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A mortuary analysis of the Dawenkou Cemetery Site, Shandong, China Kingscott, Anne Underhill 1983

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A MORTUARY ANALYSIS OF THE DAWENKOU CEMETERY SITE, SHANDONG, CHINA  by ANNE UNDERHILL KINGSCOTT B.A., Duke U n i v e r s i t y , 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1983 Anne U n d e r h i l l  Kingscott  E-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department or by h i s or her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s for financial  gain  Department o f  ^/ftj/W^-L*^  CT/VJL ^rd^rtry^  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  (3/81)  my  It is thesis  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  thesis  written  ABSTRACT T h i s study i s concerned with the development o f s o c i a l ranking  i n Shandong p r o v i n c e , China, and i t s e n v i r o n s ,  the l a t e N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d . considered  during  The Dawenkou cemetery has been  by Chinese and western a r c h a e o l o g i s t s as r e p r e s e n t -  i n g one o f the e a r l i e s t ranked s o c i e t i e s i n t h i s r e g i o n . i s some disagreement r e g a r d i n g tion reflected  the degree o f s t a t u s  differentia-  by the mortuary remains a t Dawenkou.  vary as t o whether the s i t e shows i n c i p i e n t  There  Opinions  r a n k i n g , o r a more  f u l l y developed system, o r whether there was a h e r e d i t a r y ruling The  class. primary goal o f t h i s study i s t o p r o v i d e  understanding o f the nature and degree o f s t a t u s t i o n represented  a greater differentia-  a t Dawenkou, by means o f an in-depth  a n a l y s i s u t i l i z i n g c u r r e n t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l methods.  mortuary  The  methodology upon which t h i s study i s based i s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 2 .  Four analyses  three r e l a t i v e  are i n c l u d e d :  an e v a l u a t i o n o f the  c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s a t the s i t e  an a n a l y s i s t o estimate  (Chapter 3 ) ,  the sex of unsexed b u r i a l s on the b a s i s  of grave goods (Chapter 4 ) , an e x p l o r a t o r y assessment o f s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n differentiation  (Chapter 5 ) , and the a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s  (Chapter 6 ) .  I conclude t h a t an i n c r e a s e through time i n the degree o f ranking  i s represented  a t the s i t e .  The E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s  r e f l e c t elements o f both an achieved system o f s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  and an a s c r i b e d  The Late p e r i o d  (ranked)  burials  appear t o r e f l e c t a h i g h l y developed ranked s o c i e t y .  I  propose t h a t the E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s r e p r e s e n t p a r t of a s o c i a l system i n which members of a descent group were ranked. A l s o , the Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s r e p r e s e n t members of a descent group t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s one system.  status l e v e l i n a regional  status  Mortuary analyses of other Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s  roughly contemporaneous t o the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s a t Dawenkou c o u l d r e v e a l whether s i m i l a r changes through time are apparent.  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t r a n k i n g f i r s t developed i n the  e a s t e r n seaboard r e g i o n at an e a r l i e r date than p r e v i o u s l y considered. The secondary g o a l of t h i s study i s t o make a methodol o g i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o mortuary may  analysis.  I argue t h a t  status  be symbolized by energy e x p e n d i t u r e , grave goods, or both.  Since the b u r i a l s i n a cemetery  r e f l e c t more than one  social  system through time, an a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s should emphasize change through time.  F i n a l l y , some of the techniques employed  i n t h i s study should have u t i l i t y  f o r other mortuary  the Simple I n s p e c t i o n Method t o estimate sex  analyses:  (Chapter 4 ) ,  and  Ward's Method of c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s and Torgerson's M e t r i c Multidimensional or  for seriation  S c a l i n g f o r an a n a l y s i s of s t a t u s (Chapter  3).  (Chapter 6 ) ,  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES  .i i iv v i i  LIST OF APPENDICES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x xii  CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1. The Dawenkou S i t e and the Research Problem 1.2. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of Dawenkou C u l t u r e 1.3. C u l t u r a l E v o l u t i o n i n the Late Neolithic Period CHAPTER 2 Methodology 2.1. General Approaches i n Mortuary Analysis 2.2. The P r o c e s s u a l Approach 2.3. The Symbolist Approach 2.4. The Approach Followed i n t h i s Mortuary A n a l y s i s 2.5. Method t o Determine Status L e v e l s . . 2.6. C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f N a t u r a l and C u l t u r a l F a c t o r s t h a t may have A f f e c t e d the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Record a t Dawenkou . . CHAPTER 3 Chronological Analysis 3.1. Introduction . 3.2. The Methods t o Derive the C h r o n o l o g i c a l Periods 3.3. Analysis 3.3.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 3.3.2. Method 3.3.3. Data 3.3.4. R e s u l t s 3.3.5. M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l S c a l i n g 3.3.6. C l u s t e r Analyses . 3.4. Conclusion  1 1 5 14 17 17 19 36 43 48 54 58 58 61 65 65 67 74 78 79 84 89  V  Page CHAPTER 4 A n a l y s i s t o Estimate Sex 4.1. The Problem 4.2. The A n a l y s i s 4.2.1. Introduction 4.2.2. Method . . . 4.2.3. The Simple I n s p e c t i o n Method: Data 4.2.4. The Simple I n s p e c t i o n Method: Results . . . ' 4.2.5. D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s : Data . . . 4.2.6. Discriminant A n a l y s i s : Results . 4.3. Conclusion CHAPTER 5  The Nature o f S o c i a l Subgroup A f f i l i a t i o n a t Dawenkou 5.1. Method 5.2. S p a t i a l L o c a t i o n o f Graves 5.3. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Grave O r i e n t a t i o n , Grave Form, and Body D i s p o s i t i o n with Grave L o c a t i o n 5.4. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Ceramic S t y l e with Spatial Location 5.5. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the P o t e n t i a l S o c i a l Subgroup A f f i l i a t i o n Related V a r i a b l e s 5.5.1. Introduction 5.5.2. Orientation 5.5.3. Grave Form 5.5.4. Body D i s p o s i t i o n . . . 5.6. Concluding P r o p o s i t i o n s . 5.6.1. Argument f o r a Descent Group at Dawenkou 5.6.2. K i n s h i p or R e s i d e n t i a l .Groups at Dawenkou 5.6.3. The Mortuary P o p u l a t i o n at Dawenkou  95 95 99 99 100 104 107 I l l 113 119  126 126 130 131 14 3 145 145 145 149 151 153 15 3 156 .157  CHAPTER 6 A n a l y s i s of Status D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . . 6.1. Introduction 6.1.1. Procedure 6.1.2. Test I m p l i c a t i o n s 6.2. Analysis of Status, E a r l y period . . 6.2.1. Data 6.2.1.1. The M u l t i v a r i a t e Analyses . . . 6.2.1.2. High Status Unique Items . . . 6.2.1.3. Energy Expenditure 6.2.2. R e s u l t s : The M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l Scaling  160 160 160 161 163 163 163 169 172 173  vi  CHAPTER 6  (cont'd)  6.2.3. 6.2.4.  Page  The Three Types o f C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Status D i s t i n c t i o n s i n the E a r l y P e r i o d . . . . . 6.2.4.1. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Unique Items 6.2.4.2. Argument f o r Four Status L e v e l s 6.2.4.3. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by Energy Expenditure . 6.2.4.4. Body D i s p o s i t i o n 6.2.4.5. Grave L o c a t i o n 6.2.4.6. Test I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Achieved versus A s c r i b e d Status 6.2.4.7. Multiple Burials 6.2.4.8. Conclusions . 6.3. A n a l y s i s o f S t a t u s , Late P e r i o d . . . 6.3.1. Data 6.3.1.1. The M u l t i v a r i a t e Analyses . . . 6.3.1.2. Energy Expenditure 6.3.1.3. High Status Unique Items . . . . 6.3.2. R e s u l t s : The M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l Scaling 6.3.3. The Three Types o f C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s 6.3.4. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Status D i s t i n c t i o n s i n the Late P e r i o d and Assessment o f Change Through Time . 6.3.4.1. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Unique Items 6.3.4.2. Argument f o r Three o r Two Status L e v e l s 6.3.4.3. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by Energy Expenditure . . . 6.3.4.4. Body D i s p o s i t i o n and Grave Location . 6.3.4.5. Test Implications 6.3.4.6. Conclusions 6.4. Implications CHAPTER 7  Conclusions and Suggestions f o r Future Research . . . 7.1. Conclusions Regarding Dawenkou . . . 7.2. Future Research 7.3. Methodological Conclusions  BIBLIOGRAPHY  . . . . .  176 181 181 182 183 188 188 191 193 195 198 198 198 201 202 203 205 209 209 210 216 217 219 222 227  229 229 233 238 241  APPENDICES  258  GLOSSARY  318  vii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1-1 1-2  1- 3  2- 1  2-2  2- 3 3- 1  3-2 3-3  3- 4  4- 1 4-2  Page The l o c a t i o n of Dawenkou and Neolithic sites  other 7  Rough c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Dawenkou C u l t u r e w i t h o t h e r N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s of China  8  Rough c h r o n o l o g i c a l order of N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n the e a s t e r n seaboard r e g i o n o f China  9  Number of dimensional d i s t i n c t i o n s of the s o c i a l persona a c c o r d i n g t o form of subsistence  24  Average number of dimensional d i s t i n c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to s u b s i s t e n c e c a t e gory  24  Aspects of the s o c i a l persona i n mortuary treatment  26  symbolized  The 115 b u r i a l s i n the c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s from Torgerson's M e t r i c M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l S c a l i n g , w i t h c l u s t e r s from Ward's Method  81  Dendrogram from Ward's Method of cluster analysis  86  L i s t of b u r i a l s i n the newly a s s i g n e d E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s d e r i v e d from the c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , as w e l l as undatable b u r i a l s • . .  90  L o c a t i o n of b u r i a l s w i t h i n the cemetery from each p e r i o d as d e f i n e d by the chronological analysis  91  D i s t r i b u t i o n of s e x - l i n k e d a r t i f a c t types  102  Distance values f o r the unsexed b u r i a l s from the Simple I n s p e c t i o n Method and assignment of sex, and the d i s t a n c e v a l u e s f o r known sexed b u r i a l s . . . .  109  viii Figure 4-3  Page Standardized Discriminant Function C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the 2 7 v a r i a b l e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h between known male and female c l a s s e s o f b u r i a l s . . . .  116  4-4  D i s c r i m i n a n t scores f o r the 82 unsexed, s i n g l e a d u l t b u r i a l s i n the D i s c r i m i n ant A n a l y s i s 117  4-5  Known sexed and estimated sexed b u r i a l s from the Simple I n s p e c t i o n Method and Discriminant Analysis . . . 121  4- 6  S p a t i a l l o c a t i o n o f the known sexed and estimated sexed b u r i a l s i n the cemetery  122  S p a t i a l groups o f b u r i a l s d e r i v e d by v i s u a l inspection, Early period . . .  132  S p a t i a l groups o f b u r i a l s d e r i v e d by v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n , Late p e r i o d . . . .  133  The range o f grave o r i e n t a t i o n s f o r E a r l y , Late and undatable b u r i a l s . .  135  5- 1 5-2 5-3 5-4  C o r r e l a t i o n o f grave form, grave o r i e n t a t i o n , body d i s p o s i t i o n , sex and age w i t h s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of grave, Early period . . . . . . 136  5-5  C o r r e l a t i o n o f grave form, grave o r i e n t a t i o n , body d i s p o s i t i o n , sex and age w i t h s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n o f grave, Late p e r i o d 141  5- 6  C o r r e l a t i o n o f grave form, grave o r i e n t a t i o n , body d i s p o s i t i o n , sex and age w i t h s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n o f grave, undatable b u r i a l s 142  6- 1  Multidimensional scaling plot of Early p e r i o d b u r i a l s i n the a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s , w i t h Ward's Method c l u s t e r s . . 175  6-2  Dendrogram o f E a r l y p e r i o d from Ward's Method  6-3  burials . . . . .  178  D i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the four s t a t u s l e v e l s , E a r l y p e r i o d . . .  184  ix  Figure 6-4 6-5  Page Age and sex composition of the s t a t u s l e v e l s i n the E a r l y p e r i o d  189  L o c a t i o n of the f o u r s t a t u s groups i n the E a r l y p e r i o d  190  6-6  M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g p l o t o f Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s i n the a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s , w i t h Ward's Method c l u s t e r s . . . 204  6-7  Dendrogram o f Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s from Ward's Method  207  D i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the three s t a t u s l e v e l s , Late p e r i o d . . . .  213  Age and sex composition of the t h r e e s t a t u s l e v e l s i n the Late p e r i o d , and data r e g a r d i n g the one m u l t i p l e b u r i a l i n the Late p e r i o d  218  L o c a t i o n of the three s t a t u s groups i n the cemetery, Late p e r i o d  220  6-8 6-9  6-10  X  LIST OF APPENDICES  A3-1  The f u n c t i o n a l t y p e s , subtypes, and s t y l e s of p o t t e r y  a t the Dawenkou s i t e  258  A3-2  The 15 p a i r s o f i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s  A3-3  B u r i a l s i n c l u d e d i n the c h r o n o l o g i c a l analysis The 83 ceramic forms i n the c h r o n o l o g i c a l analysis .  263  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f ceramic c a t e g o r i e s b u r i a l sample  2 65  A3-4 A3-5 A3-6 A3-7  261  Frequency o f occurrence o f ceramic a f t e r lumping D i s t r i b u t i o n o f ceramic c a t e g o r i e s lumping  262  among the categories 266 after 267  A3-8  Composition o f c l u s t e r s from Ward's dendrogram i n terms o f ceramic s t y l e s  268  A4-1  L i s t o f sexed and unsexed b u r i a l s : E a r l y , L a t e , undatable  2 71  A4-2  The 129 a r t i f a c t types i n the D i s c r i m i n a n t Analysis  272  A5-1  Orientation  o f graves, E a r l y p e r i o d  A5-2  Orientation  o f graves, Late p e r i o d  A5-3  D i s t r i b u t i o n of ceramic s t y l e s , E a r l y p e r i o d  276  A5-4 A6-1  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f ceramic s t y l e s , Late p e r i o d The 79 b u r i a l s i n the E a r l y p e r i o d a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s , w i t h d a t a on age and sex, grave form, grave s i z e  281  A6-2  . . .  274  . . .  275  285  The 2 3 v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s i n the Early period  analysis of status  . . . . .  287  A6-3  D i s t r i b u t i o n of serving  stands, E a r l y p e r i o d  A6-4  D i s t r i b u t i o n of pottery  vessels,  289  Early  period  290  A6-5  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f stone t o o l s , E a r l y p e r i o d  . . 291  A6-6  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f bone t o o l s , E a r l y p e r i o d  . .  292  A6-7  D i s t r i b u t i o n of p i g s k u l l s , Early period  . .  293  xi  Figure  Page  A6-8  Distribution  of deer  A6-9  Distribution period  of  raw  teeth,  Early  material  .  period  pieces,  .  294  Early 295  A6-10  Grave  A6-11  The  A6-12  from Ward's Method, E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s . . 2 9 7 M u l t i p l e b u r i a l s from the E a r l y p e r i o d : age, sex, grave goods, energy e x p e n d i t u r e . 302  A6-13  A6-14  area  of  mortuary  Early  period  attributes  of  the  seven  T h e 32 b u r i a l s i n t h e L a t e p e r i o d s t a t u s , w i t h d a t a on age and s e x , grave s i z e The Late  28 variables period  and  their  analysis  A6-15  Distribution  of  A6-16  Distribution  of t a l l  of  serving  . . . .  burials  296  clusters  analysis of grave form, 303  attributes  in  the  status stands,  304 Late  stemmed cup,  period  Late  '  period  307  A6-17  Distribution  of pottery  A6-18  Distribution  of  A6-19  Distribution  o f bone t o o l s ,  Late  A6-20  Distribution  of  deer  Late  A6-21  Distribution period  of  raw  A6-22 A6-2 3  A6-24  306  stone  vessels,  tools, teeth,  material  Late  Late  period  period  308  .  309  period  . .  310  period  . .  311  pieces,  Late 312  Grave area of Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s . . . . The m o r t u a r y a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e eight c l u s t e r s from Ward's Method, L a t e period burials Data regarding the undatable b u r i a l s sex, grave goods, energy expenditure  :  age, . .  313 314 317  xii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am extremely g r a t e f u l t o s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e comments, encouragement and support throughout d u r a t i o n of t h i s study. Dr. R i c h a r d Pearson, on my M.A.  I f e e l very f o r t u n a t e t o have had  Dr. R.G.  Committee.  My  Matson, and Dr. David Pokotylo  a d v i s o r , Dr. Pearson, gave me much  h e l p and encouragement throughout program.  the three years of my  M.A.  He generously shared h i s d a t a , p u b l i s h e d and unpub-  l i s h e d papers, and i d e a s about the Dawenkou s i t e and Chinese N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d .  the  His knowledge and enthusiasm  A s i a n archaeology have been an i n s p i r a t i o n to me. was  the  f o r East  Dr. Matson  very generous with h i s time r e g a r d i n g computer analyses and  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s .  Dr. Pokotylo gave me  comments f o r every s e c t i o n of the study. Department of Anthropology  detailed  I a l s o thank the  and S o c i o l o g y f o r computer  funds.  M i c h a e l Blake, v i s i t i n g p r o f e s s o r at the Department of Anthropology  and S o c i o l o g y d u r i n g 1983,  s i g h t i n t o the methodology of mortuary Guppy calmed my sions.  provided valuable i n analysis.  Dr.  Neil  p a n i c at the computer t e r m i n a l on a few  Kian Kwok generously helped w i t h t r a n s l a t i o n  problems.  I am g r a t e f u l t o Zou Heng of Beida U n i v e r s i t y , B e i j i n g , Gao  occa-  and  Guangren of the I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, Chinese Academy  of S o c i a l Sciences, f o r t h e i r information.  Clarence Shangraw  of the A s i a n A r t Museum, San F r a n c i s c o , was  extremely  w i t h h i s time and h e l p .  generous  During h i s v i s i t to t h i s Department  xiii  i n 1983,  Dr. Lewis B i n f o r d gave me  h e l p f u l comments on method-  ology. I c o u l d not have produced  t h i s t h e s i s without the h e l p of  Moira I r v i n e , Pat B e r r i n g e r , J u l i e Mandziuk and Rick Clements. I g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e the time Moira spent drawing s e v e r a l f i g u r e s . J u l i e and Rick typed f o u r chapters a f t e r working a l l day.  Pat B e r r i n g e r typed the remainder  of the t h e s i s and gave  me v a l u a b l e a d v i c e , and p r o v i d e d much support and encouragement. She  i s one of the most generous i n d i v i d u a l s I have ever  met.  Dana Lepofsky and Deanna Ludowicz were a l s o very s u p p o r t i v e . I e s p e c i a l l y thank M i c h a e l f o r h i s humor and l o v i n g My  p a r e n t s , as always,  gave me much encouragement.  thank Dr. M i c h a e l Hammond f o r h i s support d u r i n g my Duke U n i v e r s i t y , and f o r s t i m u l a t i n g my  Finally, I years at  i n t e r e s t i n the  development of p r e h i s t o r i c , complex s o c i e t i e s .  support.  - 1 -  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  1.1.  The Dawenkou S i t e and the Research Problem The  in  Dawenkou s i t e i s a l a t e N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d s i t e l o c a t e d  s o u t h - c e n t r a l Shandong p r o v i n c e .  1959  The s i t e was d i s c o v e r e d i n  d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r a i l w a y t r a c k near the town  of Dawen on the Dawen R i v e r  (Gao 1978:31).  The f i r s t  excava-  t i o n o f the s i t e took p l a c e i n 1959 and the second i n 1974. The  133 b u r i a l s d i s c o v e r e d i n the f i r s t e x c a v a t i o n  s u b j e c t o f t h i s mortuary a n a l y s i s . these b u r i a l s i s p r o v i d e d  are the  A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of  i n a s i t e r e p o r t p u b l i s h e d i n 1974  by the Shandong P r o v i n c i a l C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Commission and the J i n a n  C i t y Museum  a N e o l i t h i c Cemetery. The critical  (Dawenkou: Peking:  Report o f the E x c a v a t i o n o f  Wen Wu P r e s s ) .  b u r i a l s from the 1959 e x c a v a t i o n f o r understanding  are regarded as  the development o f s o c i a l  ranking  d u r i n g the N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d i n the e a s t e r n seaboard r e g i o n . Both western and Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i s t s maintain Dawenkou cemetery r e p r e s e n t s over the degree and nature at  the s i t e .  t h a t the  a ranked s o c i e t y , but they  of status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  Some r e s e a r c h e r s maintain  disagree  represented  t h a t the s i t e  reflects  i n c i p i e n t ranking and o t h e r s , a h i g h l y developed system o f ranking.  The primary g o a l o f t h i s study  understanding  i s to provide a greater  o f the s i t e by means o f an in-depth mortuary  a n a l y s i s u t i l i z i n g c u r r e n t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l methods.  My method-  - 2 -  ology and the o u t l i n e of t h i s study are presented i n Chapter The  secondary  2.  g o a l of t h i s study i s to make a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o mortuary  a n a l y s i s , i n terms of o v e r a l l  approach  and the s p e c i f i c techniques t h a t have been employed t o i d e n t i f y s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s i n a cemetery. The authors of the Dawenkou s i t e r e p o r t c l a s s i f y the 13 3 b u r i a l s i n t o three p e r i o d s : b u r i a l s ) , and Late as undatable. d u r i n g the 1959  Early  (25 b u r i a l s ) .  (75 b u r i a l s ) , Middle  (19  F i f t e e n b u r i a l s are regarded  Samples f o r r a d i o c a r b o n dates were not taken excavation.  A recent a r t i c l e presents a r e v i s i o n  of t h i s r e l a t i v e chronology, s t a t i n g there are two p e r i o d s r e p r e s e n t e d a t the s i t e :  E a r l y and Late.  s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t approximately 600 years and the Late p e r i o d , 400 years  The E a r l y p e r i o d i s (from 3400 - 2800  (2800 - 2400 B.C.)  B.C.)  (Wu Ruzuo^ 1982:  268").  The method by which these dates were d e r i v e d i s not  clear.  The b u r i a l s from the 1974  e x c a v a t i o n r e p r e s e n t an  e a r l i e r time p e r i o d than those excavated i n 1959.  Apparently,  the r e p o r t f o r the second e x c a v a t i o n i n 19 74 has not been completed  and the exact number of b u r i a l s found i s not known  (Gao, p e r s o n a l communciation, 1983). from m a t e r i a l found d u r i n g the 1974  Two  r a d i o c a r b o n dates  excavations y i e l d e d the  f o l l o w i n g r e c a l i b r a t e d dates:  1)  ZK 469(T10,4; lower H24)  6155  + 140  (4205 B.C.)  and 2)  ZK 468(T12,2B; lower H3)  6210  + 135  (4260 B.C.)  (Wu Ren  1982:55).  a l s o has some Longshan p e r i o d and Han  :  :  The Dawenkou s i t e  Dynasty  remains  (Shandong  P r o v i n c i a l C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Commission and the J i n a n C i t y  - 3 -  Museum 1974: p l a t e I I I ) . In The Archaeology o f A n c i e n t China, K. C. Chang  (1979:160)  s t a t e s t h a t Dawenkou and o t h e r Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s r e p r e s e n t an i n c i p i e n t  system o f r a n k i n g .  More r e c e n t l y , Chang  1983a:513-514) s t a t e s i t i s not c l e a r  i f the Dawenkou C u l t u r e  r e p r e s e n t s a l e v e l of c u l t u r a l development " i n t e r v i l l a g e aggregates"  which he c a l l s  ( c h a r a c t e r i z e d by evidence f o r r i c h  and poor groups, v i o l e n c e , c r a f t s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , village  (19 80:361,  l e a d e r s such as c h i e f s ,  religious  and i n t e r v i l l a g e l e a g u e s ) .  and He  b e l i e v e s t h a t Longshan s i t e s o f Shaanxi, Henan, and Shandong had reached t h i s l e v e l o f c u l t u r a l complexity. Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i s t s view s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  evolution i n  terms o f M a r x i s t h i s t o r i c a l p h i l o s o p h y and d i s a g r e e whether Dawenkou and other Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s r e f l e c t the b e g i n n i n g of s l a v e s o c i e t y the  Wen  Wu  (Chang  Correspondent  1983b:575).  (19 78),  the Shandong P r o v i n c i a l Museum  (1978), the Kao Gu E d i t o r i a l S t a f f (1978), Wei  (1976), Luo and Zhang  However, a r t i c l e s by  (1979), Zhang (1979), (1979), Wu  (1973), the  Nanjing Museum (1978) imply t h a t r a n k i n g i s f u l l y at Dawenkou, e s p e c i a l l y the  by the Late p e r i o d .  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of b u r i a l s  Gao  developed  An i n c r e a s e i n  i n terms of grave goods from the  E a r l y p e r i o d t o the Late i s noted by the Shandong  Provincial  Museum (1978) and i m p l i e d by the Kao Gu E d i t o r i a l S t a f f  (1979).  Luo and Zhang (19 79) note a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f h i g h s t a t u s burials  from both p e r i o d s i n the n o r t h e r n s e c t o r o f the s i t e .  Pearson's  (1981) p o s i t i o n  on the degree of r a n k i n g at  -  4 -  Dawenkou i s i n t e r m e d i a t e t o t h a t o f Chang archaeological proposes  that  literature  cited  the presence  above.  Also,  the presence  of a chiefly  ruling  Pearson's  (19 81)  among s e v e r a l  only  study u t i l i z i n g  of  sites  current  This  sites.  study includes  Pearson  notes  ceramics i n b u r i a l s an i n c r e a s e  region  My  of status  s t u d y i s an  I hope t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  as t o r e s o l v e  of current  of status  i n each b u r i a l  Table  4).  differ-  the controversy i n  above.  an e v a l u a t i o n that  an i n c r e a s e  of several trends  a r e c o n c l u d e d by  through  Pearson  i n t h e mean number o f  (1981:1081, T a b l e 2, and 1082) as w e l l as  an i n c r e a s i n g  found  differ-  outgrowth  i n the percentage of b u r i a l s with ceramics  Also,  i s the  on t h e Dawenkou d a t a c a n p r o v i d e a  as w e l l  of ranking noted  differentia-  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l methods o f m o r t u a r y  i n status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  (19 8 1 ) .  suggests  complete  study o f s t a t u s  t h e n a t u r e and d e g r e e  analysis  a t the s i t e ,  the degree  a system o f  the absence o f a  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e and d e g r e e  entiation  10 8 5 ) .  indicate  i n the e a s t e r n seaboard  (1981) s t u d y .  methods o f m o r t u a r y  time  The l a c k o f a  g r a v e s may  a t Dawenkou C u l t u r e  Pearson's  better  office.  comparative  t o understand  entiation  graves i n d i c a t e s  class.  tion  analysis  (1981:1086)  t h e w e a l t h e v i d e n t f r o m some g r a v e s  segregation o f wealthy hereditary  Pearson  and t h e C h i n e s e  o f s t o n e b e a d s and s t o n e and j a d e  o r n a m e n t s i n b o t h male and f e m a l e ranking.  (19 79)  variation  through time  F o r t h e Dawenkou s i t e  (1981:  i n t h e number o f c e r a m i c s  i s suggested there i s also  (19 81:10 82,1083, increasing  - 5 -  v a r i a t i o n i n q u a n t i t i e s o f t o o l s and ornaments w i t h i n b u r i a l s (19 81:10 85).  An i n c r e a s e i n the q u a n t i t i e s o f ceramics i n male  b u r i a l s over female b u r i a l s through time i s noted f o r some o f the  l a t e Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s , but t h i s i n c r e a s e i s not  apparent i n t h e Dawenkou s i t e b u r i a l s due t o the s m a l l number of sexed b u r i a l s (1981:1083).  A t r e n d towards s p a t i a l  segrega-  t i o n of high s t a t u s b u r i a l s by the Late p e r i o d a t Dawenkou i s proposed  (1981:1084) but i s considered  assessment has been made (1981:1085). concludes  t e n t a t i v e u n t i l more Pearson  (1981:1086)  t h a t by the Late Dawenkou C u l t u r e p e r i o d a t approx-  i m a t e l y 2 000  B.C. (which i n c l u d e s the Late p e r i o d a t Dawenkou  s i t e ) , evidence  o f pronounced ranking i s not p r e s e n t , nor i s  occupational s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  He a l s o proposes t h a t the s t a t u s  of men i n terms o f power and wealth was i n c r e a s i n g by the Late Dawenkou C u l t u r a l p e r i o d and c r a f t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was ing 1.2.  develop-  (ibid). C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of Dawenkou C u l t u r e Dawenkou i s regarded  i n the Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a -  t u r e as p a r t o f the Dawenkou C u l t u r e , which spans a p e r i o d o f approximately  2000 years  (An 1979-80:38, 1981:258, 1982:58).  Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s , the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f which are cemeteries,  are l o c a t e d i n the lower Yellow R i v e r  p r i m a r i l y i n Shandong and J i a n g s u  valley,  (An 1979-80:38).  Other  Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s have been found i n northern  Anhui,  e a s t e r n Henan and the Liaodong P e n i n s u l a  (ibid).  The l o c a t i o n  of Dawenkou and other N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n the e a s t e r n  seaboard  - 6 -  r e g i o n i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . 1-1 the s i t e s i n the northern and  ( a f t e r Pearson 1981:1079).  areas of the map  Shandong) are c o n s i d e r e d  (northern  Only  Jiangsu  as p a r t of the Dawenkou C u l t u r e .  I am not aware of a p u b l i s h e d source  t h a t l i s t s the t o t a l number  of Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s t h a t have been d i s c o v e r e d , as w e l l as the number of b u r i a l s from each s i t e and the geographic l o c a t i o n of each s i t e .  Over 6,000 N e o l i t h i c s i t e s have been d i s c o v e r e d  i n China d u r i n g the past t h i r t y years The  (An 1979-80:35).  Dawenkou C u l t u r e i s c o n s i d e r e d  i n the Chinese archaeo-  l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e to e x i s t from approximately 2000B.C.  F i g 1-2  (from An  4000 B.C.  to  1982:58) d e p i c t s the rough chrono-  l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of Dawenkou C u l t u r e with other N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s of  China.  Radiocarbon dates are d i s c u s s e d by X i a (1982), Gao  from i n d i v i d u a l Dawenkou C u l t u r e  (1979), Wen  (1980), and Pearson  Wu  Correspondent  (in press:7-8).  the c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l i s d i s c u s s e d by An (1979-80:38) t h a t twelve radiocarbon from Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s . range o f 4494 - 2690 B.C. 319-0, 321,  and  (calibrated).  Two,  (1978), Wu The  Ren  d a t i n g of  (1979-80).  He  explains  dates have been taken  Z K 90 and  (calibrated).  Z K 479,  Four dates  361-0) give a range of 2350 - 1905 An  sites  (1979-80:38) b e l i e v e s these  show a ( Z K 317, B.C.  l a t e dates  may  be e x p l a i n e d by d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s from Longshan C u l t u r e s i t e s .  The  rough c h r o n o l o g i c a l  order of s i t e s i n the e a s t e r n seaboard r e g i o n 1981:1081) i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g .  (from Pearson  1-3.  There i s an ongoing c o n t r o v e r s y  r e g a r d i n g the  cultural  - 7 FIGURE 1-1. The l o c a t i o n o f Dawenkou and o t h e r N e o l i t h i c i n the e a s t e r n seaboard r e g i o n o f China.  (from PearBon 1981:1079)  sites  - 8 FIGURE 1-2. Rough c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the Dawenkou C u l t u r e with other N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s of China.  Chronology  of the N e o l i t h i c P e r i o d i n the Huanghe (Yellow) and Changjiang  upper reaches of the Huanghe B A r  S8  middle reaches of the Huanghe  Shang  Shang  Siba C u l t u r e  lower reaches o f the Huanghe  lower reaches of the Changjiang Shang  Longshan Culture  Q i j i a Culture Longshan Culture  Dawenkou Culture  Majiabang Culture  Yangshao C u l t u r e  1000 B.C. Shang  ' 7$uj f a t i n g . —Culture  lYangshao Culture  Daxi Culture  2000 B.C. | 3000 B.C.  U 0 0 0 B.C. Qlngliangang C u l t u r e  I  Dadiwan Culture  middle reaches of the Changjiang  Longshan Culture Liangzhu Culture  Majiayao Culture  (Yangtze) R i v e r V a l l e y s  Peiligang Culture I I  Cishan Culture I  5000 B.C.  6000B.C. (from An Zhimin 1982:58)  - 9 -  FIGURE 1-3. Rough c h r o n o l o g i c a l order o f N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n the e a s t e r n seaboard r e g i o n (adapted from Pearson 1981: 1081).  Dafanzhuang  Dawenkou C u l t u r e  site  Xixiahou  Dawenkou C u l t u r e  site  Dawenkou Dawenkou Dawenkou  Late Middle Early  Dawenkou C u l t u r e  site  Dadunzi  Huating l a y e r L i u l i n layer  Dawenkou C u l t u r e  site  Songze Liulin Liulin Liulin  excavation excavation excavation  Beiyinyangying Maj i a b i n Yuduncun  Layer IB  Yuduncun  Layer 2  Yuduncun  Layer 3  I  1 2, upper l a y e r 2, lower l a y e r  Dawenkou Culture site  - 10 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the N e o l i t h i c s i t e s from the e a s t e r n region.  K.C.  Chang  seaboard  (1979:136) maintains t h a t the c u l t u r e  to Dawenkou, the Qingliangang  (see F i g . 1-2), should be  prior  divided  i n t o a type i n c l u d i n g s i t e s n o r t h of the Yangtze R i v e r and a type i n c l u d i n g s i t e s south of the Yangtze.  Chang  (1979:138)  a l s o c o n s i d e r s s i t e s d e s i g n a t e d as E a r l y Dawenkou C u l t u r e by Chinese  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s as p a r t of the Qingliangang p e r i o d .  Chang (1979:144, 154-55) c l a s s i f i e s Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s approximately  3200 B.C.  as p a r t of the Longshanoid  after  cultural  complex, which i n c l u d e s N e o l i t h i c s i t e s from the North C e n t r a l P l a i n area.  The Dawenkou s i t e i s c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t of the  Huating C u l t u r e , along w i t h the L i u l i n and Huating s i t e s  (Chang  1979:160). A m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Longshanoid  c u l t u r e s i n c l u d i n g Dawenkou by Lo  (1977) r e s u l t e d  i n a r e p l i c a t i o n of the c u l t u r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i n most cases.  Huber's  (1981:118, 1983:202) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s  based p a r t i a l l y upon ceramic development.  She  concludes t h a t  s i t e s i n n o r t h e r n J i a n g s u and Shandong are p a r t of the same c u l t u r a l complex, but g i v e s a d i f f e r e n t c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence of s i t e s from these p r o v i n c e s . (1981:1078, 1080)  The  scheme u t i l i z e d by  Pearson  and Shangraw (1978:12) c o n s i s t s of the  Qingliangang C u l t u r e  (approximately 5000 - 3000 B.C.), i n c l u d -  i n g s i t e s i n n o r t h e r n Z h e j i a n g , J i a n g s u , and southern Shandong such as the L i u l i n and Huating s i t e s ; and the Dawenkou C u l t u r e (approximately 3000 - 2000 B.C.). As Shangraw (1978:34) p o i n t s out, t e r m i n o l o g i c a l c o n f u s i o n  - 11 -  over the Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s has r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r e n t terms being used by Chinese  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s from d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s .  Shandong a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have l a b e l l e d the s i t e s i n Shandong as Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s w h i l e those i n J i n a g s u have used the terms Qingliangang,  L i u l i n and Huating p e r i o d s .  19 77 d e s c r i b e d by the Wen Wu Correspondent r e s o l v e these t e r m i n o l o g i c a l problems.  A symposium i n  (1978) attempted t o  Archaeologists at t h i s  symposium had three d i f f e r e n t views r e g a r d i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s i t e s n o r t h o f t h e Yangtze. pondent  As e x p l a i n e d by the Wen Wu C o r r e s -  (19 78), the f i r s t view, by the Nanjing Museum,  six  p e r i o d s c o n s i s t i n g of c e r t a i n s t r a t a from v a r i o u s  The  Shandong Museum advocated  advocated sites.  e l e v e n p e r i o d s and B e i j i n g  s i t y h e l d the t h i r d view t h a t there are e i g h t p e r i o d s .  UniverThe  p a r t i c i p a n t s of the symposium a l s o grouped these p e r i o d s t o gether i n t o l a r g e r stages.  These stages appear t o be d e r i v e d  on the b a s i s o f r a d i o c a r b o n dates, s t r a t i g r a p h y , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f ceramics,  stone t o o l s and  other aspects o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e ; and an assessment o f g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l complexity.  The Shandong Museum advocated  three  stages w h i l e t h e proponents o f the two stage view d i s a g r e e d on the d i v i s i o n s o f the f i r s t and second stages. Most Chinese  i n v e s t i g a t o r s appear t o advocate  stage d i v i s i o n o f the Dawenkou C u l t u r e .  the three  A c c o r d i n g t o Gao  (personal communication 1983; 1980:49), the 1974 e x c a v a t i o n a t the Dawenkou s i t e belongs t o the f i r s t stage, the E a r l y and Middle p e r i o d s from 1959 belong t o the second, and the Late  - 12 -  period b u r i a l s belong (19 78) Early  t o the Late  describes three stages stage  consisting  stage.  The Shandong Museum  f o r t h e Dawenkou C u l t u r e :  of burials  from  t h e 19 74 e x c a v a t i o n a t  Dawenkou, as w e l l as one l a y e r o f t h e D a d u n z i stage  as c o n s i s t i n g o f some g r a v e s  some g r a v e s periods  from  Some p a r t i c i p a n t s culturally regarded  from  of cultures regarded  distinct  from  the northern s i t e s  the southern  fairly  appears  t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f Chinese  The region  (Pearson found  Because t h e term consistently  since this  i n the  symposium, i t  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s now h o l d  n o r t h and s o u t h o f t h e Y a n g t z e  the e a r l i e r  Q i n g l i a n g a n g c u l t u r e w h i c h was  i n a r e a s b o t h n o r t h and s o u t h o f t h e Y a n g t z e .  major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of sites  cultivation  i n the eastern  of rice  of the region,  by t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e Hemudu s i t e  19 83:124) —  i n sites  a l t h o u g h no r e m a i n s  n o r t h o f the Yangtze  seaboard  and o t h e r p l a n t s  t o t h e low l y i n g , m a r s h y e n v i r o n m e n t  as s u g g e s t e d  others  the cultures  include probable  suitable  Yangtze.  as r e l a t e d b u t  s i t e s , while  t h e same.  archaeological literature  distributed  and M i d d l e  a t t h e 19 77 symposium r e g a r d i n g  Chinese  from  and t h e E a r l y  X i x i a h o u and Y e d i a n .  "Dawenkou C u l t u r e " h a s b e e n u s e d  developed  t h e 19 74 e x c a v a t i o n ,  n o r t h and s o u t h o f t h e  them as f u n d a m e n t a l l y  the view t h a t  the Middle  (1959 e x c a v a t i o n ) , and t h e L a t e  was a l s o d i s a g r e e m e n t  relationship  site,  t h e 1959 e x c a v a t i o n c o m p r i s i n g t h e L a t e  along with b u r i a l s  There the  from  from  and D a d u n z i  f r o m t h e Dawenkou s i t e  period burials stage,  Yedian  the  of rice  i n Zhejiang have b e e n  (Chang 1979:136).  There i s  - 13 -  great c o n s i s t e n c y i n b u r i a l p r a c t i c e s , i n c l u d i n g : s i m i l a r  grave  o r i e n t a t i o n and body d i s p o s i t i o n ; s i m i l a r grave good i n c l u s i o n s such as stone t o o l and ceramic forms, ornaments, p i g s k u l l s , deer t e e t h  (Chang 19 79:160-162, Pearson, i n press:17-24),  animal shaped v e s s e l s  (Pearson 1983:140); s i m i l a r p r a c t i c e s  such as t o o t h e x t r a c t i o n and s k u l l deformation p r i m a r i l y f o r females  (Pearson, i n p r e s s : 2 6 ) , and keeping a c l a y b a l l i n the  mouth d u r i n g o n e s l i f e t i m e 1  symbols  (Han and Pan 1980).  Incised  on ceramic sherds a t some s i t e s may i n d i c a t e a form of  proto-writing  (Chang 1979:161).  A d e s c r i p t i o n of b u r i a l  p r a c t i c e s a t s p e c i f i c Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s i s i n c l u d e d i n d i f f e r e n t chapters o f t h i s study:  Chapter 4 ( a r t i f a c t  forms  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s e x e s ) , Chapter 5 (body d i s p o s i t i o n ,  grave  form, o r i e n t a t i o n ) , and Chapters 6 and 7 ( s t a t u s - r e l a t e d  grave  goods). The environment  o f the r e g i o n was probably warmer and  m o i s t e r than a t present (Pearson, i n press:25, 1983:134), and most s i t e s are l o c a t e d on s m a l l r i v e r s or l a k e s (Pearson, i n press:2).  Some r i v e r s i n Shandong may have been s u i t a b l e f o r  s m a l l t o medium-sized  i r r i g a t i o n projects  The o n l y h a b i t a t i o n remains o f which  (Pearson, i n p r e s s : 2 4 ) . I am aware a t Dawenkou  C u l t u r e s i t e s are the remains o f house foundations from the 1974 e x c a v a t i o n a t the Dawenkou s i t e  (Wen Wu Correspondent  1978) and  a r e f e r e n c e t o a s i t e i n Shandong by B e i j i n g U n i v e r s i t y 195).  (19 83:  The Dawenkou s i t e , as r e p r e s e n t e d by the 1959 e x c a v a t i o n ,  appears t o be the o n l y cemetery  site containing a k i l n .  The  - 14 -  k i l n may  be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Late p e r i o d (Gao, p e r s o n a l  communication, 19 83) because some Late p e r i o d sherds were found in i t .  However, the f a c t t h a t sherds from the Longshan and  Shang p e r i o d s were a l s o found with the k i l n  (Shandong  P r o v i n c i a l C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Commission and the J i n a n C i t y Museum 19 74:114) may  i n d i c a t e the k i l n i s not dated t o the  Late p e r i o d . Subsistence and settlement p a t t e r n data f o r the Dawenkou C u l t u r e are l a c k i n g  (Pearson, i n p r e s s : 3 0 ) .  However, animal  bones from Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s suggest a moist, environment:  forested  r i v e r deer, w i l d p i g , w i l d b o v i d , s p e c i e s of t u r t l e  (Pearson, i n p r e s s : 2 5 ) .  Animal  s p e c i e s mentioned i n the Dawenkou  s i t e r e p o r t i n c l u d e a l l i g a t o r , crane, d i f f e r e n t types of and b i r d s , o y s t e r s , and domesticated p i g and c h i c k e n  fish  (Shandong  P r o v i n c i a l C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Commission and the J i n a n C i t y Museum 1974:156-158).  Some types of stone t o o l s d e s c r i b e d i n  the s i t e r e p o r t r e f l e c t a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s such as the s i c k l e , stone spade and adze.  F i s h i n g i s suggested by  fish  hooks, weaving and sewing by s p i n d l e whorls and bone needles, and h u n t i n g by bone arrowheads and k n i v e s . 1.3.  C u l t u r a l E v o l u t i o n i n the Late Neolithic Period As F i g . 1-2  i l l u s t r a t e s , there are s e v e r a l c u l t u r a l regions  d u r i n g the l a t e N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d .  Chang  (1979:155) maintains  t h a t by the l a t t e r p a r t of the N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d (approximately 3200 B.C.)  i n s e v e r a l of these r e g i o n s , c u l t u r e s became i n c r e a s -  - 15  i n g l y s i m i l a r t o one  another.  Longshanoid c u l t u r a l complex.  -  These c u l t u r e s comprise The  the  Longshanoid c u l t u r e s  i n t o the Longshan c u l t u r e i n s e v e r a l r e g i o n s .  evolved  Chang (1979:144)  c h a r a c t e r i z e s the Longshanoid phase as t r a n s i t i o n a l but a l l y e g a l i t a r i a n and  the Longshan phase as a "war-like  ranked s o c i e t y p r e p a r a t o r y and  the An  basic-  f o r the  formation  of  and  civilization  state". (1979-80:45) d i s a g r e e s  w i t h Chang's (1979) c l a s s i f i c a -  t i o n of s i t e s i n t o the Longshanoid c u l t u r a l complex on  the  grounds t h a t each c u l t u r e developed i n a d i f f e r e n t manner. However, he  s t a t e s t h a t the  various regions of "exchange and  are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by much i n t e r a c t i o n i n terms i n f l u e n c e on the one  u n i f i c a t i o n on the o t h e r " phasizes  l a t e N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s from  the extent  (ibid).  hand, and  i n t e g r a t i o n and  Chang (1981b:155) a l s o em-  of r e g i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n d u r i n g  the Long-  shanoid phase, s a y i n g t h a t c u l t u r a l systems i n v a r i o u s evolved  s i d e by  s i d e w i t h those i n other r e g i o n s .  i m p l i e d t h a t ranking  developed i n more than one  J.  regions  It i s  region  during  the Longshanoid phase. I n v e s t i g a t o r s have noted a number of c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t i e s i n b u r i a l p r a c t i c e s from the Dawenkou C u l t u r e t o the  Shang  p e r i o d and have debated whether the Dawenkou C u l t u r e had i n f l u e n c e i n the development of the Shang c u l t u r e 51,  Chang 1980:345-46, 354,  t r a i t s i n c l u d e the  (Thorp  some types of raw  l o g tomb i s a l s o present  1980:  These c u l t u r a l  l o g tomb, second l e v e l p l a t f o r m ,  forms of a r t i f a c t s , and The  Chang 19 83:509-10).  an  several  m a t e r i a l such as  i n some Longshan s i t e s  (Cheng  jade.  - 16 -  1982:21).  H i s t o r i c a l t e x t s a l s o suggest t h a t  cultural  e v o l u t i o n i n the Dawenkou o r Qingliangang c u l t u r e area was r e l a t e d t o the development o f the s t a t e i n China 488).  However, Zou (personal  t h a t Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  ( F r i e d 1983:  communication 1983) maintains  now b e l i e v e the Dawenkou  Culture  d i d not d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e the development o f the Shang s t a t e . A new c u l t u r e subsequent t o the Longshan i n Shandong has r e c e n t l y been d i s c o v e r e d ,  t o which the Dawenkou C u l t u r e i s  directly related  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t new d i s c o v e r i e s i n  (ibid).  Shandong and elsewhere w i l l continue t o modify our understandi n g o f s o c i o - c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n i n the e a s t e r n of China.  seaboard  region  - 17 -  CHAPTER 2  METHODOLOGY  2.1.  General Approaches i n Mortuary A n a l y s i s During the past twenty y e a r s , mortuary s i t e s have been  analyzed p r i m a r i l y i n order t o provide an understanding of the s o c i a l systems represented a t these s i t e s . concerns  o f mortuary a n a l y s e s have been:  The two major  1) s t a t u s d i f f e r -  e n t i a t i o n among b u r i a l s i n a cemetery or i n o t h e r types of d i s p o s a l areas and 2) s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among b u r i a l s i n terms o f k i n s h i p groups o r r e s i d e n t i a l groups.  Some  recent mortuary analyses have been concerned  understand-  with  i n g the i d e o l o g i c a l component o f c u l t u r e r e p r e s e n t e d by b u r i a l remains.  V a r i a b i l i t y i n grave good i n c l u s i o n s , grave  form,  human s k e l e t a l remains, and i n s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g o f grave goods, grave  form, or human remains are the major aspects o f  mortuary treatment  t h a t have been assessed i n s t u d i e s  with e i t h e r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o r i d e o l o g y .  concerned  Human s k e l e t a l  remains analyzed by p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have enhanced s t u d i e s o f s t a t u s or s o c i a l subgroups.  R e s u l t s o f these  s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u r e and s o c i a l s t a t u s (e.g., H a v i l a n d 1967, B u i k s t r a 1976), degenerative  j o i n t d i s e a s e and s t a t u s ( T a i n t e r 19 80) and  enamel d e f e c t s and s t a t u s (Cook 1981).  Human s k e l e t a l remains  have a l s o p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on b i o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e  - 18 -  (e.g., B u i k s t r a 1976) and paleodemography Randsborg 1981:19-20).  The o t h e r aspects o f m a t e r i a l c u l -  t u r e noted above are focused upon i n t h i s The primary  (Chapman and  study.  concern o f most mortuary s t u d i e s has been  status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s o c i a l subgroups  i s i n c l u d e d i n o n l y some o f these s t u d i e s . of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n r e s e a r c h problem addressed  Since the nature  r e p r e s e n t e d a t Dawenkou i s the i n t h i s study, g e n e r a l approaches  to analyses o f s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  are emphasized here.  However, t h i s chapter i n c l u d e s some d i s c u s s i o n o f g e n e r a l approaches t o analyses o f s o c i a l subgroups because, as argued below, an understanding o f the nature o f s t a t u s differentiation  represented a t a s i t e i s n o t complete without  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the nature o f s o c i a l subgroups r e p r e s e n t e d . There are c u r r e n t l y two g e n e r a l approaches t o the study of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n archaeological l i t e r a t u r e :  from mortuary remains i n the 1) the p r o c e s s u a l approach,  which  has the g o a l o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the community r e p r e s e n t e d by the b u r i a l s i n a mortuary s i t e and 2) the s y m b o l i s t approach, ing status d i s t i n c t i o n s  which has the goal o f understand-  i n a s o c i e t y w i t h i n the broader  context  of the symbolism expressed by m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e and the i d e o l o g y of t h a t s o c i e t y .  Many o f the a r t i c l e s f o l l o w i n g the s y m b o l i s t  approach have appeared  i n the. l i t e r a t u r e s i n c e the comprehen-  s i v e review of: a r c h a e o l o g i c a l mortuary a n a l y s i s by Chapman and Randsborg  (19 81).  - 19 -  The m a j o r i t y literature  o f mortuary  follow the f i r s t  studies  approach  1977b, 1975a, 1976,  1973;  Tainter  Wright  1969,  Braun  1978,  Decker  1979,  Rothschild  Hatch  1976,  19 7 7 ) .  Leach  The  1972,  (1982,  1980),  Tilley  ( 1 9 8 2 ) , and B l a c k m o r e  maintain  that  and C o r d y and  1977,  1979,  Goldstein  1974;  Van  1981  (1982a and b,  and  1980,  differentiation  1977,  Pader  ( 1 9 8 2 ) , Shanks These  the p r o c e s s u a l approach i s t o t a l l y  1975,  approach  1980),  e t a l . (1979).  1977a,  de V e l d e  P e e b l e s and Kus  (1982), P e a r s o n  for understanding status  1978, Shennan  proponents of the second  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , Hodder Shennan  archaeological  (e.g. T a i n t e r  1977  K i n g 1969,  P e e b l e s 1971,  and M a i n f o r t include  1979,  i n the  and  authors  inadequate  (Hodder  1980:161).  I m a i n t a i n t h a t elements of both approaches  are u s e f u l  t h a t elements  approach of the  mortuary  of both are p r o b l e m a t i c .  The  and  a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d h e r e i s b a s e d upon e l e m e n t s  from  each.  2.2.  The The  Processual processual  cultural  Goldstein  they  (1970) and B i n f o r d  e x t e n t , from T a i n t e r  (1976).  individuals of  a p p r o a c h i s b a s e d m a i n l y upon t h e  e t h n o g r a p h i c t e s t s o f Saxe  and t o a l e s s e r  because  Approach  These  indicate  tests,  that  and t h e g e n e r a l  (1975b,  1973)  d e s c r i b e d below,  different social  social  t h e d e c e a s e d a r e r e f l e c t e d by m o r t u a r y  are important  i n the  remains  For the c o n t e x t of t h i s mortuary  analysis,  is  as  of  "relative  rank i n a h i e r a r c h y  of society  (Goldstein  1981:54). defined  (1971),  and  statuses  organization  cross-  "status"  prestige"  - 20  (Webster's One in  S e v e n t h New  c a n assume t h a t  -  Collegiate Dictionary  differential  t r e a t m e n t o f an  death r e f l e c t s h i s or her d i f f e r e n t i a l  (ibid).  Although conclusions  confirmed logical  useful  treatment i n  1981:23; B a r t e l  f o r c u r r e n t mortuary  that  o r g a n i z a t i o n may  n o t be d i r e c t l y  burial  However, t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  remains.  from the t e s t s  1975b) and G o l d s t e i n  to assess v a r i a b i l i t y ethnographic l i s h e d by The  tests  (19 76)  1975b) have been  More  aspects of  regularities (1971),  remains.  No  ritual  (19 7 0 ) , B i n f o r d by  Tainter which  cross-cultural  have been  advocate the s y m b o l i s t  utilized  1982:52),  p r o v i d e a means by  regarding mortuary  f r o m Saxe  archaeo-  e x p r e s s e d by  (1970), B i n f o r d  i n mortuary  r e s e a r c h e r s who  conclusions  (1973,  o f Saxe  or t o t a l l y  life  t o be  analyses.  