Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Carrier settlement and subsistence in the Chinlac/Cluculz Lake area of Central British Columbia 1986

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1986_A8 C72_5.pdf [ 8.36MB ]
UBC_1986_A8 C72_5.pdf
Metadata
JSON: 1.0058387.json
JSON-LD: 1.0058387+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0058387.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0058387+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0058387+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0058387+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0058387.ris

Full Text

CARRIER SETTLEMENT AND SUBSISTENCE IN THE CHINLAC/CLUCULZ LAKE AREA OF CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA by MICHAEL WILLIAM CRANNY B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1986 (c) M i c h a e l W i l l i a m C r a n n y , 1986 <9 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Anthropology and Sociology D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 21 A p r i l 1986 D a t e ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s e x a m i n e s C a r r i e r s e t t l e m e n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s w i t h i n a s t u d y a r e a n e a r t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e S t u a r t a n d N e c h a k o R i v e r s , a n d a r o u n d C l u c u l z and Cobb l a k e s . The C a r r i e r s i t e a t C h i n l a c , e x c a v a t e d b y C h a r l e s B o r d e n i n 1950 a n d 1 9 5 2 , i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s s t u d y a n d i s r e - e x a m i n e d i n t e r m s o f h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d e l s w h i c h a r e d e v e l o p e d t o e x p l a i n s e t t l e m e n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e i n t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , and t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . I n p a r t i c u l a r , a s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m i s p r o p o s e d f o r t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e two m a j o r e l e m e n t s , o r l o c a t i o n s where s e t t l e m e n t o c c u r r e d , and t h e s e a r e a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e S t u a r t a n d N e c h a k o R i v e r s and on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f C l u c u l z l a k e n e a r t h e o u t f l o w . I n t h e f o r m e r l o c a t i o n , s a l m o n were h a r v e s t e d , a n d i n t h e l a t t e r , l a k e r e s o u r c e s were h a r v e s t e d . The s a l m o n p r o c u r e m e n t s i t e s w ere o c c u p i e d f r o m J u l y t o November, a n d t h e l a k e s i d e l o c a t i o n s were u s e d f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e y e a r by t h e same g r o u p o f p e o p l e . A s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t e x p l o i t i v e t e c h n o l o g y , a n d s m a l l e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s a r e p r e d i c t e d f o r t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c a n d h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s . The m o d e l s p r o p o s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e b a s e d on e n v i r o n - m e n t a l , e t h n o g r a p h i c , a n d h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e l a t t e r , t h e o r i g i n a l f u r t r a d e r s ' a c c o u n t s f r o m F o r t S t . James and F o r t F r a s e r were c o n s u l t e d a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e c h a n g e s i n s e t t l e m e n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e o v e r t i m e . I n g e n e r a l , t h e s t u d y a d h e r e d t o t h e d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a p p r o a c h t e m p e r e d w i t h a c u l t u r a l e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I n o r d e r t o v e r i f y t h e p r o p o s a l s made i n t h e t h e s i s , t h e m a t e r i a l s a n d r e c o r d s o f B o r d e n ' s C h i n l a c e x c a v a t i o n were r e - e x a m i n e d , a n d a n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e s t u d y a r e a was c o n d u c t e d . The d a t a t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s e s p u t f o r w a r d b u t n o t a l l c o u l d be f u l l y t e s t e d . A r t i f a c t s f r o m t h e C h i n l a c s i t e c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e s i t e was o c c u p i e d d u r i n g t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , a n d f a u n a l r e m a i n s , h o u s e t y p e , a n d o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s make a summer/ f a l l o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e s i t e p r o b a b l e . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y f o u n d 37 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s g r o u p e d i n s e v e r a l a r e a s . The r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r s i t e s were l o c a t e d e i t h e r a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e r i v e r s ( a t a n d n e a r C h i n l a c ) o r a t t h e o u t f l o w o f C l u c u l z L a k e . S m a l l e r s i t e s were s c a t t e r e d a l o n g t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f t h e l a k e , a l o n g t h e r i v e r b a n k s , a nd e l s e w h e r e . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s d a t a , i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e two e l e m e n t ( b i n a r y ) s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 1. INTRODUCTION 1 H y p o t h e s e s 5 M e t h o d o l o g y 8 T h e s i s O u t l i n e 13 Summary 15 2. THE ENVIRONMENT 17 I n t r o d u c t i o n 17 The N a t u r a l S e t t i n g 18 D i s t r i b u t i o n and S e a s o n a l i t y o f R e s o u r c e s O t h e r Than Salmon 25 Salmon as a R e s o u r c e 31 Summary 34 3. ETHNOGRAPHIC SUMMARY 36 I n t r o d u c t i o n 36 The C a r r i e r 36 House S t y l e s 42 R e s o u r c e E x p l o i t a t i o n 47 The S e a s o n a l Round 5 3 The I m p o r t a n c e o f F i s h O t h e r Than Salmon t o C a r r i e r S u b s i s t e n c e .... 58 N a t i v e R e s o u r c e Use And S e t t l e m e n t i n R e c e n t Times 59 A b o r i g i n a l T r a d e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .... 61 Summary 64 4. HISTORIC PERIOD 66 I n t r o d u c t i o n 66 F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g S e t t l e m e n t D u r i n g t h e H i s t o r i c P e r i o d 67 H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t s o f C h i n l a c 72 The P o p u l a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y A r e a i n E a r l y H i s t o r i c T i m es 74 A M o d e l f o r S e t t l e m e n t D u r i n g t h e H i s t o r i c P e r i o d 76 Summary 79 5. THE PROTOHISTORIC PERIOD 81 I n t r o d u c t i o n 81 S e t t l e m e n t D u r i n g t h e P r o t o h i s t o r i c P e r i o d 82 Summary 87 i v 6. THE LATE PREHISTORIC PERIOD 8 8 I n t r o d u c t i o n 8 8 Settlement During the Late P r e h i s t o r i c P e r i o d 88 Summary 9 2 7. THE CHINLAC VILLAGE SITE 9 4 I n t r o d u c t i o n 94 The Borden E x c a v a t i o n 95 D e s c r i p t i o n of S t r a t i g r a p h y 99 F l o o r Plans 106 A r t i f a c t s 10 8 Faunal Remains 116 Summary 119 8. THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY 122 I n t r o d u c t i o n 122 The Survey 122 S i t e Groups and F u n c t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 125 Summary 138 9. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 140 Summary 140 Co n c l u s i o n 145 BIBLIOGRAPHY 149 APPENDICES 156 Appendix 1 Faunal Remains 156 2 A r c h e o l o g i c a l S i t e Data ... 7 v L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. L o c a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y A r e a , C o n f l u e n c e o f t h e Nechako and S t u a r t R i v e r s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2 2. The Nechako R i v e r W a t e r s h e d Showing t h e L o c a t i o n o f F u r T r a d i n g P o s t s and C a r r i e r V i l l a g e s 11 3. The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A q u a t i c A n i m a l S p e c i e s U t i l i s e d by t h e C a r r i e r W i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a Showing L o c a t i o n s Where S p e c i e s a r e C o n c e n t r a t e d a t V a r i o u s T imes o f t h e Y e a r 28 4. A n n u a l N a t i v e S o c k e y e F i s h e r y on t h e S t u a r t R i v e r f r o m 1952 t o 1972 34 5. The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Showing t h e I n t e r n a l D i v i s i o n o f t h e C a r r i e r 37 6. S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c R e l a t i o n s Between C a r r i e r Groups and O t h e r N a t i v e Groups c.1820 41 7. C a r r i e r Summer C e r e m o n i a l House f r o m t h e E a r l y H i s t o r i c and P r o t o h i s t o r i c P e r i o d s 43 8. C a r r i e r Summer House f r o m t h e E a r l y H i s t o r i c and P r o t o h i s t o r i c P e r i o d s . 