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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Hatzic Rock site 1994

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The H a t z i c Rock S i t e : A C h a r l e s C u l t u r e S e t t l e m e n t by ANDREW ROBERT MASON B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1994 © Andrew Rob e r t Mason, 1994 In presenting this tlnesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives, it is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allov^/ed without my written permission. Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date A p r i l 27.1994 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s t h e e x c a v a t i o n s c o n d u c t e d a t the H a t z i c Rock s i t e (DgRn-23) d u r i n g 1990 and 1991 and d e s c r i b e s t h e a n a l y s i s o f s t r u c t u r a l remains and a r t i f a c t s . The s i t e i s l o c a t e d i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y and c o n t a i n s t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n zones a l l d a t i n g t o t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e (c a . 4500-4700 BP ) . S t r u c t u r a l remains were shown t o p o s s e s s s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h e t h n o h i s t o r i c s h e d - r o o f and p i t h o u s e d w e l l i n g s from th e a r e a . The s t r u c t u r e was a l s o found t o p o s s e s s s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h a C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s t r u c t u r e from t h e Maurer s i t e (DhRk- 8) and a p r o t o - h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e from t h e McCallum s i t e (DhRk-2). The o b s e r v e d s i m i l a r i t i e s s u g g e s t c o n t i n u i t y i n s t r u c t u r e d e s i g n from t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e t o t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , however, a l a c k o f c l a r i t y i n t h e H a t z i c d a t a and poor c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a d e t r a c t s f rom t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The a n a l y s i s o f a r t i f a c t s from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n zones were minor w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . O c c u p a t i o n zone I I I c o n t a i n s a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t c l a s s e s and p e b b l e t o o l s . A n v i l s t o n e s a r e absent i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I and p e b b l e f l a k e t o o l p r o p o r t i o n s a r e l o w e r t h a n i n o c c u p a t i o n zones I and I I . The c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage t o o t h e r C h a r l e s C u l t u r e assemblages i n d i c a t e s c o r e and p e b b l e t o o l p r o p o r t i o n s a r e much h i g h e r a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage c o n t a i n s a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f u t i l i z e d f l a k e s i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s i t e s . Retouched f l a k e t o o l s and formed u n i f a c e s were shown t o be p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l e s s r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e t h a n a t o t h e r C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s i t e s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n s i t e f u n c t i o n , l o c a t i o n and age a r e thought t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between a r t i f a c t a ssemblages. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x i CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 O r i g i n o f t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e Type 2 The C h a r l e s C u l t u r e Type 4 Hypotheses and O r g a n i z i n g Framework 7 I I . ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE 11 I n t r o d u c t i o n 11 E n v i r o n m e n t a l S e t t i n g of t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e 11 H i s t o r y o f E t h n o g r a p h i c R e s e a r c h 16 S t o : l o S u b s i s t e n c e and S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n s 20 O r a l T r a d i t i o n of t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e 26 Recent H i s t o r y o f the H a t z i c Rock S i t e 26 I I I . CHRONOLOGY 29 I n t r o d u c t i o n 29 E x c a v a t i o n Methods 29 S t r a t i g r a p h y 34 R a d i o c a r b o n Age E s t i m a t e s 34 O c c u p a t i o n Zones 41 IV. ARTIFACTS 45 I n t r o d u c t i o n 45 Methods of A n a l y s i s 46 A r t i f a c t s 47 O b s i d i a n X - r a y F l u o r e s c e n c e A n a l y s i s 67 F a u n a l A n a l y s i s 70 I n t e r - s i t e T o o l Assemblage Comparisons 73 V. F e a t u r e s 90 I n t r o d u c t i o n 90 F e a t u r e s 90 P o s t H o l e s 91 H e a r t h s and C h a r c o a l C o n c e n t r a t i o n s 91 G r a v e l Bench 96 D i t c h 96 A n v i l Stone F e a t u r e s 100 H a t z i c Rock S i t e A r c h i t e c t u r e 102 D i s c u s s i o n 106 V I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 117 REFERENCES CITED 127 APPENDIX A - A r t i f a c t D e s c r i p t i o n s 137 I n t r o d u c t i o n 137 F l a k e d Stone A r t i f a c t s 140 Ground Stone A r t i f a c t s 153 Pecked and Ground Stone A r t i f a c t s 157 M i s c e l l a n e o u s A r t i f a c t s 158 APPENDIX B - P o s t Hole F e a t u r e s 161 I n t r o d u c t i o n 161 C i r c u l a r / O v o i d P o s t H o l e s 164 R e c t a n g u l a r P o s t H o l e s 201 APPENDIX C - H e a r t h s and C h a r c o a l C o n c e n t r a t i o n s 206 I n t r o d u c t i o n 206 He a r t h s 208 C h a r c o a l C o n c e n t r a t i o n s 218 LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER 4 4.1 T o o l Counts and P e r c e n t a g e s from O c c u p a t i o n 48 Zones I - I I I (Core E x c a v a t i o n U n i t s ) 4.2 T o o l Counts and P e r c e n t a g e s from O c c u p a t i o n 54 Zones I / I I and I I I 4.3 T o o l Counts and P e r c e n t a g e s from t h e H a t z i c 63 Rock S i t e 4.4 H a t z i c Rock S i t e Raw M a t e r i a l Types and 67 F r e q u e n c i e s 4.5 X - r a y F l u o r e s c e n c e A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s 68 4.6 H a t z i c Rock S i t e F a u n a l Remains 72 4.7 T o o l Counts and P e r c e n t a g e s from t h e H a t z i c Rock ....82 S i t e and t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e Components from G l e n r o s e Cannery, S t . Mungo and C r e s c e n t Beach CHAPTER 5 5.1 B o i l i n g Stone M e t r i c Summary 95 APPENDIX A ( M e t r i c Summaries o f A r t i f a c t Types) A . l Leaf-Shaped P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t 140 A.2 Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t 140 A.3 P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t D i s t a l Fragment 141 A.4 Leaf-Shaped P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t Base 142 A.5 Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t Base 143 A. 6 Pièce Esquillée 145 A.7 P e b b l e F l a k e , S t e e p - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l R e touch 146 A.8 F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d B i f a c i a l Retouch 147 A.9 F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l R e touch 147 A. 10 F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l Retouch 148 A.11 S t e e p - A n g l e d U t i l i z e d F l a k e 148 A.12 A c u t e - A n g l e d U t i l i z e d F l a k e 149 A. 13 Core 150 A. 14 P e b b l e w i t h B i f a c i a l P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g 150 A. 15 P e b b l e w i t h U n i f a c i a l P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g 151 A.16 Hammerstone/Anvil 152 A. 17a Ground S l a t e B l a d e Fragment 155 A.17b C o n j o i n e d Ground S l a t e B l a d e Fragments 155 A.18 Formed A b r a s i v e Stone Fragments 156 A. 19 A b r a s i v e Stone 157 A. 20 P a i n t Stone 159 LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER 1 1.1 L o c a t i o n o f C h a r l e s C u l t u r e S i t e s 5 CHAPTER 2 2.1 Map o f t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e V i c i n i t y 12 2.2 Con t o u r Map o f t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e 2 8 CHAPTER 3 3.1 P l a n o f E x c a v a t i o n U n i t s 32 3.2 Main E x c a v a t i o n A r e a South W a l l P r o f i l e 35 3.3 R a d i o c a r b o n Dates from t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e 36 3.4 T r e n c h 4 N o r t h W a l l P r o f i l e 3 9 3.5 Core E x c a v a t i o n U n i t s 43 CHAPTER 4 4.1 P e b b l e Hammer 52 4.2 Grooved C o b b l e / A n v i l 58 4.3 Ground S l a t e B l a d e Fragments 65 4.4 Qu a r r y L o c a t i o n s f o r O b s i d i a n Recovered a t t h e 69 H a t z i c Rock S i t e CHAPTER 5 5.1 P o s t H o l e F e a t u r e s on F l o o r D e p o s i t s 92 5.2 Box P l o t o f P o s t H o l e D i a m e t e r s 93 5.3 H e a r t h F e a t u r e s L o c a t e d on F l o o r D e p o s i t s 94 5.4 L o c a t i o n of G r a v e l Bench F e a t u r e 97 5.5 West W a l l P r o f i l e of D i t c h F e a t u r e ( U n i t 36) 98 5.6 P l a n View o f D i t c h F e a t u r e 99 5.7 Composite A n v i l Stone F e a t u r e from E x c a v a t i o n 101 U n i t 10, L e v e l s 1-5 5.8 P l a n o f S t r u c t u r e E x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock 104 S i t e 5.9 L o c a t i o n of t h e McCallum S i t e , DhRk-2 114 APPENDIX B B . l P o s t H o l e F e a t u r e s i n R e l a t i o n t o E x c a v a t i o n 162 G r i d ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e t o thank th e members of my a d v i s o r y committee, P r o f e s s o r C o l e H a r r i s , P r o f e s s o r R.G. Matson and P r o f e s s o r D a v i d P o k o t y l o ( C h a i r p e r s o n ) f o r h e l p i n g g u i d e the H a t z i c r e s e a r c h t o a s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n . Gordon Mohs and Sonny M c H a l s i e o f t h e S t o : l o T r i b a l C o u n c i l have s u p p o r t e d t h i s r e s e a r c h from t h e b e g i n n i n g . Thank you a l l . Much a p p r e c i a t i o n goes t o t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who a s s i s t e d i n t h e e x c a v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f m a t e r i a l f rom the H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The U.B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y f i e l d s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were: A l i s o n B i e l y , Gordon Gong, B l a i r Hammond, T w i l a Krown, J o d i McDonald, Wendi McKim, Ryan Lee, A l l i s o n M a i l e r , G a i l Wada and Norman W i g n a l l . The S t o : l o crew were: V i n c e n t H a r p e r , R o b e r t L i n k l a t e r , Zena M a i l h o t , Sonny M c H a l s i e , Lea McNabb, L a r a M u s s e l l , C r a i g Ned and E r n i e V i n c e n t . Those who h e l p e d w i t h l a b work were A l i s o n B i e l y , S c o t t F r a s e r , V i n c e n t Harper, T w i l a Krown, Ryan Lee, R o b e r t L i n k l a t e r , J o d i McDonald and Sonny M c H a l s i e . S e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s from S.F.U. p r o v i d e d a s s i s t a n c e . Dr. Roy C a r l s o n p r o v i d e d u n p u b l i s h e d r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s from the Maurer s i t e . Dr. Knut Fladmark p r o v i d e d comments on the Maurer s i t e and a copy of h i s Cheam s l i d e p a p e r . P r o f e s s o r P h i l H o b l e r p r o v i d e d a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e a r t i f a c t a n a l y s i s . M a l c o l m James p e r f o r m e d x - r a y f l u o r e s c e n c e a n a l y s i s on some of t h e o b s i d i a n a r t i f a c t s r e c o v e r e d from H a t z i c . F u n d i n g f o r r e s e a r c h a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e was o b t a i n e d from many s o u r c e s i n c l u d i n g U.B.C. and t h e S t o : l o T r i b a l C o u n c i l . The B.C. A r c h a e o l o g y B r a n c h p r o v i d e d funds f o r t h e S t o : l o component of t h e e x c a v a t i o n . Supplementary f u n d i n g was p r o v i d e d t o t h e U.B.C. f i e l d s c h o o l by t h e U.B.C. Dean o f A r t s O f f i c e . The B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t p r o v i d e d funds f o r a p u b l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n program. I would l i k e t o thank a l l my f r i e n d s a t U.B.C. who have h e l p e d me w i t h my r e s e a r c h i n one way o r a n o t h e r o v e r t h e p a s t few y e a r s . I e s p e c i a l l y want t o thank H e a t h e r P r a t t f o r e a r l y d r a f t s of h e r t h e s i s and J o y c e Johnson f o r h e l p i n th e photo l a b . E r i c P a t t i s o n s e r v e d as e d i t o r maximus and d e s e r v e s f a r more t h a n t h e b o t t l e o f s i n g l e m a l t he r e c e i v e d f o r h i s t r o u b l e . My f a m i l y members d e s e r v e t h a n k s f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e o v e r t h e y e a r s . A t one ti m e o r a n o t h e r t h e y have a l l r e a d a d r a f t o f something, made s u r e I was f e d o r made s u r e I c o u l d pay t h e r e n t . Thanks f o r h e l p i n g me make i t t h r o u g h . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my good f r i e n d A l l i s o n C r o n i n f o r h e r s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t my g r a d u a t e program. A l l i s o n made a sometimes d i f f i c u l t and o f t e n f r u s t r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e e n j o y a b l e . Thanks A l l i s o n . CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s t h e s i s d i s c u s s e s t h e r e s u l t s o f e x c a v a t i o n s c o n ducted a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e (DgRn-23) d u r i n g t h e f a l l of 1990 and t h e s p r i n g and summer o f 1991. The remains of a l a r g e s e m i - s u b t e r r a n e a n s t r u c t u r e d a t e d t o t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e was t h e f o c u s o f t h i s e x c a v a t i o n . An e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t a l b a c k g r o u n d i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t h e s i s t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t f o r t h e r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g . The h i s t o r y of e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h i n the F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y i s d e s c r i b e d . E t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o n a t i v e groups i n t h e r e s e a r c h a r e a a r e summarized t o p r o v i d e a c u l t u r a l d i m e n s i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on S t o : l o s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s d u r i n g t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d and S t o : l o o r a l t r a d i t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g H a t z i c Rock. S i t e c h r o n o l o g y , s t r a t i g r a p h y , r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s and th e methods u s e d t o d e f i n e o c c u p a t i o n zones a r e d e s c r i b e d . A r t i f a c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o c c u p a t i o n zone a r e summarized and compared t o each o t h e r . The combined H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage i s t a b u l a t e d and compared t o a r t i f a c t assemblages from o t h e r C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s i t e s . O b s i d i a n a r t i f a c t s from H a t z i c a r e examined w i t h X - r a y f l u o r e s c e n c e a n a l y s i s and t h e r e s u l t s d i s c u s s e d . F a u n a l remains a r e t a b u l a t e d and e v a l u a t e d . Each f e a t u r e t y p e i s d e f i n e d and summarized. F e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e m i - s u b t e r r a n e a n s t r u c t u r e a r e combined t o d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e . E t h n o h i s t o r i c and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l examples of d w e l l i n g s from t h e F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y a r e u sed t o h e l p i n t e r p r e t t h e s e r e m a i n s . T h i s t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s by i n d i c a t i n g how t h e a n a l y s e s p e r f o r m e d on t h e m a t e r i a l e x c a v a t e d from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e have i n c r e a s e d our knowledge of t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e . D i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a r e p r o v i d e d . A summary of t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e t y p e f o l l o w s t o p r o v i d e a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e . O r i g i n o f t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e Type The C h a r l e s phase was d e f i n e d by C h a r l e s Borden i n 1975 as a c u l t u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n encompassing t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r Canyon, t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d and t h e s o u t h e r n i s l a n d s of t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a . The t i m e p e r i o d f o r t h i s c u l t u r e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5500 BP t o 3000 BP (Borden 1975:96-97). Borden's r e s e a r c h a t E s i l a o ( D j R i - 5 ) i d e n t i f i e d t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r Canyon m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s c u l t u r e type and gave i t t h e l o c a l phase name "Eayem." The Eayem phase ranged from r o u g h l y 3100 BP t o 5500 BP. T h i s l o c a l phase was expanded t o i n c l u d e a component of s i m i l a r age f r o m th e Maurer s i t e (DhRk-8) (Borden 1975:71-72). Borden r e c o g n i z e d t h e c u l t u r a l phase f o l l o w i n g Matson's O l d C o r d i l l e r a n C u l t u r e a t t h e G l e n r o s e s i t e (DgRr-6) was s i m i l a r i n c o m p o s i t i o n and age t o t h e Eayem phase m a t e r i a l a t E s i l a o (Borden 1975:80). T h i s component was c a l l e d t h e S t . Mungo phase a f t e r t h e S t . Mungo Cannery s i t e (DgRr-2) where d e p o s i t s o f s i m i l a r age and n a t u r e were e x c a v a t e d ( C a l v e r t 1970; Boehm 1973; Matson 1976:283). M a t e r i a l o f s i m i l a r age was documented by C a r l s o n (1970) a t t h e H e l e n P o i n t s i t e (DfRu-8) on Mayne I s l a n d i n the w e s t e r n S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a (Borden 1975:93). M a t e r i a l from t h e b a s a l component a t H e l e n P o i n t was a t t r i b u t e d t o th e "Mayne phase" and p r o v i s i o n a l l y d a t e d t o 3000-5000 BP ( C a r l s o n 1970:116-117). The Mayne phase c l e a r l y c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e Eayem and S t . Mungo phases on t h e m a i n l a n d s i d e o f t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a (Borden 1975:93). Borden r e c o g n i z e d t h e h i g h degree o f s i m i l a r i t y e x h i b i t e d i n t h e t h r e e r e g i o n a l phases (Eayem, S t . Mungo and Mayne) and s u g g e s t e d t h e l o c a l i z e d phase names be r e p l a c e d by a r e g i o n a l phase name. T h i s r e g i o n a l phase would encompass c u l t u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n t h e l o w e r F r a s e r Canyon, t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d and t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a r e g i o n s from r o u g h l y 3000 BP t o 5500 BP. Borden named t h i s t h e " C h a r l e s phase" (Borden 1975:96). B u r l e y (1980:15) and P r a t t (1992:7) have a r g u e d t h a t Borden's (1975) C h a r l e s phase i s more a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e f i n e d as a c u l t u r e t y p e as i t i s a r e g i o n a l phenomenon r a t h e r t h a n a l o c a l o c c u r r e n c e as i m p l i e d by t h e phase c o n c e p t . The term C h a r l e s C u l t u r e t y p e has been adopted i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e (e.g. M i t c h e l l 1990) and i s used i n t h i s t h e s i s . A l t h o u g h a complete g e o g r a p h i c d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e t y p e has not been a t t e m p t e d , i t i s thought t o encompass t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r Canyon, t h e lo w e r m a i n l a n d a r e a and t h e s o u t h e r n S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a . A summary o f t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e t y p e f o l l o w s . The C h a r l e s C u l t u r e Type P r a t t (1992) r e v i e w e d t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and i d e n t i f i e d s i t e s w i t h C h a r l e s C u l t u r e components and e l i m i n a t e d s i t e s w h i c h have been i n c o r r e c t l y a s s i g n e d t o t h i s p e r i o d . S i t e s w i t h C h a r l e s C u l t u r e components i n c l u d e : S t . Mungo (DgRr-2), G l e n r o s e Cannery (DgRr-6), C r e s c e n t Beach (DgRr-1), H e l e n P o i n t (DfRu-8), Pender C a n a l (DeRt- 1,2), Tsawwassen (DgRs-2), E s i l a o ( D j R i - 5 ) , Maurer (DhRk-8) and t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e (DgRn-23) (see F i g u r e 1.1). The Denman I s l a n d ( D i S e - 1 0 ) , J a c k (Duke) P o i n t (DgRx-5) and P i t t R i v e r (DhRq-21) s i t e s have C h a r l e s C u l t u r e components, however, problems w i t h t h e a n a l y s e s , such as component m i x i n g , make t h e d a t a p r o b l e m a t i c ( P r a t t 1992). Two o t h e r C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s i t e s can be added t o P r a t t ' s l i s t . The Par k Farm s i t e (DhRq-22), l o c a t e d i n t h e P i t t Meadows r e g i o n , i s d a t e d t o 4170±120 BP (SFU 405) (Spurgeon 1992:7). The second s i t e i s l o c a t e d a t t h e N a t i o n a l F i g u r e 1.1 L o c a t i o n of C h a r l e s C u l t u r e S i t e s 50 km 1) St. Mungo, DgRr 2 2) Glenrose Cannery, DgRr 3) Crescent Beach, DgRr 1 4) Helen Point, DfRu 8 5) Pender Canal, DeRt 1,2 6) Tsawwassen, DgRs 2 7) Esilao, DjRi 5 N 8 9 i d 11 12 13 14' Maurer, DhRk 8 Hatzic Rock, DgRn 23 Denman Island, DiSe 10 Jack (Duke) Point, DgRx 5 Pitt River, DliRq 21 Park Farm, DhRq 22 Fort Langley H i s t o r i c S i t e o f F o r t L a n g l e y . A p r e h i s t o r i c component d a t e d t o 3835±110 BP (BGS 1421) and 4390±90 BP (SFU 653) was found below t h e h i s t o r i c f o r t remains (James 1990) . P r a t t (1992) s e l e c t e d t e n C h a r l e s C u l t u r e assemblages t o d e f i n e t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e t y p e . These s i t e s i n c l u d e : C r e s c e n t Beach, Denman I s l a n d , E s i l a o , G l e n r o s e Cannery, H e l e n P o i n t , Maurer, Pender C a n a l , P i t t R i v e r , S t . Mungo and Tsawwassen ( P r a t t 1992:286). A summary o f P r a t t ' s (1992) C h a r l e s C u l t u r e d e f i n i t i o n f o l l o w s . C h i p ped s t o n e t o o l s t e n d t o be m a n u f a c t u r e d from l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e b a s a l t a l t h o u g h q u a r t z i t e and c h e r t a r e a l s o used i n some q u a n t i t y . O b s i d i a n i s a l s o p r e s e n t b u t r a r e ( P r a t t 1992:292). Chipped s t o n e a r t i f a c t s a r e l a r g e l y e x p e d i e n t i n n a t u r e w i t h unshaped f l a k e t o o l s and v a r i o u s forms o f p e b b l e t o o l s dominant. Cores, i n c l u d i n g b i f a c i a l c o r e s , a r e a l s o common ( P r a t t 1992:290). Formed c h i p p e d s t o n e t o o l s a r e f a r l e s s common t h a n unformed t o o l s w i t h b i f a c e s e i t h e r l e a f - s h a p e d o r s h o u l d e r e d ( P r a t t 1992:291). The e v i d e n c e f o r p r e p a r e d b l a d e t e c h n o l o g y i s weak and t h e p r e s e n c e o f q u a r t z m i c r o l i t h s i s c o n t e n t i o u s ( P r a t t 1992:290). Ground s t o n e a r t i f a c t s ( i n c l u d i n g ground and c h i p p e d s t o n e a r t i f a c t s ) a r e not abundant, and pecked s t o n e a r t i f a c t s ( i n c l u d i n g pecked and ground s t o n e a r t i f a c t s ) a r e r a r e . The debate c o n t i n u e s o v e r t h e p r e s e n c e o f G u l f I s l a n d s Complex a r t i f a c t s , however, e v i d e n c e o f l a b r e t wear on s k e l e t o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t some o f t h i s complex does e x i s t ( P r a t t 1992:291,293). A l a c k o f o r g a n i c p r e s e r v a t i o n i n many o f t h e assemblages f o r t h i s p e r i o d r e s t r i c t s any summary o f bone and a n t l e r t o o l s . Bone and a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s w h i c h d i d s u r v i v e a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s i n t h e i r e x p e d i e n t n a t u r e . Rare n o n u t i l i t a r i a n bone o r a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s a r e s p a r s e l y d e c o r a t e d , a l t h o u g h e x c e p t i o n s have been found. S h e l l a r t i f a c t s a r e not common, b u t e x i s t where p r e s e r v a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s a r e f a v o r a b l e ( P r a t t 1992:292). F a u n a l remains suggest a mixed economy where l a n d and sea mammals were e x p l o i t e d . A l t h o u g h salmon were e x p l o i t e d t o some e x t e n t , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n had not y e t begun ( P r a t t 1992 :292) . L i v i n g f l o o r s , p o s t h o l e s and h e a r t h s a r e common t o most s i t e s . No e v i d e n c e f o r l a r g e p l a n k houses e x i s t s a l t h o u g h P r a t t (1992) acknowledges t h e s t r u c t u r a l remains a t th e H a t z i c Rock and Maurer s i t e s . P r a t t (1992:293) s u g g e s t s an e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y e x i s t e d d e s p i t e t h e p o s s i b l e p r e s e n c e of s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as r e f l e c t e d i n b u r i a l remains a t Tsawwassen and p o s s i b l y Pender C a n a l . Hypotheses and O r c r a n i z i n g Framework L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s c o n c e r n i n g C h a r l e s C u l t u r e components from i n l a n d r i v e r i n e l o c a t i o n s such as t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The Maurer and E s i l a o s i t e s a r e b o t h from such l o c a t i o n s , however, t h e y a r e p o o r l y u n d e r s t o o d and l a c k f o r m a l a n a l y s i s and d o c u m e n t a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s o f m a t e r i a l from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e r e p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o p e r l y document a C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s i t e (Eayem phase) from a r i v e r i n e l o c a t i o n . The H a t z i c d a t a a l s o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o examine the n a t u r e o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r c h i t e c t u r e f r om t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s w i t h w h i c h t o f o r m u l a t e more complex q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r e h i s t o r y o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y and s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. Three h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e have been d e v e l o p e d and w i l l be t e s t e d . These hypotheses a r e : Hypothesis #1: The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e r e s e m b l e s s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t d w e l l i n g s r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . Hypothesis #2 : The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e c o n s t i t u t e s a new t y p e of b u i l d i n g f o r t h e s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . Hypothesis #3 : The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e does n o t resemble s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t d w e l l i n g s from t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , but does s h a r e s t r u c t u r a l and d e s i g n e l e m e n t s . The t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x c h a p t e r s , t h e f i r s t b e i n g t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n . The second c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e environment and c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g o f t h e s i t e . The r e c e n t h i s t o r y and S t o : l o o r a l t r a d i t i o n o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s i n c l u d e d . C h a p t e r 3 d e s c r i b e s e x c a v a t i o n methods and t h e n a t u r e o f s t r a t i g r a p h y . R a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s a r e p r e s e n t e d and t h e s i t e i s d i v i d e d i n t o o c c u p a t i o n zones. C h a p t e r 4 summarizes a r t i f a c t s e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e and s e p a r a t e s them i n t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n zones i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . A r t i f a c t s from each o c c u p a t i o n zone a r e compared and s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t e d . The r e s u l t s o f o b s i d i a n X - r a y f l u o r e s c e n c e a n a l y s i s and f a u n a l a n a l y s i s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . C h a p t e r 4 c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e c o m p a r i s o n of t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e t o o l assemblage w i t h o t h e r C h a r l e s C u l t u r e t o o l assemblages. C h a p t e r 5 summarizes and d e s c r i b e s f e a t u r e s r e c o r d e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The n a t u r e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t H a t z i c i s p r e s e n t e d . E t h n o h i s t o r i c and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d w e l l i n g s f rom th e F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y a r e u s e d t o a s s i s t i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e . The t h r e e h y potheses p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d a r e e v a l u a t e d . The f i n a l c h a p t e r summarizes t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s e s how t h i s r e s e a r c h has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the C h a r l e s C u l t u r e knowledge base. D i r e c t i o n s a r e s u g g e s t e d f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a t H a t z i c Rock s i t e , and f o r t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l . Three a p p e n d i c e s a r e i n c l u d e d . A ppendix A p r e s e n t s m e t r i c summaries and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s i d e n t i f i e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . A p p e n d i x B l i s t s t h e p r o v e n i e n c e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p o s t h o l e f e a t u r e s from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . A p pendix C p r o v i d e s t h e p r o v e n i e n c e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h e a r t h f e a t u r e s and c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n f e a t u r e s u n c o v e r e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . CHAPTER TWO ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . T h i s i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f the environment and p a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e and a summary o f p e r t i n e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a from t h e r e g i o n . E n v i r o n m e n t a l S e t t i n g o f t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e The H a t z i c Rock s i t e (DgRn-23) i s l o c a t e d i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y on t h e n o r t h bank o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 km e a s t o f M i s s i o n , B.C. and 80 km e a s t of Vancouver. H a t z i c Lake, an oxbow l a k e , i s l o c a t e d l e s s t h a n 1 km t o t h e e a s t ( F i g u r e 2.1) The s i t e l i e s a t 49 09' 07" n o r t h l a t i t u d e and 122 15' 05" west l o n g i t u d e on a low r i v e r t e r r a c e 500 metres n o r t h of t h e p r e s e n t c o u r s e o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r (Mohs 1992:2). The H a t z i c Rock s i t e s t r a d d l e s two d i s t i n c t sediment zones. The f l o o d p l a i n l o c a t e d below t h e s i t e i s composed o f F r a s e r R i v e r f l o o d p l a i n d e p o s i t s w h i c h a r e composed o f sand, s i l t and c l a y (Armstrong 1959) . The second zone i s composed o f H u n t i n g t o n g r a v e l ( c h a n n e l and f l o o d p l a i n d e p o s i t s ) o v e r l y i n g Sumas t i l l . T h i s zone forms t h e t e r r a c e on w h i c h F i g u r e 2.1 Map of t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e V i c i n i t y the H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s s i t u a t e d (Armstrong 1959) . The g l a c i a l e r r a t i c " H a t z i c Rock" i s o b v i o u s e v i d e n c e o f Sumas t i l l . G r a v e l and sand d e p o s i t s , up t o 31 m t h i c k , u n d e r l i e Sumas t i l l . A r e v i e w o f t h e g e o l o g i c and h y d r o l o g i e l i t e r a t u r e f a i l e d t o f i n d a s t u d y w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e F r a s e r R i v e r f o r t h e p e r i o d r e f l e c t e d i n d e p o s i t s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e ( c . 4500-5000 B P ) . S i m i l a r l y , t h i s s e a r c h f a i l e d t o l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i n d i c a t e s when H a t z i c Lake was p a r t o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r c h a n n e l and not an oxbow l a k e . McLean (1990) has examined F r a s e r R i v e r c h a n n e l i n s t a b i l i t y and h i s t o r i c a l c h a n n e l changes, however, t h e time frame o f h i s work f a l l s s h o r t o f t h e p e r i o d a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . McLean's a n a l y s i s o f h i s t o r i c r i v e r changes r e s t r i c t s i t s e l f t o t h e l a s t 100 y e a r s and r e l i e s h e a v i l y on maps and a e r i a l p h o t o s (McLean 1990:104). McLean's (1990:104) r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h e F r a s e r R i v e r c h a n n e l remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e o v e r t h e p a s t c e n t u r y and d e t e r m i n e d t h a t p r o c e s s e s o f e r o s i o n and d e p o s i t i o n a r e slow, t e n d i n g t o e v o l v e o v e r a p e r i o d o f decades. S u b s e q u e n t l y , r i v e r c h a n n e l changes may not show any c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s h o r t t e rm f l o w c o n d i t i o n s o r l o c a l h y d r a u l i c p a r a m e t e r s . McLean's s t u d y s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s s e s s i n g s e d i m e n t a t i o n o r r i v e r c h a n n e l changes i s b e s t measured i n y e a r s o r decades (McLean 1990:219). McLean's s t u d y d i d n o t c i t e s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h f o r e a r l i e r p e r i o d s , t h e r e f o r e , i t i s assumed t h a t s uch a s t u d y i s y e t t o be c o n ducted. The p r e s e n c e of r i v e r i n e sediments a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e and f e a t u r e s such as an oxbow l a k e nearby, r e v e a l s t h a t a t some p o i n t t h e r i v e r c o u r s e , o r a p o r t i o n o f i t s f l o w , was c l o s e r t o t h e s i t e t h a n i t i s t o d a y . Today, t h e F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y p o s s e s s e s a m i l d c l i m a t e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by wet w i n t e r s and c o o l summers. Throughout the y e a r , m o i s t m a r i t i m e a i r masses dominate t h i s r e g i o n . These a i r masses v a r y l i t t l e i n t h e i r s e a s o n a l t e m p e r a t u r e and t e n d t o o c c u r as s u r g e s o f westward moving c y c l o n i c storms ( S t a g e r and W a l l i s 1968:89) . The p a t t e r n o f w i n t e r a i r masses, w h i c h o r i g i n a t e i n t h e G u l f o f A l a s k a , b r i n g s heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n and c o l d t e m p e r a t u r e s t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y ( S t a g e r and W a l l i s 1968:89-90) . The Coast M o u n t a i n s , l o c a t e d n o r t h o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e , o c c a s i o n a l l y f a i l t o c o n t a i n c o l d a i r masses o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e B.C. I n t e r i o r . As a r e s u l t , t e m p e r a t u r e s drop t o t h e n e a r - z e r o l e v e l and heavy s n o w f a l l s r e s u l t i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y ( S t a g e r and W a l l i s 1968:90). Summer months a r e dominated by h i g h p r e s s u r e systems w h i c h b r i n g c l e a r s k i e s and moderate t e m p e r a t u r e s t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y . The summer s t o r m t r a c k t e n d s t o l i e n o r t h o f c o a s t a l B r i t i s h C olumbia r e s u l t i n g i n l e s s p r e c i p i t a t i o n ( S t a g e r and W a l l i s 1968:90). P o l l e n a n a l y s i s has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t o d a y ' s c l i m a t e i s s i m i l a r t o t h e c l i m a t e f o r t h e p e r i o d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e p o s i t s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e (c. 4500- 5000 BP) (Mathewes 1973:44). An abundance o f hemlock and ceda r p o l l e n l o c a t e d above Mazama ash ( c . 6600 BP) s u g g e s t s wet mesothermal c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t e d t h e n as t h e y c o n t i n u e t o today. Two b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e H a t z i c a r e a . The C o a s t a l Western Hemlock Zone i s l o c a t e d a t low t o m i d d l e e l e v a t i o n s , and t h e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone i s p r e s e n t i n h i g h e r s u b a l p i n e zones ( P o j a r e t a l . 1991:96; 1991a:114). The H a t z i c Rock s i t e l i e s i n t h e C o a s t a l Western Hemlock Zone w h i c h i s dominated by w e s t e r n hemlock w i t h w e s t e r n r e d ceda r and D o u g l a s - f i r a l s o w i d e s p r e a d ( P o j a r e t a l . 