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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Changing tides: the development of an archaeological exhibit Stevenson, Ann 1985-12-31

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bookie*. "CW*^ TctPi u M enoehpe. CHANGING TIDES: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXHIBIT By ANN MARIE STEVENSON B.A., Simon Fraser University, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology) We accept this thesis as conforming r.n the/? reqjj-irjed ai^ajiclard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1985 ©Ann Marie Stevenson, 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Anthropology and Sociology The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 20, ftf? DE-6 M/R-n ii ABSTRACT This thesis report is part of a larger thesis project which includes the museum exhibit Changing Tides and the UBC Museum of Anthropology Museum Note No. 13, entitled Changing Tides: The Development of Archaeology in B.C.'s  Fraser Delta. This report chronicles the planning and production of this exhibit project and outlines the criteria on which it is based. The main objective of this project was to aid in the development of public appreciation for scientific archaeology. Justification for this objective is provided through a discussion of the role of public interpretation in archaeo logy. Funding, exhibit development, exhibit co-ordination and scheduling, exhibit conservation, Museum Note develop-mnet, and related activities are discussed and evaluated. A series of appendixes are included which document the development of Changing Tides. iii TABLE OP CONTENTS Abstract iAcknowledgements v Section 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 An Exhibit Thesis 2 1.2 Public Interpretation and Academic Archaeology... 3 1. 3 Ob j ectives 4 Section 2 FUNDING 7 2.1 The Reconception of the Exhibit 7 Section 3 EXHIBITION DEVELOPMENT 12 3.1 Text Development 13 3.2 Exhibit Co-Ordination and Scheduling 15 Section 4 THE MUSEUM NOTE 17 Section 5 RELATED ACTIVITIES 9 Section 6 CONSERVATION 21 Section 7 EVALUATION 3 7 . 1 Planning 27.2 Evaluation 4 7.3 Educational Programming 25 7.4 Conclusion 26 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY 27 9 APPENDIXES 38 9.1 APPENDIX 1:Archaeology Temporary Exhibit 38 9.2 APPENDIX 2:NMC MAP Proposal 1983 40 9.3 APPENDIX 3:Changing Tides Storyline draft 51 iv 9.4 APPENDIX 4:NMC MAP Proposal 1984 59 9.5 APPENDIX 5:B.C. Heritage Trust Proposal 1984 (with own appendixes) ....70 Appendix 1 72 Appendix II 6 Appendix III 78 9.6 APPENDIX 6: Exhibit Outline 9 9-7 APPENDIX 7:Section Outlines 86 9.8 APPENDIX 8: Exhibit Text: First Draft 92 9.9 APPENDIX 9:Exhibit Text:Second Draft 105 9.10 APPENDIX 10-.Exhibit Text: Final Draft 121 9.11 APPENDIX 11: Production Schedule 138 9.12 APPENDIX 12:Exhibit Book 139 9.13 APPENDIX 13:Illustration for Changing Tides 184 9.14 APPENDIX l4:Museum Note: First Draft 193 9.15 APPENDIX 15:Museum Note: Final Draft 216 9.16 APPENDIX 16:Changing Tides National Travel 230 9.17 APPENDIX 17:Changing Tides Lecture Series 231 9.18 APPENDIX 18-.Condition Report Form (Draft) 232 9.19 APPENDIX 19:Museum Note No. 13 •J^r^~~ V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Since the main component of my Master's thesis, the exhibit Changing Tides and its companion Museum Note are the products of a co-operative venture sponsored by the UBC Museum of Anthropology, I would like to thank the Museum first of all for the opportunity to undertake this project. Funding for Changing Tides was provided by generous support of the Museum Assistance Programme of the National Museums of Canada, and of the British Columbia Heritage Trust. I greatly appreciate my advisory committee's patience and sup port of this unorthodox project. When I first sat down to write these acknowledgements, dozens of individuals came easily to mind. I will not attempt to thank them all, although I am very grateful to everyone who contributed to Changing Tides. I owe a special debt of thanks to the individuals with whom I worked directly in preparing this project, especially the Museum's exhibit designer Herb Watson. Not only did he bring the exhibit to life, he taught me a great deal about exhibits, planning, and the meaning of grace under pressure. Herb's assistant, Colleen Day's friendship and good humour helped me cope with the in evitable problems and details of exhibit preparation. I am also very grateful to Len McFarlane for his exqui site replicas which added a special dimension to the vi to the exhibit. I wish to thank Professors Matson and Ames for their advise and many hours of editing. Gordon Miller's contributions to the exhibit and the Museum Note are greatly appreciated, especially his wonderful painting of prehistoric Crescent Beach, as well as the design and production of the poster and the Musuem Note. I am also indebted to Moira Irvine for her many illustrations, and for her help in negotiating the Laboratory of Archaeology's labyrinth. Prof. Nicholas Rolland of the University of Victoria undertook the translations. I am thankful for the speed, at which he returned them to me. I am grateful to Ruth Anderson, Mila Cotic, Lucy Dufresne, Jennifer Doran, Sandra Hawkes, Salma Malwani, Chris Miller, Hindy Ratner, and Moya Waters for coping with many aspects of the exhibit's administration and production. I would also like to thank the Musuem's volun teers, they have all been very supportive of this project. I wish to thank Eleanor Hamilton and Anne Morse for heading the exhibit's opening refreshment committee, the Archaeo logy Volunteers for their support and commiseration, and Jean Cave and Daphne Shaw for tackling the video produc tion . Other members of the Museum's staff have offered encouragement, advise and support. I am especially grateful vii to Betsy Johnson and Audrey Shane for allowing me to cross the hall to work for them, and to Miriam Clavir, Marjorie Halpin and Madeline Rowan for their advice and for their encouragement. Although all my fellow students have been a support team without equal, I am especially grateful to Margaret Holm, Marg Meikle, Dana Lepofsky, and Mary-Ann Tisdale, who all made direct contributions to Changing Tides. I would also like to thank the students of Section .01Q, English 100 (1984/85) for their constructive criticisms. Thanks also goes to Leonard Ham and Hilary Stewart, as well as Dan Savard of the B.C. Provincial Museum, and to the Photographic Services Department of the American Museum of Natural History for their help with this exhibit. I owe a special debt of thanks to Prof. David Pokotylo for his many contributions to this project. Since this thesis was an attempt to combine an academic with a public oriented endeavour, I am appreciative of the encouragement this exhibit received at its opening from UBC's Dean of Arts, Robert M. Will and from Charles W. Nash, a Director of the British Columbia Heritage Trust. The Archaeological Society of British Columbia has been very supportive of Changing Tides. I would especially like to thank Kitty Bernick, editor of the Midden, for the numerous announcements of the exhibit in that publication. viii I would never have returned to university and tackled such a project as Changing Tides without the enthusiastic . support of my family. I am extremely grateful to my parents for their constant and generous support, as well as my mother's skillful late night, last minute typing, especially of this report. My sister Sue's expert editing has contributed enormously to the quality of this project. I am extremely grateful to her. Without my husband Gervais' encouragement and support ..my involvement with Changing Tides would not have been possible. 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION The planning and production of the museum exhibition Changing Tides and its companion publication Changing Tides:  The Development of Archaeology in B.C.'s Fraser Delta are the primary components of my Master's thesis in Anthropology. This report provides the opportunity to document this plan ning process and to briefly explain some of the criteria used in the development of these projects. Since museum exhibits are not usually undertaken as the primary component of a Master's thesis, this report will also serve as a reflection of this experience. Although it is beyond the scope of this brief report to critically outline all aspects of the planning process, I hope it will provide some useful information for others considering a similar undertaking, as well as provide a record of a particular exhibit's development. This report follows chronologically the development of Changing Tides and the associated Museum Note. A variety of documents are included which were produced at various stages in this project's development. The report is organized as follows: this section dis cusses the role of public interpretation in archaeology, and considers how the exhibit was conceived in light of this role. This discussion follows a brief introduction to the exhibit within the context of a M.A. programme. The second section discusses the reconceptualization of the project in view of a number of considerations. Section 3 outlines the exhibit's 2 development and production, and Section 4 discusses the Museum Note. Section 5 looks at activities related to this exhibit project, Section 6 discusses conservation, and a final section provides a brief overall evaluation of the project. The bibliography contains the selection of readings which I found most useful in developing Changing Tides. It covers a variety of subjects including: the archaeology of the Fraser delta, the history of archaeological method and theory, the natural history of the Lower Mainland, the role of public interpretation in archaeology, the literature on exhibit devel opment, and on Coast Salish material culture and history. The appendixes are the core of this report and are the keys to documenting the development of the exhibition Changing  Tides. 1.1 AN EXHIBIT THESIS The impetus for creating an exhibit as the major element of my M.A. thesis resulted from a desire to combine archaeology and museum studies, even though the M.A. programme at UBC has no formal museum studies specialization. Since archaeology is a formal emphasis, I pursued this route and took additional courses in museum studies. I also gained practical experience in a variety of jobs within the Museum of Anthropology. The practical experience gained was very important preparation for curating Changing Tides. A working knowledge of the museum and the roles of its various staff members and volunteers was essential for producing realistic budgets and schedules, and for making and meeting crucial deadlines. 3 While curating an exhibit requires competence in practical museum procedures, the resulting exhibit thesis is also judged by the scholarly -appropriateness .of the ideas presented. Before I discuss how the ideas presented in the exhibit were conceived and developed it seems logical to present a justification for venturing outside the normal bounds of scholarship to produce a thesis developed specific ally for the general public. 1.2 PUBLIC INTERPRETATION AND ACADEMIC ARCHAEOLOGY Public interpretation is constantly cited as important for archaeology (Feder 1984:525; Fladmark 1980-81:18; McGimsey and Davis 1977:78), nevertheless, it is a relatively neglected and academically unrewarded aspect of the discipline. Research, publication and teaching aimed at colleagues and university students are the internally rewarded aspects of archaeology. Although public funds finance most archaeo logical endeavours, the return to the public, in the form of reports or interpretative projects aimed specifically at this audience is low. This trend appears to be changing, at least on major funding organization in British Columbia is committed to supporting archaeological research designs which include public interpretation (Charlton 1984). If public accountability becomes more important, on-site interpretation at accessible locations will probably increase. Public lectures or publicatons aimed at a general audience may prove an acceptable alternative to on-site interpretation for some proj ects. 4 Although there is a great deal of public interest in archaeology (Fagan 1977:120), it often takes a form which is detrimental to the discipline. Even if archaeologists devote more attention to the public, they still have to compete with the readily available, speculative, and sensa tional books and productions such as those by Erich von Daniken (1970), and Barry Fell (1976), as well as with flashy treasure oriented exhibits like the Treasures of  Tutankhamen. Another detrimental aspect of academic archaeology's relative neglect of the public is that it has done little to foster public support for the protection of sites or signifi cant archaeological objects. Public awareness is necessary for effective legislation, but equally as important for promoting individual respect for the protection of sites and objects. Awareness requires education; education in terms of the scientific and cultural value of archaeological resources. It is within this context that the broad objectives of this thesis were developed. 1.3 OBJECTIVES The main objective of this thesis project is to aid in the development of interest and knowledge of scientific archaeology through exposing museum visitors to archaeology's methods and goals, as well as to present some of the results of archaeological research. Also this exposure aims to help foster an awareness of archaeology and contribute in a positive way to public understanding of the discipline. 5 To acheive these objectives it is necessary to present a perspective on archaeology which counters the popular view that archaeology is a search for tresure, that is the view which considers that objects alone carry the important infor mation. To counter this view, it is necessary to show that an archaeological site as a whole is important, or that the context is as important as the objects. It is also important to show that archaeological sites are non-renewable resources, and once they are dug, whether by careful excavation or by careless relic collection, they are gone forever. Or as Flannery puts it: Archaeology is the only branch of anthropology where we kill our informants in the process of studying them. (Flannery 1982:275) In view of these objectives and in light of the fact that an exhibit was considered anacceptable part of a Master's thesis, an exhibition outline (Appendix 1) was produced to meet the National Museums of Canada, Museums Assistance Programme, Exhibition Assistance funding deadline of Feb ruary 1983. Some tentative ideas existed for an exhibit based on the 1977 excavation of Crescent Beach by Leonard Ham (see Ham 1982). From these ideas, I developed a plan for an exhibit which would present to the public modern arch aeological methods for making inferences about the economic strategies of prehistoric people. It would integrate ethno graphic, historical and environmental information, and would use both archaeological and ethnographic collections, as well as graphics, photographs and original illustrations. In consultation with the Museum's exhibition designer, Herb Watson, it was also decided that modular wooden frame and silkscreened panel construction, used for other travelling archaeological exhibits, would be employed. The funding proposal (Appendix 2) was developed with Prof. R.G. Matson, my advisor. 7 2.0 FUNDING Since the archaeology gallery at the Museum of Anthro pology had not been updated since its installation, it was decided that the exhibit would be tied to a larger gallery revitalization project. The initial funding application (Appendix 2) was for funds to research and to produce the ex hibit, as well as to remove permanent display cases from one section of the gallery. This gallery space would be used for Changing Tides and for future temporary archaeology exhibits. The National Museums of Canada, Museums Assistance Programme For Exhibition Assistance (MAP) was approached for funding since their stated purpose is to provide opportunities for the production of exhibitions which extend access to the collections which reflect our natural, cultural and technological heritage. (National Museums of Canada n.d.) The project was conceived as a phased plan, which would include, as separate phases, a national tour for the exhibit and gallery revitalization. Although MAP expressed interest in the exhibit, the funding application was declined. During the summer of 1983, it was decided that we would reapply to MAP in 1984 as well as seek other sources of funds and consider using internal funds for a scaled down version of the exhibit, if necessary. The gallery revitalization project was separated from the exhibit. , 2.1 THE RECONCEPTION OF THE EXHIBIT Since the first funding application was turned down, I had time to do further research and to reconceive the exhibit 8 during the summer of 1983- In this reconception, an im portant concern was how to balance public appeal and accessibility with academic archaeological content. Appendix 3 is the revised storyline for Changing  Tides. This new version of the exhibit outlines the history of archaeological research in the Fraser delta region of British Columbia; it focusses both on the chang ing perspectives of archaeologists through time, and on the changing techniques they have used to answer questions about the region's prehistory. This new version also contains information on what shell middens are all about, and a concluding section, which I call the "commercial", about the rapid disappearance of sites in the area. I have specifically focussed on professional archaeologists and have concentrated on work done through UBC where applicable. Amateur or avocational archaeologists and other institutions have also made valuable contributions to the archaeology of the area; however, since I was working with UBC collections, I felt it was appropriate to limit discussion to them, if possible. The new theme resulted fundamentally from research of numerous sources, covering local and general archaeology, natural history and environmental development, Coast Salish history, and museum exhibition literature. Other influences included Professor Halpin's review of the British Columbia Provincial Museum's galleries (Halpin 1978) and funding 9 considerations. A primary influence came from the Museum of Anthropology and Laboratory of Archaeology collections. By changing the exhibit I hoped to accomplish a number of objectives. First of all, since collections are the primary focus and most important medium of an exhibit, I wanted to use objects more effectively. The Crescent Beach material is scant and the appropriate Coast Salish material is virtually non-existent at UBC. Since these were the collections emphasized in the old scheme, it i appeared necessary to expand the potential use of the UBC collections in the exhibit. Fortunately, the Laboratory of Archaeology does have an extensive archaeological col lection from the Fraser delta region. A large portion of this collection is a poorly provenienced teaching collection which is used for touchables. This type of collection is also ideal for use in a travelling exhibit. I also con sidered that using replicas was a distinct possibility as long as they were clearly labelled as such. Replicas could be used to fill in gaps in the collection, but more impor tantly, excellent replicas of important specimens could also be used for a travelling exhibit, whereas it would be too great a conservation risk for the originals to travel. Another advantage of replicating objects from the research collections is that the originals would remain available for study. Secondly, I wanted to provide a conceptual framework which would aid visitor comprehension (ROM 1976:85). Since 10 the exhibit would be designed to travel, the theme of the exhibit should be comprehensible to a national audience. This comprehension could be enhanced by participating museums if they tied the historical developments of archa eology into parallel developments in their own localities. I also considered that the developmental approach allowed by an historical perspective would help the viewer with little or no background in archaeology to move through the various stages of research. Of course, the nature of museum audiences is complex, ranging from school groups, to tourists, to native people, to university students, to scholars and to other interested members of the public. This diverse audience has a variety of motives and interests for visiting a museum or a specific exhibit, thereby requiring that multiple objectives be ad dressed in exhibition development. Although it is beyond the scope of this report to discuss the complexity of ex hibit audiences, I did give considerable thought to this question in developing Changing Tides. Thirdly, I wanted to stimulate interest by "humanizing" or "personalizing" the exhibit. This to be done-by relating objects to the people who originally made, traded, used, lost or discarded them, as well as to the people who dug them up and interpreted them. Also, by making the interpretative context explicit, I hoped to address Professor Halpin's perspective that 11 archaeological exhibits are cultural performances which show as much about archaeologists as they show about the prehistoric people under study (Halpin 1978:42-3). Finally, I considered that this new scheme would have a broader appeal than the original exhibit, and would therefore be more acceptable to funding agencies. Since funding applications sent to MAP (Appendix 4) and to the British Columbia Heritage Trust (Appendix 5) in the spring of 1984, were both successful, I concluded that the new scheme was an improvement. 12 3.0 EXHIBITION DEVELOPMENT Once the funding amount for the exhibit was known, it was possible to begin organizing the exhibit into sections, and to outline in detail what would be included in each one. Appendix 6 is the final exhibit outline from which the sections were developed. The storyline, the history of archaeology in the Fraser delta region, was broken down into six sections. The first section serves as an introduction to this history and as an explanation of shell middens. The three stages of archaeological development are covered in the next four sections, and a final section covers the future of this research. Appendix 7 shows in detail how ideas for the appropriate text, artifacts, photographs, and graphics were outlined for each section. Due to time restrictions it was necessary to limit my search for sources of photographs mainly to the Vancouver and Victoria area. I also decided not to venture outside of the Laboratory of Archaeology, or the Ethnology col lections of the Museum of Anthropology for artifacts, except to search for contemporary Coast Salish pieces for section 5. In the end, even these pieces were selected from the museum's collection in consultation with the Curator of Documentation, Audrey Shane, and the Conservator, Miriam Clavir. All other objects were selected from the Laboratory of Archaeology collections, or replicated by 13 the Museum's technician, Len McFarlane. Conservation and research considerations were paramount in this selection process. Many changes and rearrangements occurred in the exhibit between the time Appendix 7 was drafted in August 1984 and the late fall when the final text was completed and the final artifacts, graphics and photographs were selected or prepared. The section outlines provided an invaluable organizing tool for developing and arranging ideas, and for searching for the appropriate artifacts and illustrations to enhance the ideas to be presented. 3.1 TEXT DEVELOPMENT The writing and editing of the exhibit text was under taken in the fall of 1984. Major changes to the text occurred between the first draft (Appendix 8), and the second draft (Appendix 9). Between the third and seventh, or final draft (Appendix 10) the changes are mainly refinements rather than wholesale revisions. From the first draft, it was my intention to develop the text using a modified newspaper approach (Watson 1978). This style of exhibit presents the information in a hierarchical fashion; the first sentence or short paragraph is in larger or bolder print and provides an easily read summary for the entire section. This approach allows the reader to grasp the main point of each section by scanning only the first few lines. Since the exhibit was to be in both English and French, it was important to strive for concision. The illusion of 14 brevity was also attempted, by presenting the text in smaller parcels with sub-headings. This helped to break up some of the longer sections. One major difficulty with developing didactic exhibits on technical or unfamiliar subjects is presenting the in formation in terms which are understandable to the viewing audience. While the first draft was being reviewed by the editors (Professors Ames and Matson), I had an opportunity to try the text out on twenty-six university students. My sister presented the text to her English 100 class as an assignment. Since an English 100 class is composed of mainly first year university students with little or no background in archaeology, they provided a good mid-range audience to informally evaluate the exhibit text. They were instructed to write a letter or memo which specified any comprehension problems they had or any terminology they had difficulty with, any places where the text did not seem clear, and any aspects of the text they considered interesting, as well as those aspects which were not. Their replies were extremely helpful for eliminating or defining terminology, for showing that the conclusion did not tie into the rest of the exhibit, and for pointing the way to clarifying the stages of arca-eological research I had defined. Although my official editors pointed out many of the same deficiencies and other critical problems, the English 100 class replies presented a different and important 15 perspective. Since their views represented a subset of the audience I was addressing, their evaluations provided a novel way of testing audience response. It is beyond the scope of this report to fully discuss audience evaluation of exhibit text drafts within the broader context of museum evaluation, nevertheless I believe such evaluations have a place in this study. 3.2 EXHIBIT CO-ORDINATION AND SCHEDULING Another critical factor in exhibit development is the co-ordination and timing of the various aspects of the ex hibit. Appendix 11 is the final production schedule for Changing Tides. It represents the co-operative agreement between the Exhibit Curator (myself) and the Designer (Herb Watson), of what needed to be done and how long it should take to complete each task. This schedule illustrates how a problem or hold-up in one aspect of the exhibit can create hold-ups in other areas. To facilitate the co-ordination and documentation of the exhibit, we also developed an exhibit book which could be updated as the exhibit progressed. The system used in this book is based on Herb Watson's considerable experience de signing and producing successful exhibits. This book was an invaluable aid for co-ordinating the text with the artifacts, graphics, and labels. The final version (Appendix 12) also serves as a record of all the exhibit's components. In earlier versions of this exhibit book, the comments sections 16 listed artifacts that were not finalized, or options for photographs, graphics yet to be produced, and other tasks left to be completed. In section D2, (see pagel74) the illustration of pre historic activities at the Crescent Beach site (D2-G3), required the compilation of a variety of material from archa eological and ethnographic sources, photographs of the Crescent Beach area as it looks today, as well as all avail able photographs of the activities to be illustrated. Appendix 13 represents some of the information which was compiled for the artist, Gordon Miller's, consideration. A black and white version of the original painting is found on page 15 of the Museum Note (Appendix 19). 17 4.0 THE MUSEUM NOTE The Museum Note Changing Tides: The Development of  Archaeology in B. C.'s Fraser Delta (Appendix 19), was pub lished to provide an enhancement to a temporary travelling exhibit. It also provides an accessible introduction to the history of archaeology in the Fraser delta region in a more permanent form than the exhibit itself presents. The Museum Note text took three drafts to complete. Appendix 14 and 15 correspond to the first and final drafts of its text. The text follows the exhibit quite closely, with the main changes being a new introduction, a greater emphasis placed on the developmental historical theme, the addition of references, and the selection and revision of graphics. When proof-reading problems appeared in the French portion of the exhibit text, I was compelled to have the Museum Note's French text proofed by an outside professional. Although problems with the exhibit text were-caught and corrected, I could have avoided the lost time and consider able expense by undertaking the same process for the exhibit as I subsequently followed with the Museum Note. Both the exhibit text and the Museum Note text were stored and revised on the computer. The Textform word pro cessing programme available on UBC's MTS system was used. Textform saved many hours of labourious typing and elimin ated typesetting errors as UBC's typesetting services had 18 direct access to the files. Word processing also less ened the turn-around time between drafts which helped greatly when final deadlines approached. The Museum Note was designed by Gordon Miller, with the cover adapted from the exhibition's poster, also of his design. Tying the Museum Note and the poster together visually helps people to identify the booklet with the exhibit. 19 5.0 RELATED ACTIVITIES A variety of activities and enhancements were developed in conjunction with the exhibition Changing Tides. The major enhancement was the Museum Note which is discussed in the previous section. A poster was designed for the exhibit. It was de veloped specifically for publicity purposes rather than as an item for sale. The Museum's Public Relations officer, Ruth Anderson, suggested that since the poster was conceived primarily to advertise the exhibit, and because the exhibit would travel to five locations across the country, we should consider leaving a blank strip on a number of the posters where the participating museums could print in their own ex hibition information. We followed through on this proposal and offered museums participating in the tour, up to fifty posters for their own use. Appendix 16 outlines the national travel schedule de veloped for Changing Tides. During the exhibition's run at the UBC Museum of Anthro pology a public lecture series was held at the museum (Appendix 17). This lecture series was organized by Pro fessor R. G. Matson and covered topics related in various ways to the exhibit. The attendance at these lectures was excellent, and they provided an opportunity for professional archaeologists to present to the public aspects of their current research, as well as to express their views on the 20 directions archaeological research in the area is taking. There are a number of other activities related to the exhibit Changing Tides which I have not discussed, including the organization of the national tour, the exhibition open ing, exhibition publicity, and the development of a video tape based on the exhibit. Since the opening, publicity, and the video tape are primarily the responsibility of others, I will not deal with these activities, except to say that they require the same type of co-ordination and co-operative agreement as exhibition production. Although the travelling phase of Changing Tides does not commence until early 1986, much of the ground work has already been completed. Setting up the travel schedule requires a seemingly endless series of letters, the first to a number of museums who might be interested in hosting the exhibit, the second to provide detailed information and possible dates to those museums who are interested in the exhibit, and after funding was approved, a final series to those museums who both accepted the available times and who fit into a logical progression across the country. After the tour was set, various curatorial and pub licity information was sent to host museums, and when the appropriate times come, someone associated with the exhibit will travel to each museum to help with publicity and with any last minute set-up problems which might be encountered. 21 6.0 CONSERVATION The modular frame and panel construction system used in temporary, travelling archaeological exhibits designed at the Museum of Anthropology incorporates fixed mounted arti facts in secured plexiglas cases. Artifacts are attached in several ways depending upon their material, structure, weight and fragility. Wax and silicone-based adhesives are used alone or in combination with flexible straping. Although, in the main these mounting techniques are theoretically reversible, it is impossible to remove all the residue from mounted objects after a lengthy exhibition run. Since residue analysis of archaeological artifacts is an increasingly important technique (Loy 1983) necessitating minimal contamination, it seemed important not to subject research collections to mounting adhesives. Exceptions to this were two artifacts used in Changing Tides which had already undergone residue analysis and which were used specifically to illustrate the rudiments of this increas ingly sophisticated technique. During the process of removing artifacts from another temporary, travelling exhibition, damage was noted on several types of specimens, noteably shell and slate. Inclusion of similar artifacts or specimens in Changing Tides was given careful consideration, and selections were often made on the basis of this review. Although the sturdiness of speci mens and artifacts was an important consideration, it was 22 difficult to find suitable non-provenienced artifacts which fit this criteria since many of these objects are weathered, surface finds. The design of the artifact cases used in this exhibit also necessitated that the Museum's standard conservation forms for travelling exhibits be modified. Since the cases are not to be opened, and the possibilities for damage can be outlined more specifically than for other types of ex hibits, a conservation system was designed specifically for Changing Tides (see Appendix 18). The damage inspection routine to be followed by the participating museums paral lels the system already set out by the Museum of Anthropology; the major changes are in considering each case as the unit for inspection and in emphasizing the security of the mounts. Colour photographs of each case are included in the conservation inspection kit to aid in this damage inspection. 