coquilles constituent la documentation la plus importante pour se renseigner sur les activites liuiiiaines prehistorioues dans la region du delta du Fraser. Ces stations prehistoriques contiennent des vestiges d'habitations, des zones d'activites et des ainoncellements de dechets qui teinoiguent d'une occupation humaine ayant dure pres de 9,000 ans. I^s differentes activites qui se deroulaient dans les stations a amas de coquilles y ont laisse des vestiges caracterestiques. Ces vestiges ont produit une accumulation de couches que les archeologues interpretcnt afin de recoustruirc I'hisloire d'uuc station. A2-T2 t Different layer patterns result when diverse activities occur at the same place over time. For example, in a coastal shell midden the. remains of an abandoned house may later be covered by the refuse of a shellfish steaming mound that, in turn, may be covered by remains of a campsite hearth. In this way the layers accumulate, reaching up to 5 meters in depth. In o'Jier instance, thai left not only  cases, a site may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal use. For fali salmon fishing activities leave a distinctive pattern of debris which differs from by spring herring fishing. The complex layers of soil, shells and other remains result from these human activities, but also from naturally deposited debris.  l.es diverscs activites realisees sur un meme emplacement durant un laps de temps laissent derriere elles des couches distincles. Dans une station cOtiere d'amas de coquilles, par exemple. les testes d'une maison abandonnee seront plus lard, recouven par les debris d'un amas de mollusques uiils a la vapeur, lequels le seront a leur tour, par les restes d'un feu de camp. Les couches peuvent de la sorte atteindre une fcpaisseur de 5 metres. Dans d'autres cas, une station pourra contenir des vestiges d'occupalions saisonnieres. C'est ainsi que la peche au saumon en automne produira des restes caracteristiques, permettant de les distinguer de ceux provenant de la peche printanniere au hareng. La serie complexe de couches de sols, de coquilles et d'autres activites provient non seulement de produits de l'activiie humaine mais aussi de d6pots naturels.  142  EXHIBIT  TiD^S  C^M&iii^Gi  s e C T IOSJ  Texr O R  PACE  Pi L  PrtZrifACT  Lf\  B  fll-Z-  EL(Y)  A2-T3 E THE  C O N T E N T S OF  SHELL  MIDDENS  investigating shell middens is further complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay quite quickly unless special conditions help to preserve them. In coastal shell middens, the presence of shells helps to preserve bone and antler, but wood and plant fibers usually survive only if they are constantly waterlogged. Thus, the carved wooden objects for which the Northwest Coast is well known are rarely found in archaeological sites. Exhibited  here are a range of items found in coastal shell middens.  AZ-T3P CONTENU  DES A M A S DE  COQUILLES  L'effet de la decomposition ajoute a la complexite de l'6tude des amas de coquilles. La majoriti des matures organiques entrent rapidement en decomposition, a moins que des conditions speciales n'interviennent en faveur de la preservation. Dans le cas des stations c6tieres, la presence de coquilles contribuera a la preservation de l'os ei de l'andouiller. Le bois et les fibres v£g6tales, par contre, deperissent a moins d'etre engages constamment dans l'eau. Ces conditions rendent compte de la raret6, dans les gisements archeologiques, des pieces en bois sculptees qui ont fait la renommee de la cdte du Pacifique Nord. V o i d un inventaire d'objets trouves dans un amas de coquilles de la cote.  EXHIBIT  ChlAtihirJQj  S E C T / O N /  A . ^o. A2-A1 A2-A2  TiDfcS PR^E-  f\l  /\i?ri  G.  F A C T S  A2-A3  1. G r o u n d s l a t e k n i f e A950 2. C h i p p e d s t o n e t o o l s DhRt11:68 DhRt6:28 3. C o o k i n g s t o n e s ( 2 ) no //' s  A2-A13 A2-A14  4. S a n d s t o n e a b r a d e r 5. Waste f l a k e s  A2-A4 A2-A5 A2-A6 A2-A7 A2-A9 A2-A10 A2-A12 A2-A11  6.. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.  Bone a w l ( c ) Figure (c) Salmon v e r t e b r a e B i r d bone Shell disc Clam s h e l l s Carbonized seeds Basketry frag.  NO.  A2-G1  HZ-3  GRAPHICS  Photo  showing midden  layers  DhRt6:63 DgRr6:2601 1928 3511 DgRr6:1554c DgRr6:2687c no J ' s no S Ma3344 no I's no J ' s DhRt4:70249  CoMHEMrs (c)  =  Replica  A2-G1 (no  Leica  label)  49 V I I {11  EXHIBIT secr/ofj  TEXT  OR  SECTION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.  Ch/AhlQ/AJG? Ti^SS (\ i,  AG-T^ACT  P A C E  LA&E.U(S)  M-LIE.+F  Ground slate knife Comeau en ardoise polie Chipped stone tools Onlils en pierre laillee Cooking stones Pierres servant a la cuisson Sandstone abrader Polissoir en gres Waste Hakes from artifact manufacture Eclats de laille Deer bone awl (replica) Al£ne en os de cerf (ripliqtte) Carved antler tool handle ca. 2000 B.C. (replica) Manche d'outil en andoniller grav£ vers 2000 B.C. Salmon vertebrae Verl6bres de saumon Bird bone Os d'oiseau Shell ornament Orncment en coquillage Clam shells and fragments Coquilles et fragments de palonrde Carbonized salmonberry seeds Graines de baies (Rubis spectabilis) carbonisees Basketry fragment ca. 750 B.C. Fragment de vannerie vers 750 av. J.C.  (replique)  / ? Z - ^ -  EXHIBIT  Texr  Cr7/4A/G/A/G7  Aftr/PAc-r  O R  SECTION A3-T1 E S H E L L MIDDENS AND  r /Das  L * B E - L ( S )  THEIfi  SETTING  To understand the role of a particular site within a region, archaeologists must consider the changing natural environment in which the site's occupants lived. The rich and diverse environment of the Northwest Coast, including that of the Fraser delta region, influenced the development of the area's unique cultures.  A3-TI  F  LES AMAS DE COQUILLES ET LEUR  MILIEU  Les archeologues doivent tenir compte du milieu nature) au sein duquel vivaient les occupants d'un site particulier, afin de comprendre son role dans une region. La richesse et la diversite du milieu de la cote du Paciiique Nord, y compris celui de la region du delta du Fraser, ont influence le developpement de cette aire culturelle exceptionnelle. A3-T2 £ The Fraser river delta and estuary provided a wide variety of sea and' land resources which were extensively used by the region's inhabitants. The developing estuary—the tidal mouth of the river and surrounding ocean waters—played a vital role for over 7.000 years in the location, stability and quantity of these resources.  A3-TZF Les habitants de la region du delta et de l'estuaire du fleuve Fraser savaient tirer largement profit des ressources marines et terrestres qu'elle offraiL La formation de cet esruaire. comprenant une embouchure a marfes et une bordure oceanique, a joue de facpn decisive, durant plus de 7,000 ans, sur la localisation, la stabilite et la quantity de ces ressources.  EXHIBIT SECTiOrJ  CHf^hJG/Aj^ f\  TibBS ?AG£  3  /?3-£.  SUBJECT T E X T  O R  A/an^Acr  L4BE.L(Y)  A3-T3 £ THE SEASONAL R O U N D Although many resources were abundant, they were often available only seasonally, and even then, they could be difficult to acquire. The Coast Salish inhabitants of the region used diverse and often complex methods to harvest these short-term resources. For example, during spring fish runs, herring or eulachon were netted and raked; salmon were netted, trapped in weirs, speared, harpooned or hooked, depending on the species, the season and location. Fishing was supplemented by various activities, such as berry picking in summer and shellfish galhering the year round. Specialists hunted sea mammals in the spring and land mammals in the autumn and winter. During winter, stored foods were relied upon as ceremonial and manufacturing activities dominated winter village life.  L E C Y C L E SAISONNIER L'occurence de plusieurs ressources, malgre' leur abondance, demeurait cependant saisonniere et leur acquisition pouvait offrir des difficultes. Les populations Salish qui occupaient la region c6uere avaient recours a des mdthodes diverses et souvent complexes, afin de s'approvisionner en ressources a disponibilitfc ephemere. A u cours des migrations printannieres du poisson, par exemple. on capturait le hareng et l'eperlan avec des filets et par ratissage; les saumons. avec des filets, des barrages, a la foene, au harpon ou a l'hameson. selon les especes, la saison ou le lieu. Diverses activites supplement a la peche, telles que la collecte des baies en M, le ramassage des mollusques tout au long de l'annee. La chasse aux mammireres terrestres, en automne et en hiver. La subsistance au cours de Driver dependait d'aliments stockes, saison durant laquelle la vie dans les residences villageoises 6tait dominee par les activites cSremonielles et artisanales.  A3-T4 £ THE DEVELOPING  DELTA  In examining the Fraser delta region, it is important to consider the evolution of the delta itself. The present location of midden sites reflects this development For instance, a site that fronted on tidal flats at the river's mouth 2.000 years ago may now be several kilometers upriver.  EVOLUTION D U  DELTA  II importe de tenir compte de revolution du delta lui-m6me. lorsque Ton examine cette partie de la region du Fraser. L'emplacement actuel des amas de coquilles le i6fl£te. C'est ainsi qu'une station qui se situait, il y a 2,000 ans, en face des terres basses a marfces dans 1'embouchure du fleuve, pourrait se trouver maintenant a plusieurs kilometres en amont  CM/yJQ/AJG?  EXHIBIT  TtDES  56CTIOM  PB^EL ft 3-3  SUB3"£CT A. Ho.  A\Rr\FACTS  NONE  G.  NO-  GRAPHICS  A3-GI  I l l u s t r a t i o n s (4) of seasonal round ( f r o m Four S e a s o n s )  A3-G2  S e r i e s o f d e l t a development maps  A3-G3  P h o t o o f Beach Grove midden  A3-G4  Denman I s l a n d s h e l l (mu r a 1)  midden  CoKMEMrs A2-G3  Delta  56 I J 1 0  A2-G4  L e i c a 46 I S12  EXHIBIT  £///TAJG/'A/6  T/2>£-S  secr/orJ  TEXT"  PAGE  Aftn^cT  OR  A3-G1: WINTER L'HIVER  B ELL^S)  E+F  SPRING LE PRINTEMPS SUMMER L'ETE AUTUMN L'AUTOMNE A3-G2: THE EVOLUTION O F THE FRASER DELTA DEVOLUTION D U DELTA D U FRASER 6000 B.C. 3000 B.C. PRESENT LE  DELTA  DELTA AUJOURD'HUl  GLENROSE CANNERY GLENROSE CANNERY GLENROSE MARPOLE STSELAX LOCARNO  BEACH  CRESCENT BEACH CRESCENT BEACH BEACH  GROVE  WHALEN  FARM  Burrard Inlet Burrard Inlet Burrard Inlet Fraser River Fraser River Fraser  River  Strait of Georgia Strait of Georgia Strait of Georgia Robert!, Island Robens Island Roberts Peninsula  The Beach Grove midden. 1956. Photo by Charles E Borden L'amas de coquilles de Beach Grove. 1956. Pholographie prise par Charles E Borden  CANNERY  fl3'4  EXHIBIT  C h/AMG /AJG Tib EL S  S E C T /OfJ  B  T E X T OR  PtATiPACT  L*BEL(Y)  Section B - f l E T H E DESCRIPTIVE STAGE Archaeological investigation in the Fraser delta region began in the late 1800's. This early work was mainly concerned with finding artifacts, describing them, and speculating about their significance. The 1898 investigation of the Marpole site by the American Museum of Natural History's Harlan h Smith is representative of this early research. B-TI  F  L'ETAPE DESCRIPTIVE Les debuts de la recherche archeologique dans la region du delta du Fraser remontent a la fin du siecle dernier. Ces premiers travaux se consacraient avant tout a la decouverte et a la description des pieces archeologiques, ainsi qu'a des speculations quant a leur signification. L'ctude de la station de Marpole en 1898, par Harlan L Smith, du Musee Americain d'Histoire Naturelle, illustre bien cette etape de recherche. B-T2  £  Using a small force of hired labour. Smith rapidly excavated a portion of the site by shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that artifacts from all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure beginning at least 2,000 years ago. Smith based his estimates for the 1,000 years of occupation, followed by 1,000 years of disuse, on such factors as the age of trees growing over the midden, the depth of accumulation, and the degree of midden material decay. Recent research supports his estimate.  8 - TZ.F Avec l'aide d'une petite equipe de travailleurs a gages. Smith fouilla rapidement a la pelle une paitie du gisement, sans se preoccuper de la provenance par couches des pieces. II n'en conclut pas moins que l'ensemble de ces trouvailles demontrait l'Sxistence d'une structure economique stable, dont le d6but remontait a au moins 2,000 ans. Smith se fiait a des facteurs tels que l'age des aibres qui croissaient au sommet du gisement, la profondeur des depots et I'etat de decomposition des vestiges, pour estimer une duree de 1.000 ans pour 1'occupation, suivi de 1,000 ans d'abandon. Des recherches recentes confirment ses estimations.  150  EXHIBIT  CHA/UGI/AJGI  se c r  &  lorJ  T E X T OR PtflTiPACT  B-T3  -T/££S  Ltf B E.!_(_£)  £  DESCRIPTION A N D  SPECULATIONS  Smith used the artifacts that he recovered from the site to answer questions concerning the economic and cultural stability of the area. He argued for economic stability based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry, and mat making tools similar to those he saw still in use by the local Coast Salish residents of the area. On the other hand. Smith also argued for cultural replacement He viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence for early migration of interior people to the coast Smith asked important questions, but his answers were speculative, in a manner characteristic of early descriptive archaeology. More conclusive answers would require the more refined theories and research techniques which were introduced as archaeology developed.  6 - T3 F DESCRIPTION ET  SPECULATIONS  Smith eut recours aux pieces obtenues par la fouille de la station pour trouver reponse aux questions concernant la stability economique et culturelle de la rfegion. II soutint que les ressemblances entre l'outillage recueilli au cours des fouilles qui servait au travail du bois. a la peche. a la vannerie et au tressage. et celui, toujours en usage par les populations c6ueres Salish du meme endroit, tfemoignaient en faveur d'une stabilite economique. Smith prfetendit, par ailleurs, que la presence de decorations geom6triques et de pointes en pierre taillee un remplacement des cultures, par la migration vers la c6te dfemontiait de populations venant de l'int6rieur. Smith souleva des questions importantes mais le caractere speculauf des reponses qu'il leur apporta marque 1'orientation de cette 6tape essentielment descriptive de l'archeologie. Des reponses plus concluantes demandent l'emploi de theories et de techniques plus poussees. lesquelles feront leur apparition aux stages suivants du development de la recherche arch6ologique.  CHA^G  EXHIBIT  /NG)  TIDES PAQEL  B  8 -3  S U B J E C T  A- Ho.  G- NO. GRAPHICS  ARTIFACTS Decorated  Objects  B-A15  1. D e c o r a t e d  B-A14  2. T o o t h  pendants  B-A13  3. S h a l e  beads  Women's  bone  B-Gl  Harlan I. Smith's (photo)  excavation  Tools  B-A12 B-AU  4. F i s h k n i f e 5. N e e d l e s  B-A10  6. A w l s  Hunting  DhRsl:9013 DhRsl:3946 Ma8771 Ma403 DhRs1:9071  Ma 4 60 A1209 A887 A82 9 Ma3424 A1234  & Fishing  B-A5  7. C h i p p e d  B-A6  8.  