1991:96) . V e g e t a t i o n w h i c h would have been common a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n i s r o u g h l y comparable t o H a t z i c 100 y e a r s ago ( p r i o r t o t h e o n s e t o f l a r g e s c a l e c ommercial l o g g i n g ) . An e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s i s ced a r w h i c h began t o f l o u r i s h a f t e r 6000 BP. P o l l e n a n a l y s i s has documented a major i n c r e a s e i n c e d a r f r e q u e n c y from 5000-2500 BP, a p e r i o d when c e d a r became a co-dominant s p e c i e s i n c o a s t a l f o r e s t s w i t h w e s t e r n hemlock (Hebda and Mathewes 1984 : 712) . H i s t o r y o f E t h n o g r a p h i c R e s e a r c h The S t o : l o I n d i a n s l i v e a l o n g t h e l o w e r 170 k i l o m e t e r s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r i n s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The name S t o : l o t r a n s l a t e s as "people of t h e r i v e r " and r e f e r s t o a l l n a t i v e bands and t r i b e s l i v i n g a l o n g t h e F r a s e r R i v e r from F i v e M i l e Creek, n e a r Y a l e , t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a . The S t o : l o a r e c o m p r i s e d o f many d i f f e r e n t bands b u t a t the time o f w r i t i n g p r e f e r t o be r e c o g n i z e d c o l l e c t i v e l y as S t o : l o w i t h two e x c e p t i o n s , t h e K a t z i e and Musqueam. A l l S t o : l o ( i n c l u d i n g t h e Musqueam and K a t z i e ) a r e members o f the g r e a t e r Coast S a l i s h I n d i a n N a t i o n (Mohs 1992:8). The Halkomelem name H a t z i c i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a b u l l r u s h o r r e e d w h i c h grew i n p r o f u s i o n i n t h e t e r r i t o r y o f the H a t z i c p e o p l e (Mohs 1992:9). M a r i o n S m i t h n o t e d t h a t t h e H a t z i c l i v e d a t a s m a l l l a k e ( H a t z i c Lake?) below Dewdney b u t were no l o n g e r e x i s t i n g as a t r i b e when she worked i n t h e a r e a (Smith 1936-1939:MS 268:3:2:10). S i m i l a r l y , D u f f d e s c r i b e d t h e H a t z i c as a s m a l l t r i b e t h a t o c c u p i e d l a n d a l o n g t h e n o r t h bank o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r around H a t z i c Lake (Duff 1952:23). The H a t z i c Rock s i t e l i e s i n t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e H a t z i c t r i b e w h i c h was d e c l a r e d e x t i n c t by t h e Can a d i a n government. Gordon Mohs, h e r i t a g e c o n s u l t a n t f o r t h e S t o : l o T r i b a l C o u n c i l , has had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r v i e w a number o f S t o : l o e l d e r s who p o s s e s s knowledge o f t h e H a t z i c p e o p l e . An e l d e r f rom C h e h a l i s i n d i c a t e d t h e H a t z i c were w i p e d out by s m a l l p o x and o t h e r d i s e a s e s p r i o r t o 1900. The H a t z i c who s u r v i v e d t h o s e e p i d e m i c s were a b s o r b e d by t h e K a t z i e and Nooksack t r i b e s (Mohs 1992:9). The F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y has had a l o n g h i s t o r y o f e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h . O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e S t o : l o were f i r s t r e c o r d e d by t h e e x p l o r e r Simon F r a s e r who descended the r i v e r w h i c h b e a r s h i s name i n 1808. E r a s e r ' s l e t t e r s and j o u r n a l s p r o v i d e a g l i m p s e o f S t o : l o c u l t u r e a t t h e time of h i s voyage (Lamb 1960). C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t c o n d u c t e d f i e l d r e s e a r c h among t h e Coast S a l i s h , i n c l u d i n g some S t o : l o g r o u p s . The r e s u l t s o f h i s r e s e a r c h were p u b l i s h e d between 1895 and 1911 (Maud 1978:163). H i l l - T o u t ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e C h i l l i w a c k , P i l a i t , K w a n t l e n , C h e h a l i s and S c o w l i t z p e o p l e a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s r e s e a r c h as t h e y i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n on place-names and a s p e c t s o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e (Maud 1978) . Diamond Jenness v i s i t e d t h e K a t z i e r e s e r v e i n 1936 and i n t e r v i e w e d O l d P i e r r e , a 75 y e a r o l d " I n d i a n d o c t o r " . Though Jenness c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e f a i t h o f O l d P i e r r e , he e x p l o r e d a s p e c t s o f K a t z i e c u l t u r e i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and d a i l y l i f e (Jenness 1955:5). M a r i o n S m i t h c o n d u c t e d f i e l d w o r k among t h e Coast S a l i s h of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Washington S t a t e d u r i n g t h e l a t e 1930's. Smith's r e s e a r c h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s r e s e a r c h f o r h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s on Coast S a l i s h d w e l l i n g s and h e r t e s t e x c a v a t i o n a t t h e McCallum s i t e n e a r A g a s s i z (see S m i t h 1936-1939, 1940, 1940a, 1941, 1947, 1950, 1950a, 1954) . W i l s o n D u f f began e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h among t h e S t o : l o d u r i n g t h e summers o f 1949 and 1950 t o c o l l e c t d a t a f o r h i s U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s (1952a). D u f f spent n i n e weeks among t h e S t o : l o and l a t e r p u b l i s h e d "The Upper S t a l o I n d i a n s of t h e F r a s e r R i v e r o f B.C." (1952) an ethnography t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e T a i t , C h i l l i w a c k and P i l a i t p e o p l e o f t h e upper F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y . A l t h o u g h D u f f ' s s t u d y c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e s e groups, he n o t e d much of the i n f o r m a t i o n was a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r S t o : l o groups (Duff 1952:7). D u f f ' s ethnography encompassed such b r o a d t o p i c s as envir o n m e n t , v i l l a g e names and l o c a t i o n s , h i s t o r y , m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , s u b s i s t e n c e , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , s o c i a l dynamics, e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s , b e l i e f s and p a s t i m e s . W h i l e p r e p a r i n g Diamond Jen n e s s ' K a t z i e m a t e r i a l f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , Wayne S u t t l e s c o n ducted f u r t h e r e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h among t h e K a t z i e d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1952 and subsequent v i s i t s ( S u t t l e s 1955:5). S u t t l e s v i s i t e d K a t z i e v i l l a g e t o c l a r i f y J e n n e s s ' p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f n a t i v e terms w i t h O l d P i e r r e ' s son Simon. S u t t l e s a l s o g a t h e r e d m a t e r i a l on K a t z i e i d e n t i t y , n e i g h b o r s , h a b i t a t , s u b s i s t e n c e and k i n s h i p t i e s . J e n n e s s ' e a r l i e r m a t e r i a l and S u t t l e s ' l a t e r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the K a t z i e were p u b l i s h e d i n th e same monograph (Jenness 1955; S u t t l e s 1955). D u r i n g t h e I960's O l i v e r W e l l s , a l o n g t i m e C h i l l i w a c k r e s i d e n t and amateur a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f S t o : l o c u l t u r e (see W e l l s 1963, 1965, 1965a, 1965b, 1966, 1966a). Most r e l e v a n t t o t h i s r e s e a r c h i s a p o s t h u m o u s l y p u b l i s h e d c o l l e c t i o n o f W e l l s ' o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h c o n t a i n s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f t a p e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h n a t i v e e l d e r s on t o p i c s i n c l u d i n g p r e c o n t a c t n a t i v e c u l t u r e , m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , m i s s i o n i z a t i o n , mythology and l i f e h i s t o r i e s ( W e l l s 1987). T h i s a s s o r t m e n t of e t h n o g r a p h i c s o u r c e s p r o v i d e d t h e d a t a t o f o r m u l a t e a p i c t u r e o f S t o : l o c u l t u r e d u r i n g t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , however, problems e x i s t . F o r example. D u f f ' s (1952) ac c o u n t of S t o r l o c u l t u r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e most complete body of d a t a from t h e s t u d y a r e a y e t t h e number of i n d i v i d u a l s he i n t e r v i e w e d was l i m i t e d t o s i x (Duff 1952:9- 10). Such a s m a l l sample r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s i n terms o f i t s coverage and a c c u r a c y . T h i s does not mean D u f f ' s (1952) d a t a , o r t h a t o f o t h e r a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , i s not u s e f u l , r a t h e r i t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e need t o be aware of t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g each work. I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and methodology must be f a c t o r e d i n when u s i n g such d a t a . W i t h t h i s p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m i n mind, a d e s c r i p t i o n of S t o : l o s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s f rom t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d f o l l o w s . T h i s summary i s b a s e d on an amalgam of t h e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s c i t e d above. By u s i n g s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f any i n a c c u r a c i e s o r i n h e r e n t b i a s e s a r e k e p t t o a minimum. S t o : l o S u b s i s t e n c e and S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n s The summer months were the most i m p o r t a n t t o t h e S t o : l o economy due t o l a r g e p r e d i c t a b l e runs of spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . A l l f i v e s p e c i e s o f P a c i f i c salmon were a v a i l a b l e i n t h e r i v e r s b u t Chinook (0. tshawytscha) and coho (0. k i s u t c h ) were most i m p o r t a n t due t o t h e i r s i z e and s u i t a b i l i t y f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n (Duff 1952:62-63). Sockeye (0. nerka) runs began i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r d u r i n g t h e m i d d l e o f June and peaked a f t e r m i d - J u l y when f r e s h e t s had s u b s i d e d (Duff 1952:62). P i n k salmon (0. gorbuscha) spawned i n l a t e August and c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h most of September. Chum salmon (0. k e t a ) spawned i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r from mid-September t h r o u g h t o December w h i l e coho spawned i n t h e l a t e f a l l and w i n t e r i n s m a l l streams w h i c h f e e d t h e F r a s e r R i v e r (Duff 1952:62). The s i z e and i m p o r t a n c e of t h e F r a s e r R i v e r salmon f i s h e r y i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e number of p e o p l e i t a t t r a c t e d . I n d i a n s from many r e g i o n s i n c l u d i n g t h e mouth of t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and Vancouver I s l a n d a r r i v e d i n Upper S t o : l o t e r r i t o r y t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e f i s h e r y . These groups would ascend the F r a s e r R i v e r and i n t o t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r Canyon t o amass w i n t e r s t o r e s o f p r e s e r v e d salmon (Duff 1952:25; Maud 1978:12) . Summer months were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n g r e g a t i o n s of p e o p l e a t f a v o u r a b l e f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s . L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f S t o : l o summer r e s i d e n c e s , however, i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t some Upper S t o : l o l i v e d i n p l a n k houses o r temporary mat b u i l d i n g s (Duff 1952:50; W e l l s 1987:35). The ty p e o f r e s i d e n c e l i k e l y depended on t h e l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e procurement s i t e s and t h e p l a n n e d l e n g t h o f s t a y . The f a l l s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n was i n many ways a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e summer p a t t e r n . Salmon were s t i l l p l e n t i f u l i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . By l a t e September emphasis on t h e salmon f i s h e r y began t o wane as o t h e r economic a c t i v i t i e s , such as h u n t i n g and b e r r y i n g , g a t h e r e d momentum (Duff 1952:62) . Most h u n t i n g t o o k p l a c e i n t h e f a l l as a n i m a l s tended t o be f a t and t h e i r young had had t h e summer t o d e v e l o p (Duff 1952:72). A f t e r t h e salmon d r y i n g s eason h u n t e r s went i n t o t h e mountains i n s e a r c h of game, o f t e n f o r s e v e r a l days. Some h u n t i n g f o r a y s c o u l d l a s t s e v e r a l weeks. I n t h e s e c a s e s , h u n t e r s e s t a b l i s h e d base camps (Duff 1952:73). S p e c i e s h u nted i n c l u d e b l a c k b e a r (Ursus a m e r i c a n u s ) , mountain goat (Oreamnos a m e r i c a n u s ) . d e e r ( O d o c o i l e u s s p . ) , w a p i t i (Cervus e l a p h u s ) , g r i z z l y b e a r (Ursus a r c t o s ) and be a v e r ( C a s t o r c a n a d e n s i s ) . B i r d s p e c i e s i n c l u d e ducks (Anas s p . ) , Canada geese ( B r a n t a c a n a d a e n s i s ) , b a l d e a g l e s ( H a l i a e e t u s l e u c o c e p h a l u s ) , and s p r u c e g r o u s e (Dendragapus c a n a d e n s i s ) (Duff 1952:71). P l a n t f o o d a v a i l a b l e i n t h e f a l l i n c l u d e d w i l d c r a b - a p p l e s and h a z e l n u t s . C r a n b e r r i e s , w h i c h grew i n K a t z i e t e r r i t o r y and o t h e r a r e a s n e a r t h e mouth o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , were o f t e n o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t r a d e o r from v i s i t o r s (Duff 1952:74; S u t t l e s 1955:10,27). The K a t z i e a l s o dug wapato, a w i l d r o o t v e g e t a b l e , d u r i n g t h e f a l l ( S u t t l e s 1955:10,27) . The a v a i l a b i l i t y and n a t i v e use o f p l a n t foods i n S t o : l o t e r r i t o r y has been w e l l documented by D u f f (1952), T u r n e r (1975,1978), T u r n e r e t a l . (1990), and T u r n e r and B e l l (1971) . The f a l l months were l i k e l y a p e r i o d o f p o p u l a t i o n d i s p e r s a l as s m a l l t a s k groups s p r e a d a c r o s s t h e l a n d s c a p e t o t a k e advantage o f a v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e s . D w e l l i n g s used i n t h e f a l l w o uld be s i m i l a r t o t h o s e used t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer. B o t h temporary mat l o d g e s and p l a n k houses were u t i l i z e d n e a r t h e f i s h e r i e s w h i l e mat l o d g e s were u s e d w h i l e h u n t i n g and c o l l e c t i n g . W i n t e r was t h e season when p r i m a r y group v i l l a g e s were u t i l i z e d by t h e S t o : l o . W i n t e r was l a r g e l y a t i m e o f c e r e m o n i a l a c t i v i t y w i t h l e s s emphasis p l a c e d on s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s . S t o r e d f o o d s , such as salmon and d r i e d b e r r i e s , were u t i l i z e d (Duff 1952:73; S u t t l e s 1955:10). S t e e l h e a d t r o u t , w h i c h spawned i n J a n u a r y , were caught i n t h e w i n t e r ( S u t t l e s 1955:22; W e l l s 1987:133). A l t h o u g h most h u n t i n g o c c u r r e d i n t h e f a l l , b e a r s were smoked out of t h e i r dens i n t h e w i n t e r (Duff 1952:71-72; S u t t l e s 1955:21; W e l l s 1987:57) . W i n t e r d w e l l i n g s were one of two t y p e s . The T a i t , C h i l l i w a c k , P i l a i t , C h e h a l i s and S c o w l i t z i n h a b i t e d p i t h o u s e s d u r i n g t h e r e g i o n ' s t h r e e c o l d e s t months (January- March) (Maud 1978:118). Groups l o c a t e d f u r t h e r d o w n r i v e r below C h i l l i w a c k and S c o w l i t z c o n s i d e r e d p i t h o u s e s a l u x u r y and used them o n l y on r a r e o c c a s i o n s (Duff 1952:46; Maud 1978:47; W e l l s 1987:35). W i l s o n D u f f ' s i n f o r i n a n t , R o b e r t Joe, a C h i l l i w a c k , s u g g e s t e d t h a t p i t h o u s e s below C h i l l i w a c k and S c o w l i t z were r a r e due t o problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low ground and w a t e r seepage (Duff 1952:46). Shed-roof p l a n k houses were t h e most common w i n t e r d w e l l i n g d o w n r i v e r from t h e C h i l l i w a c k and S c o w l i t z (Duff 1952:46,49). D u f f ' s K a t z i e i n f o r m a n t , Edmond L o r e n z o mentioned o t h e r l e s s common p l a n k house t y p e s i n t h i s r e g i o n . L o r e n z o d e s c r i b e d a g a b l e r o o f house o f h i s g r a n d f a t h e r w h i c h was s i m i l a r t o o t h e r s l o c a t e d a t Sumas and el s e w h e r e . L o r e n z o a l s o spoke of C h i l l i w a c k t r a d i t i o n s i n wh i c h a house w i t h an i n v e r t e d g a b l e r o o f f e a t u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y . D u f f s u g g e s t e d t h e s e " u n u s u a l " house t y p e s may have been r e l a t e d t o t h e development and growt h o f c e r e m o n i a l and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s (Duff 1952:48). Upper S t o : l o w i n t e r v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n s t e n d e d t o be f l u i d w i t h f a m i l i e s o f t e n r e l o c a t i n g t o o t h e r v i l l a g e s o r v a c a n t l o c a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , t h e b e s t p l a c e s f o r h a b i t a t i o n w i t h i n a group's t e r r i t o r y would l i k e l y have been used a t one ti m e o r a n o t h e r . Much o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n movement was m o t i v a t e d by t h e s e a r c h f o r r i c h e r f o o d r e s o u r c e s o r f i r e w o o d . However, some movement would be due t o i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n o r t h e d e s i r e f o r a change i n s u r r o u n d i n g s . A few v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s , such as Y a l e , Hope and L a n g l e y , were permanent due t o t h e e x t r e m e l y r i c h r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e nearby. D u f f (1952:85) s p e c u l a t e d t h e r e were few Upper S t o : l o v i l l a g e s w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s e x c e e d i n g 50 i n d i v i d u a l s . Recent r e s e a r c h a t t h e K e a t l e y Creek p i t h o u s e v i l l a g e n e ar L i l l o o e t b r i n g s D u f f ' s v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s i n t o q u e s t i o n . Hayden and S p a f f o r d (1993:116-117) argue t h a t one p e r s o n r e s i d e d i n a p i t h o u s e p e r 2.5 m̂  o f f l o o r space. I f such d e n s i t i e s were s i m i l a r i n S t o : l o p i t h o u s e s t h e n D u f f ' s (1952) e s t i m a t e s must be c o n s i d e r e d low. Hayden's r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s S t o : l o v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s s h o u l d be re-examined i n l i g h t o f t h e K e a t l e y Creek d a t a (see a l s o Hayden 1992) . S p r i n g was an i m p o r t a n t p e r i o d f o r t h e S t o : l o as f o o d s u p p l i e s needed r e p l e n i s h i n g . P l a n t foods p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e a t t h i s t i m e o f y e a r . The s h o o t s o f sa l m o n b e r r y , t h i m b l e b e r r y , t h e round s t a l k o f t h e cow- p a r s n i p and o t h e r g r e e n s h o o t s were e a t e n (Duff 1952:74) . The a v a i l a b i l i t y and n a t i v e use of p l a n t f o o d s has been w e l l documented and t h e r e a d e r i s a g a i n r e f e r r e d t o D u f f (1952), T u r n e r (1975,1978), T u r n e r e t a l . (1990), and T u r n e r and B e l l (1971) f o r an i n - d e p t h d i s c u s s i o n of t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y and use o f p l a n t f o o d s . E u l a c h o n ( T h a l e i c h t h y s p a c i f i c u s ) , an abundant anadromous f i s h , e n t e r t h e F r a s e r R i v e r d u r i n g l a t e A p r i l u n t i l t h e end o f May (Drake and W i l s o n 1992:8; D u f f 1952:70; S u t t l e s 1955:21,23). These f i s h were caught i n l a r g e numbers by t h e S t o : l o and p r o v i d e d an i m p o r t a n t a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r d i e t . E u l a c h o n r e g u l a r l y ascend t h e F r a s e r R i v e r as f a r as M i s s i o n b u t r a r e l y f u r t h e r t h a n C h i l l i w a c k . E u l a c h o n were p r e s e r v e d by smoking r a t h e r t h a n r e n d e r e d i n t o o i l as was t h e p r a c t i c e o f o t h e r groups on t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t (Drake and W i l s o n 1992:22; D u f f 1952:71). The K a t z i e h a r v e s t e d t h e s e f i s h w i t h r a k e s whereas bag n e t s were used i n Upper S t o : l o t e r r i t o r y (Duff 1952:71; S u t t l e s 1955:23). White s t u r g e o n ( A c i p e n s e r t r a n s m o n t a n u s ) , a f i s h s p e c i e s w h i c h can weigh as much as 800 kg, were a l s o consumed by t h e S t o : l o (Duff 1952:67). S t u r g e o n were a v a i l a b l e y e a r - r o u n d b u t were most e a s i l y o b t a i n e d d u r i n g June and J u l y when t h e y moved i n t o s h a l l o w r i v e r s l o u g h s t o spawn (Duff 1952:67; Von Krough 1980:12). T r o u t a l s o spawned i n t h e s p r i n g and were h a r v e s t e d i n some number (W e l l s 1987:107). By mid-June spawning sockeye would b e g i n t o appear and economic a c t i v i t i e s would a g a i n t u r n t o t h e salmon f i s h e r y (Duff 1952:63). L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s d e s c r i b i n g s p r i n g d w e l l i n g s , however, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t w i n t e r d w e l l i n g s remained i n h a b i t e d u n t i l t h e p o p u l a t i o n began t o d i s p e r s e i n s e a r c h of s e a s o n a l r e s o u r c e s . D w e l l i n g s a t t h e s e procurement l o c a t i o n s were l i k e l y e i t h e r p l a n k houses o r temporary mat s t r u c t u r e s depending upon t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s , group s i z e and t h e p l a n n e d d u r a t i o n of t h e s t a y ( S u t t l e s 1955:15) . O r a l T r a d i t i o n o f t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f e x c a v a t i o n s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e Gordon Mohs c o l l e c t e d o r a l t r a d i t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o H a t z i c Rock from S t o : l o e l d e r s . Three e l d e r s r e v e a l e d t h a t H a t z i c Rock i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an e a r l i e r p e r i o d i n S t o r l o h i s t o r y when t h e C r e a t o r , Xa: I s . came t o e a r t h . I n t h i s e a r l i e r t i m e , f o u r g r e a t c h i e f s c h a l l e n g e d t h e a u t h o r i t y of X a : I s and were s u b s e q u e n t l y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e s t o n e a t H a t z i c . One e l d e r a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t Shxwexwo: s, t h e T h u n d e r b i r d t h a t l i v e s on nearby Sumas Mou n t a i n , a c t s as the g u a r d i a n o f H a t z i c Rock (Mohs 1992:11). Recent H i s t o r y o f t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e Through i n t e r v i e w s w i t h S t o : l o e l d e r s Mohs l e a r n t t h a t t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g H a t z i c Rock was used as a c a m p s i t e i n the e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . S t o : l o I n d i a n s from t h e upper F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y camped a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i n t h e mid-1800's when t h e O b l a t e m i s s i o n a t M i s s i o n was b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d . O t h e r i n f o r m a n t s i n d i c a t e d L i l ' w a t I n d i a n s from P o r t Douglas and Skookumchuk, on H a r r i s o n Lake, camped a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e w h i l e t h e m i s s i o n was b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d (Mohs 1992:10). The H a t z i c Rock s i t e appears t o have been known as a f a v o r a b l e c a m p s i t e f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e i n the r e g i o n even though th e l a s t o f t h e H a t z i c p e o p l e had d i e d from d i s e a s e o r l e f t the a r e a . The H a t z i c Rock s i t e was c l e a r e d o f n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n and u sed as an o r c h a r d by the Catherwood f a m i l y (Mohs 1992:11). The p r e s e n c e of a few r e m a i n i n g f r u i t t r e e s on t h e n o r t h e r n f r i n g e s o f t h e p r o p e r t y a t t e s t t o t h i s use ( W i l s o n 1991:6). A l a r g e s e c t i o n o f t h e r i v e r t e r r a c e (c. 8000 m2) w h i c h t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e o c c u p i e s was removed f o r d i k e f i l l i n t h e f l o o d y e a r of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1960 ( W i l s o n 1 9 9 1 : 6 ) ( F i g u r e 2.2). The Catherwood p r o p e r t y was e v e n t u a l l y s o l d t o Mr. H a r r y U t z i g i n 1979 (Mohs 1992:11). The B r i t i s h C olumbia P r o v i n c i a l Government r e c o g n i z e d t h e h e r i t a g e v a l u e of t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e and p u r c h a s e d t h e p r o p e r t y i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1993 and t u r n e d i t s management o v e r t o t h e B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t . F i g u r e 2.2 C ontour Map of the H a t z i c Rock S i t e CHAPTER THREE CHRONOLOGY I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f m a t e r i a l e x c a v a t e d f rom t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . T h i s i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f e x c a v a t i o n methods, s t r a t i g r a p h y and r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e p o s i t s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o o c c u p a t i o n zones t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e a n a l y s i s o f a r t i f a c t s and f e a t u r e s i n c h a p t e r s f o u r and f i v e . E x c a v a t i o n Methods D u r i n g a c u r s o r y f i e l d i n s p e c t i o n o f a new s u b d i v i s i o n development, a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e p o s i t s were d i s c o v e r e d a t the H a t z i c Rock s i t e i n O c t o b e r 1990 by Gordon Mohs (Mohs 1991:1; W i l s o n 1991:2). As p r e p a r a t i o n s were b e i n g made t o conduct an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assessment o f t h e s i t e , t h e t o p metre o f d e p o s i t was removed by t h e d e v e l o p e r and r e d e p o s i t e d i n l o n g berms a l o n g t h e s o u t h e r n p e r i m e t e r o f the p r o p e r t y (Mohs 1991:1; W i l s o n 1991:6). E x c a v a t i o n s , d i r e c t e d by Mohs, began a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i n l a t e O c t o b e r o f 1990 w i t h f u n d i n g p r o v i d e d by t h e S t o : l o T r i b a l C o u n c i l and t h e M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e t h r o u g h t h e B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t and B.C. L o t t e r i e s (Mohs 1991:1). F i e l d w o r k i n c l u d e d t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f s i x 1x1 m u n i t s , by a r b i t r a r y 10 cm l e v e l s , and t h e s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s . T h i s f i e l d w o r k c o n c l u d e d i n November 1990 due t o i n c l e m e n t w e a ther and a l a c k o f f u n d s . E x c a v a t i o n u n i t s were c o v e r e d and t h e a r e a was f e n c e d o f f (Mohs 1991:1). E x c a v a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g and summer o f 1991. The S t o r l o T r i b a l C o u n c i l and t h e U.B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y f i e l d s c h o o l c o n d u c t e d a c o l l a b o r a t i v e s a l v a g e e x c a v a t i o n a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e p r i o r t o i t s a n t i c i p a t e d d e s t r u c t i o n by t h e s u b d i v i s i o n development. The S t o : l o crew was s u p e r v i s e d by Gordon Mohs of t h e S t o : l o T r i b a l C o u n c i l . The U.B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y f i e l d s c h o o l was s u p e r v i s e d by P r o f e s s o r D a v i d P o k o t y l o . F u n d i n g f o r t h i s e x c a v a t i o n was p r o v i d e d by a g r a n t f rom t h e B.C. A r c h a e o l o g y B r a n c h . F u n d i n g i n k i n d was p r o v i d e d by the S t o : l o T r i b a l C o u n c i l . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia Dean o f A r t s O f f i c e p r o v i d e d s u p p l e m e n t a r y f u n d i n g f o r t h e U.B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y f i e l d s c h o o l . The B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t p r o v i d e d funds t o o p e r a t e a p u b l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n program a t t h e s i t e . I n September o f 1991, I.R. W i l s o n C o n s u l t a n t s , L t d . were r e t a i n e d by t h e B.C. A r c h a e o l o g y B r a n c h t o conduct an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y and impact assessment o f the H a t z i c Rock s i t e . T h i s work was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e impact t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e p r o p o s e d r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n development. W i l s o n ' s f i e l d w o r k sought t o d e t e r m i n e s i t e b o u n d a r i e s w i t h i n t h e p r o p o s e d development and t o i d e n t i f y t h e n a t u r e of c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s ( W i l s o n 1991:2). U s i n g a backhoe, W i l s o n a s s e s s e d t h e n a t u r e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e p o s i t s a t n i n e t e e n l o c a t i o n s a c r o s s t h e p r o p o s e d development p r o p e r t y . T h i s t h e s i s s t u d i e s t h e m a t e r i a l s c o l l e c t e d by t h e c o n t r o l l e d e x c a v a t i o n s t h a t t o o k p l a c e a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e d u r i n g t h e f a l l o f 1990 and t h e spring/summer o f 1991. I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d by I.R. W i l s o n C o n s u l t a n t s , L t d . i s o n l y u s e d i n g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s i t e . A v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s were employed t o e x c a v a t e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e p o s i t s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . As t h e e x c a v a t i o n was t r e a t e d as a s a l v a g e o p e r a t i o n v a r i o u s methods e v o l v e d d u r i n g t h e f i e l d w o r k i n o r d e r t o r e c o v e r as much i n f o r m a t i o n as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . The s i z e o f most e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s was e i t h e r 1x1 m o r 2x2 m, however, some i r r e g u l a r u n i t s were e x c a v a t e d n e a r t h e end o f t h e 1991 f i e l d season. I n a l l , t h i r t y - e i g h t u n i t s were e x c a v a t e d a l o n g w i t h f i v e e x p l o r a t o r y back-hoe t r e n c h e s (see F i g u r e 3.1). T r e n c h 2 was l a t e r d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e 2x2 m u n i t s ( u n i t s 33-35) and e x c a v a t e d by hand. The southernmost p o r t i o n o f t r e n c h 5 was r e d e s i g n a t e d as u n i t 36 and e x c a v a t e d by hand. An a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 67 m̂  was e x c a v a t e d . U.B.C. f i e l d s c h o o l e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s were e x c a v a t e d by n a t u r a l l a y e r s i n 10 cm a r b i t r a r y l e v e l s . These 2x2 m u n i t s were s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s i x t e e n 50 cm x 50 cm s u b u n i t s t o F i g u r e 3.1 P l a n of E x c a v a t i o n U n i t s p r o v i d e g r e a t e r h o r i z o n t a l c o n t r o l f o r t h e m a t e r i a l r e c o v e r e d . U n i t s e x c a v a t e d by t h e S t o : l o crew were e x c a v a t e d by 10 cm a r b i t r a r y l e v e l s . The S t o : l o crew d i d not s e p a r a t e d i s c r e t e l a y e r s o r d i v i d e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s i n t o s u b u n i t s . A l l m a t r i x was s c r e e n e d t h r o u g h M" mesh and a r t i f a c t s found i n s i t u had t h e i r l o c a t i o n s t i e d i n t o t h e u n i t datum. F l o o r p l a n s o f each l e v e l and i t s f e a t u r e s were drawn. Carbon and s o i l samples were t a k e n t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x c a v a t i o n as r e q u i r e d . W a l l p r o f i l e s were drawn o f completed u n i t s . L a t e i n t h e e x c a v a t i o n , a f t e r t h e U.B.C. f i e l d s c h o o l had c o n c l u d e d , methods were m o d i f i e d t o s a l v a g e as much i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e p r i o r t o t h e immanent development o f the p r o p e r t y . A l t h o u g h not i d e a l from an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , few o p t i o n s e x i s t e d . A r b i t r a r y l e v e l s were i n c r e a s e d t o 2 0 cm and s h o v e l s r e p l a c e d t r o w e l s i n most i n s t a n c e s . A backhoe was used t o e x c a v a t e f i v e t r e n c h e s around t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a t o a s s i s t i n p l a c i n g o t h e r u n i t s as time r a n s h o r t . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n , i t became e v i d e n t t h e remains o f a l a r g e s t r u c t u r e were b e i n g u n c o v e r e d . T h i s s t r u c t u r e became t h e f o c u s o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n . Near t h e end of t h e summer f i e l d s eason s e v e r a l e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s were r a p i d l y e x c a v a t e d t o l o c a t e t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n l i m i t o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e . These u n i t s were not e x c a v a t e d by l e v e l s b u t s i m p l y s h o v e l e d o u t . A r t i f a c t s l o c a t e d i n s i t u were r e t a i n e d w i t h p e r t i n e n t p r o v e n i e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n . M a t r i x was not s c r e e n e d . The e x c a v a t i o n o f t h e s e u n i t s c e a s e d when p o s t h o l e f e a t u r e s d e m a r c a t i n g t h e edge o f t h e s t r u c t u r e were e n c o u n t e r e d . S t r a t i g r a p h y S t r a t i g r a p h y a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e was complex as l a y e r s were n o t e a s i l y d i s c e r n e d above f l o o r d e p o s i t s ( F i g u r e 3.2). M a t r i x above s t e r i l e g r a v e l d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t e d o f homogenous a c c u m u l a t i o n s o f f l u v i a l m a t r i x . T h i s m a t r i x t e n d e d t o be r o c k f r e e w i t h l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n c o l o u r . U n d e r l y i n g s t e r i l e g r a v e l d e p o s i t s were e i t h e r u n s o r t e d a c c u m u l a t i o n s o f p e b b l e s , c o b b l e s , and c o a r s e sand o r f i n e l y l a y e r e d v e n e e r s o f c o a r s e sand. The f i n e l a y e r e d sands suggest p e r i o d s when s t a n d i n g w a t e r a c c u m u l a t e d i n t h i s l o c a t i o n ( P a t t i s o n p e r s o n a l communication 1991). No attempt was made t o s e p a r a t e t h e s e two g r a v e l d e p o s i t s i n t h e p r o f i l e d r a w i n g s . R a d i o c a r b o n Acre E s t i m a t e s E i g h t r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e ( F i g u r e 3.3). S i x d a t e s from t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a i n d i c a t e a range o f 510 r a d i o c a r b o n y e a r s w i t h two a d d i t i o n a l d a t e s o b t a i n e d from a second s t r u c t u r e d i s c o v e r e d t o t h e e a s t ( t r e n c h 4 ) . F i g u r e 3.2 Main E x c a v a t i o n A r e a South W a l l P r o f i l e F i g u r e 3.3 R a d i o c a r b o n Dates from t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e -1 r Beta Beta Beta Nuta SFU WSU WSU 46707 46708 47260 1452 888 4327 4328 LAB NUMBER Sample Age One Standard Deviation Two Standard Deviations R a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s from t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a i n c l u d e two d a t e s f r o m a p o s t f e a t u r e i n u n i t 3. A sample from 180 cm d.b.u. (depth below u n i t ) p r o v i d e d a d a t e o f 4420±180 BP (Nuta-1452). A sample from 200 cm d.b.u. p r o v i d e d a p r o b l e m a t i c d a t e o f A.D. 2800^. Two r a d i o c a r b o n samples were o b t a i n e d from h e a r t h f e a t u r e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e ' s f l o o r d e p o s i t s . One sample d a t e d t o 4490±70 BP (SFU-888). A second sample d a t e d t o 4800±70 BP (Beta-46708). When s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , t h e two f l o o r d a t e s a r e r o u g h l y contemporary w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d p o s t f e a t u r e d a t e (4420±180 BP) . A f i f t h r a d i o c a r b o n sample, t a k e n from a c h a r c o a l l e n s i n u n i t 10, 15 cm above a g r a v e l bench f e a t u r e i n s i d e t h e s t r u c t u r e , d a t e d t o 4930±70 BP (WSU-4327). T h i s sample l i k e l y r e f l e c t s an age a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e o r a p e r i o d s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . T h i s d a t e i s o l d e r t h a n t h e d a t e o b t a i n e d from t h e p o s t f e a t u r e , b u t , when s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d , t h e s e d a t e s a l l f a l l w i t h i n t h e same g e n e r a l age range. A s t a t i s t i c a l summary o f t h e f o u r v a l i d d a t e s from s t r u c t u r e 1 p r o v i d e the age o f 4725±39 BP ( B e r r y 1982). The d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e o f t h e s i t e was d a t e d t o 4590±70 BP (WSU-4328) w i t h a sample t a k e n from a c h a r c o a l 1 The S.F.U. l a b number and t h e r a d i o c a r b o n age o f t h i s sample c o u l d n o t be o b t a i n e d d e s p i t e r e p e a t e d a t t e m p t s . The cause o f sample i n a c c u r a c y c o u l d n ot be d e t e r m i n e d . c o n c e n t r a t i o n 5.7m west of t h e u n i t 10 datum (5-15 cm d . b . s . ) . T h i s d a t e s u g g e s t s a r a p i d r a t e o f d e p o s i t i o n a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . A l s o d a t e d were t h e remains o f a second s t r u c t u r e , exposed e a s t o f t h e main e x c a v a t i o n by an e x p l o r a t o r y backhoe t r e n c h ( t r e n c h 4 ) . A c h a r c o a l sample, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e ' s f l o o r , was t a k e n from t h e n o r t h w a l l of t r e n c h 4 and d a t e d t o 8980±90 BP (Beta-46707). A second sample, a l s o t a k e n from t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t r e n c h 4, y i e l d e d a d a t e o f 4530±120 BP (Beta-47260). F i e l d n o t e s i n d i c a t e t h i s sample was t a k e n from "about" 20 cm above t h e s t r u c t u r e ' s f l o o r , however, w a l l p r o f i l e s s u g g e s t i t was t a k e n from t h e s t r u c t u r e ' s f l o o r . The s t r a t i g r a p h i e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two d a t e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3.4. The 8980 BP d a t e i s c o n s i d e r e d p r o b l e m a t i c because of i t s g r e a t age i n c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r samples from t h e s i t e ^ . The f a i l u r e t o s e c u r e a second d a t e o f t h i s a n t i q u i t y from an a d j a c e n t sample r a i s e d some c o n c e r n . As a r e s u l t , t h e 8980 BP d a t e i s d i s c o u n t e d . An a d d i t i o n a l d a t e ( s ) o f t h i s ^ B e t a A n a l y t i c , I n c . n o t e d a minor amount of r o o t c o n t a m i n a t i o n p r e s e n t i n t h i s sample and t h e amount of s u i t a b l e c a r b o n was s l i g h t l y on t h e low s i d e . I n r e s p o n s e t h e l a b p e r f o r m e d e x t e n d e d c o u n t i n g on t h e sample t o reduce t h e a s s o c i a t e d , somewhat h i g h e r s t a t i s t i c a l e r r o r term. The l a b a l s o went t o l e n g t h s t o ensure l a b p r o c e d u r e s and carbon c o n t e n t were c o r r e c t . The r e a s o n f o r t h e a p p a r e n t sample c o n t a m i n a t i o n i s not known. F i g u r e 3.4 Tren c h 4 N o r t h W a l l P r o f i l e w 4530 +/- 120 8980 +/- 90 Charcoal Charcoal stained Mottled brown fluvial deposits Sterile sand and gravel 0 metres age would be n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e t h e 8980 BP d a t e c o u l d be a c c e p t e d . Whether t h e sample w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e e a r l y d a t e i s a c c u r a t e , c o n t a m i n a t e d , o r r e p r e s e n t s o l d wood c o u l d not be d e t e r m i n e d (see Bowman 1990 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f c o n t a m i n a t i o n ) . The second d a t e from s t r u c t u r e two i s a l s o n o t w i t h o u t p r oblems. The 4530±120 BP (Beta-47260) d a t e r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s when compared t o t h e d a t e o b t a i n e d f o r t h e d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e . The d a t e f o r s t r u c t u r e two i s younger t h a n t h e s u r f a c e d a t e , however, t h e i r s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o v e r l a p . To summarize, r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s from s t r u c t u r e one p r o v i d e an a v e r a g e d age o f 4725±39 BP. Dates a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e second s t r u c t u r e , l o c a t e d i n t r e n c h 4, a r e p r o b l e m a t i c due t o l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e two sample ages. The second d a t e from s t r u c t u r e two i n d i c a t e s i t i s r o u g h l y contemporary w i t h t h e d i s t u r b e d s i t e s u r f a c e l o c a t e d 1 metre above i t . T h i s s u g g e s t s s t r u c t u r e two i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4500 y e a r s o l d . Though two o f t h e d a t e s o b t a i n e d from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e r a i s e s e r i o u s c o n c e r n s , t h e r e m a i n i n g d a t e s appear r e l i a b l e . That many o f t h e H a t z i c r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s o v e r l a p does n ot i n d i c a t e problems, r a t h e r i t r e f l e c t s t h e sh o r t c o m i n g s o f r a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g i n g e n e r a l . R a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g i s n o t p r e c i s e enough t o measure t h e r a p i d d e p o s i t i o n of m a t e r i a l w h i c h appears t o have o c c u r r e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . O c c u p a t i o n Zones Three major o c c u p a t i o n zones were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The second s t r u c t u r e exposed i n t r e n c h 4 was not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . The methods used t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e o c c u p a t i o n zones a r e d e s c r i b e d below. S t r a t i g r a p h y was t h e f i r s t method used t o s e p a r a t e o c c u p a t i o n zones. S t r a t i g r a p h y i s o l a t e d f l o o r d e p o s i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e from o v e r l y i n g f i l l . F l o o r d e p o s i t s were e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d as a t h i c k ( c . 10-20 cm) d a r k band o f m a t r i x o v e r l y i n g s t e r i l e g r a v e l . The d a r k c o l o u r o f f l o o r d e p o s i t s i s l i k e l y t o have been caused by the a c c u m u l a t i o n and t r a m p l i n g o f c h a r c o a l , a s h and o t h e r b y - p r o d u c t s o f d a i l y l i f e . The p r e s e n c e o f h e a r t h s and p o s t f e a t u r e s i n many w a l l p r o f i l e s a l s o h e l p e d i s o l a t e t h i s zone. The f l o o r was d e s i g n a t e d as o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . Though t h i s method p r o v e d t h e most s i m p l e and s u c c e s s f u l i t was not w i t h o u t p roblems. F o r example, as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the U.B.C. f i e l d s c h o o l , u n i t s were most o f t e n e x c a v a t e d i n a s e r i e s o f 10 cm o r 20 cm a r b i t r a r y l e v e l s . D i s t i n c t l a y e r s were n ot s e p a r a t e d so t h e r e was no attempt t o keep f l o o r d e p o s i t s s e p a r a t e f rom t h e f i l l . As a r e s u l t , b l u r r i n g e x i s t s between o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I and o v e r l y i n g d e p o s i t s i n some a r e a s o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n . The homogenous n a t u r e o f m a t r i x l o c a t e d above o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I p r e v e n t e d t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i e d e l i n e a t i o n of f u r t h e r o c c u p a t i o n zones. W h i l e s t r a t i g r a p h i e l e n s e s were p r e s e n t , t h e y c o v e r e d l i m i t e d a r e a s and c o u l d n o t be l i n k e d t o g e t h e r t o d e f i n e l a r g e r o c c u p a t i o n zones as was p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e f l o o r zone. The a b i l i t y t o i s o l a t e d i s c r e t e o c c u p a t i o n zones was f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d i n some o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s by d a t a q u a l i t y and t h e e f f e c t of s l o p i n g s t r u c t u r e w a l l s . I n resp o n s e t o t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s e l e v e n o f t h e t h i r t y - e i g h t e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s were i s o l a t e d as a " c o r e " a r e a ( F i g u r e 3.5). Core e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s were l o c a t e d i n a r e a s o f l e v e l f l o o r d e p o s i t s away from t h e edge o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . These e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s were used t o f u r t h e r d e l i n e a t e o c c u p a t i o n zones a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The a n a l y s i s o f h e a r t h f e a t u r e s i n t h e c o r e a r e a was the o n l y t e c h n i q u e w h i c h s u c c e s s f u l l y d e l i n e a t e d a d d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n zones. H e a r t h f e a t u r e s p r o v e d i d e a l f o r t h i s p urpose as t h e y o f t e n c o v e r e d a l a r g e a r e a and s u g g e s t e d some form o f l i v i n g f l o o r o r s u r f a c e . The l o c a t i o n o f h e a r t h f e a t u r e s i n c o r e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s were p l o t t e d by u n i t and l e v e l . T h i s method s u c c e s s f u l l y i d e n t i f i e d two zones o f o c c u p a t i o n above zone I I I . O c c u p a t i o n zone I was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t o p 40 cm of d e p o s i t s by t h e p r e s e n c e o f f o u r h e a r t h s a t r o u g h l y t h e same F i g u r e 3.5 Core E x c a v a t i o n U n i t s d e p t h f o l l o w e d by a h i a t u s o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s . O c c u p a t i o n zone I I l a y d i r e c t l y below o c c u p a t i o n zone I and r e s t e d on o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . To summarize, o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I d e p o s i t s were d e f i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f s t r a t i g r a p h y as t h e d a r k 10-2 0 cm t h i c k band of m a t r i x o v e r l y i n g b a s a l g r a v e l d e p o s i t s . T h i s o c c u p a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f l o o r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . O c c u p a t i o n zone I I was d e f i n e d s i m p l y as t h e d e p o s i t s u n d e r l y i n g zone I and o v e r l y i n g zone I I I d e p o s i t s . O c c u p a t i o n zone I I i s composed of a r e l a t i v e l y homogenous a c c u m u l a t i o n o f f l u v i a l m a t r i x w i t h c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t . O c c u p a t i o n zone I was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t o p 40 cm o f c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s based on t h e p r e s e n c e o f s e v e r a l s m a l l h e a r t h s a t r o u g h l y 3 0-40 cm d.b.u. These h e a r t h s s u g g e s t e d a s t a b l e l i v i n g s u r f a c e and p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n zone d e f i n i t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e upper p o r t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n zone I was removed by l a n d a l t e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the f a l l o f 1990. The f o l l o w i n g two c h a p t e r s examine t h e a r t i f a c t s and f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o c c u p a t i o n zone. CHAPTER FOUR ARTIFACTS I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r summarizes a r t i f a c t s e x c a v a t e d from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage i s t a b u l a t e d and compared a t t h e i n t r a - s i t e l e v e l and t h e i n t e r - s i t e l e v e l . The i n t r a - s i t e c o m parison seeks t o i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n zones i s o l a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . A t t h e i n t e r - s i t e l e v e l , t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage i s compared t o a r t i f a c t assemblages from o t h e r C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s i t e s . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n seeks t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage r e l a t e s t o o t h e r a r t i f a c t assemblages o f s i m i l a r age. T h i s c o m p a r i s o n a l s o a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e whether d i f f e r e n c e s between Eayem phase s i t e s and S t . Mungo phase s i t e s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a r t i f a c t assemblages o r whether d i f f e r e n c e s between r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s and r e s o u r c e procurement s i t e s can be ob s e r v e d . Methods o f A n a l y s i s O r i g i n a l l y 10,016 a r t i f a c t s were p r o c e s s e d f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s , however, a r t i f a c t s l a c k i n g p r o p e r p r o v e n i e n c e were l a t e r e x c l u d e d . I n a l l , 8552 a r t i f a c t s a r e u s e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . A r t i f a c t s were p r o c e s s e d i n one o f two ways depending upon t h e i r t y p e . Items c l a s s i f i e d as t o o l s r e c e i v e d t h e most d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t . T o o l s were c l a s s i f i e d u s i n g t h e t y p o l o g y d e v e l o p e d by M i t c h e l l and P o k o t y l o (n.d) f o r t h e i r F r a s e r Canyon P r o j e c t . M o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h i s t y p o l o g y i n c l u d e t h e m e r g i n g o f some a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s and t h e a d d i t i o n o f new a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s . Cores were i n c l u d e d w i t h t o o l s because l i k e a t o o l , c o r e s r e f l e c t s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were c a r r i e d out a t t h e s i t e ( P r a t t 1992:93). D e b i t a g e i n c l u d e s a l l l i t h i c waste m a t e r i a l r e s u l t i n g f r om t o o l m a n u f a c t u r e , m o d i f i c a t i o n , o r r e p a i r . C l a s s e s o f d e b i t a g e i n c l u d e u n m o d i f i e d f l a k e s , f l a k e s h a t t e r and b l o c k s h a t t e r . A p pendix A c o n t a i n s d e s c r i p t i o n s and m e t r i c summaries f o r each t o o l c l a s s . A r t i f a c t raw m a t e r i a l was deteinnined u s i n g t h e t y p o l o g y d e v e l o p e d by M i t c h e l l and P o k o t y l o (n.d) f o r t h e i r F r a s e r Canyon P r o j e c t . T h i s t y p o l o g y was m o d i f i e d t o s u i t t h e needs o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a n a l y s i s , however, t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s r e m a i n comparable. D i f f e r e n c e s i n c l u d e t h e merging o f raw m a t e r i a l c l a s s e s i n t o s i n g l e c l a s s e s and t h e a d d i t i o n o f new c l a s s e s . A r t i f a c t s T a b l e 4.1 p r o v i d e s t o o l c o u n t s and p e r c e n t a g e s f o r each o c c u p a t i o n zone i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e c o r e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s . T o o l c o u n t s and p e r c e n t a g e s f rom o c c u p a t i o n zones I - I I I a r e r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r and r e f l e c t an emphasis upon e x p e d i e n t f l a k e s and p e b b l e t o o l s . A r t i f a c t s o f t h i s n a t u r e r e p r e s e n t o v e r 80% o f t h e t o o l assemblage i n each o c c u p a t i o n zone. O c c u p a t i o n zone I i s marked by t h e absence o f b i f a c i a l l y worked f l a k e and p e b b l e t o o l s . A s i n g l e p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t was r e c o v e r e d from o c c u p a t i o n zone I whereas o c c u p a t i o n zones I I and I I I each had s e v e r a l examples. P r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s c o m p r i s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12% of the o c c u p a t i o n zone I I and I I I a r t i f a c t assemblages whereas the s i n g l e p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t r e p r e s e n t s l e s s t h a n 3% o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n zone I assemblage. The o c c u p a t i o n zone I p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t was r e c o v e r e d a t t h e i n t e r f a c e w i t h o c c u p a t i o n zone I I t h u s r a i s i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t may b e l o n g i n t h e l o w e r o c c u p a t i o n zone I I . The n e a r absence of b i f a c i a l t o o l c l a s s e s , i n c l u d i n g p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I r a i s e s s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s . Were b i f a c i a l t o o l s n ot used i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I? Does t h i s l a c k o f b i f a c i a l a r t i f a c t s r e f l e c t s h i f t s i n s i t e use o r i n c r e a s e d t o o l c u r a t i o n ? An absence of b i f a c i a l t e c h n o l o g y i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I i s p o s s i b l e b u t u n l i k e l y . Perhaps l a n d a l t e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o t h e e x c a v a t i o n had a skewing i n f l u e n c e on t h i s o c c u p a t i o n zone's T a b l e 4.1 T o o l Counts and P e r c e n t a g e s from O c c u p a t i o n Zones I - I I I (Core E x c a v a t i o n U n i t s ) A r t i f a c t C l a s s O c c u p a t i o n Zone I I I I I I P r o j e c t i l e Points Leaf-Shaped P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t 0 .0% 3 5 .4% 1 1 .5% Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t 1 2 .6% 1 1 .8% 2 3 .0% L a n c e o l a t e P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t 0 .0% 1 1 .8% 0 .0% P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t T i p 0 .0% 1 1 .8% 0 .0% P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t M e d i a l S e c t i o n 0 .0% 0 .0% 1 1 .5% Leaf-Shaped P o i n t Base 0 .0% 1 1 .8% 0 .0% Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t Base 0 .0% 0 .0% 4 6 .1% 1 2 .6% 7 12 .5% 8 12 .1% Blade Tools M i c r o b l a d e 1 2 .6% 0 .0% 0 .0% 1 2 .6% 0 .0% 0 .0% Flake Tools M u l t i p l e P o i n t G r a v e r 0 .0% 0 .0% 1 1 .5% P i e c e Esquillée 0 .0% 1 1 .8% 1 1 .5% Pebble F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d 0 .0% 1 1 .8% 0 .0% B i f a c i a l R e touch Pebble F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d 2 5 .3% 4 7 .1% 3 4 .6% U n i f a c i a l R e touch Pebble F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d 1 2 .6% 0 .0% 0 .0% U n i f a c i a l R e t o u c h Pebble F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d 0 .0% 1 1 .8% 0 .0% U t i l i z a t i o n F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d 0 .0% 1 1 .8% 0 .0% B i f a c i a l R e touch F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d 3 7 .9% 6 10 .7% 5 7 .6% U n i f a c i a l R e touch F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d 2 5 .3% 2 3 .6% 1 1 .5% U n i f a c i a l R e touch S t e e p - A n g l e d U t i l i z e d F l a k e 6 15 .8% 5 8 .9% 8 12 .1% A c u t e - A n g l e d U t i l i z e d F l a k e 7 18 .4% 7 12 .5% 9 13 .6% C o r t e x S p a l l F l a k e w i t h Steep- 0 .0% 0 .0% 1 1 .5% A n g l e d B i f a c i a l R e touch 21 55 .3% 28 50 .0% 29 43 .9% Con't T a b l e 4.1 Con't Cores/Pebble Tools Core 10 26.3% 12 21.4% 16 24.2% P e b b l e w i t h B i f a c i a l 0 .0% 1 1.8% 2 3.0% P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g P e b b l e w i t h U n i f a c i a l 1 2.6% 1 1.8% 4 6.1% P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g P e b b l e w i t h U n i f a c i a l 0 .0% 0 .0% 1 1.5% P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g / Hammerstone Hammerstone 0 .0% 1 1.8% 1 1.2% Hammerstone w i t h Edge A b r a s i o n 0 .0% 0 .0% 1 1.2% Hammerstone/Anvil 0 .0% 1 1.8% 0 .0% A n v i l Stone 0 .0% 1 1.8% 0 .0% 11 29.0% 17 30.4% 25 37.9% Ground Stone D i s c Bead 2 5.3% 0 .0% 0 .0% Ground S l a t e B l a d e Fragment 0 .0% 0 .0% 1 1.5% Formed A b r a s i v e Stone Fragment 0 .0% 2 3.6% 1 1.5% A b r a s i v e Stone 0 .0% 0 .0% 1 1.5% 2 5.3% 2 3.5% 3 4.5% Ground and Pecked Stone P e b b l e Hammer 0 .0% 1 1.8% 0 .0% 0 .0% 1 1.8% 0 .0% Miscellaneous P a i n t Stone 2 5.3% 0 .0% 0 .0% P a i n t S t o n e / A n v i l 0 .0% 1 1.8% 1 1.5% 2 5.3% 1 1.8% 1 1.5% TOTAL 38 100.0% 56 100.0% 66 100. 0Î assemblage. A s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e m i n i m a l p r e s e n c e o f b i f a c i a l t o o l s i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I remains e l u s i v e . P e b b l e t o o l and p e b b l e f l a k e t o o l a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s showed c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n between t h e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n zones. P e b b l e t o o l c l a s s e s were most dominant i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I (10.6%) i n comparison t o o c c u p a t i o n zone I I (3.6%) and o c c u p a t i o n zone I ( 2 . 6 % ) . The d i f f e r e n c e i n p e b b l e t o o l p r o p o r t i o n s between o c c u p a t i o n zones c o u l d be f u n c t i o n a l l y o r t e m p o r a l l y r e l a t e d . F o r example, t h e g r e a t e r number o f p e b b l e t o o l s i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I , t h e o l d e s t c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e , may be a r e f l e c t i o n of a r t i f a c t c o n t i n u i t y f r om t h e p r e c e d i n g O l d C o r d i l l e r a n C u l t u r e (O.C.C.). The O.C.C. (9000-5500 BP) was dominated by p e b b l e based t o o l c l a s s e s . W h i l e p o s s i b l e , t h e s h o r t t i m e span r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e d e p o s i t s s u g g e s t s t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , i f v a l i d , would h o l d t r u e f o r t h e s l i g h t l y younger d e p o s i t s i n o c c u p a t i o n zones I and I I . As mentioned, t h i s i s not t h e case t h e r e f o r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f p e b b l e t o o l s a r e l i k e l y f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d . A somewhat d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p e b b l e f l a k e t o o l c l a s s e s i n each o c c u p a t i o n zone. O c c u p a t i o n zone I I c o n t a i n s t h e g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n of t h e s e t o o l c l a s s e s (10.7%) w i t h o c c u p a t i o n zone I c o n t a i n i n g s l i g h t l y l e s s ( 7 . 9 % ) . O c c u p a t i o n zone I I I c o n t a i n s t h e s m a l l e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f p e b b l e f l a k e t o o l s ( 4 . 6 % ) . Ground s t o n e a r t i f a c t s a r e more o r l e s s e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n zones. D i s c beads a r e un i q u e t o o c c u p a t i o n zone I whereas a b r a s i v e s t o n e s a r e o n l y found i n o c c u p a t i o n zones I I and I I I . A s i n g l e ground s l a t e b l a d e fragment was found i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . Pecked s t o n e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a s i n g l e i t e m , a p e b b l e hammer, found i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I (see F i g u r e 4.1). A s i n g l e m i c r o b l a d e , f a s h i o n e d from b a s a l t , was r e c o v e r e d i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I . The b e s t e v i d e n c e f o r a p r e p a r e d b l a d e i n d u s t r y a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s a s m a l l b a s a l t m i c r o b l a d e c o r e w i t h two w e l l d e f i n e d b l a d e s c a r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s i t e m was f o u n d on t h e d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e of t h e s i t e making i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e e x c a v a t e d d e p o s i t s u n c l e a r . Items of n o t e w h i c h were not i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 4.1 i n c l u d e o chre and o c h r e - r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s . S e v e r a l p i e c e s o f o c h r e and f l a k e s w i t h o c h r e a d h e r i n g were found i n each o c c u p a t i o n zone. O c c u p a t i o n zone I I I c o n t a i n e d a p i e c e o f f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k c o v e r e d w i t h o c h r e w h i l e o c c u p a t i o n zone I I c o n t a i n e d an a c u t e - a n g l e d u t i l i z e d f l a k e c o a t e d w i t h o c h r e . As o c c u p a t i o n zones I - I I I a l l d a t e t o t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e , t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e t h r e e t o o l assemblages was e x p e c t e d t o be comparable w i t h each o t h e r w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . O c c u p a t i o n zone I I I i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f l o o r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and was e x p e c t e d t o p o s s e s s e v i d e n c e o f a g r e a t e r range of a c t i v i t i e s as i n d i c a t e d by a r t i f a c t t y p e s and g r e a t e r numbers of c u r a t e d a r t i f a c t t y p e s . O c c u p a t i o n zone I I I d i d not p o s s e s s a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f c u r a t e d a r t i f a c t t y p e s as e x p e c t e d o r c o n t a i n e v i d e n c e f o r a g r e a t e r range of a c t i v i t i e s . The o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I t o o l assemblage does not suggest s u b s t a n t i a l F i g u r e 4 .1 Pebble Hammer d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e f l o o r and n o n - f l o o r t o o l assemblages e x c e p t f o r t h e h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f p e b b l e t o o l s i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I and t h e l o w e r p r o p o r t i o n o f p e b b l e f l a k e t o o l s . The n e a r absence o f b i f a c i a l t o o l c l a s s e s i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I i s an anomaly. T o o l s f rom a combined o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I and o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I , i n b o t h c o r e and non-core e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s , were t a b u l a t e d and p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4.2. S i m i l a r t o t h e p a t t e r n o b s e r v e d i n t h e c o r e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s , t h e t o o l assemblages f o r t h e composite o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I and o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I a r e dominated by e x p e d i e n t f l a k e o r pe b b l e t o o l s . O c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I i s composed o f 80.9% f l a k e and p e b b l e t o o l s w h i l e 73.8% o f o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I i s made up o f t h e s e i t e m s . A n v i l s t o n e s a r e n o t i c e a b l y absent from o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . P r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s a r e t w i c e as common i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I as o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I s u g g e s t i n g p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s may have been s t o r e d o r c u r a t e d w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e , however, t h e h i g h number o f f r a g m e n t a r y examples weakens t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . L e a f - s h a p e d and stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t forms were found i n b o t h o c c u p a t i o n zones. Stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s and stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t f r a g m e n t s were t w i c e as common i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . T h i s may r e f l e c t a s h i f t i n h a f t i n g t e c h n o l o g y o r p r e f e r e n c e . A s i n g l e l a n c e o l a t e p o i n t , u n i q u e t o o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I , was r e c o v e r e d . The dominance o f t h e stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t T a b l e 4.2 T o o l Counts and P e r c e n t a g e s from O c c u p a t i o n Zones I / I I and I I I A r t i f a c t C l a s s O c c u p a t i o n Zone I / I I I I I P r o j e c t i l e Points Leaf-Shaped P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t 3 2.0% 4 2 .4% Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t 4 2.6% 9 5 .4% L a n c e o l a t e P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t 1 .7% 0 .0% P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t T i p 1 .7% 1 .6% P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t , D i s t a l Fragment 2 1.3% 2 1 .2% P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t M e d i a l S e c t i o n 0 .0% 1 .6% Leaf-Shaped P o i n t Base 1 .7% 4 2 .4% Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t Base 1 .7% 8 4 .8% 13 8.6% 29 17 .3% Miscellaneous Bifaces Formed B i f a c e , S t e e p - A n g l e d Edge Blade Tools M i c r o b l a d e Flake Tools M u l t i p l e P o i n t G r a v e r D i s c o i d a l U n i f a c e P i e c e Esquillée Pe b b l e F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d B i f a c i a l R etouch P e b b l e F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l R e touch P e b b l e F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l R e touch P e b b l e F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d U t i l i z a t i o n F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d B i f a c i a l R e t o uch F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d B i f a c i a l R e t o uch F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l R etouch F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l R e t ouch 0 0 1 1 .0% .0% .7% .7% 13 8.6% 1 .7% 1 1 0 .7% .7% .0% 19 12.5% 4 2.6% 1 1 0 0 8 1 0 4 1 9 2 .6% .6% .0% .0% 0 .0% 1 .6% 0 .0% 1 .6% 2 1.3% 2 1.2% 1 .7% 0 .0% 4.8% .6% .0% 2.4% .6% 5.4% 1.2% Con't T a b l e 4.2 Con't S t e e p - A n g l e d U t i l i z e d F l a k e A c u t e - A n g l e d U t i l i z e d F l a k e C o r t e x S p a l l F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d B i f a c i a l R e t ouch C o r t e x S p a l l F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l R e t o u c h Cores/Pebble Tools Core P e b b l e w i t h B i f a c i a l P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g P e b b l e w i t h U n i f a c i a l P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g P e bble w i t h U n i f a c i a l P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g / Hammerstone Hammerstone Hammerstone w i t h Edge A b r a s i o n Hamme r s t one/Anvi1 A n v i l Stone Miscellaneous Chipped Stone M i s c e l l a n e o u s F l a k e d S l a t e Ground Stone D i s c Bead Ground S l a t e B l a d e Fragment M i s c e l l a n e o u s Worked N e p h r i t e Formed A b r a s i v e Stone Fragment A b r a s i v e Stone Ground and Pecked Stone Grooved C o b b l e / A n v i l P e b b l e Hammer Miscellaneous P a i n t Stone P a i n t S t o n e / A n v i l P y r o c l a s t 14 9.2% 16 9.5% 18 11.8% 28 16.7% 0 .0% 1 .6% 0 .0% 1 .6% 74 48.7% 75 44.6% 35 23 .0% 34 20.2% 4 2.6% 5 3.0% 4 2.6% 5 3.0% 0 .0% 1 .6% 1 .7% 1 .6% 0 .0% 2 1.2% 2 1.3% 1 .6% 3 2.0% 0 .0% 49 32.2% 49 29.2% 1 .7% 0 .0% 1 .7% 0 .0% 2 1.3% 0 .0% 2 1.3% 3 1.8% 0 .0% 1 .6% 4 2.6% 3 1.8% 2 1.3% 1 .6% 10 6.6% 8 4.8% 0 .0% 1 .6% 1 .7% 0 .0% 1 .7% 1 .6% 2 1.3% 3 1.8% 1 .7% 1 .6% 0 .0% 1 .6% 3 2.0% 5 3.0% TOTAL 152 100.0% 168 100.0% form i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I was unex p e c t e d . The stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t form i s thought t o o v e r l a p w i t h t h e Locarno Beach phase (3300-2500 BP) on t h e c o a s t w h i l e t h e l e a f - shaped form i s thou g h t t o have c o n t i n u e d f rom t h e O.C.C. T h i s i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e e x p e c t e d p a t t e r n s u g g e s t s t h i s a s s u m p t i o n may r e q u i r e r e a s s e s s m e n t . As d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e c o r e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s , a s i n g l e b a s a l t m i c r o b l a d e was r e c o v e r e d and i s i n c l u d e d i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I . Though t h e p r e s e n c e o f a m i c r o b l a d e i s i n t r i g u i n g , i t s s t a t u s i s i n q u e s t i o n . P e b b l e t o o l p r o p o r t i o n s i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I (6.6%) a r e s l i g h t l y more dominant t h a n i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I ( 5 . 2 % ) . T h i s d i f f e r s f rom t h e p a t t e r n seen i n t h e c o r e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s where o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I p e b b l e t o o l s were more t h a n t w i c e as common t h a n t h e o t h e r two o c c u p a t i o n zones. D i f f e r e n c e s i n p e b b l e f l a k e t o o l p r o p o r t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h e same g e n e r a l p a t t e r n seen i n t h e c o r e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s . P e b b l e f l a k e t o o l s i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I (10.7%) were almo s t t w i c e as common t h a n i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I ( 5 . 4 % ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s d i f f e r e n c e s between p e b b l e f l a k e t o o l p r o p o r t i o n s i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I and o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I a r e r e a l w h i l e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e b b l e t o o l p r o p o r t i o n s a r e more tenuous. Ground s t o n e t o o l s , though not common, a r e e v e n l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n each o c c u p a t i o n zone. D i s c beads were absent i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I and o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I d i d n o t c o n t a i n any worked n e p h r i t e . Pecked s t o n e i s e x t r e m e l y r a r e and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a p e b b l e hammer i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I and a g r o o v e d c o b b l e / a n v i l i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I ( F i g u r e 4.2). The g r o o v e d c o b b l e / a n v i l appears t o have been u s e d f o r p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t o r a n i m a l m a t e r i a l as e x h i b i t e d by a r e a s of p o l i s h on i t s w o r k i n g s u r f a c e . Pecked gr o o v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g hand g r i p s were l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e edges of t h e t o o l . G i v e n t h e t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o shape such an o b j e c t , t h e t o o l was l i k e l y c u r a t e d . P a i n t s t o n e s , o r p a l a t e - t y p e a r t i f a c t s , a r e p r e s e n t i n b o t h o c c u p a t i o n zones. Not i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 4.2 b u t o f n o t e a r e s e v e r a l o c h r e - r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s . T h i r t y - s i x p i e c e s of ochre were r e c o v e r e d from o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I w i t h t w e n t y - s e v e n found i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . An a c u t e - a n g l e d u t i l i z e d f l a k e w i t h o c h r e a d h e r i n g was found i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I . I n each o c c u p a t i o n zone c l a s s e s o f d e b i t a g e , i n c l u d i n g u n m o d i f i e d f l a k e s and b l o c k s h a t t e r , were r e c o v e r e d w i t h o c h r e a d h e r i n g t o them. O c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I c o n t a i n e d a s m a l l u n m o d i f i e d p e b b l e c o a t e d w i t h o c h r e w h i l e o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I c o n t a i n e d p i e c e s o f f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k d u s t e d w i t h o c h r e . These a r t i f a c t s a r e i n t r i g u i n g and when combined w i t h t h e p a i n t s t o n e s s u g g e s t o c h r e use and p r o c e s s i n g was an i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . An u n m o d i f i e d v i t r e o u s b a s a l t raw m a t e r i a l n o d u l e , p r o b a b l y o f I n t e r i o r B.C. o r i g i n , was r e c o v e r e d from o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . An u n m o d i f i e d p y r o c l a s t from F i g u r e 4.2 Grooved C o b b l e / A n v i l o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I was i n c l u d e d w i t h t h e t o o l assemblage summary f o r r e a s o n s i n d i c a t e d below. T h i s p y r o c l a s t i s an u n m o d i f i e d s l i v e r o f o b s i d i a n w h i c h has t h e appearance o f a b i p o i n t e d a w l . P y r o c l a s t i c m a t e r i a l s s e t t l e out o f t h e atmosphere a f t e r e x p l o s i v e v o l c a n i c e r u p t i o n s ( C o u r t y e t a l . 1989:101). I n t h i s c a s e , t h e o b s i d i a n e r u p t e d out o f a v o l c a n o i n l i q u i d form t h e n s o l i d i f i e d i n t o i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shape as i t f e l l t o e a r t h . The p y r o c l a s t r e c o v e r e d f rom H a t z i c e x h i b i t s no e v i d e n c e o f w o r k i n g and i s c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r e d w i t h c o r t e x . H o b l e r ( p e r s o n a l communication 1992) has e n c o u n t e r e d p y r o c l a s t s i n h i s own r e s e a r c h on t h e c e n t r a l c o a s t o f B r i t i s h C olumbia where t h e y have t u r n e d up i n t h e c o n t e x t o f e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d t r a d e goods. H o b l e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t though some p y r o c l a s t s he has a n a l y z e d have been m o d i f i e d t h e y c o u l d a l s o have been used as t o o l s i n t h e i r n a t u r a l form. H o b l e r f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d many p y r o c l a s t s p o s s e s s u n i q u e forms o r q u a l i t i e s w h i c h may have made them o b j e c t s o f i n t e r e s t and t h u s a p p r e c i a t e d f o r t h e i r n a t u r a l b e a u t y ( H o b l e r p e r s o n a l communication 1992) . F r e d r i c k s o n (1984:514) d e s c r i b e s s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t s from n o r t h c o a s t a l C a l i f o r n i a as o b s i d i a n b a n g l e s . L i t t l e can be s a i d about the p y r o c l a s t d i s c o v e r e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e e x c e p t t h a t i t may have s e r v e d as an e x p e d i e n t t o o l ( p e r f o r a t o r ? ) o r was bro u g h t t o H a t z i c f o r i t s a e s t h e t i c p r o p e r t i e s . To summarize, t h e o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I and I I I a r t i f a c t assemblages i n d i c a t e e x p e d i e n t t o o l s were pred o m i n a n t . F u r t h e r , t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n v i l s t o n e s o n l y i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I s u g g e s t s t h e manufacture and p r o c e s s i n g o f raw m a t e r i a l s o c c u r r e d o u t s i d e o f h a b i t a t i o n s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f p e b b l e t o o l s i n each o c c u p a t i o n zone a r e l e s s c l e a r t h a n i n t h e c o r e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s , however, d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e b b l e f l a k e t o o l p r o p o r t i o n s appear r e a l . The p r e s e n c e o f p r e p a r e d b l a d e t e c h n o l o g y i s weak and ground s t o n e i t e m s a r e p r e s e n t i n s m a l l numbers. The pr e s e n c e o f ground s t o n e beads s u g g e s t s p e r s o n a l adornment was p r a c t i c e d . Ochre and ochre r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d and i n d i c a t e t h i s m i n e r a l was w i d e l y u s e d o r p r o c e s s e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The dominance o f stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t t y p e s i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I and t h e i r e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h l e a f - s h a p e d t y p e s i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I s u g g e s t s t h e dominance o f t h e stemmed forms may have been d e c l i n i n g t h r o u g h t i m e c o n t r a r y t o t h e e x p e c t e d p a t t e r n . As o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f l o o r of the s t r u c t u r e t h e r e e x i s t e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e t o o l assemblage e x p e c t e d t o be r e c o v e r e d . These i n c l u d e e v i d e n c e o f a g r e a t e r range o f a c t i v i t i e s as i n d i c a t e d by a r t i f a c t t y p e s and g r e a t e r numbers o f c u r a t e d a r t i f a c t t y p e s . A r t i f a c t s w h i c h a r e u n i q u e t o o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I , l i k e l y r e p r e s e n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s n o t p r e s e n t i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I , i n c l u d e a g r o o v e d c o b b l e / a n v i l , a n e p h r i t e fragment and a m u l t i p l e p o i n t g r a v e r . These a r t i f a c t s s u g g e s t a c t i v i t i e s such as woodworking, t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l s and perhaps t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f h i d e s . Each o f t h e s e a r t i f a c t s were l i k e l y c u r a t e d . The absence o f a r t i f a c t t y p e s such as a n v i l s t o n e s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I , i n d i c a t e s l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n , o r t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f o t h e r raw m a t e r i a l s , p r o b a b l y d i d not t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e . T h i s i s not u n e x p e c t e d g i v e n t h e d e b r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . The n e p h r i t e fragment found i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I s u g g e s t s t h e maintenance, s t o r a g e o r use o f n e p h r i t e a r t i f a c t s w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e . I n g e n e r a l , t h e o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I a r t i f a c t assemblage s h a r e s most o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I . However, t h e a r t i f a c t s t h a t b e s t r e f l e c t s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I o r o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I a r e m o s t l y l i m i t e d t o one example o f each t y p e . T h i s causes some c o n c e r n when a t t e m p t i n g m e a n i n g f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Some c a u t i o n needs t o be e x e r c i s e d . What i s app a r e n t i s t h a t many o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s p e r f o r m e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e o v e r t h e ages remained t h e same and r e q u i r e d t h e same t o o l s . T h i s i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e t o o l assemblages f o r each o c c u p a t i o n zone. As e x p e c t e d , t h e f l o o r d e p o s i t s of o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I d i d e x h i b i t some un i q u e a r t i f a c t t y p e s t h a t s u g g e s t a c t i v i t i e s p e r f o r m e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r e were n o t c a r r i e d out i n l a t e r o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e s i t e . T a b l e 4.3 p r o v i d e s t h e number and p e r c e n t a g e o f each t o o l t y p e f o u n d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . T h i s t a b l e combines o c c u p a t i o n zones I / I I and I I I from T a b l e 4.2 t o summarize t h e e n t i r e H a t z i c Rock s i t e t o o l assemblage. T a b l e 4.3 i n d i c a t e s t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e t o o l assemblage i s dominated by e x p e d i e n t c h i p p e d s t o n e t o o l s . T h i s i n c l u d e s v a r i o u s t y p e s of f l a k e t o o l s (46.6%) and v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p e b b l e t o o l s ( 3 0 . 6 % ) . Cores a c c o u n t f o r 21.6%. When combined, t h e s e t o o l t y p e s r e p r e s e n t 77.2% of t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e t o o l assemblage. A l l b i f a c e s a r e p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , o r p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t fragments, w i t h one e x c e p t i o n b e i n g a t h i c k p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t p r e f o r m . No b i f a c i a l k n i v e s were r e c o v e r e d . P r o j e c t i l e p o i n t forms were e i t h e r stemmed, l e a f - s h a p e d o r l a n c e o l a t e . Only one l a n c e o l a t e example was r e c o v e r e d and t h e stemmed form o c c u r r e d t w i c e as f r e q u e n t l y as t h e l e a f - s h a p e d form. The p r e s e n c e o f a p r e p a r e d b l a d e t e c h n o l o g y i s r e p r e s e n t e d by one b a s a l t m i c r o b l a d e and, as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , i t s s t a t u s remains c o n t e n t i o u s . Ground s t o n e a r t i f a c t s a r e p r e s e n t i n s m a l l numbers and i n c l u d e s l a t e b l a d e fragments ( F i g u r e 4.3), w h i c h may have s e r v e d a c u t t i n g f u n c t i o n , d i s c beads, w h i c h s u g g e s t some form of p e r s o n a l adornment and a s m a l l p i e c e o f worked T a b l e 4.3 T o o l Counts and P e r c e n t a g e s from t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e A r t i f a c t C l a s s Combined O c c u p a t i o n Zones I - I I I n % P r o j e c t i l e Points Leaf-Shaped P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t 7 2.2% Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t 13 4.1% L a n c e o l a t e P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t 1 .3% P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t T i p 2 .6% P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t , D i s t a l Fragment 4 1.3% P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t M e d i a l S e c t i o n 1 .3% Leaf-Shaped P o i n t Base 5 1.6% Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t Base 9 2.8% 42 13.1% Miscellaneous Bifaces Formed B i f a c e , S t e e p - A n g l e d Edge 1 .3% 1 .3% Blade Tools M i c r o b l a d e 1 .3% 1 .3% Flake Tools M u l t i p l e P o i n t G r a v e r 1 .3% D i s c o i d a l U n i f a c e 1 .3% Pièce Esquillée 4 1.3% Peb b l e F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d 1 .3% B i f a c i a l R e t ouch P e b b l e F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d 21 6.6% U n i f a c i a l R e touch P e b b l e F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d 2 .6% U n i f a c i a l R e t o u c h P e b b l e F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d 1 .3% U t i l i z a t i o n F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d B i f a c i a l 5 1.6% Retouch F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d B i f a c i a l 1 .3% Retouch F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l 28 8.8% Retouch F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l 6 1.9% Retouch Con't T a b l e 4.3 Con't S t e e p - A n g l e d U t i l i z e d F l a k e A c u t e - A n g l e d U t i l i z e d F l a k e C o r t e x S p a l l F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d B i f a c i a l R etouch C o r t e x S p a l l F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l Retouch Cores/Pebble Tools Core Pebble w i t h B i f a c i a l P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g P e b b l e w i t h U n i f a c i a l P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g P e b b l e w i t h U n i f a c i a l P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g / Hammerstone Hammerstone Hammerstone w i t h Edge A b r a s i o n Hamme r s t one/Anvi1 A n v i l Stone Miscellaneous Chipped Stone M i s c e l l a n e o u s F l a k e d S l a t e Ground Stone D i s c Bead Ground S l a t e B l a d e Fragment M i s c e l l a n e o u s Worked N e p h r i t e Formed A b r a s i v e Stone Fragment A b r a s i v e Stone Ground and Pecked Stone Grooved C o b b l e / A n v i l P ebble Hammer Miscellaneous P a i n t Stone P a i n t S t o n e / A n v i l P y r o c l a s t TOTAL 30 9.4% 46 14.4% 1 .3% 1 .3% 149 46.6% 69 21.6% 9 2.8% 9 2.8% 1 .3% 2 .6% 2 .6% 3 .9% 3 .9% 98 30.6% 1 .3% 1 .3% 2 .6% 5 1.6% 1 .3% 7 2.2% 3 .9% 18 5.6% 1 .3% 1 .3% 2 .6% 5 1.6% 2 .6% 1 .3% 8 2.5% 320 100.0% C h a p t e r Four F i g u r e 4.3 Ground S l a t e B l a d e Fragments n e p h r i t e t h a t s u g g e s t s t h e use o f adzes o r c h i s e l s . A b r a s i v e s t o n e c l a s s e s p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f a ground s t o n e i n d u s t r y . Pecked s t o n e a r t i f a c t s a r e r a r e a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . B o t h examples, a crude p e b b l e hammer and a g r o o v e d c o b b l e / a n v i l , s u ggest a r t i f a c t s o f t h i s t y p e may have been c u r a t e d . The ti m e r e q u i r e d t o f a s h i o n t h e s e a r t i f a c t s , t he gro o v e d c o b b l e / a n v i l i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . T h i s a r t i f a c t , and o t h e r s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e , would l i k e l y have been e i t h e r cached a t t h e i r p l a c e o f use o r would have t r a v e l e d f r om l o c a t i o n t o l o c a t i o n w i t h i t s o w n e r ( s ) . The p r e s e n c e o f oc h r e and many o c h r e - r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s i n d i c a t e s t h i s m i n e r a l was p r o c e s s e d and used a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . V a r i o u s o c h r e c o v e r e d a r t i f a c t s , s u ch as p a l a t e s and p a i n t s t o n e / a n v i l s , s u g g e s t t h e m a t e r i a l may have been used f o r t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f o b j e c t s w h i c h have s i n c e d i s i n t e g r a t e d (e.g. b a s k e t r y o r b o x e s ) . The range and f r e q u e n c y o f l i t h i c raw m a t e r i a l s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e t o o l assemblage i s summarized i n T a b l e 4.4. The most common raw m a t e r i a l s a r e l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e and i n c l u d e b a s a l t and andésite^. The r e l i a n c e on t h e s e l o c a l raw m a t e r i a l s f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e s the e x p e d i e n t n a t u r e o f t h e t o o l assemblage. 1 A l s o d e s c r i b e d as a r g i l l i t e (Borden 1975:74) o r s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e . T a b l e 4.4 H a t z i c Rock S i t e Raw M a t e r i a l Types and F r e q u e n c i e s Type n % Andésite 46 14 .4 B a s a l t 179 55.9 C h e r t 16 5.0 D i o r i t e 5 1.6 G r a n i t e 20 3.4 Mudstone 2 .6 N e p h r i t e 1 .3 O b s i d i a n 5 1.6 Q u a r t z i t e 12 3.8 Sandstone 11 3.4 S l a t e 7 2.2 V i t r e o u s B a s a l t 16 5.0 Total 320 100.0% S e v e r a l i m p o r t e d , o r e x o t i c , raw m a t e r i a l t y p e s were a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e t o o l assemblage. These m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e , o b s i d i a n , c h e r t and v i t r e o u s b a s a l t . These m a t e r i a l s a r e not found i n t h e immediate H a t z i c a r e a and would have been b r o u g h t t o t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e from d i s t a n t q u a r r y l o c a t i o n s . O b s i d i a n X - r a y F l u o r e s c e n c e A n a l y s i s S e v e r a l o b s i d i a n a r t i f a c t s were s u b m i t t e d f o r X - r a y f l u o r e s c e n c e a n a l y s i s . T h i s n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e p r o c e s s measures t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f elements w i t h i n each sample t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n o f o b s i d i a n samples. A " f i n g e r p r i n t " o b t a i n e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r sample, i s t h e n matched w i t h f i n g e r p r i n t s f o r s p e c i f i c q u a r r y l o c a t i o n s t o r e v e a l t h e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n of t h e o b s i d i a n a r t i f a c t o r sample ( N e l s o n 1975:95; N e l s o n e t a l . 1975:86). M a l c o l m James, a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , c o n d u c t e d t h e o b s i d i a n a n a l y s i s . R e s u l t s from James' a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e o b s i d i a n was o b t a i n e d from s o u r c e s i n e a s t e r n Oregon S t a t e ( Table 4.5). Qu a r r y l o c a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d i n T a b l e 4.5 a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 4.4. T a b l e 4.5 X - r a y F l u o r e s c e n c e A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s C a t a l o g u e P r o v e n i e n c e Q u a r r y Number L o c a t i o n 4032 u n i t 2, l e v e l 3 John Day 13,162 u n i t 3, l e v e l 6 Newberry C a l d e r a 1 13,163 u n i t 3, l e v e l 2 John Day o r G l a s s B u t t e B The p r e s e n c e o f o b s i d i a n from s o u r c e s i n e a s t e r n Oregon s u g g e s t s t h e m a t e r i a l was o b t a i n e d e i t h e r t h r o u g h an exchange network o r d i r e c t l y by t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . C a r l s o n (1983:22) has arg u e d t h a t t h e w i d e s p r e a d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o b s i d i a n t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t s u g g e s t s t r a d e was t h e most l i k e l y means o f o b t a i n i n g t h i s raw m a t e r i a l . F i g u r e 4.4 Quarry L o c a t i o n s f o r O b s i d i a n R ecovered a t t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e (based on James n.d.) The p r e s e n c e of O r e g o n i a n o b s i d i a n a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s i n t r i g u i n g g i v e n t h a t o t h e r q u a r r y l o c a t i o n s , such as G a r i b a l d i , a r e n e a r e r t o H a t z i c . T h i s s u g g e s t s e i t h e r O r e g o n i a n o b s i d i a n may have been a h i g h e r q u a l i t y m a t e r i a l t h a n o b s i d i a n f r om n e a r e r s o u r c e s o r t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f the H a t z i c Rock s i t e had g r e a t e r a f f i n i t y w i t h groups t o t h e s o u t h t h a n w i t h groups t o t h e west. R e g a r d l e s s , t h e p r e s e n c e of O r e g o n i a n o b s i d i a n i n d i c a t e s o t h e r commodities, o r i d e a s , were a l s o b e i n g exchanged between t h e s e two l o c a t i o n s (see N e l s o n e t a l . 