45 9. C a r r i e r W i n t e r House From t h e E a r l y H i s t o r i c and P r o t o h i s t o r i c P e r i o d s 46 10. C a r r i e r F i s h W e i r 50 11. C a r r i e r ' e s 1 F i s h T r a p 51 12. P r i n c i p a l H u n t i n g and F i s h i n g Times f o r t h e C a r r i e r i n t h e E a r l y H i s t o r i c P e r i o d , by S p e c i e s and G e n e r a l A r e a ' 54 13. L o c a t i o n s W i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a U t i l i s e d by t h e C a r r i e r f o r R e s o u r c e E x p l o i t a t i o n i n R e c e n t T i m e s , By S p e c i e s 60 14. A b o r i g i n a l T r a d e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D u r i n g t h e P r o t o h i s t o r i c and E a r l y H i s t o r i c P e r i o d s 62 15. A b o r i g i n a l T r a i l s W i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a 6 3 16. S i t e Use and t h e S e a s o n a l Round f o r C a r r i e r s W i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a D u r i n g t h e P r o t o h i s t o r i c P e r i o d 83 v i 17. The Study Area Showing the L o c a t i o n of the C h i n l a c Study 9 6 18. The C h i n l a c V i l l a g e S i t e 98 19. L o c a t i o n of S t r a t i g r a p h i c P r o f i l e s For House I I I , the C h i n l a c S i t e (GaRv 1) 100 20. P r o f i l e 1. The Wall of the E x c a v a t i o n a t 45 Feet West, House I I I , C h i n l a c 101 21. P r o f i l e 2. A Wall a t 25 Feet West, House I I I , C h i n l a c 102 22. P r o f i l e 3. The L o n g i t u d i n a l Axis of House I I I , C h i n l a c 103 23. The Borden F l o o r p l a n f o r House I I I , C h i n l a c 105 24. Revised F l o o r p l a n f o r House I I I , C h i n l a c Showing Postholes Which Were Apparently A c t i v e i n L a t e r Occupations 10 7 25. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t s Compared to the D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Euro-Canadian and Chinese a r t i f a c t s i n House I I I , C h i n l a c 110 26. The Study Area Showing Type and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s D i s c o v e r e d During Survey 124 27. P o r t i o n s o f A b o r i g i n a l T r a i l s D i s c o v e r e d by A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey 137 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Climate Summary f o r Vanderhoof, B.C 21 2. F i s h Purchased f o r F o r t S t . James, 1811, 1820, 1823 59 3. F i s h Purchased f o r F o r t F r a s e r , 1823 59 LIST OF PLATES P l a t e Page 1. Euro-Canadian and Chinese A r t i f a c t s Recovered From House I I I a t C h i n l a c by C.E. Bordon 115 2. Euro-Canadian A r t i f a c t s Recovered by C.E. Borden From House I I I a t C h i n l a c 117 3. The Remains of a F i s h Weir on C l u c u l z Creek at FlRv 1 129 4. The Remains of a Second F i s h Weir on C l u c u l z Creek a t FlRv 1 „ . . 129 v i i i Acknowledgements I wish to pay t r i b u t e to the l a t e Dr . Char les Borden whose p ionee r i ng work In the C e n t r a l I n t e r i o r , and a t C h i n l a c , l a i d the foundat ion fo r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s tudy i n the r e g i o n . The c l a r i t y of h i s i n s i g h t was ev iden t aga in and aga in du r i ng my r e s e a r c h . I wish a l s o to express my g r a t i t u d e to the many people who helped make t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . S p e c i a l thanks to R ick Davis and to Mike F i t z p a t r i c k and the Board of School D i s - t r i c t 56 who prov ided whatever a s s i s t a n c e I needed. I would a l s o l i k e to thank the Hudson's Bay Company, and the P r o v i n - c i a l A rch i ves o£ Mani toba, fo r a l l o w i n g me to examine the records from New C a l e d o n i a . The Stoney Creek E l d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Mary and Lazare John , C e l l n a John , Ve ron i ca George, and Sophie Thomas, were h e l p f u l and k ind a t a l l t imes , and shared t h e i r knowledge and exper ience w i th me. The B l a t t n e r f a m i l y a s s i s t e d the f i e l d crew In many, many ways. I ve ry much app rec ia ted the hard work of my young f i e l d crew: Todd B l a t t n e r , Ka th leen F i t z p a t - r i c k , V i c t o r A l e x i s , Tracey Johnson, and Doug K e l l a m . I t would have been imposs ib le to complete t h i s t h e s i s w i thout the guidance and a s s i s t a n c e of my committee members, Dr . R .G . Matson, Dr . R i cha rd Pearson , and Dr . Ar thur Ray, and I thank them very much. Thanks a l s o to Dr . Mike Kew who j o i ned my committee a t a c r i t i c a l t ime . I would l i k e to Ix express my g r a t i t u d e to Moi ra I r v i n e f o r her e x c e l l e n t draw- i n g s , and her he lp and p a t i e n c e . Many f r i e n d s prov ided he lp and moral suppor t a t c r i t i c a l s tages i n the resea rch and I thank them a l l . I would a l s o l i k e to thank my c h i l d r e n , Morgan, Meghan, and Jonathan , f o r t h e i r unders tand ing . F i n a l l y , I wish to thank my w i f