23 7.0 EVALUATION It may be premature to give a final evaluation of Changing Tides since the exhibit has a major portion of its viewing life ahead of it. Nevertheless, it is not too early to evaluate the process of exhibit development. 7.1 PLANNING After the development of an exhibit's storyline, the most important requirement is a well co-ordinated plan, and the co-operative agreement of a number of people. It is not just the physical exhibit but the planning of the tour, the various aspects of publicity, the opening,' and the enhancements which must all come together at the ap propriate times to create a successful exhibition. Since planning the exhibit is the key, it is necessary to create the most effective devices, and to canvass the veterans for the best ways to facilitate exhibit develop ment. For Changing Tides, the creation of a detailed outline, or storyline (Appendix 6), was crucial to the development of many aspects of the exhibit, from funding proposals, to section outlines, to production schedules. It was also the basis on which the text was written, and the basis on which other people could plan additional activities, such as the video production, publicity, and even the food to be served at the opening. The organizational devices, such as the section out line (Appendix 7), the production schedule (Appendix 11), 24 and the exhibit book (Appendix 12) were invaluable aids to producing the exhibit on time with the minimum of delays, disasters, or misunderstandings. Perhaps similar devices would have been useful for other aspects of the project beyond production, especially for the Museum Note and for the video production. 7.2 EVALUATION The development of a museum exhibit requires continu ous of formative evaluation of the various aspects being undertaken. I have already mentioned a few of these, such as the reconceptualization of the exhibit in light of fund ing criteria, the nature of collections, and the desire to create a more effective exhibit, as we'L'l as the informal evaluation of the exhibit text by English 100 students. Evaluation also played a role in examing the exhibit after installation. For instance, the original layout of the exhibit was reviewed and modified after it was observed that the layout of the exhibit panels and the natural flow of traffic did not coincide. It is rather difficult to judge, from my particular vantage point, the success or failure of the project as a whole. So far, however, written feedback has been positive: letters have been received praising the exhibit's clarity and the Museum Note's suitability for a national audience. A review of the exhibition is also favorable (Mason 1985:13). 25 Without some type of summative evaluation, it is dif ficult to judge how well the exhibit communicates ideas to the public. Since the stated purpose of this thesis project is to help foster public awareness and support for the goals of scientific archaeology, it seems logical to attempt to test the exhibit's effectiveness in these terms. Perhaps some of this type of evaluation could have been undertaken during the exhibit's run; however, museum evaluation is a complex and controversial endeavour worthy of time and con sideration beyond the limits of the present project. 7.3 EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMING Another aspect of the exhibit which has not received a great deal of attention to date is educational program ming. This omission will be partially rectified for the national tour by a video production currently being de veloped, by supplemental curatorial information, and by host museums who are planning to incorporate the exhibit into their educational programmes. If these educational programmes are undertaken they could expand audience appeal during the national tour. By emphasizing the parallel history of the development of archaeological research in various regions, the educational value of the exhibit would also be enhanced. The incorporation of Changing Tides into the existing school programmes at the Museum of Anthropology was re stricted to informal use in school programmes which focussed 26 specifically on archaeology. It was also incorporated into tours given by Volunteer Associates and others who were familiar with archaeology. This limited use of the exhibit in educational programmes at the Museum of Anthropology was due primarily to the time constraints of the Curator, and the lack of initial planning for funds to undertake these programmes. The lack of a structural channel to co-ordinate archaeological exhibits into the main stream of the Museum's educational activities may also be an underlying factor. This is due in part to the perceived separation of activ ities associated with archaeology from those of the rest of the museum. Unfamiliarity with archaeology, is also an im portant factor for those undertaking these programmes. 7.4 CONCLUSION In conclusion, I am struck by the fact that two such seemingly incompatible pursuits as the necessarily co operative venture of a museum exhibit and the usually solitary one of a Master's thesis can be combined. Changing  Tides is the result of such a synthesis of an intellectual endeavour with a co-operative, public-oriented venture. I firmly believe that the discipline needs to promote this kind of synthesis from within if it is to gain the public awareness and support it so urgently requires. 27 8.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbott, Donald N. 1972 The Utility of the Concept of Phase in the Archaeology of the Southern North west Coast. Syesis 5:267-278. Adams, Robert McC 1968 Archaeological Research Strategies: Past and Present. Science 160(3833):1187-1192. Barnett, Homer G. 1955 Bennett, J.W. 1976 The Coast Salish of British Columbia. University of Oregon Monographs, Studies in Anthropology. No. 4. The Ecological Transition: Cultural  Anthropology and Human Adaptation. New York: Pergamon Press Inc. Blakey, Michael L. 1983 Socio-Political Bias and Ideological Pro duction in Historical Archaeology. In The Socio-Politics of Archaeology. Joan M. Gero; David M. Lacy and Michael L. Blakey, editors. Research Reports Number 23. Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Pp. 5-16. Binford, Lewis R. Archaeology as Anthropology. American  Antiquity 28:2:217-225. 1962 1964 1973 1977 A Consideration of Archaeological Research Design. American Antiquity 29:4:425-441. Interassemblage Variability - the Mousterian and the 'Functional' Arguement. In The Explanation of Cultural Change. Colin Renfrew, editor. London: Duckworth. Pp. 227-254. General Introduction. In For Theory  Building in Archaeology. L. R. Binford, editor. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 1-10. 28 Boas, Franz 1889 1909 1950a 1950b 1951a 1951b 1954 1955 1962 1968 First General Report on the Indians of British Columbia. Report of the British  Association for the Advancement of  Science 59th Meeting. Pp. 840-893-The Kwakiutl of Vancouver Island. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural  History. Vol. V. The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Part 11. Pp. 301-522. Borden, Charles E. Preliminary Report on Archaeological Investigations in the Fraser Delta Region, Anthropology in B.C. 1:13-27. Notes on the Prehistory of the Southern North-West Coast. British Columbia  Historical Quarterly 14:4:241-246. Fraser River Delta Archaeological Find ings. American Antiquity 16:3:263. Facts and Problems of Northwest Coast Prehistory. Anthropology in B.C. 2:35-52. Some Aspects of Prehistoric Coastal Interior Relations in the Pacific North west Anthropology in B.C. 4:26-32. An Ancient Coast Indian Village in Southern British Columbia. Indian Time 2:15:9-19. West Coast Crossties with Alaska. In Prehistoric Cultural Relations Between  the Arctic and Temperature Zones of  North America. John M. Campbell, editor. (i960 Symposium) Arctic Institute of North America, Technical Paper No. 11:9-19-Prehistory of the Lower Mainland. In Lower Fraser Valley: Evolution of a  Cultural Landscape. Alfred H. Siemens, editor. Vancouver: Tantalus Research. Pp. 9-26. 29 Borden, Charles E, 1969a 1969b 1970 1975 1979 [1983] Excavations at Old Musqueam 1967-68. Newsletter, Archaeological Society of  B.C. 1:2:2-4. IV Discussion, Current Archaeological Research on the Northwest Coast: Symposium Presented at the 22nd. Annual Northwest Anthropological Conference. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 3:2:255-263. Culture History of the Fraser-Delta Region:An Outline. BC Studies Fall-Winter No. 6-7. Pp. 95-112. Origins and Development of Early North west Coast Culture to About 3000 B.C. 'National Museum of Man Mercury Series,  Archaeological Survey of Canada. No. 4"5. Peoples and Early Cultures of the Pacific Northwest:A View from British Columbia, Canada. Science n.s. 203 (4384):963-971 Prehistoric Art of the Lower Fraser Region. In Indian Art Traditions of the  Northwest Coast. Roy L. Carlson, ed. Burnaby: Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University. Pp. 131-155-Bouchard, Randy and Dorothy I. D. Kennedy 1974 Utilization of Fishes, Beach Foods, and Marine Animals by the Tl'uhus Indian People of British Columbia. Unpublished Manuscript, British Columbia Indian Language Project. Broderick, Michael 1979 Ascending Paper Chromatographic Tech nique in Archaeology. In Lithic Use  Wear Analysis. Brian Hayden, editor. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 375-383 Bunyan, Don E. 1978 Pursuing the Past:A General Account of  British Columbia Archaeology. Museum Note No. W. Vancouver: UBC Museum of Anthropology. 30 Burley David V. 1980 Marpole: Anthropological Reconstructions of a Prehistoric Northwest Coast Culture Type. Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Publication No. 8. Carefoot, Thomas 1977 Pacific Seashores: A Guide to Intertidal  Ecology. Vancouver: J.J. Douglas Ltd. Carmel, J.H. 1962 Exhibit Techniques, Travelling and Temp  orary . New York: Reinhold. Carlson, Roy L. 1970 Archaeology in British Columbia. BC Studies 6-7:7-17. Charlton, Art 1984 Opening Remarks: Public Interpretation in Archaeology Session. 17th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Archaeological Association, Victoria. Clarke, David L 1972 Models and Paradigms in Contemporary Archa eology. In Models in Archaeology. D.L. Clarke, ed. London: Methuen & Co., Ltd. Pp. 1-60. Davies, D. Gareth 1978 Museums and Archaeology—a Lost Cause? Museums Journal 78:123-125. Drucker, Philip 1943 Archaeological Survey on the Northern North west Coast. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 133:17-142. 1963 Indians of the Northwest Coast. New York: The Natural History Press (first edition 1955) Duff, Wilson 1952 The Upper Stalo Indians of the Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Anthropology in British  Columbia, Memoir 1. Victoria: BCPM. Eells, Myron 1887 The Puget Sound Indians—Their Resources. The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal Vol. 1X:4:211-219. 31 Elmendorf W.W. I960 The Structure of Twana Culture. Washington State University, Research  Studies, Monographic Supplement No. 2. Vol. XXV111. No. 3. Fagan, Brian 1977 Genesis 1:1; or Teaching Archaeology to the Great Archaeology-Loving Public. American Antiquity 42:1:119-125. Feder, Kenneth L. 1984 Irrationality and Popular Archaeology. American Antiquity 49:3:525-541. Fell, Barry 1976 America B.C.: European Settlers in the New World. New York: Quadrangle, The New York Times Book Co. Fladmark, Knut R. 1980-81 British Columbia Archaeology in the 1970's. BC Studies Winter No. 48. Pp. 11-20. Flannery, Kent V. 1982 The Golden Marshalltown: a Parable for the Archaeology of the 1980's. American  Anthropologist 84:265-278. Ford, Richard 1983 The Humanistic Applications of Prehistoric Archaeology. Unpublished paper presented at the Xlth ICAES conference, Vancouver. Freedman, J. 1979 The History of Canadian Anthropology. Proceedings, Canadian Ethnology Society No. 3 Greaves, Sheila 1983 An Evaluation of the Archaeology Gallery and Preliminary Concepts for its Improvement. Unpublished paper, UBC Museum of Anthropology Gunther, Erna 1927 Klallam Ethnography. University of Wash ington, Publications in Anthropology Vol. 1. No. 5. Pp. 171-314. 32 Haeberlin, Hermann and Erna Gunther 1930 The Indians of Puget Sound. University of Washington, Publications in Anthropology Vol. 4. No. 1. Pp. 1-84. Halpin, Marjorie M, 1978 The Twelve Thousand Year Gap: Archaeology in British Columbia: A Review. Gazette Quarterly of the Canadian Museums Association Vol. 11. No. 1. Pp. 40-48. Ham, Leonard C, 1982 Seasonality, Shell Midden Layers, and Coast Salish Subsistence Activities at the Crescent Beach Site, DgRr 1. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia. 1984 Models of the Development and Distribution of Archaeological Sites in the Fraser River Delta. Unpublished paper presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Archaeol ogical Association, Victoria. Ham, Leonard C. 1975 and Moira Irvine Techniques for Determining Seasonality of Shell Middens from Marine Mollusc Remains Syesis 8:363-373. Harris E.C. 1979 Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy, New York: Academic Press. Hart, J.L. 1973 Pacific Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 180, Hester, James J. and Kathryn J. Conover 1970 Ecological Sampling of Middens on the Northwest Coast. Northwest Anthropological  Research Notes Vol. 4. No. 2. Pp. 137-152. Hill-Tout, Charles 1938 The Great Fraser Midden. Vancouver: The Art, Historical and Scientific Association Hoos, L.M. and G.A. Packman 1974 The Fraser River Estuary, Status of Environ mental Knowledge to 1974. Special Estuary  Series No. 1. West Vancouver: Environment Canada. 33 Ingle, Robert 1954 The Life of an Estuary. Scientific American 190(5):64-68. Jenness, Diamond n.d. The Saanich Indians of Vancouver Island. Unpublished Manuscript. Ottawa:National Museum of Man. Johnston, W.A, 1921 Keddie, Grant 1982 Sedimentation of the Fraser Delata. Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir No. 125. Ottawa Thoughts on the Status of Cultural Con tinuity and Change among Prehistoric Salish Populations. Midden Oct. Vol. XIV No. 4. Pp. 8-13. Kennedy, Dorothy and Randy Bouchard 1983 Sliammon Life, Sliammon Lands. Talonbooks. Vancouver: Loy, Thomas H, 1983 Prehistoric Blood Residues: Detection on Tool Surfaces and Identification of Species of Origin. Science 220(4603): 1269-1271. MacFarlane, Natalie and Elena Perkins 1977 Museum Evaluation and Ethnography. Un published Manuscript, Vancouver: UBC Museum of Anthropology. McGimsey, Charles R. .Ill and Hester A. Davis, editors 1977 Mason, Phyllis 1985 The Management of Archaeological Resources:  The Airlie House Report Special Publication of the Society for American Archaeology. A Re/View-ing. Midden June Vol. XVII No. 3. P.13. Matson, R.G. 1974 Clustering and scaling of Gulf of Georgia sites. Syesis 7:101-114. 34 Matson R.G. 1976 The Glenrose Cannery Site. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological  Survey of Canada No. 52. 1980-81 Prehistoric Subsistence Patterns in the Fraser Delta: The Evidence from the Glenrose Cannery Site. BC Studies Winter No. 48. Pp. 64-85. Maud, Ralph, ed. 1978 The Salish People: The Local Contribution of Charles Hill-Tout. Vol. Ill The Mainland Halkomelem. Vancouver: Talonbooks, Mitchell, Donald H. ' . 1971 Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia area, a natural region and its cultural types. Syesis Vol. 4. Supplement 1. National Museums of Canada n.d. Museum Assistance Programme, Exhibitions Assistance Programme, Programme Description, Mimeo. Osborn, Alan J. 1970 Development of an Archaeological Museum Display Museum Briefs. No. 4~ Museum of Anthropology. Columbia: University of Missouri - Columbia. Percy, Richard C.W. 1974 The Prehistoric Cultural Sequence at Crescent Beach, British Columbia. Unpub lished M.A. Thesis. Simon Fraser University. Robinson, Ellen Wallace 1975 Charles E. Borden: His Formulation and Testing of Archaeological Hypotheses. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. Portland State University. 1976 Harlan I. Smith, Boas, and the Salish: Unweaving Archaeological Hypotheses. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes Vol. 10. No. 2. Pp. 185-196. ROM 1976 Communicating with the Museum Visitor: Guidelines for Planning. Toronto: ROM 35 Rudin, Emily B. 1979 A sign for All Seasons: From Writer's Clipboard to Zoo Exhibit. Curator 22:4: 303-309. Rudy, Robert H. and John A. Brown 1976 Myron Eells and the Puget Sound Indians. Seattle: Superior Publishing Company. Schiffor, Michael B. 1976 Behavioral Archaeology. New York: Academic Press. Shettel, Harris H. 197 3 Exhibits: Art Form or Educational Medium. Museum News 52:1:32-41. Smith, Harlan I. 1903 Shell-Heaps of the Lower Fraser River, British Columbia. Memoirs of the American  Museum of Natural History Vol. IV. The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Part IV. Pp. 133-199. 1907 Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia and Puget Sound. Memoirs of the American  Museum of Natural History Vol. 11. The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Part VI. 1913 The Archaeological Collection From the Southern Interior of British Columbia. Ottawa: Museum of the Geological Survey. No. 1290. Smith, Marian W. 1969 The Puyallup-Nisqually. New York: AMS Press, (first edition 1940). Stern, Bernhard J 1969 The Lummi Indians of Northwest Washington. New York: AMS Press, (first edition 1934). Suttles, Wayne 1955 Katzie Ethnographic Notes Anthropology in British Columbia, Memoir No. 2. Victoria: BCPM. 36 Suttles, Wayne 1968 Coping with Abundance: Subsistence on the Northwest Coast. In Man the Hunter. R. B. Lee and I. Devore, editors. Chicago: Aldine Press. Pp. 56-68 '1974 The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits. Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians I. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. Swan, James G. 1969 The Northwest Coast. Seattle: University of Washington Press, (first edition 1857). Taylor, Walter W. 1948 A Study of Archaeology. American Anthro pologist Vol. 50. No. 3- Part 2. Memoir No. 69. Trigger, Bruce G. 1968 Major Concepts of Archaeology in Historical Perspective. Man 3:4:527-541. Von Daniken, Erich 1970 Chariots of the Gods: Unsolved Mysteries  of the Past. New York: Bantam Books. Wade, L.K. 1976 The Rich Estuaries in Mountains and Seas. Harold Hosford, editor. Heritage Record No. 5. BCPM. Pp. 32-38. Watson, Herb 1978 How to Communicate in Exhibitions. Un published BCMA workshop paper, Nanaimo. Willey, Gordon R. and Philip Phillips 1958 Method and Theory in American Archaeology. Chicago Press. 1974 A History of American Archaeology. San Francisco: W. H. Freedman and Company. Williams, Anne M. 1980 Carl Borden and Archaeology in B.C. Un published M.A. thesis. UBC 37 Zak, Ellen Jeanette 1980 Education Programs for Special Exhibitions on Tour: A Topic of Museum Education. Un published M.A. Thesis. University of Washington. 38 9.1 APPENDIX 1 Jan. 1, 1983 ARCHAEOLOGY TEMPORARY EXHIBIT (Untitled as yet) The primary purpose of this exhibit will be to show how archaeologists make inferences about the economic strategies of prehistoric people through the utilization of a variety of methods and techniques when analyzing materials from archaeological sites. The focus of the proposed temporary archaeological exhibit will be the results of the 1977 ex cavation of the Crescent Beach site, which has shown that viable information on the economic strategies of prehistoric Northwest Coast peoples, can be obtained when midden analysis is undertaken in conjunction with ethnographic and environ mental information. This exhibit will reflect not only the kind of substantive research which is ongoing at UBC but also important aspects of archaeological research in general. The Crescent Beach midden site is situated on Boundary Bay in the southern portion of the Fraser River Delta system and ethnographically is contained within the boundaries of the Coast Salish culture area. This site represents an im portant aspect of a complex seasonally differentially adaptive strategy, specifically the utilization of the February-March herring run and concommitantly the processing of shellfish and other available, though less important, resources. Significant evidence for woodworking activities at the site were also discerned archaeologically. 39 Archaeological investigations at this and other sites supports the thesis that a seasonally diverse, complex and specialized adaptive strategy has persisted in the region for several millenia. The regional variations of this adaptive strategy are the basis for the development and subsequent flourishing of the Northwest Coast culture-culture which is widely identi fied by its magnificent art style and ceremonies. The prehistoric evidence for one aspect of this adaptation is the subject of this exhibit, as well as the archaeological methods utilized to discern it. The exhibit will contain information presented in a variety of ways. For example, maps, photos, diagrams, faunal remains and artifacts will be utilized to enhance the story line. Archaeological methods will be illustrated; for example, shellfish growth ring analysis, which is utilized to determine the season of shellfish procurement and to infer the season of site use. Reconstruction of subsistence activities such as clam and herring procurement and pro cessing will be represented, as well as the archaeological evidence from which these activities are inferred. Aspects of the environmental and ethnographic information utilized in the research design and analysis at Crescent Beach will also be illustrated. Possible inclusions may be an intro ductory slide-tape presentation or a reconstructed midden feature, space and logistics permitting. 23/6/79 -2-PRQJECT DESCRIPTION: (Use only space provided; do not add additional sheets. Include Information on need for project aim or objectives, audience to be served and anticipated duration. If applicable explain need for research, conservation, staff travel and/or justify why exhibition may not travel nationally.) Changing Tides represents the first of a three stage plan to revitalize and expand the exhibit capacity of the archaeology gallery in the Museum of Anthropology. The objective of Phase One is to repalce part of the existing permanent archaeology display installed under severe time limitations for the opening of the museum in 1976. It is informative but static, as no space is available for public reports on current researcl and other temporary displays of general interest. However, minor changes to the gallery and to the exhibit philosophy will permit a more effective use of this space. The Phase One temporary exhibit will draw upon the museum's research collections to illustrate the process of archaeological reconstruction of past events and the analogous ethnographic activities. Phase Two will consist of packaging this exhibit for travel, and Phase Three will be a recasting of the entire archaeology gallery, as funds become available. Phasing distributes costs over a longer period and allows exhibit planning to be more effectively integrated with research and teaching programmes The removal of one built-in case, so flexible modular display units can be used for the temporary exhibit, will provide future space for changing displays, thus adding more vitality to the archaeological presentation. This feature will be retained when the remainder of the gallery is upgraded as part of a proposed Phase Three. Phase One: Changing Tides will show how archaeologists piece together, from the patterning of shell, stone, charcoal, bones and ash remains, the activities which supported a distinctive and complex culture. By combining archaeological techniques with environmental and ethnographic information, the varied activities which went on at a site are discovered. The exhibit will thus demonstrate the techniques and orientation of modern archaeology which are used to discover past lifeways. The cultures along the British Columbia coast culminated in a highly successful andunique way of life which the public typically identifies with its magnificient art. People are less acquainted, however, with the equally fascinating, complex system which these people evolved for exploiting their environmnet. Changing Tides will utilize materials excavated from the Crescent Beach site to demonstrate how archaeologists discover the range and season of activities through (contined on page 2b) PERSONNEL List all permanent or part-time staff associated with the Project, their title and function If person(s) contracted for this project, please attach resumes) and list duties. Curator: Responsible for the storyline, research and development and academic content of production. Director: Responsible for editing exhibit copy (Dr. M.M. Ames) Exhibit Designer: Prepares exhibit design and panel layout, supervises technical aspects of production. Illustrator: Depicts the prehistoric activities which occurred at or near the site, in watercolour graphics, from information provided by the Curator and Research Assistant. Photographer Designer: Designs and prepares photographs for exhibit. Research Assistant: Assists in the research and development of the storyline and in documentation of exhibit material as well as literature search. Design Assistant: Assists the Exhibit Designer, arranges text typesetting and exhibit photos, and prepares and mounts exhibit materials. Curatorial Assistant: Prpares figures for display, proofreads typesetting. Administative/Clerical Staff: Administrates budget, requistions purchase orders, types manuscripts for exhibit text. A.V. Editor: Edits video and prepares sound overlay. -2b-such analytical techniques as shell fish growth ring studies, residue analysis of stone tools, and constituent analysis of remains. These archaeological techniques are combined with environmental and ethnographic information to provide a wider perspective by showing how various activities were interrelated, when and why prehistoric people used the site, and how these prehistoric activities related to historic ones. Photographs, graphics, maps, and commissioned illustrations will accompany Crescent Beach artifacts to enhance the storyline and to provide a more complete view of how archaeologists discover the past. The installation of a video access unit will provide a wide range of complementary archaeological programmes. A brief catalogue will also be issued in conjunction with Changing Tides, as part of the Museum Note Series. A public lecture series including archaeologists, ethnologists, biologists and other relevant experts will be arranged to enhance the exhibit. Once the exhibit is installed in the Museum of Anthropology, a plan for national travel will be undertaken as Phase Two. This exhibit with its supplementary video and catalogue will be the fourth in a series of successful travelling archaeology exhibits prepared at U.B.C. with the aide of the Exhibitions Assistance Programme. This second phase and the Phase Three plan to upgrade the permanent archaeology display will be scheduled according to funding and each phase can be completed before the next begins. The Museum of Anthropology recognizes that support of Changing Tides does not entail a commitment to support later phases, but that each must be judged on its own merits. 25/6779 -3-LIST CF CONTENTS TITLE, TYPE OR DESCRIPTION OF OBJECTS ARTIST OR PROVENANCE OVlNED BY AVAILABILITY CONFIRMED All objects are ownei trust by the Museum by the UBC Museutr or the Semiahmoo band of Anthropology or held in If additional space 1s required, please attach additional sheets following the same format. RUNNING OR SQUARE FEET (METRES) REQUIRED FOR 300 sq. ft. EXHIBITION: DURATION OF EXHIBITION Sept. 1984 May 1984 FROM: TO: 44 23/6/79 ITINERARY •4-DURATION Cf ENTIRE TCJUR: FRCM . TO PtfflFCTrl) TfllR LOCATION No circulation is planned within ARRIVAL DATE DEPARTURE DATE CONFIRMED UNCONFIRMED present application. A separate application for exhibit travel will be submitted at a later date as Phase Two. If additional space Is required, please attach additional sheets following the same format. METHOD OF SHIPMENT: RAIL . AIR , ROAD . OWN VEHICLE COMMERCIAL SHIPPER (attach quotes) WEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EPP, THE ORGANIZER MUST NOT CHARGE SHIPPING COSTS TO THE BORROWING INSTITUTIONS INSURANCE VALUE: $_ WHEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EAP, THE ORGANIZER MUST PAY ALL INSURANCE COSTS, EXCEPT WHEN A BORROWING INSTITUTION HAS BLANKET COVERAGE AND CAN INSURE THE BORROWED EXHIBITION WITHOUT ADDITIONAL COST TO THEIR ANNUAL PREMIUM. WHEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EAP, THE ORGANIZER MAY NOT CHARGE A BORROWING FEE TO THE BORROWING INSTITUTIONS -5-CATALOGUES/BRXllURES/POSTESS TFN (IT) COP1FS OF ALL PRINTED CATALOGUES AND BROCHURES PRODUCED WITH EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE MUST BE FORWARDED, FREE OF CHARGE, TO THE EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME. THESE WILL BE DISTRIBUTED TO THE ffATIONAL filSEUMS LIBRARY, THE NATIONAL LIBRARY, AND TrE NATIONAL GALLERY LIBRARY. THE APPLICANT IS ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR DISTRIBUTING ONE COPY EACH, FREE OF CHARGE, TO ALL APPROPRIATE ASSOCIATE MUSEUMS. (A OJRRENT LIST OF ASSOCIATE MUSEUMS WILL^BE^ORWARDEn TO .SUCCESSFUL APPLICANTS WHEN F1.WDS. ARE RELEASED.) Describe the educative value and objectives. An exhibit catalogue in the form of a museum note, will provide information comparable to the exhibit. This catalogue will permit enhanced exhibit appreciation and interpretation. A brief bibliography of relevant articles and other public ations will be included for the individual who wishes further information. The exhibit poster will feature one of the watercolour reconstructions of prehistoric activities. DIMENSIONS i'lUMBER OF PAGES NUMBER OF COLOUR REPRODUCTIONS I'LUMBER OF BLACK AND WHITE REPRODUCTIONS DUMBER OF CATALOGUES,BROCHURES,POSTERS ESTIMATED PUBLISHING COST ESTIMATED HANDLING COST NUMBER TO BE GIVEN AWAY NUMBER TO BE SOLD.. SELLING PRICE ESTIMATED ADMINISTRATIVE COST.... ANTICIPATED REVENUE PRICE QUOTES AND MOCK-UPS ATTACHED TOTAL ANTICIPATED REVENUE FROM ALL-PRINTED MATERIAL CATALOGUES 8" x 10" 10  none  14 POSTERS 24" x 17" 3000  3280 3QQ 100 ?qno 1.25 300 $ 790 2QQ inn $ 1.00 Under General Administrative Costs 45 $ 100 See attached 'Blood From Stone' estimate 145 ALL NATIONAL TRAVELLING EXHIBITION MATERIAL SHOULD BE PRODUCED IN BOTH OFFICIAL LANGUAGES. * Revenue 3,625 less costs 3580 Final retail and wholesale prices to be established after final (1984) publication costs are known. 23/6/79 -6-ENHAflCEMENT ACTIVITIES AND MATERIALS WHICH FACILITATE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF AN EXHIBITION ARE SUPPORTED WHEN THEY CAN BE JUSTIFIED IN TERMS OF NEED, EXHIBITION OBJECTIVES AND THE AUDIENCE TO BE SERVED. THEY MAY INCLUDE FILM/ A-V PRODUCTIONS,PERFORMANCES, DEMONSTRATIONS, TAPES, ETC. IN THE SPACE BELOW DESCRIBE THE ENHANCE MENT PROPOSED AND ITEMIZE THE COSTS. The addition of a video access unit wiil not only enable presentation of a greater range of complementary information in conjunction with Changing Tides but will allow ongoing short lenght video programmes to be utilized in the archaeology gallery. Current research reports as well as special and general interest video tapes can be presented. The present application also includes the editing and production of a video tape from existing footage of the excavation and laboratory analysis of Crescent Beach materials. Slide tapes will be prepared on the local habitat and on procuring and processing activities. This video package will not only enhance the temporary exhibit but can be packaged to travel in Phase Two. Some video material is all ready available, including Northwest Coast Prehistory, A Museum of Anthropology production. The following titles will be srceened for suitablity and possible availability to transfer to video; Archaeological Dating:  Retracing Time, Garbage and Garf: A Parable for Archaeology. A public lecture series will be arranged to enhance the exhibit. Archaeologists, ethnologists, biologists and other relevant experts will be included. Negotiations will be undertaken to arrange for Wayne Suttles of Portland State University and Donald Mitchell of The University of Victoria to lecture in this series, as well as, several local speakers. 23/6/79 -7-KSTRUCTIONS FOR CCrPLETION OF BUDGET 1. BEGIN WITH PAGES 8 AND 9 - BUDGET. Two COPIES OF THESE PAGES ARE INCLUDED WITH THE APPLICATION FORM, SO THAT ONE MAY BE USED AS A WORKING COPY FOR PREPARATION OF THE BUDGET. USE THE COMPLETED BUDGET ON PAGES 3 AND 9 AS A GUIDE IN FILLING OUT THE BUDGET SUMW ON PAGE 10. 2. PLEASE BE ADVISED THAT IIATIONAL MUSEUMS OF CANADA WILL NOT FUND IOCS OF TOTAL COSTS OF ANY PROJECT. TOTAL COST MEANS THE ENTIRE EXPENSE OF THE PROJECT, THAT IS, HOW MUCH IT WILL COST TO REALIZE THE PROJECT. PLEASE INCLUDE COSTS OF ALL ITEMS, INCLUDING SPACE, LABOUR, MATERIALS, CONSERVATION, PUBLICATIONS, EDUCATION ACTIVITIES, ETC., WHICH MAY BE DONATED OR CONTRIBUTED BY THE APPLICANT OR AN OUTSIDE SOURCE. THIS WILL NECESSITATE ASSIGNING MONETARY VALUES TO SUCH ITEMS AS DONATED EXHIBITION SPACE, CONTRIBUTED LABOUR, ETC. 3. CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT is THE AMOUNT CONTRIBUTED BY YOUR INSTITUTION OR ORGANIZATION IN EITHER SERVICES OR M3NEY. IN ORDER TO COMPLETE THIS COUWI, YOU WILL HAVE TO ASSIGN A MONETARY VALUE TO STAFF TIrE, MATERIALS, SERVICES, ETC., WHICH WILL BE USED IN THE DEVELOPMENT, PREPARATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF YOUR PROJECT. H. OTHER INCOME is MONEY OR SERVICES CONTRIBUTED BY OTHER DONORS OR GRANTING AGENCIES. IT IS ALSO THE REVENUE ANTICIPATED FROM THE SALE OF CATALOGUES, BROCHURES OR POSTERS. 