1975:85; C a r l s o n 1983:22). F a u n a l A n a l y s i s Due t o a c i d i c s o i l c o n d i t i o n s ^ , t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e f a u n a l assemblage, was s m a l l and i n p o o r c o n d i t i o n . F a u n a l m a t e r i a l was r e c o v e r e d i n c a l c i n e d c o n d i t i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h a t b u r n i n g p l a y e d a r o l e i n p r e s e r v a t i o n ( C r o c k f o r d 1992; K l e i n and C r u z - U r i b e 1984:6). The m a j o r i t y o f t h e H a t z i c f a u n a l remains were e i t h e r s m a l l f l e c k s o r minute f r a g m e n t s of the o r i g i n a l e lement. ^ Three m a t r i x samples were randomly s e l e c t e d f o r pH e v a l u a t i o n . Twenty grams of m a t r i x were mixed w i t h 2 0 ml o f d i s t i l l e d w a t e r and t e s t e d w i t h a F i s h e r Accumet pH meter (model 825 MP). The r e s u l t s a r e as f o l l o w s : pH 5.3 (EU 1, l e v e l 3 ) , pH 5.7 (EU 24, l e v e l 7) and pH 5.6 (EU 13, l e v e l 7 ) . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h e pH of s o i l a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s a c i d i c and e x p l a i n s t h e n e a r t o t a l l a c k o f f a u n a l r e m a i n s . As t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e f a u n a l assemblage was l i m i t e d o n l y g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s c o u l d be made. Mammalian and p i s c e a n f a u n a l remains were a n a l y z e d by Susan C r o c k f o r d of P a c i f i c I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , L t d . S h e l l f i s h remains were a n a l y z e d by t h e a u t h o r a t t h e U.B.C. L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y . The H a t z i c Rock s i t e f a u n a l assemblage i s summarized i n T a b l e 4.6. Domestic dog ( C a n i s f a m i l i a r i s ) and p o s s i b l y mule d e e r ( O d o c o i l e u s hemionus) were the o n l y mammalian s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d . An u n d e t e r m i n e d s p e c i e s o f s m a l l f o r e s t b i r d ( P a s s e r i n i f o r m e s sp.) was i d e n t i f i e d . Many u n i d e n t i f i a b l e r e mains, i n c l u d i n g t h o s e w h i c h may b e l o n g t o s m a l l mammals o r b i r d s , were a l s o r e c o v e r e d . I d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h remains i n c l u d e : P a c i f i c salmon (Oncorhynchus s p . ) , a s a l m o n i d s p e c i e s (Salmonidae) ( e i t h e r P a c i f i c salmon o r t r o u t ) and a s m a l l f i s h s p e c i e s such as s u c k e r o r chub ( C a t o s t o m i d a e / C y p r i n i d a e ) . The most abundant f a u n a l remains r e c o v e r e d f r o m t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e were s h e l l f i s h , however, th e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s p e c i e s was d i f f i c u l t . U n i d e n t i f i a b l e s h e l l f i s h remains a r e l i k e l y t h e remains of h o r s e c l a m s (Tresus s s p . ) , b u t t e r c l a m s (Saxidomus criganteus) o r b a s k e t c o c k l e s ( C l i n o c a r d i u m n u t t a l l i ) based on t h e t h i c k n e s s o f s h e l l f r a g m e n t s . B a r n a c l e s (Balanus g l a n d u l a ) were i d e n t i f i e d i n some number because of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t e r i o r honeycomb s t r u c t u r e . Mammal NISP C a n i s f a m i l i a r i s (Domestic dog) 3 u n i d e n t i f i a b l e u n g u l a t e 16 u n i d e n t i f i a b l e u n g u l a t e ( O d o c o i l e u s hemionus?) 2 u n i d e n t i f i a b l e c a r n i v o r e ( C a n i s f a m i l i a r i s ? ) 1 u n i d e n t i f i a b l e s m a l l mammal-^ 95 u n i d e n t i f i a b l e 43 B i r d P a s s e r i n i f o r m e s sp. ( s m a l l f o r e s t b i r d ) 1 U n i d e n t i f i a b l e s m a l l b i r d 83 u n i d e n t i f i a b l e ^ 180 F i s h Oncorhynchus sp. ( P a c i f i c salmon) 1 Salmonidae ( P a c i f i c salmon o r t r o u t ) 2 C a t o s t o m i d a e / C y p r i n i d a e ( s u c k e r o r chub) 17 u n i d e n t i f i a b l e 2 S h e l l f i s h B a l a n u s g l a n d u l a ( b a r n a c l e ) 138 u n i d e n t i f i a b l e 782 Total 1366 C o u l d a l s o b e l o n g t o a s m a l l b i r d . C o u l d a l s o b e l o n g t o a s m a l l mammal. L i t t l e can be s a i d about t h i s f a u n a l assemblage e x c e p t t h a t t h e s p e c i e s o f mammals, f i s h and s h e l l f i s h i d e n t i f i e d a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e w h i c h would have been a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i v i d u a l s i n h a b i t i n g t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . C r o c k f o r d (1992) s u g g e s t s t h e p r e s e n c e o f c a l c i n e d d o m e s t i c dog bone may l e a d t o ass u m p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e u l t i m a t e d i s p o s a l of dogs o r t h e i r use i n g e n e r a l . S h e l l f i s h s u g g e s t c o n t a c t and/or t r a d e w i t h c o a s t a l g r o u p s . The p o s s i b i l i t y a l s o e x i s t s t h a t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e p e r i o d i c a l l y v e n t u r e d t o c o a s t a l r e g i o n s t o g a t h e r s h e l l f i s h t h e m s e l v e s . I n t e r - s i t e T o o l Assemblacre Comparisons T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e co m p a r i s o n of the H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage t o o t h e r C h a r l e s C u l t u r e a r t i f a c t assemblages. The H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage i s compared w i t h Eayem phase components from E s i l a o and Maurer. T h i s c o m p a r i s o n seeks t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f a r t i f a c t assemblages f r o m t h e t h r e e Eayem phase s i t e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y t h e same o r e x h i b i t a h i g h degree o f v a r i a b i l i t y . The H a t z i c Rock s i t e t o o l assemblage i s t h e n compared t o t h e S t . Mungo phase l i t h i c t o o l assemblages from G l e n r o s e Cannery, S t . Mungo and C r e s c e n t Beach. T h i s c o m p a r i s o n a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage r e l a t e s t o s i m i l a r l y aged s i t e s from t h e mouth of t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . Borden (1975) p r o v i d e d t h e b e s t summary of t h e Eayem phase t o o l assemblage from E s i l a o . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s o v e r v i e w i s g e n e r a l and does not i n c l u d e a r t i f a c t t a b l e s o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t o o l t y p e s . The f o l l o w i n g s y n o p s i s o f t h e Eayem phase t o o l assemblage from E s i l a o i s t a k e n from Borden (1975) . A v a r i e t y o f f l a k e and p e b b l e t o o l forms a r e common a t E s i l a o . P e b b l e t o o l s i n c l u d e choppers and s c r a p e r p l a n e s w i t h f l a k e t o o l s r e p r e s e n t e d by a v a r i e t y o f t y p e s i n c l u d i n g u t i l i z e d and r e t o u c h e d f l a k e s . C o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s , i n c l u d i n g k n i v e s , were found a t E s i l a o . These t o o l c l a s s e s a r e comparable t o t h o s e found a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c o r t e x s p a l l c a t e g o r y . W h i l e two c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s were found a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e t h e y c o u l d not be d e s c r i b e d as c o r t e x s p a l l k n i v e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w i t h o u t f r e q u e n c y d a t a , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o r t e x s p a l l k n i v e s a t E s i l a o cannot be e v a l u a t e d . P r o j e c t i l e p o i n t t y p e s a t E s i l a o a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e w i t h b o t h l e a f - s h a p e d and stemmed forms p r e s e n t , however, no l a n c e o l a t e examples were r e c o v e r e d a t E s i l a o . L a r g e l e a f - s h a p e d k n i v e s and s m a l l b i f a c i a l k n i v e s a r e p r e s e n t a t E s i l a o b u t were n o t r e c o v e r e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . Pièces esquillées and b u r i n s were found a t b o t h s i t e s w h i l e d r i l l s were found o n l y a t E s i l a o . S i m i l a r l y , q u a r t z c r y s t a l m i c r o l i t h s , p r e s e n t a t E s i l a o , were a b s e n t a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . Ground s t o n e a r t i f a c t s f r om b o t h s i t e s r e f l e c t s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s perhaps r e f l e c t i n g a d i f f e r e n t range o f a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e s e two l o c a t i o n s . Ground s l a t e k n i f e f ragments and a c h i p p e d , and ground, l e a f - s h a p e d p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t - l i k e o b j e c t were r e c o v e r e d a t E s i l a o . N e i t h e r o f t h e s e t o o l t y p e s were found a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . S l a t e b l a d e f r a g m e n t s , d i s c beads and a fragment o f worked n e p h r i t e were r e c o v e r e d from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e b u t were not found a t E s i l a o . A b r a s i v e s t o n e s o f v a r i o u s shapes and s i z e s were r e p o r t e d i n b o t h t o o l assemblages. D e c o r a t i v e i t e m s f o u n d a t E s i l a o b u t not t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i n c l u d e a p h y l l i t e grub c a r v i n g and a fragment o f an i n c i s e d s i l t s t o n e p l a q u e . F i n e g r a v e r s and i n c i s i n g t o o l s were a l s o f o u n d a t E s i l a o . S i m i l a r t o t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e , l i t h i c raw m a t e r i a l s used a t E s i l a o t e n d t o be l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e and i n c l u d e a r g i l l i t e , c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z , s l a t e and s a n d s t o n e . Some i m p o r t e d raw m a t e r i a l s such as v i t r e o u s b a s a l t and v a r i o u s c r y p t o - c r y s t a l l i n e s a r e a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d . The Maurer s i t e has an Eayem phase component and t h e remains o f a t l e a s t one s t r u c t u r e d a t e d t o t h i s p e r i o d (ca. 4200 B P ) . These f a c t o r s make t h e com p a r i s o n o f t h e Maurer t o o l assemblage w i t h t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e t o o l assemblage a l o g i c a l c h o i c e . However, t h e Maurer t o o l assemblage, l i k e E s i l a o , l a c k s p r o p e r d o c u m e n t a t i o n t h u s l i m i t i n g c o m p a r i s o n s . A l s o t h e r e i s good e v i d e n c e t o suggest Eayem phase a r t i f a c t s a t t h e Maurer s i t e a r e mixed w i t h post-Eayem phase m a t e r i a l . Though t h e Maurer d a t a need t o be t r e a t e d w i t h some c a u t i o n , t h e y need not be a v o i d e d o u t r i g h t . D i s c r e p a n c i e s e x i s t between t h e Maurer t o o l assemblage summaries i n L e C l a i r (1973) and L e C l a i r (1976). The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n u s e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n found i n L e C l a i r (1976) and d i s r e g a r d s t h e e a r l i e r , p erhaps more p r e l i m i n a r y , summary. Roughly 6000 l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s were r e c o v e r e d i n L e C l a i r ' s 1973 e x c a v a t i o n w i t h 1500 o f t h e s e i d e n t i f i e d as t o o l s . L e C l a i r d i v i d e d t h e Maurer t o o l assemblage i n t o b r o a d c l a s s e s : u n i f a c e s , b i f a c e s , choppers, c o r e s o r m i s c e l l a n e o u s . U t i l i z e d o r r e t o u c h e d f l a k e s were c l a s s i f i e d as u n i f a c e s a t Maurer. T o o l s o f t h i s n a t u r e r e p r e s e n t 72% o f th e Maurer t o o l assemblage as compared t o 44.4% a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . B i f a c e s , i n c l u d i n g p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , r e p r e s e n t 5% of th e Maurer assemblage i n comparison t o 13.4% of t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e assemblage. L e a f - s h a p e d , stemmed and l a n c e o l a t e p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t forms a r e p r e s e n t a t each s i t e . B i f a c i a l k n i v e s and a s i d e - n o t c h e d p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t from t h e Maurer s i t e a r e a b s e n t a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The s i d e - n o t c h e d p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t l i k e l y r e p r e s e n t s m i x i n g from a l a t e r component. The Maurer t o o l assemblage c o n t a i n s two d r i l l s w h i l e none were r e c o v e r e d from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . However, a fragment o f an o b s i d i a n d r i l l was found i n t h e d i s t u r b e d s u r f a c e d e p o s i t s a t H a t z i c . The c o b b l e t o o l c a t e g o r y a t Maurer i n c l u d e s choppers, s p a l l t o o l s and hammerstones and r e p r e s e n t s 8% o f t h e Maurer t o o l assemblage. T h i s c a t e g o r y of a r t i f a c t s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e , i n c l u d i n g s p a l l t o o l s and e x c l u d i n g c o r e s , a c c o u n t s f o r 9.7% o f t h e t o o l assemblage. L e C l a i r ' s c o r e c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s p y r a m i d a l and p o l y h e d r a l forms and r e p r e s e n t s 15% o f t h e Maurer t o o l assemblage. Cores from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e c o m p r i s e 21.6% of t h e t o o l assemblage. The f i n a l g r o u p i n g o f Maurer a r t i f a c t s f a l l s i n t o t h e m i s c e l l a n e o u s c a t e g o r y . T h i s c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n s pseudo- m i c r o b l a d e s ( p o s s i b l y l e n t i c u l a r f l a k e s ) , a t l e a s t two p i e c e s esquillées, pigment (ochre) and a p a l a t e s t o n e . The s t a t u s o f m i c r o b l a d e s a t Maurer i s p r o b l e m a t i c due t o t h e h i g h l i k e l i h o o d o f component m i x i n g and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e y may be l e n t i c u l a r f l a k e s . As a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e , t h e p r e s e n c e o f p r e p a r e d b l a d e t e c h n o l o g y a t t h e Maurer s i t e remains c o n t e n t i o u s . Pieces esquillées a r e p r e s e n t i n low numbers a t b o t h s i t e s . Q u a n t i t i e s o f o c h r e and a p a l a t e s t o n e a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t Maurer. S i m i l a r l y a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e q u a n t i t i e s o f o c h r e and s e v e r a l p a l a t e s t o n e s were found. Dominant raw m a t e r i a l t y p e s a t Maurer i n c l u d e v i t r e o u s b a s a l t , j a s p e r , a c r y p t o - c r y s t a l l i n e g r a y c h e r t and o b s i d i a n . R e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f each raw m a t e r i a l were not p r o v i d e d . These raw m a t e r i a l i n d i c a t e b o t h l o c a l and n o n - l o c a l s t o n e was u t i l i z e d i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e of t o o l s . To summarize, t h e Eayem t o o l component from t h e Maurer s i t e i s p o o r l y documented and p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s component m i x i n g . The number of t o o l s e x c a v a t e d a t Maurer a p p e a r s u n u s u a l l y h i g h r e l a t i v e t o H a t z i c and t h e g r e a t number of u n i f a c e s s u g g e s t s r e - a n a l y s i s may be w a r r a n t e d . B i f a c i a l t o o l s a t Maurer, w h i l e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l e s s r e p r e s e n t e d , a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o u n d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f k n i v e s , d r i l l s and a s i d e - n o t c h e d p o i n t . Cobble t o o l p r o p o r t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r a l t h o u g h u n i f a c i a l choppers a r e more dominant a t Maurer. Q u a n t i t i e s o f o c h r e and p a l a t e s t o n e s found i n each s i t e s u g g e s t t h e use and/or p r o c e s s i n g o f t h i s m a t e r i a l t o o k p l a c e . A b sent from t h e Maurer t o o l assemblage a r e g round o r pecked s t o n e a r t i f a c t s . A s m a l l number of ground and pecked s t o n e a r t i f a c t s were e x p e c t e d a t Maurer, however, t h e i r c omplete absence cannot be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d . A l t h o u g h t h e summaries of t o o l assemblages from E s i l a o and Maurer a r e l i m i t e d , g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e . The H a t z i c Rock and Maurer s i t e s a r e b o t h dominated by- e x p e d i e n t f l a k e and p e b b l e t o o l s . These t o o l t y p e s a r e p r e s e n t a t E s i l a o , however, w i t h o u t f r e q u e n c y d a t a i t cannot be known w i t h c e r t a i n t y whether t h e s e t o o l t y p e s a r e as dominant. C o r t e x s p a l l k n i v e s a r e p r e s e n t a t E s i l a o b u t a r e m i s s i n g from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e t o o l assemblage. I t i s u n c e r t a i n whether t h e s e t o o l s a r e p r e s e n t a t Maurer. These k n i v e s may have been used i n t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r Canyon salmon f i s h e r y t h u s e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r absence a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The e x a m i n a t i o n of c o r t e x s p a l l t o o l s f r om t h e Maurer s i t e w ould shed l i g h t on t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . B i f a c i a l t o o l s a r e r o u g h l y comparable a t t h e t h r e e s i t e s . Each s i t e p o s s e s s e s examples of l e a f - s h a p e d and stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s w h i l e a t h i r d l a n c e o l a t e form was o b s e r v e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock and Maurer s i t e s . S u r p r i s i n g l y a bsent from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r e b i f a c i a l k n i v e s and d r i l l s . Examples o f t h e s e a r t i f a c t t y p e s were found a t Maurer and E s i l a o . Weak e v i d e n c e f o r p r e p a r e d b l a d e t e c h n o l o g y e x i s t s b o t h a t t h e H a t z i c Rock and Maurer s i t e s . Whether t h i s c l a s s of a r t i f a c t t r u l y e x i s t s a t e i t h e r s i t e remains u n r e s o l v e d . E v i d e n c e o f m i c r o b l a d e t e c h n o l o g y was absent a t E s i l a o , however, a q u a r t z m i c r o l i t h i n d u s t r y was n o t e d . Q u a r t z m i c r o l i t h s were n o t found a t Maurer o r t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . T h i s t o o l c l a s s may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f i s h e r y i n t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r Canyon t h u s e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r p a u c i t y a t t h e o t h e r two s i t e s . B i p o l a r r e d u c t i o n was p r a c t i c e d a t a l l t h r e e s i t e s as i n d i c a t e d by a s m a l l number of p i e c e s esquillées. Ground s t o n e t o o l s a r e p r e s e n t a t b o t h E s i l a o and t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e b u t a r e a b s e nt a t Maurer. A s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s absence was not o b t a i n e d . Ground st o n e t o o l s were few i n number a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . T h e i r f r e q u e n c y a t E s i l a o i s unknown but may be q u i t e low as w e l l . E s i l a o and t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e b o t h c o n t a i n u n i q u e ground s t o n e i t e m s . The Eayem assemblage from E s i l a o c o n t a i n e d f r a g m e n t s of ground s l a t e k n i v e s , an i n c i s e d grub e f f i g y and an i n c i s e d mudstone p l a q u e . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e c o n t a i n e d f r a g m e n t s of s l a t e b l a d e s , d i s c beads and a fragment of worked n e p h r i t e . A b r a s i v e s t o n e s were r e c o v e r e d f rom b o t h s i t e s . The l i m i t e d number o f ground s t o n e a r t i f a c t s from e i t h e r s i t e makes c o n c l u s i o n s d i f f i c u l t . D i f f e r e n c e s may, i n p a r t , be r e l a t e d t o s i t e f u n c t i o n . Pecked s t o n e i s e x c l u s i v e t o t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . O nly two examples o f pecked s t o n e were r e c o v e r e d . Such a s m a l l sample of t h i s p r o b a b l y c u r a t e d a r t i f a c t c l a s s makes i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t , however, a r t i f a c t s l i k e t h i s may r e f l e c t t h e s e m i - s e d e n t a r y n a t u r e i n f e r r e d f o r t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . However, t h i s argument f a i l s t o e x p l a i n t h e absence o f pecked s t o n e a r t i f a c t s a t t h e Maurer s i t e w h i c h a l s o has a r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n . The p r e s e n c e o f ochre a t a l l t h r e e s i t e s , and o c h r e - r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s , such as p a l a t e s , a t t h e H a t z i c Rock and Maurer s i t e s , i n d i c a t e t h i s m a t e r i a l was p r o c e s s e d and u t i l i z e d t o some degree a t each l o c a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , t h e l i t h i c t o o l assemblages from t h e t h r e e Eayem phase s i t e s : E s i l a o , Maurer and t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e s h a r e many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . However, t o o l assemblages from each s i t e a l s o d i v e r g e i n a number o f a r e a s . Some o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s may be r e l a t e d t o l o c a t i o n , s i t e f u n c t i o n o r t e m p o r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , however, w i t h o u t p r o p e r l y r e p o r t e d t o o l assemblages from Maurer and E s i l a o t h e r e i s no way t o e v a l u a t e t h i s f u r t h e r . The f o r m a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e E s i l a o and Maurer t o o l assemblages i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a " t y p i c a l " Eayem phase t o o l assemblage can be d e f i n e d w i t h c o n f i d e n c e . The H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage was examined i n a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t by comparing i t t o t h r e e w e l l documented S t . Mungo phase s i t e s : G l e n r o s e Cannery, S t . Mungo and C r e s c e n t Beach. T h i s c o m p a r i s o n sought t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage r e l a t e d t o c o a s t a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e t y p e . E s i l a o and Maurer were e x c l u d e d f rom t h i s c o m p a r i s o n as b o t h s i t e s l a c k e d a r t i f a c t f r e q u e n c y i n f o r m a t i o n . T a b l e 4.7 combines t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage summarized i n T a b l e 4.3 w i t h P r a t t ' s (1992:90) T a b l e 2.3 su m m a r i z i n g a r t i f a c t c o u n t s and p e r c e n t a g e s from T a b l e 4.7 T o o l Counts and P e r c e n t a g e s from t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e and t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e Components from G l e n r o s e Cannery, S t . Mungo and C r e s c e n t Beach A r t i f a c t C l a s s HR GC STM CB n n n n % B i f a c i a l Tools Leaf-Shaped 8 2 .5 19 B i f a c e Stemmed B i f a c e 13 4 .1 4 L a n c e o l a t e 1 .3 0 B i f a c e D r i l l 0 .0 1 M i s c . Formed 0 .0 0 B i f a c e B i f a c e 21 6 .6 29 Fragments 43 13 .5 53 Blade-Like Tools M i c r o l i t h / 1 .3 4 L i n e a r F l a k e 1 .3 4 Flake Tools G r a v e r 1 .3 2 P i e c e Esquillée 4 1 .3 4 Formed U n i f a c e 1 .3 40 B i f a c i a l l y R e t . 8 2 .5 12 F l a k e U n i f a c i a l l y 57 17 .9 133 Ret. F l a k e U t i l i z e d F l a k e 77 24 .1 82 C o r t e x S p a l l 2 .6 11 150 47 .0 284 Cores/Pebble Tools Core 69 21 .6 54 Pebble T o o l 19 6 .0 23 Hammerstone 7 2 .2 13 A n v i l Stone 3 .9 1 98 30 .7 91 4.0 7 2.1 7 1.9 .8 13 3.8 6 1.6 .0 0 .0 0 .0 .2 0 .0 0 .0 .0 0 .0 1 .3 6.1 27 7.9 14 3.8 11.2 47 13.8 28 7.7 .8 0 .0 2 .6 .8 0 .0 2 .6 .2 0 .0 0 .0 .8 26 7.6 49 13 .4 8.4 20 5.9 3 .8 2.5 14 4.1 2 .6 28.1 74 21.7 47 12 .8 17 .3 44 12 .9 118 32 .2 2.3 3 .9 14 3.8 59.9 181 53 .1 233 63.7 11.4 49 14.4 55 15 .0 4.9 19 5.6 19 5.2 2.7 14 4 .1 5 1.4 .2 1 .3 4 1.1 19.2 83 24.3 83 22 .7 Con't T a b l e 4.7 Con't Ground Stone D i s c Bead 2 .6 5 1.1 Ground Stone 0 .0 2 .4 B i f a c e Ground Stone 5 1.6 1 .2 B i f a c e F r a g . D e c o r a t e d 0 .0 6 1.3 Ground Stone A b r a s i v e Stone 10 3.1 18 3.8 M i s c . Ground 1 .3 8 1.7 Stone 18 5.6 40 8.5 4 1.2 (508) (58.1) 0 .0 0 .0 12 5 26 .3 1.2 3.5 1.5 0 18 1 .0 .3 4.9 .3 7.6 20 5.5 (528) (60.4) Chipped and Ground Stone Chipped/Ground 0 .0 B i f a c e ( L e a f - Shaped) Chipped/Ground 0 .0 B i f a c e M e d i a l F r a g . Chipped/Ground 0 .0 B i f a c e D i s t a l F r a g . Chipped/Ground 0 .0 Stone F r a g . 0 .0 0 1 .2 .0 .0 .0 .2 0 .0 .3 .3 .3 .9 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 Ground and Pecked Stone M i s c . Pecked 2 .6 and Ground Stone 2 .6 .2 .2 .3 .3 .0 .0 Miscellaneous P a i n t Stone 7 2 . 2 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 7 2 .2 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 TOTAL 319 100.0 474 100.0 341 100.0 366 100.0 (874) (100.0) HR = H a t z i c Rock s i t e STM = S t . Mungo s i t e GC = G l e n r o s e Cannery s i t e CB = C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e G l e n r o s e Cannery, S t . Mungo and C r e s c e n t Beach. As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , bone and a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s d i d not s u r v i v e a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e , t h e r e f o r e , t o o l s o f t h i s n a t u r e were d e l e t e d from t h e S t . Mungo phase t o o l assemblages t o f a c i l i t a t e c o mparison. A r t i f a c t c l a s s e s were merged i n t o g e n e r a l c l a s s e s (e.g. p e b b l e t o o l s ) . The p e r c e n t a g e o f each a r t i f a c t c l a s s a t t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e was c a l c u l a t e d w i t h o u t ground s t o n e d i s c beads due t o t h e h i g h numbers o f t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s . The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e d i s c bead c l a s s would have skewed a r t i f a c t c l a s s p r o p o r t i o n s . The C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage t o t a l ( i n c l u d i n g d i s c beads) was u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f d i s c beads. T h i s f i g u r e was i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 4.7 b u t e n c l o s e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s . The degree o f a r t i f a c t assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y i s comparable a t a l l f o u r s i t e s . G l e n r o s e Cannery c o n t a i n s 24/30 a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s i n comparison t o 22/30 a t t h e H a t z i c Rock and S t . Mungo s i t e s . The C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e e x h i b i t e d t h e l o w e s t degree of d i v e r s i t y w i t h o n l y 19/30 a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s p r e s e n t . S i m i l a r l y , a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s u n i q u e t o each s i t e r e f l e c t e d a l i m i t e d degree o f v a r i a b i l i t y . G l e n r o s e Cannery and S t . Mungo each p o s s e s s t h r e e u n i q u e t o o l c l a s s e s and t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e p o s s e s s e s two u n i q u e c l a s s e s . The C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e has o n l y one u n i q u e t o o l c l a s s . A r t i f a c t c l a s s e s u n i q u e t o t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i n c l u d e p a i n t s t o n e s and a l a n c e o l a t e shaped p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t . Unique a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s i n t h e t h r e e c o a s t a l s i t e s i n c l u d e a d r i l l , a m i s c e l l a n e o u s formed b i f a c e , a ground s t o n e b i f a c e , a l e a f - s h a p e d c h i p p e d / g r o u n d b i f a c e , two f r a g m e n t a r y c h i p p e d / g r o u n d b i f a c e c l a s s e s and a c h i p p e d / g r o u n d s t o n e fragment. P r o p o r t i o n s o f b i f a c i a l t o o l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y e q u a l f o r each s i t e (11.2%-13.8%) e x c e p t t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e w h i c h has a much s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n ( 7 . 7 % ) . G l e n r o s e Cannery p o s s e s s e s t h e g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f l e a f - s h a p e d b i f a c e s . The stemmed b i f a c e f o rm was common a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e (4.1%) and t h e S t . Mungo s i t e ( 3 . 8 % ) . Stemmed b i f a c e s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t i n some numbers a t t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e ( 1 . 6 % ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h e l a c k o f stemmed b i f a c e s i n t h e G l e n r o s e Cannery assemblage (.8%) does n ot r e f l e c t t h e p a t t e r n seen i n o t h e r C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s i t e s . Formed u n i f a c e s a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e G l e n r o s e Cannery (8.4%) and S t . Mungo (5.9%) s i t e s b u t a r e n o t common a t t h e H a t z i c Rock (.3%) o r C r e s c e n t Beach (.8%) s i t e s . Pièces esquillées a r e common t o t h e C r e s c e n t Beach (13.4%) and S t . Mungo (7.6%) s i t e s b u t m i n i m a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e G l e n r o s e Cannery (.8%) and H a t z i c Rock (1.3%) s i t e s . R etouched f l a k e s r e p r e s e n t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e G l e n r o s e Cannery (30.6%) and S t . Mungo (25.8%) a r t i f a c t a ssemblages. T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s i s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e (20.4%) but p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l e s s r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e ( 1 3 . 4 % ) . The o p p o s i t e p a t t e r n i s r e f l e c t e d i n u t i l i z e d f l a k e c l a s s e s . These a r t i f a c t s a r e most common a t t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e (32.3%) and t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e ( 2 4 . 1 % ) . The G l e n r o s e Cannery (17.3%) and S t . Mungo (12.9%) s i t e s p o s s e s s u t i l i z e d f l a k e s i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e d p r o p o r t i o n s . Core and p e b b l e t o o l c l a s s e s a r e dominant a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e (30.7%) i n comparison t o t h e t h r e e c o a s t a l s i t e s (19.2%-24.3%). Three o f t h e f o u r a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s i n t h i s g e n e r a l t o o l c a t e g o r y a r e dominated by t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The H a t z i c Rock s i t e c o n t a i n s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more c o r e s , s l i g h t l y more p e b b l e t o o l s and more a n v i l s t o n e s t h a n t h e o t h e r t h r e e s i t e s . Hammerstones a r e n o t dominant a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e (2.2%) b u t t h e p r o p o r t i o n f a l l s w i t h i n t h e same range as G l e n r o s e Cannery (2.7%) and C r e s c e n t Beach ( 1 . 4 % ) . The S t . Mungo s i t e (4.1%) dominates t h i s c l a s s . The p r o p o r t i o n o f ground s t o n e t o o l s a t each s i t e i s comparable when d i s c beads from t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e a r e e x c l u d e d . The G l e n r o s e Cannery (8.5%) and S t . Mungo (7.6%) s i t e s s h a r e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f ground s t o n e a r t i f a c t s t h a n t h e H a t z i c Rock (5.6%) o r C r e s c e n t Beach (5.5%) s i t e s . Ground s t o n e a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s a r e r o u g h l y comparable a t each s i t e e x c e p t f o r d e c o r a t e d ground s t o n e o b j e c t s w h i c h a r e a b s e n t from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e has an e x t r e m e l y h i g h number o f d i s c beads i n co m p a r i s o n t o t h e o t h e r t h r e e s i t e s . Ground st o n e b i f a c e fragments a r e most common a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . C h i p ped and ground s t o n e t o o l c l a s s e s a r e n o t p r e s e n t a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e o r t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e . These a r t i f a c t s a r e p r e s e n t , i n s m a l l numbers, a t b o t h G l e n r o s e Cannery (.2%) and S t . Mungo (.9%). Ground and pe c k e d s t o n e i s m i n i m a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d a t each s i t e w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of the C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e w h i c h l a c k s t h i s c l a s s o f a r t i f a c t . The H a t z i c Rock s i t e (.6%) p o s s e s s e s a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e a r t i f a c t s t h a n G l e n r o s e Cannery (.2%) o r S t . Mungo {.3%). The c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage w i t h t h e S t . Mungo phase a r t i f a c t assemblages from G l e n r o s e Cannery, S t . Mungo and C r e s c e n t Beach i n d i c a t e d how t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage compared t o o t h e r documented C h a r l e s C u l t u r e a r t i f a c t assemblages. The most o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e i s t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f c o r e s and p e b b l e t o o l s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r t h r e e s i t e s . The H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage i s a l s o marked by a low p r o p o r t i o n o f formed u n i f a c e s and fewer r e t o u c h e d f l a k e s i n r e l a t i o n t o G l e n r o s e Cannery and S t . Mungo. I n c o n t r a s t , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f u t i l i z e d f l a k e s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s h i g h , s i m i l a r t o t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e . No c h i p p e d and ground a r t i f a c t s were found a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e , however, pecked and ground s t o n e i s m a r g i n a l l y more common. P a i n t s t o n e s a r e e x c l u s i v e t o t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The p r o p o r t i o n o f ground s t o n e a r t i f a c t s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s w i t h i n t h e same range as t h e o t h e r t h r e e s i t e s t h a t were examined. However, d e c o r a t e d ground s t o n e a r t i f a c t s were n o t i c e a b l y absent from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e f o u r a r t i f a c t assemblages may be t h e r e s u l t o f s e v e r a l d i s c r e t e f a c t o r s o r a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e s e f a c t o r s . The r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e t h r e e c o a s t a l r e s o u r c e procurement s i t e s may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a r t i f a c t assemblage c o m p o s i t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , s i t e l o c a t i o n c o u l d have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some o f t h e d i v e r s i t y . The age o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e may a l s o e x p l a i n some of t h e v a r i a b i l i t y seen i n t h e f o u r a r t i f a c t assemblages. A r t i f a c t s from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r e s l i g h t l y o l d e r t h a n a r t i f a c t s f r o m t h e o t h e r t h r e e s i t e s . The g r e a t e r age o f th e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t s s u g g e s t s c l o s e r a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e O.C.C. t h a n t h e o t h e r t h r e e s i t e s . I f t r u e , t h i s would p a r t i a l l y a c c o u n t f o r the h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c o r e s and p e b b l e t o o l s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage w i t h t h e t h r e e S t . Mungo phase s i t e s was g e n e r a l and somewhat l i m i t e d . However, s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s were found t o e x i s t between t h e f o u r a r t i f a c t assemblages. A m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f o u r a r t i f a c t assemblages i s c l e a r l y w a r r a n t e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , such an a n a l y s i s e x t e n d s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . W h i l e not p r o v i d i n g a l l the answers, t h i s c o m parison p r o v i d e s t h e l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r f u t u r e c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s e s . CHAPTER FIVE FEATURES I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e 280 f e a t u r e s w h i c h were e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . Each f e a t u r e t y p e i s d e s c r i b e d and t o t a l s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r each o c c u p a t i o n zone. F e a t u r e d a t a a r e t h e n used t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l remains u n c o v e r e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . F e a t u r e s l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a (e.g. t r e n c h 4 and W i l s o n 1991) a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e d i s c u s s i o n b u t a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m the a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . C o m p a r a t i v e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and e t h n o h i s t o r i c d a t a a r e u s ed t o a s s i s t i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . The t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r one a r e e v a l u a t e d . F e a t u r e s F e a t u r e s r e c o r d e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i n c l u d e : p o s t h o l e s , h e a r t h s , c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , a d r a i n a g e d i t c h , a g r a v e l bench and two c o m p o s i t e a n v i l s t o n e f e a t u r e s . The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s e s s e n t i a l l y an amalgam o f s e v e r a l f e a t u r e t y p e s and i s d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . P o s t H o l e s P o s t h o l e s were t h e most common f e a t u r e t y p e . One hundred and e i g h t y - e i g h t o f t h e s e p o s t h o l e s a r e c i r c u l a r / o v o i d w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l f i f t e e n r e c t a n g u l a r examples ( F i g u r e 5.1). P o s t h o l e f e a t u r e s f rom t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a a r e a l l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . S p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n f o r each p o s t h o l e i s l i s t e d i n Appendix B. M e t r i c d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e , o r e x t r a p o l a t e d , f o r a l l but two p o s t h o l e s . The maximum h o r i z o n t a l d i m e n s i o n o f each c i r c u l a r / o v o i d and r e c t a n g u l a r p o s t h o l e was us e d t o summarize t h e s e f e a t u r e s . P o s t h o l e d i a m e t e r s ranged from 5-51 cm w i t h a median o f 16 cm. The i n t e r q u a r t i l e range o f p o s t h o l e d i a m e t e r s was 11-22 cm. A box p l o t (see H a r t w i g and B e a r i n g 1979) o f d i a m e t e r s ( F i g u r e 5.2) i n d i c a t e s s i x p o s t h o l e s have v a l u e s w h i c h exceed 3 8 cm. He a r t h s and C h a r c o a l C o n c e n t r a t i o n s H e a r t h s and c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were common f e a t u r e s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . H e a r t h s a r e d e f i n e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f b u r n t s o i l , c h a r c o a l and f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k i n a w e l l d e f i n e d a r e a . These f e a t u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n s i t u b u r n i n g on an o c c u p a t i o n s u r f a c e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by Gose (1976:190). N i n e t e e n o f t h e t h i r t y - s i x i d e n t i f i e d h e a r t h s were l o c a t e d on o r i n d e p o s i t s i n f e r r e d t o be t h e P o s t H o l e F e a t u r e s on F l o o r D e p o s i t s Post hole feature O Extrapolated post hole feature F i g u r e 5.2 Box P l o t o f Po s t Hole D i a m e t e r s 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Post Hole Diameter (cm) f l o o r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e ( o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I ) ( F i g u r e 5.3). T h i r t e e n o f t h e h e a r t h f e a t u r e s were l o c a t e d i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r from o c c u p a t i o n zone I . As i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e s 5.3 and 5.8, s e v e r a l h e a r t h f e a t u r e s from o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I l i e on o r a g a i n s t a g r a v e l bench f e a t u r e . T h i s s u g g e s t s some f i r e s may have been s e t a g a i n s t t h i s n a t u r a l l y f i r e p r o o f w a l l . These h e a r t h s c o u l d a l s o r e p r e s e n t f i r e s t h a t were l i t a f t e r t h e s t r u c t u r e was abandoned. A t l e a s t two h e a r t h s c o n t a i n e d q u a n t i t i e s o f s m a l l d i s c - s h a p e d p e b b l e s thought t o be e i t h e r b o i l i n g s t o n e s o r st o n e s used f o r l i n i n g a h e a r t h (see Samuels 1991:189). The dim e n s i o n s o f t h e s e s t o n e s a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y summarized i n T a b l e 5.1. The g e n e r a l l y u n i f o r m s i z e and shape o f t h e s e s t o n e s i n d i c a t e s t h e y were s p e c i f i c a l l y s e l e c t e d perhaps due ' F i g u r e 5.3 H e a r t h F e a t u r e s L o c a t e d on F l o o r D e p o s i t s Hearth feature Rock enclosed hearth feature Extrapolated hearth feature T a b l e 5.1 B o i l i n g Stone M e t r i c Summary Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Length,mm 162 46 33-71 42-51 Width,mm 158 37 28-55 34-41 Thickness,mm 164 15 6-34 12-17 Weight,g 165 34.2 4.1-108.4 25.8-47.4 t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as r e s i l i e n c e t o heat f r a c t u r e o r t h e amount o f t i m e r e q u i r e d t o h e a t t h e s t o n e s . C h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e , as t h e name i m p l i e s , c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f c h a r c o a l , a l t h o u g h some b u r n t s o i l and f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k may a l s o be p r e s e n t . These f e a t u r e s l i k e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e c o n t e n t s o f h e a r t h s w h i c h were r e d e p o s i t e d away from t h e i r p l a c e o f use, perhaps d u r i n g c l e a n i n g e p i s o d e s . T h i r t y - s e v e n c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were r e c o r d e d . F i f t e e n o f t h e s e c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were found i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . O c c u p a t i o n zone I I p o s s e s s e d n i n e c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . Three o t h e r s were found i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I . N i n e c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were l o c a t e d i n backhoe t r e n c h p r o f i l e s and c o u l d n o t be a s s i g n e d t o an o c c u p a t i o n zone. One c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n was l o c a t e d 5.7m west of t h e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t 10 datum and p r o v i d e d a r a d i o c a r b o n sample f o r t h e s i t e s u r f a c e ( r e f e r t o C h a p t e r 3 ) . A p p e n d i x C l i s t s d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on each h e a r t h and c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n . G r a v e l Bench A g r a v e l bench was i d e n t i f i e d around much of t h e n o r t h e r n p e r i m e t e r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . T h i s bench was formed by t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f t h e t e r r a c e s l o p e t o c r e a t e a l e v e l f l o o r s u r f a c e i n t h e s t r u c t u r e . I n t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f of the s t r u c t u r e t h e n a t u r a l t e r r a c e s l o p e d e c r e a s e d , t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g t h e need t o e x c a v a t e a l e v e l s u r f a c e . The margins o f t h i s f e a t u r e can be seen i n F i g u r e 5.4. D i t c h The remains of what i s i n t e r p r e t e d t o be p a r t o f a d i t c h f e a t u r e were u n c o v e r e d i n u n i t s 19 and 36. T h i s t r e n c h - l i k e f e a t u r e was e x c a v a t e d i n t o s t e r i l e g r a v e l d e p o s i t s a p p a r e n t l y i n an attempt t o d i v e r t r a i n r u n - o f f from t h e t e r r a c e s l o p e above t h e s t r u c t u r e (see F i g u r e s 5.5 and 5.6). E v i d e n c e t h a t t h e g r a v e l d e p o s i t s were e x c a v a t e d a l o n g t h e o u t e r edge of t h e g r a v e l bench as w e l l as t h e i n n e r s i d e s u ggest t h e d i t c h i s p r e s e n t n o r t h , west, and e a s t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e j u s t beyond t h e a r e a s e x c a v a t e d . F u r t h e r e x c a v a t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o c o r r o b o r a t e t h e d i m e n s i o n s and f u l l e x t e n t o f t h e d i t c h . F i g u r e 5.4 L o c a t i o n o f G r a v e l Bench F e a t u r e m N Gravel bench feature West W a l l P r o f i l e o f D i t c h F e a t u r e ( U n i t 36) F i g u r e 5.6 P l a n View of D i t c h F e a t u r e A n v i l Stone F e a t u r e s Two f e a t u r e s a r e p r i m a r i l y a n v i l s t o n e s u s e d t o p r o c e s s raw m a t e r i a l s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s . However, t h e y a l s o p o s s e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r a s s o c i a t e d m a t e r i a l s w h i c h w a r r a n t a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n . One a n v i l s t o n e was found i n e x c a v a t i o n u n i t 10 i n l e v e l s 1-5 (5-38 cm S, 115-149 cm E) and i s m a i n l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o c c u p a t i o n zone I I ( F i g u r e 5.7). The a n v i l s t o n e i s a 3 0 cm x 30 cm g r a n i t e c o b b l e w i t h a r o u g h l y t r i a n g u l a r o u t l i n e . I t s s u r f a c e has e v i d e n c e o f p e c k i n g , i n t h e form o f p i t t i n g and a b r a s i o n and was s u r r o u n d e d by l i t h i c d e b r i s . The base of t h e a n v i l s t o n e was s u p p o r t e d by s o i l and t h r e e p e b b l e s , one o f w h i c h has u n i f a c i a l p e r i p h e r a l f l a k i n g . A c h a r c o a l l e n s , d a t e d t o 4930±70 BP (WSU-4327), was o b s e r v e d d i r e c t l y below t h e s u p p o r t s t o n e (20-30 cm d.b.s.) and a ground s l a t e b l a d e fragment was r e c o v e r e d j u s t below t h e c h a r c o a l l e n s . T h i s f e a t u r e i n d i c a t e s s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n and p o s s i b l y f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n t o o k p l a c e a t t h i s l o c a t i o n . The second a n v i l s t o n e was l o c a t e d i n e x c a v a t i o n u n i t 3 i n l e v e l s 2-5 (75-98 cm S, 43-97 cm E) and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o c c u p a t i o n zone I I . The a n v i l s t o n e measured 48.9 cm (L) X 34.9 cm (W) X 31.8 cm (Th) and w e i g h t e d o v e r 45 kg. The s u r f a c e of t h e a n v i l s t o n e was l e v e l and would have p r o v i d e d an e x c e l l e n t w o r k i n g s u r f a c e . 