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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Changing tides: the development of an archaeological exhibit 1985

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bookie*. "CW*^ TctPi u M enoehpe. CHANGING TIDES: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXHIBIT By ANN MARIE STEVENSON B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming r.n the/? reqjj-irjed ai^ajiclard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1985 © A n n Marie Stevenson, 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 2 0 , ftf? DE-6 M/R-n i i ABSTRACT Th i s t h e s i s r e p o r t i s part of a l a r g e r t h e s i s p r o j e c t which i n c l u d e s the museum e x h i b i t Changing Tides and the UBC Museum of Anthropology Museum Note No. 13, e n t i t l e d Changing T i d e s : The Development of Archaeology i n B.C.'s Fra s e r D e l t a . T h i s r e p o r t c h r o n i c l e s the pl a n n i n g and pro d u c t i o n of t h i s e x h i b i t p r o j e c t and o u t l i n e s the c r i t e r i a on which i t i s based. The main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s p r o j e c t was to a i d i n the development of p u b l i c a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r s c i e n t i f i c archaeology. J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s provided through a d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e of p u b l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n archaeo- logy. Funding, e x h i b i t development, e x h i b i t c o - o r d i n a t i o n and s c h e d u l i n g , e x h i b i t c o n s e r v a t i o n , Museum Note develop- mnet, and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s are d i s c u s s e d and evaluated. A s e r i e s of appendixes are i n c l u d e d which document the development of Changing T i d e s . i i i TABLE OP CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgements v S e c t i o n 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 An E x h i b i t T h e s i s 2 1.2 P u b l i c I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and Academic Archaeology... 3 1. 3 Ob j e c t i v e s 4 S e c t i o n 2 FUNDING 7 2.1 The Reconception of the E x h i b i t 7 S e c t i o n 3 EXHIBITION DEVELOPMENT 12 3.1 Text Development 13 3.2 E x h i b i t Co-Ordination and Scheduling 15 S e c t i o n 4 THE MUSEUM NOTE 17 S e c t i o n 5 RELATED ACTIVITIES 19 S e c t i o n 6 CONSERVATION 21 S e c t i o n 7 EVALUATION 23 7 . 1 Planning 23 7.2 E v a l u a t i o n 24 7.3 E d u c a t i o n a l Programming 25 7.4 Conclusion 26 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY 27 9 APPENDIXES 38 9.1 APPENDIX 1:Archaeology Temporary E x h i b i t 38 9.2 APPENDIX 2:NMC MAP Proposal 1983 40 9.3 APPENDIX 3:Changing Tides S t o r y l i n e d r a f t 51 i v 9.4 APPENDIX 4:NMC MAP P r o p o s a l 1984 59 9.5 APPENDIX 5:B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t P r o p o s a l 1984 ( w i t h own a p p e n d i x e s ) ....70 A p p e n d i x 1 72 A p p e n d i x I I 76 A p p e n d i x I I I 78 9.6 APPENDIX 6: E x h i b i t O u t l i n e 79 9-7 APPENDIX 7 : S e c t i o n O u t l i n e s 86 9.8 APPENDIX 8: E x h i b i t T e x t : F i r s t D r a f t 92 9.9 APPENDIX 9 : E x h i b i t T e x t : S e c o n d D r a f t 105 9.10 APPENDIX 10-.Exhibit T e x t : F i n a l D r a f t 121 9.11 APPENDIX 11: P r o d u c t i o n S c h e d u l e 138 9.12 APPENDIX 1 2 : E x h i b i t Book 139 9.13 APPENDIX 1 3 : I l l u s t r a t i o n f o r C h a n g i n g T i d e s 184 9.14 APPENDIX l4:Museum Note: F i r s t D r a f t 193 9.15 APPENDIX 15:Museum Note: F i n a l D r a f t 216 9.16 APPENDIX 16:Changing T i d e s N a t i o n a l T r a v e l 230 9.17 APPENDIX 17:Changing T i d e s L e c t u r e S e r i e s 231 9.18 APPENDIX 18-.Condition R e p o r t Form ( D r a f t ) 232 9.19 APPENDIX 19:Museum Note No. 13 • J ^ r ^ ~ ~ V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS S i n c e t h e main component o f my M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , t h e e x h i b i t C h a n g i n g T i d e s and i t s companion Museum Note a r e th e p r o d u c t s o f a c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s p o n s o r e d by t h e UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e Museum f i r s t o f a l l f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o u n d e r t a k e t h i s p r o j e c t . F u n d i n g f o r C h a n g i n g T i d e s was p r o v i d e d by g e n e r o u s s u p p o r t o f t h e Museum A s s i s t a n c e Programme o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museums o f Canada, and o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H e r i t a g e T r u s t . I g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e my a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e ' s p a t i e n c e and sup- p o r t o f t h i s u n o r t h o d o x p r o j e c t . When I f i r s t s a t down t o w r i t e t h e s e a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s , dozens o f i n d i v i d u a l s came e a s i l y t o mind. I w i l l n o t a t t e m p t t o t h a n k them a l l , a l t h o u g h I am v e r y g r a t e f u l t o everyone who c o n t r i b u t e d t o C h a n g i n g T i d e s . I owe a s p e c i a l debt o f t h a n k s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h whom I worked d i r e c t l y i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s p r o j e c t , e s p e c i a l l y t h e Museum's e x h i b i t d e s i g n e r Herb Watson. Not o n l y d i d he b r i n g t h e e x h i b i t t o l i f e , he t a u g h t me a g r e a t d e a l about e x h i b i t s , p l a n n i n g , and t h e meaning o f g r a c e u n d e r p r e s s u r e . H e r b ' s a s s i s t a n t , C o l l e e n Day's f r i e n d s h i p and good humour h e l p e d me cope w i t h t h e i n - e v i t a b l e p r o b l e m s and d e t a i l s o f e x h i b i t p r e p a r a t i o n . I am a l s o v e r y g r a t e f u l t o Len M c F a r l a n e f o r h i s e x q u i - s i t e r e p l i c a s w h i c h added a s p e c i a l d i m e n s i o n t o t h e v i t o t h e e x h i b i t . I w i s h t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r s M a t s o n and Ames f o r t h e i r a d v i s e and many h o u r s o f e d i t i n g . G ordon M i l l e r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e e x h i b i t and th e Museum Note a r e g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y h i s w o n d e r f u l p a i n t i n g o f p r e h i s t o r i c C r e s c e n t B e a c h , as w e l l as t h e d e s i g n and p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p o s t e r and t h e Musuem Note. I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o M o i r a I r v i n e f o r h e r many i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and f o r h e r h e l p i n n e g o t i a t i n g t h e L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y ' s l a b y r i n t h . P r o f . N i c h o l a s R o l l a n d o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a u n d e r t o o k t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s . I am t h a n k f u l f o r t h e speed, a t w h i c h he r e t u r n e d them t o me. I am g r a t e f u l t o Ruth A n d e r s o n , M i l a C o t i c , L u c y D u f r e s n e , J e n n i f e r D o r a n , S a n d r a Hawkes, Salma M a l w a n i , C h r i s M i l l e r , H i n d y R a t n e r , and Moya Wate r s f o r c o p i n g w i t h many a s p e c t s o f t h e e x h i b i t ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e Musuem's v o l u n - t e e r s , t h e y have a l l been v e r y s u p p o r t i v e o f t h i s p r o j e c t . I w i s h t o t h a n k E l e a n o r H a m i l t o n and Anne Morse f o r h e a d i n g t h e e x h i b i t ' s o p e n i n g r e f r e s h m e n t c o m m i t t e e , t h e A r c h a e o - l o g y V o l u n t e e r s f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t and c o m m i s e r a t i o n , and J e a n Cave and Daphne Shaw f o r t a c k l i n g t h e v i d e o p r o d u c - t i o n . O t h e r members o f t h e Museum's s t a f f have o f f e r e d e n c o u r a g e m e n t , a d v i s e and s u p p o r t . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l v i i to Betsy Johnson and Audrey Shane f o r a l l o w i n g me to cross the h a l l to work f o r them, and to Miriam C l a v i r , M a r j o r i e H a l p i n and Madeline Rowan f o r t h e i r advice and f o r t h e i r encouragement. Although a l l my f e l l o w students have been a support team without equal, I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l to Margaret Holm, Marg M e i k l e , Dana Lepofsky, and Mary-Ann T i s d a l e , who a l l made d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to Changing T i d e s . I would a l s o l i k e to thank the students of S e c t i o n .01Q, E n g l i s h 100 (1984/85) f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s . Thanks a l s o goes to Leonard Ham and H i l a r y Stewart, as w e l l as Dan Savard of the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum, and to the Photographic S e r v i c e s Department of the American Museum of Na t u r a l H i s t o r y f o r t h e i r help with t h i s e x h i b i t . I owe a s p e c i a l debt of thanks to Prof. David Pokotylo f o r h i s many c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h i s p r o j e c t . Since t h i s t h e s i s was an attempt to combine an academic with a p u b l i c o r i e n t e d endeavour, I am a p p r e c i a t i v e of the encouragement t h i s e x h i b i t r e c e i v e d at i t s opening from UBC's Dean of A r t s , Robert M. W i l l and from Charles W. Nash, a D i r e c t o r of the B r i t i s h Columbia Heritage T r u s t . The A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia has been very s u p p o r t i v e of Changing T i d e s . I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e to thank K i t t y B e r n i c k , e d i t o r of the Midden, f o r the numerous announcements of the e x h i b i t i n that p u b l i c a t i o n . v i i i I w o u l d n e v e r have r e t u r n e d t o u n i v e r s i t y and t a c k l e d s u c h a p r o j e c t as C h a n g i n g T i d e s w i t h o u t t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c . s u p p o r t o f my f a m i l y . I am e x t r e m e l y g r a t e f u l t o my p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r c o n s t a n t and g e n e r o u s s u p p o r t , as w e l l as my m o t h e r ' s s k i l l f u l l a t e n i g h t , l a s t m i n u t e t y p i n g , e s p e c i a l l y o f t h i s r e p o r t . My s i s t e r Sue's e x p e r t e d i t i n g has c o n t r i b u t e d e n o r m o u s l y t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h i s p r o j e c t . I am e x t r e m e l y g r a t e f u l t o h e r . W i t h o u t my h u s b a n d G e r v a i s ' e n couragement and s u p p o r t ..my i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h C h a n g i n g T i d e s w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e . 1 1 . 0 INTRODUCTION The p l a n n i n g and p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e museum e x h i b i t i o n C h a n g i n g T i d e s and i t s companion p u b l i c a t i o n C h a n g i n g T i d e s : The Development o f A r c h a e o l o g y i n B.C.'s F r a s e r D e l t a a r e t h e p r i m a r y components o f my M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y . T h i s r e p o r t p r o v i d e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o document t h i s p l a n - n i n g p r o c e s s and t o b r i e f l y e x p l a i n some o f t h e c r i t e r i a u s e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s . S i n c e museum e x h i b i t s a r e n o t u s u a l l y u n d e r t a k e n as t h e p r i m a r y component o f a M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , t h i s r e p o r t w i l l a l s o s e r v e as a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h i t i s beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s b r i e f r e p o r t t o c r i t i c a l l y o u t l i n e a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , I hope i t w i l l p r o v i d e some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o t h e r s c o n s i d e r i n g a s i m i l a r u n d e r t a k i n g , as w e l l as p r o v i d e a r e c o r d o f a p a r t i c u l a r e x h i b i t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s r e p o r t f o l l o w s c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C h a n g i n g T i d e s and t h e a s s o c i a t e d Museum Note. A v a r i e t y o f documents a r e i n c l u d e d w h i c h were p r o d u c e d a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s i n t h i s p r o j e c t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . The r e p o r t i s o r g a n i z e d as f o l l o w s : t h i s s e c t i o n d i s - c u s s e s t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n a r c h a e o l o g y , and c o n s i d e r s how t h e e x h i b i t was c o n c e i v e d i n l i g h t o f t h i s r o l e . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w s a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e e x h i b i t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a M.A. programme. The s e c o n d s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t h e r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t i n v i e w o f a number o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . S e c t i o n 3 o u t l i n e s t h e e x h i b i t ' s 2 d e v e l o p m e n t and p r o d u c t i o n , and S e c t i o n 4 d i s c u s s e s t h e Museum Note. S e c t i o n 5 l o o k s a t a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h i s e x h i b i t p r o j e c t , S e c t i o n 6 d i s c u s s e s c o n s e r v a t i o n , and a f i n a l s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a b r i e f o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t . The b i b l i o g r a p h y c o n t a i n s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f r e a d i n g s w h i c h I f o u n d most u s e f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g C h a n g i n g T i d e s . I t c o v e r s a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s i n c l u d i n g : t h e a r c h a e o l o g y o f t h e F r a s e r d e l t a , t h e h i s t o r y o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l method and t h e o r y , t h e n a t u r a l h i s t o r y o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n a r c h a e o l o g y , t h e l i t e r a t u r e on e x h i b i t d e v e l - opment, and on C o a s t S a l i s h m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e and h i s t o r y . The a p p e n d i x e s a r e t h e c o r e o f t h i s r e p o r t and a r e t h e k e y s t o d o c u m e n t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n C h a n g i n g T i d e s . 1.1 AN EXHIBIT THESIS The i m p e t u s f o r c r e a t i n g an e x h i b i t as t h e m a j o r e l e m e n t o f my M.A. t h e s i s r e s u l t e d f r o m a d e s i r e t o combine a r c h a e o l o g y and museum s t u d i e s , even t h o u g h t h e M.A. programme a t UBC has no f o r m a l museum s t u d i e s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . S i n c e a r c h a e o l o g y i s a f o r m a l e m p h a s i s , I p u r s u e d t h i s r o u t e and t o o k a d d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s i n museum s t u d i e s . I a l s o g a i n e d p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n a v a r i e t y o f j o b s w i t h i n t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . The p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d was v e r y i m p o r t a n t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c u r a t i n g C h a n g i n g T i d e s . A w o r k i n g knowledge o f t h e museum and t h e r o l e s o f i t s v a r i o u s s t a f f members and v o l u n t e e r s was e s s e n t i a l f o r p r o d u c i n g r e a l i s t i c b u d g e t s and s c h e d u l e s , and f o r m a k i n g and m e e t i n g c r u c i a l d e a d l i n e s . 3 W h i l e c u r a t i n g an e x h i b i t r e q u i r e s competence i n p r a c t i c a l museum p r o c e d u r e s , t h e r e s u l t i n g e x h i b i t t h e s i s i s a l s o j u d g e d by t h e s c h o l a r l y - a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s .of t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d . B e f o r e I d i s c u s s how t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e e x h i b i t were c o n c e i v e d and d e v e l o p e d i t seems l o g i c a l t o p r e s e n t a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r v e n t u r i n g o u t s i d e t h e n o r m a l bounds o f s c h o l a r s h i p t o p r o d u c e a t h e s i s d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c - a l l y f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . 1.2 PUBLIC INTERPRETATION AND ACADEMIC ARCHAEOLOGY P u b l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c o n s t a n t l y c i t e d as i m p o r t a n t f o r a r c h a e o l o g y ( F e d e r 1984:525; F l a d m a r k 1980-81:18; McGimsey and D a v i s 1977:78), n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y n e g l e c t e d and a c a d e m i c a l l y u n r e w a r d e d a s p e c t o f t h e d i s c i p l i n e . R e s e a r c h , p u b l i c a t i o n and t e a c h i n g aimed a t c o l l e a g u e s and u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s a r e t h e i n t e r n a l l y r e w a r d e d a s p e c t s o f a r c h a e o l o g y . A l t h o u g h p u b l i c f u n d s f i n a n c e most a r c h a e o - l o g i c a l e n d e a v o u r s , t h e r e t u r n t o t h e p u b l i c , i n t h e f o r m o f r e p o r t s o r i n t e r p r e t a t i v e p r o j e c t s aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t h i s a u d i e n c e i s low. T h i s t r e n d a p p e a r s t o be c h a n g i n g , a t l e a s t on m a j o r f u n d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s c o m m i t t e d t o s u p p o r t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s w h i c h i n c l u d e p u b l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( C h a r l t o n 1984). I f p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y becomes more i m p o r t a n t , o n - s i t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a t a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s w i l l p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e . P u b l i c l e c t u r e s o r p u b l i c a t o n s aimed a t a g e n e r a l a u d i e n c e may p r o v e an a c c e p t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o o n - s i t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r some p r o j e c t s . 4 Although there i s a great deal of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n archaeology (Fagan 1977:120), i t o f t e n takes a form which i s d e t r i m e n t a l to the d i s c i p l i n e . Even i f a r c h a e o l o g i s t s devote more a t t e n t i o n to the p u b l i c , they s t i l l have to compete with the r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , s p e c u l a t i v e , and sensa- t i o n a l books and productions such as those by E r i c h von Daniken (1970), and Barry F e l l (1976), as w e l l as with f l a s h y t r e a s u r e o r i e n t e d e x h i b i t s l i k e the Treasures of Tutankhamen. Another d e t r i m e n t a l aspect of academic archaeology's r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t of the p u b l i c i s that i t has done l i t t l e to f o s t e r p u b l i c support f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of s i t e s or s i g n i f i - cant a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t s . P u b l i c awareness i s necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n , but e q u a l l y as important f o r promoting i n d i v i d u a l r e s p e c t f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of s i t e s and o b j e c t s . Awareness r e q u i r e s education; education i n terms of the s c i e n t i f i c and c u l t u r a l value of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s . I t i s w i t h i n t h i s context that the broad o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s were developed. 1.3 OBJECTIVES The main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s p r o j e c t i s to a i d i n the development of i n t e r e s t and knowledge of s c i e n t i f i c archaeology through exposing museum v i s i t o r s to archaeology's methods and g o a l s , as w e l l as to present some of the r e s u l t s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . A l s o t h i s exposure aims to help f o s t e r an awareness of archaeology and c o n t r i b u t e i n a p o s i t i v e way to p u b l i c understanding of the d i s c i p l i n e . 5 To a c h e i v e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e n t a p e r s p e c t i v e on a r c h a e o l o g y w h i c h c o u n t e r s t h e p o p u l a r v i e w t h a t a r c h a e o l o g y i s a s e a r c h f o r t r e s u r e , t h a t i s t h e v i e w w h i c h c o n s i d e r s t h a t o b j e c t s a l o n e c a r r y t h e i m p o r t a n t i n f o r - m a t i o n . To c o u n t e r t h i s v i e w , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o show t h a t an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e as a whole i s i m p o r t a n t , o r t h a t t h e c o n t e x t i s as i m p o r t a n t as t h e o b j e c t s . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o show t h a t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s a r e n o n - r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s , and once t h e y a r e dug, w h e t h e r by c a r e f u l e x c a v a t i o n o r by c a r e l e s s r e l i c c o l l e c t i o n , t h e y a r e gone f o r e v e r . Or as F l a n n e r y p u t s i t : A r c h a e o l o g y i s t h e o n l y b r a n c h o f a n t h r o p o l o g y where we k i l l o u r i n f o r m a n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s t u d y i n g them. ( F l a n n e r y 1982:275) I n v i e w o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s and i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t an e x h i b i t was c o n s i d e r e d a n a c c e p t a b l e p a r t o f a M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , an e x h i b i t i o n o u t l i n e ( A p p e n d i x 1) was p r o d u c e d t o meet t h e N a t i o n a l Museums o f Canada, Museums A s s i s t a n c e Programme, E x h i b i t i o n A s s i s t a n c e f u n d i n g d e a d l i n e o f F e b - r u a r y 1983. Some t e n t a t i v e i d e a s e x i s t e d f o r an e x h i b i t b a s e d on t h e 1977 e x c a v a t i o n o f C r e s c e n t Beach by L e o n a r d Ham ( s e e Ham 1982). From t h e s e i d e a s , I d e v e l o p e d a p l a n f o r an e x h i b i t w h i c h w o u l d p r e s e n t t o t h e p u b l i c modern a r c h - a e o l o g i c a l methods f o r making i n f e r e n c e s about t h e economic s t r a t e g i e s o f p r e h i s t o r i c p e o p l e . I t w o u l d i n t e g r a t e e t h n o - g r a p h i c , h i s t o r i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n , and w o u l d use b o t h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n s , as w e l l as g r a p h i c s , p h o t o g r a p h s and o r i g i n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s . In c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e Museum's e x h i b i t i o n d e s i g n e r , Herb Watson, i t was a l s o d e c i d e d t h a t m o d u l a r wooden frame and s i l k s c r e e n e d p a n e l c o n s t r u c t i o n , u s e d f o r o t h e r t r a v e l l i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x h i b i t s , w o u l d be employed. The f u n d i n g p r o p o s a l ( A p p e n d i x 2) was d e v e l o p e d w i t h P r o f . R.G. M a t s o n , my a d v i s o r . 7 2 . 0 FUNDING Since the archaeology gal l e r y at the Museum of Anthro- pology had not been updated since i t s i n s t a l l a t i o n , i t was decided that the exhibit would be t i e d to a larger g a l l e r y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n project. The i n i t i a l funding application (Appendix 2 ) was for funds to research and to produce the ex- h i b i t , as well as to remove permanent display cases from one section of the ga l l e r y . This g a l l e r y space would be used for Changing Tides and for future temporary archaeology exhibits. The National Museums of Canada, Museums Assistance Programme For Exhibition Assistance (MAP) was approached for funding since t h e i r stated purpose i s to provide opportunities for the production of exhibitions which extend access to the co l l e c t i o n s which r e f l e c t our natural, c u l t u r a l and technological heritage. (National Museums of Canada n.d.) The project was conceived as a phased plan, which would include, as separate phases, a national tour for the exhibit and galle r y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . Although MAP expressed interest in the exhibit, the funding application was declined. During the summer of 1983, i t was decided that we would reapply to MAP in 1984 as well as seek other sources of funds and consider using i n t e r n a l funds for a scaled down version of the exhibit, i f necessary. The galle r y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n project was separated from the exhibit. , 2 . 1 THE RECONCEPTION OF THE EXHIBIT Since the f i r s t funding application was turned down, I had time to do further research and to reconceive the exhibit 8 d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1983- In t h i s r e c o n c e p t i o n , an im- p o r t a n t c o n c e r n was how t o b a l a n c e p u b l i c a p p e a l and a c c e s s i b i l i t y w i t h a c ademic a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t . A p p e n d i x 3 i s t h e r e v i s e d s t o r y l i n e f o r C h a n g i n g T i d e s . T h i s new v e r s i o n o f t h e e x h i b i t o u t l i n e s t h e h i s t o r y o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h e F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; i t f o c u s s e s b o t h on t h e c h a n g - i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t h r o u g h t i m e , and on t h e c h a n g i n g t e c h n i q u e s t h e y have u s e d t o answer q u e s t i o n s about t h e r e g i o n ' s p r e h i s t o r y . T h i s new v e r s i o n a l s o c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n on what s h e l l middens a r e a l l a b o u t , and a c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n , w h i c h I c a l l t h e " c o m m e r c i a l " , about t h e r a p i d d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f s i t e s i n t h e a r e a . I have s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s s e d on p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and have c o n c e n t r a t e d on work done t h r o u g h UBC where a p p l i c a b l e . Amateur o r a v o c a t i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s have a l s o made v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o th e a r c h a e o l o g y o f t h e a r e a ; however, s i n c e I was w o r k i n g w i t h UBC c o l l e c t i o n s , I f e l t i t was a p p r o p r i a t e t o l i m i t d i s c u s s i o n t o them, i f p o s s i b l e . The new theme r e s u l t e d f u n d a m e n t a l l y f r o m r e s e a r c h o f numerous s o u r c e s , c o v e r i n g l o c a l and g e n e r a l a r c h a e o l o g y , n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e v e l o p m e n t , C o a s t S a l i s h h i s t o r y , and museum e x h i b i t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . O t h e r i n f l u e n c e s i n c l u d e d P r o f e s s o r H a l p i n ' s r e v i e w o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum's g a l l e r i e s ( H a l p i n 1978) and f u n d i n g 9 c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A p r i m a r y i n f l u e n c e came f r o m t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y c o l l e c t i o n s . By c h a n g i n g t h e e x h i b i t I hoped t o a c c o m p l i s h a number o f o b j e c t i v e s . F i r s t o f a l l , s i n c e c o l l e c t i o n s a r e t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s and most i m p o r t a n t medium o f an e x h i b i t , I wanted t o u s e o b j e c t s more e f f e c t i v e l y . The C r e s c e n t B e a c h m a t e r i a l i s s c a n t and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e C o a s t S a l i s h m a t e r i a l i s v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t a t UBC. S i n c e t h e s e were t h e c o l l e c t i o n s e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e o l d scheme, i t i a p p e a r e d n e c e s s a r y t o expand t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e o f t h e UBC c o l l e c t i o n s i n t h e e x h i b i t . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y does have an e x t e n s i v e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o l - l e c t i o n f r o m t h e F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n . A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h i s c o l l e c t i o n i s a p o o r l y p r o v e n i e n c e d t e a c h i n g c o l l e c t i o n w h i c h i s u s e d f o r t o u c h a b l e s . T h i s t y p e o f c o l l e c t i o n i s a l s o i d e a l f o r u s e i n a t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t . I a l s o c o n - s i d e r e d t h a t u s i n g r e p l i c a s was a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y as l o n g as t h e y were c l e a r l y l a b e l l e d as s u c h . R e p l i c a s c o u l d be u s e d t o f i l l i n gaps i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n , b ut more i m p o r - t a n t l y , e x c e l l e n t r e p l i c a s o f i m p o r t a n t s p e c i m e n s c o u l d a l s o be u s e d f o r a t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t , whereas i t w o u l d be t o o g r e a t a c o n s e r v a t i o n r i s k f o r t h e o r i g i n a l s t o t r a v e l . A n o t h e r a d v a n t a g e o f r e p l i c a t i n g o b j e c t s f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h c o l l e c t i o n s i s t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l s w o u l d r e m a i n a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d y . S e c o n d l y , I wanted t o p r o v i d e a c o n c e p t u a l framework w h i c h w o u l d a i d v i s i t o r c o m p r e h e n s i o n (ROM 1976:85). S i n c e 10 t h e e x h i b i t w o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o t r a v e l , t h e theme o f t h e e x h i b i t s h o u l d be c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o a n a t i o n a l a u d i e n c e . T h i s c o m p r e h e n s i o n c o u l d be enh a n c e d by p a r t i c i p a t i n g museums i f t h e y t i e d t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s o f a r c h a - e o l o g y i n t o p a r a l l e l d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e i r own l o c a l i t i e s . I a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l a p p r o a c h a l l o w e d by an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e w o u l d h e l p t h e v i e w e r w i t h l i t t l e o r no b a c k g r o u n d i n a r c h a e o l o g y t o move t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f r e s e a r c h . Of c o u r s e , t h e n a t u r e o f museum a u d i e n c e s i s complex, r a n g i n g f r o m s c h o o l g r o u p s , t o t o u r i s t s , t o n a t i v e p e o p l e , t o u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , t o s c h o l a r s and t o o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d members o f t h e p u b l i c . T h i s d i v e r s e a u d i e n c e has a v a r i e t y o f m o t i v e s and i n t e r e s t s f o r v i s i t i n g a museum o r a s p e c i f i c e x h i b i t , t h e r e b y r e q u i r i n g t h a t m u l t i p l e o b j e c t i v e s be a d - d r e s s e d i n e x h i b i t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t . A l t h o u g h i t i s beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s r e p o r t t o d i s c u s s t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f ex- h i b i t a u d i e n c e s , I d i d g i v e c o n s i d e r a b l e t h o u g h t t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g C h a n g i n g T i d e s . T h i r d l y , I wanted t o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t by " h u m a n i z i n g " o r " p e r s o n a l i z i n g " t h e e x h i b i t . T h i s t o be d o n e - b y r e l a t i n g o b j e c t s t o t h e p e o p l e who o r i g i n a l l y made, t r a d e d , u s e d , l o s t o r d i s c a r d e d them, as w e l l as t o t h e p e o p l e who dug them up and i n t e r p r e t e d them. A l s o , by making t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e c o n t e x t e x p l i c i t , I hoped t o a d d r e s s P r o f e s s o r H a l p i n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t 11 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x h i b i t s a r e c u l t u r a l p e r f o r m a n c e s w h i c h show as much ab o u t a r c h a e o l o g i s t s as t h e y show about t h e p r e h i s t o r i c p e o p l e u n d e r s t u d y ( H a l p i n 1 9 7 8 : 4 2 - 3 ) . F i n a l l y , I c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h i s new scheme w o u l d have a b r o a d e r a p p e a l t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l e x h i b i t , and w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be more a c c e p t a b l e t o f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s . S i n c e f u n d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s s e n t t o MAP ( A p p e n d i x 4 ) and t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H e r i t a g e T r u s t ( A p p e n d i x 5 ) i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 8 4 , were b o t h s u c c e s s f u l , I c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e new scheme was an improvement. 12 3 . 0 EXHIBITION DEVELOPMENT Once t h e f u n d i n g amount f o r t h e e x h i b i t was known, i t was p o s s i b l e t o b e g i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e e x h i b i t i n t o s e c t i o n s , and t o o u t l i n e i n d e t a i l what w o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n e a c h one. A p p e n d i x 6 i s t h e f i n a l e x h i b i t o u t l i n e f r o m w h i c h t h e s e c t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d . The s t o r y l i n e , t h e h i s t o r y o f a r c h a e o l o g y i n t h e F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n , was b r o k e n down i n t o s i x s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n s e r v e s as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s h i s t o r y and as an e x p l a n a t i o n o f s h e l l m i d d e n s . The t h r e e s t a g e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a r e c o v e r e d i n t h e n e x t f o u r s e c t i o n s , and a f i n a l s e c t i o n c o v e r s t h e f u t u r e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . A p p e n d i x 7 shows i n d e t a i l how i d e a s f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t e x t , a r t i f a c t s , p h o t o g r a p h s , and g r a p h i c s were o u t l i n e d f o r e a c h s e c t i o n . Due t o t i m e r e s t r i c t i o n s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o l i m i t my s e a r c h f o r s o u r c e s o f p h o t o g r a p h s m a i n l y t o t h e V a n c o u v e r and V i c t o r i a a r e a . I a l s o d e c i d e d n o t t o v e n t u r e o u t s i d e o f t h e L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y , o r t h e E t h n o l o g y c o l - l e c t i o n s o f t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y f o r a r t i f a c t s , e x c e p t t o s e a r c h f o r c o n t e m p o r a r y C o a s t S a l i s h p i e c e s f o r s e c t i o n 5 . In t h e end, even t h e s e p i e c e s were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e museum's c o l l e c t i o n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e C u r a t o r o f D o c u m e n t a t i o n , A u d r e y Shane, and t h e C o n s e r v a t o r , M i r i a m C l a v i r . A l l o t h e r o b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y c o l l e c t i o n s , o r r e p l i c a t e d by 13 t h e Museum's t e c h n i c i a n , Len M c F a r l a n e . C o n s e r v a t i o n and r e s e a r c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were paramount i n t h i s s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . Many changes and r e a r r a n g e m e n t s o c c u r r e d i n t h e e x h i b i t between t h e t i m e A p p e n d i x 7 was d r a f t e d i n A u g u s t 1984 and th e l a t e f a l l when t h e f i n a l t e x t was c o m p l e t e d and t h e f i n a l a r t i f a c t s , g r a p h i c s and p h o t o g r a p h s were s e l e c t e d o r p r e p a r e d . The s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s p r o v i d e d an i n v a l u a b l e o r g a n i z i n g t o o l f o r d e v e l o p i n g and a r r a n g i n g i d e a s , and f o r s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a r t i f a c t s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o enhance t h e i d e a s t o be p r e s e n t e d . 3.1 TEXT DEVELOPMENT The w r i t i n g and e d i t i n g o f t h e e x h i b i t t e x t was u n d e r - t a k e n i n t h e f a l l o f 1984. M a j o r c h a nges t o t h e t e x t o c c u r r e d between t h e f i r s t d r a f t ( A p p e n d i x 8), and t h e s e c o n d d r a f t ( A p p e n d i x 9). Between t h e t h i r d and s e v e n t h , o r f i n a l d r a f t ( A p p e n d i x 10) t h e changes a r e m a i n l y r e f i n e m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n w h o l e s a l e r e v i s i o n s . From t h e f i r s t d r a f t , i t was my i n t e n t i o n t o d e v e l o p t h e t e x t u s i n g a m o d i f i e d newspaper a p p r o a c h (Watson 1978). T h i s s t y l e o f e x h i b i t p r e s e n t s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l f a s h i o n ; t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e o r s h o r t p a r a g r a p h i s i n l a r g e r o r b o l d e r p r i n t and p r o v i d e s an e a s i l y r e a d summary f o r t h e e n t i r e s e c t i o n . T h i s a p p r o a c h a l l o w s t h e r e a d e r t o g r a s p t h e main p o i n t o f e a c h s e c t i o n by s c a n n i n g o n l y t h e f i r s t few l i n e s . S i n c e t h e e x h i b i t was t o be i n b o t h E n g l i s h and F r e n c h , i t was i m p o r t a n t t o s t r i v e f o r c o n c i s i o n . The i l l u s i o n o f 14 b r e v i t y was a l s o attempted, by p r e s e n t i n g t h e t e x t i n s m a l l e r p a r c e l s w i t h s u b - h e a d i n g s . T h i s h e l p e d t o b r e a k up some o f t h e l o n g e r s e c t i o n s . One m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y w i t h d e v e l o p i n g d i d a c t i c e x h i b i t s on t e c h n i c a l o r u n f a m i l i a r s u b j e c t s i s p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n - f o r m a t i o n i n terms w h i c h a r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o t h e v i e w i n g a u d i e n c e . W h i l e t h e f i r s t d r a f t was b e i n g r e v i e w e d by t h e e d i t o r s ( P r o f e s s o r s Ames and M a t s o n ) , I had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r y t h e t e x t o u t on t w e n t y - s i x u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . My s i s t e r p r e s e n t e d t h e t e x t t o h e r E n g l i s h 100 c l a s s as an a s s i g n m e n t . S i n c e an E n g l i s h 100 c l a s s i s composed o f m a i n l y f i r s t y e a r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s w i t h l i t t l e o r no b a c k g r o u n d i n a r c h a e o l o g y , t h e y p r o v i d e d a good m i d - r a n g e a u d i e n c e t o i n f o r m a l l y e v a l u a t e t h e e x h i b i t t e x t . They were i n s t r u c t e d t o w r i t e a l e t t e r o r memo w h i c h s p e c i f i e d any c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r o b l e m s t h e y had o r any t e r m i n o l o g y t h e y had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h , any p l a c e s where t h e t e x t d i d n o t seem c l e a r , and any a s p e c t s o f t h e t e x t t h e y c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r e s t i n g , as w e l l as t h o s e a s p e c t s w h i c h were n o t . T h e i r r e p l i e s were e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l f o r e l i m i n a t i n g o r d e f i n i n g t e r m i n o l o g y , f o r showing t h a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n d i d n o t t i e i n t o t h e r e s t o f t h e e x h i b i t , and f o r p o i n t i n g t h e way t o c l a r i f y i n g t h e s t a g e s o f a r c a - e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h I had d e f i n e d . A l t h o u g h my o f f i c i a l e d i t o r s p o i n t e d o ut many o f t h e same d e f i c i e n c i e s and o t h e r c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m s , t h e E n g l i s h 100 c l a s s r e p l i e s p r e s e n t e d a d i f f e r e n t and i m p o r t a n t 15 p e r s p e c t i v e . S i n c e t h e i r v i e w s r e p r e s e n t e d a s u b s e t o f t h e a u d i e n c e I was a d d r e s s i n g , t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s p r o v i d e d a n o v e l way o f t e s t i n g a u d i e n c e r e s p o n s e . I t i s beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s r e p o r t t o f u l l y d i s c u s s a u d i e n c e e v a l u a t i o n o f e x h i b i t t e x t d r a f t s w i t h i n t h e b r o a d e r c o n t e x t o f museum e v a l u a t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s I b e l i e v e s u c h e v a l u a t i o n s have a p l a c e i n t h i s s t u d y . 