B-A7  9. Bone & a n t l e r  Slate  Tools  points  Ma3975 A1029 Ma3782 A721 Ma3807  points p o i n ts  A765 A974 A994 B-A8  10.  Harpoon  B-A9  11. 12.  (c) Perforated  points  Woodworking B-A4  13.  Adze  B-A3 B-A2 B-Al  14. 15.  Antler Antler  16.  Hand m a u l  stones  EB158 Ma433 EB148 DgRr6:1935c Ma6279 Ma3289  Tools  blades chisel wedge  Ma438 EB553 A866 A1084 MuE821  COKMEMTS B-Gl  A m e r i c a n Museum o f Natural 42964  H i s t o r y neg.//  152  EXHIBIT S E C T /OrJ  Ch/ArJG/AJG  TiJ>BS  6  SuBCTECT  Texr OR S E C T I O N B: LIE  +F  Marpole midden artifacts Pieces archeologiques de l'amas de coquilles de Marpole Decorative objects Objets decores 1. Incised bone and antler objects Objets incises en os et en andouiller 2. Canine tooth pendants Pendeloques en canine 3. Shale beads Grains de collier en argile schisteuse  4. 5. 6.  7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.  13. 14. 15. 16.  Women's tools Outillage employe par les femmes Ground slate fish knife Couteau a poissori en ardoise polie Bone and antler needles Aiguilles en os et en andouiller Bird and mammal bone awls Alene en os d'oiseau et de mammifere Hunting and fishing tools Outillage pour la chasse et la peche Chipped projectile points and knife Pointes de projectile et couteauen pierre taillee Ground slate points Pointes en ardoise polie Bone and antler points Pointes en os et en andouiller Unilaterally barbed antler harpoon points Pointes de harpon a barbes unilaterales en andouiller Bilaterally barbed harpoon point (replica) Pointes de harpon a barbelure bilaterale (replique) Perforated stones Pierres perforees Woodworking tools Outillage pour le travail du bois Nephrite adze blades Lames d'herminette en nephrite Antler chisel Ciseau en andouiller Antler wedge Coin en andouiller Hand maul Masse  PAGE  B-^f  153  EXHIBIT  CrfAfiJG/MG?  se c r  B  tosJ  S U B J E C T  TEXT  T~/j)ES ? A G ) £  -  OR PrrzntAcT  B E.L(Y)  B-Gl £-+F Harlan I. Smith's Marpole excavation, 1898. Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History La fouille de Marpole par Harlan I. Smith, 1898 Avec la permission de rAmerican Museum of Natural History.  B-sr  EXHIBIT  CMM&iiNQz  -TlbBS  SuBJ6Cr TEXT  Aftm-'Acr  OR  UBEL(S)  Section C I : C l - T l E THE  CULTURAL SEQUENCE  STAGE  Charles E. Borden, premier archeologue de la Colombie Britannique, effectua des travaux a Marpole et dans d'autres stations du delta du Fraser, entre la fin des annees quarante et les annees soixante-dix et etablit l'essentiel de la succession des cultures dont l'emploi continut de nos jours. II se rendit compte que le but de depasser les interpretations speculatives sur la prehistoire de la region efiectues par Smith, exigeait un enregistrement rigoureux de la provenance des pieces, des outils et des structures dtiabitat telles que les foyers.  Cl-Tl  F  LA S U C C E S S I O N D E S  CULTURES  British Columbia's first archaeologist, Charles E. Borden, worked at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites, from the late 1940's to the 1970's, and was instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. He realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpretations of the area's prehistory, accurate records must be kept of where artifacts or tools, and features—such as hearths—were found in a site. C1-T2 £ To establish a cultural sequence, Borden grouped layers with similar artifacts into what archaeologists call a component He then grouped similar components from different sites into cultures or cultural phases. Radio-carbon dating, invented in 1948, was used to verify the order of these phases, as well as to date them.  C1-TZ.F-  Afin de mettre sui pied une succession des cultures, Borden groupa les couches posse'dant des pieces semblables en un ensemble que les archeologues nomment une composante. II ordonna ensuite les composantes de difftrentes stations qui se ressemblaient en cultures ou en phases culturelles. La datation au radiocaibonne, inventee en 1948. fut employ6e afin de vdrifier l'ordre successif de ces phases et de les dater.  EXHIBIT  £ / / / W G / A / G  se c r iotJ  TIDES  c? 7  P A G J E  C i - l  SuBJ£Cr T E X T  C1-T3  PACT  O R  B £ L ( s )  e  DEFINING  C U L T U R A L PHASES  The phases Borden defined are the Locamo Beach phase, the Marpole phase, the Whalen II phase, and the Stselax phase. These phases were usually named after the first site in which the characteristic component was found, but any site could contain several components or phases. For example, Marpole phase components, first defined at the Marpole site, are found at many sites in the region including the Glenrose Cannery site upriver. The Whalen II phase, on the other hand, is confined to a single site. Shown here is a selection of artifacts Borden considered representative of each cultural phase.  0.-T3F LA DEFINITION  D E S PHASES  CULTURELLES  Les phases defmies par Borden component celles de Locarno Beach, de Marpole, de Whalen II et Stselax. La nomenclature de ces phases s'obtient habituellement en adoptant comme station-type la premiere ou eut lieu la decouverte de la composante qui la caractense. Toute station demeure neanmoins susceptible de contenir plusiers composantes ou plusiers phases. C'est ainsi que les composantes de la phase Marpole, deTinies pour la premiere fois dans la station de Marpole, se rencontrent dans plusieurs stations de la region, y compris celle de Glenrose Cannery, en amonL La phase Whalen II, par ailleurs, n'est repr&entee que par une seule station. V o i d un choix de pieces que Borden considerait comme representatives de chacunes des phases culturelles.  EXHIBIT  £/J/WG/AJG  f/J)£S  Pft^E.  A . A/a Cl-Al C1-A3 C1-A4 C1-A5 C1-A6 C1-A7 C1-A8 C1-A9 C1-A10 C1-A12 C1-A13 C1-A14 C1-A15 C1-A16 C1-A58 C1-A60  C1-A21  C1-A22 C1-A23 C1-A24 C1-A25 C1-A27  ARTIFACTS  G. WO-  L o c a r n o Beach Phase 1. T o g g l e v a l v e 2. T o g g l e head 3.  Slate  4. S l a t e  points knife  Uh325 DhRt6:204 DhRt6:344 DhRt6:74  Phase blades  2. A n t l e r p e s t l e 3. S t o n e bowl 4. S h a l e b e a d s  C1-A28  5. A n t l e r p e n d a n t 6. T - s h a p e d l a b r e t 7. A n t l e r p o i n t s  C1-A29  8. C h i p p e d  points  C1-A31 C1-A32 C1-A61 C1-A62  9. 10. 11. 12.  C1-A63  13. P e r f o r a t e d  Beaver i n c i s o r Salmon v e r t b r a . e Bone n e e d l e B i r d bone a w l s  (con't  -3  GRAPHICS  Cl-Gl  Photo o f p r o f i l e  drawing  C1-G2  Photo o f Marpole  excavation  C1-G3  Photo of measuring i n s i t u  C1-G4  Beach  A194  5. F a c e t t e d bone p o i n t U h l 6 2 c 6. S e r r a t e d p o i n t DhRt6:72c 7. C h i p p e d p o i n t s DhRt6:ll DhRt6:30 8. S h e l l a d z e f r a g . DgRrl:4193 9. S m a l l a d z e b l a d e MuNE78 10. Bone n e e d l e A1203 11. B i r d bone a w l DhRt6:1064 12. L a b r e t DrRt6:287 13. C o b b l e hammerstone DhRt6:117 14. Sea mammal b o n e s ' DhRt6:6213f 15. D e a t h head DhRt6:218c 16. H a r p o o n f o r e s h a f t Uh283 Marpole 1. Adze  CI  stone  Grove  excavation  (mural)  DhRsl:9185 Ma 40 5 Ma3585 Ma3299c DhRsl:9216c no } ' s Ma3345 Ma368 Ma428 Ma430 Ma3259 Ma3577 Ma3797 A10U DgRr2:71 no J ' s DhRsl:3975 EB172 A1233 Ma3288  p.Cl-4)  COKME KITS c= r e p l i c a f= f a u n a l r e m a i n  Cl-Gl C1-G2 C1-G3 C1-G4  Leica Leica Leica Leica  49 55 65 57  X I I 08 V I I I {25 I I (18 I I I {23  CHftrJG/rJG  EXHIBIT SECTION  T/j>a£ ci -4  CI  SUBJECT  A.  G.  Ho. Mr\FACTS Marpole  Phase  con't  C1-A17  14.  Harpoon  C1-A18  15.  Ground  slate  C1-A19  16.  Antler  wedge  C1-A20  17.  Hand  Whalen  point  A1191 knife  Ma427 A1061  maul  DhRsl:4385  I I Phase  C1-A33  1.  Microblades  C1-A34  2.  O l i v e l l a  C1-A35  3.  Chipped  (c)  beads ( c ) points  no  //' s  no  II' s  Wh253 Wh282 Wh662  C1-A37  4.  Toggle  head  C1-A38  5.  Antler  wedge  C1-A40  6.  Adze  Wh91c A1058  blade  '  Wh304  C1-A41  7.  Incised  C1-A43  8.  Beaver  incisor  MuE806  C1-A44  9.  Barbed  point  Wh536c  object  Wh534c  C1-A45  10.  Bird  C1-A46  11.  Dentalium  DhRsl:9205  C1-A39  12.  Hand  DgRnx:56  Stselax C1-A47  1.  bone awl  Ma3433  maul Phase  Toggle  heads  MuE2060 MuE4312 MuE2092  C1-A48  2.  Ground  C1-A49  3.  Wedge  C1-A51  4.  Adze  C1-A52  5.  Fish  C1-A54 .  6.  Knotched  C1-A55  7.  Spindle  C1-A56  8.  Bone p i n  C1-A57  9.  Bone  slate  p o i n t s MuE2170 MuE4361 MuE2667  blades  MuE4527 MuE4676  knife point whorl  MuE2138 MuE4872 MuE354c MuE510c  points  MuE4868  C1-A64  10.  Drinking  C1-A65  11.  Pipe  C1-A66  12.  Beaver  C1-A67  13.  Bird  bone a w l  MuE2533  C1-A50  14.  Hand  maul  MuE2636  frag.  CoHHEKlTS c  =  tube  replica  incisor  MuE2942 MuE2942 DhRt4:6843  NO-  GRAPHICS  dHMCihlG,  EXHIBIT  T/PeS  SuBCJEC-r TexT  OR  /Tfir/^Ac-r  SECTION C I :  LI  UBE.L(S)  £.4 F  Locarno Beach Phase (ca. 1100-400 B.C.) Phase Locarno Beach (entre 1100 et 400 av. J.C.) 1. Antler toggle valves for harpoon heads Crans de tetes de harpons femelles en andouiller 2. One piece toggle valve for harpoon head (replica) Crans de tete de harpon femelle simple (replique) 3. Ground slate points Pointes en ardoise polie 4. Thick ground slate knife Couteau epais en ardoise polie 5. Facetted ground bone point (replica) Pointe facettee en os poli (replique) 6. Serrated bone point (replica) Pointe denticulee en os (replique) 7. Chipped stone projectile points Pointes de projectiles en pierre taillee 8. Shell adze blade fragment Fragment de lame d'herminette en coquillage 9. Small adze blade Petite lame d'herminette 10. Bone needle Aiguille en os 11. Bird bone awl Alene en os d'oiseau 12. Labret (replica) Labret (replique) 13. Cobble hammerstone Percuteur de galet 14. Sea mammal bones Os de mammifere marin 15. Human skull effigy carved from deer bone (replica) Effigie en forme de crane humain sculptee dans un os de cerf (replique) 16. ' Antler harpoon foreshaft Hampe de harpon en andouiller  E X H I B I T  PAGE suBjecr TEXT  OR  C1--L1  AftriPACT  UB£L(i)  E+F  Marpole Phase (ca. 400 B . C . - A . D . 450) Phase Marpole (entre 4Q0 av. J.C. et 450 A.D.) 1. Adze and chisel blades Lames d'herminette et de ciseaux 2. Great blue heron miniature antler pestle (replica) Pilon miniature en andouiller sous forme de grand heron bleu (r6plique) 3. Small human figure bowl (replica) Petit bol anthropomorphe (replique) 4. Shale beads Grains de collier en argile schisteuse 5. Antler pendant Pendeloque en andouiller 6. T-shaped labret Labret en forme de T 7. Barbed antler points Pointes a barbelures en andouiller 8. Chipped projectile points Pointes de projectiles en pierre taillfee 9. Beaver incisor carving tool Outil a sculpter en incisive de castor 10. Salmon vertebrae Vertebres de saumon 11. Bone needle Aiguille en os 12. Bird bone awl Alene en os d'oiseau 13. Perforated stone Pierre perforee 14. Antler harpoon point Pointe de harpon en andouiller 15. Ground slate knife Couteau en ardoise polie 16. Antler wedge Coin en andouiller 17. Hand maul Masse  EXHIBIT SeCT/OM  CHfiiyJG/A/G n ^ s C±  PAGE  SUBJECT TEXT  CI-  OR  PranfAo-r  LiB£L(i)  LI  VVhalco II Phase (ca. A.D. 350-800) Phase Whalen 11 (enrre 350-800 A.D.) Obsidian microblades (replicas) 1. Microlame en obsidienne (replique) Olivella shell beads (replicas) 2. Grains de colliers en coqutlle d'Olivella (replique) Chipped projectile points 3. Pointes de projectiles en pierre taillee 4. Antler toggle valves for harpoon heads (replicas) Crans de tetes de harpons femelles en andouiller (replique) Antler wedge 5. Coin en andouiller Nephrite adze blade 6. Lame d'herminette en nephrite Incised siltstone object (replica) 7. Object incise en roche sedimentaire (rtplique) 8. Beaver incisor carving tool Outil a sculpter en incisive de castor Barbed bone point fragment (replica) 9. Fragment de pointe a barbelures en os (replique) 10. Bird bone awl Alene en os d'oiseau Dentalium shell 11. Coquille de Dentalium 12. Hand maul Masse  CJ--7  EXHIBIT  CHArjGv/AJS?  r/i>£S  secr/OfJ  T E X T  OR A e r i M c r  PA<3£  L*BEL.(S)  Stselax Phase (ca. A.D. 800-1808) Phase Stselax (entre 800-1808 A.D.) 1- •. Valves for toggling harpoon heads Crans de tStes de harpon femelle Ground slate points 2. Pointes en ardoise polie Antler wedge 3. Coin en andouiller 4. Adze blades Lame d'herminette 5. Ground slate knife Couteau en ardoise polie 6. Side notched point Pointe a encoche laterale 7. Antler spindle whorl (replica) Fuseau en andouiller (replique) 8. Bone pin (replica) Epingle en os (replique) 9. Bone points and point fragment Pointes en os et fragments de pointes 10. Bird bone drinking tube Tube a boire en os d'oiseau 11. Steatite pipe fragment Fragment de pipe en steatite 12. Beaver incisor carving tool Outil a sculpter en incisive de castor Bird bone awl 13. Alene en os d'oiseau 14. Hand maul Masse  Cl -8  162.  EXHIBIT S E C T  IOtJ  P A G E  SfBJEC-T T e x r OR  PtrzriFAor  \_(\ B E./_(S)  C I - G r l £+f= Profile drawing of midden layers. Whalen Farm site, 1949. Photo by Charles E Borden Coupe des couches du gisement Station de Whalen Farm, 1949. Photographie prise par Charles E Borden  A view of the Marpole excavation, 1955. Photo by Charles E Borden Vue de la fouille de Marpole, 1955. Photographie prise par Charles E Borden  Measuring the location of an artifact Pt Grey site, 1965. Photo by Charles E Borden Prise de coordonnfes d'une piece archeologique Photographie prise par Charles E Borden  Beach Grove excavation, 1957. Photo by Charles E Borden Fouille de Beach Grove, 1957. Photographie prise par Charles E  Borden  £1-9  EXHIBIT s e c r /orJ  PAGE  CZ-J- •  S U B J E C T T E X T  OR  PriZTiCACT  \_(\ B E - L ( Y )  Section C 2 - T 4 & REFINING T H E C U L T U R A L SEQUENCE Initially, Borden viewed his cultural phases as representing a series of migrations into the region. He eventually modified his position, however, recognizing that cultural change could also result from local developement.  C2-T5 £ This change support his most phases the Whalen  in Borden's position resulted when archaeological work in adjacent areas failed to hypotheses about the origin of certain traits. Although he eventually allowed that could have developed locally out of previous ones, he continued to argue that II phase represented the arrival of new people from the interior.  By considering the Whalen II phase to represent the entire region during one time period. Borden ignored other possible explanations. The presence of particular artifacts might have resulted from trade, and absence of others might have been due to the season of site use. For example, the presence of small chipped stone points, commonly found in interior sites, were also found at the Whalen Farm site, and could be accounted for by trade between coast and interior peoples. On the other hand, the absence of thin ground slate knives usually associated with salmon processing and found in earlier and later phases in the region may simply indicate that the site in question was not used for salmon fishing. A recognition of the potential importance of seasonal site use distinguishes the next stage of archaeological research. This new focus provides an alternative explanation for the uniqueness of the Whalen II component, while adding a new dimension to complement Borden's basic cultural sequence.  