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The subsistence economy of the Locarno Beach culture (3300-2400 B.P.) Stiefel, Sheryl Kay 1985

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THE SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY OF THE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE  (3300 - 2400 B.P.)  by S h e r y l Kay S t i e f e l B.A., P i t z e r  C o l l e g e (Claremont, CA), 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia) We accept t h i s t h e s i s  as conforming  to tkie /^effluirecL standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA <s?  , A p r i l , 1985  S h e r y l Kay S t i e f e l , 1 9 8 5  In  presenting  requirements British freely that  this  for  an  Columbia,  thesis  in partial  advanced  I  agree  degree  that  the  at  for  reference  and  permission  for  extensive  copying  purposes  department  or  understood  that  financial  by  gain  may his  be or  copying shall  or  study.  granted her  of by  be  Anthropology  and  allowed  permission.  Department  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 M a i n M a l l V a n c o u v e r , Canada  V6T  1Y3  Date: January  1985  University shall I  this the  Sociology  Columbia  of  this  without  for  of  my  It  is  thesis my  of  agree  thesis head  the  make i t  further  representatives.  publication  not  the  Library  available  scholarly  f u l f i l m e n t of  for  written  Page i i ABSTRACT This fauna  thesis  (mammals,  culture  birds,  (3300-2400  southern  British  reconstruct the  i s concerned  site  Locarno  and  level  from  vertebrate  Farm  River  (DfRs  Delta  Beach  area i n  objective  exploitative  components  vertebrate  the Locarno  The p r i n c i p a l  culture  (DhRt 6 ) , W h a l e n  fish)  analysing  B.P.) o f t h e F r a s e r  Columbia.  Beach  with  i s to  patterns f o r  a t the Locarno  3 ) , and Musqueam  NE  Beach  (DhRt  4)  sites. Qualitative are Data  employed are  preferred The Locarno and  and q u a n t i t a t i v e f a u n a l  to evaluate  also  faunal  evaluated  by  results Beach  of  seasonal  faunal  resources.  followed  waterfowl  (mainly  flatfish,  the  culture populations  resource,  by  Salmon land  diving  each  component.  availability  to  during  the  to A p r i l ) . early  procurement.  i s the major  mammals  summer  the  (deer  and  (April  site  summer  to  vertebrate  Intensive  herring,  a t two  with  through  also  early  occupied  June)  may  have  sites  shellfish spring  during the  for surf  (DhRt 4) was o c c u p i e d and  riverine  e l k ) and  took p l a c e  winter  that  and  i n conjunction  DhRt 6 was  The t h i r d  through  late  indicate  e x p l o i t e d mainly  and w a t e r f o w l e x p l o i t a t i o n  harvesting (February  analysis  species).  (DhRt 6 and D f R s 3 ) , p r o b a b l y  winter  from  methods  habitat categories.  foreshore  spring  data  analytic  been  from a  smelt late major  Page encampment f o r F r a s e r R i v e r s a l m o n p r o c u r e m e n t . shares  many  Prehistoric It  attributes  culture village  i s concluded  vertebrate  with  DhRt 4 a l s o  Marpole  and  the  economy  Locarno  i s part  Beach  culture  of the Northwest  The L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e i s a d e v e l o p m e n t  t h e S t . Mungo c u l t u r e ( 4 3 0 0 - 3300 B.P.) w i t h  e m p h a s i s on r i v e r i n e  resources,  especially  sites,  types,  i n c l u d i n g seasonal  salmon f i s h i n g  site.  Similar  Prehistoric  to Marpole  of  the Fraser  at seasonally occupied The p r i m a r y  procurement. River  intensively  indicate fishing  resource e x t r a c t i o n  (2400-1600  village  B.P.) a n d  Delta  Late  exploited occupation  site.  waterfowl,  aggregated  and s h e l l f i s h )  summer s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t y  salmon  that this  exploited  camps d u r i n g t h e l a t e w i n t e r  Preliminary  sockeye  Prolonged  indicate a  and p o s s i b l y a w i n t e r  (e.g. h e r r i n g , f l a t f i s h ,  spring.  data  (1600-1100 B.P.) c u l t u r e s , L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e  populations resources  sites,  greater  salmon.  Locarno Beach c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e fauna range o f s i t e  Late  sites.  that  subsistence  Coast p a t t e r n . from  associated  iii  site  evidence  runs with at  (late  suggests summer  fishing  DhRt 4  was a w i n t e r  was s a l m o n that  Fraser  to f a l l )  nets  during  to early  near  D h R t 4.  the winter  village,  were  may  a s w e l l as a  Page i v TABLE OP CONTENTS Abstract  i i  List  of Figures  ix  List  of Tables  xi  Acknowledgements  xv  Chapter  1 : INTRODUCTION AND THE PROBLEM  Chapter  2 : THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT  1 1  1  Introduction  1  1  The S e t t i n g  1  1  Climate  1  3  Landforms Evolution  14 o f the Landforms  1  7  2  0  2  2  Mammals  2  5  Birds  3  1  Flora Vertebrate  Fauna o f t h e F r a s e r  Delta  Fish Site  * » 1 Reconstructions  49  DhRt 6 DfRs  49  3  5  1  DhRt 4  5  2  5  3  5  6  5  6  Summary Chapter  3:  THE SAMPLE: BORDEN'S  ARCHAEOLOGY  OF THE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE Introduction  Table  of Contents (continued) L o c a r n o Beach S i t e ,  DhRt 6  57 57  Location Excavation  Methodology . . . .  59  Stratigraphy  62  Cultural  64  Whalen Farm  Zones  Site,  Df Rs  3  65 65  Location Excavation  Methodology  67  Stratigraphy  72  Cultural  76  Zones  Musqueam NE S i t e ,  DhRt 4  77 77  Location Excavation  Methodology  79  Stratigraphy  8l  Cultural  82  Verification  Zones o f an A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e  Locarno Beach C u l t u r e  85  DhRt 6  86  3  89  DhRt 4  90  Df Rs  Conclusions Chapter  Page v  92  4 : METHODS AND RESULTS: THE  LOCARNO BEACH SUBSISTENCE PATTERN  93  Introduction  93  Methods  94  of Identification  Table  of Contents (continued)  Page v i 99  Methods o f Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n DhRt 6 A s s e m b l a g e  103  DfRs 3 Assemblage  103  DhRt 4 A s s e m b l a g e  104  Results  104  The V e r t e b r a t e F a u n a Sample  104  Mammal R e m a i n s  106  DhRt 6  106  Df Rs 3  1°9  DhRt 4  I l l  Summary o f Mammal Remains B i r d Remains  113 116  DhRt 6  118  Df Rs 3  121  DhRt 4  .  Summary o f B i r d Remains F i s h Remains  124 126 134  DhRt 6  137  Df Rs 3  I *  DhRt 4  147  Summary o f F i s h R e m a i n s  152  Season o f E x p l o i t a t i o n  2  2  158  Mammals  158  Birds  158  Fish  162  Table  of Contents  (continued)  Locarno Habitat  Page v i i  Beach c u l t u r e  seasonaltity . . . . 1 6 5  Exploitation  169  Mammals  169  DhRt 6  171  Df Rs 3  171  DhRt  4  172  Birds  172 DhRt 6  173  Df Rs 3  173  DhRt  173  4  Fish  174 DhRt 6  174  Df Rs 3  176  DhRt  176  4  Locarno  Beach c u l t u r e h a b i t a t  exploitative Chapter  patterns . . . . . 1 7 7  5 : THE NATURE OF THE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE SUBSISTENCE  PATTERN AND  ITS PLACE IN  THE GULF OF GEORGIA SEQUENCE  . 1 7 9  Introduction  179  Hypothesis  180  A C o m p a r i s o n o f S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o Culture Vertebrate Subsistence Results Mammals  B e a c h , and M a r p o l e Patterns . . . . 1 8 6 187 188  Table of Contents  (continued)  Page  Birds  1  9  2  Fish  1  9  6  2  0  1  Discussion Summary Chapter  6:  204  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Bibliography Appendices  viii  207 2  1  6  229  Page i x List  of  Figures  F i g u r e 1.1:  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Locarno Beach C o m p o n e n t s ( a f t e r Ham 1982:85)  Figure 1 . 2 :  L o c a t i o n of s i t e s with components t h a t a r e sampled  Culture 2  Locarno Beach i n t h i s study  Figure 2 . 1 :  The F r a s e r D e l t a a r e a o f the region (after Calvert 1970:56)  Gulf  of  Culture 6 Georgia 12  Figure 2 . 2 :  L a n d f o r m s o f the F r a s e r D e l t a , c a . 1850 ( a f t e r Ward 1 9 8 0 : 9 , N o r t h and T e v e r s h a m n.d.) and l o c a t i o n o f L o c a r n o B e a c h , Whalen Farm, and Musqueam NE s i t e s 15  Figure 2 . 3 :  Hypothesized e v o l u t i o n o f the F r a s e r D e l t a : 1 0 0 0 0 B.P., 5 0 0 0 B.P., and Today (Bunyan 1 9 7 8 : 2 1 )  18  Figure 3 - 1 :  L o c a t i o n o f L o c a r n o B e a c h s i t e , DhRt 6 , ( s h a d e d a r e a ) a c c o r d i n g t o Ham ( 1 9 7 9 : 3 ) and B o r d e n (1948) 58  Figure 3 . 2 :  V i e w o f T r e n c h 1 a t DhRt 6 , L o o k i n g n o r t h , b o t h the w h e e l b a r r o w ramp ( f o r e g r o u n d ) and t h e p r i n c i p a l t o o l f o r e x c a v a t i n g , a s h o v e l , can be s e e n 60  Figure 3 . 3 :  West f a c e w a l l p r o f i l e ,  F i g u r e 3-**:  L o c a t i o n o f t h e Whalen Farm S i t e , B o u n d a r y Bay s i t e s  DfRs 3 ,  F i g u r e 3.5:  Whalen Farm, DfRs 3 B o u n d a r y Bay, A r c h a e o l o g y Lab Map, U.B.C.)  Wash.  F i g u r e 3.6:  V i e w West t o E a s t S i t e (DfRs 3 )  Other (after  Farm  F i g u r e 3.7:  Wilson  F i g u r e 3.8:  West W a l l  F i g u r e 3.9:  1976  Location : 236 )  Duff  and  Trench  1 a t DhRt 6  o f L a r g e Midden a t  .63 and 66  1949 68  Whalen 69 73  stratasquare  Profile  a t DfRs 3  o f Musqueam NE,  DhRt 4  74 (after  Borden 78  List  of Figures  Figure  3-10:  (continued) Distribution  (Borden  Page x o f e x c a v a t e d p i t s a t DhRt 4  and A r c h e r 1 9 7 5 : 6 2 ) Musqueam NE  80  Figure  3-Ha:  (DhRt 4 ) S t r a t i g r a p h y  8 2 a  Figure Figure  3-lib: Musqueam NE (DhRt 4 ) S t r a t i g r a p h y 8 2 b 4.1: Flowchart of Laboratory Procedures f o r Faunal Identification 9 6  Figure  4.2: Age C a t e g o r i e s f o r C l a s s i f y i n g Mammal ( a f t e r C a l v e r t 1 9 8 0 :1 4 3 )  Figure  4.3: Age C a t e g o r i e s f o r C l a s s i f y i n g B i r d (after Sutton 1 9 7 9 : 3 3 7 )  Remains  Figure  4.4: Most F r e q u e n t l y O c c u r r i n g L o c a r n o B e a c h S i t e (DhRt 6 )  Fish  Bone  Elements, 1 4 1  Figure  4.5: Most F r e q u e n t l y O c c u r r i n g Whalen Farm S i t e (DfRs 3 )  Fish  Bone  Elements, 1 4 6  Figure  4.6: Most F r e q u e n t l y O c c u r r i n g Musqueam NE S i t e ( D h R t 4 )  Fish  Bone  Elements, 1 4 9  Remains 9 8  98  Page x i List  Table  1.1:  Table  2.1:  Table  2.2:  Table  2.3:  Table  2.4:  Summary o f Known C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o Beach, and M a r p o l e S i t e s 4 Preferred Habitat Fraser Delta Area  Categories  Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y Fraser Delta Area  the  Table  of Tables  2.5:  the  Table  2.6:  Table  2.7:  Types o f Waterfowl Preferred Habitat Fraser Delta  3.1:  Table  3-2:  Table  3.3:  Table  4.1:  27  Categories  D e l t a Area  32  f o r Avifauna i n 33  Categories  Categories  of Avifauna i n 34  f o r F i s h i n the 42  Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y D e l t a Area  Table  o f Mammal Fauna i n t h e  i n the F r a s e r  Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y F r a s e r D e l t a Area  Preferred Habitat Fraser Delta Area  o f Mammals i n t h e 26  f o r F i s h i n the F r a s e r 43  D i s t r i b u t i o n of M i t c h e l l ' s (1971:57) Locarno B e a c h d i a g n o s t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s f o r sampled a r e a s o f t h r e e L o c a r n o B e a c h C u l t u r e components 87  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M i t c h e l l ' s ( 1 9 7 1 : 5 2 - 5 3 ) Marpole d i a g n o s t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s f o r sampled a r e a s of t h r e e L o c a r n o B e a c h u n i t s 88 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C a l v e r t ' s ( 1 9 7 0 : 7 4 ) S t . Mungo d i a g n o s t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s f o r sampled a r e a s o f t h r e e L o c a r n o B e a c h C u l t u r e components . . . 88  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V e r t e b r a t e Remains by V e r t e b r a t e C l a s s , A l l Assemblages, E  Table  4.2:  Table  4.3:  Presence-Absence Assemblages Identified S i t e , DhRt 6  105  D a t a F o r Mammal Remains, A l l 107  Mammal Remains f r o m L o c a r n o  Beach  108  List  of Tables  (continued)  Table 4.4:  Identified S i t e , DfRs 3  Page x i i  Mammal Remains from Whalen Farm 110  Table 4.5: I d e n t i f i e d Mammal Remains f r o m Musqueam NE Site,  DhRt  4  112  Table 4.6: Bone F r e q u e n c i e s E o f M a r i n e and Land Mammal Remains, A l l Assemblages  115  Table 4.7: MNI V a l u e s o f M a r i n e and Land Mammal Remains, All  115  Assemblages  Table 4.8: P r e s e n c e - A b s e n c e o f I d e n t i f i e d B i r d All  Species, 117  Assemblages  Table 4.9: I d e n t i f i e d B i r d Remains, L o c a r n o B e a c h (DhRt  Table 4.10:  Distribution (DhRt 6 )  Site  Table 4.11:  Identified (DfRs 3)  Table 4.12: Table 4.13: (DhRt  Identified 4)  Table 4.15: All  (DhRt  4)  119  Bone T y p e s , L o c a r n o  Remains, Whalen Farm  Beach 120  Site 122  of Bird  Bird  Table 4.14: D i s t r i b u t i o n Site  of Bird  Bird  Distribution (DfRs 3)  Site  Site  6)  Bone T y p e s , Whalen Farm 124  Remains, Musqueam NE S i t e 125  of Bird  Bone T y p e s , Musqueam NE 127  F r e q u e n c y D a t a f o r W a t e r f o w l and U p l a n d Assemblages  Fowl, 129  Table 4.16:  MNI D a t a f o r W a t e r f o w l and U p l a n d F o w l A l l Assemblages 129  Table 4.17:  F r e q u e n c y D a t a F o r D i v i n g B i r d and S u r f a c e F e e d i n g B i r d Remains, A l l Assemblages . . . . 130  Table 4.18: MNI D a t a f o r o f D i v i n g B i r d and S u r f a c e Feeding  Table 4.19:  Bird  Remains, A l l Assemblages  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Bone Type Remains, A l l Assemblages  . . . .  130  f o r A l l Bird . 132  List  of Tables  (continued)  Page  xiii  Table 4 . 2 0 : D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Bone T y p e s f o r D i v i n g a n d S u r f a c e - f e e d i n g W a t e r f o w l , A l l Assemblages . .  132  Table 4 . 2 1 : D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Bone T y p e s f o r A l l B i r d s a t D h R t 6 a n d D f Rs 3 133 Table 4 . 2 2 :  Presence of F i s h  Table 4 . 2 3 : Fish  F r e q u e n c y o f Salmon w i t h and w i t h o u t  Table 4.24: Identified (DhRt 6) Table 4 . 2 5 : Site  Distribution (DhRt 6)  Table 4 . 2 6 : I d e n t i f i e d ( D f Rs 3 ) Table 4 . 2 7 : Site  Small  Remains, Locarno Beach  of Fish  Fish  Site  135 136 138  Bone T y p e s , L o c a r n o B e a c h 139  R e m a i n s , Whalen  Farm  Site 143  Distribution ( D f Rs 3 )  Table 4 . 2 8 : I d e n t i f i e d (DhRt 4 ) Table 4 . 2 9 : Site  Fish  Remains, A l l Assemblages  of Fish  Fish  Distribution (DhRt 4)  Bone T y p e s , Whalen  Farm 145  R e m a i n s , Musqueam NE S i t e . 148  of Fish  Bone T y p e s , Musqueam NE 151  Table 4 . 3 0 : C o m p a r i s o n o f S a l m o n a n d O t h e r F i s h Remains ( E x c l u d i n g Small F i s h S p e c i e s ) , A l l Assemblages, E  154  Table 4 . 3 1 : P r e s e n c e - A b s e n c e o f N o n - A d u l t Mammal F a u n a , A l l Assemblages 159 Table 4 . 3 2 :  S e a s o n a l i t y o f A v i f a u n a , A l l A s s e m b l a g e s , MNI  Table 4 . 3 3 :  Seasonality of Fish  161  Fauna, A l l Assemblages, E  163  Table 4 . 3 4 : P r e s e n c e - A b s e n c e o f S e a s o n s f o r L o c a r n o B e a c h C u l t u r e V e r t e b r a t e F a u n a , A l l A s s e m b l a g e s . . . 166 Table 4 . 3 5 : MNI  Mammal H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s , A l l A s s e m b l a g e s , 170  List  of Tables  Table  4.36:  Table  4.37:  MNI  (continued) Avifauna  Page x i v  Habitat  Pish Habitat  Categories,  Categories,  A l l Assemblages, 170  A l l Assemblages,  E 175  Table 5 . 1 :  P r e s e n c e - A b s e n c e o f Mammal i n S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h , and M a r p o l e Components f r o m F r a s e r Delta Sites 189  Table 5 . 2 : in E  C o m p a r i s o n o f Land and A q u a t i c Mammal Remains S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h and M a r p o l e Componants, 189  Table 5 . 3 :  S e a s o n s R e p r e s e n t e d i n Mammal A s s e m b l a g e s B a s e d on P r e s e n c e - A b s e n c e o f Known Age, S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o Beach, and M a r p o l e C u l t u r e s 191  Table 5 . 4 :  P r e s e n c e - A b s e n c e o f B i r d i n S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o , and M a r p o l e Components f r o m F r a s e r D e l t a S i t e s 193  Table 5 - 5 :  C o m p a r i s o n o f W a t e r f o w l and U p l a n d Fowl i n S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h , and M a r p o l e Components f r o m Fraser Delta Sites, E 194  Table 5 - 6 :  C o m p a r i s o n o f D i v i n g W a t e r f o w l and S u r f a c e f e e d i n g W a t e r f o w l i n S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h , and M a r p o l e Components f o r F r a s e r D e l t a S i t e s , E ^ . 194  Table 5 * 7 :  P r e s e n c e - Absence D a t a f o r F i s h i n S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h , and M a r p o l e Components f r o m F r a s e r Delta Sites 197  Table 5 - 8 :  I d e n t i f i e d F i s h Remains f o r S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h , and M a r p o l e A s s e m b l a g e s f r o m F r a s e r D e l t a Sites, E 198  Page  xv  Acknowledgements Throughout students, research this  friends,  Anne  Legare,  Coupland, includes faculty  and  Mike  Kew,  patience,  R.G.  a  inspiring my  David  For  and  prehistoric  Colleges  field  of  recognition at Ludowicz,  totem p o l e ,  site  Sutton,  a  deep n o t e  Gay  me  my  of  gratitude  R.G.  time  for  guidance,  Matson Professor  thesis  the  and  Pinkerton,  Frederick.  to  which  profiles  Lyn  of  Gary  staff  unrelenting  Northwest  been c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t  Professors  had  (The a  Joint  major  Both  Sheryl  topic  and  i t took  my  Miller  Science  effect  introduced  anthropological  subsistence  Studying  my  Supportive  throughout  Guthrie  college studies.  the  the  their  guided  supported  me  research.  Daniel  Clarernont  on  drew t h e  and  of  Deanna  committee  Pokotylo,  number  S h e l i a Greaves,  Douglas  thesis  originally  the  Ham,  comments,  a s s o c i a t i o n s with  formative into  Guppy.  and  Magne,  up  a  deserve  students.  s t i m u l a t i n g mentor  College) the  way  Professors  to  Len  I r v i n e , who  and  complete My  are  Neil  Matson  proved  Boyd  graduate  extended  encouraged  individuals  Hanks,  and  (supervisor),  to  Bill  and  U.B.C.,  U n d e r h i l l , Marty  include Moira  thesis,  at  faculty  These  Chris  other  this  is  residence and  efforts.  time.  Evelyn  my  on and  (Pitzer  Center)  of  during  my  me  directed  archaeology  me and  studies. Coast  anthropology  surrogate  would  Vancouver Family  not  have  and  good  Page x v i friends you"  Goldsteins.  e n t i r e f a m i l y has  encouraged  especially and  Zbars and  To  them, s a y i n g  "thank  i s t r u e l y not enough. My  and  the  my  me  indebted  husband,  dedicated  as  to my  to ask questions  always e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y  I  have  to my  Mark,  parents,  for  grandfather, and  pursued  their  my  supported  studies.  I  am  G i l and  R i t a Cooperman,  love.  This  Samuel Zimmerman, who  to always stand up to a  thesis  is  taught  me  challenge.  1  Chapter  1  INTRODUCTION AND THE  This from  study  three  different  i s an a n a l y s i s  Locarno site  Beach  Locarno Beach c u l t u r e have  a spatial  southern  Gulf  northwestern little  River  of Georgia  i s known  about  components, Delta  spread  region  state  for  faunal faunal  detail and was  remains  in British  (see Figure  t h e Whalen first  Harbour  and  data.  and a r t i f a c t  Farm  sites  (Borden  recognized.  was  of the  Columbia  1.1).  of the  documentation of information  not reported  at Dionisio  Point  (Mitchell 1971b),  Borden Bowker  1976),  Creek  where t h i s  types  are  NE  (Borden  G e o r g e s o n Bay ( H a g g a r t y  (Mitchell 1979)  sites.  in  Beach  culture  listed  (Mitchell 1971a),  Musqueam  and  However,  patterns  1950b)  Faunal  a  components most  Descriptive types  from  f o r L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e components a t L o c a r n o  components  1975,  each  throughout  the subsistence  and a r t i f a c t u a l  remains  area.  L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e due t o t h e i n c o m p l e t e both  faunal  ( c a . 3 3 0 0 - 2 4 0 0 B.P.)  configuration  Washington  of v e r t e b r a t e  culture  i n the Fraser  PROBLEM  for  Montague  and  Archer  and Sendy  1976),  H o w e v e r , many o f  Page 2 F i g u r e 1.1: Distribution of Locarno Beach Culture Components (after Ham 1982:85).  Locarno Beach DhRt 6 Musqueam NE DhRt 4 DhRq 21 P i t t River Belcarra Park DhRr 6 Whalen Farm DfRs 3 Beach Grove DgRs 1 Crescent Beach DgRr 1 Simonarson 45WH48 Semiahmoo Spit 45WH17 9* Birch Bay 10* 45WH9 Blackwood Add, 11* 45WH74 Cherry Point 12* 45WH1 DcRu 38 Quick's Pond 13 14 DcRt 10 Willow's Beach 15 DcRt 13 Bowker Creek 16 DfRu 23 Georgeson Bay 17 DfRu 13 Montague Harbour Pender Canal 18 DcRt 2 Dionisio Point 1 9 * DgRv 3 20 45Ca213 Hoko River  1 2 3 4 5 6 7* 8*  2270 - 2450 B.P. 2250 - 2970 B.P. 2630 - 2960 B.P. 1710 B.P. rejected 2450 B.P. 2810 - 3200 B.P. 2350 - 3150 B.P. 3495 B.P. no djstes 3125 B.P. no dates 2630 B.P. no dates 2490 - 2630 B.P. 2740 - 2910 B.P. 2820 B.P. 2890 - 3160 B.P. 2200 B.P. 2450 B.P. 3000 B.P.  * poorly documented or questionable Locarno Beach culture components.  Page 3 the  identified 1.1  Figure  Locarno  remain  quantified  poorly  components  reported.  illustrated in  The o v e r a l l  lack of  f a u n a l and a r t i f a c t u a l data f o r the Locarno Beach  c u l t u r e has impeded has  Beach  seriously  intersite  hampered  comparisons  and  consequently  t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of p r e h i s t o r i c  subsistence patterns. The  Locarno Beach, c u l t u r e i s temporally  i n t e r m e d i a t e to  the S t . Mungo ( 4 3 0 0 - 3 3 0 0 B.P.)  and Marpole (2400-1200 B.P.)  cultures  prehistory.  i n Gulf  relationship types  of Georgia  between these  i s unclear  three  cultural  successive coastal culture  1.1).  (Table  The  There  are q u e s t i o n s  as t o  whether the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n was an in  situ  Northwest  suggested  Coast  by M i t c h e l l  1971b,  1 9 6 8 ) or whether  Borden economy  introduced  Northwest  Coast  adaptation economy, adaptation  i t was  from  S t . Mungo ( a s  1 9 7 9 , and a t  a marine  mammal  migrations  p r e h i s t o r i a n s agree the Locarno  i s disagreement  that  hunting  While some a  maritime  Beach  subsistence  on t h e k i n d  of maritime  or what maritime a d a p t a t i o n means  1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 0 ; Matson 1 9 7 6 b ,  times  from the n o r t h  S u t t l e s 1 9 5 2 , Drucker 1 9 5 5 ) .  characterizes  there  Burley  by "Eskimoid"  (Borden 1 9 5 1 : 4 6 - 4 9 ,  Burley  development  198la;  Schalk  (Borden 1 9 7 5 ; 1977; Suttles  1979).  The  present  study  i s designed  to c o n t r i b u t e  t o our  knowledge o f Locarno Beach c u l t u r e s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s and  Page 4 Table 1.1: Summary of Known Characteristics of St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Cultures. Residence Subsistence Date Archaeological Social Structure Economy Culture Type Developed Preservation Ascribed rank Large plankhouse dwellings 2400 B.P. Marpole and storage technology (Matson 1981a:85) (Burley 1980:29) (Burley 1980:70) Elaborate antler art Winter villages Night-time winter (Ham 1982:88) (Ham 1982:305) shellfish gathering Pecked ground stone art Sedentariness (Ham 1982:304) (Ham 1982:88) (Ham 1982:365) Specialized procurement Labret wear technology for salmon (Ham 1982:91) Cranial deformation (Burley 1980:71-72) Specialized camps for (Ham 1982:91) herring and shellfish Flexed and cairn burials (Matson et. a l 1981:95-96) (Ham 1982:91) Root crop harvesting Burials with grave goods (Patenaude 1981) (Ham 1982:91) Possibly specialized At least high ranking no documented 3300 B.P. Locarno shellfish and herring Beach males (Beattie 1980:194) evidence harvesting camps Use of labrets, burials (Ham 1982:366) (Beattie 1980:190,206) Root crop harvesting Burials with grave goods (Patenaude 1981) (Mitchell 1971b:57) (Haggarty and Sendy 1976: 18, 66) Cranial deformation (Ham 1982:86) Carved wooden objects (Ham 1982:87) Basketry (Borden 1976:235) (Croes 1975) (Borden and Archer 1975) Gulf Island complex artifacts (Duff 1956) (Ham 1982:86) (Mitchell 1971b:57) Evidence too sparse to Year-round site utilization Possibly the beginning of 4300 B.P. St. Mungo specialized s h e l l f i s h i n g , indicate established ranking (Matson 1981a:83) f i s h i n g , and hunting Possibly cairn burial (Matson 1981a:83) (Ham 1982:81)  Page 5 its  relationship  objective  to earlier  and l a t e r  cultures.  i s the reconstruction of s i t e  level  The m a i n vertebrate  s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s f o r L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e components a t the  Locarno  Beach  (DhRt 6), Whalen  Musqueam NE (DhRt 4) s i t e s Gulf of Georgia  region  Farm  i n the Fraser  ( F i g u r e 1.2).  (DfRs 3), and  Delta area  Ideally  a study  Locarno Beach c u l t u r e s u b s i s t e n c e  economy s h o u l d  analysis  remains.  limited  of s h e l l f i s h funds  shellfish time  and time  precluded  remains; f l o r a l  o f each e x c a v a t i o n .  flora  are excluded  qualitative  Beach  Unfortunately,  a thorough  a n a l y s i s of at the  Thus, an a n a l y s i s o f s h e l l f i s h and study.  activities  are  reconstructed  by  a  and q u a n t i t a t i v e f a u n a l a n a l y s i s o f a s a m p l e o f  mammal, b i r d , study  of the  i n c l u d e an  samples were n o t c o l l e c t e d  from t h i s  Subsistence  This  and f l o r a l  of the  and f i s h remains from each o f t h e t h r e e  evaluates  culture  relationship  three  specific  vertebrate  sites.  hypotheses about Locarno  subsistence  economy  and i t s  t o t h e S t . Mungo a n d M a r p o l e c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s .  The  hypotheses a r e :  1.  The L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a m a r i n e  mammal h u n t i n g  2.  During  economy.  the Locarno  v e r t e b r a t e fauna  suggests  Beach year  culture,  round s i t e  seasonality of  utilization.  Page 6  Figure 1 . 2 : Location of s i t e s with Locarno Beach Culture components that are sampled in t h i s study.  Page 7 3.  During  abundant  t h e L o c a r n o Beach  fish  report  during that  mammals In  1  walruses).  St.  unlikely  "Esklmoid"  that  pattern  have  The  a relative  seasonality  tested  an i n s i t u  and  (e.g. s e a l s ,  sea l i o n s ,  and  f o r marine  mammal  o f m a r i n e mammal h u n t i n g  during  t h e L o c a r n o Beach  culture  marine  c a n be compared  to that  of the  cultures.  hunters,  I f the Locarno  Beach  more m a r i n e mammals,  as  and D r u c k e r  abundance  be t h e r e s u l t  on t h e  porpoises,  i t i s the result  (1952),  focuses  1955).  (e.g. w h a l e s ,  significantly  s e a mammal  Suttles  possibly  is  culture,  Mungo a n d M a r p o l e  does  hunting  "sea"  study.  the r o l e  does n o t have  or  1 9 5 5 , Drucker  The a f o r e m e n t i o n e d d e f i n i t i o n  exploitative  (195D,  mammal  mammal  Ethnographers  groups hunted marine  Pinnipedia  clarifying  culture is  Cetecea  Locarno Beach  mammal  marine  i s used i n t h i s  By the  of  and  culture.  1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 2 , Barnett  reports,  dolphins)  i s t h e most  the importance of marine  many C o a s t S a l i s h  procurement  hunting  tests  the Locarno Beach  (Suttles  these  salmon  resource.  Hypothesis hunting  culture,  of a  migration  suggested ( 1 9 5 5 ).  by  i t of  Borden  I f in fact i t  o f m a r i n e mammals, i t c o u l d  o f such a m i g r a t i o n .  of s i t e s  Locarno Beach  components  I f the L o c a r n o Beach  culture i s  N o r t h w e s t C o a s t d e v e l o p m e n t , one would  expect i t s  i n Hypothesis 2 .  with  Page 8 seasonality  t o resemble  culture  the succeeding  or  attributes the  o f both c u l t u r e s .  S t . Mungo 6)  (DgRr  component  indicates  seasons  either  that  1976a:300).  This  Marpole  a t the Glenrose  rather  than  specialized  year  At  this  seasonality the  information  S t . Mungo  Locarno  culture  Coast  cultures  site  Mitchell  (1971a),  suggest,  a n d i f salmon  Burley  (1980),  (1976b,  198la,  argue,  t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f salmon  intermediate support  to  sites  be t o compare  to check  culture to where t h e  fits  into the  198lb),  oriented, (198la,  198lb)  Coast p a t t e r n a r e and B u r l e y  i n t h e L o c a r n o Beach  S t . Mungo  as  abundance  (1980) culture  o f salmon i s  and M a r p o l e ,  this  would  hypothesis.  differs  I n two ways f r o m p r e v i o u s  t h e Locarno Beach  i s the f i r s t  i s salmon  and Matson  I f the r e l a t i v e  between  study  reconstruct  this  idea.  t h e iri s i t u  This  (1982:358-360)  would  and t h e N o r t h w e s t  as M a t s o n  this  (Matson  t o 5000 y e a r s B.P.  seasonality  i f Marpole  linked  may t e s t  round"  pattern.  H y p o t h e s i s 3,  For  "at varying  t h e Locarno Beach  and Marpole  Beach  Northwest  approach  from  site  s e a s o n a l procurement  t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a r e g i o n may go back a conservative  have  Cannery  w i t h Ham  in  time,  or  analysis of  occupation occurred  i s i n agreement  who h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t  culture,  Thus f a r , a f a u n a l  site  of the year  t h e p r e c e e d i n g S t . Mungo  systematic  subsistence  investigation  attempts  economy:  of faunal  (1)  remains  Page 9 from  Locarno  analysis data  Beach  culture  of Locarno  f o r S t . Mungo  Beach  components culture  and Marpole  and  material  assemblages  (2) t h e  faunal  i s compared located  to  i n the  delta. Chapter area. of  2 reviews the physical  Present and p a s t environments  relevant  Faunal  climatology,  behaviour  seasonal  review  3 discusses  o f Borden's sites  area,  flora,  i n terms  concerning cultural  of  i n terms  and f a u n a . habitat  methodology,  f o r this  culture  assemblages  from  Mungo,  Marpole  location  and  study.  of  a t each  association through  each  site  a  with  the study  information  are described. site's  comparison Locarno  diagnostic  A  of the  stratigraphy  f o r each  component culture  within  and a v a i l a b l e  delineations  i s verified  and  Site  relationships  Beach  used  e x c a v a t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  Borden's  zone  component  the sample  i s presented.  excavation  Locarno  are described  geomorphology,  i s described  of the study  availability.  Chapter  three  environment  and A  delineated  of  artifact  Beach,  St.  archaeological  features. Chapter quantify  the  assemblages, differences. in  terms  4  outlines faunal and  remains,  i d e n t i f i e s  Comparisons  of habitat  t h e methods  to identify  describes their  a r e made  selection  used  the  faunal  s i m i l a r i t i e s  among f a u n a l  and s e a s o n a l  and  and  assemblages  availability.  Chapter the  Locarno  known  data  5  compares  Beach f o r  Interpretations  the  culture St.  are  results  vertebrate  Mungo  offered  and  and  Page  10  interpretations  of  faunal  Marpole  f o r observed  analysis  to  components.  similarities  and  differences. Chapter Coast  6  prehistory  evaluates this to  date.  study  i n view  of  Northwest  Chapter 2 THE  PHYSICAL  ENVIRONMENT  Introduction This study  chapter  reviews  area.  Past  area  are  Delta  geornorphol ogy, Faunal  and p r e s e n t  flora,  and s e a s o n a l  British The  area  been  Fraser Columbia falls  i s described  (1980:2-4).  climatology,  prehistoric preferred  fauna. habitat  Setting  area  i s located  and n o r t h w e s t e r n  by  of the F r a s e r  of  by  of the  availability.  Delta  within  described  i n terms  and i m p o r t a n t  The The  environment  environments  described  distribution  location  the physical  the Gulf Mitchell  in  Washington  of Georgia  southwestern (Figure 2.1).  region,  (1971b:2-l8)  which has  and  Burley  Page 12  Figure 2.1: The Fraser Delta area of the Gulf of Georgia region (after Calvert 1970:56).  Page  13  Climate The Type  c l i m a t e of  Active  northwest the  by  weather  southeast  wet  winds  the  fall,  a  and  from  throughout  the  the area  observed  Mazama and  remained  no  ash  suggest  1966).  evidence  but  that  the  B.P.  British  However,  and  seasons;  mainly  during  B.P.)  climate  Columbia  Mathewes  unchanged f r o m  in  of 6600  period,  dominated  of a hvpsithermal  (ca. 6600  fall  relatively  spring  year  ca. 8 5 0 0 - 3 0 0 0  work f o r s o u t h w e s t e r n I960,  summers.  southwest  p o s t - P l e i s t o c e n e warming  palynological  (1975)  and  dry  It is  1971b:11).  interval,  Heusser  the  winter,  Mediterranean  1974:30).  relatively  hypsithermal  1947,  Koeppen  Packman  prevail  (Mitchell  for  and  winters  occur  summer months  i s a Csb  Hoos  fronts  during  Evidence  area  1971b:7,  (Mitchell  characterized  the  the  the B.P.  early (Hanson  and  interval Fraser  coastal to the  or  Rouse after Canyon  area  has  present.  Page  14  Landforms After In  the  Fraser  organic  (1980),  Delta  there  are  (1)  area:  four  prominent (2)  uplands,  and  (4)  delta fronts  (Figure  uplands  are  the  higher  areas  include  Tswassasan, the  last  ca.  11,000  the and  Burrard Point  glacial B.P.,  Peninsula,  Roberts  period these  land  in  as  areas.  well  At  2.2). the  region.  as  the  Surrey,  termination  British  of  Columbia  (Hebda 1 9 7 7 : 5 ,  were e x p o s e d  (3)  of  the  southwestern  areas  landforms  floodplains,  deposits,  The They  Ward  Ham  1982:17). The bulk to  f l o o d p l a i n s border  of  the  the  surface  was  floodwaters spring  to  10  to  summer to  meters  the to  winter  layer  organic  top  Fraser  high  the  in  Delta  form  sandy  Prior  to  the  the  clayey Fraser's  t i d e s (December) and 1980:8).  This  process  f l o o d p l a i n by  adding  (Mathews and  Shepard  of  the  the  up  to  1962,  floodplain  prehistory.  the  was  area  are  which built  f l o o d i n g by Burns  of  dimensions  material,  regular  a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 0 ).  the  and  f l o o d p l a i n as  (Ward  of  during  deposits  to a v o i d  a  River  (Ward 1 9 8 0 : 8 ) .  region  the  melt  Thus,  decomposing the  Fraser  i t each year.  considerably  Organic  over  growth  changed  et.  dykes,  snow  1962).  level  of  during  Borden  of  i n the  deposited rose  contributed 9  area  construction  sediment  the  Bog,  peat  bogs  accumulated high  the  enough  river  adjacent  of  slowly  "when  the  above  sea  and  sea  (Clague  to  the  Surrey  Page 15  Figure 2.2: Landforms of the Fraser Delta, ca. 1850 (after Ward 1980:9, North and Teversham n.d.) and location of Locarno Beach, Whalen Farm, and Musqueam NE s i t e s . LANDFORMS OF THE DELTA KEY: P f H A  FRONT  TkUfla**  FIOOOMAIN  OHOANIC (•OO)  DIPOSITS  UPLANDS  101m  Page Uplands  and  important of  Bog  Hebda's are  Three  have  been  processes of  change,  Main  and  discussed  waterfowl  front  composed  of  flats.  Composed  to  I t extends flats  w i t h the f o r m a t i o n  (1977)  and  growth, The  shed  light  environmental  implications  environment  to  of the  the m a j o r i t y  study.  the  delta  mainly  the  an  of  delta  chapter.  in this  of  a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 0 ),  the t i d a l  physical  i s home  zones:  retains  c o r e s from u n d i s t u r b e d a r e a s of  development.  in this  River,  associated  sedimentation, delta  discussed  submerged.  Fraser  a n a l y s e d by Hebda  later  two  the  record  the p a s t  delta  of  pollen  channel  work on  The  et.  Arm  palynological  the d e l t a .  Burns on  the  16  It is  delta  sand  from the G u l f  on t h e l a n d w a r d  and  and  foreslope  fish  and  geographically  foreslope  fine  of  the  mud  is  tidal  (Clague  permanently  of G e o r g i a marine  basin  ( 2 0 0 m t o 100m)  (Ward  side  1980:8). The delta  tidal  flats  include  t h e mud  (Clague e t . a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 0 ) .  landward mark. Spanish,  edge  of  the  I t encompasses  This  delta  front  the  delta's  S t u r g e o n , R o b e r t s , and  and  sand  zone  (100m)  flats  extends to  the  marshlands,  Boundary  Banks.  as  of  the  from  the  low  tide  well  as  Page Evolution Recent  research  dimensions  of  Delta  changed  have  (Hebda 1 9 7 7 ,  the  of  four  relative  composed  o f numerous i n l e t s ,  glaciers  retreated  floodwaters,  southwestern  the  reduced  the  at  11,000  of  sand,  of  location of  formation  the  of  mainland  coast  c o v e s , and  B.P.  and  of  clay  the  the  delta  was  l a k e s when  the  by  Due the  accumulation  of  c o a s t l i n e during  to  the  Fraser's  f l o o d p l a i n prograded The  Fraser  Canada  2.3).  (Figure  and  (1983:1320)  C l a g u e e_t^ a l  silt,  delta's  length  the  bays,  et. a l 1983:1323).  (Clague has  to  the  landforms  1983).  that  deposition  that  prominent  suggests  annual  Landforms  suggests  Clague e t ^ a l the  the  17  westward sediments  post-glacial  times. The B.P.  Fraser  (ward  (6600  +  90  Delta  1977,  Ham  B.P.,  GSC  2714)  found  the  Burrard  from  both  Grey  might  shore  of  -  of  Point  Grey  Peninsula  protruded  the  (Clague  the  past  Fraser  have the  River  been  peninsula,  grasslands  more r e c e n t  times  1 97 8 ) .  and  carried  b e a c h e s and  Harris  emerging  Hebda  2km n o r t h w e s t  in  been  1980,  and  Georgia  has  1973).  the  that  f a r t h e r out  the and  eroding  there  floor  i n t o the  Gulf  of  Sediment  uplands of along  the  shallow  Point north water  J e r i c h o Beach i n  Ham,  has  sea  wood  on  creating  Banks and  of  8000  Grey  deposited  communication  least  Point  et. a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 4 ) .  at Spanish  However,  at  Evidence  3m b e l o w  suggests  possibly  (personal  since  January not  been  1982, any  Page 18 Figure 2 . 3 : 5000 B.P.,  Hypothesized e v o l u t i o n o f the F r a s e r D e l t a :  10000  B.P.,  and Today (Bunyan 1978:21).  THE LOHER FRASER MD SOMAS GLACIER NEAR END OF GLACIATION  {', f Sd.  „{ (,.'•  ^  •..  "  BURNABY ; LAKE^  L-J  -^PENINSULA X. . I, ,  ,  -J  I  S"  I N L E r - v_;  v  1  \  5  JQ, \  / IJ ' FRASER  £M  / SURREY , PENINSULA  ROBERTS  "~ jx,  ^  NICOMf _ K(  ^^'t  PENINSULA  ISLAND  \ .  <  , i  o  SEA  '.  I  •-  §  —  SIAv/E LAKE  P o,  If'  ;  GLENROSE  ^  _ _ /  4>V~  HIGHLAND"  fcl'BLRTS  s  PITT LAKE  ;/' (V.. ,  I  ' "';'lAN:V .>  /  /'.-'V  -J  * V IT L T A  \  t  «  SURREY  ' - . ' f ^ ; ' "  "*i  A  \  ...  .  \ISLAND  %  <3 <r  C>  - . . uULU  %  v  BURNABY , LAKE  t  °*  <  *!  S~  ISLAND  . y  *  /  ( V  \  R  "1  ">  _  THE FRASER DELTA AT 5000 BP  «/>  INLET  -WHITE ROCK  6  ',  .  1  \.  J  49«N  I ; "\ \ w  ;  - . .  8  '  J /  !  WILES  •// ' 0 ( £ -  *~\ S( jfl  A ^ A R D — . V ^ n VBURRARD  S  ^  ^  \ ,  ,£•<  "  /  ' J.  '  '  ... A  ' PCM!.  - ^ I S L A N D  -49°N"  FRA  Ti't'A •  />•  DCL A  T  \  T  \  i  ^  R  ,  ''I'ARO '  !NU„T  J'  !'  ^-  BURNABY ^. LAKE  /BURRARb^ PENINSULA SEA it« V -. » iSLAND^/~ "' ' r ~ LULU ISLAND  M  «  E r? F ? O  1  <f ' — x ^ '/^-^ «^ • 1  f  :  11  t  -  -<Z*?  ..  11 v.  ' ."•/ •J.-''  _. • DELTA  - - PHT L 6 K t  '  '  i ^  M U D B A Y . ^ y ^ '  ,  H  /  \  KMS • MIL E S  8  .  