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Exploring the geometric horizon : interregional interaction and local evolution 1984

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EXPLORING THE GEOMETRIC HORIZON: INTERREGIONAL INTERACTION AND LOCAL EVOLUTION by JANET LUCAS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f R e g i n a , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS "in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A u g u s t 1984 © J a n e t L u c a s , 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publ i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 C3/81") Abstract This study presents a detailed investigation of the late p r e h i s t o r i c Geometric Pottery Horizon in the Provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi in southeastern China. The currently available published works in both English and Chinese are brought together in thi s study to provide the basic sources of data for the study of the development of complex societies in th i s region between approximately 3,000 and 200 B.C.. A major debate concerning the "Geometric Pottery Cultures" is the degree of impact the northern Chinese states had on the development of so c i a l complexity among such 'peripheral' groups as these. I discuss the general u t i l i t y of frameworks which r e s t r i c t the study of so c i a l developmental processes to internal factors alone, versus those which allow for the simultaneous consideration of both internal and external factors and conclude that the l a t t e r are more appropriate. Several tasks are undertaken in thi s study: f i r s t i s the compilation and evaluation of the presently available evidence regarding the Geometric groups of Lingnan (Chapters 2-4); secondly the construction of a basic conceptual framework for analysing the empirical patterns df development in Lingnan Geometric society (Chapter 5), and f i n a l l y a brief exploration of the part played by the northern states in the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of h i e r a r c h i c a l organization of the Lingnan Geometric groups. Mortuary data from Geometric s i t e s are used as the basis for studying the development of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity (Chapter 5). Degree of ranking in each Period of the Geometric i s assessed by the r e l a t i v e amounts of grave goods, amount of energy expenditure on the grave, and the presence/absence of special e l i t e "badges" among contemporaneous b u r i a l s . Evidence for p o l i t i c a l aspects of ranking and the concurrent development of h i e r a r c h i c a l organization in manufacturing and exchange systems are also examined. I conclude from Chapter 5 that Lingnan Geometric society developed from e g a l i t a r i a n to strongly ranked during the second half of the Geometric time period. Moreover, i t appears that the hierarchies which developed at t h i s time were strongly involved in external exchange with more northerly states. The effect of this l a t t e r interchange on the internal network of the Lingnan geometric groups i s examined in Chapter by an analysis of the s p a t i a l patterning of nodes in the internal network. I conclude that the northern exchanges did exert an apparent " p u l l " on centres, with the result that a disproportionate number are located along routes leading to the major trading partner. The intent of these analyses are twofold, f i r s t to explore how much usable data are available at present and some of the questions that might p r o f i t a b l y be approached with them; secondly to outline and demonstrate the u t i l i t y of a framework which comprehends both internal and external stimuli for evolutionary change. I maintain that these are the most important p r i o r i t i e s at present in view of the existing lack of background information in the English language l i t e r a t u r e on this^period of South China's prehistory. Table of Contents Abstract i i L i s t of Tables vi L i s t of Figures v i i i Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter II DISCUSSION OF PUBLISHED INFORMATION 11 A. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION 11 B. DISCUSSION OF SOURCES 18 C. DISCUSSION OF SITE DATA 21 1. Surface Reconnaissance 21 '2 . Excavations 29 Chapter III CHRONOLOGY OF.THE LINGNAN GEOMETRIC HORIZON 37 A. DISCUSSION OF RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY 37 B. CHRONOLOGICAL SUBDIVISIONS OF THE LINGNAN GEOMETRIC HORIZON 4 3 1. I n i t i a l , Pre-geometric Phase 43 2. Chevron & Check-impressed Soft Pottery (Chevron 1 ) 43 3. Chevron Soft Pottery Stage (Chevron 2) 50 4. Chevron, Soft - Hard Pottery Transition (Chevron 3) 56 5. Kui Period, Hard Geometric 59 6. Mi Period, Hard Geometric ..61 C. DISCUSSION OF THE TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF LINGNAN GEOMETRIC SITES 63 Chapter IV ENVIRONMENT AND SUBSISTENCE 67 A. PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES AND PALEOENVIRONMENT 67 1 . Topography 67 2. Climate 69 3. Vegetation And So i l s 71 B. IMPLICATIONS FOR PREHISTORIC SUBSISTENCE AND SETTLEMENT 72 C. IMPLICATIONS FOR PREHISTORIC COMMUNICATION PATTERNS ...76 V Chapter V ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERNS 8 0 A. OUTLINE OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 8 0 B. SOCIAL COMPONENT 8 6 1. Data Base And Methods 8 6 2 . Chevron Periods 9 2 3 . Kui Period 9 8 4 . Mi Period 1 0 7 C. POLITICAL COMPONENT 1 1 6 D. MANUFACTURING COMPONENT 121 1 . Development Of Technical S k i l l s 121 2 . Organizational Aspects 131 E. CIRCULATION 134 F. DISCUSSION 147 Chapter VI INTERREGIONAL INTERACTION AND LOCAL EVOLUTION 151 A. INTRODUCTION 151 B. THE NATURE OF EXTERNAL INPUT INTO THE LINGNAN REGION . 1 5 2 C. THE IMPACT OF INTERREGIONAL INTERACTION 1 5 6 1 . Exchange And E l i t e Status 1 5 6 2 . Spatial Implications 1 6 0 D. CONCLUSIONS 1 6 6 Chapter VII CONCLUSIONS 168 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 7 5 APPENDIX A - GEOMETRIC SITES IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE 1 8 6 APPENDIX B - GEOMETRIC SITES IN GUANGXI PROVINCE 199 APPENDIX C - BRONZE AND EARLY IRON AGE SITES AND FINDS IN GUANGDONG AND GUANGXI 2 0 4 APPENDIX D - GLOSSARY OF CHINESE TERMS USED 211 v i L i s t of Tables 2.1 .Bibliography of published sources on the p r e h i s t o r i c archaeology of Guangdong and Guangxi 12-15 2.2 Bibliography of Hong Kong s i t e s used i n th i s study.. 16 2.3 Published reports on Lingnan p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s , broken down by l e v e l of coverage 18 2.4 Guangdong: l i s t i n g of counties and municipalities by Region 23 2.5 Archaeological reconnaissance work carried out i n the Central lowlands Region of Guangdong , late 1950's v... 27 2.6 Areas of concentrated reconnaissance work in Guangdong Province .29 2.7 Excavated s i t e s i n Guangdong 31-32 2.8 Hong Kong s i t e s included in t h i s study 35 3.1 Previously suggested chronological subdivisions of the Lingnan Geometric Horizon 39 3.2 Temporal subdivisions of the Lingnan Geometric Horizon 42 3.3 Temporal changes i n ceramic f a b r i c and surface decoration i n excavated assemblages 45 3.4 Guangdong: radiocarbon dates on Geometric s i t e s 51-52 3.5 Hong Kong: radiocarbon dates on p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s . . . 53 3.6 Detailed tabulation of ceramics unearthed from the Hedang s i t e , Foshan, Guangdong 57 3.7 A r t i f a c t t r a i t s with defined temporal s i g n i f i c a n c e . . 66 4.1 Annual temperature and r a i n f a l l figures at G u i l i n , Guangzhou and Shantou 71 5.1 Subsystems defined i n previous European studies 82 5.2 Levels of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity and associated developments i n other s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s 84 v i i Tables (continued) 5.3 L e v e l s of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity i n r e l a t i o n to North Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s 84 5.4 Chevron P e r i o d b u r i a l s from Guangdong P r o v i n c e 89-90 5.5 Kui and Mi P e r i o d b u r i a l s from Guangdong and Guangxi P r o v i n c e s 99-101 5.6 Comparison o f w e a l t h i e s t and p o o r e s t b u r i a l s from Tonggugang 109 5.7 Comparison of grave s i z e and form between "female" and "male" b u r i a l s from Y i n s h a n l i n g 112 5.8 Comparison of amount of grave goods between "female" and "male" b u r i a l s at Y i n s h a n l i n g 113 5.9 Y i n s h a n l i n g graves c o n t a i n i n g animal-topped s t a f f s . 114 5.10 K i l n f e a t u r e s excavated from Geometric s i t e s i n Guangdong Provin c e v . . 126 5.11 D i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s systems of p r o d u c t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n 135 5.12 D i s t r i b u t i o n of "imported"'ibronze v e s s e l s i n Lingnan b u r i a l s 144 6.1 L e v e l s of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity i n Lingnan and the Yangtze area, compared with developmental stages of the Chinese s t a t e 157 v i i i L i s t of Figures 1.1 Regions of China 3 1.2 P o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s of China 3 2.1 Regional subdivisions of Guangdong Province 22 2.2 Guangxi Province: counties known to contain Geometric pottery s i t e s 25 2.3 Location of excavated Geometric s i t e s and Bronze Age b u r i a l s i n Guangdong and Guangxi 33 3.1 Incised geometric ceramics from Guangdong s i t e s . . . . 44 3.2a Geometric ceramic surface patterns: Guangdong Province 46-47 3.2b Geometric ceramic surface patterns: Guangxi Province t . . 48 3.3 Representative ceramic vessel forms of the Geometric Period 49 3.4 Location of radiocarbon dated s i t e s 64 4.1 Guangdong and Guangxi: r e l i e f 6 8 4.2 Main r i v e r s and mountain passes 70 4.3 Bronze yue and "boot-shaped" axes 7 8 5.1 Human- and animal-topped s t a f f s from Kui and Mi Period graves 102 5.2 Kui Period graves, Guangdong Province 104 5.3 Gold-handled jade rings from the Songshan b u r i a l , Zhaoqing Shi, Guangdong 110 5.4 Four staff-graves from the Yinshanling cemetery s i t e , Guangxi 115 5.5 Standardization of vessel forms during the Mi Period 123 5.6 K i l n types found i n Geometric s i t e s i n Guangdong Province 127 ix Figures (continued) 5.7 Schematic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of materials selection and processing '. 133 5.8 D i s t r i b u t i o n of eurite l i t h i c materials quarried at Xiqiaoshan 137 5.9 Clarke's model of exchange patterns i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l l y organized pottery assemblage 139 5.10 "Imported" bronze r i t u a l vessels from Lingnan 1- . ;t: : Geometric graves 142 5.11 Bronze swords from central China and from Lingnan Geometric graves 143 6.1 Comparison of ceramic hu vessels from Guangdong with examples from the Central Yangtze area 159 6.2 Model of the dendritic market network. 161 6.3 Location of Kui and Mi Period graves with respect to external communication routes 165 X Acknowledgements I am grat e f u l for the advice, help and encouragement of many people during the research and writing of t h i s t h e s i s . My thesis supervisor, Dr. Richard Pearson, was very generous with his time and advice despite his own very busy schedule. The other members of my thesis committee, Dr. R.G. Matson and Dr. E.G. Pulleyblank made valuable comments and suggestions, also. I p a r t i c u l a r l y appreciate the willingness of a l l the above to accomodate themselves to my f r a n t i c schedule during the l a s t few weeks of production. I also thank the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for providing f a c i l i t e s and f i n a n c i a l support throughout my studies. Several indiv i d u a l s gave me invaluable help during the f i n a l production. Mary Ann Tisdale and Anne Underhill very w i l l i n g l y ran errands and helped to put copies together. Moira Irvine drafted wonderful maps and charts. My parents helped with the f i n a l copies of figures and tables. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l to my parents not only for t h e i r work, but also for t h e i r constant support and encourage- ment during the past years. They have never t r i e d to persuade me to undertake something more "practical.". Although the help of a l l the above has contributed to the best aspects of t h i s work, I am of course responsible for any errors or omissions. 1 I. INTRODUCTION Referring to the state of Southeast Asian p r e h i s t o r i c research some years ago Jean Kennedy noted that "One cannot produce nomothetic or explanatory hypotheses in a near vacuum" (1977:24). It is neccesary to have some basic knowledge of the c u l t u r a l patterns in the prehistory of an area before i t i s possible to move on to the next l e v e l of explanation. That need is the basic st a r t i n g point of t h i s study. A "near vacuum" is what has obtained in the Western l i t e r a t u r e of the late p r e h i s t o r i c period of South China, despite the impressive amounts of information published in recent years by the Chinese. The few discussions of t h i s period that have appeared in the Western l i t e r a t u r e have attempted to explain patterns of development from a few select s i t e s , without adequate synthesis of the t o t a l range of available data. Chinese researchers can of course draw on far more sources than are available to foreign researchers. Many of the h i s t o r i c a l patterns they have documented are relevant to t h i s study, however the frameworks they have used are not d i r e c t l y conducive to the types of problems addressed by current Western studies of the operation and development of c u l t u r a l systems. The subject of this study is the Geometric Pottery Horizon in the southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. My purpose is to study the s o c i a l developmental processes which manifest themselves in the material remains which constitute 2 that Horizon. In other words I s h a l l approach the problem of the operation and development of s o c i a l systems during the South China Geometric Period through methods and perspectives commonly used in Western archaeology, but which as yet are not employed' by the Chinese. The two primary tasks I s h a l l undertake in th i s study are f i r s t , to assemble the information currently available on this subject from published sources in both English and Chinese; secondly, to develop an appropriate conceptual framework for studying developmental processes during this period. The Geometric Pottery Horizon i s a phenomenon of the late prehistoric period (circa 2000-220 BC) in the southeastern part of China. The "Geometric Cultures" are i d e n t i f i a b l e by the predominance of ceramics with impressed geometric surface patterning. The e a r l i e s t phases of t h i s Horizon appear to be centred in Jiangxi Province , although as I s h a l l outline below, an almost equal antiquity can be documented for at least the northern Guangdong area (Wen Wu Correspondent 1979). As research into the Geometric Horizon progressed during the 1960's and 1970's i t became increasingly clear that t h i s Horizon cannot be regarded as a monolithic entity; i t in fact comprises a number of regionally d i s t i n c t cultures and developmental, sequences (Wen Wu Correspondent 1979). One region whose separate developmental sequence has long been recognized is Lingnan -- the region comprising most of modern Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces (Figures 1.1 & 1.2). The long span of the Geometric Horizon in Lingnan - over 3 FIGURE 1.1: Regions of China (Hsieh 1973:112) ^ Utan Bo tor r S I N K I A N C UIGHUR \ >r A U T O N O M O U S R E G I O N ^ Huhihot J X > 7 / HE1LUNGKIANG ! -Hart*, / * < ^ -A KIRIN J ( j r ^ y <-y LIAONING > ' "\ Hopei * \ • | KASHMIR^- V TIBET \_ CP O CHINGMAI C M A M D O O R E * .CS . {KA,r Ju7»> l H 1 E N S I SMANS.' •'»*"»• j >"""B I € " 1 J^O, SKANtUNG/ j'' Loncfmv ,—' *. , ,» V •> 'I'Hont^ S Z E C H W A N \ I INDIA 1 \ (T 1<«EI--M™«ri H U N A N > ' . <f«"SUN'-> / \ Kunming I ^ , 1 ' / INDIA • JCWANQSJ CHUANG ,'XWANOIUNG J A U l SEOION , , c "1 YUNNAN / " " " " » ™ ;• < C W BURMA ^ X < \ V , E T N A ^ > - n . - X O ^ ? f T H A I L A N C p L A O S C v ^ ^ „ A , « A « frtttoool boundaiwi Prov«CKJl boundariM | KIANGSU Proy.rvc# ^Nanking Piovr<»at capital h- FIGURE 1.2: Political divisions of China (Tregear 1980:4) 4 Key to Figures 1.1 and 1.2: Correspondence between romanization system' used in Figures and in text: Text Guangdong Guangxi Jiangxi Fujian Guizhou Guangzhou Figures Kwangtung Kwangsi Kiangsi Fukien Kweichou Canton 5 2500 years - constitutes a period of marked s o c i a l evolution which the Chinese have i d e n t i f i e d as the t r a n s i t i o n from the later p a t r i a r c h a l stage of Primitive Society to Slave Society ( i b i d . 57). In terms of technological development the t r a n s i t i o n i s from the Late Neolithic through the Bronze and early Iron Ages. To date, Chinese research into the Geometric Cultures has been focussed on gathering data to define l o c a l c u l t u r a l sequences and document the exchange of influences between and within regions. Such tasks are regarded as providing background information for the ultimate purpose which is "to recreate the true features of the ancient history of the Jiangnan region and make clear the ethnic identity of i t s aboriginal inhabitants; thereby to reveal regular patterns in the development of ancient society in the South and the mutually-blended h i s t o r i c a l processes between these peoples and the ancient Chinese t r i b e s . " (ibid.,59). In short, the aims of Chinese archaeological research into the Geometric Cultures are primarily h i s t o r i c a l and do not include the creation of explanatory frameworks, since these are already provided by the Marxist evolutionary scheme. The Geometric Cultures have received very l i t t l e discussion in the non-Chinese archaeological l i t e r a t u r e . Only two writers, K.C. Chang and W. Meacham have dealt with them d i r e c t l y , and their work, l i k e that of the Chinese, has been concerned with c u l t u r e - h i s t o r i c a l problems. The major point of debate on the Geometric cultures, as for the Neolithic cultures of South China in general, revolves around the presence and impact of 6 influences from northern Chinese groups on those in the South. Chang took the position that "the Geometric horizon in eastern South China was apparently a development of the l o c a l Lung-shan substratum, in part under the continuous stimulation of the Shang and Zhou c u l t u r a l impacts." (1977:414). Accordingly, "for the entire area, the Geometric horizon started with the f i r s t influence of the Shang c i v i l i z a t i o n from the north, probably during the middle of the second millennium B.C." ( i b i d ) . It should be noted that, as the f i r s t quote indicates, Chang did not ascribe t o t a l c r e d i t for s o c i a l development in the South to the stimulus of the northern c i v i l i z a t i o n s as he has frequently been accused. Chang is not s p e c i f i c about the mechanisms through which the northern c i v i l i z a t i o n s impacted the South, or about how their influence may have induced processes of s o c i a l development within the l o c a l Geometric groups. This is p a r t i c u l a r l y the case with respect to the Geometric groups south of the lower Yangtze region (1977:422). He does present the hypothesis that the development of States in the lower Yangtze may have been a result of the establishment of isolated colonies of immigrants from the northern States, but th i s is not a mechanism suggested for other regions (1977:419). Chang's interpretation of the o r i g i n of the Geometric Horizon has since been invalidated by radiocarbon data which has confirmed the existence of Geometric pottery-using groups in jiangxi and Guangdong approximately a thousand years before the Shang. This does not however neccesarily negate the importance 7 of input from the northern States into southern regions during the Geometric Period. As I s h a l l outline below, there is much material evidence from Lingnan Bronze and early Iron Age graves attesting to the fact of interaction and exchange between the Lingnan Geometric groups and the State located to their north. Whether or not these exchanges played a role in the development of complex societies in the South i s an important problem for investigation. Unfortunately, c r i t i c s of Chang have tended to go to an opposite extreme and deny that the northern States had any si g n i f i c a n t impact on the Geometric Cultures. Meacham, for example, postulates that the southeastern coastal areas "may not have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y penetrated by outside influences u n t i l the Ch'in-Han conquest." (1978:289). However, to maintain t h i s position he is obliged to dismiss as i n s i g n i f i c a n t the widespread occurrence of northern-style, and in some cases, northern-manufactured bronze a r t i f a c t s in pre-Qin ( i . e . pre-214 B.C.) Geometric graves (1977). Meacham's "Local Evolution" model is the most e x p l i c i t framework that has been proposed as an alternative to the "Nuclear Area" model. Meacham's basic thesis i s that "South China Neolithic prehistory can be most p r o f i t a b l y investigated with very l i t t l e reference to the material cultures of other areas." 1 Unfortunately, although he uses the term "evolution", 1 Although th i s statement refers s p e c i f i c a l l y to the Neolithic period, Meacham actually includes the Bronze Age of southeast China as well. 8 Meacham does not actually present either a model or a general framework for studying s o c i a l evolution. The "model" i s actually a programmatic statement of the importance of studying loc a l c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and l o c a l c u l t u r a l ecology in preference to studying interregional relationships. His most basic proposition i s that material and s o c i a l innovations can and do occur in more than one geographic location — in other words, that p a r a l l e l evolution i s a common feature of human soci a l development. In his plea for the neccesity of more detailed studies of l o c a l culture history and ecological factors he is echoing statements by archaeologists such as Bayard (1975) and Triestman (1968). I can find no disagreement with his view of the importance of detailed l o c a l investigations, since i t i s these detailed studies which provide the neccesary data base for the study of developmental processes. But, and this is a c r u c i a l point, d e t a i l i n g patterns in material remains is not the same thing as modelling the processes of c u l t u r a l change. Observed patterning of material remains i s only the v i s i b l e consequence of the operation of a c u l t u r a l system (Binford 1981:197-198). In order to interpret the observed patterns in terms of the operation of the system which created them i t is neccesary to move up one l e v e l of abstraction to the realm of 'Middle-range Theory' (Raab and Goodyear 1984). This, because i t is an abstraction from the material " r e a l i t y " requires the development of e x p l i c i t models which w i l l form a bridge between material patterns and the processes they are inferred to r e f l e c t . 9 Although Meacham does not deal d i r e c t l y with the issue of processual change the basic outlines of what such a Local Evolution Model would look l i k e can be inferred from the statement that his approach would focus on "the forces and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s within the Neolithic cultures themselves as the most probable stimuli of culture change. It i s proposed that when development can be reasonably linked with such agencies a generally more credible interpretation arises than would be one linked with external c u l t u r a l stimuli (movement of people or ideas)." (1977:419). A Local Evolution Model then would stand in opposition to models which include among their s i g n i f i c a n t features the linkage of internal evolutionary change with external s t i m u l i . We thus have two basic models outlined, although not e x p l i c i t l y developed by Chang and Meacham: one which admits of the potential role of external c u l t u r a l stimuli in promoting l o c a l evolutionary developments, and one which does not. Southern Chinese archaeologists in the past 20 years have in fact embarked on a phase of more intensive study of l o c a l culture h i s t o r i e s (Wen Wu Correspondent 1979:53), and an impressive amount of data has been accumulating. I think that the accumulated information i s now s u f f i c i e n t to begin the preliminary, contruction of e x p l i c i t frameworks for the study of developmental processes during the Geometric Horizon. It i s especially important to begin to formulate such frameworks at this point so that we can evaluate what s p e c i f i c kinds of data need to be generated by future archaeological work in order for these kinds of problems to be properly studied. As I s h a l l 1 0 discuss below, the methods currently used by Western archaeologists to study the questions I s h a l l deal with in this study require kinds of information not currently available in the published l i t e r a t u r e (although undoubtedly much more is already available in unpublished sources within China). In the subsequent chapters I s h a l l be following through on the major concerns I have raised here. In Chapters II to IV I s h a l l outline the information on the Geometric Horizon in Lingnan available through currently-published sources, and discuss the basic outlines of l o c a l culture history and ecology. Chapters V and VI w i l l contain the development of an e x p l i c i t framework which I propose i s most appropriate to the study of developmental processes. The f i r s t stage in t h i s framework is a model of the structure and organization of. c u l t u r a l systems, on the basis of which I s h a l l analyze the developmental patterns in four main s o c i a l components during the Geometric Period, The second stage i s an investigation of the effect of external contact and exchange on the l o c a l hierarchies of the Lingnan Geometric network during the Bronze and early Iron ages. I s h a l l conclude by returning to evaluate the r e l a t i v e u t i l i t y of various models in comprehending the development of the Geometric groups of Lingnan. 11 II . DISCUSSION OF PUBLISHED INFORMATION The data base of this study comprises information on s p e c i f i c s i t e s and general summaries of Lingnan archaeology by Chinese archaeologists. The source materials w i l l be discussed and presented in this chapter, and used subsequently to reconstruct patterns of development. A. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION The f i r s t step in assembling the data for this study was a search of the Chinese archaeological l i t e r a t u r e of the past 35 years. The journals covered include: Kaogu (including Kaogu Tongxun ) a l l up to March 1984 Kaogu Xuebao 1953 to No. 2, 1984 Kaoguxue Jikan , a l l Wenwu (including Wenwu Cankao Z i l i a o ) 1955 to A p r i l 1984 Wenwu Jikan , a l l Wenwu Z i l i a o Congkan , a l l . These journals were searched for sources r e l a t i n g to the Geometric Horizon in general, summary treatments of Guangdong and Guangxi Neolithic Bronze and Iron Age cultures, s p e c i f i c reports on prehis t o r i c s i t e s and finds in Lingnan, and references to books and monographs on the same topics. The relevant sources have been compiled and presented in Table 2.1. The bibliography in Table 2.1 does not include English language sources on the archaeology of Hong Kong. Fortunately, Anonymous 1954 An a n c i e n t s i t e found at L u j i a q l a o , Ouanzhou county, Guangxi. Wenwu 1954:6:120-121 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team of Guangxi & o t h e r s 1982 E x c a v a t i o n of a N e o l i t h i c s i t e at Du11ao, Xlnzhou county, Guangxi Kaogu 1982:1:1-8 . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team of Guangxi 1982 E x c a v a t i o n of a N e o l i t h i c s i t e at Dalongtan, Long'an county, Guangxi. Kaogu 1982:1:9-17 . 14C Lab, B e i j i n g U n i v e r s i t y & 14C Lab, IA CASS 1982 R e l i a b i l i t y of r a d i o c a r b o n dates of samples c o l l e c t e d from l i m e s t o n e r e g i o n s , and the age of the Zengplyan and Xianrendong p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s . Kaogu Xuebao 1982:2:243-50 . B e l j i n g Daxue 1979 Shang Zhou Kaogu. B e i j i n g : WenWu Press 6. Chao Huiyuan 1965 D i s c u s s i o n of v a r i o u s N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n Guangdong and J l a n g x i p r o v i n c e s . Kaogu 1965:10:517-524 7. Chen Gongzhe 1957 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r veys and e x c a v a t i o n s at Hong Kong. Kaogu Xuebao 1957:4:1-16 8. CPAM Guangdong 1956 Report on i n v e s t i g a t i o n s at N e o l i t h i c s i t e s in Chaoyang County. Kaogu 1956:4:4-11 9. 1961a The shellmound s i t e s at Chao'an Guangdong. Kaogu 1961:11:577-584 10. 1961b The remains of p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s i n sou t h e r n Guangdong. Kaogu 196 1:11:595-598 11. 1963 Zhou dynasty bronzes unearthed at Qingyuan, Guangdong. Kaogu 1963:2:57-61 12. 1964 An E a s t e r n Zhou tomb i n Qingyuan county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1964:3:138-142 13. 1965 I n v e s t i g a t i n g the s i t e s of a n c i e n t c u l t u r e i n the ar e a s on both s i d e s of the West R i v e r . Kaogu 1965:9:443-446 14 . 15. 16 . 17 . 18 . 19 . 20. 2 1 22 . 23 . 24 . 25 . 26 . CPAM Guangdong & o t h e r s 1964a The N e o l i t h i c s i t e s at Nianyuzhuan and M a t l p i n g , O u j i a n g county, and at Zoumagang, Shaoguan Sh1, Guangdong. Kaogu 1964:7:323-332 1964b Warring S t a t e s s i t e s i n Zengcheng and S h i x i n g c o u n t i e s , Guangdong. Kaogu 1964:3: 143- 151 ;160 CPAM Guangxi 1978 C u l t u r a l R e l i c s Unearthed m Guangxi Wen Wu P r e s s Be 1j i ng: Fan Ming 1956 E i g h t N e o l i t h i c s i t e s d i s c o v e r e d by CPAM Guangdong. Wenwu 1956:4:85 Gao Guangren S Shao Wangplng 1981 A p r e l i m i n a r y study of p o t t e r y 'gu1'-1r1 pods of the p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . Kaogu Xuebao 1981:4:427-459 Guangdong Group to I n v e s t i g a t e the S o c i a l H i s t o r y of M i n o r i t y Peoples 1957 N e o l i t h i c stone t o o l s d i s c o v e r e d at Maodaoxiang. L1 and Miao Autonomous D i s t r i c t s , Hainan. Kaogu 1957:4:52-55 Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1958 Stone t o o l s from X i q i a o s h a n , Nanhai county, Guangdong. Kaogu Xuebao 1959:4:1-15 1960a The N e o l i t h i c remains i n the lowland a r e a of c e n t r a l Guangdong. Kaogu Xuebao 1960:2:107-120 1960b The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains of Hainan I s l a n d , Guangdong. Kaogu Xuebao 1960:2:121-130 1961a The N e o l i t h i c remains i n the h i g h l a n d s of n o r t h e r n Guangdong. Kaogu 1961 :11:589-594 1961b N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n Qlngtang, Wengyuan county. Guangdong. Kaogu 1961:11:585-588 1961c The N e o l i t h i c remains of e a s t e r n Guangdong. Kaogu 1961:12:650-665 1961d N e o l i t h i c shellmounds found i n Dongxing county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1961:12:644-649 TABLE 2.1: Bibliography of published sources on the prehistoric archaeology of Guangdong and Guangxi 27 . 28 . 29 . 30. 3 1 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 . 37 . 38 . 39 . 1964 T e s t e x c a v a t i o n at the Guangdlng s i t e , Z1j1n 41. county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1964:5:251-254 1975 The Warring S t a t e s tomb at Nlaodanshan, S i h u i 42. county. Guangdong. Kaogu 1975:2:102-108 1979 Guangdong a r c h a e o l o g y a c h i e v e s f i r m r e s u l t s : a new c h a p t e r opens'1n the h i s t o r y of Lingnan. In T h i r t y Years of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and C u l t u r a l 43. P r o p e r t i e s Work: 1949-1979 . Wen Wu Press 1981 Warring S t a t e s graves at Tonggugang, Guangning 44. county . Guangdong. Kaoguxue J i k a n 1:111-119 1983a E x c a v a t i o n of a p o t t e r y k i l n s i t e of the Western Zhou dynasty at Pingyuan. Guangdong. Kaogu 45. 1983:7:588-596 1983b The X i q i a o s h a n s i t e , Nanhai county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1983:12:1085-109 1 46. 1984 Report on e x c a v a t i o n s at the Zaogang shellmound s i t e , Nanhai county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1984:3:203-212 Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum & o t h e r s 47. 1973 A Warr i n g S t a t e s grave found at Deqing, Guangdong. Wenwu 1973:9:18-22 1974 Report on the e x c a v a t i o n of an a n c i e n t grave at 48. Songshan, B e l l i n g , Zhaoqing c i t y , Guangdong. Wenwu 1974:11:69-79 1978b A n c i e n t bronzes u n e a r t h e d In Guangxl 1978:10:93-96 Wenwu 1978 A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the c u l t i v a t e d r i c e remains from S h i x l a . Wenwu 1978:7:23-28. 1983 The remains of a wooden s t r u c t u r e on the water at Maogang, Gaoyao county. Guangdong. Wenwu 1983: 12:31 -46 Guangxi P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1973 The bronzes unearthed at Gongcheng county, Guangxi. Kaogu 1973:1:30-34 Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s B r i g a d e 1976 Report on the cave s i t e of Zengplyan, Guangxi. Kaogu 1976:3:175-179 49 . 50. 5 1 1979 Important r e s u l t s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l r e l i c s work i n Guangxi i n the p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . In T h i r t y Years of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Work: 1949-1979. Wen Wu P r e s s 1981 The d i s t r i b u t i o n of Geometric p o t t e r y i n Guangxi. Wenwu J i k a n 3:244-252 Guangxi Zhuang A.R. Archae o l o g y T r a i n i n g C l a s s & o t h e r s 1975 N e o l i t h i c shell-mound s i t e s i n the Nannlng r e g i o n of Guangxi. Kaogu 1975:5:295-301 1978 The c u l t u r a l remains of the l a t e r N e o l i t h i c 1n the s o u t h e r n p a r t of Guangxi. Wenwu 1978 :9:14- 24 Guangzhou C i t y , C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O f f i c e 1977 Reconnaissance of an a n c i e n t s i t e a t Xiangang i n the o u t s k i r t s of Guangzhou. Wenwu Z111ao Congkan 1: 172- 178 Han Kangxin 1964 N e o l i t h i c implements found i n Li u c h e n g county, Guangxi. Kaogu 1964:11:591 Han Kangxin & Pan Q i f e n g 1982 Late N e o l i t h i c human s k e l e t o n s from the Hedang s i t e , Foshan, Guangdong. Acta A n t h r o p o 1 o g i c a S i n i c a 1:1:42-52 He J i s h e n g 198 1 D i s c u s s i o n of Guangdong's E a s t e r n Zhou p e r i o d bronze c u l t u r e , and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to Geometric p o t t e r y . Wenwu J i k a n 3:212-224 to Huang Weiwen & o t h e r s 1979 R e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a X i q i a o s h a n i n Nanhai 1979:4:289-299 . m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e at county, Guangdong. Kaogu Gu i1 i n . Huang Yuzhi & Yang S h l t i n g 1965 Report on N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n Mei and Dapu c o u n t i e s , Guangdong. Kaogu 1965:4:159-165 40. 1978a Warring S t a t e s graves at Y1ngshan1tng, P i n g l e County. Kaogu Xuebao 1978:2:2 11-258 TABLE 2.1 (continued) 52. L i a n g Zhaotao 1959 On the d i s t r i b u t i o n and d a t i n g of the s o u t h e a s t e r n c o a s t a l N e o l i t h i c . Kaogu 1959:9:491-493 53. L i n H u i x l a n g 1958 Stepped adze: one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s In the s o u t h - e a s t e r n r e g i o n o f . C h i n a . Kaogu Xuebao 1958:3:1-23 54. L l u z h o u C i t y Museum 1983 Reconnaissance and t e s t e x c a v a t i o n of N e o l i t h i c s i t e s In Lluzhou, Guangxi. Kaogu 1983:7:577-583 55. L l u z h o u C i t y Museum and Yang Oun 1981 The f i r s t Late N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r a l remains found i n L l u z h o u . Wenwu Z i l i a o Congkan 5:195 56. Luo Baoshan 1955 A stone axe found 1n the n o r t h - e a s t s e c t i o n of Zhongshan U n i v e r s i t y , Guangzhou. Kaogu 1955:5:57 57. Magi1on1, R a f a e l *' 1975 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l D i s c o v e r y 1n E a s t e r n Guangdong: the major w r i t i n g s of F r . Rafael M a g i i o n i . Hong Kong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , J o u r n a l Monograph II 58. Ma1 Yinghao 1957 Report on r e c o n n a i s s a n c e and t e s t e x c a v a t i o n s at an a n c i e n t s i t e 1n the No r t h - e a s t s e c t i o n of Guangzhou. Kaogu 1957:5:30-36 59. 1961 A n c i e n t s i t e s d i s c o v e r e d 1n Conghua county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1961:8:450 60. Meacham, W i l l i a m * 1978 The r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t . In Sham Wan, Lamma I s l a n d . Hong Kong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , J o u r n a l Monograph I I I 61. Ho Zhi 1956 Report on r e c o n n a i s s a n c e and t e s t e x c a v a t i o n at the N e o l i t h i c s i t e s on a t r i b u t a r y of the Pa R i v e r , Qingyuan county, Guangdong. Wenwu 1956:11:40-43 63. 1958 B r i e f account of C u l t u r a l R e l i c s r e c o n n a i s s a n c e i n Guangdong, 1957. Wenwu 1958:9:60-64 64. 1961 New r e s u l t s of I n v e s t i g a t i v e e x c a v a t i o n s In Guangdong. Kaogu 1961:12:666-668 65. 