EXHIBIT  ChlflrJG/KJG,  SeCT/OrJ  (2-2,  T E X T OR A f t r i f A C T  TibES  PAGE  CZ-Z.  UB£L(i)  P LE  RAFFTNEMENT  DE LA SEQUENCE  DES  CULTURES  Au debut, Borden envisageait ses phases culturelles comme l'aboutissement d'une serie de migrations dans la region. II modifia son point de vue, en definitive, en admettant qu'un developpement a I'echelle locale pourrait egalement produire un changement culturel.  CZ  - T S f  Cette modification de point de vue eut lieu lorsque des recherches archeologiques dans des regions voisines ne purent confirmer son hypothese sur l'origine de certains traits. Bien qu'ayant concede que la majorite des phases pouvait Stre issue d'antec6dants a 1'echelle locale, il continua cependant de soutenir que la phase Whalen II representait un mouvement de population provenant de l'intfcrieur. En considerant la phase Whalen II comme valable pour l'ensemble de la region durant une seule periode, Borden ne tenait pas compte de la possibility d'autres explications. Ainsi, la presence de pieces avec des paru'cularites aurait pu resulter d'echanges tandis que ('absence d'autres pieces, de l'emploi saisonnier d'une station. On pourrait rendre compte, par exemple, des petites pointes en pierre eclatfee, repandues dans les stations de l'int6rieur et trouvfees fegalement a Whalen Farm, par des echanges entre les populauons de la c6te et celles de l'interieur. L'absence, par contre, de couteaux minces en ardoise polie. associes habituellement avec la preparation du saumon et que Ton rencontre dans les phases anciennes et recentes de la region, signifierait simplement que cette m6me station ne servait pas a la peche au saumon. La realisation de l'importance possible de l'emploi saisonnier des stations marque P6tape suivante des recherches archeologiques. Cette nouvelle fa^on de voir rend compte du caractere inusite de la composante Whalen II, tout en ajoutant une dimension nouvelle et compl6mentaire a la sequence consrruite par Borden.  165  CUMGt*JO>  EXHIBIT SECT/OK|  TH>£  PA^EL  CZ  SUB.3"£CT  A. HO /\Kri P A C T S  NONE  CoKMEM TS  G. N/O. GRAPHICS  NONE  CZ-3  EXHIBIT S£CT/o/\J  £HA^0J/A7G  T ID£5  ])l  PACE  SuBJ£Cr  Texr  OR AftrifAcr  LABE.L(_S)  Dl-Tl £ THE  SUBSISTENCE RESEARCH  STAGE  Since the 1970's, archaeologists have been applying new techniques to midden sites in order to answer new questions about the process of cultural adaptation in the region. Their investigations have focussed on how the prehistoric inhabitants of the area supplied themselves with food and other necessities.  M-Tl F LES  STRATEGIES  DE  SUBSISTANCE  Depuis les annes soixante-dix, les archeologues ont eu recours a de nouvelles techniques, pour 1'etude des stations en amas de coquilles, afin d'aborder de nouveaux problcjnes concernant les processus d'adaptation culturelle dans la region. Leurs recherches se sont consacrees a 1'etude des moyens employes par les occupants prehistoriques de la region pour s'approvisionner en aliments et en autres besoins.  D1-T2  E  An understanding of the subsistence strategy each phase of the Fraser delta sequence represents is just beginning to take shape. The Glenrose Cannery site proved a good starting point for such research because it provided a 6,000 year record of continuing but variable use of resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp.  DI -T/L P Une comprehension des strategies de subsistence pratiques au cours de chacunes des phases qui se sont succ6dees dans le delta n'en est q u ' i ses debuts. La station de Glenrose Cannery d6montre pour la premiere fois les possibilites offertes par une telle orientation de la recherche. Elle illustre pour une duree continue de plus de 6,000 ans les differentes modalites d'exploitation des ressources telles que le saumon, les mollusques, les mammiferes terrestres et marins. L'fctude plus rfecente de la station Crescent Beach a permis de connaitre l'emploi saisonnier d'une station se speaalisant dans la preparation des mollusques et du hareng.  EXHIBIT  c/7£rJG / A J G  se CTIOIV  Di.  TJDE-S  PAGE D l - i  SUBCTECT  T e x r OR D1-T3  E  REFINING  EXCAVATION AND LABORATORY  TECHNIQUES  To aid subsistence research, archaeologists employ more refined excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. A critical aspect of this research is discovering the relationships among artifacts, food remains, and other midden materials.  M  -T3  LE  RAFFINEMENT  hDES TECHNIQUES DE FOUILLE ET E N  LABORATOIRE  Les archeologues recourent a des metliodes de fouille plus detaillees et a des techniques de laboratoire nouvclles qui rendent l'etude de la subsistance plus efficace. Un aspect d'importance capitale pour ce genre de recherche est de decouvrir les liens pouvant exister entre les outillages, les restes alinientaiies et les autres vestiges dans les amas de coquilles.  D1-T4  E  Because these techniques are expensive, all layers within a site cannot be analyzed with the same intensity. Archaeologists therefore select representative samples in order to reconstruct the relative importance of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of the site's occupants. The use of waterscreening through fine mesh allows for greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items than do traditional dry screening methods. Computers are increasingly important for analyzing the masses of data generated by such field techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid subsistence research. For example, the g r o w t h rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby indicating the season o f site use. Detecting residues such as blood, fats, and resins on stone tools h e l p s to show tool function and, consequently, what activities might have been performed at these seasonal sites.  bi Le c o Q t onereux de ces techniques ne permet pas d'analyser en detail chacunes des couches d'un. g i s e m e n L Les archfcologues ont done recours a des echantillons. afin d'etablir la part jouee respectivement par les mollusques, le p o i s s o n et le gibier dans l'alimentation des occupants d'une station. Le tamisage fin a l'eau assure, • mieux que par les techniques traditionnelles, une recuperation complete des vertebres de poisson et d'aurres restes de petite dimension. Les ordinateurs acquierent une importance croissante dans l'analyse du volume de d o n n e e s engendr6es par ces techniques de terrain. De nouvelles techniques de laboratoire sont presentement a l'essai pour assister dans l'etude de la subsistance. L'etude d e s anneaux de croissance visibles p a r sections transverses d e s coquilles permet, p a r exemple. d'etablir la saison de la collecte et p a r cons6quent, c e l l e de l'occupation de la station. La decouverte de traces de sang, de graisse et de resine sur les outils de piene, contribue a ridentification de leur fonction et p a r consequent, du genre d'activit6s qui auraient pu avoir eu lieu dans ces stations a occupation saisonniere.  168  EXHIBIT  TiDtSS  £HA/VIG> I AJGI  5£CTiotg  J>±  SUBJECT  A. NO. Dl-Al  A\£T\  Tools  G.  PACTS  f o r residue  NO-  GRAPHICS  D1-G2  Waterscreening  DgRrl:4312  D1-G3  Lab  n o //  D1-G4  analysis  photo  DgRrl:4196 D1-A2  Cross-section  D1-A3  Herring  of  vertebrae  photo  shell no  Illustration analysis  //' s D1-G5  of  residue  (Dl-Al)  Illustration  of  shell  analysis  (D1-A2) D1-G6  Coloured use  p i e graph  through  Cannery  time  at  of  faunal  Glenrose  site  CoKKEKjT"S  D1-G2  DgRrl  D1-G3  Taken  C3-2  (slide)  f o r Changing  Tides  169  EXHIBIT  bl  PAGE  SUBJECT TEXT  OR  Residue analysis showing presence or absence of blood , fats and resins. Analyse de residus demontrant la presence ou l'absence de sang, de graisse et de resine + blood + sang + blood + sang + blood + sang + blood + sang + + blood + +sang -blood -sang -blood -sang + fats +graisse + fats + graisse + fais + graisse + fats + graisse + resins + resines -resins -resines -resins -resines + + + + -  present or positive reaction presence ou reaction positive + strong indication of presence + forte indication de presence absent or negative reaction absence ou reaction negative  bl-4  EXHIBIT  CtiAti&riKlG,  T/bS-S  PAGE SUBJECT  TEXT  OR PttzrtFAo-r  L I B E L ( S )  D 1 - A 2 - G 5 E-t-F Shell cross-section indicating spring growth at time of collection. Section d'une coquille indiquant une CToissance primanniere lors du ramasage. Dark bands occur during slow winter growth season: Les bandes foncees surviennent au cours de la periode de croissance lente en hiver. Cross-section cut Coupe transversale Winter growth ring Anneau de croissance hivernale Complete annual band Bande annuelle complete spring growth Croissance printanniere  D1-A3 E<-f= Herring vertebrae, recovered by waterscreening. Vertebres de harengs obtenues par le tamissage a l'eau  Ol-GZ  B+F  Waterscreening at Crescent Beach, 1977. Photo by Len Ham Tamissage a l'eau a Crescent Beach. 1977. Photographie prise par Len Ham Dl-£i3  £-+F  Laboratory analysis of stone tool residues, 1985. Photo by M . Robinson Waters. Analyse en laboratoire des restes d'outillage de pierre, 1985. Photographie prise par M . Robinson Waters.  bl - 5 "  EXHIBIT  secr/OfJ  CMAAJCIIUG)  TI&E-S  t)i  PAGE  D>l-(o  SUBJECT  Texr  O R ftizr^Ao-r  LABE-L-CS)  Identified fish remains from Glenrose Cannery showing changing resource use through time. Restes de poisssons identifies a Glenrose Cannery montrant le changement des ressources exploitees au cours des temps Marpole Phase ca. 400 B . C . - A . D . 450 Phase Marpole (entre 400 av. J . C et 450 A.D.) SL Mungo Phase ca. 2500-1100 B.C. Phase SL Mungo (entre 2500 et 1100 B.C.) Old Cordilleran Phase ca. 6200-2500 B.C. Phase Old Cordilleran (entre 6200 et 2500 B.C.) SALMON SAUMON HERRING HARENG EULACHON EPERLAN STURGEON ESTURGEON STICKLEBACK. EPINOCHE  EXHIBIT  CHAkJGilfiJG  S E C T /OrJ  Dl.  TiDE-S PAGE b  l  -  SUBJECT T E X T OR Ptrzrif ACT  LflBE.L(i)  D2-T1 £ INVESTIGATING A SEASONAL SITE  The excavation of shell midden layers at the Cresent Beach site shows how the type and season of activities undertaken at a site may be determined by careful analysis. D2-T1F L'ETUDE D U N E  S T A T I O N A O C C U P A T I O N SAISONNEERE  L a fouille des couches d'amas de coquilles de la station de Crescent Beach demontre comment des analyses minutieuses peuvent nous renseigner sur le type et la saison des activites qui avaient lieu dans une station.  D2-T2 E One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site was the careful removal of midden layers following the natural contours of the site. Previous sites were excavated by removing flat, even layers.usually 10 to 20 cm. thick. This refinement helped to isolate the specific activities which had occurred at this site.  Une amelioration importante apportee a la fouille de Crescent Beach fut le decapage par couches de l'amas de coquilles, en suivant les contours naturels de la station. Les fouilles precedentes des autres stations se faisaient par niveaux arbitrages de 10 a 20 centimetres d'epaisseur. Ce raffinement a permis de sfcparer les differentes activites ayant eu lieu dans cette station.  1  CHAkiGiriQ  EXHIBIT  secT/orJ  TIDES  D£  PAGE  DZ-2  SUBJECT  TEXT  OR Aftri*= A C T  M B E L ( S )  D£-T3£ MIDDEN  LAYERS  AND  P A S T ACTIVITIES  To understand each layer type, models of site use were developed. Models are used to predict what activities might have occurred at the site during different times of the year. Important considerations include the historic Coast Salish use of the area and those times of the year when certain resources were most abundant. Certain layer types, features, artifacts, and faunal remains thus can be predicted for a particular group of expected activities.  Dl-TSf COUCHES  D ' A M A S D E C O Q U I L L E S ET  ACTIVITES  DU  PASSE  Des modeles d'utilisatiou de stations ont ete constants, afin de se renseigner sur les differents rtypes de couches. Le rccours aux modeles permet de predire le genre d'activites qui aurait pu avoir lieu dans une station, a differents moments de l'annee. Ainsi, l'utilisation du milieu par les populations Salish de la cdte, au cours de l'histoire recente, et la saisonnalite de 1'akondance de certaines ressources, meriteut une attention particuliere. II semblc done probable que certains types de couches, de structures d'habitat et d'objets coincident avec le realisation d'un ensemble de tidies particulieres. D2-T4 P Although such factors as decay, and the removal of many tools and structures once at the site, might make analysis difficult, the prediction of site use helps to overcome this problem. For example, if shellfish harvesting and processing are predicted for a site, the baskets, digging sticks and drying racks might have been removed or have decayed. On the other hand, other evidence willl remain, such as the remains of steaming mounds, discarded clam shells, and the post holes for the drying racks. If the problematic Whalen II component at the Whalen Farm site were re-examined in this manner, it might now be seen as a seasonal variant of another cultural phase rather than as a unique cultural phase.  D 2. - T4 P Maigre l'effet de facteurs contribuant aux difficultes de l'analyse. tels que la decompostion et le transport de plusieurs outils et de structures d'habitat en dehors de la station, tin modele d'ulilisation des stations fornit les moyens de surmonter de tels obstacles. Si Ton prevoit, par exemple. qu'une station etait uuiisee pour la college et la preparation des mollusque, il demeure possible que les paniers, les batons a fouiller et les claies a sechage aient ete rransportes ailleurs ou se soient decomposes. D'autres indices s'y tiouveront, par contre, tels que les vestiges d'etuves en amas, les coquilles abandonnees et les trous de poteaux pour les claies A sechage. Une nouvelle etude de la composante problemau'que de Whalen II pourrait demontrer qu'il s'agissait, en fait, d'une occupation saisonniere faisant partie d'une autre phase culturelle et non pas, d'une phase culturelle distincte.  EXHIBIT  £r/AM&/A/C  7  T/DtS  secr/oNj  PA^EL  Oz-3  SUBOIECT  A. A/G  /\KT~I F A C T S Clam  digging  D2-A1  1.  Small  D2-A2  2.  Digging  D2-A3  3.  Clams  4.  basket  stick  A2282  (E)  A2239  "  no I's  , tool k i t  Composite -blade  DhRrl3:3 no  5.  Hand  D2-A6  6.  Antler  D2-A7  7. . B o n e  chisei  A837  D2-A8  8.  Bone  d r i l l  no  D2-A9  9.  Dogfish  maul  Adze  D2-A13  11.  Antler  DhRsl8:I MuE64  wedge wedge  o f midden  D2-G2  Photo  of excavating  D2-G3  Illustration  D2-G4  Drawing  D2-G5  Photo  layer  of  mapping  by  layers  activities  o f midden  build-up  o f midden  feature  DhRt4:8572  skin  Archaeological 10.  Photo  f c  D2-A5  D2-A10  D2-G1  adze  -handle  Wooden  GRAPHICS  tool k i t  clam  Woodworking D2-A4  G. NO-  no remains  blade  1 c  1  (woodworkin D g R r l -.4050  wedges/frags DgRrl:4122 4300 4194  D2-A14  12.  