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The subsistence economy of the Locarno Beach culture (3300-2400 B.P.) 1985

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THE SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY OF THE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE (3300 - 2400 B.P.) by Sheryl Kay S t i e f e l B.A., Pitzer College (Claremont, CA), 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia) We accept this thesis as conforming to tkie /^effluirecL standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA <s? , A p r i l , 1985 Sheryl Kay S t i e f e l , 1985 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1 Y 3 Date: January 1985 Page i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h a n a l y s i n g v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a (mammals, b i r d s , and f i s h ) from the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e (3300-2400 B.P.) of the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a area i n sout h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e i s to r e c o n s t r u c t s i t e l e v e l v e r t e b r a t e e x p l o i t a t i v e p a t t e r n s f o r the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e components at the Locarno Beach (DhRt 6 ) , Whalen Farm (DfRs 3 ) , and Musqueam NE (DhRt 4) s i t e s . Q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e f a u n a l a n a l y t i c methods are employed to e v a l u a t e f a u n a l data from each component. Data a r e a l s o e v a l u a t e d by s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y and p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s . The r e s u l t s o f the f a u n a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e t h a t Locarno Beach c u l t u r e p o p u l a t i o n s e x p l o i t e d mainly r i v e r i n e and f o r e s h o r e r e s o u r c e s . Salmon i s the major v e r t e b r a t e r e s o u r c e , f o l l o w e d by l a n d mammals (deer and e l k ) and w a t e r f o w l ( m a i n l y d i v i n g s p e c i e s ) . I n t e n s i v e h e r r i n g , f l a t f i s h , and waterfowl e x p l o i t a t i o n took plac e at two s i t e s (DhRt 6 and DfRs 3), probably i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s h e l l f i s h h a r v e s t i n g d u r i n g the l a t e w i n t e r t h r o u g h e a r l y s p r i n g (February to A p r i l ) . DhRt 6 was a l s o occupied d u r i n g the s p r i n g t o e a r l y summer ( A p r i l t o June) f o r s u r f smelt procurement. The t h i r d s i t e (DhRt 4) was occupied from l a t e w i n t e r t h r o u g h the summer and may have been a major Page i i i encampment f o r F r a s e r R i v e r salmon procurement. DhRt 4 a l s o s h a r e s many a t t r i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h M a r p o l e and L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e v i l l a g e s i t e s . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e economy i s p a r t of t h e N o r t h w e s t Coast p a t t e r n . The Locarno Beach c u l t u r e i s a development from the S t . Mungo c u l t u r e (4300 - 3300 B.P.) w i t h g r e a t e r emphasis on r i v e r i n e r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y salmon. Locarno Beach c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e fauna d a t a i n d i c a t e a range of s i t e t y p e s , i n c l u d i n g s e a s o n a l r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n s i t e s , salmon f i s h i n g s i t e s , and p o s s i b l y a w i n t e r v i l l a g e s i t e . S i m i l a r t o M a r p o l e (2400-1600 B.P.) and L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c (1600-1100 B.P.) c u l t u r e s , Locarno Beach c u l t u r e p o p u l a t i o n s o f t h e F r a s e r D e l t a e x p l o i t e d a g g r e g a t e d r e s o u r c e s ( e . g . h e r r i n g , f l a t f i s h , w a t e r f o w l , and s h e l l f i s h ) a t s e a s o n a l l y o c c u p i e d camps d u r i n g the l a t e w i n t e r t o e a r l y s p r i n g . The pr i m a r y summer s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t y was salmon p r o c u r e m e n t . P r e l i m i n a r y e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t F r a s e r R i v e r s o c k e y e s a l m o n r u n s ( l a t e summer t o f a l l ) were i n t e n s i v e l y e x p l o i t e d w i t h f i s h i n g n e t s n e a r DhRt 4. P r o l o n g e d o c c u p a t i o n a t DhRt 4 d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s s i t e was a w i n t e r v i l l a g e , as w e l l as a f i s h i n g s i t e . Page i v TABLE OP CONTENTS Ab s t r a c t i i L i s t of F i g u r e s i x L i s t of Tables x i Acknowledgements xv Chapter 1 : INTRODUCTION AND THE PROBLEM 1 Chapter 2 : THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 1 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1 The S e t t i n g 1 1 Climate 1 3 Landforms 14 E v o l u t i o n of the Landforms 1 7 F l o r a 2 0 V e r t e b r a t e Fauna of the F r a s e r D e l t a 2 2 Mammals 2 5 B i r d s 3 1 F i s h * » 1 S i t e R e c o n s t r u c t i o n s 49 DhRt 6 49 DfRs 3 5 1 DhRt 4 5 2 Summary 5 3 Chapter 3 : THE SAMPLE: BORDEN'S ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE 5 6 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5 6 Table of Contents (continued) Page v Locarno Beach S i t e , DhRt 6 57 L o c a t i o n 57 E x c a v a t i o n Methodology . . . . 59 S t r a t i g r a p h y 62 C u l t u r a l Zones 64 Whalen Farm S i t e , Df Rs 3 65 L o c a t i o n 65 E x c a v a t i o n Methodology 67 S t r a t i g r a p h y 72 C u l t u r a l Zones 76 Musqueam NE S i t e , DhRt 4 77 L o c a t i o n 77 E x c a v a t i o n Methodology 79 S t r a t i g r a p h y 8 l C u l t u r a l Zones 82 V e r i f i c a t i o n of an A s s o c i a t i o n with the Locarno Beach C u l t u r e 85 DhRt 6 86 Df Rs 3 89 DhRt 4 90 C o n c l u s i o n s 92 Chapter 4 : METHODS AND RESULTS: THE LOCARNO BEACH SUBSISTENCE PATTERN 93 I n t r o d u c t i o n 93 Methods of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 94 T a b l e of Contents ( c o n t i n u e d ) Page v i Methods o f Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n 9 9 DhRt 6 Assemblage 103 DfRs 3 Assemblage 103 DhRt 4 Assemblage 104 R e s u l t s 104 The V e r t e b r a t e Fauna Sample 104 Mammal Remains 106 DhRt 6 106 Df Rs 3 1°9 DhRt 4 I l l Summary of Mammal Remains 113 B i r d Remains 116 DhRt 6 118 Df Rs 3 121 DhRt 4 . 124 Summary of B i r d Remains 126 F i s h Remains 134 DhRt 6 137 Df Rs 3 I 2 * 2 DhRt 4 147 Summary of F i s h Remains 152 Season of E x p l o i t a t i o n 158 Mammals 158 B i r d s 158 F i s h 162 Table of Contents (continued) Page v i i Locarno Beach c u l t u r e s e a s o n a l t i t y . . . . 1 6 5 H a b i t a t E x p l o i t a t i o n 1 6 9 Mammals 1 6 9 DhRt 6 1 7 1 Df Rs 3 1 7 1 DhRt 4 1 7 2 B i r d s 1 7 2 DhRt 6 1 7 3 Df Rs 3 1 7 3 DhRt 4 1 7 3 F i s h 1 7 4 DhRt 6 1 7 4 Df Rs 3 1 7 6 DhRt 4 1 7 6 Locarno Beach c u l t u r e h a b i t a t e x p l o i t a t i v e p a t t e r n s . . . . . 1 7 7 Chapter 5 : THE NATURE OF THE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE SUBSISTENCE PATTERN AND ITS PLACE IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA SEQUENCE . 1 7 9 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 7 9 Hypothesis 1 8 0 A Comparison of S t . Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole C u l t u r e V e r t e b r a t e Subsistence Patterns . . . . 1 8 6 R e s u l t s 1 8 7 Mammals 1 8 8 T a b l e o f Con t e n t s ( c o n t i n u e d ) Page v i i i B i r d s 1 9 2 F i s h 1 9 6 D i s c u s s i o n 2 0 1 Summary 204 Chapter 6 : SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 207 B i b l i o g r a p h y 2 1 6 Appendices 229 L i s t of F i g u r e s Page i x Figure 1.1: D i s t r i b u t i o n of Locarno Beach C u l t u r e Components ( a f t e r Ham 1 9 8 2 : 8 5 ) 2 Figure 1 . 2 : L o c a t i o n of s i t e s with Locarno Beach C u l t u r e components t h a t are sampled i n t h i s study 6 Figure 2 . 1 : The F r a s e r D e l t a area of the G u l f of Georgia r e g i o n ( a f t e r C a l v e r t 1 9 7 0 : 5 6 ) 12 Figure 2 . 2 : Landforms of the F r a s e r D e l t a , ca. 1850 ( a f t e r Ward 1 9 8 0 : 9 , North and Teversham n.d.) and l o c a t i o n of Locarno Beach, Whalen Farm, and Musqueam NE s i t e s 15 Figure 2 . 3 : Hypothesized e v o l u t i o n of the F r a s e r D e l t a : 1 0 0 0 0 B.P., 5 0 0 0 B.P., and Today (Bunyan 1 9 7 8 : 2 1 ) 18 Figure 3 - 1 : L o c a t i o n of Locarno Beach s i t e , DhRt 6 , (shaded area) a c c o r d i n g to Ham ( 1 9 7 9 : 3 ) and Borden ( 1 9 4 8 ) 58 Figure 3 . 2 : View of Trench 1 at DhRt 6 , Looking n o r t h , both the wheelbarrow ramp (foreground) and the p r i n c i p a l t o o l f o r e x c a v a t i n g , a s h o v e l , can be seen 60 Figure 3 . 3 : West face w a l l p r o f i l e , Trench 1 at DhRt 6 . 6 3 Figure 3-**: L o c a t i o n of the Whalen Farm S i t e , DfRs 3 , and O t h e r Boundary Bay s i t e s 66 Figure 3.5: Whalen Farm, DfRs 3 Boundary Bay, Wash. 1949 ( a f t e r A r c h a e o l o g y Lab Map, U.B.C.) 68 Figure 3.6: View West to East of Large Midden at Whalen Farm S i t e (DfRs 3 ) 69 Figure 3.7: W i l s o n D u f f and s t r a t a s q u a r e 73 Figure 3.8: West W a l l P r o f i l e a t DfRs 3 74 Figure 3.9: L o c a t i o n of Musqueam NE, DhRt 4 ( a f t e r Borden 1 9 7 6 : 2 3 6 ) 78 L i s t of F i g u r e s (continued) Page x F i g u r e 3-10: D i s t r i b u t i o n of excavated p i t s at DhRt 4 (Borden and A r c h e r 1 9 7 5 : 6 2 ) 8 0 F i g u r e 3-Ha: Musqueam NE (DhRt 4 ) S t r a t i g r a p h y 8 2 a F i g u r e 3 - l i b : Musqueam NE (DhRt 4 ) S t r a t i g r a p h y 8 2 b Fi g u r e 4.1: Flowchart of Laboratory Procedures f o r Faunal I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 9 6 Fi g u r e 4.2: Age C a t e g o r i e s f o r C l a s s i f y i n g Mammal Remains ( a f t e r C a l v e r t 1 9 8 0 : 1 4 3 ) 9 8 Fi g u r e 4.3: Age Ca t e g o r i e s f o r C l a s s i f y i n g B i r d Remains ( a f t e r S u t t o n 1 9 7 9 : 3 3 7 ) 9 8 Fi g u r e 4.4: Most F r e q u e n t l y O c c u r r i n g F i s h Bone Elements, L o c a r n o Beach S i t e (DhRt 6 ) 1 4 1 F i g u r e 4.5: Most Frequently O c c u r r i n g F i s h Bone Elements, Whalen Farm S i t e (DfRs 3 ) 1 4 6 Fi g u r e 4.6: Most F r e q u e n t l y O c c u r r i n g F i s h Bone Elements, Musqueam NE S i t e (DhRt 4 ) 1 4 9 L i s t of Tables Page x i Table 1.1: Summary of Known C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of S t . Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole S i t e s 4 Table 2 . 1 : P r e f e r r e d H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s of Mammals i n the F r a s e r D e l t a A r e a 26 Table 2.2: Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y of Mammal Fauna i n the F r a s e r D e l t a A r e a 27 Table 2.3: Types of Waterfowl i n the F r a s e r D e l t a Area 32 Table 2.4: P r e f e r r e d H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s f o r Avifauna i n the F r a s e r D e l t a 33 Table 2.5: Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y C a t e g o r i e s of Avifauna i n the F r a s e r D e l t a A r e a 34 Table 2 . 6 : P r e f e r r e d H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s f o r F i s h i n the F r a s e r D e l t a A r e a 42 Table 2.7: Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y f o r F i s h i n the F r a s e r D e l t a A r e a 43 Table 3 . 1 : D i s t r i b u t i o n of M i t c h e l l ' s ( 1 9 7 1 : 5 7 ) Locarno Beach d i a g n o s t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s f o r sampled areas of three Locarno Beach C u l t u r e components 87 Table 3-2: D i s t r i b u t i o n of M i t c h e l l ' s ( 1 9 7 1 : 5 2 - 5 3 ) Marpole d i a g n o s t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s f o r sampled areas of t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach u n i t s 88 Table 3.3: D i s t r i b u t i o n of C a l v e r t ' s ( 1 9 7 0 : 7 4 ) S t . Mungo d i a g n o s t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s f o r sampled areas of three Locarno Beach C u l t u r e components . . . 88 Table 4 . 1 : D i s t r i b u t i o n of V e r t e b r a t e Remains by V e r t e b r a t e C l a s s , A l l Assemblages, E 105 Table 4.2: Presence-Absence Data For Mammal Remains, A l l A s s e m b l a g e s 107 Table 4.3: I d e n t i f i e d Mammal Remains from Locarno Beach S i t e , DhRt 6 108 L i s t of Tables (continued) Page x i i Table 4.4: I d e n t i f i e d Mammal Remains from Whalen Farm S i t e , DfRs 3 110 Table 4.5: I d e n t i f i e d Mammal Remains from Musqueam NE S i t e , DhRt 4 112 Table 4.6: Bone Frequencies E of Marine and Land Mammal Remains, A l l Assemblages 115 Table 4.7: MNI Values of Marine and Land Mammal Remains, A l l A s s e m b l a g e s 115 Table 4.8: Presence-Absence of I d e n t i f i e d B i r d S p e c i e s , A l l A s s e m b l a g e s 117 Table 4.9: I d e n t i f i e d B i r d Remains, Locarno Beach S i t e (DhRt 6 ) 119 Table 4.10: D i s t r i b u t i o n of B i r d Bone Types, Locarno Beach S i t e (DhRt 6 ) 120 Table 4.11: I d e n t i f i e d B i r d Remains, Whalen Farm S i t e ( D f R s 3 ) 122 Table 4.12: D i s t r i b u t i o n of B i r d Bone Types, Whalen Farm S i t e ( DfRs 3 ) 124 Table 4.13: I d e n t i f i e d B i r d Remains, Musqueam NE S i t e (DhRt 4 ) 125 Table 4.14: D i s t r i b u t i o n of B i r d Bone Types, Musqueam NE S i t e (DhRt 4 ) 127 Table 4.15: Frequency Data f o r Waterfowl and Upland Fowl, A l l A s s e m b l a g e s 129 Table 4.16: MNI Data f o r Waterfowl and Upland Fowl A l l A s s e m b l a g e s 129 Table 4.17: Frequency Data For D i v i n g B i r d and Su r f a c e - F e e d i n g B i r d Remains, A l l Assemblages . . . . 130 Table 4.18: MNI Data f o r of D i v i n g B i r d and Surface- F e e d i n g B i r d Remains, A l l Assemblages . . . . 130 Table 4.19: D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bone Type f o r A l l B i r d Remains, A l l Assemblages . 132 L i s t o f T a b l e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) Page x i i i Table 4 . 2 0 : D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Bone Types f o r D i v i n g and S u r f a c e - f e e d i n g W a t e r f o w l , A l l Assemblages . . 132 Table 4 . 2 1 : D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bone Types f o r A l l B i r d s a t DhRt 6 and Df Rs 3 133 Table 4 . 2 2 : Presence o f F i s h Remains, A l l Assemblages 135 Table 4 . 2 3 : Frequency of Salmon w i t h and w i t h o u t S m a l l F i s h 136 Table 4.24: I d e n t i f i e d F i s h Remains, Locarno Beach S i t e ( D h R t 6 ) 138 Table 4 . 2 5 : D i s t r i b u t i o n of F i s h Bone Types, Locarno Beach S i t e ( D h R t 6 ) 139 Table 4 . 2 6 : I d e n t i f i e d F i s h Remains, Whalen Farm S i t e ( D f Rs 3 ) 143 Table 4 . 2 7 : D i s t r i b u t i o n of F i s h Bone Types, Whalen Farm S i t e ( D f Rs 3 ) 145 Table 4 . 2 8 : I d e n t i f i e d F i s h Remains, Musqueam NE S i t e ( D h R t 4 ) . 148 Table 4 . 2 9 : D i s t r i b u t i o n of F i s h Bone Types, Musqueam NE S i t e ( D h R t 4 ) 151 Table 4 . 3 0 : Comparison of Salmon and Other F i s h Remains ( E x c l u d i n g S m a l l F i s h S p e c i e s ) , A l l Assemblages, E 154 Table 4 . 3 1 : Presence-Absence of Non-Adult Mammal Fauna, A l l A s s e m b l a g e s 159 Table 4 . 3 2 : S e a s o n a l i t y of A v i f a u n a , A l l Assemblages, MNI 161 Table 4 . 3 3 : S e a s o n a l i t y of F i s h Fauna, A l l Assemblages, E 163 Table 4 . 3 4 : Presence-Absence of Seasons f o r Locarno Beach C u l t u r e V e r t e b r a t e Fauna, A l l Assemblages . . . 166 Table 4 . 3 5 : Mammal H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s , A l l Assemblages, MNI 170 L i s t of Tables (continued) Page x i v Table 4 . 3 6 : Avifauna H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s , A l l Assemblages, MNI 170 Table 4 . 3 7 : P i s h H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s , A l l Assemblages, E 175 Table 5 . 1 : Presence-Absence of Mammal i n S t . Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components from F r a s e r D e l t a S i t e s 189 Table 5 . 2 : Comparison of Land and Aquatic Mammal Remains i n S t . Mungo, Locarno Beach and Marpole Componants, E 189 Table 5 . 3 : Seasons Represented i n Mammal Assemblages Based on Presence-Absence of Known Age, S t . Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole C u l t u r e s 191 Table 5 . 4 : Presence-Absence of B i r d i n S t . Mungo, Locarno, and Marpole Components from F r a s e r D e l t a S i t e s 193 Table 5 - 5 : Comparison of Waterfowl and Upland Fowl i n S t . Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components from F r a s e r D e l t a S i t e s , E 194 Table 5 - 6 : Comparison of D i v i n g Waterfowl and Sur f a c e - f e e d i n g Waterfowl i n S t . Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components f o r F r a s e r D e l t a S i t e s , E^ . 194 Table 5 * 7 : Presence - Absence Data f o r F i s h i n S t . Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components from F r a s e r D e l t a S i t e s 197 Table 5 - 8 : I d e n t i f i e d F i s h Remains f o r S t . Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Assemblages from F r a s e r D e l t a S i t e s , E 198 Page xv Acknowledgements T h r o u g h o u t my r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C., a number o f s t u d e n t s , f r i e n d s , and f a c u l t y encouraged and supported my r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s . These i n d i v i d u a l s deserve r e c o g n i t i o n a t t h i s time. Anne U n d e r h i l l , Marty Magne, Deanna Ludowicz, E v e l y n Legare, C h r i s Hanks, Len Ham, S h e l i a Greaves, Gary Coupland, and B i l l Boyd are way up on the totem p o l e , which i n c l u d e s o t h e r g raduate s t u d e n t s . S u p p o r t i v e s t a f f and f a c u l t y i n c l u d e Moira I r v i n e , who drew the s i t e p r o f i l e s f o r t h i s t h e s i s , and P r o f e s s o r s Douglas S u t t o n , Lyn P i n k e r t o n , Mike Kew, and N e i l Guppy. For t h e i r u n r e l e n t i n g guidance, p a t i e n c e , and i n s p i r i n g comments, a deep note of g r a t i t u d e i s e x t e n d e d t o my t h e s i s committee o f R.G. Matson ( s u p e r v i s o r ) , David P o k o t y l o , and Gay F r e d e r i c k . P r o f e s s o r R.G. Matson o r i g i n a l l y g u i d e d me to my t h e s i s t o p i c and proved a s t i m u l a t i n g mentor throughout the time i t took me to complete the r e s e a r c h . My a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h P r o f e s s o r s S h e r y l M i l l e r ( P i t z e r C o l l e g e ) and D a n i e l G u t h r i e (The J o i n t S c i e n c e Center) of the Clarernont C o l l e g e s had a major e f f e c t on me d u r i n g my f o r m a t i v e c o l l e g e s t u d i e s . Both i n t r o d u c e d and d i r e c t e d me i n t o t h e f i e l d o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a r c h a e o l o g y and p r e h i s t o r i c s u b s i s t e n c e s t u d i e s . S t u d y i n g Northwest Coast a n t h r o p o l o g y would not have been complete without my surrogate Vancouver Family and good Page xvi friends the Zbars and Goldsteins. To them, saying "thank you" i s truely not enough. My entire family has always e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supported and encouraged me as I have pursued my s t u d i e s . I am e s p e c i a l l y indebted to my parents, G i l and R i t a Cooperman, and my husband, Mark, fo r t h e i r love. This thesis i s dedicated to my grandfather, Samuel Zimmerman, who taught me to ask questions and to always stand up to a challenge. 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND THE PROBLEM This study i s an a n a l y s i s of v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l remains from t h r e e Locarno Beach c u l t u r e components, each from a d i f f e r e n t s i t e i n the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a area. Locarno Beach c u l t u r e ( c a . 3300-2400 B.P.) components have a s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n spread throughout most of the s o u t h e r n G u l f o f G e o r g i a r e g i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and no r t h w e s t e r n Washington s t a t e (see F i g u r e 1 . 1 ) . However, l i t t l e i s known about the s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s o f the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e due to the incomplete documentation of both f a u n a l and a r t i f a c t u a l d a t a . D e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r f a u n a l remains and a r t i f a c t types was not r e p o r t e d i n d e t a i l f o r Locarno Beach c u l t u r e components at Locarno Beach and the Whalen Farm s i t e s (Borden 1 9 5 0 b ) where t h i s c u l t u r e was f i r s t r e c o g n i z e d . F a u n a l t y p e s a r e l i s t e d f o r components a t D i o n i s i o P o i n t ( M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 1 a ) , Montague Harbour ( M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 1 b ) , Musqueam NE (Borden and Arch e r 1 9 7 5 , Borden 1 9 7 6 ) , Georgeson Bay (Haggarty and Sendy 1 9 7 6 ) , and Bowker Creek ( M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 9 ) s i t e s . However, many of Page 2 Figure 1.1: Distribution of Locarno Beach Culture Components (after Ham 1982:85). 1 DhRt 6 Locarno Beach 2270 - 2450 B.P. 2 DhRt 4 Musqueam NE 2250 - 2970 B.P. 3 DhRq 21 Pitt River 2630 - 2960 B.P. 4 DhRr 6 Belcarra Park 1710 B.P. rejected 5 DfRs 3 Whalen Farm 2450 B.P. 6 DgRs 1 Beach Grove 2810 - 3200 B.P. 7* DgRr 1 Crescent Beach 2350 - 3150 B.P. 8* 45WH48 Simonarson 3495 B.P. 9 * 45WH17 Semiahmoo Spit no dj stes 10* 45WH9 Birch Bay 3125 B.P. 11* 45WH74 Blackwood Add, no dates 12* 45WH1 Cherry Point Quick's Pond 2630 B.P. 13 DcRu 38 no dates 14 DcRt 10 Willow's Beach 2490 - 2630 B.P. 15 DcRt 13 Bowker Creek 2740 - 2910 B.P. 16 DfRu 23 Georgeson Bay 2820 B.P. 17 DfRu 13 Montague Harbour 2890 - 3160 B.P. 18 DcRt 2 Pender Canal 2200 B.P. 19* DgRv 3 Dionisio Point 2450 B.P. 20 45Ca213 Hoko River 3000 B.P. * poorly documented or questionable Locarno Beach culture components. Page 3 the i d e n t i f i e d Locarno Beach components i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1 . 1 remain poorly reported. The o v e r a l l lack of quantified faunal and a r t i f a c t u a l data for the Locarno Beach culture has impeded i n t e r s i t e comparisons and consequently has s e r i o u s l y hampered the re c o n s t r u c t i o n of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence patterns. The Locarno Beach, culture i s temporally intermediate to the St. Mungo ( 4 3 0 0 - 3 3 0 0 B.P.) and Marpole (2400-1200 B.P.) c u l t u r e s i n Gulf of Georgia p r e h i s t o r y . The c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between these three successive coastal culture types i s unclear (Table 1 . 1 ) . There are questions as to whether the Locarno Beach culture subsistence pattern was an i n s i t u Northwest Coast development from St. Mungo (as suggested by M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 1 b , Burley 1 9 7 9 , and at times Borden 1 9 6 8 ) or whether i t was a marine mammal hunting economy introduced by "Eskimoid" migrations from the north (Borden 1 9 5 1:46 - 4 9 , Suttles 1 9 5 2 , Drucker 1 9 5 5 ) . While some Northwest Coast p r e h i s t o r i a n s agree that a maritime adaptation c h a r a c t e r i z e s the Locarno Beach subsistence economy, there i s disagreement on the kind of maritime adaptation or what maritime adaptation means (Borden 1 9 7 5 ; Burley 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 0 ; Matson 1 9 7 6 b , 1 9 8 l a ; Schalk 1 9 7 7 ; Suttles 1 9 7 9 ) . The present study i s designed to con t r i b u t e to our knowledge of Locarno Beach culture subsistence patterns and Page 4 Table 1.1: Summary of Known Characteristics of St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Cultures. Date Archaeological Culture Type 2400 B.P. Marpole 3300 B.P. Locarno Beach 4300 B.P. St. Mungo Social Structure Ascribed rank (Matson 1981a:85) Elaborate antler art (Ham 1982:88) ground stone art 1982:88) wear 1982:91) deformation Residence Large plankhouse dwellings (Burley 1980:29) Winter villages (Ham 1982:305) Sedentariness (Ham 1982:365) no documented evidence Pecked (Ham Labret (Ham Cranial (Ham 1982:91) Flexed and cairn burials (Ham 1982:91) Burials with grave goods (Ham 1982:91) At least high ranking males (Beattie 1980:194) Use of labrets, burials (Beattie 1980:190,206) Burials with grave goods (Mitchell 1971b:57) (Haggarty and Sendy 1976: 18, 66) Cranial deformation (Ham 1982:86) Carved wooden objects (Ham 1982:87) Basketry (Borden 1976:235) (Croes 1975) (Borden and Archer 1975) Gulf Island complex artifacts (Duff 1956) (Ham 1982:86) (Mitchell 1971b:57) Evidence too sparse to Year-round site utilization indicate established ranking (Matson 1981a:83) Possibly cairn burial (Ham 1982:81) Subsistence Economy Developed Preservation and storage technology (Burley 1980:70) Night-time winter shellfish gathering (Ham 1982:304) Specialized procurement technology for salmon (Burley 1980:71-72) Specialized camps for herring and shellfish (Matson et. al 1981:95-96) Root crop harvesting (Patenaude 1981) Possibly specialized shellfish and herring harvesting camps (Ham 1982:366) Root crop harvesting (Patenaude 1981) Possibly the beginning of specialized shellfishing, fishing, and hunting (Matson 1981a:83) Page 5 i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e a r l i e r and l a t e r c u l t u r e s . The main o b j e c t i v e i s the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s i t e l e v e l v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s f o r Locarno Beach c u l t u r e components a t th e L o c a r n o B e a c h (DhRt 6), Whalen Farm ( D f R s 3), and Musqueam NE (DhRt 4) s i t e s i n the F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a o f the G u l f of G e o r g i a r e g i o n ( F i g u r e 1.2). I d e a l l y a study o f the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e s u b s i s t e n c e economy s h o u l d i n c l u d e an a n a l y s i s o f s h e l l f i s h and f l o r a l r e m a i n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , l i m i t e d f u n d s and time p r e c l u d e d a t h o r o u g h a n a l y s i s o f s h e l l f i s h r e m a i n s ; f l o r a l samples were n ot c o l l e c t e d a t t h e time o f each e x c a v a t i o n . Thus, an a n a l y s i s of s h e l l f i s h and f l o r a a r e e x c l u d e d from t h i s s t u d y . S u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s a r e r e c o n s t r u c t e d by a q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e f a u n a l a n a l y s i s of a sample o f mammal, b i r d , and f i s h remains from each of the t h r e e s i t e s . T h i s s t u d y e v a l u a t e s t h r e e s p e c i f i c hypotheses about Locarno B e a c h c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e economy and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the S t . Mungo and Marpole c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s . The hypotheses a r e : 1. The L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a marine mammal h u n t i n g economy. 2. D u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e , s e a s o n a l i t y o f v e r t e b r a t e fauna s u g g e s t s year round s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n . Page 6 Figure 1 . 2 : Location of sites with Locarno Beach Culture components that are sampled in this study. Page 7 3 . D u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e , salmon i s the most abundant f i s h r e s o u r c e . H y p o t h e s i s 1 t e s t s the im p o r t a n c e of marine mammal h u n t i n g d u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e . E thnographers r e p o r t that many Coast S a l i s h groups hunted marine or "sea" mammals ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 2 , B a r n e t t 1 9 5 5 , Drucker 1 9 5 5 ) . In t h e s e r e p o r t s , marine mammal h u n t i n g f o c u s e s on the p r o c u r e m e n t o f C e t e c e a (e.g. w h a l e s , p o r p o i s e s , and d o l p h i n s ) and P i n n i p e d i a (e.g. s e a l s , s e a l i o n s , and w a l r u s e s ) . The aforementioned d e f i n i t i o n f o r marine mammal hunting i s used i n t h i s study. By c l a r i f y i n g the r o l e of marine mammal hunting d u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e , the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e marine mammal e x p l o i t a t i v e p a t t e r n can be compared to t h a t o f the S t . Mungo and M a r p o l e c u l t u r e s . I f the L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e does not have s i g n i f i c a n t l y more marine mammals, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t i t i s t h e r e s u l t o f a m i g r a t i o n o f " E s k l m o i d " s e a mammal h u n t e r s , as s u g g e s t e d by B o r d e n ( 1 9 5 D , S u t t l e s ( 1 9 5 2 ) , and Drucker ( 1 9 5 5 ). I f i n f a c t i t does have a r e l a t i v e abundance of marine mammals, i t c o u l d p o s s i b l y be the r e s u l t of such a m i g r a t i o n . The s e a s o n a l i t y of s i t e s w i t h Locarno Beach components i s t e s t e d i n Hypothesis 2 . I f the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e i s an i n s i t u Northwest Coast development, one would expect i t s Page 8 s e a s o n a l i t y t o resemble e i t h e r the p r e c e e d i n g S t . Mungo c u l t u r e o r t h e s u c c e e d i n g M a r p o l e c u l t u r e , or have a t t r i b u t e s of both c u l t u r e s . Thus f a r , a f a u n a l a n a l y s i s of the S t . Mungo component a t the G l e n r o s e Cannery s i t e (DgRr 6) i n d i c a t e s that s i t e occupation occurred "at v a r y i n g s e a s o n s o f t h e y e a r r a t h e r t h a n y e a r r o u n d " ( M a t s o n 1 9 7 6 a : 3 0 0 ) . T h i s i s i n agreement w i t h Ham (1982:358-360) who hypothesizes that s p e c i a l i z e d seasonal procurement s i t e s i n the Gu l f of Georgia r e g i o n may go back to 5000 years B.P. At t h i s time, a c o n s e r v a t i v e approach would be to compare s e a s o n a l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n from the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e to the S t . Mungo and M a r p o l e c u l t u r e s to check where t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e s i t e s e a s o n a l i t y f i t s i n t o the Northwest Coast p a t t e r n . For H y p o t h e s i s 3 , i f Marpole i s salmon o r i e n t e d , as M i t c h e l l (1971a) , B u r l e y (1980) , and Matson ( 1 9 8 l a , 198lb) suggest, and i f salmon and the Northwest Coast p a t t e r n are l i n k e d as Matson (1976b, 1 9 8 l a , 1 9 8 l b ) , and B u r l e y (1980) argue, the importance of salmon i n the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e may t e s t t h i s i d e a . I f the r e l a t i v e abundance of salmon i s i n t e r m e d i a t e between S t . Mungo and M a r p o l e , t h i s would support the iri s i t u h y p o t h e s i s . T h i s study d i f f e r s In two ways from p r e v i o u s attempts to r e c o n s t r u c t the Locarno Beach s u b s i s t e n c e economy: (1) t h i s i s the f i r s t s ystematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n of f a u n a l remains Page 9 f r o m L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e c o m p o n e n t s a n d ( 2 ) t h e f a u n a l a n a l y s i s o f L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e m a t e r i a l i s c o m p a r e d t o d a t a f o r S t . Mungo and M a r p o l e a s s e m b l a g e s l o c a t e d i n t h e d e l t a . C h a p t e r 2 r e v i e w s t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . P r e s e n t a n d p a s t e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f r e l e v a n t c l i m a t o l o g y , g e o m o r p h o l o g y , f l o r a , a n d f a u n a . F a u n a l b e h a v i o u r i s d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f h a b i t a t a n d s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y . C h a p t e r 3 d i s c u s s e s t h e s a m p l e u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . A r e v i e w o f B o r d e n ' s e x c a v a t i o n s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e t h r e e s i t e s i s p r e s e n t e d . S i t e l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , e x c a v a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y , a n d a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g B o r d e n ' s d e l i n e a t i o n s o f s t r a t i g r a p h y a n d c u l t u r a l z o n e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t e a c h s i t e a r e d e s c r i b e d . A L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e a s s o c i a t i o n f o r e a c h s i t e ' s d e l i n e a t e d c o m p o n e n t i s v e r i f i e d t h r o u g h a c o m p a r i s o n o f a r t i f a c t a s s e m b l a g e s f r o m e a c h c o m p o n e n t w i t h L o c a r n o B e a c h , S t . M u n g o , a n d M a r p o l e c u l t u r e d i a g n o s t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . C h a p t e r 4 o u t l i n e s t h e m e t h o d s u s e d t o i d e n t i f y a n d q u a n t i f y t h e f a u n a l r e m a i n s , d e s c r i b e s t h e f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e s , a n d i d e n t i f i e s t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s . C o m p a r i s o n s a r e made among f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e s i n t e r m s o f h a b i t a t s e l e c t i o n and s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y . Page 10 C h a p t e r 5 c o m p a r e s t h e r e s u l t s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l a n a l y s i s t o k n o w n d a t a f o r S t . M u n g o a n d M a r p o l e c o m p o n e n t s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e o f f e r e d f o r o b s e r v e d s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s . C h a p t e r 6 e v a l u a t e s t h i s s t u d y i n v i e w o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t p r e h i s t o r y t o d a t e . Chapter 2 THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r reviews the p h y s i c a l environment of the study a r e a . Past and p r e s e n t environments of the F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f c l i m a t o l o g y , geornorphol ogy, f l o r a , and i m p o r t a n t p r e h i s t o r i c f a u n a . F a u n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d by p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t l o c a t i o n and seasonal a v a i l a b i l i t y . The S e t t i n g The F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a i s l o c a t e d i n s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and northwestern Washington ( F i g u r e 2.1). The area f a l l s w i t h i n the Gulf of Georgia r e g i o n , which has been d e s c r i b e d by M i t c h e l l ( 1 9 7 1 b : 2 - l 8 ) and B u r l e y (1980:2-4). Page 12 Figure 2.1: The Fraser Delta area of the Gulf of Georgia region (after Calvert 1970:56). Page 13 Climate The c l i m a t e of the a r e a i s a Csb Koeppen Mediterranean Type ( M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 1 b : 7 , Hoos and Packman 1 9 7 4 : 3 0 ) . I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by wet w i n t e r s and r e l a t i v e l y dry summers. A c t i v e w e a t h e r f r o n t s p r e v a i l from the s o u t h w e s t and s o u t h e a s t d u r i n g t h e f a l l , w i n t e r , and s p r i n g s e a s o n s ; northwest winds occur throughout the year but mainly d u r i n g the summer months ( M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 1 b : 1 1 ) . E v i d e n c e f o r a p o s t - P l e i s t o c e n e warming p e r i o d , or h y p s i t h e r m a l i n t e r v a l , ca. 8 5 0 0 - 3 0 0 0 B.P. dominated e a r l y p a l y n o l o g i c a l work f o r southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia (Hanson 1 9 4 7 , Heusser I 9 6 0 , 1 9 6 6 ) . However, Mathewes and Rouse ( 1 9 7 5 ) observed no evidence of a hvpsithermal i n t e r v a l a f t e r the Mazama ash f a l l ( c a . 6 6 0 0 B.P.) i n the F r a s e r Canyon a r e a and suggest t h a t the c l i m a t e of the c o a s t a l a r e a has remained r e l a t i v e l y unchanged from 6 6 0 0 B.P. to the p r e s e n t . Page 14 Landforms A f t e r Ward (1980), t h e r e are f o u r prominent landforms In the F r a s e r D e l t a area: ( 1 ) uplands, ( 2 ) f l o o d p l a i n s , ( 3 ) o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s , and (4) d e l t a f r o n t s (Figure 2 . 2 ) . The uplands are the h i g h e r l a n d areas of the r e g i o n . They i n c l u d e the B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a , as w e l l as the Surrey, Tswassasan, and P o i n t Roberts areas. At the t e r m i n a t i o n of the l a s t g l a c i a l p e r i o d i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia ca. 1 1 , 0 0 0 B.P., these areas were exposed (Hebda 1 9 7 7 : 5 , Ham 1 9 8 2 : 1 7 ) . The f l o o d p l a i n s border the F r a s e r R i v e r and form the bulk of the s u r f a c e area i n the r e g i o n (Ward 1 9 8 0 : 8 ) . P r i o r to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of dykes, a l a y e r of sandy to c l a y e y sediment was d e p o s i t e d over the f l o o d p l a i n as the F r a s e r ' s floodwaters rose d u r i n g winter high t i d e s (December) and the s p r i n g t o summer snow melt (Ward 1 9 8 0 : 8 ) . T h i s p r o c e s s c o n t r i b u t e d to the growth of the f l o o d p l a i n by adding up to 9 to 10 meters to i t each year. (Mathews and Shepard 1 9 6 2 , Borden 1 9 6 2 ) . Thus, the d i m ensions o f the f l o o d p l a i n changed c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g p r e h i s t o r y . Organic d e p o s i t s i n the area are peat bogs of s l o w l y decomposing o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l , which accumulated "when the top of the F r a s e r D e l t a was b u i l t h i g h enough above sea l e v e l to a v o i d r e g u l a r f l o o d i n g by the r i v e r and sea (Clague e t . a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 0 ). Burns Bog, a d j a c e n t to the S u r r e y Page 15 Figure 2.2: Landforms of the Fraser Delta, ca. 1850 (after Ward 1980:9, North and Teversham n.d.) and location of Locarno Beach, Whalen Farm, and Musqueam NE sites. LANDFORMS OF THE DELTA KEY: P f H A F R O N T TkUfla** F I O O O M A I N O H O A N I C D I P O S I T S ( • O O ) U P L A N D S 101m Page 16 Uplands and the Main Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r , r e t a i n s an important p a l y n o l o g i c a l r e c o r d a s s o c i a t e d with the formation of the d e l t a . Three p o l l e n cores from u n d i s t u r b e d areas of Burns Bog have been analysed by Hebda ( 1 9 7 7 ) and shed l i g h t on p r o c e s s e s of s e d i m e n t a t i o n , d e l t a growth, environmental change, and c h a n n e l d e v e l o p m e n t . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f Hebda's work on the past p h y s i c a l environment of the d e l t a are d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c hapter. The d e l t a f r o n t i s home to the m a j o r i t y of f i s h and w a t e r f o w l d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I t i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y composed o f two zones: the d e l t a f o r e s l o p e and the t i d a l f l a t s . Composed of m a i n l y f i n e sand and mud ( C l a g u e e t . a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 0 ), t h e d e l t a f o r e s l o p e i s p e r m a n e n t l y submerged. I t extends from the G u l f of Georgia marine b a s i n to the t i d a l f l a t s on the landward s i d e (200m to 100m) (Ward 1 9 8 0 : 8 ) . The t i d a l f l a t s i n c l u d e the mud and sand f l a t s o f the d e l t a (Clague e t . a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 0 ) . T h i s zone extends from the landward edge of the d e l t a f r o n t ( 1 0 0 m ) to the low t i d e mark. I t encompasses the d e l t a ' s marshlands, as w e l l as Spanish, Sturgeon, Roberts, and Boundary Banks. Page 17 E v o l u t i o n of the Landforms R e c e n t r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t the l o c a t i o n and d i m e n s i o n s of the f o u r prominent landforms of the F r a s e r D e l t a have changed r e l a t i v e t o the f o r m a t i o n of the d e l t a (Hebda 1 9 7 7 , Clague e t ^ a l 1983). Clague e_t^ a l ( 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 0 ) suggests t h a t the southwestern mainland coast of Canada was composed of numerous i n l e t s , bays, coves, and lakes when the g l a c i e r s r e t r e a t e d at 1 1 , 0 0 0 B.P. ( F i g u r e 2 . 3 ) . Due to the annual d e p o s i t i o n of sand, s i l t , and c l a y by the F r a s e r ' s f l o o d w a t e r s , the d e l t a ' s f l o o d p l a i n p r o g r a d e d westward (Clague e t . a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 3 ) . The a c c u m u l a t i o n of sediments has reduced the l e n g t h of the c o a s t l i n e d u r i n g p o s t - g l a c i a l times. The F r a s e r D e l t a has been emerging s i n c e at l e a s t 8 0 0 0 B.P. (ward 1 9 8 0 , Hebda 1 9 7 7 , Ham 1 9 7 3 ) . Evidence of wood ( 6 6 0 0 + 90 B.P., GSC - 2 7 1 4 ) found 3m below the sea f l o o r and 2km northwest of P o i n t Grey suggests that P o i n t Grey on the Burrard P e n i n s u l a protruded f a r t h e r out i n t o the Gulf of G e o r g i a i n the p a s t (Clague e t . a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 4 ) . Sediment from both the F r a s e r R i v e r and the e r o d i n g uplands of P o i n t Grey might have been c a r r i e d and d e p o s i t e d a l o n g the n o r t h s h o r e of the p e n i n s u l a , p o s s i b l y c r e a t i n g s h a l l o w water beaches and g r a s s l a n d s at Spanish Banks and J e r i c h o Beach i n more recent times (personal communication Ham, January 1 9 8 2 , H a r r i s 1 9 7 8 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e r e has n o t b e e n any Page 18 F i g u r e 2 . 3 : Hypothesized evolution of the Fraser Delta: 10000 B.P., 5000 B.P., and Today (Bunyan 1978:21). THE LOHER FRASER MD {', ^ *~\ •// ' I ; SOMAS GLACIER NEAR ^ „{ f S( ' 0 " \ \ END OF GLACIATION (,.'• Sd. \ S" jfl ( £ - w A ^ A R D I N L E r - v_; •.. 5 J £M — v . V ^ n " B U R N A B Y L - J / 1 . « / > S V B U R R A R D ; L A K E ^ ; 1 - ^ P E N I N S U L A , J Q , / IJ X. . I, , \ ' F R A S E R INLET I -J - . . \. J / S U R R E Y " ~ ! , PENINSULA j x , ^ \ . y <r NICOMfK(_ R <3 WILES 6 -WHITE ROCK ^^'t « t § 8 ROBERTS PENINSULA C> ', ISLAND "1 49«N "> * / \ . A • - / PITT THE FRASER DELTA _ < , i o < I \ / ' . - ' V L A K E AT 5000 BP S~ * ! v . . . - J ; / ' SIAv/E (V.. , L A K E ( BURNABY P V t , LAKE o , If' S E A '. - . . I I S L A N D uULU . SURREY ; _ _ / % \ I S L A N D — H I G H L A N D " 4>V~ ' - . ' f ^ ; ' " GLENROSE ^ \ , ° * * V IT L T A ,£•< ' J. ' % ' " ' ; ' l A N : V ^ " / ' " * i .> s fcl'BLRTS ' PCM!. ... A \ - ^ I S L A N D - 4 9 ° N " FRA />• DCLTA \ i , !' « ' L 6 K t Ti't'A • SEA T \ R ^ J' M - - PHT ''I'ARO ' !NU„T ^ - E1 <f r? 1 ' — x / B U R R A R b ^ BURNABY F ? ^ ' / ^ - ^ PENINSULA ^. LAKE O «^ • i t « f V - . » 11 : i S L A N D ^ / ~ t " ' .. ' ."•/ v . ' 11 ' r ~ LULU • J . - ' ' ISLAND _. • i KMS - -<Z*? D E L T A ^ , H / ~ ? ^ ^ M U D B A Y . ^ y ^ ' \ • ( . WHi l I I. I . W IK MIL E S 8 ( L BOUNDAR1 ' CAMF'«>V j \ BAY - ' • . 4 9 * N 1 < — ~ \POINT; ROBERTS ' ' Page 19 p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a w h i c h c o u l d s u p p o r t t h i s c l a i m . By 5000 B.P., enough sediment had s e t t l e d t o form L u l u I s l a n d and Burns Bog (Clague e t . a l 1983:1325) ( F i g u r e 2.3). Ham ( 1 9 7 3 : 1 1 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t Sea I s l a n d was a sand b a r , s i m i l a r t o Iona I s l a n d t o d a y . By 5000 B.P., t h e N o r t h and M i d d l e Arms of the r i v e r had formed (Ham 1973:11). How and when the s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the F r a s e r D e l t a d e v e l o p e d has been the s u b j e c t of study and d i s p u t e (Blunden 1975, Hebda 1 9 7 7 , C l a g u e e t . a l 1983). By a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5000 B.P., e x t e n s i v e t i d a l f l a t s emerged i n t h e e a s t e r n F r a s e r D e l t a , w h i c h i s now o c c u p i e d by o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s ( b o g s ) (Hebda 1977:15 5 - 1 7 0 ) . The F r a s e r E s t u a r y was d e v e l o p e d by t h e time o f the S t . Mungo c u l t u r e (4300-3300 B . P . ) . As t h e d e l t a p r o g r a d e d westward, the e s t u a r y grew, c h a n g i n g i n some a r e a s f r o m f r e s h w a t e r - b r a c k i s h marsh to s a l t marsh (Clague e t . a l 1983:1320, 1325). Hebda (197 7:170,172) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t by 4000 B.P. a submerged d e l t a f r o n t (-10m) reached the lower s l o p e s of. the P o i n t R o b e r t s Uplands, b l o c k i n g the F r a s e r R i v e r ' s f l o w i n t o B o u n d a r y B a y . H owever, a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e f r o m C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e (Ham 1982:17-18) and Beach Grove s i t e ( B a l l 1 9 7 9 : 4 9 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t f r e s h w a t e r c o n t i n u e d t o d i s c h a r g e i n t o Boundary Bay p o s s i b l y u n t i l 2500 B.P. J u s t how l o n g ago B o u n d a r y Bay was c u t o f f f r o m f r e s h w a t e r Page 20 f l o w i n g from the F r a s e r R i v e r w i l l remain i n q u e s t i o n u n t i l more p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l work i s done i n t h i s g e o l o g i c a l l y complex area. D e l t a p r o g r a d a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a t e r p r e h i s t o r i c and h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s (Clague e t . a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 3 , 1 3 2 5 ) . The only major change o c c u r r e d a f t e r 2 5 0 0 B.P. when the South Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r p e n e t r a t e d the G r e a t e r L u l u I s l a n d - D e l t a peat bog (Blunden 1 9 7 5 , Hebda 1 9 7 7 : 5 ) ( F i g u r e 2 . 