49*N  I. ( j 1  ( I L  . WHil I . W IK BOUNDAR1 ' CAMF'«> \ BAY - '• < — ~ \POINT; ROBERTS ' '  V  ~? ^  ^  Page paleoecological this  area which  could  support  claim. By  Island Ham  research i n this  19  5000 B.P., and B u r n s  (1973:11)  similar  enough sediment  Bog  Island  that  Sea  today.  By  M i d d l e Arms o f t h e r i v e r had How  and  developed 1975,  5000 B.P.,  developed B.P.).  by  As  changing  (Ham  southern portion  Clague  which  et. a l  the  i s now  time  the d e l t a  of  (197 7 : 1 7 0 , 1 7 2 ) has  Boundary  Bay.  Crescent  Beach  (Ball  1979:49)  discharge  into  how  ago  long  (Ham  Boundary Boundary  Delta  eastern  organic deposits Estuary  was  (4300-3300  the e s t u a r y grew,  suggested  that  by  4000 B.P.  a  t h e l o w e r s l o p e s of. t h e  the F r a s e r R i v e r ' s f l o w  1 9 8 2 : 1 7 - 1 8 ) and that  to  1325).  archaeological  suggests  and  f r e s h w a t e r - b r a c k i s h marsh  blocking  However, site  i n the  Fraser  westward,  (-10m) r e a c h e d  Point Roberts Uplands,  bar,  approximately  t h e S t . Mungo c u l t u r e  from  sand  the North  By  by  The  2.3).  d i s p u t e (Blunden  emerged  s a l t marsh ( C l a g u e e t . a l 1983:1320,  submerged d e l t a f r o n t  a  of the F r a s e r  occupied  prograded  i n some a r e a s  Hebda  Lulu  1973:11).  1983).  flats  1977:15 5 - 1 7 0 ) .  (Hebda  t o form  was  5000 B.P.,  formed  extensive tidal  Delta,  (bogs)  Island  been t h e s u b j e c t o f s t u d y and 1977,  Hebda  Fraser  when t h e  has  settled  ( C l a g u e e t . a l 1983:1325) ( F i g u r e  suggests  t o Iona  had  evidence  from  Beach Grove  freshwater  continued  Bay  possibly  until  Bay  was  o f f from  cut  into  2500 B.P.  site to Just  freshwater  Page flowing more  from  the  Fraser River  p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l work  complex  progradation  prehistoric  and  1325).  o n l y major  The  South  Lulu  Arm  of  2.3).  increased  in  in question this  until  geologically  the  of  River  near Crescent  Fraser  peat  late  periods  bog  the  (Clague  River  size  of  also  as  a  B.P.  when  the  Greater  Hebda  1977:5)  estuary  times  carried the  1975,  later  1983:1323,  2500  after  the  the  et. a l  penetrated  (Blunden  prehistoric  sediment and  throughout  change o c c u r r e d  Thus,  in  deposition Fraser  done  continued  historic  Island-Delta  (Figure  is  remain  area.  Delta  the  will  20  and  marshes  result  by  the  South  Arm  Nicomekl  and  Serpentine  of  the  of  the  Rivers  Beach.  Flora The  7000  least the  type  of  flora  years  communities  (Hebda 1 9 7 7 : 1 7 0 , Coniferous succession (Pseudotsuga  of  B.P.  has  i n the  However,  shifted  172,  the  with  C l a g u e eU_  forests alder  (Tsuga  heterophy11a)  willow  (Salix  has  and  formation  the  of  upland  o r e g on a ) ,  bushes,  for  at  extent  of  the  delta  and  this grass  areas.  Douglas  (Thuja p l l c a t a ) ,  characterizes  berry  changed  1983:1320).  al  (Alnu s  not  location  the  dominated  m e n z i e s i i ) , cedar  sp.),  delta  and  A f i r  hemlock  community (Digitara  with sp.)  Page present  in well  Two and  types  tidal  marsh  drained of  flats  species  influenced  regions  of  bars,  river  the  the  Musqueam a r e a  the  Fraser probably  sedge  ( C a r e x v u l p i n o i d e a ) , and  saltmarsh.  As  saltmarshes known. on  It  the  2500  B.P.  brackish  species,  tangled  leaves  saltgrass Eelgrass fish  (Pistrchlis (Zostera  have  the  been  Boundary Bay  which  when  southern  4000  area  in  the  than at  is  Unlike  is  not  pioneered and  freshwater-  a flat  (Glaux  mat  of  mar i t i m a ) ,  (Trigluchin  sp.).  varieties  staghorn  saline  the  where  5 0 0 0 B.P.  between  a t t r a c t s many  B.P.  latifoils),  w o u l d have f i r s t  arrowgrass  the  included  exactly  like  sand  sp.).  delta  appear  the  in  community  and  starry flounder,  rather  alluvium  (Scrlpus  floral  River  other  (Typha  saltwort  more a b u n d a n t area  bulrush  flora  s p . ) , and  and  m i g h t have  1983:1324).  include  sp.),  area  delta,  With  approximately  cattail  they  saltmarsh and  the  Fraser  Island  B o u n d a r y Bay"  et^ al  including herring,  would the  in  i s p o s s i b l e 'that  (Clague  as  earlier,  h a l f of  of  the  deposit  by  estuarine  noted  developed  "eastern  to  in this  such  of  part  from  Sea  marshlands  reed-like plants  type  by  began  Vegetation  second  the f l o o d p l a i n  e_t_^ a l 1 9 8 3 : 1 3 2 0 ) .  River  7).  Freshwater-brackish  northern  tall,  The  delta.  1973:5,  (Ham  covered  flowing  Clague  forming  1973:13).  (Ham  the  freshwater  diversion  streams  marshes  of  dominated  by  near  estuarine  1977:170,  (Hebda  areas  21  sculpin,  environment  the mouth o f  of  the  of  Fraser  Page 22 River. Similarly,  eelgrass  L o c a r n o Beach s i t e shallow Bay. at  saltwater  might  locality,  have  beaches on the southern  Beach  paleoecological  today,  i n the  shore of E n g l i s h  Eelgrass  and t h i s  i s not present  locality  lacks  any  documentation.  A grassland  environment  may have e x i s t e d a t both t h e  J e r i c h o Beach and d e l t a i s l a n d - s a n d (Trifolium  present  i n f l u e n c e d by the p r o t e c t e d ,  However, t h i s i s s p e c u l a t o r y . Locarno  been  sp.),  dandelion  bar l o c a l i t i e s .  (Taraxacum  sp . ) ,  and  Clover grass  ( D i g i t a r a sp.) may have been the dominant v a r i e t i e s of f l o r a (Ham  1973:26, F i g u r e 1 3 ) .  Vertebrate The  stability  Delta  suggests  study  area  least  5000 y e a r s .  1976;  Fauna of the F r a s e r D e l t a Area of t h e c l i m a t e  that  the v e r t e b r a t e  have a l s o remained  Casteel  1976b;  dating  Matson  present unchanged  reports  198la)  o f the F r a s e r i n the f o r at  (Imamoto 1974,  indicate  t h a t the  and s h e l l f i s h o f d e l t a a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  to the S t . Mungo c u l t u r e are n o t too d i f f e r e n t  from  those  the  vegetation,  communities  fauna  relatively  Archaeological  mammals, b i r d s , f i s h , sites  and f l o r a  a v a i l a b l e i n the a r e a the l o c a t i o n  (e.g. s h e l l f i s h )  today. of  However, as w i t h  particular  has a l t e r e d w i t h  animal  the g r a d u a l  Page formation  of  This  the  delta  section  describes  present-day  vertebrate  Information  is  wildlife in  this  and  a  be  present  formulated of  the  by  helpful  Delta  are  preferred  area.  historical  of h i s t o r i c a l  in  the  Delta  of  the  of  data  area.  used  In  reconstructing  turn,  Locarno  activities.  employs  (1980),  Calvert  Fraser  behaviours:  study  history  Fraser  for  1978).  Larson  synthesis  reports  Beach c u l t u r e h u n t i n g - f i s h i n g The  the  classifications  will  and  natural  in  from  archaeological  information  Grabert  the  fauna  derived  sources  previous  1976,  (Ham  23  a  methodological  approach  where mammals, b i r d s , and  categorized  habitat  by  two  types  l o c a t i o n and  of  fish  animal  seasonal  avail-  ability. For habitat  this  study,  l o c a t i o n of  the  vertebrate  archaeological  fauna  to r e c o n s t r u c t  habitat  animals were  associated  exploited  sedentary  by  list  preferred  with  adapted  to  habitat,  and  therefore,  species  groupings"  are  described  area  (Calvert  available  in  more  different  times  of  preferred  classification  habitat  location  ( i . e . the  Beach  optimal  Delta  The  the  extent  p a r t i c u l a r environmental  Locarno  are  describes  fauna.  selectivity  during  animals  first  1980:20). than  one  the  year  The  a  times). range the  for  habitat  in  which  settings non-  habitats,  "the  of  that  to  used  Because  optimal  species  fauna  (e.g.  of  is  of  are  the  anadromous  areas the  for  Fraser  optimally region  at  fish)  are  Page 24 indicated. The  second  groupings  list  most  likely  classification availability  d e s c r i b e s the time of the year s p e c i e s  of  occur  to  i s used to r e c o n s t r u c t  advantage  habitat  reduces  the  archaeological  s i t e ' s Locarno Beach c u l t u r e The  in  detailed  and  site  recent  colonization  may  on  and  of  in historic  The  times.  industrialization  predator-prey  and  relationships,  cautiously  Due  human habitat  i n the area, t h i s  than the p r e h i s t o r i c  type  since i t  distributions  to place species i n habitat  categories  of h i s t o r i c a l l y  Carl  procurement  of the  1982).  availability  Boucher  present-day  in detecting patterns  i n f o r m a t i o n should be used  Information  lists  approach  i s that i t  in prehistoric  collected  effects  be d i f f e r e n t  fauna ( W i l l  of each  qualitative  specific  a d a p t a b i l i t y , and animal a v a i l a b i l i t y of w i l d l i f e  seasonal  The disadvantage i s that i t uses i n f o r m a t i o n on  f a u n a l behaviour t h a t was the  by  seasonality  i n f o r m a t i o n about  i n a r c h a e o f a u n a l data, e s p e c i a l l y  to  fauna  The  component.  fauna i n t o c a t e g o r i e s that are u s e f u l  strategies.  Delta.  the s e a s o n a l i t y  of u s i n g C a l v e r t ' s  selectivity  Fraser  (1976),  names  study  was  Guiguet  (1973), and of  the  (1973,  (1978), Gulguet Hoos and  species  are  seasonal  obtained  a v a i l a b l e fauna from Ham  Cowan and  (1971), Hart  taxonomic  for this  and  Packman those  from  1982), (1971), (1974).  used  by  Page (1974)  Banfleld Hart  (1973)  f o r mammals;  for  (1976)  Godfrey  for birds;  25 and  fish.  Mammals Twelve Delta  area  Appendix, Nine  mammal  species  i n the  Locarno Beach  Table  A.l  their  species  are  lists  land  A l l are  categories  (Table  Seasonal  (1);  to S p r i n g  Winter  by  summary  Coast  three  of  the  S a l i s h of  foreslope,  they  along  river  with  (2);  have  natural  and an  (1952:10)  report  seal  Harrison  Lake  summer, harbour  while seal  River beaches,  the  otter  and  are  adjacent  areas  Year  is  Round  ethnographic  the Smith  waters of  riverine  use  A  the  the  waters  (1907:266)  and  or harpooning  of  respectively, in resident  associated of  Riverine  (3).  i n Boundary Bay  mustelids  habitat  species  2.2):  clubbing  whelped.  marine  follows.  in  Lake,  names.  are  (1);  offshore  beaver.  Pitt  dwell  land  the  remains.  four  twelve  (Table  Fraser  (4).  h i s t o r y and  annual  and  seals  (200-250)  the  observed  otter  to  Water  t w e l v e mammals  been  species  to S p r i n g  seal prefer  Suttles at  for  Fall  faunal  Forest  categories  these  Although harbour  and  the  taxonomic  according  (3);  availability  into  three  Open/Littoral  Edge  classified  culture  mammals, and  2.1):  within  common and  classified  Estuarine/Forest  A  present  and  mammals.  (2);  are  group  the of  today. with  delta.  waterways, They  forage  Page 26 Table 2.1: Preferred Habitat Categories of Mammals i n the Fraser Delta Area.  Species 1 Harbour Seal  Category 2 3  X  River Otter Beaver  X X  Muskrat Mink Peromyscus Striped Skunk Raccoon Canis  X X X X X X  Black Bear Deer Elk Total  X X X 1 Habitat  2  6  Categories  1.  Open L i t t o r a l Water: the open waters of the delta foreslope (200m-100m) to the estuarine areas, including the deeper waters of bays, i n l e t s , and estuaries.  2.  Riverine: the waters immediately influenced by the Fraser, Serpentine, and Nickomekl Rivers and their t r i b u t a r i e s , including the estuaries, marshlands, floodplains, streams.  3.  L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t Edge: the i n t e r t i d a l areas and bogs immediately adjacent to and including the fringes of the forests.  4. Forest: the deciduous and coniferous forests and adjacent areas of open meadow.  Page 27 T a b l e 2.2:  Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y  o f Mammal F a u n a i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a  Area.  Category  Species  Season J F M A M J J A S O N D  Deer B l a c k Bear Canis Raccoon S t r i p e d Skunk Peromyscus Mink Muskrat Beaver River  otter  Harbour  Seal  Elk Very  Key:  Common  Common  - - -  Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y Year  round  Winter-  1.  Year  2.  P r e s e n t year round  . Rare  Categories  i n roughly equal  abundance.  b u t more common i n t h e w i n t e r -  s p r i n g m o n t h s (December t h r o u g h M a y ) .  Spring Late F a l l Winter  round  .  Frequent  3.  Only  present i n l a t e  through May).  fall-spring  months  (October  Page 28 daily  on s h e l l f i s h ,  otters  are  born  April)(Cowan river  and  o t t e r was  but mainly in  early  Guiguet  feed on f i s h . to  Young  mid-spring  1978:331).  Like  the  river  (March  to  seal,  the  c l u b b e d , n e t t e d , or harpooned as i t sought  i t s p r e f e r r e d f i s h prey, salmon, t r o u t , and  herring.  Beaver were abundant i n the F r a s e r waterways p r e f e r r i n g a l d e r and bracken r e s o u r c e s over hemlock and western Ham  cedar.  (1982:267) h y p o t h e s i z e s that they were a l s o abundant i n  the Nicomekl-Serpentine V a l l e y s . April  and  beaver  July  with  composite (Suttles  (Cowan  the  bow  harpoon.  1978:170). and  arrow  Saanich  Straits  and  hunters  Salish  occasionally also  hunted with  trapped  a  beaver  1951:96).  Although not found this  The young are born between  i n Locarno Beach c u l t u r e samples i n  study, Boehm (1973b:2-4) and B a r n e t t (1955) s t a t e  n o r t h e r n sea l i o n  that  ( Eumetopias jubata) are known t o f o l l o w  the salmon runs through the S t r a i t s spring  and  summer.  and up the F r a s e r R i v e r  during  the  In  preparation for  event,  b e g i n n i n g i n March, Penelekut S a l i s h s t a t i o n e d a 24  hour watch to s i g n a l f o r the presence of sea l i o n herds would  traverse  composite  Porlier  harpoons,  Pass  (Suttles  canoe p a r t i e s  s a l t w a t e r o f the S t r a i t s Fraser  ( S u t t l e s 1952:12).  otter,  and  and  1952:11-12).  hunted  sea  lion  this  that Using  i n the  sometimes a t the mouth of the  In c o n t r a s t , harbour  beaver were e x p l o i t e d  seal,  river  i n the f r e s h w a t e r of the  Page 29 Fraser  River  Fraser's  or other  drainage  With  animals  habitat.  They  Muskrat,  that  whereas  pelts,  although  is  raccoon  of wool  coyote  the d i f f i c u l t y  or  wolf  with  range  historically,  activities  study's  f o r i t s dietary are confined  where  eaten  they  feed  multiple  births  through  trapped  by  1951:96-97).  o n e man, large  Canis, However,  between  as a dogs  game a n d  1951:102-105).  of other  June  f o r their  but r a t h e r used  by c h a s i n g  bone  seeds, eggs.  (Suttles  Owned  (Suttles  edge  bird  i n May  A l l were  was a l s o  and  have  births  i n distinguishing  this  mammals  of plants,  i n the Fraser D e l t a area.  of  Deer  and r a c c o o n  waterfowl  land  and mink) a r e  birds,  o f the procurement  or wolf  considered  a variety  f o r blankets.  i n hunting  record  lower  i n the L i t t o r a l / F o r e s t  1978:321).  or r e t r i e v i n g  no  i n the  small  raccoon,  fish,  t h e mink  Dogs were n o t e a t e n  bear  on  skunk,  and G u i g u e t  assisted  dwell  shellfish,  (Cowan  source  skunk,  subsist  striped  year,  creeks  of Peromyscus,  striped  omnivorous  crustaceans,  and  area.  the exception  (e.g. m u s k r a t ,  each  streams  There such  as  because  dog a n d c o y o t e  samples,  a l l C ani s i s  value.  to the western primarily  slope  of the coast  on d o u g l a s  f i r , western  c e d a r , O r e g o n yew, t r a i l i n g  b l a c k b e r r y , r e d h u c k l e b e r r y , and  salal.  to mountain  in  Some h e r d s  t h e summer  migrate  and r e t u r n  tops  to the lowlands  or high  valleys  i n the w i n t e r .  Page 3 0 However, round  they  are present  i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a (Cowan  Young a r e b o r n were h u n t e d  by an i n d i v i d u a l  snare,  spring  and summer.  supply.  or p i t f a l l .  Female  (Suttles Elk,  conifers  equal  deer  E t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y , deer  o r i n g r o u p s u s i n g t h e bow and Male  deer  were h u n t e d  were  i n December  prefer  parklands  and where g r o v e s  1978:358).  Most  e l k herds  move  summer and r e t u r n t o t h e l o w l a n d s Young  a r e born  361-362).  when  the herds  Ethnographic  to high  variety  invertebrates, and  other  and  weaned  altitudes  i n the  i n late  May  (Cowan  and  mainly  were p r e s e n t  i n the F r a s e r  strategies  Guiguet  occurred  paralleled  i n the  lowlands. those f o r  1951:91-92).  access  of  trees  of the F r a s e r D e l t a i n the  On t h e c o a s t , t h e o m n i v o r o u s b l a c k with  of  (Cowan and G u i g u e t  Elk hunting  procurement  (Suttles  areas  food  "clumps  of deciduous  with grassland provide food"  deer  i n the  f o r immediate  where  interspersed  winter  exploited  1951:82-83).  provide shelter  1978:358,  year  1978:366-369).  T h e i r meat was smoked f o r a w i n t e r  or w a p i t i ,  winter.  abundance  and G u i g u e t  between May and J u n e .  arrow,  use  i n roughly  to major  resources as w e l l  economic a c t i v i t y  Young  (Cowan  intensified  fish  berries, are born  1978:195, after  prefers  wooded  Bear  eat a  patches.  including  as p l a n t s ,  s m a l l mammals. i n August.  berry  bear  and  marine  insects,  grasses,  i n t h e w i n t e r den  289-291).  contact with  Although t h e Hudson  Page Bay  Company,  crabapple, August. in  the  the  Saanich  hunted  salmonberry,  and  bear, which  huckleberry,  B e a r were a l s o ambushed autumn  on  sought  between  the  ripe  June  salmon-spawning  31  and  streams  1982:60).  (Ham  Birds Twenty-eight Delta  and  in  the  Appendix, Table Twenty-three upland that six  (3);  three  Winter  follows.  The  i n the  October  Four  2.3).  Estuarine  and  Table  natural arctic Fraser  diving  and  are  are birds  clams, on  waterfowl classified  and  seeds are into  2.4):  Littoral/Riverine  (2);  Strand/Littoral  Water  (4).  f o r the  categories  of  names.  five  s u b s i s t mainly  species  M i x e d Woodland  availability  through  that  A l l avifauna (see  only  roe,  Fraser  remains.  taxonomic  while  fish  the  faunal  t h i r t e e n are  fish,  feeders  plants.  within  common and  wat-erfowl  small  28  (Table  species 2.5):  is  Year  classified Round  (1);  (3).  Spring/Fall  brief  their  found culture  waterfowl,  surface  major  (2);  A  the  are  Beach  are  categories  Seasonal  dwell  Of  Sheltered  Interface  into  lists  (Table  habitat  (1);  A.2  are  aquatic  scavengers four  Locarno  p r i m a r i l y on  species  and  species  species  birds.  feed  bird  history  loon Delta  April,  i s one during i t  of  the  o f two the  dives  delta's species  fall for  and  of  avifauna loon  winter.  mainly  perch  that From and  Page 32 T a b l e 2.3: Types o f Waterfowl i n the F r a s e r D e l t a A r e a .  D i v i n g Waterfowl 1. Common Loon 2. A r t i e Loon 3. Horned Grebe 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  Western Grebe D o u b l e - c r e s t e d Cormorant G r e a t e r Scaup Bufflehead Oldsquaw White-winged S c o t e r  10.  Common S c o t e r  11.  Common Merganser  12. 13.  Common Murre Rhinocerous A u k l e t  S u r f a c e Feeding Waterfowl 1. Canada Goose 2 . Snow Goose 3. Mallard 4. P i n t a i l 5. American Widgeon 6 . American Coot Scavengers 1. Great Blue Heron 2 . Glaucous-winged G u l l 3 . Heerrnan's G u l l 4. B l a c k O y s t e r c a t c h e r  (Dabblers)  Page 33 Table 2 . 4 : Preferred Habitat Categories for Avifauna i n the Fraser Delta.  3  1 2 Common Loon A r c t i c Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Bufflehead Greater Scaup Oldsquaw V/hite-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Merganser Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet  X X X X X X X X X X X X X  Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot  X X X X X X  Great Blue Heron Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Black Oystercatcher  X X X X  Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse TOTAL  4  X X X X X 13  6  4  5  Habitat Categories 1.  L i t t o r a l / R i v e r i n e : the open waters of the delta foreslope, including the bays, i n l e t s , r i v e r s and sloughs.  2.  Sheltered Estuarine Water: the estuarine areas of the delta, including the marshlands, t i d a l f l a t s , sand and mud f l a t s , and bogs.  3.  Strand/Littoral Interface: the beaches and adjacent l i t t o r a l waters.  4.  Mixed Woodlands: the forest edge and forests of the uplands.  Page 34 Table 2.5: Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y Categories of Avifauna i n the Fraser Delta Area. Category 1  J F M A M J J A S O N D  Type Common Merganser Canada Goose Snow Goose Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Great Blue Heron Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Common Scoter American Coot Western Grebe Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Loon Horned Grebe Mallard Pintail American Widgeon  3  A r c t i c Loon Greater Scaup  4  Double-crested Cormorant Bufflehead Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet Black Oystercatcher  KEY:  = ===. Very Common  Year round Winter-Spring  1. 2. 3.  Spring/Fall  4. 5.  Common  - - - Frequent  . . . Rare  Seasonal A v a l a b i l i t y Present year round i n roughly equal abundance Present year round but less common i n the summer months. Not present (for varying lengths of time) i n the summer months. Only present i n late f a l l to very early spring. Present year round but more abundant i n the f a l l and spring.  Page 35 herring.  The  arctic  grounds  with  prefers  offshore  loon  t h e common reefs  occasionally  loon,  however,  and c h a n n e l s  shares  feeding  the a r c t i c  (Angell  and  loon  Balcomb  1982:16). The  common  t h r o u g h May. too,  crab  arrives  i n September  Although o c c a s i o n a l l y  t h e common  dives  loon  loon  f o r flounder, i n both  open  summering  and  remains  i n the d e l t a ,  i s most  abundant  i n the s p r i n g .  herring,  sculpin,  perch,  shrimp,  (Angell  and Balcomb  and e s t u a r i n e  waters  It and  1982:20). A  winter  prefers  bays  nearshore  It  i t s food  (Angell  and Balcomb  fresh  resident, for  bays,  sculpin, (Angell  stickleback  that  (Angell  area.  I t moves sloughs  and s m e l t ,  as w e l l  perch,  1982:22).  the horned  sheltered  grebe  and s h a l l o w  and Balcomb  sticklebacks,  bays  perch,  grebe  dives  and e s t u a r i e s .  and  crustaceans  1982:20). cormorant  as does  the double-crested  i t s food  estuaries,  t o May r e s i d e n t ,  double-crested  water  the western  i n the d e l t a  i n open w a t e r s ,  sculpins,  The  the d e l t a ,  bays,  on h e r r i n g ,  a September  eats  of  inlets  some s h r i m p and c r a b As  for  and  to mudflats,  when f e e d i n g as  resident  nests  the heron. cormorant  includes and Balcomb  sculpin,  on b o t h As  a  salt  and  year  round  predominately  dives  perch,  1982:33-34).  carp,  and  36  Page The  greater  Pacific and  rim  brings  March.  deep  scaup's  Here,  saltwater  i t to  bays  and  of  plant  herring  roe  f o r which  Bufflehead or  feeding  is a  ground upon  Oldsquaw It  departs  in late  dives  winter  in  the  burrows.  arrives  and  feeds  and  mussel  waterfowl  and  scaup  prefers  diet  is  eelgrass  1972:55-56;  the  nests  in  the  mussel,  in  a  and  Angell  hollowed  Fraser  and  Delta  remains  summers i n the  Fraser  Delta  early April.  in  of  and  in  subarctic  October  and  Oldsquaw's main d e l t a some f i s h  migrates  sheltered  to  the  locations.  form a major p a r t Balcomb  r e f e r r e d t o as  feeds  (Pough  that  It winters  scoter  h e r r i n g roe  coastal It  October  f o r which i t  1971:63).  common s c o t e r  area.  between  including  (Guiguet  crustaceans,  d e l t a ( A n g e l l and  offshore  eastern  1971:59-61).  in  March or  shellfish,  Variously the  small  white-winged  mussels,  the  ground  The  food  i t dives  (Guiguet  (Guiguet The  the  estuaries.  animal  along  Delta  on  i s a d i v i n g duck t h a t  tundra.  are  Fraser  p r i m a r i l y crustaceans,  spawning salmon  prey  and  route  1982:45).  Balcomb  trees  the  i t builds nests  mixture  and  migration  the  area  in  Crabs,  of  clams,  i t s diet  while  1982:48). black  or  American  scoter,  i s a d i v i n g duck t h a t p r e f e r s f e e d i n g reefs on  during  shellfish  1951:114).  i t s winter and  the  crabs,  migration favoring  to the  near the blue  Page Largely in  the  delta  Increase the  a fish-eating throughout  in size  coast.  Includes  bird,  The  due  to  the the  merganser  small  fish,  the  common m e r g a n s e r  year.  Winter  migration  primarily  fish  roe,  of  dwells  populations  interior  groups  d i v e s f o r i t s food  and  37  crustaceans  to  that  (Guiguet  1 9 7 1 . The  common  murre  coast.  Preferring  habitats,  i t dives  (Angell  and  The  and  smelt  estuaries, The River bird  that  Fraser's always geese  and  a  resources eelgrass The delta  goose  common  fall.  foreshore  in  of  along  bays  and  the  and  some  area  the  aggregate  at  marsh  reef  bottomfish  the  herring,  of  the  It is a surface marine  plants  Fraser feeding of  Although  i n the  October  There  saltmarsh,  bays,  1982:96).  mouth  from  during  including  populations Delta  delta  anchovy,  1978a:15).  1982:39). in  the  and  (Guiguet  Fraser  Balcomb  Balcomb  o r May.  non-breeding  the  habitats  winters  eats  in  It eats  of  to A p r i l  primarily  and  and  is  variety  October  winter  resident  waters  r e e f s ( A n g e l l and  seem t o be  (Angell  the  in  open  auklet  summer,  Canada  from  the  permanent  1982:94).  rhinoceros  spring,  a  f o r h e r r i n g , smelt,  Balcomb  late  is  the there  area,  snow  into  April  principal  food  especially  in  the  community. mallard  is a  throughout  surface the  year,  feeding although  duck  that  summer  dwells  in  populations  Page are  smaller  habitats aquatic  a  aquatic  and  such  those  as  plants  As  bays,  that  of  lakes  plants.  spends  the  feeder,  the  including delta,  fall  pond  The prefers aquatic  plants  delta. and  along  and  Packman  wooded a r e a s on  stranded 1982:33).  on  sedges.  on  marine  and  seen  winter  and  August  tidal  the  to C r e s c e n t  after  and  surface matter,  While  in  the  eelgrass  and  low  t o the  delta that to  feed  on  1982:60). round  resident  fishing  margins"  report  a  vegetal  mudflats  (Ham  heron  tide  of  in tidal  the pools  1982:32). nests  B e a c h and  sculpin, starry flounder, beach  from  Interior  algae,  migrant  i s "commonly  the  mainly  1971:143-144).  year  perch,  eats  protected  Being  and  is a  heron  B.C.  eats  blue  adjacent  and  mainly  estuaries  (1974:66)  to  coast.  i s a winter  shallow  Delta's  i n the  the  (Guiguet  in  eats  through A p r i l  Balcomb  heron  the  i t s way  on  feeds  coot  pintail  Fraser  ( A n g e l l and  great The  on  grasses,  shellfish  gathering  The  feeds  weeds,  American  the  widgeon  i t frequently  occasionally  the  summers  winter  American  i t primarily  1971:34).  widgeon  and  protected  1972:144).  from January  (Guiguet  It prefers  where  bird,  beaches  summer r e s i d e n c e s ,  American  et. a l  frequents  and  through October  winter. ponds  feeding It  mudflats,  The  and  (Campbell  surface  the  38  in  Hoos densely  Beach G r o v e .  and  scavenges  (Angell  and  It fish  Balcomb  Page 3 9 The glaucous-winged  gull  i s a permanent r e s i d e n t of the  d e l t a and surrounding uplands.  Minnows, h e r r i n g s and crabs  are i t s major food r e s o u r c e s , as w e l l as s n a t c h i n g the prey of  diving  (Guiguet  birds  such  frequents  summer.  I t largely  sympatric  with  An black  grebes  and murres  1978b:6-8).  Heerman's g u l l  herring  as c o r m o r a n t s ,  feeds  salmon  (Guiguet uncommon  the d e l t a  i n the s p r i n g and  on s c h o o l s  and d i v i n g  o f h e r r i n g and i s  birds  that  feed  on t h e  r e s i d e n t of the area  i s the  1978b:24-25). year  round  oystercatcher.  I t p r e f e r s rocky  eats p r i m a r i l y mussels,  shore  h a b i t a t s and  c h i t o n s , and limpets from  Intertidal  areas. The and  b a l d eagle  i s permanent r e s i d e n t which eats  c a r r i o n animals.  uplands  fresh  I t f r e q u e n t s the a i r c u r r e n t s o f the  from where i t s p i e s p r o s p e c t i v e prey  (Guiguet  1978d,  A n g e l l and Balcomb 1982:54-55). Additional  year  round  raven and the northwestern  r e s i d e n t s of the a r e a crow.  Both f r e q u e n t the uplands  but  scavenge the beaches and shores  and  animal  resources  (Guiguet  a r e the  f o r a variety  1978c,  Angell  of p l a n t  and Balcomb  1982:102). Great horned owl i s a migrant of  the d e l t a ' s  Peromyscus  timbered  and s q u i r r e l  areas.  fall  and winter r e s i d e n t  Small  make up a good  mammals part  such  as  of i t s d i e t  Page 40 (Jewett  1 9 5 3 : 3 5 0 - 3 5 1 ) .  Ruffed areas.  grouse  I t feeds  (Guiguet  t o the temperate  non-breeding year  Table  of  Thus,  area  specific  utilization  growth  groups  and S a a n i c h  canoes  controlled  based  bird  likely  breeding  reside  i n the  to occur  on t h e p r e s e n c e  procurement  1 9 5 1 : 7 5 ,  used  (Suttles also  Suttles  i n the  o r absence  fires  ( 1 9 5 D  o f ways.  Diving  nets with  anchors  sleeping  ducks  being  sleeping  ducks  and  rock  Bows and arrows avifauna  and duck  given  Samish,  at night,  Snares  1 9 5 1 : 9 3 ) .  o f ducks  and hand  The  to frighten  i n the hunting of upland  i n down  Barnett  1 9 5 5 : 9 5 - 9 6 ) .  (Suttles  and  and  1 9 5 1 : 7 2 - 7 4 , 7 8 ) .  i n canoes  Barnett  strategies  i n a variety  speared  The a b u n d a n c e  resulted  by  by submerged  were n o t common  1 9 5 1 : 8 1 ) .  the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n by n o t i n g  of s p e c i e s  a r e most  were t a k e n  Lummi,  occasionally  into  with  throughout  c a t e g o r i e s o f a v i f a u n a a r e based  are reported  from  throwing  this  area  species of birds.  netted  winter  upland  and d e c i d u o u s  not migrate  and n o t s o l e l y  were o b t a i n e d  (Suttles  do  seasonality  Waterfowl  ( 1 9 5 5 ) .  using  i n the  i n the study  concentration  Ethnographic  birds  round  c l i m a t e o f t h e F r a s e r D e l t a , many  2 . 5 takes  when t h e l a r g e s t  study  on m i x e d  remain  they  the l a r g e s t  delta. on  waterfowl  (i.e.,  flocks). when  primarily  year  1 9 7 1 : 1 4 - 1 5 ) .  Due  the  Is a v a i l a b l e  as  (Suttles  hunting gifts  i n the  (Suttles  Page  41  1951:80). Ham  (1982:261)  technologies  of  archaeological data:  (1)  t h e use  hypothesizes  bird  procurement  may  faunal  assemblages  by  a high  frequency  of  o f submerged n e t s , and  o f d i v i n g and raised pole  that  the be  ethnographic  represented  two  patterns  d i v i n g waterfowl (2) a r o u g h l y  surface feeding waterfowl  in  in the  indicates  equal  frequency  i n d i c a t e s t h e use  of  nets.  Pish Twenty-eight Delta  and  are  fish  identified  assemblages.  Appendix,  t a x o n o m i c names. fauna  are  (Table  into  species  year:  sturgeon,  (1) and  are  A.3  three lists  Locarno their  fluctuations,  preferred habitat (1);  Beach  common  Tidal  and  these  categories  Flats  (2);  and  (4)  trout.  abundance.  midshipman,  With these  2.7  describes  the  times  salmon,  Four s p e c i e s — a n c h o v y , study  of (3)  eulachon, area  for  e x c e p t i o n s , most o f  the  r e g i o n throughout the year  Table  (2)  m i n n o w — a r e w i t h i n the  t o spawn.  i n the  p r e f e r r e d or o p t i m a l h a b i t a t  Fraser Delta area at d i f f e r e n t  plainfin  h e r r i n g and  short periods fish  Water  change t h e i r  l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the  pacific  the  Fraser  (3)•  Four  the  found w i t h i n the  some v e r t i c a l  three  Littoral  are  in  Table  Despite  grouped  2.6):  Riverine  species  i n roughly  seasonal  equal  availability  Page 42  Table 2.6: Preferred Habitat Categories for Fish in the Fraser Delta Area. , Species  1  Category 2  Spiny Dogfish Ratfish Northern Anchovy P a c i f i c Hake Petrale Sole P a c i f i c Halibut English Sole Rockfish Lingcod P a c i f i c Cod Walleye Pollack Big Skate P l a i n f i n Midshipman  X(F) X X(S) X(W) X X X(W) X X(SP) X(SP) X(W, SP) X X(W)  X(SP)  Pile Perch Great Sculpin Buffalo Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin Rock Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish P a c i f i c Herring Surf Smelt  X X(W) X(W) X(W) X(W) X(W) X(W) X(W) X(W) X(SP)  Salmon Sturgeon Steelhead Eulachon Minnow  X(S) X(W) X(S)  X(F) X(SP) X(W) X(SP) X(SP)  14  5  TOTAL  Trout  13  KEY: (W) = Winter; (SP) = Spring; (S) = Summer; (F) = F a l l Habitat  Categories  1. L i t t o r a l Water: the l i t t o r a l waters of bays, i n l e t s , and the mouth of the Fraser River, extending from low tide to offshore waters that have fine sandy and sandy to clayey s i l t . 2. T i d a l F l a t s : the estuarine mud and i n t e r t i d a l f l a t s of fine to medium grain sand and mud including the saltmarshes and bogs. 3. Riverine: the r i v e r floodplains and freshwater-brackish including sloughs.  areas,  Page T a b l e 2.7:  Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y  Category  Type  1  f o rFish  43  i n the Fraser Delta Area. Season J F M A M J J A S O N D  Ratfish Rockfish Lingcod Big Skate Sculpin Rock S o l e Minnow Sturgeon Staghorn S c u l p i n Dogfish P a c i f i c Hake Walleye Pollack P a c i f i c Cod Starry Flounder Flatfish Stickleback Petrale Sole Pacific Halibut English Sole Eulachon S u r f Smelt  4  Northern  5  Trout  6  Salmon  7  Pacific Herring P l a i n f i n Midshipman P i l e Perch Great S c u l p i n Buffalo Sculpin  KEY:  ==== V e r y  Anchovy  Common  Common  - - -  Seasonal A v a i l a b i l i t y Year  Round  Spring/Early Summer  Summer  Late WinterEarly Spring  Frequent  Rare  Categories  1. P r e s e n t y e a r r o u n d  i n roughly equal  2. P r e s e n t y e a r r o u n d e a r l y summer.  b u t more a b u n d a n t i n t h e s p r i n g and  abundance.  3.  O n l y p r e s e n t i n t h e s p r i n g and e a r l y  4.  P r e s e n t year round  5.  O n l y p r e s e n t i n t h e summer.  6.  P r e s e n t year round early f a l l .  7.  Only p r e s e n t from w i n t e r t o v e r y e a r l y  summer.  b u t more common i n t h e summer  b u t more common i n t h e summer spring.  months.  through  Page categories The the  for  44  fish.  following  is a  twenty-eight  summary  species  of  of  fish  the  natural  that  are  history  found  for  in  the  delta. The prefers It  spiny the  moves  deep  to  autumn  fish  i s the  other  at  The the  of  As anchovy,  of a  (cartilagenous)  of  the  delta's  Fraser  i n the  River  summer  and  that  foreslope. to  prey  herring  on  fry in  deep  anchovy  and  c o n s i s t s of  i t will  i s the  It  or  cartilagenous  crab,  migrate  only  prefers  o f f the  offshore and  dweller  mussel,  to  the  and  inshore  1971:19-20).  (Carl  inlets  water  which  waters.  smelt,  the  I t s food  for  northern  saltwater  of  offshore  ratfish.  delta's  shark  waters  eulachon  deep  night  a  1973:45-46).  shellfish  waters  mouth  (Hart  Another  is  offshore  the  concentrations the  dogfish  coast  dweller,  herring.  anchovy to  that  spawn  the  in  deep  1973:103).  (Hart the  in  lives  pacific  It i s a nocturnal  hake  feeder  eats (Hart  1973:226). The the prey  petrale  winter on  and  sole  moves  a v a r i e t y of  including  herring,  some c r u s t a c e a n s  is  common  closer  to  resources shrimp,  (Hart  in  offshore  shore  in  depending  and  1973:608).  bottom  the on  waters  during  summer.  their  fishes,  They  abundance, as  well  as  Page 45 Feeding Pacific  on  fish,  halibut  offshore  crab,  i s a bottom  water  of  the  (1951:114-115) r e p o r t s late  clam,  s p r i n g and  dweller  delta  1973:615).  t h a t h a l i b u t was  Saanich  the deep  Suttles during  the  trolled  and  used b a i t e d hook and  to catch h a l i b u t .  cycle during  the  the i n t e r t i d a l zone e a r l y i n i t s  summer.  I t g r a d u a l l y moves to deeper  waters as i t matures (Hart 1973:629). small m o l l u s c s , Rockfish intertidal littoral  marine worms, and  are  zone  water  anchovy and  found to  deep  habitation  Is a common bottom f i s h  in length  l u r e s and  spears  The delta during  Pacific  area the  (Hart  clams,  1973:630).  waters.  eats  small  It fish  the  prefers such  as  1973:421). water from December to March.  and  on h e r r i n g , f l o u n d e r ,  rockfish.  (Hart 1973:468-469).  I t can  grow  to  S t r a i t S a l i s h used  to o b t a i n l i n g c o d ( S u t t l e s 1951:124-125). cod  i s a large f i s h  throughout fall  and  t h a t feeds  p o l l a c k , cod,  five feet  shrimp  offshore  spawn i n shallow  hake, w a l l e y e  T h i s s o l e eats  i n a v a r i e t y of h a b i t a t s from  young hake (Hart  Lingcod It  sought  e a r l y summer when salmon was  E n g l i s h s o l e frequents life  crustaceans,  p r e f e r r i n g the  (Hart  t h a t the Semiahmoo, Samish, and line  and  and  the  winter,  year. then  that  i s found  I t frequents  the  deep water  moving to s h a l l o w  waters to spawn i n the s p r i n g ( C a r l 1971:39-40).  in  inshore  Page 46 A common b o t t o m d w e l l i n g off  the d e l t a  fish  i s the w a l l e y e  including herring, Dwelling  cartilagenous  at fish  The water  plainfin  or  shrimp,  I t eats  and sand  moderate  depths,  that  crustaceans,  eats  intertidal  irredescent  waters  a variety of  lance.  the  herring  (personal  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , Ham  The  pile  shallow  pharyngeal shells  inshore  and  b i g skate  and g r e a t  waters  are large  large  is a  sculpins  The  waterfowl  1973:518,  (Hart  Both the rock  pile  sole  water from February waters  with  1973:622, small  632). fish.  One  starry flounder  and  feeds  i n Boundary  species  of s c u l p i n  of the d e l t a .  on Bay  frequent  The p i l e  perch's  and a d a p t e d  to crushing  mollusc  Similarly,  sculpins  teeth  perch  and  to  have  also  eat molluscs  sculpins  and  are prey  to  499, 521).  and s t a r r y  to soft  Food  "singing"  the midshipman  flounder  through A p r i l .  varied  i n shallow  1981).  July  pharyngeal  crustaceans.  Often  crustaceans  three  1973:312).  (Hart  developed  r o e , and  perch  teeth  zone.  at night,  herring,  and  pollack.  m i d s h i p m a n spawns i n t h e s p r i n g  i n the  occasionally  of  I n t h e deep r o c k y  1973:57).  (Hart  the  fish  includes  They p r e f e r  bottoms, crab,  small  roe ( C a r l  low  salinity  respectively  o f the f a v o r i t e foods i s herring  spawn I n s h a l l o w  fish,  (Hart  and t h e r o e  of the rock  1971:43-44).  sole  Page 4 7 The when  pacific  they  spawn  intertidal adhere  herring from  February  zones w i t h  to  flounder,  rocky  intertidal  Salish  hemlock  or white  through  bottoms.  grasses  waterfowl,  Straits  are seasonally present  and  procured  April.  i t is  s m a l l mammals  f i r limbs  It  prefers  H e r r i n g roe f r e q u e n t l y  where  herring  i n the d e l t a  with  or p o s s i b l y  the  (Hart a  prey  of  19 73 : 9 7 - 9 9 ) •  rake,  "made  o f bone"  of  (Suttles  1951:126). The Both  surf  spawn  spawn  i s a small f i s h  i n the s p r i n g  i n the i n t e r t i d a l  eulachon  spawn  Eulachon many  smelt  pacific  cod,  1973:148-150). from  fish, as  well  as  Procurement  herring  rakes  summer,  and  and  season  sea  Beach  Five during river  varieties  the s p r i n g , begins  order  chum.  (Matthews  Strait  halibut,  lions  and s c o o p i n g 1951:128).  species Lummi,  Surf  smelt  Banks and  1955:395).  