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Exploring the geometric horizon : interregional interaction and local evolution Lucas, Janet 1984

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E X P L O R I N G THE  GEOMETRIC HORIZON: AND  LOCAL  INTERREGIONAL  INTERACTION  EVOLUTION  by JANET B.A.,  University  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED THE  LUCAS of Regina,  1979  I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT  R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR M A S T E R OF  THE DEGREE  OF  ARTS  "in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S Department o f Anthropology  We  accept to  this  thesis  and  as  the required  conforming standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H August  ©  COLUMBIA  1984  Janet Lucas,  Sociology  1984  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  Anthropology and Sociology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6 C3/81")  Columbia  written  Abstract T h i s study presents a d e t a i l e d p r e h i s t o r i c Geometric  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the l a t e  P o t t e r y Horizon i n the Provinces of  Guangdong and Guangxi i n southeastern China.  The c u r r e n t l y  a v a i l a b l e p u b l i s h e d works i n both E n g l i s h and Chinese are brought  together i n t h i s study to provide the b a s i c sources of  data f o r the study of the development of complex s o c i e t i e s i n t h i s region between approximately 3,000 and 200 B.C.. A major debate concerning the "Geometric i s the degree of impact  Pottery Cultures"  the northern Chinese s t a t e s had on the  development of s o c i a l complexity among such ' p e r i p h e r a l ' as these. restrict  I d i s c u s s the general u t i l i t y  groups  of frameworks which  the study of s o c i a l developmental  processes to i n t e r n a l  f a c t o r s alone, versus those which allow f o r the simultaneous c o n s i d e r a t i o n of both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s and conclude that the l a t t e r are more a p p r o p r i a t e . S e v e r a l tasks are undertaken  i n t h i s study: f i r s t  c o m p i l a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of the p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e regarding the Geometric  groups of Lingnan  i s the evidence  (Chapters 2-4);  secondly the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a basic conceptual framework f o r a n a l y s i n g the e m p i r i c a l p a t t e r n s df development i n Lingnan Geometric  society  (Chapter 5), and f i n a l l y a b r i e f  exploration  of  the part played by the northern s t a t e s i n the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  of  h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Lingnan Geometric Mortuary  for  data from Geometric  groups.  s i t e s are used as the b a s i s  s t u d y i n g the development of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l  complexity  (Chapter 5 ) . Degree of ranking i n each P e r i o d of the Geometric  i s assessed by the r e l a t i v e amounts of grave goods, amount of energy expenditure on the grave, and the presence/absence special e l i t e  "badges" among contemporaneous b u r i a l s .  for p o l i t i c a l aspects of ranking and the concurrent of h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n systems  of  Evidence development  i n manufacturing and exchange  are a l s o examined.  I conclude from Chapter 5 that Lingnan Geometric  society  developed from e g a l i t a r i a n to s t r o n g l y ranked d u r i n g the second h a l f of the Geometric  time p e r i o d .  Moreover,  i t appears  that  the h i e r a r c h i e s which developed at t h i s time were s t r o n g l y i n v o l v e d i n e x t e r n a l exchange with more n o r t h e r l y The e f f e c t of t h i s l a t t e r  interchange on the  network of the Lingnan geometric groups  states. internal  i s examined i n Chapter  by an a n a l y s i s of the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of nodes i n the i n t e r n a l network. exert an apparent  I conclude that the northern exchanges d i d " p u l l " on c e n t r e s , with the r e s u l t that a  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number are l o c a t e d along routes l e a d i n g to the major t r a d i n g p a r t n e r . The how  i n t e n t of these a n a l y s e s are t w o f o l d , f i r s t  to explore  much usable data are a v a i l a b l e at present and some of the  q u e s t i o n s that might p r o f i t a b l y be approached secondly to o u t l i n e and demonstrate  with them;  the u t i l i t y  of a framework  which comprehends both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i f o r e v o l u t i o n a r y change.  I maintain that these are the most  important p r i o r i t i e s at present i n view of the e x i s t i n g background  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the E n g l i s h language  t h i s ^ p e r i o d of South China's p r e h i s t o r y .  lack of  l i t e r a t u r e on  Table of Contents Abstract L i s t of Tables L i s t of F i g u r e s  i i vi viii  Chapter I INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter II DISCUSSION OF PUBLISHED INFORMATION  11  A. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION  11  B. DISCUSSION OF SOURCES  18  C. DISCUSSION OF SITE DATA 1. Surface Reconnaissance '2 . Excavations Chapter I I I CHRONOLOGY OF.THE LINGNAN GEOMETRIC HORIZON  21 21 29  A. DISCUSSION OF RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY  37  37  B. CHRONOLOGICAL SUBDIVISIONS OF THE LINGNAN GEOMETRIC HORIZON 43 1. I n i t i a l , Pre-geometric Phase 43 2. Chevron & Check-impressed Soft P o t t e r y (Chevron 1 ) 43 3. Chevron S o f t Pottery Stage (Chevron 2) 50 4. Chevron, Soft - Hard P o t t e r y T r a n s i t i o n (Chevron 3) 56 5. Kui P e r i o d , Hard Geometric 59 6. Mi P e r i o d , Hard Geometric ..61 C. DISCUSSION OF THE TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF LINGNAN GEOMETRIC SITES  63  Chapter IV ENVIRONMENT AND SUBSISTENCE  67  A. PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES AND PALEOENVIRONMENT 1. Topography 2. Climate 3. V e g e t a t i o n And S o i l s  67 67 69 71  B. IMPLICATIONS FOR PREHISTORIC SUBSISTENCE AND  SETTLEMENT  C. IMPLICATIONS FOR PREHISTORIC COMMUNICATION PATTERNS  72  ...76  V  Chapter V PATTERNS  80  A. OUTLINE OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  80  ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENTAL  B. SOCIAL COMPONENT 1. Data Base And Methods 2. Chevron Periods 3. Kui P e r i o d 4. Mi P e r i o d C. POLITICAL COMPONENT  86 86 92 98 107 116  D. MANUFACTURING COMPONENT 1. Development Of T e c h n i c a l S k i l l s 2. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Aspects  121 121 131  E. CIRCULATION  134  F. DISCUSSION  147  Chapter VI INTERREGIONAL INTERACTION AND LOCAL EVOLUTION  151  A. INTRODUCTION  151  B. THE NATURE OF EXTERNAL INPUT INTO THE LINGNAN REGION . 1 5 2 C. THE IMPACT OF INTERREGIONAL INTERACTION 1. Exchange And E l i t e Status 2.  Spatial Implications  156 156 160 166  D. CONCLUSIONS Chapter VII CONCLUSIONS  168  BIBLIOGRAPHY  175  APPENDIX A - GEOMETRIC SITES IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE  186  APPENDIX B - GEOMETRIC  199  SITES IN GUANGXI PROVINCE  APPENDIX C - BRONZE AND EARLY IRON AGE SITES AND FINDS IN GUANGDONG AND GUANGXI 204 APPENDIX D - GLOSSARY OF CHINESE TERMS USED 211  vi  L i s t of Tables 2.1 . B i b l i o g r a p h y of p u b l i s h e d sources on the p r e h i s t o r i c archaeology of Guangdong and Guangxi 12-15 2.2  B i b l i o g r a p h y of Hong Kong s i t e s used i n t h i s study.. 16  2.3  P u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s on Lingnan p r e h i s t o r i c broken down by l e v e l of coverage  2.4  Guangdong: l i s t i n g of c o u n t i e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s by Region  sites,  18 23  2.5  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l reconnaissance work c a r r i e d out i n the C e n t r a l lowlands Region of Guangdong , l a t e 1950's v... 27  2.6  Areas of c o n c e n t r a t e d reconnaissance work i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e  2.7  Excavated s i t e s i n Guangdong  31-32  2.8  Hong Kong s i t e s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study  35  3.1  P r e v i o u s l y suggested c h r o n o l o g i c a l of the Lingnan Geometric H o r i z o n  39  .29  subdivisions  3.2  Temporal Horizon  3.3  Temporal changes i n ceramic f a b r i c and s u r f a c e d e c o r a t i o n i n excavated assemblages  45  3.4  Guangdong: r a d i o c a r b o n dates on Geometric  51-52  3.5  Hong Kong: r a d i o c a r b o n dates on p r e h i s t o r i c  3.6  D e t a i l e d t a b u l a t i o n of ceramics unearthed the  s u b d i v i s i o n s of the Lingnan  Geometric  sites  42  s i t e s . . . 53 from  Hedang s i t e , Foshan, Guangdong  57  3.7  A r t i f a c t t r a i t s w i t h d e f i n e d temporal s i g n i f i c a n c e . .  66  4.1  Annual temperature and r a i n f a l l f i g u r e s a t G u i l i n , Guangzhou and Shantou Subsystems d e f i n e d i n p r e v i o u s European s t u d i e s  71 82  L e v e l s of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity and a s s o c i a t e d developments i n other s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  84  5.1 5.2  vii  Tables 5.3  (continued)  L e v e l s of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity i n r e l a t i o n North Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s  5.4  Chevron  5.5  K u i and Mi P e r i o d b u r i a l s Provinces  5.6 5.7  5.8  Period  burials  Comparison o f w e a l t h i e s t Tonggugang  f r o m Guangdong and  and  Guangxi  poorest burials  from 109  C o m p a r i s o n o f g r a v e s i z e and f o r m between and "male" b u r i a l s f r o m Y i n s h a n l i n g  "female" 112  C o m p a r i s o n o f amount o f g r a v e goods between " f e m a l e " and "male" b u r i a l s a t Y i n s h a n l i n g  5.10  K i l n features excavated Guangdong P r o v i n c e  6.1  89-90  99-101  Y i n s h a n l i n g graves c o n t a i n i n g  5.12  84  f r o m Guangdong P r o v i n c e  5.9  5.11  to  animal-topped  from Geometric  113 staffs.  114  sites in v . . 126  D i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns associated with various systems o f p r o d u c t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n  135  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Lingnan b u r i a l s  144  "imported"'ibronze v e s s e l s i n  L e v e l s of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity i n Lingnan t h e Y a n g t z e a r e a , compared w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a l stages of the Chinese s t a t e  and 157  viii  L i s t of F i g u r e s 1.1  Regions of China  1.2  P o l i t i c a l divisions  2.1  Regional s u b d i v i s i o n s of Guangdong P r o v i n c e  22  2.2  Guangxi P r o v i n c e : c o u n t i e s known t o c o n t a i n Geometric p o t t e r y s i t e s  25  2.3  L o c a t i o n of excavated Geometric s i t e s and Bronze Age b u r i a l s  3.1  3 of China  3  i n Guangdong and Guangxi  33  I n c i s e d geometric ceramics from Guangdong s i t e s . . . . 44  3.2a Geometric ceramic s u r f a c e p a t t e r n s : Guangdong Province 3.2b Geometric ceramic s u r f a c e p a t t e r n s : Guangxi Province  46-47 t . . 48  3.3  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ceramic v e s s e l forms of the Geometric P e r i o d  49  3.4  L o c a t i o n of r a d i o c a r b o n dated s i t e s  64  4.1  Guangdong and Guangxi: r e l i e f  68  4.2  Main r i v e r s and mountain  70  4.3  Bronze yue and "boot-shaped" axes  78  5.1  Human- and animal-topped s t a f f s from K u i and Mi P e r i o d graves  102  5.2  K u i P e r i o d graves, Guangdong P r o v i n c e  104  5.3  Gold-handled jade r i n g s from the Songshan b u r i a l , Zhaoqing S h i , Guangdong  110  5.4  Four s t a f f - g r a v e s from the Y i n s h a n l i n g s i t e , Guangxi  115  5.5 5.6  passes  cemetery  S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of v e s s e l forms d u r i n g the Mi Period  123  K i l n types found i n Geometric s i t e s i n Guangdong Province  127  ix  F i g u r e s (continued) 5.7  Schematic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s s e l e c t i o n and processing '. 133  5.8  D i s t r i b u t i o n of e u r i t e l i t h i c m a t e r i a l s q u a r r i e d a t Xiqiaoshan  137  5.9  C l a r k e ' s model of exchange p a t t e r n s i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d p o t t e r y assemblage  139  5.10  "Imported" bronze r i t u a l v e s s e l s from Lingnan 1- . Geometric graves  ;t: : 142  5.11  Bronze swords from c e n t r a l China and from Lingnan Geometric graves  143  6.1  Comparison  of ceramic hu v e s s e l s from Guangdong  with examples from the C e n t r a l Yangtze area  159  6.2  Model of the d e n d r i t i c market network.  161  6.3  L o c a t i o n of Kui and Mi P e r i o d graves w i t h r e s p e c t to e x t e r n a l communication r o u t e s  165  X  Acknowledgements I am g r a t e f u l f o r the a d v i c e , help and encouragement of many people d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . My t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. Richard Pearson, was very generous w i t h h i s time and a d v i c e d e s p i t e h i s own very busy schedule. The other members o f my t h e s i s committee, Dr. R.G. Matson and Dr. E.G. P u l l e y b l a n k made v a l u a b l e comments and suggestions, also. I p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e c i a t e the w i l l i n g n e s s of a l l the above to accomodate themselves to my f r a n t i c schedule d u r i n g the l a s t few weeks of p r o d u c t i o n . I a l s o thank the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t e s and f i n a n c i a l support throughout my studies. S e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s gave me i n v a l u a b l e help d u r i n g the f i n a l p r o d u c t i o n . Mary Ann T i s d a l e and Anne U n d e r h i l l very w i l l i n g l y ran errands and helped to put c o p i e s t o g e t h e r . Moira I r v i n e d r a f t e d wonderful maps and c h a r t s . My parents helped with the f i n a l c o p i e s of f i g u r e s and t a b l e s . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l to my parents not o n l y f o r t h e i r work, but a l s o f o r t h e i r constant support and encouragement d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r s . They have never t r i e d to persuade me to undertake something more " p r a c t i c a l . " . Although the help of a l l the above has c o n t r i b u t e d to the best aspects of t h i s work, I am of course r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any e r r o r s or o m i s s i o n s .  1  I.  INTRODUCTION  R e f e r r i n g to the s t a t e of Southeast Asian r e s e a r c h some years ago Jean Kennedy noted that produce  nomothetic  (1977:24). cultural  or explanatory hypotheses  prehistoric "One  cannot  i n a near vacuum"  I t i s neccesary to have some basic knowledge of the  p a t t e r n s i n the p r e h i s t o r y of an area b e f o r e i t i s  p o s s i b l e to move on to the next l e v e l of e x p l a n a t i o n . That need i s the b a s i c s t a r t i n g  point of t h i s study.  A  "near vacuum" i s what has obtained i n the Western l i t e r a t u r e of the l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c  p e r i o d of South China, d e s p i t e the  impressive amounts of i n f o r m a t i o n p u b l i s h e d in recent years by the Chinese. appeared  The  few d i s c u s s i o n s of t h i s p e r i o d that have  in the Western l i t e r a t u r e have attempted  p a t t e r n s of development from a few s e l e c t adequate  to e x p l a i n  s i t e s , without  s y n t h e s i s of the t o t a l range of a v a i l a b l e d a t a .  Chinese r e s e a r c h e r s can of course draw on f a r more sources than are  a v a i l a b l e to f o r e i g n r e s e a r c h e r s .  Many of the h i s t o r i c a l  p a t t e r n s they have documented are r e l e v a n t to t h i s  study,  however the frameworks they have used are not d i r e c t l y  conducive  to the types of problems addressed by c u r r e n t Western s t u d i e s of the o p e r a t i o n and development of c u l t u r a l  systems.  The s u b j e c t of t h i s study i s the Geometric  P o t t e r y Horizon  in the southern Chinese p r o v i n c e s of Guangdong and Guangxi. purpose  i s to study the s o c i a l developmental  manifest themselves  p r o c e s s e s which  in the m a t e r i a l remains which c o n s t i t u t e  My  2  that H o r i z o n .  In other words I s h a l l approach the problem of  the o p e r a t i o n and development China Geometric  of s o c i a l systems d u r i n g the South  P e r i o d through methods and p e r s p e c t i v e s commonly  used i n Western archaeology, but which as yet are not employed' by the Chinese.  The two primary t a s k s I s h a l l undertake  study are f i r s t ,  to assemble  on t h i s s u b j e c t  the i n f o r m a t i o n c u r r e n t l y  in t h i s  available  from p u b l i s h e d sources i n both E n g l i s h  and  Chinese; secondly, to develop an a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r studying developmental processes d u r i n g t h i s period. The Geometric prehistoric period of China.  The  P o t t e r y Horizon i s a phenomenon of the l a t e ( c i r c a 2000-220 BC)  i n the southeastern part  "Geometric C u l t u r e s " are i d e n t i f i a b l e by the  predominance of ceramics with impressed geometric patterning.  The e a r l i e s t  surface  phases of t h i s Horizon appear  to be  c e n t r e d i n J i a n g x i Province , although as I s h a l l o u t l i n e below, an almost equal a n t i q u i t y can be documented f o r at l e a s t the northern Guangdong area (Wen  Wu Correspondent  1979).  As  r e s e a r c h i n t o the Geometric Horizon progressed d u r i n g the 1960's and  1970's i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r that t h i s Horizon cannot  be regarded as a m o n o l i t h i c e n t i t y ;  i t i n f a c t comprises a  number of r e g i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e s and developmental, sequences  (Wen  Wu  Correspondent  separate developmental  sequence  1979).  One  region whose  has long been r e c o g n i z e d i s  Lingnan -- the region comprising most of modern Guangdong and Guangxi  P r o v i n c e s (Figures 1.1  & 1.2).  The long span of the Geometric Horizon i n Lingnan - over  3  FIGURE 1.1: Regions of China  (Hsieh 1973:112)  J / ^  X>7 HE1LUNGKIANG  Utan Bo tor  -Hart*,  < r  \  SINKIANC UIGHUR  KIRIN  Huhihot (  REGION  j  ^  r  "\ * \ | KASHMIR^-  .CS  CHINGMAI  >"""B  {KA,r u7»>  .  I  J  €  "  lH ENSI 1  1  y  <-y  LIAONING  J  >'  Hopei •  •'»*"»• j  SMANS.' J^O, S K A N t U N G /  j'' Loncfmv  V  ^ -A  >r ^  AUTONOMOUS  !  / *  ,—'  *.  ,  \_  TIBET  ,»  •>  V  'I'Hont^  SZECHWAN  CP CMAMDO ORE*  O  \ INDIA  I INDIA  <f«"SUN'->  \ (T <«EI-- ™«i  1  /  1  \  Kunming  I  ^  r  HUNAN  ,  >  '  1  '  .  /  • JCWANQSJ CHUANG ,'XWANOIUNG J A U l SEOION , , / " " "" » ™ ;• < C  YUNNAN  "1  M  c  W  frtttoool boundaiwi  BURMA ?  f  ^ <\V,ETNA^>-n.-XO^ X  T H A I L A N C p  L  A  O  S  C  v  ^  ^ „ A , « A «  Prov«CKJl boundariM | KIANGSU Proy.rvc# ^Nanking Piovr<»at capital  h-  FIGURE 1.2: P o l i t i c a l divisions of China (Tregear 1980:4)  4  Key to Figures 1.1 and 1.2:  Correspondence between romanization system' used i n Figures and in text:  Text  Figures  Guangdong  Kwangtung  Guangxi  Kwangsi  Jiangxi  Kiangsi  Fujian  Fukien  Guizhou  Kweichou  Guangzhou  Canton  5  2500 years - c o n s t i t u t e s a p e r i o d of marked s o c i a l which the Chinese have i d e n t i f i e d as the t r a n s i t i o n  evolution from  l a t e r p a t r i a r c h a l stage of P r i m i t i v e S o c i e t y to Slave ( i b i d . 57). transition  In terms of t e c h n o l o g i c a l development  the  Society  the  i s from the Late N e o l i t h i c through the Bronze  and  e a r l y Iron Ages. To date, Chinese research  i n t o the Geometric C u l t u r e s  been focussed  on gathering  sequences and  document the exchange of i n f l u e n c e s between  within  regions.  information  data to d e f i n e  Such tasks are  local  has  cultural  regarded as p r o v i d i n g  and  background  f o r the u l t i m a t e purpose which i s  "to r e c r e a t e the true f e a t u r e s of the ancient h i s t o r y of the Jiangnan region and make c l e a r the e t h n i c i d e n t i t y of i t s a b o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s ; thereby to r e v e a l r e g u l a r p a t t e r n s in the development of ancient s o c i e t y in the South and the mutually-blended h i s t o r i c a l processes between these peoples and the ancient Chinese t r i b e s . " (ibid.,59). In short, the aims of Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l Geometric C u l t u r e s  are p r i m a r i l y h i s t o r i c a l and  the c r e a t i o n of explanatory provided The  by the Marxist  evolutionary  W.  do not  include  literature.  little  discussion  Only two  Meacham have d e a l t with them d i r e c t l y ,  t h e i r work, l i k e that of the Chinese, has c u l t u r e - h i s t o r i c a l problems.  The  already  scheme.  Geometric C u l t u r e s have r e c e i v e d very  Chang and  i n t o the  frameworks, since these are  in the non-Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l K.C.  research  writers, and  been concerned with  major point of debate on  the  Geometric c u l t u r e s , as for the N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s of South China in g e n e r a l ,  revolves  around the presence and  impact of  6  i n f l u e n c e s from northern Chinese groups on those i n the South. Chang took the p o s i t i o n that  "the Geometric h o r i z o n i n  eastern South China was a p p a r e n t l y a development  of the l o c a l  Lung-shan substratum, in part under the continuous s t i m u l a t i o n of  the Shang and Zhou c u l t u r a l  Accordingly,  impacts."  (1977:414).  " f o r the e n t i r e a r e a , the Geometric h o r i z o n  with the f i r s t  i n f l u e n c e of the Shang c i v i l i z a t i o n  started  from the  n o r t h , probably d u r i n g the middle of the second millennium (ibid).  I t should be noted t h a t , as the f i r s t  Chang d i d not a s c r i b e t o t a l c r e d i t  quote  B.C."  indicates,  f o r s o c i a l development  i n the  South to the s t i m u l u s of the northern c i v i l i z a t i o n s as he has f r e q u e n t l y been accused. Chang i s not s p e c i f i c about the mechanisms through which the  northern c i v i l i z a t i o n s  their  i n f l u e n c e may  impacted the South, or about  have induced processes of s o c i a l  w i t h i n the l o c a l Geometric groups.  how  development  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  the  case with respect to the Geometric groups south of the lower Yangtze region the  development  (1977:422).  He does present the h y p o t h e s i s that  of States in the lower Yangtze may  r e s u l t of the establishment of i s o l a t e d c o l o n i e s of from the northern S t a t e s , but t h i s for  other r e g i o n s  have been a immigrants  i s not a mechanism suggested  (1977:419).  Chang's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the o r i g i n of the Geometric Horizon has s i n c e been i n v a l i d a t e d by radiocarbon data which  has  confirmed the e x i s t e n c e of Geometric p o t t e r y - u s i n g groups i n j i a n g x i and Guangdong approximately a thousand years before the Shang.  T h i s does not however n e c c e s a r i l y negate the importance  7  of  input  from the northern  the Geometric P e r i o d .  States  i n t o southern regions  during  As I s h a l l o u t l i n e below, there  i s much  m a t e r i a l evidence from Lingnan Bronze and e a r l y Iron Age graves a t t e s t i n g to the f a c t of i n t e r a c t i o n and exchange between the Lingnan Geometric groups and the State Whether or not these exchanges played  l o c a t e d to t h e i r  north.  a r o l e i n the development  of complex s o c i e t i e s i n the South i s an important problem f o r investigation. Unfortunately, opposite  c r i t i c s of Chang have tended to go to an  extreme and deny that the northern  significant  S t a t e s had any  impact on the Geometric C u l t u r e s .  example, p o s t u l a t e s  that the southeastern  have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y penetrated the Ch'in-Han conquest."  p o s i t i o n he i s o b l i g e d to d i s m i s s  influences  until  However, to maintain  this  as i n s i g n i f i c a n t the  widespread occurrence of n o r t h e r n - s t y l e , northern-manufactured bronze a r t i f a c t s B.C.) Geometric graves  c o a s t a l areas "may not  by o u t s i d e  (1978:289).  Meacham, f o r  and i n some  i n pre-Qin  cases,  ( i . e . pre-214  (1977).  Meacham's "Local E v o l u t i o n " model i s the most e x p l i c i t framework that has been proposed as an a l t e r n a t i v e to the "Nuclear Area" model.  Meacham's b a s i c t h e s i s i s that  "South  China N e o l i t h i c p r e h i s t o r y can be most p r o f i t a b l y i n v e s t i g a t e d with very areas."  1  little  reference  Unfortunately,  to the m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e s of other  although he uses the term  "evolution",  Although t h i s statement r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y to the N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d , Meacham a c t u a l l y i n c l u d e s the Bronze Age of southeast China as w e l l . 1  8  Meacham does not a c t u a l l y present framework f o r studying  e i t h e r a model or a  social evolution.  a c t u a l l y a programmatic statement of the l o c a l c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and preference  to studying  basic p r o p o s i t i o n and  importance of  interregional relationships.  do occur i n more than one  social  of the  (1968).  I can  c r u c i a l point, d e t a i l i n g patterns  consequence of the o p e r a t i o n In order  But,  in material  the  visible  (Binford  to i n t e r p r e t the observed p a t t e r n s  in  them i t i s  l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n to the realm of Goodyear  1984).  T h i s , because  " r e a l i t y " requires  development of e x p l i c i t models which w i l l  reflect.  remains i s not  remains i s only the  i s an a b s t r a c t i o n from the m a t e r i a l  and  this is a  of a c u l t u r a l system  'Middle-range Theory' (Raab and  material patterns  and  of the system which c r e a t e d  neccesary to move up one  it  (1975)  the processes of c u l t u r a l change.  of m a t e r i a l  terms of the operation  such as Bayard  the neccesary data base for  the study of developmental processes.  same t h i n g as modelling  ecological factors  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , since i t i s  these d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s which provide  1981:197-198).  in other  f i n d no disagreement with h i s view  importance of d e t a i l e d l o c a l  Observed p a t t e r n i n g  can  In h i s plea f o r the n e c c e s i t y of more  i s echoing statements by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s Triestman  His most  i s a common feature of human  d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of l o c a l c u l t u r e h i s t o r y and  and  studying  innovations  geographic l o c a t i o n —  words, that p a r a l l e l e v o l u t i o n  he  "model" i s  l o c a l c u l t u r a l ecology in  i s that m a t e r i a l and  s o c i a l development.  The  general  form a bridge  the processes they are  i n f e r r e d to  the  between  9  Although Meacham does not deal d i r e c t l y with the processual  issue of  change the b a s i c o u t l i n e s of what such a L o c a l  E v o l u t i o n Model would look  l i k e can  be  i n f e r r e d from  statement that h i s approach would focus  the  on  "the f o r c e s and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s w i t h i n the N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s themselves as the most probable s t i m u l i of c u l t u r e change. It i s proposed that when development can be reasonably l i n k e d with such agencies a g e n e r a l l y more c r e d i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r i s e s than would be one l i n k e d with e x t e r n a l c u l t u r a l s t i m u l i (movement of people or i d e a s ) . " (1977:419). A L o c a l E v o l u t i o n Model then would stand which include among t h e i r internal evolutionary We  thus have two  significant  f e a t u r e s the  change with e x t e r n a l  developments, and  Southern Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i s t s  impressive  Wu  s t i m u l i in promoting  one  which does  in the past  Correspondent  amount of data has  the accumulated information  not.  20 years have  preliminary, c o n t r u c t i o n  of e x p l i c i t  developmental processes during especially  sufficient  local an  I think  to begin  frameworks f o r the  the Geometric Horizon.  that  the study of It i s  important to begin to formulate such frameworks at  t h i s point so that we  can  need to be generated by these kinds  1979:53), and  been accumulating.  i s now  not  which admits of  in f a c t embarked on a phase of more i n t e n s i v e study of c u l t u r e h i s t o r i e s (Wen  of  stimuli.  Meacham: one  the p o t e n t i a l r o l e of e x t e r n a l c u l t u r a l  to models  linkage  b a s i c models o u t l i n e d , although  e x p l i c i t l y developed by Chang and  l o c a l evolutionary  in o p p o s i t i o n  evaluate  what s p e c i f i c  kinds  of data  future a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work in order  of problems to be p r o p e r l y  studied.  As I s h a l l  for  10  d i s c u s s below, the methods c u r r e n t l y used by Western a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to study the questions  I s h a l l d e a l with  in t h i s  study r e q u i r e kinds of information  not c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e in  the p u b l i s h e d  undoubtedly much more i s  literature  (although  a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e in unpublished In the subsequent chapters  sources w i t h i n I s h a l l be  the major concerns I have r a i s e d here. s h a l l o u t l i n e the  information  China).  f o l l o w i n g through on  In Chapters II to IV I  on the Geometric Horizon  Lingnan a v a i l a b l e through c u r r e n t l y - p u b l i s h e d sources,  in and  d i s c u s s the b a s i c o u t l i n e s of l o c a l c u l t u r e h i s t o r y and Chapters V and VI w i l l c o n t a i n  the development of an  framework which I propose i s most a p p r o p r i a t e developmental processes. model of the  The  s t r u c t u r e and  first  ecology.  explicit  to the study of  stage i n t h i s framework i s a  o r g a n i z a t i o n of. c u l t u r a l systems, on  the b a s i s of which I s h a l l analyze  the developmental patterns i n  four main s o c i a l components during  the Geometric P e r i o d ,  second stage i s an contact  and  The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t of e x t e r n a l  exchange on the  Geometric network during  l o c a l h i e r a r c h i e s of the Lingnan  the Bronze and  s h a l l conclude by r e t u r n i n g to evaluate  e a r l y Iron ages.  I  the r e l a t i v e u t i l i t y  of  v a r i o u s models in comprehending the development of the Geometric groups of Lingnan.  11  II.  DISCUSSION OF PUBLISHED INFORMATION  The data base of t h i s study comprises  i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c  s i t e s and general summaries of Lingnan archaeology by Chinese archaeologists.  The source m a t e r i a l s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and  presented i n t h i s chapter, and used subsequently to r e c o n s t r u c t p a t t e r n s of development. A.  METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION  The f i r s t  step i n assembling  the data f o r t h i s study was a  search of the Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e of the past 35 years.  The j o u r n a l s covered  include:  Kaogu ( i n c l u d i n g Kaogu Tongxun ) a l l up to March 1984 Kaogu Xuebao 1953 to No. 2, 1984 Kaoguxue J i k a n , a l l Wenwu ( i n c l u d i n g Wenwu Cankao Z i l i a o  ) 1955 to A p r i l 1984  Wenwu J i k a n , a l l Wenwu Z i l i a o Congkan , a l l . These j o u r n a l s were searched f o r sources r e l a t i n g to the Geometric  Horizon i n g e n e r a l , summary treatments of Guangdong  and Guangxi N e o l i t h i c Bronze and Iron Age c u l t u r e s , r e p o r t s on p r e h i s t o r i c  specific  s i t e s and f i n d s i n Lingnan, and  r e f e r e n c e s t o books and monographs on the same t o p i c s .  The  r e l e v a n t sources have been compiled and presented i n Table 2.1. The b i b l i o g r a p h y i n Table 2.1 does not i n c l u d e E n g l i s h language sources on the archaeology of Hong Kong.  Fortunately,  Anonymous 1954 An a n c i e n t s i t e f o u n d a t L u j i a q l a o , Ouanzhou county, Guangxi. Wenwu 1954:6:120-121 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team o f G u a n g x i & o t h e r s 1982 E x c a v a t i o n o f a N e o l i t h i c s i t e a t Du11ao, X l n z h o u c o u n t y , G u a n g x i K a o g u 1982:1:1-8 . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team o f G u a n g x i 1982 E x c a v a t i o n o f a N e o l i t h i c Long'an county, Guangxi. 14C  6.  Chao  7.  Chen  8.  16 .  CPAM  Beijing:  Huiyuan 1965 D i s c u s s i o n o f v a r i o u s Guangdong and J l a n g x i 1965:10:517-524  15.  s i t e at Dalongtan, Kaogu 1982:1:9-17 .  L a b , B e i j i n g U n i v e r s i t y & 14C L a b , IA CASS 1982 R e l i a b i l i t y o f r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s o f s a m p l e s c o l l e c t e d from l i m e s t o n e r e g i o n s , and the age of the Zengplyan and Xianrendong p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s . K a o g u Xuebao 1982:2:243-50 .  B e l j i n g Daxue 1979 S h a n g Zhou K a o g u .  14 .  WenWu  17 .  18 .  Press  Guangdong 1956 R e p o r t o n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t N e o l i t h i c Chaoyang County. Kaogu 1956:4:4-11  9.  1961a T h e s h e l l m o u n d s i t e s a t C h a o ' a n K a o g u 1961:11:577-584  10.  1961b T h e r e m a i n s o f p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s Guangdong. Kaogu 196 1:11:595-598  1964b W a r r i n g S t a t e s s i t e s c o u n t i e s , Guangdong. CPAM G u a n g x i 1978 C u l t u r a l R e l i c s Wen Wu P r e s s Fan  i n Zengcheng and S h i x i n g Kaogu 1964:3: 143- 151 ;160  Unearthed  m  Guangxi  Ming 1956 E i g h t N e o l i t h i c s i t e s d i s c o v e r e d Guangdong. Wenwu 1956:4:85  Gao G u a n g r e n S Shao W a n g p l n g 1981 A p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y o f p o t t e r y the p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . Kaogu 1981:4:427-459  Be 1j i n g :  b y CPAM  'gu1'-1r1 p o d s o f Xuebao  19 .  Guangdong Group t o I n v e s t i g a t e t h e S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f Minority Peoples 1957 N e o l i t h i c s t o n e t o o l s d i s c o v e r e d a t M a o d a o x i a n g . L1 a n d M i a o Autonomous D i s t r i c t s , H a i n a n . Kaogu 1957:4:52-55  a t Hong  20.  G u a n g d o n g P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1958 S t o n e t o o l s f r o m X i q i a o s h a n , N a n h a i c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu X u e b a o 1959:4:1-15  sites in  2 1  1960a T h e N e o l i t h i c r e m a i n s i n t h e l o w l a n d a r e a o f c e n t r a l Guangdong. Kaogu X u e b a o 1960:2:107-120  22 .  1960b T h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e m a i n s o f H a i n a n I s l a n d , Guangdong. Kaogu X u e b a o 1960:2:121-130  23 .  1961a T h e N e o l i t h i c r e m a i n s i n t h e h i g h l a n d s o f n o r t h e r n Guangdong. Kaogu 1961 :11:589-594  Neolithic sites in provinces. Kaogu  Gongzhe 1957 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y s a n d e x c a v a t i o n s Kong. Kaogu X u e b a o 1957:4:1-16  CPAM G u a n g d o n g & o t h e r s 1964a The N e o l i t h i c s i t e s a t N i a n y u z h u a n a n d M a t l p i n g , O u j i a n g c o u n t y , a n d a t Zoumagang, S h a o g u a n S h 1 , Guangdong. Kaogu 1964:7:323-332  Guangdong.  i n southern  11.  1963 Zhou d y n a s t y b r o n z e s u n e a r t h e d a t Q i n g y u a n , Guangdong. Kaogu 1963:2:57-61  24 .  1961b N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n Q l n g t a n g , Wengyuan Guangdong. Kaogu 1961:11:585-588  12.  1964 An E a s t e r n Guangdong.  25 .  1961c T h e N e o l i t h i c r e m a i n s o f e a s t e r n Kaogu 1961:12:650-665  13.  1965 I n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e s i t e s t h e a r e a s on b o t h s i d e s K a o g u 1965:9:443-446  26 .  1961d N e o l i t h i c s h e l l m o u n d s f o u n d i n D o n g x i n g Guangdong. K a o g u 1961:12:644-649  Zhou tomb i n Q i n g y u a n c o u n t y , K a o g u 1964:3:138-142 of ancient culture i n o f t h e West R i v e r .  county.  Guangdong.  county,  TABLE 2.1: Bibliography of published sources on the prehistoric archaeology of Guangdong and Guangxi  27 .  1964 T e s t e x c a v a t i o n a t t h e G u a n g d l n g s i t e , Z 1 j 1 n c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu 1964:5:251-254  41.  28 .  1975 T h e W a r r i n g S t a t e s c o u n t y . Guangdong.  42.  1979  29 .  1979 G u a n g d o n g a r c h a e o l o g y a c h i e v e s f i r m r e s u l t s : a new c h a p t e r o p e n s ' 1 n t h e h i s t o r y o f L i n g n a n . In T h i r t y Years of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Work: 1949-1979 . Wen Wu P r e s s  Important r e s u l t s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l r e l i c s work i n G u a n g x i i n the past t h i r t y years. In T h i r t y Y e a r s o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n d C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Work: 1949-1979. Wen Wu P r e s s  43.  1981  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f G e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y i n Guangxi. Wenwu J i k a n 3:244-252  30.  1981  3 1  1983a  32 .  33 .  34 .  Warring county.  1983b T h e X i q i a o s h a n s i t e , N a n h a i K a o g u 1983:12:1085-109 1 1984  1978 A b r i e f remains  40.  R e p o r t o n t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f an a n c i e n t g r a v e a t S o n g s h a n , B e l l i n g , Z h a o q i n g c i t y , Guangdong. Wenwu 1974:11:69-79 d i s c u s s i o n of the c u l t i v a t e d r i c e from S h i x l a . Wenwu 1978:7:23-28.  S t a t e s g r a v e s a t Y1ngshan1tng, Kaogu Xuebao 1978:2:2 11-258  TABLE 2.1 (continued)  Wenwu  1978  The c u l t u r a l r e m a i n s o f t h e l a t e r N e o l i t h i c 1n the s o u t h e r n p a r t of Guangxi. Wenwu 1978 :9:1424  46.  Guangzhou C i t y , C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Office 1977 R e c o n n a i s s a n c e o f an a n c i e n t s i t e a t X i a n g a n g i n the o u t s k i r t s of Guangzhou. Wenwu Z 1 1 1 a o C o n g k a n 1: 172- 178  47.  Han  Pingle  Kangxin 1964 N e o l i t h i c Guangxi.  implements found i n L i u c h e n g Kaogu 1964:11:591  county,  48.  Han K a n g x i n & P a n Q i f e n g 1982 L a t e N e o l i t h i c human s k e l e t o n s f r o m t h e Hedang s i t e , Foshan, Guangdong. Acta Anthropo1ogica S i n i c a 1:1:42-52  49 .  He J i s h e n g 198 1 D i s c u s s i o n o f G u a n g d o n g ' s E a s t e r n Zhou p e r i o d bronze c u l t u r e , and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Geometric pottery. Wenwu J i k a n 3:212-224  50.  Huang Weiwen & o t h e r s 1979 R e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e a t Kaogu X i q i a o s h a n i n Nanhai c o u n t y , Guangdong. 1979:4:289-299 .  5 1  Huang Y u z h i & Yang S h l t i n g 1965 R e p o r t on N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n Mei a n d Dapu c o u n t i e s , Guangdong. Kaogu 1965:4:159-165  county,  Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s B r i g a d e 1976 R e p o r t on t h e c a v e s i t e o f Z e n g p l y a n , Gu i1 i n . Guangxi. Kaogu 1976:3:175-179 1978a W a r r i n g County.  In G u a n g x l  G u a n g x i Z h u a n g A.R. Archaeology T r a i n i n g Class & others 1975 N e o l i t h i c s h e l l - m o u n d s i t e s i n t h e N a n n l n g r e g i o n of Guangxi. Kaogu 1975:5:295-301  45.  1983 T h e r e m a i n s o f a wooden s t r u c t u r e o n t h e w a t e r a t Maogang, G a o y a o c o u n t y . Guangdong. Wenwu 1983: 12:31 -46 G u a n g x i P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1973 T h e b r o n z e s u n e a r t h e d a t G o n g c h e n g Guangxi. Kaogu 1973:1:30-34  unearthed  Guangdong.  G u a n g d o n g P r o v i n c i a l Museum & o t h e r s 1973 A W a r r i n g S t a t e s g r a v e f o u n d a t D e q i n g , Guangdong. Wenwu 1973:9:18-22  36 .  39 .  county,  44.  R e p o r t on e x c a v a t i o n s a t t h e Zaogang s h e l l m o u n d s i t e , N a n h a i c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu 1984:3:203-212  1974  38 .  S t a t e s g r a v e s a t Tonggugang, Guangning Guangdong. K a o g u x u e J i k a n 1:111-119  E x c a v a t i o n of a p o t t e r y k i l n s i t e o f t h e Western Zhou d y n a s t y a t P i n g y u a n . Guangdong. Kaogu 1983:7:588-596  35 .  37 .  tomb a t N l a o d a n s h a n , S i h u i Kaogu 1975:2:102-108  1978b A n c i e n t b r o n z e s 1978:10:93-96  to  52.  53.  Liang Zhaotao 1959 On t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d d a t i n g o f t h e southeastern coastal Neolithic. Kaogu 1959:9:491-493 L i n Huixlang 1958 S t e p p e d a d z e : o n e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s In t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n r e g i o n of.China. Kaogu X u e b a o 1958:3:1-23  54.  L l u z h o u C i t y Museum 1983 R e c o n n a i s s a n c e a n d t e s t e x c a v a t i o n o f N e o l i t h i c s i t e s In L l u z h o u , Guangxi. Kaogu 1983:7:577-583  55.  