1 Composite A n v i l Stone F e a t u r e from E x c a v a t i o n U n i t 10, L e v e l s 1-5 The p r e s e n c e of p i t t i n g and a b r a s i o n on t h e w o r k i n g s u r f a c e i n d i c a t e s i n t e n s e u s e . A l a r g e amount of l i t h i c d e b i t a g e was r e c o v e r e d f rom t h e base of t h e f e a t u r e s u g g e s t i n g t h e a n v i l s t o n e was r e c o v e r e d i n i t s p r i m a r y c o n t e x t . B o t h a n v i l s t o n e s were a c c i d e n t a l l y b a c k f i l l e d a t t h e end o f t h e 1991 f i e l d season, however, t h e example from u n i t 3 was r e l o c a t e d on t h e b a c k f i l l e d s u r f a c e o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . B o t h a n v i l s t o n e s were g i v e n c a t a l o g u e numbers and a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s , however, m e t r i c d a t a f o r t h e a n v i l s t o n e f rom u n i t 10 c o u l d not be o b t a i n e d . I n g e n e r a l , h e a r t h and c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n f e a t u r e s a r e common t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x c a v a t i o n a r e a i n a l l t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n zones. The two a n v i l s t o n e f e a t u r e s a r e o n l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o c c u p a t i o n zone I I . The r e m a i n i n g f e a t u r e t y p e s : p o s t h o l e s , t h e g r a v e l bench and d i t c h a r e e x c l u s i v e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s t r u c t u r e ( o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I ) . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n combines t h e o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I f e a t u r e s t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e s t r u c t u r e f rom t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . H a t z i c Rock S i t e A r c h i t e c t u r e The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r c h i t e c t u r e i s l i m i t e d t o d a t a g a t h e r e d f rom t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . S t r u c t u r a l d a t a g a t h e r e d from t h e second s t r u c t u r e i d e n t i f i e d i n t r e n c h 4 a r e t o o l i m i t e d t o a l l o w i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , e v i d e n c e o f a p o s s i b l e t h i r d s t r u c t u r e , l o c a t e d s o u t h west o f t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a by W i l s o n (1991) d i d not p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l t o t h i s summary. A p p r o x i m a t e l y two t h i r d s o f a s t r u c t u r e was u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . T h i s s t r u c t u r e i s semi- s u b t e r r a n e a n and measures 11 m (N-S) x 10 m (E-W) w i t h a r o u g h l y s quare o u t l i n e ^ ( F i g u r e 5.8). The s t r u c t u r e was p a r t i a l l y e x c a v a t e d i n t o t h e t e r r a c e s l o p e t o p r o v i d e a l e v e l l i v i n g s u r f a c e . The t e r r a c e e x c a v a t i o n , as w e l l as t h e method o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , c r e a t e d a bench a r e a a l o n g t h e n o r t h e r n o r " u p h i l l " h a l f o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . A b r e a k i n t h i s g r a v e l bench s u g g e s t s an e a s t e r n ground l e v e l e n t r a n c e t o t h e b u i l d i n g . A d i t c h , w h i c h l i k e l y d i v e r t e d h i l l s i d e w a t e r r u n - o f f , appears t o have e n c i r c l e d t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f the s t r u c t u r e o u t s i d e t h e bench element. The many p o s t h o l e f e a t u r e s documented f o r t h e s t r u c t u r e r e v e a l a complex p a t t e r n w h i c h h i n d e r e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e cannot be i s o l a t e d due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e many p o s t h o l e f e a t u r e s . R a t h e r , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o s t h o l e s r e f l e c t s c o n s i d e r a b l e maintenance and r e b u i l d i n g o v e r t i m e . -L The s t r u c t u r e o u t l i n e i n F i g u r e 5.8 i s a p p r o x i m a t e and was e x t r a p o l a t e d u s i n g t h e g r a v e l bench m a r g i n and p o s t h o l e l o c a t i o n s . P l a n o f S t r u c t u r e E x c a v a t e d a t the H a t z i c Rock S i t e Hearth feature Extrapolated hearth feature The g r e a t number of p o s t h o l e s were h e l p f u l i n d e l i n e a t i n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . The p a t t e r n of l a r g e r (>25 cm d i a . ) p o s t h o l e s was s e p a r a t e d from t h e p a t t e r n o f s m a l l p o s t h o l e s i n an attempt t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l o c a t i o n o f m ajor s t r u c t u r a l s u p p o r t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e s u l t s were i n c o n c l u s i v e . The c o n f u s i o n i n t h e p o s t h o l e p a t t e r n i n g was n o t u n e x p e c t e d g i v e n t h e time and l a b o u r t h a t was l i k e l y i n v e s t e d i n a s t r u c t u r e of t h i s n a t u r e . R a t h e r , i t would be u n u s u a l f o r such a s t r u c t u r e t o show l i t t l e s i g n o f extended use. L a r g e r c i r c u l a r / o v o i d and r e c t a n g u l a r p o s t h o l e s l i k e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e remains of l o a d b e a r i n g s t r u c t u r a l p o s t s . These would i n c l u d e t h e p o s t h o l e s n o t e d i n F i g u r e 5.2 w i t h d i a m e t e r s e x c e e d i n g 38 cm. S m a l l e r p o s t h o l e s a r e p r o b a b l y t h e remains of p o s t s w h i c h s e r v e d t o s u p p o r t w a l l p l a n k s o r l i g h t c o n s t r u c t i o n s , such as d r y i n g r a c k s , i n t e r i o r p a r t i t i o n s o r benches. The s m a l l e r p o s t h o l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d a t t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e b u i l d i n g whereas t h e l a r g e p o s t h o l e s t e n d more toward t h e c e n t r e o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n e x c e p t i n t h e southwest m a r g i n of t h e s t r u c t u r e where some l a r g e r examples were o b s e r v e d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s good e v i d e n c e o f t h e number and l o c a t i o n o f p o s t f e a t u r e s w i t h i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e , t h e h e i g h t of t h e p o s t s c o u l d not be d e t e r m i n e d . F u r t h e r , t h e t y p e of r o o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and r o o f i n g m a t e r i a l c o u l d n o t be i n f e r r e d from t h e e x i s t i n g d a t a . The l o c a t i o n o f h e a r t h s s i t u a t e d on t h e l i v i n g f l o o r i n d i c a t e s s e v e r a l a r e a s were u t i l i z e d f o r c o o k i n g o r h e a t i n g . A l a r g e h e a r t h n o r t h w e s t o f t h e presumed e n t r a n c e appears t o be t h e most i n t e n s i v e l y u t i l i z e d b a sed on t h e r e c o v e r y o f g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k and c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f b o i l i n g s t o n e s . O t h e r h e a r t h s may r e f l e c t s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y a r e a s w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e , o r t h e c h a n g i n g use o f space t h r o u g h t i m e . F o r i n s t a n c e , p o s t h o l e d a t a s u g g e s t t h e s t r u c t u r e was r e p e a t e d l y m a i n t a i n e d o r m o d i f i e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e l o c a t i o n and s i z e o f h e a r t h f e a t u r e s l i k e l y changed o v e r t i m e as w e l l . D i s c u s s i o n Three h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e were p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r one. These h y p o t h e s e s a r e : H y p o t h e s i s #1: The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e r e s e m b l e s s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t d w e l l i n g s r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . H y p o t h e s i s #2: The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e c o n s t i t u t e s a new t y p e of b u i l d i n g f o r t h e s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . H y p o t h e s i s #3 : The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e does not resemble s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t d w e l l i n g s from t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , b u t does s h a r e s t r u c t u r a l and d e s i g n e l e m e n t s . C o n c e r n i n g h y p o t h e s i s one, t h e d a t a c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e does n o t resemble, e i t h e r i n t h e s t r i c t sense, p i t h o u s e o r s h e d - r o o f p l a n k houses from t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . S e v e r a l b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e s e s t r u c t u r e t y p e s . The most o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e and e t h n o h i s t o r i c p i t h o u s e d w e l l i n g s i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e i s not f u l l y s u b t e r r a n e a n . P i t h o u s e s were, as t h e name i m p l i e s , w h o l l y s u b t e r r a n e a n b e i n g b u i l t i n a l a r g e p i t e x c a v a t e d t o c o n t a i n and i n s u l a t e t h e d w e l l i n g . The frameworks and c l a d d i n g of p i t h o u s e s were c o v e r e d w i t h e a r t h t o p r o v i d e a w e a t h e r p r o o f and i n s u l a t i n g l a y e r (Boas 1890; L a f o r e t and Y o r k 1981; S mith 1947; T e i t 1900). The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e was not b u i l t w i t h a p i t f e a t u r e . The space o c c u p i e d by t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e was o n l y p a r t i a l l y e x c a v a t e d . R a t h e r t h a n e x c a v a t i n g a p i t , a p o r t i o n of t h e t e r r a c e s l o p e was removed. The t e r r a c e e x c a v a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n r o u g h l y h a l f o f t h e s t r u c t u r e b e i n g b u i l t i n t o t h e s l o p e . T h i s e x c a v a t i o n p r o v i d e d a l e v e l l i v i n g s u r f a c e and demarcated t h e n o r t h e r n w a l l and r o u g h l y h a l f o f t h e w e s t e r n and e a s t e r n w a l l s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . The i n t e r n a l bench f e a t u r e known t o s u r r o u n d p i t h o u s e i n t e r i o r s (see L a f o r e t and Y ork 1981:120; Smyly 1973:50; T e i t 1900) was o n l y p a r t i a l l y p r e s e n t i n t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . As t h e s t r u c t u r e a t H a t z i c was o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u b t e r r a n e a n , t h i s e a r t h e n bench was o n l y o b s e r v e d where t e r r a c e d e p o s i t s were removed. P i t h o u s e s p o s s e s s e i t h e r f o u r o r s i x c e n t r a l s u p p o r t p o s t s t h a t s u p p o r t e d r a d i a t i n g r o o f beams (Boas 1890:81-82; L a f o r e t and Y o r k 1981:117; Sm i t h 1947:257). The complex p a t t e r n o f p o s t h o l e f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e made i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t , however, a s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d have e x i s t e d i n t h e s u b t e r r a n e a n ( n o r t h e r n ) p o r t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e , but not i n t h e s o u t h e r n f r e e s t a n d i n g p o r t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . Roof e n t r a n c e s were the norm f o r p i t h o u s e s (Boas 1890:82) a l t h o u g h L a f o r e t and Y o r k (1981:119) d e s c r i b e a s i d e e n t r a n c e v a r i a t i o n t h a t appears t o be a r e l a t i v e l y l a t e development. E v i d e n c e of an e a s t e r n ground l e v e l e n t r a n c e a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h i s s t r u c t u r e t y p e from most e t h n o h i s t o r i c p i t h o u s e s . The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e d i f f e r s f rom shed r o o f t y p e p l a n k houses l a r g e l y due t o i t s s u b t e r r a n e a n a s p e c t s . Shed r o o f houses can b e s t be d e s c r i b e d as a permanent framework of p o s t s and beams w i t h removable w a l l and r o o f p l a n k c l a d d i n g ( S u t t l e s 1990:462). Boas' (1890) S o n g i s h shed r o o f house example from s o u t h e a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d had s i x l a r g e p o s t s s u p p o r t i n g t h r e e e q u a l l y l a r g e r o o f c r o s s beams. A d d i t i o n a l p o s t s were added i f f u r t h e r s t r u c t u r a l s u p p o r t was r e q u i r e d f o r g r e a t e r r o o f spans o r i f s m a l l e r d i a m e t e r p o s t s were u s e d ( B a r n e t t 1955:36) . P o s t s on one s i d e o f t h e house, u s u a l l y p a r a l l e l w i t h a s h o r e l i n e , were h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e t o c r e a t e a s l a n t e d r o o f and an o b v i o u s " f r o n t " t o the b u i l d i n g (Boas 1890:11; S u t t l e s 1990:462). The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e d i f f e r e d f r o m shed r o o f p l a n k houses p r i m a r i l y because i t was b u i l t i n t o t h e s i d e o f a t e r r a c e . T h i s r a i s e s some doubt as t o whether w a l l and r o o f c l a d d i n g c o u l d have been removed and r e i n s t a l l e d w i t h ease as was t h e case i n shed r o o f s t r u c t u r e s . L i k e l y , t h e w a l l c l a d d i n g f o r t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a t H a t z i c would have been d i f f i c u l t t o i n s t a l l and remove i n com p a r i s o n t o t h e f r e e s t a n d i n g s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n . The i n t e r i o r bench o f t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e , c r e a t e d by th e t e r r a c e e x c a v a t i o n , d i f f e r e d from what i s found i n shed r o o f houses. I n shed r o o f houses such p l a t f o r m s , o r benches, were c o n s t r u c t e d from p o s t s and b o a r d s a g a i n s t i n t e r i o r w a l l s . The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n shows t h a t b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e and e t h n o h i s t o r i c p i t h o u s e s and shed r o o f p l a n k houses. F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . The second h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t the H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s a u n i q u e b u i l d i n g i n terms o f i t s d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n , i s not s u p p o r t e d as t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e and e t h n o h i s t o r i c p i t h o u s e s and shed r o o f p l a n k houses. The e v a l u a t i o n of the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s t o u c h e d upon many o f t h e same p o i n t s w h i c h a r e u sed t o r e n d e r a n u l l r e s u l t f o r t h i s second h y p o t h e s i s . The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e c l e a r l y s h a r e s f u ndamental f e a t u r e s w i t h e t h n o h i s t o r i c p i t h o u s e and shed r o o f p l a n k houses. F e a t u r e s s h a r e d w i t h p i t h o u s e s i n c l u d e i t s semi- s u b t e r r a n e a n a s p e c t s and t h e g r a v e l bench f e a t u r e . A l s o , p o s t h o l e p a t t e r n i n g i n t h e n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e s u g g e s t s t h e p r e s e n c e of l o a d b e a r i n g p o s t s w h i c h c o u l d have s u p p o r t e d r a d i a t i n g r o o f beams. P i t h o u s e s employed a s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s t r a t e g y . The n o n - s u b t e r r a n e a n a s p e c t s of t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e suggest some s i m i l a r i t y t o shed r o o f p l a n k houses. The s o u t h e r n h a l f o f t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e was f r e e s t a n d i n g w i t h p o s t h o l e f e a t u r e s s u g g e s t i n g l a r g e r d i a m e t e r p o s t s s e r v e d a l o a d b e a r i n g f u n c t i o n and s u p p o r t e d r o o f beams. S m a l l d i a m e t e r p o s t f e a t u r e s a l o n g t h e s t r u c t u r e ' s p e r i m e t e r suggest t h e y h e l d w a l l p l a n k s i n p l a c e . Shed r o o f p l a n k houses u s e d a s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e . An e a s t e r n ground l e v e l e n t r a n c e i n t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e i s a l s o s h a r e d w i t h most shed r o o f p l a n k houses. T h i s second h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e c o n s t i t u t e s a new t y p e of b u i l d i n g f o r t h e s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t , must be r e j e c t e d as t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e s h a r e s some b a s i c d e s i g n f e a t u r e s w i t h e t h n o h i s t o r i c house forms. T h i s r a i s e s t h e t h i r d and f i n a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e does n o t s t r i c t l y r e s e m b l e s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t d w e l l i n g s f r om the e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , but does s h a r e s t r u c t u r a l and d e s i g n e l e m e n t s . T h i s has a l r e a d y been shown t o be v a l i d i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e second h y p o t h e s i s . The e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s l a s t h y p o t h e s i s i s ex t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l examples o f s t r u c t u r e s from o t h e r s i t e s i n t h e r e g i o n . As mentioned, t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e s h a r e d s e v e r a l d e s i g n f e a t u r e s w i t h e t h n o h i s t o r i c p i t h o u s e s . The H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e was not e n t i r e l y s u b t e r r a n e a n , l i k e a p i t h o u s e , as t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f was e n t i r e l y above ground. However, t h e n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g was e x c a v a t e d i n t o a h i l l s i d e and was semi- s u b t e r r a n e a n . A bench f e a t u r e l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e n o r t h e r n p e r i m e t e r of the s t r u c t u r e a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a l s o r e s e m b l e s p i t h o u s e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The o u t l i n e o f t h i s bench s u g g e s t s l a r g e c e n t r a l p o s t s s u p p o r t e d r a d i a t i n g r o o f beams wh i c h , by d e s i g n , c r e a t e d t h e i n t e r i o r space. The s i m i l a r i t y between t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e and s h e d - r o o f p l a n k houses i s l e s s c l e a r . Though t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f of t h e b u i l d i n g was e n t i r e l y above ground, t h e l a c k o f p a t t e r n i n g i n l a r g e p o s t f e a t u r e s makes comparisons d i f f i c u l t . The p r e s e n c e o f o b v i o u s p a i r s o f s m a l l p o s t h o l e s a l o n g t h e s o u t h e r n p e r i m e t e r o f t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e s u g g e s t w a l l p l a n k s may have been r e t a i n e d i n a manner s i m i l a r t o s h e d - r o o f p l a n k houses from t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . The s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e was found t o s h a r e f e a t u r e s w i t h t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e Maurer s i t e (see L e C l a i r 1976; Fladmark 1982). The s t r u c t u r e from Maurer i s s i m i l a r t o t h e s t r u c t u r e f r om H a t z i c i n i t s s e m i - s u b t e r r a n e a n c o n s t r u c t i o n , i t s shape, e a s t e r n ground l e v e l e n t r a n c e and o v e r a l l s i z e (7x11 m). The c e n t r a l d e p r e s s i o n and s l e e p i n g / s t o r a g e p l a t f o r m s o b s e r v e d a t Maurer do not appear a t H a t z i c ( L e C l a i r 1976; Fladmark 1982). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e Maurer s t r u c t u r e s h a r e s s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s w i t h s h e d - r o o f p l a n k houses from t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . T h i s r a i s e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e from the H a t z i c Rock s i t e s h a r e s many more f e a t u r e s w i t h shed- r o o f p l a n k houses t h a n t h o s e w h i c h a r e d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e l a c k o f c l a r i t y i n s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l s a t the H a t z i c Rock s i t e may have masked much o f t h i s s i m i l a r i t y . The s t r u c t u r e from t h e Maurer s i t e r e s e m b l e s e t h n o h i s t o r i c s h e d - r o o f houses w i t h i t s s i x l a r g e p o s t s e v e n l y spaced around a c e n t r a l d e p r e s s i o n . These p o s t s l i k e l y s e r v e d a l o a d b e a r i n g purpose w i t h 19 s m a l l e r p o s t s a l o n g t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e l i k e l y s u p p o r t i n g t h e w a l l c l a d d i n g . T h i s i s r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o t h e p l a n o f a S o n g i s h shed r o o f house i l l u s t r a t e d by Boas (1890:11,12). A t t h e Maurer s i t e , a p l a t f o r m e x i s t e d i n t h e space between t h e edge o f t h e c e n t r a l d e p r e s s i o n and w a l l • T h i s was l i k e l y u s e d f o r s t o r a g e and/or s l e e p i n g . The s i z e of the Maurer s t r u c t u r e f a l l s w i t h i n t h e range o f s m a l l e r shed- r o o f p l a n k houses. However, i t s main p o i n t o f d i f f e r e n c e w i t h o t h e r shed r o o f p l a n k houses i s i t s s e m i - s u b t e r r a n e a n n a t u r e . The c l e a r p a t t e r n o f p o s t f e a t u r e s a t Maurer s u g g e s t s t h e s t r u c t u r e e x p e r i e n c e d l i t t l e , i f any, maintenance o r r e b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y . The l o c a t i o n o f a s i n g l e l a r g e h e a r t h on t h e f l o o r of t h e s t r u c t u r e r e i n f o r c e s t h e use o f t h e s t r u c t u r e f o r a r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . The s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e s t r u c t u r e w i t h t h e Maurer s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t s a common d e s i g n i n t e n t . E v i d e n c e from t h e Maurer s i t e s u g g e s t s a common house form e x i s t e d d u r i n g t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e and some e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h i s d e s i g n may have c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e and Maurer s t r u c t u r e s a r e not overwhelming and may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c b u i l d i n g s i t e s o r t o t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e Maurer d a t a , w h i c h s u g g e s t s a s i n g l e o c c u p a t i o n , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f r e q u e n t l y r e b u i l t and m a i n t a i n e d s t r u c t u r e a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . House remains t h a t a r e perhaps t h e most s i m i l a r t o t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e were p a r t i a l l y e x c a v a t e d a t t h e McCallum s i t e ( F i g u r e 5.9) by M a r i o n S m i t h (1947). F i g u r e 5.9 L o c a t i o n of t h e McCallum S i t e , DhRk-2 1) Hatzic Rock, DgRn-23 0 50 2) Maurer, DhRk-8 =] km 3) McCaUmn, DhRk-2 S i m i l a r t o H a t z i c , t h e McCallum s i t e s t r u c t u r e was a l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r s e m i - s u b t e r r a n e a n s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d i n t o t h e s i d e o f a t e r r a c e . L i k e Maurer, but u n l i k e H a t z i c , t h e McCallum s t r u c t u r e had e v i d e n c e of an i n t e r i o r d e p r e s s i o n and s l e e p i n g o r s t o r a g e p l a t f o r m s around t h e i n t e r i o r p e r i m e t e r . The McCallum s t r u c t u r e d i v e r g e d f r om t h e o t h e r examples w i t h i t s g r e a t 17 m x 9 m s i z e w h i c h i s more i n common w i t h e t h n o h i s t o r i c s h e d - r o o f p l a n k house d i m e n s i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e s t r u c t u r e a t t h e McCallum s i t e was o n l y e x c a v a t e d f o r t h r e e days making the d a t a o f l i m i t e d u t i l i t y f o r t h i s c o m p a r i s o n (Smith 1947). The s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e s e t h r e e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l examples, two from t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e and one from t h e Canyon C u l t u r e ( l a t e ) (Smith 1947), f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e s t h e i d e a o f d e s i g n c o n t i n u i t y f r om t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e t o t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . The b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s o f t h e s e t h r e e s t r u c t u r e s a r e o b v i o u s w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s p o s s i b l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e c h o i c e o f b u i l d i n g s i t e s , t h e raw m a t e r i a l s a t hand and the needs of t h e o c c u p a n t s . To summarize, the s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e r e s e m b l e s a s p e c t s of e t h n o h i s t o r i c d w e l l i n g s and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l examples from th e F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y . H a t z i c appears t o r e p r e s e n t an amalgam of t h e v a r i o u s b u i l d i n g t e c h n i q u e s , l i k e l y i n r e s p o n s e t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of i t s o c c u p a n t s . The H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e i s s i m i l a r t o p i t h o u s e s i n i t s s e m i - s u b t e r r a n e a n a s p e c t s w h i c h i s a l s o s h a r e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s from t h e Maurer and McCallum s i t e s . The H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e may have i n c o r p o r a t e d many more a s p e c t s o f shed- r o o f p l a n k house c o n s t r u c t i o n as i s t h e case a t t h e Maurer and McCallum s i t e s . However, t h e H a t z i c d a t a l a c k t h e n e c e s s a r y r e s o l u t i o n needed f o r t h e c e r t a i n t y o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A p r e c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a t H a t z i c i s not p o s s i b l e . The d a t a suggest t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e f o r d e s i g n c o n t i n u i t y o v e r t i m e , b u t t h e maintenance and r e b u i l d i n g o f t h e s t r u c t u r e has made t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n i n g d i f f i c u l t . Perhaps f u t u r e f i e l d w o r k a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e can h e l p c l a r i f y t h e u n c e r t a i n t y . CHAPTER SIX SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS T h i s t h e s i s d e s c r i b e d C h a r l e s C u l t u r e remains e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i n 1990 and 1991. These remains i n c l u d e t h e remnants o f a s e m i - s u b t e r r a n e a n s t r u c t u r e d a t e d t o 4725±39 BP. The a n a l y s i s o f a r t i f a c t s from t h e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n zones i s o l a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e r e v e a l e d m i n i m a l v a r i a t i o n . D i f f e r e n c e s were o f t e n b ased on t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence o f a s i n g l e example o f an a r t i f a c t c l a s s making t h e im p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t . E x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p a t t e r n i n c l u d e p e b b l e t o o l s and stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s w h i c h were p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more common i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I . A n v i l s t o n e s were absent i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I I I and p e b b l e f l a k e t o o l p r o p o r t i o n s were h i g h e r i n o c c u p a t i o n zones I and I I . A r t i f a c t s f a s h i o n e d from o b s i d i a n were t r a c e d t o t h r e e q u a r r y s i t e s i n Oregon s u g g e s t i n g an exchange network o p e r a t e d between t h e q u a r r i e s and t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . F a u n a l r e m a i n s , w h i l e o n l y m i n i m a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , i n d i c a t e d t h e range o f s p e c i e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e o c c u p a n t s o f t h e s i t e . S h e l l f i s h remains s u g g e s t c o n t a c t and/or t r a d e w i t h c o a s t a l a r e a s . Q u a n t i t a t i v e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e H a t z i c f a u n a l assemblage were not p o s s i b l e . A r t i f a c t s from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e ( o c c u p a t i o n zones I - I I I ) a r e s i m i l a r t o P r a t t ' s (1992) summary d e s c r i p t i o n o f C h a r l e s C u l t u r e a r t i f a c t assemblages. P r a t t (1992) d e s c r i b e d C h a r l e s C u l t u r e l i t h i c a r t i f a c t assemblages as dominated by e x p e d i e n t f l a k e and p e b b l e t o o l s f a s h i o n e d from l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e b a s a l t , q u a r t z i t e , and c h e r t . S i m i l a r l y , t h e s e t o o l and raw m a t e r i a l t y p e s were promin e n t a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . C h e r t , w h i c h was r e l a t i v e l y r a r e a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e , i s an e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s p a t t e r n . Formed c h i p p e d s t o n e t o o l s were f a r l e s s common t h a n unformed t o o l s , b o t h i n P r a t t ' s summary and a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . P r a t t (1992) n o t e d b i f a c e s were e i t h e r l e a f - shaped o r stemmed. These s t y l e s were b o t h p r e s e n t a t H a t z i c a l o n g w i t h a l a n c e o l a t e s t y l e . A p o s s i b l e s h i f t away from t h e stemmed p o i n t s t y l e towards th e l e a f - s h a p e d s t y l e was n o t e d i n o c c u p a t i o n zone I / I I . O c c u p a t i o n zone I was anomalous i n i t s n e a r absence of b i f a c i a l t o o l s . A s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s l a c k o f b i f a c i a l t o o l s was not a s c e r t a i n e d . P r a t t ' s (1992) summary i n d i c a t e d t h e e v i d e n c e f o r p r e p a r e d b l a d e t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e was weak. T h i s i s f u r t h e r c o n f i r m e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e where a s i n g l e m i c r o b l a d e was r e c o v e r e d . No e v i d e n c e o f q u a r t z m i c r o l i t h s , a n o t h e r c o n t e n t i o u s a r t i f a c t t y p e i n C h a r l e s C u l t u r e assemblages, were r e c o v e r e d . Ground s t o n e a r t i f a c t s ( i n c l u d i n g ground and c h i p p e d st o n e a r t i f a c t s ) were r a r e i n P r a t t ' s summary and a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e ( P r a t t 1992:291). A l s o , no e v i d e n c e o f G u l f I s l a n d s Complex a r t i f a c t s e x i s t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e , however, P r a t t (1992:293) c i t e s some e v i d e n c e o f t h e s e i t e m s i n t h e assemblages she examined. The p r e s e n c e o f l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f o c h r e and o c h r e - r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e does n o t f i t i n t o P r a t t ' s (1992) summary o f C h a r l e s C u l t u r e assemblages. The p r e s e n c e o f t h i s m a t e r i a l a t H a t z i c s u g g e s t s o c h r e use and p r o c e s s i n g may have been i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t i e s . I n g e n e r a l , a r t i f a c t s e x c a v a t e d from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e c onform t o P r a t t ' s (1992) summary o f C h a r l e s C u l t u r e l i t h i c a r t i f a c t assemblages. The H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage was compared t o contemporary a r t i f a c t assemblages from E s i l a o , Maurer, G l e n r o s e Cannery, S t . Mungo and C r e s c e n t Beach. T h i s was done t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage and o t h e r a r t i f a c t assemblages from t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s c o mparison a l s o sought t o d e t e r m i n e whether b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be d i s c e r n e d between s i t e s w i t h an assumed r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n (Maurer and t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e ) and s i t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s o u r c e procurement a c t i v i t i e s ( E s i l a o , G l e n r o s e Cannery, S t . Mungo and C r e s c e n t Beach). N o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between i n l a n d Eayem phase s i t e s and c o a s t a l S t . Mungo Phase s i t e s were s i m i l a r l y sought i n t h i s c o m p a r i s o n . An absence o f q u a l i t y d a t a from E s i l a o and Maurer h i n d e r e d t h i s c o m p a r i s o n b u t i n d i c a t e d r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between a r t i f a c t assemblages from r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s and r e s o u r c e procurement s i t e s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e s o u r c e procurement l o c a t i o n s a r e ground s l a t e k n i f e f r a g m e n t s , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f u n i f a c i a l t o o l s , s p a l l t o o l s / k n i v e s ? ( E s i l a o ) , a l a c k o f pecked s t o n e and t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n c i s e d s t o n e p l a q u e s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s a r e pecked s t o n e a r t i f a c t s , formed a b r a s i v e s t o n e s , p a l a t e s t o n e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h q u a n t i t i e s o f o c h r e , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f p e b b l e t o o l s , c o r e s , a n v i l s t o n e s and p o s s i b l y l a n c e o l a t e s t y l e p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s . A f o r m a l a n a l y s i s o f th e Maurer and E s i l a o a r t i f a c t assemblages i s n e c e s s a r y s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e s e p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e s . The c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r t i f a c t assemblage w i t h t h e t h r e e S t . Mungo phase a r t i f a c t assemblages r e v e a l e d major d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t . The H a t z i c Rock s i t e had a f a r g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f p e b b l e t o o l s and c o r e s t h a n t h e S t . Mungo phase s i t e s . U t i l i z e d f l a k e p r o p o r t i o n s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e were a l s o h i g h e r t h a n t h e S t . Mungo phase s i t e s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e . The H a t z i c Rock s i t e was a l s o found t o p o s s e s s f a r fewer formed u n i f a c e s o r r e t o u c h e d f l a k e t o o l s t h a n a t th e t h r e e S t . Mungo phase s i t e s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n s i t e f u n c t i o n , l o c a t i o n and age a r e thought t o a c c o u n t f o r some of t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . A major s t u d y o f C h a r l e s C u l t u r e t o o l assemblages i s c l e a r l y w a r r a n t e d . Such a s t u d y c o u l d combine elements of P r a t t ' s (1992) C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s t u d y w i t h Matson's (1974) c l u s t e r i n g and s c a l i n g o f S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a s i t e s . Such a s t u d y would b e g i n by r e - c l a s s i f y i n g C h a r l e s C u l t u r e t o o l assemblages w i t h a c o n s i s t e n t t o o l t y p o l o g y such as t h a t used by P r a t t (1992). Once c l a s s i f i e d t h e s e t o o l assemblages c o u l d be c l u s t e r e d and s c a l e d i n a r o b u s t attempt t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t o o l assemblages. M i n i m a l l y , s i t e s w h i c h s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n such a s t u d y a r e : C r e s c e n t Beach, S t . Mungo, G l e n r o s e Cannery, H e l e n P o i n t , Maurer, E s i l a o and t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The a n a l y s i s o f t o o l assemblages from Maurer and E s i l a o would c o n s t i t u t e l a r g e u n d e r t a k i n g s i n t i m e and r e s o u r c e s as n e i t h e r s i t e has undergone any s u b s t a n t i a l a n a l y s i s i n the p a s t . The H e l e n P o i n t t o o l assemblage would r e q u i r e r e - a n a l y s i s t o r e s o l v e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g component m i x i n g (see P r a t t 1992) . Such an a n a l y s i s c o u l d d e t e r m i n e , w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l c o n f i d e n c e , whether r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between Eayem phase and S t . Mungo phase s i t e s o r whether r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between s i t e s w i t h an i n f e r r e d r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n and s i t e s p r i m a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s o u r c e procurement a c t i v i t i e s . Three g e n e r a l h y p otheses c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e of the s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e were a s s e s s e d i n C h a p t e r 5. H y p o t h e s i s one s t a t e d t h e s t r u c t u r e r e s e m b l e s e t h n o h i s t o r i c examples of s t r u c t u r e s f r om t h e s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . T h i s was r e j e c t e d . The second h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d t h e s t r u c t u r e c o n s t i t u t e d a new t y p e of b u i l d i n g on t h e s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was a l s o r e j e c t e d . The t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d t h e s t r u c t u r e s h a r e s c o n s t r u c t i o n and d e s i g n elements w i t h e t h n o h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e s on t h e s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d as t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e r e p r e s e n t s an amalgam of v a r i o u s d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n e lements seen i n b o t h shed r o o f s t y l e p l a n k houses and p i t h o u s e s from t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . T h i s t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s was expanded t o i n c l u d e o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l examples of s t r u c t u r e s f r om t h e F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y . S t r u c t u r e s e x c a v a t e d a t t h e Maurer and McCallum s i t e s were found t o s h a r e b a s i c d e s i g n f e a t u r e s w i t h t h e H a t z i c s t r u c t u r e . T h i s s u g g e s t s a common d e s i g n i n t e n t from as e a r l y as t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e and p o s s i b l y c o n t i n u i n g i n t o t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . The v a r i a t i o n seen i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g s o l u t i o n was l i k e l y i n r e s p o n s e t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s s uch as s i t e c o n f i g u r a t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e o c c u p a n t s , c u l t u r a l t r a i t s and c o n s t r u c t i o n knowledge. P r a t t (1992) argued C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s o c i e t y was e g a l i t a r i a n d e s p i t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as r e f l e c t e d i n b u r i a l remains a t Tsawwassen and p o s s i b l y Pender C a n a l . No e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t o r r e f u t e t h i s p o s i t i o n was o b t a i n e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . P r a t t (1992) a l s o a rgued t h a t C h a r l e s C u l t u r e f a u n a l remains i n d i c a t e d a mixed economy i n w h i c h l a n d and sea mammals were e x p l o i t e d . F u r t h e r , she argued salmon were e x p l o i t e d t o some e x t e n t , b u t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n had not y e t begun (see a l s o Matson 1992). S t r u c t u r a l d a t a o b t a i n e d from the H a t z i c Rock and Maurer s i t e s q u e s t i o n s t h e b e l i e f t h a t salmon s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was not i n p l a c e d u r i n g t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e . The i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock and Maurer s i t e s would have r e q u i r e d l a r g e and p r e d i c t a b l e d i e t a r y r e s o u r c e s . I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t a h u n t i n g p o p u l a t i o n , as s u g g e s t e d by P r a t t (1992), would have r e q u i r e d , o r i n v e s t e d t h e n e c e s s a r y t i m e and energy i n t o , t h e l a r g e s t r u c t u r e s a t H a t z i c and Maurer. A l a c k o f f a u n a l remains from b o t h s i t e s l i m i t s t h i s argument, b u t , i t seems h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t a m a r i t i m e o r i e n t e d p e o p l e would n ot be o b t a i n i n g and p r o c e s s i n g l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f salmon f o r p e r i o d s o f r e s o u r c e s c a r c i t y . T h i s argument s u g g e s t s t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e s e r v e d a f u n c t i o n s i m i l a r t o s t r u c t u r e s documented f o r t h e r e g i o n d u r i n g t h e e t h n o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d (Chapter 2) and assumes s e m i - s e d e n t a r y o c c u p a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n and s t o r a g e o f salmon. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s a d m i t t e d l y open t o c r i t i c i s m due t o t h e absence of f a u n a l d a t a , s p e c i f i c t o o l t y p e s , such as ground s l a t e k n i v e s , o r s t o r a g e f e a t u r e s such as p i t s . However, t h e s t r u c t u r a l d a t a a r e i n t h e v e r y l e a s t , s u g g e s t i v e . F u r t h e r , Cannon has argued f o r t h e p r e s e n c e of salmon s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and s t o r a g e t e c h n o l o g y a t Namu on t h e c e n t r a l c o a s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia p r i o r t o 6000 B.P. (Cannon 1993:4). Perhaps s i m i l a r d a t a a r e w a i t i n g t o be d i s c o v e r e d on t h e s o u t h c o a s t . I n t h e p a s t our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e has been d e r i v e d f rom c o a s t a l s h e l l midden s i t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r om t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d r e g i o n . R e l i a n c e on c o a s t a l midden s i t e d a t a i s p r o b l e m a t i c due t o i t s i n h e r e n t b i a s . I n r e s p o n s e , more r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d a t n o n - c o a s t a l C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s i t e s , such as t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . A b r o a d range of C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s i t e s w h i c h r e f l e c t d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s , e n v i r o n m e n t s , and seasons of o c c u p a t i o n r e q u i r e e x c a v a t i o n b e f o r e t h i s p e r i o d can be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d . V e r y l i t t l e i s known about t h i s t i m e i n c o m parison w i t h l a t e r p e r i o d s o f p r e h i s t o r y , however, as development i n s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia c o n t i n u e s , and new C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s i t e s a r e found, t h i s l a c k o f knowledge w i l l l i k e l y be a d d r e s s e d . I n t h e s h o r t term, p r o j e c t s w h i c h c o u l d f u r t h e r our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e would i n c l u d e t h e f o r m a l a n a l y s i s and p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e Maurer and E s i l a o s i t e d a t a . A second s t r u c t u r e t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d a t t h e Maurer s i t e ( C a r l s o n n.d.) c o u l d be e x c a v a t e d t o p r o v i d e c o m p a r a t i v e s t r u c t u r a l d a t a . S i m i l a r l y , d a t a o b t a i n e d by James (1990) from t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e component a t t h e F o r t L a n g l e y s i t e c o u l d be p r o p e r l y a n a l y z e d , r e p o r t e d , and p u b l i s h e d . A d d i t i o n a l f i e l d w o r k c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d a t t h i s s i t e . More i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e w a i t s t o be u n c o v e r e d a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s i t e has been s e c u r e d by t h e B.C. H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n B r a n c h e n c o u r a g i n g t h e development of a l o n g term r e s e a r c h program. A s p e c t s o f t h e s i t e t o e x p l o r e i n c l u d e u n r e s o l v e d elements of t h e s t r u c t u r e from t h e 1990- 91 e x c a v a t i o n s . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d i t c h f e a t u r e around t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e , and d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s e a s o n ( s ) o f s i t e o c c u p a t i o n . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e s h o u l d i n c l u d e l o c a t i n g an u n d i s t u r b e d p o r t i o n o f t h e s i t e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e and age o f t h e t o p metre of t h e s i t e t h a t was l a r g e l y b u l l d o z e d away i n 1990. The e x c a v a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l c o u l d i n d i c a t e how t h e s i t e was u t i l i z e d t h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e l a t e r o c c u p a t i o n s . The e x c a v a t i o n o f a second s t r u c t u r e a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e w ould add t o our knowledge of t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e and c l a r i f y t h e s t r u c t u r e a l r e a d y e x c a v a t e d . Such an e x c a v a t i o n c o u l d s e p a r a t e f l o o r d e p o s i t s from f i l l d e p o s i t s t h u s a l l o w i n g t h e n a t u r e o f a c t i v i t y a r e a s t o be s t u d i e d . The a n a l y s i s o f m a t e r i a l e x c a v a t e d from th e H a t z i c Rock s i t e n ot o n l y p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e of the s t r u c t u r e i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and e t h n o h i s t o r i c examples, but a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e C h a r l e s C u l t u r e knowledge base i n g e n e r a l . The H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s t h e f i r s t w e l l documented C h a r l e s C u l t u r e s i t e o u t s i d e o f the l o w e r m a i n l a n d r e g i o n . T h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s v a l u a b l e b a s e l i n e d a t a f o r a r c h a e o l o g i s t s w o r k i n g i n s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . These d a t a w i l l h e l p f o r m u l a t e a r e l i a b l e c u l t u r e c h r o n o l o g y f o r t h e F r a s e r R i v e r v a l l e y and a l l o w more complex q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e and development of n o r t h w e s t c o a s t c u l t u r e t o be a d d r e s s e d . REFERENCES CITED Arm s t r o n g , J.E. 1959 S u r f i c i a l G e o l ogy o f Sumas Map-Area, B r i t i s h C o lumbia. G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada. Paper 59-9. Department o f Mines and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s Canada. Ottawa. B a r n e t t , H.G. 1955 The Coast S a l i s h o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon Monographs, S t u d i e s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y . No. 4. Eugene. B e r r y , M i c h a e l S. 1982 Time, Space, and T r a n s i t i o n i n A n a s a z i P r e h i s t o r y . U n i v e r s i t y o f Utah P r e s s , S a l t Lake C i t y , U t a h . Boas, F r a n z 1890 Second G e n e r a l R e p o r t on t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia. I n B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Advancement o f S c i e n c e . S i x t h R e p o r t on t h e N o r t h w e s t e r n T r i b e s o f Canada, pp. 10-163. Boehm, S.G. 1973 C u l t u r a l and N o n - C u l t u r a l V a r i a t i o n i n t h e A r t i f a c t and F a u n a l Samples from t h e S t . Mungo Cannery S i t e , B.C., DgRr-2. U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r • s t h e s i s . Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a . Borden, C h a r l e s E. 1975 O r i g i n s and Development o f E a r l y N o r t h w e s t C o a s t C u l t u r e t o About 3 000 B.C. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada. M e r c u r y S e r i e s Paper 45. Ottawa. Bowman, S h e r i d a n 1990 I n t e r p r e t i n g t h e P a s t : R a d i o c a r b o n D a t i n g . 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W e l l s , O l i v e r N. 1963 K h a l - a g h - i l - t i l , C h i e f Sepass i n Sepass Poems: The Soncrs o f Y - A i l - M i h t h by E l o i s e S t r e e t . Vantage P r e s s , I n c . : New York. 1965 Myths and Legends o f t h e S t a w - l o h I n d i a n s . S e l f P u b l i s h e d : C h i l l i w a c k . 1965a A V o c a b u l a r y o f N a t i v e Words i n t h e Halkomelem Language as used by t h e N a t i v e P e o p l e o f t h e Lower E r a s e r V a l l e y , B.C. S e l f P u b l i s h e d : C h i l l i w a c k . 1965b Squamish Legends. S e l f P u b l i s h e d : C h i l l i w a c k , 1966 I n d i a n T e r r i t o r y 1958 (map). S e l f P u b l i s h e d : C h i l l i w a c k . W e l l s , O l i v e r N. 1966a R e t u r n o f t h e S a l i s h Loom. The Beaver. O u t f i t (296):40-45. Winnipeg. 1987 The C h i l l i w a c k s and t h e i r N e i g h b o r s . R a l p h Maud, B r e n t G a l l o w a y and M a r i e Weeden eds. T a l o n Books: Vancouver. W i l s o n , I a n R. 1991 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Assessment o f Sun n y s i d e D r i v e S u b d i v i s i o n and t h e H a t z i c Rock S i t e DgRn 23. P e r m i t R e p o r t 1991-99. Ms. on f i l e , [ B r i t i s h Columbia] A r c h a e o l o g y Branch, V i c t o r i a . APPENDIX A ARTIFACT DESCRIPTIONS I n t r o d u c t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n s and s t a t i s t i c a l summaries o f a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s u s e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s a p p e n d i x . Absent o r i n c o m p l e t e d i m e n s i o n s o f complete t o o l c l a s s e s a r e n o t r e c o r d e d . I n c o m p l e t e d i m e n s i o n s o f f r a g m e n t a r y t o o l c l a s s e s (e.g. p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t m e d i a l s e c t i o n ) a r e r e c o r d e d b u t a r e p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s . A l l t o o l s were weighed on a d i g i t a l s c a l e t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.1 g w i t h a r t i f a c t s w e i g h i n g l e s s t h a n 0.1 g rounded up t o a 0.1 g d e f a u l t w e i g h t . T o o l l e n g t h d e f i n e d as t h e maximum measurement o f t h e t o o l , o r t h e maximum measurement o f t h e t o o l f o l l o w i n g i t s o r i e n t a t i o n , was measured t o t h e n e a r e s t m i l l i m e t e r . F o r example, t h e l e n g t h of a f l a k e t o o l would be measured from t h e s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m t o t h e d i s t a l t e r m i n a t i o n a r e a r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e w i d t h measurement may be g r e a t e r . The w i d t h d i m e n s i o n o f t o o l s , measured as t h e maximum measurement a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e l e n g t h measurement, was r e c o r d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t m i l l i m e t e r . The t h i c k n e s s d i m e n s i o n , d e f i n e d as t h e measurement p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e l e n g t h and w i d t h measurements (Haggarty and Sendey 1976:18), was a l s o r e c o r d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t m i l l i m e t e r . A r t i f a c t c l a s s e s w h i c h p o s s e s s l e s s t h a n t h r e e examples a r e not summarized i n t a b u l a r form but a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t e x t . P e b b l e f l a k e c l a s s e s a r e s i m i l a r t o r e g u l a r f l a k e c l a s s e s e x c e p t p e b b l e f l a k e d o r s a l s u r f a c e s a r e c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r e d w i t h c o r t e x . C o r t e x s p a l l f l a k e s a r e c r e a t e d when a f l a k e i s s t r u c k f rom t h e c o r t i c a l s u r f a c e o f a r i v e r p e b b l e o r c o b b l e . The r e s u l t of such an a c t i o n i s a f l a k e w h i c h i s e n t i r e l y c o v e r e d i n c o r t e x on i t s d o r s a l s u r f a c e (Hansen 1973:180). Most c o r t e x s p a l l f l a k e s p o s s e s s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e of t h e i r s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m . U t i l i z e d f l a k e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f use wear a l o n g t h e w o r k i n g edge but no e v i d e n c e o f s y s t e m a t i c r e t o u c h (Kornbacher 1989:117). The edges of such t o o l s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i r r e g u l a r n i c k s o r s m a l l f l a k e s c a r s (Matson 1976:131). I n comparison, r e t o u c h e d f l a k e s a r e a r t i f a c t s w i t h d e l i b e r a t e edge m o d i f i c a t i o n , o r r e t o u c h . M i n i m a l edge r e t o u c h f o r d e s i g n a t i o n as a r e t o u c h e d t o o l a r e t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e f l a k e s c a r s a l o n g a s i n g l e f a c e ( P r a t t 1990 :348) . Working edges of a l l f l a k e t o o l c l a s s e s a r e e i t h e r a c u t e - a n g l e d o r s t e e p - a n g l e d . A c u t e - a n g l e d w o r k i n g edges a r e l e s s t h a n 45° whereas s t e e p - a n g l e d w o r k i n g edges a r e g r e a t e r t h a n 45°. Retouched a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s a r e e i t h e r u n i f a c i a l l y o r b i f a c i a l l y m o d i f i e d . U n i f a c i a l l y r e t o u c h e d t o o l s have edge m o d i f i c a t i o n on a s i n g l e f a c e whereas b i f a c i a l l y worked t o o l s p o s s e s s r e t o u c h on b o t h f a c e s ( P r a t t 1992:347). The r e t o u c h on a d j a c e n t s u r f a c e s o f b i f a c i a l l y r e t o u c h e d a r t i f a c t s does not e x t e n d more t h a n one t h i r d o f e i t h e r f a c e from t h e m a r g i n ( P o k o t y l o 1978:223). FLAKED STONE ARTIFACTS P r o j e c t i l e Points Leaf-Shaped P r o j e c t i l e Point n = 7 The name o f t h i s p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t c l a s s i s d e r i v e d from i t s c h i e f d i a g n o s t i c a t t r i b u t e , namely i t s l e a f - s h a p e ( P r a t t 1992 :358) . Ta b l e A . l Leaf-Shaped P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 7 9.3 6.9-20.9 8.0-14.3 Length 6 54 45-74 50-69 Width 7 21 16-25 20-23 T h i c k n e s s 7 9 8-15 8.5-10.5 Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e Point n = 13 T h i s p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t c l a s s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a b a s a l stem. T h i s stem would have f a c i l i t a t e d h a f t i n g . T a b l e A.2 Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 13 9.6 3 .6-27.0 7.7-15.0 Length 8 59 35-70 52-68 Width 13 24 20-31 21-25 T h i c k n e s s 13 9 4-16 7-11 Lanceolate Point n = 1 A l o n g narrow shape c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t c l a s s . One example was r e c o v e r e d and measures 102 ( l e n g t h ) X 17 (width) X 9 ( t h i c k n e s s ) mm and weighs 16.1 g. P r o j e c t i l e Point D i s t a l Fragment n = 4 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s i s composed o f p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t fragments t h a t l a c k much o f t h e i r b a s a l s e c t i o n s t h u s making a s t y l i s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , such as l e a f - s h a p e d o r stemmed p o i n t , i m p o s s i b l e . As r o u g h l y 50% o f t h e a r t i f a c t i s p r e s e n t , t h e s e p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t fragments d i f f e r f r o m t h e p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t t i p c l a s s . T a b l e A.3 P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t D i s t a l Fragment Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight L e n g t h Width T h i c k n e s s 4 4 4 4 (13.1) (54) 25 10 (11.9-15.1) (47-63) 24-26 8-13 (12.3-14.4) (49-60) 24 .5-255 8.5-12 P r o j e c t i l e Point Tip n = 2 T i p s from p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s c o n s t i t u t e t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s . These f r a g m e n t s a r e o f t e n q u i t e s m a l l , y e t a r e c l e a r l y d e r i v e d from a p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t ( P r a t t 1992:360). One example measures 18 x 16 x 4 mm and weighs 1.2 g. The second example measures 14 x 16 x 6 mm and weighs 1.1 g. P r o j e c t i l e Point Medial Section n = 1 T h i s c l a s s of p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t l a c k s t h e t i p and base. P r o j e c t i l e p o i n t m e d i a l s e c t i o n s do not p o s s e s s t h e a t t r i b u t e s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s p e c i f i c c l a s s (e.g. stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t ) , however, t h e i r f o r m c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h e y a r e a fragment o f a p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t and not some o t h e r t y p e o f b i f a c e . The s i n g l e example o f t h i s t o o l c l a s s measures 23 x 21 x 12 mm and weighs 5.3 g. Leaf-Shaped P r o j e c t i l e Point Base n = 5 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s i s c o m p r i s e d o f bases o f l e a f - shaped p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s w h i c h have b r o k e n away from t i p and m e d i a l s e c t i o n s ( P r a t t 1992:361). T a b l e A.4 Leaf-Shaped P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t Base Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 5 (3.7) (2.7-13.0) (3.4-6.4) L e n g t h 5 (23) (16-51) (22-28) Width 5 (24) (22-26) (23-26) T h i c k n e s s 5 8 7-11 7-10 Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e Point Base n = 9 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s i s made up of stemmed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t b a s e s t h a t have b r o k e n away from m e d i a l and t i p s e c t i o n s ( P r a t t 1992:361). T a b l e A.5 Stemmed P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t Base Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 9 (5.5) (1.8-10.5) (2.9-6.3) L e n g t h 9 (22) (18-38) (20-29) Width 9 (23) (17-28) (22-26) T h i c k n e s s 9 8 6-12 7-11 Other Formed Bifaces Formed Biface, Steep-Angled Edge n = 1 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s a t an e a r l y s t a g e o f r e d u c t i o n . The s i n g l e example o f t h i s c l a s s has an i r r e g u l a r o u t l i n e w i t h l a r g e f l a k e s c a r s d o m i n a t i n g b o t h f a c e s . T h i s specimen has an i n c o m p l e t e l e n g t h d i m e n s i o n and measures 31 (width) x 17 ( t h i c k n e s s ) mm and weighs 21.9 g. Blade Tools Microblade n = 1 M i c r o b l a d e s a r e l e s s t h a n 2.5 cm i n l e n g t h and have a t r i a n g u l a r c r o s s - s e c t i o n . The l e n g t h o f m i c r o b l a d e s t e n d t o be two t o t h r e e t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e w i d t h w i t h a g u i d i n g l i n e r u n n i n g down t h e m i d d l e o f t h e b l a d e ( P r a t t 1992:354). The s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m o f t h e specimen from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s a b s e n t , perhaps p u r p o s e l y b r o k e n o f f t o c r e a t e a l i n e a r c u t t i n g edge as s u g g e s t e d by P r a t t (1992:354). The m i c r o b l a d e has an i n c o m p l e t e l e n g t h d i m e n s i o n and measures 9 X 4 mm and weighs 0.9 g. Flake Tools M u l t i p l e Point Graver n = 1 T h i s c l a s s o f g r a v e r has m u l t i p l e w o r k i n g p o i n t s w h i c h i n d i c a t e f r e s h p o i n t s were used as o t h e r s became b l u n t . T h i s a r t i f a c t has one s h a r p , w e l l formed p o i n t , a second b l u n t e d p o i n t o p p o s i t e t h e f r e s h p o i n t and a t h i r d p o i n t t h a t has been worn down t o l i t t l e more t h a n a s t u b . S i m i l a r a r t i f a c t s were r e c o v e r e d by B u r l e y a t t h e F a l s e Narrows Midden (DgRw-4) n e a r Nanaimo ( B u r l e y 1988:78). B u r l e y r e f e r s t o t h e s e a r t i f a c t s as m u l t i p l e t i p f l a k e g r a v e r s . The examples B u r l e y r e c o v e r e d had from two t o f i v e s p u r s . The m u l t i p l e p o i n t g r a v e r r e c o v e r e d f rom th e H a t z i c Rock s i t e measures 30 x 35 x 11 mm and weighs 9.3 g. D i s c o i d a l Uniface n = 1 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s m a l l s t e e p - a n g l e d r e t o u c h s c a r s around th e a r t i f a c t p e r i m e t e r . The a r t i f a c t i s c i r c u l a r and t h e s y s t e m a t i c n a t u r e o f t h e r e t o u c h r e s e m b l e s t h e edge of a b o t t l e cap. The a r t i f a c t measures 24 x 23 x 9 mm and weighs 5.6 g. Pièce Esquillée n = 4 Pièces esquillées a r e a nebulous a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e f e r r e d t o by a v a r i e t y of names. Pièces esquillées a r e a l s o commonly c a l l e d b i p o l a r c o r e s o r s t o n e wedges ( P r a t t 1992:339). These t o o l s a r e produc e d by s t r i k i n g a p a r e n t m a t e r i a l t h a t r e s t s on a h a r d s u r f a c e ( C r a b t r e e 1972:42) and a r e i d e n t i f i e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f two o p p o s i n g edges t h a t e x h i b i t c r u s h i n g and b a t t e r i n g ( P o k o t y l o 1978:226). T a b l e A.6 Pièce Esquillée Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 4 65.0 6.2-98.5 24.0-93.4 Le n g t h 4 54.5 19-62 33-62 Width 4 52 34-58 41-57 T h i c k n e s s 4 17 8-31 12.5-24 Pebble Flake, Steep-Angled B i f a c i a l Retouch n = 1 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s p e b b l e f l a k e s w h i c h have s t e e p - a n g l e d r e t o u c h on b o t h f a c e s . The o n l y example o f t h i s t o o l c l a s s from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e measures 89 x 45 x 3 0 mm and weighs 116.1 g. Pebble Flake, Steep-Angled U n i f a c i a l Retouch n = 21 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s p e b b l e f l a k e s w i t h s t e e p - a n g l e d r e t o u c h on a s i n g l e f a c e . T a b l e A.7 P e b b l e F l a k e , S t e e p - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l R e touch Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 21 157.0 24.7-460.5 75.0-220.1 L e n g t h 13 75 42-131 55-90 W i d t h 14 60.5 34-81 44-70 T h i c k n e s s 20 29 13-62 22 .5-33 Pebble Flake, Acute-Angled U n i f a c i a l Retouch n = 2 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s p e b b l e f l a k e s w h i c h have a c u t e - a n g l e d r e t o u c h on a s i n g l e f a c e . One example measures 76 X 56 X 13 mm and weighs 56.5 g. The second example has an i n c o m p l e t e l e n g t h d i m e n s i o n and measures 43 x 13 mm and weighs 31.7 g. Pebble Flake with Acute-Angled U t i l i z a t i o n n = 1 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f wear a l o n g i t s a c u t e - a n g l e d w o r k i n g edge. The o n l y example of t h i s t o o l c l a s s measures 56 x 91 x 18 mm and weighs 79.4 g- Flake with Steep-Angled B i f a c i a l Retouch n = 5 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s f l a k e s w i t h s t e e p - a n g l e d r e t o u c h on a d j a c e n t s u r f a c e s . T a b l e A.8 F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d B i f a c i a l R e t ouch Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 5 12 .2 5.5-191.7 7.6-16.3 Le n g t h 4 42 35-108 37-76.5 Width 3 31 29-85 30-58 T h i c k n e s s 5 12 8-16 9-15 Flake with Acute-Angled B i f a c i a l Retouch n = 1 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s f l a k e s w h i c h have a c u t e - a n g l e d r e t o u c h on b o t h f a c e s . The s i n g l e example o f t h i s c l a s s l a c k s a l e n g t h d i m e n s i o n and measures 48 x 23 mm. T h i s t o o l weighs 51.1 g. Flake with Steep-Angled U n i f a c i a l Retouch n = 28 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s f l a k e s w h i c h have s t e e p - a n g l e d r e t o u c h on a s i n g l e f a c e . T a b l e A.9 F l a k e w i t h S t e e p - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l Retouch Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 28 26.3 2.7-566.9 8.7-70.8 Le n g t h 14 45.5 20-86 36-63 Width 14 42.5 29-75 35-62 T h i c k n e s s 27 14 6-41 11-21 Flake with Acute-Angled U n i f a c i a l Retouch n = 6 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s f l a k e s w h i c h have a c u t e - a n g l e d r e t o u c h on a s i n g l e f a c e . T a b l e A.10 F l a k e w i t h A c u t e - A n g l e d U n i f a c i a l R e t o u c h Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 6 16 .4 2.4-237.9 6.2-22.6 Le n g t h 5 41 20-91 35-56 Width 5 34 24-81 29-47 T h i c k n e s s 6 10 .5 5-24 10-13 Steep-Angled U t i l i z e d Flake n = 30 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s u t i l i z e d f l a k e s w i t h a s t e e p - a n g l e d w o r k i n g edge. T a b l e A.11 S t e e p - A n g l e d U t i l i z e d F l a k e Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 30 19.9 0.3-106.4 9.1-39.0 Le n g t h 18 43 .5 21-80 33-52 Width 17 40 20-78 32-48 T h i c k n e s s 30 15 3-25 11-20 Acute-Angled U t i l i z e d Flake n = 46 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s u t i l i z e d f l a k e s w i t h an a c u t e - a n g l e d w o r k i n g edge. T a b l e A.12 A c u t e - A n g l e d U t i l i z e d F l a k e Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 46 6.5 0.1-69.1 3.2-22 .8 Len g t h 25 40 15-78 26-49 Width 28 33 .5 10-92 23-48 T h i c k n e s s 44 8 2-26 6.5-11 Cortex S p a l l Flake with Steep-Angled n = 1 B i f a c i a l Retouch T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s has s t e e p - a n g l e d b i f a c i a l r e t o u c h and measures 83 x 69 x 15 mm and weighs 103.9 g. Cortex S p a l l Flake with Acute-Angled n = 1 U n i f a c i a l Retouch T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s has a c u t e - a n g l e d u n i f a c i a l r e t o u c h and t h e s i n g l e example measures 112 x 71 x 16 mm and weighs 147.5 g. Cobble/Core Tools Core n = 69 Cores a r e masses o f l i t h i c m a t e r i a l from w h i c h s m a l l e r p i e c e s o f m a t e r i a l ( f l a k e s , f l a k e s h a t t e r o r b l o c k s h a t t e r ) a r e d e t a c h e d from a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t s u r f a c e s t h r o u g h t h e use o f a p p l i e d f o r c e ( P r a t t 1992:338). I n g e n e r a l , c o r e s r e c o v e r e d from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e a r e i r r e g u l a r , t h a t i s , n o t d e l i b e r a t e l y p r e p a r e d f o r t h e removal o f f l a k e s , and a r e d e r i v e d from r i v e r p e b b l e s and c o b b l e s . T a b l e A.13 Core Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 69 163.3 15 .4-2089. .9 75.7-327.9 Le n g t h 69 66 30-183 55-84 Width 69 57 25-113 43-68 T h i c k n e s s 69 39 19-90 32-54 Pebble with B i f a c i a l Peripheral Flaking n = 9 P e b b l e s w i t h b i f a c i a l p e r i p h e r a l f l a k i n g a r e commonly known as p e b b l e o r c o b b l e t o o l s o r choppers. These a r t i f a c t s a r e r i v e r c o b b l e s o r p e b b l e s w h i c h have been b i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d a t one end t o produce a r e l a t i v e l y s harp w o r k i n g edge. T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from c o r e s by t h e p r e s e n c e o f a formed w o r k i n g edge o r e v i d e n c e t h a t one had e x i s t e d p r e v i o u s l y . T a b l e A.14 P e b b l e w i t h B i f a c i a l P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 9 320.8 85 .8-527 .0 146.5-455.6 Le n g t h 7 101 61-129 87.5-116.5 Width 5 52 40-74 50-74 T h i c k n e s s 9 33 20-64 27-43 Pebble with U n i f a c i a l Peripheral Flaking n = 9 P e b b l e s w i t h u n i f a c i a l p e r i p h e r a l f l a k i n g a r e r i v e r c o b b l e s o r p e b b l e s w h i c h have been u n i f a c i a l l y f l a k e d a t one end t o produce a sharp w o r k i n g edge. T a b l e A.15 Pebb l e w i t h U n i f a c i a l P e r i p h e r a l F l a k i n g NuTïiber Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight L e n g t h Width T h i c k n e s s 9 9 9 9 771.2 366.5-1240.0 111 104-150 93 78-123 57 32-65 637.6-868.3 107-141 88-96 49-63 Pebble with U n i f a c i a l Peripheral Flaking/ n = 1 Hammerstone T h i s c l a s s o f a r t i f a c t p o s s e s s e s p e c k i n g damage on p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s u t i l i z a t i o n as a hammerstone, and u n i f a c i a l p e r i p h e r a l f l a k i n g w h i c h i n d i c a t e s use as a ch o p p i n g t o o l . The s i n g l e example measures 102 x 70 x 39 mm and weighs 403.0 g. Hammerstone n = 2 These a r t i f a c t s a r e p e b b l e s w h i c h p o s s e s s b a t t e r i n g o r p i t t i n g on one o r more s i d e s o r ends (Loy and P o w e l l 1977:51). One specimen measures 92 x 62 x 48 mm and weighs 395.6 g. The second example measures 84 x 82 x 55 mm and weighs 464.1 g. Hammerstone with Edge Abrasion n = 2 These p e b b l e s p o s s e s s b a t t e r i n g o r p i t t i n g on one o r more s i d e s o r ends and a b r a s i o n marks on t h e i r edges. T h i s a b r a s i o n was l i k e l y caused by t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f s t r i k i n g s u r f a c e s on c o r e s o r t o o l s d u r i n g s t a g e s o f l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n . One example measures 104 x 60 x 42 mm and weighs 411.5 g. The second example measures 74 x 63 x 49 mm and weighs 322.1 g. Hammerstone/Anvil n = 3 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s p o s s e s s e s p i t t i n g o r b a t t e r i n g on i t s ends and has a t l e a s t one f a c e w h i c h i n d i c a t e s use as b o t h a hammerstone and an a n v i l . The ends o f t h i s a r t i f a c t a r e b a t t e r e d o r p i t t e d w i t h a c e n t r a l a r e a on one o r more f a c e s p o s s e s s i n g e v i d e n c e o f a d e p r e s s i o n , c r u s h i n g o r g r i n d i n g . T a b l e A.16 Hammerstone/Anvil Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 3 203.7 194.7-422.1 n/a Len g t h 3 64 57-88 n/a Width 3 56 54-72 n/a T h i c k n e s s 3 41 35-43 n/a A n v i l Stone n = 3 Stones w h i c h p o s s e s s e v i d e n c e o f p e c k i n g o r b a t t e r i n g on one o r more f a c e s a r e d e f i n e d as a n v i l s t o n e s . A v a r i e t y o f raw m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g l i t h i c s , would have been p r o c e s s e d on t h e s u r f a c e s o f such a r t i f a c t s . An o v e r s i g h t a t t h e end o f t h e 1991 e x c a v a t i o n caused one l a r g e a n v i l s t o n e t o be b a c k f i l l e d i n t o t h e e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . Dimensions f o r t h i s a n v i l s t o n e a r e not a v a i l a b l e . One example measures 76 x 71 x 39 mm and weighs 317.3 g. The second example measures 489 x 349 x 318 mm and weighs o v e r 45 kg. Miscellaneous Chipped Stone Miscellaneous Flaked Slate n =1 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s d e s c r i b e s c h i p p e d s l a t e f r agments w i t h no r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t use o r f u n c t i o n . The s i n g l e a r t i f a c t o f t h i s c l a s s e x h i b i t s s y s t e m a t i c u n i f a c i a l f l a k i n g a l o n g i t s m a r g i n s u g g e s t i n g a t o o l may have been i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g roughed o u t . T h i s example measures 96 x 53 X 13 mm and weighs 70.3 g. GROPMD STONE ARTIFACTS Disc Bead n = 2 D i s c beads a r e s m a l l and b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f f i n i s h and a r e assumed t o have been used f o r p e r s o n a l adornment ( P r a t t 1992:372). B o t h examples weigh 0.1 g and measure 5 x 5 x 2 mm. Ground Slate Blade Fragment n = 5 These a r t i f a c t s a r e b e s t d e s c r i b e d as fragments o f l o n g s y m m e t r i c a l b l a d e s . S e v e r a l b l a d e f r a g m e n t s c o u l d be c o n j o i n e d i n t o complete specimens showing t h e f i n i s h e d form. The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e c o n j o i n e d t o o l s a r e p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w i n g t h e summary of f r a g m e n t a r y d i m e n s i o n s . Matson (1976:148-149) c l a s s i f i e d s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t s r e c o v e r e d from t h e S t . Mungo Component a t t h e G l e n r o s e Cannery s i t e as ground s l a t e p o i n t s . The G l e n r o s e specimens a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r , t h i n n e r and p o s s e s s a more " p o i n t - l i k e " o u t l i n e t h a n t h o s e from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . Three examples o f t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s have been o b s e r v e d i n t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n o f Mr. S t e v e Nemtin o f G a l i a n o I s l a n d , B.C. Nemptin's a r t i f a c t s , w h i c h were s u r f a c e c o l l e c t e d from t h e Georgeson Bay s i t e (DfRu-24) on G a l i a n o I s l a n d , more c l o s e l y resemble examples from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e t h a n Matson's examples. Nemptin's a r t i f a c t s a r e l o n g and r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k w i t h one specimen p o s s e s s i n g a b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d h o l e n e a r i t s base. No a r t i f a c t s o f t h i s n a t u r e were r e c o v e r e d by H a g g a r t y and Sendey i n t h e i r c o n t r o l l e d e x c a v a t i o n a t t h e Georgeson Bay s i t e (Haggarty and Sendey 1976). T a b l e A.17a Ground S l a t e B l a d e Fragment Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 5 (9.0) (2.5-17.3) (4.4-10.6) L e n g t h 5 (42) (31-110) (36-69) Width 5 17 15-23 16-19 T h i c k n e s s 5 6 5-7 5-6 T a b l e A.17b C o n j o i n e d Ground S l a t e B l a d e Fragments C a t a l o g u e Numbers Le n g t h Width T h i c k n e s s Weight 811 and 5033 125 19 6 19.8 5029I and 5030 113 19 4 15.5 5031 and 5032 97 17 5 14.9 Miscellaneous Worked Nephrite n = 1 T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s worked n e p h r i t e f r a g m e n t s . The s i n g l e example of t h i s t o o l c l a s s has a ground and p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e and may r e p r e s e n t a p o r t i o n o f a l a r g e r t o o l s uch as a c e l t o r c h i s e l . T h i s fragment measures (14) x (10) x (2) mm and weighs (0.2) g. Formed Abrasive Stone Fragment n = 7 P r a t t (1992:369) d e f i n e s t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s as p o s s e s s i n g a smooth a b r a d i n g s u r f a c e w i t h e v i d e n c e o f m o d i f i c a t i o n i n t o shaped forms such as t e a r - d r o p p e d o r b a r . T h i s b l a d e fragment i s from an unknown l e v e l i n e x c a v a t i o n u n i t 1 and was e x c l u d e d from t h e g e n e r a l summary of t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s . T h i s c l a s s o f a r t i f a c t was l i k e l y u t i l i z e d t o g r i n d s t o n e such as s l a t e o r s o f t e r m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g bone o r a n t l e r . T a b l e A.18 Formed A b r a s i v e Stone Fragment Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 7 (5.9) (2 .3-445.9) 5.5-23 .3) L e n g t h 7 (29) (27-132) (28.0-45 .5) W i dth 7 (25) (17-116) (24.5-41.0) T h i c k n e s s 7 (11) (4-30) (8.0-12.5) Abrasive Stone n = 3 P r a t t (1992:368) d e s c r i b e s t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s as h a v i n g been m o d i f i e d t h r o u g h a b r a s i o n b u t not p u r p o s e l y formed. Examples of t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s have u n d e f i n e d m a r gins o r l a c k m a r gins a l t o g e t h e r . T h i s c l a s s o f a r t i f a c t was l i k e l y u t i l i z e d t o g r i n d s t o n e such as s l a t e o r s o f t e r m a t e r i a l s s uch as bone o r a n t l e r . The t h r e e specimens may r e p r e s e n t f r a g m e n t s of formed a b r a s i v e s t o n e s . A l l t h r e e a b r a s i v e s t o n e s have o b v i o u s a b r a s i o n / i n c i s i o n marks on t h e i r w o r k i n g s u r f a c e s . T a b l e A.19 A b r a s i v e Stone Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 3 (102.7) (7.1-120.2) n/a L e n g t h 3 (61) (40-102) n/a Width 3 (58) (36-71) n/a T h i c k n e s s 3 (15) (5-28) n/a PECKED and GROUITO STONE ARTIFACTS Grooved Cobble/Anvil n = 1 A s i n g l e g r o o v e d c o b b l e / a n v i l was r e c o v e r e d and measures 166 x 85 x 63 mm and weighs 1410.1 g. T h i s a r t i f a c t i s a s y m m e t r i c a l l y shaped o v o i d p e b b l e w i t h a groove r o u g h l y 3 0 mm wide pecked around t h e e n t i r e edge t o a dep t h o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 mm. One f a c e o f t h e p e b b l e has ev i d e n c e o f p e c k i n g and a s l i g h t i n d e n t a t i o n i n t h e c e n t r e . The same a r e a i s a g l o s s y g r a y / b l a c k t h a t i n d i c a t e s some t y p e o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l was p r o c e s s e d on th e s u r f a c e . T h i s p o l i s h e d a r e a i s r o u g h l y 56 x 41 mm. The o p p o s i t e f a c e o f the a r t i f a c t l a c k s d i r e c t e v i d e n c e o f p e c k i n g , however, t h e same p o l i s h , a l t h o u g h l e s s pronounced, i s p r e s e n t i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a . T h i s a r e a o f p o l i s h i s r o u g h l y 67 x 36 mm. The p r e s e n c e o f p e c k i n g and p o l i s h s u g g e s t s a p l a n t o r an i m a l r e s o u r c e may have been p r o c e s s e d on t h e two f a c e s . The pronounced groove e n c i r c l i n g t h e p e b b l e may have a c t e d as a g r i p . Pebble Hammer n = 1 A s i n g l e p e b b l e hammer r e c o v e r e d from t h e e x c a v a t i o n measures 111 x 92 x 64 mm and weighs 940.1 g. T h i s a r t i f a c t i s a squat p e b b l e w i t h a m o d i f i e d base. The base has e i t h e r been f l a t t e n e d t h r o u g h use o r by p u r p o s e f u l m o d i f i c a t i o n . Use p o l i s h i s p r e s e n t on t h e base of t h i s t o o l s u g g e s t i n g i t was used t o p r o c e s s p l a n t o r a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s . A b r a s i o n marks l o c a t e d n e a r t h e base i n d i c a t e t h e t o o l may have been u s e d as a hammerstone on o c c a s i o n . MISCELLANEOUS ARTIFACTS Paint Stone n = 5 P a i n t s t o n e s a r e u n m o d i f i e d p e b b l e s t h a t a r e c o v e r e d i n e i t h e r r e d o c h r e , a b l a c k pigment, o r b o t h . The p r e s e n c e o f pigment on t h e s e s t o n e s suggest t h e y were used t o g r i n d o r p r e p a r e pigment. One specimen, appears t o have been used as a p a l a t e as w e l l as a g r i n d i n g implement. T h i s a r t i f a c t (DgRn-23:5040) has a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f b l a c k pigment i n t h e c e n t r e o f one o f t h e f a c e s , s u g g e s t i n g use as a p a l a t e , and r e d o c h r e a t t h e ends i n d i c a t i n g pigment was ground. T a b l e A.20 P a i n t Stone Number Median Range I n t e r q u a r t i l e Range Weight 5 302 .7 103.7-670.5 251.2-330.3 Length 5 87 52-113 84-106 Width 5 69 41-79 55-71 T h i c k n e s s 5 30 30-70 30-37 Paint Stone/Anvil n = 2 T h i s c l a s s o f a r t i f a c t i s c o v e r e d w i t h e i t h e r r e d ochre o r a b l a c k pigment w i t h p e c k i n g o r b a t t e r i n g on one o r more f a c e s . One example i s a g r a n i t e p e b b l e c o v e r e d w i t h b l a c k pigment and measures 81 x 63 x 52 mm and weighs 391.0 g. T h i s a r t i f a c t has a s h a l l o w pecked d e p r e s s i o n m e a s u r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 x 30 mm on one f a c e . The second example measures 103 x 67 x 78 and weighs 822.4 g. One u n m o d i f i e d s u r f a c e i s t h i c k l y e n c r u s t e d w i t h r e d o c h r e w i t h t h e a d j a c e n t s u r f a c e d i s h shaped from p e c k i n g . No pigment i s p r e s e n t on t h e pecked s u r f a c e . B o t h ends o f t h i s a r t i f a c t p o s s e s s t r a c e s o f o c h r e . Pyroclast n = 1 P y r o c l a s t s a r e p i e c e s o f o b s i d i a n w h i c h form when m o l t e n o b s i d i a n s o l i d i f i e s when s e t t l i n g out o f t h e atmosphere a f t e r an e x p l o s i v e v o l c a n i c e r u p t i o n ( C o u r t y e t a l . 