1963 A Warring S t a t e s s i t e at Ba1sh1p1ngshan, S h l x l n g county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1963:4:217-220 66. Peng S h i f a n 1976 D i s c u s s i o n of problems r e l a t i n g to the i n c i p i e n t N e o l i t h i c of South China Wenwu 1976:12:15-22 67. Q1n Jun & Lu Chengylng 1965 N e o l i t h i c stone t o o l s d i s c o v e r e d i n L1uj1ang county, Guangxi. Kaogu 1965:6:313 68. Qiu L i c h e n g 8> o t h e r s 1982 E x c a v a t i o n s at the D u s h l z i N e o l i t h i c cave s i t e , Yangchun county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1982:5:456- 459 69. Rao Huiyuan 1960 Some notes on the p o t t e r y w i t h impressed d e s i g n . Kaogu 1960:3:47-51 70. Rao Zongyi 1950 P r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s and c u l t u r e s In the Han R i v e r va11ey, Guangdong. Hong Kong. 71. The S h i x i a A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team of the Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum & o t h e r s 1978 E x c a v a t i o n of N e o l i t h i c g r a v e s at S h i x i a , Q u j i a n g County, Guangdong. Wenwu 1978:7:1-15 72. Rong Guanqiong 1956 S y n o p s i s of N e o l i t h i c r e l i c s from the Zuo-You R i v e r v a l l e y s , Guangxi. Wenwu 1956:6:58-59 73. Su B l n g q i 1978 Summary d i s c u s s i o n of the N e o l i t h i c a r c h a e o l o g y i n our c o u n t r y ' s s o u t h - e a s t c o a s t a l r e g i o n . Wenwu 1978:3:40-42 74. 1978 P r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n of the S h i x i a c u l t u r e . Wenwu 1978 :7: 16 : 22 62. 1957 Report on r e c o n n a i s s a n c e of the N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n Bao'an county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1957:6:8-15 TABLE 2.1 (continued) 75. Wang Kerong 1978 The main achievements of c u l t u r a l r e l i c s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i n Guangxi s i n c e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of New Chin a . Wenwu 1978:9:8-13 86. Zeng Guangy1 j 1965 A N e o l i t h i c s i t e on the west bank of Lake , i Mel 1 In, Chao'an county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1965 ; ! : 2:93-94 76 . 77 . 78 . 79. 80. 81 . 82. Wen Wu Correspondent 1979 Summary of a symposium on the p o t t e r y w i t h Impressed d e c o r a t i o n from the r e g i o n s south of the C h a n g j i a n g . Wenwu 1979:1:53-61 Wu Shan 1975 Notes on the d e c o r a t i v e d e s i g n of N e o l i t h i c c e r a m i c s of the Huanghe and Changjiang r i v e r v a l l e y s and South China. Wenwu 1975:5:59-67 Xu Hengbin 1975 A western Zhou bronze 'he' county, Guangdong. Wenwu unearthed In X i n y i 1975:11:94 1981 P r e l i m i n a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e v o l u t i o n of ge o m e t r i c p o t t e r y i n Guangdong. Wenwu J i k a n 3:203-21 1 Yang Hao 1960 A b r i e f r e p o r t on the N e o l i t h i c s i t e s a l o n g the X l n f e n g r i v e r , Guangdong. Kaogu 1960:7:31-35 1961 I n t r o d u c i n g s e v e r a l bronzes found 1n Guangdong 1n r e c e n t y e a r s . Kaogu 1961:11:599-600 1983 A stu d y of the n a t i o n a l i t y of the a n c i e n t I n h a b i t a n t s of the Maogang s i t e . Wenwu 1983: 12:47-49 87 . 88 . 89 . 90. 91 Zeng Qi 1981 M i c r o l i t h s from the e a s t e r n f o o t of X i q i a o s h a n . Kaogu yu Wenwu 1981:4:1-12 198 1 Q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the stepped adze, s h o u l d e r e d stone t o o l s , and "geometric impressed p o t t e r y " . Wenwu J i k a n 3:106-109 1982 The p o t t e r y of the S h i x i a C u l t u r e . Daxue 1982:2:31-39 Zhonqshan Zhu F e i s u , Peng Ruce & L1u Chengde 1981 D i s c u s s i o n of the Geometric p o t t e r y from the S h i x i a s i t e , Maba. Wenwu J i k a n 3:225-233 Zou Heng 1981 The Impressed p o t t e r y s i t e s from t h e J i a n g n a n r e g i o n , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the X i a - Shang-Zhou c u l t u r e s . Wenwu J i k a n 3:46-51 A s t e r i s k i n d i c a t e s s o u r c e i s i n E n g l i s h 83. Yang S h l t l n g and Chen Z h i j i e 1981 A d i s c u s s i o n of Important d i s c o v e r i e s at the Hedang s i t e , Foshan. Guangdong. Wenwu J i k a n 3:234-243 84 . Y i n Da 1979 The N e o l 1 t h i c P e r i o d (2nd e d . ) . Shudlan Be 1j i ng: X i nhua 85. Y1n Huangchang 1958 A p r e l i m i n a r y survey of the p o t t e r y with impressed g e o m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n s i n the sout h - e a s t d i s t r i c t of China. Kaogu Xuebao 1958 :1:75-86 TABLE 2.1 (continued) 16 Bard, S.M. 1975 Chung Horn Wan. J o u r n a 1 of the Hong Kong A r c h a e o 1 o g i c a 1 Soc i e t y VI:9-25 B a r r e t t . C.J. 1973 T a r Wan r e c o n s i d e r e d . Journa1 of the Hong Kong A r c h a e o 1 o q 1 c a I Soc i e t y IV:53-59 D a v i s . S.G. 8 M. T r e g e a r 1960 Man Kok T s u i : a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e 30, Lantau I s l a n d , Hong Kong. A s i a n P e r s p e c t i ves IV: 182-212 F 1 n n , Dan i e1 1958 A r c h a e o 1 o q i c a 1 F 1nds on Lamma Is1 and near Hong Kong . Hong Kong U n i v e r i t y P r e s s . F r o s t . R.J. 1979 Tung Wan (Shek P i k ) . J o u r n a l of the Hong Kong A r c h a e o 1 o g i c a 1 Soc i e t y VIII:8-16 Meacham, W i l l i a m 1980 The a r c h a e o l o g y of Hong Kong. Archa e o l o g y 33:4:16-23 1981 Recent C14/TL d a t e s and a c u l t u r a l c h r o n o l o g y f o r Hong Kong's p r e h i s t o r y . J o u r n a 1 of the Hong Kong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Soc i e t y IX:77-79 Meacham, W i l l i a m (ed) 1977 An a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e at Shek P i k : e x c a v a t i o n r e p o r t and r e l a t e d papers by Walter S c h o f i e l d (1888-1968). J o u r n a 1 Monograph I, Hong Kong Archaeo1og i ca1 Soc i e t y 1978 Sham Wan. Lamma I s l a n d : an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e study. J o u r n a 1 Monograph I I I , Hong Kong Archaeo1oq i ca1 Soc i e t y Rogers. Pamela Rumba 11 & V a l e r i e Ward N.d. Stone Adzes of Hong Kong. Hong Kong Museum of Hi s t o r y . Occas i ona 1 Paper I_ W i l l i a m s . B e r n a r d 1979 Hai Dei Wan. Journa1 of the Hong Kong A r c h a e o l o g i c a 1 S o c i e t y VIII:27-51 1980 Po Yue Wan. Journa1 of the Hong Kong Archaeo1og1ca1 S o c i e t y IX: 14-22 TABLE 2.2: Bibliography of Hong Kong sites used in this study 1 7 in the case of Hong Kong one i s not lim i t e d to using published sources, as the primary data are accessible by foreign researchers. This being the case, to attempt a comprehensive summary of Hong Kong Geometric si t e s relying solely on published sources would not be doing j u s t i c e to the topic. More importantly, the aim of this study is to gather and assess the current information on the Geometric Horizon in general, and to make i t available in English. In view of these factors I have chosen to incorporate only a few of the best-detailed and representative Hong Kong Geometric s i t e s into t h i s study. References to these s i t e s are contained in Table 2.2. Despite the impressive number of relevant publications, the amount of s p e c i f i c information available i s low, except in the most recently-published s i t e reports (eg. #33, Table 2.1). This is undoubtedly due in large measure to the fact that only the national-level journals were consulted. More detailed reports are contained in Provincial and regional-level publications (U. Franklin, pers.comm.), but unfortunately these are not available outside China. Since the nature of the available information has had a strong influence on the type of study I w i l l be conducting in this paper, a brief discussion of the sources i s in order. 18 B. DISCUSSION OF SOURCES There are notable differences in the publication of data between Guangdong and Guangxi, as can be seen from Table 2.3 which breaks down the sources of s i t e - s p e c i f i c data according to their breadth of coverage. Regional survey reports of Neolithic s i t e s Provincial Regional Sub- Single Mi scellaneous regional s i t e s i t e s a. Guangdong Province 2 6 1 6 26 7 b. Guangxi Province 4 0 8 4 1 TABLE 2.3 Published reports on Lingnan preh i s t o r i c s i t e s , broken down by le v e l of coverage. have been published for a l l parts of Guangdong, while no such reports exist for Guangxi. The information contained in the reports is very general. A standard format i s followed: dates of fieldwork, i n s t i t u t i o n s involved and counties covered are l i s t e d . General summaries of physical s i t e environment and a r t i f a c t s c o l l e c t e d are presented, and ty p i c a l a r t i f a c t s i l l u s t r a t e d . F i n a l l y , a l i s t of s i t e s located in each county is given, usually with an indication of whether the s i t e i s a h i l l s i t e , sanddune or shellmound, but not containing enough locational information to allow the s i t e to be placed on a map. 19 Occasional information concerning the type of assemblage coll e c t e d from a s p e c i f i c s i t e can be gleaned from the body of the report, but for the vast majority of s i t e s l i s t e d no information on their r e l a t i v e date or assemblage composition i s given. Sub-regional summaries reporting survey and occasionally test excavation work within individual counties, river systems, or valleys threatened by reservoir or other construction projects tend to be more detailed than the regional survey reports. They often contain a table of s i t e s which indicates the map location and major a r t i f a c t types found at each (eg. Yang 1960). Once again though, only a general description of a r t i f a c t s i s usually provided; there is no d e t a i l on individual assemblages. Reports pertaining to individual s i t e s are the most numerous category of published sources, and the most variable in qua l i t y . For example, although six individual reports have been published r e l a t i n g to the Shixia s i t e , there are s t i l l great gaps in the data. There i s , for example, no comprehensive treatment of the habitation layers' remains. By contrast, the Zaogang s i t e i s represented by a single short report, but a great amount of d e t a i l on the excavation and excavated remains is contained in i t (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1984). In addition to the reports which s p e c i f i c a l l y set out to present s i t e information, a number of a r t i c l e s on special topics, such as Xu's essay on the evolution of Geometric pottery in Guangdong also contain some s i t e - s p e c i f i c information (Xu 20 1981). This kind of data, f u l f i l l i n g as i t does the need to i l l u s t r a t e p a rticular points of argument, is fragmentary, but i t can at least provide p a r t i a l information on a s i t e which may be otherwise unavailable. The Geometric si t e s i d e n t i f i e d from these sources are l i s t e d in Appendix 1, together with an indication of the type of fieldwork undertaken at each. The basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the published information on these s i t e s are as follows: a. the vast majority of s i t e s are known only by name and general landform association, b. for a small number there i s some information as to the major ceramic types c o l l e c t e d from the s i t e , and whether or not the s i t e has been the subject of excavation work. c. a few s i t e s can be roughly located on maps, and the r e l a t i v e dates of their assemblages can be estimated, d. for only a very few s i t e s is there quite detailed information on location, fieldwork, and c o l l e c t e d and excavated remains. I noted above that there have been no regional reports published for Guangxi. Indeed, of the sources tabulated in Table 2.3 only one s i t e report and two subregional summaries contain information on Geometric s i t e s . The other sources in these categories pertain to regions outside the area of d i s t r i b u t i o n or time period of occurrence of Geometric pottery. However, in contrast to Guangdong, an a r t i c l e has been published which s p e c i f i c a l l y l i s t s almost a l l the known Geometric s i t e s in the province, with an indication of the major Geometric ceramic 21 patterns found at each. 2 Thus, in the end result, the l i s t of Geometric s i t e s in Guangxi i s apparently more complete, although less detailed, than for Guangdong (Appendix 2). C. DISCUSSION OF SITE DATA 1. Surface Reconnaissance There is an apparent difference in the amount of fieldwork that has been undertaken in each of the 2 provinces. During the late 1950's and early 1960's surface reconnaissance for archaeological sites was c a r r i e d out throughout Guangdong and Guangxi. In the case of Guangdong, the results were published in a series of a r t i c l e s between 1960 and 1964, each a r t i c l e dealing with a di f f e r e n t region of the province. In a 1979 a r t i c l e one of these regions (Eastern Guangdong) was subdivided into coastal and i n t e r i o r segments, and these are the di v i s i o n s I have followed (Figure 2.1; Table 2.4). The seven regions of Guangdong are: I. East Coast: comprising the northeast coast and lower reaches of the Han River, II . East River: comprising the drainage of the East River. (Dongjiang) and i n t e r i o r valleys from the Pearl delta northeast to the Jiangxi/Fujian border; III. Northern Region: the drainage of the North River (Beijiang) 2Although t h i s a r t i c l e purports to l i s t a l l known Geometric s i t e s , reference to some additional s i t e s was found in subregional reports. These are l i s t e d in Appendix 2. FIGURE 2-.1: Regional subdivisions of Guangdong Province (refer to Table 2.4) 23 I . E a s t e r n C o a s t a l Region Chao'an Chaoyang Chengha1 Dabu Fengshun Ha 1 f e n g Hu i1 a i J i ex i J i eyang Lufeng Nan'ao Pun i ng Raop1ng Shantou Shi I1 . East R i v e r Bo 1 uo Hep 1ng Heyuan Hu i dong Hu1yang Huizhou Shi J i a o 1 i ng Longchuan Longmen Me i x i an P i ngyuan Wuhua X i ngn i ng Zengcheng Z i j i n I I I . N o r t h e r n Region Conghua Fogang Lechang L i an X i an L i a n n a n Yaozu Z i z h i x i a n L i anp i ng L i a n s h a n Zhuangzu Yaozu Z i z h i x i a n Nanx i ong 0 i ngyuan Ouj i ang Renhua Ruyuan Yaozu Z i z h i x i a n Shaoguan Shi S h i x i n g Wengyuan X 1 n f e n g Yangshan Y i ngde IV. C e n t r a l Region Bao'an Dongguan Doumen Enping Foshan Shi Gaohe Guangzhou Sh1 Hua Xian Jtangmen Shi Ka i p i ng Nanha i Panyu Sanshu i Shunde Ta 1 shan X i n h u i Zhongshan Zhuha i V. West R i v e r Deq i ng Fengka i Gaoyao Guangn i ng Hua i j i Luod i ng S i hu i X i nx i ng Yu'nan Yunf u Zhaoqing Shi VI. Southern Region D i anba i Ha i kang Huazhou L i anj i ang Maoming Shi Su i x i Wuchuan X i n y i Xuwen Yangchun Yangj i ang Zhanj 1ang Sh i V I I . Ha i nan Ba i sha Baot i ng Changj fang Chengma i Dan X i a n Ding'an Dongfang Gaozhou Haikou Shi Ledong Lin'gao L i ngshu i 0 i ongha i Q i ongshan Qiongzhong Tunchang Wann i ng Wenchang Ya X i a n TABLE 2.4: Guangdong: Counties and Muni c i p a l i t i e s l i s t e d by Region 24 and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s northwards from the Pearl delta to the Jiangxi/Hunan border; IV. Central Region: including the Pearl delta and surrounding lowland areas; V: West River: the drainage of the West River (Xijiang) and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s from the Pearl delta westwards to the Guangxi border; VI. Southern Region: comprising the southeast coast and Liaoning Peninsula; VII. Hainan Island. In Guangdong, Geometric s i t e s have been found in a l l regions except Hainan Island. Although Guangxi summaries divide the Province into two broad regions: North/Northeast/Southeast, and South/Southwest/West, these regions are nowhere precisely defined. It i s thus not possible to divide Guangxi on a regional basis. On the other hand, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Geometric s i t e s in Guangxi i s c l e a r l y limited. As Figure 2.2 indicates the counties where Geometric s i t e s have been found in Guangxi are concentrated in the Northeast: in the valleys of the Guijiang, Hejiang, and Linjiang which extend from the West River to the Hunan border p a r a l l e l i n g the boundary with Northern Guangdong, and in the Southeast: the drainages of the Qinjiang, Lianjiang and Rongjiang. Only a single late Mi Period s i t e is located outside this area, in the county of Wuming in central Guangxi. No information is available regarding the survey methods shaded counties contain at least 1 Geometric s i t e FIGURE 2.2: Guangxi: Counties known to contain Geometric Pottery s i t e s 26 used, or the intensity or extent of coverage, although several points can be inferred from the Guangdong regional reports regarding the situation in that province: 1. In general, survey coverage was not intensive or complete. For example, in Mei and Dapu counties of eastern Guangdong 7 men surveyed 2 counties in a one month period, finding 46 s i t e s . A l l s i t e s are clustered around contemporary towns and v i l l a g e s (Huang & Yang 1965:159). 2. Not a l l counties in each region were surveyed, and not a l l were surveyed with equal i n t e n s i t y . 3. In some counties s i t e reconnaissance seems to have been confined to river valleys, and the lower h i l l - s l o p e s bordering them (eg. Huang & Yang 1965; Yang 1960). 4. In other counties, limited zones only, such as areas threatened by construction projects, have been quite intensively surveyed, while the rest of the county may not have been investigated at a l l . Two examples are the reservoir projects in northwest Bao'an county (Mo 1957) and on a tributary of the Pa River in Qingyuan (Mo 1956). Table 2.5, which has been drawn from information contained in the Central Region reconnaissance report (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1960:107), l i s t s the reconnaissance work on which that report was based. It i s a ty p i c a l example of regional reconnaissance coverage. Of the survey projects l i s t e d only one (March 1957) was a concerted e f f o r t to cover the whole region, and i t seems to have been a cursory attempt: the t o t a l duration of fieldwork was one month, and in t o t a l only 54 sites 27 Date L o c a t i o n Number of s i t e s F i e l d w o r k e r s 7, 1956 Bao'an fc Dongguan Cou n t i e s 11 C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade of Guangdong Bureau of C u l t u r e ; H i s t o r y Dept., Zhongshan U n i v . 8, 1956 nor t h e r n Guangzhou Shi 9 Zhongshan U n i v e r s i t y ; CPAM Guangzhou (1,1957, t e s t e x c a v a t i o n s a t above s i t e s ) CPAM Guangdong; Guangzhou C i t y Museum 10, 1956 northwest Bao'an County 9 C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade of Guangdong Bureau of C u l t u r e (1, 1957: t e s t e x c a v a t i o n s a t above s i t e s ) (same pe r s o n n e l ) 1956-1957 Longdong area, Panyu County 17 Longdong. Primary School teacher & s t u d e n t s , rechecked by Guangdong Bureau of C u l t u r e 3, 1957 e n t i r e r e g i o n , except Bao'an £. Dongguan 54 Cadres Archaeology T r a i n i n g C l a s s , o r g a n i z e d by Guangdong Bureau of C u l t u r e 7-8, 1958 Panyu County 14 CPAM Guangzhou l a t e 1958 X i q i a o s h a n , Nanhai County 14 . Zhongshan U n i v e r s i t y , and Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum TABLE 2.5: Archaeological reconnaissance work carr i e d out in the Central lowlands Region of Guangdong, late 1950's. (Guangdong Pro v i n c i a l Museum 1960:107) were located. By contrast, 74 si t e s were recorded by other more intensive surveys conducted in only 5 counties of the same region. Archaeological reconnaissance work was carried out in Guangxi during the same period as in Guangdong, but a 1981 report indicates that i t was not comprehensive: not a l l counties were surveyed, and the inexperience of the fieldworkers resulted in their f a i l u r e to recognize and record many ( p a r t i c u l a r l y Geometric) s i t e s (Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade, 28 1981:244). The same comments regarding extent and intensity of coverage made for Guangdong seem also to apply to Guangxi. Details on the t o t a l number of prehistoric s i t e s recorded in Guangdong i s provided by He (1981:218). By 1979 approximately 900 prehistoric s i t e s ("ancient c u l t u r a l sites") had been i d e n t i f i e d in the province. This number does not include cemetery s i t e s . Of these 900 the majority (approximately 650) were i d e n t i f i e d with the Geometric Horizon. A l l but 50 or 60 were known only from surface reconnaissance. The t o t a l number of Geometric s i t e s in Guangxi for which we have information is 60. According to a 1979 report, over 900 prehistoric ("primitive culture") s i t e s (again not including cemetery sites) have been recorded in Guangxi (Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1979:339). The proportion of Geometric s i t e s in Guangxi is much smaller, as i s to be expected from their more limited d i s t r i b u t i o n compared to Guangdong. These problems, combined with the patchy publication of results discussed previously may introduce an inestimable degree of bias into any attempted studies of regional s i t e patterning that might be based on the published data. It is s t i l l possible however t h a t ; l i m i t e d subregional studies could be attempted i f information o.f survey methods and more detailed f i e l d data could be obtained. The areas which are currently best represented for such study are l i s t e d in Table 2.6. In summary, currently available data can not be used for detailed studies of regional s i t e patterning during the Geometric period. They may however be useful in suggesting 29 AREA COMMENTS REFERENCES Mel & Dapu Count 1es E x t e n s i v e a r e a , not v e r y i n t e n s i v e coverage. 55 H a l f e n g P e n i n s u l a I n t e n s i v e coverage of v e r y l i m i t e d a r e a , a r t i f a c t remains h e l d at Feng P i n g Shan Museum, Hong Kong. F i e l d notes l o s t . C h i n e s e a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have r e i n v e s t i g a t e d some s i t e s , but d e t a i l s a r e not yet p u b l i s h e d . 57 P a j i a n g t r i b u t a r y . Qingyuan County I n t e n s i v e s u r f a c e survey In advance of r e s e r v o i r c o n s t r u c t i o n . Very l i m i t e d a r e a . 61 X l n f e n g R i v e r a r e a E x t e n s i v e a r e a , not v e r y i n t e n s i v e coverage. 80 F e 1 ' e l i ng a r e a . Guangzhou Shi Very l i m i t e d a r e a , i n t e n s i v e coverage. 58 Bao'an County. r e s e r v o i r p r o j e c t Very l i m i t e d a r e a , i n t e n s i v e coverage. Nanhai County F a i r l y i n t e n s i v e r e c o n n a i s s a n c e f o r shellmound s i t e s . L i m i t e d a r e a around X i q i a o s h a n a l s o v e r y i n t e n s i v e l y surveyed. 32.33,50 Maba, Quj i a n g County A c c o r d i n g to map c o n t a i n e d i n S h i x i a s i t e r e p o r t a number of s i t e s have been found 1n the Immediate v i c i n i t y of S h i x i a . No f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n yet p u b l i s h e d . 7 1 Hong Kong Colony Colony-wide I n t e n s i v e s u r v e y c u r r e n t l y underway. No r e p o r t s yet p u b l i s h e d . S.Bard, p e r s . coram.' TABLE 2.6: Areas of concentrated reconnaissance work in Guangdong Province p o s s i b i l i t i e s for further testing, and these w i l l be discussed in the following chapters. 2. Excavations He Jisheng reports that 50 to 60 ancient s i t e s in Guangdong, not including cemeteries, had been tested or undergone f u l l - s c a l e excavation by 1979 (1981:218). Less than 10 s i t e s had proved to contain s t r a t i f i e d c u l t u r a l deposits. If we assume that the proportion of Geometric s i t e s in the excavated sample is roughly 30 constant with the overall sample, then c i r c a 35-40 Geometric si t e s have been excavated. The s i t e s which are reported to have been the subject of extensive excavations ( i . e . more than one or two test p i t s ) are l i s t e d in Table 2.7. and plotted on Figure 2.3. Not a l l have had s i t e reports published to date. Also included in Table 2.7 are 10 Bronze and early Iron Age b u r i a l s i t e s , comprising 31 graves, which are a l l that can be i d e n t i f i e d from the published sources out of the t o t a l of 38 mentioned by He (1981:213). A pair of cemeteries in Raoping County are also counted as Bronze Age, although the only bronze recovered was a single cje (He 1981:217). The situation with regard to Guangxi is quite bleak. I could find reference to the test excavation of only 2 Geometric s i t e s : Chakouyan (Liyushan) in Fuchuan County, and Lujiacun in Quanzhou County. Extensive excavations are reported from only one: the Warring States Period b u r i a l s i t e at Yinshanling, Pingle County. Fortunately, a detailed s i t e report has been published for the l a t t e r (Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1978). Details of the former two test excavations can only be pieced together from secondary sources (Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1979; 1981). None of the published excavation reports discusses methods or goals of excavation. The primary aim of most appears to have been the recovery of r e l a t i v e and absolute dating information, in order that the relationship of the d i f f e r e n t stages of the Geometric Horizon, not only within Lingnan, but also between Lingnan and neighbouring regions, can be c l a r i f i e d . Thus only 31 SITE/COUNTY DESCRIPTION PUBLISHED INFORMATION REFERENCES Ba i sh i p1ngshan, S h l x i n g County l a t e Ml P e r i o d h a b i t a t i o n s i t e good s i t e r e p o r t *65, 15 Chengplcun, S h l x i n g County Chevron S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d k i l n s i t e no r e p o r t 90 D1 ngdapushan: '. Taz1J1nshan, Raoping County Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d ( l a t e Shang - Western Zhou) c e m e t e r i e s no r e p o r t 49 Gaod1 yuan H 1, S i h u i County Kui P e r i o d g r a ve no r e p o r t 49 Hedang, Foshan Sh1 s t r a t i f i ed s i t e : 2 l a y e r s , b oth a r e e a r l y to m i d d l e Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l Per i od p a r t i a l r e p o r t s *83, 48 J i n1ans i , Zengcheng County s t r a t ( f i e d s i t e : a- l a t e M i d d l e N e o l i t h i c ( pre-Geometri c) b- Chevron S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d c- Mi P e r i o d s i t e r e p o r t c o n t a i n s o n l y g e n e r a l i n f o r - mation; more det a i1 on cera m i c s i n r e f e r e n c e #79 *64, 79 Lanmashan, Hua1j i County Kui P e r i o d g r a ve no r e p o r t 49 Luodlng H 1 L u odlng County Kui P e r i o d grave no s i t e r e p o r t , p a r t i a l deta11 in r e f e r e n c e #49 49 Luoding #2 Luodlng County Kui P e r i o d g r a ve no r e p o r t 49 Luoyanshan, Deqing County Mi P e r i o d g r a ve deta11ed s 1 t e r e p o r t 34 Maogang, Gaoyao County Mi P e r i o d (?) h a b i t a t i o n s i t e d e t a i 1 e d s i t e r e p o r t 37 M a t i p I n g , Ouj1ang County Chevron S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d h a b i t a t i o n s i t e good s i t e r e p o r t 14 TABLE 2.7: Excavated sites in Guangdong 32 SITE/COUNTY DESCRIPTION PUBLISHED INFORMATION REFERENCES Ni anyuzhuan Q u j l a n g County Chevron S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d h a b i t a t i o n s i t e good s i t e r e p o r t 14 N1aodanshan, S1hu1 County Ku1 P e r i o d g r a ve deta11ed s 1 t e r e p o r t 28 Pushaoshan, Ouj i ang County s t r a t i f i e d s i t e : Chevron P e r i o d no r e p o r t 90 S h i x i a , O u j l a n g County s t r a t i f i e d s i t e : a- p r e - G e o m a t r i c to e a r l y Geometr1c b- Chevron S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d c- Kui P e r i o d s e v e r a l p a r t i a l r e p o r t s , no comprehens1ve s i t e r e p o r t 36,71.73. 89,90 Shu 1kou, P1ngyuan County Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d k 1 1 n s i te d e t a l l e d s 1 t e r e p o r t 31 Songshan, Zhaoqing Shi l a t e Mi P e r i o d grave d e t a i 1 e d s i t e r e p o r t 35 Tonggugang, Guangn i ng County Mi P e r i o d cemetery d e t a l l e d s i t e r e p o r t 30 X i gua11ng. Zengcheng County Mi P e r i o d h a b i t a t i o n s i t e good s i t e r e p o r t 15 X1q1aoshan, Nanhai County pre-Geometr1c & Chevron P e r i o d l l t h l c q u a r r y and workshop s i t e s : L o c a l i t i e s #7 & #11 c o n t a i n Geometric rema1ns genera 1 1nformat1 on 32, 50 Zaogang, Nanhai County Chevron S o f t P o t t e r y or T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d h a b i t a t i o n s i t e good s i t e r e p o r t 33 Zoumagang, Shaoguan Sh1 Chevron S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d h a b i t a t i o n s i t e good s i t e r e p o r t 14 TABLE 2.7 (continued) O 50 100 fcm. Key Geometric s i t e Gecmetric b u r i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e of County c o n t a i n i n g u n l o c a t a b l e s i t e Key t o a b b r e v i a t i o n s BS = B a i s h i p i n g s h a n CKW Chung Horn Wan DQ Deqing HD Hed'ang KDW = K a i Dei Wan HJ = Huai j i JLS = J i n l a n s i y.G = Maogang V.KT = Han Kck T s u i NY Z = Nianyuzhuan FYW = Po Yue Wan SK = Shuikou SP Shek P i k SI. = Shan l.'an SX = S h i x i a TGG = Tonggugang XGL = X i g u a l i n g XQS = Xiq i a o s h a n ZG = Zaogang ZKG = Zcu-agang ZQ - Scr.cshan FIGURE 2.3: Location of excavated Geometric si t e s and Bronze Age buri a l s in Guangdong and Guangxi 34 those s i t e s with clear stratigraphy have been extensively excavated. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of such s i t e s seems to be the main purpose of test excavations. A second goal has been to gather s u f f i c i e n t economic and s o c i a l information to accurately place the l o c a l Geometric stages in the appropriate l e v e l in the Marxist evolutionary scheme. Discussion of these three topics: the internal sequence, relationships with neighbouring areas, and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of developmental stages, occupies the bulk of the discussions of the Geometric Horizon in the Chinese l i t e r a t u r e . The type of data retrieved in the course of excavation and reported in the l i t e r a t u r e i s centred on these excavation p r i o r i t i e s . The f i r s t has been approached by selection of c l e a r l y s t r a t i f i e d s i t e s for extensive, excavation. Since the mid 1970's radiocarbon dating techniques have been increasingly used at Lingnan s i t e s . Other techniques, such as thermoluminescence have not been employed. Thermoluminescence has proved largely unusable in Hong Kong, and this might account for i t s lack of use in Guangdong (Meacham 1981:77). Unfortunately because of t h i s emphasis on v e r t i c a l rather . than horizontal excavation strategies the type of information .needed for s p a t i a l studies (both i n t r a - and i n t e r - s i t e ) has not yet been generated in the Lingnan region. Without dire c t access to the a r t i f a c t s themselves i t is impossible to evaluate the conclusions made by the Chinese from such excavated data. What can be done, and w i l l be in succeeding chapters, is to evaluate the inferred patterns of 35 development in l i g h t of what data are available and in l i g h t of current methodology in Western archaeology. This w i l l then be used as a basis for generating hypotheses for further investigation. SITE 1 DESCRIPTION REFERENCES Chung Horn Wan, Hong Kong I s . Hai Dei Wan, Lantau I s . Man Kok T s u i Lantau I s . Po Yue Wan, Cheung Chau Sham Wan, Lamma I s . Shek P i k . Lantau I s . Tai Wan Lamma I s . s t r a t i f i e d s i t e : a- pre-geometr1c, M i d d l e N e o l i t h i c l e v e l b- Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l to Kui P e r i o d s t r a t i f i e d s i t e , s t r a t a v e r y mixed: a- Chevron S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d b- Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l to Kui P e r i o d ; p o s s i b l y a b u r i a l s i t e s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s , p o s s i b l y s e p a r a t e a c t i v i t y a r e a s . Chevron S o f t P o t t e r y to Kui P e r i o d s t r a t i f i e d h a b i t a t i o n s i t e : a- Chevron S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d b- Kui P e r i o d h a b i t a t i o n s i t e ; s e v e r a l p o s s i b l y s e p a r a t e a c t i v i t y s t r a t i f i e d 1 oca 1i t i es a r e a s : a- pre-geometr1c, M i d d l e N e o l i t h i c b- Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l to Kui P e r i o d c- H i s t o r i c P e r i o d i . Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d b u r i a l s i i . s t r a t i f i e d h a b i t a t i o n s i t e : a- Chevron S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d b- Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l to Kui P e r i o d s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s , p r o b a b l y s e p a r a t e a c t i v i t y a r e a s : Kui P e r i o d Bard 1975 W i l l lams 1979 Davis & Tregear 1960 W i l l lams 1980 Meacham. ed. 1978 Meacham. ed. 1977 F i n n 1958, B a r r e t t 1973 'To f a c i l i t a t e r e f e r e n c e to the p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s , s i t e names and l o c a t i o n s i n Hong Kong have been romanized a c c o r d i n g to the common forms used i n the J o u r n a l of the Hong Kong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y . S i n c e these a r e romanizat1ons of Cantonese pronounc1 a11 on they a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h i s study by s e p a r a t i o n and I n i t i a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of each c h a r a c t e r . Thus jf%> J j l r l s romanized as Chung Horn Wan, not Chongkanwan. C» ' j . TABLE 2.8; Hong Kong prehistoric s i t e s included in t h i s study, The several Hong Kong sit e s included in thi s study (Table 2.8) have a l l been the subjects of f a i r l y extensive excavation, and s i t e reports have been published for each. As i s the case 36 for Guangdong, the primary goals of excavation to date (where these were stated) were to recover stratigraphic information. In terms of the methods and strategies employed the Hong Kong excavations are comparable to the Guangdong work. The current colony-wide survey i s a necessary f i r s t step applying methods of regional analysis in the Lingnan area, and i t i s to be hoped that this d i r e c t i o n w i l l be continued in future excavation work. 37 III. CHRONOLOGY OF THE LINGNAN GEOMETRIC HORIZON A. DISCUSSION OF RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY The Geometric Horizon in Lingan extends roughly from the beginning of the Late N e o l i t h i c 3 (between 3000 & 2500 B.C.) through the Bronze and early Iron Ages, with a single and d i s t i n c t i v e type of geometric ceramic decoration continuing into the early h i s t o r i c Western Han period (post 220 B.C.). As I indicated previously,I s h a l l be treating only the prehistoric phases in thi s study. Excavation of several s t r a t i f i e d s i t e s and the application of radiocarbon dating in Guangdong and Hong Kong in recent years have resulted in the chronological and typological d e f i n i t i o n of several periods within the Geometric Horizon in thi s area. These stages are primarily defined by the dominant geometric motifs used on the ceramics, but they also have significance in terms of other developments in material culture and soc i a l and economic l i f e . In thi s chapter I sh a l l deal only with the successive changes in ceramics and other a r t i f a c t s which form the basis for r e l a t i v e dating, and the radiocarbon data from Lingnan s i t e s which has begun to t i e the typological sequence to an absolute time scale. Three recently-published Chinese sources provide typological dating sequences for the Guangdong Geometric Horizon 3Use of the term 'Neolithic' by the archaeologists of this region connotes the presence of polished stone tools, and does not have subsistence implications. 