summer,  and f a l l .  and c a n c o n t i n u e i s C h i n o o k , sockeye  Salish  (Hart  by  o f salmon f r e q u e n t t h e F r a s e r  i n June  of ascent  attract  t e c h n o l o g i e s f o r these  (Suttles  and  streams.  d o g f i s h , sturgeon,  gulls  smelt  bays,  i t s major  the spawning  to n e t t i n g  groups  although  o f f the s h e l t e r e d  Fraser  including  to the eulachon.  o b t a i n e d by Musqueam and S q u a m i s h a t S p a n i s h  Locarno  The  areas  the  S a m i s h , and Semiahmoo were  early  concentrations during  predatory  varied  in  and  related  used  toggling  watershed  T h e i r ascent as l a t e  o f the  as  December.  and ^pink,  coho, and  harpoons  to  procure  individual the  year  pinks the  were  t r a w l e d a l o n g t h e m u d f l a t s and later  i n the  1907:90). sand  which  Here,  bars  and  t h e salmon  Point  observed Gill coves feed  netting  were  where  turn  of  Indians  area.  the  century,  i n streams  Sturgeon  1973:83). Fraser during  Both  and  to  is  spawn  Sturgeon  River  as  the s p r i n g  15  (Hill-  advantage area  of  of  through  approaches  Roberts  the of also  localities.  sheltered  shores  and  come i n s h o r e t o  1982:60). have a s i m i l a r  species  early  fall  chum  and  large  history  1982:25-26).  (Ham coho and  salmon  Locarno  spring  and  harpooned  i t sought  spawning  and  (Suttles  summer  life  i n the  e n t e r t h e a r e a t o spawn i n  anadromous  i n the was  reaches  (1951:175)  Suttles  Point  and  to i n t e r c e p t  saltwater  along  In  1982:53).  o r where salmon  near J e r i c h o a  at  Salish  (Berringer  summer  freshwater  by  the  Salish  1982:129).  at over  take  (Berringer  pinks  coho salmon  Delta  late  and  early  to September)  could  by S t r a i t  48  Sockeye  lower  restrict  pass  r u n s were h e a v y  Chum and  the  used  on h e r r i n g  Fraser  that  used  (Berringer  reef  nets  was  (August  Indians  shoals  sockeye  Roberts  the  r u n s would  Reef n e t t i n g Fraser-bound  summer  River  1982:172).  (March-April) (Berringer  Fraser  Tout the  c h i n o o k a t t h e mouth o f t h e F r a s e r  Page  were  gaffed  the by  Beaches.  fish early  and  At  that summer  netted  eulachon  enters (Hart  along and  1952:16-17).  the  salmon  Page 49 The July.  minnow  generally  I t feeds  b r a c k i s h water Like  on a q u a t i c  t h e salmon,  frequents  life  i n deep s a l t  fish  and c r u s t a c e a n s .  waters  Site  the  information  and o c c a s i o n a l l y swims i n  trout  i s an anadromous  1973:128-129).  (Hart  most  fish  of i t s  I t eats  small  Reconstructions presented  and f a u n a  c a n be u s e d  reconstructions  i n J u n e and  t o spawn, b u t s p e n d s  sections  p h y s i c a l environment  This  plants  steelhead  freshwater  previous  i n freshwater  1973:203-205).  (Hart  that  The  spawns  f o r each  a literature  i n the Fraser  t o suggest site  possible  i n t h e sample  review of  Delta  area.  environment during the  Locarno Beach c u l t u r e .  Locarno Beach S i t e This  site  Peninsula.  i s l o c a t e d on t h e n o r t h  During  the  Point  Grey  the  Gulf  than  the erosion  As  today,  silts  from  t h e time  Uplands today  wave a c t i o n , w i n d s , to  (DhRt  and w a t e r  freshets  from  protruded  of the Burrard Beach  drainage  culture,  f a r t h e r west  et. a l 1983:1324).  o f the headlands  the current  shore  o f the Locarno  probably  (Clague  6)  from  Years o f  storms have  to i t s present  hills  led  topography.  t h e F r a s e r . R i v e r may have  and decomposing  into  carried  to English  Bay's  Page 5 0 southern  shore  Today, the  during Locarno  two s t r e a m s  developing  empties  was  larger  Spanish  at Jericho  stream  or slough  transportation  area  may  have  been  KOH-PAI"  by  interviews DhRt  6  1955:395).  late  these  marsh  estuary  DhRt 6 was  times,  the other The  latter  have  been  1978:5).  during  a  Due t o  the Jericho  Indians  called  the  Beach Locarno  as  "a and  good a  Today,  place wild  1955:395).  (Matthews  crabapples  along  and s m e l t s  Banks by n o n - N a t i v e  Since  c o n d i t i o n s may  ground,"  for catching  and A u g u s t ,  at Spanish  July.  camping  the c l i m a t e  have e x i s t e d  and " K 0 -  "EYALMO"  w i t h J . S . Matthews, K h a h t s a h l a n o  during July  dip-netted to  (Harris  sedimentation,  a salt  Musqueam  "crabtree,"  ripen  a n d may  into  culture. In h i s t o r i c  to  of the s i t e .  i n the past  and  One e m p t i e s  of the s i t e ;  i n the 1 9 4 0 ' s  canoe-able  stream  west  east  times.  DhRt 6 .  near  Bank,  Beach,  silt  Beach  flow  Beach  Indians a  bay  smelts N.W.  In  referred  nicknamed (Matthews  Marine  Drive  are handnetted  and  Americans  May  has remained  in prehistoric  from  unchanged, times.  Page W h a l e n Farm S i t e This  site  i s l o c a t e d on  l o n g , narrow north-south period was  of  the  Beach  l o c a t e d on  the  It  is  probable  that  northwesterly  and  (1977:18b) s u g g e s t s  were  developed  northeast  of  attracted fish,  a  from  the  entering  believes  that  connected  to  site  adjacent  by  5000  Fraser  Rivers  river  Delta  to  B.P.  from  have  v a l l e y s (Ham  bay been  would  access  1 9 8 2 : 2 6 0 ) , as  salmon (Hebda  the  The  near  Bog  (1982:260)  2500 B.P.  and  spawning  Bay  Ham  and have  from Burns  some o c c a s i o n s . the  from  north  Boundary  site  estuary  spawning  although and  an  waterfowl,  Evidence  the  headland.  the  These  migratory  B.P.,  on  may  Roberts  have p r e v e n t e d  across  ( D g R r 1)  the  a  island.  protected  m a r s h e s and  crustaceans.  by  the  salt  River  During  Whalen Farm  was  by  4000  b e t w e e n 5000 B.P.  Nicomekl  Beach  that  Fraser  of l a n d .  shore of a s m a l l  DfRs 3 winds  m a r s h may  the  172)  eastern  number o f  and  strip  Fraser  site  large  that  1977:170,  the  the  molluscs,  suggests  and  in  Point Roberts Peninsula,  c u l t u r e , the  westerly  Hebda  3)  (DfRs  trending  Locarno  probably  the  51  bay  was  Serpentine  the  Crescent  routes  w e l l as  to  the  riparian  resources.  with the  The  eastern  the  c h a n g i n g c y c l e o f t i d e s and  uplands  eastern  may  s h o r e of R o b e r t s I s l a n d changed  have  shoreline,  been  perhaps  present near  currents. and  DfRs 3  Streams from  emptied or  dimensions  into  DgRs 1  the  (Beach  Grove  site),  although  substantiate  there  are  (1973:3)  area  during  flat  floodplain  along  the  on  flat  Relying  Locarno south  of  North  that  border  the  4)  (DhRt  Beach  reports  to  the  slope  culture site  ,  1  of  times  to near  the  Musqueam  varied  from  vertical  o f the B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a .  a  cliffs  The  site  Burns  Bogs  a l l u v i a l deposits. on  evidence  from  et. a l 1983:1325),  (Clague and  suggests  the western  rested  geological  52  this.  Musqueam NE Ham  no  Page  Arm  of  the  Lulu  Island  i t i s probable  F r a s e r R i v e r were  and  that  the  developed  sand  bar 5000  by  B.P. Surrounding uplands; delta  intertidal  across  environment The in  nature the  Sand B a r  located  from  and  and  attracted  s p e c i e s on the  site  to the e a s t  area  The  vegetation probably  extent  can  not  be  west o f t h e  the  determined  and  south;  North  Arm  this  i n the  s h o a l s i n the  and (Ham  time.  a  riparian 1973:4-5).  saltmarshes The  Iona  grasslands that  1973).  Musqueam C r e e k site.  at  probably maintained  e l k (Ham  present-day  the  forests  of f r e s h w a t e r - b r a c k i s h or  Lulu Island  d e e r and  tidal flats  to  along  included  c o u l d have been a  slough  Page  53  Summary The  results  of  paleoecological implications during  the  B.P.).  As  1.  and  present  faunal  review  studies  period  of  the  usual, there  et. a l  Locarno  Beach  Delta  have  the  changed w i t h  suggest  that  not  to  and  specific  the  types  Estuary's  during  the  situation delta  major  particular  (3300-2400  and  Teversham  present  In  7000  the  years.  communities  has  progradation.  a c t u a l l o c a t i o n of m a r s h e s and  L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e c a n n o t be has  area  (19 7 7 : 1 7 0 , 1 7 2 ) ,  d e l t a ' s westward  freshwater-brackish  study  of  answers.  about  plant  U n t i l more e v i d e n c e i s a v a i l a b l e , t h e Fraser  than  Delta  number  culture  North  for  a  i n the  Hebda  plant  changed  l o c a t i o n of respect  by  Fraser  have  a r e more q u e s t i o n s  ( 1983:1320 ),  (n.d.) s t r o n g l y  However,  of  for archaeological research  Paleoecological research  Clague  Fraser  the  the  saltmarshes  determined.  This  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l o c a t i n g where i n  migratory  waterfowl  and  fish  would  the have  aggregated. 2. site  Archaeological  (DgRs 6)  Fraser 1976a,  1976,  agreement w i t h the B.P.)  Gulf and  of  from  the  Glenrose  s u g g e s t s t h a t mammals, b i r d s , and  D e l t a have not Ham  evidence  changed  Irnamoto  evidence  Georgia Marpole  fish  i n 5000 t o 7000 y e a r s  1976).  This  from other  region  Cannery  for  ( 2 4 0 0 - 1 2 0 0 B.P.)  the  (Matson is  in  archaeological sites  in  the  St.  hypothesis  of  Mungo  cultures  (4300-3300 (King  1950,  Page Carlson  195 4 ,  Mitchell  1971ab,  during  the  I960,  observed  The  This  culture  in archaeological  and  to  water  complicates  of  localities  and  power  Vancouver  is  impeded  necessary,  lines  1973a,  fauna  present  part  evidence  and  Although  of  of  the  for  same  the  St.  samples  recent  work  has  delta  formation  1977,  Clague e t . a l 1 9 8 3 ) ,  there  areas  of  formed.  the  Fraser  f r o m B u r n s Bog the  Fraser  only  the  eastern  by  freshwater  In  contrast,  River  by  5000  5000 of  archaeological and  continued  i s no  to  flow  at  Locarno research.  development  each  locality  for analysis.  the  the  system  evidence (Ball  not  1979)  i n t o Boundary  when  evidence  or  off that  influenced 1983:1325).  Crescent indicates Bay  of  (Hebda  e i t h e r cut  et, a l from  exact  and  (Hebda 1 9 7 7 : 1 7 0 ) was  City  types  model o f how  was  To  consult  Palynological  (Clague  Beach Grove  land  River  B o u n d a r y Bay  B.P.  of  clarified  Fraser  B.P.  lack  maps f o r  t h a t B o u n d a r y Bay  portion  after  1982:17-18)  freshwater  Delta  suggests  from  i n the  three  should  Engineering  pipes.  geological,  at  recent  researchers  water  processes  by  for housing)  deposits,  Department  o f gas  4.  (Ham  be  events  extracting undisturbed  undisturbed  location  that  Boehm  reconstruct  hydrological  A l t h o u g h more s t u d i e s a r e  locate  suggests  c u l t u r e should  ability  palynological,  (i.e.  1970,  Calvert  Marpole c u l t u r e s .  3.  Beach  1979).  Locarno Beach  continuum Mungo and  1970,  54  until  Beach that 2500  Page B.P.  Evidence f o r the development  affects  any d i s c u s s i o n  about  the development  Estuary's  freshwater-brackish  in  where  turn,  aggregated  and  when  f o r people  culture  times.  Until  assumed  i n this  thesis  into  Boundary  River  5.  that  culture  DhRt  6  DfRs  3 i s also  It  i s located  i s possible  was v e r y  which Beach, may  may  been  front  important  i n a saline Banks,  progradation  B.P. However, from the F r a s e r  Jericho  Beach,  and t h e  an e c o l o g i c a l  setting  at Beach  Grove,  B u t , t h e DhRt 4 An a n a l y s i s  Locarno Beach c u l t u r e  i n t h e Musqueam  area.  bay.  environment.  (Ham  on  here?  saltwater  bay-like  3.  o f each  investigation  3 locality  property.  implications  i t is flowed  and d i f f e r e n c e s  under  had c o u n t e r p a r t s  gulf  Beach  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f DfRs  t o t h e DfRs  remains from each s i t e ' s have  freshwater  and t h e R o b e r t s U p l a n d s .  have  communities  Locarno  B.P. and 2 5 0 0  locality  Spanish  similar  have  animal  on t h e s h o r e o f a l a r g e  that  of the Fraser  and s a l t m a r s h e s a n d ,  during  U p l a n d s n e a r DhRt 6 p r o v i d e d  Burrard that  5000  location,  situated  directly  t h e F r a s e r R i v e r may have  are the s i m i l a r i t i e s  Beach  Bay  i s d e v e l o p e d and t e s t e d ,  d i d not influence  What  Locarno  to procure  Bay between  probably  marshes  particular  a model  because o f i t s southern  o f Boundary  55  the  1982:357), Crescent locality of faunal  component  extent  of  may  delta  5(o  3  Chapter THE  SAMPLE: BORDEN'S ARCHAEOLOGY  OP  THE  LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE  Introduction This the  chapter  three  sites  provenience, of sites,  (3)  methodology, (4)  the  extent  Borden. records  The and  Laboratory units of  are  of  "diagnostic  and  of  DfRs  3,  area,  sampling  of  each  (2)  Borden's  and  archaeological  Is d e s c r i b e d .  stored  by  Mitchell's  Calvert's  of  at  Sampled  Locarno Beach u n i t s  These  in  terms  excavation  the  from the  by  these U.B.C.  provenience correlation  (1971b:52-53,  M a r p o l e and  (1970:74)  and  described  data  of the  information,  defined  features"  site.  described  Archaeology  and  determine  are  material  types  to  at  available  as  investigations  stratigraphic  c u l t u r a l zones  archaeological  culture.  order  component  study  available  Borden's  in  d i s t r i b u t i o n s with  Beach c u l t u r e Mungo  4,  i n the  verified  artifact  Locarno  DhRt  location  C.E.  analysed  the  6,  DhRt  (1)  of:  reviews  work f o r  57)  Locarno the  St.  57  Page Locarno Beach S i t e ,  DhRt 6  Location DhRt 6  is  the  (Borden  1970:97).  Streets  on  3.1).  the  north  l o t 17,  city  of  Point  Grey  and  near  the  relatively  Streets  To midden  of  reports 129  the  the  prior 1978;  to  that  6  area was the  personal  salvage  the  city  an was  a  and  June  21,  of  that  situated  perpendicular  orientation  constitute  section  Borden He  produced  to a  1948  by  of  English  long  cross-  flows  through  source  pipes  A.  Bay  Alma  in  1920  1982).  large  shell by  DhRt 6  at by  The  from  two  DhRt 6 were  shoreline.  section  a  University  Akrigg. at  of  and  replaced  excavation  the  One  English  The  assisted P.  Beach,  into  the  and  east  streams.  February  excavated was  located  Jericho  McDonald  Kew,  destroyed  the  of  drainage  communication,  was  Situated  Beach.  Columbia E n g l i s h p r o f e s s o r  trenches  (Figure  other  between  laying  1948.  Peninsula  empties  the  Jericho  lake  be  Sasamat  i s bordered  undisturbed to  west  culture  and  159.  chart  uplands  of  Beach  excavation  Banks and  development,  to  British  midden.  Burrard  that  of  Locarno  between T o l m i e  the  b e a c h and  in  flat  stream  residential January  the  S p a n i s h Banks Beach, w h i l e  latter  (Harris  for  shore of  Spanish  originates  Bay  the  to  site  is located  block  DhRt 6 e x t e n d s Stream  It  (1979:4)  Ham  on  type  through  This the  Page 58 F i g u r e 3.1: Location of Locarno Beach s i t e , DhRt 6, (shaded area) according to Ham (1979:3) and Borden (1948).  Page 59 Excavation  Methodology  Two t r e n c h e s w e r e e x c a v a t e d . excavated  by B o r d e n  Borden's f i e l d n o t e s and  described  did  not record  with  Trench  some  1 was  assistance  principally  from  f o r Trench 1 summarized d a i l y  some d e t a i l s  of stratigraphy.  the d e t a i l s  Akrigg.  procedures  Akrigg  either  o f w h a t was e n c o u n t e r e d  during  t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f T r e n c h 4 o r t h e r e c o r d s have been Both Trench intervals of c i t y  from a f i x e d  l o t18.  extended  rainfall  were  N76'-80'  i n length  from  N40'-80'  and  eroded  to collapse  of the excavation, and E15'-20',  and E15'-20'.  deposits  i n Trench  o f m i d d e n and  1.  Thus,  the dimensions N50'-76'  Trench  at the  of Trench  and E13'-22',  4 was a l s o  1  and  oriented  in a  i n length  from  N e i t h e r e x c a v a t o r employed a s t a n d a r d i z e d v e r t i c a l  unit  n o r t h t o s o u t h d i r e c t i o n and e x t e n d e d 25 f e e t N35'-60.5' and E 3 0 ' - 3 5 '  of excavation.  (Figure 3 . 2 )  Rather, a unit  by t h e p r o g r e s s o f one d a y . unit  E15'-20'.  t h e c o u r s e o f e x c a v a t i o n , w i n t e r and s p r i n g  sidewalls  N40"-50*  s t a k e d - o u t i n 5' x 5'  datum l o c a t e d on t h e n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r  a n d snow f r e q u e n t l y  conclusion  4 were  With a n o r t h to south o r i e n t a t i o n , Trench 1  40 f e e t  However, d u r i n g  caused  1 and Trench  lost.  varied  wheelbarrow trenches  o f e x c a v a t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d  The d i m e n s i o n s o f e a c h  inconsistently  mobility  (Borden  f o r the convenience  i n removing  1948:  vertical  February  of  excavated m a t r i x from the 3 entry  i n fieldnotes).  Page 60 F i g u r e 3.2:  View o f Trench  1 at DhRt 6, Looking n o r t h , both the  wheelbarrow ramp (foreground) and the p r i n c i p a l s h o v e l , can be  seen.  t o o l f o r excavating, a  Page 61 However,  one  10  foot  horizontal section  N50'-60' was m a i n t a i n e d the  excavation The  principal  tool  Fieldnotes  report  sidewalls  prior  or  larger  mesh  was  feet.  screened, study  matrix only  trench  were t h e  (Figure 3.2).  forstraightening  wall  profiles t h e mesh  size  i t i s assumed  t h a t 1/4"  mesh  matrix.  reports  different  sizes  faunal. remains.  o f mesh  Thus,  eulachon,  may  r a t e of s m a l l f a u n a l remains  anchovy,  and h e r r i n g  affect  the s i z e  a t DhRt 6 i s one v a r i a b l e t h a t  the recovery  of  although  to screen  of small  employed  influenced  drawing  In t h i s  (1969)  the  smelt,  to  was u s e d  retrieval  f o r removing  1 at  Depth o f  Indicates that shovels  t h e use o f t r o w e l s  Matrix  not reported.  the  record  used  is  Thomas  the e x c a v a t i o n .  v a r i e d between 8 and 12  photographic  stratigraphy.  throughout  of Trench  vertebrae  of  have  s u c h as or  fish  otoliths. Both  the provenience  (by t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l  m e a s u r e m e n t s ) and s t r a t i g r a p h i c recorded is  f o r Trench  not available  research The location  value  of  1 material.  f o r Trench  of the Trench  excavators  context  paid  faunal  stratigraphic  changes  archaeological  context  4,  o f each a r t i f a c t a r e  The e q u i v a l e n t thus  reducing  4 collection  little  remains. in shell  location  information  the p o t e n t i a l  i n this  study.  a t t e n t i o n to r e c o r d i n g the While matrix  of a l l f a u n a l  Borden  recorded  composition,  remains  can o n l y  the be  Page reduced  to the  material  bag  Museum o f  provenience  found  listed  on  each l e v e l  i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l storage  bag  at  or  the  62  bone  U.B.C.  Anthropology.  Stratigraphy A stratigraphic Trench  1.  Figure  profile  was  drawn f o r t h e  3.3  the  N50'-60'  is  west f a c e  section  of  of  this  profile. The  method  "stratasquare." s u r f a c e of the the  recording  This  It  deposits  juxtaposed  acted  as  a  stratigraphy  was  suspended  against  Borden  i n t o two  the  reference  l a y e r s were drawn f o r T r e n c h  From t h e e x a m i n a t i o n excavation,  wall  instrument  t r e n c h and  trench.  stratigraphic  of  relative  originally  stratigraphic units.  of  of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of s h e l l  the  shell  the  s i d e w a l l of from  which  of the Trench 1 p r o f i l e d u r i n g  (1950a)  thickness  from  a  1.  separated  These, the  u p p e r h o r i z o n s , were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by B o r d e n on the  was  l e n s i n g and  the  midden lower  the b a s i s the  and of  degree  remains.  "In the lower h o r i z o n , the c u l t u r e b e a r i n g s t r a t a a r e t h i n and alternate with thick l a y e r s of d i s c o l o r e d beach sand. In the upper h o r i z o n , the s h e l l s t r a t a are t h i c k . Numerous d a r k sandy s t r a t a c o n t a i n i n g heavy concentrations o f f i s h and other organic remains a l s o occur here. A c o n s i d e r a b l e time l a p s e b e t w e e n t h e two o c c u p a t i o n p e r i o d s i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e lower d e p o s i t s , t h e s h e l l r e m a i n s have been r e d u c e d to a f i n e powder, whereas i n the upper  Page 63 F i g u r e 3.3:  West face wall p r o f i l e , Trench 1 at DhRt 6.  BLACK  H  MUSSEL  M  SAND, CHARCOAL. ASH,  8 MINUTE S H E L L  H  SHELL  DARK  SAND  M  SAND  a ORGANIC  MUSSEL  MC MC  Figure  SHELL  CHARCOAL  3,3  MATTER  S  MOTTLED  CLEAN  SAND  SAND  FRAGS  Page 64 h o r i z o n , d i s i n t e g r a t e d s h e l l , while advanced, has not proceeded that f a r " (Borden 1950a:15). The boundary between  these u n i t s was not d e s c r i b e d ,  I t noted on the w a l l  profile.  In a l a t e r discussed  publication, stratigraphy  nor was  at DhRt 6 i s not  (Borden 1970), g i v i n g the i m p r e s s i o n  that  Borden  re-thought h i s p o s i t i o n about the presence of two d i s t i n c t stratigraphic  units.  Cultural  Zones  Two c u l t u r a l zones were o r i g i n a l l y Borden  (1950a).  stratigraphic  These  were  by a r t i f a c t u a l and  (Radio-carbon dating  was n o t  performed on DhRt 6 samples u n t i l the mid-1950's.)  However,  Borden  evidence.  defined  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  (1950a)  d i d not  s t r a t i g r a p h i c changes  state  a  letter  and  coincided.  Borden re-thought the two-zone In  i f artifactual  to P r e d r i c a  de  scheme as e a r l y as 1962.  Laguna,  Borden  (1962:2)  commented: " R i g h t l y or wrongly, t h e o t h e r s [ a l l s i t e s but Whalen Farm i n Borden (1950a)], have been t r e a t e d as s i n g l e component s i t e s , although I am aware t h a t the case could be made f o r the d i v i s i o n of Locarno Beach i n t o two components (as I d i d i n 1950). Some t r a i t s like l a b r e t s , small adzes, medium s i z e wedges are l i m i t e d to L o c a r n o Beach I ( t h e lower h o r i z o n ) and c o m p l e t e l y absent from Locarno Beach I I (the upper h o r i z o n ) , even though we have a l a r g e sample of t h e l a t t e r . Other t r a i t s l i k e f a c e t t e d ground s l a t e p o i n t s and  Page  65  heavy s l a t e k n i v e s l i n k the 2 h o r i z o n s . If we had a l a r g e r sample o f b o t h h o r i z o n s , t h e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n c e s might tend t o d i s a p p e a r " (Borden 1 1 / 2 6 / 6 2 i n response t o de L a g u n a 1 0 / 2 6 / 6 2 ) [author's a d d i t i o n ] . After DhRt  the 6  dating  publication  ( 1 9 5 0 a ,  of  Borden's  and  1 9 5 1 )  i n archaeology,  the  Borden  DhRt 6 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e m a i n s in  the  mid-1950's.  material for  (Borden  development sent  The  two  years years  of  least  radiocarbon  two  samples  Sasketchewan  of  the  dating lab  radiocarbon  radiocarbon  of  dates  dated  published  are:  1 9 7 0 : 7 6 )  2 2 7 0 ± 1 0 0 2 4 5 0 ± 1 0 0  at  to the  Composition  i s unknown.  DhRt 6  p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n of  B.P. B.P.  or 3 2 0 B.C. o r 5 0 0 B.C.  Whalen Farm S i t e ,  ( I - 7 7 9 D ( 1 - 7 7 9 0 )  DfRs 3  Location DfRs 3 i s a s h e l l corner  of  the  Boundary  Bay  situated  on  protected southwest  Fraser  Delta  (Figure the  from of  midden s i t e  the  3.4).  knoll winds site  of by  Point  to  3 .  described,  i t is  S i m i l a r to  the  (Kenny  the  the  southwest  western DhRt  lagoon Roberts  Borden  shore  of  6 , DfRs 3  is  spit  is  that  Upland,  just  ( 1 9 4 9 )  observed  middens w i t h i n w a l k i n g  distance  1 9 7 5 ) .  location  probable  the  ancient  archaeological shell Although  on  an  several DfRs  area,  l o c a t e d at  that  of  these  Borden  m i d d e n s was  located  sites  not now  F i g u r e 3.4: Location of the Whalen Farm S i t e , DfRs 3, and Other Boundary Bay s i t e s .  Page 67 DgRs 8 ,  designated (DgRs  a  large  a l 1981) with  et. of  1),  the s i t e  vicinity,  3000  Whalen  produced that  to  the  excavation  a long  a t DhRt 6  cross  the present-day  the  records.  3.6).  As of  part  of a joint  V/ashington  salvage  crew  Washington  involved  U.B.C.,  on M i c h a e l  during DhRt  6,  school Borden  Whalen's  i n determining  site  of At  situated f o r the  orientation  t h e midden, s i m i l a r t o between  DfRs 3  n o t be d e t e r m i n e d  between  from  the U n i v e r s i t y  directed  property  a  5  student  i n B o u n d a r y Bay,  The same methods o f  both f i e l d Borden  Rivers.  a  Methodology  field  i n 1949 and 1 9 5 0 .  were employed Unlike  and  could  with  shore  was  This  The d i s t a n c e  shoreline  same  site i s  site  shoreline  3.5).  s e c t i o n through  Excavation  nearby  trench  Bay  end  o f B o u n d a r y Bay  the eastern  single  Boundary  (Matson  i n the  and S e r p e n t i n e  (Figure  (Figure  and  a  shore Another  on  site  a t the north  a multicomponent  located  site,  Grove  site  located  the western  the Nicomekl  Farm  perpendicular  affinities  i n the past.  chronology  Beach  village  i s also  (DgRr 1 ) ,  site  Bay n e a r  1949-1950  that  populated  year  Boundary the  1 9 7 9 ),  The  culture  some L o c a r n o  (Ball  Beach  13.  and  Marpole  suggesting  was d e n s e l y Crescent  16,  excavation  seasons.  (1950b)  described  procedures  l o c a t i o n and i n e x c a v a t i n g t h e  Page  Figure 3.5:  Whalen Farm, DfRs  Archaeology Lab Map,  North  U.B.C.).  3 Boundary Bay, Wash.  1949  (after  68  Page 69 F i g u r e 3.6: (DfRs 3).  View West to East of Large Midden at Whalen Farm Site  Page 70 95 f o o t t r e n c h a t DfRs 3 " . . . B e f o r e the e x c a v a t i o n proper began, the s t u d e n t s were busy w i t h a l i d a d , p l a n e - t a b l e , and s t a d i a r o d , s u r v e y i n g , f i x i n g datum p o i n t s and bench marks, and p r e p a r i n g contour maps of the s i t e . There upon, the a r e a was staked-out and i t s l o c a t i o n r e c o r d e d on the c o n t o u r map. In e x c a v a t i n g , o n l y s m a l l implements were u s e d — p o i n t e d mason t r o w e l s and dirt pans, and even f i n e r work, g r a p e f r u i t k n i v e s , spoons, d e n t i s t ' s t o o l s , whisk brooms, and s o f t h a i r brushes. Shovels came i n t o p l a y d u r i n g clean-up operations. A l l excavated m a t e r i a l was s c r e e n e d and closely scrutinized. Every f i n d , upon discovery, immediately received an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number and i t s l o c a t i o n measured t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to datum p o i n t and bench mark... Associated m a t e r i a l , such as f o o d remains, d e t r i t u s o f m a n u f a c t u r e , c h a r c o a l , samples o f a s h , and o t h e r midden m a t e r i a l from v a r i o u s s t r a t a were c o l l e c t e d i n s p e c i a l bags and i t s o r i g i n recorded. A f t e r the e x c a v a t i o n of every f o u r f o o t l e v e l was completed, s c a l e drawings of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n as i t appeared on the t r e n c h f a c e s were made on graph paper. In a d d i t i o n , to copious f i e l d n o t e s , n e a r l y 3 5 0 photographs were taken o f work i n p r o g r e s s o f s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s , and so f o r t h . In t h i s f a s h i o n , a t r e n c h of 8 0 f e e t long, f i v e f e e t wide and 12 f e e t deep was excavated d u r i n g nine weeks o f the f i e l d t r i p " (Borden 1 9 5 0 b : 2 4 2 ) . " U s i n g s t a t i o n 3 as datum p o i n t and bench mark, t h e Whalen Farm crew s t a k e d o u t 1 9 adjacent 5 ' x 5 ' u n i t s . Twelve u n i t s were west o f the l i n e r u n n i n g n o r t h through s t a t i o n 3 and 7 u n i t s were east of the l i n e ( F i g u r e 3 . 5 ; Borden 1 9 ^ 9 , June 22 e n t r y i n fieldnotes). Although a 9 5 f o o t trench was staked-out only  an 8 0 f o o t  trench  was e x c a v a t e d  i n 19 5 ' x 5 ' u n i t s from  W60'  Most of Trench 1 was completed during the f i r s t  t o E35'.  field  season  Page 71 in  1949. Excavation  removed then  u n i t s of 5  i n blocks  removal  D f R s 3 was  x  5 'x  H' w e r e  o f 5 ' x 2 . 5 ' x 2'.  c o u l d c o n t a i n more t h a n  methodical  1  during  consistent.  Borden's  excavation  before.  These  Some e x c a v a t e d  one s t r a t u m .  of d i r t  This  Borden's  preserved  clearly  record  fieldnotes  f o r Trench  described was as  found.  same 1.  yields  more  u s e d by t h e a u t h o r  The  as  i n which  strata  the a r t i f a c t  each  indicated  a  n  d  artifact  are noted was  also  as  found.  well This  a n d was  i n d e l i n e a t i n g the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e  within excavation ( 1 9 W  artifact  Borden  i n this  chapter).  Fieldnotes also frequently referred to faunal  Heglar  was  t h e DhRt 6  i n f o r m a t i o n to the researcher  component a t D f R s 3 ( s e e d i s c u s s i o n l a t e r  found  may  remains  records.  artifact,  context  and i n f e r i o r  i n which  year  In a d d i t i o n to recording 3 -  the s t r a t i g r a p h i c Superior  one  recovered.  information  l o c a t i o n s f o r each  the stratum  situation  the  at  with  methodology  of a r t i f a c t u a l  i n t h e DfRs 3 s i t e  catalogues  dimensional  contrasts  differences i n excavation  The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t  excavation  a t DhRt 6 , j u s t  have c r e a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e sample  units,  Nevertheless, the  situation  methodology  consistently  units.  Borden's  the presence  mammals c o m p a r e d t o b i r d ,  of  For example,  (1950a,  fish,  student  1950b:242-3)  relatively  few  and s h e l l f i s h  resources  land  R.  reports and  remains.  sea In a  72  Page recent  personal  (January 1949-1950 facts  communication  1982), field  the  was  a  school,  regarding  discussed  who  the  student  methodology.  In  faunal  Bryan  p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the  of  A.L.  author,  substantiated  excavation  collection  with  the  aforementioned addition,  Bryan  remains.  " C a r l (Borden) p a i d m e t i c u l o u s a t t e n t i o n to collecting faunal remains (at least e v e r y t h i n g e x c e p t t h e common s h e l l f i s h ) and r e c o r d i n g s t r a t i g r a p h y , as w e l l as c o l l e c t i n g artifacts." (personal communication, Bryan January 1 9 8 2 ) .  Stratigraphy The  record  a t DhRt 6 .  than  relationships by  of  field  Borden kept  f o r each  school  stratasquare  to  daily  excavation  participant  draw  the  north  DfRs 3  at  Borden  paid  though  he  close  records  Wilson wall  arbitrary  he  was  Duff  profile  excavated  in  levels.  However,  to  assisted  who of  used  the  a  trench  s t r a t i g r a p h i c changes,  sublevels 1982)  within  unlike  excavation  Two  the  (personal  larger 4  foot  6,  the  of  stratum  DhRt  comprise  a  unit.  s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s were d e f i n e d (Figure  24"  of  those  D f R s 3 f i e l d n o t e s n o t e when more t h a n one  1950a)  complete  of s t r a t i g r a p h i c  u n i t , and  attention  communication, Bryan, January  single  i s more  3.7).  (Figure  even  stratigraphy  3.8).  The  north  face  at  profile  DfRs 3  (Borden  delineates  the  P a g e 73  Figure 3.7:  Wilson  Duff and  stratasquare.  Page 74 F i g u r e 3.8:  West Wall P r o f i l e at DfRs 3.  7f TOPSOIL  MUSSEL (details on profile)  CLAM (details on profile)  \  \ \  N  \ \  \  \  CLAM a MUSSEL (details on profile)  SAND (details on profile)  ASM (yellow unless otherwise indicated  CHARCOAL  UPPER CASE indicates only named item present  R = rock p-p :  r 0 0 t  0 L  FOOT  Fiqure 3.8  Page 75 boundary  between the upper  stratigraphic Borden  units.  based  (Whalen  These  I I ) and lower  units  on the r e l a t i v e  were  quantities  (Whalen  I)  distinguished  by  and  type o f  shell  present and the degree of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . " I n the lower h o r i z o n the s t r a t a c o n s i s t c h i e f l y of mussels w i t h o c c a s i o n a l l e n s e s of cockles. L a r g e r s p e c i e s of clam a r e r a r e . [ T h i s i s very s i m i l a r to the s h e l l d e p o s i t s a t DhRt 6 . ] In t h i s mound, however, the mussel d e p o s i t i s suddenly o v e r l a i d by t h i c k l a y e r s o f l a r g e clams, such as S c h i z o t h a i r u s n u t t a l l l and Saxidomus n u t t a l l i , a l t h o u g h mussel do not d i s a p p e a r e n t i r e l y " (Borden's 1950a:19; p a r e n t h e t i c a l phrase i s the author's a d d i t i o n ) . Isolated  deposits  throughout  of  sea  urchin  the lower h o r i z o n .  spines  the f i e l d n o t e s  nor  was  located  A whale bone fragment  a l s o d e s c r i b e d In the p r o f i l e , however, i t was in  are  i t found  not  was  mentioned  i n the L a b o r a t o r y of  Archaeology's DfRs 3 c o l l e c t i o n . Measured  by mid-1950 t e c h n i q u e s , the r a d i o c a r b o n date  f o r the lower h o r i z o n i s 2 4 5 0 ± 1 6 0 1970:96; McCallum  years B.P.,  and Dyck 1960:77).  S-18  (Borden  T h i s date p l a c e s the  h o r i z o n i n the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e time s l o t propounded Borden  (1970) and M i t c h e l l  A variety at  DfRs 3.  nuttalli) dominate  of s h e l l  (1971b).  species  comprise the upper  However, h o r s e clam and  Washington  the u n i t .  by  butter  Mussel  (Schizothairus clam  (Saxidomus  i s present i n small  r e l a t i v e to the lower h o r i z o n .  horizon  or T r e s u s nuttalli) quantities  Radiocarbon d a t i n g y i e l d e d a  Page 76 date of 1580 ± 140, S - 1 9 96).  Mitchell  Marpole  (1971b:62) p l a c e s  (?)-Gulf  between  of Georgia  the two u n i t s  thought.  (Daugherty 1958:454; Borden 1970:  With  culture  unit  so many midden  sites  Seymour  during  a 1972 e x c a v a t i o n ,  The h i a t u s  as Borden  (1970)  i n the area,  It is  such as DfRs 3 , may have been  f o r t h e use o f a n e i g h b o r i n g  away.  i n the " l a t e  type."  i s not as enigmatic  probable t h a t some l o c a t i o n s , abandoned  this  (1976) r e p o r t s  site  a few y a r d s  a Marpole u n i t  w h i c h may  a t DfRs 3  substantiate  this  hypothesis. The 2-unit d i s t i n c t i o n observed by Borden at DfRs 3 was never  reformulated.  DhRt 6,  Unlike  the e x i s t e n c e  of 2 u n i t s  Borden's l a t e r w r i t i n g s distinction dating  was  the 2 - u n i t  on b o t h  (Borden 1970).  stratigraphic  e v i d e n c e , which have been accepted  a r c h e o l o g i c a l community  at  a t DfRs 3 p e r s i s t s i n  and thoughts  based  distinction  This  and c a r b o n  and used by the  ( M i t c h e l l 1971b; Matson 1974).  C u l t u r a l Zones Two  archaeological  DfRs 3 by Borden.  cultures  were  with  carbon dates.  at  These, Whalen I and Whalen I I , have been  d e f i n e d by abrupt changes i n the a r t i f a c t coincide  distinguished  the d i f f e r e n c e s  assemblages which  i n stratigraphy  and r a d i o  Page 77 The thus  Whalen  further  culture. this  I assemblage  supporting  Borden  (1950a)  assemblage.  artifacts,  along  i t saffinity lists  he  that  of  stratigraphic  l o c a t i o n i n the s i t e  records.  The  i i assemblage,  t o the Gulf  the upper  of Georgia  artifact  cultural type  the were  provenience  culture  6,  Beach  describe  each  on t h e i r  attributed  DhRt  are present i n  d i d not  diagrams  from  to the Locarno  information  Whalen  with  material  artifacts  Although  hand-drawn  catalogued  resembles  and  unit, i s (Mitchell  1971b) . A  35  foot  (W35'-0', 3.8).  N20'-25')  An  location  section  labelled  of  exists line  the north  face  i n t h e DfRs 3  on  the p r o f i l e  wall  profile  records  (Figure  delineates  the  o f t h e Whalen I - I I i n t e r f a c e .  DhRt 4  Musqueam NE S i t e ,  Location 4  DhRt Musqueam flat is  is located  Indian  Reserve  expanse o f d e l t a i c sandwiched  floodplaln River's  between  i n t h e Musqueam (Figure  3-9).  deposits" the  Point  Arm.  A stream  area  of the  S i t u a t e d on a  (Archer Grey  and d e l t a f r o n t on t h e n o r t h  North  Creek  1972:2),  the s i t e  Uplands  and t h e  shore  originating  "broad  of the F r a s e r  i n the P o i n t  Grey  Page 78  F i g u r e 3.9:  Location of Musqueam NE, DhRt 4 (after Borden 1976:236).  Page 79 Uplands passes The  the  salvage  situated  Archer  t o south  produced  of a three  the  o f the  Bernick  excavation  with  as i n -  u n i t s was  (Figure 3.10).  stratigraphic  year  members  excavation  and Kathryn  transacts  complex  site.  Musqueam Band  supervised  The l o c a t i o n  on n o r t h  orientation  Borden  o f David  directors.  4 was p a r t  o f DhRt  project involving  volunteers.  assistance  field  the w e s t e r n edge o f t h e  excavation  (1972-1974) Indian  near  profiles  This of  the  lensing.  In  general,  Excavation  Methodology  t h e same  methods  employed  during a l l three  greater  care  s e a s o n s a t DhRt 4.  field  was e m p l o y e d  of excavation  i n waterlogged  were  However,  regions  of  the  site. Along east These  three  t o west  north  line,  u n i t s were  disregarded trowels through  care  waterlogged  utensils, mesh.  used  was u s e d  lines out  the Both  work f o r e a c h f i e l d  season.  o f 2m x 2m u n i t s .  3.10  loosening  excavators  levels  that  matrix  with  screened  d r y and water  the three  i n removing  Figure  a grid  After  during  units.  a n d one i n t e r s e c t i n g  i n 10cm a r b i t r a r y  layers.  inch  were  laid  excavated  and small  techniques Special  Borden  natural  a 1/4  t o south  season  perishable  summarizes  the  soil  sieving project.  remains  from  progress o f  Page 80 F i g u r e 3.10: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f excavated p i t s at DhRt 4 (Borden and Archer 1 9 7 5 : 6 2 ) .  « (A  e ta  Ic  4  •  la ,  ID I I IF I O I H I I  is . ao •  a« ,  IJ I K ( I I M I N I O I  0  2 3  N  4 —  I I  • '3 3  approximate limit! appro -oiwotorlogoMi ***  0  ' posits  -  It  — 14 — to  6 7  — a —e — 2 —  6  — io — 14 LOCATE PITS IN.TEXT BY COORDINATING LETTERS & NUMBERS A L O N G UPPER & LEFT MARGINS  0 0 H  Page  81  Stratigraphy Sketches volunteers After from  of excavation unit  during 1974  the  the  season,  and  f o r three of  profiles  delineate  cultural Unlike  DhRt some  4's  shell  eight  zones  DhRt 6 ,  and  stratigraphic distinct B,  were  personal  a  preliminary  information,  cultural  zones  o f key  According  communication,  4.  i n the f i e l d  to  component.  their While  absence this  These by  the  i s absent  from  indicate  that  of  bay  mussel  does  artifactual described  not  the  three  (Archer 1 9 7 2 : 2 ;  a Locarno any  Borden  (independent  the i n - f i e l d  negates  and  presence-absence  suggested a Marpole  indicated  and  zones, A l , A2,  Bernick  1981),  procedure  of  (1976)  and  the presence o f m i c r o b l a d e s that component;  and  1975:38).  types  Archer October  these  Zones  Borden  artifact  zones  "the s t r a t i g r a p h y  analysis  a t DhRt  differentiated  or d i s t r i b u t i o n 1976).  Fieldnotes  mollusc remains"(Croes  on  Together,  quantities  however,  information  stratigraphic  mound o f midden  large  3.11b).  and  (1972:6-8).  by A r c h e r  excavation.  relatively  produce  stratigraphic  Cultural Based  3.11a  trenches.  