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Assemblage variation associated with Southwestern Interior Plateau microblade technology Ludowicz, Deanna 1983

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ASSEMBLAGE  VARIATION  SOUTHWESTERN  ASSOCIATED  INTERIOR  MICROBLADE  WITH  PLATEAU  TECHNOLOGY  by  Deanna A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  Ludowicz  of B r i t i s h  IN PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  MASTER  OF  THE  Columbia,  1979  FULFILLMENT  OF  DEGREE  OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  (Department  We  THE  GRADUATE  STUDIES  of A n t h r o p o l o g y and  accept to  OF  this  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  Mav Deanna  as  Sociology)  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1983  Ludowicz,  1983  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  Anthropology & Sociology  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  A  P  r i l  2 7  .  !983  written  ABSTRACT This  thesis  technological with  core  function  from  issues l i t h i c  the prehistory  regarding  prehistoric  v a r i a b i l i t y  technology  Columbia.  The  study  the interpretation  assemblages  and has substantive  North  area.  The  American  associated  of the  concerning  northwestern  from  Previously  Nesikep  Hat Creek  extant  microblade  Microblades  southaddresses  of  settlement  implications  literature traditions i s  interpreted  review  settlement  date  and  patterns  settlement  organization  classification i s devised  that and  between  depositional i s also  extant  patterns  reviewed.  to correlate  deposition  A with  patterns  tradition  are inferred aboriginal  general  The  B.P.  Period.  local  and a  strategies.  i s assumed tool  factors,  these  of the  Microblade  of the Early  practices,  that  and 2,900  variation  assem-  locality.  Period  7,000  of the Plateau  environment  subsistence  l i t h i c  suggeste  of the Early  of settlement  archaeological  technological  sequences  as d i a g n o s t i c  of local  hunter-gatherer concerning  a n d may  between  and Lochnore-Nesikep  historical  and m i c r o c o r e s  I n i t i a l l y , a  valley  i s examined  are representatives  Tradition  been  variation  constructed  assemblages  roles  between  reviewed.  blages  from  settlement  British  of the study  Intraregional  have  and  and m i c r o b l a d e  Interior Plateau,  methodological  also  the relationship  organization  the prepared  western  for  examines  model  of  literature  resulting l i t h i c  from  artifact  technological  associated  with  i i i  settlement sent  are suggested.  reduction  variability  Technological blages  analyses.  their  interpreted  as  correlating  Technological as  a means  analysis  groupings  terms  of r e s i d e n t i a l  In for  duction strategy cally  through  and  among  assemblages  Q-mode  cluster  similar  assemblages.  c a n be  interpreted i n  and n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s . variation  into  location.  function.  these  discrimin-  s t r a t e g i e s c a n be  examined  together  riverine  assemblages  environmental i s also  and  assem-  are defined  from  Further  metric  multi-  scaling analysis.  conclusion,  the deposition  involved  with  are devised,  of assemblage  dimensional  technological  t o group  between  (Hat Creek"valley)  of i n t e r p r e t i n g settlement  i s utilized  f i r s t  successfully sort  variability  Three  patterns  and  repre-  described.  e c o l o g i c a l zones  analyses  zones  attributes that  i s examined  of upland  locality)  The  respective  are also  variability  representative  (Lochnore-Nesikep ant  Microblade  spatial and use.  of these  separation The  associated  oriented.  the technological  study  with  organization  assemblages of microcore also  this  i s interpreted and microblade  interprets the  technology  responsible  to have  to  have  pro-  settlement been  l o g i s t i -  iv  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i  LIST  OF  TABLES  LIST  OF F I G U R E S  LIST  OF P L A T E S  i  v-i v i v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  Chapter I.  INTRODUCTION  1  Southwestern Prepared North  Interior  Cores  Plateau Prehistory  and M i c r o b l a d e s  in  Northwestern  America  Plateau  8  Microblade  Microblade  Tradition  Industries  i n t h e New  10 World  Subarctic  13  Northwest General TII.  Coast  Natural  Industries  Constructs  18 19  SETTLEMENT  PATTERNS...  24  Variation  26 J  Environment  26  Interior  Salish  Settlement  and S u b s i s t e n c e .  35  Hunter-gatherer  Settlement  Systems  41  Expected  Intersite  Archaeological The  Variation  Data  48  RIVERINE-UPLAND Artifact  Assemblages ASSEMBLAGE  VARIATION  Level Analysis  Presence-Absence Percentage Microblade  Attribute  Data  Data  Attribute  Variable  45 48  Sites  The L i t h i c III.  Microblade  RECONSTRUCTING PREHISTORIC Settlement  5  67 104 104 106 110  Analysis  Description Distribution  114 114 121  V  IV.  INTERASSEMBLAGE VARIATION Settlement Further  Classification  Patterns  126  of Assemblage V a r i a t i o n  140  Dimension  1  141  Dimension  2  144  Dimension  3  145  Interpretation V.  125  SUMMARY AND  BIBLIOGRAPHY  of Settlement  CONCLUSIONS  Strategy  148 153 165  vi  LIST 1.  Artifact  2.  Variables  Identified That  Ecological Assemblage  5.  Can S o r t A s s e m b l a g e s  Between 112  Calculated  on  Attributes  Microblade Variables  115  Derived  and U p l a n d  Assemblage  Percentages  Ordered  by C l u s t e r s LIST  1.  107  Through D i s c r i m i n a n t  Level Statistics  Riverine  the Assemblage  Zones  Microblade 4.  TABLES  Frequencies Across  Ananlysis 3.  OF  from  Separate  Populations of A r t i f a c t  122 Classes 133  OF  FIGURES  Locations of Microblade  Sites  Mentioned  i n the  Text  9  2.  Physiographic Features  3.  Seasonal Local  4.  Northern  of the Study  and G e o g r a p h i c  Area  Distribution  27  of the Major,  Subsistence Resources Interior  Salish  31  Ethnographic  Group  Boundaries 5.  Patterns of Settlement Forager the  6.  Variation  and C o l l e c t o r  Study  Expected f o r  Settlement  46  Included i n the Present  L o c a t i o n s of the Upper Hat Creek blade  Systems i n  Area  L o c a t i o n s of the Lochnore-Nesikep Sites  7.  36  Sites  Included  Microblade Study  50  Valley  i n the Present  MicroStudy....  57  8'.  P l a n View  of EeRl  10, t h e C a t t l e - C r o s s S i t e  59  9.  P l a n View  of EeRj  49, t h e Anderson  Site...  61  10.  P l a n View  of EeRj  5 5 , t h e H o u t h Meadows  Site....  63  11.  P l a n View  of EeRj 159, the J u n c t i o n S i t e  12.  Distributions Binary  Creek  of D i s c r i m i n a n t Scores  and P e r c e n t a g e  Data  Achieved  65 on 109  vii  13.  Ward's  Error  Binary 14.  Ward's  Sum  16.  Error  Sum  of Squares  on  Lithic Lithic  Cluster  Solution  on  Data  129 Multidimensional  Assemblages,  Torgerson's Metric the  Solution  128  Torgerson's Metric the  Cluster  Data  Percentage 15.  of Squares  LIST  Dimensions  Multidimensional  Assemblages,  OF  Scaling  1 and'2...  Scaling  Dimensions  of 142  of  1 a n d 3...  146  PLATES  1.  Extensively  Retouched  Artifacts  2.  Extensively  Retouched  Artifacts  3.  Unifacially  and M a r g i n a l l y  4.  Maintenance  Artifacts  77 and F r a g m e n t s . . .  Retouched  and M a r g i n a l l y  Artifacts  Artifacts..  80 82  Retouched 86  5.  Maintenance  Artifacts.'  89  6.  Prepared  Core  Artifacts  91  7.  Prepared  Core  Artifacts  93  8.  Microblades.  95  vi ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My  sincere  encouraged most, the  and  provide.  of  Dr.  Matson  accept  of  A number o f  These  academic  this  thesis  other people  Drs.  their  David  provided solutions  babble  The based  o f Man, Pokotylo support The were  willing  about  Ottawa, and was  and  Fore-  recognized for  been w i l l i n g  the  research,  i n no  result  small  o f my  to  and  Drs.  part.  own  Any  inabilities  Matson  work  and  thanked my  for  their  interpretations  of i t .  David K e e n l y s i d e , Richard  Lewis  Binford.  f o r my  to " t a l k  Dr.  computing rocks",  collections  received  always  available  Maureen plates.  m u s t be  Neil  Guppy '  problems.  and  Gary  Martin  Coupland  on  on w h i c h  loan  from  this  study  the N a t i o n a l  t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , UBC .  final.version  and  completed.  are  always  have  anything.  gratefully  t y p e d by  figures,  and  archaeological  were  the  t h o s e who  work  committee  Sanger,  readily  me  Fladmark,  always  are  to  teachings.  Knut  let  this  they have  Morlan,  M a g n e was  to see  D a v i d A b e r l e g u i d e d me  to d i s c u s s  include  i s extended  David Pokotylo supervised  their  willingness  o f my  assistance  and  shortcomings to  s u p p o r t e d me  t h e members  quality  R.G.  appreciation  ensured  during and  my  that  some f o r m  of  was Museum  Drs. financial  graduate years.  earlier  drafts  of  this  Braam. M o i r a  Irvine  produced  B o t h must be  thanked  manuscript the  tables,  f o r the q u a l i t y  of  ix their  work  meeting  and  my  and  for their  demanding  cooperation  i n making  changes  and  deadlines.  Finally,  the f r i e n d s h i p s  students  a t UBC  have  I have  made t h i s  developed endeavour  with  faculty  worthwhile.  -1-  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION The  recovery  of prepared  northwestern North a  long history  that  industry  North used and  America.  S t u d i e s have  been  gained  industries torical dustry  into  i n North  why m i c r o b l a d e  operated  within  were  initial  traditions; abandoned.  attempt  suggested  to i d e n t i f y  on and  techniques  and t o document  the.temporal  artifacts.  Insight  has  distribution  of  microblade  y e t an e m p h a s i s  on  culture-his-  questions  attention  r e g i o n s ; why  and u l t i m a t e l y , The p r e s e n t  to address  a  between A s i a  concerning  has been  they  the i n -  given  t e c h n o l o g i e s were adopted;  specific  inspired  r e s e a r c h has focused  of these  many  Little  plaining  tries  aimed  America,  unaddressed.  (1937)  connections  the time-space  problems has l e f t  so—called  much  microblades  distribution  has  from  o f A l a s k a was d e r i v e d f r o m  of c u l t u r a l  to manufacture geographic  industry  artifacts  sites  Since Nelson  i n Mongolia,  interpretation  and b l a d e  archaeological  of research.  the microblade  similar the  American  core  differ  how  some o f t h e s e  indus-  can be v i e w e d problems  they  between  why m i c r o b l a d e  study  to ex-  of  as an cultural  behaviour. T h e s e new distribution In  this  that  q u e s t i o n s demand a l t e r n a t e  o f and v a r i a t i o n  analysis,  articulates  culture man-land  explanations of the  among m i c r o b l a d e  i s viewed  assemblages.  as an a d a p t i v e  relationships.  system  Variability  i n the  -2archaeological havioural tions and  record  responses  sphere  representative this  of  ment-subsistence assemblage such  of  environments.  relationship.  pattern.  An  result  popula-  most  Among h u n t e r  f o r the  be-  technological directly  and  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y as  i s needed  of  human  The  intraregional  of  recently, analyses  settlement of  utilize  a research  of  of  suitable  While  gathers,  a  settle-  perspective  on  identification  of  practices.  assemblages  from  Columbia,  historic  a design  reflects  the  Fraser  a data  for  i t does not  single,  chronolog-  yield  a  of  numerous  and  microblade  Interior Plateau, north  and  base  provides  of  regional settlement  recovery  southwestern  excavation  studies  Thompson R i v e r s  f o r an  in  intraregional  of  British perspective  variation.  present  study  technology  archaeological and  of  provides  assemblage The  the  the  in  been p o s s i b l e  Culture-historic  variation,  The  industries  have not  data.  such  that  subsistence  microblade  f o c u s e d Ion  assemblage  assemblages  confluence  of  subsistence  design  sites.  control  sample  and  a l a c k of  stratified  core  the  for maintaining  i s manifested  because  on  as  patterns.  terms  the  explained  c u l t u r e i s b e l i e v e d t o be  variability  Until  ical  social  this  relationship  be  necessary  i n n a t u r a l and  economic  can  and  explores  settlement  assemblage  microblade  the  relationship as  variability  artifacts.  A  between  pre-  a means o f e x p l a i n i n g associated with  lithic  tool  prepared  classification  -3that  i s suggested  tool  manufacturing,  lations  with  t o be i n d i c a t i v e  u s e , and d i s c a r d  varying  settlement  classification  i s :based  tion  from  developed  1979)  blages of  This  from  study  strategy  applies  Interior  Interior  assemblages  selected  1979)  and t h e L o c h n o r e — N e s i k e p mid-Fraser  the  Plateau  Microblade  (Pokotylo  morphologically  Nesikep  as  defined  The  local  Plateau  industries  and t h e  utility  i s evaluated.  of  to that  (Sanger  archaeological and  Pokotylo  1970a)  along  1970b) d e f i n i t i o n the blade  The H a t C r e e k  to the Plateau  f o r the L i l l o o e t  from  industry  Microblade  tradi-  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sequence tradition  7,000 B.P. t o 3,000  cultural  sequence  (Stryd  -of  techno-  i s d i a g n o s t i c of the E a r l y Period  are discussed  The  patterns  are from  includes  locality.  Tradition, dating  Microblade  assem-  1978; B e i r n e  (1968a,  tradition  similar  tradition  n.d.)  and c o n t r a s t e d  locality  Sanger's  of the Lochnore-Nesikep  tion. This the  valley  River.  ( B i n f o r d 1977,  to nine  by t h e o b s e r v e d  f o r study  i n Hat Creek  the  The  Salish.  sites  is  Plateau,  i s inferred  corre-  organiza-  1981, 1982; Matson  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  represented  organization  the h i s t o r i c  logy  of technological  of t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  technological  The  (Camilli  and  are proposed.  ethnoarchaeological  the southwestern  the model  settlement  of  previous  s t r a t e g i e s of  i s developed  activities  on a m o d e l  and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  studies.  of varying  of B.P.,  1973:24).  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e  to other  i n the l a t t e r  prepared  core  and  p o r t i o n of t h i s  blade first  of  five  chapters  discussion  around which  the  introduces problems  study  of  i s organized.  specific  concern  This  to  the  thesis. Models tion local  are  f o r examining  presented  settlement that  Initially,  a review  factors,  local  aboriginal  settlement  practices,  can  ical  sites,  butes  used  be  and  a g e n e r a l , model  suggests  expected  lithic  tool  i n analyses  patterns  i n the  study  classification, are  then  from  technological organization i s also  Chapter  tween u p l a n d class  and  applies  is  evaluated,  assemblages  plicates tions  riverine  model  inferring  presented  I I I examines  and  of  The  are  microblade  the  of  fifth  and  the  i n the  lithic  The  archaeologattri-  The  litera-  extant  third  and  of  fourth  variation  using  data.  both  settlement  The  utility  of  a  chapbe-  tool  Chapter  t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as function.  resulting  reviewed.  zones  levels  varia-  microblade  assemblage  ecological  attribute  settlement  is  and  and  hunter-gatherer  archaeological depositional patterns  analyses  of  settlement  described.  concerning  ters.  of  of  area.  ture  The  technological varia-  II.  strategies  tion  and  i n Chapter  environmental  subsistence  settlement  IV  means  the  strategy represented  model by  the  proposed. and  problems  final evident  chapter with  for further research.  summarizes  the  study,  the  and  research,  proposes  ex-  direc-  -5Southwestern The  first  Interior 1969,  complete  Plateau  1970a)  Interior  was  following  the  have been  predominant  still  Smith  (Smith  surveyed further  conducted  two  until  excavated  (Stryd and  the  sites  work,  i n this  at Chase  study.  His  separate cultural  the Nesikep  traditions,  T r a d i t i o n , on  Harlan I. and  Expedition  archaeological  re-  Borden  1968b)  (Borden  is  1960,  and, 1961).  continued i n recent years, for various  Turnbull  1977;  reviews of  and  i s of  interpretation  as  archaeo-  Bridge,  (Sanger  Canyon  Detailed  sequence  Minor  little  1950's when C h a r l e s  P o k o t y l o (.1979),  proposed  at  prehistory  area.  Spences  have been p r e s e n t e d elsewhere  B e i r n e and  1968b,  1965.  Plateau  further  G r a b e r t 1974;  1980).  and  North P a c i f i c  a r c h a e o l o g y has  1973;  Carlson  Sanger's present  1961  c h r o n o l o g i e s have been proposed  archaeology (1982),  Jesup  H o w e v e r , no  in Plateau  local  Wilson  the  1966,  Nonetheless, i t remains  Lytton,  south, along the Fraser  Interest  regions  1900).  and  between  conducted  near  southwestern  research conducted  through which  been  f o r the  (1963,  P r e v i o u s to Sanger's  a member o f  1899,  s e a r c h was  and  framework  excavated b u r i a l s as  Sanger  archaeological  locality  r e s e a r c h had  Kamloops  Prehistory  sequence  by  suggested.  interpreted.  logical  regional  proposed  the Lochnore-Nesikep revisions  Plateau  and  indicates  include  Sanger  1978;  Plateau Fladmark  (1978).  concern  to  the  the presence  the Lochnore  the P l a t e a u .  Wilmeth  Interior  Pokotylo  direct  sub-  Complex suggests  of  and that  -6the Lochnore ed  Complex  to represent  following northern  populations  (.Sanger 1 9 7 0 a : 1 2 7 ) .  times.  c a . 8950 B.P.  a t about  of the Lochnore  tradition Rather  No  further  ated  i n the ethnographic I n t e r i o r  similar  Daugh.erty absolute the  Complex,Zone  similarities  edge—battered research fied  similar  lieved These the than  (Richards  Old Cordilleran originally Sanger  four  i n deposits  that  assemblages  culmin-  (1970a:126)  (Butler  formal  1961;  traits.  No  representative Creek  projectile  later  points,  had a g r e a t e r  Subsequent  19 75 ) ' h a s ifde;ntii  than  typologically  of  site.  technology.  of the Old C o r d i l l e r a n  Tradition  those beTradition. similar  temporal  range  proposed.  (1970a:105)  arbitrary  much  adapta-  by Sanger  19 7 8; E l d r i d g e 1 9 7 4 ; L e o n h a r d y  complexes  suggest  historic  1970a:127).  f o r the only  leaf-shaped  periods:  divides 1)  the Nesikep T r a d i t i o n  Early  of  (Sanger  Tradition  and a m a c r o b l a d e  t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e data  indicative  Tradition  I I I of the Lochnore  Include  cobbles,  Salish  of shared  are available  Tradition  until  the Nesikep  of  i n the r e -  through a gradual  i s described  1962) on t h e b a s e s  Lochnore  Formal  environment,  to the Old C o r d i l l e r a n  dates  change  Plateau  migration  resulted  f o r the Plateau  to the Plateau  as  the Canadian  A southward  cultural  Sanger b e l i e v e s t h a t  Complex  and i s c o n s i d e r -  Complex by t h e N e s i k e p  i s inferred  Lochnore  onto  7,000 B.P.  tion  The  tradition  a northward migration  deglaciation  placement  a new  i s the earlier  Period  (7,000  into  B.P. t o  to  -75,000 B . P . ) ; B.P.); and  3)  4)  2)  Upper M i d d l e  Late  perspicuous  Lower Middle  Period  He  periods,  and L a t e .  is  1)  t o 2,950 B.P.  the Late Nicola,  Period 2)  the Nesikep They  industry  of the i n d u s t r y  dated  with  divides  of a microblade  absence  ( 3 , 5 0 0 B.P.  of the t r a d i t i o n  (1973:22-24).  sence  Period  ( 5 , 0 0 0 B.P.  to  A more  i s suggested  by  Tradition into  i n the f i r s t  period  Stryd two  period.  and t h e  The  ( 1 9 7 3 ) was p r i m a r i l y  f o r which  Lillooet,  B.P.);  a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e p r e -  i n the l a t t e r Stryd  3,500  t o 2,000  ( 2 , 0 0 0 B.P. t o c a . 500 B . P . ) .  division  Early  Period  he d e f i n e d  3)  Kamloops,  transition concerned  four  phases:  and  4)  Proto-  his toric. While sentative  the Nesikep of c u l t u r a l  gone i n t e r n a l  T r a d i t i o n might  continuity, i t i s believed  change.  Archaeological  poral  variation includes  point  sizes  blade  technology,  1970a:110); form of  (Sanger  of winter  practices  pattern, this  1970a:107);  possibly  dwelling  documentation  reduction  (Sanger  indicative  as t h e m a j o r  pattern  typical  in settle-  of the h i s t o r i c  as e x p l a n a t i o n s  i s suggested  (Sanger  as t h e  change  (.Nelson 1 9 7 3 ; Ames a n d M a r s h a l l  settlement  micro-  The i n t r o d u c t i o n  of the establishment  have been proposed  under-  o f tem-  by g r a v e r s  1969:146).  repre-  i n projectile  t h e abandonment of a  t o be r e p l a c e d  i s considered  and models  transition  pithouse  a gradual  as  to have  and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p i t h o u s e  the pithouse  ment  be a c c e p t e d  to have  1980).  of The  resulted  from  -8intensified  collecting  that  could  be s t o r e d  gate  f o r longer  and p r o c e s s i n g  and would  periods  as t h e  key resource,  (1980)  suggest  that  contributed  the  Early  attempt ive  Period  study that  development  Prepared  Cores  Prepared  from numerous temporal  researchers microcore  presented the  and  this  sites  to further  of ethnographic  An  object-  of Early studies  of  also  i n Northwestern  artifacts  i n northwestern  North  distribution of time-space  suggested  preparation  that  with  America.  recoverTheir  has l e d to t h e constructs.  production  The f o l l o w i n g  i s concerned  have been  Some  a v a r i e t y of techniques  and m i c r o b l a d e  by t h e i n d u s t r i e s .  technological  development.  America  and m i c r o b l a d e  the review  collection  cultural  pattern.  aspects  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c o m m o n l y made o f t h i s  fically,  Marshall  on t h e P l a t e a u .  of a variety  have  Ames a n d  h o w e v e r , no s u b s t a n t i a l  i s t o document  and g e o g r a p h i c  interpretation  of  As y e t ,  and M i c r o b l a d e s  core  identifies  i s some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  may b e u s e f u l  North  wide  o f t h e emergence  h a s b e e n made t o r e c o n s t r u c t  cultural  ed  i n Plateau  patterns  pattern.  settlement  (1973)  to aggre-  the I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of root-plant  and s u b s i s t e n c e  of the present  resources  groups  and, i n c o n t r a s t ,  i n explanations  Period  larger  Nelson  t o t h e changes, i n v o l v e d  Implicit settlement  allow  of time.  salmon  of certain  review  are r e presents  variability.  Speci-  i d e n t i f y i n g the cultural  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the assemblages  utilized in  -9the  present  important  study.  Figure 1 illustrates  microblade Plateau  Sanger thesis low)  lation  was  a  recovered the  the  expanded of  that  Northwest  separate  from  the  i t diverged  able  to  tion  within  Plateau the  identify  the  w h a t he  of  the  south  Columbia  more  typical  than  those  earliest  these  through  the  locality. of  sources  He  the  be-  formu-  This  the m i c r o b l a d e  northern  that a single  technology), can  Evidence  had  (described  Plateau.  technology  hypo-  formu-  industry agrees  that  Plateau Micro-  sources  by a t l e a s t  but  argues  9000  B.P.  1970a:108).  Sanger b e l i v e s blade  on  Lochnore-Nesikep  from  B.C.  f o r the  large'.-part,  ultimately  America.  MacNeish's  Tradition  interior  manufacturing  of  Tradition  Microblade into  distribution  North  1970b) r e j e c t e d  tradition  basedyin  Tradition  (Sanger  Microblade  southward  microblade  blade  i n northwestern  (1968a, 1 9 7 0 a ,  that  lation  sites  the  of  from  of  north  Sanger  prehistoric the American  evidence  be  clearly  from on  the  Drynoch  t h e wane by  He  different from  cultures  of  Plateau.  Slide  2600 B.P.  i s therefore  the  cultural  throughout  latitude  of  ( i . e . micro-  Plateau Microblade  (1968a:113)  discovered appearance  on  the  is cited  degrees  trait  cultures.  b e l i e v e s t o be  tradition 54  between  presence  Plateau. of  pass  cultural  and  contexts.  the  Interior  extending  into  c o n s i d e r s i t to  the  Canadian  Sanger  cites  tradition  site.  tradi-  at  be  Plateau the  7500  B.P.  I t i s considered  (Sanger  1968a:110).  to  -10-  F l g u r e 1.  L o c a t i o n s of M i c r o b l a d e S i t e s Mentioned i n the T e x t .  -11A  microcore  teristics  is identified  Microblade classes  technology  Tradition  need  be  criticized. not  exhibit  d i d not  Creek  the  following  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  (Sanger  1968a:114).  No  the  charac-  Plateau  other  artifact  Microblade cores u t i l i z i n g a-weathered surface f o r a s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m which i s u s u a l l y m o d i f i e d only at the core edge. M u l t i p l e blow s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m p r e p a r a t i o n i s s c a r c e , and c o r e r e j u v e n ation t a b l e t s a r e not known.  2.  Microblades are u s u a l l y one end o f t h e c o r e .  removed  from  only  C o r e r o t a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n more t h a n one s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m i s v e r y u n u s u a l .  4.  F l u t e d s u r f a c e s commonly wedge-shaped k e e l .  5.  The t e c h n i q u e o f p r e p a r i n g t h e f l u t e d s u r f a c e s i s c u r r e n t l y unknown, but the a p p a r e n t a b s e n c e o f r i d g e f l a k e s may be very important i n this respect.  aspects Magne  of  Sanger's  (.1979) n o t e d  the weathered of  the  observe  a weathered  i s not  present  c o n t r a s t to  interpretation t h a t Hat  platforms  tradition.  or Lochnore-Nesike.p  attribute  the  1.  characteristic also  upon  associated:  '3.  Certain  as  based  the  s u r f a c e on  microcores . i n , l e t alone  been  Creek microcores  d e s c r i b e d by  During  have  a  Sanger  present any  I t appears  of  characteristic  as  study,  the  that  did  I  Hat this of,  tradition. A  number of  termination arguing  of  f o r the  different  the  dates  have  Plateau Microblade  early  demise  include:  been  suggested  for  tradition.  Those  Fladmark  (1982:61)  the  who  favours  a  t e r m i n a l date  Cl977 : 2'06)_ who  cites  dustry  by  date who in  at T e z l i  use  by  terminal blade and  that about  dates  industry  1000  B.C.  the  late  pithouse subject  industry  i s on  theless,  stead  strata  (1982  British  southwards  origins  interior.  mixing  (see  dates  been  to expect  longer  recent micro-  (Wilmeth  dated  (1979:29)  at  I 1978:  2500  B.P.  report a  Falls.  Inferred  recovered  from  excavation i s  Fladmark  are  no  Clusters  B.P.  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  from  on  the on  of  1982:52),  and  often rejected.  some r e g i o n a l  Interior  from  on  and  lack, of  commonly  have  dates  He  None-  variation  obtained  dated  proposed  in-  penetrated  rather  1982:61).  than  This  inter-  for microblade i n -  northern Pacific  suitably  accepted  originally  the west,  (Fladmark  early  central  the  tradition.  may  the Yukon"  the  the  technology  Columbia  i s based  contingent  a r e a was  Component 1110  usually  ( 1 9 7 3 : 2 4 ; 1 77)  flourishing  at K e t t l e  disagrees with  that "...this  dustries  to  Chance  B.P.  basis that late  interior  pretation  of  carbon  Stryd  Much more A  the i n -  the P l a t e a u .  Fladmark northern  part 1950  have  Pithouse  i t i s reasonable  throughout  B.C.)-  and  1950  industries  complex  this  ca.  Chance  post  contexts. to  dated  as  and  Lillooet  of  a radio  (.1974) r e p o r t s m i c r o b l a d e s  O k a n a g a n , and  microblade  the  been proposed.  i s interpreted  Grabert  microblade  of  Donahue  abandonment  1977:150);  (825-85  also  4 0 0 0 B.P.;  c o r r e c t e d from  (Donahue  I I at Anahim Lake  for  the  the  ca.  f o r the  2 4 0 0 B.C.,  have  industry  153-157).  it  evidence  o f '3850^140 B.P. claims  of b e f o r e  Coast  sites  and  i n the  is Yukon  -13Microblade  I n d u s t r i e s i n the  New  World  Subarctic Sanger's technological attempt  to  further  north.  arctic  Morlan  Microblade  could  between  sequences  1970:32-33).  and  he  the  were  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  distinctive  1970:26-28), but traditions  f o r core  as  and  This  the Sub-  metric  found  that  according  preparation the  having  identified  core  cores are not  identified  conically-shaped cores r e s e a r c h has  these.  In  industries creation  mon-metric  little  identified  an  to  (Morlan  Plateau  been  produced  i s i n c o n t r a s t to as  more  typical  the  of  microcores.  producing  little  as  reported  and  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of  sequence  unique  of A r c t i c  certain  inferred  a  a.number  (Morlan  between  tradition  Wedge-shaped  The  cores  those  compared m e t r i c cores  of  developed  i n d u s t r y from  a p l a t f o r m - f a c e - f l u t esequence.  subarctic  of  that  P l a t e a u was  identified  Notably,  face-platform-flute  and  the  (1970)  He  distinguish  Microblade  on  tradition  traditions.  reduction  by  tradition  1970b) h y p o t h e s i s  between wedge-shaped  variability he  1970a,  distinguish  variability Plateau  (1968a,  has  been  following  review  have  variation  implicitly  o f o v e r l a p p i n g and  only  i n northern  considered  general  the  type  Tabular  recovered.  However,  technological significance  observed  between  s t a t e d , the  conflicting  d e s c r i b e s the  microblade-  assemblages.  a l s o been the  of  more  result  time-space common  microblade being  the  constructs.  ones.  -14The MacNeish tween  Northwest  Microblade Tradition  (1954)  the  on  assemblages  basis  from  the  site.  Later  sulted  i n a  redefinition  L i t t l e  Arm,  G l a d s t o n e , and  a l l  traits  Pointed and  Mountain  i n the  according  i n the  The local  a  Lake  had  only  set  i n new  Yukon.  regions  the  of  Northwest  Other  some  the  a  traits,the was  Campus  re-  to  from contain  sites, the  be-  like  diagnostics,  tentative was  member-  defined  identification  restricted of  to  a  of  few  separate  inevitable.  characterized acquired  of  tradition  Microblade Tradition  sources, each  inferred  Interpretations  were  and  Components  a s s i g n e d them  Microblade Tradition interior  were  tradition.  Because  monothetic  development  diverse  then  observed  site  construct.  Taye  the  Mountain  he  by  i n southwestern Yukon  the  Campus,  tradition.  to  traditions  of  (1964:346)  Northwest  sites  and  Pointed  of  proposed  similarities  conducted  diagnostic  MacNeish  ship  the  research  of  was  by by  a  was  variety  different  envisioned of  traits  as  a  from  means:  I t would have taken from the Kluane and F l i n t * Creek h o r i z o n s a l r e a d y i n t h a t r e g i o n s u c h e l e m e n t s as F o r t L i a r d , Flint C r e e k , and b l a d e b u r i n s , end-of t h e - b l a d e s c r a p e r s and c o n i c a l c o r e s and b l a d e s , as w e l l as a few b i f a c i a l t y p e s and unifacial scrapers. From the northwest-moving Y u n o i d t r a d i t i o n , i t might have a c q u i r e d the Agate B a s i n - T i k e and M i l n e s a n d - l i k e p o i n t s , the f l a k e p e r f o r a t o r , and perhaps the snubn o s e d end s c r a p e r . I t might have acquired from A s i a , tongue-shaped cores, microblades, and u n i f a c i a l d r i l l s . T h e s e may have been invented l o c a l l y , the net sinker ( i . e . , g i l l n e t s ) , t c i - t h o s , and some v a r i e t y o f fish spear. (.MacNeish  1962 : 26)  -15MacNeish of  traits  t o be  environment on  lake  He  suggests  especially  and  h u n t i n g , and  that,  through  Tradition  Territories  and  this  well-adapted  representative  fishing,  Microblade west  (.1962:26) i n t e r p r e t s  of  a  particular  to a n o r t h e r n  interior  settlement pattern  t r a p p i n g (MacNeish  m i g r a t i o n and  gradually  combination  spread  northern B r i t i s h  1964:346).  