38 (Table 3.1). Xu (1981) o r i g i n a l l y presented his at the 1978 conference on the Impressed Pottery Cultures of South China. He defined 4 stages in the l i f e - c y c l e of the Horizon in Guangdong, from 'Birth' through 'Decline'. In thi s scheme the internal developmental aspects of the Guangdong sequence are stressed. The major respect in which Xu's outline d i f f e r s from subsequent ones i s his d e f i n i t i o n of an I n i t i a l Geometric stage in the Early and Middle Neolithic, represented by check-stamped ceramics. This stage is not included as part of the Geometric Horizon proper by other writers. The stages defined by He (1981) are consistent with the last three periods defined by Xu, except that a terminal stage is added: the period of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 'check and seal' stamped hard pottery of Western Han. In other respects the temporal boundaries of He's sequence coincide with those of Xu. The Guangdong Provincial Museum in the Shuikou s i t e report (1983a) provides yet another dating sequence. In this case the long 'Developmental' period i s subdivided into three: Late N e o l i t h i c , Shang period, and Western Zhou period. This d i v i s i o n i s based on a finer breakdown of changes in ceramic fabric and surface decoration, for the purpose of more precisely defining the date of the Shuikou s i t e . These ceramic features are not sp e c i f i c to the Shuikou s i t e , but are found in a l l Guangdong Geometric s i t e s . Hong Kong, situated at about the mid-point of the Guangdong coastline has been the scene of much archaeological work in the past 20 - odd years. The geometric sequence in t h i s limited GUANGDONG PROVINCE Xu, 1981 He, 1981 Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1983a HONG KONG Meacham, 1981 GUANGXI PROVINCE Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s B r i g a d e , 1981 INITIAL STAGE [ E a r l y - M i d d l e N e o l i t h i c ] CHECK-STAMPED POTTERY [ L a t e N e o l 1 t h i c ] ( t r u e G e ometric H o r i z o n ) DEVELOPMENT [ L a t e N e o l 1 t h i c to e a r l y E a s t e r n Zhou: ca.2700/3000 - 700 BC] CHEVRON STAGE LATE NEOLITHIC LATE NEOLITHIC [ca.2500 - 1500 BC] SHANG PERIOD WESTERN ZHOU PERIOD EARLY BRONZE AGE [ca.1700 - 10O0 BC] SPRING S AUTUMN PERIOD LATE BRONZE AGE [ca.1000 - 400 BC] 'KUI' STAGE [Western Zhou to S p r i n g & Autumn p e r i o d ] FLORESCENCE [ l a t e S p r i n g & Autumn to e a r l y Warring S t a t e s : ca.700 - 400 BC] 'KUI' STAGE WARRING STATES PERIOD 'MI' STAGE [Warring S t a t e s p e r i o d ] DECLINE [mid to l a t e Warring S t a t e s : ca.400 - 200 BC] 'MI' STAGE CHECK & SEAL STAGE [Western Han] TABLE 3.1: Previously suggested chronological subdivisions of the Lingnan Geometric Horizon 40 area i s consequently well-studied and makes an important comparative example to the Guangdong sequences, which are based on data from s i t e s scattered over a wide area. The most recent chronological outline for the Hong Kong prehistoric is provided by Meacham (1981). Meacham defines the subdivisions of the Geometric Horizon in the t r a d i t i o n a l Neolithic/Bronze Age terminology . The main difference with the Guangdong schemes, apart from minor variations in absolute dates, is his d e f i n i t i o n of a separate 'Early Bronze Age' period equating with the 'Shang' and 'Western Zhou' stages of the Guangdong Provincial Museum sequence. As is the case with the l a t t e r , Meacham's subdivision i s based on a finer breakdown of the ceramic sequence during the 'Developmental' stage . Furthermore, Meacham hypothesizes the concomitant beginnings of metal-working during this period, hence his use of the term 'Bronze Age' (1982:78-79) . F i n a l l y , Table 3.1 i l l u s t r a t e s the co r r e l a t i o n between the Guangdong and Guangxi Geometric. An i n i t i a l phase of coarse check-stamped pottery similar to Guangdong's pre-geometric is found also in Guangxi, l a s t i n g through to the Bronze Age. In l i g h t of present knowledge, the e a r l i e s t Geometric pottery in Guangxi corresponds to Guangdong's Kui Period. However, the e a r l i e s t geometric here has not been defined by excavation or radiocarbon dating, thus i t is possible that the lower boundary might be pushed further back by future research. The two prehi s t o r i c periods of the Geometric currently defined in Guangxi are equivalent to the l a t t e r 2 periods of the Guangdong 41 Geometric, and are almost i d e n t i c a l in content. The chronological scheme I s h a l l use in t h i s study incorporates features of a l l of the above. In l i g h t of recent excavation r e s u l t s , the subdivision of the 'Developmental' stage is well j u s t i f i e d . It i s also more useful for studying developments in such areas as technology. Although i t is useful to define the temporal relationship between the h i s t o r i c cultures of the Zhongyuan (Central Plains) and the prehistoric cultures of Lingnan, to use the northern terminology to actually designate the Lingnan periods i s inappropriate. As many Chinese archaeologists have noted, the Lingnan Geometric cultures have their own independent developmental cycle whose relationship to other regions of China is yet to be precisely defined (Wen Wu Correspondent 1979, Guangdong Provincial Museum 1979). On the other hand I do not wish to follow Meacham's example and use the Neolithic/Bronze Age designations for a scheme designed to be generally applicable to the Lingnan region. The beginnings of bronze-working and bronze-use in Lingnan are s t i l l very poorly- defined, and may vary on a sub-regional scale. Changes in ceramic fabric and surface patterning do seem to be the most sensitive and generally-applicable chronological indicator, thus I have followed He's example, and named the subdivisions of the Geometric according to the major ceramic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Table 3.2 presents the major outlines of this sequence. In the remainder of t h i s chapter I s h a l l present in more d e t a i l the s p e c i f i c chronological changes in the material remains, and the excavated s i t e assemblages which have contributed to defining CERAMIC PERIOD APPROXIMATE DATES CULTURAL PERIOD REPRESENTATIVE SITES [PRE-GEOMETRIC: CHECK S INCISED CHEVRON] 3600-3000 B C . Late Middle N e o l 1 t h i c to i n i t i a l L a t e Neo1f th i c S h i x i a p e r i o d 1&2 graves; J i n l a n s i lower l a y e r CHEVRON 1 chevron & check- impressed s o f t p o t t e r y 3000-2500 B C . E a r l y Late N e o l i t h i c Mat ip1ng S h i x i a lower l a y e r & P e r i o d 3 graves CHEVRON 2 chevron 8 complex- 1 ine check, s o f t pot t e r y 2700-1000 B C . Late N e o l 1 t h i c Zoumagang Po Yue Wan Sham Wan, l a y e r Cb S h i x i a , middle l a y e r & P e r i o d 4 g r a v e s J i n l a n s i , middle l a y e r CHEVRON 3 s o f t - h a r d p o t t e r y t r a n s i t i on Late N e o l 1 t h i c to E a r l y Bronze Age Hedang, l a y e r s 2&3 Dongkengnan Shakengnan Shuikou KUI 800-500 B C Late Bronze Age ( c a . S p r i n g & Autumn per 1od) S h i x i a , upper l a y e r Sham Wan, l a y e r Ca MI 500-200 B C Late Bronze to E a r l y Iron Age (c a . Warring S t a t e s ) X i gua11ng Ba i sh1p ingshan J i n l a n s i , upper l a y e r Maogangcun TABLE 3.2: Temporal subdivisions of the Lingnan Geometric Horizon 43 them. B. CHRONOLOGICAL SUBDIVISIONS OF THE LINGNAN GEOMETRIC HORIZON 1 . I n i t i a l , Pre-geometric Phase Pottery bearing check-stamped and incised chevron patterning has been unearthed at 2 Neolithic s i t e s in Guangdong — Shixia and J i n l a n s i -- dating to the terminal Middle N e o l i t h i c , or early Late Neolithic (Figure 3.1). This seems to be the immediate precursor of the f i r s t impressed geometric pottery in the area (Xu 1981:204). 2. Chevron & Check-impressed Soft Pottery (Chevron-1) An overlapping chevron patterning dominates the impressed geometric pottery of this period, with simple check patterning also prominent. Geometric pottery as a whole constitutes only a small fraction of the t o t a l ceramic assemblage (Table 3.3). Other geometric patterns present in this stage include basket, comb, double-circle, whirlpool and net (Figure 3.2). Individual vessels are t y p i c a l l y decorated with only one geometric motif; patterns are t y p i c a l l y applied in a haphazard, irregular manner, hence the designation "overlapping chevron". There are only a small number of vessel forms, most common are jars, open bowls (both round-based, and on high rin g - f e e t ) , and coarse-tempered potstands. Remains of tripod ding vessels have been found at early s i t e s of this period such as 44 1-4. J i n l a n s i l o w e r l a y e r (Xu 1981:204) 5-13. S h i x i a , base of l o w e r l a y e r (Zhu e t a l . 1981:226) FIGURE 3.1 I n c i s e d g e o m e t r i c c e r a m i c s from Guangdong s i t e s . N i a n y u z h u a n and S h i x i a i n Q u j i a n g c o u n t y " ( F i g u r e 3 . 3 ) . The f a b r i c of t h e g e o m e t r i c c e r a m i c s i s f i n e - t e m p e r e d , s o f t and l o w - f i r e d (maximum c a . 800° C ) . G e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n i n g ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f weave-type i m p r e s s i o n s ) i s not f o u n d on c o a r s e - tempered c e r a m i c s of t h i s p e r i o d . " V e s s e l s f r o m P e r i o d 1 t o 3 b u r i a l s a t S h i x i a show many s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s w h i c h a r e u n i q u e i n Guangdong, but w h i c h have c l o s e a f f i n i t i e s t o v e s s e l forms f o u n d a t s i t e s i n J i a n g x i , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e lower r e a c h e s o f t h e Y a n g t z e (Su 1978). O n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of t h e b u r i a l c e r a m i c s a r e c o m p a r a b l e i n form and d e c o r a t i o n t o t h o s e from the h a b i t a t i o n l a y e r s , or f r om o t h e r G e o m e t r i c s i t e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . S i n c e t h e more v a r i e d forms a r e n o t t y p i c a l o f o t h e r G e o m e t r i c s i t e s t h e y have not been i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s p e r i o d . The S h i x i a c e r a m i c s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r below. SITE NAME FABRIC (X) Co a r s e F i n e hard Iso f t Other SURFACE DECORATION: Geome t r i e of c o a r s e | o f f i n e CA) Non- Geome t r i e Major P a t t e r n s t o t a l of t o t a l Chevron 1 S h i x i a ( l o w e r ) 42.5 0 100 57 .5 7.7 92 .3 1 .chevron M a t I p l n g 88.4 0 too 11.S . . . n. r . 1 n. r . Chevron 2 S h i x l a ( m i d d l e ) 33.3 0 100 GS.7 64.2 1.chevron, 2.comp1 e x - l i n e check 38.69 61 .31 3.thundercloud: check J l n l a n s l ( m i d d l e ) 75.4 0 100 21.0 3.6 n. r . n. r . 1.chevron. 2 . t h u n d e r c l o u d 3.compI ex- 1ine check Chevron 3 Hedang ( l o w e r ) 40.2|59.8 52.1 65.1 25 e S9.S 14 .8 50.2 49. s 1.chevron. 2.chevron & thunder 3.check; 11ne (uppe r ) 19.9|80.1 48.7 56.0 21.1 71.4 7.6 50.2 49 a 1.chevron 213.chevron & thunder: check; t i n e Shuikou • E5.2|24.6 100 68 3 10.2 89.8 71 S 23.5 1.check. 2.t hunderc1oud Kui P e r i o d Z a l g u a n g d l n g ' 20 80 mln. maj. ( c o a r s e ) 1 . I n c i s e d . 2 . b o w s t r i n g 82 . 7 IS.5 minor 1ty major 1ty ( f i n e s o f t ) 1.check. 2.weave ( f i n e hard) 1 .ku1. 2.thunderc1oud, ml . c i r c l e , check nil P e r i o d X1gua11ng ma). mln. mln. maj . 93 2 6.8 1 .n±. 2.check, 3. tnc1sed B a i s h i p i n g s h a n ma J. mln. mln. maj . 77 .8 22 .5 1 . mi_. 2 . chock 3 . 1 ne 1 sed 1 n . r . • not r e p o r t e d ' t e s t e x c a v a t i o n o n l y TABLE 3.3: Temporal changes in ceramic fabric and surface decoration in excavated assemblages. P E R I O D MAIN S I T E S simple check complex-line check P A T T E R chevron weave N S circle and dot s p i r a l thundercloud Shix ia (lower) o or > UJ X u r- u. O z o z < or Jinlansi (middle) Shixia (middle) Hong Kong (various) Zaogang Hedang (2 S 3) llll A H § S K I l i b I - <D<8 M 'mm 3 Sham Wan Man Kok Tsui Shixia (upper) Xigualing Boishi- pingshan Jinlansi (upper) FIGURE 3 .2a: G e o m e t r i c c e r a m i c s u r f a c e p a t t e r n s : Guangdong P r o v i n c e 47 FIGURE 3.2a (continued) FIGURE 3.2b: Geometric ceramic surface patterns, Guangxi Province FIGURE 3 . 3 : Representative ceramic vessel forms of the Geometric Period 50 Associated a r t i f a c t s include a variety of polished and partly-polished stone tools and ornaments, as well as similar a r t i f a c t s in bone and s h e l l . Two radiocarbon dates on charcoal samples from the Shixia s i t e are relevant to this period (Table 3.4).- BK-76024 and BK- 75046 are from a pre-geometric Period 1 b u r i a l , and an early Geometric Period 3 b u r i a l respectively. The range of these dates f a l l s between 3000 & 2600 B.C.5 From these estimates the e a r l i e s t phase of the Geometric Horizon in northern Guangdong i s approximately 3000 to 2500 B.C.. The only other part of Lingnan where relevant radiocarbon data have been obtained is Hong Kong. Two dates on pre- geometric assemblages from there are older than 3000 B.C., only one (R4585/1) overlaps with the Shixia samples (Table 3.5). Its range is between 2750 and 2150 B.C.. 3. Chevron Soft Pottery Stage (Chevron 2) The chevron motif continues to be the most common of the geometric patterns in this period, but the simple check i s replaced by a wide variety of "complex-line check" patterns (Figure 3.2). A number of terms have been used to denote the l a t t e r . Most writers use simple descriptions such as " t r i p l e - l i n e check and dot" etc., but others also refer to them as 5 Approximate ranges have been calculated by adding one standard deviation to the midpoint of the calib r a t e d date, and roundng off to the nearest 50 years. Ori g i n a l values, and precise c a l i b r a t i o n s are given in Table 2.4. S i t e Name Locat1on Sample M a t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n s Date C a i i b r a t e d Date' Sample D1anhuachang (Songshah) Zhaoqing Shi (West R i v e r ) wood l a t e Warring S t a t e s p e r i o d tomb 2570+75 bp 620t75 BC ZK-210 Dongkengnan Ha 1feng X i an ( E a s t C o a s t ) c h a r c o a l from underneath baked c l a y " s t o v e " f e a t u r e , w i t h h a r d net-stamped p o t t e r y 3039±400 bp 123lt401 BC Lamont 188C-I Hedang Lanshi Foshan Shi (Centra) Region) s h e l 1 shel 1 bottom of grave.Ml. Sample i s from Layer 3 bottom of grave M i l . Sample i s from Layer 3 5020+100 bp 4910+100 bp 3682±135 BC 3555+135 BC ZK-526- ZK-527- I I s h e l 1 bottom of grave M12. Sample i s from Layer 3 4955+100 bp 3606+135 BC ZK-528- I s h e l 1 from ash p i t . w i t h s o f t g e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y & p o l i s h e d stone t o o l s . Layer 3 4905+150 bp 3552+.175 BC ZK-546- I bone from grave M1. Layer 2 3605+100 bp 1950+164 BC ZK-547- 0 bone from grave. M12. Layer 2 3840*120 bp 2248+164 BC ZK-548-0 charcoa1 from hard burnt e a r t h s u r f a c e . T2 Layer 2 4 100+80 bp 2576+123 BC ZK-647 d1nians1 Houshangang Zengcheng X i a n ( E a s t R i v e r ) s h e l l from midden, w i t h s o f t g e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y ; stepped & s h o u l d e r e d adzes 4035+95 bp 24941145 BC ZK-103 Maogangcun Gaoyao X i a n (West R i v e r ) c a r b o n i z e d wood Area A, T2, Layer 3 with stone adzes, bone t o o l s , & geo m e t r i c p o t t e r y 4070+-.100 bp 2539+137 BC ZK-707 wood Area B, T1. Layer 3 with stone adzes, bone t o o l s , & geo m e t r i c p o t t e r y 4265t90 bp 2783+136 BC ZK-708 wood (as above) 4290+100 bp 2814±143 BC ZK-7 10 TABLE 3.4: Guangdong: radiocarbon dates on Geometric sites S i te Name Locat i o n Sample M a t e r i a l Assoc i a t ions Date Ca11brated Date 1 Sample H Shakengnan H a i f e n g X i a n ( E a s t Coast) sh e l 1 from midden, with c o r d and net-impressed p o t t e r y and p o l i s h e d stone t o o l s . 3219+150 bp 1459+-160 BC Lament -201A Sh i x i a Maba, Ouj i ang X i an (N o r t h e r n Region) c h a r c o a l charcoa1 from grave M43 ( P e r i o d 3) from grave M79 ( P e r i o d 1) 4330+-90 bp 4220+110 bp 2863±136 272T+150 BC BC BK-75046 BK-76024 charcoa1 from grave M26 ( P e r i o d 4) 4020±1OO bp 2471±137 BC BK-75050 X i q i a o s h a n Loca1 i t y 7 Nanhai Xian ( C e n t r a l Region) sh e l 1 shel 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 5050+1OO 5470+100 bp bp 3713±135 4 175±162 BC BC ZK-543-1 ZK-544-1 Zaogang Nanhai X i a n ( C e n t r a l Region) sh e l 1 Layer 3, with s o f t 8> hard g e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y , 5405+120 bp 4103+175 BC ZK-545-I C a i t b r a t i o n system = Damon et a l . 1974 TABLE 3.4 (continued) S i te Name Locat ion Sample Mater i a 1 Assoc i a t i ons Date C a i i b r a t e d Date 1 Sample # Chung Horn Wan Hongkong I s l a n d charcoa1 M i d d l e N e o l i t h i c assemblage 4570+130 bp 3156+-1 15 BC 1-8827 Hai Dei Wan Lantau I s l a n d c h a r c o a l Middle N e o l i t h i c assemblage 5100+100 bp 3773+146 BC HAR-2522 charcoa1 mixed Late N e o l i t h i c / E a r l y Bronze Age assemblage 3360+80 bp 1636+91 BC HAR-3589 c h a r c o a l (as above) 3200±160 bp 1434+169 BC ANU-2223 Po Yue Wan Cheung Chau she l 1 Late N e o l i t h i c assemblage 3740+80 bp 2121±153 BC HAR-4G97 shel 1 (as above) 3780+70 bp 2172+148 BC HAR-4698 shel 1 (as above) 3730±70 bp 2108+.148 BC HAR-4700 shel 1 (as above) 3680±70 bp 2044+148 BC HAR-4699 Sham Wan Lamma I s l a n d charcoa1 M i d d l e N e o l i t h i c assemblage 4000+300 bp 2450t314 BC R-4585/1 shel 1 Late N e o l i t h i c assemblage 3830t95 bp 2235±161 BC I-10057b she l 1 (as above) 3740+-95 bp 2121±161 BC I-10057a shel 1 (as above) 31 10*95 bp 1320+-1 10 BC 1-10056 shel 1 Late Bronze Age assemblage 2485+85 bp 557+93 BC* 1-9954 Shek P i k Lantau I s l a n d charcoa1 Late N e o l i t h i c assemblage 3270190 bp 1522+106 BC ANU-2222 1 C a i i b r a t I o n system used = Damon et a l . 1974 L n TABLE 3 . 5 : Hong Kong: radiocarbon dates on prehistoric sites 54 " l a t t i c e " , "composite net" (Meacham [ed] 1978, Maglioni 1975). Judging by the i l l u s t r a t i o n s , a l l such terms simply refer to v a r i e t i e s of the complex-line check. New motifs include the thundercloud and the 's'-shaped pattern. Combination of more than one geometric motif on a single vessel, zoned either in bands, or on di f f e r e n t portions of the vessel body, appears f i r s t during this period, a l b e i t in minor proportions: at Shixia, such "group patterns" constitute only 1.6% of the t o t a l geometric pottery assemblage. The arrangement of individual impressions i s more orderly than in the previous period. In addition to the ring-footed, round-bottomed forms of the preceding period, rounded indented bases become very common. An angular break at the shoulder is a second i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of vessel form in th i s and the following period. A small proportion of coarse-tempered cooking pots begin to be decorated with stamped geometric patterns such as the chevron. Interestingly, Meacham has stated that in Hong Kong the geometric-stamping of coarse ware vessels does not begin there before the Early Bronze Age (1982:78-79). It i s thus possible that the coarse wares are more variable at a sub-regional scale than are the finer wares. Associated a r t i f a c t s show no s i g n i f i c a n t changes from the preceding period. The radiocarbon data for th i s period are quite abundant, however in the opinion of the Chinese archaeologists concerned, there are serious d i f f i c u l t i e s with many of the dates obtained. The only two dates accepted by the Chinese are one from a Period 55 4 (middle layer) grave at Shixia, and one from the middle layer of the J i n l a n s i s i t e . Both f a l l between 2600 and 2300 B.C., and are in accord with the dates obtained for the previous period, as well as with dates from similar assemblages in Hong Kong. The l a t t e r date between 2400 & 1900 B.C. (Po Yue Wan; Sham Wan) and 1600 - 1400 B.C. (Shek P i k ) . On the basis of these data, the Chevron soft pottery period extends roughly between 2600 & 1200 B.C.. The rejected dates are from 3 s i t e s : Hedang (Layer 3), Zaogang, and Xiqiaoshan, L o c a l i t y 7 (Zhentou). The assemblage from Layer 3 of Hedang is t y p o l o g i c a l l y s l i g h t l y l a ter than the middle layers of Shixia and J i n l a n s i , however, the four dates obtained from t h i s layer a l l f a l l between 3800 and 3400 B.C. more than 1000 years e a r l i e r than the l a t t e r two s i t e s . Zaogang is t y p o l o g i c a l l y s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r than Hedang layer 3, and i t s single dated sample produced a figure of pre-4000 B.C.. Xiqiaoshan i s a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t problem. The dated assemblage contains only a single geometric (chevron) impressed sherd, but i s estimated to be roughly equivalent to Hedang and Zaogang on the basis of s i m i l a r i t i e s in the m i c r o l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s present at a l l three. Its date f a l l s within the same range as the other s i t e s . I have raised this issue in d e t a i l because there are some s i m i l a r i t i e s between these data that are worth commenting on. A l l of the s i t e s concerned are located in the Pearl Delta region, and a l l the erroneous samples were s h e l l . Charcoal and bone samples from the Hedang s i t e are believed to have yielded 56 r e l i a b l e estimates. Similar problems with d i s t o r t i o n of radiocarbon dates on marine s h e l l have been discussed by Robinson and Thompson (1981) with reference to the western coast of North America. On this side of the P a c i f i c marine s h e l l has been found to y i e l d radiocarbon estimates between 700 and 800 years too old as compared with other dated materials because of the d i s t o r t i n g factor of dissolved marine bicarbonate. It seems that the same factor i s probably responsible for the problems with the Chinese dates, however because the degree of d i s t o r t i o n varies in d i f f e r e n t regions further tests are required to determine the correction neccesary for the Chinese materials. 4. Chevron, Soft - Hard Pottery Transition (Chevron 3) In terms of surface patterning the ceramics of t h i s period are l i t t l e changed from the previous one, as the detailed tabulation of the Hedang ceramics in Table 3.6 indicates. It i s possible that at the end of t h i s period the chevron motif declines in popularity, but the only evidence for this comes from the specialized k i l n s i t e at Shuikou on the northern periphery of Lingnan, which may not be representative of general habitation s i t e s , or of the Lingnan region as a whole. The ide n t i f y i n g feature of the ceramics of t h i s period is the coexistence of soft and hard pottery, and the gradual increase in the prevalence of the l a t t e r . Minute quantities of glazed vessels begin to appear also during this period. Vessel forms are generally consistent with the preceding period. The f i r s t evidence of bronze use and bronze casting i s found in association with some of these ' t r a n s i t i o n a l ' ceramic 57 Fabr I c j LAYER 3 LAYER 'Surface P a t t e r n i n g N ' % of Tota1s : N % of type N % type c o r d impressed G58 24 . OS 423 29 . 27 1 i ne 37 1 . 35 weave 54 1 .97 13 0.9 1nc1sed 48 1 . 75 24 1 . 66 app1i que r1dge 28 1 .02 5 0.35 c h e v r o n 42 1 15 . 39 3 19 22 .08 l a r g e check 490 17.91 196 13.56 thunderc1oud 6 c h e v r o n 102 3 . 73 f2735 25.8 55 3.81 l e a f v e i n 152 5 . 56 27 i.87 c o m p l e x - l i n s check 8 boss 5G 2 .05 23 1 .59 bows t r i ng 1 1 0.4 l a d d e r - s h a p e d check 22 0.8 3 1 2.15 f i s h s e a l e 3 0.11 2 0.14 p r o t r u d i n g dot. & dot 2 0.07 9 0.62 u n c l e a r ; p l a i n r i m Tota1s: N % T v i " 1445 21.08 8 f o o t s h erds 651 -3 o 1 i ne weave app1 i que r i dge c a r v e d h o l e c h e v r o n thunderc1oud 8 c h e v r o n check 1 adder-shaped check 129 3.42 57 1.51 18 0.48 10 0.26 1321 35.02 60 30 13 1 .53 0.77 0. 33 1439 38.06 322 184 4 1 8 . 55 4 . 88 1.14 >3772 35.58 1ea f ve i n 123 3 . 17 f i sh sea 1e 1 2 0. 32 bows t r i ng 5 0. 13 u n c l e a r , p l a i n r im. s h o u l d e r & f o o t 1550 4 1 . 09 1 i ne 226 8 . 93 weave impressed 24 0. 95 i nc i sed 23 0. 91 app1 i que r i dge 52 2 . 06 c a r v e d h o l e 6 0. 24 c h e v r o n 895 35 . 38 thunderc1oud 8 c h e v r o n 140 5 . 53 sma11 check 14 1 5. 57 l a d d e r - s h a p e d check 152 6 . 01 double l e a f 24 O. 95 l e a f v e i n 8 weave 147 5 . 81 dot 8 c i r c l e 13 0. 51 c o m p l e x - l i n e check 8 boss 9 0 36 f i sh sea 1 e 1 1 0. 43 bows t r i ng 18 0 7 1 u n c l e a r : p l a i n r im. s h o u l d e r 8 f o o t 649 25.65 340 8 68 87 2 22 20 0 5 1 35 0 89 20 0 5 1 182 1 46 46 65 6 67 15 1 54 2 0 2 1 13 1 32 355 36.4? 88 9 03 38 3 90 26 2 67 2 0 21 26 2 67 5 0 5 1 6 0 62 ^3917 57 . 15 1 v* "5 ^ 1 ^2530 23.87 >974 14.21 333 34. 19 p l a i n c a r v e d ho 1 e 1552 98.64 2 1 1 .35 1543 14.56 506 98 6 .831 1.17 (512 7 47 1 i ne pa i nt i ng s l i p c o a t i ng 14 6 70.0 30.0 20 0. 19 66 . 33 . 67 33 (6 0.09 n=10.600 n=6854 TABLE 3.6: Detailed tabulation of ceramics unearthed from the Hedang site (Yang and Chen 1981:243) 58 assemblages. The a r t i f a c t s and casting moulds represent small tools and weapons such as axes and daggers (Meacham ed. 1977, Maglioni 1975). Polished stone tools of previous types are s t i l l commonly found. Three samples from the upper layer of the Hedang s i t e have been dated to between 2700 and 1800 B.C., and are associated with c u l t u r a l remains t y p i c a l of the early part of t h i s Period. No evidence of bronze has been found at Hedang. Two s i t e s in Haifeng county which were tested by Maglioni in the 1940's have produced 2 dates in the 1600-800 B.C. and 1600-1300 B.C. range. No evidence of bronze was found at either of these s i t e s , but the high proportion of hard pottery indicates they f a l l into the later part of this period. The Hai Dei Wan s i t e in Hong Kong has given 2 dates between 1700 & 1200 B.C.. A bronze axe and spear point were unearthed from t h i s s i t e , but i t i s not clear whether they are associated with the dated samples or with the Kui Period remains which are also represented at t h i s s i t e (Williams 1979). Therefore, as yet no d e f i n i t e bronze-producing deposits of t h i s period have been dated by absolute methods. The dates on hand for t h i s period range between 2700 and 800 B.C., overlapping considerably with the dates of the previous period, a matter which needs to be c l a r i f i e d by future work. 59 5. K u i P e r i o d , H a r d G e o m e t r i c The i d e n t i f y i n g c e r a m i c t r a i t of t h i s p e r i o d t h r o u g h o u t most of " d o u b l e - f " m o t i f , i n i t s many v a r i e t i e s . 6 The k u i m o t i f i s not f o u n d i n t h e S o u t h e r n Guangdong r e g i o n , and i n G u a n g x i i t i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n r i v e r v a l l e y s l y i n g between t h e X i jian.g and t h e Hunan b o r d e r . In s o u t h e a s t e r n G u a n g x i and s o u t h e r n Guangdong the g e o m e t r i c c e r a m i c s d i s p l a y a l l t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s f o u n d i n t h e r e s t of t h e a r e a ( F i g u r e s 3.2 & 3 . 3 ) . The t r a n s i t i o n t o h i g h e r f i r i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s , and t h e r e f o r e h a r d p o t t e r y , i s c o m p l e t e d by t h i s p e r i o d , a l t h o u g h t h e o c c a s i o n a l s o f t p o t t e r y v e s s e l i s f o u n d i n b o t h K u i and Mi P e r i o d s i t e s . G l a z e d p o t t e r y i s s t i l l f o u n d i n v e r y m i n u t e p r o p o r t i o n s . On f i n e w a r e s zoned g r o u p p a t t e r n i n g c o n t i n u e s t o d o m i n a t e . The more i n t r i c a t e m o t i f s s u c h as t h e k u i and l o z e n g e a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e s h o u l d e r a r e a s , w i t h p l a i n e r n e t and c h e c k p a t t e r n s c o v e r i n g t h e l o w e r p a r t of t h e v e s s e l . C o a r s e wares a r e a l s o commonly i m p r e s s e d w i t h g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n s ; however, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f i n e w a r e s , u s u a l l y o n l y a s i n g l e m o t i f i s a p p l i e d t o a v e s s e l , t h e i m p r e s s i o n s a r e l a r g e r and c o a r s e r , and t h e k u i i s n e v e r a p p l i e d . T h e r e a r e two major changes i n v e s s e l form: t h e a n g l e d s h o u l d e r and i n d e n t e d base a r e no l o n g e r f o u n d , and f l a t based j a r s a p p e a r i n t h e i r p l a c e . 6 Xu (1981) d e f i n e s 5; the Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s B r i g a d e .(1981) o n l y 2, r o u n d e d and a n g u l a r f o r m s . t h e g e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y a r e a of L i n g n a n or 60 Polished stone tools continue to be found in Kui Period contexts, but are reduced in numbers. Bronze a r t i f a c t s and casting remains, on the other hand, have been found in many of this period's s i t e s . Elaborate burials containing quantities of bronze a r t i f a c t s appear f i r s t during t h i s period. Such burials a l l contain at least one l o c a l Geometric pottery vessel, and the weapons and tools are s t y l i s t i c a l l y similar to those found in habitation contexts; hence, even in the absence of absolute dates they can be securely dated to the Kui Period (He 1981:217). Radiocarbon data have not been used by Chinese archaeologists to date this period, rather they have r e l i e d upon comparisons between the s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s of the ceramics and bronzes and those from dated contexts in more northerly regions (eg. He 1981). The i n i t i a l appearance of kui impressed pottery has been placed in late Western Zhou (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1984:209; Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1981) to mid Spring & Autumn (Xu 1981 ), or c i r c a 1 000 to 700 B.C., and i t s disappearance to the end of the Spring & Autumn period, or early Warring States - c i r c a 500-400 B.C.. A single radiocarbon date from the Kui Period layer at the Sham Wan s i t e in Hong Kong l i e s between 450 and 650 B.C., within the boundaries ascribed ;by the Chinese. 61 6. Mi P e r i o d , Hard G e o m e t r i c T h i s f i n a l phase o f t h e p r e h i s t o r i c G e o m e t r i c H o r i z o n i n L i n g n a n i s d e f i n e d by t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e of rni ( ^fc-) and c h e c k - i m p r e s s e d p o t t e r y among the g e o m e t r i c c e r a m i c s , t h e d e c l i n e i n o v e r a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f g e o m e t r i c - i m p r e s s e d p o t t e r y , and t h e v i r t u a l d i s a p p e a r a n c e of g r o u p p a t t e r n i n g . The m_i m o t i f i s f o u n d i n o minor p r o p o r t i o n s a t t h e end of t h e K u i P e r i o d , o f t e n i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e k u i m o t i f , but r e p l a c e s t h e k u i a l t o g e t h e r a t a t i m e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e e a r l y or m i d d l e W a r r i n g S t a t e s . The s e c o n d most common g r o u p of s u r f a c e p a t t e r n s of t h i s p e r i o d a r e i n c i s e d wave, comb o r b o w s t r i n g l i n e s , w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y a p p e a r t o have been a p p l i e d d u r i n g wheel m a n u f a c t u r e of the v e s s e l s . The p r o p o r t i o n of g e o m e t r i c i m p r e s s e d v e s s e l s i n the t o t a l c e r a m i c a s s e m b l a g e i s s t i l l h i g h e a r l y i n t h e Mi P e r i o d , but a p p e a r s t o d e c l i n e towards the end. At X i g u a l i n g , which i s d a t e d t y p o l o g i c a l l y t o e a r l y i n t h i s p e r i o d , g e o m e t r i c i m p r e s s e d p o t t e r y makes up o v e r 83% of t h e t o t a l , w h i l e a t B a i s h i p i n g s h a n , w h i c h i s t y p o l o g i c a l l y l a t e , i t i s l e s s t h a n 65% ( T a b l e 3 ) . P l a i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y g l a z e d , v e s s e l s i n c r e a s e o v e r a l l : t h e l a t t e r from 0.09% a t X i g u a l i n g , t o 5.14% a t B a i s h i p i n g s h a n ( C P . A . M . Guangdong e t a l . 1964b: 151). G e o m e t r i c g r o u p p a t t e r n s a t t h e s e two s i t e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d on o n l y 0.29% and 2.36% of v e s s e l s i n t h e a s s e m b l a g e s . The a b s o l u t e number of d i s t i n c t v e s s e l forms i n c r e a s e s , and some p r e v i o u s l y - e x i s t i n g t y p e s become more e l a b o r a t e w i t h 62 various added handles, spouts, and l i d s during this period. The most important chronological marker in other a r t i f a c t s i s the appearance of iron a r t i f a c t s . Only two have been found in non-burial contexts: an axe, and iron-tipped hoe from Baishipingshan, and an iron-bladed dagger from J i n l a n s i . Iron is found in association with bronze through to the end of the prehi s t o r i c in Lingnan. At excavated habitation s i t e s the only stone tools unearthed have been hammerstones, whetstones, mortars and the l i k e , while only whetstones have been unearthed from burial contexts (CP.A.M. Guangdong et a l . 1964b, Mo 1961, Table 5.5). The sole radiocarbon date on an undisputed mi pottery s i t e i s on a sample of wood from the Zhaoqing tomb, which is estimated on typological grounds to belong to the very end of the Warring States period (Guangdong Pro v i n c i a l Museum et a l . 1974). The date of 620+75 B.C. i s , however, several hundred years e a r l i e r than the s y l i s t i c a f f i n i t i e s indicate. A series of dates from the Maogangcun s i t e , f a l l i n g between 2400 & 2950 B.C., has been rejected by some Chinese archaeologists, who believe the s i t e deposits belong to the Warring States period. The i l l u s t r a t e d ceramic patterns from the s i t e must be very early Mi Period, i f not e a r l i e r , and i t i s possible that the dates relate to an e a r l i e r yet-unidentified component, and not d i r e c t l y to the excavated remains. This issue i s , however, not yet agreed upon among the excavators themselves (Guangdong Provincial Museum et a l . 1983:41). As was the case in the preceding period, the Chinese 63 archaeologists rely on s t y l i s t i c comparisons to date Mi Period assemblages: comparisons are made both with the neighbouring Chu State, and with remains of the following Qin and Han periods from within Lingnan. The beginnings of the Mi Period are accordingly placed at either the beginning or middle of the Warring States Period, and the end to the Qin invasion - c i r c a 5/400 to 220 B.C.. C. DISCUSSION OF THE TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF LINGNAN GEOMETRIC SITES Archaeologists in both China and Hong Kong have, in the past, directed their attention in excavation primarily to defining the temporal aspects of the p r e h i s t o r i c cultures in their respective areas, yet to date, the outlines are s t i l l t entative. The biggest drawback for both r e l a t i v e and absolute dating, is the r e s t r i c t i o n of excavated s i t e s to the Northern and Central regions of Guangdong (Figure 3.4). Better d e f i n i t i o n of the chronological sequence in peripheral areas of the Lingnan Geometric Horizon needs to be an important p r i o r i t y in future research. The most detailed information from Chinese sources regarding the temporal d i s t r i b u t i o n of Geometric s i t e s within Lingnan i s given by He (1981:218). He breaks down the prehistoric Horizon into only three periods (Table 3.1), his f i r s t period being equal to the f i r s t three Chevron periods I have detailed above. His figures are a l l extrapolations from 1962 data. According to his estimates, approximately 310 (50%) Chevron Period, 200 (32%) Kui Period and more than 102 (18%) Mi  65 Period s i t e s have been i d e n t i f i e d in Guangdong. No similar estimates have been published with respect to the Guangxi s i t e s , however, a rough estimate has been made based on the information contained in Appendix 2. Using the presence of kui or thundercloud patterned pottery to indicate Kui Period s i t e s , and mi patterned pottery to indicate Mi Period s i t e s (following Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1981), proportions of approximately 40% Kui and 60% Mi Period sites are obtained, with approximately 10% of s i t e s containing both. In Table 3.7 I have summarized the main chronological indicators among the a r t i f a c t remains, as discussed above. I attempted to use t h i s information in conjunction with data from recorded Geometric si t e s in Guangdong and Guangxi to better delineate the temporal breakdown and areal d i s t r i b u t i o n of geometric s i t e s throughout the p r e h i s t o r i c period. Unfortunately the published data proved inadequate for this purpose. At the time that the survey data were gathered and published the only recognized d i s t i n c t i o n in the Geometric Horizon was between soft and hard pottery, thus data relevant to the finer subdivisions used in t h i s study were generally not reported. Resolution of t h i s question, as well as others dealing with s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s requires access to primary . survey data, and thus cannot be apprached at present. 66 CERAMICS a. Fabric Soft Soft & hard Hard & occasional soft Chevron 1 & 2 Chevron 3 Kui - Mi b. Surface decoration c. Form kui motif mi motif thundercloud motif lozenge/hui motif group patterns (few) (many) glaze wheel-applied decorat ion angled shoulder indented base f l a t base wheel-manufactured large jars Kui late Kui - Mi Chevron 2 - early Mi Kui - early Mi Chevron 2; Mi Chevron 3 - Kui late Chevron 3 - Mi Mi Chevron 2 & 3 Chevron 2 & 3 Kui - Mi Mi METAL bronze i ron late Chevron 3 - Mi late Mi STONE ge dagger-axe late Chevron 3 - early Kui TABLE 3.7 A r t i f a c t t r a i t s with defined temporal significance. 