major  a rolling  were e n c o u n t e r e d ,  have a b u n d a n t  to  four  described  l a n d s c a p e and  clam  the  were made by  B e r n l c k combined  sketches  profiles  three  profiles  excavation (Figures  field  fieldnotes  wall  Beach  test  was  culture culture  argument  about  Page 82, F i g u r e 3.11a:  Musqueam NE (DhRt 4) Stratigraphy.  Fi  R E C E N T OVERBURDEN  LOAM (details on profile)  CRUSHED S H E L L (details on  (loosely compacted dark brown  3 0.5 m  S E E PROFILE-  I  profile)  loam with roots S rocks) A S H (details on profile)  CHARCOAL  R  = rock  Elevations are in metres below arbitrary of  N5  N 4 , EI6  N6.EI6  N8.EI6  100 metres.  NIO, EI6  H-  99.0-  h-99.0  m' m  o  UJ  My  <  98.0  98.0-  CM < UJ  O  z o  N  < log (section taken)  UJ  z o N  stream  97.0  H  laid  sand  a  gravel r-9?.0  datum  P a g e 82b  F i g u r e 3.11b:  Musqueam NE (DhRt 4) Stratigraphy.  $2 to RECENT OVERBURDEN (loosely compacted dark brown loam with roots 8 rocks)  N4.EI0  99. OH  LOAM (details on profile)  CRUSHED SHELL (details on profile)  SEE PROFILE  SAND (details on profile)  ASH (details on profile)  CHARCOAL  R = rock RT = root RH = rodent hole  0.5 m  0  l_  Elevations are in metres below arbitrary datum of 100 metres  N4.E20  99.0  m  m  UJ  LO  o  o ISl  w i t h s o m e dark brown loam, ash  < LU 98.0—f O N  S loam, ash CM <  O M  t  < LU  LO  z  o  o N  97.0  h-97.0 Figure 3 . 1 1 b  Page 83 microblades have  b e i n g used  occurred  criterion  used  at  DhRt 4.  of  Borden's  for specific  during by  both  Borden  activities  coastal  phases,  to distinguish  T h u s , a l t h o u g h i t can 2-unit d i s t i n c t i o n  be  between  i s p r e c a r i o u s , the d i s t i n c t i o n  present  s t u d y so  Borden's  profiles.  distinction Zone  A,  subdivisions. perishable and  the  (the  B.P.  Zone  and  Beach  Locarno  basis  the  Beach  and  i s maintained i n the be  consistent  divisions  1020  of  Zone  and  Archer  and  remains.  with  on  showed  A.  A wood  of  two  d e p o s i t s of nuts,  mats,  Zone A2  lacks  dates are sample  from  radiocarbon dated  of  available Zone  Al  at  2970  a c h a r c o a l sample  from  2550 ± 8 5  1975:59).  Archer  has  same d i s t r i b u t i o n  Radiocarbon  ( 1 - 7 7 9 1 ) , and date  as  component,  c o n t a i n s the  a C-^  associated culture,  but  B.C.  Borden  also  the waterlogged  c o m p o n e n t ) was  (Borden  dates  Beach  ( e . g . b a s k e t r y , wood c h i p s ,  as Zone A l .  yielded  (1-7790)  A2  that  valid.  material  or  A2  close  units  Zone B a r e d e l i n e a t e d  some o t h e r a r t i f a c t u a l  waterlogged  ±90  the  cultural  (1974) a n a l y s i s  Zone A l i n c l u d e s  other a r t i f a c t s both  Matson's  was  remains  perishable  for  i t is  Locarno  records w i l l  p r o v e n i e n c e o f Zone A and  Bernick's  etc.)  might  definition.  The  this  site  two  argued  Marpole  that  that  B.P.  or  Because  (1975:2) lumped  i t w i t h the  chronology  d e s c r i b e d by  Borden  600 of  B.C. these  Zones A l  f o r the  ( 1 9 7 0 ) and  and  Locarno Mitchell  Page 84 (1971b). Locarno River  A s i d e from Beach  site  February  probable perishable  associated  (personal  19*82),  waterlogged region  communication,  the o l d e s t  of  similar  perishable  component at DhRt 4.  antiquity  are p r e s e n t  artifact  Marpole phase  i n the G u l f  (see M i t c h e l l  1971b, B u r l e y  is  relatively  small  as  classes  etc.  Pitt  rope,  Coast are from remains (45  Ca  (Croes 1975).  characteristic  of the  of G e o r g i a c h r o n o l o g i c a l  scheme  1980).  T h i s Marpole to  "Disturbed  from some areas of the s i t e r e f l e c t number of broken g l a s s  of  a t the Hoko s i t e  compared  described  the  Perishable  the  Radiocarbon dates are not a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s Although  from a  Patenaude,  remains  213) on the Olympic P e n i n s u l a i n Washington Zone B y i e l d e d  of  Valerie  cordage, n e t , and b a s k e t r y on the Northwest the Locarno Beach  remains  bottles,  component  Locarno  one.  unit.  material,"  remains  h i s t o r i c occupation.  china p l a t e s ,  iron  A  nails,  have been catalogued, i n a d d i t i o n to the excavation of  three l a t e mortuary houses. In  general,  the  c h r o n o l o g y o f human  occupation  DhRt 4 spans at l e a s t 3000 years but i s incomplete.  at  Page 85 V e r i f i c a t i o n o f an A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h The  sampling of  Locarno Beach limited each  by  site.  remains  within  the  Culture  excavated  components o f each s i t e under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s  the a v a i l a b l e Since  excavations  faunal  the Locarno Beach  information  B o r d e n was  a t DhRt 6 ,  DfRs  principal 3,  the  records  of  i n v e s t i g a t o r f o r the  DhRt 4 ,  his  excavation  m e t h o d o l o g i e s have been r e v i e w e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n  describing  and d e l i n e a t i n g t h e v e r t i c a l Locarno  Beach  publications  and h o r i z o n t a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e  components and  his  and  from  for  each  site.  correspondence  Borden's  have  also  been  consulted. Although i t i s not the purpose of t h i s do  both a f a u n a l  reasons from  why  and  artifactual  i t i s necessary to  the Locarno Beach  addition sampled  areas  compared  to  archaeological  of each  on  S t . Mungo  are associated  defined  by B o r d e n  may  artifact Locarno  (1970:74) This  with  are  artifact  Beach 57) and  from are  diagnostic Locarno  and M a t s o n ' s comparison  (although  In  component  Beach  (1976a) insures  work that  culture,  and M i t c h e l l ( 1 9 7 1 b : 5 7 ) .  be h e l p f u l i n s u g g e s t i n g  classes  tabulations  the Locarno Beach  assemblages  several  investigation.  of the Marpole  (1970)  in artifact  tabulate  (1971b:52-3,  phase.  samples  variability  site's  features  t y p e and C a l v e r t  the  dates,  Mitchell's  culture  study, there  components under  to radiocarbon  i n v e s t i g a t i o n to  small  as  Second, in size)  hypotheses f o r the patterns  of  Page 86 faunal three  utilization sites  observed  under  a t each  investigation  described  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  provided  i n this  Northwest  Coast p r e h i s t o r i c  study  sampled  a r e made  Trench  are:  relationships  tabulations  available  f o r future  S i t e , DhRt 6 t o T r e n c h 1 a t N50'-60',  The f a c t o r s  distinct  Research  (3) a  that influenced  this  of e x c a v a t i o n of  L a b a t t h e U.B.C. Museum o f  sidewall  profile  of  stratigraphic  i n t h i s a r e a was a v a i l a b l e ; and ( 4 ) u n l i k e t h e  of Trench  1, h o r i z o n t a l  dimensions  were  maintained  t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f N50'-6O'. sample area  o f 84  artifacts  of the s i t e .  distribution  of a r t i f a c t  manufactured  primarily  frequently Mitchell's culture  artifact  i n a s s o r t e d m a t e r i a l s and f a u n a l bags i n t h e s t o r a g e  Anthropology;  sampled  fully  o f m a t e r i a l f r o m t h i s b l o c k o f t h e s i t e was  of Archaeology  A  been  the  4 diminishes the research value of the c o l l e c t i o n ;  located  rest  never  ( 1 ) The i n c o m p l e t e r e c o r d  (2) t h e m a j o r i t y  area  t o 10'.  Finally,  research.  area i s r e s t r i c t e d  E13'-22', s u r f a c e selection  have  Thus,  Locarno Beach The  site.  occurring  were  catalogued f o rthe  Appendix,  Table B . l l i s t s the  classes. from  bird  artifactual  19 d i a g n o s t i c  type are found  bone  and  points  are the  remains.  features  among t h i s  Awls  Nine  items o f  of the Locarno collection  most  Beach  of artifacts  Page 87 Table 3.1: D i s t r i b u t i o n of Mitchell's (1971:57) Locarno Beach diagnostic archaeological features for sampled areas of three Locarno Beach Culture components. DhRt 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.  Medium-sized chipped basalt points Microblades & cores Chipped slate or sandstone knives Crude cobble, split-cobble & boulder s p a l l implements Bone & ground slate points with facets Thick ground slate knives Celts Gulf Island complex a r t i f a c t s Labrets Earspools Grooved or notched sinkers Handstones and grinding slabs (abrasive) Heavy bone wedges B i l a t e r a l l y barbed antler points Toggling or composite harpoons Antler foreshafts for harpoons (#15) Sea mussel s h e l l c e l t s Clay-lined depressions & rock slab alignments Heavy decomposition of s h e l l matrix & now "inland" location of s i t e TOTAL  + + + + + + + +  + +  DfRs 3 DhRt 4 (Whalen I) + + + .  + + -  + + -  + -  + ? + +  + -  +  +  +  +  9  7  10  -  Page 88  Table 3.2:  Distribution of Mitchell's (1971:52-53) Marpole diagnostic archaeological features for sampled areas of three Locarno Beach units. DhRt 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.  E DfRs 3 (Whalen I)  V a r i e t i e s of chipped stone points Microblades Large ground slate points Thin ground slate knives Celts Disc boads Labrets or earspools Stone hand mauls with decorated handles Perforated stones Stone sculpture Large needles Sectioned or s p l i t awls Barbed, non toggling harpoons U n i l a t e r a l l y barbed antler points Antler wedges Antler sculpture Native copper ornaments Midden b u r i a l Skull deformation Large post mould & house outlines  —  +  +  -  -  -  TOTAL  -+ -  —  -  --  --  -  -+  -  + +  -+  -  —  --  —  -—  3  1  3  -  -  Table 3.3: Distribution of Calvert's (1970:74) St. Mungo diagnostic archaeological features for sampled areas of three Locarno Beach Culture components. DhRt 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Stemmed or single shouldered points B i l a t e r a l l y barbed harpoon Boulder s p a l l tools Bone rings Brow bands V a r i e t i e s of tooth & bone pendants Bone "charms" Large cores  + -  TOTAL  1  DfRs 3 DhRt 4 (Whalen I) + + + -  +  2  2  Page 3.1).  (Table Marpole St.  This  diagnostic features  Mungo  culture  distribution  valid  dates,  3.2)  (Table 3.3).  (Table  from the  radiocarbon  3 of  contrasts with only  sampled  1  and  Thus,  matches f o r 8 for  of the  the  artifact  o f DhRt 6 s u b s t a n t i a t e s  area  suggesting  20  89  that  the  sampled  area  is a  L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e component.  W h a l e n Farm S i t e , DfRs 3 The site  sampled a r e a  with  culture  stratigraphic  zones,  deposit units  a  N20'-25',  i n the  sample  sampled a r e a . artifact  84  of  P e c k e d and  of abrasive stones a variety and  are  assemblage artifacts recovered, activities.  from are  i n the  suggesting  and  from the  presence  of  the of  shell  A l a r g e number as w e l l  scrapers,  differentiating  One  for  bone, and  Shell artifacts  DfRs 3 .  excavated  unit.  i n the c o l l e c t i o n ,  As  the  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  assemblage.  DhRt 4 .  two  Depth of  catalogued  (points, bipoints,  6  absent  been  the  the  number o f  ground stone,  attributes  DfRt  the  B.l lists  bone o b j e c t s ) .  major  delineating  (Figure 3-7).  has  were found  o f bone t o o l s  miscellaneous  harpoons  artifacts  important  only area of  w i t h i n the Whalen I  Appendix, Table  classes.  i n d u s t r i e s are  W0'-35'  completely  to the  profile  sample v a r i e s w i t h  that f a l l A  is restricted  with  some  needles  and  barbed  the  DfRs 3  DhRt 6 ,  antler  as  wedge  wood was  woodworking  Page 90 DfRs 3 has 7 o f 1 9 d i a g n o s t i c Locarno Beach c u l t u r e (Table 20  f o rMarpole  (Table  (Table  3 - 3 ) phases.  suggesting  (37%)  features  of the  3.1) i n contrast to 1 (5%) of  3 . 2 ) a n d 2 ( 2 5 % ) o f 8 f o r S t . Mungo This  data  supports  radiocarbon  t h a t t h e sampled a r e a r e p r e s e n t s  a valid  dates Locarno  Beach component.  Musqueam NE S i t e , DhRt 4 Excavation having  u n i t s f o r sampling  stratigraphic  delineations  profiles  made by B e r n i c k .  with  of the 3 3excavation  distinguished were  random  (January  Locarno Beach  sampled  N2m-4m N2m-4m N4m-6m N8m-10m  invaluable  i ndetermining  12 u n i t s  t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f D.L. P o k o t y l o  and p r o f i l e vertical  drawings  by B e r n i c k  location  ( i . e . levels) of  t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h component e x c a v a t i o n distribution  A total  by Zone  were  unit.  of artifacts  units i s listed  B.l.  clearly  E10m-12m El8m-20m El4m-l6m El6m-l8m  by A r c h e r  Table,  that  Only  These u n i t s a r e :  Fieldnotes  excavation  culture  from t h e sample.  u n i t s had p r o f i l e s  with  to those  t h e edge o f t h e  b e t w e e n Z o n e s A a n d B. 3 3 % o f t h e s e  1982).  The  limited  Units near  L o c a r n o Beach d e p o s i t were e x c l u d e d 12  were  from  these  four  A l a n d A2 i n A p p e n d i x  o f 428 a r t i f a c t s  i s catalogued.  A  Page total  of  industry 238  190  artifacts  i s the l a r g e s t  remains,  including  basketry  fragments.  sampled.  the  cordage,  netting,  Retouched  largest  activities  The  artifact  are  wood  and  Of  chips,  from  industry  the  perishable  utilized  classes  wood  and  flakes the  area  suggests  have c o n s i d e r a b l e a n t i q u i t y  that  (Borden  .  A total culture (Table 3.2)  A2.  of the assemblage.  Evidence of a woodworking  ethnographic 1976)  industry  i n Zone  o f Zone A l ( w a t e r l o g g e d ) , 187  artifacts  constitute  i s found  91  o f 10  diagnostics 3.1).  and  catalogued confirms  Only 3  2 (25%)  potential  were  r e c o v e r e d from  (15%)  o f 20 M a r p o l e  the  areas  material  in  the  sampled  Locarno sampled  diagnostics  o f 8 S t . Mungo d i a g n o s t i c s  from  that  o f t h e 19  (53%)  (Table 3.3)  sample. i s from  This a  component as s u g g e s t e d by r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s .  Beach area (Table were  situation  Locarno  Beach  Page  92  Conclusions This sites  c h a p t e r has  reviewed  e x c a v a t e d by C E .  DhRt 6  and  sufficient records each  D f R s 3,  Borden.  were  information  to determine  the t h r e e F r a s e r A l t h o u g h two  excavated  over  i s available  the Locarno Beach  Delta  of the  30  from  area sites,  years  ago,  Borden's  site  culture  component a t  site. Due  each  to a combination of f a c t o r s , only s e l e c t e d areas of  component  faunal  remains  artifacts  from  archaeological Mungo  cultures  definitely  from  each  for this sampled features  study.  were s u i t a b l e  f o r sampling  A comparison  of catalogued  areas of each  indicates  that  each  p a r t o f a Locarno Beach  the Locarno Beach (1971b).  site  with  of Marpole, Locarno  s u p p o r t s c h r o n o l o g i c a l and  Mitchell  site  sampled  culture.  stratigraphic  diagnostic  Beach,  and  assemblage This  is  situation  characteristics  c u l t u r e , as d e s c r i b e d by B o r d e n  St.  (1970)  of and  43 Chapter 4 METHODS AND RESULTS: THE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE SUBSISTENCE  PATTERN  Introduction This analysis  chapter describes  o f Locarno v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l remains  DfRs 3, and DhRt 4. and f i s h  remains.  shellfish, were  the methods and r e s u l t s  Each assemblage  from DhRt 6,  i n c l u d e s mammal, b i r d ,  Non-vertebrate faunal  remains  including  crab, b a r n a c l e s , and both land and marine  collected  o f an  a t DhRt 6 and DfRs 3.  snails  However, n o n -  v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l remains are not analysed here. Prom the t h r e e  assemblages,  a total  o f 6826  skeletal  elements were I d e n t i f i e d  t o the l e v e l  specific  Of t h e s e , 204 elements are mammal  taxonomic u n i t .  o f F a m i l y or a more  ( i n c l u d i n g humman remains), 1042 elements are b i r d , and 5580 elements are f i s h .  Page 94 Methods o f I d e n t i f i c a t i o n All  f a u n a l r e m a i n s were i d e n t i f i e d  U.B.C. Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y 1982.  by t h e a u t h o r a t t h e  between  January  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were made by c o m p a r i n g  remains w i t h faunal  skeletal  collections  U.B.C,  Museum  vertebrate  a t : (1) the Laboratory of Archaeology  Division  Zoology  Museum,  of the B r i t i s h  at Victoria,  B.C.  Institute  of Animal  available  h i s descriptive  developed  f o r t h e Yuquot  Vancouver  Island.  author u n t i l  March  archaeological  elements from comparative  ( 2 ) t h e U.B.C.  Archaeology  and  and  Columbia  (3) the  Provincial  Dr. N.J. Wilimovsky  Resource  E c o l o g y a t U.B.C. a l s o  illustrated  key o f f i s h  e x c a v a t i o n s on t h e w e s t  However, t h i s  she had l e a r n e d  comparative faunal m a t e r i a l .  to identify  fish  made  remains coast of  k e y was n o t u s e f u l  t o the  remains  from  S i m i l a r problems w i t h keys f o r  f a u n a h a v e been r e p o r t e d e l s e w h e r e ( C h a p l i n  1971).  identification  and  procedures  of the  are described  Detailed  illustrated  below. Faunal culture  remains  sampled  component  (unsorted material museum e x h i b i t s ) (2) b i r d ,  were  separated  bags, p r e v i o u s l y  into  (3) f i s h ,  from each s i t e ' s  four general  from  three  sorted faunal categories:  and ( 4 ) u n i d e n t i f i a b l e size  Locarno  4.1).  The sample  of the l a t t e r  small,  p r o b a b l y due t o t h e method  Beach  sources bags, and  ( 1 ) mammal,  remains  (Figure  c a t e g o r y was v e r y  of c o l l e c t i n g  faunal  Page 9 5 material  during  techniques small  excavation.  at the three  sample  initial  each  size  further classified Comparative  excavations  o f mammal  separation,  mammal,  by s k e l e t a l  prepared  using  compared  to corresponding This  described  by S u t t o n and  bird  articular  surfaces,  was  to identify  possible.  and f i s h  After  bones  were  e l e m e n t and s i d e o f t h e body. skeletal  i s similar  remains  element  to that  were  and t h e n  remains  of that used  were  identified  morphological  features,  femora, bird  and muscle  scars.  t o e bones,  ribs,  some o f w h i c h a r e d i f f i c u l t  were  identified  and  i f they such  No  as  attempt  scapulae  or  to distinguish atthe  The m a j o r i t y  to the species  of i d e n t i f i a b l e  vertebrae  o r bones  interhymal  and i n t e r n e u r a l s p i n e s ,  dogfish,  rays,  204).  the  of Family. Fish  the  (n =  for  (1979:338).  diagnostic  level  account  archaeological  procedure  retained  clavicla,  bird,  retrieval  available osteological materials  element.  made  may  remains  c o l l e c t i o n s o f each  Mammal  Varied  o f the head.  no a t t e m p t  and r i b s  of f i s h ,  diagnostic morphological  (1980:143)  fish  Except  lack salient  features  f o r easy  age c a t e g o r i e s  where were  f o r the f i r s t  was made t o i d e n t i f y which  remains  and t h e d o r s a l  R e l a t i v e ages o f mammal a n d b i r d Calvert's  level,  spine of  the spines,  distinguishable indentification.  r e m a i n s were a r e used  recorded.  f o r mammals  Page 96 F i g u r e 4.1: Flowchart of Laboratory Procedures for Faunal Identification. Museum of Anthropology  Dh  ST  DhRt 4  DfRs 3  Stored Assemblage Samples  Unsorted Material Bags  I  Sorted Faunal Bags  —I  Bird  Mammal  Museum Exhibits  Unidentifiable  Fish Elements  Comparison A  Elements I  Comparative  l Archaeology Research Lab, U.B.C.  1  Bird  Mammal  Fish  Vertebrate Faunal  1 Zoology Museum U.B.C.  Collections  1 Arch. Division B.C.P.M.  I Illustrative Keys  Page 9 7 (Figure  Sutton's  4.2).  maturity" criteria  i s used  f o r birds  have been  reliably  archaeological settings. wherever fish, age  fauna from  Size possible.  classified  bird  fish  (1975,  medullary  used  No a t t e m p t remains.  through x-ray  of osteological  4 . 3 ) .  Both  sets of  i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  coastal  and i s l a n d a r e taken was made Only  environmental into  account,  t o age c l a s s i f y  C a s t e e l ( 1 9 7 6 a ) has  photography.  1 9 7 9 ) has o f f e r e d precedents f o r t h e use o f bone  as a s e a s o n a l  archaeological faunal analysis. female  "degree  (Figure  distinctions  nor t o sex faunal  Rick  (1979:337)  dating  technique i n  " M e d u l l a r y bone d e v e l o p s i n  ( b i r d s ) d u r i n g t h e b r e e d i n g p e r i o d , when i t s e r v e s a s  a calcium source f o r the developing e g g s h e l l "  (Rick  1975:1).  Thus, the presence  o f m e d u l l a r y bone was n o t e d f r o m o n l y t h e  broken  i n each  to  bird  bones  c r o s s - s e c t i o n whole b i r d  assemblage. bone i n e a c h  No a t t e m p t  was made  assemblage.  Page 98 F i g u r e 1.2: Age Categories for C l a s s i f y i n g Mammal Remains (after Calvert 1980:143).  1. Adult: element i s f u l l s i z e , with epiphyses a r t i c u l a r facets and muscle ridges developed.  fully  fused and  2. Sub-Adult: element i s f u l l size or nearly so, but epiphyses are not f u l l y joined, a r t i c u l a r facets and muscle ridges developed. With sea mammals, the c r i t e r i o n of epiphyseal union i s less useful than for land mammals, as they retain unfused epiphyses of many elements well into adulthood. Thus, many sea mammal elements have had to be c l a s s i f i e d as either adult or sub-adult. The sub-adult category i s not used for rodents, raccoons or the small mustelids, as i t i s roughly equivalent to the juvenile category for these animals. 3. Juvenile: element i s less than adult s i z e , s t i l l retains the juvenile cortex, epiphyses are unfused, and muscle attachments are s t i l l developing. The category roughly corresponds to animals in their f i r s t year of l i f e . 4. New Born/Foetal: element i s of very small s i z e , morphological features and a r t i c u l a r surfaces s t i l l forming, juvenile cortex evident and epiphyses absent. The lack of comparative material, p a r t i c u l a r l y for sea mammals, of d e f i n i t e l y new born or d e f i n i t e l y foetal ages has necessitated combining these age groupings. This i s especially so for sea mammals, as unlike most land mammals, they are precocious. The northern fur seal, for example, sheds i t s deciduous teeth iri utero.  F i g u r e 4.3: 1979:337).  1. 2. 3.  Age Categories for C l a s s i f y i n g Bird Remains (after Sutton  Adult: f u l l y matured bone. Sub-Adult: bone i s at or near f u l l adult length. Immature: a r t i c u l a r ends are unformed, highly grandular.  Page 9 9 Methods o f Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n The site  sampled  i s the basic  remains.  Due  within  layers  DhRt 6 ,  based  DfRs 3 ,  on n a t u r a l  layers  Beach  of each  f o r the faunal subunits of  or a r b i t r a r y  culture  levels  components a t Evaluating  d a t a by s u b u n i t s o f a r b i t r a r y  1973,  methodology  component  a n d DhRt 4 a r e i m p o s s i b l e .  i n an i n f l a t e d  (Grayson  culture  of quantification  of the Locarno  mammal a n d b i r d result  unit  Beach  t o e x c a v a t i o n methodology,  quantification  any  Locarno  levels  would  v a l u e o f minimum number o f i n d i v i d u a l s  1974).  and f a u n a l  Therefore,  assemblage  size  both  excavation  p r e c l u d e the use o f  subunits of quantification. While  quantitative  methods  are helpful  i n detecting  patterns  i n a r c h a e o f a u n a l d a t a , t h e methods a r e n o t w i t h o u t  faults.  F a u n a l a n a l y s t s s h o u l d be aware o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s  of  e a c h method In  this  analysing count  s t u d y , two u n i t s  o f measurement a r e used f o r  b o t h mammal a n d b i r d  data.  The s k e l e t a l  ( E ) i s t h e number o f I d e n t i f i a b l e  taxon.  A major  calculations counted  determine  problem  elements  explains,  bone e l e m e n t s p e r  of interdependence ofthe  (Grayson  "there  i s no  As  1979).  known  i f two d e e r b o n e s o r bone f r a g m e n t s  two i n d i v i d u a l d e e r . "  element  w i t h E and i t s use i n s t a t i s t i c a l  i s t h e unknown d e g r e e  skeletal  (1982:359)  or  employed.  Lyman  technique to a r e f r o m one  A l t h o u g h age and s e x d a t a  (Chaplin  Page 100 1971)  would  eliminate  still  q u e s t i o n s o f how c u l t u r a l  and p r e s e r v a t i o n  potential  factors  The though  E calculation  (e.g.  affect  or fragments that s u r v i v e  interdependence, there are butchery, "schlepp")  t h e number o f bone  in a site.  here  i s considered conservative  no a t t e m p t was made t o m a t c h u n p a i r e d  f r a g m e n t s o f t h e same s k e l e t a l e l e m e n t from  different  reasons and  levels  f o rthis  bird  bone  are twofold:  elements  identifiable  storage  from  procedure  butchery  were  identifiable  f r o m t h e same s p e c i e s  ( 1 ) most whole,  identifiable  fragmented  one l e v e l  were  permits consistent  assemblage,  even  o f one p i t a t D f R s 3 o r DhRt 4.  amount o f f r a g m e n t e d (2)  elements  thus  paired  broken  mammal  minimizing the  bone f r o m  bones  any l e v e l and  as a r e s u l t , o f  i n most  cases.  treatment o f remains  a l t h o u g h i t undermines  and d i s p o s a l  identified  patterns  The  This  i n each  strong interpretations of during  the Locarno  Beach  culture. The unit  minimum number o f i n d i v i d u a l s  o f measurement  data.  This  technique  (Grayson 1979) t h a t for  employed  exercised  i n using  to quantify  provides  meat.  mammal a n d b i r d  independent  i n t u r n c a n be u s e d  estimated usable  (MNI) i s t h e s e c o n d  to calculate  However,  caution  MNI, w h o s e v a l u e s v a r y w i t h  methods o f c a l c u l a t i o n  (Grayson 1973).  i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w i t h sample  size,  variables values  must  be  different  MNI v a l u e s a r e a l s o  so t h a t a s m a l l s a m p l e  size  Page 1 0 1 i n f l a t e s MNI v a l u e s  Imamoto ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 ) percentages  1978).  (Grayson  and Matson  (1976b:88)  o f E a n d MNI a r e s i m i l a r  a s s e m b l a g e , t h e MNI v a l u e p r o b a b l y in  tests  of significance.  s i z e and o v e r e m p h a s i z i n g elements  per species  these the  f o r t h e same f a u n a l  best  MNI v a l u e s  represents the data a v o i d skewing  i n t h e E and weight  of paired-elements  (especially  calculation  o f salmon  o f MNI f o r f i s h  Minimum n u m b e r s f o r f i s h  of f i s h  in  prevents  by c o n v e n t i o n a l  methods.  can also  be e s t i m a t e d  by d i v i d i n g  (found  by t h e t o t a l v e r t e b r a e r e m a i n s o f t h i s s p e c i e s  t h e sample.  However,  this  u n d e r 1% o f MNI f o r many f i s h  method  were  difficult  Locarno  Beach  previous Coast,  to interpret culture  The  archaeological fish  estimated  multiplied  1976:29  o r White  when  assemblage  only E i spresented usable  produced  i n Hart present  fractions  s p e c i e s r e p r e s e n t e d by a s m a l l  number o f i d e n t i f i a b l e bone e l e m e n t s .  taxon  remains i n  s k u l l bones)  t h e a v e r a g e number o f v e r t e b r a e p e r s p e c i e s 1973)  sample  t h e number o f i d e n t i f i a b l e s k e l e t a l  that i s evident  low frequency  samples  t h a t where  1978).  methods ( C a s t e e l The  note  compared i n this  analyses  for fish meat  Because these  results  across study  each  and t o  on t h e Northwest  remains.  (EUM) i s t h e MNI v a l u e p e r  by i t s d r e s s e d 1953:397-398).  a g a i n s t some o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d  meat  value  (see  Imamoto  EUM v a l u e s p r o v i d e a c h e c k shortcomings  o f E a n d MNI  Page 102 values.  F o r example,  25 r a c c o o n bone e l e m e n t s a n d 10 d e e r  bone f r a g m e n t s do n o t i n d i c a t e raccoon with a l i t t l e EUM, d i f f e r e n c e s  a major d i e t a r y  deer t o supplement  between t h e r e l a t i v e  and  s m a l l mammals a r e t a k e n i n t o  EUM  i s calculated  D.l).  only  toward  By e m p l o y i n g  contribution  ofb i g  In t h i s  study,  (see Appendix,  Table  I t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o be a n a b s o l u t e o r a c t u a l  value  per taxon.  indicator That  Rather,  of the relative  i s why  u s a b l e meat  EUM  i s used  dietary  this  study.  v a l u e s based  impression  that  Using greater EUM  vertebrate  size  of fragments  to only three  work digits  only give the  r e m a i n s were s m a l l i n  and p r o p o r t i o n s  type f o r each assemblage.  unidentifiable  o f mammals.  i s not the case.  As a l r e a d y n o t e d , u n i d e n t i f i a b l e of both  as i n  on Imamoto's  accuracy would  meat  i s b e i n g used as an a b s o l u t e v a l u e f o r  u s a b l e meat, and t h i s  terms  strictly  importance  (1976:29) i n the d e l t a a r e s i g n i f i c a n t in  it.  account.  f o r mammals  trend  Due t o t h e i r  f r a g m e n t s o f mammal, b i r d ,  were n o t t a b u l a t e d , a l t h o u g h t o t a l  and f i s h  of each paucity, remains  w e i g h t o f mammal and f i s h  r e m a i n s was o b t a i n e d . Weight d a t a a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e only  a few w i n g  f o rbird  t i p and t o e bones ( o r l e s s  s a m p l e ) make-up t h e u n i d e n t i f i a b l e  portion  remains  because  t h a n 5% o f e a c h of each  of the  t h r e e Locarno Beach c u l t u r e assemblages.  T h e r e f o r e , most o f  the  bone  bird  assemblage  was  identifiable  elements  or  Page 1 0 3 fragments.  Human r e m a i n s  a r e e x c l u d e d from  the following  summary.  DhRt 6  Assemblage  A t o t a l o f 886 bone r e m a i n s x  5'  x 12"  block  were i d e n t i f i e d  f r o m a 10*  Of t h e 7 5 8 g  o f mammal  1.  of Trench  r e m a i n s , 6 8 % ( b y w e i g h t ) was i d e n t i f i e d , bone e l e m e n t s .  Pish  remains  w e i g h t ) was i d e n t i f i e d . A t o t a l o f 158 b i r d  b o n e s were  Locarno  Beach  weighed  lOlg  culture of which  o f which  679  remains,  sample.  elements  f r a g m e n t s were  are i nthe  Non-human mammal  remains  47% ( b y w e i g h t ) w e r e i d e n t i f i e d , a n d Of t h e 4 5 9 g o f  83% ( b y w e i g h t ) was i d e n t i f i e d ,  bone e l e m e n t s .  elements.  Assemblage  t h e s e were r e p r e s e n t e d by 48 bone e l e m e n t s . fish  bone  87% ( b y  identified.  of 1206 i d e n t i f i a b l e  total  209g  There were 6 8 0 f i s h  DfRs 3 A  weighed  r e p r e s e n t e d by 48  A total  identified.  o f 479 b i r d  representing  bone e l e m e n t s o r  Page 104 DhRt 4 A s s e m b l a g e A total  o f 4721 bone r e m a i n s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d  assemblage. weighed  The 95 i d e n t i f i a b l e  non-human  1142g o r 53% o f t h e t o t a l  collected. weight)  Of t h e 2 8 0 g o f f i s h  accounted  elements.  405 b i r d  from  mammal  mammal r e m a i n s remains,  this bones  that  were  235g o r 84% (by  f o r t h e 4221 i d e n t i f i a b l e bone e l e m e n t s were a l s o  fish  bone  identified.  Results  The V e r t e b r a t e In a l l assemblages, vertebrate Birds  least are  remains, varying  a r e the second  comprising  r e m a i n s a r e t h e most a b u n d a n t from  most  5 6 % t o 8 9 % by bone c o u n t .  common  vertebrate  remains,  9% t o 4 0 % by bone c o u n t o f t h e a s s e m b l a g e s .  frequently  occurring  mammal r e m a i n s ,  assemblage  indicates  A X  that  Table 2  test  of the three  significantly  skeletal  5% by b o n e  4.1 p r e s e n t s  value  these  o f 785.52  birds,  and f i s h )  each v e r t e b r a t e  class  i s discussed  of the  relative  (Table  4.1)  vertebrate  to the faunal  L o c a r n o Beach components  a t t h e .001 l e v e l .  The  elements  count  the contribution of d i f f e r e n t  ( e . g . mammals,  assemblages  identifiable  representing  or less.  frequencies.  classes  fish  F a u n a Sample  differs  The r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n below  by L o c a r n o B e a c h  Page 105  Table 4.1: Distribution of Vertebrate Remains by Vertebrate Class, A l l Assemblages, E.  Taxa/Site  DhRt 6  DfRs 3  DhRt 4  Mammal^  5  (48)  4  (48)  2  (95)  Bird  18  (158)  40  (479)  9  (405)  Fish  77  (680)  56  (679)  89  (4221)  TOTAL  H  Q  886  1207  4721  : Equal proportions of mammals, birds, and f i s h  Reject H  Q  at .001, X  2  >^ 16.268 at 3 degrees of freedom  For E X = 785.52 s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .001 reject H 2  D  The mammal category excludes human remains from DfRs 3 (n=7) and DhRt 4 (n=6). 1  Page 106 culture  component.  Mammal r e m a i n s Based  on p r e s e n c e - a b s e n c e , t h e r e  mammal t y p e s a c r o s s  each  assemblage  i s minor v a r i a t i o n i n (Table  4.2).  Of t h e  t h r e e w a t e r f o c u s e d mammals ( i . e . h a r b o u r s e a l , r i v e r and  beaver),  three  harbour seal  assemblages.  and r i v e r  Beaver  b u t n o t a t DhRt 6 .  Deer  i s the only  large  DfRs  3 assemblage.  assemblage.  Muskrat  3 a n d DhRt 4 ,  l a n d mammal t h a t  E l k and bear a r e p r e s e n t i n  DhRt 6 a n d DhRt 4 a s s e m b l a g e s ,  the  a r e found i n a l l  i s found a t DfRs  i s p r e s e n t i n each assemblage.  i s only  but absent  from the  p r e s e n t i n t h e DfRs 3  An i n c r e a s i n g number o f mammal t y p e s o c c u r i n  s a m p l e s f r o m DhRt 6 ( n = 7 ) , respectively. is  otter  otter,  DfRs 3 (n=8),  a n d DhRt 4 ( n = 1 0 ) ,  However, t h e i n c e a s e i s r e l a t i v e l y  probably directly  related  to the small  s m a l l and  sample  size of  (Table 4 . 1 ) .  mammal r e m a i n s  L o c a r n o B e a c h s i t e , DhRt 6 A total represents 4.3).  o f 48 i d e n t i f i a b l e seven  species  o f t h e sample  EUM.  Harbour  8.3%  i n t h e mammal a s s e m b l a g e  E l k , d e e r , and b l a c k  60.5%  seal  bone e l e m e n t s and f r a g m e n t s  bear  collectively  account f o r  by bone c o u n t , 45% by MNI a n d 7 8 . 6 % by i s a fourth  m a j o r mammal r e s o u r c e  by E, 15% by MNI, a n d 17% by EUM.  a small portion  (Table  o f t h e sample  with  River otter  with  i s only  1 2 . 5 % by E, 15% by MNI,  Page Table 4.2:  Presence-Absence Data For Mammal Remains, A l l Assemblages  Taxa/Site  DhRt 6  Harbour Seal  +  River Otter  DfRs 3 +  +  +  +  +  Beaver  -  +  +  Muskrat  -  +  Mink  _  -  +  Peromyscus  _  -  +  Striped Skunk  ,  DhRt 4  +  Raccoon  +  +  +  Canis  +  +  +  Black Bear  +  -  +  Deer  +  +  +  Elk  +  -  +  TOTAL  7  8  10  Page 108  Table 4.3: Identified Mammal Remains from Locarno Beach S i t e , DhRt 6.  J(MNI)  Taxa  %(EUM  in kg)  Harbour Seal  8.3( 4)  15(2)  17.0(118.0)  River Otter  12.5C 6)  15(2)  2.0( 14.0)  14.6C 7)  15(2)  1.6( 11.4)  4.1( 2)  10(1)  0.8(  Black Bear  23.0(11)  15(2)  27.3(190.0)  Deer  25.0(12)  15(2)  9.3( 64.8)  Elk  12.5( 6)  15(2)  42.0(292.0)  Beaver Muskrat Mink Peromyscus Striped Skunk Raccoon Canis  TOTAL  48  13  5.7)  695.9  Page 109 and  2% by EUM.  only  A similar  relationship  exists f o r  i s 4 . 1 % by E, 10% by MNI, and 0 . 8 % EUM.  Canis, which  The e l k r e m a i n s  r e p r e s e n t two a d u l t s .  Of t h e two d e e r ,  one i s a d u l t and t h e I n c o m p l e t e l y f u s e d c e r v i c a l v e r t e b r a i s of a j u v e n i l e of death. and  individual,  i n d i c a t i n g a s u m m e r - t o - f a l l season  One a d u l t and one j u v e n i l e  comprise both t h e bear  raccoon remains, which r e s p e c t i v e l y  fall  and s p r i n g  elements spring  seasons  of death.  r e p r e s e n t summer-to-  In a d d i t i o n ,  r e p r e s e n t two new b o r n r i v e r  otters,  s i x bone  indicating  a  season of death.  M a j o r mammal r e s o u r c e s a r e e l k , b l a c k  b e a r , d e e r , and  h a r b o u r s e a l by EUM. W h a l e n Farm s i t e , The  48  identifiable  mammal s p e c i e s large The  land  DfRs 3  (Table 4 . 4 ) .  mammal  elements  bone  p e r c e n t a g e o f E (2%)  elements  o f deer  a n d MNI ( 8 . 5 % ) ,  Of t h e s m a l l e r  land  mammal  from  the sample.  make up a  resources,  E; 1 6 . 5 % ,  beaver  ( 2 % , E ; 8 . 5 % , MNI; 4 . 6 % , E U M ) .  small  muskrat  MNI; n e g l i g i b l e EUM) i s more f r e q u e n t t h a n  r e p r e s e n t e d by bone c o u n t  b u t EUM i s n e g l i g i b l e . frequently  eight  b u t i t s EUM v a l u e i s  (10.5%,  strongly  represent  E l k a n d b l a c k b e a r , two o f t h e  r e s o u r c e s , are absent  two i d e n t i f i e d  26.7%.  bone  occurring  Harbour  Striped  ( 2 9 . 1 % ) a n d MNI  seal  r e s o u r c e by bone  constitutes count  skunk i s (16.5%), t h e most  (25%) a n d EUM  Page 110 Table 4.4: Identified  Mammal Remains from Whalen Farm S i t e , DfRs 3.  J(MNI)  5UEUM i n kg)  25. (12)  8.5( 1)  47.9(59.0)  River Otter  4.2( 2)  8.5( 1)  5.7( 7.0)  Beaver  2  8.5(  4.6( 5.7)  Taxa Harbour Seal  Muskrat  *(E)  ( 1)  D  10.5( 5)  16.5( 2)  Striped Skunk  29.1(14)  16.5( 2)  Raccoon  21.0(10)  16.5( 2)  6.2( 7.6)  6.2( 3)  16.5( 2)  9.3(11.4)  2.0( 1)  8.5( 1)  26.3(32.4)  Mink Peromyscus  Canis Black Bear Deer Elk  TOTAL  48  •Negligable estimated usable meat value  12  123.1  Page 111 b u t n o t by MNI ( 8 . 5 % )  (47.9%),  surprise,  as  approximately  i n t h e sample.  This  today,  there  i s a  resident  250-275  harbour  seals  (Phoca  i s not a  group  of  vitulina) in  B o u n d a r y Bay (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 2 5 ) . Ten One  o f two C a n i s  raccoon Of  of the i d e n t i f i e d  individuals  a season  individuals.  a n d one o f two  season  of death).  one i s j u v e n i l e . of death  i n one y e a r .  Deer  c o n s t i t u t e t h e major  and harbour  is  mammal  by E, MNI, and EUM.  Musqueam NE s i t e ,  DhRt 4  a r e 95 s k e l e t a l  There component  seal  It  f o r muskrat, as  h a v e up t o t h r e e l i t t e r s  resources  the  (spring  individuals,  possible to indicate  they  i s a sub-adult,  i s juvenile  the three muskrat  not  (Table  4.5).  elements  i n the Locarno  T e n mammal s p e c i e s  Beach  are present i n  sample. Canis  by  remains  mammals a r e a d u l t  d o m i n a t e s t h e l a n d mammal c a t e g o r y  E (32.6%)  sample. deer,  a n d MNI ( 2 7 . 9 % ) ,  The t h r e e  and b l a c k  o f t h e sample  b u t EUM i s o n l y  l a r g e l a n d mammal r e s o u r c e s  bear)  collectively  represent  7.0%  (i.e.elk, 37% o f t h e  s a m p l e by bone c o u n t and 2 2 . 6 % o f t h e s a m p l e by MNI. EUM v a l u e 34.9%  i s 65.0%.  by bone  count  By t h e m s e l v e s ,  o f the  Their  e l k and deer c o n t r i b u t e  a n d 1 8 . 1 % by M N I , a n d 4 7 . 0 % b y EUM.  R a c c o o n i s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g s m a l l l a n d mammal,  Page 112 Table 4.5: Identified  Mammal Remains from Musqueam NE S i t e , DhRt 4.  Taxa  %(MNI)  %(EUM  in kg)  23.0(118.0)  Harbour Seal  9.5( 9)  9.0( 2)  River Otter  1.0( 1)  4.5(  D  1.0(  7.0)  Beaver  2.K  2)  4.5(  D  1.0(  5.7)  Mink  2.K  2)  4.5( 1)  Peromyscus  4.2( 4)  9.0( 2)  Raccoon  11.5(11)  18.0( 4)  3.0(  15.2)  Canis  32.6(31)  27.9( 6)  7.0( 34.2)  2)  4.5( 1)  18.0( 95.0)  Deer  22.1(21)  13.6( 3)  19.0( 97.2)  Elk  12.8(12)  4.5( 1)  28.0(146.0)  Muskrat  Striped Skunk  Black Bear  TOTAL  2.K  95  *Negligable estimated usable meat value  22  664.3  Page 1 1 3 contributing MNI.  1 1 . 5 % t o t h e sample  Harbour  resources  seal  dominates  i n t h e assemblage,  by b o n e c o u n t a n d 1 8 % by the water-focused  ( 9 - 5 % ,  E;  mammal  MNI; a n d  9 % ,  2 3 . 0 % ,  EUM) . M o s t mammal r e m a i n s the  three  season  d e e r , one I s a j u v e n i l e  of d e a t h ) .  (spring  represent adult  There  individuals.  