Bone  D2-A15  13.  Bone  D2-A17  14.  Clam  D2-A19  15.  Cooking  chisel d r i l l  Archaeological  DgRrl:4116 frag. remains  frags stones (2)  DgRrl:4267 (clams)  no I's  DgRrl:30 no  //' s  CoMHEKirs  E  = Ethnology collection  D2-G1  DgRrl-C2-17  D2-G2  "  D2-G3  Gordon  D2-G5  Cl-32 Miller  DgRrl-C2-10  painting  175  EXHIBIT  £WA/OG//0G  TIOSS  seer  DZ-4  SUBJECT  TEXT  OR  -Li  PtrZn^AOT  L1B£L(s)  £ +-F  Clam digging tool kit Panoptic pour la recolte des palourdes 1. Small clam basket Petit panier a palourdes 2. Digging Stick Baton a fouiller 3. Horse clams Palourde  4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  10. 11. 12. 13.  14. 15.  Woodworking Tool Kit Panoplie pour le travail du bois Straight adze, with antler haft and nephrite blade (replica) Herminette droite, avec manche en andouiller et lame en nephrite (replique) Hand maul Masse Antler and wooden wedges Coins en andouiller et en bois Bone chisel Ciseau en os Bone drill with wooden handle (replica) Foret en os, avec poignee de bois (replique) Dogfish skin sandpaper Papier a sabler en peau de chien de mer Archaeological remains of woodworking tool kit Vestiges archeologiques de panoplie pour le travail du bois Adze blade Lame d'herminette Antler wedges and fragments Coins en andouiller et fragments Bone chisel Ciseau en os Bone drill fragment Fragment de foret en os Archaeological remains from clam processing Vestiges archeologiques de la preparation des palourdes Horse clam fragments Fragments de palourde Cooking stones Pierres servant a la cuisson  EXHIBIT  CHA^Gi^Ci T i £ £ S  secriONJ  DZ  P A G E  D2-5~  SUBJECT  TEXT  OR  AftnfAcT  L A B E L ^ )  D 2 - G 1 &*i= Mapping midden layer contours. Crescent Beach site, 1977. Photo by Len Ham Cartographie du contours des couches de l'amas de coquilles. Station de Crescent Beach, 1977. . Photographie prise par Len  D2  -G2  £  +  Ham  F  Excavating by natural layers. Crescent Beach site, 1977. Photo by Len Ham Fouille par decapage. Station de Crescen Beach, 1977. Photographie prise par Len Ham  D2-G3:  £  By reconstructing the activities which might have occurred at the Crescent Beach site, archaeologists can better understand the pattern of remains which are left behind. Shown are some of the activities and structures which would have occurred at an early spring herring fishing camp, before the herring run.  here  bZ-6 3 P Une reconstitution des activites ayant pu se derouler dans la station de Crescent Beach permet aux aichfeologues de mieux saisir la signification des vestiges abandonnes. Nous voyons ici certaines des activites et des structures qui devaient avoir lieu dans un camp de peche avant la migration printanntere du hareng.  EXHIBIT  £HAM&/AJG>  StCT/OM  T/£>£-S  PAGE  1)2,  J>Z-4=  SUBJECT  TEXT  OR  PIATIeACT-  D2-G4: £ +-F MODEL OF MIDDEN  I.AB£L(_S)  DEVELOPMENT  M O DELE DE L'EVOLUTION  D'UN A M A S D E  COQUILLES  Shellfish harvesting site after use Station de ramassage des mollusques apres son occupation Shellfish harvesting site, 30 years later. Station de ramassage des mollusques. 30 ans plus tard. Shellfish harvesting site after reuse Station de ramassage des mollusques apres une nouvelle occupation. Shell harvesting site. 100 years later. Station de rammassage des mollusques, 100 ans plus tard. ocean ocean ocean ocean ocean ocean oc6an ocean beach plage beach plage beach plage beach plage hearth foyer steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets hearth foyer steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets hearth foyer  steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets hearth foyer steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets drying rack sechoir post holes troux de poteau sand and humus sable el humus shell coquille cobble stone gros galet old basket vieux panier broken digging stick baton a fouiller brise charcoal charbon storm erosion erosion par la tempete  EXHIBIT  C^A/KJG/AJCI  TibBS  secr/o/\J  P A G E  suBcrecr T E X T  o R A An* ACT  uaE'L^)  DZ>-Gi5  Archaeological remains of a steaming mound. Crescent Beach site. 1977 Photo by Len Ham Vestiges archeologiques d'un amas d'6tuve. Station de Crescent Beach. 1977 Photographie prise par Len Ham  D2-7  179  EXHIBIT  CHANJCT/AJG  SECT/OrJ  T/DES  £L  ?AG£ £-1  Su6T£Cr TEXT ».  OR  fl-ftr^Acr  L I B E L ^ )  E-Tl £ THE FUTURE OF THE  PAST  Archaeological research in the Fraser delta region has developed through several stages paralleling general changes in North American archaeology. Each stage has built on previous results. These results liave laid the foundation upon which new questions are raised and new techniques are developed.  E-T±  F  L'AVENIR D U P A S S E  La de a et  recherche archeologique dans le delta du Fraser s'est deroulee au cours de plusiers etapes, facon parrallele a ce qui s'est passe dans l'ensemkle de I'Amerique du Nord. Chaque etape beueficie des resultats acquis. Ces resultats ont permis la formulation de nouvelles questions le developpement de nouvelles techniques.  E-T2 £ The Descriptive stage not only provided initial descriptions, but asked important questions concerning both economic and cultural change. The subsequent development of a regional Cultural Sequence resulted from more refined excavation techniques and laboratory procedures. Recent Subsistence Research is beginning to outline the development of the Northwest Coast's seasonally diverse subsistence pattern. While a similar range of resources was used in this area' for thousands of years, critical changes occurred in resource use, for instance the development of large scale salmon processing for storage. These changes have only recently received attention. A new focus on social questions, such as on how social organization and subsistence strategies interrelate, suggests that a new stage of archaeological research is also taking shape. The future of such research, however, is seriously threatened. £ - T £ F L'Etape Descriptive, en plus de fournir les premieres descriptions, a permis d'aborder des problemes importants sur le changement economique et culturel. L'etablissement d'une Succession des Cultures dans la region qui lui fit suite, a ete rendue possible par l'emploi de methodes de fouille et de techniques de laboratoire plus affin6es. L'etape recente de la Recherche sur la Subsistance est en voie d'esquisser 1'evoluuon des formes saisonnieres differentes de la subsistance sur la cflte du Pacifique Nord. Meme s'il semble acquis qu'une utilisation d'un 6ventail de ressources comparable se soit poursuivie au cours des mill6naires dans la region, les methodes d'exploitation ont subit d'importames modifications, entre autres le developpement d'une preparation intensive du saumon en vue de l'entreposage alimentaire. mais ce n'est que recemment que Ton accorde a de tels changements l'attention qu'ils meritent On se concentre maintenant sur l'etude des questions sociales. telles que le lien entre l'organisau'on sociale el les strategies de subsistance, ce qui indique l'avenement d'une nouvelle etape de la recherche. L'avenir de cette recherche se voit cependant menac6 de fagon serieuse.  EXHIBIT  CHAU&irtG,  SeCT/OrsJ  £  TibELS PAGE  E-Z.  SUBJECT OR  TEXT  e-  PtrzrttAc-r  L^BE.L(S)  T3 £  HERITAGE  DESTRUCTION  The destruction of midden sites, especially in urban areas problem. Marpole and other important sites were excavated Unfortunately, many other sites were destroyed before any place. As a result, valuable heritage information has been  like the Fraser delta, is a major just before bulldozers moved in. archaeological investigation could take lost forever.  If a greater appreciation of the development of Northwest Coast cultures is to be achieved, archaeologists must continue to investigate a cross-section of sites within a region. But to do this, archaeological sites must be viewed as non-renewable resources that require our protection.  E - T 3 F LA  DESTRUCTION D E L*HERITAGE  CULTUREL  L a destruction des stations en amas de coquilles, particulierement dans les zones urbaines du delta du Fraser, presente un probleme d'envergure. Marpole et d'autres stations furent fouillees immediatement avant rarrivee des niveleuses. Malheureusement, un grand nombre de gisements ont ete detruits avant que la recherche archeologique ne puisse intervenir, ce qui consitue une perte irreparable d'information precieuse sur l'heritage culturel. Les archeologues se voient dans l'obligation de poursuivre une recherche portant sur plusieurs types de stations, si Ton desire obtenir une meilleure connaissance de revolution des cultures sur la c6te du Pacificique Nord. La realisation de cet objectif exige cependant une protection des gisements archeologiques que Ton doit envisager comme des ressources non-renouvelables.  181  EXHIBIT  C I - ^ A / G J / A J G  TibES  PA^E:  £ 3  SUB.O"£CT A. ^o-  A\RT\ F A C T S  NONE  G- No.  GRAPHICS  E-Gl  Photo  o f Marpole  1955  E-G2  Photo  of Marpole  1984  E-G3  Crescent  E-G4  Marpole  Beach  1957  bulldozer  shot  CoKHEKirs E-Gl:  Delta  55 I i?5  E-G3: E-G4:  Delta Leica  57 I I I #14 5 4 ( 5 5 ) X #35  (mural)  182  EXHIBIT  CCMAAJG?./AJ&  s e c r / O f J  TI t > £ - S ? A G £  g.  e-  4  SuBJEcr T E X T  OR  £ - & l  fl-RnfAct  u 6 £ L ( i )  t + F  View of Marpole site, 1955 Photo by Charles E. Borden Vue de la station de Marpole, 1955 Photographie prise par Charles E. Borden  E-G2.  E.tF  View of Marpole site, 1984 Vue de la station de Marpole, 1984  £-G3 £ Archaeological excavation is often carried out under less than ideal conditions. Salvaging cultural remains threatened by immediate destruction necessitates quick action. This is a regrettable alternative to careful management of heritage resources. Crescent Beach salvage excavation, 1957. Photo by Don Abbott  E-G3F" La fouille archeologique se poursuit souvent dans des conditions peu ideales. Le sauvetage des vestiges cullurels menaces par une destruction imminente exige une action rapide. Le sauvetage demeure malheureusement le seul recours, lorsqu'une administration attentive aux ressources du patrimoine fail defauL Fouille de sauvetage de Crescent Beach, 1957 Photographie prise par Don Abbott  Photo by Charles E. Borden Photographie pris par Charles E.  Borden  133  CM ArOO? /AJG? T/btSS  EXHIBIT S E C T /OrJ  F  SUBTEC-T  flCKkJOtsJ  Tex r O R F"  - TJL  Aftr/MCT  PAQ£ LrZb&Ew  F - l  BKJTS  B E-LfY)  £ + F  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Changing Tides was produced by the University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology. Illustrations: Gordon Miller Graphics: Moira Irvine Translation: Prof. Nicolas Rolland This exhibit was curated by Ann Stevenson in panial fulfilment of the requirements for the M.A. degree in Anthropology, University of British Columbia. 1985. The curator wishes to thank her graduate committee for supporting and guiding this project and the Museum's staff, volunteers and students for making this exhibit possible. The museum gratefully acknowledges support for this exhibition from the National Museums or Canada. Exhibitions Assistance Programme and the British Columbia Heritage Trust University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology programmes are produced with the assistance of the Members and Friends of the Museum, the Volunteer Associates and Shop Volunteers, the Museum Assistance Programmes of the National Museums of Canada, and the Government of British Columbia through the British Columbia Cultural Fund and Lottery revenues. REMERCIEMENTS Marees Changeantes a 616 realisee par le Musee d'Anthropologic de l'Universite de la Colombie Britannique. Illustrations: Gordon Miller Graphiques: Moira Irvine Traduction: Prof. Nicolas Rolland La conservation de cette exposition ful la responsabilitt d'Ann Stevenson et faisait parue des conditions exiges pour le grade de Maitrise es Arts en Anthropologie a l'Universite de la Colombie Britannique, 1985. Le conservateur tient a remercier les membres de son committe d'etudes superieures pour leur appui el pour l'avoir guide dans la realisation de ce projet, ainsi qu'au personnel du Musee, aux benevoles et aux etudiants dont 1'aide a rendu possible cette exposition. Le Mus6e remercie vivement pour leur aide les Musees nationaux du Canada, le Programme de Soutien aux Expositions et le Conseil pour la preservation du patrimoine de la Colombie Britannique. Les programmes du Mus6e d'Anthropologie de l'Universite de la Colombie Britannique beneTtcient de I'appui foumi par les Membres el les Amis du Musee, par les Benevoles Associes et les Benevoles de la Boutique, par les Programmes de Soutien aux Musees des Mus6es nationaux du Canada et par le Gouvernement de la Colombie Britannique. grace aux revenus du Fond culturel de la Colombie Britannique et de la Loterie.  184 9.13 APPENDIX 13 Illustration This fishing This  f o rthe e x h i b i t i o n  illustration  will  Beach s i t e  camp w o u l d have been o c c u p i e d spring (late  mainly  to harvest  trade,  as w e l l a s , f i s h i n g  and p r o c e s s  spawn, and d r y i n g t h e s e  mammal  Coast  Salish  ( c a . 1100 A.D.).  February  shellfish  through  one  March),  f o r s t o r a g e and  for herring, collecting Secondary  processing, bird,  herring  activities  s e a and l a n d  hunting.  The  specific  activities  t o be i l l u s t r a t e d  and h e r r i n g p r o c e s s i n g , and woodworking.  would  Tides  f o r approximately  f o r storage.  i n c l u d e d woodworking, h i d e  fish  show a t e m p o r a r y  camp a t t h e C r e s c e n t  month i n t h e e a r l y  Changing  i n c l u d e t e m p o r a r y mat s h e l t e r s ,  drying include  r a c k s , and s t e a m i n g  mounds.  a number o f p e o p l e  engaged  including  women a c t i v e l y  woodworking, d r y i n g r a c k  Structures  hearths,  smoking and  The i l l u s t r a t i o n i n t h e above  should  activities,  p r o c e s s i n g f o o d , men engaged i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , and p o s s i b l y  activities  associated with  this  s h o u l d be two o l d e r c h i l d r e n  scene  are s h e l l -  food  processing.  other  Included i n  engaged i n t h e s e  activities. It  s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z a b l y a b e a c h  ground a c t i v i t i e s plank  removal  been f o u n d  from  scene  and b a c k -  could include herring fishing standing cedars.  on t h e b e a c h .  and p o s s i b l y  Canoes w o u l d a l s o  have  Shellfish  harvesting:  -required labour,  the cooperation  or task groups t o procure  As t h e l o w e s t spring,  -Cockles  were a t n i g h t  activities  the e a r l y  would p r o b a b l y  nuttali)  and H o r s e  sp.) were t h e most f r e q u e n t l y  low  but Horse clams r e q u i r e r a p i d  are c o l l e c t e d  clams  on t h e s u r f a c e a t digging.  Other  s p e c i e s were a l s o c o l l e c t e d ,  b u t were  eaten  immediately  o r were  smaller  sources  after  processing  Barnett  for shellfish  harvesting  include:  1955:65  H a e b e r l i n and G u n t h e r J e n n e s s n.d.  1930:23-4  :43  Kennedy and B o u c h a r d Stewart  either stored  numbers.  