e , D iane, f o r her cons tan t support and encouragement. x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In t h i s study I have attempted to l o c a t e and d e s c r i b e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s which are elements i n se t t l e m e n t and s u b s i s t e n c e systems developed by the C a r r i e r people who occu- p i e d the s i t e a t C h i n l a c ( de s i g n a t e d GaRv 1 by Borden ) d u r i n g the p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . In a d d i t i o n , I have des- c r i b e d some of the changes i n land use which had oc c u r r e d around C h i n l a c d u r i n g the l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c and h i s t o r i c pe- r i o d s and have e s t a b l i s h e d a b a s i s f o r a l o c a l developmental sequence. I chose a study area c e n t e r i n g on C h i n l a c and p a r t s of the Nechako and S t u a r t R i v e r s , C l u c u l z and Cobb Lakes, and C l u c u l z Creek ( F i g u r e 1.) f o r s e v e r a l reasons. F i r s t , the study area c o n t a i n s l o c a t i o n s where two e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y im- po r t a n t r e s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e , and these are separated by enough d i s t a n c e to make e x p l o i t a t i o n of both resources from one camp d i f f i c u l t ; I expected t h a t a t l e a s t 2 f u n c t i o n a l s i t e types would r e s u l t . A l s o , some of the C a r r i e r Indians from Stoney Creek hunted and f i s h e d i n the area i n r e c e n t times ( they are probably descendants of the i n h a b i t a n t s of C h i n l a c ), so land use i n l a t e r p e r i o d s c o u l d be e v a l u a t e d . F i n a l l y , the area was sm a l l enough t h a t a survey which c o u l d o n l y l a s t 2 months might be re a s o n a b l y expected t o f i n d most of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s present . 1 F i g u r e 1. L o c a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y A r e a , C o n f l u e n c e o f t h e N e c h a k o and S t u a r t R i v e r s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C e n t r a l to the a r e a , i n a g e o g r a p h i c a l and p r o b l e m a t i c sense, i s C h i n l a c . Of i n t e r e s t p a r t l y because i t i s the best r e p o r t e d s i t e i n the area and p a r t l y because Morice (1978:14- 16) d e s c r i b e d the d e s t r u c t i o n of the v i l l a g e by the C h l l c o t i n ca. 1745 i n h i s H i s t o r y of the Northern I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. The s i t e was excavated by Borden i n 1950 and 1952 (1952) and placed by him i n the l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d and e a r l y c o n t a c t p e r i o d . The importance of C h i n l a c , a t some time i n the past, i s i n d i c a t e d by both the s i z e of the s i t e i t s e l f ( a p p r o ximately 400 x 100 m ) and the s i z e of the 10 r e c t a n g l a r house f e a t u r e s on the s i t e ( a veraging 8 x 13 m ). Borden (1952:32) i d e n t i f i e d the l a t t e r as house d e p r e s s i o n s . The s i t e i s a l s o l o c a t e d along a p o r t i o n of the S t u a r t R i v e r where a salmon weir c o u l d be e f f i c i e n t l y used. Although Borden e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t C h i n l a c was occupied f o r a pproximately 100 years beginning about A.D. 1700, there are q u e s t i o n s about the s i t e which have yet to be answered. For example, Borden i m p l i e d t h a t salmon procurement and pro- c e s s i n g took plac e there but a s p e c i f i c season f o r o c c u p a t i o n was not suggested (1952: 32-34). One may i n f e r t h a t Borden thought t h a t a permanent, and g e n e r a l l y non-seasonal, occupa- t i o n was r e p r e s e n t e d a t C h i n l a c . In t h i s t h e s i s , I present an a l t e r n a t i v e scheme f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n based on the idea t h a t C h i n l a c was occupied d u r i n g the salmon season, and t h a t s i t e s on C l u c u l z Lake (10 km south) were occupied by the C h i n l a c people f o r the r e s t of the year. While salmon was a p r i n c i p a l resource , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t lake f i s h were a l s o 3 of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance ( Hudson 1983:58-61 ). I a l s o suggest here tha t the resource base a v a i l a b l e to the people a t C h i n l a c , a t the s i t e , made occupat ion by a l a rge group year a f t e r year was u n l i k e l y . The salmon run f l u c t u a t e s d r a m a t i c a l l y and the f i s h may not have been p l e n t i f