Individual  are also  Of  (summer-fall  two j u v e n i l e  raccoons  season o f d e a t h ) .  The  m a j o r mammal r e s o u r c e s a r e e l k , d e e r , a n d h a r b o u r  s e a l by EUM. Summary o f mammal At- e a c h s i t e ,  remains only a small portion  culture  c o m p o n e n t was s a m p l e d ,  sample  size  o f mammal  E x c a v a t i o n methodology may  also  because type and  However,  i n most c a s e s , o n l y  this  assemblage.  ( i . e . "schlepp")  cannot  be  one o r two s p e c i m e n s  verified o f a bone  (seeAppendix, Tables C . l ,  C.2,  C . 3 ) .  culture. less  mammal  MNI  sample  i s small  f o r the Locarno  I n 7 5 % o f the c a s e s , each s p e c i e s than  identifiable and  f o r each  or butchery patterns  be f a c t o r s .  Beach  which p r o b a b l y a f f e c t e d the  remains  i s present per species  The  by  of the Locarno  1  0 bone  specimens.  bone s p e c i m e n s  f o r t h e same  Beach  i s represented  The s m a l l  number o f  seems t o a f f e c t p e r c e n t a g e s o f E  species  i n t h e DhRt 6 a n d D f R s 3  Page 114 assemblages, whereas percentages much a t DhRt 4 ( T a b l e s should  be u s e d  o f E a n d MNI do n o t v a r y as  4 . 5 , and 4 . 6 ) .  4.4,  i n u s i n g MNI v a l u e s  f o r mammals (Imamoto 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 ,  i n tests  caution  of significance  1976:288).  Matson  E m p h a s i s i n mammal h u n t i n g  Thus,  i s e x a m i n e d by a b r e a k d o w n  o f mammal r e m a i n s i n t o a q u a t i c a n d l a n d mammal c a t e g o r i e s a t all  sites  harbour in  4 . 6 and 4 . 7 ) .  (Tables  seal, river  the stratigraphic  otter,  Aquatic  profile  l a n d mammals p r e d o m i n a t e  t h e mammal r e m a i n s  2  test  f o r equal  mammals i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t E;  X  2  ratio  = .759 f o r MNI). of land  drawn  o f t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h component  By b o t h  A X  include  a n d b e a v e r ; t h e w h a l e bone  at DfRs 3 i s e x c l u d e d .  4.7).  mammals  percentages  proportions  o f E a n d MNI,  o f l a n d and a q u a t i c  at the .001 l e v e l  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  mammals t o a q u a t i c  4 . 6 and  (Tables  (X  2  = 9.778 f o r  i s that a  mammals p r e v a i l s  high  in a l l  t h r e e Locarno Beach c u l t u r e assemblages. A review  of Tables  4 . 3 , 4 . 4 , and 4 . 5 suggests  that the  m a j o r mammal r e s o u r c e s a r e : DhRt 6 : e l k , d e e r , b l a c k b e a r , DfRs 3 : d e e r , h a r b o u r s e a l DhRt 4 : e l k , d e e r , This are  harbour  harbour s e a l  seal.  i s not a s u r p r i s e since three  l a n d mammals, a n d a l l f o u r s p e c i e s  of the four provide  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f EUM f o r mammals i n t h e t h r e e c u l t u r e components.  species  the l a r g e s t  Locarno  Beach  Page 115 Table 1.6: Bone Frequencies E of Aquatic and Land Mammal Remains, A l l Assemblages.  Taxa/Site  DhRt 6  DfRs 3  DhRt 4  Aquatic Mammal  21  (10)  27 (14)  11 (11)  Land Mammal  79  (38)  73 (34)  89 (84)  48  TOTAL  48  95  Table 1.7: MNI Values of Aquatic and Land Mammal Remains, A l l Assemblages.  Taxa/Site  DfRs 3  DhRt 6  Aquatic Mammal  30  (4)  15  (3)  Land Mammal  70  (9)  85  (12)  13  TOTAL  12  H = Equal proportions of aquatic and land mammals. Reject H at .001, X > 13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom Q  2  Q  For E X = 9.778 not s i g n i f i c a n t at p=.001 do not reject H 2  D  For MNI X = .759 not s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .001 do not reject H 2  Q  DhRt 4  14  (4)  86 (18)  22  Page 116 Given seal  the high  meat  value  o f deer,  e l k , and  ( i . e . t h e m a j o r mammals e x p l o i t e d d u r i n g  the Locarno  Beach c u l t u r e ) ,  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t mammal h u n t i n g  more  important  role  than  the small  frequency  assemblage occurred areas  indicates.  mainly  of the animals  subsistence  played a  activities  of I d e n t i f i a b l e  remains  i n each  I  mammal  hunting  suggest  i n the Forest  of the d e l t a .  dressing value  i n vertebrate  harbour  that  and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t  I t was h e r e took  that  butchering  p l a c e , and o n l y  bones were " s c h l e p p e d "  the high  Edge and meat  t o the l o c a t i o n s of the three  assemblages  where  "Schlepping"  i s a term  used  to describe transporting only a  o f an a n i m a l  from  the k i l l  portion  ( P e r k i n s and Daly Bird  t h e bones  were  eventually  site  discarded.  t o a home  base  1968:104).  remains Bird  remains  a r e t h e second  most  common  vertebrate  r e m a i n s i n a l l t h r e e a s s e m b l a g e s (n=1042; T a b l e 4 . 1 ) . Table species  4.8  tabulates  the presence-absence  i n a l l assemblages.  represented  of bird  bird  species  a t DhRt 6, D f R s 3, and DhRt 4 i s 17, 2 3 , a n d 2 0 ,  respectively. assemblages.  The n u m b e r  of  This suggests  little  variation  between  avian  Table 4.8: Presence-Absence of Identified Bird Species, A l l Assemblages.  Taxa/Site  DhRt 6  Common Loon A r c t i c Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Greater Scaup Bufflehead Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Commom Scoter Common Merganser Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot Great Blue Heron Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Black Oystercatcher Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great Horned Owl Ruffed Grouse  + + + +  TOTAL  17  + + + +  DfRs 3 + + + + + + + + + +  DhRt 4 + + + +  + + +  + + + + + + + + +  + + +  + + + + + + +  23  + + + + + +  + + + + +  20  Page 118 DhRt 6  Locarno Beach s i t e , Seventeen  species  represent  i n t h e DhRt 6 a s s e m b l a g e  remains there  bird  a r e 32 r a d i i  a n d two s p e c i e s  waterfowl  include nine  In t o t a l  o f upland  diving  (or dabbling)  species.  duck  duck  waterfowl  dominate waterfowl  contrast  four  and two  account  surfacescavenging  f o r 90% o f the  D i v i n g ducks  collectively  ( 1 4 % , E j 17%, MNI), a d i s t a n t t h e two s p e c i e s  second.  o f upland  Including frequently  fowl are  t h e u n s p e c i f i e d duck  occurring  skeletal  elements  type,  t h e most  are the three  of the wing:  23%),  a n d c a r p o m e t a c a r p u s (n=32 o r 20%) ( s e e A p p e n d i x ,  C.4).  Wing  elements  In the bird  medullary  (n=51 o r 3 2 % ) , r a d i u s  assemblage  are bird  (Table  bones w i t h  bone i n d i c a t o r s .  a r e common s c o t e r  4.9).  present  year  Both  (n=37 o r Table  4.10).  Absent  from  immature,  burnt,  and  The m o s t f r e q u e n t l y ( 4 4 % , E; 4 1 % M N I ) ,  ( 1 0 % , E ; 4% M N I ) , a n d g r e a t e r  (Table  bone  f o r 9 1 . 5 % ( n = l 4 3 ) o f t h e bone  bones a c c o u n t  assemblage  species  the ulna  faunal  types  crow  In  1 2 % o f t h e a s s e m b l a g e by bone c o u n t and 7% by MNI.  only  the  The  ( 6 6 % , E ; 6 7 % , MNI) f o l l o w e d b y  species  to waterfowl,  species of  are present.  species,  bone  In addition,  Fifteen  fowl  species,  a s s e m b l a g e by E a n d 95% by MNI.  surface-feeders  4.9).  o f u n s p e c i f i e d duck.  waterfowl  feeding  (Table  t h e 126 b i r d  common  scoter  round i n the F r a s e r  scaup  occurring  northwestern  ( 8 % , E ; 9 % , MNI)  and g r e a t e r  scaup a r e  D e l t a , but tend  t o be l e s s  Page 119  Table  4 . 9 : Identified Bird Remains, Locarno Beach Site  Taxa Divers Common Loon A r c t i c Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Greater Scaup Bufflehead Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Merganser Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet Dabblers Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot Scavengers Great Blue Heron Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Black Oystercatcher Upland Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck TOTAL  % (E) 2 4 2 5  (DhRt 6 ) . % (MNI) 2 1 1 1  10 2 3 55 1 66(84)  4 7 5 14(17)  2 8 8(10) 3 12  12(15)  1 1 19 1 67(31)  2 2 3 17(8)  2 2 1(4) 1 2  7(3)  32  19  12B~  46  Unspecified duck i s excluded from calculations of percentages and total. 1  Page 120  Table  4.10:  Distribution of Bird Bone Types, Locarno Beach Site  (DhRt 6 ) . Wing Bones (+/-) Divers Common Loon A r c t i c Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Greater Scaup Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Murre Dabblers Canada Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon  Leg Bones' (+/-)  + +  Scavengers Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull  + +  Unspecified. Duck^  1 2 7 5  0 2 0 0  2 5  0 3  2 9 32  TOTAL  KEY: + = present  1  53  +  Leg Bones' (n)  0 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 0  2 2 2 4 10 2 2  + + + + + + + + +  Upland Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow  Wing Bones 1 (n)  17  - = absent n  91.5(143)  9.5(15)  number of i d e n t i f i a b l e skeletal elements  Wing bones include the coracoid, radius, ulna, carpometacarpus, and humerus. Leg bones include the femur, t i b i a t a r s u s , and tarsametatarsus. 3 Unspecified duck i s a faunal type based t o t a l l y on the r a d i i of ducks. 1  2  121  Page common  inhabitants  during  t h e summer  months  (May t o  September). The upland bird a  sample fowl  remains  suggests  limited  and s e l e c t e d u s e o f t h e w a t e r f o w l .  resource  i s diving  concurrence  herring  of bird  birds.  of inshore  o r s u r f smelt  spawning i n l a t e  The m a j o r  T h e i r p r e s e n c e may  water  resources  r o e , which  winter  use of  (February  would  such  indicate  as  pacific  be a b u n d a n t  to April)  during  and l a t e  spring  t o summer, r e s p e c t i v e l y . W h a l e n Farm s i t e , Twenty-three  DfRs 3 bird  species  i n t h e DfRs 3 assemblage  remains species  of waterfowl  present  I n the sample.  divers,  five  collectively  and t h r e e  dabblers,  D i v i n g duck s p e c i e s  (59%,  E;  30%,  and  fowl are  waterfowl  scavengers.  dominate  represent The  4.11).  which account  There are three  11  waterfowl  by E a n d 95% by  the avifauna  assemblage  species  ( 2 8 % , E; of upland  f o r 10% o f t h e a s s e m b l a g e by bone  count  5% by MNI.  I n c l u d i n g u n s p e c i f i e d duck r e m a i n s , occurring and  o f upland  6 0 % , M N I ) , f o l l o w e d by s u r f a c e - f e e d e r s  MNI) ( T a b l e  fowl,  Twenty  a c c o u n t f o r 90% o f assemblage  MNI.  bone  4.11).  (Table  species  The t w e n t y and f o u r  t h e 435 b i r d  represent  bone  the ulna  type  t h e most f r e q u e n t l y  i s the carpometacarpus  ( n = 9 2 o r 19%)  (n=209  (see Appendix, Table  o r 43%)  C.5).  Wing  Page 122  Table 4.11: Identified Bird Remains, Whalen Farm Site (DfRs 3). % (E) Divers Common Loon A r c t i c Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Greater Scaup Bufflehead Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Merganser Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet Dabblers Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot  TOTAL  1  3 9  5 2 36 5 9 11 156 1  1 1 15 3 2 2 53 1  1  59(255)  28(122)  Upland Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck  7 22  1 5 43 59 14  Scavengers Great Blue Heron Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Black Oystercatcher  1  % (MNI)  1  60(91)  1 3 17 17 7 30(45)  1 6 5 1 3(13)  1 4 2 1 5(8)  1 42 2 10(45)  1 5 1 5(7)  44  23  436  151  Unspecified duck i s excluded from calculations of percentages and t o t a l .  Page 123 bones a c c o u n t f o r 82% ( n = 3 9 5 ) o f t h e b i r d 4.12)  .  assemblages  The most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g s p e c i e s (36%, E; 35%, MNI) ( T a b l e  scoter  inhabitats  the Praser  Delta  from  (Table  i s t h e common  4.12).  Common  September  scoter  t o t h e end o f  April. Medullary unspecified sample.  bone  Is present  duck.  Two  Burnt  matching  i n two b o n e e l e m e n t s  bird  bone  radii  from  i s absent  from the  of unspecified  duck a r e  immature. The upland  sample  fowl  resource  of bird  remains  suggests  limited  and s e l e c t e d use o f w a t e r f o w l .  i s diving  birds,  the F r a s e r D e l t a d u r i n g  which  tend  the winter  use o f  The m a j o r  bird  t o be more common i n  months.  Musqueam NE s i t e , DhRt 4 Twenty bird  of  of waterfowl  the sample.  duck  of bird  types,  waterfowl  4.13)  .  than  divers  species  and f i v e  The f i f t e e n  s i x dabblers, are diving  Surface  t h e 405  represent  b o n e s I n t h e DhRt 4 a s s e m b l a g e  species in  species  (Table  species species  of upland include  (68%, E;  of upland  E; 2 9 % , MNI) ( T a b l e  fowl  eight  occur diving  The m a j o r i t y  6 1 % , MNI)  f e e d i n g ducks a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y  (25.8%,  Fifteen  4.13).  a n d one s c a v e n g e r . ducks  identifiable  less  4.13).  (Table frequent  The  five  f o w l c o m p r i s e 6% o f t h e a s s e m b l a g e by bone  c o u n t and 9% by MNI.  Page 124 Table 4.12: Distribution of Bird Bone Types, Whalen Farm Site (DfRs 3). Wing Bones 1  Taxa / Bone Type  (+/-)  Divers Common Loon A r c t i c Loon Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Greater Scaup Bufflehead Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Merganser Rhinocerous Auklet Dabblers Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon  Leg , Bones' (+/-)  4  21  4  + + + + + + + +  1 30 + +  + + + +  Scavengers ureat blue Heron Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Black Oystercatcher  + + +  Upland Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven  + +  + +  5 7 7  139 1 1 1 5 32 47 14  0  5 1 1 1 24  0  Leg , Bones' (n) 3 1 1 1 6  0  2 4 17  0 0 0 0  11 12  0  1 1 4  0 0  18 2  44  Unspecified Duck^ TOTAL KEY: + = present  Wing Bones 1 (n)  21 - = absent  15  82(395)  18(84)  n = number of i d e n t i f i a b l e skeletal elements  Wing bones include the coracoid, radius, ulna, carpometacarpus, and humerus. Leg bones include the femur, t i b i a t a r s u s , and tarsametatarsus. 3 Unspecified duck i s a faunal type based t o t a l l y on the r a d i i of ducks. 1  2  Page 125 Table 4.13: Identified Bird Remains, Musqueam NE Site (DhRt 4). Taxa Divers Common Loon Arctic Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Greater Scaup Bufflehead Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Merganser Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet Dabblers Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot Scavengers Great Blue Heron Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Black Oystercatcher Upland Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse  * (E) 4 5 3 1  2 3 2 1  46  15  37 38 115  8 8 26  68(249)  1 61(65)  2 8 47 36 1 1 25.8(95)  1 2 17 9 1 1 29(31)  0.2(1) 4 16 1 1 1 6(23)  Unspecified Duck TOTAL 1  % (MNI)  37 368  1(1) 1 5 1 1 1 9(9) 28 106  Unspecified duck i s excluded from calculations of percentages and t o t a l ,  Page Including  u n s p e c i f i e d duck  occurring  bone  types  (n=68  17%)  and  or  C.6).  Wing  assemblage are  the  (31%,  E;  common  are  (n=293,  72%;  25%,  during  MNI) the  Four  waterfowl  one  and  burnt.  immature,  Table  Two from  i s  bone  bone  in  most  carpometacarpus  types  Common  Common  in  Fraser the  elements  from  three  matching  humerii  no  d e f i n i t e  of  remains  the  sample is  more  broken  of  northwestern of  bone  species  species  season  bird  Delta.  from  one  Table  the  scoter  absent  from  in  scoter  avifauna  the  frequently  (Appendix,  bone  4.13).  element  which  16%)  4.14).  months  the  20%),  or  occurring  winter  specimens.  or  dominate  (Table  bone  (n=79  ( n = 64  the  frequently  M e d u l l a r y  are  ulna  humerus  bones  most  are  remains,  126  of  land  fowl  crow  are  death  can  be  l i m i t e d  use  of  suggested. The upland  sample fowl  resources the  are  Fraser  Summary  of  The Locarno than  each  Delta  the  Beach  bird  use  birds,  from  bird  May  of  which  to  suggests  waterfowl. tend  to  be  Major less  bird  common  in  September.  remains  of  i d e n t i f i a b l e  culture  components  mammal  percentages  species  remains  s e l e c t e d  non-human  size,  b i r d  diving  number  the  sample  and  of  and  for  sample of  E  each  and  b i r d  remains  (n=1042) (n=191). MNI  class  are of  Is  from  much  Because very  birds  the  larger of  the  similar  for  (e.g.  diving  Page 127 Table 4.14: Distribution of Bird Bone Types, Musqueam HE Site (DhRt 4). Wing Bones ' (+/-)  Taxa / Bone Type  Divers Common Loon A r c t i c Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Greater Scaup Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter  + + + + + +  Dabblers Canada uoose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot  +  Leg Bones^ (+/-) + + -  Wing Bones (n) 1 0 3 1  1  Leg Bom (n)  + + +  33 21 102  3 5 0 0 15 4 17 13  + + + + + +  -+  + -  2 5 8 25 1 1  0 3 39 11 0 0  Scavengers Glaucous-winged Gull  +  -  1  0  Upland Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse  + + + + +  + -  -  4 14 1 1 1  0 2 0 0 0  Unspecified Duck^  +  37  0  14  TOTAL KEY: + = present  -  - = absent  -+  —  -  10  31  72(293)  28(112)  n = number of i d e n t i f i a b l e skeletal elements  Wing bones include the coracoid, radius, ulna, carpometucarpus, and humerus. Leg bones include the femur, t i b i a t a r s u s , and tarsametatarsus. 3 Unspecified duck i s a faunal type based t o t a l l y on the r a d i i of ducks.  2  waterfowl,  etc.)  4.9,  (Tables  i s a b e t t e r v a l u e t o use  4.11,  i n t e s t s of  Emphasis i n b i r d u t i l i z a t i o n of b i r d and  remains  4.16).  into upland  Upland  fowl  crow, r a v e n , g r e a t - h o r n e d percentages remains  in  proportions at the the  E  and  Beach  species), comparison feeding  of  for  The  D.2)  culture  i s not  bird  significant i s that  assemblages  high p r o p o r t i o n s of  birds  assemblages.  are  species remains  Using of  significant  interpretation  surface-feeding  the  constant  have  a  waterfowl  present  in  (e.g. g u l l s , by  diving  (Tables  and  4.17  is  MNI  diving a t the  that  prevails That  data,  a  high  level ratio  bird  A  surfaceand  4.18;  birds in test  surface-feeding  i n a l l three  diving  dabbling  a c h i square  and  .001  each  etc.).  r e v e a l s an e m p h a s i s i n d i v i n g  contribution i s not  both  Interpretation  bird  categories  three assemblages.  waterfowl  By  for  species, surface-feeding (or  waterfowl  waterfowl  equal  northwestern  grouse.  test  1  The  waterfowl  scavenging  Appendix, Table all  of  diving  and  X"  4.15  fowl.  types  assemblage:  MNI  (Tables  dominate  waterfowl  culture  s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of r e l a t i v e l y compared t o u p l a n d  ruffed  A  (Table 4 . 1 6 ) .  Locarno  waterfowl  waterfowl  a l l assemblages.  level  Three  and  f o w l and  Thus,  i s e x a m i n e d by a b r e a k d o w n  include bald eagle, owl,  128  significance.  f o w l and  MNI,  of upland  .001  three  of  4.13).  and  Page  (Table of  4.18).  diving  Locarno  to  Beach  s p e c i e s make up  a  T a b l e 4.15: Frequency Data for Waterfowl and Upland Fowl, A l l Assemblages*.  Taxa/Site  Waterfowl Upland Fowl  DhRt 6  DfRs 3  DhRt 4  %(E)  56(E)  *(E)  91 (143)  90 (433)  94 (382)  9  TOTAL  (15)  10  158  (47)  6  480  (23) 405  T a b l e 4.16: MNI Data for Waterfowl and Upland Fowl A l l Assemblages*  Taxa/Site  DhRt 6 %(MNI)  Waterfowl Upland Fowl  TOTAL  95  (62)  5  (3)  65  DfRs 3 %(MNI)  DhRt 4 %(MNI)  96 (167)  93 (125)  4  (7)  174  H : Equal proportions of upland fowl and waterfowl. Reject H at .001, X > 13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom Q  2  c  For MNI X = 1.19 not s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .001 do not reject H 2  0  •Includes unspecified duck remains.  7  (9)  134  Page Table 4.17: Frequency Data For Diving Bird and Surface-Feeding Bird Remains, A l l Assemblages*. Taxa/Site  DhRt 6  *(n)  DfRs 3 %(n)  DhRt 4 »(n)  Diving Waterfowl  83 (84)  68 (255)  72 (249)  Surface-Feeding Waterfowl  17 (17)  32 (122)  28 (95)  TOTAL  111  344  377  T a b l e 4.18: MNI Data for of Diving Bird and Surface-Feeding Bird Remains, A l l Assemblages*. Taxa/Site  DhRt 6 X(n)  DfRs 3 %(n)  DhRt 4 %(n)  Diving Waterfowl  79  (3D  67 ( 9 D  68 (65)  Surface-Feeding Waterfowl  21  ( 8)  33 (45)  32 ( 3 D  TOTAL  39  136  96  H : Equal contribution of diving and surface feeding waterfowl Reject at .001, X > 13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom. Q  2  For MNI X = 1.188 not s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .001 do not reject H 2  0  * Unspecified duck and scavaging waterfowl are not included (see Appendix, Table D.2).  Page large  part  of  the a v i f a u n a  indicate  selective  similar  to  presence  those  of  concurrence waters  during  spring) . with at  hunting,  The  possibly  observed  diving of  i n a l l three  birds  pacific their  timely  by may  herring spawning  also  Deep  Bay,  Df Ru  (Monks  C r e s c e n t B e a c h , DgRr 1 (Ham Table bones  4.19  compares  ulna,  1977 ) and  roe  to  in  (late  the  inshore  winter  hunting  fish  to  activities  has b e e n s u g g e s t e d on  Boundary  Bay  at  1982).  Wing bones  c a r p o m e t a c a r p u s , and  equal proportion  The  t h e number o f b i r d  f o r each assemblage.  radius,  (1951:73).  their  convergence of b i r d  7  nets  related  seasons  may  submerged  be  and  l a r g e a g g r e g a t i o n s o f spawning  assemblages  with  Suttles  131  o f w i n g and  wing  include the  humerus.  l e g bones  A X  and  leg  coracold, p  test for  for a l lbird  remains p  in  each assemblage  21.04). sites leg  The  is significant  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the X  2  test  level.  (X  bone  types. that  The  pattern  compares  only  w a t e r f o w l f o r a l l assemblages result  of a r e l a t i v e l y  at only  of wing  DfRs  difference  and  l e g bones  =  test  and of  surface-feeding  (Table 4.20).  ( 8 8 % ) and  i s a not s i g n i f i c a n t  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  and  in a  I t may  be  l o w e r p e r c e n t a g e o f w i n g bones  a t D h R t 4 t h a n a t DhRt 6 there  prevails diving  £  i s that the three  do n o t have a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f i d e n t i f i a b l e w i n g  significance  birds  a t t h e .001  3 (81%).  at the  .001  This  (70%)  However, level in  f o r a sample  DhRt 6 and DfRs 3 ( T a b l e 4 . 2 1 ) .  the  of a l l pattern  Page 132 Table 1.19: Distribution of Bone Type for A l l Bird Remains, A l l Assemblages. Bone Type / Site  DhRt 6 ?(n)  DfRs 3  Wings  88(111)  81(351)  70(256)  Legs  12 (15)  19 (84)  30(112)  TOTAL  %(n)  126  435  DhRt 4 J(n)  368  H : Equal proportions of bird wing and leg bones. Reject at .001, X > 13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom. Q  2  For E X = 21.04 s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .001 reject H 2  D  T a b l e 4.20: D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bone Types for Diving and Surface-feeding Waterfowl, A l l Assemblages. Bone Type / Site  DhRt 6 %(n)  Wings  92(93)  Legs  8(8)  TOTAL H  0  101  '  DfRs 3 %(n)  DhRt 4 %(n)  85(319)  68(234)  15(58)  32(110)  377  344  = Equal proportion of wing and l e g bones for diving and surface-feeding waterfowl.  Reject at .001, X For E X = 42.56 s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .001 reject H 2  Q  2  _> 13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom.  Page 133 Table 4.21: Distribution of Bone Types for A l l Birds at DhRt 6 and DfRs 3. Bone Type / Site  DhRt 6  DfRs 3  *(ri)  J(n)  Wings  88(111)  81(315)  Legs  12(15)  19(84)  TOTAL H  D  126  435  : Equal proportion of wing and leg bones for a l l birds.  Reject at .001, X  2  For E X = 3.68 not s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .001 do not reject H 2  Q  _> 10.827 at 1 degree of freedom.  Page suggests  that although  there i s a r e l a t i v e l y  of wing bones i n each assemblage, the bone t y p e s  is different  This i s probably  at  related  vertebrate (Table fish  4.1).  in  assemblages. and  The  DfRs  3.  remains  the  most  in a l l three  Table  species  DfRs 3,  are  remains  DhRt 6 and  bird  3.  DfRs  Pish remains  of  to b e t t e r e x c a v a t i o n methodology at  DhRt 4 t h a n a t DhRt 6 and  Pish  high proportion  distribution  DhRt 4 t h a n  134  4.22  compares  a l l three  14,  occurring  assemblages  (n  Beach  5580)  culture  species present  and  =  the presence-absence  Locarno  number o f f i s h  DhRt 4 i s 17,  frequently  22,  fish  a t DhRt  respectively  of  6,  (Table  4.22). In  this  study,  the  r e m a i n s I s a f f e c t e d by inch  mesh  screen  the  or  larger  matrix.  relative  of  was As  used Thomas  during  the  ( 1 9 6 9 ) has  to recover  ( 1 9 8 1 ) and  C a l v e r t (1980:173, Table retrieval  pacific  smelt.  assemblage  the  still  assorted contained  northern  materials matrix,  2mm  1/4  have n o t e d  inch  the  of  mesh  that  1/4  B.C.  fish  vertebrae  anchovy, bags  1/4  to  Matson e t . a l  o f many s o u t h w e s t e r n  h e r r i n g , eulachon,  Since  4.23).  noted,  s m a l l bone e l e m e n t s . 17)  fish  excavations  remains i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l middens, e s p e c i a l l y of  small  e x c a v a t i o n methods ( T a b l e  mesh f a i l s  i n c h mesh p r e v e n t s  frequency  and  the was  surf  DhRt 6 used  to  Page 135  Table 4.22: Presence of Fish Remains, A l l Assemblages. Taxa/Site Dogfish Ratfish Northern Anchovy P a c i f i c Hake Petrale Sole P a c i f i c Halibut English Sole Rockfish Lingcod P a c i f i c Cod Walleye Pollack Big Skate P l a i n f i n Midshipman P i l e Perch Great Sculpin Buffalo Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin Rock Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish P a c i f i c Herring Surf Smelt Eulachon Minnow Salmon Trout Sturgeon  TOTAL  DhRt 6 + + + +  + -+ -+ +  -+ +  DfRs 3 +  -+ + +  -+ -+ -+  DhRt + +  -+ +  -+ + + + +  -+ +  -+  +  +  + + + +  + + + +  -+  -+ -+  -+ -+  17  14  22  + + + + +  + + + +  Page 136  Table 4.23: Frequency of Salmon with and without Small F i s h , 1  DhRt 6 with small f i s h % (E) Salmon  40 (281)  Other f i s h  60 (399)  TOTAL  680  D  h  R  t  6  without small f i s h * ( E )  7  2  8  2  ( 2 8 1 )  (  7 7 }  358  1 Small f i s h include p a c i f i c herring, surf smelt, northern anchovy, and eulachon.  Page rescreen all for  the  DhRt 6 m a t e r i a l p r i o r  f a u n a l remains. the  DfRs  3  with  excavation.  The  the  composition  samples. such  1/4  of f i s h  would  DfRs 3 and  (Table  remains  bone  assemblage) are  of  the  46%  2%  codfish,  pile  occur  remains  perch (Table  identified  by  surf  during  culture  elements  the  each  affected  Beach  smelt,  in  and  680  of  and  fish  pacific  samples  from  Surf with  Flatfish  midshipmen,  ratfish, than  1%  buffalo  and  of  sculpin  Pacific  6  fish  of  smelt  and  pacific  the m a j o r i t y f o r 7% only  sample.  dogfish,  the  being (n=46)  in  this  Sturgeon, eulachon,  and  E.  are  represented  h e r r i n g and  vertebrae  DhRt  40%  present  e a c h by  the  (or  account  the  spiny  in  Identifiable  elements  bone c o u n t ,  35%).  4.25). skull  present  the  bone  (n=ll)  less  are  Of  281  by  while  sculpins,  Pile  bone  ( T a b l e 4.24).  (n=233,  are  fish  4.22).  salmon  sample  perch  smaller  screened  techniques  i n the Locarno  eulachon,  of  count,  represent  assemblage,  were  mesh  i n recovery  the  be • d u p l i c a t e d  DhRt 6  taxa  assemblage  remains  larger  of  4.  Seventeen  smelt  which  under-represented  Beach s i t e ,  by  or  identification  c o u l d not  samples,  remains  anchovy,  be  DhRt  4  inch  Consequently,  herring  herring  DhRt  disparity  as n o r t h e r n  Locarno  This procedure  and  exclusively  to the  137  remains.  by  skull  halibut  were  Eleven  fish  Page 138 Table 4.24: Identified Fish Remains, Locarno Beach Site (DhRt 6). Taxa Class Chondrichthyes  %  (E)  1  1 6 (7)  91  6 79 8 281 233 2 11 (620)  (Cartilaginous Fish)  Spiny Dogfish Ratfish  Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fish) Sturgeon P a c i f i c Herring Northern Anchovy Salmon Surf Smelt Eulachon P l a i n f i n Midshipman  P a c i f i c Cod P a c i f i c Hake  Pile Perch Buffalo Sculpin  P a c i f i c Halibut Rock Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish  TOTAL  .5  1 3 (4)  .5  1 2 (3)  7  9 4 5 28 (46)  680  Page 139  Table 1.25: Distribution of Fish Bone Types, Locarno Beach Site (DhRt 6 ) . 1  Taxa / Bone Type  Only Vertebrae (+/-)  2  Only Skull (+/-)  Skull & Vertebrae  (+/-)  Sturgeon P a c i f i c Herring Northern Anchovy Salmon Surf Smelt Eulachon P l a i n f i n Midshipman P a c i f i c Cod P a c i f i c Hake P i l e Perch Buffalo Sculpin P a c i f i c Halibut Rock Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish  TOTAL  10  2  The cartilaginous f i s h in the sample (e.g. spiny dogfish and r a t f i s h ) are excluded from t h i s table. 1  2  Atlases and spines are included in the "Only Vertebrae"  category  Misc. Bones (+/-)  Page species The  are  most  frequently  (n=640,  be  Skull  16%  smallest  E s t u a r i n e  of  species.  p e r s o n a l  salmon  July  of  author,  the  Coastal  Northwest  be  an  and  that  the  indicator  of  f i s h  required,  this  with  f i s h  fauna  Ham,  J u l y  1984). in  The the  caudal  ranges  categories:  diameter  sample  vertebrae  llmm-12mm 8mms i m i l a r (48%)  were  9mm  8mm-9mm  (Casteel 1 9 8 1 ,  personal 75%  48%  (n=101)  52%  (n=109) of  (52%)  1976:85, p e r s o n a l  (n=210)  into  vertebrae  Coast  communication,  measured.  breakdown  percentages  and  by  of  Zone  stated  working  1983,  the  A l a s k a  Northwest  January  up  salmon  observed  and  llmm-12mm  1985)  the  been  abdominal  R e l a t i v e l y  make  also  vertebrae  or  vertebrae.  i s  Matson,  could  elements.  with  may  abdominal  v e r i f i c a t i o n  c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,  communication,  (4%)  Washington)  vertebrae  vertebrae  percent  abdominal  bone  the  i s  are  F i f t y  or  elements.  s c i e n t i f i c  has  archaeologists  of  29%  elements  (January,  group  salmon  r e l a t i o n s h i p  bone  ( S e a t t l e ,  Although  Wigeon,  caudal  identified  Raymond  Center  t h i s ,  communication  s t u d i e s  F i s h e r i e s  Of  skeletal  element  vertebrae.  either  of  personal  Howard  diameter  skeletal  and miscellaneous  a  expert  as  vertebral  4.4)  caudal  percentage  In  only  occurring  are  i d e n t i f i e d (1%)  by  (Figure  94%).  vertebrae, not  represented  140  of  the  The  sizes  two  d i s t i n c t  occur  c a t e g o r i e s .  in  of  the  Raymond  Page 141 F i g u r e 4.4: Most Frequently Occurring Fish Bone Elements, Locarno Beach Site (DhRt 6 ) . 1  60-  n = 673  40-  20-  0-  Key: A = Abdominal vertebrae C = Caudal vertebrae M = Miscellaneous vertebrae S = Skull MB = Miscellaneous bones  2  The cartilaginous f i s h in the sample (e.g. spiny dogfish and r a t f i s h ) are excluded from t h i s figure. 1  Miscellaneous vertebrae include herring (n=79) and surf smelt (n=233). Raw data are l i s t e d in Appendix, Table C.7.  2  (personal  communication,  vertebrae  8 m m - 9 m m  Smelt  and  January,  1 9 8 5)  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  herring  are  abundant site  of  and  (n=312)  frequency inch  or  have  been  o f salmon larger  (n=28l).  mesh  locality  larger  was  indicates  size  used  Indians  Whalen Farm  of  DfRs  species  of  (Table  components,  this  of  Six-hundred  identified  to  Salmon  the  are  4.22).  identified In a d d i t i o n  31%  o f the assemblage.  big  skate  one  species  of  than  rate  of  the 1/4  herring  may  locality,  despite  the  Locarno Beach by  site  Musqueam  1955:395,  are  present  i n the  has  the second l a r g e s t  seventy-nine fish of  species,  category  of f l a t f i s h , Two  o c c u r , each l e s s  species  total  and  The  of  (Table  to the u n s p e c i f i e d  five  sum  the t h r e e Locarno Beach  bone e l e m e n t s  are  smelt  t i m e s (Matthews  Of  level  largest  The  recovery  procurement  fish  assemblage  the  intertidal  and 397).  3  assemblage  fish.  that  salmon.  is greater  poor  at t h i s  f o r smelt  the  locality.  salmon.  In h i s t o r i c  site,  Fourteen  (6j%)  The  important resources  relatively  Squamish  remains  suggested that  seasonal  a t the L o c a r n o Beach herring  142  of sockeye  resources smelt  Page  which  bones  were  family. with  446  4.26).  flatfish  category,  collectively  of s c u l p i n  and  t h a n 1% o f t h e f i s h  cod—pacific  diversity  or  remains  3  culture  remains  genus,  fish  DfRs  cod—Is  represent  one  bone o f  sample.  present  there  in  Only the  Page  Table 4.26: Identified Fish Remains, Whalen Farm Site (DfRs 3). Taxa Class Chondrichthyes Spiny Dogfish Big Skate  %  (E)  1.3  8 1 (9)  (Cartilaginous Fish)  Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fish) Sturgeon P a c i f i c Herring Salmon  6 1 446 67.0(453)  P a c i f i c Cod 0.5  4 (4)  0.2  1 1 (2)  Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin  Petrale Sole P a c i f i c Halibut Rock Sole English Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish  TOTAL  15 12 9 8 36 131 31.0(211)  679  Page 144 assemblage.  I t s four identifiable  .5% o f t h e s a m p l e . infrequently  Sturgeon  by b o n e c o u n t ,  s m e l t , and e u l a c h o n pacific fish  and spiny with  a r eabsent,  h e r r i n g was r e c o v e r e d ,  dogfish also  1% e a c h .  while  occur  Rockfish, surf  1 identifiable  representing only  bone o f  . 1% o f t h e  remains. P o u r o f 15 f i s h  represented However,  species present  ninety-nine  percent  diameter  Only  The s i z e s  three d i s t i n c t  categories:  13mm-15mm  10% (n=7)  11mm-12mm  4 9 % (n=33)  8mm- 9mm  4 1 % (n=28) of vertebrae  (13mm-15mm) r e p r e s e n t e d  13mm-15mm v e r t e b r a e large January  Chinook 1985).  fish  and m i s c e l l a n e o u s  abdominal  occur  a n d t h e 8mm-9mm ( 4 1 % ) c a t e g o r i e s .  vertebrae  4.27).  1% o f t h e s a m p l e .  sample.  The h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e s (49%)  (Table  o f 1 5 % (n=68) o f t h e salmon v e r t e b r a e i n  In this  breakdown i n t o  Skull  represent  sample were measured.  identified  elements  of the identifiable  (Figure 4.5).  bone e l e m e n t s c o l l e c t i v e l y The  i n t h e assemblage a r e  by n o n - v e r t e b r a l s k e l e t a l  remains a r e v e r t e b r a e  the  bone e l e m e n t s a c c o u n t f o r  stand  Chinook  would  were  of the vertebrae  i n t h e llmm-12mm Very  large  10% o f t h e sample.  out I n size  salmon(persona1  vertebrae  sized The  a n d may r e p r e s e n t t h e  communication, be a v a i l a b l e  Raymond,  In the delta  Page 145  Table 4.27: Distribution of Fish Bone Types, Whalen Farm Site (DfRs 3 ) . 1  Taxa / Bone Type  Only Vertebrae' (+/-)  Only Skull (+/-)  Skull & Vertebrae (+/-)  Sturgeon P a c i f i c Herring Salmon P a c i f i c Cod Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin Petrale Sole P a c i f i c Halibut Rock Sole English Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish  + +  + + + +  TOTAL  The cartilaginous f i s h i n the sample (e.g. spiny dogfish and r a t f i s h ) are excluded from t h i s t a b l e . 1  2  Atlases and spines are included in the "Only Vertebrae"  category  Misc. Bones (+/-)  Page 146 F i g u r e 4.5: Most Frequently Occurring Fish Bone Elements, Whalen Farm Site (DfRs 3)1.  60-  n = 670  40-  20-  0A n=389  C n=221  M n=57  S n=3  MB n=6  5Q%  33%  Q%  .5%  .5%  Key: A = Abdominal vertebrae C = Caudal vertebrae M = Miscellaneous vertebrae S = Skull MB = Miscellaneous bones  1 The cartilaginous f i s h i n the assemblage (e.g. spiny dogfish and big skate) are excluded from t h i s figure.  Page during  the e a r l y  herring  from  determined vertebrae As  n o t e d , salmon  resource  has  are  (n=446, 6 0 % ) .  (n=211,  31%).  mesh p r o b a b l y  of  s m a l l boned  of  pacific  of  3  DfRs  fish.  herring  abundance  in this  the  only  Flatfish  The  fish for  and 4 . 2 8 ) .  largest  identifiable  trout.  fish  There  pacific  collectively  assemblage  1/4  by fish  inch  or  of  remains  bone  element  be a  techniques.  l o w f r e q u e n c y , i t may  sign Thus,  have  been  locality.  diversity Twenty-two bone  and  sample  are three  hake, p a c i f i c account  elements  or  of  fragments. identifiable  two v e r t e b r a e  codfishes  present  c o d , and w a l l e y e  for  size  f i s h species account  p e r c e n t o f t h e a s s e m b l a g e , o r 2470  assemblage:  resource  rate  identifiable  bone e l e m e n t s a r e o f S a l m o n i d a e , i n c l u d i n g  which  fish  s i t e , DhRt 4  ( T a b l e s 4.1  steelhead  salmon  are the n e x t major  screening  has a v e r y  salmon i t was  of  3 s a m p l e , w h i c h may  i n t h e DfRs  the  Fifty-eight  study,  sample  the recovery  T h e r e i s one  DhRt 4 has  4221  the  use o f s c r e e n s w i t h  affected  spawning  range.  another important f i s h resource at t h i s Musqueam NE  perusing  the p r i n c i p a l  considering  although herring  t h e y f e d on  After  assemblages  i n t h e 13mm-15mm s i z e  count  larger  a l lfish that  m o n t h s when  1982:43,151).  (Berringer  remains  bone  spring  147  less  than  by E. F l a t f i s h a r e t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t  1%  of  i n the  pollack, of  category  the of  Page 148 Table 4.28: Identified Fish Remains, Musqueam NE Site (DhRt 4).  Class Chondrichthyes Spiny Dogfish Big Skate Ratfish  (E)  1.5  13 35 5 (53)  (Cartilaginous Fish)  Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fish) Sturgeon P a c i f i c Herring Salmon Steelhead Trout Eulachon  P a c i f i c Cod P a c i f i c Hake Walleye Pollack  %  108 2 2470 2 1 61.0 (2583)  0.6  15 9 3 (27)  1.7  2 36 37 (75)  0.6  4 15 9 (28)  Pile Perch Rockfish Lingcod  Great Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin  P a c i f i c Halibut Rock Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish  70 75 184 1119 34.5 (1448)  Minnow 0.1 TOTAL  7 (7) 4221  Page 149 F i g u r e 4.6: Most Frequently Occurring Fish Bone Elements, Musqueam NE Site (DhRt 4 ) . 1  60-  n = 4168  40-  20-  0-  Key: A = Abdominal vertebrae C = Caudal vertebrae M = Miscellaneous vertebrae S = Skull MB = Miscellaneous bones  The cartilaginous f i s h in the assemblage (e.g. spiny dogfish, r a t f i s h , and big skate) are excluded from t h i s figure. 1  Page 150 fish  remains i n the assemblage, w i t h f o u r s p e c i e s  representing  34.5%  (n=l448)  o f the assemblage.  Identifiable  bone  elements  o f sturgeon  largest  sample  culture  fish  of sturgeon  assemblages.  t h e DhRt 4 f i s h Eight vertebral been  (Table  species  and s k u l l  4.29).  have  skeletal  by o n l y  been  diameter  identified  elements.  vertebrae  Beach 2% o f  by  both  Five species  have  or only  ( F i g u r e 4.6).  bone e l e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t  were measured.  Locarno  remains represent  Ninety-four percent  remains are vertebrae  The  108  sample.  fish  identified  The  are the single  i n the three  Sturgeon  identified  skull  o f the  fish  miscellaneous  sample.  o f 19% (n=459) o f t h e s a l m o n  The s i z e s  types  identified  S k u l l and  3% e a c h o f t h e  bone  o f a b d o m i n a l and c a u d a l  vertebrae vertebrae  b r e a k d o w n i n t o two d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s : 11mm-12mm 8mm-9mm The  sample i s almost  vertebrae,  which  sockeye  salmon  1985).  This  the l a t e  Although (n=3)  91%  (448)  represented  may I n d i c a t e a v e r y  (personal  species  high  communication,  i s found (Hart  and f l a t f i s h  i n the  o f remains  by t h e 8mm-9mm percentage  Raymond,  of  January  Fraser Delta area i n  1973:119).  