r e c e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d  pub-  approach.  (19 7 1 ) , and  researchers  Tainter  following  processual.. approach t o formulate t e s t  implications for  achieved  social  social  as t o i d e n t i f y  status versus ascribed various  the deceased had Saxe s 1  of varying  levels  i n the s o c i e t y  t e s t b a s e d upon t h r e e modern  as  well  i n which  societies  c o m p l e x i t y ( t h e Kapauku Papuans o f  G u i n e a , t h e A s h a n t i o f West A f r i c a Luzon, P h i l i p p i n e s )  and B i n f o r d ' s  non-state organized s o c i e t i e s Files  status,  the  lived.  (19 70) social  status  856).  individual  from t h e s e t e s t s need  (Chapman and R a n d s b o r g  they are s t i l l  (19 73,  page  f r o m f u r t h e r t e s t i n g w i t h e t h n o g r a p h i c and  data  derived  1969,  both i n d i c a t e  and t h e B o n t o c (19 71)  New  Igorot  t e s t b a s e d upon 4 0  f r o m t h e Human R e l a t i o n s  that mortuary  remains  of  reflect  the  Area  - 21 -  " s o c i a l persona" of the deceased,  or the "composite  s o c i a l i d e n t i t i e s maintained i n l i f e  and r e c o g n i z e d as  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a f t e r death" During l i f e ,  of the  ( B i n f o r d 1971:17).  the v a r i o u s s o c i a l i d e n t i t i e s of an  are expressed i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s .  individual  At the death of an  i n d i v i d u a l , the l i v i n g decide which i d e n t i t i e s of the  deceased  are the most important and should be expressed i n mortuary ritual.  A c c o r d i n g t o Saxe (19 70:4-9), the determining  factors  i n t h i s d e c i s i o n s are the r i g h t s and d u t i e s of the l i v i n g to the deceased.  The  aspects of the s o c i a l persona t h a t are  symbolized as w e l l as the form of the symbols vary from c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e Saxe's hypotheses,  themselves  ( B i n f o r d 1971:16-17).  (19 70) study i n v o l v e d the t e s t i n g of e i g h t most of which r e c e i v e d p a r t i a l  two hypotheses  support.  The  f i r m l y supported are  1) The Components o f a Given D i s p o s a l Domain Cooperate i n a P a r t i t i o n i n g of the U n i v e r s e , the R e s u l t a n t Combinations Representing D i f f e r ent S o c i a l Personae (Saxe 1970:65). 2) In a Given Domain, the P r i n c i p l e s O r g a n i z i n g the Set of S o c i a l Personae (Produced by the Cooperative P a r t i t i o n i n g of the Universe of D i s p o s a l Components) are Congruent w i t h Those O r g a n i z i n g S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s i n the S o c i e t y a t Large (Saxe 1970:66).  Saxe's  (19 70) e i g h t h h y p o t h e s i s r e f e r s t o s o c i a l  affiliation  and i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 5.  subgroup  G o l d s t e i n ' s (19 76)  ethnographic t e s t , a re-examination of Saxe's e i g h t h hypo-  - 22 -  t h e s i s , i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 5. Binford hypotheses.  (.1971) t e s t e d and r e c e i v e d support f o r t h r e e Binford*s  (19 71)  study i s the most u s e f u l  ethnographic study f o r mortuary a n a l y s e s t o date because i t c o n s i d e r s a number o f a s p e c t s o f the s o c i a l persona and o f mortuary treatment w i t h m a t e r i a l c o r r e l a t e s .  B i n f o r d con-  cludes from the t e s t i n g o f these hypotheses t h a t  ...the form and s t r u c t u r e which c h a r a c t e r i z e the mortuary p r a c t i c e s o f any s o c i e t y are c o n d i t i o n e d by the form and complexity of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o c i e t y i t s e l f ( B i n f o r d 1971:23).  The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s t e s t e d by B i n f o r d  (1971) i s  ...there should be a h i g h degree o f isomorphism between a) the complexity o f the s t a t u s s t r u c t u r e i n a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l system and b) the complexity o f mortuary ceremonialism as regards d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment o f persons occupying the d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s ( B i n f o r d 1971:18).  The complexity o f the mortuary r i t u a l i s measured by the number of dimensions o f the s o c i a l persona i n a s o c i e t y ' s mortuary p r a c t i c e s .  These v a r i o u s dimensions are age, sex,  s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o r s t a t u s , sub-group a f f i l i a t i o n , death, and l o c a t i o n o f death.  cause o f  Due t o l i m i t a t i o n s of the  data s e t , complexity of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l system i s measured by form o f s u b s i s t e n c e  (whether h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s ,  shifting  a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , s e t t l e d a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , and p a s t o r a l i s t s ) .  - 23 -  A g r e a t e r number of d i s t i n c t i o n s of the s o c i a l persona i s found to be symbolized  i n the mortuary r i t u a l of s e t t l e d  a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , g e n e r a l l y accepted as having the most complex form of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l system than the other forms of s u b s i s t e n c e ( B i n f o r d 1971:18). r e s u l t s are shown i n F i g u r e s 2-1  B i n f o r d ' s (1971:20) and 2-2.  Hodder  (19 80:168)  c r i t i c i z e s the t e s t i n g of t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n on the b a s i s of B i n f o r d ' s measure of s o c i e t a l complexity - which B i n f o r d (1971:18) admits Binford's  is simplistic.  (1971) second h y p o t h e s i s i s :  We would p r e d i c t t h a t age and sex should serve more commonly as bases f o r mortuary d i s t i n c t i o n among hunter and g a t h e r e r s ; w h i l e among a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , as v a r y i n g independently of age and sex as w e l l as subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n , should more commonly serve as the b a s i s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l mortuary t r e a t ment ( B i n f o r d 1971:20).  Binford  (1971:20) concludes  F i g u r e 2-1)  from h i s t a b u l a t i o n s (shown i n  t h a t there i s a marked d i f f e r e n c e i n the number  of cases from the t o t a l i n which age and sex are i n the mortuary r i t u a l of a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s versus  symbolized hunters  and g a t h e r e r s , and i n which s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i s symbolized. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s the b a s i s of the t e s t  implications  employed i n p r o c e s s u a l mortuary s t u d i e s f o r achieved ascribed s o c i a l Binford's  versus  position. (19 71)  t h i r d hypothesis i s employed i n  p r o c e s s u a l mortuary s t u d i e s t o i n d i c a t e s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s  - 24 FIGURE 2-1. Number o f dimensional d i s t i n c t i o n s o f the s o c i a l persona symbolized i n mortuary p r a c t i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o form o f s u b s i s t e n c e .  dimensional distinctions  hunters & gatherers  shifting agriculturalists  conditions of death  X  1  0  location of death  1 X  age sex  settled agriculturalists  pastoralists  i  o  j_  i  0  0  2  1  7  1  12  4  10  3  social position  6  5  11  0  social affiliation  4  3  10  1  15  8  14  3  total  cases  (from B i n f o r d 1971:20, T a b l e 2)  FIGURE 2-2. Average number o f dimensional a c c o r d i n g t o s u b s i s t e n c e category.  subsistence  category  (1) h u n t e r s  & gatherers  distinctions  average number o f d i m e n s i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s per category 1.73  (2)  shifting agriculturalists  1.75  (3)  settled agriculturalists  3.14  (4)  pastoralists  1.66  (from B i n f o r d 1971:20, T a b l e 3)  - 25 -  or l e v e l s i n the s o c i e t y of the  deceased:  ...the l o c u s of mortuary r i t u a l and the degree t h a t the a c t u a l performance of the r i t u a l w i l l i n t e r f e r e w i t h the normal a c t i v i t i e s of the community should vary d i r e c t l y w i t h the number of duty s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s o b t a i n i n g between the deceased and o t h e r members of the community ( B i n f o r d 1971:21).  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s supported and other c o r r e l a t i o n s are found between the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o c i a l persona d i f f e r e n t types of mortuary  treatment.  F i g u r e 2-3  and  indicates  the manner i n which age and o t h e r aspects of the s o c i a l persona may  be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n mortuary  ritual.  Social  p o s i t i o n i s expressed by the g r e a t e s t v a r i e t y of aspects of mortuary  treatment, and many d i f f e r e n t aspects may  s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i n one s o c i e t y  ( B i n f o r d 1971:22).  symbolize  Social  p o s i t i o n tends t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the form and q u a n t i t y of grave goods, p a r t i c u l a r l y  "status-specific"  'badges' of  o f f i c e and q u a n t i t i e s o f grave goods, and the l o c a t i o n of interment  ( B i n f o r d 1971:23).  with Binford goods.  Tainter  (1978:121) d i s a g r e e s  (1971:23) t h a t s t a t u s i s o f t e n r e f l e c t e d by  T a i n t e r ' s ethnographic survey of mortuary  practices  r e v e a l e d t h a t grave goods r e f l e c t s t a t u s i n l e s s than p e r c e n t of the cases Tainter's Binford's  grave  five  ( T a i n t e r 1974:125).  (1973, 1975b) ethnographic t e s t expands upon  (1971) t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s .  Tainter  (1973:6) proposes  t h a t the amount of community involvement and the degree of  - 26 FIGURE 2-3. Aspects o f the s o c i a l persona symbolized i n mortuary treatment.  condition of death  location o f death  age  sex  social position  social affiliation  -  -  2  2  (1) p r e p a r a t i o n * ^>  ..  2  1  5 "g  (2) treatment (3) d i s p o s i t i o n  2  1  (4) form  1  -  J5 >  3  (6) l o c a t i o n  5  1  -  7  (7) form o n l y (8) q u a n t i t y o n l y  **  -  (5) o r i e n t a t i o n  oo  JJ 3  3  -  -  (9) form and q u a n t i t y (from B i n f o r d  1971:22.  Table  4)  2  1  -  3  1  3  -  9  -  8  15  16  5 9  - 27 -  activity  disruption  of energy rank  i n mortuary r i t u a l  corresponds  expended i n the mortuary r i t u a l .  o f an i n d i v i d u a l ,  degree o f a c t i v i t y expenditure  and t h e g r e a t e r amount o f  This hypothesis  is initially  t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and e t h n o h i s t o r i c d a t a cemetery, Hawaii  (Tainter  societies  i s r e f l e c t e d by s i z e  method o f h a n d l i n g and d i s p o s a l o f grave  goods  hypothesis different  The  supported  amounts o f e n e r g y  correspond  to different  i n energy  do n o t d i f f e r  insists  from  (19 80:306) c o n c l u d e s  expenditure  reflects  than  rank.  ing  social  ritual  of ranking  (ibid).  ethnographic  (1981) and K i r c h  (1980).  Historical  data  among  individuals  Tainter's hypothesis  rank w i t h e t h n o h i s t o r i c  a Tongan s o c i e t y m o r t u a r y t h a t i n Tongan s o c i e t y , sociopolitical  (1980:304-5) f i n d s monument t h a n  indicate  whether  ( a l t h o u g h T a i n t e r 19 81:419  and s o c i a l  relative  Kirch  can occur  (1980) t e s t s  c h i e f has a s m a l l e r grave  rank.  consider that  i n mortuary  o r grades  status  Kirch  expenditure  a r c h e o l o g i c a l data  Kirch  Energy  t h a t the  T a i n t e r ' s (1973, 1975b)  in social  a  and t h e n a t u r e  and t h a t one may  expenditure  t h a t he d i d ) .  l i n k i n g energy and  from  (19 81:411) p o i n t s o u t t h a t T a i n t e r d i d n o t t e s t  differences who  Kaloko  1975b).  I t i s claimed  expenditure  levels  c o n c l u s i o n s from  (Tainter  of the corpse,  t e s t s have b e e n c h a l l e n g e d by B r a u n Braun  the  from  and e l a b o r a t i o n o f g r a v e ,  ( T a i n t e r 1976:95).  i s clearly  from  energy  tested  1973) and i n more d e t a i l  sample o f 103 e t h n o g r a p h i c expenditure  The h i g h e r t h e s o c i a l  t h e g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e community and  disruption  (ibid).  t o t h e amount  site.  energy  s t a t u s more that a high a chief  that a d i r e c t  of  ranklower  correlation  - 28 -  between s o c i e t a l rank and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s was n o t p r e s e n t i n Tongan s o c i e t y  ( K i r c h 1980:305).  Some i n d i v i d u a l s  of h i g h s o c i e t a l rank d i d n o t have much p o l i t i c a l power, w h i l e o t h e r s w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f p o l i t i c a l power were o f lower s o c i e t a l rank  (ibid).  Recent ethnographic s t u d i e s have a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n can be i n f e r r e d from mortuary remains. O'Shea (1981:49) concludes from h i s e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l study o f three P l a i n s Indian mortuary p r a c t i c e s t h a t a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l r a n k i n g known from e t h n o h i s t o r i c data are c l e a r l y o b s e r v a b l e from the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l of P l a i n s Indian mortuary p r a c t i c e s .  remains  In the P l a i n s c e m e t e r i e s ,  ranking i s symbolized i n an obvious manner, by v a r i o u s  symbols  of wealth and i n c r e a s e d energy e x p e n d i t u r e (O'Shea 19 81:49-50). However, the t o t a l range o f mortuary treatment i s n o t observable from the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a .  Contrary to Binford  O'Shea (19 81:49) concludes t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n s o f s o c i a l  (19 71:22), subgroup  a f f i l i a t i o n a r e n o t c l e a r l y o b s e r v a b l e from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains o f mortuary p r a c t i c e s .  Chapman and Randsborg  (1981:8)  mention a recent study which i n d i c a t e s t h a t s o c i a l s t a t u s i n r u r a l Hungarian cemeteries has been symbolized by form and c o l o r o f grave markers. Some authors (Ucko 1969, Leach 1977, Orme 1981) deny the p o t e n t i a l o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l mortuary data f o r i n d i c a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o r any o t h e r aspect of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Ucko (1969:265-266) s t a t e s t h a t  grave goods may be o f f e r e d b u t they may not be p l a c e d i n  - 29 -  graves w i t h the deceased.  A l s o , the q u a n t i t y  and q u a l i t y o f  grave goods may not r e f l e c t r e l a t i v e s t a t u s o f i n d i v i d u a l s (Ucko 1969:266-267), nor grave s i z e However, as Chapman and Randsborg  (Ucko 1969:296-299).  (19 81:8-9) p o i n t out,  Ucko (1969:270) a c t u a l l y confirms the c o n c l u s i o n s  of Binford's  (1971) and Saxe's (1970) s t u d i e s by s a y i n g :  . . . i n the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f cases known ethnog r a p h i c a l l y , a c u l t u r e or s o c i e t y i s not charact e r i z e d by one type o f b u r i a l o n l y , but t h a t , on the c o n t r a r y , one s o c i e t y w i l l undertake s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t forms o f b u r i a l , and t h a t these forms w i l l o f t e n be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the s t a t u s o f the deceased (Ucko 1969:270).  Ucko (1969:270) adds t h a t l o c a t i o n o f graves p a r t i c u l a r l y indicates status of i n d i v i d u a l s . Orme  (1981:235) c i t e s a few examples i n which the  mortuary r i t u a l  i s more a r e f l e c t i o n o f s o c i a l s t a t u s o f  living  r e l a t i v e s r a t h e r than t h a t o f the deceased.  Bartel  (1982:47) p o i n t s out, both Orme  As  (1981) and Ucko (1969)  s e l e c t c e r t a i n ethnographic cases which show t h a t mortuary r i t u a l does not r e f l e c t s o c i a l s t a t u s .  T h e i r s t u d i e s would  be more u s e f u l i f a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l sample o f mortuary p r a c t i c e s had been i n c l u d e d be a p p l i e d t o Leach  (ibid).  The same c r i t i c i s m can  (1977:162).  I t i s .clear from the ethnographic s t u d i e s j u s t d e s c r i b e d t h a t s o c i a l s t a t u s and other  aspects of the s o c i a l persona  are not expressed by the same aspect(s) i n a l l s o c i a l groups.  o f mortuary treatment  For example, s t a t u s may be expressed  - 30 -  by wealth i n terms o f grave goods, energy e x p e n d i t u r e , or both.  A l s o , d i f f e r e n t aspects of the s o c i a l persona are  c o n s i d e r e d important i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . modern mortuary  One study o f  p r a c t i c e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t cause o f death i s  expressed more i n mortuary  r i t u a l than s o c i a l s t a t u s , w h i l e  another study concludes t h a t s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s  affiliation  tends t o be expressed i n times o f p o l i t i c a l o r economic s t r e s s (Chapman and Randsborg 19 81:8).  Grave goods do n o t seem t o  express s t a t u s i n Danish V i k i n g graves  (Randsborg  19 81:112)  and i n a l a r g e group o f b u r i a l s from the Moche V a l l e y r e p r e s e n t i n g 3500 years  (Donnan e t a l . 1978:312).  Huntington  and M e t c a l f (1980:1) p o i n t out t h a t there i s a tremendous amount o f v a r i a t i o n i n mortuary However, the mortuary  r i t u a l throughout the world.  programs o f i n d i v i d u a l  d i s p l a y a l a r g e amount o f redundancy. been made by B a r t e l of  societies  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n has  (19 82:55) on the b a s i s o f h i s 19 73 study  2 7 ethnographic s o c i e t i e s from the Human R e l a t i o n s Area  F i l e s and T a i n t e r  (1978:114) on the b a s i s o f Saxe's  formal a n a l y s i s o f mortuary mentioned  previously.  treatment o f the t h r e e s o c i e t i e s  Thus, d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s t a t u s e s , f o r  example, symbolized i n mortuary  ritual  should be i d e n t i f i a b l e  by a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data due t o r e p e t i t i o n o f c e r t a i n treatment(s).  (1970)  mortuary  F o r example, h i g h s t a t u s may be c o n s i s t e n t l y  symbolized i n a cemetery  by l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f a r t i f a c t s  and a p a r t i c u l a r form o f a r t i f a c t .  - 31 -  Some p r o c e s s u a l mortuary s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s on the b a s i s of o n l y wealth i n terms of grave goods  (such as R o t h s c h i l d 1979,  Peebles 1972,  19 75)  or o n l y energy expenditure  1975a, T a i n t e r and Cordy 1977,  1974;  Shennan  (e.g. T a i n t e r 19 77a and  T a i n t e r 1973,  b,  T a i n t e r 1976).  These s t u d i e s assume t h a t s t a t u s i s expressed i n the same manner i n a l l s o c i e i t e s .  Wealth and  energy expenditure  w e l l as other v a r i a b l e s B i n f o r d i d e n t i f i e s as status  as  reflecting  (body treatment, body p r e p a r a t i o n , body d i s p o s i t i o n ,  grave l o c a t i o n )  (1971:22) should be regarded as only p o t e n t i a l  s t a t u s i n d i c a t o r s a t a mortuary s i t e . a l s o reached by W h i t t l e s e y The  This conclusion i s  (19 78:106).  problem with mortuary s t u d i e s t h a t f o l l o w  processual  approach i s t h a t the d e r i v e d s t a t u s  the  distinctions  are i n t e r p r e t e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g  the major s t a t u s l e v e l s t h a t  e x i s t e d i n one  p o i n t i n time  personal  communication, 1983).  t i o n ignores who  community at one  The  the f a c t t h a t most cemeteries c o n t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s  one  of  s o c i a l system but any  number  systems.  T h i s p o i n t i s recognized Randsborg  throughout a c e r t a i n l e n g t h  i n d i v i d u a l s from each c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d w i t h i n  a cemetery do not r e p r e s e n t of s o c i a l  Blake,  T h i s manner of i n t e r p r e t a -  were i n t e r r e d c o n t i n u o u s l y  time.  (M.  (19 81:15) and Braun  i n the reviews by Chapman and (1981:409), the e t h n o h i s t o r i c a l  and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l study by O'Shea (1981:40), and p r o c e s s u a l mortuary s t u d i e s by Doran  i n the  (1973:150-151), Jones  - 32 -  (1980:193),  Chapman (1977:30), MacDonald  Shennan (1975:280), 65), Hodson Goldstein  Van de Velde  (1979:46), Gruber  (1977:403, 1979:25), Greber  (1981:56-57).  (19 80:38-39),  Goldstein  (1971:64-  (1979b:36), and  (1981:56-57) p o i n t s out  t h a t i f the time f a c t o r i s not c o n s i d e r e d , d i f f e r e n t p e r c e i v e d rank l e v e l s may be due t o changes through time i n mortuary treatment.  O'Shea  Pawnee mortuary  (19 81:45) notes a change through time i n  treatment i n the means by which a c e r t a i n  s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n was symbolized and i n the s o c i a l tion i t s e l f .  There was a g r e a t change i n a l l aspects o f  A r i k a r a mortuary goods  distinc-  treatment, e s p e c i a l l y i n the types o f grave  (O'Shea, 1981:48).  O'Shea  (1981:51) concludes t h a t  s i m i l a r changes i n mortuary  treatment through time should  be expected a t any mortuary  site.  O'Shea  (19 81:52) s t a t e s  t h a t h i s study supports B i n f o r d ' s (1971:23) c o n c l u s i o n t h a t mortuary  treatment r e f l e c t s the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s o c i e t y  i n which the deceased had l i v e d but t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the mortuary be c o n s i d e r e d .  treatment changed through time must a l s o  The s t a t e o f r a p i d change c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  the P l a i n s s o c i e t i e s i s probably n o t t y p i c a l o f p r e h i s t o r i c s o c i e t i e s , but some change i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n should be expected  (ibid).  a cemetery  Braun  (19 81:409) p o i n t s out t h a t the l o n g e r  i s i n use, the more l i k e l y there w i l l be changes  i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n mortuary Although the mortuary  ritual.  s t u d i e s c i t e d above acknowledge  the time f a c t o r , i t i s i g n o r e d by many r e s e a r c h e r s when i n t e r p r e t i n g the s t a t u s l e v e l s r e p r e s e n t e d a t mortuary  sites  - 33 -  within  each c h r o n o l o g i c a l  Tainter  and Cordy  period  1977, T a i n t e r  ( s u c h as Shennan 1975, 1975a, 1977a a n d b , 1973;  G r e b e r 1979a, W r i g h t 1978, P e e b l e s and Kus 1977, R o t h s c h i l d 1979,  Spencer  Buikstra  1982, B i n f o r d  19 7 6 ) .  1972, P e e b l e s 1972, 1974,  Some r e s e a r c h e r s  that  address the problem  o f t h e t i m e f a c t o r make u n w a r r a n t e d  assumptions  population  study.  using  the cemetery  (19 77:431) assume t h a t a cemetery  ( i n terms  significantly tion  point  reflects  i n time, assuming  I argue t h a t an e f f o r t  has been  relationships period.  o f the population  the Seip  Greber  mound a r e  such assumptions  attempt.  These  (Goldstein  periods  community  a t an a v e r a g e size  a n d age a n d  (1979a:43) assumes t h e contemporaneous.  s h o u l d n o t be made  until  made t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l  of burials within  different  through time.  o f the l i v i n g  t h e same b r o a d  O n l y a few a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m o r t u a r y  different  studies  spatial  have attempted  o f time w i t h i n  have made  t o determine represent  one c h r o n o l o g i c a l  1981:66, 1980:122-123; T a i n t e r  and Hodson 1 9 7 9 : 2 5 ) .  chronological  studies  areas o f a cemetery  1980:38-39, Shennan 1975:280, Doran 193,  t h e age and s e x p o p u l a -  the population  d i d n o t change.  individuals within  if  that  that  using  age and s e x ) does n o t change  a n d i t s age and s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n  sex s t r u c t u r e  this  of size,  (1975:283) e s t i m a t e s t h e s i z e  from Branc  P e e b l e s and Kus  the composition o f a population  through time, so t h a t  of the s i t e  Shennan  under  about the  period  1976:102, M a c D o n a l d  19 73:150-151, J o n e s 1980:  A few m o r t u a r y  studies  do  consider  - 34  -  change through time i n the system of s t a t u s i n a cemetery with more than one 1977,  Wright 1978,  and b ) .  Pearson  Mainfort (19 81)  differentiation  chronological period  1977,  discusses  Hatch 1977,  T a i n t e r 1977a  change through time i n  s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n the Dawenkou s i t e and the Dawenkou Culture r e g i o n as a whole.  The  order  Pearson 1981).  aspect  of the processes t h a t a f f e c t e d  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d a t a cemetery. processes has  Consideration  been l a c k i n g i n p r o c e s s u a l  mortuary  w i t h the g o a l o f understanding s o c i a l r a n k i n g Randsborg 1981:11 and  T a i n t e r 1978:109).  these processes i n c l u d e n a t u r a l and have c r e a t e d  characteristic  region  i n which the b u r i a l s w i t h i n a cemetery were  i n t e r r e d i s one  may  processes  f o r change w i t h i n a s i t e or c u l t u r a l  (e.g., Wright 1978,  within  Even fewer mortuary  s t u d i e s have attempted to e x p l a i n the c u l t u r a l responsible  (Braun  s i t e disturbance  of these studies  (Chapman  and  I maintain that  cultural  and  the  three  factors that factors  of the c u l t u r a l group(s) u s i n g the  1) the order of interment of b u r i a l s as d i s c u s s e d  cemetery: above,  2) the nature of the s o c i a l subgroup(s) u s i n g the cemetery,  and  3) the nature of the mortuary r i t u a l i t s e l f - whether the material  forms chosen t o symbolize p a r t i c u l a r aspects of the  persona are preserved they are c l e a r l y The  i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d and whether  recognizable.  mortuary s t u d i e s c i t e d p r e v i o u s l y t h a t f o l l o w  processual  approach attempt to r e c o n s t r u c t  t i o n s i n one  social  particular society.  the s t a t u s  the distinc-  I t i s i m p l i c i t l y assumed  - 35 -  t h a t the people b u r i e d i n the cemetery are from one  community.  I t i s known from e t h n o g r a p h i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data t h a t there i s g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y i n the a s s o c i a t i o n between s e t t l e ments and cemeteries cemetery may  (Chapman and Randsborg 1981:15).  A  r e p r e s e n t one whole community, s u b s e c t i o n ( s )  of one community, s u b s e c t i o n ( s ) of more than one  community,  or more than one whole community. As O'Shea (1981:40) p o i n t s out, c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the third culture-specific has e s p e c i a l l y  type of process mentioned e a r l i e r  been l a c k i n g i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  His study i s  a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the understanding of aspects of mortuary  r i t u a l t h a t are observable i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  record.  O'Shea (1981:49-50) concludes t h a t although  s t a t u s tends t o be c l e a r l y from mortuary  ritual,  reflected  social  social  i n the mortuary  subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n  remains  tends t o  be symbolized by m a t e r i a l s which do not p r e s e r v e w e l l or i n a s u b t l e manner. regularities  O'Shea (19 81:52) maintains there are  i n the formation processes of mortuary  and although there tends to be a d i s t o r t i o n  between  sites, social  o r g a n i z a t i o n as i n t e r p r e t e d from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l mortuary (especially  social  subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n ) and the a c t u a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n of a s o c i e t y , t h i s d i s t o r t i o n Levine's  (19 77) study of New  ritual  social  i s predictable.  Guinean mortuary  rituals  i n d i c a t e s t h a t aspects of the s o c i a l persona are not expressed i n mortuary  data  also directly  (Chapman and Randsborg 19 81:14).  - 36 -  2.3.  The Symbolist Approach The mortuary s t u d i e s f o l l o w i n g the symbolist  approach  a l s o m a i n t a i n t h a t the goal o f s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p r o b l e m a t i c , as w e l l as the l a c k o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f processes t h a t a f f e c t e d the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d o f a cemetery. The symbolist (1982a, 1980).  approach i s c l e a r l y expressed i n Hodder  Hodder  (1980) c a l l s f o r a t o t a l l y new approach  i n mortuary a n a l y s i s than t h a t employed analyses.  Hodder's  mortuary  (19 82a, 19 80) e t h n o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  among the Nubia i n Sudan demonstrates 19 81)  i n processual  work  ( l i k e the work o f O'Shea  t h a t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n may n o t be d i r e c t l y expressed  by a r c h a e o l o g i c a l mortuary data. distortion  and s t r u c t u r e d d i s j u n c t i o n " between mortuary  p a t t e r n i n g and p a t t e r n i n g (ibid).  There tends t o be "a  characteristic  o f the l i v i n g s o c i e t y  The m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e of a s o c i e t y may e i t h e r  repre-  sent o r m i s r e p r e s e n t the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the s o c i e t y , depending upon the i d e o l o g y (Hodder 1982:210).  and symbolic codes of the s o c i e t y  Thus, the degree t o which the m a t e r i a l  remains from mortuary r i t u a l r e f l e c t the s o c i a l of a s o c i e t y depends upon t h a t s o c i e t y ' s  ideology.  The mortuary s t u d i e s f o l l o w i n g the symbolist have made the i n f o r m a t i v e particular cultural  conclusion  organization  approach  t h a t depending on the  a t t i t u d e s towards death, s t a t u s  distinc-  t i o n s o r o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the s o c i a l persona may o r may n o t be symbolized i n the m a t e r i a l remains from mortuary In some Nubian s o c i e t i e s , many p e r s o n a l  ritual.  items of the deceased  - 37 -  are broken and p l a c e d on top o f the b u r i a l mound i n s t e a d of inside  i t (Hodder 1982a:163).  symbolize high  The L o z i i n Zambia do n o t  s t a t u s by m a t e r i a l goods (1982a:120).  f e a r o f impurity  c r e a t e d by death causes B r i t i s h gypsies t o  break o b j e c t s and n o t p l a c e them i n graves Thus, the l a c k of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n aspect  The  (Hodder 1980:167).  o f s t a t u s o r o f any other  o f the s o c i a l persona by mortuary treatment does not  indicate that t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (Hodder 1980:166).  d i d not occur i n l i f e  U n l i k e O'Shea (1981:52), Hodder  (1982a:  207-208) maintains t h a t the nature i n which the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l record r e f l e c t s a transformation be p r e d i c t e d , because d i f f e r e n t  of s o c i a l organization societies  have  cannot  different  i d e o l o g i e s and symbolic codes which c o n t i n u a l l y change w i t h time.  However, Hodder concedes that a r c h a e o l o g i c a l mortuary  data do r e f l e c t some aspects o f s o c i a l  organization:  While b u r i a l b e h a v i o r may d i s t o r t and i n v e r t , i t does n o t t o t a l l y h i d e . There w i l l always be some aspect o f the s o c i e t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which can be p i c k e d out i n the gross c r o s s c u l t u r a l reviews as being r e f l e c t e d i n b u r i a l (Hodder 1980:168).  Hodder's  (19 80:168) s o l u t i o n  t o the problem of d e t e r -  mining the degree t o which the mortuary data from a s i t e r e f l e c t s the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the s o c i a l group(s) u s i n g the cemetery i s t o i d e n t i f y the i d e o l o g y with regard  t o death:  o f the s o c i e t y  - 38 -  A new approach t o b u r i a l must not expect simple c o r r e l a t i o n s between s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and burial. Rather, i t must i d e n t i f y the way i n which p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s t o death can be d e r i v e d from d i f f e r e n t conceptions o f the l i v i n g p r a c t i c a l world ( i b i d ) .  Hodder (1982:208-9) p o i n t s out t h a t s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n any  s o c i e t y i s more complex than has been r e a l i z e d i n most  mortuary s t u d i e s .  An understanding  o f s o c i a l ranking  requires  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s towards domination, power and authority i n a society (ibid). new e t h n o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Hodder (1980:168) c a l l s f o r  s t u d i e s which e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between the i d e o l o g y o f s o c i e t i e s and t h e i r mortuary rituals. A diachronic ethnoarchaeological advocated by Hodder (1982).  Pearson's  study o f the type  (19 80:168) has been r e p o r t e d by Pearson (1982) c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the mortuary  p r a c t i c e s o f V i c t o r i a n and modern England are p o t e n t i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o p r e h i s t o r i c mortuary s i t e s .  Mortuary  ritual  may r e f l e c t i d e a l , not a c t u a l , r e l a t i o n s o f power w i t h i n a s o c i e t y , and l i v i n g s o c i a l groups may manipulate the s t a t u s e s of deceased i n d i v i d u a l s i n order t o e l e v a t e t h e i r own s t a t u s e s or f o r other purposes I maintain  (Pearson  1982:112).  t h a t u n t i l more i n d i v i d u a l o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  ethnoarchaeological  s t u d i e s o f the k i n d advocated by Hodder  (19 80:168) have been made, the o n l y r e s o r t f o r the r e s e a r c h e r i s t o make the most o f the ethnographic  and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  - 39 -  data a v a i l a b l e . most l i k e l y  ary remains part.  may  be  treatment,  do  The  t e n d t o be  variability 1981:43).  Hodder  which can  identify  apparent  been e s t a b l i s h e d  that  status relationships  informants' accounts  of  mortu-  at by  least Hodder  mortuary  u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t o t a l  (1982a,  practices  1980)  cultural  basis of archaeological  are  as t h o s e p r e s e n t l y e m p l o y e d i n  i n the mortuary  cultural  than t h a t  k i n d of ethnographic study advocated  a n a l y s e s because  practices  that  i t has  tend to r e f l e c t  as c o n t r o v e r s i a l  mortuary  although status r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t o be more complex i n l i f e  from mortuary  in  Also,  of a society  of  (O'Shea  does n o t p r o v i d e a method  attitudes  data.  range  Leach  t o w a r d s d e a t h on (1977:169) a l s o  i d e o l o g y r e g a r d i n g d e a t h s h o u l d be  the  maintains  assessed  and  does n o t p r o v i d e a method. Other mortuary  s t u d i e s of the s y m b o l i s t approach  methods w i t h w h i c h one and  cultural  can  attempt  to determine  i n the i d e o l o g y o f death.  not r e c o g n i z e t h a t mortuary social  systems through  Pader of  (19 82,  19 80)  artifacts within  bodily  A  reflect  data. regular-  studies  a number o f  maintains that  the s p a t i a l  social  of ethnographic  Pader  patterning  of dress  relations within  of dress or b o d i l y  ritual  (1982).  items  or  a  adornment  as  societies i s  (1982,1980) s t u d i e s  do  changing  time.  summary o f i t e m s  i n Pader  some o f t h e s e  graves, p a r t i c u l a r l y  symbols i n the mortuary included  codes  upon c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  Also,  sites  adornment, s y m b o l i z e s  society.  symbolic  ideology regarding death with a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  However, t h e s e methods a r e n o t b a s e d ities  provide  the  - 40 -  v a r i a b i l i t y i n the above type of p a t t e r n i n g w i t h r e g a r d t o age,  sex, s k e l e t a l p o s i t i o n , and s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of graves  w i t h i n two Anglo Saxon cemeteries.  Her study i s s y n c h r o n i c .  Pader maintains t h a t a study of s o c i a l r a n k i n g based upon the r e l a t i v e r i c h n e s s of b u r i a l s alone i s l i m i t e d 1980:143).  (Pader 1982:54,  A study of r a n k i n g which i g n o r e s symbolism  r e f l e c t e d by the s p a t i a l component  ( e i t h e r w i t h i n graves or  between graves) i g n o r e s the c u l t u r a l context of any d e r i v e d status d i s t i n c t i o n s  (Pader 1980:170).  The c u l t u r a l context  i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d by v a r i a b i l i t y i n the other aspects of mortuary  treatment a t a s i t e  (ibid).  Pader  (1980:156)  concludes t h a t the male and female sexes w i t h i n the  two  cemeteries are symbolized i n d i f f e r e n t manners, so t h a t a comparison  of the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of a r t i f a c t  between the two L i k e Pader  types  sexes would be m i s l e a d i n g . (1982, 1980), Shanks and T i l l e y  (1982:152)  maintain t h a t n e g l e c t of the symbolism r e f l e c t e d by  mortuary  treatment n e g l e c t s the s o c i a l c o n t e x t of d e r i v e d s t a t u s distinctions.  They assess the treatment and arrangements  of bones from s k e l e t o n s i n European N e o l i t h i c barrows. p a r i s o n of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n i n g w i t h  Com-  ethnographic  data suggests t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a l access to power by v a r i o u s s o c i a l subgroups i s b e i n g symbolized  (Shanks and  Tilley  1982:151). An aspect of mortuary mortuary  treatment regarded i n some  analyses f o l l o w i n g e i t h e r the s y m b o l i s t or p r o c e s s u a l  - 41 -  approach as e s p e c i a l l y important f o r understanding s o c i a l c o n t e x t i s s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n o f grave. i s c o n s i d e r e d important by Pader  The s p a t i a l component  (1982, 1980 - w i t h i n graves  as w e l l as between graves) and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the p r o c e s s u a l mortuary study d e s c r i b e d i n G o l d s t e i n graves o n l y ) .  Chapman and Randsborg  (1980, 1981 - between (1981:14) s t a t e t h a t  s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g i s another n e g l e c t e d t o p i c i n mortuary analysis. Goldstein  (1980:9-10) m a i n t a i n s t h a t s p a t i a l  location  of graves w i t h i n a cemetery p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on the nature o f d e r i v e d s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s and on how these d i s t i n c t i o n s operated w i t h i n the s o c i e t y i n which the deceased had l i v e d .  L i k e Pader  (1982:170), G o l d s t e i n  (1981:  56) a s s e r t s t h a t a study o f s o c i a l r a n k i n g based e x c l u s i v e l y upon a r t i f a c t s i s incomplete and d i s r e g a r d s the s o c i a l c o n t e x t i n which the d e r i v e d s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s should be c o n s i d e r e d :  What does each group o r s t a t u s type mean? How do the groups r e l a t e t o each other? What a r e the f u n c t i o n s o f each group, and what are the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between groups? While many o f these q u e s t i o n s may n o t be e a s i l y o r r e l i a b l y answered, c u r r e n t mortuary a n a l y s i s does not even approach o r attempt t o ask these q u e s t i o n s . Can we r e a l l y say... t h a t a c u l t u r e i n which we have determined seven s o c i a l groupings i s more complex than one i n which we f i n d s i x groupings?  Some mortuary analyses f o l l o w i n g e i t h e r the s y m b o l i s t or p r o c e s s u a l approach examine mortuary s i t e s i n terms o f  - 42 -  the r e g i o n a l s o c i a l context as w e l l as the l o c a l  social  context.  (19 82),  These symbolic s t u d i e s i n c l u d e Shennan  Hodder (1982b) and Blackmore mortuary  e t .al.  (1979).  Processual  s t u d i e s w i t h t h i s approach are G o l d s t e i n  1981), Peebles  (1974), and Seeman  study by Pearson  (1979).  (1980,  The comparative  (19 81) has been mentioned.  The r e g i o n a l  s o c i a l c o n t e x t i s y e t another n e g l e c t e d aspect o f mortuary analysis 1981) c  (Chapman and Randsborg  and Peebles  identify different  1981:23).  Goldstein  (1980,  (19 74) apply the same techniques t h a t s t a t u s l e v e l s t o a number o f s i t e s i n  the s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l r e g i o n under study.  Seeman  (19 79)  p r o v i d e s an i l l u m i n a t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r i t u a l and economic f u n c t i o n o f mortuary culture  s i t e s w i t h i n the Hopewell  region.  Shennan  (1982:160) suggests t h a t d i f f e r e n t  i n d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s o f the European i n the development  ideologies  Bronze Age r e s u l t e d  o f d i f f e r e n t types o f r a n k i n g systems  from r e g i o n t o r e g i o n .  Hodder (19 82b:175) maintains t h a t  changing design o f ceramics and o f o t h e r types o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e r e f l e c t changing i d e o l o g i e s r e g a r d i n g r e g i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n o f power and domination. r e g i o n a l ceramic d e s i g n , Blackmore  In another study o f e t a l . (19 79:108) suggest  t h a t d i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t designs from b u r i a l and s e t t l e ment s i t e s symbolize competing  ethnic  groups.  - 43 -  2.4.  The Approach  Followed i n t h i s Mortuary  Analysis  This analysis of status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  utilizes  t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r achieved versus a s c r i b e d s t a t u s d e r i v e d from the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e g u l a r i t i e s concluded by Saxe Binford  (1971), and T a i n t e r  (1973, 1975b).  (1970),  The p a r t i c u l a r  techniques u t i l i z e d t o i d e n t i f y the v a r i o u s s t a t u s l e v e l s o r d i s t i n c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d among the Dawenkou b u r i a l s are d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . aspects o f mortuary  V a r i a b i l i t y i n as many  treatment t h a t have been c o n s i d e r e d as  p o t e n t i a l l y s t a t u s - r e l a t e d i s assessed. r e f l e c t wealth  Variables that  (such as q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f grave goods)  and energy expenditure  (grave form and s i z e ) are i n c l u d e d .  Other v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d are body d i s p o s i t i o n and s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n o f grave  (see F i g u r e 2-3).  The Dawenkou s i t e  r e p o r t does n o t p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f body treatment or body p r e p a r a t i o n . My e x p l o r a t o r y study o f s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a t Dawenkou conducted i n 19 81 suggested t h a t both wealth and energy expenditure symbolize s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s a t Dawenkou. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n q u a n t i t y o f grave goods (from none t o over 100 i t e m s ) , q u a l i t y o f grave goods utilitarian  (from  stone t o o l s and ceramic v e s s e l types t o jade  ornaments and items o f carved i v o r y ) , and grave s i z e i n area  (from l e s s than 5.0m2 t o 13.Om^), and grave form  (from  simple p i t s t o l o g tombs). The s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s d e r i v e d i n the a n a l y s i s o f  - 44 -  s t a t u s are i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the f a c t t h a t the Dawenkou cemetery r e p r e s e n t s a number o f s o c i a l through time.  systems  I t i s e s p e c i a l l y important t o c o n s i d e r the  time f a c t o r f o r Dawenkou because as mentioned  i n Chapter 1,  the cemetery may have been used f o r 1000 years (Wu 1982). The number o f d e r i v e d s t a t u s l e v e l s i s not i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g the exact number of s t a t u s l e v e l s which e x i s t e d i n the s o c i e t y o f the deceased. d i s t i n c t changes  I n s t e a d , emphasis  i s p l a c e d upon  i n the number and nature of s t a t u s  t i o n s i n the cemetery through time.  distinc-  The e x a c t number o f  s t a t u s l e v e l s a t one p o i n t i n time i s a l s o n o t i n t e r p r e t e d l i t e r a l l y due t o the probable d i s t o r t i o n o f s t a t u s and o f other aspects o f the s o c i a l persona as r e f l e c t e d i n the cemetery. Some r e s e a r c h e r s have attempted t o determine the degree of r a n k i n g r e p r e s e n t e d i n a cemetery a t one p o i n t i n time (Peebles and Kus 1977, B u i k s t r a 1976, T a i n t e r 1977a, 1977b, 1978;  T a i n t e r and Cordy 1977, Shephard  Brown 1971).  Buikstra  1979, Hatch 1976,  (1976:35-37) d e s c r i b e s the degree of  r a n k i n g i n Middle Woodland s i t e s i n terms o f F r i e d ' s "ranked" and " s t r a t i f i e d " s o c i e t i e s . Hatch  (1967)  Peebles and Kus (1977),  (19 76), and Brown (1971:102) attempt to determine  whether a chiefdom i n S e r v i c e ' s at a s i t e .  (19 75) sense i s r e p r e s e n t e d  Some r e s e a r c h e r s have c r i t i c i z e d the c h a r a c t e r -  i z a t i o n o f s i t e s i n terms o f e v o l u t i o n a r y  typologies  (Hodder 1982a:208, G o l d s t e i n 1981:54, and T a i n t e r 1978:115117).  In these s t u d i e s i t i s argued t h a t s i t e s are p i g e o n -  - 45  holed and  into evolutionary  that  -  t y p e s on  such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  the  basis  of  a few  traits  i s description instead  of  explanation. Tainter and  (1977a, 1977b, 1 9 7 8 ) , T a i n t e r  Shephard  (1979) g i v e  and  a c a l c u l a t i o n of the  Cordy  (1977),  amount and  of organization.  T h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s have b e e n c r i t i c i z e d  Binford  communication,  (personal  and  Goldstein  (1981:55).  and  degree of  organization  every cemetery Tainter the  assumed t h a t system.  measurements  assume t h a t  i s r e f l e c t e d by  1978:134).  number o f  The  Also,  1983), Braus  by  i n d i v i d u a l s i n every the  represented  reflects  I a r g u e i t i s more f e a s i b l e w i t h  to i d e n t i f y  degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n  an  absolute  manner.  of  ranking  (see  (ibid),  one  i t is  entire  social  archaeological  in a relative  implications  in  calculations  rank l e v e l  cemetery d i r e c t l y  Test  amount  energy expenditure  i n c l u d i n g i n the  by  (1981:408-412)  of the  status  degree  instead  data of  f o r d i f f e r e n t degrees  derived  f r o m e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a have n o t  been  Whether t h e r e  i s a change t h r o u g h t i m e i n t h e  degree  developed.  status  differentiation  a t Dawenkou i s a s s e s s e d i n t h i s  A q u a l i t a t i v e change i s c o n c l u d e d i f t h e r e achieved  to ascribed  concluded i f there status of  and  i s a greater  Late p e r i o d  i s a change  i s a c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e i n the  differentiation  (as d e f i n e d  by  My  conducted  number o f h i g h the  study. from  a q u a n t i t a t i v e change i s  d i s t i n c t i o n s through time.  status  there  status,  of  number  exploratory  i n 19 81  status  authors of  assessment  suggested  burials in the  site  of  that  the report)  -  46  -  i n terms of grave goods and energy e x p e n d i t u r e , l o c a t e d i n more d i v e r s e s p a t i a l areas of the In the  cemetery.  f i n a l chapter of t h i s study, there i s a d i s c u s s i o n  of the nature of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n represented i n comparison to other  s i t e s i n the Dawenkou.Culture.  processes such as those suggested by Pearson have been r e s p o n s i b l e through time are The  first,  burials.  f o r change i n s t a t u s  (1981)  Cultural  that  included.  analyses  are d e s c r i b e d  i n Chapters 3 , 4 and  As mentioned i n Chapter 1 , there given  reported  archaeological l i t e r a t u r e  (Early, Late).  i n the r e c e n t The  Chinese  chronological  a n a l y s i s of s t a t u s i s undertaken; otherwise, any v a r i a b i l i t y i n s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s may temporal dimension.  The  the two  concluded the  methods t h a t were employed to and  derive  an e f f o r t i s  schemes.  second p r e l i m i n a r y  a n a l y s i s , i n Chapter 4 , i s an  attempt to i d e n t i f y the sex of unsexed b u r i a l s on the of the types of grave goods i n known sexed b u r i a l s . unknown reason, only  3 0 of the  cemetery are sexed.  Whether s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  and  the  be a f a c t o r of  c h r o n o l o g i c a l schemes are d i s c u s s e d  made to e v a l u a t e  the  report  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among b u r i a l s must be understood before  cuts age  5.  i s a disagreement  i n the s i t e  ( E a r l y , Middle, Late) and  The  Three  i n Chapter 3 , i s a c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of  between the c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s  the two  may  differentiation  a n a l y s i s of s t a t u s i s conducted i n Chapter 6 .  preliminary The  at Dawenkou  sex c a t e g o r i e s  basis For  an  1 2 7 s i n g l e b u r i a l s i n the  or whether i t i s on the  crossbasis  - 47 -  of age and sex c a t e g o r i e s i s a key t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t has been employed i n p r o c e s s u a l mortuary analyses t o i n d i c a t e a s c r i b e d versus achieved s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s .  An e f f o r t must  be made t o estimate the sex o f the remaining b u r i a l s i n order to adequately  assess whether s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s are a s c r i b e d  ( i n d i c a t i v e o f a r a n k i n g system) as Chinese  and western  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have proposed f o r Dawenkou. Another method by which female b u r i a l s c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from male b u r i a l s i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the b u r i a l s with t o o t h e x t r a c t i o n and s k u l l deformation (in p r e s s : 2 6 ) .  noted by Pearson  Female b u r i a l s c o u l d a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d by  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s k e l e t o n s t h a t had c l a y b a l l s i n t h e i r mouths d u r i n g t h e i r l i f e t i m e s .  Pearson  (19 81:1084) notes  t h a t female s k e l e t o n s from Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s tend t o have t h e c l a y b a l l more than male s k e l e t o n s .  Unfortunately,  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t o o t h e x t r a c t i o n , s k u l l deformation, and the presence  o f c l a y b a l l s f o r each b u r i a l i s n o t p r o v i d e d i n  the s i t e r e p o r t . The  t h i r d a n a l y s i s , i n Chapter  5, i s the assessment o f  s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n represented i n the cemetery. attempt i s made t o understand  An  the s o c i a l context i n which  s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s were a p a r t .  C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the number  of p o r t i o n ( s ) o f communities represented a t the cemetery i s included.  Some aspects o f mortuary treatment  a t Dawenkou  may r e f l e c t s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n as w e l l as s o c i a l (see F i g u r e 2-3):  body d i s p o s i t i o n , grave  position  form, s p a t i a l  - 48 -  l o c a t i o n o f grave.  V a r i a b i l i t y i n these aspects o f mortuary  treatment i s assessed i n both Chapters 5 and 6.  The  spatial  l o c a t i o n o f graves w i t h i n the cemetery i s regarded as e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l f o r understanding the nature of s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n .  The s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of a r t i f a c t s  and s k e l e t o n s w i t h i n graves i s not assessed here due to time c o n s t r a i n t s .  Study of t h i s p a t t e r n i n g a t Dawenkou i s  l i k e l y t o be i n f o r m a t i v e .  There appear t o be some r e g u l a r -  i t i e s i n the placement o f c e r t a i n a r t i f a c t types i n r e l a t i o n to v a r i o u s body p a r t s  2.5.  (Pearson 1981:1080).  Method t o Determine Status L e v e l s Despite the l a r g e number o f mortuary analyses i n the  l i t e r a t u r e t h a t f o l l o w the p r o c e s s u a l approach, a l i m i t e d number o f techniques have been employed  to determine the  s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s or l e v e l s r e p r e s e n t e d i n c e m e t e r i e s . These methods have i n c l u d e d :  i n t u i t i v e assessment based upon  the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f a r t i f a c t s  (Whalen 1983,  Buikstra  1976, L a r s o n 1971, Gruber 1971, A l e k s h i n 1983, Jacobsen and C u l l e n 1981, B i n f o r d 1972, Greber 1979b, M i l i s a u s k a s i n t u i t i v e assessment and v a r i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s  1978), (Rathje  1970, King 1969, Peebles 1971, Saxe 1971), the c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n , a measure o f r e l a t i v e v a r i a b i l i t y 1981), formal a n a l y s i s  (Brown  (Pearson  1971, Decker 1969), r a n k i n g of  b u r i a l s or the assignment of wealth scores on the b a s i s o f q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f grave goods  (Shennan 1975,  Shephard  - 49 -  1979, Rathje 1973, Greber 1979a, Winters 1968, et  a l . (19 79),  Blackmore  and m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l techniques  (monothetic - d i v i s i v e or p o l y t h e t i c , i n an R or Q mode). The monothetic - d i v i s i v e techniques have c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n  statistic  sum of c h i - s q u a r e measure of a s s o c i a t i o n Goldstein Mainfort  included or w i t h the  ( T a i n t e r 1975a,  1980, 1981; Peebles 1972, 1974; Jones 1980, 1977, Hatch 1976).  