67 IV. ENVIRONMENT AND SUBSISTENCE A. PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES AND PALEOENVIRONMENT 1. Topography Lingnan, l i t e r a l l y "south of the (Wuling or Nanling) range" i s the common name for the region which includes modern Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces (Figure 1.1). Although the Wuling mountains are not high in absolute terms they do form a si g n i f i c a n t barrier between the drainage areas of the West River (Xijiang) and the Yangtze (Changjiang). They also lend a measure of physiographic and climatic unity to the Guangdong/Guangxi area which the term 'Lingnan' r e f l e c t s . In addition to the northern boundary of the Wuling mountains and the southern boundary of the South China Sea, Lingnan is also bounded to the east and west by areas of greater u p l i f t . The Fujian Massif in the northeast is an extremely rugged gran i t i c formation which permits no easy north-south passage, thus e f f e c t i v e l y cuts off Guangdong from the lower Yangtze region. The Guizhou Plateau whose f o o t h i l l s extend into the western t h i r d of Guangxi forms the southwestern boundary of Lingnan (Figure 4.1). A single major river system, which empties to the sea through the Pearl Delta of central Guangdong, drains most of Lingnan. The main branch i s the West River (Xijiang) which passes through western Guangdong and Guangxi to the Guizhou Plateau and Yunnan Province. The two other main branches, the East (Dongjiang) and North Rivers (Beijiang) and their 68 FIGURE 4.1: Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces: r e l i e f (Hsieh 1973:164) 6 9 t r i b u t a r i e s drain most of i n t e r i o r Guangdong south of the Wuling, except for the far northeastern area. The only major river system which i s not part of t h i s network i s the Han River in the far northeast of Guangdong, although a l l along the seacoast other minor ri v e r s flow short distances d i r e c t l y into the sea (Figure 4.2). Although the r i v e r s are quite fast-flowing, most are navigable by r e l a t i v e l y large c r a f t and provide the major communication/transportation routes throughout Lingnan even today (Tregear 1980:304). The general r e l i e f of Lingnan i s very steep; rive r valleys are narrow and valley bottom lands are subject to seasonal flooding. There are only two major a l l u v i a l plains, located at the mouths of the Pearl and Han Rivers. Both deltas have only been forming since the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of sea levels approximately 6-7,000 years ago (Huang et a l . 1979:290-291); both the outer margins and the location of internal chanels are unstable, and defining their boundaries during the late p r e h i s t o r i c period i s d i f f i c u l t . The coastline is steep and indented with many small sheltered harbours. The one point of contrast to this general picture is the low-lying Leizhou Peninsula at the southern t i p of the Guangdong mainland. 2. CIimate The Tropic of Cancer crosses through central Lingnan. This location, combined with the sheltering effect of the Wuling results in the maintenence of a subtropical (in the northern highlands) to t r o p i c a l (in the south) climate in Lingnan a l l  71 year. Consequently there i s a year-long growing season. There are however marked seasonal fluctuations in r a i n f a l l and minor fluctuations in temperature. Summers are hot and humid thanks Guilin Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total Temp °C 90 6-8 9-6 12-3 18-2 22-1 26-8 28-5 27-6 25-9 22-3 15-5 Rainfall 41 102 109 239 358 417 203 178 76 66 53 41 1883 mm Guangzhou Temp°C 13-3 13 9 17-2 21-7 26-7 27-2 28-3 26-7 23-9 19 4 15 6 Rainfall 23 48 107 173 269 269 205 219 165 86 31 23 1618 mm Shantou (40 m) Temp°C 150 13-9 16-7 21 1 250 27-8 28-9 28-3 27-8 24-4 200 16 7 Rainfall 36 63 79 145 229 267 198 213 142 71 41 38 1522 mm TABLE 4.1 : Annual temperature and r a i n f a l l figures at G u i l i n , Guangzhou and Shantou. (Tregear 1980:303,306). to the summer monsoon from the South China Sea, and winters are cool and dry due to the prevalence of winds from the northern i n t e r i o r of Asia. The Wuling modify the effects of the winter monsoon however, and frost only occurs on the highest peaks (Tregear 1980:24). 3. Vegetation And S o i l s The contemporary vegetation of most of Lingnan has been greatly impacted by man over the past 2,000 years. It is therefore not r e f l e c t i v e of the prehistoric environment. Reconstruction of paleovegetational patterns has r e l i e d on three l i n e s of evidence: s o i l s , climate, and remnant areas of o r i g i n a l forest (Wang 1961:7-24). Only the main outlines of the paleovegetation of Lingnan have been reconstructed. The natural vegetation was 72 a dense subtropical to t r o p i c a l evergreen broadleaf forest. In northern and highland areas the main constituents of the forest were evergreen oak and l a u r e l . Rainforest vegetation occurred in more southerly and low-lying regions, and l i t t o r a l forests held along the coastline. In very low-lying and sheltered coastal zones of high deposition, extensive mangrove formations were common (Wang 1961:129-30; 142-145; 165-168, Hsieh 1973 Map 1-45) . The predominant s o i l s of the h i l l y areas are 'old red earths'. These s o i l s are thin, f r a g i l e and a c i d i c , and suject to l a t e r i z a t i o n and rapid loss of f e r t i l i t y after only one or two years under c u l t i v a t i o n (Buck 1937:151). Because of the seasonally high r a i n f a l l and the steep r e l i e f these s o i l s are easily eroded when stripped of the natural forest cover, hence the present barren and eroded aspect of much of i n t e r i o r Lingnan (Tregear 1980:28-31). Relatively more f e r t i l e non-calcareous alluvium is found only in r e s t r i c t e d areas along valley-bottoms and rive r deltas. These s o i l s are amenable to continuous c u l t i v a t i o n as long as the effects of leaching are compensated for by constant f e r t i l i z a t i o n (Buck 1937:143). B. IMPLICATIONS FOR PREHISTORIC SUBSISTENCE AND SETTLEMENT The general topographic and vegetational patterns l i m i t habitation primarily to r i v e r valleys and the low fringing h i l l s , except in the central lowlands around the Pearl River delta and the delta of the Han River. Along the coastline the numerous bays and small estuaries also provide areas for 7 3 habitation. The general patterning of prehistoric s i t e s , as reported by the Chinese, i s in accord with t h i s expected pattern. The majority of s i t e s of the early Geometric are found on lower h i l l s l o p e s and h i l l t o p s fringing the ri v e r s , and on low h i l l s and sanddunes along the coast. It is not possible at present to ascertain whether there are differences between the various periods of the Geometric in terms of s i t e location with respect to c u l t i v a b l e land. No detailed topographic or s o i l s maps are currently available, and published locational information i s not very s p e c i f i c . However He (1981:221) has noted with respect to the Pearl Delta area that during the Kui and Mi Periods shellmound s i t e s , which are common site-types in the Late Neol i t h i c , decline markedly in frequency. This change he attributes to a s h i f t in subsistence patterns from a broadly- based primarily food-gathering strategy to more intensive agr i c u l t u r e . Specific archaeological evidence for subsistence practices is very thin. The Chinese have r e l i e d on inferred functional tool types as their primary source of evidence, supplemented (especially in more recent reports) by plant and animal macrofossils. Very detailed investigations of subsistence have been i n i t i a t e d at a few s i t e s in the lower Yangtze area for example, which rely on more detailed data such as pollen analysis (Wang et a l . 1980, Sun et a l . 1981), however these techniques have not as yet been reported for archaeological investigations in Lingnan. The use of additional techniques 74 such as f l o t a t i o n for recovering m i c r o f o s s i l remains would be invaluable to reconstructing the d e t a i l s of s i t e environments and subsistence behaviour. Residue and use-wear analyses might also be pr o f i t a b l y applied to testing the inferred functions of tools. For the present I s h a l l just consider the evidence that is available. Prior to the appearance of iron a g r i c u l t u r a l tools in the lat e r Mi Period there is l i t t l e evidence of intensive a g r i c u l t u r a l practices. Tool assemblages recovered from most e a r l i e r Geometric s i t e s are a mixture of hunting, woodworking, and chopper-type implements which have been inferred to be hoes when recovered from inland s i t e s , and "oyster picks" in coastal s i t e s (C.P.A.M. Guangdong et a l . 1964a, Guangdong Provincial Museum 1961:647). Processing tools such as mortars, pestles and knives are also commonly recovered items. The faunal and f l o r a l remains recovered from excavated si t e s seem to indicate a mixed food-gathering, animal-raising, hunting and h o r t i c u l t u r a l strategy. Remains of domestic pig and dog occur in most faunal l i s t s , along with deer (various species), wild boar, c a t t l e and elephant. In d e l t a i c s i t e s a l l i g a t o r and t u r t l e occur, along with various species of f i s h and s h e l l f i s h (Huang et a l . 1979:290-291. Guangdong Provincial Museum et a l . 1983, Yang and Chen 1981:242). Coastal s i t e s , at least in Hong Kong, contain mainly f i s h and s h e l l f i s h remains, along with deer, pig and dog (Williams 1980, Meacham, ed. 1978). F l o r a l remains are primarily nuts such as walnut and 75 gingko, and f r u i t s such as jujube, dates, olives, and persimmon (Guangdong Provincial Museum et a l . 1978,1983). These kinds of remains however have been recovered from so few s i t e s that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to generalize about wild plant u t i l i z a t i o n . Since the normal c u l t i v a t i o n system of a t r o p i c a l area such as this is dependent on root- rather than seed-crops, physical evidence of t r o p i c a l crops tends not to be preserved in the archaeological record (Harris 1972). On analogy with t r o p i c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l systems elsewhere we might expect that at most site s non-intensive c u l t i v a t i o n of a variety of root-crops was practiced (Geertz 1963:15-28). This general picture accords with the general lack of specialized c u l t i v a t i o n tools and the indications of the use of a broad spectrum of wild resources at most Geometric s i t e s . There i s some evidence of ri c e c u l t i v a t i o n in the immediate pre-geometric and early Geometric Periods. Remains of cultivated r i c e have been recovered from the Shixia and N i l i n g s i t e s in northern Guangdong from t h i s time (Guangdong Provincial Museum et a l . 1979:327), and r e l a t i v e l y sophisticated a g r i c u l t u r a l tools (spades and picks) of styles found in the central and lower Yangtze regions were recovered from associated burials at Shixia. According to investigators, such tools were associated with male burials, and th i s has led them to infer that agriculture was well developed and quite intensive. Some degree of continued reliance on wild products i s also indicated by the presence of wild f r u i t and nut remains (Guangdong Provincial Museum et a l . 1978:23). These si t e s provide the only 76 dire c t evidence of agriculture before the Mi Period, but the lack of such evidence from other areas of Lingnan may be simply a r e f l e c t i o n of i n s u f f i c i e n t data recovery techniques in the pa s t. In summary, presently-available data from Lingnan geometric s i t e s indicates that prior to the late Geometric subsistence was in general broadly based: a mixture of non-intensive c u l t i v a t i o n and wild food gathering. The pa r t i c u l a r species exploited varied according to the major environmental zone: coastal, d e l t a i c , estuarine, or i n t e r i o r r i v e r i n e , but the mixed strategy was apparently common throughout the region. The appearence of iron a g r i c u l t u r a l tools in the Mi Period, and the associated decline in s h e l l midden deposits may, as He suggests, indicate a t r a n s i t i o n to more intensive a g r i c u l t u r a l practices in the later Geometric (see also Meacham 1980 for similar comments with reference to Hong Kong), but this is a topic that must await the accumulation of more data before i t can be explored further. C. IMPLICATIONS FOR PREHISTORIC COMMUNICATION PATTERNS Prehistoric communication routes both within Lingnan and between Lingnan and neighbouring regions were strongly conditioned by topographic and environmental factors. As mentioned above, the heavy forest cover and steep r e l i e f of most of the i n t e r i o r limited communication routes to the rive r network. The abundance of sheltered anchorages along the coastline f a c i l i t a t e d maritime communications. However, there are only 77 two main points of entry to the i n t e r i o r network from the coast: the Pearl and Han River deltas. The former gives access from the sea to the majority of inland Lingnan, and beyond to the southwestern region of China, while The Han River network covers the northeast corner of Guangdong and the Southwest extremity of Fujian Province (Figure 4.2). Communication routes to neighbouring regions follow a small number of rive r routes because of the ruggedness of the borders of Lingnan. As was mentioned above, there is no overland access to the north through the coastal province of Fujian. The most direc t route to the northern coastal zone was by sea. Moving inland, the f i r s t major north-south route is the Gan River valley through the centre of Jiangxi. This was the major route between Guangdong and Peking in h i s t o r i c times (Tregear 1980:304). The main pass connecting the Gan with a branch of the North River i s the Meiling pass. Both the Gan and North r i v e r s are navigable up to their headwaters; a canal now passes through this route (Tregear 1980:301). Access to the Gan River can also be made from the Han River through southwest Fujian, as well as the East River, but these routes are more d i f f i c u l t (Rawski 1972:59-61). A second branch of the North River leads to the Zheling pass through to a tributary of the Xiang River which i s the main fiv e r flowing through central Hunan Province to the central Yangtze. The Zheling pass i s currently the major r a i l and highway route between Guangdong and the central Yangtze (Tregear 1980:301). 78 FIGURE 4.3:: Bronze yue and "boot-shaped" axes (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1981; Guangxi Cu l t u r a l Properties Brigade 197 79 The th i r d inland route between Lingnan and the north leads from the Gui River (which branches from the West River at Wuzhou) through to the headwaters of the Xiang in northeast Guangxi. This i s currently the main route between Guangxi and the Yangtze region. The West River and some of i t s t r i b u t a r i e s pass through western and central Guangxi leading to the Guizhou plateau and the Southwestern upland Region, as well as southwards into northern Vietnam. There are signs that a l l of these routes were well used in the pre h i s t o r i c period. Among the bronzes of the Geometric area, for example, there are types such as the yue and "boot-shaped" axe which are c l e a r l y related to the bronze cultures of Southeast Asia and Southwest China (Figure 4.3). Others are related to the cultures of the central and lower Yangtze regions (Guangdong Pro v i n c i a l Museum 1979:329- 330). From the i n i t i a l h i s t o r i c period the overland routes from the Central Yangtze were heavily u t i l i z e d , f i r s t by the invading Qin armies (Chen 1978:50), and later by colonists from north of the Wuling (Bielenstein 1948, Tregear 1980:45). The major status of the Xiang-Guijiang link in the i n i t i a l (and probably the pre-) h i s t o r i c period is symbolized by the construction of a canal over this route immediately following the Qin invasion. In Chapter V I s h a l l discuss the archaeological evidence for the importance of each of these routes during the Geometric Per iod. 80 V. ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERNS A. OUTLINE OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The emergence of more complex forms of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l organization in the Geometric period correlates with technological advancements in both ceramics and metal working (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1979, Wen Wu Correspondent 1979). Detailed treatments of s t y l i s t i c and technological developments can be found in the Chinese l i t e r a t u r e , as can very general outlines of the important s o c i a l developmental trends, however this information i s scattered (eg. Xu 1981, He 1981). In order to study the hypothesized i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between increasing s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity and interregional interaction in d e t a i l i t is f i r s t neccessary to define as c l e a r l y as possible the relevant developmental patterns present in the archaeological record. These patterns provide the empirical basis for studying the factors which influenced the development of so c i a l complexity. The p a r t i c u l a r conceptual framework I s h a l l use in this chapter is a systemic model of c u l t u r e 7 . As Flannery (1972) Clarke (1968:408-431 ) Friedman & Rowlands (1977) and others have demonstrated, th i s kind of conceptualization i s p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable for analysing dynamic c u l t u r a l processes. According to such a model, change within a c u l t u r a l system may be precipitated either by external input, i . e . sources of 7 s p e c i f i c a l l y the model of the complex adaptive system (Buckley 1968). 81 energy and information coming from outside the system, or in t e r n a l l y from adjustments between the system's internal components in the absence of external stimulus (Wood and Matson 1973). This perspective thus neccesitates investigation of " l o c a l evolutionary" processes, as well as external c u l t u r a l inputs. While the r e l a t i v e impact of internal versus external sources of v a r i a b i l i t y fluctuates over time, i t is not l o g i c a l l y defensible to take an a p r i o r i stance that one or the other was unimportant to a s p e c i f i c sequence of development. Friedman and Rowlands emphasized the l a t t e r point with reference to their epigenetic evolutionary model: "the sp e c i f i c evolution of s o c i a l formations depends on the internal properties of l o c a l systems, upon the l o c a l constraints and upon their place in a larger system" (1977: 205). Furthermore, i t is the larger system - the a r t i c u l a t i o n of di f f e r e n t l o c a l and regional societies and conditions of reproduction - that "comprises the t o t a l relevant universe for the analysis of evolution" ( i b i d : 272). The parti c u l a r framework I s h a l l be using is thus also a useful one because i t does not make any assumptions about the.relative strength,of p a r t i c u l a r factors. There are many ways of defining components (or "subsystems") whose operation and developmental patterns w i l l be studied. The pa r t i c u l a r breakdown chosen depends on the problem being investigated. Since my focus in this study i s on the role of interregional exchange in evolutionary development I have been guided in my d e f i n i t i o n of components by the schemes that 82 have been used previously in similar studies. A similar situation to that of preh i s t o r i c southern China obtained during the late Neolithic and early Metal Ages in Europe. In this case a metal technology was adopted from r e l a t i v e l y more complex societi e s in neighbouring regions, and imported bronzes were cir c u l a t e d through preexisting exchange networks (Kristiansen n.d., Wells 1980). As I s h a l l argue below, th i s also appears to be the pattern in Lingnan. The components used in the European studies include s o c i a l hierarchy, r e l i g i o n and r i t u a l systems (as the r i t u a l aspects of e l i t e status), exchange networks, manufacturing (craft s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ) , settlement and subsistence (Table 5.1). A l l except settlement can be broadly c l a s s i f i e d as Renfrew (1975) Wells (1980) Kristiansen (n.d.) subsistence settlement settlement technological manufacturing c r a f t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n soc i a l soc i a l soc i a l symbolic/ projective r i t u a l / r e l i g i o u s trade/ commun icat ion c i r c u l a t i o n exchange system TABLE 5.1: Subsystems defined in previous European studies. s o c i a l , r i t u a l / p o l i t i c a l and economic components. Settlement structure, l i k e the structure of a mortuary population i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r e f l e c t i o n of the structural properties of the 83 above components, and as such i s not an equivalent unit of analysis with the others. In this chapter therefore I s h a l l be considering only the following components: i . s o c i a l hierarchy, i i . p o l i t i c a l networks, i i i . manufacturing, i v . exchange networks. The general stages of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l evolution defined by Fried, Service and others (as outlined by Flannery 1972) underlie the analyses of these components. These typologies take the h i e r a r c h i c a l features of the s o c i a l component as their defining features, and relate changes in the other components and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to them (Table 5.2, Flannery 1972). The correlation between the stages of the Marxist scheme used by the Chinese, and the schemes of Fried and Service are shown in Table 5.3. The Chinese have suggested that the developmental pattern in this component is from E g a l i t a r i a n / T r i b a l l e v e l to early State-level society. In my analysis of t h i s component I s h a l l attempt to v e r i f y and document this inferred t r a n s i t i o n . Under the p o l i t i c a l component I s h a l l be looking primarily at the horizontal dimensions of e l i t e status: the evidence for the extension and integraton of r i t u a l / a l l i a n c e networks uniting l o c a l groups during the Geometric Periods. The manufacturing component comprises two aspects, f i r s t the r i s e in technical s k i l l s throughout the Geometric Period, and secondly the evidence for changes in the organization of 84 ljt>* Ol WCltljr S«<nt inftiiiuticni, in o*<f«r cl • poaaianco Arcl'.'JO:T.'Cjl I FRANCE Cbliic Mcieomtrtco STATE 1 * s a 'jt .y u 3 a •u c V ENGLAND INDIA Cjmor Shone China n a. f »* 6 1 g I w o i e ua/L taptriol Rem* CKIEFDOM a. a* .1= o § s • 2 • 5 C 1 o i • 1 s TONGA HAWAII KWAKIUTU IJOOTKA NATCHEZ Gulf Coflif Olmec of M«MO ucooea) Scmorron of Near EQII (5300 ac) MliioVpplon cf North Anwrico(l200A.O.I TRI3E *» E e c o 3 3 O a. M •© c c •D o "a X) c £ 3 .2 C s NEW GUINEA HIGHLANDER! SOUTHWEST PUEBLOS SIOUX Eorly rirmotivt of Inland Moxico (1500-1000 8.C) Pr«-patt«ry Kfoflthie of Nffar Eait 18000-6000 B.C.) EAtJO o a 3 o a* o o "W o «• iii 2̂ a « E e. & u a 3 o © t o i i KALAHARI BUSHMEN AUSTRALIAN ACORICUVES ESKIMO SHOSHONE Poloc-indion and Early Archaic of U.S. and Mexico (lOfl 00-6000 DC) Lola Palosliihie of Near Eait (io.oooac.) TABLE 5.2 : Levels of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity and associated developments in other s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . (Flannery 1972:401) Fried Service Marxian North China Archaeological Cultures E g a l i t a r i a n Ranked Band Tr ibe Chiefdom Primitive P a l e o l i t h i c Mesolithic Yangshao Lungshan S t r a t i f i e d State Slave Feudal Shang-early Eastern Zhou Warring States,Qin & Han TABLE 5.3 : Levels of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity in re l a t i o n to North Chinese Archaeological cultures. (Chang 1980:363, Fried 1983) cr a f t production related to such technological advancements. One of the defining features of typologies of s o c i a l p o l i t i c a l 85 evolution i s the linkage between increasing hierarchization and increasing c r a f t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n (Flannery 1972). Even those who disavow the u t i l i t y of such typologies for studying the processes of c u l t u r a l complexity recognize t h i s linkage as a fundamental element in the evolution of complex systems (Friedman and Rowlands 1977, Wenke 1981). It is thus my basic expectation that the Geometric Period in Lingnan should be characterized by evidence for increasing s p e c i a l i z a t i o n in the manufacturing component. Friedman & Rowlands, Earle and others have argued that i t is p a r t i c u l a r l y in the production of luxury prestige goods that s p e c i a l i z a t i o n most strongly coordinates with s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l hierarchism, because i t is in control over the production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of such items that the status system is reflected and based (Friedman and Rowlands 1977, Earle 1977, Earle & D'Altroy 1982:207). According to the model of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l development being used here, f u l l time c r a f t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n is a concomitant of advanced Chiefdom - early State s o c i e t i e s , while part-time s p e c i a l i s t s to v i l l a g e - l e v e l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n occurs from at least the t r i b a l l e v e l . With respect to the c i r c u l a t i o n component I s h a l l be concerned solely with evidence for the movement of materials both within the Lingnan network, and between Lingnan and neighbouring regions. The general expectation in t h i s area i s for c i r c u l a t i o n of prestige items to increase along with the degree of hierarchisation in the s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l component for the reasons c i t e d above. U t i l i t a r i a n items requiring less specialized production are expected to show consistently more 86 re s t r i c t e d c i r c u l a t i o n , following the same l o g i c . More detailed analysis of the s p a t i a l aspects of c i r c u l a t i o n , especially the development of hi e r a r c h i c a l organization in the' movement of materials (as per Renfrew 1975, 1977), although i t would be of the greatest value to studying the operation of this component, is impossible to study on the basis of current data. This lack of s p a t i a l information also i n t r i n s i c a l l y affects analysis of the settlement component. Therefore regarding the development of settlement hierarchies, and the s p a t i a l aspects of the c i r c u l a t i o n of materials we can only speculate on the basis of the model, but can do l i t t l e to confirm or refute our expectations. In the following sections I s h a l l present in d e t a i l the currently available evidence pertaining to each of these components. B. SOCIAL COMPONENT 1. Data Base And Methods Prior to the discovery of the Matougang Kui Period tombs (also known as Qingyuan #1 & #2) in 1962 and 1963 many Chinese archaeologists had held that groups in the Lingnan area remained at the Primitive Society stage u n t i l the Qin invasion of the late t h i r d century B.C., whence they moved d i r e c t l y into the Feudal Stage (He 1981: 212). The Qingyuan tombs were c r u c i a l because they manifest a concentration of wealth out of character with Primitive Society. At the same time the majority of the a r t i f a c t t r a i t s are c l e a r l y l o c a l , indicating that these were 87 indeed the graves of members of the l o c a l Geometric society (CP.A.M. Guangdong 1 963,1964). Finds of several other Bronze and early Iron Age tombs in the past 20 years has substantiated both the existence of an e l i t e group in the late Geometric Period, as well as i t s l o c a l character. According to the current Chinese synthesis (He 1981) the s o c i o p o l i t i c a l organization of the Lingnan Geometric cultures made the t r a n s i t i o n from Primitive to Slave Society (tribe to statehood) just prior to the Kui Period. In t h i s section I s h a l l examine in more d e t a i l the evidence for such a t r a n s i t i o n , and for the organizational l e v e l of the preceding Chevron Geometric Periods. The main archaeological data that have been used generally to study the h i e r a r c h i c a l aspects of social.organization are settlement data (on household, i n t r a - and i n t e r - s i t e levels ) and mortuary data. The only available sources of data bearing on the Geometric groups of this region are a number of reported Geometric b u r i a l s . The use of mortuary data to make inferences regarding s o c i a l status i s s t i l l a topic of some dispute. Cross-cultural ethnographic surveys by Binford (1971) and others have indicated that in many recorded societies status d i s t i n c t i o n s important to an individual during l i f e are symbolized in his or her treatment after death. Status d i s t i n c t i o n s (as well as other aspects of s o c i a l persona) are manifested in such features as amount and nature of grave goods, and the energy expended on grave preparation ( i b i d . , Chapman and Randsborg 1981, Pearson 1981). 88 Although i t is not possible to make a p r i o r i assumptions about which p a r t i c u l a r aspects of mortuary treatment w i l l define r e l a t i v e s o c i a l status for any individual group, because of the redundancy of information re f l e c t e d in mortuary r i t u a l , where status differences are thus symbolized they are l i k e l y to be recognizable in several d i f f e r e n t features (Underhill 1983:30). Accepting these premises I s h a l l make a preliminary examination of the burial data to see i f they provide evidence for an increase in status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n through the Geometric period. The excavated sites known to contain burials are l i s t e d in Tables 5.4 and 5.5. At only two of these s i t e s - Shixia and Hedang - do the burials c l e a r l y relate to more than one chronological period within the Geometric. 8 The others are a l l single-period cemeteries or isolated single b u r i a l s . Most of the Bronze and Iron Age burials l i s t e d in Table 5.5 have been published in complete d e t a i l . It should be noted however that they represent only part of the t o t a l excavated burials from those periods. He (1981: 213) states that 11 s i t e s containing a t o t a l of 38 graves dating to the Spring & Autumn and Warring States Periods have been excavated in Guangdong. P a r t i a l or f u l l d e t a i l i s available for only 31 graves at 8 s i t e s ; at most only 14 of these graves are undisturbed. 9 8The Yinshanling s i t e in Guangxi contains burials from at least four d i f f e r e n t periods, however the later three are during the h i s t o r i c Han period which l i e s outside the chronological l i m i t s of this study. 9 The s i t e s for which we have no information are located in Fogang, Longmen and Jieyang counties. (He 1981) SITE LAYER (reference) TOTAL PUBLISHED INFORMATION BURIALS GRAVE FORM AND ORIENTATION GRAVE GOODS AND SPECIAL FEATURES S h i x i a S h i x i a Hedang Shek P i k lower (Period 3) middle (Period <t) J i n l a n s i middle, a (upper i ) M general summary of major f e a t u r e s ; 1 d e t a i l e d example. Relevent b u r i a l s i d e n t i f i e d by catalogue number. No age/sex information. hk as above, but 2 d e t a i l e d examples. i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l on a l l 3 (lower) : 2 periods i n b u r i a l s : (below shel1 midden); ( i n midden layer) (j? =8 general summary of major t,"^9 f e a t u r e s ; 1 d e t a i l e d example ( ? ) ; 2 d e t a i l e d examples (£>). D e t a i l e d report on p h y s i c a l anthropology. No age/ sex breakdown. i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l on a l l . No age/sex information primary and secondary s i n g l e l a r g e graves each c o n t a i n 60 - 100 grave goods, b u r i a l s , o r i e n t e d head to the East. Rectangular p i t s , most w i t h burnt w a l l s . Most are primary s i n g l e b u r i a l s , o r i e n t e d head to the East. Rectangular p i t s , a few w i t h burnt w a l l s . Primary s i n g l e b u r i a l s In s h e l l midden. Supine, extended p o s i t i o n , o r i e n t e d head to the East. Simple re c t a n g u l a r p i t . A l l are inhumations. Grave p i t s unclear. O r i e n t a t i o n : males g e n e r a l l y head to the West, females to the East. If : most are probably secondary, supine extended p o s i t i o n . Z>: most are primary, a few are secondary. Body p o s i t i o n as above. No v i s i b l e grave p i t s . Body p o s i t i o n ( d i s c e r n a b l e f o r 3 b u r i a l s ) supine, extended, o r i e n t e d head to the South. i n c l u d i n g r i t u a l o b j e c t s and jade ornaments. Medium 6 small graves each c o n t a i n - 12 Items, Both primary and secondary b u r i a l f u r n i t u r e . S h i x i a C u l t u r e . Number of grave goods per b u r i a l , and o v e r a l l v a r i e t y much decreased compared to the previous p e r i o d . C l e a r s t y l i s t i c break w i t h P e r i o d 3 graves. Few d i s c e r n a b l e group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 1 a d u l t male, 2 ad u l t females, 1 c h i l d . Only one female has grave goods: 1 p o l i s h e d bone t a b l e t placed on f r o n t o f s k u l l , - a n d 1 ceramic j a r . P o s s i b l e e x t r a c t i o n of l a t e r a l i n c i s o r s . *f : Al1 have grave goods, 1 - 3 items each. Males mostly stone t o o l s 6 weapons, females mostly s p i n d l e whorls. No p o t t e r y . B u r i a l M65 (male, ca. 25 years) .has p a l r o f f i n e l y - w o r k e d i v o r y tube ornaments p l a c e d next to the skul 1. £, : Grave goods as above. B u r i a l M25 (male youth wears l a r g e Ivory r i n g on r i g h t hand, and grooved bone ornament on s k u l l . Tooth e x t r a c t i o n ( l a t e r a l i n c i s o r s ) seen In a d u l t s , both sexes. B u r i a l V, none; B u r i a l s I S I I , 1 p o l i s h e d stone r i n g each, 6 1 coarse geometric- impressed pot; b u r i a l IV, v a r i o u s faunal remains, s h a r k - t o o t h head ornament, p o l i s h e d stone r i n g , c o a r se Geometric pot, k p o l i s h e d stone weapons I n c l u d i r 1 <je_; b u r i a l V I , 1 s o f t Geometric j a r , 25 stone t o o l s , spear p o i n t s t blanks. TABLE 5.4: Chevron Period burials from Guangdong Province SITE ( r e f e r e n c e ) LAYER TOTAL BURIALS PUBLISHED INFORMATION GRAVE FORM AND ORIENTATION GRAVE GOODS AND SPECIAL FEATURES Zaogang midden 6 i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l on a l l no grave p i t s d i s c e r n a b l e . 3 a d u l t m a l e s , 2 a d u l t f e m a l e s , 1 c h i l d . 2 o f S i n g l e pr imary b u r i a l s , the males and one female each have 1 smal l body p o s i t i o n s u p i n e , p o l i s h e d s tone a d z e , broken at the but t e n d . e x t e n d e d , head to the P o s s i b l e e x t r a c t i o n o f l a t e r a l i n c i s o r s . S o u t h e a s t . Hedang 2 (upper ): 1?) =27 as f o r Layer 3, One grave may c o n t a i n M a j o r i t y have grave g o o d s . A r t i f a c t s as f o r 2 p e r i o d s in 1 -2* pfc)&T each represented by double female b u r i a l , Layer 3, except 9 p o t t e r y v e s s e l s a l s o found . bur ia1s : <*> one d e t a i l e d example. remainder are s i n g l e , Tooth e x t r a c t i o n , as f o r Layer 3. 6 T, in upper p r i m a r y . Body p o s i t i o n par t of shel 1 as f o r Layer 3- midden. Raoping County 7 2k very f ragmentary in format ion 7 G e o m e t r i c - i m p r e s s e d j a r s and pan d i s h e s . Some from s e v e r a l genera l g l a z e d , some p r o t o - p o r c e l a i n wares. Many types commentar i es o f p o l i s h e d stone t o o l s , weapons, and ornaments. One bronze <je_. Ceramic t r a i t s s a i d to be unique to the Nor theas t a r e a . No o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n yet p u b l i s h e d . TABLE 5.4; (continued) 91 The style of reporting for Neolithic burials i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t . Only those s i t e s containing 6 graves or less have been reported in d e t a i l so far. For the larger cemeteries such as Shixia and Hedang the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of the burials (grave form, orientation, a r t i f a c t assemblages) are described in summary form only. One or two detailed examples are provided for each time period defined, and the major changes v i s i b l e between the periods are noted (Shixia Archaeological Team 1978, Yang & Chen 1981). Information r e l a t i n g to class d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s one of the main features that Chinese archaeologists are concerned to derive from b u r i a l data, thus even in the absence of precise d e t a i l i t is possible to make preliminary judgements about the degree of status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n evident in the remains, judgements which i t may be possible to refine in future when more data become available. The Hong Kong data present a d i f f e r e n t problem again. Only two s i t e s , Sham Wan and Shek Pik, have produced d e f i n i t e burials (Meacham ed. 1975, 1978). Although the individual burials for both s i t e s has been reported, because of poor excavation techniques at Shek Pik, and unclear stratigraphic associations at Sham Wan, the r e l a t i v e dating of the burials i s tentative. Other s i t e s have been inferred to contain cemetery.areas on the basis of d i s t i n c t i v e a r t i f a c t d i s t r i b u t i o n s (see below) but as no s k e l e t a l remains have been recovered to substantiate this idea, these cannot be regarded as confirmed b u r i a l s . 