3.2 EXHIBIT CO-ORDINATION AND SCHEDULING A n o t h e r c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n e x h i b i t d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n and t i m i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e ex- h i b i t . A p p e n d i x 11 i s t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e f o r C h a n g i n g T i d e s . I t r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e agreement between t h e E x h i b i t C u r a t o r ( m y s e l f ) and t h e D e s i g n e r (Herb W a t s o n ) , o f what needed t o be done and how l o n g i t s h o u l d t a k e t o c o m p l e t e e a c h t a s k . T h i s s c h e d u l e i l l u s t r a t e s how a p r o b l e m o r h o l d - u p i n one a s p e c t o f t h e e x h i b i t can c r e a t e h o l d - u p s i n o t h e r a r e a s . To f a c i l i t a t e t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n and d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e e x h i b i t , we a l s o d e v e l o p e d an e x h i b i t book w h i c h c o u l d be u p d a t e d as t h e e x h i b i t p r o g r e s s e d . The s y s t e m u s e d i n t h i s book i s b a s e d on Herb Watson's c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e de- s i g n i n g and p r o d u c i n g s u c c e s s f u l e x h i b i t s . T h i s book was an i n v a l u a b l e a i d f o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g t h e t e x t w i t h t h e a r t i f a c t s , g r a p h i c s , and l a b e l s . The f i n a l v e r s i o n ( A p p e n d i x 12) a l s o s e r v e s as a r e c o r d o f a l l t h e e x h i b i t ' s components. In e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s o f t h i s e x h i b i t book, t h e comments s e c t i o n s 16 l i s t e d a r t i f a c t s t h a t were n o t f i n a l i z e d , o r o p t i o n s f o r p h o t o g r a p h s , g r a p h i c s y e t t o be p r o d u c e d , and o t h e r t a s k s l e f t t o be c o m p l e t e d . In s e c t i o n D2, ( s e e pagel74) t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f p r e - h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e (D2-G3), r e q u i r e d t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l f r o m a r c h a - e o l o g i c a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c s o u r c e s , p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e C r e s c e n t B e a c h a r e a as i t l o o k s t o d a y , as w e l l as a l l a v a i l - a b l e p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s t o be i l l u s t r a t e d . A p p e n d i x 13 r e p r e s e n t s some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h was c o m p i l e d f o r t h e a r t i s t , Gordon M i l l e r ' s , c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A b l a c k and w h i t e v e r s i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l p a i n t i n g i s f o u n d on page 15 o f t h e Museum Note ( A p p e n d i x 19). 17 4.0 THE MUSEUM NOTE The Museum Note Changing T i d e s : The Development of Archaeology i n B. C.'s Fr a s e r D e l t a (Appendix 1 9 ) , was pub- l i s h e d to provide an enhancement to a temporary t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s an a c c e s s i b l e i n t r o d u c t i o n to the h i s t o r y of archaeology i n the Fr a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n i n a more permanent form than the e x h i b i t i t s e l f p r e s e n t s . The Museum Note tex t took three d r a f t s to complete. Appendix 14 and 15 correspond to the f i r s t and f i n a l d r a f t s of i t s t e x t . The t e x t f o l l o w s the e x h i b i t q u i t e c l o s e l y , with the main changes being a new i n t r o d u c t i o n , a g r e a t e r emphasis p l a c e d on the developmental h i s t o r i c a l theme, the a d d i t i o n of r e f e r e n c e s , and the s e l e c t i o n and r e v i s i o n of g r a p h i c s . When p r o o f - r e a d i n g problems appeared i n the French p o r t i o n of the e x h i b i t t e x t , I was compelled to have the Museum Note's French te x t proofed by an ou t s i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l . Although problems with the e x h i b i t t e x t were-caught and c o r r e c t e d , I co u l d have avoided the l o s t time and c o n s i d e r - able expense by undertaking the same process f o r the e x h i b i t as I subsequently f o l l o w e d with the Museum Note. Both the e x h i b i t t e x t and the Museum Note t e x t were s t o r e d and r e v i s e d on the computer. The Textform word pro- c e s s i n g programme a v a i l a b l e on UBC's MTS system was used. Textform saved many hours of l a b o u r i o u s t y p i n g and e l i m i n - ated t y p e s e t t i n g e r r o r s as UBC's t y p e s e t t i n g s e r v i c e s had 18 d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e f i l e s . Word p r o c e s s i n g a l s o l e s s - ened t h e t u r n - a r o u n d t i m e between d r a f t s w h i c h h e l p e d g r e a t l y when f i n a l d e a d l i n e s a p p r o a c h e d . The Museum Note was d e s i g n e d by Gordon M i l l e r , w i t h t h e c o v e r a d a p t e d f r o m t h e e x h i b i t i o n ' s p o s t e r , a l s o o f h i s d e s i g n . T y i n g t h e Museum Note and t h e p o s t e r t o g e t h e r v i s u a l l y h e l p s p e o p l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e b o o k l e t w i t h t h e e x h i b i t . 19 5 . 0 RELATED A C T I V I T I E S A v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s and enhancements were d e v e l o p e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e e x h i b i t i o n C h a n g i n g T i d e s . The m a j o r enhancement was t h e Museum Note w h i c h i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . A p o s t e r was d e s i g n e d f o r t h e e x h i b i t . I t was de- v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r p u b l i c i t y p u r p o s e s r a t h e r t h a n as an i t e m f o r s a l e . The Museum's P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r , R uth A n d e r s o n , s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i n c e t h e p o s t e r was c o n c e i v e d p r i m a r i l y t o a d v e r t i s e t h e e x h i b i t , and b e c a u s e t h e e x h i b i t w o u l d t r a v e l t o f i v e l o c a t i o n s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y , we s h o u l d c o n s i d e r l e a v i n g a b l a n k s t r i p on a number o f t h e p o s t e r s where t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g museums c o u l d p r i n t i n t h e i r own ex- h i b i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n . We f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h on t h i s p r o p o s a l and o f f e r e d museums p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e t o u r , up t o f i f t y p o s t e r s f o r t h e i r own u s e . A p p e n d i x 1 6 o u t l i n e s t h e n a t i o n a l t r a v e l s c h e d u l e de- v e l o p e d f o r C h a n g i n g T i d e s . D u r i n g t h e e x h i b i t i o n ' s r u n a t t h e UBC Museum o f A n t h r o - p o l o g y a p u b l i c l e c t u r e s e r i e s was h e l d a t t h e museum ( A p p e n d i x 1 7 ) . T h i s l e c t u r e s e r i e s was o r g a n i z e d by P r o - f e s s o r R. G. Ma t s o n and c o v e r e d t o p i c s r e l a t e d i n v a r i o u s ways t o t h e e x h i b i t . The a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e s e l e c t u r e s was e x c e l l e n t , and t h e y p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t o p r e s e n t t o t h e p u b l i c a s p e c t s o f t h e i r c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h , as w e l l as t o e x p r e s s t h e i r v i e w s on t h e 2 0 d i r e c t i o n s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a i s t a k i n g . T h e r e a r e a number o f o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e e x h i b i t C h a n g i n g T i d e s w h i c h I have n o t d i s c u s s e d , i n c l u d i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l t o u r , t h e e x h i b i t i o n o p e n - i n g , e x h i b i t i o n p u b l i c i t y , and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a v i d e o t a p e b a s e d on t h e e x h i b i t . S i n c e t h e o p e n i n g , p u b l i c i t y , and t h e v i d e o t a p e a r e p r i m a r i l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f o t h e r s , I w i l l n o t d e a l w i t h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , e x c e p t t o say t h a t t h e y r e q u i r e t h e same t y p e o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i v e agreement as e x h i b i t i o n p r o d u c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e t r a v e l l i n g phase o f C h a n g i n g T i d e s does n o t commence u n t i l e a r l y 1 9 8 6 , much o f t h e g r o u n d work has a l r e a d y been c o m p l e t e d . S e t t i n g up t h e t r a v e l s c h e d u l e r e q u i r e s a s e e m i n g l y e n d l e s s s e r i e s o f l e t t e r s , t h e f i r s t t o a number o f museums who m i g h t be i n t e r e s t e d i n h o s t i n g t h e e x h i b i t , t h e s e c o n d t o p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n and p o s s i b l e d a t e s t o t h o s e museums who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e e x h i b i t , and a f t e r f u n d i n g was a p p r o v e d , a f i n a l s e r i e s t o t h o s e museums who b o t h a c c e p t e d t h e a v a i l a b l e t i m e s and who f i t i n t o a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . A f t e r t h e t o u r was s e t , v a r i o u s c u r a t o r i a l and pub- l i c i t y i n f o r m a t i o n was s e n t t o h o s t museums, and when t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e s come, someone a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e x h i b i t w i l l t r a v e l t o e a c h museum t o h e l p w i t h p u b l i c i t y and w i t h any l a s t m i n u t e s e t - u p p r o b l e m s w h i c h m i g h t be e n c o u n t e r e d . 2 1 6.0 CONSERVATION The modular frame and panel c o n s t r u c t i o n system used i n temporary, t r a v e l l i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x h i b i t s designed at the Museum of Anthropology i n c o r p o r a t e s f i x e d mounted a r t i - f a c t s i n secured p l e x i g l a s cases. A r t i f a c t s are attached i n s e v e r a l ways depending upon t h e i r m a t e r i a l , s t r u c t u r e , weight and f r a g i l i t y . Wax and s i l i c o n e - b a s e d adhesives are used alone or i n combination with f l e x i b l e s t r a p i n g . Although, i n the main these mounting techniques are t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e v e r s i b l e , i t i s impossible to remove a l l the r e s i d u e from mounted o b j e c t s a f t e r a lengthy e x h i b i t i o n run. Since r e s i d u e a n a l y s i s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a r t i f a c t s i s an i n c r e a s i n g l y important technique (Loy 1 9 8 3 ) n e c e s s i t a t i n g minimal contamination, i t seemed important not to s u b j e c t r e s e a r c h c o l l e c t i o n s to mounting adhesives. Exceptions to t h i s were two a r t i f a c t s used i n Changing Tides which had al r e a d y undergone r e s i d u e a n a l y s i s and which were used s p e c i f i c a l l y to i l l u s t r a t e the rudiments of t h i s i n c r e a s - i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d technique. During the process of removing a r t i f a c t s from another temporary, t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t i o n , damage was noted on s e v e r a l types of specimens, noteably s h e l l and s l a t e . I n c l u s i o n of s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t s or specimens i n Changing Tides was given c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and s e l e c t i o n s were o f t e n made on the b a s i s of t h i s review. Although the s t u r d i n e s s of s p e c i - mens and a r t i f a c t s was an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t was 22 d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d s u i t a b l e n o n - p r o v e n i e n c e d a r t i f a c t s w h i c h f i t t h i s c r i t e r i a s i n c e many o f t h e s e o b j e c t s a r e w e a t h e r e d , s u r f a c e f i n d s . The d e s i g n o f t h e a r t i f a c t c a s e s u s e d i n t h i s e x h i b i t a l s o n e c e s s i t a t e d t h a t t h e Museum's s t a n d a r d c o n s e r v a t i o n f o rms f o r t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t s be m o d i f i e d . S i n c e t h e c a s e s a r e n o t t o be opened, and t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r damage can be o u t l i n e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a n f o r o t h e r t y p e s o f ex- h i b i t s , a c o n s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m was d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r C h a n g i n g T i d e s ( s e e A p p e n d i x 18). The damage i n s p e c t i o n r o u t i n e t o be f o l l o w e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g museums p a r a l - l e l s t h e s y s t e m a l r e a d y s e t out by t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y ; t h e m a j o r changes a r e i n c o n s i d e r i n g e a c h c a s e as t h e u n i t f o r i n s p e c t i o n and i n e m p h a s i z i n g t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e mounts. C o l o u r p h o t o g r a p h s o f e a c h c a s e a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n s p e c t i o n k i t t o a i d i n t h i s damage i n s p e c t i o n . 2 3 7.0 EVALUATION I t may be p r e m a t u r e t o g i v e a f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f C h a n g i n g T i d e s s i n c e t h e e x h i b i t has a m a j o r p o r t i o n o f i t s v i e w i n g l i f e ahead o f i t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s n o t t o o e a r l y t o e v a l u a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f e x h i b i t d e v e l o p m e n t . 7.1 PLANNING A f t e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an e x h i b i t ' s s t o r y l i n e , t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t i s a w e l l c o - o r d i n a t e d p l a n , and t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e agreement o f a number o f p e o p l e . I t i s n o t j u s t t h e p h y s i c a l e x h i b i t but t h e p l a n n i n g o f t h e t o u r , t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f p u b l i c i t y , t h e opening,' and t h e enhancements w h i c h must a l l come t o g e t h e r a t t h e ap- p r o p r i a t e t i m e s t o c r e a t e a s u c c e s s f u l e x h i b i t i o n . S i n c e p l a n n i n g t h e e x h i b i t i s t h e key, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e t h e most e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e s , and t o c a n v a s s t h e v e t e r a n s f o r t h e b e s t ways t o f a c i l i t a t e e x h i b i t d e v e l o p - ment. F o r C h a n g i n g T i d e s , t h e c r e a t i o n o f a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e , o r s t o r y l i n e ( A p p e n d i x 6), was c r u c i a l t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f many a s p e c t s o f t h e e x h i b i t , f r o m f u n d i n g p r o p o s a l s , t o s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s , t o p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e s . I t was a l s o t h e b a s i s on w h i c h t h e t e x t was w r i t t e n , and t h e b a s i s on w h i c h o t h e r p e o p l e c o u l d p l a n a d d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , s u c h as t h e v i d e o p r o d u c t i o n , p u b l i c i t y , and even t h e f o o d t o be s e r v e d a t t h e o p e n i n g . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v i c e s , s u c h as t h e s e c t i o n o u t - l i n e ( A p p e n d i x 7), t h e p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e ( A p p e n d i x 11), 24 and t h e e x h i b i t book ( A p p e n d i x 12) were i n v a l u a b l e a i d s t o p r o d u c i n g t h e e x h i b i t on t i m e w i t h t h e minimum o f d e l a y s , d i s a s t e r s , o r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . P e r h a p s s i m i l a r d e v i c e s w o u l d have been u s e f u l f o r o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o j e c t beyond p r o d u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e Museum Note and f o r t h e v i d e o p r o d u c t i o n . 7.2 EVALUATION The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a museum e x h i b i t r e q u i r e s c o n t i n u - ous o f f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n . I have a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d a few o f t h e s e , s u c h as t h e r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e e x h i b i t i n l i g h t o f f u n d - i n g c r i t e r i a , t h e n a t u r e o f c o l l e c t i o n s , and t h e d e s i r e t o c r e a t e a more e f f e c t i v e e x h i b i t , as we'L'l as t h e i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e x h i b i t t e x t by E n g l i s h 100 s t u d e n t s . E v a l u a t i o n a l s o p l a y e d a r o l e i n examing t h e e x h i b i t a f t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e o r i g i n a l l a y o u t o f t h e e x h i b i t was r e v i e w e d and m o d i f i e d a f t e r i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e l a y o u t o f t h e e x h i b i t p a n e l s and t h e n a t u r a l f l o w o f t r a f f i c d i d n o t c o i n c i d e . I t i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o j u d g e , f r o m my p a r t i c u l a r v a n t a g e p o i n t , t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f t h e p r o j e c t as a w h o le. So f a r , however, w r i t t e n f e e d b a c k has been p o s i t i v e : l e t t e r s have been r e c e i v e d p r a i s i n g t h e e x h i b i t ' s c l a r i t y and t h e Museum N o t e ' s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a n a t i o n a l a u d i e n c e . A r e v i e w o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n i s a l s o f a v o r a b l e (Mason 1985:13). 25 W i t h o u t some t y p e o f summative e v a l u a t i o n , i t i s d i f - f i c u l t t o j u d g e how w e l l t h e e x h i b i t communicates i d e a s t o t h e p u b l i c . S i n c e t h e s t a t e d p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s p r o j e c t i s t o h e l p f o s t e r p u b l i c a w areness and s u p p o r t f o r t h e g o a l s o f s c i e n t i f i c a r c h a e o l o g y , i t seems l o g i c a l t o a t t e m p t t o t e s t t h e e x h i b i t ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e s e t e r m s . P e r h a p s some o f t h i s t y p e o f e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d have been u n d e r t a k e n d u r i n g t h e e x h i b i t ' s r u n ; however, museum e v a l u a t i o n i s a complex and c o n t r o v e r s i a l e n d e a v o u r w o r t h y o f t i m e and c o n - s i d e r a t i o n b eyond t h e l i m i t s o f t h e p r e s e n t p r o j e c t . 7 . 3 EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMING A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e e x h i b i t w h i c h has n o t r e c e i v e d a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n t o d a t e i s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m - ming. T h i s o m i s s i o n w i l l be p a r t i a l l y r e c t i f i e d f o r t h e n a t i o n a l t o u r by a v i d e o p r o d u c t i o n c u r r e n t l y b e i n g de- v e l o p e d , by s u p p l e m e n t a l c u r a t o r i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , and by h o s t museums who a r e p l a n n i n g t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e e x h i b i t i n t o t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l programmes. I f t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l programmes a r e u n d e r t a k e n t h e y c o u l d expand a u d i e n c e a p p e a l d u r i n g t h e n a t i o n a l t o u r . By e m p h a s i z i n g t h e p a r a l l e l h i s t o r y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n v a r i o u s r e g i o n s , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e o f t h e e x h i b i t w o u l d a l s o be e n h a n c e d . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f C h a n g i n g T i d e s i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g s c h o o l programmes a t t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y was r e - s t r i c t e d t o i n f o r m a l use i n s c h o o l programmes w h i c h f o c u s s e d 26 s p e c i f i c a l l y on a r c h a e o l o g y . I t was a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t o u r s g i v e n by V o l u n t e e r A s s o c i a t e s and o t h e r s who were f a m i l i a r w i t h a r c h a e o l o g y . T h i s l i m i t e d use o f t h e e x h i b i t i n e d u c a t i o n a l programmes a t t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y was due p r i m a r i l y t o t h e t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e C u r a t o r , and th e l a c k o f i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g f o r f u n d s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e s e programmes. The l a c k o f a s t r u c t u r a l c h a n n e l t o c o - o r d i n a t e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x h i b i t s i n t o t h e main s t r e a m o f t h e Museum's e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s may a l s o be an u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r . T h i s i s due i n p a r t t o t h e p e r c e i v e d s e p a r a t i o n o f a c t i v - i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r c h a e o l o g y f r o m t h o s e o f t h e r e s t o f th e museum. U n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a r c h a e o l o g y , i s a l s o an im- p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r t h o s e u n d e r t a k i n g t h e s e programmes. 7 . 4 CONCLUSION In c o n c l u s i o n , I am s t r u c k by t h e f a c t t h a t two s u c h s e e m i n g l y i n c o m p a t i b l e p u r s u i t s as t h e n e c e s s a r i l y c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e o f a museum e x h i b i t and t h e u s u a l l y s o l i t a r y one o f a M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s c an be combined. C h a n g i n g T i d e s i s t h e r e s u l t o f s u c h a s y n t h e s i s o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l e n d e a v o u r w i t h a c o - o p e r a t i v e , p u b l i c - o r i e n t e d v e n t u r e . I f i r m l y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e d i s c i p l i n e needs t o promote t h i s k i n d o f s y n t h e s i s f r o m w i t h i n i f i t i s t o g a i n t h e p u b l i c a w a reness and s u p p o r t i t so u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e s . 27 8.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY A b b o t t , D o n a l d N. 1972 The U t i l i t y o f t h e Co n c e p t o f Phase i n t h e A r c h a e o l o g y o f t h e S o u t h e r n N o r t h - west C o a s t . S y e s i s 5:267-278. Adams, R o b e r t McC 1968 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h S t r a t e g i e s : P a s t and P r e s e n t . S c i e n c e 160(3833):1187- 1192. B a r n e t t , Homer G. 1955 B e n n e t t , J.W. 1976 The C o a s t S a l i s h o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon Monographs, S t u d i e s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y . No. 4. The E c o l o g i c a l T r a n s i t i o n : C u l t u r a l A n t h r o p o l o g y and Human A d a p t a t i o n . New Y o r k : Pergamon P r e s s I n c . B l a k e y , M i c h a e l L. 1983 S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l B i a s and I d e o l o g i c a l P r o - d u c t i o n i n H i s t o r i c a l A r c h a e o l o g y . I n The S o c i o - P o l i t i c s o f A r c h a e o l o g y . J o a n M. Gero; D a v i d M. L a c y and M i c h a e l L. B l a k e y , e d i t o r s . R e s e a r c h R e p o r t s Number 23. Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s , Amherst. Pp. 5-16. B i n f o r d , L e w i s R. A r c h a e o l o g y as A n t h r o p o l o g y . A m e r i c a n A n t i q u i t y 28:2:217-225. 1962 1964 1973 1977 A C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h D e s i g n . A m e r i c a n A n t i q u i t y 29:4:425-441. I n t e r a s s e m b l a g e V a r i a b i l i t y - t h e M o u s t e r i a n and t h e ' F u n c t i o n a l ' Arguement. In The E x p l a n a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l Change. C o l i n Renfrew, e d i t o r . London: Duckworth. Pp. 227-254. G e n e r a l I n t r o d u c t i o n . I n F o r T h e o r y B u i l d i n g i n A r c h a e o l o g y . L. R. B i n f o r d , e d i t o r . New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s . Pp. 1-10. 28 Boas, Franz 1889 1909 1950a 1950b 1951a 1951b 1954 1955 1962 1968 F i r s t General Report on the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. Report of the B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of Science 59th Meeting. Pp. 840-893- The Kwakiutl of Vancouver I s l a n d . Memoirs of the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . V o l . V. The Jesup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n , Part 11. Pp. 301-522. Borden, Charles E. P r e l i m i n a r y Report on A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the F r a s e r D e l t a Region, Anthropology i n B.C. 1:13-27. Notes on the P r e h i s t o r y of the Southern North-West Coast. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 14:4:241-246. Fr a s e r R i v er D e l t a A r c h a e o l o g i c a l F i n d - i n g s . American A n t i q u i t y 16:3:263. Facts and Problems of Northwest Coast P r e h i s t o r y . Anthropology i n B.C. 2:35-52. Some Aspects of P r e h i s t o r i c C o a s t a l I n t e r i o r R e l a t i o n s i n the P a c i f i c North- west Anthropology i n B.C. 4:26-32. An Ancient Coast Indian V i l l a g e i n Southern B r i t i s h Columbia. Indian Time 2:15:9-19. West Coast C r o s s t i e s with A l a s k a . In P r e h i s t o r i c C u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s Between the A r c t i c and Temperature Zones of North America. John M. Campbell, e d i t o r . 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Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1984 Models of the Development and D i s t r i b u t i o n of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s i n the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a . Unpublished paper presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Archaeol- o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , V i c t o r i a . Ham, Leonard C. 1975 and Moira I r v i n e Techniques f o r Determining S e a s o n a l i t y of S h e l l Middens from Marine Mollusc Remains S y e s i s 8:363-373. H a r r i s E.C. 1979 P r i n c i p l e s of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S t r a t i g r a p h y , New York: Academic Press. Hart, J.L. 1973 P a c i f i c F i s h e s of Canada. F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, B u l l e t i n 180, Hester, James J . and Kathryn J . Conover 1970 E c o l o g i c a l Sampling of Middens on the Northwest Coast. Northwest A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Research Notes V o l . 4. No. 2. Pp. 137-152. H i l l - T o u t , Charles 1938 The Great F r a s e r Midden. Vancouver: The A r t , H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n Hoos, L.M. and G.A. Packman 1974 The F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y , Status of Environ- mental Knowledge to 1974. S p e c i a l Estuary S e r i e s No. 1. West Vancouver: Environment Canada. 33 I n g l e , Robert 1954 The L i f e of an Estuary. S c i e n t i f i c American 1 9 0 ( 5 ) : 6 4 - 6 8 . Jenness, Diamond n.d. The Saanich Indians of Vancouver I s l a n d . Unpublished Manuscript. Ottawa:National Museum of Man. Johnston, W.A, 1921 Keddie, Grant 1982 Sedimentation of the F r a s e r D e l a t a . G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Memoir No. 125. Ottawa Thoughts on the Status of C u l t u r a l Con- t i n u i t y and Change among P r e h i s t o r i c S a l i s h P o p u l a t i o n s . Midden Oct. V o l . XIV No. 4. Pp. 8-13. Kennedy, Dorothy and Randy Bouchard 1983 Sliammon L i f e , Sliammon Lands. Talonbooks. Vancouver: Loy, Thomas H, 1983 P r e h i s t o r i c Blood Residues: D e t e c t i o n on Tool Surfaces and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Species of O r i g i n . Science 220(4603): 1269-1271. MacFarlane, N a t a l i e and E l e n a Perkins 1977 Museum E v a l u a t i o n and Ethnography. Un- p u b l i s h e d Manuscript, Vancouver: UBC Museum of Anthropology. McGimsey, Charles R. . I l l and Hester A. Davis, e d i t o r s 1977 Mason, P h y l l i s 1985 The Management of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Resources: The A i r l i e House Report S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n of the S o c i e t y f o r American Archaeology. A Re/View-ing. Midden June V o l . XVII No. 3. P.13. Matson, R.G. 1974 C l u s t e r i n g and s c a l i n g of Gulf of Georgia s i t e s . S y e s i s 7:101-114. 34 Matson R.G. 1976 The Glenrose Cannery S i t e . N a t i o n a l Museum of Man Mercury S e r i e s , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada No. 52. 1980-81 P r e h i s t o r i c Subsistence P a t t e r n s i n the Fr a s e r D e l t a : The Evidence from the Glenrose Cannery S i t e . BC Studies Winter No. 4 8 . Pp. 6 4 - 8 5 . Maud, Ralph, ed. 1978 The S a l i s h People: The L o c a l C o n t r i b u t i o n of Charles H i l l - T o u t . V o l . I l l The Mainland Halkomelem. Vancouver: Talonbooks, M i t c h e l l , Donald H. ' . 1971 Archaeology of the Gu l f of Georgia area, a n a t u r a l r e g i o n and i t s c u l t u r a l types. S y e s i s V o l . 4 . Supplement 1. N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada n.d. Museum A s s i s t a n c e Programme, E x h i b i t i o n s A s s i s t a n c e Programme, Programme D e s c r i p t i o n , Mimeo. Osborn, Alan J . 1970 Development of an A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Museum D i s p l a y Museum B r i e f s . No. 4~ Museum of Anthropology. Columbia: U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i - Columbia. Percy, Richard C.W. 1974 The P r e h i s t o r i c C u l t u r a l Sequence at Crescent Beach, B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpub- l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s . Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . Robinson, E l l e n Wallace 1975 Charles E. Borden: His Formulation and T e s t i n g of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Hypotheses. Unpublished M.A. T h e s i s . P o r t l a n d State U n i v e r s i t y . 1976 Harlan I. Smith, Boas, and the S a l i s h : Unweaving A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Hypotheses. Northwest A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Research Notes V o l . 10. No. 2. Pp. 185-196. ROM 1976 Communicating with the Museum V i s i t o r : G u i d e l i n e s f o r Planning. Toronto: ROM 35 Rudin, Emily B. 1979 A s i g n f o r A l l Seasons: From W r i t e r ' s C l i p b o a r d to Zoo E x h i b i t . Curator 22:4: 303-309. Rudy, Robert H. and John A. Brown 1976 Myron E e l l s and the Puget Sound Indians. S e a t t l e : S u p e r i o r P u b l i s h i n g Company. S c h i f f o r , M i c h a e l B. 1976 B e h a v i o r a l Archaeology. New York: Academic Press. S h e t t e l , H a r r i s H. 197 3 E x h i b i t s : A r t Form or E d u c a t i o n a l Medium. Museum News 52:1:32-41. Smith, Harlan I. 1903 Shell-Heaps of the Lower F r a s e r R i v e r , B r i t i s h Columbia. Memoirs of the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y V o l . IV. The Jesup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n , Part IV. Pp. 133-199. 1907 Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia and Puget Sound. Memoirs of the American Museum of Na t u r a l H i s t o r y V o l . 11. The Jesup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n , Part VI. 1913 The A r c h a e o l o g i c a l C o l l e c t i o n From the Southern I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ottawa: Museum of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey. No. 1290. Smith, Marian W. 1969 The P u y a l l u p - N i s q u a l l y . New York: AMS Press, ( f i r s t e d i t i o n 1940). S t e r n , Bernhard J 1969 The Lummi Indians of Northwest Washington. New York: AMS Press, ( f i r s t e d i t i o n 1934). S u t t l e s , Wayne 1955 K a t z i e Ethnographic Notes Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir No. 2. V i c t o r i a : BCPM. 36 S u t t l e s , Wayne 1968 Coping with Abundance: Subsistence on the Northwest Coast. In Man the Hunter. R. B. Lee and I. Devore, e d i t o r s . Chicago: A l d i n e Press. Pp. 56-68 '1974 The Economic L i f e of the Coast S a l i s h of Haro and Rosario S t r a i t s . Coast S a l i s h and Western Washington Indians I. New York: Garland P u b l i s h i n g Inc. Swan, James G. 1969 The Northwest Coast. S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, ( f i r s t e d i t i o n 1857). T a y l o r , Walter W. 1948 A Study of Archaeology. American Anthro- p o l o g i s t V o l . 50. No. 3- Part 2. Memoir No. 69. T r i g g e r , Bruce G. 1968 Major Concepts of Archaeology i n H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e . Man 3:4:527-541. Von Daniken, E r i c h 1970 C h a r i o t s of the Gods: Unsolved M y s t e r i e s of the Past. New York: Bantam Books. Wade, L.K. 1976 The Rich E s t u a r i e s i n Mountains and Seas. Harold Hosford, e d i t o r . Heritage Record No. 5. BCPM. Pp. 32-38. Watson, Herb 1978 How to Communicate i n E x h i b i t i o n s . Un- p u b l i s h e d BCMA workshop paper, Nanaimo. W i l l e y , Gordon R. and P h i l i p P h i l l i p s 1958 Method and Theory i n American Archaeology. Chicago Press. 1974 A H i s t o r y of American Archaeology. San F r a n c i s c o : W. H. Freedman and Company. W i l l i a m s , Anne M. 1980 C a r l Borden and Archaeology i n B.C. Un- p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s . UBC 37 Zak, E l l e n Jeanette 1980 Education Programs f o r S p e c i a l E x h i b i t i o n s on Tour: A Topic of Museum Education. Un- p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of Washington. 38 9.1 APPENDIX 1 Jan. 1, 1983 ARCHAEOLOGY TEMPORARY EXHIBIT ( U n t i t l e d as yet) The primary purpose of t h i s e x h i b i t w i l l be to show how a r c h a e o l o g i s t s make i n f e r e n c e s about the economic s t r a t e g i e s of p r e h i s t o r i c people through the u t i l i z a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of methods and techniques when a n a l y z i n g m a t e r i a l s from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . The focus of the proposed temporary a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x h i b i t w i l l be the r e s u l t s of the 1977 ex- c a v a t i o n of the Crescent Beach s i t e , which has shown that v i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the economic s t r a t e g i e s of p r e h i s t o r i c Northwest Coast peoples, can be obtained when midden a n a l y s i s i s undertaken i n c o n j u n c t i o n with ethnographic and e n v i r o n - mental i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s e x h i b i t w i l l r e f l e c t not only the k i n d of s u b s t a n t i v e r e s e a r c h which i s ongoing at UBC but a l s o important aspects of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n g e n e r a l . The Crescent Beach midden s i t e i s s i t u a t e d on Boundary Bay i n the southern p o r t i o n of the F r a s e r River D e l t a system and e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y i s contained w i t h i n the boundaries of the Coast S a l i s h c u l t u r e area. T h i s s i t e r e p r e s e n t s an im- portant aspect of a complex s e a s o n a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a l l y adaptive s t r a t e g y , s p e c i f i c a l l y the u t i l i z a t i o n of the February-March h e r r i n g run and concommitantly the p r o c e s s i n g of s h e l l f i s h and other a v a i l a b l e , though l e s s important, r e s o u r c e s . S i g n i f i c a n t evidence f o r woodworking a c t i v i t i e s at the s i t e were a l s o d i s c e r n e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y . 39 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s at t h i s and other s i t e s supports the t h e s i s that a s e a s o n a l l y d i v e r s e , complex and s p e c i a l i z e d adaptive s t r a t e g y has p e r s i s t e d i n the r e g i o n f o r s e v e r a l m i l l e n i a . The r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s of t h i s adaptive s t r a t e g y are the b a s i s f o r the development and subsequent f l o u r i s h i n g of the Northwest Coast c u l t u r e - c u l t u r e which i s widely i d e n t i - f i e d by i t s m a g n i f i c e n t a r t s t y l e and ceremonies. The p r e h i s t o r i c evidence f o r one aspect of t h i s a d a p t a t i o n i s the s u b j e c t of t h i s e x h i b i t , as w e l l as the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l methods u t i l i z e d to d i s c e r n i t . The e x h i b i t w i l l c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n a v a r i e t y of ways. For example, maps, photos, diagrams, f a u n a l remains and a r t i f a c t s w i l l be u t i l i z e d to enhance the s t o r y - l i n e . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l methods w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d ; f o r example, s h e l l f i s h growth r i n g a n a l y s i s , which i s u t i l i z e d to determine the season of s h e l l f i s h procurement and to i n f e r the season of s i t e use. R e c o n s t r u c t i o n of s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s such as clam and h e r r i n g procurement and pro- c e s s i n g w i l l be r e p r e s e n t e d , as w e l l as the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence from which these a c t i v i t i e s are i n f e r r e d . Aspects of the environmental and ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i z e d i n the r e s e a r c h design and a n a l y s i s at Crescent Beach w i l l a l s o be i l l u s t r a t e d . P o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n s may be an i n t r o - ductory s l i d e - t a p e p r e s e n t a t i o n or a r e c o n s t r u c t e d midden f e a t u r e , space and l o g i s t i c s p e r m i t t i n g . 23/6/79 -2- PRQJECT D E S C R I P T I O N : ( U s e o n l y s p a c e p r o v i d e d ; do n o t add a d d i t i o n a l s h e e t s . I n c l u d e I n f o r m a t i o n on n e e d f o r p r o j e c t a i m o r o b j e c t i v e s , a u d i e n c e t o be s e r v e d and a n t i c i p a t e d d u r a t i o n . I f a p p l i c a b l e e x p l a i n n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h , c o n s e r v a t i o n , s t a f f t r a v e l a n d / o r j u s t i f y why e x h i b i t i o n may n o t t r a v e l n a t i o n a l l y . ) Changing Tides r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t of a three stage p l a n t o r e v i t a l i z e and expand the e x h i b i t c a p a c i t y of the archaeology g a l l e r y i n the Museum of Anthropology. The o b j e c t i v e of Phase One i s to r e p a l c e p a r t of the e x i s t i n g permanent archaeology d i s p l a y i n s t a l l e d under severe time l i m i t a t i o n s f o r the opening of the museum i n 1976. I t i s i n f o r m a t i v e but s t a t i c , as no space i s a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c r e p o r t s on c u r r e n t r e s e a r c l and other temporary d i s p l a y s of g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t . However, minor changes to the g a l l e r y and to the e x h i b i t p h i l o s o p h y w i l l permit a more e f f e c t i v e use of t h i s space. The Phase One temporary e x h i b i t w i l l draw upon the museum's r e s e a r c h c o l l e c t i o n s to i l l u s t r a t e the process of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of past events and the analogous ethnographic a c t i v i t i e s . Phase Two w i l l c o n s i s t of packaging t h i s e x h i b i t f o r t r a v e l , and Phase Three w i l l be a r e c a s t i n g of the e n t i r e archaeology g a l l e r y , as funds become a v a i l a b l e . Phasing d i s t r i b u t e s c o s t s over a longer p e r i o d and a l l o w s e x h i b i t p l a n n i n g t o be more e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h r e s e a r c h and t e a c h i n g programmes The removal of one b u i l t - i n case, so f l e x i b l e modular d i s p l a y u n i t s can be used f o r the temporary e x h i b i t , w i l l p r o v i d e f u t u r e space f o r changing d i s p l a y s , thus adding more v i t a l i t y to the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s f e a t u r e w i l l be r e t a i n e d when the remainder of the g a l l e r y i s upgraded as p a r t of a proposed Phase Three. Phase One: Changing Tides w i l l show how a r c h a e o l o g i s t s p i e c e t o g e t h e r , from the p a t t e r n i n g of s h e l l , s tone, c h a r c o a l , bones and ash remains, the a c t i v i t i e s which supported a d i s t i n c t i v e and complex c u l t u r e . By combining a r c h a e o l o g i c a l techniques w i t h environmental and ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n , the v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s which went on at a s i t e are d i s c o v e r e d . The e x h i b i t w i l l thus demonstrate the techniques and o r i e n t a t i o n of modern archaeology which are used to d i s c o v e r past l i f e w a y s . The c u l t u r e s along the B r i t i s h Columbia coast culminated i n a h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l andunique way of l i f e which the p u b l i c t y p i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e s w i t h i t s m a g n i f i c i e n t a r t . People are l e s s a c q u a i n t e d , however, w i t h the e q u a l l y f a s c i n a t i n g , complex system which these people evolved f o r e x p l o i t i n g t h e i r environmnet. Changing Tides w i l l u t i l i z e m a t e r i a l s excavated from the Crescent Beach s i t e to demonstrate how a r c h a e o l o g i s t s d i s c o v e r the range and season of a c t i v i t i e s through ( c o n t i n e d on page 2b) PERSONNEL List all permanent or part-time staff associated with the Project, their t i t l e and function If person(s) contracted for this project, please attach resumes) and l i s t duties. C u r a t o r : Responsible f o r the s t o r y l i n e , r e s e a r c h and development and academic content of p r o d u c t i o n . D i r e c t o r : Responsible f o r e d i t i n g e x h i b i t copy (Dr. M.M. Ames) E x h i b i t Designer: Prepares e x h i b i t design and panel l a y o u t , s u p e r v i s e s t e c h n i c a l aspects of p r o d u c t i o n . I l l u s t r a t o r : D e p i c t s the p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s which occurred at or near the s i t e , i n w a t e r c o l o u r g r a p h i c s , from i n f o r m a t i o n provided by the Cur a t o r and Research A s s i s t a n t . Photographer Designer: Designs and prepares photographs f o r e x h i b i t . Research A s s i s t a n t : A s s i s t s i n the r e s e a r c h and development of the s t o r y l i n e and i n documentation of e x h i b i t m a t e r i a l as w e l l as l i t e r a t u r e s earch. Design A s s i s t a n t : A s s i s t s the E x h i b i t Designer, arranges t e x t t y p e s e t t i n g and e x h i b i t photos, and prepares and mounts e x h i b i t m a t e r i a l s . C u r a t o r i a l A s s i s t a n t : Prpares f i g u r e s f o r d i s p l a y , p r oofreads t y p e s e t t i n g . A d m i n i s t a t i v e / C l e r i c a l S t a f f : A d m i n i s t r a t e s budget, r e q u i s t i o n s purchase o r d e r s , types manuscripts f o r e x h i b i t t e x t . A.V. E d i t o r : E d i t s video and prepares sound o v e r l a y . -2b- such a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s as s h e l l f i s h growth r i n g s t u d i e s , r e s i d u e a n a l y s i s of stone t o o l s , and c o n s t i t u e n t a n a l y s i s of remains. These a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s are combined w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l and ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n t o p r o v i d e a wider p e r s p e c t i v e by showing how v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s were i n t e r r e l a t e d , when and why p r e h i s t o r i c people used the s i t e , and how these p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to h i s t o r i c ones. Photographs, g r a p h i c s , maps, and commissioned i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i l l accompany Crescent Beach a r t i f a c t s to enhance the s t o r y l i n e and to p r o v i d e a more complete view of how a r c h a e o l o g i s t s d i s c o v e r the p a s t . The i n s t a l l a t i o n of a v i d e o access u n i t w i l l p r o v i d e a wide range of complementary a r c h a e o l o g i c a l programmes. A b r i e f c a t a l o g u e w i l l a l s o be i s s u e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Changing T i d e s , as p a r t of the Museum Note S e r i e s . A p u b l i c l e c t u r e s e r i e s i n c l u d i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , e t h n o l o g i s t s , b i o l o g i s t s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t e x p e r t s w i l l be arranged to enhance the e x h i b i t . Once the e x h i b i t i s i n s t a l l e d i n the Museum of Anthropology, a p l a n f o r n a t i o n a l t r a v e l w i l l be undertaken as Phase Two. T h i s e x h i b i t w i t h i t s supplementary v i d e o and c a t a l o g u e w i l l be the f o u r t h i n a s e r i e s of s u c c e s s f u l t r a v e l l i n g a r c h a e o l o g y e x h i b i t s prepared at U.B.C. w i t h the a i d e of the E x h i b i t i o n s A s s i s t a n c e Programme. T h i s second phase and the Phase Three p l a n to upgrade the permanent ar c h a e o l o g y d i s p l a y w i l l be scheduled a c c o r d i n g to f u n d i n g and each phase can be completed b e f o r e the next b e g i n s . The Museum of Anthropology r e c o g n i z e s that support of Changing T i d e s does not e n t a i l a commitment to support l a t e r phases, but that each must be judged on i t s own m e r i t s . 