C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s i s the p o l y -  t h e t i c method which has been employed  to the g r e a t e s t  extent.  The p o l y t h e t i c techniques have i n c l u d e d Average Linkage cluster analysis 19 79),  (Shennan 1975, T a i n t e r 1975a,  Complete Linkage c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s  Mainfort (Mainfort  Rothschild  ( T a i n t e r 19 75a,  1977, Hatch 1976), S i n g l e Linkage c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s 1977, Hodson 1977), c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s by Ward's  E r r o r Sum o f Squares Method  (Peebles 1974,  1972; Hatch 1976),  c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s by Program Mode (Peebles 19 72),  factor  analysis  ( T a i n t e r 1975a, Bayard 1983), p r i n c i p a l components  analysis  (Braun 1977, 1979; Van de Velde 1979, O'Shea 1981),  and c a l c u l a t i o n of the amount and degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n the i n f o r m a t i o n  statistic  ( T a i n t e r 1977a and b,  by  1978;  T a i n t e r and Cordy 19 77, Shephard 19 79). For a l a r g e data s e t such as Dawenkou, m u l t i v a r i a t e statistical  techniques are more a p p r o p r i a t e  than i n t u i t i v e  assessment, formal a n a l y s i s , or assignment of wealth  scores.  These techniques can group b u r i a l s t h a t co-vary i n terms of the numerous v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d  as p o t e n t i a l l y s t a t u s -  related.  p o i n t out the  Orton and Hodson (19 81)  statistical  - 50 -  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n employing wealth score measures. niques chosen f o r the a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s  The t e c h -  i n Chapter 6 are  t h r e e types o f p o l y t h e t i c c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s  techniques  (Average Linkage, Complete Linkage and Ward's Method) and multidimensional s c a l i n g . i n d e t a i l i n Chapter 3.  The above techniques are d e s c r i b e d These techniques are employed i n a  Q mode t o group b u r i a l s o f s i m i l a r s t a t u s .  Most mortuary  analyses i n the l i t e r a t u r e are conducted i n a Q mode, but some (e.g. Braun 19 79)  have found i t u s e f u l t o employ an  R mode a n a l y s i s t o i d e n t i f y c o - v a r y i n g s e t s o f a r t i f a c t types or grave forms. Factor  a n a l y s i s o r p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s i s n o t  s u i t a b l e f o r the Dawenkou data s e t because the p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e s regarded as p o t e n t i a l l y s t a t u s - r e l a t e d had t o be coded on a presence/absence b a s i s .  The v a r i a b l e s do n o t  occur t o a great enough e x t e n t among the b u r i a l s t o a l l o w the use  of  frequencies.  P o l y t h e t i c c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s techniques are chosen f o r the a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s because they have been c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l f o r mortuary s i t e s and f o r o t h e r s u b j e c t s l o g i c a l research.  o f archaeo-  In some mortuary a n a l y s e s , i t i s a s s e r t e d  t h a t monothetic - d i v i s i v e techniques are b e t t e r able t o c l a s s i f y b u r i a l s o r a r t i f a c t types than p o l y t h e t i c ( T a i n t e r 19 75a,  Goldstein  19 80,  i n Tainter  19 81;  Jones 19 80,  techniques Shephard  1979).  The o p i n i o n  (1975a) i s based upon a com-  parison  o f monothetic - d i v i s i v e c l u s t e r i n g techniques w i t h  - 51 -  p o l y t h e t i c techniques on the same data s e t . 62)  Shephard  (1979:  s t a t e s t h a t he compared s e v e r a l other types of c l u s t e r i n g  methods with the monothetic not name these types.  - d i v i s i v e methods, but he does  T a i n t e r ' s (1975a) comparison  of  techniques has been thoroughly c r i t i c i z e d and c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n c l u s i v e by Braun  (1981:405).  The o p i n i o n i n G o l d s t e i n  (1980:48, 1981:62-63) i s based upon T a i n t e r ' s (1975a) f a u l t y comparison  of techniques and Peebles'  monothetic  - d i v i s i v e methods f o r the Moundville  However, Peebles  (1972, 19 74) use of site.  (19 72, 19 74) maintains t h a t both the mono-  t h e t i c - d i v i s i v e and p o l y t h e t i c types of c l u s t e r y i e l d e d adequate r e s u l t s .  Peebles  analysis  (1972:10) s t a t e s t h a t the  r e s u l t s from Ward's Method and Program Mode f u l f i l l e d  a priori  e x p e c t a t i o n s , but some of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n the data s e t was not as apparent as i n the r e s u l t s from the  monothetic  divisive analysis.  concludes  Peebles  (19 74:167-16 8)  that  "each of the analyses captured s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t aspects of the same s e t s of b e h a v i o r " and t h a t "each was the s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r Comparisons of monothetic  valuable for  results". - d i v i s i v e and  polythetic  c l u s t e r i n g techniques have a l s o been made by M a i n f o r t (1977) and Hatch  (1976).  M a i n f o r t (1977:78, 97) concludes t h a t a  p o l y t h e t i c c l u s t e r i n g method  (Single Linkage)  s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s , but as i n Peebles of  yielded  (19 74), both  types  methods emphasized d i f f e r e n t aspects of the v a r i a -  bility  i n the data s e t .  Hatch  (19 76) employes a monothetic  -  - 52 -  d i v i s i v e method along w i t h Ward's Method and Complete Linkage but does not comment on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of one method over the o t h e r . The r e s u l t s from the s t u d i e s above do not i n d i c a t e p o l y t h e t i c c l u s t e r i n g techniques have no u t i l i t y a n a l y s i s i n comparison  to monothetic  that  f o r mortuary  - d i v i s i v e techniques.  P o l y t h e t i c methods df c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are regarded by Braun (1981:405) as more a p p r o p r i a t e than monothetic  - divisive  techniques f o r i s o l a t i n g redundantly symbolized s t a t u s t i n c t i o n s i n a data s e t .  dis-  A l s o , p o l y t h e t i c methods do not  share the l i m i t a t i o n of the monothetic  - d i v i s i v e methods,  t h a t d e f i n e a given group on the b a s i s of a unique s e t of features.  S e r i o u s e r r o r s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t when an  item t h a t does not possess the one  f e a t u r e used to make a  primary d i v i s i o n i s moved t o a d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d grouping, even i f the item i s r e l a t e d t o the items of another grouping i n every o t h e r f e a t u r e (Sneath and Sokal 19 73:13). Three types of p o l y t h e t i c c l u s t e r i n g techniques (Average Linkage, Complete Linkage and Ward's Method) are employed so t h a t the p a t t e r n i n g i n t e r p r e t e d r e f l e c t s the v a r i a b i l i t y i n the data s e t and i s not a r e f l e c t i o n of the mathematical used  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i c u l a r techniques  (Matson and True 1974:72, Braun 1981:406).  Patterning  which i s i d e n t i f i e d by more than one technique i s regarded as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the data s e t . mortuary  Interpretations  s t u d i e s based upon o n l y one type  from  of m u l t i v a r i a t e  - 53 -  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n technique should be regarded as t e n t a t i v e  until  they are s u b s t a n t i a t e d by another type o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n technique  (e.g. R o t h s c h i l d 1979, G o l d s t e i n 1980, 1981).  Peebles and Kus (1977:43 8) and Shennan  (19 75:283) employ more  than one type o f c l u s t e r i n g technique but do not s p e c i f y the types. To my knowledge, no mortuary  a n a l y s i s i n the l i t e r a t u r e  has u t i l i z e d m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g as a technique t o identify status d i s t i n c t i o n s .  R o t h s c h i l d (1979:6 72)  mentions she w i l l use i t i n a f u t u r e study.  Multidimensional  s c a l i n g has been regarded i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e as capable o f i n d i c a t i n g important r e l a t i o n s between items i n a data s e t and as a comparable technique w i t h c l u s t e r (Johnson  1972).  analysis  The r e s u l t s from the s c a l i n g and c l u s t e r i n g  techniques i n Chapter  6 are compared i n order t o i n t e r p r e t  the important s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n the Dawenkou cemetery. The use o f c l u s t e r i n g and s c a l i n g t o i d e n t i f y s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s has p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y  f o r other mortuary  sites  (Binford,  p e r s o n a l communication 19 83). In Chapter 6, i t i s demonstrated  t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r  m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l techniques employed a f f e c t the s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s among the b u r i a l s which r e s u l t .  Also,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c l u s t e r i n g and s c a l i n g r e s u l t s i n v o l v e s a degree o f s u b j e c t i v i t y on the p a r t of the r e s e a r c h e r . T h i s i s r e c o g n i z e d by many r e s e a r c h e r s and i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  3.  T h e r e f o r e , there i s a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l reason as  - 54 -  w e l l as a t h e o r e t i c a l one f o r not i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t a n t s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s as the exact  d i s t i n c t i o n s which e x i s t e d  i n the s o c i e t y of the deceased.  2.6.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f N a t u r a l and C u l t u r a l F a c t o r s t h a t may have A f f e c t e d the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Record a t Dawenkou A n a t u r a l f a c t o r t h a t may have a f f e c t e d the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  r e c o r d a t Dawenkou i s changing o f the course o f the Dawen R i v e r immediately adjacent  t o the cemetery, and subsequent f l o o d i n g  of a p o r t i o n o f the s i t e . of the s i t e r e p o r t . taken p l a c e and  I t i s not c l e a r whether any f l o o d i n g has  s i n c e the interment o f the b u r i a l s d u r i n g  Late p e r i o d s .  the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s was not  by the excavators o f the s i t e i n 1959, due t o  f l o o d i n g o r some other been  the E a r l y  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a p o r t i o n o f the b u r i a l s  o r i g i n a l l y l a i d during discovered  The r i v e r i s shown i n photo p l a t e 1  discovered  factor.  A d d i t i o n a l graves may have  s i n c e 1959, t o o .  A r e c e n t a r t i c l e on the Chinese N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d by An  (19 82)  i m p l i e s t h a t more b u r i a l s have been found a t the  Dawenkou cemetery.  The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f An's a r t i c l e  by the e d i t o r s o f China Reconstructs s t a t e s : 1500 62).  "So f a r some  g r a v e s i t e s have been uncovered a t Dawenkou" (An 1982: Zou Heng (personal communication, 1983, i n t e r p r e t s  t h i s unclear  t r a n s l a t i o n t o mean t h a t 1500 graves have been  found a t the Dawenkou s i t e .  I b e l i e v e I am aware o f the  g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f the Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  literature  - 55  -  a v a i l a b l e to the West on the Dawenkou cemetery. found any  information  I have not  on a d d i t i o n a l b u r i a l s d i s c o v e r e d  i n the  cemetery except f o r the b u r i a l s excavated i n 19 74 t h a t belong to a time p e r i o d e a r l i e r than those from the mentioned i n Chapter 1. determine whether any  1959  excavation  Thus, I have not been able  o f the  1500  to  additional burials  (provided  Zou's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c o r r e c t ) are contemporary w i t h those from the E a r l y and  Late p e r i o d s  some or a l l of the 1500 w i t h the  133  b u r i a l s may population  of the  1959  b u r i a l s at Dawenkou are  not be completely r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Longshan and  111  of the  13 3  burial  as a whole.  l a t e r occupations o c c u r r e d ,  pottery  If  contemporary  i n c l u d e d i n t h i s mortuary a n a l y s i s , the  I t i s not c l e a r whether d i s t u r b a n c e by  excavation.  Shang p e r i o d s  I t does not periods  have d i s t u r b e d  the  few and  seem t h a t the use  a f f e c t e d the  i n c l u d e d i n t h i s mortuary a n a l y s i s . land use may  only by a  (shown i n photo p l a t e s 110  of the s i t e r e p o r t ) . these two  I t appears t h a t  are represented  shards and v e s s e l s  the s i t e d u r i n g  either.  of the 13 3 b u r i a l s  of  13 3 b u r i a l s  However, i n t e n s i v e  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d  at  Dawenkou. F i v e b u r i a l s are noted i n the s i t e r e p o r t as disturbed. The  These b u r i a l s are L3, E27,  time p e r i o d ( s )  L46,  and  L77.  i n which these b u r i a l s were d i s t u r b e d  w e l l as whether both n a t u r a l and r e s p o n s i b l e are not known. bance i n L77  X39,  being  i s described  as  c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s are  Only the extent as major.  of the d i s t u r -  I t i s believed  that  - 56 -  t h i s b u r i a l o r i g i n a l l y contained  a great  number'.and'variety  o f grave goods (Shandong P r o v i n c i a l C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Commission 19 74:14 7).  The b u r i a l s d e s c r i b e d  as r i c h i n  grave goods i n the s i t e r e p o r t are not s a i d t o be d i s t u r b e d . A few b u r i a l s are d e s c r i b e d  as having incomplete  l a c k i n g a head o r some other body p a r t . disturbance and  skeletons;  I t appears t h a t the  o f these b u r i a l s was l i m i t e d t o the s k e l e t o n s  d i d not a f f e c t the grave goods i n a s s o c i a t i o n . The  s p e c i f i c excavation  Dawenkou are not e x p l a i n e d  methods employed i n 1959 a t  i n the s i t e r e p o r t and cannot  be assessed f o r t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y .  I t i s n o t known whether  any  problems i n the r e l i a b i l i t y o f r e p o r t i n g e x i s t , e i t h e r .  The  p u b l i c a t i o n o f the Dawenkou s i t e monograph was i n t e r r u p t e d  d u r i n g the r e c e n t c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n i n China 16-17).  (Goodrich  19 83:  F i n a l l y , the photographs o f graves, s k e l e t o n s and  a r t i f a c t s i n the s i t e r e p o r t i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n d i t i o n s o f preservation  a t Dawenkou are good and that on the whole, the  cemetery as excavated i n 1959 i s an accurate  r e f l e c t i o n of  the m a t e r i a l remains r e s u l t i n g from mortuary r i t u a l the E a r l y and Late  during  periods.  Although the t o t a l e f f e c t s o f n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s t h a t may have a f f e c t e d the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  record  at Dawenkou are n o t w e l l understood, a mortuary a n a l y s i s of the 133 b u r i a l s excavated i n 1959 i s considered The 1974,  1959 b u r i a l s are b e t t e r r e p o r t e d and they have been c o n s i d e r e d  worthwhile.  than those excavated i n by western and Chinese  -  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s as c r i t i c a l  57  -  f o r understanding  of ranking i n the e a s t e r n seaboard r e g i o n .  the development A mortuary a n a l y s i s  of the 1 3 3 b u r i a l s u t i l i z i n g c u r r e n t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l methods should be able t o c o n t r i b u t e to a more complete of the nature  understanding  of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n at the s i t e and i n the  Dawenkou C u l t u r e r e g i o n as a whole.  The  complete d e s c r i p t i o n  of each b u r i a l i n the s i t e r e p o r t allows such an a n a l y s i s to be made. may  The  1 3 3 b u r i a l s d e s c r i b e d i n the 1 9 7 4 s i t e  be the most complete source  s i t e f o r many y e a r s . representativeness or Southeast A s i a T h a i l a n d and (1980:32)  The  report  of i n f o r m a t i o n on the Dawenkou  problem of u n c e r t a i n t y over the  of an excavated s i t e i s not new (e.g. MacDonald  1980:32  to E a s t  on the Bang s i t e i n  a l l other s i t e s i n Southeast A s i a ) .  As MacDonald  p o i n t s out, as l o n g as the r e s e a r c h e r r e a l i z e s  r e s u l t s of h i s or her study  are t e n t a t i v e and  s u b j e c t to  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as more data becomes a v a i l a b l e , study of with the above problem i s worthwhile.  the new sites  - 58 -  CHAPTER 3  CHRONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS  3.1.  Introduction In t h i s chapter,  two  an attempt i s made t o e v a l u a t e the  c h r o n o l o g i c a l . sequences t h a t have been suggested f o r the  Dawenkou b u r i a l s .  Without such an e v a l u a t i o n , i t would  be necessary t o regard the same p e r i o d .  a l l o f the b u r i a l s as belonging t o  Thus, i t would not be p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r -  mine whether the temporal dimension a f f e c t s any o f the s t a t u s - r e l a t e d v a r i a b i l i t y i n t e r p r e t e d from the multidimens i o n a l s c a l i n g and c l u s t e r a n a l y s e s . be assigned  I f the b u r i a l s c o u l d  t o two o r three c h o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s , changes i n  s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n through time c o u l d be assessed. Before d i s c u s s i n g the methods I b e l i e v e were employed to d e r i v e the two c h r o n o l o g i c a l schemes, i t i s necessary t o g i v e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the ceramic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  system  upon which they are based. The  ceramic v e s s e l s i n the 1974 s i t e r e p o r t are  classified  i n t o 17 f u n c t i o n a l types, w i t h a v a r y i n g number o f  associated  subtypes.  The  The subtypes are subdivided  h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the f u n c t i o n a l types,  types,  and s t y l e s can be seen i n F i g u r e A3-1.  of the f u n c t i o n a l types, and  into styles. sub-  The m a j o r i t y  subtypes and s t y l e s are d e s c r i b e d  i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter 5 o f the s i t e r e p o r t .  Represent-  - 59 -  a t i v e photographs are p r o v i d e d  elsewhere i n the r e p o r t .  The  d e s c r i p t i o n s , drawings and photographs suggest t h a t the t i o n a l types are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by morphology function.  Most o f these terms are s t i l l  func-  and i n f e r r e d  i n use.  Chinese  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have used the f u n c t i o n a l types t o d e s c r i b e both ceramic and bronze v e s s e l forms from a v a r i e t y o f time periods. The terms f o r the f u n c t i o n a l types of p o t t e r y  vessels  used today by Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i s t s were a p p a r e n t l y from catalogues Song Dynasty  derived  of a n c i e n t bronze v e s s e l s compiled d u r i n g the  (A.D. 960-1279) (Chang 1981a: 158-159),  Song  a n t i q u a r i a n s used the terms f o r a n c i e n t bronze v e s s e l s  given  i n c l a s s i c h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s or from i n s c r i p t i o n s on the bronzes  (Chang 1980:23).  created confusion 1981a:158,161) .  The use o f the a n c i e n t terms has  i n the meaning o f some v e s s e l types  (Chang  The terms: from the c l a s s i c t e x t s are not  always c l e a r , and the terms from the i n s c r i p t i o n s are o f varying l e v e l s of inclusiveness  (Chang 1980;23).  Chinese  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s c u r r e n t l y c l a s s i f y bronze v e s s e l s i n t o g e n e r a l types a c c o r d i n g  t o t h e i r presumed f u n c t i o n s and d e s c r i b e them  by the t r a d i t i o n a l terms whenever p o s s i b l e  (Chang  1980:24).  I t seems t h a t ceramic v e s s e l s are c l a s s i f i e d i n a s i m i l a r manner. The subtypes from Dawenkou appear to be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by morphology.  The term f o r a subtype d e s c r i b e s a prominent  p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e of a f u n c t i o n a l type.  The subtypes are not  - 60 -  always m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e .  For example,  F i g u r e A3-1  shows  t h a t the c a i ("painted") subtype f o r many of the f u n c t i o n a l types i s not d i s t i n g u i s h e d by morphology.  The v e s s e l s i n  t h i s category c o u l d have any number o f shapes. example from F i g u r e A3-1  Another  i s the subtype wu b i ("no lugs")  f o r the hu f u n c t i o n a l type ("storage v e s s e l " ) .  A v e s s e l of  t h i s subtype c o u l d have any number o f the p h y s i c a l  features  d e s c r i b e d f o r the o t h e r subtypes o f storage v e s s e l .  Another  p o t e n t i a l problem i s t h a t the q i t a ("other") c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n s a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f v e s s e l forms. The s t y l e numbers i n d i c a t e f i n e r p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f the subtypes.  However, the d i f f e r e n c e between some o f the  s t y l e s i s not obvious from the photographs.  The  functional  types, subtypes and s t y l e s as d e s c r i b e d here appear to form a standard c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system used by Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i s t s f o r o t h e r Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s , and perhaps f o r N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n general  (e.g., The Shandong A r c h a e l o g i c a l Team  The Nanjing Museum 1964,  1964,  and the Shandong P r o v i n c i a l Museum  1972) . Four ceramic ware types are i d e n t i f i e d i n the r e p o r t , but these types are not i n c l u d e d i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e s c r i b e d above. tempered"  These types a r e : r e d ( j i a sha or "sand  and n i or n i z h i , or " f i n e l y l e v i g a t e d c l a y " ) (C.  Shangraw, p e r s o n a l communication, or o f f i n e c l a y ) , b l a c k , and white clay).  system  1933), grey (sand tempered (sand tempered  or o f f i n e  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these ware types i n terms of  - 61 -  status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s discussed  3.2.  The The  Methods to Derive  i n Chapter  6.  the C h r o n o l o g i c a l  Periods  three p e r i o d s d e f i n e d by the authors o f the Dawenkou  s i t e report  ( E a r l y , Middle, Late) were d e r i v e d from a judge-  mental assessment of changes i n the ceramic v e s s e l s t y l e s and  subtypes.  Chapter 7 of the s i t e r e p o r t . "The  B a s i s of the P e r i o d s " ,  describes  how  t h i s assessment was  Ceramic forms are i n f e r r e d as developing The  Method  out of other  and made.  forms.  changes i n v e s s e l forms from 15 p a i r s of b u r i a l s t h a t  cut i n t o one  another  ( l i s t e d i n F i g u r e A3-2)  of the r e l a t i v e chronology.  The  form the  basis  remaining b u r i a l s i n the  cemetery were f i t t e d i n t o the c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence by comparing the v e s s e l forms i n them t o the sequence of forms i n the above 15 p a i r s of b u r i a l s .  Except f o r the  relation-  s h i p of the i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s , s t r a t i g r a p h y was  not  employed  as a b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the three p e r i o d s .  The  site  r e p o r t does not provide the  195 9 e x c a v a t i o n  any  s t r a t i g r a p h i c information  of the cemetery.  My  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  the method by which the three p e r i o d s were d e r i v e d has confirmed and 1983).  a m p l i f i e d by C. Shangraw (personal  and  been  communication  Gao's (1980) a r t i c l e i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n of  three p e r i o d s  for  the  their derivation.  Chapter 7 of the s i t e r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the method to determine the sequence of developing based upon i m p l i c i t , i n t u i t i v e c r i t e r i a .  ceramic forms i s The  authors  discuss  - 62 -  the e v o l u t i o n of the most important f u n c t i o n a l t y p e s , subtypes and s t y l e s but do not e x p l a i n how these forms were identified.  I t seems the most important forms are those w i t h  the most obvious p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s . The e v o l u t i o n o f the v a r i o u s subtypes the most d e t a i l .  i s described i n  C e r t a i n m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s are d e s c r i b e d  as g e t t i n g f l a t t e r , more b u l g i n g , e t c . through time.  When  f u n c t i o n a l types o r subtypes appear t o d i e out i s a l s o noted. From the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t y l e numbers per p e r i o d f o r the subtypes p r o v i d e d i n Table 2 o f the s i t e i r e p o r t  (page 130),  I t h i n k t h a t the p e r c e i v e d m o r p h o l o g i c a l changes i n the subtypes through time were marked by a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e  number.  From Table 2 i n the s i t e r e p o r t , i t i s apparent t h a t on the whole, the lowest s t y l e numbers f o r a subtype occur i n the E a r l y P e r i o d and p r o g r e s s i v e l y h i g h e r numbers occur i n the Middle and Late p e r i o d s . developmental  The s t y l e numbers a l s o  indicate  changes i n the f u n t i o n a l types t h a t are not  subdivided i n t o  subtypes.  I i n f e r the authors used the v e s s e l s i n the 15 p a i r s o f b u r i a l s which c u t i n t o each other t o e s t a b l i s h the g e n e r a l sequence i n which the f u n c t i o n a l types and subtypes For example, v e s s e l s o f one subtype  changed.  from a p a i r of i n t r u s i v e  b u r i a l s were used t o d e f i n e " e a r l i e r " and " l a t e r " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , for..that subtype.  V e s s e l s of that subtype  from o t h e r  b u r i a l s were judged as " e a r l y " of " l a t e " , o r " i n t e r m e d i a t e " i n time.  The i n t u i t i v e comparison  o f the v e s s e l s from the  - 63 -  remaining b u r i a l s w i t h those from the s e t o f 15 b u r i a l s r e s u l t e d i n a complete sequence o f development f o r each f u n c t i o n a l type and subtype, marked by a p p r o p r i a t e numbers.  style  The authors then examined the e n t i r e s e t o f v e s s e l s  f o r each b u r i a l , c o n c l u d i n g were r e p r e s e n t e d .  t h a t three e v o l u t i o n a r y  stages  Chapter 7 o f the s i t e r e p o r t mentions  t h a t a c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e between the s e t s o f v e s s e l s from the E a r l y and Late b u r i a l s i s n o t i c a b l e .  But v e s s e l forms from  the Middle p e r i o d b u r i a l s are c o n s i d e r e d authors imply  transitional.  they a r e n o t c e r t a i n about the c h r o n o l o g i c a l  p o s i t i o n o f some Middle p e r i o d  burials.  Two o f the b u r i a l s t h a t c u t i n t o each other 62)  The  are assigned  (#'s 31 and  t o the E a r l y p e r i o d , y e t they do not c o n t a i n  any p o t t e r y v e s s e l s .  The method by which these b u r i a l s were  assigned to the E a r l y p e r i o d i s not c l e a r .  The other (15)  b u r i a l s i n the cemetery with no p o t t e r y v e s s e l s are c o n s i d e r e d undatable. Chapter 7 o f the s i t e r e p o r t i n c l u d e s a summary o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f ware c o l o r s and o f some p r o d u c t i o n per p e r i o d .  t o o l types  Four ware c o l o r s are s a i d t o have c h r o n o l o g i c a l  s i g n i f i c a n c e : r e d wares are predominant i n the E a r l y p e r i o d , grey wares i n c r e a s e i n the Middle p e r i o d , b l a c k wares i n c r e a s e i n the Late p e r i o d , and white ware i s only present Late p e r i o d .  i n the  T h i s g e n e r a l t r e n d through time i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d  i n many N e o l i t h i c s i t e s from Shandong and northern (Shangraw, p e r s o n a l  Jiangsu  communication 1983, Shangraw 1978:12 and  - 64 '-  Gao  1980:61).  Many of the stone and bone t o o l types  i n the r e p o r t are given  s t y l e numbers as w e l l .  these s t y l e s were a l s o d e f i n e d on the b a s i s of intuitive The  I infer  that  implicit,  criteria. p a r t i c i p a n t s of the f i r s t symposium on the Dawenkou  c u l t u r e i n 1977  a l s o i d e n t i f i e d a d i s t i n c t i o n between the  ceramic forms i n the E a r l y , Middle and  Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s at  Dawenkou (Shandong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1978:59). E a r l y and Middle p e r i o d s are grouped together  defined  i n the Dawenkou site':.report  as p a r t of one  of the Dawenkou C u l t u r e and  However, the  main e v o l u t i o n a r y  stage  the Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s i n t o  another main stage ( i b i d : 6 1 ) . The  two-period c h r o n o l o g i c a l scheme ( E a r l y and  w i t h the former Middle p e r i o d as p a r t o f the E a r l y advocated i n the r e c e n t Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Late, period)  literature  appears to have been based upon an i n t u i t i v e comparison of the ceramic forms a t the Dawenkou s i t e w i t h the forms from other  Dawenkou C u l t u r e  s i t e s t h a t have r e l a t i v e  chronological  sequences based upon s t r a t i g r a p h y , such as the X i x a i h o u (Wu  Ruzuo 1982:267-269).  An independent check of the  site  changes  i n ceramic morphology from the Dawenkou b u r i a l s i s necessary i n order t o assess whether the two-period or scheme should  three-period  be accepted f o r t h i s mortuary a n a l y s i s .  - 65 -  3.3.  Analysis  3.3.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n Two  types of m u l t i v a r i a t e q u a n t i t a t i v e methods are  employed here i n an e f f o r t t o t e s t the c o n s i s t e n c y of the r e l a t i v e d a t i n g method j u s t d e s c r i b e d based upon change i n ceramic morphology.  M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g and  cluster  a n a l y s i s i n a Q-mode are used t o group those b u r i a l s co-vary i n terms of the presence of absence  that  of ceramic  subtypes, and f u n c t i o n a l types they c o n t a i n .  styles,  The purpose  of  the a n a l y s i s i s t o determine whether an o r d e r i n g of b u r i a l s from E a r l y t o Late can be generated.  I f the r e s u l t s  from  the analyses show b u r i a l s of the same c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d ( E a r l y , Middle and Late) grouped  t o g e t h e r , i t can be concluded  t h a t the r e l a t i v e d a t i n g method based upon changes i n v e s s e l form used by the authors of the s i t e r e p o r t i s c o n s i s t e n t . The r e s u l t s c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t the more r e c e n t two-period c h r o n o l o g i c a l scheme should be supported.  In t h i s case, the  r e s u l t s would show E a r l y and Middle b u r i a l s grouped and Late b u r i a l s as d i s t i n c t .  The: r e s u l t s may  together  show two  or  t h r e e periods composed of d i f f e r e n t groups of b u r i a l s than i n the s i t e r e p o r t , or more than t h r e e p e r i o d s . r e s u l t s from the a n a l y s i s do not show b u r i a l s together by c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d a t a l l ,  I f the  grouped  n e i t h e r of the  two  c h r o n o l o g i c a l schemes nor any scheme can be accepted and the b u r i a l s must be regarded as b e l o n g i n g t o the same p e r i o d .  - 66 -  Since there are no r a d i o c a r b o n dates or c o n s i s t e n t s t r a t i g r a p h i c data f o r the b u r i a l s excavated  i n 1959,  I will  not be able to demonstrate whether changes i n s t y l e s , subtypes or f u n c t i o n a l types a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t changes i n time. I can only propose t h a t two  or more c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s  (provided an o r d e r i n g of b u r i a l s r e s u l t s ) are represented a t the s i t e .  The placement of the 15 p a i r s of i n t r u s i v e  burials  w i t h i n the o r d e r i n g of b u r i a l s r e s u l t i n g from the m u l t i dimensional  s c a l i n g and c l u s t e r analyses can  independent check of the o r d e r i n g . are grouped as expected  server.as~an  I f the i n t r u s i v e  burials  ( i . e . , w i t h the b u r i a l s i n each p a i r  i n d i f f e r e n t groups r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t time p e r i o d s ) , the c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s i n t e r p r e t e d from the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses can be accepted w i t h g r e a t e r c e r t a i n t y . The  r e s u l t s from the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses cannot be  used to c o n f i r m the d u r a t i o n of the time p e r i o d s proposed by Wu  (1982).  I f I propose t h a t two  c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s are  r e p r e s e n t e d a t Dawenkou, I cannot be c e r t a i n the  earlier  p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t s 600 years and the l a t e r , 400 y e a r s , as i n Wu  (1982:268).  The  a n a l y s i s w i l l not i n d i c a t e the r a t e of  change of the v a r i o u s ceramic  forms.  A l s o , the  possibility  of abandonment of the cemetery between or w i t h i n chronol o g i c a l p e r i o d s cannot be p r e c l u d e d .  F i n a l l y , i t i s beyond  the scope of t h i s a n a l y s i s to assess the r e l i a b i l i t y of the terms f o r the f u n c t i o n a l types and Even though there may  subtypes  i n the s i t e r e p o r t .  be some problems w i t h these terms, they  - 67 -  w i l l be accepted f o r the purposes of t h i s analyses and f o r the remainder  of t h i s mortuary  study.  terms would r e q u i r e an independent  An e v a l u a t i o n of these  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the  ceramic forms from Dawenkou based upon f i r s t h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n .  3.3.2. Method The s p e c i f i c techniques of s c a l i n g and  clustering  employed i n t h i s a n a l y s i s and i n Chapter 6 are Torgerson's m e t r i c m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g and t h r e e v a r i a n t s of c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s : Complete-Linkage Linkage  (Unweighted-Pair  ( E r r o r Sum  of Squares).  used here i s from Matson Torgerson's  or F a r t h e s t Neighbor,  Average  Group Method) and Ward's Method The m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g program (1975).  T h i s program i s based upon  (1958) a l g o r i t h m , the e q u i v a l e n t of Gower's  (1966) P r i n c i p l e Coordinates A n a l y s i s . f o r the c l u s t e r a n a l y s e s i s from Wood  The computer program (1974).  The s c a l i n g and c l u s t e r i n g a n a l y s e s are based upon a s i m i l a r i t y m a t r i x which d e s c r i b e s the s i m i l a r i t y between a l l p a i r s of items i n the data s e t .  Similarity  (transformed i n t o  a pseudo-distance measure) i s c a l c u l a t e d by means of J a c c a r d ' s C o e f f i c i e n t of A s s o c i a t i o n  (described by Sneath and Sokal  1973:131, Sokal and Sneath 196 3:129,133; and Doran and Hodson 1975:141). data because absences  T h i s c o e f f i c i e n t i s u s e f u l f o r presence/absence i t does not group items on the b a s i s of shared  (True and Matson 1970:1201).  a n a l y s i s , the b u r i a l s are grouped  In the c h r o n o l o g i c a l  t o g e t h e r o n l y i f they/share  - 68 c e r t a i n p o t t e r y s t y l e s , subtypes, or f u n c t i o n a l m a t r i x f o r the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s  quantitative  or  B i n a r y data i s  because the ceramic forms do not  occur w i t h g r e a t frequency among the 115 As mentioned i n Chapter  The  i s based upon the presence  absence of 83 ceramic forms i n 115 b u r i a l s . necessary f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s  types.  burials.  2, more than one  multivariate  technique should be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  one another t o ensure t h a t the o r d e r i n g of items o b t a i n e d i s an a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the items, not an a r t i f a c t of one p a r t i c u l a r method 1974:72).  comparative  purposes  Matson 1974,  (e.g., Johnson 1972,  True and Matson 1970,  Peacock 1976).  True  scaling  have been found compatible f o r Matson and True  Pokotylo 1982,  M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g can  important r e l a t i o n s between c l u s t e r s 252),  and  V a r i o u s techniques of multidemensional  and o f c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s  1981,  (Matson  Pokotylo reveal  (Sokal and Sneath  The use of more than one technique o f c l u s t e r  i s desirable  because d i f f e r e n t techniques can produce  erent r e s u l t s  (Matson  and True  In the c h r o n o l o g i c a l  1974.  1973:  analysis diff-  1974).  analysis,  the o r d e r i n g s of b u r i a l s  from the three c l u s t e r i n g techniques are compared w i t h one . another.  A good f i t between the groups of b u r i a l s  resulting  from each technique would a l l o w acceptance of the groups w i t h certainty.  A good f i t of the groupings from the c l u s t e r  analyses w i t h the p a t t e r n produced  by the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  s c a l i n g would a l l o w even g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e i n the r e s u l t s .  -  69  -  Torgerson's m e t r i c m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g 1958)  has been used s u c c e s s f u l l y by Peacock  (1982), Matson and L i p e among o t h e r s .  (Torgerson  (1976), Pokotylo  (1977), and Matson and True  (1974),  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f the technique i s  based upon the e x p l a n a t i o n s : p r o v i d e d i n the f o u r works j u s t cited. M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g d e p i c t s the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f items i n n-dimensional geometric space..  The d i s t a n c e between  items i n space r e f l e c t s the degree o f s i m i l a r i t y between the items.  The s i m i l a r i t y o r d i s t a n c e m a t r i x c a l c u l a t e d by t h e  c o e f f i c i e n t o f a s s o c i a t i o n chosen forms the b a s i s o f a matrix of the products o f the d i s t a n c e s from the c o n f i g u r a t i o n ' s o r i g i n or centroid.  This matrix i s factored, r e s u l t i n g i n  dimensions o f d e c r e a s i n g order o f importance.  The f i r s t  dimension accounts f o r the g r e a t e s t amount o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n the data s e t , the second dimension accounts f o r the second g r e a t e s t amount, and so on.  A measure i s g i v e n which  indicates  the amount o f v a r i a b i l i t y e x p l a i n e d by each dimension. one's data s e t does not meet the m e t r i c assumption f o r Torgerson's method  If  required  (Matson and True 1 9 7 4 : 7 0 ) , K r u s k a l ' s  (1964) non-metric method may be used.  Among the advantages  of m e t r i c m u l i t d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g over non-metric  scaling  are t h a t unique s o l u t i o n s a r e d e r i v e d , the s o l u t i o n s a r e i n v a r i a n t under changes i n d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , and l e s s computer time and money i s r e q u i r e d  (Matson and L i p e  1977:4).  C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s i s an agglomerative, h i e r a r c h i c a l  - 70 -  method which d e p i c t s the grouping o f items i n the form of a dendrogram.  Items a r e s u c c e s s i v e l y grouped a c c o r d i n g  to d e c r e a s i n g degrees o f s i m i l a r i t y  (or i n c r e a s i n g degrees o f  pseudo-distance) u n t i l a l l o f the items form one l a r g e Matson and True  group.  (1974) p o i n t out t h a t each o f the t h r e e  techniques has i t s own advantages  and disadvantages.  Complete  Linkage c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s has more c o n s e r v a t i v e r u l e s f o r the a d d i t i o n o f items t o extant c l u s t e r s than Average Linkage, and i t avoids the disadvantage o f c h a i n i n g common t o Average Linkage.  C h a i n i n g i s an "elongate growth o f s i n g l e l i n k a g e  clusters"  (Sneath and Sokal 1973:223).  C h a i n i n g obscures  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between items i n t e r m e d i a t e o r c o n n e c t i n g t o the c l u s t e r s w i t h c h a i n i n g ( i b i d ) .  Average Linkage has been  a standard method i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e  (Matson  and True 1974:61), and the Unweighted Pair-Group method has been most commonly used i n g e n e r a l (Sneath and Sokal 1973:230). Complete Linkage i s a "robust" technique because i n c o e f f i c i e n t s w i l l not c r e a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y results  (Matson and True 1974:61).  s l i g h t changes  different  But items may j o i n  c l u s t e r s with d i f f i c u l t y , r e s u l t i n g i n small c l u s t e r s leave out many l e s s r e l a t e d items 223,  226). Matson and True  that  (Sneath and Sokal 1973:222-  (1974:61) c i t e Ward's method as  y i e l d i n g r e s u l t s which were c l o s e s t t o t h e i r d e r i v e d e x p e c t a t i o n s , i n comparison  intuitively  t o the r e s u l t s  from  Complete Linkage and Average Linkage. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the t h r e e c l u s t e r i n g techniques  - 71 -  i s p r o v i d e d by Sneath and Sokal True  (1974).  (1972:222-241) and Matson and  The major d i f f e r e n c e  between the three t e c h -  niques l i e s i n the c r i t e r i o n which groups an item o r a c l u s t e r w i t h extant c l u s t e r s  (Matson and True 1974:54).  Linkage C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s ,  In Complete  the c r i t e r i o n i s the d i s t a n c e be-  tween an item and the f a r t h e s t member o f an extant (Matson and True 1974:57). the  In the Average Linkage technique,  d i s t a n c e between an item and the average d i s t a n c e f o r the  extant c l u s t e r i s the c r i t e r i o n the  cluster  (ibid).  In Ward's Method,  c r i t e r i o n i s not a s i n g l e d i s t a n c e but a measure o f  t o t a l interpoint distances within  a cluster.  An item i s  grouped w i t h a c l u s t e r i f i t o p t i m i z e s the sum o f squared interpoint distances within  that c l u s t e r  (Matson and True 1974:  58) . A c r i t i c a l point  r e g a r d i n g the use o f m u l t i v a r i a t e  s t a t i s t i c a l methods i s t h a t  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  must be made by the r e s e a r c h e r .  o f the r e s u l t s  An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  p r o v i d e d by the a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s  i s not  (Matson and True 1974:72).  For m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g , the a r c h a e l o g i c a l the dimensions which r e s u l t must be i n t e r p r e t e d .  meaning o f A l s o , the  r e s e a r c h e r must d e c i d e which dimensions b e s t d e s c r i b e t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n the data s e t . analysis,  F o r any v a r i a n t  one must judge which c l u s t e r s have  of cluster archaeological  meaning. Intuitively-based  knowledge o f the data s e t as w e l l  as some independent data not i n c l u d e d  i n the m u l t i v a r i a t e  - 72 -  a n a l y s i s are r e q u i r e d so t h a t an o b j e c t i v e can be made of the r e s u l t s  interpretation  (Matson and True 1974:72).  At  p r e s e n t , the use o f m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s i n archaeology r e q u i r e s some s u b j e c t i v e judgement As Matson  on the p a r t o f the r e s e a r c h e r .  and True p o i n t e d out i n 19 74, There seems to be no way t o e l i m i n a t e these (judgemental) c h o i c e s a t the p r e s e n t time, and the r e s u l t s are always s u b j e c t t o r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as new data are r e c o v e r e d o r improved methodologies are developed (Matson and True 1974:72).  Seriation u t i l i z i n g  a r t i f a c t forms such as ceramics by  means of m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g has been attempted by a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s the  ( i n c l u d i n g many w i t h b u r i a l data) s i n c e  l a t e 1960's (Orton 1982:85).  Authors who  utilize  multi-  dimensional s c a l i n g f o r s e r i a t i o n purposes i n c l u d e K e n d a l l (1971), Peacock and Matson  (1976), Drennan  and L i p e  (1976a, 1976b), Spencer  (1977), but K e n d a l l ' s  (1971) i s the only  study i n which graves are the items b e i n g s e r i a t e d . m e t r i c s c a l i n g i s employed and L i p e  (1977).  by Peacock  Both s t u d i e s u t i l i z e  (1982),  (19 76)  and by  Torgerson's Matson  cluster analysis i n  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s c a l i n g . Researchers have found t h a t when an o r d e r i n g of items r e s u l t s , i t o f t e n takes the form of a horseshoe when the items are p l o t t e d i n two dimensions  (Orton 19 82:85).  However,  a p e r f e c t horseshoe shape i s r a r e l y achieved i n p r a c t i c e (Orton 1982:86).  Horseshoe shapes r e s u l t e d from Torgerson's  m e t r i c s c a l i n g i n Peacock  (1976) and i n Matson and L i p e  (1977).  - 73 -  Researchers must a l s o be aware t h a t the responsible time and (Orton  f o r the o r d e r i n g of items may  dimensions  not  represent  t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the o r d e r i n g must be  1982:88).  justified  Unless the o r d e r i n g i s checked w i t h  pendent c h r o n o l o g i c a l data such as s t r a t i g r a p h y , the must be considered  hypothetical  w i l l serve the  ordering  (Marquardt 1978:287).  s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the placement of the b u r i a l s w i t h i n the o r d e r i n g  inde-  As  15 p a i r s of i n t r u s i v e  from the s c a l i n g and c l u s t e r i n g  as an independent, but not c o n c l u s i v e , check of  ordering. Mortuary s t u d i e s i n which other techniques of s e r i a t i o n  are employed are those of MacDonald Hodson  (1977).  t i o n of v a r i o u s  (1980) , Doran  Marquardt  (1978) p r o v i d e s  seriation  techniques.  S e r i a t i o n s t u d i e s such as t h i s one proposition that s t y l i s t i c t o s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and c l o s e i n time  (1971),  and  a detailed descrip-  are based on  the  s i m i l a r i t y of ceramics i s r e l a t e d that s i m i l a r forms of ceramics  (Doran 1971:424).  Although  are  ethnoarchaeological  s t u d i e s support the n o t i o n t h a t ceramic types found i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d r e f l e c t time change, more s t u d i e s needed t o provide responsible and  a b e t t e r understanding of the  f o r the formation  are  process  of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  the e f f e c t upon the ceramic types represented  record  at a s i t e  (Marquardt 19 78:199-2 30). Archaeologists  have recognized  the advantage of  a r t i f a c t types from " c l o s e d f i n d s " such as graves f o r  using  - 74  seriation  3.3.3.  (Kendall  -  1971:215).  Data  A t o t a l of 115  b u r i a l s of the 133  i n the cemetery are  i n c l u d e d i n the c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s : 71 of the  74 from  E a r l y p e r i o d , a l l 19 from the Middle and  a l l 25 from the  These b u r i a l s are l i s t e d i n F i g u r e A3-3.  Four o f these  b u r i a l s are d i s t u r b e d  (E27,  M4.6,  L3, L77) , but the  s t y l e s or c l a s s e s remaining should  i n d i c a t e the  c h r o n o l o g i c a l placement of the b u r i a l s . i f at a l l .  c o n t a i n i n g a form of v e s s e l  (shuang b i hu,  w i t h two  lugs")  which L10  t h a t may  i n t r u d e s , E26.  c l e a r , i t i s considered  should  pottery  relative  I t i s described  L10, as  s t y l e I, " j a r  have o r i g i n a t e d from-.the b u r i a l i n t o Since the o r i g i n of the here to be  a l a r g e number of v e s s e l s and one  Late.  Another b u r i a l ,  i s only s l i g h t l y disturbed,  the  from L10.  L10  the q u e s t i o n a b l e  not change i t s p o s i t i o n i n the  j a r i s not contains  placement o f  chronological  o r d e r i n g or i t s r e l a t i v e s t a t u s p o s i t i o n . Seventeen b u r i a l s w i t h no p o t t e r y v e s s e l s are F i f t e e n of these, are the b u r i a l s c o n s i d e r e d by the authors of the s i t e r e p o r t . and  E62,  as undatable  other  two  are  E31  the i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s w i t h no p o t t e r y v e s s e l s  to the E a r l y p e r i o d .  B u r i a l E108,  p e r i o d , must be excluded as w e l l . the one  The  excluded.  assigned  to the E a r l y  For reasons d i s c u s s e d  type of v e s s e l found i n t h i s b u r i a l cannot be  i n the a n a l y s i s .  assigned  below,  included  - 75 -  A t o t a l o f 83 mutually e x c l u s i v e ceramic c a t e g o r i e s from the t o t a l o f 176 known forms g i v e n i n F i g u r e A3-1 (excluding the unique  animal shaped v e s s e l and the u n c e r t a i n  forms - dou zuo and dou pan) are i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . A l i s t o f these 83 forms i s p r o v i d e d i n F i g u r e A3-4.  These  forms i n c l u d e s t y l e s , subtypes not d i v i d e d i n t o s t y l e s , and f u n c t i o n a l types not d i v i d e d i n t o subtypes o r s t y l e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o i n c l u d e a l l 176 ceramic forms i n the a n a l y s i s . ceramic  Study o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the 176  forms among the 116 b u r i a l s  ( i n c l u d i n g E108 here)  i n d i c a t e s t h a t a . number o f forms occur very F i g u r e A3-5 shows t h a t 61 forms  infrequently.  (34.7%) are p r e s e n t o n l y  once among the b u r i a l s and 32 (18.2%) a r e present o n l y t w i c e . The  forms begin t o occur w i t h g r e a t e r frequency  From the graph  thereafter.  i n F i g u r e A3-5, I judged t h a t a ceramic  should be present a t l e a s t three times among the b u r i a l  form sample  i n order f o r the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses t o be v i a b l e . The above d e c i s i o n r e q u i r e d t h a t the forms o c c u r r i n g o n l y once o r twice a c r o s s the b u r i a l sample be e i t h e r from the a n a l y s i s o r grouped w i t h o t h e r forms. percent  excluded I f over  fifty  (52.9%) o f the forms were excluded, the a n a l y s i s c o u l d  not adequately t e s t the c o n s i s t e n c y o f the r e l a t i v e d a t i n g method based upon m o r p h o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y . e f f o r t was made t o group ceramic  T h e r e f o r e , an  forms t h a t a r e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y  similar. Due t o my u n c e r t a i n t y with the c a i ("painted")  subtypes  - 76 -  of v e s s e l s noted e a r l i e r , a l l 16 o f these c a t e g o r i e s shown i n F i g u r e A3-1 are excluded from the lumping procedure and from the a n a l y s i s i n g e n e r a l .  S i n c e the o n l y v e s s e l i n E108 i s  p a i n t e d , t h i s b u r i a l must be excluded from the a n a l y s i s . M o r p h o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y o f the v e s s e l forms was based upon the d e s c r i p t i o n s and drawings  i n Chapter 5 o f the s i t e  r e p o r t and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e photographs.  Chapter 5 d e s c r i b e s  c e r t a i n p a r t s o f v e s s e l s such as rims, b o d i e s , and bases as g r a d u a l l y changing form.  D e t a i l e d study o f the v e s s e l  forms  tended t o support my p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t the forms c l o s e s t i n s t y l e number are those c l o s e s t i n s t y l e .  F o r example, a  v e s s e l w i t h a s t y l e o f I appears more s i m i l a r i n form t o a vessel  (of the same subtype) w i t h a s t y l e o f I I than a s t y l e  of V. A d e c i s i o n was made t o group a v e s s e l form w i t h a form having the n e a r e s t s t y l e number.  F o r example, i f a v e s s e l  w i t h a s t y l e number o f I I had t o be lumped, i t was lumped w i t h the v e s s e l s o f s t y l e number I o r I I I , depending on my judgement o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y .  As many o r i g i n a l groups o f  v e s s e l s as p o s s i b l e were maintained.  A subtype not d i v i d e d  i n t o s t y l e numbers was not lumped w i t h another subtype.  If  a v e s s e l form d i d not i n my judgement appear m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o the v e s s e l s i n e i t h e r a d j a c e n t s t y l e c a t e g o r y , i t was excluded. lid)  The q f t a o r  "other" subtypes and g a i  (pot  f u n c t i o n a l type have more s t y l e s excluded than o t h e r  categories..: It.was necessary f o r a few e n t i r e c a t e g o r i e s t o  - 77 -  be l e f t out, such as "pen ("basin") and g u i wu zu ("jug w i t h no  feet"). I acknowledge my l i m i t e d understanding o f the Chinese  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure.  