3 ) . Thus, the s i z e o f the e s t u a r y and marshes i n c r e a s e d i n l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c times as a r e s u l t o f the d e p o s i t i o n of sediment c a r r i e d by the South Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r and a l s o the Nicomekl and S e r p e n t i n e R i v e r s near Crescent Beach. F l o r a The type of f l o r a i n the d e l t a has not changed f o r a t l e a s t 7 0 0 0 y e a r s B.P. However, the l o c a t i o n and e x t e n t of the communities has s h i f t e d w i t h the f o r m a t i o n of the d e l t a (Hebda 1 9 7 7 : 1 7 0 , 1 7 2 , Clague eU_ a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 0 ) . C o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s d ominated the u p l a n d a r e a s . A s u c c e s s i o n o f a l d e r ( A l n u s o r eg on a ) , D o u g l a s f i r (Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i ) , cedar (Thuja p l l c a t a ) , and hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y 1 1 a ) c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s community w i t h w i l l o w ( S a l i x s p . ) , berry bushes, and g r a s s ( D i g i t a r a sp.) Page 21 present i n w e l l drained areas near streams (Ham 1 9 7 3 : 5 , 7 ) . Two types of e s t u a r i n e marshes covered the f l o o d p l a i n and t i d a l f l a t s r e g i o n s o f the d e l t a . F r e s h w a t e r - b r a c k i s h marsh s p e c i e s dominated the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the d e l t a , i n f l u e n c e d by f r e s h w a t e r f l o w i n g from the F r a s e r R i v e r (Hebda 1 9 7 7 : 1 7 0 , C l a g u e e_t_̂  a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 0 ) . W i t h t h e d i v e r s i o n of the F r a s e r R i v e r by Sea I s l a n d and other sand ba r s , the r i v e r p r o b a b l y began to d e p o s i t a l l u v i u m i n the Musqueam area forming marshlands by approximately 4000 B.P. (Ham 1 9 7 3 : 1 3 ) . V e g e t a t i o n i n t h i s area might have i n c l u d e d t a l l , r e e d - l i k e p l a n t s such as c a t t a i l (Typha l a t i f o i l s ) , sedge (Carex v u l p i n o i d e a ) , and b u l r u s h ( S c r l p u s s p . ) . The second type of e s t u a r i n e f l o r a l community i s the s a l t m a r s h . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , when and e x a c t l y where s a l t m a r s h e s d e v e l o p e d i n the s o u t h e r n d e l t a a r e a i s not known. I t i s p o s s i b l e 'that they would have f i r s t p i o n e e r e d on the " e a s t e r n h a l f of Boundary Bay" between 5000 B.P. and 2 5 0 0 B.P. (Clague e t ^ a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 4 ) . U n l i k e f r e s h w a t e r - b r a c k i s h s p e c i e s , saltmarsh f l o r a appear l i k e a f l a t mat of t a n g l e d l e a v e s and i n c l u d e s a l t w o r t (Glaux mar i t i m a ) , s a l t g r a s s ( P i s t r c h l i s s p . ) , and arrowgrass ( T r i g l u c h i n s p . ) . E e l g r a s s ( Z o s t e r a s p . ) , which a t t r a c t s many v a r i e t i e s of f i s h i n c l u d i n g h e r r i n g , s t a r r y f l o u n d e r , staghorn s c u l p i n , would have been more abundant i n the s a l i n e environment o f the Boundary Bay area r a t h e r than at the mouth of the F r a s e r Page 22 River. S i m i l a r l y , eelgrass might have been present i n the Locarno Beach s i t e l o c a l i t y , influenced by the protected, shallow saltwater beaches on the southern shore of English Bay. However, this i s speculatory. Eelgrass i s not present at Locarno Beach today, and t h i s l o c a l i t y l a c k s any paleoecological documentation. A grassland environment may have existed at both the Jericho Beach and delta island-sand bar l o c a l i t i e s . Clover ( T r i f o l i u m s p . ) , dandelion (Taraxacum sp . ) , and grass (Digitara sp.) may have been the dominant v a r i e t i e s of f l o r a (Ham 1973:26, Figure 1 3 ) . Vertebrate Fauna of the Fraser Delta Area The s t a b i l i t y of the climate and f l o r a of the Fraser Delta suggests that the vertebrate fauna present in the study area have also remained r e l a t i v e l y unchanged for at le a s t 5000 years. Archaeological reports (Imamoto 1974, 1976; C a s t e e l 1976b; Matson 198la) i n d i c a t e that the mammals, birds, f i s h , and s h e l l f i s h of delta archaeological s i t e s dating to the St. Mungo culture are not too di f f e r e n t from those a v a i l a b l e i n the area today. However, as with the v e g e t a t i o n , the l o c a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r animal communities (e.g. s h e l l f i s h ) has al t e r e d with the gradual Page 23 formation of the d e l t a (Ham 1 9 7 6 , Grabert and Larson 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the n a t u r a l h i s t o r y of the p r e s e n t - d a y v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a i n the F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a . I n f o r m a t i o n i s d e r i v e d from a s y n t h e s i s of h i s t o r i c a l w i l d l i f e sources and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of h i s t o r i c a l data used i n p r e v i o u s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t s f o r the a r e a . In t u r n , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h e l p f u l i n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g Locarno Beach c u l t u r e h u n t i n g - f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The p r e s e n t study employs a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach formulated by C a l v e r t ( 1 9 8 0 ) , where mammals, b i r d s , and f i s h o f the F r a s e r D e l t a are c a t e g o r i z e d by two types of animal b e h a v i o u r s : p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t l o c a t i o n and seasonal a v a i l - a b i l i t y . For t h i s study, the f i r s t l i s t d e s c r i b e s the p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t l o c a t i o n of v e r t e b r a t e fauna. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l fauna by p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t l o c a t i o n i s used to r e c o n s t r u c t h a b i t a t s e l e c t i v i t y ( i . e . the extent to which animals a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r e n vironmental s e t t i n g s were e x p l o i t e d d u r i n g Locarno Beach t i m e s ) . Because non- sedentary animals are adapted to a range of h a b i t a t s , "the o p t i m a l h a b i t a t , and t h e r e f o r e , the o p t i m a l a r e a s f o r s p e c i e s g r o u p i n g s " are d e s c r i b e d f o r s p e c i e s of the F r a s e r D e l t a area ( C a l v e r t 1 9 8 0 : 2 0 ) . The fauna that are o p t i m a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n more than one h a b i t a t i n the r e g i o n a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s of the year (e.g. anadromous f i s h ) are Page 24 indicated. The second l i s t describes the time of the year species groupings most l i k e l y occur i n the Fraser D e l t a . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l fauna by s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y i s used to reconstruct the seasonality of each s i t e ' s Locarno Beach culture component. The advantage of using Calvert's q u a l i t a t i v e approach to habitat s e l e c t i v i t y and s i t e s e a s o n a l i t y i s that i t reduces d e t a i l e d information about s p e c i f i c present-day fauna into categories that are useful in detecting patterns in archaeofaunal data, especially in p r e h i s t o r i c procurement strategies. The disadvantage i s that i t uses information on faunal behaviour that was collected in h i s t o r i c times. Due to the recent e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and human c o l o n i z a t i o n on predator-prey r e l a t i o n s h i p s , h a b i t a t adaptability, and animal a v a i l a b i l i t y in the area, this type of w i l d l i f e information should be used cautiously since i t may be d i f f e r e n t than the p r e h i s t o r i c d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the fauna (Will 1982). Information to place species in habitat and seasonal a v a i l a b i l i t y categories for t h i s study was obtained from l i s t s of h i s t o r i c a l l y available fauna from Ham (1973, 1982), Boucher (1976), Cowan and Guiguet (1978), Gulguet (1971), and Carl (1971), Hart (1973), and Hoos and Packman (1974). The taxonomic names of the species are those used by Page 25 B a n f l e l d ( 1974 ) f o r mammals; Godfrey ( 1976 ) f o r b i r d s ; and Hart ( 1973 ) f o r f i s h . Mammals Twelve mammal s p e c i e s a r e p r e s e n t w i t h i n the F r a s e r D e l t a area and i n the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e f a u n a l remains. Appendix, Table A . l l i s t s t h e i r common and taxonomic names. Nine s p e c i e s are l a n d mammals, and three s p e c i e s are marine mammals. A l l are c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to f o u r h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s ( T a b l e 2 . 1 ) : O p e n / L i t t o r a l Water ( 1 ) ; R i v e r i n e ( 2 ) ; E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge ( 3 ) ; and F o r e s t ( 4 ) . S e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r t h e t w e l v e s p e c i e s i s c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ( T a b l e 2 . 2 ) : Year Round ( 1 ) ; Winter to S p r i n g ( 2 ) ; F a l l to S p r i n g ( 3 ) . A summary o f the n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and e t h n o g r a p h i c use by Coast S a l i s h of these twelve mammals f o l l o w s . Although harbour s e a l p r e f e r the o f f s h o r e waters of the f o r e s l o p e , they have been observed i n the r i v e r i n e waters a l o n g w i t h r i v e r o t t e r and beaver. Smith ( 1 9 0 7 : 2 6 6 ) and S u t t l e s ( 1 9 5 2 : 1 0 ) r e p o r t an annual c l u b b i n g or harpooning of s e a l at H a r r i s o n Lake and P i t t Lake, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n the summer, w h i l e the s e a l s w h elped. A r e s i d e n t group o f harbour s e a l ( 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 ) d w e l l i n Boundary Bay today. R i v e r o t t e r are m u s t e l i d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h waterways, beaches, and adjacent land areas of the d e l t a . They forage Page 26 Table 2.1: Preferred Habitat Categories of Mammals in the Fraser Delta Area. Species Category 1 2 3 Harbour Seal X River Otter X Beaver X Muskrat X Mink X Peromyscus X Striped Skunk X Raccoon X Canis X Black Bear X Deer X Elk X Total 1 2 6 Habitat Categories 1. Open Littoral Water: the open waters of the delta foreslope (200m-100m) to the estuarine areas, including the deeper waters of bays, inlets, and estuaries. 2. Riverine: the waters immediately influenced by the Fraser, Serpentine, and Nickomekl Rivers and their tributaries, including the estuaries, marshlands, floodplains, streams. 3. Littoral/Forest Edge: the intertidal areas and bogs immediately adjacent to and including the fringes of the forests. 4. Forest: the deciduous and coniferous forests and adjacent areas of open meadow. Page 27 Table 2.2: S e a s o n a l A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Mammal Fauna i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a A r e a . C a t e g o r y S p e c i e s Key: Season J F M A M J J A S O N D Deer B l a c k Bear C a n i s Raccoon S t r i p e d Skunk Peromyscus Mink M u s k r a t Beaver R i v e r o t t e r Harbour S e a l E l k V e r y Common Common - - - F r e q u e n t . . Rare Year round W i n t e r - S p r i n g S e a s o n a l A v a i l a b i l i t y C a t e g o r i e s 1. Year round i n r o u g h l y e q u a l abundance. 2. P r e s e n t y e a r round but more common i n t h e w i n t e r - s p r i n g months (December t h r o u g h May). L a t e F a l l - W i n t e r 3. O n l y p r e s e n t i n l a t e f a l l - s p r i n g months ( O c t o b e r t h r o u g h May). Page 28 d a i l y on s h e l l f i s h , but mainly feed on f i s h . Young r i v e r o t t e r s a re born i n e a r l y to m i d - s p r i n g (March to April)(Cowan and Guiguet 1978:331). Like the s e a l , the r i v e r otter was clubbed, netted, or harpooned as i t sought i t s preferred f i s h prey, salmon, trout, and herring. Beaver were abundant in the Fraser waterways preferring alder and bracken resources over hemlock and western cedar. Ham (1982:267) hypothesizes that they were also abundant i n the Nicomekl-Serpentine Valleys. The young are born between A p r i l and July (Cowan 1978:170). S t r a i t s S a l i s h hunted beaver with the bow and arrow and o c c a s i o n a l l y with a composite harpoon. Saanich hunters a l s o trapped beaver (Suttles 1951:96). Although not found in Locarno Beach culture samples i n t h i s study, Boehm (1973b:2-4) and Barnett (1955) state that northern sea l i o n ( Eumetopias jubata) are known to follow the salmon runs through the S t r a i t s and up the Fraser River during the spring and summer. In preparation f o r t h i s event, beginning i n March, Penelekut S a l i s h stationed a 24 hour watch to signal for the presence of sea l i o n herds that would traverse P o r l i e r Pass (Suttles 1952:11-12). Using composite harpoons, canoe p a r t i e s hunted sea l i o n i n the saltwater of the S t r a i t s and sometimes at the mouth of the Fraser (Suttles 1952:12). In contrast, harbour sea l , r i v e r o t t e r , and beaver were exploited in the freshwater of the Page 29 F r a s e r R i v e r or o t h e r s t r e a m s and c r e e k s i n the lower F r a s e r ' s drainage area. With the e x c e p t i o n of Peromyscus, s m a l l l a n d mammals (e.g. m u s k r a t , s t r i p e d skunk, r a c c o o n , and mink) a r e omnivorous animals t h a t d w e l l i n the L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t edge h a b i t a t . They s u b s i s t on a v a r i e t y o f p l a n t s , s e e d s , c r u s t a c e a n s , s h e l l f i s h , f i s h , b i r d s , and b i r d e g g s . Muskrat, s t r i p e d skunk, and ra c c o o n have m u l t i p l e b i r t h s each y e a r , whereas the mink b i r t h s i n May t h r o u g h June (Cowan and Guiguet 1 9 7 8 : 3 2 1 ) . A l l were t r a p p e d f o r t h e i r p e l t s , although raccoon was a l s o eaten ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 : 9 6 - 9 7 ) . Dogs were not eaten h i s t o r i c a l l y , but r a t h e r used as a s o u r c e o f wool f o r b l a n k e t s . Owned by one man, dogs a s s i s t e d i n h u n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s by c h a s i n g l a r g e game and bear or r e t r i e v i n g waterfowl ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 2 - 1 0 5 ) . There i s no r e c o r d o f the procurement of o t h e r C a n i s , such as coyote or wolf i n the F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a . However, because o f the d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between dog and coyote or w o l f w i t h t h i s s t u d y ' s bone s a m p l e s , a l l C a n i s i s considered f o r i t s d i e t a r y v a l u e . Deer a r e c o n f i n e d to the western s l o p e o f the c o a s t range where they f e e d p r i m a r i l y on do u g l a s f i r , western cedar, Oregon yew, t r a i l i n g b l a c k b e r r y , red hu c k l e b e r r y , and s a l a l . Some herds migrate to mountain tops or high v a l l e y s i n the summer and r e t u r n t o the lowlands i n the w i n t e r . Page 3 0 However, they are p r e s e n t i n ro u g h l y equal abundance year round i n the F r a s e r D e l t a (Cowan and Guiguet 1 9 7 8 : 3 6 6 - 3 6 9 ) . Young are born between May and June. E t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y , deer were hunted by an i n d i v i d u a l or i n groups u s i n g the bow and arrow, snare, or p i t f a l l . Male deer were e x p l o i t e d i n the s p r i n g and summer. T h e i r meat was smoked f o r a wint e r food s u p p l y . Female deer were hunted i n December f o r immediate use ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 : 8 2 - 8 3 ) . E l k , or w a p i t i , p r e f e r p a r k l a n d s where "clumps o f c o n i f e r s provide s h e l t e r and where groves of deciduous t r e e s i n t e r s p e r s e d with g r a s s l a n d provide food" (Cowan and Guiguet 1 9 7 8 : 3 5 8 ) . Most e l k herds move to h i g h a l t i t u d e s i n the summer and r e t u r n to the lowlands of the F r a s e r D e l t a i n the w i n t e r . Young a r e born i n l a t e May (Cowan and Guig u e t 1 9 7 8 : 3 5 8 , 3 6 1 - 3 6 2 ) . E l k h u n t i n g m a i n l y o c c u r r e d i n the w i n t e r when the herds were p r e s e n t i n the F r a s e r lowlands. E t h n o g r a p h i c procurement s t r a t e g i e s p a r a l l e l e d those f o r deer ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 : 9 1 - 9 2 ) . On the c o a s t , the omnivorous b l a c k bear p r e f e r s wooded a r e a s w i t h a c c e s s t o major b e r r y p a t c h e s . Bear eat a v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e s i n c l u d i n g f i s h a n d m a r i n e i n v e r t e b r a t e s , as w e l l as p l a n t s , b e r r i e s , i n s e c t s , grasses, and o t h e r s m a l l mammals. Young are born i n the w i n t e r den and weaned i n August. (Cowan 1 9 7 8 : 1 9 5 , 2 8 9 - 2 9 1 ) . Although economic a c t i v i t y i n t e n s i f i e d a f t e r c o n t a c t with the Hudson Page 31 Bay Company, the Saanich hunted bear, which sought the r i p e c r a b a p p l e , salmonberry, and h u c k l e b e r r y , between June and August. Bear were a l s o ambushed on salmon-spawning streams i n the autumn (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 6 0 ) . B i r d s Twenty-eight b i r d s p e c i e s are found w i t h i n the F r a s e r D e l t a and i n the L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e f a u n a l r e m a i n s . Appendix, Table A.2 l i s t s t h e i r common and taxonomic names. T w e n t y - t h r e e s p e c i e s a r e wat-erfowl w h i l e o n l y f i v e a r e upland b i r d s . Of the w a t e r f o w l , t h i r t e e n are d i v i n g b i r d s t h a t feed p r i m a r i l y on s m a l l f i s h , f i s h roe, and clams, and s i x s p e c i e s are s u r f a c e feeders that s u b s i s t mainly on seeds and a q u a t i c p l a n t s . F o u r s p e c i e s o f w a t e r f o w l a r e scavengers (Table 2 . 3 ) . A l l a v i f a u n a are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f o u r h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s (see Table 2 . 4 ) : L i t t o r a l / R i v e r i n e ( 1 ) ; S h e l t e r e d E s t u a r i n e Water ( 2 ) ; S t r a n d / L i t t o r a l I n t e r f a c e ( 3 ) ; and Mixed Woodland ( 4 ) . Seasonal a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r the 28 s p e c i e s i s c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e major c a t e g o r i e s (Table 2 . 5 ) : Year Round ( 1 ) ; Winter ( 2 ) ; S p r i n g / F a l l ( 3 ) . A b r i e f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y o f the d e l t a ' s a v i f a u n a f o l l o w s . The a r c t i c loon i s one of two species of loon that dwell i n the F r a s e r D e l t a d u r i n g the f a l l and w i n t e r . From O c t o b e r t h r o u g h A p r i l , i t d i v e s f o r m a i n l y p e r c h and Page 32 Table 2.3: Types of Waterfowl in the Fraser Delta Area. Diving Waterfowl 1. Common Loon 2 . A r t i e Loon 3 . Horned Grebe 4. Western Grebe 5. Double-crested Cormorant 6 . Greater Scaup 7. Bufflehead 8. Oldsquaw 9. White-winged Scoter 10 . Common Scoter 11. Common Merganser 1 2 . Common Murre 13 . Rhinocerous Auklet Surface Feeding Waterfowl (Dabblers) 1. Canada Goose 2 . Snow Goose 3 . Mallard 4. P i n t a i l 5. American Widgeon 6 . American Coot Scavengers 1. Great Blue Heron 2 . Glaucous-winged Gull 3 . Heerrnan's G u l l 4. Black Oystercatcher Page 33 Table 2 . 4 : Preferred Habitat Categories for Avifauna in the Fraser Delta. 1 2 3 4 Common Loon X Arctic Loon X Horned Grebe X Western Grebe X Double-crested Cormorant X Bufflehead X Greater Scaup X Oldsquaw X V/hite-winged Scoter X Common Scoter X Common Merganser X Common Murre X Rhinocerous Auklet X Canada Goose X Snow Goose X Mallard X Pintail X American Widgeon X American Coot X Great Blue Heron X Glaucous-winged Gull X Heerman's Gull X Black Oystercatcher X Bald Eagle X Northwestern Crow X Raven X Great-horned Owl X Ruffed Grouse X TOTAL 13 6 4 5 Habitat Categories 1. Littoral/Riverine: the open waters of the delta foreslope, including the bays, inlets, rivers and sloughs. 2 . Sheltered Estuarine Water: the estuarine areas of the delta, including the marshlands, tida l f l a t s , sand and mud flats, and bogs. 3. Strand/Littoral Interface: the beaches and adjacent l i t t o r a l waters. 4. Mixed Woodlands: the forest edge and forests of the uplands. Page 34 Table 2.5: Seasonal Availability Categories of Avifauna in the Fraser Delta Area. Category Type J F M A M J J A S O N D 1 Common Merganser Canada Goose Snow Goose Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Great Blue Heron Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Common Scoter American Coot Western Grebe Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Loon Horned Grebe Mallard Pintail American Widgeon 3 Arctic Loon Greater Scaup 4 Double-crested Cormorant Bufflehead Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet Black Oystercatcher KEY: = ===. Very Common Common - - - Frequent . . . Rare Year round Winter-Spring Spring/Fall Seasonal Avalability 1. Present year round in roughly equal abundance 2. Present year round but less common in the summer months. 3. Not present (for varying lengths of time) in the summer months. 4. Only present in late f a l l to very early spring. 5. Present year round but more abundant in the f a l l and spring. Page 35 h e r r i n g . The a r c t i c l o o n o c c a s i o n a l l y s h a r e s f e e d i n g grounds w i t h the common l o o n , however, the a r c t i c l o o n p r e f e r s o f f s h o r e r e e f s and c h a n n e l s ( A n g e l l and Balcomb 1982:16). The common l o o n a r r i v e s i n September and remains through May. Although o c c a s i o n a l l y summering i n the d e l t a , too, the common loon i s most abundant i n the s p r i n g . I t d i v e s f o r f l o u n d e r , h e r r i n g , s c u l p i n , p erch, shrimp, and crab i n both open and e s t u a r i n e waters ( A n g e l l and Balcomb 1982:20). A w i n t e r r e s i d e n t o f the d e l t a , the western grebe p r e f e r s bays and i n l e t s i n the d e l t a a r e a . I t moves nearshore to mudflats, bays, e s t u a r i e s , and shallow sloughs when f e e d i n g on h e r r i n g , s c u l p i n , perch, and smelt, as w e l l as some shrimp and crab ( A n g e l l and Balcomb 1982:22). As a September to May r e s i d e n t , the horned grebe div e s f o r i t s food i n open waters, s h e l t e r e d bays and e s t u a r i e s . I t e a t s s c u l p i n s , s t i c k l e b a c k s , p e r c h , and c r u s t a c e a n s ( A n g e l l and Balcomb 1982:20). The d o u b l e - c r e s t e d cormorant n e s t s on both s a l t and f r e s h water bays, as does the heron. As a yea r round r e s i d e n t , the d o u b l e - c r e s t e d cormorant predominately d i v e s f o r i t s f o o d t h a t i n c l u d e s s c u l p i n , p e r c h , c a r p , and s t i c k l e b a c k ( A n g e l l and Balcomb 1982:33-34). Page 3 6 The g r e a t e r scaup's m i g r a t i o n route along the e a s t e r n P a c i f i c rim b r i n g s i t to the F r a s e r D e l t a between October and March. Here, i t b u i l d s n e s t s on the ground and p r e f e r s deep s a l t w a t e r bays and e s t u a r i e s . The scaup d i e t i s a m i x t u r e of p l a n t and a n imal food i n c l u d i n g e e l g r a s s and h e r r i n g roe f o r which i t d i v e s (Guiguet 1 9 7 2 : 5 5 - 5 6 ; A n g e l l and Balcomb 1 9 8 2 : 4 5 ) . B u f f l e h e a d i s a small waterfowl that nests i n hollowed t r e e s or ground burrows. I t w i n t e r s i n the F r a s e r D e l t a f e e d i n g upon p r i m a r i l y c r u s t a c e a n s , mussel, and remains o f spawning salmon (Guiguet 1 9 7 1 : 5 9 - 6 1 ) . Oldsquaw i s a d i v i n g duck that summers i n the s u b a r c t i c t u n d r a . I t a r r i v e s i n the F r a s e r D e l t a i n October and departs i n l a t e March or e a r l y A p r i l . Oldsquaw's main d e l t a prey are s h e l l f i s h , c r u s t a c e a n s , and some f i s h f o r which i t d i v e s (Guiguet 1 9 7 1 : 6 3 ) . The white-winged s c o t e r m i g r a t e s to the area i n the w i n t e r and f e e d s i n s h e l t e r e d l o c a t i o n s . Crabs, clams, mussels, and h e r r i n g roe form a major p a r t of i t s d i e t while i n the d e l t a ( A n g e l l and Balcomb 1 9 8 2 : 4 8 ) . V a r i o u s l y r e f e r r e d to as the black or American s c o t e r , the common s c o t e r i s a d i v i n g duck that p r e f e r s f e e d i n g near o f f s h o r e c o a s t a l r e e f s d u r i n g i t s w i n t e r m i g r a t i o n to the a r e a . I t feeds on s h e l l f i s h and c r a b s , f a v o r i n g the blue mussel (Pough 1 9 5 1 : 1 1 4 ) . Page 37 L a r g e l y a f i s h - e a t i n g b i r d , the common merganser dwells i n the d e l t a t h r o u g h o u t the y e a r . W i n t e r p o p u l a t i o n s Increase i n s i z e due to the m i g r a t i o n of i n t e r i o r groups to the c o a s t . The merganser p r i m a r i l y d i v e s f o r i t s food that I n c l u d e s s m a l l f i s h , f i s h roe, and c r u s t a c e a n s (Guiguet 1 9 7 1 . The common murre i s a permanent r e s i d e n t a l o n g the c o a s t . P r e f e r r i n g the open waters of bays and r e e f h a b i t a t s , i t d i v e s f o r h e r r i n g , smelt, and some b o t t o m f i s h ( A n g e l l and Balcomb 1982:94). The r h i n o c e r o s a u k l e t i s common i n the d e l t a d u r i n g l a t e s p r i n g , summer, and f a l l . I t eats anchovy, h e r r i n g , and s m e l t i n a v a r i e t y of h a b i t a t s i n c l u d i n g b a y s , e s t u a r i e s , and r e e f s ( A n g e l l and Balcomb 1982:96). The Canada goose w i n t e r s a t the mouth of the F r a s e r R i v e r from October to A p r i l or May. I t i s a s u r f a c e f e e d i n g b i r d t h a t p r i m a r i l y eats marsh and marine p l a n t s of the F r a s e r ' s f o r e s h o r e area (Guiguet 1978a:15). Although there always seem to be non-breeding p o p u l a t i o n s i n the area, snow geese w i n t e r i n the F r a s e r D e l t a from October i n t o A p r i l ( A n g e l l and Balcomb 1982:39). T h e r e p r i n c i p a l f o o d r e s o u r c e s a g g r e g a t e i n the s a l t m a r s h , e s p e c i a l l y i n the e e l g r a s s community. The m a l l a r d i s a s u r f a c e f e e d i n g duck t h a t dwells i n the d e l t a throughout the year, a l t h o u g h summer p o p u l a t i o n s Page 38 are s m a l l e r that those of the w i n t e r . I t p r e f e r s p r o t e c t e d h a b i t a t s such as l a k e s and ponds where i t p r i m a r i l y e a t s a q u a t i c p l a n t s (Campbell e t . a l 1972:144). As a s u r f a c e f e e d i n g b i r d , the p i n t a i l e a t s m a i n l y a q u a t i c p l a n t s . I t f r e q u e n t s the F r a s e r D e l t a ' s p r o t e c t e d bays, m u d f l a t s , and beaches on i t s way to and from w i n t e r and summer r e s i d e n c e s , from January through A p r i l and August through October (Guiguet 1971:34). The American widgeon summers i n the B.C. I n t e r i o r and spends the f a l l and w i n t e r on the c o a s t . Being a s u r f a c e f e e d e r , the American widgeon m a i n l y e a t s v e g e t a l matter, i n c l u d i n g pond weeds, g r a s s e s , and sedges. While i n the d e l t a , i t f r e q u e n t l y feeds on marine a l g a e , e e l g r a s s and o c c a s i o n a l l y s h e l l f i s h (Guiguet 1971:143-144). The American coot i s a winter migrant to the d e l t a t h a t p r e f e r s g a t h e r i n g i n e s t u a r i e s and m u d f l a t s to f e e d on a q u a t i c p l a n t s ( A n g e l l and Balcomb 1982:60). The g r e a t blue heron i s a year round r e s i d e n t of the d e l t a . The heron i s "commonly seen f i s h i n g i n t i d a l pools and along the s h a l l o w t i d a l margins" (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 3 2 ) . Hoos and Packman (1974:66) r e p o r t the heron n e s t s i n d e n s e l y wooded areas adjacent to Crescent Beach and Beach Grove. I t feeds on perch, s c u l p i n , s t a r r y f l o u n d e r , and scavenges f i s h s t r a n d e d on the beach a f t e r low t i d e ( A n g e l l and Balcomb 1982:33). Page 3 9 The glaucous-winged g u l l i s a permanent resident of the delta and surrounding uplands. Minnows, herrings and crabs are i t s major food resources, as well as snatching the prey of d i v i n g birds such as cormorants, grebes and murres (Guiguet 1978b:6-8). Heerman's g u l l frequents the delta i n the spring and summer. I t l a r g e l y feeds on schools of herring and i s sympatric with salmon and d i v i n g birds that feed on the herring (Guiguet 1978b:24-25). An uncommon year round resident of the area i s the black oystercatcher. It prefers rocky shore habitats and eats primarily mussels, chitons, and limpets from I n t e r t i d a l areas. The bald eagle i s permanent resident which eats fresh and carrion animals. It frequents the a i r currents of the uplands from where i t spies prospective prey (Guiguet 1978d, Angell and Balcomb 1982:54-55). Ad d i t i o n a l year round residents of the area are the raven and the northwestern crow. Both frequent the uplands but scavenge the beaches and shores for a variety of plant and animal resources (Guiguet 1978c, Angell and Balcomb 1982:102). Great horned owl i s a migrant f a l l and winter resident of the d e l t a ' s timbered areas. Small mammals such as Peromyscus and s q u i r r e l make up a good part of i t s d i e t Page 40 (Jewett 1 9 5 3 : 3 5 0 - 3 5 1 ) . R u f f e d grouse Is a v a i l a b l e year round i n the upland a r e a s . I t feeds p r i m a r i l y on mixed and deciduous growth (Guiguet 1 9 7 1 : 1 4 - 1 5 ) . Due to the temperate c l i m a t e of the F r a s e r D e l t a , many non-breeding waterfowl remain i n the study area throughout the y e a r ( i . e . , they do not m i g r a t e w i t h the b r e e d i n g f l o c k s ) . Table 2 . 5 takes t h i s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by n o t i n g when the l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s p e c i e s r e s i d e i n the d e l t a . Thus, s e a s o n a l i t y c a t e g o r i e s of a v i f a u n a are based on when the l a r g e s t groups are most l i k e l y to occur i n the study area and not s o l e l y based on the presence or absence of s p e c i f i c s p e c i e s of b i r d s . E t h n o g r a p h i c b i r d p r o c u r e m e n t s t r a t e g i e s and u t i l i z a t i o n a r e r e p o r t e d by S u t t l e s ( 1 9 5 D and B a r n e t t ( 1 9 5 5 ) . Waterfowl were taken i n a v a r i e t y of ways. D i v i n g b i r d s were o b t a i n e d by submerged nets w i t h anchors and hand n e t t e d from canoes ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 : 7 2 - 7 4 , 7 8 ) . The Samish, Lummi, and S a a n i c h a l s o speared s l e e p i n g ducks a t n i g h t , u s i n g c o n t r o l l e d f i r e s i n canoes to f r i g h t e n s l e e p i n g ducks ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 : 7 5 , B a r n e t t 1 9 5 5 : 9 5 - 9 6 ) . Snares and rock throwing were not common ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 : 9 3 ) . Bows and arrows o c c a s i o n a l l y used i n the hunting of upland a v i f a u n a ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 : 8 1 ) . The abundance of ducks and duck h u n t i n g i n the w i n t e r r e s u l t e d i n down b e i n g g i v e n as g i f t s ( S u t t l e s Page 41 1951:80). Ham ( 1 9 8 2 : 2 6 1 ) h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c t e c h n o l o g i e s o f b i r d p r o c u r e m e n t may be r e p r e s e n t e d i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e s by two p a t t e r n s i n t h e d a t a : (1) a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l i n d i c a t e s the use of submerged n e t s , and (2) a r o u g h l y e q u a l f r e q u e n c y o f d i v i n g and s u r f a c e f e e d i n g w a t e r f o w l i n d i c a t e s the use of r a i s e d p o l e n e t s . P i s h T w e n t y - e i g h t f i s h s p e c i e s a r e f o u n d w i t h i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a and a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t h r e e L o c a r n o B e a c h a s s e m b l a g e s . A p p e n d i x , T a b l e A.3 l i s t s t h e i r common and taxonomic names. D e s p i t e some v e r t i c a l f l u c t u a t i o n s , these f a u n a a r e g r o u p e d i n t o t h r e e p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s ( T a b l e 2 . 6 ) : L i t t o r a l Water ( 1 ) ; T i d a l F l a t s ( 2 ) ; and R i v e r i n e ( 3 ) • Four s p e c i e s change t h e i r p r e f e r r e d or o p t i m a l h a b i t a t l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s of t h e y e a r : ( 1 ) p l a i n f i n m i d s h i p m a n , ( 2 ) s a l m o n , ( 3 ) s t u r g e o n , and (4) t r o u t . Four s p e c i e s — a n c h o v y , e u l a c h o n , p a c i f i c h e r r i n g and m i n n o w — a r e w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s t o spawn. W i t h t h e s e e x c e p t i o n s , most o f the f i s h a re i n t h e r e g i o n t h r o u g h o u t the y e a r i n r o u g h l y e q u a l abundance. T a b l e 2.7 d e s c r i b e s t h e s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y Page 42 Table 2.6: Preferred Habitat Categories for Fish in the Fraser Delta Area. , Category Species 1 2 Spiny Dogfish X(F) Ratfish X Northern Anchovy X(S) Pacific Hake X(W) Petrale Sole X Pacific Halibut X English Sole X(W) Rockfish X Lingcod X(SP) Pacific Cod X(SP) Walleye Pollack X(W, SP) Big Skate X Plainfin Midshipman X(W) X(SP) Pile Perch X Great Sculpin X(W) Buffalo Sculpin X(W) Staghorn Sculpin X(W) Sculpin X(W) Rock Sole X(W) Starry Flounder X(W) Flatfish X(W) Pacific Herring X(W) Surf Smelt X(SP) Salmon X(S) X(F) Sturgeon X(W) X(SP) Steelhead Trout X(S) X(W) Eulachon X(SP) Minnow X(SP) TOTAL 13 14 5 KEY: (W) = Winter; (SP) = Spring; (S) = Summer; (F) = Fall Habitat Categories 1. Lit t o r a l Water: the l i t t o r a l waters of bays, inlets, and the mouth of the Fraser River, extending from low tide to offshore waters that have fine sandy and sandy to clayey s i l t . 2. Tidal Flats: the estuarine mud and intertidal flats of fine to medium grain sand and mud including the saltmarshes and bogs. 3. Riverine: the river floodplains and freshwater-brackish areas, including sloughs. Page 43 T a b l e 2.7: S e a s o n a l A v a i l a b i l i t y f o r F i s h i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a A r e a . C a t e g o r y 1 4 5 6 7 Type R a t f i s h R o c k f i s h L i n g c o d B i g S k a t e S c u l p i n Rock S o l e Minnow S t u r g e o n S t a g h o r n S c u l p i n D o g f i s h P a c i f i c Hake W a l l e y e P o l l a c k P a c i f i c Cod S t a r r y F l o u n d e r F l a t f i s h S t i c k l e b a c k P e t r a l e S o l e P a c i f i c H a l i b u t E n g l i s h S o l e E u l a c h o n S u r f Smelt N o r t h e r n Anchovy T r o u t Salmon P a c i f i c H e r r i n g P l a i n f i n Midshipman P i l e P e r c h G r e a t S c u l p i n B u f f a l o S c u l p i n Season J F M A M J J A S O N D KEY: ==== Very Common Common - - - F r e q u e n t Rare Year Round S p r i n g / E a r l y Summer Summer L a t e W i n t e r - E a r l y S p r i n g S e a s o n a l A v a i l a b i l i t y C a t e g o r i e s 1. P r e s e n t year round i n r o u g h l y e q u a l abundance. 2. P r e s e n t y e a r round b u t more abundant i n t h e s p r i n g and e a r l y summer. 3. O n l y p r e s e n t i n t h e s p r i n g and e a r l y summer. 4. P r e s e n t year round but more common i n t h e summer months. 5. O n l y p r e s e n t i n t h e summer. 6. P r e s e n t year round b u t more common i n t h e summer t h r o u g h e a r l y f a l l . 7. O n l y p r e s e n t from w i n t e r t o v e r y e a r l y s p r i n g . Page 44 c a t e g o r i e s f o r f i s h . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of the n a t u r a l h i s t o r y f o r t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t s p e c i e s of f i s h t h a t a r e found i n the d e l t a . The s p i n y d o g f i s h i s a s h ark ( c a r t i l a g e n o u s ) t h a t p r e f e r s the deep o f f s h o r e waters of the d e l t a ' s f o r e s l o p e . I t moves to t h e mouth of t h e F r a s e r R i v e r t o p r e y on c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of eulachon i n the summer and h e r r i n g f r y i n the autumn (Hart 1 9 7 3 : 4 5 - 4 6 ) . Another deep o f f s h o r e water d w e l l e r and c a r t i l a g e n o u s f i s h i s the r a t f i s h . I t s food c o n s i s t s of crab, mussel, and o t h e r s h e l l f i s h f o r which i t w i l l m i g r a t e to the i n s h o r e waters at n i g h t ( C a r l 1 9 7 1 : 1 9 - 2 0 ) . The n o r t h e r n anchovy i s the only anchovy that l i v e s i n t h e d e l t a ' s w a t e r s . I t p r e f e r s t o spawn i n t h e deep s a l t w a t e r of i n l e t s or o f f the coast (Hart 1 9 7 3 : 1 0 3 ) . As a deep o f f s h o r e d w e l l e r , the p a c i f i c hake e a t s anchovy, smelt, and h e r r i n g . I t i s a n o c t u r n a l feeder (Hart 1 9 7 3 : 2 2 6 ) . The p e t r a l e s o l e i s common i n o f f s h o r e waters d u r i n g the w i n t e r and moves c l o s e r to shore i n the summer. They prey on a v a r i e t y of resources depending on t h e i r abundance, i n c l u d i n g h e r r i n g , shrimp, and bottom f i s h e s , as w e l l as some crustaceans (Hart 1 9 7 3 : 6 0 8 ) . Page 45 Feeding on f i s h , crab, clam, and crustaceans, the P a c i f i c h a l i b u t i s a bottom dweller p r e f e r r i n g the deep o f f s h o r e water of the d e l t a (Hart 1 9 7 3:615). S u t t l e s (1951:114-115) reports that h a l i b u t was sought during the l a t e spring and e a r l y summer when salmon was t r o l l e d and that the Semiahmoo, Samish, and Saanich used baited hook and l i n e to catch halibut. English sole frequents the i n t e r t i d a l zone early in i t s l i f e cycle during the summer. I t gradually moves to deeper waters as i t matures (Hart 1973:629). This sole eats clams, small molluscs, marine worms, and shrimp (Hart 1973:630). Rockfish are found in a v a r i e t y of habitats from the i n t e r t i d a l zone to deep o f f s h o r e waters. It p r e f e r s l i t t o r a l water h a b i t a t i o n and eats small f i s h such as anchovy and young hake (Hart 1973:421). Lingcod spawn in shallow water from December to March. It Is a common bottom f i s h that feeds on herring, flounder, hake, walleye pollack, cod, and r o c k f i s h . I t can grow to f i v e feet in length (Hart 1973:468-469). S t r a i t Salish used lures and spears to obtain lingcod (Suttles 1951:124-125). The P a c i f i c cod i s a large f i s h that i s found i n the d e l t a area throughout the year. I t frequents deep water during the f a l l and winter, then moving to shallow inshore waters to spawn in the spring (Carl 1971:39-40). Page 46 A common bottom d w e l l i n g f i s h In the deep rocky waters o f f the d e l t a i s the walleye p o l l a c k . I t eats a v a r i e t y of f i s h i n c l u d i n g h e r r i n g , shrimp, and sand l a n c e . D w e l l i n g a t m o d e r a t e d e p t h s , t h e b i g s k a t e i s a c a r t i l a g e n o u s f i s h t h a t eats crustaceans, and great s c u l p i n s (Hart 1 9 7 3 : 5 7 ) . The p l a i n f i n midshipman spawns i n the s p r i n g i n shallow water or i n the i n t e r t i d a l zone. O f t e n " s i n g i n g " and o c c a s i o n a l l y i r r e d e s c e n t a t n i g h t , the midshipman feeds on h e r r i n g , h e r r i n g r o e , and c r u s t a c e a n s i n Boundary Bay (pe r s o n a l communication, Ham J u l y 1 9 8 1 ) . The p i l e p e r c h and t h r e e s p e c i e s of s c u l p i n f r e q u e n t the s h a l l o w i n s h o r e waters of the d e l t a . The p i l e perch's pharyngeal t e e t h are l a r g e and adapted to c r u s h i n g mollusc s h e l l s ( H a r t 1 9 7 3 : 3 1 2 ) . S i m i l a r l y , s c u l p i n s have a l s o d e v e l o p e d l a r g e p h a r y n g e a l t e e t h t o e a t m o l l u s c s and c r u s t a c e a n s . The p i l e p e r c h and s c u l p i n s a r e p r e y t o waterfowl (Hart 1 9 7 3 : 5 1 8 , 4 9 9 , 5 2 1 ) . Both the rock s o l e and s t a r r y f l o u n d e r spawn In shallow water from February through A p r i l . They p r e f e r low s a l i n i t y w a t e r s w i t h v a r i e d t o s o f t bottoms, r e s p e c t i v e l y ( H a r t 1 9 7 3 : 6 2 2 , 6 3 2 ) . Food i n c l u d e s crab, small f i s h , and the roe of s m a l l f i s h . One of the f a v o r i t e foods of the rock s o l e and s t a r r y f l o u n d e r i s h e r r i n g roe ( C a r l 1 9 7 1 : 4 3 - 4 4 ) . Page 4 7 The p a c i f i c h e r r i n g are s e a s o n a l l y present i n the d e l t a when they spawn from F e b r u a r y through A p r i l . I t p r e f e r s i n t e r t i d a l zones with rocky bottoms. H e r r i n g roe f r e q u e n t l y a d h e r e t o i n t e r t i d a l g r a s s e s where i t i s the p r e y o f f l o u n d e r , w a t e r f o w l , and s m a l l mammals (Hart 19 73 :97-99)• S t r a i t s S a l i s h p r o c u r e d h e r r i n g w i t h a r a k e , "made o f hemlock or white f i r limbs or p o s s i b l y o f bone" ( S u t t l e s 1951:126). The s u r f smelt i s a small f i s h r e l a t e d to the eulachon. Both spawn i n the s p r i n g and e a r l y summer, a l t h o u g h smelt spawn i n the i n t e r t i d a l areas o f f the s h e l t e r e d bays, and e u l a c h o n spawn i n t h e F r a s e r and i t s major s t r e a m s . Eulachon c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g the spawning season a t t r a c t many pr e d a t o r y f i s h , i n c l u d i n g d o g f i s h , sturgeon, h a l i b u t , p a c i f i c c o d , as w e l l as g u l l s and s e a l i o n s ( H a r t 1973:148-150). Procurement t e c h n o l o g i e s f o r these s p e c i e s v a r i e d from h e r r i n g rakes to n e t t i n g and scooping by Lummi, Samish, and Semiahmoo groups ( S u t t l e s 1951:128). Surf smelt were ob t a i n e d by Musqueam and Squamish at Spanish Banks and Locarno Beach (Matthews 1955:395). F i v e v a r i e t i e s of salmon f r e q u e n t the F r a s e r watershed d u r i n g the s p r i n g , summer, and f a l l . T h e i r ascent o f the r i v e r begins i n June and can continue as l a t e as December. The order of ascent i s C h i n o o k , sockeye and ^pink, coho, and chum. S t r a i t S a l i s h used t o g g l i n g harpoons to p r o c u r e Page 48 i n d i v i d u a l chinook at the mouth of the F r a s e r R i v e r e a r l y In the y ear ( M a r c h - A p r i l ) ( B e r r i n g e r 1 9 8 2 : 1 7 2 ) . Sockeye and p i n k s were t r a w l e d a l o n g the m u d f l a t s and lower reaches of the F r a s e r l a t e r i n the summer (August to September) ( H i l l - Tout 1 9 0 7 : 9 0 ) . Here, the I n d i a n s c o u l d take advantage of the sand b a r s and s h o a l s t h a t r e s t r i c t the a r e a t h r o u g h which the salmon runs would pass ( B e r r i n g e r 1 9 8 2 : 5 3 ) . Reef n e t t i n g was used by S t r a i t S a l i s h to i n t e r c e p t the F r a s e r - b o u n d sockeye and p i n k s a t s a l t w a t e r approaches of P o i n t Roberts ( B e r r i n g e r 1 9 8 2 : 1 2 9 ) . S u t t l e s ( 1 9 5 1 : 1 7 5 ) a l s o observed r e e f n e t t i n g at over 15 P o i n t Roberts l o c a l i t i e s . G i l l n e t s were used by S a l i s h a l o n g s h e l t e r e d s h o r e s and coves where runs were heavy or where salmon come in s h o r e to feed on h e r r i n g ( B e r r i n g e r 1 9 8 2 : 6 0 ) . Chum and coho salmon have a s i m i l a r l i f e h i s t o r y i n the F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a . Both s p e c i e s enter the area to spawn i n the l a t e summer and e a r l y f a l l (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 2 5 - 2 6 ) . At the t u r n of the c e n t u r y , chum and coho salmon were g a f f e d by Indians i n streams near J e r i c h o and Locarno Beaches. S t u r g e o n i s a l a r g e anadromous f i s h t h a t e n t e r s f r e s h w a t e r t o spawn i n the s p r i n g and e a r l y summer (Hart 1 9 7 3 : 8 3 ) . S t u r g e o n was harpooned and n e t t e d a l o n g the F r a s e r R i v e r as i t sought spawning e u l a c h o n and salmon d u r i n g the s p r i n g and summer ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 2 : 1 6 - 1 7 ) . Page 49 The minnow g e n e r a l l y spawns i n fr e s h w a t e r i n June and J u l y . I t feeds on a q u a t i c p l a n t s and o c c a s i o n a l l y swims i n b r a c k i s h water (Hart 1973:203-205) . L i k e the salmon, s t e e l h e a d t r o u t i s an anadromous f i s h t h a t f r e q u e n t s f r e s h w a t e r to spawn, but spends most of i t s l i f e i n deep s a l t waters (Hart 1973:128-129) . I t eats small f i s h and crus t a c e a n s . S i t e R e c o n s t r u c t i o n s The p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s presented a l i t e r a t u r e review of the p h y s i c a l environment and fauna i n the F r a s e r D e l t a area. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be used to suggest p o s s i b l e environment r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s f o r each s i t e i n the sample d u r i n g t h e Locarno Beach c u l t u r e . Locarno Beach S i t e (DhRt 6) T h i s s i t e i s l o c a t e d on the n o r t h shore of the Burrard P e n i n s u l a . D u r i n g the time o f the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e , the P o i n t Grey Uplands probably p r o t r u d e d f a r t h e r west i n t o the G u l f than today (Clague e t . a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 4 ) . Years o f wave a c t i o n , winds, and water drainage from storms have l e d to the e r o s i o n o f the headlands to i t s p r e s e n t topography. As today, the c u r r e n t from the F r a s e r . R i v e r may have c a r r i e d s i l t s from f r e s h e t s and decomposing h i l l s to E n g l i s h Bay's Page 5 0 southern shore d u r i n g Locarno Beach times. Today, two streams flow near DhRt 6 . One empties i n t o the d e v e l o p i n g S p a n i s h Bank, west of the s i t e ; the o t h e r empties a t J e r i c h o Beach, e a s t of the s i t e . The l a t t e r s t r e a m was cano e - a b l e i n the 1 9 4 0 ' s and may have been a l a r g e r stream or slough i n the past ( H a r r i s 1 9 7 8 : 5 ) . Due to s i l t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s e d i m e n t a t i o n , the J e r i c h o Beach area may have been a s a l t marsh e s t u a r y d u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e . In h i s t o r i c times, DhRt 6 was c a l l e d "EYALMO" and " K 0 - KOH-PAI" by Musqueam I n d i a n s (Matthews 1 9 5 5 : 3 9 5 ) . In i n t e r v i e w s with J.S. Matthews, Khahtsahlano Indians r e f e r r e d t o DhRt 6 as "a good camping g r o u n d , " a bay nicknamed " c r a b t r e e , " and a p l a c e f o r c a t c h i n g s m e l t s (Matthews 1 9 5 5 : 3 9 5 ) . Today, w i l d c r a b a p p l e s along N.W. Marine D r i v e r i p e n d u r i n g J u l y and August, and smelts are handnetted and d i p - n e t t e d at Spanish Banks by non-Native Americans from May to l a t e J u l y . S i n c e the c l i m a t e has remained unchanged, these c o n d i t i o n s may have e x i s t e d i n p r e h i s t o r i c times. Page 51 Whalen Farm S i t e (DfRs 3 ) T h i s s i t e i s l o c a t e d on t h e P o i n t R o b e r t s P e n i n s u l a , a l o n g , narrow n o r t h - s o u t h t r e n d i n g s t r i p of l a n d . D u r i n g the p e r i o d of t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e , the Whalen Farm s i t e was p r o b a b l y l o c a t e d on the e a s t e r n shore of a s m a l l i s l a n d . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t D f R s 3 was p r o t e c t e d f r o m n o r t h w e s t e r l y and w e s t e r l y w i n d s by t h e R o b e r t s h e a d l a n d . Hebda (1977:18b) s u g g e s t s t h a t s a l t marshes and an e s t u a r y w e r e d e v e l o p e d i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a t o t h e n o r t h and n o r t h e a s t o f t h e s i t e by 4000 B.P. T h e s e w o u l d h a v e a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e number o f m i g r a t o r y w a t e r f o w l , spawning f i s h , m o l l u s c s , and c r u s t a c e a n s . E v i d e n c e from Burns Bog s u g g e s t s t h a t the marsh may have p r e v e n t e d spawning salmon f r o m e n t e r i n g t h e F r a s e r R i v e r f r o m Boundary Bay (Hebda 1 9 7 7 : 1 7 0 , 172) by 5000 B.P., a l t h o u g h Ham ( 1 9 8 2 : 2 6 0 ) b e l i e v e s t h a t between 5000 B.P. and 2500 B.P. t h e bay was c o n n e c t e d t o the F r a s e r on some o c c a s i o n s . The S e r p e n t i n e and N i c o m e k l R i v e r s a c r o s s t h e bay and n e a r th e C r e s c e n t B e a c h s i t e (DgRr 1) may have been a c c e s s r o u t e s t o t h e a d j a c e n t r i v e r v a l l e y s (Ham 1982:260), as w e l l as r i p a r i a n r e s o u r c e s . The e a s t e r n s h o r e of R o b e r t s I s l a n d changed d i m e n s i o n s w i t h the c hanging c y c l e of t i d e s and c u r r e n t s . Streams from t h e u p l a n d s may have been p r e s e n t and e m p t i e d i n t o t h e e a s t e r n s h o r e l i n e , p e r h a p s n e a r DfRs 3 o r DgRs 1 ( B e a c h Page 52 Grove s i t e ) , a l t h o u g h t h e r e are no g e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t s to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s . Musqueam NE (DhRt 4) 1 , Ham ( 1 9 7 3 : 3 ) suggests t h a t the s l o p e of the Musqueam are a d u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e times v a r i e d from a f l a t f l o o d p l a i n south of the s i t e to near v e r t i c a l c l i f f s a long the western border of the Burrard P e n i n s u l a . The s i t e r e s t e d on f l a t a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t s . R e l y i n g on e v i d e n c e from L u l u I s l a n d and Burns Bogs (Clague e t . a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 5 ) , i t i s probable that the sand bar and N o r t h Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r were developed by 5000 B.P. Surrounding v e g e t a t i o n probably i n c l u d e d f o r e s t s i n the uplands; i n t e r t i d a l s p e c i e s on t i d a l f l a t s and shoals i n the d e l t a a c r o s s from the s i t e t o the s o u t h ; and a r i p a r i a n environment to the e a s t along the North Arm (Ham 1 9 7 3 : 4 - 5 ) . The nature and extent of f r e s h w a t e r - b r a c k i s h or saltmarshes i n the area can not be determined at t h i s time. The Iona Sand Bar and L u l u I s l a n d probably maintained g r a s s l a n d s that a t t r a c t e d deer and e l k (Ham 1 9 7 3 ) . The present-day Musqueam Creek could have been a slough l o c a t e d west of the s i t e . Page 53 Summary The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t r e v i e w o f F r a s e r D e l t a p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l and f a u n a l s t u d i e s h a v e a number o f i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n the s t u d y a r e a d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e (3300-2400 B.P . ) . As u s u a l , t h e r e are more q u e s t i o n s than answers. 1. P a l e o e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h by Hebda (19 7 7:170,172), C l a g u e e t . a l ( 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 0 ) , a n d N o r t h and T e v e r s h a m ( n . d . ) s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t t h a t p l a n t t y p e s p r e s e n t I n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a h a v e n o t c h a n g e d f o r a b o u t 7000 y e a r s . However, t h e l o c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s has changed w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d e l t a ' s westward p r o g r a d a t i o n . U n t i l more e v i d e n c e i s a v a i l a b l e , the a c t u a l l o c a t i o n of the F r a s e r E s t u a r y ' s f r e s h w a t e r - b r a c k i s h marshes and s a l t m a r s h e s d u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e cannot be d e t e r m i n e d . T h i s s i t u a t i o n has major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l o c a t i n g where i n t h e d e l t a p a r t i c u l a r m i g r a t o r y w a t e r f o w l and f i s h w o u l d have a g g r e g a t e d . 2. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e from the G l e n r o s e Cannery s i t e (DgRs 6) s u g g e s t s t h a t mammals, b i r d s , and f i s h o f the F r a s e r D e l t a have n o t changed i n 5000 t o 7000 y e a r s (Matson 1 9 7 6 a , Ham 1976, Irnamoto 1 9 7 6 ) . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s i n agreement w i t h e v i d e n c e from o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a r e g i o n f o r t h e S t . Mungo ( 4 3 0 0 - 3 3 0 0 B.P.) and M a r p o l e (2400-1200 B.P.) c u l t u r e s ( K i n g 1950, Page 54 C a r l s o n 195 4 , I 9 6 0 , 1 9 7 0 , C a l v e r t 1 9 7 0 , Boehm 1 9 7 3 a , M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 1 a b , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h i s suggests t h a t fauna p r e s e n t d u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e should be p a r t of the same continuum observed i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence f o r the S t . Mungo and Marpole c u l t u r e s . 3 . T h e a b i l i t y t o r e c o n s t r u c t g e o l o g i c a l , p a l y n o l o g i c a l , and h y d r o l o g i c a l e v e n t s a t t h r e e L o c arno Beach c u l t u r e l o c a l i t i e s i s impeded by l a c k of r e s e a r c h . Although more s t u d i e s are necessary, recent land development ( i . e . water and power l i n e s f o r h ousing) a t each l o c a l i t y c omplicates e x t r a c t i n g undisturbed samples f o r a n a l y s i s . To l o c a t e u n d i s t u r b e d d e p o s i t s , r e s e a r c h e r s should c o n s u l t C i t y o f Vancouver Department of E n g i n e e r i n g maps f o r the exact l o c a t i o n of gas and water p i p e s . 4 . A l t h o u g h r e c e n t work has c l a r i f i e d the types of d e l t a f o r m a t i o n processes i n the F r a s e r R i v e r system (Hebda 1 9 7 7 , Clague e t . a l 1 9 8 3 ) , there i s no model of how and when areas o f the F r a s e r D e l t a formed. P a l y n o l o g i c a l evidence from Burns Bog suggests that Boundary Bay was e i t h e r cut o f f from the F r a s e r R i v e r by 5 0 0 0 B.P. (Hebda 1 9 7 7 : 1 7 0 ) or that only the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of Boundary Bay was not i n f l u e n c e d by f r e s h w a t e r a f t e r 5 0 0 0 B.P. (Clague e t , a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 5 ) . In c o n t r a s t , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e from C r e s c e n t Beach (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 1 7 - 1 8 ) and Beach Grove ( B a l l 1 9 7 9 ) i n d i c a t e s that f r e s h w a t e r c o n t i n u e d to flow i n t o Boundary Bay u n t i l 2 5 0 0 Page 55 B.P. Evidence f o r the development of Boundary Bay d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s any d i s c u s s i o n about the development of the F r a s e r E s t u a r y ' s f r e s h w a t e r - b r a c k i s h marshes and sa l t m a r s h e s and, i n t u r n , where and when p a r t i c u l a r a n i m a l communities a g g r e g a t e d f o r p e o p l e t o p r o c u r e d u r i n g L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e times. U n t i l a model i s developed and t e s t e d , i t i s assumed i n t h i s t h e s i s t hat the F r a s e r R i v e r may have flowed i n t o Boundary Bay between 5000 B.P. and 2500 B.P. However, because of i t s southern l o c a t i o n , freshwater from the F r a s e r R i v e r probably d i d not i n f l u e n c e the environment of DfRs 3 . 5 . What are the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s of each Locarno Beach c u l t u r e l o c a l i t y under i n v e s t i g a t i o n here? DhRt 6 i s l o c a t e d on the shore of a l a r g e s a l t w a t e r bay. DfRs 3 i s a l s o s i t u a t e d i n a s a l i n e b a y - l i k e environment. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t S p a n i s h Banks, J e r i c h o Beach, and the B u r r a r d Uplands near DhRt 6 p r o v i d e d an e c o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g t h a t was very s i m i l a r to the DfRs 3 l o c a l i t y (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 3 5 7 ) , which may have had c o u n t e r p a r t s at Beach Grove, C r e s c e n t Beach, and the Roberts Uplands. But, the DhRt 4 l o c a l i t y may have been g u l f f r o n t p r o p e r t y . An a n a l y s i s o f f a u n a l remains from each s i t e ' s Locarno Beach c u l t u r e component may have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s on t h e e x t e n t o f d e l t a p r o g r a d a t i o n i n the Musqueam area. 5(o Chapter 3 THE SAMPLE: BORDEN'S ARCHAEOLOGY OP THE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r reviews C.E. Borden's i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of t h e t h r e e s i t e s a n a l y s e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e provenience, of the Locarno component at each s i t e . These s i t e s , DhRt 6 , DhRt 4 , and DfRs 3 , are d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f : (1 ) l o c a t i o n i n the study area, (2 ) Borden's e x c a v a t i o n methodology, ( 3 ) a v a i l a b l e s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n , and (4 ) the e x t e n t of c u l t u r a l zones d e f i n e d and d e s c r i b e d by B orden. The s a m p l i n g of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a from t h e s e r e c o r d s and a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s t o r e d a t t h e U.B.C. Laboratory of Archaeology Is d e s c r i b e d . Sampled provenience u n i t s are v e r i f i e d as Locarno Beach u n i t s by the c o r r e l a t i o n o f a r t i f a c t d i s t r i b u t i o n s with M i t c h e l l ' s ( 1 9 7 1 b : 5 2 - 5 3 , 57) " d i a g n o s t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s " of Marpole and Locarno Beach c u l t u r e types and C a l v e r t ' s ( 1 9 7 0 : 7 4 ) work f o r the S t . Mungo c u l t u r e . Locarno Beach S i t e , DhRt 6 Page 57 L o c a t i o n DhRt 6 i s the type s i t e f o r the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e (Borden 1 9 7 0 : 9 7 ) . I t i s l o c a t e d between Tolmie and Sasamat S t r e e t s on the n o r t h shore of the B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a ( F i g u r e 3 . 1 ) . Ham ( 1 9 7 9 : 4 ) r e p o r t s that the e x c a v a t i o n was l o c a t e d on c i t y l o t 1 7 , block 129 of c i t y c h a r t 1 5 9 . S i t u a t e d east of P o i n t Grey and Spanish Banks and west of J e r i c h o Beach, DhRt 6 extends to the beach and i s bordered by streams. One Stream o r i g i n a t e s i n the uplands and empties i n t o E n g l i s h Bay near Spanish Banks Beach, w h i l e the other flows through the r e l a t i v e l y f l a t a rea of J e r i c h o Beach. The source of t h e l a t t e r s t r e a m was a l a k e between McDonald and Alma S t r e e t s p r i o r t o t h e l a y i n g of d r a i n a g e p i p e s i n 1 9 2 0 ( H a r r i s 1 9 7 8 ; p e r s o n a l communication, Kew, February 1 9 8 2 ) . To s a l v a g e an u n d i s t u r b e d s e c t i o n of the l a r g e s h e l l m i d d e n t h a t was t o be d e s t r o y e d and r e p l a c e d by a r e s i d e n t i a l development, Borden e x c a v a t e d at DhRt 6 from January 6 to June 2 1 , 1 9 4 8 . He was a s s i s t e d by U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia E n g l i s h p r o f e s s o r P. A. A k r i g g . The two t r e n c h e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the 1948 e x c a v a t i o n at DhRt 6 were s i t u a t e d p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the E n g l i s h Bay s h o r e l i n e . T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n p r o d u c e d a l o n g c r o s s - s e c t i o n t h r o u g h the midden. Page 58 Figure 3.1: Location of Locarno Beach site, DhRt 6, (shaded area) according to Ham (1979:3) and Borden (1948). Page 59 E x c a v a t i o n Methodology Two t r e n c h e s were e x c a v a t e d . T r e n c h 1 was p r i n c i p a l l y e x c a v a t e d by B o r d e n w i t h some a s s i s t a n c e f r o m A k r i g g . Borden's f i e l d n o t e s f o r Trench 1 summarized d a i l y p r o c e d u r e s and d e s c r i b e d some d e t a i l s o f s t r a t i g r a p h y . A k r i g g e i t h e r d i d n o t r e c o r d t h e d e t a i l s of what was e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g the e x c a v a t i o n o f Trench 4 or the r e c o r d s have been l o s t . B oth T r e n c h 1 and T r e n c h 4 were s t a k e d - o u t i n 5' x 5' i n t e r v a l s from a f i x e d datum l o c a t e d on the n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r of c i t y l o t 1 8 . W i t h a n o r t h to s o u t h o r i e n t a t i o n , Trench 1 e x t e n d e d 40 f e e t i n l e n g t h f r o m N40'-80' and E15'-20'. However, d u r i n g the c o u r s e of e x c a v a t i o n , w i n t e r and s p r i n g r a i n f a l l and snow f r e q u e n t l y eroded d e p o s i t s o f midden and ca u s e d s i d e w a l l s t o c o l l a p s e i n T r e n c h 1. Thus, a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n , t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f T r e n c h 1 were N40"-50* and E 1 5 ' - 2 0 ' , N50'-76' and E1 3 ' - 2 2 ' , and N76'-80' and E15'-20'. T r e n c h 4 was a l s o o r i e n t e d i n a n o r t h t o s o u t h d i r e c t i o n and extended 25 f e e t i n l e n g t h from N35'-60.5' and E 3 0 ' - 3 5 ' ( F i g u r e 3 . 2 ) N e i t h e r e x c a v a t o r employed a s t a n d a r d i z e d v e r t i c a l u n i t o f e x c a v a t i o n . R a t h e r , a u n i t o f e x c a v a t i o n was de t e r m i n e d by the p r o g r e s s of one day. The dimensions o f each v e r t i c a l u n i t v a r i e d i n c o n s i s t e n t l y f o r t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f wh e e l b a r r o w m o b i l i t y i n removing e x c a v a t e d m a t r i x from the t r e n c h e s ( B o r d e n 1948: F e b r u a r y 3 e n t r y i n f i e l d n o t e s ) . Page 60 F i g u r e 3 . 2 : View of Trench 1 at DhRt 6, Looking north, both the wheelbarrow ramp (foreground) and the p r i n c i p a l t o o l for excavating, a shovel, can be seen. Page 61 However, one 10 f o o t h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n o f T r e n c h 1 a t N50'-60' was maintained throughout the e x c a v a t i o n . Depth of the e x c a v a t i o n v a r i e d between 8 and 12 f e e t . The photographic r e c o r d I n d i c a t e s that shovels were the p r i n c i p a l t o o l used f o r r e m o v i n g m a t r i x ( F i g u r e 3.2). F i e l d n o t e s r e p o r t the use of trowels only f o r s t r a i g h t e n i n g s i d e w a l l s p r i o r t o d r a w i n g t r e n c h w a l l p r o f i l e s of s t r a t i g r a p h y . M a t r i x was sc r e e n e d , although the mesh s i z e i s not r e p o r t e d . In t h i s study i t i s assumed that 1/4" mesh or l a r g e r was used to screen matrix. Thomas (1969) r e p o r t s d i f f e r e n t s i z e s o f mesh a f f e c t the r e t r i e v a l of s m a l l faunal. remains. Thus, the s i z e of the mesh employed a t DhRt 6 i s one v a r i a b l e that may have i n f l u e n c e d the recovery r a t e of small f a u n a l remains such as s m e l t , e u l a c h o n , anchovy, and h e r r i n g v e r t e b r a e or f i s h o t o l i t h s . Both the p r o v e n i e n c e (by t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l l o c a t i o n measurements) and s t r a t i g r a p h i c context of each a r t i f a c t are recorded f o r Trench 1 m a t e r i a l . The e q u i v a l e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r Trench 4, thus r e d u c i n g the p o t e n t i a l r e s e a r c h value of the Trench 4 c o l l e c t i o n i n t h i s study. The e x c a v a t o r s p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to r e c o r d i n g the l o c a t i o n o f f a u n a l r e m a i n s . W h i l e B o r d e n r e c o r d e d s t r a t i g r a p h i c changes i n s h e l l m a t r i x c o m p o s i t i o n , the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t of a l l f a u n a l remains can o n l y be Page 62 reduced t o the p r o v e n i e n c e l i s t e d on each l e v e l bag or bone m a t e r i a l bag found i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s t o r a g e a t t h e U.B.C. Museum of A n t h r o p o l o g y . S t r a t i g r a p h y A s t r a t i g r a p h i c p r o f i l e was drawn f o r the west f a c e of T r e n c h 1. F i g u r e 3 . 3 i s the N50'-60' s e c t i o n o f t h i s p r o f i l e . The method o f r e c o r d i n g w a l l s t r a t i g r a p h y was a " s t r a t a s q u a r e . " T h i s i n s t r u m e n t was suspended f r o m the s u r f a c e of the t r e n c h and j u x t a p o s e d a g a i n s t the s i d e w a l l of t h e t r e n c h . I t a c t e d as a r e f e r e n c e f r o m w h i c h s t r a t i g r a p h i c l a y e r s were drawn f o r Trench 1. From the e x a m i n a t i o n of the Trench 1 p r o f i l e d u r i n g the e x c a v a t i o n , B o r d e n ( 1 9 5 0 a ) o r i g i n a l l y s e p a r a t e d midden d e p o s i t s i n t o two s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s . These, the lower and upper h o r i z o n s , were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by Borden on the b a s i s of t h e r e l a t i v e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e s h e l l l e n s i n g and the degree of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of s h e l l r e mains. " I n t h e l o w e r h o r i z o n , the c u l t u r e b e a r i n g s t r a t a a r e t h i n and a l t e r n a t e w i t h t h i c k l a y e r s o f d i s c o l o r e d beach s a n d . I n t h e upper h o r i z o n , t h e s h e l l s t r a t a a r e t h i c k . Numerous dark sandy s t r a t a c o n t a i n i n g heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f f i s h and o t h e r o r g a n i c remains a l s o o c c u r h e r e . A c o n s i d e r a b l e time l a p s e between the two o c c u p a t i o n p e r i o d s i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e l o w e r d e p o s i t s , the s h e l l remains have been reduced t o a f i n e powder, whereas i n t h e u p p e r Page 63 Figure 3.3: West face wall profile, Trench 1 at DhRt 6. H H M M MC MC M U S S E L S H E L L S A N D a O R G A N I C M A T T E R M U S S E L S H E L L S C H A R C O A L B L A C K S A N D , C H A R C O A L . A S H , 8 M I N U T E S H E L L F R A G S D A R K S A N D M O T T L E D S A N D C L E A N S A N D Figure 3,3 Page 64 horizon, disintegrated s h e l l , while advanced, has not p r o c e e d e d t h a t f a r " ( B o r d e n 1950a:15). The boundary between these units was not described, nor was It noted on the wall p r o f i l e . In a l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n , stratigraphy at DhRt 6 is not discussed (Borden 1970), giv i n g the impression that Borden re-thought his po s i t i o n about the presence of two d i s t i n c t s t r atigraphic units. Cultural Zones Two c u l t u r a l zones were o r i g i n a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by Borden (1950a). These were defined by a r t i f a c t u a l and s t r a t i g r a p h i c evidence. (Radio-carbon d a t i n g was not performed on DhRt 6 samples u n t i l the mid-1950's.) However, Borden (1950a) d i d not s t a t e i f a r t i f a c t u a l and strat i g r a p h i c changes coincided. Borden re-thought the two-zone scheme as early as 1962. In a l e t t e r to P r e d r i c a de Laguna, Borden (1962:2) commented: "Rightly or wrongly, the others [ a l l s i t e s but Whalen Farm in Borden (1950a)], have been treated as single component s i t e s , although I am aware that the case could be made for the d i v i s i o n of Locarno Beach into two components (as I d i d i n 1950). Some t r a i t s l i k e l a brets, small adzes, medium size wedges are l i m i t e d to Locarno Beach I ( t h e lower horizon) and completely absent from Locarno Beach II (the upper horizon), even though we have a large sample of the l a t t e r . Other t r a i t s l i k e facetted ground sla t e points and Page 65 heavy s l a t e k n i ves l i n k the 2 h o r i z o n s . I f we had a l a r g e r sample of both h o r i z o n s , the p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n c e s might tend to d i s a p p e a r " (Borden 1 1 / 2 6 / 6 2 i n r e s p o n s e to de Laguna 1 0 / 2 6 / 6 2 ) [author's a d d i t i o n ] . A f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of Borden's p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n of DhRt 6 ( 1 9 5 0 a , 1 9 5 1 ) and the development of r a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g i n a r c h a e o l o g y , Borden sent at l e a s t two samples of DhRt 6 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains to the Sasketchewan d a t i n g lab i n the m i d - 1 9 5 0 ' s . C o m p o s i t i o n of the r a d i o c a r b o n dated m a t e r i a l i s unknown. The two r a d i o c a r b o n dates p u b l i s h e d f o r DhRt 6 (Borden 1 9 7 0 : 7 6 ) a r e : 2 2 7 0 ± 1 0 0 years B.P. or 3 2 0 B.C. ( I - 7 7 9 D 2 4 5 0 ± 1 0 0 years B.P. or 5 0 0 B.C. ( 1 - 7 7 9 0 ) Whalen Farm S i t e , DfRs 3 L o c a t i o n DfRs 3 i s a s h e l l midden s i t e l o c a t e d at the southwest c o r n e r of the F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a , on the western shore of Boundary Bay ( F i g u r e 3 . 4 ) . S i m i l a r to DhRt 6 , DfRs 3 i s s i t u a t e d on the k n o l l of an a n c i e n t l a g o o n s p i t t h a t i s p r o t e c t e d from winds by the P o i n t R o b e r t s U p l a n d , j u s t southwest of the s i t e (Kenny 1 9 7 5 ) . Borden ( 1 9 4 9 ) observed s e v e r a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s h e l l middens w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e to DfRs 3 . Although the l o c a t i o n of these middens was not d e s c r i b e d , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t Borden l o c a t e d s i t e s now Figure 3.4: Location of the Whalen Farm Site, DfRs 3, and Other Boundary Bay sites. Page 67 d e s i g n a t e d DgRs 8 , 1 6 , and 1 3 . The Beach Grove s i t e (DgRs 1 ) , a l a r g e Marpole c u l t u r e v i l l a g e s i t e (Matson e t . a l 1981 ) w i t h some Locarno a f f i n i t i e s at the n o r t h end of t h e s i t e ( B a l l 1 9 7 9 ), i s a l s o l o c a t e d i n the same v i c i n i t y , s u g g e s t i n g that the western shore of Boundary Bay was densely p o p u l a t e d i n the p a s t . Another nearby s i t e i s C r e s c e n t Beach s i t e (DgRr 1 ) , a multicomponent s i t e w i t h a 3 0 0 0 y e a r c h r o n o l o g y l o c a t e d on t h e e a s t e r n s h o r e o f Boundary Bay near the Nicomekl and S e r p e n t i n e R i v e r s . At the Whalen Farm s i t e , a s i n g l e t r e n c h was s i t u a t e d p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e B o u n d a r y Bay s h o r e l i n e f o r t h e 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 5 0 e x c a v a t i o n ( F i g u r e 3 . 5 ) . T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n produced a long cross s e c t i o n through the midden, s i m i l a r to t h a t at DhRt 6 ( F i g u r e 3 . 6 ) . The d i s t a n c e between DfRs 3 and the present-day s h o r e l i n e c o u l d not be determined from the r e c o r d s . E x c a v a t i o n Methodology As p a r t of a j o i n t f i e l d s c h o o l between the U n i v e r s i t y of V/ashington and U.B.C., Borden d i r e c t e d a 5 s t u d e n t s a l v a g e crew on M i c h a e l Whalen's p r o p e r t y i n Boundary Bay, Washington i n 1949 and 1 9 5 0 . The same methods of excavation were employed d u r i n g both f i e l d seasons. U n l i k e DhRt 6 , Borden ( 1 9 5 0 b ) d e s c r i b e d p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n de t e r m i n i n g s i t e l o c a t i o n and i n e x c a v a t i n g the Page 68 Figure 3.5: Whalen Farm, DfRs 3 Boundary Bay, Wash. 1949 (after Archaeology Lab Map, U.B.C.). North Page 69 Figure 3.6: View West to East of Large Midden at Whalen Farm Site (DfRs 3). Page 70 95 foot trench at DfRs 3 - "...Before the excavation proper began, the students were busy with alidad, plane-table, and s t a d i a rod, s u r v e y i n g , f i x i n g datum points and bench marks, and preparing contour maps of the s i t e . There upon, the area was staked-out and i t s l o c a t i o n recorded on the contour map. In e x c a v a t i n g , only small implements were used—pointed mason trowels and d i r t pans, and even f i n e r work, g r a p e f r u i t knives, spoons, dentist's t o o l s , whisk brooms, and soft hair brushes. Shovels came into play during clean-up operations. A l l excavated m a t e r i a l was screened and c l o s e l y s c r u t i n i z e d . Every f i n d , upon d i s c o v e r y , i m m e d i a t e l y r e c e i v e d an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number and i t s l o c a t i o n measured three-dimensionally with reference to datum point and bench mark... Associated m a t e r i a l , such as food remains, d e t r i t u s of manufacture, charcoal, samples of ash, and other midden m a t e r i a l from various s t r a t a were collected in special bags and i t s o r i g i n recorded. After the excavation of every four foot l e v e l was completed, scale drawings of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n as i t appeared on the trench faces were made on graph paper. In addition, to copious fieldnotes, nearly 350 photographs were taken of work i n progress of s p e c i a l features, and so f o r t h . In t h i s fashion, a trench of 80 feet long, f i v e feet wide and 12 feet deep was excavated during nine weeks of the f i e l d t r i p " (Borden 1950b:242). "Using s t a t i o n 3 as datum point and bench mark, the Whalen Farm crew staked out 19 adjacent 5 ' x 5 ' u n i t s . Twelve units were west of the l i n e r u n n i n g n o r t h through s t a t i o n 3 and 7 units were east of the l i n e (Figure 3 . 5 ; Borden 1 9 ^ 9 , June 22 entry in f i e l d n o t e s ) . Although a 95 foot trench was staked-out in 19 5 ' x 5 ' units only an 8 0 foot trench was excavated from W60' to E35'. Most of Trench 1 was completed during the f i r s t f i e l d season Page 71 i n 1949. E x c a v a t i o n u n i t s o f 5 1 x 5 ' x H' were c o n s i s t e n t l y removed i n b l o c k s of 5 ' x 2 . 5 ' x 2'. Some e x c a v a t e d u n i t s , then c o u l d c o n t a i n more than one s t r a t u m . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the m e t h o d i c a l r e m o v a l o f d i r t d u r i n g B o r d e n ' s e x c a v a t i o n a t DfRs 3 was c o n s i s t e n t . T h i s s i t u a t i o n c o n t r a s t s w i t h B o r d e n ' s e x c a v a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y a t DhRt 6 , j u s t one y e a r b e f o r e . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x c a v a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y may have c r e a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n the sample r e c o v e r e d . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t o f a r t i f a c t u a l remains was p r e s e r v e d c l e a r l y i n the DfRs 3 s i t e r e c o r d s . The a r t i f a c t c a t a l o g u e s r e c o r d t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n as t h e DhRt 6 f i e l d n o t e s f o r T r e n c h 1. I n a d d i t i o n t o r e c o r d i n g 3 - d i m e n s i o n a l l o c a t i o n s f o r e a c h a r t i f a c t , B o r d e n a l s o d e s c r i b e d the s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o n t e x t i n w h i c h each a r t i f a c t was f o u n d . S u p e r i o r and i n f e r i o r s t r a t a a r e n o t e d as w e l l as t h e s t r a t u m i n w h i c h t h e a r t i f a c t was f o u n d . T h i s s i t u a t i o n y i e l d s more i n f o r m a t i o n t o the r e s e a r c h e r and was used by t h e a u t h o r i n d e l i n e a t i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e component a t DfRs 3 (see d i s c u s s i o n l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r ) . F i e l d n o t e s a l s o f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o f a u n a l r e s o u r c e s f o u n d w i t h i n e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s . F o r e x a m p l e , s t u d e n t R. H e g l a r ( 1 9 W a n d B o r d e n ' s ( 1950a, 1 9 5 0 b : 2 4 2 - 3 ) r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f r e l a t i v e l y few l a n d and s e a mammals compared t o b i r d , f i s h , and s h e l l f i s h remains. In a Page 72 r e c e n t p e r s o n a l communication with the a u t h o r , A.L. Bryan ( J a n u a r y 1 9 8 2 ) , who was a s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 5 0 f i e l d s c h o o l , s u b s t a n t i a t e d the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d f a c t s r e g a r d i n g e x c a v a t i o n methodology. In a d d i t i o n , Bryan d i s c u s s e d the c o l l e c t i o n of f a u n a l remains. " C a r l (Borden) p a i d m e t i c u l o u s a t t e n t i o n to c o l l e c t i n g f a u n a l r e m a i n s ( a t l e a s t e v e r y t h i n g except the common s h e l l f i s h ) and r e c o r d i n g s t r a t i g r a p h y , as w e l l as c o l l e c t i n g a r t i f a c t s . " ( p e r s o n a l communication, Bryan January 1 9 8 2 ) . S t r a t i g r a p h y The r e c o r d of s t r a t i g r a p h y a t DfRs 3 i s more complete than at DhRt 6 . Borden kept d a i l y r e c o rds of s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r each e x c a v a t i o n u n i t , and he was a s s i s t e d by f i e l d s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a n t W i l s o n D u f f who u s e d a s t r a t a s q u a r e to draw the n o r t h w a l l p r o f i l e of the t r e n c h ( F i g u r e 3 . 7 ) . Borden p a i d c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to s t r a t i g r a p h i c changes, even though he e x c a v a t e d i n s u b l e v e l s of 2 4 " ( p e r s o n a l communication, Bryan, January 1982) w i t h i n the l a r g e r 4 f o o t a r b i t r a r y l e v e l s . However, u n l i k e those of DhRt 6 , the DfRs 3 f i e l d n o t e s note when more than one stratum comprise a s i n g l e e x c a v a t i o n u n i t . Two s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s were d e f i n e d at DfRs 3 (Borden 1950a ) ( F i g u r e 3 . 8 ) . The n o r t h face p r o f i l e d e l i n e a t e s the Figure 3.7: Wilson Duff and stratasquare. P a g e 73 Page 74 Figure 3.8: West Wall P r o f i l e at DfRs 3. 7f TOPSOIL MUSSEL (details on profile) CLAM (details on profile) \ \ \ \ \ N \ \ CLAM a MUSSEL (details on profile) SAND (details on profile) ASM (yellow unless otherwise indicated CHARCOAL UPPER CASE indicates only R = rock 0 named item present p-p : r 0 0 t L FOOT Fiqure 3.8 Page 75 boundary between the upper (Whalen II) and lower (Whalen I) s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s . These un i t s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by Borden based on the r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t i e s and type of s h e l l present and the degree of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . "In the lower h o r i z o n the s t r a t a c o n s i s t c h i e f l y of mussels with occasional lenses of cockles. Larger species of clam are rare. [This i s very s i m i l a r to the s h e l l deposits at DhRt 6 . ] In t h i s mound, however, the mussel deposit i s suddenly ove r l a i d by thick layers of large clams, such as Schizothairus n u t t a l l l and Saxidomus n u t t a l l i , although mussel do not disappear e n t i r e l y " (Borden's 1950a:19; p a r e n t h e t i c a l phrase i s the author's addition). I s o l a t e d d e p o s i t s of sea u r c h i n s p i n e s are l o c a t e d throughout the lower horizon. A whale bone fragment was also described In the p r o f i l e , however, i t was not mentioned i n the f i e l d n o t e s nor was i t found i n the Laboratory of Archaeology's DfRs 3 c o l l e c t i o n . Measured by mid-1950 techniques, the radiocarbon date f o r the lower horizon i s 2450±160 years B.P., S-18 (Borden 1970:96; McCallum and Dyck 1960:77). This date places the horizon in the Locarno Beach culture time s l o t propounded by Borden (1970) and Mit c h e l l (1971b). A v a r i e t y of s h e l l species comprise the upper horizon at DfRs 3. However, horse clam (Schizothairus or Tresus n u t t a l l i ) and Washington butter clam (Saxidomus n u t t a l l i ) dominate the u n i t . Mussel i s present i n small q u a n t i t i e s r e l a t i v e to the lower horizon. Radiocarbon dating yielded a Page 76 date of 1580 ± 140, S - 1 9 (Daugherty 1958:454; Borden 1970: 9 6 ) . M i t c h e l l (1971b:62) places t h i s u n i t i n the " l a t e Marpole (? ) - G u l f of Georgia c u l t u r e type." The hiatus between the two units is not as enigmatic as Borden (1970) thought. With so many midden s i t e s i n the area, It i s probable that some locations, such as DfRs 3, may have been abandoned f o r the use of a neighboring s i t e a few yards away. Seymour (1976) reports a Marpole u n i t at DfRs 3 du r i n g a 1972 exc a v a t i o n , which may s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s hypothesis. The 2-unit d i s t i n c t i o n observed by Borden at DfRs 3 was never r e f o r m u l a t e d . U n l i k e the 2-unit d i s t i n c t i o n at DhRt 6, the ex i s t e n c e of 2 u n i t s at DfRs 3 p e r s i s t s i n Borden's l a t e r writings and thoughts (Borden 1970). This d i s t i n c t i o n was based on both s t r a t i g r a p h i c and carbon dating evidence, which have been accepted and used by the archeological community (Mitchell 1971b; Matson 1974). Cultural Zones Two a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d at DfRs 3 by Borden. These, Whalen I and Whalen II, have been defined by abrupt changes in the a r t i f a c t assemblages which c o i n c i d e with the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r a t i g r a p h y and radio carbon dates. Page 77 The Whalen I assemblage resembles m a t e r i a l from DhRt 6 , thus f u r t h e r s u p p o r t i n g i t s a f f i n i t y to the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e . Borden ( 1 9 5 0 a ) l i s t s a r t i f a c t s that are present i n t h i s a s s e m b l a g e . A l t h o u g h he d i d n o t d e s c r i b e t h e a r t i f a c t s , hand-drawn d i a g r a m s of e a c h a r t i f a c t were c a t a l o g u e d along w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r provenience and s t r a t i g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n i n the s i t e r e c o r d s . The Whalen i i assemblage, the upper c u l t u r a l u n i t , i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the G u l f o f G e o r g i a c u l t u r e type ( M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 1 b ) . A 3 5 f o o t s e c t i o n o f the n o r t h f a c e w a l l p r o f i l e ( W 3 5 ' - 0 ' , N 2 0 ' - 2 5 ' ) e x i s t s i n the DfRs 3 r e c o r d s ( F i g u r e 3 . 8 ) . An l a b e l l e d l i n e on the p r o f i l e d e l i n e a t e s t h e l o c a t i o n of the Whalen I - I I i n t e r f a c e . Musqueam NE S i t e , DhRt 4 L o c a t i o n DhRt 4 i s l o c a t e d i n the Musqueam Creek a r e a of the Musqueam Indian Reserve ( F i g u r e 3 - 9 ) . S i t u a t e d on a "broad f l a t expanse of d e l t a i c d e p o s i t s " (Archer 1 9 7 2 : 2 ) , the s i t e i s s a n d w i c h e d between the P o i n t Grey U p l a n d s and the f l o o d p l a l n and d e l t a f r o n t on the nor t h shore of the F r a s e r R i v e r ' s North Arm. A stream o r i g i n a t i n g i n the P o i n t Grey Page 78 Figure 3.9: Location of Musqueam NE, DhRt 4 (after Borden 1976:236). Page 79 Uplands passes near the western edge of the s i t e . The e x c a v a t i o n o f DhRt 4 was p a r t o f a t h r e e y e a r (1972-1974) salvage p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g Musqueam Band members I n d i a n v o l u n t e e r s . Borden s u p e r v i s e d the e x c a v a t i o n w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of David A r c h e r and Kathryn B e r n i c k as i n - f i e l d d i r e c t o r s . The l o c a t i o n of the e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s was s i t u a t e d on n o r t h t o south t r a n s a c t s ( F i g u r e 3 .10) . T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n produced complex s t r a t i g r a p h i c p r o f i l e s of the l e n s i n g . E x c a v a t i o n Methodology In g e n e r a l , t h e same methods o f e x c a v a t i o n were employed d u r i n g a l l three f i e l d seasons at DhRt 4. However, g r e a t e r c a r e was employed i n w a t e r l o g g e d r e g i o n s o f the s i t e . Along t h r e e n o r t h to south l i n e s and one i n t e r s e c t i n g e a s t t o west l i n e , Borden l a i d out a g r i d of 2m x 2m u n i t s . These u n i t s were ex c a v a t e d i n 10cm a r b i t r a r y l e v e l s t h a t d i s r e g a r d e d n a t u r a l l a y e r s . A f t e r l o o s e n i n g m a t r i x with t r o w e l s and s m a l l u t e n s i l s , the e x c a v a t o r s s c r e e n e d s o i l t h r o u g h a 1/4 i n c h mesh. B o t h dry and water s i e v i n g t e c h n i q u e s were used d u r i n g t h e t h r e e s e a s o n p r o j e c t . S p e c i a l c a r e was used i n removing p e r i s h a b l e remains from waterlogged u n i t s . F i g u r e 3.10 summarizes the progress of work f o r each f i e l d season. Page 80 Figure 3.10: D i s t r i b u t i o n of excavated p i t s at DhRt 4 (Borden and Archer 1 9 7 5 : 6 2 ) . « e 4 • la , is . ao • a« , (A ta Ic ID I I IF I O I H I I IJ I K ( I I M I N I O I N 2 3 4 '3 6 7 0 — I appro •3 I -oi *** a r ximate limit! wotorlogoMi ' posits 0 - It — 14 — to — a — e — 2 — 6 — io — 14 LOCATE PITS IN.TEXT BY COORDINATING LETTERS & NUMBERS ALONG UPPER & LEFT MARGINS 0 0 H Page 81 S t r a t i g r a p h y Sketches of e x c a v a t i o n u n i t w a l l p r o f i l e s were made by v o l u n t e e r s d u r i n g the e x c a v a t i o n ( F i g u r e s 3 . 1 1 a and 3 . 1 1 b ) . A f t e r the 1 9 7 4 f i e l d season, B e r n l c k combined i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m f i e l d n o t e s and s k e t c h e s to p r o d u c e s t r a t i g r a p h i c p r o f i l e s f o r t h r e e of the f o u r t r e n c h e s . Together, these p r o f i l e s d e l i n e a t e e i g h t major s t r a t i g r a p h i c zones and the three c u l t u r a l zones d e s c r i b e d by Archer ( 1 9 7 2 : 6 - 8 ) . U n l i k e DhRt 6 , a r o l l i n g mound of midden i s absent from DhRt 4's landscape and e x c a v a t i o n . F i e l d n o t e s i n d i c a t e that some clam and r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of bay mussel s h e l l were encountered, however, "the s t r a t i g r a p h y does not have abundant mollusc remains"(Croes 1 9 7 5 : 3 8 ) . C u l t u r a l Zones Based on a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of a r t i f a c t u a l and s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n , Borden ( 1 9 7 6 ) d e s c r i b e d t h r e e d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l zones at DhRt 4. These zones, A l , A2, and B, were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n the f i e l d by the presence-absence or d i s t r i b u t i o n of key a r t i f a c t types (Archer 1 9 7 2 : 2 ; Borden 1 9 7 6 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o A r c h e r and B e r n i c k ( i n d e p e n d e n t p e r s o n a l communication, October 1 9 8 1 ) , the i n - f i e l d t e s t was the presence of microblades that suggested a Marpole c u l t u r e component; t h e i r absence i n d i c a t e d a Locarno Beach c u l t u r e component. While t h i s procedure negates any argument about Page 82, Figure 3.11a: Musqueam NE (DhRt 4) Stratigraphy. R E C E N T OVERBURDEN (loosely compacted dark brown loam with roots S rocks) LOAM (details on profile) ASH (details on profile) CRUSHED S H E L L (details on profile) CHARCOAL S E E PROFILE- R = rock F i 3 0.5 m I Elevations are in metres below arbitrary datum of 100 metres. N4, EI6 9 9 . 0 - m UJ 98 .0 - < O N < UJ z o N 97.0 H N5 H- N6.EI6 N8.EI6 NIO, EI6 stream laid sand a gravel log (section taken) h -99 .0 m ' o My 98.0 CM < UJ z o r - 9 ? . 0 Page 82b Figure 3.11b: Musqueam NE (DhRt 4) Stratigraphy. $2 to RECENT OVERBURDEN (loosely compacted dark brown loam with roots 8 rocks) LOAM (details on profile) CRUSHED SHELL (details on profile) SEE PROFILE SAND (details on profile) ASH (details on profile) CHARCOAL R = rock RT = root RH = rodent hole 0 l_ 0.5 m Elevations are in metres below arbitrary datum of 100 metres N4.EI0 N4.E20 99. OH 99.0 m UJ o < LU 98.0—f O N < LU o 97.0 m LO o ISl w i t h s o m e d a r k b r o w n l o a m , a s h S l o a m , a s h CM < O M t LO z o N h-97.0 Figure 3 . 1 1 b Page 83 m i c r o b l a d e s b e i n g used f o r s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s t h a t might h a v e o c c u r r e d d u r i n g b o t h c o a s t a l p h a s e s , i t i s t h e c r i t e r i o n used by Borden t o d i s t i n g u i s h two c u l t u r a l u n i t s a t DhRt 4. Thus, a l t h o u g h i t can be argued t h a t the b a s i s o f B o r d e n ' s 2 - u n i t d i s t i n c t i o n between L o c a r n o Beach and Marpole i s p r e c a r i o u s , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y so t h a t s i t e r e c o r d s w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Borden's d e f i n i t i o n . The p r o v e n i e n c e of Zone A and Zone B a r e d e l i n e a t e d on B e r n i c k ' s p r o f i l e s . Matson's (1974) a n a l y s i s a l s o showed t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n was v a l i d . Zone A, t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c o m p o n e n t , h a s two s u b d i v i s i o n s . Zone A l i n c l u d e s the w a t e r l o g g e d d e p o s i t s of p e r i s h a b l e remains ( e . g . b a s k e t r y , wood c h i p s , n u t s , mats, e t c . ) and some o t h e r a r t i f a c t u a l r e m a i n s . Zone A2 l a c k s p e r i s h a b l e m a t e r i a l but c o n t a i n s t h e same d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o t h e r a r t i f a c t s as Zone A l . R a d i o c a r b o n dates are a v a i l a b l e f o r b o t h d i v i s i o n s o f Zone A. A wood sample f r o m Zone A l ( t h e w a t e r l o g g e d component) was r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e d a t 2970 ±90 B.P. o r 1020 B.C. ( 1 - 7 7 9 1 ) , and a c h a r c o a l sample from Zone A2 y i e l d e d a C-^ d a t e o f 2550 ± 8 5 B.P. o r 600 B.C. (1-7790) ( B o r d e n and A r c h e r 1 9 7 5 : 5 9 ) . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e c l o s e d a t e s Borden and A r c h e r (1975:2) lumped Zones A l and A2 and a s s o c i a t e d i t w i t h t h e c h r o n o l o g y f o r t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e , as d e s c r i b e d by Borden (1970) and M i t c h e l l Page 84 (1971b). Aside from probable p e r i s h a b l e remains from a Locarno Beach a s s o c i a t e d waterlogged region of the P i t t R i v e r s i t e (personal communication, V a l e r i e Patenaude, February 19*82), the o l d e s t p e r i s h a b l e remains of rope, cordage, net, and basketry on the Northwest Coast are from the Locarno Beach component at DhRt 4. Perishable remains of s i m i l a r a n t i q u i t y are present at the Hoko s i t e (45 Ca 213) on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington (Croes 1975). Zone B yielded a r t i f a c t classes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Marpole phase in the Gulf of Georgia chronological scheme (see M i t c h e l l 1971b, Burley 1980). This Marpole component i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l compared to the L o c a r n o one. Radiocarbon dates are not available for this unit. Although described as "Disturbed m a t e r i a l , " remains from some areas of the s i t e r e f l e c t h i s t o r i c occupation. A number of broken glass b o t t l e s , china p l a t e s , iron n a i l s , etc. have been catalogued, in addition to the excavation of three late mortuary houses. In g e n e r a l , the chronology of human occupation at DhRt 4 spans at least 3000 years but is incomplete. Page 85 V e r i f i c a t i o n o f an A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Locarno Beach C u l t u r e The s a m p l i n g o f f a u n a l r e m a i n s w i t h i n t h e e x c a v a t e d Locarno Beach components of each s i t e under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s l i m i t e d by t h e a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f r om t h e r e c o r d s o f each s i t e . S i n c e Borden was p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r f o r the e x c a v a t i o n s a t DhRt 6 , DfRs 3 , and DhRt 4 , h i s e x c a v a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g i e s have been r e v i e w e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n d e s c r i b i n g and d e l i n e a t i n g the v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l l o c a t i o n o f the L o c a r n o B e a c h c o m p o n e n t s f o r e a c h s i t e . B o r d e n ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s a n d h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e h a v e a l s o b e e n c o n s u l t e d . A l t h o u g h i t i s not the purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o do b o t h a f a u n a l and a r t i f a c t u a l s t u d y , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e a s o n s why i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a b u l a t e a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s from the L o c a r n o Beach components under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s , a r t i f a c t t a b u l a t i o n s f r o m s a m p l e d a r e a s of each s i t e ' s L o c a r n o Beach component a r e c o m p a r e d t o M i t c h e l l ' s ( 1 9 7 1 b : 5 2 - 3 , 5 7 ) d i a g n o s t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e M a r p o l e and L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e type and C a l v e r t ( 1 9 7 0 : 7 4 ) and Matson's ( 1 9 7 6 a ) work on t h e S t . Mungo p h a s e . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n i n s u r e s t h a t samples a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e , as d e f i n e d by Borden ( 1 9 7 0 ) and M i t c h e l l ( 1 9 7 1 b : 5 7 ) . Second, v a r i a b i l i t y i n a r t i f a c t assemblages ( a l t h o u g h s m a l l i n s i z e ) may be h e l p f u l i n s u g g e s t i n g hypotheses f o r the p a t t e r n s of Page 86 f a u n a l u t i l i z a t i o n o b s e r v e d a t e a c h s i t e . F i n a l l y , t h e t h r e e s i t e s u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n have n e v e r been f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Thus, a r t i f a c t t a b u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e made a v a i l a b l e f o r f u t u r e Northwest Coast p r e h i s t o r i c r e s e a r c h . Locarno Beach S i t e , DhRt 6 The sampled a r e a i s r e s t r i c t e d t o Trench 1 a t N50'-60', E13'-22', s u r f a c e t o 10'. The f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t h i s s e l e c t i o n a r e : (1) The i n c o m p l e t e r e c o r d o f e x c a v a t i o n of T r e n c h 4 d i m i n i s h e s t h e r e s e a r c h v a l u e o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n ; (2) the m a j o r i t y of m a t e r i a l from t h i s b l o c k o f the s i t e was l o c a t e d i n a s s o r t e d m a t e r i a l s and f a u n a l bags i n the s t o r a g e a r e a o f A r c h a e o l o g y R e s e a r c h Lab a t the U.B.C. Museum of A n t h r o p o l o g y ; ( 3 ) a s i d e w a l l p r o f i l e o f s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h i s a r e a was a v a i l a b l e ; and (4) u n l i k e the r e s t of T r e n c h 1, h o r i z o n t a l d i m e n s i o n s were m a i n t a i n e d d i s t i n c t t h r o u g h o u t the e x c a v a t i o n o f N50'-6O'. A s a m p l e o f 84 a r t i f a c t s were c a t a l o g u e d f o r t h e sampled a r e a of t h e s i t e . A p p e n d i x , T a b l e B . l l i s t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s . A w l s and p o i n t s m a n u f a c t u r e d p r i m a r i l y f r o m b i r d bone a r e t h e most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g a r t i f a c t u a l r e m a i n s . N i n e i t e m s o f M i t c h e l l ' s 19 d i a g n o s t i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e t y p e a r e f o u n d among t h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s Page 87 Table 3.1: Distribution of Mitchell's (1971:57) Locarno Beach diagnostic archaeological features for sampled areas of three Locarno Beach Culture components. DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 (Whalen I) 1. Medium-sized chipped basalt points + + + 2. Microblades & cores - - + 3. Chipped slate or sandstone knives + + + . 4. Crude cobble, split-cobble & boulder spall implements - 5. Bone & ground slate points with facets + + + 6. Thick ground slate knives + + + 7. Celts - - - 8. Gulf Island complex artifacts - 9. Labrets + - + 10. Earspools - - - 11. Grooved or notched sinkers - - ? 12. Handstones and grinding slabs (abrasive) + + + 13. Heavy bone wedges + - + 14. Bilaterally barbed antler points - 15. Toggling or composite harpoons - 16. Antler foreshafts for harpoons (#15) + + + 17. Sea mussel shell celts - 18. Clay-lined depressions & rock slab alignments - 19. Heavy decomposition of shell matrix & now "inland" location of site + + + TOTAL 9 7 10 Page 88 Table 3.2: Distribution of Mitchell's (1971:52-53) Marpole diagnostic archaeological features for sampled areas of three Locarno Beach units. DhRt 6 DfRs 3 (Whalen E I) 1. Varieties of chipped stone points + + + 2. Microblades — — + 3. Large ground slate points - - -4. Thin ground slate knives - - -5. Celts - - -6. Disc boads - - -7. Labrets or earspools + - + 8. Stone hand mauls with decorated handles - - -9. Perforated stones - - -10. Stone sculpture - - -11. Large needles - - -12. Sectioned or s p l i t awls - - -13. Barbed, non toggling harpoons - - -14. Unilaterally barbed antler points - - -15. Antler wedges - - -16. Antler sculpture + - -17. Native copper ornaments - - -18. Midden burial - - -19. Skull deformation - - -20. Large post mould & house outlines — — — TOTAL 3 1 3 Table 3.3: Distribution of Calvert's (1970:74) St. Mungo diagnostic archaeological features for sampled areas of three Locarno Beach Culture components. DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 (Whalen I) 1. Stemmed or single shouldered points + + + 2. Bilaterally barbed harpoon - + - 3. Boulder spall tools - 4. Bone rings - - + 5. Brow bands - 6. Varieties of tooth & bone pendants - 7. Bone "charms" - - 8. Large cores - - TOTAL 1 2 2 Page 8 9 ( T a b l e 3 . 1 ) . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h o n l y 3 o f 2 0 matches f o r M a r p o l e d i a g n o s t i c f e a t u r e s ( T a b l e 3 . 2 ) and 1 o f 8 f o r t h e S t . Mungo c u l t u r e ( T a b l e 3 . 3 ) . T h u s , t h e a r t i f a c t d i s t r i b u t i o n from t h e sampled a r e a o f DhRt 6 s u b s t a n t i a t e s r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the sampled a r e a i s a v a l i d Locarno Beach c u l t u r e component. Whalen Farm S i t e , DfRs 3 The sampled a r e a i s r e s t r i c t e d to the o n l y a r e a o f the s i t e w i t h a s t r a t i g r a p h i c p r o f i l e d e l i n e a t i n g t h e two c u l t u r e zones, N 2 0 ' - 2 5 ' , W 0 ' - 3 5 ' ( F i g u r e 3 - 7 ) . Depth of the d e p o s i t i n t h e sample v a r i e s w i t h t h e number o f e x c a v a t e d u n i t s t h a t f a l l c o m p l e t e l y w i t h i n the Whalen I u n i t . A sample o f 8 4 a r t i f a c t s has been c a t a l o g u e d f o r t h e sampled a r e a . Appendix, T a b l e B . l l i s t s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s . Pecked and ground s t o n e , bone, and s h e l l i n d u s t r i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n the assemblage. A l a r g e number o f a b r a s i v e s t o n e s were found i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n , as w e l l as a v a r i e t y of bone t o o l s ( p o i n t s , b i p o i n t s , s c r a p e r s , n e e d l e s and m i s c e l l a n e o u s bone o b j e c t s ) . S h e l l a r t i f a c t s and barbed h a r p o o n s a r e m a j o r a t t r i b u t e s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e DfRs 3 a s s e m b l a g e from D f R t 6 and DhRt 4 . As w i t h DhRt 6 , wood a r t i f a c t s a r e a b s e n t f r o m DfRs 3 . One a n t l e r wedge was r e c o v e r e d , s u g g e s t i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f some w o o d w o r k i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Page 90 DfRs 3 has 7 o f 1 9 d i a g n o s t i c ( 3 7 % ) f e a t u r e s o f t h e Locarno Beach c u l t u r e ( T a b l e 3 . 1 ) i n c o n t r a s t t o 1 ( 5 % ) o f 20 f o r M a r p o l e ( T a b l e 3 . 2 ) and 2 ( 2 5 % ) o f 8 f o r S t . Mungo ( T a b l e 3 - 3 ) p h a s e s . T h i s d a t a s u p p o r t s r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the sampled a r e a r e p r e s e n t s a v a l i d Locarno Beach component. Musqueam NE S i t e , DhRt 4 E x c a v a t i o n u n i t s f o r s a m p l i n g were l i m i t e d t o t h o s e h a v i n g s t r a t i g r a p h i c p r o f i l e s w i t h L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e d e l i n e a t i o n s made by B e r n i c k . U n i t s n e a r the edge o f the Loc a r n o Beach d e p o s i t were e x c l u d e d from t h e sample. Only 12 o f t h e 3 3 e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s had p r o f i l e s t h a t c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d between Zones A and B. 3 3 % of th e s e 12 u n i t s were random sampled w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f D.L. P o k o t y l o ( J a n u a r y 1982). These u n i t s a r e : N2m-4m E10m-12m N2m-4m El8m-20m N4m-6m El4m-l6m N8m-10m El6m-l8m F i e l d n o t e s by A r c h e r and p r o f i l e d r a w i n g s by B e r n i c k were i n v a l u a b l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g v e r t i c a l l o c a t i o n ( i . e . l e v e l s ) of the Locarno Beach component e x c a v a t i o n u n i t . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s f r o m t h e s e f o u r e x c a v a t i o n u n i t s i s l i s t e d by Zone A l and A2 i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e , B . l . A t o t a l o f 428 a r t i f a c t s i s c a t a l o g u e d . A Page 91 t o t a l o f 1 9 0 a r t i f a c t s i s f o u n d i n Zone A2. The wood i n d u s t r y i s the l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y of the assemblage. Of t h e 2 3 8 a r t i f a c t s o f Zone A l ( w a t e r l o g g e d ) , 187 are p e r i s h a b l e r e m a i n s , i n c l u d i n g c o r d a g e , n e t t i n g , wood c h i p s , and b a s k e t r y f r a g m e n t s . R e t o u c h e d and u t i l i z e d f l a k e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e l a r g e s t a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s f r o m t h e a r e a sampled. E v i d e n c e of a woodworking i n d u s t r y s u g g e s t s t h a t e t h n o g r a p h i c a c t i v i t i e s have c o n s i d e r a b l e a n t i q u i t y (Borden 1 9 7 6 ) . A t o t a l of 10 (53%) of t h e 19 p o t e n t i a l L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e d i a g n o s t i c s were r e c o v e r e d f r o m t h e sampled a r e a ( T a b l e 3 . 1 ) . Only 3 (15%) of 20 Marpole d i a g n o s t i c s ( T a b l e 3 . 2 ) and 2 (25%) of 8 S t . Mungo d i a g n o s t i c s ( T a ble 3 . 3 ) were c a t a l o g u e d f r o m a r e a s i n t h e s a m p l e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n c o n f i r m s t h a t m a t e r i a l s a m p l e d i s f r o m a L o c a r n o B e a c h component as suggested by r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s . Page 92 C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s c h a p t e r has r e v i e w e d the t h r e e F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a s i t e s e x c a v a t e d by C E . Borden. A l t h o u g h two o f the s i t e s , DhRt 6 and D f R s 3, were e x c a v a t e d o v e r 30 y e a r s a g o , s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e f r o m B o r d e n ' s s i t e r e c o r d s t o d e t e r m i n e the L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e component a t each s i t e . Due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n of f a c t o r s , o n l y s e l e c t e d a r e a s of e a c h component f r o m each s i t e were s u i t a b l e f o r s a m p l i n g f a u n a l r e m a i n s f o r t h i s s t u d y . A c o m p a r i s o n o f c a t a l o g u e d a r t i f a c t s f r o m sampled a r e a s of each s i t e w i t h d i a g n o s t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s of M a r p o l e , L o c a r n o Beach, and S t . Mungo c u l t u r e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t each sampled assemblage i s d e f i n i t e l y p a r t o f a L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n s u p p o r t s c h r o n o l o g i c a l and s t r a t i g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e , as d e s c r i b e d by Borden (1970) and M i t c h e l l (1971b). 4 3 Chapter 4 METHODS AND RESULTS: THE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE SUBSISTENCE PATTERN Introduction This chapter describes the methods and r e s u l t s of an analysis of Locarno vertebrate faunal remains from DhRt 6, DfRs 3, and DhRt 4. Each assemblage includes mammal, b i r d , and f i s h remains. Non-vertebrate faunal remains including s h e l l f i s h , crab, barnacles, and both land and marine s n a i l s were c o l l e c t e d at DhRt 6 and DfRs 3. However, non- vertebrate faunal remains are not analysed here. Prom the three assemblages, a t o t a l of 6826 s k e l e t a l elements were I d e n t i f i e d to the l e v e l of Family or a more s p e c i f i c taxonomic unit. Of these, 204 elements are mammal (including humman remains), 1042 elements are bi r d , and 5580 elements are f i s h . Page 94 Methods o f I d e n t i f i c a t i o n A l l f a u n a l remains were i d e n t i f i e d by the a u t h o r a t the U.B.C. Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y between J a n u a r y and March 1982. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were made by comparing a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e m a i n s w i t h s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t s from c o m p a r a t i v e v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l c o l l e c t i o n s a t : ( 1 ) the L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y U . B . C , ( 2 ) t h e U.B.C. Z o o l o g y Museum, a n d ( 3 ) t h e A r c h a e o l o g y D i v i s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum a t V i c t o r i a , B.C. D r . N . J . W i l i m o v s k y o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f A n i m a l R e s o u r c e E c o l o g y a t U.B.C. a l s o made a v a i l a b l e h i s d e s c r i p t i v e i l l u s t r a t e d key o f f i s h r e m a i n s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e Yuquot e x c a v a t i o n s on t h e west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d . However, t h i s key was not u s e f u l t o the a u t h o r u n t i l she had l e a r n e d t o i d e n t i f y f i s h remains from c o m p a r a t i v e f a u n a l m a t e r i a l . S i m i l a r problems w i t h keys f o r fa u n a have been r e p o r t e d elsewhere ( C h a p l i n 1971). D e t a i l e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a r e d e s c r i b e d and i l l u s t r a t e d below. F a u n a l remains sampled from each s i t e ' s L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e c o m p o n e n t w e r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h r e e s o u r c e s ( u n s o r t e d m a t e r i a l bags, p r e v i o u s l y s o r t e d f a u n a l bags, and museum e x h i b i t s ) i n t o f o u r g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : (1) mammal, (2) b i r d , (3) f i s h , and (4) u n i d e n t i f i a b l e remains ( F i g u r e 4 . 1 ) . The sample s i z e o f t h e l a t t e r c a t e g o r y was v e r y s m a l l , p r o b a b l y due t o t h e method o f c o l l e c t i n g f a u n a l Page 9 5 m a t e r i a l d u r i n g e a c h e x c a v a t i o n . V a r i e d r e t r i e v a l t e c h n i q u e s a t t h e t h r e e e x c a v a t i o n s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e o f mammal r e m a i n s ( n = 2 0 4 ) . A f t e r i n i t i a l s e p a r a t i o n , mammal, b i r d , and f i s h bones were f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d by s k e l e t a l element and s i d e of the body. C o m p a r a t i v e c o l l e c t i o n s o f e a c h s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t were p r e p a r e d u s i n g a v a i l a b l e o s t e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s and t h e n compared t o c o r r e s p o n d i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e m a i n s of t h a t e l e m e n t . T h i s p r o c e d u r e i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t u s e d and d e s c r i b e d by S u t t o n ( 1 9 7 9 : 3 3 8 ) . Mammal and b i r d r e m a i n s were i d e n t i f i e d i f t h e y r e t a i n e d d i a g n o s t i c m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s , s u c h as a r t i c u l a r s u r f a c e s , f e m o r a , and muscle s c a r s . No a t t e m p t was made t o i d e n t i f y b i r d t o e b o n e s , r i b s , s c a p u l a e or c l a v i c l a , some o f whi c h are d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h a t t h e l e v e l of F a m i l y . F i s h were i d e n t i f i e d t o t h e s p e c i e s l e v e l , where p o s s i b l e . The m a j o r i t y of i d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h r e m a i n s were v e r t e b r a e o r bones o f t h e h e a d . E x c e p t f o r t h e f i r s t i n t e r h y m a l and i n t e r n e u r a l s p i n e s , and the d o r s a l s p i n e of t h e d o g f i s h , no a t t e m p t was made t o i d e n t i f y t h e s p i n e s , r a y s , and r i b s o f f i s h , w hich l a c k s a l i e n t d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e d i a g n o s t i c m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s f o r easy i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n . R e l a t i v e ages of mammal and b i r d remains were r e c o r d e d . C a l v e r t ' s ( 1 9 8 0 : 1 4 3 ) age c a t e g o r i e s a r e used f o r mammals Page 96 Figure 4.1: Flowchart of Laboratory Procedures for Faunal Identification. Museum of Anthropology Dh ST DhRt 4 DfRs 3 Stored Assemblage Samples Unsorted Material Bags Sorted Faunal Bags Museum Exhibits I Mammal Bird —I Fish Unidentifiable Elements I Mammal Comparison A Elements 1 Fish Bird Comparative Vertebrate Faunal Collections l 1 1 I Archaeology Zoology Museum Arch. Division Illustrative Research Lab, U.B.C. U.B.C. B.C.P.M. Keys Page 9 7 ( F i g u r e 4 . 2 ) . S u t t o n ' s ( 1 9 7 9 : 3 3 7 ) "degree o f o s t e o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y " i s us e d f o r b i r d s ( F i g u r e 4 . 3 ) . B o t h s e t s o f c r i t e r i a have been r e l i a b l y used i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f a u n a from c o a s t a l and i s l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g s . S i z e d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . No a t t e m p t was made t o age c l a s s i f y f i s h , n o r t o sex f a u n a l r e m a i n s . Only C a s t e e l ( 1 9 7 6 a ) has age c l a s s i f i e d f i s h t h r ough x-ray photography. R i c k ( 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 9 ) has o f f e r e d p r e c e d e n t s f o r the use o f b i r d m e d u l l a r y bone as a s e a s o n a l d a t i n g t e c h n i q u e i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f a u n a l a n a l y s i s . " M e d u l l a r y bone deve l o p s i n female ( b i r d s ) d u r i n g the b r e e d i n g p e r i o d , when i t s e r v e s as a c a l c i u m s o u r c e f o r the d e v e l o p i n g e g g s h e l l " ( R i c k 1 9 7 5 : 1 ) . Thus, the presence of m e d u l l a r y bone was noted from o n l y the bro k e n b i r d bones i n each assemblage. No at t e m p t was made to c r o s s - s e c t i o n whole b i r d bone i n each assemblage. Page 98 Figure 1.2: Age Categories for Classifying Mammal Remains (after Calvert 1980:143). 1. Adult: element is f u l l size, with epiphyses f u l l y fused and articular facets and muscle ridges developed. 2. Sub-Adult: element is f u l l size or nearly so, but epiphyses are not fully joined, articular facets and muscle ridges developed. With sea mammals, the criterion of epiphyseal union i s less useful than for land mammals, as they retain unfused epiphyses of many elements well into adulthood. Thus, many sea mammal elements have had to be classified as either adult or sub-adult. The sub-adult category is not used for rodents, raccoons or the small mustelids, as i t is roughly equivalent to the juvenile category for these animals. 3. Juvenile: element is less than adult size, s t i l l retains the juvenile cortex, epiphyses are unfused, and muscle attachments are s t i l l developing. The category roughly corresponds to animals in their f i r s t year of l i f e . 4. New Born/Foetal: element is of very small size, morphological features and articular surfaces s t i l l forming, juvenile cortex evident and epiphyses absent. The lack of comparative material, particularly for sea mammals, of definitely new born or definitely foetal ages has necessitated combining these age groupings. This is especially so for sea mammals, as unlike most land mammals, they are precocious. The northern fur seal, for example, sheds i t s deciduous teeth iri utero. Figure 4.3: Age Categories for Classifying Bird Remains (after Sutton 1979:337). 1. 2. 3. Adult: fu l l y matured bone. Sub-Adult: bone is at or near f u l l adult length. Immature: articular ends are unformed, highly grandular. Page 9 9 Methods o f Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n The s a m p l e d L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e component o f e a c h s i t e i s t h e b a s i c u n i t o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e f a u n a l r e m a i n s . Due t o e x c a v a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y , s u b u n i t s o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n based on n a t u r a l l a y e r s or a r b i t r a r y l e v e l s w i t h i n l a y e r s of t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e components a t DhRt 6 , DfRs 3 , and DhRt 4 a r e i m p o s s i b l e . E v a l u a t i n g mammal and b i r d d a t a by s u b u n i t s of a r b i t r a r y l e v e l s would r e s u l t i n an i n f l a t e d v a l u e of minimum number of i n d i v i d u a l s ( G r a y s o n 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e r e f o r e , b o t h e x c a v a t i o n methodology and f a u n a l assemblage s i z e p r e c l u d e the use o f any s u b u n i t s o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n . W h i l e q u a n t i t a t i v e methods a r e h e l p f u l i n d e t e c t i n g p a t t e r n s i n a r c h a e o f a u n a l d a t a , the methods are not w i t h o u t f a u l t s . F a u n a l a n a l y s t s s h o u l d be aware of the sh o r t c o m i n g s of each method employed. In t h i s s t u d y , two u n i t s o f measurement a r e used f o r a n a l y s i n g b o t h mammal and b i r d d a t a . The s k e l e t a l element count (E) i s t h e number o f I d e n t i f i a b l e bone e l e m e n t s p e r t a x o n . A major p r o b l e m w i t h E and i t s use i n s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s i s the unknown degree of in t e r d e p e n d e n c e of the c o u n t e d s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t s ( G r a y s o n 1 9 7 9 ) . As Lyman ( 1 9 8 2 : 3 5 9 ) e x p l a i n s , " t h e r e i s no known t e c h n i q u e t o d e t e r m i n e i f two deer bones o r bone f r a g m e n t s a re from one or two i n d i v i d u a l d e er." A l t h o u g h age and sex d a t a ( C h a p l i n Page 100 1971) would e l i m i n a t e p o t e n t i a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , t h e r e a re s t i l l q u e s t i o n s of how c u l t u r a l ( e . g . b u t c h e r y , " s c h l e p p " ) and p r e s e r v a t i o n f a c t o r s a f f e c t the number o f bone elements or fragments t h a t s u r v i v e i n a s i t e . The E c a l c u l a t i o n here i s c o n s i d e r e d c o n s e r v a t i v e even though no a t t e m p t was made t o match u n p a i r e d i d e n t i f i a b l e f ragments o f the same s k e l e t a l element from the same s p e c i e s from d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of one p i t a t DfRs 3 or DhRt 4. The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e t w o f o l d : (1) most i d e n t i f i e d mammal and b i r d bone e l e m e n t s were w h o l e , t h u s m i n i m i z i n g t h e amount o f f r a g m e n t e d i d e n t i f i a b l e bone from any l e v e l and (2) i d e n t i f i a b l e f r a g m e n t e d bones b r o k e n as a r e s u l t , o f s t o r a g e f r o m one l e v e l were p a i r e d i n most c a s e s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e p e r m i t s c o n s i s t e n t t r e a t m e n t o f remains i n each assemblage, a l t h o u g h i t undermines s t r o n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of b u t c h e r y and d i s p o s a l p a t t e r n s d u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e . The minimum number o f i n d i v i d u a l s (MNI) i s the second u n i t o f measurement employed t o q u a n t i f y mammal and b i r d d a t a . T h i s t e c h n i q u e p r o v i d e s i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( Grayson 1979) t h a t i n t u r n can be used t o c a l c u l a t e v a l u e s f o r e s t i m a t e d u s a b l e meat. However, c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d i n u s i n g MNI, whose v a l u e s v a r y w i t h d i f f e r e n t methods of c a l c u l a t i o n (Grayson 1973). MNI v a l u e s are a l s o i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w i t h sample s i z e , so t h a t a s m a l l sample s i z e Page 1 0 1 i n f l a t e s MNI v a l u e s (Grayson 1 9 7 8 ) . Imamoto ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 ) and Matson ( 1 9 7 6 b : 8 8 ) note t h a t where p e r c e n t a g e s o f E and MNI a r e s i m i l a r f o r t h e same f a u n a l assemblage, the MNI v a l u e p r o b a b l y b e s t r e p r e s e n t s the d a t a i n t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . MNI v a l u e s a v o i d skewing sample s i z e and o v e r e m p h a s i z i n g the number of i d e n t i f i a b l e s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t s p e r s p e c i e s t h a t i s e v i d e n t i n t h e E and w e i g h t methods ( C a s t e e l 1 9 7 8 ) . The low f r e q u e n c y of p a i r e d - e l e m e n t s of f i s h remains i n t h e s e samples ( e s p e c i a l l y of salmon s k u l l bones) p r e v e n t s t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f MNI f o r f i s h by c o n v e n t i o n a l methods. Minimum numbers f o r f i s h can a l s o be e s t i m a t e d by d i v i d i n g the a v e r a g e number of v e r t e b r a e p e r s p e c i e s ( f o u n d i n H a r t 1 9 7 3 ) by the t o t a l v e r t e b r a e remains o f t h i s s p e c i e s p r e s e n t i n t h e s a m p l e . However, t h i s method p r o d u c e d f r a c t i o n s under 1% o f MNI f o r many f i s h s p e c i e s r e p r e s e n t e d by a s m a l l number of i d e n t i f i a b l e bone elements. Because these r e s u l t s w ere d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t when compared a c r o s s e a c h L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e a s s e m b l a g e i n t h i s s t u d y and t o p r e v i o u s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i s h a n a l y s e s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , o n l y E i s p r e s e n t e d f o r f i s h remains. The e s t i m a t e d u s a b l e meat (EUM) i s t h e MNI v a l u e p e r t a x o n m u l t i p l i e d by i t s d r e s s e d meat v a l u e ( s e e Imamoto 1 9 7 6 : 2 9 or White 1 9 5 3 : 3 9 7 - 3 9 8 ) . EUM v a l u e s p r o v i d e a check a g a i n s t some of the af o r e m e n t i o n e d s h o r t c o m i n g s of E and MNI Page 102 v a l u e s . For example, 25 r a c c o o n bone elements and 10 deer bone f r a g m e n t s do n o t i n d i c a t e a major d i e t a r y t r e n d toward r a c c o o n w i t h a l i t t l e deer t o supplement i t . By e m p l o y i n g EUM, d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of b i g and s m a l l mammals a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . In t h i s s t u d y , EUM i s c a l c u l a t e d o n l y f o r mammals ( s e e A p p e n d i x , T a b l e D . l ) . I t i s not i n t e n d e d t o be an a b s o l u t e o r a c t u a l meat v a l u e p e r t a x o n . R a t h e r , EUM i s u s e d s t r i c t l y as i n i n d i c a t o r o f t h e r e l a t i v e d i e t a r y i m p o r t a n c e o f mammals. T h a t i s why u s a b l e meat v a l u e s b a s e d on Imamoto's work (1976:29) i n the d e l t a a r e s i g n i f i c a n t t o o n l y t h r e e d i g i t s i n t h i s s t u d y . U s i n g g r e a t e r a c c u r a c y would o n l y g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t EUM i s b e i n g used as an a b s o l u t e v a l u e f o r u s a b l e meat, and t h i s i s not the c a s e . As a l r e a d y n o t e d , u n i d e n t i f i a b l e remains were s m a l l i n ter m s o f b o t h s i z e o f f r a g m e n t s and p r o p o r t i o n s o f e a c h v e r t e b r a t e t y p e f o r each assemblage. Due to t h e i r p a u c i t y , u n i d e n t i f i a b l e f r a g m e n t s of mammal, b i r d , and f i s h remains were not t a b u l a t e d , a l t h o u g h t o t a l weight of mammal and f i s h remains was o b t a i n e d . Weight d a t a a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r b i r d remains because o n l y a few wing t i p and toe bones ( o r l e s s than 5% of each sample) make-up t h e u n i d e n t i f i a b l e p o r t i o n of each of t h e t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e assemblages. T h e r e f o r e , most o f t h e b i r d a s s e m b l a g e was i d e n t i f i a b l e bone e l e m e n t s o r Page 103 f r a g m e n t s . Human re m a i n s a r e e x c l u d e d from t h e f o l l o w i n g summary. DhRt 6 Assemblage A t o t a l o f 886 bone remains were i d e n t i f i e d from a 10* x 5 ' x 1 2 " b l o c k o f T r e n c h 1 . Of t h e 7 5 8 g o f mammal r e m a i n s , 68% (by w e i g h t ) was i d e n t i f i e d , r e p r e s e n t e d by 48 bone e l e m e n t s . P i s h remains weighed 2 0 9 g o f whi c h 87% (by w e i g h t ) was i d e n t i f i e d . There were 6 8 0 f i s h bone e l e m e n t s . A t o t a l of 158 b i r d bones were i d e n t i f i e d . DfRs 3 Assemblage A t o t a l o f 1 2 0 6 i d e n t i f i a b l e e l e m e n t s a r e i n t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e s a m p l e . Non-human mammal r e m a i n s weighed l O l g of w h i c h 47% (by w e i g h t ) were i d e n t i f i e d , and t h e s e were r e p r e s e n t e d by 48 bone e l e m e n t s . Of the 4 5 9 g o f f i s h r e m a i n s , 83% (by w e i g h t ) was i d e n t i f i e d , r e p r e s e n t i n g 6 7 9 bone e l e m e n t s . A t o t a l o f 4 7 9 b i r d bone e l e m e n t s or fragments were i d e n t i f i e d . Page 104 DhRt 4 Assemblage A t o t a l of 4721 bone remains were i d e n t i f i e d from t h i s a s s e m b l a g e . The 95 i d e n t i f i a b l e non-human mammal bones weighed 1142g or 53% of the t o t a l mammal remains t h a t were c o l l e c t e d . Of t h e 280g o f f i s h r e m a i n s , 235g o r 84% (by w e i g h t ) a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e 4221 i d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h bone ele m e n t s . 405 b i r d bone elements were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . R e s u l t s The V e r t e b r a t e Fauna Sample In a l l a ssemblages, f i s h remains are the most abundant v e r t e b r a t e r e m a i n s , v a r y i n g from 56% t o 89% by bone c o u n t . B i r d s a r e t h e s e c o n d most common v e r t e b r a t e r e m a i n s , c o m p r i s i n g 9% t o 40% by bone count o f the assemblages. The l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g i d e n t i f i a b l e s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t s a r e mammal r e m a i n s , r e p r e s e n t i n g 5% by bone count o f t h e a s s e m b l a g e o r l e s s . T a b l e 4.1 p r e s e n t s t h e s e r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s . A X 2 t e s t v a l u e o f 785.52 ( T a b l e 4.1) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s e s ( e . g . mammals, b i r d s , and f i s h ) t o t h e f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e s of t h e t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach components d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t t h e .001 l e v e l . The r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n each v e r t e b r a t e c l a s s i s d i s c u s s e d below by L o c a r n o Beach Page 105 Table 4.1: Distribution of Vertebrate Remains by Vertebrate Class, A l l Assemblages, E. Taxa/Site Mammal̂ Bird Fish DhRt 6 5 (48) 18 (158) 77 (680) DfRs 3 4 (48) 40 (479) 56 (679) DhRt 4 2 (95) 9 (405) 89 (4221) TOTAL 886 1207 4721 H Q : Equal proportions of mammals, birds, and fish Reject H Q at .001, X 2 >̂  16.268 at 3 degrees of freedom For E - X 2 = 785.52 significant at p = .001 reject H D 1 The mammal category excludes human remains from DfRs 3 (n=7) and DhRt 4 (n=6). Page 106 c u l t u r e component. Mammal remains Based on p r e s e n c e - a b s e n c e , t h e r e i s minor v a r i a t i o n i n mammal t y p e s a c r o s s each assemblage ( T a b l e 4 . 2 ) . Of t h e t h r e e water f o c u s e d mammals ( i . e . harbour s e a l , r i v e r o t t e r , and b e a v e r ) , h a r b o u r s e a l and r i v e r o t t e r a r e found i n a l l t h r e e a s s e m b l a g e s . B e a v e r i s f o u n d a t DfRs 3 and DhRt 4 , but n o t a t DhRt 6 . Deer i s the o n l y l a r g e l a n d mammal t h a t i s p r e s e n t i n each assemblage. E l k and bear a re p r e s e n t i n t h e DhRt 6 and DhRt 4 a s s e m b l a g e s , b u t a b s e n t f r o m t h e DfRs 3 a s s e m b l a g e . M u s k r a t i s o n l y p r e s e n t i n the DfRs 3 assemblage. An i n c r e a s i n g number of mammal t y p e s o c c u r i n samples from DhRt 6 (n= 7 ) , DfRs 3 (n= 8 ) , and DhRt 4 (n = 1 0 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, the i n c e a s e i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and i s p r o b a b l y d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the s m a l l sample s i z e o f mammal remains ( T a b l e 4 . 1 ) . L o c a r n o Beach s i t e , DhRt 6 A t o t a l o f 48 i d e n t i f i a b l e bone elements and f r a g m e n t s r e p r e s e n t s seven s p e c i e s i n t h e mammal assemblage ( T a b l e 4 . 3 ) . E l k , d e e r , and b l a c k b e a r c o l l e c t i v e l y a c c o u n t f o r 6 0 . 5 % o f t h e sample by bone c o u n t , 45% by MNI and 78 .6% by EUM. Har b o u r s e a l i s a f o u r t h major mammal r e s o u r c e w i t h 8.3% by E, 15% by MNI, and 17% by EUM. R i v e r o t t e r i s o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n of t h e sample w i t h 12 .5% by E, 15% by MNI, Page Table 4.2: Presence-Absence Data For Mammal Remains, A l l Assemblages Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 Harbour Seal + , + + River Otter + + + Beaver - + + Muskrat - + Mink _ - + Peromyscus _ - + Striped Skunk + Raccoon + + + Canis + + + Black Bear + - + Deer + + + Elk + - + TOTAL 7 8 10 Page 108 Table 4.3: Identified Mammal Remains from Locarno Beach Site, DhRt 6. Taxa Harbour Seal River Otter Beaver Muskrat Mink Peromyscus Striped Skunk Raccoon Canis Black Bear Deer Elk 8.3( 4) 12.5C 6) 14.6C 7) 4.1( 2) 23.0(11) 25.0(12) 12.5( 6) J(MNI) 15(2) 15(2) 15(2) 10(1) 15(2) 15(2) 15(2) %(EUM in kg) 17.0(118.0) 2.0( 14.0) 1.6( 11.4) 0.8( 5.7) 27.3(190.0) 9.3( 64.8) 42.0(292.0) TOTAL 48 13 695.9 Page 109 and o n l y 2% by EUM. A s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s f o r C a n i s , which i s 4 . 1% by E, 10% by MNI, and 0 .8% EUM. The e l k remains r e p r e s e n t two a d u l t s . Of the two dee r , one i s a d u l t and the I n c o m p l e t e l y f u s e d c e r v i c a l v e r t e b r a i s of a j u v e n i l e i n d i v i d u a l , i n d i c a t i n g a s u m m e r - t o - f a l l season o f d e a t h . One a d u l t and one j u v e n i l e comprise both the bear and r a c c o o n remains, which r e s p e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t summer-to- f a l l and s p r i n g s e a s o n s o f d e a t h . I n a d d i t i o n , s i x bone e l e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t two new born r i v e r o t t e r s , i n d i c a t i n g a s p r i n g season of d e a t h . M a j o r mammal r e s o u r c e s a r e e l k , b l a c k b e a r , d e e r , and harbour s e a l by EUM. Whalen Farm s i t e , DfRs 3 The 48 i d e n t i f i a b l e bone e l e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t e i g h t mammal s p e c i e s ( T a b l e 4 . 4 ) . E l k and b l a c k b e a r , two of the l a r g e l a n d mammal r e s o u r c e s , a r e a b s e n t f r o m t h e sample. The two i d e n t i f i e d bone e l e m e n t s o f de e r make up a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f E (2%) and MNI ( 8 . 5 % ) , but i t s EUM v a l u e i s 2 6 . 7 % . Of t h e s m a l l e r l a n d mammal r e s o u r c e s , m u s k r a t ( 1 0 . 5 % , E; 1 6 . 5 % , MNI; n e g l i g i b l e EUM) i s more f r e q u e n t than b e a v e r (2%, E; 8 . 5 % , MNI; 4 . 6 % , EUM). S t r i p e d skunk i s s t r o n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d by bone count ( 29 . 1 % ) and MNI ( 1 6 . 5 % ) , but EUM i s n e g l i g i b l e . H a rbour s e a l c o n s t i t u t e s the most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g r e s o u r c e by bone count (25%) and EUM Page 110 Table 4.4: Identified Mammal Remains from Whalen Farm Site, DfRs 3. Taxa Harbour Seal River Otter Beaver Muskrat Mink Peromyscus Striped Skunk Raccoon Canis Black Bear Deer Elk *(E) 25. (12) 4.2( 2) 2 ( 1) 10.5( 5) 29.1(14) 21.0(10) 6.2( 3) 2.0( 1) J(MNI) 8.5( 1) 8.5( 1) 8.5( D 16.5( 2) 16.5( 2) 16.5( 2) 16.5( 2) 8.5( 1) 5UEUM in kg) 47.9(59.0) 5.7( 7.0) 4.6( 5.7) 6.2( 7.6) 9.3(11.4) 26.3(32.4) TOTAL 48 12 123.1 •Negligable estimated usable meat value Page 111 ( 4 7 . 9 % ) , but not by MNI (8.5%) i n the sample. T h i s i s not a s u r p r i s e , a s t o d a y , t h e r e i s a r e s i d e n t g r o u p o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 0 - 2 7 5 h a r b o u r s e a l s ( P h o c a v i t u l i n a ) i n Boundary Bay (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 2 5 ) . Ten o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d mammals a r e a d u l t i n d i v i d u a l s . One o f two C a n i s r e m a i n s i s a s u b - a d u l t , and one o f two r a c c o o n i n d i v i d u a l s i s j u v e n i l e ( s p r i n g s e a s o n of d e a t h ) . Of t h e t h r e e m u s k r a t i n d i v i d u a l s , one i s j u v e n i l e . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o i n d i c a t e a season of d e a t h f o r m u s k r a t , as they have up t o t h r e e l i t t e r s i n one y e a r . Deer and h a r b o u r s e a l c o n s t i t u t e t h e m a j o r mammal r e s o u r c e s by E, MNI, and EUM. Musqueam NE s i t e , DhRt 4 There a r e 95 s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e L o c a r n o Beach component ( T a b l e 4 . 5 ) . Ten mammal s p e c i e s a r e p r e s e n t i n the sample. C a n i s dominates the l a n d mammal c a t e g o r y of the sample by E ( 3 2 . 6 % ) and MNI ( 2 7 . 9 % ) , but EUM i s o n l y 7 .0% o f the sample. The t h r e e l a r g e l a n d mammal r e s o u r c e s ( i . e . e l k , d e e r , and b l a c k b e a r ) c o l l e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t 37% o f t h e sample by bone count and 22 .6% o f the sample by MNI. T h e i r EUM v a l u e i s 6 5 . 0 % . By t h e m s e l v e s , e l k and deer c o n t r i b u t e 3 4 . 9 % by bone c o u n t and 1 8 . 1 % by MNI, and 4 7 . 0 % by EUM. Raccoon i s the most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g s m a l l l a n d mammal, Page 112 Table 4.5: Identified Mammal Remains from Musqueam NE Site, DhRt 4. Taxa Harbour Seal River Otter Beaver Muskrat Mink Peromyscus Striped Skunk Raccoon Canis Black Bear Deer Elk 9.5( 9) 1.0( 1) 2.K 2) 2.K 2) 4.2( 4) 11.5(11) 32.6(31) 2.K 2) 22.1(21) 12.8(12) %(MNI) 9.0( 2) 4.5( D 4.5( D 4.5( 1) 9.0( 2) 18.0( 4) 27.9( 6) 4.5( 1) 13.6( 3) 4.5( 1) %(EUM in kg) 23.0(118.0) 1.0( 7.0) 1.0( 5.7) 3.0( 15.2) 7.0( 34.2) 18.0( 95.0) 19.0( 97.2) 28.0(146.0) TOTAL 95 *Negligable estimated usable meat value 22 664.3 Page 1 1 3 c o n t r i b u t i n g 1 1 . 5 % t o the sample by bone count and 1 8 % by MNI. H a r b o u r s e a l d o m i n a t e s t h e w a t e r - f o c u s e d mammal r e s o u r c e s i n t h e assemblage, ( 9 - 5 % , E; 9 % , MNI; and 2 3 . 0 % , EUM) . Most mammal re m a i n s r e p r e s e n t a d u l t i n d i v i d u a l s . Of the t h r e e d e e r , one I s a j u v e n i l e I n d i v i d u a l ( s u m m e r - f a l l s e a s o n of d e a t h ) . T h e r e a r e a l s o two j u v e n i l e r a c c o o n s ( s p r i n g season o f d e a t h ) . The major mammal r e s o u r c e s are e l k , d e e r , and h a r b o u r s e a l by EUM. Summary o f mammal remains At- each s i t e , o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e component was sampled, which p r o b a b l y a f f e c t e d the s a m p l e s i z e o f mammal r e m a i n s f o r e a c h a s s e m b l a g e . E x c a v a t i o n methodology or b u t c h e r y p a t t e r n s ( i . e . " s c h l e p p " ) may a l s o be f a c t o r s . However, t h i s c a n n o t be v e r i f i e d because i n most c a s e s , o n l y one or two specimens o f a bone type i s p r e s e n t per s p e c i e s (see Appe n d i x , T a b l e s C . l , C . 2 , and C . 3 ) . The mammal sa m p l e i s s m a l l f o r t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e . I n 7 5 % o f the c a s e s , each s p e c i e s i s r e p r e s e n t e d by l e s s t h a n 1 0 bone s p e c i m e n s . The s m a l l number o f i d e n t i f i a b l e bone specimens seems t o a f f e c t p e r c e n t a g e s of E and MNI f o r t h e same s p e c i e s i n t h e DhRt 6 and D f R s 3 Page 114 assemblages, whereas p e r c e n t a g e s o f E and MNI do not vary as much a t DhRt 4 ( T a b l e s 4 . 4 , 4 . 5 , and 4 . 6 ) . Thus, c a u t i o n s h o u l d be used i n u s i n g MNI v a l u e s i n t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r mammals (Imamoto 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 , Matson 1 9 7 6 : 2 8 8 ) . Emphasis i n mammal h u n t i n g i s examined by a breakdown of mammal remains i n t o a q u a t i c and l a n d mammal c a t e g o r i e s a t a l l s i t e s ( T a b l e s 4 . 6 and 4 . 7 ) . A q u a t i c mammals i n c l u d e h a r b o u r s e a l , r i v e r o t t e r , and be a v e r ; the whale bone drawn i n t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c p r o f i l e o f t h e Locarno Beach component a t DfRs 3 i s e x c l u d e d . By b o t h p e r c e n t a g e s of E and MNI, l a n d mammals predo m i n a t e the mammal remains ( T a b l e s 4 . 