diffusion,  into  the  Columbia  based  the  Northwest  Canadian  North-  (MacNeish  1962:  26) . A ash as a  date  layer the  of  1650  lying  and  date  the  inferred  to  first  as  the  components.  date  the  tradition.  infer  the  l e n g t h s of p r e c e d i n g  phase  date of  of  MacNeish  7450 B.P.  the Northwest  of  I t was  of  derived a starting  phase,  was  above Taye Lake  terminal  "long count"  B.P.  a  volcanic  interpreted  then  applied  components  f o r the L i t t l e Microblade  Arm  Tradition  '.CMacNeish 1 9 6 4 : 3 1 2 ) . MacNeish's  c o n s t r u c t has  ( . C l a r k 1981!: 1 1 1 ) . firmed  Falls  Workman sites  lieves  are  "...that  r e s i d e n t s . . . and logy  fallen  a microblade  industry  (1978)  reports that  the L i t t l e  r e p r e s e n t e d by  m i c r o b l a d e s were  in  Arm  and  technology.  imported  by  the  in Asia"  (Workman 1 9 7 8 : 2 5 7 ) .  MacNeish  (1964)  much e a r l i e r  i s suggested  than  be-  earliest  r o o t s i n A l a s k a and  4,000 B.P.,  of  con-  Otter  He  derivation  of  use  southwestern  ultimate  date  that  the  of  r e s e a r c h has  of  each  out  the  terminal by  since  N e v e r t h e l e s s , subsequent  the presence  Yukon.  long  this  that  (Workman 1 9 7 8 : 2 5 6 ) .  technoA  proposed The  -16assemblages tabular tions  Workman d e s c r i b e s i n c l u d e  microcores.  of m i c r o b l a d e s  wedge-shaped  core  Microblade ('Anderson 1 9 6 8 ) western  interprets  as  representative  complexes  recovered  and  Creek  Trail  Tradition  (Anderson  dated  to  provided  the  first  with  Beringian period.  for  was  the the  9857 B.P.  tradition  type microblade  and  utilized In  flakes  central  representative West's of  two  -  155  of  the  Onion  1970a,  (Anderson  sites  s c r a p e r s and  microblade  actually  reported for North  burins.  tablets,  Cook West  and  identified Campuslarge  burins,  1970a:4).  interpretation  (.1968) s u g g e s t s  the  The  to the Yubetsu  microblades, large  as  (West  America.  ( 1 9 6 7 : 3 6 0)  defined  industry  distinct  1961) .  Port-  gouges,  technique  (Yoshizaki  of Onion  rectangular microblades,  a microcore manufacuring  similar  cari-  cores,  upon  being  A  associated microblades  primarily  as  American  1970b).  based  described  was  early  in north-  1970a:2)  polyhedral blade  f o r end  of  Portage  d e f i n e d f o r the  that  popula-  19.78:254).  Characteristic :traits  (Anderson  an  size  and  techniques  A l a s k a , t h e D e n a l i c o m p l e x was  definition  previously  core  of  t h e Akmak c o m p l e x  c o r e s , backed  wide b l a d e s , preforms  distinct  from  1968,  absolute date  include  wedge-shaped  ( L a r s e n 1961)  traits  scapula associated with  age  two  p r o d u c t i o n (Workman  A l a s k a p r o v i d e d the  Paleoarctic bou  He  both  technique  that  any  technique  these  a lso included  biconvex  from  1967).  is  of  cores  i n the  bifacial  Japan are comple  knives,  -17end-scrapers, Denali site,  and  complex and  two  West  the D o n e l l y - t y p e  site  types  Telklania  interpreted  alternative  include Donnelly  River  from  Mongolia  the  site  cores w i t h i n  Campus  (West  limited  the  distributions  tion  the  Yukon.  to  Sites  located  graph Creek yielded  (Smith  microblade utilizing Fladmark few  only  He  of  Fladmark  of  the  industry  availability  (Fladmark  of  the  between  for blade  assemblages  most  Tradi-  and  Tele-  of  have  core  and  one  production. include a  and  one  possible  the  variability  to  1981:306). Tena known  (Smith  (Clark  1972)  to y i e l d the  or  raw  material.  earlier  is  the  similar  technique  1971:211):, b u t  quality  5 0 0 0 B.P.  1981:348).  1981)  prepared  technique  location  good  (1967:374)  i s d e s c r i b e d as  preforms  an  including  1974b), i n n o r t h e r n B.C.,  of Bantza  w i t h Japan  as site  Microblade  E d z i z a (Fladmark  (.1981:312-313) i n t e r p r e t s  link  i s dated  A l s o , by  Northwest  r e d u c t i o n (Fladmark  American  Campus  complex  c o m p l e x , West  attributes  obsidian quarry  a direct  B.P.  core.  core  as  dustry  the  retouched  of v a r i a n t s  other North  facts.  this  1974a,  This  the  t h a t Campus  1967:378).  (.1981:309) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e  of  f o r the  representing a distinct  bifacially  wedge-shaped  The  of  Mt.  technology.  examples  stages  near 1971,  artifacts  origin  (.1937)' h y p o t h e s i s  cores were  Ridge,  sites.  a Russian  to Nelson's  burin.  and  as  a  The  artinot  result i n -  3000 t o  4000  -18Northwest Microblades coastal and  personal  assemblages  this  interpretation.  f o r a v a r i e t y of  from  inferred.  o f t h e Queen  they  may  early  cultural  quence tion  T r a d i t i o n was  of m i c r o b l a d e s . a n d pebble early  choppers,  The M o r e s b y 7,400  coastal  cussion  evaluate  describes  coastal  Charlotte  the  Islands se-  Diagnostics of the  flakes,  f o r the  flake  tradi-  production  microcores,  flakes.  The  a shell  midden m a t r i x radiocarbon  (Fladmark  i s proposed,  dated  1982:23).  and F l a d m a r k  i n d u s t r y was  (Fladmark  replaced  A  1971:21).  to between northern,  (1971:21)  suggests  by a b i p o l a r  per-  technology.  Microblade have been  to  a s s e m b l a g e s h a v e no b i f a c e s , a n d n o n e  a n d 5,500 B.P.  the microblade  accord-  to represent  and r e t o u c h e d  T r a d i t i o n has been  origin  Island  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  industry utilized  and u t i l i z e d  with  Charlotte  understood.  o f t h e Queen  core  northern  Nevertheless,  i s needed  defined  non-microblade  Queen C h a r l o t t e associated  study  1971, 1975, 1982).  a pebble  of  have been produced  as p r e s e n t l y  components  (Fladmark  include  Further  that  The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f l y  traditions  The M o r e s b y  that  i s often  that  technologies.  microblade  ca.  reported  distinct  o f some  suggested  Industries  to the p l a t f o r m - f a c e - f l u t e sequence  interior  were  a l s o been  A technology  observation  specimens ing  have  sites.  interior  Coast Microblade  industries similar  reported  from  Ground  to the Moresby  Hog B a y  (Ackerman  Tradition et. a l .  1979;  -19Ackerman  1980)  Ackerman  (1980) notes  blade than que  and  manufacturing on  the  Queen  produces  CAckerman  from  region.  Along  crystals  sure  of  the  Microblade  exact  Ham  i n the nature  ca.  later  the  tion;  This the  activities  ranging  industries  on  the  of  the  1962:17;  500  and  produced  percussion tech-  found.  making  of  They  are  i t difficult Gulf  of  have been  Sanger Marpole  not to  be  Georgia postu-  1968a:113). cultural  A.D.  (Mitchell  reported  elsewhere.  types,  1971:65).  d e s c r i b e d above have been constructs. Tradition,  explain  the  and  Utukok  Dumond  dated  occurrence  throughout  subsumes  D e n a l i complex;  Tanana Uplands,  Gulf  It  Constructs  traditions  tradition  f o r the  associations  and  that a Paleoarctic  blade  extent  industries  would  are  i n Locarno  proposes  7,950 B . P .  (1968)  literature  i n broader  coast.  techni-  that reported i n  also  2 0 0 0 B.C.  than  from  1982)  together  and  Bay  t h a t each  a bipolar  (Borden  i s present  between  Many o f  core  Hog  in different  1979).  i n micro-  Ground  possibly,  Interior  tradition  industry  distinct  and  General  and  Carlson  with microblades, microliths  Tradition.  f o r the  i s - ; much  at  suggests  used  Mitchell  and,  1981;  distinguished  dated  He  1978;  of v a r i a t i o n  utilized  t o be  tradition  well  This  techniques  d e f i n e d By  (Fladmark  lated  Nelson  1980:195).  quartz  nique  and  a g r e a t e r range  microblades  n o r t h was  Georgia  (Hester  Charlottes.  A microblade the  Namu  Alaska  the American  a number River,  of  and  and  1978)  10,950  early  prepared  the  Northwest  Paleoarctic  sites on  (1977,  between of  grouped  the  Tradi-  i n the  Yukon-  Brooks  Range  -20(Dumond  1978:50-51).  west M i c r o b l a d e Archaic  infers No  Tradition  Tradition  notched,  r e d e f i n e s MacNeish's  t o be an e l e m e n t  (Dumond  1978:54).  stemmed, and l a n c o l e t e  a date  o f 5,950 B.P.  connections Fladmark  complex  Dumond  with  of the Northern  From t h e p r e s e n c e  points,  Dumond  t o 4,350 B.P.  the Plateau t r a d i t i o n  (.1982:21) p r o p o s e s  North-  (1978:54)  for this are  the Early  of  tradition.  suggested.  Coast  Microblade  to include . . . c o a s t a l assemblages radiocarbon d a t e d c a . 5,000/5,500 - 10,000 B.P., a n d (.is) c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a m i c r o blade industry; flake cores, i n cluding pebble t o o l s ; a v a r i e t y of retouched f l a k e t o o l s ; r a r e crude leaf-shaped b i f a c e s (not always present) ; rare abrasive stones; rare p o s s i b l e ground or notched sinker s t o n e s ; and n o n — s h e l l s i t e c o n t e x t s .  Included Coast,  i n this  I t remains  similar  Ground  from  (.1975) a n d C a r l s o n  c o n s t r u c t s , both  under h i s E a r l y Early  Northwest  later  the c e n t r a l  Pacific  Hog B a y , a n d  coastal  and i n t e r i o r  Fladmark  Coastal Microblade  Microblade  northern  (.1979) p r e s e n t  of which  Boreal Tradition  by M a c N e i s h his  distinct  from  micro-  industries. Borden  14)  are sites  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s ,  Alaska. Blade  complex  (.1964) . interior  (1982)  complex.  e n v i s i o n s an e a r l y  Tradition, The e a r l y  earlier date  somewhat  than  subsumes  Borden's date that  i s necessary  (1975:  f o r the proposed  to  to coast migration hypothesis.  support Carlson's  -21(.1979) M i c r o b l a d e accepts  a late  Tradition  date  i n c l u d e s Yukon  t o support  a coastal route  According  to Carlson,  ancestors  o f t h eH a i d a - T l i n g i t - A t h a b a s c a n  peoples"  presence  l e d other  Asian  of microblade  researchers  and American  C1980) s u g g e s t s Dyuktai  t h eT r a d i t i o n  to B.P.  "...the  o r NaDene  into  therapid  inferred  crossed  speaking  Abramova  that  group  patterns  Mochanov  of the  o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e Hwang  This  Strait  cultural same  a second  by t h eD e n a l i  (.1980) c r i t i c i z e s  America  one c u l t u r e t y p e .  migratory  t o have  t h eB e r i n g  and i s r e p r e s e n t e d  i nNorth  t o p r o p o s e .; c o n s t r u c t s  assemblages  that  culture,  industries  c a . 23,000 B . P . i n M e x i c o .  have  of origin.  represents  Ho B a s i n , w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e a r l y tions  b u t he  ( C a r l s o n 1979:224).  The has  sites,  time  c a . 10,000  i n Alaska.  (1980) a n d M a c N e i s h  CI96.4) f o r d r a w i n g  parallels  concurs  man ( p r e - 12,000 B . P . ) w a s p r e s e n t i n  North  that  early  America,  relations microblade  b u t argues  industries  an  independent  is  unncessary.  are  that  dated  bifacial  to thelate projectile  from  other  i slacking.  of close  America  i n v e n t i o n , and a search  (1980) p o i n t s  distinct  evidence  evidence  between A s i a and North  Abramova's model,  West  where  culture i s said  complex  Mochanov  manifesta-  i sbest  North  cultural provided by  Paleolithic.  In  p o i n t s a r e viewed as f o r a common  out that microblade-based early  She  American  origin  cultures  c u l t u r e s and  -22are  similar  that  to  late  Paleolithic  the  Old World  term  northern  complexes  as  A  similarities  by  Smith  (1971,  in  style  and  of  three  techniques  by  Asian This  as  to  of microblade 1974b).  of  core  the  one  showing  a preference  is  presented  attributes  least  tion  routes The  preted its is  t o be  the  beginnings  Kamchatka',  North  at  the of  one  Tradition  spread  By  east  t o be  the  of  the  the of  the  origin the  represented The  each  East  d e f i n e d as  is  Smith the  submigra-  is and  interdates  tradition  north  t h e r e by  tradition  of  tradition.  1 4 , 0 0 0 B.P. and  subtradi-  o f , and  o f NANAMT.  to Japan  each  techniques.  among  American P a l e o a r c t i c  subtraditions,  (NANAMT).  subtraditions,  Soviet Far  subtradition  subtradition. by  with  the  1970,  Northeast  bearers  1 8 , 0 0 0 B.P.  i t i s said  America  Microblade  first  also Morlan  c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence  tradition  to have  Inland-Coastal in  correlated  f o l l o w e d by,  Dyuktai  inferred  be  any  the  is a result should  of  tradition,  tions  traditions  (see  use  considered  (1971:212) b e l i e v e s t h a t v a r i a t i o n time;  the  are  Smith  of  to  variation  techniques  a number of  f o r at  distinction.  industries  - Northwest American Microblade encompasses  these  trans-con-  production  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  tradition  a p p l i e d to  of  industries  A l l three  suggests  study  Smith  of microblade  Y o s h i z a k i 1961).  Smith  be  He  a means o f • m a i n t a i n i n g t h e  1974a,  form  cultures.  Paleolithic  t e c h n o t y p o l o g i c a l approach  tinental  1976,  Late  Asian  to  the  Asian  represented Northwest  separate  traditions  -23by  Anderson  ments  out  ( 1 9 7 0 ) and  MacNeish  o f NANAMT i n c l u d e t h e  and  the  Plateau Microblade  for  the  early  351-352), the  in  but  second In  North  b e l i e v e s i t s presence  of  geographic  Microblade  tradition  tinct  those  the  subarctic.  the  northern  is  needed  has  been  identified  interior,yet to  the  dates  obtained  route the  of  a  date  1974a: marks  identified The  Plateau  technology coast  the  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of  t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of  recently  cultural  on  Plateau Microblade  as  origin.  study  Plateau.  no  The  tend  Further  dis-  and  been p o s t u l a t e d to have  technologies.  Interior  Tradition  1974a:'348).  northwest  the  the  Develop-  America  contexts.  identified  has  interior  (Smith  of  of  offers  i n North  relationships  and  Smith  temporal  along  to b e t t e r e x p l i c a t e  focuses  Tool  t e c h n o l o g i e s have been and  Its origin  a coast  Small  American m a n i f e s t a t i o n s (Smith  trans-Beringian migration  a variety  suggest  Arctic  tradition.  summary, m i c r o b l a d e  from  (1964) r e s p e c t i v e l y .  in  been to research  and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  remainder settlement  of  this  patterns  assemblages r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  tradition  from  the  southwestern  -24-  CHAPTER I I RECONSTRUCTING P R E H I S T O R I C SETTLEMENT The  purpose  ductory  of this  chapter,  study,  practices. ward  this An  ment  two  The p r e s e n t  research  and s u b s i s t e n c e Within  levels,  suggests  pects gion  systems  for reconstructing  i s presented  design  the settlement  potentially sets  type.  terned  analyses  that  tribution  identify  By a s s u m i n g  from  Struever  of resources. block"  Struever  of settlement  be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  the seasonal  Struever  will  r e v e a l the s t r u c t u r e of p r e h i s t o r i c  The Questions  approach,  (1968:  "building  man-land  examined  11)  site  areas, of a  and settle-  (1971:  types  i s pat11) e x -  within a re-  and g e o g r a p h i c 135) b e l i e v e s  disthat  at the r e g i o n a l systems  that  level,  arti-  relationships.  interpretation have  (1971:  the p h y s i c a l environment  c u l t u r e i s adaptive',  at  distribution  activity  this  culates  are conducted  a i d the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  (1968,  an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  tool-kits,  that  settle-  by S t r u e v e r  and t h e r e g i o n .  recovered  that would  and t h a t  will  settlement  a methodology t o -  t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e k i n d , number, and  activity ment  of p r e h i s t o r i c  describes  design  Struever's  of m a t e r i a l elements could  intro-  and e x p l a i n p a t t e r n s of  i n terms  chapter  i n the  end.  explicit  1971).  as d e s c r i b e d  i s to explicate  interassemblage-variation  PATTERNS  of settlement  been r a i s e d  concerning  types  remains  the accurate  a  problem.  identifica-  -25tion out in  of  tool-kits  that  and  activity  culture  operates,  context,  i n which m a t e r i a l  Cultural  transformations  According  processes  formations,  the  ated  (n.d.)  through  related  with  spatial  analyses of  of  settlement  organization  with  the  deposition types  tion  and  utility The  settlement  that  first  the  tence  pattern;  An  objective model  section  derived  of A  traditional and  3)  Schiffer problem  for this  review  transa  site  and  be  (1979)  at  allevi-  patterns study  1)  model  of  will  result  of of  technological tool  i s to  cura-  test  the  function. causes  of  environmental and  hunter-gatherer  ethnoarchaeological  cor-  proposes  identifies local  be  different  a model  this  chapter  to  I n t e r i o r S a l i s h settlement  a general  from modern  can  interpreting -site  of  these  (1976)  activities  assemblages  of  and  within  expected  Binford  develops  variation.  2)  distinct  of  342)  assemblage v a r i a t i o n .  anticipates varying  Binford's  tors;  ment  of  variability  1973:  artifacts  this  assumed.  affect  assemblage  Because  technological  and  discard. of  of  be  archaeological  (Binford  v a r i a t i o n are  function.  cannot  i n the  activity.  much of  context,  archaeological  found,  of  points,  systemic  the  30).  intersite  intersite  the  organization  past  (1972)  transformations  curation  distribution  of  that  settlement  by  s u g g e s t vthat  Patterns  are  material  ( S c h i f f e r 1976:  a d i s t o r t e d image  Matson  and  natural  of  the  Schiffer, intrasite  particular is affected  discard  is  to  remains  and  resulting distribution  record. in  Schiffer  a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between  which material  the  areas.  research  fac-  subsissettle-  suggest  a  -26pattern  of  settlement  represented area.  by  There  the  variation  used  for  patterns  follows  a d e s c r i p t i o n of  comparison  of  and  with  the  Thompson  present  through study  a  day  and  logical  variation to  the  characteristic Creek  valley Two  era 1)  of  the East  the  2).  The  Fraser of  River  the  and  variation.  are  will  Expected  presented.  River  river  vertical the  of  marked  of  by  the  mountain  C l i m a t i c and  dimension.  bio-  Of  environmental locality  the  narrows  terraces,  plateaux.  are  confluence  Landforms.  2)  Interior  reach  merge:  peaks  1)  Thompson P l a t e a u  (Holland  separated  Clear  the  represented  Coast Mountains,  the  Fraser  s u b d i v i s i o n s of  Interior. Plateau  by  also  the  canyon.  Coast Mountains and  sites,  specific  features  and  Hat  2).  Columbia  Mountains  study  archaeological  confluence,  Lochnore-Nesikep  physiographic  Coast  Figure  of  the  this  study  of  the  dissected  reflects  (Figure  British  Below  v a l l e y s and  present  the  be  a t t r i b u t e s that  proposed  Lytton,  deeply  highland  of  to  Environment  steep-walled  include  slopes,  interest  the  rivers.  town of  rugged,  area  the  microblade  study area i s s i t u a t e d north  and  expected  Variation  Natural  Fraser  be  t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n are Settlement  The  can  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblages  artifact' classification, be  that  two the  1964:  within  Plateau  border at  Canadian  the  2438 m  66).  Range, which  this  region:  (Holland western above  physiographic Fraser  Cordill-  Plateau  1964; bank  sea  level.  u n i t s of and  of  2)  the  the  These  regions  are  reaches  heights  above  2100  -27-  Figure  2.  P h y s i o g r a p h i c F e a t u r e s of Study Area ( a f t e r H o l l a n d  the 1964).  -28m above Creek  sea l e v e l .  valley  locality study  The C l e a r  and d r o p s  almost  on t h e F r a s e r  River.  area w i l l  Range  rises  1200 m above H a t  2000 m t o t h e L o c h n o r e - N e s i k e p F o r the sake  of b r e v i t y , the  be r e f e r r e d t o as t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n  Interior  Plateau. The  Interior  possibly tocene for  2450 m t h i c k ,  i c e was gone  was c o v e r e d b y a n i c e m a n t l e ,  during  from  the l a s t  the Plateau,  glacial leaving  human h a b i t a t i o n , a s e a r l y a s 1 1 , 0 0 0  Deglaciation extensive Outwash in  Plateau  occurred  terraces  deposition  the formation  by i n - p l a c e  i n the Fraser caused  Sanger  (1970a:  8) n o t e s  Nesikep  Creek  has caused  Fraser  River.  ern  slopes  are  typical  The m a j o r  of g l a c i a l  causes  down-cutting,  fied  like  some l a t e r a l  drift  and a e o l i a n  surficial  geology  by a sheet o f g l a c i a l  the Clear  Range,  created  river flow  1978:63).  valleys. resulted  sediments.  fan deposited  evident  Undulating  deposits  by  on t h e e a s t -  t o hummocky  i n Hat Creek  moraines  valley.  geomorphological alteration  stream  entrenchment,  Fraser  River  redeposition. of the I n t e r i o r  Plateau  drift  to various  o f sand  (Holland  (Ryder  displacement of the  are also  Range.  are continued  of the d r i f t  the a l l u v i a l  of p o s t - g l a c i a l  A t h i c k a e o l i a n mantle 95%  that  stream  f a n s and f l u v i a l  deposits  of the Clear  on t h e P l a t e a u  The  Outwash  and Thompson  Pleis-  the area s u i t a b l e  downcutting that  by i n c r e a s e d  of a l l u v i a l  B.P.  period.  occurring  and s i l t  1964: 7 0 ) .  and e x p o s u r e s  i s typidepths.  c o v e r s as much as  Bedrock  projections,  are evident.  Developed  -29-  soil  profiles The  Coast  study  rare.  area  Mountains  channeled er  are  and  through  i s situated i s exposed  the  and  Semi-arid  precipitation  the  i n the  Interior  p a t t e r n , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  prevails.  on  north  Plateau.  warm  A  increases with  at  A Ponderosa  zone  i s present  the  River  Fir,  e l e v a t i o n s of  Subalpine  Tundra  zones  Lake  i n Hat  Englemann  are  Analysis  of  present the  p a t t e r n was  Aboreal  pollen  Plateau  suggests  about  interval  This  i n ascending  e s t a b l i s h e d by  that a  similar  to  (Hansen  trend those  (Mathewes  p e r i o d was  that  of  the  the  on  the  preceded  high  arboreal pollen  Finney  The Lake  content  Douglas  F i r , and  Alpine  a core the  by  from  Finney  present-day (Hebda  southern  present  Rouse  within  Interior  4 , 5 0 0 B.P.  Interior  cool, day,  climatic  began  a short, mild , :  Rouse  earliest cores  at 1976:  xerothermic  1975:752;  pollen  zone  i s represented  suggesting  veg-  n.d.:5).  1975:752; A l l e y  1 9 5 5 : 6 5 0 ; Mathewes and  fied  Pine-Bunchgrass  towards moist,  and  1976:1140; Hebda n . d . : 3 - 4 ) . a l l but  from  study  order.  s p e c t r a from  incbther cores  6,000 B.P.  1139).  Spruce-Subalpine  indicates  i n the  t e r r a c e s and  Creek v a l l e y .  pollen  Creek v a l l e y  etation  conditions,  Hat  winters,  elevations,  1965 , 1973)  altitude.  lower  cold  lower  a l s o change w i t h  the  winds  altitude.  (Krajina  Fraser  the  c o n t i n e n t a l weath-  area  along  s i d e of  to p o l a r  summers and  c o n d i t i o n s occur  The b i o g e . o c l i m a t i c z o n e s  leeward  Alley  identiby  a post-glacial  a coni-  -30-  ferous and  forest  Rouse  lacks  any e v i d e n c e  The variety  seasonal  available  the higher  section  The  pollen  most  anadromous  (Oncorhynchus  of the study  area  significant fish.  Figure  food  abundant  during  food  sockeye dance  of the resource  pattern produced four".  run i s i t s seasonal  of quadrennial  and  resources. of the F r a s e r including  the Fraser  pink (_0. trout  River.  Characteristic  Kew  They a r e  of the Fraser  however,  t h e abun-  (1976:11-12) notes  dominance wherein greater  River  p o r t i o n of the r i v e r  predictability;  fluctuates.  are substantially  available  ((). k i s u t c h ) , c h i n o o k  fall.  between  cross-  (jO. n e r k a ) , a n d s t e e l h e a d  to early  A  the geographic  of salmon,  i n the Lytton-Lillooet  mid-summer  which  R i v e r and t h o s e  resource  g o r b u s c h a ) , coho  of  3 i s a schematic  (.Salmo g a i r d n e r i ) a n n u a l l y a s c e n d most  core  include a  distributions.  illustrating  Species  t s h a w y t s c h a ) , and sockeye  Lake  c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d  the Fraser  of primary  area  s p e c i e s , many  and g e o g r a p h i c  elevations.  distribution  The F i n n e y  zone.  and f i s h  along  Mathewes  Resources  distribution  of the study  seasonal  is  mammal,  of resource  resources at  of this  subsistence resources  restricted  1955:647-649;  1976:1140),.  of Subsistence  of plant,  pattern  (Hansen  1975 : 751 ; A l l e y  Distribution  have  environment  "...numbers  i n one y e a r  out, o f  of  a fish  every  7500  white pine nutlets late summer 5000  I-  non-anodromous fish spring 3 autumn spanning  [_  Ponderosa Pine nutlets summer  WEST  2500  salmon mid summer -fall  HORIZONTAL  VERTICAL  0  t ' I'  S kms '| '  0  Figure  |' 3 miles  3.  0 1 0  800 metres •'  I 'l  \  I 2500 feel  /\  EAST ALPINE TUNDRA  1  SUBALPINE ENGLEMANN SPRUCE-SUBALPINE FIR  Seasonal and Geographic Distribution of t h e M a j o r ; L o c a l , S u b s i s t e n c e R e sources ( a f t e r Pokotylo 1978).  INTERIOR DOUGLAS FIR  It  PONDEROSA PINEBUNCHGRASS  -32It Hat  is uncertain  Creek.  parte but  Access  River.  to  Today,  a sizeable pink  (Pokotylo ous  trout  the the  river  creeks  and  from  and  Lindsey The  many o f  species  include  which  Plateau  are  trout  Huhn  food  requirements  energy  distribution  and  by  1930;  Palmer  1900,  1906,  uses  1975a; 1909;  sistence  resources  Interior  Plateau.  Roots River  (_.  clarki),  ( S a l v e l i n u s malma)  period  are  (Carl,  are  terraces  traditional  of  from  most  Clemens  plant  1972,  1981).  1974,  gradually  of  species  have  studies see  (1978)  along  The been  (Steedman also  i s the  the  the  food-  resources.  a v a i l a b l e on  spring  70%  Plateau  f o l l o w i n g summary o f  traditionally  species,  subsistence  1978;  Turner  plant  almost  plant  ethnobotanical  available in early and  that  some C o l u m b i a  individual  Turner  the  a v a r i e t y of  suggests  of  of  Dawson for  to  derived  a number  cited  supports  (1981:132)  s o c i e t i e s was  reference  varden  spawning  significant  economies.  documented  Dolly  throat  1973).  Interior  gathering  dam  Spring-spawning  m o u n t a i n w h i t e f i s h '('P'ro'sopium w i l l i a m s o n i ) autumn  the  dam,  numer-  and  an  Bona-  support  sucker  during  the  a man-made  and  plentiful  ascended  lakes  g a i r d n e r i ) , cut  ( C a t o s t o m u s _§__..).  by  i s downstream  species.  (Salmo  ever  have been v i a  i s blocked  Mountain  fish  species  creek would  salmon run  1978:67).  f r e s h water  rainbow  i f anadromous  major  the  the  become more p l e n t i f u l  Teit primary sub-  southwestern  Fraser up  onto  -33-  the  mountain  nodding  slopes  onion  sagittata),  pudlea),  (Qpuntia  fragilis)  for  and  lily  subsistence  root  snow.  yellow  herbs  bells  ( S ium  round  and  and  cactus  can  -  Indian  suave) ,  pear  -  ( L o m a t i u m m a c r o c a r p u m ) and  macro-  include  Prickly  to upland  include  (Calochortus  parsnip  i s a v a i l a b l e year  lanceolata), limited  be  By  collect-  late  spring beauty  locations,rare  spring,  (Clay-  ready  harvest. In  e a r l y summer, b e r r i e s r i p e n a l o n g  become a v a i l a b l e i n t h e berries  (Amelanchler  virginiana)  (Shepherdia  raspberry  (Rubus  (Vaccinium  fall  idaeus) , w i l d  sp . ) , a n d  late  Ponderosa lower  slopes,  bearberry  pine  are  rose  lower  strawberries followed  by  gooseberry (Rosa  (Fragaria  stands  sjp_.),  and  Service  of  (Ribes  (Arctostaphylos  huckleberries  slopes  elevations.  sp.),  huckleberry uva-ursi) .  (Vaccinium  (;Pi'rius p o n d e r o s a ) , w h i c h  produces  l a y e r of  and  the  sp.)  begin  summer.  edible nutlets during  summer, c o i n c i d i n g w i t h cambium  and  higher  canadensis),  M o u n t a i n b l u e b e r r i e s and r i p e n by  at  alnifolia)  ripen earliest  soapberry  to  mariposa  These  (Balsamorhiza  rediviva),  angustifolium) .  beneath winter  biscuit tonia  progresses.  ( H e r a c l e u m T a n a turn)., w a t e r (Epilobium  from  (Xewisa  sprouting  fireweed  ed  season  ( A l l i u m cernuum) , balsa.mroot  Early  rhubarb  the  bitter-root  (Fritillaria sorpus).  as  this  the  pine  salmon run. i s also  In  edible.  grows a l o n g mid  to  the  late  early spring White bark  the  pine  -34-  (Pinus and  albicaulis)  t h e cambium  pine  layer  i s limited  (Turner  produces  an e d i b l e  c a n be s c r a p e d  to higher  area.  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  Columbia.  The s h o r t  summaries Mule  deer  gradually grasses  year.  to lower  (Artemisia available Elk  than  presented  This 1200 m  tridentata  distribution  Bouchard  British  i s derived  r u t and h e r d  they  from  i n the f a l l ,  graze  most o f  deer  may b e  European-introduced  encroachment  (Tisdale  have been  plant  of  sagebrush  reduced  regions of the area  Other  times.  t h a t e l k were ungulates  include mountain  presently restricted  the  1947).  The  of e l k i s u n c e r t a i n , although suggest  as  introduced to the  Plateau during historic  (.1978: 4 1 )  (1979).  cover the  of mule  a n d A., f r i g i d a ) , h a v e  by t h e L i l l o o e t .  americanus),  data  g r a s s (Broiruis t e c t o r u m ) , a s w e l l  (,Cervus c a n a d e n s i s )  historic  provide  e l e v a t i o n s as snows  grassland f o rherbivores  Interior  present  (1978) and P o k o t y l o  day d i s t r i b u t i o n  as cheat  are also  throughout  below  by Mathewes  the prehistoric.  southern  tain  o f mammals  g r a z i n g and t h e subsequent  hunted  above  (1965)  e l e v a t i o n s where  The p r e s e n t  such  importance  (Odocoileus hemionus)  i n the higher  species,  and  list  compiled  moving  more l i m i t e d  over  spring.  usually  Cowan and G u i g u e t  concerning  the  i n t h e summer  1978:55).  the study  local  i n late  elevations,  Mammal s p e c i e s o f e c o n o m i c in  nut late  Kennedy  traditionally  occupying goat  t o t h e west  pre-  t h e moun-  (Oreamnos side  of the  -35-  Fraser  R i v e r , and b i g h o r n  Marble  Canyon  The black  study  bear  spawning  area  grounds.  