The s i t e r e p o r t o n l y d e s c r i b e s and  p i c t u r e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group o f v e s s e l s f o r each subtype and  style.  The range o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the s t y l e and sub-  type c a t e g o r i e s i s not documented i n the s i t e r e p o r t .  Also,  the w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n s can be c o n f u s i n g  reader.  For example, a t r a n s l a t i o n o f "bird-shaped  t o a western  beak" r e f e r s t o a  spout on a v e s s e l and a "nose" r e f e r s t o a l u g .  Although  the i n c o r r e c t lumping o f s t y l e s may d i s t o r t the r e s u l t i n g o r d e r i n g somewhat by making the o r d e r i n g l e s s c l e a r , i t should, not r e s u l t i n a spurious o r d e r i n g  (R.G. Matson,  personal  communication 1983). There are some d i s c r e p a n c i e s f o r the f i g u r e given i n v a r i o u s p l a c e s i n the s i t e r e p o r t f o r the t o t a l number o f v e s s e l s i n c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n a l types,  subtypes, o r s t y l e s .  t o t a l s f o r some c a t e g o r i e s given i n Chapter 5 o f the s i t e r e p o r t and i n Table  12, page 135, d i f f e r w i t h my  c a l c u l a t e d from the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the b u r i a l s . case,  I accepted  totals In each  the t o t a l s from the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the  burials A f t e r the lumping procedure was completed, another graph was made t h a t d e p i c t s the frequency o f occurrence o f the ceramic c a t e g o r i e s i n the b u r i a l sample.  F i g u r e A3-6  shows a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the c a t e g o r i e s : 18.1% o f  The  78  -  -  the c a t e g o r i e s occur three times among the 115 (excluding E108  now),  14.5%  f i v e times, and  16.9%  occur s i x : t i m e s .  t h a t 13.9%  burials  occur f o u r times, 10.8%  of the b u r i a l s have o n l y one  F i g u r e A3-7  shows  ceramic category  present  a f t e r lumping, 15.7%  so on.  A s m a l l e r percentage of b u r i a l s having o n l y one  two  have two,  occur  9.6%  have t h r e e ,  and or  ceramic c a t e g o r i e s would have been more d e s i r a b l e .  How-  ever, i t was  thought t h a t the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses  viable.  83 forms r e s u l t i n g from the lumping c o n s i s t of  112  The  o f the o r i g i n a l 176  c o u l d not be lumped and  3.3.4. The  formal  categories.  would  be  S i x t y - f o u r forms  are excluded from the a n a l y s i s .  Results orderings  of b u r i a l s r e s u l t i n g from the multidimen-  s i o n a l s c a l i n g and  three v a r i a n t s of c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s show a  c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between the E a r l y and  Late b u r i a l s , w i t h  some Middle b u r i a l s grouped w i t h the E a r l y b u r i a l s and w i t h the Late. report.  This patterning  Therefore,  i s that described  others  i n the  site  I conclude the changes i n ceramic morph-  ology were assessed i n a c o n s i s t e n t manner to i n d i c a t e time change. However, the o r d e r i n g s  from the  support n e i t h e r the t h r e e - p e r i o d  s c a l i n g and c l u s t e r i n g  c h r o n o l o g i c a l scheme advocated  i n the s i t e r e p o r t nor the two-period scheme proposed i n the r e c e n t Chinese 'archaeological l i t e r a t u r e ,  The  orderings  i n d i c a t e a v a r i a t i o n of the two-period c h r o n o l o g i c a l scheme.  - 79 -  They d e p i c t a two-period d i v i s i o n o f E a r l y and Late, with some former Middle p e r i o d b u r i a l s p l a c e d i n the E a r l y p e r i o d and some i n the Late.  T h i s scheme d i f f e r s from the two-period  scheme i n which the former Middle p e r i o d i s p l a c e d  entirely  w i t h i n the E a r l y p e r i o d . The  o r d e r i n g s produced from the s c a l i n g and c l u s t e r i n g  techniques  are d e s c r i b e d below.  techniques  shows the c l e a r d i v i s i o n ,  period.burials.  Each o f the three c l u s t e r i n g between E a r l y and Late  However, each shows a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r i n g o f  b u r i a l s w i t h i n the E a r l y p e r i o d and w i t h i n the Late.  Some o f  the d i f f e r e n c e s seem due t o the i n h e r e n t nature o f each c l u s t e r i n g technique.. data  Others may be due t o the nature o f the  s e t used i n the a n a l y s i s .  The o r d e r i n g o f b u r i a l s from  Ward's Method i s chosen f o r the comparison with the m u l t i dimensional  scaling results.  The placement o f the i n t r u s i v e  p a i r s o f b u r i a l s w i t h i n the o r d e r i n g s Ward's Method p r o v i d e s represent  3.3.5  from the s c a l i n g and  independent support  t h a t the o r d e r i n g s  c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the b u r i a l s .  Multidimensional  Scaling  F i v e dimensions were generated, accounting of the v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n the data -  set.  f o r 29.56%  T h i s low percentage  may be due t o the low number o f ceramic c a t e g o r i e s  within  many o f the b u r i a l s , and thus the low number o f ceramic c a t e g o r i e s shared between many b u r i a l s .  F i g u r e A3-7 shows  t h a t 29.64% o f the b u r i a l s o n l y had one t o two ceramic  -  categories present.  80  -  The f i r s t dimension  g r e a t e s t amount o f v a r i a b i l i t y ,  accounts  f o r the  9.175%, w i t h the second and  t h i r d dimensions .accounting f o r o n l y 5.597% and 5.748%, respectively.-  In theory, the dimensions  from  Torgerson's  m e t r i c m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g method should account f o r d e c r e a s i n g amounts o f v a r i a b i l i t y . f i r s t three dimensions  The e i g e n v a l u e s f o r the  are 4.782, 2.917, and 2.996.  Slight  deviations often r e s u l t i n a s s o c i a t i o n with small eigenvalues (R.G. Matson, p e r s o n a l communication 1983).  One i n e q u a l i t y  out o f 246,905 was v i o l a t e d i n the program; a low p r o p o r t i o n of 0.0000405, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h i s data s e t i s indeed m e t r i c . F i g u r e 3-1 shows the o r d e r i n g o f the 115 b u r i a l s along Dimensions 1 and 2. time. left  Dimension 1 i s i n t e r p r e t e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g  The b u r i a l s are d i v i d e d i n t o an E a r l y s e c t o r on the s i d e o f the a x i s and a Late s e c t o r on the r i g h t .  d i v i d i n g p o i n t i s a t approximately horseshoe  The  0.140 on the X a x i s .  shape i s not c l e a r l y d i s c e r n a b l e .  The former  A Early  p e r i o d b u r i a l s and some Middle p e r i o d b u r i a l s tend t o be s c a t t e r e d w h i l e the former Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s are i n a more r e s t r i c t e d a r e a , suggesting one h a l f o f a horseshoe.  This  d i f f e r e n c e i n s p a t i a l p o s i t i o n i n g and the l a c k o f a good horseshoe  shape may be caused by d i f f e r e n c e s i n the number  of ceramic c a t e g o r i e s per b u r i a l w i t h i n each o f the t h r e e periods.  The E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s account  f o r most o f the  b u r i a l s w i t h one t o two ceramic c a t e g o r i e s shown i n F i g u r e A3-7(12 o f the 16 having one category and 16 o f the 18 b u r i a l s  - 81 FIGURE 3-1. The 115 b u r i a l s i n the c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s from Torgerson's M e t r i c M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l S c a l i n g , Dimensions 1 and 2, c l u s t e r s from Ward's Method. E 8 2  DIM  2  A  EI32#  Ell ,  E34  E65«  E13I  E5I  EI29 '  +  / /  " A 3  El 10  EI3  E , l l  £23*  O  I  0  ? A  E56  //A  . M2I  .EI06 A"  E80  E43"  E l 19 * OE73  EII5 Qa  E59  A  , E7  EI8  E  A  E58  EI03„  A  E4I.E89  ,EII4 C- E I 2 0  EI2°  EI09  E8° E99  E32<  L60 E6l"- £  A  A  u  E81  E87° 0  j  E48 E 7 6  o  EI02  EI0I  A E54*  E29^ * EBI El  16  E45 O  E30"  6 7 8  b  6  "  LI26  ° " MI6* • . L4 L  I  D  a M93 LI04  L3  LI00 L47  ^E33* M49  E28  / M9*  'EI30  D  E94  -2.0  E  Early  M  Middle  L  Late  Burioi  2  5  -  D  »E6  M75  Clusters  4  'LI05 M69 LI23*> L 2, 0 • „  a  M35  3  C *~T^ DIM, L6  •  4  +3.0  L72  D  M  Ml 18  I  °  M96  E55  A  LI7,L25  LI  „  1  E9Ia  M42 E86 E88 E90  +  U  E530 EII2  +  jL77 ,E27  £ 2 6 ^ "  E66  A  M 3 6  Burioi Burial  intruding  burial  •  ° U 2 4 *  LI25  o  M22  - 82 -  having two).  Thus, E a r l y p e r i o d  b u r i a l s are e i t h e r very  s i m i l a r o r very d i f f e r e n t , n o t a l l o w i n g a continuous horseshoe shape. located are  The p l o t o f b u r i a l s a l s o shows a few b u r i a l s  a t the same p o i n t  i n geometric space.  i d e n t i c a l i n composition o f ceramic The placement  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Late p e r i o d  b u r i a l s that  F i g u r e A3-2);  categories.  o f the p a i r s o f i n t r u d i n g t h a t Dimension  burials  supports  1 r e p r e s e n t s time.  The  i n t r u d e i n t o E a r l y b u r i a l s (see  L10, L15, and L24, are l o c a t e d  along Dimension  These b u r i a l s  some d i s t a n c e  1 from the b u r i a l s they c u t i n t o : E26, E33,  and E30, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Four o f t h e i n t r u d i n g  excluded from the a n a l y s i s  because  b u r i a l s were  they do not c o n t a i n  p o t t e r y : E31, E62 and the undatable b u r i a l s X70 and X133. E18  i s not marked on the p l o t because  (E31) was not i n the a n a l y s i s . (having the undatable b u r i a l  i t s intrusive  pair  T h i s i s t r u e f o r E71 as w e l l 70 as . i t s p a i r ) .  There i s l e s s s p a t i a l ' s e p a r a t i o n o f the i n t r u d i n g of b u r i a l s from the same former time p e r i o d : and L124, E32 and E61, and E78 and E129. former Middle p e r i o d  pairs  E54 and E58, L123  Three o f the four  b u r i a l s that cut into Early  period  b u r i a l s a r e s p a t i a l l y separated from the l a t t e r b u r i a l s : M9 and E23, M16 and E61, and M121 and E132. barely  separated along Dimension  m a j o r i t y o f the E a r l y p e r i o d  M44 and E43 a r e  1, and M4 4 i s c l o s e r t o the  b u r i a l s than E4 3.  of these two b u r i a l s do n o t p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l  The l o c a t i o n s support f o r  the o r d e r i n g d e r i v e d from the s c a l i n g , but they make sense  - 83 -  when M44 i s c o n s i d e r e d an E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l .  I t i s located  w e l l t o the l e f t o f the 0.140 d i v i d i n g l i n e on the X a x i s . Because E30 and E61 have only one ceramic category p r e s e n t , t h e i r l o c a t i o n s on the s c a l i n g p l o t are not as secure as t h a t of the other i n t r u d i n g b u r i a l s . b u r i a l s contain  Since a l l the other  more than two c a t e g o r i e s ,  intruding  t h e i r l o c a t i o n s can  be r e l i e d upon. It i s possible as Dimension 1.  t h a t Dimension 2 r e p r e s e n t s time as w e l l  F o r three o f the f i v e p a i r s o f E a r l y  i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s i n Figure E12 9) are l o c a t e d burials  3-1, the o l d e r b u r i a l s  period  (E43, E58,  i n the upper l e f t quadrant and the younger  (M44, E54, E78) are l o c a t e d  i n the lower  left  quadrant.  A l l the E a r l y b u r i a l s i n the lower l e f t quadrant may be younger than the E a r l y b u r i a l s i n the upper l e f t  quadrant.  However, the placement o f the b u r i a l s i n the one Late i n t r u s i v e p a i r does not support the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  period Dimension  2 r e p r e s e n t s time, with o l d e r b u r i a l s i n the upper s e c t i o n of F i g u r e  3-1 and p r o g r e s s i v e l y  lower s e c t i o n o f F i g u r e  3-1.  younger b u r i a l s towards the  The o l d e r b u r i a l , L124, i s  l o c a t e d below the younger b u r i a l , L12 3. the o r d e r i n g  Due t o the f a c t t h a t  o f b u r i a l s from E a r l y t o Late i s also: e x h i b i t e d  i n dendrograms o f the c l u s t e r analyses,- as w e l l as the lower percentage of v a r i a b i l i t y accounted f o r by Dimensions 3 and 4, Dimensions 3 and 4 are not i n t e r p r e t e d  here.  - 84 -  3.3.6.  C l u s t e r Analyses  The o r d e r i n g from the Complete Linkage technique compares p o o r l y w i t h those from Average Linkage and Ward's. Small groups of b u r i a l s j o i n t o g e t h e r o n l y a t h i g h d i s t a n c e figures.  T h i s problem i s common w i t h Complete Linkage  due  to the c o n s e r v a t i v e r u l e s of j o i n i n g items t o e x t a n t c l u s t e r s . While E a r l y b u r i a l s are i n d i f f e r e n t c l u s t e r s than Late b u r i a l s , a l l of the E a r l y c l u s t e r s and Late c l u s t e r s do not e v e n t u a l l y j o i n i n t o one l a r g e c l u s t e r each. b u r i a l s and one of Late b u r i a l s  A m a c r o c l u s t e r of E a r l y  (with Middle b u r i a l s  inter-  spersed) i s apparent i n the dendrograms from both Average Linkage and Ward's Method. The dendrograms from Average Linkage and Ward's Method agree f a i r l y w e l l .  I t i s apparent t h a t t h i s agreement  r e f l e c t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s among b u r i a l s .  The o r d e r i n g s o f  b u r i a l s w i t h i n the E a r l y p e r i o d from Average Linkage  and  Ward's Method compare p o o r l y but the o r d e r i n g s of b u r i a l s w i t h i n the Late p e r i o d compare q u i t e w e l l . may  This difference  be due t o the g r e a t e r number of ceramic s t y l e s ,  subtypes  and f u n c t i o n a l types per b u r i a l w i t h i n the Late p e r i o d . The E a r l y p e r i o d c l u s t e r s may c l u s t e r s because  not be as r o b u s t as the Late  they c o n t a i n b u r i a l s t h a t have few  c a t e g o r i e s i n common.  ceramic  Some c h a i n i n g i s e v i d e n t i n the Average  Linkage dendrogram, but not an e x c e s s i v e amount.  The  dendro-  grams from both methods p l a c e the 19 Middle p e r i o d b u r i a l s i n the same manner: e i g h t b u r i a l s i n the E a r l y p e r i o d and  11  - 85 -  i n the Late. The  o r d e r i n g from Ward's Method i s chosen to: compare with the  multidimensional scaling r e s u l t s .  Ward's Method has been  found t o y i e l d r e s u l t s w i t h the same data s e t t h a t are more s i m i l a r t o i n t u i t i v e l y d e r i v e d e x p e c t a t i o n s than those from Average Linkage and Complete Linkage The  (Matson and True 1974:61).  r e s u l t s from Ward's Method are a l s o favored over those  from Average Linkage and Complete Linkage by Peebles The The  dendrogram f o r Ward's Method i s shown i n F i g u r e 3-2.  extremely c l e a r break between the E a r l y and Late b u r i a l s  i s apparent.  F i g u r e 3-2 i n d i c a t e s  b u r i a l s are i n the same c l u s t e r . period  t h a t no E a r l y and Late Also,  a l l o f the E a r l y  b u r i a l c l u s t e r s j o i n t o g e t h e r , and a l l o f the Late  j o i n together. not  (1974:100).  The E a r l y and Late p e r i o d  m a c r o c l u s t e r s do  j o i n u n t i l the 4.3578 d i s t a n c e l e v e l , i n d i c a t i n g the  c l e a r d i s s i m i l a r i t y o f the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d terms o f ceramic c a t e g o r i e s .  burials i n  While a number o f s o l u t i o n s  c o u l d be compared w i t h the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g p l o t , the Eight  Group S o l u t i o n  ageble, i n t e r p r e t a b l e  a t 2.0023 d i s t a n c e i s chosen as a man^one.  The ceramic c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d  i n each c l u s t e r are given i n F i g u r e A3-8. The clusters  placement o f the i n t r u d i n g  p a i r s o f b u r i a l s i n the  (each b u r i a l i n a p a i r o f d i f f e r e n t c l u s t e r s , a t  varying distance levels)  i s further  support t h a t the o r d e r i n g  from Ward's Method r e f l e c t s chronology. marked i n F i g u r e 3-2.  The p a i r s  These b u r i a l s are  from the former E a r l y and  H G sw fD 3" i O NJ & • O  hi  o 3*  o H i—• O c O rt fD O H  >  <JQ H-  O  cn a w m • ^< w H-  cn Dj  fD 3  Oi O  i£« H OJ  3  Hi  H O  3 (D H  00  - 87 -  Late p e r i o d s are widely E30.  separated:  L24  and  Intruding burials  not  as w i d e l y  but  a t lower  d i s t a n c e v a l u e s : E54  and  E61,  and  E78  p l o t , M44  is  and  and  the  and  with  content flexible  scaling clear by  confidence  p e r i o d are  and  clusters, L124,  E2 3, M16  five  As  and  noted  and  Early E61,  disturbed burials i n the  scaling  and  L3,  L10  distinction  a fairly  earlier, be  f r o m Ward's Method  d e p i c t v e r y good  and  The  cluster  burials  E32  scaling  o t h e r Middle and  and  (see F i g u r e 3-1)  the  good  low  agree-  agreement  ceramic  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e more  a g r e e m e n t between t h e analysis  r e s u l t s noted  between t h e  b o t h methods, and  intruding  L123  E33,  burials).  group c o m p o s i t i o n .  Late b u r i a l s  former  above,  Early  the placement o f the  i n the r e s u l t s  multi-  o f b o t h methods  and  Lateallow  i n a c c e p t i n g an E a r l y - L a t e c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n  cemetery.  D u r i n g my scaling  t o o : M9  Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s  the extremely  the  The  o f t h e E a r l y b u r i a l s may  dimensional  for  E43.  of the e i g h t c l u s t e r s  the E a r l y ones.  Early  from  placement of the  scaling plot  ment f o r t h e  E58,  are with E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s  locations  and  in different  t h e Ward's d e n d r o g r a m and  M46  L15  same f o r m e r  are  and  E26,  U n l i k e the p a t t e r n i n g i n the  with Late p e r i o d  The on  The  and  of the  They a l s o  separated,  i n both  (E27 L77  are  E132.  clear  plot  E129.  i s separated  burial pairs M121  separated.  L10  initial  results,  placement of  five  interpretation  I thought  t h e r e was  of the  former  19  of the  clustering  and  a d i s c r e p a n c y i n the  Middle  period  burials  - 88  (M67,  M9,  M35,  M118,  M9,  M35  and  M118  and  M96  within  M96).  within the  new  The  the new  -  Ward's dendrogram p l a c e s Late p e r i o d  Early period  (in Cluster  (in Cluster  4).  former b u r i a l s w i t h the E a r l y b u r i a l s because these located  along Dimension 1.  to the  l e f t of the  I d i d not  these four b u r i a l s w i t h i n  0.140  r e a l i z e that  Late b u r i a l s w i t h i n Believing  of the  four  dividing  point  i f the p o s i t i o n  indicated  the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g r e s u l t s as w e l l .  the  four  the p a r t i a l horseshoe i n F i g u r e  i s c o n s i d e r e d , these four b u r i a l s are  w i t h the placement of M96  the  as Late The  remains because M96  t h a t there was  a d i s c r e p a n c y i n the  placement  o r d e r i n g of  mortuary a n a l y s i s .  M35,  b u r i a l s and: M96  relationships depicts  I c o n s i d e r e d M67, as Late. better  M35,  and  and  I judged the  i n d i c a t o r of  groups l i k e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s .  M118  between the  burials this  M118  as  ordering  chronological scaling  between items i n terms of trends  there i s no d i s c r e p a n c y i n the M9,  M9,  among b u r i a l s because m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  relationships  of d i s c r e t e  the  by  i s c l e a r l y near  remainder of  s c a l i n g t o be  instead  I r e a l i z e now  that  chronological  placement of M6 7,  c l u s t e r i n g and  scaling results.  I should have c o n s i d e r e d these four b u r i a l s as b e l o n g i n g the  Late p e r i o d .  p o s i t i o n of M96  Also,  3-1  discrepancy  from the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g f o r the  from the  of  horseshoe.  f i v e b u r i a l s , I chose to accept the  Early period  8)  I  thought the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g p l o t showed the  b u r i a l s are  M67,  I probably should have accepted  from Ward's dendrogram i n s t e a d  of from  to the  the  - 89 -  scaling plot.  Cluster analysis depicts relationships  among items i n terms o f more v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n a data s e t than m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  s c a l i n g , which separates the major  dimensions o f v a r i a b i l i t y .  In Chapters 5 and 6 I have noted  when my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n should  be changed due t o the o r i g i n a l  i n c o r r e c t c h r o n o l o g i c a l placement o f M67, M9, M35, and M96.  3.4.  Conclusion The  r e s u l t s from the c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s allow two  chronological periods  t o be accepted w i t h c o n f i d e n c e ,  E a r l y p e r i o d and a Late p e r i o d .  an  The o r d e r i n g o f b u r i a l s on  the b a s i s o f changing ceramic s t y l e by the authors o f the s i t e r e p o r t i s c l e a r l y supported by the a n a l y s i s .  The  r e s u l t s show t h a t some former Middle p e r i o d b u r i a l s are grouped w i t h Late b u r i a l s and others w i t h E a r l y b u r i a l s .  The  t r a n s i t i o n a l nature o f the ceramic s t y l e s i n the Middle p e r i o d b u r i a l s i s noted by the authors Figure and  o f the s i t e  3-3 l i s t s the b u r i a l s i n the newly d e r i v e d  Late p e r i o d t h a t are u t i l i z e d  Figure  3-4 shows  l o c a t i o n s o f the E a r l y , Late and undatable b u r i a l s - w i t h i n  the cemetery.  The f i g u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n s  w i t h i n the cemetery were used i n both Three b u r i a l s assigned  periods.  t o the E a r l y p e r i o d by the authors  of the s i t e r e p o r t , 31, 62, (both i n t r u s i v e ) and 108 one  Early  f o r the remainder o f t h i s  study, as w e l l as the undatable b u r i a l s . the  report.  painted vessel)  (with  c o u l d not be i n c l u d e d i n the c h r o n o l o g i c a l  - 90 -  FIGURE 3-3. L i s t of b u r i a l s i n the newly a s s i g n e d E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s , d e r i v e d from c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , as w e l l as undatable b u r i a l s .  Early:  85 t o t a l 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 69, 71, 73, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 94, 97, 99, 101, 102, 103, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 112, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 129, 130, 131, 132.  Former Middle p e r i o d b u r i a l s : 9, 21, 35, 36, 42, 44, 49, 67, 69, 97, 118. Late:  33 t o t a l 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 16, 17, 22, 24, 25, 46, 47, 60, 64, 72, 75, 77, 93, 96, 98, 100, 104, 105, 117, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127.  Former Middle p e r i o d b u r i a l s : 16, 22, 46, 75, 93, 96, 98, 121. Undatable:  15 t o t a l  37, 39, 40, 50, 57, 68, 70, 74, 83, 85, 92, 95, 113, 128, 133.  - 91 FIGURE 3-4. L o c a t i o n o f b u r i a l s w i t h i n the Danwenkou cemetery from each p e r i o d as d e f i n e d by the c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s .  64 n  63.  JlC^- 7 0  tatty  1  10  48  49 67  57  41 5C  -,65  ^ .56 39 " C 3 42 <=J\ 53 45 52  36  El 33 • 79 •  3  84  C3  81  C3 82  80  ^3 4 6  40 I  e=a  5  128  38^2.  'a  130  ^  73  8 6 8  2  0  C 3  9  66  131 ^  I5  , =  17  >=j33  /  21  i 4  2  pottery kiln  3  35.  ' C rZ T 27 ^ ^  \  6C  Q  £ J  25  Q  5 0  76  85  ^  «  8 7 ^ 8 6 ^ 9 ^ 8  9  0  127"  10?CD*° _!09 ,29 7 8 ^ 3 ^ 9 4 ^ ^ B  »t=>  B5 a S2  O a  7  a  r-riii  a  102  « E 3  r  iota io«r-i a ?  113< ^  1 0 0  i ?  J  ,  124  S-JI05 e£TC» - '23  f->»  , 2 2 < J  cj  1 2 5  121/^133  C>I5 ^ , 3 2 JOII4  92  10 m I  CD  EARLY  PERIOD  BURIAL  HI  LATE  PERIOD  BURIAL  • • i •  J  UNDATABLE  (adapted from The Shandong P r o v i n c i a l C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Cornnission and The Jinan C i t y Museum 1974:4)  BURIAL  - 92  analysis.  -  These b u r i a l s are accepted as belonging  E a r l y p e r i o d f o r the remainder of the study. v e s s e l i n b u r i a l 108  to  I conclude  33)  Early period s t y l e s .  and  Late p e r i o d s  62 were thought t o be  are c u t t i n g i n t o each other  Early.  a grave f o r a deceased person. f e a t u r e s mark the graves. of the s i t e d u r i n g features.  remains when d i g g i n g  I t appears t h a t no  l a t e r c u l t u r a l p e r i o d s may  There may  have  The  the use of the  400  Late p e r i o d .  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) do not The  years f o r the E a r l y and  Late  pottery  (mentioned The  of the p e r i o d s proposed i n the Chinese a r c h a e l o g i c a l and  gap  f a c t t h a t some people  others were b u r i e d l a t e r  i n Chapter 1) a l s o suggests a lengthy  (600  destroyed  above t h a t the l o c a t i o n s of  i n the Late p e r i o d were b u r i e d before  erature  or  have been such a great time  graves were f o r g o t t e n . .  k i l n i n the cemetery and  surface  However, i n t e n s i v e land use  between the b u r i a l s i n q u e s t i o n ancestor's  suggest each  I t i s not l i k e l y t h a t mourners  would d e l i b e r a t e l y d i s t u r b an ancestor's  surface  62 are o l d e r than  f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l b u r i a l s w i t h i n the accepted E a r l y  p e r i o d i s q u i t e lengthy.  use  and  62 were thought to resemble  Since b u r i a l s 31 and  33, b u r i a l s 31 and  The  show as  I t i s l i k e l y the v e s s e l s i n the b u r i a l s (18  t h a t cut i n t o b u r i a l s 31 and  18 and  the  must have been examined by the method of  s t y l i s t i c comparison which the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses consistent.  the  lengths  lit-  periods,  seem u n l i k e l y .  o n l y known c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of b u r i a l s  w i t h i n each of the newly d e r i v e d p e r i o d s  are i n d i c a t e d by  the  - 93  -  p a i r s of i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s w i t h i n each p e r i o d . of i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s i n the new M44  and M43,  Late p e r i o d analysis.  E54  and  E58,  (L123! and  E78  L124)  Early period  and  E129)  and  Four p a i r s  (E32 one  were i n c l u d e d i n the  and  i n the  were used c o n t i n u o u s l y  new  chronological  These p a i r s are l o c a t e d i n a v a r i e t y of  areas w i t h i n the cemetery, suggesting  E61,  spatial  t h a t a l l s p a t i a l areas  d u r i n g each p e r i o d .  t h a t d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l areas r e p r e s e n t  I t does not  appear  d i f f e r e n t periods  of  time as noted by Shennan (1975:280) f o r the European N e o l i t h i c cemetery of Branc and  Chapman and  Randsborg  a modern r u r a l Hungarian cemetery.  Due  (1981:15) f o r  to the l a c k of  infor-  mation on the c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of b u r i a l s w i t h i n each p e r i o d , emphasis i s p l a c e d on change through time from j  the E a r l y p e r i o d to the Late f o r the remainder of t h i s The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of ceramic ware c o l o r s w i t h i n the newly  d e r i v e d E a r l y p e r i o d and  Late p e r i o d i s comparable t o  d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r Dawenkou C u l t u r e The  newly assigned ribution  periods.  My  c a l c u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e the  as f o l l o w s : E a r l y p e r i o d : red ware i s 54%  t o t a l , grey 31%, grey 41%,  black black  10%, 14%,  painted  5%;  white 31%,  The  the distof  painted  1%.  The  i n more d e t a i l  6.  c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t some  ceramic c l a s s e s and  forms are temporally  the  Late p e r i o d : red ware  d i s t r i b u t i o n of ware c o l o r w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  the  s i t e s mentioned p r e v i o u s l y .  d i s t r i b u t i o n i s a d d i t i o n a l support f o r a c c e p t i n g  i s 12%,  study.  sensitive.  - 94 -  The f o l l o w i n g forms are present o n l y i n the newly a s s i g n e d E a r l y p e r i o d (see F i g u r e A3-1): d i n g c a i ("painted dou guan s h i pan dou da l o u kong  tripod"),  ("serving stand with a guan-type d i s h " ) , ("serving stang w i t h l a r g e c u t out h o l e s " ) ,  dou c a i ("painted s e r v i n g s t a n d " ) , guan c a i ("painted  jar"),  he c a i ("painted spouted v e s s e l " ) , k u i x i n g q i ("helmet... shaped v e s s e l " ) , zuo  ("stand"), and bo c a i ("painted bowl").  These forms occur o n l y i n the Late p e r i o d : b e i dan ba w i t h simple h a n d l e " ) , dou shuang ceng pan w i t h d o u b l e - l a y e r e d d i s h " ) , hu kuan j i a n w i t h wide s h o u l d e r s " ) , p i n g  ("serving stand ("storage v e s s e l  ( " b o t t l e " ) , g u i kong zu ("hollow  f o o t e d t r i p o d p i t c h e r " ) , and dou tong x i n g serving stand").  ("cup  ("tubular shaped  - 95 -  CHAPTER 4  ,  ANALYSIS TO ESTIMATE SEX  4.1.  The Problem Chapter 2 O u t l i n e s the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problem  by the low p r o p o r t i o n b u r i a l population.  o f sexed t o unsexed b u r i a l s i n the  A key t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n f o r achieved  versus a s c r i b e d s t a t u s i s whether s t a t u s  differentiation  i s based upon age and sex or i f i t c r o s s - c u t s categories.  created  age and sex  With o n l y 19 out o f 80 sexed s i n g l e b u r i a l s i n  the E a r l y p e r i o d , nine o f 32 s i n g l e sexed b u r i a l s i n the Late P e r i o d , and two out o f 15 i n the undatable group o f b u r i a l s , i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o t e s t whether s t a t u s e n t i a t i o n i s based upon sex. A g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n  differ-  o f sexed  b u r i a l s would a l s o enhance d i s c u s s i o n o f s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i t a t i o n represented  i n the cemetery.  The b u r i a l s  c o n f i d e n t l y estimated as male o r female are added t o the sample o f known males and females f o r the analyses i n Chapters 5 and 6. In t h i s a n a l y s i s , two m u l t i v a r i a t e  classification  methods are employed: a simple i n s p e c t i o n method and discriminant analysis. i n the next s e c t i o n .  These methods are d e s c r i b e d  in detail  Each method c l a s s i f i e s the unsexed  a d u l t b u r i a l s i n t o a male o r female c l a s s on the b a s i s o f the a r t i f a c t types i n c l u d e d i n the known male and female  -  graves.  An e x p l o r a t o r y  artifact  types within  study o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  t h e known s e x e d g r a v e s s u g g e s t e d  some t y p e s o f a r t i f a c t s  (especially production  occur e x c l u s i v e l y or nearly females. Culture incial  This sites  Museum  Archaeological includes  suggestion by P e a r s o n  Team  Binford's  ( 1 9 8 1 : 1 0 8 4 ) , t h e Shandong  Prov-  ( 1 9 7 9 ) , t h e Shandong (1979).  Pearson  (1981)  summary o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  t y p e s a t Dawenkou C u l t u r e  (1971) e t h n o g r a p h i c  mortuary r i t u a l ,  with  h a s b e e n made f o r Dawenkou  (1979) and Zhang  artifact  that  tools)  s o w i t h m a l e s ,and o t h e r s  ( 1 9 7 8 ) , Luo and Zhang  a comprehensive  sex-related  96 -  study  sites.  indicates that i n  s e x i s commonly e x p r e s s e d by a r t i f a c t  (see F i g u r e  2-3).  forms t h a t  e x p r e s s t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l , o r  tools  reflect  that  These a r t i f a c t  form  the male-female d i v i s i o n  1971:22).  Only unsexed a d u l t  analysis.  Since  artifacts  of labour  b u r i a l s are included  (Binford  i n this  29 o f t h e 30 s e x e d b u r i a l s a r e a d u l t s , t h e  associated  of r e l a t i v e  f o r m s may be c l o t h i n g ,  (adult)  w i t h t h e s e b u r i a l s may be a age a s w e l l  excluded  from t h i s  identify  the a r t i f a c t s  as sex.  reflection  Multiple b u r i a l s are  a n a l y s i s because i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o associated  w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l .  S e x e d and u n s e x e d s i n g l e a d u l t b u r i a l s f r o m t h e u n d a t a b l e group o f b u r i a l s a r e i n c l u d e d Binford's  (1971) s t u d y  g r a v e may r e f l e c t variability in  Chapter The  i n the a n a l y s i s .  i n d i c a t e s t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n o.f t h e  t h e s e x o f an i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l .  The  i n g r a v e o r i e n t a t i o n a t Dawenkou i s d i s c u s s e d 5.  small  number o f aged s k e l e t o n s  a t Dawenkou  also  l i m i t s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s d i f f e r entiation.  There are only four known subadults  E a r l y p e r i o d and one group o f . b u r i a l s .  i n the Late.  i n the  S i x are i n the  undatable  The other s k e l e t o n s are d e s c r i b e d as  a d u l t , w i t h no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as to r e l a t i v e age. to B i n f o r d ' s r i t u a l may  (1971) ethnographic  study, age  According  i n mortuary  be r e f l e c t e d by grave l o c a t i o n , grave form  body d i s p o s i t i o n  (see F i g . 2 - 3 ) .  aspects of mortuary treatment Whether r e l a t i v e age  and  V a r i a b i l i t y i n these  three  i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 5.  i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d by c e r t a i n  forms at Dawenkou cannot be t e s t e d here due  artifact  to the  small  sample of b u r i a l s of known r e l a t i v e age and the p a u c i t y of grave goods i n the m a j o r i t y of the subadult  graves.  T h i s a n a l y s i s assumes t h a t the sexing of the Dawenkou s k e l e t o n s was  done a c c u r a t e l y by the i n v e s t i g a t o r s .  not c l e a r why  o n l y 30 s k e l e t o n s from s i n g l e b u r i a l s  e i g h t s k e l e t o n s from m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s were sexed. i n v e s t i g a t o r s may  have encountered fragmentation  s k e l e t a l p a r t s or p o o r l y developed  suxual  and The  of  critical  characteristics,  problems which have a f f e c t e d other cases of sexing 1979:186).  It i s  (Bender  Since some of the sexed s k e l e t o n s have o n l y a  common a r t i f a c t s p r e s e n t , i t seems the sexing was  done on  b a s i s of s k e l e t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and not on a r t i f a c t I t i s not l i k e l y i t h a t i n 1959  few the  types.  investigators utilized a multi-  v a r i a t e sexing method, p r e f e r r e d today f o r i t s accuracy the method of a p p l y i n g s i n g l e c r i t e r i a to each s k e l e t o n  over  - 98 -  (Weiss 1973:58).  But f o r the purposes of t h i s  study, i t i s assumed the method employed  mortuary  i s adequate.  That s u b a d u l t s were not sexed i s not unusual - o t h e r paleodemographic  analyses  have not been able t o sex sub-  a d u l t s due to inadequate development (Bender 1979:186).  o f sexual c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  I t i s not known i f the group o f sexed  s k e l e t o n s from Dawenkou has the common problem o f a b i a s towards males  (Weiss 1973:58).  A b i a s may  not have o c c u r r e d  because approximately e q u a l numbers of males and females were identified  (14 males and 16 females from the s i n g l e  and four males and f o u r females from the m u l t i p l e  burials  burials).  Since males comprise approximately f i f t y p e r c e n t of most ethnographic a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n s , a sexed s k e l e t a l p o p u l a t i o n should have a s i m i l a r male-female f a c t o r s are r e s p o n s i b l e  (ibid).  ratio,  unless c u l t u r a l  C u l t u r a l factors that  c o u l d upset t h i s r a t i o i n c l u d e cases i n which males d i e d i n other t e r r i t o r i e s  (Bender 1979:187).  known male-female  r a t i o at Dawenkou may  of the male-female  I t i s p o s s i b l e the not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  r a t i o i n the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole.  I t i s a l s o not c l e a r why s k e l e t o n s were not determined.  the r e l a t i v e ages o f the a d u l t The reason may  be the  i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t y and u n c e r t a i n t y i n the aging o f s k e l e t o n s (Weiss 1979:59). it  For the purposes of t h i s mortuary study,  i s assumed t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f s u b a d u l t s i n the cemetery  were r e l i a b l y  identified.  Four b u r i a l s i n the cemetery do not c o n t a i n a s k e l e t o n (one i n the E a r l y p e r i o d and t h r e e i n the L a t e ) .  The  authors o f the s i t e r e p o r t suggest t h a t these b u r i a l s were  - 99 -  prepared f o r people who d i e d i n another t e r r i t o r y , a p r a c t i c e common to modern f i s h i n g peoples  (Shandong P r o v i n c i a l C u l t u r e  P r o p e r t i e s Commission and the J i n a n C i t y Museum 1974:7).  Since  these b u r i a l s c o n t a i n grave goods, they w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s t o estimate sex.  4.2.  The A n a l y s i s  4.2.1.  Introduction  None o f the extant mortuary s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e has employed a simple  i n s p e c t i o n method o r d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s  to estimate  sex.  The two s t u d i e s i n which an attempt i s made  to estimate  sex on the b a s i s o f a r t i f a c t i n c l u s i o n s (Hodson 1977;  Shephard 1979) do n o t make e x p l i c i t use o f the p a t t e r n i n g o f a r t i f a c t s i n known sexed b u r i a l s .  Hodson (1977) u t i l i z e s  S i n g l e Linkage C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s i n an R mode, and Shephard u t i l i z e d S i n g l e Linkage C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s and p r i n c i p a l ates a n a l y s i s i n an R mode.  coordin-  Both s t u d i e s i n t e r p r e t the  "resultant groups o f a r t i f a c t s as e i t h e r m a l e - r e l a t e d related.  (1979)  o r female-  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s seem made on the b a s i s o f  modern western concepts o f male and female a r t i f a c t s .  It i s  not c l e a r whether the p a t t e r n i n g of a r t i f a c t s from known male and  female b u r i a l s c o n t r i b u t e s t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Doran  (1973) mentions t h a t sex and age w i l l be estimated  i n a f u t u r e study f o r a sample o f European Iron Age b u r i a l s , but a p p a r e n t l y  the r e s u l t s have not y e t been  published.  - 100 -  Hodson  (1979:25) mentions f o u r s t u d i e s i n German t h a t  attempt t o estimate  sex on the b a s i s o f a r t i f a c t i n c l u s i o n s  but does not d e s c r i b e the methods employed. Since the e x p l o r a t o r y study of the Dawenkou sexed b u r i a l s suggest s p e c i f i c male and female r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s , a m u l t i v a r i a t e technique t h a t can best make use o f the known sexed group o f b u r i a l s should be u s e f u l .  The simple  method and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s are two such Of course, coordinates  4.2.2.  inspection techniques.  S i n g l e Linkage C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s and p r i n c i p a l a n a l y s i s may work f o r other data  sets.  Method  The e s t i m a t i o n s  of sex are based upon a comparison  of r e s u l t s from the simple  i n s p e c t i o n method and the more  r i g o r o u s method o f d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s .  Discriminant  analysis i s theoretically well suited for a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n problem such as the one here. method from Sneath and Sokal suitable.  The simple  However, the simple  inspection  (1973:406) seems e q u a l l y  i n s p e c t i o n method i s u t i l i z e d t o  c l a s s i f y the unsexed s i n g l e a d u l t b u r i a l s on the b a s i s o f a few a r t i f a c t types t h a t were noted i n the e x p l o r a t o r y study as e x c l u s i v e t o the known males o r females. simple  The  i n s p e c t i o n method c o u l d not i d e n t i f y a l l the male or  female-lfnked  a r t i f a c t forms.  Therefore,  discriminant  a n a l y s i s i s u t i l i z e d t o c l a s s i f y the unsexed b u r i a l s on the b a s i s o f a l l the a r t i f a c t forms present  i n the known sexed  -  burials.  Discriminant  known as e x c l u s i v e  101 -  a n a l y s i s can search  the a r t i f a c t  forms  t o e i t h e r s e x , t h e forms n o t e d a s s h a r e d  between t h e s e x e s and t h e f o r m s t o o numerous f o r s t u d y by visual  i n s p e c t i o n t o determine the a r t i f a c t  forms t h a t  best  discriminate  b e t w e e n t h e known s e x e d b u r i a l s .  discriminant  a n a l y s i s i s n o t a l w a y s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n  simple Sokal  i n s p e c t i o n methods i n c l a s s i f y i n g  has been argued  statistical  ( S n e a t h and  (Thomas 1980:344)  method s h o u l d  that  be c h o s e n o v e r a more  a  simple complicated  when i t i s known t h a t b o t h methods a r e e q u a l l y  achieving  the desired  it  i s not c l e a r that  as  t h e more  results the  items  1973:406). It  one  However,  results.  the simpler  c o m p l e x method.  from both a simple  relative  I n c a s e s s u c h as t h i s method w i l l  I argue t h a t  one,  be a s e f f e c t i v e  a. c o m p a r i s o n o f  and c o m p l e x method s h o u l d  indicate  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e a c h method f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r  data s e t u t i l i z e d .  A comparison  should  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i t e m s i n t h e d a t a ships  capable of  a l s o i d e n t i f y the s e t , not r e l a t i o n -  w h i c h a r e a f a c t o r o f one method. In the simple  i n s p e c t i o n method, i d e a l  types are derived  f r o m t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h t h e known c l a s s e s  (in this  c a s e , t h e known male and f e m a l e b u r i a l s ) .  type  consists  of a set of sex-linked  sex-linked present is  artifacts,  artifact  on t h e b a s i s  Each i d e a l types.  of the a r t i f a c t  i n t h e known male and f e m a l e b u r i a l s  used t o c a l c u l a t e the s i m i l a r i t y  The s e t o f types  (see F i g u r e  4-1),  o f the unsexed b u r i a l s t o  - 102 -  FIGURE  4-1.  Distribution  Artifact  of sex-linked  artifact  Known m a l e burials (14 t o t a l )  whetstone llshi  fish gdu  hook  tusk knife ya' d a o  stone knife shf dao disk, pendant bi, zhiii stone c h i s e l shx zab bone c h i s e l g u zafo arrowhead zu spoon, bi  spatula  head ornament, neck ornament toushi, j ingstii small round stone xiao s h i bing  types  Known f e m a l e burials (16  total)  -  the  ideal  types.  Coefficient,  This  c a l c u l a t i o n i s by means o f  described  i n Chapter  of each unsexed b u r i a l the be  sex-linked  3.  types.  Jaccard's  The t a x o n o m i c  from each i d e a l  artifact  male i f t h e v a l u e  103 -  type  A burial  distance  i s b a s e d on  i s estimated to  f o r i t i s c l o s e r t o t h e "male"  ideal  t y p e o r f e m a l e i f i t comes c l o s e r t o t h e " f e m a l e " i d e a l Discriminant a  analysis classifies  type.  i t e m s on t h e b a s i s o f  s e t o f i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t o one o f two o r more  mutually exclusive In t h i s  case,  categories  or classes  the a n a l y s i s c l a s s i f i e s  a m a l e o r f e m a l e c l a s s on t h e b a s i s The  discriminant  variances  and c o v a r i a n c e s  known c l a s s inant  function  t h e unsexed b u r i a l s i n t o  of a discriminant  function.  between t h e v a r i a b l e s 1973:401).  from  each  Here,, t h e d i s c r i m -  i s c a l c u l a t e d from t h e q u a n t i t i e s o f a l l t h e  a r t i f a c t ; types present of b u r i a l s .  1969:442).  i s c a l c u l a t e d from t h e p o o l e d  ( S n e a t h and S o k a l  function  (Morrison  i n t h e known male and f e m a l e  The d i s c r i m i n a n t  funtion  is a  classes  statistical  s t a t e m e h t c o f :-thervaf tables:.:found ; t o : " d i s t i n g U i s h r between vthe established  groups i n question  (Hettinger  1979:456).  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s a r e w e i g h t e d and l i n e a r l y so  that  (Klecka  the classes  a r e as s t a t i s t i c a l l y  1975:435).  The c e n t r o i d  possible  represents  the  average o f the d i s c r i m i n a n t  the  average l o c a t i o n o f the v a r i a b l e s i n each c l a s s i n the  discriminant scores  function  f o r each case  (Klecka (here,  scores  combined  d i s t i n c t ..as  f o r each c l a s s  The  f o r the v a r i a b l e s , o r  1975:443).  t h e unsexed  The  discriminant  single adult  burials)  - 104  -  r e f l e c t the p r o b a b i l i t y f o r membership i n t o one The  D i r e c t Method of D i s c r i m i n a n t  Subprogram DISCRIMINANT (Klecka  1975)  o f the c l a s s e s .  A n a l y s i s from the SPSS i s u t i l i z e d here.  In  the D i r e c t Method, a l l independent v a r i a b l e s are entered once and  the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n  known c l a s s e s )  (one  i n the case of  i s d e r i v e d from the s e t of v a r i a b l e s .  two Unlike  the Step-wise method, the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power of each pendent v a r i a b l e i s not c o n s i d e r e d .  In t h i s v e r s i o n  at  inde-  of  d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , a " t o l e r a n c e " t e s t i s mandatory, r e s u l t i n g i n the r e j e c t i o n of p e r f e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . T h i s step may  be s t a t i s t i c a l l y  u n j u s t i f i e d i n the present  4.2.3.  The  j u s t i f i e d , but  i t seems  case.  Simple I n s p e c t i o n Method: Data  T h i r t y sexed b u r i a l s (19 from the E a r l y p e r i o d , from the Late and  two  undatable b u r i a l s ) and  32 unsexed a d u l t  b u r i a l s are i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s by the simple method.  F i g u r e A4-1  each p e r i o d and  l i s t s the sexed and  periods precluded  inspection  unsexed b u r i a l s f o r  f o r the undatable b u r i a l s .  s i z e of known male and  nine  The  small  female b u r i a l s i n each of the  sample two  a separate a n a l y s i s f o r each p e r i o d .  In  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s e c t i o n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s taken of the temporally  two  s e n s i t i v e a r t i f a c t types i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s .  Eleven  a r t i f a c t types are i n c l u d e d : nine t h a t  are  e x c l u s i v e to the  14 known males.(but not present  b u r i a l s ) and  t h a t are e x c l u s i v e to the 16 known females  two  (but not p r e s e n t  among a l l females).  of c l o t h i n g but most are p r o d u c t i o n  A few tools.  i n a l l male  types are  items  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  - 105  -  o f these 11 types i s shown i n F i g u r e 4-1.  Some of these  a r t i f a c t types have s t y l e numbers a s s i g n e d t o them.  Style  numbers are not i n c l u d e d i n the simple i n s p e c t i o n method because the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the v a r i o u s numbers a c c o r d i n g t o sex i s too d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n by eye.  Ceramic  styles  are excluded from t h i s a n a l y s i s f o r the same reason.  Some  a r t i f a c t types have the same form but are made of a d i f f e r e n t material  (stone and bone c h i s e l , and tusk and stone  knife).  Since these types are p u r p o s e l y separated by the authors of the s i t e r e p o r t and they are e x c l u s i v e to the known males, a l l are u t i l i z e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s ,  Ceramic  subtypes and  functional  types were not found t o be e x c l u s i v e t o e i t h e r sex except f o r a few forms t h a t are r a r e i n the b u r i a l p o p u l a t i o n . Only 32 of the 85 unsexed s i n g l e a d u l t b u r i a l s i n the cemetery have one or more o f these a r t i f a c t types p r e s e n t . These b u r i a l s i n c l u d e : one undatable b u r i a l ,  19 E a r l y p e r i o d  burials  (one of which has no s k e l e t o n ) , and 12 Late p e r i o d  burials  (of which two have no s k e l e t o n p r e s e n t ) ,  The  artifact  types do not occur w i t h g r e a t enough frequency a c r o s s the b u r i a l sample t o a l l o w the use of frequency data.  Two  of  the d i s t u r b e d b u r i a l s , E27 and L3, are i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . A l l of the a r t i f a c t types from the male subadult b u r i a l ,  L117,  are i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s because they occur w i t h male adult b u r i a l s .  Thus, these types are not a f u n c t i o n of  age.  I judged t h a t the a r t i f a c t types should be p r e s e n t a t l e a s t f o u r times among the b u r i a l p o p u l a t i o n i n order f o r the  - 106 -  a n a l y s i s t o be v i a b l e .  The j i a o zhui and b l are lumped  t o g e t h e r i n order t o meet t h i s requirement,  as w e l l as the  neck and head ornaments ( j i n g s h i and t o u s h i ) .  A known  female has both the head and neck ornament t y p e s .  One  type e x c l u s i v e t o males must be r e j e c t e d (stone hammer, chui) as w e l l as two types e x c l u s i v e t o females xiang ya shu and stone pendant, huarig) .  (elephant i v o r y comb, At the time o f the  a n a l y s i s , on the b a s i s o f the photographs and drawings i n the s i t e r e p o r t I i n t e r p r e t e d j i a o z h u i t o i n d i c a t e a horn pendant.  I have l e a r n e d s i n c e then t h a t the term may r e f e r  to a n e t weight  (Zou Heng, p e r s o n a l communication 1983).  T h e r e f o r e , the j i a o zhui probably should not have been grouped w i t h the b i (elephant i v o r y d i s k ) .  However, s i n c e there are  o n l y two cases i n which b l are p r e s e n t i n the b u r i a l  sample  (both from the E a r l y p e r i o d ) , the r e s u l t s from the a n a l y s i s should be r e l i a b l e . The uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n o f male and  female  .  a r t i f a c t s l i m i t s the a b i l i t y o f the a n a l y s i s t o i d e n t i f y unsexed b u r i a l s as female.  Another l i m i t a t i o n i s that the  absence o f the nine "male" a r t i f a c t s does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e a female b u r i a l because s i x o f the 14 known male b u r i a l s do n o t c o n t a i n these a r t i f a c t types, e i t h e r .  However,  because the p r o p o r t i o n o f known females without  types  i s much h i g h e r t h a t the known males without types  these  these  artifact  (16 female b u r i a l s out o f 22 t o t a l w i t h no "male" a r t ^  i f a c t types/ versus s i x male b u r i a l s out o f 22 t o t a l ) , i t i s  - 107 -  more l i k e l y t h a t a b u r i a l w i t h none o f these a r t i f a c t i s female.  types  T h e r e f o r e the v a r i a b l e "no male a r t i f a c t types"  i s i n c l u d e d as a t w e l f t h v a r i a b l e i n the a n a l y s i s .  The l a s t  two cases i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s are " i d e a l female" and " i d e a l male".  The " i d e a l female" i s coded as having the  nine male a r t i f a c t types absent and the three female categories present  artifact  (the two g i v e n i n F i g u r e 4-1 and the category  "no male a r t i f a c t t y p e s " ) .  The " i d e a l male" i s coded as  having the nine male a r t i f a c t types p r e s e n t and the three female c a t a g o r i e s absent. Coding o f the 32 unsexed b u r i a l s showed a d i s t r i b u t i o n of the nine male a r t i f a c t types and two female ones which supported the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t a t l e a s t some o f the 11 a r t i f a c t types are s e x - l i n k e d .  The unsexed b u r i a l s tend t o have  e i t h e r some o f the nine male a r t i f a c t  types p r e s e n t and  none o f the female a r t i f a c t types, or v i c e v e r s a .  4.2.4. The Simple The  I n s p e c t i o n Method: R e s u l t s  s i m i l a r i t y matrix generated from J a c c a r d ' s C o e f f i c i e n t  i s not d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t because the unsexed b u r i a l s are c l e a r l y s i m i l a r t o e i t h e r the " i d e a l male" type o r t o the " i d e a l female" type  (with s i m i l a r i t y expressed by a low d i s -  tance value and d i s s i m i l a r i t y expressed by a value o f 1.000). None o f the unsexed b u r i a l s have v a l u e s c l o s e t o both the " i d e a l male" and the " i d e a l female".  The d i s t a n c e v a l u e s  f o r the sexed and unsexed b u r i a l s as w e l l as the assignment  - 108 -  of "male" o r "female" f o r the unsexed b u r i a l s a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e 4-2.  A t o t a l o f 26 unsexed b u r i a l s appear t o be male  and s i x , female. The assignment  o f the s i x "female" b u r i a l s i s not as  r e l i a b l e as t h a t o f the 26 "male" b u r i a l s . "females"  (E49, E58, L5 and L60) o n l y c o n t a i n one female  a r t i f a c t , the s m a l l round stone  (xiao s h i b i n g ) .  a r t i f a c t type i s o n l y found i n one  known female  B u r i a l s L3 and L47 are more r e l i a b l y contain  Four o f the  This grave.  "female" s i n c e they  an a r t i f a c t type t h a t i s found: i n t h r e e known female  graves, the neck or head ornament  (jing s h i or tou s h i ) .  