5, BALANCE is THE AMOUNT OF MONEY NEEDED TO REALIZE THE PROJECT AFTER SUBTRACTION OF THE APPLICANT'S CONTRIBUTION. FOR EXAMPLE, UNDER SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS, THE APPLICANT MAY CONTRIBUTE 4 DISPLAY CASES FOR AN EXHIBITION, VALUED AT $2<)Q0. IN ORDER TO PREPARE AN ADEQUATE PRESENTATION, 4 ADDITIONAL DISPLAY CASES ARE REQUIRED, AT A COST OF $2800. TOTAL COST OF DISPLAY CASES IS $5200, APPLICANT'S CONTRIBUTION IS $2100, AND BALANCE FOR DISPLAY CASES IS $2800. 6, EACH BUDGET CATEGORY MJST BE ITEMIZED. AS A GUIDE TO ITEMIZING THE CATEGORIES, SOME OF THE EXPENSE ITEMS WHICH MIGHT BE INCURRED UNDER EACH CATEGORY ARE LISTED BELOW. PERSONNEL SALARIES AND FEES: CONTRIBUTED STAFF TIME CONTRACTED STAFF FEES OR HONORARIUM TO GUEST LECTURERS, ETC. FEES TO ARTISTS: MUST BE PAID BY THE APPLICANT TO CONTEMPORARY CANADIAN ARTISTS WHEN WORKS ARE LOANED BY THE ARTIST FOR INCLUSION IN EXHIBITIONS FUNDED BY THE NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF CANADA, SUCH FEES TO BE AGREED UPON BY BOTH THE ARTIST AND THE BORROWING INSTITUTION. PAYMENT OF FEES REQUESTED MUST BE INDICATED IN THE FINAL AUDIT OR FINANCIAL REPORT, PERSONNEL TRAVEL: TRANSPORTATION AND PER DIEM FOR PROJECT EMPLOYEES OR CONTRACTED SPECIALISTS RESEARCH COSTS: EXPENSES NOT COVERED BY SALARIES OR TRAVEL PRODUCTION COSTS: EXPENSES NOT COVERED ABOVE THAT MJST BE INCURRED IN THE PROCESS OF CREATING THE FINISHED EXHIBITION (CRATES, DISPLAY UNITS, MOUNTING, EQUIPMENT RENTALS, CONSERVATION) ENHANCEMENT COSTS: EXPENSES NOT COVERED ABOVE THAT MIST BE INCURRED TO ENHANCE THE PUBLIC'S UNDER STANDING OF THE OBJECTS DISPLAYED. (TRANSLATIONS, PRINTING, CATALOGUES, DEMONSTRATIONS, PERFORMANCES, A-V, FILM, POSTERS, ADVERTISING, PRESS KITS, INFORMATION KITS) CIRCULATION: EXPENSES NOT COVERED ABOVE AND INCURRED DURING THE PERIOD OF CIRCULATION (INSURANCE, SHIPPING, STORAGE, MAINTENANCE) 7, BE AS ACCURATE AS POSSIBLE. IF YOU HAVE RECEIVED A QUOTATION FROM A CONTRACTOR OR SHIPPER ON A PARTICULAR ITEM, PLEASE INCLUDE A COPY WITH YOUR COMPLETED BUDGET. 3. ALL PROJECTS IN EXCESS OF $10,000 WILL HAVE 1D% WITHHELD UNTIL THE MUSEUM ASSISTANCE PROGRAMMES RECEIVE FINAL AUDITING OF THE TOTAL AMOUNT REQUIRED. 9. EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS DOES NOT GRANT FUNDS TO AID INSTITUTIONS TO BORROW EXHIBITIONS. EXHIBITION ORGANIZERS MAY APPLY FOR ALL SHIPPING AND INSURANCE COSTS. NEITHER OF THESE COSTS NOR ANY OTHER PARTICIPATION FEE MAY BE CHARGED TO INSTITUTIONS BORROWING AN EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME FUNDED EXHIBITION. * IF YOU HAVE FURTHER QUESTIONS PLEASE CONSULT YOUR REGIONAL OFFICER. 23/6779 -8-BUDGET Please read the Instruction page before completing the budget. Itemize each category. CATEGORY TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT OTHER INCOME donations grants or revenue BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P. PERSONNEL SALARIES X FEES 6,000 3,600 600 2,500 900 > 1,200 1, 100 250 1,500 6,000 3,600 600 1,200 1,500 -2,500 900 1,100 250 Curator 8 weeks Exhibit Designer 6 weeks Photographer 1 week Illustrator on contract Design Assistant on contrac Curatorial Assistant 3 week @$11.00 105x11 & benefits Research Assistant 3 weeks @S10.00 105x11 & benifits A.V. Editor (contract) Administration 2 weeks SUB-TOTAL 17,650 12,900 • - 4, 750 PERSONNEL TRAVEL 600 - - 600 Travel expenses and honoraria for guest speakers SUB-TOTAL 600 - - 600 RESEARCH COSTS SUB-TOTAL 23/6779 r \ BUDGET, CONTINUED TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT OTHER INCOME donations grants revenue BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P. PRODUCTION COSTS Removal of 6' wide wall (&security unit) and built-in case. Repairs where necessary. 1,400 - - 1,400 20 panels @ $75.00 1,500 - - 1,500 10 modular frames & connectors 3,900 - - 3,900 Photography (film, process-ing and enlarging) 1,900 - - 1,900 Typesetting 700 - - 700 Silkscreen text and labels 2,200 - - 2,200 6 plexiglas cases 660 - - 660 Misc. & construction 1,000 - - 1,000 SUB-TOTAL 13,260 - 13,260 ENHANCEMENT COSTS Catalogue 3,580 300 45 3,235 Poster 790 - 100 690 Video access unit 6,700 - - 6,700 Video tape production 350 - - 350 SUB-TOTAL 11,450 300 145 10,975 CIRCULATION COSTS SUB-TOTAL J 50 -10-23/5/79 SLTTIARY CF BUDGET TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT OTHER INCOME donations grants or revenue BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P, 17,650 12,900 - 4, 700 600 - - 600 -13,260 - - 13,260 11,420 300 145 10,975 - - - -TOTAL: % OF COSTS: 42,930 13,200 145 29,585 100% 31% 1% 68% r SlfWRY OF OTHER INCOME LIST ALL DONATIONS, GRANTS AND/OR ANTICIPATED REVENUE SHIRCF i CONFTRMFD ANTICIPATED ANTICIPATED DATES WHEN FINDS WILL E REQUIRED: Project to commence September 1983 51 9.3 APPENDIX 3 CHANGING TIDES Storyline draft February 18, 1984 Exhibit Overview: Ever since the 1880's when a road construction crew working in what is now Marpole, south Vancouver, unearthed numerous prehistoric artifacts, archaeologists have been investigating midden sites in the Fraser delta region. These midden investigations have ranged from quickly organ ized salvage operations to large scale research projects. Changing Tides traces the history of this local archaeolog ical research through several developmental stages, beginning with the late nineteenth century research of Harlan I. Smith and ending with recent work at the Crescent Beach site. This exhibit will outline how investigations of local midden sites have led to a greater understanding not only of their composition and contents, but also of how prehistoric people developed complex and unique systems for exploiting the potential of the Fraser delta and vicinity. The insights gained through this research are important because they promise to expand our understanding of Northwest Coast culture in general, and Coast Salish culture in particular. Whereas the public usually identifies Northwest Coast culture with spectacular ceremonials and impressive woodwork, the results of Coast Salish midden research indicate that less impressive 52 artifacts and often mundane remains can provide a fuller appreciation of the complexity and antiquity of Northwest Coast culture. The development of archaeological research in the lower Fraser delta region has been the cumulative process of meth odological developments and substantive results. Existing archaeological methods have been adopted, with local inno vations applied to particular situations. Changing Tides follows these developments through four stages, prefaced by an orientation section and followed by a section which focus ses on future research. The preface provides a general introduction to middens giving a sense of their composition, and the general environmental and cultural components in trinsic to their formation. This general introduction to middens is designed to eliminate the need for digressions from archaeological research techniques and their results in the next four sections of the exhibit. The final section of the exhibit will again look at the areas' midden sites in general to examine their future as cultural resources re quiring protection if they are to play a role in the future of archaeological research. Exhibit Outline: Changing Tides is divided into six sections and progres ses from an introductory section, through four stages of archaeological midden research to a summary section which looks at the future of this research. Section one serves to 53 -introduce the exhibit's developmental theme and orient the visitor to the area's midden sites in general terms. Section two deals with the "descriptive stage" of archaeological research which focused primarily upon describing the arti-factual content of midden sites. Section three shows how systematic and controlled excavations led to the development of a local cultural chronology. This chronology was defned by a series of diagnostic artifacts and traits which served to typify each phase. The fourth section sees a broadening of scope and a change in emphasis to subsistence research. Quantification of faunal remains and artifact data, as well as the correlation of this data to environmental information was utilized to provide a more complete understanding of the adaptive stages which correspond to the cultural phases pre viously outlined. Section five focuses on the techniques of recovery and analysis of shell midden layers which were utilized at the Crescent Beach site. These techniques allowed archaeologists to determine precise information on prehistoric site use. The final section of the exhibit will consider the future of the areas' middens as cultural re-sourses and therefore the future of archaeological research. Section One This section serves to introduce the exhibit's develop mental theme, in general terms, and to orient the visitor to the lower Fraser delta region's midden sites. As the development of archaeological research in this region is 54 based upon the investigation of midden sites spanning an almost 9,000 year period, it is important to broadly define this type of site at the outset of the exhibit. Middens can be defined as valuable cultural resources since they are the complex records of cultural activities and natural events which archaeologists utilize to gain insights into the past. Northwest Coast middens are often recognized by an abundance of marine shells and usually seen as an intricate layering of these shells with soils and other remains. Locally these middens are located along the shoreline and at the base of upland areas adjacent to delta formations. Although in general, sea levels, climate and resources have remained relatively stable for the past 5,500 years, delta and es tuary development has had an important impact on the location of habitation and resource utilization sites through time. Therefore, the present location of midden sites is dependent on the interplay of these factors in the past. As archaeol ogists have perceived and analyzed these sites in different ways through time, this introduction should serve as a focal point from which to view the development of this research. Section Two Local interest in midden research began with Charles Hill-Tout, but it was Harlan I. Smith's work with the Jesup North Pacific Expedition which received the attention of a wider archaeological audience. Changing Tides will focus on Harlan I. Smith's 1898 investigation of the Marpole site, 55 which was also known as the Eburne or "Great Fraser Midden" site. Smith and a small force of hired labour rapidly ex cavated a portion of this site by shovel. Although little attention was paid to the provenience of artifacts as they were removed from the site, Smith felt confident to state that there appeared to be little difference between arti facts in the upper layers and those in the lower layers of the site. Smith concluded that objects from all layers were similar to those made by the historic Coast Salish, and therefore indicated that there was 'a continuity of culture for the 2,000 years he estimated the site to represent. Smith saw this continuity of artifact types as a continuation of economic activities extending into the past. For example, he equated the presence of retrieving harpoons with sea mammal hunting, and the presence of woodworking tools as evidence that this activity has an antiquity much greater than that to which the wooden objects themselves can attest. However, the presence of chipped stone and decorative arts he saw as interior traits; therefore, he postulated an early migration of interior peoples to the coast. The importance of Smith's conclusions, concerning both continuity and dis continuity is that they established two themes which run through much of the areas' archaeological research. These themes have been variously expressed but basically depend on viewing differences in cultural remains either in terms of cultural discontinuity or as differential site use or 56 adaptational responses. Section Three This section will focus on the development of a regional sequence of cultural phases, primarily as derived by Borden. His recognition that a lack of provenience controls in pre vious work had provided only general descriptions and speculative interpretations led him to conduct systematic and controlled excavations at a series of sites. These exca vations established components from which he developed a local chronology. This chronology is the foundation for the local sequence generally used today. Each component or phase was defined by a set of diagnostic artifacts or traits. Dur ing Borden's thirty year investigation and interpretation of this local cultural sequence he made several modifications. Whereas, his earlier work identified the differences between components as representing discontinuity in culture created by the influx of new groups, his later sequence emphasized continuity but still allowed for the influx of new groups, at least to explain the Whalen 11 component. This section will outline the Fraser delta chronology but will emphasize in particular, those sites which are directly comparable to the other sections. For example, Borden's Marpole excavations will be contrasted with Smith's investigation, and the Whalen Farm site will be contrasted with Crescent Beach. To make the transition between this section on the development of cultural chronology and subsequent ones, questions will be raised 57 about possible interpretations for the Whalen 11 material. Section Four As differences between site inventories became viewed in terms of cultural adaptations and seasonal site utiliz ation rather than as necessarily differences in cultural groups, new methods were introduced to help answer new questions. This section deals with the advent of subsistence research which broadened the scope of archaeological investi gations. This research emphasizes faunal remains and seasonality studies. The quantification and correlation of artifactual, subsistence, and environmental data is under taken for the express purpose of obtaining information which sheds light on the development of cultural adaptations and innovations in the area. The main focus for this section will be the Glenrose Cannery site, with the major emphasis on techniques of analysis. Section Five This section will illustrate recent refinements in midden excavation and analysis which allow more precise information on economic strategies to be recovered. The recovery and analysis of shell midden layers at the Crescent Beach site is the focus of this section. This site represents an impor tant aspect of a complex seasonally differentiated adaptive strategy, specifically the utilization of the early spring herring run and the processing for storage or trade of large quantities of shellfish. 58 The reconstruction of subsistence activities such as clam or herring procurement and processing are represented, as well as the archaeological evidence from which these activities are inferred. Specific data on the local biotic communities and ethnographic uses of them are necessary to illustrate how models of site use are developed and tested. The archaeological remains of activities are rarely represented by complete "tool kits" or even by direct as sociations of artifacts and remains. It is by looking at the structure of remains and by incorporating a wide variety of information that the activities are inferred. Contrasting an archaeologically defined "tool kit" with an ethnographic one, illustrates this principle difference. Section Six The final section of the exhibit speculates on the future of archaeological research at midden sites in the lower Fraser delta region. Demonstrating that midden sites are important, not only for their artifact content, but as the structured remains of prehistoric activities, shows that they can be regarded as intrinsically valuable cultural resources, worthy of protection. The development of local archaeology shows that although a basic outline or cultural chronology has been developed, what that chronology means in terms of the develop ment of Coast Salish culture is only beginning to be understood. 61 23/6/79 ProJECT -2-DESCRIPTION: (Use only space provided; do not add additional sheets. Include Information on need for project, aim or objectives, audience to be served and anticipated duration. If applicable explain need for research, conservation, staff travel and/or justify why exhibition may not travel nationally.J Changing Tides traces the history of Northwest coast archaeological research through four developmental stages. This exhibit outlines how investigations of midden sites have led to a greater understanding of how prehistoric people developed complex and unique systems for exploiting the potential of their environment. The insights gained through this research are important because they expand our understanding of Northwest coast culture. Changing Tides introduces the Canadian public to the evolution of this research and to the insights it has provided. Whereas the public usually identifies this culture with spectacular ceremonials and impressive woodworking, the results of midden research indicate that less impressive artifacts and often mundane reiuains can provide a fuller appreciation of the complexity and antiquity of Northwest coast culturfe While this exhibit focusses specifically on Northwest coast midden research, the develop mental trends illustrated are more widely applicable to the general history of Canadian archaeology. Changing Tides consists of six sections, progressing from an introduction which describes the nature and importance of midden sites through four stages of archaeological research to a summary section which looks at the future of this research. The initial stage of archaeological research focusses on the descriptive results of Harlan I. Smith' 1898 investigation of the Marpole midden sire. The importance of Smith's work is that his conclusions concerning cultural continuity and discontinuity established two themes which run through much of Northwest coast archaeological research. The second stage shows how Charles E. Borden's subsequent excavations of Marpole and other sites were inspired by his recognition that a lack of provenience controls in previous work only provided general description and speculative interpretations. His work established a regional sequence generally utilized today. The advent of subsistence research char acterizes the third stage,of Northwest coast archaeology. The main focus for this stage is the Glenrose Cannery site where quantification and correlation of artifactual, sub sistence and environmental data was undertaken for the express purpose of obtaining information which shed light on the development of cultural adaptations and innovations. The last stage illustrates recent refinements in midden excavation and analysis which allow more precise information on economic strategies. The recovery and analysis of PEESONftL List all permanent or part-time staff associated with the Project, their title and function. Director: ^ISSSn°SWlceonf5¥tS!lMill>1,ellfflcfiiV t\W^&~ffiSW and l1st dut1es-Curator: Responsible for the exhibit text, research, development and academic content, also initiates travel itinerary and provides academic consultation to host institutions. Exhibit Designer: Prepares exhibit design and panel layout, supervises techical aspects of production.(H.Watson) Illustrator: For stage three section of exhibit; depicts prehistoric activities in watercolour graphics, from information provided by the Curator. (G.Miller) Photographer Designer: Designs and prepares photographs for exhibit, museum note and pojstei Design Assistant: Assists Exhibit Designer, arranges text typesetting and exhibit photc prepares and mounts exhibit materials. Curatorial Assistant: Prepares figures for display, proofreads typesetting.(Irvine/Tisdkle; Administrative/Clerical Staff: Administrates budget, requisition purchase orders, types manuscipts for exhibit and arranges travel logistics and public relations. (J.Kendon) Research Assistant: Assists Curator in developing academic content as well as documentation of exhibit material. (A. Stevenson) 62 -2a-shell midden layers at the Crescent Beach site is the focus of this fourth stage. Changing Tides draws upon the museum's archaeological and ethnographic collections, allowing the Canadian public to see archaeological artifacts and subsistence remains normally not exhibited, and view ethnographic artifacts in a new context. Every stage of this exhibit examines artifacts and/or faunal rerains from a different perspective. For example, stage three contains artifacts which have undergone residue analysis to determine prehistoric activities, and faunal remains which indicate the season of these activities. Such remains are rarely seen by the public although these are the essential tools of archaeologi'al research. Stage four compares archaeologlcally determined tool kits with ethnographic ones to illustrate principles of archaeological research. This juxtaposition of ethnographic objects with archaeological remains will provide the public with a new perspective on the connection between the unfamiliar materials of archaeological research and more familiar ethnographic artifacts. Photographs, grahics, maps and commissioned illustrations will accompany the exhibit to enhance the storyline. Changing Tides will utilize display panels mounted on free-standing and laquered cedar frames. This system has been used successfully in several of the museum's travelling exhibits, and allows considerable flexibility for exhibit set up. The approximately 70 square meters required for Changing Tides will therefore fit into a variety of temporary exhibit spaces. 63 23/6779 LIST CF CCNTtTfTS TITLE, TYPE OR DESCRIPTION OF OBJECTS ARTIST OR PROVENANCE OWNED BY AVAILABILITY CONFIRMED VISUALS ATTACHED All objects are owned by museum for the Semiahmoo in house, and the photogr I. Artifacts Section Two: Section Three: Section Four: Section Five: II•Photos(tentative sele the U.B.C. Museum Tswwassen or Musqli aphic credits will if Antropology earn bands. The be confirmed be are held in trus illustrations are fore final select! -representative sa •diagnostic artifa -artifacts and f -archaeological anft nple of artifact :ts for cultural 1 remains to il ethnographic t|oo s from the Marpole phases lustrate laborato 1 kits and fauna Section One: Section Two: Section Three: Section Four: Section Five Section Six III. Graphics & Illustra Section One: Section Three: Section Four: Section Five: tion) -composite photo -Harlan I. Smith i -Borden's excavati excavation techni -Glenrose Cannery -Crescent Beach ex screening. Also -photos of midden ions -illustration of d in map form of se •graphic represent -graphical illustr studies of shellf •commissioned illu illustrations of irawn from the bady l midden excavat Lon m of Marpole ani jue and sampling ixcavation and 1 avation layers, hotos of ethnog sites as they ap of the exhibit Whalen Farm site by the produced n. site y analysis remains illustratir g aboratory analysis feature mapping a+d w^uer-raphic activities Dear today lta/estuary dev isonal round tion of culture tions of labora .sh from middens trations of et nvironmental an 1 lopment and illus phase sequence ory analysis eg; sites (growth rin; raphic activiti ethnographic inf h log ration easonality studies) s and other rmation If additional space 1s required, please attach additional sheets following the same format. RUNNING OR SQUARE FEET (METRES) REQUIRED FOR 70 sq. meters min. EXHIBITION: DURATION OF EXHIBITION pprj,. January 1985r0: December 19 86 64 23/5/79 ITIrERAfiY -4-DURATION CF ENTIRE TOUR! FRCM May 1985 TO December 1986 PryitfTTFT, THIR LOCATION 1) Provincial Museum of Alberta ARRIVAL, DATE DEPARTURE DATE CONFIRMED UNCONFIRMED Edmonton, Alberta June 1/85 July 15/85 * 2) Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre, Yellowknife N.W.T. Sept.1/85 Oct.15/85 * 3) Museum of Natural History Regina, Saskatchewan Dec. 1/85 Jan.15/86 * 4) Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature Winnipeg, Manitoba Marchl/86 Aprill5/86 * 5) Royal Ontario Museum Tnrntifn. Ontario June 1/86 July 15/86 * 61 Musee rie Ouebec Quebec, P.Q. Sept.1/86 Oct. 15/86 * If additional space 1s required, please attach additional sheets following the same format. METHOD OF SHIPMENT: RAIL . AIR , ROAD X OWN VEHICLE COMMERCIAL SHIPPER X (attach quotes) Costs based on ~~ verbal quotes WHEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EAP, THE ORGANIZER MUST NOT CHARGE SHIPPING COSTS TO THE BORROWING INSTITUTIONS. INSURANCE VALUE! $ 20.000-00  WHEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EAP, THE ORGANIZER MUST PAY ALL INSURANCE COSTS, EXCEPT WHEN A BORROWING INSTITUTION HAS BLANKET COVERAGE AND CAN INSURE THE BORROWED EXHIBITION WITHOUT ADDITIONAL COST TO THEIR ANNUAL PREMIUM. . . * WHEN AN EXHIBITION IS FUNDED BY EAP, THE ORGANIZER MAY NOT CHARGE A BORROWING FEE TO THE BORROWING INSTITUTIONS. * Letters have been sent to 13 institutions, ten of which expressed interest in the Blood From Stone exhibit. Therefore, we anticipate at:least six institutions to be interested in Changing Tides . f/7720 -5-TFN (10) COPIES-OF ALL PRINTED CATALOGUES AND BROCHURES PRODUCED WITH EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME ASSISTANCE MUST BE FORWARDED, FREE OF CHARGE, TO THE EXHIBITIONS ASSISTANCE PROGRAWE. THESE WILL BE DISTRIBUTED TO THE NATIONAL MISEUMS LIBRARY, THE NATIONAL LIBRARY, AND THE NATIONAL GALLERY LIBRARY. THE APPLICANT IS ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR DISTRIBUTING ONE COPY EACH, FREE OF CHARGE, TO ALL APPROPRIATE ASSOCIATE FTLSELMS. CA opasn LIST OF ASSOCIATE KUSFJUS WILL.BE FORWARDED TO .SUCCESSFUL APPLICANTS WEN FUNDS, ARE RELEASED.) OescHbc the educative value and objectives. An exhibit brochure, in the form of a museum note, will provide information on the exhibit and a summary in English and French of the exhibit's contents. This brochur will permit enhanced appreciation and interpretation by reiterating the.exhibits ma points. A brief bibliography of relevant articles and other publications will be 1 eluded for those who wish further Information. The exhibit poster will feature one of the exhibit's watercolour reconstructions of prehistoric activities. CATALOGUES DIMENSIONS i'lUMBER OF PAGES NUMBER OF COLOUR REPRODUCTIONS lluMBER OF BLACX AND WHITE REPR0DUCTICNS.C9n4.J4.ne drawing) 'B-BER OF CATALTX&ES,8ROCHURES,POSTERS ESTIMATED PUBLISHING COST * ESTIMATED HANDLING COSTNUMBER TO BE GIVEN AWAY NUMBER TO BE SOLD SELLING PRICE % ESTIMATED ADMINISTRATIVE COST. * ANTICIPATED REVENUE i • BROCHURES 4"x9" 16 POSTERS 24"xl7" 12 3000 300 2600 870 300 100 50 2900. 2 50 si .no s l . nn Under General Administrative Costs 250 125 PRICE QUOTES AND MOCK-UPS ATTACHED TOTAL ANTICIPATED REVENUE FROM ALL-PRINTED MATERIAL For brochure format see attached Museum Guide-4LL NATIONAL TRAVELLING EXHIBITION MATERIAL SHOULD BE PPODUCED IN BOTH OFFICIAL LANGUAGES. 23/6779 -6-ETIHA'ICEfEff ACTIVITIES AND MATERIALS WHICH FACILITATE A SETTER UNDERSTANDING OF AN EXHIBITION ARE SUPPORTED WHEN THEY CAN BE JUSTIFIED IN TERMS OF NEED, EXHIBITION OBJECTIVES AND THE AUDIENCE TO BE SERVED. THEY MAY INCLUDE FILM, A-V PftQTJUCT I ONS, PERFORMANCES, DEMONSTRATIONS, TAPES, ETC. IN THE SPACE BELOW DESCRIBE THE ENHANCE MENT PROPOSED AND ITEMIZE THE COSTS. A public lecture series will be arranged to enhance the exhibit. Archaeologists, ethnologists, and other relevant experts will be included. Negotiations will be undertaken to arrange for Wayne Suttles of Portland State University and Don Mitchell of The University of Victoria to lecture in this series, as well as, several local speakers. The travel costs will be provided by University of British Columbia's Laboratory of Archaeological funding. 67 23/6/79 -3" BUDGET Please read the Instruction page before completing the budget. Itemize each category. CATEGORY TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT OTHER INCOME donations grants or revenue BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P. PERSONNEL SALARIES S FEES 5,400 3,600 1,200 1,500 3 1,200 : 900 3,000 5,400 3,600 1,200 1,200 3,000 - 1,500 900 Curator 6 weeks Exhibit Designer 6 weeks Photographer 2 weeks Illustrator on Contract Curatorial Assistant 3 week GSll.OO 105x11 & benefits Design Assistant on contrac Administration 4 weeks SUB-TOTAL 16,800 14,400 2.400 PERSONNEL TRAVEL : 600 282 622 308 490 778 890 144 400 448 600 - 282 622 308 490 778 890 144 400 4AA Travel expenses and honoraria for guest speaker Travel by Curator to each exhibit location Vancouver-Edmonton (return) Vancouver-Yellowknife (") Vancouver-Regina (return) • Vancouver-Winnipeg (return) Vancouver-Toronto (return) Vancouver-Quebec (return) Ground transportation Hotel 8 days @$50/day Per diem 14 days @32/day SUB-TOTAL $4962 600 4362 RESEARCH COSTS SUB-TOTAL 68 -9-23/S/79 f S BUDGET, CONTINUED TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OTHER INCOME BALANCE OF APPLICANT donst1ons grants REQUESTED FROM revenue E.A.P. PRODUCTION COSTS 24 panels @ $ 95.00 2,280 - - 2,280 12 modular frames and connectors @ $400.00 4,800 4,800 - -8 plexlglas cases 880 - - 880 4 crates for frames 1,560 1,170 _ 390 @ $390.00 4 containers for 24 panel: <§ $420.00 1,680 1,260 - 420 4 containers for cases & artifacts @ 320.00 1,280 640 - 640 Photography (film, process -ing and enlarging) 1,900 - - 1,900 Typesetting 1,200 - - 1,200 Silkscreen text and labels 2,600 2,600 Misc. & Construction 1,000 - - 1,000 SUB-TOTAL 19,180 7,870 - 11,310 ENHANCEMENT COSTS Brochure (translation incl. ) 2,900 300 250 2,350 Poster 870 125 745 Translation:exhibit text 1,000 - - 1,000 SUB-TOTAL 4,770 300 375 4,095 CIRCULATION COSTS Insurance premium during circulation 200 - - 200 Repair & Maintenance 500 - - 500 Transportation quote (CN- 300 cu ft • ) 4,500 - - 4,500 SUB-TOTAL 5,200 - - 5.200 69 -10-23/6/79 SLftWRY Cf BUDGET TOTAL COST CONTRIBUTION OF APPLICANT OTHER INCOME donations grants or revenue BALANCE REQUESTED FROM E.A.P. 16,800 14,400 - 2,4 00 4,962 600 _ 4,362 19.180 7.870 nun 4,770 300 375 4,095 5,200 _ _ 5,200 TOTAL: % OF COSTS: SO,917 7 3,170 77 Ti7 45% 1% 54% SLTWRr CF OTHER INCITE '" \ LIST ALL DONATIONS, GRANTS AND/OR ANTICIPATED REVENUE SnjRCF CONFIRM ANTICIPATrTJ r ANTICIPATED DATES WHEN FUNDS WILL E REQUIRED: September 1984 9.5 APPENDIX 5 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 6395 N.W. MARINE DRIVE VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY March 12 1984 J. Pauline Rafferty Program Manager B.C. Heritage Trust Parliament Buildings Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4 Dear Pauline: I am requesting funds from the B.C. Heritage Trust's Additional Activities Program to help produce an archaeological exhibit scheduled to open in January 1985. This exhibit, entitled Changing Tides traces the development of archaeological research in southwestern British Columbia. The exhibit is designed to promote public understanding of the area's prehistoric heritage thereby increasing public appreciation of the need to preserve and protect local archaeological resources. This exhibit will coincide with a public lecture series featuring current topics in B.C. archaeology. A detailed cost estimate with current resources and funds requested is presented as Appendix II. A list of personnel resources is outlined in Appendix III, and the exhibit is more fully described in Appendix I after the following exhibit overview. Ever since the 1880's when a road construction crew working in what is now Marpole, south Vancouver, unearthed numerous prehistoric artifacts, archaeologists have been investi gating midden sites in the. Fraser delta region. These investigations have ranged from quickly organized salvage operations to large scale research projects. Changing Tides traces the history of this local archaeological research through several developmental stages, beginning with the late nineteenth century research of Harlan I. Smith and ending with recent work at the Crescent Beach site. This exhibit will outline how investigations of local midden sites have led to a greater understanding not only of their composition and contents, but also of how prehistoric people developed complex and unique systems for exploiting the potential of the Fraser delta and vicinity. The insights gained through this research are important because they promise to expand our understanding of North west Coast culture in general, and Coast Salish culture in 72 APPENDIX I Exhibit Outline: Changing Tides is divided into six sections and progresses from an intro ductory section, through four stages of archaeological midden research to a summary section which looks at the future of this research. Section one serves to Introduce the exhibit's developmental theme and orient the visitbr to the area's midden sites in general terms. Section two deals with the "descriptive stage" of archaeological research which focused primarily upon describing the artifactual content of midden sites. Section three shows how systematic and controlled excavations led to the development of a local cultural chronology. This chronology was defined by a series of diagnostic artifacts and traits which served to typify each phase. The fourth section sees a broadening of scope and a change in emphasis to subsistence research. Quantification of faunal remains and artifact data as well as the correlation of this data to environmental information was utilized to provide a more comp" te understand ing of the adaptive stages which correspond to the cultural phases previously outlined. Section five focusses on the techniques of recovery and analysis of shell midden layers which were utilized at the Crescent Beach site. These techniques allowed archaeologists to determine precise Information on pre historic site use. The final section of the exhibit will consider the future of the areas' middens as cultural resources and therefore the future of archaeological research. Section One This section serves to introduce the exhibit's developmental theme, in general terms, and to orient the visitor to the lower Fraser delta region's midden sites. As the development of archaeological research in this region is based upon the investigation of midden sites spanning an almost 9,000 year period, it is important to broadly define this type of site at the outset of the exhibit. Middens can be defined as valuable cultural resources since they are the complex records of cultural activities and natural events which archaeologists utilize to gain insights into the past. Northwest Coast middens are often recognized by an abundance of marine shells and usually seen as an intricate layering of these shells with soils and other remains. Locally these