a r e t h e major  s c u l p i n s are present  and frequency  (11)  exclusively  summer a n d f a l l  Salmon  9%  fish  resources.  i n g r e a t e s t number o f s p e c i e s (n=19) a t DhRt 4 o f a l l t h r e e  Page 151 Table 4 . 2 9 : D i s t r i b u t i o n of Fish Bone Types, Musqueam NE Site (DhRt 4 ) . 1  Taxa / Bone Type  Sturgeon P a c i f i c Herring Salmon Steelhead Trout Eulachon  Only Vertebrae' (+/-)  Only Skull (+/-)  Skull & Vertebrae (+/-)  Misc. Bones (+/-)  + +  P a c i f i c Cod P a c i f i c Hake Walleye Pollack Pile Perch Rockfish Lingcod Great Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin  + +  P a c i f i c Halibut Rock Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish Minnow  TOTAL  The cartilaginous f i s h in the assemblage (e.g. spiny dogfish, r a t f i s h , and big skate) are excluded from this table. 1  2  Atlases and spines are included in the "Only Vertebrae" category.  Locarno  Beach  contribute  as  culture  assemblages,  sculpins  much t o the L o c a r n o Beach  culture  Page  152  do  not  diet  s t u r g e o n , whose weight can reach 1 ton per i n d i v i d u a l 1973:84). an  (198la :73,75 ) suggests that  Matson  important  fish  resource  in  the  as  (Hart  s t u r g e o n was  Glenrose  Marpole  component, l o c a t e d u p r i v e r from DhRt 4. Summary of f i s h  remains  Of the three major fish),  i n the three assemblages  excavation  Nevertheless, initial each  groups  (mammal, b i r d ,  the recovery and consequently the sample  remains by  taxonomic  the  fish  data  and  museum  described  pattern detection of f i s h  above  affected  curation. permit  the  resource u t i l i z a t i o n  for  assemblage.The number of i d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h remains  t h r e e Locarno Beach  c u l t u r e samples  t o t a l of non-human mammal ( n = 1 9 D With  respect  assemblage there in  s i z e of f i s h  have been g r e a t l y  methodology  and  to the t o t a l  i s g r e a t e r than the  and b i r d  sum  (n=1042) remains.  number of f i s h  remains  i n each  (DhRt 6, n=680; DfRs 3 , n = 6 7 9 ; DhRt 4, n=4221),  is l i t t l e  each  (n=5580) i n the  variation  assemblage  i n the number of s p e c i e s p r e s e n t  (DhRt 6,  n=17;  DfRs 3,  n=l4;  DhRt 4,  n=22). Because for  fish  of low  f r e q u e n c y of p a i r e d  remains, MNI  skeletal  cannot be c a l c u l a t e d  elements  for fish.  As a  Page second c h o i c e , E i s used c a u t i o u s l y because  i n t e s t s of  153  significance  o f t h e unknown d e g r e e o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f  skeletal  elements. The  relationship  illustrated  i n T a b l e 4.30,  (e.g. p a c i f i c anchovy).  herring,  78%  salmon  which  and  A X  fish  is data  s m e l t , and n o r t h e r n  c u l t u r e assemblage,  than the other f i s h .  of the samples.  other f i s h  excludes small  eulachon, surf  I n each L o c a r n o Beach  a r e more a b u n d a n t to  between  salmon  Salmon v a r y f r o m  59%  v a l u e o f 63.09 i n d i c a t e s  2  that  t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s a l m o n and a l l o t h e r f i s h  is significantly  different  contribution  at  the  .001  salmon v a r i e s from s i t e  level. to  Thus,  the  site.  S a l m o n a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by o n l y v e r t e b r a e ; c r a n i a l are  absent  salmon Fraser  from  (Calvert, 6  remains  Delta sites,  communication,  DgRr  a l l assemblages.  skeletal  personal  (Casteel  Farm, DfRs  has  patterning  period  represents  t h e use  intact  vertebral  columns,  of  (personal  S t . Mungo,  November 1981),  1976b),. t h e M a r p o l e  o f salmon  patterning  G r o v e , DgRs 1  1980),  communication,  3 (Seymour 1976)  bones  o c c u r r e d i n a l l documented  December  component  DgRr  1981).  remains  Ham  at  Whalen (Ham,  (1982) a r g u e s  i n the l a t e  of " p r e s e r v e d salmon  that  prehistoric backs"  or a type of f i s h - j e r k y  Northwest Coast hunters at seasonal, l i m i t e d  2  Glenrose,  and C r e s c e n t B e a c h , DgRr 1  personal communication, J u l y this  Similar  i n c l u d i n g Beach  Boyd,  of  activity  with  used  by  sites.  Page 154  Table  Comparison of Salmon and Other Fish Remains (Excluding Small Fish Species), A l l Assemblages, E. 4.30:  Taxa / Site  DhRt 6  DfRs 3  DhRt 4  Salmon  78 (281)  66 (446)  59 (2470)  Other Fish  22  34 (232)  41 (1748)  TOTAL H  Q  (77)  358  678  4218  : Equal proportions of salmon and other f i s h .  Reject at .001, X For E X = 63.09 s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .001 reject H 2  Q  2  >^ 13.815 at 2 degrees of freedom.  155  Page That  only  culture  salmon v e r t e b r a l elements  components  earlier  on  the d e l t a .  patterning  may  preservation The  suggests As  also  be  diameter  of  what  assemblages.  Although  support  the  i t , the  expert  also  in later prehistoric related  salmon  to  salmon  vertebrae  species there  area  July  1984):  and  (Ham,  on  this  salmon are chum  or  July  are i s no  1985)  1981,  periods,  the  this  procurement  and  useful  present  in  the  published  salmon  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s working  Matson,  1983,  January  Diameter  Species  8mm-9mm  Sockeye i t appears  that  two  Coho  species  i n t h e DhRt 6 a s s e m b l a g e ( s o c k e y e species  DhRt 4 a s s e m b l a g e diameter  in  sockeye),  s e a s o n a l i t y of  DfRs 3  the and  (sockeye). and  in  Wigeon,  Chum o r  three  (Hart  fishery  llmm-12mm  chum o r c o h o , and  _if present  a  for  weights  Chinook  represented  between v e r t e b r a e  and  fish  Is suggested  with  in  documentation  13mm-15mm  assumption,  coho),  (chinook,  occurred  be  communications  Salmon V e r t e b r a e  Based  Beach  may  following relationship  (Raymond, J a n u a r y  this  and  have  s a k e o f a r g u m e n t b a s e d on p u b l i s h e d l i v i n g  1973:106-126)  in  may  In Locarno  technology.  determining  to  this  occur  species salmon  of  1  species  relationship  salmon  i n the  and  assemblage  at l e a s t  I_f t h e  of  is  upheld  Fraser  Delta  Page 1 5 6 area  c a n be p u s h e d i t would  (1975),  people  during  seem t h a t t h e r e I s e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t  spring  DhRt 4 a s s e m b l a g e  Beach  to late  high percentage  been e x p l o i t e d  y e a r s a s s u g g e s t e d by F l a d m a r k  3000  the Locarno  runs from e a r l y The  back  exploited  salmon  fall. o f 8mm-9mm v e r t e b r a e i n t h e  (91%)  indicates  culture  that  that  sockeye  salmon  i n the nearby F r a s e r R i v e r .  might  Croes  have  (1975:57)  s u g g e s t s t h a t n e t s a n d n e t a n c h o r s i n t h e DhRt 4 w a t e r l o g g e d component  B.P.)  (2450  procurement.  may  have  been  used  f o r salmon  The c o - o c c u r e n c e o f l a r g e , d u r a b l e b a s k e t s i n  the  w a t e r l o g g e d component c o u l d a l s o have been u s e d t o c a r r y  or  store  large  Ethnographic salmon  trawling  this  of f i s h  (Croes  o f f the Fraser Delta's  and September  time,  i t cannot  sand b a r s and s h o a l s  (Berringer  whether  they  However,  1982:53).  be d e t e r m i n e d  i f the sockeye  v e r t e b r a e were a p r e s e r v e d r e s o u r c e used d u r i n g or  1 9 7 5 : 3 8 ) .  evidence supports the h y p o t h e s i s of sockeye  d u r i n g August at  quantities  represent evidence  the winter  of on-site  salmon  processing. Regardless what Beach  species  of salmon  culture  evidence  o f the aforementioned attempt  assemblages,  a t DhRt 4  i n t e n s i v e salmon  are present there  to indicate  fishing  to identify  i n the three appears  a 3000+  i n the Fraser  t o be  Locarno enough  year chronology of  River.  Page Flatfish  are  also  probably attracted (e.g.  herring,  Spiny  an  to the  smelt,  dogfish,  abundant f i s h d e l t a and  and  In  assemblages.  These f i s h u s u a l l y  delta  assemblage to  the  (e.g.  Fraser  foreslope. indicates  estuary  that  Delta  low  during  the  to  herring, of  Locarno  pacific Beach  contemporaneous e v i d e n c e at the Washington  peninsula  (Croes  Hoko, deep-water f i s h  explotation  have b e e n on  culture  in  (45  ca  213)  with on  the  1984).  At  is inferred  from the  co-  assemblages  t o o l k i t (e.g.  The  f r e q u e n c y o f deep w a t e r d w e l l i n g Fraser  Fraser  Hackenberger  fishing  Beach c u l t u r e  fish  contrasts  lack  low  each  attracted  the  hooks.  Delta  in  of  etc.).  r e m a i n s and  Fraser  culture  spawning  occurence of h i g h percentages of h a l i b u t The  occur  deep w a t e r s  halibut  Hoko s i t e  and  Beach  frequency  smelt,  fish  shellfish.  ratfish  low  feed  surf  as  i n the  also  They were  spawning  Locarno  dwell  t h e y may  or, r i v e r s  frequency  well and  Delta's  However, t h e i r  salmon, p a c i f i c The  as  halibut,  infrequently  the  the  e s t u a r y by  others),  pacific  resource.  157  a  halibut  deep  water  h a l i b u t hooks) (Appendix, Table B . l ) .  Delta  fish  i n the  assemblages supports the  a deep w a t e r e x p l o i t a t i v e f i s h i n g  strategy.  Locarno lack  of  Page 158 Season o f E x p l o i t a t i o n Mammals The  small  relative  sample  o f mammal  frequencies  of  seasonality  markers.  information  i s illustrated  in  classifying  distinguish typically are  present  adult seal  year  are c l a s s i f i e d (Table  skeletal  i n Table  seal  4.31.  remains.  and s u b - a d u l t  elements  i n the d e l t a  A problem  as b e i n g p r e s e n t  arises  It i s difficult individuals  area  as  presence-absence  remains o f a d u l t specimens. round  using  from t h e  Since  (Table  to  seals  2 . 2 ) , they  i n each s e a s o n a l i t y category  4.3D-  Juvenile  deer  indicates  D h R t 6 a n d D h R t 4. seasonality all  bone  prevents  As a n a l t e r n a t i v e ,  harbour  unfused  remains  summer-to-fall  J u v e n i l e bear  a t DhRt 6.  further  The p r e s e n c e  occupation at supports  this  o f immature r a c c o o n i n  a s s e m b l a g e s may a l s o i n d i c a t e summer s e a s o n a l i t y .  Birds Using Hoos  the seasonal  and Packman  2.5) t h e b i r d MNI v a l u e s : April)  and;  medullary fourth  c a t e g o r i e s based  (1974) f o r t h e P r a s e r  r e m a i n s were grouped (1) y e a r  round;  (5) Spring  into  and/or  fall.  which  suggests  into  (1982) and  Delta area  (Table  t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s by  ( 2 , 3, 4) w i n t e r  o r i m m a t u r e bone i s t a k e n  category,  on Ham  The  (September t o presence  of  consideration i n a  a summer s e a s o n  of death.  Page 159 Table 4.31: Presence-Absence of Non-Adult Mammal Fauna, A l l Assemblages. Winter  Spring  Summer  Fall  DhRt 6 Harbour Seal River Otter Deer Black Bear Raccoon  + + + + +  DfRs 3 Harbour Seal Raccoon Muskrat  + + +  DhRt 4 Harbour Seal Deer Raccoon  + + +  + + +  160  Page These broad g r o u p i n g s o f s e a s o n a l i t y reflect  the  time  of  the year  were most l i k e l y  t o be  and  likely  hence,  most  (1980:225)  employs  c a t e g o r i e s were u s e d  when t h e  species in question  present i n their t o have  a  similar  been  to  g r e a t e s t abundance  exploited.  methodology  Calvert  at  Hesquait  Harbour. The  results  of c l a s s i f y i n g  d a t a by s e a s o n a l i t y Year  round  and  percentages occur  spring/fall  in  (i.e.  September  seasonality  assemblage.  the to  Very  winter/early April)  in  DfRs 3 ,  immature suggested  unspecified  bones season  northwestern  and  duck  two  of death  are present  with  in  low  high percentages spring  include medullary  i s summer.  bird 4.32.  i n Table  f o r summer  remains  radii  culture  One  This  exploitation. two  matched  bone.  The  i m m a t u r e bone o f  c r o w a t DhRt 4 c o u l d s u p p o r t t h i s  seasonality.  Therefore, although evidence f o r b i r d  exploitation exists  all  there appears  sites  major  f o r most o f  exploitation  waterfowl) from  the of  seasons,  avifauna  September t o A p r i l .  i m m a t u r e o r n e s t i n g b i r d s seems  of  category  a l l assemblages.  c o n t r a s t s w i t h v e r y low p e r c e n t a g e s At  Beach  categories i s illustrated  f o r each  MNI  Locarno  (predominately  t o be  a  diving  Summer e x p l o i t a t i o n  insignificant.  at  of  Page T a b l e 4.32:  Seasonality of Avifauna, A l l Assemblages, MNI .  Season / Site  Year Round (1) Winter/ Early Spring (2, 3, 4)  1  DhRt 6 % (MNI)  DfRs 3 % (MNI)  DhRt 4 % (MNI)  17  (8)  12  (19)  12  (13)  81  (37)  85  (130)  87  (93)  2  (1)  1.1  (2)  0  (0)  0  (0) 46  1.9 154 (3)  1  (D 107  Spring/Fall (5) Summer (Medullary or immature bone) TOTAL/  1  Raw data for categories 1 - 5 i n Table 4.32 are l i s t e d i n Append!  Table D.3. 2  Unspecified duck remains are excluded.  Page 162 Fish L i k e mammals Delta  area  and b i r d s ,  c a n be u s e d  only t h e i r presence herring,  which  midshipmen during  shallow  which  s p r i n g and e a r l y  available  Four  year  round  their  summer; a n d s u r f  i n the study  area,  Using (Table  early  although  four  categories:  summer;  spring.  ( 4 , 5)  Since  (e.g. p a c i f i c  herring, affected  (see Chapter  3), their  4.33.  sockeye salmon  preclude  2.7)  from  discussion. by Ham  (1982)  r e m a i n s w e r e g r o u p e d by bone  element  (1) year  round;  summer;  the frequency  a n c h o v y ) was  i n Table  6, T a b l e  the present  also  presence-absence  seasonality information defined  2.7), t h e f i s h  zone  Salmon a r e  techniques  (Category  from  plainfin  In addition,  p r e s e r v a t i o n , and s t o r a g e  Thus, t h e salmon sample  late  smelt, which  z o n e d u r i n g t h e summer.  each assemblage i s excluded  into  April);  u s e i n s e a s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s b a s e d on  data.  from  i n the i n t e r t i d a l  g r o u p and r u n i n t h e summer and f a l l . butchery,  beaches  through  spawn  on  exceptions are p a c i f i c  water  s p r i n g (or February  spawn i n t h e I n t e r t i d a l  based  1  or absence.  and s o l e ,  species of the Fraser  as s e a s o n a l i t y i n d i c a t o r s  run along  winter to early  few f i s h  and  ( 2 , 3) s p r i n g a n d  (7) w i n t e r  and  early  of the s m a l l - s i z e d fishes  eulachon,  surf  by d i f f e r e n t i a l bone e l e m e n t s  smelt,  and n o r t h e r n  recovery  are Included  techniques cautiously  Page 163  Table 1.33: Seasonality of Fish Fauna, A l l Assemblages, E . 1  Season / Site  Year Round (1) Spring/Early Summer (2, 3) Summer (4, 5) Late Winter/ Early Spring (7)  TOTAL  1  DhRt 6 % (E)  DfRs 3 % (E)  4 (16)  7.6 (18)  71 (282)  2  (8)  23  (93)  399  92  0  (215)  DhRt 4 % (E)  17.8  (312)  81.7 (1429)  (0)  0.1  (2)  0.4 (1)  0.4  (8)  234  Raw data for Table 4.33 are l i s t e d i n Appendix Table D.4.  1751  Page 164 The  seasonality  DhRt 4 a p p e a r s in  E i n t h e summer. may  A similar  account  the presence  percentages As  High  for this  environmental  of pacific  herring,  the winter/early  highest percentage summer  of s u r f smelt  this  might  DhRt 6  Historic may  procurement.  f o r these  winter/early  even  spring  because  though  d a t a may  recovery of p a c i f i c  principally  (n=233).  be  herring. i n the  due t o t h e h i g h  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  have been o c c u p i e d  low  assemblages.  o f E f o r DhRt 6 o c c u r s  category  frequency  runs.  A  o f E o c c u r i n t h e D f R s 3 a n d DhRt 4  spring/early  of E occur  setting  relationship.  skewed due t o t h e p o s s i b l e p o o r  site  percentages  i s confirmed f o r a l l assemblages  discussed earlier,  The  a t DfRs 3 and  summer c a t e g o r y w i t h l o w p e r c e n t a g e s o f  spring exploitation of  exploitation  t o be s i m i l a r .  the spring/early  sites  of f i s h  i s that  d u r i n g t h e summer  smelt  i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p o r t s t h i s h y p o t h e s i s so t h a t  have  a  The f i s h  suggest  that f i s h  through  early  3000+  year  seasonality  exploitation  chronology data  of  smelt  ( e x c l u d i n g salmon)  took p l a c e d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r  summer m o n t h s a t DhRt 6 a n d m a i n l y  w i n t e r a n d s p r i n g a t D f R s 3 and DhRt 4 .  d u r i n g the  Page 1 6 5 Locarno Beach c u l t u r e D u r i n g the of  Locarno Beach c u l t u r e , there  a wide v a r i e t y  long  term  of v e r t e b r a t e  basis  presented  in  strikingly  seasonality  at  each  this  s i m i l a r (Table  In a l l a s s e m b l a g e s , the  Fraser  through  Delta  site's  over  a  evidence  seasonality  is  4.34). evidence  for bird exploitation in  consistently  winter/early  spring  is also  by  by  the  spring  the  spring/early  presence  from  September  co-occurence  fish  to the  populations the and the  throughout  Fraser is  assemblages.  In  each  herring.  A  at  DhRt 6  and  herring  flatfish.  A  and  and  the  the In  of  E s t u a r y and  the  spiny  year.  dogfish  Fraser  usually  their  number f o l l o w e d  low  spawning  River.  abundant  Delta  River  are  However,  fish  resource  a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , Locarno  Fraser baskets  most  by  assemblage.  indicate that a small  Salmon  fishing  pacific  in  i s suggested  this  halibut, ratfish,  f r e q u e n c y may  in  of  represented  summer o c c u p a t i o n a t DhRt 6 i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d  Pacific deep water  of  occupation  s u r f smelt, which i s i n only  found  faunal  occurs  winter/early  runs  each  on  area  assemblage  fish  Based  probably  April.  Late  DfRs 3  resources,  site.  thesis,  is exploitation  and  Beach  culture  took advantage of the local  f o r c a r r y i n g or  DhRt 4 w a t e r l o g g e d  in a l l  streams.  salmon  Nets  for  s t o r i n g heavy l o a d s  are  component.  Their  presence  Page 166  Table 4.34: Presence-Absence of Seasons for Locarno Beach Culture Vertebrate Fauna, A l l Assemblages. S i t e / Season  Winter  Spring  Summer  + +  + +  + -  + -  +  +  +  -  -  -  +  +  +  -  -  DhRt 6  Mammals Birds Fish  DfRs 3  Mammals Birds Fish  + +  Mammals Birds Fish  + +  DhRt 4  Fall  Year Round +  + + +  + + + + +  Page 167 DhRt 4 may h a v e b e e n o c c u p i e d  f o r prolonged  p e r i o d s d u r i n g the^ w i n t e r o r d u r i n g the long  spring-to-fall  suggests  that  salmon runs The in  each  seal  i n the Fraser River.  seasonality assemblage.  and n o n - a d u l t  excluding  raccoon  t h e sample,  i s reduced  i s similar  the seasonality  and muskrat  of harbour  i s precarious.  the frequency  and s u m m e r - t o - f a l l .  i n t h e s p r i n g , which would  with herring or possibly  early  low frequency  mammal  hunting  subsistence subsistence  smelt f i s h i n g .  of occurrence  suggests  was n o t t h e m a i n  activity. activity  be  coincide  Nevertheless, that  non-adult  summertime v e r t e b r a t e  The a l t e r n a t i v e would  i n local  i n t h e DhRt 6  Two new b o r n r i v e r o t t e r s  assemblage probably died  the  n=3;  A summer  c o i n c i d e s w i t h e u l a c h o n and salmon runs  and r i v e r s .  By  of j u v e n i l e (DhRt 6,  to four occurrences  n=l) i n the spring  seasonality streams  However,  them f r o m  mammal r e m a i n s DhRt 4 ,  o f n o n - a d u l t mammal r e m a i n s  summer v e r t e b r a t e  fishing,  especially for  seasonality  seems t o r e f l e c t  salmon. Locarno similarities  Beach c u l t u r e i n (1)  availability, aggregations hypothesized they  and  of fauna  (3)  ecological access  occur  settings,  on a s e a s o n a l  a site  resource i n  basis.  i n geographically restricted  G r o u p s may h a v e i n h a b i t e d  (2)  to habitats  t h a t v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a were hunted  aggregated  delta.  local  site  which It  is  or f i s h e d as areas  of the  f o rshort periods  Page 168 of time  ( e . g . 6 t o 8 weeks)  process  r e s o u r c e s , and then  Stratigraphic Beach  culture  evidence  components  to wait they  left  the s i t e .  supports  a hypothesis  round.  A c c o r d i n g t o Ham's  winter v i l l a g e  residence a r e the presence  m o u l d s f o r l a r g e , p e r m a n e n t d w e l l i n g s and l e v e l sloping  stratigraphy.  components  that  model o f s h e l l midden l e n s i n g , d i a g n o s t i c s o f  (1982:182-184)  term  and t o  f r o m DhRt 6 a n d D f R s 3 ' s L o c a r n o  o c c u p a t i o n was s e a s o n a l , n o t y e a r  long  f o r , to exploit,  A l l three  l a c k p o s t moulds  Locarno  of post  or gradually  Beach  culture  ( e v i d e n c e f o r l o n g h o u s e s ) , and  with respect t o a cross-section that i s perpendicular t o the shoreline,  lensing  a t both  2 feet  approximately foot horizontal  i nvertical  length.  0 f o o t g a i n a t DhRt  stratigraphy  winter  village.  supports  and  found  site  a n d more  at a long-occupied  Thus  stone  boiling  criteria,  f a r then,  activity  site  rock  indicates  or a winter village  as a  evidence  a t DhRt 6 a n d  p e r i o d s a t DhRt 4 . of ash, c h a r c o a l ,  o n - s i t e food According  may b e i n d i c a t i v e  such  stratigraphic  4, t h e presence  o r e a r t h ovens.  this  10  characteristic  site  f o r seasonal occupation  6 a n d DhRt  fire-cracked  f o r every  4 , w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o Ham's d i a g n o s t i c s  an argument  DhRt  gains  sloping contrasts with a  D f R s 3 , w h i l e i t may be f o r p r o l o n g e d At  and DfRs 3  provenience  This steep  i s u n l i k e a seasonally occupied of  6  DhRt  p r o c e s s i n g by  t o Ham's  of either  site.  a  (1982)  limited  However, m a j o r f o o d  Page 169 processing  i s inferred  from abundant and w i d e s p r e a d  evidence  o f a s h , c h a r c o a l , a n d f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k a t DhRt 6, w h i c h may be  related  to the steaming  of s h e l l f i s h  resources  (Ham  1982:183).  Compared t o DhRt 6, t h e a s h , c h a r c o a l , and f i r e - c r a c k e d rock  a t DhRt 4 i s l e s s  less  shellfish  abundant and w i d e s p r e a d ,  preparation.  Croes  suggesting  (1975:38) s u p p o r t s  argument:  "The g a t h e r i n g  significant  ( a t DhRt 4) s i n c e t h e s t r a t i g r a p h y does n o t have  abundant  mollusc  of molluscs  this  remains."  This  characterize a winter village  Habitat  i s probably  pattern  occupation  would  not  also  i n Ham's m o d e l .  Exploitation  Mammals Emphasis  i n habitat selection  f o r mammals i s e x a m i n e d  by a b r e a k d o w n o f MNI f o r e a c h a s s e m b l a g e by f o u r (Open L i t t o r a l Forest)  defined  occurred  i n  W a t e r s , R i v e r i n e , E s t u a r i n e / P o r e s t Edge, and i n Chapter each  Estuarine/Forest This  Edge  does n o t s u p p o r t  (1955) h y p o t h e s i s characterizing economy.  categories  2.  By MNI, mammal  category and F o r e s t  but  focused  habitats  t h e e a r l y Borden  exploitation  (Table  Beach  4.35).  (1951) and D r u c k e r  o f a m a r i n e mammal e x p l o i t a t i v e  the Locarno  In the  vertebrate  pattern  subsistence  Page 170  Table 4.35:  Mammal H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s , A l l Assemblages, MNI . 1  Habitat / S i t e  DhRt 6 % (MNI)  Open L i t t o r a l Water  15 (2)  DfRs 3 % (MNI)  DhRt 4 % (MNI)  8 (1)  9 (2)  Total % (MNI)  10 15  (5)  15 (2)  17  (2)  E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge  24 (3)  67  (8)  59(13)  50 (24)  Forest  46 (6)  (1)  23  25 (12)  TOTAL  8  13  Table 4.36:  12  (2)  (5)  47  22  23  (1D  77  (36)  (6)  Riverine  9  Combined % (MNI)  47  A v i f a u n a H a b i t a t C a t e g o r i e s , A l l Assemblages, MNI . 2  Habitat / S i t e  DhRt 6 % (MNI)  DfRs 3 % (MNI)  DhRt 4 % (MNI)  Total % (MNI)  Combined % (MNI)  Littoral  67 (3D  60 (91)  62 (65)  62 (187)  62 (187)  17  (8)  30  29  (3D  28  9  (4)  1  (1)  4  / Riverine  Sheltered Estuarine Water Strand/Littoral Interface  5  (45)  (8)  (84) 28 (84)  (13)  10 (32) Mixed Woodlands  TOTAL  3  7  (3)  46  5  (7)  151  8 (8)  105  Appendix, T a b l e D.5 l i s t s raw d a t a f o r T a b l e 4.35 Appendix, T a b l e D.6 l i s t s raw data f o r T a b l e 4.36. 3 U n s p e c i f i e d and immature b i r d remains a r e e x c l u d e d . 1  2  6 (18)  302  302  171  Page Locarno Beach s i t e , Of  the  Forest are 48  and  found  seven species  present,  Estuarine/Forest i n the  i n the  live  habitat  categories.  In  the  Open  Open L i t t o r a l  waters.  70%  Littoral  However,  b o r n s and  riverine  This  setting.  animals  Forest  of  (MNI=9)  river  probably  the  not  the  three  Locarno  percentage  dwelling  mammals This  two  D f R s 3 may  mammal h u n t i n g  sample.  are  present  in  absence of  and  the  Forest  to  there.  Estuarine/Forest  and  Of  the  Forest percent  Riverine in  this  associated with  strengthens  the  a  argument Edge  and  c u l t u r e assemblages,  the  not  and  this the  times.  have been t h e  because  (5  assemblage  small  other  sample  Edge  species (n=48)  size  bear  l o c a t i o n of i n t e n s i v e  subsistence  Nevertheless,  Edge c a t e g o r i e s  occur  Estuarine/Forest  l a r g e l a n d mammals, b l a c k  B o t h R i v e r i n e and and  two  are  Estuarine/Forest  Beach  i s due  the  occurred  of  occurs  including elk.  only  DfRs 3  smallest  present).  the  otters  a r e a were h u n t e d d u r i n g L o c a r n o B e a c h  Of  in  Thirty  Waters  two  situation  principally  W h a l e n Farm s i t e ,  are  while  assemblage,  a s s e m b l a g e were new  land  species  E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge d w e l l i n g a n i m a l s .  (MNI=4)  that  five  Edge c a t e g o r i e s  R i v e r i n e and  mammal b o n e s  and  DhRt 6  the  represent  Open L i t t o r a l  i n the sample, ( 2 5 % ,  activities  Forest 75%  (MNI=9)  Water  MNI=3).  and of  animals  Page 172 Musqueam NE, DhRt 4 Eighty-three  mammal  bones  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 7 mammal s p e c i e s E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge. and  i n the assemblage  that l i v e  Three s p e c i e s  i n t h e F o r e s t and  (beaver,  river  h a r b o u r s e a l ) a c c o u n t f o r t h e R i v e r i n e a n d Open  Water s p e c i e s . assemblage,  are  otter,  Littoral  They a c c o u n t f o r 1 8 % ( M N I = 4 ) o f t h e mammal  while  the Forest  d w e l l i n g fauna represent  and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t  Edge  82% (MNI=l8) o f t h e sample.  Birds Four  categories  examine b i r d Unspecified the  three  areas  Littoral/Riverine (3) Strand/Littoral  focus  rivers.  waterfowl.  area.  have been e x c l u d e d  from  (1)  (2) S h e l t e r e d E s t u a r i n e Water; and  (Table  the Forest  4 . 3 6 ) .  (hereafter  Whereas  t o t h e beaches  Edge  was t h e f o r e s h o r e  exploitation  i n this  mammal  and u p l a n d s  and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t  exploitation  Avifauna  separate  exploitation:  I n t e r f a c e and Mixed Woodlands  of avifauna  surprise since is  Water;  to  Delta  f o r each assemblage  habitat  was r e s t r i c t e d  associated with  and  of  Strand-Uplands)  exploitation  the  The d a t a  2 a r e used  i n the Fraser  duck and immature b i r d by MNI.  termed  i n Chapter  habitat exploitation  raw d a t a  into  defined  region  t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e b i r d s i n each  zones, o f bays i s no  assemblage  173  Page DhRt 6  Locarno Beach s i t e , Of  17  the  bird  Littoral/Riverine Estuarine  Of  adult  the  126  Littoral/Riverine the  (MNI=7) f a l l  Seventeen  Estuarine  species  Eleven 60%  species  the  Sheltered  the  sample, while  10%  site,  the  category as  i s the  the  Strand-Uplands level the  (MNI=8)  category,  16%  and  category.  bone e l e m e n t s a r e  the  Littoral/Riverine sample.  Waters  Five  bird  represent  30%  Strand-Uplands  seven  in  interface  species.  DhRt 4  20  Littoral/Riverine of  of  the  (MNI=15) and  associated with  (MNI=65)  435  Estuarine  Three-hundred, sixty-seven are  Sheltered  percent  i n the  (MNI=9D  are  Musqueam NE  Water  and  species  Waters category  component has  the  DfRs 3  assemblage.  (MNI=45) o f  in  represent  Strand-Uplands h a b i t a t  Twenty-three b i r d  of  are  i n the  i n the  (MNI=31)  category.  i n the  species  four are  four are  67%  Sheltered  W h a l e n Farm s i t e ,  the  and  nine  bone e l e m e n t s i d e n t i f i e d t o t h e  species,  represent  present,  Water c a t e g o r y ;  Water c a t e g o r y ;  category. of  species  bird  is associated  species.  Water  sample.  bird  Strand-Uplands area  Eight  category  The  with  bones i n t h e  six bird (9%,  species  and  Sheltered  occur i n  represent Estuarine  species  MNI=9).  assemblage  (29%,  62% Water  MNI=3D,  Page  174  Fish Fish habitat exploitation fish the  bone e l e m e n t s Littoral  associated  Water of  with  R i v e r i n e areas The and  riverine  three  the  of  estuary  fish  areas)  and  Yet,  the  i n the  and  intertidal  freshwater  the  frequency This  of  and  (tidal  (Littoral  inshore  indicates a  Flats the  4.37).  inshore  deep w a t e r zones  Tidal  flats;  (Table  from  delta:  flats  Waters)  fish  remains  preference  for  species.  Of  the  17  seven  species  flats  and  DhRt 6  fish are  three  species  i n the  species  in  sturgeon,  and  habitats  depending  on  diversity  ( i . e . number o f  not  vary,  elements i n the  only  5%  the  the  10  rivers.  (n=33.5)  f o r the the  of f i s h  d e l t a compared and  In  in  Even  of  assemblage, the  Three  dwell  season.  species)  inshore t i d a l f l a t s  i n the  deep z o n e ,  midshipmen)  assemblage are  Water h a b i t a t i n the the  recovered  found  (salmon,  prefer  h a b i t a t areas  species  samples.  Locarno Beach s i t e ,  does  a breakdown of  d e l t a f o r e s l o p e ; the  i n f l u e n c e d by  vary.  dominates inshore  the  number  does not  into  i s e x a m i n e d by  two  680  rivers.  species  two  delta  though  fish  major  zones  identifiable  that prefer  to 95%  tidal  Littoral  (n=646.5)  that  Page 175 Table 4.37: Fish Habitat Categories, A l l Assemblages, E 1 Habitat / Site  DhRt 6 % (E)  DfRs 3 % (E)  DhRt 4 % (E)  L i t t o r a l Waters  5  7  5  (33.5)  (48)  (223)  Total % (E) 5  (304.5)  Tidal Flats  74 (501.0)  60 (405)  64 (2700)  65 (3606.0)  Riverine  21 (145.5)  33 (226)  31 (1298)  30 (1669.5)  TOTAL  680  679  4221  Appendix, Table D.7 l i s t s raw data for Table 4.37.  5580  Page 176 DfRs 3  Whalen Farm s i t e ,  Of t h e 14 f i s h species deep  species present  i n c l u d i n g three  littoral  varieties  water  i n the assemblage,  varieties  and  of f l a t f i s h , p r e f e r the  eight  species  including  fish  remains,  (n=48)  of the assemblage.  sample  i s associated with  deep w a t e r Sixty  species  flats  represent  7%  (n=405)  of the  a n d 33%  (n=226)  percent  the t i d a l  two  Of t h e 679  of s c u l p i n p r e f e r the inshore waters.  identifiable  five  w i t h the r i v e r s . DhRt 4  Musqueam NE s i t e , Twenty-two into  nine  inshore trout) is  fish  species  zone  and  i n both  Flats  habitats. fish.  three  (salmon,  major c a t e g o r i e s .  (64%,  Only  Once  in this  i n the l i t t o r a l  a strong preference  Tidal  n=2700)  again,  inshore f i s h i n g  assemblage zone;  fish  and  and  i n the  steelhead  S i m i l a r t o DhRt 6 ,  represent  there  s p l i t between t h e (31%,  n=1298)  deep w a t e r  dwelling  Riverine  diversity  between  i n t h e DhRt 4 a s s e m b l a g e , pattern.  separate  eleven  sturgeon,  f o r inshore f i s h i n g  5% ( n = 3 0 4 . 5 )  z o n e s does n o t v a r y an  species  t h e two  major  demonstrating  Page 177 Locarno Beach C u l t u r e h a b i t a t e x p l o i t a t i v e An  economy  characterizes subsistence preferring Fraser  economy. Forest  resources.  each  the Locarno  Delta.  exploited,  emphasizing  Beach  Although  seal  d i d not dominate This,  strongly  vertebrate  subsistence  than  (especially suggests  with The  economy  during  environment  area  of the  a r e major otter  were  component o f  and upland  that  the Locarno  Beach  on b i r d s t h a t p r e f e r r e d  setting.  and bays Waterfowl  each assemblage.  habitat selection, s u c h as submerged  of h a b i t a t s e l e c t i o n  the  hunting.  ( i . e . estuary)  d i v i n g b i r d s ) dominate  technology  bear  the inference  t h a t o f l a n d mammal h u n t i n g ,  probably  This  through  a  nets.  f o ravifauna  contrasts  y e t i t i s complementary.  u s e o f d i f f e r e n t and d i s t i n c t i v e  River the  beach  definitive  specialized The  a  areas  o f w h a l e s , s e a l i o n s , and  Procurement o f a v i f a u n a focused  rather  animals  i n a d d i t i o n to the absence of  supports  delta's foreshore  on  and r i v e r  c u l t u r e was n o t b a s e d on m a r i n e mammal  the  Edge  t h e mammal  f o rthe extensive hunting  porpoises  vertebrate  focused  e l k , and b l a c k  harbour  resources  culture  and E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t  assemblage.  evidence  foreshore  Mammal h u n t i n g  Deer,  they  patterns  areas  w i t h i n the Fraser  D e l t a shows t h a t L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e p o p u l a t i o n s o f  this  area  took  varied environmental  advantage of a v a i l a b l e food settings.  resources i n  Page Locarno focused  culture  on i n s h o r e  resource. suggests salmon  Beach  fishing  settings.  The a b u n d a n c e  activities  Salmon  o f salmon  that Fraser Delta populations runs  i n two a r e a s  to the b i g rivers  a n d (2)  streams.  This  Mitchell  argues  that  (Locarno) had  river  from  do n o t ,  access  at present,  t o the Fraser  advantage o f the  (1)  the estuarine and l o c a l  ( 1 9 7 1 b : 5 7 - 5 8 ) , who attributable  suggest  River  fish  assemblage  the rivers  " t h e l o c a t i o n s of s i t e s  type,  direct  differs  i n each  of the delta:  approaches  primarily  was a m a j o r  took  178  to the  the populations  salmon  runs  i n the  itself." Harbour  infrequent followed  seal  and l i t t o r a l  i n each  spawning  dwelling  assemblage.  salmon  into  fish  These  most  inshore smelt diving  abundant  waters,  during  fish  probably  the spring.  waterfowl  resource. feeding  h a v e been i m p o r t a n t  resources  in  areas  frequency techniques.  of herring  probably  They  were  Flatfish  are the  prevail  i n the  on s p a w n i n g  h e r r i n g and  The c o - o c c u r e n c e o f f l a t f i s h and  indicates that  the i n t e r t i d a l  fauna  t h e d e l t a and i n t u r n  c a u g h t by L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e f i s h e r m e n . second  remains a r e  h e r r i n g and smelt  may a l s o  e x p l o i t e d on a s e a s o n a l  of the delta.  i s attributed  Thus,  to poor  basis  t h e low screening  179  Chapter 5 THE NATURE OF THE LOCARNO BEACH CULTURE SUBSISTENCE PATTERN AND I T S PLACE I N THE GULF OF GEORGIA SEQUENCE  Introduction This culture Fraser  chapter  Chapter  three  with  S t . Mungo  (4300-3300  B.P.) c o m p o n e n t s .  1, t h e c u l t u r a l  relationship  As  from  discussed  between  these  a r e used  in  three (Table  to evaluate  hypotheses about t h e Locarno Beach c u l t u r e v e r t e b r a t e pattern  and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p  t o t h e S t . Mungo  Marpole c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s i n the d e l t a over  years.  Beach  B.P.) a n d  d e l t a c u l t u r e s i s not w e l l understood  The L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e d a t a  subsistence and  sites  (2400-1200  consecutive 1.2).  of the Locarno  v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l a n a l y s i s t o documented d a t a Delta  Marpole  compares t h e r e s u l t s  the l a s t  4500  Page 180 Hypotheses  Hypothesis  1: The L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e I s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  a m a r i n e mammal h u n t i n g  The  f i n d i n g s of this  Hypothesis the  1.  Beach  procurement whales,  culture.  porpoises,  Peninsula coast  pattern  o f open  components  to the r e j e c t i o n of  i n the Fraser In contrast  littoral  a t Hoko  River  Delta  during  Locarno  patterns  Island  emphasized  mammal m a r i t i m e were  resources  themselves, exploited  these  vertebrate  seal  (such  ( 4 5 c a 2 1 3 ) on  the Olympic  (Calvert  H a r b o u r on t h e w e s t  1980),  exploit  Rather,  people marine  their  Harbour s e a l , mammals  do n o t f o r m  resources  i s t h e most  of  a s m a l l sample s i z e  a large  resident  of the mammals  subsistence  o t t e r , and  captured,  a major  (Tables  abundant  river  a n d by  part  of the  4.3, 4.4, a n d 4 . 5 ) .  mammal  resource  L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e mammal a s s e m b l a g e a t DfRs 3. case,  as  prehistoric  aquatic  fauna  f o r the  n o n - m a r i n e mammals a n d o t h e r n o n -  resources.  the only  during the  i n late  times.  local  part of  t o evidence  water  d i d not extensively Beach  was o n l y Delta  (Wigeon 1982) and a t H e s q u a i t  Fraser  Harbour  lead  and sea l i o n s )  of Vancouver  beaver  study  M a r i n e mammal e x p l o i t a t i o n  subsistence  Locarno  economy.  i n the In t h i s  (n=48) and a p o s s i b l y l o n g h i s t o r y  group  of seals  i n Boundary  B a y (Ham  Page 181 1 9 8 2 : 2 5 ) may  be f a c t o r s .  lion  i n larger  they  tend  into  the Fraser River Estuary  during any  samples  I would a l s o  to follow  the Locarno  exploitation  of Locarno  expect  t o f i n d sea  Beach c u l t u r e  spawning eulachon,  herring,  (Guiguet  Beach c u l t u r e ,  f a u n a , as and salmon  1975:347).  However,  t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f  o f e x o t i c marine  mammal f a u n a  that are not  indigenous to the Fraser Delta. By  E, s a l m o n , l a n d mammals, a n d d i v i n g  waterfowl  were  t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l r e s o u r c e s e x p l o i t e d by inhabitants was  of the delta.  probably  inferred  T h i s type of s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n  i n conjunction with  from  the co-occurence  w a t e r f o w l , and spawning h e r r i n g , Monks  (1977)  harvesting Marpole  have  sites  i n the Gulf  i n t o account  of  of  indicates.  of Georgia  sturgeon  pattern  sturgeon e x p l o i t a t i o n Deer,  (198la:75)  i n the Marpole  of continuity  diving  (1982) and  and region  herring during  cultures.  i t s relatively  Matson  Ham  shellfish  may h a v e p l a y e d a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e remains  g a t h e r i n g , as  flatfish,  and s m e l t .  documented  and L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c  Taking  shellfish  from  large size, than  Locarno  i t s frequency of  notes  component  sturgeon  the importance  a t D g R r 6;  Beach  thus  t o Marpole  a in  i s suggested.  e l k ,and harbour  exploited  d u r i n g the Locarno  frequency  i n each  assemblage  seal  were  the major  mammals  Beach c u l t u r e .  T h e i r l o w bone  i s attributed  to the "schlepp  Page 1 8 2 effect"  (after  probable  rank  Perkins  and Daly  order of importance  1968:104).  Thus, the  f o r v e r t e b r a t e -fauna  was  f i s h , mammals, and w a t e r f o w l . Identifiable that  l e g bone f r a g m e n t s  p o r t i o n s o f deer  or elk with  support large  the hypothesis  meat  value  were  "schlepped" to the h a b i t a t i o n s i t e  a f t e r most o f t h e c a r c a s s  was d r e s s e d .  T h e s e bone f r a g m e n t s  may a l s o s u g g e s t  site  manufacturing.  