T h i s a r t i f a c t type i s uncommon i n the b u r i a l p o p u l a t i o n and i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the Late p e r i o d . a r t i f a c t type  I t may be a h i g h s t a t u s  ( t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 6 ) .  Thus, t h e r e may be no a r t i f a c t type t o r e l i a b l y i d e n t i f y low s t a t u s females i n the Late p e r i o d o r any females i n the E a r l y period.  As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , the l a c k o f the male r e l a t e d  a r t i f a c t types does not n e c e s s a r i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a female  burial.  The a r t i f a c t types p r e s e n t i n one o f the unsexed b u r i a l s suggests t h a t the s m a l l round stones may not be female after a l l .  One o f the estimated "females"  related  (L5) c o n t a i n s an  a r t i f a c t type t h a t may be male r e l a t e d , the stone hammer. The m a j o r i t y o f the estimated "males"  (16 out o f 26  new male b u r i a l s , o r 61.5%) o n l y c o n t a i n one male r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t type  ( a l l those b u r i a l s w i t h a value o f 0,889 i n  F i g u r e 4-2). The types p r e s e n t i n these b u r i a l s are bone  FIGURE 4-2.  Distance values f o r the unsexed b u r i a l s from the Simple I n s p e c t i o n Method and assignment of sex, and the d i s t a n c e v a l u e s f o r known sexed b u r i a l s .  Unsexed  burials  I d e a l male  Ell 0.889  E12 0.889  E19 0.778  E26 0.444  E27 0.889  E38 0.889  E49* 1.000  E53 0.889  E54 0.778  I d e a l female  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  0.333  1.000  1.000  I d e a l male  E58* 1.000  E61 0.889  E63 0.889  E66 0.889  E87 0.889  E103 0.333  E106 0.667  E110 0.889  E118 0.889  I d e a l female  0.333  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  I d e a l male  E119 0.889  L3* 1.000  L4 0.333  L5* 1.000  L17 0.333  L22 0.889  L24 0.778  L25 0.667  L47* 1.000  I d e a l female  1.000  0.0  1.000  0.333  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  0.333  I d e a l male  L60* 1.000  L75 0.889  L98 0.889  L126 0.889  X40 0.778  I d e a l female  0.333  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  Note: assigned "females" marked*; assigned "males" unmarked. B u r i a l s w i t h lower d i s t a n c e values are c l o s e r t o the " i d e a l male" o r " i d e a l female". L3 i s i d e n t i c a l t o the " i d e a l female" because i t has a l l o f the "female" a r t i f a c t s present. Cont'd.  FIGURE 4-2  continued  Known females E7  E28  E30  E55  E67  E82  E102  E115  I d e a l  male  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  I d e a l  f e m a l e  0.667  0.667  0.667  0.667  0.333  0.667  0.667  0.667  I d e a l male Ideal  i'i'  female  E131i  L10  L72  L105  L121  X57  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  0.667  0.667  0.333  0.333  0.667  0.667  E130 1.000 0.667  X85  1.000 0.667  The female b u r i a l s with the lower d i s t a n c e f i g u r e s have more o f the "female" a r t i f a c t types present and are more s i m i l a r t o the " i d e a l female". A l l o f the known females are the maximum d i s t a n c e from the " i d e a l male". Known males I d e a l male  E9 0.333  E34 0.556  E59 0.667  E73 0.889  E91 1.000  E99 1.000  E107 1.000  E109 0.778  E112 1.000  Ideal  1.000  1.000  1.000  1.000  0.667  0.667  0.667  1.000  0.667  I d e a l male  L15 0.889  L117 0.778  L122 1.000  L123 1.000  L125 0.222  Ideal  1.000  1.000  0.667  0.667  1.000  female  female  The male b u r i a l s w i t h the lower d i s t a n c e f i g u r e s have more o f the "male" a r t i f a c t types present and are more s i m i l a r t o the " i d e a l male". E i g h t o f the known males are the maximum d i s t a n c e from the " i d e a l female". S i x o f the known males are more s i m i l a r t o the " i d e a l female" because they have none o f the "male" a r t i f a c t t y p e s . Males w i t h a value of 0.889 o n l y have one of the "male" a r t i f a c t s p r e s e n t .  - Ill-  arrowhead, bone spoon or s p a t u l a , and whetstone. Twelve of these 16 b u r i a l s are from the E a r l y p e r i o d and the Late.  Only f i v e of the  12 estimated "male" b u r i a l s from  the E a r l y p e r i o d have more than one type p r e s e n t ,  w h i l e one-half  four are- from  male r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t  of the estimated "male" b u r i a l s  from the Late p e r i o d have more than one male r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t present.  Thus, the g r e a t e r number of a r t i f a c t types i n the  Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s makes the e s t i m a t i o n b u r i a l s more r e l i a b l e .  None of the  of sex i n these  "male" i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  is  based s o l e l y upon the presence of the u n c e r t a i n  and  stone d i s k  4.2.5  category.  Discriminant The  A n a l y s i s : Data  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure i n the d i s c r i m i n a n t  program allows  111  a r t i f a c t types coded by  b u r i a l s (29 known sexed b u r i a l s and  included.  analysis  the i n c l u s i o n of a l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s .  In t h i s a n a l y s i s , 129 and  netweight  frequencies  82 unsexed) are  In order t h a t the r e s u l t s be comparable to those  from the simple i n s p e c t i o n method, a separate a n a l y s i s i s not done f o r each c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d and l i n k e d v a r i a b l e s from the  types are l i s t e d i n F i g u r e A4-2.  frequencies.  The  129  Relationships  sex-  are  artifact among items  ( i e . , the s e x - l i n k e d a r t i f a c t forms)  be i d e n t i f i e d whether .data are by  11 p o s s i b l y  simple i n s p e c t i o n a n a l y s i s  i n c l u d e d as they were i n t h a t a n a l y s i s .  i n the data s e t  the  should  coded by presence/absence or  - 112 -  In a d d i t i o n t o the 11 o r i g i n a l a r t i f a c t types, a l l other types o f grave goods from the known male and female b u r i a l s are i n c l u d e d .  The netweight and stone d i s k  c a t e g o r i e s are separated here because about my i n i t i a l  I became u n c e r t a i n  interpretation at this point.  T o o l and  ornament types t h a t are known t o be shared between the known male and female b u r i a l s are i n c l u d e d .  They are coded by  s t y l e number whenever p o s s i b l e i n order t o determine any s t y l e s are e x c l u s i v e t o e i t h e r sex.  whether  The shared types t h a t  cannot be coded by s t y l e a r e i n c l u d e d i n case they are found more l i k e l y t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r sex. styles  The ceramic  ( i n o r i g i n a l , unlumped form) from the known male  and female b u r i a l s are i n c l u d e d as w e l l .  The c h r o n o l o g i c a l  a n a l y s i s o f Chapter 3 i n d i c a t e d t h a t the v a r i a b i l i t y i n s t y l e numbers i s a t l e a s t p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d by chronology. D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s should be a b l e t o determine any o f the s t y l e s are a l s o s e x - l i n k e d .  whether  The types and c l a s s e s  of ceramics o r o f other a r t i f a c t s which are known t o be t e m p o r a l l y s e n s i t i v e are c o n s i d e r e d i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s i f any o f these forms are found t o be important discriminators  of sex. A l l a r t i f a c t types are i n c l u d e d  which are p r e s e n t i n the known sexed b u r i a l s and i n a t l e a s t one unsexed b u r i a l . Some o f t h e a r t i f a c t types shared between the sexes may be s u r p r i s i n g t o western a r c h a e o l o g i s t s ; f a n g l u n whorl) , zhen bihuan  (spindle  (bone needle) , j_I (stone and bone h a i r p i n ) , and  (stone and bone b r a c e l e t ) .  I f these were u t i l i z e d i n  an R mode a n a l y s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t by Shephard  (1979) and  - 113 -  Hodson  (1977), i n c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d male and female  dimensions c o u l d r e s u l t . One o f the sexed b u r i a l s i n c l u d e d simple i n s p e c t i o n i s excluded here  i n the a n a l y s i s by  (E28, female with i n f a n t ) .  In case any o f the a r t i f a c t s i n the b u r i a l were intended f o r the i n f a n t , E28 w i l l be t r e a t e d as a m u l t i p l e b u r i a l f o r t h i s and a l l subsequent a n a l y s e s . recognized burials  earlier.  T h i s problem was not  82 o f the 85 unsexed s i n g l e  ( l i s t e d i n F i g u r e A4-1) c o n t a i n  adult  a t l e a s t one o f the  12 9 a r t i f a c t types from the known sexed b u r i a l s . cluded  b u r i a l s are E43, E71, and X128.  Only those  The exartifact  types o r s t y l e s from the subadult male b u r i a l (L117) t h a t are found i n o t h e r a d u l t graves o f known sex are i n c l u d e d . Types o r s t y l e s found e x c l u s i v e l y i n L117 t h a t c o u l d age  reflect  are excluded. Some d i s c r e p a n c i e s  i n the q u a n t i t i e s o f t o o l and ornament  types were noted from Chapters 4 and 6 o f the s i t e r e p o r t (on t o o l s and ornaments, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , the summary c h a r t 5 page 131,  and from the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the b u r i a l s .  chronological  As i n the  a n a l y s i s o f Chapter 3, the q u a n t i t i e s from the  b u r i a l d e s c r i p t i o n s are employed here.  4.2.6.  Discriminant  One d i s c r i m i n a n t  Analysis:  Results  function t h a t separates the known male  b u r i a l s from the known female b u r i a l s i s d e r i v e d , f o r 100% o f the v a r i a n c e .  accounting  I t i s unfortunate t h a t 102 o f the  - 114  129  -  o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s entered i n the a n a l y s i s are not  p a r t of the d i s c r i m i n a n t  function.  These v a r i a b l e s were  r e j e c t e d because they f a i l e d the minimum t o l e r a n c e not r e a c h i n g the minimum t o l e r a n c e 0.00100.  The  tolerance  v a r i a b l e s i n the a n a l y s i s " , or Nie  1981:293).  Discriminant  variables that discriminate a b l e s t h a t are  test,  value i n the program of  l e v e l of a v a r i a b l e i s "the  t i o n of i t s within-groups v a r i a n c e  a  not  propor-  accounted f o r by  'unique v a r i a n c e  1  (Hull  other and  a n a l y s i s searches f o r independent between groups and  rejects vari-  found t o co-vary w i t h o t h e r s among the known  sexed b u r i a l s . Only f i v e of the a n a l y s i s by  12 a r t i f a c t types employed i n  simple i n s p e c t i o n achieved the minimum  l e v e l and were i n c l u d e d  i n the d i s c r i m i n a n t  Both p o s s i b l e  rejected  (the head and  stone).  The  male b u r i a l s of b u r i a l s The  standardized  ( I ) , adze  the  from the value f o r the  small  round  female group  ( I I ) , and  as stone c h i s e l ,  (medium-sized I I ) , and  ring  tusk k n i f e .  are bone arrowhead, bone  horn netweight.  distinct.  function.coefficients  discriminators  discriminators  and  c e n t r o i d value f o r the known  discriminant  strongest  F a i r l y strong tool  tusk k n i f e  (-3.60558) i n d i c a t e s that:thejtwo .groups are  i d e n t i f y the ( I I ) , awl  (3.86 313)  stone  female a r t i f a c t s were  neck ornaments and  d i f f e r e n c e i n the  tolerance  function:  c h i s e l , bone arrowhead, bone spoon or s p a t u l a , the horn netweight.  the  pointed  Four of these v a r i a b l e s  c h i s e l , tusk k n i f e , bone arrowhead and  horn netweight)  (the are  - 115 -  known from  the simple i n s p e c t i o n a n a l y s i s t o be male  discriminators.  The s t a n d a r d i z e d  c o e f f i c i e n t s are l i s t e d i n F i g u r e Thirteen  discriminant  function  4-3.  (15.9%) of the 82 unsexed b u r i a l s are c l a s s -  i f i e d as male and 69 (84%) as female.  That i s , 13 b u r i a l s  are more l i k e l y t o be male than female on the b a s i s o f the male or female d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a r t i f a c t s they c o n t a i n . appears t h a t the assignment "female" t o the m a j o r i t y  It of the  unsexed b u r i a l s i s by d e f a u l t because these b u r i a l s do not c o n t a i n any male r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s .  From my  exploratory  study o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s i n the known sexed graves, I suspect  there are no s t r o n g l y  discriminating artifacts.  female-related  The d i s c r i m i n a n t scores  82 unsexed b u r i a l s are shown i n F i g u r e  4-4.  d i s t u r b e d b u r i a l s are i d e n t i f i e d as male  f o r the  None o f the  (L46, L3, E27, L77).  E i g h t o f the 13 males were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by the simple i n s p e c t i o n method. and  F i v e of the b u r i a l s (E79, E81, E101, E129,  L124) are i d e n t i f i e d as male on the b a s i s o f v a r i a b l e s  not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s by simple i n s p e c t i o n . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the unsexed b u r i a l s by the d i s criminant  a n a l y s i s cannot be considered  totally  reliable  s i n c e i t i s not based on the t o t a l range o f a r t i f a c t i n the known sexed b u r i a l s . d i s c r i m i n a n t scores  Figure  types  4-4 shows t h a t the  f o r the estimated males and females  f l u c t u a t e a g r e a t d e a l about the c e n t r o i d s f o r the known male and  female groups o f b u r i a l s , i n d i c a t i n g a poor c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  - 116 -  FIGURE 4-3. Standardized D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the 27 v a r i a b l e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h between the known male and female c l a s s e s o f b u r i a l s . L i s t e d i n order o f importance, a c c o r d i n g t o absolute v a l u e . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27  adze (medium s i z e d II) -13.61991 awl 9.86757 stone c h i s e l -8.40071 6. 63768 tusk k n i f e r i n g (II) 6.10280 4.18537 pendant o r net weight 4.04045 p a i n t e d t o o l (II) -3.90091 arrowhead 2.42101 spade ( I I I ) -2.21648 spade (IV) spear (I) -2.13114 2.08805 sickle spoon o r s p a t u l a -1.53598 lower jaw bone o f p i g 1.49133 1.43660 ax (II) 1.34083 spade (V) b r a c e l e t (IV) -0.67213 -0.49056 h a i r p i n (II) t h r e e legged v e s s e l w i t h bent body(III)-0.48811 -0.40644 hairtie -0.40418 s p i n d l e whorl 0.39779 h a i r p i n (IV) -0.23252 pig skull 0.22943 h a i r p i n (I) -0.19595 r i n g (I) deer t e e t h 0.19533 -0.05743 b r a c e l e t (I)  - 117 -  FIGURE 4-4. D i s c r i m i n a n t Scores f o r the 82 unsexed, s i n g l e a d u l t b u r i a l s i n the D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s , D i r e c t Method. ( * = male b u r i a l s i d e n t i f i e d by the Simple I n s p e c t i o n Method a l s o . ) Assigned males: * * * * *  L4  L24 L25 E26 L75 E79 E81 E101 E103  * E110 L124 * L126 E129  1.3178 4.0476 14.0075 55.3965 6.3347 4.1213 22.4919 0.3587 22.9345 46.0268 3.8262 6.0396 18.1390  Assigned females: L2 L3 L5 E6 E8 Ell E12 E14 E16 E17 E18 E19 E20 E21 L22 E2 3 E27 E29 E32 E33 E38 X40 E41 E42  -4.2893 -3.1088 -7.2403 -4.3630 -3.6990 14.4705 -8.3470 -2.8137 -4.8795 -1.7808 -5.1746 66.4834 -3.1088 -2.8137 -7.9781 -3.6253 -7.8306 -3.7728 -6.3550 -4.9532 16.7576 38.1530 -3.1088 -3.9204 Cont'd...  - 118  FIGURE 4-4  -  continued  Assigned  females: E4 4 E45 L46 L47 E48 E49 E51 E52 E53 E54 E56 E58 L60 E61 E62 E63 L64 E65 E66 E76 L77 E78 E80 X83 E84 E86 E87 E88 E90 L93 L96 E97 L9 8 L100 L104 E106 E108 X113 E116 E118 E119 E120 L127 E132 X133  cont'd. -3.8966 -3.4777 -3.1088 -7.5354 -3.1088 -4.6581 -3.1088 -3.9941 -9.7499 -4.8057 -12.6999 -4.3630 -3.1088 -3.1088 -2.9613 -4.8795 -3.4039 -5.6172 -6.9452 -3.6253 -2.9613 -3.6253 -2.8137 -2.6662 -3.4039 -3.7728 -116.2092 -3.6253 -3.7728 -1.5595 -3.8466 -2.9613 -1.3382 -2.9613 -10.9292 -2.5186 -3.2564 -2.9613 -4.3630 -8.1994 -4.2155 -3.1088 -11.5932 -1.3382 -3.1088  - 119  -  of the unsexed b u r i a l s . The m a j o r i t y of a r t i f a c t types are not a p a r t of the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n because they were found t o co-vary w i t h other a r t i f a c t t y p e s .  The c r i t e r i o n i n the d i s c r i m i n a n t  a n a l y s i s program t h a t c o - v a r y i n g v a r i a b l e s be r e j e c t e d seems n o n s e n s i c a l i n the p r e s e n t case. mortuary  I t seems l i k e l y t h a t i n  r i t u a l , mourners would p u r p o s e l y p l a c e s e t s of items  r e f l e c t i n g the s o c i a l persona of i n d i v i d u a l s i n graves. T h e r e f o r e , there i s probably a tendancy co-vary w i t h o t h e r s f o r the purpose  f o r a r t i f a c t types to  of symbolic  not f o r a r t i f a c t types t o be independent  of one  communication, another.  The p a r t i c u l a r data s e t used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s may of poor q u a l i t y f o r d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s as w e l l .  be  Dis-  c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i s best s u i t e d f o r data s e t s t h a t can meet the assumption 404).  The  of a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n  (Sneath and Sokal  1973:  129 a r t i f a c t types i n the sexed b u r i a l s do not  occur w i t h g r e a t frequency or w i t h much v a r i a t i o n i n q u a n t i t y a c r o s s the b u r i a l  4.3.  sample.  Conclusion The r e s u l t s from the simple i n s p e c t i o n method cannot  be  adequately compared w i t h those from the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s due t o the r e j e c t i o n of the m a j o r i t y of v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d potentially sex-linked.  Only f i v e of the 12 v a r i a b l e s  the simple i n s p e c t i o n method  (with horn netweight  from  separated  from the stone d i s k a r t i f a c t type) are i n c l u d e d i n the  - 120 -  discriminant  f u n c t i o n t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s the male and female  classes. The  f a c t t h a t the m a j o r i t y  o f male b u r i a l s (eight of 13)  i d e n t i f i e d by the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s were i d e n t i f i e d by the simple i n s p e c t i o n method i s some support f o r the simpler c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method.  I t seems l i k e l y t h a t i f more o f the  original  (12) a r t i f a c t types had been i n c l u d e d i n the d i s c -  riminant  a n a l y s i s , the number of male b u r i a l s i d e n t i f i e d by  both methods would have i n c r e a s e d . For the Dawenkou data s e t , the simple i n s p e c t i o n method has  proven more u s e f u l than d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s .  But  mortuary data s e t s e x h i b i t i n g r m o r e e c o h t i n u o u s v a r i a t i o n may f i n d d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s more s u i t a b l e and more capable of c l a s s i f y i n g unsexed b u r i a l s . Figure estimated. depicted  4-5 l i s t s the b u r i a l s f o r which sex has been Their spatial,  i n Figure  4-6.  l o c a t i o n s i n the cemetery are  Figure  4-6 shows t h a t males and  females were b u r i e d i n a l l l o c a t i o n s o f the cemetery both time  during  periods.  Eighteen  e s t i m a t e s considered  as " r e l i a b l e " are those  w i t h two l i n e s o f support: e i t h e r they were i d e n t i f i e d by the  simple i n s p e c t i o n method and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , o r  they were i d e n t i f i e d by the simple i n s p e c t i o n method and they are supported by a systematic production The  comparison of s e x - l i n k e d  t o o l s from Dawenkou C u l t u r e  s i t e s i n Pearson  (1981),  e i g h t males i d e n t i f i e d by both c l a s s i f i c a t i o n methods  - 121 -  FIGURE 4-5. Known sexed b u r i a l s and estimated sexed b u r i a l s , from the Simple I n s p e c t i o n Method and D i s c r i m i n a n t Analysis.  Early period (9)  known males:  9, 34, 59, 73, 91, 99, 109, 112.  (9)  known females:  7, 30, 55, 67, 82, 102, 115, 130, 131.  (11)  r e l i a b l y e s t i m a t e d males:  11, 12, 19, 26, 54, 61,  63, 66, 103, 106, 110. (0) (10)  r e l i a b l y e s t i m a t e d females: none. f a i r e s t i m a t e d males: 118,  (2) (34)  27, 38, 53, 79, 81, 87, 101,  119, 129.  f a i r e s t i m a t e d females:  49, 58.  a d u l t b u r i a l s o f unknown sex:  6, 8, 14, 18, 20, 21,  23, 29, 32, 33, 41, 43, 44, 45, 48, 51, 52, 56, 62, 65, 71, 76, 78, 80, 84, 86, 88, 90, 97, 108, 116, 120, 132. Late p e r i o d (5)  known males:  15, 122, 123, 125, 117.  (4)  known females:  10, 72, 105, 121.  (6)  r e l i a b l y e s t i m a t e d males:  (0)  r e l i a b l y e s t i m a t e d females: none.  (3)  f a i r e s t i m a t e d males:  (4)  f a i r e s t i m a t e d females:  (10)  4, 17, 24, 25, 75, 126.  22, 98, 124. 3, 5, 47, 60/  a d u l t b u r i a l s o f unknown sex:  2, 16, 46, 64, 77,  93, 96, 100, 104, 127. Undatable  burials  (0)  known males:  none.  (2)  known females:  (1)  r e l i a b l y estimated-males:  (0)  r e l i a b l y e s t i m a t e d females:  (0)  f a i r e s t i m a t e d males o r females:  (4)  a d u l t b u r i a l s of unknown sex:  57, 85. 40. none. none. 83, 113, 128, 133.  -  122  -  FIGURE 4-6. S p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of known sexed and estimated sexed b u r i a l s i n the cemetery.  I  I EARLY MALE  PERIOD  BURIAL  E3 A  LATE  PERIOD BURIAL £ 3  FEMALE  UNDATABLE  BURIAL  - 123 -  are marked i n F i g u r e 4-5.  The f o l l o w i n g f i v e b u r i a l s are  c o n s i d e r e d " r e l i a b l e " f o r the l a t t e r reason: E l l , E12, E61, E6 3, and E66.  These b u r i a l s were i d e n t i f i e d on the b a s i s o f  o n l y one "male" a r t i f a c t , and the a r t i f a c t types i n q u e s t i o n have been i d e n t i f i e d as male r e l a t e d f o r other Dawenkou Culture s i t e s .  These types are the bone arrowhead and whet-  stone.  (1981:1036) concludes t h a t bone arrowheads  Pearson  (as w e l l as bone and stone c h i s e l s ,  other male-related  art-  i f a c t s i d e n t i f i e d by the simple i n s p e c t i o n method) occur e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h male b u r i a l s from f o u r Middle Dawenkou period sites  ( L i u l i n , Dadunzi,  Whetstones occur approximately  X i x i a h o u , and  Dawenkou).  three times more on the  average w i t h males than w i t h females  from these s i t e s  (Pearson  1981:1085). F i v e o t h e r b u r i a l s are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l y E19, E54, E106, L17, and X40.  Although  by o n l y one c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method  "male":  i d e n t i f i e d as male  (simple i n s p e c t i o n ) ,  these  b u r i a l s c o n t a i n more than one of the probable m a l e - r e l a t e d artifacts  (see F i g u r e 4-2).  " F a i r " e s t i m a t e d males i n c l u d e the f i v e i d e n t i f i e d by d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s  only  (E79, E81, E101, E129, L124) and  e i g h t i d e n t i f i e d by the simple i n s p e c t i o n method on the b a s i s of one a r t i f a c t type, w i t h no other support from the a r c h aeological literature  on Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s .  These  b u r i a l s a r e : E27, E38, E53, E118, E119, L22 and L98. c o n t a i n s a bone spoon dr..spatula. the X i x i a h o u s i t e Pearson  Each  Since a female b u r i a l a t  (roughly contemporaneous to Dawenkou,  1981:1081) c o n t a i n s a bone spoon or s p a t u l a , t h i s  - 124 -  a r t i f a c t type may not be m a l e - r e l a t e d (The Shandong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team 1964:104). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , none of the females i d e n t i f i e d by e i t h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method can be c o n s i d e r e d " r e l i a b l e " .  As  e x p l a i n e d p r e v i o u s l y , the m a j o r i t y o f females seem to have been i d e n t i f i e d on the b a s i s o f the l a c k o f male a r t i f a c t s r a t h e r than the presence of c l e a r l y f e m a l e - r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s . S i x o f the known male b u r i a l s a l s o l a c k the m a l e - r e l a t e d artifacts.  The s i x "females" i d e n t i f i e d by both the simple  i n s p e c t i o n method and the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s are c o n s i d e r e d " f a i r " e s t i m a t e s : L3, L47 L5 and L60  (with the ornaments) and E49, E53,  (with the s m a l l round s t o n e ) .  Pearson's  (1981) comparative  support f o r the a r t i f a c t  study p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l  types regarded as m a l e - l i n k e d i n  the simple i n s p e c t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s e s .  Besides the  arrowhead, c h i s e l , and whetstone types, the stone and tusk k n i v e s are shown t o be m a l e - l i n k e d , although not e x c l u s i v e l y (Pearson 1981:1085).  The d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  some a r t i f a c t types between t h i s a n a l y s i s and t h a t o f Pearson (1981) ( i . e . , a r t i f a c t types such as the whetstone t h a t are e x c l u s i v e l y male a t Dawenkou but shared between the sexes i n o t h e r Middle Dawenkou p e r i o d s i t e s ) may be a r e f l e c t i o n of c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s among s i t e s . Pearson  (1981:1084, from Luo and Zhang 1979) notes a  g e n e r a l l a c k o f e x c l u s i v e l y female t o o l s a t Middle Dawenkou period s i t e s .  Females have fewer t o o l s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e ,  - 125 -  hunting and maintenance but g r e a t e r q u a n t i t i e s o f needles and s p i n d l e whorls  (ibid).  One p o s s i b l e reason f o r t h i s  lack  of f e m a l e - r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s may be t h a t females were lower i n s t a t u s than males d u r i n g the Middle Dawenkou C u l t u r e p e r i o d . Pearson  (1981:1086) suggests t h a t the s t a t u s o f women may  have been d e c l i n i n g through time i n the e a s t e r n seaboard r e g i o n as a g r i c u l t u r a l systems became more i n t e n s i v e .  This  p o s s i b i l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter 6. Although the simple i n s p e c t i o n method and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedures were somewhat p r o b l e m a t i c , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f "sexed" b u r i a l s i n the b u r i a l p o p u l a t i o n s f o r the E a r l y , Late and undatable b u r i a l s  resulted.  I f a l l o f the e s t i m a t e d b u r i a l s are accepted, the number o f "sexed" a d u l t b u r i a l s i n the E a r l y p e r i o d i s i n c r e a s e d from 18 (known) t o 41, w i t h 34 o f unknown sex remaining. i n c r e a s e i n the Late p e r i o d i s from nine 10 b u r i a l s o f unknown sex.  The  (known) t o 22, w i t h  The undatable sexed a d u l t  burials  i n c r e a s e from two (known) t o t h r e e , w i t h f i v e unsexed remaining.  - 126  -  CHAPTER 5  THE NATURE OF SOCIAL SUBGROUP AFFILIATION AT DAWENKOU  5.1.  Method T h i s chapter i s an e x p l o r a t o r y assessment of s o c i a l  group a f f i l i a t i o n  r e p r e s e n t e d a t the Dawenkou cemetery d u r i n g  the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s .  Four aspects of mortuary  treat-  ment noted as p o t e n t i a l i n d i c a t o r s of s o c i a l subgroup tion  sub-  affilia-  ( s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of grave, o r i e n t a t i o n of grave,  grave  form and body d i s p o s i t i o n , from B i n f o r d 1971:22 - see F i g u r e 2-3)  are assessed here.  F i g u r e 2-3  indicates that  o r i e n t a t i o n and grave l o c a t i o n are the most l i k e l y s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n .  grave to r e f l e c t  B i n f o r d regards s o c i a l  affilia-  t i o n as i n c l u d i n g a v a r i e t y of membership groups such as c l a n s , k i n d r e d s , and l i n e a g e s ( B i n f o r d 1971:22).  Assessment of  v a r i a b i l i t y i n ceramic s t y l e among the b u r i a l s i s a l s o assessed here. The methods t h a t have been used i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o assess s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n attempted  are l i m i t e d .  Some r e s e a r c h e r s have  t o i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c type of s o c i a l subgroup  represented at a s i t e :  Longacre  and r e s i d e n c e group), B i n f o r d  (1970: re type of descent  (1972:411-412, type of descent  and r e s i d e n c e group), Saxe (1971:52, type of r e s i d e n c e group), Van de Velde  (1979:43, type of l i n e a g e ) , Decker  type of descent group), and Shennan  (1969:78-79,  (1975:286, type of descent  -  group). social  Studies  that  social  notes  attempt  to identify  subgroup a r e c r i t i c i z e d  because the m a t e r i a l of  127 -  correlates that  s u b g r o u p s a r e n o t known.  reflect Tainter  d i f f e r e n t types o f s o c i a l  patterns  of material  culture.  (1978:131)  propose  that  variables social  (1976).  from B i n f o r d ' s  affiliation  by P e e b l e s  (.1978), K i n g  (1969),  The  grave  form  This  in spatial  (1983),  indicate  (1971),  and Brown  organization  i s followed  here  are determined.  l o c a t i o n o f grave,  (1971) .  Goldstein  of the s i t e  each  grave  as  subgroup  orientation,  period  a t Dawenkou.  the cemetery  Then, t h e v a r i a b i l i t y  i n grave  and body d i s p o s i t i o n i s a s s e s s e d  cluster of burials.  Wright  here.  c l u s t e r s o f graves w i t h i n  form  These  i s t o assess whether there are  and body d i s p o s i t i o n d u r i n g  period  expected  t h a t may  (1974, 1 9 7 1 ) , G r u b e r  approach  spatial  spatial  study  studies,  framework f o r an a s s e s s m e n t o f s o c i a l  First,  grave  t e s t s by Saxe  In o t h e r mortuary  the s p a t i a l  method u t i l i z e d  correlations  groups a r e r e f l e c t e d i n a  (19 71)  Whalen  (1981, 1980) u t i l i z e s  affiliation.  (Goldstein  a r e a s s e s s e d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s .  were w r i t t e n  the o r g a n i z i n g  that  s u b g r o u p s by , d i f f e r e n t  o f the ethnographic  (1970) and G o l d s t e i n  also  1976, Chapman 1981, 1977)  corporate descent  c e m e t e r y on t h e b a s i s  studies  Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s  1980; K i n g 1969, T a i n t e r  (19 71)  d i f f e r e n t types  the lack o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l ethnographic  1981,  type o f  by A l l e n and R i c h a r d s o n  indicate  tion,  specific  f o r each orienta-  f o r each  S o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n i s  t o be r e f l e c t e d i f t h e s p a t i a l  c l u s t e r s are d i s t i n -  - 128 -  guished by p a r t i c u l a r grave o r i e n t a t i o n ( s ) , grave and body d i s p o s i t i o n ( s ) .  form(s)  G o l d s t e i n (1980:3) and Petersen  (19 81:185) p o i n t out t h a t the d i f f e r e n t i a l l o c a t i o n of graves i n a cemetery i m p l i e s d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment o f i n d i v i d u a l s in l i f e .  O Shea's 1  (1981) study suggests t h a t separate b u r i a l  areas w i t h i n a cemetery are s u g g e s t i v e o f s o c i a l subgroups but a d d i t i o n a l l i n e s o f evidence are r e q u i r e d t o make t h i s s u g g e s t i o n more r e l i a b l e  (1981:50).  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  contrasting sets of d i s c r e t e l y occurring a t t r i b u t e s i s better evidence f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s o c i a l subgroups i n a cemetery, although the c u l t u r a l meaning o f these s e t s may be ambiguous  (O'Shea 1981:50-51).  C o v a r i a t i o n o f age and  sex w i t h s p a t i a l areas i s a l s o assessed here.  However,  because many types o f s o c i a l subgroups are composed o f an age and sex d i s t r i b u t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n the t o t a l mortuary  p o p u l a t i o n (O'Shea 1981:50), p a t t e r n i n g by age and  sex alone i s n o t taken t o r e f l e c t s o c i a l subgroups.  An  e f f o r t i s a l s o made t o assess whether p a t t e r n i n g i n the p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f time.  - related  variables  In the l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s  c h a p t e r , p r o p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the nature o f s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n  a t Dawenkou are o f f e r e d .  S p a t i a l areas o f graves w i t h i n the cemetery are a l s o assessed f o r composition o f ceramic s t y l e .  Pearson  (1981:  10 86) suggests t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s o f a r t i f a c t s t y l e s w i t h i n the Dawenkou cemetery c o u l d r e p r e s e n t l i n e a g e s .  I am n o t  - 129 -  aware of any mortuary s t u d i e s s i n c e Longacre utilize  (19 70)  that  ceramic s t y l e t o assess s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n .  assumptions and methods i n Longacre by A l l e n and Richardson (19 71) .  (19 70)  The  are c r i t i c i z e d  Since the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between ceramic s t y l e and s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n  does not have  support from c r o s s - c u l t u r a l ethnographic s t u d i e s , a l a c k of c o r r e l a t i o n o f ceramic s t y l e w i t h s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of grave i s not t o be taken as a l a c k of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s o c i a l affiliation  i n the cemetery.  The d e f i n i t i o n o f l o c a t i o n of grave used i n t h i s assessment d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from t h a t i n B i n f o r d ' s  (1971)  study.  the  Binford's  f a c i l i t y was  (1971:21) d e f i n i t i o n i s "whether  d i f f e r e n t i a l l y p l a c e d i n the l i f e  space o f the  community, or i n s p a t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b u r i a l  locations".  O r i e n t a t i o n of grave i n degrees from n o r t h i s assessed as w e l l as four types o f grave form: ercengtai  simple p i t , p i t w i t h  ("second l e v e l p l a t f o r m " , o r l e d g e ) , l o g tomb,  and l o g tomb w i t h second l e v e l p l a t f o r m .  Binford's  (1971:  21) d e f i n i t i o n of body d i s p o s i t i o n i s " d i s t i n c t i o n s made by d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s p o s i t i o n - p l a c e d i n a grave, on a s c a f f o l d , d i s p o s e d of i n the r i v e r , e t c . " .  In t h i s assessment, a  m o d i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n o f body d i s p o s i t i o n i s employed the  s i t e report describes v a r i a b i l i t y  because  i n terms of the  d i s p o s i t i o n of s k e l e t o n s w i t h i n graves (whether supine or  prone, f o r example).  -  5.2.  130  -  S p a t i a l L o c a t i o n of Graves The  only methods t h a t have been employed to  derive  s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g w i t h i n a cemetery of which I am  aware  are v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n t o i d e n t i f y rows of b u r i a l s and r e g r e s s i o n to check the rows ( G o l d s t e i n 1981, neighbor a n a l y s i s King 1969, and  Harding 1979,  most a p p r o p r i a t e tion.  1980),  ( T a i n t e r 19 76, Peebles 1971,  Whalen 1983)  and  nearest-  Shennan 19 75,  v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n alone  MacDonald 1 9 8 0 ) .  linear  (Cole  The method t h a t I  consider  f o r the Dawenkou cemetery i s v i s u a l i n s p e c -  L i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n i s not a p p r o p r i a t e  because  the  v i s u a l l y d i s t i n c t groups of b u r i a l s i n the cemetery are more c o n c e n t r i c i n form than l i n e a r . has  been c o n s i d e r e d  problematic  Nearest-neighbor a n a l y s i s f o r mortuary s i t e s w i t h dense  groups of b u r i a l s ( G o l d s t e i n 1981:58).  However, there i s  a more fundamental reason f o r d e r i v i n g s p a t i a l groups of b u r i a l s by v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n . The  s i t e map  shows some v i s u a l l y d i s t i n c t c l u s t e r s of  b u r i a l s from each p e r i o d . t o t a l l y c l e a r and may  Although some c l u s t e r s are  be s u b j e c t to d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  by d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h e r s ,  c l u s t e r s apparent by v i s u a l  i n s p e c t i o n are those t h a t are most l i k e l y to be significant.  not  As G o l d s t e i n  (19 81:5 8) p o i n t s  culturally  out:  I t i s reasonable to assume t h a t the s p a t i a l p r i n c i p l e s used by a s o c i e t y w i l l be f a i r l y d i s t i n c t and apparent. I t i s probable t h a t r u l e s f o r placement of i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l have been f o l l o w e d c o n s c i o u s l y by the members of a s o c i e t y ( e s p e c i a l l y i n a cemetery, barrow or mound), and i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t these  - 131  -  people had computers or random-number t a b l e s to a s s i s t them i n d e v e l o p i n g a v i s u a l l y incomprehensible p a t t e r n .  C l u s t e r s of b u r i a l s i d e n t i f i e d by v i s u a l f o r the  85 E a r l y p e r i o d  There are  graves are  f i v e roughly c o n c e n t r i c  numerically,  (E48,  shown i n F i g u r e  5-2.  The  seen i n F i g u r e  and  E36).  letters,  The  33 Late p e r i o d  majority  are  Four c l u s t e r s of b u r i a l s are l a b e l l e d  l o c a t i o n s of the 3-4.  Two  15 undatable b u r i a l s  of E a r l y and  b u r i a l s are o r i e n t e d  can  undatable b u r i a l s , X12 8 and  C o r r e l a t i o n o f Grave O r i e n t a t i o n , D i s p o s i t i o n w i t h Grave L o c a t i o n The  and  clusters  graves  are s p a t i a l l y i s o l a t e d from other b u r i a l s i n the  5.3.  5-1.  groups of b u r i a l s l a b e l l e d  E14,  of b u r i a l s i d e n t i f i e d f o r the  be  shown i n F i g u r e  f i v e p a i r s of b u r i a l s l a b e l l e d by  three i s o l a t e d b u r i a l s  numerically.  inspection  roughly east-west.  cemetery.  Grave Form and  Late p e r i o d and An  to determine whether the minor d i f f e r e n c e s  X92,  Body  undatable  attempt i s made in orientation  among b u r i a l s are c u l t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t as suggested from the map  of the cemetery.  west t r e n d are E45  The  (270°) and  two  e x c e p t i o n s to the  X12 8 ( o r i e n t e d  Grave o r i e n t a t i o n i n the E a r l y p e r i o d 2 70°  from n o r t h .  bution  There are no  north-south).  ranges from 43°  sharp breaks i n the  of v a l u e s f o r the m a j o r i t y  east-  of b u r i a l s .  distri-  From the  of the cemetery, i t appears there are three types of tion:  east-west, n o r t h e a s t , and  southeast.  -  map  orienta-  - 132  -  FIGURE 5-1. S p a t i a l groups of b u r i a l s d e r i v e d by v i s u a inspection, Early Period.  CD  EARLY  PERIOD  BURIAL  EH  LATE  P E R I O D B U R I A L £3  UNDATABLE  BURIAL  - 133  -  FIGURE 5-2. S p a t i a l groups o f b u r i a l s d e r i v e d by v i s u a i n s p e c t i o n , Late P e r i o d .  I  I EARLY  PERIOD  BURIAL  EH  LATE  PERIOD BURIAL 2 3  UNDATABLE  BURIAL  - 134 -  As F i g u r e 5-3 i n d i c a t e s , n o r t h e a s t o r i e n t a t i o n i s a r b i t r a r i l y defined 100°,  here as 43° - 80°, east-west as 83° -  and southeast as 102° - 122°.  t h e i r s k u l l s t o the e a s t  The s k e l e t o n s l i e w i t h  (as shown i n F i g u r e 5-3) .  The only  e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s r u l e i s E45 w i t h the o r i e n t a t i o n o f 270°. The  s k e l e t o n ' s head i n E45 i s towards the west.  shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o r i e n t a t i o n graves. period  F i g u r e A5-1  f o r the E a r l y  period  F i g u r e A5-2 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the Late burials.  The m a j o r i t y o f E a r l y p e r i o d  oriented  east-west  oriented  n o r t h e a s t and 22 (25.9%) southeast.  b u r i a l s are  (52, o r 61.2%), w h i l e 11 (12.9%) are The o r i e n t a -  t i o n s o f some b u r i a l s look s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t on the s i t e map than one would expect from the o r i e n t a t i o n given w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n s  o f the b u r i a l s .  i n degrees  I assume t h a t  the values i n degrees are the more accurate d e s c r i p t i o n o f grave  orientation. The  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the three a r b i t r a r i l y d e f i n e d  of o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n  types  the v a r i o u s s p a t i a l groups o f E a r l y  b u r i a l s i s shown i n F i g u r e 5-4.  The three types of o r i e n t a -  t i o n do not tend t o be d i s t r i b u t e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n d i f f e r e n t spatial locations.  I acknowledge t h a t d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s  of an east-west, n o r t h e a s t and southeast o r i e n t a t i o n result i n a s l i g h t l y better  could  (or worse) c o r r e l a t i o n o f  o r i e n t a t i o n with s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n .  The lack o f c o r r e l a t i o n  noted here between o r i e n t a t i o n type and s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n could  i n d i c a t e the o r i e n t a t i o n types are c u l t u r a l l y i n s i g n i f i -  cant or t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n  i s not a r e f l e c t i o n o f s o c i a l  - 135 FIGURE 5-3.- The range of grave o r i e n t a t i o n s f o r the E a r l y , Late, and Undatable b u r i a l s . O r i e n t a t i o n v a r i e s from 43°-270°.  o°  180°  ,1 Three types of o r i e n t a t i o n , a r b i t r a r i l y NE  (43° -  80°)  E-W  (82° -  100°)  SE  (102° -  125°)  Unique o r i e n t a t i o n s :  B u r i a l E45 at 270° B u r i a l X128  See t e x t  for  defined  explanation.  at 180°  (by e y e ) :  FIGURE 5-4. C o r r e l a t i o n of grave form, grave o r i e n t a t i o n , body d i s p o s i t i o n , age and sex with s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n o f grave (as i n F i g . 5-1), E a r l y p e r i o d . ( I n t r u s i v e p a i r s of b u r i a l s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . A3-2). KEY o v e r l e a f . location  grave orientation  grave form SP  ER  LT  TE NE E-W  SE 270°  body disposition S  LS  RS  P  age A  14  1  36  1  1  1  48  1  1  1  1  Pair A  1  1  2  2  Pair B  2  2  2  2  Pair C  1  Pair D  2  Cluster 1 (8 t o t a l : 1 multiple 1 no s k e l eton )  4  Cluster 2 (12 t o t a l )  11  1  1  1  1  1  2  1 1  3  1  1  8  1  3  8  1  sex C  1  FM  FF  F  1  1  MU  1  1  1  2  1  2  8  8  1  12  11  1 1 1  M  1  2  8  RM  1 1  1  U  1 2  4  2  1  1  1) M,F  1  Cont'd.  FIGURE 5-4 location  Cluster 3 (4 t o t a l )  continued grave orientation  grave form SP  ER  3  1  Cluster 4 12 (14 t o t a l : 2 multiple)  2  Cluster 5 26 (34 t o t a l : 3 multiple)  4  SP ER LT TE NE E-W SE S LS RS  LT  TE NE E-W  SE 270°  4  1 6  4  = = = = =  2  17  body disposition S  LS  3  7  16  15  34  RS  P  1  3  simple p i t second l e v e l p l a t f o r m l o g tomb log tomb and second l e v e l platform northeast o r i e n t a t i o n east-west o r i e n t a t i o n southeast o r i e n t a t i o n supine l e f t side r i g h t side  1  P A > C U RM M FM FF F MU  age A  sex  C  U  4  RM  M  FM  2  FF  F  1  1  MU  15  1  12  1  1  1  1  1) F,C 2) ? ?  34  4  17  4  7  5  5  DM, F,C 2) ? ? 3) M,F  = =  —  = =  — — =  —  prone adult c h i l d i SU = subadult unsexed r e l i a b l y estimated male known male f a i r e s t i m a t e d male f a i r e s t i m a t e d female known female multiple b u r i a l  - 138 -  affiliation The pits  majority  period.  o f t h e 85 E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s a r e  (.68, o r 8 0 % ) , 10  platforms, log  i n the E a r l y  (11.8%) a r e p i t s w i t h  f o u r a r e l o g tombs  tombs w i t h  second l e v e l  (4.7%) and t h r e e  platforms.  f o r m t y p e s a r e shown i n F i g u r e there  second  5-4.  simple  level  (3.5%) a r e  Early period  I t i s apparent  grave that  i s no c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n g r a v e f o r m and g r a v e l o c a t i o n :  each type o f grave  form i s found i n a v a r i e t y o f s p a t i a l  locations. Four types o f s k e l e t a l  layout  among t h e E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s : on  the l e f t  supine five  s i d e , and p r o n e .  (74, o r 8 8 . 1 % ) ,  on t h e l e f t  four  (6.1%),  E54 does n o t c o n t a i n  a  on t h e r i g h t  of b u r i a l s are  a r e on t h e r i g h t  a n d one i s p r o n e  side,  side  (1.2%).  (4.8%), Grave  skeleton. i n t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e hands  f e e t among a l l b u r i a l s i n t h e c e m e t e r y , b u t i t seems  largely  due t o t y p e o f s k e l e t a l  obvious v a r i a t i o n i n s k e l e t a l There i s a l s o v a r i a b i l i t y i n which the s k u l l This  supine,  The m a j o r i t y  T h e r e i s some v a r i a b i l i t y and  o r body d i s p o s i t i o n o c c u r  variability  faces  layout  of skull  burials.  Also,  (north,  the v a r i a b i l i t y  skeletal  t h e more  i s considered  south or east, i n this  i s not described  or p o s t - d e p o s i t i o n a l disturbance graves i n which  Only  here.  among a l l b u r i a l s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n  i s not assessed  direction  layout.  chapter  i n one c a s e ) . because the  f o r more t h a n h a l f o f t h e  may be due t o s k e l e t a l of skeletons.  p o s i t i o n i s other  layout  The t e n E a r l y  than supine are  - 139  shown i n F i g u r e  5-4.  s k e l e t a l layout  i s not  -  I t appears- from F i g u r e  5-4  that  c o r r e l a t e d with s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n  of grave. Thus, none of the three p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s , o r i e n t a t i o n , grave form, and  body d i s p o s i -  t i o n i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of grave i n Early period.  Figure  5-4  also indicates that  grave form, and body d i s p o s i t i o n are not other, e i t h e r .  The  s k e l e t a l layout ment c o u l d  (2 70°)  (prone).  orientation,  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each  only e x c e p t i o n s are E45  the unique o r i e n t a t i o n  the  and  E14.  In  i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the  E45,  unique  T h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d mortuary t r e a t -  r e f l e c t s o c i a l deviance  f e a r e d or unusual cause of death  (O'Shea 19 81:43) or a  (Ucko 1969:271).  E14  is  the only b u r i a l with an o r i e n t a t i o n l e s s than 70°,and i t i s i n an i s o l a t e d s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n . Since v i s u a l inspection (see F i g u r e i s c l e a r l y no  c o v a r i a t i o n between any  5-4)  indicates  of the E a r l y  there  period  p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s , I maintain t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s of a s s o c i a t i o n are Chi square has  been used  (Peebles 19 71,  unnecessary.  19 74)  to t e s t f o r  an a s s o c i a t i o n between p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n - r e l a t e d variables.  I t i s a l s o not necessary to show w i t h a Goodman-  Kruskal s t a t i s t i c  (MacDonald 1980:42-44) or a Kolmogrov-  Smirnov t e s t  (Peebles 19 74:94) t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n i s not  As  (19 81:58) p o i n t s  Goldstein  out,  s t a t i s t i c s t h a t which i s apparent".  "One  random.  need not prove w i t h  -  F i g u r e 5-5 shows a l a c k orientation,  f o r the 33 Late p e r i o d  orientation,  oriented tion.  ranging  Using the a r b i t r a r i l y d e f i n e d types o f  one b u r i a l  (3.0%)  i s oriented  northeast, f i v e  (15.2%) and 2 7 (81.8%) east-west.  The s o u t h e a s t e r n  b u r i a l s are not r e s t r i c t e d t o a c e r t a i n  spatial  (1, 3 . 0 % ) , l o g tomb  tomb w i t h second l e v e l p l a t f o r m to p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n s .  side  (1, 3 . 3 % ) and l e f t  L127  do not c o n t a i n a s k e l e t o n .  side  ( 3 , 9.1%), and l o g  (4, 12.1%) are not r e s t r i c t e d Only three types of s k e l e t a l  l a y o u t are found i n the Late p e r i o d :  supine  (1, 3 . 3 % ) .  (2 8,  Burials  93.3%),  right  L24, L60 and  Thus, s k e l e t a l l a y o u t i s  more homogeneous i n the Late p e r i o d  as w e l l  b u r i a l w i t h the s k e l e t o n on the l e f t  as o r i e n t a t i o n .  s i d e , L117, i s i n  a d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l group than the b u r i a l on the r i g h t L25.  loca-  B u r i a l s having a simple p i t (25, 7 5 . 8 % ) , a p i t w i t h a  second l e v e l p l a t f o r m  The  b u r i a l s as w e l l .  i s more homogeneous i n the Late p e r i o d ,  from 80° t o 114°.  southeast  o f c o r r e l a t i o n between  grave form and body d i s p o s i t i o n w i t h the s p a t i a l  groups o f b u r i a l s Orientation  140 -  side,  Although both b u r i a l s have l o g tombs w i t h second l e v e l  p l a t f o r m s , other b u r i a l s w i t h t h i s type of grave form have the  supine s k e l e t a l l a y o u t type.  As i n the E a r l y  there i s no c o r r e l a t i o n between o r i e n t a t i o n , body  period,  grave form, and  disposition. For  the undatable b u r i a l s , the a s s o c i a t i o n  of o r i e n t a -  t i o n , grave form, and body d i s p o s i t i o n with s p a t i a l cannot be p r o p e r l y assessed because t h e i r p e r i o d groups are unknown.  location  and s p a t i a l  However, i n f o r m a t i o n i n F i g u r e 5-6  FIGURE 5-5. C o r r e l a t i o n of grave form, grave o r i e n t a t i o n , body d i s p o s i t i o n , age and sex w i t h s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n o f grave (as i n F i g . 5-2), Late p e r i o d . location  grave form  SP  Cluster 1 (3 t o t a l )  ER  LT  2  TE  12  2  1  Cluster 3 (3 t o t a l : 1 no s k e l eton)  1  1  KEY:  10  NE  1  Cluster 2 (15 t o t a l : 1 multiple 2 no s k e l eton)  Cluster 4  1  body disposition  grave orientation E-W  SE  3  LS  RE  3  12  2  13  1  2  1  1  1  10  2  12  Refer to F i g . 5-4  1  S  1  1  age P  A  sex  SU  > U RM  M  3  1  14  4  4  2  1  1  1  4  1  3  1  12  1  FM  FF  F  MU  2  1  2  4  1  2  DM, F  FIGURE 5-6. C o r r e l a t i o n o f grave form, grave o r i e n t a t i o n , body d i s p o s i t i o n , age and sex w i t h s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of grave, Undatable b u r i a l s . KEY F = female RM = r e l i a b l y e s t i m a t e d male Unlabelled: simple p i t s , supine b u r i a l s , a d u l t s unsexed b u r i a l s .  B u r i a l s i n rough o r d e r from n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n of cemetery t o southern s e c t i o n : 70 37 39 40 50 57 83 68 74 85 95 113 133 Isolated  E-W E-W E-W E-W E-W E-W E-W E-W E-W SE SE SE SE  (90 (86 (84 (90 (88 (87 (92 (84 (91* (110 (110 (125 (124 C  (  C  C  C  C  C  C C  unsexed m u l t i p l e child child RM, l e f t s i d e child F child child F child  C  flexed  graves 92 128  SE N-S  (110°) , unsexed (180 )  multiple  and  - 143 -  r e g a r d i n g these b u r i a l s does not c o n t r a d i c t the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n are  not a s s o c i a t e d with s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n .  variables  Both southeast  and east-west o r i e n t e d b u r i a l s are l o c a t e d i n more than one spatial location. grave  (X12 8)  However, the one north-south o r i e n t e d  i s spatially isolated.  Some s p a t i a l  groups  have more than one type o f body d i s p o s i t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d as well.  A l l o f the undatable b u r i a l s have the same form o f  grave:  5.4.  the simple p i t .  C o r r e l a t i o n o f Ceramic For  Style with S p a t i a l Location  both p e r i o d s , there i s l i t t l e  s t y l e w i t h s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n o f grave. of  c o r r e l a t i o n o f ceramic F i g u r e A5-3 shows t h a t  62 ceramic s t y l e s t h a t appear i n more than one b u r i a l i n  the E a r l y p e r i o d , o n l y f i v e i n one s p a t i a l area  (8.1%) are found e x c l u s i v e l y  ( c l u s t e r s 5, 4, 1 ) . None o f these  ceramic s t y l e s i s found i n every b u r i a l i n these c l u s t e r s . Thus, ceramic s t y l e does not appear t o be a r e f l e c t i o n o f social affiliation  i n the E a r l y p e r i o d .  F i g u r e A5-4 shows  t h a t o f 66 ceramic s t y l e s t h a t appear i n more than one b u r i a l i n the Late p e r i o d , o n l y 11 (16.7%) are e x c l u s i v e t o a p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l area.  None o f these s t y l e s  s p a t i a l c l u s t e r 2, and two i n c l u s t e r 4.  is-, found i n  As i n the E a r l y  p e r i o d , none o f these s t y l e s i s found i n a l l the b u r i a l s w i t h i n the p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l areas i n v o l v e d .  Although the  percentage o f ceramic s t y l e s e x c l u s i v e t o a s p a t i a l area has doubled from the E a r l y t o the Late p e r i o d , 16.7% i s probably not a h i g h enough f i g u r e t o propose  t h a t ceramic  - 144 -  style i s a reflection of social a f f i l i a t i o n period, either.  i n the Late  However, a t r e n d towards the demarcation o f  s p a t i a l area by ceramic s t y l e may be d e v e l o p i n g .  The Late  p e r i o d s t y l e s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v a r i e t y o f subtypes and functional  styles.  I t i s not c l e a r whether a t r e n d towards the development of  symbolism o f s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n by ceramic s t y l e i s occur-  r i n g i n the Late p e r i o d and whether t h i s t r e n d p e r t a i n s t o c e r t a i n s p a t i a l areas o f the cemetery than o t h e r s .  (e.g., C l u s t e r 2) more  Due t o time l i m i t a t i o n s , a study o f the d i s t r i -  b u t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n t o o l and ornament s t y l e s i n the v a r i o u s s p a t i a l areas of the cemetery cannot be made here.  