92 2. Chevron Periods i . Chevron 1 The Period 3 bu r i a l s from Shixia are the only representatives of the i n i t i a l phase of the Geometric Horizon in Lingnan. It seems, however, that they are not t y p i c a l of regions of Guangdong other than the upper reaches of the North River. The Period 3 buria l s represent the f i n a l stage of what has been termed "The Shixia Culture" (Su 1978). The e a r l i e r two stages of this culture, represented primarily in burial contexts at Shixia and some nearby si t e s (Shixia Archaeological Team 1978 :11), are pre-Geometric. The Shixia Culture as a whole i s c l e a r l y linked to a ceramic horizon which extends northwards through Jiangxi Province to the central and lower Yangtze area - the horizon which Chang has termed the Lungshanoid (Chang 1977:144, Zeng 1982). Relatively intact skeletal remains have been recovered from only 4 out of the 108 burials at Shixia, and very fragmentary remains have been recovered from a few others (Shixia Archaeological Team 1978:2-3). D i s t r i b u t i o n of these skeletal remains by period has not been reported, nor i s i t recorded whether the fragmentary remains are s u f f i c i e n t to allow determination of age and sex. At present no such data i s available. Forty-four Period 3 burials have been excavated. According to the excavators there are notable differences in r e l a t i v e size and wealth between them. Small and medium-sized graves contain far fewer grave goods than larger ones: 4-12 items per grave as 9 3 opposed to 60 to 110+ for the l a t t e r . In their discussion of grave form the excavators do not provide the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the diff e r e n t forms by period, thus i t i s not certain how the three major categories 'Primary, shallow p i t ' , 'Primary, medium-depth p i t ' and 'Secondary' equate with the three size categories. However, as there are 1 9 primary and 25 secondary burials in the sample, and since the three forms do also represent d i s t i n c t size categories, i t seems l i k e l y that a l l three forms are represented in Period 3 . Because of their bearing on status differences I sh a l l discuss them in some d e t a i l . Shallow p i t graves are small, varying from approximately 0.5 to 1.1m2, with a minimum length of 1 metre. They are also poor in grave goods. 55.8% have no grave goods at a l l , while the remainder contain between 1 and 12 pieces each. Judging by the size of the smallest graves, and the fact that only extended burials have been documented in this area, at least some of these must be infant or c h i l d b u r i a l s . The excavators seem to think that the remainder are mostly female: they mention that among the grave goods spindle whorls and stone rings are most commonly seen, while stone tools are very rare ( i b i d , 2). Medium-depth primary b u r i a l p i t s are larger, ranging i between 1.1 and 1.6m2, with a minimum length of 1.8 metres. They contain more grave goods than Shallow-pit b u r i a l s , but less than secondary b u r i a l s . In terms of style and grouping the grave goods are more similar to those of secondary burials than of the smaller primary b u r i a l s . Interestingly, some appear to 94 be g r a v e s f r o m which the body has been removed f o r s e c o n d a r y bur i a l . S e c o n d a r y b u r i a l s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l a r g e s t g r a v e p i t s . T h e i r s i z e v a r i e s between 1.5 and 2.2m 2. They a l s o a r e a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e l a r g e s t amounts o f g r a v e g o o d s . R i t u a l a s p e c t s of b u r i a l a r e v e r y s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t h i s g r o u p . Over 90% have b u r n t e a r t h p i t w a l l s , i n a b o u t 93% t h e s k e l e t a l r e m a i n s a r e p l a c e d i n t h e s o u t h e a s t s e c t i o n of t h e p i t and i n 7% t h e y a r e i n t h e n o r t h e a s t . In most c a s e s t h e r e i s r e d e a r t h ( o c h r e ? £L =h ) p l a c e d on t o p of o r b e s i d e t h e s k e l e t o n . T h i s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i s e c h o e d a l s o i n t h e g r a v e good a s s e m b l a g e s : t h e r e i s a b a s i c s e t of c e r a m i c v e s s e l t y p e s w h i c h o c c u r s i n a l m o s t a l l P e r i o d 3 b u r i a l s ( i b i d : 9 ) . The l a r g e g r a v e s of t h e t h i r d p e r i o d c o n t a i n r i t u a l o b j e c t s s u c h as a j a d e c o ng , and j a d e and c r y s t a l o r n a m e n t s s u c h as ha d i s c s , s l o t t e d r i n g s , p l a q u e s and p e n d a n t s . The e x c a v a t o r s have a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e l a r g e g r a v e s c o n t a i n l a r g e numbers of t o o l s of p r o d u c t i o n ( m a i n l y woodworking and a g r i c u l t u r a l t o o l s ) , w h i c h t h e y see as e v i d e n c e f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g s of c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s o r i g i n a t i n g i n c o n t r o l o v e r th e f o r c e s o f p r o d u c t i o n by w e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l s o r f a m i l i e s ( i b i d , 12). Whether o r not t h e s e b u r i a l s r e p r e s e n t t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of r a n k e d s o c i e t y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e v e r y g r e a t d i s t i n c t i o n s i n s t a t u s and w e a l t h between i n d i v i d u a l s and p e r h a p s i n d i v i d u a l l i n e a g e s i n t h i s p e r i o d and r e g i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n t h e a b s e n c e of age and sex d a t a as w e l l as s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i t i s not y e t p o s s i b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e 95 nature and basis of this status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n in any d e t a i l . i i . Chevron 2 & 3 One of the features which makes the early Geometric periods at Shixia so interesting is the break which i s v i s i b l e between the Period 3 ( I n i t i a l Chevron) and Period 4 (Chevron Soft Pottery Period) b u r i a l s . Radiocarbon data indicate that the temporal gap between the two is not great, yet judging by the mortuary remains there is great c u l t u r a l distance between them in s t y l i s t i c and r i t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as well as r e l a t i v e social complexity. Some features of Period 3 are retained in lesser proportions in Period 4 b u r i a l s , indicating that t h i s break does not represent a complete population replacement. However, the s t y l i s t i c and r i t u a l t r a i t s which linked the Shixia Culture so strongly to the Yangtze cultures are d r a s t i c a l l y diminished, and the evidence of vast wealth and status differences are correspondingly reduced. There are 44 period 4 burials corresponding to the middle habitation layer at Shixia. The comments made above regarding the type of data available for Period 3 burials apply also to Period 4. Grave size and v a r i a b i l i t y in grave size are both reduced compared to Period 3. Very few b u r i a l s , at' most 7 (15.9%), are secondary. The remainder are primary, but whether they are shallow or medium-depth p i t s or both i s not reported. At least one is of a fourth p i t type, termed "pebble mound grave In this grave type the skeletal remains 96 and grave goods are surrounded and covered with f i l l containing large quantities of limestone pebbles. There is good skeletal preservation in a l l 4 pebble mound graves. Only one example i s c i t e d : burial M70 is a female of about forty years who appears to have met a violent death (Shixia Archaeological Team 1978:2). The amount of grave goods i s also much reduced over the previous period. The range in quantities i s not reported, however the two examples given each contain less than 10 pieces. The excavators note that preliminary examination of the contents of t h i s period's graves have revealed'no obvious group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among them, in addition to their being few t r a i t s l i n k i n g them to the previous period (ibid:10). The only ornamental a r t i f a c t s retained in Period 4 graves are slotted rings: none of the special status goods such as cong and b_i discs have been encountered. One must of course be cautious in interpreting such changes in wealth and status d i s t i n c t i o n s as representing a change in the degree of status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n in early Geometric society as a whole. Such negative evidence may simply r e f l e c t a change in the use of either the cemetery i t s e l f (for example, r e s t r i c t i o n to one lower status lineage), or of the settlement whose inhabitants are interred here. On the other hand, the absence of obvious status/wealth d i s t i n c t i o n s in the Shixia Period 4 buri a l s is consistent with information from other Late Neolithic b u r i a l s i t e s in Guangdong such as Hedang's lower layer burials and J i n l a n s i . While some individual b u r i a l s from these sit e s contain special ornaments or possibly r i t u a l status 97 symbols (for example Hedang M25 & J i n l a n s i ' s female b u r i a l : see Table 5.4), in general there i s l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between burials in amount of grave goods or energy expended. Burial p i t s are small and simple, and grave goods are few to nonexistent (Table 5.4). A few burials from the upper layer of Hedang and two from Shek Pik which probably also date to the Chevron Tr a n s i t i o n a l Period begin to evidence differences in wealth between apparently contemporaneous b u r i a l s . The two wealthy burials from Shek Pik, for example, were associated with 22 and 26 a r t i f a c t s each, while the other four had 3 items or l e s s . At the Hedang s i t e there are s t r i c t d i s t i n c t i o n s between the grave assemblages of males and females, which i s related to an apparent sexual d i v i s i o n of labour: males are interred with stone hunting and woodworking tools, while females are accompanied primarily by spindle whorls and ceramics (Yang and Chen 1981). It is unfortunate that the 24 Transitional Period graves from Raoping County have not yet been in d i v i d u a l l y reported, since they are the only group of burials excavated so far which date to the beginnings of the Bronze Age in Lingnan. One locally-manufactured bronze g_e and some very high-quality ceramics were reportedly unearthed from these b u r i a l s , indicating a scale of wealth unlike that represented in the late Neolithic b u r i a l s from the Pearl Delta area. The e a r l i e s t Kui Period burials indicate very wide d i s t i n c t i o n s in wealth and status, therefore analysis of a s i t e such as t h i s may prove 98 c r u c i a l to understanding the nature of the t r a n s i t i o n between the r e l a t i v e l y undifferentiated structure of Late Neolithic society, and the highly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Bronze and Iron Age society of Lingnan. 3. Kui Period A number of b u r i a l s i t e s of the Kui Period have been excavated in Guangdong and Guangxi. Apart from one confirmed and several possible b u r i a l groups in Hong Kong, a l l are elaborate single graves. A l l except for the Hong Kong examples have been dated on s t y l i s t i c grounds to the late Spring & Autumn and early Warring States, or approximately 600 to 400 BC (Table 5.5). The basic structure of the grave good assemblages is the same for a l l of the single graves. The bulk of the a r t i f a c t s are bronzes, usually accompanied by only one or two geometric- impressed ceramic jars and one or more whetstones. The bronzes include weapons, tools, vessels, r i t u a l and musical objects, and occasional miscellaneous items such as mirrors. Weapons, such as yue battle axes, g_e dagger-axes, spears, swords, arrowheads and daggers, are the most numerous category in a l l reported assemblages. At least one bronze vessel (usually a ding tripod) and one b e l l are contained in each b u r i a l . Five out of the six Guangdong burials for which this information i s recorded contained a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c set of r i t u a l objects whose precise significance i s unknown. These are short bronze s t a f f s capped with a human-head f i n i a l (Figure 5.1). Intact tombs each contained four, placed in the four corners of the p i t . The only Guangxi Kui Period tomb contained at least SITE ( re fe rence ) TOTAL BURIALS PUBLISHED INFORMATION GRAVE FORM AND ORIENTATION GRAVE GOODS AND SPECIAL FEATURES (Kui P e r i o d ) Sham Wan Layer C (Meacham e d . , 1978) 6 i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l no grave p i t s d i s c e r n a b l e . 2 c r e m a t i o n s , 2 inhumat ions , a l l are s i n g l e b u r i a l s . Body p o s i t i o n S o r i e n t a t i o n not di s c e r n a b l e . none Lanmashan, (A9) 1 fragmentary i n f o r m a t i o n ? 1 human-head bronze s t a f f (tomb o r i g i n a l l y he ld *(), 1 g e o m e t r i c - i m p r e s s e d ceramic j a r . Other remains not r e p o r t e d . Luoding #1 (.A9) 1 fragmentary i n f o r m a t i o n ? At l e a s t 50 b r o n z e s : weapons Cl2 yue a x e s ) , r i t u a l o b j e c t s {k human-head s t a f f s ) , 2 v e s s e l s , 2 b e l l s . 1 g e o m e t r i c - i m p r e s s e d ceramic j a r . Other remains not r e p o r t e d . Luoding #2 W 9 ) 1 fragmentary i n f o r m a t i o n ? B r o n z e s , and 1 geomet r ic impressed c e r a m i c j a r . No f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . . Niaodanshan (#28) 1 i n d i v i d u a l deta i1 D o u b l e - s e c t i o n e d sub- r e c t a n g u l a r p i t , 3.5 X 5.7m ( p a r t i a l l e n g t h ) . Fragments o f wood a long one s i d e o f l a rge s e c t i o n . O r i e n t e d N o r t h - S o u t h . P o s i t i o n o f body unknown. 59 b r o n z e s : weapons Cil, i n c l u d i n g 28 a r r o w h e a d s ) , 9 t o o l s , b human-head s t a f f s , 't v e s s e l s , 1 b e l l . 1 g e o m e t r i c - i m p r e s s e d c e r a m i c j a r , 3 whe ts tones . A l l p l a c e d in smal l e n d - s e c t i o n . Matougang #t (#11) 1 i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l 7 L o c a t e d 6 metres from Matougang #2. 25 b r o n z e s : 8 weapons, 6 b e l l s , 5 v e s s e l s , 't human- f igure s t a f f s 2 " c r o s s b a r s " . 6 ceramic v e s s e l s , i n c l u d i n g 2 k u i - impressed c e r a m i c j a r s ; 2 w h e t s t o n e s . Matougang #2 (#12) 1 i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l Rec tangu lar p i t , 3.1m^. Layer o f sandstone pebb les at b a s e , c o v e r e d w i th l a y e r o f y e l l o w e a r t h . O r i e n t e d head to the S o u t h e a s t . Body p o s i t i o n unknown. 39 b r o n z e s : weapons (31, i n c l u d i n g 22 a r rowheads ) , 7 b e l l s , 1 v e s s e l . 1 g e o m e t r i c - i m p r e s s e d ceramic j a r ; 1 whe ts tone , 1 s tone s t i c k . TABLE 5.5: Kui and Mi Period burials from Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces SITE (reference) TOTAL PUBLISHED INFORMATION BURIALS GRAVE FORM AND ORIENTATION GRAVE GOODS AND SPECIAL FEATURES J iahui (#38) (Kui o r Mi Period) Gaodiyuan #1 (#49) (Mi Period) Luoyanshan (#3<0 Tonggugang (#30) 1? i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i I on bronzes only fragmentary information 22 i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i 1 f o r 7 undisturbed and 8 p a r t i a l l y d i s t u r b e d graves. Songshan (#35) i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l Double-sectioned r e c t a n g u l a r p i t 1.7m 2 . Waist p i t in small end- se c t i o n . Oriented head to the Southeast. Body p o s i t i o n unknown. Rectangular p i t inhumations, no signs of c o f f i n s . 2 have l a y e r of sandstone pebbles in base. 1.8 t o 3 - l m 2 . Probably a l l are s i n g l e b u r i a l s . O r i e n t a t i o n : 3 head to Southeast, 11 between Northwest and Northeast. Large r e c t a n g u l a r p i t , 3 7 . 6 m 2 . Wooden outer and inner c o f f i n s , inner c o f f i n placed in centre of p i t , w i t h grave goods placed o u t s i d e at e i t h e r end. Above and below outer c o f f i n was l a y e r of burnt wood and grass. Oriented head to the East. No s k e l e t a l remains. 33 bronzes: 12 weapons, 8 v e s s e l s , 7 t o o l s ; 2 b e l l s , 2 animal-topped s t a f f s . 2 u n i d e n t i f i e d o b j e c t s . Other remains unknown. 2 human-head bronze s t a f f s (tomb o r i g i n a l l y held k). No other i n f o r m a t i o n . 15 bronzes: 8 t o o l s , 5 weapons, 1 v e s s e l , 1 b e l l . 1 geometric-impressed ceramic j a r ; 2 whetstones; 1 p i e r c e d pebble. ••' ( i n t a c t graves o n l y ) T o t a l o f 112 bronzes, 25 ceramic v e s s e l s and 11 whetstones. Number of items per grave ranges from 2 to kO. A l l graves co n t a i n weapons, 'i c o n t a i n swords. D i s t i n c t i o n in 5 l a r g e r graves between those c o n t a i n i n g l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s of ceramics {k3~5S%)• no whetstones and few bronze weapons (1 or 2 p i e c e s , k-\k% of assemblage), and those c o n t a i n i n g small p r o p o r t i o n s of ceramics (0-61), seve r a l whetstones and l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n s of bronze weapons (6-12 p i e c e s 20-'(U of assemblage). 108 bronzes: kO t o o l s , 2k ornamental & r i t u a l o b j e c t s ( i n c l u d i n g 't human-head s t a f f s ) , \k v e s s e l s , 6 b e l l s . 18 ceramic v e s s e l s , 3 ceramic beads, 7 jade ornaments ( i n c l u d i n g 2 carved r i n g s w i t h g o l d h a n d l e s ) , 1 glazed stone bead and 1 whetstone. TABLE 5.5 (continued) SITE (reference) TOTAL BURIALS PUBLISHED INFORMATION GRAVE FORM AND ORIENTATION GRAVE GOODS AND SPECIAL FEATURES Y i n s h a n l i n g (#40) 110 i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l V a r i e t y of grave forms from small r e c t a n g u l a r p i t s w i t h no c o f f i n , to mid-sized r e c t a n g u l a r p i t s w i t h second-level p l a t f o r m s ( l e d g e s ) , to m u l t i - s e c t i o n e d passage tombs. A few have pebble l a y e r in bottom of p i t (.3%). Most have waist p i t c o n t a i n i n g a ceramic vessel (73%)• The m a j o r i t y of l a r g e r p i t s have c o f f i n s , some have both inner and outer c o f f i n s . S i z e v a r i e s from \.k to 8 . 0 m 2 . No s k e l e t a l remains. M a j o r i t y are o r i e n t e d head to the East. T o t a l o f 377 bronzes: 283 weapons, 46 t o o l s , 39 u t e n s i l s , 6 anima1-topped s t a f f s , 1 b e l l , 1 m i s c e l l a n e o u s Items. 181 i r o n a r t i f a c t s : 177 t o o l s , 3 weapons, 1 v e s s e l . 11 bronze and i r o n a r t i f a c t s : 8 arrowheads, 2 v e s s e l s , 1 k n i f e . 360 ceramics: 190 cups, 89 he_ boxes, 45 large j a r s and cooking v e s s e l s , 36 s p i n d l e whorls. 115 stone a r t i f a c t s , i n c l u d i n g 42 jade or t u r q u o i s e ornaments and 71 whetstones. Each grave c o n t a i n s from 1 to 50 grave goods. 5 types o f assemblages d e f i n e d : (#) 1. weapons, t o o l s and u t e n s i l s 30 2. s p i n d l e w h o r l s , t o o l s and u t e n s i l s 36 3. weapons and u t e n s i l s 17 4. t o o l s and u t e n s i l s 15 5. o t h e r . 4 D i s t i n c t i o n between type 1 and type 2 i n t e r p r e t e d as sex d i s t i n c t i o n : type 1 " m a l e , type 2 .» female. TABLE 5.5 (continued) 1 02 c. a. N i a o d a n s h a n (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 197 5) b. M a t o u g a n g #1 ( C P . A . M . Guangdong 1963) c. Y i n s h a n l i n g ( G u a n g x i C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s B r i g a d e 1978) d. J i a h u i ( G u a n g x i P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1973) FIGURE 5.1: Human and a n i m a l - t o p p e d s t a f f s f r o m K u i and M i P e r i o d g r a v e s 103 two animal topped s t a f f s . Their placement within the grave i s unknown 1 0 . Grave form has been reported for only two b u r i a l s . In at least two cases t h i s information i s missing because the graves were unearthed by construction workers, not by trained archaeologists. Matougang No.2, (also known as Qingyuan No.2) and Niaodanshan are both estimated to be early Warring States in date, however, they are quite d i f f e r e n t in scale. The former i s a simple small rectangular p i t inhumation, 3.1m2 in area. There are no traces of a wooden c o f f i n , but in the bottom of the p i t is a layer of sandstone pebbles, covered with a layer of rammed earth (Figure 5.2). The t o t a l of 42 grave goods includes 39 bronzes (C.P.A.M. Guangdong 1964). The Niaodanshan tomb, by contrast, is a double-sectioned sub-rectangular p i t , with traces of wood l i n i n g ( c o f f i n remains?) along one wall of the larger segment. Although the large segment has been p a r t i a l l y destroyed, the remaining area is almost 20m2. The burial furniture is richer than Matougang, and i t contains a set of the human-head s t a f f s which were not found at the former s i t e . The concentration of wealth and high energy investment in these tombs, as well as their apparently isolated location and measured d i s t r i b u t i o n , a l l point to their being the graves of a small e l i t e group. The differences between the Matougang No.2 1 0 T h i s s i t e (Jiahui) was not excavated by archaeologists. Only the bronze a r t i f a c t s , and no information about the s i t e i t s e l f , were recovered. It is assumed to be a burial because of the nature of the a r t i f a c t assemblage (Guangxi Provincial Museum 1973). 1 04 a. 2 3 4 11-32 10:2 33 "34 35 6 8 9 7 l?y 35 37 a. Matougang #2 (CP.A.M. Guangdong 1964) 1. bronze l e i urn 2-5. bronze~bells 6,7. bronze axes 8,9. bronze yue battle axes 10:1. bronze spear 10:2. bronze spear butt 11-32. bronze arrowheads 33-35. bronze daggers 36,37. stone batons 38. whetstone 39. Gecmetric-irrpressed guan jar b. Niaodanshan (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1975) 1,12. human-head staff 7. scraper 2. bronze ding 8. arrowhead 9. duo b e l l axe shovel-shaped tool 10. whetstone chisel 11. sword spear 12. sword (1-9;11-17 are bronze) 13. he vessel 14. spear butt 15. spear butt 16. ge 17. knife 18. geometric-impressed guan jar FIGURE 5.2: Kui Period graves, Guangdong Province 1 05 and N i a o d a n s h a n g r a v e s a r e s u g g e s t i v e of b o t h s t a t u s and w e a l t h d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e e l i t e g r o u p w h i c h t h e s e b u r i a l s seem t o r e p r e s e n t . J u s t what t h e s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was between t h e e l i t e , r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s e tombs, and t h e r e s t o f K u i P e r i o d s o c i e t y i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o i n v e s t i g a t e w i t h c u r r e n t d a t a . The o n l y e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e i s from Hong Kong, and t h a t e v i d e n c e i s i t s e l f r a t h e r s p e c u l a t i v e . The c o n f i r m e d b u r i a l s i n Hong Kong w h i c h seem t o d a t e t o t h e K u i P e r i o d a r e of a v e r y d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n t h a n b o t h t h e K u i e l i t e and L a t e N e o l i t h i c b u r i a l s i n L i n g n a n . They c o n s i s t of f r a g m e n t s o f a b o u t s i x s k e l e t o n s r e c o v e r e d from t h e Sham Wan s i t e . At l e a s t two a r e c r e m a t i o n s , and two i n h u m a t i o n s . No g r a v e p i t o r g r a v e goods were i d e n t i f i e d , but i t d o e s a p p e a r t h a t a l l were s i n g l e b u r i a l s , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r e - g e o m e t r i c b u r i a l s a t t h i s s i t e , of w h i c h s e v e r a l were m u l t i p l e (Meacham e d . 1 9 7 8 , C h a p t e r X I ) . S e v e r a l o t h e r s i t e s i n Hong Kong a r e t h o u g h t t o c o n t a i n b u r i a l a r e a s . At Man Kok T s u i and H a i D e i Wan s m a l l a r t i f a c t c l u s t e r s c o m p r i s i n g one o r more c o m p l e t e f i n e ware j a r s ( o f t h e same t y p e f o u n d i n t h e e l i t e t o mbs), p o l i s h e d s t o n e t o o l s a n d / o r r i n g s ' have been e x c a v a t e d . At t h e f o r m e r s i t e , t h e s e f i n d s were l o c a t e d on t h e s i d e of a s t e e p h i l l w i t h i n a few h u n d r e d m e t r e s of i d e n t i f i e d h a b i t a t i o n and workshop a r e a s ( D a v i s and T r e g e a r 1 9 6 0 ) . No g r a v e p i t s o r s k e l e t a l r e m a i n s have been r e c o r d e d from e i t h e r of t h e s e s i t e s , but b e c a u s e t h e i r c o n f i g u r a t i o n c o n t r a s t s w i t h i d e n t i f i e d h a b i t a t i o n , midden, or workshop 1 06 deposits, they have been tentatively c l a s s i f i e d as b u r i a l areas ( i b i d . , Williams 1979:50). It should also be noted that the composition of the a r t i f a c t clusters i s very similar to grave assemblages from nearby Late Neolithic sites such as Hedang (Yang and Chen 1981). Schofield has suggested in a similar vein that the clusters of bronze weapons unearthed during sand- digging operations at the Tai Wan s i t e in Hong Kong may have represented b u r i a l assemblages (Meacham, ed.1975: 48). Two examples w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e these a r t i f a c t c l u s t e r s : 1. a group of a r t i f a c t s from one 10 foot cut yielded 1 "assegais" (spear point), 1 dagger, 1 adze. 2 d i f f e r e n t types of arrowheads, 1 spearhead, and 1 g_e ( a l l of bronze), plus several polished stone rings. A corded ware jar found very nearby may also be associated (Finn 1958:105). 2. a group including bronze adze, small spear head, lance head found with fragments of a kui-impressed" j a r . Another large bronze spearhead was found about 3 feet away (ibid:227). Finn suggested an early Warring States date for other bronze pieces found at Tai Wan, and the kui-impressed ceramic from the second cluster would support that estimate. Altogether, between 50 and 100 bronze weapons and tools have been found at Tai Wan, many in clusters along- one section of the raised sandbar, s p a t i a l l y d i s t i n c t from the i d e n t i f i e d habitation areas. An additional point arguing for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these clusters as burial assemblages i s their structural s i m i l a r i t i e s to the assemblages from e l i t e tombs noted above. 107 If we assume,' as seems reasonable, that these l a t t e r two kinds of assemblages do indeed represent b u r i a l s , then at least two, and perhaps three di f f e r e n t b u r i a l types and levels of wealth are evidenced in Hong Kong during the Kui Period. This reconstruction i s admittedly speculative, being based as i t i s on unconfirmed b u r i a l s i t e s . However, in the subsequent Mi Period the less affluent members of Lingnan society also become v i s i b l e in confirmed mortuary contexts. 4. Mi Period Burials dating to the middle and late Warring States (Mi Period) have been unearthed at 5 s i t e s in Lingnan. Only 4 have been reported, but in a l l 4 cases the reports are extremely detailed. Two, Luoyanshan and Zhaoqing are single, apparently isolated graves. The other two, Tonggugang and Yinshanling are cemeteries. Because the l a t t e r two are the only detailed reports available of a set of more or less contemporaneous burial s they are worth studying at some length. A complete analysis is beyond the scope of t h i s study; however, preliminary tabulations provide some insight into the structural relationships between the burials in each cemetery. The Tonggugang s i t e is the only Kui or Mi Period.cemetery reported from Guangdong Province (Guangdong Pr o v i n c i a l Museum 1981). Only 7 out of 22 i d e n t i f i e d graves were undisturbed at time of excavation, contents of the remainder being scattered throughout the s i t e area. A Late Neolithic habitation s i t e is located on the top of the same h i l l , but no habitation area 108 contemporaneous to the b u r i a l s has been i d e n t i f i e d . A l l of the intact and semi-intact graves contained weapons, and on this basis they have been thought to be a l l male graves (no skeletal remains were recovered). There is however, a curious d i s t i n c t i o n in the grave assemblages of the intact graves. Of the five largest graves, two contain large proportions of ceramics, no whetstones, and only 1 or 2 bronze weapons each. The remaining three contain few ceramics, 2 to 5 whetstones, and 6 to 12 bronze weapons each. Whether this represents a sexual, occupational or other d i s t i n c t i o n is impossible to decide at present. Bronze a r t i f a c t s comprise the majority of grave goods in a l l b u r i a l s , accounting for almost 90% of a l l a r t i f a c t remains from this s i t e . Unlike the graves of the Kui period however, the majority of bronzes in these graves are tools. Woodworking tools comprise 26.8%, and knives 36.3% o v e r a l l . These burials have also produced the f i r s t metal a g r i c u l t u r a l tools found in Guangdong. There i s quite a variation in both p i t size and number of grave goods, moreover the c o r r e l a t i o n between the two variables i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.1 l e v e l 1 1 . The features of graves #12 (poorest) and #16 (wealthiest) contained in Table 5.6 are i l l u s t r a t i v e of the differences between the two ends of the scale. There are no obvious symbols of status among the bu r i a l furniture. Ornaments and r i t u a l objects are both absent. Two 1 C a l c u l a t e d r value of .584, r(0.1) for sample size of 7 is .582. 109 # SIZE M2 Rank order 1 GRAVE GOODS No. Bronze Whet- Ceramics no. categories stones 1 2 1.9 6 2 1 1 weapon 0 1 16 3.1 1 40 35 6 weapons 5 0 26 tools 3•vessels 1 1=largest, 7=smallest TABLE 5.6 : Comparison of wealthiest and poorest buri a l s from Tonggugang. (Information from Guangdong Provincial Museum 1981) of the intact graves contain small "waist p i t s " cut into the floor of the main p i t , which contains a large 'mi'-impressed 'weng* j a r . In short, while there are obvious differences in wealth between the Tonggugang b u r i a l s , o v e r a l l they seem to represent a middle l e v e l of hierarchy: the emphasis in the assemblages i s on u t i l i t a r i a n items, and even the wealthiest are not equipped with such items as ornaments, bronze b e l l s or s t a f f s . The Luoyanshan grave, although i t does contain a single bronze b e l l , is otherwise comparable with the Tonggugang bu r i a l s . The Songshan grave in Zhaoqing City, on the other hand, stands in strong contrast to Tonggugang. This tomb, which is estimated to date to the very end of the Warring States Period is the largest and richest thus far excavated in Lingnan. It is a simple rectangular p i t measuring 37.6m2, containing both inner and outer wooden c o f f i n s . The majority of the 139 grave goods are of bronze (77.7%), and once again the most numerous category of bronze a r t i f a c t s is the tools (37%). Next in abundance are r i t u a l and ornamental a r t i f a c t s , including 4 1 10 human-head s t a f f s , a set of 6 b e l l s and pieces of a decorated plaque. Seven out of 9 l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s are ornaments, including 2 elaborately carved jade rings with gold handles. FIGURE 5.3: Gold handled jade rings from the Songshan b u r i a l , Zhaoqing Shi, Guangdong. (Guangdong Provincial Museum et a l . 1974) The differences between the Zhaoqing and Tonggugang burials are thus not merely differences in wealth and s i z e . The largest graves evidence access to special r i t u a l objects such as s t a f f s and b e l l s which the smaller and poorer graves do not have. These features indicate the presence of d i s t i n c t status levels within the " e l i t e " b u r i a l group i t s e l f . The largest Geometric cemetery s i t e in Lingnan i s Yinshanling in Guangxi Province. Of the 165 b u r i a l s excavated here, 110 are mid to late Warring States (Mi Period) in date, :: 111 one i s Q i n , and t h e r e m a i n d e r a r e Han. The 110 Mi P e r i o d g r a v e s span a p e r i o d of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 y e a r s . Most c o n t a i n i r o n a r t i f a c t s , and t h u s f a l l i n t o t h e l a t t e r p a r t of t h i s P e r i o d . T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n g r a v e form and s i z e , and i n t h e w e a l t h of t h e b u r i a l a s s e m b l a g e s . The r i c h e s t and most e l a b o r a t e b u r i a l s ( e g . #55, #108 & #74) a r e c o m p a r a b l e i n s c a l e t o t h e r i c h e s t K u i p e r i o d g r a v e s , but c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r i n s c a l e t h a n Z h a o q i n g . At t h e o t h e r end of t h e s c a l e a r e s m a l l s i m p l e p i t b u r i a l s of l e s s t h a n 2m 2 w h i c h c o n t a i n l e s s t h an 10 g r a v e goods e a c h . A l l of t h e s k e l e t a l r e m a i n s a t t h i s s i t e have d i s i n t e g r a t e d , a p a r t from a -few s m a l l f r a g m e n t s , so once more we a r e w i t h o u t d e f i n i t e a g e / s e x i n f o r m a t i o n . However, the e x c a v a t o r s have i n f e r r e d sex d i s t i n c t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e g r a v e goods, p r i m a r i l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e s e n c e of s p i n d l e w h o r l s o r weapons. In o n l y t h r e e c a s e s do b o t h of t h e s e o c c u r i n t h e same g r a v e ; t h e weapons i n v o l v e d a r e an a r r o w h e a d (#1.3), a yue b a t t l e - a x e (#20), and a s p e a r (#85). One o t h e r c o n t a i n s b o t h a s p i n d l e w h o r l and p a r t of a bow (H_^'t ,lS > #18). The one weapon n e v e r f o u n d t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s p i n d l e w h o r l i s t h e sword. I f we t h e r e f o r e make the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s p i n d l e w h o r l s = f e m a l e s , and swords = m a l e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o sex 77 b u r i a l s (35 f e m a l e s , 42 m a l e s ) . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n p r o v i d e s a t e n t a t i v e way of e x a m i n i n g t h e sex f a c t o r i n s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a t t h i s s i t e . " Female" g r a v e s a r e l e s s e l a b o r a t e t h a n "male" g r a v e s on a v e r a g e : o n l y 19.5% of f e m a l e g r a v e s have l e d g e s ( " s e c o n d - l e v e l 1 1 2. platforms" = v. ) as opposed to 30.1% of male graves. Female ledge p i t s are also smaller than those of males, however there i s l i t t l e difference in the size of the simple rectangular p i t s between sexes (Table 5.7).. SEX RECTANGULAR PIT % mean median occurrence size size LEDGE PIT % mean occurrence size female 80.5 3.15m2 2.6m2 (n = 7) 19.5 5.5m2 (n=28) 3.1m2 male • 69.0 3.23m2 2.6m2 (n=!3) 30.1 6.8m2 (n=29) 4.7m2 TABLE 5.7 : Comparison of grave size and form between "female" and "male" buria l s at Yinshanling. (Information from Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1978) Female graves are poorer in absolute wealth of grave goods. Taking only the largest graves (those over 6m2) female graves average 8.8 items each (n=4), while male graves average 20.5 (n=lO). In general there is not the strong co r r e l a t i o n between grave size and number of grave goods in female buri a l s as there is for males. This point i s i l l u s t r a t e d in Table 5.8 which contrasts the numbers of grave goods for the largest and smallest graves in each sex category. The male b u r i a l containing the largest number of grave goods is the largest grave in the sample. The wealthiest female grave i s , by contrast, ninth largest of the 36 female graves. There is one respect in which status does appear to cross sexual l i n e s , t h i s is in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of special status markers, the animal and bird-topped s t a f f s . In t h i s cemetery 1 1 3 SEX SIZE ( M 2 ) NUMBER OF GRAVE GOODS range median Male under 2 (n = 5) 7 & over (n = 6) ('staff* graves) 3-9 6.5 12-42 23.0 23-42 38.5 Female under 2 (n = 4) 6 & over (n=4) (' s t a f f graves) 1-7 4.5 6-17 4.5 17-21 19.0 TABLE 5.8 : Comparison of amount of grave goods between largest and smallest "male" and "female" burials at Yinshanling. (Information from Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1978) st a f f s are very strongly associated with burials which are d i s t i n c t i v e in terms of size, wealth, elaboration, or a l l three (Tables 5.8 and 5.9). The female graves containing s t a f f s rank second and th i r d among their sex category in amount of grave goods. The male graves rank f i r s t , second, fourth and sixth. Other features also set them apart. Four out of six (66.7%) contain traces of both inner and outer c o f f i n s , compared with 6.4% in the cemetery a s a whole. One of the remaining two graves is d i s t i n c t i v e in being the only one with 2 grave ledges. Graves #55 and #108 produced the only bronze c o f f i n f i t t i n g s recovered from the s i t e . Three of the graves also display three pairs of post holes placed opposite each other along the long sides of the p i t (Figure 5.4); only two other graves in the cemetery displayed the same feature. Metal ding vessels are GRAVE 0 form GRAVE s i z e (m2) PIT s p e c i a l features GRAVE tota 1 no. 1 GOODS s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s SEX 22 r e c t . 3-0 1. 2. inner and outer c o f f i n s waist p i t contains _he_ 17 1 bronze d i nq 6 jade r i n g s 9 ceramic v e s s e l s , no weapons i nc1ud ing 8 cups F ema1e 55 ledge 11.4 6.2 2. 3- inner and outer c o f f i n s 8 bronze c o f f i n handles ledge has 3 post holes on each long side 42 2 bronze 6 i r o n dinq 28 bronze weapons 4 whetstones Male 57 r e c t . 2.2 none 26 l a r g e s t number of i r o n t o o l s s i n g l e grave 4 whetstones i n a Male 64 1 edge 4.9 2.4 1. 2. 3- 2 grave ledges lower ledge has 3 post holes on each long side waist p i t contains he. 21 5 jade r i n g s 2 turquoise beads 6 ceramic v e s s e l s , no weapons i nc1ud i ng 5 cups Fema1e 74 1 edge 6.9 3-9 1. 2. 3- inner and outer c o f f i n s waist p i t contains he. ledge has 3 post holes on each long side 35 1 bronze dinq 1 bronze pen 18 bronze and i r o n weapons Male 108 r e c t . 