middens are located along the shoreline and at the base of upland areas 73 -2-adjacent to delta formations. Although in general, sea levels, climate and resources have remained relatively stable for the past 5,500 years, delta estuary development has had an important impact on the location of habitation and resource utilization sites through time. Therefore, the present location of midden sites is dependent on the interplay of these factors in the past. As archaeologists have perceived and analyzed these sites in different ways through time, this introduction should serve as a focal point from which to view the development of this research. Section Two Local interest in midden research began with Charles Hill-Tout, but it was Harlan I. Smith's work with the Jesup North Pacific Expedition which re ceived the attention of a wider archaeological audience. Changing Tlde3 will focus on Harlan I. Smith's 1898 investigation of the Marpole site, which was also known as the Eburne or "Great Fraser Midden" site. Smith and a small force of hired labour rapidly excavated a portion of this site by shovel. Although little attention was paid to the provenience of artifacts as they were removed from the site, Smith felt confident to state that there appeared to be little difference between artifacts in the upper layers and those in the lower layers of the site. Smith concluded chat objects from all layers were similar to those made by the historic Coast Salish, and therefore indicated that there was a continuity of culture for the 2,000 years he estimated the site to represent. Smith saw this continuity of artifact types as a contin uation of economic activities extending into the past. For example, he equated the presence of retrieving harpoons with sea mammal hunting, and the presence of woodworking tools as evidence that this activity has an antiquity much greater than that to which the wooden objects themselves can attest. However, the presence of chipped stone and decorative arts he saw as interior traits; therefore, he postulated an early migration of interior peoples to the coast. The importance of Smith's conclusions, concerning both continuity and discontinuity is that they established two themes which run through much of the areas' archaeological research. These themes have been variously ex pressed but basically depend on viewing differences in cultural remains either in terms of cultural discontinuity or as differential site use or adaptational responses. Section Three This section will focus on the development of a regional sequence of 74 -3-cultural phases, primarily as derived by Borden. His recognition that a lack of provenience controls in previous work had provided only general descriptions and speculative interpretations led him to conduct systematic and controlled excavations at a series of sites. These excavations established components from which he developed a local chronology. This chronology is the foundation for the local sequence generally used today. Each component or phase was de fined by a set of diagnostic artifacts or traits. During Borden's thirty year investigation and interpretation of this local cultural sequence he made several modifications. Whereas, his earlier work identified the differences between components as representing discontinuity in culture created by the influx of new groups, his later sequence emphasized continuity but still allowed for the influx of new groups, at least to explain the Whalen II component. This section will outline the Fraser delta chronology but will emphasize in par ticular, those sites which are directly comparable to the other sections. For example, Borden's Marpole excavations will be contrasted with Smith's in vestigation, and the Whalen Farm site will be contrasted with Crescent Beach. To make the transition between this.section on the development of cultural chronology and subsequent ones, questions will be raised about possible inter pretations for the Whalen II material. Section Four As differences between site inventories became viewed in terms of cultural adaptations and seasonal site utilization rather than as necessarily differ ences in cultural groups, new methods were introduced to help answer new questions. This section deals with the advent of subsistence research which broadened the scope of archaeological investigations. This research emphasizes faunal remains and seasonality studies. The quantification and correlation of artifactual, subsistence, and environmental data is undertaken for the express purpose of obtaining information which sheds light on the development of cultural adaptations and innovations in the area. The main focus for this section will be the Glenrose Cannery site, with the major emphasis on techniques of analysis. Section Five This section will illustrate recent refinements in midden excavation and analysis which allow more precise information on economic strategies to be recovered. The recovery and analysis of shell midden layers at the Crescent Beach site is the focus of this section. This site represents an important 75 -4-aspect of a complex seasonally differentiated adaptive strategy, specifically the utilization of the early spring herring run and the processing for storage or trade of large quantities of shellfish. The reconstruction of subsistence activities such as clam or herring pro curement and processing are represented as well as the archaeological evidence from which these activities are inferred. Specific data on the local biotic communities and ethnographic uses of them are necessary to illustrate how models of site use are developed and tested. The archaeological remains of activities are rarely represented by complete "tool kits" or even by direct associations of artifacts and remains. It is by looking at the structure of remains and by i ;;,;orporating a wide variety of information that the activities are inferred. Contrasting an archaeologically defined "tool kit" with an ethnographic one, illustrates this principle dif ference. Section Six The final section of the exhibit speculates on the future of archaeol ogical research at midden sites in the lower Fraser delta region. Demonstrating that midden sites are important, not only for their artifact content, but as the structured remains of prehistoric activities, shows that they can be regarded as intrinsically valuable cultural resources, worthy of protection. The de velopment of local archaeology shows that although a basic outline or cultural chronology has been developed, what that chronology means in terms of the development of Coast Salish culture is only beginning to be understood. 76 APPENDIX II Exhibit Cost3 and Funding Requirements  Exhibit Costs; Total costs , Museum,of AntTjropology contribution Funds required Personnel (excluding permanent staff) Illustrator on contract Design assistant on contrac Research assistant - 3 wks. 0510 per hr. 105x10 & benefits $1,500 900 1,100 -1,500 900 1,100 SUB-TOTAL 3,500 - 3,500 Production Costs 24 panels 8 $95 12 frames & connectors <a $400 8 plexiglas cases @ $110 Typesetting Photography Silkscreen text & labels Construction costs 2.280 4,800 880 800 1,900 2,200 1,000 4,800 2.280 880 800 1,900 2,200 1,000 SUB-TOTAL 13,860 4,800 9,060 Enhancement Costs Travel expenses and honoraria for guest speakers Poster 600 870 125 600 745 SUB-TOTAL 1,470 125 1,345 77 APPENDIX II con't Summary of Costs: Total costs contribution Funds required Personnel 33,500 _ 3,500 Production 13,860 4,800 9,060 Enhancement 1,470 125 1,345 TOTAL 18,830 4,925 13,905 Summary of Funding Requirements Total exhibit costs $18,830 Less Museum of Anthropology contribution 4,925 The Charles and Alice Borden Museum of Anthropology Fund (committed) 6, 700 Required funds 7,205* *Funds requested from B.C. Heritage Trust under Additional Activities Program total $7,205 APPENDIX III Exhibit Personnel Director: (Dr. M. Halpin/Dr. M. M. Ames) Responsible for editing exhibit copy. Curator: (Dr. R. G. Matson) Responsible for the exhibit's academic content, supervising research and development. Research Assistant: (A. Stevenson) Responsible for the research and development of exhibit, in consultation with the Curator; as partial requirement for Master's thesis in Archaeology/Museology. Exhibit Designer: (H. Watson) Prepares exhibit design and panel layout, super vises technical aspects of production. Illustrator: (G. Miller) Depicts prehistoric activities in watercolour graphics, from information provided by the Curator/Research Assistant for section five of the exhibit. Photographer Designer: (B. McLennan) Designs and prepares photographs for the exhibit and poster. Design Assistant: Assists Exhibit Designer, arranges text typesetting and ex hibit materials. Curatorial Assistants: (M. Irvine/M. Tlsdale) Prepares figures for display, proofreads typesetting. Administrative/Clerical Staff: (J. Kendon et al) Administrates budget, re quisition purchase orders, types manuscripts for exhibit and handles public relations. , 9.6 APPENDIX 6 Exhibit' Outline: Changing Tides is divided into six sections and progres ses from an introductory section, through three stages of archaeological midden research to a summary section which looks at the future of this research. Section one serves to introduce the exhibit's developmental theme and orient the visitor to the area's midden sites in general terms. Section two deals with the "descriptive stage" or archaeol ogical research which focused primarily upon describing the artifactual content of midden sites. Section three shows how systematic and controlled excavations led to the de velopment of a local cultural chronology. This chronology was defined by a series of diagnostic artifacts and traits which served to typify each phase. The fourth section sees a broadening of scope and a change in emphasis to subsis tence research. Quantification of faunal remains and artifact data, as well as the correlation of this data to environmental information was utilized to provide a more complete understanding of the adaptive strategies which correspond to the cultural phases previously outlined. Section five focusses on the techniques of recovery and analysis of shell midden layers which were utilized at the Crescent Beach site. These techniques allowed archaeol ogists to determine precise information on prehistoric site use. The final section of the exhibit will consider the 80 future of the areas' middens as cultural resources and there fore the future of archaeological research. Section One This section serves to introduce the exhibit's develop mental theme, in general terms, and to orient the visitor to the lower Fraser delta region's midden sites. As the devel opment of archaeological research in this region is based upon the investigation of midden sites spanning an almost 9,000 year period, it is important to broadly define this type of site at the outset of the exhibit. Middens can be defined as valuable cultural resources since they are the complex records of cultural activities and natural events which archaeologists utilize to gain insights into the past. Northwest Coast middens are often recognized by an abun dance of marine shells and usually seen as an intricate layering of these shells with soils and other ramains. Locally these middens are located along the shoreline and at the base of upland areas adjacent to delta formations. Although in general, sea levels, climate and resources have remained relatively stable for the past 5,500 years, delta and estuary development has had an important impact on the location of habitation and resource utilization sites through time. Therefore, the present location of midden sites is dependent on the interplay of these factors in the past. As archaeologists have perceived and analyzed these sites in different ways through time, this introduction 81 should serve as a focal point from which to view the devel opment of this research. Section Two Local interest in midden research began with Charles Hill-Tout, but it was Harlan I. Smith's work with the Jesup North Pacific Expedition which received the attention of a wider archaeological audience. Changing Tides will focus on Harlan I. Smith's 1898 investigation of the Marpole site, which was also known as the Eburne or "Great Fraser Midden" site. Smith and a small force of hired labour rapidly ex cavated a portion of this site by shovel. Although little attention was paid to the provenience of artifacts as they were removed from the site, Smith felt confident to state that there appeared to be little difference between arti facts in the upper layers and those in the lower layers of the site. Smith concluded that objects.from all layers were similar to those made by the historic Coast Salish, and therefore indicated that there was a continuity of culture for the 2,000 years he estimated the site to represent. Smith saw this continuity of artifact types as a continuation of economic activities extending into the past. For example, he equated the presence of retrieving harpoons with sea mammal hunting, and the presence of woodworking tools as evidence that this activity has an antiquity much greater than that to which the wooden objects themselves can attest. However, the presence of chipped stone and decorative arts he saw as interior traits; therefore, he postulated an early migration of interior peoples to the coast. The importance of Smith's conclusions, concerning both continuity and dis continuity is that they established two themes which run through much of the areas' archaeological research. These themes have been variously expressed but basically depend on viewing differences in cultural remains either in terms of cultural discontinuity or as differential site use or ad-aptational responses. Section Three This section will focus on the development of a regional sequence of cultural phases, primarily as derived by Charles E. Borden. His recognition that a lack of provenience con trols in previous work had provided only general descriptions and speculative interpretations, led him to conduct systematic and controlled excavations at a series of sites. These ex cavations established components from which he developed a local chronology. This chronology is a foundation for the local sequence generally used today. Each component or phase was defined by a set of diagnostic artifacts or traits. Dur ing Borden's thirty year investigation and interpretation of this local cultural sequence he made several modifications. Whereas, his earlier work identifies the differences between components as representing discontinuity in culture created by the influx of new groups, his later sequence emphasized continuity but still allowed for the infux of new groups, 83 at least to explain the Whalen 11 component. This section will outline the Fraser delta chronology but will emphasize in particular, those sites which are directly comparable to the other sections. For example, Borden's Marpole excavat ions will be contrasted with Smith's investigation, and the Whalen Farm site will be contrasted with Crescent Beach. To make the transition between this section on the develop ment of cultural chronology and subsequent ones, questions will be raised about possible interpretations for the Whalen 11 material. Section Four As differences between site inventories became viewed in terms of cultural adaptations and seasonal site utiliz ation rather than as necessarily differences in cultural groups, new methods were introduced to help answer new questions. This section deals with the advent of sub sistence research which broadened the scope of archaeol ogical investigations. This research emphasizes faunal remains and seasonality studies. The quantification and correlation of artifactual, subsistence, and environmental data is undertaken for the express purpose of obtaining information which sheds light on the development of cult ural adaptations and innovations in the area. The main focus for this section will be the Glenrose Cannery site, with the major emphasis on techniques of analysis. 84 Section Five This section will illustrate recent refinements in midden excavation and analysis which allow more precise information on economic strategies to be recovered. The recovery and analysis of shell midden layers at Crescent Beach site is the focus of this section. This site represents an important aspect of a complex seasonally differentiated adaptive strat egy? specifically the utilization of the early spring herring run and the processing for storage or trade of large quant ities of shellfish. The reconstruction of subsistence activities such as clam or herring procurement and processing are represented, as well as the archaeological evidence from which these activities are inferred. The archaeological remains of ac tivities are rarely represented by complete "tool kits" or even by direct associations of artifacts and remains. It is by looking at the structure of remains and by incorporating a wide variety of information that the activities are inferred. Contrasting an archaeologically defined "tool kit" with an ethnographic one, illustrates this principle difference. Section Six The final section of the exhibit speculates on the future of archaeological research at midden sites in the lower Fraser delta region. Demonstrating that midden sites are important, not only for their artifact content, but as the structured remains of prehistoric activities, shows that they can be regarded as intrinsically valuable cultural resources, worthy of protection. The development of local archaeology shows that although a basic outline or cultural chronology has been developed, what that chronology means in terms of the development of Coast Salish culture is only beginning to be understood. OHAKJGIKJGT T/bdS Section I General Introduction to middens and Lower Fraser delta archaeology Text and description A brelf overview of the exhibit introducing the four stages of archaeological research which follow. Middens will be introduced as complex records of cultural activities and natural events. They are recognized by their abundance of shell and by their intricate layering. Some factors which will be discussed and/or illustrated are preservation (role of shell in neutralising acid forest soils and waterlogging cultural factors such as seasonal site use^and environmental factors particularity the development of the Fraser delta/estuary. To orient the visitor to the exhibit s locational focus as well as illustrate environmental factors which have effected the location of sites and the prehistoric utiliz-atton of the Fraser delta. Artifacts and faunal remains will be used to show the types of materials archaeologists find: For example: stone wood others-artifacts cooking stones artifacts faunal remains artifacts faunal remains netting etc. floral remains Photographs and Illustrations taken from the four stages of archaeological research, showing changes in excavation methods through time. . Harlan I Smith's excavation of Marpole (1896) . Borden's excavation at Marpole or Whalen Farm. . Glenrose or Lab analysis . Open area excavation at Crescent Beach Graphic presentation of an idealized seasonal round for the Coast Salish (River-Fishermen emphasis) -Four Seasons illustrations or modifications are a possibility or Jomon type line drawing The general area and specific site locations will be shown In relation the development of the Fraser deltay estuary. - a map series (line drawings) of three main stages of this developrnt Section II Descriptive stage Text and description Artifacts Photographs and illustrations Notes Harlan I. Smith's 1898 excavation of the Marpole (also Eburne or Great Fraser Hidden) site is used to show initial investigation of local midden sites Factors to be covered: Photo- Harlan I. Smith's excavation of Marpole showing man in midden with shovel. Stratigraphic layers and forest growth on midden are evident. Smith 1903 Plate VII Fig. 1 Artifact description and distributions was the primary outcome of Smith's work in British Columbia. His simultaneous study of historic Coast Salish society enabled him to postulate economic continuity through time, but he saw differences as evidence of an early migration of people from the Interior. This assertion was mere speculation as he had not controlled for stratigraphy. In other words he did not keep records to show what artifacts had come from which layers. Smith's analysis: Estimated site age- forest growth, delta develop ment, tnidden accumulation and degree of decay. -will be grouped in economic categories, although there is some overlap of categorization. Tiie artifacts Smith lists as "most common"will be grouped in his economic categories Tor example: Men's Tools Woodworking-"Eburne type maul antler wedge bone cisel celts (adze blade) Hunting & Fishing chipped points ground slate points bone points sinker stones Women's Tools , awls ne--dles fish knife Decorative & art objects Engraved stone, bone & shell bead3 pendants harpoon points etc. See Smith 1913 CO —J 88 s 3 X w to c 7 MI a 3 >-a *J c « *J OJ «~ « » H ^ ID D « -H C ti V to -c a u ^ C I- C 1-•H ci V u V n t-< i* •H n k- n 3 3 -H 01 *J ID U U 4) >f *H CO CS O 4J H-i X> (I U h «H *H ^ EH- a « YJ a O •c £ *J u O. Id 1-1 W4 4J a 01 CO l-H T) T3 ^ IP •-H c OJ o a C l- O O W Section IV Subsistence Research Text and description Artifacts The Glenrose Cannery and Crescent Beach sites are the focus of this section. Recently archaeologists have developed a greater concern with investigating past adaptations and changes in economic strategies through time. Glenrose, a deep, multi-component site appeared to be the logical choice to begin research into the development of the Northwest Coast's unique subsistence pattern. This section will concentrate on techniques of analysis for excavating and examining artifacts and non-artifact remains which have been devel oped to aid in subsistence research. Techniques to be presented (under revision) Excavation: Sampling-column sampling Water screening Laboratory: Residue analysis -those used to determine activities Shell seasonality -prepared shell sections Faunal studies, reconstruction of diet. -faunal remains Computers-correlation of data Photographs and Illustrations -photo showing column sample removal photo of waters*reening •photo of lab workers -illustration of residue analysis illustration of shell sections graphic reconstruction of diet change through time at Glenrose (Glenrose) (Crescent Beach) (Crescent Beach) or Glenrose OO Section V Activities anc Hidden Layers Text and description Photographs and illustrations Crescent Beach-reconstruction of subsistence and other activities. To show how the excavation and analysis of midden layers can provide specific information on prehistoric site use. Site development in terms of cultural and natural processes is also a possibility. Ethnographic tool kits will be compared to the archaeological remains of activities. For example: clam basket and digging stick will be compared to the debris of clam processing woodworking tools will be compared to the broken and incomplete tool kits found at Crescen Beach. Excavation showing layer removal (photo) Midden feature mapping (photo) Ethnographic activities -historic photographs -commissioned illustrations For example -herring fishing and processing -clam digging and processing (See Four Seasons exhibit) Site development will be graphically presented. Area map indicating seasonal area of optimum use-eelgrass beds with relevant species present and rocky-foreshore with resources. Text and description Artifacts Photographs and illustrations Notes Looks at the future of middens as cultural resources in need of protection. Possibly speculation on archaeological trends for the future ??? Several photographs of middens as they appear today. Possibilities: Marpole (Beer parlor parking lot) St. Mungo (Active bridge constructi Beach Grove (Visible features) Crescent Beach (Park-site and residences) m) ^5 .8 APPENDIX 8 Changing Tides Exhibit text - First draft Section I a: Introduction Changing Tides outlines the history of archaeology in British Columbia's Fraser delta region. This exhibit traces nearly one hundred years of shell midden research through three basic eras. Each era represents a major change in focus and techniques, each period building on the last. 93 -2-Section I b: What is a shell midden? The site is the basic resource for the archaeologist. The most important type of site in the Fraser delta region is the shell midden which provides the archaeologist with a complex record of cultural activities and natural events. This record dates back nearly nine thousand years. Middens are commonly viewed as ancient garbage dumps, but they can be much more. The complex layers of soils, shells and other remains found in these sites result both from the various activities which have occurred there and from periods of abandonment. These layers contain complex clues which the archaeologist must interpret in order to determine a site's history. Different layer patterns result when various activities occur at the same place over time. For example, in a coastal shell midden the refuse of an old shellfish steaming mound may later be covered by the debris from a nearby house. In this way, the layers accumulate, reaching up to five meters in depth. Other sites may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal use. For instance, a fall salmon fishing site leaves a different pattern of debris than a spring herring fishing location. Investigating these middens is further complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay relatively quickly unless special conditions aid their preservation. In coastal middens the presence of shells helps to preserve bone 94 -3-Section I b con't. and antler, but wood and fibers survive only if they are constantly waterlogged. Therefore, the wooden artifacts usually identified with Northwest Coast cultures are rarely found. Consequently, more mundane remains such as shells, bones and cooking stones play a vital role in our understanding of the patterns and development of prehistoric cultures. 95 -it-Section I c: Beyond the midden To understand the role of a particular site within a region, archaeologists must consider environmental and geographic changes. For the Fraser delta region it is important to look at the dramatic evolution of the Fraser delta estuary. The developing estuary has played a vital role in the location, stability and quantity of resources used by the region's inhabitants for nearly nine thousand years. 96 -5-Section II: The Descriptive Period Harlan I Smith's 1898 investigation of the Marpole site is representative of early midden research. Characteristic of this period, he was primarily concerned with finding and describing artifacts. Smith estimated the initial occupation of the Marpole site as having occurred 2,000 years ago. He based this estimate on such factors as the age of the trees growing over the midden, depth af midden accumulation, and degree of midden material decay. Recent, more refined techniques support his estimate. Using a small force of hired labour, Smith rapidly excavated a portion of this site by shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. However, he concluded that artifacts of all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure spanning at least two millenia. He argued for this economic continuity based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry and mat making tools, many of which were similar to those he saw still in use by local Coast Salish people. On the other hand, he viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence for an early migration of Interior people to the coast. These two themes of economic continuity and cultural discontinuity reappear in much of the later archaeological research undertaken in this area. 97 -6-Section III a: The Development of a Cultural Sequence Since the late 19^0's work at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites by Charles E. Borden has been instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. To establish this sequence, Borden used systematic controlled excavations, coupled with careful documentation of artifacts and features found within these sites. Borden realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpretations, he must keep accurate records of where artifacts were found in a site. Artifacts excavated from a series of levels are grouped into components, with significant stratigraphic breaks and important changes in artifact inventories signalling new components. Radio-carbon dating helped to order the components and therefore the phases which these components defined. Borden concentrated his efforts on establishing a cultural chronology, defining each phase of this sequence by isolating artifacts he felt were distinctive of a particular time period. These phases were usually named for the first site in which characteristic components were found, but anyone site could contain several phases. For example, marpole phase components are found at many sites in the region, including the Marpole site where it was first defined and the Glenrose Cannery site further upriver. 98 -7-Section Ilia con't. On the other hand, the Whalen II phase is confined to the Whalen Farm site. Like Smith, Borden related the introduction of certain traits, or trait complexes, with the arrival of particular cultural groups. As a result, he defined a series of cultural displacements corresponding to his various phases. However,as archaeological work in adjacent regions progressed, he allowed for greater cultural continuity. By the early 1970's, he still saw the Whalen II phase representing an influx of new people into the Fraser delta region. 99 -8-Section Illb: The Whalen II Phase Borden's reliance on a specific set of artifacts to determine a cultural phase made cultural discontinuity the obvious conclusion. However, a growing concern with understanding the role of seasonal site use in the Fraser delta region has led to new insights into the Whalen II problem. For example, the absence of ground slate, particularily fish knives, now suggests the absence of salmon fishing, rather than an influx of new people who did not use these knives. 100 -9-Section IV: Subsistence Research Archaeologists investigating midden sites are now applying new techniques to answer new questions. There is a greater concern with understanding the process of cultural adaptation, rather than the events of cultural history. The development of the Northwest Coast's unique subsistence pattern is considered critical to understanding the cultural pattern as a whole. Therefore, archaeologists are focussing their research on subsistence strategies. Although the Fraser delta cultural sequence is now in place, an understanding of the subsistence strategy each phase represents is just beginning to take shape. The Glenrose Cannery site proved a good starting point for such research because it provides a 6,000 year record of the continuing but variable use of certain resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp. To aid subsistence research archaeologists employ more refined excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. Investigating the relationship between artifacts, faunal remains and other midden constituents is complex but critical to this research. Due to costs and time constraints, all layers within a site cannot be completely analyzied; therefore representative samples are 101 -10-Section IV con't. taken. For instance, archaeologists use column samples to reconstruct the relative importance of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of the site's occupants, at a particular time. Also, waterscreening through fine mesh provides a refined technique which allows greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items, than traditionally dry screening methods. Computers become increasingly important for analyzing the masses of data created by such techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid subsistence research. For example, the growth rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby determining the season of site use. Detecting residues on stone tools, such as blood, fats and pitch, helps to show tool function and in turn what activities may have been preformed at these seasonal sites. 102 -11-Section V: Midden layers and past activities The 1977 excavation and subsequent anayysis of shell midden layers at the Crescent Beach site provides specific information on the type and season of activities undertaken at that site. This project reflects a current concern with developing a specific research strategy for investigating a particular site. In most previous studies sites were dug by arbitrary levels. One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site involved careful removal of the natural midden layers, allowing greater accuracy in determining the interrelationship of various midden constituents, and from them the specific activities which occurred at the site. Analysis of data from the site was aided by predictions of what should be found in this location. Models for particular expected layer types were developed by studying the resources available to the site inhabitants, taking into consideration historic Coast Salish use of the area and those times of the year when certain resources are most abundant. In other words, certain layer types, features, artifacts and faunal remains are expected for a particular group of predicted activities. However, due to such factors as decay, humus build-up during periods of disuse, and the removal of many tools and structures onced used at the site, these expectations cannot be totally realized. For example, archaeological Section V con11. evidence that shell-fish processing or wood working activities occurred at a particular site often bears little direct resemblance to the tools and structures actually used for such activities. 104 -13-Section VI: The Future of the Past A major and continuing problem facing archaeologists working in urban areas, such as the Fraser delta region, is the continuing destruction of midden sites. Important sites, such as Marpole have been excavated with the bulldozers already at work. Many other sites are destroyed by urban expansion before any archaeological work is possible. Archaeologists are just beginning to provide us with some understanding of the long, rich prehistory of this region. This understanding results from a continuing process of building on past results by asking new questions and developing new techniques to answer them. In order to accomplish these ends, we need to view archaeological sites as non-renewable resources which require our protection. 