Pearson  (19 81:10 86) suggests t h a t a study i n v o l v i n g the s t y l e s o f more than one type o f a r t i f a c t c o u l d r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t l i n e a g e s w i t h i n the cemetery.  An a d d i t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a l study w i t h  t o o l types and ornaments c o u l d p r o v i d e support f o r the p o s s i b l e t r e n d i n d i c a t e d by ceramic s t y l e .  Study o f the s p a t i a l  distri-  b u t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s t y l e s i n other Dawenkou c u l t u r e s i t e s c o u l d i n d i c a t e whether the t r e n d i s a r e g i o n a l one. A study o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f ceramic d e s i g n a t t r i b u t e s i n the Dawenkou s i t e and i n o t h e r Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s i n Shandong c o u l d be u s e f u l 1983).  (M. Blake, p e r s o n a l communication  These d e s i g n elements  c o u l d symbolize s o c i a l  affilia-  t i o n w i t h i n the r e g i o n , as suggested i n Wobst's (1977) i n f o r m a t i o n exchange model (Braun 1977:119).  A distribu-  t i o n a l study o f ceramic d e s i g n a t t r i b u t e s c o u l d be u s e f u l  - 145 -  f o r understanding Dawenkou C u l t u r e tion.  regional s o c i a l  A study o f design elements would n e c e s s i t a t e  i n s p e c t i o n o f the ceramics from the v a r i o u s sites.  be  published  The Dawenkou s i t e r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t there may  some d i f f e r e n c e s  and  visual  Dawenkou C u l t u r e  The design elements are n o t c l e a r from  reports.  organiza-  i n painted  design as w e l l as i n c i s e d  impressed d e s i g n .  5.5.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the P o t e n t i a l S o c i a l Subgroup A f f i l i a t i o n - Related Variables  5.5.1. The  Introduction l a c k o f c o r r e l a t i o n between o r i e n t a t i o n o f grave,  grave form, body d i s p o s i t i o n , and ceramic s t y l e w i t h s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n i n d i c a t e s no a d d i t i o n a l support f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s p a t i a l groups o f b u r i a l s from the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s r e f l e c t s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n .  For reasons  discussed  below, i t i s a l s o not l i k e l y t h a t the v a r i a b i l i t y i n e i t h e r o r i e n t a t i o n , grave form, o r body d i s p o s i t i o n alone r e f l e c t s s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n .  I propose these  r e f l e c t o t h e r aspects o f mortuary 5.5.2.  variables  ritual.  Orientation  Figure  2-3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n o f grave may  r e f l e c t sex as w e l l as s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n .  The known  sexed and aged b u r i a l s from the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s are shown i n F i g u r e s  5-4 and 5-5.  In the E a r l y p e r i o d ,  three  (.30%) o f the 10 known females from s i n g l e graves have a northeast o r i e n t a t i o n , f i v e and  (50%) have an east-west one,  two (20%) have a southeast one.  One (1.1%) o f the nine  - 146 -  known males from s i n g l e graves has- a n o r t h e a s t o r i e n t a t i o n , four  (4.4%) have an east-west one, and four  southeast one.  (4.4%) have a  I n c l u s i o n o f the r e l i a b l y and f a i r l y estimated  males and two females from F i g u r e 4-5 r e s u l t s i n the f o l l o w ing  distribution:  females  northeast:  (25%), east-west:  (58.3%), and southeast: (16.7%).  four males  17 males nine males  (13.3%), t h r e e  (56.7%), seven  females  (30%), two females  I t i s apparent t h a t sex and o r i e n t a t i o n are not  associated. In  the Late p e r i o d , none o f the f i v e known males are  o r i e n t e d n o r t h e a s t , four east.  (80%) east-west, and one (20%) south-  None o f the f o u r known females  three  i s oriented northeast,  (75%) east-west, and one (25%) southeast.  reliably  and f a i r l y estimated males and females are  i n c l u d e d , the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s : n o r t h e a s t : female (5,  I f the  (1, 12.5%), east-west:  62.5%), and southeast:  male  male  male  (12, 85.7%),  (none), female  (2, 14.3%), female  (2, 14.3%).  Thus, sex and o r i e n t a t i o n are not a s s o c i a t e d f o r the Late period b u r i a l s ,  either.  The l i m i t e d data on age o f s k e l e t o n f o r both p e r i o d s does not a l l o w an assessment  o f whether d i f f e r e n c e s i n  o r i e n t a t i o n are a f u n c t i o n o f age.  A l l t h a t i s known i s  t h a t two o f the f o u r c h i l d r e n have graves o r i e n t e d southe a s t and two, east-west. is oriented  east-west.  The one subadult i n the Late p e r i o d  - 147 -  The  pairs of intrusive b u r i a l s within  the E a r l y and Late  p e r i o d s can be u t i l i z e d t o assess whether d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r i e n t a t i o n are a f u n c t i o n within  the E a r l y p e r i o d ,  o f time.  three o f the seven p a i r s o f i n t r u s i v e  b u r i a l s have the same o r i e n t a t i o n d i f f e r e n t types o f o r i e n t a t i o n . i n the i n t r u s i v e Late p e r i o d If differences be  F i g u r e 5-4 shows t h a t  (east-west), and three have In F i g u r e 5-5, both b u r i a l s  p a i r have the same o r i e n t a t i o n .  i n o r i e n t a t i o n are a f u n c t i o n o f time, i t would  expected t h a t the o l d e r b u r i a l s i n each p a i r of i n t r u s i v e  b u r i a l s would have a d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n than the younger burials. A more l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n c e s  i n orientation  i n the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s i s season o f interment. proposition  This  has been made f o r o t h e r mortuary s i t e s by Gruber  (1971:67) and Saxe  (19 71:49-50).  Gruber  t h a t the s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s i n p a t t e r n  (1971:67) proposes  of east-west  orientation  a t the Mohr s i t e i n P e n n s y l v a n i a a r e due t o the p o s i t i o n o f the  sun on the h o r i z o n a t dawn.  The mortuary r i t u a l c a l l e d  f o r interment o f graves i n an east-west d i r e c t i o n so t h a t the heads o f the deceased faced differences  i n orientation  the r i s i n g  are due t o the d i f f e r e n t  of the r i s i n g sun a t d i f f e r e n t seasons (.1971:6 7) c a l c u l a t e d  sun i n the e a s t .  (ibid).  The  positions  When Gruber  the p o s i t i o n of the r i s i n g sun from  season t o season, he found t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n s graves i n the cemetery f e l l w i t h i n  o f almost a l l  the s o l a r a r c .  Some  ethnographic groups have been known t o p l a c e b u r i a l s w i t h respect  t o the r i s i n g sun (Gruber 1971:71).  Saxe (1971:49-50)  -  concludes that are o r i e n t e d season sun  some b u r i a l s  and  o f t h e Wadi H a i f a  Gruber's  that a calculation  a t Dawenkou may  orientations west  may  which are southeast ments.  result  I interpret  (82° - 100°)  of the r i s i n g  f o r t h e Mohr  summer i n t e r m e n t s r a n g e  n o r t h and w i n t e r i n t e r m e n t s r a n g e  sun  from  from 101°  as n o r t h e a s t  reflect (102°  - 125°)  may  two  the season  in  orientation,  die  of  locations  E45  the The  and  east-  those inter-  regardless of  and  the  oriented  d u r i n g the  burials  (2 70°)  were  as  Early  well).  X12 8  (180°).  o f interment i s the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r v a r i a b i l i t y  o r i e n t a t i o n s may However, one  It is  southeast  (and f o r t h e u n d a t a b l e  exceptions are b u r i a l s  If  to 131°.  i s accepted, graves  n o r t h e a s t and  in a l l spatial  The  from  r e f l e c t winter  The  east-west,  site  summer i n t e r m e n t s and  season.  Late periods  the  69° - 100°  (43° - 80°)  i n a l l l o c a t i o n s of t h e cemetery  and  from  of  in a similar distribution.  I f t h e above i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  are found  sun  of the seasonal p o s i t i o n  interred  graves  i n Sudan  day.  (.1971:73) c a l c u l a t i o n s  that  site  o t h e r s , a c c o r d i n g to the p o s i t i o n  at other times of  possible  -  a c c o r d i n g to the p o s i t i o n  t o season  indicate  148  the g r e a t e r c o n s i s t e n c y i n the Late be  a f a c t o r o f more b u r i a l  would expect  a fair  i n the  period summer.  number o f i n d i v i d u a l s  to  d u r i n g the w i n t e r . Seasonal p o s i t i o n of the r i s i n g  the v a r i a b i l i t y  i n grave  orientation  sites.  Pearson  ( i n press:22-23)  Culture  sites  sun may  also  explain  a t o t h e r Dawenkou C u l t u r e  m e n t i o n s t h r e e o t h e r Dawenkou  i n Shandong w i t h p r e d o m i n a n t l y  east-west  - 149 -  orientations: Dafanzhuang  Yedian  (Late Dawenkou C u l t u r e , 90° - 116°),  (Late Dawenkou C u l t u r e , 70° - 9 0°) and Wangyin  ( f o u r t h l a y e r , E a r l y Dawenkou C u l t u r e , 70° - 128°).  The  b u r i a l s i n the l a t e s i t e o f X i x i a h o u have predominantly an east-west o r i e n t a t i o n (Shandong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team 1964:58). The m a j o r i t y o f graves from the Dadunzi s i t e i n J i a n g s u a l s o have an east-west o r i e n t a t i o n (Pearson there i s some v a r i a b i l i t y  i n press:22).  However,  f o r sites located i n different  regions and o f v a r y i n g time p e r i o d s .  Two s i t e s e a r l i e r i n  time than Dawenkou (see F i g u r e 1-3) have b u r i a l s o r i e n t e d north-south:  Songze i n Zhejiang and L i u l i n i n J i a n g s u .  The  e a r l y s i t e of B e i y i n y a n y i n g  has a n o r t h e a s t p a t t e r n  Pearson i n p r e s s :  Thus, there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n  22-23).  ( a l l from  o r i e n t a t i o n p a t t e r n among the Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s which have not been e x p l a i n e d .  A t some s i t e s , b u r i a l s may have  been o r i e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o d i s t i n c t topographic v i s i b l e from the cemetery. b u r i a l s a t the Q i a n z h a i  features  Kao (19 83:14) proposes t h a t  s i t e i n Shandong (Late Dawenkou  C u l t u r e ) were o r i e n t e d with r e s p e c t t o a mountain range l o c a t e d southeast 5.5.3.  from the s i t e .  Grave Form  F i g u r e 2-3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t grave form may r e f l e c t  condi-  t i o n o f death, age, and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n as w e l l as s o c i a l affiliation. burials.  C o n d i t i o n o f death can be proposed f o r f i v e  B u r i a l E2 8 (female with i n f a n t ) may r e p r e s e n t a  woman who d i e d i n c h i l d b i r t h . the b u r i a l s w i t h no s k e l e t o n  As mentioned i n Chapter 4, (E54, L24, L60 and L127) may  - 150 r e p r e s e n t i n d i v i d u a l s who d i e d away from the community.  The  sparse data on s k e l e t a l age i n d i c a t e s no apparent a s s o c i a t i o n between age and grave form.  As F i g . 5-4 and F i g . 5-5 i n d i c a t e ,  both subadults and a d u l t s have simple p i t s , l o g tombs, and second l e v e l p l a t f o r m s .  A l l of the undatable b u r i a l s have  simple p i t s . F i g u r e 5-4 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h r e e p a i r s o f i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s i n the E a r l y p e r i o d have d i f f e r e n t grave forms: and E58, E9 and E23, and E78 and E129.  E54  The one p a i r o f  i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s i n the Late p e r i o d has the same grave form represented.  Thus, i t appears t h a t grave form i s not a  r e f l e c t i o n of time d i f f e r e n c e s among b u r i a l s . F i g u r e s 5-4 and 5-5 demonstrate t h a t grave form i s not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h sex, e i t h e r . Early period, eight  Of the known females i n the  (80%) have simple p i t s and two (20%)  have p i t s w i t h second l e v e l p l a t f o r m s . males i n the E a r l y p e r i o d , four three two  Of the nine known  (44.4%) have simple p i t s ,  (33.3%) have p i t s w i t h s e c o n d . l e v e l p l a t f o r m s , and  (22.2%) have l o g tombs.  I n c l u s i o n o f the f a i r l y and  r e l i a b l y e s t i m a t e d males and two females r e s u l t s i n the distribution:  pits:  male  (20 o r 66.7%), female  p i t s w i t h second l e v e l p l a t f o r m s :  (12 o r 75%);  male ( s i x , 20%), female  (three, 25%); l o g tombs w i t h second l e v e l p l a t f o r m s : males, 6.7%); and l o g tombs: For  (two males,  6.7%).  the Late p e r i o d , f o u r o f the f i v e known males (80%)  have simple p i t s and one has a l o g tomb w i t h second platform  (two  (20%).  I n c l u s i o n o f the f a i r l y  level  and r e l i a b l y  - 151  e s t i m a t e d males i n d i c a t e s : w i t h a second second  -  10 w i t h p i t s  l e v e l p l a t f o r m , two  l e v e l p l a t f o r m , and one  (71.4%), one  (14.3%) w i t h a l o g tomb and  (7.1%) w i t h a l o g tomb.  (75%) of the known females have p i t s and one tomb w i t h second  l e v e l platform.  f a i r l y estimated females g i v e s :  The five  (12.5%) w i t h a l o g tomb and second (25%) w i t h a l o g tomb.  (7.1%)  Three  (25%) has a l o g  i n c l u s i o n of the f o u r (62.5%) w i t h p i t s ,  l e v e l p l a t f o r m and  one  two  I am o n l y aware of one other Dawenkou  C u l t u r e s i t e w i t h the l o g tomb, a r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d s i t e i n Shanxi  ( Zou,  p e r s o n a l communication 19 83).  Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e appears  t o have the second  Only  level  one  plat-  form - the l a t e s i t e of Q i a n z h a i i n Shandong (Kao 19 83:14). 5.5.4.  Body D i s p o s i t i o n  Body d i s p o s i t i o n may  r e f l e c t c o n d i t i o n of death,  of death, age, or s o c i a l p o s i t i o n as w e l l as s o c i a l tion.  location  affilia-  C o n d i t i o n of death cannot be p r o p e r l y assessed s i n c e  four of the f i v e b u r i a l s t h a t may do not c o n t a i n a s k e l e t o n . has been proposed  r e f l e c t c o n d i t i o n of death  A d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n of death  f o r the b u r i a l s w i t h no s k e l e t o n .  Body  d i s p o s i t i o n cannot be assessed f o r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h age i n e i t h e r the E a r l y or Late p e r i o d s due t o the l i m i t e d of aged b u r i a l s .  sample  However, both c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s i n the  E a r l y p e r i o d have supine p o s i t i o n s , and both a d u l t s and one youth i n the Late p e r i o d are p o s i t i o n e d on t h e i r C h i l d and a d u l t undatable b u r i a l s have supine The c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the one cemetery  (E45)  sides.  positions.  flexed burial,  CX133) and the one prone b u r i a l  the  i n the  i s not  - 152 -  apparent.  The Wangyin s i t e has a few prone b u r i a l s w i t h heads  to the west, l i k e E45.  The Wangyin b u r i a l s may r e f l e c t  of death o r a s p e c i a l s o c i a l group  (Shandong  cause  Archaeological  Team 19 79).. Since each b u r i a l i n the i n t r u s i v e p a i r s o f b u r i a l s  from  the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s has a supine p o s i t i o n , the i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s do n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t there i s no a s s o c i a t i o n between time d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n tion.  each p e r i o d  and body d i s p o s i -  Body d i s p o s i t i o n may be r e l a t e d t o sex.  period,  For the E a r l y  none o f the known females o r f a i r l y estimated  have a body p o s i t i o n other than supine.  females  The same holds  f o r the known and f a i r l y estimated females  i n the Late  true period.  Of the e i g h t b u r i a l s w i t h a s i d e body p o s i t i o n i n the E a r l y period  ( e i t h e r l e f t o r r i g h t ) , three  (33.3%) are known males  and two (20%) are f a i r l y estimated males.  Three o f the  b u r i a l s w i t h a s i d e body p o s i t i o n are o f unknown sex. Of the two b u r i a l s w i t h a side p o s i t i o n i n the Late p e r i o d , one (.20%) i s a known male and one (16.7%) i s a r e l i a b l y male.  estimated  The one undatable b u r i a l w i t h a s i d e p o s i t i o n i s a  r e l i a b l y estimated male.  Since the s i d e p o s i t i o n i s n o t a  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l males i n the E a r l y o r Late  period,  some o t h e r aspect o f mortuary r i t u a l must be r e f l e c t e d as well.  F i n a l l y , the reason f o r the g r e a t e r homogeneity i n  s k e l e t a l layout  i n the Late p e r i o d  than i n the E a r l y  period  i s n o t apparent. The cultures  supine p o s i t i o n i s most common t o Qingliangang (Pearson i n p r e s s : 1 8 ) .  A t the E a r l y Dawenkou  - 153 -  s i t e o f Wangyin, the m a j o r i t y o f b u r i a l s are supine and a few are on t h e i r s i d e s such as a t Dawenkou (Shandong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team 19 7 9 ) .  The Wangyin s i t e  exhibits  v a r i a b i l i t y i n body d i s p o s i t i o n not seen elsewhere: secondary b u r i a l p i t (Pearson 1 9 8 1 : 1 9 8 5 ) .  The Nanjing Museum  (1978) r e p o r t s t h a t b u r i a l s from the n o r t h e r n Yangtze area, i n c l u d i n g the area o f the Dadunzi supine.  a large  river  s i t e are predominantly  In the southern area i n c l u d i n g the Shanghai r e g i o n ,  b u r i a l s tend t o have a prone p o s i t i o n  (ibid).  Wu  (19 73) r e p o r t s  t h a t the f o l l o w i n g s i t e s have b u r i a l s w i t h mainly a supine position:  Dadunzi  (the Q i n g l i a n g a n g stratum, L i u l i n and  Huating s t r a t a ) , the L i u l i n Xixiahou.  stage o f the L i u l i n s i t e , and  Another E a r l y Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e w i t h mainly  the supine p o s i t i o n i s B e i y i n y a n y i n g i n J i a n g s u (Chang 19 79: 164).  Another  s i t e t h a t e x h i b i t s v a r i a b i l i t y i n body d i s p o s i -  t i o n i s Q i a n z h a i , w i t h over 50 a s h - p i t s  5.6. 5.6.1  (Kao 1 9 8 3 : 1 1 4 ) .  Concluding P r o p o s i t i o n s Argument f o r a Descent Group a t Dawenkou I t was seen t h a t each s p a t i a l area determined by v i s u a l  i n s p e c t i o n f o r the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s i s not c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t i n c t grave o r i e n t a t i o n , grave form, body d i s p o s i t i o n , and ceramic s t y l e .  The e x t e n t o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n the  above f o u r aspects o f mortuary each s p a t i a l group.  treatment i s e x h i b i t e d i n  T h e r e f o r e , the cemetery  as a whole can  be c o n s i d e r e d as c o n s i s t e n t i n the above aspects o f mortuary treatment.  T h i s c o n s i s t e n c y i n b u r i a l treatment from  spatial  - 154  -  area t o s p a t i a l area suggests t h a t the whole cemetery one type of s o c i a l subgroup.  I propose the b u r i a l s from both  p e r i o d s r e p r e s e n t a descent group. tency of mortuary  reflects  Due  t o the o v e r a l l  consis-  r i t u a l i n terms of o r i e n t a t i o n , grave  form,  body d i s p o s i t i o n , and s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of grave, I propose t h a t the same type of descent group i s r e p r e s e n t e d throughout the d u r a t i o n of the cemetery's  use.  Since t e s t  implications  f o r a descent group versus another type of s o c i a l subgroup have not been developed, the p r o p o s i t i o n i s t e n t a t i v e .  My  argument  i s t h a t a descent group i s p o s s i b l e , g i v e n the importance descent t o a g r i c u l t u r a l ethnographic s o c i e t i e s .  of  A l s o descent  systems were an important p a r t of Shang s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l organization. lineages worship mortuary  H i s t o r i c a l data i n d i c a t e the presence of ranked  (Chang 1980:78-79) and the importance of a n c e s t o r (Thorp 1979:152). r i t u a l may  The  importance of descent i n  be another c u l t u r a l t r a i t t h a t continues  from the Dawenkou C u l t u r e t o the Shang dynasty. 110)  claims t h a t a n c e s t o r worship was  by the Longshan p e r i o d . l i n e a g e s may  Pearson  (1979:  e s t a b l i s h e d i n China  (19 81:10 86) proposes  that  be r e f l e c t e d a t Dawenkou on the b a s i s of the  f u r n i s h e d graves with no s k e l e t o n . importance  Chang  A l s o , an  increasing  of l i n e a g e by the Late Dawenkou p e r i o d may  be  i n d i c a t e d by the s p a t i a l s e g r e t a t i o n of some b u r i a l s composed of men,  women and c h i l d r e n  (ibid).  Ethnographic t e s t s by Saxe  (1970) and G o l d s t e i n  (1976)  i n d i c a t e t h a t cemeteries and o t h e r d i s c r e t e d i s p o s a l areas tend t o r e f l e c t c o r p o r a t e descent groups  ( G o l d s t e i n 1980:7-8).  -  155  -  However, more ethnographic t e s t s are necessary t o s u b s t a n t i a t e (Chapman and Randsborg 1 9 8 1 : 2 3 ) .  this relationship  c r i t e r i a t o d e f i n e an o r g a n i z e d and not been c l a r i f i e d  (ibid).  A l s o , the  formal d i s p o s a l area have  T h i s problem i s r e l e v a n t t o the  Dawenkou cemetery.  The p o s s i b l e use of the p o t t e r y k i l n d u r i n g  the Late p e r i o d may  i n d i c a t e t h a t the cemetery was  not  used  e x c l u s i v e l y f o r the d i s p o s a l of the dead d u r i n g the Late p e r i o d . Whalen  (19 8 3 : 3 5 )  maintains t h a t almost complete u n i f o r m i t y of  b u r i a l p o s i t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s a f o r m a l , w e l l o r g a n i z e d d i s p o s a l area.  These c r i t e r i a are met  i n the  Dawenkou cemetery. Some ethnographic  s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p  between descent, the a n c e s t o r s , and mortuary r i t u a l . t o l a n d are j u s t i f i e d by descent f o r p a r t i c u l a r among the Nuba (Hodder 19 8 0 : 1 6 4 ) .  Nuba mortuary  Rights  ancestors ritual  r e f l e c t s m a t r i l i n e a l descent groups i n an i d e a l manner:  In p r a c t i c e i n d a i l y l i f e , the m a t r i l i n e a l l i n e i s c o n t i n u a l l y f r u s t r a t e d by male dominance and competing p a t e r n a l r i g h t s . But i n death, the m a t r i l i n e a l group i s assembled 'pure', w i t h o u t the husband presence (Hodder 1 9 8 0 : 1 6 5 ) .  The members of a m a t r i l i n e a l descent group b u r i e d t o g e t h e r i n a common cemetery l i v e d i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t l e m e n t s d u r i n g t h e i r lifetimes importance 22).  (Hodder 1 9 8 0 : 1 6 5 ) .  Goody ( 1 9 6 2 )  d e s c r i b e s the  of descent i n LoDagaa mortuary r i t u a l  (Chapman 1 9 7 7 :  The LoDagaa are a l s o b u r i e d w i t h members of t h e i r  groups i n s t e a d of w i t h people  descent  from the s e t t l e m e n t s i n which  -  (ibid).  156  -  they had  lived  Goody (1962:412) p o i n t s out t h a t  mortuary  r i t u a l i s regarded by descent groups as  f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e i r descent groups Randsborg 1977:22-23).  important  (Chapman and  Corporate descent groups t h a t r e g u l a t e d  the i n h e r i t a n c e of l a n d and other resources c o u l d have developed during the N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d i n v a r i o u s world areas  (Keesing  1975:17-18).  Ethnographic data i n d i c a t e t h a t there i s g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n types of descent groups Pader 1982:64).  ( A l l e n and Richardson 19 71:4 7-48,  In many p r o c e s s u a l mortuary  known v a r i a t i o n i s not c o n s i d e r e d . a  descent system continued i n one  ( A l l e n and Richardson 1971:49).  A l s o , one  studies,  this  should not assume  l o c a l i t y through  time  I argue t h a t the g e n e r a l con-  s i s t e n c y of grave o r i e n t a t i o n , grave form, body d i s p o s i t i o n and s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of grave from the E a r l y p e r i o d t o the Late a t Dawenkou does not r e f l e c t a change i n type of descent group 5.6.2  (or any other type of s o c i a l subgroup) through  time.  K i n s h i p or R e s i d e n t i a l Groups a t Dawenkou The s p a t i a l groups of b u r i a l s f o r the E a r l y and Late  p e r i o d s remain  to be e x p l a i n e d .  Even though they are not  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t i n c t o r i e n t a t i o n , grave form, or body d i s p o s i t i o n , they c o u l d r e p r e s e n t e i t h e r a type of kingroiip or a type of r e s i d e n t i a l group.  In Nuba cemeteries,  spatial  c l u s t e r s of b u r i a l s r e f l e c t named community s e c t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g of r e l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s  (Hodder 1980:165).  Settled  agricultural-  i s t s tend to have v i l l a g e s u b d i v i s i o n s (MacDonald 1980:44). Ethnographic groups i n Southeast A s i a are known to have  two  - 157 -  types of i n t r a - v i l l a g e s u b d i v i s i o n s :  the f a m i l y compound and  the r e s i d e n t i a l ward o r neighborhood  (MacDonald 1980:36).  Family compounds are d i s t i n g u i s h e d s p a t i a l l y i n settlements (ibid).  MacDonald (1980:36) proposes t h a t s p a t i a l areas o f  b u r i a l s a t the Bang s i t e i n T h a i l a n d types o f v i l l a g e  r e f l e c t one o f these  subdivisions.  Family p l o t s i n cemeteries are known from other graphic  data  ethno-  (King 1969:49, Chapman and Randsbord 1981:15).  S p a t i a l groups o f graves are s a i d t o r e f l e c t f a m i l y groups i n the p r o c e s s u a l  mortuary s t u d i e s by King  (1981:187) and G o l d s t e i n  (1980:124).  at Dawenkou c o u l d r e p r e s e n t The  (1969:55), P e t e r s e n  The m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s  f a m i l y groups.  e a r l i e r Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s o f L i u l i n and Wangyin  have d i s t i n c t s p a t i a l areas o f graves.  Investigators  the b u r i a l s from the second e x c a v a t i o n i n f i v e d i s t i n c t areas,  think  o f L i u l i n are l o c a t e d  each of which r e f l e c t s one or more  families within a clan  (Pearson 1981:1083).  groups a t Wangyin are thought t o r e p r e s e n t (Shandong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Team 19 79).  The four  spatial  a c l a n as w e l l  The l a t e r Dawenkou  C u l t u r e s i t e o f Dafanzhuang appears t o have s p a t i a l groups of graves s i m i l a r t o those a t Dawenkou ( A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team of ^ i n g i , County 1975). b u r i a l s i s reported Qianzhai 5.6.3.  An e a s t e r n  and western s e c t o r o f  f o r the l a t e r Dawenkou C u l t u r e  s i t e of  (Kao 1983:14). The Mortuary P o p u l a t i o n  a t Dawenkou  I f the cemetery was a c t u a l l y used f o r 600 years i n the e a r l y p e r i o d and 400 years i n the Late,  i t seems c l e a r t h a t  - 158  -  85 b u r i a l s (or 91 people, i n c l u d i n g the i n d i v i d u a l s from m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s ) and one  33 b u r i a l s (or 34 people, i n c l u d i n g the  multiple b u r i a l ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y represent  of the l i v i n g p o p u l a t i o n  f o r each p e r i o d .  the cemetery r e f l e c t s a p o r t i o n of one Thus, the mortuary p o p u l a t i o n descent group i s represented  only a p o r t i o n  It i s likely  that  or more communities.  supports my  proposition that a  at Dawenkou.  Chang  (1979:108)  proposes t h a t l a t e N e o l i t h i c cemetery s i t e s i n the North China P l a i n r e g i o n are composed of i n d i v i d u a l s from more than one  village.  p o s s i b l y other The vary  T h i s proposition i s p l a u s i b l e f o r Dawenkou s i t e s i n the Dawenkou C u l t u r e  Archaeological  Team 1964)  Wangyin (the m a j o r i t y stratum)  to 885  197  of Dadunzi i n Jiangsu  from L i u l i n ,  l a t e r s i t e s contain  (Shandong  of which appear t o be  (Shandong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  excavation  344  from the  second  (Zhang 1979).  fewer b u r i a l s :  26 at Dafanzhuang, both i n Shandong  and  74 a t Qianzhai  1983:14).  Other e a r l i e r  (The Nanjing Museum  and  (Kao  of  i n the same  Team 19 79).  a l s o i n Jiangsu relatively  cemeteries  a t the e a r l i e r s i t e  s i t e s have l a r g e numbers of b u r i a l s :  and  region.  numbers of b u r i a l s i n Dawenkou C u l t u r e  from 11 a t the l a t e r s i t e of X i x i z h o u  1981) Other  15 at Xedian  (Pearson i n  press:22),  I t i s not p o s s i b l e to •  determine whether t h i s v a r i a t i o n i n b u r i a l p o p u l a t i o n f u n c t i o n of time. s i v e l a n d use personal  The  v a r i a t i o n may  be  The  at Wangyin i n comparison to other  is a  a f u n c t i o n of i n t e n -  i n c e r t a i n areas or p a r t i a l e x c a v a t i o n  communication 1983).  and  (Pearson,  l a r g e numbers of b u r i a l s Dawenkou C u l t u r e  sites  may  - 159 -  be  due t o more complete e x c a v a t i o n  at that  site.  I t appears t h a t b u r i a l i n the Dawenkou cemetery was r e s t r i c t e d to a s m a l l e r number o f people by the Late The  mortuary p o p u l a t i o n  i n d i c a t e s a sharp decrease i n the  number of b u r i a l s by the Late p e r i o d E a r l y p e r i o d t o 33).  period.  (from 85 b u r i a l s i n the  I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n whether  t h i s i s a l s o a d i f f e r e n c e i n the number o f c h i l d r e n b u r i e d i n both p e r i o d s .  C h i l d r e n may have been b u r i e d i n a separate  l o c a t i o n by the Late p e r i o d , s i n c e the only subadult Late p e r i o d i s the youth, L117. f o r some subadults given  i n the  A separate b u r i a l l o c a t i o n  i s also conceivable  f o r the E a r l y p e r i o d  the ..fact t h a t subadults .are found i n only, s i x .of the  85 graves  (including multiple burials)..  However, the s i x  undatable c h i l d b u r i a l s could be from the E a r l y o r Late period.  The s m a l l e r mortuary p o p u l a t i o n  i n the Late p e r i o d  c o u l d be a f u n c t i o n o f the proposed s h o r t e r Late p e r i o d (400  years,  versus 600 years f o r the E a r l y p e r i o d ) .  I propose t h a t a more p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n mortuary p o p u l a t i o n  f o r the s m a l l e r  i n the Late p e r i o d i s a change i n the  system o f s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Late.  However,  from the E a r l y p e r i o d t o the  - 160 -  CHAPTER 6  ANALYSIS OF STATUS DIFFERENTIATION 6.1.  Introduction  6.1.1.  Procedure  The purpose of t h i s a n a l y s i s i s to understand 1) the nature of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n d u r i n g the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s , and 2) change through time i n s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a t Dawenkou. The a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s f o r the E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s i s d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n two and the a n a l y s i s f o r Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s i n section three.  Change through time i n s t a t u s  differentiation  at the cemetery  i s d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n t h r e e , as w e l l .  Section  f o u r i s comprised of c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d o f the e a s t e r n seaboard r e g i o n . my  Comparison  r e s u l t s w i t h the p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s such as Pearson  of  (19 81)  r e g a r d i n g the nature of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n at Dawenkou i s included. I conclude the nature of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n each p e r i o d i n terms o f wealth  ( i n d i c a t e d by q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f  grave goods) on the b a s i s of the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g c l u s t e r analyses r e s u l t s .  and  Then, d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among b u r i a l s  i n terms o f energy expenditure ( i n d i c a t e d by grave form and grave s i z e ) i s compared w i t h t h a t by grave goods.  Variability  i n body d i s p o s i t i o n and grave l o c a t i o n i s a l s o assessed.  Status  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n terms o f grave goods, energy e x p e n d i t u r e ,  - 161 -  body d i s p o s i t i o n and grave l o c a t i o n i s e v a l u a t e d by means o f test implications multiple  f o r achieved v e r s u s a s c r i b e d  b u r i a l s from each p e r i o d  status.  are not i n c l u d e d  The  i n the m u l t i -  v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s because i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine the grave goods a s s o c i a t e d  with p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s .  s t a t u s e s o f the m u l t i p l e  The s o c i a l  b u r i a l s are d i s c u s s e d  F i n a l l y , the i n t r u s i v e p a i r s o f b u r i a l s w i t h i n  separately. each p e r i o d are  employed i n an attempt t o assess change through time i n s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n within  each p e r i o d .  among the undatable b u r i a l s i s a l s o 6.1.2.  Test  Status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n discussed.  implications  Since s t a t u s  i s symbolized i n d i f f e r e n t manners i n  d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s , any number o f the f o l l o w i n g mortuary treatment f o r achieved o r a s c r i b e d be  found t o c h a r a c t e r i z e  a t t r i b u t e s of  s o c i a l status  may  Dawenkou i n e i t h e r the E a r l y or Late  period. A society  i n which s o c i a l s t a t u s  i t a r i a n society)  i s achieved  (or an e g a l -  i s expected t o e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f  b u r i a l s a c c o r d i n g t o the age and sex of the deceased, on the basis  o f any number o f the f o l l o w i n g  characteristics:  1) c e r t a i n forms o f grave goods (for example, c e r t a i n may be r e g u l a r l y  associated  2) r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t i e s  forms  w i t h c e r t a i n age o r sex c l a s s e s ) ,  o f grave goods, 3) e l a b o r a t e n e s s of  grave form, 4) r e l a t i v e grave s i z e , 5) grave l o c a t i o n ( f o r example, c h i l d r e n and i n f a n t s b u r i e d i n separate l o c a t i o n than adults),  and 6) c e r t a i n body d i s p o s i t i o n s ( s ) .  - 162 -  A s o c i e t y i n which s o c i a l s t a t u s i s a s c r i b e d  (or a s o c i e t y  with h e r e d i t a r y ranking) i s expected t o e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f b u r i a l s which c r o s s - c u t s age and sex c l a s s e s , on the b a s i s of any number o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : forms o f grave goods  1) c e r t a i n  ( i n c l u d i n g "badges" which symbolize  p a r t i c u l a r h i g h ranks, imported goods, goods made from imported raw m a t e r i a l s , goods which r e q u i r e much s k i l l  i n manufacture,  goods made from r a r e raw m a t e r i a l s symbolizing  h i g h rank and  goods made from l o c a l l y abundant m a t e r i a l s and not r e q u i r i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r y s k i l l i n manufacture symbolizing 2) r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t i e s o f grave goods  low r a n k ) ,  (greater q u a n t i t i e s o f a l l  forms o f a r t i f a c t s f o r high s t a t u s b u r i a l s and s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s for  low s t a t u s b u r i a l s ) ,  3) e l a b o r a t e n e s s  ate f o r high s t a t u s b u r i a l s , simple size  o f grave form  f o r low),  (elabor-  4) r e l a t i v e grave  ( l a r g e f o r high s t a t u s b u r i a l s , s m a l l f o r low s t a t u s  b u r i a l s ) , 5) grave l o c a t i o n (separate  location for certain  s t a t u s l e v e l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n d i v i d u a l s of high s t a t u s ) , and 6) c e r t a i n body d i s p o s i t i o n f o r c e r t a i n s t a t u s l e v e l s .  A  ranking pyramid i s a l s o expected - o r s u c c e s s i v e l y fewer b u r i a l s the higher the s o c i a l rank.  The h i g h e s t s t a t u s category i s  expected t o have o n l y one or.a few b u r i a l s .  C h i l d r e n and a d u l t s  of both sexes are expected to c h a r a c t e r i z e each s t a t u s except the h i g h e s t . and  level  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on the b a s i s o f age  sex i s expected i n a d d i t i o n t o the above d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  which c r o s s - c u t s age and sex c a t e g o r i e s  (the "subordinate  dimension" from Peebles and Kus 1977:431).  - 163 -  Some d e v i a t i o n s  t o the standard  above t h a t have b e e n u t i l i z e d have b e e n s u g g e s t e d . and  three.  Rothschild  ize  high  males. status  and P a d e r  are expected  status  symbol-  t o be s h a r e d between t h e s e x e s .  that wealthy  of their Bayard  b u r i a l s may r e f l e c t  child  (1981:  parents  ( 1 9 8 0 : 1 6 3 ) and B r a u n  b u r i a l s may r e f l e c t t h e  instead o f the ascribed  (19 83:18) s t a t e s t h a t w e a l t h y  parental  a s c r i p t i v e ranking  Analysis  b u r i a l s do n o t n e c e s s -  Hodder  child  status  child  affection instead of ascribed  s t a t u s b u t t h e i r p r e s e n c e does a l l o w  6.2.  high  (1982:59).  the c h i l d .  that  ranking  i s a l s o n o t e d b y Chapman and R a n d s b o r g  (1979:68) m a i n t a i n  of  h e r e i n s e c t i o n s two  i n a d i f f e r e n t manner t h a n  indicate a s c r i p t i v e ranking.  achieved  analyses  (1979:666) m a i n t a i n s t h a t h i g h  O t h e r s comment t h a t w e a l t h y arily  mortuary  described  Thus, n o t a l l mortuary a t t r i b u t e s which  This p o s s i b i l i t y 9)  implications  i n processual  They a r e c o n s i d e r e d  f e m a l e s may be s y m b o l i z e d ranking  test  the suggestion  t o be made  i s present.  of Status,  Early  Period  6.2.1. D a t a 6.2.1.1.  The M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s e s  A total  o f 23 v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g  different  mortuary treatment  a n d 79 b u r i a l s a r e i n c l u d e d  variate  The 79 b u r i a l s a r e l i s t e d  One  analyses.  burial,  E27, i s d i s t u r b e d .  aspects of  i n the m u l t i -  i n F i g . A6-1.  The 23 v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d  as  - 164 -  p o t e n t i a l l y s t a t u s - r e l a t e d d u r i n g the E a r l y p e r i o d are l i s t e d i n F i g . A6-2.  The frequency o f occurrence of each a t t r i b u t e  among the b u r i a l sample i s shown i n F i g . A6-2  as w e l l .  The v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s f o r each p e r i o d r e f l e c t grave goods i n form, q u a n t i t y , and material. form  raw  V a r i a b i l i t y i n energy e x p e n d i t u r e i n terms o f grave  ( e i t h e r l o g tomb, l o g tomb w i t h second l e v e l p l a t f o r m , p i t  w i t h second l e v e l p l a t f o r m , or simple p i t ) and grave s i z e i s d e l i b e r a t e l y excluded from the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses f o r both p e r i o d s i n order t o compare s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n based upon grave goods and t h a t based upon energy e x p e n d i t u r e .  A good  correspondence would s t r e n g t h e n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e l a t i v e s t a t u s s i n c e each approach i s independent of the o t h e r and would i n d i c a t e t h a t both energy status.  expenditure and grave goods symbolize  Another check on the p a t t e r n i n g from the m u l t i v a r i a t e  analyses i s my e x p e c t a t i o n s d e r i v e d from my e x p l o r a t o r y study of the cemetery. As much v a r i a b i l i t y i n grave goods as p o s s i b l e t h a t potentially  symbolizes s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s i s i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i -  variate  analyses f o r each p e r i o d .  Each v a r i a b l e was  coded on  a presence/absence b a s i s as most v a r i a b l e s d i d not o c c u r very frequently.  Some p o t e n t i a l s t a t u s r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s c o u l d not  be i n c l u d e d because they occur only once or twice among the burials.  Three o c c u r r e n c e s was  chosen as the minimum number to  make the a n a l y s e s f o r each p e r i o d v i a b l e because a minimum of  - 165  three occurrences  -  among the 115 b u r i a l s was  c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of Chapter 3. a r t i f a c t types as probable  v i a b l e i n the  I regard these  high s t a t u s items.  d i s t r i b u t i o n of these a r t i f a c t types  excluded  Therefore,  i n the d e r i v e d  groupings  r e p r e s e n t i n g e q u i v a l e n t s t a t u s from the c l u s t e r i n g and serves as s t i l l  another  the  scaling  check on the a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s .  For  each p e r i o d , the v a r i a b l e s are coded from the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the "grave goods" column s i t e report  pages 136-155 of the  In some cases, a d d i t i o n a l a r t i f a c t s are  under the "remarks" Two  ( s u i zang q i wu),  (bei zliu) column.  ceramic ware types  high s t a t u s :  listed  from the E a r l y p e r i o d may  p a i n t e d and b l a c k wares.  reflect  The p a i n t e d wares from  Dawenkou c u l t u r e s i t e s are d e s c r i b e d as f i n e l y made by Thorp (1979:7) and 31).  as r a r e and  little  understood  by Shangraw (1978:  The b l a c k wares a t Dawenkou c u l t u r e s i t e s are  considered  f i n e l y made (with t h i n v e s s e l w a l l s and p o l i s h e d ) by Shangraw (1978:35).  The  ceramic  forms  ( f u n c t i o n a l types)  thought to  r e f l e c t high s t a t u s at Dawenkou are the wine v e s s e l s e r v i n g stand  (dou), and t a l l  wine v e s s e l s are found (Thorp  1980: 56 ).  stemmed cup  (bei gao).  i n high s t a t u s contexts  Since there are  (zun), Bronze  i n Shang tombs  cultural continuities in  mortuary p r a c t i c e s from the Dawenkou C u l t u r e p e r i o d to the Shang, i t i s p o s s i b l e the wine v e s s e l symbolizes at  Dawenkou as w e l l .  (1980:29).  The  high s t a t u s  T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s a l s o r a i s e d by Rawson  s e r v i n g stand i s regarded  by Pearson  (personal  - 166  communication, 19 83) and  as symbolic  stemmed cup  -  as p o s s i b l y having  of high s t a t u s .  The  appear f i n e l y made and  a ritualistic  s e r v i n g stand and the  as not having  i t a r i a n f u n c t i o n s i n the photographs p r o v i d e d The  high stemmed cups and  ritualistic  function  purely  util-  i n the s i t e  s e r v i n g stands are c o n s i d e r e d  f u n c t i o n s by Shangraw (1978:34).  high  report.  as  having  Rawson (1980:29)  d e s c r i b e s the s e r v i n g stands and high stemmed cups from s e v e r a l Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s as f r a g i l e and  suggests these forms had  a ceremonial f u n c t i o n . Three ornamental forms c o n s i d e r e d included i n t h i s analysis: and h a i r p i n (ji_) . contexts The  ring  i n Shang s i t e s  (Hay  status  1973:55).  Three a r t i f a c t  periods  forms i n c l u d e d  be ornamental or formerly p a r t of an ornament: (shu f a qi', Gao  small round f l a t stone  The  (bihuan),  f u n c t i o n s of s e v e r a l a r t i f a c t types from both  possible hair ties  (ban),  (zhThuan), b r a c e l e t  Bone h a i r p i n s have been found i n high  of the cemetery are u n c l e a r . here may  s t a t u s - r e l a t e d are  (appearing  ( b i n g ) , and  1978:31; Pearson 1981:1080), s m a l l f l a t p i e c e of bone  worked i n photograph 97 of the s i t e r e p o r t ) .  v a r i a b l e p r o b l a b l e ornament p a r t s i n c l u d e s forms which  appear to be the same as those forms which are p a r t of neck+. l a c e s f o r the head or neck female b u r i a l s : bone t u b u l a r bead stone annular  (tdu slfi or j l n g shi) i n known  f l a t , t h i n p i e c e of stone  ( p i a n ) , stone or  (guan), stone c i r c u l a r bead  (zhu),  shaped p i e c e , p o s s i b l y an e a r r i n g  small  (huan).  Also  - 167  -  each of these forms appears ornamental from p l a t e 9 7 of the r e p o r t . present  These forms are grouped together  only once or twice across  Other a r t i f a c t decorative carved  the b u r i a l  sample.  forms i n the a n a l y s i s w i t h a probable  as w e l l as u t i l i t a r i a n  f u n c t i o n are  bone or elephant i v o r y carved  turtle shell  because each i s  (gui j i a ) , and  cylinder  spoon or s p a t u l a  elaborately (diaotong),  (b_i) .  Only  E a r l y period b u r i a l contains  an elephant i v o r y c y l i n d e r .  Elephant i v o r y i s one  raw  t h a t may of the  of two  symbolize h i g h s t a t u s .  materials  i n the E a r l y p e r i o d  On the b a s i s of the  l o c a l environment i n Chapter 1 i t i s p o s s i b l e  elephant were obtained  locally.  The  one  discussion that  photographs i n the  r e p o r t i n d i c a t e t h a t some c y l i n d e r s from both p e r i o d s  site  are  i n l a i d w i t h stone, but the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the b u r i a l s do mention i n l a i d stone i s not c l e a r from  (except  Late p e r i o d b u r i a l ) .  .photographs i n the  t u r t l e s h e l l s are worked. p o l i s h e d and  f o r one  strung together  sites.  Chang (1979:280) d e s c r i b e s  Gao  It  s i t e r e p o r t whether the  s t a t e s they were used f o r c o n t a i n e r s  Dawenkou C u l t u r e  not  at  them as several  (1978:31) s t a t e s the s h e l l s were  to form a pouch.  Seven v a r i a b l e s are coded i n an a d d i t i v e , presence/absence manner because the r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t i e s of these v a r i a b l e s thought t o r e f l e c t s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s .  are  Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s  showing r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t i e s of these v a r i a b l e s were drawn, the n a t u r a l breaks e v i d e n t  from the graphs were regarded  r e f l e c t i n g c u l t u r a l l y meaningful d i s t i n c t i o n s .  and  as  These v a r i a b l e s  - 168  are the  s e r v i n g stand,  -  t o t a l number of ceramic v e s s e l s , stone  t o o l t o t a l , bone t o o l t o t a l , p i g s k u l l s (zhu_tou), (zhang y a ) , and p i e c e s of raw or t u s k ) . A6-3  The  associated  to A6-9.  material  deer t e e t h  ( l i a o , e i t h e r bone, horn,  frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s are i n F i g s .  Since o n l y one  no ceramic v e s s e l s , i t was  E a r l y b u r i a l i n the a n a l y s i s  has  not p o s s i b l e to have a separate  category f o r absence of v e s s e l s . The  f u n c t i o n s of the p i g s k u l l s , deer t e e t h , raw  p i e c e s , and o y s t e r s h e l l p i e c e s are not c l e a r . at Dawenkou C u l t u r e and  Zhang 19 79,  s i t e s may  Lu 19 76).  r e f l e c t wealth  The  material  pig skulls  (Zhang 19 79,  A contemporary s o c i e t y from Hainan  I s l a n d i n southern China uses p i g jaws f o r t h i s purpose and  Zhang 19 79).  Since p i g s may  supply.  r e f l e c t wealth i n  Some or a l l of the deer t e e t h may  been p a r t of c u t t i n g t o o l s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e (Gao 1979:160). of v a r i o u s (zhu men  The  raw  goods.  m a t e r i a l p i e c e s may The  not  have  19 78:31, Chang  have been f o r manufacture  v a r i a b l e pig parts includes front teeth  y a ) , v a r i o u s p i e c e s o f bone (zhu gu k u a i ) , and  jaw bone ( x i a he gu).  (Luo  have been important i n sub-  s i s t e n c e , p i g s k u l l s and o t h e r p i g p a r t s may terms of food  Luo  The  oyster s h e l l pieces  shown i n a photograph i n the s i t e r e p o r t .  lower  (bang pian) I t i s not  are  clear  i f they are worked. The  ceramic c a t e g o r i e s  i n t h i s a n a l y s i s and  i n the  Late  p e r i o d a n a l y s i s are p a r t i a l l y redundant because ware c o l o r , form and q u a n t i t y  are a l l i n c l u d e d .  The  impact of t h i s redundancy  on the p a t t e r n i n g of s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s i n these analyses judged t o be  minimal.  is  - 169  6.2.1.2.  -  High Status Unique Items  The  a r t i f a c t forms or m a t e r i a l s excluded from the  v a r i a t e analyses  t h a t are considered  i n the E a r l y p e r i o d are:  probable high s t a t u s  elephant i v o r y d i s k  (chi. t i e kuang s h i ,  as red o c h r e ) ,  and  i n two  jade  (yu).  s i n g l e b u r i a l s and  The  i n one  found i n Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s .  (tab shou x i n g  " i r o n ore", which I i n t e r p r e t elephant i v o r y d i s k i s found  multiple b u r i a l .  The  None are  authors of the s i t e  i d e n t i f y the o b j e c t as a long hollow o b j e c t w i t h s i d e s c a l l e d a corig. i n the  However, on the b a s i s of photo p l a t e 9 4  s i t e r e p o r t , Shangraw (personal communication 19 83)  character  i n the s i t e r e p o r t i s i n c o r r e c t .  The  the  the Shang p e r i o d  symbol o f heaven i n the  (Rawson 1980:83).  (Rawson 1980:83, S u l l i v a n 1977:48).  and baron  ( S u l l i v a n 1977:48).  The  significance  It i s called  Zhou L i , a t e x t from the  s t a t e s t h a t the jade b l symbolized the  Chinese  b l form i n jade  i s known from h i s t o r i c a l data t o have r i t u a l i s t i c  dynasty  report  rectangular  i d e n t i f i e s the o b j e c t as the b i d i s k , m a i n t a i n i n g  during  items  ( b l ) , elephant  i v o r y comb (shu), animal shaped ceramic v e s s e l q i ) , red ochre  multi-  The  l a t e Zhou Zhou L i a l s o  lower ranks of  viscount  elephant i v o r y b l may  badge of h i g h rank i n the E a r l y p e r i o d .  Pearson  the  be  a  ( i n press:29)  suggests t h a t some types of ornaments from Dawenkou resembling ornaments from the Shang p e r i o d are badges and social position.  Pearson  reflect inherited  (1981:1086) suggests t h a t c e r t a i n jade  forms from Late Dawenkou C u l t u r e  s i t e s t h a t do not  resemble  - 170  -  u t i l i t a r i a n a r t i f a c t s are badges of h i g h s t a t u s . i n d i c a t e d t h a t these forms may  He has  since  be of other m a t e r i a l s as w e l l  (personal communication 19 83). The elephant i v o r y comb i s found i n one E a r l y b u r i a l and i n one L a t e .  Only one animal shaped  cemetery.  T h i s v e s s e l resembles  ceramic v e s s e l i s found i n the a pig.  c o n t a i n s the two p i e c e s of r e d ochre. Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s .  The same b u r i a l  (E9)  Ochre i s not p r e s e n t i n  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the animal v e s s e l  and the ochre r e f l e c t r i t u a l r a t h e r than s t a t u s  distinctions.  Other animal shaped v e s s e l s have been found i n l a t e Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s , i n h i g h s t a t u s c o n t e x t s (Pearson 19 83:140). Only one E a r l y b u r i a l c o n t a i n s jade w h i l e i t occurs .in f o u r Late p e r i o d . g r a v e s . annular o b j e c t ) .  B u r i a l E78  c o n t a i n s one jade huan  (small  T h i s o b j e c t i s i d e n t i f i e d as jade from page 96  of the s i t e r e p o r t , not from the d e s c r i p t i o n f o r the b u r i a l . Jade was  h i g h l y regarded i n Chinese h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s f o r i t s  beauty and r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e important p a r t of Shang 19 80:32).  Rawson  m i n e r a l which was  (Rawson 1980:81).  mortuary  ritual  I t was  an  (Chang 19 80:156, Rawson  (1980:32) maintains t h a t n e p h r i t e i s the worked i n e a s t c o a s t N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s .  Jade  i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to work; a b r a s i v e s must be used as even modern s t e e l t o o l s cannot cut i t ( i b i d ) .  The source f o r jade  found i n e a s t c o a s t N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i s p r e s e n t l y unknown  (ibid).  However, at l e a s t one western  Depart-  i n v e s t i g a t o r , J e f f r e y Kao,  ment o f Anthropology, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , i s c u r r e n t l y r e s e a r c h i n g the problem  (Pearson, p e r s o n a l communication 19 83).  - 171  Wu  (19 73) suggests some jade was  Anhui p r o v i n c e s .  Lu  -  a v a i l a b l e from Zhejiang  (1976) maintains t h a t jade was  from the T a i Shan r e g i o n of Shandong. suggests southwestern  west  available  (1980:156-157)  Henan and p a r t s of Shaanxi were sources  d u r i n g the Shang p e r i o d . imported  Chang  and  Rawson (1980:32) suggests jade  over long d i s t a n c e s from the n o r t h  was  ( B a i k a l region) or  ( C e n t r a l Asia) - the main source of jade i n h i s t o r i c a l  times.  The  amount of l a b o r i n v o l v e d i n p r o c u r i n g jade  and  working i t s t r o n g l y suggests i t symbolized h i g h s t a t u s and i t s use was (ibid).  r e s t r i c t e d f o r mortuary r i t u a l or o t h e r types of Sullivan  ritual  (1977:40) mentions t h a t e a r l y h i s t o r i c t e x t s  s t a t e t h a t jade was  o b t a i n e d from s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s i n China.  A l s o , a source f o r a v a r i e t y of jade other than the h i g h l y v a l u e d n e p h r i t e has been found i n Henan The  (ibid).  