supports  Wetlands  Hat Creek v a l l e y  ada  Department  (Marmota  of Regional  countered  i n c l u d e common  sjp_. ) , a n d w h i s t l i n g  At Plateau the  macroura)  territories  (Lepus  (Tamiasci-  and l a k e s p r o v i d e a n d game  Wetland  birds  (Gavia  immer),  a  birds.  b y t h e Can-r  (1970) as h a v i n g  grouse  and  dorsatum).  i s identified  a high  that might grebe  (Podiceps  Upland  (Dendragapus  be e n -  game  obscurus) ,  (.Lagopus l e u c u r u s ) , a n d m o u r n i n g »dove (Mathewes  19 7 8) .  Settlement  and S u b s i s t e n c e  contact, the southern  linguistic the study  area  speaking  family. area  i s encompassed  The S h u s w a p - s p e a k i n g  Interior  languages  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  i s illustrated  of the Thompson-speaking  bands.  as  patches  squirrel  (Olor columbianus) .  of European  groups w i t h i n  Bridge  loon  by b l u e  Salish  Salish  of the study  at berry  of waterfowl  was i n h a b i t e d by p o p u l a t i o n s  Interior  these Most  swan  ptarmigan  the time  Range.  (Erethizon  Expansion  rating.  are represented  Interior  feed  flaventris),  i n particular  capability  XZenaidura  which  the smaller creeks  waterfowl  white-tailed  i nthe  l a r g e game mammals s u c h  fora variety  The  birds  canadensis),  of the Clear  and p o r c u p i n e  along  suitable  (Ovis  S m a l l mammals i n c l u d e s n o w s h o e h a r e  marmot  hudsonicus),  habitat  to the east  (Ursus americanus),  americanus), urus  area  sheep  within Upper  of  i n Figure  4.  the t r a d i t i o n a l  Fraser  Pavillion  of  and  and Spences Bonaparte  -36-  F i g u r e 4.  Northern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Ethnographic Group B o u n d a r i e s ( a f t e r T e i t 1900) .  -37-  hands the  occupied  the  territory  Upper L i l l o o e t The  occur  first  i n the  exploration local  as  of  the  study  I n d i a n b a n d was  to  the  west  w r i t t e n accounts  j o u r n a l s of of  bands.  underway  north  the  River  noted  indicated  these  by  that  the  duriflg^his  camped  European  contact  of  1900:166).  populations  i n 1808,  presence  while  (Teit  native  S i m o n F r a s e r , who,  Fraser  Fraser  of  area,  trade  historic  among was  the already  goods  (Lamb  1960). No until on ern  further significant  the  the  Shuswap  with  during  (Dawson  Boas'  investigations  Jesup  compiled  1909).  1905)  recorded More  the of  At  southern  tions 1975a;  of  traits  cultural  Expedition.  i n three the  1974,  ecology  same t i m e , of  CRay 1 9 3 9 ,  the  observations  1890).  and  J.A.  and  Teit,  The  C.  research  data  (Teit  1900,  (1899,  n a t i v e groups the  in  distribution  Jorgensen  1969);  (Steedman  1930;  Fieldwork  of  Lillooet.  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of  1975b).  Major  ethnographic  s t u d i e s of 1942;  in  a member  Hill-Tout  on  south-  Shuswap  Thompson and  information  1978);  (Palmer  (Boas  major monographs  includes:  ethnobotanical  Turner  Shuswap  t h e r e a f t e r by  ethnographic  Plateau  collected  continued  Thompson, L i l l o o e t ,  Pacific  about  the  observations  recent  cultural  the  published  1906,  some  Limited research  of  shortly  North  was  1891).  among  were  h i s g e o l o g i c a l f i e l d w o r k i n the  account  were undertaken Boas'  data  1 8 7 0 ' s when G e o r g e Dawson r e c o r d e d  Plateau  1889  ethnographic  compilaPalmer  precontact  conducted  among  -38-  the  contemporary  cerning  traditional  The al  present  area  on  ties  data  i s concerned  within provided  Lillooet  in their  are  lifeways  provides  (Kennedy  southwestern  i s encompassed  Shuswap and  and  Interior  Salish  Subsistence characterized  by  fishing  1890;  (Boas  groups  aggregated  ability. blished stored  an  The  in winter  Thompson  i n the  1969;  elevations  The  major  of  subsistence  the  annual  summer, p e o p l e  congregate  some w e r e d r i e d  or  O i l was smoked  was  local  study  territory. of  the  the  similari-  1900,  1906).  provide  a  com-  Shuswap  gathering, 1909).  with  based between  and  Social  resource  villages  were  avail-  were  esta-  p r i m a r i l y upon the  Fraser  mountains were  River  utilized  cycle.  activities  late  salmon.  i n accord  distributed  were d i v i d e d between  migrating  1900,  semi-nomadic:  i n the  would  hunting,  Teit  subsistence  The  Thompson and  1891;  upper  times  the  dispersed  to  tradition-  reconstruction.  Dawson  Resources  different  of  Teit  attempt  ethnographic  foods.  the  considering  1978).  subsistence  ethnographies  c y c l e of  and  of  con-  1975,  with identifying  traditional  (Jorgensen  p a t t e r n was  Bouchard  Plateau.  annual  and  and  information  Interior  pertinent  activities  new  processing  f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n does not  plete  at  lifeways  study  the  Nevertheless,  and  band  s t r a t e g i e s f o r procurement  resources  The  Lillooet  summer a n d along  extracted  along winter. the from  in preparation  the  Fraser  During  Fraser  to  River late  catch  some s a l m o n , for winter.  and Stores  -39-  kept  f o rwinter  rounding  the villages  Population ean  pithouse  and  tributaries  Stored time,  were p l a c e d  foods  (Teit  provided  of subsistence  trapping  and i c e - f i s h i n g  that  hides  were p r o c e s s e d  and autumn  1909:247, and s k i n  groups  subsistence  of people  terraces.  Mountain  fish. (Teit  19 0 0 : 2 5 1 - 2 5 2 ) .  gathered  along  lakes  river  Teit  Teit  clothing  valleys  1900:192).  during  this fresh  ( 1 9 0 9 : 477); n o t e s  was  Green  the mountain  elk,  goat,  1900:245,  was  1909:521-522).  activities pine  also nuts  included (Dawson  away  shoots  slopes  manufactured  were from  were  during  1891:22;  were eleva-  1900:231).  Deer,  i n the spring.  the f a l l  summer a n d f a l l  gathering  the river  the higher  also hunted  intensified Late  (Teit  conducted  spring-spawning  and r o o t s  and onto  progressed  and s m a l l mammals  mammal h u n t i n g  activities  and streams p r o v i d e d  v a l l e y s as the season  bark  semi-subterran-  y i e l d e d some  248).  predominantly  tion  Large  sur-  villages.  Spring small  pits  the major  the bulk  1900: 247-252;  by  in  (Dawson 1891:8;  (Teit  winter  again  winter  food  in  occurred  e s t a b l i s h e d along  during  cache  1906:223).  aggregation  villages  although  i n underground  (Teit  subsistence  ripening berry  and  white  T e i t 1900:223, T e i t 1909:  515, 5 1 9 ) . The ments At  ethnographies  make  reference  established i n connection  certain  subsistence  gathering  with  to a v a r i e t y these  of  settle-  economic p u r s u i t s .  l o c a t i o n s t h a t were  revisited  -40annually, permanent log foundation were c o n s t r u c t e d frame lodges,  (Teit  covered  1900:196, 1909:493).  8; T e i t 1900:195-197).  seasonal  camps (Dawson  Roots were processed,  (Dawson 1981:9, 12).  l o c a t e d near deer fences and may 1909:404).  were returned  skin, 1891:  e i t h e r by d r y i n g ,  or steaming i n earth ovens, at camps l o c a t e d near  the g a t h e r i n g areas  (Teit  Temporary wood  with t u l e mats, brush, bark, or  were c o n s t r u c t e d at short-term  or by baking  dwelling structures  Hunting lodges were  have been re-occupied  Hides were cleaned  at hunting  annually  lodges,  to winter v i l l a g e s f o r f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g  but (Teit  1909:497). This summary i n d i c a t e s that there i s one  p e r i o d i n the  annual c y c l e when a v a r i e t y of food resources  are a v a i l a b l e  i n both  During  the uplands and  the r i v e r i n e areas.  summer through e a r l y f a l l , Fraser R i v e r .  late  spawning salmon a r r i v e i n the  Roots, b e r r i e s , and  i n the uplands (Dawson 1891).  nuts may  Pokotylo  a l s o be  (1981:98)  collected  suggests  that: ...some degree of scheduling (Flannery 1968) on the part of the female labour f o r c e may have been i n v o l v e d to e f f i c i e n t l y i n t e grate p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n and f i s h processing tasks. The important  p r a c t i c e of late-summer s u b s i s t e n c e scheduling i s c o n s i d e r i n g the p a t t e r n of quadrennial  of the salmon runs (Kew.1978).  dominance  Upland a c t i v i t i e s may  have  been i n c r e a s e d i n low years of the c y c l e , supplementing  the  -41-  potential  d e c l i n e i n salmon  of  summer s u b s i s t e n c e  upland  the  uplands  may h a v e b e e n  pre-housepit harvested  period  at this  availability.  i f salmon  ments,  typology  two s e t t l e m e n t s : were  Settlement  utilized  more complex Binford viewed  along  and  primarily  Eskimos  array  research  a continuum  collectors plus  settlement  utilize  some u n i q u e  organization distinguishes social  group  collectors  This  2) l i m i t e d  that  that  this  activity  identified  a  c a n be pattern  a s f o r a g e r s , who p r a c t i c e  whose  that  a  of t h e Nunamiut  settlement  strategy i s  Logistically-oriented  a l l the elements  to the settlement  at certain  settle-  of resources.  variation  of a f o r a g i n g s t r a t e g y , strategy.  i n v o l v e d i n the procurement  will  maintenance  contrasts the settlement  1980:10).  to the locus  pro-  patterning.  strategy, with  the strategies.  was  typology i n -  has subsequently  as c o l l e c t o r s ,  (Binford  Systems  camps, a t w h i c h  df settlement  (.1980) p r o p o s e s  described  "logistical"  were n o t i n t e n s i v e l y  f o r the procurement  t h e San Bushmen, d e s c r i b e d  "mapping-on"  that  during the  f o r hunter-gatherers  1) b a s e  conducted;  Ethnoarchaeological  of  resources  by B i n f o r d and B i n f o r d i n 1966.  activities  f u r t h e r suggests  time.  A settlement  cluded  availability  extensively utilized  Hunter-gatherer  posed  resources  The  of resources  In general,  of subsistence times  move  I t i sthe that  f o r a g e r s move t h e  resources.  the social  While  group,  they  -42-  usually  create  resources are  not mutually  The  a  local a  this  of food  are depleted.  the  pose  energy  the greatest bulk  resource'(.s) by means  of s p e c i a l  source  to the consumer"  gruity  c a n be r e s o l v e d  collectors through  must  storage  then  work  (Binford through  that  groups  storage.  who  spatial c a n be  strategy.  1980:15).  reducing  (either  and p r o c u r e  resolve the problem  by f u r t h e r  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  one r e s o u r c e  demand)  range of  a r e moved as  problems  near  He  be s e l e c t e d .  distribution  move  culture.  are within  Environments  of a c o l l e c t o r  "hunter-gatherers  one w i t h  i s considered  i n determining  settlements  extraction-  by t h e l o g i s t i c s  situation  factor  resources  strategy, residential  temporal)  as extremes i n  resources  t o be a m a j o r  a l l critical  therefore  to complex.  camp, a f o r a g i n g s t r a t e g y w i l l  resources  resolved  c a n be v i e w e d  simple  dispersed pattern of resource  or  subsistence  s t r a t e g y s e l e c t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r  t h a t when  residential  that bring  The two s t r a t e g i e s  they  distribution  C1980:14-15)  settlement  Within  group.  exclusive;  spatial  suggests  groups  o r g a n i z a t i o n , from  Binford  the  task  to the s o c i a l  settlement  by  numerous  In  this  (generally the other  move  Temporal  ther e incon-  Logistically-oriented of bulk  t h e number o f  created residential  moves. The annual Binford  variety  of settlement  types  cycle also differentiates (1980:9)  proposes:  utilized  during  the s t r a t e g i e s .  an  For foragers  -43-  . . . two t y p e s o f s p a t i a l context f o r t h e d i s c a r d o r abandonment of a r t i f a c t u a l remains. One i s i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l base, w h i c h i s . . . t h e hub' of s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s , the l o c u s out of which f o r a g i n g p a r t i e s o r i g i n a t e and w h e r e most p r o c e s s i n g , manufacturing, and m a i n t e n a n c e a c t i v i t i e s t a k e p l a c e . These in  sites  are l i k e l y  increased  generate  a  t o be r e - o c c u p i e d  archaeological v i s i b i l i t y .  annually, Foragers  resulting will  also  location. A l o c a t i o n i s a p l a c e where e x t r a c t i v e tasks are exclusively carried out...,;., since bulk procurement i s r a r e , the use, e x h a u s t i o n , and abandonment o f t o o l s i s at a very low r a t e . I n f a c t , few i f any - t o o l s may b e e x p e c t e d t o r e m a i n a t s u c h places.  Variability  among  residential  sites.  different duration  procurement site  '3) c a c h e s .  Because  types:  practiced  by  field  camps;  of the i n t e n s i t y  collectors  the l a r g e r s o c i a l  camps  residence  of the l o g i s t i c a l  1)  groups should  group.  as t e m p o r a r y be  whose  evident  base  the  ( i f any) and t h e  and l o c a t i o n  settle-  character  their  2)  stations;  be more  visible  of resource  Field camps.  of  the use of three  camps  add-  and than  forager...  procurement  work p a r t i e s seek  according  at  1980:9-10).  C o l l e c t o r l o c a t i o n s may because  task  of a c t i v i t i e s  (Binford both  manifested  "...generally reflect  s t r a t e g y , B i n f o r d suggests  locations  for  scheduling  utilize  1980:9-10)  i s therefore best  These s i t e s  of occupation"  types.  itional  foragers  seasonal  Collectors ment  (Binford  resources  are u t i l i z e d  V a r i a t i o n among  to the resource  the  by field task  -44-  group  is obtaining.  task  groups  ing"  and  The being  are  resources  groups  necessary  by  generally  means  the  for  foragers.  residence  l o c a t i o n where  foods.  Fresh  not  remainder  of  available  food  berries, the  and  of  the  The  large  closest  to  the  either display  of  B inford extreme a  of  the  could  most  the  of  can  1980:10-12). be i n t e r p e t e d  than  the  be  was  based  obtained  during  Yet,  the  s u m m e r ) may  groups of  was  the  social  resource,  salmon.  practiced  during  out,  few  The  differentiation  is  through  overlap  group  upon  were  patterns  have  winter  winter  strategy  of  ( i . e . salmon, necessitated  for procurement  strategies.  strategy  the  R e s i d e n t i a l moves  seasonal  of  some  re-  remained A  pattern  spring  groups  and  fall but  fall.  at instead  archaeological i s such  as  strategy  primarily  f o r a g e r / c o l l e c t o r continuum, of  procure-  relatively  (Binford  patterns  The  (.1980:12) p o i n t s  combination  identification  late  critical  foragers  of  for  in different locations  corpus  gather-  I n t e r i o r Salish utilized-a- single  cycle.  task  purpose  successful  I n t e r i o r S a l i s h settlement  game d u r i n g  while  typical As  bulk"  subsistence  resources  special  information  groups  work p a r t i e s .  annual  organization  sources,  more  small  solely logistically-oriented.  characteristic  in  collector strategy  food  s p e c i a l l y organized  where  i n that  I n t e r i o r S a l i s h settlement  described  by  sites  "...  relatively  more s i m i l a r to  stored  are  l o c a l i z e d ,when e n g a g e d  caches  ment of large  are  "Stations  that:  the  -45-  . . . o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , we can expect g r e a t e r ranges of i n t e r s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y as a f u n c t i o n o f i n c r e a s e s i n the l o g i s t i c a l components^of the subsistence-settlement system. (Binford Expected Assemblage be  patterned  The  distribution  resources, a  as  distinctive  two  of  Given Binford's  and  the  utilization  of  these  lowland  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblages  are  expected  use  land  i s also being  use  ethnographies,  settlement.  patterns  expected used  to  suggest  i n each  occur  zone.  Inter-  w i t h i n zones  for different  settlement  as  a  and  activities. the  above  dimensions  (1980) model  distinct  The  first  patterns  of of  of  intersitevariability  hunter-gatherer intersite  pattern  i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  and  second  the  a collector  pattern  of  of  settlement  strategy associated with  Plateau microblade where between described  strategy.  technology  these above  extremes  can (See  settlement  variation  indicative  data  and  and  sites  two  strategy,  environment  to  p a t t e r n between upland  variation  subsistence  i s expected  land  different  of  dimensions,  area  i n the  to  result  study  reported  zones.  site  i n the  resources  ecological reflect  Intersite Variation  variation  along  1980:12)  be  a  be  foraging  intersite  the  settlement  variation  i n t e r p r e t e d as  the  that  southwestern  5).  systems, defined.  I t i s assumed  Figure  indicated that  can  The  Interior  and  is the  Interior some-  ethnographic Salish  settlement  -46-  FORAGING STRATEGY Environment lowland residential  Settlement  upland residential  COLLECTOR STRATEGY Environment lowland residential  upland residential  lowland limited activity  upland limited activity  Settlement  F i g u r e 5.  P a t t e r n s of Settlement V a r i a t i o n Expected f o r F o r a g e r and C o l l e c t o r S e t t l e m e n t Systems i n t h e Study A r e a .  -47-  pattern more  was  similar  to that  prehistoric ment to  a collector  imply  times. that  pithouse Among  aeological among  suggests  predicted strategy  less  2)  should  between  residential  among  ofcresources.  exists,  duration.  limited  types  with  previous  If  varying this  lowland  arch-  variation  (1980:9-10) subsistence  basiSji. i t from  Interior  zones.  1980).  the best  camp.  a  i s  foraging  Plateau,  Two  settlement.-:  residential  camps; and  camps.  strategies.  to result  such  a factor  from  settlement  a c t i v i t y camps Applied Interior  c a n be e x p e c t e d :  of i n t e r s i t e  Intersite  the variety  types  are  that  variation  of  processing,  camps a t w h i c h m a i n t e n a n c e  th.e s o u t h w e s t e r n  develop-  practised  resulting  f o r the procurement, Two  cultural  Binford  On  ecological 1)  collector  residential  ment  camps  v a r i a b i l i t y i s also  camps, and s t a t i o n s . of  i s the r e s i d e n t i a l  be e v i d e n t :  utilized  2)  type  intersite variation  f u r t h e r expected  and  the settlement  and o c c u p a t i o n  earlier,  1 9 7 3 ; Ames a n d M a r s h a l l  p r a c t i c e d on t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n  variation  1)  was  strategy  during  of P l a t e a u  i t i s due t o s e a s o n a l l y  that  upland  types  i s expected  models  (Nelson  residential  Environmental  is  A settlement  intensive storage  visibility  w o u l d be g r e a t e s t types  Recent  foragers,  that  activities  of foragers  occupation  forager  strategy.  settlement  and  recognized:  activities  include  1)  a total  lowland  occur;  locations,  to the environmental Plateau,  storage  situation  of four  residential  field  settlecamps;  -48-  2)  upland  residential  camps; and of  this  4)  upland  camps;  3)  limited  activity  chapter describes  assemblages settlement historic  that  will  function  be  and  the  examined  The  David  collected  Sanger  objective cultural  This  from  early  Sanger's  was  1960s  the  pre-  (1970a)  uses  natural  strata  episodes  o f human o c c u p a t i o n .  similar  to components  ordered  along a temporal  potentially The  yield  any  inferred  (Willey  Zones and  number  of  by  Sanger  (1970a)  the  lithic  material  only  data  as  identified  Plateau.  I.  to describe  distinct  are  A  intended to  be  1958:2) and  single  site  are  could  zones. the  zones.  from  prehistor-  to represent separate  Philips  dimension.  present study works w i t h  analysis;  i n Chapter  'zone'  present  1970a).  a  southern Interior  term  and  1963,  to c o n s t r u c t  described the  i n the  research conducted  (Sanger  w o r k was  briefly  utilized  archaeological  cultural  of  interpret  Data  assemblages  chronology f o r the  Sanger  all  lithic  Sites  during  i n the  of  sequence  defined  and  Locality  Lochnore-Nesikep  study were  ic  to  remainder  record.  Lochnore-Nesikep  The  activity  The  sites  i n attempt  settlement strategy  The  by  camps.  archaeological  Archaeological  The  lowland limited  each  archaeological T h i s means site  that  units not  i s included  t o come f r o m  a specific  for zone  -49-  associated  with  a microblade  Lochnore-Nesikep  locality  this  study.  of  fied  as  tions  The  these  Nesikep  the  River. on  are  Site  bank  of  I t i s the  the west  bank  site  the  m N-S  1962  two  zones,  between  7 , 0 0 0 B.P.  Zones fied  as  study. unit was  a  the  IV  to  and  VII  70  m  65  zones. 6.  used  in  was  identi-  The  loca-  Each  end  of  m  above  is  The  to date site, i n the  from  post and  arbitrary  m a t e r i a l was  screened  measures  Each  zones  the  %  is  of  in  B.P.,  northeastern  within  through  conducted  five  e x c a v a t i o n of  levels  situated  1,000  purposes  p o r t i o n of  Fraser  study  site  contain microblades. f o r the  a terrace  the  Excavations  the  4,500 B.P.,  l o c a t e d on  in this  E-W.  inferred  northeast  i n 5 cm  site  examined  recovered  l o c a t e d i n the  and  site,  in Figure  Creek,  assemblage  These were  strata  Creek  Fraser River. x  southern  separate  conducted  Four  assemblages  microblade  stratified  100  at  used.  4)  Nesikep  only of  located  Nesikep  indicated  (EdRk  approximately revealed  yielded  distinct  i s a deeply  south  the  are  below.  Creek  EdRk 4 on  sites  described  sites  these,  c o n t a i n i n g two  of  briefly  One  technology  dating  end.  identi-  the  a 5 m  site.  present x  5.5  m  Excavation  the n a t u r a l  i n c h mesh  (Sanger  1970a:14). Z o n e I V was s.terile as. a n  grey  separated  soil  intrusive  of  from  the  overlying  u n s p e c i f i e d depth.  p i t cut  into  Zone  Zone IV  underlying strata.  I I I by  a  i s described Sanger  suggests  -50-  F i g u r e 6.  L o c a t i o n s of t h e L o c h n o r e - N e s i k e p M i c r o b l a d e S i t e s I n c l u d e d i n the P r e s e n t Study ( a f t e r Sanger 1970).  -51-  that  the  intrusion  pithouse matter  (Sanger  was  gray  and  be  a remnant  1970a:14).  collected  Zones V light  may  VI  from  posits,  microblades.  present  no  deposit  Zones V  n a t u r a l stratum was  inferred  silty  and  They  recovered  fluvial  from  was  origin.  are  the  Sanger  (1970a:17)  interprets  occurrence thin  stake  of  centration  of  bones,  ochre  and  Nesikep  rock  holes  that  of  separates  contain cultural not  included in  projectile  zone  Lochnore The  B.P.  Creek  Lochnore  points,  recovered  This  bank  the  of  Site Creek  dethe  of  the  site  are  cultural  brown above  (Sanger  (EdRk site  Creek  of  the  un-  1970a:15).  activities  from  surrounded  1970a:17).  A  unifaces,  is interpreted f r 01  sand  con-  antler,  as  Z o n e V I I was  a  cache  dated  1970a:103). 7) i s l o c a t e d on 240  i s a complex h o u s e p i t Lochnore  fan  bifaces,  and  Fraser River, approximately  level.  coarse  (Sanger  (Sanger  190  Zone V I I  meat b r o i l i n g  at  5,635 -  the to  Creek  Bone r e c o v e r e d  sions  sand  deposit  immediately  (.Sanger 1 9 7 0 a : 1 7 ) .  the  thick  concentrations i n hearths  i n the  was  which  It lies  g r a v e l s of  The  VI  a medium  sorted  by  carbonized  analysis.  The  the  or  IV.  wind-borne,  zones.  semi-subterranean  faunal,  i n a 2 0 - 4 0 cm  the microblade but  a  flora,  Zone  occur  to w h i t e ,  No  of  m  estimated  above  site  (Figure 6).  the  30  east  the m  The  to have been  side  present  above  the  original 200  m  x  of river  east  dimen75  m.  -52-  The  site  a r e a , h o w e v e r , was g r a d u a l l y  struction  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  the  site  and  tested  a  was d e s t r o y e d .  trench  by Sanger,  excavated  numbered  Three though  zones  Sanger  1970:28). included was  below  stratum, ials. Zone  from  I I I  Zone  of buried  recorded  and un-  the excavation, a l -  grey  sand  sand  Housepit  i n redeposition  component,,  stratum,  o f some Z o n e  from  usually  2 cut into  and c a r b o n a t e s  s u b s e q u e n t l y removed  (Sanger  m i c r o b l a d e s and a r e  I I I , the lowest  a distinctive  coated with  were  were  mixing of a l l strata  the pithouse features.  Artifacts  much o f  1970a:23).  I and I I c o n t a i n  and r e s u l t e d  until  con-  r e f e r e n c e i s made t o  "...portions  to extensive  study.  by road  pithouse features  identified  Zones  r e c o v e r e d from  well  of  were  i n this  development  yet i n addition,  (Sanger  admits  Only  Four  through  housepits"  field  reduced  this  I I I mater-  distinctive  t h e upper  zone  assemblage. Differentiation atic.  I  Zones  The Zone I I c u l t u r a l  coloured of  between  sand  the site, into  and p r i m a r i l y away  from  Zone I I i s n o t e d  "Zone I I o b j e c t s , terspersed The problem.  with  material  the housepits. i n this  especially  problem-  was d e p o s i t e d i n o r a n g e -  occurred i n the eastern  portion  Some i n t r u s i o n  a r e a , and Sanger  o f Zone  suggests  that  microblades, are undoubtedly i n -  t h e Zone I a s s e m b l a g e "  e x t e n t and d i r e c t i o n Wyatt  I and I I i s a l s o  (Sanger  of mixing remains  C l 9 7 0 a : 136). r e p o r t s  1970a:28). an u n r e s o l v e d  55 m i c r o b l a d e s f r o m  Zone I  -53-  and  48  from  however,  indicates  a n d '3 f r o m W y a t t may such  Zone have  sorting  problems within the  Zone I I .  II.  included  i s not  study  mixed, Six  The  of  128  M u s e u m o f Man microblades  Zone I I a s s e m b l a g e Zone I m a t e r i a l ;  made e x p l i c i t . strata  are  I and  included  catalogue,  from  Zone  described  Because  of  a  for  in-field  and d i s c r e p a n c i e s  Zone I I a r t i f a c t s  as  single,  used  though  assemblage. were o b t a i n e d  from  Zone I of  Lochnore  Creek  site.  range  from  3,280 -  to  -  B.P.  oldest  different well,  because  of  rest  the  zone  (Sanger  complexity  The  many  Lochnore  and  of  Site  Creek,  site  (JFigure  once  included  6).  1970a:105).  on  portions  date  c o n s i d e r e d by A  Sanger  the  site  longer than  125  derived  t o be of  Nonetheless,  the  As  in a  older  dates  B.P.  by  same s a m p l e .  than  between the  reoccupation suggest  100  the  rejects  i t appears  Sanger  cluster  i s preferred.  (EdRk  of  is rejected;  1970a:104).  Lehman s i t e  i n data  a discrepancy i n dates  probable  times  Lehman The  (Sanger  recent  2 , 6 0 0 t o 2 , 7 0 0 B.P.  span  They  laboratories  the most  portion the  140  date  for  recogni-  radiocarbon dates  1,610  I  by  the r a t i o n a l e  identification  c a t a l o g u e , Zone  present  zably  National  a total  concerning  the  The  site a  time  years.  8) i s located  approximately Surficial  housepits.  on  200  the western m west  f e a t u r e s of  of the  These have been  terrace  the Lochnore site  leveled  of Creek  apparently by  years  of  -54-  ploughing.  Archaeological  to  50  a 18  m x  m  area of  testing  of  the  site  t h e Lehman g a r d e n  was  limited  (Sanger  1970a:  31-32). Six  2 m x  Excavation natural in  was  conducted  from  cm  t o 40  yellow  sand  25  ploughing. and  disturbed Sanger  from  this  zone  are  Mr.  by  examined  that  The  herein  date  and  I I assemblage collagen  zone  varied dis-  composed  distinguished  of  from  at  s t r a t u m , Zone this  of  that  reported  i s the  (Sanger  oldest  samples- r e c o v e r e d f r o m  site  6,650 date  between by  from  lithics Lithic  surface the  Sanger the  zone.  col-  sample  are evident  site  surface  to  1970a:'32).  c o n t e n t of a sample  about  only  I,  No  f o r the  b l a d e s , were  discrepancies  t h e Lehman  and  site.  i n the present study.  added p a t l n a t e d items  Zone I I o f this  within  soil,  s t r a t u m was  the upper  m i c r o c o r e s and  Lehman, and  Sanger  Zone  1964.  to have been  m i c r o b l a d e sample,  included  lected  This  appeared  underlying  infers  a large  including  for  and  of a p i t h o u s e component  artifacts  from  levels  of a m i c r o b l a d e t e c h n o l o g y i s r e p o r t e d  II yielded  the  cm  apparently easily  (1970a:32)  Zone  because  arbitrary  of  stratum.  representative  evidence  cm  i n November  s t r a t u m , a dark brown  The  clay,  excavated  i n 10  top  by  size  were  The  turbed  is  units  strata.  depth  the  1 m  of bone r e c o v e r e d  suggested 11  B.P.  an  a b s o l u t e date  (Sanger  1970a:103).  o b t a i n e d f o r bone and  the Lochnore-Nesikep  charcoal  locality.  On  the  -55-  basis  of g e o l o g i c a l  chronological Creek II  site.  The P i n e  east  Site  (EdRk  north  Mountain  20 m  I  separate ent of the  end.  i s unique  zone  potential  microblade and  zones  from  Creek  site  (Figure 6).  overlooks  Surficial an a r e a  fea80  m  t o HP5.  are i d e n t i f i e d and Zone Sanger  f o r mixing  technology  component  Upper Hat Creek  Zone  the Zone com-  I I I as a  "...entirely  1970a:35).  The  differintegrity  i s questionable considering  i n housepit  i s evident  near  f o r the s i t e .  identifies  (Sanger  a n d HP5  I I I , the .microblade  of the zone's  assemblage..." as a s i n g l e  on two o f t h e p i t f e a t u r e s ,  sites.  Nevertheless,  i n t h e Zone  t h e r e f o r e , i s included i n the present  I I I assemblage,  study.  Valley  Archaeological undertaken  and  across  end o f t h e s i t e ,  HP1,  component because  cultural this  present  I t i s l o c a t e d on a r i d g e  concentrated  Three  I I are both  ponent,  r e c e i v e d f o r Zone  included i n the  distributed  located at the northern  and  Nesikep  E-W.  E x c a v a t i o n was  southern  relative  1970a:105).  site  site.  bank of Lochnore. Creek  N-S  the  9)  of the Lochnore  include s i x housepits  HP1  reverses  and Zone V I I o f t h e  too o l d (Sanger  tures x  zone  Lochnore-Nesikep  i s the Pine  immediately the  t o be  fourth  of t h i s  Sanger  b e l i e v e s the c o l l a g e n date  Mountain  The study  order He  o f Lehman  evidence,  by D a v i d  investigations Pokotylo  of Hat Creek v a l l e y  i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r an  were  Environ-  -56mental  Impact  ment o f in  the  1976,  to  cultural  study  are  collected  for  the  199  EeRi  10  is a  results  Beirne  and  Pokotylo  (1979).  and  10,  7.  variation  in  sites  an  e l e v a t i o n of  of  an  unnamed  304  tributary  esker  or moraine  lies  south  i s marshy.  The  (McCullough, This  m  personal  were  The  49,  site  and  Pokotylo  in  presence  55,  is briefly  located Creek,  of  the  Creek site,  and  these  Hat  of  a  micro-  Four  EeRj  were  of  159,  the  re-  selected sites  described  i n open on  the  (Figure and  the  once have been  communication,  (.Beirne  assemblage  are below.  10)  m a r s h may  first  the  Pokotylo  lithic  l o c a t i o n s of  to M e d i c i n e  was  of  1979:(3)101).  EeRj  above Hat  site  significance  c o m p o n e n t s and  scatter,  north  selected  identified  i n d i c a t e the  EeRj  (EeRi  of  of  1976.  Pokotylo  Each  lithic  at  sites  The  analysis*.  in Figure  of  conducted  survey  valley.  (Beirne  present  was  i n the  of which  EeRi  Fieldwork  the  prehistoric  sites,  develop-  in assessing  surfaces  20-25%  proposed  excavation  intersite  Cattle-Cross Site  survey  Hydro's  s u b s t a n t i a l microblade  indicated The  site  component  vealed  by  examined  from  and  potential  resources  total  excavated  B.C.  Investigation included  quadrats  their  Creek v a l l e y , blade  1978.  reported  (.1978) a l s o  A  and  sampled  according  on  valley's coal resources.  1977,  randomly  of  Statement  recorded  i n Beirne  during  1979 : (.3)  a  grassland, north  bank  8). area  1  An to  the  lake  1979a:10).  the  1977  80-82).  The  field distribution  -57-  Figure  7•  L o c a t i o n s of the Upper Hat C r e e k Valley Microblade Sites Included in the P r e s e n t Study.  -58-  of  surface  60 m E-W. x  materials  A l lcultural  2 m grid  units.  collected, were  140  In  1978,  sampled  One  items  recovered  from  f o r test  5 cm  arbitrary through  average  o f 15  uncovered.  of  The  4 •'.•and 6,  but core  during  were  include  present  a single  8.  point  distribution  Excavation  randomly  across  was  the  conducted i n  stratum  Ash lenses  the r e s u l t  a dark,  water  silty,  on  i n Beirne  total  uncovered  interprets component.  10  cm  in units  fire  (McCull-  o f 2402 l i t h i c  two m i c r o c o r e s  and  t h e t o p 15  the deposits The  and  site  remains were  These a r e predominantly  throughout  was  1979a:10).  or f l o r a l A  the  i s f o l l o w e d by were  was  cattle.  of a l a r g e grass  faunal  excavation.  clay horizon  grazing  of standing  This  silt.  a n d no  was  d i s t u r b e d by cm  taken  a sterile  of deposit  distributed  (.1979a :32)_  Their  u n i t s were  U n i t s were  107 m i c r o b l a d e s ,  fragments  Beirne  surface.  down t o a n  thaws.  collected.  microblades  mesh.  communication  features  No  were  A l lm a t r i x  t o 15  apparently  countered facts  10  artifacts  in 2 m  within natural layers.  at which  sandy  ough, p e r s o n a l No  seventy  x  collected  are debitage.  i n Figure  apparently  spring  a lighter  and  t o p 5 cm  report  following  hundred  the s i t e  1/8"  cm,  horizon,  Ranchers  m a t e r i a l was  of which  levels  o f 96 m N-S  surface  excavation.  is illustrated  screened  area  ten 2 m x 2 m c o l l e c t i o n  site  humic  indicates a site  lithic  enarti-  debitage, four cm  micros of  at the s i t e  assemblage  deposit. to r e -  recovered  -59-  Figure  8.  P l a n View of EeRi ( a f t e r B e i r n e and  1 0 , The C a t t l e C r o s s P o k o t y l o 1979).  Site  -60from  a l l excavated  cluded The  i n the  Anderson  units  present Creek  and  from  Site  CEeRj  is a  small l i t h i c  elevation  of  90  above  m  n o r t h of  The  hummocky m o r a i n e One  Anderson  hundred  of  and  surface i s i n -  49)  49  450  site  study.  EeRj  m  the  scatter  the west Creek, the  bank  which  area  fifty-four  site  located  of Hat  Creek.  i s deeply  i s covered lithic  at  an  It  lies  entrenched.  by  grasses.  artifacts  were c o l -  2 lected  from  assemblage  the  site  surface  i s d e b i t a g e , but  a basalt  microblade  core.  in  identified  a  1977,  (Eigure  m a t r i x was  occurred limited from  includes  All  cm two  of  units  is lithic 52  was  two  2 m x  component  10-15  stratum.  yielded  of  the  2 m at  and units,  the  site  total  debitage.  observed,  and  cm  The  few No  no  of  levels,  cultural  sandy  intrusive, Sterile  deposit  silt, was  clay  and  although  recovered  was  uncovered  surface. a  a  arbitrary  mesh. The  probably  present  microblades,  s u r f a c e and  top  material,  the  i n 5 cm  t h r o u g h 1/8"  i n the  rejuvenation flake.  dating  E x c a v a t i o n of  conducted  underlying clay  20  which  core  Most  includes a chert microblade  shallow microblade  screened  cultural  The of  was  primarily  the  within  ) i n 1976.  9).  Excavation all  (84 m  of  190  artifacts,  excavated  retouched  material cultural  sub-surface material  69.5%  assemblage  flakes,  suitable  and  a  also micro-  for radiocarbon  f e a t u r e s were is interpreted  observed. to  repre-  -61-  Figure  9.  P l a n View of EeRj 49, The A n d e r s o n C r e e k S i t e  -62-  sent The  a single  H o u t h Meadows This  end  site  m N-S  Three of  cultural  (Areas  i n the south.  limited  to Area  collected  blage  B. from  comprises  blades, small  although  microblade The  within  mesh.  Site  material  recorded  stratigraphy  debitage  from  B)  conducted  t o be t h e  1979 :(3) 74-76) .  B.  lithic  site i s artifacts  The s u r f a c e  a n d i n c l u d e s no  2 m x 2 m units  assemmicro-  exposed  a  at the s i t e . B were  excavated  M a t r i x was  i s composed  sterile  (Area  excavation  sixty-eight  of s i x  natural layers.  throughout  scatter  are interpreted  the surface of Area  i n Area  i n 1976.  i n t h e n o r t h end  a t t h e H o u t h Meadows  One h u n d r e d  component  survey  C i s a natural depression, the  component  was r e c o v e r e d  distributed  field  ( B e i r n e and P o k o t y l o  excavation  a culturally  during  Subsequent  predominantly  s i xunits  levels  above  that Area  microblade  flows  approximately  A, C, D ) , a n d a l i t h i c  of e a r t h ovens  The  were  were  two d e p r e s s i o n s , h o w e v e r ,  remains  t o Hat Creek  55 m e a s u r e s  recorded  depressions  1978 r e v e a l e d  other  EeRj  at the north  (Figure 10).  55 w a s f i r s t  the site  19 7 9 : (.3) 80) .  55)  An unnamed t r i b u t a r y  of the s i t e .  was c o l l e c t e d in  (EeRj  and P o k o t y l o  i s l o c a t e d i n t h e H o u t h Meadows  x 20 m E-W  EeRj  (.Beirne  Site  of the v a l l e y .  south-east 60  component  calcareous the upper  the layer,  i n 5 cm  screened  arbitrary through  o f 2 0 - 5 0 cm o f s a n d y t i l l .  silt  A l l cultural  stratum.  although  1/8"  Artifacts  most were  were  recovered  -63-  140  Area D 'CULTURAL  NATURAL  120  DEPRESSION  DEPRESSION  Area A CULTURAL  100  DEPRESSION  Area 6 LITHIC  SCATTER  eoH  WEST BOUNDARY OF QUADRAT G2B 60  Figure  10.  J  P l a n View o f EeRj 55, H o u t h Meadows S i t e .  The  -64-  15.etween 1 0 - 2 0 surface  and  included  cm  excavated  i n the  between Area theless  the  below  B  and  and  of  "...at  least  seven  earth  include  of  a  coniferous  was  woodrat, obtained  single  and for  pavement  (Beirne The  pavement.  and  159  is a  Canyon at  the  north  lithic  above Hat  Creek.  N-S  E-W  x  250 In  1977,  transects  i s worthy  report  associated a  root  or  evidence  were  pavement  with  under  faunal  frag-  i n Area  remains the  remains  date  of  A.  ex-  the  Salmon  found  radiocarbon  i n the  rhizome  fragments.  identified  rim  include  1220  -  Area  70  B.P.  40  B.P.  D's  600  -  159)  l a r g e , complex end  of  Hat  s c a t t e r are The  (Figure  site  site  Creek  including housepits  extensive  site  roasting episodes"  remains  A  the  Never-  19 7 9 : (.3) 7 6) .  (EeRj  EeRj  depressions,  at  are  association  y i e l d e d a much more r e c e n t d a t e o f  Site  The  unclear.  ( 1 9 7 9 : ( 3 ) 75)  container  third  cultural  ovens  b i r c h bark  grouse.  Pokotylo  Junction  1979b).  remains  charcoal,  Other  the  The  earth  separate  i n a b i r c h bark  rock  elk,  of  Floral  and  (Beirne  ovens  Pokotylo  oven.  ment , w i l d o n i o n , wrapped  earth  occurrence  Beirne  ovens  study.  the  note.  surface  l i t h i c a s s e m b l a g e s f r o m A r e a B.  present  of  cavated  the  located  valley.  and  Six  earthovens,  distributed  covers  near  an  along  area  Marble  cultural and  a  an  scarp  approximately  30  350  11).  52,290 l i t h i c  established across  artifacts 14%  of  were  the  c o l l e c t e d from  site.  Beirne  m  and  m  -65-  Figure  11.  P l a n V i e w o f E e R j 159, The Junction Site (after Beirne and P o k o t y l o " 1 9 7 9 ) .  -66-  C1979:C3)83-86) d e f i n e d s e v e n  Pokotylo of  artifacts,  and  tested  i n 1978.  trated  i n Area  the sub-surface EeRj  A.  areas,  or  clusters  d e p o s i t of each  159's m i c r o b l a d e  component  None o f t h e c u l t u r a l  area i s  depressions  was  concenwere  tested. Two levels  2mx  2 m-units  within  screened  the natural  through  excavated  strata  1/8" m e s h .  clay  horizon overlain  Most  of the c u l t u r a l  '30 cm  were  of d e p o s i t .  by  of Area  A.  arbitrary The m a t r i x  E x c a v a t i o n exposed  35-40  material  No  i n 5 cm  cm was  cultural  blown  recovered  silt.  the upper  identified  carbon  m a t e r i a l s u i t a b l e f o r r a d i o carbon d a t i n g was not r e c o v e r d .  mule  deer,  (Beirne  two u n i t s  represents  a  from  total  core and  beaver,  large  excavated  the Canadian  collected. from  Area  i n Area  Interior  As w e l l ,  of b i f a c e  Both  1 suggest  samples;  prehistoric  and s m a l l mammals, and  collection  o f 953 m i c r o b l a d e s ,  a variety  unit  floral  A few use of  bird  1979:(3)86).  the l a r g e s t  fragments.  covered  from  other  and P o k o t y l o  The  date  recovered  lacked  in  excavation unit.  fragments  also  sandy  from  f e a t u r e s were  units  a compact  either  bone  The  of wind  was  what  of microblades  Plateau.  probably  recovered  Together,  they  2 m i c r o c o r e s , and numerous  17,975  pieces of l i t h i c  fragments  t h e s u r f a c e and A of EeRj  A yielded  159  and r e t o u c h e d the excavted  yielded  micro-  debitage  flakes  were  material re-  are included i n this  to  study.  -67Th. e L i t h . i c Art i fa c t  Classification  The  purpose  examine p a t t e r n s  of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  described  of tool  and use t h a t  dicative  of settlement  portance  of debitage,  ing,  as w e l l  terns  manufacturing  function.  i s believed  to have been  (1978) has demonstrated  that  can  analyses  than  alone. may  from  Stone  significantly  tage,  tool  final  debitage able  alter  Without  analyses context  from  analyses  range  manufactur-  behaviour  of s i t e  pat-  withPokotylo  activities  debitage  on t o o l  assem-  assemblages  to a v a r i e t y of processes form  analyses  of the t o o l ' s h i s t o r y .  debi-  concerning  only'  Unfortunately,  assemblages  finished  that  and s p a t i a l r e -  of associated  to observations  only  the im-  1975:19).  conducted  comparative  Therefore,  may b e i n -  shown tool  i s to  assemblages.  include  the t o o l ' s f i n a l  can lead  below  and d i s c a r d e d  (Collins  that  the Lochnore-Nesikep  f o r study.  of l i t h i c  a wider  tools are subject  lationships.  the  similar  of stone  produced  of a s i n g l e s i t e  be i n t e r p r e t e d f r o m  have  tools for identifying  f o r the formation  the boundaries  blages  Studies  the by-products  as f i n i s h e d  responsible  Debitage in  Assemblages  are not  tools could  the avail-  be  ana-  lyzed . Collins reduction debitage  (1975) p r e s e n t s  that  a linear  interprets,; v a r i a b i l i t y  as t h e r e s u l t  stage  of production  which  i s deposited  of stages  results  with  flow  model  among  of t o o l  of  lithic  production.  distinctive  output,  lithic t o o l s and Each some o f  d i r e c t l y ' i n t o the archaeological.record..while other  -68-  output  undergoes  correlating inferences a  site  in  lithic  c a n be made.  manufacture fication  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  by-products with  The m o d e l  suggests  of  the success  The p r o c e s s  can stop  c a n be o m i t t e d .  tools  will  and  system per  applied  of subsequent  to  modi-  C o l l i n s (.1975:17)  pro-  following  mine) through  produced.in any s t a g e ,  each  stage  depends  the preceding  stage.  b u t no  preceding  model  suggests  that  be m a n u f a c t u r e d ,  used,  and then  discarded,  tools w i l l  variety  repair. undergoing and e n t e r  activity  be m o d i f i e d  of a c t i v i t i e s .  modification,  tools  variability  This  "complex"  beyond  o f an a r t i f a c t  of the output  stage  greater  at  A c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l Core p r e p a r a t i o n and i n i t i a l reduction Optional primary trimming Op t i o n a l s e c o n d a r y t r i m m i n g O p t i o n a l m a i n t e n a n c e and m o d i f i c a t i o n  The c o n t i n u a t i o n  more  stages,  reduction:  (italics  upon  by  occurring  that  of trimming  the t o o l .  that  reduction  activities  t h e amount  to maintain stages  also  t h e amount  t h e t o o l and from  main  Collins believes  the technological  r e s u l t s from  applied  five  reduction.  production  concerning  t o o l form  poses  further  can continue  Other  things  little  Stage until  being  than w i l l  Ammerman a n d F e l d m a n  5, o p t i o n a l  more 1974).  highly  through  altered  one c a n e x p e c t leave  record  the  tools  that  cultural  at greater  maintained  a  maintenance  the t o o l has been  equal,  "simple"  while  and m a i n t a i n e d  maintenance w i l l  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  certain  frequencies  (see also  -69Collins'  model  technological the  model  variability  does  Specifically, tools  while  ance?  could  study  function.  discarded  trimming  extensive  1978).  valuable  variability  are  based  ethnographic nology tween  study  Nunamiut  on  expedient  a more  of the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s * tools  system, carded  tools  will  be m a i n t a i n e d  planned  are expected  technology  the Mousterian  technology.  distinct  increased  indicates  and c u r a t e d .  Organizational  that Gear  no e t h n o g r a p h i c Binford  i s represented  tech-  (1977) one  based  Within used,  example  (.1979 : 2 6 9 )  l a r g e l y by a  and  the dis-  o f an suggests  non-curated  efficiency i s believed  (.Binford  His  i s moved b e -  with  t o be m a n u f a c t u r e d ,  to  increase  1977:34).  v a r i a t i o n among  will  systems  their  Binford  organization  i s provided,  curation  technological  of t o o l manufacture.  Although  Technological  or  c a n be e x a m i n e d .  of maintenance behaviour.  technological  a t one s i t e .  expedient  with  that  of the Nunamiut  system  this  for interpreting  s i t e s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of t o o l needs.  contrasts  that  degrees  i s extensively  mainten-  the e f f e c t s -that. t h i s . v a r i a b i l i t y  (.1977) s u g g e s t s  on v a r y i n g  and  e x p l i c a t i o n of  h a v e on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d B:inford  exists.  for certain  modification  clues  underwhich  Nonetheless,  sufficient  that  An o b j e c t i v e  so.t h a t  of i d e n t i f y i n g  technological  proposes  provide  identify conditions  rapidly  why  i s primary  others-undergo  variability  to  why  i n terms  .(.see P o k o t y l o  not explain  The p r e s e n t  settlement  i s operational  technological  systems i s  -70expected ical to  to s i g n i f i c a n t l y  assemblages.  field  camps  alter  Binford  the composition  C1977) o b s e r v e d  i n anticipation  However,  the gear brought  there.  Instead,  i t was  use.  behaviour 1)  artifact  of s i t e  spatially  the  2)  associated with  systems w i l l  influence patterns  that  manufacturing, each  tool.  function  1) gear and  affects  design,and  These  left  f o r r e p a i r and  be s u c h  curate that:  artifact will  the  replace-  n o t be r  research  among  the use of v a r y i n g  tools within technological of assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y .  the resource  i n which  roles are inferred  He  tools are i n -  procurement  discard patterns  of the settlement  Three  that  the technological " r o l e "  t o be u s e d  rarely  tools.  (.1979) s u g g e s t s  and e x p e d i e n t  conducted  correlated with  of h i s ethnoarchaeological  amounts o f c u r a t e d  taken  the e f f e c t s  by-products  finished  t o be was  will  but rather with  manufacturing  Nunamiut, B i n f o r d  tended  are not d i r e c t l y  activites,  the basis  suggests  t h e camp  that  archaeolog-  g e a r was  to the v i l l a g e  Cl977:34) s u g g e s t s  frequencies  r a t e s ; and  On  returned  into  h a s on t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d  frequency ment  Binford  that  of the a c t i v i t i e s  there.  future  of  strategies,  associated  with  t o be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e  w i t h i n the settlement  system.  t e c h n o l o g i c a l r o l e s f o r t o o l s are proposed:  personal  gear,  2)  site  ( B i n f o r d 1979:261). maintained  high, r e l a t i v e  more  than  proportions  furniture,  Of t h e s e ,  a n d 3)  situational  personal  gear  i s curated  e i t h e r of the other  tool  roles,  of personal  gear  are expected  and within  -71-  curated sites gear  technologies  i n anticipation  that  i twill  use, but w i l l  activity  tool  i n good  be more  settlements.  i s brought to Because  Binford  to exhaustion  to the base  common a t b a s e  Extensive  gear  needs.  repair,  n o t be u s e d  be r e t u r n e d  therefore, should  Personal  of s p e c i f i c  i s g e n e r a l l y brought  suggests of  (1979:269).  tool  personal  (1979:263)  at the  camp.  loci  Personal  camps t h a n  gear,  limited  maintenance w i l l  result in  g e n e r a l l y low f r e q u e n c i e s a t l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y s i t e s where t h e t o o l s a r e used. Certain as  other  tools are maintained  e x t e n s i v e l y as p e r s o n a l  gear.  furniture  ( B i n f o r d 1979:264),  furniture  may  lithic  include  raw m a t e r i a l s .  generally  occur  furniture  site  re-occupations.  the  site's  cached  as h e a r t h s ,  these  individual  and re-used  site  cooking  at which  (n.d.:5)  during  suggests  furniture  cites  the g a f f i n g pole  spots,  as an  example.  i n f l u e n c e s assemblage  of s i t u a t i o n a l  gear  ( B i n f o r d 1979:264).  carded  according  to immediate  conditions.  to the a v a i l a b i l i t y  mands o f t h e t a s k  a t hand.  and  items items  of  limited suited to  of the C h i l c o t i n ,  composition  i s  Binford defines  as t o o l s e x p e d i e n t l y m a n u f a c t u r e d ,  i n response  pots,  specifically  He  Site  a number o f  that  that  gear  site  f o r future use.  i s low because  Matson have  activity.  third  items  curated  termed  role  ational  vary  will  tools,  a r e cached  are maintained  at fishing  The that  sites  These  The f r e q u e n c y  at a site  site  activity  such  but are not  used,  Tool  and  design  situ-  diswill  o f raw m a t e r i a l a n d t h e de-  I f raw m a t e r i a l  i s readily  available,  -72minimum  labour w i l l  maintenance scarce, the  of  invested  situational  situational ditions  or  task  special  and  discard  the  frequency of of  be  demands.  tool-use  purpose are  When r a w  Binford  and  material  (1979:267)  a r e most  sites.  is  gear  i n which  that  common t o f i e l d  con-  Because  manufacturing, expected  i s correlated  these  meet  suggests  e x p e d i e n t , i t c a n be  situational  the a c t i v i t y  the manufacture  m o d i f i e d and m a i n t a i n e d t o  conditions  practices  into  gear.  p e r s o n a l gear w i l l  immediate  quency  be  tools  with  were  that  the  used  use,  fre-  (Binford  197 7:'34). Binford  does riot  attempt  with  observable features  into  this  and  problem  proposes roles  site  that  and  s.ites,  by  the  of  pattern  to  by  by  (n.d.).  Matson  from  Cedar  tool  with  the  are  can  f o r each  then  examined, role  these roles  made.  among  Her  and  each  i t best  that  different  of  i n a manner  to what m i g h t  be  each  approach vis-a-  assemblage The  distribu-  class  assigned  fits. tool  of  role  of use.  a b l e to demonstrate similar  technological  variables  intensity  technological  examine  settlement role be  1982)  Camilli  technological  independent and  Both  with  Research  (1981,  Mesa, Utah.  of  roles  record.  Camilli  classes  concerning the  locations,  tool, classes  membership been  of  initiated  the d i s t r i b u t i o n s  distributions  technological  archaeological  s e t t l e m e n t system  i t s relationship number  the  correlating  interpretations  within  size, tion  assemblages  examining  to d e f i n e  vis  has  been  i n d e p e n d e n t l y examined  archaeological  is  has  of  to c o r r e l a t e  Camilli classes  expected  given  -73-  the  existence  must of  does not  use  varying  assume, however,  a planned  gear  of  technological roles.  that  technology,  mix  and  to  should  positively  be  with  the  Camilli  number  of  assemblage  that  tools performing  According  and  the  the  is  (.1982:4) t h e  debris  correlated with broken  and  worn  of  expects similar  site  f u r n i t u r e to  functioning  furniture  should  measures.  (Camilli  of  site  tional with  1982:9).  gear  the  and  nature  (that  jn  situ),  the  be  site..,  biface  expects of  the  major  Camilli  ends,  This  of  these the  the  (Camilli'-1982:9) . the  that  which  intensity representative  distal  metates  t o o l s as  tools w i l l  be  as  these  type  used,  and  that  activity  or  may  fragments,  not  and  expedient  at in be  occurring  i t i s .  and  discarded  of  activities  food  is  tools occur  may  situa-  correlated  measured" by  tool  frequency  processing  site  processing  this  activity  number  same t i m e ,  classes  site  (19.82:31 a s s u m e s  unnotched  identified  correlated with  regards  c o r r e l a t e d with, the  of  At  i s , i t i s manufactured,  used.  were  of  Biface  h a m m e r s t o n e s , manos, and  Given  at  intensity  correlated with  Artifact  that  use  frequency  t o o l s were  sentative the  1982:3).  debris.  in  the  negatively  Camilli  intensity  manufacturing  should  be  be  locations.  furniture include  (.Camilli  midsections,  roles.  personal  tools.  technological role  She  from  the  as  this  classification  different technological  and  of  analysis  representative  artifact  fragments,, i n c l u d i n g t i p s representative  Her  Flake  a  site which  repreat tools,  hammerstone  frag-  -7 4-  ments  f o l l o w the  pattern  expected  of  situational  gear  with  explicating  the  (.Camilli  1982:9). Matson  (n.d.)  i s concerned  relation-  0  ship"of  site  f u r n i t u r e and  variables  of  including  a l l visits,  tion  settlement  duration  pation  of  that  site  will  be  a  short-term to  occupation, n.d.:18). ments  of  iated  used,  and  by  t o o l s are  a  hammerstones  better  intensively  represented  this  from  distribution  of  gear  described are  above  a result  of  and  at  expected  at  metates, settle-  (flake  tools)  Camilli's  model  observedfor  n.d.:32).  of (Matson settle-  Matson  certain tools  function  changed.  varying  discard practices  maintenance.  base  base  and  patterns  curated  the  confirms  suggest  are  expected  i n a wide v a r i e t y of  ending  occu-  and  length  i s not  site  single  increased  (Matson  occupation.or  occupa-  occupied  t e c h n o l o g i c a l r o l e s of  that  time,  p r o p o r t i o n a l l y at  Situational  proportionally with  maintained  and  during  found  discarded  originating these  be  t o o l m o d i f i c a t i o n and  extensively  amount of  settlement  duration  that  with  and  occupation  studies  'independent  (total  spent  l a r g e r , more  settlements.  duration  composition  site)  a r e l a t i o n s h i p expected  short  The  also  However,  as  length  time  represented  increase  Cn.d.:29) a l s o changed  a  gear w i t h  .Matson (ji.d.:10) s u g g e s t s  common t o  small,  at  amount of  furniture,  i t will  found  spent  (total  ments;  is  occupation  site).  more  situational  camp.  camps.  of  Tools  assemblage  that  are  t o be m a n u f a c t u r e d ,  contexts,  generally  High, p r o p o r t i o n s Tools  assoc-  that  are  of  -75maintained low  site  but not extensively  frequencies  activities. to  be more  those by  high  at  which  This  at limited  technological  should  camps  than  activity  Finally,  nor curated  certain site  strategies  v a r i e t y of these  common a t b a s e  proportions.  maintained  are expected  t o have  a n d may b e i n d i c a t i v e o f s p e c i f i c  A greater  present  curated  should  are expected  at limited  camps  tools  should  that  activity be  camps;  represented  are not extensively  be i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e i n t e n s i t y  activities  strategy  classes  site  were conducted  i s expected  practiced  at limited  be r e p r e s e n t e d  i n higher  a t each  site.  t o b e m o s t common o f  activity  settlements,  proportions  at  but  residential  camps. The  artifact  classification  described  below c o r r e l a t e s  t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and, u s e a t t r i b u t e s w i t h • t e c h,n.o_4 o gvi.c.a 1 roles  (.Binford  identified: retouched  these 1.  Five  1) E x t e n s i v e l y artifact  4) M a i n t e n a n c e microblade  197 9 ) .  activity  artifacts,  ed  included  retouched  i n this  d u e t o t h e common  least  one f a c i a l  artifacts,  and  are expected  2) E x t e n s i v e l y  retouched  5) P r e p a r e d  artifacts c o r e and  artifact  point,  i s suggested.  b i f a c e , and u n i f a c e  category.  occurrence  surface  t o model  that  artifacts  A v a r i e t y of p r o j e c t i l e are  classes are  The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b i l i t y  categories  Extensively  retouched  of tool  f r a g m e n t s , 3) M a r g i n a l l y  artifacts.  artifact  categories  of each  The c l a s s e s  of extensive tool.  retouch  Extensive  classes  a r e groupon a t  retouch i s  -76defined  as retouch  face measured indicative facture. In  i n from  these  artifacts  camps.  of hafted  was r e t u r n e d  facially end  modified  and evidence  specimens  style  t o be l i m i t e d  usually used  considered  either  hafted  activity  at resi-  settlements  likely  left  i n t h eh a f t ,  exhibiting  class.  although  a pointed  there  which  (Keeley  points  1982).  are b i -  t i pa t one  end.  The s i z e  and space.  on t h e ends  Basal  for retooling  Projectile  t o have been p a r t  as t i p s  suggests  damaged.  In this  i n time  fre-  were  camp  these  Only  intact  and shape o f  i s some t e n d e n c y f o r Projectile  of a hunting  of spears  points are tool-kit,  o r arrows,  o r as  knives.  Only the  points vary,  most  and maintained  of h a f t i n g at theopposite  areincluded  projectile  occur  i f they  points.  artifacts  that  (1979) model  at limited  t o o l s were  projectile  maintenance.  gear.  should  were manufactured  only  tool  i t i sproposed  artifacts  to theresidential  Complete  continued  camps. B i n f o r d ' s  there  i n t h e t o o l ' s manu-  to personal  They were used  were d i s c a r d e d  fragments  expended  represent  retouched  sur-  (.Chapman 1 9 7 7 : 3 7 8 ) a n d i s  (1979) model,  at residential  dential but  also  classes aresimilar  Extensively  that  the margin  of Binford's  artifact  2/3 o r m o r e o f t h e t o o l ' s  of intensive labour I tmight  terms  quently  covering  a single  Hat Creek  complete  lithic  Cl970a:38) G r o u p  1;  projectile  assemblage. Leaf-shaped  point  i spresent i n  I ti ssimilar type  Csee P l a t e  t o Sanger's 1-a).  Sanger  -77-  mmM  Plate 1 a-j k-s t-y  4#*  &  E x t e n s i v e l y Retouched Artifacts complete p r o j e c t i l e points p r o j e c t i l e point fragments modified projectile points  -78found  this  type  sequence. in  The  Sanger  sented  smaller  l:b-j.  greater  the type  A  the  sample  of  Generally,  than  11  mm  and  v a r i e t y of  points.  No  Lochnore-Nesikep points  these  described  artifacts  the  points  are  made o f  styles,  are  are  is  large  prewith  basalt.  EdRk  i n c l u d i n g a number  Kamloops Phase p o i n t s  are  present  7 of  in  assemblages.  primarily  point  composed  included  These  only  fragments  of  fragments.  This  projectile  point  i f some e v i d e n c e  do  not  of  e x h i b i t any  Like  fragments  e x h i b i t a neck width  jectile  also  point  point  post-breakage  on  the  basal The  or  both  edge  of  as  faces. a  1970a:41).  in this  Sanger  except  scars  class  of  notch  mm  (see  include  as  or  artifacts  c l a s s , most  greater.  are  has  of  along  Pro-  similar  evidence  these  of  artifacts  the  broken  edge  as  polish  on  Plate  l:t-y).  some o f  1970a:69),  in his  remains.  l:k—s.  each  projectile  Tips  post-breakage  point  tips  occur  (Sanger  classifies  includes  basal  artifacts  that  is  fragments.  in Plate  The  class  M o d i f i c a t i o n appears  scrapers  he  11  These  s i n g l e specimen  hafted  specimens  points.  flake  the  of  modification.  and  basal  projectile  displayed  fragments  or  artifacts  describes certain  use  snapped,  one  are  projectile  projectile  and  unbroken  fragments  Modified  have been  the  artifact  evidence  modification.  to  entire  projectile  greatest  Projectile  are  through  Lochnore-Nesikep  in Plate  exhibits  occur  ( 19 7 Oa :'3 6-5 0) .  neck w i d t h s  the  to  those as  well  points hafted  Sanger as  (Sanger scraper  -79class  "...on  attributes" scrapers the  of  point  fragments.  Concern  faces.  Basal  have been  They  are d i s t i n c t  Hafting.  broken  used  Flake  and  scars  ferred  Acute similar  also these  artifacts Steep  exhibit greater.  are  extensive  pro-  context  or barbs  read  points  on  i n that  i n d i c a t i v e of  i n this  class  or greater.  2 mm  identified retouch  from p r o j e c t i l e  of these  a r e un-  Edge A  i n from  angles  goniometer  the t o o l  bifaces - are generally  2:.a-e).  The  Bifaces  artifacts  described  edge b i f a c e s  margin large.  are often i n -  in this  above except  i s less  flaking  than  pattern.  45  Artifacts  .  included  i n Sanger's  edge  Th e s e  bifaces of  (see P l a t e  i n this  angles  formed  are  t h e edge  The m o r p h o l o g y  on an e n t i r e f a c e , , and  A l lare included  class  that  i s p r i m a r i l y t r i a n g u l a r to oval  edge u n i f a c e s .  retouch,  In  knives.  to the bifaces  exhibit a finer  as  the  for a l l tool classes.  edge b i f a c e s .  of acute  by  o f 45°  Csee P l a t e  to have been  i s with  edge b i f a c e s  stems,  t h e measurement  vary  hafted  the h a f t .  are c l a s s i f i e d  included  angles  on t h e f a c e s  Morphologies  angle  A l lb i f a c e s  similarly  of Sanger's  opposite  here  shaped  no n o t c h e s ,  and have edge  were measured was  Steep  that  exhibit  base-form  of use.  edge b i f a c e s .  artifacts  bifaces  Certain  a n a l y s i s those a r t i f a c t s  use not the t e c h n i q u e  both  distinctive  do n o t e x h i b i t m o d i f i c a t i o n  Steep as  of the shared  CSanger 1 9 7 0 a : 6 9 ) .  present  jectile  the b a s i s  class  a r e 45°  uniface  2:f  class  or  -80-  n  o  E x t e n s i v e l y Retouched A r t i f a c t s and F r a g m e n t s s t e e p edge b i f a c e s a c u t e edge b i f a c e s biface fragments: s t e e p edge biface fragments: a c u t e edge  -81CSanger 1970a: 7 6-8 0). may  have been used Acute  those  edge  discussed  (.see P l a t e  cutting  unlfaces. above  These  except  implements a r e s i m i l a r to  that  Acute  edge  edge  edge  unifaces.  tensive  retouch  on one f a c e .  present  on each  tool.  These  than  may h a v e b e e n  used  45° ( s e e P l a t e ' 3 : g - i ) .  a specialty  2.  Extensively  retouched  artifact  Two  of biface  fragments  tool,  classes  general  category  bifaces  represent  processing  tool  possibly  of artifacts. artifacts  category.  