25/6779 -3- LIST CF CONTENTS TITLE, TYPE OR DESCRIPTION OF OBJECTS ARTIST OR PROVENANCE OVlNED BY AVAILABILITY CONFIRMED A l l o b j e c t s a r e o w n e i t r u s t b y t h e M u s e u m b y t h e UBC M u s e u t r o r t h e S e m i a h m o o b a n d o f A n t h r o p o l o g y o r h e l d i n I f a d d i t i o n a l space 1s r e q u i r e d , please a t t a c h a d d i t i o n a l sheets f o l l o w i n g the same format. RUNNING OR SQUARE FEET (METRES) REQUIRED FOR 300 s q . f t . EXHIBITION: DURATION OF EXHIBITION S e p t . 1 9 8 4 M a y 1 9 8 4 FROM: TO: 44 23/6/79 ITINERARY •4- DURATION Cf ENTIRE TCJUR: FRCM . TO PtfflFCTrl) TfllR LOCATION No c i r c u l a t i o n i s p l a n n e d w i t h i n ARRIVAL DATE DEPARTURE DATE CONFIRMED UNCONFIRMED p r e s e n t a p p l i c a t i o n . A s e p a r a t e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e x h i b i t t r a v e l w i l l be s u b m i t t e d a t a l a t e r d a t e a s Phase Two. I f a d d i t i o n a l s p a c e I s r e q u i r e d , p l e a s e a t t a c h a d d i t i o n a l s h e e t s f o l l o w i n g t h e same f o r m a t . METHOD OF SHIPMENT: RAIL . AIR , ROAD . OWN VEHICLE COMMERCIAL SHIPPER ( a t t a c h q u o t e s ) WEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EPP, THE ORGANIZER MUST NOT CHARGE SHIPPING COSTS TO THE BORROWING INSTITUTIONS INSURANCE VALUE: $_ WHEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EAP, THE ORGANIZER MUST PAY ALL INSURANCE COSTS, EXCEPT WHEN A BORROWING INSTITUTION HAS BLANKET COVERAGE AND CAN INSURE THE BORROWED EXHIBITION WITHOUT ADDITIONAL COST TO THEIR ANNUAL PREMIUM. WHEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EAP, THE ORGANIZER MAY NOT CHARGE A BORROWING FEE TO THE BORROWING INSTITUTIONS -5- CATALOGUES/BRXllURES/POSTESS TFN (IT) COP1FS OF ALL PRINTED CATALOGUES AND BROCHURES PRODUCED WITH EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE MUST BE FORWARDED, FREE OF CHARGE, TO THE EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME. THESE WILL BE DISTRIBUTED TO THE ffATIONAL filSEUMS LIBRARY, THE NATIONAL LIBRARY, AND TrE NATIONAL GALLERY LIBRARY. THE APPLICANT I S ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR DISTRIBUTING ONE COPY EACH, FREE OF CHARGE, TO ALL APPROPRIATE ASSOCIATE MUSEUMS. (A OJRRENT LIST OF ASSOCIATE MUSEUMS WILL̂ BE ÔRWARDEn TO .SUCCESSFUL APPLICANTS WHEN F1.WDS. ARE RELEASED.) Describe the educative value and objectives. An exhibit catalogue in the form of a museum note, w i l l provide information comparable to the exhibit. This catalogue w i l l permit enhanced exhibit appreciation and interpretation. A brief bibliography of relevant a r t i c l e s and other public- ations w i l l be included for the individual who wishes further information. The exhibit poster w i l l feature one of the watercolour reconstructions of prehistoric a c t i v i t i e s . DIMENSIONS i'lUMBER OF PAGES NUMBER OF COLOUR REPRODUCTIONS I'LUMBER OF BLACK AND WHITE REPRODUCTIONS DUMBER OF CATALOGUES,BROCHURES,POSTERS ESTIMATED PUBLISHING COST ESTIMATED HANDLING COST NUMBER TO BE GIVEN AWAY NUMBER TO BE SOLD.. SELLING PRICE ESTIMATED ADMINISTRATIVE COST.... ANTICIPATED REVENUE PRICE QUOTES AND MOCK-UPS ATTACHED TOTAL ANTICIPATED REVENUE FROM ALL-PRINTED MATERIAL CATALOGUES 8" x 10" 10 none 14 POSTERS 24" x 17" 3000 3280 3QQ 100 ?qno 1.25 300 $ 790 2QQ inn $ 1.00 Under General Administrative Costs 45 $ 100 See attached 'Blood From Stone' estimate 145 ALL NATIONAL TRAVELLING EXHIBITION MATERIAL SHOULD BE PRODUCED IN BOTH OFFICIAL LANGUAGES. * Revenue 3,625 less costs 3580 Final r e t a i l and wholesale prices to be established after f i n a l (1984) publication costs are known. 23/6/79 -6- ENHAflCEMENT ACTIVITIES AND MATERIALS WHICH FACILITATE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF AN EXHIBITION ARE SUPPORTED WHEN THEY CAN BE JUSTIFIED IN TERMS OF NEED, EXHIBITION OBJECTIVES AND THE AUDIENCE TO BE SERVED. THEY MAY INCLUDE FILM/ A-V PRODUCTIONS,PERFORMANCES, DEMONSTRATIONS, TAPES, ETC. IN THE SPACE BELOW DESCRIBE THE ENHANCE- MENT PROPOSED AND ITEMIZE THE COSTS. The a d d i t i o n of a v i d e o access u n i t w i i l not o n l y enable p r e s e n t a t i o n of a g r e a t e r range of complementary i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Changing T i d e s but w i l l a l l o w ongoing s h o r t lenght v i d e o programmes to be u t i l i z e d i n the arc h a e o l o g y g a l l e r y . C urrent r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s as w e l l as s p e c i a l and g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t v i d e o tapes can be p r e s e n t e d . The present a p p l i c a t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e s the e d i t i n g and p r o d u c t i o n of a vide o tape from e x i s t i n g footage of the e x c a v a t i o n and l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s of Crescent Beach m a t e r i a l s . S l i d e tapes w i l l be prepared on the l o c a l h a b i t a t and on p r o c u r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s v i d e o package w i l l not o n l y enhance the temporary e x h i b i t but can be packaged to t r a v e l i n Phase Two. Some v i d e o m a t e r i a l i s a l l ready a v a i l a b l e , i n c l u d i n g Northwest Coast P r e h i s t o r y , A Museum of Anthropology p r o d u c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g t i t l e s w i l l be srceened f o r s u i t a b l i t y and p o s s i b l e a v a i l a b i l i t y to t r a n s f e r to v i d e o ; A r c h a e o l o g i c a l D a t i n g : R e t r a c i n g Time, Garbage and Garf: A P a r a b l e f o r Archaeology. A p u b l i c l e c t u r e s e r i e s w i l l be arranged to enhance the e x h i b i t . A r c h a e o l o g i s t s , e t h n o l o g i s t s , b i o l o g i s t s and other r e l e v a n t e x p e r t s w i l l be i n c l u d e d . N e g o t i a t i o n s w i l l be undertaken to arrange f o r Wayne S u t t l e s of P o r t l a n d S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y and Donald M i t c h e l l of The U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a to l e c t u r e i n t h i s s e r i e s , as w e l l as, s e v e r a l l o c a l speakers. 23/6/79 -7- KSTRUCTIONS FOR CCrPLETION OF BUDGET 1. BEGIN WITH PAGES 8 AND 9 - BUDGET. Two COPIES OF THESE PAGES ARE INCLUDED WITH THE APPLICATION FORM, SO THAT ONE MAY BE USED AS A WORKING COPY FOR PREPARATION OF THE BUDGET. USE THE COMPLETED BUDGET ON PAGES 3 AND 9 AS A GUIDE IN FILLING OUT THE BUDGET S U M W ON PAGE 10. 2. PLEASE BE ADVISED THAT IIATIONAL MUSEUMS OF CANADA WILL NOT FUND IOCS OF TOTAL COSTS OF ANY PROJECT. TOTAL COST MEANS THE ENTIRE EXPENSE OF THE PROJECT, THAT IS, HOW MUCH IT WILL COST TO REALIZE THE PROJECT. PLEASE INCLUDE COSTS OF ALL ITEMS, INCLUDING SPACE, LABOUR, MATERIALS, CONSERVATION, PUBLICATIONS, EDUCATION ACTIVITIES, ETC., WHICH MAY BE DONATED OR CONTRIBUTED BY THE APPLICANT OR AN OUTSIDE SOURCE. THIS WILL NECESSITATE ASSIGNING MONETARY VALUES TO SUCH ITEMS AS DONATED EXHIBITION SPACE, CONTRIBUTED LABOUR, ETC. 3. CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT i s THE AMOUNT CONTRIBUTED BY YOUR INSTITUTION OR ORGANIZATION IN EITHER SERVICES OR M3NEY. IN ORDER TO COMPLETE THIS COUWI, YOU WILL HAVE TO ASSIGN A MONETARY VALUE TO STAFF TIrE, MATERIALS, SERVICES, ETC., WHICH WILL BE USED IN THE DEVELOPMENT, PREPARATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF YOUR PROJECT. H. OTHER INCOME i s MONEY OR SERVICES CONTRIBUTED BY OTHER DONORS OR GRANTING AGENCIES. IT IS ALSO THE REVENUE ANTICIPATED FROM THE SALE OF CATALOGUES, BROCHURES OR POSTERS. 5, BALANCE i s THE AMOUNT OF MONEY NEEDED TO REALIZE THE PROJECT AFTER SUBTRACTION OF THE APPLICANT'S CONTRIBUTION. FOR EXAMPLE, UNDER SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS, THE APPLICANT MAY CONTRIBUTE 4 DISPLAY CASES FOR AN EXHIBITION, VALUED AT $2<)Q0. IN ORDER TO PREPARE AN ADEQUATE PRESENTATION, 4 ADDITIONAL DISPLAY CASES ARE REQUIRED, AT A COST OF $2800. TOTAL COST OF DISPLAY CASES IS $5200, APPLICANT'S CONTRIBUTION IS $2100, AND BALANCE FOR DISPLAY CASES IS $2800. 6, EACH BUDGET CATEGORY MJST BE ITEMIZED. AS A GUIDE TO ITEMIZING THE CATEGORIES, SOME OF THE EXPENSE ITEMS WHICH MIGHT BE INCURRED UNDER EACH CATEGORY ARE LISTED BELOW. PERSONNEL SALARIES AND FEES: CONTRIBUTED STAFF TIME CONTRACTED STAFF FEES OR HONORARIUM TO GUEST LECTURERS, ETC. FEES TO ARTISTS: MUST BE PAID BY THE APPLICANT TO CONTEMPORARY CANADIAN ARTISTS WHEN WORKS ARE LOANED BY THE ARTIST FOR INCLUSION IN EXHIBITIONS FUNDED BY THE NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF CANADA, SUCH FEES TO BE AGREED UPON BY BOTH THE ARTIST AND THE BORROWING INSTITUTION. PAYMENT OF FEES REQUESTED MUST BE INDICATED IN THE FINAL AUDIT OR FINANCIAL REPORT, PERSONNEL TRAVEL: TRANSPORTATION AND PER DIEM FOR PROJECT EMPLOYEES OR CONTRACTED SPECIALISTS RESEARCH COSTS: EXPENSES NOT COVERED BY SALARIES OR TRAVEL PRODUCTION COSTS: EXPENSES NOT COVERED ABOVE THAT MJST BE INCURRED IN THE PROCESS OF CREATING THE FINISHED EXHIBITION (CRATES, DISPLAY UNITS, MOUNTING, EQUIPMENT RENTALS, CONSERVATION) ENHANCEMENT COSTS: EXPENSES NOT COVERED ABOVE THAT MIST BE INCURRED TO ENHANCE THE PUBLIC'S UNDER- STANDING OF THE OBJECTS DISPLAYED. (TRANSLATIONS, PRINTING, CATALOGUES, DEMONSTRATIONS, PERFORMANCES, A-V, FILM, POSTERS, ADVERTISING, PRESS KITS, INFORMATION KITS) CIRCULATION: EXPENSES NOT COVERED ABOVE AND INCURRED DURING THE PERIOD OF CIRCULATION (INSURANCE, SHIPPING, STORAGE, MAINTENANCE) 7, BE AS ACCURATE AS POSSIBLE. IF YOU HAVE RECEIVED A QUOTATION FROM A CONTRACTOR OR SHIPPER ON A PARTICULAR ITEM, PLEASE INCLUDE A COPY WITH YOUR COMPLETED BUDGET. 3. ALL PROJECTS IN EXCESS OF $10,000 WILL HAVE 1D% WITHHELD UNTIL THE MUSEUM ASSISTANCE PROGRAMMES RECEIVE FINAL AUDITING OF THE TOTAL AMOUNT REQUIRED. 9. EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS DOES NOT GRANT FUNDS TO AID INSTITUTIONS TO BORROW EXHIBITIONS. EXHIBITION ORGANIZERS MAY APPLY FOR ALL SHIPPING AND INSURANCE COSTS. NEITHER OF THESE COSTS NOR ANY OTHER PARTICIPATION FEE MAY BE CHARGED TO INSTITUTIONS BORROWING AN EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME FUNDED EXHIBITION. * IF YOU HAVE FURTHER QUESTIONS PLEASE CONSULT YOUR REGIONAL OFFICER. 23/6779 -8- BUDGET Please read the Instruction page before completing the budget. Itemize each category. CATEGORY TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT OTHER INCOME donations grants or revenue BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P. PERSONNEL SALARIES X FEES 6,000 3,600 600 2 , 5 00 900 > 1,200 1, 100 250 1,500 6,000 3,600 600 1,200 1,500 - 2,500 900 1,100 250 C u r a t o r 8 w e e k s E x h i b i t D e s i g n e r 6 w e e k s P h o t o g r a p h e r 1 week I l l u s t r a t o r o n c o n t r a c t D e s i g n A s s i s t a n t o n c o n t r a c C u r a t o r i a l A s s i s t a n t 3 week @$11.00 1 0 5 x 1 1 & b e n e f i t s R e s e a r c h A s s i s t a n t 3 w e e k s @S10.00 1 0 5 x 1 1 & b e n i f i t s A.V. E d i t o r ( c o n t r a c t ) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 2 w e e k s SUB-TOTAL 17,650 1 2 , 9 0 0 • - 4, 750 PERSONNEL TRAVEL 600 - - 600 T r a v e l e x p e n s e s a n d h o n o r a r i a f o r g u e s t s p e a k e r s SUB-TOTAL 600 - - 600 RESEARCH COSTS SUB-TOTAL 23/6779 r \ BUDGET, CONTINUED TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT OTHER INCOME donations grants revenue BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P. PRODUCTION COSTS R e m o v a l o f 6' w i d e w a l l ( & s e c u r i t y u n i t ) a n d b u i l t - i n c a s e . R e p a i r s w h e r e n e c e s s a r y . 1,400 - - 1,400 20 p a n e l s @ $ 7 5 . 0 0 1,500 - - 1,500 10 m o d u l a r f r a m e s & c o n n e c t o r s 3 ,900 - - 3,900 P h o t o g r a p h y ( f i l m , p r o c e s s - i n g a n d e n l a r g i n g ) 1,900 - - 1,900 T y p e s e t t i n g 700 - - 700 S i l k s c r e e n t e x t a n d l a b e l s 2 , 2 00 - - 2,200 6 p l e x i g l a s c a s e s 660 - - 660 M i s c . & c o n s t r u c t i o n 1,000 - - 1,000 SUB-TOTAL 1 3 , 2 6 0 - 1 3 , 2 6 0 ENHANCEMENT COSTS C a t a l o g u e 3 ,580 300 45 3,235 P o s t e r 790 - 100 690 V i d e o a c c e s s u n i t 6,700 - - 6,700 V i d e o t a p e p r o d u c t i o n 350 - - 350 SUB-TOTAL 1 1 , 4 5 0 300 145 1 0 , 9 7 5 CIRCULATION COSTS SUB-TOTAL J 50 -10- 23/5/79 SLTTIARY CF BUDGET TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT OTHER INCOME d o n a t i o n s g r a n t s o r r e v e n u e BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E . A . P , 1 7 , 6 5 0 1 2 , 9 0 0 - 4 , 7 0 0 6 0 0 - - 6 0 0 - 1 3 , 2 6 0 - - 1 3 , 2 6 0 1 1 , 4 2 0 3 0 0 1 4 5 1 0 , 9 7 5 - - - - TOTAL: % OF COSTS: 4 2 , 9 3 0 1 3 , 2 0 0 1 4 5 2 9 , 5 8 5 1 0 0 % 3 1 % 1% 6 8 % r SlfWRY OF OTHER INCOME LIST ALL DONATIONS, GRANTS AND/OR ANTICIPATED REVENUE SHIRCF i CONFTRMFD ANTICIPATED ANTICIPATED DATES WHEN FINDS WILL E REQUIRED: P r o j e c t to commence September 1 9 8 3 51 9.3 APPENDIX 3 CHANGING TIDES S t o r y l i n e d r a f t February 18, 1984 E x h i b i t Overview: Ever s i n c e the 1880's when a road c o n s t r u c t i o n crew working i n what i s now Marpole, south Vancouver, unearthed numerous p r e h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have been i n v e s t i g a t i n g midden s i t e s i n the F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n . These midden i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have ranged from q u i c k l y organ- i z e d salvage o p e r a t i o n s to l a r g e s c a l e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . Changing Tides t r a c e s the h i s t o r y of t h i s l o c a l a r c h a e o l o g - i c a l r e s e a r c h through s e v e r a l developmental stages, beginning with the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century r e s e a r c h of Harlan I. Smith and ending with recent work at the Crescent Beach s i t e . T h i s e x h i b i t w i l l o u t l i n e how i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of l o c a l midden s i t e s have l e d to a g r e a t e r understanding not only of t h e i r composition and contents, but a l s o of how p r e h i s t o r i c people developed complex and unique systems f o r e x p l o i t i n g the p o t e n t i a l of the F r a s e r d e l t a and v i c i n i t y . The i n s i g h t s gained through t h i s r e s e a r c h are important because they promise to expand our understanding of Northwest Coast c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l , and Coast S a l i s h c u l t u r e i n p a r t i c u l a r . Whereas the p u b l i c u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e s Northwest Coast c u l t u r e with s p e c t a c u l a r ceremonials and impressive woodwork, the r e s u l t s of Coast S a l i s h midden r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e that l e s s impressive 52 a r t i f a c t s and o f t e n mundane remains can provide a f u l l e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the complexity and a n t i q u i t y of Northwest Coast c u l t u r e . The development of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n the lower F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n has been the cumulative process of meth- o d o l o g i c a l developments and s u b s t a n t i v e r e s u l t s . E x i s t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l methods have been adopted, with l o c a l inno- v a t i o n s a p p l i e d to p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . Changing Tides f o l l o w s these developments through f o u r stages, p r e f a c e d by an o r i e n t a t i o n s e c t i o n and f o l l o w e d by a s e c t i o n which f o c u s - ses on f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The pr e f a c e p r o v i d e s a gen e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n to middens g i v i n g a sense of t h e i r composition, and the ge n e r a l environmental and c u l t u r a l components i n - t r i n s i c to t h e i r f ormation. T h i s g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n to middens i s designed to e l i m i n a t e the need f o r d i g r e s s i o n s from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h techniques and t h e i r r e s u l t s i n the next f o u r s e c t i o n s of the e x h i b i t . The f i n a l s e c t i o n of the e x h i b i t w i l l again look at the areas' midden s i t e s i n gen e r a l to examine t h e i r f u t u r e as c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s r e - q u i r i n g p r o t e c t i o n i f they are to play a r o l e i n the f u t u r e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . E x h i b i t O u t l i n e : Changing Tides i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x s e c t i o n s and progres- ses from an i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n , through f o u r stages of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l midden r e s e a r c h to a summary s e c t i o n which looks at the f u t u r e of t h i s r e s e a r c h . S e c t i o n one serves to 53 -introduce the e x h i b i t ' s developmental theme and o r i e n t the v i s i t o r to the area's midden s i t e s i n g e n e r a l terms. S e c t i o n two deals with the " d e s c r i p t i v e stage" of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h which focused p r i m a r i l y upon d e s c r i b i n g the a r t i - f a c t u a l content of midden s i t e s . S e c t i o n three shows how systematic and c o n t r o l l e d excavations l e d to the development of a l o c a l c u l t u r a l chronology. T h i s chronology was defned by a s e r i e s of d i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t s and t r a i t s which served to t y p i f y each phase. The f o u r t h s e c t i o n sees a broadening of scope and a change i n emphasis to s u b s i s t e n c e r e s e a r c h . Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of f a u n a l remains and a r t i f a c t data, as w e l l as the c o r r e l a t i o n of t h i s data to environmental i n f o r m a t i o n was u t i l i z e d to provide a more complete understanding of the adaptive stages which correspond to the c u l t u r a l phases pre- v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d . S e c t i o n f i v e focuses on the techniques of recovery and a n a l y s i s of s h e l l midden l a y e r s which were u t i l i z e d at the Crescent Beach s i t e . These techniques allowed a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to determine p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n on p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e use. The f i n a l s e c t i o n of the e x h i b i t w i l l c o n s i d e r the f u t u r e of the areas' middens as c u l t u r a l r e - sourses and t h e r e f o r e the f u t u r e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . S e c t i o n One T h i s s e c t i o n serves to i n t r o d u c e the e x h i b i t ' s develop- mental theme, i n g e n e r a l terms, and to o r i e n t the v i s i t o r to the lower F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n ' s midden s i t e s . As the development of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s r e g i o n i s 5 4 based upon the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of midden s i t e s spanning an almost 9 , 0 0 0 year p e r i o d , i t i s important to broadly d e f i n e t h i s type of s i t e at the outset of the e x h i b i t . Middens can be d e f i n e d as v a l u a b l e c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s s i n c e they are the complex r e c o r d s of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and n a t u r a l events which a r c h a e o l o g i s t s u t i l i z e to g a i n i n s i g h t s i n t o the past. Northwest Coast middens are o f t e n r e c o g n i z e d by an abundance of marine s h e l l s and u s u a l l y seen as an i n t r i c a t e l a y e r i n g of these s h e l l s with s o i l s and other remains. L o c a l l y these middens are l o c a t e d along the s h o r e l i n e and at the base of upland areas adjacent to d e l t a formations. Although i n g e n e r a l , sea l e v e l s , c l i m a t e and r e s o u r c e s have remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e f o r the past 5 , 5 0 0 years, d e l t a and es- tuary development has had an important impact on the l o c a t i o n of h a b i t a t i o n and resource u t i l i z a t i o n s i t e s through time. T h e r e f o r e , the present l o c a t i o n of midden s i t e s i s dependent on the i n t e r p l a y of these f a c t o r s i n the past. As a r c h a e o l - o g i s t s have p e r c e i v e d and analyzed these s i t e s i n d i f f e r e n t ways through time, t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n should serve as a f o c a l p o i n t from which to view the development of t h i s r e s e a r c h . S e c t i o n Two L o c a l i n t e r e s t i n midden r e s e a r c h began with Charles H i l l - T o u t , but i t was Harlan I. Smith's work with the Jesup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n which r e c e i v e d the a t t e n t i o n of a wider a r c h a e o l o g i c a l audience. Changing Tides w i l l focus on Harlan I. Smith's 1 8 9 8 i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Marpole s i t e , 55 which was a l s o known as the Eburne or "Great F r a s e r Midden" s i t e . Smith and a small f o r c e of h i r e d labour r a p i d l y ex- cavated a p o r t i o n of t h i s s i t e by sh o v e l . Although l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the provenience of a r t i f a c t s as they were removed from the s i t e , Smith f e l t c o n f i d e n t to s t a t e that there appeared to be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between a r t i - f a c t s i n the upper l a y e r s and those i n the lower l a y e r s of the s i t e . Smith concluded that o b j e c t s from a l l l a y e r s were s i m i l a r to those made by the h i s t o r i c Coast S a l i s h , and t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e d that there was 'a c o n t i n u i t y of c u l t u r e f o r the 2,000 years he estimated the s i t e to r e p r e s e n t . Smith saw t h i s c o n t i n u i t y of a r t i f a c t types as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of economic a c t i v i t i e s extending i n t o the past. For example, he equated the presence of r e t r i e v i n g harpoons with sea mammal hunting, and the presence of woodworking t o o l s as evidence that t h i s a c t i v i t y has an a n t i q u i t y much g r e a t e r than that to which the wooden o b j e c t s themselves can a t t e s t . However, the presence of chipped stone and d e c o r a t i v e a r t s he saw as i n t e r i o r t r a i t s ; t h e r e f o r e , he p o s t u l a t e d an e a r l y m i g r a t i o n of i n t e r i o r peoples to the coast. The importance of Smith's c o n c l u s i o n s , concerning both c o n t i n u i t y and d i s - c o n t i n u i t y i s that they e s t a b l i s h e d two themes which run through much of the areas' a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . These themes have been v a r i o u s l y expressed but b a s i c a l l y depend on viewing d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l remains e i t h e r i n terms of c u l t u r a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y or as d i f f e r e n t i a l s i t e use or 56 a d a p t a t i o n a l responses. S e c t i o n Three T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l focus on the development of a r e g i o n a l sequence of c u l t u r a l phases, p r i m a r i l y as d e r i v e d by Borden. His r e c o g n i t i o n that a l a c k of provenience c o n t r o l s i n pre- vi o u s work had provided only g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s and s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s l e d him to conduct systematic and c o n t r o l l e d excavations at a s e r i e s of s i t e s . These exca- v a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d components from which he developed a l o c a l chronology. T h i s chronology i s the fou n d a t i o n f o r the l o c a l sequence g e n e r a l l y used today. Each component or phase was d e f i n e d by a set of d i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t s or t r a i t s . Dur- ing Borden's t h i r t y year i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s l o c a l c u l t u r a l sequence he made s e v e r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Whereas, h i s e a r l i e r work i d e n t i f i e d the d i f f e r e n c e s between components as r e p r e s e n t i n g d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n c u l t u r e c r e a t e d by the i n f l u x of new groups, h i s l a t e r sequence emphasized c o n t i n u i t y but s t i l l allowed f o r the i n f l u x of new groups, at l e a s t to e x p l a i n the Whalen 11 component. T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l o u t l i n e the F r a s e r d e l t a chronology but w i l l emphasize i n p a r t i c u l a r , those s i t e s which are d i r e c t l y comparable to the other s e c t i o n s . For example, Borden's Marpole excavations w i l l be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h Smith's i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and the Whalen Farm s i t e w i l l be c o n t r a s t e d with Crescent Beach. To make the t r a n s i t i o n between t h i s s e c t i o n on the development of c u l t u r a l chronology and subsequent ones, questions w i l l be r a i s e d 5 7 about p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r the Whalen 11 m a t e r i a l . S e c t i o n Four As d i f f e r e n c e s between s i t e i n v e n t o r i e s became viewed i n terms of c u l t u r a l a daptations and seasonal s i t e u t i l i z - a t i o n r a t h e r than as n e c e s s a r i l y d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l groups, new methods were i n t r o d u c e d to help answer new q u e s t i o n s . T h i s s e c t i o n deals with the advent of s u b s i s t e n c e r e s e a r c h which broadened the scope of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i - g a t i o n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h emphasizes f a u n a l remains and s e a s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s . The q u a n t i f i c a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n of a r t i f a c t u a l , s u b s i s t e n c e , and environmental data i s under- taken f o r the express purpose of o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n which sheds l i g h t on the development of c u l t u r a l a daptations and i n n o v a t i o n s i n the area. The main focus f o r t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be the Glenrose Cannery s i t e , with the major emphasis on techniques of a n a l y s i s . S e c t i o n F i v e T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l i l l u s t r a t e r ecent refinements i n midden exca v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s which allow more p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n on economic s t r a t e g i e s to be recovered. The recovery and a n a l y s i s of s h e l l midden l a y e r s at the Crescent Beach s i t e i s the focus of t h i s s e c t i o n . T h i s s i t e r e p r e s e n t s an impor- tant aspect of a complex s e a s o n a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d adaptive s t r a t e g y , s p e c i f i c a l l y the u t i l i z a t i o n of the e a r l y s p r i n g h e r r i n g run and the p r o c e s s i n g f o r storage or trade of l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of s h e l l f i s h . 5 8 The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s such as clam or h e r r i n g procurement and p r o c e s s i n g are r e p r e s e n t e d , as w e l l as the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence from which these a c t i v i t i e s are i n f e r r e d . S p e c i f i c data on the l o c a l b i o t i c communities and ethnographic uses of them are necessary to i l l u s t r a t e how models of s i t e use are developed and t e s t e d . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains of a c t i v i t i e s are r a r e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by complete " t o o l k i t s " or even by d i r e c t as- s o c i a t i o n s of a r t i f a c t s and remains. I t i s by l o o k i n g at the s t r u c t u r e of remains and by i n c o r p o r a t i n g a wide v a r i e t y of i n f o r m a t i o n that the a c t i v i t i e s are i n f e r r e d . C o n t r a s t i n g an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y d e f i n e d " t o o l k i t " with an ethnographic one, i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e d i f f e r e n c e . S e c t i o n Six The f i n a l s e c t i o n of the e x h i b i t s p e c u l a t e s on the f u t u r e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h at midden s i t e s i n the lower F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n . Demonstrating that midden s i t e s are important, not only f o r t h e i r a r t i f a c t content, but as the s t r u c t u r e d remains of p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s , shows that they can be regarded as i n t r i n s i c a l l y v a l u a b l e c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , worthy of p r o t e c t i o n . The development of l o c a l archaeology shows that although a b a s i c o u t l i n e or c u l t u r a l chronology has been developed, what that chronology means i n terms of the develop- ment of Coast S a l i s h c u l t u r e i s only beginning to be understood. 61 23/6/79 ProJECT -2- DESCRIPTION : ( U s e o n l y s p a c e p r o v i d e d ; d o n o t a d d a d d i t i o n a l s h e e t s . I n c l u d e I n f o r m a t i o n o n n e e d f o r p r o j e c t , a i m o r o b j e c t i v e s , a u d i e n c e t o b e s e r v e d a n d a n t i c i p a t e d d u r a t i o n . I f a p p l i c a b l e e x p l a i n n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h , c o n s e r v a t i o n , s t a f f t r a v e l a n d / o r j u s t i f y w h y e x h i b i t i o n m a y n o t t r a v e l n a t i o n a l l y . J Changing Tides t r a c e s the h i s t o r y of Northwest coast a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h through four developmental stages. This e x h i b i t o u t l i n e s how i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of midden s i t e s have l e d to a greater understanding of how p r e h i s t o r i c people developed complex and unique systems f o r e x p l o i t i n g the p o t e n t i a l of t h e i r environment. The i n s i g h t s gained through t h i s research are important because they expand our understanding of Northwest coast c u l t u r e . Changing Tides i n t r o d u c e s the Canadian p u b l i c to the e v o l u t i o n of t h i s research and to the i n s i g h t s i t has provided. Whereas the p u b l i c u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e s t h i s c u l t u r e w i t h s p e c t a c u l a r ceremonials and impressive woodworking, the r e s u l t s of midden res e a r c h i n d i c a t e that l e s s impressive a r t i f a c t s and o f t e n mundane reiuains can provide a f u l l e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the complexity and a n t i q u i t y of Northwest coast culturfe While t h i s e x h i b i t focusses s p e c i f i c a l l y on Northwest coast midden r e s e a r c h , the develop- mental trends i l l u s t r a t e d are more wi d e l y a p p l i c a b l e to the gene r a l h i s t o r y of Canadian archaeology. Changing Tides c o n s i s t s of s i x s e c t i o n s , p r o g r e s s i n g from an i n t r o d u c t i o n which d e s c r i b e s the nature and importance of midden s i t e s through four stages of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research to a summary s e c t i o n which looks at the f u t u r e of t h i s r e s e a r c h . The i n i t i a l stage of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research focusses on the d e s c r i p t i v e r e s u l t s of Harlan I . Smith' 1898 i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Marpole midden s i r e . The importance of Smith's work i s that h i s c o n c l u s i o n s concerning c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y and d i s c o n t i n u i t y e s t a b l i s h e d two themes which run through much of Northwest coast a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . The second stage shows how Charles E. Borden's subsequent excavations of Marpole and other s i t e s were i n s p i r e d by h i s r e c o g n i t i o n that a l a c k of provenience c o n t r o l s i n previous work only provided general d e s c r i p t i o n and s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . His work e s t a b l i s h e d a r e g i o n a l sequence g e n e r a l l y u t i l i z e d today. The advent of subs i s t e n c e research char- a c t e r i z e s the t h i r d stage,of Northwest coast archaeology. The main focus f o r t h i s stage i s the Glenrose Cannery s i t e where q u a n t i f i c a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n of a r t i f a c t u a l , sub- s i s t e n c e and environmental data was undertaken f o r the express purpose of o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n which shed l i g h t on the development of c u l t u r a l adaptations and i n n o v a t i o n s . The l a s t stage i l l u s t r a t e s recent refinements i n midden ex c a v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s which a l l o w more p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n on economic s t r a t e g i e s . The recovery and a n a l y s i s of PEESONftL L i s t a l l p e r m a n e n t o r p a r t - t i m e s t a f f a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e P r o j e c t , t h e i r t i t l e a n d f u n c t i o n . D i r e c t o r : ^ISSSn°SWlceonf5¥tS!lMill>1,ellfflcfiiV t \ W ^ & ~ f f i S W a n d l 1 s t d u t 1 e s - Curator: Responsible f o r the e x h i b i t t e x t , r e s e a r c h , development and academic content, also i n i t i a t e s t r a v e l i t i n e r a r y and provides academic c o n s u l t a t i o n to host i n s t i t u t i o n s . E x h i b i t Designer: Prepares e x h i b i t design and panel l a y o u t , s u p e r v i s e s t e c h i c a l aspects of production.(H.Watson) I l l u s t r a t o r : For stage three s e c t i o n of e x h i b i t ; d e p i c t s p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s i n watercolour g r a p h i c s , from i n f o r m a t i o n provided by the Curator. ( G . M i l l e r ) Photographer Designer: Designs and prepares photographs f o r e x h i b i t , museum note and pojstei Design A s s i s t a n t : A s s i s t s E x h i b i t Designer, arranges t e x t t y p e s e t t i n g and e x h i b i t photc prepares and mounts e x h i b i t m a t e r i a l s . C u r a t o r i a l A s s i s t a n t : Prepares f i g u r e s f o r d i s p l a y , proofreads t y p e s e t t i n g . ( I r v i n e / T i s d k l e ; A d m i n i s t r a t i v e / C l e r i c a l S t a f f : A d m i n i s t r a t e s budget, r e q u i s i t i o n purchase o r d e r s , types manuscipts f o r e x h i b i t and arranges t r a v e l l o g i s t i c s and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . (J.Kendon) Research A s s i s t a n t : A s s i s t s Curator i n developing academic content as w e l l as documentation of e x h i b i t m a t e r i a l . (A. Stevenson) 62 -2a- s h e l l midden l a y e r s at the Crescent Beach s i t e i s the focus of t h i s f o u r t h stage. Changing Tides draws upon the museum's a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and ethnographic c o l l e c t i o n s , a l l o w i n g the Canadian p u b l i c to see a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a r t i f a c t s and subs i s t e n c e remains normally not e x h i b i t e d , and view ethnographic a r t i f a c t s i n a new co n t e x t . Every stage of t h i s e x h i b i t examines a r t i f a c t s and/or f a u n a l rerains from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . For example, stage three c o n t a i n s a r t i f a c t s which have undergone r e s i d u e a n a l y s i s to determine p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s , and f a u n a l remains which i n d i c a t e the season of these a c t i v i t i e s . Such remains are r a r e l y seen by the p u b l i c although these are the e s s e n t i a l t o o l s of a r c h a e o l o g i ' a l r e s e a r c h . Stage four compares a r c h a e o l o g l c a l l y determined t o o l k i t s w i t h ethnographic ones to i l l u s t r a t e p r i n c i p l e s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . This j u x t a p o s i t i o n of ethnographic o b j e c t s w i t h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains w i l l p rovide the p u b l i c w i t h a new p e r s p e c t i v e on the connection between the u n f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research and more f a m i l i a r ethnographic a r t i f a c t s . Photographs, g r a h i c s , maps and commissioned i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i l l accompany the e x h i b i t to enhance the s t o r y l i n e . Changing Tides w i l l u t i l i z e d i s p l a y panels mounted on f r e e - s t a n d i n g and laquered cedar frames. This system has been used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n s e v e r a l of the museum's t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t s , and allows c o n s i d e r a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y f o r e x h i b i t s e t - up. The approximately 70 square meters r e q u i r e d f o r Changing Tides w i l l t h e r e f o r e f i t i n t o a v a r i e t y of temporary e x h i b i t spaces. 6 3 23/6779 LIST CF CCNTtTfTS TITLE, TYPE OR DESCRIPTION OF OBJECTS ARTIST OR PROVENANCE OWNED BY AVAILABILITY CONFIRMED VISUALS ATTACHED All objects are owned by museum for the Semiahmoo in house, and the photogr I. Artifacts Section Two: Section Three: Section Four: Section Five: II•Photos(tentative sele the U.B.C. Museum Tswwassen or Musqli aphic credits will if Antropology earn bands. The be confirmed be are held in trus illustrations are fore final select! -representative sa •diagnostic artifa -artifacts and f -archaeological anft nple of artifact :ts for cultural 1 remains to il ethnographic t|oo s from the Marpole phases lustrate laborato 1 kits and fauna Section One: Section Two: Section Three: Section Four: Section Five Section Six III. Graphics & Illustra Section One: Section Three: Section Four: Section Five: tion) -composite photo -Harlan I. Smith i -Borden's excavati excavation techni -Glenrose Cannery -Crescent Beach ex screening. Also -photos of midden ions -illustration of d in map form of se •graphic represent -graphical illustr studies of shellf •commissioned illu illustrations of irawn from the bady l midden excavat Lon m of Marpole ani jue and sampling ixcavation and 1 avation layers, hotos of ethnog sites as they ap of the exhibit Whalen Farm site by the produced n. site y analysis remains illustratir g aboratory analysis feature mapping a+d w^uer- raphic activities Dear today lta/estuary dev isonal round tion of culture tions of labora .sh from middens trations of et nvironmental an 1 lopment and illus phase sequence ory analysis eg; sites (growth rin; raphic activiti ethnographic inf h log ration easonality studies) s and other rmation I f a d d i t i o n a l space 1s re q u i r e d , please attach a d d i t i o n a l sheets f o l l o w i n g the same format. RUNNIG OR SQUARE FEET (METRES) REQUIRED FOR 70 sq. meters min. EXHIBITION: DURATION OF EXHIBITION pprj,. January 1985r0: December 19 86 64 23/5/79 ITIrERAfiY -4- D U R A T I O N C F E N T I R E T O U R ! FRCM M a y 1 9 8 5 TO D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 6 P r y i t f T T F T , T H I R L O C A T I O N 1) P r o v i n c i a l M u s e u m o f A l b e r t a A R R I V A L , D A T E D E P A R T U R E D A T E C O N F I R M E D U N C O N F I R M E D E d m o n t o n , A l b e r t a J u n e 1 / 8 5 J u l y 1 5 / 8 5 * 2 ) P r i n c e o f W a l e s N o r t h e r n H e r i t a g e C e n t r e , Y e l l o w k n i f e N . W . T . S e p t . 1 / 8 5 O c t . 1 5 / 8 5 * 3 ) M u s e u m o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y R e g i n a , S a s k a t c h e w a n D e c . 1 / 8 5 J a n . 1 5 / 8 6 * 4 ) M a n i t o b a M u s e u m o f M a n a n d N a t u r e W i n n i p e g , M a n i t o b a M a r c h l / 8 6 A p r i l l 5 / 8 6 * 5 ) R o y a l O n t a r i o M u s e u m T n r n t i f n . O n t a r i o J u n e 1 / 8 6 J u l y 1 5 / 8 6 * 6 1 M u s e e r i e O u e b e c Q u e b e c , P . Q . S e p t . 1 / 8 6 O c t . 