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s from the m u l t i v a r i a t e  analyses f o r both p e r i o d s takes i n t o account  the known a s s o c i a -  t i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r a r t i f a c t types w i t h sex and age. ed i n Chapter  4, the s m a l l f l a t stone  female-related.  (bing) i s not  As d i s c u s s definitely  The elephant i v o r y d i s k ( b i ) , although  p o s s i b l y i n c o r r e c t l y grouped w i t h the horn zhui i n Chapter may  be m a l e - r e l a t e d .  i s found  (E59)  estimated male.  One  of the two  4,  s i n g l e b u r i a l s i n which i t  i s a known male and the other  (E26)  is a reliably  None of the 2 3 v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i -  v a r i a t e analyses are e x c l u s i v e t o the E a r l y p e r i o d c h i l d  burials.  In f a c t , none of the subadults i n the cemetery  (including  p e r i o d and undatable b u r i a l s ) c o n t a i n a r t i f a c t  forms or  Late  raw  - 172  -  m a t e r i a l s not found i n a d u l t b u r i a l s . 6.2.1.3.  Energy  Expenditure  S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have p o i n t e d out the d i f f i c u l t y i d e n t i f y i n g c u l t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n energy iture  of expend-  ( T a i n t e r 1978:128, Brown 1981:29, G o l d s t e i n 1981:55-56).  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n grave form f o r the b u r i a l s of both p e r i o d s are s e l f e v i d e n t :  p i t , p i t w i t h second  tomb, l o g tomb w i t h second  l e v e l platform, log  l e v e l platform.  I t was p r e v i o u s l y  concluded t h a t grave form does not seem to r e f l e c t s o c i a l subgroup a f f i l i a t i o n or age, i n e i t h e r the E a r l y or Late p e r i o d . The authors o f the s i t e r e p o r t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between three types of l o g tombs t h a t r e f l e c t v a r y i n g degrees o f e l a b o r a t i o n energy e x p e n d i t u r e . These types may  These types were not d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y .  r e f l e c t status d i s t i n c t i o n s .  10 80) d e s c r i b e s , type one  As Pearson  i s a l i d of undressed  (19 81:  logs and  r e p r e s e n t s the lowest amount of energy e x p e n d i t u r e . has a l i d ,  and  f o u r s i d e s , and a bottom of loose l o g s .  Type  two  Type t h r e e ,  the most e l a b o r a t e , i s a chamber made of trimmed logs f i t t e d t o g e t h e r and p l a c e d i n the middle of a l a r g e p i t . The  authors of  the s i t e r e p o r t (1974:5-7) do not i n d i c a t e the type r e p r e s e n t e d i n each b u r i a l w i t h a l o g tomb. given.  The example of a type one  type two,  E94.  Only examples of each type are l o g tomb i s b u r i a l E5 3 and  Only one E a r l y b u r i a l and s i x Late b u r i a l s have  l o g tombs of type t h r e e .  The E a r l y b u r i a l i s a m u l t i p l e b u r i a l ,  E13. The map  of the s i t e i n d i c a t e s g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y i n grave  - 173 s i z e f o r both p e r i o d s .  Grave s i z e i s d e s c r i b e d i n the s i t e  r e p o r t i n terms o f l e n g t h , width, and depth i n meters.  Grave  volume i s not c a l c u l a t e d due t o my u n c e r t a i n t i e s over the depth measurements i n the r e p o r t .  I t i s not c l e a r whether depth was  measured from the same p o i n t i n every grave.  T h e r e f o r e , area  of grave i s employed as the measurement o f grave s i z e .  The  v a r i a b i l i t y i n grave form and grave s i z e f o r the 79 E a r l y b u r i a l s i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . A6-1.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v a l u e s f o r grave  area i s shown i n F i g . A6-10. 2 o f v a l u e s a f t e r 2.50m  The sharp break i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n  i s taken t o r e f l e c t a c u l t u r a l l y  i c a n t d i s t i n c t i o n i n grave s i z e . 2 over 2.50m  Seven graves  signif-  (9.1%) have areas  2 (up t o 3.82m ).  and the o t h e r s , s m a l l .  These graves are c o n s i d e r e d l a r g e  The areas f o r two graves, E4 3 and E51,  could not be c a l c u l a t e d due t o l a c k o f length and width measurements.  In a few cases from both p e r i o d s , grave s i z e as i n d i c a t e d  by my c a l c u l a t i o n s does not seem t o agree w i t h r e l a t i v e s i z e as i n d i c a t e d on the s i t e map.  grave  The c a l c u l a t i o n s are c o n s i d -  ered the more a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t o r o f grave s i z e .  However, s i n c e  the s i z e of E43 and E51 appear c l e a r l y s m a l l on the  s i t e map  i n r e l a t i o n t o the seven l a r g e graves i d e n t i f i e d above, these two graves are i n t e r p r e t e d as s m a l l f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s analysis. 6.2.2.  Results:  The M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l S c a l i n g  The m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g a n a l y s i s f o r the E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s r e s u l t e d i n t e n dimensions, t h e f i r s t two accounting f o r 51.2% o f the v a r i a b i l i t y i n the data s e t .  No t r i a n g l e  i n e q u a l i t i e s i n the program were v i o l a t e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h i s data set i s m e t r i c .  Dimension  1 accounted f o r 36.1% o f the  - 174 -  v a r i a b i l i t y and Dimension 2, 15.1%.  The t h i r d and f o u r t h  dimensions accounted f o r 10.2% and 8.8% o f the v a r i a b i l i t y , respectively. When the f i r s t and second dimensions are p l o t t e d i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t status  Dimension 1 can be i n t e r p r e t e d  differentiation.  Clusters  together, as  The p l o t o f the 7 9 b u r i a l s i s i n F i g . 6 - 1 .  from the c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s  are superimposed on F i g . 6 - 1 .  I i n t e r p r e t the four b u r i a l s on the extreme l e f t o f t h e p l o t (E26,  E 9 , E 5 4 , E 5 9 ) as h i g h e s t i n s t a t u s ,  section  of the p l o t as i n t e r m e d i a t e , and the 1 7 b u r i a l s i n the  extreme r i g h t s e c t i o n E51,  E 7 1 ,  E89).  the b u r i a l s i n the mid-  as lowest i n s t a t u s  E 8 6 , E 9 0 , E114,  E 4 8 , E 2 7 ,  E 1 2 0 ,  ( E 2 9 ,E 3 6 , E 4 1 , E 4 3 , E 2 0 , E 4 5 ,  E 6 2 , E 8 8 ,  The four b u r i a l s at the extreme l e f t end have the g r e a t e s t  occurrence o f the a t t r i b u t e s  I expected t o r e f l e c t h i g h  status,  the b u r i a l s i n t h e m i d s e c t i o n have the next g r e a t e s t amount, and the  1 7 b u r i a l s a t the extreme r i g h t end have the l e a s t .  b u r i a l s a t the extreme l e f t are  The  and extreme r i g h t ends of the p l o t  s p a t i a l l y separated from o t h e r b u r i a l s and appear t o r e f l e c t  distinct differences  i n status.  The b u r i a l s i n the m i d s e c t i o n  of the p l o t along Dimension 1 seem t o r e p r e s e n t a s t a t u s  con-  tinuum because they do not seem t o be c l e a r l y separated s p a t i a l l y from o t h e r b u r i a l s . point  The b u r i a l s l o c a t e d  at the same  (for example, the t e n b u r i a l s a t the extreme r i g h t end)  have the same a t t r i b u t e s  i n terms o f grave goods.  These 1 0  b u r i a l s appear t o r e f l e c t a redundantly symbolized s t a t u s My t e n t a t i v e  interpretation  f o r Dimension 2 i s a l s o  level. status  - 175 FIGURE 6-1. M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g p l o t o f E a r l y P e r i o d b u r i a l s i n the a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s , with c l u s t e r s from Ward's Method.  large  in  area  s m a l l in a r e a log  tomb  second  Note:  group  are  (72)  (6) level  Clusters  together  (?)  1-7  platform  from W o r d s  Clusters 18 2,  solutions.  (12)  43  disturbed  43  controversial  /o  no  43  high  «  child  skeleton  (I)  former  Middle  Burial  (3)  (I )  s t a t u s , unique objects  (4)  (4)  s e v e n g r o u p s o l u t i o n ore  Clusters 4 8 5,  burial  circled.  ond C l u s t e r s 6 8 7 .  In the f o u r g r o u p s o l u t i o n , g r o u p e d Cluster  3 is d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  both  - 176 -  differentiation.  The b u r i a l s i n the lower m i d s e c t i o n o f the  p l o t appear t o be lower i n s t a t u s than those i n the upper mids e c t i o n o f the p l o t  (particularly E7, E78, E129, E67, E49, E 5 8 ) .  The l a t t e r s i x b u r i a l s c o n t a i n more o f the v a r i a b l e s which r e p r e s e n t ornamental or d e c o r a t i v e types o f grave goods than those b u r i a l s i n the lower m i d s e c t i o n o f the p l o t .  Status  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n may be r e p r e s e n t e d as a d i a g o n a l through hyperspace i n a roughly southeast t o northwest d i r e c t i o n . 6.2.3.  The Three Types o f C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s  The dendrogram  judged t o b e s t r e p r e s e n t the s t a t u s  s h i p s among the b u r i a l s i s from Ward's Method.  This  relation-  judgement  was made a f t e r s t u d y i n g the c l u s t e r s o f b u r i a l s i n each dendrogram from each o f the t h r e e techniques a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f s i m i l a r i t y t o determine the b e s t o r d e r i n g , on the b a s i s of 1) the occurrence o f the mortuary a t t r i b u t e s shared among the b u r i a l s i n each c l u s t e r and 2) my e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the b u r i a l s from my former e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s o f the cemetery.  The dendrogram  from Average Linkage  compares f a i r l y w e l l w i t h t h a t from Ward's Method, w h i l e the dendrogram  from Complete  Linkage does not compare w e l l w i t h  e i t h e r t h a t from Ward's or Average Linkage. l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , the Complete  As i n the chrono-  Linkage dendrogram  shows s m a l l  c l u s t e r s o f b u r i a l s a t s e v e r a l d i s t a n c e l e v e l s and the Average Linkage dendrogram  e x h i b i t s some c h a i n i n g .  The f a i r l y  good  comparison o f the c l u s t e r s from Ward's Method w i t h those from Average Linkage and the good comparison w i t h the o r d e r i n g o f b u r i a l s on the s c a l i n g p l o t a l s o lends support t o the acceptance of  the Ward's dendrogram.  Only the dendrogram  from Ward's Method  - 177  -  i s presented here. The The  dendrogram from Ward's Method i s presented i n Fig.6-2.  seven c l u s t e r s o l u t i o n  four c l u s t e r s o l u t i o n cluster solution status  of the  two  cluster solutions  l e v e l ) , and  l e v e l ) are  c l u s t e r solution best depicts  are  At  first,  exploratory  status  study.  seen i n F i g . A6-11  Clusters  1 and  c l u s t e r s , with Cluster  types.  as  4 and  7.  seven  This  4,  5 and  Clusters  5,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s based  Early period  burials.  seven group status  levels  and  6,  The  o n l y a few  (see  The  utilitarian  7 contain  than  greater  burials  artifact  7 appear i n t e r m e d i a t e i n  and  Fig.  status  2 of s l i g h t l y h i g h e r s t a t u s .  5,  depicts  solution  2 appear t o r e p r e s e n t low  6,  the  four group s o l u t i o n  6 s l i g h t l y higher i n status 4,  s o l u t i o n seemed  well.  c l u s t e r s contain  Clusters  with Clusters  multi-  four group s o l u t i o n b e t t e r  c l u s t e r s of b u r i a l s from the  i n these two  Each  However, f u r t h e r a p p r a i s a l of  appear at f i r s t t o i n d i c a t e e q u i v a l e n t A6-11).  seven-  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the  mortuary a t t r i b u t e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  The  The  I thought the  a p r i o r i e x p e c t a t i o n s of s t a t u s  r e l a t i o n s h i p among the  can be  indicate  mortuary a t t r i b u t e s i n common f o r each c l u s t e r  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the status  judged to  l a b e l l e d i n Fig.6-1.  of t h i s s o l u t i o n are given i n F i g . A6-11.  upon my  two  compares f a i r l y w e l l w i t h the  dimensional s c a l i n g s o l u t i o n .  t o f i t my  the  the  c o n t a i n s c l u s t e r s composed of s i m i l a r  mortuary a t t r i b u t e s and  The  level),  among the b u r i a l s most c l e a r l y .  three s o l u t i o n s  burials.  1.0022 d i s t a n c e  (1.3262 d i s t a n c e  (2.2437 d i s t a n c e  relationships  f o u r , and  (at the  status,  Clusters  quantities  - 178 FIGURE 6-2. Dendogram of E a r l y P e r i o d Method.  d i s t a n c e  b u r i a l s from Ward'  Two Croup Solution  - 179 of a r t i f a c t s , a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of a r t i f a c t types some ornaments  (including  and items of probable d e c o r a t i v e f u n c t i o n ) and  b l a c k and p a i n t e d wares.  Clusters  s l i g h t l y greater quantities  5 and 6. c o n t a i n  of a r t i f a c t s .  r e p r e s e n t s the h i g h e s t s t a t u s  b u r i a l s with  Cluster  3 clearly  l e v e l , with great q u a n t i t i e s of  a r t i f a c t s , s e v e r a l ornamental and d e c o r a t i v e a r t i f a c t types and p a i n t e d and b l a c k wares. I think tionships the  the four group s o l u t i o n b e t t e r  depicts  status  rela-  among the b u r i a l s because i t groups the c l u s t e r s from  seven group s o l u t i o n t h a t are n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n  terms of the p o t e n t i a l s t a t u s - r e l a t e d  variables.  Clusters  1 and  2 o f the seven group s o l u t i o n are grouped t o g e t h e r as w e l l as the  c l u s t e r s judged as i n t e r m e d i a t e i n s t a t u s .  Clusters  4 and  5 of the seven group s o l u t i o n are grouped t o g e t h e r , and C l u s t e r s 6 and 7 o f the seven group s o l u t i o n .  The c l e a r l y h i g h  status  group o f b u r i a l s i s s e t apart i n the four group s o l u t i o n as w e l l . The two group s o l u t i o n i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n F i g . 6-2 as a " n a t u r a l break" i n the dendrogram.  I t d i s t i n g u i s h e s the  d i s t i n c t l y low s t a t u s  group o f b u r i a l s  (Clusters  1 and 2 of the  seven group s o l u t i o n )  from the o t h e r E a r l y p e r i o d  burials.  The c l u s t e r s from the seven group s o l u t i o n o f Ward's Method were drawn on the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g p l o t  ( F i g . 6-1)  because I o r i g i n a l l y thought t h a t the seven group s o l u t i o n best depicted  status  relationships  among the b u r i a l s .  Information  r e g a r d i n g the c l u s t e r s from the four group s o l u t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n F i g . 6-1. the  F i g . 6-1 d e p i c t s  a f a i r l y good agreement between  s c a l i n g and c l u s t e r i n g r e s u l t s  (from the seven and four  - 180  group s o l u t i o n s ) . l e f t end 6,  7)  The  high status  of the p l o t , the  the  low  the  r i g h t end.  the  r e s u l t s from Ward's Method and  dimensional Scaling interpretation the  the  are  cluster  status  chronological  of s t a t u s  (1,2)  5,  at  of Chapter  Torgerson"s M e t r i c  the  3,  Multian  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n to be made based upon  r e s u l t s from both methods.  low  status  b u r i a l s , there are  63,  102,  The  scaling solution  from the  and  12  The  12 do not  high, intermediate, i n the  Ward's s o l u t i o n d e p i c t s  shows 63,  latter burials.  the  some d i f f e r e n c e s  as h i g h i n s t a t u s  As  along w i t h 26,  102,  and  12  F i g . A6-11  c o n t a i n as many of the  r e l a t e d to h i g h s t a t u s  as the  as  9,  lowest s t a t u s i n the 21,  low  group.  status  54,  and  spatially  attributes  91,  119.  Ward's s o l u t i o n i n c l u d e s  The  l a t t e r s i x b u r i a l s are  along Dimension 1 from the i n status.  1 with b u r i a l s  b u r i a l s 81,  6,  and  from Ward's C l u s t e r  7) and  b u r i a l 30  with b u r i a l s from C l u s t e r  101  as  There i s the  more b u r i a l s burials  spatially  80,  82,  separated as  low  o r d e r i n g s from both (located  6 yet  (included  102,  I interpret  other 17 b u r i a l s i n t e r p r e t e d  Other disagreements i n the  methods i n c l u d e  from C l u s t e r  scaling plot:  59.  separated  shows, b u r i a l s 63,  other four b u r i a l s .  group than the  order-  burials  a l s o some disagreement over the placement of b u r i a l s i n  97,  on (4,  i n s u f f i c i e n t agreement t o allow  ings from each method.  and  clusters  analysis  Although both methods c l e a r l y d e p i c t and  (3) i s l o c a t e d  c l u s t e r s intermediate i n status  i n the m i d s e c t i o n , and Like  -  along Dimension  included  w i t h the  in Cluster  7 yet  2 along Dimension  1).  burials located  - 181 -  6.2.4. 6.2.4.1.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Status D i s t i n c t i o n s i n the E a r l y P e r i o d D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Unique Items  The correspondence between s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  based  upon grave goods i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses with t h a t based upon the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the probable h i g h s t a t u s unique o b j e c t s can be seen i n F i g . 6-1. the unique o b j e c t s supports my  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t the o r d e r -  i n g of b u r i a l s from the c l u s t e r i n g and s c a l i n g techniques r e f l e c t s status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  F i v e of the s i x h i g h s t a t u s  o b j e c t s are found i n the h i g h s t a t u s group of b u r i a l s  (burials  26, 9, and 59 i n F i g . 6-1).  The two elephant i v o r y d i s k s (bi)  are i n b u r i a l s E59  E26  i v o r y comb.  and E26.  a l s o c o n t a i n s the e l e p h a n t  E9 c o n t a i n s the red ochre and animal shaped  The jade huan i s found i n E78  pot.  ( l o c a t e d i n C l u s t e r 5 on F i g . 6 - 1 ) .  I o r i g i n a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d the b u r i a l s i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the s c a l i n g p l o t as b e i n g h i g h e r i n s t a t u s than those i n the m i d s e c t i o n of the p l o t .  lower  These b u r i a l s a l s o seemed h i g h e r i n  s t a t u s than o t h e r b u r i a l s of i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s from the seven group s o l u t i o n of Ward's Method.  Due  to the good c o r r e s -  pondence between the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f b u r i a l s from the c l u s t e r i n g and s c a l i n g and from the probable h i g h s t a t u s  unique  o b j e c t s , I conclude t h a t s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y symbolized by wealth i n terms o f grave goods d u r i n g the E a r l y p e r i o d .  - 182  6.2.4.2. The  -  Argument f o r Four Status L e v e l s differences  i n the  o r d e r i n g of b u r i a l s between  r e s u l t s from Ward's c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s , the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  the  status  burials.  I argue t h a t  most c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t e d . mortuary a t t r i b u t e s  manner than i n the Because the  The  among the  solution r e f l e c t s status  unique items  approximate number of  four  status  difference  l e v e l s are  i n composition  c l u s t e r s of Ward's four  seven group  composition of these four  d i s t i n c t i o n s of the  solution.  c l u s t e r s i n terms of scaling  concluded as r e p r e s e n t i n g the Early period.  I recognize that  placement of some b u r i a l s i s open t o debate.  According to  s c a l i n g r e s u l t s , the placement of three b u r i a l s i n the (63,  102,  12)  on F i g . 6-1  may  be  o t h e r b u r i a l s i n the  group  21)  119,  91,  80,  82,  97,  may  be  major the the  high'  incorrect.  Likewise, the placement of a few (eg.,  of  group  o v e r a l l w i t h the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  r e s u l t s , these c l u s t e r s are  cluster  the  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n a more obvious  c l u s t e r s of the  b u r i a l s agrees w e l l  status  and  l e v e l s based upon grave goods represented among the  Early period  status  scaling results,  probable high s t a t u s  p r e c l u d e a d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n on the  the  low  incorrect.  status  However,  each method seemed t o d i s t i n g u i s h b u r i a l s of h i g h , h i g h i n t e r mediate, low  i n t e r m e d i a t e and  of t h i s a n a l y s i s the  a few  status.  i s t o i d e n t i f y the  exact, number of.  i n the  low  s o c i e t y of the b u r i a l s does not  objective  approximate, r a t h e r  status- . d i s t i n c t i o n s deceased, the  Since the  .  that  than  existed  d i f f e r e n t i a l placement of  s i g n i f i c a n t l y change the  interpretation  - 183  -  o f s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s among the E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s . A l l the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  l e v e l s are i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . 6-3.  four  A d d i t i o n a l unique items  found i n E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s but not c o n s i d e r e d i n g high s t a t u s are i n E103 p l a t e 101),  and  E19  status  as  represent-  (a b i r d claw bone, zhao, from photo  (a stone b a l l , q i u , photo p l a t e 101).  It  i s not c l e a r whether t h i s b a l l i s of the type t h a t have been found i n the mouths of s k e l e t o n s sites  (Han  1980).  and Pan  from other Dawenkou C u l t u r e  B u r i a l E34  contains the only horn  zhui from the E a r l y p e r i o d . 6.2.4.3.  D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by Energy Expenditure  D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of b u r i a l s based upon the grave form and  the two  four types of  types of grave s i z e does not  coincide  t o a great degree with the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n based upon grave goods. of my  T h i s l a c k of correspondence was exploratory  F i g . 6-1,  expected on the b a s i s  study of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  As  o n l y three of the seven b u r i a l s i n the high  l e v e l have grave forms t h a t represent than the simple  pit.  B u r i a l s E9,  second l e v e l p l a t f o r m s .  E59,  l e v e l platforms. ( C l u s t e r s 1 and  the  and E12  status  expenditure  have p i t s  with  None o f the high s t a t u s b u r i a l s  c o n t a i n the grave forms t h a t r e p r e s e n t energy e x p e n d i t u r e ,  more energy  shown i n  the g r e a t e s t amount of  l o g tomb, or the l o g tomb with  However, none of the 2 i n F i g . 6-1)  low  second  status b u r i a l s  have l o g tombs or second  level  platforms. B u r i a l s with  the grave form r e p r e s e n t i n g the  amount o f energy expenditure,  l o g tomb with  second  greatest level  FIGURE 6-3.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Four Status L e v e l s ,  high status (7 b u r i a l s ) ~  % of t o t .  high i n t e r mediate s t a t u s (17 b u r i a l s ) +  % of t o t .  Early  period.  low i n t e r mediate s t a t u s (32 b u r i a l s ) +  % of t o t .  low s t a t u s (23 b u r i a l s ) +  % of t o t ,  b l a c k ware  6  23.1  15  57.7  5  19.2  0  0  painted  5  29.4  1  5.9  11  64.7  0  0  wine v e s s e l  5  55.6  2  22.2  1  11.1  1  11.1  serving  stand 0  0  0  0  0  14  41.2  20  58.8  serving  stand  1-2  4  9.8  16  39.0  18  43.9  3  7.3  serving  stand 3-9  3  75. 0  1  25. 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  tall  ware  stemmed cup  0  0  3  100.0  0  t o t a l pots 0-7  0  0  9  14.1  32  t o t a l pots  4  33. 3  8  66.7  0  0  0  0  t o t a l pots 19-30  3  100.0  0  0  0  0  0  0  carved c y l i n d e r  2  40.0  1  20.0  2  40.0  0  0  turtle  2  40.0  0  0  3  60.0  0  0  ring  2  25.0  1  12.5  5  62.5  0  0  bracelet  0  0  3  60.0  2  40.0  0  0  hairpin  4  50.0  4  50.0  0  0  0  0  spoon  4  30. 8  2  15.4  5  38.5  2  15.4  stone t o o l t o t a l 0  0  0  10  22.2  13  28.9  22  48.9  stone t o o l t o t a l 1  4  18.2  6  27.3  11  50.0  1  4.5  8-14  shell  50.0  23  35.9  Cont'd.  FIGURE 6-3  continued high  status  high i n t e r low i n t e r low s t a t u s mediate s t a t u s mediate s t a t u s (7 b u r i a l s ) (17 b u r i a l s ) (32 b u r i a l s ) (23 b u r i a l s ) + % of t o t . + + % of t o t . + % of t o t . % of t o t .  stone t o o l  total  2-7  2  22.2  1  stone t o o l  total  9-16  1  33. 3  0  bone t o o l  total 0  0  0  bone t o o l  total  1-7  5  bone t o o l  total  13-25  11.1 0  6  66.7  0  0  2  66.7  0  0  12  23.5  17  33. 3  22  4 3.1  20.8  4  16.7  14  58.3  1  •4.2  2  50.0  1  25. 0  1  25.0  0  0  2  25.0  4  50.0  2  25.0  0  0  0  0  4  80.0  0  0  1  20.0  blng  0  0  3  100.0  0  0  0  0  ban  4  57.1  2  28.6  1  14. 3  0  0  hair t i e ornament  part  pig  skulls  0  3  6.1  14  28.6  9  18.4  23  pig  skulls  1-3  4  16.0  1  4.0  20  80.0  0  0  pig  skulls  4-5  0  0  2  40.0  3  60.0  0  0  other p i g parts  0  0  1  11.1  5  55.6  3  33. 3  deer t e e t h  0  1  3.7  2  7.4  11  40. 7  13  48.1  deer t e e t h  1-3  5  10.9  13  28.3  18  39.1  10  21.7  deer teeth  4-12  1  16.7  2  33.3  3  50.0  0  17  25.0  25  36.8  23  46.9  0  raw m a t e r i a l p i e c e s  0  3  4.4  raw m a t e r i a l p i e c e s  1-10  2  25.00  0  0  6  75.0  0  0  raw m a t e r i a l p i e c e s  16-40  2  66. 7  0  0  1  33. 3  0  0  3  50.0  0  0  3  50.0  0  0  oyster  shell  33. 8  - 186  p l a t f o r m , are E94,  E53,  -  and E81.  E94  i s i n the high  mediate s t a t u s group ( C l u s t e r 4 i n F i g . 6-1) are i n the low i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s group E5 3 has  a type  and E99  4 on F i g . 6-1) F i g . 6-1). Ell,  E109,  and  E81  ( C l u s t e r s 6 and  7).  The  other b u r i a l s with  represents l o g tombs  ( i n the high i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s group, C l u s t e r  and E116  The  and E53  1 l o g tomb and E9 4 has type 2, which  g r e a t e r energy expenditure. are E107  inter-  (low i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s , C l u s t e r 7 on  other b u r i a l s with second l e v e l p l a t f o r m s  and E3 8.  The  first  i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s group high i n t e r m e d i a t e  two b u r i a l s are i n the  are  low  ( C l u s t e r 6) and the second, i n the  ( C l u s t e r 4).  D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of b u r i a l s based upon grave s i z e a l s o does not c o i n c i d e t o a great degree with t h a t based upon grave goods.  Three of the seven l a r g e graves  s t a t u s group E78,  E99,  level  (E9, E59,  Ell,  and E8.  and E12) . E78  E99  The other l a r g e graves  i s i n the h i g h i n t e r m e d i a t e  ( C l u s t e r 5 i n F i g . 6-1).  jade huan.  are l o c a t e d i n the h i g h  However, t h i s b u r i a l  i s a l s o i n the high Intermediate  ( C l u s t e r 6).  status  contains  s t a t u s group  ( C l u s t e r 4),and the l a t t e r two b u r i a l s are i n the low mediate s t a t u s l e v e l  are  inter-  None of the l a r g e graves i s  l o c a t e d i n the low s t a t u s group. There i s a b e t t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between the  differentiation  based upon grave goods and t h a t based upon both grave form and  grave s i z e .  Six of the seven b u r i a l s l a r g e i n s i z e have  grave forms other than the simple p i t :  E9, E59,  and E l l have second l e v e l p l a t f o r m s and E99  E12,  E7 8,  has a l o g tomb.  - 187 E8 i s the o n l y grave t h a t i s l a r g e i n s i z e and has the simple p i t grave form.  E9, E59, and E12 are i n the h i g h s t a t u s group.  E78 and E99 a r e i n the h i g h i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s group 4 and 5 ) .  E l l i s i n the low i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s l e v e l  (Clusters (Cluster  6 on F i g . 6-1). I t appears  t h a t energy expenditure i n terms o f grave  form  and grave area e i t h e r does not symbolize s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s among the E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s o r t h a t i t symbolizes a d i f f e r ent aspect o f s t a t u s than grave goods.  The grave  forms t h a t  r e f l e c t g r e a t energy expenditure and l a r g e grave s i z e are not e x c l u s i v e t o e i t h e r the h i g h e s t s t a t u s group o r the second highest. On the b a s i s o f the comparison  of status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  based upon grave goods and energy e x p e n d i t u r e , I conclude  that  h i g h s t a t u s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x c l u s i v e access t o only three forms o f a r t i f a c t s :  the elephant i v o r y d i s k (bji) , the elephant  i v o r y comb, and the animal shaped ceramic v e s s e l .  High s t a t u s  i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by e x c l u s i v e access t o two types o f raw material:  elephant i v o r y  and r e d ochre.  (the comb and the one carved c y l i n d e r )  The t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e x c l u s i v e t o the h i g h  s t a t u s b u r i a l s i s the h i g h e s t q u a n t i t y o f p o t t e r y v e s s e l s . The h i g h i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s l e v e l i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x c l u s i v e access t o the h i g h stemmed cup, the s m a l l round stone and the jade huan.  The o t h e r mortuary  a t t r i b u t e s occur a t  l e a s t once i n more than one s t a t u s l e v e l .  (bing)  - 188  6.2.4.4.  -  Body D i s p o s i t i o n  Data r e g a r d i n g i n F i g . 6-4.  age,  F i g . 6-4  sex and body d i s p o s i t i o n are  included  i n d i c a t e s t h a t on the whole body  d i s p o s i t i o n i s not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t a t u s i n the E a r l y p e r i o d . The  h i g h s t a t u s b u r i a l s a l l have the common supine p o s i t i o n .  Each o f the i n t e r m e d i a t e positions. low  However, the only prone b u r i a l  s t a t u s group.  c o n t r a d i c t my  The  The  low  Grave  i s i n the  s t a t u s p o s i t i o n of E45  or a person who  does not  may  represent  d i e d of an unusual cause.  Location  l o c a t i o n s o f the b u r i a l s w i t h i n each s t a t u s group  are shown i n F i g . 6-5.  M u l t i p l e b u r i a l s (to be  s h o r t l y ) are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s f i g u r e . s t a t u s b u r i a l s are E9  (E45)  p r o p o s i t i o n i n Chapter 5 t h a t E45  a s o c i a l deviant 6.2.4.5.  groups c o n t a i n b u r i a l s w i t h s i d e  discussed  F i v e of the seven high  l o c a t e d i n the northern  c l u s t e r of b u r i a l s .  i s l o c a t e d i n the middle s e c t i o n of the cemetery and  i n the southern end. low  intermediate  None of the  low  The  b u r i a l s of high  intermediate  s t a t u s are l o c a t e d i n a l l areas o f the s t a t u s b u r i a l s are l o c a t e d i n the  s p a t i a l c l u s t e r , but  they are  l o c a t e d i n s e v e r a l other  s t a t u s b u r i a l s i s developing,  (1979) and  Pearson  (1981:1086).  as noted by Luo  and cemetery.  northern  I t appears t h a t a t r e n d towards the s p a t i a l s e g r e g a t i o n high  E102  and  areas. of Zhang  - 189 -  FIGURE 6-4. Age and sex composition o f the s t a t u s l e v e l s , Early Period b u r i a l s . (Body d i s p o s i t i o n s other than supine are marked below, as w e l l as c h i l d r e n . )  High Status Group:  .7 t o t a l  63, 59, 54, 12, 26, 102, 9 known male: 59, 9 known female: 102 r e l i a b l y estimated male: 63, 54, 12, 26 54 has no s k e l e t o n i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s : 26, 9, 54 High Intermediate  Status Group:  17 t o t a l  99, 34, 130, 118, 38, 32, 94, 132, 107, 76, 14, 67, 49, 129, 58, 78, 7 age: 1 c h i l d (94) known male: 99, 34, 10 7 known female: 130, 6 7, 7 f a i r estimated male: 129, 38, 118 f a i r estimated female: 49, 58 body d i s p o s i t i o n : 38 on r i g h t s i d e , 34 on l e f t s i d e i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s : 58, 32, 78, 129, 132 Low Intermediate  Status Group:  32 t o t a l  103, 87, 79, 131, 110, 109, 73, 106, 19, 23, 11, 53, 18, 65, 8, 115, 61, 55, 33, 30, 81, 66, 56, 112, 52, 108, 44, 42, 116, 101, 84, 6 known male: 109, 73, 112 r e l i a b l y estimated male: 103, 110, 106, 19, 11, 61, 66 f a i r e s t i m a t e d male: 81, 101, 79, 87, 53 known female: 131, 115, 55, 30 body d i s p o s i t i o n : 81, 52, 109 on l e f t s i d e 73, 84, 110 on r i g h t s i d e i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s : 23, 33, 30, 18, 44, 61 Low Status Group:  23 t o t a l  48, 120, 114, 90, 86, 71, 51, 43, 41, 36, 29, 97, 82, 80, 89, 88, 62, 45, 119, 27, 91, 21, 20 age: 3 c h i l d r e n (114, 36, 89) known male: 91 known female: 82 f a i r estimated male: 119, 27 body d i s p o s i t i o n : 45 prone, 9 7 on l e f t s i d e i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s : 62, 43, 71  - 190  -  FIGURE 6-5. L o c a t i o n of the four s t a t u s groups i n the E a r l y P e r i o d , i n terms of the s p a t i a l areas d e r i v e d i n Chapter 5. M u l t i p l e b u r i a l s are i n c l u d e d .  57  41  <8>  a * 5  40 I  I 46 t  I  128  126  tZU  EARLY  £k  HIGH S T A T U S  si  PERIOD BURIAL  INTERMEDIATE  EU  LATE  PERIOD BURIAL G3 ©  STATUS  6"  HIGH  UNDATABLE  INTERMEDIATE  LOW S T A T U S  BURIAL STATUS  - 191 -  6.2.4.6.  Test I m p l i c a t i o n s A s c r i b e d Status  f o r Achieved  versus  Status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among the E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s seems t o r e f l e c t aspects system.  Unfortunately,  o f both an achieved  and an a s c r i b e d  a c o n c l u s i v e t e s t o f whether s t a t u s  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s based upon age and sex o r whether i t c r o s s cuts age and sex c a t e g o r i e s cannot be made.  Even a f t e r  e s t i m a t i n g the sex of s e v e r a l b u r i a l s i n Chapter 4, a  chi-square  t e s t t o assess whether the d e r i v e d s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s are d i f f e r e n t from one another i n terms o f age and sex ( R o t h s c h i l d 1979)  i s hot p o s s i b l e due .to low sample s i z e o f sexed b u r i a l s . T h i r t y - f o u r o f the 75 s i n g l e a d u l t b u r i a l s i n the E a r l y  p e r i o d remain unsexed.  However, some i n s i g h t i n t o whether  s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c r o s s - c u t s age and sex c a t e g o r i e s o r not can be made by a v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of the age and sex groups w i t h i n each s t a t u s group I n c l u d i n g estimated contains  (see F i g . 6-4).  sexed b u r i a l s , the high s t a t u s group  s i x males and one female.  t i v e l y h i g h s t a t u s b u r i a l s are male f a c t may r e f l e c t an achieved  On the other hand, i t  I t i s conceivable  d i s k c o u l d be a marker o f a p a r t i c u l a r achieved  b u r i a l s with  status  (bl) i s a badge o f rank t h a t  symbolizes o n l y male high s t a t u s .  p o s s i b i l i t y i s not c o n s i d e r e d  This  differentiation  t o the h i g h e s t  B u r i a l 5 4 has no s k e l e t o n .  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the i v o r y d i s k  distinc-  (E26, 59, 54, 9 ) .  system of s t a t u s  because females may not have access positions.  However, the f o u r  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  t h a t the  status.  This  The two  the high s t a t u s raw m a t e r i a l o f elephant  ivory  - 192 -  are E26, a r e l i a b l y estimated male, and E59, a known male. ochre and animal  shaped pot i n E9 may r e f l e c t r i t u a l i s t i c  r a t h e r than s t a t u s based on wealth.  The status  However, t h i s b u r i a l i s  grouped w i t h the other high s t a t u s b u r i a l s i n terms o f grave goods. The one  high i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s l e v e l c o n t a i n s s i x males and  female.  The f a c t t h a t t h i s female and the female i n the  high s t a t u s group  (E102) are o f h i g h e r s t a t u s than  other  females i n the cemetery suggests  that status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  i n the E a r l y p e r i o d i s a s c r i b e d .  The b u r i a l i n t h i s s t a t u s  l e v e l with the jade huan i s o f unknown sex. The  low i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s group and the low s t a t u s group  c o n t a i n both males and females, The  sex composition  unclear.  suggestive o f a s c r i b e d s t a t u s .  o f the low s t a t u s group i s e s p e c i a l l y  The f a c t t h a t three o f the f o u r c h i l d r e n i n the E a r l y  p e r i o d are l o c a t e d i n t h i s c l u s t e r i s suggestive o f achieved status.  The f o u r t h c h i l d , E94, i s i n the high  s t a t u s group.  intermediate  T h i s f a c t o r i s suggestive of a s c r i b e d s t a t u s ,  as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t the b u r i a l has  a  grave form t h a t  r e p r e s e n t s the g r e a t e s t amount o f energy expenditure, tomb with second l e v e l p l a t f o r m .  A l s o , the l o g tomb i s type two,  which r e p r e s e n t s more energy expenditure tombs among the s i n g l e E a r l y b u r i a l s tomb i s not d e s c r i b e d i n every c a s e ) . are i n simple The  the l o g  than the other l o g  (although the type of l o g The other c h i l d  burials  pits.  s m a l l number o f c h i l d b u r i a l s i n the E a r l y p e r i o d  - 193  (4 out of 79)  i n h i b i t s a comparison of mortuary treatment of  c h i l d r e n versus adults. i n F i g . 6-1  -  The  p o s i t i o n o f E94  along Dimension 1  i s q u i t e f a r to the r i g h t , away from many high  status b u r i a l s .  A l s o , i f energy expenditure i n terms of grave  form does symbolize a s c r i b e d s t a t u s f o r E94,  there  should be  a  g r e a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of high s t a t u s i n terms o f grave goods  and  high  It  s t a t u s i n terms of grave form f o r the a d u l t b u r i a l s .  i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the grave form of E94 achieved The  s t a t u s of h i s or her  reflects  the  parents.  number o f i n d i v u d u a l b u r i a l s i n each s t a t u s  (including multiple burials) b a s i c a l l y indicates a pyramid, expected by many p r o c e s s u a l r e f l e c t ascribed ranking:  ranking  mortuary s t u d i e s to  e i g h t b u r i a l s i n the high  group, 17 i n the h i g h i n t e r m e d i a t e mediate group, and  level  2 4 i n the low  group, 36 i n the  s t a t u s group.  status low  It i s possible,  though, t h a t the presence of a ranking pyramid i s not t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n f o r a s c r i b e d s t a t u s i n every case. (1960:297) s t a t e s t h a t high  inter-  a reliable Suttles  status i n d i v i d u a l s i n Coastal S a l i s h  communities comprise the m a j o r i t y  of the p o p u l a t i o n ,  not  the  minority. 6.2.4.7.  Multiple Burials  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o compare the  s t a t u s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n  the s i x E a r l y p e r i o d m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s because the grave goods a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l are not apparent.  However, the  s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s o f the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s can be b r o a d l y  assessed.  My  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s t a t u s  differentia-  - 194  -  t i o n among the m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t elements of both achieved  and  the E a r l y p e r i o d . described  a s c r i b e d s o c i a l s t a t u s are represented  in  In F i g . A6-12, the m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s are  i n terms of the mortuary a t t r i b u t e s i n c l u d e d i n the  a n a l y s i s of the s i n g l e b u r i a l s . Grave 13 seems c l e a r l y a high  status b u r i a l , equivalent  the b u r i a l s i n the high s t a t u s group.  In terms of grave goods,  i t has many of the t r a i t s e x c l u s i v e to the high the h i g h e s t q u a n t i t y of p o t t e r y , one c y l i n d e r and  two  s t a t u s group:  elephant i v o r y  elephant i v o r y d i s k s .  where the g r e a t e s t q u a n t i t y  among the  to  carved  I t a l s o has  14 p i g  skulls,  single burials i s five.  Another d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e i s i t s l a r g e s i z e .  While the  •  2 areas of the other m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s range from 2.04 to 2.90m , 2 the area of grave 13 i s 6.46m . The l a r g e s t area of the s i n g l e 2 b u r i a l s i s 3.82m .  Even though two  area i s comparable t o the  bodies are i n E13,  l a r g e s i n g l e graves.  three.  burials.  The  i s supine. can be E31  l o g tomb  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , grave 13 i s l o c a t e d i n the  s p a t i a l c l u s t e r (see F i g . 6-5)  w i t h f i v e of the high  northern  status  body d i s p o s i t i o n of both i n d i v i d u a l s i n the  The  grave  Grave 13 i s a l s o  the only E a r l y p e r i o d grave w i t h the most e l a b o r a t e type,  the  grave  r e l a t i v e s t a t u s e s of the other m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s  t e n t a t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as f o l l o w s : the i n d i v i d u a l s i n  can be c o n s i d e r e d  as i n t e r m e d i a t e The  low  i n status;and  E28,  E69,  Elll,  and  E35  i n status.  r e l a t i v e statuses  of males and  b u r i a l s from Dawenkou C u l t u r e  females i n m u l t i p l e  s i t e s have r e c e i v e d much comment  i n the Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e  (Pearson 1981:1084-  - 195  1085).  Pearson  -  (1981:1084) e x p l a i n s t h a t E35  (and LI)  are  o f t e n c i t e d as i n d i c a t i n g low  s t a t u s of females i n comparison  to males because the m a j o r i t y  o f grave goods w i t h i n the  are p l a c e d on the in  s i d e of the male.  the s i t e r e p o r t a l s o show the m a j o r i t y  the male. Elll.  photos of E13  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the male i n E13  and  and  E35  than  i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  the elephant i v o r y carved  How-  l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of ceramics are p l a c e d over the head  of both the male and  female.  s i d e of the female.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine from the  The  photographs whether the males and b u r i e d at separate times or at one high s t a t u s items i n E13  p i g s k u l l s are p l a c e d on  the  females i n each grave were time.  The  a s s o c i a t i o n of  i s support f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y  the E a r l y p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t s  a system of achieved  status  It  differ-  Conclusions i s not p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i v e l y whether  s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s achieved  or a s c r i b e d , i n terms of  the t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t have been u t i l i z e d i n mortuary s t u d i e s .  The  Rothschild  s i m i l a r r e s u l t s at an A r c h a i c p e r i o d and period s i t e .  processual  E a r l y p e r i o d appears to have elements  of both types of s t a t u s systems.  (19 79:672) has  a Mississippian  Regardless of the d e s c r i p t i v e term a p p l i e d to  the E a r l y p e r i o d system of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  the  that  entiation. 6.4.2.8.  two  cylinder.  d i s k s are p l a c e d d i r e c t l y on the male's upper chest.  ever, the  Elll  of grave goods near  T h i s d i s p a r i t y i s more apparent i n E13  elephant i v o r y d i s k s and The  The  grave  ("ascribed"  or "achieved") the b u r i a l s are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o f o u r broad  - 196  -  s t a t u s l e v e l s on the b a s i s of grave goods.  Even though  the  placement of some b u r i a l s i n t o c e r t a i n l e v e l s i s debatable, the four l e v e l s are i n d i c a t e d by the r e s u l t s from both multidimensional  s c a l i n g and Ward's Method of c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s .  However, the lowest and h i g h e s t  s t a t u s l e v e l s on the b a s i s of  grave goods are the most c l e a r l y The  distinguished.  i n d i v i d u a l b u r i a l s i n s i x of the seven p a i r s of  i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s are not i n the same s t a t u s l e v e l A3-2  and  the  6-4).  (see F i g s .  Since each s t a t u s l e v e l i n c l u d e s some i n t r u s i v e  b u r i a l s w i t h i n the E a r l y p e r i o d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t none of the  four s t a t u s l e v e l s i s r e s t r i c t e d to one  p a r t of the E a r l y  period. I t i s not c l e a r why terms of grave form and grave goods.  the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f b u r i a l s i n grave s i z e d i f f e r s from t h a t based upon  Because some of the high or high  intermediate  s t a t u s b u r i a l s i n terms of grave goods a l s o have l o g tombs, second l e v e l p l a t f o r m s ,  or l a r g e graves and none of the  low  s t a t u s b u r i a l s have these t r a i t s , i t seems t h a t energy expendi t u r e r e f l e c t s s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n at l e a s t i n p a r t . Although elements of both an a s c r i b e d and of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n are present  and  ascribed status.  The d i s p a r i t y  q u a l i t y of grave goods i n the high  group i n comparison to the  low  status  s t a t u s group i s suggestive  However, the high s t a t u s group o n l y  e x c l u s i v e access t o a few  system  i n the Early, p e r i o d , I  propose t h a t an a s c r i b e d system i s more l i k e l y . i n the q u a n t i t y  achieved  artifact  forms or raw  has  materials.  of  - 197 Pearson  (1981:1086) proposes t h a t the presence o f stone orna-  ments i n male and female graves i s suggestive  o f ranking.  I  think the presence o f h a i r p i n s , r i n g s , and b r a c e l e t s i n male and female E a r l y graves c o u l d r e f l e c t ranking.  I think  that  the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f grave goods i n the h i g h and h i g h intermediate status.  s t a t u s groups by i t s e l f  of ascribed  My a n a l y s i s a l s o d e p i c t s a p a r t i a l s e g r e g a t i o n o f  wealthy graves. segregation  Pearson  ( i b i d ) s t a t e s t h a t l a c k of a complete  may i n d i c a t e l a c k o f a h e r e d i t a r y r u l i n g c l a s s .  Or, l a c k o f a complete segregation office  i s suggestive  may i n d i c a t e a c h i e f l y  (Pearson 1983:140).  Although e v o l u t i o n a r y t y p o l o g i e s such as those by F r i e d (1967) and S e r v i c e  (1975) are c o n t r o v e r s i a l (see Chapter 2 ) ,  they have u t i l i t y f o r d e s c r i p t i v e purposes.  The E a r l y p e r i o d  b u r i a l s may r e f l e c t a "ranked" s o c i e t y i n F r i e d ' s  (196 7) sense.  In Chapter 5, I argued t h a t a l l the b u r i a l s from both c o u l d r e f l e c t a descent group.  Fried  periods  (1967:116) s t a t e s t h a t  one o f the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a ranked s o c i e t y i s organi z a t i o n by k i n s h i p i n terms o f descent.  Members o f a ranked  s o c i e t y are r e l a t e d by descent u s u a l l y i n terms o f a l i n e a g e or c l a n  ( F r i e d 1967:125-126).  the nature of a r a n k e d . s o c i e t y  However, F r i e d does not d i s c u s s i n terms o f i t s mortuary  ritual.  One p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t the E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s represent conical clan i n Kirchhoff's communities  (1955) sense.  a  I argue t h a t N e o l i t h i c  c o u l d have kept a r e c o r d o f r e l a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s  t o p a r t i c u l a r ancestors  o f concern by l o c a t i o n o f graves i n  the same cemetery i n which the ancestors  o f concern are b u r i e d .  - 198 -  The  E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s c o u l d r e f l e c t a chiefdom i n  Service's  (1967) sense.  Service  (1967:79) i n c l u d e s the con-  cept o f c o n i c a l c l a n a f t e r K i r c h h o f f of chiefdom.  (1955) i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n  Peebles and Kus (1977:422) p o i n t out t h a t the  term "chiefdom" i n c l u d e s much v a r i a t i o n i n degree of s o c i o c u l t u r a l complexity.  Due t o the l a c k o f extreme d i f f e r e n t i a -  t i o n among the m a j o r i t y a simple chiefdom.  o f b u r i a l s , t h e E a r l y p e r i o d may r e f l e c t  I n d i v i d u a l s of h i g h r i t u a l i s t i c  are expected i n both the "ranked" (Peebles  standing  ( F r i e d 1967:137) and "chiefdom"  and Kus 1977:422) types o f s o c i e t i e s .  As d i s c u s s e d  p r e v i o u s l y , E9 may r e f l e c t r i t u a l i s t i c standing.  However, I  r e a l i z e now t h a t E9 i s probably dated t o the Late p e r i o d of the E a r l y  (see Chapter 3 ) . Even though t h i s b u r i a l may have  been i n c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d as E a r l y , I do not t h i n k my p r e t a t i o n o f the high s t a t u s group of b u r i a l s changes antly.  instead  inter-  signific-  I f E9 i s a Late p e r i o d b u r i a l , h i g h s t a t u s d u r i n g the  E a r l y p e r i o d i s not c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the animal shaped v e s s e l and  red ochre  r  b u t by the elephant i v o r y d i s k , comb and carved  c y l i n d e r , and the g r e a t e s t q u a n t i t y o f ceramic v e s s e l s . 6.3.  A n a l y s i s o f S t a t u s , Late  Period  6.3.1. Data 6.3.1.1. The M u l t i v a r i a t e Analyses Twenty-eight v a r i a b l e s r e f l e c t i n g grave goods and 32 s i n g l e b u r i a l s are i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses period.  The 32 b u r i a l s are l i s t e d i n F i g . A6-13.  f o r the Late Three o f  - 199 these b u r i a l s are d i s t u r b e d : L3, L46, and L77.  The 28 v a r i -  ables and t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s are l i s t e d i n F i g . A6-14. As i n the a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s f o r the E a r l y p e r i o d , ware and p a i n t e d ware are i n c l u d e d .  black-  A t h i r d type o f ware appears  i n t h e Late p e r i o d t h a t i s l i k e l y t o r e f l e c t h i g h s t a t u s , white ware.  The white ware v e s s e l s from Dawenkou are extremely  made and :. were f i r e d , at. high.temperatures  finely  (Shangraw 1977:386).  They are extremely b r i t t l e and were probably not used f o r u t i l i t a r i a n purposes  (Shangraw, p e r s o n a l  White ware i s found i n apparent high graves  ( L i C h i 1977:202).  the Shang s t a t e Dynasty  communication 1983).  s t a t u s Shang dynasty  The c o l o r white may have symbolized  (Chang 19 80:57) o r the s o u l d u r i n g  (Yu 1981:83).  a t t r i b u t e s i s given  the Han  The frequency o f occurrence o f mortuary  i n F i g . A6-14.  Four forms o f ceramic v e s s e l s are i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . The  wine v e s s e l , s e r v i n g stand  the b o t t l e  and t a l l  stemmed cup, but not  ( p i n g ) , occur i n E a r l y b u r i a l s as w e l l .  The appear-  ance o f the b o t t l e s from the photographs o f the s i t e  report,  as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t a few b u r i a l s c o n t a i n great q u a n t i t i e s , suggest they are high s t a t u s items. in The  The b o t t l e i s not coded  an a d d i t i v e manner because i t does not occur i n many b u r i a l s . s e r v i n g stand  t i v e manner.  and t a l l  stemmed cup are coded i n an a d d i -  The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s  coded i n an a d d i t i v e manner are i n F i g s . A6-15 t o A6-21. the Late p e r i o d there i s a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e the s e r v i n g stand  By  i n the frequency o f  i n b u r i a l s and a great i n c r e a s e  i n the  - 200  -  frequency and q u a n t i t y of the t a l l stemmed cup.  The t o t a l s o f  ceramic v e s s e l s i n c r e a s e a g r e a t d e a l by the Late p e r i o d as w e l l . The ornamental  forms i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s which are i n  the E a r l y p e r i o d a n a l y s i s are the r i n g , b r a c e l e t , h a i r p i n , t i e , , s m a l l round stone  hair-  (bong), and probable ornament p a r t s .  There i s an i n c r e a s e i n the frequency of occurrence of the b r a c e l e t by the Late p e r i o d .  No huan  (the s m a l l f l a t annular p i e c e  of  stone) occur i n the Late p e r i o d .  of  bone  Since the s m a l l f l a t p i e c e  (ban) i s i n o n l y one Late b u r i a l , i t must be  from the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s .  excluded  A d d i t i o n a l ornamental c a t e g o r i e s  i n the Late p e r i o d a n a l y s i s are the neck or head ornament and the horn z h u i (as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4, e i t h e r an ornament or a net w e i g h t ) .  In Chapter  5, I concluded the head and neck  ornaments are most l i k e l y female a r t i f a c t s and the z h u i , a male artifact. The a r t i f a c t forms with a d e c o r a t i v e f u n c t i o n which were i n the E a r l y p e r i o d a n a l y s i s are t u r t l e s h e l l , bone or horn spoon, and the carved c y l i n d e r .  The  l a t t e r a r t i f a c t type occurs  w i t h g r e a t e r frequency by the Late p e r i o d , i n both elephant i v o r y and bone. but s t i l l  appears  Jade occurs more f r e q u e n t l y i n the Late p e r i o d t o be a r e s t r i c t e d m a t e r i a l .  f o u r b u r i a l s i n f i v e forms: and spade.  The two  hairpin, bracelet, ring,  jade spades  chisel,  (chan) are unused and were  a p p a r e n t l y made f o r symbolic purposes may  I t occurs i n  (Gao 1978:33).  T h i s form  be a badge of rank. The remaining v a r i a b l e s were a l s o i n the E a r l y p e r i o d  analysis.  