i n conjunction  t h e i r frequencies should and i n t e n s i t y  proportions  Biface  fragments:  steep  edges  include  edges  of b i f a c i a l l y  fragments are included  i n this  that  broken  i n C a m i l l i ' s (.1981, 1982) that  t o o l s were  use (see also Matson  be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h occupation.  f o rsettlements  type  character-  hafted.  Assuming  and f o r l o n g e s t  settlement  and another i s  I t i s suggested  of settlement  edges a r e  The m u l t i p l e edge  included  with  a r e expected  of time  implements e x h i b i t ex-  One i s 45° o r g r e a t e r  izes  crosscut  are less  A t l e a s t two d i s t i n c t  than  lengths  angles  unifaces  less  ity  artifacts  activities.  Combination  discarded  These  as s c r a p e r s .  45° Csee P l a t e '3:e—f). . in  3 : a-d) .  n.d.:3),  the rate  of activ-  Highest  occupied  durations.  b r o k e n and  These  assemblage  f o r longest factors can  classifications. steep  tips,  edge.  Biface  bases, medial  reduced  tools.  fragments  with  s e c t i o n s , and l a t e r a l  Edge a n g l e s  a r e equal to  -82-  fr  9  lift P l a t e 3. a-d: e- •f g- • i j " •k: 1:  m-  • o  P" q r- • t  Unifacially s t e e p edge a c u t e edge combination s t e e p edge a c u t e edge s t e e p edge a c u t e edge combination  and M a r g i n a l l y R e t o u c h e d A r t i f a c t s unifaces unifaces edge u n i f a c e s marginally b i f a c i a l l y retouched flakes maringally b i f a c i a l l y retouched flakes marginally u n i f a c i a l l y retouched flakes marginally u n i f a c i a l l y retouched flakes edge m a r g i n a l l y r e t o u c h e d flakes  -83or  greater  bifaces  than  or  are  and  in this  identification  as  tips,  such  i n c l u d e d i n the  touch  occurs  1/3  of  facts  along  are  may  represent  a variety  are most  likely  situ.  and  will  with occur  the  each  at  less the  tips  than  tips  45°  look  their  2:p—u).  the of  manufacturer'of this  tool,  to  edge  angles  retouch  occurs.  These  that of  they  are use  re-occupied  Re-  less  used,  represent gear  intensity  These  tool  and  classes  and  category discarded  expedient  tool  (Binford  1979:  of  settlement  c l a s s e s o c c u r r i n g at  the  to  c l a s s e s are  also expected of  arti-  included in this  the  than  modes.  situational  1982)..  They  covering  respect  functional  the  category.  of m a r g i n a l l y retouched  common t o o l  increased  either  retouched  base,  Plate  during  correlated with  the most  of of  to have been m a n u f a c t u r e d ,  settlements.  portionally tions  be  (see  c l a s s e s , those  C C a m i l l i 1981,  t o be  activity  of  characteristic  will  occupation pected  which  I t i s suggested  strategies 264)1  on  tool  without  of  A variety  faces  of  artifacts  distinguished with  a l l the  Many  artifact.xlasses  number o f  Of  Bifacially  class.  expended  the  remnants  edges  but,  the margin  i t s surface.  be  lateral  i s tenuous  e n e r g y was  tools  in  with  M a r g i n a l l y retouched Little  edge.  artifact  point  could  Csee P l a t e 2 : j - o ) .  acute  mid-sections,  projectile  3.  points  fragments:  included  like  Fragments  projectile  Biface bases,  45°.  site.  residential  to  camps  limited  increase  Highest  ex-  pro-  propor-  (Matson  n.d.  -84-  Both  Steep  edge m a r g i n a l l y b i f a c i a l l y  faces  of the implements i n t h i s  touched  along  hibiting steep  retouch  Similar  to steep  that acute  In this  than  45°  the angle  Interpretation  cutting,  than  1/3  i s g r e a t e r than  45°.  edge these except  flakes.  retouched  o f one f a c e .  1/3 o f  i s inferred for  retouched  flakes.  flakes are  The a n g l e  of the  E v e n : t h o u g h some o f  a r e d e s c r i b e d as f o r m e d u n i f a c e s by S a n g e r they  are included i n this  of extensive retouch a scraping  suggests  Acute  edge m a r g i n a l l y u n i f a c i a l l y  class  i s similar  edge o f a c u t e  class.because of  Csee P l a t e  angle  touched  of  probably  retouched  flakes,  than  function,  edge  (197Oa:76-80),  to less  of the retouched  edge m a r g i n a l l y u n i f a c i a l l y  artifacts  retouched  discussed above,  retouched  This  of r e -  flakes.  to those  on l e s s  edge  class,  edge m a r g i n a l l y u n i f a c i a l l y  lack  The  a scraping  similar  retouched  their  suggest  retouched  i s limited  edge m a r g i n a l l y b i f a c i a l l y Steep  these  artifacts  ( s e e P l a t e '3:1).  i s also  a distinct  Steeped  3:j—k).  be i n d i c a t i v e  edge m a r g i n a l l y b i f a c i a l l y  on t h e s e  face.  artifacts  o f t h e edge e x -  class  edge m a r g i n a l l y b i f a c i a l l y  retouch  less  have been r e -  (see Plate  e d g e s may  flakes.  o r edge s t r e n g t h e n i n g .  Acute  is  The a n g l e  i s 45° o r g r e a t e r  and t h e r e t o u c h e d  sharpening  each  class  edges of the implements i n t h i s  function,  the  one edge m a r g i n .  retouched  3:m-o).  The  steep  function.  to the class  retouched  flakes.  d e s c r i b e d above.  edge m a r g i n a l l y u n i f a c i a l l y  The r e -  retouched  -85flakes ably the  i s less  cutting. most  than Apart  common  in  marginally this  45°.  pediently  occur  may  i n this  tensive  the a r t i f a c t .  sive  modification.  are  produced  above  while  bipolar  MacDonald  (1968)  or  pieces  included  Although on  than ex-  these  use of a they  due t o t h e i r  singl  are  lack  i n -  o f ex-  may  exhibit  of s t r i k i n g  suited  that  i s a result  a second Few  ends  setof  exhibit  that  I f this  exten-  implement  f o r reducing  of their wood.  from  i s the case,  t o be c o r e s ,  the crushing  for splitting  bipolar  t h e raw m a t e r i a l  c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d  esquillees,  set.  at opposite  4 : h—k) .  on an a n v i l .  suggests  are characterized  occurring  (.1963) s u g g e s t  particularly  implements  '3:q). At l e a s t  exhibited  implements  scars  (.see P l a t e  i t rests  being  class i s  i s less  Nonetheless  to the f i r s t  as a r e s u l t  technique  these  bulb  specimens  and Quimby  implements  of  Bipolar  perpendicular  Binford  prob-  (.see P l a t e ' 3: r — t ) .  Some  scars  faces.  and v a r i a b l e  of a r t i f a c t s  and n e g a t i v e  bulb  flakes.  the other  edge  c a n be i n f e r r e d .  implements•  of  artifact  on t h e a r t i f a c t s  one o r b o t h  intensive  category  crushing  occur  function,  (.see P l a t e  retouched  the multiple  represent  by  this  i s 45° or g r e a t e r ,  modification  Bipolar  edges  on e i t h e r  and c u r a t i o n  cluded  microblades,  marginally  manufactured,  implements tool,  edge  One  a distinct  i n the assemblages  retouched  class.  They  from  class  Combination two  45°, suggesting  then  the b i p o l a r  small  cobbles  at opposite  ends  use as stone  wedges,  Certainly,  bipolar  -86-  M a i n t e n a n c e A r t i f a c t s and M a r g i n a l l y Retouched Artifacts. hammers t o n e s gravers preforms bipolar implements  -87implements  may h a v e  been  (1980)  suggests.  istics  distinguishing  to  identify.  ing  class  at  these f u n c t i o n a l  site  The p r e s e n t s t u d y i d e n t i f i e s  alone.  reports  that  275 b i p o l a r  4.  site  Five class  i s inferred  which  i s often  tools.  These  activities  classes  believed artifacts  will  encompass-  are rare  the present  non-formed (Sanger  Creek  biface  1970a:76).  with the  maintenance  function.  artifacts are included  to involve  be s i m i l a r  i n this  category.  of a d i s t i n c t  the production  are indicative  at a site.  proportions  implements  of these implements  of Other  of the maintenance  of s i t e  sites,  at limited  Each  function,  I t i s expected that  to that  b e common t o r e s i d e n t i a l  ed by h i g h  implements  t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  occurring  distribution should  activity  artifact  one  i n the Lochnore  Sanger's  suggests a woodworking,  Maintenance  only  bipolar  implements  numerous b i p o l a r  any c a s e , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n  h.ousepit  character-  are d i f f i c u l t  However,  I t i s suspected that  includes  as Hayden  implements.  (1970a:84)  identified  class  fashion  classes  the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y .  study  In  i n either  Nonetheless, the morphological  of bipolar  Sanger  used  furniture.  but w i l l  activity  their  be  They  represent-  settlements  (Matson  n.d.:10). Gravers. variety  The a r t i f a c t s  o f s h a p e s , b u t common  Each, i s u n i f a c i a l l y  i n this  class  to each,  may o c c u r i n a  i s a formed  retouched, primarily  along  projection.  either  edge o f  -88-  the  projection  (.see  have Been used CSanger  Plate  4:d-f).  Gravers  i n the manufacture  are  o f Bone and  inferred antler  to  tools  1 9 7 0 a : 83).  Preforms.  Preforms  touched  tools  exhibiting  remain  unretouched  appear  as  unfinished  large  areas  (.see  Plate  4:g).  have been produced  during  the  initial  facture.  are  Preforms  indicative  of  at  They  of  Bifacially  least are  stages  one  re-  face  inferred  of b i f a c e  that  to manu-  tool manufacturing  activ-  ities. Hammerstones. dence  of b a t t e r i n g  Hammerstones a t one  or Both  Battering,  a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  the  of  result  ment  during  presence  the  coBBle  early  CoBBle class  and  84-85)  (§ee  at  (see P l a t e  scars,  used  as  stone  cobbles with  4:d-e).  is inferred  a percussion tool  evi^  to  Be  instru-  production.  a s i t e suggests l i t h i c  The  tool  The manu-  activities. tools. include Plate  activities;  activities  Being  small  ends  flake  stages of  of hammerstones  facturing  of  the  are  such  A variety coBBle  coBBle  choppers  5:c-e).  their  of  and  T h e y may  generally  spall  are tools  have Been used  large  as wood p r o c e s s i n g  tools  size  (Sanger  suggests  in  this  (Sanger in a  variety  heavy  1970a:84) or  1970a:  duty hide  scrap i n g . ABraders. the  lithic  production  A  few  flat  assemblages. o f Bone and  sandstone  ABraders antler  may  tools.  abraders  are  included  have Been used They  are  in  in  the  indicative  of  -89-  Plate 5. a-b : c-e :  Maintenance A r t i f a c t s ab r a d e r s cobble tools  -90maintenance 5.  activities  Prepared  core  Artifacts of  a prepared  artifact  core  i s expected  which  production  core  were  certain  at  part  Microblade prepared  cores,  separate  from  from  specially  Usable which  of  manufactur-  Technological organiza-  the  intersite  are  prepared  produced.  distribution  of  maintenance  are  debitage  camps.  Techniques I.  Because  as  base  and  site  or  cores  usable  of  microcore  of  the  occur  microcore  labour  that  micro-  cores  may  are  have  cores  may  High ex-  been have  been  of b l a d e s  from  furniture.  p r o d u c t i o n , t h a t i s the can  material  camp a c t i v i t i e s .  exhausted  Prepared  p e r s o n a l gear  sites  parent  production, i t i s suggested  in spatial  production.  remnant Hearing m i c r o b l a d e s are  microblade  A variety  of m i c r o b l a d e  defined.  described i n Chapter  at r e s i d e n t i a l  left  pared  the  of microcore  as  from  are  microcore  curated  technology.  aspects  evident  are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  classes.  p r o d u c t i o n and  pected  category  microblade  microblades  into  proportions  form  and  t o be  artifact  Microcores  invested  artifacts  a n d m a i n t e n a n c e are  tion  from  microblade  c l a s s e s t h a t measure  use,  these  5:a-b).  included in this  ing,  of  and  Csee P l a t e  removal  and  temporal  High  contexts  p r o p o r t i o n s of  expected  at  the  locus  platof  production. microcores. microblades  p l a t f o r m and  Usable can  blade  be  microcores  removed.  are  They  scars indicative  intact  exhibit  of b l a d e  cores a  pre-  removal.  -91-  cmjin  V  0  V 41 P l a t e 6. a-m:  P r e p a r e d Core A r t i f a c t s usable microcores  V  -92Microcores  from  wedge-shaped similar fined on  the southwestern I n t e r i o r  type  i n most  part  by Sanger  point  of breakage  the  distal  blades  They  (see Plate  at a site  are also  tradition  microcores  de-  identified  these  7:a-g).  suggests  to the  exhibit  on t h e r e m o v a l  I t i s unlikely  from  are large,  reduced  Specimens  fractures  end i s snapped.  furbishment,  They  p l a t f o r m was  have been  or exhaustion.  c o u l d be removed  microcores  Exhausted  fragments.  platforms, hinge  are of the  6:a-m).  microcores.  microcore  striking  No w e a t h e r e d  (see Plate  thick  (1970).  to the plateau Microblade  (1968a).  the specimens Exhausted  d e f i n e d by M o r l a n  Plateau  face, or  t h a t more  fragments  micro-  without  The p r e s e n c e  intensive  truncated  of  major r e -  exhausted  manufacturing  activi-  ties. Microcore identified initial These  as h a v i n g  flakes  scars  of m i c r o c o r e  loci.  a microcore  either  or rejuvenation constitute elongated  and prepared  and  platforms  t h a t such  debitage  Microcore  debitage  conduc ted p r i o r  this  during class.  exhibit..negative (see Plate  p r o d u c t i o n c a n be i n f e r r e d  t h e ..Lochnore-Nesikep  procedures  t h a t c a n be  by t h e  p r e p a r a t i o n and r e j u v e n a t i o n f l a k e s  i s probable  among  of flakes  s t r u c k from  are generally  Microblade  duction  A variety  been  core manufacture  microblade  It  debitage.  7:h-q). presence  at a  site.  i s discarded at the promay b e u n d e r  assemblages  represented-  as a r e s u l t  to the present  study.  of  sorting  -93-  a  b  f < 4  Plate 7 a-g h-q  Prepared Core A r t i f a c t exhausted mlcrocores microcore debitage  i  -94Complete m i c r o b l a d e s . narrow,  parallel-sided  (Taylor  1962).  Microblades  flakes  The p r e s e n c e  tral  s u r f a c e , and a p r e p a r e d  that  they  were  microblades High  removed  from  are indicative  manufacturing  classes: wear;  1)  no w e a r ;  a n d 4)  retouch. greater coded  than  pattern lated  from  with  range  position  exhibiting  Larsen's  functional termination i s made b e -  at a  from  depth  t h e s c a r p a t t e r n was  few b l a d e s  i n any  and t h e r e g u l a r i t y  and placement  no w e a r  use.  may  category  of the scar  d i d not appear  to be;corre-  o f wear  i s indicative  w i t h wear  have been  may used,  of the  have been  used.  although not  o r n o t o n t h e same m a t e r i a l s a s  A single  (1968) l o n g i t u d i n a l  Blades  blades.  criterion.  t h e same i n t e n s i t y , exhibiting  Complete  scars resulting  o f f u n c t i o n s f o r which, m i c r o b l a d e s  Blades  ven-  intensive  3)  distinction  edge,  mm  8:a—i).  four  scars occurred  However,  the size  No  the l a t e r a l  a pattern,  suggest  edge w e a r ;  and f l a k e  associated with retouch  The  63).  such  wear.  i f flake  as r e t o u c h .  exhibited  those  1 mm  single  removed  into  a flat  cores.  (see Plate  are divided  use wear  Initially,  microblades  11  the inference  prepared  of s u c c e s s f u l l y  2)  combination  tween m i c r o f l a k i n g  with  specially  than  one a r r i s ,  platform supports  activities  Complete microblades  not wider  of at least  p r o p o r t i o n s of complete  microblade  generally  a r e d e f i n e d as l o n g ,  on trie  edge wear  hafting  pattern  hypothesis  supports  (Sanger  termination are similar  1970s:  to the  -95-  I M a  b  i  t  j  k  V  i  r  s  y  z  o  d  y  i m  l  l  t  a  e  b  Plate 8 a-i j-q r-x y-g'  g  i  •  n  o  i  u  c  f  i  ( i p  q  I  J  w  v  d  h  e  x  f  g  Microblades complete microblades proximal microblade fragments medial microblade fragments d i s t a l microblade fragments  -96microblade tion  wear  gravers  d e s c r i b e d by  is indicative  of  Sanger  intensive  (,1970a:65).  and  variable  Combinamicroblade  use . Proximal microblades The  distal  including: breakage; for  microblade  t h a t have been may  1)  manufacturing  hafting.  be  snapped  3)  as  p a r t of  No  criteria  t h e s e modes o f b r e a k a g e Microblade  ends  of  to m e d i a l  and  3)  were  double  proximal and  are  similar  to  the  removed.  Again,  edge.  be  p l a t f o r m end  b r e a k a g e may  facilitate  to d i s t i n g u i s h  be  ratios  would  more  of  of by  '  2)  proximal  single  use  from  on  wear  edge the  the  any  of  possibility  fragments the  a  blade causes;  culturally  p l a t f o r m and  than  snap-;  patterns  number of  were  creating  easily  wear;  microblades.  portion  blades  the  intensive  identified the  by  proximal  suggest  c l a s s e s of  distal  result  that thin  broken  measured  Medial microblade  the  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the  accidentally  can  otherwise  hafting  causes  8:s-q).  w e a r was  Removal  p l a t f o r m remnant.  post-manufacturing  edge wear;  and  are  preparation, possibly  High  fragments.  fragments  a number o f  d e s c r i b e d f o r complete  f o r breakage.  lateral  Plate  No  the  established  1). no  ( 1 9 7 0 : 138). s u g g e s t s  might  use  functional  artifacts,  those  have both  may  three  microblade  portion  2)  fragments  edge wear.  these  selected  failure;  fragments.  defined:  ends of  W'yatt  of  were  distal  Only  ped  Medial  below  because  blade  (.see  Proximal  production activities  manufacturing. fragments  snapped  end  and  occurrence  fragments.  thin  distal straight  that thin thick  blades  blades  cannot  -97be  overlooked  (see Plate  8:r-x).  Wear p a t t e r n s a r e s i m i l a r imal  fragments  classes:  1)  to those  identified  f o r prox-  and i n c l u d e t h r e e m e d i a l  microblade  fragment ;  no w e a r ;  2)  single  edge w e a r ;  3)  combination  wear. Distal bearing this age  microblade  portion  fragments.  has been  set of microblade  either edge  lateral  the l e f t  hafted  i n a pen-nib  Functional edge w e a r ; Scar  haft.  3)  style  the blades  No s p e c i f i c  removal  hafting.  or r i g h t  in a lateral  from  classes.  i s ascribed, although  facilitate  snapped  The p r o x i m a l p l a t f o r m  of d i s t a l  This  may  (see Plate  classes include:  1)  t e r m i n a t i o n wear;  a n d 4)  patterns are similar  f o r break-  fragments  not provide a  fragments  holder  cause  may  end i s o f t e n skewed  and would Distal  included i n  to those  straight  also  8:  no w e a r ;  towards  have  been  y-g'). 2)  single  combination  wear.  d e s c r i b e d f o r complete  microblades. Microblade.Attributes  Description  Assemblage v a r i a t i o n bute  level.  facture bution zones  also  Behavioural strategies  and use o f m i c r o b l a d e s of c e r t a i n  a n d among Little  of  will  microblade  may  be e x a m i n e d  at the a t t r i -  associated with be r e f l e c t e d  attributes  between  t h e manu-  i n the d i s t r i environmental  assemblages.  r e s e a r c h has been  aimed  towards  b e h a v i o u r a l i n f e r e n c e s t h a t c a n b e made  the development from  microblade  -98attribute  variation.  have been  examined  but  the  fined  to  and  are  through  identify  1.  are  and  attribute  the m i c r o b l a d e  was  identified:  assemblages  2.  best  usually  sort  1970a,  below  1970b),  intuitively  Analyses  of  microblades  needed.  present  study  de"--':  Microprimarily  assemblages between  -  eco-  types.  are  produced. 1)  almost  the  raw  Three  basalt;  2)  raw  composed  were  which  material classes  c h e r t ; and  exclusively cores  m a t e r i a l from  3) of  other. basalt  a l s o made f r o m  The micro-  basalt.  Outline attribute  distinguishes  microblade. fragments blade  recovered.  complete;  complete  and  platform  from  lack  both  ments  lack  represent tal  i n the  identifies  A l l identified  This  1)_  are  experiments:.are  settlement  described  s t u d i e s CWyatt  studies.  examined  t h a t can  attributes  material  This  blades.  i n the  controlled  those  zones  Raw  were  the  i n previous  implicit  attributes  logical  of  behavioural correlations  produced blade  Most  2)  and  Four  outline  which  the  a platform.  fragments  3)  core  medial;  was  maintain struck.  th.e d i s t a l The  p o r t i o n of  from  the  micro-  identified:  and  4)  -distal.  a remnant Medial  of  Only the  sections  termination; distal  frag-  platform—bearing microblades  number  of m i c r o b l a d e s  may  produced  be  the  microblades  s t a t e s were  fragments  a p l a t f o r m and  the  identifies  proximal;  proximal  complete  By  produced.  either  Medial  manufacturing  and  best dis-  failure  -99-  orpost-manufacturing facilitate 3.  the  lateral  This  attribute  dorsal  lateral  surface  pointing toward proximal  on  recorded:  fied  as  1 mm  from  flake the to  bifacial  tion  and  4.  Right  5.  the  a  only  on  to  The  widest  scars  occurring  edge;  3)  depth  modification.  the  to  i s considered edge  to  distal  a  2)  the  proximal end  of  not  identified from  the  distinction  end  pointing as  the states  modification  depth  1 mm  on  with  Four m o d i f i c a t i o n  than Any  the  t i p i s considered  modification  greater  modification  up,  the  modification;  similar  lateral  examined,  breakage  positioned  facing  observer,and  no  identi-  greater  than  as  scars  edge  edge;  between  and  utiliza-  tenuous.  modification  occurring that  on  described  the  right  lateral  edge  above.  modification  Modification  left  microblade  1)  lateral  by  visible  fragments.  Termination  described  the  the  microblade  the  modification  coded  purposeful  medial  retouch  The was  edge of  from  were  4)  by  modification  identifies  observer.  end  occurring  edge  of  away  the  or  hafting.  Left  left  breakage,  on  the  distal  same s e t  edge.  however,  The  of  attribute  termination  termination  complete blades  portion  and  on  of  states  appears  fragments.  was  presented  a l l outline  modification  distal  a microblade  for  types to  was  occur  -100-  6.  Cross-section This  attribute is similar  (1970a:132). triangular  and  microblades arrises. arrises  2)  was  should  i s produced  be  Lochnore-Nesikep  7.  of  stages Platform Four  of  to  be  metric  multiple  counts  suggested  the  a blade  removal  removed  of  that  Wyatt  unequally  of  a  two  micro-  earlier  multiple  in  the  arrises,  (1970a:140)  i f found  d i s t r i b u t e d among represented  m i c r o b l a d e s may  Be  by  the  high  indicative  of  preparation.  s t a t e s were  and  proximal  fragments:  facet;  '3)  multiple  facet;  ents.  1)  state  platform  descriBe  r e s u l t of  Components  Blades  not  from those w i t h  one. _ w i t h  components.  core  recorded:  practical.  is preferred.  class  Wyatt  triangular cross-sectioned  single arris  of  a  By  states distinguish  patterning  more  as  than  width  cross-section  early  be  indicative  blade  proportions  A  sequence  These  v a r i a b l e of  complex  microblades.  constant  the  interval  described  s t a t e s were  single arris  v a r i a b l e would  manufacturing a  an  considered,  arris  that  non-triangular.  Although  adjoining blade  cross-section  exhibiting a  dichotomous An  Two  to  this  Platform  1)  and  4)  attriBute for  facets  moved m i c r o b l a d e s ,  recorded  or  may  Be  platform  for  complete  single facet; crushed.  the  Wyatt  2)  of  rejuvenation.  douBle  (,1970a)  Lochnore-Nesikep  indicative  micro-  does  compon-  previously  re-  --101-  8.  Platform This  proximal length  attribute fragments  can only that  i s measured  Platforms 9.  length  exhibit  to narrow  Platform  preparation  Platform  preparation  toward  caused  by t h e r e m o v a l  the d i s t a l  following  platform meter  scars  The s c a r s  extend  sults  remove  scars  the core  occur  They  overhang  millimeter.  are considered  surface and  t o be  overhang  that r e -  The maximum l e n g t h to a tenth  and p r o x i m a l  from  force  continued  of  of a  fragments.  of increased  resulting  i s reduced.  at the platform  was m e a s u r e d  are indicative  and  Maximum  on t h e d o r s a l  platform  removal.  on c o m p l e t e m i c r o b l a d e s  of a  as t h e m i c r o c o r e  of the core  scars  on c o m p l e t e s  platforms.  tenth  originate  end.  microblade  preparation  preparation  intact  to the nearest  are expected  of m i c r o b l a d e s .  be o b s e r v e d  milliLong  needed  to  blade r e -  moval . 10.  Platform The  measured angle  angle  angle from  the platform  to the nearest  i s expected  to the ventral  5° u s i n g  polar  t o become more  obtuse  graph  surface  was  paper.  The  as t h e m i c r o c o r e  i s  reduced. 11.  Platform This  form  to termination  attribute  along  identifying  angle  i s measured  the horizontal  by p l a c i n g  center  t h e number o f d e g r e e s  the blade  of c i r c u l a r that  graph  the d i s t a l  plat-  paper  and  t i p i s away  -102from  the v e r t i c a l  center.  Parallel-sided  a platform to termination angle cate ing  that along  center on  skewed  the core  of the f l u t e  complete  12.  nearest  bute  This  c a n be m e a s u r e d  f o rmeasuring  i n the  was r e c o r d e d  Length from  i s expected  a core.  the t o t a l  width, of a l l m i c r o b l a d e s  tenth, of a m i l l i m e t e r .  appears  microblade  and d i s t a l  This  i n f l u e n c e Wyatt's  W i d t h s may a single  be r e d u c e d  core.  as w e l l  to t o be attri-  ( 1 9 7 0 a :132) ends.  Width,  measures how-  end, and  The l e n g t h o f a  measurement.  as more m i c r o b l a d e s  Distinctive  as w i t h i n  was m e a s u r e d t o  width  a particular  are  m o d e s among assemblage,  produced t h e assem-  suggest  cores.  Maximum t h i c k n e s s ' The  only  amount o f edge  the proximal  skews w i d t h measurements.  will  different  Wyatt  t o be g r e a t e s t toward  Wyatt's method  to  occur  types.  a r e removed  ever,  14.  attribute  outline  midway between p r o x i m a l  of  occurr-  flutes  width  blages  common o n f l u t e s  indi-  width  maximum  nearest  from  faces  per assemblage.  Maximum The  measure  Parallel—sided  tenth of a m i l l i m e t e r .  as m i c r o b l a d e s  available  the  face.  Microcore  length- of a l l microblades  i s also useful  13.  sides.  a r e most  would  length  The' m a x i m u m  reduced  tips  and p r o x i m a l  Maximum  the  distal  of 0°.  blades  maximum  the nearest  thickness of a l lmicroblades  tenth, of a m i l l i m e t e r .  Wyatt  was m e a s u r e d ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 3 2 ) .u  use  -103-  measures distal thick  ends.  the m i d p o i n t  T h i s may  portion  blade 15.  t h i c k n e s s at  not  between  reflect  o f b l a d e s may  add  the  the  proximal  thickest  and  point.  The  strength necessary  for  utilization. Longitudinal thickness The  blade This  thickness along  was  measured  attribute  curvature  by  can  the  the  to  the  be  used  nearest  following  longitudinal  vertical  to  axis  of  t e n t h of  calculate  a  the  each  micro-  millimeter. amount o f  blade  formula:  t h i c k n e s s — maximum t h i c k n e s s x  100  '  length (Wyatt The  formula  s t a n d a r d i z e s the  longitudinal expected crease 16.  the  core  specimens is  t h a t l e n g t h has  and  Lower  indices  on  the  c u r v a t u r e s can would  tend  be  to i n -  reduced.  Weight Each m i c r o b l a d e  of  effect  t h i c k n e s s measurement.  for hafted  as  1970b: 97).  a gram.  The  was  attribute  invested  i n microblade  of  tool  other  classes.  weighed measures  technology  to  the  the and  nearest  amount can  be  of  hundredth raw  compared  material to  weights  -104-  CHAPTER I I I RIVERINE-UPLAND This  chapter  variability and  with  the uplands  examines lithic  Different  different  times  i n each  and s u b s i s t e n c e  also  were  different  i n each  the l i t h i c  chapter  will  riverine following  examine  artifact i n Chapter  land  zones  On  of the I n t e r i o r  are available  Salish  the assumption  i n each  c a n be  use p a t t e r n s  Indians that  the analytic  differences  the  with  expected  ecozone.  This .  potential  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and m i c r o b l a d e I I to detect  at  i s correlated  variation  found  and e v a l u a t e  valley  and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s e t t l e -  activities  practices,  environmental The r i v e r  of the I n t e r i o r  area.  assemblages  of  contents.  resources  ecozone,  of technological  between  described  assemblage  practices  settlement-subsistence  lithic  the relationship  subsistence  ment  the  VARIATION  a r e two d i s t i n c t e c o l o g i c a l  Plateau.  organization  ASSEMBLAGE  of  attributes  i n upland-  t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n  of the  hypothesis: technological organization w i l l result in the deposition of d i s t i n c t l i t h i c assemblages i n each e c o l o g i c a l zone. S e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s a r e e x p e c t e d t o be correlated with d i s t i n c t reduction s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v i n g v a r y i n g amounts o f t o o l maintenance behaviour. Microblade production strategies are also expected t o be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n . Artifact  Variation  i n assemblage  Lochnore-Nesikep analysis.  Level  sites  Discriminant  Analysis contents  c a n be t e s t e d analysis  o f Hat Creek and through  discriminant  i s a parsimonious  method o f  -105-  Identifying (Anderson  1958).  functions, best  sort  weights nant  criteria  of  function  each  their is  to  case  into  the by  defined  cases to  the  the  of  identify and  SPSS  for  the  was  conducted  on  raw  counts  artifacts  data  were  This  i s probably  the  use  incongruent  of  calculations  of  nature  of  and  to  (Klecka  i n each  data.  High  measures  assemblages  archaeological  be  used  points of  and  from  1979). 1975)  was  record,  the  analysis of  the  Bettinger on  binary  frequency  tend  ones.  this  util-  analysis  data,  result in  small  has  intuitively  size variation is frequencies  to  (Magne  conducted on  for  technique  assemblage.  r e s u l t s achieved  assemblage  centroid  transformations  analysis  by  derived  discriminant  archaeological  power  derived  group  The  (Bettinger  Because  are  can  integrity  percentage  found  discrimi-  relative  scores  membership.  DISCRIMINANT  similarity large  A  information  t e s t i n g the  with  because  the  This  r e s u l t s of  frequency  distinguishing the  discriminant  binary  as  variable values  products.  that  calculated  standardized  mean o f  applied  linear  scores  analysis.  that  the  variation in projectile  not  (.1979:461) f o u n d  The  presented  the  subprogram  of  are  more  variable,  groups.  indicates  classifications  been w i d e l y  or  each  summing  for  present  of  one  groups  Discriminant  unknown group  settlement  The  Each  group.  has  by  respective  sorting.  from  and M a t s o n 1 9 8 2 )  ized  their  multiplying  case w i t h i n  used  calculates  calculated weights  c o e f f i c i e n t s and  classify been  analysis  coefficients.  