1 5 / 8 6 * I f a d d i t i o n a l s p a c e 1 s r e q u i r e d , p l e a s e a t t a c h a d d i t i o n a l s h e e t s f o l l o w i n g t h e s a m e f o r m a t . M E T H O D O F S H I P M E N T : R A I L . A I R , R O A D X O W N V E H I C L E C O M M E R C I A L S H I P P E R X ( a t t a c h q u o t e s ) C o s t s b a s e d o n ~ ~ v e r b a l q u o t e s W H E N A N E X H I B I T I O N I S F U N D E D B Y E A P , T H E O R G A N I Z E R M U S T N O T C H A R G E S H I P P I N G C O S T S T O T H E B O R R O W I N G I N S T I T U T I O N S . I N S U R A N C E V A L U E ! $ 2 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 0 W H E N A N E X H I B I T I O N I S F U N D E D B Y E A P , T H E O R G A N I Z E R M U S T P A Y A L L I N S U R A N C E C O S T S , E X C E P T W H E N A B O R R O W I N G I N S T I T U T I O N H A S B L A N K E T C O V E R A G E A N D C A N I N S U R E T H E B O R R O W E D E X H I B I T I O N W I T H O U T A D D I T I O N A L C O S T T O T H E I R A N N U A L P R E M I U M . . . * W H E N A N E X H I B I T I O N I S F U N D E D B Y E A P , T H E O R G A N I Z E R M A Y N O T C H A R G E A B O R R O W I N G F E E T O T H E B O R R O W I N G I N S T I T U T I O N S . * L e t t e r s h a v e b e e n s e n t t o 1 3 i n s t i t u t i o n s , t e n o f w h i c h e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e B l o o d F r o m S t o n e e x h i b i t . T h e r e f o r e , w e a n t i c i p a t e a t : l e a s t s i x i n s t i t u t i o n s t o b e i n t e r e s t e d i n C h a n g i n g T i d e s . f/7720 -5- TFN (10) COPIES-OF ALL PRINTED CATALOGUES AND BROCHURES PRODUCED WITH EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE MUST BE FORWARDED, FREE OF CHARGE, TO THE EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAWE. THESE WILL BE DISTRIBUTED TO THE NATIONAL MISEUMS LIBRARY, THE NATIONAL LIBRARY, AND THE NATIONAL GALLERY LIBRARY. THE APPLICANT IS ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR DISTRIBUTING ONE COPY EACH, FREE OF CHARGE, TO ALL APPROPRIATE ASSOCIATE FTLSELMS. CA opasn LIST OF ASSOCIATE KUSFJUS WILL.BE FORWARDED TO .SUCCESSFUL APPLICANTS WEN FUNDS, ARE RELEASED.) O e s c H b c t h e e d u c a t i v e v a l u e a n d o b j e c t i v e s . An exhibit brochure, in the form of a museum note, w i l l provide information on the exhibit and a summary in English and French of the exh ib i t ' s contents. This brochur w i l l permit enhanced appreciation and interpretat ion by re i terat ing the.exhibits ma points. A brief bibliography of relevant a r t i c les and other publications w i l l be 1 eluded for those who wish further Information. The exhibit poster w i l l feature one of the exh ib i t ' s watercolour reconstructions of prehistor ic ac t i v i t i e s . CATALOGUES DIMENSIONS i'lUMBER OF PAGES NUMBER OF COLOUR REPRODUCTIONS luMBER OF BLACX AND WHITE REPR0DUCTICNS.C9n4.J4.ne drawing) 'B-BER OF CATALTX&ES,8ROCHURES,POSTERS ESTIMATED PUBLISHING COST * ESTIMATED HANDLING COST * NUMBER TO BE GIVEN AWAY NUMBER TO BE SOLD SELLING PRICE % ESTIMATED ADMINISTRATIVE COST. * ANTICIPATED REVENUE i • BROCHURES 4"x9" 16 POSTERS 24"xl7" 12 3000 300 2600 870 300 100 50 2900. 2 50 si .no s l . nn Under General Administrative Costs 250 125 PRICE QUOTES AND MOCK-UPS ATTACHED TOTAL ANTICIPATED REVENUE FROM ALL-PRINTED MATERIAL For brochure format see attached Museum Guide- 4LL NATIONAL TRAVELLING EXHIBITION MATERIAL SHOULD BE PPODUCED IN BOTH OFFICIAL LANGUAGES. 23/6779 -6- ETIHA'ICEfEff ACTIVITIES AND MATERIALS WHICH FACILITATE A SETTER UNDERSTANDING OF AN EXHIBITION ARE SUPPORTED WHEN THEY CAN BE JUSTIFIED IN TERMS OF NEED, EXHIBITION OBJECTIVES AND THE AUDIENCE TO BE SERVED. THEY MAY INCLUDE FILM, A-V PftQTJUCT I ONS, PERFORMANCES, DEMONSTRATIONS, TAPES, ETC. IN THE SPACE BELOW DESCRIBE THE ENHANCE- MENT PROPOSED AND ITEMIZE THE COSTS. A p u b l i c l e c t u r e s e r i e s w i l l be arranged to enhance the e x h i b i t . A r c h a e o l o g i s t s , e t h n o l o g i s t s , and o t h e r r e l e v a n t e x p e r t s w i l l be i n c l u d e d . N e g o t i a t i o n s w i l l be undertaken to arrange f o r Wayne S u t t l e s of P o r t l a n d S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y and Don M i t c h e l l of The U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a t o l e c t u r e i n t h i s s e r i e s , as w e l l as, s e v e r a l l o c a l s p eakers. The t r a v e l c o s t s w i l l be p r o v i d e d by U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's L a b o r a t o r y of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l f u n d i n g . 6 7 23/6/79 -3" BUDGET Please read the Instruction page before completing the budget. Itemize each category. CATEGORY TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT OTHER INCOME donations grants or revenue BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P. PERSONNEL SALARIES S FEES 5,400 3,600 1,200 1,500 3 1,200 : 900 3,000 5,400 3,600 1,200 1,200 3,000 - 1,500 900 Curator 6 weeks Exh i b i t Designer 6 weeks Photographer 2 weeks I l l u s t r a t o r on Contract C u r a t o r i a l A s s i s t a n t 3 week GSll.OO 105x11 & be n e f i t s Design A s s i s t a n t on contrac Administration 4 weeks SUB-TOTAL 16,800 14,400 2.400 PERSONNEL TRAVEL : 600 282 622 308 490 778 890 144 400 448 600 - 282 622 308 490 778 890 144 400 4 A A Travel expenses and honoraria for guest speaker Travel by Curator to each e x h i b i t l o c a t i o n Vancouver-Edmonton (return) Vancouver-Yellowknife (") Vancouver-Regina (return) • Vancouver-Winnipeg (return) Vancouver-Toronto (return) Vancouver-Quebec (return) Ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Hotel 8 days @$50/day Per diem 14 days @32/day SUB-TOTAL $4962 600 4362 RESEARCH COSTS SUB-TOTAL 68 - 9 - 23/S/79 f S BUDGET, CONTINUED TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OTHER INCOME BALANCE OF APPLICANT donst1ons grants REQUESTED FROM revenue E.A.P. PRODUCTION COSTS 24 panels @ $ 95.00 2,280 - - 2,280 12 modular frames and connectors @ $400.00 4,800 4,800 - - 8 p l e x l g l a s cases 880 - - 880 4 crates for frames 1,560 1,170 _ 390 @ $390.00 4 containers for 24 panel: <§ $420.00 1,680 1,260 - 420 4 containers for cases & a r t i f a c t s @ 320.00 1,280 640 - 640 Photography ( f i l m , process - ing and enlarging) 1,900 - - 1,900 Typesetting 1,200 - - 1,200 Silkscreen text and labels 2,600 2,600 Misc. & Construction 1,000 - - 1,000 SUB-TOTAL 19,180 7,870 - 11,310 ENHANCEMENT COSTS Brochure ( t r a n s l a t i o n i n c l . ) 2,900 300 250 2,350 Poster 870 125 745 Transl a t i o n : e x h i b i t text 1,000 - - 1,000 SUB-TOTAL 4,770 300 375 4,095 CIRCULATION COSTS Insurance premium during c i r c u l a t i o n 200 - - 200 Repair & Maintenance 500 - - 500 Transportation quote (CN- 300 cu f t • ) 4,500 - - 4,500 SUB-TOTAL 5,200 - - 5.200 69 -10- 23/6/79 SLftWRY Cf BUDGET TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT OTHER INCOME donations grants or revenue BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P. 1 6 , 8 0 0 1 4 , 4 0 0 - 2,4 0 0 4 , 9 6 2 6 0 0 _ 4 , 3 6 2 1 9 . 1 8 0 7 . 8 7 0 n u n 4 , 7 7 0 3 0 0 3 7 5 4 , 0 9 5 5 , 2 0 0 _ _ 5 , 2 0 0 TOTAL: % OF COSTS: S O , 9 1 7 7 3 , 1 7 0 77 T i 7 4 5 % 1% 5 4 % SLTWRr CF OTHER INCITE '" \ LIST ALL DONATIONS, GRANTS AND/OR ANTICIPATED REVENUE SnjRCF CONFIRM ANTICIPATrTJ r ANTICIPATED DATES WHEN FUNDS WILL E REQUIRED: S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 4 9 . 5 APPENDIX 5 T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 6395 N.W. M A R I N E DRIVE V A N C O U V E R , B.C. , C A N A D A V6T 1W5 MUSEUM OF A N T H R O P O L O G Y March 12 1984 J . P a u l i n e R a f f e r t y Program Manager B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t Parliament B u i l d i n g s V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8V 1X4 Dear P a u l i n e : I am r e q u e s t i n g funds from the B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t ' s A d d i t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s Program to he l p produce an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x h i b i t scheduled to open i n January 1985. T h i s e x h i b i t , e n t i t l e d Changing T i d e s t r a c e s the development of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. The e x h i b i t i s designed to promote p u b l i c understanding of the area's p r e h i s t o r i c h e r i t a g e thereby i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c a p p r e c i a t i o n of the need to p r e s e r v e and p r o t e c t l o c a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s . T h i s e x h i b i t w i l l c o i n c i d e w i t h a p u b l i c l e c t u r e s e r i e s f e a t u r i n g c u r r e n t t o p i c s i n B.C. archaeology. A d e t a i l e d c o s t estimate w i t h c u r r e n t r e s o u r c e s and funds requested i s presented as Appendix I I . A l i s t of per s o n n e l r e s o u r c e s i s o u t l i n e d i n Appendix I I I , and the e x h i b i t i s more f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix I a f t e r the f o l l o w i n g e x h i b i t overview. Ever s i n c e the 1880's when a road c o n s t r u c t i o n crew working i n what i s now Marpole, south Vancouver, unearthed numerous p r e h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have been i n v e s t i - g a t i n g midden s i t e s i n the. F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n . These i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have ranged from q u i c k l y o r g a n i z e d salvage o p e r a t i o n s to l a r g e s c a l e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . Changing T i d e s t r a c e s the h i s t o r y of t h i s l o c a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h through s e v e r a l developmental stages, beginning w i t h the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century r e s e a r c h of H a r l a n I. Smith and ending w i t h recent work at the Crescent Beach s i t e . T h i s e x h i b i t w i l l o u t l i n e how i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of l o c a l midden s i t e s have l e d to a g r e a t e r understanding not only of t h e i r composition and con t e n t s , but a l s o of how p r e h i s t o r i c people developed complex and unique systems f o r e x p l o i t i n g the p o t e n t i a l of the F r a s e r d e l t a and v i c i n i t y . The i n s i g h t s gained through t h i s r e s e a r c h are important because they promise to expand our understanding of North- west Coast c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l , and Coast S a l i s h c u l t u r e i n 72 APPENDIX I E x h i b i t O u t l i n e : Changing T i d e s i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x s e c t i o n s and p r o g r e s s e s from an i n t r o - d u c t o r y s e c t i o n , through f o u r stages of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l midden r e s e a r c h to a summary s e c t i o n which looks at the f u t u r e of t h i s r e s e a r c h . S e c t i o n one serves to Introduce the e x h i b i t ' s developmental theme and o r i e n t the v i s i t b r to the area's midden s i t e s i n g e n e r a l terms. S e c t i o n two d e a l s w i t h the " d e s c r i p t i v e stage" of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h which focused p r i m a r i l y upon d e s c r i b i n g the a r t i f a c t u a l content of midden s i t e s . S e c t i o n three shows how s y s t e m a t i c and c o n t r o l l e d e x c a v a t i o n s l e d to the development of a l o c a l c u l t u r a l chronology. T h i s chronology was d e f i n e d by a s e r i e s of d i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t s and t r a i t s which served to t y p i f y each phase. The f o u r t h s e c t i o n sees a broadening of scope and a change i n emphasis to s u b s i s t e n c e r e s e a r c h . Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of f a u n a l remains and a r t i f a c t data as w e l l as the c o r r e l a t i o n of t h i s data to environmental i n f o r m a t i o n was u t i l i z e d to p r o v i d e a more comp" te understand- i n g of the adaptive stages which correspond to the c u l t u r a l phases p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d . S e c t i o n f i v e f o cusses on the techniques of r e c o v e r y and a n a l y s i s of s h e l l midden l a y e r s which were u t i l i z e d at the Crescent Beach s i t e . These techniques allowed a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to determine p r e c i s e I n f o r m a t i o n on p r e - h i s t o r i c s i t e use. The f i n a l s e c t i o n of the e x h i b i t w i l l c o n s i d e r the f u t u r e of the a r e a s ' middens as c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and t h e r e f o r e the f u t u r e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . S e c t i o n One T h i s s e c t i o n serves to i n t r o d u c e the e x h i b i t ' s developmental theme, i n g e n e r a l terms, and to o r i e n t the v i s i t o r to the lower F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n ' s midden s i t e s . As the development of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s r e g i o n i s based upon the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of midden s i t e s spanning an almost 9,000 year p e r i o d , i t i s important to b r o a d l y d e f i n e t h i s type of s i t e at the o u t s e t of the e x h i b i t . Middens can be d e f i n e d as v a l u a b l e c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s s i n c e they are the complex r e c o r d s of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and n a t u r a l events which a r c h a e o l o g i s t s u t i l i z e to g a i n i n s i g h t s i n t o the past. Northwest Coast middens are o f t e n r e c o g n i z e d by an abundance of marine s h e l l s and u s u a l l y seen as an i n t r i c a t e l a y e r i n g of these s h e l l s w i t h s o i l s and other remains. L o c a l l y these middens are l o c a t e d along the s h o r e l i n e and at the base of upland areas 7 3 -2- a d j a c e n t to d e l t a f o r m a t i o n s . Although i n g e n e r a l , sea l e v e l s , c l i m a t e and r e s o u r c e s have remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e f o r the past 5,500 y e a r s , d e l t a e s t u a r y development has had an important impact on the l o c a t i o n of h a b i t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n s i t e s through time. T h e r e f o r e , the present l o c a t i o n of midden s i t e s i s dependent on the i n t e r p l a y of these f a c t o r s i n the p a s t . As a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have p e r c e i v e d and a n a l y z e d these s i t e s i n d i f f e r e n t ways through time, t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n should serve as a f o c a l p o i n t from which to view the development of t h i s r e s e a r c h . S e c t i o n Two L o c a l i n t e r e s t i n midden r e s e a r c h began w i t h C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , but i t was H a r l a n I . Smith's work w i t h the Jesup N o r t h P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n which r e - c e i v e d the a t t e n t i o n of a wider a r c h a e o l o g i c a l audience. Changing Tlde3 w i l l f ocus on H a r l a n I . Smith's 1898 i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Marpole s i t e , which was a l s o known as the Eburne or "Great F r a s e r Midden" s i t e . Smith and a s m a l l f o r c e of h i r e d l a b o u r r a p i d l y excavated a p o r t i o n of t h i s s i t e by s h o v e l . Although l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the provenience of a r t i f a c t s as they were removed from the s i t e , Smith f e l t c o n f i d e n t to s t a t e t h a t t h e r e appeared to be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between a r t i f a c t s i n the upper l a y e r s and those i n the lower l a y e r s of the s i t e . Smith concluded chat o b j e c t s from a l l l a y e r s were s i m i l a r to those made by the h i s t o r i c Coast S a l i s h , and t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a c o n t i n u i t y of c u l t u r e f o r the 2,000 years he e s t i m a t e d the s i t e to r e p r e s e n t . Smith saw t h i s c o n t i n u i t y of a r t i f a c t types as a c o n t i n - u a t i o n of economic a c t i v i t i e s e x t e n d i n g i n t o the p a s t . For example, he equated the presence of r e t r i e v i n g harpoons w i t h sea mammal h u n t i n g , and the presence of woodworking t o o l s as evidence t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y has an a n t i q u i t y much g r e a t e r than t h a t to which the wooden o b j e c t s themselves can a t t e s t . However, the presence of chipped stone and d e c o r a t i v e a r t s he saw as i n t e r i o r t r a i t s ; t h e r e f o r e , he p o s t u l a t e d an e a r l y m i g r a t i o n of i n t e r i o r peoples to the c o a s t . The importance of Smith's c o n c l u s i o n s , c o n c e r n i n g both c o n t i n u i t y and d i s c o n t i n u i t y i s t h a t they e s t a b l i s h e d two themes which run through much of the a r e a s ' a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . These themes have been v a r i o u s l y ex- p ressed but b a s i c a l l y depend on v i e w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l remains e i t h e r i n terms of c u l t u r a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y or as d i f f e r e n t i a l s i t e use or a d a p t a t i o n a l responses. S e c t i o n Three T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l focus on the development of a r e g i o n a l sequence of 74 - 3 - c u l t u r a l phases, p r i m a r i l y as d e r i v e d by Borden. His r e c o g n i t i o n that a l a c k of provenience c o n t r o l s i n pre v i o u s work had pr o v i d e d o n l y g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s and s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s l e d him to conduct syste m a t i c and c o n t r o l l e d e x c a v a t i o n s at a s e r i e s of s i t e s . These e x c a v a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d components from which he developed a l o c a l chronology. T h i s chronology i s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r the l o c a l sequence g e n e r a l l y used today. Each component or phase was de- f i n e d by a set of d i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t s or t r a i t s . During Borden's t h i r t y year i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s l o c a l c u l t u r a l sequence he made s e v e r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Whereas, h i s e a r l i e r work i d e n t i f i e d the d i f f e r e n c e s between components as r e p r e s e n t i n g d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n c u l t u r e c r e a t e d by the i n f l u x of new groups, h i s l a t e r sequence emphasized c o n t i n u i t y but s t i l l allowed f o r the i n f l u x of new groups, at l e a s t to e x p l a i n the Whalen I I component. T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l o u t l i n e the F r a s e r d e l t a chronology but w i l l emphasize i n par- t i c u l a r , those s i t e s which are d i r e c t l y comparable to the other s e c t i o n s . For example, Borden's Marpole e x c a v a t i o n s w i l l be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h Smith's i n - v e s t i g a t i o n , and the Whalen Farm s i t e w i l l be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h Crescent Beach. To make the t r a n s i t i o n between t h i s . s e c t i o n on the development of c u l t u r a l chronology and subsequent ones, q u e s t i o n s w i l l be r a i s e d about p o s s i b l e i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n s f o r the Whalen II m a t e r i a l . S e c t i o n Four As d i f f e r e n c e s between s i t e i n v e n t o r i e s became viewed i n terms of c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n s and se a s o n a l s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n r a t h e r than as n e c e s s a r i l y d i f f e r - ences i n c u l t u r a l groups, new methods were i n t r o d u c e d to help answer new q u e s t i o n s . T h i s s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h the advent of s u b s i s t e n c e r e s e a r c h which broadened the scope of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h emphasizes f a u n a l remains and s e a s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s . The q u a n t i f i c a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n of a r t i f a c t u a l , s u b s i s t e n c e , and environmental data i s undertaken f o r the express purpose of o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n which sheds l i g h t on the development of c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n s and i n n o v a t i o n s i n the are a . The main focus f o r t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be the Glenrose Cannery s i t e , w i t h the major emphasis on techniques of a n a l y s i s . S e c t i o n F i v e T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l i l l u s t r a t e recent refinements i n midden e x c a v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s which a l l o w more p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n on economic s t r a t e g i e s to be recovered. The re c o v e r y and a n a l y s i s of s h e l l midden l a y e r s at the Crescent Beach s i t e i s the focus of t h i s s e c t i o n . T h i s s i t e r e p r e s e n t s an important 7 5 - 4 - aspect of a complex s e a s o n a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d adaptive s t r a t e g y , s p e c i f i c a l l y the u t i l i z a t i o n of the e a r l y s p r i n g h e r r i n g run and the p r o c e s s i n g f o r s t o r a g e or trade of l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of s h e l l f i s h . The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s such as clam or h e r r i n g pro- curement and p r o c e s s i n g are r e p r e s e n t e d as w e l l as the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence from which these a c t i v i t i e s are i n f e r r e d . S p e c i f i c data on the l o c a l b i o t i c communities and ethnographic uses of them are necessary to i l l u s t r a t e how models of s i t e use are developed and t e s t e d . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains of a c t i v i t i e s are r a r e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by complete " t o o l k i t s " or even by d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s of a r t i f a c t s and remains. It i s by l o o k i n g at the s t r u c t u r e of remains and by i ;;,;orporating a wide v a r i e t y of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s are i n f e r r e d . C o n t r a s t i n g an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y d e f i n e d " t o o l k i t " w i t h an ethnographic one, i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e d i f - f e r e n c e . S e c t i o n S i x The f i n a l s e c t i o n of the e x h i b i t s p e c u l a t e s on the f u t u r e of a r c h a e o l - o g i c a l r e s e a r c h at midden s i t e s i n the lower F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n . Demonstrating that midden s i t e s are important, not o n l y f o r t h e i r a r t i f a c t c ontent, but as the s t r u c t u r e d remains of p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s , shows that they can be regarded as i n t r i n s i c a l l y v a l u a b l e c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , worthy of p r o t e c t i o n . The de- velopment of l o c a l archaeology shows th a t although a b a s i c o u t l i n e or c u l t u r a l chronology has been developed, what that chronology means i n terms of the development of Coast S a l i s h c u l t u r e i s o n l y beginning to be understood. 7 6 APPENDIX II Exhibit Cost3 and Funding Requirements Exhibit Costs; Total costs , Museum,of AntTjropology contribution Funds required Personnel (excluding permanent s t a f f ) I l l u s t r a t o r on contract Design assistant on contrac Research assistant - 3 wks. 0510 per hr. 105x10 & benefits $1,500 900 1,100 - 1,500 900 1,100 SUB-TOTAL 3,500 - 3,500 Production Costs 24 panels 8 $95 12 frames & connectors <a $400 8 plexiglas cases @ $110 Typesetting Photography Silkscreen text & labels Construction costs 2.280 4,800 880 800 1,900 2,200 1,000 4,800 2.280 880 800 1,900 2,200 1,000 SUB-TOTAL 13,860 4,800 9,060 Enhancement Costs Travel expenses and honoraria for guest speakers Poster 600 870 125 600 745 SUB-TOTAL 1,470 125 1,345 77 APPENDIX II con't Summary of Costs: Total costs contribution Funds required Personnel 33,500 _ 3,500 Production 13,860 4,800 9,060 Enhancement 1,470 125 1,345 TOTAL 18,830 4,925 13,905 Summary of Funding Requirements Total exhibit costs $18,830 Less Museum of Anthropology contribution 4,925 The Charles and Alic e Borden Museum of Anthropology Fund (committed) 6, 700 Required funds 7,205* *Funds requested from B.C. Heritage Trust under Additional A c t i v i t i e s Program t o t a l $7,205 APPENDIX I I I E x h i b i t Personnel D i r e c t o r : (Dr. M. H a l p i n / D r . M. M. Ames) Responsible f o r e d i t i n g e x h i b i t copy. C u r a t o r : (Dr. R. G. Matson) Responsible f o r the e x h i b i t ' s academic content, s u p e r v i s i n g r e s e a r c h and development. Research A s s i s t a n t : (A. Stevenson) Responsible f o r the r e s e a r c h and development of e x h i b i t , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the C u r a t o r ; as p a r t i a l requirement f o r Master's t h e s i s i n Archaeology/Museology. E x h i b i t Designer: (H. Watson) Prepares e x h i b i t d e s i g n and panel l a y o u t , super- v i s e s t e c h n i c a l aspects of p r o d u c t i o n . I l l u s t r a t o r : (G. M i l l e r ) D e p i c t s p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s i n w a t e r c o l o u r g r a p h i c s , from i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the Curator/Research A s s i s t a n t f o r s e c t i o n f i v e of the e x h i b i t . Photographer Designer: (B. McLennan) Designs and prepares photographs f o r the e x h i b i t and p o s t e r . Design A s s i s t a n t : A s s i s t s E x h i b i t Designer, arranges tex t t y p e s e t t i n g and ex- h i b i t m a t e r i a l s . C u r a t o r i a l A s s i s t a n t s : (M. Irvine/M. T l s d a l e ) Prepares f i g u r e s f o r d i s p l a y , p r o o f r e a d s t y p e s e t t i n g . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e / C l e r i c a l S t a f f : ( J . Kendon et a l ) A d m i n i s t r a t e s budget, r e - q u i s i t i o n purchase o r d e r s , types manuscripts f o r e x h i b i t and handles p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . , 9 . 6 APPENDIX 6 E x h i b i t ' O u t l i n e : Changing T i d e s i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x s e c t i o n s and p r o g r e s - ses from an i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n , through three stages of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l midden r e s e a r c h to a summary s e c t i o n which looks at the f u t u r e of t h i s r e s e a r c h . S e c t i o n one serves to i n t r o d u c e the e x h i b i t ' s developmental theme and o r i e n t the v i s i t o r to the area's midden s i t e s i n g e n e r a l terms. S e c t i o n two deals with the " d e s c r i p t i v e stage" or a r c h a e o l - o g i c a l r e s e a r c h which focused p r i m a r i l y upon d e s c r i b i n g the a r t i f a c t u a l content of midden s i t e s . S e c t i o n three shows how systematic and c o n t r o l l e d excavations l e d to the de- velopment of a l o c a l c u l t u r a l chronology. T h i s chronology was d e f i n e d by a s e r i e s of d i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t s and t r a i t s which served to t y p i f y each phase. The f o u r t h s e c t i o n sees a broadening of scope and a change i n emphasis to s u b s i s - tence r e s e a r c h . Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of f a u n a l remains and a r t i f a c t data, as w e l l as the c o r r e l a t i o n of t h i s data to environmental i n f o r m a t i o n was u t i l i z e d to provide a more complete understanding of the adaptive s t r a t e g i e s which correspond to the c u l t u r a l phases p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d . S e c t i o n f i v e f o c usses on the techniques of r e c o v e r y and a n a l y s i s of s h e l l midden l a y e r s which were u t i l i z e d at the Crescent Beach s i t e . These techniques allowed a r c h a e o l - o g i s t s to determine p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n on p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e use. The f i n a l s e c t i o n of the e x h i b i t w i l l c o n s i d e r the 80 f u t u r e of the areas' middens as c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and t h e r e - f o r e the f u t u r e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . S e c t i o n One T h i s s e c t i o n serves to i n t r o d u c e the e x h i b i t ' s develop- mental theme, i n g e n e r a l terms, and to o r i e n t the v i s i t o r to the lower F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n ' s midden s i t e s . As the d e v e l - opment of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s r e g i o n i s based upon the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of midden s i t e s spanning an almost 9 , 0 0 0 year p e r i o d , i t i s important to broadly d e f i n e t h i s type of s i t e at the outset of the e x h i b i t . Middens can be d e f i n e d as v a l u a b l e c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s s i n c e they are the complex r e c o r d s of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and n a t u r a l events which a r c h a e o l o g i s t s u t i l i z e to gain i n s i g h t s i n t o the past. Northwest Coast middens are o f t e n r e c o g n i z e d by an abun- dance of marine s h e l l s and u s u a l l y seen as an i n t r i c a t e l a y e r i n g of these s h e l l s with s o i l s and other ramains. L o c a l l y these middens are l o c a t e d along the s h o r e l i n e and at the base of upland areas adjacent to d e l t a formations. Although i n g e n e r a l , sea l e v e l s , c l i m a t e and r e s o u r c e s have remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e f o r the past 5 , 5 0 0 y e a r s , d e l t a and estuary development has had an important impact on the l o c a t i o n of h a b i t a t i o n and resource u t i l i z a t i o n s i t e s through time. T h e r e f o r e , the present l o c a t i o n of midden s i t e s i s dependent on the i n t e r p l a y of these f a c t o r s i n the past. As a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have p e r c e i v e d and analyzed these s i t e s i n d i f f e r e n t ways through time, t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n 81 should serve as a f o c a l p o i n t from which to view the d e v e l - opment of t h i s r e s e a r c h . S e c t i o n Two L o c a l i n t e r e s t i n midden r e s e a r c h began with Charles H i l l - T o u t , but i t was Harlan I. Smith's work with the Jesup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n which r e c e i v e d the a t t e n t i o n of a wider a r c h a e o l o g i c a l audience. Changing Tides w i l l focus on Harlan I. Smith's 1898 i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Marpole s i t e , which was a l s o known as the Eburne or "Great F r a s e r Midden" s i t e . Smith and a small f o r c e of h i r e d labour r a p i d l y ex- cavated a p o r t i o n of t h i s s i t e by s h o v e l . Although l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the provenience of a r t i f a c t s as they were removed from the s i t e , Smith f e l t c o n f i d e n t to s t a t e t hat there appeared to be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between a r t i - f a c t s i n the upper l a y e r s and those i n the lower l a y e r s of the s i t e . Smith concluded that o b j e c t s . f r o m a l l l a y e r s were s i m i l a r to those made by the h i s t o r i c Coast S a l i s h , and t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e d that there was a c o n t i n u i t y of c u l t u r e f o r the 2,000 years he estimated the s i t e to r e p r e s e n t . Smith saw t h i s c o n t i n u i t y of a r t i f a c t types as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of economic a c t i v i t i e s extending i n t o the past. For example, he equated the presence of r e t r i e v i n g harpoons with sea mammal hunting, and the presence of woodworking t o o l s as evidence that t h i s a c t i v i t y has an a n t i q u i t y much g r e a t e r than that to which the wooden o b j e c t s themselves can a t t e s t . However, the presence of chipped stone and d e c o r a t i v e a r t s he saw as i n t e r i o r t r a i t s ; t h e r e f o r e , he p o s t u l a t e d an e a r l y m i g r a t i o n of i n t e r i o r peoples to the coast. The importance of Smith's c o n c l u s i o n s , concerning both c o n t i n u i t y and d i s - continuity i s that they e s t a b l i s h e d two themes which run through much of the areas' a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . These themes have been v a r i o u s l y expressed but b a s i c a l l y depend on viewing d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l remains e i t h e r i n terms of c u l t u r a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y or as d i f f e r e n t i a l s i t e use or ad- a p t a t i o n a l responses. S e c t i o n Three T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l focus on the development of a r e g i o n a l sequence of c u l t u r a l phases, p r i m a r i l y as d e r i v e d by Charles E. Borden. His r e c o g n i t i o n that a l a c k of provenience con- t r o l s i n previous work had provided only g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s and s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , l e d him to conduct systematic and c o n t r o l l e d excavations at a s e r i e s of s i t e s . These ex- cav a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d components from which he developed a l o c a l chronology. T h i s chronology i s a found a t i o n f o r the l o c a l sequence g e n e r a l l y used today. Each component or phase was d e f i n e d by a set of d i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t s or t r a i t s . Dur- ing Borden's t h i r t y year i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s l o c a l c u l t u r a l sequence he made s e v e r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Whereas, h i s e a r l i e r work i d e n t i f i e s the d i f f e r e n c e s between components as r e p r e s e n t i n g d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n c u l t u r e c r e a t e d by the i n f l u x of new groups, h i s l a t e r sequence emphasized c o n t i n u i t y but s t i l l allowed f o r the i n f u x of new groups, 83 at l e a s t to e x p l a i n the Whalen 11 component. T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l o u t l i n e the F r a s e r d e l t a chronology but w i l l emphasize i n p a r t i c u l a r , those s i t e s which are d i r e c t l y comparable to the other s e c t i o n s . For example, Borden's Marpole excavat- ions w i l l be c o n t r a s t e d with Smith's i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and the Whalen Farm s i t e w i l l be c o n t r a s t e d with Crescent Beach. To make the t r a n s i t i o n between t h i s s e c t i o n on the develop- ment of c u l t u r a l chronology and subsequent ones, que s t i o n s w i l l be r a i s e d about p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r the Whalen 11 m a t e r i a l . S e c t i o n Four As d i f f e r e n c e s between s i t e i n v e n t o r i e s became viewed i n terms of c u l t u r a l adaptations and seasonal s i t e u t i l i z - a t i o n r a t h e r than as n e c e s s a r i l y d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l groups, new methods were i n t r o d u c e d to help answer new q u e s t i o n s . T h i s s e c t i o n d e a l s with the advent of sub- s i s t e n c e r e s e a r c h which broadened the scope of a r c h a e o l - o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h emphasizes f a u n a l remains and s e a s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s . The q u a n t i f i c a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n of a r t i f a c t u a l , s u b s i s t e n c e , and environmental data i s undertaken f o r the express purpose of o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n which sheds l i g h t on the development of c u l t - u r a l a d a p t a t i o n s and i n n o v a t i o n s i n the area. The main focus f o r t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be the Glenrose Cannery s i t e , with the major emphasis on techniques of a n a l y s i s . 8 4 S e c t i o n F i v e T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l i l l u s t r a t e recent refinements i n midden excavation and a n a l y s i s which allow more p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n on economic s t r a t e g i e s to be recovered. The recovery and a n a l y s i s of s h e l l midden l a y e r s at Crescent Beach s i t e i s the focus of t h i s s e c t i o n . T h i s s i t e r e p r e s e n t s an important aspect of a complex s e a s o n a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d adaptive s t r a t - egy? s p e c i f i c a l l y the u t i l i z a t i o n of the e a r l y s p r i n g h e r r i n g run and the p r o c e s s i n g f o r storage or trade of l a r g e quant- i t i e s of s h e l l f i s h . The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s such as clam or h e r r i n g procurement and p r o c e s s i n g are re p r e s e n t e d , as w e l l as the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence from which these a c t i v i t i e s are i n f e r r e d . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains of ac- t i v i t i e s are r a r e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by complete " t o o l k i t s " or even by d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s of a r t i f a c t s and remains. I t i s by l o o k i n g at the s t r u c t u r e of remains and by i n c o r p o r a t i n g a wide v a r i e t y of i n f o r m a t i o n that the a c t i v i t i e s are i n f e r r e d . C o n t r a s t i n g an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y d e f i n e d " t o o l k i t " with an ethnographic one, i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p r i n c i p l e d i f f e r e n c e . S e c t i o n Six The f i n a l s e c t i o n of the e x h i b i t s p e c u l a t e s on the f u t u r e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h at midden s i t e s i n the lower F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n . Demonstrating that midden s i t e s are important, not only f o r t h e i r a r t i f a c t content, but as the s t r u c t u r e d remains of p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s , shows that they can be regarded as i n t r i n s i c a l l y v a l u a b l e c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , worthy of p r o t e c t i o n . The development of l o c a l archaeology shows that although a b a s i c o u t l i n e or c u l t u r a l chronology has been developed, what that chronology means i n terms of the development of Coast S a l i s h c u l t u r e i s only beginning to be understood. OHAKJGIKJGT T/bdS S e c t i o n I General I n t r o d u c t i o n t o middens and Lower Fraser d e l t a archaeology Text and d e s c r i p t i o n A b r e l f overview of the e x h i b i t i n t r o d u c i n g the four stages of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research which f o l l o w . Middens w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d as complex records of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and n a t u r a l events. They are r e c o g n i z e d by t h e i r abundance of s h e l l and by t h e i r i n t r i c a t e l a y e r i n g . Some f a c t o r s which w i l l be discussed and/or i l l u s t r a t e d are p r e s e r v a t i o n ( r o l e of s h e l l i n n e u t r a l i s i n g a c i d f o r e s t s o i l s and waterlogging c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s such as seasonal s i t e use^and environmental f a c t o r s p a r t i c u l a r i t y the development of the Fraser d e l t a / e s t u a r y . To o r i e n t the v i s i t o r to the e x h i b i t s l o c a t i o n a l focus as w e l l as i l l u s t r a t e environmental f a c t o r s which have e f f e c t e d the l o c a t i o n of s i t e s and the p r e h i s t o r i c u t i l i z - a t t o n of the F r a s e r d e l t a . A r t i f a c t s and f a u n a l remains w i l l be used t o show the types of m a t e r i a l s a r c h a e o l o g i s t s f i n d : For example: stone wood others- a r t i f a c t s cooking stones a r t i f a c t s f a u n a l remains a r t i f a c t s f a u n a l remains n e t t i n g e t c . f l o r a l remains Photographs and I l l u s t r a t i o n s taken from the four stages of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , showing changes i n excavation methods through time. . Harlan I Smith's e x c a v a t i o n of Marpole (1896) . Borden's excavation at Marpole or Whalen Farm. . Glenrose or Lab a n a l y s i s . Open area excavation at Crescent Beach Graphic p r e s e n t a t i o n of an i d e a l i z e d seasonal round f o r the Coast S a l i s h (River-Fishermen emphasis) -Four Seasons i l l u s t r a t i o n s or m o d i f i c a t i o n s are a p o s s i b i l i t y or Jomon type l i n e drawing The general area and s p e c i f i c s i t e l o c a t i o n s w i l l be shown In r e l a t i o n the development of the Fraser d e l t a y estuary. - a map s e r i e s ( l i n e drawings) of three main stages of t h i s developrnt Section I I D e s c r i p t i v e stage Text and d e s c r i p t i o n A r t i f a c t s Photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s Notes Harlan I . Smith's 1898 excavation of the Marpole ( a l s o Eburne or Great Fraser Hidden) s i t e i s used to show i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of l o c a l midden s i t e s F actors t o be covered: Photo- Harlan I . Smith's e x c a v a t i o n of Marpole showing man i n midden w i t h s h o v e l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c l a y e r s and f o r e s t growth on midden are e v i d e n t . Smith 1903 P l a t e VII F i g . 