Ham 1982:128-132;141 S t e r n 1969:47-8 S u t t l e s 1974:65-9 sources  n o t be  preserved  Cockles  include:  Other  during  illustration.  (Clinocardium  tide,  pool of  large quantities  species.  in  Main  tides  procuring  shown i n t h i s  (Tresus  o f an o r g a n i z e d  1977:132  1983:33-6  and p r o c e s s i n g  Shellfish  processing:  Clams were f i r s t heated  steamed open by p l a c i n g  rocks, covered  with  i n c l u d e p i t steaming  -a s h a l l o w fire, fish  the w a l l s l i n e d i n the s h e l l  covered -or  p i t was l i n e d  i n n e r cedar  were p l a c e d o v e r  are p l a c e d over  c o a l s , when t h e y with  t h e r o c k s and  took  at the beach 20-45  sand.  b u t when l a r g e sand  Seaweed and quantities  was u s u a l l y  used.  t h e mats and boughs.  The  meat was removed and t h e s h e l l s  The  meat was r i n s e d either  a r e added,  minutes.  Sand was removed, t h e n  fire  shell-  a l a r g e bed o f h o t  o l d m a t s , and t h e n  were p r o c e s s e d  roasted,  from t h e bark,  are hot, the s h e l l f i s h  boughs c o u l d be u s e d ,  Steaming  -  w i t h mats and steamed.  the rocks  covered  sand.  with hot rocks  with  over  k e l p , f i r o r hemlock  b o u g h s , o r o l d mats and f i n a l l y Variations  them  o f sand,  discarded.  s t u c k on s k e w e r s and  by a n g l i n g t h e s t i c k s  o r by l e a n i n g t h e s t i c k s  towards a  on a frame o v e r t h e  fire. After  roasting  strings,  t h e meat was s t r u n g on c e d a r  and sun d r i e d  small, well ventilated  before basket.  being  bark  stored i n a  Herring.processing:  - h e r r i n g were d r i e d through across or  by p i e r c i n g  the g i l l s w i t h a s t i c k which a s i x foot  h i g h frame and  smoked w i t h a f i r e  -drying  beneath  t o o k t e n days  -spawn was  be  also  adhered  shaken  -larger  dried  two  the  Jenness  Stewart  smoking  may  days, the  roe  for drying.  1913:51 :17 Bouchard  1983:31-2  1977:124-7;147-8  drying,  open w i t h a d e e r u l n a  1955:86  Kennedy and  dried  o f f into baskets a f t e r  h e r r i n g were s p l i t  n.d.  sun  t o h e m l o c k o r c e d a r boughs w o u l d  Boas 1921:184-5 Curtis  laid  frame,  to three  See: Barnett  was  on t h e s e f r a m e s ,  or s t r i p p e d  bone k n i f e  o r more  either  o r more, and  occur o n l y f o r the f i r s t  which  a dozen  188 Woodworking a c t i v i t i e s ing  at  a shellfish  and  herring  process-  camp: Although  predominate uring  subsistence  this  site,  activities  were p r o b a b l y  using  produced  site  probably  w o u l d a l s o have t a k e n p l a c e .  h e r r i n g runs  this  would  c e r t a i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and  at  were u n d o u b t a b l y made a t As  activities  the the  are  relatively  c l a m s and  village,  Many  items  however some  site.  would a r r i v e  expected, harvest  winter  manufact-  unpredictable,  before other  the  the  h e r r i n g run  resources  before  group  was the  fish  appeared. Woodworking a c t i v i t i e s time. A v a r i e t y of house p l a n k s , pending As  c a n o e s , b o x e s , and  site,  been  produced.  at  least  also or  one  show t h e  other  and  boxes, planks  illustration  smaller  appropriate  wedges, adze b l a d e s ,  this  at  this  i t e m s c o u l d have been made i n c l u d i n g  on w h e t h e r t h e  This  w o u l d have o c c u r r e d  drill  implements,  specialist  appropriate  item  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  present.  f r a g m e n t s were f o u n d  and/or h e r r i n g rakes  should  was  de-  could  at  have  i n c l u d e the m a n u f a c t u r i n g (herring rake), drying  and  and  of,  could  roasting  frames  structures. Herring  A h e r r i n g r a k e was cedar or r e d  pine,  1975:50405) t h e n  first  rake  production:  made by from  i t is slit  splitting'a  a standing  and  long,  tree  s e c t i o n of  (see  shaped t o s i z e .  Boas  It i s  rounded the  at the handle  other.  Barbs  end  and  o f hardwood  o r bone were f i x e d  flattened  f o r two  (ironwood or  t o the f l a t t e n e d  end  held  by  feet  at  oceanspray)  by  several  two  stakes,  methods. - t h e r a k e was then  on  i t is drilled  i t s side  a l o n g t h e edge, and  teeth  driven  in. -sharpened way  of ironwood  t h r o u g h t h e wooden s h a f t  nails The  points  would  herring  r a k e was  about  1/2"  t o 3/4"  vary  than  1/2"  inch.  The  less  barbs  i n much t h e same  1975:504-5  Stewart  1977:76-7  Suttles  1974:126-7  7-14"  thick.  to s l i g h t l y  themselves  See:  Boas  a l l the way  be.  i n c h e s wide by from  were d r i v e n  a r e one  long,  several  Spacing of the greater t o two  than  barbs an  inches long.  B a s i c woodworking K i t :  * *  * * Also * * * * All  1. 2.  Hand m a u l - g e n e r a l l y s p o o l shaped Wedges-wooden (yew, dogwood o r c r a b a p p l e ) and antler -various s i z e s , often with cedar withe grommets - v a r i o u s edge a n g l e s 3. Stone o r bone c h i s e l s 4. A d z e s - s t r a i g h t , elbow o r D-adzes -tone or s h e l l b l a d e s 5. D r i l l - b o n e o r a n t l e r w i t h wooden h a f t 6. Stone or s h e l l k n i f e a v a r i e t y of o t h e r t o o l s : -dogfish skin sandpaper -scouring rushes -paints -pegs -cedar withes -incising tools -abrader stones kept  i n a wedge shaped  basket  (Boas  1921:60)  See: Barnett  1955:107-9  Haeberlin  and  Gunther  1930:33  J e n n e s s n.d.:27;38 Suttles  1974:225-7  t h e s e w o u l d have been u s e d as w e l l heat  as g r e a s e  treatment  t o make a h e r r i n g  f o r w a t e r p r o o f i n g and  for strength.  rake,  possible  191  Temporary mat The tos  or  usual four  mats and Pole  s h e l t e r at posted  a temporary  sometimes b a r k and  mats-6' by  - tied  to the  camp c o n s i s t e d  f r a m e s w h i c h were c o v e r e d w i t h  frames-lower at the  Cat-tail roof  house:  15'  roof  rear,  s l a n t i n g to  cedar  on  sometimes s e v e r a l  common f i r e .  In bad  inside.  See: Barnett  1955:40  Haeberlin  and  Gunther  J e n n e s s n.d.:7-9 Stern  1969:41,52  Suttles  1974:261  1930:18  cattailed  rain. and  on  the  withes.  s h e l t e r s w o u l d be weather the  shed  3 sides  C o o k i n g h e a r t h s were l o c a t e d o u t s i d e and  lean-  planks.  overlapping  frame w i t h  of  cooking  the  mat  erected fire  shelters facing  may  be  a  192 Bibliography Barnett, 1955  Homer G. The C o a s t S a l i s h o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon Monographs, S t u d i e s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y No. 4, Eugene.  Boas, F r a n z 1921  The E t h n o l o g y o f t h e K w a k i u t l B u r e a u o f American Ethnology T h i r t y - f i f t h Annual Report  1913-14 1975  pt.l.  The K w a k i u t l o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d Memoir o f t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . Volume 5:301-522. New Y o r k .  C u r t i s , Edward S. 1913 The N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n Volume 9. R e p r i n t C o r p o r a t i o n , New Y o r k . (1970) Haeberlin, 1930  Herman and E r n a G u n t h e r The I n d i a n s o f Puget Sound U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology  Vol.  Ham, L e o n a r d 1982  Jenness, n.d.  Johnson  471-84.  Charles S e a s o n a l i t y , S h e l l Midden L a y e r s , and C o a s t S a l i s h Subsistence A c t i v i t i e s at the Crescent Beach s i t e , D g R r l . u n p u b l i s h e d Phd. d i s s e r t a t i o n , UBC.  Diamond The S a a n i c h I n d i a n s o f V a n c o u v e r unpublished manuscript, National Ottawa.  Kennedy, D o r o t h y 1983  and Randy B o u c h a r d Sliammon L i f e , Sliammon L a n d s . Vancouver.  Island, Museum,  Talonbooks,  Stern, Bernhard J . 1969 The Lummi I n d i a n s o f N o r t h w e s t W a s h i n g t o n AMS P r e s s , New Y o r k , ( f i r s t e d i t i o n 1934) Stewart, 1977 1984  Hilary I n d i a n F i s h i n g : E a r l y Methods on t h e N o r t h west C o a s t J . J . D o u g l a s L t d . V a n c o u v e r . Cedar:Tree o f L i f e t o the Northwest Coast Indians Douglas & M c l n t y r e , Vancouver.  S u t t l e s , Wayne P. 1974 The Economic L i f e o f t h e C o a s t S a l i s h o f Haro and R o s a r i o S t r a i t s C o a s t S a l i s h and w e s t e r n Washington Indians I , G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g I n c . New Y o r k .  193 9.14  APPENDIX 14  CHANGING TIDES The Development o f A r c h a e o l o g y Ann S t e v e n s o n UBC MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY Museum Note No.  i n B.C.'s F r a s e r  Delta  Region  194  ...the people l i v e d at the water's livelihood trails,  and  from  the w a t e r ,  regulated  their  edge, d e r i v e d  travelled  waterways  most of  i n p r e f e r e n c e to  a c t i v i t i e s by the t i d e s  daylight  and  as much as  by  dark. Philip  Drucker,  Archaeological the  Northern  Coast 1943  {j»LAT£ -f]  their  Survey  Northwest  on  195  INTRODUCTION The  history  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h  F r a s e r D e l t a Region t h i s area's  i s the h i s t o r y  p r e h i s t o r y . Each stage  in British  Columbia's  o f o u r e v o l v i n g knowledge of of t h i s  reasearch  has b o t h  <.'  c h a n g e d and r e f i n e d The  development  changing  of archaeology  i d e a s and new  archaeological of  our p e r c e p t i o n o f t h i s  provide a testing  which p r o m i s e s t o p r o v i d e aspect  past.  region r e f l e c t s  both the  i n n o v a t i o n s w h i c h have g e n e r a l l y a f f e c t e d  research across North  the F r a s e r d e l t a  important  in this  region's  A m e r i c a . The s h e l l ground  f o r ongoing  middens research  us w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g knowledge o f an  of N o r t h w e s t C o a s t p r e h i s t o r y .  196  THE  SIGNIFICANCE OF  S h e l l midden prehistoric  s i t e s provide  the  dumps, p r o v i d i n g  Fraser  dwellings,  evidence  for  delta region.  These  work a r e a s and  garbage  of human h a b i t a t i o n s p a n n i n g  of  different  discover  nearly  same p l a c e  the  r e m a i n s of an  c o v e r e d by  result  over time. For  characteristic build  up  i n t e r p r e t s i n order  when d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s  example,  abandoned house may  of a s h e l l f i s h  of  to  reaching  cases,  a site  continuous,  but  activities  leave left  shells  activities,  and  Investigating of  to  later  be  use.  For  In t h i s  instance,  special conditions  help  layers  not  only  materials  to preserve  of  salmon  complex  fishing differs  layers  of  from t h e s e human debris.  i s further complicated  d e c a y . Most o r g a n i c  the  be  the  of d e b r i s w h i c h  f i s h i n g . . The  remains r e s u l t  middens  midden  by  pattern  fall  a l s o from n a t u r a l l y d e p o s i t e d  shell  way  at  i n depth.  pattern  spring herring  covered  i n t u r n , may  show a more r e g u l a r  a distinctive  other  hearth.  5 meters  may  seasonal  by  but  up  occur  in a coastal shell  s t e a m i n g mound t h a t ,  r e m a i n s of a c a m p s i t e  accumulate,  processes  archaeologist  layer patterns  the  from t h a t  created  a site's history.  Different  In o t h e r  activities  r e m a i n s . T h e s e r e m a i n s r e s u l t e d i n the  midden l a y e r s w h i c h t h e  unless  important  years.  patterns  soil,  most  i n the  r e m a i n s of a record  In midden s i t e s ,  refuse  the  human a c t i v i t y  sites contain  9,000  SHELL MIDDENS  by  decay q u i t e  natural quickly  them. In c o a s t a l  shell  197  middens, the presence of s h e l l s helps  to preserve bone and  a n t l e r , but wood and plant f i b e r s u s u a l l y survive only are c o n s t a n t l y waterlogged. Thus, the carved  wooden, o b j e c t s f o r  which the Northwest Coast i s well known are r a r e l y archaeological  sites.  i f they  found i n  198  SHELL MIDDENS AND To  understand  must c o n s i d e r  which the s i t e ' s  delta  SETTING  t h e r o l e of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e  archaeologists  environment  THEIR  the changing n a t u r a l  occupants l i v e d .  The r i c h  of t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t ,  region,  influenced  within  a  environment i n  and d i v e r s e  i n c l u d i n g that  the development  region,  of the F r a s e r  of t h e a r e a ' s  unique  cultures.  The  Fraser  and  land  river  resources  inhabitants. and  the  ocean w a t e r s — p l a y e d  the Fraser  evolution  sites  this  itself.  tidal  a vital  mouth o f t h e r i v e r  of t h e s e  i t i s important  development. For i n s t a n c e  region's  r o l e f o r over  The p r e s e n t  w h i c h was a t t h e r i v e r ' s  many k i l o m e t e r s C FIGURE  a wide v a r i e t y of s e a  and q u a n t i t y  delta region,  of t h e d e l t a  reflects  Cannery s i t e now  estuary—the  i n the l o c a t i o n , s t a b i l i t y  In e x a m i n i n g  provided  w h i c h were e x t e n s i v e l y u s e d by t h e  The d e v e l o p i n g  surrounding  years  d e l t a and e s t u a r y  7,000  resources. to consider  l o c a t i o n o f midden the Glenrose  mouth 8,000 y e a r s  ago i s  upriver.  I3  THE SEASONAL ROUND A l t h o u g h many r e s o u r c e s only  seasonally,  acquire.  and even t h e n ,  they c o u l d  be d i f f i c u l t  The C o a s t S a l i s h i n h a b i t a n t s of t h e r e g i o n  and  often  For  example, d u r i n g  netted  were abundant, t h e y were o f t e n a v a i l a b l e  complex methods t o h a r v e s t  and r a k e d ;  spring  fish  runs,  salmon were n e t t e d ,  to  used  these short-term  diverse,  resources.  h e r r i n g or eulachon trapped  i n weirs,  were  speared,  199 harpooned or hooked, depending  on the s p e c i e s , the season and  location. F i s h i n g was supplemented  by v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , such as berry  p i c k i n g i n summer and s h e l l f i s h gathering the year  round.  S p e c i a l i s t s hunted sea mammals i n the s p r i n g and land mammals in the autumn and winter. During winter, stored foods were r e l i e d upon as ceremonial and manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s dominated village  life.  winter  200  THE  DESCRIPTIVE STAGE  Archaeological the  late  finding  investigation  1800's. T h i s e a r l y artifacts,  s i g n i f i c a n c e . The  i n the F r a s e r d e l t a work was  mainly  d e s c r i b i n g them, and 1898  investigation  concerned  Using  of t h i s  early  of t h e M a r p o l e  layers  of t h e  site  by  that a r t i f a c t s economic  from  were f o u n d .  