calculated  each  on  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g among k n o w n  discriminating variables  contributed for  The  based cases  for  data.  magnified to  dominate  patterns Considering  v a r i a t i o n i s more  -106likely  t o be  prehistoric with  a  reflection  cultural  percentage  i s examined  makes  assemblage  analysis binary variety zone,  s h o u l d be  analysis and  the  in  the  i n the  tool  relative each  Mahalanobis  of  variable  assemblages analyses  of  common  and  to  percentage  at which  described  exist  tool  are  classes  The  each  the  ecological  i n Chapter  occurrence of  in  i f there  zone.  level  Whereas  each  indicate  each  contribution i t  complimentary.  rates  resolved  counts, wherein  Binary  will  of  is better  i f differences  into  were  distance  extraction,  their  proper  conducted  discriminant function.  on  two  function. The  measure and  The matrix Nesikep  calculated  assemblages  discriminant  tightly  a  Different  about  analysis  group and  scores  their  each  groups,  analyses w i l l  discriminant  be  38  occur  artifact  II.  Table  artifact  1  class  of  respective  for a  analysis  sets  Because  analysis of  stepwise  sorted a l l  zones.  each  in  the  derived  variables  discussed  conducted of  -23.0  f o r each  used  formed  turn.  Data  centroid  one  was  ecological  Presence-Absence  The  raw  ecological  are  frequency  as  classes  analysis  used  the  problem  than  assemblage.  method  each  of  indicate  presently  The  one  considered  will  kind  of  composition.  of  presents  The  a c c o r d i n g Co^tfte?. r e l a t i v e  assemblages  classes  per  activity.  percentage  differences  recovery procedures  transformations  variable to  of  on  18.4  the  f o r the  f o r those  assemblage  centroids  binary  are  from  data  LochnoreHat  Creek.  clustered  indicating  that  each  •o  unbroken p r o j e c t i l e  ouchi  -107-  p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t fragments  *J 01 M  2  points 1  m o d i f i e d p o i n t fragments  N. tD  \  Extensivi retouche artifact fragment  OJ TI  rglnally couched tlfacts M «  Maintenance activity artifacts and :lfac  1  2  acute edge u n i f a c e s  1  3  c o m b i n a t i o n edge u n i f a c e s  3  4  3  8  8  4  4  1  b i f a c e fragments: s t e e p edge b i f a c e fragments: acute edge  s t e e p edge m a r g i n a l u n i f a c i a l  1  109  3  83  2  1  flakes  31  3  80  12  3  5  7 7  15  flakes  3  1  flakes  4  9  6  15  21  5  39  27  532  37  16  1  22  3  2  2  7  275  26  26  1  gravers  8  1  1  preforms  4  flakes  combined edge m a r g i n a l u n i f a c i a l  4  flakes 4  1  hamraerstones  3  cobble t o o l B  3 4  usable microcores  4  2  1  3  1  2  1  4  1  1 5  complete m i c r o b l a d e s : no wear  4  13  3  10  complete m i c r o b l a d e s : edge wear  2  2  2  2  p r o x i m a l m i c r o b l a d e fragments: no wear  5  p r o x i m a l m i c r o b l a d e fragments: edge wear  1  p r o x i m a l m i c r o b l a d e fragments: c o m b i n a t i o n wear  3 1  4  1  4 3  13  complete m i c r o b l a d e s : c o m b i n a t i o n wear  3  3  9  2  1  6  abraders  microcores  6  1  16 38  1 2  1  17  acute edge m a r g i n a l u n i f a c i a l  2  1  7  complete m i c r o b l a d e s : t e r m i n a t i o n wear  «  1  3  microcore debitage  o •a o  1  1  exhausted  1*  4  6  b i p o l a r implements  91 U  2  1  5  acute edge m a r g i n a l b i f a c i a l  V M  16  2  8  1  ''steep edge m a r g i n a l b i f a c i a l  a X  5  1  s t e e p edge u n i f a c e s  >>  5  5  acute edge b i f a c e s  H  19  1  2  X til  .H  1  4  g^ M «  2  9  s t e e p edge b i f a c e s  41 B> ' > *•» •r4 (J m a  21  1  17  1  25 4 4  1  3  4  6  2  2  59  118  36  47  32  18  443  13  25  10  5  1  1  47  2  8  14  6  1  3  18  49  11  25  3  7  6  1  2  8  25  W .H  a o a >QJ  U  £ B  m e d i a l m i c r o b l a d e fragments: no wear  12  m e d i a l m i c r o b l a d e fragments: edge wear 1  3  9  1  d i s t a l m i c r o b l a d e fragments: no wear  4  6  17  6  12  d i s t a l m i c r o b l a d e fragments: edge wear  3  2  3  1  d i s t a l m i c r o b l a d e fragments: t e r m i n a t i o n wear  1  5  SITE TOTALS  Table  1.  41  60  46  402  2  1  40  12  83  15  2  m e d i a l m i c r o b l a d e fragments: c o m b i n a t i o n wear  d i s t a l m i c r o b l a d e fragments: c o m b i n a t i o n wear  13  3  11 12  5  4  1  1457  386  177  A r t i f a c t Frequencies Across the Assemblages.  15  2 145  67  166  1230  -108-  assemblage  c a n be  ecological  zone  This are  suggests  the assemblages  bitage; edge  when  2.  tool  are  tensive Few  of  upland  steep  to riverine  sites  are best  microcore  marginally  a r t i f a c t  class  points;  2)  termination  best  function  microcore wear;  de-  4)  b i f a c i a l l y  steep  retouched  discriminant  function  coefficient  o f each  variable  o f each  coefficient  power  from  i s l i s t e d  contributed  binary  intensive  ecological edge  i n  i s ignored  by  i t s asso-  i s dominated maintenance  type  zones.  Modified  and acute Each  occur  i n upland  Microcore  by  a  more  often  edge  and  bifaces  Instead,  occurrence  of  of ex-  production. i s the only  i n upland  o fi n -  maintenance.  i s indicative  flakes  tools  p r o j e c t i l e  assemblages.  and microblade  retouched  strate-  i s indicative  common  debitage  by  of maintained  i t s manufacture  represented  occurs  tool  and  assemblages.  b i f a c i a l l y  data  unifaces,  maintenance  that  that  fragments:  sign  of  classes  debitage.  Those  proximal  expenditure "in  tool  classes  the discriminant  and  i n the variety  these  tensive  on  a r t i f a c t  1975:443).  derived  between  labour  microcore  edge  (Klecka  fragments,  common  respective  7)  the relative  Differences  point  bifaces;  indicative  apparent  i t s  zone.  marginally  d i s t r i b u t i o n  function  classes  gies.  edge  The mathematical  The  of  distinct  ecological  standardized  variable  that  microblades:  edge  interpreting  ciated  member  p r o j e c t i l e  steep  the assemblage  Table  are  5)  acute  The  a  are ordered  complete  6)  each  modified  unifaces;  wear.  and  1)  3)  flakes; no  analysis  follows:  as  (Figure 12).  representative of  sort as  c l a s s i f i e d  Steep other  assemblages  BINARY -  EeRi 10  EdRk 4 Zone VII  -  EeRj 49  EdRk 8 Zone II  —  EdRk 9 Zone III  —  EdRk 7  —  EdRk 4 Zone IV  -.  - EeRj I  c  ANALYSIS  159  EeRj 55  (t)  ho CO a fD n 1-1 o tn O r-i rt fD fD l-i  3  rt  -25  -24  Upland  -23  -22  DISCRIMINANT SCORES not to scale  Group Centroid  17  Riverine  Assemblages  a C o rt •TO fD 3* HH- O a fD 3to < rt fD 0) Cu o Hi • O fi  -20  -21  —  18  19  Assemblages  Group Centroid  -23.0  20  24.4  4  >  ANALYSIS  — EeRj 159  Di  3  PERCENTAGE  EdRk 9 Zone III  EeRj 55  EdRk 4 Zone IV  — EeRi 10  EdRk 4 Zone VII  i — EeRj 49  EdRk 8 Zone II EdRk 7  td cn H- o  3 i-i (B H3  ^  H-  •  •  •  •  -33  - 52  -31  -30  DISCRIMINANT  2*9  -2*8  scole  SCORES  22 23 24  •  •  25  2G  3  OJ  3 3  CL rt  Upland  Assemblages  Group Centroid  -30.5  Riverine  Assemblages  Group Centroid  24.43  -110than  in riverine  manufacturing Riverine to  the  with  and  one  ence  f o r the  possibly  as  fragments  of  expedient  also  two  differ  use  of  gravers.  i s also  site  this  (EeRj  type  of  ence between land the  artifact group  assemblages upland  that  the  assemblages  assemblage data  The  implements;  sites  prefer-  lowlands,  of  proximal  assemblages.  on  percentage  resulted  trans-  in a greater  differ  d i d the b i n a r y a n a l y s i s .  a group  the  wear;  biface  3)  preforms;  centroid of  -30.5.  of  24.4  This  Low and  suggests  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  ecozones  than  i s the  Of  to d i s t i n g u i s h indicates  share  these,  4)  steep  complete  debitage;  binary  whereas artifact  i n the  edge;  in  the  2) b i -  microblades:  and  only microcore  assemblages  that,  similar  discriminant function  fragments:  5) m i c r o c o r e  identified  analysis  the  1)  points.  e c o z o n e may  a  i n the  edge use  i s a better  between  projectile  This  a l l lowland  12).  manner:  combination  accordin  Complete  suggesting  a centroid  data  v a r i a b l e s , o r d e r on  following polar  level  differences  (Figure  around  have  ones  159),  conducted  c e n t r o i d s than  percentage  upland  at  type  tool  distribution.  occur  occurrences  cluster  upland  Data  discriminant analysis  formations  from  common i n r i v e r i n e  Percentage The  this  of m i c r o b l a d e  Combination  more  by  of  microblader-.classes .  t e r m i n a t i o n wear upland  aspect  i s suggested  assemblages  distribution  only  An  strategies  microblades at  ones.  6)  complete  debitage  was  previous  analysis.  assemblages classes,  from  certain  each of  -111-  these each of  classes vary makes  to assemblage  the a r t i f a c t  are  generally  debitage  criminant  for  i n Table  extensively indicative  and an  are better  represented  by h i g h  (24.43).  Biface  retouched of use.  bipolar  type  than may  assem-  indicate  more p e r m a n e n t l y combination type  wear  state: i s  The  activites  distribution  a preference Broken  for b i bifaces  to increase i n frequency distributions sites  than  in riverine  of upland  that the lowlands  the uplands.  also  suggest  with  a more ones.  occupied, the d i s t r i b u t i o n  points suggests than  bipolar  maintenance  i n the lowlands.  intensively  occupied  microblade  also  derived  i f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  i n the uplands.  Their  projectile  this  dis-  are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  intensive  of lowland  more  coefficients  (-30.44) and  implements,  t h a t more  complete  with  f o r each  T h e i r fragmented  are expected  occupation  as b e i n g  edges  fragments  Bipolar  suggest  flakes  steep  tools.  increase of a c t i v i t y .  blades  microcore  i n the uplands.  i s dominated  reduction techniques  well  only  are presented  with  artifact  intensive As  assemblages;  coefficients  i n the lowlands  polar  discriminant function  i n riverine  fragments  wood w o r k i n g ,  this  this  Assemblage p r o p o r t i o n s  2.  function  biface  occur  composition.  contribution  p r o p o r t i o n s , ecozone means, and s t a n d a r d i z e d  implements  of  higher  function  This  to the r e l a t i v e  classes forming  and p r e f o r m s  Assemblage  blage  according  indicate sites.  Complete  of  were micro-  a p r e f e r r e d use of  -112-  /  Lnary ailaly sis  SI?  -9.64  microcore  -3.20 1.80  perc entage  +  debitage  +  + +  steep edge u n i f a c e s steep edge m a r g i n a l l y b i f a c i a l l y retouched flakes  .+  +  +  +  proximal microblades: combination wear  +  b i f a c e fragments: steep edge  1.85  2.0  24.43  b i p o l a r implements  1.02  .6  19.18  preforms  .15  10.47  complete microblades: combination wear  .47  1.3  5.30  2.7  1.50  6.0  4.61  microcore  2.00  complete p r o j e c t i l e points  2.  debitage  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  + +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  4.8  .6  2.76  2.4  1.6  7.4  .5  3.9  1.8  .3  12.20  9.7  11.6  18.8  6.7  14.6  1.1  .6  .6  +  +  +  1.4  +  +  acute edge b i f a c e s  -30.44  Table  +  complete microblades: t e r m i n a t i o n wear  i  analysis  -1.36  Lochnore-Nesikep  V modified p o i n t fragments  4.10  /  i  11.46  4.52  Hat Creek V a l l e y  .6  .04  .2  .6  1.04  .2  1.5  1.3  .40  .8  1.2  14.0  5.0  11.40  33.0  V a r i a b l e s I d e n t i f i e d Through D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s e s That Can S o r t A s s e m b l a g e s Between E c o l o g i c a l Zones.  5.0  Locality  -113Mlcroblade presented  production  by m i c r o c o r e d e b i t a g e ,  ical  activities  only  two a s s e m b l a g e s ,  are  rare  better  one f r o m  i n both assemblages,  represented  major  Preforms were  each  ecological  This  zone.  indicative  again  technolog-  identified i n They  although proportionally  i n the uplands.  activity  t o be  as r e -  they are  suggests  of permanent  that  occupation  occurs i n the uplands. In  summary, a s s e m b l a g e s  were  ecozones  100% of t h e time u s i n g  matrices  of the'38  The  appear  • of the uplands.  some m a i n t e n a n c e also  and c o r e r e j u v e n a t i o n ,  better  lysis  tions  measured  into  their  method  variables to sort  were  described  i n ChapterI I .  by t h e d i s t a n c e  selected  the groups.  of these v a r i a b l e s  respective  and p e r c e n t a g e d a t a  was a c h i e v e d on t h e p e r c e n t a g e d a t a .  different  stepwise  binary  artifact^types  separation,  centroids,  sorted  between  group  I n each  ana-  by t h e M a h a l a n o b i s  Nonetheless,  suggested a consistency  interpreta-  among t h e  analyses. The  discriminant  different  lithic  ecological ferred. kind  zone.  Analysis  and v a r i e t y  Riverine  presented ed  tools.  assemblages Distinct  supported the hypothesis  would  be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  technological  conducted  on b i n a r y  of maintained t o o l s  assemblages  intensively  analyses  were  manufactured  Proportions  of c e r t a i n  by a g r e a t e r  Upland  by m i c r o c o r e r e j u v e n a t i o n  of each were i n -  data suggested that the distinguished  represented tools.  activities  that  sites  were  and e x p e d i e n t l y  tools  assemblages. variety  of  better remanufactur-  common t o e a c h  ecological  -114-  zone  also  d i s t i n g u i s h e d , assemblages.  indicative function  of  intensive  d e r i v e d from  suggested  more  of  upland  ones.  as  a major  debitage lands. pation  technological  inferred  the  t o be  Microblade  ation  the  analyses  artifact  tween u p l a n d suggested  that  represented Hence, butes  will  be  can  riverine  microblade  be  similarly  were  utilized  among: 2)  1)  eight  scriptive (.see  Table  the  statistics 3) .  sites,  between  The  however,  microcore the  this  the  ecological  lithic  up-  occu-  p r o d u c t i o n i s an  analyses activity  in riverine  variation  The  variation  with variation The  than  vari-  zones.  assemblage  settlements.  measured  f o r the present  descriptive  uplands.  befurther  better ones.  i n microblade  attri-  Description  variables,  relative  identified  patterned.  Variable Fifty-six  again  than  o c c u p a t i o n of  correlated  that  sites  with identifying  assemblages  expected  the  Analysis  that  be  of  to  be  distribution  riverine  the  to  limited.  Attribute  indicated  i n upland  i t can  more  attributes  level  and  of  riverine  i s concerned  of microblade  previous at  analysis  activity  most  Their  r e j u v e n a t i o n was  some p e r m a n e n c e  Compared w i t h was  data.  o c c u p a t i o n of  Microcore  inferred  contributed  percentage  intensive  .. i n d i c a t e d  This  activity  Tools  at  analysis.  p r o p o r t i o n s of  statistics f o r each  the  of  of  assemblage These  eight  are  nominal  p l a t f o r m s , and  four microblade  level,  divided attributes, 3)  10  outline  de-' types  -115-  PI  PI  PI  PI  Rk  Rk  Rk  PI  CL  a.  o.  r?  J?  VO  00  *-  N  R» 0  N  O s  (11 M M M  VC  00  O  ID  3 (0  L-L L-L  < H  a  VO O  VO  a  2  PI N>  >-•  0 3 <T> M  P]  PI  oi VO  Oi Ol  <  VO ro  00  O  VO  Ul  Ol  o  Oi  ro  00  Ov VO  IO  00  Ul Ul  Ul  Oi  Ol  ro  VO  OV  — I*  O  Ol  O  VO  Ol  *•  ro  t—' Ul  OV  O  Ul  00  ro  Ol  H*  o  00  VO  Ol  OV  Ol  O  00  O  Ol  O  O  Oi  o u>  Ov  OV O  ~J  Ol VO  Ol o  OV Ov  Ul  o  OV  Ov UJ  00  O  Ol  OV  o>  Ul  o o  Ol  basalt  /o used % single edge use H  o cr i—* % termination use  % combination use  00  Ol VO Ul  o  o  Ov  O  J  O  Ol  o  1  O  O  ro  o ro  O  O  ro  H* lO  00  O  o  '  VO  Is)  Ol OV  !» 1  VO  M  o  . PJ RO  re 2. re •  L-..  -J  01 0.  re cr c  % single arris  ro V <  VO  ro  O  OV  % single faceted platforms % platform remnant bearing platform x length  Ul  c.v. platform length ro  platform preparation x length  VO  o  OV OV  Ol  Ol  —1  platform preparation c.v. length  00 VO t—'  VO OV  VO  o  x platform angle  Ul  3.  d rr rt H  H*  c.v. platform angle  Table  o  a  O  o  H*  n Ml  O  x platform to termination angle  c.v. platform to termination angle  Assemblage L e v e l S t a t i s t i c s C a l c u l a t e d on M i c r o b l a d e A t t r i b u t e s .  cr c  -116-  PI  a. H SV  w  o. E  PJ  O.  2 W  ~j  ro ro ro ?o S» Po sro o CL t-t. t-i. H-  pa  PI  PI  PI  p-  r-* Ul vo  Ul Ul  pVO  i—• o  to ro CM  IO ~4 CO  o o  to I—* Ul  N 0  N O 0  1  *-  CO  N o 3  N o 3  a  M M H  M H  < l-l  H  to  ro  Ul  •P-  u> o vo  o o  vo o  ON  I—  0.  PI  & W  VO  ro ro H P  w  o. S S  1  tn vo  ro ro <  M  o  to to CO  ho to o  IO ui o  •P-  o o  1—'  Ul .p-  3  to OI  h-* t-  1  M vo ui  O o  to  »J -o  o o  o o  CN  Oi  M  O  CO  VO  VO  o  I—* VO H*  Ul !-• CO  O o  CO B  o hfu TO  ON ON  Ul  1  1  to  CO  u>  n  m to  Ui -p-  Ul o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  a  ON  x  to Ul  o  o o  o  o  OI  00  o  o  o  o u>  thickness  o o  Ul to h-  1  o o"  » x  1  •pVO  to 00 u>  to to Ul  I-  1  Ul  !-•  Ul o  Ul 00  •p-  pO Ui  to VO O  x Ul Ul  Ul Ul 00  to p-  to  ON  o  Ul o Ul  to o  I-  1  Ul H-' Ul  ICO  1  ^1  M  Ul  o>  ^1  to  VO to Ul  o o o  M o Ul CO  Ul o o  o to to  VO  Ul to o  •XL  *• o  to VO  CO  •p00 to  to o o  to Ul o  Ul CO CO  •P-  >-•  o  h-  o  o  CO  VO  I-  h-'  1  VO Ul *• Ul  >-• to to o  VO pI-  1  1  Ul o  to o o  r-»  CO  CO pOI  M o Ul to  width  c.v.  width  thickness  c.v.  x  thickness  curvature  c.v.  x  ^4 o Ul  length  curvature  >-•  o to to CO  length  c.v.  x to to to  weight  ON  rt ro ato VO •p-  curvature  weight  c.v.  x  i— fu  curvature  c.v.  x  o  to VO 00  to Ul Ui  o o  o  o to Ul  o o  o  VO  to O *•  o o  fu  n C  width  to  o O  00 •P-  p-  4  CO  o o  ON  4  ro f tD ro < > ro f— rt rt a> i-t H> rt a Co rt rt H* n> CD CO rt • Ho 1  x  o  S fD  HO H O CT* hCO  length  to CO CO  o  o > 3 cn  x  weight  p» Oi ON  c.v.  weight  -117-  PI  Rk  CO  •*o  •P-  •>  N O 9  N O 3  N 0 3  N O 3  IH H H  M p-l  < H  H  cr  ro  IB  r-  h-' O Cn  1—' h-* CO  IrCn  J>  ho Ov o  o  < Ov  1  o •p-  VO H"  CO  UJ  CO M  ho VO CO  CO CO Cn  hO  J>  ho ho CO  CO  CO ho CO  Ov  Ov  ~0  OV  Cn  Cn  Cn  OV  J>  CO  O  00  00  VO  !-•  Cn  ho •o  h-»  hO 00  Cn 00 CO  ho VO CO  ho ho 4>  CO CO 00  hO VO Cn  ho CO Ov  1—'  I-  t—' 00  p-  f-  1  >  3 co  CO  a  ho vo  1  •P-  M 00  CO Cn  CO ^1  ho Ov  ho  CO CO  ho 00  Cn  ho 00 Cn  J>  Ov  CO  CO  Cn  H* ON  O cr.  O  1  Ov O  CO  o  ho  o CO o  o  00  o  *0 >o  0 0 — I vo ho  ro •p-  o  CO  t-' VO -o  t-  o  •P-o  . ho 00 OV  ho .pCO  J>  CO VO 4>  Ov  rt  o  1  o  1  to VO Cn  o  o  o  -J  o  CO  M CO  (-'  CO  Cn  CO  CO  CO CO Cn  CO  Cn Cn o  CO VO CO  CO cn ^4  •P-  o  ro 00 CO  ro CO H*  ho Cn  h-  ro  H-*  h-t  Cn  1  o  x curvature  1—' OV  t-'  O  OV OV  c.v. curvature  ^4  h-' Ov OV Ov  O  o  O  o  o  o o  ICn  1—' ~o  00  O  O Ov Ov  00 00 ro  ro ro  ro  vo  VO  o  •p-  J>  O  o Cn Co  ro Ov  o o  O  H"  •P-  1  O  O  1  rt  OJ  H" ho  o o  cu  ra  hCn  O  o ho Cn  x thickness  to  1—*  Cn  c.v. width  H •O  ho  hO OV CO  CO OV ro  ho o o  ro  Cn 00 Ov  length  CO CO o  ro . vo  J>  x length  CO Cn ho  CO tCn  h-» O  c.v. thickness »  cn O O  ro Ov CO -  1  x thickness  x width  o  fD  3 (0  c.v. weight  o  o 1— 00  c.v. width  x weight  ho o  o  00 h-"  x width  c.v. curvature  1  H"  c.v. length  x curvature  t-  00 M  0>  P 3  *•  M h-' 00 . Cn CO *0 CO 1—'  vo Cn ho  x length  1  •P-  H- rt Cf 0>  cn  1  Cn  O  ro ro  cn  Ov  fD fD  HfD CD CO rt • HO  o CO  o  J>  M o  J>  h-  0>  l— fD OJ  CO CO  ho  o cf cr OT  1  IOV  1  C rt  VO  Cn co  3  O  J>  Cn cn  Cn VO  ro  av Ni  O O  H-  s.  hfD  1  O  PJ  ro  CO  w  1  ro  2. 2  Rk  Rk  VO  PJ  PI  PI (0  a.  5?  ro  H PJ  PI  PJ CL  PI Cu  PI CL  Rk  a.  thickness i a  x weight  CO  o ro CO  Ov vo ho  r-CO vo O  c.v. weight  ro  -118-  I.  Nominal The  nominal  Attributes  relative level  assemblages. 1.  proportions  attributes These  Assemblage  are  sent  were  by  by  the  assemblage tions  the  of  and  of  f o r each  the  below.  the  number  This  is  basalt microblades  of m i c r o b l a d e s  multiplying  of b a s a l t are  eight  of  Basalt Microblades:  dividing  total  occurrences  calculated  described  Percentage  calculated  of  by  100.  represented  in  High  by  high  pre-  the  proporpercent  values. 2.  Assemblage  Percentage  calculated have  any  by  portion  of  i n the  A high  Used  dividing  evidence  microblades 100.  of  Microblades:  the  use  by  number the  assemblage  value  would  of m i c r o b l a d e s  of  This blades  total  and  indicate  w i t h i n the  is that  number  of  multiplying  by  that  pro-  a high  assemblage  were  used . 3.  Assemblage This  Percentage measures  of  the  S i n g l e Edge Use  relative  blades  exhibiting  edge.  It is calculated  microblades ber  with  single  of m i c r o b l a d e s  value within  would an  p r o p o r t i o n of  m o d i f i c a t i o n on  and  indicate  assemblage.  by  Microblades:  a  dividing  edge use  by  multiplying  a preference  micro-  single  lateral  the  number  the  total  by  100.  A  for this-use  of numhigh type  -119-  Assemblage This  Percentage attribute  ments by  and  total  the  plying  by  of  100.  a preference Assemblage  with  lated  by  High  modification  and  the  i n an  Combination use  microblades  number of  of  of  is calculated  arris  microblades 100..  microblades percent  proximal  by  The  i n an  A  exhibit  on  one  edge  and  the  termin  i n the  assem-  high value  the m i c r o b l a d e s of  calcu-  would  i n the  assem-  modes.  Single Arris Microblades: by  dividing  the  number  a l l microblades predominance  assemblage  of  and  of  This singl  multi-  single  arris  i s represented  by  a  value.  Percentage The  100.  in a variety  Percentage  by  by  blades  The  is  number o f m i c r o b l a d e s  multiplying  were used  indicate  Microblades:  edges  t h a t most  multi-  assemblage.  two  index  and  type  on  indicate  forms:  use  and  the  values would  t e r m i n a t i o n , or  and  Assemblage  percent  the  total  calculated  d i s t a l s and  edges,  blage  high  and  two  the  frag-  microblades  on  by  plying  It is  either  ation  Assemblage  distal  complete  combination  ing  blage  of  dividing  on  Microblades:  t e r m i n a t i o n wear by  for this  of  of  completes  Percentage  percentage  only  Use  microblades.  number  fragments number  Termination  i s evident  complete  dividing  distal  of  total  of  Single Faceted  number  fragments  of  Microblade  complete  t h a t have  a  Plat-  microblades  single  faceted  -120-  platform  i s divided  by t h e t o t a l  complete microblades each  assemblage  platform  percent  would  indicate  little  variability  states  calculated  and  proximal  blade Platform  tion  by the  o f means  include:  value  These  by t h e  and then  multi-  i s indicative  of a  of microblades  are indicative  and c o e f f i c i e n t s  of four  metric  of  length,  angle,  a r e computed  are calculated  f o r each  d e v i a t i o n o f each  with  micro-  and  size  of each  fragments. 2) l e n g t h  These  to  b y t h e mean a n d T h e mean  of the a t t r i b u t e s ,  termina-  t h e sum o f e a c h  and c o e f f i c i e n t s  1981: 5 9 ) .  attri-  of platform  4) p l a t f o r m  by d i v i d i n g  were  on t h e p l a t f o r m s  of  assemblage by d i v i d i n g  attribute  and R o h l f  of v a r i a t i o n  attributes  and p r o x i m a l  by t h e number o f c a s e s ,  average  i n an a s s e m b l a g e  representation  1) p l a t f o r m  Means  100 CSokal  This  t h e number o f c o m p l e t e  microblades  A high  3) p l a t f o r m  angle.  Microblades:  production.  complete microblades  attribute  ard  total'of  platforms.  f o r each  preparation,  i n the  Attributes  A series calculated  microblades  assemblage  intact  of P l a t f o r m  by d i v i d i n g  by 100.  facet  of the assemblage.  Percentage  is  high  tion  b y 100 t o  A high  plying  butes  and t h e n m u l t i p l i e d value.  assemblage  of  fragments i n  at this  Assemblage  II.  and p r o x i m a l  arrive  platform 8.  number o f  varia-  the stand-  multiplying  i s indicative while  of  the c o e f f i -  -121clent  of v a r i a t i o n  within  each  assemblage,  mean v a l u e s III.  Outline  of four  medial,  maximum 4)  microblade  f o r each  or  null  and  hypothesis  populations  would  U-test  variables if  than Of  derived  that  each  separate  proximal, were  include:  1)  thickness,  between  nine  tested This  represent by W i l c o x o n  analysis  orders  f o r each  t h e mean  hypothesis occurred  ex-  variables eco-  ranks  the d i s t r i b u t i o n s  The n u l l  (i.e.,  zones  i s calculated  the populations  was by  of the rejected chance  a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ) . were  populations.  t h e i r mean r a n k s level.  and rank  between  group.  was  1956: 1 1 0 ) .  difference  between  These  the ecological  A mean r a n k  5% o f t h e t i m e  significance  complete,  for  weight.  (Siegel  t h e 56 v a r i a b l e s ,  variables, ed  within  from  ,i n  Distribution  a difference  the difference  less  5)  independently  A great  indicate  separately  3) maximum  o f t h e 56 v a r i a b l e s  f o r each assemblage. zone.  types:  of f i v e a t t r i b u t e s .  each v a r i a b l e  logical  calculated  2) maximum w i d t h ,  Mann-Whitney  amines  were  outline  Attribute  similar  differences  Means and c o e f f i c i e n t s o f v a r i a t i o n  of curvature,  The  so t h a t  occurring  the c o e f f i c i e n t .  statistics  length,  index  of v a r i a t i o n  Attributes  and d i s t a l .  calculated  the range  standardized  do n o t a f f e c t  Descriptive each  indicates  i n each  i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g Table  4 presents  ecozone,  been  these  and t h e c a l c u l a t -  -12 2-  Mean Rank  Variable  Significance Level  LochnoreNesikep  Hat Creek  % used  5.0  2.7  .02  c.v. p l a t f o r m l e n g t h  3.3  7.1  .03  c.v. p l a t f o r m t o t e r m i n a t i o n  3.0  7.5  .01  x proximal  7.0  2.5  .01  length  c.v. p r o x i m a l  length  3.4  7.0  .05  c.v. p r o x i m a l  curvature  3.4  7.0  .05  7.0  2.5  .01  3.4  7.0  .05  6.2  2.7  .04  x medial  length  c.v. m e d i a l x distal  Table  curvature  length  4.  M i c r o b l a d e V a r i a b l e s D e r i v e d From S e p a r a t e R i v e r i n e and U p l a n d P o p u lations .  -123The  percentages  distributed blages. land by  i n the upland  Two  length,  and  angle.  of core  percentages  than  i n the lowlands,  microblades The  lations. than  i n each  a l l found I n each  those  from  valley.  between  occur w i t h i n  lower  case,  fragments  possibly  upland  of  used  from  the uplands  assemblages.  popu-  are smaller  T h i s may  be due t o  d u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n i n Hat  assemblages.  ones.  frag-  separate  found Only  t o be  The f i n a l  and r i v e r i n e  similar  the c o e f f i c i e n t  i s found  p r o x i m a l l e n g t h s v a r y more  i n lowland  differentiate  i n the  would  the percentage  of l e n g t h of proximal fragments  than  each  occurred  d e r i v e d from  s c r e e n mesh  and r i v e r i n e  that  why  assemblage.  the r i v e r i n e  indicating  assemblages that  explain  Unused,  Complete m i c r o b l a d e s were  upland  variation  cant,  may  wider  t h e n more w a s t e b l a d e s  t o have been  use of s m a l l e r s i z e  Creek  with a  p r o d u c t i o n have  i n turn  upland  of the p l a t f o r m  of v a r i a t i o n i s  and t h i s  i n the uplands.  would  identified  of the p l a t f o r m to  be c o r r e l a t e d  microblades  i n low-  mean l e n g t h s o f p r o x i m a l , m e d i a l , a n d d i s t a l  ments were  of  of used  more m i c r o b l a d e  microblades  were a l s o  the range  reduction activities,  assem-  a r e used  of v a r i a t i o n  cases,  a n d may  have been produced  waste,  are differently-  i n the r i v e r i n e  of v a r i a t i o n  Should  uplands  the  In both  i n the uplands  different  also  that  1) c o e f f i c i e n t  2) c o e f f i c i e n t  termination  zone.  f r om  platformnattributes  the analyses:  range  microblades  A higher proportion of microblades  sites.  higher  o f used  two  assemblages  signifi-  i n upland variables are the co-  -124-  efflcients proximal  of v a r i a t i o n  and m e d i a l  among  upland  range  i n core  the  fragments.  assemblages.  blages tion  T h i s may  reduction activities  all,  very  h a s a h i g h e r mean again  indicate  i n the uplands  from  few m i c r o b l a d e ^ a t t r i b u t e s  according to their  that  does  more v a r i a b l e  exist among  and t h i s  sequently  less  This  variation  reduction  rank  a greater than i n  be c o r r e l a t e d  different been  were from  applied  initially  that  the uplands  major  that  also  activity  on b e t t e r  recovery of  Sanger,  Lochnore-Nesikep and  analysis  may  reduction  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  variability  controlled  criteria  debitage.  of the uplands.  of this  be t h e r e s u l t  by D a v i d  from  sub-  of microcore  the  a n a l y s e s , of microcore  interpretation  are conducted  range  of microcore  with  i n the  i n the lowlands.  As w e l l ,  microblades  range  i s consistent  technological  microblades  defined f o r the present  the discriminant  confident  sorted  to d i s t i n g u i s h  occur  to those  r e d u c t i o n and  I t might  varia-  microblades are  and subsequent  and f r a g m e n t s .  i d e n t i f icationco'f a wider  from  screens  The  a r e compared  to a wider  sites.  t h e assem-  location.  microblades  p r o d u c t i o n of waste  microblades  they  c o u l d be due t o l e s s  may  sort  Hat Creek  than  More used  i n the Hat Creek  assemblages  that  themselves  use of s m a l l e r s i z e d  small  environmental  suggests  Lochnore-Nesikep.  lowlands,  in  Each  f o r both  lowlands. In  of  of the curvature i n d i c e s  data.  have The  activities resulting  r e j u v e n a t i o n as a Nevertheless, must  await  analyses  -125-  CHAPTER I V INTERASSEMB'LAGE V A R I A T I O N  This  chapter  assemblages. result  Interassemblage  of settlement  and-subsistence Salish  examines: a r t i f a c t  settlement  dicated  that  of  this  between  differentiation nological sistence  be i d e n t i f i e d  organization activities,  chapter  as a  lithic  settle-  examines  loca-  factor  assemblages  of a v a r i e t y of  result i n further  the assumption  i s correlated with  this  II i n -  different  among  should  On  of I n t e r i o r  I I I demonstrated  The o r g a n i z a t i o n  of assemblages.  settlement  i n Chapter  was i d e n t i f i e d  e c o l o g i c a l zones  as a  at different site  v a r i a t i o n , and C h a p t e r  e c o l o g i c a l zones. within  occur  of  The r e v i e w  presented  variability  v a r i a t i o n could  activities  sites.  are patterned;  activities  Environmental  interassemblage  that  among  activities  ment and s u b s i s t e n c e tions.  the organization  and s u b s i s t e n c e  these  lithic  v a r i a t i o n c a n be e x p e c t e d  strategy,  activities  v a r i a t i o n between  settlement the  that  tech-  and  sub-  hypothesis  that: the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t e c h n o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s associated with subsistence w i l l r e s u l t i n the d e p o s i t i o n o f d i s t i n c t l i t h i c a s s e m b l a g e s among settlements. Assemblage v a r i a t i o n w i l l b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e s i d e n t i a l and n o n — r e s i d e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f t e c h n o logical organization.  -126S e 111em en t C 1 a s s i f i c a t i o n The the ed  first  type  a n a l y s i s of i n t e r s i t e  and v a r i e t y  assemblages.  