9 APPENDIX 9 October 1,1984 . Changing Tides Exhibit text - Second draft Section la: Introduction Changing Tides outlines the history of archaeology in British Columbia's Fraser delta region. This exhibit traces nearly one hundred years of shell midden research through three basic periods: the Descriptive, Cultural Sequence, and Subsistence Research eras. As you move through the exhibit, you will see how each subsequent era builds on previous research while it also represents a major change in focus and techniques. 106 -2-Section lb: What is a shell midden site? For the archaeologist, a site is any location which contains evidence of past human activity. The most important type of site in the Fraser delta region is the shell midden which provides the archaeologist with a complex record of cultural activities and natural events. This record dates back nearly nine thousand years. Although middens are commonly viewed as ancient garbage dumps, they can be much more. The complex layers of soils, shells and other remains found in shell middens result from both the activities which have occurred there and from times when the site was not used. These layers contain clues which the archae ologist must interpret in order to discover a site's history. Different layer patterns result when different activities occur at the same place over time. For example, in a coastal shell midden the remains of an abandoned house may later be covered by the refuse of a shell fish steaming mound which in turn, may be covered by the remains of a campsite hearth. In this way, the layers accumulate, reaching up to five meters in depth. In other cases, a site may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal site use. For instance, the activities associated with fall salmon fishing leave a distinctive pattern of debris which differs from that left by spring herring fishing. 107 -3-Section lb: con't Investigating these middens is further complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay relatively quickly unless special conditions aid their preservation. In coastal shell middens the presence of shells helps to preserve bone and antler, but wood and fibers usually survive only if they are constantly waterlogged. Therefore, the wooden artifacts most commonly identified with Northwest Coast cultures are rarely found. Consequently, more mundane remains such as shells, bones and cooking stones play a vital role in our understanding of the patterns and development of prehistoric cultures. 108 _4-Section Ic: Beyond the midden To understand the role of a particular site within a region, archaeologists must consider both environmental and cultural factors. The rich environment of the Northwest Coast, including that of the Fraser delta region, is often seen as fundamental to the development of the unique cultures of this area. Over the past one hundred years, archaeologists have come to realize that understanding- how these spectacular cultures developed requires an awareness of the seasonal cycle of Northwest Coast life. For the Fraser delta region, in particular, it is important to look at environmental change in terms of the evolution of the Fraser delta. The present location of midden sites reflects this development. For example, a site that once fronted on tidal flats may now be several kilometers upriver. The developing estuary—the tidal mouth of the river and surrounding waters—has played a vital role in the location, stability and quantity of important resources for over seven thousand years. The Fraser delta and estuary provided a rich variety of sea and land resources which were extensively used by the Coast Salish inhabitants of the region. Although many resources were abundant, they were often available only seasonally, 109 -5-Section Ic: con't, and very often were difficult to acquire. Consequently, a wide variety of ingenious and often complex methods were developed to take advantage of abundant but short term resources, such as fish runs. Herring and eulachon were netted or raked during spring runs, and salmon were netted, trapped in weirs, speared, harpooned, or hooked, depending on the season, the species, and the location where the were fished. 110 -6-Section II: The Descriptive Era Archaeological investigation in the Fraser delta region began in the late nineteenth century. This early work was primarily concerned with finding and describing artifacts. Harlan I. Smith's 1898 investigation of the Marpole site is representative of this early era of midden research. Using a small force of hired labour,Smith rapidly excavated a portion of the site by shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that artifacts from all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure spanning at least two thousand years. Smith based his estimate for the 1,000 years of site occupation, followed by 1,000 years of disuse on such factors as the age of trees growing over the midden, depth of midden accumulation, and the degree of midden material decay. Recent research supports his estimate. Smith used the artifacts which he recovered from the site to answer questions concerning the economic and cultural stability of the area. He argued for economic stability based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry, and mat making tools similar to those he saw still in use by local Coast Salish peoploe. On the other hand, he argued for cultural change. He viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence for an early migration of Interior people Section II: con't. to the coast. Characteristic questions were important ones speculative. More conclusive techniques. of the Descriptive Era, Smith' , but his conclusions remained answers required more refined 112 -8-Section Ilia: The.Development of a Cultural Sequence(methods) Since the late 1940's work by Charles E. Borden at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites has been instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. To establish this sequence, Borden used systematic controlled excavations, coupled with careful documentation of the artifacts and features found within these sites. Borden realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpre tations, he must keep accurate records of where artifacts were found in a site. He grouped layers with similar artifacts into what archaeologists call a component. He used significant changes in artifact inventories to distinguish between components. In turn, Borden grouped similar components from different sites into cultures or cultural phases, which radio-carbon dating helped to order. Borden's efforts to establish a cultural sequence involved defining each phase by isolating artifacts he felt were distintive of a particular time period. These phases were usually named for the first site in which the characteristic component was found, but any site could contain several components or phases. For example, Marpole phase components are found atomany sites in the region, including the Marpole site where it was first defined and the Glenrose Cannery site further upriver. On the other hand, the Whalen II phase is confined to a single site. 113 -9-Section Illb: The Development of a Cultural Sequence (results) Although Borden first viewed his cultural phases as a series of distinctive cultures, he eventually modified his position to allow for greater local cultural development. His cultural sequence remains an important operational framework for more recent research. Borden's early conclusions, like Smith's, equated the introduction of certain artifact types with the arrival of new cultural groups into the area. He later modified his position, however, when archaeological work in adjacent regions failed to support his hypotheses concerning the regions from which certain traits originated. Although he eventually viewed most locally defined phases as outgrowths of previous ones, he continued to view the Whalen II phase as representing an influx of new people into the region, from the interior. Borden's view of the Whalen II phase creates questions concerning why a relatively recent cultural phase should appear at only one site. Although archaeologists have yet to answer this question, they have begun asking new questions which may lead to a better understanding of the Whalen II problem. To ask such questions as how the occupants of a site exploited the local environment or why these activities changed through time, archaeologists had first to shift their focus from describing and categorizing artifacts to investigating more mundane remains as well. Despite this new focus, recent research relies on 114 -10-Section Illb: con't. Borden's chronology is an important operational tool. For example, his chronology allows archaeologists to match the various phases with major environmental developments of the Fraser delta. 115 -li-Section IVa: Subsistence Research Since the early 1970's, archaeologists investigating midden sites have been applying new techniques to answer new questions. There is a greater concern with understanding the process of cultural adaptation, rather than the events of culture history. The development of the Northwest Coast's unique subsistence pattern is considered critical to understanding the cultural pattern as a whole. Therefore, archaeologists are focussing their research on subsistence strategies, that is on how the prehistoric inhabitants of the region furnished themselves with food and other necessities. Although the Fraser delta cultural sequence is now in place, an understanding of the subsistence strategy each phase represents is just beginning to take shape. The Glenrose Cannery site proved a good starting point for such research because it provides a 6,000 year record of continuing but variable use of certain resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp. To aid subsistence research, archaeologists employ more refined excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. Investigating the relationship between artifacts, animal, fish and shell, remains, as well as other midden constituents is complex but 116 -12-Section IVa: con't. critical to this research. Due to costs and time constraints, all layers within a site cannot be completely analyzied; therefore representative samples are taken. For instance, archaeologists use a series of column samples in order to reconstruct the relative importance of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of the site's occupants, at a particular time. Also, waterscreen-ing through fine mesh provides a refined technique which allows for greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items than traditional dry screening methods. Computers become in creasingly important for analyzing the masses of data created by such techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid sub sistence research. For example, the growth rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby determining the season of site use. Detecting residues on stone tools, such as blood, fats and pitch, helps to show tool function and in turn what activities may have been performed at these seasonal sites. 117 -13-Section IVb: Midden layers and past activities The 1977 excavation and subsequent analysis of shell midden layers at the Crescent Beach site povides specific information on the type and season of activities undertaken at that site. This project reflects both the ongoing development of more refined archaeological techniques and the current concern with developing a specific research strategy for investigating a particular site. In most previous studies., sites were dug by arbitrary levels. One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site involved careful removal of the natural midden layers, allowing.greater accuracy in determining the interrelationship of various midden constituents. This detailed investigation helped to determine the specific activities which occurred at the site. Analysis of data from the site was aided by predictions of what should be found in this location. Models for particular expected layer types were developed by studying the resources available to the site inhabitants, taking into consideration historic Coast Salish use of the area and those times of the year when certain resources are most abundant. In other words, certain layer types, features, artifacts and faunal remains are expected for a particular group of predicted activities. However, due to such factors as decay, humus build-up during periods of disuse, and the removal' of many tools and structures once used at he site, these expectations cannot be totally 118 -14-Section IVb: con't. realized. For example, archaeological evidence that shell fish processing or wood working activities occurred at a particular site often bears little direct resemblance to the tools and structures actually used for such activities. 119 -15-Section V: The Future of the Past Archaeologists are beginning to provide us with some understanding of the long, rich prehistory of this region. This understanding results from a continuing process of building on past results by asking new questions and developing new techniques to answer them. The Descriptive era not only provided initial artifact descrip tions, but also asked important questions concerning both economic and cultural change. The subsequent development of a regional Cultural Sequence resulted from more refined excavation techniques and new laboratory procedures.' Recent Subsistence Research is beginning to outline the development of the seasonally diverse subsistence pattern upon which Northwest Coast cultures are based. While the basic subsistence pattern is now considered to have persisted for thousands of years, important developmental changes are just beginning to be understood. Unfortunately, for many areas, especially urban ones, such as the Fraser delta region, a major and continuing problem involves the destruction of midden sites. Marpole, and other important sites, have been excavated with the bulldozers already at work. Many other sites are destroyed before any archaeological work is possible. If a greater appreciation of the development of Northwest Coast cultures is to be acheived, archaeologists must continue to investigate a cross—section of sites within 120 -16-Section V: con't a region. In order to accomplish these ends, we need archaeological sites as non-renewable resources which our protection. to view require 9.10 APPENDIX 10 CHANGING TIDES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN B.C.'S FRASER DELTA Exhibit Text Ann Stevenson November 2,1984 Section Al: Changing Tides examines the history of archaeological research in British Columbia's Fraser delta region by tracing our evolving knowledge of its prehistory. Each stage of this research has changed and refined our perception of the past. As you move through the exhibit, you will see how each stage of research-here titled the "Descriptive", "Cultural Sequence", and "Subsistence" stages-not only builds on earlier knowledge but also introduces new ideas and new techniques. 123 Section A2: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SHELL MIDDENS Shell midden sites provide the most important evidence for prehistoric human activity in the Fraser delta region. These sites contain the remains of dwellings, work areas and garbage dumps, providing a record of human habitation spanning nearly 9,000 years. In midden sites, different activities created characteristic patterns of remains. These remains resulted in the build up of midden layers which the archaeologist interprets in order to discover a site's history. Different layer patterns result when diverse activities occur at the same place over time. For example, in a coastal shell midden the remains of an abandoned house may later be covered by the refuse of a shellfish steaming mound that, in turn, may be covered by remains of a campsite hearth. In this way the layers accumulate, reaching up to 5 meters in depth. In other cases, a site may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal use. For instance, fall salmon fishing activities leave a distinctive pattern of debris which differs from that left by spring herring fishing. The complex layers of soil, shells and other remains result not only from these human activities, but also from naturally deposited debris. THE CONTENTS OF SHELL MIDDENS Investigating shell middens is further complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay quite quickly unless special conditions help to preserve them. In coastal shell middens, the presence of shells helps to preserve bone and antler, but wood and plant fibers usually survive only if they are constantly waterlogged. Thus, the carved wooden objects for which the Northwest Coast is well known are rarely found in archaeological sites. Exhibited here are a range of items found in coastal shell middens. 125 Section A3: SHELL MIDDENS AND THEIR SETTING To understand the role of a particular site within a region, archaeologists must consider the changing natural environment in which the site's occupants lived. The rich and diverse environment of the Northwest Coast, including that of the Fraser delta region, influenced the development of the area's unique cultures. The Fraser river delta and estuary provided a wide variety of sea and land resources which were extensively used by the region's inhabitants. The developing estuary-the tidal mouth of the river and surrounding ocean waters-played a vital role for over 7,000 years in the location, stability and quantity of these resources. THE SEASONAL ROUND Although many resources were abundant, they were often available only seasonally, and even then, they could be difficult to acquire. The Coast Salish inhabitants of the region used diverse, and often complex methods to harvest these short-term resources. For example, during spring fish runs, herring or eulachon were netted and raked; salmon were netted, trapped in weirs, speared, harpooned or hooked, depending on the species, the season and location. 126 THE DEVELOPING DELTA In examining the Fraser delta region, it is important to consider the evolution of the delta itself. The present location of midden sites reflects this development. For instance, a site that fronted on tidal flats at the river's mouth 2,000 years ago may now be several kilometers upriver. 127 Section B: THE DESCRIPTIVE STAGE Archaeological investigation in the Fraser delta region began in the late 1800's. This early work was mainly concerned with finding artifacts, describing them, and speculating about their significance. The 1898 investigation of the Marpole site by the American Museum of Natural History's Harlan I. Smith is representative of this early research. Using a small force of hired labour, Smith rapidly excavated a portion of the site b}' shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that artifacts from all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure beginning at least 2,000 years ago. Smith based his estimates for the 1,000 years of occupation, followed by 1,000 years of disuse, on such factors as the age of trees growing over the midden, the depth of accumulation, and the degree of midden material decay. Recent research supports his estimate. 128 DESCRIPTION AND SPECULATIONS Smith used the artifacts that he recovered from the site to answer questions concerning the economic and cultural stability of the area. He argued for economic stability based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry, and mat making tools similar to those he saw still in use by the local Coast Salish residents of the area. On the other hand, Smith also argued for cultural replacement. He viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence for early migration of interior people to the coast. Smith asked important questions, but his answers were speculative, in a manner characteristic of early descriptive archaeology. More conclusive answers would require more refined theories and research techniques, which were introduced as archaeology developed. 129 Section Cl: THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE STAGE British Columbia's first archaeologist, Charles E. Borden, worked at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites, from the late 1940's to the 1970's, and was instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. He realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpretations of the area's prehistory, accurate records must be kept of where artifacts or tools, and features—such as hearths—were found in a site. To establish a cultural sequence, Borden grouped layers with similar artifacts into what archaeologists call a component. He then grouped similar components from different sites into cultures or cultural phases. Radio-carbon dating, invented in 1948, was used to verify the order of these phases, as well as to date them. DEFINING CULTURAL PHASES The phases Borden defined are the Locarno Beach phase, the Marpole phase, the Whalen II phase, and the Stselax phase. These phases were usually named after the first site in which the characteristic component was found, but any site could contain several components or phases. For example, Marpole phase components, first defined at the Marpole site, are found at many sites in the region including the Glenrose Cannery site upriver. The Whalen II phase, on the other hand, is confined to a single site. Shown here is a selection of artifacts Borden considered representative of each cultural phase. Section C2: REFINING THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE Initially, Borden viewed his cultural phases as representing a series of migrations into the region. He eventually modified his postion, however, recognizing that cultural change could also result from local development. This change in Borden's postion resulted when archaeological work in adjacent areas failed to support his hypotheses about the origin of certain traits. Although he eventually allowed that most phases could have developed locally out of previous ones, he continued to argue that the Whalen II phase represented the arrival of new people from the interior. B3' considering the Whalen II phase to represent the entire region during one time period, Borden ignored other possible explanations. The presence of particular artifacts might have resulted from trade, and absence of others might be due to the season of site use. For example, the presence of small chipped stone points, commonly found in interior sites, were also found at the Whalen Farm site, and could be accounted for by trade between coast and interior peoples. On the other hand, the absence of thin ground slate knives usually associated with salmon processing and found in earlier and later phases in the region may simply indicate that the site in question was not used for salmon fishing. A recognition of the potential importance of seasonal site use distinquishes the next stage of archaeological research. This new focus provides an alternative explanation for the uniqueness of the Whalen II component, while adding a new dimension to complement Borden's basic cultural sequence. Section DI: THE SUBSISTENCE RESEARCH STAGE Since the 1970's, archaeologists have been applying new techniques to midden sites in order to answer new questions about the process of cultural adaptation in the region. Their investigations focussed on how the prehistoric inhabitants of the area supplied themselves with food and other necessities. An understanding of the subsistence strategy each phase of the Fraser delta sequence represents is just beginning to take shape. The Glenrose Cannery site proved a good starting point for such research 'because it provided a 6,000 year record of continuing but variable use of resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp. 133 REFINING EXCAVATION AND LABORATORY TECHNIQUES To aid subsistence research, archaeologists employ more refined excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. A critical aspect of this research is discovering the relationships among artifacts, food remains, and other midden materials. Because these techniques are expensive, all layers within a site cannot be analyzed with the same intensity. Archaeologists therefore select representative samples in order to reconstruct the relative importance of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of the site's occupants. The use of waterscreening through fine mesh allows for greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items than do traditional dry screening methods. Computers are increasingly important for analyzing the masses of data generated by such field techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid subsistence research. For example, the growth rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby indicating the season of site use. Detecting residues such as blood, fats, and resins on stone tools helps to show tool function and, consequently, what activities might have been performed at these seasonal sites. 134 Section D2: INVESTIGATING A SEASONAL SITE The excavation of shell midden layers at the Cresent Beach site shows how the type and season of activities undertaken at a site may be determined by careful analysis. One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site was the careful removal of midden layers following the natural contours of the site. Previous sites were excavated by removing flat, even layers, usually 10 to 20 cm. thick. This refinement helped to isolate the specific activities which had occurred at this site. 135 MIDDEN LAYERS AND PAST ACTIVITIES To understand each layer type, models of site use were developed. Models are used to predict what activities might have occurred at the site during different times of the year. Important considerations include the historic Coast Salish use of the area and those times of the year, when certain- resources were most abundant. Certain layer types, features, artifacts, and faunal remains thus can be predicted for a particular group of expected activities. Although such factors as decay, and the removal of many tools and structures once at the site, might make analysis difficult, the prediction of site use helps to overcome this problem. For example, if shellfish harvesting and processing are predicted for a site, the baskets, digging sticks and drying racks might have been removed or have decayed. On the other hand, other evidence will remain, such as the remains of steaming mounds, discarded clam shells, and the post holes for the drying racks. If the problematic Whalen II component at the Whalen Farm site were re-examined in this manner, it might now be seen as a seasonal variant of another cultural phase rather than as an unique cultural phase. 136 Section E: THE FUTURE OF THE PAST Archaeological research in the Fraser delta region has developed through several stages paralleling general changes in North American archaeology. Each stage has built on previous results. These results have laid the foundation upon which new questions are raised and new techniques are developed. The Descriptive stage not only provided initial descriptions, but asked important questions concerning both economic and cultural change. The subsequent development of a regional Cultural Sequence resulted from more refined excavation techniques and laboratory procedures. Recent Subsistence Research is beginning to outline the development of the Northwest Coast's seasonally diverse subsistence pattern. While we now know that a similar range of resources was used in this area for thousands of years critical changes occurred in resource use, for instance the development of large scale salmon processing for storage, these changes have only recently received attention. A new focus on social questions, such as on how social organization and subsistence stategies interrelate, suggests that a new stage of archaeological research is also taking shape. The future of such research, however, is seriously threatened. 137 HERITAGE DESTRUCTION The destruction of midden sites, especially in urban areas like the Fraser delta, is a major problem. Marpole and other important sites were excavated just before bulldozers moved in. Unfortunately, many other sites were destroyed before any archaeological investigation could take place. As a result, valuable heritage information has been lost forever. If a greater appreciation of the development of Northwest Coast cultures is to be achieved, archaeologists must continue to investigate a cross-section of sites within a region. But to do this, archaeological sites must be viewed as non-renewable resources that, require our protection. 1 9.11 APPENDIX 11 V-9-LU •UJ on UJ 5 1: _) O 09 ski o_ £y H ^) 3 < O ft 2" -7 < "7 0> UJ -2. O O 5 9-r o o or Ui VU S 2 £3 5i 0. 31 o -< Q_ QU o £w 7 s. is ZE u-£ to o. 3E Ci • u-o 2 ? 2rT -I S. a o 8-2 -J 3 < 5 7\ ui 10 o a. c o £ S r 3 i-%2 a. *• u3< — Ui U. o 'V. Jul u> 3^ 4T o r 2 3 Ui 5 c. a: £ ~7T;— o 2E 2^ EI si el 7\ "I-P -J J i-7K~ ui CD J 01 r T 8 O 2E s o s- 3 « an a. a ^ -r ^> o U. Q at n 5: 31 C 5 D APPENDIX 12 EXHIBIT CuflMbiMei TIDES SECT lOrJ Pii. SuBTECr T-<?OI>OTiO/0 TEXT OR CHANGING TIDES AI-TI e Changing Tides examines the history of archaeological research in British Columbia's Fraser delta region by tracing our evolving knowledge of its prehistory. Each stage of this research has changed and refined our perception of the past As you move through the exhibit, you will see how each stage of research—here titled the "Descriptive", "Cultural Sequence", and "Subsistence" stages—not only builds on earlier knowledge but also introduces new ideas and new techniques. MAREES CHANGEANTES A1-T1F Maries Changeantes passe en revue l'histoire de la recherche archeologique dans la region du delta du fleuve Fraser, en Colombie Britannique, en suivant revolution de notre connaissance de sa prehistoire. Chaque etape de cette recherche a modifie et raffine notre perception du passe. En parcourant l'exposition, vous observerez comment chaque etape de recherche, portant les titres "La Description", "La Succession des cultures" et "Les Strategies de Subsistance" ont non seulement consolide les connaissances acquises mais aussi innove au niveau des idees et des techniques. 140 SECT'OK) /)X SUriOTECT A. tio. /\f>-f-| PACTS G. WO GRAPHICS NONE Al-Gl Harlan I. Smith's Marpole excavation (mural) No photo credit this section, see section B. EXHIBIT CMA^CnlfiJG, T/DE-S SECT/OrJ ft £ PAGE A 2 - / SUBJECT TEXT OR Aftm-'Acr L/IBEL(S) A2-Ti£ TIIK SIGNIFICANCE OF SHELL MIDDENS Shell midden sites provide Die most important evidence for prehistoric human activity in the Fraser delta region. These sites contain the remains of dwellings, work areas and garbage dumps, providing a record of human habitation spanning nearly 9,000 years. In midden sites, different activities created characteristic patterns of remains. These remains resulted in I lie build up of midden layers which the archaeologist interprets in order to discover a site's history. AZ - ri F LA SIGNIFICATION DFS A MAS DE COQUTIXES I^s anas de coquilles constituent la documentation la plus importante pour se renseigner sur les activites liuiiiaines prehistorioues dans la region du delta du Fraser. Ces stations prehistoriques contiennent des vestiges d'habitations, des zones d'activites et des ainoncellements de dechets qui teinoiguent d'une occupation humaine ayant dure pres de 9,000 ans. I^s differentes activites qui se deroulaient dans les stations a amas de coquilles y ont laisse des vestiges caracterestiques. Ces vestiges ont produit une accumulation de couches que les archeologues interpretcnt afin de recoustruirc I'hisloire d'uuc station. A2-T2 t Different layer patterns result when diverse activities occur at the same place over time. For example, in a coastal shell midden the. remains of an abandoned house may later be covered by the refuse of a shellfish steaming mound that, in turn, may be covered by remains of a campsite hearth. In this way the layers accumulate, reaching up to 5 meters in depth. In o'Jier cases, a site may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal use. For instance, fali salmon fishing activities leave a distinctive pattern of debris which differs from thai left by spring herring fishing. The complex layers of soil, shells and other remains result not only from these human activities, but also from naturally deposited debris. l.es diverscs activites realisees sur un meme emplacement durant un laps de temps laissent derriere elles des couches distincles. Dans une station cOtiere d'amas de coquilles, par exemple. les testes d'une maison abandonnee seront plus lard, recouven par les debris d'un amas de mollusques uiils a la vapeur, lequels le seront a leur tour, par les restes d'un feu de camp. Les couches peuvent de la sorte atteindre une fcpaisseur de 5 metres. Dans d'autres cas, une station pourra contenir des vestiges d'occupalions saisonnieres. C'est ainsi que la peche au saumon en automne produira des restes caracteristiques, permettant de les distinguer de ceux provenant de la peche printanniere au hareng. La serie complexe de couches de sols, de coquilles et d'autres activites provient non seulement de produits de l'activiie humaine mais aussi de d6pots naturels. 142 EXHIBIT C^M&iii^Gi TiD^S se CT IOSJ Pi L PACE fll-Z-Texr OR PrtZrifACT Lf\ B EL(Y) A2-T3 E THE CONTENTS OF SHELL MIDDENS investigating shell middens is further complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay quite quickly unless special conditions help to preserve them. In coastal shell middens, the presence of shells helps to preserve bone and antler, but wood and plant fibers usually survive only if they are constantly waterlogged. Thus, the carved wooden objects for which the Northwest Coast is well known are rarely found in archaeological sites. Exhibited here are a range of items found in coastal shell middens. AZ-T3P CONTENU DES AMAS DE COQUILLES L'effet de la decomposition ajoute a la complexite de l'6tude des amas de coquilles. La majoriti des matures organiques entrent rapidement en decomposition, a moins que des conditions speciales n'interviennent en faveur de la preservation. Dans le cas des stations c6tieres, la presence de coquilles contribuera a la preservation de l'os ei de l'andouiller. Le bois et les fibres v£g6tales, par contre, deperissent a moins d'etre engages constamment dans l'eau. Ces conditions rendent compte de la raret6, dans les gisements archeologiques, des pieces en bois sculptees qui ont fait la renommee de la cdte du Pacifique Nord. Void un inventaire d'objets trouves dans un amas de coquilles de la cote. EXHIBIT ChlAtihirJQj TiDfcS SECT/ON/ f\l PR^E- HZ-3 A. ^o. /\i?ri FACTS G. NO. GRAPHICS A2-A1 1. Ground slate knife A950 A2-G1 Photo showing midden layers A2-A2 2. Chipped stone tools DhRt11:68 DhRt6:28 A2-A3 3. Cooking stones (2) no //' s A2-A13 4. Sandstone abrader DhRt6:63 A2-A14 5. Waste flakes DgRr6:2601 1928 3511 A2-A4 6.. Bone awl (c) DgRr6:1554c A2-A5 7. Figure (c) DgRr6:2687c A2-A6 8. Salmon vertebrae no J's A2-A7 9. Bird bone no S A2-A9 10. Shell disc Ma3344 A2-A10 11. Clam shells no I's A2-A12 12. Carbonized seeds no J ' s A2-A11 13. Basketry frag. DhRt4:70249 CoMHEMrs (c) = Replica A2-G1 Leica 49 VII {11 (no label) EXHIBIT Ch/AhlQ/AJG? Ti^SS secr/ofj (\ i, PACE /?Z-^-TEXT OR AG-T^ACT LA&E.U(S) SECTION M-LIE.