1 A r t i f a c t d e s c r i p t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n s was the primary outcome of Smith's work i n B r i t i s h Columbia. His simultaneous study of h i s t o r i c Coast S a l i s h s o c i e t y enabled him to p o s t u l a t e economic c o n t i n u i t y through time, but he saw d i f f e r e n c e s as evidence of an e a r l y m i g r a t i o n of people from the I n t e r i o r . This a s s e r t i o n was mere s p e c u l a t i o n as he had not c o n t r o l l e d f o r s t r a t i g r a p h y . In other words he d i d not keep records to show what a r t i f a c t s had come from which l a y e r s . Smith's a n a l y s i s : Estimated s i t e age- f o r e s t growth, d e l t a develop- ment, tnidden accumulation and degree of decay. - w i l l be grouped i n economic c a t e g o r i e s , although there i s some overlap of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . Tiie a r t i f a c t s Smith l i s t s as "most common"will be grouped i n h i s economic c a t e g o r i e s Tor example: Men's Tools Woodworking-"Eburne type maul a n t l e r wedge bone c i s e l c e l t s (adze blade) Hunting & F i s h i n g chipped p o i n t s ground s l a t e points bone p o i n t s s i n k e r stones Women's Tools , awls ne--dles f i s h k n i f e Decorative & a r t o b j e c t s Engraved stone, bone & s h e l l bead3 pendants harpoon p o i n t s e t c . See Smith 1913 CO — J 8 8 s 3 X w to c 7 MI a 3 >-a * J c « *J OJ «~ « » H ^ ID D « -H C ti V to -c a u ^ C I- C 1- •H ci V u V n t-< i* •H n k- n 3 3 -H 01 *J ID U U 4) >f *H CO CS O 4J H-i X> (I U h «H *H ^ E H - a « YJ a O •c £ * J u O. Id 1-1 W4 4J a 01 CO l- H T) T3 ̂  IP •-H c OJ o a C l- O O W Section IV Subsistence Research Text and d e s c r i p t i o n A r t i f a c t s The Glenrose Cannery and Crescent Beach s i t e s are the focus of t h i s s e c t i o n . Recently archaeologists have developed a greater concern with i n v e s t i g a t i n g past adaptations and changes i n economic s t r a t e g i e s through time. Glenrose, a deep, multi-component s i t e appeared to be the l o g i c a l c h o i c e to begin research i n t o the development of the Northwest Coast's unique subsistence p a t t e r n . This s e c t i o n w i l l concentrate on techniques of a n a l y s i s f o r excavating and examining a r t i f a c t s and n o n - a r t i f a c t remains which have been d e v e l - oped to a i d i n s u b s i s t e n c e research. Techniques to be presented (under r e v i s i o n ) Excavation: Sampling-column sampling Water screening Laboratory: Residue a n a l y s i s -those used to determine a c t i v i t i e s S h e l l s e a s o n a l i t y -prepared s h e l l s e c t i o n s Faunal s t u d i e s , r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of d i e t . - faunal remains Computers-correlation of data Photographs and I l l u s t r a t i o n s -photo showing column sample removal photo of waters*reening •photo of l a b workers - i l l u s t r a t i o n of residue a n a l y s i s i l l u s t r a t i o n of s h e l l s e c t i o n s graphic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of d i e t change through time at Glenrose (Glenrose) (Crescent Beach) (Crescent Beach) or Glenrose OO Section V A c t i v i t i e s anc Hidden Layers Text and d e s c r i p t i o n Photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s Crescent B e a c h - r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of subsistence and other a c t i v i t i e s . To show how the e x c a v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of midden l a y e r s can p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c information on p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e use. S i t e development i n terms of c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l processes i s a l s o a p o s s i b i l i t y . Ethnographic t o o l k i t s w i l l be compared to the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains of a c t i v i t i e s . For example: clam basket and d i g g i n g s t i c k w i l l be compared to the d e b r i s of clam processing woodworking t o o l s w i l l be compared to the broken and incomplete t o o l k i t s found at Crescen Beach. Excavation showing l a y e r removal (photo) Midden fea t u r e mapping (photo) Ethnographic a c t i v i t i e s - h i s t o r i c photographs -commissioned i l l u s t r a t i o n s For example - h e r r i n g f i s h i n g and p r o c e s sing -clam d i g g i n g and p r o c e s s i n g (See Four Seasons e x h i b i t ) S i t e development w i l l be g r a p h i c a l l y presented. Area map i n d i c a t i n g seasonal area of optimum use-eelgrass beds w i t h r e l e v a n t species present and rocky- foreshore w i t h resources. Text and d e s c r i p t i o n A r t i f a c t s Photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s Notes Looks at the f u t u r e of middens as c u l t u r a l resources i n need of p r o t e c t i o n . P o s s i b l y s p e c u l a t i o n on a r c h a e o l o g i c a l trends f o r the f u t u r e ??? Several photographs of middens as they appear today. P o s s i b i l i t i e s : Marpole (Beer p a r l o r parking l o t ) St. Mungo ( A c t i v e b r i d g e c o n s t r u c t i Beach Grove ( V i s i b l e f e a t u r e s ) Crescent Beach ( P a r k - s i t e and r e s i d e n c e s ) m) ^ 5 .8 APPENDIX 8 Changing Tides E x h i b i t text - F i r s t d r a f t Section I a: Introduction Changing Tides o u t l i n e s the h i s t o r y of archaeology i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Fraser d e l t a region. This e x h i b i t traces nearly one hundred years of s h e l l midden research through three basic eras. Each era represents a major change i n focus and techniques, each period b u i l d i n g on the l a s t . 93 -2- Section I b: What i s a s h e l l midden? The s i t e i s the basic resource for the archaeologist. The most important type of s i t e i n the Fraser d e l t a region i s the s h e l l midden which provides the archaeologist with a complex record of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and natural events. This record dates back nearly nine thousand years. Middens are commonly viewed as ancient garbage dumps, but they can be much more. The complex layers of s o i l s , s h e l l s and other remains found i n these s i t e s r e s u l t both from the various a c t i v i t i e s which have occurred there and from periods of abandonment. These layers contain complex clues which the archaeologist must i n t e r p r e t i n order to determine a s i t e ' s h i s t o r y . D i f f e r e n t l a y e r patterns r e s u l t when various a c t i v i t i e s occur at the same place over time. For example, i n a c o a s t a l s h e l l midden the refuse of an old s h e l l f i s h steaming mound may l a t e r be covered by the debris from a nearby house. In t h i s way, the layers accumulate, reaching up to f i v e meters i n depth. Other s i t e s may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal use. For instance, a f a l l salmon f i s h i n g s i t e leaves a d i f f e r e n t pattern of debris than a spring h e r r i n g f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n . I n v e s t i g a t i n g these middens i s f u r t h e r complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y unless s p e c i a l conditions a i d t h e i r preservation. In c o a s t a l middens the presence of s h e l l s helps to preserve bone 94 -3- Section I b con't. and a n t l e r , but wood and f i b e r s survive only i f they are constantly waterlogged. Therefore, the wooden a r t i f a c t s u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with Northwest Coast c u l t u r e s are r a r e l y found. Consequently, more mundane remains such as shells, bones and cooking stones play a v i t a l r o l e i n our understanding of the patterns and development of p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s . 95 - i t - Section I c: Beyond the midden To understand the r o l e of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e within a region, archaeologists must consider environmental and geographic changes. For the Fraser d e l t a region i t i s important to look at the dramatic evolution of the Fraser d e l t a estuary. The developing estuary has played a v i t a l r o l e i n the l o c a t i o n , s t a b i l i t y and quantity of resources used by the region's inhabitants f o r nearly nine thousand years. 96 -5- Section I I : The D e s c r i p t i v e Period Harlan I Smith's 1898 i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Marpole s i t e i s representative of early midden research. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s period, he was p r i m a r i l y concerned with f i n d i n g and d e s c r i b i n g a r t i f a c t s . Smith estimated the i n i t i a l occupation of the Marpole s i t e as having occurred 2,000 years ago. He based t h i s estimate on such f a c t o r s as the age of the trees growing over the midden, depth af midden accumulation, and degree of midden m a t e r i a l decay. Recent, more r e f i n e d techniques support h i s estimate. Using a small force of h i r e d labour, Smith r a p i d l y excavated a portion of t h i s s i t e by shovel. L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was paid to the l a y e r s i n which a r t i f a c t s were found. However, he concluded that a r t i f a c t s of a l l l a y e r s provided evidence of a stable economic str u c t u r e spanning at l e a s t two m i l l e n i a . He argued f o r t h i s economic c o n t i n u i t y based on the recovery of woodworking, f i s h i n g , basketry and mat making t o o l s , many of which were s i m i l a r to those he saw s t i l l i n use by l o c a l Coast S a l i s h people. On the other hand, he viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence f o r an early migration of I n t e r i o r people to the coast. These two themes of economic c o n t i n u i t y and c u l t u r a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y reappear i n much of the l a t e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research undertaken i n t h i s area. 97 - 6 - Section I I I a: The Development of a C u l t u r a l Sequence Since the l a t e 19^0's work at Marpole and other Fraser d e l t a s i t e s by Charles E. Borden has been instrumental i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the basic c u l t u r a l sequence s t i l l used today. To e s t a b l i s h t h i s sequence, Borden used systematic c o n t r o l l e d excavations, coupled with c a r e f u l documentation of a r t i f a c t s and features found within these s i t e s . Borden r e a l i z e d that to move beyond Smith's speculative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , he must keep accurate records of where a r t i f a c t s were found i n a s i t e . A r t i f a c t s excavated from a s e r i e s of l e v e l s are grouped i n t o components, with s i g n i f i c a n t s t r a t i g r a p h i c breaks and important changes i n a r t i f a c t i n v e n t o r i e s s i g n a l l i n g new components. Radio-carbon dating helped to order the components and therefore the phases which these components defined. Borden concentrated h i s e f f o r t s on e s t a b l i s h i n g a c u l t u r a l chronology, d e f i n i n g each phase of t h i s sequence by i s o l a t i n g a r t i f a c t s he f e l t were d i s t i n c t i v e of a p a r t i c u l a r time period. These phases were u s u a l l y named f o r the f i r s t s i t e i n which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c components were found, but anyone s i t e could contain several phases. For example, marpole phase components are found at many s i t e s i n the region, i n c l u d i n g the Marpole s i t e where i t was f i r s t defined and the Glenrose Cannery s i t e f u r t h e r u p r i v e r . 98 -7- Section I l i a con't. On the other hand, the Whalen II phase i s confined to the Whalen Farm s i t e . Like Smith, Borden r e l a t e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of c e r t a i n t r a i t s , or t r a i t complexes, with the a r r i v a l of p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l groups. As a r e s u l t , he defined a s e r i e s of c u l t u r a l displacements corresponding to h i s various phases. However,as a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i n adjacent regions progressed, he allowed f o r greater c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y . By the e a r l y 1970's, he s t i l l saw the Whalen II phase representing an i n f l u x of new people i n t o the Fraser d e l t a region. 99 -8- Section I l l b : The Whalen II Phase Borden's r e l i a n c e on a s p e c i f i c set of a r t i f a c t s to determine a c u l t u r a l phase made c u l t u r a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y the obvious conclusion. However, a growing concern with understanding the r o l e of seasonal s i t e use i n the Fraser d e l t a region has l e d to new i n s i g h t s i n t o the Whalen II problem. For example, the absence of ground s l a t e , p a r t i c u l a r i l y f i s h knives, now suggests the absence of salmon f i s h i n g , rather than an i n f l u x of new people who did not use these knives. 100 - 9 - Section IV: Subsistence Research Archaeologists i n v e s t i g a t i n g midden s i t e s are now applying new techniques to answer new questions. There i s a greater concern with understanding the process of c u l t u r a l adaptation, rather than the events of c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y . The development of the Northwest Coast's unique subsistence pattern i s considered c r i t i c a l to understanding the c u l t u r a l pattern as a whole. Therefore, archaeologists are focussing t h e i r research on subsistence s t r a t e g i e s . Although the Fraser d e l t a c u l t u r a l sequence i s now i n place, an understanding of the subsistence strategy each phase represents i s j u s t beginning to take shape. The Glenrose Cannery s i t e proved a good s t a r t i n g point f o r such research because i t provides a 6,000 year record of the continuing but v a r i a b l e use of c e r t a i n resources, such as salmon, s h e l l f i s h , land and sea mammals. More r e c e n t l y , i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n at the Crescent Beach s i t e has provided a greater understanding of a p a r t i c u l a r type of seasonal s i t e , a s h e l l f i s h and he r r i n g processing camp. To a i d subsistence research archaeologists employ more r e f i n e d excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. I n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t i f a c t s , faunal remains and other midden constituents i s complex but c r i t i c a l to t h i s research. Due to costs and time c o n s t r a i n t s , a l l layers within a s i t e cannot be completely analyzied; therefore representative samples are 101 -10- Section IV con't. taken. For instance, archaeologists use column samples to reconstruct the r e l a t i v e importance of s h e l l f i s h , f i s h and game in the die t of the s i t e ' s occupants, at a p a r t i c u l a r time. Also, waterscreening through f i n e mesh provides a r e f i n e d technique which allows greater recovery of f i s h vertebrae and other small items, than t r a d i t i o n a l l y dry screening methods. Computers become i n c r e a s i n g l y important f o r analyzing the masses of data created by such techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to a i d subsistence research. For example, the growth rin g s i n a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of s h e l l can accurately show the season of c o l l e c t i o n , thereby determining the season of s i t e use. Detecting residues on stone t o o l s , such as blood, f a t s and p i t c h , helps to show t o o l f u n c t i o n and i n turn what a c t i v i t i e s may have been preformed at these seasonal s i t e s . 102 -11- Section V: Midden layers and past a c t i v i t i e s The 1977 excavation and subsequent anayysis of s h e l l midden layers at the Crescent Beach s i t e provides s p e c i f i c information on the type and season of a c t i v i t i e s undertaken at that s i t e . This project r e f l e c t s a current concern with developing a s p e c i f i c research strategy f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . In most previous studies s i t e s were dug by a r b i t r a r y l e v e l s . One important refinement at the Crescent Beach s i t e involved c a r e f u l removal of the nat u r a l midden l a y e r s , allowing greater accuracy i n determining the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of various midden con s t i t u e n t s , and from them the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s which occurred at the s i t e . A n alysis of data from the s i t e was aided by p r e d i c t i o n s of what should be found i n t h i s l o c a t i o n . Models f o r p a r t i c u l a r expected layer types were developed by studying the resources a v a i l a b l e to the s i t e i n h a b i t a n t s , taking i n t o consideration h i s t o r i c Coast S a l i s h use of the area and those times of the year when c e r t a i n resources are most abundant. In other words, c e r t a i n l a y e r types, features, a r t i f a c t s and faunal remains are expected f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group of predicted a c t i v i t i e s . However, due to such f a c t o r s as decay, humus build-up during periods of disuse, and the removal of many t o o l s and st r u c t u r e s onced used at the s i t e , these expectations cannot be t o t a l l y r e a l i z e d . For example, a r c h a e o l o g i c a l Section V con 11. evidence that s h e l l - f i s h processing or wood working a c t i v i t i e s occurred at a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e often bears l i t t l e d i r e c t resemblance to the t o o l s and structures a c t u a l l y used f o r such a c t i v i t i e s . 104 - 1 3 - Section VI: The Future of the Past A major and continuing problem f a c i n g archaeologists working i n urban areas, such as the Fraser d e l t a region, i s the continuing de s t r u c t i o n of midden s i t e s . Important s i t e s , such as Marpole have been excavated with the bulldozers already at work. Many other s i t e s are destroyed by urban expansion before any arch a e o l o g i c a l work i s p o s s i b l e . Archaeologists are ju s t beginning to provide us with some understanding of the long, r i c h p r e h i s t o r y of t h i s region. This understanding r e s u l t s from a continuing process of b u i l d i n g on past r e s u l t s by asking new questions and developing new techniques to answer them. In order to accomplish these ends, we need to view a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s as non-renewable resources which require our p r o t e c t i o n . 9 APPENDIX 9 October 1,1984 . Changing Tides E x h i b i t text - Second d r a f t Section l a : Introduction Changing Tides o u t l i n e s the h i s t o r y of archaeology i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Fraser d e l t a region. This e x h i b i t traces nearly one hundred years of s h e l l midden research through three basic periods: the D e s c r i p t i v e , C u l t u r a l Sequence, and Subsistence Research eras. As you move through the e x h i b i t , you w i l l see how each subsequent era b u i l d s on previous research while i t also represents a major change i n focus and techniques. 106 -2- Section l b : What i s a s h e l l midden s i t e ? For the archaeologist, a s i t e i s any l o c a t i o n which contains evidence of past human a c t i v i t y . The most important type of s i t e i n the Fraser d e l t a region i s the s h e l l midden which provides the archaeologist with a complex record of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and n a t u r a l events. This record dates back nearly nine thousand years. Although middens are commonly viewed as ancient garbage dumps, they can be much more. The complex l a y e r s of s o i l s , s h e l l s and other remains found i n s h e l l middens r e s u l t from both the a c t i v i t i e s which have occurred there and from times when the s i t e was not used. These l a y e r s contain clues which the archae- o l o g i s t must i n t e r p r e t i n order to discover a s i t e ' s h i s t o r y . D i f f e r e n t l a y e r patterns r e s u l t when d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s occur at the same place over time. For example, i n a co a s t a l s h e l l midden the remains of an abandoned house may l a t e r be covered by the refuse of a s h e l l f i s h steaming mound which i n turn, may be covered by the remains of a campsite hearth. In t h i s way, the layers accumulate, reaching up to f i v e meters i n depth. In other cases, a s i t e may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal s i t e use. For instance, the a c t i v i t i e s associated with f a l l salmon f i s h i n g leave a d i s t i n c t i v e pattern of debris which d i f f e r s from that l e f t by spring h e r r i n g f i s h i n g . 107 - 3 - Section l b : con't I n v e s t i g a t i n g these middens i s f u r t h e r complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y unless s p e c i a l conditions a i d t h e i r preservation. In c o a s t a l s h e l l middens the presence of s h e l l s helps to preserve bone and a n t l e r , but wood and f i b e r s u s u a l l y survive only i f they are constantly waterlogged. Therefore, the wooden a r t i f a c t s most commonly i d e n t i f i e d with Northwest Coast c u l t u r e s are r a r e l y found. Consequently, more mundane remains such as s h e l l s , bones and cooking stones play a v i t a l r o l e i n our understanding of the patterns and development of p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s . 108 _4- Section Ic: Beyond the midden To understand the r o l e of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e within a region, archaeologists must consider both environmental and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . The r i c h environment of the Northwest Coast, i n c l u d i n g that of the Fraser d e l t a region, i s often seen as fundamental to the development of the unique cultures of t h i s area. Over the past one hundred years, archaeologists have come to r e a l i z e that understanding- how these spectacular c u l t u r e s developed requires an awareness of the seasonal cycle of Northwest Coast l i f e . For the Fraser d e l t a region, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s important to look at environmental change i n terms of the evol u t i o n of the Fraser d e l t a . The present l o c a t i o n of midden s i t e s r e f l e c t s t h i s development. For example, a s i t e that once fronted on t i d a l f l a t s may now be several kilometers u p r i v e r . The developing e s t u a r y — t h e t i d a l mouth of the r i v e r and surrounding waters—has played a v i t a l r o l e i n the l o c a t i o n , s t a b i l i t y and quantity of important resources f o r over seven thousand years. The Fraser d e l t a and estuary provided a r i c h v a r i e t y of sea and land resources which were extensively used by the Coast S a l i s h inhabitants of the region. Although many resources were abundant, they were often a v a i l a b l e only seasonally, 109 -5- S e c t i o n I c : c o n ' t , and v e r y o f t e n were d i f f i c u l t t o a c q u i r e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a w ide v a r i e t y o f i n g e n i o u s and o f t e n complex methods were d e v e l o p e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f abundant but s h o r t t e r m r e s o u r c e s , s u c h as f i s h r u n s . H e r r i n g and e u l a c h o n were n e t t e d o r r a k e d d u r i n g s p r i n g r u n s , and salmon were n e t t e d , t r a p p e d i n w e i r s , s p e a r e d , h a r p o o n e d , o r hooked, d e p e n d i n g on t h e s e a s o n , t h e s p e c i e s , and t h e l o c a t i o n where t h e were f i s h e d . 110 - 6 - Section I I : The D e s c r i p t i v e Era Archaeological i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the Fraser d e l t a region began in the l a t e nineteenth century. This e a r l y work was p r i m a r i l y concerned with f i n d i n g and d e s c r i b i n g a r t i f a c t s . Harlan I. Smith's 1898 i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Marpole s i t e i s representative of t h i s e a r l y era of midden research. Using a small force of h i r e d labour,Smith r a p i d l y excavated a portion of the s i t e by shovel. L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was paid to the l a y e r s i n which a r t i f a c t s were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that a r t i f a c t s from a l l l a y e r s provided evidence of a stable economic structure spanning at l e a s t two thousand years. Smith based h i s estimate f o r the 1,000 years of s i t e occupation, followed by 1,000 years of disuse on such f a c t o r s as the age of trees growing over the midden, depth of midden accumulation, and the degree of midden ma t e r i a l decay. Recent research supports his estimate. Smith used the a r t i f a c t s which he recovered from the s i t e to answer questions concerning the economic and c u l t u r a l s t a b i l i t y of the area. He argued f o r economic s t a b i l i t y based on the recovery of woodworking, f i s h i n g , basketry, and mat making t o o l s s i m i l a r to those he saw s t i l l i n use by l o c a l Coast S a l i s h peoploe. On the other hand, he argued f o r c u l t u r a l change. He viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence f o r an e a r l y migration of I n t e r i o r people Section I I : con't. to the coast. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c questions were important ones spe c u l a t i v e . More conclusive techniques. of the D e s c r i p t i v e Era, Smith' , but h i s conclusions remained answers required more r e f i n e d 112 -8- S e c t i o n I l i a : The.Development o f a C u l t u r a l Sequence(methods) S i n c e t h e l a t e 1940's work by C h a r l e s E. Borden a t M a r p o l e and o t h e r F r a s e r d e l t a s i t e s has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e b a s i c c u l t u r a l sequence s t i l l u s e d t o d a y . To e s t a b l i s h t h i s s e q u e n c e , Borden u s e d s y s t e m a t i c c o n t r o l l e d e x c a v a t i o n s , c o u p l e d w i t h c a r e f u l d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e a r t i f a c t s and f e a t u r e s f o u n d w i t h i n t h e s e s i t e s . B o r d e n r e a l i z e d t h a t t o move beyond S m i t h ' s s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e - t a t i o n s , he must keep a c c u r a t e r e c o r d s o f where a r t i f a c t s were f o u n d i n a s i t e . He g r o u p e d l a y e r s w i t h s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t s i n t o what a r c h a e o l o g i s t s c a l l a component. He u s e d s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n a r t i f a c t i n v e n t o r i e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between components. I n t u r n , B o r d e n g r o u p e d s i m i l a r components f r o m d i f f e r e n t s i t e s i n t o c u l t u r e s o r c u l t u r a l p h a s e s , w h i c h r a d i o - c a r b o n d a t i n g h e l p e d t o o r d e r . B o r d e n ' s e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h a c u l t u r a l sequence i n v o l v e d d e f i n i n g e ach phase by i s o l a t i n g a r t i f a c t s he f e l t were d i s t i n t i v e o f a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e p e r i o d . These phases were u s u a l l y named f o r t h e f i r s t s i t e i n w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c component was f o u n d , but any s i t e c o u l d c o n t a i n s e v e r a l components o r p h a s e s . F o r example, M a r p o l e phase components a r e f o u n d atomany s i t e s i n t h e r e g i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e M a r p o l e s i t e where i t was f i r s t d e f i n e d and t h e G l e n r o s e Cannery s i t e f u r t h e r u p r i v e r . On th e o t h e r hand, t h e Whalen I I phase i s c o n f i n e d t o a s i n g l e s i t e . 113 -9- S e c t i o n I l l b : The Development o f a C u l t u r a l Sequence ( r e s u l t s ) A l t h o u g h Borden f i r s t v i e w e d h i s c u l t u r a l p hases as a s e r i e s o f d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e s , he e v e n t u a l l y m o d i f i e d h i s p o s i t i o n t o a l l o w f o r g r e a t e r l o c a l c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . H i s c u l t u r a l sequence r e m a i n s an i m p o r t a n t o p e r a t i o n a l framework f o r more r e c e n t r e s e a r c h . B o r d e n ' s e a r l y c o n c l u s i o n s , l i k e S m i t h ' s , e q u a t e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c e r t a i n a r t i f a c t t y p e s w i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f new c u l t u r a l g r o u p s i n t o t h e a r e a . He l a t e r m o d i f i e d h i s p o s i t i o n , however, when a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i n a d j a c e n t r e g i o n s f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t h i s h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e g i o n s f r o m w h i c h c e r t a i n t r a i t s o r i g i n a t e d . A l t h o u g h he e v e n t u a l l y v i e w e d most l o c a l l y d e f i n e d phases as o u t g r o w t h s o f p r e v i o u s o nes, he c o n t i n u e d t o v i e w t h e Whalen I I phase as r e p r e s e n t i n g an i n f l u x o f new p e o p l e i n t o t h e r e g i o n , f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r . B o r d e n ' s v i e w o f t h e Whalen I I phase c r e a t e s q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g why a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t c u l t u r a l phase s h o u l d a p p e a r a t o n l y one s i t e . A l t h o u g h a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have y e t t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , t h e y have begun a s k i n g new q u e s t i o n s w h i c h may l e a d t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e Whalen I I p r o b l e m . To a s k such q u e s t i o n s as how t h e o c c u p a n t s o f a s i t e e x p l o i t e d t h e l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o r why t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s changed t h r o u g h t i m e , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s had f i r s t t o s h i f t t h e i r f o c u s f r o m d e s c r i b i n g and c a t e g o r i z i n g a r t i f a c t s t o i n v e s t i g a t i n g more mundane r e m a i n s as w e l l . D e s p i t e t h i s new f o c u s , r e c e n t r e s e a r c h r e l i e s on 114 -10- Section I l l b : con't. Borden's chronology i s an important operational t o o l . For example, h i s chronology allows archaeologists to match the various phases with major environmental developments of the Fraser d e l t a . 115 - l i - Section IVa: Subsistence Research Since the e a r l y 1970's, archaeologists i n v e s t i g a t i n g midden s i t e s have been applying new techniques to answer new questions. There i s a greater concern with understanding the process of c u l t u r a l adaptation, rather than the events of c u l t u r e h i s t o r y . The development of the Northwest Coast's unique subsistence pattern i s considered c r i t i c a l to understanding the c u l t u r a l pattern as a whole. Therefore, archaeologists are focussing t h e i r research on subsistence s t r a t e g i e s , that i s on how the p r e h i s t o r i c inhabitants of the region furnished themselves with food and other n e c e s s i t i e s . Although the Fraser d e l t a c u l t u r a l sequence i s now i n place, an understanding of the subsistence strategy each phase represents i s j ust beginning to take shape. The Glenrose Cannery s i t e proved a good s t a r t i n g point f o r such research because i t provides a 6 ,000 year record of continuing but v a r i a b l e use of c e r t a i n resources, such as salmon, s h e l l f i s h , land and sea mammals. More r e c e n t l y , i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n at the Crescent Beach s i t e has provided a greater understanding of a p a r t i c u l a r type of seasonal s i t e , a s h e l l f i s h and h e r r i n g processing camp. To a i d subsistence research, archaeologists employ more r e f i n e d excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. I n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t i f a c t s , animal, f i s h and s h e l l , remains, as well as other midden constituents i s complex but 116 -12- Section IVa: con't. c r i t i c a l to t h i s research. Due to costs and time c o n s t r a i n t s , a l l l a y e r s within a s i t e cannot be completely analyzied; therefore representative samples are taken. For instance, archaeologists use a s e r i e s of column samples i n order to reconstruct the r e l a t i v e importance of s h e l l f i s h , f i s h and game i n the die t of the s i t e ' s occupants, at a p a r t i c u l a r time. Also, waterscreen- ing through fine mesh provides a r e f i n e d technique which allows f o r greater recovery of f i s h vertebrae and other small items than t r a d i t i o n a l dry screening methods. Computers become i n - cr e a s i n g l y important f o r analyzing the masses of data created by such techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to a i d sub- sistence research. For example, the growth r i n g s i n a cro s s - section of s h e l l can accurately show the season of c o l l e c t i o n , thereby determining the season of s i t e use. Detecting residues on stone t o o l s , such as blood, f a t s and p i t c h , helps to show t o o l f u n c t i o n and in turn what a c t i v i t i e s may have been performed at these seasonal s i t e s . 117 -13- Section IVb: Midden layers and past a c t i v i t i e s The 1977 excavation and subsequent a n a l y s i s of s h e l l midden layers at the Crescent Beach s i t e povides s p e c i f i c information on the type and season of a c t i v i t i e s undertaken at that s i t e . This project r e f l e c t s both the ongoing development of more r e f i n e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l techniques and the current concern with developing a s p e c i f i c research strategy f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . In most previous studies., s i t e s were dug by a r b i t r a r y l e v e l s . One important refinement at the Crescent Beach s i t e involved c a r e f u l removal of the n a t u r a l midden l a y e r s , allowing.greater accuracy i n determining the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of various midden con s t i t u e n t s . This d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n helped to determine the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s which occurred at the s i t e . A n a l y s i s of data from the s i t e was aided by p r e d i c t i o n s of what should be found i n t h i s l o c a t i o n . Models f o r p a r t i c u l a r expected layer types were developed by studying the resources a v a i l a b l e to the s i t e i n h a b i t a n t s , taking i n t o c o nsideration h i s t o r i c Coast S a l i s h use of the area and those times of the year when c e r t a i n resources are most abundant. In other words, c e r t a i n l a y e r types, features, a r t i f a c t s and faunal remains are expected f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group of predicted a c t i v i t i e s . However, due to such f a c t o r s as decay, humus build-up during periods of disuse, and the removal' of many t o o l s and structures once used at he s i t e , these expectations cannot be t o t a l l y 118 -14- Section IVb: con't. r e a l i z e d . For example, a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence that s h e l l - f i s h processing or wood working a c t i v i t i e s occurred at a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e often bears l i t t l e d i r e c t resemblance to the t o o l s and s t r u c t u r e s a c t u a l l y used f o r such a c t i v i t i e s . 119 - 1 5 - S e c t i o n V: The F u t u r e o f t h e P a s t A r c h a e o l o g i s t s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o p r o v i d e us w i t h some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l o n g , r i c h p r e h i s t o r y o f t h i s r e g i o n . T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e s u l t s f r o m a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s o f b u i l d i n g on p a s t r e s u l t s by a s k i n g new q u e s t i o n s and d e v e l o p i n g new t e c h n i q u e s t o answer them. The D e s c r i p t i v e e r a n o t o n l y p r o v i d e d i n i t i a l a r t i f a c t d e s c r i p - t i o n s , but a l s o a s k e d i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g b o t h economic and c u l t u r a l change. The s u b s e q u e n t development o f a r e g i o n a l C u l t u r a l Sequence r e s u l t e d f r o m more r e f i n e d e x c a v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and new l a b o r a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s . ' Recent S u b s i s t e n c e R e s e a r c h i s b e g i n n i n g t o o u t l i n e t h e development o f t h e s e a s o n a l l y d i v e r s e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n upon w h i c h N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c u l t u r e s a r e ba s e d . W h i l e t h e b a s i c s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n i s now c o n s i d e r e d t o have p e r s i s t e d f o r t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s , i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l changes a r e j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o be u n d e r s t o o d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f o r many a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y u r b a n ones, s u c h as t h e F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n , a m a j o r and c o n t i n u i n g p r o b l e m i n v o l v e s t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f midden s i t e s . M a r p o l e , and o t h e r i m p o r t a n t s i t e s , have been e x c a v a t e d w i t h t h e b u l l d o z e r s a l r e a d y a t work. Many o t h e r s i t e s a r e d e s t r o y e d b e f o r e any a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i s p o s s i b l e . I f a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e development o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c u l t u r e s i s t o be a c h e i v e d , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s must c o n t i n u e t o i n v e s t i g a t e a c r o s s — s e c t i o n o f s i t e s w i t h i n 120 - 1 6 - Section V: con't a region. In order to accomplish these ends, we need arc h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s as non-renewable resources which our p r o t e c t i o n . to view require 9.10 APPENDIX 10 CHANGING TIDES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN B.C.'S FRASER DELTA Exhibit Text Ann Stevenson November 2,1984 Section A l : Changing Tides examines the history of archaeological research in British Columbia's Fraser delta region by tracing our evolving knowledge of its prehistory. Each stage of this research has changed and refined our perception of the past. As you move through the exhibit, you will see how each stage of research-here titled the "Descriptive", "Cultural Sequence", and "Subsistence" stages-not only builds on earlier knowledge but also introduces new ideas and new techniques. 123 Section A2: T H E SIGNIFICANCE OF SHELL MIDDENS Shell midden sites provide the most important evidence for prehistoric human activity in the Fraser delta region. These sites contain the remains of dwellings, work areas and garbage dumps, providing a record of human habitation spanning nearly 9,000 years. In midden sites, different activities created characteristic patterns of remains. These remains resulted in the build up of midden layers which the archaeologist interprets in order to discover a site's history. Dif ferent layer pat terns resul t when d iverse act iv i t ies occur a t the same place over t ime. F o r examp le , in a coastal shel l midden the remains of an abandoned house m a y later be covered by the refuse of a shel l f ish s teaming mound that , in t u rn , m a y be covered by rema ins of a campsi te hear th . In th is w a y the laye rs accumula te , reach ing up to 5 meters in depth. In other cases, a site m a y show a more regu lar pat tern of cont inuous, but seasonal use. F o r instance, fal l sa lmon f i sh ing act iv i t ies leave a dis t inct ive pat tern of debris wh ich dif fers f rom that left by sp r ing he r r i ng f ish ing. The complex l aye rs of soi l , shel ls and other rema ins resul t not only f rom these h u m a n act iv i t ies , but also f rom na tu ra l l y deposited debr is . T H E CONTENTS OF S H E L L MIDDENS Invest igat ing shel l middens is fur ther compl icated by na tu ra l processes of decay. M o s t organic mater ia ls decay quite qu ick ly unless special condit ions help to preserve them. In coastal shel l middens, the presence of shel ls helps to preserve bone and ant ler , but wood and p lant f ibers usua l ly su rv ive only i f they are constant ly water logged. T h u s , the carved wooden objects for wh ich the No r thwes t Coast is wel l known are ra re ly found in archaeological si tes. Exh ib i ted here are a range of i tems found in coastal shell middens. 125 Section A3: SHELL MIDDENS AND THEIR SETTING To understand the role of a particular site within a region, archaeologists must consider the changing natural environment in which the site's occupants lived. The rich and diverse environment of the Northwest Coast, including that of the Fraser delta region, influenced the development of the area's unique cultures. The Fraser river delta and estuary provided a wide variety of sea and land resources which were extensively used by the region's inhabitants. The developing estuary-the tidal mouth of the river and surrounding ocean waters-played a vital role for over 7,000 years in the location, stability and quantity of these resources. THE SEASONAL ROUND Although many resources were abundant, they were often available only seasonally, and even then, they could be difficult to acquire. The Coast Salish inhabitants of the region used diverse, and often complex methods to harvest these short-term resources. For example, during spring fish runs, herring or eulachon were netted and raked; salmon were netted, trapped in weirs, speared, harpooned or hooked, depending on the species, the season and location. 126 THE DEVELOPING DELTA In examining the Fraser delta region, it is important to consider the evolution of the delta itself. The present location of midden sites reflects this development. For instance, a site that fronted on tidal flats at the river's mouth 2,000 years ago may now be several kilometers upriver. 127 Section B: T H E DESCRIPTIVE S T A G E Archaeological investigation in the Fraser delta region began in the late 1800's. This early work was mainly concerned with finding artifacts, describing them, and speculating about their significance. The 1898 investigation of the Marpole site by the American Museum of Natural History's Harlan I. Smith is representative of this early research. Using a small force of hired labour, Smith rapidly excavated a portion of the site b}' shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that artifacts from all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure beginning at least 2,000 years ago. Smith based his estimates for the 1,000 years of occupation, followed by 1,000 years of disuse, on such factors as the age of trees growing over the midden, the depth of accumulation, and the degree of midden material decay. Recent research supports his estimate. 128 DESCRIPTION AND SPECULATIONS Smith used the artifacts that he recovered from the site to answer questions concerning the economic and cultural stability of the area. He argued for economic stability based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry, and mat making tools similar to those he saw still in use by the local Coast Salish residents of the area. On the other hand, Smith also argued for cultural replacement. He viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence for early migration of interior people to the coast. Smith asked important questions, but his answers were speculative, in a manner characteristic of early descriptive archaeology. More conclusive answers would require more refined theories and research techniques, which were introduced as archaeology developed. 