material ment is  remains  type  Hence,  sharing  a r e assumed  to represent  1971:11),  to i n d i c a t e  the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s  similar  and v a r i e t y  settlement  aims  represented  Assemblages  (Struever  expected  of settlements  variation  to  identify  by t h e  select-  s t r u c t u r e s of  a single  settle-  of settlement  strategy  (Binford  a n a l y s i s i s to group  types  1980:12).  like  assem-  blages . The to  present  create  discrete  a  hierarchical  at  decreasing  single of  group.  this  ment  toward  function  The  that  l e v e l s 'of s i m i l a r i t y Previous  (see Matson  1978).  cases  a l l a r e combined  indicated  comparisons and True  the usefulness  i n creating  settle-  B e t t i n g e r (.1979 : 4 5 5 - 4 5 6 ) a r g u e s  against  q u a n t i t a t i v e techniques settlement  He  manipulations. based  "...as  c a t e g o r i e s and fears that  settlement types cannot He  first  settlement qualitative repre-  p r e f e r s an  intuitive-  on t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  the s e l e c t i o n  a  be a d e q u a t e l y  v a r i a b l e s t h a t he b e l i e v e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e behind  in a  et a l .  classification  rationale  (assemblages)  1974; Matson  establishing  among  analysis  Cluster analysis i s  joins  until  s t u d i e s have  for intersite  by m a t h e m a t i c a l  defined  tain  of assemblages.  i n a regional context...".  differences sented  a Q-mode c l u s t e r  technique  use of m u l t i v a r i a t e  step  ly  grouping  technique  Pokotylo  utilizes  groups  classifications  n.d.; the  study  of these  of cer-  settlement  types.  v a r i a b l e s i s never  -127made e x p l i c i t ; luding  neither  border-line  The method  utility  ful  f o r the  cal  remains;  cluster  classification  study  floors  exist,  and  only  of  these  an  explicit  groups  The sets. 2  is  study  inferred  variation The rived  study  cluster  an  initial  occurrence  of  38  a percentage tance  measure  tween  each  one  and  raw  (Sneath  of  pair  of  groupings 14).  The  classes across of  each  type  the 9  per-  resulted  with  of  analysis assemblage  discussion. 14  was  de-  frequency  of  assemblages  was  converted  a City  1 9 7 3 : 1 5 4 ) was  data  the  percentage  of  II.  assemblages:  while  and  the  standardized, before Sokal  of  in Figure  composed  on  percentage  following  indicated  based  i n Chapter  resolution  in. the  tech-  interpretation  b i n a r y and  the b e t t e r  The  - t y p e s m u s t be  analysis  concern  artifacts  The  binary  and  intuitive  assemblages.  groupings  those  assemblages,  aid  of'lithic  groups.  use-  the a r c h a e o l o g i -  been p r e s e n t e d  data matrix  and  of  similar  the  frequency  then  of  both  solution  artifact  nature  settlement  analyzed  i s of prime  The  the  T h i s has  yielded  from  (.Table 1 ) .  ex-  a p r e l i m i n a r y grouping  abundance  ( s e e F i g u r e s 13  three  or  It is particularly  for sorting  d e f i n e d by  to have  and  the  produced  divided  clusters  for including  f e a t u r e s that would  distinct  analyses were  to  recognition  rationale.  Both  centage  as  present  clusters  three  a i d s the  1980).  due  or  demands r i g o r o u s c r i t e r i a nique  criteria  a n a l y s i s ; as  (see Matson  present few  the  cases; p r e s e n t e d .  of  i s evident  are  Block  dis-  calculated  A Ward's E r r o r  Sum  of  to  be-  Squares  -128-  Flgure  13.  Ward's E r r o r Sum o f Cluster S o l u t i o n on Data.  Squares Binary  -129-  Figure  14.  W a r d ' s E r r o r Sum Cluster Solution Data.  of on  Sqaures Percentage  -130clustering matrix Wood  the  three  with  share  cluster  these  Zone I  and  from  blages 55)  be  posed  II  are  II  from  (EdRk. 4  one  with  Zone  The  IV  and  clusters  different  assemblages  EdRk  of  4  and  can  artifact  cluster  Mountain  55  be  The  55)  in  different  cluster  comprise  II  artifact  classes  of  any  of  the  artifact  classes  is  expected  occupations: and  (.EeRj 159  Zone  and  cluster  they  is  assemblages  two  the  cluster.  in  artifact the  pithouses  upland  to  each  the  This  number  assemblage.  classes,  greatest  comtwo.upland  join with  according  EeRj  the  excavated;  third  assem-  Only  riverine  clusters.  for  members  Zone I I ) , and  represented  m e a n o f '34  which  upland  clusters.  Two  at Both  two  cluster  classes  site,  The  first  distinguished  classes  Creek  (.EeRk 8  Zone V I I )  tool  pithouse  have been  159).  EeRj  14).  to  that  clusters.  site.  third  exclusive  of  depressions  and  EeRj  (Figure  frequencies  Lochnore  assemblage and  (.EeRj 49  the  earthovens.  riverine  distance  indicated  representing  the  is  kind  relative  from EeRj  10  and  between  first  II  analysis  cultural  the  as  (EeRj  7,  Pine  depressions  assemblages  a  the  interpreted of  vary  EdRk  between  assemblages  With  9,  The  the  solution  cluster  variety  assemblages  associated  cultural  of  I members,..  EdRk  divide  can  similar  to  program.  only  binary  applied  cluster  cluster  The  a  was  three  clusters,  a r t i f a c t s occur  cluster  the  the  locations.  members  III  in  (1973) p r o v i d e d  riverine  of  (.Ward 1 9 6 3 )  and ; r e s u l t e d '  Of  IT  technique  the  variety  two of  abundance  i f they  are,  of as  the  -131-  ethnographic historic  data  association  questioned, similar that  to  they  variety four  suggest,  other  have  assemblages  artifact  by  of  a mean o f  (Siegal  identify  analysis  clusters  c o u l d be  of  the v a r i a n c e .  cient  above  fragments: complete 6)  microblades:  hammerstones.  but  one  of  Five tions  i n each  fragments;  2)  also  tool the  steep  have  types  the  two  first  The  I I , as  5)  first  were  the  The  which  of the  extracted a  3)  tools;  debitage;  indicated rank  sums  99.6%  coeffi-  1)  cobble  to  dis-  method  maintain  Hammerstones were not the weakest  computed  function:  microcore  among  Kruskal-  clusters.  which  abraders;  distal 4)  and  significant of a l l found  to  be  d i s c r i m i n a n t power.  d e r i v e d from 1)  lowest  cluster  function  2)  clusters:  arid  different  f u n c t i o n s on  the  were  more  I I I .  stepwise  on  .05)  classes.  they  of  at  are  The  15  to  significance  classes,  wear;  be  classes.  Kruskal-Wallis tests  these  additional  The  wear; no  (measured  significant;  identified  ordered  combination  a mean o f  a Mahalanobis  separated.  are  classes.  in cluster  separate  Six artifact  1.0,  differences  of  can  assemblages  ( K l e c k a 1 9 7 5 : 4 3 4 ) and  utilized and  have  artifact  classes that  selection  to other  I i s more s i m i l a r  27  cultural  assemblages  of a r t i f a c t  1956:184) t e s t s  variable  are  cluster  analysis  artifact  criminant  this  Cluster  Discriminant Wallis  they  the  with pithouses  classes i s evident  classes.  indicated  then  While  that these  a high variety  artifact  camps.  of m i c r o b l a d e s  i t is significant each  of  base  separate  modified projectile  edge, m a r g i n a l l y u n i f a c i a l l y  populapoint  retouched  -132-  flakes;  3) e x h a u s t e d  edge wear; of  each  sented  4) c o m p l e t e  a n d 5) d i s t a l f r a g m e n t s :  assemblage i n Table  cluster  microcores;  edge wear.  r e p r e s e n t e d by each  5.  Assemblages  membership;  microblades: percentage  a r t i f a c t class  are regrouped  and s i g n i f i c a n t  The  i s pre-  according to  a r t i f a c t classes are  starred. The  most  apparent  characteristic  the  a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s found  the  h i g h e s t mean  Not  only  third  rank  do t h e s e  cluster,  exception  retouched  this  tool  than  f o r any o t h e r  tion  among  variety  class  The  blade  from  rank i t .  f o r each  assemblage.  distributions  assemblage  This  this  group,  most  half  among  only  suggests  t h a t most  of a r t i f a c t :  o f one a r t i f a c t c l a s s  best  another.  significantly  i s the prepared  distribution  core  and m i c r o -  c l a s s e s a r e from  c a n be e x p e c t e d  o f a l l a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s a r e so i n c l u d e d . technological  by  r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e  S i x o f t h e 12 s i g n i f i c a n t this  varia-  the clusters.  of a r t i f a c t s  however  The  i n cluster I I I  i s due t o an a c c u m u l a t i o n  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t  category.  i n the  p r o p o r t i o n of  The a s s e m b l a g e  o f t h e 38 a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s do n o t h a v e  found  cluster.  flakes.  i s higher  category  different  absent  mean  have  edge m a r g i n a l l y  and n o t t o a r e p l a c e m e n t  different  or second  the lowest  are usually  i s t h a t they  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of steep  the clusters  Twenty—six  classes  the f i r s t  a r t i f a c t s have  i s the high  unifacially  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t  i n either  but they  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  a c t i v i t i e s c a n be i n f e r r e d .  since a l Nonetheless, As d e s c r i b e d  -133-  unbroken p r o j e c t i l e  CU £ U 3 0  projectile  41 u  modified  point  point  points  .7  fragments  fragments  .1  *  .5  .6  1.4  1.3  2.8  1.3  .5  1.0  1.1  .6  .6  3.3 1.2  2.4  >s  steep  CO u  ensl ifac  41 >  M  X  hi «  >t CU TJ > V *J £ u CO u a  Extei re tot  bifaces  a c u t e edge  bifaces  s t e e p edge  unifaces  2.1  a c u t e edge  unifaces  .7  combination  edge  .1  unifaces  biface  fragments:  steep  edge  M w  biface  fragments:  acute  edge  3 ft u a a  .2  VM  2.1  &>  C -n •H  «H «J  rt o r «  U M «  5.5  8.3  9.0  7.3  8.9  9.0  36.5  28.3  23.5  9.6  7.5  9.6  1.5  combined  edge m a r g i n a l u n i f a c i a l  bipolar  Implements  gravers  *  flakes  1.4 .7  *  cobble  *  tools  .8  1.1  1.5  1.7  3.6  6.7  14.7  18.9  11.7  1.8  .2  .2  .6  .5  1.0  *  microcores microcores  *  complete m i c r o b l a d e s : c o m b i n a t i o n  1.7  .6  .6  .3  .1  .2  .6  .3  2.7  1.4  1.3  6.9  2.0  3.4  1.4  .3  .5  .9  .6  1.7  .3  .6  1.1  .1  .8  .7  1.6  1.1  .3  32.4  36.0  30.6  20.3  4.0  3.4  3.8  6.5  5.6  .9  .7  2.0  3.6  3.4  .5  3.3  17.2  32.7  12.7  6.2  1.2  5.0  3.3  1.8  3.4  .2  combination  wear  medial microblade  fragments:  no wear  medial microblade  fragments:  edge wear  medial microblade  fragments:  d i s t a l microblade  fragments:  no wear  d i s t a l microblade  fragments:  edge wear  d i s t a l microblade  f r a g m e n t s : t e r m i n a t i o n wear  d i s t a l microblade  fragments:  c o m b i n a t i o n wear 8.3 *  c o m b i n a t i o n wear *  .7  2.4  1.5  .3  fragments:  5.  5.0  1.4  proximal microblade  Table  .6  wear  •o «  S I T E TOTALS  1.1 2.6  .5  *  *  1.7 3.4  .2  1.4  edge wear  s  1.2  .3  2.1  no wear  £  1.0 2.1  .3  hammerstones  fragments:  w  .6 .8  preforms  fragments:  U u  2.4  2.2  proximal microblade  D.  5.0  3.1  proximal microblade  a o  5.7  9.6  * a o V  3.9  2.4  2.2  c o m p l e t e m i c r o b l a d e s : t e r m i n a t i o n wear  V  4.8  1.7  c o m p l e t e m i c r o b l a d e s : edge wear  2V.  1.7  6.2  c o m p l e t e m i c r o b l a d e s : no wear  §  5.0  4.8  *  microcore debitage *  W  .3 7.5  .2  exhausted  «  .5  .7  usable  TJ  .6 3.9  2.4  flakes  abraders  D' <J  1.8  a c u t e edge m a r g i n a l b i f a c i a l  flakes  |  1.2  1.7  .1  a c u t e edge m a r g i n a l u n i f a c i a l  41 -H  .6 .3  flakes  4J  8.3  .3  .7  s t e e p edge m a r g i n a l u n i f a c i a l  o u a  6.7  flakes  OJ  S  .1 .5  s t e e p edge m a r g i n a l b i f a c i a l  83 £ u C U <D •rt 3 t-l AJ u  5 2 CO  .2  .6  u  c v  •H  .v. •—< 13  D  edge  .1  1.2  2.3  .6  .2  6.7  4.4  3.4  .4  .9  .5  1.7  .2  1.0  1.3  1.7  1.5  4.9 2.4  3.3  10.8  12.1  47.8  .6  2.4  1.5  27.7  29.3  19.4  .6  3.0 2.4  3.0  7.2  9.6  4.5  99.8  99.2  100.1  .1  1.4  1.2  1.0  .6  .3  100.1  99.8  99.7  98.7  99.7  100.0  Assemblage Percentages of A r t i f a c t C l a s s e s , A r r a n g e d by C l u s t e r s .  -134-  above,  cluster  Specifically, microcores, plete  exhausted  microcore  and m i c r o b l a d e  and used distal  suggests  proximal  microcore  fragments. debitage  and m e d i a l  that microblade  and t h e l a t t e r  core  I I I assemblages  u s e modes.  of m i c r o b l a d e  activities  Most  use.  display  The  a more  Termination  type  differences  between  proportions of microblades  assemblages  I and c l u s t e r  a n d may  indicate  i s characteristic  cluster  activities  Both  a s common  I and I I .  Also,  array of micro-  assemblages  i s an edge  of use, possibly  I also  activities  I I a r e more d i f f i c u l t are evident  that  of these  intensive  among  type  as g r a v e r s , of  i s cluster  repreto assess.  the cluster  microblade  assemblages.  I , high microblade  pro-  However, be-  I I i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y  c l a s s e s than  cluster  limited  I I I assemblages;  limited  technological  Higher  fact  This  I and I I .  by c l u s t e r  cause  fragments.  u s e modes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  sented  duction  cluster  and i s w e l l  c a n be i n f e r r e d  common t o t h e s e  included i n the microblade  clusters  The  reduction are not.  t h e s e t t l e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d by c l u s t e r s  blade  o f com-  p r o d u c t i o n and  f o r the d e p o s i t i o n of the c l u s t e r  p r o d u c t i o n and c o m p l e t e  former  cluster  varieties  r e j u v e n a t i o n a r e some o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l  responsible  I  c l a s s e s (Table 5 ) .  i s p o o r l y r e p r e s e n t e d by u s a b l e  microcores,  by m i c r o b l a d e  distribution  is  artifact  limited occurrences of microcore  represented  to  most  the cluster  microblades  displays  the  I I I lacks  of  arti-  proportions i n  may b e a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c l o s e d a r r a y .  An  -135examination blades  patterns  est  of  ratio has  lowest  I assemblages.  in cluster  removed  for this  7).  both  the  ratios,  ratios  the  clusters  i s f o l l o w e d by  context may  This  suggest problem  observed  study  of  the  At  produced  assemblages Four  of  be  relationships  production. being  intensive would  present, per  than the  core at  five  those  between  of  are  assumed  to  and  production.  due  of to  There-  microblade core  curation.  cluster  I  production.  and  further  microcore  t h a t more m i c r o b l a d e s  the  specific  tool  artifact  clusters,  i s important  variability.  represent  III)  i f microcores  among t h e  activity  this  assemblage  the  are cluster  cluster I I .  that  of  has  high-  assemblages  9 Zone  debitage  s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s among  patterns  core  the  t h e s e t t l e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d by  maintenance  category  10  resolved through  have  artifact  II  amounts  microblade  better  has  EeRi  also  being  debitage  i t appears at  8 Zone I I ,  (EdRk  equal  per  EdRk  of m i c r o b l a d e  represent  differences  depositional  159  Cluster  result  that  EeRj  core.  59:1  would  p r o p o r t i o n s of microcore  assemblages  per  c l u s t e r , '33:1.  lower  High  from  production,  This  micro-  interpretation  More m i c r o b l a d e s  I assemblages.  platform microblades  relatively  the  p r o d u c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e s ;the  91  are  I  supports  186:1.  (EdRk  High  platform remnant-bearing  at  22:1  fore,  of  microcores  cluster  ratio  display  ratios  microblade  to occur  which  the  to usable  intensive  tend  of  for  These  classes  suggesting  distinguishing artifact  manufacturing  classes and  -136maintenance  a c t i v i t i e s expected  T h e y may  organized  be  Maintenance the  clusterTn  Relative  cluster  does not  to  of  result II  occur  site more  cluster  study,  types  I.  The  the  Because  I i s designated absence  blages  can  be  one  with  cluster  furniture  respect  to  activity  cluster I I activity  p r o p o r t i o n s among  that  a  greater  I I than model  observed  occupations I and  those  repre-  i s i n need  here  may  i n the  cluster  frequent  be  the  cluster  I I share  a  activity artifacts, relative  lithic  as  residential  scatter  a pithouse  to  expected  limited  higher  suggests  associated surficial  i s found  of  is  Maintenance  by  clusters.  in cluster I I I .  model.  e x t e n s i v e l y retouched  fragments,  other  I and  interpreted a  the  distribution  at  1979:263).  f r e q u e n t l y among  a c t i v i t i e s were more  cluster  II i s designated  Only point  of  of  site  of maintenance  Cluster  cluster  of  camps.  (Binford  cluster  This  populated  I I I , both  the  less  result  distribution  of more d e n s e l y  variety  the  between  represented  yet  this  f r e q u e n t l y and  cluster  to  are  I I assemblages.  settlements.  great  furniture  in either  furniture  of maintenance  by  more  (_n.d.:13),  Variation  occupations  sented  than  I I I assemblages  cluster  the  assemblages  f i t the  artifacts  variety  site  a c t i v i t y a r t i f a c t s occur  to Matson  settlements.  the  to  f r e q u e n t l y at base  p r o p o r t i o n s , however,a^re h i g h e s t  According if  similar  most  camps.  residential  features.  residential  camp  camp.  artifact class,  The  due  Accordingly,  modified  significantly distinguish  clusters.  to  distribution  of  assemthis  -137-  class  supports  described ed  above.  a t base  from  the interpretation  M o d i f i e d p o i n t fragments  camp a s s e m b l a g e s  assemblages  (cluster  III).  The  They  i s worthy  1979:262)  suggests  suggests  would  of contexts.  retouched  Steep display This  artifact  (.Binford  tions this other  artifact  (Camilli  among  classes.  study  discarded i n debitage  loci  retouched  of exten-  flakes  the clusters  Expedient  c l a s s e s common  (Table 5 ) .  biface  Highest  proporand  infrequent occurrences of tools  of Table  represent  the pre-  cluster I I I  5 indicates  cluster  fragments,  gear  I I Iassemblages,  s t r a t e g y that produced  to this  also  of the i n t e n s i t y of  1981, 1982).  the cluster  An e x a m i n a t i o n  fragments,  were  of assemblage  a n d may b e a m e a s u r e  technological  assemblages.  point  among  may b e d u e t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y  dominant  (Binford  i n this  i s representative of expedient  activities  artifact  retouched  model  observed  of the manufacturing  distributions  class  are evident  camps.  artifacts.  1979 : 264)  processing  study  edge m a r g i n a l l y u n i f a c i a l l y  distinct  settlements  a r e c u r a t e d 'and r e t u r n e d  modified artifacts  Further  represent-  extensively  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  aidinterpretations  sively  activity  The p e r s o n a l g e a r  that the a r t i f a c t s  camps.  are best  to p i t h o u s e base  of the remaining  that extensively  a variety  common  df note.  classifications  I and I I ) and a r e absent  as l i m i t e d  areMmost  distribution  residential  (cluster  interpreted  artifacts  to  of settlement  include  and u n i f a c e s .  that  other  projectile These  arti-  -138-  facts  are indicative  activities tools,  and, along  support  sentative  with  of assemblages  I and c l u s t e r  on t h e b a s i s  retouched  artifacts. retouched  of r e l a t i v e The mean  pithouse  highest  proportions,  residential  duration.  fact  classes  these  sulting  i n increased  variety  of a r t i f a c t  classes  a n d no a r t i f a c t  data  much  accord-  suggest  of  that  relatively  of these  suggests shorter  artithat  occupations. 3  V a r i a t i o n among t h e  of a r t i f a c t . v a r i e t y r e -  assemblage  occurred  repre-  analysis identified  assemblages.  internal  I , 46.5%f o r  i s expected  I assemblages  was due t o a n a c c u m u l a t i o n  ofa l l  I I ) display the  of occupations  during  differ-  The a s s e m b l a g e s  low proportions  deposited  of the selected  assemblages,  as  of marginally  proportion  Ethnographic  the locus  the c l u s t e r were  III.  s u m m a r y , t h e Q-mode c l u s t e r  groupings clusters  proportions  distribution  The r e l a t i v e l y  assemblages In  and t h i s  were  among  are clearly  camps ( c l u s t e r  (.1982) m d d e l .  villages  long  diversity  f l a k e s i s 13.3% f o r c l u s t e r  senting  pithouse  activity  i n t e r p r e t e d assem-  of low t o o l  assemblage  I I , and 28.3% f o r c l u s t e r  to Camilli's  type  I I Ii s repre-  limited  I I assemblages  cluster  ing  processing  settlements.  entiated  marginally  cluster  from  patterns  and  of maintenance  P o k o t y l o " (.19 78 : 2 2 4 - 2 76) a l s o  occupation  Cluster  the paucity  resulting  displaying similar  limited  procurement  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that  settlements. blages  of resource  diversity.  among  The  least  the cluster I I I  c l a s s was u n i q u e  to the c l u s t e r .  -139-  Artlfact tool  c l a s s e s most  fragments  common  and e x p e d i e n t l y  suggested  that  this  resulting  from  limited  of  microblade  production these  cluster  manufactured  tools  among  common o c c u r r e n c e  suggested  representative  suggested  were  which  of assemblages High  that  proportions  microblade  the technological a c t i v i t i e s  that  of a variety  both  of base  cluster  camp  of" a s s e m b l a g e  diversity  assemblages.  Because both  associated  with  a pithouse  a lithic  among  pithouse  base  scatter  microblade  camp  base  cluster  I I ones.  ment  represented  also  might  assemblages  features, settlement  of  suggested  that,  deposited  difference closed  may b e a c c o u n t e d  array.  proportions  designated I was  of  certain  I assemblage  that  termed  this  than  resulted  a t t h e settle-*,  I I assemblages.  This  variation  mixing  from  pithouse  resulting  of marginally  to cluster  very  I I were  was  Cluster  cluster  range  the cluster I I  manufacturing  The d i s t r i b u t i o n relative  I I were  of cluster  I t was s u g g e s t e d  by c l u s t e r  during  among  type.  among  type  The g r e a t e r  the cluster  Higher  found  be due t o s t r a t a  construction.  I and c l u s t e r  was I d e n t i f i e d  camp.  c l a s s e s were  of maintenance  settlements.  f r o m more i n t e n s i v e m i c r o b l a d e  were  settlements.  fragments  was i n c l u d e d  tools,  was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  activity  proximal  I I Iassemblages  settlements. The  as  to cluster  short  I I ,cluster  durations  f o r , i npart,  C l u s t e r I assemblages  retouched  flakes  I assemblages  of occupation.  as a r e s u l t  display high  This  of the  proportions  -140-  of  microblades. Further This  Patterns  a n a l y s i s seeks  patterns  of variation  distance  matrix  be  subjected  (.TMDS)  order the  of for,  among  cause in  scaling  cluster  groups  analysis  a Q-mode TMDS until  s e t i s accounted  the assemblage  roots  Block  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can  of dimensions  data  as subsequent  However,  a l lof  for.  Each  the importance i t  are extracted.  patterns  accounts TMDS  patterning identified other  will  by t h e  of variation  the assemblages. program  TSCALE  distance matrix  that  percent  these  tests  the data  the f i n a l  matrix  i smetric  remains  dimensions.  to the City Since  none  was v i o l a t e d , t h e  i s upheld.  was e x t r a c t e d b y 6  accounted  be c o n s i d e r e d  distance  analysis.  f o ri n e q u a l i t i e s  of the variation  need  little  (.Matson 1 9 7 8 ) w a s a p p l i e d  for the present  f i r s t '3 d i m e n s i o n s  Only  a number  The C i t y  multidimensional  classification,  a n a l y s i s a n d may i d e n t i f y  assumption  The  Whereas  underlying  as p e r t h e amount o f v a r i a n c e  t h e 84 t r i a n g u l a r  eight  the assemblages.  i s interpreted separately.  confirm  The Block  a single  dimension,  cluster  1958).  along  additional  i n the settlement  i n the i n t i a l  i s reduced  should  of  into  variation  each  among  to Torgerson's metric  assemblages  dimension  to identify  utilized  (Torgerson  assemblages  of Assemblage V a r i a t i o n  Ninety-  dimensions.  f o r79.3%of t h e v a r i a t i o n .  i n the f o l l o w i n g discussion bea n d no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  was p o s s i b l e  -141-  Dimension The sented trace  order  of assemblages  i n Figure  15.  and d i s t i n g u i s h e s  cluster  III.  Cluster  the  d i m e n s i o n and  the  right.  either of  This  The  side  amidst  The  first  occurring  cluster  cluster  cluster  activity  I I assemblages  dimension  indicates  these assemblages  I I I assemblages,  which  present  a lithic  base  ment  dichotomy.  also  characterizes  EdRk  II.  of t o o l  of  camp  base  that  cluster  7 apparently  variety  EdRk  while  differences  9 Zone  blages  from  What preted  camp  been  between  classes  including  of the  by  variation  cluster  this  EdRk  specialty  from  settlegrouping of I I I and  wide indicative  further  similar  I  to r e -  9 Zone  tools  analysis  7 has a s p e c t s  on  9 Zone I I I  the assemblages  I I I has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f EdRk  fall  i n the middle  occurrence of a  scaling  toward  interpreted  grouped  of  settlements.  most  represented  t o t h e common  the assemblage  and  distinguishes  have  analysis  The  and EdRk  that  due  activities.  are ordered  separate  base  those of  the f a r l e f t  camp/limited a c t i v i t y  The v a r i a t i o n  The  on  from  7 i s located  settlements, scatter  scatter  fall  EdRk  i s pre-  a c c o u n t s f o r 34.5% o f t h e  I I I assemblages  the l i t h i c  among  dimension  I assemblages  I assemblages  cluster  cluster  the f i r s t  dimension  of the dimension:  the l i m i t e d  appears  on  1  suggests  to c l u s t e r  similar  to  I,  assem-  cluster I I I .  makes  as b a s e  EdRk camps  7 different  from  and  to assemblages  similar  other  assemblages  inter-  interpreted  as  -142-  _ •  EdRk9 Zone III  2  gEdRk7  EdRk 8 Zone 11  ^  EeRj 55 •  • EdRk 4 Zone VII  EeRj 159 A A EeRi 10  EdRk 4 Zone IV  •  EeRj 4 9 * Cluster 1 Cluster 11 Cluster III  Figure  15.  Torgerson's Metric Multidimensional S c a l i n g of the L i t h i c Assemblages, Dimensions 1 a n d 2.  -143limited  activity  retouched blade of  tools  debitage  the f i v e  settlements i s a high and a l o w p r o p o r t i o n  (see Table  f o r each  The b a s e  camp a s s e m b l a g e s  have assemblage  microcore,  rate  a t 46.5%,  1 9 7 1 : 2 4 5 ) was  yielded  percentages  rank  obvious.  dimension  7 each  The two  comprise  tools.  EdRk  7  assemblages.  of a l l microblade, together,  high  and low f i g u r e s  correlation  between  of -0.7815,  supporting interpretation  tween  ordered  calculated  a coefficient  i s made  and t h e f i g u r e / d e c r e a s e s  of the dimension  A Spearman's  a r e added  of this  o f EdRk  c l a s s e s a r e added  on t h e l e f t  micro-  r a n g i n g b e t w e e n '3.9% a n d 1 4 % .  17% e x p e d i e n t l y m a n u f a c t u r e d  and d e b i t a g e  right.  thus  distribution  on t h e l e f t  i f assemblage  fall  (Conover and  this  and  percentages  flakes  t o '37.2% a n d '38.2% i n t h e r e m a i n i n g  Conversely,  figures  I f the assemblage  on t h e f a r ' l e f t  percentages  the highest  slightly  the  assemblage,  I I I assemblages  approximately yields  of microblades  c l a s s e s of m a r g i n a l l y retouched  together  Cluster  5).  p r o p o r t i o n of m a r g i n a l l y  these  coefficient  two  significant  on  variables  a t .006,  o f an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  be-'  the v a r i a b l e s . In  general, this  pected  to d i s t i n g u i s h  ments,  a n d was  proportion dicative Cl982:10)  p a t t e r n i s i n agreement w i t h base  identified  of expedient  of another found  camps  limited  i n the previous  tools  factor  from  i n t h e EdRk  that ex-  activity  analysis.  settle-  The  7 assemblage  of settlement v a r i a t i o n .  that e x p e d i e n t l y manufactured  tools  high  i s i n -  Camilli are  -144-  strongly of  site  correlated  u s e s , when s i t e  pretations the  c a n be  cluster  pation. EeRj  49  Cluster and  this  fall  independent measures function  applied  tools  on  vary  IV have  according c a n be  of  d i m e n s i o n o c c u r s among  order  illustrated  on  of  important  as  for  of the v a r i a n c e .  32.4%  cluster II I  group  I I I assemblages This  distribution  of  the v a r i e t y  in  the assemblages.  coefficient  total  rank  of each  The  order  -0.9407, first  A  (Conover  15.  dimension  toward  the  distinguishes  as  assemblage  2 assemblages,  Both  on  .001  EdRk  cluster  between  classes  dimension.  supports this  9 Zone I I I and  present with-  correlation  calculated  this  cluster  representative,  classes  of non-microblade a r t i f a c t  at  dimension accounts  rank order  1 9 7 1 : 2 4 5 ) was  as  bottom.  interpreted  Spearman's  significant  Almost  t o p o f t h e d i m e n s i o n , and  c a n be  on  dimension i s  assemblages.  of non-microblade a r t i f a c t  assemblage  of  order  variation  2  from a l l other  at the  expediently  assemblages.  of F i g u r e  This  occu-  distinguished. of  Little  dimension, the second  I I assemblages  assemblages and  first  axis  that  I I I assemblages,  the assemblages along the second  the v e r t i c a l  the  I  inter-  i t appears  similarily  the dimension.  Dimension The  I f her  lower proportions  the c l u s t e r  intensity  to i n t e n s i t y of  than the remaining c l u s t e r  the r i g h t  the  is controlled.  I I I assemblages  EdRk 4 Zone  of  to the present data,  I I assemblages  manufactured which  with  A  the  and  the  coefficient  interpretation. EdRk  7,  have  the  -145most n o n - m i c r o b l a d e  artifact  ly.  Conversely,  only  3 non-microblade This  with  dimension  prepared  variable  core  a n d may  with microblade expected, exhibit  suggest  of other  Similarly-, were  technology  cannot  artifact  classes.  camps a n d c l u s t e r relative  Pokotylo  clusters.  be r e s t r i c t e d  I I limited  found  the assemblages  This  between  proportions of  (1978: 274-276)  among  Less  the remaining  that the greatest variation base  As  of c l u s t e r I I  i s e v i d e n t among  represented  assemblage  associated  variable.  camp a s s e m b l a g e s  variety  scatter  and has  technologies are highly  that the a c t i v i t i e s  settlements i s i n their  microblades  on t h e s c a l e  p r o d u c t i o n and u s e a r e a l s o  tool  respective-  that the assemblages a s s o c i a t e d  and m i c r o b l a d e  and suggests  microblades.  ninth  16 a n d 21  classes present.  indicates  also  I lithic  activity  five  tool  the greatest variety  assemblages  of  49 i s r a n k e d  t h e p i t h o u s e base  non-microblade  cluster  EeRj  classes with  suggests  that  to a single,  that  of three  microblade  functional  interpretation. Dimension The only by  and f i n a l  12.4% of the t r a c e ,  either  this but  third  less  upland  than  dimension  half  dimensions.  i s indicative  one o f t h e r i v e r i n e  dimension;  interpretable  of the preceding  dimension  3  assemblages  of that accounted f o r F o r t h e most  of environmental  assemblagescorder occur  accounts f o r  part,  location.  