8 . 0 1. 2. 3- inner and outer c o f f i n s 12 bronze r i v e t - j o i n t s from c o f f i n waist p i t contains bu 23 1 bronze dinq 3 whetstones 1 ban'er guan j a r Male TABLE 5.9: Y i n s h a n l i n g g r a v e s c o n t a i n i n g a n i m a l - t o p p e d s t a f f s ( i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m G u a n g x i C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s B r i g a d e 1978) 115 M 55: 1-8. bronze c o f f i n handles 9. iron scraper 10. bronze sword 11 — 1 *i. bronze arrows 12. bronze 'pen basin 13. quiver 15. bronze yue' axe 16. bronze 'dIng tripod 17-19- bronze spears 20. bronze spear butt 21,22,27. bronze razor knife 23,25,26,28. whetstones -29. iron hoe 30. bronze s t a f f M 108: 1. ceramic ban'er quan- j a r 2,7,9-12,17 ,18,20,33-35. bronze c o f f i n f i t t i n g s 3. ceramic '-'he-''box l i d U. ceramic tripod he ; box 5- bronze ding' tripod 6 , 8 . bronze spears 13. bronze s t a f f H-16. bronze swords 19. ceramic Jau_ vase 21 ,23,2'*. bronze arrows 22. Iron razor knife 25. Iron hoe 26 bronze axe 27. bronze spear butt 28. Iron c h i s e l 29-31 whetstones 32. Iron adze J L J f f l M Ik: 1. ceramic bu' vase 2,3,7. ceramic cups 1*. bronze J pen - basin 5 ,6 . whet- stones 8. bronze d1ng" tripod 9- bronze scraper 10,11. bronze swords 12. Iron spear 13. bronze s t a f f I't.lS. bronze razor knife 16. ceramic 'he! box 17. Iron adze 18. bronze 'yue" axe 19. bronze axe 20,22. Iron hoes 21. bronze spear butt 23. bronze spear 24. bronze arrow 25. bronze axe 26. bamboo 'he' box. M 64: 1,3,7-9. ceramic cups 2. Jade jue ring 4. turquoise bead 5. Iron hoe 6. bronze axe 10. bronze s t a f f 11. ceramic spindle whorl 12. Iron razor knife 13. whetstone 14. bronze razor knife 15. ceramic t rI pod ;he' box FIGURE 5 . 4 : Four s ta f f - g raves from the Yinshanl ing cemetery s i t e , Guangxi (Guangxi Cu l tura l Propert ies Brigade 1978: 214, 217, 218) 1 1 6 associated with burials that are larger and/or wealthier than average; th e i r occurrence among 'staf f ' graves i s much higher than in the cemetery as a whole - 6 6 . 7 % vs. 1 1 . 8 % . Yinshanling thus does provide evidence that status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n cross-cuts sex categories in the Mi Period. Not only do female graves rank in the highest levels of grave goods and energy expenditure (grave size and form), but several of the richest graves of both sexes contain animal-topped s t a f f s which appear to have been important status markers throughout the Kui arid Mi Periods. It i s possible that these s t a f f s are also indicative of soc i a l subgroups such as lineages. At least two kinds of f i n i a l s are reported, animals and birds. However, since the type of f i n i a l i s recorded for only 3 of the 6 recovered we cannot presently make any informed guesses about their possible significance, except to say that i t is not correlated with the sex of the b u r i a l . The Yinshanling report contains s u f f i c i e n t data for a more detailed s p a t i a l and s t y l i s t i c analysis which might bear on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of so c i a l subgroups, but such an analysis l i e s outside the scope of thi s study. C. POLITICAL COMPONENT Identifying p o l i t i c a l aspects of status/rank and distinguishing p o l i t i c a l from other (eg.economic) subgroupings within a region is p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t , partly because of the tight overlap between the various aspects of h i e r a r c h i c a l organization in pre- and early s t a t e - l e v e l s o c i e t i e s , and partly because no precise 117 and invariable archaeological correlates of p o l i t i c a l versus s o c i a l or economic aspects have yet been defined. One source of evidence I s h a l l explore here involves d i s t i n c t i v e features of ceramic s t y l e . Recent ethnographic and archaeological research into the significance of a r t i f a c t style and symbolism has demonstrated the v a r i a b i l i t y in the information that may be (consciously or unconsciously) conveyed through s t y l e , and in the types of a r t i f a c t s that may convey such information (Hodder 1982, Plog 1983). Because the s t y l i s t i c aspects of a single a r t i f a c t class are, on t h e i r own, too ambiguous an indicator for defining the extent and other features of p o l i t i c a l networks I s h a l l also consider how such s t y l i s t i c evidence coordinates with two other kinds of evidence which seem to relate to p o l i t i c a l networks and l o c a l subgroupings. These are f i r s t , the indications of a unified ritual/ceremonial system in this region, and secondly, special symbolic a r t i f a c t s which appear to be symbols of p o l i t i c a l leadership, and may mark the d i v i s i o n s between l o c a l units. These l a t t e r two only become apparent during the Bronze and early Iron Age, thus the discussion relates primarily to the late Geometric. One very notable feature of the development of the Geometric Horizon i s i t s gradual expansion towards the West. During the I n i t i a l Period i t is found only in the Eastern, Northern and Central regions. During the Soft Pottery and Transi t i o n a l Periods i t expands into the Western and Southern Regions, but in the l a t t e r i t is never very strong (Guangdong 1 18 Provincial Museum 1979:330). By the Kui Period the Geometric network reaches i t s greatest extent with the incorporation of eastern Guangxi, but a curious feature obtains: the most d i s t i n c t i v e and very common motif of this Period, the kui (double-f) does not penetrate into southern Guangdong and southeastern Guangxi, and is only weakly dis t r i b u t e d in the northeast part of Guangdong. Isolated pieces of Kui-impressed pottery have been found in the southwest fringes of Fujian and southern fringes of Hunan bordering Guangdong and eastern Guangxi, but otherwise the kui i s a d i s t i n c t i v e Lingnan t r a i t . It is interesting to note that the boundaries of the early h i s t o r i c province of Nanhai also excluded the Leizhou/Hainan area. This area was also separated from the G u i l i n Province of northern Guangxi, being joined instead with the southern and western parts of Guangxi and Vietnam. It i s worth considering therefore that the early h i s t o r i c p o l i t i c a l / a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s reflected the d i v i s i o n s of the pre h i s t o r i c p o l i t i c a l / a l l i a n c e network. It is during the Kui Period that certain features of mortuary r i t u a l f i r s t show a degree of standardization throughout the Lingnan Geometric area. The t r a i t s which appear to have r i t u a l " s i g n i f i c a n c e are 1) each grave contains a large geometric (usually kui) -impressed ceramic jar, usually placed in a waist p i t , and 2) at least one b e l l , of d i s t i n c t i v e l y southern s t y l e , is found in each e l i t e grave. The placement of grave goods within the grave p i t i s also standard: a l l items except swords and daggers are placed to one or both ends of the 1 19 p i t , with the swords/daggers in the middle p a r a l l e l to the long axis. The l a t t e r were probably worn on the body. It i s worth noting that the non-elite (presumed) burials in Hong Kong are also characterized by the presence of a large, usually kui- impressed ceramic jar (see especially Williams 1979). During the Mi Period Guangdong graves retain the waist p i t and/or ceramic jar feature, while in the Guangxi Yinshanling cemetery, waist p i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y contain he boxes, and only a few hold large jars (Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1978). The bronze s t a f f s referred to in the previous section are another d i s t i n c t i v e feature of high status Lingnan bu r i a l s , one which seems l i k e l y to have held p o l i t i c a l symbolism. During the Kui Period they are found in single, isolated high-status graves, and they occur in sets (usually of 4) placed in the corners of the grave p i t . Again there is a d i s t i n c t i o n to be made between eastern Guangxi and Guangdong, in the use of animal or bird f i n i a l s in the former, and human head f i n i a l s in the l a t t e r . The human-head or human-figure motif i s found on other bronze a r t i f a c t s in Guangdong, and has been c i t e d by the Chinese as a d i s t i n c t i v e t r a i t of t h i s area (He 1981). It may also be si g n i f i c a n t that s t a f f s have only been unearthed from graves located in Central and Western Guangdong, and not from:the three e l i t e graves in the North and East (He 1981:216). Staffs have been unearthed in a Mi Period cemetery context at Yinshanling, but in this case only one staff was contained in each of the 6 graves. In the higher status isolated burials of this Period they s t i l l occur in sets of four. 1 20 I suggest that these features of both ceramic and r i t u a l style s i g n i f y the extent of a p o l i t i c a l / a l l i a n c e network uniting l o c a l units in Guangdong and northeast Guangxi during the Bronze and early Iron Ages. The extent of the network i s definable by shared r i t u a l and s t y l i s t i c features, and smaller units within the network may be i d e n t i f i a b l e by variations on the basic themes. There i s some minor h i s t o r i c a l evidence to support t h i s hypothesis: the term used by the State of Chu to refer to the inhabitants of Lingnan - " the 100 Yue" - expresses t h i s kind of concurrent unity and disunity. More importantly, i t is clear that even in the early h i s t o r i c period the King of the Yue did not yet have j u r i s d i c t i o n throughout the entire administrative Province of Nanhai. Sources speak of him attempting to gain the loyalty of other "Yue" groups through bribes and g i f t s (Peters 1983:252-254). Such comments indicate the continued existence of strong independent p o l i t i c a l units within the Yue area of Lingnan even into the Han period. It i s also important to note the obvious signs of militarism evident in the amounts of well- used m i l i t a r y equipment in late Geometric graves, which indicates that relations between groups within the Geometric network were not always peaceful. 121 D. MANUFACTURING COMPONENT 1. Development Of Technical S k i l l s It i s in the areas of ceramic production, and later metal- working that the greatest changes in technology are evident during the Geometric Period. Information on both of these comes primarily from the a r t i f a c t s themselves, as very few kil n s and no d e f i n i t e bronze manufacturing workshops or mines have been unearthed in Guangdong or Guangxi. i . Ceramics Xu (1981) and He (1981) both provide general non-technical outlines of the development of ceramics in Guangdong in the Geometric period. Meacham (ed.1978) has provided more detailed information with respect to the ceramics of the Sham Wan s i t e , Hong Kong. The Hong Kong ceramics have been subjected to such techniques as experimental r e p l i c a t i o n , thermal expansion tests to determine f i r i n g temperatures, and chemical and physical analyses of paste and glazes (ibid.:171 - 182, Finn 1957:198-213). At least some of these techniques are also being applied to the Guangdong materials (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1983a), but no detailed reports have been published. A similar sequence of development is agreed upon by a l l sources; the main d e t a i l s are outlined below 1 2. Changes are evident in three aspects: vessel construction, surface decoration and f i r i n g . The main advancement in vessel 1 2 Except where noted the following discussion refers only to the finewares. Coarsewares change very l i t t l e in technological features throughout the Geometric Horizon. 1 2 2 construction i s the increasing use of and control over the wheel. Throughout the Chevron Periods only the rims and foot- sections of vessels show marks of wheel-finishing. The major body of ceramic vessels i s hand b u i l t by c o i l i n g and beating with a paddle. By the Kui Period a l l rims and feet are wheel- finished, and smaller vessels such as cups and bowls are completely wheel-thrown. In the Mi Period even the largest storage jars could be constructed completely on the wheel, although the c o i l i n g method was s t i l l also used. There is a corresponding increase in the variety of smaller vessel forms produced throughout the Kui and Mi Periods, as well as an increasing elaboration of appendages such as handles, l i d s and spouts. At the same time however, there i s a v i s i b l e standardization in vessel forms from one end of Lingnan to the other. Figure 5.5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s with two examples: the ban'er style of vessel handle and the he box from si t e s from Northern Guangdong through to Eastern Guangxi. Surface decoration i s a second aspect of ceramics in which the development of s k i l l s i s evident. From the Chevron to the Kui Periods the trend in surface decoration i s towards increasing care and s k i l l in the design and application of geometric impressions. Individual impressions become more regular, there i s an increase in the variety of motifs used and zoned group patterning replaces single motifs. Intaglio rather than r e l i e f impressions begin to be used in the T r a n s i t i o n a l Period, and are standard during the Kui Period (Xu 1 9 8 1 ) . New tools for applying surface patterns, such as r o l l e r s and 123 FIGURE 5.5: S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f v e s s e l forms i n the Mi Period 1 24 individual pattern moulds are adopted at about the same time (Meacham ed. 1978:159). The use of glaze i s f i r s t in evidence during the late Chevron Transit i o n a l Period. The most common colours of glaze are yellowish-brown and green. Analyzed samples from Hong Kong are lime glazes, most l i k e l y derived from a mixture of wood ash and clay ( i b i d . 173). Although the use of glaze increases notably in the Mi Period, glazed vessels s t i l l only comprise 5.14% of the ceramic assemblage at the late Mi Period s i t e at Baishipingshan (CP.A.M. Guangdong et a l . 1 964b: 1 51 ) . Glaze was used on a l l shapes and sizes of vessels, over p l a i n , incised or impressed surfaces, however i t i s rather more common on small unimpressed vessels. Early in the Mi Period there i s a rapid change in the surface patterning of ceramics. The elaborate zoned impressions and i n t r i c a t e motifs of the Kui Period are quickly superseded by rapidly applied and unzoned single motifs such as the simple check and 'mi', and by v a r i e t i e s of incised decoration, some of which appear to have been applied on the wheel. However this change is not related to any technological innovations nor to sudden improvements in old techniques. The f i n a l aspect of ceramic technology to be discussed is f i r i n g . Control over f i r i n g temperatures and k i l n atmosphere increases s i g n i f i c a n t l y during the Geometric Period. This i s arguably the most s i g n i f i c a n t technological trend of this period because of i t s connection with the development of metallurgy: high temperatures (at least 1100°C) are required for alloying 1 25 and casting, and both high temperatures and a reduction atmosphere for smelting ores (Watson 1971:70). Temperatures of 1100°C were achieved and surpassed during the Chevron Tra n s i t i o n a l Period: the hard pottery which comprises the majority of the ceramics from Shuikou was f i r e d at temperatures between 900 and 1200°C, and some as high as 1300°C (Guangdong Prov i n c i a l Museum I983a:590). At Hedang, approximately 30% of the ceramics were f i r e d to 1100°C or above (Yang and Chen 1981), and high-fired proto-porcelain wares have been reported from the Raoping b u r i a l s . The consistency of the colours of hard wares is indicative of a high degree of control over k i l n atmosphere. Such changes are related to improvements in k i l n structure. The Guangdong Geometric s i t e s where k i l n remains have been unearthed are l i s t e d in Table 5.10. Although the data on th i s topic are scarce they are s u f f i c i e n t to indicate the general developmental trends. The k i l n at Zoumagang is already a f a i r l y sophisticated design. It is a p i t k i l n , with separate f i r e box and f i r i n g chamber. The f i r e box i s set alongside rather than d i r e c t l y underneath the f i r i n g chamber, and the two are separated by a short flue (Figure 5.6, A). Two other sites of t h i s Period, Shixia and Chengpicun each contain a number of k i l n s , but unfortunately no d e t a i l s or diagrams of these ki l n s have been published. The Shuikou k i l n s i t e is considerably later than the above three. In terms of Central Plains chronology i t i s estimated to be Western Zhou in date (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1983a). 1 26 SITE PERIOD TOTAL KILNS DESCRIPTION (reference) Chengpicun Chevron Soft Pottery several no information on k i l n structure or si t e (90) Shixia Chevron Soft Pottery 4 no information on k i l n structure; in association with habitation features (90) Zoumagang Chevron Soft Pottery 1 horizontal k i l n , separate furnace & f i r i n g chamber; in association with habitation features (14) Shuikou Chevron Transitional 5 v e r t i c a l flue k i l n , no assoc iated habitation features (31) Xigualing early Mi 2 (# 1 ) dragon k i l n (#2) unclear; in association with habitation features (15) Ba i shipingshan late Mi 1 unclear; in association with habitation features (15) TABLE 5.10; K i l n features excavated from Geometric s i t e s in Guangdong Province The five kilns from this s i t e are s t r u c t u r a l l y very d i f f e r e n t from Zoumagang, but very similar to contemporary Zhou kil n s in the North ( i b i d . 596). They are a l l v e r t i c a l k i l n s : the f i r e box is set d i r e c t l y underneath the f i r i n g chamber, separated by a pierced floor (Figure 5.6, B). The primary technical advantage of such a structure i s that i t i s easier to reach very 127 E A. Zoumagang k i l n #1 (CP.A.M. Guangdong et a l . 1964a) B. Shuikou k i l n #3 (Guangdong Prov inc ia l Museum 1983a) C. & D. Reconstruction of hor izonta l and v e r t i c a l k i l n types from Banpo (Shangraw 1977) E. Diagram of ear ly form of "Dragon k i l n " (Liu 1982) Figure 5.6: KiIn types found in Geometric s i te s in Guangdong Province 1 28 high f i r i n g temperatures than with the horizontal type of k i l n . In the case of Shuikou temperatures as high as 1300°C were reached. Between Shuikou and the next recorded ki l n s there i s again a considerable temporal gap. The two kilns at Xigualing belong to. the early Mi Period. Kiln #2 i s largely destroyed (only the furnace remains) but #1 i s mostly intact. This k i l n is of great significance in the history of Chinese k i l n development as is is one of only two Warring States examples of the "dragon k i l n " ^ ) 13 which was previously believed to have been a much later development (Liu 1982:166). Unfortunately no diagram of th i s k i l n was available in the sources I consulted, however the general p r o f i l e is diagrammed in Figure 5.6, C. In the true dragon k i l n the furnace and f i r i n g chamber are separate, and a long slanting flue leads to a series of f i r i n g chambers. It is not clear from the Xigualing report whether there were several, or just one f i r i n g chamber in this example. The overa l l length of the Xigualing k i l n is just less than 10 metres 1". The Baishipingshan k i l n is unfortunately also destroyed, and i t s form cannot be reconstructed. A l l of the Mi Period ki l n s appear to have been above-ground structures. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d i f f e r e n t k i l n traditions evident at the Shuikou, Zoumagang and Xigualing s i t e s is a topic worth investigating as they do 1 3 The other example was unearthed from a s i t e in Zhejiang Province. (Liu 1982:166) 1" The o r i g i n a l s i t e report gives a broken length of 7.6 metres; Liu (1982) agrees with Xu's (1981) figure of 9.8 metres o v e r a l l . 1 29 represent d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s in the history of Chinese ceramics. For the present we can only note that both types were used in Lingnan during the late P r e h i s t o r i c . i i Metal working The e a r l i e s t evidence for the use of metal in Lingnan date to the late Chevron Transitional Period. The only metal a r t i f a c t from a securely datable context i s a bronze g_e from one of the Raoping graves. It is not clear that t h i s item was l o c a l l y manufactured, although the crudity of i t s casting has caused some to believe that i t was (Guangdong Pro v i n c i a l Museum 1979:329). Possible casting sites for smaller bronze pieces are indicated by finds of stone casting moulds and a few small droplets of slag from several s i t e s in Lingnan (see Appendix 3). The types of a r t i f a c t s thus represented are axes, adzes, fishhooks and small b e l l s . The t r a d i t i o n of casting in stone moulds is a p a r t i c u l a r l y southern t r a i t within China: similar moulds have been unearthed from the Wucheng s i t e in Jiangxi, which i s contemporaneous with the Erligang phase of the Shang State (circa 1800-1500 BC, Chang 1980:306). No direct evidence for the l o c a l manufacture of such pieces as swords, vessels and most r i t u a l items has yet been found. Chinese archaologists have inferred l o c a l production of many such bronzes because they manifest s t y l i s t i c features which distinguish them from pieces manufactured north of the Wuling range (He 1981, Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1979). Relevant features include the incorporation of t y p i c a l l y 130 "southern" decorative patterns and motifs such as the "frog and snake" and thundercloud, and certain forms which are not encountered further north. Some of these a r t i f a c t s , such as the Kui Period ' weng'1 vessels from J i a h u i , are i n t r i c a t e l y decorated, and give an impression of very sophisticated technological control, implying production of a similar order of complexity to that found in the north (Guangxi P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1973). If indeed they were l o c a l l y manufactured then a high degree of sp e c i a l i z a t i o n in bronze production i s implied (see Franklin 1983 for a general discussion of the organizational requirements of bronze technology). Several bronze a r t i f a c t s are described as being t o t a l l y "foreign" in style and have been c l a s s i f e d as probable imports. These w i l l be discussed further below. There is an int r i g u i n g reference to a "smelting s i t e " at the Tongshiling s i t e in B e i l i u County, Guangxi contained in a table of Geometric si t e s in Guangxi (Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1981), but sadly, no further information was contained in either t h i s , or any of the other sources I have consulted. The only evidence of smelting of ores in Guangdong i s a copper ingot recovered from a small cache in Yangchun County. The estimated date, based on an associated bronze axe i s Warring States (He 1981:213). Certainly Guangdong and, to a lesser extent, Guangxi are ri c h in copper deposits, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the Wuling mountains (Lee 1939:189). As yet however no mines or smelting s i t e s (other than the one referred to above) have been located. 131 In short, there i s circumstantial evidence to assume considerable l o c a l manufacture of metal a r t i f a c t s in Lingnan during the late Geometric. However, as far as the larger items are concerned dir e c t evidence of smelting or casting s i t e s i s s t i l l lacking. 2. Organizational Aspects I have pointed out above that the only archaeologically v i s i b l e products which might be expected to have been produced outside of the basic household unit are ceramics ( p a r t i c u l a r l y fine wares) and metals. The a r t i f a c t s themselves attest to high levels of s k i l l and technological control, levels usually associated with at least part-time s p e c i a l i z a t i o n (Franklin 1983, Clarke 1979:347-349). But the main sources of evidence commonly used to investigate this aspect are the production s i t e s themselves. Unfortunately in the case of Lingnan t h i s kind of data i s the weakest. Kiln s i t e s have been discussed above in r e l a t i o n to the technical aspects of the k i l n structures, but what of the organizational aspects of the s i t e s themselves? Most of the excavated k i l n s apparently were located within habitation areas, although the exact s p a t i a l relationship between the two types of features is not clear in the published reports. I f , for example the kilns are s p a t i a l l y segregated from habitation features, and in a single subarea of the s i t e this would have d i f f e r e n t implications for the organization of production than i f each dwelling, or groups of dwellings are associated with their own 1 32 k i l n ( s ) . Hopefully the publication of more detailed s i t e plans of excavated s i t e s w i l l in the future allow us to study such s p a t i a l evidence. At least two s i t e s appear to be specialized k i l n s i t e s , not d i r e c t l y associated with habitation areas. These two are Chengpicun and Shuikou. In the f i r s t case I am i n f e r r i n g this pattern: no s i t e report has been published, and information contained in other sources does not s p e c i f i c a l l y treat this point. However, the only other s i t e besides Chengpicun which i s designated as a " k i l n s i t e " i s Shuikou, which is a specialized production area, so on t h i s basis i t seems reasonable to assume that Chengpicun i s also a specialized s i t e . The existence of two such specialized k i l n s i t e s from the early part of the Geometric Period is interesting given the overal l lack of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity we have inferred for th i s period. It is worth noting however that Shuikou, which is inferred to be Western Zhou ( i . e . very late Chevron Transitional) i s more or less contemporary with the Raoping bur i a l s , and i s also located in the same northeastern area of the Province. It may thus be that the groups in t h i s area were already quite developed organizationally prior to the Kui Period. Chengpicun presents a d i f f e r e n t problem as i t dates to ; the early Chevron Soft Pottery Period (based on comparisons of i t s ceramic assemblage with Shixia's: Zhu et a l . 1981:233). Obviously the whole question of the development and subsequent decline in status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n in this area of the North River during the i n i t i a l Geometric needs more detailed 1 33 investigation. Considerable s i t e data already exist from this area and time period, but are not presently available through published sources. Hopefully they w i l l be used to c l a r i f y such issues in the near future. Evidence for the organization of bronze production i s even more scarce than for ceramics, as no actual bronze workshops have yet been excavated in Lingnan. The manufacture of metal a r t i f a c t s requires greater organization and more specialized s k i l l s than either ceramics or l i t h i c s because of the extra steps involved and the li m i t e d locations where the raw materials can be acquired (Figure 5.7). If, as seems l i k e l y , not only _ C U A § § ± - « - "STONE Identify Separate and and Reduce Select in Size _CLASSJ!L^ METAL M x and Prepare Heat , _RAW — % E T A L MIX I HEAT CAST Aloylng FIGURE 5.7 : Schematic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of materials selection and processing. (Franklin 1983:283) weapons and tools, but also larger and more complex items such as vessels were manufactured in Lingnan during the Geometric Period a considerable degree of sp e c i a l i z a t i o n i s implied. The smelting s i t e in Guangxi Province and the several s i t e s at which moulds and slag have been found may represent small manufacturing/processing centres. Nothing on the order of c r a f t barrios or large workshops i s in evidence before the Qin and Han 1 3 4 Dynasties 1 5 Ceramics and metallurgy are the only 2 s k i l l s which show any evidence of s p e c i a l i s t production during the Geometric Period. It i s interesting to note that they are the only two production s k i l l s not evident among bur i a l assemblages: no individuals can be i d e n t i f i e d as potters or metal workers from the associated a r t i f a c t s . Weapons, woodworking, food processing and a g r i c u l t u r a l tools, as well as tools for production of c l o t h are a l l found in burials;- however, as far as ceramics and metals are concerned only the finished a r t i f a c t s are included as grave furniture, never moulds, beaters or other tools of production. This may indicate a d i v i s i o n between c r a f t s which were s t i l l organized at the l e v e l of the individual household versus those organized at a higher level of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . E. CIRCULATION Recent archaeological research into this component has taken two f o c i , f i r s t the archaeological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and analysis of exchange systems (e.g. Earle and Ericson 1977, Ericson and Earle 1982:Chapters 2-11, Renfrew 1975; 1977); secondly on modelling the development of exchange systems and their i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other s o c i a l subsystems (e.g. Sabloff and Lamberg- Karloffsky eds. 1975, Friedman and Rowlands 1977, Hodder 1982). At this point I s h a l l be concerned with the f i r s t of these: the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of patterning in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of materials 1 5 The e a r l i e s t workshop s i t e found in Lingnan i s a Qin-Han dynasty shipyard at Guangzhou in the Pearl Delta. (Guangdong Agriculture and Forestry Institute 1977) 135 both within Lingnan, and between Lingnan and neighbouring regions. The c i r c u l a t i o n of materials or products is l o g i c a l l y t i e d to the degree of production s p e c i a l i z a t i o n since the s p a t i a l r e s t r i c t i o n of sources neccesitates a d i s t r i b u t i o n system to move the product from the source to the consumer. In a cross- c u l t u r a l study of pottery production and d i s t r i b u t i o n van der Leeuw (1977) defined 6 manufacturing systems (levels of organization) and their d i s t r i b u t i o n a l concomitants which i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s point (Table 5.11). Number of Economic variables" System of individuals pottery manufacture involved Time involved Market (1) Household production one occasional o w n use (2) Household industry several part-time group use (3) Individual industry one full-time regional (4) Workshop industry several full-time village/town (5) Village industry several part-time'full-time region (wide) (6) Large-scale industry m a n y full-time regional and export "These are a sub-set of twelve variables presented by van der Leeuw (1977). TABLE 5.11 : D i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns associated with various systems of production organization., (Van der Leeuw 1977, as reproduced in Hantman and Plog 1983:244). Of course movement of materials over considerable distances also occurs in the absence of specialized production. It i s the organizational structure and patterning of the exchange system which changes most s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the development of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity, not simply distances or amounts of materials involved. The nature of the materials exchanged is also an important 1 36 factor in exchange patterns. Because control over production and consumption of prestige goods i s one of the hallmarks of high status in eg a l i t a r i a n or ranked so c i e t i e s , such items can be expected to show di f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than u t i l i t a r i a n items, being exchanged between e l i t e groups and over longer distances (Friedman and Rowlands 1977, Clarke 1979:346-8, Earle 1982:8-9). i . Internal exchange networks In comparison to the previously-discussed components, evidence on exchange systems i s almost nonexistant. Current archaeological methods rely on the most detailed data of any of these components, both chemical and physical data on composition of materials in order to trace source or manufacturing locations, and detailed d i s t r i b u t i o n a l information to trace the movement of materials and goods throughout a region (Earle and Ericson 1977). Although Chinese researchers are now u t i l i z i n g such sophisticated techniques, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the study of ceramics, so far they have applied them only to studying the development of technological s k i l l s , and not to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of exchange systems (Li 1982, Zhou et a l . 1982). Only one source-distribution type of study has been published on Lingnan Geometric materials: this i s a brief study of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a r t i f a c t s manufactured of eurite quarried from Xiqiaoshan (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1983b:1090). the time period concerned is the pre- and early Geometric, through to the early Chevron Transitional Period. Although the information i s not very detailed -- for example, there is no 1 37 information on the amounts of Xiqiaoshan materials found at each mapped s i t e the extent of the d i s t r i b u t i o n is apparent (see Figure 5.8). According to present information the Xiqiaoshan • Xiqiaoshan s i t e A s i t e s containing Xiqiaoshan eurite FIGURE 5.8 : Di s t r i b u t i o n of eurite l i t h i c materials quarried at Xiqiaoshan, Guangdong. (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1983b:1090) case is an anomaly in the Lingnan Geometric area. U t i l i t a r i a n l i t h i c materials were generally procured from sources in the immediate v i c i n i t y of the use location, usually from river cobbles or nearby dykes (e.g. Davis and Tregear 1960). The only other current l i n e of evidence for internal exchange patterns i s the inferred existence of c r a f t 1 38 spe c i a l i z a t i o n in ceramics and metals. ' Jade ornaments were probably also exchanged over considerable distances because of the r e s t r i c t e d sources of thi s p a r t i c u l a r material, as well as because of i t s status connotations. There is a high degree of standardization of both the forms and design of fineware ceramics throughout the Geometric areas of Lingnan during the Kui and Mi Periods, during the Kui Period the large impressed storage jars from eastern Guangdong, the Pearl Delta and eastern Guangxi are p r a c t i c a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . 1 6 In the Mi Period t h i s s t y l i s t i c standardization extends also to smaller vessels, as noted above (Figure 5.5). Although such standardization between widely separated areas i s not on i t s own proof of specialized production and exchange, i t does suggest t h i s as a hypothesis worthy of further investigation. A model developed by Clarke (1979:314) in relation to the Beaker network postulates that d i f f e r e n t i a l s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of coarse wares and fine wares should evidence d i f f e r e n t c i r c u l a t i o n systems for each kind of ware (Figure 5.9). There are some vague hints that coarse geometric wares may be d i f f e r e n t l y zoned than fine wares from at least the Chevron Tr a n s i t i o n a l Period. In Hong Kong, for example, geometric-impressed coarse wares are only found during the Chevron Transi t i o n a l Period, when they co-exist with coarse corded wares, and during the Kui Period when corded wares are no 1 6 See for example the i l l u s t r a t i o n s of jars from Wuhua County, eastern Guangdong (Maglioni 1975: Plate I ) , and He County eastern Guangxi (CP.A.M. Guangxi 1978: Plates 47-49). 139 F I G . 4. M o d e l I I : A schemat ic m o d e l o f the h i e r a r c h i c a l set of pottery subasscmhlages (fine ware , everyday ware, heavy-duty ware) (see F i g . 