129 Section C l : T H E C U L T U R A L S E Q U E N C E STAGE British Columbia's first archaeologist, Charles E . Borden, worked at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites, from the late 1940's to the 1970's, and was instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. He realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpretations of the area's prehistory, accurate records must be kept of where artifacts or tools, and features—such as hearths—were found in a site. To establish a cultural sequence, Borden grouped layers with similar artifacts into what archaeologists call a component. He then grouped similar components from different sites into cultures or cultural phases. Radio-carbon dating, invented in 1948, was used to verify the order of these phases, as well as to date them. DEFINING C U L T U R A L PHASES The phases Borden defined are the Locarno Beach phase, the Marpole phase, the Whalen II phase, and the Stselax phase. These phases were usually named after the first site in which the characteristic component was found, but any site could contain several components or phases. For example, Marpole phase components, first defined at the Marpole site, are found at many sites in the region including the Glenrose Cannery site upriver. The Whalen II phase, on the other hand, is confined to a single site. Shown here is a selection of artifacts Borden considered representative of each cultural phase. Section C2: REFINING T H E C U L T U R A L S E Q U E N C E Initially, Borden viewed his cultural phases as representing a series of migrations into the region. He eventually modified his postion, however, recognizing that cultural change could also result from local development. This change in Borden's postion resulted when archaeological work in adjacent areas failed to support his hypotheses about the origin of certain traits. Although he eventually allowed that most phases could have developed locally out of previous ones, he continued to argue that the Whalen II phase represented the arrival of new people from the interior. B3' considering the Whalen II phase to represent the entire region during one time period, Borden ignored other possible explanations. The presence of particular artifacts might have resulted from trade, and absence of others might be due to the season of site use. For example, the presence of small chipped stone points, commonly found in interior sites, were also found at the Whalen Farm site, and could be accounted for by trade between coast and interior peoples. On the other hand, the absence of thin ground slate knives usually associated with salmon processing and found in earlier and later phases in the region may simply indicate that the site in question was not used for salmon fishing. A recognition of the potential importance of seasonal site use distinquishes the next stage of archaeological research. This new focus provides an alternative explanation for the uniqueness of the Whalen II component, while adding a new dimension to complement Borden's basic cultural sequence. Section DI: T H E SUBSISTENCE R E S E A R C H S T A G E Since the 1970's, archaeologists have been applying new techniques to midden sites in order to answer new questions about the process of cultural adaptation in the region. Their investigations focussed on how the prehistoric inhabitants of the area supplied themselves with food and other necessities. An understanding of the subsistence strategy each phase of the Fraser delta sequence represents is just beginning to take shape. The Glenrose Cannery site proved a good starting point for such research 'because it provided a 6,000 year record of continuing but variable use of resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp. 133 REFINING E X C A V A T I O N AND L A B O R A T O R Y TECHNIQUES To aid subsistence research, archaeologists employ more refined excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. A critical aspect of this research is discovering the relationships among artifacts, food remains, and other midden materials. Because these techniques are expensive, all layers within a site cannot be analyzed with the same intensity. Archaeologists therefore select representative samples in order to reconstruct the relative importance of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of the site's occupants. The use of waterscreening through fine mesh allows for greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items than do traditional dry screening methods. Computers are increasingly important for analyzing the masses of data generated by such field techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid subsistence research. For example, the growth rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby indicating the season of site use. Detecting residues such as blood, fats, and resins on stone tools helps to show tool function and, consequently, what activities might have been performed at these seasonal sites. 134 Section D2: INVESTIGATING A SEASONAL SITE The excavation of shell midden layers at the Cresent Beach site shows how the type and season of activities undertaken at a site may be determined by careful analysis. One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site was the careful removal of midden layers following the natural contours of the site. Previous sites were excavated by removing flat, even layers, usually 10 to 20 cm. thick. This refinement helped to isolate the specific activities which had occurred at this site. 135 MIDDEN L A Y E R S AND PAST ACTIVITIES To understand each layer type, models of site use were developed. Models are used to predict what activities might have occurred at the site during different times of the year. Important considerations include the historic Coast Salish use of the area and those times of the year, when certain- resources were most abundant. Certain layer types, features, artifacts, and faunal remains thus can be predicted for a particular group of expected activities. Although such factors as decay, and the removal of many tools and structures once at the site, might make analysis difficult, the prediction of site use helps to overcome this problem. For example, if shellfish harvesting and processing are predicted for a site, the baskets, digging sticks and drying racks might have been removed or have decayed. On the other hand, other evidence will remain, such as the remains of steaming mounds, discarded clam shells, and the post holes for the drying racks. If the problematic Whalen II component at the Whalen Farm site were re-examined in this manner, it might now be seen as a seasonal variant of another cultural phase rather than as an unique cultural phase. 136 Section E: THE FUTURE OF THE PAST Archaeological research in the Fraser delta region has developed through several stages paralleling general changes in North American archaeology. Each stage has built on previous results. These results have laid the foundation upon which new questions are raised and new techniques are developed. The Descriptive stage not only provided initial descriptions, but asked important questions concerning both economic and cultural change. The subsequent development of a regional Cultural Sequence resulted from more refined excavation techniques and laboratory procedures. Recent Subsistence Research is beginning to outline the development of the Northwest Coast's seasonally diverse subsistence pattern. While we now know that a similar range of resources was used in this area for thousands of years critical changes occurred in resource use, for instance the development of large scale salmon processing for storage, these changes have only recently received attention. A new focus on social questions, such as on how social organization and subsistence stategies interrelate, suggests that a new stage of archaeological research is also taking shape. The future of such research, however, is seriously threatened. 137 H E R I T A G E D E S T R U C T I O N The destruction of midden sites, especially in urban areas like the Fraser delta, is a major problem. Marpole and other important sites were excavated just before bulldozers moved in. Unfortunately, many other sites were destroyed before any archaeological investigation could take place. As a result, valuable heritage information has been lost forever. If a greater appreciation of the development of Northwest Coast cultures is to be achieved, archaeologists must continue to investigate a cross-section of sites within a region. But to do this, archaeological sites must be viewed as non-renewable resources that, require our protection. 1 9.11 APPENDIX 11 V- 9- LU •UJ on U J 5 1: _) O 09 ski o_ £y H ^) 3 < O ft 2" -7 < "7 0> UJ -2. O O 5 9- r o o or Ui VU S 2 £3 5i 0. 31 o -< Q_ QU o £w 7 s. i s ZE u-£ to o . 3E Ci • u- o 2 ? 2rT - I S. a o 8-2 -J 3 < 5 7\ ui 10 o a . c o £ S r 3 i- % 2 a. *• u3< — Ui U. o 'V. Jul u> 3 ^ 4T o r 2 3 Ui 5 c. a: £ ~7T;— o 2E 2 ^ E I si el 7 \ " I -P - J J i- 7K~ ui C D J 01 r T 8 O 2E s o s- 3 « a n a. a ^ -r ̂> o U. Q at n 5: 31 C 5 D APPENDIX 12 E X H I B I T CuflMbiMei TIDES S E C T lOrJ Pii. SuBTECr T-<?OI>OTiO/0 TEXT OR CHANGING TIDES AI-TI e Changing Tides examines the history of archaeological research in British Columbia's Fraser delta region by tracing our evolving knowledge of its prehistory. Each stage of this research has changed and refined our perception of the past As you move through the exhibit, you will see how each stage of research—here titled the "Descriptive", "Cultural Sequence", and "Subsistence" stages—not only builds on earlier knowledge but also introduces new ideas and new techniques. MAREES CHANGEANTES A1-T1F Maries Changeantes passe en revue l'histoire de la recherche archeologique dans la region du delta du fleuve Fraser, en Colombie Britannique, en suivant revolution de notre connaissance de sa prehistoire. Chaque etape de cette recherche a modifie et raffine notre perception du passe. En parcourant l'exposition, vous observerez comment chaque etape de recherche, portant les titres "La Description", "La Succession des cultures" et "Les Strategies de Subsistance" ont non seulement consolide les connaissances acquises mais aussi innove au niveau des idees et des techniques. 140 SECT'OK) /)X SUriOTECT A. tio. /\f>-f-| PACTS G. WO GRAPHICS NONE Al-Gl Harlan I. Smith's Marpole excavation (mural) No photo credit this section, see section B. EXHIBIT CMA^CnlfiJG, T/DE-S S E C T / O r J ft £ P A G E A 2 - / S U B J E C T T E X T O R Aftm-'Acr L / I B E L ( S ) A2-Ti£ TIIK SIGNIFICANCE OF SHELL MIDDENS Shell midden sites provide Die most important evidence for prehistoric human activity in the Fraser delta region. These sites contain the remains of dwellings, work areas and garbage dumps, providing a record of human habitation spanning nearly 9,000 years. In midden sites, different activities created characteristic patterns of remains. These remains resulted in I lie build up of midden layers which the archaeologist interprets in order to discover a site's history. AZ - ri F LA SIGNIFICATION D F S A M A S D E C O Q U T I X E S I^s anas de coquilles constituent la documentation la plus importante pour se renseigner sur les activites liuiiiaines prehistorioues dans la region du delta du Fraser. Ces stations prehistoriques contiennent des vestiges d'habitations, des zones d'activites et des ainoncellements de dechets qui teinoiguent d'une occupation humaine ayant dure pres de 9,000 ans. I^s differentes activites qui se deroulaient dans les stations a amas de coquilles y ont laisse des vestiges caracterestiques. Ces vestiges ont produit une accumulation de couches que les archeologues interpretcnt afin de recoustruirc I'hisloire d'uuc station. A2-T2 t Different layer patterns result when diverse activities occur at the same place over time. For example, in a coastal shell midden the. remains of an abandoned house may later be covered by the refuse of a shellfish steaming mound that, in turn, may be covered by remains of a campsite hearth. In this way the layers accumulate, reaching up to 5 meters in depth. In o'Jier cases, a site may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal use. For instance, fali salmon fishing activities leave a distinctive pattern of debris which differs from thai left by spring herring fishing. The complex layers of soil, shells and other remains result not only from these human activities, but also from naturally deposited debris. l.es diverscs activites realisees sur un meme emplacement durant un laps de temps laissent derriere elles des couches distincles. Dans une station cOtiere d'amas de coquilles, par exemple. les testes d'une maison abandonnee seront plus lard, recouven par les debris d'un amas de mollusques uiils a la vapeur, lequels le seront a leur tour, par les restes d'un feu de camp. Les couches peuvent de la sorte atteindre une fcpaisseur de 5 metres. Dans d'autres cas, une station pourra contenir des vestiges d'occupalions saisonnieres. C'est ainsi que la peche au saumon en automne produira des restes caracteristiques, permettant de les distinguer de ceux provenant de la peche printanniere au hareng. La serie complexe de couches de sols, de coquilles et d'autres activites provient non seulement de produits de l'activiie humaine mais aussi de d6pots naturels. 142 EXHIBIT C^M&iii^Gi T i D ^ S s e C T IOSJ Pi L P A C E f l l - Z - T e x r O R PrtZrifACT Lf\ B E L ( Y ) A 2 - T 3 E T H E C O N T E N T S OF S H E L L M I D D E N S investigating shell middens is further complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay quite quickly unless special conditions help to preserve them. In coastal shell middens, the presence of shells helps to preserve bone and antler, but wood and plant fibers usually survive only if they are constantly waterlogged. Thus, the carved wooden objects for which the Northwest Coast is well known are rarely found in archaeological sites. Exhibited here are a range of items found in coastal shell middens. A Z - T 3 P C O N T E N U D E S A M A S D E C O Q U I L L E S L'effet de la decomposition ajoute a la complexite de l'6tude des amas de coquilles. La majoriti des matures organiques entrent rapidement en decomposition, a moins que des conditions speciales n'interviennent en faveur de la preservation. Dans le cas des stations c6tieres, la presence de coquilles contribuera a la preservation de l'os ei de l'andouiller. Le bois et les fibres v£g6tales, par contre, deperissent a moins d'etre engages constamment dans l'eau. Ces conditions rendent compte de la raret6, dans les gisements archeologiques, des pieces en bois sculptees qui ont fait la renommee de la cdte du Pacifique Nord. V o i d un inventaire d'objets trouves dans un amas de coquilles de la cote. EXHIBIT ChlAtihirJQj T i D f c S S E C T / O N / f\l P R ^ E - HZ-3 A. ^o. / \ i? r i F A C T S G. NO. GRAPHICS A2-A1 1. Ground s l a t e k n i f e A950 A2-G1 Photo showing midden l a y e r s A2-A2 2. Chipped stone t o o l s DhRt11:68 DhRt6:28 A2-A3 3. Cooking stones (2) no //' s A2-A13 4. Sandstone abrader DhRt6:63 A2-A14 5. Waste f l a k e s DgRr6:2601 1928 3511 A2-A4 6.. Bone awl ( c ) DgRr6:1554c A2-A5 7. F i g u r e (c) DgRr6:2687c A2-A6 8. Salmon v e r t e b r a e no J's A2-A7 9. B i r d bone no S A2-A9 10. S h e l l d i s c Ma3344 A2-A10 11. Clam s h e l l s no I's A2-A12 12. Carbonized seeds no J ' s A2-A11 13. Basketry f r a g . DhRt4:70249 CoMHEMrs (c) = R e p l i c a A2-G1 L e i c a 49 V I I {11 (no l a b e l ) EXHIBIT Ch/AhlQ/AJG? Ti^SS secr/ofj (\ i, P A C E / ? Z - ^ - TEXT OR AG-T^ACT LA&E.U(S) SECTION M-LIE.+F 1. Ground slate knife Comeau en ardoise polie 2. Chipped stone tools Onlils en pierre laillee 3. Cooking stones Pierres servant a la cuisson 4. Sandstone abrader Polissoir en gres 5. Waste Hakes from artifact manufacture Eclats de laille 6. Deer bone awl (replica) Al£ne en os de cerf (ripliqtte) 7. Carved antler tool handle ca. 2000 B.C. (replica) Manche d'outil en andoniller grav£ vers 2000 B.C. (replique) 8. Salmon vertebrae Verl6bres de saumon 9. Bird bone Os d'oiseau 10. Shell ornament Orncment en coquillage 11. Clam shells and fragments Coquilles et fragments de palonrde 12. Carbonized salmonberry seeds Graines de baies (Rubis spectabilis) carbonisees 13. Basketry fragment ca. 750 B.C. Fragment de vannerie vers 750 av. J.C. E X H I B I T Cr7/4A/G/A/G7 r /Das T e x r O R Aftr/PAc-r L * B E - L ( S ) SECTION A3-T1 E SHELL MIDDENS AND THEIfi SETTING To understand the role of a particular site within a region, archaeologists must consider the changing natural environment in which the site's occupants lived. The rich and diverse environment of the Northwest Coast, including that of the Fraser delta region, influenced the development of the area's unique cultures. A3-TI F LES AMAS DE COQUILLES ET LEUR MILIEU Les archeologues doivent tenir compte du milieu nature) au sein duquel vivaient les occupants d'un site particulier, afin de comprendre son role dans une region. La richesse et la diversite du milieu de la cote du Paciiique Nord, y compris celui de la region du delta du Fraser, ont influence le developpement de cette aire culturelle exceptionnelle. A 3 - T 2 £ The Fraser river delta and estuary provided a wide variety of sea and' land resources which were extensively used by the region's inhabitants. The developing estuary—the tidal mouth of the river and surrounding ocean waters—played a vital role for over 7.000 years in the location, stability and quantity of these resources. A3-TZF Les habitants de la region du delta et de l'estuaire du fleuve Fraser savaient tirer largement profit des ressources marines et terrestres qu'elle offraiL La formation de cet esruaire. comprenant une embouchure a marfes et une bordure oceanique, a joue de facpn decisive, durant plus de 7,000 ans, sur la localisation, la stabilite et la quantity de ces ressources. EXHIBIT CHf^hJG/Aj^ TibBS S E C T i O r J f\ 3 ? A G £ /?3-£. S U B J E C T T E X T O R A/an^Acr L 4 B E . L ( Y ) A3-T3 £ T H E S E A S O N A L R O U N D Although many resources were abundant, they were often available only seasonally, and even then, they could be difficult to acquire. The Coast Salish inhabitants of the region used diverse and often complex methods to harvest these short-term resources. For example, during spring fish runs, herring or eulachon were netted and raked; salmon were netted, trapped in weirs, speared, harpooned or hooked, depending on the species, the season and location. Fishing was supplemented by various activities, such as berry picking in summer and shellfish galhering the year round. Specialists hunted sea mammals in the spring and land mammals in the autumn and winter. During winter, stored foods were relied upon as ceremonial and manufacturing activities dominated winter village life. L E C Y C L E SAISONNIER L'occurence de plusieurs ressources, malgre' leur abondance, demeurait cependant saisonniere et leur acquisition pouvait offrir des difficultes. Les populations Salish qui occupaient la region c6uere avaient recours a des mdthodes diverses et souvent complexes, afin de s'approvisionner en ressources a disponibilitfc ephemere. A u cours des migrations printannieres du poisson, par exemple. on capturait le hareng et l'eperlan avec des filets et par ratissage; les saumons. avec des filets, des barrages, a la foene, au harpon ou a l'hameson. selon les especes, la saison ou le lieu. Diverses activites supplement a la peche, telles que la collecte des baies en M, le ramassage des mollusques tout au long de l'annee. La chasse aux mammireres terrestres, en automne et en hiver. La subsistance au cours de Driver dependait d'aliments stockes, saison durant laquelle la vie dans les residences villageoises 6tait dominee par les activites cSremonielles et artisanales. A3-T4 £ T H E D E V E L O P I N G D E L T A In examining the Fraser delta region, it is itself. The present location of midden sites fronted on tidal flats at the river's mouth upriver. important to consider the evolution of the delta reflects this development For instance, a site that 2.000 years ago may now be several kilometers E V O L U T I O N D U D E L T A II importe de tenir compte de revolution du delta lui-m6me. lorsque Ton examine cette partie de la region du Fraser. L'emplacement actuel des amas de coquilles le i6fl£te. C'est ainsi qu'une station qui se situait, il y a 2,000 ans, en face des terres basses a marfces dans 1'embouchure du fleuve, pourrait se trouver maintenant a plusieurs kilometres en amont EXHIBIT CM/yJQ/AJG? TtDES 56CTIOM PB^EL ft 3-3 SUB3"£CT A. Ho. A\Rr\FACTS G. NO- GRAPHICS NONE A3-GI A3-G2 A3-G3 A3-G4 I l l u s t r a t i o n s (4) of seasonal round (from Four Seasons) S e r i e s of d e l t a development maps Photo of Beach Grove midden Denman I s l a n d s h e l l midden (mu r a 1) CoKMEMrs A2-G3 D e l t a 56 I J10 A2-G4 L e i c a 46 I S12 EXHIBIT £ / / / TAJ G / ' A / 6 T/2>£-S secr/ o r J PAGE fl3'4 T E X T " O R A f t n ^ c T B ELL^S) A 3 - G 1 : E + F WINTER L'HIVER SPRING L E PRINTEMPS S U M M E R L'ETE A U T U M N L ' A U T O M N E A 3 - G 2 : T H E E V O L U T I O N O F T H E FRASER D E L T A D E V O L U T I O N D U D E L T A D U F R A S E R 6000 B.C. 3000 B.C. P R E S E N T D E L T A L E D E L T A A U J O U R D ' H U l G L E N R O S E C A N N E R Y G L E N R O S E C A N N E R Y G L E N R O S E C A N N E R Y M A R P O L E STSELAX L O C A R N O B E A C H C R E S C E N T B E A C H C R E S C E N T B E A C H B E A C H G R O V E W H A L E N F A R M Burrard Inlet Burrard Inlet Burrard Inlet Fraser River Fraser River Fraser River Strait of Georgia Strait of Georgia Strait of Georgia Robert!, Island Robens Island Roberts Peninsula The Beach Grove midden. 1956. Photo by Charles E Borden L'amas de coquilles de Beach Grove. 1956. Pholographie prise par Charles E Borden EXHIBIT C h/AMG /AJG Tib EL S S E C T /OfJ B TEXT OR PtATiPACT L*BEL(Y) Section B - f l E THE DESCRIPTIVE STAGE Archaeological investigation in the Fraser delta region began in the late 1800's. This early work was mainly concerned with finding artifacts, describing them, and speculating about their significance. The 1898 investigation of the Marpole site by the American Museum of Natural History's Harlan h Smith is representative of this early research. Les debuts de la recherche archeologique dans la region du delta du Fraser remontent a la fin du siecle dernier. Ces premiers travaux se consacraient avant tout a la decouverte et a la description des pieces archeologiques, ainsi qu'a des speculations quant a leur signification. L'ctude de la station de Marpole en 1898, par Harlan L Smith, du Musee Americain d'Histoire Naturelle, illustre bien cette etape de recherche. Using a small force of hired labour. Smith rapidly excavated a portion of the site by shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that artifacts from all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure beginning at least 2,000 years ago. Smith based his estimates for the 1,000 years of occupation, followed by 1,000 years of disuse, on such factors as the age of trees growing over the midden, the depth of accumulation, and the degree of midden material decay. Recent research supports his estimate. Avec l'aide d'une petite equipe de travailleurs a gages. Smith fouilla rapidement a la pelle une paitie du gisement, sans se preoccuper de la provenance par couches des pieces. II n'en conclut pas moins que l'ensemble de ces trouvailles demontrait l'Sxistence d'une structure economique stable, dont le d6but remontait a au moins 2,000 ans. Smith se fiait a des facteurs tels que l'age des aibres qui croissaient au sommet du gisement, la profondeur des depots et I'etat de decomposition des vestiges, pour estimer une duree de 1.000 ans pour 1'occupation, suivi de 1,000 ans d'abandon. Des recherches recentes confirment ses estimations. B-TI F L'ETAPE DESCRIPTIVE B-T2 £ 8 - TZ.F 150 EXHIBIT CHA/UGI/AJGI - T / £ £ S se cr lorJ & TEXT OR PtflTiPACT Ltf B E.!_(_£) B - T 3 £ D E S C R I P T I O N A N D S P E C U L A T I O N S Smith used the artifacts that he recovered from the site to answer questions concerning the economic and cultural stability of the area. He argued for economic stability based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry, and mat making tools similar to those he saw still in use by the local Coast Salish residents of the area. On the other hand. Smith also argued for cultural replacement He viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence for early migration of interior people to the coast Smith asked important questions, but his answers were speculative, in a manner characteristic of early descriptive archaeology. More conclusive answers would require the more refined theories and research techniques which were introduced as archaeology developed. 6 - T3 F D E S C R I P T I O N ET S P E C U L A T I O N S Smith eut recours aux pieces obtenues par la fouille de la station pour trouver reponse aux questions concernant la stability economique et culturelle de la rfegion. II soutint que les ressemblances entre l'outillage recueilli au cours des fouilles qui servait au travail du bois. a la peche. a la vannerie et au tressage. et celui, toujours en usage par les populations c6ueres Salish du meme endroit, tfemoignaient en faveur d'une stabilite economique. Smith prfetendit, par ailleurs, que la presence de decorations geom6triques et de pointes en pierre taillee un remplacement des cultures, par la migration vers la c6te dfemontiait de populations venant de l'int6rieur. Smith souleva des questions importantes mais le caractere speculauf des reponses qu'il leur apporta marque 1'orientation de cette 6tape essentielment descriptive de l'archeologie. Des reponses plus concluantes demandent l'emploi de theories et de techniques plus poussees. lesquelles feront leur apparition aux stages suivants du development de la recherche arch6ologique. EXHIBIT CHA^G /NG) TIDES S U B J E C T B PAQEL 8 - 3 A- Ho. ARTIFACTS G- NO. GRAPHICS B-A15 B-A14 B-A13 B-A12 B-AU B-A10 B-A5 B-A6 B-A7 B-A8 B-A9 B-A4 B-A3 B-A2 B-Al Decorated O b j e c t s 1. Decorated bone 2. Tooth pendants 3. Shale beads Women's T o o l s 4. F i s h k n i f e 5. Needles 6. Awls DhRsl:9013 DhRsl:3946 Ma8771 Ma403 DhRs1:9071 Ma 4 60 A1209 A887 A82 9 Ma3424 A1234 Hunting & F i s h i n g T o o l s 7. Chipped p o i n t s 8. S l a t e p o i n t s 9. Bone & a n t l e r p o i n t s 10. Harpoon p o i n t s 11. (c) 12. P e r f o r a t e d stones Woodworking T o o l s 13. Adze b l a d e s 14. A n t l e r c h i s e l 15. A n t l e r wedge 16. Hand maul Ma3975 A1029 Ma3782 A721 Ma3807 A765 A974 A994 EB158 Ma433 EB148 DgRr6:1935c Ma6279 Ma3289 Ma438 EB553 A866 A1084 MuE821 B - G l H a r l a n I. Smith's e x c a v a t i o n (photo) COKMEMTS B-Gl American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y neg.// 42964 152 EXHIBIT Ch/ArJG/AJG TiJ>BS S E C T /OrJ 6 P A G E B-^f SuBCTECT T e x r O R SECTION B: LIE +F Marpole midden artifacts Pieces archeologiques de l'amas de coquilles de Marpole Decorative objects Objets decores 1. Incised bone and antler objects Objets incises en os et en andouiller 2. Canine tooth pendants Pendeloques en canine 3. Shale beads Grains de collier en argile schisteuse Women's tools Outillage employe par les femmes 4. Ground slate fish knife Couteau a poissori en ardoise polie 5. Bone and antler needles Aiguilles en os et en andouiller 6. Bird and mammal bone awls Alene en os d'oiseau et de mammifere Hunting and fishing tools Outillage pour la chasse et la peche 7. Chipped projectile points and knife Pointes de projectile et couteauen pierre taillee 8. Ground slate points Pointes en ardoise polie 9. Bone and antler points Pointes en os et en andouiller 10. Unilaterally barbed antler harpoon points Pointes de harpon a barbes unilaterales en andouiller 11. Bilaterally barbed harpoon point (replica) Pointes de harpon a barbelure bilaterale (replique) 12. Perforated stones Pierres perforees Woodworking tools Outillage pour le travail du bois 13. Nephrite adze blades Lames d'herminette en nephrite 14. Antler chisel Ciseau en andouiller 15. Antler wedge Coin en andouiller 16. Hand maul Masse 153 EXHIBIT CrfAfiJG/MG? T~/j)ES se cr tosJ B ? A G ) £ B-sr S U B J E C T - TEXT OR PrrzntAcT B E.L(Y) B-Gl £-+F Harlan I. Smith's Marpole excavation, 1898. Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History La fouille de Marpole par Harlan I. Smith, 1898 Avec la permission de rAmerican Museum of Natural History. EXHIBIT CMM&iiNQz -TlbBS S u B J 6 C r TEXT OR Aftm-'Acr U B E L ( S ) Section C I : Cl -Tl E T H E C U L T U R A L S E Q U E N C E S T A G E Charles E. Borden, premier archeologue de la Colombie Britannique, effectua des travaux a Marpole et dans d'autres stations du delta du Fraser, entre la fin des annees quarante et les annees soixante-dix et etablit l'essentiel de la succession des cultures dont l'emploi continut de nos jours. II se rendit compte que le but de depasser les interpretations speculatives sur la prehistoire de la region efiectues par Smith, exigeait un enregistrement rigoureux de la provenance des pieces, des outils et des structures dtiabitat telles que les foyers. Cl-Tl F LA S U C C E S S I O N D E S C U L T U R E S British Columbia's first archaeologist, Charles E. Borden, worked at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites, from the late 1940's to the 1970's, and was instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. He realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpretations of the area's prehistory, accurate records must be kept of where artifacts or tools, and features—such as hearths—were found in a site. C 1 - T 2 £ To establish a cultural sequence, Borden grouped layers with similar artifacts into what archaeologists call a component He then grouped similar components from different sites into cultures or cultural phases. Radio-carbon dating, invented in 1948, was used to verify the order of these phases, as well as to date them. C1-TZ.F- A f i n de mettre sui pied une succession des cultures, Borden groupa les couches posse'dant des pieces semblables en un ensemble que les archeologues nomment une composante. II ordonna ensuite les composantes de difftrentes stations qui se ressemblaient en cultures ou en phases culturelles. La datation au radiocaibonne, inventee en 1948. fut employ6e afin de vdrifier l'ordre successif de ces phases et de les dater. EXHIBIT £ / / / W G / A / G TIDES se cr iotJ c7? P A G J E C i - l SuBJ£Cr T E X T O R P A C T B £ L ( s ) C 1 - T 3 e D E F I N I N G C U L T U R A L PHASES The phases Borden defined are the Locamo Beach phase, the Marpole phase, the Whalen II phase, and the Stselax phase. These phases were usually named after the first site in which the characteristic component was found, but any site could contain several components or phases. For example, Marpole phase components, first defined at the Marpole site, are found at many sites in the region including the Glenrose Cannery site upriver. The Whalen II phase, on the other hand, is confined to a single site. Shown here is a selection of artifacts Borden considered representative of each cultural phase. 0.-T3F L A D E F I N I T I O N D E S PHASES C U L T U R E L L E S Les phases defmies par Borden component celles de Locarno Beach, de Marpole, de Whalen II et Stselax. La nomenclature de ces phases s'obtient habituellement en adoptant comme station-type la premiere ou eut lieu la decouverte de la composante qui la caractense. Toute station demeure neanmoins susceptible de contenir plusiers composantes ou plusiers phases. C'est ainsi que les composantes de la phase Marpole, deTinies pour la premiere fois dans la station de Marpole, se rencontrent dans plusieurs stations de la region, y compris celle de Glenrose Cannery, en amonL La phase Whalen II, par ailleurs, n'est repr&entee que par une seule station. V o i d un choix de pieces que Borden considerait comme representatives de chacunes des phases culturelles. E X H I B I T £ / J / W G / A J G f / J ) £ S P f t ^ E . CI -3 A. A/a A R T I F A C T S G. WO- GRAPHICS Locarno Beach Phase C l - A l 1. Toggle v a l v e Uh325 C1-A3 2. Toggle head DhRt6:204 C l - G l Photo of p r o f i l e drawing C1-A4 3. S l a t e p o i n t s DhRt6:344 DhRt6:74 C1-G2 Photo of Marpole e x c a v a t i o n C1-A5 4. S l a t e k n i f e A194 C1-A6 5. F a c e t t e d bone p o i n t Uhl62c C1-G3 Photo of measuring i n s i t u C1-A7 6. S e r r a t e d p o i n t DhRt6:72c C1-A8 7. Chipped p o i n t s D h R t 6 : l l C1-G4 Beach Grove e x c a v a t i o n (mural) DhRt6:30 C1-A9 8. S h e l l adze f r a g . DgRrl:4193 C1-A10 9. Small adze blade MuNE78 C1-A12 10. Bone needle A1203 C1-A13 11. B i r d bone awl DhRt6:1064 C1-A14 12. Labret DrRt6:287 C1-A15 13. Cobble hammerstone DhRt6:117 C1-A16 14. Sea mammal bones' DhRt6:6213f C1-A58 15. Death head DhRt6:218c C1-A60 16. Harpoon f o r e s h a f t Uh283 Marpole Phase C1-A21 1. Adze blades DhRsl:9185 Ma 40 5 Ma3585 C1-A22 2. A n t l e r p e s t l e Ma3299c C1-A23 3. Stone bowl DhRsl:9216c C1-A24 4. Shale beads no } ' s C1-A25 5. A n t l e r pendant Ma3345 C1-A27 6. T-shaped l a b r e t Ma368 C1-A28 7. A n t l e r p o i n t s Ma428 Ma430 C1-A29 8. Chipped p o i n t s Ma3259 Ma3577 Ma3797 A 1 0 U C1-A31 9. Beaver i n c i s o r DgRr2:71 C1-A32 10. Salmon vertbra.e no J ' s C1-A61 11. Bone needle DhRsl:3975 C1-A62 12. B i r d bone awls EB172 A1233 C1-A63 13. P e r f o r a t e d stone Ma3288 (con't p.Cl-4) C O K M E K I T S c= r e p l i c a f= f a u n a l remain C l - G l L e i c a 49 XII 08 C1-G2 L e i c a 55 VIII {25 C1-G3 L e i c a 65 II (18 C1-G4 L e i c a 57 I I I {23 EXHIBIT CHftrJG/rJG T/j>a£ S E C T I O N CI ci -4 S U B J E C T A. Ho. Mr\FACTS G. NO- GRAPHICS M a r p o l e P h a s e c o n ' t C 1 - A 1 7 14. H a r p o o n p o i n t A 1 1 9 1 C 1 - A 1 8 15. G r o u n d s l a t e k n i f e Ma427 C 1 - A 1 9 16. A n t l e r w e d ge A 1 0 6 1 C 1 - A 2 0 17. H a n d m a u l D h R s l : 4 3 8 5 W h a l e n I I P h a s e C 1 - A 3 3 1. M i c r o b l a d e s ( c ) no //' s C1 - A 3 4 2. O l i v e l l a b e a d s ( c ) no II' s C 1 - A 3 5 3. C h i p p e d p o i n t s Wh253 Wh282 Wh662 C 1 - A 3 7 4. T o g g l e h e a d Wh91c C 1 - A 3 8 5. A n t l e r w e d g e A 1 0 5 8 C 1 - A 4 0 6. A d z e b l a d e ' Wh304 C 1 - A 4 1 7. I n c i s e d o b j e c t Wh534c C 1 - A 4 3 8. B e a v e r i n c i s o r MuE806 C 1 - A 4 4 9. B a r b e d p o i n t Wh536c C 1 - A 4 5 10. B i r d b o n e a w l Ma3433 C 1 - A 4 6 11. D e n t a l i u m D h R s l : 9 2 0 5 C 1 - A 3 9 12. H a n d m a u l D g R n x : 5 6 S t s e l a x P h a s e C 1 - A 4 7 1. T o g g l e h e a d s MuE2060 MuE4312 MuE2092 C 1 - A 4 8 2. G r o u n d s l a t e p o i n t s M uE2170 MuE4361 C 1 - A 4 9 3. Wedge MuE2667 C 1 - A 5 1 4. A d z e b l a d e s MuE4527 MuE4676 C1-A52 5. F i s h k n i f e MuE2138 C 1 - A 5 4 . 6. K n o t c h e d p o i n t MuE4872 C 1 - A 5 5 7. S p i n d l e w h o r l M u E354c C 1 - A 5 6 8. B o n e p i n MuE510c C 1 - A 5 7 9. B o n e p o i n t s MuE4868 C 1 - A 6 4 10. D r i n k i n g t u b e MuE2942 C 1 - A 6 5 11. P i p e f r a g . MuE2942 C 1 - A 6 6 12. B e a v e r i n c i s o r D h R t 4 : 6 8 4 3 C 1 - A 6 7 13. B i r d b o n e a w l MuE2533 C 1 - A 5 0 14. H a n d m a u l MuE2636 C o H H E K l T S c = r e p l i c a EXHIBIT dHMCihlG, T/PeS SuBCJEC-r T e x T O R / T f i r / ^ A c - r UBE.L(S) SECTION C I : L I £.4 F Locarno Beach Phase (ca. 1100-400 B.C.) Phase Locarno Beach (entre 1100 et 400 av. J.C.) 1. Antler toggle valves for harpoon heads Crans de tetes de harpons femelles en andouiller 2. One piece toggle valve for harpoon head (replica) Crans de tete de harpon femelle simple (replique) 3. Ground slate points Pointes en ardoise polie 4. Thick ground slate knife Couteau epais en ardoise polie 5. Facetted ground bone point (replica) Pointe facettee en os poli (replique) 6. Serrated bone point (replica) Pointe denticulee en os (replique) 7. Chipped stone projectile points Pointes de projectiles en pierre taillee 8. Shell adze blade fragment Fragment de lame d'herminette en coquillage 9. Small adze blade Petite lame d'herminette 10. Bone needle Aiguille en os 11. Bird bone awl Alene en os d'oiseau 12. Labret (replica) Labret (replique) 13. Cobble hammerstone Percuteur de galet 14. Sea mammal bones Os de mammifere marin 15. Human skull effigy carved from deer bone (replica) Effigie en forme de crane humain sculptee dans un os de cerf (replique) 16. ' Antler harpoon foreshaft Hampe de harpon en andouiller E X H I B I T P A G E s u B j e c r TEXT OR A f t r i P A C T U B £ L ( i ) C1--L1 E+F Marpole Phase (ca. 400 B . C . - A . D . 450) Phase Marpole (entre 4Q0 av. J .C. et 450 A.D.) 1. Adze and chisel blades Lames d'herminette et de ciseaux 2. Great blue heron miniature antler pestle (replica) Pilon miniature en andouiller sous forme de grand heron bleu (r6plique) 3. Small human figure bowl (replica) Petit bol anthropomorphe (replique) 4. Shale beads Grains de collier en argile schisteuse 5. Antler pendant Pendeloque en andouiller 6. T-shaped labret Labret en forme de T 7. Barbed antler points Pointes a barbelures en andouiller 8. Chipped projectile points Pointes de projectiles en pierre taillfee 9. Beaver incisor carving tool Outil a sculpter en incisive de castor 10. Salmon vertebrae Vertebres de saumon 11. Bone needle Aiguille en os 12. Bird bone awl Alene en os d'oiseau 13. Perforated stone Pierre perforee 14. Antler harpoon point Pointe de harpon en andouiller 15. Ground slate knife Couteau en ardoise polie 16. Antler wedge Coin en andouiller 17. Hand maul Masse EXHIBIT CHfiiyJG/A/G n ^ s SeCT/OM C± PAGE CJ--7 SUBJECT TEXT OR PranfAo-r L i B £ L ( i ) CI- LI VVhalco II Phase (ca. A.D. 350-800) Phase Whalen 11 (enrre 350-800 A.D.) 1. Obsidian microblades (replicas) Microlame en obsidienne (replique) 2. Olivella shell beads (replicas) Grains de colliers en coqutlle d'Olivella (replique) 3. Chipped projectile points Pointes de projectiles en pierre taillee 4. Antler toggle valves for harpoon heads (replicas) Crans de tetes de harpons femelles en andouiller (replique) 5. Antler wedge Coin en andouiller 6. Nephrite adze blade Lame d'herminette en nephrite 7. Incised siltstone object (replica) Object incise en roche sedimentaire (rtplique) 8. Beaver incisor carving tool Outil a sculpter en incisive de castor 9. Barbed bone point fragment (replica) Fragment de pointe a barbelures en os (replique) 10. Bird bone awl Alene en os d'oiseau 11. Dentalium shell Coquille de Dentalium 12. Hand maul Masse EXHIBIT CHArjGv/AJS? r/i>£S s e c r / O f J PA<3£ Cl -8 T E X T OR Aer iMcr L * B E L . ( S ) Stselax Phase (ca. A.D. 800-1808) Phase Stselax (entre 800-1808 A.D.) 1- •. Valves for toggling harpoon heads Crans de tStes de harpon femelle 2. Ground slate points Pointes en ardoise polie 3. Antler wedge C o i n en andouiller 4. Adze blades Lame d'herminette 5. Ground slate knife Couteau en ardoise polie 6. Side notched point Pointe a encoche laterale 7. Antler spindle whorl (replica) Fuseau en andouiller (replique) 8. Bone pin (replica) Epingle en os (replique) 9. Bone points and point fragment Pointes en os et fragments de pointes 10. Bird bone drinking tube Tube a boire en os d'oiseau 11. Steatite pipe fragment Fragment de pipe en steatite 12. Beaver incisor carving tool Outil a sculpter en incisive de castor 13. Bird bone awl Alene en os d'oiseau 14. Hand maul Masse 162. EXHIBIT S E C T IOtJ P A G E £1-9 SfBJEC-T T e x r OR PtrzriFAor \_(\ B E./_(S) C I -Grl £+f= Profile drawing of midden layers. Whalen Farm site, 1949. Photo by Charles E Borden Coupe des couches du gisement Station de Whalen Farm, 1949. Photographie prise par Charles E Borden A view of the Marpole excavation, 1955. Photo by Charles E Borden Vue de la fouille de Marpole, 1955. Photographie prise par Charles E Borden Measuring the location of an artifact Pt Grey site, 1965. Photo by Charles E Borden Prise de coordonnfes d'une piece archeologique Photographie prise par Charles E Borden Beach Grove excavation, 1957. Photo by Charles E Borden Fouille de Beach Grove, 1957. Photographie prise par Charles E Borden EXHIBIT s e c r /orJ PAGE CZ-J- • S U B J E C T T E X T O R PriZTiCACT \_(\ B E-L(Y) Section C2 - T 4 & REFINING T H E C U L T U R A L S E Q U E N C E Initially, Borden viewed his cultural phases as representing a series of migrations into the region. He eventually modified his position, however, recognizing that cultural change could also result from local developement. C 2 - T 5 £ This change in Borden's position resulted when archaeological work in adjacent areas failed to support his hypotheses about the origin of certain traits. Although he eventually allowed that most phases could have developed locally out of previous ones, he continued to argue that the Whalen II phase represented the arrival of new people from the interior. By considering the Whalen II phase to represent the entire region during one time period. Borden ignored other possible explanations. The presence of particular artifacts might have resulted from trade, and absence of others might have been due to the season of site use. For example, the presence of small chipped stone points, commonly found in interior sites, were also found at the Whalen Farm site, and could be accounted for by trade between coast and interior peoples. On the other hand, the absence of thin ground slate knives usually associated with salmon processing and found in earlier and later phases in the region may simply indicate that the site in question was not used for salmon fishing. A recognition of the potential importance of seasonal site use distinguishes the next stage of archaeological research. This new focus provides an alternative explanation for the uniqueness of the Whalen II component, while adding a new dimension to complement Borden's basic cultural sequence. EXHIBIT ChlflrJG/KJG, TibES SeCT/OrJ (2-2, PAGE CZ-Z. TEXT OR A f t r i f A C T U B £ L ( i ) P L E R A F F T N E M E N T D E L A S E Q U E N C E D E S C U L T U R E S Au debut, Borden envisageait ses phases culturelles comme l'aboutissement d'une serie de migrations dans la region. II modifia son point de vue, en definitive, en admettant qu'un developpement a I'echelle locale pourrait egalement produire un changement culturel. CZ - T S f Cette modification de point de vue eut lieu lorsque des recherches archeologiques dans des regions voisines ne purent confirmer son hypothese sur l'origine de certains traits. Bien qu'ayant concede que la majorite des phases pouvait Stre issue d'antec6dants a 1'echelle locale, i l continua cependant de soutenir que la phase Whalen II representait un mouvement de population provenant de l'intfcrieur. En considerant la phase Whalen II comme valable pour l'ensemble de la region durant une seule periode, Borden ne tenait pas compte de la possibility d'autres explications. Ainsi, la presence de pieces avec des paru'cularites aurait pu resulter d'echanges tandis que ('absence d'autres pieces, de l'emploi saisonnier d'une station. On pourrait rendre compte, par exemple, des petites pointes en pierre eclatfee, repandues dans les stations de l'int6rieur et trouvfees fegalement a Whalen Farm, par des echanges entre les populauons de la c6te et celles de l'interieur. L'absence, par contre, de couteaux minces en ardoise polie. associes habituellement avec la preparation du saumon et que Ton rencontre dans les phases anciennes et recentes de la region, signifierait simplement que cette m6me station ne servait pas a la peche au saumon. La realisation de l'importance possible de l'emploi saisonnier des stations marque P6tape suivante des recherches archeologiques. Cette nouvelle fa^on de voir rend compte du caractere inusite de la composante Whalen II, tout en ajoutant une dimension nouvelle et compl6mentaire a la sequence consrruite par Borden. 