Lluzhou 1981  C i t y Museum a n d Yang Oun The f i r s t Late N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r a l remains in Lluzhou. Wenwu Z i l i a o C o n g k a n 5:195  Luo Baoshan 1955 A s t o n e a x e f o u n d 1n t h e n o r t h - e a s t s e c t i o n o f Zhongshan U n i v e r s i t y , Guangzhou. Kaogu 1955:5:57  57.  M a g i 1 o n 1 , R a f a e l *' 1975 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l D i s c o v e r y 1n E a s t e r n Guangdong: the major w r i t i n g s of F r . Rafael M a g i i o n i . Hong Kong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , J o u r n a l Monograph II  59.  60.  61.  62.  Ma1  Yinghao 1957 R e p o r t o n r e c o n n a i s s a n c e a n d t e s t a n a n c i e n t s i t e 1n t h e N o r t h - e a s t Guangzhou. Kaogu 1957:5:30-36  excavations at section of  1961 A n c i e n t s i t e s d i s c o v e r e d 1n C o n g h u a Guangdong. Kaogu 1961:8:450  64.  1961 New r e s u l t s Guangdong.  65.  1963 A W a r r i n g S t a t e s s i t e a t B a 1 s h 1 p 1 n g s h a n , S h l x l n g c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu 1 9 6 3 : 4 : 2 1 7 - 2 2 0  66.  Peng S h i f a n 1976 D i s c u s s i o n o f p r o b l e m s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i n c i p i e n t N e o l i t h i c o f S o u t h C h i n a Wenwu 1976:12:15-22  67.  Q1n J u n & Lu C h e n g y l n g 1965 N e o l i t h i c s t o n e t o o l s d i s c o v e r e d i n L 1 u j 1 a n g county, Guangxi. Kaogu 1965:6:313  68.  Q i u L i c h e n g 8> o t h e r s 1982 E x c a v a t i o n s a t t h e D u s h l z i N e o l i t h i c c a v e s i t e , Y a n g c h u n c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu 1982:5:456459  69.  Rao H u i y u a n 1960 Some n o t e s o n t h e p o t t e r y w i t h Kaogu 1960:3:47-51  impressed  Rao Z o n g y i 1950 P r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s a n d c u l t u r e s va11ey, Guangdong. Hong K o n g .  In t h e Han R i v e r  70.  of Cultural R e l i c s reconnaissance 1957. Wenwu 1958:9:60-64  o f I n v e s t i g a t i v e e x c a v a t i o n s In Kaogu 1961:12:666-668  design.  71.  T h e S h i x i a A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team o f t h e G u a n g d o n g P r o v i n c i a l Museum & o t h e r s 1978 E x c a v a t i o n o f N e o l i t h i c g r a v e s a t S h i x i a , Q u j i a n g C o u n t y , Guangdong. Wenwu 1978:7:1-15  72.  Rong G u a n q i o n g 1956 S y n o p s i s o f N e o l i t h i c r e l i c s f r o m t h e Z u o - Y o u River v a l l e y s , Guangxi. Wenwu 1956:6:58-59  73.  Su B l n g q i 1978 Summary d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e N e o l i t h i c in our country's south-east coastal Wenwu 1978:3:40-42  county,  Meacham, W i l l i a m * 1978 T h e r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t . I n Sham Wan, Lamma Island. Hong Kong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , J o u r n a l Monograph I I I Ho Z h i 1956 R e p o r t o n r e c o n n a i s s a n c e a n d t e s t e x c a v a t i o n a t t h e N e o l i t h i c s i t e s o n a t r i b u t a r y o f t h e Pa R i v e r , Q i n g y u a n c o u n t y , Guangdong. Wenwu 1956:11:40-43 1957 R e p o r t o n r e c o n n a i s s a n c e o f t h e N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n Bao'an c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu 1957:6:8-15  TABLE 2.1 (continued)  1958 B r i e f a c c o u n t i n Guangdong,  found  56.  58.  63.  74.  1978 P r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n Wenwu 1978 :7: 16 : 22  of the S h i x i a  archaeology region.  culture.  75.  Wang K e r o n g 1978 T h e m a i n a c h i e v e m e n t s o f c u l t u r a l relics a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i n G u a n g x i s i n c e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f New C h i n a . Wenwu 1978:9:8-13  86.  Z e n g Guangy1 j 1965 A N e o l i t h i c s i t e o n t h e w e s t bank o f L a k e , i Mel 1 In, C h a o ' a n c o u n t y , G u a n g d o n g . K a o g u 1965 ; ! : 2:93-94  76 .  Wen Wu C o r r e s p o n d e n t 1979 Summary o f a symposium on t h e p o t t e r y w i t h Impressed d e c o r a t i o n from t h e r e g i o n s south of the Changjiang. Wenwu 1979:1:53-61  87 .  Zeng Q i 1981 M i c r o l i t h s f r o m t h e e a s t e r n f o o t K a o g u y u Wenwu 1981:4:1-12  77 .  78 .  79.  80.  Wu S h a n 1975 N o t e s o n t h e d e c o r a t i v e d e s i g n o f N e o l i t h i c c e r a m i c s o f t h e Huanghe a n d C h a n g j i a n g r i v e r v a l l e y s and South China. Wenwu 1975:5:59-67 Xu  Hengbin 1975 A w e s t e r n Zhou b r o n z e 'he' u n e a r t h e d c o u n t y , Guangdong. Wenwu 1975:11:94 1981  In X i n y i  P r e l i m i n a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e v o l u t i o n of g e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y i n Guangdong. Wenwu J i k a n 3:203-21 1  Yang Hao 1960 A b r i e f Xlnfeng  report river,  1961  82.  1983 A s t u d y o f t h e n a t i o n a l i t y I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e Maogang 1983: 12:47-49  I n t r o d u c i n g s e v e r a l b r o n z e s f o u n d 1n Guangdong 1n r e c e n t y e a r s . K a o g u 1961:11:599-600 of the a n c i e n t site. Wenwu  83.  Y a n g S h l t l n g a n d Chen Z h i j i e 1981 A d i s c u s s i o n o f I m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r i e s a t t h e Hedang s i t e , Foshan. Guangdong. Wenwu J i k a n 3:234-243  84 .  Y i n Da 1979 T h e N e o l 1 t h i c P e r i o d ( 2 n d e d . ) . Be 1j i ng: Shudlan  85.  88 .  198 1 Q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s t e p p e d a d z e , s h o u l d e r e d stone t o o l s , and "geometric impressed pottery". Wenwu J i k a n 3:106-109  89 .  1982 T h e p o t t e r y o f t h e S h i x i a Daxue 1982:2:31-39  Culture.  X i nhua  Y1n H u a n g c h a n g 1958 A p r e l i m i n a r y s u r v e y o f t h e p o t t e r y w i t h impressed geometrical p a t t e r n s i n the south-east d i s t r i c t of China. Kaogu Xuebao 1958 :1:75-86  TABLE 2.1 (continued)  Zhonqshan  90.  Zhu  F e i s u , P e n g R u c e & L1u C h e n g d e 1981 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e G e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y f r o m t h e S h i x i a s i t e , Maba. Wenwu J i k a n 3:225-233  91  Zou  Heng 1981 T h e I m p r e s s e d p o t t e r y s i t e s f r o m t h e J i a n g n a n r e g i o n , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e X i a Shang-Zhou c u l t u r e s . Wenwu J i k a n 3:46-51  on t h e N e o l i t h i c s i t e s a l o n g t h e Guangdong. Kaogu 1960:7:31-35  81 .  of Xiqiaoshan.  Asterisk  indicates  source  i s in English  16  Bard, S.M. 1975 C h u n g Horn Wan. Archaeo1og i ca1  J o u r n a 1 o f t h e Hong Soc i e t y V I : 9 - 2 5  B a r r e t t. C.J. 1973 T a r Wan r e c o n s i d e r e d . A r c h a e o 1 o q 1 c a I Soc i e t y  Kong  J o u r n a 1 o f t h e Hong IV:53-59  Kong  D a v i s . S.G. 8 M. T r e g e a r 1960 Man Kok T s u i : a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e 30, L a n t a u Hong K o n g . A s i a n P e r s p e c t i v e s IV: 182-212 F1nn, Dan i e 1 1958 A r c h a e o 1 o q i c a 1 F 1 n d s o n Lamma Hong K o n g U n i v e r i t y P r e s s . F r o s t . R.J. 1979 T u n g Wan ( S h e k Archaeo1og i ca1 Meacham, W i l l i a m 1980 The a r c h a e o l o g y 1981  Is1 a n d n e a r  Pik). Journal of Soc i e t y V I I I : 8 - 1 6  o f Hong  Kong.  t h e Hong  Archaeology  Island,  Hong  Kong .  Kong  33:4:16-23  Recent C14/TL d a t e s and a c u l t u r a l c h r o n o l o g y Kong's p r e h i s t o r y . J o u r n a 1 o f t h e Hong Kong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Soc i e t y IX:77-79  f o r Hong  Meacham, W i l l i a m ( e d ) 1977 An a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e a t Shek P i k : e x c a v a t i o n r e p o r t and r e l a t e d p a p e r s by W a l t e r S c h o f i e l d ( 1 8 8 8 - 1 9 6 8 ) . J o u r n a 1 M o n o g r a p h I, Hong K o n g A r c h a e o 1 o g i ca1 Soc i e t y 1978  Rogers. N.d.  Sham Wan. Lamma I s l a n d : a n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s t u d y . J o u r n a 1 M o n o g r a p h I I I , Hong K o n g A r c h a e o 1 o q i ca1 Soc i e t y P a m e l a Rumba 11 & V a l e r i e Ward S t o n e A d z e s o f Hong K o n g . Hong Hi s t o r y . O c c a s i o n a 1 P a p e r I_  Williams. Bernard 1979 H a i D e i Wan. Journa1 S o c i e t y VIII:27-51 1980 Po Yue Wan. Journa1 S o c i e t y IX: 14-22  TABLE 2.2:  of  of  t h e Hong  t h e Hong  Kong  Kong  Museum o f  Archaeologica1  Kong A r c h a e o 1 o g 1 c a 1  Bibliography of Hong Kong sites used i n this study  17  in the case of Hong Kong one i s not l i m i t e d to using sources,  published  as the primary data are a c c e s s i b l e by f o r e i g n  researchers.  T h i s being  the case,  to attempt a comprehensive  summary of Hong Kong Geometric s i t e s r e l y i n g s o l e l y on p u b l i s h e d sources  would not be doing  importantly, current  j u s t i c e to the t o p i c .  the aim of t h i s study  i s t o gather  information on the Geometric Horizon  make i t a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h .  More  and assess the  i n general, and to  In view of these  f a c t o r s I have  chosen to i n c o r p o r a t e only a few of the b e s t - d e t a i l e d and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Hong Kong Geometric s i t e s i n t o t h i s References to these Despite  s i t e s are contained  the impressive  amount of s p e c i f i c  i n Table  information a v a i l a b l e i s low, except i n the (eg. #33, Table  i s undoubtedly due i n l a r g e measure to the f a c t  are contained  2.2.  number of r e l e v a n t p u b l i c a t i o n s , the  most r e c e n t l y - p u b l i s h e d s i t e r e p o r t s  national-level  study.  j o u r n a l s were c o n s u l t e d .  2.1).  This  that only the  More d e t a i l e d r e p o r t s  i n P r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l - l e v e l p u b l i c a t i o n s  (U. F r a n k l i n , pers.comm.), but u n f o r t u n a t e l y these are not a v a i l a b l e outside  China.  Since the nature strong  of the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n has had a  i n f l u e n c e on the type of study  I w i l l be conducting i n  t h i s paper, a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the sources  i s i n order.  18  B.  DISCUSSION OF SOURCES  There are notable d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of data between Guangdong and Guangxi, as can be seen from Table breaks down the sources breadth  of coverage.  Provincial  a.  Guangdong 2  b.  of s i t e - s p e c i f i c data a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r  Regional  Regional  survey  Subregional  r e p o r t s of N e o l i t h i c  Single site  sites  Mi s c e l l a n e o u s sites  Province 6  Guangxi  2.3 which  16  26  7  Province  4  0  8  4  1  TABLE 2.3 P u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s on Lingnan p r e h i s t o r i c broken down by l e v e l of coverage.  sites,  have been p u b l i s h e d f o r a l l p a r t s of Guangdong, while no such reports exist  f o r Guangxi.  r e p o r t s i s very g e n e r a l . of  fieldwork, i n s t i t u t i o n s  listed.  General  The i n f o r m a t i o n contained A standard  format i s f o l l o w e d :  summaries of p h y s i c a l s i t e environment and  Finally, a list  and t y p i c a l  artifacts  of s i t e s l o c a t e d i n each county i s  given, u s u a l l y with an i n d i c a t i o n of whether the s i t e site,  dates  i n v o l v e d and c o u n t i e s covered are  a r t i f a c t s c o l l e c t e d are presented, illustrated.  i n the  is a hill  sanddune or shellmound, but not c o n t a i n i n g enough  locational  i n f o r m a t i o n to allow the s i t e to be p l a c e d on a map.  19  Occasional  i n f o r m a t i o n concerning  c o l l e c t e d from a s p e c i f i c the r e p o r t , but  the type of assemblage  s i t e can be gleaned  from the body of  f o r the vast m a j o r i t y of s i t e s l i s t e d  no  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r r e l a t i v e date or assemblage composition  is  given. Sub-regional t e s t excavation  summaries r e p o r t i n g survey  work within i n d i v i d u a l c o u n t i e s , r i v e r  or v a l l e y s threatened p r o j e c t s tend reports. the map  and o c c a s i o n a l l y systems,  by r e s e r v o i r or other c o n s t r u c t i o n  to be more d e t a i l e d than the r e g i o n a l  survey  They o f t e n c o n t a i n a t a b l e of s i t e s which i n d i c a t e s l o c a t i o n and major a r t i f a c t  Yang 1960). artifacts  types  found at each  (eg.  Once again though, only a general d e s c r i p t i o n of  i s u s u a l l y provided;  there  i s no d e t a i l on  individual  assemblages. Reports p e r t a i n i n g to i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s are the most numerous category quality.  of p u b l i s h e d  For example, although  sources,  and  the most v a r i a b l e in  six individual  r e p o r t s have been  p u b l i s h e d r e l a t i n g to the S h i x i a s i t e , there are s t i l l gaps in the data.  There i s , f o r example, no comprehensive  treatment of the h a b i t a t i o n l a y e r s ' remains. Zaogang s i t e  i s represented  By c o n t r a s t ,  and  excavated remains  i n i t (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1984).  In a d d i t i o n to the r e p o r t s which s p e c i f i c a l l y present  site  the  by a s i n g l e short r e p o r t , but a  great amount of d e t a i l on the excavation i s contained  great  information, a number of a r t i c l e s on  t o p i c s , such as Xu's  essay  set out  to  special  on the e v o l u t i o n of Geometric p o t t e r y  in Guangdong a l s o contain some s i t e - s p e c i f i c  information  (Xu  20  1981).  T h i s kind of data,  fulfilling  as i t does the need to  i l l u s t r a t e p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s of argument, i s fragmentary, but i t can at l e a s t provide p a r t i a l otherwise  Geometric s i t e s  in Appendix  identified  1, together  from these  with an  sources  The  published  s i t e s are as f o l l o w s :  information on these  are  i n d i c a t i o n of the type  fieldwork undertaken at each.  a.  be  unavailable.  The listed  information on a s i t e which may  b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  of  the  the vast m a j o r i t y of s i t e s are known only by name and  general landform a s s o c i a t i o n , b.  for a small number there  i s some i n f o r m a t i o n as to the  major ceramic types c o l l e c t e d from the s i t e , and the s i t e has c.  a few  been the s u b j e c t of excavation s i t e s can be roughly  for only a very  few  information on l o c a t i o n ,  work.  l o c a t e d on maps, and  r e l a t i v e dates of t h e i r assemblages can be d.  whether or not  the  estimated,  s i t e s i s there q u i t e d e t a i l e d f i e l d w o r k , and  c o l l e c t e d and  excavated  remains. I noted above that there have been no r e g i o n a l r e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d f o r Guangxi. Table  2.3  contain  only one  Indeed, of the sources  s i t e report and  two  tabulated in  subregional  information on Geometric s i t e s .  The  other  summaries sources  in  these c a t e g o r i e s p e r t a i n to regions o u t s i d e the area of d i s t r i b u t i o n or time p e r i o d of occurrence  of Geometric p o t t e r y .  However, in c o n t r a s t to Guangdong, an a r t i c l e has which s p e c i f i c a l l y  lists  the province, with an  been p u b l i s h e d  almost a l l the known Geometric s i t e s i n  i n d i c a t i o n of the major Geometric ceramic  21  p a t t e r n s found at e a c h . Geometric  2  Thus, i n the end r e s u l t , the l i s t  s i t e s in Guangxi i s a p p a r e n t l y more complete,  l e s s d e t a i l e d , than f o r Guangdong (Appendix  C.  although  2).  DISCUSSION OF SITE DATA 1.  There  Surface  Reconnaissance  i s an apparent d i f f e r e n c e  has been undertaken 1950's and e a r l y  Guangxi.  i n the amount of f i e l d w o r k that  i n each of the 2 p r o v i n c e s .  During the l a t e  1960's s u r f a c e reconnaissance f o r  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s was  in  of  c a r r i e d out throughout Guangdong and  In the case of Guangdong, the r e s u l t s were p u b l i s h e d  a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s between 1960  d e a l i n g with a d i f f e r e n t  and  1964,  each  r e g i o n of the p r o v i n c e .  article  In a  1979  a r t i c l e one of these regions (Eastern Guangdong) was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o c o a s t a l and  interior  segments, and these are the d i v i s i o n s  I have f o l l o w e d (Figure 2.1;  Table 2.4).  The seven  regions of  Guangdong a r e : I.  East Coast: comprising the northeast coast and lower  of  the Han R i v e r ,  II.  East R i v e r : comprising the drainage of the East R i v e r .  (Dongjiang) and to III.  reaches  i n t e r i o r v a l l e y s from the P e a r l d e l t a northeast  the J i a n g x i / F u j i a n  border;  Northern Region: the drainage of the North R i v e r  (Beijiang)  A l t h o u g h t h i s a r t i c l e p u r p o r t s to l i s t a l l known Geometric s i t e s , r e f e r e n c e to some a d d i t i o n a l s i t e s was found i n s u b r e g i o n a l r e p o r t s . These are l i s t e d i n Appendix 2. 2  FIGURE 2-.1:  Regional s u b d i v i s i o n s of Guangdong Province  ( r e f e r t o Table  2.4)  23  I .  Eastern  Coastal  Region G u a n g z h o u Sh1 Hua X i a n Jtangmen S h i Ka i p i ng Nanha i Panyu Sanshu i Shunde Ta 1 s h a n Xinhui Zhongshan Zhuha i  Chao'an Chaoyang Chengha1 Dabu Fengshun Ha 1 f e n g Hu i1 a i J i ex i J i eyang Lufeng Nan'ao Pun i ng Raop1ng Shantou S h i  I1 .  East  V.  Northern  Shaoguan S h i Shixing Wengyuan X1nfeng Yangshan Y i ngde  IV.  Central  Region  Bao'an Dongguan Doumen Enping Foshan Shi Gaohe  TABLE 2.4:  VI.  Southern Region D i anba i Ha i k a n g Huazhou L i a n j i ang Maoming S h i Su i x i Wuchuan Xinyi Xuwen Yangchun Yangj i ang Z h a n j 1 a n g Sh i  Region  Conghua Fogang Lechang L i a n X i an L i a n n a n Yaozu Z i z h i x i a n L i anp i ng L i a n s h a n Zhuangzu Yaozu Nanx i o n g 0 i ngyuan Ouj i a n g Renhua Ruyuan Yaozu Z i z h i x i a n  River Deq i ng Fengka i Gaoyao Guangn i ng Hua i j i L u o d i ng S i hu i X i nx i ng Yu'nan Yunf u Zhaoqing Shi  River Bo 1 uo Hep 1 n g Heyuan Hu i d o n g Hu1yang Huizhou Shi J i a o 1 i ng Longchuan Longmen Me i x i an P i ngyuan Wuhua X i ngn i ng Zengcheng Zi jin  III.  West  Zizhixian VII.  Ha i nan Ba i s h a B a o t i ng Changj fang Chengma i Dan X i a n Ding'an Dongfang Gaozhou Haikou Shi Ledong Lin'gao L i ngshu i 0 i ongha i Q i ongshan Qiongzhong Tunchang Wann i ng Wenchang Ya X i a n  Guangdong: Counties and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s l i s t e d by Region  24  and  i t s t r i b u t a r i e s northwards  Jiangxi/Hunan  from the P e a r l d e l t a to the  border;  IV. C e n t r a l Region:  i n c l u d i n g the P e a r l d e l t a and surrounding  lowland a r e a s ; V: West R i v e r : the drainage of the West River ( X i j i a n g ) and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s from the P e a r l d e l t a westwards to the Guangxi border; VI. Southern Region: comprising the southeast coast and L i a o n i n g Peninsula; V I I . Hainan  Island.  In Guangdong, Geometric except Hainan  s i t e s have been found i n a l l regions  Island.  Although Guangxi summaries d i v i d e the Province i n t o broad r e g i o n s : North/Northeast/Southeast,  two  and  South/Southwest/West, these r e g i o n s are nowhere p r e c i s e l y defined.  I t i s thus not p o s s i b l e to d i v i d e Guangxi on a  regional basis. Geometric  sites  On the other hand, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n Guangxi i s c l e a r l y  i n d i c a t e s the c o u n t i e s where Geometric  limited.  As F i g u r e  2.2  s i t e s have been found i n  Guangxi are c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the Northeast: i n the v a l l e y s of the G u i j i a n g , H e j i a n g , and L i n j i a n g which extend from the West River to the Hunan border p a r a l l e l i n g the boundary with Northern Guangdong, and  i n the Southeast: the drainages of the Q i n j i a n g ,  L i a n j i a n g and Rongjiang.  Only a s i n g l e l a t e Mi P e r i o d s i t e i s  l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t h i s area, i n the county of Wuming in c e n t r a l Guangxi. No  i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e regarding the survey methods  shaded c o u n t i e s c o n t a i n at l e a s t 1 Geometric s i t e  FIGURE 2.2:  Guangxi: Counties known to c o n t a i n Geometric P o t t e r y  sites  26  used, or the i n t e n s i t y or extent  of coverage, although s e v e r a l  p o i n t s can be i n f e r r e d from the Guangdong r e g i o n a l regarding  the s i t u a t i o n i n that  1. In g e n e r a l ,  province:  survey coverage was not i n t e n s i v e or complete.  For example, i n Mei and Dapu c o u n t i e s surveyed 2 c o u n t i e s All  reports  of eastern Guangdong 7 men  i n a one month p e r i o d , f i n d i n g 46 s i t e s .  s i t e s are c l u s t e r e d around contemporary towns and v i l l a g e s  (Huang & Yang 1965:159). 2. Not a l l c o u n t i e s  i n each region were surveyed, and not a l l  were surveyed with equal i n t e n s i t y . 3. In some c o u n t i e s confined  s i t e reconnaissance  seems to have been  to r i v e r v a l l e y s , and the lower h i l l - s l o p e s  bordering  them (eg. Huang & Yang 1965; Yang 1960). 4. In other threatened  counties,  by c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s , have been q u i t e i n t e n s i v e l y  surveyed, while  the r e s t of the county may not have been  i n v e s t i g a t e d at a l l .  Two examples are the r e s e r v o i r p r o j e c t s i n  northwest Bao'an county River  i n Qingyuan Table  l i m i t e d zones only, such as areas  (Mo 1957) and on a t r i b u t a r y of the Pa  (Mo 1956).  2.5, which has been drawn from information  in the C e n t r a l Region reconnaissance P r o v i n c i a l Museum  1960:107), l i s t s  which that report was based. r e g i o n a l reconnaissance  report  contained  (Guangdong  the reconnaissance  work on  I t i s a t y p i c a l example of  coverage.  Of the survey p r o j e c t s  only one (March 1957) was a concerted  effort  listed  to cover the whole  r e g i o n , and i t seems to have been a cursory attempt: the t o t a l d u r a t i o n of fieldwork was one month, and i n t o t a l only 54 s i t e s  27  Location  Date  Number o f sites  7, 1956  Bao'an fc Dongguan Counties  8,  northern  1956  (1,1957,  test  11  Guangzhou S h i  excavations  Fieldworkers C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade of Guangdong B u r e a u o f C u l t u r e ; H i s t o r y D e p t . , Zhongshan U n i v .  9  Zhongshan U n i v e r s i t y ; CPAM G u a n g z h o u  a t above s i t e s ) CPAM Guangdong; G u a n g z h o u C i t y Museum  10,  1956  northwest County  ( 1 , 1957: t e s t  Bao'an  excavations  9  C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade of Guangdong B u r e a u o f C u l t u r e  a t above s i t e s )  (same  personnel)  1956-1957  Longdong a r e a , Panyu County  17  Longdong. P r i m a r y School teacher & students, rechecked by Guangdong B u r e a u o f C u l t u r e  3, 1957  entire Bao'an  54  Cadres Archaeology T r a i n i n g C l a s s , o r g a n i z e d by Guangdong Bureau of C u l t u r e  7-8,  1958  Panyu County  14  CPAM G u a n g z h o u  late  1958  Xiqiaoshan, Nanhai County  14  region, except £. Dongguan  .  Zhongshan U n i v e r s i t y , a n d Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum  TABLE 2.5: A r c h a e o l o g i c a l reconnaissance work c a r r i e d out i n the C e n t r a l lowlands Region of Guangdong, l a t e 1950's. (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1960:107)  were l o c a t e d .  By c o n t r a s t , 74 s i t e s were recorded by other more  i n t e n s i v e surveys conducted  i n only 5 c o u n t i e s of the same  region. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l reconnaissance  work was c a r r i e d out i n  Guangxi d u r i n g the same p e r i o d as i n Guangdong, but a 1981 report  i n d i c a t e s that i t was not comprehensive: not a l l c o u n t i e s  were surveyed, in t h e i r  and the inexperience of the f i e l d w o r k e r s r e s u l t e d  failure  Geometric) s i t e s  to recognize and record many  (particularly  (Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade,  28  1981:244).  The  same comments r e g a r d i n g extent and  i n t e n s i t y of  coverage made f o r Guangdong seem a l s o to apply to Guangxi. D e t a i l s on the t o t a l number of p r e h i s t o r i c in Guangdong i s provided by He approximately had  900  prehistoric  been i d e n t i f i e d  sites  650)  Of these  By  ("ancient  in the p r o v i n c e .  i n c l u d e cemetery s i t e s . (approximately  (1981:218).  900  1979 cultural  were i d e n t i f i e d with the Geometric  have information i s 60.  According  sites")  the m a j o r i t y  t o t a l number of Geometric s i t e s  prehistoric  recorded  T h i s number does not  A l l but 50 or 60 were known only from surface The  sites  reconnaissance.  in Guangxi f o r which  to a 1979  ("primitive culture") s i t e s  Horizon.  r e p o r t , over  in Guangxi  P r o p e r t i e s Brigade  p r o p o r t i o n of Geometric  The  900  (again not i n c l u d i n g  cemetery s i t e s ) have been recorded 1979:339).  we  (Guangxi C u l t u r a l  in Guangxi i s much s m a l l e r , as i s to be expected  sites  from t h e i r more  l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n compared to Guangdong. These problems, combined with the patchy r e s u l t s d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y may  p u b l i c a t i o n of  introduce an i n e s t i m a b l e degree  of b i a s i n t o any attempted s t u d i e s of r e g i o n a l s i t e p a t t e r n i n g that might be based on the p u b l i s h e d data. however t h a t l i m i t e d ;  It i s s t i l l possible  s u b r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s could be attempted i f  information o.f survey methods and more d e t a i l e d f i e l d data c o u l d be obtained.  The  areas which are c u r r e n t l y best represented  such study are l i s t e d  i n Table  2.6.  In summary, c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e data can not be used for d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of r e g i o n a l s i t e p a t t e r n i n g d u r i n g Geometric p e r i o d .  They may  the  however be u s e f u l i n suggesting  for  29  AREA  REFERENCES  COMMENTS  Mel & Dapu C o u n t 1es  Extensive  Halfeng  I n t e n s i v e c o v e r a g e of v e r y l i m i t e d a r e a , a r t i f a c t r e m a i n s h e l d a t F e n g P i n g Shan Museum, Hong Kong. F i e l d n o t e s l o s t . Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i s t s h a v e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d some s i t e s , but d e t a i l s a r e not y e t p u b l i s h e d .  57  Pajiang tributary. Qingyuan County  Intensive reservoir  s u r f a c e s u r v e y In a d v a n c e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . Very l i m i t e d area.  61  Xlnfeng  Extensive  area,  80  Peninsula  River  area  area,  not  very  not  very  intensive  intensive  coverage.  coverage.  55  F e 1 ' e l i ng a r e a . Guangzhou Shi  Very  limited  area,  intensive  coverage.  Bao'an County. reservoir project  Very  limited  area,  intensive  coverage.  Nanhai  F a i r l y i n t e n s i v e reconnaissance f o r shellmound s i t e s . L i m i t e d area around Xiqiaoshan a l s o very i n t e n s i v e l y surveyed.  32.33,50  A c c o r d i n g t o map c o n t a i n e d i n S h i x i a s i t e r e p o r t a number o f s i t e s h a v e b e e n f o u n d 1n t h e I m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y o f S h i x i a . No f u r t h e r information yet published.  71  Colony-wide Intensive survey c u r r e n t l y u n d e r w a y . No r e p o r t s y e t p u b l i s h e d .  S.Bard, p e r s . coram.'  County  Maba, Quj i a n g  County  Hong Kong  Colony  TABLE 2.6: Areas of concentrated Guangdong Province  possibilities  reconnaissance  for f u r t h e r t e s t i n g , and  58  work i n  these w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  in the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s .  2.  Excavations  He Jisheng r e p o r t s that 50 to 60 a n c i e n t s i t e s i n Guangdong, not i n c l u d i n g cemeteries, had excavation by  1979  been t e s t e d or undergone  (1981:218).  Less than  contain s t r a t i f i e d c u l t u r a l deposits.  full-scale  10 s i t e s had proved  to  If we assume that the  p r o p o r t i o n of Geometric s i t e s i n the excavated  sample i s roughly  30  constant  with the o v e r a l l sample, then c i r c a  s i t e s have been excavated.  The  s i t e s which are reported to have  been the subject of extensive excavations or two  t e s t p i t s ) are l i s t e d  F i g u r e 2.3.  Not  Also i n c l u d e d in Table b u r i a l s i t e s , comprising identified  in Table  a l l have had  2.7  are  31 graves,  (1981:213).  2.7.  The  was  Extensive  one:  on date.  e a r l y Iron  which are a l l that can out of the t o t a l of  although  Age  be 38  in Raoping  the only bronze  to Guangxi i s q u i t e bleak.  c o u l d f i n d r e f e r e n c e to the t e s t excavation  Quanzhou County.  one  1981:217).  s i t u a t i o n with regard  (Liyushan)  plotted  A p a i r of cemeteries  a s i n g l e cje (He  s i t e s : Chakouyan  and  10 Bronze and  County are a l s o counted as Bronze Age, recovered  ( i . e . more than  s i t e r e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d to  from the p u b l i s h e d sources  mentioned by He  35-40 Geometric  I  of only 2 Geometric  in Fuchuan County, and L u j i a c u n i n excavations  are reported  from only  the Warring States P e r i o d b u r i a l s i t e at Y i n s h a n l i n g ,  P i n g l e County. published 1978).  F o r t u n a t e l y , a d e t a i l e d s i t e report has  f o r the l a t t e r  (Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s  D e t a i l s of the former two  p i e c e d together  t e s t excavations  from secondary sources  P r o p e r t i e s Brigade  1979;  been the recovery in order  Lingnan and  can only  be  (Guangxi C u l t u r a l  The  r e p o r t s d i s c u s s e s methods  primary aim of most appears to have  of r e l a t i v e and  absolute d a t i n g  that the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the d i f f e r e n t  Geometric Horizon,  Brigade  1981).  None of the p u b l i s h e d excavation or goals of e x c a v a t i o n .  been  information,  stages  of  the  not only w i t h i n Lingnan, but a l s o between  neighbouring  r e g i o n s , can be c l a r i f i e d .  Thus only  31  SITE/COUNTY  DESCRIPTION  PUBLISHED INFORMATION  REFERENCES  good  *65,  Ba i s h i p 1 n g s h a n , S h l x i n g County  l a t e Ml P e r i o d si te  Chengplcun, S h l x i n g County  Chevron Soft kiln site  Period  no  report  90  D1 n g d a p u s h a n : '. Taz1J1nshan, Raoping County  Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l Period ( l a t e Shang - W e s t e r n Zhou) cemeteries  no  report  49  G a o d 1 y u a n H 1, S i h u i County  Kui  no  report  49  Hedang, Foshan  s t r a t i f i ed s i t e : 2 layers, both a r e e a r l y to middle Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l Per i od  partial  strat(fied site: a- l a t e M i d d l e N e o l i t h i c (pre-Geometri c) b- C h e v r o n S o f t P o t t e r y Period  Sh1  J i n1ans i , Zengcheng County  c-  Period  Mi  habitation  Pottery  grave  Period  site  report  reports  *83,  48  s i t e report contains only general inform a t i o n ; more d e t a i1 on ceramics i n r e f e r e n c e #79  *64,  79  49  Lanmashan, Hua1j i C o u n t y  Kui  Period  grave  no  Luodlng H 1 Luodlng County  Kui  Period  grave  no s i t e r e p o r t , p a r t i a l deta11 i n r e f e r e n c e #49  49  L u o d i n g #2 Luodlng County  Kui  Period  grave  no  report  49  Luoyanshan, Deqing County  Mi  Period  grave  deta11ed s 1 t e report  34  Maogang, Gaoyao  Mi  Period  (?) habitation  detai1ed report  37  MatipIng, Ouj1ang  site  County  County  Chevron Soft Pottery habitation site  Period  TABLE 2.7: Excavated sites i n Guangdong  15  report  good  site  site  report  14  32  SITE/COUNTY  DESCRIPTION  Ni a n y u z h u a n Q u j l a n g County  Chevron Soft Pottery habitation site  N1aodanshan, S1hu1 County  Ku1  Pushaoshan, Ouj i a n g C o u n t y Shixia, Oujlang  County  Shu 1kou, P1ngyuan  County  Period  report  no  90  stratified site: a- p r e - G e o m a t r i c t o e a r l y Geometr1c b- C h e v r o n S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d c- K u i P e r i o d  several partial r e p o r t s , no comprehens1ve s i t e report  36,71.73. 89,90  Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l k 1 1 n s i te  detalled s1te report  31  detai1ed report  site  35  detalled report  site  30  Mi P e r i o d  Period  Mi  Period  cemetery  X i gua11ng. Zengcheng County  Mi  Period  habitation  X1q1aoshan, Nanhai County  pre-Geometr1c & Chevron P e r i o d l l t h l c q u a r r y and workshop s i t e s : L o c a l i t i e s & #11 c o n t a i n G e o m e t r i c rema1ns  TABLE 2.7  14  site  stratified site: Chevron P e r i o d  Tonggugang, Guangn i ng County  Zoumagang, S h a o g u a n Sh1  good  28  grave  late  County  REFERENCES  deta11ed s 1 t e report  Period  Songshan, Zhaoqing Shi  Zaogang, Nanhai  PUBLISHED INFORMATION  grave  report  good  site  site  report  15  genera 1 1 n f o r m a t 1 on  32, 50  Chevron Soft Pottery or Transitional Period habitation site  good  site  report  33  Chevron Soft Pottery habitation site  good  site  report  14  (continued)  Period  #7  O  50  100  fcm.  Key Geometric s i t e Gecmetric b u r i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e of County containing unlocatable site  Key BS CKW DQ HD KDW HJ JLS y.G V.KT NY Z FYW SK SP  =  = = = = = = = =  to  abbreviations  Baishipingshan C h u n g Horn Wan Deqing Hed'ang K a i D e i Wan Huai j i Jinlansi Maogang Han Kck T s u i Nianyuzhuan Po Yue Wan Shuikou Shek P i k  SI. SX TGG XGL XQS  = = = = =  Shan l.'an Shixia Tonggugang Xigualing Xiqiaoshan  ZG ZKG ZQ  = Zaogang = Zcu-agang - Scr.cshan  FIGURE 2.3: L o c a t i o n of excavated Geometric s i t e s Bronze Age b u r i a l s i n Guangdong and Guangxi  and  34  those  s i t e s with c l e a r s t r a t i g r a p h y have been e x t e n s i v e l y  excavated.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of such s i t e s seems to be the main  purpose of t e s t e x c a v a t i o n s . s u f f i c i e n t economic and  A second goal has been to gather  social  the l o c a l Geometric stages  i n f o r m a t i o n to a c c u r a t e l y p l a c e  i n the a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l  M a r x i s t e v o l u t i o n a r y scheme.  D i s c u s s i o n of these  in the  three  the  i n t e r n a l sequence, r e l a t i o n s h i p s with neighbouring  and  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of developmental stages, occupies  the d i s c u s s i o n s of the Geometric Horizon  topics: areas,  the bulk of  in the Chinese  literature. The  type of data r e t r i e v e d i n the course  r e p o r t e d in the l i t e r a t u r e priorities. clearly mid  The  i s c e n t r e d on these  of e x c a v a t i o n  and  excavation  f i r s t has been approached by s e l e c t i o n of  stratified  s i t e s f o r extensive, e x c a v a t i o n .  1970's radiocarbon d a t i n g techniques  used at Lingnan s i t e s .  Other techniques,  such as Thermoluminescence  has proved l a r g e l y unusable in Hong Kong, and  t h i s might account  in Guangdong (Meacham 1981:77).  U n f o r t u n a t e l y because of t h i s emphasis on v e r t i c a l . than h o r i z o n t a l excavation  s t r a t e g i e s the type of  .needed f o r s p a t i a l s t u d i e s (both i n t r a - and yet been generated  the  have been i n c r e a s i n g l y  thermoluminescence have not been employed.  for i t s lack of use  Since  rather  information  i n t e r - s i t e ) has  not  in the Lingnan r e g i o n .  Without d i r e c t access  to the a r t i f a c t s themselves i t i s  impossible to evaluate the c o n c l u s i o n s made by the Chinese from such excavated succeeding  data.  chapters,  What can be done, and w i l l be in i s to evaluate the  i n f e r r e d p a t t e r n s of  35  development i n l i g h t  of what data are a v a i l a b l e and i n l i g h t of  c u r r e n t methodology i n Western archaeology. used as a b a s i s for generating  This w i l l  then be  hypotheses for f u r t h e r  investigation.  SITE  DESCRIPTION  REFERENCES  C h u n g Horn Wan, Hong Kong I s .  stratified site: a- p r e - g e o m e t r 1 c , M i d d l e N e o l i t h i c l e v e l b- C h e v r o n T r a n s i t i o n a l t o K u i P e r i o d  B a r d 1975  H a i D e i Wan, Lantau I s .  stratified a- C h e v r o n b- C h e v r o n possibly a  W i l l lams 1979  Man Kok T s u i Lantau I s .  several l o c a l i t i e s , possibly a c t i v i t y areas. Chevron Soft to Kui P e r i o d  Po  stratified habitation site: a- C h e v r o n S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d b- K u i P e r i o d  W i l l lams 1980  Sham Wan, Lamma I s .  strat i fied habitation site; several 1 o c a 1i t i es p o s s i b l y s e p a r a t e activity areas: a- p r e - g e o m e t r 1 c , M i d d l e N e o l i t h i c b- C h e v r o n T r a n s i t i o n a l t o K u i P e r i o d c- H i s t o r i c P e r i o d  Meacham. e d . 1978  Shek P i k . Lantau I s .  i . Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d b u r i a l s i i . stratified habitation site: a- C h e v r o n S o f t P o t t e r y P e r i o d b- C h e v r o n T r a n s i t i o n a l t o K u i P e r i o d  Meacham. e d . 1977  T a i Wan Lamma I s .  several  F i n n 1958,  1  Yue Wan, Cheung Chau  activity  s i t e , s t r a t a v e r y mixed: Soft Pottery Period T r a n s i t i o n a l to Kui Period; burial site  localities, areas:  probably  separate Pottery  separate  Kui Period  Davis  &  Barrett  Tregear 1960  1973  'To f a c i l i t a t e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s , s i t e names a n d l o c a t i o n s i n Hong Kong h a v e b e e n r o m a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e common f o r m s u s e d i n t h e J o u r n a l o f t h e Hong K o n g A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y . S i n c e t h e s e a r e r o m a n i z a t 1 o n s o f C a n t o n e s e p r o n o u n c 1 a11 o n t h e y a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h i s s t u d y b y s e p a r a t i o n a n d I n i t i a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f e a c h c h a r a c t e r . Thus jf%> J j l r l s r o m a n i z e d a s Chung Horn Wan, not Chongkanwan. C» ' j .  TABLE 2.8; Hong Kong p r e h i s t o r i c  The 2.8) and  s i t e s included i n t h i s  study,  s e v e r a l Hong Kong s i t e s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study  (Table  have a l l been the s u b j e c t s of f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e site  r e p o r t s have been p u b l i s h e d  f o r each.  excavation,  As i s the case  36  for Guangdong, the primary  goals of excavation to date (where  these were s t a t e d ) were to recover s t r a t i g r a p h i c  information.  In terms of the methods and s t r a t e g i e s employed the Hong Kong excavations are comparable to the Guangdong work. The c u r r e n t colony-wide  survey  i s a necessary  first  a p p l y i n g methods of r e g i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n the Lingnan it  step  area, and  i s to be hoped that t h i s d i r e c t i o n w i l l be continued i n  f u t u r e excavation work.  37  III. A.  CHRONOLOGY OF THE LINGNAN GEOMETRIC HORIZON  DISCUSSION OF RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY  The Geometric  Horizon  i n Lingan extends  beginning of the Late N e o l i t h i c through  3  roughly from the  (between 3000 & 2500 B.C.)  the Bronze and e a r l y Iron Ages, with a s i n g l e and  d i s t i n c t i v e type of geometric  ceramic  decoration continuing into  the e a r l y h i s t o r i c Western Han p e r i o d (post 220 B.C.).  As I  i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , I s h a l l be t r e a t i n g only the p r e h i s t o r i c phases i n t h i s  study.  Excavation of s e v e r a l s t r a t i f i e d  s i t e s and the a p p l i c a t i o n  of radiocarbon d a t i n g i n Guangdong and Hong Kong i n recent years have r e s u l t e d  i n the c h r o n o l o g i c a l and t y p o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of  s e v e r a l p e r i o d s w i t h i n the Geometric  Horizon  i n t h i s area.  These stages are p r i m a r i l y d e f i n e d by the dominant  geometric  m o t i f s used on the ceramics, but they a l s o have s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms of other developments i n m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e and s o c i a l and economic l i f e .  In t h i s chapter  I s h a l l deal only with the  s u c c e s s i v e changes i n ceramics and other a r t i f a c t s which the b a s i s f o r r e l a t i v e d a t i n g , and the radiocarbon data Lingnan  form from  s i t e s which has begun to t i e the t y p o l o g i c a l sequence to  an absolute time  scale.  Three r e c e n t l y - p u b l i s h e d Chinese  sources provide  t y p o l o g i c a l d a t i n g sequences f o r the Guangdong Geometric  Horizon  Use of the term ' N e o l i t h i c ' by the a r c h a e o l o g i s t s of t h i s region connotes the presence of p o l i s h e d stone t o o l s , and does not have s u b s i s t e n c e i m p l i c a t i o n s . 3  38  (Table 3.1).  Xu (1981) o r i g i n a l l y presented h i s at the 1978  conference on the Impressed  P o t t e r y C u l t u r e s of South China.  He  d e f i n e d 4 stages i n the l i f e - c y c l e of the Horizon i n Guangdong, from  ' B i r t h ' through  developmental  'Decline'.  In t h i s scheme the i n t e r n a l  aspects of the Guangdong sequence are s t r e s s e d .  The major respect i n which Xu's o u t l i n e d i f f e r s from ones i s h i s d e f i n i t i o n of an I n i t i a l Geometric  subsequent  stage i n the  E a r l y and Middle N e o l i t h i c , represented by check-stamped ceramics.  