2) at three domestic sites " c " , " d " , "e". A common exchanged a n d copied fine ware is shared by a l l three sites w h i c h are then part o f an i n t e r r e g i o n a l fine ware " c u l t u r e / t r a d i t i o n " "A". H o w e v e r , beneath this fine ware u n i f o r m i t y based o n exchange a n d r e p l i c a t i o n arc more regional everyday a n d heavy-duty ware g r o u p i n g s , e.g.. " B " . FIGURE 5.9 : Clarke's model of exchange patterns in a h i e r a r c h i c a l l y organized pottery assemblage. (1979:341) longer found (Meacham 1981). Elsewhere in Guangdong, simple geometric motifs were used on coarse wares from the Chevron 2 Period, i f not before. Because there are no detailed s i t e reports from Kui Period s i t e s elsewhere in Guangdong i t is hard to make comparisons during that Period; however differences exist between Hong Kong and other Guangdong sites during the Transitional Period. At Shuikou, for example, the only geometric pattern found on coarse wares is the simple check, and in the Haifeng area "net" patterns are predominant (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1983a, Maglioni 1975). -A variety of geometric motifs are used on:the coarse wares in Hong Kong, although only in single-motif unzoned arrangements. If such apparent differences between coarse and fine wares can be documented more closely in future there may be a stronger basis for discussing exchange networks for fineware ceramics. In the case of the Beaker Network Clarke was able to substantiate the long distance 140 exchange of beakers through analyses of the clay materials. This i s obviously a neccesary step i f the patterns suggested here are to be confirmed. The evidence provided by the bronzes relates to patterns of both internal and external exchange. As with ceramics i t is possible that u t i l i t a r i a n bronzes such as small tools and arrowheads were manufactured quite widely at a number of small workshops. On the other hand, the lack of i d e n t i f i e d casting si t e s for more complicated pieces suggests that such production was more r e s t r i c t e d , and therefore d i s t r i b u t i o n networks more widespread than for the smaller items. This hypothesis accords with the d i f f e r e n t i a l status value placed on each kind of a r t i f a c t . Ding vessels are associated only with higher status b u r i a l s 1 7 , whereas smaller tools and weapons have also been unearthed from lower status b u r i a l s , and habitation s i t e s such as Shixia, Baishipingshan and various s i t e s in Hong Kong and Haifeng (Appendix 3). i i . Interrregional exchange The c i r c u l a t i o n of externally manufactured items seems to have been s i m i l a r l y t i e d in with e l i t e status. Unfortunately the precise i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of imported items is d i f f i c u l t at present. Chinese archaeologists are reluctant to id e n t i f y an 1 7 Peters (1983:357) makes the interesting observation that, although such ding are s t y l i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from forms found north of the Wuling, the basic vessel type is a northern derivative. Moreover, in burials in the northern states ding are " c l e a r l y associated with and symbolizing p o l i t i c a l authority" ( i b i d . ) . 141 item as an import unless there i s s p e c i f i c evidence (such as an inscription) attesting to i t s locus of manufacture in another region. In many cases items described as being "completely Chu/Central P l a i n s - s t y l e " are suggested to be imports, therefore such a designation is the only c r i t e r i o n one can currently use to distinguish possible imports from possible l o c a l products. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s aside, i f we look at the categories of a r t i f a c t s which are possible imports there are two which predominate: (1) vessels such as l e i urns and he jars (Figure 5.10) (2) swords and g_e dagger-axes (Figure 5.11, He 1981:214-216, Xu 1975, Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1979:341). Both categories, but p a r t i c u l a r l y the f i r s t , have high prestige value. Notably, only the vessels are s p e c i f i c a l l y suggested to be imports. The implication i s that most swords were l o c a l l y manufactured although heavily influenced by northern styles. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of possible imports among Lingnan geometric graves i s shown in Table 5.12. There is c l e a r l y a d i s t i n c t i o n in wealth and status between the graves which contain imported vessels, and those which do not. None of the buri a l s in the Yinshanling and Tonggugang cemeteries, which are on the whole of lower status than the isolated graves, contain "imported" vessels, although a small number contain " l o c a l " bronze vessels (Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1978, Guangdong Provincial Museum 1981). From this association i t appears that access to imported e l i t e goods such as the bronze vessels was strongly concentrated in the hands of the e l i t e . There are other bronze a r t i f a c t s found in Lingnan Geometric a. J i a h u i , Guangxi (Late K u i P e r i o d (Guangxi P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1973) b. Matougang #2, Guangdong ( l a t e K u i Period) (CP.A.M. Guangdong 1964) FIGURE 5.10: " I m p o r t e d " b r o n z e r i t u a l v e s s e l s f r o m L i n g n a n G e o m e t r i c g r a v e s O © Q IP Bronze swords from c e n t r a l C hina, t e n t h (a) to f o u r t h (f)-. c e n t u r i e s B.C.. (Watson 1971:117) V Bronze swords from Niaodanshan, l a t e Kui P e r i o d . (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum (1981) Bronze swords from the Y i n s h a n l i n g cemetery. Mi P e r i o d . (Guangxi C u l t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s Brigade 1978) Bronze swords from the Tonggugang cemetery, Mi P e r i o d (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1981) Bronze swords and sword f i t t i n g s from Songshan, l a t e Mi P e r i o d . (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum et a l . 1974) Co FIGURE 5.11: B r o n z e s w o r d s f r o m c e n t r a l C h i n a and f r o m L i n g n a n G e o m e t r i c g r a v e s S i t e T o t a l Grave Goods T o t a l Bronzes Vess e l s : T o t a l d i n g suggested irrports Reference KUI PERIOD Matougang #1, Qingyuan C. 33 25 5 2 1 l e i urn 11 Matougang #2, 42 39 1 1 l e i urn 12 J i a h u i , Gongcheng C., Guangxi 33+ 33 8 5 1 l e i urn 1 d i n g t r i p o d 38 Luoding #1, Luoding C. 51+ at l e a s t 50 2 1 f o u j a r 1 he j a r 49 p.214 Niaodanshan, S i h u i C. 63 59 4 3 1 he p i t c h e r 28 MI PERIOD Songshan, Zhaoqing S h i 138 108 14 5 a l l except one 49 p.214 35 p.77 TABLE 5.12: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f "inported" bronze v e s s e l s i n Lingnan b u r i a l s 145 sit e s which show strongly the s t y l i s t i c influence of Southern and South-western groups. Most common are the yue battle axe, and the "boot-shaped" axe (Figure 4.3). Such a r t i f a c t s are not only widely' di s t r i b u t e d in a l l statuses of bu r i a l s , but stone moulds for casting the yue have been found in s i t e s in coastal Guangdong. Such items were therefore l o c a l l y manufactured, and do not display the same status connotations as the northern materials. They do however indicate that contacts and exchange were also maintained with the South and Southwest. Evidence for materials moving in the opposite d i r e c t i o n , i . e . out of Lingnan, is largely circumstantial. H i s t o r i c a l sources from the early Chinese States mention t y p i c a l l y southern products as including pearls, ivory, a l l i g a t o r hides and t u r t l e shells — a l l of which are unfortunately almost i n v i s i b l e archaeologically except under extraordinary circumstances. The circumstantial argument for the export of these materials from Lingnan has the following points: (1) i t would be i l l o g i c a l for States to send valuable items such as bronzes into a neighbouring area unless they were getting something in return, (2) h i s t o r i c a l records indicate that they were obtaining these materials from the South (how far south is a matter for debate), (3) these products were available in the Lingnan Geometric area, (4) they were procured by Lingnan inhabitants as evidence of faunal remains in Geometric si t e s attests (see Chapter IV), (5) A major supplier of such materials to the North during the 1 46 eastern Zhou Period was the State of Chu (Peters 1983:352), and Chu was the major source of the e l i t e materials entering the Lingnan Geometric network (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1979:329- 330). It seems reasonable therefore to conclude that the above- mentioned products were moving out of Lingnan in exchange for items such as bronzes, and further that such exchange was channelled through high status individuals and groups. The one aspect of exchange systems not discussed in t h i s section is the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s for storage/transferrence/marketing of products. The h i e r a r c h i c a l and general s p a t i a l patterning of such f a c i l i t i e s have figured prominently in recent analyses of exchange systems (Renfrew 1975; 1977). This aspect was omitted for the simple reason that there is at present no archaeological evidence for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of such patterning. The potential for more in-depth studies of both internal and external exchange networks i s great. It does rely however on further fieldwork to recover s p a t i a l information, or on physical and chemical analyses of materials aimed at ide n t i f y i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of products such as fine ceramics and bronzes. The small locally-produced bronzes of the Hong Kong and Haifeng regions, for example, have been found to contain high proportions of lead, and l i t t l e or no t i n . Analysis of the mineralogical composition of d i f f e r e n t categories of bronzes from throughout Lingnan could p o t e n t i a l l y be used to trace production and exchange areas, and perhaps to 147 distinguish more r e l i a b l y between l o c a l products and imports. With respect to ceramics the few k i l n s i t e s so far located can provide a basis for studying the areal d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r ceramic wares. Such tests as these have the advantage that they can be carried out on materials already c o l l e c t e d , and do not require immediate additional f i e l d research. F. DISCUSSION The thread I have t r i e d to maintain throughout this long and rather diffuse chapter is an exploration of the developmental patterns in s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and economic components which are presently observable for the Geometric network in Lingnan. The d i f f i c u l t y in distinguishing between each of these components i s an expression of a basic feature of pre- and early-state l e v e l organization, i . e . that in these early stages of complexity a l l these components are t i g h t l y integrated into a single h i e r a r c h i c a l structure, such that the development of one cannot be understood without reference to the others. This feature i s observable in the c o r r e l a t i o n between economic control (access to prestige goods), p o l i t i c a l leadership and general s o c i a l status in the Bronze and early Iron Age Geometric buria l s in Lingnan. Some form of supra-local networking is evidenced by the rapid expansion of the Geometric pottery Horizon at the beginning of the period, and the consistency of transformational sequences in technological and s t y l i s t i c features throughout the 1 48 entire region. At present however i t can only be described as a general communication/interaction network whose precise dimensions have yet to be properly defined. My own b e l i e f i s that the r i t u a l / a l l i a n c e dimensions were the defining features, and not an underlying ethnic identity among i t s participants as Meacham (1983) has suggested. If ethnicity i s a defining feature then we are at a loss to explain why the Geometric Horizon cross-cut older d i v i s i o n s between lo c a l groups in the Lingnan area, d i v i s i o n s which seem to have been maintained during at least the Late Neolithic phases of the Geometric horizon in d i f f e r e n t regional styles of l i t h i c tools such as axes and adzes, and perhaps coarseware ceramics (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1979:327-328). It must also be noted that the strongest external connections of the Geometric horizon were to the i n t e r i o r , to the Jiangxi area, and were much weaker along the coast both to the north and the south. While the boundary between the "Bronze Drum Culture" of the South and Southwest and Geometric Horizon during the Bronze Age may well relate to a Thai/Austro-asiatic l i n g u i s t i c group boundary (Pulleyblank 1983:435), the northern d i s t r i b u t i o n of Geometric ceramics crosses over l i n g u i s t i c boundaries, whether one follows the reconstruction proposed by Benedict (1975, see Meacham 1983:150, Bayard 1975:77), or that proposed by Mei and Norman (1976) and Pulleyblank (1983). It is therefore d i f f i c u l t to see that ethnic factors had a defining effect on the extent and integration of the network in Lingnan. According to the typology taken as a basis for t h i s 1 4 9 analysis, what levels did successive phases of the Geometric horizon relate to? Apart from an apparent brief and unsustained phase of incipient ranking in northern Guangdong at the very beginning of the Geometric Period, there i s no evidence of anything other than e g a l i t a r i a n groups with achieved status d i s t i n c t i o n s u n t i l late in the Chevron Transitional Period. The situation in the Kui and Mi Periods i s much altered from the early Geometric Periods. There are very clear signs from at least the middle Kui Period of an e l i t e group who held economic and p o l i t i c a l as well as purely s o c i a l status. The elaboration of th i s basic structure through a gradual increase in the amount of wealth controlled by the highest levels of the e l i t e , and the apparent development of several levels within the e l i t e group are the major developmental trends throughout the Kui and Mi Periods. There is as yet no clear evidence of the tr a n s i t i o n to a state l e v e l of organization: m i l i t a r y power i s s t i l l t i e d c losely to general s o c i a l status, and there i s no d i s t i n c t warrior c l a s s . There are no signs of urban centres or full-time craftspeople, and the highest-status b u r i a l thus far unearthed i s d i s t i n c t i v e primarily in terms of the amount of grave furniture i t contains: r i t u a l symbolic items are not q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from those of less wealthy high- status i n d i v i d u a l s . The period which s t i l l remains the fuzziest in terms of these developmental patterns is the late Chevron 3 to early Kui Period. This i s the c r u c i a l period of t r a n s i t i o n from the unranked Late Neolithic to the strongly ranked Bronze Age 1 50 s o c i e t i e s . In the next chapter I s h a l l present and discuss a framework for investigating the role of external input from more complex systems into the Lingnan network which w i l l hopefully lay the foundations for investigating t h i s t r a n s i t i o n in future. 151 VI. INTERREGIONAL INTERACTION AND LOCAL EVOLUTION A. INTRODUCTION I indicated in the previous chapter that the conceptual framework of c u l t u r a l operation and development used in these analyses requires consideration of the roles of both internal and external forces in inducing or stimulating c u l t u r a l change. In this chapter I s h a l l be concerned with a more detailed investigation of the external inputs into the Lingnan area, and their effect on the s p e c i f i c evolutionary processes of the Geometric Period in that region. Renfrew has argued that the mere existence of long-distance exchange networks does not neccesarily imply that such exchange played a s i g n i f i c a n t role in the development of complex societies within a region (1975:36-37). In order to establish that input from neighbouring regions in the form of trade did in fact exert a conditioning effect on l o c a l evolutionary processes i t i s neccesary to demonstrate that i t did link into and impact one of the internal subsystems. The fact of input from northern States into Lingnan i s established by the physical presence of northern manufactured items in Lingnan Bronze and early Iron Age s i t e s , and by the incorporation of northern-derived s t y l i s t i c elements into 152 locally-produced a r t i f a c t s 1 8 . Such influences have been documented in the previous chapters with reference to the I n i t i a l Chevron Period (Shixia Culture) and the Kui and Mi Periods. The two issues to be considered are the form the input took, and the impact i t had on the development of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity within Lingnan. B. THE NATURE OF EXTERNAL INPUT INTO THE LINGNAN REGION Several forms of external input into a regional c u l t u r a l network have been recorded h i s t o r i c a l l y and archaeologically. These may be divided into two general categories: "direct input", i . e . migration/colonization, or m i l i t a r y conquest, and "indirect input", i.e. movement of material items or information in the absence of large-scale population movement or the establishment of external p o l i t i c a l control. There i s only one p o s s i b i l i t y of a population movement into Lingnan during the Geometric Period, and the evidence as presently reported is ambiguous. He (1981:217) states with reference to the Raoping buri a l s that "there are quite large differences between the ceramics in the tomb assemblages and the commonly-seen geometric pottery, possibly they are the remains of another kind of culture." . Elsewhere i t i s stated that the 1 8 It i s not my intention to imply that the influence was uni- d i r e c t i o n a l : c e r t a i n l y elements of southern styles and technologies, as well as southern products could have also moved into northern groups. This issue however i s peripheral to the topic I have defined for this study, and therefore w i l l not be explored here. 153 Raoping ceramics are similar to remains found in other graves in the northeastern counties of Huiyang, Chao'an and Puning (Guangdong Pro v i n c i a l Museum 1979:329). It i s unclear how they compare with remains from habitation contexts in the same area because no detailed information on these s i t e s has yet been published. However i t should be noted that t h i s phenomenon seems to be very l o c a l i z e d . Other than t h i s there is no evidence at a l l of direct input from neighbouring areas into Lingnan either at the beginning of, or during the Geometric Period. The e a r l i e s t Geometric ceramics, as Xu (1981) has argued, have obvious antecedents in the same area, and show an uninterrupted s t y l i s t i c development. The only h i s t o r i c a l account of a m i l i t a r y incursion into Lingnan before the Qin invasion is the much-quoted passage from the Shi J i , 'Biography of Sunzi and Wu Qi' which speaks of the King of Chu sending his General Wu Qi "south to pacify the 100 Yue" (eg. Guangdong Provincial Museum 1979:330, Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1978:250). No dir e c t archaeological traces of such an event have been found, and there i s no v i s i b l e change in the degree or nature of Chu influence in Lingnan at that time (early Warring States Period). Neither do the h i s t o r i c a l references imply that i t was a p a r t i c u l a r l y large- scale operation (Guangxi Cultural Properties Brigade 1978:250). In a l l these respects Wu Qi's expedition stands in strong contrast to the Qin invasion of the early t h i r d century BC, when northern control was extended over Lingnan. On these bases such m i l i t a r y encounters do not represent d i r e c t input as defined 1 54 above. Therefore what input the neighbouring groups had into the Lingnan network was apparently i n d i r e c t . The hypothesis that the input of the northern groups into Lingnan was through the medium of material exchange i s based on recognition of the importance of such exchange systems to the maintenance of the complex h i e r a r c h i c a l structures of the northern States. Friedman and Rowlands (1977:211-213; 219-220; 270-71) have f o r c e f u l l y argued that control over trade in exotic materials and products i s a symbol, a source, and a j u s t i f i c a t i o n of e l i t e status and power in complex societies such as existed in northern China and the Yangtze during t h i s period. Such an association between trade and e l i t e status has been noted also by many other students of complex s o c i e t i e s . One feature of the development of h i e r a r c h i c a l organization and the concomitant expansion of e l i t e groups i s their need to draw increasingly more on distant sources of exotic materials. The gradual expansion of exchange networks into peripheral regions is therefore one consequence of the development of such complex systems. H i s t o r i c a l and archaeological evidence from the early Chinese States indicate that such a mechanism was indeed an important feature of e l i t e status at that time (Chang 1980:153- 157; 366). The Shang state was drawing on the Yangtze and southeast coastal regions for such resources as ivory, t u r t l e plastrons and cowrie she l l s (Chang 1975; 1980:153-7, Mei & Norman 1976:291). Heavily Shang influenced proto-urban centres were located in the lower Yangtze (Hushu Culture), central Jiangxi (Wucheng site) and the Wuhan area (Panlongcheng site) 1 55 already by the Erligang phase (circa 1800-1500 BC: Chang 1980:297-306, Wen Wu Correspondent 1979:57-59). During the Eastern Zhou Period the central Yangtze State of Chu was famous as a supplier of e l i t e products such as ivory, rhinocerous horn, feathers, gold, gems, and pearls, at least some of which i t must have acquired through trade with neighbouring areas (Peters 1983:352) The items being exchanged into Lingnan, on the basis of the archaeological evidence, were manufactured items such as bronze vessels and weapons , and on the basis of present evidence this trade is most v i s i b l e from the middle to late Kui Period (late Spring & Autumn). The beginning of the Eastern Zhou (Spring and Autumn Period) marks a t r a n s i t i o n to a commercially-oriented economy, one result of which was the 'devaluation' of bronze vessels from purely e l i t e r i t u a l items to items of wealth to be used freely in exchange transactions (Chang 1977:349-351, Friedman and Rowlands 1977 :249) . We might thus expect a change in the quantities and types of vessels appearing in the Lingnan network from the Eastern Zhou Period. The notable s t y l i s t i c influences from the North also include non-artifactual domains such as grave p i t form (for example grave ledge and waist p i t ) , indicating that exchange was not t o t a l l y material but also ide a t i o n a l . It i s therefore probable that i t involved movement of individuals between regions. In order to generate s p e c i f i c expectations about the impact of northern input into the Lingnan network we must also consider 1 56 the organizational level of each of the groups involved, since the nature of long distance exchanges d i f f e r s at d i f f e r e n t lev e l s of organizational complexity (Friedman and Rowlands 1977 :206-238). Table 6.1 shows the temporal correlations between the structural organization of Lingnan and Yangtze cultures, and the s p e c i f i c developmental stages of the Chinese State as defined by Friedman & Rowlands (1977). This then i s the structural "landscape" a f f e c t i n g interaction between Lingnan and the north. The above discussion defines the general features of the external input from more northerly groups into Lingnan. In the remaining part of this chapter I s h a l l outline and investigate some sp e c i f i c implications regarding the nature and degree of impact of such interregional interaction on the development of s o c i a l complexity in Lingnan. C. THE IMPACT OF INTERREGIONAL INTERACTION 1. Exchange And E l i t e Status The nature of external impact depends f i r s t on preexisting internal conditions. The potential for intensifying l o c a l hierarchies must f i r s t e xist, before the inflow of prestige goods and the organizational demands of maintaining the exchange network can provide opportunity and stimulus for hierarchization to occur. If the process of hierarchization is linked with such external input then we should expect traded items to be concentrated in the hands of the e l i t e or, archaeologically speaking, in contexts associated with them such as e l i t e centres Per i od L i ngnan Centr a 1 - 1ower Yangtze Model (Friedman & Rowlands 1977) CHEVRON 1 T r i b a l i n c i p i e n t r a n k i n g (North o n l y ) Tr i ba1 i n c i p i e n t r a n k i n g T r i b a l 2 unranked, a c h i e v e d s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s 3 ( l a t e ) i n c i p i e n t r a n k i n g ? ( N o r t h e a s t o n l y ) complex Chiefdoms, e a r l y S t a t e ? A s i a t i c S t a t e P r e s t i g e Good System ( c e n t r i f u g a l phase) KUI MI Chiefdoms S t a t e P r e s t i g e Good System ( c e n t r i p e t a l phase) TABLE 6.1: L e v e l s o f s o c i o p o l i t i c a l c o m p l e x i t y i n L i n g n a n a n d t h e Y a n g t z e a r e a , c ompared w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s o f t h e C h i n e s e s t a t e 1 58 or b u r i a l s . There is also the potential that the external links of e l i t e groups w i l l be symbolized s t y l i s t i c a l l y on l o c a l l y produced e l i t e products. Discussion I have not attempted to assess quantitatively the r e l a t i v e amounts of externally-manufactured products in e l i t e graves in Lingnan because of the d i f f i c u l t y of distinguishing imports from l o c a l products on the basis of the information at hand. However, s u p e r f i c i a l investigation of the a r t i f a c t remains from e l i t e Bronze and Early Iron Age graves seems to indicate such an association (see previous chapter, Table 5.12). The highest status Lingnan b u r i a l in Zhaoqing is described as evidencing an extremely high degree of "Chu influence", and c e r t a i n l y contains a number of bronze vessels and accessories which at least appear to be of Chu manufacture (Guangdong Provincial Museum et a l . 1 9 7 4 : 7 7 ; Figure 5 . 1 0 c ) . Lower status e l i t e b urials contain numerically and proportionately less objects of Chu influence or manufacture. Middle status items such as 'ding' tripods and b e l l s are described as being l o c a l in styles, and of l o c a l manufacture (Peters 1983:251; He 1981:214-216). Most items of m i l i t a r y equipment, although most probably manufactured within Lingnan, show the s t y l i s t i c influence of Chu very strongly (Figure 5.11); in general these are the only "foreign s t y l e " a r t i f a c t s contained in the lower status graves. This expectation may also be f u l f i l l e d with respect to the I n i t i a l Geometric phase of the Shixia Culture. In t h i s case 159 also i t i s impossible to quantify the relationship between high status b u r i a l goods and external influences, but the burial ceramics are very c l e a r l y of Yangtze area styles (Figure 6.1, Su 1978, Gao and Shao 1981). Lowest status burials ( i . e . those FIGURE 6.1 : Comparison of ceramic •hu" vessels from Guangdong with examples from the Central Yangtze area. (Zeng 1982) with the smallest p i t s and least amount of grave goods) rarely contain any ceramic pieces. High status badges such as cong' and jade ornaments are also i d e n t i c a l with Yangtze examples (Su 1978). Hopefully i t w i l l become possible to explore this question further in future upon publication of a detailed s i t e report from Shixia. 160 2. Spatial Implications The second implication I s h a l l explore concerns the s p a t i a l patterning of e l i t e centres within Lingnan. It derives in part from the nature of the interaction between trade and status d i s t i n c t i o n s in the external system. Closer and more complex (therefore more demanding) systems should have the greatest input, and therefore the greatest potential for impacting the internal network of neighbouring areas. The e f f e c t s of the impact of the most demanding external system should be archaeologically v i s i b l e in the s p a t i a l patterning of nodes in the internal network. Specific implications have been derived from the dendritic "gateway" model which applies to situations where the pressure of external trade i s strong, communication routes are limited by topographic/transportational factors, and population is r e l a t i v e l y sparse (Hirth 1978). The "gateway" model outlines how, under these conditions, the location of nodal centres within a region i s affected by the " p u l l " of external trade channeled through a gateway community (Figure 6.2) However, the demands of external trade are not the only forces influencing the s p a t i a l patterning of nodes within a regional network. The internal factors which influence s p a t i a l patterning of settlements include features of the natural environment such as land suitable for habitation, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of intraregional communication routes. In the case of Lingnan these are both conditioned by the rive r networks as 161 FIGURE 6,2 : Model of the dendritic market network. (Hirth 1978:38) was outlined in Chapter IV. Where internal exchange networks exist the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources is an additional factor, and in the presence of an organizational hierarchy the location of nodes w i l l also be related to areas most important for coordinating and c o n t r o l l i n g the movement of goods and information between dispersed communities. The actual settlement pattern manifested in a s p e c i f i c region i s thus a result of compromise between a l l of these (sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g ) demands (Conrad 1978). The presence of strong external trading relationships introduces another complicating factor which must be reconciled with the above internal requirements. If we view the internal factors as providing a basic pattern, then the " p u l l " of external trade can be seen as acting to d i s t o r t the internal network, strengthening the status of centres which are p r e f e r e n t i a l l y located with respect to external trade routes. 1 62 From this general model I have derived two s p e c i f i c expectations regarding the s p a t i a l patterning of e l i t e centres in the Lingnan Geometric network which should be f u l f i l l e d i f indeed the external trade network i s exerting a conditioning e f f e c t on l o c a l hierarchies. These are: (1) high status centres within Lingnan should tend to be clustered with respect to the major communication routes between Lingnan and i t s most demanding neighbour. (2) as the s p a t i a l location of the most demanding external system changes, the r e l a t i v e importance of d i f f e r e n t routes should change accordingly. A f i n a l step that is necessary before mapping the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e l i t e centres i s to define the main communication routes between Lingnan and the North. As I have outlined above, natural communication routes in the prehistoric periods followed the rivers and seacoast because of topographic and environmental constraints. On Figure 6.3 the main river routes connecting Lingnan with the Xiang River valley of Hunan (and therefore to the centre of Chu) are shown in orange; those which connect to the Gan River drainage of Jiangxi are indicated in green. Coastal routes might be expected to terminate/originate at any point along the coastline, but i f communication from coast to i n t e r i o r is counted as a factor, then the deltas of the Han and Pearl Rivers should exert the greatest p u l l on coastal t r a f f i c . Discussion 1 63 Information on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of settlement hierarchies does not yet exist for the Geometric Period, therefore I s h a l l use the d i s t r i b u t i o n of high status burials to indicate the approximate location of nodes in the status network. The f i r s t clear evidence of established status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n in Lingnan comes from the Kui Period. At present then, these implications can only be properly compared with Kui and Mi Period s p a t i a l patterns. The strongest neighbouring centres during the Geometric Period were located in the central Yangtze, in the areas of Lakes Tungting and Poyang. Early in the Shang period the closest centre was Wucheng, located south of Lake Poyang in the Gan River valley of Jiangxi. By late Western Zhou a number of r i v a l States was established in the central and lower Yangtze; these states were extending their influence southwards into central Hunan and along the Zhejiang coast (Chang 1977:410-420; 1980:297-306; 311-316; Figures 84 & 88). During the Kui and Mi Periods the centre of power in the Yangtze shifted towards the Hunan-Hubei region as Chu successively conquered i t s neighbours (Chang 1972:5-7). We should therefore expect that during the late Chevron 3 Period the main inputs into Lingnan should be directed through the Gan River valley of Jiangxi, while inland routes to Chu ( i . e . the Xiang River connections) should grow in importance from at least the middle of the Kui Period, and predominate by the Mi Period. The location of e l i t e status burials should thus be biased towards the predominant routes in each Period. 1 64 Judging from the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Kui and Mi Period e l i t e b urials shown on Map 6.1 the s p a t i a l patterning of status centres in those periods does conform to the stated expectations: The majority are clustered along the routes leading towards Chu. It is interesting also that the highest status burials in each of the Kui and Mi Periods (Niaodanshan and Songshan respectively) are located in the v i c i n i t y of the Sanshui area of the Pearl River Delta which, in terms of internal factors is the central point for coordinating the flow of goods and information from a l l parts of Lingnan (Figure 6.3). The data from the late Shang and Western Zhou (Chevron 3 Period) in Lingnan are too thin at present to draw any firm conclusions regarding the sp a t i a l aspects of hierarchization at that time. What l i t t l e evidence exists ( i . e . from the Shuikou and Raoping sites) points to the Northeast corner of Guangdong as the e a r l i e s t centre for so c i a l status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , specialized production and northern technological influence (Guangdong Provincial Museum 1979:330; 1983). The influence of northern contacts i s thus c e r t a i n l y v i s i b l e in t h i s area of Guangdong. However, the absence of similar remains in the rest of the Province may not indicate that the northeast was the only area displaying external influence at thi s time. No sit e s of this period have been excavated in Northern and Western Regions (although many are known from surface reconnaissance). On the basis of the model one would expect the Northern Region to display evidence of similar external contacts with the Jiangxi Shang Period s i t e s , but for the moment this question, and with r e s p e c t t o e x t e r n a l communication routes 1 6 6 therefore the second expectation outlined above w i l l have to remain unresolved. D. CONCLUSIONS That the input of the northern States into the Lingnan region was through the medium of exchange i s indicated by h i s t o r i c a l evidence from the States themselves. That this trade was not always completely peaceful i s attested to both by h i s t o r i c a l references as well as by the presence of well-used m i l i t a r y equipment in Lingnan graves. The main point in t h i s chapter was to explore the hypothesis that the interchange between the North and Lingnan, which was most probably through the medium of exchange, did have an important e f f e c t on the developing s o c i o p o l i t i c a l hierarchies of Lingnan groups. This hypothesis is supported by at least 2 l i n e s of evidence: 1 9 ( 1 ) externally produced and styled goods seem to be consistently associated with the highest levels of the Lingnan e l i t e , (2) the s p a t i a l location of the e l i t e centres within Lingnan during the late Geometric was apparently influenced by the location of the strongest trading partner in the Hunan area. The presence of the external s t a t e - l e v e l system thus appears to have exerted an influence on the internal status hierarchies within Lingnan, and the observable patterns therefore cannot be 1 9 lack of appropriate data render i t impossible to construct adequate deductive tests of t h i s hypothesis at present. 167 adequately accounted for by l o c a l factors alone. 