165 EXHIBIT CUMGt*JO> TH>£ SECT/OK| CZ PA^EL C Z - 3 SUB.3"£CT A. HO /\Kri P A C T S G. N/O. GRAPHICS NONE NONE CoKMEM TS EXHIBIT £HA^0J/A7G T ID£5 S£CT/o/\J ])l SuBJ£Cr T e x r O R A f t r i f A c r L A B E . L ( _ S ) D l - T l £ T H E S U B S I S T E N C E R E S E A R C H S T A G E PACE Since the 1970's, archaeologists have been applying new techniques to midden sites in order to answer new questions about the process of cultural adaptation in the region. Their investigations have focussed on how the prehistoric inhabitants of the area supplied themselves with food and other necessities. M - T l F L E S S T R A T E G I E S D E S U B S I S T A N C E Depuis les annes soixante-dix, les archeologues ont eu recours a de nouvelles techniques, pour 1'etude des stations en amas de coquilles, afin d'aborder de nouveaux problcjnes concernant les processus d'adaptation culturelle dans la region. Leurs recherches se sont consacrees a 1'etude des moyens employes par les occupants prehistoriques de la region pour s'approvisionner en aliments et en autres besoins. D1-T2 E An understanding of the subsistence strategy each phase of the Fraser delta sequence represents is just beginning to take shape. The Glenrose Cannery site proved a good starting point for such research because it provided a 6,000 year record of continuing but variable use of resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp. DI -T/L P Une comprehension des strategies de subsistence pratiques au cours de chacunes des phases qui se sont succ6dees dans le delta n'en est q u ' i ses debuts. La station de Glenrose Cannery d6montre pour la premiere fois les possibilites offertes par une telle orientation de la recherche. Elle illustre pour une duree continue de plus de 6,000 ans les differentes modalites d'exploitation des ressources telles que le saumon, les mollusques, les mammiferes terrestres et marins. L'fctude plus rfecente de la station Crescent Beach a permis de connaitre l'emploi saisonnier d'une station se speaalisant dans la preparation des mollusques et du hareng. EXHIBIT c/7£rJG /A J G T JDE-S s e C T I O I V Di. PAGE D l - i SUBCTECT T e x r OR D1-T3 E R E F I N I N G E X C A V A T I O N A N D L A B O R A T O R Y T E C H N I Q U E S To aid subsistence research, archaeologists employ more refined excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. A critical aspect of this research is discovering the relationships among artifacts, food remains, and other midden materials. M -T3 h- L E R A F F I N E M E N T D E S T E C H N I Q U E S D E F O U I L L E ET E N L A B O R A T O I R E Les archeologues recourent a des metliodes de fouille plus detaillees et a des techniques de laboratoire nouvclles qui rendent l'etude de la subsistance plus efficace. Un aspect d'importance capitale pour ce genre de recherche est de decouvrir les liens pouvant exister entre les outillages, les restes alinientaiies et les autres vestiges dans les amas de coquilles. D1-T4 E Because these techniques are expensive, all layers within a site cannot be analyzed with the same intensity. Archaeologists therefore select representative samples in order to reconstruct the relative importance of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of the site's occupants. The use of waterscreening through fine mesh allows for greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items than do traditional dry screening methods. Computers are increasingly important for analyzing the masses of data generated by such field techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid subsistence research. For example, the g r o w t h rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby indicating the season o f site use. Detecting residues such as blood, fats, and resins on stone tools h e l p s to show tool function and, consequently, what activities might have been performed at these seasonal sites. bi Le c o Q t onereux de ces techniques ne permet pas d'analyser en detail chacunes des couches d'un. g i s e m e n L Les archfcologues ont done recours a des echantillons. afin d'etablir la part jouee respectivement par les mollusques, le p o i s s o n et le gibier dans l'alimentation des occupants d'une station. Le tamisage fin a l'eau assure, • mieux que par les techniques traditionnelles, une recuperation complete des vertebres de poisson et d'aurres restes de petite dimension. Les ordinateurs acquierent une importance croissante dans l'analyse du volume de d o n n e e s engendr6es par ces techniques de terrain. De nouvelles techniques de laboratoire sont presentement a l'essai pour assister dans l'etude de la subsistance. L'etude d e s anneaux de croissance visibles p a r sections transverses d e s coquilles permet, p a r exemple. d'etablir la saison de la collecte et p a r cons6quent, c e l l e de l'occupation de la station. La decouverte de traces de sang, de graisse et de resine sur les outils de piene, contribue a ridentification de leur fonction et p a r consequent, du genre d'activit6s qui auraient pu avoir eu lieu dans ces stations a occupation saisonniere. 168 EXHIBIT £HA/VIG> I AJGI TiDtSS 5 £ C T i o t g J>± S U B J E C T A. NO. A\£T\ P A C T S G. NO- GRAPHICS D l - A l D1-A2 D1-A3 T o o l s f o r r e s i d u e a n a l y s i s D g R r l : 4 1 9 6 D g R r l : 4 3 1 2 C r o s s - s e c t i o n o f s h e l l no // H e r r i n g v e r t e b r a e no //' s D1-G2 D1-G3 D1-G4 D1-G5 D1-G6 W a t e r s c r e e n i n g p h o t o L a b p h o t o I l l u s t r a t i o n o f r e s i d u e a n a l y s i s ( D l - A l ) I l l u s t r a t i o n o f s h e l l a n a l y s i s ( D 1 - A 2 ) C o l o u r e d p i e g r a p h o f f a u n a l u s e t h r o u g h t i m e a t G l e n r o s e C a n n e r y s i t e C o K K E K j T " S D1-G2 D g R r l C3-2 ( s l i d e ) D1-G3 T a k e n f o r C h a n g i n g T i d e s 169 E X H I B I T bl P A G E bl-4 S U B J E C T T E X T OR Residue analysis showing presence or absence of blood , fats and resins. Analyse de residus demontrant la presence ou l'absence de sang, de graisse et de resine + blood + sang + blood + sang + blood + sang + blood + sang + + blood + +sang - b l o o d -sang - b l o o d -sang + fats +graisse + fats + graisse + fais + graisse + fats + graisse + resins + resines -resins -resines -resins -resines + present or positive reaction + presence ou reaction positive + + strong indication of presence + + forte indication de presence - absent or negative reaction - absence ou reaction negative EXHIBIT CtiAti&riKlG, T/bS-S S U B J E C T TEXT OR PttzrtFAo-r L I B E L ( S ) D 1 - A 2 - G 5 E-t-F Shell cross-section indicating spring growth at time of collection. Section d'une coquille indiquant une CToissance primanniere lors du ramasage. Dark bands occur during slow winter growth season: Les bandes foncees surviennent au cours de la periode de croissance lente en hiver. Cross-section cut Coupe transversale Winter growth ring Anneau de croissance hivernale Complete annual band Bande annuelle complete spring growth Croissance printanniere D 1 - A 3 E<-f= Herring vertebrae, recovered by waterscreening. Vertebres de harengs obtenues par le tamissage a l'eau Ol-GZ B+F Waterscreening at Crescent Beach, 1977. Photo by Len Ham Tamissage a l'eau a Crescent Beach. 1977. Photographie prise par Len Ham D l - £ i 3 £-+F Laboratory analysis of stone tool residues, 1985. Photo by M . Robinson Waters. Analyse en laboratoire des restes d'outillage de pierre, 1985. Photographie prise par M . Robinson Waters. P A G E bl - 5 " EXHIBIT C M A A J C I I U G ) T I & E - S secr/OfJ t ) i PAGE D>l-(o S U B J E C T T e x r O R ftizr^Ao-r LABE-L- C S) Identified fish remains from Glenrose Cannery showing changing resource use through time. Restes de poisssons identifies a Glenrose Cannery montrant le changement des ressources exploitees au cours des temps Marpole Phase ca. 400 B . C . - A . D . 450 Phase Marpole (entre 400 av. J . C et 450 A.D.) SL Mungo Phase ca. 2500-1100 B.C. Phase SL Mungo (entre 2500 et 1100 B.C.) Old Cordilleran Phase ca. 6200-2500 B.C. Phase Old Cordilleran (entre 6200 et 2500 B.C.) S A L M O N S A U M O N H E R R I N G H A R E N G E U L A C H O N E P E R L A N S T U R G E O N E S T U R G E O N S T I C K L E B A C K . E P I N O C H E EXHIBIT CHAkJGilfiJG TiDE-S S E C T /OrJ Dl. P A G E b l - 1 S U B J E C T T E X T OR Ptrzrif ACT L f l B E . L ( i ) D2-T1 £ I N V E S T I G A T I N G A S E A S O N A L S I T E The excavation of shell midden layers at the Cresent Beach site shows how the type and season of activities undertaken at a site may be determined by careful analysis. D 2 - T 1 F L ' E T U D E D U N E S T A T I O N A O C C U P A T I O N SAISONNEERE L a fouille des couches d'amas de coquilles de la station de Crescent Beach demontre comment des analyses minutieuses peuvent nous renseigner sur le type et la saison des activites qui avaient lieu dans une station. D2-T2 E One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site was the careful removal of midden layers following the natural contours of the site. Previous sites were excavated by removing flat, even layers.usually 10 to 20 cm. thick. This refinement helped to isolate the specific activities which had occurred at this site. Une amelioration importante apportee a la fouille de Crescent Beach fut le decapage par couches de l'amas de coquilles, en suivant les contours naturels de la station. Les fouilles precedentes des autres stations se faisaient par niveaux arbitrages de 10 a 20 centimetres d'epaisseur. Ce raffinement a permis de sfcparer les differentes activites ayant eu lieu dans cette station. E X H I B I T CHAkiGiriQ T I D E S s e c T / o r J D £ S U B J E C T TEXT OR Aftri*= A C T M B E L ( S ) D£-T3£ M I D D E N L A Y E R S A N D P A S T ACTIVITIES To understand each layer type, models of site use were developed. Models are used to predict what activities might have occurred at the site during different times of the year. Important considerations include the historic Coast Salish use of the area and those times of the year when certain resources were most abundant. Certain layer types, features, artifacts, and faunal remains thus can be predicted for a particular group of expected activities. Dl-TSf C O U C H E S D ' A M A S D E C O Q U I L L E S ET ACTIVITES D U P A S S E Des modeles d'utilisatiou de stations ont ete constants, afin de se renseigner sur les differents rtypes de couches. Le rccours aux modeles permet de predire le genre d'activites qui aurait pu avoir lieu dans une station, a differents moments de l'annee. Ainsi, l'utilisation du milieu par les populations Salish de la cdte, au cours de l'histoire recente, et la saisonnalite de 1'akondance de certaines ressources, meriteut une attention particuliere. II semblc done probable que certains types de couches, de structures d'habitat et d'objets coincident avec le realisation d'un ensemble de tidies particulieres. D2-T4 P Although such factors as decay, and the removal of many tools and structures once at the site, might make analysis difficult, the prediction of site use helps to overcome this problem. For example, if shellfish harvesting and processing are predicted for a site, the baskets, digging sticks and drying racks might have been removed or have decayed. On the other hand, other evidence willl remain, such as the remains of steaming mounds, discarded clam shells, and the post holes for the drying racks. If the problematic Whalen II component at the Whalen Farm site were re-examined in this manner, it might now be seen as a seasonal variant of another cultural phase rather than as a unique cultural phase. D 2. - T4 P Maigre l'effet de facteurs contribuant aux difficultes de l'analyse. tels que la decompostion et le transport de plusieurs outils et de structures d'habitat en dehors de la station, tin modele d'ulilisation des stations fornit les moyens de surmonter de tels obstacles. Si Ton prevoit, par exemple. qu'une station etait uuiisee pour la college et la preparation des mollusque, i l demeure possible que les paniers, les batons a fouiller et les claies a sechage aient ete rransportes ailleurs ou se soient decomposes. D'autres indices s'y tiouveront, par contre, tels que les vestiges d'etuves en amas, les coquilles abandonnees et les trous de poteaux pour les claies A sechage. Une nouvelle etude de la composante problemau'que de Whalen II pourrait demontrer qu'il s'agissait, en fait, d'une occupation saisonniere faisant partie d'une autre phase culturelle et non pas, d'une phase culturelle distincte. PAGE DZ - 2 EXHIBIT £r/AM&/A/C7 T/DtS s e c r / o N j P A ^ E L Oz-3 S U B O I E C T A. A/G /\KT~I F A C T S G. NO- GRAPHICS C l a m d i g g i n g t o o l k i t D2-A1 1. S m a l l c l a m b a s k e t A2282 ( E ) D2-G1 P h o t o o f m i d d e n l a y e r m a p p i n g D2-A2 2. D i g g i n g s t i c k A 2 2 3 9 " D2-A3 3. C l a m s , no I's D2-G2 P h o t o o f e x c a v a t i n g b y l a y e r s W o o d w o r k i n g t o o l k i t D2-G3 I l l u s t r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s D2-A4 4. C o m p o s i t e a d z e - b l a d e D h R r l 3 : 3 D2-G4 D r a w i n g o f m i d d e n b u i l d - u p - h a n d l e no f c D2-A5 5. Hand m a u l D h R s l 8 : I D2-G5 P h o t o o f m i d d e n f e a t u r e D2-A6 6. A n t l e r wedge MuE64 Wooden wedge D h R t 4 : 8 5 7 2 D2-A7 7. . Bone c h i s e i A837 D2-A8 8. Bone d r i l l n o 1 c D2-A9 9. D o g f i s h s k i n no 1 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e m a i n s ( w o o d w o r k i n D2-A10 10. A d z e b l a d e D g R r l -.4050 D2-A13 11. A n t l e r w e d g e s / f r a g s D g R r l : 4 1 2 2 4 3 0 0 4194 D2-A14 12. Bone c h i s e l D g R r l : 4 1 1 6 D2-A15 13. Bone d r i l l f r a g . D g R r l : 4 2 6 7 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e m a i n s ( c l a m s ) D2-A17 14. C l a m f r a g s no I's D2-A19 15. C o o k i n g s t o n e s ( 2 ) D g R r l : 3 0 no //' s C o M H E K i r s E = E t h n o l o g y c o l l e c t i o n D2-G1 D g R r l - C 2 - 1 7 D2-G2 " C l - 3 2 D2-G3 G o r d o n M i l l e r p a i n t i n g D2-G5 D g R r l - C 2 - 1 0 175 EXHIBIT £WA/OG / / 0 G TIOSS seer DZ-4 S U B J E C T T E X T OR PtrZn^AOT L 1 B £ L ( s ) - L i £ +-F Clam digging tool kit Panoptic pour la recolte des palourdes 1. Small clam basket Petit panier a palourdes 2. Digging Stick Baton a fouiller 3. Horse clams Palourde Woodworking Tool Kit Panoplie pour le travail du bois 4. Straight adze, with antler haft and nephrite blade (replica) Herminette droite, avec manche en andouiller et lame en nephrite (replique) 5. Hand maul Masse 6. Antler and wooden wedges Coins en andouiller et en bois 7. Bone chisel Ciseau en os 8. Bone drill with wooden handle (replica) Foret en os, avec poignee de bois (replique) 9. Dogfish skin sandpaper Papier a sabler en peau de chien de mer Archaeological remains of woodworking tool kit Vestiges archeologiques de panoplie pour le travail du bois 10. Adze blade Lame d'herminette 11. Antler wedges and fragments Coins en andouiller et fragments 12. Bone chisel Ciseau en os 13. Bone drill fragment Fragment de foret en os Archaeological remains from clam processing Vestiges archeologiques de la preparation des palourdes 14. Horse clam fragments Fragments de palourde 15. Cooking stones Pierres servant a la cuisson EXHIBIT CHA^Gi^Ci T i £ £ S secriONJ D Z P A G E D2-5~ S U B J E C T TEXT O R A f t n f A c T L A B E L ^ ) D 2 - G 1 &*i= Mapping midden layer contours. Crescent Beach site, 1977. Photo by Len Ham Cartographie du contours des couches de l'amas de coquilles. Station de Crescent Beach, 1977. . Photographie prise par Len Ham D2 - G 2 £ + F Excavating by natural layers. Crescent Beach site, 1977. Photo by Len Ham Fouille par decapage. Station de Crescen Beach, 1977. Photographie prise par Len Ham D2-G3: £ By reconstructing the activities which might have occurred at the Crescent Beach site, archaeologists can better understand the pattern of remains which are left behind. Shown here are some of the activities and structures which would have occurred at an early spring herring fishing camp, before the herring run. b Z - 6 3 P Une reconstitution des activites ayant pu se derouler dans la station de Crescent Beach permet aux aichfeologues de mieux saisir la signification des vestiges abandonnes. Nous voyons ici certaines des activites et des structures qui devaient avoir lieu dans un camp de peche avant la migration printanntere du hareng. EXHIBIT £H A M & / A J G > T / £ > £ - S StCT/OM 1)2, PAGE J>Z-4= S U B J E C T TEXT OR PIATIeACT- I . A B £ L ( _ S ) D 2 - G 4 : £ +- F M O D E L O F M I D D E N D E V E L O P M E N T M O D E L E D E L ' E V O L U T I O N D'UN A M A S D E C O Q U I L L E S Shellfish harvesting site after use Station de ramassage des mollusques apres son occupation Shellfish harvesting site, 30 years later. Station de ramassage des mollusques. 30 ans plus tard. Shellfish harvesting site after reuse Station de ramassage des mollusques apres une nouvelle occupation. Shell harvesting site. 100 years later. Station de rammassage des mollusques, 100 ans plus tard. ocean ocean ocean ocean ocean ocean oc6an ocean beach plage beach plage beach plage beach plage hearth foyer steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets hearth foyer steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets hearth foyer steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets hearth foyer steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets drying rack sechoir post holes troux de poteau sand and humus sable el humus shell coquille cobble stone gros galet old basket vieux panier broken digging stick baton a fouiller brise charcoal charbon storm erosion erosion par la tempete EXHIBIT C^A/KJG/AJCI TibBS s e c r / o / \ J P A G E D2-7 s u B c r e c r T E X T o R A An* ACT uaE'L^) D Z > - G i 5 Archaeological remains of a steaming mound. Crescent Beach site. 1977 Photo by Len Ham Vestiges archeologiques d'un amas d'6tuve. Station de Crescent Beach. 1977 Photographie prise par Len Ham 179 EXHIBIT CHANJCT/AJG T/DES SECT/OrJ £L ? A G £ £-1 Su 6 T £ C r TEXT OR fl-ftr^Acr L I B E L ^ ) ». E - T l £ T H E F U T U R E OF T H E P A S T Archaeological research in the Fraser delta region has developed through several stages paralleling general changes in North American archaeology. Each stage has built on previous results. These results liave laid the foundation upon which new questions are raised and new techniques are developed. E-T± F L'AVENIR D U P A S S E La recherche archeologique dans le delta du Fraser s'est deroulee au cours de plusiers etapes, de facon parrallele a ce qui s'est passe dans l'ensemkle de I'Amerique du Nord. Chaque etape a beueficie des resultats acquis. Ces resultats ont permis la formulation de nouvelles questions et le developpement de nouvelles techniques. E-T2 £ The Descriptive stage not only provided initial descriptions, but asked important questions concerning both economic and cultural change. The subsequent development of a regional Cultural Sequence resulted from more refined excavation techniques and laboratory procedures. Recent Subsistence Research is beginning to outline the development of the Northwest Coast's seasonally diverse subsistence pattern. While a similar range of resources was used in this area' for thousands of years, critical changes occurred in resource use, for instance the development of large scale salmon processing for storage. These changes have only recently received attention. A new focus on social questions, such as on how social organization and subsistence strategies interrelate, suggests that a new stage of archaeological research is also taking shape. The future of such research, however, is seriously threatened. £ - T £ F L'Etape Descriptive, en plus de fournir les premieres descriptions, a permis d'aborder des problemes importants sur le changement economique et culturel. L'etablissement d'une Succession des Cultures dans la region qui lui fit suite, a ete rendue possible par l'emploi de methodes de fouille et de techniques de laboratoire plus affin6es. L'etape recente de la Recherche sur la Subsistance est en voie d'esquisser 1'evoluuon des formes saisonnieres differentes de la subsistance sur la cflte du Pacifique Nord. Meme s'il semble acquis qu'une utilisation d'un 6ventail de ressources comparable se soit poursuivie au cours des mill6naires dans la region, les methodes d'exploitation ont subit d'importames modifications, entre autres le developpement d'une preparation intensive du saumon en vue de l'entreposage alimentaire. mais ce n'est que recemment que Ton accorde a de tels changements l'attention qu'ils meritent On se concentre maintenant sur l'etude des questions sociales. telles que le lien entre l'organisau'on sociale el les strategies de subsistance, ce qui indique l'avenement d'une nouvelle etape de la recherche. L'avenir de cette recherche se voit cependant menac6 de fagon serieuse. EXHIBIT CHAU&irtG, TibELS SeCT/OrsJ £ P A G E E-Z. S U B J E C T TEXT OR PtrzrttAc-r L ^ B E . L ( S ) e - T3 £ H E R I T A G E D E S T R U C T I O N The destruction of midden sites, especially in urban areas like the Fraser delta, is a major problem. Marpole and other important sites were excavated just before bulldozers moved in. Unfortunately, many other sites were destroyed before any archaeological investigation could take place. As a result, valuable heritage information has been lost forever. If a greater appreciation of the development of Northwest Coast cultures is to be achieved, archaeologists must continue to investigate a cross-section of sites within a region. But to do this, archaeological sites must be viewed as non-renewable resources that require our protection. E - T 3 F L A D E S T R U C T I O N D E L*HERITAGE C U L T U R E L L a destruction des stations en amas de coquilles, particulierement dans les zones urbaines du delta du Fraser, presente un probleme d'envergure. Marpole et d'autres stations furent fouillees immediatement avant rarrivee des niveleuses. Malheureusement, un grand nombre de gisements ont ete detruits avant que la recherche archeologique ne puisse intervenir, ce qui consitue une perte irreparable d'information precieuse sur l'heritage culturel. Les archeologues se voient dans l'obligation de poursuivre une recherche portant sur plusieurs types de stations, si Ton desire obtenir une meilleure connaissance de revolution des cultures sur la c6te du Pacificique Nord. La realisation de cet objectif exige cependant une protection des gisements archeologiques que Ton doit envisager comme des ressources non-renouvelables. 181 EXHIBIT C I - ^ A / G J / A J G TibES P A ^ E : £ 3 SUB.O"£CT A. ̂o- A\RT\ F A C T S G- No. GRAPHICS NONE E-Gl E-G2 E-G3 E-G4 Photo of Marpole 1955 Photo of Marpole 1984 Crescent Beach 1957 Marpole b u l l d o z e r shot (mural) C o K H E K i r s E - G l : D e l t a 55 I i?5 E-G3: D e l t a 57 I I I #14 E-G4: L e i c a 54(55)X #35 182 EXHIBIT CCMAAJG?./AJ& TI t>£-S s e c r / O f J g. ? A G £ e- 4 S u B J E c r T E X T O R fl-RnfAct u 6 £ L ( i ) £ - & l t + F View of Marpole site, 1955 Photo by Charles E. Borden Vue de la station de Marpole, 1955 Photographie prise par Charles E. Borden E-G2. E.tF View of Marpole site, 1984 Vue de la station de Marpole, 1984 £-G3 £ Archaeological excavation is often carried out under less than ideal conditions. Salvaging cultural remains threatened by immediate destruction necessitates quick action. This is a regrettable alternative to careful management of heritage resources. Crescent Beach salvage excavation, 1957. Photo by Don Abbott E-G3F" La fouille archeologique se poursuit souvent dans des conditions peu ideales. Le sauvetage des vestiges cullurels menaces par une destruction imminente exige une action rapide. Le sauvetage demeure malheureusement le seul recours, lorsqu'une administration attentive aux ressources du patrimoine fail defauL Fouille de sauvetage de Crescent Beach, 1957 Photographie prise par Don Abbott Photo by Charles E. Borden Photographie pris par Charles E. Borden 133 EXHIBIT CM ArOO? /AJG? T/btSS S E C T /OrJ F P A Q £ F - l S U B T E C - T flCKkJOtsJ LrZb&Ew BKJTS Tex r OR Aftr/MCT B E-LfY) F" - T J L £ + F A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S Changing Tides was produced by the University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology. Illustrations: Gordon Miller Graphics: Moira Irvine Translation: Prof. Nicolas Rolland This exhibit was curated by Ann Stevenson in panial fulfilment of the requirements for the M.A. degree in Anthropology, University of British Columbia. 1985. The curator wishes to thank her graduate committee for supporting and guiding this project and the Museum's staff, volunteers and students for making this exhibit possible. The museum gratefully acknowledges support for this exhibition from the National Museums or Canada. Exhibitions Assistance Programme and the British Columbia Heritage Trust University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology programmes are produced with the assistance of the Members and Friends of the Museum, the Volunteer Associates and Shop Volunteers, the Museum Assistance Programmes of the National Museums of Canada, and the Government of British Columbia through the British Columbia Cultural Fund and Lottery revenues. R E M E R C I E M E N T S Marees Changeantes a 616 realisee par le Musee d'Anthropologic de l'Universite de la Colombie Britannique. Illustrations: Gordon Miller Graphiques: Moira Irvine Traduction: Prof. Nicolas Rolland La conservation de cette exposition ful la responsabilitt d'Ann Stevenson et faisait parue des conditions exiges pour le grade de Maitrise es Arts en Anthropologie a l'Universite de la Colombie Britannique, 1985. Le conservateur tient a remercier les membres de son committe d'etudes superieures pour leur appui el pour l'avoir guide dans la realisation de ce projet, ainsi qu'au personnel du Musee, aux benevoles et aux etudiants dont 1'aide a rendu possible cette exposition. Le Mus6e remercie vivement pour leur aide les Musees nationaux du Canada, le Programme de Soutien aux Expositions et le Conseil pour la preservation du patrimoine de la Colombie Britannique. Les programmes du Mus6e d'Anthropologie de l'Universite de la Colombie Britannique beneTtcient de I'appui foumi par les Membres el les Amis du Musee, par les Benevoles Associes et les Benevoles de la Boutique, par les Programmes de Soutien aux Musees des Mus6es nationaux du Canada et par le Gouvernement de la Colombie Britannique. grace aux revenus du Fond culturel de la Colombie Britannique et de la Loterie. 184 9.13 APPENDIX 13 I l l u s t r a t i o n f o r the e x h i b i t i o n Changing Tides T h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n w i l l show a temporary Coast S a l i s h f i s h i n g camp at the Crescent Beach s i t e (ca. 1100 A.D.). T h i s camp would have been occupied f o r approximately one month i n the e a r l y s p r i n g ( l a t e February through March), mainly to harvest and process s h e l l f i s h f o r storage and tra d e , as w e l l as, f i s h i n g f o r h e r r i n g , c o l l e c t i n g h e r r i n g spawn, and d r y i n g these f o r storage. Secondary a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d woodworking, hide p r o c e s s i n g , b i r d , sea and l a n d mammal hunting. The s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s to be i l l u s t r a t e d are s h e l l - f i s h and h e r r i n g p r o c e s s i n g , and woodworking. S t r u c t u r e s would i n c l u d e temporary mat s h e l t e r s , h earths, smoking and d r y i n g r a c k s , and steaming mounds. The i l l u s t r a t i o n should i n c l u d e a number of people engaged i n the above a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g women a c t i v e l y p r o c e s s i n g food, men engaged i n woodworking, d r y i n g rack c o n s t r u c t i o n , and p o s s i b l y other a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with food p r o c e s s i n g . Included i n t h i s scene should be two o l d e r c h i l d r e n engaged i n these a c t i v i t i e s . I t should be r e c o g n i z a b l y a beach scene and back- ground a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d i n c l u d e h e r r i n g f i s h i n g and p o s s i b l y plank removal from standing cedars. Canoes would a l s o have been found on the beach. S h e l l f i s h h a r v e s t i n g : - r e q u i r e d the c o o p e r a t i o n of an organized pool of labo u r , or task groups to procure l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s As the lowest t i d e s were at night during the e a r l y s p r i n g , p r o c u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s would probably not be shown i n t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n . -Cockles ( C l i n o c a r d i u m n u t t a l i ) and Horse clams (Tresus sp.) were the most f r e q u e n t l y preserved s p e c i e s . Cockles are c o l l e c t e d on the s u r f a c e at low t i d e , but Horse clams r e q u i r e r a p i d d i g g i n g . Other s p e c i e s were a l s o c o l l e c t e d , but were e i t h e r eaten immediately a f t e r p r o c e s s i n g or were s t o r e d i n s m a l l e r numbers. Main sources f o r s h e l l f i s h h a r v e s t i n g and p r o c e s s i n g i n c l u d e : Ham 1982:128-132;141 Stern 1969:47-8 S u t t l e s 1974:65-9 Other sources i n c l u d e : Barnett 1955:65 H a e b e r l i n and Gunther 1930:23-4 Jenness n.d. :43 Kennedy and Bouchard 1983:33-6 Stewart 1977:132 S h e l l f i s h p r o c e s s i n g : Clams were f i r s t steamed open by p l a c i n g them over heated r o c k s , covered with k e l p , f i r or hemlock boughs, or o l d mats and f i n a l l y sand. V a r i a t i o n s i n c l u d e p i t steaming - -a shallow p i t was l i n e d with hot rocks from the f i r e , the w a l l s l i n e d with i n n e r cedar bark, s h e l l - f i s h i n the s h e l l were p l a c e d over the rocks and covered with mats and steamed. -or the rocks are p l a c e d over a l a r g e bed of hot c o a l s , when they are hot, the s h e l l f i s h are added, covered with o l d mats, and then sand. Seaweed and boughs c o u l d be used, but when l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s were processed at the beach sand was u s u a l l y used. Steaming took 20-45 minutes. Sand was removed, then the mats and boughs. The meat was removed and the s h e l l s d i s c a r d e d . The meat was r i n s e d of sand, stuck on skewers and r o a s t e d , e i t h e r by a n g l i n g the s t i c k s towards a f i r e or by l e a n i n g the s t i c k s on a frame over the f i r e . A f t e r r o a s t i n g the meat was strung on cedar bark s t r i n g s , and sun d r i e d before being s t o r e d i n a s m a l l , w e l l v e n t i l a t e d basket. H e r r i n g . p r o c e s s i n g : - h e r r i n g were d r i e d by p i e r c i n g a dozen or more through the g i l l s w ith a s t i c k which was l a i d a cross a s i x f o o t h i g h frame and e i t h e r sun d r i e d or smoked with a f i r e beneath the frame, - d r y i n g took ten days or more, and smoking may occur only f o r the f i r s t two to three days, -spawn was a l s o d r i e d on these frames, the roe which adhered to hemlock or cedar boughs would be shaken or s t r i p p e d o f f i n t o baskets a f t e r d r y i n g , - l a r g e r h e r r i n g were s p l i t open with a deer u l n a bone k n i f e f o r d r y i n g . See: Barnett 1955:86 Boas 1921:184-5 C u r t i s 1913:51 Jenness n.d. :17 Kennedy and Bouchard 1983:31-2 Stewart 1977:124-7;147-8 188 Woodworking a c t i v i t i e s at a s h e l l f i s h and h e r r i n g p r o c e s s - in g camp: Although s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s would probably predominate t h i s s i t e , c e r t a i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and manufact- u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s would a l s o have taken p l a c e . Many items were probably produced at the winter v i l l a g e , however some were undoubtably made at the s i t e . As h e r r i n g runs are r e l a t i v e l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e , the group u s i n g t h i s s i t e would a r r i v e before the h e r r i n g run was expected, h a r v e s t clams and other resources before the f i s h appeared. Woodworking a c t i v i t i e s would have occu r r e d at t h i s time. A v a r i e t y of items c o u l d have been made i n c l u d i n g house planks, canoes, boxes, and s m a l l e r implements, de- pending on whether the a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i a l i s t was present. As wedges, adze blades, and d r i l l fragments were found at t h i s s i t e , boxes, planks and/or h e r r i n g rakes c o u l d have been produced. T h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n should i n c l u d e the manufacturing of, at l e a s t one a p p r o p r i a t e item ( h e r r i n g r a k e ) , and c o u l d a l s o show the c o n s t r u c t i o n of d r y i n g and r o a s t i n g frames or other s t r u c t u r e s . H e r r i n g rake p r o d u c t i o n : A h e r r i n g rake was made by s p l i t t i n g ' a long, s e c t i o n of cedar or r e d pine, f i r s t from a standing t r e e (see Boas 1975:50405) then i t i s s l i t and shaped to s i z e . I t i s rounded at the handle end and f l a t t e n e d f o r two f e e t at the other. Barbs of hardwood (ironwood or oceanspray) or bone were f i x e d to the f l a t t e n e d end by s e v e r a l methods. -the rake was h e l d on i t s sid e by two stakes, then i t i s d r i l l e d along the edge, and t e e t h d r i v e n i n . -sharpened p o i n t s of ironwood were d r i v e n a l l the way through the wooden s h a f t i n much the same way n a i l s would be. The h e r r i n g rake was about 7-14" long, s e v e r a l inches wide by 1/2" to 3/4" t h i c k . Spacing of the barbs vary from l e s s than 1/2" to s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r than an i n c h . The barbs themselves are one to two inches long. See: Boas 1975:504-5 Stewart 1977:76-7 S u t t l e s 1974:126-7 B a s i c woodworking K i t : * 1. Hand maul-generally spool shaped * 2. Wedges-wooden (yew, dogwood or crabapple) and a n t l e r - v a r i o u s s i z e s , o f t e n with cedar withe grommets - v a r i o u s edge angles 3. Stone or bone c h i s e l s * 4. A d z e s - s t r a i g h t , elbow or D-adzes -tone or s h e l l blades * 5. D r i l l - b o n e or a n t l e r with wooden h a f t 6. Stone or s h e l l k n i f e A l s o a v a r i e t y of other t o o l s : * - d o g f i s h s k i n sandpaper - s c o u r i n g rushes - p a i n t s * -pegs * -cedar withes - i n c i s i n g t o o l s * -abrader stones A l l kept i n a wedge shaped basket (Boas 1921:60) See: Barnett 1955:107-9 H a e b e r l i n and Gunther 1930:33 Jenness n.d.:27;38 S u t t l e s 1974:225-7 these would have been used to make a h e r r i n g rake, as w e l l as grease f o r w a t e r p r o o f i n g and p o s s i b l e heat treatment f o r s t r e n g t h . 191 Temporary mat house: The u s u a l s h e l t e r at a temporary camp c o n s i s t e d of l e a n - tos or f o u r posted frames which were covered with c a t t a i l e d mats and sometimes bark and r o o f planks. Pole frames-lower at the r e a r , s l a n t i n g to shed r a i n . C a t - t a i l mats-6' by 15' o v e r l a p p i n g on 3 s i d e s and on the r o o f - t i e d to the frame with cedar withes. Cooking hearths were l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the mat s h e l t e r s and sometimes s e v e r a l s h e l t e r s would be e r e c t e d f a c i n g a common f i r e . In bad weather the cooking f i r e may be i n s i d e . See: Barnett 1955:40 H a e b e r l i n and Gunther 1930:18 Jenness n.d.:7-9 Stern 1969:41,52 S u t t l e s 1974:261 192 B i b l i o g r a p h y B a r n e t t , Homer G. 1955 The Coast S a l i s h of B r i t i s h Columbia U n i v e r s - i t y of Oregon Monographs, Studies i n Anthropology No. 4, Eugene. Boas, Franz 1921 The Ethnology of the Kwakiutl Bureau of American Ethnology T h i r t y - f i f t h Annual Report 1913-14 p t . l . 1975 The Kwakiutl of Vancouver I s l a n d Memoir of the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . Volume 5:301-522. New York. C u r t i s , Edward S. 1913 The North American Indian Volume 9. Johnson Reprint C o r p o r a t i o n , New York. (1970) H a e b e r l i n , Herman and Erna Gunther 1930 The Indians of Puget Sound U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology V o l . 471-84. Ham, Leonard Charles 1982 S e a s o n a l i t y , S h e l l Midden Layers, and Coast S a l i s h Subsistence A c t i v i t i e s at the Crescent Beach s i t e , DgRrl. unpublished Phd. d i s s e r t a t i o n , UBC. Jenness, Diamond n.d. The Saanich Indians of Vancouver I s l a n d , unpublished manuscript, N a t i o n a l Museum, Ottawa. Kennedy, Dorothy and Randy Bouchard 1983 Sliammon L i f e , Sliammon Lands. Talonbooks, Vancouver. S t e r n , Bernhard J. 1969 The Lummi Indians of Northwest Washington AMS Press, New York, ( f i r s t e d i t i o n 1934) Stewart, H i l a r y 1977 Indian F i s h i n g : E a r l y Methods on the North- west Coast J . J . Douglas L t d . Vancouver. 1984 Cedar:Tree of L i f e to the Northwest Coast Indians Douglas & M c l n t y r e , Vancouver. S u t t l e s , Wayne P. 1974 The Economic L i f e of the Coast S a l i s h of Haro and Rosario S t r a i t s Coast S a l i s h and western Washington Indians I, Garland P u b l i s h i n g Inc. New York. 193 9.14 APPENDIX 14 CHANGING TIDES The Development of Archaeology i n B.C.'s Fraser D e l t a Region Ann Stevenson UBC MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY Museum Note No. 194 ...the people l i v e d at the water's edge, d e r i v e d most of t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d from the water, t r a v e l l e d waterways in preference to t r a i l s , and re g u l a t e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s by the t i d e s as much as by d a y l i g h t and dark. P h i l i p Drucker, A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey on the Northern Northwest Coast 1943 {j»LAT£ -f] 195 INTRODUCTION The h i s t o r y of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Fraser D e l t a Region i s the h i s t o r y of our e v o l v i n g knowledge of t h i s area's p r e h i s t o r y . Each stage of t h i s reasearch has both <.' changed and r e f i n e d our p e r c e p t i o n of t h i s region's p a s t . The development of archaeology i n t h i s region r e f l e c t s both the changing ideas and new innovations which have g e n e r a l l y a f f e c t e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research across North America. The s h e l l middens of the F r a s e r d e l t a provide a t e s t i n g ground f o r ongoing research which promises to provide us with an i n c r e a s i n g knowledge of an important aspect of Northwest Coast p r e h i s t o r y . 196 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SHELL MIDDENS S h e l l midden s i t e s provide the most important evidence for p r e h i s t o r i c human a c t i v i t y i n the F r a s e r d e l t a r e g i o n . These s i t e s c o n t a i n the remains of d w e l l i n g s , work areas and garbage dumps, p r o v i d i n g a record of human h a b i t a t i o n spanning n e a r l y 9,000 yea r s . In midden s i t e s , d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s c r e a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n s of remains. These remains r e s u l t e d in the b u i l d up of midden l a y e r s which the a r c h a e o l o g i s t i n t e r p r e t s i n order to d i s c o v e r a s i t e ' s h i s t o r y . D i f f e r e n t l a y e r p a t t e r n s r e s u l t when d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s occur at the same p l a c e over time. For example, i n a c o a s t a l s h e l l midden the remains of an abandoned house may l a t e r be covered by the refuse of a s h e l l f i s h steaming mound t h a t , in t u r n , may be covered by remains of a campsite hearth. In t h i s way the l a y e r s accumulate, reaching up to 5 meters i n depth. In other cases, a s i t e may show a more re g u l a r p a t t e r n of continuous, but seasonal use. For i n s t a n c e , f a l l salmon f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s leave a d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n of d e b r i s which d i f f e r s from that l e f t by s p r i n g h e r r i n g f i s h i n g . . The complex l a y e r s of s o i l , s h e l l s and other remains r e s u l t not only from these human a c t i v i t i e s , but a l s o from n a t u r a l l y d e p o s i t e d d e b r i s . I n v e s t i g a t i n g s h e l l middens i s f u r t h e r complicated by n a t u r a l processes of decay. Most organic m a t e r i a l s decay q u i t e q u i c k l y unless s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s h e l p to preserve them. In c o a s t a l s h e l l 197 middens, the presence of shells helps to preserve bone and antler, but wood and plant fibers usually survive only i f they are constantly waterlogged. Thus, the carved wooden, objects for which the Northwest Coast i s well known are rarely found in archaeological s i t e s . 198 SHELL MIDDENS AND THEIR SETTING To understand the r o l e of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e w i t h i n a re g i o n , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s must consi d e r the changing n a t u r a l environment in which the s i t e ' s occupants l i v e d . The r i c h and d i v e r s e environment of the Northwest Coast, i n c l u d i n g that of the Fraser d e l t a r e g i o n , i n f l u e n c e d the development of the area's unique c u l t u r e s . The Fraser r i v e r d e l t a and estuary provided a wide v a r i e t y of sea and land resources which were e x t e n s i v e l y used by the region's i n h a b i t a n t s . The developing e s t u a r y — t h e t i d a l mouth of the r i v e r and surrounding ocean w a t e r s — p l a y e d a v i t a l r o l e f o r over 7,000 years i n the l o c a t i o n , s t a b i l i t y and q u a n t i t y of these r e s o u r c e s . In examining the Fr a s e r d e l t a region, i t i s important to co n s i d e r the e v o l u t i o n of the d e l t a i t s e l f . The present l o c a t i o n of midden s i t e s r e f l e c t s t h i s development. For instance the Glenrose Cannery s i t e which was at the r i v e r ' s mouth 8,000 years ago i s now many ki l o m e t e r s u p r i v e r . C F I G U R E I 3 THE SEASONAL ROUND Although many resources were abundant, they were of t e n a v a i l a b l e only s e a s o n a l l y , and even then, they c o u l d be d i f f i c u l t to a c q u i r e . The Coast S a l i s h i n h a b i t a n t s of the region used d i v e r s e , and o f t e n complex methods to harvest these short-term resources. For example, during s p r i n g f i s h runs, h e r r i n g or eulachon were netted and raked; salmon were netted, trapped i n weirs, speared, 199 harpooned or hooked, depending on the species, the season and location. Fishing was supplemented by various a c t i v i t i e s , such as berry picking in summer and s h e l l f i s h gathering the year round. Specialists hunted sea mammals in the spring and land mammals in the autumn and winter. During winter, stored foods were r e l i e d upon as ceremonial and manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s dominated winter v i l l a g e l i f e . 