T h i s stage i s not i n c l u d e d as part of the Geometric  Horizon proper by other w r i t e r s . The last  stages d e f i n e d by He (1981) a r e c o n s i s t e n t with the  three p e r i o d s d e f i n e d by Xu, except that a t e r m i n a l stage  i s added: the p e r i o d of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c stamped hard p o t t e r y of Western Han.  'check and s e a l '  In other r e s p e c t s the  temporal boundaries of He's sequence c o i n c i d e with those of Xu. The Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n the Shuikou (1983a) p r o v i d e s yet another d a t i n g sequence. long  'Developmental'  site  report  In t h i s case the  p e r i o d i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e : Late  N e o l i t h i c , Shang p e r i o d , and Western Zhou p e r i o d .  This d i v i s i o n  i s based on a f i n e r breakdown of changes i n ceramic f a b r i c and s u r f a c e d e c o r a t i o n , f o r the purpose the date of the Shuikou specific Geometric  site.  of more p r e c i s e l y  These ceramic  defining  f e a t u r e s are not  t o the Shuikou s i t e , but are found i n a l l Guangdong sites.  Hong Kong, s i t u a t e d at about  the mid-point of the Guangdong  c o a s t l i n e has been the scene of much a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i n the past 20 - odd y e a r s .  The geometric  sequence i n t h i s  limited  GUANGDONG Xu,  PROVINCE  HONG KONG  1981  He,  I N I T I A L STAGE [Early-Middle  Neolithic]  (true  Horizon)  Geometric  DEVELOPMENT [Late N e o l 1 t h i c to e a r l y E a s t e r n Zhou: c a . 2 7 0 0 / 3 0 0 0 - 700 BC]  CHEVRON  FLORESCENCE [ l a t e S p r i n g & Autumn t o e a r l y Warring States: c a . 7 0 0 - 400 BC]  'KUI'  DECLINE [mid t o l a t e W a r r i n g States: c a . 4 0 0 - 200 BC]  'MI'  1981  STAGE  STAGE  Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1983a  LATE N E O L I T H I C [ c a . 2 5 0 0 - 1500 BC]  SHANG PERIOD WESTERN ZHOU  EARLY BRONZE AGE [ c a . 1 7 0 0 - 10O0  PERIOD  SPRING S AUTUMN  STATES  PERIOD  PERIOD  LATE BRONZE AGE [ c a . 1 0 0 0 - 400  PROVINCE  Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade, 1981  1981  LATE NEOLITHIC  WARRING STAGE  Meacham,  GUANGXI  CHECK-STAMPED POTTERY [Late Neol1thic]  BC]  BC]  'KUI' STAGE [ W e s t e r n Zhou t o S p r i n g & Autumn  'MI' STAGE [Warring  CHECK & SEAL STAGE [ W e s t e r n Han]  TABLE 3.1: Previously suggested chronological subdivisions of the Lingnan Geometric Horizon  States  period]  period]  40  area i s consequently w e l l - s t u d i e d and makes an comparative  important  example to the Guangdong sequences,  which are based  on data from s i t e s s c a t t e r e d over a wide a r e a .  The most recent  c h r o n o l o g i c a l o u t l i n e f o r the Hong Kong p r e h i s t o r i c by Meacham (1981). Geometric  i s provided  Meacham d e f i n e s the s u b d i v i s i o n s of the  Horizon i n the t r a d i t i o n a l N e o l i t h i c / B r o n z e Age  terminology  .  The main d i f f e r e n c e with the Guangdong schemes,  apart from minor v a r i a t i o n s i n a b s o l u t e dates, i s h i s d e f i n i t i o n of a separate ' E a r l y Bronze Age' 'Shang' and  'Western Zhou' stages of the Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l  Museum sequence. subdivision  p e r i o d equating with the  As i s the case with the l a t t e r , Meacham's  i s based on a f i n e r breakdown of the ceramic  sequence d u r i n g the 'Developmental' Meacham hypothesizes the concomitant  stage .  Furthermore,  beginnings of  d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , hence h i s use of the term  metal-working  'Bronze  Age'  (1982:78-79) . F i n a l l y , Table 3.1  i l l u s t r a t e s the c o r r e l a t i o n between the  Guangdong and Guangxi Geometric.  An  initial  phase of coarse  check-stamped p o t t e r y s i m i l a r to Guangdong's pre-geometric i s found a l s o i n Guangxi,  l a s t i n g through to the Bronze Age.  l i g h t of present knowledge, the e a r l i e s t Geometric Guangxi corresponds to Guangdong's Kui P e r i o d .  In  pottery in  However, the  e a r l i e s t geometric here has not been d e f i n e d by e x c a v a t i o n or radiocarbon d a t i n g , thus i t i s p o s s i b l e that the lower boundary might  be pushed f u r t h e r back by f u t u r e r e s e a r c h .  The  two  p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s of the Geometric  currently defined in  Guangxi are e q u i v a l e n t to the l a t t e r  2 p e r i o d s of the Guangdong  41  Geometric, and The  are almost i d e n t i c a l  chronological  incorporates excavation  in content.  scheme I s h a l l use  in t h i s  f e a t u r e s of a l l of the above.  In l i g h t of  r e s u l t s , the s u b d i v i s i o n of the  is well j u s t i f i e d .  It i s a l s o more u s e f u l for  studying  Although i t i s u s e f u l  to d e f i n e the temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Zhongyuan ( C e n t r a l P l a i n s ) and  c u l t u r e s of Lingnan, to use designate  the Lingnan p e r i o d s  archaeologists t h e i r own other  the p r e h i s t o r i c  terminology to a c t u a l l y  i s inappropriate.  As many Chinese  have noted, the Lingnan Geometric c u l t u r e s have  regions  of China i s yet to be p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d 1979,  (Wen  Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1979).  Age  designations  defined,  and  may  s e n s i t i v e and  surface p a t t e r n i n g do  He's  Geometric a c c o r d i n g  example, and  be  very  poorly-  Changes in  seem to be the most  generally-applicable chronological  I have followed  presents  scale.  i n d i c a t o r , thus  named the s u b d i v i s i o n s of  to the major ceramic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  the major o u t l i n e s of t h i s sequence.  remainder of t h i s chapter I s h a l l present  the  beginnings of  bronze-use in Lingnan are s t i l l  vary on a s u b - r e g i o n a l  ceramic f a b r i c and  The  the  use  for a scheme designed to  g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to the Lingnan r e g i o n . bronze-working and  Wu  On  hand I do not wish to f o l l o w Meacham's example and  Neolithic/Bronze  3.2  historic  independent developmental c y c l e whose r e l a t i o n s h i p to  Correspondent other  the northern  recent  'Developmental' stage  developments i n such areas as technology.  c u l t u r e s of the  study  In  the  remains, and  excavated s i t e assemblages which have c o n t r i b u t e d  Table  the  in more d e t a i l  s p e c i f i c c h r o n o l o g i c a l changes i n the m a t e r i a l  the  the  to d e f i n i n g  CERAMIC  PERIOD  APPROXIMATE DATES  CULTURAL  [PRE-GEOMETRIC: CHECK S INCISED CHEVRON]  3600-3000  B C .  L a t e M i d d l e N e o l 1 t h i c S h i x i a p e r i o d 1&2 g r a v e s ; to i n i t i a l Late Jinlansi lower l a y e r Neo1f t h i c  CHEVRON 1 chevron & checkimpressed s o f t pottery  3000-2500  B C .  Early  CHEVRON 2 c h e v r o n 8 complex1 i n e check, s o f t pot t e r y  2700-1000  B C .  CHEVRON 3 soft-hard pottery t r a n s i t i on  Late  PERIOD  Late  Neolithic  Neol1thic  REPRESENTATIVE  Mat i p 1 n g S h i x i a lower l a y e r Period 3 graves  &  Zoumagang Po Yue Wan Sham Wan, l a y e r Cb S h i x i a , middle layer & Period 4 graves J i n l a n s i , middle layer  Late Neol1thic to E a r l y B r o n z e Age  Hedang, l a y e r s Dongkengnan Shakengnan Shuikou  S h i x i a , upper l a y e r Sham Wan, l a y e r Ca  KUI  800-500 B C  L a t e B r o n z e Age ( c a . S p r i n g & Autumn p e r 1od)  MI  500-200 B C  Late Bronze to X i gua11ng E a r l y I r o n Age Ba i s h 1 p i n g s h a n (ca. Warring S t a t e s ) J i n l a n s i , upper Maogangcun  TABLE 3.2:  SITES  Temporal subdivisions of the Lingnan Geometric Horizon  2&3  layer  43  them. B.  CHRONOLOGICAL SUBDIVISIONS OF THE 1.  Initial,  LINGNAN GEOMETRIC HORIZON  Pre-geometric Phase  P o t t e r y bearing check-stamped and  i n c i s e d chevron p a t t e r n i n g  been unearthed at 2 N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n Guangdong — Jinlansi  (Xu  of the f i r s t  T h i s seems to be the  immediate  impressed geometric p o t t e r y in the  area  1981:204). 2.  An  S h i x i a and  -- d a t i n g to the t e r m i n a l Middle N e o l i t h i c , or e a r l y  Late N e o l i t h i c (Figure 3.1). precursor  has  Chevron & Check-impressed Soft Pottery  o v e r l a p p i n g chevron p a t t e r n i n g dominates the  geometric p o t t e r y of t h i s p e r i o d , with simple a l s o prominent.  (Chevron-1)  impressed  check p a t t e r n i n g  Geometric p o t t e r y as a whole c o n s t i t u t e s only a  small f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l ceramic assemblage  (Table  Other geometric p a t t e r n s present  include  in t h i s stage  comb, d o u b l e - c i r c l e , w h i r l p o o l and  net  (Figure  I n d i v i d u a l v e s s e l s are t y p i c a l l y decorated  3.3). basket,  3.2). with only  one  geometric motif; p a t t e r n s are t y p i c a l l y a p p l i e d i n a haphazard, i r r e g u l a r manner, hence the d e s i g n a t i o n  "overlapping  chevron".  There are only a small number of v e s s e l forms, most common are j a r s , open bowls (both round-based, and and  coarse-tempered potstands.  on high  Remains of t r i p o d  ring-feet), ding  have been found at e a r l y s i t e s of t h i s p e r i o d such as  vessels  44  1-4.  Jinlansi  5-13. FIGURE  lower  Shixia, 3.1  Incised  Nianyuzhuan The  base  and  fabric  of  (Xu  lower  geometric  1981:204)  layer  ceramics  Shixia  in Qujiang  of  geometric  the  and  low-fired  (maximum  the  exception  of  tempered  layer  ceramics  ca.  800°  weave-type of  this  (Zhu from  county" ceramics  C).  et  a l .  Guangdong  (Figure  sites.  3.3).  i s fine-tempered,  Geometric  impressions)  1981:226)  i s not  patterning found  on  soft  (with coarse-  period.  " V e s s e l s f r o m P e r i o d 1 t o 3 b u r i a l s a t S h i x i a show many s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s which a r e unique i n Guangdong, but which have c l o s e a f f i n i t i e s to v e s s e l forms found at s i t e s i n J i a n g x i , and particularly i n the lower reaches of the Yangtze (Su 1978). Only a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the b u r i a l c e r a m i c s a r e c o m p a r a b l e i n form and d e c o r a t i o n t o t h o s e from the h a b i t a t i o n l a y e r s , or from other Geometric s i t e s i n the p r o v i n c e . S i n c e t h e more v a r i e d forms a r e not t y p i c a l of o t h e r G e o m e t r i c s i t e s t h e y have not been i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s p e r i o d . The Shixia c e r a m i c s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r b e l o w .  SITE  NAME  FABRIC Coarse  (X) Fine  hardIsof t  Other  SURFACE DECORATION: Geome t r i e of c o a r s e | o f f i n e  total Chevron 1 Shixia (lower)  0 42.5  MatIplng  0 88.4  Chevron 2 Shixla (middle)  0 33.3  Jlnlansl (middle)  0 75.4  Chevron 3 Hedang (lower)  of  100 57 .5 too 11.S  21.1  19.9|80.1 71.4  7.6  10.2  E5.2|24.6 89.8  82 . 7  20 80 IS.5  Shuikou •  Kui Period Zalguangdlng'  nil P e r i o d X1gua11ng  1 . c h e v r o n , 2.comp1 e x - l i n e 3.thundercloud: check  n. r .  n. r .  1.chevron. 2 . t h u n d e r c l o u d 3.compI e x - 1 i n e c h e c k  49. s  1.chevron. 2.chevron & 3 . c h e c k ; 11ne  49 a  1.chevron 213.chevron check; t i n e  71 S  23.5  1.check. 2.t h u n d e r c 1 o u d  mln. maj. m i n o r 1ty  major 1ty  check  65.1 50.2  48.7  thunder  56.0 50.2  100  &  thunder:  68 3  mln.  ma). m l n . maj .  93 2  6.8  mln.  ma J . m l n . maj .  77 .8  22 .5  Baishipingshan  1 .chevron  61 .31  52.1 14 .8  Patterns  38.69  3.6  40.2|59.8 S9.S  Major  n. r .  1  64.2  25 e  (upper)  n. r .  92 .3  100 GS.7  100 21.0  NonGeome t r i e  total  7.7  ...  CA)  (coarse) 1.Incised. 2.bowstring ( f i n e s o f t ) 1 . c h e c k . 2.weave ( f i n e h a r d ) 1 .ku1. 2 . t h u n d e r c 1 o u d , ml . c i r c l e , c h e c k  1 . n ± . 2.check,  3. t n c 1 s e d  1 . mi_.  3 . 1 ne 1 s e d  2 . chock  n . r . • not reported ' test excavation only 1  TABLE 3.3: Temporal changes i n ceramic fabric and surface decoration i n excavated assemblages.  PERIOD  P  MAIN SITES  simple  check  complex-line check  A  chevron  T  T  E  R  weave  N  S circle  and  spiral  dot  thundercloud  Shixia (lower)  ru. O  o  Jinlansi (middle) Shixia (middle)  or >  UJ X  u  <D<8  Hong Kong (various) z  o z < or  M  Zaogang  llll A  Hedang (2 S 3)  H§  SKI  lib I-  Sham Wan Man Kok Tsui 3 Shixia (upper)  Xigualing Boishipingshan Jinlansi (upper)  FIGURE 3 .2a:  Geometric  ceramic  s u r f a c e p at t e r n s :  Guangdong  Province  'mm  47  FIGURE 3.2a  (continued)  FIGURE 3.2b:  Geometric ceramic s u r f a c e p a t t e r n s , Guangxi  Province  FIGURE 3 . 3 :  Representative ceramic v e s s e l forms of the Geometric  Period  50  Associated a r t i f a c t s  i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y of p o l i s h e d and  p a r t l y - p o l i s h e d stone t o o l s and ornaments, as w e l l as artifacts Two  i n bone and  shell.  radiocarbon dates on c h a r c o a l samples from the S h i x i a  s i t e are r e l e v a n t to t h i s p e r i o d (Table 3.4).75046 are from a pre-geometric Geometric  Period 3 b u r i a l respectively.  e a r l i e s t phase of the Geometric approximately  3000 to 2500  Horizon  range of these  in northern Guangdong i s  where r e l e v a n t radiocarbon Two  dates on pre-  assemblages from there are o l d e r than 3000 B.C.,  (R4585/1) o v e r l a p s with the S h i x i a  range i s between 2750 and  2150  only  samples (Table 3.5).  Its  B.C..  Chevron Soft P o t t e r y Stage  The chevron geometric  early  B.C..  data have been obtained i s Hong Kong.  3.  The  BK-  From these estimates the  5  The only other part of Lingnan  one  BK-76024 and  P e r i o d 1 b u r i a l , and an  dates f a l l s between 3000 & 2600 B.C.  geometric  similar  (Chevron  2)  motif continues to be the most common of the  p a t t e r n s i n t h i s p e r i o d , but the simple check i s  r e p l a c e d by a wide v a r i e t y of "complex-line check" p a t t e r n s (Figure 3.2). latter.  A number of terms have been used to denote the  Most w r i t e r s use simple d e s c r i p t i o n s such as  "triple-  l i n e check and dot" e t c . , but others a l s o r e f e r to them as  Approximate ranges have been c a l c u l a t e d by adding one standard d e v i a t i o n to the midpoint of the c a l i b r a t e d date, and roundng o f f to the nearest 50 years. O r i g i n a l v a l u e s , and p r e c i s e c a l i b r a t i o n s are given i n Table 2.4. 5  Site  Name  Locat1on  Sample Material  Associations  D1anhuachang (Songshah)  Zhaoqing Shi (West R i v e r )  wood  l a t e Warring tomb  Dongkengnan  Ha 1 f e n g X i a n (East Coast)  charcoal  from u n d e r n e a t h baked "stove" feature, with net-stamped p o t t e r y  Lanshi Foshan Shi (Centra) Region)  shel 1  bottom of g r a v e . M l . i s from Layer 3  shel 1  Hedang  Date  Caiibrated Date'  Sample  2570+75 bp  620t75  ZK-210  clay hard  3 0 3 9 ± 4 0 0 bp  123lt401  BC  Lamont 188C-I  Sample  5020+100 bp  3682±135  BC  ZK-526- I  bottom o f g r a v e M i l . Sample i s from Layer 3  4910+100 bp  3555+135  BC  ZK-527- I  shel 1  b o t t o m o f g r a v e M12. i s from L a y e r 3  4955+100 bp  3606+135  BC  ZK-528- I  shel 1  from a s h p i t . w i t h s o f t 4905+150 bp geometric pottery & p o l i s h e d stone t o o l s . Layer 3  3552+.175 BC  ZK-546- I  bone  from  grave  3605+100 b p  1950+164 BC  ZK-547- 0  bone  from  g r a v e . M12.  3 8 4 0 * 1 2 0 bp  2248+164 BC  ZK-548- 0  charcoa1  from h a r d b u r n t e a r t h s u r f a c e . T2 L a y e r 2  4 100+80 b p  2576+123  BC  ZK-647  States  M1.  period  Layer Layer  Sample  2 2  BC  d1nians1  Houshangang Zengcheng X i a n (East River)  shell  from midden, w i t h s o f t geometric pottery; stepped & s h o u l d e r e d adzes  4035+95 b p  2 4 9 4 1 1 4 5 BC  ZK-103  Maogangcun  Gaoyao X i a n (West R i v e r )  carbonized wood  A r e a A, T2, L a y e r 3 w i t h s t o n e adzes, bone tools, & geometric pottery  4070+-.100 bp  2539+137 BC  ZK-707  wood  A r e a B, T 1 . L a y e r 3 w i t h s t o n e a d z e s , bone tools, & geometric pottery  4 2 6 5 t 9 0 bp  2783+136  BC  ZK-708  wood  (as  4290+100 bp  2814±143  BC  ZK-7 10  above)  TABLE 3.4: Guangdong: radiocarbon dates on Geometric sites  S i t e Name  Shakengnan  Sh i x i a  Xiqiaoshan Loca1 i t y 7  Zaogang  Caitbration  Locat ion  Sample Material  Assoc iat ions  Haifeng Xian (East Coast)  shel 1  f r o m midden, w i t h c o r d a n d net-impressed p o t t e r y and p o l i s h e d stone t o o l s .  Maba, Ouj i ang X i a n (Northern Region)  charcoal  from  grave  M43  (Period  charcoa1  from  g r a v e M79  charcoa1  from  g r a v e M26  shel 1  Layer  shel 1  shel 1  Nanhai X i a n (Central Region)  Nanhai X i a n (Central Region)  system  TABLE 3.4 (continued)  = Damon e t a l . 1974  Ca11brated Date  Sample H  3219+150 bp  1459+-160 BC  Lament -201A  3)  4330+-90 bp  2863±136  BC  BK-75046  (Period  1)  4220+110 bp  272T+150 BC  BK-76024  (Period  4)  4020±1OO  bp  2471±137  BC  BK-75050  2  5050+1OO bp  3713±135  BC  ZK-543-1  Layer  3  5470+100 bp  4 1 7 5 ± 1 6 2 BC  ZK-544-1  Layer  3, w i t h s o f t 8> h a r d geometric pottery,  5405+120 bp  4103+175 BC  ZK-545-I  Date  1  S i t e Name  C h u n g Horn  Hai  Po  Dei  Yue  Sham  Wan  Wan  Wan  Wan  Shek P i k  1  Locat ion  Hongkong  Lantau  Cheung  Lamma  Lantau  C a i i b r a t I o n system  TABLE 3 . 5 :  Island  Island  Chau  Island  Island  Sample Mater i a 1  A s s o c i a t i ons  charcoa1  Middle N e o l i t h i c  assemblage  charcoal  Middle  assemblage  charcoa1  mixed L a t e B r o n z e Age  charcoal  (as  shel 1  Late  shel 1  (as  shel 1  Date  Caiibrated Date  Sample  4570+130 bp  3156+-1 15 BC  1-8827  5100+100 bp  3773+146 BC  HAR-2522  3360+80 bp  1636+91  HAR-3589  3200±160  1434+169 BC  ANU-2223  3740+80 bp  2121±153  BC  HAR-4G97  above)  3780+70 bp  2172+148 BC  HAR-4698  (as  above)  3 7 3 0 ± 7 0 bp  2108+.148 BC  HAR-4700  shel 1  (as  above)  3680±70  2044+148 BC  HAR-4699  charcoa1  Middle  4000+300 bp  2450t314  BC  R-4585/1  shel 1  Late N e o l i t h i c  3830t95  bp  2235±161  BC  I-10057b  shel 1  (as  above)  3740+-95 b p  2121±161  BC  I-10057a  shel 1  (as  above)  31 10*95 bp  1320+-1 10 BC  1-10056  shel 1  Late  B r o n z e Age  2485+85 b p  557+93 BC*  1-9954  charcoa1  Late  Neolithic  3270190 bp  1522+106 BC  ANU-2222  u s e d = Damon e t a l .  #  1  Neolithic  Neolithic/Early assemblage  above)  Neolithic  assemblage  Neolithic  assemblage  assemblage  assemblage  assemblage  1974  Hong Kong: radiocarbon dates on prehistoric sites  bp  bp  BC  Ln  54  "lattice", Judging  "composite  net" (Meacham [ed] 1978, M a g l i o n i 1975).  by the i l l u s t r a t i o n s , a l l such terms simply r e f e r to  v a r i e t i e s of the complex-line  check.  New m o t i f s i n c l u d e the thundercloud and the pattern.  Combination  of more than one geometric  's'-shaped motif on a  s i n g l e v e s s e l , zoned e i t h e r  i n bands, or on d i f f e r e n t p o r t i o n s  of the v e s s e l body, appears  first  during t h i s p e r i o d , a l b e i t i n  minor p r o p o r t i o n s : at S h i x i a , such only  1.6% of the t o t a l geometric  arrangement of i n d i v i d u a l  "group p a t t e r n s " c o n s t i t u t e  p o t t e r y assemblage.  impressions  The  i s more o r d e r l y than i n  the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d . In a d d i t i o n to the r i n g - f o o t e d , round-bottomed forms of the preceding p e r i o d , rounded indented bases become very common.  An  angular break at the shoulder  i s a second  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of v e s s e l form  i n t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d .  A small p r o p o r t i o n of coarse-tempered decorated with stamped geometric  identifying  cooking pots begin to be  p a t t e r n s such as the chevron.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Meacham has s t a t e d that i n Hong Kong the geometric-stamping  of coarse ware v e s s e l s does not begin there  before the E a r l y Bronze Age (1982:78-79).  I t i s thus p o s s i b l e  that the coarse wares are more v a r i a b l e at a s u b - r e g i o n a l s c a l e than are the f i n e r wares.  A s s o c i a t e d a r t i f a c t s show no  s i g n i f i c a n t changes from the preceding p e r i o d . The  radiocarbon data f o r t h i s p e r i o d are q u i t e abundant,  however i n the o p i n i o n of the Chinese  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s concerned,  there are s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s with many of the dates obtained. The  only two dates accepted by the Chinese are one from a P e r i o d  55  4 (middle l a y e r ) grave at S h i x i a , and one of  the J i n l a n s i  are  site.  Both f a l l  from the middle  layer  between 2600 and 2300 B.C.,  and  i n accord with the dates o b t a i n e d f o r the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d ,  as w e l l as with dates from s i m i l a r assemblages i n Hong Kong. The  l a t t e r date between 2400 & 1900  and  1600  - 1400  the Chevron 1200  B.C.  (Shek P i k ) .  B.C.  (Po Yue Wan;  Sham  Wan)  On the b a s i s of these data,  s o f t p o t t e r y p e r i o d extends  roughly between 2600 &  B.C.. The  r e j e c t e d dates are from 3 s i t e s : Hedang (Layer 3),  Zaogang, and X i q i a o s h a n , L o c a l i t y  7 (Zhentou).  from Layer 3 of Hedang i s t y p o l o g i c a l l y  The  assemblage  s l i g h t l y l a t e r than the  middle l a y e r s of S h i x i a and J i n l a n s i , however, the four dates obtained from t h i s l a y e r a l l f a l l more than is  1000  years e a r l i e r  typologically  than the l a t t e r two  slightly earlier  s i n g l e dated sample produced  between 3800 and 3400  B.C.  sites.  Zaogang  than Hedang l a y e r 3, and i t s  a f i g u r e of pre-4000  Xiqiaoshan i s a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t problem. assemblage c o n t a i n s only a s i n g l e geometric  The  B.C.. dated  (chevron)  impressed  sherd, but i s estimated to be roughly e q u i v a l e n t to Hedang and Zaogang on the b a s i s of s i m i l a r i t i e s a r t i f a c t s present at a l l t h r e e . range as the other  i n the m i c r o l i t h i c  I t s date f a l l s w i t h i n the same  sites.  I have r a i s e d t h i s issue i n d e t a i l because  there are some  s i m i l a r i t i e s between these data that are worth commenting All  of the s i t e s concerned are l o c a t e d  r e g i o n , and a l l the erroneous  on.  i n the P e a r l D e l t a  samples were s h e l l .  Charcoal and  bone samples from the Hedang s i t e are b e l i e v e d to have y i e l d e d  56  r e l i a b l e estimates.  S i m i l a r problems with d i s t o r t i o n of  radiocarbon dates on marine s h e l l have been d i s c u s s e d by Robinson and Thompson (1981) with r e f e r e n c e to the western of North America.  On  been found to y i e l d  coast  t h i s side of the P a c i f i c marine s h e l l  radiocarbon estimates between 700 and  has  800  years too o l d as compared with other dated m a t e r i a l s because of the d i s t o r t i n g  f a c t o r of d i s s o l v e d marine b i c a r b o n a t e .  that the same f a c t o r with the Chinese  4.  i s probably r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the problems  dates, however because the degree of d i s t o r t i o n  v a r i e s in d i f f e r e n t determine  I t seems  r e g i o n s f u r t h e r t e s t s are r e q u i r e d to  the c o r r e c t i o n neccesary  f o r the Chinese m a t e r i a l s .  Chevron, Soft - Hard P o t t e r y T r a n s i t i o n  (Chevron  3)  In terms of s u r f a c e p a t t e r n i n g the ceramics of t h i s p e r i o d are l i t t l e changed from the previous one, of the Hedang ceramics  i n Table 3.6  as the d e t a i l e d  indicates.  that at the end of t h i s p e r i o d the chevron p o p u l a r i t y , but the only evidence specialized kiln  s i t e at Shuikou  Lingnan, which may  It i s possible  motif d e c l i n e s in  f o r t h i s comes from  the  on the northern p e r i p h e r y of  not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of general h a b i t a t i o n  s i t e s , or of the Lingnan The  tabulation  identifying  region as a whole.  f e a t u r e of the ceramics of t h i s p e r i o d i s  the c o e x i s t e n c e of s o f t and hard p o t t e r y , and the gradual increase i n the prevalence of the l a t t e r .  Minute q u a n t i t i e s of  glazed v e s s e l s begin to appear a l s o d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d .  Vessel  forms are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t with the preceding p e r i o d . The found  first  evidence of bronze  use and bronze  i n a s s o c i a t i o n with some of these  casting i s  'transitional'  ceramic  57 F a b r I cj 'Surface  vi"  -3  o  1  v*  "5 ^1  LAYER Patterning  N'  LAYER  3 N  Tota1s : N %  % of type  Tota1s: N %  % of type  T  423  29 . 27  13 24 5 3 19 196  0.9 1 . 66 0.35 22 .08 13.56  55 27  3.81 i.87  2 .05 0.4 0.8 0.11  23  1 .59  31 2  2.15 0.14  0.07  9  0.62  60 30 13  1 .53 0.77 0. 33  c o r d impressed 1 i ne weave 1nc1sed a p p 1 i que r 1 d g e chevron l a r g e check thunderc1oud 6 chevron leaf vein c o m p l e x - l i n s check 8 boss bows t r i ng ladder-shaped check fish seale protruding dot. & dot unclear; plain rim 8 foot sherds  G58 37 54 48 28 42 1 490  24 . OS 1 . 35 1 .97 1 . 75 1 .02 15 . 39 17.91  102 152  3 . 73 5 . 56  5G 1 1 22 3 2  1 i ne weave app1 i que r i d g e carved hole chevron thunderc1oud 8 chevron check 1adder-shaped check 1ea f v e i n f i s h s e a 1e bows t r i ng unclear, p l a i n rim. shoulder & foot  129 57 18 10 1321  . 1550 4 1 09  182 1 46 46  1 i ne weave i m p r e s s e d i nc i s e d app1 i que r i d g e carved hole chevron thunderc1oud 8 chevron sma11 c h e c k ladder-shaped check double leaf l e a f v e i n 8 weave dot 8 c i r c l e c o m p l e x - l i n e check 8 boss f i sh sea 1 e  226 24 23 52 6 895  8 .93 0. 95 0. 91 2 .06 0. 24 35 . 38  65 15 2 13  6 1 0 1  355  36.4?  140 14 1 152 24 147 13  5 .53 5. 57 6 .01 O. 95 5 .81 0. 51  88 38 26 2 26  9 3 2 0 2  9 1 1  0 36 0. 43  5 6  0 51 0 62  bows t r i ng unclear: p l a i n rim. shoulder 8 foot  18  0 7 1  649  25.65  333  34. 19  plain carved  1552 21  506 6  98 98.831  ho 1 e  1 i ne pa i n t i ng s l i p c o a t i ng  f2735  25.8  1445  21.08  651  322 184 4 1 123 12 5  14 6  3.42 1.51 0.48 0.26 35.02  1439  8 . 55 4 . 88 1.14 3 .17 0. 32 0. 13  98.64 1 .35  70.0 30.0  >3772  ^2530  1543  20 n=10.600  35.58  23.87  14.56  0. 19  340 87 20 35 20  38.06 8 2 0 0 0  68 22 ^ 3 9 1 7 51 89 5 1  57 . 15  67 54 21 32  >974  14.21  (512  7 47  03 90 67 21 67  1.17  66 .67 33 .33 (6  0.09  n=6854  TABLE 3.6: Detailed tabulation of ceramics unearthed from the Hedang site (Yang and Chen 1981:243)  58  assemblages.  The a r t i f a c t s and c a s t i n g moulds r e p r e s e n t small  t o o l s and weapons such as axes and daggers Maglioni still  1975).  commonly Three  1977,  P o l i s h e d stone t o o l s of previous types are found.  samples from the upper  been dated to between 2700 and with c u l t u r a l  (Meacham ed.  remains  l a y e r of the Hedang s i t e have  1800  B.C.,  and are a s s o c i a t e d  t y p i c a l of the e a r l y part of t h i s P e r i o d .  No evidence of bronze has been found at Hedang.  Two  s i t e s in  Haifeng county which were t e s t e d by M a g l i o n i i n the 1940's have produced  2 dates i n the 1600-800 B.C.  No evidence of bronze was  and  1600-1300 B.C.  found at e i t h e r of these s i t e s ,  the high p r o p o r t i o n of hard p o t t e r y i n d i c a t e s they f a l l l a t e r part of t h i s p e r i o d .  The Hai Dei Wan  has given 2 dates between 1700 spear point were unearthed  range.  & 1200  B.C..  site  but  i n t o the  i n Hong Kong  A bronze axe  from t h i s s i t e , but i t i s not  and clear  whether they are a s s o c i a t e d with the dated samples or with the Kui P e r i o d remains which are a l s o represented at t h i s (Williams 1979).  T h e r e f o r e , as yet no d e f i n i t e  site  bronze-producing  d e p o s i t s of t h i s p e r i o d have been dated by a b s o l u t e methods. The dates on hand f o r t h i s p e r i o d range between 2700 and B.C.,  800  o v e r l a p p i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y with the dates of the p r e v i o u s  p e r i o d , a matter which needs to be c l a r i f i e d by f u t u r e work.  59  5.  Kui  Period,  The  identifying  the  geometric  "double-f" found  pottery  i n the  X i jian.g  the  the  &  3.3).  therefore the  sites.  of  river In  found  transition  pottery,  and  kui  ceramics  lying  of  is  of  not  i t is  between and  a l l the area  the  other  (Figures  temperatures,  this  found  is s t i l l  is  Guangxi  the  firing by  motif  display  rest  higher  vessel  most  in Guangxi  southeastern  i s completed  pottery  The  6  valleys  in the  to  pottery  throughout or  region,  geometric  features  period  varieties.  border.  Glazed  this  Lingnan  Guangdong  the  occasional soft  Period  of  i t s many  Hunan  The  hard  trait  northeastern  Guangdong  characteristic 3.2  in  Geometric  area  Southern  to  and  southern  ceramic  motif,  restricted  Hard  period, in  found  both  and  although Kui  in very  and  Mi  minute  proportions. On The  finewares  more  zoned  intricate  characteristically net  and  check  Coarse patterns; single and  coarser, There  shoulder jars  and  appear  Xu ( 1 9 8 1 ) .(1981) o n l y 6  are  also  kui  major  indented in  their  the  the the  a  to  base  are  dominate.  lozenge  part  of  are  with the  with  finewares, the  to  areas,  impressed  vessel,  changes  and  lower  the  i s never  kui  shoulder  commonly  in contrast  the  two  to  as  covering  i s a p p l i e d to and  patterning continues  such  confined  are  however,  motif  motifs  patterns  wares  group  plainer  vessel.  geometric  usually  impressions  only  are  larger  applied. in vessel  no  longer  form:  found,  the and  angled flat  based  place.  d e f i n e s 5; 2, r o u n d e d  the and  Guangxi angular  Cultural forms.  Properties  a  Brigade  60  P o l i s h e d stone t o o l s continue to be found i n Kui P e r i o d c o n t e x t s , but are reduced  i n numbers.  Bronze a r t i f a c t s  and  c a s t i n g remains, on the other hand, have been found i n many of this period's s i t e s .  E l a b o r a t e b u r i a l s c o n t a i n i n g q u a n t i t i e s of  bronze a r t i f a c t s appear all  f i r s t during t h i s period.  c o n t a i n at l e a s t one l o c a l Geometric  weapons and t o o l s are s t y l i s t i c a l l y  Such b u r i a l s  p o t t e r y v e s s e l , and the  s i m i l a r to those found i n  h a b i t a t i o n c o n t e x t s ; hence, even i n the absence  of a b s o l u t e  dates they can be s e c u r e l y dated to the Kui P e r i o d (He 1981:217). Radiocarbon  data have not been used by  Chinese  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to date t h i s p e r i o d , rather they have r e l i e d upon comparisons  between the s t y l i s t i c  t r a i t s of the ceramics and  bronzes and those from dated contexts i n more n o r t h e r l y regions (eg.  He  1981).  The  i n i t i a l appearance  of kui impressed p o t t e r y  has been p l a c e d i n l a t e Western Zhou (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1984:209; Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade 1981)  to  mid Spring & Autumn (Xu 1981 ), or c i r c a  and  1 000  to 700  B.C.,  i t s disappearance to the end of the Spring & Autumn p e r i o d , or e a r l y Warring S t a t e s - c i r c a 500-400 B.C..  A s i n g l e radiocarbon  date from the Kui P e r i o d l a y e r at the Sham Wan l i e s between 450 and 650 B.C., the Chinese.  site  i n Hong Kong  w i t h i n the boundaries a s c r i b e d ;by  61  6.  This is  Mi  final  phase  defined  pottery  Period,  Hard  of  the  Geometric  p r e h i s t o r i c Geometric  by  the  predominance  among  the  geometric  proportion  of  of  rni  disappearance  of  group  ( ^fc-) a n d  ceramics,  geometric-impressed  the  in  Lingnan  check-impressed  decline  pottery,  patterning.  Horizon  and  in  the  The  m_i  motif  Period,  overall  virtual  is  found  in  o  minor  proportions  combination at  a  time  with  the  end  of  the  Kui  the  kui  motif,  but  replaces  corresponding  The  second  are  i n c i s e d wave,  appear  at  to  most  have  common comb  been  to  the  group or  early  of  during  the  middle  surface  bowstring  applied  or  often  wheel  altogether  Warring  patterns  lines,  kui  in  which  of  States.  this  period  frequently  manufacture  of  the  vessels. The  proportion  of  geometric  ceramic  assemblage  is  appears  to  towards  dated  t y p o l o g i c a l l y to  pottery which  makes  0.09%  these  vessels The some  over  particularly at  (CP.A.M. at  up  high the  early 83%  of  is typologically late,  Plain, from  decline  still  Xigualing,  Guangdong two  in  glazed,  sites  the  et are  to  al.  impressed early  end.  in  At  this  the  in  less  vessels 5.14%  at  on  Mi  in  at 65%  total but  which  geometric  while than  the  Period,  Xigualing,  increase  is  impressed  Baishipingshan, (Table  overall:  3).  the  latter  Baishipingshan  1964b: 151).  represented  the  period,  total,  i t is  vessels  Geometric only  0.29%  group and  patterns  2.36%  of  assemblages.  absolute  number  of  distinct  p r e v i o u s l y - e x i s t i n g types  become  vessel more  forms  increases,  elaborate  with  and  62  v a r i o u s added handles, spouts, and l i d s d u r i n g t h i s  period.  The most important c h r o n o l o g i c a l marker i n other a r t i f a c t s i s the appearance  of i r o n a r t i f a c t s .  in n o n - b u r i a l c o n t e x t s : an axe, and  Only two have been found i r o n - t i p p e d hoe  B a i s h i p i n g s h a n , and an i r o n - b l a d e d dagger  from  from J i n l a n s i .  Iron  i s found i n a s s o c i a t i o n with bronze through to the end of the prehistoric  i n Lingnan.  At excavated h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s the only  stone t o o l s unearthed have been hammerstones, mortars and the l i k e , while only whetstones  whetstones,  have been unearthed  from b u r i a l c o n t e x t s (CP.A.M. Guangdong et a l . 1964b, Mo Table  1961,  5.5). The  s o l e radiocarbon date on an undisputed mi p o t t e r y s i t e  i s on a sample of wood from the Zhaoqing  tomb, which i s  estimated on t y p o l o g i c a l grounds to belong to the very end of the Warring S t a t e s p e r i o d al.  1974).  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum et  The date of 620+75 B.C.  years e a r l i e r  than the s y l i s t i c  i s , however, s e v e r a l  affinities  indicate.  A s e r i e s of dates from the Maogangcun s i t e , 2400 & 2950 B.C.,  f a l l i n g between  has been r e j e c t e d by some Chinese  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , who Warring  hundred  b e l i e v e the s i t e d e p o s i t s belong to the  States period.  The  i l l u s t r a t e d ceramic p a t t e r n s from  the s i t e must be very e a r l y Mi P e r i o d , i f not e a r l i e r , and p o s s i b l e that the dates r e l a t e to an e a r l i e r  yet-unidentified  component, and not d i r e c t l y to the excavated remains.  This  issue i s , however, not yet agreed upon among the excavators themselves As was  i t is  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum et a l . 1983:41). the case i n the preceding p e r i o d , the Chinese  63  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s r e l y on s t y l i s t i c  comparisons to date Mi  Period  assemblages: comparisons are made both with the neighbouring S t a t e , and  with  remains of the  from w i t h i n Lingnan.  The  f o l l o w i n g Qin and  Warring States P e r i o d , and  C.  periods  beginnings of the Mi P e r i o d  a c c o r d i n g l y placed at e i t h e r the beginning  5/400 to 220  Han  the end  are  or middle of  to the Qin  Chu  the  invasion - c i r c a  B.C..  DISCUSSION OF THE  TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF  LINGNAN GEOMETRIC  SITES Archaeologists  in both China and Hong Kong have, i n the  d i r e c t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n in excavation temporal aspects areas,  p r i m a r i l y to d e f i n i n g the  of the p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s i n t h e i r  yet to date,  the o u t l i n e s are s t i l l  biggest drawback f o r both r e l a t i v e and  of Guangdong (Figure 3.4).  respective  tentative.  absolute  The  dating,  r e s t r i c t i o n of excavated s i t e s to the Northern and regions  past,  i s the  Central  Better d e f i n i t i o n of  the  c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence in p e r i p h e r a l areas of the Lingnan Geometric Horizon  needs to be an  important p r i o r i t y  in future  research. The  most d e t a i l e d information  regarding  the temporal d i s t r i b u t i o n of Geometric s i t e s  Lingnan i s given  by He  p r e h i s t o r i c Horizon first  from Chinese sources  p e r i o d being  (1981:218).  He  breaks down the  i n t o only three periods equal  to the  first  within  (Table  3.1),  three Chevron p e r i o d s I  have d e t a i l e d above.  His f i g u r e s are a l l e x t r a p o l a t i o n s  1962  to h i s estimates,  data.  According  Chevron P e r i o d , 200  (32%)  his  approximately 310  Kui P e r i o d and more than  102  from (50%)  (18%)  Mi  65  P e r i o d s i t e s have been i d e n t i f i e d  in Guangdong.  No  similar  estimates have been p u b l i s h e d with respect to the Guangxi however, a rough estimate  has been made based on the  contained  Using  i n Appendix 2.  thundercloud  sites,  information  the presence of kui or  p a t t e r n e d p o t t e r y to i n d i c a t e Kui P e r i o d s i t e s ,  and  mi patterned p o t t e r y to i n d i c a t e Mi P e r i o d s i t e s ( f o l l o w i n g Guangxi C u l t u r a l  P r o p e r t i e s Brigade  1981), p r o p o r t i o n s of  approximately  40% Kui and  approximately  10% of s i t e s c o n t a i n i n g  In Table  3.7  60% Mi P e r i o d s i t e s are obtained,  with  both.  I have summarized the main c h r o n o l o g i c a l  i n d i c a t o r s among the a r t i f a c t remains, as d i s c u s s e d above. attempted to use  this  information  recorded Geometric s i t e s  in c o n j u n c t i o n with data  purpose.  areal distribution  s i t e s throughout the p r e h i s t o r i c  Unfortunately  At the time that the survey  was  between s o f t  of  period.  the p u b l i s h e d data proved inadequate  for t h i s  data were gathered  p u b l i s h e d the only recognized d i s t i n c t i o n Horizon  from  in Guangdong and Guangxi to b e t t e r  d e l i n e a t e the temporal breakdown and geometric  I  and  in the Geometric  and hard p o t t e r y , thus data r e l e v a n t to  the f i n e r s u b d i v i s i o n s used in t h i s study were g e n e r a l l y not reported.  R e s o l u t i o n of t h i s q u e s t i o n , as w e l l as  d e a l i n g with s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s survey data, and  r e q u i r e s access  thus cannot be apprached at  others  to primary .  present.  66  CERAMICS a. F a b r i c  Soft Soft & hard Hard & occasional soft  Chevron 1 & 2 Chevron 3  kui motif mi motif thundercloud motif lozenge/hui motif group p a t t e r n s (few) (many) glaze wheel-applied decorat ion  Kui l a t e Kui - Mi Chevron 2 - e a r l y Mi Kui - e a r l y Mi  angled shoulder indented base f l a t base wheel-manufactured large jars  Chevron 2 & 3 Chevron 2 & 3 Kui - Mi Mi  METAL  bronze i ron  l a t e Chevron 3 - Mi l a t e Mi  STONE  ge dagger-axe  l a t e Chevron 3 - e a r l y Kui  b. Surface decoration  c.  Form  TABLE 3.7  Artifact  Kui - Mi  Chevron 2; Mi Chevron 3 - Kui l a t e Chevron 3 - Mi Mi  t r a i t s with d e f i n e d temporal s i g n i f i c a n c e .  67  IV. A.  ENVIRONMENT AND SUBSISTENCE  PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES AND PALEOENVIRONMENT 1.  Topography  Lingnan, l i t e r a l l y  "south of the (Wuling or Nanling) range" i s  the common name f o r the region which and Guangxi  P r o v i n c e s (Figure  i n c l u d e s modern Guangdong  1.1). Although the Wuling  mountains are not high i n a b s o l u t e terms they do form a s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r between the drainage areas of the West River ( X i j i a n g ) and the Yangtze  (Changjiang).  They a l s o lend a  measure of p h y s i o g r a p h i c and c l i m a t i c u n i t y to the Guangdong/Guangxi area which the term a d d i t i o n to the northern boundary the southern boundary  'Lingnan' r e f l e c t s .  In  of the Wuling mountains and  of the South China Sea, Lingnan i s a l s o  bounded to the east and west by areas of g r e a t e r u p l i f t . F u j i a n Massif i n the northeast i s an extremely rugged formation which permits no easy north-south passage,  The  granitic thus  e f f e c t i v e l y c u t s o f f Guangdong from the lower Yangtze  region.  The Guizhou P l a t e a u whose f o o t h i l l s extend i n t o the western t h i r d of Guangxi  forms the southwestern boundary  of Lingnan  (Figure 4.1). A s i n g l e major r i v e r system, which empties to the sea through the P e a r l D e l t a of c e n t r a l Guangdong, d r a i n s most of Lingnan.  The main branch i s the West River ( X i j i a n g )  passes through western Guangdong and Guangxi Plateau and Yunnan P r o v i n c e . East  which  to the Guizhou  The two other main branches, the  (Dongjiang) and North R i v e r s ( B e i j i a n g ) and t h e i r  68  FIGURE 4.1:  Guangdong and Guangxi P r o v i n c e s : (Hsieh 1973:164)  relief  69  t r i b u t a r i e s d r a i n most of i n t e r i o r Guangdong south of the Wuling, except river  f o r the f a r northeastern area.  The  only major  system which i s not part of t h i s network i s the Han  in the f a r northeast of Guangdong, although a l l along  the  seacoast other minor r i v e r s flow short d i s t a n c e s d i r e c t l y the sea  (Figure  Although  the r i v e r s are q u i t e f a s t - f l o w i n g , most are l a r g e c r a f t and provide the major  communication/transportation (Tregear The  into  4.2).  