structure beginning h i s estimates  followed  1,000  by  the  was  f o r the  excavated  a  p a i d to  the  N e v e r t h e l e s s , he  at l e a s t  of a  2,000 y e a r s  1,000  y e a r s of d i s u s e , on  t r e e s growing over  attention  a l l l a y e r s provided evidence  Smith based  by  I. Smith i s  l a b o u r , Smith r a p i d l y  shovel. L i t t l e  i n which a r t i f a c t s  site  their  research.  a s m a l l f o r c e of h i r e d  portion  with  s p e c u l a t i n g about  A m e r i c a n Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y ' s H a r l a n representative  r e g i o n began i n  y e a r s of such  t h e midden, t h e d e p t h  d e g r e e of midden m a t e r i a l d e c a y . R e c e n t  concluded stable  ago. occupation,  factors  as t h e age  of a c c u m u l a t i o n ,  and  research supports  his  of the  estimate. Smith used  the a r t i f a c t s  t h a t he  answer q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g of  t h e a r e a . He  argued  t o t h o s e he  r e s i d e n t s of cultural  saw  replacement.  p o i n t s and  fishing, still  t h e a r e a . On  geometric  He  from  t h e economic and  f o r economic  r e c o v e r y of woodworking, similar  recovered  stability  by  site  cultural based  b a s k e t r y , and  i n use  the  mat  the l o c a l  to  stability  on  the  making  Coast  Salish  t h e o t h e r hand, S m i t h a l s o a r g u e d viewed the presence  d e c o r a t i o n as e v i d e n c e  of c h i p p e d for early  tools  for  stone  migration  201  of i n t e r i o r people to the c o a s t . Smith asked  important questions, but h i s answers were  s p e c u l a t i v e , i n a manner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of e a r l y d e s c r i p t i v e archaeology. More c o n c l u s i v e answers would r e q u i r e the more r e f i n e d t h e o r i e s and research techniques which were introduced as archaeology  developed.  C PLATS, u r i  202  THE  CULTURAL SEQUENCE STAGE  British at  Columbia's  first  archaeologist,  M a r p o l e and o t h e r F r a s e r  the  1970's,  cultural beyond  and was  sequence  tools,  and  similar  cultures  realized  interpretations  similar  s e q u e n c e , Borden  t o move  found i n a  grouped call  from d i f f e r e n t  the o r d e r  basic  that  or  site.  layers  with  a component. sites  phases. Radio-carbon d a t i n g ,  used to v e r i f y  1940's t o  kept of where a r t i f a c t s  as h e a r t h s — v x r e  components  the  worked  of t h e a r e a ' s  i n t o what a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  or c u l t u r a l  was  from t h e l a t e  in establishing  r e c o r d s must be  a cultural  artifacts  sites,  used t o d a y . He  features—such  then grouped  date  still  accurate  To e s t a b l i s h  1948,  instrumental  Smith's s p e c u l a t i v e  prehistory,  delta  C h a r l e s E. Borden,  He  into  invented in  of t h e s e p h a s e s , as w e l l  as t o  them.  The p h a s e s B o r d e n d e f i n e d a r e t h e L o c a r n o Beach p h a s e , Marpole phase,  t h e Whalen I I p h a s e , and  p h a s e s were u s u a l l y characteristic  named a f t e r  component was  the S t s e l a x  the f i r s t  site  f o u n d , but any  phase.  i n which  site  the  could  These  the contain  s e v e r a l components or p h a s e s . For  example,  Marpole  site,  M a r p o l e phase components, a r e f o u n d a t many s i t e s  G l e n r o s e Cannery hand,  site  i s confined  Although defined  e a c h phase  defined  i n the region  u p r i v e r . The Whalen  to a s i n g l e  some a r t i f a c t  first  II phase,  at the including  the  on t h e o t h e r  site.  types a r e found i n s e v e r a l  by t h e p r e s e n c e of d i s t i n c t i v e  phases,  Borden  features.  203  L o c a r n o Beach ground  slate  phase  o b j e c t s and  by b a r b e d h a r p o o n trilogy thin  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  heads,  bone p o i n t s . M a r p o l e Phase the Northwest  ground  slate  knives  and t h e p r e s e n c e of m i c r o b l a d e s ,  olivella-shell amalgamation slate  C o a s t ' s woodworking  and a p r o l i f e r a t i o n i s defined  b e a d s . The most  recent,  of  decorative  by an a b s e n c e small  as w e l l  chipped  S t s e l a x phase  of  ground  points s e e s an  of t o g g l i n g h a r p o o n s and woodworking t o o l s  grinding.  heads,  is typified  of s p l i t t i n g wedges handmauls and a d z e b l a d e s ,  o b j e c t s . The Whalen I I phase slate  t o g g l i n g harpoon  with  and  as  204  REFINING THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE Initially, series  Borden v i e w e d h i s c u l t u r a l  of m i g r a t i o n s  position, result  T h i s change  that c u l t u r a l  areas  failed  t o support  By  o f new p e o p l e  explanations.  t h e Whalen  For  example,  A  On t h e o t h e r  site  and l a t e r  f o r by t r a d e  the e n t i r e region  artifacts  might  stone  points,  between c o a s t  commonly  i n t h e r e g i o n may s i m p l y f o r salmon  stage  site,  and i n t e r i o r  ground  salmon p r o c e s s i n g  was n o t u s e d  t h e next  have  m i g h t have been due t o  slate  and f o u n d i n i n d i c a t e that  fishing.  r e c o g n i t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l importance of s e a s o n a l  distinquishes  the  possible  hand, t h e a b s e n c e o f t h i n  phases  i n question  o n e s , he  were a l s o f o u n d a t t h e Whalen Farm  u s u a l l y associated with  earlier the  sites,  c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d  knives  other  the presence of small chipped  in interior  peoples.  ignored  from t r a d e , a n d a b s e n c e o f o t h e r s  season of s i t e use.  and  I I phase t o r e p r e s e n t  The p r e s e n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r  the  found  o u t of p r e v i o u s  from t h e i n t e r i o r .  one t i m e p e r i o d , B o r d e n  resulted  locally  that  t o a r g u e t h a t t h e Whalen I I p h a s e r e p r e s e n t e d  considering  during  h i s h y p o t h e s e s about t h e  A l t h o u g h he e v e n t u a l l y a l l o w e d  most p h a s e s c o u l d have d e v e l o p e d  arrival  also  development.  of c e r t a i n t r a i t s .  continued  change c o u l d  i n B o r d e n ' s p o s i t i o n r e s u l t e d when a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  work i n a d j a c e n t origin  i n t o t h e r e g i o n . He e v e n t u a l l y m o d i f i e d h i s  however, r e c o g n i z i n g  from l o c a l  phases as r e p r e s e n t i n g a  s i t e use  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h .  This  new  focus provides the  Whalen  complement  an a l t e r n a t i v e  I I component,  while  explanation adding  Borden's b a s i c c u l t u r a l  f o r the uniqueness  a new  sequence.  dimension  to  206  THE  SUBSISTENCE RESEARCH STAGE  Since  the  1970's, a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have been a p p l y i n g  techniques  t o midden s i t e s  the p r o c e s s  of c u l t u r a l  investigations the a r e a  An  understanding  The  adaptation  have f o c u s s e d  of  Fraser  in order  on  t o answer new i n the  how  s u p p l i e d themselves with  delta  Glenrose  of t h e  subsistence  questions  the p r e h i s t o r i c f o o d and  other  inhabitants necessities.  s t r a t e g y e a c h phase of  i s just  Cannery s i t e  a good s t a r t i n g  beginning  point  i t provided  but  v a r i a b l e use  of r e s o u r c e s ,  and  sea mammals. More r e c e n t l y , i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n Beach s i t e  particular  type  processing  camp.  of  has  such  as  site,  shape.  for  such  r e c o r d of c o n t i n u i n g  salmon, s h e l l f i s h ,  a shellfish  and  land  at  provided a greater understanding  seasonal  the  to take  r e s e a r c h because  Crescent  a 6,000 y e a r  about  region. Their  sequence r e p r e s e n t s proved  new  herring  of  the a  207  REFINING EXCAVATION AND LABORATORY To  a i d s u b s i s t e n c e r e s e a r c h , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s employ more  excavation aspect  procedures  of t h i s  artifacts,  cannot  of  with  are expensive,  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples  occupants.  f o r greater recovery  small  than  are  increasingly  generated  New  by s u c h  do t r a d i t i o n a l important field  residues show t o o l  and game i n t h e d i e t  of f i s h  vertebrae  through  fine  and o t h e r  d r y s c r e e n i n g methods.  Computers  f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e masses o f d a t a  are a l s o being  developed  to a i d  r e s e a r c h . F o r example, t h e growth r i n g s i n a  cross-section collection,  to reconstruct  techniques.  laboratory techniques  subsistence  i n order  fish  site  Archaeologists  The u s e o f w a t e r s c r e e n i n g  mesh a l l o w s items  among  a l l layers within a  t h e same i n t e n s i t y .  importance of s h e l l f i s h ,  the s i t e ' s  critical  i s d i s c o v e r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  techniques  select  relative  A  refined  r e m a i n s , and o t h e r midden m a t e r i a l s .  be a n a l y z e d  therefore  and new l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s .  research  food  Because t h e s e  the  TECHNIQUES  of s h e l l  thereby  such  c a n a c c u r a t e l y show t h e s e a s o n o f  indicating  as blood,  fats,  the season of s i t e  use. Detecting  and r e s i n s on s t o n e  tools helps to  f u n c t i o n and, c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  been p e r f o r m e d a t t h e s e  seasonal  what a c t i v i t i e s  sites.  might  have  208  INVESTIGATING A SEASONAL The  e x c a v a t i o n of s h e l l  shows how  t h e t y p e and  may  be d e t e r m i n e d  One  important  careful of  Previous s i t e s 10  t o 20  isolate  the s p e c i f i c  understand  each  Models a r e used  were e x c a v a t e d thick.  activities  layer  abundant. C e r t a i n t h u s can  site  w h i c h had  by  flat,  removing  helped  use were  might  times of t h e y e a r .  even  to site.  developed.  have o c c u r r e d a t  Important  Salish  use  of the  area  r e s o u r c e s were most  types, features, a r t i f a c t s ,  be p r e d i c t e d  the  occurred at t h i s  what a c t i v i t i e s  Coast  was  contours  T h i s refinement  the h i s t o r i c  layer  at a  the n a t u r a l  type, models of s i t e  to predict  include  following  t h o s e t i m e s o f t h e y e a r when c e r t a i n  remains  undertaken  site  analysis.  cm.  during different  considerations and  of a c t i v i t i e s  of midden l a y e r s  usually  the s i t e  season  by c a r e f u l  layers,  To  midden l a y e r s a t t h e C r e s e n t Beach  r e f i n e m e n t a t t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e  removal  the s i t e .  SITE  for a particular  and  group  of  faunal expected  activities. Although  such  f a c t o r s as d e c a y ,  s t r u c t u r e s once a t t h e s i t e , prediction example, a site,  of s i t e  and  might  the removal  of many t o o l s  make a n a l y s i s d i f f i c u l t ,  use h e l p s t o overcome t h i s p r o b l e m .  if shellfish  h a r v e s t i n g and  the b a s k e t s , d i g g i n g s t i c k s  been removed o r have d e c a y e d .  On  will  remain,  s u c h as t h e r e m a i n s  clam  shells,  and  drying  For  r a c k s might  t h e o t h e r hand, o t h e r of  the  processing are predicted and  steaming  racks.  for  have  evidence  mounds, d i s c a r d e d  the post h o l e s f o r the d r y i n g  and  209  If  t h e p r o b l e m a t i c Whalen  were  re-examined  seasonal variant unique c u l t u r a l  I I component  i n t h i s manner,  i t might  of a n o t h e r c u l t u r a l phase.  a t t h e Whalen  phase  now  Farm  site  be seen as a  rather  t h a n as an  210  THE  FUTURE OF  THE  Archaeological through  PAST  research  s e v e r a l stages  American archaeology.  i n the F r a s e r d e l t a paralleling  Each stage  T h e s e r e s u l t s have l a i d are  raised  The  D e s c r i p t i v e stage  asked  and  important  c h a n g e . The  new  the  not  has  built  are  subsequent development  Recent  to o u t l i n e  the development of  results. questions  initial  both  d e s c r i p t i o n s , but  economic and  cultural  of a r e g i o n a l C u l t u r a l  from more r e f i n e d  procedures.  previous  developed.  concerning  laboratory  on  developed North  upon w h i c h new  only provided  questions  Sequence r e s u l t e d  diverse  g e n e r a l changes i n  foundation  techniques  r e g i o n has  excavation  Subsistence  techniques  Research  and  i s beginning  the N o r t h w e s t C o a s t ' s  seasonally  subsistence pattern.  While a s i m i l a r  range of  resources  was  used  in this  t h o u s a n d s of y e a r s , c r i t i c a l  changes o c c u r r e d  for  of  i n s t a n c e the development  area  for  in resource  use,  l a r g e s c a l e salmon p r o c e s s i n g f o r  s t o r a g e . T h e s e c h a n g e s have o n l y r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n . A new  f o c u s on  social  questions,  and  s u b s i s t e n c e s t a t e g i e s i n t e r r e l a t e , , suggests  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h such The  such  d e s t r u c t i o n of midden s i t e s ,  sites  on  how  social organization t h a t a new  i s a l s o t a k i n g shape. The  r e s e a r c h , however, i s s e r i o u s l y  the F r a s e r d e l t a ,  as  just  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many o t h e r  before sites  f u t u r e of  threatened.  especially  i n urban a r e a s  i s a major p r o b l e m . M a r p o l e and  were e x c a v a t e d  stage  other  important  b u l l d o z e r s moved i n . were d e s t r o y e d  before  like  any  211  archaeological valuable  heritage  If a greater cultures  investigation could information  appreciation  lost  i s t o be a c h i e v e d , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  archaeological  resources  has been  that  r_?LRTe_  our  of sites, w i t h i n  v»o  protection.  result,  of Northwest Coast  must c o n t i n u e t o  s i t e s must be v i e w e d as  require  As a  forever.  o f t h e development  investigate a cross-section this,  take p l a c e .  a region.  But t o do  non-renewable  212  REFERENCES  Borden, C h a r l e s 1970 Ham, L e o n a r d C. 1982  Matson, 1976  E. C u l t u r e H i s t o r y o f t h e F r a s e r D e l t a r e g i o n . B.C S t u d i e s No. 6 - 7 . Pp. 9 5 - 1 1 2 . S e a s o n a l i t y , S h e l l Midden L a y e r s , and C o a s t S a l i s h S u b s i s t e n c e A c t i v i t i e s a t t h e C r e s c e n t Beach S i t e , DgRr 1. Unpublished- Phd. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  R.G. The G l e n r o s e Cannery S i t e , N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man M e r c u r y S e r i e s , A r c h a e o l o g y / S u r v e y o f Canada No. 5 2 .  Smith, Harlan I . 1903  S h e l l - h e a p s o f t h e Lower F r a s e r R i v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y Vol. . Jessup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n , V o l , P a r t 4 . Pp. 1 3 3 - 1 9 9 .  S u t t l e s , Wayne P. 1974 The Economic L i f e o f t h e C o a s t S a l i s h o f Haro and R o s a r i o S t r a i t s C o a s t S a l i s h and W e s t e r n Washington- I n d i a n s I . New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g Inc . FURTHER READINGS Borden,  1975  Charles  n.d.  O r i g i n s and development o f e a r l y N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c u l t u r e t o about 3000 B.C. N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man M e r c u r y S e r i e s , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada No.45. • P r e h i s t o r i c A r t o f t h e Lower F r a s e r Region-, - I n I n d i a n A r t T r a d i t i o n s o f t h e Northwest C o a s t , e d i t e d by Roy L. C a r l s o n . B u r n a b y : A r c h a e o l o g y P r e s s , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y .  Bunyan, D.E.  1978  Pursuing the Past: A General Account of B r i t i s h Columbia Archaeology Museum Note No. W. V a n c o u v e r : UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y .  213  -2-  B u r l e y , D a v i d V.  1980  Marpole. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of a p r e h i s t o r i c N o r t h w e s t Coast c u l t u r e t y p e Department o f A r c h a e o l o g y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n . No.8.  Fladmark, Knut R.  1980-81  B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h a e o l o g y S t u d i e s No. 48. Pp. 1 1 - 2 0 .  i n t h e 1970's. B.C.  Matson, R.G.  1980-81  Maud,  Ralph  1978  Mitchell,  1971  P r e h i s t o r i c Subsistence Patterns i n the Fraser D e l t a : The E v i d e n c e from t h e G l e n r o s e Cannery S i t e . B.C.Studies No.48. Pp. 64-85. editor The S a l i s h P e o p l e : The L o c a l C o n t r i b u t i o n o f C h a r l e s Hill-Tout V o l . I I I . The M a i n l a n d Halkomelem. Vancouver: Talonbooks.  Donald,  H. Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia area, a n a t u r a l r e g i o n and i t s c u l t u r a l t y p e s . S y e s i s Vol.4, supplement 1.  214  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  T h i s Museum Note and t h e e x h i b i t i o n by  t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Changing T i d e s  C o l u m b i a Museum o f  Illustrations:  Gordon  GRAPHICS:  Moira  TRANSLATION  Dr.  MUSEUM NOTE DESIGN  Gordon  Production by  Miller Irvine  Nicolas  Rolland  Miller  were  supported  t h e N a t i o n a l Museums o f Canada, E x h i b i t i o n s A s s i s t a n c e  University  of B r i t i s h  produced with  Museum A s s i s t a n c e  Columbia H e r i t a g e  programmes  t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e Members and F r i e n d s o f A s s o c i a t e s and t h e Shop V o l u n t e e r s , t h e  Programmes o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museums o f Canada,  t h e Government o f B r i t i s h  Columbia C u l t u r a l  Trust.  C o l u m b i a Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y  t h e Museum, t h e V o l u n t e e r  and  Anthropology.  o f t h i s Museum Note and t h e e x h i b i t i o n  Programme a n d t h e B r i t i s h  are  was p r o d u c e d  Columbia  Fund and L o t t e r y  through the B r i t i s h  revenues.  215  FIGURES & PHOTOGRAPHS  FIGURE I  D e l t a development  ( s e t of three)  FIGURE I I  Seasonal round - l i n e  FIGURE I I I  Chronology  FIGURE IV  Illustration  of residue  FIGURE V  Illustration  of s h e l l f i s h  FIGURE VI  Woodworking  FIGURE V I I  A c t i v i t i e s from i l l u s t r a t i o n (2) i n l i n e d r a w i n g form r e p r e s e n t i n g s h e l l f i s h p r o c e s s i n g and woodworking.  FIGURE V I I I  Drawing  PLATE I  H.I.  PLATE I I  Artifacts:  PLATE I I I  Profile  PLATE IV  Artifacts:  PLATE V  W a t e r s c r e e n i n g o r Lab P h o t o g r a p h  PLATE VI  Excavation  PLATE V I I  Marpole  drawings  (4) b a s e d on Four  Seasons  chart  tool  analysis analysis  k i t - line  d r a w i n g o r photo?  o f midden b u i l d - u p (4)  Smith e x c a v a t i o n . AMNH p h o t o g r a p h examples from one o f S m i t h ' s  drawing  categories.  photograph  one c a t e g o r y ( M a r p o l e ) s e l e c t i o n  by l a y e r s  shots through  as p e r Note.  o r midden f e a t u r e mapping time  216 9.15  APPENDIX 15 CHANGING TIDES The Development of Archaeology in B.C.'s Fraser Delta Region Ann Stevenson UBC MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY Museum Note No. 13  21  ...the people lived at the water's edge, derived most of their livelihood from the water, travelled waterways in preference to trails, and regulated their activities by the tides as much as by daylight and dark. Philip Drucker, Archaeological Survey on the Northern Northwest Coast. 1943  218  INTRODUCTION The history of archaeological research in British Columbia's Fraser Delta Region is the history of our evolving knowledge of this area's prehistory. The shell middens of the Fraser delta provide a testing ground for ongoing archaeological research which promises to provide us with an ever increasing knowledge of Northwest Coast prehistory. The development of archaeology in this region also reflects both the changing ideas and the innovations which have characterized the growth of archaeology across North America. Each stage of this research—the Descriptive, Cultural Sequence, and Subsistence stages—have changed and refined our perception of this region's past  219  THE DESCRIPTIVE STAGE Archaeological investigation in the Fraser delta region began in the late 1800's. This early • work was mainly concerned with finding artifacts, describing them, and speculating about their significance. The 1898 investigation of the Marpole site by the American Museum of Natural History's Harlan L Smith is representative of this early research. Using a small force of hired labour, Smith rapidly excavated a portion of the site by shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that artifacts from all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure beginning at least 2.000 years ago. Smith based his estimates for the 1,000 years of occupation, followed by 1,000 years of disuse, on such factors as the age of trees growing over the midden, the depth of accumulation, and the degree of midden material decay. Recent research supports his estimate. Smith used the artifacts that he recovered from the site to answer questions concerning the economic and cultural stability of the area. He argued for economic stability based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry, and mat making tools similar to those he saw still in use by the local Coast Salish residents of the area. On the other hand. Smith also argued for cultural replacement He viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence for early migration of interior people to the coast Smith asked important questions, but his answers were speculative, in a manner characteristic of early descriptive archaeology. More conclusive answers would require the more refined theories and research techniques which were introduced as archaeology developed.  220  THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE STAGE The University of British Columbia's first archaeologist, Charles E Borden, worked at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites, from the late 1940's to the 1970's, and was instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. He realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpretations of the area's prehistory, accurate records must be kept of where artifacts or tools, and features—such as hearths—were found in a site. To establish a cultural sequence, Borden grouped layers with similar artifacts into what archaeologists call a component. He then grouped similar components from different sites into cultures or cultural phases. Radio-carbon dating, invented in 1948, was used to verify the order of these phases, as well as to date them. The phases Borden defined are the Locarno Beach phase, the Marpole phase, the Whalen II phase, and the Stselax phase. These phases were usually named after the first site in which the characteristic component was found, but any site could contain several components or phases. For example, Marpole phase components, first defined at the Marpole site, are found at many sites in the region including the Glenrose Cannery site upriver. The Whalen n phase, on the other hand, is confined to a single site. Although some artifact types are found in several phases, Borden defined each phase by the presence of distinctive features. Locarno Beach phase is characterized by toggling harpoon heads, ground slate objects and bone points. Marpole Phase is typified by barbed harpoon heads, the Northwest Coast's woodworking trilogy of splitting wedges handmauls and adze blades, as well as thin ground slate knives and a proliferation of decorative objects. The Whalen II phase is defined by an absence of ground slate and the presence of microblades, small chipped points and olivella-shell beads. The most recent, Stselax phase sees an amalgamation of toggling harpoons and woodworking tools with slate grinding.  REFINING THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE Initially, Borden viewed his cultural phases as representing a series of migrations into the region. He eventually modified his position, however, recognizing that cultural change could also result from local development This change in Borden's position resulted when archaeological work in adjacent areas failed to support his hypotheses about the origin of certain traits. Although he eventually allowed that most phases could have developed locally out of previous ones, he continued to argue that the Whalen n phase represented the arrival of new people from the interior. By considering the Whalen n phase to represent the entire region during one time period, Borden ignored other possible explanations. The presence of particular artifacts might have resulted from trade, and absence of others might have been due to the season of site use. For example, the presence of small chipped stone points, commonly found in interior sites, were also found at the Whalen Farm site, and could be accounted for by trade between coast and interior peoples. On the other hand, the absence of thin ground slate knives usually associated with salmon processing and found in earlier and later phases in the region may simply indicate that the site in question was not used for salmon fishing. A recognition of the potential importance of seasonal site use distinquishes the next stage of archaeological research. This new focus provides an alternative explanation for the uniqueness of the Whalen n component, while adding a new dimension to complement Borden's basic cultural sequence.  THE SUBSISTENCE RESEARCH STAGE Since the 1970's, archaeologists have been applying new techniques to midden sites in order to answer new questions about the process of cultural adaptation in the region. Their investigations have focussed on how the prehistoric inhabitants of the area supplied themselves with food and other necessities. This new focus has resulted in a shift in emphasis from a concentration on artifacts as primary indicators of past human activities to a broader perspective which views a wider variety of remains as essential indicators. Shell midden sites provide not only artifacts but also, contain the remains of dwellings, work areas and garbage dumps, providing a record of human habitation spanning nearly 9,000 years. In midden sites, different activities created characteristic patterns of remains. These remains resulted in the build up of midden layers which the archaeologist interprets in order to discover a site's history. Different layer patterns result when different activities occur at the same place over time. For example, the remains of an abandoned house may later be covered by the refuse of a shellfish steaming mound that, in turn, may be covered by remains of a campsite hearth. In other cases, a site may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal use. For instance, fall salmon fishing activities leave a distinctive pattern of debris which differs from that left by spring herring fishing. The complex layers of soil, shells and other remains result not only from these human activities, but also from naturally deposited debris. Investigating subsistence patterns in shell middens is further complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay quite quickly unless special conditions help to preserve them. In shell middens, the presence of shells helps to preserve bone and antler, but wood and plant fibers usually survive only if they are constantly waterlogged. Thus, the carved wooden objects for which the Northwest Coast is well known are rarely found in archaeological sites.  223  Even afer we consider these constraints, shell middens remain the ideal location for investigating prehistoric subsistence strategies since they exist as a direct result of food processing activities. This midden research is providing us with more detailed information about the various cultural phases. However, an understanding of the subsistence strategy-or seasonal round—each phase represents is just beginning to take place. We do know that the Coast Salish inhabitants of the region used diverse, and often complex methods to harvest abundant but often only seasonally available resources. For example, during spring fish runs, herring or eulachon were netted and raked; salmon were netted, trapped in weirs, speared, harpooned or hooked, depending on the species, the season and location. Fishing was supplemented by various activities, such as berry picking in summer and shellfish gathering the year round. Specialists hunted sea mammals in the spring and land mammals in the autumn and winter. During winter, stored foods were relied upon as ceremonial and manufacturing activities dominated winter village life. To understand the various phases found in the sites within this region, archaeologists must also consider the changing natural environment in which the site's occupants lived. The developing estuary—the tidal mouth of the river and surrounding ocean waters—played a vital role for over 7,000 years in the location, stability and quantity of these resources. Therefore, in examining the Fraser delta region, it is important to consider the evolution of the delta itself. The present location of midden sites reflects this development For instance the Glenrose Cannery site which was at the river's mouth 8,000 years ago is now many kilometers upriver. The Glenrose Cannery site proved a good starting point for such research because it provided a 6,000 year record of continuing but variable use of resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp.  224  REFINING EXCAVATION AND LABORATORY TECHNIQUES To aid subsistence research, archaeologists employ more refined excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. A critical aspect of this research is discovering the relationships among artifacts, food remains, and other midden materials. Because these techniques are expensive, all layers within a site cannot be analyzed with the same intensity. Archaeologists therefore select representative' samples in order to reconstruct the relative importance of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of the site's occ;r?.uts. The use of waterscreening through fine mesh allows for greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items than do traditional dry screening methods. Computers are increasingly important for analyzing the masses of data generated by such field techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid subsistence research. For example, the growth rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby indicating the season of site use. Detecting residues such as blood, fats, and resins on stone tools helps to show tool function and, consequently, what activities might have been performed at these seasonal sites.  