200 THE DESCRIPTIVE STAGE A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the Fraser d e l t a region began i n the l a t e 1800's. Th i s e a r l y work was mainly concerned with f i n d i n g a r t i f a c t s , d e s c r i b i n g them, and s p e c u l a t i n g about t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . The 1898 i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Marpole s i t e by the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y ' s Harlan I. Smith i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s e a r l y r e s e a r c h . Using a small f o r c e of h i r e d labour, Smith r a p i d l y excavated a p o r t i o n of the s i t e by s h o v e l . L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the l a y e r s in which a r t i f a c t s were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that a r t i f a c t s from a l l l a y e r s provided evidence of a s t a b l e economic s t r u c t u r e beginning at l e a s t 2,000 years ago. Smith based h i s estimates f o r the 1,000 years of occupation, followed by 1,000 years of d i s u s e , on such f a c t o r s as the age of t r e e s growing over the midden, the depth of accumulation, and the degree of midden m a t e r i a l decay. Recent research supports h i s estimate. Smith used the a r t i f a c t s that he recovered from the s i t e to answer questions concerning the economic and c u l t u r a l s t a b i l i t y of the a r e a . He argued f o r economic s t a b i l i t y based on the recovery of woodworking, f i s h i n g , basketry, and mat making t o o l s s i m i l a r to those he saw s t i l l i n use by the l o c a l Coast S a l i s h r e s i d e n t s of the area. On the other hand, Smith a l s o argued for c u l t u r a l replacement. He viewed the presence of chipped stone p o i n t s and geometric d e c o r a t i o n as evidence f o r e a r l y migration 201 of i n t e r i o r people to the coast. Smith asked important questions, but his answers were speculative, in a manner characteristic of early descriptive archaeology. More conclusive answers would require the more refined theories and research techniques which were introduced as archaeology developed. C PLATS, u r i 202 THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE STAGE B r i t i s h Columbia's f i r s t a r c h a e o l o g i s t , Charles E. Borden, worked at Marpole and other Fraser d e l t a s i t e s , from the l a t e 1940's to the 1970's, and was instrumental in e s t a b l i s h i n g the b a s i c c u l t u r a l sequence s t i l l used today. He r e a l i z e d that to move beyond Smith's s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the area's p r e h i s t o r y , accurate records must be kept of where a r t i f a c t s or t o o l s , and f e a t u r e s — s u c h as h e a r t h s — v x r e found in a s i t e . To e s t a b l i s h a c u l t u r a l sequence, Borden grouped l a y e r s with s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t s i n t o what a r c h a e o l o g i s t s c a l l a component. He then grouped s i m i l a r components from d i f f e r e n t s i t e s i n t o c u l t u r e s or c u l t u r a l phases. Radio-carbon d a t i n g , invented i n 1948, was used to v e r i f y the order of these phases, as w e l l as to date them. The phases Borden d e f i n e d are the Locarno Beach phase, the Marpole phase, the Whalen II phase, and the S t s e l a x phase. These phases were u s u a l l y named a f t e r the f i r s t s i t e i n which the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c component was found, but any s i t e c o u ld c o n t a i n s e v e r a l components or phases. For example, Marpole phase components, f i r s t d e f i n e d at the Marpole s i t e , are found at many s i t e s i n the region i n c l u d i n g the Glenrose Cannery s i t e u p r i v e r . The Whalen II phase, on the other hand, i s c o n f i n e d to a s i n g l e s i t e . Although some a r t i f a c t types are found i n s e v e r a l phases, Borden d e f i n e d each phase by the presence of d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . 203 Locarno Beach phase i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t o g g l i n g harpoon heads, ground s l a t e o b j e c t s and bone p o i n t s . Marpole Phase i s t y p i f i e d by barbed harpoon heads, the Northwest Coast's woodworking t r i l o g y of s p l i t t i n g wedges handmauls and adze blades, as well as t h i n ground s l a t e knives and a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of d e c o r a t i v e o b j e c t s . The Whalen II phase i s d e f i n e d by an absence of ground s l a t e and the presence of microblades, small chipped p o i n t s and o l i v e l l a - s h e l l beads. The most recent, S t s e l a x phase sees an amalgamation of t o g g l i n g harpoons and woodworking t o o l s with s l a t e g r i n d i n g . 204 REFINING THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE I n i t i a l l y , Borden viewed h i s c u l t u r a l phases as r e p r e s e n t i n g a s e r i e s of migrations i n t o the r e g i o n . He e v e n t u a l l y m o d i f i e d h i s p o s i t i o n , however, r e c o g n i z i n g that c u l t u r a l change c o u l d a l s o r e s u l t from l o c a l development. T h i s change i n Borden's p o s i t i o n r e s u l t e d when a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i n adjacent areas f a i l e d to support h i s hypotheses about the o r i g i n of c e r t a i n t r a i t s . Although he e v e n t u a l l y allowed that most phases c o u l d have developed l o c a l l y out of previous ones, he continued to argue that the Whalen II phase represented the a r r i v a l of new people from the i n t e r i o r . By c o n s i d e r i n g the Whalen II phase to represent the e n t i r e region d u r i n g one time p e r i o d , Borden ignored other p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s . The presence of p a r t i c u l a r a r t i f a c t s might have r e s u l t e d from trade, and absence of others might have been due to the season of s i t e use. For example, the presence of small chipped stone p o i n t s , commonly found i n i n t e r i o r s i t e s , were a l s o found at the Whalen Farm s i t e , and c o u l d be accounted f o r by trade between coast and i n t e r i o r peoples. On the other hand, the absence of t h i n ground s l a t e knives u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with salmon p r o c e s s i n g and found i n e a r l i e r and l a t e r phases i n the region may simply i n d i c a t e that the s i t e i n question was not used f o r salmon f i s h i n g . A r e c o g n i t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l importance of seasonal s i t e use d i s t i n q u i s h e s the next stage of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . T h i s new focus provides an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the uniqueness the Whalen I I component, while adding a new dimension to complement Borden's basic c u l t u r a l sequence. 206 THE SUBSISTENCE RESEARCH STAGE Since the 1970's, a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have been a p p l y i n g new techniques to midden s i t e s i n order to answer new questions about the process of c u l t u r a l adaptation in the r e g i o n . T h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have focussed on how the p r e h i s t o r i c i n h a b i t a n t s of the area s u p p l i e d themselves with food and other n e c e s s i t i e s . An understanding of the subsistence s t r a t e g y each phase of the Fraser d e l t a sequence represents i s j u s t beginning to take shape. The Glenrose Cannery s i t e proved a good s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r such research because i t provided a 6,000 year record of c o n t i n u i n g but v a r i a b l e use of resources, such as salmon, s h e l l f i s h , land and sea mammals. More r e c e n t l y , i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n at the Crescent Beach s i t e has provided a greater understanding of a p a r t i c u l a r type of seasonal s i t e , a s h e l l f i s h and h e r r i n g p r o c e s s i n g camp. 207 REFINING EXCAVATION AND LABORATORY TECHNIQUES To a i d su b s i s t e n c e research, a r c h a e o l o g i s t s employ more r e f i n e d excavation procedures and new l a b o r a t o r y techniques. A c r i t i c a l aspect of t h i s research i s d i s c o v e r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a r t i f a c t s , food remains, and other midden m a t e r i a l s . Because these techniques are expensive, a l l l a y e r s w i t h i n a s i t e cannot be analyzed with the same i n t e n s i t y . A r c h a e o l o g i s t s t h e r e f o r e s e l e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples i n order to r e c o n s t r u c t the r e l a t i v e importance of s h e l l f i s h , f i s h and game i n the d i e t of the s i t e ' s occupants. The use of waterscreening through f i n e mesh allows f o r gre a t e r recovery of f i s h vertebrae and other small items than do t r a d i t i o n a l dry screening methods. Computers are i n c r e a s i n g l y important f o r a n a l y z i n g the masses of data generated by such f i e l d techniques. New l a b o r a t o r y techniques are a l s o being developed to a i d sub s i s t e n c e r e s e a r c h . For example, the growth r i n g s i n a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of s h e l l can a c c u r a t e l y show the season of c o l l e c t i o n , thereby i n d i c a t i n g the season of s i t e use. D e t e c t i n g r e s i d u e s such as blood, f a t s , and r e s i n s on stone t o o l s helps to show t o o l f u n c t i o n and, consequently, what a c t i v i t i e s might have been performed at these seasonal s i t e s . 208 INVESTIGATING A SEASONAL SITE The excavation of s h e l l midden l a y e r s at the Cresent Beach s i t e shows how the type and season of a c t i v i t i e s undertaken at a s i t e may be determined by c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s . One important refinement at the Crescent Beach s i t e was the c a r e f u l removal of midden l a y e r s f o l l o w i n g the n a t u r a l contours of the s i t e . Previous s i t e s were excavated by removing f l a t , even l a y e r s , u s u a l l y 10 to 20 cm. t h i c k . T h i s refinement helped to i s o l a t e the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s which had occurred at t h i s s i t e . To understand each l a y e r type, models of s i t e use were developed. Models are used to p r e d i c t what a c t i v i t i e s might have occurred at the s i t e d uring d i f f e r e n t times of the year. Important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e the h i s t o r i c Coast S a l i s h use of the area and those times of the year when c e r t a i n resources were most abundant. C e r t a i n l a y e r types, f e a t u r e s , a r t i f a c t s , and f a u n a l remains thus can be p r e d i c t e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group of expected a c t i v i t i e s . Although such f a c t o r s as decay, and the removal of many t o o l s and s t r u c t u r e s once at the s i t e , might make a n a l y s i s d i f f i c u l t , the p r e d i c t i o n of s i t e use helps to overcome t h i s problem. For example, i f s h e l l f i s h h a r v e s t i n g and p r o c e s s i n g are p r e d i c t e d f o r a s i t e , the baskets, d i g g i n g s t i c k s and d r y i n g racks might have been removed or have decayed. On the other hand, other evidence w i l l remain, such as the remains of steaming mounds, d i s c a r d e d clam s h e l l s , and the post holes f o r the d r y i n g racks. 209 If the problematic Whalen II component at the Whalen Farm s i t e were re-examined in t h i s manner, i t might now be seen as a seasonal v a r i a n t of another c u l t u r a l phase rather than as an unique c u l t u r a l phase. 210 THE FUTURE OF THE PAST A r c h a e o l o g i c a l research i n the Fraser d e l t a region has developed through s e v e r a l stages p a r a l l e l i n g general changes i n North American archaeology. Each stage has b u i l t on p revious r e s u l t s . These r e s u l t s have l a i d the foundation upon which new questions are r a i s e d and new techniques are developed. The D e s c r i p t i v e stage not only provided i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , but asked important questions concerning both economic and c u l t u r a l change. The subsequent development of a r e g i o n a l C u l t u r a l Sequence r e s u l t e d from more r e f i n e d excavation techniques and l a b o r a t o r y procedures. Recent Subsistence Research i s beginning to o u t l i n e the development of the Northwest Coast's s e a s o n a l l y d i v e r s e subsistence p a t t e r n . While a s i m i l a r range of resources was used i n t h i s area f o r thousands of years, c r i t i c a l changes occurred i n resource use, f o r instance the development of l a r g e s c a l e salmon p r o c e s s i n g f o r storage. These changes have only r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n . A new focus on s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s , such as on how s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u b s i s t e n c e s t a t e g i e s i n t e r r e l a t e , , suggests that a new stage of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research i s a l s o t a k i n g shape. The f u t u r e of such research, however, i s s e r i o u s l y threatened. The d e s t r u c t i o n of midden s i t e s , e s p e c i a l l y in urban areas l i k e the F r a s e r d e l t a , i s a major problem. Marpole and other important s i t e s were excavated j u s t before b u l l d o z e r s moved i n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many other s i t e s were destroyed before any 211 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o u l d take p l a c e . As a r e s u l t , v a l u a b l e h e r i t a g e information has been l o s t f o r e v e r . If a greater a p p r e c i a t i o n of the development of Northwest Coast c u l t u r e s i s to be achieved, a r c h a e o l o g i s t s must continue to i n v e s t i g a t e a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of sit e s , w i t h i n a r e g i o n . But to do t h i s , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s must be viewed as non-renewable resources that r e q u i r e our p r o t e c t i o n . r_?LRTe_ v » o 212 REFERENCES Borden, Charles E. 1970 Culture H i s t o r y of the Fraser D e l t a r e g i o n . B.C Studies No. 6 - 7 . Pp. 95 -112 . Ham, Leonard C. S e a s o n a l i t y , S h e l l Midden Layers, and Coast S a l i s h 1982 Subsistence A c t i v i t i e s at the Crescent Beach S i t e , DgRr 1. Unpublished- Phd. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Matson, R.G. 1976 The Glenrose Cannery S i t e , N a t i o n a l Museum of Man Mercury S e r i e s , Archaeology/Survey of Canada No. 52 . Smith, Harlan I. 1903 Shell-heaps of the Lower Fraser River, B r i t i s h Columbia. American Museum of Natural H i s t o r y V o l . . Jessup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n , V o l , Part 4. Pp. 133-199 . S u t t l e s , Wayne P. 1974 The Economic L i f e of the Coast S a l i s h of Haro and Rosario S t r a i t s Coast S a l i s h and Western Washington- Indians I. New York: Garland P u b l i s h i n g Inc . FURTHER READINGS Borden, Charles 1975 O r i g i n s and development of e a r l y Northwest Coast c u l t u r e to about 3000 B.C. Na t i o n a l Museum of Man Mercury S e r i e s , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada No.45. n.d. • P r e h i s t o r i c Art of the Lower Fraser Region-, - In Indian Art T r a d i t i o n s of the Northwest Coast, e d i t e d by Roy L. Car l s o n . Burnaby:Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y . Bunyan, D.E. 1978 Pursuing the Past: A General Account of B r i t i s h Columbia Archaeology Museum Note No. W. Vancouver: UBC Museum of Anthropology. 213 - 2 - Burley, David V. 1980 Marpole. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of a p r e h i s t o r i c Northwest Coast c u l t u r e type Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n . No.8. Fladmark, Knut R. 1980-81 B r i t i s h Columbia Archaeology i n the 1970's. B.C. Studies No. 48. Pp. 11 -20 . Matson, R.G. 1980-81 Maud, Ralph 1978 P r e h i s t o r i c Subsistence Patterns i n the Fraser D e l t a : The Evidence from the Glenrose Cannery S i t e . B.C.Studies No.48. Pp. 64-85. e d i t o r The S a l i s h People: The L o c a l C o n t r i b u t i o n of Charles H i l l - T o u t V o l . I I I . The Mainland Halkomelem. Vancouver: Talonbooks. M i t c h e l l , Donald, H. 1971 Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia area, a n a t u r a l r e g i o n and i t s c u l t u r a l types. Syesis Vol.4, supplement 1. 214 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Th i s Museum Note and the e x h i b i t i o n Changing Tides was produced by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology. I l l u s t r a t i o n s : GRAPHICS: TRANSLATION MUSEUM NOTE DESIGN Gordon M i l l e r Moira I r v i n e Dr. N i c o l a s R o l l a n d Gordon M i l l e r Production of t h i s Museum Note and the e x h i b i t i o n were supported by the N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada, E x h i b i t i o n s A s s i s t a n c e Programme and the B r i t i s h Columbia He r i t a g e T r u s t . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology programmes are produced with the a s s i s t a n c e of the Members and F r i e n d s of the Museum, the Volunteer A s s o c i a t e s and the Shop V o l u n t e e r s , the Museum A s s i s t a n c e Programmes of the N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada, and the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia through the B r i t i s h Columbia C u l t u r a l Fund and L o t t e r y revenues. 215 FIGURES & PHOTOGRAPHS FIGURE I FIGURE II FIGURE I I I FIGURE IV FIGURE V FIGURE VI FIGURE VII FIGURE VIII Delta development (set of three) Seasonal round - l i n e drawings (4) based on Four Seasons Chronology chart I l l u s t r a t i o n of re s i d u e a n a l y s i s I l l u s t r a t i o n of s h e l l f i s h a n a l y s i s Woodworking t o o l k i t - l i n e drawing or photo? A c t i v i t i e s from i l l u s t r a t i o n (2) i n l i n e drawing form r e p r e s e n t i n g s h e l l f i s h p r o c e s s i n g and woodworking. Drawing of midden build-up (4) PLATE I PLATE II PLATE I I I PLATE IV PLATE V PLATE VI PLATE VII H.I. Smith excavation. AMNH photograph A r t i f a c t s : examples from one of Smith's c a t e g o r i e s . P r o f i l e drawing photograph A r t i f a c t s : one category (Marpole) s e l e c t i o n as per Note. Waterscreening or Lab Photograph Excavation by l a y e r s or midden f e a t u r e mapping Marpole shots through time 216 9.15 APPENDIX 15 CHANGING TIDES The Development of Archaeology in B.C.'s Fraser Delta Region Ann Stevenson UBC MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY Museum Note No. 13 21 ...the people lived at the water's edge, derived most of their livelihood from the water, travelled waterways in preference to trails, and regulated their activities by the tides as much as by daylight and dark. Philip Drucker, Archaeological Survey on the Northern Northwest Coast. 1943 218 INTRODUCTION The history of archaeological research in British Columbia's Fraser Delta Region is the history of our evolving knowledge of this area's prehistory. The shell middens of the Fraser delta provide a testing ground for ongoing archaeological research which promises to provide us with an ever increasing knowledge of Northwest Coast prehistory. The development of archaeology in this region also reflects both the changing ideas and the innovations which have characterized the growth of archaeology across North America. Each stage of this research—the Descriptive, Cultural Sequence, and Subsistence stages—have changed and refined our perception of this region's past 219 THE DESCRIPTIVE STAGE Archaeological investigation in the Fraser delta region began in the late 1800's. This early • work was mainly concerned with finding artifacts, describing them, and speculating about their significance. The 1898 investigation of the Marpole site by the American Museum of Natural History's Harlan L Smith is representative of this early research. Using a small force of hired labour, Smith rapidly excavated a portion of the site by shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that artifacts from all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure beginning at least 2.000 years ago. Smith based his estimates for the 1,000 years of occupation, followed by 1,000 years of disuse, on such factors as the age of trees growing over the midden, the depth of accumulation, and the degree of midden material decay. Recent research supports his estimate. Smith used the artifacts that he recovered from the site to answer questions concerning the economic and cultural stability of the area. He argued for economic stability based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry, and mat making tools similar to those he saw still in use by the local Coast Salish residents of the area. On the other hand. Smith also argued for cultural replacement He viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence for early migration of interior people to the coast Smith asked important questions, but his answers were speculative, in a manner characteristic of early descriptive archaeology. More conclusive answers would require the more refined theories and research techniques which were introduced as archaeology developed. 220 THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE STAGE The University of British Columbia's first archaeologist, Charles E Borden, worked at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites, from the late 1940's to the 1970's, and was instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. He realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpretations of the area's prehistory, accurate records must be kept of where artifacts or tools, and features—such as hearths—were found in a site. To establish a cultural sequence, Borden grouped layers with similar artifacts into what archaeologists call a component. He then grouped similar components from different sites into cultures or cultural phases. Radio-carbon dating, invented in 1948, was used to verify the order of these phases, as well as to date them. The phases Borden defined are the Locarno Beach phase, the Marpole phase, the Whalen II phase, and the Stselax phase. These phases were usually named after the first site in which the characteristic component was found, but any site could contain several components or phases. For example, Marpole phase components, first defined at the Marpole site, are found at many sites in the region including the Glenrose Cannery site upriver. The Whalen n phase, on the other hand, is confined to a single site. Although some artifact types are found in several phases, Borden defined each phase by the presence of distinctive features. Locarno Beach phase is characterized by toggling harpoon heads, ground slate objects and bone points. Marpole Phase is typified by barbed harpoon heads, the Northwest Coast's woodworking trilogy of splitting wedges handmauls and adze blades, as well as thin ground slate knives and a proliferation of decorative objects. The Whalen II phase is defined by an absence of ground slate and the presence of microblades, small chipped points and olivella-shell beads. The most recent, Stselax phase sees an amalgamation of toggling harpoons and woodworking tools with slate grinding. REFINING THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE Initially, Borden viewed his cultural phases as representing a series of migrations into the region. He eventually modified his position, however, recognizing that cultural change could also result from local development This change in Borden's position resulted when archaeological work in adjacent areas failed to support his hypotheses about the origin of certain traits. Although he eventually allowed that most phases could have developed locally out of previous ones, he continued to argue that the Whalen n phase represented the arrival of new people from the interior. By considering the Whalen n phase to represent the entire region during one time period, Borden ignored other possible explanations. The presence of particular artifacts might have resulted from trade, and absence of others might have been due to the season of site use. For example, the presence of small chipped stone points, commonly found in interior sites, were also found at the Whalen Farm site, and could be accounted for by trade between coast and interior peoples. On the other hand, the absence of thin ground slate knives usually associated with salmon processing and found in earlier and later phases in the region may simply indicate that the site in question was not used for salmon fishing. A recognition of the potential importance of seasonal site use distinquishes the next stage of archaeological research. This new focus provides an alternative explanation for the uniqueness of the Whalen n component, while adding a new dimension to complement Borden's basic cultural sequence. THE SUBSISTENCE RESEARCH STAGE Since the 1970's, archaeologists have been applying new techniques to midden sites in order to answer new questions about the process of cultural adaptation in the region. Their investigations have focussed on how the prehistoric inhabitants of the area supplied themselves with food and other necessities. This new focus has resulted in a shift in emphasis from a concentration on artifacts as primary indicators of past human activities to a broader perspective which views a wider variety of remains as essential indicators. Shell midden sites provide not only artifacts but also, contain the remains of dwellings, work areas and garbage dumps, providing a record of human habitation spanning nearly 9,000 years. In midden sites, different activities created characteristic patterns of remains. These remains resulted in the build up of midden layers which the archaeologist interprets in order to discover a site's history. Different layer patterns result when different activities occur at the same place over time. For example, the remains of an abandoned house may later be covered by the refuse of a shellfish steaming mound that, in turn, may be covered by remains of a campsite hearth. In other cases, a site may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal use. For instance, fall salmon fishing activities leave a distinctive pattern of debris which differs from that left by spring herring fishing. The complex layers of soil, shells and other remains result not only from these human activities, but also from naturally deposited debris. Investigating subsistence patterns in shell middens is further complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay quite quickly unless special conditions help to preserve them. In shell middens, the presence of shells helps to preserve bone and antler, but wood and plant fibers usually survive only if they are constantly waterlogged. Thus, the carved wooden objects for which the Northwest Coast is well known are rarely found in archaeological sites. 223 Even afer we consider these constraints, shell middens remain the ideal location for investigating prehistoric subsistence strategies since they exist as a direct result of food processing activities. This midden research is providing us with more detailed information about the various cultural phases. However, an understanding of the subsistence strategy-or seasonal round—each phase represents is just beginning to take place. We do know that the Coast Salish inhabitants of the region used diverse, and often complex methods to harvest abundant but often only seasonally available resources. For example, during spring fish runs, herring or eulachon were netted and raked; salmon were netted, trapped in weirs, speared, harpooned or hooked, depending on the species, the season and location. Fishing was supplemented by various activities, such as berry picking in summer and shellfish gathering the year round. Specialists hunted sea mammals in the spring and land mammals in the autumn and winter. During winter, stored foods were relied upon as ceremonial and manufacturing activities dominated winter village life. To understand the various phases found in the sites within this region, archaeologists must also consider the changing natural environment in which the site's occupants lived. The developing estuary—the tidal mouth of the river and surrounding ocean waters—played a vital role for over 7,000 years in the location, stability and quantity of these resources. Therefore, in examining the Fraser delta region, it is important to consider the evolution of the delta itself. The present location of midden sites reflects this development For instance the Glenrose Cannery site which was at the river's mouth 8,000 years ago is now many kilometers upriver. The Glenrose Cannery site proved a good starting point for such research because it provided a 6,000 year record of continuing but variable use of resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp. 224 REFINING EXCAVATION AND LABORATORY TECHNIQUES To aid subsistence research, archaeologists employ more refined excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. A critical aspect of this research is discovering the relationships among artifacts, food remains, and other midden materials. Because these techniques are expensive, all layers within a site cannot be analyzed with the same intensity. Archaeologists therefore select representative' samples in order to reconstruct the relative importance of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of the site's occ;r?.uts. The use of waterscreening through fine mesh allows for greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items than do traditional dry screening methods. Computers are increasingly important for analyzing the masses of data generated by such field techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid subsistence research. For example, the growth rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby indicating the season of site use. Detecting residues such as blood, fats, and resins on stone tools helps to show tool function and, consequently, what activities might have been performed at these seasonal sites. 225 INVESTIGATING A SEASONAL SITE The excavation of shell midden layers at the Cresent Beach site shows how the type and season of activities undertaken at a site may be determined by careful analysis. One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site was the careful removal of midden layers following the natural contours of the site. Previous sites were excavated by removing flat, even layers, usually 10 to 20 cm. thick. This refinement helped to isolate the specific activities which had occurred at this site. To understand each layer type, models of site use were developed. Models are used to predict what activities might have occurred at the site during different times of the year. Important considerations include the historic Coast Salish use of the area and those times of the year when certain resources were most abundant Certain layer types, features, artifacts, and faunal remains thus can be predicted for a particular group of expected activities. Although such factors as decay, and the removal of many tools and structures once at the site, might make analysis difficult the prediction of site use helps to overcome this problem. For example, if shellfish harvesting and processing are predicted for a site, the baskets, digging sticks and drying racks might have been removed or have decayed. On the other hand, other evidence will remain, such as the remains of steaming mounds, discarded clam shells, and the post holes for the drying racks. If the problematic Whalen II component at the Whalen Farm site were re-examined in this manner, it might now be seen as a seasonal variant of another cultural phase rather than as an unique cultural phase. 226 THE FTJTURE OF THE PAST Archaeological research in the Fraser delta region has developed through several stages paralleling general changes in North American archaeology. Each stage has built on previous results. These results have laid the foundation upon which new questions are raised and new techniques are developed. The Descriptive stage not only provided initial descriptions, but asked important questions concerning both economic and cultural change. The subsequent development of a regional Cultural Sequence resulted from more refined excavation techniques and laboratory procedures. Recent Subsistence Research is beginning to outline the development of the Northwest Coast's seasonally diverse subsistence pattern. While a similar range of resources was used in this area for thousands of years, critical changes occurred in resource use, for instance the development of large scale salmon processing for storage. These changes have only recently received attention. A new focus on social questions, such as on how social organization and subsistence stategies interrelate, suggests that a new stage of archaeological research is also taking shape. The future of such research, however, is seriously threatened. The destruction of midden sites, especially in urban areas like the Fraser delta, is a major problem. Marpole and other important sites were excavated just before bulldozers moved in. Unfortunately, many other sites were destroyed before any archaeological investigation could take place. As a result, valuable heritage information has been lost forever. If a greater appreciation of the development of Northwest Coast cultures is to be achieved, archaeologists must continue to investigate a cross-section of sites within a region. But to do this, archaeological sites must be viewed as non-renewable resources that require our protection. 227 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Museum Note and the exhibition Changing British Columbia Museum of Anthropology. ILLUSTRATIONS GRAPHICS TRANSLATION MUSEUM NOTE DESIGN MUSEUM NOTE SERIES EDITOR Tides was produced by the University of Gordon Miller Moira Irvine Nicolas Rolland Gordon Miller Michael M. Ames Production of this Museum Note and the exhibition were supported by the National Museums of Canada, Exhibitions Assistance Programme and the British Columbia Heritage Trust University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology programmes are produced with the assistance of the Members and Friends of the Museum, the Volunteer Associates and the Shop Volunteers, the Museum Assistance Programmes of the National Museums of Canada, and the Government of British Columbia through the British Columbia Cultural Fund and Lottery revenues. Museum Notes are produced with the assistance of the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation. Note No. 13 U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology copyright 1985 ISBN 0-88865-104-X 228 REFERENCES Borden, Charles E 1970 Culture History of the Fraser Delta Region. BC Studies Fall-Winter No. 6-7. Pp. 95-112. Drucker. Philip 1943 Archaeological Survey on the Northern Northwest Coast. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 133 Anthropological Paper No. 20:17-142. Ham. Leonard C 1982 Seasonality, Shell Midden Layers, and Coast Salish Subsistence Activities at the Crescent Beach Site, DgRr 1. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of British Columbia. Matson, R.G. 1976 The Glenrose Cannery Site National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada. No. 52 Smith, Harlan I. 1903 Shell-Heaps of the Lower Fraser River, British Columbia. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History. Vol. IV. The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Part IV. Pp. 133-199. Suttles, Wayne P. 1974 The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits. Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians L New York: Garland Publishing Inc. FURTHER READINGS Borden, Charles E 1975 Origins and Development of Early Northwest Coast Culture to about 3000 B.C. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada. No. 45. [1983] Prehistoric Art of the Lower Fraser Region, In Indian Art Traditions of the Northwest Coast. Roy L Carlson, ed. Burnaby: Archaeology Press. Simon Fraser University, pp. 131-155. Bunyan, D.E 1978 Pursuing the Past: A General Account of British Columbia Archaeology. Museum Note No. 4. Vancouver: UBC Museum of Anthropology. Burley, David V. 1980 Marpole: Anthropological Reconstructions of a Prehistoric Northwest Coast Culture Type. Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Publication. No. 8. 229 Fladmark, Knut R. 1980-81 British Columbia Archaeology in the 1970's. BC Studies Winter No. 48. Pp 11-20. Matson, R.G. 1980-81 Prehistoric Subsistence Patterns in the Fraser Delta: The Evidence from the Glenrose Cannery Site. BC Studies Winter No. 48. Pp. 64-85. Maud, Ralph, ed. 1978 The Salish People: The Local Contribution of Charles Hill-Tout. Vol. m. The Mainland Halkomelem. Vancouver: Talonbooks. Mitchell, Donald H. 1971 Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia Area, a Natural Region and its Cultural Types. Syesis Vol. 4. supplement 1. March 8, 1985 - CHANGING TIDES NATIONAL TRAVEL SCHEDULE Museum of Anthropology UBC Vancouver, B. C. The Nova S c o t i a Museum H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a U n i v e r s i t e du Quebec a T r o i s R i v i e r e s T r o i s R i v e r e s , Quebec N a t i o n a l Museum of Man Ottawa, O n t a r i o Pr i n c e of Wales Northern Heritage Centre Y e l l o w k n i f e , NWT Langley C e n t e n n i a l Museum and N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n Centre Langley, B.C. February 27, 1985 to September 1, 1985 January 11, 1986 to A p r i l 7, 1986 May 1, 1986 to June 15, 1986 J u l y 15, 1986 to August 31, 1986 October 15, 1986 to November 30, 1986 December 21, 1986 January 25, 1987 CONFIRMED CONFIRMED CONFIRMED CONFIRMED CONFIRMED CONFIRMED 231 9.17 APPENDIX 17 CHANGING TIDES: THE DEVELOPMENT OF A R C H A E O L O G Y IN THE LOWER MAINLAND A L e c t u r e S e r i e s a t T h e U B C M u s e u m o f A n t h r o p o l o g y Tuesdays 7:30 pm Free Admission MARCH 12 SHELL MIDDENS AND CULTURE HISTORY: THE PENDER' ISLAND S I T E P r o f e s s o r Roy C a r l s o n , - Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y "MARCH 19 ; TWO DECADES OF CHANGE: BRITISH COLUMBIA ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE 1 9 6 0 ' S AND 1 9 7 0 ' S : P r o f e s s o r D o n a l d M i t c h e l l , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a . MARCH 26 SHELL MIDDEN LAYERS AND COAST SALISH SETTLEMENT PATTERNS: IDEAS FROM THE INVESTIGATION OF THE CRESCENT BEACH AND S T . MUNGO SITES. L e o n a r d Ham, P h . D . A P R I L 2 PREHISTORIC: LIFEWAYS AT OZETTE P r o f e s s o r R i c h a r d D a u g h e r t y , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y R e f r e s h m e n t s w i l l be s e r v e d f o l l o w i n g , t h e l e c t u r e . T h i s l e c t u r e s e r i e s i s b e i n g o f f e r e d 1n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Museum's e x h i b i t i o n , " C h a n g i n g T i d e s : The D e v e l o p m e n t o f A r c h a e o l o g y i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a R e g i o n , " on v i e w f r o m F e b r u a r y 27 t h r o u g h A u g u s t . B o t h t h e e x h i b i t i o n a n d l e c t u r e s e r i e s r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' H e r i t a g e - T r u s t a n d the- N a t i o n a l Museums o f Canada. E x h i b i t i o n s A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m m e . . UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y programmes a r e p r o d u c e d w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e Members a n d F r i e n d s o f t h e Museum, t h e V o l u n t e e r A s s o c i a t e s a n d Shop V o l u n t e e r s , t h e Museum A s s i s t a n c e ^ Programmes o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museums o f Canada a n d t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h r o u g h t h e BC C u l t u r a l Fund and L o t t e r y r e v e n u e s . 232 9 . 1 8 APPENDIX 18 February 1985 Form No. UBC Museum of Anthropology C o n d i t i o n Report Form f o r Changing T i d e s e x h i b i t i o n Case No. Object or group number C o n d i t i o n on ! | a r r i v a l ] 1 departure | ] other ( ) no damage no a d d i t i o n a l damage s i n c e p r e v i o u s r e p o r t OR the f o l l o w i n g damages were noted: c o l o u r change ( f a d i n g , d i s c o l o u r a t i o n , s t a i n s ) micro-organism.growth (moulds, f u n g i ) i n s e c t damage ( f r a s s , h o l e s , presence of i n s e c t s , eggs, or l a r v a e ) e f f l o r e s c e n c e (emergence of s a l t s or wax on s u r f a c e ) mechanical damage (appearance or e x t e n s i o n of c r a c k s , breakage, e t c . ) d i s t o r t i o n of shape (warping, shrinkage, b u c k l i n g ) s u r f a c e damage ( a b r a s i o n , s c r a t c h e s , l o s s ) mounting problems ( i n s e c u r e , l o o s e or detached) r e p a i r s o t h e r s Note: Use " r i g h t " and " l e f t " to designate p e r s p e c t i v e of viewer. To g i v e a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l s , a t t a c h sheets necessary, d e s c r i b i n g the l o c a t i o n , nature, and extent of a l l damage. Diagrams and/or photographs showing p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n of damage may be added. Completed by ( I n s t i t u t i o n ) ' Sig n a t u r e Date 233 I n s t r u c t i o n s to borrowing i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r u s i n g the Changing T i d e s e x h i b i t i o n c o n d i t i o n r e p o r t form. (Form No. ) On a r r i v a l c o n d i t i o n r e p o r t forms should be f i l l e d i n immediately a f t e r r e c e i p t of the e x h i b i t by your i n s t i t u t i o n . Check the o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n r e p o r t forms ( a l s o see photographs) f i l l e d i n at the Museum of Anthropology and any subsequent r e p o r t s f i l l e d i n by other borrowing i n s t i t u t i o n s , and r e c o r d on your forms o n l y a d d i t i o n a l damages not p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d . I f damage i s noted, please photocopy your form and r e t u r n the copy at once t o : The o r i g i n a l should be r e t a i n e d w i t h the a r t i f a c t . P l e ase do not open the cases f o r c o n d i t i o n r e p o r t i n g of the a r t i f a c t s . I f t h e re i s a problem which may n e c e s s i t a t e opening a case p l e a s e c a l l Herb Watson at the Museum of Anthropology [(604) 228-2148] f o r i n s t r u c t i o n s . Since these o b j e c t s are mounted, a f l a s h l i g h t may be h e l p f u l f o r examing the o b j e c t s f o r these r e p o r t s . When the e x h i b i t i s ready to leave your i n s t i t u t i o n , p l ease f i l l i n departure c o n d i t i o n r e p o r t s i n the same manner, and e n c l o s e a l l r e p o r t s i n the packing cases with the a r t i f a c t c ases. I f new damages are noted, and i f the e x h i b i t i o n i s being sent on to an i n s t i t u t i o n other than the Museum of Anthropology, please photocopy the form and r e t u r n i t to the above address. I f the e x h i b i t i o n i s being r e t u r n e d to the Museum of Anthropology, simply enclose the forms i n the packing cases. THANK YOU. 9.19 APPENDIX 19 234 Ann Stevenson, Changing T i d e s : The Development of Archaeology i n B.C. 's Fraser D e l t a UBC Museum of Anthro- pology, Museum Note No. 13- Vancouver. 1985- Pp.20. Obtainable from the UBC Museum of Anthropology p r i c e : $2.75 plus postage & h a n d l i n g .

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