navigable by r e l a t i v e l y  today  River  routes throughout  Lingnan  even  1980:304).  general r e l i e f  of Lingnan  i s very steep; r i v e r  valleys  are narrow and v a l l e y bottom lands are subject to seasonal flooding.  There are only two major a l l u v i a l p l a i n s , l o c a t e d at  the mouths of the P e a r l and Han been forming  s i n c e the s t a b i l i z a t i o n  6-7,000 years ago margins and  Rivers.  Both d e l t a s have only  of sea l e v e l s  approximately  (Huang et a l . 1979:290-291); both the outer  the l o c a t i o n of i n t e r n a l chanels are u n s t a b l e ,  and  d e f i n i n g t h e i r boundaries  during the l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d i s  difficult.  i s steep and  The c o a s t l i n e  s h e l t e r e d harbours. picture  The  indented with many small  one p o i n t of c o n t r a s t to t h i s  general  i s the l o w - l y i n g Leizhou P e n i n s u l a at the southern t i p  of the Guangdong mainland. 2.  CIimate  The T r o p i c of Cancer c r o s s e s through  c e n t r a l Lingnan.  This  l o c a t i o n , combined with the s h e l t e r i n g e f f e c t of the Wuling r e s u l t s in the maintenence of a s u b t r o p i c a l ( i n the highlands) to t r o p i c a l  northern  ( i n the south) c l i m a t e i n Lingnan a l l  71  year.  Consequently there i s a y e a r - l o n g  are however marked seasonal fluctuations  There  f l u c t u a t i o n s in r a i n f a l l and minor  in temperature.  Jan Guilin Temp °C 90 Rainfall 41 mm Guangzhou Temp°C 13-3 Rainfall 23 mm Shantou (40 m) Temp°C 150 Rainfall 36 mm  growing season.  Summers are hot and  humid thanks  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun  July  Aug  Sep  Oct  Nov  Dec  Total  6-8 102  9-6 109  12-3 239  18-2 358  22-1 417  26-8 203  28-5 178  27-6 76  25-9 66  22-3 53  15-5 41  1883  13 9 48  17-2 107  21-7 173  26-7 269  27-2 269  28-3 205  26-7 219  23-9 165  19 4 86  15 6 31  23  1618  13-9 63  16-7 79  21 1 250 145 229  27-8 267  28-9 198  28-3 213  27-8 142  24-4 71  200 41  16 7 38  1522  TABLE 4.1 : Annual temperature and r a i n f a l l f i g u r e s at G u i l i n , Guangzhou and Shantou. (Tregear 1980:303,306). to the summer monsoon from the South China c o o l and dry due  to the prevalence  i n t e r i o r of A s i a .  3. The  of winds from the  are  northern winter  f r o s t only occurs on the h i g h e s t peaks  1980:24). V e g e t a t i o n And  Soils  contemporary v e g e t a t i o n of most of Lingnan has  impacted by man  over  the past 2,000 y e a r s .  r e f l e c t i v e of the p r e h i s t o r i c environment. p a l e o v e g e t a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s has evidence:  winters  The Wuling modify the e f f e c t s of the  monsoon however, and (Tregear  Sea, and  s o i l s , c l i m a t e , and  (Wang 1961:7-24).  been g r e a t l y  I t i s t h e r e f o r e not Reconstruction  of  r e l i e d on three l i n e s of remnant areas of o r i g i n a l  Only the main o u t l i n e s of the  of Lingnan have been r e c o n s t r u c t e d .  The  forest  paleovegetation  natural vegetation  was  72  a dense s u b t r o p i c a l to t r o p i c a l evergreen  broadleaf  forest.  northern and highland areas the main c o n s t i t u e n t s of the were evergreen  oak  and  in more s o u t h e r l y and  laurel.  forest  R a i n f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n occurred  l o w - l y i n g r e g i o n s , and  held along the c o a s t l i n e .  In  littoral  forests  In very l o w - l y i n g and s h e l t e r e d  c o a s t a l zones of high deposition, e x t e n s i v e mangrove  formations  were common (Wang 1961:129-30; 142-145; 165-168, Hsieh  1973  Map  1-45) . The earths'.  predominant s o i l s of the h i l l y These s o i l s are t h i n ,  to l a t e r i z a t i o n and  ' o l d red  f r a g i l e and a c i d i c , and s u j e c t  r a p i d l o s s of f e r t i l i t y a f t e r only one  two years under c u l t i v a t i o n  (Buck 1937:151).  s e a s o n a l l y h i g h r a i n f a l l and e a s i l y eroded  areas are  or  Because of the  the steep r e l i e f  these s o i l s  are  when s t r i p p e d of the n a t u r a l f o r e s t cover, hence  the present barren and eroded  aspect of much of i n t e r i o r  (Tregear  1980:28-31).  alluvium  i s found only i n r e s t r i c t e d areas along  and r i v e r d e l t a s .  R e l a t i v e l y more f e r t i l e  These s o i l s are amenable to  Lingnan  non-calcareous valley-bottoms  continuous  c u l t i v a t i o n as long as the e f f e c t s of l e a c h i n g are compensated for by constant B.  fertilization  IMPLICATIONS FOR  (Buck 1937:143).  PREHISTORIC SUBSISTENCE AND  The general topographic  and v e g e t a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s  h a b i t a t i o n p r i m a r i l y to r i v e r v a l l e y s and the low hills,  except  d e l t a and  i n the c e n t r a l  lowlands  the d e l t a of the Han  River.  SETTLEMENT  limit fringing  around the P e a r l River Along  the c o a s t l i n e  numerous bays and small e s t u a r i e s a l s o p r o v i d e areas f o r  the  73  habitation. The  general p a t t e r n i n g of p r e h i s t o r i c  the Chinese,  s i t e s , as reported by  i s i n accord with t h i s expected  pattern.  m a j o r i t y of s i t e s of the e a r l y Geometric are found  The  on lower  h i l l s l o p e s and h i l l t o p s f r i n g i n g the r i v e r s , and on low h i l l s and  sanddunes along the c o a s t .  I t i s not p o s s i b l e at present to  a s c e r t a i n whether there are d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s p e r i o d s of the Geometric i n terms of s i t e l o c a t i o n with to c u l t i v a b l e l a n d .  No d e t a i l e d topographic  c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , and p u b l i s h e d l o c a t i o n a l very s p e c i f i c .  respect  or s o i l s maps are information i s not  However He (1981:221) has noted  with respect to  the P e a r l D e l t a area that d u r i n g the Kui and Mi Periods shellmound s i t e s , which are common s i t e - t y p e s i n the Late N e o l i t h i c , d e c l i n e markedly i n frequency. a t t r i b u t e s to a s h i f t  T h i s change he  i n s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s from a b r o a d l y -  based p r i m a r i l y food-gathering  s t r a t e g y to more i n t e n s i v e  agr i c u l t u r e . S p e c i f i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence i s very t h i n .  The Chinese have r e l i e d on i n f e r r e d f u n c t i o n a l  t o o l types as t h e i r primary (especially  f o r subsistence p r a c t i c e s  source  of evidence,  supplemented  i n more recent r e p o r t s ) by p l a n t and animal  macrofossils.  Very d e t a i l e d  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of s u b s i s t e n c e have  been i n i t i a t e d a t a few s i t e s i n the lower Yangtze area f o r example, which r e l y on more d e t a i l e d data such as p o l l e n analysis  (Wang et a l . 1980, Sun et a l . 1981), however  techniques  these  have not as yet been reported f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n Lingnan.  The use of a d d i t i o n a l techniques  74  such as f l o t a t i o n  f o r r e c o v e r i n g m i c r o f o s s i l remains would be  i n v a l u a b l e to r e c o n s t r u c t i n g the d e t a i l s of s i t e environments and  s u b s i s t e n c e behaviour.  Residue  and use-wear analyses might  a l s o be p r o f i t a b l y a p p l i e d to t e s t i n g the i n f e r r e d f u n c t i o n s of tools. is  For the present I s h a l l j u s t c o n s i d e r the evidence that  available. P r i o r to the appearance of i r o n a g r i c u l t u r a l  t o o l s i n the  l a t e r Mi P e r i o d there i s l i t t l e evidence of i n t e n s i v e agricultural practices. e a r l i e r Geometric and chopper-type  s i t e s are a mixture  of hunting, woodworking,  implements which have been i n f e r r e d to be hoes  when recovered from sites  Tool assemblages recovered from most  i n l a n d s i t e s , and "oyster p i c k s "  in coastal  (C.P.A.M. Guangdong et a l . 1964a, Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l  Museum 1961:647).  P r o c e s s i n g t o o l s such as mortars,  knives are a l s o commonly recovered The  faunal and f l o r a l  p e s t l e s and  items.  remains recovered from  excavated  s i t e s seem to i n d i c a t e a mixed f o o d - g a t h e r i n g , a n i m a l - r a i s i n g , hunting and h o r t i c u l t u r a l dog occur  strategy.  Remains of domestic  i n most faunal l i s t s , along with deer  s p e c i e s ) , w i l d boar, c a t t l e and e l e p h a n t .  p i g and  (various  In d e l t a i c  sites  a l l i g a t o r and t u r t l e occur, along with v a r i o u s s p e c i e s of f i s h and  shellfish  (Huang et a l . 1979:290-291.  Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l  Museum et a l . 1983, Yang and Chen 1981:242). least  i n Hong Kong, c o n t a i n mainly  C o a s t a l s i t e s , at  f i s h and s h e l l f i s h  remains,  along with deer, p i g and dog (Williams 1980, Meacham, ed. 1978). Floral  remains are p r i m a r i l y nuts such as walnut and  75  gingko, and f r u i t s such as jujube,  dates, o l i v e s , and persimmon  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum et a l . 1978,1983).  These kinds of  remains however have been recovered from so few s i t e s that difficult  to g e n e r a l i z e  about w i l d p l a n t  i t is  utilization.  Since the normal c u l t i v a t i o n system of a t r o p i c a l area such as t h i s i s dependent on root-  rather  than seed-crops,  physical  evidence of t r o p i c a l crops tends not to be preserved i n the archaeological agricultural  record  (Harris  1972).  On analogy with t r o p i c a l  systems elsewhere we might expect that at most  s i t e s n o n - i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of r o o t - c r o p s was practiced  (Geertz 1963:15-28).  T h i s general p i c t u r e  accords  with the general lack of s p e c i a l i z e d c u l t i v a t i o n t o o l s and the i n d i c a t i o n s of the use of a broad spectrum of w i l d resources at most Geometric  sites.  There i s some evidence of r i c e c u l t i v a t i o n i n the immediate pre-geometric and e a r l y Geometric P e r i o d s .  Remains of  c u l t i v a t e d r i c e have been recovered from the S h i x i a and N i l i n g s i t e s i n northern Guangdong from t h i s time (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum et a l . 1979:327), and r e l a t i v e l y agricultural tools  (spades and p i c k s )  sophisticated  of s t y l e s found i n the  c e n t r a l and lower Yangtze regions were recovered from b u r i a l s at S h i x i a . associated  associated  According to i n v e s t i g a t o r s , such t o o l s were  with male b u r i a l s , and t h i s has l e d them t o i n f e r  that a g r i c u l t u r e was well developed and q u i t e  intensive.  degree of continued r e l i a n c e on w i l d products i s a l s o by the presence of w i l d  Some  indicated  f r u i t and nut remains (Guangdong  P r o v i n c i a l Museum et a l . 1978:23).  These s i t e s p r o v i d e the only  76  d i r e c t evidence of a g r i c u l t u r e before the Mi P e r i o d , but  the  lack of such evidence  simply  from other areas of Lingnan  may  be  a r e f l e c t i o n of i n s u f f i c i e n t data recovery techniques  i n the  pa s t . In summary, p r e s e n t l y - a v a i l a b l e data from Lingnan sites  i n d i c a t e s that p r i o r to the l a t e Geometric  in general broadly based: a mixture and w i l d food g a t h e r i n g .  a p p a r e n t l y common throughout  zone: c o a s t a l ,  r i v e r i n e , but the mixed s t r a t e g y the r e g i o n .  The appearence of i r o n a g r i c u l t u r a l and  t o o l s i n the Mi P e r i o d ,  the a s s o c i a t e d d e c l i n e i n s h e l l midden d e p o s i t s may,  suggests,  i n d i c a t e a t r a n s i t i o n to more i n t e n s i v e  p r a c t i c e s i n the l a t e r Geometric  that must await  (see a l s o Meacham 1980  can be explored C.  the accumulation  for is a  of more data before i t  PREHISTORIC COMMUNICATION PATTERNS  P r e h i s t o r i c communication routes both w i t h i n Lingnan and neighbouring  topographic  He  further.  IMPLICATIONS FOR  Lingnan  as  agricultural  s i m i l a r comments with r e f e r e n c e to Hong Kong), but t h i s topic  was  species exploited  v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the major environmental  was  subsistence  of n o n - i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n  The p a r t i c u l a r  d e l t a i c , e s t u a r i n e , or i n t e r i o r  geometric  regions were s t r o n g l y c o n d i t i o n e d by  and environmental  heavy f o r e s t cover and  factors.  steep r e l i e f  As mentioned above, the  of most of the  l i m i t e d communication routes to the r i v e r network. abundance of s h e l t e r e d anchorages along the f a c i l i t a t e d maritime  and between  communications.  interior The  coastline  However, there are only  77  two main p o i n t s of entry to the i n t e r i o r network from the c o a s t : the P e a r l and Han  River d e l t a s .  The  former g i v e s access  the sea to the m a j o r i t y of i n l a n d Lingnan, southwestern  and beyond to the  region of China, while The Han  the northeast corner of Guangdong and F u j i a n Province  River network covers  the Southwest extremity of  (Figure 4.2).  Communication routes to neighbouring  regions f o l l o w a small  number of r i v e r routes because of the ruggedness of the of  Lingnan.  to  the north through  direct  As was  borders  mentioned above, there i s no o v e r l a n d the c o a s t a l province of F u j i a n .  route to the northern c o a s t a l zone was  Moving i n l a n d , the f i r s t River v a l l e y through  by  major north-south  the centre of J i a n g x i .  route between Guangdong and Peking 1980:304).  from  The main pass connecting  the Gan  the North River i s the M e i l i n g pass.  The most  sea. route i s the  T h i s was  in h i s t o r i c  times  (Tregear  with a branch  Both the Gan  t h i s route  (Tregear  1980:301).  can a l s o be made from the Han  Access  River through  Gan  the major  and  of  North  r i v e r s are navigable up to t h e i r headwaters; a c a n a l now through  access  passes  to the Gan  River  southwest F u j i a n , as  w e l l as the East R i v e r , but these routes are more d i f f i c u l t (Rawski  1972:59-61).  A second branch pass through fiver  to a t r i b u t a r y of the Xiang River which i s the main  flowing through  Yangtze.  The  of the North River leads to the Z h e l i n g  c e n t r a l Hunan Province to the  Z h e l i n g pass i s c u r r e n t l y the major r a i l  highway route between Guangdong and 1980:301).  central  the c e n t r a l Yangtze  and (Tregear  78  FIGURE 4.3::  Bronze yue and "boot-shaped" axes (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1981; Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s  Brigade 197  79  The t h i r d  i n l a n d route between Lingnan and the north leads  from the Gui R i v e r  (which branches from the West River at  Wuzhou) through t o the headwaters Guangxi. the  of the Xiang i n northeast  T h i s i s c u r r e n t l y the main route between Guangxi and  Yangtze r e g i o n .  The West River and some of i t s t r i b u t a r i e s  pass through western and c e n t r a l Guangxi p l a t e a u and the Southwestern southwards  l e a d i n g to the Guizhou  upland Region, as w e l l as  i n t o northern Vietnam.  There are signs that a l l of  these routes were w e l l used i n the p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . the  bronzes of the Geometric area, f o r example, there are types  such as the yue and "boot-shaped" axe which are c l e a r l y to  Among  the bronze c u l t u r e s of Southeast A s i a and Southwest  related China  ( F i g u r e 4.3). Others a r e r e l a t e d to the c u l t u r e s of the c e n t r a l and lower Yangtze 330).  r e g i o n s (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1979:329-  From the i n i t i a l  h i s t o r i c p e r i o d the o v e r l a n d routes from  the  C e n t r a l Yangtze were h e a v i l y u t i l i z e d ,  Qin  armies  (Chen  the  Wuling  (Bielenstein  by the invading  1978:50), and l a t e r by c o l o n i s t s from n o r t h of 1948, Tregear 1980:45).  s t a t u s of the X i a n g - G u i j i a n g l i n k the  first  pre-) h i s t o r i c p e r i o d  i n the i n i t i a l  The major (and probably  i s symbolized by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a  c a n a l over t h i s route immediately f o l l o w i n g the Qin i n v a s i o n . In for  Chapter V I s h a l l d i s c u s s the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence  the importance of each of these routes during the Geometric  Per iod.  80  V. A.  ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERNS  OUTLINE OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  The emergence of more complex forms of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l organization  i n the Geometric  p e r i o d c o r r e l a t e s with  t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancements i n both ceramics and metal (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum D e t a i l e d treatments can be found  1979, Wen Wu Correspondent  of s t y l i s t i c  i n the Chinese  o u t l i n e s of the important  l i t e r a t u r e , as can very general  s o c i a l developmental  t r e n d s , however  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between  s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity and i n t e r r e g i o n a l detail  i t is first  1979).  and t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments  t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s c a t t e r e d (eg. Xu 1981, He 1981). to study the hypothesized  working  In order  increasing  interaction in  neccessary to d e f i n e as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e  the r e l e v a n t developmental archaeological record.  p a t t e r n s present  i n the  These p a t t e r n s provide the e m p i r i c a l  b a s i s f o r studying the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e d the development of s o c i a l  complexity.  The p a r t i c u l a r conceptual framework I s h a l l use i n t h i s chapter Clarke  i s a systemic model of c u l t u r e . 7  As Flannery  (1972)  (1968:408-431 ) Friedman & Rowlands (1977) and others have  demonstrated, t h i s kind of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r a n a l y s i n g dynamic c u l t u r a l  processes.  According to such a model, change w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l may be p r e c i p i t a t e d e i t h e r by e x t e r n a l input, i . e .  specifically 1968).  7  system  sources of  the model of the complex adaptive system  (Buckley  81  energy and information internally  coming from outside  the system, or  from adjustments between the system's i n t e r n a l  components i n the absence of e x t e r n a l stimulus 1973).  This perspective  " l o c a l evolutionary"  thus n e c c e s i t a t e s  processes,  (Wood and Matson  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  as w e l l as e x t e r n a l  cultural  inputs. While the r e l a t i v e sources of v a r i a b i l i t y  impact of i n t e r n a l versus  external  f l u c t u a t e s over time, i t i s not l o g i c a l l y  d e f e n s i b l e to take an a p r i o r i unimportant to a s p e c i f i c  stance that one or the other  sequence of development.  Rowlands emphasized the l a t t e r p o i n t with reference epigenetic  evolutionary  was  Friedman and to t h e i r  model: "the s p e c i f i c e v o l u t i o n of s o c i a l  formations depends on the i n t e r n a l p r o p e r t i e s of l o c a l upon the l o c a l c o n s t r a i n t s and upon t h e i r place  systems,  in a larger  system" (1977: 205). Furthermore, i t i s the l a r g e r system - the a r t i c u l a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t l o c a l and r e g i o n a l s o c i e t i e s and c o n d i t i o n s of reproduction universe  - that  "comprises the t o t a l  f o r the a n a l y s i s of e v o l u t i o n "  particular  framework I s h a l l be using  relevant  ( i b i d : 272). The  i s thus a l s o a u s e f u l one  because i t does not make any assumptions about t h e . r e l a t i v e strength,of  particular factors.  There are many ways of d e f i n i n g components (or "subsystems") whose operation studied. being  and developmental p a t t e r n s  w i l l be  The p a r t i c u l a r breakdown chosen depends on the problem  investigated.  Since my focus  i n t h i s study i s on the r o l e  of i n t e r r e g i o n a l exchange i n e v o l u t i o n a r y  development I have  been guided i n my d e f i n i t i o n of components by the schemes that  82  have been used p r e v i o u s l y  in s i m i l a r  s i t u a t i o n to that of p r e h i s t o r i c  studies.  A similar  southern China obtained d u r i n g  the l a t e N e o l i t h i c and e a r l y Metal Ages i n Europe. a metal technology was  adopted  from r e l a t i v e l y more complex  s o c i e t i e s i n neighbouring r e g i o n s , and  imported bronzes were  c i r c u l a t e d through p r e e x i s t i n g exchange networks n.d.,  Wells 1980).  In t h i s case  (Kristiansen  As I s h a l l argue below, t h i s a l s o appears to  be the p a t t e r n i n Lingnan.  The components used i n the  s t u d i e s i n c l u d e s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y , r e l i g i o n and r i t u a l (as the r i t u a l a s p e c t s of e l i t e  s t a t u s ) , exchange  European systems  networks,  manufacturing  (craft  (Table 5.1).  A l l except settlement can be broadly c l a s s i f i e d  Renfrew (1975)  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ) , settlement and s u b s i s t e n c e  Wells  (1980)  Kristiansen  (n.d.)  subsistence settlement  settlement  technological  manufacturing  craft  soc i a l  soc i a l  soc i a l ritual/religious  symbolic/ projective trade/ commun i c a t ion TABLE 5.1: social,  specialization  circulation  exchange  system  Subsystems d e f i n e d i n p r e v i o u s European  r i t u a l / p o l i t i c a l and economic components.  s t r u c t u r e , l i k e the s t r u c t u r e of a mortuary  studies. Settlement  population i s  e s s e n t i a l l y a r e f l e c t i o n of the s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s of the  as  83  above components, and as such i s not an e q u i v a l e n t u n i t of a n a l y s i s with the o t h e r s .  In t h i s chapter  therefore I s h a l l  be  stages of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l e v o l u t i o n d e f i n e d  by  c o n s i d e r i n g only the f o l l o w i n g components: i.  social  hierarchy,  ii.  political  networks,  iii.  manufacturing,  iv.  exchange networks. The  general  F r i e d , S e r v i c e and  others  (as o u t l i n e d by Flannery  1972)  u n d e r l i e the analyses  of these components.  take the h i e r a r c h i c a l  f e a t u r e s of the s o c i a l component as  defining and  f e a t u r e s , and  social  These t y p o l o g i e s  r e l a t e changes in the other  i n s t i t u t i o n s to them (Table 5.2,  Chinese, and  the schemes of F r i e d and  components  Flannery  c o r r e l a t i o n between the stages of the M a r x i s t  their  1972).  The  scheme used by  the  S e r v i c e are shown in Table  5.3. The  Chinese have suggested that the developmental p a t t e r n  in t h i s component i s from E g a l i t a r i a n / T r i b a l l e v e l to e a r l y State-level society.  In my  a n a l y s i s of t h i s component I s h a l l  attempt to v e r i f y and document t h i s  inferred  transition.  Under the p o l i t i c a l component I s h a l l be l o o k i n g p r i m a r i l y at the h o r i z o n t a l dimensions of e l i t e s t a t u s : the evidence the extension  and  i n t e g r a t o n of r i t u a l / a l l i a n c e networks u n i t i n g  l o c a l groups d u r i n g the Geometric The the r i s e and  Periods.  manufacturing component comprises two in t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s  secondly  for  the evidence  aspects,  first  throughout the Geometric P e r i o d ,  f o r changes in the o r g a n i z a t i o n of  84  ljt>* Ol WCltljr  S«<nt inftiiiuticni, in o*<f«r cl • poaaianco  I  1  STATE »* n a.  CKIEFDOM  §• s5  a.  C  a*  • 1  .1=  o  •D •©  TRI3E  *»  E e c o 3  EAtJO  a. 3 O  c c  M  o" W ^2 a t a a 3 3 « o o o a* o e.E © o «• u& i o iii  f  o "a  X)  c  £  3  2  * 1  6  g o•1  Arcl'.'JO:T.'Cjl  sa  'jt .y  I w  s  i  .2 C  s  i  u  3  FRANCE a •u c ENGLAND INDIA o  i  V  e  ua/L  Cbliic Mcieomtrtco Cjmor Shone China taptriol Rem*  TONGA HAWAII KWAKIUTU IJOOTKA NATCHEZ  Gulf Coflif Olmec of M«MO ucooea) Scmorron of Near EQII (5300 ac) MliioVpplon cf North Anwrico(l200A.O.I NEW GUINEA Eorly rirmotivt of HIGHLANDER!Inland Moxico SOUTHWEST (1500-1000 8.C) PUEBLOS Pr«-patt«ry Kfoflthie of Nffar Eait SIOUX 18000-6000 B.C.) KALAHARI Poloc-indion and BUSHMEN Early Archaic of AUSTRALIAN U.S. and Mexico 00-6000 DC) ACORICUVES (lOfl Lola Palosliihie of ESKIMO Near Eait SHOSHONE (io.oooac.)  TABLE 5.2 : L e v e l s of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity and a s s o c i a t e d developments i n other s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . (Flannery 1972:401)  Fried  Service  Egalitarian  Band  Marxian  North China Archaeological Cultures Paleolithic  Tr ibe Ranked  Chiefdom  Stratified  State  Primitive  Mesolithic Yangshao Lungshan  Slave  Shang-early Eastern  Feudal  Warring S t a t e s , Q i n  Zhou & Han  TABLE 5.3 : L e v e l s of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity i n r e l a t i o n to North Chinese A r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s . (Chang 1980:363, F r i e d 1983) c r a f t production  r e l a t e d to such t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancements.  One of the d e f i n i n g  f e a t u r e s of t y p o l o g i e s of s o c i a l  political  85  evolution  i s the l i n k a g e between i n c r e a s i n g h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n and  increasing craft specialization disavow the u t i l i t y processes  (Flannery  1972).  Even those  of such t y p o l o g i e s f o r studying  of c u l t u r a l complexity  recognize  who  the  t h i s l i n k a g e as a  fundamental element in the e v o l u t i o n of complex systems (Friedman and expectation  Rowlands 1977,  Wenke 1981).  I t i s thus my  basic  that the Geometric P e r i o d in Lingnan should  be  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by evidence  for increasing s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  manufacturing component.  Friedman & Rowlands, E a r l e and  have argued that i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e s t i g e goods that s p e c i a l i z a t i o n with s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r c h i s m , the production  and d i s t r i b u t i o n  system i s r e f l e c t e d 1977,  and  E a r l e & D'Altroy  based  i n the p r o d u c t i o n most s t r o n g l y  (Friedman and  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l development being  used here,  status  Rowlands 1977,  Earle  to the model of full  time c r a f t  i s a concomitant of advanced Chiefdom - e a r l y  State s o c i e t i e s ,  while part-time  occurs  s p e c i a l i s t s to v i l l a g e - l e v e l  from at l e a s t  the t r i b a l  level.  With respect to the c i r c u l a t i o n component I s h a l l concerned s o l e l y with evidence  regions.  The  be  for the movement of m a t e r i a l s  both w i t h i n the Lingnan network, and neighbouring  luxury  coordinates  of such items that the  According  specialization  of  others  because i t i s i n c o n t r o l over  1982:207).  specialization  in the  between Lingnan  general e x p e c t a t i o n  and  in t h i s area i s  for c i r c u l a t i o n of p r e s t i g e items to i n c r e a s e along with  the  degree of h i e r a r c h i s a t i o n in the s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l component for the reasons c i t e d above. specialized  production  U t i l i t a r i a n items r e q u i r i n g l e s s  are expected to show c o n s i s t e n t l y more  86  restricted circulation,  f o l l o w i n g the same l o g i c .  More d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the s p a t i a l aspects of c i r c u l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the development of h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the' movement of m a t e r i a l s 1977), although  (as per Renfrew 1975,  i t would be of the g r e a t e s t value to studying  the o p e r a t i o n of t h i s component, i s impossible b a s i s of c u r r e n t data.  T h i s lack of s p a t i a l  t o study on the  information a l s o  i n t r i n s i c a l l y a f f e c t s a n a l y s i s of the settlement Therefore and  component.  regarding the development of settlement h i e r a r c h i e s ,  the s p a t i a l aspects  of the c i r c u l a t i o n  of m a t e r i a l s we can  only speculate on the b a s i s of the model, but can do l i t t l e to confirm or r e f u t e our e x p e c t a t i o n s . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s I s h a l l present c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e evidence  i n d e t a i l the  p e r t a i n i n g to each of these  components. B.  SOCIAL COMPONENT 1.  Data Base And Methods  P r i o r t o the d i s c o v e r y of the Matougang Kui P e r i o d tombs ( a l s o known as Qingyuan #1 & #2) i n 1962 and 1963 many Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i s t s had held that groups i n the Lingnan area at the P r i m i t i v e S o c i e t y stage l a t e t h i r d century Feudal  because they manifest  i n t o the  The Qingyuan tombs were c r u c i a l  a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of wealth out of c h a r a c t e r  with P r i m i t i v e S o c i e t y . artifact  u n t i l the Qin i n v a s i o n of the  B.C., whence they moved d i r e c t l y  Stage (He 1981: 212).  remained  At the same time the m a j o r i t y of the  t r a i t s are c l e a r l y  local,  i n d i c a t i n g that these were  87  indeed  the graves of members of the l o c a l Geometric s o c i e t y  (CP.A.M. Guangdong 1 963,1964). and  e a r l y Iron Age  Finds of s e v e r a l other  tombs in the past  20 years has  Bronze  substantiated  both the e x i s t e n c e of an e l i t e group in the l a t e Geometric P e r i o d , as w e l l as i t s l o c a l According  character.  to the c u r r e n t Chinese s y n t h e s i s  (He  1981)  the  s o c i o p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Lingnan Geometric c u l t u r e s made the t r a n s i t i o n  from P r i m i t i v e to Slave S o c i e t y  ( t r i b e to  statehood) j u s t p r i o r to the Kui P e r i o d .  In t h i s s e c t i o n I  s h a l l examine in more d e t a i l the evidence  f o r such a t r a n s i t i o n ,  and  f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l of the preceding  Geometric  Periods.  The main a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data to study  the h i e r a r c h i c a l aspects  settlement and  Chevron  data  that have been used g e n e r a l l y of s o c i a l . o r g a n i z a t i o n are  (on household, i n t r a - and  mortuary data.  The  inter-site levels )  only a v a i l a b l e sources  of data  on the Geometric groups of t h i s region are a number of Geometric The social  an  use of mortuary data  status i s s t i l l surveys  in many recorded  i n d i v i d u a l during  a f t e r death.  to make i n f e r e n c e s  a t o p i c of some d i s p u t e .  by B i n f o r d (1971) and  l i f e are symbolized  Status d i s t i n c t i o n s  of grave goods, and  preparation  regarding Cross-cultural  others have i n d i c a t e d  s o c i e t i e s s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s important  s o c i a l persona) are manifested nature  reported  burials.  ethnographic that  bearing  i n h i s or her  treatment  (as w e l l as other aspects  in such f e a t u r e s as amount  of  and  the energy expended on grave  ( i b i d . , Chapman and  Randsborg  1981,  Pearson  to  1981).  88  Although i t i s not p o s s i b l e to make a p r i o r i which p a r t i c u l a r aspects  of mortuary treatment w i l l  r e l a t i v e s o c i a l s t a t u s for any redundancy of information  reflected  in s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t  Accepting  the  i n mortuary r i t u a l , where they are l i k e l y  features  to be  ( U n d e r h i l l 1983:30).  these premises I s h a l l make a p r e l i m i n a r y  examination of the b u r i a l data for an  define  i n d i v i d u a l group, because of  s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s are thus symbolized recognizable  assumptions about  to see  i f they provide  i n c r e a s e i n status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  evidence  through the Geometric  period. The Tables  excavated s i t e s known to c o n t a i n b u r i a l s are l i s t e d in  5.4  and  5.5.  At only two  Hedang - do the b u r i a l s c l e a r l y  of these  s i t e s - S h i x i a and  r e l a t e to more than  c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d w i t h i n the Geometric. s i n g l e - p e r i o d cemeteries the Bronze and published they  Iron Age  The  others are a l l  or i s o l a t e d s i n g l e b u r i a l s . burials listed  in complete d e t a i l .  represent  8  in Table  I t should  one  5.5  Most of have been  be noted however that  only part of the t o t a l excavated b u r i a l s from  those p e r i o d s .  He  (1981: 213)  s t a t e s that  11 s i t e s c o n t a i n i n g a  t o t a l of 38 graves d a t i n g to the Spring & Autumn and S t a t e s Periods have been excavated in Guangdong. full  detail  only  14 of these  Warring  Partial  or  i s a v a i l a b l e for only 31 graves at 8 s i t e s ; at most graves are  undisturbed.  9  The Y i n s h a n l i n g s i t e in Guangxi c o n t a i n s b u r i a l s from at l e a s t four d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s , however the l a t e r three are during the h i s t o r i c Han p e r i o d which l i e s o u t s i d e the c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i m i t s of t h i s study. The s i t e s for which we have no information are l o c a t e d in Fogang, Longmen and Jieyang c o u n t i e s . (He 1981) 8  9  SITE (reference) Shixia  LAYER  lower (Period  Shixia  TOTAL BURIALS  Hedang  3 (lower) :  Shek P i k  hk  as above, but 2 d e t a i l e d examples.  Most a r e p r i m a r y s i n g l e b u r i a l s , o r i e n t e d head to the E a s t . R e c t a n g u l a r p i t s , a few w i t h burnt w a l l s .  Number o f g r a v e goods per b u r i a l , and o v e r a l l v a r i e t y much d e c r e a s e d compared t o the p r e v i o u s period. C l e a r s t y l i s t i c break w i t h P e r i o d 3 graves. Few d i s c e r n a b l e group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l on a l l  P r i m a r y s i n g l e b u r i a l s In s h e l l midden. Supine, extended p o s i t i o n , o r i e n t e d head to the E a s t . Simple rectangular p i t .  1 a d u l t m a l e , 2 a d u l t f e m a l e s , 1 c h i l d . Only one f e m a l e has grave goods: 1 p o l i s h e d bone t a b l e t p l a c e d on f r o n t o f s k u l l , - a n d 1 c e r a m i c jar. P o s s i b l e e x t r a c t i o n of l a t e r a l i n c i s o r s .  g e n e r a l summary o f major f e a t u r e s ; 1 d e t a i l e d example ( ? ) ; 2 d e t a i l e d examples (£>). D e t a i l e d r e p o r t on p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y . No age/ sex breakdown.  A l l a r e inhumations. Grave pits unclear. Orientation: males g e n e r a l l y head t o the West, females t o the E a s t . If : most a r e p r o b a b l y s e c o n d a r y , s u p i n e extended position. Z>: most a r e p r i m a r y , a few a r e secondary. Body p o s i t i o n as above.  * f : A l 1 have g r a v e goods, 1 - 3 items e a c h . M a l e s m o s t l y s t o n e t o o l s 6 weapons, f e m a l e s m o s t l y s p i n d l e w h o r l s . No p o t t e r y . B u r i a l M65 (male, c a . 25 y e a r s ) .has p a l r o f f i n e l y - w o r k e d i v o r y tube ornaments p l a c e d n e x t t o t h e s k u l 1. £, : Grave goods as above. B u r i a l M25 (male y o u t h w e a r s l a r g e I v o r y r i n g on r i g h t hand, and g r o o v e d bone ornament on s k u l l . T o o t h e x t r a c t i o n ( l a t e r a l i n c i s o r s ) seen In a d u l t s , both sexes.  i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l on  No v i s i b l e grave p i t s . Body p o s i t i o n ( d i s c e r n a b l e for 3 b u r i a l s ) supine, e x t e n d e d , o r i e n t e d head t o the South.  B u r i a l V, none; B u r i a l s I S I I , 1 p o l i s h e d s t o n e r i n g each, 6 1 coarse geometric- impressed p o t ; b u r i a l IV, v a r i o u s f a u n a l r e m a i n s , s h a r k - t o o t h head ornament, p o l i s h e d s t o n e r i n g , c o a r s e G e o m e t r i c p o t , k p o l i s h e d s t o n e weapons I n c l u d i r 1 <je_; b u r i a l V I , 1 s o f t G e o m e t r i c j a r , 25 stone t o o l s , spear p o i n t s t b l a n k s .  (j? =8 t,"^9  all.  No age/sex i n f o r m a t i o n  TABLE 5.4:  SPECIAL FEATURES  p r i m a r y and secondary s i n g l e l a r g e g r a v e s each c o n t a i n 60 - 100 g r a v e goods, i n c l u d i n g r i t u a l o b j e c t s and j a d e o r n a m e n t s . b u r i a l s , o r i e n t e d head t o - 12 Items, the E a s t . R e c t a n g u l a r p i t s , Medium 6 s m a l l g r a v e s each c o n t a i n B o t h p r i m a r y and secondary b u r i a l f u r n i t u r e . most w i t h burnt w a l l s . Shixia Culture.  middle, a (upper i )  2 periods in burials: (below s h e l 1 midden); ( i n midden layer)  GRAVE GOODS AND  ORIENTATION  g e n e r a l summary o f major f e a t u r e s ; 1 d e t a i l e d example. Relevent b u r i a l s i d e n t i f i e d by c a t a l o g u e number. No age/sex i n f o r m a t i o n .  ( P e r i o d <t)  Jinlansi  GRAVE FORM AND  M 3)  middle  PUBLISHED INFORMATION  Chevron P e r i o d b u r i a l s from Guangdong Province  SITE (reference)  LAYER  Zaogang  midden  Hedang  2 (upper ): 2 p e r i o d s in b u r i a 1 s : <*> 6 T, i n upper part of shel 1 midden.  Raoping County  7  TABLE 5.4;  PUBLISHED  TOTAL BURIALS  6  1?) =27 1 -2*  2k  individual  INFORMATION  detail  on  GRAVE FORM AND ORIENTATION  all  as f o r L a y e r 3, pfc)&T e a c h r e p r e s e n t e d one d e t a i l e d e x a m p l e .  by  very fragmentary information from s e v e r a l g e n e r a l commentar i es  (continued)  GRAVE GOODS AND SPECIAL  FEATURES  no g r a v e p i t s d i s c e r n a b l e . S i n g l e primary b u r i a l s , body p o s i t i o n s u p i n e , e x t e n d e d , head t o t h e Southeast.  3 adult males, 2 adult females, 1 c h i l d . 2 of the m a l e s and one f e m a l e e a c h have 1 s m a l l p o l i s h e d s t o n e a d z e , b r o k e n a t the b u t t e n d . Possible extraction of lateral incisors.  One g r a v e may c o n t a i n double female b u r i a l , remainder are s i n g l e , p r i m a r y . Body p o s i t i o n as f o r L a y e r 3-  M a j o r i t y have g r a v e g o o d s . A r t i f a c t s as f o r L a y e r 3, e x c e p t 9 p o t t e r y v e s s e l s a l s o f o u n d . T o o t h e x t r a c t i o n , as f o r L a y e r 3.  7  G e o m e t r i c - i m p r e s s e d j a r s and pan d i s h e s . Some g l a z e d , some p r o t o - p o r c e l a i n w a r e s . Many t y p e s o f p o l i s h e d s t o n e t o o l s , w e a p o n s , and o r n a m e n t s . One b r o n z e <je_. C e r a m i c t r a i t s s a i d t o be u n i q u e t o the N o r t h e a s t a r e a . No o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n y e t p u b l i s h e d .  91  The  s t y l e of r e p o r t i n g  different.  for N e o l i t h i c  and  Hedang the  summary form o n l y .  One  for each time p e r i o d between the  differentiation  detailed  d e f i n e d , and  the  burials  described in  examples are  provided  major changes v i s i b l e 1978,  class  of the main f e a t u r e s that  Chinese  concerned to d e r i v e from b u r i a l data, thus  absence of p r e c i s e  preliminary  judgements about the  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n evident  two  f e a t u r e s of the  noted ( S h i x i a A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team  even i n the  be p o s s i b l e  l a r g e r cemeteries such  Information r e l a t i n g to  i s one  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s are  the  l e s s have  a r t i f a c t assemblages) are  or two  p e r i o d s are  Yang & Chen 1981).  For  characteristic  (grave form, o r i e n t a t i o n ,  The  i s somewhat  Only those s i t e s c o n t a i n i n g 6 graves or  been reported in d e t a i l so f a r . as S h i x i a  burials  to r e f i n e  in the  in future  d e t a i l i t is possible degree of  to make  status  remains, judgements which i t  may  when more data become a v a i l a b l e .  Hong Kong data present a d i f f e r e n t problem a g a i n .  s i t e s , Sham Wan  (Meacham ed.  1975,  both s i t e s has  and  1978).  have produced d e f i n i t e  Although the  burials  individual burials  for  been reported, because of poor excavation  techniques at Shek Pik, at Sham Wan,  Shek Pik,  Only  the  and  unclear s t r a t i g r a p h i c  r e l a t i v e d a t i n g of the  burials  associations  is  tentative.  Other s i t e s have been i n f e r r e d to c o n t a i n cemetery.areas on  the  basis  as  no  of d i s t i n c t i v e a r t i f a c t d i s t r i b u t i o n s  (see  below) but  s k e l e t a l remains have been recovered to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s  idea,  these cannot be  regarded as confirmed b u r i a l s .  92  2. i.  Chevron Periods  Chevron 1  The P e r i o d 3 b u r i a l s from S h i x i a are the only r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the i n i t i a l phase of the Geometric Horizon i n Lingnan.  It  seems, however, that they are not t y p i c a l of r e g i o n s of Guangdong other than the upper  reaches of the North R i v e r .  