225  INVESTIGATING A SEASONAL SITE The excavation of shell midden layers at the Cresent Beach site shows how the type and season of activities undertaken at a site may be determined by careful analysis. One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site was the careful removal of midden layers following the natural contours of the site. Previous sites were excavated by removing flat, even layers, usually 10 to 20 cm. thick. This refinement helped to isolate the specific activities which had occurred at this site. To understand each layer type, models of site use were developed. Models are used to predict what activities might have occurred at the site during different times of the year. Important considerations include the historic Coast Salish use of the area and those times of the year when certain resources were most abundant Certain layer types, features, artifacts, and faunal remains thus can be predicted for a particular group of expected activities. Although such factors as decay, and the removal of many tools and structures once at the site, might make analysis difficult the prediction of site use helps to overcome this problem. For example, if shellfish harvesting and processing are predicted for a site, the baskets, digging sticks and drying racks might have been removed or have decayed. On the other hand, other evidence will remain, such as the remains of steaming mounds, discarded clam shells, and the post holes for the drying racks. If the problematic Whalen II component at the Whalen Farm site were re-examined in this manner, it might now be seen as a seasonal variant of another cultural phase rather than as an unique cultural phase.  226  THE FTJTURE OF THE PAST Archaeological research in the Fraser delta region has developed through several stages paralleling general changes in North American archaeology. Each stage has built on previous results. These results have laid the foundation upon which new questions are raised and new techniques are developed. The Descriptive stage not only provided initial descriptions, but asked important questions concerning both economic and cultural change. The subsequent development of a regional Cultural Sequence resulted from more refined excavation techniques and laboratory procedures. Recent Subsistence Research is beginning to outline the development of the Northwest Coast's seasonally diverse subsistence pattern. While a similar range of resources was used in this area for thousands of years, critical changes occurred in resource use, for instance the development of large scale salmon processing for storage. These changes have only recently received attention. A new focus on social questions, such as on how social organization and subsistence stategies interrelate, suggests that a new stage of archaeological research is also taking shape. The future of such research, however, is seriously threatened. The destruction of midden sites, especially in urban areas like the Fraser delta, is a major problem. Marpole and other important sites were excavated just before bulldozers moved in. Unfortunately, many other sites were destroyed before any archaeological investigation could take place. As a result, valuable heritage information has been lost forever. If a greater appreciation of the development of Northwest Coast cultures is to be achieved, archaeologists must continue to investigate a cross-section of sites within a region. But to do this, archaeological sites must be viewed as non-renewable resources that require our protection.  227  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This Museum Note and the exhibition ChangingTides was produced by the University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology. ILLUSTRATIONS  Gordon Miller  GRAPHICS  Moira Irvine  TRANSLATION  Nicolas Rolland  MUSEUM NOTE DESIGN  Gordon Miller  MUSEUM NOTE SERIES EDITOR  Michael M. Ames  Production of this Museum Note and the exhibition were supported by the National Museums of Canada, Exhibitions Assistance Programme and the British Columbia Heritage Trust University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology programmes are produced with the assistance of the Members and Friends of the Museum, the Volunteer Associates and the Shop Volunteers, the Museum Assistance Programmes of the National Museums of Canada, and the Government of British Columbia through the British Columbia Cultural Fund and Lottery revenues. Museum Notes are produced with the assistance of the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation. Note No. 13 U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology copyright 1985 ISBN 0-88865-104-X  228  REFERENCES  Borden, Charles E 1970 Culture History of the Fraser Delta Region. BC Studies Fall-Winter No. 6-7. Pp. 95-112. Drucker. Philip 1943 Archaeological Survey on the Northern Northwest Coast. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 133 Anthropological Paper No. 20:17-142. Ham. Leonard C 1982 Seasonality, Shell Midden Layers, and Coast Salish Subsistence Activities at the Crescent Beach Site, DgRr 1. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of British Columbia. Matson, R.G. 1976 The Glenrose Cannery Site National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada. No. 52 Smith, Harlan I. 1903 Shell-Heaps of the Lower Fraser River, British Columbia. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History. Vol. IV. The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Part IV. Pp. 133-199. Suttles, Wayne P. 1974 The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits. Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians L New York: Garland Publishing Inc.  FURTHER READINGS  Borden, Charles E 1975 Origins and Development of Early Northwest Coast Culture to about 3000 B.C. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada. No. 45. [1983]  Prehistoric Art of the Lower Fraser Region, In Indian Art Traditions of the Northwest Coast. Roy L Carlson, ed. Burnaby: Archaeology Press. Simon Fraser University, pp. 131-155.  Bunyan, D.E 1978 Pursuing the Past: A General Account of British Columbia Archaeology. Museum Note No. 4. Vancouver: UBC Museum of Anthropology. Burley, David V. 1980 Marpole: Anthropological Reconstructions of a Prehistoric Northwest Coast Culture Type. Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Publication. No. 8.  229  Fladmark, Knut R.  1980-81 British Columbia Archaeology in the 1970's. BC Studies Winter No. 48. Pp 11-20. Matson, R.G. 1980-81 Prehistoric Subsistence Patterns in the Fraser Delta: The Evidence from the Glenrose Cannery Site. BC Studies Winter No. 48. Pp. 64-85. Maud, Ralph, ed. 1978 The Salish People: The Local Contribution of Charles Hill-Tout. Vol. m. The Mainland Halkomelem. Vancouver: Talonbooks. Mitchell, Donald H. 1971 Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia Area, a Natural Region and its Cultural Types. Syesis Vol. 4. supplement 1.  March 8, 1985  - CHANGING TIDES NATIONAL TRAVEL SCHEDULE  Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y UBC V a n c o u v e r , B. C.  F e b r u a r y 27, 1985 t o September 1, 1985  CONFIRMED  The Nova S c o t i a Museum H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a  J a n u a r y 11, 1986 t o A p r i l 7, 1986  CONFIRMED  U n i v e r s i t e du Quebec a Trois Rivieres T r o i s R i v e r e s , Quebec  May 1, 1986 t o June 15, 1986  CONFIRMED  N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man Ottawa, O n t a r i o  J u l y 15, 1986 t o August 31, 1986  CONFIRMED  P r i n c e o f Wales N o r t h e r n Heritage Centre Y e l l o w k n i f e , NWT  O c t o b e r 15, 1986 t o November 30, 1986  CONFIRMED  December 21, 1986 L a n g l e y C e n t e n n i a l Museum and N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e J a n u a r y 25, 1987 L a n g l e y , B.C.  CONFIRMED  231 9.17  APPENDIX 17  CHANGING TIDES: T H E D E V E L O P M E N T O F A R C H A E O L O G Y IN T H E L O W E R MAINLAND A Lecture Series T h e U B C M u s e u m Tuesdays  MARCH 12  at o f A n t h r o p o l o g y  7:30 pm  Free Admission  SHELL MIDDENS AND CULTURE HISTORY: P r o f e s s o r Roy C a r l s o n , - Simon F r a s e r  "MARCH 1 9 ;  SITE  University  TWO DECADES OF CHANGE: B R I T I S H COLUMBIA ARCHAEOLOGY 1 9 6 0 ' S AND 1 9 7 0 ' S : P r o f e s s o r Donald M i t c h e l l ,  MARCH 26  THE PENDER' ISLAND  IN THE  University of Victoria.  SHELL MIDDEN LAYERS AND COAST SALISH SETTLEMENT PATTERNS: IDEAS FROM THE INVESTIGATION OF THE CRESCENT BEACH AND S T . MUNGO SITES. L e o n a r d Ham, P h . D .  APRIL 2  PREHISTORIC: LIFEWAYS AT OZETTE P r o f e s s o r Richard Daugherty, Washington S t a t e  Refreshments w i l l  University  be s e r v e d f o l l o w i n g , t h e l e c t u r e .  T h i s l e c t u r e s e r i e s i s b e i n g o f f e r e d 1n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Museum's e x h i b i t i o n , " C h a n g i n g T i d e s : The Development o f A r c h a e o l o g y i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a R e g i o n , " on v i e w f r o m F e b r u a r y 27 t h r o u g h A u g u s t . B o t h t h e e x h i b i t i o n a n d l e c t u r e s e r i e s r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' H e r i t a g e - T r u s t a n d t h e - N a t i o n a l Museums o f Canada. E x h i b i t i o n s A s s i s t a n c e Programme.. UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y programmes a r e p r o d u c e d w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e Members and F r i e n d s o f t h e Museum, t h e V o l u n t e e r A s s o c i a t e s a n d Shop V o l u n t e e r s , t h e Museum A s s i s t a n c e ^ Programmes o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museums o f Canada a n d t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h r o u g h t h e BC C u l t u r a l Fund and L o t t e r y r e v e n u e s .  232 9.18  APPENDIX 18 F e b r u a r y 1985 Form No.  UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y C o n d i t i o n R e p o r t Form f o r Changing T i d e s e x h i b i t i o n  C a s e No. Object  o r g r o u p number  Condition  on  !  | arrival  1  ]  departure  no  damage  no  a d d i t i o n a l damage s i n c e p r e v i o u s  OR t h e f o l l o w i n g damages were colour  change  insect  holes,  (frass,  surface mounting  )  report  p r e s e n c e o f i n s e c t s , eggs, o r l a r v a e )  (warping,  (abrasion,  problems  o r wax on s u r f a c e )  (appearance or e x t e n s i o n  o f shape  damage  (  fungi)  (emergence o f s a l t s  m e c h a n i c a l damage distortion  other  (fading, discolouration, stains) (moulds,  efflorescence  ]  noted:  micro-organism.growth damage  |  shrinkage,  scratches,  (insecure,  loose  of cracks,  breakage,  etc.)  buckling)  loss)  or detached)  repairs others  N o t e : Use " r i g h t "  and " l e f t "  additional  details,  and  o f a l l damage.  extent  attach  o f damage may be a d d e d .  Completed ' Signature Date  by ( I n s t i t u t i o n )  to designate  sheets  perspective  necessary,  of viewer.  To g i v e  d e s c r i b i n g the l o c a t i o n ,  Diagrams and/or photographs  showing  nature,  precise location  233  Instructions condition  r e p o r t form.  On  arrival  of  the  (also  filled  If  original do  there  by  i n by  other  not  should  be  open t h e  Since  When t h e  exhibit  condition cases  retained with  is  being  sent  photocopy being  the  returned  packing  THANK  the  i s ready  cases.  YOU.  artifact on  original  and  after  receipt  condition report and  r e c o r d on  I f damage i s n o t e d ,  any  your  forms  subsequent forms  please  only  photocopy  the  artifact.  f o r c o n d i t i o n r e p o r t i n g of n e c e s s i t a t e opening  the  a case  [ ( 6 0 4 ) 228-2148] f o r  may  be  artifacts. please  call  Herb  instructions.  helpful  f o r examing  the  reports.  r e p o r t s i n the  with  exhibition  to:  o b j e c t s a r e mounted, a f l a s h l i g h t  f o r these  Tides  i n immediately  institutions,  c o p y a t once  i s a p r o b l e m w h i c h may  these  filled  Check the  borrowing  cases  the Changing  i n a t t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y  Watson a t t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y  objects  be  previously reported.  r e t u r n the  should  for using  )  your i n s t i t u t i o n .  damages n o t  f o r m and  Please  (Form No.  photographs) f i l l e d  additional  The  institutions  c o n d i t i o n r e p o r t forms  exhibit see  reports  your  to borrowing  t o an  f o r m and  to leave your i n s t i t u t i o n , same manner, and  cases.  I f new  institution  other  r e t u r n i t t o the  enclose  damages a r e than  please  in  a l l r e p o r t s i n the noted,  and  i f the  departure packing exhibition  t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y ,  above a d d r e s s .  t o t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y ,  fill  simply  I f the  enclose  exhibition  the  forms i n  please is the  234 9.19  Ann  APPENDIX 19  Stevenson,  Changing in  B.C.  Tides:  The D e v e l o p m e n t  's F r a s e r  Delta  of Archaeology  UBC Museum o f A n t h r o -  p o l o g y , Museum Note No. 13- V a n c o u v e r .  Pp.20.  Obtainable  from  t h e UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y  price:  $2.75 p l u s p o s t a g e & h a n d l i n g .  1985-  

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