u l enough to to s u s t a i n a semi -seden ta ry occupat ion i n some y e a r s , as I w i l l show.. The f a c t t ha t Borden was ab le to con f i rm tha t C h i n l a c was abandoned a t the end of the p r e h i s t o r i c pe r iod meant tha t the w r i t t e n records a v a i l a b l e fo r the area might c o n t a i n impor- tan t se t t l emen t and subs i s t ence i n fo rma t ion which cou ld be used i n i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Fur t rade documents from Hud- s o n ' s Bay and Northwest Company posts nearby, d a t i n g from 1806, are most important i n t h i s r e g a r d . With h i s t o r i c a l and e thnograph ic sources a v a i l a b l e , the d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l approach seemed an app rop r i a te s t r a t e g y fo r t h i s i n v e s t i g a - t i o n as i t i n v o l v e s " working back i n t ime from a known ethnograph ic base ( Matson et_ a_l 1980: 1 2 9 ) . " An added j u s t i f i c a t i o n fo r the method i s tha t Borden used the d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l approach i n h i s o r i g i n a l work on the C h i n l a c s i t e (Car l son 1979: 234) . A c u l t u r a l e c o l o g i c a l pe r spec t i ve i s a l s o necessary because s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n may be be t t e r under- s tood through c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the l o c a l resource base and a b o r i g i n a l use . Glock (1985: 465) d e f i n e s c u l t u r a l eco logy as a pe r spec t i ve fo r r e g i o n a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n . C u l t u r a l eco logy ( N e t t i n g 1977 ) i s the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l framework w i t h i n which a r c h a e o l o g i s t s formulate resea rch ques t ions i n v o l v i n g the d i s p o s i t i o n of s i t e s on a l a n d - scape and t h e i r l e v e l s of in terdependence. 4 Butzer (1982 :6) p rov ides a goa l f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s which s t r e s s e v a l u a t i o n of the envi ronment. Thus, the pr imary goa l of env i ronmenta l a rchaeo logy shou ld be to de f i ne the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and processes of the b i o p h y s i c a l environment t ha t p rov ide a mat r i x fo r and i n t e r a c t w i th s o c i o - economic systems, as r e f l e c t e d , f o r example, i n subs i s t ence a c t i v i t i e s and se t t lement p a t t e r n s . Having e s t a b l i s h e d a focus fo r the s tudy , I pursued i t s goa ls through a r c h a e o l o g i c a l su rvey , and an e v a l u a t i o n of l o c a l env i ronmenta l f a c t o r s such as resource a v a i l a b i l i t y and s e a s o n a l i t y , hoping these would suggest s i t e f unc t i ons which cou ld be supported by h i s t o r i c a l and e thnograph ic r e s e a r c h . Given the d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources w i t h i n the s tudy a r e a , I dec ided tha t a se t t l ement and subs i s tence system w i th two major nodes or elements might have e x i s t e d i n the p r o t o h i s - t o r i c p e r i o d , and tha t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s would r e f l e c t t h i s . In the absence of any other s i g n i - f i c a n t resource c o n c e n t r a t i o n , other s i t e s were e i t h e r s a t - e l l i t e s of one node or the o t h e r , a t l e a s t du r i ng the pe r i od when C h i n l a c was occup ied , or can be exp la i ned i n the contex t of models fo r the l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c and h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s . Hypotheses I s t a t e d tha t I thought i t probable tha t C h i n l a c was occupied on l y du r i ng the salmon season and tha t the i n h a b i t a n t s p robab ly l i v e d on C l u c u l z Lake a t other t imes . Many e t h n o g f a p h i c a l l y important resources can be procured a t the l a k e , which i s c l o s e by and r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e , i n the f a l l 5 and s p r i n g of the year. E a r l y i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I decided that f i s h would probably spawn near the o u t f l o w o£ the Lake and s e v e r a l s p e c i e s c o u l d be taken t h e r e i n l a r g e numbers a t those times. A l s o , the l o c a t i o n was an i d e a l s i t e f o r a winter v i l l a g e because i t was on the n o r t h shore f a c i n g south, an advantage i n the w i n t e r , and the i n h a b i t a n t s c o u l d f i s h through the i c e to supplement s t o r e d foods. P r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h seemed to c o n f i r m my a n a l y s