P e r i o d 3 b u r i a l s represent the f i n a l termed  "The S h i x i a C u l t u r e "  stage of what has been  (Su 1978).  of t h i s c u l t u r e , represented p r i m a r i l y S h i x i a and some nearby s i t e s :11), are pre-Geometric. clearly  The  The e a r l i e r  two stages  i n b u r i a l c o n t e x t s at  ( S h i x i a A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team 1978  The S h i x i a C u l t u r e as a whole i s  l i n k e d t o a ceramic h o r i z o n which extends  northwards  through J i a n g x i P r o v i n c e to the c e n t r a l and lower Yangtze area the h o r i z o n which Chang has termed 1977:144, Zeng Relatively  the Lungshanoid  (Chang  1982). intact  skeletal  remains have been recovered from  only 4 out of the 108 b u r i a l s at S h i x i a , and very  fragmentary  remains have been recovered from a few others ( S h i x i a A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team 1978:2-3).  D i s t r i b u t i o n of these s k e l e t a l  remains by p e r i o d has not been r e p o r t e d , nor i s i t recorded whether the fragmentary remains are s u f f i c i e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n of age and sex.  to allow  At present no such data i s  available. F o r t y - f o u r P e r i o d 3 b u r i a l s have been excavated.  According  to the e x c a v a t o r s there are notable d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l a t i v e and wealth between them.  Small and medium-sized  size  graves c o n t a i n  f a r fewer grave goods than l a r g e r ones: 4-12 items per grave as  93  opposed  t o 60 to 110+ f o r the l a t t e r .  In t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of grave form the excavators do not provide the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t it  forms by p e r i o d , thus  i s not c e r t a i n how the three major c a t e g o r i e s  shallow p i t ' ,  'Primary, medium-depth p i t ' and 'Secondary'  with the three s i z e c a t e g o r i e s .  equate  However, as there are 1 9  primary and 25 secondary b u r i a l s i n the sample, three forms do a l s o represent d i s t i n c t likely  'Primary,  and s i n c e the  size categories,  i t seems  that a l l three forms a r e represented i n P e r i o d 3 .  Because of t h e i r bearing on s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s I s h a l l  discuss  them i n some d e t a i l . Shallow p i t graves a r e s m a l l , v a r y i n g from approximately 0.5 poor  to 1.1m , with a minimum length of 1 metre. 2  i n grave goods.  55.8%  They are a l s o  have no grave goods a t a l l ,  the remainder c o n t a i n between 1 and 12 p i e c e s each.  while  Judging by  the s i z e of the s m a l l e s t graves, and the f a c t that only extended b u r i a l s have been documented i n t h i s area, at l e a s t some of these must be i n f a n t or c h i l d b u r i a l s .  The excavators seem t o  think that the remainder a r e mostly female: they mention  that  among the grave goods s p i n d l e whorls and stone r i n g s are most commonly seen, while stone t o o l s are very rare  (ibid, 2).  Medium-depth primary b u r i a l p i t s are l a r g e r , ranging  i between 1.1 and 1.6m , with a minimum length of 1.8 metres. 2  They c o n t a i n more grave goods than S h a l l o w - p i t b u r i a l s , but l e s s than secondary b u r i a l s .  In terms of s t y l e and grouping the  grave goods are more s i m i l a r to those of secondary b u r i a l s than of the s m a l l e r primary b u r i a l s .  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , some appear to  94  be  graves  bur  from  which  body  has  been  removed  for  secondary  ial. Secondary  pits.  Their  accompanied aspects have  of  b u r i a l s are  size by  varies  the  burial  burnt  earth  are pit  placed  in  are  in  northeast.  the  (ochre? This  £L  in  The as  discs, also  large a  noted  see  as  the  evidence  individuals  or  ranked  or  society,  distinctions perhaps  the  information  burials  period  graves  contain  the  over  the  forces  that wealth  absence  i t i s not  they  skeleton.  types  which  9). ritual  ornaments The  large  of  7%  good  contain  of  90%  objects  such  as  ha  excavators  numbers  class  of  tools),  have tools which  distinctions  production  by  wealthy  12).  burials  in  the  agricultural  beginnings  (ibid,  and  and  Over  earth  vessel  (ibid:  pendants.  these  status  ceramic  are  remains  in  red  grave  and  i t is clear  in  the  group.  beside  plaques  individual lineages  Unfortunately, spatial  in  in  also  skeletal  is  crystal  families not  also  grave  Ritual  p i t and  and  for  in control  the  or  third  this  there  of  They  goods.  the  of  woodworking  originating  Whether  3  in  jade  large  (mainly  grave  of  largest  2  top  set  the  2.2m .  93%  cases  on  the  and  rings,  that  production  they  cong,  slotted  about  most  basic  of  and  of  section  a l l Period  graves  jade  in  i s echoed  is a  with  standardized  ) placed  there  almost  very  In  1.5  amounts  walls,  standardization  occurs  between  southeast  =h  assemblages:  such  the  associated  largest  are  of  the  represent there  between  this of yet  are  age  early  very  great  stages  individuals  period and  the  and  sex  possible  to  and  region.  data  as  well  investigate  as the  of  95  nature and  i i. One  b a s i s of t h i s s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  in any  detail.  Chevron 2 & 3  of the  f e a t u r e s which makes the e a r l y Geometric periods  at  S h i x i a so i n t e r e s t i n g i s the break which i s v i s i b l e between P e r i o d 3 ( I n i t i a l Chevron) and Period) gap  burials.  Period 4 (Chevron Soft  Radiocarbon data  between the two  i n d i c a t e that the  i s not great, yet judging  Pottery temporal  by the mortuary  remains there  i s great c u l t u r a l d i s t a n c e between them in  stylistic  r i t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as w e l l as r e l a t i v e  and  the  social  complexity. Some f e a t u r e s of P e r i o d 3 are r e t a i n e d in l e s s e r proportions not  in Period 4 b u r i a l s ,  represent  stylistic  and  i n d i c a t i n g that t h i s break does  a complete population ritual  replacement.  However, the  t r a i t s which l i n k e d the S h i x i a C u l t u r e  so  s t r o n g l y to the Yangtze c u l t u r e s are d r a s t i c a l l y diminished, the evidence of vast wealth and correspondingly  status d i f f e r e n c e s are  reduced.  There are 44 p e r i o d 4 b u r i a l s corresponding habitation  l a y e r at S h i x i a .  The  to the middle  comments made above  the type of data a v a i l a b l e f o r Period 3 b u r i a l s apply Period  4.  Grave s i z e and  variability  reduced compared to Period 3. (15.9%),  are secondary.  they are  shallow  At l e a s t  one  grave  and  The  regarding a l s o to  in grave s i z e are  both  Very few b u r i a l s , at' most 7 remainder are primary, but  or medium-depth p i t s or both i s not  i s of a f o u r t h p i t type,  whether  reported.  termed "pebble mound  In t h i s grave type the  skeletal  remains  96  and grave goods are surrounded and covered with f i l l l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of limestone pebbles. preservation  i n a l l 4 pebble mound graves.  c i t e d : b u r i a l M70 to have met  There  i s a female of about  a v i o l e n t death  containing  i s good s k e l e t a l  Only one example i s  f o r t y years who  appears  ( S h i x i a A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team 1978:2).  The amount of grave goods i s a l s o much reduced over the previous period.  The range  i n q u a n t i t i e s i s not r e p o r t e d ,  however the two examples given each c o n t a i n l e s s than 10 p i e c e s . The excavators note that p r e l i m i n a r y examination of the contents of t h i s p e r i o d ' s graves have revealed'no obvious  group  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among them, i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r being few t r a i t s l i n k i n g them to the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d ornamental a r t i f a c t s r e t a i n e d  (ibid:10).  i n P e r i o d 4 graves are  The only slotted  r i n g s : none of the s p e c i a l s t a t u s goods such as cong and b_i d i s c s have been encountered. One must of course be c a u t i o u s in i n t e r p r e t i n g  such changes  in wealth and s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s as r e p r e s e n t i n g a change in the degree of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as a whole.  in e a r l y Geometric  Such negative evidence may  in the use of e i t h e r the cemetery  itself  society  simply r e f l e c t a change ( f o r example,  r e s t r i c t i o n to one lower s t a t u s l i n e a g e ) , or of the settlement whose i n h a b i t a n t s are i n t e r r e d here. absence  On the other hand, the  of obvious s t a t u s / w e a l t h d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the S h i x i a  Period 4 b u r i a l s  i s c o n s i s t e n t with i n f o r m a t i o n from other Late  N e o l i t h i c b u r i a l s i t e s i n Guangdong such as Hedang's lower b u r i a l s and J i n l a n s i .  layer  While some i n d i v i d u a l b u r i a l s from these  s i t e s c o n t a i n s p e c i a l ornaments or p o s s i b l y r i t u a l  status  97  symbols ( f o r example Hedang M25 Table 5.4),  & J i n l a n s i ' s female b u r i a l :  see  i n general there i s l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between  b u r i a l s i n amount of grave goods or energy expended.  Burial  p i t s are small and simple, and grave goods are few to nonexistent  (Table 5.4).  A few b u r i a l s from the upper  l a y e r of Hedang and two  Shek Pik which probably a l s o date to the Chevron  from  Transitional  P e r i o d begin to evidence d i f f e r e n c e s i n wealth between apparently contemporaneous b u r i a l s .  The  two wealthy  burials  from Shek P i k , f o r example, were a s s o c i a t e d with 22 and  26  a r t i f a c t s each, while the other four had 3 items or l e s s . At the Hedang s i t e there are s t r i c t the grave assemblages of males and an apparent  d i s t i n c t i o n s between  females, which i s r e l a t e d to  sexual d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r : males are i n t e r r e d with  stone hunting and woodworking t o o l s , while females are accompanied p r i m a r i l y by s p i n d l e whorls and ceramics Chen  (Yang  and  1981). It  i s unfortunate that the 24 T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d graves  from Raoping  County have not yet been i n d i v i d u a l l y r e p o r t e d ,  since they are the only group of b u r i a l s excavated so f a r which date to the beginnings of the Bronze Age  in Lingnan.  One  l o c a l l y - m a n u f a c t u r e d bronze g_e and  some very h i g h - q u a l i t y  ceramics were r e p o r t e d l y unearthed  from these b u r i a l s ,  i n d i c a t i n g a s c a l e of wealth u n l i k e that represented i n the l a t e N e o l i t h i c b u r i a l s from the P e a r l D e l t a area. Period b u r i a l s  The e a r l i e s t  i n d i c a t e very wide d i s t i n c t i o n s i n wealth  s t a t u s , t h e r e f o r e a n a l y s i s of a s i t e such as t h i s may  Kui  and  prove  98  c r u c i a l to understanding the nature of the t r a n s i t i o n between the r e l a t i v e l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t r u c t u r e of Late N e o l i t h i c s o c i e t y , and the h i g h l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Bronze and Iron Age s o c i e t y of Lingnan. 3.  Kui P e r i o d  A number of b u r i a l s i t e s of the Kui P e r i o d have been excavated in Guangdong and Guangxi. p o s s i b l e b u r i a l groups graves.  Apart from one confirmed and  several  in Hong Kong, a l l are e l a b o r a t e s i n g l e  A l l except for the Hong Kong examples have been dated  on s t y l i s t i c  grounds to the l a t e S p r i n g & Autumn and  Warring S t a t e s , or approximately 600  to 400 BC  early  (Table 5.5).  The b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of the grave good assemblages i s the same f o r a l l of the s i n g l e graves.  The bulk of the a r t i f a c t s  are bronzes, u s u a l l y accompanied by only one or two  geometric-  impressed ceramic  The  j a r s and one or more whetstones.  bronzes  i n c l u d e weapons, t o o l s , v e s s e l s , r i t u a l and musical o b j e c t s , o c c a s i o n a l m i s c e l l a n e o u s items such as m i r r o r s . as yue b a t t l e axes, g_e dagger-axes,  and  Weapons, such  spears, swords, arrowheads  and daggers, are the most numerous category i n a l l r e p o r t e d assemblages.  At l e a s t one bronze v e s s e l  and one b e l l are contained i n each  ( u s u a l l y a ding t r i p o d )  burial.  F i v e out of the s i x Guangdong b u r i a l s for which t h i s information  i s recorded c o n t a i n e d a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c set of  o b j e c t s whose p r e c i s e s i g n i f i c a n c e i s unknown. bronze s t a f f s capped  with a human-head f i n i a l  ritual  These are short (Figure  5.1).  I n t a c t tombs each c o n t a i n e d four, p l a c e d i n the four c o r n e r s of the p i t .  The only Guangxi Kui P e r i o d tomb c o n t a i n e d at l e a s t  SITE (reference) (Kui  TOTAL BURIALS  PUBLISHED  INFORMATION  GRAVE FORM AND ORIENTATION  GRAVE GOODS AND SPECIAL FEATURES  Period)  6  individual  1  fragmentary  information  ?  1 human-head b r o n z e s t a f f (tomb o r i g i n a l l y h e l d *(), 1 g e o m e t r i c - i m p r e s s e d c e r a m i c j a r . O t h e r remains not r e p o r t e d .  #1  1  fragmentary  information  ?  A t l e a s t 50 b r o n z e s : weapons Cl2 yue axes), ritual o b j e c t s {k human-head s t a f f s ) , 2 v e s s e l s , 2 b e l l s . 1 geometric-impressed ceramic j a r . O t h e r remains not r e p o r t e d .  #2  1  fragmentary  information  ?  B r o n z e s , and 1 g e o m e t r i c No f u r t h e r information..  1  individual  detai1  #t  1  individual  detail  #2  1  individual  detail  Sham Wan Layer C  detail  (Meacham e d . , 1978)  Lanmashan,  no g r a v e p i t s d i s c e r n a b l e . 2 cremations, 2 inhumations, a l l a r e s i n g l e b u r i a l s . Body p o s i t i o n S o r i e n t a t i o n not di s c e r n a b l e .  (A9) Luoding  (.A9)  Luoding W9)  Niaodanshan  (#28)  Matougang  Double-sectioned subr e c t a n g u l a r p i t , 3.5 X 5.7m ( p a r t i a l l e n g t h ) . Fragments o f wood a l o n g one s i d e o f large s e c t i o n . Oriented North-South. Position of body unknown.  7  (#11)  Matougang (#12)  TABLE 5.5:  R e c t a n g u l a r p i t , 3.1m^. Layer o f sandstone pebbles at base, covered with layer of y e l l o w e a r t h . O r i e n t e d head to t h e S o u t h e a s t . Body p o s i t i o n unknown.  none  impressed ceramic  jar.  59 b r o n z e s : weapons C i l , i n c l u d i n g 28 a r r o w h e a d s ) , 9 t o o l s , b human-head s t a f f s , 't v e s s e l s , 1 b e l l . 1 geometric-impressed ceramic j a r , 3 whetstones. A l l p l a c e d in s m a l l e n d - s e c t i o n .  L o c a t e d 6 m e t r e s from Matougang #2. 25 b r o n z e s : 8 w e a p o n s , 6 b e l l s , 5 v e s s e l s , 't h u m a n - f i g u r e staffs 2 "crossbars". 6 ceramic v e s s e l s , i n c l u d i n g 2 k u i impressed ceramic j a r s ; 2 whetstones.  39 b r o n z e s : weapons ( 3 1 , i n c l u d i n g 22 a r r o w h e a d s ) , 7 bells, 1 vessel. 1 geometric-impressed ceramic jar; 1 whetstone, 1 stone s t i c k .  K u i and Mi P e r i o d b u r i a l s from Guangdong and Guangxi  Provinces  SITE (reference)  J iahui  TOTAL BURIALS  1?  PUBLISHED INFORMATION  GRAVE FORM AND ORIENTATION  GRAVE GOODS AND SPECIAL FEATURES  i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i I on bronzes o n l y  33 b r o n z e s : 12 weapons, 8 v e s s e l s , 7 t o o l s ; 2 b e l l s , 2 animal-topped s t a f f s . 2 u n i d e n t i f i e d o b j e c t s . Other remains unknown.  fragmentary  2 human-head bronze s t a f f s No o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n .  (#38)  (Kui  o r Mi P e r i o d )  Gaodiyuan #1  information  (#49)  (Mi  (tomb o r i g i n a l l y h e l d  k).  Period)  Luoyanshan  individual  detail  Double-sectioned r e c t a n g u l a r p i t 15 b r o n z e s : 8 t o o l s , 5 weapons, 1 v e s s e l , 1 b e l l . 1 . 7 m . Waist p i t i n s m a l l e n d 1 geometric-impressed ceramic j a r ; 2 whetstones; s e c t i o n . O r i e n t e d head t o t h e 1 pierced pebble. S o u t h e a s t . Body p o s i t i o n unknown. 2  (#3<0  Tonggugang (#30)  Songshan  22  individual detai1 f o r 7 u n d i s t u r b e d and 8 p a r t i a l l y disturbed graves.  R e c t a n g u l a r p i t i n h u m a t i o n s , no ••' ( i n t a c t g r a v e s o n l y ) T o t a l o f 112 b r o n z e s , 25 s i g n s o f c o f f i n s . 2 have l a y e r c e r a m i c v e s s e l s and 11 w h e t s t o n e s . Number o f o f sandstone p e b b l e s i n base. items p e r g r a v e ranges from 2 t o kO. A l l graves 1.8 t o 3 - l m . P r o b a b l y a l l a r e c o n t a i n weapons, 'i c o n t a i n swords. single burials. Orientation: 3 D i s t i n c t i o n i n 5 l a r g e r g r a v e s between t h o s e head t o S o u t h e a s t , 11 between c o n t a i n i n g large p r o p o r t i o n s o f ceramics {k3~5S%)• Northwest and N o r t h e a s t . no w h e t s t o n e s and few b r o n z e weapons (1 o r 2 p i e c e s , k-\k% o f a s s e m b l a g e ) , and t h o s e c o n t a i n i n g s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n s o f ceramics ( 0 - 6 1 ) , several whetstones and l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f b r o n z e weapons (6-12 p i e c e s 20-'(U o f a s s e m b l a g e ) .  individual  Large r e c t a n g u l a r p i t , 3 7 . 6 m . Wooden o u t e r and i n n e r c o f f i n s , inner c o f f i n placed i n c e n t r e o f p i t , w i t h g r a v e goods p l a c e d o u t s i d e a t e i t h e r end. Above and below o u t e r c o f f i n was l a y e r o f burnt wood and g r a s s . O r i e n t e d head t o t h e E a s t . No s k e l e t a l remains.  (#35)  TABLE 5.5  (continued)  detail  2  2  108 b r o n z e s : kO t o o l s , 2k o r n a m e n t a l & r i t u a l o b j e c t s ( i n c l u d i n g 't human-head s t a f f s ) , \k v e s s e l s , 6 b e l l s . 18 c e r a m i c v e s s e l s , 3 c e r a m i c b e a d s , 7 j a d e ornaments ( i n c l u d i n g 2 carved rings w i t h gold handles), 1 glazed s t o n e bead and 1 w h e t s t o n e .  SITE (reference)  Yinshanling  TOTAL BURIALS  110  PUBLISHED INFORMATION  individual  (#40)  detail  GRAVE FORM AND ORIENTATION  GRAVE GOODS AND SPECIAL FEATURES  V a r i e t y o f g r a v e forms from s m a l l r e c t a n g u l a r p i t s w i t h no c o f f i n , to mid-sized rectangular p i t s with second-level platforms ( l e d g e s ) , to m u l t i s e c t i o n e d p a s s a g e tombs. A few have p e b b l e l a y e r i n bottom o f p i t (.3%). Most have w a i s t p i t c o n t a i n i n g a ceramic vessel (73%)• The m a j o r i t y o f l a r g e r p i t s have c o f f i n s , some have b o t h i n n e r and o u t e r c o f f i n s . S i z e v a r i e s from \.k t o 8 . 0 m . No s k e l e t a l remains. Majority a r e o r i e n t e d head t o the E a s t .  T o t a l o f 377 b r o n z e s : 283 weapons, 46 t o o l s , 39 u t e n s i l s , 6 anima1-topped s t a f f s , 1 b e l l , 1 m i s c e l l a n e o u s Items. 181 i r o n a r t i f a c t s : 177 t o o l s , 3 weapons, 1 v e s s e l . 11 bronze and i r o n a r t i f a c t s : 8 a r r o w h e a d s , 2 v e s s e l s , 1 k n i f e . 360 c e r a m i c s : 190 c u p s , 89 he_ b o x e s , 45 l a r g e j a r s and c o o k i n g v e s s e l s , 36 s p i n d l e w h o r l s . 115 s t o n e a r t i f a c t s , i n c l u d i n g 42 j a d e o r t u r q u o i s e ornaments and 71 whetstones. Each g r a v e c o n t a i n s from 1 t o 50 g r a v e goods. 5 types o f assemblages d e f i n e d : (#) 1. weapons, t o o l s and u t e n s i l s 30 2. s p i n d l e w h o r l s , t o o l s and u t e n s i l s 36 3. weapons and u t e n s i l s 17 4. t o o l s and u t e n s i l s 15 5. o t h e r . 4 D i s t i n c t i o n between type 1 and type 2 i n t e r p r e t e d as s e x d i s t i n c t i o n : t y p e 1 " m a l e , t y p e 2 .» f e m a l e .  2  TABLE 5.5  (continued)  1 02  c.  a. b. c. d.  Niaodanshan ( G u a n g d o n g P r o v i n c i a l M u s e u m 1 9 7 5) M a t o u g a n g #1 ( C P . A . M . G u a n g d o n g 1 9 6 3 ) Yinshanling (Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s B r i g a d e 1978) Jiahui ( G u a n g x i P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1 9 7 3 )  F I G U R E 5 . 1 : Human a n d a n i m a l - t o p p e d Mi Period graves  staffs  from K u i and  103  two animal topped s t a f f s . unknown  10  Grave  Their placement  w i t h i n the grave i s  . form has been r e p o r t e d for only two b u r i a l s .  l e a s t two cases t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s m i s s i n g because were unearthed by c o n s t r u c t i o n workers, not by archaeologists. and Niaodanshan  Matougang No.2,  In at  the graves  trained  ( a l s o known as Qingyuan  No.2)  are both estimated to be e a r l y Warring S t a t e s i n  date, however, they are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  in scale.  a simple small r e c t a n g u l a r p i t inhumation, 3.1m  former i s  in area.  2  are no t r a c e s of a wooden c o f f i n ,  The  but i n the bottom  There  of the p i t  i s a l a y e r of sandstone pebbles, covered with a l a y e r of rammed earth  (Figure 5.2).  bronzes  (C.P.A.M. Guangdong 1964).  contrast,  The Niaodanshan  tomb, by  i s a d o u b l e - s e c t i o n e d s u b - r e c t a n g u l a r p i t , with t r a c e s  of wood l i n i n g segment.  The t o t a l of 42 grave goods i n c l u d e s 39  (coffin  remains?) along one w a l l of the l a r g e r  Although the large segment has been p a r t i a l l y  destroyed, the remaining area i s almost 20m . 2  The  burial  f u r n i t u r e i s r i c h e r than Matougang, and i t c o n t a i n s a set of the human-head s t a f f s which were not found at the former The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of wealth and high energy  site.  investment i n  these tombs, as w e l l as t h e i r a p p a r e n t l y i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n  and  measured d i s t r i b u t i o n , a l l point to t h e i r being the graves of a small e l i t e group.  The d i f f e r e n c e s between the Matougang  No.2  T h i s s i t e ( J i a h u i ) was not excavated by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . Only the bronze a r t i f a c t s , and no i n f o r m a t i o n about the s i t e i t s e l f , were r e c o v e r e d . I t i s assumed to be a b u r i a l because of the nature of the a r t i f a c t assemblage (Guangxi P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1973). 1 0  1 04  a. 2  3  a. Matougang #2  4  10:2 11-32  33 "34  6 8 9 7  35  b. Niaodanshan  l?y  35 37  (CP.A.M. Guangdong 1964)  1. bronze l e i urn 2-5. bronze~bells 6,7. bronze axes 8,9. bronze yue b a t t l e axes 10:1. bronze spear 10:2. bronze spear butt 11-32. bronze arrowheads 33-35. bronze daggers 36,37. stone batons 38. whetstone 39. Gecmetric-irrpressed guan j a r  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1975)  1,12. human-head s t a f f 2. bronze ding axe shovel-shaped t o o l chisel spear  7. scraper 8. arrowhead 9. duo b e l l 10. whetstone 11. sword 12. sword  13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.  (1-9;11-17 are bronze) FIGURE 5.2:  Kui Period graves, Guangdong Province  he v e s s e l spear butt spear butt ge knife geometric-impressed guan j a r  1 05  and  Niaodanshan  distinctions  graves  within  are  the  suggestive  elite  group  of  both  which  status  these  and  wealth  burials  seem  to  represent. Just elite,  i s very  evidence  itself  Kui  Kui  elite  that  at  ed.1978,  same  this  found  located  the  identified  1960). from  No  contrasts  rest  with  Kong,  of  the  Kui  Period  current data.  and  of  with  i n Hong  very  Kong  different burials  which  that  seem  tradition  The  evidence  is  cremations,  and  two  but  burials,  in contrast  to  which  date  to  than  both  the  several  They  from  consist  the  Sham  inhumations.  identified,  of  to  in Lingnan.  were  sites Man  i n Hong  Kok  one  i n the  Tsui  or  more  elite  excavated. side  of  a  habitation  grave  either  the  between  were  i t does the  Wan  No  appear  pre-geometric  multiple  (Meacham  XI).  comprising  on  Hong  was  six skeletons recovered  site,  At  been  a  goods  other  areas.  type  i s from  are  single  rings' have  of  two  Chapter  clusters  and  investigate  Neolithic  grave  Several burial  of  about  least  a l l were  burials  tombs,  to  burials  Late of  p i t or  relationship  speculative.  and  At  these  difficult  Period are  fragments  site.  by  confirmed  the  grave  structural  available  rather  The  of  the  represented  society only  what  pits  these  or  steep  Hai  the  thought  Dei  ware  because  habitation,  a  areas  remains  stone  site,  within  to contain  small  fine  former  hill  Wan  polished  workshop  but  are  complete  skeletal  sites,  identified  and  tombs), At  and  Kong  midden,  (of  tools  been  and  were  metres Tregear  recorded  configuration or  the  and/or  finds  hundred  (Davis  their  jars  these  few  have  artifact  workshop  1 06  d e p o s i t s , they have been t e n t a t i v e l y c l a s s i f i e d as b u r i a l areas ( i b i d . , W i l l i a m s 1979:50).  I t should a l s o be noted that the  composition of the a r t i f a c t  c l u s t e r s i s very s i m i l a r to grave  assemblages  from nearby Late N e o l i t h i c  (Yang and Chen 1981).  s i t e s such as Hedang  S c h o f i e l d has suggested i n a s i m i l a r  vein  that the c l u s t e r s of bronze weapons unearthed d u r i n g sandd i g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s at the T a i Wan represented b u r i a l assemblages examples 1.  will  site  i n Hong Kong may  (Meacham, ed.1975: 48).  serve to i l l u s t r a t e these a r t i f a c t  a group of a r t i f a c t s from one  "assegais"  (spear p o i n t ) ,  types of arrowheads,  2.  Two  clusters:  10 foot cut y i e l d e d 1  1 dagger,  1 adze.  1 spearhead, and  p l u s s e v e r a l p o l i s h e d stone r i n g s . very nearby may  have  a l s o be a s s o c i a t e d  2 different  1 g_e ( a l l of bronze),  A corded ware j a r found (Finn  1958:105).  a group i n c l u d i n g bronze adze, small spear head,  head found with fragments of a kui-impressed" j a r . l a r g e bronze spearhead was (ibid:227).  lance  Another  found about 3 feet away  Finn suggested an e a r l y Warring States date  for other bronze p i e c e s found at T a i Wan, ceramic from the second c l u s t e r would  and the kui-impressed  support that e s t i m a t e .  A l t o g e t h e r , between 50 and 100 bronze weapons and t o o l s have been  found at T a i Wan,  many i n c l u s t e r s along- one s e c t i o n of the  r a i s e d sandbar, s p a t i a l l y d i s t i n c t habitation areas. identification structural noted  An a d d i t i o n a l point arguing f o r the  of these c l u s t e r s as b u r i a l assemblages  similarities  above.  from the i d e n t i f i e d  to the assemblages  from e l i t e  i s their tombs  107  If we assume,' as seems reasonable,  that these l a t t e r  two  kinds of assemblages do indeed represent b u r i a l s , then at two,  and perhaps three d i f f e r e n t b u r i a l types and  wealth are evidenced  least  l e v e l s of  i n Hong Kong during the Kui P e r i o d .  This  reconstruction  i s admittedly s p e c u l a t i v e , being based as i t i s  on unconfirmed  burial sites.  However, i n the subsequent Mi  P e r i o d the l e s s a f f l u e n t members of Lingnan visible  i n confirmed  4.  mortuary c o n t e x t s .  Mi P e r i o d  B u r i a l s d a t i n g to the middle have been unearthed r e p o r t e d , but Two,  The  cemeteries.  and  l a t e Warring  at 5 s i t e s i n Lingnan.  S t a t e s (Mi  Only  Zhaoqing are s i n g l e , a p p a r e n t l y  other two,  Period)  4 have been  i n a l l 4 cases the r e p o r t s are extremely  Luoyanshan and  graves.  s o c i e t y a l s o become  detailed.  isolated  Tonggugang and Y i n s h a n l i n g are  Because the l a t t e r two  are the only d e t a i l e d  r e p o r t s a v a i l a b l e of a set of more or l e s s contemporaneous b u r i a l s they are worth studying at some l e n g t h .  A complete  a n a l y s i s i s beyond the scope of t h i s study; however, p r e l i m i n a r y t a b u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the b u r i a l s The Tonggugang s i t e  Only  structural  in each cemetery.  i s the only Kui or Mi  r e p o r t e d from Guangdong Province 1981).  i n t o the  Period.cemetery  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum  7 out of 22 i d e n t i f i e d graves were undisturbed at  time of e x c a v a t i o n , contents of the remainder being s c a t t e r e d throughout  the s i t e area.  A Late N e o l i t h i c h a b i t a t i o n s i t e i s  l o c a t e d on the top of the same h i l l ,  but no h a b i t a t i o n area  108  contemporaneous to the b u r i a l s  has been i d e n t i f i e d .  A l l of the i n t a c t and s e m i - i n t a c t graves c o n t a i n e d weapons, and on t h i s b a s i s they have been thought to be a l l male graves (no s k e l e t a l  remains were r e c o v e r e d ) .  curious d i s t i n c t i o n graves.  i n the grave assemblages  Of the f i v e l a r g e s t  whetstones,  The  i s however, a of the  graves, two c o n t a i n  p r o p o r t i o n s of ceramics, no whetstones, weapons each.  There  intact  large  and only 1 or 2 bronze  remaining three c o n t a i n few ceramics, 2 to 5  and 6 to 12 bronze weapons each.  Whether  this  represents a s e x u a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l or other d i s t i n c t i o n i s impossible to decide at p r e s e n t . Bronze a r t i f a c t s comprise all  burials,  accounting f o r almost 90% of a l l a r t i f a c t  from t h i s s i t e . the  the m a j o r i t y of grave goods i n  U n l i k e the graves of the Kui p e r i o d however,  m a j o r i t y of bronzes i n these graves are t o o l s .  tools  comprise  26.8%, and knives 36.3%  have a l s o produced Guangdong.  the f i r s t  overall.  metal a g r i c u l t u r a l  There i s q u i t e a v a r i a t i o n  v a r i a b l e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.1  are  (poorest) and #16  Woodworking  These tools  burials found in  i n both p i t s i z e  number of grave goods, moreover the c o r r e l a t i o n  graves #12  remains  level  1 1  .  and  between the  The  two  f e a t u r e s of  ( w e a l t h i e s t ) c o n t a i n e d i n Table  5.6  i l l u s t r a t i v e of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two ends of the  scale. There are no obvious symbols furniture.  Calculated .582. 1  of s t a t u s among the b u r i a l  Ornaments and r i t u a l o b j e c t s are both absent.  r value of .584,  Two  r(0.1) f o r sample s i z e of 7 i s  109  #  M  SIZE  Rank order  2  No.  1  GRAVE GOODS Bronze no. categories  12  1.9  6  2  1  16  3.1  1  40  35  1  WhetCeramics stones  1 weapon  0  1  6 weapons 26 t o o l s 3•vessels  5  0  1=largest, 7=smallest  TABLE 5.6 : Comparison of w e a l t h i e s t and poorest b u r i a l s from Tonggugang. (Information from Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1981) of the i n t a c t graves c o n t a i n small "waist p i t s " cut i n t o the f l o o r of the main p i t , which c o n t a i n s a l a r g e 'weng* j a r .  'mi'-impressed  In s h o r t , while there are obvious d i f f e r e n c e s i n  wealth between the Tonggugang b u r i a l s , o v e r a l l they seem to represent a middle l e v e l of h i e r a r c h y : the emphasis i n the assemblages i s on u t i l i t a r i a n  items, and even the w e a l t h i e s t are  not equipped with such items as ornaments, bronze b e l l s or staffs. The Luoyanshan grave, although i t does c o n t a i n a s i n g l e bronze b e l l , burials.  i s otherwise comparable with the Tonggugang  The Songshan grave in Zhaoqing  C i t y , on the other  hand, stands in strong c o n t r a s t to Tonggugang.  T h i s tomb, which  i s estimated to date to the very end of the Warring S t a t e s Period It  i s the l a r g e s t and r i c h e s t thus f a r excavated  i s a simple r e c t a n g u l a r p i t measuring  inner and outer wooden c o f f i n s . goods are of bronze  i n Lingnan.  37.6m , c o n t a i n i n g both 2  The m a j o r i t y of the 139  grave  (77.7%), and once again the most numerous  category of bronze a r t i f a c t s  i s the t o o l s  abundance are r i t u a l and ornamental  (37%).  artifacts,  Next i n  including 4  1 10  human-head s t a f f s , a set of 6 b e l l s and p i e c e s of a decorated plaque.  Seven out of 9 l i t h i c  a r t i f a c t s are ornaments,  i n c l u d i n g 2 e l a b o r a t e l y carved jade r i n g s with g o l d handles.  ::  FIGURE 5.3: Gold handled jade r i n g s from the Songshan b u r i a l , Zhaoqing S h i , Guangdong. (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum et a l . 1974)  The d i f f e r e n c e s between the Zhaoqing are thus not merely  and Tonggugang b u r i a l s  d i f f e r e n c e s i n wealth and s i z e .  The  graves evidence access to s p e c i a l r i t u a l o b j e c t s such as  largest staffs  and b e l l s which the smaller and poorer graves do not have. These f e a t u r e s i n d i c a t e the presence of d i s t i n c t w i t h i n the " e l i t e " b u r i a l group The  l a r g e s t Geometric  status levels  itself.  cemetery s i t e  i n Lingnan i s  Y i n s h a n l i n g in Guangxi P r o v i n c e .  Of the 165 b u r i a l s  here, 110 are mid  S t a t e s (Mi P e r i o d ) i n date,  to l a t e Warring  excavated  111  one  i s Qin, The  years.  and  110  Mi  Most  latter  part  grave  form  &  graves, other 2m  are  All  of  the  without  grave  or  in  same  a  yue  both  weapon If  we  weapons. grave;  never  (35  females,  way  of  the  found  swords 42  examining  scale  at  and  the  a  part  the  spear a  site  the  sex  factor  graves  are  less  the  an  (H_^'t lS  of  At  less  of  the than  more  >  spindle  of  these  occur (#1.3),  contains The  i s the  whorls  provides a  the  spindle  #18).  sex  we  the  other  whorl  to  once  arrowhead  ,  spindle  in status  period  basis  of  One  i t is possible  the  so  both  are  assumption  #55,  have  on  do  that  (eg.  Kui  However,  (#85). bow  in  each.  presence  cases  assumption  This  the  Zhaoqing.  fragments,  involved  with  = males,  males).  richest  goods  small  of  200  burial  than  distinctions  weapons  into  pit burials  this  according to  and  the  simple  three  approximately fall  the  information.  sex  only  thus  of  to  grave  a -few  of  elaborate burials  in  remains  together  make  most  10  and  wealth  small  than  (#20),  period  is considerable variation  in scale  age/sex  In  whorl  therefore and  and  are  inferred  a  There  smaller  from  primarily  spindle  females,  this  apart  battle-axe a  less  definite  goods,  the  scale  span  i n the  skeletal  have  whorls  and  Han.  artifacts,  richest  contain  excavators  iron  considerably  disintegrated, are  graves  comparable  the  are  Period.  size, The  of  which  2  this  and  but  end  Period  of  #74)  remainder  contain  assemblages. #108  the  77  one  sword.  =  burials  tentative  differentiation  at  site. "Female"  average:  only  19.5%  of  female  e l a b o r a t e than graves  have  "male"  ledges  graves  on  ("second-level  1 1 2.  platforms"  v.  =  ) as opposed  to 30.1% of male graves.  Female ledge p i t s a r e a l s o s m a l l e r than those of males, however there i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e p i t s between sexes  male •  (Table 5.7)..  RECTANGULAR PIT % mean occurrence s i z e  SEX  female  i n the s i z e of the simple r e c t a n g u l a r  median size  80.5 (n = 7)  3.15m  69.0 (n=!3)  3.23m  2  2  2.6m  2  2.6m  2  LEDGE PIT % mean occurrence s i z e 19.5 (n=28)  5.5m 3.1m  30.1 (n=29)  6.8m 4.7m  2 2  2 2  TABLE 5.7 : Comparison of grave s i z e and form between "female" and "male" b u r i a l s at Y i n s h a n l i n g . (Information from Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade 1978)  Female graves are poorer i n a b s o l u t e wealth of grave goods. Taking only the l a r g e s t average 8.8 items each (n=lO).  graves  (those over 6m ) female graves 2  (n=4), while male graves average 20.5  In g e n e r a l there i s not the strong c o r r e l a t i o n  between  grave s i z e and number of grave goods i n female b u r i a l s as there i s f o r males.  T h i s point  i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 5.8 which  c o n t r a s t s the numbers of grave goods f o r the l a r g e s t and s m a l l e s t graves i n each sex c a t e g o r y . c o n t a i n i n g the l a r g e s t grave i n the sample.  number of grave goods i s the l a r g e s t The w e a l t h i e s t  contrast, ninth largest There  The male b u r i a l  female grave  i s , by  of the 36 female graves.  i s one respect  i n which  s t a t u s does appear  to c r o s s  sexual l i n e s , t h i s i s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s p e c i a l  status  markers,  cemetery  the animal and bird-topped s t a f f s .  In t h i s  1 13  SEX  NUMBER OF GRAVE GOODS range median  SIZE (M  2  )  under 2 (n = 5)  Male  Female  3-9  6.5  7 & over (n = 6)  12-42  23.0  ('staff* graves)  23-42  38.5  under 2 (n = 4)  1-7  4.5  6 & over (n=4)  6-17  4.5  17-21  (' s t a f f graves)  19.0  TABLE 5.8 : Comparison of amount of grave goods between l a r g e s t and s m a l l e s t "male" and "female" b u r i a l s at Y i n s h a n l i n g . (Information from Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade 1978) s t a f f s are very s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with b u r i a l s which are distinctive  i n terms of s i z e , wealth, e l a b o r a t i o n , or a l l three  (Tables 5.8 and 5.9).  The female graves c o n t a i n i n g s t a f f s  second and t h i r d among t h e i r goods.  rank  sex category i n amount of grave  The male graves rank f i r s t ,  Other f e a t u r e s a l s o set them a p a r t .  second, f o u r t h and s i x t h . Four out of s i x (66.7%)  c o n t a i n t r a c e s of both inner and outer c o f f i n s , compared with 6.4%  i n the cemetery  graves i s d i s t i n c t i v e  a s a whole.  One of the remaining two  i n being the only one with 2 grave ledges.  Graves #55 and #108 produced recovered from the s i t e .  the only bronze c o f f i n  fittings  Three of the graves a l s o d i s p l a y three  p a i r s of post holes p l a c e d o p p o s i t e each other along the long s i d e s of the p i t (Figure 5.4); only two other graves i n the cemetery  d i s p l a y e d the same f e a t u r e .  Metal ding v e s s e l s are  GRAVE 0 form  GRAVE PIT s i z e (m ) special 2  features  GRAVE GOODS special tota1 no. 1  SEX features  22  rect.  3-0  1. i n n e r and o u t e r c o f f i n s 2. w a i s t p i t c o n t a i n s _he_  17  1 bronze d i nq 6 jade rings 9 c e r a m i c v e s s e l s , i nc1ud ing 8 cups no weapons  F ema1e  55  ledge  11.4 6.2  inner and o u t e r c o f f i n s 2. 8 bronze c o f f i n h a n d l e s 3- ledge has 3 post h o l e s on each long s i d e  42  2 bronze 6 i r o n dinq 28 bronze weapons 4 whetstones  Male  57  rect.  2.2  none  26  l a r g e s t number o f i r o n s i n g l e grave 4 whetstones  64  1 edge  4.9 2.4  1. 2 grave ledges 2. lower ledge has 3 p o s t h o l e s on each long s i d e 3- w a i s t p i t c o n t a i n s he.  21  5 jade rings 2 t u r q u o i s e beads 6 c e r a m i c v e s s e l s , i nc1ud i ng 5 cups no weapons  Fema1e  74  1 edge  6.9 3-9  1. inner 2. w a i s t 3- ledge long  35  1 bronze dinq 1 bronze pen 18 bronze and i r o n weapons  Male  108  rect.  8.0  1. inner and o u t e r c o f f i n s 2. 12 bronze r i v e t - j o i n t s from c o f f i n 3- w a i s t p i t c o n t a i n s bu  23  1 bronze dinq 3 whetstones 1 b a n ' e r guan j a r  Male  TABLE  5.9:  and o u t e r c o f f i n s p i t c o n t a i n s he. has 3 p o s t h o l e s on each side  tools i n a  Yinshanling graves containing animal-topped s t a f f s ( i n f o r m a t i o n from Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s B r i g a d e 1978)  Male  115  J  L  Jffl  M Ik: 1. ceramic bu' vase 2,3,7. ceramic cups 1*. bronze pen - basin 5 , 6 . whetstones 8. bronze d1ng" t r i p o d 9- bronze scraper 10,11. bronze swords 12. Iron spear 13. bronze s t a f f I't.lS. bronze razor k n i f e 16. ceramic 'he box 17. Iron adze 18. bronze 'yue" axe 19. bronze axe 20,22. Iron hoes 21. bronze spear butt 23. bronze spear 24. bronze arrow 25. bronze axe 26. bamboo 'he' box. J  !  M 55: 1-8. bronze c o f f i n handles 9. iron scraper 10. bronze sword 11 — 1 *i. bronze arrows 12. bronze 'pen basin 13. q u i v e r 15. bronze yue' axe 16. bronze 'dIng t r i p o d 17 19- bronze spears 20. bronze spear butt 21,22,27. bronze razor k n i f e 23,25,26,28. whetstones - 2 9 . iron hoe 30. bronze s t a f f -  M 108: 1. ceramic ban'er quan- j a r 2,7,9-12,17,18,20,33-35. bronze c o f f i n f i t t i n g s 3. ceramic '-'he-''box l i d U. ceramic t r i p o d h e box 5- bronze ding' t r i p o d 6 , 8 . bronze spears 13. bronze s t a f f H-16. bronze swords 19. ceramic Jau_ vase 21 ,23,2'*. bronze arrows 22. Iron razor k n i f e 25. Iron hoe 26 bronze axe 27. bronze spear butt 28. Iron c h i s e l 29-31 whetstones 32. Iron adze ;  M 64: 1,3,7-9. ceramic cups 2. Jade jue r i n g 4. turquoise bead 5. Iron hoe 6. bronze axe 10. bronze staff 11. ceramic s p i n d l e whorl 12. Iron razor k n i f e 13. whetstone 14. bronze razor k n i f e 15. ceramic t rI pod he' box ;  FIGURE 5 . 4 :  Four s t a f f - g r a v e s from the Y i n s h a n l i n g cemetery s i t e , Guangxi (Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade 1978: 214, 217, 218)  116  a s s o c i a t e d with b u r i a l s that are l a r g e r and/or w e a l t h i e r  than  average; t h e i r occurrence among ' s t a f f ' graves i s much higher than i n the cemetery as a whole - 6 6 . 7 % v s . Yinshanling  thus does provide  11.8%.  