artifact  may h a v e b e e n b r o u g h t of  these  patterns  Prehistoric continuity  St.  rank  i n situ  of  order  Late  a long  by F r a s e r D e l t a  cultures  (Matson  i s t h e same f o r  1976b:295-305).  i n vertebrate faunal exploitation Beach c u l t u r e  findings  indicates  The that  subsistence patterns are part of  development.  2 : During the Locarno  Hypothesis 2 .  the  and s u g g e s t  f o r v e r t e b r a t e fauna  v e r t e b r a t e fauna suggests  The  Both  cultures.  cultural  Hypothesis  a t DgRr 1 d u r i n g  (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 3 6 3 - 3 6 4 )  Mungo and M a r p o l e  the Locarno  assemblage  attached to hides.  i n t h e u s e o f mammal r e s o u r c e s  continuity  an  to the site  occurred  culture  archaeological This  Sesamoids i n each  some o n -  of this  Beach c u l t u r e ,  y e a r round  study  lead  site  seasonality  utilization.  to the r e j e c t i o n  of  183  Page Due  to temperate  vertebrate addition bird  winter conditions  resources  to remains  are  migratory.  of fauna  with  i n the d e l t a ,  Nevertheless, in  known age  Faunal that  and  stratigraphic  seasonal site  data  utilization  in this  in  a l l three  occupation  during  the  culture  late  Pacific  At  DhRt 6,  suggests spring  the  sample o f j u v e n i l e  evidence  for  Abbott is  (1972)  indicate  documented  types,  that  aggregated localities  occupation  smelt Summer  remains  that  Locarno  vertebrate  and  a  the  Beach  resources i n  i n the F r a s e r D e l t a . Beach  culture.  patterns.  i s determined  culture  However, t h e  Beach s e a s o n a l i t y  culture  site  Altogether,  the Locarno  of the Marpole  the Locarno  Marpole  seasonal  indicates  suggests that  a seasonal variant  data to  restricted  of  summer o c c u p a t i o n .  mammal r e m a i n s .  seasonality  c u l t u r e people e x p l o i t e d geographically  spring.  T h e i r abundance i n  o c c u p a t i o n a t DhRt 4 i s s u g g e s t e d by e u l a c h o n small  suggest  early  high percentage  to early  and  herring  s u g g e s t s a n o t h e r t i m e o f y e a r when e a c h  occupied.  remains  t h e DhRt 6  and  M i g r a t o r y w a t e r f o w l w i n t e r i n the d e l t a . each assemblage  indicate  assemblages  winter  that  F i s h p r o v i d e some  the s t r o n g e s t evidence of s e a s o n a l i t y . Beach  study  characterizes  of  Locarno  and  analysis.  in this  DfRs 3 Locarno Beach c u l t u r e assemblages.  was  of death  m e d u l l a r y b o n e , t h e r e a r e some f a u n a i n t h e d e l t a  h a v e been u s e d as s e a s o n a l i t y m a r k e r s  few  i s similar  In both by  culture  convergent  Page aggregations smelt  and  prey  on  of  roe;  entangled  (and  Consequently,  Ham  salmon  attracted  captured  by  seals  a l l these  Locarno the  runs  cases,  variant  of  Beach c u l t u r e  addition  of  eulachon.  Hypothesis  3:  sturgeon  percentage  be  an  artifact  component due i n c h or l a r g e r  of  in  fishing  nets.  be  simultaneously  Locarno  Beach' c u l t u r e  the  Marpole  culture.  the Locarno  study  and  i s not  Rather,  Beach  of  land  culture,  a the  the  do n o t  excavation  salmon i s  l e a d to the an  rejection  overwhelming fish may  As n o t e d  remains  partially  methodology  r e c o v e r the  h e r r i n g , eulachon, inferential  mammals,  .  This dominant percentage  s c r e e n does not  I f an  and  become  the  to screening techniques.  remains of p a c i f i c  rivers  could  o f t h e t o t a l number o f i d e n t i f i a b l e  each assemblage.  smelt.  that  Salmon remains c o n s t i t u t e  in  surf  major  s e a s o n a l i t y i s very M a r p o l e - l i k e , w i t h  During  3.  f l a t f i s h to  Beach.  f i n d i n g s of t h i s  Hypothesis  could  and  spawning  ( 1 9 7 7 ) shows a t Deep Cove  t h e most i m p o r t a n t f i s h r e s o u r c e  of  the  some summer e x p l o i t a t i o n  s m e l t , and  The  in  fauna  example,  birds  nuisance)  h u n t e r s , as Monks  these  seasonal  a  For  diving  and  hence  (1982) a t C r e s c e n t In  resources.  herring attracted fish  streams  specific  184  for  before,  s m a l l boned  each 1/4 fish  n o r t h e r n anchovy,  and  extrapolation occurred  for  Page 185 each  assemblage  proportionally decrease  that  h a d some  small  boned  fish,  i n c r e a s e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s m a l l f i s h and  the percentage of the salmon.  Why  after  s m a l l f i s h when one c o u l d have t h e l a r g e r  not,  i f there  are fresh  preserved salmon. eulachon  would  situation  would  vertebral similar  small  fish  O i l from p a c i f i c also  be  an  certainly  salmon  t o what Ham  material  i t would  bother going salmon?  to eat instead  (1982)  important  i n each  resource.  and t o what  This  numbers o f  assemblage—a  discusses i n the l a t e  a t C r e s c e n t Beach  of  h e r r i n g , s u r f s m e l t , and  account f o r the large  remains  Why  pattern  prehistoric  Calvert  (personal  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J a n u a r y 1 9 8 2 ) found i n a l l components a t t h e St.  Mungo This  site  near  (personal  site. contrasts Lake  faster  Washington  that  This spawning  detected  i n Renton, August  and female salmon  old sites.  hypothesis  patterns  communication,  spawning,male year  with  (possibly  salmons'  i n middens than non-spawning  skull  freshwater  Washington.  1983)  evidence casts  at a  found  heads  of  sockeye) i n 2000  some  doubt  remains  salmon.  Butler  on t h e  deteriorate  Page A Comparison  o f S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h , and M a r p o l e  186  Culture  Vertebrate Subsistence Patterns In order to e v a l u a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p Mungo,  Locarno Beach,  comparison  and M a r p o l e  of v e r t e b r a t e  each c u l t u r e  faunal  between  subsistence  assemblages  the S t .  economies,  a  that represent  i s presented.  The c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a b a s e  include:  1. M a r p o l e c o m p o n e n t s a t G l e n r o s e C a n n e r y , DgRr 6 — G l e n r o s e I ( M a t s o n 1976a, 1 9 8 l a , C a s t e e l 1976b, Imamoto 1974, 1976) 2. Beach Grove, et. a l 1981)  DgRs 1 — L a y e r s  A, B, C, D,  and E  (Matson  3. S t . Mungo c o m p o n e n t s a t G l e n r o s e C a n n e r y , DgRr 6 ( M a t s o n 1 9 7 6 a 1 9 8 1 a ; C a s t e e l 1976b; Imamoto 1974, 1976) a n d S t . Mungo C a n n e r y , DgRr 2 — S t . Mungo l a b ( C a l v e r t 1970; Boehm 1973ab).  The  Locarno  assemblages  in this  c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a f o r the Locarno Beach  study  are used  culture.  As w i t h t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f d a t a f r o m d i f f e r e n t excavators,  e x c a v a t i o n methodology  comparative (i.e.  study,  levels  or  ( i . e . number individuals respective To  as  layers)  of s k e l e t a l [MNI],  site  avoid  are  units  and  elements  or weight  as  s i t e s and  i s problematic i n a of  units  quantification of  measurement  [ E ] , minimum  of Identifiable  number  of  bone) i n the  reports. problems  different units  associated  with  the comparison  of  o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n and measurement i n f a u n a l  Page 187 studies,  one must  denominator." common being  use data  In this  denominators" compared  compared.  having  analysis,  I s used  from a l l assemblages  depending  on  (1) t h e s i t e s  taxonomic  information  groups  of subsistence a c t i v i t i e s  resources  i d e n t i f i e d f o r each  of vertebrate  seasonality  fauna  b a s e d on p r o c u r e m e n t o f  vertebrate  assemblage.  comparing t h e f r e q u e n c y d a t a from each assemblage cultures,  being  f o r a l l components I s used t o e s t a b l i s h  continuity  three  common  a combination of "least  and ( 2 ) t h e major  Presence-absence  the "least  variations  By  across the  i n resource u t i l i z a t i o n  and  are addressed.  Results Based vertebrate St.  on p r e s e n c e - a b s e n c e , f a u n a were e x p l o i t e d  Mungo, L o c a r n o  Beach,  h u n t i n g f o c u s e d on l a n d emphasized of  bays  for  and r i v e r s  major  and M a r p o l e  throughout the  cultures.  fauna (Table 5.1); b i r d  Mammal  procurement  ( T a b l e 5 . 4 ) ; and f i s h i n g i n c l u d e d  i n the d e l t a  animal classes  a l l three  Locarno Beach's cultures.  i n the delta  types of  the waterfowl a s s o c i a t e d with the foreshore areas  types a v a i l a b l e within  t h e same m a j o r  cultures  today  (Table 5.7).  ( i . e . mammals, b i r d s ,  permit  relationship  a  closer  those  Variations and f i s h )  examination of  t o t h e S t . Mungo a n d M a r p o l e  188  Page Mammals Emphasis  on mammal h u n t i n g i s e x a m i n e d  o f mammal r e m a i n s f o r a l l  assemblages  mammal  both  (i.e.  categories.  By  by a  breakdown  into aquatic  number  of  and  species  land  present  d i v e r s i t y ) and by bone c o u n t , l a n d mammals c o m p r i s e an  pverwhelming  majority  of  Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h ,  and  t h e mammal r e m a i n s Marpole  i n each  assemblages  St. 5.1  (Tables  5.2).  and  Deer  and  activities E.l). the  e l k are  are large  exception  of  and  components, only  focus  one  river  harbour  animals with sea  lion  otter seal  aquatic  mammals  archaeological  cultures.  and  Drucker  (1955)  subsistence  from  present  i n each assemblage  DgRs 1  the three are  in  lack  undermines  i n the d e l t a  Marpole  Locarno  a l l three  of d i f f e r e n t  Beach the  delta  types  of  low f r e q u e n c y o f  the Borden  incipient during  With  consistently  consistently  h y p o t h e s i s o f an  economy  mammal h u n t i n g  h i g h meat v a l u e .  beaver  The  land  years (Appendix, Table  i n the  l a r g e m a r i n e mammals and t h e i r remains  of  4500  throughout the l a s t  They  component  the  (1951)  marine  the Locarno  and  mammal Beach  culture. Boehm ( 1 9 7 3 a b ) of  harbour  DgRr 2  and  seal  and  i n S t . Mungo  DgRr 6,  ethnographically  Imamoto  (1974) explain and  Marpole  respectively  as  the presence  components part  of  at an  reported p a t t e r n of clubbing whelping seals  Page 189  Table 5.1: Presence-Absence of Mammal in St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta S i t e s . St. Mungo DgRr 6 DgRr 2 *<n) %(n)  Land Mammals Elk Deer Black Bear Canis Porcupine Raccoon Squirrel Striped Skunk Peromyscus Mink Muskrat  + + + + + + -  40(6)  Aquatic Mammals Beaver River Otter Harbour Seal Northern Fur Seal TOTAL J(n)  +  + + + + + + + + +  60(9) + + -  Locarno Beach DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 X(n) *(n) J(n) + + + + + -  + +  + + + +  +  +  + +  + + -  33(5) 33(5) 46(7) + + + -  + 13(2)  13(2)  13(2)  20(3)  + + + 20(3)  53(8)  73(11)  46(7)  53(8)  66(10)  + + -  Marpole DgRr 6 DgRs 1 tin) J(n) + + + + + + -  40(6) + + -  + + + + + + + -  46(7)  + + +  13(2)  53(8)  20(3) 66(10)  Table 5.2: Comparison of Land and Aquatic Mammal Remains in St. Mungo, Locarno Beach and Marpole Componants, E . 1  St. Mungo DgRr 6 DgRr 2 J(E) %(E)  Land Mammal  69(149) 68(189)  Aquatic Mammal 31 (67) 32 (91) TOTAL 1  216  280  Locarno Beach DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 %(E) »(E) X(E)  79(38)  69(33)  21(10)  3 K 1 5 ) 13(12)  48  87(83)  48  Appendix, Table E.1 l i s t s raw data for Table 5 . 2 .  95  Marpole DgRr 6 DgRs 1 %(E) J(E)  84(64) 86(66) 16(12) 76  14(11)  77  Page 190 In  Harrison  Lake  1955).  (Barnett  o r on  the shores  c o m p o n e n t a t DhRt 6 , seal,  borns.  An  "attracted Nets  i t would  as s e a l whelp alternative  i n the Locarno  be a d i f f i c u l t i n large  herds  hypothesis  a r e among t h e p e r i s h a b l e components.  and t h e r i v e r  aggregation  of  remains  task  Beach  to club  to protect  i s that  new  seal  (Croes  are  1975:58).  i n t h e DhRt 4  found  T h i s s i t u a t i o n may be b r o a d e n e d t o  i n c l u d e sea l i o n , which dwell winter,  otter  to the location of net f i s h i n g "  waterlogged  River  Although t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y might account f o r  t h e p r e s e n c e o f two n e w b o r n r i v e r  whelping  of the Fraser  otter  i n the Gulf Islands during the during  maritime  the procurement  resources,  such  o f any  as  fish  (e.g. p a c i f i c h e r r i n g or surf smelt), waterfowl (e.g. d i v i n g ducks)  or s h e l l f i s h .  verify  However,  at this  time,  I can not  any o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s , s o a l l o f them r e m a i n  viable  possibilities. The compare  known age o f n o n - a d u l t the seasons  Mungo a n d M a r p o l e Locarno Beach of  death  Mungo site  of e x p l o i t a t i o n  exploitation  f o r mammals  i s used  1973) These Table  was n o t d i s c u s s e d  o r Beach sites 5.3  of j u v e n i l e  to  i n the St.  c o m p o n e n t s a t DhRt 6 , DfRs 3 , and DhRt 4 .  (Calvert  discussion.  remains  a t DgRr 6 t o t h o s e f r o m t h e  assemblages  f o r mammal r e m a i n s  reports.  bone  Grove  (Matson  illustrates mammals  took  that  i n theS t .  et.a l  a r e excluded from  Age  1981)  the present  summer-to-fall  place i n a l l three  Page 191 Table 5.3: Seasons Represented i n Mammal Assemblages Based on PresenceAbsence of Known Age, St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Cultures. S i t e / Season ST. MUNGO DgRr 6 Deer Elk LOCARNO BEACH DhRt 6 Harbour Seal River Otter Deer Black Bear Raccoon DfRs 3 Harbour Seal Raccoon Muskrat DhRt 4 Harbour Seal Deer Raccoon MARPOLE DgRr 6 Harbour Seal Deer  Winter  Spring  Summer  Fall  -  -  + +  +  +  + +  -  -  + + + + +  + + + + +  -  +  + + +  + + +  + + +  + + +  + +  + +  +  +  -  -  +  +  Page 192 cultures.  Although  hunting of adult  this  type o f a n a l y s i s  does n o t p r e c l u d e  s p e c i e s a t o t h e r t i m e s o f t h e y e a r , i t does  e m p h a s i z e some s i m i l a r i t y  i n d e l t a mammal h u n t i n g  patterns.  Birds Emphasis i n b i r d u t i l i z a t i o n of and  bird  remains  count, and  i n t h e two S t . Mungo, t h r e e L o c a r n o  two M a r p o l e  categories.  i s e x a m i n e d by a b r e a k d o w n  components  In both  waterfowl  into  number  waterfowl  of species  Beach,  and upland present  predominate i n a l l assemblages  fowl  a n d bone  (Tables 5.4  5.5).  A change i n t h e t y p e o f w a t e r f o w l i n g o c c u r s b e t w e e n S t . Mungo t o L o c a r n o  Beach c u l t u r e s  (Table 5 . 6 ) .  cultures  and Locarno  Frequency data  Beach t o Marpole  ( E ) f o r t h e S t . Mungo  c o m p o n e n t s a t DgRr 6 a n d DgRr 2 a n d t h e M a r p o l e a t DgRs 1 a n d DgRr 6 i n d i c a t e waterfowl,  whereas  an emphasis i n s u r f a c e - f e e d i n g  frequency  data  from  the Locarno  c o m p o n e n t s a t DhRt 6 , D f R s 3 , a n d DhRt 4 s u g g e s t for diving This Diving spawn diving  Beach  a selection  waterfowl. relationship  waterfowl  feed  i n freshwater birds,  available  components  may be r e l a t e d on h e r r i n g  (Hart  herring,  to site  and smelt,  1973:97-99,  and s m e l t  t o DgRr 2 a n d DgRr 6 .  would  locations.  which  148-150).  do n o t Thus,  n o t be a s e a s i l y  Page 193  Table  5 . 4 : Presence-Absence of Bird in St. Mungo, Locarno, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta S i t e s .  St. Mungo DgRr 6 DgRr 3 %(n) *<n> Diving Waterfowl Loons Grebes Cormorants Murres/Murrelets Diving Ducks  Locarno DhRt 6 DfRs 3 J(n) X(n) + +  + +  + + +  + +  + +  DhRt 4 %(n)  Marpole DgRr 6 DgRs 1 %(n) %(n)  + +  + +  +  17(2)  42(5)  34(4)  34(4)  25(3)  8(1)  25(3)  Surface-Feeding Waterfowl Geese + Swans + Surface-Feeding Ducks 17(2)  + + + 25(3)  + 17(2)  + 17(2)  + 17(2)  8(1)  17(2)  0(0)  17(2)  8W')  17(2)  8(1)  0(0)  8(1)  + 8(1)  + 8(1)  + 8(1)  + 8(1)  + 8(1)  0(0)  + 8(1)  Scavenging Waterfowl Gulls Other Scavengers  Upland Fowl Upland Fowl  Other Unspecified Ducks  TOTAL  +  +  +  +  +  +  -  8(1)  8(1)  8(1)  8(1)  8(1)  8(1)  0(0)  50( 6) 100(12) 75( 9)  84(10)  66( 8)  24(3)  58( 7)  Page 194  Table 5.5: Comparison of Waterfowl and Upland Fowl i n St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta Sites, E . 1  St. Mungo DgRr 6 DgRr 2 X(E) 56(E) Waterfowl Upland Fowl  TOTAL  Locarno Beach DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 56(E) 56(E) 56(E)  Marpole DgRr 6 DgRs 1 56(E) 56(E)  94(30)  88(199)  91(143)  91(434)  94(382)  100(17)  82(147)  6 (2)  12 (27)  9 (15)  9 (45)  6 (23)  0( 0)  18 (33)  158  479  405  17  31  2  226  180  Table 5.6: Comparison of Diving Waterfowl and Surface-feeding Waterfowl in St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components for Fraser Delta Sites, E . 3  St. Mungo DgRr 6 DgRr 2 56(E) 56(E)  DhRt 6 %(E)  Diving Waterfowl  7( 2)  33 (46)  82(83)  68(255)  72(249)  33( 5)  35(49)  Surfacefeeding Waterfowl  93(29)  67 (94)  18(15)  32(122)  28 (95)  67(10)  65(93)  TOTAL  4  29  Appendix, Table E.2 Unspecified duck i s 3 Appendix, Table E.2 4 Unspecified duck i s 1  2  140  101  Locarno Beach DfRs 3 DhRt 4 %(E) 56(E)  377  l i s t s raw data for Table 5.5. included i n t h i s t o t a l . l i s t s raw data for Table 5.6. excluded from the t o t a l .  344  Marpole DgRr 6 DgRs 1 56(E) 56(E)  15  142  Page 195 It  Is Interesting  t o note  that  t h e DgRs 1  component l a c k s an a b u n d a n c e o f d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l , in  view  of  component same  i t sclose  (separated  shoreline).  DgRs 1 was o c c u p i e d  by a p p r o x i m a t e l y  quantitative site  was  percentage related  The  of diving  area.  waterfowl  believe  and f i s h )  period.  Thus,  than  site  the high  location  more  within  d a t a may a l s o be  was r a i s e d  surface-feeding  bird  i tcertainly  a technology  In the  net f o w l i n g  as a p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  birds  related  procurement s t r a t e g i e s .  i n t h e Locarno Beach  ratio  i n t h e S t . Mungo  f o rthe  components.  T h i s may be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e a b s e n c e o f a . h i g h  such  but  that the  a t DfRs 3 i s p r o b a b l y  i n waterfowl  i n waterfowl  dominance o f d i v i n g  although  present.  indicate  c h a p t e r , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f submerged  technology  that  ^  alternation  a change  previous  f o r a short  along the  species d i v e r s i t y ,  evidence  to l e n g t h of o c c u p a t i o n  the study  to  (mammals, b i r d s ,  and s t r a t i g r a p h i c  occupied  miles  p e r i o d s " as i n d i c a t e d by  DfRs 3 assemblage a l s o r e f l e c t s  The  1.5  et. a l ( 1981:52 )  f o r "prolonged  a wide range o f s p e c i e s  especially  t o t h e DfRs 3 L o c a r n o  proximity  Matson  Marpole  diving to component,  does n o t p r e c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  e x i s t e d d u r i n g t h e S t . Mungo  times.  that  Page 196 Fish In  the previous  Locarno  Beach  exploitation  chapter,  subsistence patterns  of inshore  fish  species).  T h e same p a t t e r n  cultures.  I n a comparison  St.  species 5.7).  emphasized  (i.e. tidal  flats  of presence-absence  d a t a f o r two  flats  components and r i v e r s  (DgRr  6,  Marpole  fish  species  components.  deep w a t e r  fish  are absent  predominate  (Table  components  fishing  i n the Gulf  i sattributed  Calvert  1970,  appears flats  Beach,  focused  o f deep  o f a deep w a t e r f i s h i n g  Matson  i n the inshore  and r i v e r s ) f o r t h e l a s t  4300  water  This i s  tool k i t i n  cultures  Thus, f i s h  1974).  and Marpole  (Table 5 . 8 ) .  a l l three archaeological  1970,  t o have  t h e S t . Mungo a n d  to a lack  of Georgia area  s u p p o r t e d by t h e a b s e n c e from  sole,  I t f o l l o w s then that a low frequency o f  f o r S t . Mungo, L o c a r n o  culture  assemblages  from  Beach  DgRs 1 )  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f s p i n y d o g f i s h and E n g l i s h  littoral  the  o c c u r s i n S t . Mungo a n d M a r p o l e  and two M a r p o l e  of the t i d a l  that  and r i v e r i n e  '(DgRr 6 , DgRr 2 ) , t h r e e L o c a r n o  Mungo c o m p o n e n t s  components,  i t was e s t a b l i s h e d  (Borden  exploitation  areas  (e.g. t i d a l  years of Gulf of Georgia  prehistory. The has  presence of p a c i f i c  been  used  through early Matson  herring  as a s e a s o n a l i t y spring  i n archaeological  Indicator  for late  o c c u p a t i o n (Monks 1 9 7 7 ,  e t . a l 1 9 8 1 , Ham 1 9 8 2 ) .  Herring  Matson  a r e absent  sites winter 1976a,  i n the  Page 1 9 7  Table 5.7: Presence - Absence Data for Fish in St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta Sites.  L i t t o r a l Water Spiny Dogfish Ratfish Northern Anchovy P a c i f i c Hake Petrale Sole P a c i f i c Halibut English Sole Ratfish Lingcod P a c i f i c Cod Walleye Pollack Big Skate P l a i n f i n Midshipman %(n) Tidal Flats P i l e Perch Great Sculpin Buffalo Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin Rock Sole Rex Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish P a c i f i c Herring Surf Smelt %(n) Riverine Salmon Sturgeon Steelhead Trout Eulachon Stickleback Minnow J(n) TDTAT  St. Mungo DgRr 6 DgRr 6 (Col.) (Unit) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0(0)  -  _  _  3(1)  + + ' + +  17(5)  +  _ _  _ _  Locarno Beach DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 (Unit) (Unit) (Unit) + + + + + _ + _ _ +  _ _ _  3(1)  23(7)  _ _  _ _  _ _ + _ _  -  _ _ + _  3(1)  _ +  + +  +  10(3)  20TB1—"T7T5"5  +  +  +  23(7)  _ -  + + + -  + -  _  + +  _ + + + + _ +  -  + +  _ + + +  _  -  _  30(9)  _ + _ + + +  + + -  +  + +  + _ +  _  + + +  27(8)  20(6)  _  -  + + _ + + + + + -  20(6)  + _  Marpole DgRr 6 DgRr 6 (Col.) (Unit)  _ -  + + + +  + -  -  -  0(0)  _ + _  3(1)  + _ -  10(3)  7(2)  17(5)  3(1)  57(17)  50(15)  73(22)  7T2l  At DgRr 2 — Salmon, Sturgeon, Pea-mouth Chub, F l a t f i s h and Spiny Dogfish were also i d e n t i f i e d .  + + -  7(2)  _ + + + + + + + _  2(7)  + + + -  10(3) W  Page 198 Table 5.8: Identified Fish Remains for St. Mungo, Locarno Beach, and Marpole Assemblages from Fraser Delta Sites, E.  St. Mungo DgRr 6 (Column) J(E) L i t t o r a l Water Spiny Dogfish J(n)  Tidal Flats Starry Flounder Flatfish P a c i f i c Herring Surf Smelt %(n) Riverine Eulachon Stickleback Minnow Salmon Sturgeon %(n) Other %(n) TOTAL  0(0)  1 2  .5(3)  Locarno Beach DhRt 6 DfRs 3 (Unit) (Unit) *(E) %(E) 1 .1(1)  5 32 79 233 51 (349)  DhRt 4 (Unit) J(E)  8 1(8)  13 .3(13)  36 163 1  184 1194 2  29(200)  33(1380)  Marpole DgRr 6 (Column)  0(0)  2 5(2)  1  52 18  7 154 2  281 6  35(226)  43(289)  414 64.5(414)  41 5.9(41)  1  643  680  466 6 67(452)  2470 180 61(2586)  19 3(19)  242 5.7(242)  679  4221  4 25(4) 14 70(14) 20  "Other" includes r a t f i s h , anchovy, hake, lingcod, P a c i f i c cod, walley pollack, skate, perch, and sculpin. 1  Page 199 St.  Mungo c o m p o n e n t s  culture 1/4  faunal  a t DgRr 2 a n d DgRr 6 .  data Include  both material  The S t . Mungo  screened through  I n c h mesh a t DgRr 2 and DgRr 6 a n d c a r e f u l l y - c o l l e c t e d  column  s a m p l e s a t DgRr 6 .  present  In contrast, herring  remains a r e  i n t h e M a r p o l e c o l u m n s a m p l e a t DgRr 6 , t h e M a r p o l e  component  a t Beach  Grove  Beach c u l t u r e components  (DgRr 1 ) , and t h e t h r e e i n this  study  Locarno  (DhRt 6 , DfRs 3 , and  DhRt 4 ) . Matson  (1976b:93) attributes  the lack of herring  i n St.  Mungo c o m p o n e n t s  and i t s p r e s e n c e i n M a r p o l e components  the  and use o f " h e r r i n g  development  observed large  4D,  These  i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c p e r i o d a s a method  a g g r e g a t i o n s o f spawning h e r r i n g  waters  rakes."  (Suttles  1951:126-127).  E, F ) d e s c r i b e s  herring  bone b a r b s w i t h a c i r c u l a r  (1960:580,  c r o s s - s e c t i o n and a f a i r l y  butt."  The p r e s e n c e o f h e r r i n g  bone  and f r a g m e n t s  L o c a r n o Beach components  sheltered Figure  r a k e b a r b s as " s m a l l , s y m m e t r i c  wedge-shaped points  were  of capturing  i n shallow  Carlson  to  abrupt  and r a k e - s i z e  (Appendix, Table B . l ) In  a l l  may p u s h b a c k t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d  use o f t h i s procurement t e c h n o l o g y f o r h e r r i n g . S a l n o n e x p l o i t a t i o n has a l o n g p r e h i s t o r y Delta.  Based  on e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e G l e n r o s e  (DgRr 6 ) , M a t s o n  (1981:73,75)  probably  important  t h e most  and M a r p o l e c u l t u r e s .  reports  resource  that  during  i n the Fraser Cannery  site  salmon  were  t h e S t . Mungo  This pattern continues throughout the  200  Page Locarno  Beach c u l t u r e .  Yet,  Mungo, L o c a r n o B e a c h , and DhRt 4  The packing  size  of  exploitation vertebrae  salmon,  which  fall.  To  run  date,  of  and  i n the  Fraser  i s no  yields  (personal  percentage  salmon  selection  River  such  salmon  information  River a  nets  a high  This  Fraser  suggest  exploitation?  fishing  (91%).  may  there  d i f f e r e n c e i n St.  component  1984),  July  8mm-9nim s a l m o n v e r t e b r a e Intensive  Beach  salmon-gauge  communication, Croes,  a  Marpole salmon  Locarno  baskets,  i s there  from  suggests  runs. for  late  evidence  of  The  sockeye summer  f o r known  to St.  Mungo c u l t u r e c o m p o n e n t s . Such would  no  evidence a  that  fully  necessitated However, t h i s  the  to suggest for  "although during  the  developed."  salmon  some  i n the  during  This  baskets,  there i s  potential  Locarno Beach  people  contrasts  with  the Marpole c u l t u r e  Nevertheless, Burley the  and  i s highly speculative at  salmon.  technology  fall  preservation  t h a t the Locarno Beach c u l t u r e  storing  f o r storage  of  e x c e p t i o n of packing  1980:70-72).  (Burley  present  With  method  evidence  out  have  technology.  time.  had  intensive exploitation  probably  storage this  an  (1980:71)  f o r storage culture,  may  i t had  points  have yet  been to  be  Page 2 0 1 Discussion What a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n  S t . Mungo,  Beach and M a r p o l e v e r t e b r a t e s u b s i s t e n c e Faunal was  and s t r a t i g r a p h i c  a seasonal  Beach  resource  culture.  remains  i n the assemblage  procured  (i.e.  h e r r i n g February  during  probable site  middens  This  Northwest  This  pattern  Coast  (1955:18-19)  and S u t t l e s  of aggregated  site  to June).  attest  ( i . e . steaming).  with  to the  By t h e L o c a r n o  aggregation  between  late  similar  camps  o f spawning  resources  suggests  (perhaps f i v e o r winter to  and e a r l y  ethnographic  described  by  Barnett  (1951:261).  from  t h e S t . Mungo  a t DgRr 6 a n d DgRr 2 . resource  flatfish-waterfowl-shellfish) for  April  seasons  s h e l l f i s h g a t h e r i n g and on-  i s very  differs  patterns  resources  spawning  f o rshort periods  seasonal  situation  subsistence pattern  at this  w i t h s h e l l f i s h and o t h e r  w e e k s ) a t a n y one t i m e  summer.  these  smelt  sloping stratigraphy associated  t h a t DhRt 6 was o c c u p i e d six  the Locarno  surf smelt;  the simultaneous  h e r r i n g or smelt  during  respective  to April;  preparation  culture,  t h a t DhRt 6  of h e r r i n g and s u r f  importance of seasonal  shellfish  Beach  shell  suggest  indicates that  their  In a d d i t i o n , t h e steep rolling  patterns?  extraction site  The a b u n d a n c e  were  large  evidence  Locarno  t h e S t . Mungo c u l t u r e .  procurement  To d a t e ,  a  (a l a h e r r i n g -  h a s n o t y e t been The p r o c u r e m e n t  vertebrate  documented  of aggregated  Page 202 resources  (such as d i v i n g  w a t e r f o w l a n d h e r r i n g ) may h a v e  been p o s s i b l e by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t submerged n e t s and " h e r r i n g Vertebrate L o c a r n o Beach That  for  of  of aggregated  harbour  seal  Bay, as i t does  the high  assemblage large  existed  suggest  salmon  that  3000  hypothesis. y e a r s ago  (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 2 5 ) ,  of seal  (13-15mm)  r e s o u r c e s from t h e  3 support t h i s  culture.  3  mammal  The p r e s e n c e  v e r t e b r a e i n t h e DfRs  Chinook  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , Raymond, J a n u a r y 1 9 8 5 ) ,  salmon  which a r r i v e  i n the  B a y a r e a a t t h e same t i m e a s s p a w n i n g h e r r i n g ,  obtained  i n Boundary  Thus,  3 may h a v e  DfRs  salmon  procurement.  been  However, salmon  not as important a t t h i s procurement,  as i n f e r r e d  site  component The  similarities a t DfRs  two s i t e s  of Point Roberts. both  fish  assemblages.  exist  was p r o b a b l y and s h e l l f i s h  midden. between  the Locarno component  herring,  and salmon  w a t e r f o w l predominate  Yet the percentage  of diving  Beach  a t DgRs 1 .  1 . 5 m i l e s a p a r t on t h e e a s t e r n  Flatfish,  assemblages;  season  from t h e co-occurence o f f l a t f i s h ,  3 and t h e M a r p o l e  a r e about  fishing  were  culture.  f o r early  a s was h e r r i n g  d i v i n g w a t e r f o w l , and t h e s h e l l Many  t h e L o c a r n o B'each  a location  3  (personal  Boundary  Bay d u r i n g  in  may a c c o u n t  i n t h e DfRs  t h e Locarno Beach  diameter may  herd today  frequency  during  assemblage  rakes."  c o m p o n e n t a t DfRs  a large  Boundary  remains  o f new t e c h n o l o g y , s u c h a s  shore  abound i n  the avifauna waterfowl i s  Page greater level  a t DfRs 3 t h a n  or  "0-slope"  personal  a t DgRs 1.  stratigraphy  communication,  suggests  a  prolonged  et.  a l (1981:84),  two  diversity.  B o u n d a r y Bay  seasonal  sites  resource  attributes  occupied  March. may  had  predominate  five  prolonged  period  of  component Beach  mammals  and  to s i t e  (Matson  faunal  between  type.  Coast  these  DfRs 3 i s a  winter  many  villages.  permanent d w e l l i n g s . t h a t  throughout  not  on  Matson  months between November y e a r , and  and they  the  year  (Barnett  waterfowl  are  probably  DgRs 1 b e c a u s e o f the  the  former  was  year.  t h e mouth o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r culture,  stratigraphy  DgRs 1. DhRt  species.  the  DhRt  three Locarno is  habitation. at  DgRs 1  w h e r e a s DgRs 1 has  by  among t h e  components, fish  difference  diving  Beach  Its  habitation  Northwest  at approximately Locarno  floor,  at  conclusion  site,  f o r a s h o r t e r season  the  house  1985)  were r e o c c u p i e d e v e r y  a t DfRs 3 and  components.  of  due  occupants  anomally  Locarno  be  least  somewhat o f an  Marpole  the  Therefore,  Located during  Thus,  is charcterized  some  1955:18-19).  occupied  their  may  winter v i l l a g e s  have  based  extraction  f o r at  of  a  relatively  T h i s i s i n agreement w i t h  a s s o c i a t e d with  A winter v i l l a g e were  who  January  period  a l 1981:18, F i g u r e 8 ) .  addition,  (possibly  Matson,  et.  assemblage  In  203  level,  This Of  4 has This  the the  4  site  Beach  delta  suggesting  is similar three  to  sites  largest  species  is  a  the with  diversity  diversity  may  Page reflect  an  accumulation of discarded  often  attributed  1982:  182-184). Unlike  the  DhRt 4 f i s h vertebrae  to  a  (personal  two  assemblage (91%).  Locarno  abounds  These  communication,  may  remains  typologically  similar  w h i c h were u s e d area. are  from  of  Beach  occupation  (Ham  components,  the  salmon  represent  salmon  sockeye  1985), which  summer t o f a l l .  the  waterlogged  to h i s t o r i c  period  W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the absence with  Marpole  dwellings  (Ham  1982:  Northwest  Coast v i l l a g e - l i k e  and  Late  In  run  addition,  component  are  packing baskets,  t o move f r e s h - c a u g h t s a l m o n  associated  is  i n 8mm-9mm d i a m e t e r  Raymond, J a n u a r y  i n the F r a s e r R i v e r from l a t e basketry  resources, which  lengthy period  other  204  to a  processing  of p o s t moulds Prehistoric  182-184 ) , DhRt 4 a p p e a r s  that  winter  t o h a v e many-  attributes.  Summary The Beach Mungo  results  culture and  of t h i s  i s more s i m i l a r  Marpole  archaeological  analysis  that  than d i f f e r e n t  cultures.  cultures,  suggest  In  the  Locarno  from  the S t .  a l l three consecutive  the p o p u l a t i o n s s u b s i s t e d  on  land  mammals more t h a n m a r i n e mammals; w a t e r f o w l more t h a n u p l a n d fowl;  and  inshore  s p e c i e s ) more appears  that  than  fish  (tidal  littoral  f o r the  last  flats  water  and  fish  riverine species.  4300 y e a r s , f i s h  were  adapted It  also  the  most  Page 205 important  vertebrate  subsistence  mammals a n d t h e n w a t e r f o w l Matson  1981:80).  patterns  strong  followed  ( C a l v e r t 1 9 7 0 : 7 2 , Boehm  The b r o a d  provide  resource,  similarities  evidence  in  by  1973ab,  subsistence  f o r an i n s i t u  cultural  development. Despite  these broad s i m i l a r i t i e s ,  vertebrate  remains  Beach,  and Marpole  Unlike  Locarno  waterfowl  exist  components  Beach  herring  t h e S t . Mungo,  compared  culture, high  are absent  components;  between  from  subtle differences i n  i n this  percentages  t h e S t . Mungo  i s also  absent  components  a t DgRr 6 a n d D g R r 2;  freshwater  fish  are present  from  of  activities  a t the s i t e ) ,  of  year  the s i t e  that  Marpole  t h e S t . Mungo  and c o n v e r s e l y ,  i n t h e S t . Mungo  s e t t i n g of the s i t e ) ,  study.  of d i v i n g  and  T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s may be r e l a t e d t o : ( 1 ) s i t e ecological  Locarno  (2) s i t e  (3) s i t e  components.  location(the  type  (the type(s)  seasonality  was o c c u p i e d ) ,  mainly  ( t h e time  and (4) changes i n  technology. Archaeologists confronted  with  site  types  site  locations.  to  come  their  who w o r k  two b a s i c  i n the Fraser  sampling problems:  ( f u n c t i o n and s e a s o n a l i t y ) The u l t i m a t e g o a l  to grips  living"  "increasingly  as  with  Delta  how  area are  (1) a range o f  and ( 2 ) a range o f  f o r the archaeologists i s  p r e h i s t o r i c populations  the Fraser  Delta  more r i v e r i n e - d e l t a i c  environment rather  than  "made became marine-  Page deltaic"  (Calvert  Despite enough  populations resources.  1970:55).  this  evidence  206  sampling to  adopted  suggest new  problem that  there  Locarno  technologies  appears Beach  to procure  to  be  culture  aggregated  1 o'l  Chapter 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Contributions archaeology The  t o Northwest  a r e reviewed  Fraser  ecologically more r e c e n t  Delta  i n this  during  During  anthropology  and  chapter.  t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e was  and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y periods.  Coast  different  from  e a r l i e r or  t h e Locarno Beach c u l t u r e , t h e  d e l t a was b u i l d i n g o u t w a r d I n t o t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a .  Except  p o s s i b l y a t l o w t i d e s , R o b e r t s I s l a n d was o n l y a c c e s s i b l e by water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . the g u l f than today islands  (Iona,  formation. tidal  (Clague  they  were  would  f a r t h e r out into Many o f t h e D e l t a  i n the process  of  have been p a r t  ofthe  of plant  animal  flats.  communities have  available  specific  have changed been  no m a j o r  noted  locations  as t h e F r a s e r changes  i n the delta during  location of shellfish as  e t . a l 1983).  Sea, and Lulu)  At low t i d e ,  Although  there  P o i n t Grey p r o t r u d e d  Delta  and  has emerged,  i n the vertebrate  the last  4300 y e a r s .  communities f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r  b y Ham (1976) i n t h e F r a s e r  fauna The  pattern,  D e l t a a n d G r a b e r t and  Page 2 0 8 Larson  a t Semiahoo  (1978)  Spit  (near  Bellingham,  Washington). Through  the use of information  (e.g. p r o f i l e s ,  maps,  field  notes,  from  site  artifact  with excavation  and photo  records,  and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  specific  p r o v e n i e n c e u n i t s a t DhRt 6 , D f R s 3 ,  were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e L o c a r n o B e a c h of  artifacts  Beach  from  culture  (1971b)  areas  components  were  from  participants),  culture.  a n d DhRt 4 Tabulations  each  o f t h e Locarno  classified  by M i t c h e l l ' s  criteria.  This  made  qualitative faunal  sampled  records,  the first  a n a l y s i s o f Locarno  remains.  intersite  possible  Furthermore,  a n a l y s i s o f Locarno  q u a n t i t a t i v e and  Beach  culture  the data Beach  base  cross-chronological  test  vertebrate subsistence  o f how t h e L o c a r n o  economy f i t s  p e r m i t t e d an  culture  p a t t e r n s by s e a s o n a l i t y and h a b i t a t s e l e c t i o n ,  vertebrate  subsistence as w e l l a s a  Beach  culture  i n t o the Northwest  Coast  pattern. The economy  Locarno  Beach  i n the Fraser  mammal r e s o u r c e s . beaver and  sea l i o n  marine the  a r e found  vertebrate  Delta region  Although harbour i nLocarno  Beach  subsistence  i s n o t based seal,  river  on m a r i n e  o t t e r , and  components i n t h i s  a t Montague H a r b o u r , DfRu 13  mammals r a n k  Forest  culture  (Mitchell  study 1971b),  l o w e r i n i m p o r t a n c e t o l a n d mammals o f  a n d E s t u a r i n e / F o r e s t Edge a r e a s .  Deer and e l k  Page 2 0 9 are  t h e most  important  p r o b a b l y hunted the  year  l a n d mammal r e s o u r c e s .  away f r o m  and then  each s i t e  "schlepped"  suggested  by t h e p r e s e n c e  sesamoids  i n each  through  Birds,  throughout  to the habitation  a r e a s , as  assemblage.  especially  This  culture  of  component.  pattern  waterfowl,  p a t t e r n from  through  the Late  related  t o t h e use o f b i r d  most  i n each Locarno  Beach  Prehistoric  at least  period.  This  Locarno  feathers for clothing.  period, Straits  people  mixed  an a b u n d a n c e o f w a t e r f o w l to the Fraser that  exploited  1951:263).  sources  f o r meat.  availability been  Nevertheless,  d u r i n g t h e Locarno a  popular  wing  type  c o a s t due t o  Archaeological  data  were  extensively  ago.  However, i n  bones) a r e n o t major considering  their  B e a c h c u l t u r e , w a t e r f o w l may  commodity  prehistoric Fraser Delta.  This  were  waterfowl  (and e x p e c i a l l y  with  which  i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a 3000 y e a r s birds  In the  nettlefiber  1951:263-264),  Estuary.  migrating  general,  have  (Suttles  Beach  p a t t e r n may be  o f c l o t h i n g was v e r y p o p u l a r a l o n g t h e m a i n l a n d  indicates  continues  a r e the second  d u c k down t o make " b l a n k e t s " ( S u t t l e s  attracted  and  The a b u n d a n c e o f w i n g t i p b o n e s i s p a r t  a recurrent delta  ethnographic  fragments  (Ham 1 9 8 2 : 3 6 3 - 3 6 4 ) .  a b u n d a n t v e r t e b r a t e bone e l e m e n t f o u n d culture  were  i n t h e sample  o f l e g bone  theLate P r e h i s t o r i c  They  f o r duck  down  i n  the  Page 2 1 0 A preponderance  of d i v i n g  waterfowl  indicates  that  a  s u b m e r g e d n e t p r o c u r e m e n t t e c h n o l o g y may have been d e v e l o p e d by  Locarno Beach t i m e s .  diving  to surface-feeding  culture.  