+F 1. Ground slate knife Comeau en ardoise polie 2. Chipped stone tools Onlils en pierre laillee 3. Cooking stones Pierres servant a la cuisson 4. Sandstone abrader Polissoir en gres 5. Waste Hakes from artifact manufacture Eclats de laille 6. Deer bone awl (replica) Al£ne en os de cerf (ripliqtte) 7. Carved antler tool handle ca. 2000 B.C. (replica) Manche d'outil en andoniller grav£ vers 2000 B.C. (replique) 8. Salmon vertebrae Verl6bres de saumon 9. Bird bone Os d'oiseau 10. Shell ornament Orncment en coquillage 11. Clam shells and fragments Coquilles et fragments de palonrde 12. Carbonized salmonberry seeds Graines de baies (Rubis spectabilis) carbonisees 13. Basketry fragment ca. 750 B.C. Fragment de vannerie vers 750 av. J.C. EXHIBIT Cr7/4A/G/A/G7 r /Das Texr OR Aftr/PAc-r L*BE-L(S) SECTION A3-T1 E SHELL MIDDENS AND THEIfi SETTING To understand the role of a particular site within a region, archaeologists must consider the changing natural environment in which the site's occupants lived. The rich and diverse environment of the Northwest Coast, including that of the Fraser delta region, influenced the development of the area's unique cultures. A3-TI F LES AMAS DE COQUILLES ET LEUR MILIEU Les archeologues doivent tenir compte du milieu nature) au sein duquel vivaient les occupants d'un site particulier, afin de comprendre son role dans une region. La richesse et la diversite du milieu de la cote du Paciiique Nord, y compris celui de la region du delta du Fraser, ont influence le developpement de cette aire culturelle exceptionnelle. A3-T2 £ The Fraser river delta and estuary provided a wide variety of sea and' land resources which were extensively used by the region's inhabitants. The developing estuary—the tidal mouth of the river and surrounding ocean waters—played a vital role for over 7.000 years in the location, stability and quantity of these resources. A3-TZF Les habitants de la region du delta et de l'estuaire du fleuve Fraser savaient tirer largement profit des ressources marines et terrestres qu'elle offraiL La formation de cet esruaire. comprenant une embouchure a marfes et une bordure oceanique, a joue de facpn decisive, durant plus de 7,000 ans, sur la localisation, la stabilite et la quantity de ces ressources. EXHIBIT CHf^hJG/Aj^ TibBS SECTiOrJ f\ 3 ?AG£ /?3-£. SUBJECT TEXT OR A/an^Acr L4BE.L(Y) A3-T3 £ THE SEASONAL ROUND Although many resources were abundant, they were often available only seasonally, and even then, they could be difficult to acquire. The Coast Salish inhabitants of the region used diverse and often complex methods to harvest these short-term resources. For example, during spring fish runs, herring or eulachon were netted and raked; salmon were netted, trapped in weirs, speared, harpooned or hooked, depending on the species, the season and location. Fishing was supplemented by various activities, such as berry picking in summer and shellfish galhering the year round. Specialists hunted sea mammals in the spring and land mammals in the autumn and winter. During winter, stored foods were relied upon as ceremonial and manufacturing activities dominated winter village life. LE CYCLE SAISONNIER L'occurence de plusieurs ressources, malgre' leur abondance, demeurait cependant saisonniere et leur acquisition pouvait offrir des difficultes. Les populations Salish qui occupaient la region c6uere avaient recours a des mdthodes diverses et souvent complexes, afin de s'approvisionner en ressources a disponibilitfc ephemere. Au cours des migrations printannieres du poisson, par exemple. on capturait le hareng et l'eperlan avec des filets et par ratissage; les saumons. avec des filets, des barrages, a la foene, au harpon ou a l'hameson. selon les especes, la saison ou le lieu. Diverses activites supplement a la peche, telles que la collecte des baies en M, le ramassage des mollusques tout au long de l'annee. La chasse aux mammireres terrestres, en automne et en hiver. La subsistance au cours de Driver dependait d'aliments stockes, saison durant laquelle la vie dans les residences villageoises 6tait dominee par les activites cSremonielles et artisanales. A3-T4 £ THE DEVELOPING DELTA In examining the Fraser delta region, it is itself. The present location of midden sites fronted on tidal flats at the river's mouth upriver. important to consider the evolution of the delta reflects this development For instance, a site that 2.000 years ago may now be several kilometers EVOLUTION DU DELTA II importe de tenir compte de revolution du delta lui-m6me. lorsque Ton examine cette partie de la region du Fraser. L'emplacement actuel des amas de coquilles le i6fl£te. C'est ainsi qu'une station qui se situait, il y a 2,000 ans, en face des terres basses a marfces dans 1'embouchure du fleuve, pourrait se trouver maintenant a plusieurs kilometres en amont EXHIBIT CM/yJQ/AJG? TtDES 56CTIOM PB^EL ft 3-3 SUB3"£CT A. Ho. A\Rr\FACTS G. NO- GRAPHICS NONE A3-GI A3-G2 A3-G3 A3-G4 Illustrations (4) of seasonal round (from Four Seasons) Series of delta development maps Photo of Beach Grove midden Denman Island shell midden (mu r a 1) CoKMEMrs A2-G3 Delta 56 I J10 A2-G4 Leica 46 I S12 EXHIBIT £///TAJG/'A/6 T/2>£-S secr/orJ PAGE fl3'4 TEXT" OR Aftn^cT B ELL^S) A3-G1: E+F WINTER L'HIVER SPRING LE PRINTEMPS SUMMER L'ETE AUTUMN L'AUTOMNE A3-G2: THE EVOLUTION OF THE FRASER DELTA DEVOLUTION DU DELTA DU FRASER 6000 B.C. 3000 B.C. PRESENT DELTA LE DELTA AUJOURD'HUl GLENROSE CANNERY GLENROSE CANNERY GLENROSE CANNERY MARPOLE STSELAX LOCARNO BEACH CRESCENT BEACH CRESCENT BEACH BEACH GROVE WHALEN FARM Burrard Inlet Burrard Inlet Burrard Inlet Fraser River Fraser River Fraser River Strait of Georgia Strait of Georgia Strait of Georgia Robert!, Island Robens Island Roberts Peninsula The Beach Grove midden. 1956. Photo by Charles E Borden L'amas de coquilles de Beach Grove. 1956. Pholographie prise par Charles E Borden EXHIBIT C h/AMG /AJG Tib EL S SECT /OfJ B TEXT OR PtATiPACT L*BEL(Y) Section B-flE THE DESCRIPTIVE STAGE Archaeological investigation in the Fraser delta region began in the late 1800's. This early work was mainly concerned with finding artifacts, describing them, and speculating about their significance. The 1898 investigation of the Marpole site by the American Museum of Natural History's Harlan h Smith is representative of this early research. Les debuts de la recherche archeologique dans la region du delta du Fraser remontent a la fin du siecle dernier. Ces premiers travaux se consacraient avant tout a la decouverte et a la description des pieces archeologiques, ainsi qu'a des speculations quant a leur signification. L'ctude de la station de Marpole en 1898, par Harlan L Smith, du Musee Americain d'Histoire Naturelle, illustre bien cette etape de recherche. Using a small force of hired labour. Smith rapidly excavated a portion of the site by shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that artifacts from all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure beginning at least 2,000 years ago. Smith based his estimates for the 1,000 years of occupation, followed by 1,000 years of disuse, on such factors as the age of trees growing over the midden, the depth of accumulation, and the degree of midden material decay. Recent research supports his estimate. Avec l'aide d'une petite equipe de travailleurs a gages. Smith fouilla rapidement a la pelle une paitie du gisement, sans se preoccuper de la provenance par couches des pieces. II n'en conclut pas moins que l'ensemble de ces trouvailles demontrait l'Sxistence d'une structure economique stable, dont le d6but remontait a au moins 2,000 ans. Smith se fiait a des facteurs tels que l'age des aibres qui croissaient au sommet du gisement, la profondeur des depots et I'etat de decomposition des vestiges, pour estimer une duree de 1.000 ans pour 1'occupation, suivi de 1,000 ans d'abandon. Des recherches recentes confirment ses estimations. B-TI F L'ETAPE DESCRIPTIVE B-T2 £ 8 - TZ.F 150 EXHIBIT CHA/UGI/AJGI -T/££S se cr lorJ & TEXT OR PtflTiPACT Ltf B E.!_(_£) B-T3 £ DESCRIPTION AND SPECULATIONS Smith used the artifacts that he recovered from the site to answer questions concerning the economic and cultural stability of the area. He argued for economic stability based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry, and mat making tools similar to those he saw still in use by the local Coast Salish residents of the area. On the other hand. Smith also argued for cultural replacement He viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence for early migration of interior people to the coast Smith asked important questions, but his answers were speculative, in a manner characteristic of early descriptive archaeology. More conclusive answers would require the more refined theories and research techniques which were introduced as archaeology developed. 6 - T3 F DESCRIPTION ET SPECULATIONS Smith eut recours aux pieces obtenues par la fouille de la station pour trouver reponse aux questions concernant la stability economique et culturelle de la rfegion. II soutint que les ressemblances entre l'outillage recueilli au cours des fouilles qui servait au travail du bois. a la peche. a la vannerie et au tressage. et celui, toujours en usage par les populations c6ueres Salish du meme endroit, tfemoignaient en faveur d'une stabilite economique. Smith prfetendit, par ailleurs, que la presence de decorations geom6triques et de pointes en pierre taillee un remplacement des cultures, par la migration vers la c6te dfemontiait de populations venant de l'int6rieur. Smith souleva des questions importantes mais le caractere speculauf des reponses qu'il leur apporta marque 1'orientation de cette 6tape essentielment descriptive de l'archeologie. Des reponses plus concluantes demandent l'emploi de theories et de techniques plus poussees. lesquelles feront leur apparition aux stages suivants du development de la recherche arch6ologique. EXHIBIT CHA^G /NG) TIDES SUBJECT B PAQEL 8 - 3 A- Ho. ARTIFACTS G- NO. GRAPHICS B-A15 B-A14 B-A13 B-A12 B-AU B-A10 B-A5 B-A6 B-A7 B-A8 B-A9 B-A4 B-A3 B-A2 B-Al Decorated Objects 1. Decorated bone 2. Tooth pendants 3. Shale beads Women's Tools 4. Fish knife 5. Needles 6. Awls DhRsl:9013 DhRsl:3946 Ma8771 Ma403 DhRs1:9071 Ma 4 60 A1209 A887 A82 9 Ma3424 A1234 Hunting & Fishing Tools 7. Chipped points 8. Slate points 9. Bone & antler points 10. Harpoon points 11. (c) 12. Perforated stones Woodworking Tools 13. Adze blades 14. Antler chisel 15. Antler wedge 16. Hand maul Ma3975 A1029 Ma3782 A721 Ma3807 A765 A974 A994 EB158 Ma433 EB148 DgRr6:1935c Ma6279 Ma3289 Ma438 EB553 A866 A1084 MuE821 B-Gl Harlan I. Smith's excavation (photo) COKMEMTS B-Gl American Museum of Natural History neg.// 42964 152 EXHIBIT Ch/ArJG/AJG TiJ>BS SECT /OrJ 6 PAGE B-^f SuBCTECT Texr OR SECTION B: LIE +F Marpole midden artifacts Pieces archeologiques de l'amas de coquilles de Marpole Decorative objects Objets decores 1. Incised bone and antler objects Objets incises en os et en andouiller 2. Canine tooth pendants Pendeloques en canine 3. Shale beads Grains de collier en argile schisteuse Women's tools Outillage employe par les femmes 4. Ground slate fish knife Couteau a poissori en ardoise polie 5. Bone and antler needles Aiguilles en os et en andouiller 6. Bird and mammal bone awls Alene en os d'oiseau et de mammifere Hunting and fishing tools Outillage pour la chasse et la peche 7. Chipped projectile points and knife Pointes de projectile et couteauen pierre taillee 8. Ground slate points Pointes en ardoise polie 9. Bone and antler points Pointes en os et en andouiller 10. Unilaterally barbed antler harpoon points Pointes de harpon a barbes unilaterales en andouiller 11. Bilaterally barbed harpoon point (replica) Pointes de harpon a barbelure bilaterale (replique) 12. Perforated stones Pierres perforees Woodworking tools Outillage pour le travail du bois 13. Nephrite adze blades Lames d'herminette en nephrite 14. Antler chisel Ciseau en andouiller 15. Antler wedge Coin en andouiller 16. Hand maul Masse 153 EXHIBIT CrfAfiJG/MG? T~/j)ES se cr tosJ B ?AG)£ B-sr SUBJECT-TEXT OR PrrzntAcT B E.L(Y) B-Gl £-+F Harlan I. Smith's Marpole excavation, 1898. Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History La fouille de Marpole par Harlan I. Smith, 1898 Avec la permission de rAmerican Museum of Natural History. EXHIBIT CMM&iiNQz -TlbBS SuBJ6Cr TEXT OR Aftm-'Acr UBEL(S) Section CI: Cl-Tl E THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE STAGE Charles E. Borden, premier archeologue de la Colombie Britannique, effectua des travaux a Marpole et dans d'autres stations du delta du Fraser, entre la fin des annees quarante et les annees soixante-dix et etablit l'essentiel de la succession des cultures dont l'emploi continut de nos jours. II se rendit compte que le but de depasser les interpretations speculatives sur la prehistoire de la region efiectues par Smith, exigeait un enregistrement rigoureux de la provenance des pieces, des outils et des structures dtiabitat telles que les foyers. Cl-Tl F LA SUCCESSION DES CULTURES British Columbia's first archaeologist, Charles E. Borden, worked at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites, from the late 1940's to the 1970's, and was instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. He realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpretations of the area's prehistory, accurate records must be kept of where artifacts or tools, and features—such as hearths—were found in a site. C1-T2 £ To establish a cultural sequence, Borden grouped layers with similar artifacts into what archaeologists call a component He then grouped similar components from different sites into cultures or cultural phases. Radio-carbon dating, invented in 1948, was used to verify the order of these phases, as well as to date them. C1-TZ.F-Afin de mettre sui pied une succession des cultures, Borden groupa les couches posse'dant des pieces semblables en un ensemble que les archeologues nomment une composante. II ordonna ensuite les composantes de difftrentes stations qui se ressemblaient en cultures ou en phases culturelles. La datation au radiocaibonne, inventee en 1948. fut employ6e afin de vdrifier l'ordre successif de ces phases et de les dater. EXHIBIT £///WG/A/G TIDES se cr iotJ c7? PAGJE Ci-l SuBJ£Cr TEXT OR PACT B £L(s) C1-T3 e DEFINING CULTURAL PHASES The phases Borden defined are the Locamo Beach phase, the Marpole phase, the Whalen II phase, and the Stselax phase. These phases were usually named after the first site in which the characteristic component was found, but any site could contain several components or phases. For example, Marpole phase components, first defined at the Marpole site, are found at many sites in the region including the Glenrose Cannery site upriver. The Whalen II phase, on the other hand, is confined to a single site. Shown here is a selection of artifacts Borden considered representative of each cultural phase. 0.-T3F LA DEFINITION DES PHASES CULTURELLES Les phases defmies par Borden component celles de Locarno Beach, de Marpole, de Whalen II et Stselax. La nomenclature de ces phases s'obtient habituellement en adoptant comme station-type la premiere ou eut lieu la decouverte de la composante qui la caractense. Toute station demeure neanmoins susceptible de contenir plusiers composantes ou plusiers phases. C'est ainsi que les composantes de la phase Marpole, deTinies pour la premiere fois dans la station de Marpole, se rencontrent dans plusieurs stations de la region, y compris celle de Glenrose Cannery, en amonL La phase Whalen II, par ailleurs, n'est repr&entee que par une seule station. Void un choix de pieces que Borden considerait comme representatives de chacunes des phases culturelles. EXHIBIT £/J/WG/AJG f/J)£S Pft^E. CI -3 A. A/a ARTIFACTS G. WO- GRAPHICS Locarno Beach Phase Cl-Al 1. Toggle valve Uh325 C1-A3 2. Toggle head DhRt6:204 Cl-Gl Photo of profile drawing C1-A4 3. Slate points DhRt6:344 DhRt6:74 C1-G2 Photo of Marpole excavation C1-A5 4. Slate knife A194 C1-A6 5. Facetted bone point Uhl62c C1-G3 Photo of measuring in situ C1-A7 6. Serrated point DhRt6:72c C1-A8 7. Chipped points DhRt6:ll C1-G4 Beach Grove excavation (mural) DhRt6:30 C1-A9 8. Shell adze frag. DgRrl:4193 C1-A10 9. Small adze blade MuNE78 C1-A12 10. Bone needle A1203 C1-A13 11. Bird bone awl DhRt6:1064 C1-A14 12. Labret DrRt6:287 C1-A15 13. Cobble hammerstone DhRt6:117 C1-A16 14. Sea mammal bones' DhRt6:6213f C1-A58 15. Death head DhRt6:218c C1-A60 16. Harpoon foreshaft Uh283 Marpole Phase C1-A21 1. Adze blades DhRsl:9185 Ma 40 5 Ma3585 C1-A22 2. Antler pestle Ma3299c C1-A23 3. Stone bowl DhRsl:9216c C1-A24 4. Shale beads no } ' s C1-A25 5. Antler pendant Ma3345 C1-A27 6. T-shaped labret Ma368 C1-A28 7. Antler points Ma428 Ma430 C1-A29 8. Chipped points Ma3259 Ma3577 Ma3797 A10U C1-A31 9. Beaver incisor DgRr2:71 C1-A32 10. Salmon vertbra.e no J ' s C1-A61 11. Bone needle DhRsl:3975 C1-A62 12. Bird bone awls EB172 A1233 C1-A63 13. Perforated stone Ma3288 (con't p.Cl-4) COKME KITS c= replica f= faunal remain Cl-Gl Leica 49 XII 08 C1-G2 Leica 55 VIII {25 C1-G3 Leica 65 II (18 C1-G4 Leica 57 III {23 EXHIBIT CHftrJG/rJG T/j>a£ SECTION CI ci -4 SUBJECT A. Ho. Mr\FACTS G. NO- GRAPHICS Marpole Phase con't C1-A17 14. Harpoon point A1191 C1-A18 15. Ground slate knife Ma427 C1-A19 16. Antler wedge A1061 C1-A20 17. Hand maul DhRsl:4385 Whalen II Phase C1-A33 1. Microblades (c) no //' s C1-A34 2. Olivella beads (c) no II' s C1-A35 3. Chipped points Wh253 Wh282 Wh662 C1-A37 4. Toggle head Wh91c C1-A38 5. Antler wedge A1058 C1-A40 6. Adze blade ' Wh304 C1-A41 7. Incised object Wh534c C1-A43 8. Beaver incisor MuE806 C1-A44 9. Barbed point Wh536c C1-A45 10. Bird bone awl Ma3433 C1-A46 11. Dentalium DhRsl:9205 C1-A39 12. Hand maul DgRnx:56 Stselax Phase C1-A47 1. Toggle heads MuE2060 MuE4312 MuE2092 C1-A48 2. Ground slate points MuE2170 MuE4361 C1-A49 3. Wedge MuE2667 C1-A51 4. Adze blades MuE4527 MuE4676 C1-A52 5. Fish knife MuE2138 C1-A54 . 6. Knotched point MuE4872 C1-A55 7. Spindle whorl MuE354c C1-A56 8. Bone pin MuE510c C1-A57 9. Bone points MuE4868 C1-A64 10. Drinking tube MuE2942 C1-A65 11. Pipe frag. MuE2942 C1-A66 12. Beaver incisor DhRt4:6843 C1-A67 13. Bird bone awl MuE2533 C1-A50 14. Hand maul MuE2636 CoHHEKlTS c = replica EXHIBIT dHMCihlG, T/PeS SuBCJEC-r TexT OR /Tfir/^Ac-r UBE.L(S) SECTION CI: LI £.4 F Locarno Beach Phase (ca. 1100-400 B.C.) Phase Locarno Beach (entre 1100 et 400 av. J.C.) 1. Antler toggle valves for harpoon heads Crans de tetes de harpons femelles en andouiller 2. One piece toggle valve for harpoon head (replica) Crans de tete de harpon femelle simple (replique) 3. Ground slate points Pointes en ardoise polie 4. Thick ground slate knife Couteau epais en ardoise polie 5. Facetted ground bone point (replica) Pointe facettee en os poli (replique) 6. Serrated bone point (replica) Pointe denticulee en os (replique) 7. Chipped stone projectile points Pointes de projectiles en pierre taillee 8. Shell adze blade fragment Fragment de lame d'herminette en coquillage 9. Small adze blade Petite lame d'herminette 10. Bone needle Aiguille en os 11. Bird bone awl Alene en os d'oiseau 12. Labret (replica) Labret (replique) 13. Cobble hammerstone Percuteur de galet 14. Sea mammal bones Os de mammifere marin 15. Human skull effigy carved from deer bone (replica) Effigie en forme de crane humain sculptee dans un os de cerf (replique) 16. ' Antler harpoon foreshaft Hampe de harpon en andouiller EXHIBIT PAGE suBjecr TEXT OR AftriPACT UB£L(i) C1--L1 E+F Marpole Phase (ca. 400 B.C.-A.D. 450) Phase Marpole (entre 4Q0 av. J.C. et 450 A.D.) 1. Adze and chisel blades Lames d'herminette et de ciseaux 2. Great blue heron miniature antler pestle (replica) Pilon miniature en andouiller sous forme de grand heron bleu (r6plique) 3. Small human figure bowl (replica) Petit bol anthropomorphe (replique) 4. Shale beads Grains de collier en argile schisteuse 5. Antler pendant Pendeloque en andouiller 6. T-shaped labret Labret en forme de T 7. Barbed antler points Pointes a barbelures en andouiller 8. Chipped projectile points Pointes de projectiles en pierre taillfee 9. Beaver incisor carving tool Outil a sculpter en incisive de castor 10. Salmon vertebrae Vertebres de saumon 11. Bone needle Aiguille en os 12. Bird bone awl Alene en os d'oiseau 13. Perforated stone Pierre perforee 14. Antler harpoon point Pointe de harpon en andouiller 15. Ground slate knife Couteau en ardoise polie 16. Antler wedge Coin en andouiller 17. Hand maul Masse EXHIBIT CHfiiyJG/A/G n^s SeCT/OM C± PAGE CJ--7 SUBJECT TEXT OR PranfAo-r LiB£L(i) CI- LI VVhalco II Phase (ca. A.D. 350-800) Phase Whalen 11 (enrre 350-800 A.D.) 1. Obsidian microblades (replicas) Microlame en obsidienne (replique) 2. Olivella shell beads (replicas) Grains de colliers en coqutlle d'Olivella (replique) 3. Chipped projectile points Pointes de projectiles en pierre taillee 4. Antler toggle valves for harpoon heads (replicas) Crans de tetes de harpons femelles en andouiller (replique) 5. Antler wedge Coin en andouiller 6. Nephrite adze blade Lame d'herminette en nephrite 7. Incised siltstone object (replica) Object incise en roche sedimentaire (rtplique) 8. Beaver incisor carving tool Outil a sculpter en incisive de castor 9. Barbed bone point fragment (replica) Fragment de pointe a barbelures en os (replique) 10. Bird bone awl Alene en os d'oiseau 11. Dentalium shell Coquille de Dentalium 12. Hand maul Masse EXHIBIT CHArjGv/AJS? r/i>£S secr/OfJ PA<3£ Cl -8 TEXT OR AeriMcr L*BEL.(S) Stselax Phase (ca. A.D. 800-1808) Phase Stselax (entre 800-1808 A.D.) 1- •. Valves for toggling harpoon heads Crans de tStes de harpon femelle 2. Ground slate points Pointes en ardoise polie 3. Antler wedge Coin en andouiller 4. Adze blades Lame d'herminette 5. Ground slate knife Couteau en ardoise polie 6. Side notched point Pointe a encoche laterale 7. Antler spindle whorl (replica) Fuseau en andouiller (replique) 8. Bone pin (replica) Epingle en os (replique) 9. Bone points and point fragment Pointes en os et fragments de pointes 10. Bird bone drinking tube Tube a boire en os d'oiseau 11. Steatite pipe fragment Fragment de pipe en steatite 12. Beaver incisor carving tool Outil a sculpter en incisive de castor 13. Bird bone awl Alene en os d'oiseau 14. Hand maul Masse 162. EXHIBIT SECT IOtJ PAGE £1-9 SfBJEC-T Texr OR PtrzriFAor \_(\ B E./_(S) CI -Grl £+f= Profile drawing of midden layers. Whalen Farm site, 1949. Photo by Charles E Borden Coupe des couches du gisement Station de Whalen Farm, 1949. Photographie prise par Charles E Borden A view of the Marpole excavation, 1955. Photo by Charles E Borden Vue de la fouille de Marpole, 1955. Photographie prise par Charles E Borden Measuring the location of an artifact Pt Grey site, 1965. Photo by Charles E Borden Prise de coordonnfes d'une piece archeologique Photographie prise par Charles E Borden Beach Grove excavation, 1957. Photo by Charles E Borden Fouille de Beach Grove, 1957. Photographie prise par Charles E Borden EXHIBIT se cr /orJ PAGE CZ-J- • SUBJECT TEXT OR PriZTiCACT \_(\ B E-L(Y) Section C2-T4& REFINING THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE Initially, Borden viewed his cultural phases as representing a series of migrations into the region. He eventually modified his position, however, recognizing that cultural change could also result from local developement. C2-T5 £ This change in Borden's position resulted when archaeological work in adjacent areas failed to support his hypotheses about the origin of certain traits. Although he eventually allowed that most phases could have developed locally out of previous ones, he continued to argue that the Whalen II phase represented the arrival of new people from the interior. By considering the Whalen II phase to represent the entire region during one time period. Borden ignored other possible explanations. The presence of particular artifacts might have resulted from trade, and absence of others might have been due to the season of site use. For example, the presence of small chipped stone points, commonly found in interior sites, were also found at the Whalen Farm site, and could be accounted for by trade between coast and interior peoples. On the other hand, the absence of thin ground slate knives usually associated with salmon processing and found in earlier and later phases in the region may simply indicate that the site in question was not used for salmon fishing. A recognition of the potential importance of seasonal site use distinguishes the next stage of archaeological research. This new focus provides an alternative explanation for the uniqueness of the Whalen II component, while adding a new dimension to complement Borden's basic cultural sequence. EXHIBIT ChlflrJG/KJG, TibES SeCT/OrJ (2-2, PAGE CZ-Z. TEXT OR AftrifACT UB£L(i) P LE RAFFTNEMENT DE LA SEQUENCE DES CULTURES Au debut, Borden envisageait ses phases culturelles comme l'aboutissement d'une serie de migrations dans la region. II modifia son point de vue, en definitive, en admettant qu'un developpement a I'echelle locale pourrait egalement produire un changement culturel. CZ -TSf Cette modification de point de vue eut lieu lorsque des recherches archeologiques dans des regions voisines ne purent confirmer son hypothese sur l'origine de certains traits. Bien qu'ayant concede que la majorite des phases pouvait Stre issue d'antec6dants a 1'echelle locale, il continua cependant de soutenir que la phase Whalen II representait un mouvement de population provenant de l'intfcrieur. En considerant la phase Whalen II comme valable pour l'ensemble de la region durant une seule periode, Borden ne tenait pas compte de la possibility d'autres explications. Ainsi, la presence de pieces avec des paru'cularites aurait pu resulter d'echanges tandis que ('absence d'autres pieces, de l'emploi saisonnier d'une station. On pourrait rendre compte, par exemple, des petites pointes en pierre eclatfee, repandues dans les stations de l'int6rieur et trouvfees fegalement a Whalen Farm, par des echanges entre les populauons de la c6te et celles de l'interieur. L'absence, par contre, de couteaux minces en ardoise polie. associes habituellement avec la preparation du saumon et que Ton rencontre dans les phases anciennes et recentes de la region, signifierait simplement que cette m6me station ne servait pas a la peche au saumon. La realisation de l'importance possible de l'emploi saisonnier des stations marque P6tape suivante des recherches archeologiques. Cette nouvelle fa^on de voir rend compte du caractere inusite de la composante Whalen II, tout en ajoutant une dimension nouvelle et compl6mentaire a la sequence consrruite par Borden. 165 EXHIBIT CUMGt*JO> TH>£ SECT/OK| CZ PA^EL CZ-3 SUB.3"£CT A. HO /\Kri PACTS G. N/O. GRAPHICS NONE NONE CoKMEM TS EXHIBIT £HA^0J/A7G T ID£5 S£CT/o/\J ])l SuBJ£Cr Texr OR AftrifAcr LABE.L(_S) Dl-Tl £ THE SUBSISTENCE RESEARCH STAGE PACE Since the 1970's, archaeologists have been applying new techniques to midden sites in order to answer new questions about the process of cultural adaptation in the region. Their investigations have focussed on how the prehistoric inhabitants of the area supplied themselves with food and other necessities. M-Tl F LES STRATEGIES DE SUBSISTANCE Depuis les annes soixante-dix, les archeologues ont eu recours a de nouvelles techniques, pour 1'etude des stations en amas de coquilles, afin d'aborder de nouveaux problcjnes concernant les processus d'adaptation culturelle dans la region. Leurs recherches se sont consacrees a 1'etude des moyens employes par les occupants prehistoriques de la region pour s'approvisionner en aliments et en autres besoins. D1-T2 E An understanding of the subsistence strategy each phase of the Fraser delta sequence represents is just beginning to take shape. The Glenrose Cannery site proved a good starting point for such research because it provided a 6,000 year record of continuing but variable use of resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp. DI -T/L P Une comprehension des strategies de subsistence pratiques au cours de chacunes des phases qui se sont succ6dees dans le delta n'en est qu'i ses debuts. La station de Glenrose Cannery d6montre pour la premiere fois les possibilites offertes par une telle orientation de la recherche. Elle illustre pour une duree continue de plus de 6,000 ans les differentes modalites d'exploitation des ressources telles que le saumon, les mollusques, les mammiferes terrestres et marins. L'fctude plus rfecente de la station Crescent Beach a permis de connaitre l'emploi saisonnier d'une station se speaalisant dans la preparation des mollusques et du hareng. EXHIBIT c/7£rJG /AJG TJDE-S se CTIOIV Di. PAGE Dl-i SUBCTECT Texr OR D1-T3 E REFINING EXCAVATION AND LABORATORY TECHNIQUES To aid subsistence research, archaeologists employ more refined excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. A critical aspect of this research is discovering the relationships among artifacts, food remains, and other midden materials. M -T3 h-LE RAFFINEMENT DES TECHNIQUES DE FOUILLE ET EN LABORATOIRE Les archeologues recourent a des metliodes de fouille plus detaillees et a des techniques de laboratoire nouvclles qui rendent l'etude de la subsistance plus efficace. Un aspect d'importance capitale pour ce genre de recherche est de decouvrir les liens pouvant exister entre les outillages, les restes alinientaiies et les autres vestiges dans les amas de coquilles. D1-T4 E Because these techniques are expensive, all layers within a site cannot be analyzed with the same intensity. Archaeologists therefore select representative samples in order to reconstruct the relative importance of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of the site's occupants. The use of waterscreening through fine mesh allows for greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items than do traditional dry screening methods. Computers are increasingly important for analyzing the masses of data generated by such field techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid subsistence research. For example, the growth rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby indicating the season of site use. Detecting residues such as blood, fats, and resins on stone tools helps to show tool function and, consequently, what activities might have been performed at these seasonal sites. bi Le coQt onereux de ces techniques ne permet pas d'analyser en detail chacunes des couches d'un. gisemenL Les archfcologues ont done recours a des echantillons. afin d'etablir la part jouee respectivement par les mollusques, le poisson et le gibier dans l'alimentation des occupants d'une station. Le tamisage fin a l'eau assure, • mieux que par les techniques traditionnelles, une recuperation complete des vertebres de poisson et d'aurres restes de petite dimension. Les ordinateurs acquierent une importance croissante dans l'analyse du volume de donnees engendr6es par ces techniques de terrain. De nouvelles techniques de laboratoire sont presentement a l'essai pour assister dans l'etude de la subsistance. L'etude des anneaux de croissance visibles par sections transverses des coquilles permet, par exemple. d'etablir la saison de la collecte et par cons6quent, celle de l'occupation de la station. La decouverte de traces de sang, de graisse et de resine sur les outils de piene, contribue a ridentification de leur fonction et par consequent, du genre d'activit6s qui auraient pu avoir eu lieu dans ces stations a occupation saisonniere. 168 EXHIBIT £HA/VIG> I AJGI TiDtSS 5£CTiotg J>± SUBJECT A. NO. A\£T\ PACTS G. NO- GRAPHICS Dl-Al D1-A2 D1-A3 Tools for residue analysis DgRrl:4196 DgRrl:4312 Cross-section of shell no // Herring vertebrae no //' s D1-G2 D1-G3 D1-G4 D1-G5 D1-G6 Waterscreening photo Lab photo Illustration of residue analysis (Dl-Al) Illustration of shell analysis (D1-A2) Coloured pie graph of faunal use through time at Glenrose Cannery site CoKKEKjT"S D1-G2 DgRrl C3-2 (slide) D1-G3 Taken for Changing Tides 169 EXHIBIT bl PAGE bl-4 SUBJECT TEXT OR Residue analysis showing presence or absence of blood , fats and resins. Analyse de residus demontrant la presence ou l'absence de sang, de graisse et de resine + blood + sang + blood + sang + blood + sang + blood + sang + + blood + +sang -blood -sang -blood -sang + fats +graisse + fats + graisse + fais + graisse + fats + graisse + resins + resines -resins -resines -resins -resines + present or positive reaction + presence ou reaction positive + + strong indication of presence + + forte indication de presence - absent or negative reaction - absence ou reaction negative EXHIBIT CtiAti&riKlG, T/bS-S SUBJECT TEXT OR PttzrtFAo-r LIBEL(S) D1-A2-G5 E-t-F Shell cross-section indicating spring growth at time of collection. Section d'une coquille indiquant une CToissance primanniere lors du ramasage. Dark bands occur during slow winter growth season: Les bandes foncees surviennent au cours de la periode de croissance lente en hiver. Cross-section cut Coupe transversale Winter growth ring Anneau de croissance hivernale Complete annual band Bande annuelle complete spring growth Croissance printanniere D1-A3 E<-f= Herring vertebrae, recovered by waterscreening. Vertebres de harengs obtenues par le tamissage a l'eau Ol-GZ B+F Waterscreening at Crescent Beach, 1977. Photo by Len Ham Tamissage a l'eau a Crescent Beach. 