evidence that  status  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c r o s s - c u t s sex c a t e g o r i e s  i n the Mi P e r i o d .  only do female graves rank i n the highest  l e v e l s of grave goods  and  energy expenditure  (grave  Not  s i z e and form), but s e v e r a l of the  r i c h e s t graves of both sexes c o n t a i n animal-topped s t a f f s which appear to have been important s t a t u s markers throughout the Kui arid Mi P e r i o d s . It  i s p o s s i b l e that these s t a f f s a r e a l s o i n d i c a t i v e of  s o c i a l subgroups such as l i n e a g e s . finials  At l e a s t  are r e p o r t e d , animals and b i r d s .  type of f i n i a l i s recorded  two kinds of  However, s i n c e the  f o r only 3 of the 6 recovered  cannot p r e s e n t l y make any informed guesses about t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e , except to say that sex of the b u r i a l . data  report c o n t a i n s  sufficient  f o r a more d e t a i l e d s p a t i a l and s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s which of s o c i a l subgroups, but such  an a n a l y s i s l i e s o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s  study.  POLITICAL COMPONENT  I d e n t i f y i n g p o l i t i c a l aspects political  from other  of status/rank  and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  (eg.economic) subgroupings w i t h i n a region  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t , p a r t l y because of the t i g h t between the v a r i o u s aspects and  possible  i t i s not c o r r e l a t e d with the  The Y i n s h a n l i n g  might bear on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  C.  we  overlap  of h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  i n pre-  e a r l y s t a t e - l e v e l s o c i e t i e s , and p a r t l y because no p r e c i s e  117  and  i n v a r i a b l e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s of p o l i t i c a l  s o c i a l or economic aspects One  source  distinctive  of evidence  and  symbolism has  I s h a l l explore here i n v o l v e s  through s t y l e , and such i n f o r m a t i o n  i n t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r t i f a c t  be  aspects  1983).  of a s i n g l e a r t i f a c t  convey  Because the  c l a s s are, on t h e i r  i n d i c a t o r for d e f i n i n g the extent  and  f e a t u r e s of p o l i t i c a l networks I s h a l l a l s o consider how stylistic  evidence  c o o r d i n a t e s with two  which seem to r e l a t e to p o l i t i c a l subgroupings.  These are f i r s t ,  other  These l a t t e r  two  e a r l y Iron Age,  own,  other such evidence  local  the i n d i c a t i o n s of a u n i f i e d  a r t i f a c t s which appear to be  l e a d e r s h i p , and may  kinds of  networks and  r i t u a l / c e r e m o n i a l system i n t h i s r e g i o n , and symbolic  style  conveyed  i n the types of a r t i f a c t s that may Plog  and  in the  ( c o n s c i o u s l y or unconsciously)  (Hodder 1982,  too ambiguous an  Recent ethnographic  demonstrated the v a r i a b i l i t y  i n f o r m a t i o n that may  stylistic  have yet been d e f i n e d .  f e a t u r e s of ceramic s t y l e .  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research  versus  secondly,  symbols of  special  political  mark the d i v i s i o n s between l o c a l u n i t s .  only become apparent during the Bronze  and  thus the d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t e s p r i m a r i l y to the  l a t e Geometric. One  very notable  Geometric Horizon During  the I n i t i a l  Northern and  i s i t s gradual  Central regions.  the  expansion towards the West.  P e r i o d i t i s found only in the  T r a n s i t i o n a l Periods Regions, but  f e a t u r e of the development of  During  Eastern,  the Soft P o t t e r y  i t expands i n t o the Western and  i n the l a t t e r  i t i s never very strong  and  Southern  (Guangdong  1 18  P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1979:330).  By the Kui P e r i o d the Geometric  network reaches i t s g r e a t e s t extent  with the  i n c o r p o r a t i o n of  eastern Guangxi, but a c u r i o u s f e a t u r e o b t a i n s : the most d i s t i n c t i v e and  very common motif  (double-f) does not penetrate southeastern northeast  Guangxi, and  of t h i s P e r i o d , the kui  i n t o southern  Guangdong  i s only weakly d i s t r i b u t e d  part of Guangdong.  I s o l a t e d p i e c e s of  and in the  Kui-impressed  p o t t e r y have been found in the southwest f r i n g e s of F u j i a n southern  f r i n g e s of Hunan bordering Guangdong and  Guangxi, but otherwise  and  eastern  the kui i s a d i s t i n c t i v e Lingnan  trait.  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the boundaries of the e a r l y h i s t o r i c province of Nanhai a l s o excluded area.  This area was  northern  a l s o separated  Guangxi, being  the Leizhou/Hainan  from the G u i l i n Province  j o i n e d i n s t e a d with the southern  western p a r t s of Guangxi and Vietnam. t h e r e f o r e that the e a r l y h i s t o r i c  of  and  I t i s worth c o n s i d e r i n g  political/administrative  d i s t r i c t s r e f l e c t e d the d i v i s i o n s of the  prehistoric  p o l i t i c a l / a l l i a n c e network. It  i s during the Kui P e r i o d that c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of  mortuary r i t u a l  first  show a degree of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  throughout the Lingnan Geometric area. to have r i t u a l " s i g n i f i c a n c e are geometric  t r a i t s which appear  1) each grave c o n t a i n s a l a r g e  ( u s u a l l y kui) -impressed ceramic j a r , u s u a l l y p l a c e d  in a waist p i t , and southern  The  style,  2) at l e a s t one  b e l l , of  distinctively  i s found in each e l i t e grave.  The  grave goods w i t h i n the grave p i t i s a l s o standard: except swords and  daggers are placed to one  placement of a l l items  or both ends of  the  1 19  pit,  with the swords/daggers i n the middle p a r a l l e l to the long  axis.  The l a t t e r were probably  worn on the body.  I t i s worth  n o t i n g that the n o n - e l i t e (presumed) b u r i a l s i n Hong Kong are a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the presence of a l a r g e , u s u a l l y k u i impressed ceramic j a r (see e s p e c i a l l y  Williams  the Mi P e r i o d Guangdong graves r e t a i n  the waist p i t and/or  ceramic j a r f e a t u r e , while waist  The  c o n t a i n he boxes, and only a few  (Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade  bronze s t a f f s r e f e r r e d to i n the p r e v i o u s  another d i s t i n c t i v e which seems l i k e l y  1978).  s e c t i o n are  feature of high s t a t u s Lingnan b u r i a l s , one to have h e l d p o l i t i c a l  Kui P e r i o d they a r e found i n s i n g l e , graves,  During  i n the Guangxi Y i n s h a n l i n g cemetery,  pits characteristically  hold l a r g e j a r s  1979).  and they occur  symbolism.  isolated  high-status  i n s e t s ( u s u a l l y of 4) placed  corners of the grave p i t .  Again there  During the  i n the  is a distinction  to be  made between eastern Guangxi and Guangdong, i n the use of animal or b i r d latter.  finials  i n the former, and human head f i n i a l s  The human-head or human-figure motif  i n the  i s found on other  bronze a r t i f a c t s i n Guangdong, and has been c i t e d by the Chinese as a d i s t i n c t i v e significant  t r a i t of t h i s area  (He 1981).  I t may a l s o be  that s t a f f s have only been unearthed from graves  l o c a t e d i n C e n t r a l and Western Guangdong, and not from:the elite  graves i n the North and East Staffs  three  (He 1981:216).  have been unearthed i n a Mi P e r i o d cemetery  context  at Y i n s h a n l i n g , but i n t h i s case only one s t a f f was contained i n each of the 6 graves.  In the higher  t h i s P e r i o d they  occur  still  status isolated  i n sets of f o u r .  b u r i a l s of  1 20  I suggest that these style signify  the extent  f e a t u r e s of both ceramic and  of a p o l i t i c a l / a l l i a n c e network u n i t i n g  l o c a l u n i t s i n Guangdong and and  e a r l y Iron Ages.  shared  r i t u a l and  the network may  The  northeast  extent  stylistic  be  ritual  Guangxi d u r i n g  the Bronze  of the network i s d e f i n a b l e by  f e a t u r e s , and  smaller u n i t s w i t h i n  i d e n t i f i a b l e by v a r i a t i o n s on the b a s i c  themes. There i s some minor h i s t o r i c a l evidence hypothesis:  the term used by the State of Chu  i n h a b i t a n t s o f Lingnan - " the concurrent  u n i t y and d i s u n i t y .  100 Yue"  to support  this  to r e f e r to the  - expresses  More importantly,  t h i s kind of  i t is clear  that even i n the e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d the King of the Yue  did  not yet have j u r i s d i c t i o n throughout the e n t i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e Province  of Nanhai.  l o y a l t y of other 1983:252-254).  Sources speak of him attempting  "Yue"  groups through b r i b e s and  gifts  Such comments i n d i c a t e the continued  of strong independent p o l i t i c a l Lingnan even i n t o the Han  u n i t s w i t h i n the Yue  period.  to gain  (Peters  existence area  I t i s a l s o important  the obvious s i g n s of m i l i t a r i s m evident  of  to note  in the amounts of w e l l -  used m i l i t a r y equipment in l a t e Geometric graves,  which  i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e l a t i o n s between groups w i t h i n the Geometric network were not always p e a c e f u l .  the  121  D.  MANUFACTURING COMPONENT 1.  It  Development Of T e c h n i c a l S k i l l s  i s i n the areas of ceramic p r o d u c t i o n , and l a t e r  working  metal-  that the g r e a t e s t changes i n technology are evident  d u r i n g the Geometric primarily  Period.  Information on both of these comes  from the a r t i f a c t s themselves, as very few k i l n s and  no d e f i n i t e bronze manufacturing workshops or mines have been unearthed i .  i n Guangdong  or Guangxi.  Ceramics  Xu (1981) and He  (1981) both p r o v i d e general n o n - t e c h n i c a l  o u t l i n e s of the development of ceramics i n Guangdong Geometric  period.  i n the  Meacham (ed.1978) has p r o v i d e d more d e t a i l e d  information with respect to the ceramics of the Sham Wan Hong Kong.  The Hong Kong ceramics have been subjected to such  techniques as experimental r e p l i c a t i o n , to determine  firing  thermal expansion  tests  temperatures, and chemical and p h y s i c a l  analyses of paste and g l a z e s (ibid.:171 - 182, Finn At  site,  1957:198-213).  l e a s t some of these techniques are a l s o being a p p l i e d to the  Guangdong  m a t e r i a l s (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1983a), but no  d e t a i l e d r e p o r t s have been p u b l i s h e d .  A similar  sequence of  development i s agreed upon by a l l sources; the main d e t a i l s are outlined  below . 12  Changes are evident i n three a s p e c t s : v e s s e l surface d e c o r a t i o n and f i r i n g .  construction,  The main advancement  in vessel  Except where noted the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n r e f e r s only to the finewares. Coarsewares change very l i t t l e i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s throughout the Geometric H o r i z o n . 1 2  1 22  construction wheel.  i s the  i n c r e a s i n g use of and c o n t r o l over  Throughout the Chevron Periods only the rims and  s e c t i o n s of v e s s e l s show marks of w h e e l - f i n i s h i n g .  The  body of ceramic v e s s e l s i s hand b u i l t by c o i l i n g and with a paddle. f i n i s h e d , and completely storage  By  the Kui P e r i o d a l l rims and  s m a l l e r v e s s e l s such as cups and  wheel-thrown.  the c o i l i n g method was  corresponding  f e e t are wheelbowls are  still  on the wheel,  a l s o used.  There i s a  i n c r e a s e i n the v a r i e t y of smaller v e s s e l forms  i n c r e a s i n g e l a b o r a t i o n of appendages such as handles, At the same time however, there  standardization  i n v e s s e l forms from one  F i g u r e 5.5  end  the he box  Northern Guangdong through to Eastern decoration  i s evident.  geometric  skill  impressions.  r e g u l a r , there  i s an  of Lingnan to the examples: the from s i t e s from  of ceramics in which  i s towards  i n the design and a p p l i c a t i o n of  I n d i v i d u a l impressions  become more  increase i n the v a r i e t y of m o t i f s used  zoned group p a t t e r n i n g r e p l a c e s s i n g l e m o t i f s . than r e l i e f  impressions  P e r i o d , and  are standard  t o o l s for a p p l y i n g  and  From the Chevron to the  Kui Periods the trend in s u r f a c e d e c o r a t i o n i n c r e a s i n g care and  lids  Guangxi.  i s a second aspect  the development of s k i l l s  an  is a visible  i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s with two  ban'er s t y l e of v e s s e l handle and  Surface  major  beating  produced throughout the Kui and Mi P e r i o d s , as w e l l as  spouts.  foot-  In the Mi P e r i o d even the l a r g e s t  j a r s c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d completely  although  other.  the  begin  and  I n t a g l i o rather  to be used in the T r a n s i t i o n a l  during  the Kui P e r i o d  (Xu  1981).  surface p a t t e r n s , such as r o l l e r s  and  New  123  FIGURE 5.5:  S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f v e s s e l forms i n t h e Mi  Period  1 24  i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n moulds are adopted at about the same time (Meacham ed. The  use  1978:159). of glaze  is first  Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d . are yellowish-brown and  in evidence during The  green.  clay  notably 5.14%  (ibid.  173).  from a mixture of wood ash  Although the use  of the ceramic assemblage at the  of glaze  increases  only  comprise  l a t e Mi P e r i o d s i t e at  (CP.A.M. Guangdong et a l . 1 964b: 1 51 ) .  used on a l l shapes and  glaze  Analyzed samples from Hong Kong  i n the Mi P e r i o d , glazed v e s s e l s s t i l l  Baishipingshan  late  most common c o l o u r s of  are lime g l a z e s , most l i k e l y d e r i v e d and  the  s i z e s of v e s s e l s , over p l a i n ,  Glaze  was  i n c i s e d or  impressed s u r f a c e s , however i t i s r a t h e r more common on  small  unimpressed v e s s e l s . E a r l y i n the Mi P e r i o d there s u r f a c e p a t t e r n i n g of ceramics. and  i s a r a p i d change in the The  elaborate  zoned  impressions  i n t r i c a t e m o t i f s of the Kui P e r i o d are q u i c k l y superseded by  r a p i d l y a p p l i e d and  unzoned s i n g l e m o t i f s  check and  by v a r i e t i e s of i n c i s e d d e c o r a t i o n ,  'mi',  and  such as the  which appear to have been a p p l i e d on the wheel. change i s not  r e l a t e d to any  sudden improvements i n o l d The firing.  f i n a l aspect  nor  of ceramic technology to be d i s c u s s e d temperatures and  the most s i g n i f i c a n t  because of i t s connection  to  techniques.  C o n t r o l over f i r i n g  high temperatures  some of  However t h i s  t e c h n o l o g i c a l innovations  i n c r e a s e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y during arguably  simple  k i l n atmosphere  the Geometric P e r i o d .  This i s  t e c h n o l o g i c a l trend of t h i s p e r i o d  with the development of  (at l e a s t  is  metallurgy:  1100°C) are r e q u i r e d for a l l o y i n g  1 25  and c a s t i n g , and both high temperatures and a r e d u c t i o n atmosphere f o r smelting ores (Watson 1971:70). 1100°C were achieved and surpassed d u r i n g the  Temperatures  of  Chevron  T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d : the hard p o t t e r y which comprises the m a j o r i t y of the ceramics from Shuikou was between 900 and  f i r e d at  temperatures  1200°C, and some as high as 1300°C (Guangdong  P r o v i n c i a l Museum I983a:590).  At Hedang, approximately 30% of  the ceramics were f i r e d to 1100°C or above (Yang and Chen  1981),  and h i g h - f i r e d p r o t o - p o r c e l a i n wares have been r e p o r t e d from the Raoping b u r i a l s .  The c o n s i s t e n c y of the c o l o u r s of hard wares  i s i n d i c a t i v e of a high degree of c o n t r o l over k i l n Such changes are r e l a t e d to improvements in k i l n The Guangdong Geometric unearthed are l i s t e d  atmosphere.  structure.  s i t e s where k i l n remains have been  i n Table 5.10.  t o p i c are scarce they are s u f f i c i e n t  Although the data on  this  to i n d i c a t e the general  developmental t r e n d s . The k i l n at Zoumagang i s a l r e a d y a f a i r l y design.  sophisticated  I t i s a p i t k i l n , with separate f i r e box and  chamber.  The f i r e box  firing  i s set a l o n g s i d e rather than d i r e c t l y  underneath the f i r i n g chamber, and the two are separated by a short  flue  (Figure 5.6,  S h i x i a and Chengpicun  A).  Two  other s i t e s of t h i s  each c o n t a i n a number of k i l n s ,  u n f o r t u n a t e l y no d e t a i l s or diagrams  Period, but  of these k i l n s have been  published. The Shuikou k i l n three.  site  i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l a t e r than the above  In terms of C e n t r a l P l a i n s chronology i t i s estimated to  be Western Zhou i n date  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum  1983a).  1 26  SITE  PERIOD  TOTAL KILNS  DESCRIPTION (reference)  Chengpicun  Chevron Soft Pottery  several  no information on k i l n s t r u c t u r e or site (90)  Shixia  Chevron Soft Pottery  4  no information on kiln structure; in a s s o c i a t i o n with h a b i t a t i o n features (90)  Zoumagang  Chevron Soft Pottery  1  horizontal kiln, separate furnace & f i r i n g chamber; in a s s o c i a t i o n with h a b i t a t i o n features (14)  Shuikou  Chevron Transitional  5  vertical flue k i l n , no assoc i a t e d habitation features (31)  Xigualing  e a r l y Mi  2  (# 1 ) dragon k i l n (#2) u n c l e a r ; in a s s o c i a t i o n with h a b i t a t i o n features (15)  Ba i shipingshan  l a t e Mi  1  unclear; in a s s o c i a t i o n with h a b i t a t i o n features (15)  TABLE 5.10; K i l n features Guangdong Province The  excavated from Geometric s i t e s i n  f i v e k i l n s from t h i s s i t e are s t r u c t u r a l l y very d i f f e r e n t  from Zoumagang, but very s i m i l a r to contemporary Zhou k i l n s i n the North ( i b i d . 596). box  They are a l l v e r t i c a l  k i l n s : the f i r e  i s set d i r e c t l y underneath the f i r i n g chamber, separated by  a pierced  f l o o r (Figure  5.6, B).  advantage of such a s t r u c t u r e  The primary  i s that  technical  i t i s e a s i e r t o reach very  127  E  A.  Zoumagang  B.  Shuikou  C. & D. E.  k i l n #1  k i l n #3  (CP.A.M. (Guangdong  Guangdong  et a l .  1964a)  Provincial  Museum  1983a)  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l Banpo (Shangraw 1977)  Diagram of e a r l y form of "Dragon k i l n "  F i g u r e 5.6: KiIn types  kiln  types  from  ( L i u 1982)  found in Geometric s i t e s  in Guangdong  Province  1 28  high f i r i n g temperatures than with the h o r i z o n t a l type of In the case of Shuikou temperatures as high as  kiln.  1300°C were  reached. Between Shuikou and  the next  a c o n s i d e r a b l e temporal gap.  The  to. the e a r l y Mi P e r i o d .  #2  furnace  remains) but  significance one  i s mostly  two  k i l n s there i s again  k i l n s at X i g u a l i n g  i s l a r g e l y destroyed intact.  This kiln  )  13  l a t e r development t h i s k i l n was  not c l e a r  ( L i u 1982:166).  Unfortunately  no diagram of  I c o n s u l t e d , however the  i s diagrammed in F i g u r e 5.6,  the furnace and  long s l a n t i n g  kiln"  p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d to have been a much  a v a i l a b l e in the sources  general p r o f i l e  C.  In the true  f i r i n g chamber are separate, and a  f l u e leads to a s e r i e s of f i r i n g chambers.  It i s  from the X i g u a l i n g report whether there were s e v e r a l ,  or j u s t one  f i r i n g chamber in t h i s example.  the X i g u a l i n g k i l n  Baishipingshan  kiln  i s j u s t l e s s than  kiln  and X i g u a l i n g s i t e s  overall  10 m e t r e s " . 1  length  The and i t s  A l l of the Mi P e r i o d k i l n s appear  to have been above-ground s t r u c t u r e s . the d i f f e r e n t  The  i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y a l s o destroyed,  form cannot be r e c o n s t r u c t e d .  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  t r a d i t i o n s evident at the Shuikou, Zoumagang i s a t o p i c worth i n v e s t i g a t i n g as they  The other example was unearthed from a s i t e Province. ( L i u 1982:166) 1 3  i s of great  in the h i s t o r y of Chinese k i l n development as i s i s  which was  dragon k i l n  belong  (only the  of only two Warring States examples of the "dragon ^  of  #1  Kiln  recorded  do  in Zhejiang  " The o r i g i n a l s i t e report gives a broken l e n g t h of 7.6 metres; L i u (1982) agrees with Xu's (1981) f i g u r e of 9.8 metres o v e r a l l . 1  1 29  represent d i f f e r e n t ceramics.  t r a d i t i o n s i n the h i s t o r y of Chinese  For the present we can only note that both types were  used in Lingnan during the l a t e ii  Prehistoric.  Metal working  The e a r l i e s t evidence f o r the use of metal i n Lingnan date to the l a t e Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d .  The only metal  artifact  from a s e c u r e l y d a t a b l e context i s a bronze g_e from one of the Raoping graves.  I t i s not c l e a r that t h i s  item was  locally  manufactured, although the c r u d i t y of i t s c a s t i n g has caused some to b e l i e v e that i t was  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum  1979:329). P o s s i b l e c a s t i n g s i t e s f o r smaller bronze p i e c e s are i n d i c a t e d by f i n d s of stone c a s t i n g moulds and a few d r o p l e t s of s l a g from s e v e r a l s i t e s i n Lingnan  small  (see Appendix  3).  The types of a r t i f a c t s thus represented are axes, adzes, fishhooks and small b e l l s . moulds i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y  The t r a d i t i o n of c a s t i n g  i n stone  southern t r a i t w i t h i n China: s i m i l a r  moulds have been unearthed from the Wucheng s i t e  in J i a n g x i ,  which i s contemporaneous with the E r l i g a n g phase of the Shang State  (circa  1800-1500 BC, Chang 1980:306).  No d i r e c t evidence f o r the l o c a l manufacture as swords, v e s s e l s and most r i t u a l  of such p i e c e s  items has yet been found.  Chinese a r c h a o l o g i s t s have i n f e r r e d l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n of many such bronzes because they manifest s t y l i s t i c d i s t i n g u i s h them from p i e c e s manufactured range  (He 1981, Guangxi  f e a t u r e s which  n o r t h of the Wuling  C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade  1979).  Relevant f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of t y p i c a l l y  130  "southern"  d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n s and m o t i f s such as the " f r o g and  snake" and thundercloud,  and c e r t a i n  encountered f u r t h e r n o r t h . Kui P e r i o d ' weng'  1  decorated,  1973).  and give an impression  such as the  of very s o p h i s t i c a t e d  implying p r o d u c t i o n of a s i m i l a r order of  to that found  I f indeed  i n the north  (Guangxi P r o v i n c i a l Museum  they were l o c a l l y manufactured then a high  degree of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n Franklin  Some of these a r t i f a c t s ,  v e s s e l s from J i a h u i , are i n t r i c a t e l y  technological control, complexity  forms which are not  i n bronze p r o d u c t i o n  i s i m p l i e d (see  1983 f o r a general d i s c u s s i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  requirements  of bronze t e c h n o l o g y ) .  are d e s c r i b e d as being t o t a l l y c l a s s i f e d as probable  imports.  S e v e r a l bronze a r t i f a c t s  " f o r e i g n " i n s t y l e and have been These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r  below. There i s an i n t r i g u i n g r e f e r e n c e to a "smelting s i t e " at the T o n g s h i l i n g s i t e  i n B e i l i u County, Guangxi contained  t a b l e of Geometric s i t e s Brigade  i n Guangxi  only evidence  ingot recovered estimated States  (Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s  1981), but s a d l y , no f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n was contained  i n e i t h e r t h i s , or any of the other The  in a  I have c o n s u l t e d .  of smelting of ores i n Guangdong i s a copper  from a small cache i n Yangchun County.  The  date, based on an a s s o c i a t e d bronze axe i s Warring  (He 1981:213).  C e r t a i n l y Guangdong and, to a l e s s e r  extent, Guangxi are r i c h  i n copper d e p o s i t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  Wuling mountains (Lee 1939:189). smelting s i t e s located.  sources  (other than  i n the  As yet however no mines or  the one r e f e r r e d to above) have been  131  In short, considerable during  the  there  i s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l evidence to assume  l o c a l manufacture of metal a r t i f a c t s  l a t e Geometric.  However, as f a r as the  are concerned d i r e c t evidence of smelting still  in Lingnan larger  items  or c a s t i n g s i t e s i s  lacking. 2.  Organizational  I have pointed  out  Aspects above that the only  archaeologically  v i s i b l e products which might be expected to have been produced outside  of the b a s i c household u n i t are ceramics ( p a r t i c u l a r l y  f i n e wares) and  metals.  l e v e l s of s k i l l  and  associated 1983,  The  a r t i f a c t s themselves a t t e s t to  technological control, levels usually  with at l e a s t part-time s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ( F r a n k l i n  Clarke  1979:347-349).  But  the main sources of evidence  commonly used to i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s aspect are s i t e s themselves. kind of data i s the  Unfortunately  the  production  in the case of Lingnan t h i s  weakest.  K i l n s i t e s have been d i s c u s s e d t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of the  kiln  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aspects of the excavated k i l n s apparently  above in r e l a t i o n to  s t r u c t u r e s , but what of s i t e s themselves?  the  i s not  k i l n s are  implications dwelling,  reports.  the areas,  types of  I f , for example  segregated from h a b i t a t i o n  in a s i n g l e subarea of the  the  were l o c a t e d w i t h i n h a b i t a t i o n  c l e a r in the p u b l i s h e d  spatially  the  Most of  although the exact s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two features  high  features,  and  s i t e t h i s would have d i f f e r e n t  f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n  or groups of dwellings  of production are a s s o c i a t e d  than i f each with t h e i r  own  1 32  kiln(s). of  H o p e f u l l y the p u b l i c a t i o n of more d e t a i l e d s i t e  excavated  sites will  s p a t i a l evidence. kiln  in the f u t u r e allow us to study  At l e a s t two  s i t e s appear to be  plans  such  specialized  s i t e s , not d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d with h a b i t a t i o n areas.  These two are Chengpicun and Shuikou.  In the f i r s t  case I am  i n f e r r i n g t h i s p a t t e r n : no s i t e report has been p u b l i s h e d , and i n f o r m a t i o n contained treat this point.  in other sources does not  However, the only other s i t e  Chengpicun which i s designated as a " k i l n  site"  specifically besides i s Shuikou,  which i s a s p e c i a l i z e d production area, so on t h i s b a s i s i t seems reasonable  to assume that Chengpicun i s a l s o a s p e c i a l i z e d  site. The  e x i s t e n c e of two  such s p e c i a l i z e d k i l n  s i t e s from the  e a r l y part of the Geometric P e r i o d i s i n t e r e s t i n g given o v e r a l l lack of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity this period.  the  we have i n f e r r e d f o r  I t i s worth n o t i n g however that Shuikou,  which i s  i n f e r r e d to be Western Zhou ( i . e . very l a t e Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l ) i s more or l e s s contemporary with the Raoping b u r i a l s , and  i s a l s o l o c a t e d i n the same n o r t h e a s t e r n area of  the Province.  I t may  thus be that the groups i n t h i s area were  a l r e a d y q u i t e developed Period.  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y p r i o r to the Kui  Chengpicun presents a d i f f e r e n t problem as i t dates to  the e a r l y Chevron Soft P o t t e r y P e r i o d (based on comparisons of i t s ceramic  assemblage with S h i x i a ' s : Zhu et a l . 1981:233).  Obviously the whole question of the development and decline in status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  subsequent  i n t h i s area of the  River during the i n i t i a l Geometric needs more d e t a i l e d  North  ;  1 33  investigation.  Considerable  s i t e data already e x i s t  from t h i s  area and time p e r i o d , but are not p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e through p u b l i s h e d sources.  Hopefully  they w i l l be used t o c l a r i f y  such  i s s u e s i n the near f u t u r e . Evidence f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of bronze p r o d u c t i o n more scarce than f o r ceramics,  i s even  as no a c t u a l bronze workshops  have yet been excavated i n Lingnan.  The manufacture of metal  a r t i f a c t s r e q u i r e s greater o r g a n i z a t i o n and more s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s than e i t h e r ceramics or l i t h i c s because of the e x t r a steps  i n v o l v e d and the l i m i t e d l o c a t i o n s where the raw m a t e r i a l s  can be a c q u i r e d  (Figure 5.7). I f , as seems l i k e l y , not only  _CUA§§±-«"STONE Identify Separate and  and Reduce  Select _CLASSJ!L^ METAL  in Size  Mx Heat  and Prepare  , —  _RAW %ETAL  MIX  I HEAT  CAST  Aloylng  FIGURE 5.7 : Schematic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s s e l e c t i o n and processing. ( F r a n k l i n 1983:283) weapons and t o o l s , but a l s o l a r g e r and more complex items such as v e s s e l s were manufactured i n Lingnan during the Geometric P e r i o d a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n The  smelting  site  i n Guangxi Province  i s implied.  and the s e v e r a l s i t e s  at which moulds and s l a g have been found may represent manufacturing/processing  centres.  small  Nothing on the order of c r a f t  b a r r i o s or l a r g e workshops i s i n evidence  before  the Qin and Han  1 34  Dynasties  1 5  Ceramics and metallurgy any  evidence  Period.  are the only 2 s k i l l s which show  of s p e c i a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n during the Geometric  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that they are the only  production  skills  two  not evident among b u r i a l assemblages: no  i n d i v i d u a l s can be  i d e n t i f i e d as p o t t e r s or metal workers from  the a s s o c i a t e d a r t i f a c t s .  Weapons, woodworking, food p r o c e s s i n g  and a g r i c u l t u r a l t o o l s , as w e l l as t o o l s f o r p r o d u c t i o n of c l o t h are a l l found  i n burials;- however, as f a r as ceramics  and  metals  are concerned only the f i n i s h e d a r t i f a c t s are i n c l u d e d as grave f u r n i t u r e , never moulds, beaters or other t o o l s of T h i s may  production.  i n d i c a t e a d i v i s i o n between c r a f t s which were  still  organized at the l e v e l of the i n d i v i d u a l household versus organized at a higher E.  l e v e l of  those  specialization.  CIRCULATION  Recent a r c h a e o l o g i c a l research i n t o t h i s component has foci,  first  taken  two  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of  exchange systems (e.g. E a r l e and 1982:Chapters 2-11,  Renfrew 1975;  E r i c s o n 1977,  1977); secondly  the development of exchange systems and with other s o c i a l K a r l o f f s k y eds.  their  subsystems (e.g. S a b l o f f and  1975,  E r i c s o n and E a r l e on  modelling  interrelationships Lamberg-  Friedman and Rowlands 1977,  At t h i s p o i n t I s h a l l be concerned with the f i r s t  Hodder 1982). of these:  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p a t t e r n i n g i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of m a t e r i a l s  The e a r l i e s t workshop s i t e found i n Lingnan i s a Qin-Han dynasty s h i p y a r d at Guangzhou in the P e a r l D e l t a . (Guangdong A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y I n s t i t u t e 1977) 1 5  135  both w i t h i n Lingnan, and between Lingnan and neighbouring regions. The c i r c u l a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s or products i s l o g i c a l l y t i e d to the degree  of p r o d u c t i o n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  since the s p a t i a l  r e s t r i c t i o n of sources n e c c e s i t a t e s a d i s t r i b u t i o n  system to  move the product from the source to the consumer.  In a c r o s s -  c u l t u r a l study of p o t t e r y p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n Leeuw (1977) d e f i n e d 6 manufacturing  systems ( l e v e l s of  o r g a n i z a t i o n ) and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n a l concomitants i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s point  System of pottery manufacture (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)  Household production Household industry Individual industry W o r k s h o p industry Village industry Large-scale industry  van der  which  (Table 5.11).  N u m b e r of individuals involved  Economic  one several one several several many  occasional part-time full-time full-time part-time'full-time full-time  variables"  T i m e involved  Market o w n use group use regional village/town region (wide) regional and export  "These are a sub-set of twelve variables presented by van der Leeuw (1977).  TABLE 5.11 : D i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a t e d with v a r i o u s systems of p r o d u c t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . , (Van der Leeuw 1977, as reproduced i n Hantman and Plog 1983:244).  Of course movement of m a t e r i a l s over c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s a l s o occurs i n the absence  of s p e c i a l i z e d  production.  I t i s the  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and p a t t e r n i n g of the exchange  system  which changes most s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the development of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity, not simply d i s t a n c e s or amounts of materials  involved.  The nature of the m a t e r i a l s exchanged i s a l s o an  important  1 36  factor  i n exchange p a t t e r n s .  and consumption  Because c o n t r o l over p r o d u c t i o n  of p r e s t i g e goods i s one of the hallmarks of  high s t a t u s i n e g a l i t a r i a n or ranked s o c i e t i e s , such items can be expected t o show d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n a l than u t i l i t a r i a n  characteristics  items, being exchanged between e l i t e groups and  over longer d i s t a n c e s (Friedman and Rowlands 1977, C l a r k e 1979:346-8, E a r l e i.  1982:8-9).  I n t e r n a l exchange networks  In comparison  t o the p r e v i o u s l y - d i s c u s s e d components, evidence  on exchange systems i s almost n o n e x i s t a n t .  Current  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l methods r e l y on the most d e t a i l e d data of any of these components, both chemical and p h y s i c a l data on composition of  m a t e r i a l s i n order to t r a c e source or manufacturing  l o c a t i o n s , and d e t a i l e d d i s t r i b u t i o n a l  i n f o r m a t i o n to t r a c e the  movement of m a t e r i a l s and goods throughout a r e g i o n ( E a r l e and Ericson  1977).  Although Chinese r e s e a r c h e r s are now  such s o p h i s t i c a t e d techniques, p a r t i c u l a r l y  utilizing  i n the study of  ceramics, so f a r they have a p p l i e d them only to s t u d y i n g the development of t e c h n o l o g i c a l s k i l l s ,  and not to the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of exchange systems ( L i 1982, Zhou et a l . 1982). Only one s o u r c e - d i s t r i b u t i o n type of study has been p u b l i s h e d on Lingnan Geometric of  materials: this i s a brief  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a r t i f a c t s manufactured  from X i q i a o s h a n (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum time p e r i o d concerned to  the e a r l y Chevron  of e u r i t e q u a r r i e d 1983b:1090).  i s the p r e - and e a r l y Geometric, Transitional Period.  study  the  through  Although the  information i s not very d e t a i l e d -- f o r example, there i s no  1 37  information on the amounts of Xiqiaoshan mapped s i t e F i g u r e 5.8).  the extent According  m a t e r i a l s found at each  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s apparent (see  to present  • Xiqiaoshan s i t e A s i t e s c o n t a i n i n g Xiqiaoshan  information  the Xiqiaoshan  eurite  FIGURE 5.8 : D i s t r i b u t i o n of e u r i t e l i t h i c m a t e r i a l s q u a r r i e d at Xiqiaoshan, Guangdong. (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1983b:1090) case i s an anomaly i n the Lingnan Geometric area. lithic  m a t e r i a l s were g e n e r a l l y procured  Utilitarian  from sources  i n the  immediate v i c i n i t y of the use l o c a t i o n , u s u a l l y  from r i v e r  cobbles  1960).  The  or nearby dykes (e.g. Davis and Tregear only other c u r r e n t l i n e of evidence  exchange p a t t e r n s  for internal  i s the i n f e r r e d e x i s t e n c e of c r a f t  1 38  specialization  i n ceramics and metals. ' Jade ornaments were  probably a l s o exchanged over c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s because of the r e s t r i c t e d because  sources of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m a t e r i a l , as w e l l as  of i t s s t a t u s c o n n o t a t i o n s .  There  i s a high degree  of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of both the forms  and design of fineware ceramics throughout  the Geometric  areas  of Lingnan d u r i n g the Kui and Mi P e r i o d s ,  d u r i n g the Kui P e r i o d  the l a r g e impressed storage j a r s from e a s t e r n Guangdong, the P e a r l D e l t a and e a s t e r n Guangxi are p r a c t i c a l l y indistinguishable.  1 6  In the Mi P e r i o d t h i s  stylistic  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n extends a l s o to smaller v e s s e l s , as noted above (Figure 5.5). Although such s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n between widely separated areas i s not on i t s own proof of s p e c i a l i z e d p r o d u c t i o n and exchange, i t does suggest t h i s as a hypothesis worthy of f u r t h e r  investigation.  A model developed by C l a r k e  (1979:314) i n r e l a t i o n t o the Beaker differential  network p o s t u l a t e s that  s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of coarse wares and f i n e wares  should evidence d i f f e r e n t c i r c u l a t i o n  systems f o r each kind of  ware (Figure 5.9). There are some vague h i n t s that coarse geometric wares may be d i f f e r e n t l y zoned l e a s t the Chevron  Transitional Period.  example, geometric-impressed the Chevron  than f i n e wares from at In Hong Kong, f o r  coarse wares are only found during  T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d , when they c o - e x i s t with coarse  corded wares, and d u r i n g the Kui P e r i o d when corded wares are no  See f o r example the i l l u s t r a t i o n s of j a r s from Wuhua County, eastern Guangdong ( M a g l i o n i 1975: P l a t e I ) , and He County eastern Guangxi (CP.A.M. Guangxi 1978: P l a t e s 47-49). 1 6  139  F I G . 4. M o d e l I I : A s c h e m a t i c m o d e l o f the h i e r a r c h i c a l set o f pottery subasscmhlages (fine w a r e , e v e r y d a y ware, h e a v y - d u t y ware) (see F i g . 2) at three d o m e s t i c sites " c " , " d " , "e". A common e x c h a n g e d a n d c o p i e d fine w a r e is shared by a l l three sites w h i c h are then part o f an i n t e r r e g i o n a l fine w a r e " c u l t u r e / t r a d i t i o n " "A". H o w e v e r , b e n e a t h this fine w a r e u n i f o r m i t y based o n e x c h a n g e a n d r e p l i c a t i o n a r c m o r e r e g i o n a l e v e r y d a y a n d h e a v y - d u t y w a r e g r o u p i n g s , e.g.. " B " .  FIGURE 5.9 : C l a r k e ' s model of exchange p a t t e r n s i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l l y organized p o t t e r y assemblage. (1979:341)  longer found (Meacham 1981).  Elsewhere i n Guangdong, simple  geometric m o t i f s were used on coarse wares from the Chevron 2 P e r i o d , i f not before.  Because there a r e no d e t a i l e d  site  r e p o r t s from Kui P e r i o d s i t e s elsewhere i n Guangdong i t i s hard to make comparisons during that P e r i o d ; however  differences  e x i s t between Hong Kong and other Guangdong s i t e s d u r i n g the T r a n s i t i o n a l Period.  At Shuikou, f o r example, the only  geometric p a t t e r n found on coarse wares i s the simple check, and in the Haifeng area "net" p a t t e r n s are predominant P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1983a, M a g l i o n i  1975).  (Guangdong  -A v a r i e t y of geometric  m o t i f s are used on:the coarse wares i n Hong Kong, although only in s i n g l e - m o t i f unzoned arrangements.  