However,  locations More  S u p p o r t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s a low  within  research  bird  this  ratio  during  t h e S t . Mungo  r e l a t i o n s h i p may  the emerging  i s needed  Fraser  to c l a r i f y  reflect  River  delta  site front.  the hypothesis  of a  c h a n g e i n w a t e r f o w l p r o c u r e m e n t s t r a t e g i e s b e t w e e n S t . Mungo and  Locarno Beach Pacific  all  three  herring, f l a t f i s h , Locarno  However, t h i s at  only  Beach  activity  culture  faunal  with  large  (1982)  (February  sites f o r herring  and  procurement  DfRs 3  and s h e l l f i s h  pattern  establishes  DhRt 6 was a l s o (April  persisted Indians  occupied  to June)  surf  t h e same c o -  stratigraphy  at  harvesting  3000+  during  Such e v i d e n c e a t year  resource  similarity  between  and t h e L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s . during smelt  through h i s t o r i c  (Matthews  a  and a d e f i n i t e  Locarno Beach, Marpole,  middens  through A p r i l ) l i m i t e d  M a r p o l e and L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s .  DhRt 6  sloping  report  f a u n a and s l o p i n g  spring  assemblages.  c o m p o n e n t s — D h R t 6 and  culture  a n d Ham  of vertebrate  winter-early  and w a t e r f o w l a r e p r e s e n t i n  i s associated  Monks ( 1 9 7 7 )  occurance  the  triad  Beach  two L o c a r n o  DfRs 3 -  late  cultures.  1955:395).  the spring runs,  times with  a  to e a r l y  pattern  summer  that  has  Musqueam a n d S a m i s h  Page In a l l three inshore  species  number o f  Locarno Beach c u l t u r e f a u n a l  are  the  dominant f i s h ,  deep w a t e r v a r i e t i e s  are  assemblages,  e v e n t h o u g h an  present.  211  The  equal  abundance  of salmon remains suggests t h a t Locarno Beach c u l t u r e people took  advantage of  using  nets  up  Berringer salmon  river  period (2)  possible during  that  the  support  the  Other  to  shoals  and  "up  (1)  possibly  by  According  to  strong spring winter  shoals  bars  i n the  reduces  nets.  It is  river  from  DhRt 4  up  for  in  fishing  c u l t u r e would  at  of  DhRt 4  The fish  (Croes  have  provided  trawling with D h R t 4 wet  or  to  for  fishing a  salmon  v i l l a g e , or  store  Matson  salmon,  fall  include  the  DhRt 4 b a s k e t r y  1975,  evidence to  from  the  the nets.  zone  may  hypothesis.  fresh  presence  during  turbidty that  (3) h a v i n g sand  wood c h i p s .  Thus,  River  fishing  water  anchors  river"  salmon  prolonged  and  and  net  preserved  a  high  to see,  carry  the  included:  perishables  and  provides  runs,  site.  Fraser  physical conditions  nets  baskets  River  DhRt 4  the  Locarno Beach  appropriate Fishing  the  in  having  salmons' a b i l i t y  either  from  exploitation  river,  used  major F r a s e r  (1982:53), the p h y s i c a l requirements f o r i n t e n s i v e  ethnographic the  the  both.  long  remains  may  heavy  have  term  fishing  and  been  loads  1981b, B u r l e y nets,  of  1981). basketry  occupation camp,  of  or  for  for  a  Page I n t h e DhRt 4 L o c a r n o B e a c h c u l t u r e c o m p o n e n t , a sample  of  wood  technology  chips  existed.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the (Matson DhRt 4  This  1982:281-283  ).  The  level of  However,  the  of  a  patterns  extraction  sites  procurement waterfowl  lack  of  Late  are  village  evidence  post  gaps  and  L o c a r n o B e a c h and  an  northwestern  analytic  and  the  Hackenberger  Marpole  vertebrate resource  shellfish)  salmon  the  rakes,  and  some  submerged  and  lithic  Beach  about  systematic  of and  culture. shellfish  comparison  remains prevent  of  combining  time. economy i s d i s p a r a t e  patterns  Washington (1984)  there  preservation  Locarno  knowledge  vertebrate  t i p of  type.  established pattern  an  Locarno Beach s u b s i s t e n c e  contemporaneous  winter  for  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s at t h i s The  the  However, to d a t e ,  our  Marpole  in  i t as a  at (Ham  nets).  during in  site  moulds  Prehistoric  and  h a b i t a t i o n and  technologies  Furthermore,  stratigraphy  village  (e.g. h e r r i n g  fishing  dwellings  i n seasonality at  (e.g. h e r r i n g  n e t s , and  subsistence  similar  wood  is usually  large winter  a statement i d e n t i f y i n g  technologies  undisputed  storage  Croes  evidence,  winter  large  established  F r a s e r D e l t a ' s L o c a r n o B e a c h and  subsistence  winter  an  unsloping  o f t h e L a t e M a r p o l e and  The  no  type  criteria  sampled area prevents  is  that  c a p a c i t y to b u i l d  198lb:84).  typifies  village  suggests  '212  at  Hoko  Peninsula.  r e p o r t an  emphasis  on  to the  Although on  land  Page 213 mammals, m i g r a t o r y  waterfowl,  a n d s a l m o n a t 3000 B.P.,  have u n c o v e r e d e v i d e n c e f o r I n t e n s i v e h a l i b u t The  difference  i n h o k o and F r a s e r  is  attributed  It  i s interesting  populations both  to note,  close Delta  in different  however,  exploiting  distance  area  fish  that  assemblages  environments. by 3 0 0 0  resources,  the Gulf  increase  between  the Locarno  describes  between  would  of relationship  during  Delta faunal  B.P.,  salmon  and  respectively.  The Fraser  locations  exploitation.  i n t h e F r a s e r D e l t a and W a s h i n g t o n P e n i n s u l a a r e  intensively  halibut,  sort  to s i t e  they  Beach  Islands  and t h e  the p r o b a b i l i t y  o f some  Gulf  Island  culture.  a r t i f a c t s , mammals, b i r d s ,  and d e l t a  Mitchell  and f i s h  sites  (1971b)  species  i n the  L o c a r n o B e a c h component a t Montague H a r b o u r t h a t a r e s i m i l a r to  those In  to  reported spite  resolve  Delta  of these  study.  studies,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  and L o c a r n o Beach G u l f  same  group(s)  delta  sites?  groups with they  i n this  between Locarno Beach Island  t r a v e l l i n g around Were  there  different  home b a s e s  procurement areas during this  study  sites.  Locarno  Fraser  Were t h e y  to different  different  aggregate at a winter  Although  more work n e e d s t o be done  island  Beach  i n the areas?  and  culture  I f so,  v i l l a g e and d i s p e r s e  the  did  to resource  t h e n o n - w i n t e r months? i d e n t i f i e s Locarno Beach  o f p r o c u r e m e n t b a s e d on s e a s o n a l  aggregations  patterns  of vertebrate  Page 214 resources, culture core  more  work  seasonality.  and column  Island  sites  questions coastal  about  seasonality  of  transition deltaic  done  of fauna  also  seasonality,  Delta  and  Gulf  4300+ y e a r s w o u l d r e s o l v e  some  both  Fraser  and use o f p l a n t  help  of  archaeologists  that issues  compare  in  shellfish  gain  importance,  marine-deltaic  Studies  d e t r i t u s would c l a r i f y  resources  analysis  dietary  of the d e l t a from  conditions.  Beach from  A systematic  would  on L o c a r n o and f l o r a  from  the l a s t  prehistory.  control  t o be  Comparison  samples  during  cross-sections  lithic  needs  better  and  to  the  riverine-  artifacts  and  i n site utilization for  delta prehistory. Vertebrate  subsistence  were s t u d i e d by C a r l s o n  patterns  Delta  very  similar  t o those  t h e Mayne  site  Montague Harbour s i t e complex students  stratigraphy (Carlson  taxanomic c l a s s e s by s p e c i e s  culture those  Reported data  suggest  orientation.  found  A r t i f a c t s are  i n contemporaneous  Fraser  assemblages. At  data  Islands  (1954, I 9 6 0 ) .  a foreshore-riverine subsistence also  I n t h e San J u a n  (DfRs 8 ) , l o c a t e d  from the  (DfRs 1 3 ) , a m u l t i - c o m p o n e n t s i t e was  1970).  excavated One  of vertebrate  student  component, t h e v e r t e b r a t e Delta.  by  Carlson  analysed  with  and h i s the major  f a u n a and p r e s e n t e d  (Boucher 1976).  i n the Fraser  across  a l l raw  I n t h e DfRs 8 L o c a r n o B e a c h fauna are very  However, t h e r e  similar to  i s slightly  more  215  Page e m p h a s i s on s e a l , p o r p o i s e , and s e a l i o n not  surprising,  as s e a l i o n s  1952:12).  (Suttles  a t DfRu 8 .  d w e l l today  Diving waterfowl  dominate w a t e r f o w l  type  i n the b i r d  mammals, a n d s h e l l f i s h  appear  This i s  in Porlier  appear  t o be t h e  assemblage.  t o be t h e m a j o r  Pass  Salmon,  subsistence  resources. Finally, is  that  through  a strong practical  at least an  excavated  initial  analysis before  methodology"  on  contribution  of t h i s  pattern detection Is  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data the  the  "age  of  British  Columbia  possible  from  thorough  study  sites  excavation coast.  As  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and d e v e l o p e r s b e g i n t o d e p l e t e t h e number o f sites  to excavate,  exhaust  available  Regardless and  there data  of c o n d i t i o n ,  will  be  bases  that  turn,  presence-absence extracted data  increased  a r e now  research designs  implemented t o e x t r a c t u s e f u l  lists,  an  data, c a n be  need  to  i n storage.  c a n be  developed  i n f o r m a t i o n , whether i t i s or q u a n t i t a t i v e  successfully  r e s o l v e gaps i n o u r knowledge o f Northwest  data.  used  Coast  to  In help  prehistory.  Page 216 BIBLIOGRAPHY A b b o t t , D. N. 1972  The u t i l i t y o f t h e p h a s e c o n c e p t of t h e s o u t h e r n n o r t h w e s t c o a s t .  i n the archaeology Syesls 5:267-278.  A n g e l l , T a n d K. C. B a l c o m b I I I 1982  M a r i n e B i r d s a n d Mammals o f P u g e t S o u n d . of Washington P r e s s , S e a t t l e .  University  A r c h e r , D. J . W. 1972  Ball,  Preliminary report on s a l v a g e e x c a v a t i o n s a t Musqueam NE. Ms. on f i l e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Archaeology L a b o r a t o r y , Vancouver. B.  1979  The B e a c h Grove Site, DgRs 1. M.A. thesis, D e p a r t m e n t o f A r c h a e o l o g y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby.  B a n f i e l d , A. W. F. 1974  The Mammals o f C a n a d a . N a t i o n a l Museum o f N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s , N a t i o n a l Museums o f C a n a d a , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, Toronto.  B a r n e t t , H. G. 1955  Beattie, 1980  The C o a s t S a l i s h o f B r i t i s h Oregon P r e s s , Eugene.  Columbia. U n i v e r s i t y of  0. An A n a l y s i s o f P r e h i s t o r i c Human S k e l e t a l M a t e r i a l from the Gulf of Georgia Region of British Columbia. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, D e p a r t m e n t o f A r c h a e o l o g y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby.  B e r r i n g e r , P. A. 1982  Northwest C o a s t , T r a d i t i o n a l F i s h e r i e s Systems o f R e s o u r c e U t i l i z a t i o n , M.A. T h e s i s . Department o f A n t h o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver.  BIBLIOGRAPHY ( c o n t i n u e d )  Page 217  B l u n d e n , R. H. 1975 Historical Geology o f t h e Lower F r a s e r River Valley. Adventures i n E a r t h S c i e n c e s No. 3 . Department o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. 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Special Collections, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columibia L i b r a r y , Vancouver.  findings.  BIBLIOGRAPHY ( c o n t i n u e d )  Page 2 1 8  1968  New e v i d e n c e o f e a r l y c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n E u r a s i a and w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . Proceedings of the V l l l t h International Congress of A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and E t h n o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , Tokyo and K y o t o , pp 3 3 1 - 3 3 7 .  1970  Culture h i s t o r y of the Fraser Delta region: An outline. In Archaeology I n B r i t i s h Columbia (R.L. C a r l s o n , E d . ) . B.C. S t u d i e s 6 - 7 : 9 5 - 1 1 2 .  1975  O r i g i n s and d e v e l o p m e n t of e a r l y Northwest Coast c u l t u r e t o a b o u t 3 , 0 0 0 B.C. 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Ph.D. dissertation, Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver.  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1980  (continued)  Page 226  S e a s o n a l i t y S t u d i e s . In Advances i n A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Method and T h e o r y (Vol. 4 ) , e d i t e d b y M. B. S c h i f f e r , pp 177-240, A c a d e m i c P r e s s .  N o r t h , M. a n d J . T e v e r s h a m n.d.  The p r e - w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e L o w e r Fraser Valley Flood P l a i n . Unpublished report. Canada, Department o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l S t a t i o n , Nanaimo, B.C.  P a t e n a u d e , V. C. 1981  The s e a r c h f o r i n t e r a s s e m b l a g e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e artifact c o l l e c t i o n from the P i t t R i v e r Site. Unpublished. A r c h a e o l o g y 876 P a p e r , D e p a r t m e n t o f A r c h a e o l o g y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , B u r n a b y .  P e r k i n s , J r . , D. and P. D a l y 1968  A hunters' v i l l a g e i n N e o l i t h i c Turkey. American 219(5):96-107.  Scientific  P o u g h , R. H. 1951  Audubon Water B i r d Inc., Garden C i t y .  Game.  Doubleday  a n d Company,  R i c k , A. M. 1975  B i r d m e d u l l a r y bone: a seasonal dating technique for faunal analysts. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e E i g h t h Canadian Archaeological Association Meeting, Thunder Bay, O n t a r i o , March.  1979  Some p r o b l e m s a n d s o l u t i o n s i n z o o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of b i r d bones. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Society of American Archaeology Meeting, V a n c o u v e r , B.C., A p r i l .  S c h a l k , R. 1977 The s t r u c t u r e o f an a n a d r a m o u s f i s h r e s o u r c e . 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A n t h r o p o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia 4(3):10-20.  S u t t l e s , W. P. 1968 Coping w i t h abundance: S u b s i s t e n c e on t h e Northwest Coast. I n Man t h e H u n t e r , e d i t e d by R. B. L e e a n d I . D e v o r e . A l d i n e A t h e r t o n , C h i c a g o , pp 56-68.  S u t t o n , D. G. 1979 P o l y n e s i a n c o a s t a l hunters i n the s u b a n t a r c t i c zone: A case f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n of convergent cultural adaptation. Ph.D. dissertation, Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f Otago, Dunedin. Thomas, D a v i d H. 1969 Great B a s i n hunting p a t t e r n s : a quantitative method f o r t r e a t i n g f a u n a l remains. American A n t i q u i t y 34(4 ):392-401. Ward, P. 1980 Explore the Fraser Estuary! Environment Canada Pacific Vancouver.  Lands D i r e c t o r a t e , and Yukon Region,  BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)  Page  228  W i l l , R. T. 1982 The u s e o f w i l d l i f e d a t a i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f a u n a l analysis. Canadian J o u r n a l of Anthropology 2(2) : 189-195W h i t e , T. E. 1953 A method various peoples.  of c a l c u l a t i n g the d i e t a r y percentage of food animals utilized by aboriginal American A n t i q u i t y 1 8 ( 4 ) : 396-398.  Wigen, Rebecca 1982 The v e r t i c a l distribution o f t h e Hoko River rockshelter faunal resources. Paper p r e s e n t e d t o the Northwest Anthropological Conference, V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  APPENDICES  Page 229 Table A . 1 : L i s t of Identified Mammal Fauna Found i n Locarno Beach, S t . Mungo, and Marpole Culture components i n the Fraser Delta area. Common Name  Latin Name  Elk  Cervus elaphus (Linnaeus)  Black-tailed Deer  Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque)  Black Bear  Ursus americanus Pallas  Dog Family  Canis Kuhl  Raccoon  Procyon lotor  Striped Skunk  Mephitis mephitis (Schreber)  Small Rodent Family  Peromyscus (Wagner)  Mink  Mustella vison Schreber  Muskrat  Ondatra zibethica  Beaver  Castor canadensis Kuhl  River Otter  Lutra canadensis (Schreber)  Harbour Seal  Phoca v i t u l i n a  Northern Sea Lion  Eumetopias jubata (Schreber)  (Linnaeus)  (Linnaeus)  (Gray)  Page 230 Table A.2: L i s t of Identified Avifauna Found i n Three Locarno Beach Culture Assemblages. Common Name Common Loon A r c t i c Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Murre Rhinoceros Auklet Greater Scaup Bufflehead Common Merganser Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot Glaucous-winged Gull Heermann's Gull Great Blue Heron Bald Eagle Black Oystercatcher Northwestern Crow Raven Great Horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck  Latin Name Gavia immer (Brunnich) Gavia arctica(Lawrence) Podiceps auritus Linnaeus Aechmophorus occidentalis (Lawrence) Phalacrocorax auritus Ridgeway Clangula hyemalis (Linnaius) Melanitta deglandi (Brooks) Oidemia nigra Swainson Uria aalge Salomonsen Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas) Aythya marila Stejneger Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus) Mergus merganser Cassin Branta canadensis (Baird) Chen caerulescens (Pallas) Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus Anas acuta V i e i l l o t Anas americana (Gmelin) F u l i c a americana Gmelin Larus glaucescens Naumann Larus heermani Cassin Ardea herodias Linnaeus Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Audubon) Haematopus bachmanni Audubon Corvus caurinus Ridgway Corvus corax Ridgway Bubo virginianus (Oberholser) Bonasa umbellus (Douglas) Anatidae  Page 231  Table A.3: L i s t of Identified Fish Fauna Found in Three Locarno Beach Culture Assemblages,• Spiny Dogfish Ratfish Northern Anchovy P a c i f i c Hake Petrale Sole P a c i f i c Halibut English Sole Rockfish Lingcod P a c i f i c Cod Walleye Pollack Big Skate P l a i n f i n Midshipman Pile Perch Great Sculpin Buffalo Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin Family Rock Sole Starry Flounder F l a t f i s h Family P a c i f i c Herring Surf Smelt Euchalon Minnow Family Salmon Trout Sturgeon  Squalus acanthias Linnaeus Hydrolagus c o l l i e i (Lay and Bennet) Engraulis mordax mordax Givard Merluccius productus (Ayres) Eopsetta jordani (Lockington) Hippoglossus stenolepis Schmidt Parophrys vetulus Girard Sebastes Ophiodon elongatus Girard Gadus macrocephalus T i l e s i u s Theragra chalcogramma (Pallas) Raja binoculata Girard Porichthys notatus Girard Rhacochilus vacca Girard Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus (Pallas Enophrys bison Girard Leptocottus armatus Girard Cottidae Lepidopseta b i l i n e a t a (Ayres 1858) Platychthys s t e l l a t u s Pleuronectidae Clupea harengus p a l l a s i Valenciennes 1847 Hypomesus pretiosus pretiosus Girard Thaleichthys pacificus (Richardson 1836) Cyprinidae Onchorhynchus sp. (Walbaum 1792) Salmo (Richardson 1836) Acipenser (Richardson 1836)  1811)  Page 232 T a b l e B.1:  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Catalogued  A r t i f a c t s , A l l Assemblages.  DhRt 6 Stone Chipped Stone Leaf-shaped p o i n t s Contracting-stem points Chipped and ground p o i n t s Scrapers Microblades Chipped-slate scrapers Chipped-slate points Chipped s l a t e k n i v e s Quartz c r y s t a l t o o l s Retouched f l a k e s Utilized flakes M i s c e l l a n e o u s chipped stone Total(n)  Ground Stone Stemless s l a t e p o i n t s Stemmed s l a t e p o i n t s Ground s l a t e blades Ground s l a t e k n i v e s G u l f I s l a n d Complex a r t i f a c t s B a r r e l bead Labret Pendant M i s c e l l a n e o u s ground stone Total(n)  Pecked and Ground Stone Hand mauls Hammerstones P e r f o r a t e d stones Stone v e s s e l s A n v i l stones A b r a s i v e stones Ochre M i s c e l l a n e o u s pecked stone Total(n)  DfRs 3  1 2  DhRt 4-A2  DhRt 4-A1  2 3 2 1  1 3 3  (11)  8 7 1 (16)  2  5 1 (8)  1 3 11 9 1 (25)  3 5 34 43 (3)  (93)  3 2 1  3  10 none i n sampled 1 1 1 5 (7) (20)  2 3 area  (5)  6 4  10  1 1 1 20 1  1 5 11 6  1 6  (30)  (27)  (17)  Table B.1:  Page 233  (continued).  Bone Barbed bone points Bone bipoints Bone points Bone ulna tools Bone scraper Bone knife Bone awls Bird bone awls Bird bone pin Bird bone needles Bird bone whistle Bird bone t r i b e bead Bone rings Miscellaneous decorated bone Miscellaneous bone objects Chisels or wedges Bone f i s h hook Total(n) Antler Barbed harpoons Harpoon foreshafts Wedges A t l a t l hooks Miscellaneous worked antler Total(n) Shell Mytilus s h e l l c e l t s Mytilus s h e l l points Mytilus s h e l l knifes stilus s h e l l blades Myt pendants Shell with pigments Miscellaneous s h e l l objects Total(n) Wood Wood points Worked wood Pointed stake End-slotted haft Complete baskets Basket and nut fragments Basket handles Cordage Rope rings Net fragments Wrapped stone sinkers Knots of cord or f i b r e Hanks of s p l i t roots Coiled f i b r e  DhRt 6 2 5 6  1 1 2 1 1 4  2 14 3 1  4 1  1 9 1 1 (45) 1 1 1 (3)  DhRt 4-A2  (1)  2 5  1  3 1 1 2  1  9  14 1  1  (24)  (29)  (3)  3 1 1(?) (5)  1 1 (2)  1 (1)  2 1 (16) 2 10  3 3 1  ; 84  DhRt 4-A1  1 1 1 10  1  Total (n) Total  DfRs 3  85  22 3 1 1 70 11 28 1 6 4 28 11 1  rT9l  TTBTT  190  238  Page 234  Table C.1: DhRt 6 Mammal Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts.  Element A  J  A  J  J  ft  c ta E  Total  s:  Harbour Seal  •r-  River Otter  c  Muskrat Beaver  Peromyscus  Striped Skunk  Raccoon  Canis  Black Bear  Skeletal  Deer  Elk  Taxa  J  MNI  2  1 1  1 1  1  2  2  2  13  E  6  8  6  2  7  6  4  48  4  5  Basio-Occipital  Temporalis Petrosal  L R L R  Teeth  Mandible Maxilla Hyoid  1  1  2  1  2  1  4  L R L R  1  2 3  Axis  1  1  2  Atlas  Thoracic Vertebra  1  C e r v i c a l Vertebra  2  1  1  1  Sacrum Rib Humerus Radius Ulna  L R L R L R L R  2  2 1 1  2  Page 235  Tibia Fibula Scapula Innominate Talus Ostrale Ulna Carpus Magnum Uniciform Coccygeal Astragalus Calcaneus Metacarpus Metatarsus Phalanx Flipper bones  A  O  ta  Ctl  J 1  2 1  c fO to •3 s-  •r-  SI  S>  OJ CO  Harbour Seal  L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R  Femur  a>  +->  River Otter  LU  •i— £Z IO  o o  Peromyscus  a» A QJ s-  c to ou  Str. Skunk  (continued).  Black Bear  Table C.I:  A J 1 1  2  O  r—  4  1 1 2 1  1  in  5  1  1  cro <0 B 3 +>-  3 1  4 1  1 1  1 1  1 1 4 1 2  1 2  1  Phalanx bones for seal are designated " f l i p p e r bones."  4 1 5  Page 236  Table C.2: DfRs 3 Mammal Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. I  River Otter  Harbour Seal  Human  Total  1  1  1  2  1  1  1  1  1  1  13  E  1  2  1  2  8 14  1  4  1  2 12  7  55  o u o  c  ro  to  c_>  DC  A  J  A  J  +-> ta  Mink  E O  CO  Peromyscus  1  B l a c k Bear  1  Skeletal Element  Deer  MNI  Elk  Beaver  Striped Skunk  Taxa  sto  s: A  J  Basio-Occipital Temporalis Petrosal  L R L R  Teeth Mandible Maxilla Hyoid  L R L R  Axis  1  1  1  1  1  1  Atlas Thoracic Vertebra  1  1  1  1  Cervical Vertebra Sacrum Rib Humerus Radius Ulna  L R L R L R L R  1  1 1 1 1  1 2 1 1 2  1 1 1  6  3 6  • I—  IO O  Femur Tibia Fibula Scapula Innominate Talus Ostrale Ulna Carpus Magnum Uniciform Coccygeal Astragalus Calcaneus Metacarpus Metatarsus Phalanx  i+J  ro CC  A ,T L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R  <J~>  1  A 1 1  00  +-> ro S-  CO  s:  sOJ  >  IO CD CO  River Otter  QJ CD O  CO  Peromyscus  s-  c  c o o o o  Harbour Seal  Page 237  (continued).  Black Bear  Table C.2:  E  rO +-> O  in  1—  1 1  7  A -T  -l  1 1 1  tz ro  1 2  6 1 1  1  4  1 2  1 1  2  1 1  2 2 2 1  Flipper bonesl  Phalanx bones for seal are designated " f l i p p e r bones."  1  1 4  7  -3-  3  Page 238  I  Table C.3: DhRt 4 Mammal Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts.  E  A  J  A  J  4  2  2  2  2  1  1  1  2  1  23  2 26  5  2  9  4  2  2  1  9  6  101  J  2 1  12 19  Total  1  Human  MNI  R i v e r Otter  A  2  1  C  ro  to  c_>  DC  to  o s-  CD  D_  Basio-Occipital Temporalis Petrosal  Maxilla  C/] S-  3  o S. fl  1 L R L R  Teeth Mandible  ro OJ  Beaver  Skeletal Element  Q  to •r-  (J  Muskrat  OJ  UJ  s= o o o o  to  Mi nk  QJ  i—  Black Rear  s-  Striped Skunk  Taxa  L R L R  1  1 1 2 1 1  4 4 1  2  2 1  2  2 1  10 13  1 1  Hyoid  1  1  Axis Atlas  1  Thoracic Vertebra  1  1  2  Cervical Vertebra  1  2  2  1 4  1  5  Sacrum Rib Humerus Radius  1 L R L R L R  1 1  9  1 1  1  2  2  1 1  1 •;  1  1  3 4  1 6  Ulna Femur Tibia Fibula Scapula Innominate  Ulna Carpus  L  Magnum  R L R L R L R L R L R L R L R  Uniciform Coccygeal Astragalus Calcaneus Metacarpus Metatarsus Phalanx Flipper bones  .1  A  Total  Harbour Seal  River Otter  Beaver  Muskrat  Mink  Peromyscus  Striped Skunk  Raccoon  Canis A  1  .1  1  1  4  1  1  1 •  1  2  1 1  2 1  1 1  R L R L R  Ostrale  ,1  1  L  Talus  Black Bear  Deer A  L R L R L R L R L R L R  Human  Page 239  (continued).  Elk  Table C.3:  2 1  2 2  1  1  I  1  I  1 1  6  5  1 1 2  2 4 1  1 1  3  1  3  1  Phalanx bones for seal are designated " f l i p p e r bones."  1 1  5 8  2  2  Page 240 T a b l e C.4: DhRt 6 Bird Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts.  3 S-  Element  to ra  o o  to  io o  Arctic Loon Western Grebe Double-Crested Cormorant Oldsquaw White-Winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Murre Rhinoceros Auklet Common Loon Horned Grebe Greater Scaup Bufflehead Common Merganser Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot Glaucous-Winged Gull Heerman's Gull Great Blue Heron Bald Eagle Black Oystercatcher Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck TOTAL  MNI  L  R  E  3  fO  Taxa  +-> cu  L  ra DC  R  L  3 3Sto  to  O Q. Q. S- S (O rO  fO  R  to  o  o  L  R  1  ta +J  ro  cu EE 3  L  cu  R  1 1  1 1 1 19 1  3 55 1  2 1 4  2 2 10  2 2 3  19 14  1 8 11 1  2 4  2 2  1 1 2  2 2  2 8  1  3  2  12  19  32  19 13  ~65~  158  37  1 1 1  2  1 1 3  2  2 1  1  51  32  2  15  L  R  L  R  i  ro +-> CU E to  o  to to $- sta ra  L  R  Page 241  Taxa A r c t i c Loon Western Grebe Double-Crested Cormorant Oldsquaw White-Winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Murre Rhinoceros Auklet Common Loon Horned Grebe Greater Scaup Bufflehead Common Merganser Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot Glaucous-Winged Gull Heerman's Gull Great Blue Heron Bald Eagle Black Oystercatcher Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck J A TOTAL Key:  A = Adult J = Juvenile  R  L  MNI  E  9 1  22 5  1 2  2 9  2  1  11 2 53 , 156  1  1 2  1 3  1 7  15 3 1 1 3 17 17 7  36 5 1 1 5 43 59 14  4 2 1 1 1 5 1  6 5 1 1 1 42 2  1 22  2 42  174  479  L  R  L  R  L  3  4 1  9 1  5 1 1  1  2  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  2 11 15 2 3 1  1 2 7  5  1  R  1 2 1 24 17 53 42 1  2  3 17 12 1 17 14 6 1  1  1 2  5  R  3  L  Tarsometatarsus  Tibiatarsus R  L  R  L  R  1 1 1 1  1 1 1  1 2  2  1 1 4  1  1  4  4  L  Femur  Carpometacarpus  Ulna  Radius  Coracoid  Element  Humerus  T a b l e C.5: DfRs 3 Bird Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts.  3 1  2 1  2 4  5  1 1 2 4  1  3  2  4 6 7 5  1 1  1  1 1  2  3  3 1  5 1  1 4  3  3  3 1  1 1 22 20 17  54  91  209  24  13  23  48  Page 242 Table C.6: DhRt 4 Bird Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. Element  ro C U to E to 3 O 3 Q- Q. C US- S- S E 3  r>o t U rO E to + -ro C > O 3 to to S ro S rof—  i  10  s-  +J  o o ra  S-  Taxa  MNI  A r c t i c Loon Western Grebe Double-Crested Cormorant Oldsquaw White-Winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Murre Rhinoceros Auklet Common Loon Horned Grebe Greater Scaup Bufflehead Common Merganser Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot Glaucous-Winged Gull Heerman's Gull Great Blue Heron Bald Eagle Black Oystercatcher Northwestern Crow J A Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse Unspecified Duck TOTAL Key:  o o  A = Adult J = Juvenile  L  R  8  37  2  2  8 26  38 115  7  3  2 2 15  4 3 46  1 2 17 9 1 1  2 8 47 36 1 1  ta  c  T3 ra cm  L  R  ra o  $3 E• cu  ta u  L  R  L  R  L  R  L  R  8  2  7  7  3  2  2  1  1 2 2 7 26 19 13 21  3 5  2 1 4 3  4J  L  R  4 2  L  R  8 1  1 3  2  2 1 9 4  7 4  3 15 1 1 1  1 1 1  1 1 6 1 1  1 2 10 17 3  3 5  1 1 1 4 1 1 1  1 1 1 15 1 1 1  28  37  134  405  4 4 1  1 1 1  9 28 37  45  79  68  64  17  58  37  9 3  Page 243  Table C.7: DhRt 6 Fish Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. Element i —  ro C S• i - JD  CO  ra  E  c u  J-O  i —  CO CD  S-  -O  • CD to CD  Taxa E Dogfish 1 Ratfish 6 Northern Anchovy 8 P a c i f i c Hake 3 Petrale Sole 1 P a c i f i c Halibut 9 English Sole Rockfish Lingcod P a c i f i c Cod 1 Walleye Pollock Big Skate P l a i n f i n Midshipman 11 1 P i l e Perch Great Sculpin Buffalo Sculpin 2 Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin Rock Sole 4 3 Starry Flounder 5 Flatfish 28 3 P a c i f i c Herring 79 Surf Smelt 233 Eulachon 2 Minnow Salmon 280 189 1B 1B Trout Sturgeon 6  !_ tO S_ r CD • r - CD -P  O  >  s: > =  to  1  B = Burnt  E  3  c > >  S-  ro -C D_  >  rc +J  c  <u  i —  3 CJ>  • i —  4->  i.  = c  r— ,— «|— X  ro  E  0)  So_  JZ.  3  i— > > s-  ro  ,— ,— • i —  X ro  Zi a> +->  ro i-  •o ro 3  s: cr  o  Sa>  Q.  o  <u s -  +-> E  CD CD  % 1— CD s_  J=  +->  ro  i—  CJ  CD  QQ-  ZO  CD  +->  CD CD 1— s_  c  O CQ CD  CD  4->  o  CO  _l  3 U  •  o  to  o +J  O  s -  IS LR LR LR LR LR LR LR LR L R  3 1 2  8  3  6  1  1  1 11  1 2  1 2 9  3  76  16  3  233 2 91  680 197 109 333 1 21  TOTAL Key:  3 CD ro  s -  c • r— a.  E  ro  CD  ro  o +-> -o +-> O -t-> rc  -o -O  > > s_  r— ra  6 1 2  1  3 3  6 3  Page 244  Table C.8: DfRs 3 Fish Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts. Element  E  s-  . •<- <-1QJ O O +>• rO CU O c  s-  EE  x> cu  Taxg  cu CJ>  s-  T—  ta  cu  3  s_  -XD +->  a. oo  TOTAL  15  15  12 8  3 3  4 5  12 36  16 61  446 314  32  E  r> o -tC s-  3 3  (J •r—  cu  L R  CU rO x ro ro Xri-rO . oJ Q O C U i-- OfO Q. a Q L R LLJRJ 3  s-  E <u sQ.  4->  3  3  a scu  E  cu cu  >>  cu  cu  cu  cu ai  c  o  CQ  cu o OO  to  L_R_  1 1 9 36 131  8 34  1  6 679 389 221  B= Burnt  ta  _I_S_  :  Dogfish Ratfish Northern Anchovy P a c i f i c Hake Petrale Sole Pacific Halibut English Sole Rockfish Lingcod P a c i f i c Cod. Walleye Pollock Big Skate Plainfin Midshipman Pile Perch Great Sculpin Buffalo Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin Rock Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish Pacific Herring Surf Smelt Eulachon Minnow Salmon Trout Sturgeon  Key:  ta  ta  fO ta  54  2 4  Page 245  Table C.9: DhRt 4 Fish Remains, Skeletal Element Raw Counts.  bra  Element >>  E  3  CD SrOjr 5, > r o C D CD D C CD rCc Srb- rSo- CD C D C D U C D C C ro SD- CD CO• >,D -o C Ds- ro S-CD ro CD ro O ro X ro C Q. JZ! n.CD SoCD-CD > ro CD < CD s:ro crro CD ro s; C DC ro> C D J > COI O-S L QR L R L o_R L R L R L DR- L R L R _LJCO +->  •—  s -  •r-  .Q  t—  _Q  O  +J|  • o  -t->  E  r—  3  <c  a <J CO  • 1—  Si  X)  Taxa E Dogfish 13 Ratfish 5 Northern Anchovy P a c i f i c Hake 9 Petrale Sole Pacific Halibut 70 28 23 English Sole Rockfish 36 Lingcod 11 11 37 P a c i f i c Cod 10 1 15 Walleye Pollack 3 Big Skate 35 Plainfin Midshipman P i l e Perch 2 Great Sculpin 4 Buffalo Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin 15 Sculpin 2 9 Rock Sole 16 75 59 Starry 184 Flounder 48 128 54 12 Flatfish 1119 Pacific Herring 2 Surf Smelt 1 Eulachon Minnow 7 2456 1266 1190 Salmon 14B 6B 8B 2 2 Trout Sturgeon 108 4221  TOTAL Key:  B= Burnt  1394 1481  3  ,—  i — • r—  S-  3  X  i—  +-> C  •r—  E  •i —  >>  C  co  C r— • r— +-> Q.  <C  S-  JZ  +•>  3  >>  ^ »  E  r—  s -  +->  ,—  S-  •i->  +->  1—  1—  E  Sw X)  O  3  J-  s -  +J  CL  13  S  o  4-> 3 O  u  CO  • 1—  3 1 1  9 1 3 1 1  8 32 9  1 2  1 1 1  1  2  2  1  1  1  1 1 1 1 1 1 2  35  1 1  2 2  1 2  996  2  2  1 1 3  5 2  3  1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 5 5 5 2 9 9 2 4 8 7  2 1  6 1  1 1109 3 9  18  24  14, 22  9  18  7  1  52 55 4  1 52 55  Page 246 Table D.I: 1976:29).  Estimated Grams of Used Meat For Mammals (After Imamoto  Species  Usable Meat  Harbour Seal  59000  River Otter  7000  Beaver  5700  Muskrat  »  Mink  *  Peromyscus  *  Striped Skunk  *  Raccoon  3800  Canis  5700  Black Bear  95000  Deer  32400  Elk  146000  * = negligable estimated usable meat value  Page 247 Table D.2: Diving Bird/Surface Feeding Bird Breakdown Worksheet.  Taxa/Site  Diving Birds Common Loon Arctic Loon Horned Grebe Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Greater Scaup Buffle Head Oldsquaw White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Common Merganser Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet  Surface-feeding Birds Canada Goose Snow Goose Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot  Total  DhRt 6 J(E)  2 4 2 5  -2  10  3 55  -1 86(84)  DfRs 3 %(E)  DhRt 4 %(E> .  4 5 3 1  2 1 1 1  37  -4 -1  38 115  1 19  7 22  -5 2 36 5 9 11 156 1  46  -1 68(255) 72(249)  2 8 4 47 36 7 1 5 1 32(122) 28(95) 17(17) 1  -  101  1 5 43 59 14  377  DhRt 6 S(MNI)  344  79(31)  DfRs 3 %(MNI)  3 9  -1 1 15 3 2 2 53 1  DhRt 4 %(MNI)  2 3 2 1  -8  15  8 26  -1 67(91) 68(65)  1  1 3 17 17 7  -2 2 3 21(8)  33(45)  39  136  Scavenging waterfowl (e.g. g u l l s , great blue heron, and oyster catcher) are excluded from this analysis.  1 2 17 9 1 1 32(31) 96  Page 218 Table D.3: Avifauna Seasonality Category Raw Data. Category  Taxa/Site  Year Round (1)  Common Merganser Canada Goose Snow Goose Great Blue Heron Glaucous-winged Gull Heerman's Gull Bald Eagle Northwestern Crow Raven Great-horned Owl Ruffed Grouse X(n)  Winter/ Early Spring (2)  DhRt 6 *(MNI) X(E) —  1  — 2 8  -  12 -  —  21(26)  1  — 2 2  -2  — —  DfRs 3 *(E) J(MNI) 1 1 5 1 6 5 1 42 2  — —  17(8)14.5(64)  1 1 3 1 4 2 1 5 1  — — 13(19)  White-winged Scoter Common Scoter Horned Grebe Western Grebe Oldsquaw Mallard Pintail American Widgeon American Coot Common Loon  3 55 2 5 2 4 7 5  1 19 1 1 1 2 2 3  11 156  2 53  9 43 59 14  2 17 17 7  2  2  7  Winter/ Early Spring (3)  Arctic Loon Greater Scaup  4 10  22 36  Winter  Double-crested Cormorant  Pari v  tan y Spring (4) Spring Fall (5)  J(n> Common Murre Rhinocerous Auklet Black Oystercatcher X(n) TOTAL*  -  -  78.5(99) 1  — 1 4  -5  —  DhRt 4 *(E) J(MNI) 2 8  — 1 —  4 16 1 1 1 9(34)  -1  5 1 1 1 12(13)  -3  9 15  5 46  3 15  -1  -  _  1  8 26 2 1 8 17 9 1 1 2  2 1 cj J 81(37) 85(369) 86(130) 91(334) 1  —  38 115 3 1 37 47 36 1 1 4  -  —  1 2  —  —  -  88(93)  —  --  2(1)  -  1 .5(2)  1 1(2)  0(0)  0(0)  126  46  435  151  368  106  0.5(1)  * Unspecified duck i s excluded from the t o t a l .  -  -  -  -  Page 249 Table D.4: Fish Fauna Seasonality Category Raw Data. Cate-  Taxa/Site  DhRt 6  Year Round (1)  Ratfish Rockfish Lingcod Big Skate Sculpin Rock Sole Minnow Sturgeon *(n)  —  Spring/ Early Summer (2)  Staghorn Sculpin Dogfish P a c i f i c Hake Walleye Pollack P a c i f i c Cod Starry Flounder Flatfish Spring/ Petrale Sole Early P a c i f i c Halibut Summer English Sole Eulachon (3) %(n)  'X(E) 6  -4 -6  4(16)  — 1 3  —  1 5 28  -9 -  2 12.2(49)  DfRs 3 X(E)  —  -1  1 9 1 6 7(17) 1 8  _  —  4 36 131 15 12 8 _  92(215)  DhRt 4 %(E) 5 36 37 35 9 75 7 108 17.8(312) 15 13 9 3 15 184 1119  -  70  —  1 81.7(1429)  Summer (4) Summer (5)  Northern Anchovy  60. 4(241)  0(0)  Late Winter/ Early Spring (7)  P a c i f i c Herring 79 P l a i n f i n Midshipman 11 Pile Perch 1 Great Sculpin Buffalo Sculpin 2 %(n) 23.4(93)  1 1  1(2)  0.4(8)  TOTAL  233  1751  Surf Smelt Trout X(n)  8 233  -  -  399  — —  -  -  _  2 0.1(2) 2  -2 4  -  Page 250  Table D.5: Mammal Fauna Habitat Category Raw Data. Category  Taxa/Site  Forest  Elk Deer Black Bear %(n)  Littoral Forest Edge  Riverine  Raccoon Striped Skunk Peromyscus Mink Muskrat Canis *(n) Beaver River otter *(n)  Open L i t t o r a l Harbour Seal Waters tin) TOTAL  DfRs 3 J(E) S(MNI)  DhRt 6 %(E) %(m\i) 6 2 2 12 11 2 60(29) 47(6)  -2  -1 23(3)  —  1  -  2(1)  1  -  8(1)  12 21 2 37(35)  —  —  -5  -2  1 3 1 23(5) 4  11  2 2  10 14  2  7  19(9)  —  DhRt 4 %(E) %(MNI)  -4  —  2 1  2  -  -  3 67(32)  2 67(8)  31 51(48)  6 59(13)  6 13(6)  2 15(2)  1 2 6 (3)  1 1 17(2)  2 1 3(3)  1 1 9(2)  4 8(4)  2 15(2)  12 25(12)  1 8(1)  9 9(9)  2 9(2)  _  48  _  13  48  12  95  22  Page 251  Table D.6: Avifauna Habitat Category Raw Data. DhRt 6 %(E) J(MNI)  DfRs 3 *(E) *(MNI)  L i t t o r a l / Common loon 2 2 Riverine A r c t i c Loon 4 1 Horned grebe 2 1 Western Grebe 5 1 Double-crested Cormo "ant Greater Scaup 10 4 Bufflehead Oldsquaw 2 1 Common Scoter 55 19 White-Winged Scoter 3 1 Common Merganser Common Murre 1 1 Rhinocerous Auklet *(n) 67(84)67(31)  7 3 22 9 5 1 2 1 36 15 5 3 9 2 156 53 11 2 1 1 1 1 59(255)60(91)  Shletered Canada Goose Estuarine Snow Goose Mallard Water Pintail American Widgeon American Coot X(n)  1 1 5 3 43 17 59 17 14 7 28(122) 30(45)  Category  Taxa/Site  Strand/ Great Blue Heron L i t t o r a l Glaucous-Winged Gull Interface Heerman's Gull Black Oystercatcher %(n) Bald Eagle Mixed Woodlands Northwestern Crow Raven Great Horned Owl Ruffed Grouse X(n) TOTAL  1  1  4 7 5 13(17)  2 2 3 17(8)  2 82 8(10)  2 2 9(4)  3 12 12(15)  1 2 7(3)  126  46  1 1 6 4 5 2 1 1 3(13) 5(8) 1 42 2 10(45) 435  1  5 1  5(7) 151  DhRt 4 1(E) X(MNI) 4 5 3  2 3 2 1 15  1 46 37 8 115 26 38 8 68(249)62(65) 2 8 47 36  1 2 17 9 1 1 1 1 25.8(95) 29(31) 1 0.2(6)  1 1(1)  4 15  1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 6(22) 8(8) 367  105  Page 252 Table D.7: Fish Fauna Habitat Cate'gory Raw Data. Category Littoral Water  Tidal Flats  Riverine  Taxa/Site Spiny Dogfish Ratfish Northern Anchovy P a c i f i c Hake Petrale Sole P a c i f i c Halibut English Sole Rockfish Lingcod P a c i f i c Cod Walleye Pollack Big Skate P l a i n f i n Midshipman X(n) P l a i n f i n Midshipman P i l e Perch Great Sculpin Buffalo Sculpin Staghorn Sculpin Sculpin Rock Sole Starry Flounder Flatfish P a c i f i c Minnow Surf Smelt Salmon Sturgeon Steelhead Trout X(n)  DhRt 6 %(E)  DfRs 3 $(E)  1 6 8 3  8  5  -  -  -  9 -  -  -  -  1  4  -  -  1  -  5.5(11)* 5(33.5)  -  _  -  2  9 36 131  TOTAL  680  _  1  2 -  223(446)*  3(6)* 60(405) 223(446)* 3(6)*  -  -  2  -  —  -  21(145.5)  24(160.1)  679  * = number appears i n more than one habitat category.  -  28 75 184 1119  —  —  140.5(281)* 3(6)*  5(233)  -  1 1  -  Salmon Sturgeon Steelhead Trout Eulachon Minnow *(n)  -  36 37 15 3 35  -  -  74(501)  70  2  -  -  4 5 28 79 233 140.5(281)» 3(6)*  9 -  -  7(48)  5.5(11)» 1  13  —  15 12 8  -  DhRt 4 X(E)  1235(2470)* 54(108)* 1(2)* 64(2700) 1235(2470)* 54(108)* 1(2)*  1 7 3U1298) 4221  Page 253 Table E . I : Frequency Data, Mammal Remains in St. Mungo, Locarno, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta Sites (Imamoto 1971, Boehm 1973a). St. Mungo DgRr 6 DgRr 2 *(E) *<E) Elk Deer Bear Canis Porcupine Raccoon Squirrel Skunk Peromyscus Mink Muskrat Beaver River Otter Seal Northern Fur Seal TOTAL  57 14 5 36  -4  77 58 1  41 1  3  -  -  3  1  —  -  —  5 — 2 69(149) 68(189) 44 —  23 —  68 —  23 —  3K67)  32(91)  216  280  Locarno DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 *(E) »(E) *(E) 6 12 11  2  -7 -  1 —  12 21 2  -3  31  10  11 —  _  14  —  —  —  —  —  5 79(38)69(33) 6 4 —  1 2 12 —  21(10)31(15) 48  48  5 34 4 19  24 3 22 —  —  —  Marpole DgRr 6 DgRs 1 NE) *(E)  4 2  _  87(83)  1 _ _ _ 1 _  84(64)  2 1 _  12 2 _  86(66)  2  6  2  1  —  —  9  6  8  —  —  13(12) 95  16(12) 76  1  14(11) 77  Page 251 Table E.2: Frequency Data, Bird Remains in St. Mungo, Locarno, and Marpole Components from Fraser Delta Sites (Imamoto 1974, Boehm 1973a).  St. Mungo DgRr 6 DgRr 2 *(E) X(E) 1 1  Loons Grebes Cormorants Murres/Murrelets Diving Ducks  6(2)  22 Geese Swans 3 Surface-Feeding Birds 38(27)  -  Unspecified Ducks TOTAL  0(0) 2 6(12)  27 14(27)  -  Upland Fowl  1  72 17 5 49(94) 22 2 13(24)  _  Gulls Other Scavengers  8 10 20 2 6 24(46)  Locarno DhRt 6 DfRs 3 DhRt 4 % CE) X(E') X(E) 6 7  -1  29 5 2  9 4  219  236  1  6  10  -  -  -  69 66(83)59(255) 68(249)  116 85 17 14(18)28(122) 26(95) 10  8(10)  11 2 3(13)  1  -  .2(1)  15 45 23 12(15) 10(45)5 .8(23)  Marpole DgRr 6 DgRs 1 *(E) X(E) _  -5  2 1  6 4  7  -  46 33(5) 27(49)  67(10)  0(0) -  0(0)  -  86 52(93) 5  -  3(5) 33 18(33)  1  38  32  44  37  7  -  31  191  126  435  368  15  180  Unspecified duck remains are excluded from the t o t a l .  

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