1977. Photographie prise par Len Ham Dl-£i3 £-+F Laboratory analysis of stone tool residues, 1985. Photo by M. Robinson Waters. Analyse en laboratoire des restes d'outillage de pierre, 1985. Photographie prise par M. Robinson Waters. PAGE bl -5" EXHIBIT CMAAJCIIUG) TI&E-S secr/OfJ t)i PAGE D>l-(o SUBJECT Texr OR ftizr^Ao-r LABE-L-CS) Identified fish remains from Glenrose Cannery showing changing resource use through time. Restes de poisssons identifies a Glenrose Cannery montrant le changement des ressources exploitees au cours des temps Marpole Phase ca. 400 B.C.-A.D. 450 Phase Marpole (entre 400 av. J.C et 450 A.D.) SL Mungo Phase ca. 2500-1100 B.C. Phase SL Mungo (entre 2500 et 1100 B.C.) Old Cordilleran Phase ca. 6200-2500 B.C. Phase Old Cordilleran (entre 6200 et 2500 B.C.) SALMON SAUMON HERRING HARENG EULACHON EPERLAN STURGEON ESTURGEON STICKLEBACK. EPINOCHE EXHIBIT CHAkJGilfiJG TiDE-S SECT /OrJ Dl. PAGE bl-1 SUBJECT TEXT OR Ptrzrif ACT LflBE.L(i) D2-T1 £ INVESTIGATING A SEASONAL SITE The excavation of shell midden layers at the Cresent Beach site shows how the type and season of activities undertaken at a site may be determined by careful analysis. D2-T1F L'ETUDE DUNE STATION A OCCUPATION SAISONNEERE La fouille des couches d'amas de coquilles de la station de Crescent Beach demontre comment des analyses minutieuses peuvent nous renseigner sur le type et la saison des activites qui avaient lieu dans une station. D2-T2 E One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site was the careful removal of midden layers following the natural contours of the site. Previous sites were excavated by removing flat, even layers.usually 10 to 20 cm. thick. This refinement helped to isolate the specific activities which had occurred at this site. Une amelioration importante apportee a la fouille de Crescent Beach fut le decapage par couches de l'amas de coquilles, en suivant les contours naturels de la station. Les fouilles precedentes des autres stations se faisaient par niveaux arbitrages de 10 a 20 centimetres d'epaisseur. Ce raffinement a permis de sfcparer les differentes activites ayant eu lieu dans cette station. EXHIBIT CHAkiGiriQ TIDES secT/orJ D£ SUBJECT TEXT OR Aftri*= ACT MBEL(S) D£-T3£ MIDDEN LAYERS AND PAST ACTIVITIES To understand each layer type, models of site use were developed. Models are used to predict what activities might have occurred at the site during different times of the year. Important considerations include the historic Coast Salish use of the area and those times of the year when certain resources were most abundant. Certain layer types, features, artifacts, and faunal remains thus can be predicted for a particular group of expected activities. Dl-TSf COUCHES D'AMAS DE COQUILLES ET ACTIVITES DU PASSE Des modeles d'utilisatiou de stations ont ete constants, afin de se renseigner sur les differents rtypes de couches. Le rccours aux modeles permet de predire le genre d'activites qui aurait pu avoir lieu dans une station, a differents moments de l'annee. Ainsi, l'utilisation du milieu par les populations Salish de la cdte, au cours de l'histoire recente, et la saisonnalite de 1'akondance de certaines ressources, meriteut une attention particuliere. II semblc done probable que certains types de couches, de structures d'habitat et d'objets coincident avec le realisation d'un ensemble de tidies particulieres. D2-T4 P Although such factors as decay, and the removal of many tools and structures once at the site, might make analysis difficult, the prediction of site use helps to overcome this problem. For example, if shellfish harvesting and processing are predicted for a site, the baskets, digging sticks and drying racks might have been removed or have decayed. On the other hand, other evidence willl remain, such as the remains of steaming mounds, discarded clam shells, and the post holes for the drying racks. If the problematic Whalen II component at the Whalen Farm site were re-examined in this manner, it might now be seen as a seasonal variant of another cultural phase rather than as a unique cultural phase. D 2. - T4 P Maigre l'effet de facteurs contribuant aux difficultes de l'analyse. tels que la decompostion et le transport de plusieurs outils et de structures d'habitat en dehors de la station, tin modele d'ulilisation des stations fornit les moyens de surmonter de tels obstacles. Si Ton prevoit, par exemple. qu'une station etait uuiisee pour la college et la preparation des mollusque, il demeure possible que les paniers, les batons a fouiller et les claies a sechage aient ete rransportes ailleurs ou se soient decomposes. D'autres indices s'y tiouveront, par contre, tels que les vestiges d'etuves en amas, les coquilles abandonnees et les trous de poteaux pour les claies A sechage. Une nouvelle etude de la composante problemau'que de Whalen II pourrait demontrer qu'il s'agissait, en fait, d'une occupation saisonniere faisant partie d'une autre phase culturelle et non pas, d'une phase culturelle distincte. PAGE DZ-2 EXHIBIT £r/AM&/A/C7 T/DtS secr/oNj PA^EL Oz-3 SUBOIECT A. A/G /\KT~I FACTS G. NO- GRAPHICS Clam digging tool kit D2-A1 1. Small clam basket A2282 (E) D2-G1 Photo of midden layer mapping D2-A2 2. Digging stick A2239 " D2-A3 3. Clams , no I's D2-G2 Photo of excavating by layers Woodworking tool kit D2-G3 Illustration of activities D2-A4 4. Composite adze -blade DhRrl3:3 D2-G4 Drawing of midden build-up -handle no f c D2-A5 5. Hand maul DhRsl8:I D2-G5 Photo of midden feature D2-A6 6. Antler wedge MuE64 Wooden wedge DhRt4:8572 D2-A7 7. . Bone chi sei A837 D2-A8 8. Bone drill no 1 c D2-A9 9. Dogfish skin no 1 Archaeological remains (woodworkin D2-A10 10. Adze blade DgRrl -.4050 D2-A13 11. Antler wedges/frags DgRrl:4122 4300 4194 D2-A14 12. Bone chisel DgRrl:4116 D2-A15 13. Bone drill frag. DgRrl:4267 Archaeological remains (clams) D2-A17 14. Clam frags no I's D2-A19 15. Cooking stones (2) DgRrl:30 no //' s CoMHEKirs E = Ethnology collection D2-G1 DgRrl-C2-17 D2-G2 " Cl-32 D2-G3 Gordon Miller painting D2-G5 DgRrl-C2-10 175 EXHIBIT £WA/OG//0G TIOSS seer DZ-4 SUBJECT TEXT OR PtrZn^AOT L1B£L(s) -Li £ +-F Clam digging tool kit Panoptic pour la recolte des palourdes 1. Small clam basket Petit panier a palourdes 2. Digging Stick Baton a fouiller 3. Horse clams Palourde Woodworking Tool Kit Panoplie pour le travail du bois 4. Straight adze, with antler haft and nephrite blade (replica) Herminette droite, avec manche en andouiller et lame en nephrite (replique) 5. Hand maul Masse 6. Antler and wooden wedges Coins en andouiller et en bois 7. Bone chisel Ciseau en os 8. Bone drill with wooden handle (replica) Foret en os, avec poignee de bois (replique) 9. Dogfish skin sandpaper Papier a sabler en peau de chien de mer Archaeological remains of woodworking tool kit Vestiges archeologiques de panoplie pour le travail du bois 10. Adze blade Lame d'herminette 11. Antler wedges and fragments Coins en andouiller et fragments 12. Bone chisel Ciseau en os 13. Bone drill fragment Fragment de foret en os Archaeological remains from clam processing Vestiges archeologiques de la preparation des palourdes 14. Horse clam fragments Fragments de palourde 15. Cooking stones Pierres servant a la cuisson EXHIBIT CHA^Gi^Ci Ti££S secriONJ DZ PAGE D2-5~ SUBJECT TEXT OR AftnfAcT LABEL^) D2-G1 &*i= Mapping midden layer contours. Crescent Beach site, 1977. Photo by Len Ham Cartographie du contours des couches de l'amas de coquilles. Station de Crescent Beach, 1977. . Photographie prise par Len Ham D2 -G2 £ + F Excavating by natural layers. Crescent Beach site, 1977. Photo by Len Ham Fouille par decapage. Station de Crescen Beach, 1977. Photographie prise par Len Ham D2-G3: £ By reconstructing the activities which might have occurred at the Crescent Beach site, archaeologists can better understand the pattern of remains which are left behind. Shown here are some of the activities and structures which would have occurred at an early spring herring fishing camp, before the herring run. bZ-6 3 P Une reconstitution des activites ayant pu se derouler dans la station de Crescent Beach permet aux aichfeologues de mieux saisir la signification des vestiges abandonnes. Nous voyons ici certaines des activites et des structures qui devaient avoir lieu dans un camp de peche avant la migration printanntere du hareng. EXHIBIT £HAM&/AJG> T/£>£-S StCT/OM 1)2, PAGE J>Z-4= SUBJECT TEXT OR PIATIeACT- I.AB£L(_S) D2-G4: £ +-F MODEL OF MIDDEN DEVELOPMENT MO DELE DE L'EVOLUTION D'UN AMAS DE COQUILLES Shellfish harvesting site after use Station de ramassage des mollusques apres son occupation Shellfish harvesting site, 30 years later. Station de ramassage des mollusques. 30 ans plus tard. Shellfish harvesting site after reuse Station de ramassage des mollusques apres une nouvelle occupation. Shell harvesting site. 100 years later. Station de rammassage des mollusques, 100 ans plus tard. ocean ocean ocean ocean ocean ocean oc6an ocean beach plage beach plage beach plage beach plage hearth foyer steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets hearth foyer steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets hearth foyer steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets hearth foyer steaming mound amas d'etuve refuse heap amoncellement de dechets drying rack sechoir post holes troux de poteau sand and humus sable el humus shell coquille cobble stone gros galet old basket vieux panier broken digging stick baton a fouiller brise charcoal charbon storm erosion erosion par la tempete EXHIBIT C^A/KJG/AJCI TibBS secr/o/\J PAGE D2-7 suBcrecr TEXT o R A An* ACT uaE'L^) DZ>-Gi5 Archaeological remains of a steaming mound. Crescent Beach site. 1977 Photo by Len Ham Vestiges archeologiques d'un amas d'6tuve. Station de Crescent Beach. 1977 Photographie prise par Len Ham 179 EXHIBIT CHANJCT/AJG T/DES SECT/OrJ £L ?AG£ £-1 Su6T£Cr TEXT OR fl-ftr^Acr LIBEL^) ». E-Tl £ THE FUTURE OF THE PAST Archaeological research in the Fraser delta region has developed through several stages paralleling general changes in North American archaeology. Each stage has built on previous results. These results liave laid the foundation upon which new questions are raised and new techniques are developed. E-T± F L'AVENIR DU PASSE La recherche archeologique dans le delta du Fraser s'est deroulee au cours de plusiers etapes, de facon parrallele a ce qui s'est passe dans l'ensemkle de I'Amerique du Nord. Chaque etape a beueficie des resultats acquis. Ces resultats ont permis la formulation de nouvelles questions et le developpement de nouvelles techniques. E-T2 £ The Descriptive stage not only provided initial descriptions, but asked important questions concerning both economic and cultural change. The subsequent development of a regional Cultural Sequence resulted from more refined excavation techniques and laboratory procedures. Recent Subsistence Research is beginning to outline the development of the Northwest Coast's seasonally diverse subsistence pattern. While a similar range of resources was used in this area' for thousands of years, critical changes occurred in resource use, for instance the development of large scale salmon processing for storage. These changes have only recently received attention. A new focus on social questions, such as on how social organization and subsistence strategies interrelate, suggests that a new stage of archaeological research is also taking shape. The future of such research, however, is seriously threatened. £-T£F L'Etape Descriptive, en plus de fournir les premieres descriptions, a permis d'aborder des problemes importants sur le changement economique et culturel. L'etablissement d'une Succession des Cultures dans la region qui lui fit suite, a ete rendue possible par l'emploi de methodes de fouille et de techniques de laboratoire plus affin6es. L'etape recente de la Recherche sur la Subsistance est en voie d'esquisser 1'evoluuon des formes saisonnieres differentes de la subsistance sur la cflte du Pacifique Nord. Meme s'il semble acquis qu'une utilisation d'un 6ventail de ressources comparable se soit poursuivie au cours des mill6naires dans la region, les methodes d'exploitation ont subit d'importames modifications, entre autres le developpement d'une preparation intensive du saumon en vue de l'entreposage alimentaire. mais ce n'est que recemment que Ton accorde a de tels changements l'attention qu'ils meritent On se concentre maintenant sur l'etude des questions sociales. telles que le lien entre l'organisau'on sociale el les strategies de subsistance, ce qui indique l'avenement d'une nouvelle etape de la recherche. L'avenir de cette recherche se voit cependant menac6 de fagon serieuse. EXHIBIT CHAU&irtG, TibELS SeCT/OrsJ £ PAGE E-Z. SUBJECT TEXT OR PtrzrttAc-r L^BE.L(S) e - T3 £ HERITAGE DESTRUCTION The destruction of midden sites, especially in urban areas like the Fraser delta, is a major problem. Marpole and other important sites were excavated just before bulldozers moved in. Unfortunately, many other sites were destroyed before any archaeological investigation could take place. As a result, valuable heritage information has been lost forever. If a greater appreciation of the development of Northwest Coast cultures is to be achieved, archaeologists must continue to investigate a cross-section of sites within a region. But to do this, archaeological sites must be viewed as non-renewable resources that require our protection. E-T3F LA DESTRUCTION DE L*HERITAGE CULTUREL La destruction des stations en amas de coquilles, particulierement dans les zones urbaines du delta du Fraser, presente un probleme d'envergure. Marpole et d'autres stations furent fouillees immediatement avant rarrivee des niveleuses. Malheureusement, un grand nombre de gisements ont ete detruits avant que la recherche archeologique ne puisse intervenir, ce qui consitue une perte irreparable d'information precieuse sur l'heritage culturel. Les archeologues se voient dans l'obligation de poursuivre une recherche portant sur plusieurs types de stations, si Ton desire obtenir une meilleure connaissance de revolution des cultures sur la c6te du Pacificique Nord. La realisation de cet objectif exige cependant une protection des gisements archeologiques que Ton doit envisager comme des ressources non-renouvelables. 181 EXHIBIT CI-^A/GJ/AJG TibES PA^E: £3 SUB.O"£CT A. ^o- A\RT\ FACTS G- No. GRAPHICS NONE E-Gl E-G2 E-G3 E-G4 Photo of Marpole 1955 Photo of Marpole 1984 Crescent Beach 1957 Marpole bulldozer shot (mural) CoKHEKirs E-Gl: Delta 55 I i?5 E-G3: Delta 57 III #14 E-G4: Leica 54(55)X #35 182 EXHIBIT CCMAAJG?./AJ& TI t>£-S secr/OfJ g. ?AG£ e-4 SuBJEcr TEXT OR fl-RnfAct u6£L(i) £-&l t + F View of Marpole site, 1955 Photo by Charles E. Borden Vue de la station de Marpole, 1955 Photographie prise par Charles E. Borden E-G2. E.tF View of Marpole site, 1984 Vue de la station de Marpole, 1984 £-G3 £ Archaeological excavation is often carried out under less than ideal conditions. Salvaging cultural remains threatened by immediate destruction necessitates quick action. This is a regrettable alternative to careful management of heritage resources. Crescent Beach salvage excavation, 1957. Photo by Don Abbott E-G3F" La fouille archeologique se poursuit souvent dans des conditions peu ideales. Le sauvetage des vestiges cullurels menaces par une destruction imminente exige une action rapide. Le sauvetage demeure malheureusement le seul recours, lorsqu'une administration attentive aux ressources du patrimoine fail defauL Fouille de sauvetage de Crescent Beach, 1957 Photographie prise par Don Abbott Photo by Charles E. Borden Photographie pris par Charles E. Borden 133 EXHIBIT CM ArOO? /AJG? T/btSS SECT /OrJ F PAQ£ F-l SUBTEC-T flCKkJOtsJ LrZb&Ew BKJTS Tex r OR Aftr/MCT B E-LfY) F" - TJL £ + F ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Changing Tides was produced by the University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology. Illustrations: Gordon Miller Graphics: Moira Irvine Translation: Prof. Nicolas Rolland This exhibit was curated by Ann Stevenson in panial fulfilment of the requirements for the M.A. degree in Anthropology, University of British Columbia. 1985. The curator wishes to thank her graduate committee for supporting and guiding this project and the Museum's staff, volunteers and students for making this exhibit possible. The museum gratefully acknowledges support for this exhibition from the National Museums or Canada. Exhibitions Assistance Programme and the British Columbia Heritage Trust University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology programmes are produced with the assistance of the Members and Friends of the Museum, the Volunteer Associates and Shop Volunteers, the Museum Assistance Programmes of the National Museums of Canada, and the Government of British Columbia through the British Columbia Cultural Fund and Lottery revenues. REMERCIEMENTS Marees Changeantes a 616 realisee par le Musee d'Anthropologic de l'Universite de la Colombie Britannique. Illustrations: Gordon Miller Graphiques: Moira Irvine Traduction: Prof. Nicolas Rolland La conservation de cette exposition ful la responsabilitt d'Ann Stevenson et faisait parue des conditions exiges pour le grade de Maitrise es Arts en Anthropologie a l'Universite de la Colombie Britannique, 1985. Le conservateur tient a remercier les membres de son committe d'etudes superieures pour leur appui el pour l'avoir guide dans la realisation de ce projet, ainsi qu'au personnel du Musee, aux benevoles et aux etudiants dont 1'aide a rendu possible cette exposition. Le Mus6e remercie vivement pour leur aide les Musees nationaux du Canada, le Programme de Soutien aux Expositions et le Conseil pour la preservation du patrimoine de la Colombie Britannique. Les programmes du Mus6e d'Anthropologie de l'Universite de la Colombie Britannique beneTtcient de I'appui foumi par les Membres el les Amis du Musee, par les Benevoles Associes et les Benevoles de la Boutique, par les Programmes de Soutien aux Musees des Mus6es nationaux du Canada et par le Gouvernement de la Colombie Britannique. grace aux revenus du Fond culturel de la Colombie Britannique et de la Loterie. 184 9.13 APPENDIX 13 Illustration for the exhibition Changing Tides This illustration will show a temporary Coast Salish fishing camp at the Crescent Beach site (ca. 1100 A.D.). This camp would have been occupied for approximately one month in the early spring (late February through March), mainly to harvest and process shellfish for storage and trade, as well as, fishing for herring, collecting herring spawn, and drying these for storage. Secondary activities included woodworking, hide processing, bird, sea and land mammal hunting. The specific activities to be illustrated are shell fish and herring processing, and woodworking. Structures would include temporary mat shelters, hearths, smoking and drying racks, and steaming mounds. The illustration should include a number of people engaged in the above activities, including women actively processing food, men engaged in woodworking, drying rack construction, and possibly other activities associated with food processing. Included in this scene should be two older children engaged in these activities. It should be recognizably a beach scene and back ground activities could include herring fishing and possibly plank removal from standing cedars. Canoes would also have been found on the beach. Shellfish harvesting: -required the cooperation of an organized pool of labour, or task groups to procure large quantities As the lowest tides were at night during the early spring, procuring activities would probably not be shown in this illustration. -Cockles (Clinocardium nuttali) and Horse clams (Tresus sp.) were the most frequently preserved species. Cockles are collected on the surface at low tide, but Horse clams require rapid digging. Other species were also collected, but were either eaten immediately after processing or were stored in smaller numbers. Main sources for shellfish harvesting and processing include: Ham 1982:128-132;141 Stern 1969:47-8 Suttles 1974:65-9 Other sources include: Barnett 1955:65 Haeberlin and Gunther 1930:23-4 Jenness n.d. :43 Kennedy and Bouchard 1983:33-6 Stewart 1977:132 Shellfish processing: Clams were first steamed open by placing them over heated rocks, covered with kelp, fir or hemlock boughs, or old mats and finally sand. Variations include pit steaming --a shallow pit was lined with hot rocks from the fire, the walls lined with inner cedar bark, shell fish in the shell were placed over the rocks and covered with mats and steamed. -or the rocks are placed over a large bed of hot coals, when they are hot, the shellfish are added, covered with old mats, and then sand. Seaweed and boughs could be used, but when large quantities were processed at the beach sand was usually used. Steaming took 20-45 minutes. Sand was removed, then the mats and boughs. The meat was removed and the shells discarded. The meat was rinsed of sand, stuck on skewers and roasted, either by angling the sticks towards a fire or by leaning the sticks on a frame over the fire. After roasting the meat was strung on cedar bark strings, and sun dried before being stored in a small, well ventilated basket. Herring.processing: -herring were dried by piercing a dozen or more through the gills with a stick which was laid across a six foot high frame and either sun dried or smoked with a fire beneath the frame, -drying took ten days or more, and smoking may occur only for the first two to three days, -spawn was also dried on these frames, the roe which adhered to hemlock or cedar boughs would be shaken or stripped off into baskets after drying, -larger herring were split open with a deer ulna bone knife for drying. See: Barnett 1955:86 Boas 1921:184-5 Curtis 1913:51 Jenness n.d. :17 Kennedy and Bouchard 1983:31-2 Stewart 1977:124-7;147-8 188 Woodworking activities at a shellfish and herring process ing camp: Although subsistence activities would probably predominate this site, certain construction and manufact uring activities would also have taken place. Many items were probably produced at the winter village, however some were undoubtably made at the site. As herring runs are relatively unpredictable, the group using this site would arrive before the herring run was expected, harvest clams and other resources before the fish appeared. Woodworking activities would have occurred at this time. A variety of items could have been made including house planks, canoes, boxes, and smaller implements, de pending on whether the appropriate specialist was present. As wedges, adze blades, and drill fragments were found at this site, boxes, planks and/or herring rakes could have been produced. This illustration should include the manufacturing of, at least one appropriate item (herring rake), and could also show the construction of drying and roasting frames or other structures. Herring rake production: A herring rake was made by splitting'a long, section of cedar or red pine, first from a standing tree (see Boas 1975:50405) then it is slit and shaped to size. It is rounded at the handle end and flattened for two feet at the other. Barbs of hardwood (ironwood or oceanspray) or bone were fixed to the flattened end by several methods. -the rake was held on its side by two stakes, then it is drilled along the edge, and teeth driven in. -sharpened points of ironwood were driven all the way through the wooden shaft in much the same way nails would be. The herring rake was about 7-14" long, several inches wide by 1/2" to 3/4" thick. Spacing of the barbs vary from less than 1/2" to slightly greater than an inch. The barbs themselves are one to two inches long. See: Boas 1975:504-5 Stewart 1977:76-7 Suttles 1974:126-7 Basic woodworking Kit: * 1. Hand maul-generally spool shaped * 2. Wedges-wooden (yew, dogwood or crabapple) and antler -various sizes, often with cedar withe grommets -various edge angles 3. Stone or bone chisels * 4. Adzes-straight, elbow or D-adzes -tone or shell blades * 5. Drill-bone or antler with wooden haft 6. Stone or shell knife Also a variety of other tools: * -dogfish skin sandpaper -scouring rushes -paints * -pegs * -cedar withes -incising tools * -abrader stones All kept in a wedge shaped basket (Boas 1921:60) See: Barnett 1955:107-9 Haeberlin and Gunther 1930:33 Jenness n.d.:27;38 Suttles 1974:225-7 these would have been used to make a herring rake, as well as grease for waterproofing and possible heat treatment for strength. 191 Temporary mat house: The usual shelter at a temporary camp consisted of lean-tos or four posted frames which were covered with cattailed mats and sometimes bark and roof planks. Pole frames-lower at the rear, slanting to shed rain. Cat-tail mats-6' by 15' overlapping on 3 sides and on the roof - tied to the frame with cedar withes. Cooking hearths were located outside the mat shelters and sometimes several shelters would be erected facing a common fire. In bad weather the cooking fire may be inside. See: Barnett 1955:40 Haeberlin and Gunther 1930:18 Jenness n.d.:7-9 Stern 1969:41,52 Suttles 1974:261 192 Bibliography Barnett, Homer G. 1955 The Coast Salish of British Columbia Univers ity of Oregon Monographs, Studies in Anthropology No. 4, Eugene. Boas, Franz 1921 The Ethnology of the Kwakiutl Bureau of American Ethnology Thirty-fifth Annual Report 1913-14 pt.l. 1975 The Kwakiutl of Vancouver Island Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History. Volume 5:301-522. New York. Curtis, Edward S. 1913 The North American Indian Volume 9. Johnson Reprint Corporation, New York. (1970) Haeberlin, Herman and Erna Gunther 1930 The Indians of Puget Sound University of Washington Publications in Anthropology Vol. 471-84. Ham, Leonard Charles 1982 Seasonality, Shell Midden Layers, and Coast Salish Subsistence Activities at the Crescent Beach site, DgRrl. unpublished Phd. dissertation, UBC. Jenness, Diamond n.d. The Saanich Indians of Vancouver Island, unpublished manuscript, National Museum, Ottawa. Kennedy, Dorothy and Randy Bouchard 1983 Sliammon Life, Sliammon Lands. Talonbooks, Vancouver. Stern, Bernhard J. 1969 The Lummi Indians of Northwest Washington AMS Press, New York, (first edition 1934) Stewart, Hilary 1977 Indian Fishing:Early Methods on the North west Coast J.J. Douglas Ltd. Vancouver. 1984 Cedar:Tree of Life to the Northwest Coast Indians Douglas & Mclntyre, Vancouver. Suttles, Wayne P. 1974 The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits Coast Salish and western Washington Indians I, Garland Publishing Inc. New York. 193 9.14 APPENDIX 14 CHANGING TIDES The Development of Archaeology in B.C.'s Fraser Delta Region Ann Stevenson UBC MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY Museum Note No. 194 ...the people lived at the water's edge, derived most of their livelihood from the water, travelled waterways in preference to trails, and regulated their activities by the tides as much as by daylight and dark. Philip Drucker, Archaeological Survey on the Northern Northwest Coast 1943 {j»LAT£ -f] 195 INTRODUCTION The history of archaeological research in British Columbia's Fraser Delta Region is the history of our evolving knowledge of this area's prehistory. Each stage of this reasearch has both <.' changed and refined our perception of this region's past. The development of archaeology in this region reflects both the changing ideas and new innovations which have generally affected archaeological research across North America. The shell middens of the Fraser delta provide a testing ground for ongoing research which promises to provide us with an increasing knowledge of an important aspect of Northwest Coast prehistory. 196 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SHELL MIDDENS Shell midden sites provide the most important evidence for prehistoric human activity in the Fraser delta region. These sites contain the remains of dwellings, work areas and garbage dumps, providing a record of human habitation spanning nearly 9,000 years. In midden sites, different activities created characteristic patterns of remains. These remains resulted in the build up of midden layers which the archaeologist interprets in order to discover a site's history. Different layer patterns result when diverse activities occur at the same place over time. For example, in a coastal shell midden the remains of an abandoned house may later be covered by the refuse of a shellfish steaming mound that, in turn, may be covered by remains of a campsite hearth. In this way the layers accumulate, reaching up to 5 meters in depth. In other cases, a site may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal use. For instance, fall salmon fishing activities leave a distinctive pattern of debris which differs from that left by spring herring fishing.. The complex layers of soil, shells and other remains result not only from these human activities, but also from naturally deposited debris. Investigating shell middens is further complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay quite quickly unless special conditions help to preserve them. In coastal shell 197 middens, the presence of shells helps to preserve bone and antler, but wood and plant fibers usually survive only if they are constantly waterlogged. Thus, the carved wooden, objects for which the Northwest Coast is well known are rarely found in archaeological sites. 198 SHELL MIDDENS AND THEIR SETTING To understand the role of a particular site within a region, archaeologists must consider the changing natural environment in which the site's occupants lived. The rich and diverse environment of the Northwest Coast, including that of the Fraser delta region, influenced the development of the area's unique cultures. The Fraser river delta and estuary provided a wide variety of sea and land resources which were extensively used by the region's inhabitants. The developing estuary—the tidal mouth of the river and surrounding ocean waters—played a vital role for over 7,000 years in the location, stability and quantity of these resources. In examining the Fraser delta region, it is important to consider the evolution of the delta itself. The present location of midden sites reflects this development. For instance the Glenrose Cannery site which was at the river's mouth 8,000 years ago is now many kilometers upriver. C FIGURE I3 THE SEASONAL ROUND Although many resources were abundant, they were often available only seasonally, and even then, they could be difficult to acquire. The Coast Salish inhabitants of the region used diverse, and often complex methods to harvest these short-term resources. For example, during spring fish runs, herring or eulachon were netted and raked; salmon were netted, trapped in weirs, speared, 199 harpooned or hooked, depending on the species, the season and location. Fishing was supplemented by various activities, such as berry picking in summer and shellfish gathering the year round. Specialists hunted sea mammals in the spring and land mammals in the autumn and winter. During winter, stored foods were relied upon as ceremonial and manufacturing activities dominated winter village life. 200 THE DESCRIPTIVE STAGE Archaeological investigation in the Fraser delta region began in the late 1800's. This early work was mainly concerned with finding artifacts, describing them, and speculating about their significance. The 1898 investigation of the Marpole site by the American Museum of Natural History's Harlan I. Smith is representative of this early research. Using a small force of hired labour, Smith rapidly excavated a portion of the site by shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that artifacts from all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure beginning at least 2,000 years ago. Smith based his estimates for the 1,000 years of occupation, followed by 1,000 years of disuse, on such factors as the age of trees growing over the midden, the depth of accumulation, and the degree of midden material decay. Recent research supports his estimate. Smith used the artifacts that he recovered from the site to answer questions concerning the economic and cultural stability of the area. He argued for economic stability based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry, and mat making tools similar to those he saw still in use by the local Coast Salish residents of the area. On the other hand, Smith also argued for cultural replacement. He viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence for early migration 201 of interior people to the coast. Smith asked important questions, but his answers were speculative, in a manner characteristic of early descriptive archaeology. More conclusive answers would require the more refined theories and research techniques which were introduced as archaeology developed. C PLATS, uri 202 THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE STAGE British Columbia's first archaeologist, Charles E. Borden, worked at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites, from the late 1940's to the 1970's, and was instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. He realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpretations of the area's prehistory, accurate records must be kept of where artifacts or tools, and features—such as hearths—vxre found in a site. To establish a cultural sequence, Borden grouped layers with similar artifacts into what archaeologists call a component. He then grouped similar components from different sites into cultures or cultural phases. Radio-carbon dating, invented in 1948, was used to verify the order of these phases, as well as to date them. The phases Borden defined are the Locarno Beach phase, the Marpole phase, the Whalen II phase, and the Stselax phase. These phases were usually named after the first site in which the characteristic component was found, but any site could contain several components or phases. For example, Marpole phase components, first defined at the Marpole site, are found at many sites in the region including the Glenrose Cannery site upriver. The Whalen II phase, on the other hand, is confined to a single site. Although some artifact types are found in several phases, Borden defined each phase by the presence of distinctive features. 203 Locarno Beach phase is characterized by toggling harpoon heads, ground slate objects and bone points. Marpole Phase is typified by barbed harpoon heads, the Northwest Coast's woodworking trilogy of splitting wedges handmauls and adze blades, as well as thin ground slate knives and a proliferation of decorative objects. The Whalen II phase is defined by an absence of ground slate and the presence of microblades, small chipped points and olivella-shell beads. The most recent, Stselax phase sees an amalgamation of toggling harpoons and woodworking tools with slate grinding. 