I f such apparent  d i f f e r e n c e s between coarse and f i n e wares can be documented more closely  i n f u t u r e there may be a stronger b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i n g  exchange networks f o r fineware ceramics.  In the case of the  Beaker Network Clarke was able to s u b s t a n t i a t e the long d i s t a n c e  140  exchange of beakers through analyses T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y a neccesary here are to be The both  of the c l a y m a t e r i a l s .  step i f the p a t t e r n s  suggested  confirmed.  evidence  provided by the bronzes r e l a t e s to p a t t e r n s of  i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l exchange.  p o s s i b l e that u t i l i t a r i a n  As with ceramics  i t is  bronzes such as small t o o l s and  arrowheads were manufactured q u i t e widely at a number of small workshops.  On the other hand, the lack of i d e n t i f i e d c a s t i n g  s i t e s f o r more complicated  p i e c e s suggests  that such production  was more r e s t r i c t e d , and t h e r e f o r e d i s t r i b u t i o n networks more widespread than  f o r the smaller items.  with the d i f f e r e n t i a l artifact. burials  1 7  T h i s hypothesis  accords  s t a t u s value p l a c e d on each kind of  Ding v e s s e l s are a s s o c i a t e d only with higher  status  , whereas smaller t o o l s and weapons have a l s o been  unearthed from lower s t a t u s b u r i a l s , and h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s such as S h i x i a , Baishipingshan Haifeng  ii.  and v a r i o u s s i t e s i n Hong Kong and  (Appendix 3 ) .  I n t e r r r e g i o n a l exchange The  c i r c u l a t i o n of e x t e r n a l l y manufactured items  have been s i m i l a r l y t i e d  i n with e l i t e  the p r e c i s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of imported present.  status. items  seems to  Unfortunately  i s d i f f i c u l t at  Chinese a r c h a e o l o g i s t s are r e l u c t a n t to i d e n t i f y an  Peters (1983:357) makes the i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t , although such ding are s t y l i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from forms found north of the Wuling, the b a s i c v e s s e l type i s a northern d e r i v a t i v e . Moreover, i n b u r i a l s i n the northern s t a t e s ding are " c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d with and symbolizing p o l i t i c a l authority" ( i b i d . ) . 1 7  141  item as an import unless there i s s p e c i f i c evidence i n s c r i p t i o n ) a t t e s t i n g to i t s locus of manufacture region.  (such as an i n another  In many cases items d e s c r i b e d as being "completely  Chu/Central P l a i n s - s t y l e " are suggested to be imports, t h e r e f o r e such a d e s i g n a t i o n i s the only c r i t e r i o n one can c u r r e n t l y to d i s t i n g u i s h p o s s i b l e  imports from p o s s i b l e l o c a l products.  Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a s i d e , i f we  look at the c a t e g o r i e s of a r t i f a c t s  which are p o s s i b l e imports there are two which (1) v e s s e l s such as l e i urns and he j a r s (2) swords and g_e dagger-axes Xu  1975,  predominate:  (Figure  (Figure 5.11,  He  5.10)  1981:214-216,  Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade 1979:341).  Both c a t e g o r i e s , but p a r t i c u l a r l y the f i r s t , value.  use  have high p r e s t i g e  Notably, only the v e s s e l s are s p e c i f i c a l l y  be imports.  The  implication  manufactured  although h e a v i l y  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o s s i b l e  suggested to  i s that most swords were l o c a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by northern s t y l e s . imports among Lingnan  graves i s shown i n Table 5.12.  There  geometric  is clearly a distinction  in wealth and s t a t u s between the graves which c o n t a i n imported v e s s e l s , and those which do not.  None of the b u r i a l s i n the  Y i n s h a n l i n g and Tonggugang cemeteries, which are on the whole of lower s t a t u s than the i s o l a t e d graves, c o n t a i n "imported" v e s s e l s , although a small number c o n t a i n " l o c a l " bronze (Guangxi  C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade 1978,  Museum 1981).  From t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n  Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l  i t appears that access to  imported e l i t e goods such as the bronze v e s s e l s was concentrated i n the hands of the  vessels  strongly  elite.  There are other bronze a r t i f a c t s found i n Lingnan  Geometric  a. J i a h u i , G u a n g x i  (Late K u i Period  ( G u a n g x i P r o v i n c i a l Museum,  FIGURE 5.10: " I m p o r t e d "  b . M a t o u g a n g #2, Guangdong  1973)  bronze  (CP.A.M.  ritual  vessels  from  Guangdong  (late  K u i Period)  1964)  Lingnan  Geometric  graves  O © Q  IP B r o n z e swords f r o m c e n t r a l C h i n a , t e n t h (a) t o f o u r t h ( f ) - . c e n t u r i e s B.C.. (Watson 1971:117)  V  B r o n z e s w o r d s from Niaodanshan, late Kui Period. (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum (1981)  Bronze swords from the Tonggugang cemetery, Mi P e r i o d (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1981)  Bronze swords and sword f i t t i n g s from S o n g s h a n , l a t e Mi P e r i o d . (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum e t a l . 1974)  Co  B r o n z e swords from t h e Y i n s h a n l i n g cemetery. Mi P e r i o d . (Guangxi C u l t u r a l properties Brigade 1978)  FIGURE  5.11:  Bronze  swords from  central  China  and from  Lingnan  Geometric  graves  Total Grave Goods  Site  Total Bronzes  Vessels: Total  ding  suggested irrports  Reference  KUI PERIOD Matougang #1, Qingyuan C.  33  25  5  Matougang #2,  42  39  1  Jiahui, Gongcheng C., Guangxi  33+  33  8  2  5  1 l e i urn  11  1 l e i urn  12  1 l e i urn 1 ding tripod  38  1 fou j a r 1 he j a r  49 p.214  L u o d i n g #1, L u o d i n g C.  51+  Niaodanshan, S i h u i C.  63  59  4  3  1 he p i t c h e r  28  138  108  14  5  a l l e x c e p t one  49 p.214 35 p.77  a t l e a s t 50  2  MI PERIOD Songshan, Zhaoqing S h i  TABLE 5.12:  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f " i n p o r t e d " bronze v e s s e l s i n L i n g n a n b u r i a l s  145  s i t e s which show s t r o n g l y the s t y l i s t i c and South-western  groups.  and the "boot-shaped"  i n f l u e n c e of Southern  Most common are the yue b a t t l e axe,  axe (Figure 4.3). Such a r t i f a c t s are not  only widely' d i s t r i b u t e d  i n a l l s t a t u s e s of b u r i a l s , but stone  moulds f o r c a s t i n g the yue have been found i n s i t e s Guangdong.  in coastal  Such items were t h e r e f o r e l o c a l l y manufactured,  and  do not d i s p l a y the same s t a t u s connotations as the northern materials.  They do however i n d i c a t e that c o n t a c t s and exchange  were a l s o maintained with the South and Southwest. Evidence i.e.  f o r m a t e r i a l s moving i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n ,  out of Lingnan,  i s largely circumstantial.  Historical  sources from the e a r l y Chinese S t a t e s mention t y p i c a l l y products as i n c l u d i n g p e a r l s , shells —  southern  i v o r y , a l l i g a t o r h i d e s and t u r t l e  a l l of which are u n f o r t u n a t e l y almost  invisible  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y except under e x t r a o r d i n a r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  The  c i r c u m s t a n t i a l argument f o r the export of these m a t e r i a l s from Lingnan  has the f o l l o w i n g  points:  (1) i t would be i l l o g i c a l such as bronzes  f o r S t a t e s to send v a l u a b l e items  i n t o a neighbouring area unless they were  g e t t i n g something (2) h i s t o r i c a l  in return, records i n d i c a t e that they were o b t a i n i n g these  m a t e r i a l s from the South  (how f a r south i s a matter  (3) these products were a v a i l a b l e  i n the Lingnan  f o r debate), Geometric  area, (4) they were procured by Lingnan faunal remains  i n Geometric  i n h a b i t a n t s as evidence of  sites attests  (see Chapter I V ) ,  (5) A major s u p p l i e r of such m a t e r i a l s to the North d u r i n g the  1 46  eastern  Zhou P e r i o d was  Chu  the major source  was  the State of Chu of the e l i t e  (Peters 1983:352), and  materials entering  the  Lingnan Geometric network (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1979:329330). It  seems reasonable  t h e r e f o r e to conclude that the above-  mentioned products  were moving out of Lingnan in exchange for  items such as bronzes, and channelled The section  f u r t h e r that such exchange  through high s t a t u s i n d i v i d u a l s and  one  aspect  groups.  of exchange systems not d i s c u s s e d  i s the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s  storage/transferrence/marketing and  general  prominently  was  of products.  in t h i s  for  The  hierarchical  s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of such f a c i l i t i e s  have f i g u r e d  i n recent analyses  1975;  1977).  T h i s aspect  there  i s at present  was  of exchange systems (Renfrew omitted  f o r the simple  no a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence  reason  that  f o r the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of such p a t t e r n i n g . The and  p o t e n t i a l f o r more in-depth  s t u d i e s of both  e x t e r n a l exchange networks i s g r e a t .  on f u r t h e r f i e l d w o r k to recover p h y s i c a l and chemical  analyses  and  bronzes.  The  Kong and Haifeng  I t does r e l y however  spatial  i n f o r m a t i o n , or on  of m a t e r i a l s aimed at  the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of products  internal  identifying  such as f i n e ceramics  small l o c a l l y - p r o d u c e d bronzes of the Hong regions, f o r example, have been found to  c o n t a i n high p r o p o r t i o n s of l e a d , and  little  A n a l y s i s of the m i n e r a l o g i c a l composition  or no t i n .  of d i f f e r e n t  c a t e g o r i e s of bronzes from throughout Lingnan c o u l d  potentially  be used to t r a c e production  perhaps to  and  exchange areas, and  147  d i s t i n g u i s h more r e l i a b l y between l o c a l products and With respect provide  to ceramics the  few  a b a s i s f o r studying  p a r t i c u l a r ceramic wares. advantage that they can c o l l e c t e d , and  do not  kiln  imports.  s i t e s so f a r l o c a t e d  can  the a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of  Such t e s t s as these have the  be c a r r i e d out on m a t e r i a l s  require  immediate a d d i t i o n a l  already field  research. F.  DISCUSSION  The  thread  I have t r i e d to maintain throughout t h i s long  r a t h e r d i f f u s e chapter i s an e x p l o r a t i o n of the patterns  in s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and  and  developmental  economic components which are  p r e s e n t l y observable for the Geometric network in Lingnan. The  difficulty  in d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between each of  components i s an expression  these  of a b a s i c feature of pre-  early-state level organization,  i . e . that  and  i n these e a r l y stages  of complexity a l l these components are t i g h t l y  integrated  into a  s i n g l e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e , such that the development of cannot be understood without reference  to the o t h e r s .  This  feature  i s observable in the c o r r e l a t i o n between economic  control  (access  general  s o c i a l status  burials  in Lingnan.  to p r e s t i g e goods), p o l i t i c a l in the Bronze and  leadership  e a r l y Iron Age  beginning of the p e r i o d , and  the c o n s i s t e n c y  sequences i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l and  stylistic  of  and  Geometric  Some form of s u p r a - l o c a l networking i s evidenced by r a p i d expansion of the Geometric p o t t e r y Horizon at  one  the  the  transformational  f e a t u r e s throughout  the  1 48  entire region. general  At present  however i t can  communication/interaction  network whose p r e c i s e  dimensions have yet to be p r o p e r l y My  own  belief  only be d e s c r i b e d as a  defined.  i s that the r i t u a l / a l l i a n c e dimensions were  the d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s , and  not an u n d e r l y i n g  among i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s as Meacham (1983) has ethnicity why  i s a d e f i n i n g feature then we  the Geometric Horizon  ethnic  identity  suggested.  If  are at a l o s s to e x p l a i n  c r o s s - c u t o l d e r d i v i s i o n s between  l o c a l groups i n the Lingnan area, d i v i s i o n s which seem to have been maintained during Geometric h o r i z o n such as axes and  at l e a s t the Late N e o l i t h i c phases of  in d i f f e r e n t adzes, and  r e g i o n a l s t y l e s of l i t h i c  strongest  horizon were to the weaker along  both to the north and  the boundary between the Southwest and  e x t e r n a l connections  I t must a l s o  be  of the Geometric  i n t e r i o r , to the J i a n g x i area, and  the coast  tools  perhaps coarseware ceramics  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1979:327-328). noted that the  the  were much  the south.  While  "Bronze Drum C u l t u r e " of the South  Geometric Horizon  during  the Bronze Age  may  and  well  r e l a t e to a T h a i / A u s t r o - a s i a t i c l i n g u i s t i c group boundary (Pulleyblank  1983:435), the northern  ceramics c r o s s e s  over l i n g u i s t i c  d i s t r i b u t i o n of Geometric  boundaries, whether one  the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n proposed by Benedict 1983:150, Bayard (1976) and that e t h n i c  (1975, see Meacham  1975:77), or that proposed by Mei  Pulleyblank f a c t o r s had  (1983).  and  Norman  It i s therefore d i f f i c u l t  a d e f i n i n g e f f e c t on the extent  i n t e g r a t i o n of the network i n Lingnan. According  to the typology  follows  taken as a b a s i s f o r t h i s  to  and  see  149  a n a l y s i s , what l e v e l s d i d s u c c e s s i v e phases of the Geometric horizon  r e l a t e to?  phase of i n c i p i e n t beginning anything  from an apparent b r i e f and  ranking  i n northern  other  unsustained  Guangdong at the very  of the Geometric P e r i o d , there  i s no evidence of  than e g a l i t a r i a n groups with achieved  distinctions until The  Apart  status  l a t e i n the Chevron T r a n s i t i o n a l P e r i o d .  s i t u a t i o n i n the Kui and Mi Periods  from the e a r l y Geometric P e r i o d s .  i s much a l t e r e d  There are very c l e a r signs  from at l e a s t the middle Kui P e r i o d of an e l i t e group who h e l d economic and p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as p u r e l y s o c i a l The increase  status.  e l a b o r a t i o n of t h i s basic s t r u c t u r e through a gradual i n the amount of wealth c o n t r o l l e d by the highest  l e v e l s of the e l i t e , and the apparent development of s e v e r a l l e v e l s w i t h i n the e l i t e group are the major developmental throughout the Kui and Mi P e r i o d s . evidence of the t r a n s i t i o n m i l i t a r y power i s s t i l l and  there  There i s as yet no c l e a r  to a s t a t e l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n :  t i e d c l o s e l y to general  i s no d i s t i n c t w a r r i o r c l a s s .  urban c e n t r e s  trends  social  status,  There are no signs of  or f u l l - t i m e c r a f t s p e o p l e , and the h i g h e s t - s t a t u s  b u r i a l thus f a r unearthed i s d i s t i n c t i v e p r i m a r i l y i n terms of the amount of grave f u r n i t u r e i t c o n t a i n s : are not q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t  ritual  symbolic  from those of l e s s wealthy  items high-  status i n d i v i d u a l s . The  p e r i o d which s t i l l  these developmental p a t t e r n s Period.  remains the f u z z i e s t  i n terms of  i s the l a t e Chevron 3 t o e a r l y Kui  T h i s i s the c r u c i a l p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n  from the  unranked Late N e o l i t h i c to the s t r o n g l y ranked Bronze Age  1 50  societies.  In the  next chapter I s h a l l present and  framework for i n v e s t i g a t i n g the  r o l e of e x t e r n a l  input  complex systems i n t o the Lingnan network which w i l l lay the  discuss  a  from more  hopefully  foundations for i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h i s t r a n s i t i o n i n  future.  151  VI. A.  INTERREGIONAL INTERACTION AND LOCAL EVOLUTION  INTRODUCTION  I i n d i c a t e d i n the previous  chapter  that the conceptual  framework of c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n and development used i n these analyses and  r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r o l e s of both  internal  e x t e r n a l f o r c e s i n inducing or s t i m u l a t i n g c u l t u r a l change.  In t h i s chapter  I s h a l l be concerned with a more d e t a i l e d  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e x t e r n a l inputs i n t o the Lingnan area, and t h e i r e f f e c t on the s p e c i f i c e v o l u t i o n a r y processes Geometric P e r i o d i n that  of the  region.  Renfrew has argued that the mere e x i s t e n c e of l o n g - d i s t a n c e exchange networks does not n e c c e s a r i l y imply played a s i g n i f i c a n t  r o l e i n the development of complex  s o c i e t i e s w i t h i n a region that  that such exchange  (1975:36-37).  input from neighbouring  regions  In order  to e s t a b l i s h  i n the form of trade d i d i n  f a c t exert a c o n d i t i o n i n g e f f e c t on l o c a l e v o l u t i o n a r y it one  i s neccesary  to demonstrate that i t d i d l i n k  of the i n t e r n a l The  processes  i n t o and impact  subsystems.  f a c t of input from northern  S t a t e s i n t o Lingnan i s  e s t a b l i s h e d by the p h y s i c a l presence of northern  manufactured  items i n Lingnan Bronze and e a r l y Iron Age s i t e s , and by the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of n o r t h e r n - d e r i v e d  stylistic  elements i n t o  152  locally-produced  artifacts  1 8  documented i n the previous I n i t i a l Chevron P e r i o d Periods.  .  Such i n f l u e n c e s have been  chapters with r e f e r e n c e  (Shixia Culture)  to the  and the Kui and Mi  The two issues to be considered  are the form the input  took, and the impact i t had on the development of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity w i t h i n B.  Lingnan.  THE NATURE OF EXTERNAL INPUT INTO THE LINGNAN REGION  Several  forms of e x t e r n a l  have been recorded  input  h i s t o r i c a l l y and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y .  be d i v i d e d i n t o two general migration/colonization, input",  i.e.  i n t o a r e g i o n a l c u l t u r a l network  categories:  "direct  These may  input", i . e .  or m i l i t a r y conquest, and " i n d i r e c t  movement of m a t e r i a l  absence of l a r g e - s c a l e p o p u l a t i o n  items or information movement or the  i n the  establishment  of e x t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l . There i s only one p o s s i b i l i t y Lingnan during  of a p o p u l a t i o n  movement i n t o  the Geometric P e r i o d , and the evidence as  presently  reported  i s ambiguous.  He (1981:217) s t a t e s with  reference  to the Raoping b u r i a l s that  "there are q u i t e  large  d i f f e r e n c e s between the ceramics i n the tomb assemblages and the commonly-seen geometric p o t t e r y ,  p o s s i b l y they are the remains  of another kind of c u l t u r e . " . Elsewhere i t i s s t a t e d that the  I t i s not my i n t e n t i o n to imply that the i n f l u e n c e was u n i d i r e c t i o n a l : c e r t a i n l y elements of southern s t y l e s and t e c h n o l o g i e s , as w e l l as southern products c o u l d have a l s o moved i n t o northern groups. T h i s issue however i s p e r i p h e r a l to the t o p i c I have d e f i n e d f o r t h i s study, and t h e r e f o r e w i l l not be explored here. 1 8  153  Raoping  ceramics are s i m i l a r to remains  the n o r t h e a s t e r n c o u n t i e s of Huiyang,  Chao'an and  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1979:329). compare with remains because  no d e t a i l e d  published.  found i n other graves in Puning  I t i s unclear how  they  from h a b i t a t i o n c o n t e x t s i n the same area i n f o r m a t i o n on these s i t e s has yet been  However i t should be noted that t h i s phenomenon  seems to be very  localized.  Other than t h i s there i s no evidence at a l l of d i r e c t input from neighbouring areas i n t o Lingnan e i t h e r at the beginning of, or d u r i n g the Geometric ceramics, as Xu  Period.  The e a r l i e s t  Geometric  (1981) has argued, have obvious antecedents i n  the same area, and show an u n i n t e r r u p t e d s t y l i s t i c The only h i s t o r i c a l account of a m i l i t a r y Lingnan before the Qin i n v a s i o n  development.  incursion  into  i s the much-quoted passage  from  the Shi J i , 'Biography of Sunzi and Wu Q i ' which speaks of the King of Chu Yue"  (eg.  sending h i s General Wu  Qi "south to p a c i f y the  Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1979:330, Guangxi  C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade 1978:250).  No d i r e c t  archaeological  t r a c e s of such an event have been found, and there i s no change i n the degree or nature of Chu that time historical  100  ( e a r l y Warring  visible  i n f l u e n c e i n Lingnan at  States Period).  r e f e r e n c e s imply that i t was  N e i t h e r do the a particularly  large-  scale o p e r a t i o n (Guangxi  C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade  1978:250).  In a l l these r e s p e c t s Wu  Qi's e x p e d i t i o n stands i n strong  c o n t r a s t to the Qin i n v a s i o n of the e a r l y t h i r d century BC, when northern c o n t r o l was  extended  over Lingnan.  m i l i t a r y encounters do not represent d i r e c t  On these bases input as d e f i n e d  such  1 54  above. the  Therefore what input the neighbouring groups had  Lingnan network was a p p a r e n t l y  into  indirect.  The hypothesis that the input of the northern groups Lingnan was through the medium of m a t e r i a l exchange r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of such exchange maintenance of the complex h i e r a r c h i c a l northern S t a t e s .  into  i s based on  systems to the  s t r u c t u r e s of the  Friedman and Rowlands (1977:211-213;  219-220;  270-71) have f o r c e f u l l y argued that c o n t r o l over trade in e x o t i c m a t e r i a l s and products i s a symbol, a source, and a j u s t i f i c a t i o n of e l i t e  s t a t u s and power i n complex  societies  such as e x i s t e d i n northern China and the Yangtze during period.  Such an a s s o c i a t i o n between  trade and e l i t e  been noted a l s o by many other students of complex  this  s t a t u s has  societies.  One  f e a t u r e of the development of h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and  the  concomitant expansion of e l i t e groups i s t h e i r need to draw  i n c r e a s i n g l y more on d i s t a n t  sources of e x o t i c m a t e r i a l s .  gradual expansion of exchange networks i n t o p e r i p h e r a l  The  regions  i s t h e r e f o r e one consequence of the development of such complex systems.  H i s t o r i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence from the e a r l y  Chinese States i n d i c a t e that such a mechanism was important f e a t u r e of e l i t e 157; 366).  indeed an  s t a t u s at that time (Chang 1980:153-  The Shang s t a t e was drawing on the Yangtze and  southeast c o a s t a l regions f o r such resources as i v o r y , p l a s t r o n s and cowrie s h e l l s Norman 1976:291).  (Chang  H e a v i l y Shang  1975;  1980:153-7, Mei &  i n f l u e n c e d proto-urban c e n t r e s  were l o c a t e d i n the lower Yangtze (Hushu C u l t u r e ) , Jiangxi  turtle  (Wucheng s i t e ) and the Wuhan area  central  (Panlongcheng s i t e )  1 55  a l r e a d y by the E r l i g a n g phase ( c i r c a 1980:297-306, Wen  Wu Correspondent  1800-1500 BC: Chang  1979:57-59).  E a s t e r n Zhou P e r i o d the c e n t r a l Yangtze  During the  State of Chu was  famous  as a s u p p l i e r of e l i t e products such as i v o r y , rhinocerous horn, f e a t h e r s , gold, gems, and p e a r l s , at l e a s t some of which have a c q u i r e d through trade with neighbouring areas  i t must  (Peters  1983:352) The  items being exchanged i n t o Lingnan, on the b a s i s of the  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence, were manufactured  items such as bronze  v e s s e l s and weapons , and on the b a s i s of present evidence t h i s trade i s most v i s i b l e Spring & Autumn).  from the middle to l a t e Kui P e r i o d  (late  The beginning of the E a s t e r n Zhou (Spring and  Autumn Period) marks a t r a n s i t i o n  to a c o m m e r c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d  economy, one r e s u l t of which was  the ' d e v a l u a t i o n ' of bronze  v e s s e l s from p u r e l y e l i t e  items to items of wealth to be  used f r e e l y Friedman  ritual  i n exchange t r a n s a c t i o n s  and Rowlands 1977  :249)  .  (Chang  1977:349-351,  We might  thus expect a  change i n the q u a n t i t i e s and types of v e s s e l s appearing in the Lingnan network from the E a s t e r n Zhou P e r i o d . The notable s t y l i s t i c  i n f l u e n c e s from the North a l s o  i n c l u d e n o n - a r t i f a c t u a l domains such as grave p i t form ( f o r example grave ledge and waist p i t ) ,  i n d i c a t i n g that exchange  not t o t a l l y m a t e r i a l but a l s o i d e a t i o n a l . probable that  was  It i s therefore  i t i n v o l v e d movement of i n d i v i d u a l s between  regions. In order to generate s p e c i f i c of northern input  e x p e c t a t i o n s about  the  impact  i n t o the Lingnan network we must a l s o c o n s i d e r  1 56  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l of each of the groups i n v o l v e d , the nature of long d i s t a n c e  exchanges d i f f e r s at d i f f e r e n t  l e v e l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l complexity :206-238).  Table 6.1  (Friedman and  Rowlands  s t r u c t u r a l organization  the  s p e c i f i c developmental stages of the Chinese State  the  of Lingnan and  by Friedman & Rowlands (1977).  structural  1977  shows the temporal c o r r e l a t i o n s between  the  defined  since  Yangtze c u l t u r e s ,  and  as  T h i s then i s the  "landscape" a f f e c t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between Lingnan  and  north. The  above d i s c u s s i o n d e f i n e s  external  input  the general  f e a t u r e s of  from more n o r t h e r l y groups i n t o Lingnan.  remaining part of t h i s chapter I s h a l l o u t l i n e and some s p e c i f i c  i m p l i c a t i o n s regarding  the In  the  investigate  the nature and  degree of  impact of such i n t e r r e g i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n on the development of s o c i a l complexity  in Lingnan.  C.  INTERREGIONAL INTERACTION  THE  IMPACT OF  1. The  Exchange And  nature of e x t e r n a l  internal conditions.  on p r e e x i s t i n g  p o t e n t i a l for i n t e n s i f y i n g l o c a l  e x i s t , before  the  inflow of  prestige  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l demands of maintaining  network can to occur. external  Status  impact depends f i r s t The  h i e r a r c h i e s must f i r s t goods and  Elite  provide  opportunity  and  stimulus  the exchange  for h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n  If the process of h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n i s l i n k e d with such input  concentrated  then we  should  expect traded  items to  be  in the hands of the e l i t e or, a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y  speaking, i n contexts  a s s o c i a t e d with them such as e l i t e  centres  P e r i od  L i ngnan  C e n t r a 1 - 1ower Yangtze  Model  CHEVRON 1  Tribal incipient ranking (North only)  Tr i ba1 incipient  Tribal  2  unranked, achieved status distinctions  3  (late) incipient ranking? (Northeast only)  complex  early  KUI  Chiefdoms  State  (Friedman Rowlands  & 1977)  ranking  Chiefdoms,  State?  Asiatic  State  P r e s t i g e Good S y s t e m (centrifugal phase) P r e s t i g e Good S y s t e m (centripetal phase)  MI  TABLE 6.1:  Levels o f s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity i nLingnan and the Yangtze compared w i t h developmental stages o f t h e C h i n e s e s t a t e  area,  1  or b u r i a l s . of e l i t e  58  There i s a l s o the p o t e n t i a l that the e x t e r n a l  groups w i l l be symbolized  produced e l i t e  stylistically  on  links  locally  products.  Discussion I have not attempted to assess q u a n t i t a t i v e l y the amounts of externally-manufactured  products  relative  in e l i t e graves i n  Lingnan because of the d i f f i c u l t y of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g imports l o c a l products  on the b a s i s of the information at hand.  However, s u p e r f i c i a l  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the a r t i f a c t  e l i t e Bronze and E a r l y Iron Age association  remains from  graves seems to i n d i c a t e such an  (see p r e v i o u s chapter,  s t a t u s Lingnan b u r i a l  Table  5.12).  The  highest  in Zhaoqing i s d e s c r i b e d as e v i d e n c i n g  extremely high degree of "Chu  i n f l u e n c e " , and  a number of bronze v e s s e l s and  certainly  manufacture  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum et  al.  Figure 5.10  c).  n u m e r i c a l l y and manufacture.  manufacture  Middle s t a t u s items such as  (Peters  local  1983:251; He  m i l i t a r y equipment, although Lingnan, show the s t y l i s t i c  in s t y l e s , and  1981:214-216).  most probably  T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n may  of  local  Most items of  manufactured w i t h i n  i n f l u e n c e of Chu  in the lower s t a t u s  i n f l u e n c e or  'ding' t r i p o d s and  (Figure 5.11); in general these are the only a r t i f a c t s contained  contains  Lower s t a t u s e l i t e b u r i a l s c o n t a i n  p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l e s s o b j e c t s of Chu  b e l l s are d e s c r i b e d as being  an  a c c e s s o r i e s which at l e a s t appear  to be of Chu 1974:77;  from  very  strongly  "foreign style"  graves.  a l s o be f u l f i l l e d with  I n i t i a l Geometric phase of the S h i x i a C u l t u r e .  respect to the In t h i s case  159  a l s o i t i s impossible  to q u a n t i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between high  status b u r i a l goods and  external  i n f l u e n c e s , but  ceramics are very c l e a r l y of Yangtze area 1978,  Gao  and  Shao 1981).  the  burial  s t y l e s (Figure 6.1,  Su  Lowest s t a t u s b u r i a l s ( i . e . those  FIGURE 6.1 : Comparison of ceramic •hu" v e s s e l s from Guangdong with examples from the C e n t r a l Yangtze area. (Zeng 1982) with the s m a l l e s t p i t s and c o n t a i n any and  ceramic p i e c e s .  l e a s t amount of grave goods) r a r e l y High s t a t u s badges such as  cong'  jade ornaments are a l s o i d e n t i c a l with Yangtze examples  1978).  Hopefully  question report  i t w i l l become p o s s i b l e to explore  (Su  this  f u r t h e r in f u t u r e upon p u b l i c a t i o n of a d e t a i l e d s i t e  from S h i x i a .  160  2.  The  S p a t i a l Implications  second i m p l i c a t i o n I s h a l l explore  concerns the  p a t t e r n i n g of e l i t e c e n t r e s w i t h i n Lingnan. from the nature of the distinctions  I t d e r i v e s in part  i n t e r a c t i o n between trade and  in the e x t e r n a l system.  C l o s e r and  greatest  t h e r e f o r e the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r impacting  i n t e r n a l network of neighbouring  areas.  The  e f f e c t s of  impact of the most demanding e x t e r n a l system should archaeologically visible the  status  more complex  ( t h e r e f o r e more demanding) systems should have the input, and  spatial  i n t e r n a l network.  the the  be  i n the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of nodes i n  Specific  i m p l i c a t i o n s have been d e r i v e d  from the d e n d r i t i c "gateway" model which a p p l i e s to s i t u a t i o n s where the pressure  of e x t e r n a l trade  i s strong,  communication  routes are l i m i t e d by t o p o g r a p h i c / t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l  f a c t o r s , and  population  "gateway"  i s r e l a t i v e l y sparse  model o u t l i n e s how,  ( H i r t h 1978).  The  under these c o n d i t i o n s , the  nodal c e n t r e s w i t h i n a region  l o c a t i o n of  i s a f f e c t e d by the  " p u l l " of  e x t e r n a l trade channeled through a gateway community  (Figure  6.2) However, the demands of e x t e r n a l trade are not  the  only  f o r c e s i n f l u e n c i n g the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of nodes w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l network.  The  internal  p a t t e r n i n g of settlements  f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e  i n c l u d e f e a t u r e s of the  natural  environment such as land s u i t a b l e f o r h a b i t a t i o n , and d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n t r a r e g i o n a l communication r o u t e s . of Lingnan these are both c o n d i t i o n e d  spatial  the In the case  by the r i v e r networks as  161  FIGURE 6,2 1978:38) was  : Model of the d e n d r i t i c market network.  o u t l i n e d in Chapter IV.  exist  Where i n t e r n a l exchange networks  the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources  f a c t o r , and  (Hirth  i s an a d d i t i o n a l  in the presence of an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y  l o c a t i o n of nodes w i l l a l s o be r e l a t e d to areas most for  c o o r d i n a t i n g and  information settlement  p a t t e r n manifested  c o n f l i c t i n g ) demands (Conrad  The  in a s p e c i f i c  r e s u l t of compromise between a l l of these  The  important  c o n t r o l l i n g the movement of goods  between d i s p e r s e d communities.  the  and  actual  region  i s thus a  (sometimes  1978).  presence of strong e x t e r n a l t r a d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s  introduces  another c o m p l i c a t i n g  f a c t o r which must be r e c o n c i l e d  with the above i n t e r n a l requirements.  If we  view the  f a c t o r s as p r o v i d i n g a basic p a t t e r n , then the e x t e r n a l trade can  be seen as a c t i n g to d i s t o r t the  network, strengthening preferentially  "pull"  internal of  internal  the s t a t u s of centres which are  l o c a t e d with  respect  to e x t e r n a l trade  routes.  1 62  From t h i s g e n e r a l model I have d e r i v e d two  specific  expectations  regarding the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of e l i t e c e n t r e s i n the Geometric network which should be f u l f i l l e d  i f indeed  the  e x t e r n a l trade network i s e x e r t i n g a c o n d i t i o n i n g e f f e c t local hierarchies.  Lingnan  on  These a r e :  (1) high s t a t u s c e n t r e s w i t h i n Lingnan  should tend to be  c l u s t e r e d with respect to the major communication routes between Lingnan  and  i t s most demanding  neighbour.  (2) as the s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of the most demanding e x t e r n a l system changes, the r e l a t i v e  importance of d i f f e r e n t  routes  should change a c c o r d i n g l y . A final  step that i s necessary  before mapping the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of e l i t e c e n t r e s i s to d e f i n e the main communication routes between Lingnan  and  the North.  As I have  o u t l i n e d above, n a t u r a l communication routes i n the  prehistoric  p e r i o d s followed the r i v e r s and  seacoast because of  topographic  and environmental  On F i g u r e 6.3  constraints.  routes connecting Lingnan  in green.  to the Gan  river  with the Xiang River v a l l e y of Hunan  (and t h e r e f o r e to the centre of Chu) which connect  the main  are shown i n orange;  River drainage  of J i a n g x i are  C o a s t a l routes might be expected  those  indicated  to  t e r m i n a t e / o r i g i n a t e at any p o i n t along the c o a s t l i n e , but i f communication from coast to i n t e r i o r then the d e l t a s of the Han  and  as a  factor,  P e a r l R i v e r s should exert the  g r e a t e s t p u l l on c o a s t a l t r a f f i c .  Discussion  i s counted  1 63  Information  on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of settlement  not yet e x i s t  h i e r a r c h i e s does  f o r the Geometric P e r i o d , t h e r e f o r e I s h a l l  use  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of high s t a t u s b u r i a l s to i n d i c a t e the approximate l o c a t i o n of nodes in the s t a t u s network. c l e a r evidence  of e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  comes from the Kui P e r i o d . can  At present  then,  these  The  first  i n Lingnan  implications  only be p r o p e r l y compared with Kui and Mi P e r i o d  spatial  patterns. The  s t r o n g e s t neighbouring  c e n t r e s during the Geometric  P e r i o d were l o c a t e d in the c e n t r a l Yangtze, in the areas Lakes Tungting  and  c l o s e s t c e n t r e was Gan  Poyang.  E a r l y in the Shang p e r i o d  the  Wucheng, l o c a t e d south of Lake Poyang in the  R i v e r v a l l e y of J i a n g x i .  rival  States was  these  s t a t e s were extending  c e n t r a l Hunan and  of  By l a t e Western Zhou a number of  e s t a b l i s h e d in the c e n t r a l and  along  their  lower Yangtze;  i n f l u e n c e southwards i n t o  the Zhejiang  coast  1980:297-306; 311-316; F i g u r e s 84 & 88).  (Chang 1977:410-420; During  the Kui and  Mi  Periods the c e n t r e of power in the Yangtze s h i f t e d towards the Hunan-Hubei region as Chu (Chang 1972:5-7).  We  s u c c e s s i v e l y conquered i t s neighbours  should  t h e r e f o r e expect that during  l a t e Chevron 3 P e r i o d the main inputs i n t o Lingnan should d i r e c t e d through the Gan routes to Chu  (i.e.  River v a l l e y of J i a n g x i , while  the Xiang  River connections)  b u r i a l s should each P e r i o d .  The  be  inland  should grow i n  importance from at l e a s t the middle of the Kui P e r i o d , predominate by the Mi P e r i o d .  the  l o c a t i o n of e l i t e  and  status  thus be b i a s e d towards the predominant routes in  1 64  Judging  from the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Kui and Mi P e r i o d  elite  b u r i a l s shown on Map 6.1 the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of s t a t u s centres  i n those  periods does conform to the s t a t e d  e x p e c t a t i o n s : The m a j o r i t y are c l u s t e r e d along l e a d i n g towards Chu.  the routes  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g a l s o that the highest  s t a t u s b u r i a l s i n each of the Kui and Mi Periods and  (Niaodanshan  Songshan r e s p e c t i v e l y ) are l o c a t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of the  Sanshui area of the P e a r l River D e l t a which, i n terms of internal  f a c t o r s i s the c e n t r a l p o i n t f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g the flow  of goods and information The Period)  data  i n Lingnan are too t h i n at present regarding  that time.  What l i t t l e  the s p a t i a l aspects evidence  to draw any f i r m of h i e r a r c h i z a t i o n at  e x i s t s ( i . e . from the Shuikou  Raoping s i t e s ) p o i n t s to the Northeast  as the e a r l i e s t c e n t r e f o r s o c i a l s p e c i a l i z e d production  status  and northern  corner  contacts  Guangdong.  of Guangdong  differentiation,  technological influence  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1979:330; 1983). northern  (Figure 6.3).  from the l a t e Shang and Western Zhou (Chevron 3  conclusions  and  from a l l p a r t s of Lingnan  i s thus c e r t a i n l y v i s i b l e  The i n f l u e n c e of  i n t h i s area of  However, the absence of s i m i l a r remains i n the r e s t  of the Province  may not i n d i c a t e that the northeast  area d i s p l a y i n g e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e at t h i s time.  was the only  No s i t e s of  t h i s p e r i o d have been excavated i n Northern and Western Regions (although many are known from s u r f a c e r e c o n n a i s s a n c e ) .  On the  b a s i s of the model one would expect the Northern Region to d i s p l a y evidence  of s i m i l a r e x t e r n a l c o n t a c t s with the J i a n g x i  Shang P e r i o d s i t e s , but f o r the moment t h i s q u e s t i o n , and  with  r e s p e c t t o e x t e r n a l communication  routes  166  t h e r e f o r e the second e x p e c t a t i o n o u t l i n e d above w i l l have to remain D.  unresolved.  CONCLUSIONS That the input of the northern  region was  through the medium of exchange i s i n d i c a t e d by  h i s t o r i c a l evidence was  S t a t e s i n t o the Lingnan  from the S t a t e s themselves.  not always completely  historical  p e a c e f u l i s a t t e s t e d to both  r e f e r e n c e s as w e l l as by the presence of  m i l i t a r y equipment in Lingnan graves. chapter  was  to explore the hypothesis  between the North and Lingnan,  by  well-used  that the  interchange  most probably  important  through  e f f e c t on  the  s o c i o p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r c h i e s of Lingnan groups.  