6 and 4 . 7 ) . A X 2 t e s t f o r e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n s o f l a n d and a q u a t i c mammals i s not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the . 0 0 1 l e v e l ( X 2 = 9 . 7 7 8 f o r E; X 2 = . 7 5 9 f o r MNI). The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t a h i g h r a t i o of l a n d mammals t o a q u a t i c mammals p r e v a i l s i n a l l t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e assemblages. A r e v i e w o f T a b l e s 4 . 3 , 4 . 4 , and 4 . 5 s u g g e s t s t h a t the major mammal r e s o u r c e s a r e : DhRt 6 : e l k , d e e r , b l a c k b e a r , harbour s e a l DfRs 3 : d e e r , harbour s e a l DhRt 4: e l k , d e e r , harbour s e a l . T h i s i s n o t a s u r p r i s e s i n c e t h r e e of t h e f o u r s p e c i e s a r e l a n d mammals, and a l l f o u r s p e c i e s p r o v i d e the l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f EUM f o r mammals i n the t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e components. Page 115 Table 1.6: Bone Frequencies E of Aquatic and Land Mammal Remains, A l l Assemblages. Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 Aquatic Mammal Land Mammal 21 ( 1 0 ) 79 ( 3 8 ) 27 (14) 73 (34) 11 (11) 89 (84) TOTAL 48 48 95 Table 1.7: MNI Values of Aquatic and Land Mammal Remains, A l l Assemblages. Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 Aquatic Mammal 30 (4) 15 ( 3 ) 14 (4) Land Mammal 70 (9) 85 ( 1 2 ) 86 (18) TOTAL 13 12 22 H Q = Equal proportions of aquatic and land mammals. Reject H Q at .001, X 2 > 13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom For E - For MNI - X 2 = 9.778 X 2 = .759 not significant at not significant at p=.001 p = .001 do not reject H D do not reject HQ Page 116 G i v e n t h e h i g h meat v a l u e o f d e e r , e l k , and h a r b o u r s e a l ( i . e . t h e major mammals e x p l o i t e d d u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e ) , I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t mammal h u n t i n g p l a y e d a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s t h a n t h e s m a l l f r e q u e n c y o f I d e n t i f i a b l e r e m a i n s i n each a s s e m b l a g e i n d i c a t e s . I s u g g e s t t h a t mammal h u n t i n g o c c u r r e d m a i n l y i n t h e F o r e s t and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge a r e a s o f t h e d e l t a . I t was h e r e t h a t b u t c h e r i n g and d r e s s i n g o f the a n i m a l s took p l a c e , and o n l y the h i g h meat v a l u e bones were " s c h l e p p e d " t o t h e l o c a t i o n s of the t h r e e a s s e m b l a g e s where t h e bones were e v e n t u a l l y d i s c a r d e d . " S c h l e p p i n g " i s a term used t o d e s c r i b e t r a n s p o r t i n g o n l y a p o r t i o n o f an a n i m a l f r o m t h e k i l l s i t e t o a home base ( P e r k i n s and Daly 1968:104). B i r d remains B i r d r e m a i n s a r e t h e s e c o n d most common v e r t e b r a t e remains i n a l l t h r e e assemblages (n=1042; Table 4.1). T a b l e 4.8 t a b u l a t e s t h e p r e s e n c e - a b s e n c e o f b i r d s p e c i e s i n a l l a s s e m b l a g e s . The number o f b i r d s p e c i e s r e p r e s e n t e d a t DhRt 6, DfRs 3, and DhRt 4 i s 17, 23, and 20, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s s u g g e s t s l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n between a v i a n assemblages. Table 4.8: Presence-Absence of Identified Bird Species, A l l Assemblages. Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 Common Loon + Arctic Loon + Horned Grebe + Western Grebe + Double-crested Cormorant Greater Scaup + Bufflehead Oldsquaw + White-winged Scoter + Commom Scoter + Common Merganser Common Murre + Rhinocerous Auklet Canada Goose + Snow Goose Mallard + Pintail + American Widgeon + American Coot Great Blue Heron - Glaucous-winged Gull + Heerman's Gull + Black Oystercatcher Bald Eagle + Northwestern Crow + Raven Great Horned Owl Ruffed Grouse + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + TOTAL 17 23 20 Page 118 Locarno Beach s i t e , DhRt 6 S e v e n t e e n b i r d s p e c i e s r e p r e s e n t t h e 126 b i r d bone remains i n the DhRt 6 assemblage (Table 4 . 9 ) . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a re 32 r a d i i o f u n s p e c i f i e d duck. F i f t e e n s p e c i e s o f w a t e r f o w l and two s p e c i e s o f u p l a n d f o w l a re p r e s e n t . The w a t e r f o w l i n c l u d e n i n e d i v i n g duck s p e c i e s , f o u r s u r f a c e - f e e d i n g ( o r d a b b l i n g ) duck s p e c i e s , and two s c a v e n g i n g s p e c i e s . I n t o t a l w a t e r f o w l a c c o u n t f o r 90% o f t h e assemblage by E and 95% by MNI. D i v i n g ducks c o l l e c t i v e l y d ominate w a t e r f o w l s p e c i e s ( 6 6 % , E; 6 7 % , MNI) f o l l o w e d by s u r f a c e - f e e d e r s ( 1 4 % , Ej 17%, MNI), a d i s t a n t s e c o n d . In c o n t r a s t t o w a t e r f o w l , t h e two s p e c i e s o f u p l a n d f o w l a r e o n l y 12% o f the assemblage by bone count and 7% by MNI. I n c l u d i n g t h e u n s p e c i f i e d duck f a u n a l t y p e , t h e most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t s a r e t h e t h r e e bone ty p e s o f the wing: t h e u l n a (n=51 or 3 2 % ) , r a d i u s (n=37 o r 2 3 % ) , and carpometacarpus (n=32 or 20%) (see Appendix, T a b l e C . 4 ) . Wing bones a c c o u n t f o r 91 . 5 % ( n = l 4 3 ) o f t h e bone e l e m e n t s In the b i r d assemblage ( T a b l e 4.10). Absent from t h e a s s e m b l a g e a r e b i r d bones w i t h i mmature, b u r n t , and m e d u l l a r y bone i n d i c a t o r s . The most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g s p e c i e s a r e common s c o t e r ( 4 4 % , E; 41% MNI), n o r t h w e s t e r n crow ( 1 0 % , E; 4% MNI), and g r e a t e r scaup ( 8 % , E; 9 % , MNI) ( T a b l e 4 . 9 ) . B o t h common s c o t e r and g r e a t e r s c a u p a r e p r e s e n t y e a r round i n the F r a s e r D e l t a , but tend t o be l e s s Page 119 Table 4 . 9 : Identified Bird Remains, Locarno Beach Site (DhRt 6). Taxa Divers Common Loon Arctic Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Greater Scaup Bufflehead Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Merganser Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet % (E) 2 4 2 5 10 2 3 55 1 66(84) % (MNI) 2 1 1 1 1 1 19 1 67(31) Dabblers Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot 4 7 5 14(17) 2 2 3 17(8) Scavengers Great Blue Heron Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Black Oystercatcher 2 8 8(10) 2 2 1(4) Upland Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck 3 12 12(15) 32 1 2 B ~ 1 2 7(3) 19 46 TOTAL 1 Unspecified duck is excluded from calculations of percentages and tota l . Page 120 Table 4 . 1 0 : Distribution of Bird Bone Types, Locarno Beach Site (DhRt 6). Wing Bones (+/-) Leg Bones' (+/-) Wing Bones (n) 1 Leg Bones' (n) Divers Common Loon Arctic Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Greater Scaup Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Murre + + + + + + + + + 2 2 2 4 10 2 2 53 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 Dabblers Canada Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon + + + 1 2 7 5 0 2 0 0 Scavengers Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull 2 5 0 3 Upland Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Unspecified. Duck^ + + 2 9 32 TOTAL 17 91.5(143) 9.5(15) KEY: + = present - = absent n number of identifiable skeletal elements 1 Wing bones include the coracoid, radius, ulna, carpometacarpus, and humerus. 2 Leg bones include the femur, tibiatarsus, and tarsametatarsus. 3 Unspecified duck is a faunal type based totally on the radii of ducks. Page 121 common i n h a b i t a n t s d u r i n g t h e summer months (May t o September). The s a mple o f b i r d r e m a i n s s u g g e s t s l i m i t e d use o f u p l a n d f o w l and s e l e c t e d use o f t h e w a t e r f o w l . The major b i r d r e s o u r c e i s d i v i n g b i r d s . T h e i r p r e s e n c e may i n d i c a t e a c o n c u r r e n c e o f i n s h o r e w a t e r r e s o u r c e s s u c h as p a c i f i c h e r r i n g o r s u r f s m e l t r o e , w h i c h would be abundant d u r i n g spawning i n l a t e w i n t e r ( F e b r u a r y t o A p r i l ) and l a t e s p r i n g t o summer, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Whalen Farm s i t e , DfRs 3 T w e n t y - t h r e e b i r d s p e c i e s r e p r e s e n t the 435 b i r d bone r e m a i n s i n t h e DfRs 3 a s s e m b l a g e ( T a b l e 4 . 1 1 ) . Twenty s p e c i e s o f w a t e r f o w l and t h r e e s p e c i e s o f u p l a n d f o w l a r e p r e s e n t I n the sample. The twenty w a t e r f o w l r e p r e s e n t 11 d i v e r s , f i v e d a b b l e r s , and f o u r s c a v e n g e r s . The w a t e r f o w l c o l l e c t i v e l y a c c o u n t f o r 90% of assemblage by E and 95% by MNI. D i v i n g duck s p e c i e s dominate the a v i f a u n a assemblage ( 5 9 % , E; 6 0 % , MNI), f o l l o w e d by s u r f a c e - f e e d e r s ( 2 8 % , E; 3 0 % , MNI) ( T a b l e 4 . 1 1 ) . There are t h r e e s p e c i e s of u p l a n d f o w l , which a c c o u n t f o r 10% o f the assemblage by bone count and 5% by MNI. I n c l u d i n g u n s p e c i f i e d duck remains, the most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g bone t y p e i s the c a r p o m e t a c a r p u s (n= 2 0 9 o r 43%) and t h e u l n a (n=92 or 19%) (see Appendix, T a b l e C . 5 ) . Wing Page 122 Table 4.11: Identified Bird Remains, Whalen Farm Site (DfRs 3). % (E) % (MNI) Divers Common Loon 7 3 Arctic Loon 22 9 Horned Grebe Western Grebe 5 1 Double-crested Cormorant 2 1 Greater Scaup 36 15 Bufflehead 5 3 Oldsquaw 9 2 White-winged Scoter 11 2 Common Scoter 156 53 Common Merganser 1 1 Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet 1 1 59(255) 60 (91) Dabblers Canada Goose 1 1 Snow Goose 5 3 Mallard 43 17 Pintail 59 17 American Widgeon 14 7 American Coot 28(122) 30(45) Scavengers Great Blue Heron 1 1 Glaucous-winged Gull 6 4 Heerman's Gull 5 2 Black Oystercatcher 1 1 3(13) 5(8) Upland Bald Eagle 1 1 Northwestern Crow 42 5 Raven 2 1 Great-horned Owl - Ruffed Grouse - 10(45) 5(7) Unspecified Duck1 44 23 TOTAL 436 151 1 Unspecified duck is excluded from calculations of percentages and total. Page 123 bones account f o r 82% (n=395) o f the b i r d assemblages ( T a b l e 4 . 1 2 ) . The most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g s p e c i e s i s the common s c o t e r (36%, E; 35%, MNI) ( T a b l e 4 . 1 2 ) . Common s c o t e r i n h a b i t a t s t h e P r a s e r D e l t a f r o m September t o t h e end o f A p r i l . M e d u l l a r y bone I s p r e s e n t i n two bone e l e m e n t s f r o m u n s p e c i f i e d d u c k . B u r n t b i r d bone i s a b s e n t f r o m t h e s a m p l e . Two m a t c h i n g r a d i i o f u n s p e c i f i e d d u c k a r e immature. The s a mple o f b i r d r e m a i n s s u g g e s t s l i m i t e d use o f u p l a n d f o w l and s e l e c t e d use o f w a t e r f o w l . The major b i r d r e s o u r c e i s d i v i n g b i r d s , w h i c h te n d t o be more common i n the F r a s e r D e l t a d u r i n g the w i n t e r months. Musqueam NE s i t e , DhRt 4 Twenty s p e c i e s o f b i r d r e p r e s e n t the 405 i d e n t i f i a b l e b i r d bones In the DhRt 4 assemblage ( T a b l e 4 . 1 3 ) . F i f t e e n s p e c i e s o f w a t e r f o w l and f i v e s p e c i e s of u p l a n d f o w l o c c u r i n t h e s a m p l e . The f i f t e e n s p e c i e s i n c l u d e e i g h t d i v i n g duck t y p e s , s i x d a b b l e r s , and one s c a v e n g e r . The m a j o r i t y o f w a t e r f o w l a r e d i v i n g d u c k s (68%, E; 61%, MNI) ( T a b l e 4 . 1 3 ) . S u r f a c e f e e d i n g ducks are c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s f r e q u e n t t h a n d i v e r s ( 2 5 . 8 % , E; 29%, MNI) ( T a b l e 4 . 1 3 ) . The f i v e s p e c i e s of up l a n d f o w l comprise 6% of the assemblage by bone count and 9% by MNI. Page 124 Table 4.12: Distribution of Bird Bone Types, Whalen Farm Site (DfRs 3). Taxa / Bone Type Wing Bones (+ / - ) 1 Leg , Bones' (+/-) Wing Bones (n) 1 Leg , Bones' (n) Divers Common Loon Arctic Loon Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Greater Scaup Bufflehead Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Merganser Rhinocerous Auklet Dabblers Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon Scavengers ureat blue Heron Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Black Oystercatcher Upland Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Unspecified Duck^ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 4 21 4 1 30 5 7 7 139 1 1 1 5 32 47 14 0 5 1 1 1 24 0 44 3 1 1 1 6 0 2 4 17 0 0 0 0 11 12 0 1 1 4 0 0 18 2 TOTAL 21 15 82(395) 18(84) KEY: + = present - = absent n = number of identifiable skeletal elements 1 Wing bones include the coracoid, radius, ulna, carpometacarpus, and humerus. 2 Leg bones include the femur, tibiatarsus, and tarsametatarsus. 3 Unspecified duck is a faunal type based totally on the radii of ducks. Page 125 Table 4.13: Identified Bird Remains, Musqueam NE Site (DhRt 4). Taxa Divers Common Loon Arctic Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Greater Scaup Bufflehead Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Merganser Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet Dabblers Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot * (E) 4 5 3 1 46 37 38 115 68(249) 2 8 47 36 1 1 25.8(95) % (MNI) 2 3 2 1 15 8 8 26 1 61(65) 1 2 17 9 1 1 29(31) Scavengers Great Blue Heron Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Black Oystercatcher 0.2(1) 1(1) Upland Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck 4 16 1 1 1 6(23) 37 1 5 1 1 1 9(9) 28 TOTAL 368 106 1 Unspecified duck is excluded from calculations of percentages and total, P a g e 1 2 6 I n c l u d i n g u n s p e c i f i e d d u c k r e m a i n s , t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g b o n e t y p e s a r e u l n a ( n = 7 9 o r 2 0 % ) , c a r p o m e t a c a r p u s ( n = 6 8 o r 1 7 % ) a n d h u m e r u s ( n = 6 4 o r 1 6 % ) ( A p p e n d i x , T a b l e C . 6 ) . W i n g b o n e s a r e t h e d o m i n a t e b o n e t y p e s i n t h e b i r d a s s e m b l a g e ( n = 2 9 3 , 7 2 % ; T a b l e 4 . 1 4 ) . C o m m o n s c o t e r r e m a i n s a r e t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g a v i f a u n a i n t h e s a m p l e ( 3 1 % , E ; 2 5 % , M N I ) ( T a b l e 4 . 1 3 ) . C o m m o n s c o t e r i s m o r e c o m m o n d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r m o n t h s i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a . M e d u l l a r y b o n e i s a b s e n t f r o m t h e b r o k e n b o n e s p e c i m e n s . F o u r b o n e e l e m e n t s f r o m t h r e e s p e c i e s o f w a t e r f o w l a n d o n e b o n e e l e m e n t f r o m o n e s p e c i e s o f l a n d f o w l a r e b u r n t . T w o m a t c h i n g h u m e r i i o f n o r t h w e s t e r n c r o w a r e i m m a t u r e , f r o m w h i c h n o d e f i n i t e s e a s o n o f d e a t h c a n b e s u g g e s t e d . T h e s a m p l e o f b i r d r e m a i n s s u g g e s t s l i m i t e d u s e o f u p l a n d f o w l a n d s e l e c t e d u s e o f w a t e r f o w l . M a j o r b i r d r e s o u r c e s a r e d i v i n g b i r d s , w h i c h t e n d t o b e l e s s c o m m o n i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a f r o m M a y t o S e p t e m b e r . S u m m a r y o f t h e b i r d r e m a i n s T h e n u m b e r o f i d e n t i f i a b l e b i r d r e m a i n s f r o m t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e c o m p o n e n t s ( n = 1 0 4 2 ) I s m u c h l a r g e r t h a n t h e n o n - h u m a n m a m m a l s a m p l e ( n = 1 9 1 ) . B e c a u s e o f t h e s a m p l e s i z e , p e r c e n t a g e s o f E a n d M N I a r e v e r y s i m i l a r f o r e a c h b i r d s p e c i e s a n d f o r e a c h c l a s s o f b i r d s ( e . g . d i v i n g Page 127 Table 4.14: Distribution of Bird Bone Types, Musqueam HE Site (DhRt 4). Taxa / Bone Type Wing Bones ' Leg Wing Bones1 Leg Bones^ Bom (+/-) (+/-) (n) (n) Divers Common Loon + + 1 3 Arctic Loon - + 0 5 Horned Grebe + - 3 0 Western Grebe + - 1 0 Greater Scaup + + 31 15 Oldsquaw + + 33 4 White-winged Scoter + + 21 17 Common Scoter + + 102 13 Dabblers Canada uoose + - 2 0 Snow Goose + + 5 3 Mallard + + 8 39 Pintail + - 25 11 American Widgeon + - 1 0 American Coot + — 1 0 Scavengers Glaucous-winged Gull + - 1 0 Upland Bald Eagle + - 4 0 Northwestern Crow + + 14 2 Raven + - 1 0 Great-horned Owl + - 1 0 Ruffed Grouse + 1 0 Unspecified Duck^ + - 37 0 TOTAL 14 10 72(293) 28(112) KEY: + = present - = absent n = number of identifiable skeletal elements Wing bones include the coracoid, radius, ulna, carpometucarpus, and humerus. 2 Leg bones include the femur, tibiatarsus, and tarsametatarsus. 3 Unspecified duck is a faunal type based totally on the radii of ducks. Page 128 w a t e r f o w l , e t c . ) ( T a b l e s 4 . 9 , 4 . 1 1 , and 4 . 1 3 ) . Thus, MNI i s a b e t t e r v a l u e t o use i n t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Emphasis i n b i r d u t i l i z a t i o n i s examined by a breakdown of b i r d remains i n t o u p l a n d f o w l and w a t e r f o w l ( T a b l e s 4 . 1 5 and 4 . 1 6 ) . U p l a n d f o w l i n c l u d e b a l d e a g l e , n o r t h w e s t e r n crow, r a v e n , g r e a t - h o r n e d o w l , and r u f f e d g r o u s e . By b o t h p e r c e n t a g e s o f E and MNI, w a t e r f o w l d o m i n a t e t h e b i r d r e m a i n s i n a l l a s s e m b l a g e s . A X"1 t e s t f o r c o n s t a n t p r o p o r t i o n s o f u p l a n d f o w l and w a t e r f o w l i s not s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 0 1 l e v e l ( T a b l e 4 . 1 6 ) . The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t t h e t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e b i r d a s s e m b l a g e s have a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s o f w a t e r f o w l compared t o u p l a n d f o w l . T h r e e t y p e s o f w a t e r f o w l a r e p r e s e n t i n e a c h a s s e m b l a g e : d i v i n g s p e c i e s , s u r f a c e - f e e d i n g ( o r d a b b l i n g s p e c i e s ) , and s c a v e n g i n g s p e c i e s ( e . g . g u l l s , e t c . ) . A c o m p a r i s o n o f w a t e r f o w l r e m a i n s by d i v i n g and s u r f a c e - f e e d i n g w a t e r f o w l c a t e g o r i e s ( T a b l e s 4 . 1 7 a n d 4 . 1 8 ; A p p e n d i x , T a b l e D . 2 ) r e v e a l s an emphasis i n d i v i n g b i r d s i n a l l t h r e e a s s e m b l a g e s . U s i n g MNI d a t a , a c h i s q u a r e t e s t f o r e q u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f d i v i n g and s u r f a c e - f e e d i n g w a t e r f o w l i s not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the . 0 0 1 l e v e l ( T a ble 4 . 1 8 ) . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t a h i g h r a t i o o f d i v i n g t o s u r f a c e - f e e d i n g b i r d s p r e v a i l s i n a l l t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e a s s e m b l a g e s . That d i v i n g b i r d s p e c i e s make up a Table 4.15: Frequency Data for Waterfowl and Upland Fowl, A l l Assemblages*. Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 % ( E ) 56(E) *(E) Waterfowl 91 (143) 90 (433) 94 (382) Upland Fowl 9 (15) 10 (47) 6 (23) TOTAL 158 480 405 Table 4.16: MNI Data for Waterfowl and Upland Fowl A l l Assemblages* Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 %(MNI) %(MNI) %(MNI) Waterfowl 95 (62) 96 (167) 93 (125) Upland Fowl 5 (3) 4 (7) 7 (9) TOTAL 65 174 134 H Q : Equal proportions of upland fowl and waterfowl. Reject Hc at .001, X 2 > 13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom For MNI - X 2 = 1.19 not significant at p = .001 do not reject H 0 •Includes unspecified duck remains. Page Table 4.17: Frequency Data For Diving Bird and Surface-Feeding Bird Remains, A l l Assemblages*. Taxa/Site DhRt 6 *(n) DfRs 3 %(n) DhRt 4 »(n) Diving Waterfowl 83 (84) 68 (255) 72 (249) Surface-Feeding Waterfowl 17 (17) 32 (122) 28 (95) TOTAL 111 377 344 Table 4.18: MNI Data for of Diving Bird and Surface-Feeding Bird Remains, A l l Assemblages*. Taxa/Site DhRt 6 X(n) DfRs 3 %(n) DhRt 4 %(n) Diving Waterfowl 79 (3D 67 (9D 68 (65) Surface-Feeding Waterfowl 21 ( 8) 33 (45) 32 (3D TOTAL 39 136 96 H Q : Equal contribution of diving and surface feeding waterfowl Reject at .001, X 2 > 13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom. For MNI - X 2 = 1.188 not significant at p = .001 do not reject H 0 * Unspecified duck and scavaging waterfowl are not included (see Appendix, Table D.2). Page 131 l a r g e p a r t o f t h e a v i f a u n a i n a l l t h r e e a s s e m b l a g e s may i n d i c a t e s e l e c t i v e h u n t i n g , p o s s i b l y w i t h submerged n e t s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b s e r v e d by S u t t l e s ( 1 9 5 1 : 7 3 ) . The p r e s e n c e o f d i v i n g b i r d s may a l s o be r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o f p a c i f i c h e r r i n g and t h e i r r o e i n i n s h o r e w a t e r s d u r i n g t h e i r s p a w n i n g s e a s o n s ( l a t e w i n t e r t o s p r i n g ) . The t i m e l y convergence of b i r d h u n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h l a r g e a g g r e g a t i o n s o f spawning f i s h has been s u g g e s t e d a t Deep Bay, Df Ru 7 (Monks 1977 ) and on B o u n d a r y Bay a t C r e s c e n t Beach, DgRr 1 (Ham 1982). T a b l e 4.19 compares t h e number o f b i r d w i n g and l e g bones f o r each assemblage. Wing bones i n c l u d e the c o r a c o l d , p r a d i u s , u l n a , c a r p o m e t a c a r p u s , and humerus. A X t e s t f o r e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n of wing and l e g bones f o r a l l b i r d remains p i n each assemblage i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .001 l e v e l . ( X £ = 21.04). The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the X 2 t e s t i s t h a t the t h r e e s i t e s do not have a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of i d e n t i f i a b l e wing and l e g bone t y p e s . The p a t t e r n p r e v a i l s i n a t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t compares o n l y d i v i n g and s u r f a c e - f e e d i n g w a t e r f o w l f o r a l l assemblages ( T a b l e 4.20). I t may be t h e r e s u l t o f a r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r p e r c e n t a g e o f wing bones (70%) a t DhRt 4 t h a n a t DhRt 6 (88%) and DfRs 3 ( 8 1 % ) . However, t h e r e i s a not s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the .001 l e v e l i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wing and l e g bones f o r a sample o f a l l b i r d s a t o n l y DhRt 6 and DfRs 3 ( T a b l e 4.21). T h i s p a t t e r n Page 132 Table 1.19: Distribution of Bone Type for A l l Bird Remains, A l l Assemblages. Bone Type / Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 ?(n) %(n) J(n) Wings 88(111) 81(351) 70(256) Legs 12 (15) 19 (84) 30(112) TOTAL 126 435 368 H Q : Equal proportions of bird wing and leg bones. Reject at .001, X 2 > 13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom. For E - X 2 = 21.04 significant at p = .001 reject H D Table 4.20: Distribution of Bone Types for Diving and Surface-feeding Waterfowl, A l l Assemblages. Bone Type / Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 %(n) %(n) %(n) Wings 92(93) 85(319) 68(234) Legs 8(8) ' 15(58) 32(110) TOTAL 101 377 344 H 0 = Equal proportion of wing and leg bones for diving and surface-feeding waterfowl. Reject at .001, X 2 _> 13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom. For E - X 2 = 42.56 significant at p = .001 reject H Q Page 133 Table 4.21: Distribution of Bone Types for A l l Birds at DhRt 6 and DfRs 3. Bone Type / Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 *(ri) J(n) Wings 88(111) 81(315) Legs 12(15) 19(84) TOTAL 126 435 H D : Equal proportion of wing and leg bones for a l l birds. Reject at .001, X 2 _> 10.827 at 1 degree of freedom. For E - X 2 = 3.68 not significant at p = .001 do not reject HQ Page 134 s u g g e s t s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f wing bones i n each assemblage, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of b i r d bone t y p e s i s d i f f e r e n t a t DhRt 4 t h a n DhRt 6 and DfRs 3 . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d t o b e t t e r e x c a v a t i o n methodology a t DhRt 4 than a t DhRt 6 and DfRs 3 . P i s h remains P i s h r e m a i n s a r e t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g v e r t e b r a t e r e m a i n s i n a l l t h r e e a s s e m b l a g e s (n = 5580) ( T a b l e 4.1). T a b l e 4.22 compares th e p r e s e n c e - a b s e n c e of f i s h s p e c i e s i n a l l t h r e e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e f i s h a s s emblages. The number of f i s h s p e c i e s p r e s e n t a t DhRt 6 , DfRs 3 , and DhRt 4 i s 17, 14, and 22, r e s p e c t i v e l y ( T a b l e 4.22). In t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y o f s m a l l f i s h remains I s a f f e c t e d by e x c a v a t i o n methods (Table 4.23). 1/4 i n c h mesh o r l a r g e r was u s e d d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n s t o s c r e e n t h e m a t r i x . As Thomas (1969) has n o t e d , 1/4 i n c h mesh f a i l s t o r e c o v e r s m a l l bone e l e m e n t s . Matson e t . a l (1981) and C a l v e r t (1980:173, Table 17) have noted t h a t 1/4 i n c h mesh p r e v e n t s r e t r i e v a l of many s o u t h w e s t e r n B.C. f i s h r emains i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l middens, e s p e c i a l l y the v e r t e b r a e o f p a c i f i c h e r r i n g , e u l a c h o n , n o r t h e r n anchovy, and s u r f s m e l t . S i n c e t h e a s s o r t e d m a t e r i a l s bags o f t h e DhRt 6 a s s e m b l a g e s t i l l c o n t a i n e d m a t r i x , 2mm mesh was used t o Page 135 Table 4.22: Presence of Fish Remains, A l l Assemblages. Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt Dogfish + + + Ratfish + - + Northern Anchovy + - -Pacific Hake + - + Petrale Sole - + + Pacific Halibut + + -English Sole - + -Rockfish - - + Lingcod - - + Pacific Cod + + + Walleye Pollack - - + Big Skate - + + Plainfin Midshipman + - -Pile Perch + - + Great Sculpin - - + Buffalo Sculpin + - -Staghorn Sculpin - + + Sculpin - + + Rock Sole + + + Starry Flounder + + + F l a t f i s h + + + Pacific Herring + + + Surf Smelt + - -Eulachon + - + Minnow - - + Salmon + + + Trout - - + Sturgeon + + + TOTAL 17 14 22 Page 136 Table 4.23: Frequency of Salmon with and without Small Fish 1, DhRt 6 D h R t 6 with small fish without small fish % (E) * ( E ) 40 (281) 7 8 ( 2 8 1 ) Salmon Other fish 60 (399) 2 2 ( 7 7 } TOTAL 680 358 1 Small fish include pacific herring, surf smelt, northern anchovy, and eulachon. Page 137 r e s c r e e n the DhRt 6 m a t e r i a l p r i o r to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a l l f a u n a l remains. T h i s procedure c o u l d not be • d u p l i c a t e d f o r the DfRs 3 and DhRt 4 samples, w h i c h were s c r e e n e d e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h 1/4 i n c h o r l a r g e r mesh d u r i n g e a c h e x c a v a t i o n . The d i s p a r i t y i n r e c o v e r y t e c h n i q u e s a f f e c t e d the composition of f i s h remains i n the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e samples. Consequently, the s m a l l e r bone elements of f i s h such as n o r t h e r n anchovy, eulachon, s u r f smelt, and p a c i f i c h e r r i n g would be u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the samples from DfRs 3 and DhRt 4. Locarno Beach s i t e , DhRt 6 S e v e n t e e n t a x a of f i s h a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e DhRt 6 assemblage ( T a b l e 4.22). Of the 680 I d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h remains by bone count, 281 bone elements ( o r 40% of the assemblage) are salmon (Table 4.24). Surf smelt and p a c i f i c h e r r i n g represent 46% by bone count, with the m a j o r i t y being smelt remains (n=233, 35%). F l a t f i s h account f o r 7% (n=46) o f the sample w h i l e m i d s h i p m e n , p r e s e n t o n l y i n t h i s a s s e m b l a g e , a r e 2% ( n = l l ) of t h e sample. S t u r g e o n , s c u l p i n s , c o d f i s h , r a t f i s h , s p i n y d o g f i s h , e u l a c h o n , and p i l e perch occur l e s s than 1% each by E. P i l e perch and b u f f a l o s c u l p i n are represented by s k u l l remains ( T a b l e 4.25). P a c i f i c h e r r i n g and h a l i b u t were i d e n t i f i e d by s k u l l and v e r t e b r a e remains. E l e v e n f i s h Page 138 Table 4.24: Identified Fish Remains, Locarno Beach Site (DhRt 6). Taxa % (E) Class Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous Fish) Spiny Dogfish 1 Ratfish 6 1 (7) Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fish) Sturgeon 6 Pacific Herring 79 Northern Anchovy 8 Salmon 281 Surf Smelt 233 Eulachon 2 Plainfin Midshipman 11 91 (620) 1 3 .5 (4) 1 2 .5 (3) 9 4 5 28 7 (46) Pacific Cod Pacific Hake Pile Perch Buffalo Sculpin Pacific Halibut Rock Sole Starry Flounder Fla t f i s h TOTAL 680 Page 139 Table 1.25: Distribution of Fish Bone Types, Locarno Beach Site (DhRt 6 ) 1 . Taxa / Bone Type Sturgeon Pacific Herring Northern Anchovy Salmon Surf Smelt Eulachon Plainfin Midshipman Pacific Cod Pacific Hake Pile Perch Buffalo Sculpin Pacific Halibut Rock Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish TOTAL 10 2 1 The cartilaginous fish in the sample (e.g. spiny dogfish and ratfish) are excluded from this table. 2 Atlases and spines are included in the "Only Vertebrae" category Only Only Vertebrae 2 Skull (+/-) (+/-) Skull & Misc. Vertebrae Bones (+/-) (+/-) P a g e 1 4 0 s p e c i e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y o n l y v e r t e b r a l s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t s . T h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t i s v e r t e b r a e ( n = 6 4 0 , 94%). ( F i g u r e 4 . 4 ) O f t h i s , 2 9 % a r e a b d o m i n a l v e r t e b r a e , 1 6 % a r e c a u d a l v e r t e b r a e . F i f t y p e r c e n t c o u l d n o t b e i d e n t i f i e d a s e i t h e r c a u d a l o r a b d o m i n a l v e r t e b r a e . S k u l l ( 1 % ) a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s b o n e e l e m e n t s ( 4 % ) m a k e u p t h e s m a l l e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f i d e n t i f i e d b o n e e l e m e n t s . I n a p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e a u t h o r , s a l m o n e x p e r t H o w a r d R a y m o n d ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 8 5 ) o f t h e C o a s t a l Z o n e E s t u a r i n e s t u d i e s g r o u p o f t h e N o r t h w e s t a n d A l a s k a F i s h e r i e s C e n t e r ( S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e d i a m e t e r o f s a l m o n v e r t e b r a e m a y b e a n i n d i c a t o r o f f i s h s p e c i e s . A l t h o u g h s c i e n t i f i c v e r i f i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s a l s o b e e n o b s e r v e d b y N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r c h a e o l o g i s t s w o r k i n g w i t h f i s h f a u n a ( C a s t e e l 1 9 7 6 : 8 5 , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , H a m , J u l y 1 9 8 1 , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , M a t s o n , J a n u a r y 1 9 8 3 , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , W i g e o n , J u l y 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e d i a m e t e r o f 7 5 % ( n = 2 1 0 ) o f t h e s a l m o n v e r t e b r a e i n t h e s a m p l e w e r e m e a s u r e d . T h e s i z e s o f a b d o m i n a l a n d c a u d a l v e r t e b r a e b r e a k d o w n i n t o t w o d i s t i n c t r a n g e s o r c a t e g o r i e s : l l m m - 1 2 m m 4 8 % ( n = 1 0 1 ) 8 m m - 9mm 5 2 % ( n = 1 0 9 ) R e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r p e r c e n t a g e s o f v e r t e b r a e o c c u r i n t h e l l m m - 1 2 m m ( 4 8 % ) a n d 8 m m - 9 m m ( 5 2 % ) c a t e g o r i e s . R a y m o n d Page 141 Figure 4.4: Most Frequently Occurring Fish Bone Elements, Locarno Beach Site (DhRt 6 ) 1 . 60- n = 673 40- 20- 0- Key: A = Abdominal vertebrae C = Caudal vertebrae M = Miscellaneous vertebrae 2 S = Skull MB = Miscellaneous bones 1 The cartilaginous fish in the sample (e.g. spiny dogfish and ratfish) are excluded from this figure. 2 Miscellaneous vertebrae include herring (n=79) and surf smelt (n=233). Raw data are listed in Appendix, Table C.7. Page 142 ( p e r s o n a l communication, January, 1 9 8 5 ) suggested t h a t the 8 m m - 9 m m v e r t e b r a e are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of sockeye salmon. Smelt and h e r r i n g are abundant s e a s o n a l i n t e r t i d a l r esources at the Locarno Beach s i t e l o c a l i t y . The sum t o t a l o f smelt and h e r r i n g remains (n=312) i s g r e a t e r than the frequency of salmon (n=28l). The poor recovery r a t e of 1/4 i n c h or l a r g e r mesh i n d i c a t e s t h a t smelt and h e r r i n g may have been important resources at t h i s l o c a l i t y , d e s p i t e the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r s i z e of salmon. The Locarno Beach s i t e l o c a l i t y was used f o r s m e l t procurement by Musqueam and Squamish Indians In h i s t o r i c times (Matthews 1955:395, 397). Whalen Farm s i t e , DfRs 3 F o u r t e e n s p e c i e s of f i s h a r e p r e s e n t i n the DfRs 3 assemblage (Table 4.22). Of the three Locarno Beach c u l t u r e components, t h i s assemblage has the second l a r g e s t d i v e r s i t y o f f i s h . S i x - h u n d r e d s e v e n t y - n i n e f i s h r e m a i n s were i d e n t i f i e d to t h e l e v e l of s p e c i e s , genus, or f a m i l y . Salmon a r e the l a r g e s t c a t e g o r y of f i s h remains w i t h 446 (6j%) i d e n t i f i e d bone elements (Table 4.26). In a d d i t i o n to the u n s p e c i f i e d f l a t f i s h category, there are f i v e s p e c i e s of f l a t f i s h , which c o l l e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t 31% of the assemblage. Two bones of s c u l p i n and one bone of b i g skate occur, each l e s s than 1% of the f i s h sample. Only one s p e c i e s o f c o d — p a c i f i c c o d — I s p r e s e n t i n t h e Page Table 4.26: Identified Fish Remains, Whalen Farm Site (DfRs 3). Taxa % (E) Class Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous Fish) Spiny Dogfish 8 Big Skate 1 1.3 (9) Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fish) Sturgeon 6 Pacific Herring 1 Salmon 446 67.0(453) Pacific Cod 4 0.5 (4) Staghorn Sculpin 1 Sculpin 1 0.2 (2) Petrale Sole 15 Pacific Halibut 12 Rock Sole 9 English Sole 8 Starry Flounder 36 Flatfish 131 31.0(211) TOTAL 679 Page 144 assemblage. I t s f o u r i d e n t i f i a b l e bone elements account f o r .5% o f the sample. S t u r g e o n and s p i n y d o g f i s h a l s o o c c u r i n f r e q u e n t l y by bone c o u n t , w i t h 1% ea c h . R o c k f i s h , s u r f s m e l t , and eul a c h o n a r e a b s e n t , w h i l e 1 i d e n t i f i a b l e bone of p a c i f i c h e r r i n g was r e c o v e r e d , r e p r e s e n t i n g o n l y . 1% o f the f i s h remains. Pour of 15 f i s h s p e c i e s p r e s e n t i n t h e assemblage a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by n o n - v e r t e b r a l s k e l e t a l elements ( T a b l e 4.27). H o w e v e r , n i n e t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f t h e i d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h remains are v e r t e b r a e ( F i g u r e 4.5). S k u l l and m i s c e l l a n e o u s bone elements c o l l e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t 1% of the sample. The d i a m e t e r o f 15% (n=68) o f t h e salmon v e r t e b r a e i n the sample were measured. Onl y a b d o m i n a l v e r t e b r a e were i d e n t i f i e d I n t h i s s a m p l e . The s i z e s o f t h e v e r t e b r a e breakdown i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s : 13mm-15mm 10% (n=7) 11mm-12mm 49% (n=33) 8mm- 9mm 41% (n=28) The h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e s o f v e r t e b r a e o c c u r i n t h e llmm-12mm (49%) and t h e 8mm-9mm (41%) c a t e g o r i e s . Very l a r g e s i z e d v e r t e b r a e (13mm-15mm) r e p r e s e n t e d 10% of t h e sample. The 13mm-15mm v e r t e b r a e s t a n d out I n s i z e and may r e p r e s e n t the l a r g e C h i n o o k s a l m o n ( p e r s o n a 1 c o m m u n i c a t i o n , Raymond, J a n u a r y 1 9 8 5 ) . C h i n o o k w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e I n t h e d e l t a Page 145 Table 4.27: Distribution of Fish Bone Types, Whalen Farm Site (DfRs 3 ) 1 . Taxa / Bone Type Only Vertebrae' (+/-) Only Skull ( + / - ) Skull & Vertebrae (+/-) Misc. Bones (+/-) Sturgeon Pacific Herring Salmon Pacific Cod Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin + + Petrale Sole Pacific Halibut Rock Sole English Sole Starry Flounder Fla t f i s h + + + + TOTAL 1 The cartilaginous fish in the sample (e.g. spiny dogfish and ratfish) are excluded from this table. 2 Atlases and spines are included in the "Only Vertebrae" category Page 146 Figure 4.5: Most Frequently Occurring Fish Bone Elements, Whalen Farm Site (DfRs 3)1. 60- 40- 20- 0- n = 670 A C M S MB n=389 n=221 n=57 n=3 n=6 5Q% 33% Q% .5% .5% Key: A = Abdominal vertebrae C = Caudal vertebrae M = Miscellaneous vertebrae S = Skull MB = Miscellaneous bones 1 The cartilaginous fish in the assemblage (e.g. spiny dogfish and big skate) are excluded from this figure. Page 147 d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s p r i n g months when t h e y f e d on spawning h e r r i n g ( B e r r i n g e r 1 9 8 2 : 4 3 , 1 5 1 ) . A f t e r p e r u s i n g the salmon r e m a i n s f r o m a l l f i s h a s s e m b l a g e s i n t h i s s t u d y , i t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t D f R s 3 has t h e o n l y s a m p l e o f s a l m o n v e r t e b r a e i n the 13mm-15mm s i z e range. As n o t e d , salmon a r e t h e p r i n c i p a l f i s h r e s o u r c e by bone count (n=446, 6 0 % ) . F l a t f i s h are the n e x t major f i s h r e s o u r c e (n=211, 3 1 % ) . The use o f s c r e e n s w i t h 1/4 i n c h o r l a r g e r mesh p r o b a b l y a f f e c t e d the r e c o v e r y r a t e of remains of s m a l l boned f i s h . There i s one i d e n t i f i a b l e bone element of p a c i f i c h e r r i n g i n the DfRs 3 sample, which may be a s i g n o f a b u n d a n c e c o n s i d e r i n g s c r e e n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . T h u s , a l t h o u g h h e r r i n g has a v e r y low f r e q u e n c y , i t may have been a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f i s h r e s o u r c e a t t h i s l o c a l i t y . Musqueam NE s i t e , DhRt 4 DhRt 4 has t h e l a r g e s t d i v e r s i t y and sample s i z e o f f i s h ( T a b l e s 4.1 and 4.28). Twenty-two f i s h s p e c i e s account f o r 4221 i d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h bone e l e m e n t s o r f r a g m e n t s . F i f t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t of the assemblage, or 2470 i d e n t i f i a b l e bone elements a r e o f S a l m o n i d a e , i n c l u d i n g two v e r t e b r a e o f s t e e l h e a d t r o u t . There are t h r e e c o d f i s h e s p r e s e n t i n the assemblage: p a c i f i c hake, p a c i f i c cod, and w a l l e y e p o l l a c k , w h i c h c o l l e c t i v e l y a c c o u n t f o r l e s s t h a n 1% o f t h e assemblage by E. F l a t f i s h are the second l a r g e s t c a t e g o r y of Page 148 Table 4.28: Identified Fish Remains, Musqueam NE Site (DhRt 4). % (E) Class Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous Fish) Spiny Dogfish 13 Big Skate 35 Ratfish 5 1.5 (53) Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fish) Sturgeon 108 Pacific Herring 2 Salmon 2470 Steelhead Trout 2 Eulachon 1 61.0 (2583) Pacific Cod 15 Pacific Hake 9 Walleye Pollack 3 0.6 (27) Pile Perch 2 Rockfish 36 Lingcod 37 1.7 (75) Great Sculpin 4 Staghorn Sculpin 15 Sculpin 9 0.6 (28) Pacific Halibut 70 Rock Sole 75 Starry Flounder 184 Flatfish 1119 34.5 (1448) Minnow 7 0.1 (7) TOTAL 4221 Page 149 Figure 4.6: Most Frequently Occurring Fish Bone Elements, Musqueam NE Site (DhRt 4) 1. 60- n = 4168 40- 20- 0- Key: A = Abdominal vertebrae C = Caudal vertebrae M = Miscellaneous vertebrae S = Skull MB = Miscellaneous bones 1 The cartilaginous fish in the assemblage (e.g. spiny dogfish, ratfish, and big skate) are excluded from this figure. Page 150 f i s h remains i n the assemblage, w i t h f o u r s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d r e p r e s e n t i n g 34.5% ( n = l 4 4 8 ) o f the a s s e m b l a g e . The 108 I d e n t i f i a b l e bone e l e m e n t s o f s t u r g e o n a r e t h e s i n g l e l a r g e s t s a m p l e o f s t u r g e o n i n t h e t h r e e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e f i s h a ssemblages. S t u r g e o n remains r e p r e s e n t 2% of the DhRt 4 f i s h sample. E i g h t f i s h s p e c i e s have b e e n i d e n t i f i e d by b o t h v e r t e b r a l and s k u l l s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t s . F i v e s p e c i e s have been i d e n t i f i e d by o n l y v e r t e b r a e or o n l y s k u l l bone t y p e s ( T a b l e 4.29). N i n e t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f the i d e n t i f i e d f i s h remains are v e r t e b r a e ( F i g u r e 4.6). S k u l l and m i s c e l l a n e o u s bone elements r e p r e s e n t 3% each of the sample. The d i a m e t e r o f 19% (n=459) o f the salmon v e r t e b r a e were measured. The s i z e s o f abdominal and c a u d a l v e r t e b r a e breakdown i n t o two d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s : 11mm-12mm 9% (11) 8mm-9mm 91% (448) The sample i s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by the 8mm-9mm v e r t e b r a e , w h i c h may I n d i c a t e a v e r y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f s o c k e y e salmon ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , Raymond, J a n u a r y 1 9 8 5 ) . T h i s s p e c i e s i s f o u n d i n the F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a i n the l a t e summer and f a l l ( H a r t 1973:119). Salmon and f l a t f i s h a r e t h e m a j o r f i s h r e s o u r c e s . A l t h o u g h s c u l p i n s a r e p r e s e n t i n g r e a t e s t number o f s p e c i e s (n=3) and f r e q u e n c y o f remains (n=19) a t DhRt 4 of a l l t h r e e Page 151 Table 4 . 2 9 : Distribution of Fish Bone Types, Musqueam NE Site (DhRt 4 ) 1. Taxa / Bone Type Only Vertebrae' (+/-) Only Skull (+/-) Skull & Vertebrae (+/-) Misc. Bones (+/-) Sturgeon Pacific Herring Salmon Steelhead Trout Eulachon + + Pacific Cod Pacific Hake Walleye Pollack Pile Perch Rockfish Lingcod Great Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin + + Pacific Halibut Rock Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish Minnow TOTAL 1 The cartilaginous fish in the assemblage (e.g. spiny dogfish, ratfish, and big skate) are excluded from this table. 2 Atlases and spines are included in the "Only Vertebrae" category. Page 152 Locarno Beach c u l t u r e assemblages, s c u l p i n s do not con t r i b u t e as much to the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e d i e t as sturgeon, whose weight can reach 1 ton per i n d i v i d u a l (Hart 1973:84). Matson (198la :73,75 ) suggests that sturgeon was an i m p o r t a n t f i s h r e s o u r c e i n the G l e n r o s e Marpole component, located upriver from DhRt 4. Summary of f i s h remains Of the three major taxonomic groups (mammal, b i r d , and f i s h ) , the recovery and consequently the sample size of f i s h remains in the three assemblages have been greatly affected by e x c a v a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y and museum c u r a t i o n . Nevertheless, the f i s h data described above permit the i n i t i a l pattern detection of f i s h resource u t i l i z a t i o n for each assemblage.- The number of i d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h remains (n=5580) in the three Locarno Beach culture samples i s greater than the sum t o t a l of non-human mammal (n= 1 9 D and bird (n=1042) remains. With respect to the t o t a l number of f i s h remains i n each assemblage (DhRt 6, n=680; DfRs 3 , n=679; DhRt 4, n=4221), there i s l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n the number of species present in each assemblage (DhRt 6, n=17; DfRs 3, n=l4; DhRt 4, n=22). Because of low frequency of paired s k e l e t a l elements fo r f i s h remains, MNI cannot be calculated for f i s h . As a Page 153 second c h o i c e , E i s used c a u t i o u s l y i n t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e because of the unknown degree of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s a l m o n and o t h e r f i s h i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 4.30, w h i c h e x c l u d e s s m a l l f i s h d a t a ( e . g . p a c i f i c h e r r i n g , e u l a c h o n , s u r f s m e l t , and n o r t h e r n a n c h o v y ) . I n each Locarno Beach c u l t u r e assemblage, salmon a r e more abundant than the o t h e r f i s h . Salmon v a r y from 59% t o 78% of t h e samples. A X 2 v a l u e o f 63.09 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of salmon and a l l o t h e r f i s h i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . Thus, t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f salmon v a r i e s from s i t e t o s i t e . Salmon a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by o n l y v e r t e b r a e ; c r a n i a l bones a r e a b s e n t f r o m a l l a s s e m b l a g e s . S i m i l a r p a t t e r n i n g o f s a l m o n s k e l e t a l r e m a i n s has o c c u r r e d i n a l l documented F r a s e r D e l t a s i t e s , i n c l u d i n g Beach Grove, DgRs 1 ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , B o y d , December 1980), S t . Mungo, DgRr 2 ( C a l v e r t , p e r s o n a l communication, November 1981), G l e n r o s e , DgRr 6 ( C a s t e e l 1976b),. t h e M a r p o l e component a t Whalen Farm, DfRs 3 (Seymour 1976) and C r e s c e n t Beach, DgRr 1 (Ham, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u l y 1981). Ham (1982) argues t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n i n g o f salmon r e m a i n s i n the l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t s the use of " p r e s e r v e d salmon b a c k s " w i t h i n t a c t v e r t e b r a l columns, or a t y p e o f f i s h - j e r k y used by Northwest Coast h u n t e r s a t s e a s o n a l , l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y s i t e s . Page 154 Table 4 . 