P i g s k u l l s do not occur as f r e q u e n t l y and there i s  - 201 l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the q u a n t i t i e s among b u r i a l s . teeth  The deer  ( a d d i t i v e l y coded) are p r e s e n t i n v a r y i n g q u a n t i t i e s .  Oyster s h e l l p i e c e s and o t h e r p i g p a r t s are i n c l u d e d .  Other  a d d i t i v e l y coded v a r i a b l e s are stone t o o l t o t a l , bone t o o l t o t a l , and raw m a t e r i a l p i e c e s . As i n the E a r l y p e r i o d s t a t u s a n a l y s i s , some o f the i n c l u d e d v a r i a b l e s are s l i g h t l y redundant. s l i g h t l y redundant a d d i t i v e l y coded  The three ware c o l o r s are  w i t h the f o u r ceramic forms, and the two  ceramic forms w i t h the t o t a l amount of v e s s e l s .  Upon r e t r o s p e c t , I b e l i e v e i n c l u s i o n of the category "jade" c r e a t e d more than a s l i g h t redundancy w i t h the h a i r p i n , and r i n g c a t e g o r i e s .  bracelet,  The b u r i a l s with both jade "present" and  e i t h e r o f the t h r e e ornamental  c a t e g o r i e s above a r e : L10  ( b r a c e l e t , r i n g ) , L25 ( h a i r p i n ) , and L117 ( h a i r p i n ) .  The  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the s t a t u s o f these b u r i a l s i s misrepresented by the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s i s c o n s i d e r e d i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , section.  Since the c h i s e l was i n c l u d e d i n the stone t o o l  totals,  the s t a t u s o f the b u r i a l w i t h both the c h i s e l and jade p r e s e n t (L4) should not be misrepresented. not i n c l u d e d i n the stone t o o l 6.3.1.2.  Energy  The unused jade spades were  totals.  Expenditure  The Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s t h a t have a grave form other than simple p i t are marked on F i g . A6-13.  S i x o f the seven l o g  tombs are type t h r e e , the type which r e f l e c t s the g r e a t e s t amount o f energy e x p e n d i t u r e .  The authors o f the s i t e r e p o r t  do not s t a t e the type o f the seventh l o g tomb, L10 4. i m p l i e d t h i s tomb i s e i t h e r  type one o r two.  Iti s  Only one o f the  - 202 -  seven E a r l y p e r i o d l o g tombs was a type The  three.  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f grave s i z e f o r the Late p e r i o d s i n g l e  b u r i a l s i s i n F i g . A6-22.  While two d i s t i n c t i o n s i n area o f  grave were noted f o r the E a r l y p e r i o d , three the Late. and  are apparent f o r  Three b u r i a l s are of l a r g e s i z e , nine o f medium  19 s m a l l .  size,  The area of one grave, L12 7, c o u l d not be c a l -  c u l a t e d due t o l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n  provided  i n the s i t e  report.  Due t o i t s s m a l l r e l a t i v e s i z e on the s i t e map, i t i s t e n t a t i v e l y c a l l e d a s m a l l b u r i a l f o r the purposes o f t h i s a n a l y s i s . The  l a r g e s i z e i s much l a r g e r than the l a r g e s t s i n g l e b u r i a l  i n the E a r l y p e r i o d period).  (13-15.00m  2  versus 3.82m  2  i n the E a r l y  A l s o the medium s i z e range i n the Late p e r i o d  encompasses the l a r g e s i z e o f the E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s (2.60-7.99m ). 2  6.3.1.3. The analyses are:  four a r t i f a c t  Unique Items forms excluded from the m u l t i v a r i a t e  t h a t are considered  probable unique, high s t a t u s  items  one elephant i v o r y comb ( i n L10), two s e m i - c i r c u l a r stone  pendants and  High Status  ( i n L72, huarig) , 84 p i e c e s o f a l l i g a t o r hide  turquoise  i n the form o f a necklace  ( i n L10),  ( i n L10) and i n l a i d i n  a bone carved  c y l i n d e r ( i n L4, d e s c r i b e d on pages 101-102 of  the r e p o r t ) .  In the western and Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  ture regarding  Dawenkou, the a l l i g a t o r hide  to as c r o c o d i l e hide.  litera-  i n L10 i s r e f e r r e d  However, the term A l l i g a t o r s i n e n s i s  (page 15 7 o f the r e p o r t )  r e f e r s t o a l l i g a t o r , not c r o c o d i l e .  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n genus and s p e c i e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t because the Chinese c r o c o d i l e probably ranged o n l y as f a r north  as the  - 203 -  southern  t i p o f China, while the Chinese a l l i g a t o r probably was  present i n the lower Yangtze R i v e r v a l l e y r e g i o n  (Campbell 1981:  37).  Inlaid  The source  area f o r t u r q u o i s e i s unknown.  items have been found i n Shang Dynasty graves Huang pendants o f jade have been found sites  turquoise  (Chang 19 80:345).  a t Shang and Zhou p e r i o d  (the Zu Hai d i c t i o n a r y 1978:315).  The huang form may be  a badge of rank d u r i n g the Late p e r i o d . 6.3.2.  Results:  The M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l S c a l i n g  Nine dimensions r e s u l t e d from the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l analysis. in  scaling  The f i r s t two accounted f o r 43.04% of the v a r i a b i l i t y  the data s e t - w i t h the f i r s t dimension accounting  and t h e second, 14.79%.  f o r 28.25%  The t h i r d and f o u r t h dimensions  accounted f o r 12.60% and 8.84% o f the v a r i a b i l i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Fig.  6-6 d e p i c t s the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s  when the f i r s t two dimensions are p l o t t e d t o g e t h e r .  L i k e the  E a r l y p e r i o d s c a l i n g r e s u l t s , Dimension 1 on F i g . 6-6 can be i n t e r p r e t e d as c l e a r l y r e f l e c t i n g s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . B u r i a l s on the f a r l e f t s i d e  (L10, L25, L117, L47) are i n t e r -  p r e t e d as h i g h e s t i n s t a t u s , those  i n the m i d s e c t i o n (the  m a j o r i t y ) as i n t e r m e d i a t e i n s t a t u s , and those a t the r i g h t end (L123, L93, L16, L122, L96, L15, L100, L46) r e l a t i v e l y status.  low i n  The i n f e r r e d h i g h , i n t e r m e d i a t e and low s t a t u s b u r i a l s  c o n t a i n the mortuary a t t r i b u t e s from F i g . A6-14 t h a t I expected from my e x p l o r a t o r y study of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t o r e f l e c t h i g h , i n t e r m e d i a t e and low s t a t u s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . not d e p i c t any sharp Dimension 1.  F i g . 6-6 does  s p a t i a l breaks between b u r i a l s  The high s t a t u s b u r i a l s  along  (L25, L10, L117, L47)  - 204 FIGURE 6-6. M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g p l o t o f Late P e r i o d b u r i a l s i n the a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s , w i t h c l u s t e r s from Ward*s Method.  large  in  area  (3)  43  disturbed  burial  (3)  medium in a r e a  (9)  43  controversial  small  (20)  7  youth  la  no s k e l e t o n  43  high s t a t u s , unique objects  log  in  area  tomb  (7)  second  level  Note: C l u s t e r s 1-8  platform  (5)  from Ward s Method eight group solution are c i r c l e d .  the same; grouped together are C l u s t e r s 2 - 5 logether  are  C l u s t e r s 1-5  and C l u s t e r s  ond C l u s t e r s 6 - 8 .  6-8.  former Middle B u r i a l  (I)  (I) (3) (3)  In the three group solution Clusler I is  In the two group solution grouped  - 205  -  are most c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  I t appears t h a t s t a t u s  t i n c t i o n s among most b u r i a l s are gradual  dis-  and not abrupt.  Unlike  the E a r l y p e r i o d r e s u l t s , a group of low s t a t u s b u r i a l s i s not distinguished.  The  low percentage of v a r i a b i l i t y e x p l a i n e d  Dimension 1 may  be due  t o the  by  low number of a t t r i b u t e s i n common  among the Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s , as i n the E a r l y p e r i o d . The  dimension of v a r i a b i l i t y e x p l a i n e d by Dimension 2 i s  not apparent.  Assessment of the mortuary a t t r i b u t e s of b u r i a l s  along Dimension 2 does not i n d i c a t e t h a t Dimension 2 r e f l e c t s status d i s t i n c t i o n s . f o r both the E a r l y and  In the a n a l y s i s of s t a t u s  differentiation  Late p e r i o d s , I do not attempt to i n t e r p -  r e t dimensions three and  f o u r due  to time l i m i t a t i o n s , the  t h a t Dimension 1 seems to c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s t a t u s  distinctions,  and the f a c t t h a t there i s f a i r l y good agreement i n the d i s t i n c t i o n s e x h i b i t e d by the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  fact  status  s c a l i n g and  cluster analysis. 6.3.3.  The  Three Types of C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s  Once again,  the dendrogram from Ward's Method b e s t  s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s among the b u r i a l s . upon assessment o f the composition  reflects  T h i s judgement i s based  of each b u r i a l i n terms of  the mortuary a t t r i b u t e s w i t h i n the c l u s t e r s at v a r y i n g  distance  l e v e l s and  explor-  from my  a p r i o r i expectations  based upon my  a t o r y assessment of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . from the Complete Linkage and Average Linkage  The dendrograms techniques  e x h i b i t some of the p r o p e r t i e s t h a t were encountered i n the dendrograms of the E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s .  Again, the  average  -  -  206  Linkage dendrogram compares b e t t e r w i t h the Ward's dendrogram. The  Ward's dendrogram i s presented i n F i g . The  c l u s t e r s from four d i s t a n c e  dendrogram can be among b u r i a l s :  6-7.  l e v e l s i n the Ward's  i n t e r p r e t e d as e x h i b i t i n g s t a t u s  the e i g h t group s o l u t i o n at the  l e v e l , the three  group s o l u t i o n at 0.9813, and  relationships  0.6209 the two  distance group  s o l u t i o n at 1.0018. The  a t t r i b u t e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the e i g h t c l u s t e r s are  shown i n F i g . A6-23.  At f i r s t ,  the e i g h t c l u s t e r s appeared  d i s t i n c t i n terms o f composition of mortuary a t t r i b u t e s seemed to meet my  expectations  However, the t h r e e the  and  two  from my  exploratory  and  study.  group s o l u t i o n s suggest t h a t some of  s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d by the e i g h t group s o l u t i o n  are not s i g n i f i c a n t . C l u s t e r one in  status  contain  and  contains  d i s t i n c t from o t h e r c l u s t e r s .  white ware, and b u r i a l s t h a t may L25,  and  These b u r i a l s  stone t o o l s .  They a l s o c o n t a i n  a v a r i e t y of ornamental types.  The  However, the  three  f a c t t h a t these b u r i a l s are  s e v e r a l a t t r i b u t e s as w e l l as jade and  ornaments i n d i c a t e s the s t a t u s o f these b u r i a l s may been o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses. are a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the presence of high  unique items.  jade,  have been m i s r e p r e s e n t e d are i n t h i s c l u s t e r :  L117.  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  L117  high  g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s of ceramics, t a l l stemmed cups, s e r v i n g  stands, and bone and  L10,  f o u r b u r i a l s t h a t are c l e a r l y  jade  not have L10  and  status  - 207 FIGURE 6-7.  Dendrogram of Late P e r i o d b u r i a l s , Ward's Method.  I  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  I  -L2 -L5 -L64 -L77 -L127 -L104 -L105 -L121 L15 L100 -L46 -L96 -L16 -L122 -L93 -L123 -L124 -L3 -L72 -L24  Cluster 8  Cluster 7  Cluster 6  Cluster 5 Cluster 4  -L60  i o  -L22 -L75 -L98 -L4 -L125 -L17 -L10 -L25 -L47 -L117 l  I  n  rH  i-t  iH  rH  I  l  c o r * - u " i  c  l  s  O  rH  rH  d i s t a n c e  I o  o O  I r  ^ O  I  l  m  *y  O  O  I  l c  s O  o O  Cluster 3  Cluster 2  Cluster 1  - 208  C l u s t e r two  -  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the  bone t o o l s , stone t o o l s , and  raw  largest quantity  material.  Cluster 4 i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by white ware, great q u a n t i t i e s of s e r v i n g and  a few  ornament types.  ware, the medium q u a n t i t y other ornaments.  of  stands,  C l u s t e r 5 i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by white of ceramics, and  Although c l u s t e r s 2,  the necklace  4, and  and  5 are d i s t i n c t i n  terms of mortuary a t t r i b u t e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o judge whether one  c l u s t e r represents  7, and  h i g h e r s t a t u s than another.  contain  a few  i n status.  ornament types and  and  bone or stone t o o l s , and  are  utilitarian. In the three  few  group s o l u t i o n  B u r i a l s i n these c l u s t e r s  decorative  appears lowest i n s t a t u s , w i t h the  The  items.  other a r t i f a c t s , most of which  (see F i g . 6-7),  the  highest  c l u s t e r (1) of the e i g h t group s o l u t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  c l u s t e r s I had  c l u s t e r s 2, two  3,  i n t e r p r e t e d as i n t e r m e d i a t e  4, 5, and  and  c l u s t e r s 6,  Clusters  1, 2,  s o l u t i o n are grouped t o g e t h e r and The  7,  low  i n status  differently:  8, are grouped  together.  group s o l u t i o n i s a c l e a r n a t u r a l break i n the  gram i n F i g . 6-7.  c l u s t e r s 6,  7, and  8.  There i s a f a i r l y good agreement i n the  of b u r i a l s by both the s c a l i n g and ( f o r the three  dendro-  3, 4, 5, of the e i g h t group  c l u s t e r s from Ward's e i g h t group s o l u t i o n are  on F i g . 6-6.  cluster  Cluster 6  lowest q u a n t i t i e s of ceramics  from the e i g h t group s o l u t i o n are grouped s l i g h t l y  The  3,  8 appear d i s t i n c t i n terms of mortuary a t t r i b u t e s but  a l l appear t h i r d h i g h e s t  status  Clusters  clustering.  The  plotted ordering  high  status  group s o l u t i o n s as w e l l ) i s l o c a t e d  at  - 209  the  l e f t end  interpreted  o f the p l o t .  r i g h t end  interpreted the  2, one  The  low  of the p l o t .  status The  of the  7, and  8, are  c l u s t e r , 6,  (4 and  between c l u s t e r s  c l u s t e r 6 along Dimension 1,  as  previously  The  clusters  status  4, and  group s o l u t i o n s  of Ward's Method and  The  c l u s t e r i n the  guished on  the  scaling plot.  do not match w e l l w i t h the the  two  the  level,  5  and  three and  two  s c a l i n g p l o t i n Fig.6-6.  three group s o l u t i o n i s d i s t i n However, the  other two  scaling results.  group s o l u t i o n do not  in  expected.  However, there i s l e s s agreement between the  high status  located  located  2.  2,  is  to  5) are  to r e p r e s e n t another low  located  adjacent  clusters also  as next h i g h e s t i n s t a t u s  interpreted  clusters  i s located  same area along Dimension 1 as C l u s t e r  previously 3,  Cluster  as next h i g h e s t i n s t a t u s ,  c l u s t e r 1 on the p l o t . at the  -  The  agree w e l l w i t h the  clusters  clusters scaling  from results  either. 6.3.4.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Status D i s t i n c t i o n s In the Late p e r i o d and Assessment of Change through Time  6.3.4.1. The  D i s t r i b u t i o n of the  correspondence between s t a t u s  r e f l e c t e d by  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as  grave goods i n the m u l t i v a r i a t e  probable h i g h s t a t u s , among the  Unique Items  Early period  unique o b j e c t s i s not burials.  i n c l u s t e r s other than the i d e n t i f i e d highest status  Some of the  highest status group  (Cluster  analyses and as good as  that  o b j e c t s are  grouping.  The  1) i n F i g . 6-6  the  found clearly contains  - 210  only one  -  of the t h r e e b u r i a l s with the probable  unique o b j e c t s .  high s t a t u s  However, the b u r i a l i n q u e s t i o n , L10,  three of the high s t a t u s o b j e c t s .  contains  T h i s b u r i a l i s shown on  the  s c a l i n g p l o t as the b u r i a l of h i g h e s t s t a t u s i n C l u s t e r 1. s t a t u s of L10 may  be exaggerated due  jade b r a c e l e t , and  a jade r i n g .  The  to i t s presence of jade, a s t a t u s of L25  and L117  not be as exaggerated because they each c o n t a i n two c a t e g o r i e s i n s t e a d of three the elephant necklace.  (jade and the h a i r p i n ) .  l o c a t e d i n C l u s t e r 2 ( F i g . 6-6)  c y l i n d e r i n l a i d with t u r q u o i s e . pendants, i s i n C l u s t e r 5.  may  redundant L10  i v o r y comb, the a l l i g a t o r h i d e , and the  L4,  The  contains  turquoise  c o n t a i n s the bone  L72, with the two  Ward's C l u s t e r s 2 and  huang 5 were i n t e r -  p r e t e d as next h i g h e s t i n s t a t u s . 6.3.4.2.  Argument f>6r Three or Two  Status  Levels  I t i s even more d i f f i c u l t t o i n f e r an approximate number of s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s based upon wealth  i n terms o f grave goods  f o r the L a t e r p e r i o d b u r i a l s than among the E a r l y .  The  differ-  ences i n s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s as i n d i c a t e d by Ward's e i g h t , three and two and  group s o l u t i o n s , the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the probable  suggest  scaling  results,  high s t a t u s unique o b j e c t s  t h a t many b u r i a l s are not d i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i n  s t a t u s i n terms of grave goods from one e i t h e r three or two grave goods may period b u r i a l s .  another.  I i n f e r that  s t a t u s l e v e l s based upon wealth  be argued as being represented However, the composition  i n terms of  among the  Late  of these s t a t u s l e v e l s  i n terms o f b u r i a l s i s open to some debate.  -  The  b u r i a l s i n Ward's C l u s t e r  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d distinguished solutions status Fig.  211 -  the highest  I originally  i n L10.  l e v e l because they are and t h r e e  group  I argue t h a t  attributes.  Clusters  the next highest  high  2, 4, 5, on status  level.  i n t e r p r e t e d t h e s e c l u s t e r s as d i s t i n c t , b u t  roughly equivalent  i n status  Ward's t h r e e  3, 4, and 5 t o g e t h e r .  on t h e b a s i s  o f t h e i r mortuary  group s o l u t i o n d e p i c t s  The m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  Clusters  scaling plot  2, depicts  2, 4, and 5 as i n t h e same a r e a a l o n g D i m e n s i o n 1 w i t h 3 clearly  multidimensional  separated  Clusters  I conclude that the the status  b u r i a l s more r e l i a b l y  2 and 5 c o n t a i n  objects.  f r o m them.  scaling plot depicts  among t h e L a t e p e r i o d Clusters  status  f r o m t h e Ward's d e n d r o g r a m and by t h e p r o b a b l e  6-6 s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  Cluster  (L10, L 2 5 , L 1 1 7 , L47)  on t h e s c a l i n g p l o t by t h e e i g h t  objects  Clusters  1  t h a n Ward's Method.  the other probable high  2, 4, and 5 a r e l o c a t e d  relationships  status,  adjacent  unique  to Cluster  1 on t h e s c a l i n g p l o t . I i n t e r p r e t the b u r i a l s i n Clusters Fig.  6-6  as r e p r e s e n t i n g  originally  a low s t a t u s  j u d g e d as d i s t i n c t  8, 3, 7, and 6 i n  level.  Cluster  i n terms o f mortuary a t t r i b u t e s .  However, many o f t h e b u r i a l s i n C l u s t e r  6 are located  same a r e a a l o n g D i m e n s i o n 1 as b u r i a l s i n C l u s t e r Also, and  Clusters  two g r o u p It  i n the  7 and 3.  6, 7, and 8 a r e g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r i n Ward's  three  solutions.  i s possible  with Clusters  6 was  that  Cluster  1 s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  2, 4, and 5 t o f o r m one s t a t u s  level  grouped  and C l u s t e r s  - 212 8, 7, 3, and 6 t o form another.  Three o f the four b u r i a l s  i n C l u s t e r 1 c o n t a i n the redundant c a t e g o r i e s A l s o , the c l e a r l y d e p i c t e d  (L10, L25, L117).  two group s o l u t i o n i n the Ward's  dendrogram groups C l u s t e r 1 w i t h 2, 4, and 5. The  mortuary a t t r i b u t e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e the three  l e v e l s are d e p i c t e d  i n F i g . 6-8.  In the E a r l y p e r i o d ,  status  high  s t a t u s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x c l u s i v e access t o only a few artifact  forms and raw m a t e r i a l s .  The d i f f e r e n c e s between the  s t a t u s l e v e l s are mainly q u a n t i t a t i v e , not q u a l i t a t i v e . In the h i g h  s t a t u s group, b u r i a l 10 i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n  terms o f i t s q u a n t i t y of b o t t l e s  (38 versus 4 o r 5 f o r the other  b u r i a l s i n t h i s s t a t u s l e v e l ) and q u a n t i t y o f ceramics (the highest  i n the cemetery: 9 3).  ceramics i s 71, i n L126.  The next h i g h e s t q u a n t i t y o f  B u r i a l s L10 and L117 each  contain  the unused jade chan spade, t h e p o s s i b l e badge o f s t a t u s . mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , L10 a l s o contains turquoise  necklace and a l l i g a t o r  As  the elephant i v o r y comb,  hide.  B u r i a l L126 i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d among the b u r i a l s o f i n t e r mediate s t a t u s . very  c l o s e t o t h e b u r i a l s i n the h i g h e s t  contains L72  The p o s i t i o n of L126 i n the s c a l i n g p l o t i s  the second h i g h e s t q u a n t i t y o f b o t t l e s : 26.  w i t h the stone pendants  turquoise  s t a t u s group.  L126 Burial  (huang) and L4 w i t h the i n l a i d  are i n t h i s s t a t u s group.  The d i s t u r b e d b u r i a l s i n  the low s t a t u s group are L77 and L46.  L77 c o n t a i n s  an item  found o n l y i n one other b u r i a l , m u l t i p l e b u r i a l L I , s i x end p i e c e s o f arrows.  I t i s p o s s i b l e the arrows symbolize a s p e c i f i c  s t a t u s and t h a t L77 i s a high  s t a t u s i n d i v i d u a l as the authors  - 213 FIGURE 6-8. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Three Status Late p e r i o d .  high status (4 b u r i a l s ) +  intermediate status (8 b u r i a l s )  % of t o t . +  Levels,  low s t a t u s (20 b u r i a l s )  % of t o t . +  % of t o t .  white ware  4  40.0  4  40. 0  2  20.0  b l a c k ware  4  26. 7  4  26. 7  7  46.7  p a i n t e d ware  2  33. 3  3  50.0  1  16. 7  wine  1  10.0  2  20.0  7  70.0  vessel  serving  stand 0  1  8.3  2  16.7  9  75. 0  serving  stand 1  0  0  4  28.6  10  71.4  serving  stand  3  50.0  2  33.3  1  16.7  bottle  3  42.9  2  28.6  2  28.6  t a l l stemmed cup 0  0  0  1  7.1  13  92.9  t a l l stemmed cup 1-6  1  6.7  7  46.7  7  46. 7  3  100.0  0  0  0  t o t a l pots 1-13  0  0  2  10.0  18  90.0  t o t a l pots 16-21  0  0  4  66. 7  2  33.3  jade  3  75. 0  1  25.0  0  0  bone c y l i n d e r  3  50.0  2  33.3  1  16. 7  ivory  2  40.0  2  40.0  1  20.0  1  33. 3  0  0  2  66.7  ring  2  40.0  2  40.0  1  20.0  bracelet  4  33.3  2  16.7  6  50.0  hairpin  4  50.0  2  25.0  2  25.0  spoon  1  20.0  1  20.0  3  60.0  stone t o o l t o t a l 0  1  7.1  3  21.4  10  71.4  stone t o o l 1-3  total  2  15. 4  2  15.4  9  69.2  stone t o o l 5-19  total  1  20.0  3  60.0  1  20.0  tall  2-12  stemmed cup 14-16  cylinder  turtle  shell  0  Cont'd.. .  - 214 FIGURE 6-8  continued  high status (4 b u r i a l s ) +  intermediate status (8 b u r i a l s )  % of t o t . +  low s t a t u s (20 b u r i a l s )  .%. of t o t . +  % of t o t  bone t o o l  total 0  3  17.6  3  17.6  11  64. 7  bone t o o l  t o t a l 1-6  0  0  2  18.2  9  81. 8  bone t o o l t o t a l 10-27  1  25. 0  3  75.0  0  hair t i e  2  20. 0  1  10. 0  7  70. 0  neck or head ornament  2  40.0  2  40.0  1  20.0  zhu"i  1  25.0  2  50.0  1  25.0  ornament p a r t  1  33. 3  1  33. 3  1  33. 3  bing  0  0  2  66. 7  1  33. 3  skulls  3  42.9  2  28.6  2  28.6  other p i g parts  2  22.2  4  44. 4  3  33.3  deer t e e t h 0  1  16.7  2  33. 3  3  50.0  deer t e e t h  1-2  1  5.0  5  25.0  14  70.0  deer t e e t h  3-5  2  33.3  1  16.7  3  50.0  raw m a t e r i a l 0  4  15.4  2  7.7  20  76.9  raw m a t e r i a l 1  0  0  3  100.0  0  0  raw m a t e r i a l 11-•26  0  0  3  100.0  0  0  oyster  0  0  2  40.0  3  60.0  pig  shell  0  - 215 of  the s i t e r e p o r t B u r i a l s L125,  -  suggest. L17,  L4 and L72  a l s o c o n t a i n items  i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s .  B u r i a l L17  three jaw bones of the genus F e l i s , L125 bones ,  page 27 o f the r e p o r t ) , and L72 bone  contains  c o n t a i n s two  L4 c o n t a i n s some g r a i n s of sand  not  deer l e g  (sha li.) , (from  has the s m a l l f l a t p i e c e of  (ban). The high s t a t u s l e v e l i s not c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x c l u s i v e  access to any  forms of m a t e r i a l except  and the elephant  i v o r y comb.  The  t h i s l e v e l i s a l l i g a t o r hide. in  the unused jade spade  only raw m a t e r i a l e x c l u s i v e t o  The  o n l y form of a r t i f a c t  the g r e a t e s t q u a n t i t y i s the t a l l stemmed cup.  present  Even i f the  two  s t a t u s l e v e l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s accepted  and  i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s l e v e l s , above), t h e r e are s t i l l only a  few a r t i f a c t  forms, raw m a t e r i a l s , or q u a n t i t i e s of  e x c l u s i v e to the high s t a t u s l e v e l : ceramics,  (combining  tall  stemmed cup,  the high  artifacts  the g r e a t e s t q u a n t i t y of  and raw m a t e r i a l p i e c e s ;  presence of jade, t u r q u o i s e , a l l i g a t o r h i d e ;  the  the elephant i v o r y  comb, the unused jade spade, and the stone pendant  (huang).  Many of the p o t e n t i a l high s t a t u s forms, m a t e r i a l s , or g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s of a r t i f a c t s are found  i n b u r i a l s of the low  status  c l u s t e r , such as white ware, b l a c k ware, p a i n t e d ware, g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f the s e r v i n g stand, h a i r p i n s , head or neck ornament, and the elephant in  i v o r y carved c y l i n d e r .  The  low s t a t u s b u r i a l s  the E a r l y p e r i o d were much more c l e a r l y s e t a p a r t from other  b u r i a l s i n terms of grave goods.  - 216  6.3.4.3.  -  D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by Energy  Expenditure  There i s a change from the E a r l y p e r i o d to the Late i n terms of correspondence i n s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n based upon grave goods with t h a t based upon energy expenditure.  There i s  a b e t t e r correspondence i n the Late p e r i o d than i n the E a r l y , as expected Pearson  from my  e x p l o r a t o r y study of the cemetery and  (1981:1082).  by  In the h i g h s t a t u s l e v e l , t h r e e of the  f o u r b u r i a l s c o n t a i n l o g tombs with second l e v e l p l a t f o r m s . The  fourth b u r i a l  multidimensional  (L47) has the l o g tomb but no p l a t f o r m .  The  s c a l i n g s o l u t i o n d e p i c t s t h i s b u r i a l as b e i n g  s l i g h t l y lower i n s t a t u s than the other three b u r i a l s of t h i s status l e v e l .  In the i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s l e v e l , there are  more b u r i a l s w i t h l o g tombs.  two  A l l the l o g tombs i n the h i g h  and  i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t u s l e v e l s are type t h r e e , the most e l a b o r a t e . The  l a s t l o g tomb i s i n L104.  one  o r two.  T h i s l o g tomb i s probably  L10 4 i s i n the low s t a t u s l e v e l .  However, L10 4  a l s o has a second l e v e l p l a t f o r m u n l i k e b u r i a l s L47, L126  type  L60,  and  which are l o c a t e d i n h i g h e r s t a t u s l e v e l s i n terms o f grave  goods.  The  l a s t b u r i a l w i t h a second l e v e l p l a t f o r m i s L9 8, i n  the low s t a t u s l e v e l .  Thus, two  b u r i a l s i d e n t i f i e d as low i n  s t a t u s i n terms of grave goods have grave forms other than simple p i t .  None o f the E a r l y p e r i o d b u r i a l s i d e n t i f i e d as  s t a t u s have l o g tombs or second l e v e l  the low  platforms.  As i n the E a r l y p e r i o d , the c o r r e l a t i o n between s t a t u s i n terms o f grave s i z e and s t a t u s i n terms of grave goods i s not strong.  The  t h r e e l a r g e graves  and i n t e r m e d i a t e  levels.  (L10, L60,  L126)  are i n the high  Three of the nine medium-sized  graves  - 217  are l o c a t e d group.  energy  are i n the  a t l e a s t one  expenditure  The L126)  i n t h e h i g h s t a t u s g r o u p and  Four  l e v e l has  low  b u r i a l w i t h an  than  three b u r i a l s  b e c a u s e i t has  the  amount o f e n e r g y  are  expenditure  level platform).  energy  grave  second  l e v e l p l a t f o r m ; L47  second  level platform.  forms:  large  grave  form  second  that  L117, has  The  the E a r l y ,  each  status  r e p r e s e n t s more  and the  i s better  (L10, L60,  G r a v e L10  and  is distinct  represents the g r e a t e s t l o g tomb w i t h  o f medium s i z e have h i g h -  L104  have t h e  l o g tomb; and  h i g h and  by . t h e above b u r i a l s .  expenditure  i n size  (the t y p e t h r e e  low  I n sum,  e n c e between s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n energy  intermediate  Thus, e v e r y  area that  forms.  Five burials  L25,  i n the  norm.  that  the grave  two  status level.  a l s o have h i g h - e n e r g y  sented  -  l o g tomb L98  has  status levels although  based  the  upon g r a v e  a  are r e p r e -  correspondgoods  among t h e L a t e p e r i o d b u r i a l s  could symbolize  a different  and  and than  aspect of status  differentiation. 6.3.4.4. The are  Body D i s p o s i t i o n  on  s t a t u s group.  females  estimated by  F i g . 6-9,  The  o n l y two  as w e l l  the  as age  b u r i a l s with  s i d e s are i n the h i g h s t a t u s l e v e l .  t h e male y o u t h , status  Grave L o c a t i o n  body d i s p o s i t i o n s o t h e r t h a n  indicated  their  and  and  L25,  in this  female)  a reliably  status level  have t h e  the Late p e r i o d , the  common s u p i n e and  sex d a t a  f o r each  skeletons lying These b u r i a l s  e s t i m a t e d male. (L10  position  and  L47,  s u p i n e body p o s i t i o n .  s i d e body p o s i t i o n was  a  The  on are  L117,  high  reliably  I t seems  that  reserved for high  - 218 -  F I G U R E 6-9. Age and sex composition o f the three s t a t u s l e v e l Late P e r i o d . (Body d i s p o s i t i o n o t h e r than supine i s marked below, as w e l l as the one subadult b u r i a l . ) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the one Late P e r i o d m u l t i p l e b u r i a l are i n c l u d e d .  High Status Group:  4 total  25, 10, 117, 47 1 youth: 117 known male: 117 known female: 10 r e l i a b l y estimated male: 25 f a i r estimated female: 4 7 body d i s p o s i t i o n : 25 on r i g h t s i d e 117 on l e f t s i d e Intermediate  Status Group:  8 total  126, 60, 24, 17, 125, 4, 3, 72 no s k e l e t o n : 60, 124 known male: 125 known female: 72 r e l i a b l y estimated male: 17, 4, 126, 24 f a i r estimated female: 3 Low Status Group:  20 t o t a l  127, 77, 5, 2, 64, 98, 75, 22, 121, 105, 104, 12 16, 122, 123, 93, 15, 100, 96, 46 no s k e l e t o n : 12 7 known male: 12 3, 122, 15 known female: 121, 105 f a i r estimated male: 124, 75, 22, 98, 77 f a i r e s t i m a t e d female: 5 i n t r u s i v e b u r i a l s : 123, 124 Multiple burial LI:  (1 male, 1 female) p i t , medium-sized  white ware, blackware, 1-13 p o t s , 1-6 t a l l stemmed cups 1 s e r v i n g stand, t u r t l e s h e l l , h a i r p i n , arrow remnants as i n L77, 5-19 stone t o o l s , 10-27 bone t o o l s , 8 deer t e e t h , probable ornament p a r t s ( i n c l u d i n g one jade t u b u l a r bead), 1 bone ban, 5 raw m a t e r i a l p i e c e s Judged as i n t e r m e d i a t e i n s t a t u s .  - 219 -  r a n k i n g males.  In the E a r l y p e r i o d , the b u r i a l s with the s i d e  body p o s i t i o n are i n a v a r i e t y o f s t a t u s The  levels.  s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n o f b u r i a l s i n each o f the three  l e v e l s i s shown i n . F i g . 6-10.  U n l i k e the s p a t i a l  status  patterning  i n the E a r l y p e r i o d , the h i g h s t a t u s b u r i a l s i n the Late  period  (status l e v e l one) are l o c a t e d i n a l l areas o f the cemetery. The  northern  level.  area o n l y c o n t a i n s one b u r i a l o f the h i g h  status  I f the two s t a t u s l e v e l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s accepted, the  m a j o r i t y o f high s t a t u s b u r i a l s are l o c a t e d i n a l l areas o f the cemetery as w e l l . 6.3.4.5.  Test  Implications  As i n the a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s i n the E a r l y p e r i o d , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i v e l y whether s t a t u s  differentia-  t i o n c r o s s - c u t s age and sex c a t e g o r i e s t o i n d i c a t e a s c r i b e d status.  There i s o n l y one subadult  i n the Late p e r i o d and a  m i n o r i t y o f b u r i a l s f o r which sex i s known o r estimated. age  and sex composition  l e v e l s i s i n F i g . 6-9.  o f the b u r i a l s i n the three  The  status  However, the c l e a r h i g h s t a t u s o f the  male youth, L117, allows the p r o p o s i t i o n t o be made t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the Late p e r i o d i s a s c r i b e d .  status  L117 i s more  c l e a r l y o f h i g h s t a t u s than the c h i l d i n the E a r l y p e r i o d , E9 4. L117  i s i n the h i g h s t a t u s group and contains the p o s s i b l e badge  of s t a t u s , the unused jade chan. female a d u l t b u r i a l L10.  The jade spade i s a l s o i n the  L117 i s a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d from some  a d u l t b u r i a l s i n terms o f grave form  (the type three  l o g tomb  - 220  -  FIGURE 6-10. L o c a t i o n of the three s t a t u s groups i n the cemetery, Late P e r i o d , i n terms of the s p a t i a l areas d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 5, the one m u l t i p l e b u r i a l included.  CD  EARLY  PERIOD BURIAL  A\  HIGH S T A T U S  EU  LATE  P E R I O D B U R I A L £3  (72)  INTERMEDIATE STATUS  64  UNDATABLE LOW S T A T U S  BURIAL  - 221 and second l e v e l p l a t f o r m ) and a medium grave s i z e .  It i s  p o s s i b l e t h a t the s t a t u s o f L117 i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s p a r e n t s ' position.  I do not think t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s l i k e l y g i v e n the  d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f L117's s t a t u s p o s i t i o n among the other Late period b u r i a l s . I t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c r o s s c u t s sex c a t e g o r i e s t o a g r e a t e r degree i n the Late p e r i o d than i n the Early.  Both male and female b u r i a l s are i n the h i g h s t a t u s  level.  L10, a known female, was d e s c r i b e d as c o n s i s t e n t l y  dis-  t i n g u i s h e d from the o t h e r b u r i a l s i n the h i g h s t a t u s l e v e l by both grave goods and energy e x p e n d i t u r e . of h i g h e s t s t a t u s i n the Late p e r i o d .  I t may be the b u r i a l  Male and female b u r i a l s  are i n each o f the other two s t a t u s l e v e l s .  The known female  L72 has the stone pendant, another p o s s i b l e badge o f s t a t u s . Both male and female b u r i a l s have grave forms and grave  sizes  t h a t r e p r e s e n t a g r e a t e r than average amount o f energy expenditure.  F i g . 6-9 suggests t h a t a r a n k i n g pyramid i s r e p r e s e n t e d  among the Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s .  The d i f f e r e n c e between the rank  l e v e l s , however, i s not g r e a t . The grave goods, grave form and grave s i z e of the one m u l t i p l e b u r i a l i n the Late p e r i o d , L I , i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . 6 - 9 . Due t o the presence o f jade i n the b u r i a l , L l can probably be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as s i m i l a r i n s t a t u s t o the b u r i a l s i n the i n t e r mediate s t a t u s l e v e l .  As i n the m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s from the E a r l y  p e r i o d , i t appears the s t a t u s of the female i s lower than t h a t of the male because the m a j o r i t y o f grave goods are p l a c e d by  - 222 -  the male. higher  However, other  females i n the Late p e r i o d are clearly-  i n s t a t u s than some males.  There i s o n l y one i n t r u s i v e p a i r o f b u r i a l s w i t h i n the Late p e r i o d , L123 and L124.  Both b u r i a l s are i n the low s t a t u s group.  Due t o the l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n  regarding  time r e l a t i o n s h i p s  w i t h i n the Late p e r i o d , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o judge whether the three  s t a t u s l e v e l s e x i s t e d throughout the d u r a t i o n o f the  period. 6.3.4.6.  Conclusions  In the Late p e r i o d as w e l l as the E a r l y , h i g h s t a t u s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x c l u s i v e access t o o n l y a few a r t i f a c t raw  m a t e r i a l s , o r great q u a n t i t i e s o f o b j e c t s .  The elephant  i v o r y comb symbolizes high s t a t u s i n both p e r i o d s . other  forms,  However,  forms symbolic o f h i g h s t a t u s had changed by the Late  period,  from the b i d i s k and animal shaped v e s s e l t o the unused  jade chan  (and the stone pendant, i f the two s t a t u s  p r e t a t i o n i s accepted).  level  inter-  The raw m a t e r i a l types t h a t had changed  are elephant i v o r y and r e d ochre i n the E a r l y p e r i o d t o a l l i gator hide  i n the Late  l e v e l s are accepted).  (and jade and t u r q u o i s e Since  i f two s t a t u s  jade was not found i n the h i g h e s t  s t a t u s l e v e l i n the E a r l y p e r i o d , access t o i t may have become r e s t r i c t e d by the Late p e r i o d .  Elephant i v o r y was e x c l u s i v e  to h i g h s t a t u s i n d i v i d u a l s i n the E a r l y p e r i o d but not i n the Late.  Great q u a n t i t i e s o f ceramics c h a r a c t e r i z e d the high  status  E a r l y and Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s , i f the two s t a t u s l e v e l s are accepted.  Another change i s t h a t the t a l l ,  e x c l u s i v e t o the high intermediate  stemmed cup i s  s t a t u s group i n the E a r l y  - 223 p e r i o d while levels.  i n the Late i t occurs  i n the b u r i a l s o f a l l s t a t u s  However, by the Late p e r i o d , the h i g h e s t s t a t u s  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the g r e a t e s t q u a n t i t y o f t a l l  level  stemmed cup.  I f E9 (with the animal shaped v e s s e l and r e d ochre) i s a Late p e r i o d b u r i a l , I estimate  i t t o be e q u i v a l e n t i n s t a t u s t o  the i n t e r m e d i a t e  status l e v e l  (see F i g . A6-11 f o r the grave  goods i n b u r i a l  9 and F i g . 6-8).  I f t h i s estimation i s accurate,  then the animal shaped v e s s e l and r e d ochre are not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i g h s t a t u s i n e i t h e r the E a r l y or Late  periods.  I t appears t h a t the nature o f s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a t Dawenkou changed from a system with elements o f both an achieved and an a s c r i b e d system i n the E a r l y p e r i o d t o a system t h a t c l e a r l y represents  a s c r i b e d ranking  i n c r e a s e i n c u l t u r a l complexity Late i s i n d i c a t e d .  i n the Late.  Thus, an  from the E a r l y p e r i o d t o the  T h i s i n c r e a s e i n c u l t u r a l complexity  i s also  suggested by the g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n q u a n t i t y and v a r i e t y o f grave goods o r raw m a t e r i a l s among the b u r i a l s from the E a r l y p e r i o d t o the Late.  There i s a l s o an i n c r e a s e i n the  of grave form by the Late p e r i o d three  (the prevalence  l o g tomb) and an i n c r e a s e i n grave s i z e .  complexity  o f the type As i n the E a r l y  p e r i o d , few types o f grave goods o r raw m a t e r i a l s are e x c l u s i v e t o the Late p e r i o d h i g h s t a t u s b u r i a l s .  However, the Late  p e r i o d h i g h s t a t u s b u r i a l s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h expenditure  energy  i n terms o f grave form o r grave s i z e more than the  E a r l y p e r i o d high s t a t u s b u r i a l s . had become more redundantly  I t may be t h a t high  status  expressed by the Late p e r i o d , such  t h a t both grave goods and grave form or s i z e were symbolic o f  - 224 high  status. The  apparent i n c r e a s e i n c u l t u r a l complexity  by the Late  p e r i o d i s accompanied by few types o f grave goods e x c l u s i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with high s t a t u s and by a lack o f extreme d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the high and low s t a t u s b u r i a l s .  Low s t a t u s  b u r i a l s i n the E a r l y p e r i o d are d i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t the i n t e r m e d i a t e  and high s t a t u s l e v e l s .  In c o n t r a s t , the Late  p e r i o d low s t a t u s b u r i a l s are not as d i s t i n c t The  from  from other  decrease i n the number o f s t a t u s l e v e l s represented  burials. i n the  cemetery from approximately four i n the E a r l y p e r i o d t o three or two i n the Late i s unexpected i n l i g h t o f the apparent i n c r e a s e i n c u l t u r a l complexity  by the Late p e r i o d .  t h a t these apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s can be e x p l a i n e d  I argue i f a l l or  most o f the Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s are regarded as h i g h i n s t a t u s . I propose t h a t b u r i a l i n the cemetery became r e s t r i c t e d t o r e l a t i v e l y high s t a t u s i n d i v i d u a l s by the Late p e r i o d .  The  cemetery e i t h e r became r e s t r i c t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s o f one high s t a t u s l e v e l o r o f two t o three high s t a t u s l e v e l s .  It i s  p o s s i b l e t h a t some d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a t u s among the Late b u r i a l s are a f a c t o r o f the "subordinate" and  Kus (1977:431).  A l s o the ranking  period  dimension o f Peebles  system represented  the Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s may have been p a r t o f a r e g i o n a l system and cemeteries i n the Dawenkou C u l t u r e r e g i o n Shandong) may have r e f l e c t e d t h i s r e g i o n a l system.  among ranking  (perhaps The  i n d i v i d u a l s i n the Late p e r i o d a t Dawenkou may represent one s t a t u s l e v e l i n the r e g i o n a l ranking 136)  system.  Goldstein  (1980:  p o i n t s out t h a t i n d i v i d u a l M i s s i s s i p p i a n cemeteries appear  - 225 -  e g a l i t a r i a n because each as a whole represents i n a r e g i o n a l ranking s p a t i a l segregation  system.  one s t a t u s  level  I propose t h a t the t r e n d towards  o f high s t a t u s b u r i a l s noted f o r the E a r l y  p e r i o d had developed by the Late p e r i o d such t h a t the e n t i r e cemetery was r e s t r i c t e d t o r e l a t i v e l y high s t a t u s i n d i v i d u a l s . The  Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s may represent  society i n Fried's  (1967) sense.  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n had i n c r e a s e d such t h a t there The  According  a "stratified" t o F r i e d , status  from the l e v e l o f ranked s o c i e t y  i s unequal access t o b a s i c resources  s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y i s organized  cends k i n s h i p systems ( i b i d ) .  (1967:186).  by a mechanism t h a t  trans-  In Chapter 5, I propose t h a t the  same descent group p e r s i s t e d i n the cemetery from the E a r l y p e r i o d t o the Late. represented other  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the whole descent group  at the cemetery had become ranked i n r e l a t i o n t o  descent groups i n the Dawenkou C u l t u r e r e g i o n by the Late  period.  Other Dawenkou C u l t u r e  cemeteries roughly  eous with Dawenkou may be ranked higher The  o r lower than Dawenkou.  Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s c o u l d a l s o r e f l e c t a f a i r l y  chiefdom.  contemporan-  complex  Whether t h i s chiefdom was as complex as t h a t  repre-  sented by M o u n d v i l l e and other M i s s i s s i p p i a n s i t e s i s u n c l e a r . I do not have an e x p l a n a t i o n  f o r the few c h i l d b u r i a l s i n  the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the Late p e r i o d .  A  separate l o c a t i o n f o r c h i l d b u r i a l s i s expected i n achieved s t a t u s systems.  Pearson  (1981:1084) notes t h a t c h i l d b u r i a l s  at Dawenkou tend t o c o n t a i n  fewer ceramics i n comparison t o  a d u l t s than a t the e a r l i e r Dawenkou C u l t u r e s i t e s o f L i u l i n .  - 226  -  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t c h i l d r e n from the Late p e r i o d were not b u r i e d i n the cemetery u n t i l they reached a c e r t a i n age.  There  i s a c h i l d i n m u l t i p l e b u r i a l 35, which probably belongs to the Late p e r i o d  (see Chapter 3).  I n c l u d i n g m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s , a change from 85 b u r i a l s i n the E a r l y p e r i o d to 33 i n the Late i n i t s e l f suggests a change i n use o f the cemetery, p r o v i d e d the l e n g t h o f time and populat i o n base remained  roughly the same.  The changes through time  i n s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n j u s t d e s c r i b e d would probably h o l d r e g a r d l e s s of the p e r i o d to which the 15 undatable b u r i a l s belong. The r e l a t i v e s t a t u s o f each undatable b u r i a l i n comparison to E a r l y and Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s appears low.  The age, sex,  grave goods and energy expenditure i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the undatable b u r i a l s i s shown i n F i g . A6-24.  Seven o f the e i g h t b u r i a l s  l a c k i n g grave goods i n the cemetery  are undatable b u r i a l s .  of the b u r i a l s l a c k i n g grave goods are c h i l d r e n .  Five  L i k e the h i g h  s t a t u s graves i n both p e r i o d s , the empty graves i n terms o f grave goods ( i n c l u d i n g m u l t i p l e b u r i a l E31) one s p a t i a l area of the cemetery.  are not r e s t r i c t e d t o  The undatable b u r i a l s  r e l a t i v e l y low i n s t a t u s i n terms o f grave goods and expenditure. 2  energy  A l l of the b u r i a l s are p i t s and the l a r g e s t area  i s 2.49m , s m a l l e r than most b u r i a l s of both p e r i o d s . no photographs  appear  o f the two m u l t i p l e b u r i a l s t o a l l o w a  of the s t a t u s o f males versus females.  There are comparison  - 227 -  6.4.  Implications Two o f the t r e n d s through time i n s t a t u s  noted by Pearson Chapter 1 ) :  differentiation  (1981) are supported i n t h i s a n a l y s i s (see  an i n c r e a s e  i n the mean number o f ceramics i n  b u r i a l s by the Late p e r i o d and an i n c r e a s e of b u r i a l s w i t h ceramics.  i n the percentage  The m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses d i d not  d e p i c t g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n i n q u a n t i t i e s o f ceramics, t o o l s , and ornaments among b u r i a l s i n the Late p e r i o d compared t o the E a r l y as expected by Pearson exploratory  (1981:1082, 1085).  On the b a s i s o f my  study o f s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the cemetery, I  a l s o had expected g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n among the Late p e r i o d burials.  Pearson  (19 81:10 86) suggests t h a t the Late p e r i o d  does not r e f l e c t a h i g h l y ranked s o c i e t y and t h a t c r a f t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was d e v e l o p i n g .  A l s o , the s t a t u s o f men i n r e l a t i o n t o  women and c h i l d r e n was i n c r e a s i n g  (ibid).  I conclude t h a t the  Late p e r i o d does r e f l e c t a h i g h l y ranked s o c i e t y . men, women and c h i l d r e n had high s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s  A l s o , both (eg., the  female b u r i a l L10 and the youth, L117). The Wen Wu Correspondent represents classes.  the development  (1978) s t a t e s t h a t Dawenkou  o f p r i v a t e ownership  I suggest the Late p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t s  and s o c i a l a highly  ranked s o c i e t y i n which s o c i a l c l a s s e s may have developed. My a n a l y s i s shows the i n c r e a s e  i n status  differentiation  among b u r i a l s from the E a r l y p e r i o d t o the Late noted by the  Shandong P r o v i n c i a l Museum  Staff.  (1978) and the Kao Gu  Editorial  - 228 -  I f my p r o p o s i t i o n i s c o r r e c t t h a t the E a r l y p e r i o d a t Dawenkou r e p r e s e n t s s p a t i a l separation  a ranked s o c i e t y with a t r e n d towards of high s t a t u s graves, and t h a t by the Late  p e r i o d the cemetery may represent l e v e l s i n a r e g i o n a l ranking  one or more h i g h  system, Dawenkou probably does not  r e f l e c t an i n c i p i e n t system o f ranking maintains.  status  as Chang  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t a s c r i b e d ranking  (19 79:161) developed i n  the Dawenkou C u l t u r e r e g i o n a t an e a r l i e r date than was previously  thought.  - 229 -  CHAPTER . 7  CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH  7.1.  Conclusions The  regarding  Dawenkou  primary g o a l of t h i s mortuary a n a l y s i s has been to  understand the nature of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a t Dawenkou i n the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d s , as w e l l as the nature of change through time i n s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  Dawenkou has been  regarded i n the western and Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l as c r i t i c a l eastern  literature  f o r understanding the development o f ranking  seaboard r e g i o n .  T h i s study, u t i l i z i n g  current  i n the arch-  a e o l o g i c a l method i n mortuary a n a l y s i s , c o u l d help r e s o l v e the controversy  i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g the  nature o f s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a t the s i t e . The methodology by which t o accomplish the primary was o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 2.  I argued t h a t s i n c e s t a t u s  goal differ-  e n t i a t i o n i s expressed i n a v a r i e t y o f manners and t o d i f f e r e n t degrees i n ethnographic s o c i e t i e s , an i n v e s t i g a t i o n should regard a l l v a r i a b l e s i n an a n a l y s i s o f s t a t u s as only p o t e n t i a l l y status-related.  I found t h a t q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of grave goods  d i s t i n g u i s h e d the E a r l y and Late p e r i o d b u r i a l s a t Dawenkou. However, energy expenditure  i n terms o f grave s i z e and grave  form was not c l e a r l y s t a t u s - r e l a t e d i n e i t h e r p e r i o d . r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s and energy expenditure e v i d e n t with  the Late  burials.  The.  was more  - 230  -  In Chapter 2 I s t a t e d t h a t cemeteries must be regarded r e f l e c t i n g more than one  s o c i a l system through time.  s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s should not be i n t e r p r e t e d as the  Derived exact  number of s t a t u s l e v e l s t h a t e x i s t e d i n the community of deceased.  as  the  Another t h e o r e t i c a l reason f o r not i n t e r p r e t i n g the  exact number o f s t a t u s l e v e l s i s the p a r t i a l d i s t o r t i o n of  social  o r g a n i z a t i o n r e f l e c t e d i n mortuary chains, noted by Hodder (1980) and o t h e r s . exact  A m e t h o d o l o g i c a l reason f o r not i n t e r p r e t i n g the  number of s t a t u s l e v e l s i s the s u b j e c t i v i t y and  i n choosing optimum c l u s t e r i n g and  scaling solutions that  s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s . Mortuary analyses  should  In t h i s  change from the E a r l y p e r i o d t o the Late i s emphasized The  reflect  attempt to assess  change through time i n s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  than change w i t h i n each p e r i o d .  difficulty  study, rather  i n t r u s i v e p a i r s of b u r i a l s  w i t h i n each p e r i o d are the o n l y source of c h r o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n of b u r i a l s w i t h i n each p e r i o d .  I argued t h a t a r e l a t i v e  assessment of change through time i n the degree o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n at a s i t e may  be more f e a s i b l e than d i s c u s s i n g  change i n terms of e v o l u t i o n a r y  typologies.  Although i t was  d i f f i c u l t to c h a r a c t e r i z e the nature of s t a t u s  differentiation  among the E a r l y b u r i a l s , I concluded an i n c r e a s e of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n had system of ranking appeared t o be  occurred  seemed present  i n the degree  by the Late p e r i o d .  i n both p e r i o d s , but  If evolutionary  I conclude there may  a " s t r a t i f i e d " society in Fried's to a complex chiefdom.  typologies  A  there  a q u a l i t a t i v e change i n the nature of the  system by the Late p e r i o d . considered,  status  ranking  are  be a change from a "ranked" to (1967) sense or from a simple  - 231 -  My understanding o f s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a t Dawenkou would not have been as complete without the t h r e e p r e l i m i n a r y analyses.  In Chapter 3, the o r d e r i n g o f b u r i a l s on the b a s i s  of changes i n ceramic s t y l e s , subtypes, and f u n c t i o n a l types by the authors o f the s i t e r e p o r t was c l o s e l y r e p l i c a t e d by the c l u s t e r and s c a l i n g a n a l y s e s .  Recent a r t i c l e s i n the  Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t