1 68 VII. CONCLUSIONS The two general goals of this research have been to f i l l in the vacuum that exists in Western-language studies of the late Prehistoric period in South China, and to begin the process of building and ref i n i n g an e x p l i c i t framework for the study of s o c i a l developments during this period. The f i r s t stage of this study involved compilation of the relevant l i t e r a t u r e on the subject area published over the past 30 years. On the basis of these sources I made a brief assessment of the archaeological work on prehi s t o r i c s i t e s that has been car r i e d out in Guangdong and Guangxi, and of the nature and d e t a i l of information that has been published in Chinese sources. The sources c l e a r l y indicate that a great deal of archaeological reconnaissance work has been undertaken in Lingnan, p a r t i c u l a r l y in Guangdong Province. Although the published information currently available outside of China i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y detailed to make s p a t i a l studies possible there are indications in some of the most recently-published reports that regional s i t e patterning studies are beginning to be an important focus of archaeological research (Guangdong Pro v i n c i a l Museum 1983b, 1984). The excavation work that has been car r i e d out has been designed within an e x p l i c i t l y h i s t o r i c a l framework. It has therefore contributed greatly to f i l l i n g in d e t a i l s of the chronology on both the regional and l o c a l scales, however, excavation work i s s t i l l in i t s early stages in Lingnan and only a few sit e s have been excavated at a l l . Consequently there are 169 a number of regions and a number of chronological periods whose main features are s t i l l unclear. Fortunately the general ceramic sequence is well understood, and the chronological relationships between excavated s i t e s is c l e a r l y defined. One important chronological feature which has only become clear from the most recently published radiocarbon dates is the great time-depth of the Horizon. As late as 1977 Chang wrote that the Geometric Horizon began at approximately 1500 B.C. (1977:414). Geometric cultures have since been dated to • 3000+ B.C. in Jiangxi, and from c i r c a 3000 B.C. in northern Guangdong. Despite t h i s greater depth I have chosen to retain the term "Horizon" in order to emphasize the close relationships between the Geometric ceramics in Lingnan and those in other regions of South China. The bulk of t h i s study (Chapters V and VI) was taken up with my second general goal of investigating the development of so c i a l complexity in Lingnan during the Geometric Period. The basic issue I have addressed i s the debate over the role of external versus internal stimuli in the developments observed during t h i s period. I have argued on a general l e v e l that one cannot study processual change completely on the internal scale because by their nature c u l t u r a l systems are open to both internal and external stimuli for change. Therefore, i f one i s interested in studying the development of s o c i a l complexity i t is neccesary to use a framework that can comprehend both internal and external factors. The framework I have used here to study the developmental patterns within the Lingnan Geometric 1 70 periods was drawn from studies of the development of complex societies in Europe during the Late Neolithic to early Metal Ages, because there are many str u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between this situation and that of Lingnan during the Geometric as I outlined at the beginning of Chapter V. Evidence for the development of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l and economic hierarchies drawn from published sources was analyzed in l i g h t of the general developmental schemes of Fried and Service, as outlined by Flannery (1972). Analysis of the so c i a l and p o l i t i c a l components r e l i e d primarily on mortuary data - on the presence and degree of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between contemporaneous burials in the amount of wealth and energy expenditure on grave preparation, and on symbolic and s t y l i s t i c manifestations which seem to indicate status differences between individuals and groups. Both general technological developments and organizational features were considered under the manufacturing component. The sources of information used here were the technological features of the a r t i f a c t s themselves, and the site s where they were manufactured. Analysis of exchange systems s i m i l a r l y r e l i e d on a r t i f a c t data to infer the existence of internal exchange in ceramics and metals, and interregional exchange in e l i t e bronzes. In general, there is strong evidence of the development of ranked chiefdom-level societ i e s by the Kui period. Some degree of c r a f t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s apparent for fine ceramics and metals, and indications are that there may have been f a i r l y wide c i r c u l a t i o n of both of these products. Interregional exchange 171 is more c l e a r l y evidenced by the presence of externally manufactured bronzes in Lingnan Geometric graves, while h i s t o r i c a l sources indicate that special raw materials such as pearls and ivory, which were of high value to e l i t e groups in the north, were being exchanged out of Lingnan in return. In Ghapter VI I explored the s p e c i f i c issue of external input into Lingnan more thoroughly with two questions in mind: (1) what form did th i s input take? (2) what impact ( i f any) did i t have on the development of h i e r a r c h i c a l organization in Lingnan? With reference to the f i r s t question, there i s no evidence of d i r e c t input from neighbouring regions in the form of conquest or colonization during the Geometric Horizon i t s e l f . There i s , on the other hand reason to believe that trade in e l i t e goods and raw materials linked Lingnan Geometric groups with the Chinese States to the north. I have thus argued that interaction between the two areas was indirect and was through the medium of exchange. The hypothesis that t h i s input from the neighbouring northern States did influence l o c a l h i e r a r c h i c a l development was tested by two l i n e s of evidence. F i r s t , the nature of imported goods and their d i s t r i b u t i o n within Lingnan were investigated. Imports were found to be the highest quality e l i t e goods found in Lingnan graves; furthermore, they were dist r i b u t e d in only the highest status contexts. This therefore indicates there was a close involvement of the highest levels of the Lingnan e l i t e in external trade. Secondly the sp a t i a l location of high status graves with respect to interregional 172 communication routes was examined in order to determine whether the location of central nodes within the Lingnan geometric network was influenced by the presence of trading links with the northern States. The s p a t i a l patterning of e l i t e burials during the Bronze and early Iron Ages was found to conform to the expected patterning under the hypothesis that external factors were exerting a direct influence. Thus I concluded from t h i s investigation that not only was external trade i n t e g r a l l y linked with e l i t e s o c i a l and economic status within the Geometric network, but also that i t exerted a conditioning effect on the location of greatest h i e r a r c h i c a l development during the late Geometric. In view of these interrelationships between external States and the Lingnan Geometric cultures i t i s clear that a Local Evolution Model which does not allow for the impact of external factors is inadequate to explain the development of s o c i a l complexity within Lingnan during the Geometric Period. However, th i s does not imply that "external dominance" models are any more defensible. As I have argued throughout th i s study, the most appropriate framework for investigating these problems i s one which can incorporate both sources of v a r i a b i l i t y . This study represents only an i n i t i a l step towards exploring the development of complex societ i e s in Lingnan during the late Prehistoric period. There are many issues and avenues for further research which I have of neccesity touched upon only b r i e f l y . A l l are worthy of far more intensive investigation 1 7 3 than I have been able to provide here. The published report of the cemetery s i t e at Yinshanling, for example, contains a great deal of data which might be used to study s o c i a l subgroupings and other aspects of status through analysis of the symbolic aspects of grave assemblages, s p a t i a l analyses of the graves and so forth. The preliminary tabulations I have r e l i e d upon to indicate d i s t i n c t i o n s of wealth and status could also be expanded upon and strengthened. As far as mortuary analyses in general are concerned i t is to be hoped that detailed information from cemetery s i t e s of the e a r l i e r Geometric periods might soon become available, as there are many questions about the t r a n s i t i o n from e g a l i t a r i a n to ranked societ i e s at the end of the Late Neolithic which might thus be c l a r i f i e d . In p a r t i c u l a r there is the intriguing issue of the Shixia Culture, and the apparent i n i t i a t i o n and sudden disappearence of status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n at the very beginning of the Geometric period in this northern region of Guangdong. There is much work to be done on the d e f i n i t i o n of style zones in l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s , and their relationship to the changing patterns of ceramic (fineware) style horizons between the pre-geometric and Geometric periods. The s t y l i s t i c d i v i s i o n s and external a f f i n i t i e s of the bronzes are another issue I have only mentioned in passing, but i t is one which may have a great import for understanding the interaction between Lingnan Geometric groups and the Bronze Age cultures of the South and Southwest. Certain features such as the yue and "boot-shaped" axes have obvious a f f i n i t i e s to the 1 74 south and southwest (Guangdong Pro v i n c i a l Museum 1979:329-330), and indicate that interchange between these areas also were frequent. The nature of this interchange, and the reasons why i t does not seem to have been linked with status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as was the northern trade are important matters for further study. 1 75 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bard, S.M. 1975 Chung Horn Wan. Journal of the Hong Kong Archaeological Society VI:9-25 Barrett, C.J. 1973 Tai Wan reconsidered. Journal of the Hong Kong Archaeological Society IV:53-59 Bayard, Donn 1975 North China, South China, Southeast Asia, or simply "Far East"? Journal of the Hong Kong Archaeological Society VI:71-79. 1984 Agriculture, metallurgy, and State formation in mainland southeast Asia. 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Kaogu Xuebao 1960:2:107-120 1961 Neolithic shellmounds found in Dongxing county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1961:12:644-649 1964 Test excavation at the Guangding s i t e , Z i j i n county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1964:5:251-254 1975 The Warring States tomb at Niaodanshan, Sihui county, Guangdong. Kaogu 1975:2:102-108 1979 Guangdong archaeology achieves firm r e s u l t s : a new chapter opens in the history of Lingnan. In Thirty Years of Archaeological and Cultural Properties Work: 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 7 9 , pp. 325-336 Beiing: Wen Wu Press 1981 Warring States graves at Tonggugang, Guangning county, Guangdong. Kaoguxue Jikan 1:111-119 183 1983a E x c a v a t i o n of a p o t t e r y k i l n s i t e o f t h e W e s t e r n Zhou d y n a s t y a t P i n g y u a n , Guangdong. Kaogu 1983:7:588-596 1983b The X i q i a o s h a n s i t e , N a n h a i c o u n t y , G u angdong. Kaogu 1983:12:1085-1091 1984 R e p o r t on e x c a v a t i o n s a t t h e Zaogang s h e l l m o u n d s i t e , N a n h a i c o u n t y , Guangdong. K a o g u 1984:3:203-212 Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum & o t h e r s 1973 A W a r r i n g S t a t e s g r a v e f o u n d a t D e q i n g , G u a n g d o n g . Wenwu 1973:9:18-22 1974 R e p o r t on t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f an a n c i e n t g r a v e a t S o n g s h a n , B e i l i n g , Z h a o q i n g c i t y , G u a ngdong. Wenwu 1974:11:69-79 1978 A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c u l t i v a t e d r i c e r e m a i n s f r o m S h i x i a . Wenwu 1978:7:23-28. 1983 The r e m a i n s o f a wooden s t r u c t u r e on t h e w a t e r a t Maogang, Gaoyao c o u n t y , G u angdong. Wenwu 1983:12:31-46 G u a n g x i P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1973 The b r o n z e s u n e a r t h e d a t G o n g c h e n g c o u n t y , G u a n g x i . Kaogu 1973:1:30-34 G u a n g x i C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s B r i g a d e 1978 W a r r i n g S t a t e s g r a v e s a t Y i n g s h a n l i n g , P i n g l e C o u n t y . Kaogu Xuebao 1978:2:211-258 1979 I m p o r t a n t r e s u l t s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l r e l i c s work i n G u a n g x i i n t h e p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . I n T h i r t y Y e a r s o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n d C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Work: 1949-1979 , pp. 339-346. B e i j i n g : Wen Wu P r e s s 1981 The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f G e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y i n G u a n g x i . Wenwu J i k a n 3:244-252 Guang z h o u C i t y , C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O f f i c e 1977 R e c o n n a i s s a n c e o f an a n c i e n t s i t e a t X i a n g a n g i n t h e o u t s k i r t s o f G u a n g z h o u . Wenwu Z i l i a o C o n g k a n 1:172-178 Han K a n g x i n & Pan Q i f e n g 1982 L a t e N e o l i t h i c human s k e l e t o n s f r o m t h e Hedang s i t e , F o s h a n , Guangdong. A c t a A n t h r o p o l o g i c a S i n i c a 1:1:42-52 He J i s h e n g 1981 D i s c u s s i o n o f Guangdong's E a s t e r n Zhou p e r i o d b r o n z e c u l t u r e , and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o G e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y . Wenwu J i k a n 3:212-224 Huang Weiwen & o t h e r s 1979 R e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e a t X i q i a o s h a n i n N a n h a i c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu 1979:4:289-299 . 1 84 Huang Y u z h i & Yang S h i t i n g 1965 R e p o r t on N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n M e i and Dapu c o u n t i e s , Guangdong. K a o g u 1965:4:159-165 . L i J i a z h i 1982 R e s e a r c h on c e r a m i c s f r o m t h e Hemudu s i t e . I n E s s a y s on C h i n e s e C e r a m i c s , e d . C h i n e s e S i l i c a t e I n s t i t u t e , pp. 1-9. B e i j i n g : Wen Wu P r e s s L i u Zhenqun 1982 I m p r o v e m e n t s i n k i l n s a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d e v e l o p m e n t s i n o u r c o u n t r y ' s p o t t e r y a n d p o r c e l a i n . I n E s s a y s on C h i n e s e C e r a m i c s , e d . C h i n e s e S i l i c a t e I n s t i t u t e , pp. 162-172. B e i j i n g : Wen Wu P r e s s Mo Z h i 1956 R e p o r t on r e c o n n a i s s a n c e a n d t e s t e x c a v a t i o n a t t h e N e o l i t h i c s i t e s on a t r i b u t a r y o f t h e Pa R i v e r , Q i n g y u a n c o u n t y , Guangdong. Wenwu 1956:11:40-43 1957 R e p o r t on r e c o n n a i s s a n c e o f t h e N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n Bao'an c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu 1957:6:8-15 1961 New r e s u l t s o f i n v e s t i g a t i v e e x c a v a t i o n s i n Guangdong. Kaogu 1961:12:666-668 1963 A W a r r i n g S t a t e s s i t e a t B a i s h i p i n g s h a n , S h i x i n g c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu 1963:4:2 17-220 The S h i x i a A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team o f t h e Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum & o t h e r s 1978 E x c a v a t i o n o f N e o l i t h i c g r a v e s a t S h i x i a , Q u j i a n g C o u n t y , Guangdong. Wenwu 1978:7:1-15 Su B i n g q i 1978 P r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e S h i x i a c u l t u r e . Wenwu 1978 :7:16:22 Sun X i a n g j u n e t a l . 1981 P a l e o v e g e t a t i o n a n d p a l e o c l i m a t e d u r i n g t h e t i m e of t h e Hemudu p e o p l e . A c t a B o t a n i c a S i n i c a 2 3 ( 2 ) : 1 4 6 - 1 5 1 Wang K a i f a e t a l . 1980 P a l y n o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f t h e Son g z e s i t e i n Q i n g p u C o u n t y , S h a n g h a i . Kaogu Xuebao 1980:1:59-66 Wen Wu C o r r e s p o n d e n t 1979 Summary o f a symposium on t h e p o t t e r y w i t h i m p r e s s e d d e c o r a t i o n f r o m t h e r e g i o n s s o u t h o f t h e C h a n g j i a n g . Wenwu 1979:1:53-61 Xu H e n g b i n 1981 P r e l i m i n a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f g e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y i n Guangdong. Wenwu J i k a n 3:203-211 185 Yang Hao 1960 A b r i e f r e p o r t on t h e N e o l i t h i c s i t e s a l o n g t h e X i n f e n g r i v e r , Guangdong. Kaogu 1960:7:31-35 Yang S h i t i n g a n d Chen Z h i j i e 1981 A d i s c u s s i o n o f i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r i e s a t t h e Hedang s i t e , F o s h a n , Guangdong. Wenwu J i k a n 3:234-243 Y i n H u a n g c h a n g 1958 A p r e l i m i n a r y s u r v e y o f t h e p o t t e r y w i t h i m p r e s s e d g e o m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n s i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t d i s t r i c t of C h i n a . K a o g u Xuebao 1958 : 1 : 7 5 - 8 6 Zeng Q i 1981 M i c r o l i t h s f r o m t h e e a s t e r n f o o t o f X i q i a o s h a n . K a o g u yu Wenwu 1981:4:1 - 12 1982 The p o t t e r y of t h e S h i x i a C u l t u r e . Z h o n g s h a n Daxue Xuebao 1982:2:31-39 Zhou Ren e t a l . 1982 A s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y o f p o t t e r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g s k i l l s i n t h e Huanghe a r e a d u r i n g t h e N e o l i t h i c , Y i n and Zhou p e r i o d s . I n E s s a y s on C h i n e s e C e r a m i c s , e d . C h i n e s e S i l i c a t e I n s t i t u t e , pp. 263-286. B e i j i n g : Wen Wu P r e s s Zhu F e i s u , Peng Ruce & L i u Chengde 1981 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e G e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y f r o m t h e S h i x i a s i t e , Maba. Wenwu J i k a n 3:225-233 186 APPENDIX A - GEOMETRIC SITES IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE KEY: S i t e : Haifeng s i t e s - bracketed names are those used by Maglioni (1975) Detail basic - s i t e i s l i s t e d as containing Geometric ceramics; no further information on ceramics i s available general - information on Geometric surface patterns and ceramic wares is given; other a r t i f a c t types indicated. No quantities or proportional information given individual - quantities and/or proportional information on a l l classes of a r t i f a c t s i s provided mixed - some classes of a r t i f a c t s are detailed i n d i v i d u a l l y , others are described in basic or general d e t a i l only References numbers refer to Bibliography in Table 2.1 Area/County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References > fD a p- X o o f t H - 0 c East Coast Chao'an Chaoyang Dabu M e i l i n h u S o n g l i n f e n g Zhuganshan Chiniushan Fenj ikengshan Kulushan Jiudouweishan J i u l i n g Niutouping Xiangshan Zoushuilingshan Zuoxuangongshan Caowolong Damending Dongz igang Gaodongling Gongyingding Guantouling Heshangding Keshuwan Liantanghuanshan s u r f a c e reconnaissance t e s t excavation s u r f a c e reconnaissance t e s t excavation s u r f a c e reconnaissance excavation i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c g e n e r a l mixed i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c i n d i v i d u a l mixed sur f a c e reconnaissance g e n e r a l 9 , 86 81 9 ,17 25 8 8 8 25 25 25 25 25 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 25 co — i Area/County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References (Dabu) Makengkou s u r f a c e reconnaissance g e n e r a l 51 Pengpozhai " 5 1 Qidoushan " " 5 1 Shanxialong " " 5 1 Shanziping " " 5 1 Tongtianlazhu " 11 51 Weibeidong " " 51 Wubeishan " " 5 1 Wuhushan " " 5 1 X i a n l i x i a o x u e " " 51 Yaobeigang " " 51 Yingdinghu " 11 51 Yuandongshan " " 51 Z h a i z i j i " " 51 Fengshun Tangkeng " " 69 Haifeng Baolou (POL) " " 57 Baziyuan (PAT) e x c a v a t i o n 1 " 57 Dongkengbei (TAN) su r f a c e reconnaissance b a s i c 57 Dongkengnan (TAS) t e s t e x c a v a t i o n 1 g e n e r a l 57 Dongkengzhong (TAM) su r f a c e reconnaissance b a s i c 57 Guogangshan (KUE) " " 57 Hudong (OUT) " " 57 Jingwei (KEB) " g e n e r a l 57 Area/County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References (Haifeng) Nantingbei (NAN) su r f a c e reconnaissance b a s i c 57 Nantingnan (NAS) " " 57 Niudu (GUT;TOU) " " 57 Pushangdun (POU) " " 57 Q i a o z i t o u (KIW) " " 57 Sanjiaowei (SAK) " g e n e r a l 57 Shakengnan (SOS) " " 57 Shakengzhong (SOM) " " 57 Shi g o n g l i a o (SIK) "' b a s i c 57 Shigu (KOU) " " 57 S h i j i a o t o n g (ZIT) . " " 57 S h i z i d i (SAI) 11 g e n e r a l 57 X i n j i n g (SIN) " " 57 Zhenxiang (ZEN) " b a s i c 57 Z h u l i n g j i a o (TEK) " " 57 Jie y a n g Chongguanyan " " 69 Huangqishan " g e n e r a l 69 Hutouling " " 69 Miaoshan " b a s i c 25 Moukuangshan " g e n e r a l 17 Xinxihe " " 49 Puning Hongshan " b a s i c 69 Kuyangfu " " 69 Area/County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References > TJ fD 3 a x o o 3 r t H-3 C fD (Puning) Raoping East R i ver Boluo Heyuan Huiyang Longchuan Tieshan Dingdapushan/ T a z i j inshan Guhechuangdi Hulushan Huangchaodun Sugangling Daoshishan Duimenling Liantangpaishan Longzushan S h e n l i n g x i a S h i z i l i n g Weizishan Yuandunling Jinzubu Daj iangcun K e n g z i l i s u r f a c e reconnaissance b a s i c excavation b a s i c ? b a s i c s u r f a c e reconnaissance " t e s t excavation g e n e r a l b a s i c g e n e r a l s u r f a c e reconnaissance b a s i c s u r f a c e reconnaissance excavation i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c 69 49 ,29 49 25 25 25 80 80 25 80 80 80 80 81 49,81 81 81 25, 29 O Area/County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References > fD X O o 3 r r H- C 0) Cb Mei Xian A i l i n g Baokeng J i x i a Chang'ercun Yuanling Chengj i a n g j i Dahuyang Guanyicun Jingtounao Liaowubei Longsheba Luowucun Luowuling Mabawei S h a l i Shangkeng Shuangbaying Songguangping Song l i n Taishanding Xiongwu Xuankeng Xuankeng xiaoxue b e i Yuanling surface reconnaissance g e n e r a l 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 25 51 51 51 51 Area/ County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References (D a H- o o r t H - D c ro a. Pingyuan Wuhua Xingning Zengcheng Zi j i n Northern Conghua Fogang Danganzhai Shuikou Dongshanshangling Z i j inshan J i a d i ' a o s h a n Shachuannao S h i j i z i s h a n Shuikou Wuhoushan Yao t o u l i n g J i n l a n s i Tianrnashan X i g u a l i n g Zaiguangding Kuagutai Weizinao Zhuguling (Bronze Age b u r i a l ) excavation s u r f a c e reconnaissance s u r f a c e reconnaissance excavat ion excavation t e s t excavation excavation? b a s i c i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c g e n e r a l b a s i c g e n e r a l it i n d i v i d u a l s u r f a c e reconnaissance g e n e r a l b a s i c 31 31 57 25, 81 81 25, 81 25, 81 25, 81 70 25 25 64, 79 49 15 27 80 58 58 49 t o Area/County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References (Fogang) L u n b i a n l i n g ? b a s i c 4 9 . L i a n p i n g A i zhaishan s u r f a c e reconnaissance g e n e r a l 80 Daweishan " " 80 Foge'aoshan " " 8 0 Jinkengshan " " 80 Keniaoshan " " 80 Linggangdingshan " " 80 Longzhuwoshan " " 80 Madonghuanshan " " 80 Nichenglingshan " " 80 Pengshan ? " 49 Shichunkengshan " " 80 S h i x i a l i n g " " 80 Yuanlingshan " " 80 Qingyuan Dagangshan " b a s i c 23 Dashan t e s t excavation g e n e r a l 2 3 , 61 Dashi (yueshan) gang " " 2 3 , 61 Gaowangshanjiao su r f a c e reconnaissance " 61 Huanggoujushan t e s t excavation b a s i c 61 Liangdongdingshan surface reconnaissance " 61 Lihedishan t e s t excavation g e n e r a l 61 Matougang #1 excavation"'" i n d i v i d u a l 11 Matougang #2 excavation " 12 Area/County S i t e F i e l d w o r k D e t a r l R e f e r e n c e s > n CD a X "•> n o r t c (Qingyuan) Qu j i a n g S h i x i n g Niumiandishan Niutoushan Siguishan Wanggangling sh a n j i a o Xishan Huang 1etangshan Lingshangang Matiping Nianyuzhuan Pushaoshan S h i x i a Shitoushan S h u i g e l i n g Shaoguan S h i Zoumagang Baishipingshan Chengpicun Xincun t e s t excavation surface reconnaissance t e s t excavation surface reconnaissance t e s t excavation s u r f a c e reconnaissance excavation excavation b a s i c g e n e r a l b a s i c i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c mixed sur f a c e reconnaissance b a s i c i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c 61 61 61 61 61 23 23 90 14 14 90 36 90 90 49 14 15 , 65 90 90 7 1 , 89, Wengyuan Jiangtoushan J i h a n b e i Xianfoyan s u r f a c e reconnaissance excavation 2 3 , 4 9 , 63 81 23 , 24 Area/County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References > (D 3 a > o o 3 r t H-3 C ft) a Xinfeng C e n t r a l Bao'an Dongguan Qianggang, Matou Bangdishan Ej ingshan Gaoliaoshan Huangqilinshan Huangzaobuyushan Jianggongdiaoyushan Jinkangshan Nanxiashan Sanj iaoshan Simeishan Shangmaicun Doumen (see Zhuhai) Enping Foshan Shi Chahangcun Dadun Hedang Shangmaicun Shencun S h i z i q i a o surface reconnaissance ii t e s t excavation su r f a c e reconnaissance t e s t e xcavation su r f a c e reconnaissance t e s t excavation su r f a c e reconnaissance b a s i c i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c excavation mixed surface reconnaissance b a s i c 49 62 21 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 2 1 , 62 49 21 83 48 . 83 83 83 83 Area/County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References Gaohe Dahonggang s u r f a c e reconnaissance b a s i c 21 Luoshagang " " 21 Guangzhou Sh i F e i ' e l i n g t e s t excavation g e n e r a l 58 Hongshizhugang " " 58 Lingtanggang " " 58 Masongtougang s u r f a c e reconnaissance " 58 Mingxinggang t e s t excavation " 58 Qingshangang " " 58 Shuilugang " " 58 Xiganghuan " " 58 Xiangang s u r f a c e reconnaissance i n d i v i d u a l 46 Nanhai Baishancun, L o c a l i t y #1 " b a s i c 33 Chuanligang " " 33 Dagangtou " " 33 Dakenggang " " 33 Dongshicun (Datong car park) " " 33 Huixingyutang " " 33 Hutougang " " 3 3 Liangwanggang " " 33 Luogang t e s t excavation " 33 0 Area/ County- S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References > CD Cb O O r t H - C CD Cb Zhongshan Zhuhai West R i v e r Deqing Gaoyao Guangning Huaij i Luoding S i h u i X i n x i n g Wangj iazhuangqian Yandunjiao Huazishicun Tanglangj i a Luoyanshan Maogang Tonggugang Lanmashan Luoding #1 Luoding #2 Fohugang Gaodiyuan #1 Jiangjugang Niaodanshan Tianzigang Zumiaogang A i s h a n z i Dadushan surface reconnaissance b a s i c excavation s u r f a c e reconnaissance excavation s u r f a c e reconnaissance excavation s u r f a c e reconnaissance i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c 21 21 21, 63 21 34 37 30 49 49 49 13 49 13 28 13 13 13 13 Area/ County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References (Xinxing) Danganshan surface reconnaissance b a s i c 13 Zhaoqing S h i Songshan, Dianhuachang excavation i n d i v i d u a l 35 Southern Dianbai Liantoushan surface reconnaissance b a s i c 10 Leizhou C h i n i l i n g " g e n e r a l 10 Maoming Shi C h e n g l i a n l i n g 11 b a s i c 10 X i n y i Songxiangchang " i n d i v i d u a l 78 Yangchun Gangbei ? " 49 Yangjiang Mangling s u r f a c e reconnaissance b a s i c 10 N o t e s : u n c o n t r o l l e d e x c a v a t i o n t h i s may be t h e same s i t e as t h e one a b o v e : s o u r c e s a r e u n c l e a r APPENDIX B - GEOMETRIC SITES IN GUANGXI PROVINCE K e y : ( s e e A p p e n d i x 1 ) County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References > ro Cb X 03 O o 3 r t H -3 (D Cb B e i l i u Binyang Cangwu Cenxi Dongxing Dalun Dayuanshan Gaoposhan H u l u l i n g T o n g s h i l i n g Toudushan Wutangling Luwei X i n b i n Poj ieshan Dabing Pansheling T a i p i n g X i l a n B a i l o n g t a i Niutoucun s u r f a c e reconnaissance g e n e r a l none surface reconnaissance i n d i v i d u a l g e n e r a l 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 41 16, 41 43 43 43 43 43 10 43 43 O O Fuchuan Chakouyan (Liyushan) Dashan Dongzhuang Maozishan t e s t excavation surface reconnaissance 42, 43 43 43 43 County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References > CD Cb H- X CO o o r r p - C (D Gongcheng Guanyang G u i l i n S h i Heng Xian Hepu He Xian J i a h u i Longtangling Tongle Aishan Daxishan Guchanggang J i a n g u l i n g J i n j i a l i n g Kuzhushan Lashutang Mashanbei Sanj iaotang Zhongshan* S h i z i y a n Zhenlong* B a i l o n g Qingshuij iang Niuyancun Sanchuanbei Wujia (Guiling) none su r f a c e reconnaissance i n d i v i d u a l g e n e r a l none surface reconnaissance i n d i v i d u a l b a s i c g e n e r a l t e s t excavation? 38 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 41, 43 43 16, 41 43 10, 45 43 43 16, 43 0 J o County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References (He Xian) Wuying su r f a c e reconnaissance g e n e r a l 43 Wuzhishan (Zhonghua) " " 42, 43 Xiniucun " " 43 Lingshan Longwu " b a s i c 81 M a l u l i n g " g e n e r a l 10 L i p u Limu* ? i n d i v i d u a l 42 Luchuan Wushi* ? " 42 Nanning S h i Nahong Commune* none " 41 P i n g l e Y i n s h a n l i n g excavation " 40, 43 Pingnan S h i j i a o s h a n s u r f a c e reconnaissance g e n e r a l 42, 43 Pubei Gulicun ? b a s i c 43 Qinzhou P u l i n g surface reconnaissance g e n e r a l 43 Qingtang " b a s i c . 81 Quanzhou Aoyutou " g e n e r a l 43 J i a n ' a n s i " " 43 Longwangmiaoshan " ." 43 Luj i a c u n t e s t excavation b a s i c 42 X i a n z i t a n g s u r f a c e reconnaissance g e n e r a l County S i t e Fieldwork D e t a i l References Rong Xian Dashenling s u r f a c e reconnaissance g e n e r a l 43 Tiandong G u o g a i l i n g * ? b a s i c 42 Wuming M i a n l i n g * none g e n e r a l 41 Y i l i n g s u rface reconnaissance " 43 Wuzhou S h i Tangyuan " " 16, 43 Xincheng Datang* none i n d i v i d u a l 16, 41 Xing'an Gaotang s u r f a c e reconnaissance g e n e r a l 43 Wangchengling " " 43 Y i j i a " " 43 Zhaoping S h i z i s h a n " " 43 Zhongshan Baotashan " " 43 Yidongtianyan " " 43 * i s o l a t e d f i n d of pre-Qin bronze a r t i f a c t 2 0 4 APPENDIX C - BRONZE AND EARLY IRON AGE SITES AND FINDS IN GUANGDONG AND GUANGXI KEY: W.Zhou = = Western Zhou S&A = Spring and Autumn WS = Warring States ( 1 ) = Chevron 3 (2) = Kui Period (3) = Mi Period pst = polished stone tools POL; KEB; SOM =' si t e names used by Maglioni (1975) Area County S i te Context Re 1 a t i ve date Ar t i f a c t s : Metal 1 Ceram i c s L i th i c s Ref . East Coast - Chao'an Paoxuez1shan ? S&A (2) 1 arrowhead 7 7 8 1 Song 1i nfeng s i te 7 1 axe geome t r i c p o t t e r y pst 81 Ha i f eng Baoluo (POL) s i te SSA-WS (2) 2 cas t i ng mou1ds : be 11 ; spearhead HG - Kui P e r i o d jade f r a g s . 57 Jingwei (KEB) s i t e W.Zhou-SSA ( 1 ) 1 axe 1 axe c a s t i n g mould SG & HG, pre-Kui pst & ornaments 57 Shakengzhong ( SOM ) s i t e S5A-WS (2) weapon fragments HG-Kui P e r i o d b r a c e 1e t 57 J i eyang X i nx i he ? ? 1 axe axe, adze, ge & gu i (ceremon i a 1 t a b l e t ) 49 Raoping D i ngdapushan 8 Taz i j i nshan bur i a 1-24 l a t e Shang ( 1 I 1 ge geome t r i c and o t h e r ceram i cs t o o l s and ornaments 49 East R i v e r Bo 1 uo Guhechuangd i i so 1 ate? ? 2 b e l 1 s 49 Heyuan Yuandun1i ng s i te? 7 1 axe geo m e t r i c p o t t e r y p s t 8 1 Hu i yang i s o l ate mid S&A or ear 1i er 1 d i no, 49;81 J i nzubu s i te? 7 1 axe geo m e t r i c p o t t e r y pst 81 Longchuan Daj i angcun 7 WS (3) 1 spear b u t t 1 spear 1 SG quan 8 1 Wuhua ? ? S&A-WS (2) 1 "engraving k n i f e " HG-Kui P e r i o d ? 57 Dongshan- shang1 i n bur i a l ? 7 ? HG: 4 v e s s e l s 1 axe 1 adze 81 Z i j i nshan 7 7 1 spear ? ? 81 Area Countv S i te Context R e l a t i v e date Art i f a c t s : Metal ' Ceram i c s L i t h i c s Ref . Zengch°ng J i n1ans i s i t e WS 1 arrowhead HG-Mi P e r i o d ? 64 49 79 : T i anmashan 7 7 2 b e l 1 s ? 7 49 X i gua 1 i ng s i t e WS 1 "engraving k n i f e " HG-Mi P e r i o d 1 whetstone; hammerstones 15 N o r t h e r n Req i on Fogang bur i a 1(s) SSA-WS (2-3) 7 7 ? 49 L i anp i ng Pengshan ? WS (3) 1 bel 1 1 t i q e r - k n o b chun yu ? 7 49 0 i ngyuan Matougang *' 1 bur i a 1 S&A-WS (2) (25 p i e c e s ) 3 food v e s s e l s 2 wine v e s s e l s 6 v e s s e l s i n c l u d i n g 2 ku i - i mpressed quan i a r s 2 whetstones 1 1 6 musical instruments 8 weapons 6 m i see 11aneous & r i tua1 obj e c t s Matougang V2 bur i a 1 S&A-WS (2) (39 p i e c e s ) 1 wine v e s s e l 7 be 11s 2 t o o l s 29 weapons 1 Kui P e r i o d quan 2 banq (s t i c k s ) whetstones 12 Ou j i ang S h i x i a s i te S&A-WS (2) (16 p i eces) weapons S t o o l s HG-Ku i P e r i o d sma11 amounts (un i dent i f i ed) 79: 90 Shu i ge1i ng s i te S&A-WS (2) 1 axe HG- Kui P e r i o d 7 49 Sh i x i no Ba i sh i p i ngshan s i t e WS ( 3 ) 1 i r o n axe 1 i r o n - t i p p e d hoe HG- Mi P e r i o d hammers tones 65: 15 Wengyuan J i angtoushan s i t e S&A-WS (2) 1 axe HG- Kui P e r i o d v e r y few pst 23: 49 J i hanbe i s 1 te? 7 1 axe geo m e t r i c p o t t e r y ps t 8 1 Area S i te Contex t Re 1 a t i ve Art i f a c t s : Ref . County date Metal' Ceram i cs L i t h i c s X i n feng 0 i anggang, Matou ? 7 1 awl 1 spear 1 yue axe ? 7 49 C e n t r a l Req i on Guangzhou Shi Fe i ' e l i ng X i angang s i te? unc1 ear 7 SSA-WS (2-3) i axe (5 p i eces) 3 weapons 1 p a i r ornaments geo m e t r i c p o t t e r y HG- Kui P e r i o d p s t pst 8 1 4G West R i v e r Deq i ng Luoyanshan bur i a 1 WS (3) (15 pi eces) 8 t o o l s 5 weapons 1 d i n q t r i p o d 1 bel 1 1 m i - i m p r e s s e d hu j a r 2 whetstones 1 p e b b l e w i t h dr i11ed h o i e 34 Guangn i ng Tonggugang bur i a 1s -22 WS ( 3 ) (295 p i e c e s ) 7 v e s s e l s 97 weapons 189 t o o l s 2 u n i d e n t i f i e d a r t i f a c t s 39 v e s s e 1 s : 20 g l a z e d bowls & cups 3 rni^- impressed j a r s 23 whetstones 30 Hua i j i Lanmashan bur i a 1 S&A-WS (2)- ( i ncomplete l i s t ) 1 human-head s t a f f (or i g i na1 1y 4 ) 1 quan, Kui P e r i o d 7 49 Luod i ng Luoding n1 bur i a 1 SSA-WS (2) ( i ncomp1ete l i s t ) 2 v e s s e l s 2 musical instruments 5 r i t u a l & ornamental obj e c t s 42 weapons 1 quan, Kui P e r i o d ? 49 Luoding M2 bur i a 1 S&A-WS (2) (types and q u a n t i t i e s not r e p o r t e d ) 1 quan. Kui P e r i o d ? 49 S i hu i Gaod i yuan bur i a 1 WS (2-31 ( i ncomp1ete l i s t ) 2 human head s t a f f s ( o r i g i n a l l y 4) 7 7 49 Area County S i te Context Re 1 a t i ve date Art i f a c t s : Metal 1 Ceram i cs L i th i cs Ref . N i aodanshan bur i a 1 SSA-WS (2) (59 p i e c e s ) •1 v e s s e l s 1 musical instrument 4 1 weapons 9 t o o l s 4 human-head s t a f f s 1 impressed quan j a r 3 whetstones 28 Zhaoq i ng Shi Songshan, D i anhuachang bur i a 1 WS (3) (108 i terns) 14 food v e s s e l s S 6 musical instruments 23 weapons 40 t o o l s 24 m i s c e l l a n e o u s & r i tua1 obj e c t s 2 g o l d handles 1 g o l d fragment 18 v e s s e 1 s : 9 j a r s S vases 1 bow 1 8 he boxes 3 beads 2 jade r i n g s w i t h go 1d hand 1es 1 j ade be 1t hook 3 jade p i e c e s 1 jade baton 1 g l a z e d bead 1 whetstone 35 Southern X i ny i Songxiangchang i s o l a t e W.Zhou (1) 1 he wine v e s s e l 78 Yangchun Gangbe i i s o l a t e WS (3) 1 axe 1 ingot 49 Area County S i te Context Re 1 at i ve date Art i f a c t s : M e t a l ' Ceram i c s L i th i c s Ref . B e i 1 i u Tongsh i1i ng ? Pre-Q i n ( s m e l t i n g remains) ? 7 43 B i nyang Luwe i i s o l a t e ? SSA (2) 1 bel 1 4 1 X i nb i n bur i a l ? SSA (2) 1 be l 1 1 sword 1 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragment 16.41 Gongcheng J i ahu i bur i a 1 SSA-WS (2) (33 p i e c e s ) 8 v e s s e l s 2 musical instruments 12 weapons 7 t o o l s 4 m i s c e l l a n e o u s S r i tua1 obj ec ts ? 7 38 Guanyang A i shan s i te? WS (3) weapons ( u n i d e n t i f i e d ) Mi P e r i o d c e r a m i c s 7 43 Guchenggang bur i a 1 WS (2-3) 7 Kui P e r i o d c e r a m i c s 7 43 Zhongshan s i te? W.Zhou? ( 1 ) 1 be 11 Geometric c e r a m i c s , no ku i or m i pat t e r n s many pst 16,41, 43 Heng X i a n Zhen1ong i so 1 a te W.Zhou? (1) 1 bel 1 16, 41 He X i a n Wuzh ishan (Zhonghua) s i te? S&A-WS (2) "smal1 amounts", uni dent i f i ed Kui P e r i o d c e r a m i c s p s t 42 , 43 L i pu L i mu i s o l a t e ? W.Zhou? ( 1 ) 1 wenq j a r 42 L i ngshan Longwu s i te? 7 1 axe Geometric p o t t e r y ps t 8 1 Luchuan Wush i i so l a t e ? W.Zhou? ( 1 ) 1 wenq j a r 42 Nanning Shi Nahong commune i so 1 at e ? S&A (2) 1 bel 1 7 ? 4 1 Area S i te Context Re 1 a t i ve Art i f a c t s : Ref . County date Metal ' Ceram i c s L i th i c s P ing1e Y i nshanl i ng bur i a 1s -1 10 WS ( 3 ) (bronze: 377 p i e c e s ) 39 v e s s e l s 283 weapons 46 t o o l s 1 bel 1 8 in i see 1 1 aeous S r i t u a l obj e c t s (bronze & i r o n 11 p i e c e s ) 2 v e s s e l s 9 weapons ( i ron, 18 1 pi eces) 1 v e s s e l 3 weapons 177 t o o l s (360 p i e c e s ) 30 j a r s / v a s e s 15 d i nq t r ipods 89 he boxes 190 cups 36 s p i n d l e whorls (115 p i e c e s ) 40 jade r i n g s 2 t u r q u o i s e beads 7 1 whetstones ( f rom grave f i l l ) 1 ge dagger-axe 1 ornament 40 P i ngnan Sh i j > aoshan ? ? ( 1 c a s t ing mou1d) impressed & i n c i s e d sherds ps t 42. 43 0 i nzhou 0 i ngtang 7 ? 1 spear 1 sword 8 1 T i andong Guoga i 1 i n g 7 WS? (no i n f o r m a t i o n ) 42 Wum i ng Mi an 1 i ng i s o l a t e l a t e Shang - W.Zhou ( 1 ) 1 you wine v e s s e l 1 spear 16, 41 Wuzhou Shi Tangyuan i s o l a t e WS ( 3 ) 1 d i nq t r i pod Mi P e r i o d c e r a m i c s 16 X i ncheng Da tang i s o l a t e W.Zhou ! 1 ) 1 bel 1 16 . 4 1 X i ng'an 7 Late Shang (1) 1 you wine v e s s e l - 16 . 4 1 a l l a r e bronze u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d 211 APPENDIX D - GLOSSARY OF CHINESE TERMS USED ban'er guan ^ j j " guan jar with "turned" handle bang "j^- s t i c k , baton bei cup bi ^ f l a t disc bo bowl bu jar chun yu ^f- -f b e l l > cong ^Jf* tube-shaped stone r i t u a l object ding cooking vessel with 3 or 4 legs dou 5- stemmed cup or bowl duo ' t ^ b e l l fou £ jar fu ItT cauldron, cooking pot ge dagger - axe guan m. j a r gui — oblong stone plaque with pointed end he £22. "box", small lidded jar hu 3E. spouted vessel, k e t t l e hui ^ (shape of a geometric motif) - i u e s l o t t e d ring Kui t>C "one-footed dragon" : geometric motif l e i ^ urn mi 7 r T (shape of a geometric motif) pan dish 212 APPENDIX D (continued) frf pen ^ shallow bowl, basin wan bowl weng *f£ jar yue battle-axe zun JS. jar

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