1989:101). A l t h o u g h u n m o d i f i e d , t h i s i t e m was i n c l u d e d as an a r t i f a c t as i t was i m p o r t e d from a d i s t a n t s o u r c e . The p y r o c l a s t r e c o v e r e d from t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e i s c o v e r e d w i t h c o r t e x and e x h i b i t s no s i g n o f c u l t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n . The p y r o c l a s t measures 63 x 10 x 9 mm and weighs 5.4 g. APPENDIX B POST HOLE FEATURES I n t r o d u c t i o n P o s t h o l e f e a t u r e s were r e c o r d e d i n a l l 3 8 e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s and each backhoe t r e n c h . However, d a t a a r e not a v a i l a b l e f o r t r e n c h 3 as f o r m a l n o t e s o r w a l l p r o f i l e s were not made. Two shapes o f p o s t h o l e f e a t u r e s were r e c o r d e d . The most common, c i r c u l a r / o v o i d , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c i r c u l a r , o r n e a r c i r c u l a r , o u t l i n e . The second shape i s r e c t a n g u l a r . Each p o s t h o l e was numbered f o r ease o f r e f e r e n c e . F e a t u r e p r o v e n i e n c e was i n d i c a t e d by r e f e r r i n g t o t h e u n i t s and l e v e l s where t h e f e a t u r e was found. Where i n f o r m a t i o n was l a c k i n g , o r a b s e n t , a "n/a" was p l a c e d i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n . S p e c i f i c f e a t u r e p r o v e n i e n c e (e.g. 45 cm S, 23 cm E ) , was p r o v i d e d where p o s s i b l e . I f s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e p r o v e n i e n c e d a t a were absent o r l a c k i n g , a " ? " was used i n p l a c e o f numeric c o o r d i n a t e s . F i g u r e B . l shows p o s t h o l e f e a t u r e l o c a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e e x c a v a t i o n g r i d t o a s s i s t i n l o c a t i n g s p e c i f i c p o s t h o l e f e a t u r e s . The maximum h o r i z o n t a l d i m e n s i o n was us e d t o d e t e r m i n e the d i a m e t e r o f c i r c u l a r / o v o i d p o s t f e a t u r e s and t h e maximum d i m e n s i o n ( l e n g t h ) f o r r e c t a n g u l a r p o s t h o l e s . The w i d t h d i m e n s i o n o f r e c t a n g u l a r p o s t h o l e s was i n c l u d e d where p o s s i b l e . The w i d t h d i m e n s i o n was measured as t h e maximum P o s t Hole F e a t u r e s i n R e l a t i o n t o E x c a v a t i o n G r i d Post hole feature 'O Extrapolated post hole feature d i m e n s i o n a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e l e n g t h d i m e n s i o n . I n examples where f e a t u r e d a t a were l a c k i n g , o r i n c o m p l e t e , the s i z e o f t h e p o s t h o l e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . F e a t u r e d e p t h was r e c o r d e d i n c e n t i m e t e r s . Many p o s t h o l e s were n o t e x c a v a t e d beyond t h e house f l o o r / g r a v e l i n t e r f a c e , t h e r e f o r e t h i s d a t a i s not a v a i l a b l e . I n cases where t h e e n t i r e f e a t u r e was e x c a v a t e d n o t e s r a r e l y i n d i c a t e t h e d e p t h r e a c h e d . I n t h e s e c a s e s where d a t a a r e l a c k i n g , a "n/a" r e p l a c e d t h e numeric d a t a . A s e c t i o n headed "comments" p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n not r e c o r d e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s d a t a f i e l d s . F o r example, i f a f e a t u r e ' s d i a m e t e r was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a t h i s was i n d i c a t e d . O t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n such as t h e a n g l e o f t h e p o s t h o l e o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f r o c k e n c l o s e d bases would be mentioned i n t h e comments s e c t i o n . C i r c u l a r / O v o i d P o s t H o l e s 1) U n i t 2, L e v e l 7-9 D i ameter: 10 cm Depth: 20 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 30-40 cm S, 25-35 cm E Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e bottoms out on a r o c k . 2) U n i t 2, L e v e l D i ameter: Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 8-12; U n i t 12, L e v e l n/a 14 cm 40 cm 92-100 cm S (EU 2 ) , 30-44 cm E (EU 2 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 1 2 ) , ? cm E (EU 12) The f e a t u r e e x t e n d s towards t h e west w a l l a t a s l i g h t a n g l e . The s o u t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f u n i t 2 s u g g e s t s t h e base o f t h e p o s t t a p e r e d t o a p o i n t . No e v i d e n c e of t h i s f e a t u r e was o b s e r v e d i n U n i t 12. 3) U n i t 2, L e v e l 10-12; U n i t 31, L e v e l 10 D i ameter: 43 cm Depth: 2 0 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 26-42 cm S (EU 2 ) , 91-100 cm E (EU 2 ) ; 27-64 cm S (EU 3 1 ) , 0-34 cm E (EU 31) Comments: The s l i g h t d i s c r e p a n c y o f p r o v e n i e n c e s between t h e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s i s l i k e l y r e c o r d i n g e r r o r . 4) U n i t 2, L e v e l 7-10 D i a m e t e r : 10 cm Depth: 3 0 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 55-65 cm S, 5-15 cm E U n i t 28, L e v e l 2 Dia m e t e r : 7.5 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 20-27 c m S , 13-21 cmW 6) U n i t 28, L e v e l 1 Diameter: 19 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 54-72 cm S, 0-17 cm W 7) U n i t 31, L e v e l 12; U n i t 24, L e v e l 12 D i a m e t e r : 32 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 88-100 cm S (EU 3 1 ) , 60-91 cm E (EU 3 1 ) ; 0-20 cm S (EU 2 4 ) , 60-91 cm E (EU 24) 8) U n i t 12, L e v e l 9-12 Dia m e t e r : 2 0 cm Depth: 34 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 34-52 cm S, 136-156 cm E Comments: The f e a t u r e a n g l e s e a s t t o west. 9) U n i t 12, L e v e l 11 Dia m e t e r : 11 cm Depth: 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 110-120 cm S, 131-142 cm E 10) U n i t 12, L e v e l 11-13 Dia m e t e r : 9 cm Depth: 24 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 143-150 cm S, 167-176 cm E 11) U n i t 12, L e v e l 11-12 Diameter: 11 cm Depth: 16 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 142-151 cm S, 181-192 cm E 12) U n i t 12, L e v e l 10-11 Dia m e t e r : 19 cm Depth: 11 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 153-167 cm S, 159-178 cm E 13) U n i t 12, L e v e l 11-13 Dia m e t e r : 10 cm Depth: 19 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 178-188 cm S, 182-190 cm E 14) U n i t 12, L e v e l 11-13 Diameter: 9 cm Depth: 22 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 192-200 cm S, 134-143 cm E 15) U n i t 12, L e v e l 10-12; U n i t 24, L e v e l n/a Diam e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 10 cm 23 cm 78-87 cm S (EU 12), 197-200 cm E (EU 1 2 ) ; ? cm S (EU 2 4 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 24) T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o u n i t 24. However, no r e c o r d o f a such a f e a t u r e was n o t e d . Due t o i t s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e , t h e f e a t u r e was l i k e l y c u t t h r o u g h by t h e e x c a v a t o r . The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s f e a t u r e were e x t r a p o l a t e d f r om e x i s t i n g d a t a . 16) U n i t 24, L e v e l 11 D i a m e t e r : 29 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 2-30 cm S, 29-58 cm E 17) U n i t 3, L e v e l 12-17; U n i t 30, L e v e l 16; U n i t 10, L e v e l 16 D i a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : (EU 3 ) ; 22-34 cm 190-200 cm S (EU 30 cm 50 cm 0-20 cm S (EU 3 ) , 85-100 cm E S; (EU 3 0 ) , 0-5 cm E (EU 3 0 ) ; 10), 63-90 cm E (EU 10) T h i s f e a t u r e bottoms out on a r o c k . The d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e p r o v e n i e n c e s f o r EU 3, EU 10 and EU 3 0 can be a t t r i b u t e d t o r e c o r d i n g e r r o r . Notes from EU 30 i n d i c a t e t h e w a l l of t h e f e a t u r e s l o u g h e d away as i t was b e i n g e x c a v a t e d t h u s b l u r r i n g t h e d a t a f rom t h i s u n i t somewhat. 18) U n i t 3, L e v e l 12-18; U n i t 13, L e v e l 12 D i a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : 21 cm 75 cm 89-100 cm S (EU 3 ) , 0-18 cm E (EU 3 ) ; 0-10 cm S (EU 1 3 ) , 0-10 cm E (EU 13) 19) U n i t 5, L e v e l 9-11 Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 9 cm 15 cm 10-19 cm S, 32-40 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e t a p e r s w i t h depth, 20) U n i t 5, L e v e l 10-14 Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 20 cm 50 cm 27-47 cm S, 65-85 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e t a p e r s w i t h depth. 21) U n i t 5, L e v e l D i a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 8-11; U n i t 12, l e v e l n/a 13 cm 28 cm 68-81 cm S (EU 5 ) , 0-8 cm E (EU 5 ) ; ? cm S (EU 12), ?-200 cm E (EU 12) T h i s f e a t u r e l i e s p a r t i a l l y i n u n i t 12. However, no e v i d e n c e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was o b s e r v e d i n t h e a d j a c e n t p o r t i o n o f u n i t 12. The west w a l l p r o f i l e o f u n i t 5 i n d i c a t e s t h e f e a t u r e does e x t e n d i n t o t h e a d j a c e n t u n i t . The f e a t u r e was l i k e l y c u t t h r o u g h d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f u n i t 12 as i t s s m a l l s i z e may have p r e v e n t e d i t s d e t e c t i o n . T h i s f e a t u r e t a p e r s w i t h d e p t h . 22) U n i t 5, L e v e l 10-11 Dia m e t e r : Depth : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 11 cm 10 cm 92-100 cm S, 15-26 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e s o u t h (baulk) w a l l . F e a t u r e d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d f r om a v a i l a b l e d a t a . 23) U n i t 5, L e v e l 10-11 Dia m e t e r : 12 cm Depth: 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 64-76 cm S, 53-64 cm E Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e t a p e r s w i t h d e p t h . 24) U n i t 5, L e v e l 9-13; U n i t 13, L e v e l 13 Dia m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 30 cm 35 cm 44-60 cm S (EU 5 ) , n/a cm E (EU 5 ) ; 130-160 cm S (EU 13) , 0-8 cm E (EU 13) T h i s f e a t u r e was not o b s e r v e d i n t h e u n i t 5 e x c a v a t i o n , however, i t c o u l d be seen i n t h e e a s t w a l l p r o f i l e . The s i z e o f t h e f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from a v a i l a b l e d a t a . 25) U n i t 13, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : 13 cm Depth: 3 0 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : ?-200 cm S, 173-186 cm E Comments : T h i s f e a t u r e was v i s i b l e o n l y i n t h e s o u t h (baulk) w a l l p r o f i l e ( b a u l k ) . The s i z e o f t h e f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d f rom e x i s t i n g d a t a . 26) U n i t 13, L e v e l 14 Dia m e t e r : 25 cm Depth: 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 20-45 cm S, 162-184 cm E 27) U n i t 13, L e v e l 13 Dia m e t e r : 8 cm Depth: 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 68-76 cm S, 59-67 cm E 28) U n i t 13, L e v e l 13 Dia m e t e r : 13 cm Depth: 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 55-68 cm S, 84-95 cm E 29) U n i t 13, L e v e l 13 Di a m e t e r : 14 cm Depth: 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 45-59 cm S, 101-113 cm E 30) U n i t 13, L e v e l 13; U n i t 14, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : 2 0 cm Depth: 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 8-28 cm S (EU 13), 190-200 cm E (EU 1 3 ) ; ? cm S (EU 14) , 0-? cm E (EU 14) Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o u n i t 14, however, i t was not o b s e r v e d o r n o t e d d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f t h i s u n i t . The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s f e a t u r e were e x t r a p o l a t e d f rom e x i s t i n g d a t a . 31) U n i t 13, L e v e l 13 D i a m e t e r : 13 cm Depth: 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 152-163 cm S, 54-67 cm E 32) U n i t 13, L e v e l 13 D i a m e t e r : 10 cm Depth: 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 168-178 cm S, 69-77 cm E 33) U n i t 13, L e v e l 13 D i a m e t e r : 6 cm Depth: 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 128-134 cm S, 88-94 cm E 34) U n i t 30, L e v e l 16 D i a m e t e r : 14 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 24-38 cm S, 29-43 cm E 35) U n i t 30, L e v e l 16 D i a m e t e r : 8 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 10-18 cm S, 42-49 cm E U n i t 30, L e v e l 16; U n i t 13, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 18 cm n/a 86-100 cm S (EU 3 0 ) , 13-31 cm E (EU 3 0 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 13) , ? cm E (EU 13) T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o u n i t 13, however, i t was not n o t e d o r o b s e r v e d i n t h i s u n i t d u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n . F e a t u r e d i m e n s i o n s have been e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 37) U n i t 10, L e v e l 11-12 Diameter: 8 cm Depth: 15 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 80-88 cm S, 100-104 cm E 38) U n i t 10, L e v e l 14,15 Diameter: 19 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 154-173 cm S, 104-123 cm E 39) U n i t 11, L e v e l 14-20; U n i t 23, L e v e l 10 Diameter: 36 cm Depth: 53 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 162-195 cm S (EU 11), 184-200 cm E (EU 1 1 ) ; 162-198 cm S (EU 2 3 ) , 0-18 cm E (EU 23) 40) U n i t 29, L e v e l 15 Dia m e t e r : 13 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 43-54 cm S, 36-49 cm E 41) U n i t 14, L e v e l 11-14 Diam e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 22 cm 3 0 cm ?-200 cm S, 76-98 cm E Not o b s e r v e d o r r e c o r d e d when t h e u n i t was e x c a v a t e d but v i s i b l e i n t h e s o u t h w a l l (baulk) p r o f i l e . 42) U n i t 14, L e v e l 11-13 Di a m e t e r : 19 cm Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 17 cm ?-200 cm S, 156-175 cm E Not o b s e r v e d o r r e c o r d e d when t h e u n i t was e x c a v a t e d b u t v i s i b l e i n t h e s o u t h ( b a u l k ) w a l l p r o f i l e . 43) U n i t 6, L e v e l 11-16 Di a m e t e r : 15 cm Depth: 50 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 24-38 cm S, 8-23 cm E 44) U n i t 23, L e v e l 8-10; U n i t 11, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : 20 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-18 cm S (EU 2 3 ) , 0-18 cm E (EU 2 3 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 1 1 ) , ?-200 cm E (EU 11) Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e n o r t h (baulk) w a l l . No t r a c e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was o b s e r v e d o r r e c o r d e d i n u n i t 11, however, i t c l e a r l y - e x t e n d e d i n t o t h e u n i t . Dimensions o f t h i s f e a t u r e were e x t r a p o l a t e d f rom e x i s t i n g d a t a . 45) U n i t 23, L e v e l 10 Dia m e t e r : 15 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 38-53 cm S, 47-62 cm E 46) U n i t 23, L e v e l 10 Diameter: 14 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 66-79 cm S, 6-20 cm E 47) U n i t 23, L e v e l 10; U n i t 6, L e v e l n/a Diameter: Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 20 cm n/a 182-200 cm S (EU 23), 23-40 cm E (EU 23) T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o u n i t 6, however, no m e n t i o n c o u l d be found i n t h e e x c a v a t i o n n o t e s . F e a t u r e d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d f r om e x i s t i n g d a t a . 48) U n i t 23, L e v e l 10 Diameter: 15 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 63-78 cm S, 83-98 cm E 49) U n i t 23, L e v e l 10 Diameter: 12 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 81-92 cm S, 38-50 cm E 50) U n i t 23, L e v e l 10; U n i t 21, L e v e l n/a Diam e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 30 cm n/a 130-160 cm S (EU 2 3 ) , 88-100 cm E cm S (EU 21), 0-? cm E (EU 21) T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o u n i t 21, m e n t i o n c o u l d be found i n t h e e x c a v a t i o n n o t e s . F e a t u r e d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d f r om e x i s t i n g d a t a . (EU 2 3 ) ; ? however, no 51) U n i t 32, L e v e l 17 Dia m e t e r : 17 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 61-76 cm S, 41-58 cm E 52) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12, 13 Diam e t e r : 31 cm Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 11 cm 184-200 cm S, 138-169 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s s o u t h i n t o t h e b a u l k w a l l . The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 53) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12-13 Diam e t e r : 16 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 177-192 cm S, 180-196 cm E 54) U n i t 16, L e v e l 13-15 Diame t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e ; Comments : 25 cm 22 cm 190-200 cm S, 57-82 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s s o u t h i n t o t h e b a u l k w a l l and i t s s i z e has been e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 55) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12-13 Diameter: 25 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 158-174 cm S, 133-158 cm E 56) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12 Dia m e t e r : 14 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 96-110 cm S, 13 0-143 cm E Comments: The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s f e a t u r e i s u n c e r t a i n . 57) U n i t 16, L e v e l 13 Dia m e t e r : 28 cm Depth: 12 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 122-150 cm S, 44-68 cm E 58) U n i t 16, L e v e l 13 Dia m e t e r : 21 cm Depth : 6 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 140-161 cm S, 68-88 cm E 59) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12-13 Dia m e t e r : 20 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 142-162 cm S, 113-132 cm E 60) U n i t 16, L e v e l 13 Dia m e t e r : 9 cm Depth: 5 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 114-123 cm S, 159-166 cm E 61) U n i t 16, L e v e l 13 Dia m e t e r : 8 cm Depth : 4 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 110-117 cm S, 177-185 cm E 62) U n i t 16, L e v e l 13 Diameter: 8 cm Depth : 5 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 124-132 cm S, 156-164 cm E 63) U n i t 16, L e v e l 13 Dia m e t e r : 8 cm Depth: 5 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 135-143 cm S, 172-179 cm E 64) U n i t 16, L e v e l 13; U n i t 15, L e v e l 13-15 Dia m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 26 cm n/a 121-140 cm S (EU 16), 184-200 cm E (EU 1 6 ) ; 16-35 cm S (EU 15), 0-10 cm E (EU 15) The d i s c r e p a n c y between f e a t u r e p r o v e n i e n c e s i s l i k e l y a r e c o r d i n g e r r o r . 65) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12-13 Dia m e t e r : 18 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 86-101 cm S, 176-194 cm E 66) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12-13 Dia m e t e r : 19 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 46-64 cm S, 166-185 cm E 67) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12-14 Dia m e t e r : 18 cm Depth: 12 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 78-95 cm S, 116-134 cm E 68) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12-13 Dia m e t e r : 16 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 93-109 cm S, 78-92 cm E 69) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12-13 Di a m e t e r : 14 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 53-67 cm S, 72-84 cm E 70) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12 Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 12 cm n/a 188-200 cm S, 174-183 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s s o u t h i n t o t h e b a u l k w a l l and i t s d i m e n s i o n s have been e x t r a p o l a t e d f r om e x i s t i n g d a t a . 71) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12 Di a m e t e r : 16 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 72-84 cm S, 143-159 cm E Comments: The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s f e a t u r e i s u n c e r t a i n . 72) U n i t 16, L e v e l 15 Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 3 0 cm n/a ?-200 cm S (EU 16), 0-30 cm E (EU 16) T h i s f e a t u r e was o n l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e s o u t h w a l l (baulk) p r o f i l e and i t s s i z e has been e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 73) U n i t 15, L e v e l 15-18 Dia m e t e r : 2 8 cm Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : U n i t 9, L e v e l 15 Comments : n/a 80-100 cm S (EU 15), 82-100 cm E (EU 1 5 ) ; 90- 100 cm S (EU 9 ) , 0-10 cm E (EU 9) T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e s o u t h (baulk) w a l l and i t s s i z e has been e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 74) U n i t 15, L e v e l 15-16 Di a m e t e r : 13 cm Depth: 13 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 45-56 cm S, 70-83 cm E 75) U n i t 15, L e v e l 15-17 Dia m e t e r : 9 cm Depth: 11 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 74-83 cm S, 57-65 cm E 76) U n i t 15, L e v e l 16-17 Dia m e t e r : 13 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 72-85 cm S, 35-48 cm E 77) U n i t 15, L e v e l 15-17 Di a m e t e r : 9 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 71-78 cm S, 26-35 cm E 78) U n i t 15, L e v e l 15-16 Dia m e t e r : 17 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 13-30 cm S, 11-28 cm E 79) U n i t 9, L e v e l 15 Di a m e t e r : 16 cm Depth: 49 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 20-36 cm S, 31-47 cm E 80) U n i t 9, L e v e l 15 Di a m e t e r : 14 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 50-64 cm S, 61-75 cm E 81) U n i t 9, L e v e l 15 Di a m e t e r : 24 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 60-76 cm S, 31-55 cm E 82) U n i t 9, L e v e l 15 Di a m e t e r : 15 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 45-60 cm S, 90-99 cm E 83) U n i t 20, L e v e l 9 D i a m e t e r : 15 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 65-80 cm S, 70-83 cm E 84) U n i t 20, L e v e l 9 Dia m e t e r : 8 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 79-87 cm S, 86-94 cm E 85) U n i t 20, L e v e l 9-11 Dia m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e Comments : 6 cm 23 cm 21-27 cm S, 96-100 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e e a s t e r n b a u l k w a l l and i t s d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 86) U n i t 20, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : 6 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 22-27 cm S, 88-94 cm E 87) U n i t 20, L e v e l 9 Dia m e t e r : 7 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 23-29 cm S, 80-87 cm E 88) U n i t 20, L e v e l 9-13 Dia m e t e r : 22 cm Depth: 4 8 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 74-92 cm S, 12-34 cm E Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e i s a n g l e d f rom west t o e a s t (base i s p o r t i o n f u r t h e s t w e s t ) . 89) U n i t 7, L e v e l D i a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : (EU 7 ) ; 0-? cm S n/a; U n i t 20, L e v e l n/a 15 cm n/a ?-100 cm S (EU 7 ) , 15-30 cm E (EU 2 0 ) , 15-30 cm E (EU 20) T h i s f e a t u r e was o n l y v i s i b l e o f t h e s o u t h w a l l o f u n i t 7. t h i s f e a t u r e was n o t e d o r o b s e r v e d i n u n i t 20. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e has been e x t r a p o l a t e d f r om e x i s t i n g d a t a . T h i s p o s t h o l e i s a n g l e d towards t h e e a s t . m No a p h o t o g r a p h e v i d e n c e o f 90) U n i t 17, L e v e l 5-7; U n i t 19, L e v e l 7-8 Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 19 cm n/a 0-? cm S (EU 17), 37-45 cm E (EU 1 7 ) ; 86-100 cm S(EU 19), 27-46 cm E (EU 19) T h i s f e a t u r e was v i s i b l e i n u n i t 19 and t h e n o r t h w a l l o f u n i t 17. E x c a v a t o r s o f u n i t 17 f a i l e d t o o b s e r v e and r e c o r d t h i s f e a t u r e . The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 91) U n i t 33, L e v e l 12-13 Di a m e t e r : Depth : P r o v e n i e n c e Comments : 12 cm n/a 0-11 cm S (EU 33), 48-60 cm E (EU 33) T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e n o r t h (baulk) w a l l and i t s s i z e has been e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 92) U n i t 33, L e v e l 12 Dia m e t e r : 13 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 129-141 cm S, 108-121 cm E U n i t 33, L e v e l 12-13; U n i t 34, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : Depth : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 30 cm n/a 170-200 cm S (EU 3 3 ) , 0-23 cm E (EU 3 3 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 3 4 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 34) T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s westwards i n t o t h e b a u l k w a l l . No e v i d e n c e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was o b s e r v e d o r n o t e d i n u n i t 34. The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s f e a t u r e have been e x t r a p o l a t e d from a v a i l a b l e d a t a . 94) U n i t 33, L e v e l 12 Dia m e t e r : 32 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 104-136 cm S, 15-46 cm E 95) U n i t 33, L e v e l 12-13; U n i t 34, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : 20 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 187-200 cm S (EU 3 3 ) , 121-141 cm E (EU 3 3 ) ; 0- 4 cm S (EU 3 4 ) , 133-148 cm E (EU 34) Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e t a p e r s w i t h d e p t h . 96) U n i t 33, L e v e l 13 D i a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 15 cm n/a 72-87 cm S, 0-12 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e w e s t e r n (baulk) w a l l . F e a t u r e d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 97) U n i t 33, L e v e l 12-13 Diameter: 16 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 20-36 cm S, 20-36 cm E Comments : Three l a r g e r o c k s s u r r o u n d e d t h e base o f t h i s f e a t u r e . 98) U n i t 33, L e v e l 12-13 Dia m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 34 cm n/a 0-28 cm S, 166-200 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n b a u l k w a l l s . The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s f e a t u r e were e x t r a p o l a t e d f rom e x i s t i n g d a t a . A r o c k a d j a c e n t t o t h e s o u t h edge o f t h e f e a t u r e may have s e r v e d a s u p p o r t o r r e t a i n i n g f u n c t i o n . 99) U n i t 34, L e v e l n/a Diameter: 21 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 166-185 cm S, 35-56 cm E 100) U n i t 34, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : 26 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 21-44 cm S, 138-164 cm E 101) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 Di a m e t e r : 13 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 72-84 cm S, 150-163 cm E 102) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 D i a m e t e r : 9 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 75-83 cm S, 140-149 cm E 103) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 Dia m e t e r : 5 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 78-83 cm S, 117-122 cm E 104) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 D i a m e t e r : 11 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 35-46 cm S, 94-104 cm E 105) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 D i a m e t e r : 6 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 77-83 cm S, 89-95 cm E 106) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 Dia m e t e r : 6 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 57-62 cm S, 82-88 cm E 107) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 D i a m e t e r : 7 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 36-43 cm S, 71-78 cm E 108) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9-10 Diameter: 20 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 58-78 cm S, 25-44 cm E 109) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 Dia m e t e r : 5 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 42-46 cm S, 43-48 cm E 110) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 Dia m e t e r : 5 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 36-40 cm S, 38-43 cm E 111) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 Diameter : 5 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 17-22 cm S, 64-68 cm E 112) U n i t 35, L e v e l 8-9 Diameter: 14 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-12 cm S, 48-62 cm E 113) U n i t 35, L e v e l 10 Dia m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 13 cm n/a 104-117 cm S, 0-12 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t h e w e s t e r n (baulk) w a l l and i t s s i z e was e x t r a p o l a t e d f r o m e x i s t i n g d a t a . 114) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9-10 Di a m e t e r : 13 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 97-109 cm S, 13-26 cm E 115) U n i t 35, L e v e l 8-10 Di a m e t e r : 10 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 32-41 cm S, 175-185 cm E 116) U n i t 35, L e v e l 8 D i a m e t e r : 5 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 20-24 cm S, 18-23 cm E 117) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 Dia m e t e r : 6 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 90-94 cm S, 178-184 cm E 118) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 D i a m e t e r : 6 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 102-106 cm S, 182-188 cm 119) U n i t 35, L e v e l 10 Dia m e t e r : 21 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 150-168 cm S, 71-92 cm E 120) U n i t 35, L e v e l 9 Diameter: 14 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 56-68 cm S, 140-154 cm E 121) U n i t 18, L e v e l 10 Diam e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 20 cm n/a 70-90 cm S, 94-100 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e extends i n t o t h e e a s t e r n (baulk) w a l l and i t s d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 122) U n i t 18, L e v e l 10 Diam e t e r : 14 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 78-87 cm S, 52-66 cm E 123) U n i t 18, L e v e l 10; U n i t 26, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 7 cm n/a 96-100 cm S (EU 18), 32-39 cm E (EU 1 8 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 2 6 ) , ? cm E (EU 26) T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o u n i t 26 b u t was not o b s e r v e d by t h e e x c a v a t o r . F e a t u r e d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 124) U n i t 18, L e v e l 10 Diame t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 12 cm n/a 0-12 cm S, 22-33 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e n o r t h (baulk) w a l l and i t s d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . D i a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 33 cm n/a 0-16 cm S, 67-100 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e e a s t and n o r t h (baulk) w a l l s . The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s f e a t u r e were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 126) U n i t 18, L e v e l 9 Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 19 cm n/a 25-44 cm S, 93-100 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e e a s t (baulk) w a l l and i t s d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 127) U n i t 18, L e v e l 9 Di a m e t e r : 17 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 79-96 cm S, 23-39 cm E 128) U n i t 18, L e v e l 8-10 Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 19 cm n/a 0-17 cm S, 5-24 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e n o r t h e r n (baulk) w a l l and i t s d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 129) U n i t 18, L e v e l 8-9; U n i t 26, L e v e l 7-9; U n i t 37, L e v e l 9 D i a m e t e r : 40 cm Depth: 21 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 83-100 cm S (EU 18), 0-20 cm E (EU 1 8 ) ; 0-18 cm S (EU 2 6 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 2 6 ) ; 90-130 cm S (EU 3 7 ) , 64-80 cm E (EU 37) D i a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 23 cm 22 cm 0-23 cm S, ?-100 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was o n l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e e a s t w a l l p r o f i l e o f u n i t 26. The s i z e o f t h e f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a , 131) U n i t 26, L e v e l D i a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e Comments : 8 cm 9 cm 46-54 cm S, ?-100 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was o n l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e e a s t w a l l p r o f i l e o f u n i t 26. The s i z e o f t h e f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 132) U n i t 26, L e v e l 7-9; U n i t 37, L e v e l 9 Di a m e t e r : 36 cm Depth: 21 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 35-60 cm S (EU 26 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 2 6 ) ; 130-166 cm S (EU 37 ) , 58-80 cm E (EU 37) Comments: The f e a t u r e t a p e r s w i t h d e p t h . 133) U n i t 26, L e v e l 9; U n i t 22, L e v e l 5-8; U n i t 37, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : Depth : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : (EU 2 6 ) ; 0-20 cm 182-220 cm S (EU 24 cm 8 cm 82-96 cm S (EU 26 ) , 0-? cm E S (EU 2 2 ) , 0-9 cm E (EU 2 2 ) ; 3 7 ) , ?-80 cm E (EU 37) T h i s f e a t u r e was n o t e d i n t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f u n i t 26, however, i t s p r e s e n c e was c o n f i r m e d i n t h e west w a l l p r o f i l e . T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o u n i t 37, however, i t was not r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n . U n i t 22, L e v e l 8, U n i t 38, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 16 cm n/a 51-74 cm S (EU 2 2 ) , 94-100 cm E (EU 2 2 ) ; 3-30 cm S (EU 3 8 ) , 0-10 cm E (EU 38) The s l i g h t d i s c r e p a n c y between f e a t u r e p r o v e n i e n c e i n t h e two e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s i s l i k e l y a r e c o r d e r e r r o r . A t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f u n i t p l a n s s u g g e s t t h i s f e a t u r e was c i r c u l a r and r o u g h l y 16 cm i n d i a m e t e r . 135) U n i t 22, L e v e l 5-7 Dia m e t e r : 14 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 84-94 cm S, 65-79 cm E 136) U n i t 22, L e v e l 5-6 Dia m e t e r : 17 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 52-69 cm S, 54-68 cm E 137) U n i t 22, L e v e l 6-7; U n i t 26, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : Depth : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 15 cm n/a 0-14 cm S (EU 2 2 ) , 31-46 cm E (EU 2 2 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 2 6 ) , 31-46 cm E (EU 26) T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o u n i t 26 a l t h o u g h n o t mentioned i n t h e f i e l d n o t e s f o r t h i s u n i t . F e a t u r e d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d f r om e x i s t i n g d a t a . D i a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 20 cm n/a 89-100 cm S, 31-51 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e s o u t h e r n (baulk) w a l l and i t s d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 139) U n i t 38, L e v e l n/a Diam e t e r : 9 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 48-57 cm S, 34-43 cm E 140) U n i t 38, L e v e l 12 Di a m e t e r : 28 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 48-71 cm S, 41-69 cm E 141) U n i t 38, L e v e l 11 Diam e t e r : 22 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 119-140 cm S, 53-75 cm E 142) U n i t 38, L e v e l 11 Diam e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 43 cm n/a 128-150 cm S, 87-130 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e s o u t h e r n (baulk) w a l l o f t h e u n i t . The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s f e a t u r e were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 143) U n i t 38, L e v e l 11 Diameter: 20 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 105-121 cm S, 101-121 cm E 144) U n i t 38, L e v e l 12 Diameter: 29 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 91-120 cm S, 120-145 cm E 145) U n i t 38, L e v e l 12 Diameter: 9 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 82-91 cm S, 130-139 cm E 146) U n i t 38, L e v e l 12 Diameter: 17 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 42-58 cm S, 82-99 cm E Comments: The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s f e a t u r e i s u n c e r t a i n . 147) U n i t 38, L e v e l 12 Diameter: 7 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 37-44 cm S, 82-88 cm E Comments: The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s f e a t u r e i s u n c e r t a i n . 148) U n i t 38, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : 16 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 42-57 cm S, 111-127 cm E Comments: The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s f e a t u r e i s u n c e r t a i n . 149) U n i t 37, L e v e l 9 Diameter: 11 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 53-63 cm S, 31-42 cm E 150) U n i t 37, L e v e l 8 Diameter: 12 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 70-82 cm S, 34-45 cm E 151) U n i t 37, L e v e l 9 Dia m e t e r : 14 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 86-100 cm S, 34-46 cm E 152) U n i t 15, L e v e l 15-17; U n i t 9, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : : 25 cm Depth: 15 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 50-75 cm S (EU 1 5 ) , 88-100 cm E (EU 1 5 ) ; 50-75 cm S (EU 9 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 9) 153) U n i t 37, L e v e l 9 Dia m e t e r : 22 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 166-188 cm S, 60-80 cm E 154) U n i t 37, L e v e l 8 Dia m e t e r : 26 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 39-62 cm S, 48-74 cm E U n i t 37, L e v e l 7-8; T r e n c h 1, L e v e l n/a D i a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 3 8 cm n/a 25-63 cm S (EU 3 7 ) , 0-26 cm E (EU 3 7 ) ; ? cm S ( t r e n c h 1 ) , ?-60 cm E ( t r e n c h 1) The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e has been e x t r a p o l a t e d f r om e x i s t i n g d a t a . T h i s f e a t u r e was not r e c o r d e d i n t h e f i e l d n o t e s o r p r o f i l e s o f t r e n c h 1, however, t h e west w a l l p r o f i l e o f u n i t 3 7 i n d i c a t e s c o n t i n u a t i o n i n t o t r e n c h 1. 156) U n i t 37, L e v e l 8; T r e n c h 1, L e v e l n/a Diameter: 22 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 83-105 cm S (EU 3 7 ) , 0-8 cm E (EU 3 7 ) ; ? cm S ( t r e n c h 1 ) , ?-60 cm E ( t r e n c h 1) Comments: The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e has been e x t r a p o l a t e d f r om e x i s t i n g d a t a . T h i s f e a t u r e was not r e c o r d e d i n t h e f i e l d n o t e s o r p r o f i l e s o f t r e n c h 1, however, t h e west w a l l p r o f i l e o f u n i t 3 7 i n d i c a t e s c o n t i n u a t i o n i n t o t r e n c h 1. 157) U n i t 37, L e v e l 9 Di a m e t e r : 2 0 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 128-148 cm S, 1-18 cm E 158) U n i t 37, L e v e l 9 Di a m e t e r : 25 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 108-130 cm S, 13-38 cm E 159) U n i t 37, L e v e l 8 Di a m e t e r : 33 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 76-109 cm S, 8-32 cm E 160) U n i t 37, L e v e l 9 Dia m e t e r : 11 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 200-208 cm S, 57-68 cm E 161) U n i t 37, L e v e l 10 Dia m e t e r : 18 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 230-248 cm S, 12-30 cm E 162) U n i t 37, L e v e l 10; T r e n c h 1, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 32 cm 31 cm 248-278 cm S (EU 3 7 ) , 0-16 cm E (EU 3 7 ) ; 298- 330 cm S ( t r e n c h 1 ) , ?-60 cm E ( t r e n c h 1) T h i s f e a t u r e was o b s e r v e d i n u n i t 37 and i n t h e e a s t w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 1. The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s f e a t u r e were e x t r a p o l a t e d f r om e x i s t i n g d a t a . 163) U n i t 37, L e v e l 10 Dia m e t e r : 13 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 287-300 cm S, 26-39 cm E 164) U n i t 37, L e v e l 10 Dia m e t e r : 14 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 298-312 cm S, 44-58 cm E 165) U n i t 37, L e v e l 10 Diameter: 8 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 360-368 cm S, 18-26 cm E U n i t 36, L e v e l 3-4; U n i t 11, L e v e l n/a D i a m e t e r : 21 cm Depth: 15 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-14 cm N (EU 3 6 ) , 29-50 cm E (EU 3 6 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 1 1 ) , 19-40 cm E (EU 11) Comments : No r e c o r d of t h i s f e a t u r e was found i n u n i t 11 f i e l d n o t e s o r w a l l p r o f i l e s . F e a t u r e d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 167) U n i t 25, L e v e l 2-4 Dia m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 10 cm n/a 0-? cm S, 3 0-40 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was not r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f u n i t 25, however, i t was o b s e r v e d i n a p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e n o r t h w a l l p r o f i l e . The d i m e n s i o n s of t h i s f e a t u r e were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 168) U n i t 25, L e v e l 1-3 Dia m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 20 cm 2 0 cm 0-? cm S, 50-70 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was not r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f u n i t 25, however, i t was o b s e r v e d i n a p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e n o r t h w a l l p r o f i l e . The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s f e a t u r e were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 169) U n i t 25, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : 21 cm Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 54-74 cm S, 45-66 cm E T r e n c h 1, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 37, L e v e l n/a D i a m e t e r : 16 cm Depth: 24 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 182-198 S ( t r e n c h 1 ) , ?-60 cm E ( t r e n c h 1 ) ; ? cm S (EU 3 7 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 37) Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e was o n l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e e a s t w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 1. The f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o u n i t 37, however, no m e n t i o n c o u l d be f o u n d i n t h e f i e l d n o t e s . The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d f rom e x i s t i n g d a t a . 