204 REFINING THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE Initially, Borden viewed his cultural phases as representing a series of migrations into the region. He eventually modified his position, however, recognizing that cultural change could also result from local development. This change in Borden's position resulted when archaeological work in adjacent areas failed to support his hypotheses about the origin of certain traits. Although he eventually allowed that most phases could have developed locally out of previous ones, he continued to argue that the Whalen II phase represented the arrival of new people from the interior. By considering the Whalen II phase to represent the entire region during one time period, Borden ignored other possible explanations. The presence of particular artifacts might have resulted from trade, and absence of others might have been due to the season of site use. For example, the presence of small chipped stone points, commonly found in interior sites, were also found at the Whalen Farm site, and could be accounted for by trade between coast and interior peoples. On the other hand, the absence of thin ground slate knives usually associated with salmon processing and found in earlier and later phases in the region may simply indicate that the site in question was not used for salmon fishing. A recognition of the potential importance of seasonal site use distinquishes the next stage of archaeological research. This new focus provides an alternative explanation for the uniqueness the Whalen II component, while adding a new dimension to complement Borden's basic cultural sequence. 206 THE SUBSISTENCE RESEARCH STAGE Since the 1970's, archaeologists have been applying new techniques to midden sites in order to answer new questions about the process of cultural adaptation in the region. Their investigations have focussed on how the prehistoric inhabitants of the area supplied themselves with food and other necessities. An understanding of the subsistence strategy each phase of the Fraser delta sequence represents is just beginning to take shape. The Glenrose Cannery site proved a good starting point for such research because it provided a 6,000 year record of continuing but variable use of resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp. 207 REFINING EXCAVATION AND LABORATORY TECHNIQUES To aid subsistence research, archaeologists employ more refined excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. A critical aspect of this research is discovering the relationships among artifacts, food remains, and other midden materials. Because these techniques are expensive, all layers within a site cannot be analyzed with the same intensity. Archaeologists therefore select representative samples in order to reconstruct the relative importance of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of the site's occupants. The use of waterscreening through fine mesh allows for greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items than do traditional dry screening methods. Computers are increasingly important for analyzing the masses of data generated by such field techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid subsistence research. For example, the growth rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby indicating the season of site use. Detecting residues such as blood, fats, and resins on stone tools helps to show tool function and, consequently, what activities might have been performed at these seasonal sites. 208 INVESTIGATING A SEASONAL SITE The excavation of shell midden layers at the Cresent Beach site shows how the type and season of activities undertaken at a site may be determined by careful analysis. One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site was the careful removal of midden layers following the natural contours of the site. Previous sites were excavated by removing flat, even layers, usually 10 to 20 cm. thick. This refinement helped to isolate the specific activities which had occurred at this site. To understand each layer type, models of site use were developed. Models are used to predict what activities might have occurred at the site during different times of the year. Important considerations include the historic Coast Salish use of the area and those times of the year when certain resources were most abundant. Certain layer types, features, artifacts, and faunal remains thus can be predicted for a particular group of expected activities. Although such factors as decay, and the removal of many tools and structures once at the site, might make analysis difficult, the prediction of site use helps to overcome this problem. For example, if shellfish harvesting and processing are predicted for a site, the baskets, digging sticks and drying racks might have been removed or have decayed. On the other hand, other evidence will remain, such as the remains of steaming mounds, discarded clam shells, and the post holes for the drying racks. 209 If the problematic Whalen II component at the Whalen Farm site were re-examined in this manner, it might now be seen as a seasonal variant of another cultural phase rather than as an unique cultural phase. 210 THE FUTURE OF THE PAST Archaeological research in the Fraser delta region has developed through several stages paralleling general changes in North American archaeology. Each stage has built on previous results. These results have laid the foundation upon which new questions are raised and new techniques are developed. The Descriptive stage not only provided initial descriptions, but asked important questions concerning both economic and cultural change. The subsequent development of a regional Cultural Sequence resulted from more refined excavation techniques and laboratory procedures. Recent Subsistence Research is beginning to outline the development of the Northwest Coast's seasonally diverse subsistence pattern. While a similar range of resources was used in this area for thousands of years, critical changes occurred in resource use, for instance the development of large scale salmon processing for storage. These changes have only recently received attention. A new focus on social questions, such as on how social organization and subsistence stategies interrelate,, suggests that a new stage of archaeological research is also taking shape. The future of such research, however, is seriously threatened. The destruction of midden sites, especially in urban areas like the Fraser delta, is a major problem. Marpole and other important sites were excavated just before bulldozers moved in. Unfortunately, many other sites were destroyed before any 211 archaeological investigation could take place. As a result, valuable heritage information has been lost forever. If a greater appreciation of the development of Northwest Coast cultures is to be achieved, archaeologists must continue to investigate a cross-section of sites, within a region. But to do this, archaeological sites must be viewed as non-renewable resources that require our protection. r_?LRTe_ v»o 212 REFERENCES Borden, Charles E. 1970 Culture History of the Fraser Delta region. B.C Studies No. 6-7. Pp. 95-112. Ham, Leonard C. Seasonality, Shell Midden Layers, and Coast Salish 1982 Subsistence Activities at the Crescent Beach Site, DgRr 1. Unpublished- Phd. dissertation, University of British Columbia. Matson, R.G. 1976 The Glenrose Cannery Site, National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeology/Survey of Canada No. 52. Smith, Harlan I. 1903 Shell-heaps of the Lower Fraser River, British Columbia. American Museum of Natural History Vol. . Jessup North Pacific Expedition, Vol , Part 4. Pp. 133-199. Suttles, Wayne P. 1974 The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits Coast Salish and Western Washington- Indians I. New York: Garland Publishing Inc . FURTHER READINGS Borden, Charles 1975 Origins and development of early Northwest Coast culture to about 3000 B.C. National Museum of Man  Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada No.45. n.d. •Prehistoric Art of the Lower Fraser Region-, - In Indian Art Traditions of the Northwest Coast, edited by Roy L. Carlson. Burnaby:Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University. Bunyan, D.E. 1978 Pursuing the Past: A General Account of British  Columbia Archaeology Museum Note No. W. Vancouver: UBC Museum of Anthropology. 213 -2-Burley, David V. 1980 Marpole. Anthropological reconstructions of a  prehistoric Northwest Coast culture type Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University Publication. No.8. Fladmark, Knut R. 1980-81 British Columbia Archaeology in the 1970's. B.C.  Studies No. 48. Pp. 11-20. Matson, R.G. 1980-81 Maud, Ralph 1978 Prehistoric Subsistence Patterns in the Fraser Delta: The Evidence from the Glenrose Cannery Site. B.C.Studies No.48. Pp. 64-85. editor The Salish People: The Local Contribution of Charles  Hill-Tout Vol.III. The Mainland Halkomelem. Vancouver: Talonbooks. Mitchell, Donald, H. 1971 Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia area, a natural region and its cultural types. Syesis Vol.4, supplement 1. 214 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Museum Note and the exhibition Changing Tides was produced by the University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology. Illustrations: GRAPHICS: TRANSLATION MUSEUM NOTE DESIGN Gordon Miller Moira Irvine Dr. Nicolas Rolland Gordon Miller Production of this Museum Note and the exhibition were supported by the National Museums of Canada, Exhibitions Assistance Programme and the British Columbia Heritage Trust. University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology programmes are produced with the assistance of the Members and Friends of the Museum, the Volunteer Associates and the Shop Volunteers, the Museum Assistance Programmes of the National Museums of Canada, and the Government of British Columbia through the British Columbia Cultural Fund and Lottery revenues. 215 FIGURES & PHOTOGRAPHS FIGURE I FIGURE II FIGURE III FIGURE IV FIGURE V FIGURE VI FIGURE VII FIGURE VIII Delta development (set of three) Seasonal round - line drawings (4) based on Four Seasons Chronology chart Illustration of residue analysis Illustration of shellfish analysis Woodworking tool kit - line drawing or photo? Activities from illustration (2) in line drawing form representing shellfish processing and woodworking. Drawing of midden build-up (4) PLATE I PLATE II PLATE III PLATE IV PLATE V PLATE VI PLATE VII H.I. Smith excavation. AMNH photograph Artifacts: examples from one of Smith's categories. Profile drawing photograph Artifacts: one category (Marpole) selection as per Note. Waterscreening or Lab Photograph Excavation by layers or midden feature mapping Marpole shots through time 216 9.15 APPENDIX 15 CHANGING TIDES The Development of Archaeology in B.C.'s Fraser Delta Region Ann Stevenson UBC MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY Museum Note No. 13 21 ...the people lived at the water's edge, derived most of their livelihood from the water, travelled waterways in preference to trails, and regulated their activities by the tides as much as by daylight and dark. Philip Drucker, Archaeological Survey on the Northern Northwest Coast. 1943 218 INTRODUCTION The history of archaeological research in British Columbia's Fraser Delta Region is the history of our evolving knowledge of this area's prehistory. The shell middens of the Fraser delta provide a testing ground for ongoing archaeological research which promises to provide us with an ever increasing knowledge of Northwest Coast prehistory. The development of archaeology in this region also reflects both the changing ideas and the innovations which have characterized the growth of archaeology across North America. Each stage of this research—the Descriptive, Cultural Sequence, and Subsistence stages—have changed and refined our perception of this region's past 219 THE DESCRIPTIVE STAGE Archaeological investigation in the Fraser delta region began in the late 1800's. This early • work was mainly concerned with finding artifacts, describing them, and speculating about their significance. The 1898 investigation of the Marpole site by the American Museum of Natural History's Harlan L Smith is representative of this early research. Using a small force of hired labour, Smith rapidly excavated a portion of the site by shovel. Little attention was paid to the layers in which artifacts were found. Nevertheless, he concluded that artifacts from all layers provided evidence of a stable economic structure beginning at least 2.000 years ago. Smith based his estimates for the 1,000 years of occupation, followed by 1,000 years of disuse, on such factors as the age of trees growing over the midden, the depth of accumulation, and the degree of midden material decay. Recent research supports his estimate. Smith used the artifacts that he recovered from the site to answer questions concerning the economic and cultural stability of the area. He argued for economic stability based on the recovery of woodworking, fishing, basketry, and mat making tools similar to those he saw still in use by the local Coast Salish residents of the area. On the other hand. Smith also argued for cultural replacement He viewed the presence of chipped stone points and geometric decoration as evidence for early migration of interior people to the coast Smith asked important questions, but his answers were speculative, in a manner characteristic of early descriptive archaeology. More conclusive answers would require the more refined theories and research techniques which were introduced as archaeology developed. 220 THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE STAGE The University of British Columbia's first archaeologist, Charles E Borden, worked at Marpole and other Fraser delta sites, from the late 1940's to the 1970's, and was instrumental in establishing the basic cultural sequence still used today. He realized that to move beyond Smith's speculative interpretations of the area's prehistory, accurate records must be kept of where artifacts or tools, and features—such as hearths—were found in a site. To establish a cultural sequence, Borden grouped layers with similar artifacts into what archaeologists call a component. He then grouped similar components from different sites into cultures or cultural phases. Radio-carbon dating, invented in 1948, was used to verify the order of these phases, as well as to date them. The phases Borden defined are the Locarno Beach phase, the Marpole phase, the Whalen II phase, and the Stselax phase. These phases were usually named after the first site in which the characteristic component was found, but any site could contain several components or phases. For example, Marpole phase components, first defined at the Marpole site, are found at many sites in the region including the Glenrose Cannery site upriver. The Whalen n phase, on the other hand, is confined to a single site. Although some artifact types are found in several phases, Borden defined each phase by the presence of distinctive features. Locarno Beach phase is characterized by toggling harpoon heads, ground slate objects and bone points. Marpole Phase is typified by barbed harpoon heads, the Northwest Coast's woodworking trilogy of splitting wedges handmauls and adze blades, as well as thin ground slate knives and a proliferation of decorative objects. The Whalen II phase is defined by an absence of ground slate and the presence of microblades, small chipped points and olivella-shell beads. The most recent, Stselax phase sees an amalgamation of toggling harpoons and woodworking tools with slate grinding. REFINING THE CULTURAL SEQUENCE Initially, Borden viewed his cultural phases as representing a series of migrations into the region. He eventually modified his position, however, recognizing that cultural change could also result from local development This change in Borden's position resulted when archaeological work in adjacent areas failed to support his hypotheses about the origin of certain traits. Although he eventually allowed that most phases could have developed locally out of previous ones, he continued to argue that the Whalen n phase represented the arrival of new people from the interior. By considering the Whalen n phase to represent the entire region during one time period, Borden ignored other possible explanations. The presence of particular artifacts might have resulted from trade, and absence of others might have been due to the season of site use. For example, the presence of small chipped stone points, commonly found in interior sites, were also found at the Whalen Farm site, and could be accounted for by trade between coast and interior peoples. On the other hand, the absence of thin ground slate knives usually associated with salmon processing and found in earlier and later phases in the region may simply indicate that the site in question was not used for salmon fishing. A recognition of the potential importance of seasonal site use distinquishes the next stage of archaeological research. This new focus provides an alternative explanation for the uniqueness of the Whalen n component, while adding a new dimension to complement Borden's basic cultural sequence. THE SUBSISTENCE RESEARCH STAGE Since the 1970's, archaeologists have been applying new techniques to midden sites in order to answer new questions about the process of cultural adaptation in the region. Their investigations have focussed on how the prehistoric inhabitants of the area supplied themselves with food and other necessities. This new focus has resulted in a shift in emphasis from a concentration on artifacts as primary indicators of past human activities to a broader perspective which views a wider variety of remains as essential indicators. Shell midden sites provide not only artifacts but also, contain the remains of dwellings, work areas and garbage dumps, providing a record of human habitation spanning nearly 9,000 years. In midden sites, different activities created characteristic patterns of remains. These remains resulted in the build up of midden layers which the archaeologist interprets in order to discover a site's history. Different layer patterns result when different activities occur at the same place over time. For example, the remains of an abandoned house may later be covered by the refuse of a shellfish steaming mound that, in turn, may be covered by remains of a campsite hearth. In other cases, a site may show a more regular pattern of continuous, but seasonal use. For instance, fall salmon fishing activities leave a distinctive pattern of debris which differs from that left by spring herring fishing. The complex layers of soil, shells and other remains result not only from these human activities, but also from naturally deposited debris. Investigating subsistence patterns in shell middens is further complicated by natural processes of decay. Most organic materials decay quite quickly unless special conditions help to preserve them. In shell middens, the presence of shells helps to preserve bone and antler, but wood and plant fibers usually survive only if they are constantly waterlogged. Thus, the carved wooden objects for which the Northwest Coast is well known are rarely found in archaeological sites. 223 Even afer we consider these constraints, shell middens remain the ideal location for investigating prehistoric subsistence strategies since they exist as a direct result of food processing activities. This midden research is providing us with more detailed information about the various cultural phases. However, an understanding of the subsistence strategy-or seasonal round—each phase represents is just beginning to take place. We do know that the Coast Salish inhabitants of the region used diverse, and often complex methods to harvest abundant but often only seasonally available resources. For example, during spring fish runs, herring or eulachon were netted and raked; salmon were netted, trapped in weirs, speared, harpooned or hooked, depending on the species, the season and location. Fishing was supplemented by various activities, such as berry picking in summer and shellfish gathering the year round. Specialists hunted sea mammals in the spring and land mammals in the autumn and winter. During winter, stored foods were relied upon as ceremonial and manufacturing activities dominated winter village life. To understand the various phases found in the sites within this region, archaeologists must also consider the changing natural environment in which the site's occupants lived. The developing estuary—the tidal mouth of the river and surrounding ocean waters—played a vital role for over 7,000 years in the location, stability and quantity of these resources. Therefore, in examining the Fraser delta region, it is important to consider the evolution of the delta itself. The present location of midden sites reflects this development For instance the Glenrose Cannery site which was at the river's mouth 8,000 years ago is now many kilometers upriver. The Glenrose Cannery site proved a good starting point for such research because it provided a 6,000 year record of continuing but variable use of resources, such as salmon, shellfish, land and sea mammals. More recently, intensive investigation at the Crescent Beach site has provided a greater understanding of a particular type of seasonal site, a shellfish and herring processing camp. 224 REFINING EXCAVATION AND LABORATORY TECHNIQUES To aid subsistence research, archaeologists employ more refined excavation procedures and new laboratory techniques. A critical aspect of this research is discovering the relationships among artifacts, food remains, and other midden materials. Because these techniques are expensive, all layers within a site cannot be analyzed with the same intensity. Archaeologists therefore select representative' samples in order to reconstruct the relative importance of shellfish, fish and game in the diet of the site's occ;r?.uts. The use of waterscreening through fine mesh allows for greater recovery of fish vertebrae and other small items than do traditional dry screening methods. Computers are increasingly important for analyzing the masses of data generated by such field techniques. New laboratory techniques are also being developed to aid subsistence research. For example, the growth rings in a cross-section of shell can accurately show the season of collection, thereby indicating the season of site use. Detecting residues such as blood, fats, and resins on stone tools helps to show tool function and, consequently, what activities might have been performed at these seasonal sites. 225 INVESTIGATING A SEASONAL SITE The excavation of shell midden layers at the Cresent Beach site shows how the type and season of activities undertaken at a site may be determined by careful analysis. One important refinement at the Crescent Beach site was the careful removal of midden layers following the natural contours of the site. Previous sites were excavated by removing flat, even layers, usually 10 to 20 cm. thick. This refinement helped to isolate the specific activities which had occurred at this site. To understand each layer type, models of site use were developed. Models are used to predict what activities might have occurred at the site during different times of the year. Important considerations include the historic Coast Salish use of the area and those times of the year when certain resources were most abundant Certain layer types, features, artifacts, and faunal remains thus can be predicted for a particular group of expected activities. Although such factors as decay, and the removal of many tools and structures once at the site, might make analysis difficult the prediction of site use helps to overcome this problem. For example, if shellfish harvesting and processing are predicted for a site, the baskets, digging sticks and drying racks might have been removed or have decayed. On the other hand, other evidence will remain, such as the remains of steaming mounds, discarded clam shells, and the post holes for the drying racks. If the problematic Whalen II component at the Whalen Farm site were re-examined in this manner, it might now be seen as a seasonal variant of another cultural phase rather than as an unique cultural phase. 226 THE FTJTURE OF THE PAST Archaeological research in the Fraser delta region has developed through several stages paralleling general changes in North American archaeology. Each stage has built on previous results. These results have laid the foundation upon which new questions are raised and new techniques are developed. The Descriptive stage not only provided initial descriptions, but asked important questions concerning both economic and cultural change. The subsequent development of a regional Cultural Sequence resulted from more refined excavation techniques and laboratory procedures. Recent Subsistence Research is beginning to outline the development of the Northwest Coast's seasonally diverse subsistence pattern. While a similar range of resources was used in this area for thousands of years, critical changes occurred in resource use, for instance the development of large scale salmon processing for storage. These changes have only recently received attention. A new focus on social questions, such as on how social organization and subsistence stategies interrelate, suggests that a new stage of archaeological research is also taking shape. The future of such research, however, is seriously threatened. The destruction of midden sites, especially in urban areas like the Fraser delta, is a major problem. Marpole and other important sites were excavated just before bulldozers moved in. Unfortunately, many other sites were destroyed before any archaeological investigation could take place. As a result, valuable heritage information has been lost forever. If a greater appreciation of the development of Northwest Coast cultures is to be achieved, archaeologists must continue to investigate a cross-section of sites within a region. But to do this, archaeological sites must be viewed as non-renewable resources that require our protection. 227 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Museum Note and the exhibition Changing British Columbia Museum of Anthropology. ILLUSTRATIONS GRAPHICS TRANSLATION MUSEUM NOTE DESIGN MUSEUM NOTE SERIES EDITOR Tides was produced by the University of Gordon Miller Moira Irvine Nicolas Rolland Gordon Miller Michael M. Ames Production of this Museum Note and the exhibition were supported by the National Museums of Canada, Exhibitions Assistance Programme and the British Columbia Heritage Trust University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology programmes are produced with the assistance of the Members and Friends of the Museum, the Volunteer Associates and the Shop Volunteers, the Museum Assistance Programmes of the National Museums of Canada, and the Government of British Columbia through the British Columbia Cultural Fund and Lottery revenues. Museum Notes are produced with the assistance of the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation. Note No. 13 U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology copyright 1985 ISBN 0-88865-104-X 228 REFERENCES Borden, Charles E 1970 Culture History of the Fraser Delta Region. BC Studies Fall-Winter No. 6-7. Pp. 95-112. Drucker. Philip 1943 Archaeological Survey on the Northern Northwest Coast. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 133 Anthropological Paper No. 20:17-142. Ham. Leonard C 1982 Seasonality, Shell Midden Layers, and Coast Salish Subsistence Activities at the Crescent Beach Site, DgRr 1. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of British Columbia. Matson, R.G. 1976 The Glenrose Cannery Site National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada. No. 52 Smith, Harlan I. 1903 Shell-Heaps of the Lower Fraser River, British Columbia. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History. Vol. IV. The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Part IV. Pp. 133-199. Suttles, Wayne P. 1974 The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits. Coast Salish and Western Washington Indians L New York: Garland Publishing Inc. FURTHER READINGS Borden, Charles E 1975 Origins and Development of Early Northwest Coast Culture to about 3000 B.C. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada. No. 45. [1983] Prehistoric Art of the Lower Fraser Region, In Indian Art Traditions of the Northwest Coast. Roy L Carlson, ed. Burnaby: Archaeology Press. Simon Fraser University, pp. 131-155. Bunyan, D.E 1978 Pursuing the Past: A General Account of British Columbia Archaeology. Museum Note No. 4. Vancouver: UBC Museum of Anthropology. Burley, David V. 1980 Marpole: Anthropological Reconstructions of a Prehistoric Northwest Coast Culture Type. Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Publication. No. 8. 229 Fladmark, Knut R. 1980-81 British Columbia Archaeology in the 1970's. BC Studies Winter No. 48. Pp 11-20. Matson, R.G. 1980-81 Prehistoric Subsistence Patterns in the Fraser Delta: The Evidence from the Glenrose Cannery Site. BC Studies Winter No. 48. Pp. 64-85. Maud, Ralph, ed. 1978 The Salish People: The Local Contribution of Charles Hill-Tout. Vol. m. The Mainland Halkomelem. Vancouver: Talonbooks. Mitchell, Donald H. 1971 Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia Area, a Natural Region and its Cultural Types. Syesis Vol. 4. supplement 1. March 8, 1985 - CHANGING TIDES NATIONAL TRAVEL SCHEDULE Museum of Anthropology UBC Vancouver, B. C. The Nova Scotia Museum Halifax, Nova Scotia Universite du Quebec a Trois Rivieres Trois Riveres, Quebec National Museum of Man Ottawa, Ontario Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre Yellowknife, NWT Langley Centennial Museum and National Exhibition Centre Langley, B.C. February 27, 1985 to September 1, 1985 January 11, 1986 to April 7, 1986 May 1, 1986 to June 15, 1986 July 15, 1986 to August 31, 1986 October 15, 1986 to November 30, 1986 December 21, 1986 January 25, 1987 CONFIRMED CONFIRMED CONFIRMED CONFIRMED CONFIRMED CONFIRMED 231 9.17 APPENDIX 17 CHANGING TIDES: THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE LOWER MAINLAND A Lecture Series at The UBC Museum of Anthropology Tuesdays 7:30 pm Free Admission MARCH 12 SHELL MIDDENS AND CULTURE HISTORY: THE PENDER' ISLAND SITE Professor Roy Carlson,- Simon Fraser University "MARCH 19; TWO DECADES OF CHANGE: BRITISH COLUMBIA ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE  1960'S AND 1970'S : Professor Donald Mitchell, University of Victoria. MARCH 26 SHELL MIDDEN LAYERS AND COAST SALISH SETTLEMENT PATTERNS:  IDEAS FROM THE INVESTIGATION OF THE CRESCENT BEACH AND  ST. MUNGO SITES. Leonard Ham, Ph.D. APRIL 2 PREHISTORIC: LIFEWAYS AT OZETTE Professor Richard Daugherty, Washington State University Refreshments will be served following,the lecture. This lecture series is being offered 1n conjunction with the Museum's exhibition, "Changing Tides: The Development of Archaeology in the Fraser Delta Region," on view from February 27 through August. Both the exhibition and lecture series received special support from the British Columbia' Heritage- Trust and the- National Museums of Canada. Exhibitions Assistance Programme.. UBC Museum of Anthropology programmes are produced with the assistance of the Members and Friends of the Museum, the Volunteer Associates and Shop Volunteers, the Museum Assistance^ Programmes of the National Museums of Canada and the Government of British Columbia through the BC Cultural Fund and Lottery revenues. 232 9.18 APPENDIX 18 February 1985 Form No. UBC Museum of Anthropology Condition Report Form for Changing Tides exhibition Case No. Object or group number Condition on ! | arrival ] 1 departure | ] other ( ) no damage no additional damage since previous report OR the following damages were noted: colour change (fading, discolouration, stains) micro-organism.growth (moulds, fungi) insect damage (frass, holes, presence of insects, eggs, or larvae) efflorescence (emergence of salts or wax on surface) mechanical damage (appearance or extension of cracks, breakage, etc.) distortion of shape (warping, shrinkage, buckling) surface damage (abrasion, scratches, loss) mounting problems (insecure, loose or detached) repairs others Note: Use "right" and "left" to designate perspective of viewer. To give additional details, attach sheets necessary, describing the location, nature, and extent of all damage. Diagrams and/or photographs showing precise location of damage may be added. Completed by (Institution) ' Signature Date 233 Instructions to borrowing institutions for using the Changing Tides exhibition condition report form. (Form No. ) On arrival condition report forms should be filled in immediately after receipt of the exhibit by your institution. Check the original condition report forms (also see photographs) filled in at the Museum of Anthropology and any subsequent reports filled in by other borrowing institutions, and record on your forms only additional damages not previously reported. If damage is noted, please photocopy your form and return the copy at once to: The original should be retained with the artifact. Please do not open the cases for condition reporting of the artifacts. If there is a problem which may necessitate opening a case please call Herb Watson at the Museum of Anthropology [(604) 228-2148] for instructions. Since these objects are mounted, a flashlight may be helpful for examing the objects for these reports. When the exhibit is ready to leave your institution, please fill in departure condition reports in the same manner, and enclose all reports in the packing cases with the artifact cases. If new damages are noted, and if the exhibition is being sent on to an institution other than the Museum of Anthropology, please photocopy the form and return it to the above address. If the exhibition is being returned to the Museum of Anthropology, simply enclose the forms in the packing cases. THANK YOU. 9.19 APPENDIX 19 234 Ann Stevenson, Changing Tides: The Development of Archaeology in B.C. 's Fraser Delta UBC Museum of Anthro pology, Museum Note No. 13- Vancouver. 1985-Pp.20. Obtainable from the UBC Museum of Anthropology price: $2.75 plus postage & handling. 

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