A l l  at the top of the  i n the lower  half  Csee  -146-  •  Cluster 1  •  Cluster  II  •  Cluster  III  3 EdRk 4 Zone VII  EdRk8 Zone II  • • EdRk9 Zone III  •  EdRk 4 Zone IV  /  • EeRj 159  EeRj 49 • A EeRi 10 EdRk 7 •  •  EeRj 55  Figure  16.  Torgerson's Metric Multidimensional Scaling of the L i t h i c A s s e m b l a g e s , D i m e n s i o n s 1 a n d 3.  •  -14 7Figure ation  16). that  as l i m i t e d  be g r o u p e d The  scale EeRj II,  i s again  tend with  55.  among  on t h e o t h e r  evidenced Steep  to increase the highest  are placed  settlements  edge m a r g i n a l l y i n proportion  proportions  identified  scatter  proportions  55,  both  tending  dimensions. on t h e amidst  bifacially  toward  first  t h e upretouched  the bottom  occurring  of the  i n EdRk 7 and  at the top of the s c a l e . metric  3 dimensions  assemblage  base  EeRj  i n EdRk 4 Zone V I I o r EdRk 8 Zone  the selected assemblages. most  i s the v a r i -  and each  by i t s placement  summary t h e T o r g e r s o n ' s  analysis  dimension  o f EdRk 7 i d e n t i f i e d  None i s p r e s e n t  which In  that  aspect  assemblages.  flakes  by t h i s  activity  with, the other  expedient  dimension land  represented  d i s t i n g u i s h e d EdRk. 4 Z o n e V I I f r o m  identified to  Best  variation  camp/limited  responsible The f i r s t  scaling  for variation  dimension i n d i c a t e d  i s represented  activity  of microblades  multidimensional  settlement  by t h e  lithic  dichotomy.  High  a r e . commron t o t h e a s s e m b l a g e s o f b a s e  camp s e t t l e m e n t s a n d h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s o f e x p e d i e n t l y m a n u f a c t u r e d t o o l s a r e p r e s e n t ' ^ i n v l i - m l t e d a c t i v i t y settl«men**asseniblages . dimension a  pithouse  This  separated base  and  camp  distinction  non-microblade fewer  cluster  cluster  I I assemblages,  settlement,  from  i s made a c c o r d i n g  artifact  c l a s s e s among  I and c l u s t e r  the other  cluster  the remainder.  I I I was  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  to a high  c l a s s e s among  therefore  The s e c o n d  assemblages.  occurrence  of  I I assemblages  The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n i n t e r p r e t e d t o be  -148-  primarily tions.  due t o r e l a t i v e  The d i m e n s i o n  associated highly to  with  variable  correlate  differences  further  a wide  range  assemblages.  with  i n microblade  suggested  that microblades  of a c t i v i t i e s  are  as r e p r e s e n t e d  Environmental  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  propor-  by  location.appeared  of assemblages  on t h e t h i r d  dimension. Interpretation Models  of c u l t u r a l  of Settlement  development  suggested  that resource  sedentary  p a t t e r n of settlement  pation  (.Nelson  models  i s an a s s u m p t i o n  characteristic sequence early tion the  sented  1973).  strategy. ferred moves  assemblages  i n the study  life  The l o c a l  study  a s a means  The t r a d i t i o n a l  characterized  was  by t h e s e  settlement  cultural of  this varia-  identifying assemblages. pre-  residential  Salish  to d e p i c t  activity  either  p a t t e r n was i n -  to that of c o l l e c t o r s .  at limited  as  strategies  t h e p a t t e r n and a d d i t i o n a l  and p r o c e s s e d  occu-  pattern of foragers.  expected  Interior  semi-  examined  of  have  i n these  style  be d i a g n o s t i c  w i t h a more m o b i l e area  i n the  Implicit  I I contrasted the sedentary  as more s i m i l a r  procured  may  Plateau  with pithouse  mobile  The p r e s e n t  of hunter-gatherer  of c o l l e c t o r s  Variation  . of a h i g h l y  strategy characterized  i n Chapter  pattern  resulted  identified  that microblades  among m i c r o b l a d e  model  intensification  of pre-pithouse occupation.  pattern (Stryd  The  on t h e I n t e r i o r  1 9 7 3 ; Ames a n d M a r s h a l l 1980).  suggests  settlement  Strategy  Few  residential  resources  settlements.  were Further,  -149-  it  was  expected  by m i c r o b l a d e strategy, of  from  sult ine  distinct of  geographic  that  upland and  of  expedient  of maintenance settlements. of  3)  limited  were  Three  Patterns  of  indicated:  assemblage  base  activity t o an  an  from  upland  characterized  by  2)  ecological  tools  were  expected being  examined  accumulation  among of  river-  as  used were  the the  the  indi-  whereas  identified  upland  ones.  a result for  of  different  identified.  camps,  These  with: and  p i t h o u s e base riverine  settlement  artifact  also  that "variation  p i t h o u s e base Only  re-  o c c u p a t i o n s were  suggested  zone,  season-  microcore  deposited i n association  camps,  that  would  and  activities,  groupings  settlements.  variation 1)  be  assem-  t h e h y p o t h e s i s and  Riverine  zones  to have been  scatter  exclusive  variety  expected  longer d u r a t i o n than  ecological  lithic  a  among  resulting  between  type  h y p o t h e s i s examined  interpreted  I t was  technological  settlements within  1)  mobile  examined  zones.  were  could further  were  a more  resource a v a i l a b i l i t y  among a s s e m b l a g e s  activities.  represented  characterize  was  supported  assemblages  to have been  second  would  assemblages  Analyses  common t o r i v e r i n e  The  of  settlement practices  lithic  greater variety  interpreted  ecological  variation  assemblages.  maintenance a  evidence  assemblage v a r i a t i o n  in distinct  cated  was  pattern  settlements.  differentiation and  prehistoric  assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y  Initially,  al  i f the  assemblages  residential  blages  that  variety,  camps  location. groupings 2)  an  -150-  inverse  relationship  between m i c r o b l a d e s  3)  a range  of the v a r i e t y  4)  a d i s t r i b u t i o n of assemblages  and e x p e d i e n t  of non-microblade  tool  according  to  tools,  classes,  and  environmental  location. These logical cut  analyses  zones  exists,  environmental  defined either  suggest  that while variation  stronger patterns of v a r i a t i o n  boundaries.  according  to l i t h i c  ecological  zone.  Similar  assemblage  settlement  of the f i r s t  of  pithouse  occupation  is  needed  hypothesis  appears  thecontemporaneity  Further  the other settlements inferred  with  microblade  technology.  that which  limited  distinguished  a c t i v i t y settlements.  characterized proportions tenance base  type  scatter  To r e p e a t ,  o f m i c r o b l a d e s and e x p e d i e n t tools  occur  the assemblages  base  as d i s t i n c t s e t t l e m e n t  Nonetheless, distinguish  i t must be n o t e d  base  camps  from  camps  between tools.  tools  t y p e s was  relative Since  the l i t h i c occur  main-  scatter  among t h e of  these  suggested.  that a l l patterns  limited  from  this variation i s  m o r e o f t e n among few s i m i l a r  study  t o be a s s o c i a t e d  a c t i v i t y settlements, the interpretation  groupings  to  among  by an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  camps, and  limited  lithic  through  of the pithouse  camps w i t h  is  t y p e s , as  observed  i n the r i v e r v a l l e y s .  strongest pattern of v a r i a t i o n  cross-  t o be t h e r e s u l t  base  The  eco-  contents, occur i n  Assemblage v a r i a t i o n  examination  to determine  between  expected  a c t i v i t y settlements  -151-  were  not  observed.  proportions As  Specifically,  of maintenance  well^. e x t e n s i v e l y  base  camps  the  low  cluster  occupation  be  t h a n was  —  level  data  cognizing  of  factors  the  classes  i s not  a direct  tools  technological  suggest  produced, tools.  That  of  retouched  that  expected.  restricted  expected.  In c o n t r a s t ,  of  less  use  array.  Re-  cluster  that  I  other  arti-  this  sampling strategy,the and e x p e d i e n t l y  assemblages and  unique  may  almost  microcores  to  deposition be  microblades  are  the of  indica-  mutually  patterns observed  and  assess  percentage  among  assumption  distinct  The  observations  p r o p o r t i o n s of  occupation intensity: tools.  on  characteristic  i s , these two  among  intensive  i s a closed  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  where m i c r o b l a d e s  relatively  the  a  tools  f o r these  conducted  that  to  Finally,  i s ...needed t o a d e q u a t e l y  function  organization  indicators  On  lower  camps.  account  matrix  suggest  the occurrence of  marginally  as  a much l e s s  between m i c r o b l a d e s  may  assemblages.  clusive  may  expected  decrease.  relationship  manufactured  of  than  the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s of m i c r o b l a d e s  will  tive  that  percentage  fact  these  initially  a n a l y s e s were  i t m u s t be  inverse  were not  f o r base  Further study  Primarily, and  artifacts  suggested  expected  assemblages,  variation  I I ) as  I exhibited  p r o p o r t i o n s of m a r g i n a l l y retouched  suggested.  tliem.  I and  I assemblages  A number can  activity  modified tools  (clusters  relatively  cluster  exarid  herein intensively  i s made o f m a r g i n a l l y r e t o u c h e d  m i c r o b l a d e s may  be  produced  at  other  -152-  settlements, when  the  core  situation, dominant cies  of  i s i n need  these  tool  microcore  that a  occurrence direct  applications  df  study  could prove i n f o r m a t i v e .  settlement appears  that  that  by  expected  these  one  characterized  a variety  of  of  to  for foragers. an  Early  system  transition  limited  and  study  has  by  to  activities.  varia-  strategy?  moves  for collectors  of  The  analysis  settlements.  system,  the  (1981,  assemblage  the  of  Further  assemblages  Period settlement  and  measures,  residential  that expected  intensification.  The  core  Camilli  present  activity  i n place prior  microcore  identified  examined.  features characteristic  were  occu-  existed.  intensity  the  two  frequen-  indicative  settlement  I f these  that  prepared  be  p a t t e r n s of  by  pre-  also  presented  from  the  camp  closely  regarding prehistoric  organizational  settlement of  do  i s more s i m i l a r  sentative  m u s t be  strategy interpreted  t o be  supported pattern  (_n. d.)  summarize, what  suggest  should  the models  this  of base  interrelated  and  tion  Matson  but  In  increased  activities  present  1982).  To  use  that intensive  I f the  distinct  or  s e p a r a t i o n of  production i s characteristic  of  represent  increase with  and  suggests  occupation.  before  I t i s expected  spatial  p r o p o r t i o n s of m i c r o b l a d e s  intensive  artifacts  classes will  forth  either  extensive modification.  manufacturing  put  cease  strategy.  I t i s apparent  hypothesis  of  m a r g i n a l l y retouched  microblade  High  production w i l l  technological  pation. and  but  are  i t the  This than  repre-  appears Late  inferred  Period  period  -153-  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND The  objective  patterns logy In  study  was  of settlement associated with  of the southwestern  so d o i n g ,  the  - of t h i s  CONCLUSIONS  i t was h o p e d  understanding  assemblage  Interior  the reconstruction the microblade  Plateau of B r i t i s h  that a contribution  of l o c a l  prehistory  formation processes  of  technoColumbia.  c o u l d b e made t o  and t o t h e study  associated with  of  lithic  settlement  activit ies. The a  production of microblades  distinctive  technology,  from numerous presented  geographic  a review  from  and t h i s  prepared  technology  and temporal  cultural  of the p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e  deposition  behaviours  historical of  Previous aspects  the variation  blade  attention  review  were unable  I  f o r northwestern concerning  a s s o c i a t e d assemblages i s  technology  given  a n d i n c l u d e d some  used'among  The l i t e r a t u r e  on t h e c u l t u r e  prepared  review  to explicating  found  the  study  core and  t h a t no  prehistoric  o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e p o s i t i o n of  the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d The  Chapter  little  r e s e a r c h had f o c u s e d  i n techniques  had been  technological  and t h e i r  of this  technologies.  reported  responsible f o r thea r c h a e o l o g i c a l  of microblades  understood.  involves  has been  contexts.  N o r t h A m e r i c a and r e v e a l e d t h a t r e l a t i v e l y the  cores  assemblages.  indicated  to address  that i n large  problems  part,  of c u l t u r a l  previous  studies  behaviour  because  -154-  no  data  ed. on  base  Culture-historic the  excavation  assemblages and  base  on A  for  (Sanger  review  tion,  to of  study  considered  The  1978),  which  the  dated  Sanger  volved ment The  the  of  that  mark  the  indicated  the 1969,  out  jective  of  pects  of  studies  advent  of  1970a)  of  the  villages local  nothing  of which the  of  1973;  before of  to the  study,  villages  development  t h a t may on  the  be  en-  Salish  to have i n -  and  the  establish-  Marshall  1980).  indicated  settlement  developed. ,  t h e r e f o r e , was  1973). Tradition  Interior  the  present.  Plateau  Ames a n d  of  Tradi-  microblade  Nesikep  resources  been  Nesikep  (.Stryd  been understood  understood  Period settlement  cultural  the  Period the  developed  archaeological literature was  data  o f t e n have  demise  ethnographic  CNelson  pithouse  present  sequence  the  Late  food  (Beirne  as an o p p o r t u n e  adaptation  a d a p t a t i o n has  focused  Microblade  2,800 y e a r s  interpreted  a gradual  design  Lochnore-Nesikep  P e r i o d of  and  the  collect-  analyses.-  7,000 and  pithouse  intensification  Early of  the  from  cultural  Early  been  Creek v a l l e y  that microblades  the  about  sites.  identified needed  had  a research  Hat  those  prehistoric  of  This  from  as  c u l m i n a t i n g i n the  virtually  pattern  well  conduct  between  pithouse  review  recovered  were  area  variability  stratified  1970a),  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  Tradition.  single,  d i a g n o s t i c of  (1968b,  vironment,  regional  studies utilize  as  the  introduction  technology  of  recently  Pokotylo  locality  as  reflecting  to  ob-  document  useful  Interior  An  to  as-  future  Plateau.  -155The  conceptual  cultural Chapter Salish tors of  d e v e l o p m e n t was II.  were u t i l i z e d  dimensions  on  observed.  The  utilization  t o Be  addressed  lowland  subsistence  settlement patterns  distribution these  suggested  and  of of  a distinctive  to vary  composing  ation  contrasting foraging with For  that  of  Salish  Plateau  imply  of  foraging The  the  of  of  pre-pithouse  facmodel  identify could  i n the  be  and  the  ethnogra-^ upland  settlement  according  to  the  settlement  present  variety  and  sub-  would  be  similar  little  study,  of  to  the  development  expected  t o be  was  would  foragers. stored  occupation,  i t  types  on  storage  vari-  settlement  settlement  cultural  relatively  E a r l y P e r i o d was  to  resources  collecting  of  t o be  that  (1980)  p a t t e r n between  their  the  than  of  Interior  variation  p a t t e r n , based  inferred  Because models  characteristic tern  collectors  in  (.1980) c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s  variety  settlement  s u p p l i e s , was  strategy.  purposes  a greater  representative  food  the  of  Hunter-gatherer  f u r t h e r expected  strategies.  i n order  use  Plateau  environmental  reported  land  zones.  components  as  of  presented  Binford's  subsistence  organization. Binford  Interior  was  intersite  sistence  suggested  problem  local  systems  resources,  ecological  logistical  by  the  in conjunction with  which  of  systems were of  and  hunter-gatherer  and  i n which  Ethnographically—reported patterns  settlement  phies,  framework  The  winter  collector on  the  behaviour  the  be  was  settlement  similar  to  pat-  a  strategy. second  part  of  Chapter  I I was  concerned  with  expli-  -156-  cating  the  logical  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  data.  behaviours  The  specific  presently  formation  of  signs  collection  and  Nesikep ences and  procedures  material Nesikep  was  preserved  was  not  classification Based  on  variation  were  study.  among  lithic  t o o l s was  of  amount o f  trimming  the  amount  subsequent m o d i f i c a t i o n  Conditions rapidly  under which  discarded  conditions conducted  was  were  based  among  the  on  Nunamiut  from  American  Southwest  of  interpretations interpreting A  total  this of  lithic  settlement of  38  study  to  to  an  tool to  applied  faunal  Lochnore-  artifact  reduction,  be  a result  to  and  be  1977,  1981,  the  formation  tools.  maintained of  or  these  organization  1979)  1982;  of  from  to m a i n t a i n  identification  examine  assemblage  or  from  and  archaeological  (Camilli was  floral  technological  CBinford  s i m i l a r ideas  objective  of  classification  tool manufacture,  The  applying  An  lithic  proposed. study  differ-  devised.  expected  a  de-  Lochnore-  Maj>or  Therefore,  t o o l s were  research the  to  the  and  debitage  interpreted  the  of  applied  Creek  Little  t o o l s was  (.1975) m o d e l  lithic  and  cultural  research  described.  identified.  available for  Collins'  Hat  archaeo-  for  the  s t r a t e g i e s , and  sites,  on  responsible  the  the  based  in  and  concerned  Initially,  were  s i z e s , sampling  techniques  be  of  projects  dynamics  addressed  to  assemblages.  archaeological  sorting  issues  understood  lithic  i n screen  cultural  ongoing  assemblages Matson  utility  n.d.). of  processes  these for  functions.  artifact  classes  were  described.  These  were  -157subdlvided cative  cluded  1)  artifact  retouched  activity  3) m a r g i n a l l y  reduction  t o be  that stages  categories i n -  2) e x t e n s i v e l y r e -  retouched  artifacts, core  a t t r i b u t e s were  these  a t t r i b u t e s were  involved  indi-  activities  a n d 5) p r e p a r e d  microblade  I t was s u g g e s t e d  of various  The f i v e  artifacts,  artifacts,  Sixteen  expected  of technological  organization.  fragments,  artifacts.  scribed.  categories  patterns  extensively  maintenance  tive  major  to settlement  touched  blade  five  of independent  related  4)  into  and m i c r o -  a l s o deindica-  i n microblade  production. Patterns blages  according  Chapter  III.  b l a g e s were on  binary  their  binary  ecological faces ine  and v a r i e t y  loaded  on t h i s  assemblages.  quent  Modified  occurrences  core maintenance.  function.  Upland  to technological lowland  identified tools  fragments,  settlements. variation  common  bifaces,  E a c h w e r e m o r e common  assemblages were  of microcore  debitage  The d i s c r i m i n a n t  according  and t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t  of maintained point  conducted  artifact  assemblages  from  function  examined i n  analyses  o f t h e 38  according upland  assem-  and r i v e r i n e assem-  discriminant  e c o l o g i c a l zones,  discriminant  zone.  upland  c o r r e c t l y sorted  distinguished  distinguished  l o c a t i o n s were  data matrices  be i n t e r p r e t e d  that  the kind  between  through  analysis  could  activities  among  identified  respective  functions  The  Differences  Each  v a r i a t i o n that  to environmental  and p e r c e n t a g e  classes. to  of assemblage  represented  t o each and u n i to r i v e r by  fre-  i n d i c a t i v e of micro-  function  derived  from p e r -  -158centage tion  level  suggested  i n the lowlands  dominated  by b i f a c e  implements, with  among type  uses  ative  tion. were  assemblages  compared  identified these  microblades compared pretation pattern  of this  observed  reduction  Chapter types  statistics  ecological  was  also  artifacts  combination  was a r e s u l t  that  distinct  producattributes  Mann—Whitney  distributions  U-tests  f o r nine of  suggested  themselves  upland  microblade  of microblade  Lochnore-Nesikep. tenuous.  represen-  o f 56 m i c r o b l a d e  among  that Hat than  However,  they  Creek were  the i n t e r -  I t was u n c l e a r w h e t h e r t h e of a wider  sites  range  or simply  of  microcore  a fabrication  of  strategies. IV sought  to i d e n t i f y  r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e l i t h i c  patterns  accumulate  suggested  display  zones.  different  i n t h e Hat Creek  excavation  also  Their distributions  from  bipolar  p r o d u c t i o n as  activities  were more v a r i a b l e  to those  to rapidly  of varying stages  significantly  attributes.  and  was  i n the lowlands.  of microblade  level  between  function  and f o r t e r m i n a t i o n and  assemblages would indicative  edges  occupa-  The d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s e s  technological  Assemblage  steep  This  of  f o r e x p e d i e n t l y manufactured  identification  attributes  with  c l a s s e s expected  of-.microblades  lowland  i n the uplands.  of a c t i v i t y .  of upland  a greater intensity  fragments  a preference  upland  The  than  artifact  frequency  indicated  and  data  of technological  the v a r i e t y  assemblages  organization that  of settlement  and t o d e l i n e a t e distinguished  -159-  settlement strategy  groupings. represented  An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e by t h e s e  g r o u p i n g s was a l s o  Initially,  Q-mode c l u s t e r a n a l y s e s  and  percentage  level  Two  c l u s t e r s were  data matrices  formed  the binary  data  clusters.  The a d d i t i o n a l c l u s t e r was  of  Discriminant tests that  were best  applied  among  fact  variety.  dent  among  was u n i q u e  and  the  occupations,  prepared  core  occupations.  Kruskal-Wallis  of i d e n t i f y i n g a r t i f a c t  Cluster  had the.most  Examination that  a major  suggested  by t h e a r t i f a c t  among  that  classes  was  artifact  of the  the c l u s t e r s .  varied  classes.  activities  artifact  and f r a g m e n t s  among  evi-  class  regularly  technological  classes  i n arti-  of maintenance  retouched  artifacts  distributed differently  distribution  of the d i s -  I I ,representative  technology  Marginally  retouched  No  classes  v a r i e t y of a r t i f a c t  representative  and m i c r o b l a d e  the c l u s t e r s .  presented  of  the c l u s t e r I I Iassemblages.  extensively  c l u s t e r ex-  pithouse  the c l u s t e r s .  to the c l u s t e r .  classes.  v a l l e y , and b o t h  The l e a s t v a r i e t y o f a r t i f a c t  classes  often  with  binary  i n three  t h e c l u s t e r s was due t o a n i n c r e a s e  Artifact  guished  to  whereas the  the only  and a s e r i e s  a s a means  data,  of the c l a s s e s i d e n t i f l e d suggested  difference  pithouse  analysis  applied  and r e s u l t e d  the r i v e r  associated  distinguished  tribution  and  one o f t h e s e  t o an e c o l o g i c a l zone,  i t s members w e r e  were  suggested.  o f t h e 38 a r t i f a c t  percentage  clusive  divided  from  settlement  distinclasses  were  less  Nonetheless,  activities rethe c l u s t e r s .  -160The  c l u s t e r s could  assemblages  be i n t e r p r e t e d a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  deposited  i n association with  distinct  settlement  functions. Artifact were was  tool  c l a s s e s most  fragments  suggested  activity  that  that of I  microcores  and c l u s t e r  sulting a  as  activity I I were  distribution  microblade cluster  and more  identified (TMDSI.  distance matrix  Cluster  among  artifacts  Cluster  assemblages r e -  I was  designated  the cluster suggested with  base recognized I assem-  manufactured . I I assemblages.  that  intensive  the deposition of  I I assemblages were  patterns  indicative  occupations.  of assemblage  Torgerson's metric  The t e c h n i q u e  cluster  the cluster  of expediently  intensive settlement  through.  both  I I , a pithouse  among  was a s s o c i a t e d  underlying  that  of l i t h i c  suggested  of a variety  c l s u t e r s I and I I were  artifacts  manufacturing  Additional  scaling  proportions  of these  t h e sample  suggested  of microblades  It  of limited  T h e common o c c u r r e n c e  artifacts  tools.  /  i n t e r p r e t e d t o have  although  settlements.  I assemblages.  longer  were  camp, a n d c l u s t e r  proportions  maintenance  manufactured  representative  camp  and h i g h e r  and  were  sites,  The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n  blages  of  not.  I I I assemblages  was i n d i c a t i v e  Microblades  s c a t t e r base  higher  The  cluster  a t these  from base  lithic  camp.  this  were  maintenance  to cluster  and e x p e d i e n t l y  settlements.  been manufactured  common  was a p p l i e d  calculated f o r the cluster  variation  multidimensional to the City analysis.  Block Three  -161-  dimensions for  c o u l d be  79.3% The  from  of  the  first  those  dimension  of  an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p and  intensity  of  separated  c l u s t e r I I assemblages  III.  dimension  on  the  supported  by  the of  7 on  varied  as  artifact  pro-  tools.  this  The  dimension  Dimension clusters  representative  classes.  distribution  as  a c c o r d i n g to  from those of  interpreted  the  two I  and  of  the  Environmental of  assemblages  and  limited riverine  suggested  activity  boundaries  indicated  two  resulted  the  The  at  least  in  pithouse further  study  relationships  identification  settlements that that  that  temporal  Differ-  identified from  a  moves  settlements.  assemblages  noted  that  with  residential  activity  I t was  identify  settlements.  limited  by  to have  lowlands.  correctly  residential  of  indicated  deposited i n association  characterized  upland  i n the  to  were  a variety  I I I were  needed  relative  the p a t t e r n s of v a r i a b i l i t y  strategy  occupations is  interpreted  dimension.  between  Chapter  EdRk  assemblages  w i t h the  assemblages  settlement  ences  was  interpreted,  lithic  was  associated occupations.  correlated  third  As the  their  IT  of non-microblade  location  accounted  assemblages  marginally retouched  that  variety  they  I  between  o f EdRk 9 Zone I I I and cluster  cluster  This pattern  suggested  The  together  distinguished  of m i c r o b l a d e s  distribution  and  variation.  of c l u s t e r TIT.  indicative portions  Interpreted,  of a  of  variety  cross-cut environmental  some l o g i s t i c a l  components  -162-  of  settlement  inferred on  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  intensive In  utilization  conclusion,  logical ment  organization;iwere  function  from  for  research  It  was  variation  noted  the study  that  the observed  proposed  a  v a r i e t y of research  studied.  be r e s p o n s i b l e  observed.  Interpretations by a n a l y s e s  a d d i t i o n a l study  based  The  study  organization  also unique  logies  may  it  suggested  was  indicative as  has been  Initially,  suggested  to prepared  suggested  This  of  in  study  on b e t t e r  activity  for flake  and food  a pattern  be data,  evidence debris.  of-technological  and m i c r o b l a d e  techno-  Primarily,  of microblades  and s e t t l e m e n t  tools  these  should  controlled  corroborative  proportions  that  recovering  r e s u l t i n g from  by t h i s  core  technological  v a r i a t i o n may  f o r the discrepancies.  high  of intensive  technological  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s  of l i t h i c that  of  applied  f o r some  include  analyses  that  settle-  i t i s apparent  biases  conducted  be r e s p o n s i b l e  techno-  and d i r e c t i o n s  expectations  suggested  should  on i n d e p e n d e n t  with  Sampling  may  and  patterns  s t r a t e g i e s were  procedures  substantiated  are evident  ,  due t o a number o f c a u s e s .  assemblages  of  assemblage v a r i a t i o n .  here.  be  the  patterns  suggested.  were: n o t c o n s i s t e n t  organization  based  resources.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  of l i t h i c  c a n be  pattern  of c e r t a i n  identified  aided  analyses  problems with  further  and s t o r a g e  that  Nonetheless  p r i o r to the period  of a subsistence  the study  organization  In place  (Camilli  a r e as  occupation 1981, 1982;  -163-  Matson,  n.d.)•  However,  i t was  were most  commonly u s e d  retouched  f l a k e s were used  The  high  proportions  pithouse logical blade  production of  the  and  ance w i t h  the  (1981, study  use.  model  limited  with  retouched  the  of  array  would  i s needed  provide  formation  processes  pretation  of  that  prehistoric  Finally,  the  method  to  substantiate  for  of  pre-pithouse  not  viewed  with  Binford's  foraging for  of  the  strategy.  future  surprise.  strategies implies  Interior  studies.  in  vari-  study  of  deposition by  lithic  the  the of  Camilli The  assemblage  confident  logistical  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  climate  micro-  inter-  lifeways.  identification  settlement  techno-  hypothesis.  of  the  analyses  developed  understanding  in  alternate  results  this  i n the  gatherer  an  f o r the  per  i s necessary  in of  Further  volved be  shift  yield  as  a better  a  occupation,  organization responsible  1982),  settlements.  artifacts  are  expected.  the  marginally  abandonment  settlement  originally  microblades  activity  indicative  of  that  camps, whereas  I f microblades  closed  assemblages,  could  be  intensity  within a  microblade  at  associated  conducted  technological  base  of m a r g i n a l l y  a s s e m b l a g e s may strategy  measure  on  suggested  Plateau  Nonetheless,  could the  components i n -  settlement  (.1980) m o d e l that  not  the  support  results  should of  hunter-  temperate a  truly,  have i m p l i c a t i o n s  -164-  Th i s s t u d y patterns those that  no  of l i t h i c  patterns these  placed  was  microblade  that are  that  f o r further  to identify  settlement collector  strategy,  tence  base,  prove  than  study  during  later  and t h e d u r a t i o n fruitful.  has been  the study  that  was  i t i s by context  of  resolved.  This  has recognized  provided  by B i n f o r d  i s (1980),  v a r i a t i o n among c o l l e c t o r  on a  studies  that  the study  However,  has i d e n t i f i e d  based  future  of v a r i a b l e s  practiced  What  I i i order  of the h i s t o r i c  and e x p l a i n  organization  explication that  I f this  relevance,  on t h e P l a t e a u  study.  activity.  framework.  the problem  m o d e l s , more r e f i n e d  strategies.  may  of settlement  a developmental  technology  needed  the d e l i n e a t i o n of  assemblage v a r i a t i o n and t o i n t e r p r e t  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s be g i v e n  within  left  'concerned w i t h  i n terms  means assumed  is  also  a  pre-pithouse  logistically-oriented would  benefit  distinguish this  periods.  strategy  Demography,  of occupation  from the from  the subsis-  a r e b u t a few  that  -16-5BIBLIOGRAPHY A b r a m o v a , Z.A. 1980 C o n c e r n i n g t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s between A s i a and America i n the Late P a l e o l i t h i c . 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