T h i s hypothesis evidence:  trade  The main p o i n t in t h i s  which was  the medium of exchange, d i d have an developing  That t h i s  i s supported  by at l e a s t 2 l i n e s of  19  ( 1 ) e x t e r n a l l y produced and  s t y l e d goods seem to be  c o n s i s t e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d with the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of the Lingnan elite, (2) the s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of the e l i t e c e n t r e s w i t h i n Lingnan during the l a t e Geometric was  apparently  the l o c a t i o n of the strongest t r a d i n g partner The  i n f l u e n c e d by  in the Hunan area.  presence of the e x t e r n a l s t a t e - l e v e l system thus appears to  have exerted an  i n f l u e n c e on the  w i t h i n Lingnan,  and  i n t e r n a l status h i e r a r c h i e s  the observable  p a t t e r n s t h e r e f o r e cannot  lack of a p p r o p r i a t e data render i t impossible to c o n s t r u c t adequate deductive t e s t s of t h i s hypothesis at p r e s e n t . 1 9  be  167  adequately accounted  f o r by l o c a l  f a c t o r s alone.  1 68  VII.  The  two general  CONCLUSIONS  goals of t h i s research  have been to f i l l  i n the  vacuum that e x i s t s i n Western-language s t u d i e s of the l a t e Prehistoric period  i n South China, and to begin the process of  b u i l d i n g and r e f i n i n g an e x p l i c i t s o c i a l developments during The relevant  first  this  period.  stage of t h i s study i n v o l v e d c o m p i l a t i o n  l i t e r a t u r e on the subject  30 years.  framework f o r the study of  area  published  of the  over the past  On the b a s i s of these sources I made a b r i e f  assessment of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work on p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s  that  has  been c a r r i e d out i n Guangdong and Guangxi, and of the nature  and  d e t a i l of information  sources.  that has been p u b l i s h e d  The sources c l e a r l y  archaeological  i n Chinese  i n d i c a t e that a great deal of  reconnaissance work has been undertaken i n  Lingnan, p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e .  published  c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e outside  information  Although the of China i s  not  s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d to make s p a t i a l s t u d i e s p o s s i b l e  are  i n d i c a t i o n s i n some of the most r e c e n t l y - p u b l i s h e d  that r e g i o n a l s i t e p a t t e r n i n g  research  The excavation  (Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l  work that has been c a r r i e d  out has been designed w i t h i n an e x p l i c i t l y h i s t o r i c a l It  has t h e r e f o r e c o n t r i b u t e d  g r e a t l y to f i l l i n g  the chronology on both the r e g i o n a l and l o c a l excavation  work i s s t i l l  reports  s t u d i e s are beginning to be an  important focus of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l Museum 1983b, 1984).  there  framework.  i n d e t a i l s of  s c a l e s , however,  i n i t s e a r l y stages i n Lingnan and only  a few s i t e s have been excavated at a l l .  Consequently there are  169  a number of regions and a number of c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s whose main f e a t u r e s are s t i l l  unclear.  F o r t u n a t e l y the general  ceramic sequence i s w e l l understood, and the c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between excavated s i t e s i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . One clear  important c h r o n o l o g i c a l  from the most r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d radiocarbon dates i s the  great time-depth of the Horizon. that the Geometric B.C.  f e a t u r e which has only become  (1977:414).  3000+ B.C. Guangdong.  As l a t e as 1977  Chang wrote  Horizon began at approximately Geometric  1500  c u l t u r e s have s i n c e been dated to •  i n J i a n g x i , and from c i r c a  3000 B.C.  i n northern  D e s p i t e t h i s greater depth I have chosen  the term "Horizon" i n order to emphasize the c l o s e between the Geometric regions of South  China. (Chapters V and VI) was  taken  up  second general goal of i n v e s t i g a t i n g the development of  s o c i a l complexity in Lingnan during the Geometric basic  relationships  ceramics i n Lingnan and those i n other  The bulk of t h i s study with my  to r e t a i n  Period.  The  issue I have addressed i s the debate over the r o l e of  e x t e r n a l versus i n t e r n a l s t i m u l i during t h i s period. cannot because  i n the developments observed  I have argued on a g e n e r a l l e v e l that  study p r o c e s s u a l change completely on the i n t e r n a l  one scale  by t h e i r nature c u l t u r a l systems are open to both  i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i  f o r change.  T h e r e f o r e , i f one i s  i n t e r e s t e d i n studying the development of s o c i a l complexity i t i s neccesary to use a framework that can comprehend both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s . to study the developmental  The  framework I have used here  p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the Lingnan  Geometric  1 70  periods was drawn from s t u d i e s of the development  of complex  s o c i e t i e s i n Europe during the Late N e o l i t h i c t o e a r l y Metal Ages, because  there are many s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between  t h i s s i t u a t i o n and that of Lingnan d u r i n g the Geometric  as I  o u t l i n e d at the beginning of Chapter V. Evidence f o r the development  of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l and economic  h i e r a r c h i e s drawn from p u b l i s h e d sources was analyzed i n l i g h t of the general developmental o u t l i n e d by Flannery (1972).  schemes of F r i e d and S e r v i c e , as A n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l and  p o l i t i c a l components r e l i e d p r i m a r i l y on mortuary  data - on the  presence and degree of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between contemporaneous b u r i a l s i n the amount of wealth and energy expenditure on grave p r e p a r a t i o n , and on symbolic and s t y l i s t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s which seem to i n d i c a t e s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s between i n d i v i d u a l s and groups.  Both general t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments and  organizational component.  f e a t u r e s were c o n s i d e r e d under  the manufacturing  The sources of i n f o r m a t i o n used here were the  t e c h n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s of the a r t i f a c t s themselves, and the s i t e s where they were manufactured. systems  similarly  A n a l y s i s of exchange  r e l i e d on a r t i f a c t data to i n f e r the e x i s t e n c e  of i n t e r n a l exchange i n ceramics and metals, and i n t e r r e g i o n a l exchange i n e l i t e  bronzes.  In g e n e r a l , there i s s t r o n g evidence of the development of ranked c h i e f d o m - l e v e l s o c i e t i e s by the Kui p e r i o d . of c r a f t  specialization  i s apparent  Some degree  f o r f i n e ceramics and  metals, and i n d i c a t i o n s are that there may have been f a i r l y c i r c u l a t i o n of both of these p r o d u c t s .  wide  I n t e r r e g i o n a l exchange  171  i s more c l e a r l y evidenced by the presence of e x t e r n a l l y manufactured historical  bronzes i n Lingnan Geometric  graves, while  sources i n d i c a t e that s p e c i a l raw m a t e r i a l s such as  p e a r l s and i v o r y , which were of high value to e l i t e the  groups i n  n o r t h , were being exchanged out of Lingnan i n r e t u r n . In  input  Ghapter VI I e x p l o r e d the s p e c i f i c  i s s u e of e x t e r n a l  i n t o Lingnan more thoroughly with two q u e s t i o n s i n mind:  (1) what form d i d t h i s input (2) what impact  take?  ( i f any) d i d i t have on the development  of  h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Lingnan? With r e f e r e n c e to the f i r s t of  direct  q u e s t i o n , there i s no evidence  input from neighbouring regions i n the form of  conquest or c o l o n i z a t i o n d u r i n g the Geometric Horizon  itself.  There  i s , on the other hand reason to b e l i e v e that trade i n  elite  goods and raw m a t e r i a l s l i n k e d Lingnan Geometric  with the Chinese S t a t e s to the n o r t h . i n t e r a c t i o n between the two areas was the  medium of exchange.  I have thus argued i n d i r e c t and was  The h y p o t h e s i s that t h i s  neighbouring northern S t a t e s d i d i n f l u e n c e l o c a l development  was  t e s t e d by two  groups that  through  input from the hierarchical  l i n e s of evidence.  First,  the  nature of imported goods and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n Lingnan were i n v e s t i g a t e d . elite  Imports were found to be the h i g h e s t q u a l i t y  goods found i n Lingnan graves; furthermore, they were  distributed  i n only the h i g h e s t s t a t u s c o n t e x t s .  This therefore  i n d i c a t e s there was a c l o s e involvement of the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of the  Lingnan e l i t e  in e x t e r n a l t r a d e .  Secondly the  spatial  l o c a t i o n of high s t a t u s graves with respect to i n t e r r e g i o n a l  172  communication routes the  examined in order  to determine whether  l o c a t i o n of c e n t r a l nodes w i t h i n the Lingnan geometric  network was northern  i n f l u e n c e d by the presence of t r a d i n g l i n k s with  s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of e l i t e b u r i a l s during  e a r l y Iron Ages was  patterning  found to conform to the  under the hypothesis that e x t e r n a l  exerting a direct influence. i n v e s t i g a t i o n that not with e l i t e  s o c i a l and  l o c a t i o n of g r e a t e s t Geometric. States and  Bronze  expected  f a c t o r s were  Thus I concluded from t h i s  only was  e x t e r n a l trade  i t exerted  integrally  linked  a c o n d i t i o n i n g e f f e c t on  h i e r a r c h i c a l development during  the  the  late  In view of these i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e x t e r n a l the Lingnan Geometric c u l t u r e s i t i s c l e a r that a  L o c a l E v o l u t i o n Model which does not allow external  the  economic s t a t u s w i t h i n the Geometric  network, but a l s o that  for the  impact of  f a c t o r s i s inadequate to e x p l a i n the development of  s o c i a l complexity w i t h i n Lingnan during However, t h i s does not are any  the  States.  The and  was  imply that  more d e f e n s i b l e .  As  study, the most a p p r o p r i a t e problems i s one  which can  the Geometric  Period.  " e x t e r n a l dominance" models  I have argued throughout  this  framework for i n v e s t i g a t i n g these  incorporate  both sources of  variability. T h i s study represents exploring  only an  f u r t h e r research  briefly.  step towards  the development of complex s o c i e t i e s in Lingnan  the l a t e P r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . for  initial  There are many i s s u e s and  which I have of n e c c e s i t y  during  avenues  touched upon only  A l l are worthy of f a r more i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n  173  than I have been able to provide here. the cemetery  The p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t of  s i t e at Y i n s h a n l i n g , f o r example, c o n t a i n s a great  d e a l of data which might  be used to study s o c i a l  subgroupings  and other aspects of s t a t u s through a n a l y s i s of the symbolic aspects of grave assemblages, so f o r t h .  s p a t i a l analyses of the graves  and  The p r e l i m i n a r y t a b u l a t i o n s I have r e l i e d upon to  i n d i c a t e d i s t i n c t i o n s of wealth and s t a t u s c o u l d a l s o be expanded upon and  strengthened.  As f a r as mortuary  analyses i n g e n e r a l are concerned  to be hoped that d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n from cemetery e a r l i e r Geometric  p e r i o d s might  are many q u e s t i o n s about  i t is  s i t e s of the  soon become a v a i l a b l e , as there  the t r a n s i t i o n  from e g a l i t a r i a n to  ranked s o c i e t i e s at the end of the Late N e o l i t h i c which might thus be c l a r i f i e d .  In p a r t i c u l a r there i s the i n t r i g u i n g  of the S h i x i a C u l t u r e , and the apparent  i n i t i a t i o n and  issue  sudden  disappearence of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n at the very beginning of the Geometric There zones  period  in t h i s northern region of Guangdong.  i s much work to be done on the d e f i n i t i o n of  in l i t h i c  a r t i f a c t s , and t h e i r  changing p a t t e r n s of ceramic  style  r e l a t i o n s h i p to the  (fineware) s t y l e horizons between  the pre-geometric and Geometric p e r i o d s . The  stylistic  d i v i s i o n s and e x t e r n a l a f f i n i t i e s of the  bronzes are another  issue I have only mentioned  it  have a great import f o r understanding the  i s one which may  i n p a s s i n g , but  i n t e r a c t i o n between Lingnan Geometric  groups and the Bronze  c u l t u r e s of the South and Southwest.  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Guangdong 1963 Zhou dynasty bronzes unearthed at Qingyuan, Kaogu 1963:2:57-61 1964 An E a s t e r n Zhou tomb i n Qingyuan Kaogu 1964:3:138-142  Guangdong.  county, Guangdong.  CP.A.M. Guangdong & others 1964a The N e o l i t h i c s i t e s at Nianyuzhuan and M a t i p i n g , Qujiang county, and at Zoumagang, Shaoguan S h i , Guangdong. Kaogu 1964:7:323-332 1964b Warring S t a t e s s i t e s i n Zengcheng and S h i x i n g Guangdong. Kaogu 1964:3:143-151;160 CP.A.M. Guangxi 1978 C u l t u r a l R e l i c s Unearthed Press  i n Guangxi.  counties,  B e i j i n g : Wen Wu  Gao Guangren & Shao Wangping 1981 A p r e l i m i n a r y study of p o t t e r y ' g u i ' - t r i p o d s of the prehistoric period. Kaogu Xuebao 198 1:4:427-459 Guangdong A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y I n s t i t u t e , Timber Research Group 1977 I n d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the timber unearthed from the s h i p y a r d s i t e of the Qin and Han d y n a s t i e s i n Guangzhou. Kaogu 1977:4:257-261  Guangdong P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1960 The N e o l i t h i c remains i n the lowland area of c e n t r a l Guangdong. Kaogu Xuebao 1960:2:107-120 1961 N e o l i t h i c shellmounds found i n Dongxing Guangdong. Kaogu 1961:12:644-649 1964 Test excavation at the Guangding s i t e , Guangdong. Kaogu 1964:5:251-254 1975 The Warring States tomb at Niaodanshan, Guangdong. Kaogu 1975:2:102-108  county, Zijin Sihui  county, county,  1979 Guangdong archaeology achieves f i r m r e s u l t s : a new chapter opens in the h i s t o r y of Lingnan. In T h i r t y Years of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Work: 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 7 9 , pp. 325-336 B e i i n g : Wen Wu Press 1981 Warring S t a t e s graves at Tonggugang, Guangning county, Guangdong. Kaoguxue J i k a n 1:111-119  183  1983a E x c a v a t i o n o f a p o t t e r y k i l n s i t e o f t h e W e s t e r n Zhou d y n a s t y a t Pingyuan, Guangdong. Kaogu 1983:7:588-596 1983b The X i q i a o s h a n s i t e , 1983:12:1085-1091 1984 R e p o r t Nanhai  Nanhai  c o u n t y , Guangdong.  Kaogu  on e x c a v a t i o n s a t t h e Z a o g a n g s h e l l m o u n d c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu 1984:3:203-212  G u a n g d o n g P r o v i n c i a l Museum & o t h e r s 1973 A W a r r i n g S t a t e s g r a v e f o u n d a t D e q i n g , 1973:9:18-22  site,  Guangdong.  Wenwu  1974 R e p o r t o n t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f a n a n c i e n t g r a v e a t S o n g s h a n , B e i l i n g , Zhaoqing c i t y , Guangdong. Wenwu 1 9 7 4 : 1 1 : 6 9 - 7 9 1978 A b r i e f Shixia.  discussion of the c u l t i v a t e d Wenwu 1 9 7 8 : 7 : 2 3 - 2 8 .  rice  remains  from  1983 T h e r e m a i n s o f a w o o d e n s t r u c t u r e o n t h e w a t e r a t Maogang, Gaoyao c o u n t y , Guangdong. Wenwu 1 9 8 3 : 1 2 : 3 1 - 4 6 G u a n g x i P r o v i n c i a l Museum 1973 T h e b r o n z e s u n e a r t h e d a t G o n g c h e n g c o u n t y , Kaogu 1973:1:30-34 Guangxi C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Brigade 1978 W a r r i n g S t a t e s g r a v e s a t Y i n g s h a n l i n g , Kaogu Xuebao 1978:2:211-258  Guangxi.  Pingle  County.  1979 I m p o r t a n t r e s u l t s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l relics work i n G u a n g x i i n t h e p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . In Thirty Y e a r s o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n d C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s Work: 1949-1979 , pp. 339-346. B e i j i n g : Wen Wu P r e s s 1981  The d i s t r i b u t i o n J i k a n 3:244-252  of Geometric  pottery  i n Guangxi.  Wenwu  Guangzhou C i t y , C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O f f i c e 1977 R e c o n n a i s s a n c e o f a n a n c i e n t s i t e a t X i a n g a n g i n t h e o u t s k i r t s of Guangzhou. Wenwu Z i l i a o C o n g k a n 1 : 1 7 2 - 1 7 8 Han K a n g x i n & P a n Q i f e n g 1982 L a t e N e o l i t h i c human s k e l e t o n s f r o m t h e H e d a n g Foshan, Guangdong. Acta Anthropologica S i n i c a He  site, 1:1:42-52  Jisheng 1981 D i s c u s s i o n o f G u a n g d o n g ' s E a s t e r n Z h o u p e r i o d b r o n z e c u l t u r e , and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Geometric p o t t e r y . Wenwu J i k a n 3 : 2 1 2 - 2 2 4  Huang Weiwen & o t h e r s 1979 R e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a m i c r o l i t h i c Nanhai c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu  site at Xiqiaoshan in 1979:4:289-299 .  1 84  Huang Y u z h i & Yang S h i t i n g 1965 R e p o r t on N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n M e i a n d Dapu Guangdong. Kaogu 1965:4:159-165 . Li  counties,  Jiazhi 1982 R e s e a r c h o n c e r a m i c s f r o m t h e Hemudu s i t e . I n E s s a y s on Chinese Ceramics , ed. Chinese S i l i c a t e Institute, p p . 1-9. B e i j i n g : Wen Wu P r e s s  L i u Zhenqun 1982 I m p r o v e m e n t s i n k i l n s a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o developments i n our country's p o t t e r y and p o r c e l a i n . E s s a y s on C h i n e s e C e r a m i c s , e d . C h i n e s e S i l i c a t e I n s t i t u t e , pp. 162-172. B e i j i n g : Wen Wu P r e s s  In  Mo Z h i 1956 R e p o r t on r e c o n n a i s s a n c e a n d t e s t e x c a v a t i o n a t t h e N e o l i t h i c s i t e s on a t r i b u t a r y o f t h e Pa R i v e r , Qingyuan c o u n t y , Guangdong. Wenwu 1 9 5 6 : 1 1 : 4 0 - 4 3 1957 R e p o r t o n r e c o n n a i s s a n c e o f t h e N e o l i t h i c c o u n t y , Guangdong. Kaogu 1957:6:8-15 1961  New r e s u l t s o f i n v e s t i g a t i v e Kaogu 1961:12:666-668  sites  i n Bao'an  e x c a v a t i o n s i n Guangdong.  1963 A W a r r i n g S t a t e s s i t e a t B a i s h i p i n g s h a n , S h i x i n g Guangdong. K a o g u 1963:4:2 17-220  county,  T h e S h i x i a A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team o f t h e G u a n g d o n g P r o v i n c i a l Museum & o t h e r s 1978 E x c a v a t i o n o f N e o l i t h i c g r a v e s a t S h i x i a , Q u j i a n g C o u n t y , Guangdong. Wenwu 1 9 7 8 : 7 : 1 - 1 5 Su  Bingqi 1978 P r e l i m i n a r y :7:16:22  discussion  of the S h i x i a  culture.  Wenwu 1 9 7 8  Sun X i a n g j u n e t a l . 1981 P a l e o v e g e t a t i o n a n d p a l e o c l i m a t e d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e Hemudu p e o p l e . Acta Botanica Sinica 23(2):146-151 Wang K a i f a e t a l . 1980 P a l y n o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f t h e S o n g z e s i t e Shanghai. Kaogu Xuebao 1980:1:59-66  i n Qingpu  County,  Wen Wu C o r r e s p o n d e n t 1 9 7 9 Summary o f a s y m p o s i u m o n t h e p o t t e r y w i t h i m p r e s s e d d e c o r a t i o n from t h e r e g i o n s south of t h e C h a n g j i a n g . Wenwu 1 9 7 9 : 1 : 5 3 - 6 1 Xu  Hengbin 1981 P r e l i m i n a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f g e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y i n Guangdong. Wenwu J i k a n 3 : 2 0 3 - 2 1 1  185  Yang Hao 1960 A b r i e f r e p o r t on t h e N e o l i t h i c s i t e s a l o n g r i v e r , Guangdong. Kaogu 1960:7:31-35  the Xinfeng  Yang S h i t i n g a n d Chen Z h i j i e 1981 A d i s c u s s i o n o f i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r i e s a t t h e H e d a n g Foshan, Guangdong. Wenwu J i k a n 3 : 2 3 4 - 2 4 3 Yin  Huangchang 1958 A p r e l i m i n a r y s u r v e y o f t h e p o t t e r y w i t h i m p r e s s e d geometrical patterns i n the south-east d i s t r i c t of K a o g u X u e b a o 1958 : 1 : 7 5 - 8 6  Zeng Q i 1981 M i c r o l i t h s f r o m t h e e a s t e r n Wenwu 1 9 8 1 : 4 : 1 - 12  foot  of Xiqiaoshan.  1982 T h e p o t t e r y o f t h e S h i x i a C u l t u r e . Xuebao 1982:2:31-39  Zhongshan  site,  China.  Kaogu yu  Daxue  Zhou Ren e t a l . 1982 A s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y o f p o t t e r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g s k i l l s i n t h e Huanghe a r e a d u r i n g t h e N e o l i t h i c , Y i n a n d Zhou p e r i o d s . I n E s s a y s on C h i n e s e C e r a m i c s , e d . C h i n e s e Silicate I n s t i t u t e , pp. 263-286. B e i j i n g : Wen Wu P r e s s Zhu F e i s u , Peng Ruce & L i u Chengde 1981 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e G e o m e t r i c p o t t e r y Maba. Wenwu J i k a n 3 : 2 2 5 - 2 3 3  from  the Shixia  site,  186  APPENDIX A - GEOMETRIC SITES IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE  KEY: Site: Haifeng s i t e s - bracketed (1975)  names are those  used by M a g l i o n i  Detail basic - s i t e i s l i s t e d as c o n t a i n i n g Geometric ceramics; f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on ceramics i s a v a i l a b l e  no  general - i n f o r m a t i o n on Geometric s u r f a c e p a t t e r n s and ceramic wares i s given; other a r t i f a c t types i n d i c a t e d . q u a n t i t i e s or p r o p o r t i o n a l information given  No  i n d i v i d u a l - q u a n t i t i e s and/or p r o p o r t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l c l a s s e s of a r t i f a c t s i s provided mixed - some c l a s s e s of a r t i f a c t s are d e t a i l e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , others are d e s c r i b e d i n b a s i c or general d e t a i l only References numbers r e f e r to B i b l i o g r a p h y  i n Table 2.1  Area/County East  Site  Fieldwork  References  Chaoyang  > fD  Coast  Chao'an  Meilinhu  individual  9 ,  Songlinfeng  basic  81  Zhuganshan  general  9 ,17  mixed  25  individual  8  Chiniushan  surface  test  reconnaissance  excavation  Fenj ikengshan Kulushan  surface  Jiudouweishan  test  ba sic  25  Niutouping  25  Xiangshan  25  individual  25  excavation  mixed  25  surface reconnaissance  general  51  surface  Zuoxuangongshan Caowolong  reconnaissance  a  pX  o o ft H-  0  c  8  excavation  Zoushuilingshan  86  8  reconnaissance  Jiuling  Dabu  Detail  Damending  51  Dongz i g a n g  51  Gaodongling  51  Gongyingding  51  Guantouling  51  Heshangding  51  Keshuwan  51  Liantanghuanshan  25  co —i  Area/County (Dabu)  Site Makengkou  Fieldwork  Detail  surface reconnaissance  general  References 51 51  Pengpozhai  "  Qidoushan  "  "  51  Shanxialong  "  "  51  Shanziping  "  "  51  Tongtianlazhu  "  Weibeidong  "  "  51  Wubeishan  "  "  51  Wuhushan  "  "  51  Xianlixiaoxue  "  "  51  Yaobeigang  "  "  51  Yingdinghu  "  Yuandongshan  "  "  51  Zhaiziji  "  "  51  Fengshun  Tangkeng  "  "  69  Haifeng  Baolou  "  "  57  "  57  (POL)  Baziyuan  (PAT)  excavation  11  51  11  1  51  Dongkengbei  (TAN)  surface reconnaissance  basic  57  Dongkengnan  (TAS)  test  general  57  basic  57  "  "  57  "  "  57  Dongkengzhong Guogangshan Hudong Jingwei  (TAM)  (KUE)  (OUT) (KEB)  excavation  1  surface reconnaissance  "  general  57  Area/County (Haifeng)  Site Nantingbei  (NAN)  Nantingnan  (NAS)  Niudu  Qiaozitou  surface reconnaissance  basic  57  "  "  57  "  "  57  "  "  57  "  "  57  (POU) (KIW) (SAK)  "  Shakengnan  (SOS)  "  "  57  "  "  57  basic  57  "  "  57  . "  "  57  Shigongliao Shigu  (SOM) (SIK)  (KOU)  Shijiaotong  (ZIT)  Shizidi  (SAI)  Xinjing  (SIN)  "'  general  References  Sanjiaowei  Shakengzhong  general  11  57  57  "  "  57  "  basic  57  "  "  57  Chongguanyan  "  "  69  Huangqishan  "  Hutouling  "  "  69  Miaoshan  "  basic  25  Moukuangshan  "  general  17  Xinxihe  "  "  49  Hongshan  "  basic  69  Kuyangfu  "  "  69  Zhenxiang  (ZEN)  Zhulingjiao  Puning  Detail  (GUT;TOU)  Pushangdun  Jieyang  Fieldwork  (TEK)  general  69  Area/County  Site  (Puning)  Tieshan  Raoping  Dingdapushan/ T a z i j inshan  East  Fieldwork surface reconnaissance  excavation  Detail basic  basic  References 69  3  49 ,29  Guhechuangdi Hulushan  Heyuan  ? surface reconnaissance  basic  49  "  25  Huangchaodun  25  Sugangling  25 general  Daoshishan Duimenling  test  basic  25  Longzushan  general  80  surface  O  80  reconnaissance  80 basic  Yuandunling surface  81 49,81  reconnaissance  81  Jinzubu Daj i a n g c u n Kengzili  fD  80  Weizishan  Huiyang  3 C  80  Liantangpaishan  Shiziling  3  rt H-  80  excavation  Shenlingxia  Longchuan  a x o o  River  Boluo  > TJ fD  excavation  individual  81  basic  25,  29  Area/County Mei  Xian  Site Ailing  Fieldwork  Detail  surface reconnaissance  general  References 51  Baokeng  51  Jixia  51  Chang'ercun  Yuanling  >  fD  X  51  O  Chengj i a n g j i  51  Dahuyang  51  rr H-  Guanyicun  51  C  Jingtounao  51  Cb  Liaowubei  51  Longsheba  51  Luowucun  51  Luowuling  51  Mabawei  51  Shali  51  Shangkeng  51  Shuangbaying  51  Songguangping  51  Songlin  51  Taishanding  25  Xiongwu  51  Xuankeng  51  Xuankeng x i a o x u e b e i  51  Yuanling  51  o 3  0)  Area/  County  Pingyuan  Site  Wuhua  31  excavation  individual  31  surface  basic  57  reconnaissance  Dongshanshangling  25,  Z i j inshan  81  81  25,  81  Shij izishan  25,  81  Shuikou  general  70  Wuhoushan  basic  25  excavat ion  general it  Xigualing  excavation  Zaiguangding  test  Kuagutai  surface reconnaissance  individual  64, 49 15 27  excavation  general  80  Weizinao  58  Zhuguling  58 excavation?  Fogang (Bronze  Age  burial)  basic  49  c  ro a.  to  25  Jinlansi  o o rt HD  Shachuannao  Northern Conghua  a H-  81  reconnaissance  Tianrnashan  Zi j i n  (D  25,  surface  Jiadi'aoshan  Yaotouling Zengcheng  References  basic  Danganzhai Shuikou  Xingning  Detail  Fieldwork  79  Area/County  Site  (Fogang)  Lunbianling  Lianping  Aizhaishan  Qingyuan  Fieldwork ? surface reconnaissance  Detail  References 49.  basic general  80  Daweishan  "  "  80  Foge'aoshan  "  "  80  Jinkengshan  "  "  80  Keniaoshan  "  "  80  Linggangdingshan  "  "  80  Longzhuwoshan  "  "  80  Madonghuanshan  "  "  80  Nichenglingshan  "  "  80  Pengshan  ?  "  49  Shichunkengshan  "  "  80  Shixialing  "  "  80  Yuanlingshan  "  "  80  Dagangshan  "  basic  23  general  23,  Dashan Dashi  test (yueshan) gang  excavation "  Gaowangshanjiao  surface reconnaissance  Huanggoujushan  test  Liangdongdingshan  surface reconnaissance  Lihedishan  test  Matougang #1  excavation"'"  Matougang #2  excavation  excavation  excavation  "  2  3  ,  61 61  "  61  basic  61  "  61  general  61  individual  11  "  12  Area/County (Qingyuan)  Fieldwork  Detarl  Niumiandishan  test  basic  Niutoushan  surface  Site  Siguishan Wanggangling  test shanjiao  Xishan  excavation  test  excavation  CD  a  61  X "•>  61  reconnaissance general  23  >  n  61 61  reconnaissance  excavation  surface  References  61  n o rt  Qu j i a n g  23  Huang e t a n g s h a n 1  Lingshangang  surface  reconnaissance  Matiping  excavation  basic  90  individual  14  c  14  Nianyuzhuan Pushaoshan  basic  90  Shixia  mixed  36  71, 89,  90 Shitoushan  surface  reconnaissance  basic  49  Shuigeling Shaoguan S h i  Zoumagang  Shixing  Baishipingshan  excavation  basic  surface  reconnaissance  65  90  23,  4 9 , 63  81  Jihanbei Xianfoyan  14  90  Xincun Jiangtoushan  individual  15,  Chengpicun  Wengyuan  90  excavation  23,  24  Area/County Xinfeng  Site  Fieldwork  Q i a n g g a n g , Matou  Detail basic  References  (D  49  3  a  Central Bao'an  Bangdishan  surface  reconnaissance ii  Ej ingshan Gaoliaoshan  test  Huangqilinshan  surface  Huangzaobuyushan  test  Jianggongdiaoyushan  surface  excavation reconnaissance  excavation reconnaissance  Jinkangshan  individual  62  >  basic  21  individual  62  o o  basic  62  individual  62  basic  62  individual  62  Sanj i a o s h a n  test  (see  Enping Foshan  Shi  Shangmaicun  rt H-  3  C ft)  a  62  excavation  Simeishan Dongguan  3  62  Nanxiashan  Doumen  >  21, surface  reconnaissance  basic  62  49  Zhuhai) Chahangcun  21  Dadun  83  Hedang  excavation  mixed  48 . 83  Shangmaicun  surface  basic  83  reconnaissance  Shencun  83  Shiziqiao  83  Area/County Gaohe  Site Dahonggang  Fieldwork  Detail  surface reconnaissance  basic  Luoshagang Guangzhou S h i  Fei'eling  test  excavation  21  "  21 58  general  Hongshizhugang  "  "  58  Lingtanggang  "  "  58  Masongtougang  surface reconnaissance  "  58  Mingxinggang  test  "  58  excavation  Qingshangang  "  "  58  Shuilugang  "  "  58  Xiganghuan  "  "  58  individual  46  basic  33  Xiangang Nanhai  "  References  surface reconnaissance  Baishancun, Locality  #1  "  Chuanligang  "  "  33  Dagangtou  "  "  33  Dakenggang  "  "  33  "  "  33  Huixingyutang  "  "  33  Hutougang  "  Liangwanggang  "  Dongshicun (Datong  Luogang  c a r park)  test  excavation  "  3  3  "  33  "  33  0  Area/  County-  Zhongshan  Zhuhai  Site Wangj i a z h u a n g q i a n  Fieldwork  Detail  surface  basic  reconnaissance  References 21  Yandunjiao  21  Huazishicun  21,  Tanglangj i a  21  individual  Deqing  Luoyanshan  Gaoyao  Maogang  37  Guangning  Tonggugang  30  Huaij i  Lanmashan  Luoding  Luoding  #1  49  Luoding  #2  49  excavation  basic  surface  Fohugang  34  49  13  reconnaissance  excavation  49  Jiangjugang  surface  13  Niaodanshan  excavation  individual  28  Tianzigang  surface  basic  13  Gaodiyuan  Xinxing  CD Cb  63 O O rt H-  West R i v e r  Sihui  >  #1  reconnaissance reconnaissance  Zumiaogang  13  Aishanzi  13  Dadushan  13  C  CD Cb  A r e a / County  Fieldwork  Detail  Danganshan  surface reconnaissance  basic  13  Songshan, Dianhuachang  excavation  individual  35  Dianbai  Liantoushan  surface reconnaissance  basic  10  Leizhou  Chiniling  general  10  Maoming S h i  Chenglianling  Xinyi  Songxiangchang  "  individual  78  Yangchun  Gangbei  ?  "  49  Yangjiang  Mangling  (Xinxing) Zhaoqing  Shi  Site  References  Southern  "  basic  11  surface reconnaissance  basic  Notes: uncontrolled this  may  excavation  b e t h e same s i t e  as t h e one a b o v e : s o u r c e s  10  are unclear  10  APPENDIX B - GEOMETRIC SITES IN GUANGXI  Key: (see Appendix  1)  PROVINCE  County Beiliu  Binyang  Site  Fieldwork  Dalun  surface  reconnaissance  Detail general  References 43  ro  Dayuanshan  43  Cb  Gaoposhan  43  X  Hululing  43  03  Tongshiling  43  O  Toudushan  43  Wutangling  43  Luwei  none  individual  Xinbin general  Poj i e s h a n  Cenxi  Dabing  43  Pansheling  43  Taiping  43  Xilan  43  Bailongtai  10  Niutoucun  43  Fuchuan  Chakouyan Dashan  (Liyushan)  test  reconnaissance  excavation  surface  reconnaissance  3  rt H-  3  41 16,  surface  o  (D Cb  Cangwu  Dongxing  >  41 O O  43  42, 43  Dongzhuang  43  Maozishan  43  43  43  Site  County Gongcheng  Fieldwork  Jiahui  none  Longtangling  surface  reconnaissance  Detail  References  >  individual  38  CD  general  43  Cb  43  X  Tongle  H-  CO  Guanyang  Aishan  43  Daxishan  43  Guchanggang  43  Jianguling  43  Jinj ialing  43  Kuzhushan  43  Lashutang  43  Mashanbei  43  Sanj i a o t a n g  43  Zhongshan*  41,  Guilin Shi  Shiziyan  43  Heng  Zhenlong*  Xian  Hepu  He  Xian  none  (D  surface  reconnaissance  43  general  10,  43 excavation?  43  basic  Sanchuanbei test  o  16, 41  43  (Guiling)  C  individual  Niuyancun Wujia  rr p-  0J  Bailong Qingshuij iang  o o  45  16, 43  County (He  Xian)  Site Wuying Wuzhishan  Fieldwork  Detail  surface  general  43  "  "  42, 43  Xiniucun  "  "  43  Longwu  "  basic  81  Maluling  "  general  10  Lipu  Limu*  ?  individual  42  Luchuan  Wushi*  ?  "  42  Nanning S h i  Nahong  "  41  Pingle  Yinshanling  excavation  "  40, 43  Pingnan  Shijiaoshan  surface  Pubei  Gulicun  Qinzhou  Puling  Lingshan  Quanzhou  (Zhonghua)  reconnaissance  References  Commune*  none  reconnaissance ?  surface  reconnaissance  general  42, 43  basic  43  general  43  Qingtang  "  basic .  81  Aoyutou  "  general  43  Jian'ansi  "  "  43  Longwangmiaoshan  "  ."  43  Lujiacun  test  excavation  Xianzitang  surface  reconnaissance  basic general  42  County  Site  Rong X i a n  Dashenling  Tiandong  Guogailing*  Wuming  Mianling* Yiling  Wuzhou S h i  Tangyuan  Xincheng  Datang*  Xing'an  Gaotang  Fieldwork  Detail  surface reconnaissance  general  43  basic  42  general  41  ? none surface reconnaissance " none surface reconnaissance  References  "  43  "  16, 43  individual  16, 41  general  43  Wangchengling  "  "  43  Yijia  "  "  43  Zhaoping  Shizishan  "  "  43  Zhongshan  Baotashan  "  "  43  Yidongtianyan  "  "  43  * isolated  f i n d of pre-Qin bronze  artifact  204  APPENDIX C - BRONZE AND EARLY IRON AGE SITES AND FINDS IN GUANGDONG AND GUANGXI  KEY: W.Zhou == Western Zhou S&A  = Spring and Autumn  WS  = Warring States  (1 )  = Chevron 3  (2)  = Kui P e r i o d  (3)  = Mi P e r i o d  pst = p o l i s h e d stone t o o l s POL; KEB; SOM =' s i t e names used by M a g l i o n i  (1975)  Area County  East  S i te  Context  Re 1 a t i ve date  L i th ics  Ceram i c s  1  -  Coast  Chao'an  Ha i f e n g  Paoxuez1shan  ?  S&A ( 2 ) 7  s i te  B a o l u o (POL)  s i te  SSA-WS ( 2 )  J i n g w e i (KEB)  site  W.Zhou-SSA 1 axe ( 1 ) 1 axe c a s t i n g  site  S5A-WS ( 2 )  ?  ?  1 axe  geometric  2 c a s t i ng mou1ds : be 11 ; s p e a r h e a d  HG  X i nx i he  Raoping  D i ngdapushan 8 Taz i j i nshan  b u r i a 1-24  Bo 1 uo  Guhechuangd i  i so1 ate?  ?  2 bel1s  Heyuan  Y u a n d u n 1 i ng  s i te?  7  1 axe  late  pottery  1 ge  81  pst  57  SG & HG, p r e - K u i  pst & ornaments  57  HG-Kui  b r a c e 1e t  57  axe, adze, ge & gu i (ceremon i a 1 tablet)  49  t o o l s and ornaments  49  Period  1 axe  Shang ( 1 I  8 1  frags.  - Kui Period  mould  weapon f r a g m e n t s  J i eyang  7  7  1 arrowhead  S o n g 1i n f e n g  Shakengzhong ( SOM )  East  Ref .  Ar t i f a c t s : Metal  geometric ceram i c s  and o t h e r  jade  River  Hu i y a n g  i sol ate  J i nzubu Longchuan  Wuhua  Daj i angcun  ? Dongshanshang1 i n Z i j i nshan  mid S&A o r e a r 1i e r 7  s i te? 7  ? bur i a l ?  WS ( 3 )  S&A-WS ( 2 )  7  pottery  8 1  pst  49;81  1 axe  geometric  1 spear butt 1 spear  1 SG q u a n  1 "engraving  HG: 4 v e s s e l s 7  geometric  1 d i no,  ?  7  49  1 spear  knife"  HG-Kui  pottery  Period  81  pst  8 1  ?  57 81  1 axe 1 adze  ?  ?  81  Area Countv  Zengch°ng  S i te  Context  J i n1ans i  site  T i anmashan  7  X i gua 1 i ng  site  Relative date  WS 7  Ceram i c s  1 arrowhead  HG-Mi  2  bel1s  1 "engraving  WS  Ref .  Art i f a c t s : Metal '  knife"  HG-Mi  L i th i cs  Period  ?  64 79 : 49  ?  7  49  1 whetstone; hammerstones  Period  15  Northern Req i on Fogang  L i anp i ng  7  b u r i a 1 ( s ) SSA-WS (2-3)  ?  Pengshan  WS ( 3 )  1 bel 1 1 tiqer-knob  7  ?  49  ?  7  49  c h u n yu  bur i a 1  S&A-WS ( 2 )  (25 pieces) 3 food v e s s e l s 2 wine v e s s e l s 6 musical instruments 8 weapons 6 m i s e e 11aneous & r i tua1 o b j e c t s  6 vessels including 2 ku i - i m p r e s s e d quan i a r s  2 whetstones  1 1  bur i a 1  S&A-WS ( 2 )  (39 pieces) 1 wine v e s s e l 7 be 11s 2 tools 29 weapons  1 Kui Period  2 banq (s t i c k s ) whetstones  12  Shixia  s i te  S&A-WS ( 2 )  (16 p i e c e s ) weapons S t o o l s  HG-Ku i  sma11 amounts (un i d e n t i f i e d )  79: 90  Shu i g e 1 i ng  s i te  S&A-WS ( 2 )  1 axe  HG- K u i P e r i o d  Sh i x i no  Ba i s h i p i n g s h a n  site  1 i r o n axe 1 i r o n - t i p p e d hoe  HG-  Mi  Wengyuan  J iangtoushan  site  1 axe  HG-  Kui Period  J i hanbe i  s 1 te?  1 axe  geometric  0 i ngyuan  Matougang  *' 1  M a t o u g a n g V2  Ou j i a n g  WS  ( 3 )  S&A-WS ( 2 ) 7  quan  Period  Period  pottery  7  49  hammers t o n e s  65: 15  very  23: 49  ps t  few p s t  8 1  Area County  X i nfeng  Central Req i on Guangzhou Shi  S i te  0 i anggang, Matou  Fe i ' e l i ng  Contex t  Ref .  Re 1 a t i ve date  Art i f a c t s : Metal'  7  1 awl 1 spear 1 yue axe  7  i axe  geometric  (5 p i e c e s ) 3 weapons 1 p a i r ornaments  ?  s i te?  ?  7  49  pst  8 1  HG- K u i P e r i o d  pst  4G  pottery  X i angang  unc1 e a r  Deq i ng  Luoyanshan  bur i a 1  WS ( 3 )  (15 p i e c e s ) 8 tools 5 weapons 1 dinq tripod 1 bel 1  1 m i-impressed hu j a r  2 whetstones 1 pebble with dr i11ed h o i e  34  Guangn i ng  Tonggugang  b u r i a 1s -22  WS  (295 pieces) 7 vessels 97 weapons 189 t o o l s 2 unidentified artifacts  39 20  23  30  Hua i j i  Lanmashan  bur i a 1  S&A-WS ( 2 ) -  (i ncomplete list) 1 human-head s t a f f ( o r i g i na1 1y 4 )  1 quan,  Kui Period  7  49  L u o d i ng  L u o d i n g n1  bur i a 1  SSA-WS ( 2 )  (i 2 2 5  ncomp1ete l i s t ) vessels musical instruments r i t u a l & ornamental obj e c t s 42 weapons  1 quan,  Kui Period  ?  49  L u o d i n g M2  bur i a 1  S&A-WS ( 2 )  ( t y p e s and q u a n t i t i e s not reported)  1 quan.  Kui Period  ?  49  Gaod i y u a n  bur i a 1  7  49  West  SSA-WS (2-3)  L i th ics  Ceram i c s  River  S i hu i  WS  ( 3)  (2-31  ( i ncomp1ete l i s t ) 2 human h e a d s t a f f s ( o r i g i n a l l y 4)  vesse1s: g l a z e d bowls & cups 3 rni^- i m p r e s s e d jars  7  whetstones  Area County  S i te  Context  N i aodanshan  bur i a 1  Songshan, D i anhuachang  bur i a 1  X i ny i  Songxiangchang  i sol ate  Yangchun  Gangbe i  i sol ate  Z h a o q i ng Shi  Re 1 a t i ve date  Art i f a c t s : Metal  SSA-WS  WS  (2)  (3)  Ref . Ceram i c s  L i th i cs  (59 p i e c e s ) •1 v e s s e l s 1 musical instrument 4 1 weapons 9 tools 4 human-head s t a f f s  1 impressed quan j a r  3  (108 i terns) 14 f o o d v e s s e l s S 6 musical instruments 23 weapons 40 t o o l s 24 m i s c e l l a n e o u s & r i tua1 o b j e c t s 2 g o l d handles 1 g o l d fragment  18 9 1 8 3  2  1  vesse1s: j a r s S vases bow 1 he b o x e s beads  whetstones  jade r i n g s w i t h go 1d h a n d 1es 1 j ade be 1t hook 3 jade p i e c e s 1 jade baton 1 g l a z e d bead 1 whetstone  28  35  Southern W.Zhou WS  (3)  (1)  1 he  wine  1 axe 1 ingot  vessel  78 49  Context  Re 1 a t i ve date  Art i f a c t s : Metal'  Pre-Q i n  (smelting  Ref .  Area County  S i te  Bei1iu  T o n g s h i 1 i ng  B i nyang  Luwe i  i sol ate?  SSA  (2)  1 bel 1  4 1  X i nb i n  bur i a l ?  SSA  (2)  1 bel 1 1 sword 1 unidentified  16.41  ?  Gongcheng  J i ahu i  bur i a 1  Guanyang  A i shan  s i te?  WS ( 3 )  bur i a 1  WS ( 2 - 3 )  Guchenggang Zhongshan  Heng  He  Xian  Xian  Zhen1ong  Wuzh i s h a n (Zhonghua)  L i pu  L i mu  L i ngshan  Longwu  Luchuan  Wush i  Nanning Shi  Nahong  (unidentified)  7  11  1 be  i so 1 a t e  W.Zhou? (1)  1 bel 1  S&A-WS ( 2 )  "smal1 amounts", uni dent i f i ed  W.Zhou? ( 1 )  1 wenq j a r  s i te? i so l a t e ?  i so 1 a t e ?  7 W.Zhou? ( 1 ) S&A ( 2 )  ?  (33 p i e c e s ) 8 vessels 2 musical instruments 12 weapons 7 tools 4 miscellaneous S r i tua1 o b j e c t s weapons  1 axe  7  Mi Kui  Period Period  ceramics ceramics  Geometric ceramics, no ku i o r m i pat t e r n s  7  38  7  43  7  43  many p s t  16,41, 43  16, 41  Kui  Period  ceramics  42 , 43  pst  42  Geometric  pottery  8 1  ps t  42  1 wenq j a r  1 bel 1  43  fragment  W.Zhou? ( 1 )  s i te?  ?  remains)  s i te?  isolate?  commune  SSA-WS ( 2 )  L i th i c s  Ceram i c s  7  ?  41  Area County  S i te  Context  P ing1e  Y i n s h a n l i ng  b u r i a 1s -1 10  Re 1 a t i ve date  WS  ( 3)  Ref .  Art i f a c t s : Metal '  Ceram i c s  L i th i cs  ( b r o n z e : 377 p i e c e s ) 39 v e s s e l s 283 weapons 46 t o o l s 1 bel 1 8 in i see 1 1 a e o u s S r i t u a l obj e c t s ( b r o n z e & i r o n 11 p i e c e s ) 2 vessels 9 weapons ( i r o n , 18 1 p i e c e s ) 1 vessel 3 weapons 177 t o o l s  (360 p i e c e s ) 30 j a r s / v a s e s 15 d i nq t r i p o d s 89 he b o x e s 190 c u p s 36 s p i n d l e w h o r l s  (115 p i e c e s ) 40 j a d e r i n g s 2 turquoise beads 7 1 whetstones  impressed sherds  40  ( f rom g r a v e f i l l ) 1 ge d a g g e r - a x e 1 ornament  P i ngnan  Sh i j > a o s h a n  ?  ?  ( 1 c a s t i n g mou1d)  0 i nzhou  0 i ngtang  7  ?  1 spear 1 sword  81  T i andong  Guoga i 1 i n g  7  WS?  (no  42  Wum i ng  Mi an 1 i ng  i sol ate  Wuzhou S h i  Tangyuan  i sol ate  X i ncheng  Da t a n g  i sol ate 7  X i ng'an  all  a r e bronze  unless otherwise  l a t e Shang - W.Zhou ( 1 ) WS  ( 3 )  W.Zhou  !1 )  incised  42.  ps t  information)  1 y o u wine 1 spear  1 d i nq 1 bel  16,  vessel  t r i pod  Mi  Period  43  41  16  ceramics  1  1 y o u wine Late Shang ( 1 )  indicated  &  16 . 4 1 vessel  -  16 . 4 1  211 APPENDIX D - GLOSSARY OF CHINESE TERMS USED  ban'er guan bang  ^  jj" "j^-  bei bi  stick,  baton  cup ^  f l a t disc  bo  bowl  bu chun yu  guan j a r w i t h "turned" handle  jar ^f- -f  bell  >  cong  ^Jf*  ding dou  tube-shaped  stone r i t u a l o b j e c t  cooking v e s s e l w i t h 3 o r 4 l e g s 5-  duo  ' t ^  fou  £  fu  ItT  ge  stemmed cup o r bowl bell jar c a u l d r o n , cooking pot dagger - axe  guan  m.  jar  gui  —  oblong stone plaque w i t h p o i n t e d end  he  £22.  "box", s m a l l l i d d e d j a r  hu  3E.  spouted v e s s e l ,  hui  ^  (shape o f a geometric motif)  -iue  slotted  Kui  t>C  lei  ^  mi  7rT  pan  kettle  ring  "one-footed dragon"  : geometric m o t i f  urn (shape of a geometric motif) dish  212  APPENDIX D  (continued)  rf  f  pen  ^  wan  shallow bowl, b a s i n bowl  weng  *f£  jar  yue zun  JS.  battle-axe jar  

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