171) T r e n c h 1, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 37, L e v e l n/a D i a m e t e r : 8 cm Depth: 11 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 200-208 cm S ( t r e n c h 1 ) , ?-60 cm E ( t r e n c h 1 ) ; ? cm S (EU 3 7 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 3 7 ) . Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e was o n l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e e a s t w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 1. The f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o u n i t 37, however, no m e n t i o n was r e c o r d e d i n t h e f i e l d n o t e s . The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d f rom e x i s t i n g d a t a . 172) T r e n c h 1, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 37, L e v e l n/a D i a m e t e r : Depth : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 18 cm 29 cm 382-400 S ( t r e n c h 1 ) , ?-60 cm E ( t r e n c h 1 ) ; ? cm S (EU 3 7 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 37) T h i s f e a t u r e was o n l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e e a s t w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 1. The f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o u n i t 37, however, no m e n t i o n was r e c o r d e d i n t h e f i e l d n o t e s . The f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e s o u t h (baulk) w a l l o f t r e n c h 1. F e a t u r e s i z e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 173) T r e n c h 1, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 14 cm 36 cm 96-110 cm S, 0-? cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e w e s t e r n w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 1 and i t s s i z e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 174) Tr e n c h 1, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 26 cm 32 cm 245-271 cm S, 0-? cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e w e s t e r n w a l l p r o f i l e of t r e n c h 1 and i t s s i z e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 175) Tr e n c h 1, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 9 cm 35 cm 331-340 cm S, 0-? cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d f r om t h e w e s t e r n w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 1. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d f rom e x i s t i n g d a t a . 176) Tr e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Diam e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 42 cm 42 cm 0-? cm S, 0-42 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e n o r t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4 and i t s s i z e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 177) Trench 4, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : 2 0 cm Depth: 42 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-? cm S, 150-170 cm E Comments : T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e n o r t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 178) Trench 4, L e v e l n/a Diameter : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 27 cm 24 cm 0-? cm S, 496-523 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e n o r t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 179) Tr e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Diam e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 37 cm 24 cm 0-? cm S, 523-560 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e n o r t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 180) Trench 4, L e v e l n/a Diameter: Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 25 cm 24 cm ?-130 cm S, 74-99 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s o u t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 181) Trench 4, L e v e l n/a Diam e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 13 cm 23 cm ?-130 cm S, 277-290 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s o u t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 182) T r e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 18 cm 24 cm ?-130 cm S, 370-388 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s o u t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 183) Tr e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 28 cm 25 cm ?-130 cm S, 502-530 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s o u t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 184) T r e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 16 cm 28 cm ?-130 cm S, 534-550 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s o u t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 185) T r e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 18 cm 18 cm ?-130 cm S, 562-580 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s o u t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d w i t h e x i s t i n g d a t a . 186) T r e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Di a m e t e r : 40 cm Depth: 46 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 40-80 cm S, 0-? cm E Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e west w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 187) T r e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : Depth : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 2 0 cm 24 cm 120-140 cm S, ?-600 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e e a s t w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e e a s t e r n and s o u t h e r n (baulk) w a l l s . The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 188) T r e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Dia m e t e r : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 5 cm 28 cm 21-26 cm S, ?-600 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e e a s t w a l l p r o f i l e o f t r e n c h 4. The f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e e a s t e r n (baulk) w a l l . The s i z e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d f rom e x i s t i n g d a t a . R e c t a n g u l a r P o s t H o l e s 1) U n i t 28, L e v e l 3; U n i t 1, L e v e l n/a S i z e : 10 cm (N-S) x ? cm (E-W) Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 19-29 cm S (EU 2 8 ) , 0-10 cm W (EU 2 8 ) ; EU 1 n/a Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o u n i t 1, however, i t was not o b s e r v e d o r n o t e d when u n i t 1 was e x c a v a t e d . U n i t 28, L e v e l 4-5; U n i t 2, L e v e l 4-6 S i z e : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 14 cm (N-S)x 26 cm (E-W) 20 cm 6-17 cm S (EU 2 8 ) , 0-26 cm W (EU 2 8 ) ; 6-20 cm S (EU 2 ) , ? cm E (EU 2) T h i s f e a t u r e was not i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f u n i t 2, however, i t was r e c o r d e d i n t h e west w a l l p r o f i l e . 3) U n i t 12, L e v e l 9 S i z e : 26 cm (N-S) x 16 cm (E-W) Depth : 7 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 66-92 cm S, 133-149 cm E Comments: T h i s e l o n g a t e f e a t u r e may be two a d j a c e n t c i r c u l a r p o s t h o l e s . 4) U n i t 5, L e v e l 9-11 S i z e : 10 cm (N-S) x 20 cm (E-W) Depth: 15 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 45-55 cm S, 20-40 cm E 5) U n i t 5, L e v e l S i z e : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 8-13; U n i t 13, L e v e l n/a 30 cm (N-S) X 51 cm (E-W) 45 cm 75-100 cm S (EU 5 ) , 77-100 cm E (EU 5 ) ; ?-200 cm S (EU 1 3 ) , 0-28 cm E (EU 13) T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e s o u t h e r n (baulk) w a l l o f u n i t s 5 and 13. The f e a t u r e was not n o t e d d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f u n i t 13, however, i t was r e c o r d e d i n t h e s o u t h (baulk) w a l l p r o f i l e . The d i m e n s i o n s of t h i s p o s t h o l e were e x t r a p o l a t e d from a v a i l a b l e d a t a . The b o t t o m of t h e p o s t h o l e ends a b r u p t l y s u g g e s t i n g t h e p o s t base was shaped. L e v e l 6) U n i t 5, S i z e : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e Comments 9-16; U n i t 13, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 24, L e v e l n/a 20 cm (N-S), 30 cm (E-W) n/a 0-15 cm S (EU 5 ) , 85-100 cm E (EU 5 ) ; ? cm S (EU 13), 0-? cm E (EU 1 3 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 2 4 ) , 80-100 cm E (EU 2 4 ) . T h i s f e a t u r e t a p e r s w i t h d e p t h and was not o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f u n i t 24, however, t h e n o r t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f u n i t 5 c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o u n i t 24. The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s f e a t u r e were e x t r a p o l a t e d f rom e x i s t i n g d a t a . The bott o m o f t h e p o s t h o l e ends a b r u p t l y s u g g e s t i n g t h e p o s t base was shaped. 7) U n i t 15, L e v e l 15-17 S i z e : 20 cm (N-S) x 12 cm (E-W) Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 50-70 cm S, 56-68 cm E 8) U n i t 20, L e v e l 8 S i z e : 15 cm (N-S) x 34 cm (E-W) Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 39-54 cm S, 50-84 cm E 9) U n i t 33, L e v e l 12-13 S i z e : 15 cm (N-S) x 21 cm (E-W) Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 98-113 cm S, 37-58 cm E Comments: The f e a t u r e i s k i d n e y - s h a p e d . 10) U n i t 12, L e v e l 11-12 Di a m e t e r : 21 cm (N-S) x 11 cm (E-W) Depth: 12 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 87-108 cm S, 164-175 cm E U n i t 30, L e v e l 16; U n i t 4, L e v e l 13-14; U n i t 10, L e v e l 14- 15; U n i t 11, L e v e l 15 S i z e : 30 cm (N-S) x 49 cm (E-W) Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-6 cm S (EU 30), 77-100 cm E (EU 3 0 ) ; 176-200 S (EU 10), 175-200 cm E (EU 1 0 ) ; 178-200 cm S (EU 1 1 ) , 0-16 cm E (EU 1 1 ) ; 0-16 cm E (EU 4 ) , 0-6 cm S (EU 4) 12) U n i t 6, L e v e l 11-18; U n i t 29, L e v e l n/a S i z e : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 19 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) 53 cm 0-19 cm S (EU 6 ) , 0-17 cm E (EU 6 ) ; ? cm S (EU 2 9 ) , ?-100 cm E (EU 29) No e v i d e n c e o f t h i s p o s t h o l e was o b s e r v e d o r r e c o r d e d i n u n i t 29 a l t h o u g h t h e f e a t u r e c l e a r l y e x t e n d s i n t o t h e u n i t . The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s f e a t u r e have been e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a . 13) U n i t 16, L e v e l 11-16; U n i t 32, L e v e l n/a S i z e : Depth: P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 30 cm (N-S) X 12 cm (E-W) 50 cm 0-22 cm S (EU 16), 178-190 cm E (EU 1 6 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 32), ? cm E (EU 32) T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o u n i t 32, however, no m e n t i o n c o u l d be found i n t h e e x c a v a t i o n n o t e s . F e a t u r e d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d f r om e x i s t i n g d a t a . 14) U n i t 18, L e v e l 8-9 S i z e : 22 cm (N-S) x 12 cm (E-W) Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 48-70 cm S, 3-15 cm E 15) U n i t 38, L e v e l 11 S i z e : 27 cm (E-W) x 36 cm (N-S) Depth: n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 67-94 cm S, 76-112 cm E APPENDIX C HEARTHS AND CHARCOAL CONCENTRATIONS I n t r o d u c t i o n H e a r t h and c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n f e a t u r e s were r e c o r d e d i n a l l 3 8 e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s and each backhoe t r e n c h w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t r e n c h 3. Formal n o t e s o r w a l l p r o f i l e s were n e v e r made f o r t r e n c h 3, t h e r e f o r e , t h o s e d a t a a r e not a v a i l a b l e . H e a r t h s a r e d e f i n e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of b u r n t s o i l , c h a r c o a l and f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k i n a w e l l d e f i n e d a r e a . These f e a t u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n s i t u b u r n i n g on a l i v i n g f l o o r (Gose 1976:190). C h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , as t h e name i n f e r s , a r e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f c h a r c o a l . However, f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k and b u r n t s o i l may a l s o be p r e s e n t . These f e a t u r e s l i k e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e remnants o f h e a r t h s w h i c h were r e d e p o s i t e d away from t h e i r o r i g i n a l p l a c e o f use. I n g e n e r a l , n o t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e l o c a t i o n and n a t u r e o f h e a r t h and c h a r c o a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n f e a t u r e s a t t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e were m i n i m a l o r n o n - e x i s t e n t . I n many i n s t a n c e s f e a t u r e s were i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g t h e a n a l y s i s f rom f l o o r p l a n s , w a l l p r o f i l e s , and p h o t o g r a p h s . A p a r t f rom t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s , t h e d a t a were s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s . Each f e a t u r e was numbered f o r ease o f r e f e r e n c e . F e a t u r e p r o v e n i e n c e was i n d i c a t e d by r e f e r r i n g t o t h e u n i t s and l e v e l s i n w h i c h t h e f e a t u r e was found. Where i n f o r m a t i o n was l a c k i n g a "n/a" was p l a c e d i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n . S p e c i f i c f e a t u r e p r o v e n i e n c e (e.g. 45 cm S, 23 cm E ) , was p r o v i d e d where p o s s i b l e . I f s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e p r o v e n i e n c e d a t a was l a c k i n g , a " ? " was used i n p l a c e of numeric c o o r d i n a t e s . The maximum l e n g t h and w i d t h d i m e n s i o n s were r e c o r d e d f o r each f e a t u r e . I n c a s e s where t h i s d a t a was i n c o m p l e t e , t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e f e a t u r e was l e f t b l a n k o r , i n some ca s e s , e x t r a p o l a t e d . F e a t u r e d i m e n s i o n s were r a r e l y e x t r a p o l a t e d due t o t h e i r i r r e g u l a r n a t u r e . F e a t u r e d e p t h was r e c o r d e d i n c e n t i m e t e r s . I n c a s e s where d a t a a r e l a c k i n g a "n/a" r e p l a c e d t h e numeric d a t a . An o p t i o n a l comments s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o i r m a t i o n not r e c o r d e d i n p r e v i o u s d a t a f i e l d s . F o r example, i f a f e a t u r e ' s d i m e n s i o n s were e x t r a p o l a t e d from e x i s t i n g d a t a t h i s was i n d i c a t e d . O t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , such as t h e p r e s e n c e of c a l c i n e d bone o r b o i l i n g s t o n e s , would a l s o be mentioned i n t h i s f i e l d . 1) U n i t 1, L e v e l 1-4, Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 25, L e v e l 2-5 55 cm (N-S) X 40 cm (E-W) 32 cm 0-30 cm S (EU 1 ) , 50-90 cm E (EU 1 ) ; 75- 100 cm S (EU 2 5 ) , 50-88 cm E (EU 25) The base o f t h i s f e a t u r e i s a d i s h - shaped p a t c h o f b u r n t s o i l w i t h c h a r c o a l , c a l c i n e d f i s h bone, and l i t h i c s p r e s e n t . H e a r t h s i z e i n u n i t 1 was based on a l e n s o f b u r n t s o i l (22-32 cm d.b.u.) i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e n o r t h w a l l p r o f i l e . A l a r g e p a t c h o f c h a r c o a l s t a i n e d s o i l u n d o u b t e d l y r e l a t e d , though not p a r t o f t h e h e a r t h f e a t u r e p r o p e r , e x i s t s above t h e b u r n t s o i l l e n s . 2) U n i t 2, L e v e l 2-5; U n i t 1, L e v e l n/a Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 31, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 28, L e v e l n/a; n/a n/a 0-40 cm S (EU 2 ) , 0-100 cm E (EU 2 ) ; ? cm S (EU 3 1 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 3 1 ) ; ? cm S (EU 2 8 ) , ? cm E (EU 2 8 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 1) , ? cm E (EU 1) F i r e c r a c k e d r o c k , c a l c i n e d bone frag m e n t s , and b u r n t s o i l were o b s e r v e d i n t h i s f e a t u r e . 3) U n i t 25, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 10, L e v e l 3; U n i t 1, L e v e l 4-6 Dim e n s i o n s : 41 cm (N-S) x 141 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : 18 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : ? cm S (EU 2 5 ) , 0-100 cm E (EU 2 5 ) ; 79- 120 cm S (EU 10) 0-75 cm E; 0-? cm S (EU 1) , 34-100 cm E (EU 1) Comments : F i e l d n o t e s were not p r e c i s e enough t o d e f i n e t h e h e a r t h a l o n e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c a r b o n s t a i n e d s o i l i s i n c l u d e d i n f e a t u r e d i m e n s i o n s . 4) U n i t 12, L e v e l 8-9 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 5, L e v e l 6-8 29 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) 16 cm 126-144 cm S (EU 12), 179-200 cm E (EU 1 2 ) ; 13-42 cm S (EU 5 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 5) T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r o f the s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 5) U n i t 5, L e v e l 9-10; U n i t 24, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 13, L e v e l 11- 12; U n i t 14, L e v e l 12 Dim e n s i o n s : 60 cm (N-S) x 280 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : 12 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-24 cm S (EU 5 ) , 74-100 cm E (EU 5 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 2 4 ) , ? cm E (EU 2 4 ) ; 28- 150 cm S (EU 13), 0-200 cm E (EU 1 3 ) ; 58-93 cm S (EU 14), 0-40 cm E (EU 14) Comments: C h a r c o a l s t a i n e d s o i l , b u r n t s o i l , and c a l c i n e d bone fragments a r e p r e s e n t i n t h i s f e a t u r e . I n u n i t 5 t h e f l o o r g e n t l y s l o p e s from west t o e a s t and i s s t a i n e d b l a c k w i t h c h a r c o a l . The s c a l e and shape o f t h i s f e a t u r e , s u g g e s t s i t may r e p r e s e n t a b u r n t s t r u c t u r a l element r a t h e r t h a n a h e a r t h . The f e a t u r e g e n t l y c u r v e s n o r t h as i t p r o g r e s s e s e a s t w a r d . The n o r t h - s o u t h d i m e n s i o n may seem g r e a t (e.g. u n i t 1 3 ) , however, t h e f e a t u r e i s o n l y 50-60 cm wide a t i t s maximum. The f e a t u r e r e s t s on s t e r i l e g r a v e l i n u n i t 13. T h i s f e a t u r e i s l o c a t e d on t h e f l o o r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . U n i t 24, L e v e l 6-9, U n i t 3, L e v e l n/a Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 31, L e v e l n/a. U n i t 13, L e v e l 7-8; ? cm (N-S) X 51 cm (E-W) 10 cm 0-54 cm S (EU 24), 62-100 cm E (EU 2 4 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 3 1 ) , ?-100 cm E (EU 3 1 ) ; 17-60 cm S (EU 13), 0-13 cm E (EU 1 3 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 3 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 3) T h i s d i s h - s h a p e d f e a t u r e c o n t a i n s f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k , b u r n t s o i l , c h a r c o a l , and ash. 7) U n i t 3, L e v e l 1-3 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 24 cm (N-S) X 51 cm (E-W) n/a 60-84 cm S, 48-99 cm E L i t t l e i s known about t h i s f e a t u r e , however, l e v e l 1 n o t e s i n d i c a t e wood, t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d as c e d a r , was p r e s e n t . The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f wood i s u n l i k e l y and was p r o b a b l y i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e f e a t u r e when t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e s i t e was b u l l d o z e d . The f e a t u r e l a y below a c h a r c o a l l a y e r and c o n t a i n s c a l c i n e d bone fragments and b u r n t s o i l . 8) U n i t 3, L e v e l 8-10 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 30, L e v e l 12-15; U n i t 10, L e v e l 14 ? cm (N-S) X 109 cm (E-W) 2 6 cm 0-95 cm S (EU 3 ) , 44-100 cm E (EU 3 ) ; 0- 42 cm S (EU 30), 0-53 cm E (EU 3 0 ) ; ? cm E (EU 10), ?-200 cm S (EU 10) I n a d d i t i o n t o a b o i l i n g s t o n e , c a l c i n e d bone fragments and q u a n t i t i e s o f f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k were found i n t h i s d i s h - shaped f e a t u r e . U n i t 30, L e v e l 15-17, U n i t 13, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 14, l e v e l 8- 10; U n i t 4, L e v e l 13-15 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : n/a 15 cm 63-100 cm S 3 0 ) ; 0-? cm 1 4 ) ; 0-? cm 1 3 ) ; 65-100 4) C a l c i n e d bone fragments were o b s e r v e d i n t h i s d i s h - s h a p e d f e a t u r e w h i c h l i e s on t h e f l o o r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . (EU 3 0 ) , 60-100 cm E (EU S (EU 14) , 0-52 cm E (EU S (EU 1 3 ) , ?-200 E cm (EU cm S (EU 4 ) , 0-40 cm E (EU 10) U n i t 13, L e v e l 3-4 Dimensions: 36 cm (N-S) x 92 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 108-144 cm S, 70-162 cm E Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e s l o p e s west t o e a s t . 11) U n i t 14, L e v e l H E , n/a Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 9W; U n i t 4, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 29, L e v e l ? cm (N-S) X 88 cm (E-W) n/a 0-23 cm S (EU 1 4 ) , 62-150 cm E (EU 1 4 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 4 ) , ? cm E (EU 4 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 2 9 ) , ? cm E (EU 29) T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 12) U n i t 14, L e v e l 2-4; U n i t 16, L e v e l 3 Dimensions: ? cm (N-S) x 147 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 92-200 cm S (EU 1 4 ) , 93-200 cm E (EU 14) ; 85-200 cm S (EU 16) , 0-40 cm E (EU 16) Comments : T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e s o u t h e r n (baulk) w a l l . 13) U n i t 11, L e v e l 4-6; Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 23, L e v e l n/a ? cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) n/a 0-74 cm S (EU 11), 112-200 cm E (EU 1 1 ) ; ? cm S (EU 2 3 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 23) T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r of the s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 14) U n i t 23, L e v e l 5-7 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 21, L e v e l 5-11; U n i t 32, L e v e l n/a ? cm (N-S) X 106 cm (E-W) n/a 145-200 cm S (EU 2 3 ) , 65-100 cm E (EU 2 3 ) ; 120-200 cm S (EU 2 1 ) , 0-71 cm E (EU 2 1 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 32), ? cm E (EU 32) T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r of the s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . I n u n i t 21 q u a n t i t i e s of s m a l l o v o i d s t o n e s b e g i n t o appear i n l e v e l 7 w i t h a l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n l e v e l 8. Some s t o n e s were i n l e v e l 9. These s t o n e s l i k e l y r e p r e s e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f b o i l i n g s t o n e s w h i c h were used f o r c o o k i n g i n c o n t a i n e r s such as b a s k e t s o r wooden boxes. 15) U n i t 11, L e v e l 7 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 20 cm (N-S) X 70 cm (E-W) 5 cm 131-151 cm S, 10-80 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t a i n e d c a l c i n e d bone f r a g m e n t s . 16) U n i t 11, L e v e l 13-14 Dimensions: 30 cm (N-S) x 105 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 141-171 cm S, 5-100+ cm E Comments: The e a s t e r n h a l f o f u n i t 11 was e x c a v a t e d by U.B.C. and a n o t h e r crew e x c a v a t e d t h e w e s t e r n h a l f a t a l a t e r d a t e . No t r a c e o f t h i s f e a t u r e was o b s e r v e d by t h e U.B.C. crew, however, f l o o r p l a n s i n d i c a t e t h e f e a t u r e l i k e l y e x t ended f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 10 cm e a s t w a r d s . T h i s e x p l a i n s why t h e e a s t e r n p r o v e n i e n c e o f t h e f e a t u r e i s 0- 100+ cm. The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s f e a t u r e were e x t r a p o l a t e d from a v a i l a b l e d a t a . T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r of t h e s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 17) U n i t 6, L e v e l 1-3; U n i t 32, L e v e l n/a Dimensions: 11 cm (N-S) x ? cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 43-54 cm S (EU 6 ) , 86-100 cm E (EU 6 ) ; ? cm S (EU 3 2 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 32) 18) U n i t 6, L e v e l 10-11; U n i t 23, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 29, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 11, L e v e l n/a n/a 10 cm 0-40 cm S (EU 6 ) , 0-15 cm E (EU 6 ) ; ?- 200 cm S (EU 2 3 ) , ? cm E (EU 2 3 ) ; ? cm S (EU 2 9 ) , ?-100 cm E (EU 2 9 ) ; ?-200 cm S (EU 11), ?-200 cm E (EU 11) T h i s d i s h - s h a p e d l e n s o f b u r n t s o i l c o n t a i n e d f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f l o o r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 19) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 32, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 6, L e v e l 11-14 135 cm (N-S) X ? (E-W) n/a 0-49 cm S (EU 16), 25-100 cm E (EU 1 6 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 32), 0-? cm E (EU 3 2 ) ; 14-100 cm S (EU 6 ) , 21-100 cm E (EU 6) Over 14 kg o f f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k was removed from t h i s f e a t u r e i n u n i t 6. T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r of the s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 20) U n i t 16, L e v e l 12; Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 14, L e v e l n/a 46 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) n/a 19-65 cm S (EU 16), 0-41 cm E (EU 1 6 ) ; cm S (EU 14), ?-200 cm E (EU 14) T h i s f e a t u r e was e n c i r c l e d by c o b b l e s and i s l o c a t e d on t h e f l o o r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 21) U n i t 16, L e v e l 9-10, Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : cm U n i t 15, L e v e l 9 n/a n/a ? cm S (EU 16), ?-200 cm E (EU 1 6 ) ; S (EU 15), 0-? cm E (EU 15) T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r of th e s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 22) U n i t 15, L e v e l 4 Dim e n s i o n s : 15 cm (N-S) x 35 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 35-50 cm S, 10-45 cm E 23) U n i t 15, L e v e l 4 Dimensions: 10 cm (N-S) x 15 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 15-25 cm S, 60-75 cm E 24) U n i t 15, L e v e l 8-10, Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 9, L e v e l 6-10 46 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) n/a 51-97 cm S (EU 15), 61-100 cm E (EU 1 5 ) ; ? cm S (EU 9 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 9) I n u n i t 15 t h i s f e a t u r e i s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f b u r n t s o i l s u r r o u n d e d by g r a y a s h . T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n the main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 25) U n i t 9, L e v e l 3-5 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 32 cm (N-S) X 55 cm (E-W) n/a 42-74 cm S, 45-100 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e e a s t e r n (baulk) w a l l . 26) U n i t 27, L e v e l 3-4, Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 37, L e v e l n/a 22 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) 11 cm 75-97 cm S (EU 2 7 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 2 7 ) ; ? cm S (EU 3 7 ) , ?-80 cm E (EU 37) T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r of th e s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 27) U n i t 20, L e v e l 5-8 U n i t 7, L e v e l n/a Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 16, L e v e l 8-9; U n i t 32, L e v e l n/a; n/a 25 cm 0-42 cm S (EU 2 0 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 2 0 ) ; 0- 20 cm S (EU 16), 184-200 cm E (EU 1 6 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 3 2 ) , ?-100 cm E (EU 3 2 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 7 ) , ?-100 cm S (EU 7) T h i s f e a t u r e i s a p o c k e t o f b u r n t s o i l capped by a mound of t h i c k c h a r c o a l . T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r of the s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 28) U n i t 36, L e v e l 4-8, Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 11, L e v e l n/a; T r e n c h 5, L e v e l n/a n/a 32 cm 60-160 cm N (EU 36), 3-100 cm E (EU 3 6 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 11), ? cm E (EU 1 1 ) ; 0-? cm S (Trench 5 ) , ? cm E (Trench 5) T h i s f e a t u r e i s a c u r v e d p i t / h e a r t h c o n t a i n i n g l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f c h a r c o a l and b u r n t s o i l . 29) U n i t 33, L e v e l 11 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 70 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) n/a 80-150 cm S, 0-47 cm E C a l c i n e d bone was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s f e a t u r e w h i c h c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e w e s t e r n (baulk) w a l l . T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r o f t h e s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 30) U n i t 35, L e v e l 8 ; Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 34, L e v e l n/a ? cm (N-S) X 68 cm n/a 0-38 cm S (EU 3 5 ) , ?-200 cm S (EU 34) [E-W) 64-132 cm E (EU 3 5 ) ; ? cm E (EU 34) T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r o f the s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 31) U n i t 22, L e v e l 4-5; Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 37, L e v e l n/a 18 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) n/a 75-93 cm S (EU 22), 0-13 cm E (EU 22); cm S (EU 3 7 ) , ?-80 cm E (EU 37) T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r t h e s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . of 32) U n i t 22, L e v e l 3-4, Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 37, L e v e l n/a 33 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) n/a 21-54 cm S (EU 2 2 ) , 0-48 cm E (EU 2 2 ) ; ? cm S (EU 37), ?-80 cm E (EU 37) T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r of the s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . 33) T r e n c h 1, L e v e l 5-9 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : 70 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) 3 6 cm 90-160 cm S, 0-? cm E Trench 1, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 37, L e v e l n/a Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 57 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) 12 cm 159-216 cm S (Trench 1 ) ; ? 37) T h i s f e a t u r e was d i s h - s h a p e d . T r e n c h 1 ) , ?-60 cm E cm S (EU 3 7 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 35) U n i t 4, L e v e l 9-10, Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 30, L e v e l n/a 7 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) n/a 50-57 cm S (EU 4 ) , 0-12 cm E (EU 4 ) , cm S (EU 30), ?-100 cm E (EU 30) Fragments o f c a l c i n e d bone and f i r e c r a c k e d r o c k were o b s e r v e d i n t h i s f e a t u r e . 36) U n i t 25, L e v e l 3-4, Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 10, L e v e l n/a 16 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) n/a 19-35 cm S (EU 25), 89-100 cm E (EU 2 5 ) ; ? cm S (EU 10) , 0-? cm E (EU 10) T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e f l o o r o f the s t r u c t u r e u n c o v e r e d i n t h e main e x c a v a t i o n a r e a . C h a r c o a l C o n c e n t r a t i o n s 1) U n i t n/a. L e v e l n/a Dimensions: n/a Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 5.7m west from t h e u n i t 10 datum; 5-15 cm d.b.s. Comments: A sample of c h a r c o a l f rom t h i s f e a t u r e p r o v i d e d a d a t e of 4590 ± 70 BP (WSU- 4328) f o r t h e b u l l d o z e d s u r f a c e o f t h e H a t z i c Rock s i t e . 2) U n i t 1, L e v e l 7; U n i t 25, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 10, L e v e l n/a Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : n/a 3 cm 0-? cm S (EU 1 ) , 68-100 cm E (EU 1 ) ; ?- 100 cm S (EU 2 5 ) , ?-100 cm E (EU 2 5 ) ; ? cm S (EU 10), 0-? cm E (EU 10) T h i s f e a t u r e i s a t h i n c h a r c o a l l e n s w h i c h c o n t a i n s c a l c i n e d bone f r a g m e n t s . 3) U n i t 10, L e v e l 8 Di m e n s i o n s : 67 cm (N-S) x 38 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 108-175 cm S, 18-56 cm E Comments : F i r e c r a c k e d r o c k was p r e s e n t i n t h i s f e a t u r e . 4) U n i t 6, L e v e l 3-5; U n i t 29, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 32, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 16, L e v e l 2,3; U n i t 14, L e v e l 3-5; U n i t 13, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 4, L e v e l 2-3; U n i t 30, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 20, L e v e l 2-3; U n i t 7, L e v e l n/a Di m e n s i o n s : n/a Maximum T h i c k n e s s : 24 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 15-100 cm S (EU 6 ) , 0-100 cm E (EU 6 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 29), ? cm E (EU 2 9 ) ; ? cm S (EU 3 2 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 3 2 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 16), 0-200 cm E (EU 1 6 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 1 4 ) , 0-100+ cm E (EU 1 4 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 1 3 ) , ? cm E (EU 1 3 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 4 ) , 0-100 cm E (EU 4 ) ; ?-100 cm S (EU 30), ? cm E (EU 3 0 ) ; 0-100 cm S (EU 20), 0-? cm E (EU 2 0 ) ; ? cm S (EU 7 ) , 0- ? cm E (EU 7) Comments : T h i s f e a t u r e i s a t h i n c h a r c o a l l e n s w h i c h s l o p e s t h r o u g h much o f u n i t 6 from n o r t h t o s o u t h . U n i t 6 l e v e l s were d e t e r m i n e d by e x t r a p o l a t i n g d a t a from p h o t o g r a p h s . The u n i t 14 (E-W) p r o v e n i e n c e i s 0-100+ cm E because only- h a l f of t h e n o r t h w a l l p r o f i l e was r e c o r d e d , however, t h e f e a t u r e c l e a r l y c o n t i n u e s . The u n i t 4 l e v e l s may be out by as much as 2 0 cm due t o po o r r e c o r d s . T h i s f e a t u r e s l o p e s from west t o e a s t (10 cm o v e r 1 m) i n t h e s o u t h w a l l p r o f i l e o f u n i t 4. I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e c o r d s f o r t h i s f e a t u r e a r e v e r y poor. 5) U n i t 10, L e v e l 5 Dim e n s i o n s : 14 cm (N-S) x 12 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 113-127 cm S, 26-38 cm E U n i t 10, L e v e l 3 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : 33 cm (N-S) X 34 cm (E-W) 3 cm 5-38 cm S, 115-149 cm E The p r o v e n i e n c e o f t h i s f e a t u r e i s s l i g h t l y skewed as t h e c a r b o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n was p a r t o f a complex f e a t u r e w h i c h i n c l u d e d an a n v i l s t o n e , s u p p o r t s t o n e s , and s e v e r a l l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s . P r o v e n i e n c e was r e c o r d e d f o r th e e n t i r e f e a t u r e b u t not i n d i v i d u a l components such as t h i s l e n s . The p r o v e n i e n c e c o o r d i n a t e s u s e d f o r t h i s l e n s a r e from t h e co m p o s i t e f e a t u r e . A r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e o f 4930 ± 70 BP (WSU- 4327) was o b t a i n e d f rom c h a r c o a l i n t h i s f e a t u r e . 7) U n i t 31, L e v e l 7-8; U n i t 24, L e v e l n/a Dimensions: ? cm (N-S) x 45 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 56-100 cm S (EU 31), 27-72 cm E (EU 3 1 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 24 ) , ? cm E (EU 24) U n i t 5, L e v e l 1 Dim e n s i o n s : 30 cm (N-S) x 8 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 20-50 cm S (EU 5 ) , 21-29 cm E (EU 5) 9) U n i t 3, L e v e l 7; U n i t 10, L e v e l n/a Dim e n s i o n s : ? cm (N-S) x 21 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-45 cm S (EU 3 ) , 58-79 cm E (EU 3 ) ; ?- 200 cm S (EU 1 0 ) , ? cm E (EU 10) 10) U n i t 30, L e v e l 16 Di m e n s i o n s : 8 cm (N-S) x 27 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 66-74 cm S, 38-65 cm E 5; 11) U n i t 30, L e v e l Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 3, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 10, L e v e l n/a n/a n/a 0-30 cm S (EU 3 0 ) , 0-50 cm E (EU 3 0 ) ; 0- ? S (EU 3 ) , ?-100 cm E (EU 3 ) ; ?-200 cm S (EU 10), ? cm E (EU 10) T h i s f e a t u r e was not r e c o r d e d i n f i e l d n o t e s b u t was o b s e r v e d i n a p h o t o g r a p h . The p r o v e n i e n c e o f t h i s f e a t u r e , i n u n i t 30, were e x t r a p o l a t e d from t h e ph o t o g r a p h . 12) U n i t 14, L e v e l 2-4 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : ? cm (N-S) X 137 cm (E-W) 24 cm ?-200 cm S, 53-190 cm E C a l c i n e d f i s h bone fragments were o b s e r v e d i n t h i s f e a t u r e w h i c h e x t e n d s i n t o t h e s o u t h e r n (baulk) w a l l . 13) U n i t 4, L e v e l 11-12 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : ? U n i t 29, L e v e l n/a 41 cm (N-S) X ? cm (E-W) 5 cm 47-88 cm S (EU 4 ) , ?-100 cm E (EU 4 ) ; ? cm S (EU 29), 0-? cm E (EU 29) P r o v e n i e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s f e a t u r e was e x t r a p o l a t e d from a p h o t o g r a p h o f th e e a s t w a l l o f u n i t 4. The f e a t u r e i s a d i s h - s h a p e d band o f c h a r c o a l w i t h as much as 20 cm o f orange m a t r i x above. Whether t h e orange m a t r i x i s r e l a t e d i s not c l e a r . 14) U n i t 4, L e v e l 13-14 U n i t 30, L e v e l n/a Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : U n i t 11, L e v e l n/a. U n i t 10, L e v e l n/a; n/a 17 cm 0-? cm S (EU 4 ) , 0-17 cm E (EU 4 ) ; ?-200 cm S (EU 11), 0-? cm E (EU 1 1 ) ; ?-200 cm S (EU 10), ?-200 cm E (EU 1 0 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 30 ) , ?-100 cm E (EU 30) 15) U n i t 16, L e v e l 11 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : 22 cm (N-S) X 13 cm (E-W) n/a 126-148 cm S, 32-45 cm E 16) U n i t 16, L e v e l 11 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : 16 cm (N-S) X 32 cm (E-W) n/a 36-52 cm S, 64-96 cm E 17) U n i t 9, L e v e l 8 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : 12 cm (N-S) X 12 cm (E-W) n/a 42-54 cm S, 14-24 cm E 18) U n i t 9, L e v e l 7-8 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : ? cm (N-S) X 30 cm (E-W) n/a 0-8 cm S, 14-44 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e i s a c a r b o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n around a c l u s t e r o f c o b b l e s . The f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e n o r t h e r n (baulk) w a l l . 19) U n i t 9, L e v e l 8 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : 10 cm (N-S) X 22 cm (E-W) n/a 79-89 cm S, 5-27 cm E 20) U n i t 9, L e v e l n/a Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : 6 cm (N-S) X 22 cm (E-W) n/a 74-80 cm S, 36-58 cm E 21) U n i t 8, L e v e l 2-3 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : ? cm (N-S) X 43 cm (E-W) 7 cm 0-10 cm S, 30-73 cm E T h i s t h i n c a r b o n l e n s e x t e n d s i n t o t h e n o r t h e r n (baulk) w a l l . 22) U n i t 8, L e v e l 8-9 Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : ? cm (N-S) X 13 cm (E-W) n/a 0-10 cm S, 68-81 cm E The f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e n o r t h e r n (baulk) w a l l . 23) U n i t 36, L e v e l 2 Dim e n s i o n s : 10 cm (N-S) x 13 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 64-74 cm N, 61-74 cm E 24) U n i t 36, L e v e l 7-8 Dime n s i o n s : n/a Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-33 cm N, ?-160 cm E 25) U n i t 33, L e v e l 13 Dime n s i o n s : 20 cm (N-S) x 40 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : 6 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 120-140 cm S, 63-103 cm E 26) U n i t 37, L e v e l n/a; Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 27, L e v e l 5-6 n/a 8 cm 320-400 cm S (EU 37), 0-80 cm E (EU 3 7 ) ; 59-100 cm S (EU 2 7 ) , 0-? cm E (EU 27) T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e w e s t e r n (baulk) w a l l o f u n i t 3 7 and t h e s o u t h e r n (baulk) w a l l s of b o t h e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s . 27) U n i t 17, L e v e l n/a; U n i t 7, L e v e l n/a Dimensions: ? cm (N-S) x 46 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : 7 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : ?-100 cm S (EU 17), 24-70 cm E (EU 1 7 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 7 ) , ? cm E (EU 7) 28) U n i t 27, L e v e l 4-5; Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : U n i t 38, L e v e l n/a 50 cm (N-S) X ? cm n/a 25-75 cm S (EU 2 7 ) , ? cm S (EU 38), 0-? (E-W) 60-100 cm E (EU 2 7 ) ; cm E (EU 38) 29) Trench 1, L e v e l 1-2 Dimensions: ? cm (N-S) x 17 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : 10 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-? cm S, 39-56 cm E Comments: T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e n o r t h e r n (baulk) w a l l . 30) Trench 1, L e v e l n/a Dimensions : n/a Maximum T h i c k n e s s : 5 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 340-400 cm S, 0-? cm E Comments: T h i s t h i n c h a r c o a l l e n s c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e s o u t h e r n and w e s t e r n (baulk) w a l l s . 31) Trench 4, L e v e l n/a Dimensions: n/a Maximum T h i c k n e s s : 47 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-? cm S, 0-210 cm E Comments: A l o n g t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t r e n c h 4 t h i s f e a t u r e i s a c a r b o n l e n s 5 cm t h i c k . From 120-210 cm E t h e s i z e o f t h e f e a t u r e e x p l o d e s t o a maximum t h i c k n e s s of 4 7 cm. The t h i n l e n s may r e p r e s e n t t h e d i s p e r s a l of b u r n t m a t e r i a l from the n u c l e u s o f t h i s f e a t u r e . C a l c i n e d bone fragments were o b s e r v e d . 32) Tr e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : n/a 5 cm 0-? cm S, 0-60 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e i s a d i s h - s h a p e d c h a r c o a l l e n s w h i c h c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n (baulk) w a l l s . 33) Tr e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Dime n s i o n s : ? cm (N-S) x 17 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : 8 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-? cm S, 250-267 cm E Comments : T h i s f e a t u r e e x t e n d s i n t o t h e n o r t h e r n (baulk) w a l l and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e o f 8980 ± 90 BP (Beta - 46707) . 34) Tr e n c h 4, L e v e l n/a Dime n s i o n s : ? cm (N-S) x 117 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : 22 cm P r o v e n i e n c e : 0-? cm S, 343-460 cm E Comments : T h i s f e a t u r e extends i n t o t h e n o r t h e r n (baulk) w a l l and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e of 4530 ± 120 BP (Beta- 47260) . 35) Trench 4, L e v e l n/a Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : n/a 10 cm 0-? cm N, 0-40 cm E T h i s f e a t u r e c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e w e s t e r n and s o u t h e r n (baulk) w a l l s . 36) U n i t 22, L e v e l 2-4; Dimensions : Maximum T h i c k n e s s : P r o v e n i e n c e : Comments : U n i t 37, L e v e l n/a 2 0 cm (N-S) X ? cm 21 cm 19-39 cm S (EU 22), cm S (EU 37) , ?-80 T h i s f e a t u r e i s an c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e (E-W) 0-? cm E (EU 2 2 ) ; ? cm E (EU 37) ash p o c k e t w h i c h w e s t e r n (baulk) w a l l . 37) U n i t 24, L e v e l 3; U n i t 5, L e v e l n/a Dime n s i o n s : ? cm (N-S) x 22 cm (E-W) Maximum T h i c k n e s s : n/a P r o v e n i e n c e : 94-100 cm S (EU 24), 60-88 cm E (EU 2 4 ) ; 0-? cm S (EU 5 ) , ? cm E (EU 5)

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