3 0 : Comparison of Salmon and Other Fish Remains (Excluding Small Fish Species), A l l Assemblages, E. Taxa / Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 Salmon 78 (281) 66 (446) 59 (2470) Other Fish 22 (77) 34 (232) 41 (1748) TOTAL 358 678 4218 H Q : Equal proportions of salmon and other fish. Reject at .001, X 2 >̂  13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom. For E - X 2 = 63.09 significant at p = .001 reject H Q Page 155 That o n l y salmon v e r t e b r a l e lements o c c u r I n L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e components s u g g e s t s t h i s may have a l s o o c c u r r e d e a r l i e r on the d e l t a . As i n l a t e r p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s , t h i s p a t t e r n i n g may a l s o be r e l a t e d t o salmon p r o c u r e m e n t and p r e s e r v a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . The d i a m e t e r o f s a l m o n v e r t e b r a e may be u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h a t s p e c i e s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e f i s h a s s e m b l a g e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no p u b l i s h e d d o c u m e n t a t i o n t o s u p p o r t i t , the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p I s s u g g e s t e d f o r the sake of argument based on p u b l i s h e d l i v i n g w e i g h t s (Hart 1 9 7 3 : 1 0 6 - 1 2 6 ) and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h a s a l m o n f i s h e r y e x p e r t (Raymond, January 1 9 8 5 ) and a r c h a e o l o g i s t s w o r k i n g i n t h i s a r e a (Ham, J u l y 1 9 8 1 , M a t s o n , J a n u a r y 1 9 8 3 , Wigeon, J u l y 1 9 8 4 ) : Salmon V e r t e b r a e Diameter S p e c i e s 13mm-15mm Chinook llmm-12mm Chum or Coho 8mm-9mm Sockeye Based on t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , i t a p p e a r s t h a t two s p e c i e s o f salmon a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n the DhRt 6 assemblage (sockeye and chum o r c o h o ) , t h r e e s p e c i e s i n t h e D f R s 3 a s s e m b l a g e ( c h i n o o k , chum or coho, and s o c k e y e ) , and a t l e a s t 1 s p e c i e s i n t h e DhRt 4 a s s e m b l a g e ( s o c k e y e ) . I_f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v e r t e b r a e d i a m e t e r and s p e c i e s of salmon i s u p h e l d and _ i f p r e s e n t s e a s o n a l i t y of salmon i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a Page 1 5 6 a r e a can be pushed back 3 0 0 0 y e a r s as suggested by Fladmark ( 1 9 7 5 ) , i t would seem t h a t t h e r e I s evi d e n c e t o suggest t h a t p e o p l e d u r i n g the L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e e x p l o i t e d salmon runs from e a r l y s p r i n g t o l a t e f a l l . The h i g h p e r c e n t a g e ( 9 1 % ) o f 8 m m - 9 m m v e r t e b r a e i n the DhRt 4 assemblage i n d i c a t e s t h a t sockeye salmon might have been e x p l o i t e d i n the nearby F r a s e r R i v e r . Croes ( 1 9 7 5 : 5 7 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t n e t s and net anchors i n the DhRt 4 w a t e r l o g g e d component ( 2 4 5 0 B.P.) may have been u s e d f o r s a l m o n procurement. The co- o c c u r e n c e of l a r g e , d u r a b l e b a s k e t s i n the w a t e r l o g g e d component c o u l d a l s o have been used t o c a r r y o r s t o r e l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f f i s h ( C r o e s 1 9 7 5 : 3 8 ) . E t h n o g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h e h y p o t h e s i s of s o c k e y e salmon t r a w l i n g o f f the F r a s e r D e l t a ' s sand bars and s h o a l s d u r i n g August and September ( B e r r i n g e r 1 9 8 2 : 5 3 ) . However, a t t h i s t i m e , i t c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d i f t h e s o c k e y e v e r t e b r a e were a p r e s e r v e d r e s o u r c e used d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o r w h e t h e r t h e y r e p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e o f o n - s i t e s a l m o n p r o c e s s i n g . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y what s p e c i e s of salmon a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e t h r e e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e a s s e m b l a g e s , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be enough e v i d e n c e a t DhRt 4 to i n d i c a t e a 3 0 0 0 + y e a r c h r o n o l o g y of i n t e n s i v e salmon f i s h i n g i n the F r a s e r R i v e r . Page 157 F l a t f i s h are a l s o an abundant f i s h r e s o u r c e . They were p r o b a b l y a t t r a c t e d t o the d e l t a and e s t u a r y by spawning f i s h ( e . g . h e r r i n g , s m e l t , and o t h e r s ) , as w e l l as s h e l l f i s h . S p i n y d o g f i s h , p a c i f i c h a l i b u t , and r a t f i s h o c c u r i n f r e q u e n t l y I n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a ' s L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e assemblages. These f i s h u s u a l l y d w e l l i n the deep waters of t h e d e l t a f o r e s l o p e . However, t h e i r low f r e q u e n c y i n each assemblage i n d i c a t e s t h a t they may a l s o have been a t t r a c t e d t o t h e e s t u a r y o r , r i v e r s t o f e e d on s p a w n i n g f i s h ( e . g . salmon, p a c i f i c h e r r i n g , s u r f s m e l t , e t c . ) . The low f r e q u e n c y o f p a c i f i c h a l i b u t i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a d u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e c o n t r a s t s w i t h contemporaneous e v i d e n c e a t the Hoko s i t e (45 ca 213) on the W a s h i n g t o n p e n i n s u l a ( C r o e s and H a c k e n b e r g e r 1 9 8 4 ) . At Hoko, deep-water f i s h e x p l o t a t i o n i s i n f e r r e d from th e co- o c c u r e n c e of h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s of h a l i b u t remains and h a l i b u t h o o k s . The F r a s e r D e l t a a s s e m b l a g e s l a c k a deep w a t e r f i s h i n g t o o l k i t ( e . g . h a l i b u t hooks) (Appendix, T a b l e B . l ) . The low f r e q u e n c y of deep water d w e l l i n g f i s h i n the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e F r a s e r D e l t a assemblages s u p p o r t s th e l a c k o f a deep water e x p l o i t a t i v e f i s h i n g s t r a t e g y . Page 158 Season o f E x p l o i t a t i o n Mammals The s m a l l s a m p l e o f mammal r e m a i n s p r e v e n t s u s i n g r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s o f b o n e s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t s as s e a s o n a l i t y m a r k e r s . As an a l t e r n a t i v e , p r e s e n c e - a b s e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 4.31. A problem a r i s e s i n c l a s s i f y i n g h a r b o u r s e a l r e m a i n s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h a d u l t s e a l and s u b - a d u l t i n d i v i d u a l s from the t y p i c a l l y u n f u s e d remains o f a d u l t specimens. S i n c e s e a l s a r e p r e s e n t y e a r round i n the d e l t a a r e a ( T a b l e 2.2), they a r e c l a s s i f i e d as b e i n g p r e s e n t i n each s e a s o n a l i t y c a t e g o r y ( T a b l e 4.3D- J u v e n i l e d e e r i n d i c a t e s s u m m e r - t o - f a l l o c c u p a t i o n a t DhRt 6 and DhRt 4. J u v e n i l e b e a r f u r t h e r s u p p o r t s t h i s s e a s o n a l i t y a t DhRt 6. The p r e s e n c e o f immature r a c c o o n i n a l l assemblages may a l s o i n d i c a t e summer s e a s o n a l i t y . B i r d s U s i n g t h e s e a s o n a l c a t e g o r i e s based on Ham (1982) and Hoos and Packman (1974) f o r t h e P r a s e r D e l t a a r e a ( T a b l e 2.5) the b i r d remains were grouped i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s by MNI v a l u e s : (1) y e a r r o u n d ; ( 2 , 3, 4) w i n t e r (September to A p r i l ) a n d ; ( 5 ) S p r i n g a n d / o r f a l l . The p r e s e n c e o f m e d u l l a r y o r immature bone i s ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a f o u r t h c a t e g o r y , w h i c h s u g g e s t s a summer se a s o n of d e a t h . Page 159 Table 4.31: Presence-Absence of Non-Adult Mammal Fauna, A l l Assemblages. DhRt 6 Winter Spring Summer Fal l Harbour Seal River Otter Deer Black Bear Raccoon + + + + + DfRs 3 Harbour Seal Raccoon Muskrat + + + + + + DhRt 4 Harbour Seal Deer Raccoon + + + Page 160 These broad g r o u p i n g s o f s e a s o n a l i t y c a t e g o r i e s were used t o r e f l e c t t h e t i m e o f t h e y e a r when the s p e c i e s i n q u e s t i o n were most l i k e l y t o be p r e s e n t i n t h e i r g r e a t e s t abundance and h e n c e , most l i k e l y t o have been e x p l o i t e d . C a l v e r t ( 1 9 8 0 : 2 2 5 ) e m p l o y s a s i m i l a r m e t h o d o l o g y a t H e s q u a i t Harbour. The r e s u l t s o f c l a s s i f y i n g L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e b i r d d a t a by s e a s o n a l i t y c a t e g o r i e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 4 . 3 2 . Year round and s p r i n g / f a l l s e a s o n a l i t y a r e p r e s e n t i n low p e r c e n t a g e s f o r each assemblage. Very h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s of MNI o c c u r i n t h e w i n t e r / e a r l y s p r i n g c a t e g o r y ( i . e . S e p t e m b e r t o A p r i l ) i n a l l a s s e m b l a g e s . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h v e r y low p e r c e n t a g e s f o r summer e x p l o i t a t i o n . A t DfRs 3 , u n s p e c i f i e d duck r e m a i n s i n c l u d e two matched immature bones and two r a d i i w i t h m e d u l l a r y bone. The s u g g e s t e d season o f d e a t h i s summer. One immature bone of n o r t h w e s t e r n crow at DhRt 4 c o u l d s u p p o r t t h i s s e a s o n a l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h e v i d e n c e f o r b i r d e x p l o i t a t i o n e x i s t s at a l l s i t e s f o r most o f the s e a s o n s , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a m a j o r e x p l o i t a t i o n o f a v i f a u n a ( p r e d o m i n a t e l y d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l ) from September t o A p r i l . Summer e x p l o i t a t i o n o f immature or n e s t i n g b i r d s seems i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Page Tab l e 4.32: Seasonality of Avifauna, A l l Assemblages, MNI1. Season / Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 % (MNI) % (MNI) % (MNI) Year Round (1) 17 (8) 12 (19) 12 (13) Winter/ Early Spring (2, 3, 4) 81 (37) 85 (130) 87 (93) Spring/Fall (5) 2 (1) 1.1 (2) 0 (0) Summer (Medullary or immature bone) 0 (0) 1.9 (3) 1 (D TOTAL/ 46 154 107 1 Raw data for categories 1 - 5 in Table 4.32 are listed in Append! Table D.3. 2 Unspecified duck remains are excluded. Page 162 F i s h L i k e mammals and b i r d s , few f i s h s p e c i e s of the F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a can be used as 1 s e a s o n a l i t y i n d i c a t o r s based on o n l y t h e i r presence o r absence. Four e x c e p t i o n s a re p a c i f i c h e r r i n g , w h i c h r u n a l o n g s h a l l o w w a t e r beaches f r o m l a t e w i n t e r t o e a r l y s p r i n g ( o r F e b r u a r y t h r o u g h A p r i l ) ; p l a i n f i n m i d s h i p m e n and s o l e , w h i c h spawn i n t h e i n t e r t i d a l zone d u r i n g s p r i n g and e a r l y summer; and s u r f s m e l t , w h i c h a l s o spawn i n t h e I n t e r t i d a l zone d u r i n g the summer. Salmon are a v a i l a b l e y e a r r o u n d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , a l t h o u g h s o c k e y e group and r u n i n the summer and f a l l . I n a d d i t i o n , salmon b u t c h e r y , p r e s e r v a t i o n , and s t o r a g e t e c h n i q u e s p r e c l u d e t h e i r use i n s e a s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s based on p r e s e n c e - a b s e n c e d a t a . Thus, the salmon sample ( C a t e g o r y 6, T a b l e 2.7) from each assemblage i s e x c l u d e d from the p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n . U s i n g s e a s o n a l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n d e f i n e d by Ham (1982) ( T a b l e 2.7), t h e f i s h remains were grouped by bone element i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : (1) y e a r r o u n d ; (2, 3) s p r i n g and e a r l y summer; (4, 5) summer; and (7) w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g . S i n c e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s m a l l - s i z e d f i s h e s ( e . g . p a c i f i c h e r r i n g , e u l a c h o n , s u r f s m e l t , and n o r t h e r n anchovy) was a f f e c t e d by d i f f e r e n t i a l r e c o v e r y t e c h n i q u e s (see Chapter 3), t h e i r bone elements are I n c l u d e d c a u t i o u s l y i n T a b l e 4.33. Page 163 Table 1.33: Seasonality of Fish Fauna, A l l Assemblages, E 1. Season / Site Year Round (1) Spring/Early Summer (2, 3) Summer (4, 5) Late Winter/ Early Spring (7) DhRt 6 % (E) 4 (16) 71 (282) 2 (8) 23 (93) DfRs 3 % (E) 7.6 (18) 0 (0) 0.4 (1) DhRt 4 % (E) 17.8 (312) 92 (215) 81.7 (1429) 0.1 (2) 0.4 (8) TOTAL 399 234 1751 1 Raw data for Table 4.33 are listed in Appendix Table D.4. Page 164 The s e a s o n a l i t y o f f i s h e x p l o i t a t i o n a t DfRs 3 and DhRt 4 appears t o be s i m i l a r . H i g h p e r c e n t a g e s of E o c c u r i n t h e s p r i n g / e a r l y summer c a t e g o r y w i t h low p e r c e n t a g e s of E i n the summer. A s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g f o r t h e s e s i t e s may a c c o u n t f o r t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . A w i n t e r / e a r l y s p r i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n i s c o n f i r m e d f o r a l l assemblages because o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f p a c i f i c h e r r i n g , e v e n t h o u g h l o w p e r c e n t a g e s of E o c c u r i n the DfRs 3 and DhRt 4 assemblages. As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , t h e w i n t e r / e a r l y s p r i n g d a t a may be skewed due t o the p o s s i b l e poor r e c o v e r y of p a c i f i c h e r r i n g . The h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f E f o r DhRt 6 o c c u r s i n the s p r i n g / e a r l y summer c a t e g o r y p r i n c i p a l l y due t o t h e h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f s u r f s melt ( n= 2 3 3 ) . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t t h i s s i t e might have been o c c u p i e d d u r i n g t h e summer s m e l t r u n s . H i s t o r i c i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p o r t s t h i s h y p o t h e s i s so t h a t D h R t 6 may h a v e a 3 0 0 0 + y e a r c h r o n o l o g y o f s m e l t p r o c u r e m e n t . The f i s h s e a s o n a l i t y d a t a ( e x c l u d i n g salmon) su g g e s t t h a t f i s h e x p l o i t a t i o n took p l a c e d u r i n g the w i n t e r t h r o u g h e a r l y summer months a t DhRt 6 and m a i n l y d u r i n g the w i n t e r and s p r i n g a t DfRs 3 and DhRt 4 . Page 1 6 5 Locarno Beach c u l t u r e s e a s o n a l i t y D u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e , t h e r e i s e x p l o i t a t i o n o f a wide v a r i e t y o f v e r t e b r a t e r e s o u r c e s , p r o b a b l y o v e r a l o n g t e rm b a s i s a t e a ch s i t e . B a s e d on f a u n a l e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , e a c h s i t e ' s s e a s o n a l i t y i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r ( T a b l e 4 . 3 4 ) . In a l l a s s e m b l a g e s , e v i d e n c e f o r b i r d e x p l o i t a t i o n i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a o c c u r s c o n s i s t e n t l y f r o m September t h r o u g h A p r i l . L a t e w i n t e r / e a r l y s p r i n g i s a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i n each a s s e m b l a g e by t h e p r e s e n c e o f p a c i f i c h e r r i n g . A w i n t e r / e a r l y s p r i n g o c c u p a t i o n i s s u g g e s t e d a t DhRt 6 and DfRs 3 by t h e c o - o c c u r e n c e o f h e r r i n g and f l a t f i s h . A s p r i n g / e a r l y summer o c c u p a t i o n at DhRt 6 i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by s u r f s m e l t , which i s i n o n l y t h i s assemblage. P a c i f i c h a l i b u t , r a t f i s h , and s p i n y d o g f i s h are u s u a l l y deep w a t e r f i s h t h r o u g h o u t the y e a r . However, t h e i r low f r e q u e n c y may i n d i c a t e t h a t a s m a l l number f o l l o w e d spawning f i s h to the F r a s e r E s t u a r y and R i v e r . S a lmon i s t h e most a b u n d a n t f i s h r e s o u r c e i n a l l a s s e m b l a g e s . I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e p o p u l a t i o n s o f the F r a s e r D e l t a took advantage of the salmon r u n s i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and l o c a l s t r e a m s . N e t s f o r f i s h i n g and b a s k e t s f o r c a r r y i n g or s t o r i n g heavy l o a d s a r e f o u n d In the DhRt 4 w a t e r l o g g e d component. T h e i r p r e s e n c e Page 166 Table 4.34: Presence-Absence of Seasons for Locarno Beach Culture Vertebrate Fauna, A l l Assemblages. Site / Season Winter Spring Summer Fa l l Year Round Mammals + + + + DhRt 6 Birds + - - - + Fish + + - - + Mammals + + + DfRs 3 Birds + + Fish + + - - + Mammals - + + + DhRt 4 Birds + + Fish + + - - + Page 167 s u g g e s t s t h a t DhRt 4 may have been o c c u p i e d f o r p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d s d u r i n g the^ w i n t e r or d u r i n g the l o n g s p r i n g - t o - f a l l salmon runs i n the F r a s e r R i v e r . The s e a s o n a l i t y of n o n - a d u l t mammal remains i s s i m i l a r i n each a s s e m b l a g e . However, t h e s e a s o n a l i t y of h a r b o u r s e a l and n o n - a d u l t r a c c o o n and muskrat i s p r e c a r i o u s . By e x c l u d i n g them from t h e sample, t h e f r e q u e n c y of j u v e n i l e mammal remains i s reduced t o f o u r o c c u r r e n c e s (DhRt 6 , n=3; DhRt 4 , n = l ) i n t h e s p r i n g and s u m m e r - t o - f a l l . A summer s e a s o n a l i t y c o i n c i d e s w i t h e u l a c h o n and salmon runs i n l o c a l streams and r i v e r s . Two new born r i v e r o t t e r s i n the DhRt 6 assemblage p r o b a b l y d i e d i n the s p r i n g , which would c o i n c i d e w i t h h e r r i n g or p o s s i b l y e a r l y s melt f i s h i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e low f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t n o n - a d u l t mammal h u n t i n g was n o t t h e main summertime v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t y . The a l t e r n a t i v e summer v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t y w o u l d be f i s h i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f o r salmon. Locarno Beach c u l t u r e s i t e s e a s o n a l i t y seems t o r e f l e c t s i m i l a r i t i e s i n (1) l o c a l e c o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g s , (2 ) r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y , a n d ( 3 ) a c c e s s t o h a b i t a t s i n w h i c h a g g r e g a t i o n s o f f a u n a o c c u r on a s e a s o n a l b a s i s . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a were hunted or f i s h e d as t h e y a g g r e g a t e d i n g e o g r a p h i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d a r e a s o f the d e l t a . Groups may have i n h a b i t e d a s i t e f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s Page 168 o f time ( e . g . 6 to 8 weeks) t o w a i t f o r , to e x p l o i t , and to p r o c e s s r e s o u r c e s , and then they l e f t the s i t e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e from DhRt 6 and DfRs 3's Locarno B e a c h c u l t u r e c o m p o n e n t s s u p p o r t s a h y p o t h e s i s t h a t o c c u p a t i o n was s e a s o n a l , not ye a r round. A c c o r d i n g t o Ham's ( 1 9 8 2 : 1 8 2 - 1 8 4 ) model o f s h e l l midden l e n s i n g , d i a g n o s t i c s of l o n g term w i n t e r v i l l a g e r e s i d e n c e a r e the p r e s e n c e of p o s t moulds f o r l a r g e , permanent d w e l l i n g s and l e v e l or g r a d u a l l y s l o p i n g s t r a t i g r a p h y . A l l t h r e e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e components l a c k p o s t moulds ( e v i d e n c e f o r l o n g h o u s e s ) , and w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c r o s s - s e c t i o n t h a t i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the s h o r e l i n e , l e n s i n g a t b o t h DhRt 6 and D f R s 3 g a i n s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 f e e t i n v e r t i c a l p r o v e n i e n c e f o r e v e r y 10 f o o t h o r i z o n t a l l e n g t h . T h i s steep s l o p i n g c o n t r a s t s w i t h a 0 f o o t g a i n a t DhRt 4 , which a c c o r d i n g t o Ham's d i a g n o s t i c s i s u n l i k e a s e a s o n a l l y o c c u p i e d s i t e and more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s t r a t i g r a p h y f o u n d a t a l o n g - o c c u p i e d s i t e s u c h as a w i n t e r v i l l a g e . Thus f a r t h e n , s t r a t i g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s an argument f o r s e a s o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a t DhRt 6 and DfRs 3 , w h i l e i t may be f o r p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d s a t DhRt 4 . A t DhRt 6 and DhRt 4 , t h e p r e s e n c e of a s h , c h a r c o a l , and f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k i n d i c a t e s o n - s i t e f o o d p r o c e s s i n g by s t o n e b o i l i n g o r e a r t h o v e n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Ham's ( 1 9 8 2 ) c r i t e r i a , t h i s may be i n d i c a t i v e o f e i t h e r a l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y s i t e or a w i n t e r v i l l a g e s i t e . However, major foo d Page 169 p r o c e s s i n g i s i n f e r r e d from abundant and widespread e v i d e n c e of a s h , c h a r c o a l , and f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k a t DhRt 6, which may be r e l a t e d t o t h e s t e a m i n g o f s h e l l f i s h r e s o u r c e s (Ham 1982:183). Compared t o DhRt 6, the ash, c h a r c o a l , and f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k a t DhRt 4 i s l e s s abundant and w i d e s p r e a d , s u g g e s t i n g l e s s s h e l l f i s h p r e p a r a t i o n . Croes (1975:38) s u p p o r t s t h i s a r g u m e n t : "The g a t h e r i n g o f m o l l u s c s i s p r o b a b l y n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ( a t DhRt 4) s i n c e the s t r a t i g r a p h y does not have a b u n d a n t m o l l u s c r e m a i n s . " T h i s p a t t e r n w o u l d a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e a w i n t e r v i l l a g e o c c u p a t i o n i n Ham's model. H a b i t a t E x p l o i t a t i o n Mammals Emphasis i n h a b i t a t s e l e c t i o n f o r mammals i s examined by a breakdown of MNI f o r each assemblage by f o u r c a t e g o r i e s (Open L i t t o r a l W aters, R i v e r i n e , E s t u a r i n e / P o r e s t Edge, and F o r e s t ) d e f i n e d i n C h a p t e r 2. By MNI, mammal e x p l o i t a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n e a c h c a t e g o r y b u t f o c u s e d I n t h e E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge and F o r e s t h a b i t a t s ( T a b l e 4.35). T h i s does n ot s u p p o r t t h e e a r l y Borden (1951) and D r u c k e r (1955) h y p o t h e s i s of a m a r i n e mammal e x p l o i t a t i v e p a t t e r n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e economy. Page 170 Table 4.35: Mammal Habitat Categories, A l l Assemblages, MNI1. Habitat / Si t e DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 % (MNI) % (MNI) % (MNI) Open L i t t o r a l Water 15 (2) Riverine 15 (2) Estuarine/Forest Edge 24 (3) Forest 46 (6) 8 (1) 9 (2) 17 ( 2 ) 9 (2 ) 67 (8) 5 9 ( 1 3 ) 8 ( 1 ) 23 ( 5 ) Total Combined % (MNI) % (MNI) 10 (5) 15 (6) 50 (24) 25 (12) 23 (1D 77 (36) TOTAL 13 12 22 47 47 Table 4.36: Avifauna Habitat Categories, A l l Assemblages, MNI2. Habitat / S i t e DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 % (MNI) % (MNI) % (MNI) L i t t o r a l / Riverine 67 (3D 60 (91) 62 (65) Sheltered Estuarine Water S t r a n d / L i t t o r a l Interface Mixed Woodlands 17 (8) 30 (45) 29 ( 3 D 9 (4) 5 (8) 1 ( 1 ) 7 (3) 5 (7) 8 (8) Total Combined % (MNI) % (MNI) 62 (187) 62 (187) 28 (84) 28 (84) 4 ( 1 3 ) 6 (18) 10 (32) TOTAL 3 46 151 105 3 0 2 302 1 Appendix, Table D.5 l i s t s raw data for Table 4.35 2 Appendix, Table D.6 l i s t s raw data for Table 4.36. 3 Unspecified and immature b i r d remains are excluded. Page 1 7 1 Locarno Beach s i t e , DhRt 6 Of t h e seven s p e c i e s p r e s e n t , f i v e s p e c i e s a r e i n t h e F o r e s t and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge c a t e g o r i e s w h i l e o n l y two a r e found i n the R i v e r i n e and Open L i t t o r a l w a t e r s . Of the 4 8 mammal bones i n the a s s e m b l a g e , 7 0 % (MNI= 9 ) a r e F o r e s t and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge d w e l l i n g a n i m a l s . T h i r t y p e r c e n t ( MNI = 4 ) l i v e I n t h e Open L i t t o r a l W a t e r s and R i v e r i n e h a b i t a t c a t e g o r i e s . However, two r i v e r o t t e r s i n t h i s assemblage were new borns and p r o b a b l y not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r i v e r i n e s e t t i n g . T h i s s i t u a t i o n s t r e n g t h e n s t h e argument t h a t a n i m a l s o f p r i n c i p a l l y t h e E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge and F o r e s t a r e a were hunted d u r i n g Locarno Beach t i m e s . Whalen Farm s i t e , DfRs 3 Of t h e t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e a s s e m b l a g e s , t h e s m a l l e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f F o r e s t and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge d w e l l i n g mammals o c c u r s i n t h i s a s s e m b l a g e ( 5 s p e c i e s p r e s e n t ) . T h i s i s due t o t h e s m a l l sample s i z e ( n = 4 8 ) i n c l u d i n g t h e absence of two l a r g e l a n d mammals, b l a c k bear and e l k . DfRs 3 may not have been the l o c a t i o n of i n t e n s i v e l a n d mammal h u n t i n g because o t h e r s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r r e d t h e r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e F o r e s t a n d E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t 7 5 % (MNI= 9 ) o f t h e sample. B o t h R i v e r i n e and Open L i t t o r a l Water a n i m a l s a r e p r e s e n t and o c c u r i n the sample, ( 2 5 % , MNI= 3 ) . Page 172 Musqueam NE, DhRt 4 E i g h t y - t h r e e mammal b o n e s i n t h e a s s e m b l a g e a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 7 mammal s p e c i e s t h a t l i v e i n the F o r e s t and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge. Three s p e c i e s ( b e a v e r , r i v e r o t t e r , and harbour s e a l ) account f o r the R i v e r i n e and Open L i t t o r a l Water s p e c i e s . They a c c o u n t f o r 18% ( M N I = 4 ) of t h e mammal a s s e m b l a g e , w h i l e t h e F o r e s t and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge d w e l l i n g fauna r e p r e s e n t 82% (MNI=l8) of the sample. B i r d s F o u r c a t e g o r i e s d e f i n e d i n C h a p t e r 2 a r e u s e d t o examine b i r d h a b i t a t e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a . U n s p e c i f i e d duck and immature b i r d have been e x c l u d e d from the raw d a t a by MNI. The d a t a f o r each assemblage s e p a r a t e i n t o t h r e e a r e a s o f h a b i t a t e x p l o i t a t i o n : ( 1 ) L i t t o r a l / R i v e r i n e Water; (2) S h e l t e r e d E s t u a r i n e Water; and ( 3 ) S t r a n d / L i t t o r a l I n t e r f a c e and Mixed Woodlands ( h e r e a f t e r t e r m e d S t r a n d - U p l a n d s ) ( T a b l e 4 . 3 6 ) . Whereas mammal e x p l o i t a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e b e a c h e s and u p l a n d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the F o r e s t and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge zones, the f o c u s of a v i f a u n a e x p l o i t a t i o n was the f o r e s h o r e of bays and r i v e r s . A v i f a u n a e x p l o i t a t i o n i n t h i s r e g i o n i s no s u r p r i s e s i n c e the m a j o r i t y o f the b i r d s i n each assemblage i s w a t e r f o w l . Page 173 Locarno Beach s i t e , DhRt 6 Of the 17 b i r d s p e c i e s p r e s e n t , n i n e s p e c i e s are i n the L i t t o r a l / R i v e r i n e Water c a t e g o r y ; f o u r a r e i n t h e S h e l t e r e d E s t u a r i n e Water c a t e g o r y ; and f o u r are i n the S t r a n d - U p l a n d s c a t e g o r y . Of the 126 bone elements i d e n t i f i e d t o the l e v e l o f a d u l t s p e c i e s , 6 7 % ( M N I = 3 1 ) r e p r e s e n t t h e L i t t o r a l / R i v e r i n e c a t e g o r y . S e v e n t e e n p e r c e n t (MNI=8) r e p r e s e n t t h e S h e l t e r e d E s t u a r i n e Water c a t e g o r y , and 16% (MNI=7) f a l l i n the S t r a n d - U p l a n d s h a b i t a t c a t e g o r y . Whalen Farm s i t e , DfRs 3 Twenty-three b i r d s p e c i e s and 435 bone el e m e n t s a r e i n t h e a s s e m b l a g e . E l e v e n s p e c i e s i n t h e L i t t o r a l / R i v e r i n e Waters c a t e g o r y a r e 60% (MNI= 9 D o f the sample. F i v e b i r d s p e c i e s o f t h e S h e l t e r e d E s t u a r i n e W a t e r s r e p r e s e n t 30% (MNI=45) o f t h e sample, w h i l e t h e S t r a n d - U p l a n d s i n t e r f a c e component has 10% (MNI=15) and seven s p e c i e s . Musqueam NE s i t e , DhRt 4 Three-hundred, s i x t y - s e v e n b i r d bones i n the assemblage ar e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 20 b i r d s p e c i e s . E i g h t s p e c i e s o c c u r i n t h e L i t t o r a l / R i v e r i n e W a t e r c a t e g o r y and r e p r e s e n t 62% (MNI=65 ) o f t h e s a m p l e . The S h e l t e r e d E s t u a r i n e Water c a t e g o r y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i x b i r d s p e c i e s (29%, M N I = 3 D , as i s the S t r a n d - U p l a n d s a r e a (9%, MNI=9) . Page 1 7 4 F i s h F i s h h a b i t a t e x p l o i t a t i o n i s examined by a breakdown of f i s h bone e l e m e n t s i n t o t h r e e h a b i t a t a r e a s i n t h e d e l t a : the L i t t o r a l Water o f the d e l t a f o r e s l o p e ; t h e T i d a l F l a t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e s t u a r y and i n t e r t i d a l f l a t s ; and the R i v e r i n e a r e a s i n f l u e n c e d by f r e s h w a t e r (Table 4 . 3 7 ) . The number of f i s h s p e c i e s f r o m i n s h o r e ( t i d a l f l a t s and r i v e r i n e a r e a s ) and deep w a t e r zones ( L i t t o r a l W aters) does not v a r y . Y e t , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n s h o r e f i s h remains d o m i n a t e s t h e s a m p l e s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r i n s h o r e s p e c i e s . L o c a r n o Beach s i t e , DhRt 6 Of t h e 1 7 f i s h s p e c i e s r e c o v e r e d i n t h e a s s e m b l a g e , s e v e n s p e c i e s a r e f o u n d i n t h e deep zone, 1 0 In the t i d a l f l a t s and t h r e e s p e c i e s i n t h e r i v e r s . T h r e e s p e c i e s ( s a l m o n , s t u r g e o n , and m i d s h i p m e n ) d w e l l i n two d e l t a h a b i t a t s d e p e n d i n g on t h e s e a s o n . E v e n t h o u g h f i s h d i v e r s i t y ( i . e . number of s p e c i e s ) f o r the two major zones does n o t v a r y , o n l y 5% ( n = 3 3 . 5 ) o f t h e 6 8 0 i d e n t i f i a b l e e l e m e n t s i n the assemblage are of f i s h t h a t p r e f e r L i t t o r a l Water h a b i t a t i n t h e d e l t a compared t o 9 5 % ( n = 6 4 6 . 5 ) t h a t p r e f e r the i n s h o r e t i d a l f l a t s and r i v e r s . Page 175 Table 4.37: Fish Habitat Categories, A l l Assemblages, E 1 Habitat / Site Littoral Waters Tidal Flats Riverine DhRt 6 % (E) 5 (33.5) 74 (501.0) DfRs 3 % (E) 7 (48) 60 (405) 21 (145.5) 33 (226) DhRt 4 % (E) 5 (223) 64 (2700) 31 (1298) Total % (E) 5 (304.5) 65 (3606.0) 30 (1669.5) TOTAL 680 679 4221 5580 Appendix, Table D.7 l i s t s raw data for Table 4.37. Page 176 Whalen Farm s i t e , DfRs 3 Of the 14 f i s h s p e c i e s p r e s e n t i n the assemblage, f i v e s p e c i e s i n c l u d i n g t h r e e v a r i e t i e s of f l a t f i s h , p r e f e r the deep l i t t o r a l w a t e r and e i g h t s p e c i e s i n c l u d i n g two v a r i e t i e s o f s c u l p i n p r e f e r the i n s h o r e w a t e r s . Of t h e 679 i d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h r e m a i n s , deep w a t e r s p e c i e s r e p r e s e n t 7% (n= 4 8 ) o f t h e a s s e m b l a g e . S i x t y p e r c e n t (n= 4 0 5 ) o f t h e sample i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t i d a l f l a t s and 33% (n=226 ) w i t h the r i v e r s . Musqueam NE s i t e , DhRt 4 Twenty-two f i s h s p e c i e s i n t h i s a s s e m b l a g e s e p a r a t e i n t o n i n e s p e c i e s i n t h e l i t t o r a l z o n e ; e l e v e n i n t h e i n s h o r e zone and t h r e e ( s a l m o n , s t u r g e o n , and s t e e l h e a d t r o u t ) i n b o t h major c a t e g o r i e s . S i m i l a r t o DhRt 6 , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r i n s h o r e f i s h i n g s p l i t between the T i d a l F l a t s ( 6 4 % , n= 2 7 0 0 ) and R i v e r i n e ( 3 1 % , n= 1 2 9 8 ) h a b i t a t s . Only 5% (n= 3 0 4 . 5 ) r e p r e s e n t deep water d w e l l i n g f i s h . Once a g a i n , f i s h d i v e r s i t y between t h e two major zones does not v a r y i n the DhRt 4 assemblage, d e m o n s t r a t i n g an i n s h o r e f i s h i n g p a t t e r n . Page 177 Locarno Beach C u l t u r e h a b i t a t e x p l o i t a t i v e p a t t e r n s An e c o n o m y e m p h a s i z i n g f o r e s h o r e r e s o u r c e s c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e economy. Mammal h u n t i n g f o c u s e d on a n i m a l s p r e f e r r i n g F o r e s t and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge a r e a s of t h e F r a s e r D e l t a . D e e r , e l k , and b l a c k b e a r a r e m a j o r r e s o u r c e s . A l t h o u g h h a r b o u r s e a l and r i v e r o t t e r were e x p l o i t e d , t h e y d i d n o t dominate t h e mammal component o f e a c h a s s e m b l a g e . T h i s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b s e n c e o f ev i d e n c e f o r the e x t e n s i v e h u n t i n g of whales, sea l i o n s , and p o r p o i s e s s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s t h e i n f e r e n c e t h a t t h e v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e economy d u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e was not based on marine mammal h u n t i n g . Procurement of a v i f a u n a f o c u s e d on b i r d s t h a t p r e f e r r e d t h e d e l t a ' s f o r e s h o r e e n v i r o n m e n t ( i . e . e s t u a r y ) and bays r a t h e r t h a n a b e a c h and u p l a n d s e t t i n g . W a t e r f o w l ( e s p e c i a l l y d i v i n g b i r d s ) dominate each a s s e m b l a g e . T h i s s u g g e s t s d e f i n i t i v e h a b i t a t s e l e c t i o n , p r o b a b l y t h r o u g h a s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n o l o g y such as submerged n e t s . The a r e a of h a b i t a t s e l e c t i o n f o r a v i f a u n a c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h a t of l a n d mammal h u n t i n g , y e t i t i s complementary. The use of d i f f e r e n t and d i s t i n c t i v e areas w i t h i n the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a shows t h a t Locarno Beach c u l t u r e p o p u l a t i o n s of the t h i s a r e a took advantage of a v a i l a b l e f o o d r e s o u r c e s i n v a r i e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g s . Page 178 L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s p r i m a r i l y f o c u s e d on i n s h o r e s e t t i n g s . Salmon was a m a j o r f i s h r e s o u r c e . The a b u n d a n c e o f s a l m o n i n e a c h a s s e m b l a g e s u g g e s t s t h a t F r a s e r D e l t a p o p u l a t i o n s took advantage of the salmon r u n s i n two a r e a s o f t h e d e l t a : (1) t h e e s t u a r i n e a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e b i g r i v e r s and (2) t h e r i v e r s and l o c a l s t r e a m s . T h i s d i f f e r s f r o m M i t c h e l l ( 1 9 7 1 b : 5 7 - 5 8), who a r g u e s t h a t " t h e l o c a t i o n s of s i t e s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e (L o c a r n o ) t y p e , do n o t , a t p r e s e n t , s uggest the p o p u l a t i o n s had d i r e c t a c c e s s t o the F r a s e r R i v e r salmon runs i n t h e r i v e r i t s e l f . " H a r b o u r s e a l and l i t t o r a l d w e l l i n g f i s h r e m a i n s a r e i n f r e q u e n t i n e a c h a s s e m b l a g e . T h e s e f a u n a p r o b a b l y f o l l o w e d s pawning salmon i n t o t h e d e l t a and i n t u r n were caught by Locarno Beach c u l t u r e f i s h e r m e n . F l a t f i s h are the sec o n d most abundant f i s h r e s o u r c e . They p r e v a i l i n t h e i n s h o r e w a t e r s , p r o b a b l y f e e d i n g on spawning h e r r i n g and s m e l t d u r i n g the s p r i n g . The c o - o c c u r e n c e o f f l a t f i s h and d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l i n d i c a t e s t h a t h e r r i n g and s m e l t may a l s o have been i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s e x p l o i t e d on a s e a s o n a l b a s i s i n t h e i n t e r t i d a l a r e a s o f t h e d e l t a . T h u s , t h e low f r e q u e n c y o f h e r r i n g i s a t t r i b u t e d t o p o o r s c r e e n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . 179 Chapter 5 THE NATURE OF THE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE SUBSISTENCE PATTERN AND ITS PLACE IN THE GULF OF GEORGIA SEQUENCE I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r compares the r e s u l t s of the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l a n a l y s i s t o documented d a t a from F r a s e r D e l t a s i t e s w i t h S t . Mungo (4300-3300 B.P.) and M a r p o l e ( 2 4 0 0 - 1 2 0 0 B.P.) c o m p o n e n t s . As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 1, t h e c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e d e l t a c u l t u r e s i s n o t w e l l u n d e r s t o o d ( T a b l e 1.2). The L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e d a t a a r e used t o e v a l u a t e t h r e e h y potheses about t h e Locarno Beach c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e S t . Mungo and Marpole c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s i n the d e l t a over the l a s t 4500 y e a r s . Page 180 Hypotheses H y p o t h e s i s 1: The Locarno Beach c u l t u r e I s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a marine mammal h u n t i n g economy. The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y l e a d t o t h e r e j e c t i o n o f H y p o t h e s i s 1. M a r i n e mammal e x p l o i t a t i o n was o n l y p a r t of t h e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a d u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e . I n c o n t r a s t t o e v i d e n c e f o r t h e p r o c u r e m e n t o f open l i t t o r a l w a t e r r e s o u r c e s ( s u c h as w h a l e s , p o r p o i s e s , and s e a l i o n s ) i n l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c c o m p o n e n t s a t Hoko R i v e r (45 c a 2 1 3 ) on t h e O l y m p i c P e n i n s u l a (Wigeon 1982) and a t H e s q u a i t Harbour on the west c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d ( C a l v e r t 1 9 8 0 ) , p e o p l e of t h e F r a s e r D e l t a d i d n o t e x t e n s i v e l y e x p l o i t m a r i n e mammals d u r i n g L o c a r n o B e a c h t i m e s . R a t h e r , t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s emphasized l o c a l non-marine mammals and o t h e r non- mammal m a r i t i m e r e s o u r c e s . Harbour s e a l , r i v e r o t t e r , and b e a v e r were t h e o n l y a q u a t i c mammals c a p t u r e d , and by t h e m s e l v e s , t h e s e f a u n a do n o t f o r m a m a j o r p a r t o f t h e e x p l o i t e d v e r t e b r a t e r e s o u r c e s ( T a b l e s 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5). Harb o u r s e a l i s t h e most abundant mammal r e s o u r c e i n t h e Loc a r n o Beach c u l t u r e mammal assemblage a t DfRs 3. In t h i s c a s e , a s m a l l sample s i z e (n=48) and a p o s s i b l y l o n g h i s t o r y o f a l a r g e r e s i d e n t g r o u p o f s e a l s i n Bou n d a r y Bay (Ham Page 181 1982:25) may be f a c t o r s . I would a l s o e x p e c t t o f i n d sea l i o n i n l a r g e r samples o f L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e f a u n a , as they t e n d t o f o l l o w spawning e u l a c h o n , h e r r i n g , and salmon i n t o the F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y ( G u i g u e t 1975:347). However, d u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n of any e x p l o i t a t i o n o f e x o t i c marine mammal f a u n a t h a t a r e not i n d i g e n o u s t o the F r a s e r D e l t a . By E, salmon, l a n d mammals, and d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l were the most i m p o r t a n t v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l r e s o u r c e s e x p l o i t e d by i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e d e l t a . T h i s type of s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n was p r o b a b l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s h e l l f i s h g a t h e r i n g , as i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e c o - o c c u r e n c e o f f l a t f i s h , d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l , and spawning h e r r i n g , and s m e l t . Ham (1982) and Monks ( 1 9 7 7 ) h a v e d o c u m e n t e d s h e l l f i s h a n d h e r r i n g h a r v e s t i n g s i t e s i n t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a r e g i o n d u r i n g Marpole and L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s . T a k i n g i n t o account i t s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e s i z e , s t u r g e o n may have p l a y e d a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e than i t s f r e q u e n c y o f remai n s i n d i c a t e s . Matson ( 1 9 8 l a : 7 5 ) n o t e s the im p o r t a n c e o f s t u r g e o n i n t h e M a r p o l e component a t DgRr 6; t h u s a p a t t e r n o f c o n t i n u i t y f r o m L o c a r n o B e a c h t o M a r p o l e i n s t u r g e o n e x p l o i t a t i o n i s s u g g e s t e d . D e e r , e l k , and h a r b o u r s e a l were the m a j o r mammals e x p l o i t e d d u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e . T h e i r low bone f r e q u e n c y i n each assemblage i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e " s c h l e p p Page 1 8 2 e f f e c t " ( a f t e r P e r k i n s and D a l y 1 9 6 8 : 1 0 4 ) . T h u s , t h e p r o b a b l e rank o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e f o r v e r t e b r a t e -fauna was f i s h , mammals, and w a t e r f o w l . I d e n t i f i a b l e l e g bone fragments s u p p o r t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p o r t i o n s o f d e e r o r e l k w i t h l a r g e meat v a l u e were " s c h l e p p e d " t o the h a b i t a t i o n s i t e a f t e r most of the c a r c a s s was d r e s s e d . These bone fragments may a l s o suggest some on- s i t e a r t i f a c t m a n u f a c t u r i n g . Sesamoids i n each assemblage may have been b r o u g h t t o t h e s i t e a t t a c h e d t o h i d e s . Both o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s o c c u r r e d a t DgRr 1 d u r i n g t h e L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 3 6 3 - 3 6 4 ) and s u g g e s t a l o n g c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e use o f mammal r e s o u r c e s by F r a s e r D e l t a a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s . T h i s r a n k o r d e r f o r v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a i s the same f o r S t . Mungo and Marpole c u l t u r e s (Matson 1 9 7 6 b : 2 9 5 - 3 0 5 ) . The c o n t i n u i t y i n v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l e x p l o i t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s a r e p a r t of an i n s i t u c u l t u r a l development. H y p o t h e s i s 2 : D u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e , s e a s o n a l i t y of v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a s u g g e s t s y e a r round s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y l e a d t o the r e j e c t i o n of H y p o t h e s i s 2 . Page 183 Due t o t e m p e r a t e w i n t e r c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e d e l t a , few v e r t e b r a t e r e s o u r c e s a r e m i g r a t o r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n a d d i t i o n t o r e m a i n s o f f a u n a w i t h known age o f d e a t h and b i r d m e d u l l a r y bone, t h e r e are some f a u n a i n the d e l t a t h a t have been used as s e a s o n a l i t y markers i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . F a u n a l and s t r a t i g r a p h i c d a t a i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t s e a s o n a l s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e s the DhRt 6 and DfRs 3 Locarno Beach c u l t u r e assemblages. F i s h p r o v i d e some o f t h e s t r o n g e s t e v i d e n c e of s e a s o n a l i t y . P a c i f i c h e r r i n g i n a l l t h r e e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e a s s e m b l a g e s s u g g e s t o c c u p a t i o n d u r i n g t h e l a t e w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g . M i g r a t o r y w a t e r f o w l w i n t e r i n the d e l t a . T h e i r abundance i n each assemblage suggests a n o t h e r time o f year when each s i t e was o c c u p i e d . At DhRt 6 , t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f s m e l t remains s u g g e s t s s p r i n g t o e a r l y summer o c c u p a t i o n . Summer o c c u p a t i o n a t DhRt 4 i s s u g g e s t e d by e u l a c h o n remains and a s m a l l sample o f j u v e n i l e mammal r e m a i n s . A l t o g e t h e r , the e v i d e n c e f o r s e a s o n a l i t y i n d i c a t e s t h a t L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e p e o p l e e x p l o i t e d a g g r e g a t e d v e r t e b r a t e r e s o u r c e s i n g e o g r a p h i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d l o c a l i t i e s i n the F r a s e r D e l t a . A b b o t t ( 1 9 7 2 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t the L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e i s a s e a s o n a l v a r i a n t of the Marpole c u l t u r e . However, th e d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t the Locarno Beach s e a s o n a l i t y i s s i m i l a r t o documented M a r p o l e c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s . I n b o t h c u l t u r e t y p e s , s e a s o n a l o c c u p a t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by c o n v e r g e n t Page 184 a g g r e g a t i o n s o f s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e s . For example, spawning s m e l t and h e r r i n g a t t r a c t e d d i v i n g b i r d s and f l a t f i s h t o p r e y on f i s h r o e ; s a l m o n r u n s i n t h e m a j o r r i v e r s and s t r e a m s a t t r a c t e d s e a l s and s t u r g e o n t h a t c o u l d become e n t a n g l e d ( a n d h e n c e a n u i s a n c e ) i n f i s h i n g n e t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a l l t h e s e f a u n a c o u l d be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c a p t u r e d by h u n t e r s , as Monks (1977) shows a t Deep Cove and Ham (1982) a t C r e s c e n t Beach. In t h e s e c a s e s , t h e L o c a r n o Beach' c u l t u r e i s n o t a s e a s o n a l v a r i a n t o f t h e M a r p o l e c u l t u r e . R a t h e r , t h e Locarno Beach c u l t u r e s e a s o n a l i t y i s v e r y M a r p o l e - l i k e , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of some summer e x p l o i t a t i o n of l a n d mammals, s m e l t , and e u l a c h o n . H y p o t h e s i s 3: D u r i n g the L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e , salmon i s the most i m p o r t a n t f i s h r e s o u r c e . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study do not l e a d t o the r e j e c t i o n o f H y p o t h e s i s 3. Salmon remains c o n s t i t u t e an overwhelming p e r c e n t a g e o f the t o t a l number of i d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h remains i n each assemblage. T h i s dominant p e r c e n t a g e may p a r t i a l l y be an a r t i f a c t o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y f o r e a c h component due t o s c r e e n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . As noted b e f o r e , 1/4 i n c h or l a r g e r s c r e e n does n o t r e c o v e r the s m a l l boned f i s h remains of p a c i f i c h e r r i n g , e u l a c h o n , n o r t h e r n anchovy, and s u r f s m e l t . I f an i n f e r e n t i a l e x t r a p o l a t i o n o c c u r r e d f o r Page 185 each assemblage t h a t had some s m a l l boned f i s h , i t would p r o p o r t i o n a l l y i n c r e a s e the percentage of the s m a l l f i s h and d e c r e a s e the p e r c e n t a g e of t h e salmon. Why b o t h e r g o i n g a f t e r s m a l l f i s h when one c o u l d have the l a r g e r salmon? Why n o t , i f t h e r e a r e f r e s h s m a l l f i s h t o e a t i n s t e a d o f p r e s e r v e d salmon. O i l from p a c i f i c h e r r i n g , s u r f s m e l t , and e u l a c h o n w o u l d a l s o be an i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n would c e r t a i n l y a ccount f o r t h e l a r g e numbers o f v e r t e b r a l s a l m on r e m a i n s i n e a c h a s s e m b l a g e — a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o what Ham ( 1 9 8 2 ) d i s c u s s e s i n the l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c m a t e r i a l a t C r e s c e n t Beach and t o what C a l v e r t ( p e r s o n a l c ommunication, January 1 9 8 2 ) found i n a l l components a t t h e S t . Mungo s i t e . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h p a t t e r n s d e t e c t e d a t a f r e s h w a t e r s i t e n ear Lake Washington i n R e n t o n , W a s h i n g t o n . B u t l e r ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , A u g u s t 1 9 8 3 ) f o u n d heads o f spawning,male and female salmon ( p o s s i b l y s o c k e y e ) i n 2 0 0 0 y e a r o l d s i t e s . T h i s e v i d e n c e c a s t s some doubt on t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t spawning salmons' s k u l l remains d e t e r i o r a t e f a s t e r i n middens than non-spawning salmon. Page 186 A Comparison o f S t . Mungo, Locarn o Beach, and Marpole C u l t u r e V e r t e b r a t e S u b s i s t e n c e P a t t e r n s I n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o Beach, and M a r p o l e s u b s i s t e n c e economies, a c o m p a r i s o n of v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l assemblages t h a t r e p r e s e n t each c u l t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d . The c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a base i n c l u d e : 1. Marpole components a t G l e n r o s e Cannery, DgRr 6 — G l e n r o s e I (Matson 1976a, 198la, C a s t e e l 1976b, Imamoto 1974, 1976) 2. Beach G r o v e , DgRs 1 — L a y e r s A, B, C, D, and E (Matson e t . a l 1981) 3. S t . Mungo components a t G l e n r o s e Cannery, DgRr 6 (Matson 1976a 1981a; C a s t e e l 1976b; Imamoto 1974, 1976) and S t . Mungo Cannery, DgRr 2 — S t . Mungo l a b ( C a l v e r t 1970; Boehm 1973ab). The L o c a r n o a s s e m b l a g e s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e u s e d as c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a f o r the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e . As w i t h the comparison of d a t a from d i f f e r e n t s i t e s and e x c a v a t o r s , e x c a v a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y i s p r o b l e m a t i c i n a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y , a s a r e u n i t s o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n ( i . e . l e v e l s o r l a y e r s ) a n d u n i t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t ( i . e . number o f s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t s [ E ] , minimum number o f i n d i v i d u a l s [ M N I ] , o r w e i g h t o f I d e n t i f i a b l e bone) i n the r e s p e c t i v e s i t e r e p o r t s . To a v o i d p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f d i f f e r e n t u n i t s o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n and measurement i n f a u n a l Page 187 s t u d i e s , one must u s e d a t a h a v i n g t h e " l e a s t common d e n o m i n a t o r . " I n t h i s a n a l y s i s , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f " l e a s t common d e n o m i n a t o r s " I s u s e d d e p e n d i n g on (1) t h e s i t e s b e i n g compared and ( 2 ) t h e m a j o r t a x o n o m i c g r o u p s b e i n g compared. Presence-absence i n f o r m a t i o n of v e r t e b r a t e fauna from a l l assemblages f o r a l l components Is used t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t i n u i t y o f s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s based on procurement of r e s o u r c e s i d e n t i f i e d f o r each v e r t e b r a t e a s s e m b l a g e . By comparing the f r e q u e n c y d a t a from each assemblage a c r o s s the t h r e e c u l t u r e s , v a r i a t i o n s i n r e s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n and s e a s o n a l i t y a r e a d d r e s s e d . R e s u l t s B a s e d on p r e s e n c e - a b s e n c e , t h e same m a j o r t y p e s of v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a were e x p l o i t e d i n the d e l t a t h r o u g h o u t t h e S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h , and M a r p o l e c u l t u r e s . Mammal h u n t i n g f o c u s e d on l a n d fauna ( T a b l e 5.1); b i r d procurement emphasized the w a t e r f o w l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f o r e s h o r e areas of bays and r i v e r s ( T a b l e 5.4); and f i s h i n g i n c l u d e d t h o s e t y p e s a v a i l a b l e i n the d e l t a today ( T a b l e 5.7). V a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n major a n i m a l c l a s s e s ( i . e . mammals, b i r d s , and f i s h ) f o r a l l t h r e e c u l t u r e s p e r m i t a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f L o c a r n o Beach's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e S t . Mungo and M a r p o l e c u l t u r e s . Page 188 Mammals Emphasis on mammal h u n t i n g i s examined by a breakdown o f mammal remains f o r a l l assemblages i n t o a q u a t i c and l a n d mammal c a t e g o r i e s . By b o t h number o f s p e c i e s p r e s e n t ( i . e . d i v e r s i t y ) and by bone count, l a n d mammals comprise an p v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f t h e mammal r e m a i n s i n each S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h , and M a r p o l e assemblages ( T a b l e s 5 . 1 and 5 . 2 ) . Deer and e l k a r e t h e f o c u s o f l a n d mammal h u n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a s t 4 5 0 0 y e a r s ( A p p e n d i x , T a b l e E . l ) . They a r e l a r g e a n i m a l s w i t h h i g h meat v a l u e . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one s e a l i o n f r o m t h e DgRs 1 M a r p o l e component and r i v e r o t t e r i n t h e t h r e e L o c a r n o B e a c h components, h a r b o u r s e a l and b e a v e r a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y t h e o n l y a q u a t i c mammals p r e s e n t i n a l l t h r e e d e l t a a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s . The l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of l a r g e marine mammals and t h e i r c o n s i s t e n t l y low f r e q u e n c y of remains i n each assemblage undermines t h e Borden ( 1 9 5 1 ) and D r u c k e r ( 1 9 5 5 ) h y p o t h e s i s o f an i n c i p i e n t m a r i n e mammal s u b s i s t e n c e economy i n the d e l t a d u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e . Boehm ( 1 9 7 3 a b ) and Imamoto ( 1 9 7 4 ) e x p l a i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f h a r b o u r s e a l i n S t . Mungo and M a r p o l e components a t D g R r 2 a n d D g R r 6 , r e s p e c t i v e l y a s p a r t o f a n e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y r e p o r t e d p a t t e r n of c l u b b i n g w h e l p i n g s e a l s Page 189 Table 5.1: Presence-Absence of Mammal in St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta Sites. St. Mungo Locarno Beach Marpole DgRr 6 DgRr 2 DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 DgRr 6 DgRs 1 *<n) %(n) X(n) *(n) J(n) tin) J(n) Land Mammals Elk + + + - + + + Deer + + + + + + + Black Bear + + + - + + - Canis + + + + + + + Porcupine - + - - - Raccoon + + + + + + Squirrel - - - - + Striped Skunk - - - + - - - Peromyscus + + - - + + + Mink - + - - + + + Muskrat - + - + - - - 40(6) 60(9) 33(5) 33(5) 46(7) 40(6) 46(7) Aquatic Mammals Beaver + + + + + + River Otter - + + + - Harbour Seal + + + + + + + Northern Fur Seal - - - - - - + 13(2) 13(2) 13(2) 20(3) 20(3) 1 3 ( 2 ) 20(3) TOTAL J(n) 53(8) 73 (11 ) 46(7) 53(8) 66 (10) 53(8) 66 (10) Table 5.2: Comparison of Land and Aquatic Mammal Remains in St. Mungo, Locarno Beach and Marpole Componants, E 1. St. Mungo Locarno Beach Marpole DgRr 6 DgRr 2 DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 DgRr 6 DgRs 1 J(E) %(E) %(E) »(E) X(E) %(E) J(E) Land Mammal 69(149) 68(189) 79(38) 69(33) 87(83) 84(64) 86(66) Aquatic Mammal 31 (67) 32 (91) 21 (10) 3K15) 13(12) 16(12) 14 (11) TOTAL 216 280 48 48 95 76 77 1 Appendix, Table E.1 l i s t s raw data for Table 5 . 2 . Page 190 I n H a r r i s o n L a k e o r on t h e s h o r e s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r ( B a r n e t t 1 9 5 5 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y might account f o r the presence of two newborn r i v e r o t t e r i n the Locarno Beach component a t DhRt 6 , i t would be a d i f f i c u l t t a s k t o c l u b w h e l p i n g s e a l , as s e a l whelp i n l a r g e herds t o p r o t e c t new b o r n s . An a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t s e a l a r e " a t t r a c t e d t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f net f i s h i n g " (Croes 1 9 7 5 : 5 8 ) . Nets a r e among t h e p e r i s h a b l e r e m a i n s f o u n d i n t h e DhRt 4 w a t e r l o g g e d components. T h i s s i t u a t i o n may be broadened to i n c l u d e sea l i o n , which d w e l l i n the G u l f I s l a n d s d u r i n g the w i n t e r , and t h e r i v e r o t t e r d u r i n g the proc u r e m e n t o f any a g g r e g a t i o n o f m a r i t i m e r e s o u r c e s , s u c h a s f i s h ( e . g . p a c i f i c h e r r i n g or s u r f s m e l t ) , w a t e r f o w l ( e . g . d i v i n g d u c k s ) o r s h e l l f i s h . However, a t t h i s t i m e , I can n o t v e r i f y any o f the s e h y p o t h e s e s , so a l l of them remain v i a b l e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The known age o f n o n - a d u l t bone r e m a i n s i s u s e d t o compare the seasons o f e x p l o i t a t i o n f o r mammals i n the S t . Mungo and M a r p o l e a s s e m b l a g e s a t DgRr 6 to t h o s e f r o m the Locarno Beach components a t DhRt 6 , DfRs 3 , and DhRt 4 . Age o f d e a t h f o r mammal r e m a i n s was n o t d i s c u s s e d i n t h e S t . Mungo ( C a l v e r t 1 9 7 3 ) o r Beach Grove (Matson e t . a l 1 9 8 1 ) s i t e r e p o r t s . These s i t e s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n . T a b l e 5 . 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t s u m m e r - t o - f a l l e x p l o i t a t i o n of j u v e n i l e mammals took p l a c e i n a l l t h r e e Page 191 Table 5.3: Seasons Represented in Mammal Assemblages Based on Presence- Absence of Known Age, St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Cultures. Site / Season Winter Spring Summer Fa l l ST. MUNGO DgRr 6 Deer - - + + Elk - - + LOCARNO BEACH DhRt 6 Harbour Seal + + + + River Otter + + + Deer + + Black Bear + + Raccoon - - + + DfRs 3 Harbour Seal - + + + Raccoon + + Muskrat - + + DhRt 4 Harbour Seal + + + + Deer + + Raccoon - - + + MARPOLE DgRr 6 Harbour Seal + + + + Deer + + Page 192 c u l t u r e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s t y pe of a n a l y s i s does not p r e c l u d e h u n t i n g of a d u l t s p e c i e s a t o t h e r times of the y e a r , i t does emphasize some s i m i l a r i t y i n d e l t a mammal h u n t i n g p a t t e r n s . B i r d s Emphasis i n b i r d u t i l i z a t i o n i s examined by a breakdown o f b i r d remains i n the two S t . Mungo, t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach, and two M a r p o l e components i n t o w a t e r f o w l and u p l a n d f o w l c a t e g o r i e s . I n b o t h number o f s p e c i e s p r e s e n t and bone co u n t , w a t e r f o w l predominate i n a l l assemblages ( T a b l e s 5 . 4 and 5 . 5 ) . A change i n the type of w a t e r f o w l i n g o c c u r s between S t . Mungo t o Locarno Beach c u l t u r e s and Locarno Beach t o Marpole c u l t u r e s ( T a b l e 5 . 6 ) . Frequency d a t a (E) f o r the S t . Mungo components a t DgRr 6 and DgRr 2 and the Mar p o l e components a t DgRs 1 and DgRr 6 i n d i c a t e an emphasis i n s u r f a c e - f e e d i n g w a t e r f o w l , whereas f r e q u e n c y d a t a f r o m the L o c a r n o Beach components a t DhRt 6 , DfRs 3 , and DhRt 4 suggest a s e l e c t i o n f o r d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may be r e l a t e d t o s i t e l o c a t i o n s . D i v i n g w a t e r f o w l f e e d on h e r r i n g and s m e l t , w h i c h do n o t spawn i n f r e s h w a t e r ( H a r t 1 9 7 3 : 9 7 - 9 9 , 1 4 8 - 1 5 0 ) . Thus, d i v i n g b i r d s , h e r r i n g , and s m e l t would n o t be as e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e t o DgRr 2 and DgRr 6 . Page 193 Table 5 . 4 : Presence-Absence of Bird in St. Mungo, Locarno, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta Sites. Diving Waterfowl Loons Grebes Cormorants Murres/Murrelets Diving Ducks St. Mungo Locarno Marpole DgRr 6 DgRr 3 DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 DgRr 6 DgRs 1 %(n) *<n> + + + + 17(2) 42(5) X(n) + + + 34(4) J(n) + + + + 34(4) %(n) + + + 25(3) %(n) %(n) + + 8(1) 25(3) Surface-Feeding Waterfowl Geese + + Swans + + Surface-Feeding Ducks - + 17(2) 25(3) + + + 17(2) 17(2) 17(2) 8(1) 17(2) Scavenging Waterfowl Gulls Other Scavengers 0(0) 17(2) 8W') 17(2) 8(1) 0(0) 8(1) Upland Fowl Upland Fowl + + + + + - + 8(1) 8(1) 8(1) 8(1) 8(1) 0(0) 8(1) Other Unspecified Ducks + + + + + + - 8(1) 8(1) 8(1) 8(1) 8(1) 8(1) 0(0) TOTAL 50( 6) 100(12) 75( 9) 84(10) 66( 8) 24(3) 58( 7) Page 194 Table 5.5: Comparison of Waterfowl and Upland Fowl in St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta Sites, E 1. St. Mungo Locarno Beach Marpole DgRr 6 DgRr 2 DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 DgRr 6 DgRs 1 X(E) 56(E) 56(E) 56(E) 56(E) 56(E) 56(E) Waterfowl 94(30) 88(199) 91(143) 91(434) 94(382) 100(17) 82(147) Upland Fowl 6 (2) 12 (27) 9 (15) 9 (45) 6 (23) 0( 0) 18 (33) TOTAL2 31 226 158 479 405 17 180 Table 5.6: Comparison of Diving Waterfowl and Surface-feeding Waterfowl in St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components for Fraser Delta Sites, E 3. St. Mungo Locarno Beach Marpole DgRr 6 DgRr 2 DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 DgRr 6 DgRs 1 56(E) 56(E) %(E) %(E) 56(E) 56(E) 56(E) Diving Waterfowl 7( 2) 33 (46) 82(83) 68(255) 72(249) 33( 5) 35(49) Surface- feeding Waterfowl 93(29) 67 (94) 18(15) 32(122) 28 (95) 67(10) 65(93) TOTAL4 29 140 101 377 344 15 142 1 Appendix, Table E.2 l i s t s raw data for Table 5.5. 2 Unspecified duck is included in this total. 3 Appendix, Table E.2 l i s t s raw data for Table 5.6. 4 Unspecified duck is excluded from the total. Page 195 I t I s I n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e DgRs 1 M a r p o l e component l a c k s an abundance of d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l , e s p e c i a l l y i n v i e w o f i t s c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e DfRs 3 L o c a r n o component ( s e p a r a t e d by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 . 5 m i l e s a l o n g t h e same s h o r e l i n e ) . M a t s o n e t . a l ( 1 9 8 1 : 5 2 ) b e l i e v e t h a t DgRs 1 was o c c u p i e d f o r " p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d s " as i n d i c a t e d by a wide range o f s p e c i e s (mammals, b i r d s , and f i s h ) p r e s e n t . The DfRs 3 assemblage a l s o r e f l e c t s s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y , but q u a n t i t a t i v e and s t r a t i g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s i t e was o c c u p i e d f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d . T h u s , t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l a t DfRs 3 i s p r o b a b l y more r e l a t e d t o l e n g t h of o c c u p a t i o n t h a n s i t e l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the study a r e a . ^ The a l t e r n a t i o n i n w a t e r f o w l d a t a may a l s o be r e l a t e d t o a change i n w a t e r f o w l p r o c u r e m e n t s t r a t e g i e s . I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h e development of submerged net f o w l i n g t e c h n o l o g y was r a i s e d as a p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r the dominance o f d i v i n g b i r d s i n t h e L o c a r n o Beach components. T h i s may be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the absence of a . h i g h d i v i n g t o s u r f a c e - f e e d i n g b i r d r a t i o i n t h e S t . Mungo component, a l t h o u g h i t c e r t a i n l y does not p r e c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t such a t e c h n o l o g y e x i s t e d d u r i n g the S t . Mungo t i m e s . Page 196 F i s h I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , i t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t L o c a r n o B e a c h s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s e m p h a s i z e d t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f i n s h o r e f i s h ( i . e . t i d a l f l a t s and r i v e r i n e s p e c i e s ) . The same p a t t e r n o c c u r s i n S t . Mungo and Marpole c u l t u r e s . I n a comparison of presence-absence d a t a f o r two S t . Mungo components '(DgRr 6 , DgRr 2 ) , t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach c o m p o n e n t s , and two M a r p o l e components (DgRr 6 , DgRs 1) s p e c i e s o f t h e t i d a l f l a t s and r i v e r s p r e d o m i n a t e ( T a b l e 5 . 7 ) . With the e x c e p t i o n of s p i n y d o g f i s h and E n g l i s h s o l e , l i t t o r a l f i s h s p e c i e s a r e a b s e n t f r o m t h e S t . Mungo and Marpole components. I t f o l l o w s then t h a t a low f r e q u e n c y of deep w a t e r f i s h f o r S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o Beach, and Ma r p o l e c u l t u r e components i s a t t r i b u t e d t o a l a c k o f deep w a t e r f i s h i n g i n t h e G u l f of G e o r g i a a r e a ( T a b l e 5 . 8 ) . T h i s i s su p p o r t e d by the absence of a deep water f i s h i n g t o o l k i t i n assemb l a g e s from a l l t h r e e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s (Borden 1 9 7 0 , C a l v e r t 1 9 7 0 , Matson 1 9 7 4 ) . Thus, f i s h e x p l o i t a t i o n a p p e a r s t o have f o c u s e d i n t h e i n s h o r e a r e a s ( e . g . t i d a l f l a t s and r i v e r s ) f o r the l a s t 4300 y e a r s of G u l f of G e o r g i a p r e h i s t o r y . The p resence of p a c i f i c h e r r i n g i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s has been used as a s e a s o n a l i t y I n d i c a t o r f o r l a t e w i n t e r t h r o u g h e a r l y s p r i n g o c c u p a t i o n (Monks 1 9 7 7 , Matson 1 9 7 6 a , Matson e t . a l 1 9 8 1 , Ham 1 9 8 2 ) . H e r r i n g a r e ab s e n t i n the Page 197 Table 5.7: Presence - Absence Data for Fish in St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta Sites. St. Mungo Locarno Beach Marpole DgRr 6 DgRr 6 DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 DgRr 6 DgRr 6 (Col.) (Unit) (Unit) (Unit) (Unit) (Col.) (Unit) L i t t o r a l Water Spiny Dogfish - + + + + - + Ratfish - - + - + - - Northern Anchovy - + Pacific Hake _ _ + _ + - - Petrale Sole - - - + - - - Pacific Halibut _ _ + + + - - English Sole _ _ _ + _ _ + Ratfish - - - - + - - Lingcod - - - - + - - Pacific Cod _ _ + + + - - Walleye Pollack _ _ _ _ + - - Big Skate _ _ _ + + - - Plainfin Midshipman _ _ + _ - - - %(n) 0 ( 0 ) 3 ( 1 ) 2 3 ( 7 ) 2 0 ( 6 ) 3 0 ( 9 ) 0 ( 0 ) 7 ( 2 ) Tidal Flats Pile Perch - - + - + - - Great Sculpin - - - - + - - Buffalo Sculpin _ _ + _ _ _ _ Staghorn Sculpin _ _ _ + + - + Sculpin - - - + + - + Rock Sole - - + + + - + Rex Sole _ _ _ _ _ - + Starry Flounder _ _ + + + - + Flatfish + + + + + - + Pacific Herring _ _ + + + + + Surf Smelt _ _ + _ _ _ _ %(n) 3 ( 1 ) 3 ( 1 ) 2 3 ( 7 ) 2 0 ( 6 ) 2 7 ( 8 ) 3 ( 1 ) 2 ( 7 ) Riverine Salmon + + + + + + + Sturgeon + ' + + + + - + Steelhead Trout _ _ _ _ + _ - Eulachon + - + - + - + Stickleback + - - - - - - Minnow + + - - + - - J(n) 1 7 ( 5 ) 1 0 ( 3 ) 1 0 ( 3 ) 7 ( 2 ) 1 7 ( 5 ) 3 ( 1 ) 1 0 ( 3 ) T D T A T 20TB1—"T7T5"5 5 7 ( 1 7 ) 5 0 ( 1 5 ) 7 3 ( 2 2 ) 7 T 2 l W At DgRr 2 — Salmon, Sturgeon, Pea-mouth Chub, Flatfish and Spiny Dogfish were also identified. Page 198 Table 5.8: Identified Fish Remains for St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Assemblages from Fraser Delta Sites, E. Lit t o r a l Water Spiny Dogfish J(n) St. Mungo DgRr 6 (Column) J(E) 0(0) Locarno Beach DhRt 6 DfRs 3 (Unit) *(E) 1 .1(1) (Unit) %(E) 8 1(8) DhRt 4 (Unit) J(E) 13 .3(13) Marpole DgRr 6 (Column) 0(0) Tidal Flats Starry Flounder Flatfish Pacific Herring Surf Smelt %(n) 1 2 .5(3) 5 32 79 233 51 (349) 36 163 1 184 1194 2 29(200) 33(1380) 2 5(2) Riverine Eulachon Stickleback Minnow Salmon Sturgeon %(n) Other 1 %(n) 52 18 154 2 35(226) 414 64.5(414) 281 6 43(289) 41 5.9(41) 466 6 67(452) 19 3(19) 1 7 2470 180 61(2586) 242 5.7(242) 4 25(4) 14 70(14) TOTAL 643 680 679 4221 20 1 "Other" includes ratfish, anchovy, hake, lingcod, Pacific cod, walley pollack, skate, perch, and sculpin. Page 199 S t . Mungo components a t DgRr 2 and DgRr 6 . The S t . Mungo c u l t u r e f a u n a l d a t a I n c l u d e b o t h m a t e r i a l s c r e e n e d t h r o u g h 1/4 I n c h mesh a t DgRr 2 and DgRr 6 and c a r e f u l l y - c o l l e c t e d column samples a t DgRr 6 . I n c o n t r a s t , h e r r i n g remains a r e p r e s e n t i n the Marpole column sample a t DgRr 6 , the Marpole component a t Beach Grove (DgRr 1 ) , and t h e t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e components i n t h i s study (DhRt 6 , DfRs 3 , and DhRt 4 ) . Matson ( 1 9 7 6 b : 9 3 ) a t t r i b u t e s the l a c k of h e r r i n g i n S t . Mungo components and i t s p r e s e n c e i n Ma r p o l e components to the d e v e l o p m e n t and use o f " h e r r i n g r a k e s . " These were observed i n the e t h n o g r a p h i c p e r i o d as a method of c a p t u r i n g l a r g e a g g r e g a t i o n s o f spawning h e r r i n g i n s h a l l o w s h e l t e r e d w a t e r s ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 : 1 2 6 - 1 2 7 ) . C a r l s o n (1960:580, F i g u r e 4D, E, F) d e s c r i b e s h e r r i n g rake barbs as " s m a l l , symmetric bone barbs w i t h a c i r c u l a r c r o s s - s e c t i o n and a f a i r l y a b r u p t wedge-shaped b u t t . " The p r e s e n c e of h e r r i n g and r a k e - s i z e bone p o i n t s and f r a g m e n t s ( A p p e n d i x , T a b l e B . l ) I n a l l L o c a r n o Beach components may push back t h e development and use o f t h i s procurement t e c h n o l o g y f o r h e r r i n g . S a l n o n e x p l o i t a t i o n has a l o n g p r e h i s t o r y i n the F r a s e r D e l t a . Based on e v i d e n c e f r o m the G l e n r o s e Cannery s i t e (DgRr 6 ) , M a t s o n ( 1 9 8 1 : 7 3 , 7 5 ) r e p o r t s t h a t s a l m o n were p r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e d u r i n g t h e S t . Mungo and Marpole c u l t u r e s . T h i s p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e s throughout the Page 200 L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e . Y e t , i s t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e i n S t . Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole salmon e x p l o i t a t i o n ? The DhRt 4 L o c a r n o B e a c h component y i e l d s s a l m o n p a c k i n g b a s k e t s , s a l m o n - g a u g e f i s h i n g n e t s ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , C r o e s , J u l y 1 9 8 4 ) , and a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of 8mm-9nim salmon v e r t e b r a e (9 1 %). T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s u g g e s t s I n t e n s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f F r a s e r R i v e r salmon r u n s . The s i z e o f v e r t e b r a e may s u g g e s t a s e l e c t i o n f o r s o c k e y e salmon, w h i c h r u n i n the F r a s e r R i v e r f rom l a t e summer to f a l l . To d a t e , t h e r e i s no s u c h e v i d e n c e f o r known S t . Mungo c u l t u r e components. Such an i n t e n s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f salmon i n t h e f a l l w o u l d p r o b a b l y have n e c e s s i t a t e d some p r e s e r v a t i o n and s t o r a g e t e c h n o l o g y . However, t h i s i s h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e a t t h i s t i m e . With the e x c e p t i o n of p a c k i n g b a s k e t s , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e to suggest t h a t the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e people had a method f o r s t o r i n g s a l m o n . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h e v i d e n c e f o r s t o r a g e t e c h n o l o g y d u r i n g t h e M a r p o l e c u l t u r e ( B u r l e y 1 9 8 0 : 7 0 - 7 2 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , B u r l e y ( 1 9 8 0 : 7 1 ) p o i n t s out t h a t " a l t h o u g h the p o t e n t i a l f o r s t o r a g e may have been p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e , i t had y e t t o be f u l l y d e v e l o p e d . " Page 201 D i s c u s s i o n What a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o Beach and Marpole v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s ? F a u n a l and s t r a t i g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t t h a t DhRt 6 was a s e a s o n a l r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n s i t e d u r i n g the Locarno B each c u l t u r e . The abundance of h e r r i n g and s u r f s m e l t r e m a i n s i n t h e as s e m b l a g e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e r e s o u r c e s were p r o c u r e d d u r i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s p a w n i n g s e a s o n s ( i . e . h e r r i n g F e b r u a r y t o A p r i l ; s u r f s m e l t ; A p r i l t o J u n e ) . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s t e e p s l o p i n g s t r a t i g r a p h y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a r g e r o l l i n g s h e l l middens a t t h i s s i t e a t t e s t t o t h e p r o b a b l e i m p o r t a n c e o f s e a s o n a l s h e l l f i s h g a t h e r i n g and on- s i t e s h e l l f i s h p r e p a r a t i o n ( i . e . s t e a m i n g ) . By t h e Locarno B each c u l t u r e , t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s a g g r e g a t i o n o f s p a w n i n g h e r r i n g or smelt w i t h s h e l l f i s h and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s suggests t h a t DhRt 6 was o c c u p i e d f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s (perhaps f i v e o r s i x weeks) a t any one t i m e between l a t e w i n t e r and e a r l y summer. T h i s p a t t e r n i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o e t h n o g r a p h i c N o r t h w e s t C o a s t s e a s o n a l camps d e s c r i b e d by B a r n e t t ( 1 9 5 5 : 1 8 - 1 9 ) and S u t t l e s ( 1 9 5 1 : 2 6 1 ) . T h i s s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r s from t h e S t . Mungo v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s a t DgRr 6 and DgRr 2 . To d a t e , a p a t t e r n o f a g g r e g a t e d r e s o u r c e p rocurement (a l a h e r r i n g - f l a t f i s h - w a t e r f o w l - s h e l l f i s h ) has not y e t been documented f o r t h e S t . Mungo c u l t u r e . The procurement o f a g g r e g a t e d Page 202 r e s o u r c e s ( s u c h as d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l and h e r r i n g ) may have been p o s s i b l e by the development of new t e c h n o l o g y , such as submerged n e t s and " h e r r i n g r a k e s . " V e r t e b r a t e r e m a i n s o f a g g r e g a t e d r e s o u r c e s f r o m t h e L o c a r n o Beach component a t DfRs 3 s u p p o r t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . That a l a r g e h a r b o u r s e a l h e r d e x i s t e d 3000 y e a r s ago i n Boundary Bay, as i t does today (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 2 5 ) , may a c c o u n t f o r t h e h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f s e a l i n t h e D f R s 3 mammal assemblage d u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e . The p r e s e n c e of l a r g e d i a m e t e r (13-15mm) salmon v e r t e b r a e i n t h e DfRs 3 a s s e m b l a g e may s u g g e s t t h a t C h i n o o k s a l m o n ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , Raymond, J a n u a r y 1 9 8 5 ) , w h i c h a r r i v e i n t h e Boundary Bay a r e a a t the same time as spawning h e r r i n g , were o b t a i n e d i n Boundary Bay d u r i n g t h e Lo c a r n o B'each c u l t u r e . T h u s , DfRs 3 may have been a l o c a t i o n f o r e a r l y s e a s o n salmon p r o c u r e m e n t . However, salmon f i s h i n g was p r o b a b l y n o t as i m p o r t a n t a t t h i s s i t e as was h e r r i n g and s h e l l f i s h p r o c urement, as i n f e r r e d from the co-o c c u r e n c e o f f l a t f i s h , d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l , and the s h e l l midden. Many s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t b e tween t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h component a t DfRs 3 and t h e M a r p o l e component a t DgRs 1. The two s i t e s a r e about 1 .5 m i l e s a p a r t on the e a s t e r n shore o f P o i n t R o b e r t s . F l a t f i s h , h e r r i n g , and salmon abound i n b o t h f i s h a s s e m b l a g e s ; w a t e r f o w l p r e d o m i n a t e t h e a v i f a u n a a s s e m b l a g e s . Yet the p e r c e n t a g e o f d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l i s Page 203 g r e a t e r at DfRs 3 than at DgRs 1. In a d d i t i o n , r e l a t i v e l y l e v e l or " 0 - s l o p e " s t r a t i g r a p h y ( p o s s i b l y a house f l o o r , p e r s o n a l communication, Matson, J a n u a r y 1985) a t DgRs 1 s u g g e s t s a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d o f h a b i t a t i o n ( M a t s o n e t . a l 1981:18, F i g u r e 8 ) . T h i s i s i n agreement with Matson e t . a l (1981:84), who based t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n on f a u n a l assemblage d i v e r s i t y . Thus, the d i f f e r e n c e between these two Boundary Bay s i t e s may be due to s i t e type. DfRs 3 i s a s e a s o n a l r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n s i t e , whereas DgRs 1 has many a t t r i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d with Northwest Coast winter v i l l a g e s . A winter v i l l a g e i s c h a r c t e r i z e d by permanent d w e l l i n g s . t h a t were occupied f o r at l e a s t f i v e months between November and March. winter v i l l a g e s were reoccupied every year, and they may have had some occupants throughout the year ( B a r n e t t 1955:18-19). T h e r e f o r e , d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l a r e p r o b a b l y predominate at DfRs 3 and not DgRs 1 because the former was occupied f o r a s h o r t e r season of the year. Located at approximately the mouth of the F r a s e r R i v e r d u r i n g the L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e , the DhRt 4 s i t e i s somewhat of an anomally among the three Locarno Beach d e l t a c omponents. I t s s t r a t i g r a p h y i s l e v e l , s u g g e s t i n g a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d of h a b i t a t i o n . T h i s i s s i m i l a r to the M a r p o l e component at DgRs 1. Of the t h r e e s i t e s w i t h Locarno Beach components, DhRt 4 has the l a r g e s t d i v e r s i t y o f mammals and f i s h s p e c i e s . T h i s s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y may Page 204 r e f l e c t an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f d i s c a r d e d r e s o u r c e s , w h i c h i s o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t o a l e n g t h y p e r i o d of o c c u p a t i o n (Ham 1982: 182-184). U n l i k e t h e o t h e r two L o c a r n o B e a c h components, t h e DhRt 4 f i s h assemblage abounds i n 8mm-9mm d i a m e t e r salmon v e r t e b r a e ( 9 1 % ) . T h e s e may r e p r e s e n t s o c k e y e s a l m o n ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , Raymond, Ja n u a r y 1985), w h i c h run i n the F r a s e r R i v e r from l a t e summer to f a l l . I n a d d i t i o n , b a s k e t r y r e m a i n s f r o m t h e w a t e r l o g g e d c o m p o n e n t a r e t y p o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d p a c k i n g b a s k e t s , w h i c h were used t o move f r e s h - c a u g h t salmon t o a p r o c e s s i n g a r e a . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the absence of p o s t moulds t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h M a r p o l e and L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c w i n t e r d w e l l i n g s (Ham 1982: 182-184 ), DhRt 4 appears to have many- Northwest Coast v i l l a g e - l i k e a t t r i b u t e s . Summary The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e i s more s i m i l a r t h a n d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e S t . Mungo and M a r p o l e c u l t u r e s . I n a l l t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s , the p o p u l a t i o n s s u b s i s t e d on l a n d mammals more than marine mammals; w a t e r f o w l more than upland f o w l ; and i n s h o r e f i s h ( t i d a l f l a t s and r i v e r i n e a d a p t e d s p e c i e s ) more than l i t t o r a l w a t e r f i s h s p e c i e s . I t a l s o a p p e a r s t h a t f o r t h e l a s t 4300 y e a r s , f i s h were t h e most Page 205 i m p o r t a n t v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e , f o l l o w e d by mammals and the n w a t e r f o w l ( C a l v e r t 1970:72, Boehm 1973ab, M a t s o n 1 9 8 1 : 8 0 ) . The b r o a d s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s p r o v i d e s t r o n g e v i d e n c e f o r an i n s i t u c u l t u r a l development. D e s p i t e t h e s e broad s i m i l a r i t i e s , s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n v e r t e b r a t e r e m a i n s e x i s t between t h e S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h , and M a r p o l e components compared i n t h i s s t u d y . U n l i k e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e , h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s o f d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l a r e a b s e n t f r o m t h e S t . Mungo and M a r p o l e c o m p o n e n t s ; h e r r i n g i s a l s o a b s e n t f r o m t h e S t . Mungo components a t DgRr 6 and DgRr 2; and c o n v e r s e l y , m a i n l y f r e s h w a t e r f i s h a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e S t . Mungo components. These d i f f e r e n c e s may be r e l a t e d t o : (1) s i t e l o c a t i o n ( t h e e c o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g o f the s i t e ) , (2) s i t e t y p e ( t h e t y p e ( s ) o f a c t i v i t i e s a t the s i t e ) , (3) s i t e s e a s o n a l i t y ( t h e time o f y e a r t h a t the s i t e was o c c u p i e d ) , and (4) changes i n t e c h n o l o g y . A r c h a e o l o g i s t s who work i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h two b a s i c s a m p l i n g problems: (1) a range of s i t e t y p e s ( f u n c t i o n and s e a s o n a l i t y ) and (2) a range o f s i t e l o c a t i o n s . The u l t i m a t e g o a l f o r the a r c h a e o l o g i s t s i s t o come t o g r i p s w i t h how p r e h i s t o r i c p o p u l a t i o n s "made t h e i r l i v i n g " as t h e F r a s e r D e l t a e n v i r o n m e n t became " i n c r e a s i n g l y more r i v e r i n e - d e l t a i c r a t h e r t h a n m a r i n e - Page 206 d e l t a i c " ( C a l v e r t 1970:55). D e s p i t e t h i s s a m p l i n g p r o b l e m t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be e n o ugh e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e p o p u l a t i o n s a d o p t e d new t e c h n o l o g i e s t o p r o c u r e a g g r e g a t e d r e s o u r c e s . 1 o ' l Chapter 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a n t h r o p o l o g y and a r c h a e o l o g y are rev i e w e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The F r a s e r D e l t a d u r i n g t h e Lo c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e was e c o l o g i c a l l y and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r om e a r l i e r or more r e c e n t p e r i o d s . D u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e , t h e d e l t a was b u i l d i n g outward I n t o the G u l f of G e o r g i a . Except p o s s i b l y a t low t i d e s , R o b e r t s I s l a n d was o n l y a c c e s s i b l e by water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . P o i n t Grey p r o t r u d e d f a r t h e r out i n t o the g u l f than today (Clague e t . a l 1983). Many of the D e l t a i s l a n d s ( I o n a , S e a , and L u l u ) were i n t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r m a t i o n . At low t i d e , they would have been p a r t o f the t i d a l f l a t s . A l t h o u g h s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s o f p l a n t a n d a n i m a l c o m m u n i t i e s have changed as t h e F r a s e r D e l t a has emerged, t h e r e have been no m a j o r changes i n t h e v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a a v a i l a b l e i n t h e d e l t a d u r i n g t h e l a s t 4300 y e a r s . The l o c a t i o n o f s h e l l f i s h communities f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n , as n o t e d by Ham (1976) i n the F r a s e r D e l t a and G r a b e r t and Page 2 0 8 L a r s o n ( 1 9 7 8 ) a t S e m i a h o o S p i t ( n e a r B e l l i n g h a m , W a s h i n g t o n ) . T h r o u g h t h e use o f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m s i t e r e c o r d s , ( e . g . p r o f i l e s , maps, f i e l d n o t e s , a r t i f a c t and p h o t o r e c o r d s , and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h e x c a v a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s ) , s p e c i f i c p r o v e n i e n c e u n i t s a t DhRt 6 , DfRs 3 , and DhRt 4 were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e . T a b u l a t i o n s o f a r t i f a c t s f r om sampled a r e a s f r o m each o f t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e components were c l a s s i f i e d by M i t c h e l l ' s ( 1 9 7 1 b ) c r i t e r i a . T h i s made p o s s i b l e t h e f i r s t q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l r e m a i n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the d a t a base p e r m i t t e d an i n t e r s i t e a n a l y s i s o f L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s by s e a s o n a l i t y and h a b i t a t s e l e c t i o n , as w e l l as a c r o s s - c h r o n o l o g i c a l t e s t o f how the L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e economy f i t s i n t o the Northwest Coast p a t t e r n . The L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e economy i n th e F r a s e r D e l t a r e g i o n i s not based on marine mammal r e s o u r c e s . A l t h o u g h h a r b o u r s e a l , r i v e r o t t e r , and bea v e r a r e f o u n d i n Lo c a r n o Beach components i n t h i s study and s e a l i o n a t Montague Harbour, DfRu 1 3 ( M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 1 b ) , m a r i n e mammals rank l o w e r i n i m p o r t a n c e t o l a n d mammals of the F o r e s t and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge a r e a s . Deer and e l k Page 209 a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t l a n d mammal r e s o u r c e s . They were p r o b a b l y hunted away from each s i t e i n the sample throughout t h e y e a r and then " s c h l e p p e d " t o the h a b i t a t i o n a r e a s , as s u g g e s t e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f l e g bone f r a g m e n t s a n d s e s a m o i d s i n e a c h a s s e m b l a g e . T h i s p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e s t h r o u g h the L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 3 6 3 - 3 6 4 ) . B i r d s , e s p e c i a l l y w a t e r f o w l , a r e t h e s e c o n d most abundant v e r t e b r a t e bone element found i n each Locarno Beach c u l t u r e component. The abundance of wing t i p bones i s p a r t of a r e c u r r e n t d e l t a p a t t e r n f r o m a t l e a s t L o c a r n o Beach t h r o u g h t h e L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . T h i s p a t t e r n may be r e l a t e d t o t h e use o f b i r d f e a t h e r s f o r c l o t h i n g . I n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c p e r i o d , S t r a i t s p e o p l e mixed n e t t l e f i b e r w i t h duck down t o make " b l a n k e t s " ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 : 2 6 3 ) . T h i s t y p e of c l o t h i n g was v e r y p o p u l a r a l o n g the mainland c o a s t due t o an abundance o f w a t e r f o w l ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 1 : 2 6 3 - 2 6 4 ) , which were a t t r a c t e d t o t h e F r a s e r E s t u a r y . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t m i g r a t i n g w a t e r f o w l were e x t e n s i v e l y e x p l o i t e d i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a 3000 y e a r s ago. However, i n g e n e r a l , b i r d s (and e x p e c i a l l y w i n g bones) a r e n o t major s o u r c e s f o r m e a t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y d u r i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e , w a t e r f o w l may h a v e b e e n a p o p u l a r c o m m o d i t y f o r d u c k down i n t h e p r e h i s t o r i c F r a s e r D e l t a . Page 2 1 0 A p r e p o n d e r a n c e of d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l i n d i c a t e s t h a t a submerged net procurement t e c h n o l o g y may have been developed by Locarno Beach t i m e s . S u p p o r t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s a low d i v i n g t o s u r f a c e - f e e d i n g b i r d r a t i o d u r i n g t h e S t . Mungo c u l t u r e . However, t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may r e f l e c t s i t e l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e e m e r g i n g F r a s e r R i v e r d e l t a f r o n t . More r e s e a r c h i s needed t o c l a r i f y t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f a change i n w a t e r f o w l procurement s t r a t e g i e s between S t . Mungo and Locarno Beach c u l t u r e s . P a c i f i c h e r r i n g , f l a t f i s h , and w a t e r f o w l a re p r e s e n t i n a l l t h r e e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e f a u n a l a s s e m b l a g e s . However, t h i s t r i a d i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a r g e s l o p i n g middens a t o n l y two L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e c o m p o n e n t s — D h R t 6 and DfRs 3 - Monks ( 1 9 7 7 ) and Ham ( 1 9 8 2 ) r e p o r t t h e same c o - o c c u r a n c e o f v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a and s l o p i n g s t r a t i g r a p h y a t l a t e w i n t e r - e a r l y s p r i n g ( F e b r u a r y t h r o u g h A p r i l ) l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y s i t e s f o r h e r r i n g and s h e l l f i s h h a r v e s t i n g d u r i n g the Marpole and L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s . Such e v i d e n c e a t DhRt 6 a n d D f R s 3 e s t a b l i s h e s a 3 0 0 0 + y e a r r e s o u r c e p r o c u r e m e n t p a t t e r n and a d e f i n i t e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n L o c a r n o Beach, M a r p o l e , and t h e L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s . DhRt 6 was a l s o o c c u p i e d d u r i n g the s p r i n g t o e a r l y summer ( A p r i l t o J u n e ) s u r f s m e l t r u n s , a p a t t e r n t h a t has p e r s i s t e d t h r o u g h h i s t o r i c t i m e s w i t h Musqueam and Samish I n d i a n s (Matthews 1 9 5 5 : 3 9 5 ) . Page 211 I n a l l t h r e e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e f a u n a l assemblages, i n s h o r e s p e c i e s are the dominant f i s h , even though an e q u a l number of deep water v a r i e t i e s are p r e s e n t . The abundance of salmon remains suggests t h a t Locarno Beach c u l t u r e p e o p l e t o o k advantage o f t h e major F r a s e r R i v e r r u n s , p o s s i b l y by u s i n g n e t s up r i v e r f r o m the DhRt 4 s i t e . A c c o r d i n g t o B e r r i n g e r (1982:53), the p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r i n t e n s i v e s a l m o n e x p l o i t a t i o n i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r d u r i n g t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c p e r i o d i n c l u d e d : (1) f i s h i n g from s h o a l s i n t h e r i v e r , ( 2 ) h a v i n g h i g h w a t e r t u r b i d t y t h a t r e d u c e s salmons' a b i l i t y to see, and (3) h a v i n g f i s h i n g n e t s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s h o a l s and sand b a r s up r i v e r f r o m DhRt 4 d u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e would have p r o v i d e d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r t r a w l i n g w i t h n e t s . F i s h i n g n e t s and n e t a n c h o r s i n t h e DhRt 4 wet zone may s u p p o r t the "up r i v e r " h y p o t h e s i s . O t h e r p e r i s h a b l e s a t DhRt 4 i n c l u d e t h e r e m a i n s of b a s k e t s and wood c h i p s . The DhRt 4 b a s k e t r y may have been u s e d t o c a r r y f r e s h f i s h o r t o s t o r e h e a v y l o a d s o f p r e s e r v e d salmon ( C r o e s 1975, Matson 1981b, B u r l e y 1 9 8 1 ) . Thus, t h e p r e s e n c e o f salmon, f i s h i n g n e t s , and b a s k e t r y p r o v i d e s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e f o r a l o n g t e rm o c c u p a t i o n f o r e i t h e r a s p r i n g t o f a l l s a l m o n f i s h i n g camp, o r f o r a p r o l o n g e d w i n t e r v i l l a g e , or b o t h . Page '212 I n t h e DhRt 4 Locarno Beach c u l t u r e component, a l a r g e s a m ple o f wood c h i p s s u g g e s t s t h a t an e s t a b l i s h e d wood t e c h n o l o g y e x i s t e d . T h i s t y p e o f e v i d e n c e , i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c a p a c i t y to b u i l d l a r g e w i n t e r d w e l l i n g s ( M a t s o n 1 9 8 l b : 8 4 ) . The l e v e l u n s l o p i n g s t r a t i g r a p h y a t DhRt 4 t y p i f i e s c r i t e r i a o f a w i n t e r v i l l a g e s i t e (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 2 8 1 - 2 8 3 ). However, the l a c k o f p o s t moulds i n the sampled a r e a p r e v e n t s a statement i d e n t i f y i n g i t as a w i n t e r v i l l a g e of the L a t e Marpole and L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c t y p e . The F r a s e r D e l t a ' s Locarno Beach and Marpole v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s are s i m i l a r i n s e a s o n a l i t y a t r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n s i t e s ( e . g . h e r r i n g and s h e l l f i s h ) and some p r o c u r e m e n t t e c h n o l o g i e s ( e . g . h e r r i n g r a k e s , submerged w a t e r f o w l n e t s , and f i s h i n g n e t s ) . However, to d a t e , t h e r e i s no u n d i s p u t e d e v i d e n c e f o r an e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n of w i n t e r v i l l a g e h a b i t a t i o n and s a l m o n p r e s e r v a t i o n and s t o r a g e t e c h n o l o g i e s d u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , g a p s i n o u r k n o w l e d g e a b o u t s h e l l f i s h s u b s i s t e n c e and an a n a l y t i c and s y s t e m a t i c c o m p a r i s o n of L o c a r n o Beach and M a r p o l e l i t h i c remains p r e v e n t c o m b i n i n g the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s a t t h i s t i m e . The L o c a r n o Beach s u b s i s t e n c e economy i s d i s p a r a t e t o c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s v e r t e b r a t e p a t t e r n s a t Hoko on t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n t i p o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n P e n i n s u l a . A l t h o u g h C r o e s and H a c k e n b e r g e r ( 1 9 8 4 ) r e p o r t an emphasis on l a n d Page 213 mammals, m i g r a t o r y w a t e r f o w l , and salmon a t 3000 B.P., they have u n c o v e r e d e v i d e n c e f o r I n t e n s i v e h a l i b u t e x p l o i t a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e i n hoko and F r a s e r D e l t a f a u n a l assemblages i s a t t r i b u t e d t o s i t e l o c a t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t by 3000 B.P., p o p u l a t i o n s i n the F r a s e r D e l t a and Washington P e n i n s u l a are b o t h i n t e n s i v e l y e x p l o i t i n g f i s h r e s o u r c e s , s a l m o n and h a l i b u t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The c l o s e d i s t a n c e between t h e G u l f I s l a n d s and t h e F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a would i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y o f some s o r t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between G u l f I s l a n d and d e l t a s i t e s d u r i n g t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e . M i t c h e l l ( 1 9 7 1 b ) d e s c r i b e s a r t i f a c t s , mammals, b i r d s , and f i s h s p e c i e s i n the Locarno Beach component a t Montague Harbour t h a t are s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I n s p i t e of t h e s e s t u d i e s , more work needs t o be done t o r e s o l v e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between L o c a r n o Beach F r a s e r D e l t a and L o c a r n o Beach G u l f I s l a n d s i t e s . Were th e y the same g r o u p ( s ) t r a v e l l i n g a r o u n d t o d i f f e r e n t i s l a n d and d e l t a s i t e s ? Were t h e r e d i f f e r e n t L o c a r n o Beach c u l t u r e g r o u p s w i t h d i f f e r e n t home bases i n the a r e a s ? I f s o , d i d they a g g r e g a t e a t a w i n t e r v i l l a g e and d i s p e r s e t o r e s o u r c e procurement a r e a s d u r i n g the n o n - w i n t e r months? A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y i d e n t i f i e s L o c a r n o Beach p a t t e r n s o f procurement based on s e a s o n a l a g g r e g a t i o n s o f v e r t e b r a t e Page 214 r e s o u r c e s , more work needs t o be done on L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e s e a s o n a l i t y . C o m p a r i s o n o f f a u n a and f l o r a f r o m c o r e and column s a m p l e s f r o m b o t h F r a s e r D e l t a and G u l f I s l a n d s i t e s d u r i n g the l a s t 4300+ y e a r s would r e s o l v e some q u e s t i o n s about s e a s o n a l i t y and use o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s i n c o a s t a l p r e h i s t o r y . A s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s o f s h e l l f i s h c r o s s - s e c t i o n s would a l s o h e l p a r c h a e o l o g i s t s g a i n b e t t e r c o n t r o l o f s e a s o n a l i t y , d i e t a r y i m p o r t a n c e , and t h e t r a n s i t i o n o f t h e d e l t a f r o m m a r i n e - d e l t a i c t o r i v e r i n e - d e l t a i c c o n d i t i o n s . S t u d i e s t h a t compare a r t i f a c t s and l i t h i c d e t r i t u s would c l a r i f y i s s u e s i n s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n f o r d e l t a p r e h i s t o r y . V e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s In the San Juan I s l a n d s were s t u d i e d by C a r l s o n (1954, I 9 6 0 ) . Reported d a t a suggest a f o r e s h o r e - r i v e r i n e s u b s i s t e n c e o r i e n t a t i o n . A r t i f a c t s are a l s o v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e found i n contemporaneous F r a s e r D e l t a assemblages. At t h e Mayne s i t e (DfRs 8 ) , l o c a t e d a c r o s s f r o m t h e Montague Harbour s i t e (DfRs 1 3 ) , a multi-component s i t e w i t h c o m p l e x s t r a t i g r a p h y was e x c a v a t e d by C a r l s o n and h i s s t u d e n t s ( C a r l s o n 1 9 7 0 ) . One s t u d e n t a n a l y s e d t h e major taxanomic c l a s s e s of v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a and p r e s e n t e d a l l raw d a t a by s p e c i e s (Boucher 1976). I n the DfRs 8 Locarno Beach c u l t u r e component, t h e v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a a re v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a . However, t h e r e i s s l i g h t l y more Page 215 emphasis on s e a l , p o r p o i s e , and sea l i o n a t DfRu 8 . T h i s i s no t s u r p r i s i n g , as s e a l i o n s d w e l l today i n P o r l i e r Pass ( S u t t l e s 1 9 5 2 : 1 2 ) . D i v i n g w a t e r f o w l a p p e a r t o be t h e do m i n a t e w a t e r f o w l t y p e i n t h e b i r d a s s e m b l a g e . Salmon, mammals, and s h e l l f i s h a p pear to be the major s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s . F i n a l l y , a s t r o n g p r a c t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t a t l e a s t i n i t i a l p a t t e r n d e t e c t i o n I s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a f r o m s i t e s e x c a v a t e d b e f o r e t h e " a g e o f t h o r o u g h e x c a v a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y " on t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o a s t . As a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and d e v e l o p e r s b e g i n to d e p l e t e the number o f s i t e s t o e x c a v a t e , t h e r e w i l l be an i n c r e a s e d need t o e x h a u s t a v a i l a b l e d a t a b a s e s t h a t a r e now i n s t o r a g e . R e g a r d l e s s of c o n d i t i o n , r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s can be d e v e l o p e d and implemented to e x t r a c t u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n , whether i t i s l i s t s , p r e s e n c e - a b s e n c e d a t a , or q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a . I n t u r n , e x t r a c t e d d a t a can be s u c c e s s f u l l y u s e d t o h e l p r e s o l v e gaps i n our knowledge of Northwest Coast p r e h i s t o r y . Page 216 BIBLIOGRAPHY A b b o t t , D. N. 1972 The u t i l i t y o f the phase concept i n the a r c h a e o l o g y of the s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . S y e s l s 5:267 - 2 7 8 . A n g e l l , T and K. C. Balcomb I I I 1982 Marine B i r d s and Mammals o f Puget Sound. U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , S e a t t l e . A r c h e r , D. J . W. 1972 P r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t on s a l v a g e e x c a v a t i o n s a t Musqueam NE. Ms. on f i l e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h a e o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y , Vancouver. B a l l , B. 1979 The B e a c h G r o v e S i t e , DgRs 1. M.A. t h e s i s , Department o f A r c h a e o l o g y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby. B a n f i e l d , A. W. F. 1974 The Mammals of Canada. N a t i o n a l Museum o f N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s , N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada, U n i v e r s i t y of Toro n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o . B a r n e t t , H. G. 1955 The Coast S a l i s h of B r i t i s h Columbia. U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon P r e s s , Eugene. B e a t t i e , 0. 1980 An A n a l y s i s of P r e h i s t o r i c Human S k e l e t a l M a t e r i a l f r o m t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a R e g i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Department o f A r c h a e o l o g y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby. B e r r i n g e r , P. A. 1982 N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , T r a d i t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Systems o f Res o u r c e U t i l i z a t i o n , M.A. T h e s i s . Department o f A n t h o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia, Vancouver. BIBLIOGRAPHY ( c o n t i n u e d ) Page 217 B l u n d e n , R. H. 1 9 7 5 H i s t o r i c a l G e o l o g y o f t h e Lower F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y . A d v e n t u r e s i n E a r t h S c i e n c e s No. 3 . Department o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Boehm, Gay 1 9 7 3 a C u l t u r a l and n o n - c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n In the a r t i f a c t and f a u n a l samples from the S t . Mungo Cannery s i t e , DgRr 2 . M.A. t h e s i s , Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , V i c t o r i a . 1 9 7 3 b S t . Mungo V e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l r e m a i n s : A s y s t e m a t i c e x p l a n a t i o n of changes i n Component I . Ms. on f i l e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Borden, C. E. 1 9 4 8 L o c a r n o Beach s i t e F i e l d N o t e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, The L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , C h a r l e s E. Borden C o l l e c t i o n , Box 5 0 , F i l e s 5 - 8 . 1949 F i e l d n o t e s o f W h a l e n Farm s i t e ( D f R s 3 ) e x c a v a t i o n s , 1 9 4 9 . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m i b i a A r c h a e o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y , Vancouver. 1 9 5 0 a F i e l d n o t e s of Whalen Farm s i t e (DfRs 3 ) , 1 9 5 0 e x c a v a t i o n s . 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BIBLIOGRAPHY ( c o n t i n u e d ) Page 226 1980 S e a s o n a l i t y S t u d i e s . Method and T h e o r y In Advances i n A r c h a e o l o g i c a l ( V o l . 4 ) , e d i t e d by M. B. S c h i f f e r , pp 177-240, Academic P r e s s . N o r t h , M. and J . Teversham n.d. The p r e - w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t v e g e t a t i o n o f the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y F l o o d P l a i n . U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t . Canada, Department o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i o n , Nanaimo, B.C. Patenaude, V. C. 1981 The s e a r c h f o r i n t e r assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y i n the a r t i f a c t c o l l e c t i o n f r o m t h e P i t t R i v e r S i t e . U n p u b l i s h e d . A r c h a e o l o g y 876 Paper , Department o f A r c h a e o l o g y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby. P e r k i n s , J r . , D. and P. Daly 1968 A h u n t e r s ' v i l l a g e i n N e o l i t h i c Turkey. American 219(5):96-107. S c i e n t i f i c Pough, R. H. 1951 Audubon Water B i r d Game. Doubleday and Company, I n c . , Garden C i t y . R i c k , A. M. 1975 B i r d m e d u l l a r y bone: a s e a s o n a l d a t i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r f a u n a l a n a l y s t s . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the E i g h t h C a n a d i a n A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n M e e t i n g , Thunder Bay, O n t a r i o , March. 1979 Some problems and s o l u t i o n s i n z o o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of b i r d bones. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a n A r c h a e o l o g y M e e t i n g , Vancouver, B.C., A p r i l . S c h a l k , R. 1977 The s t r u c t u r e o f an anadramous f i s h r e s o u r c e . I n f o r Theory B u i l d i n g i n A r c h a e o l o g y , e d i t e d by L. R. B i n f o r d , pp 207-249, Academic P r e s s . BIBLIOGRAPHY ( c o n t i n u e d ) Page 227 Seymour, B. 1976 1972 S a l v a g e e x c a v a t i o n s a t DfRs 3, the Whalen Farm s i t e , I n C u r r e n t R e s e a r c h R e p o r t s No. 3 e d i t e d by R. L. C a r l s o n , Department of A r c h a e o l o g y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , pp 83-98. S m i t h , H a r l a n I . 1907 A r c h a e o l o g y of the G u l f of G e o r g i a and Puget Sound. Memoirs of the American Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y 4 ( 6 ) . S u t t l e s , Wayne 1951 Economic l i f e o f t h e C o a s t S a l i s h o f Haro and R o s a r i o S t r a i t s . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, S e a t t l e . 1952 N o t e s on C o a s t S a l i s h sea-mammal h u n t i n g . A n t h r o p o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia 4(3):10-20. S u t t l e s , W. P. 1968 C o p i n g w i t h a b u n d a n c e : S u b s i s t e n c e on t h e Northwest C o a s t . I n Man t h e H u n t e r , e d i t e d by R. B. Lee and I . Devore. A l d i n e A t h e r t o n , C h i c a g o , pp 56-68. S u t t o n , D. G. 1979 P o l y n e s i a n c o a s t a l h u n t e r s i n the s u b a n t a r c t i c z o n e : A c a s e f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n o f c o n v e r g e n t c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f Otago, Dunedin. Thomas, D a v i d H. 1969 G r e a t B a s i n h u n t i n g p a t t e r n s : a q u a n t i t a t i v e method f o r t r e a t i n g f a u n a l r e m a i n s . A m e r i c a n A n t i q u i t y 34(4 ):392-401. Ward, P. 1980 E x p l o r e t h e F r a s e r E s t u a r y ! E n v i r o n m e n t Canada P a c i f i c Vancouver. Lands D i r e c t o r a t e , and Yukon R e g i o n , BIBLIOGRAPHY ( c o n t i n u e d ) Page 228 W i l l , R. T. 1982 The use of w i l d l i f e d a t a i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f a u n a l a n a l y s i s . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f A n t h r o p o l o g y 2(2 ) : 189 -195 - White, T. E. 1953 A method of c a l c u l a t i n g t h e d i e t a r y p e r c e n t a g e o f v a r i o u s f o o d a n i m a l s u t i l i z e d by a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s . American A n t i q u i t y 1 8 ( 4 ) : 3 9 6 - 3 9 8 . Wigen, Rebecca 1982 The v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Hoko R i v e r r o c k s h e l t e r f a u n a l r e s o u r c e s . Paper p r e s e n t e d t o t h e N o r t h w e s t A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l C o n f e r e n c e , Vancouver, B.C. APPENDICES Page 229 Table A . 1 : List of Identified Mammal Fauna Found in Locarno Beach, St. Mungo, and Marpole Culture components in the Fraser Delta area. Common Name Elk Black-tailed Deer Black Bear Dog Family Raccoon Striped Skunk Small Rodent Family Mink Muskrat Beaver River Otter Harbour Seal Northern Sea Lion Latin Name Cervus elaphus (Linnaeus) Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque) Ursus americanus Pallas Canis Kuhl Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) Mephitis mephitis (Schreber) Peromyscus (Wagner) Mustella vison Schreber Ondatra zibethica (Linnaeus) Castor canadensis Kuhl Lutra canadensis (Schreber) Phoca vitulina (Gray) Eumetopias jubata (Schreber) Page 230 Table A.2: List of Identified Avifauna Found in Three Locarno Beach Culture Assemblages. Common Name Latin Name Common Loon Arctic Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Murre Rhinoceros Auklet Greater Scaup Bufflehead Common Merganser Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot Glaucous-winged Gull Heermann's Gull Great Blue Heron Bald Eagle Black Oystercatcher Northwestern Crow Raven Great Horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck Gavia immer (Brunnich) Gavia arctica(Lawrence) Podiceps auritus Linnaeus Aechmophorus occidentalis (Lawrence) Phalacrocorax auritus Ridgeway Clangula hyemalis (Linnaius) Melanitta deglandi (Brooks) Oidemia nigra Swainson Uria aalge Salomonsen Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas) Aythya marila Stejneger Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus) Mergus merganser Cassin Branta canadensis (Baird) Chen caerulescens (Pallas) Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus Anas acuta V i e i l l o t Anas americana (Gmelin) Fulica americana Gmelin Larus glaucescens Naumann Larus heermani Cassin Ardea herodias Linnaeus Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Audubon) Haematopus bachmanni Audubon Corvus caurinus Ridgway Corvus corax Ridgway Bubo virginianus (Oberholser) Bonasa umbellus (Douglas) Anatidae Page 231 Table A.3: List of Identified Fish Fauna Found in Three Locarno Beach Culture Assemblages, • Spiny Dogfish Squalus acanthias Linnaeus Ratfish Hydrolagus c o l l i e i (Lay and Bennet) Northern Anchovy Engraulis mordax mordax Givard Pacific Hake Merluccius productus (Ayres) Petrale Sole Eopsetta jordani (Lockington) Pacific Halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis Schmidt English Sole Parophrys vetulus Girard Rockfish Sebastes Lingcod Ophiodon elongatus Girard Pacific Cod Gadus macrocephalus Tilesius Walleye Pollack Theragra chalcogramma (Pallas) Big Skate Raja binoculata Girard Plainfin Midshipman Porichthys notatus Girard Pile Perch Rhacochilus vacca Girard Great Sculpin Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus (Pallas 1811) Buffalo Sculpin Enophrys bison Girard Staghorn Sculpin Leptocottus armatus Girard Sculpin Family Cottidae Rock Sole Lepidopseta bilineata (Ayres 1858) Starry Flounder Platychthys stellatus Flatfish Family Pleuronectidae Pacific Herring Clupea harengus pallasi Valenciennes 1847 Surf Smelt Hypomesus pretiosus pretiosus Girard Euchalon Thaleichthys pacificus (Richardson 1836) Minnow Family Cyprinidae Salmon Onchorhynchus sp. (Walbaum 1792) Trout Salmo (Richardson 1836) Sturgeon Acipenser (Richardson 1836) Page 232 Table B.1: D i s t r i b u t i o n of Catalogued A r t i f a c t s , A l l Assemblages. DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4-A2 DhRt 4-A1 Stone Chipped Stone Leaf-shaped points Contracting-stem points Chipped and ground points Scrapers Microblades Chipped-slate scrapers Chipped-slate points Chipped s l a t e knives Quartz c r y s t a l t ools Retouched flakes U t i l i z e d flakes Miscellaneous chipped stone Total(n) 1 2 1 3 3 (11) (3) 2 3 2 1 3 5 34 43 (93) 1 3 11 9 1 (25) Ground Stone Stemless s l a t e points 8 3 3 2 Stemmed s l a t e points 2 Ground s l a t e blades 1 Ground s l a t e knives 7 10 3 Gulf Island Complex a r t i f a c t s none in sampled area Barrel bead 1 Labret 1 1 Pendant 1 Miscellaneous ground stone 5 Total(n) (16) (7) (20) (5) Pecked and Ground Stone Hand mauls 2 6 Hammerstones 4 10 Perforated stones 1 Stone vessels 1 1 An v i l stones 1 5 1 Abrasive stones 5 20 11 6 Ochre 1 6 Miscellaneous pecked stone 1 Total(n) (8) (30) (27) (17) Table B.1: (continued). Page 233 DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4-A2 DhRt 4-A1 Bone Barbed bone points 2 Bone bipoints 2 1 Bone points 5 1 5 1 Bone ulna tools 6 2 Bone scraper 1 Bone knife 2 1 Bone awls 14 4 3 Bird bone awls 3 Bird bone pin 1 Bird bone needles 1 4 Bird bone whistle 1 Bird bone tribe bead 1 Bone rings 2 1 Miscellaneous decorated bone 1 Miscellaneous bone objects 9 9 14 1 Chisels or wedges 1 1 Bone fish hook 1 Total(n) (45) (24) (29) (3) Antler Barbed harpoons 3 Harpoon foreshafts 1 1 1 Wedges 1(?) Atl a t l hooks 1 Miscellaneous worked antler 1 1 1 Total(n) (3) (5) (2) (1) Shell Mytilus shell celts 1 Mytilus shell points 1 Mytilus shell knifes 1 stilus shell blades 10 Myt pendants 1 Shell with pigments 2 Miscellaneous shell objects 1 Total(n) (1) (16) Wood Wood points 2 Worked wood 10 22 Pointed stake 3 End-slotted haft 1 Complete baskets 1 Basket and nut fragments 3 70 Basket handles 11 Cordage 3 28 Rope rings 1 1 Net fragments 6 Wrapped stone sinkers 4 Knots of cord or fibre 28 Hanks of sp l i t roots 11 Coiled fibre 1 Total (n) ; rT9l TTBTT Total 84 85 190 238 Page 234 Table C.1: DhRt 6 Mammal Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. Taxa S k e l e t a l Element E lk  D ee r B la ck  B ea r C an is  R ac co on  S tr ip e d  S ku nk  Pe ro m ys cu s c •r- s: M u sk ra t B ea ve r R iv e r O tt e r H ar b o u r S ea l c ta E T o ta l A J A J J ft J MNI 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 13 E 6 8 4 6 5 2 7 6 4 48 Basio-Occipital L Temporalis R 1 1 2 L Petrosal R Teeth 1 1 2 4 L Mandible R 1 2 3 L Maxilla R Hyoid Axis 1 1 2 A t l a s Thoracic Vertebra 1 1 2 C e r v i c a l Vertebra 1 1 Sacrum L Rib R 2 2 L Humerus R 1 1 2 L Radius R L Ulna R Table C.I: (continued). Page 235 LU s-a» a> Q B la ck  B ea r to •i— £Z IO O c o o u o ta Ctl St r.  S ku nk  Pe ro my sc us  c •r- +-> fO s-to • 3 SI S- > OJ CO Ri ve r Ot te r Ha rb ou r Se al  c ro B 3 i n <0 +-> O r— A J A J A J L Femur R 1 1 1 2 5 L Tibia R 2 1 1 4 L Fibula R L Scapula R 1 1 1 3 L Innominate R 2 1 1 4 L Talus R 1 1 L Ostrale R 1 1 L Ulna Carpus R 1 1 L Magnum R L Uniciform R L Coccygeal R L Astragalus R 1 1 L Calcaneus R L Metacarpus R 4 4 L Metatarsus R 1 1 L Phalanx R 2 1 2 5 Flipper bones1 Phalanx bones for seal are designated "flipper bones." Page 236 Table C.2: DfRs 3 Mammal Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. I Taxa Skeletal Element El k De er  Bl ac k Be ar  CO c to c_> A J E O o u o ro DC A J St ri pe d Sk un k Pe ro my sc us  Mi nk  +-> ta s- to s: A J Be av er  Ri ve r Ot te r Ha rb ou r Se al  Hu ma n To ta l MNI 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 E 1 2 1 2 8 14 1 4 1 2 12 7 55 Basio-Occipital L Temporalis R L Petrosal R Teeth L Mandible R 1 1 L Maxilla R 1 1 Hyoid Axis 1 1 Atlas Thoracic Vertebra 1 1 Cervical Vertebra Sacrum 1 1 L Rib R L Humerus R 1 1 1 1 2 6 L Radius R 1 1 1 3 L Ulna R 1 1 1 2 1 6 Table C.2: (continued). Page 237 s- QJ CD O B la ck  B ea r CO • I— IO O A ,T c o o o o ro CC A - l c <J~> i- +J 00 Pe ro m ys cu s +-> ro S- CO s: A -T s- OJ > IO CD C O R iv e r O tt e r H ar b o u r S ea l tz ro E in rO +-> O 1— L Femur R 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 L Tibia R 1 1 1 2 6 L Fibula R L Scapula R 1 1 4 L Innominate R 1 1 2 L Talus R L Ostrale R L Ulna Carpus R L Magnum R L Uniciform R L Coccygeal R L Astragalus R L Calcaneus R 1 1 2 L Metacarpus R 1 1 2 L Metatarsus R 2 2 L Phalanx R 1 1 1 4 7 Flipper bonesl -3- 3 Phalanx bones for seal are designated "flipper bones." Page 238 Table C.3: DhRt 4 Mammal Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. Taxa Skeletal Element i— UJ s- QJ OJ Q A J B la ck  R ea r to •r- C to c_> A J s= o o o o ro DC A J St ri pe d Sk un k to ( J to o s-CD D_ Mi  n k Mu sk ra t B ea ve r Ri ve r O tt er  I ro OJ C/] S- 3 o S. fl Hu m an  T o ta l MNI 1 2 1 1 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 23 E 12 19 2 2 26 5 2 9 4 2 2 1 9 6 101 Basio-Occipital 1 1 L Temporalis R L Petrosal R 1 1 Teeth 2 4 2 2 10 L Mandible R 1 1 4 1 2 1 2 1 13 L Maxilla R 1 1 Hyoid 1 1 Axis Atlas 1 1 Thoracic Vertebra 1 1 2 4 1 9 Cervical Vertebra 1 2 2 5 Sacrum 1 1 L Rib R 1 1 1 3 L Humerus R 1 1 1 1 •; 1 4 L Radius R 2 2 1 1 6 Table C.3: (continued). Page 239 El k De er  Bl ac k Be ar  Ca ni s Ra cc oo n St ri pe d Sk un k Pe ro my sc us  Mi nk  Mu sk ra t Be av er  Ri ve r Ot te r Ha rb ou r Se al  Hu ma n To ta l A ,1 A .1 A .1 L Ulna R 1 1 1 1 4 L Femur R 1 1 L Tibia R L Fibula R 1 • 1 2 L Scapula R 1 1 2 L Innominate R 1 1 2 L Talus R 1 1 2 L Ostrale R 2 L Ulna Carpus R 1 1 L Magnum R I 1 L Uniciform R I 1 L Coccygeal R 1 5 6 L Astragalus R 1 1 L Calcaneus R L Metacarpus R 2 2 4 L Metatarsus R 3 1 1 5 L Phalanx R 1 1 3 1 1 8 Flipper bones1 2 2 Phalanx bones for seal are designated "flipper bones." Page 240 Table C.4: DhRt 6 Bird Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. Element o o fO i - o o to 3 ra DC fO ra +-> cu E to O 3 Q . Q . S- S- (O rO o o to 3 S- cu EE 3 cu to 3 to S- ta + J ro i ro +-> CU E o to to $- s- ta ra to Taxa MNI L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R Arctic Loon Western Grebe Double-Crested Cormorant Oldsquaw White-Winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Murre Rhinoceros Auklet Common Loon Horned Grebe Greater Scaup Bufflehead Common Merganser Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot Glaucous-Winged Gull Heerman's Gull Great Blue Heron Bald Eagle Black Oystercatcher Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck TOTAL 1 19 1 2 1 4 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 19 ~65~ 3 55 1 2 2 10 2 8 3 12 32 158 2 2 1 1 1 19 14 2 4 2 1 1 2 19 13 37 51 1 8 11 1 1 1 3 32 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 15 Page 241 T a b l e C.5: DfRs 3 Bird Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. Element Co ra co id  Ra di us  Ul na  Ca rp om et a- ca rp us  Hu me ru s Fe mu r Ti bi at ar su s Ta rs om et a- ta rs us  Taxa MNI E L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R Arctic Loon 9 22 3 4 9 5 1 Western Grebe 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 Double-Crested Cormorant 1 2 1 1 1 Oldsquaw 2 9 2 1 1 2 1 1 White-Winged 1 1 Scoter 2 11 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 Common Scoter Common Murre 53 , 156 1 2 24 17 53 42 2 2 4 5 4 Rhinoceros Auklet 1 1 1 Common Loon 3 7 1 1 1 1 3 Horned Grebe 1 Greater Scaup 15 36 1 1 2 11 15 3 2 Bufflehead 3 5 2 3 Common Merganser 1 1 1 1 Canada Goose 1 1 Snow Goose 3 5 1 3 1 Mallard 17 43 1 17 12 2 1 4 6 Pintail 17 59 2 5 2 1 17 14 2 4 7 5 American Widgeon 7 14 7 6 1 American Coot Glaucous-Winged 1 Gull 4 6 4 1 Heerman's Gull 2 5 1 1 1 2 Great Blue Heron 1 1 1 1 Bald Eagle 1 1 1 Black Oystercatcher 1 1 3 1 Northwestern Crow 5 42 1 1 1 4 5 3 2 4 3 3 3 5 3 Raven 1 2 1 1 Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck J 1 2 1 1 A 22 42 22 20 TOTAL 174 479 17 54 91 209 24 13 23 48 Key: A = Adult J = Juvenile Page 242 Table C.6: DhRt 4 Bird Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. Element o o ra S- o o T3 ra cm ta c i ro + J CU E to O 3 Q- Q. S- S- ra ta o u to 3 S-CU E 3 $- 3 E • cu 10 s-rO +-> ro ro -t> CU E to O 3 to to S- S-ro ro f— 4J Taxa MNI L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R Arctic Loon Western Grebe Double-Crested Cormorant Oldsquaw White-Winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Murre Rhinoceros Auklet Common Loon Horned Grebe Greater Scaup Bufflehead Common Merganser Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot Glaucous-Winged Gull Heerman's Gull Great Blue Heron Bald Eagle Black Oystercatcher Northwestern Crow J A Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck TOTAL 8 8 26 2 2 15 1 2 17 9 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 28 134 37 38 115 4 3 46 2 8 47 36 1 1 1 1 15 1 1 1 37 405 2 2 7 3 3 2 2 1 9 4 8 2 1 2 26 19 1 1 1 37 9 28 45 4 4 1 79 7 7 2 7 13 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 68 3 2 3 5 1 1 6 1 1 1 3 15 2 1 2 1 4 3 4 2 7 4 1 2 10 17 3 8 1 3 9 5 3 64 17 58 37 Key: A = Adult J = Juvenile Page 243 Table C.7: DhRt 6 Fish Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. Element > > s _ E 3 JZ. r— ro i— +-> +-> CD i — ra E r— > > Zi E CD CD c ra ro CO ro CD 3 , — s - a > o % CD CD O C S- J- S- > i — «|— ro +-> S- s _ 1— 1— CQ • i - JD i — -O -O c 3 X , — ro a > CD o E c u CO CD • CD to CD > > rc CJ> ro , — i - Q. J= s _ CD • o +-> -o +-> O -t-> rc c S- + J • i — E • i — •o o +-> CD CD 4-> o +J -o s - 3 !_ tO S_ r • r— ro c 4-> 0) X ro < u ro Q - 3 to O -O CD ro CD • r - CD -P a. - C < u i . S- ro 3 s - i— Q - o U s -O > s: > = to D_ = c o_ s: cr CJ ZO _ l CO Taxa E IS LR LR LR LR LR LR LR LR L R Dogfish 1 1 Ratfish 6 3 1 2 Northern Anchovy 8 8 Pacific Hake 3 3 Petrale Sole Pacific Halibut 9 1 6 1 1 English Sole Rockfish Lingcod Pacific Cod 1 1 Walleye Pollock Big Skate Plainfin Midshipman 11 11 Pile Perch 1 1 Great Sculpin Buffalo Sculpin 2 2 Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin Rock Sole 4 3 1 Starry Flounder 5 2 3 Flatfish 28 3 9 16 Pacific Herring 79 76 3 Surf Smelt 233 233 Eulachon 2 2 Minnow Salmon 280 189 91 1B 1B Trout Sturgeon 6 6 TOTAL 680 197 1 09 333 1 21 1 2 1 3 3 6 3 Key: B = Burnt Page 244 Table C.8: DfRs 3 Fish Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. Element Taxg :  Dogfish Ratfish Northern Anchovy Pacific Hake Petrale Sole Pacific Halibut English Sole Rockfish Lingcod Pacific Cod. Walleye Pollock Big Skate Plainfin Midshipman Pile Perch Great Sculpin Buffalo Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin Rock Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish Pacific Herring Surf Smelt Eulachon Minnow Salmon Trout Sturgeon TOTAL 15 12 8 1 1 9 36 131 1 446 6 679 fO ta c s -•<- -Q EE <1J O +•> x> cu 15 3 3 12 36 314 ta s- T— .O ta cu -XD +-> 3 s_ rO CU O 4 5 16 61 32 389 221 a . oo ta cu CJ> ta _I_S_ 8 34 54 s-ro -t> C cu E 3 3 (J •r— L R s- rO x ro E <u s- Q. L R s- ro CU 4-> rO i-XJ ro 3 a L_R_ E 3 3 a s- cu Q. O CU i-Q- LLJRJ E >> cu fO O cu cu cu Q. cu ai cu c o CQ cu o OO to 2 4 Key: B= Burnt Page 245 Table C.9: DhRt 4 Fish Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. Element br a >> E CD S- 3 jr +-> r— rO r— •i-> +-> CD • — s - ro E ^ » >> 3 E CD CD C rc rb ro CD CD 3 i — s - CD U 5, CD CD o C S- S- > CD >> , — • r— ro +-> S- 1— 1— CO • r - . Q t— _Q C S- 3 X i— ro CD CD E CD ro CD a co CD >, ro O ro , — Sw Q. JZ s - S- CD • O +J| • o -t-> <J ro C S- +-> •r— E • i — X ) O +J CD CD 4-> u -o s- 3 S- CO r— • r— ro C +•> CD X ro CD ro n. S 3 CO X ) CD ro CD • 1— +-> Q. J Z CD S- ro 3 J - ! CL o O • 1— <c > CJ> > Si <C CO O- Q < o_ s: cr D- _J CO s; Taxa E I S L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L Dogfish 13 13 Ratfish 5 3 1 1 Northern Anchovy Pacific Hake 9 9 Petrale Sole Pacific Halibut 70 23 28 8 1 3 1 1 1 2 2 English Sole Rockfish 36 32 1 2 1 Lingcod 37 11 11 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 Pacific Cod 15 10 1 1 1 1 1 Walleye Pollack 3 1 2 Big Skate 35 35 Plainfin Midshipman Pile Perch 2 2 Great Sculpin 4 1 1 2 Buffalo Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin 15 2 1 1 1 3 5 2 Sculpin 9 2 2 2 3 Rock Sole 75 16 59 Starry Flounder 184 48 128 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 Flatfish 1119 12 54 996 5 5 2 9 9 2 4 8 7 1 5 Pacific Herring 2 2 Surf Smelt Eulachon 1 1 Minnow 7 6 1 Salmon 2456 1266 1190 14B 6B 8B Trout 2 2 Sturgeon 108 1 52 55 TOTAL 4221 1394 1481 1109 3 9 18 24 14, 22 9 18 7 1 4 1 52 55 Key: B= Burnt Page 246 Table D.I: Estimated Grams of Used Meat For Mammals (After Imamoto 1976:29). Species Usable Meat Harbour Seal 59000 River Otter 7000 Beaver 5700 Muskrat » Mink * Peromyscus * Striped Skunk * Raccoon 3800 Canis 5700 Black Bear 95000 Deer 32400 Elk 146000 * = negligable estimated usable meat value Page 247 Table D.2: Diving Bird/Surface Feeding Bird Breakdown Worksheet. Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 J(E) %(E) %(E> . S(MNI) %(MNI) %(MNI) Diving Birds Common Loon 2 7 4 2 3 2 Arctic Loon 4 22 5 1 9 3 Horned Grebe 2 - 3 1 - 2 Western Grebe 5 5 1 1 1 1 Double-crested Cormorant - 2 - - 1 -Greater Scaup 10 36 46 4 15 15 Buffle Head - 5 - - 3 -Oldsquaw 2 9 37 1 2 8 White-winged Scoter 3 11 38 1 2 8 Common Scoter 55 156 115 19 53 26 Common Merganser - 1 - - 1 -Common Murre 1 - - - - -Rhinocerous Auklet - 1 - - 1 -86(84) 68(255) 72(249) 79(31) 67(91) 68(65) Surface-feeding Birds Canada Goose 1 1 2 1 1 1 Snow Goose - 5 8 - 3 2 Mallard 4 43 47 2 17 17 Pintail 7 59 36 2 17 9 American Widgeon 5 14 1 3 7 1 American Coot 1 1 17(17) 32(122) 28(95) 21(8) 33(45) 32(31) Total 101 377 344 39 136 96 Scavenging waterfowl (e.g. gulls, great blue heron, and oyster catcher) are excluded from this analysis. Page 218 Table D.3: Avifauna Seasonality Category Raw Data. Cate- Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 gory X(E) *(MNI) *(E) J(MNI) *(E) J(MNI) Year Common Merganser — 1 1 Round Canada Goose 1 1 1 1 2 1 (1) Snow Goose — — 5 3 8 2 Great Blue Heron 2 2 1 1 — — Glaucous-winged Gull 8 2 6 4 1 1 Heerman's Gull - - 5 2 — -Bald Eagle - - 1 1 4 1 Northwestern Crow 12 2 42 5 16 5 Raven - — 2 1 1 1 Great-horned Owl - - — — 1 1 Ruffed Grouse — — — — 1 1 X(n) 21(26) 17(8)14.5(64) 13(19) 9(34) 12(13) Winter/ White-winged Scoter 3 1 11 2 38 8 Early Common Scoter 55 19 156 53 115 26 Spring Horned Grebe 2 1 - - 3 2 (2) Western Grebe 5 1 5 1 1 1 Oldsquaw 2 1 9 2 37 8 Mallard 4 2 43 17 47 17 Pintail 7 2 59 17 36 9 American Widgeon 5 3 14 7 1 1 American Coot - — — - 1 1 Common Loon 2 2 7 3 4 2 Winter/ Arctic Loon 4 1 22 9 5 3 Early Greater Scaup 10 4 36 15 46 15 Spring (3) Winter Double-crested Cormorant - - 2 1 - -P a r i v c t a n y j J Spring J(n> 78.5(99) 81(37) 85(369) 86(130) 91(334) 88(93) (4) Spring Common Murre 1 1 _ — — — F a l l Rhinocerous Auklet - — - - - -(5) Black Oystercatcher - - 1 1 - -X(n) 0.5(1) 2(1) .5(2) 1(2) 0(0) 0(0) TOTAL* 126 46 435 151 368 106 * Unspecified duck is excluded from the total. Page 249 Table D.4: Fish Fauna Seasonality Category Raw Data. Cate- Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 'X(E) X(E) %(E) Year Ratfish 6 5 Round Rockfish — — 36 (1) Lingcod - - 37 Big Skate - 1 35 Sculpin - 1 9 Rock Sole 4 9 75 Minnow - 1 7 Sturgeon 6 6 108 *(n) 4(16) 7(17) 17.8(312) Spring/ Staghorn Sculpin — 1 15 Early Dogfish 1 8 13 Summer Pacific Hake 3 _ 9 (2) Walleye Pollack — — 3 Pacific Cod 1 4 15 Starry Flounder 5 36 184 Flatfish 28 131 1119 Spring/ Petrale Sole - 15 -Early Pacific Halibut 9 12 70 Summer English Sole - 8 — (3) Eulachon 2 _ 1 %(n) 12.2(49) 92(215) 81.7(1429) Summer Northern Anchovy 8 (4) Summer Surf Smelt 233 — _ (5) Trout - — 2 X(n) 60. 4(241) 0(0) 0.1(2) Late Pacific Herring 79 1 2 Winter/ Plainfin Midshipman 11 1 -Early Pile Perch 1 - 2 Spring Great Sculpin - - 4 (7) Buffalo Sculpin 2 - -%(n) 23.4(93) 1(2) 0.4(8) TOTAL 399 233 1751 Page 250 Table D.5: Mammal Fauna Habitat Category Raw Data. Cate- Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 gory %(E) %(m\i) J(E) S(MNI) %(E) %(MNI) Forest Elk 6 2 — — 12 1 Deer 12 2 1 1 21 3 Black Bear 11 2 - - 2 1 %(n) 60(29) 47(6) 2(1) 8(1) 37(35) 23(5) Littoral Raccoon 7 2 10 2 11 4 Forest Edge Striped Skunk - - 14 2 - — Peromyscus - - — — 4 2 Mink - - - - 2 1 Muskrat - - 5 2 - -Canis 2 1 3 2 31 6 *(n) 19(9) 23(3) 67(32) 67(8) 51(48) 59(13) Riverine Beaver _ _ 1 1 2 1 River otter 6 2 2 1 1 1 *(n) 13(6) 15(2) 6 (3) 17(2) 3(3) 9(2) Open Littoral Harbour Seal 4 2 12 1 9 2 Waters tin) 8(4) 15(2) 25(12) 8(1) 9(9) 9(2) TOTAL 48 13 48 12 95 22 Page 251 Table D.6: Avifauna Habitat Category Raw Data. Cate- gory Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 %(E) J(MNI) *(E) *(MNI) 1(E) X(MNI) Littoral/ Riverine Common loon Arctic Loon Horned grebe Western Grebe Double-crested Cormo Greater Scaup Bufflehead Oldsquaw Common Scoter White-Winged Scoter Common Merganser Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet *(n) 2 2 7 3 4 2 4 1 22 9 5 3 2 1 - - 3 2 5 1 5 1 1 1 - - 2 1 - -"ant 10 4 36 15 46 15 5 3 - 2 1 9 2 37 8 55 19 156 53 115 26 3 1 11 2 38 8 - - 1 1 - 1 1 - - - - - - 1 1 - - 67(84)67(31) 59(255)60(91) 68(249)62(65) Shletered Estuarine Water Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot X(n) 1 1 1 1 2 1 5 3 8 2 4 2 43 17 47 17 7 2 59 17 36 9 5 3 14 7 1 1 - - - - 1 1 13(17) 17(8) 28(122) 30(45) 25.8(95) 29(31) Strand/ Littoral Interface Great Blue Heron Glaucous-Winged Gull Heerman's Gull Black Oystercatcher %(n) - - 1 1 - 2 2 6 4 1 1 82 2 5 2 - - - - 1 1 - 8(10) 9(4) 3(13) 5(8) 0.2(6) 1(1) Mixed Woodlands Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great Horned Owl Ruffed Grouse X(n) 3 1 1 1 4 1 12 2 42 5 15 4 - - 2 1 1 1 - - - 1 1 - - - 1 1 12(15) 7(3) 10(45) 5(7) 6(22) 8(8) TOTAL 126 46 435 151 367 105 Page 252 Table D.7: Fish Fauna Habitat Cate'gory Raw Data. Cate- Taxa/Site DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 gory % ( E ) $(E) X(E) Littoral Spiny Dogfish 1 8 13 Water Ratfish 6 — 5 Northern Anchovy 8 - - Pacific Hake 3 - 9 Petrale Sole - 15 - Pacific Halibut 9 12 70 English Sole - 8 - Rockfish - - 36 Lingcod - - 37 Pacific Cod 1 4 15 Walleye Pollack - - 3 Big Skate - 1 35 Plainfin Midshipman 5.5(11)* - - X(n) 5(33.5) 7(48) 5(233) Tidal Plainfin Midshipman 5.5(11)» _ _ Flats Pile Perch 1 - 2 Great Sculpin - - Buffalo Sculpin - - - Staghorn Sculpin - 1 - Sculpin 2 1 28 Rock Sole 4 9 75 Starry Flounder 5 36 184 Flatfish 28 131 1119 Pacific Minnow 79 1 2 Surf Smelt 233 — -Salmon 140.5(281)» 223(446)* 1235(2470)* Sturgeon 3(6)* 3(6)* 54(108)* Steelhead Trout — 1(2)* X(n) 74(501) 60(405) 64(2700) Riverine Salmon 140.5(281)* 223(446)* 1235(2470)* Sturgeon 3(6)* 3(6)* 54(108)* Steelhead Trout - - 1 ( 2 ) * Eulachon 2 - 1 Minnow — - 7 *(n) 21(145.5) 24(160.1) 3U1298) TOTAL 680 679 4221 * = number appears in more than one habitat category. Page 253 Table E.I: Frequency Data, Mammal Remains in St. Mungo, Locarno, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta Sites (Imamoto 1971, Boehm 1973a). St. Mungo Locarno Marpole DgRr 6 DgRr 2 DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 DgRr 6 DgRs 1 *(E) *<E) *(E) »(E) *(E) NE) *(E) Elk 57 77 6 12 5 24 Deer 14 58 12 1 21 34 3 Bear 5 1 11 — 2 4 Canis 36 41 2 3 31 19 22 Porcupine - 1 - - — Raccoon 4 3 7 10 11 1 2 Squirrel - - - — — _ 1 Skunk — — _ 14 — _ _ Peromyscus 3 1 — — 4 _ 12 Mink - 5 — — 2 1 2 Muskrat — 2 — 5 _ _ _ 69(149) 68(189) 79(38)69(33) 87(83) 84(64) 86(66) Beaver 44 68 1 2 6 2 River Otter — — 6 2 1 — — Seal 23 23 4 12 9 6 8 Northern Fur Seal — — — — — — 1 3K67) 32(91) 21(10)31(15) 13(12) 16(12) 14(11) TOTAL 216 280 48 48 95 76 77 Page 251 Table E.2: Frequency Data, Bird Remains in St. Mungo, Locarno, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta Sites (Imamoto 1974, Boehm 1973a). St. Mungo Locarno Marpole DgRr 6 DgRr 2 DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 DgRr 6 DgRs 1 X(E) *(E) X(E') X(E) % CE) X(E) *(E) Loons 1 8 6 29 9 _ Grebes 1 10 7 5 4 - 2 Cormorants - 20 - 2 - - 1 Murres/Murrelets - 2 1 - - - -Diving Ducks - 6 69 219 236 5 46 6(2) 24(46) 66(83)59(255) 68(249) 33(5) 27(49) Geese 22 72 1 6 10 6 7 Swans 3 17 - - - 4 -Surface-Feeding Birds - 5 17 116 85 - 86 38(27) 49(94) 14(18)28(122) 26(95) 67(10) 52(93) Gulls _ 22 10 11 1 - 5 Other Scavengers - 2 - 2 - - -0(0) 13(24) 8(10) 3(13) .2(1) 0(0) 3(5) Upland Fowl 2 27 15 45 23 - 33 6(12) 14(27) 12(15) 10(45)5 .8(23) 0(0) 18(33) Unspecified Ducks1 1 38 32 44 37 7 - TOTAL 31 191 126 435 368 15 180 Unspecified duck remains are excluded from the total.

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