i s . I proposed the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c hypotheses to guide my r e s e a r c h , although not a l l c o u l d be f o r m a l l y t e s t e d : 1. I p r e d i c t t h a t d u r i n g the p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , when C h i n l a c was occupied (Borden 1952: 34), the i n h a b i t a n t s of the s i t e moved to the n o r t h shore of C l u c u l z Lake i n the f a l l ( l a t e November) to c a t c h w h i t e f i s h and char, and i n the s p r i n g (May through June) they caught suck e r s , chub, and t r o u t a t the same l o c a t i o n . T h i s p a t t e r n i s not i n c o n s i s t e n t with t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Morice (1893:184). C h i n l a c was occu- pied d u r i n g the salmon season. Within the study area then, a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s are c o n c e n t r a t e d i n two l o c a t i o n s , r e - f l e c t i n g dependence on two major r e s o u r c e s . One group of s i t e s i s s i t u a t e d near the confluence of the Nechako and S t u a r t R i v e r s ; the other group of s i t e s i s s i t u a t e d a t the o u t f l o w of C l u c u l z Lake. The l a r g e s t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n the area are found at the two l o c a t i o n s . 2. On the Nechako and S t u a r t R i v e r s , s m a l l e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s w i l l be found near r i f f l e s and eddies where t r a p s , 6 s p e a r s , and n e t s c o u l d be u s e d t o t a k e s a l m o n ( s e e M o r i c e 1893: 71, 8 7 - 9 0 ) . On C l u c u l z Lake and e l s e w h e r e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , s m a l l e r s i t e s w i l l be f o u n d n e a r p l a c e s where l e s s i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s s u c h a s c h a r c o u l d be c a u g h t . S i t e s on t h e s h o r e s o f s m a l l e r l a k e s a r e p r o b a b l y s m a l l . 3. S i n c e s a l m o n numbers f l u c t u a t e d d u r i n g t h e n a t u r a l c y c l e , i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e were t o o few f i s h t o s u s t a i n a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e i n some y e a r s . A t s u c h t i m e s , C h i n l a c was a bandoned and some i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s l e f t t h e a r e a u n t i l c o n d i t i o n s were b e t t e r . T h i s w o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p a t t e r n s r e p o r t e d by Hudson (1983: 80) f o r t h e C a r r i e r . 4. B e c a u s e t h e same g r o u p o f p e o p l e l i v e d a t C h i n l a c and a t t h e o u t f l o w o f C l u c u l z L a k e and f r e q u e n t l y t r a v e l l e d between t h e l o c a t i o n s , t r a i l s l i n k t h e r i v e r s i t e s w i t h t h e l a k e s i t e s . M o r i c e (1978) has mapped t r a i l s u s e d by t h e C a r r i e r i n New C a l e d o n i a . One would a l s o e x p e c t t h a t o t h e r t r a i l s e x i s t w h i c h p r o v i d e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k s w i t h C a r r i e r t o t h e west and e a s t . The h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d b e c a u s e C h i n l a c has been a s s i g n e d t o t h a t t i m e . However, I do a d d r e s s b o t h t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d and t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d i n t h e t h e s i s and I s e e b o t h as t i m e s o f l e s s i n t e n s i v e use o f t h e a r e a . As I s h a l l e x p l a i n , t h e s i t e s f r o m t h e e a r l i e r and l a t e r p e r i o d s a r e e x p e c t e d t o be s m a l l e r , r e f l e c t i n g a s o c i e t y w h i c h was d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t 7 w h i c h e x i s t e d d u r i n g t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , and a l o w e r p o p u l a t i o n . As t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s l i m i t s t h e op- t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a b o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e a r e a , I a n t i c i p a t e t h a t s i t e s f r o m a l l t h r e e p e r i o d s w i l l o c c u p y t h e same l o c a t i o n s , b u t t h a t t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m w i l l be e a s i e s t t o r e c o n s t r u c t f r o m s u r v e y b e c a u s e i t w o u l d be a t t h i s t i m e t h a t t h e I m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s were us e d by t h e l a r g e s t number o f p e o p l e . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d I s e a s i e s t t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h r o u g h h i s t o r i c a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h . M e t h o d o l o g y The a c h i e v e m e n t o f r e s e a r c h g o a l s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d e s c r i p - t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n o f c h a n g e s i n s i t e use w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a t h r o u g h t i m e , r e q u i r e d t h a t I f o l l o w s e v e r a l l i n e s o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n . 1. E x p e c t i n g t o f i n d a c o r r e l a t i o n between r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u - t i o n and s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n , I e v a l u a t e d t h e r e s o u r c e b a s e and mapped r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a . As I w i l l e x p l a i n i n my d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n C h a p t e r Two, t h e r e s o u r c e b ase i s n o t v e r y b r o a d and s u b s i s t e n c e depends on r e l a t i v e l y few s p e c i e s ( M o r i c e 1893: 84,93, Hudson 1983:58-61). I e x p e c t e d t o f i n d o n l y a few s i g n i f i c a n t r e s o u r c e c o n c e n t r a - t i o n s , p r i m a r i l y o f f i s h s p e c i e s . 2. I u n d e r t o o k a s u r v e y o f t h e waterways and l a k e s h o r e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a b e c a u s e t h e C a r r i e r s d e pended upon f i s h f o r s u b s i s t e n c e and t e n d e d t o l i v e n e a r w a t e r ( Hudson 1983 :58, 8 Morice 1893:184) . Helmer (1975: 79-80) du r i ng h i s survey of the B lackwater V a l l e y , to the south , fo l l owed waterways because of t h i s . S i t e survey i s an important s tep i n any a r e a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s tudy and may be planned to accord w i th pe rce ived subs i s tence p o s s i b i l i t i e s ( Butzer 1982: 258-259) and known ethnograph ic pa t te rns ( Helmer 1975 ). 3. I examined the excava t i on records and excavated m a t e r i a l s from C h i n l a c i n an attempt to e x t r a c t i n fo rma t ion about s i t e f u n c t i o n and use and I a l s o wanted a d d i t i o n a l i n fo rma t ion on the p r o t o h i s t o r i c pe r iod of o c c u p a t i o n . I was p a r t i c u l a r l y hope fu l t ha t s e a s o n a l i t y i n d i c a t o r s might be present and tha t ev idence fo r p e r i o d i c abandonment might a l s o be found. S p e c i f i c a l l y , f auna l remains might i n d i c a t e season of use and other ev idence fo r s i t e f u n c t i o n might have been uncovered which cou ld be supported w i th e thnograph ic or h i s t o r i c a l i n fo rma t ion . I n t e r r u p t i o n s i n depos i t s might I nd i ca te p e r i o d i c abandonment. A l s o , changes i n a r t i f a c t d i s t r i b u t i o n and pos tho le placement from one a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l e v e l to the next might I nd i ca te a non-cont inuous o c c u p a t i o n . 4. I examined h i s t o r i c a l documents i n the Hudson's Bay A rch i ves which might e l u c i d a t e C a r r i e r se t t l ement and s u b s i s - tence pa t te rns du r ing the e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . Fur t rade documents c o n t a i n many re fe rences to the a c t i v i t i e s of the C a r r i e r and I hoped fo r s p e c i f i c mention of C h i n l a c . The most r e l e v a n t documents are from the e a r l y years of the t rade (1806 to 1840) i n New C a l e d o n i a . The o r i g i n a l records of the Hudson's Bay Company fo r the area i nc lude r e c o r d s , accoun ts , 9 r e p o r t s , and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f r o m t h e p o s t s a t F o r t G eorge ( a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o£ t h e Nechako and F r a s e r R i v e r s ) , F o r t F r a s e r ( a t t h e e a s t end o f F r a s e r L a k e ) , and F o r t St.James ( a t t h e s o u t h e r n end o f S t u a r t L a k e ) ( F i g u r e 2 . ) . The j o u r n a l s o f Simon F r a s e r ( Lamb, 1 9 6 6 ) , A l e x a n d e r M a c k e n z i e (Lamb 19 7 0 ) , D a n i e l Harmon ( Lamb, 19 5 7 ) , and J o h n McLean (1932) a r e a l s o v a l u a b l e . George Dawson's r e p o r t on h i s g e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e p r o v i n c e ( 1878) has some i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o . 5. I u n d e r t o o k e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h , w h i c h i n c l u d e d I n t e r - v i e w i n g C a r r i e r e l d e r s f r o m S t o n e y C r e e k , i n t h e hope t h a t I m i g h t be h e l p e d t o u n d e r s t a n d r e s o u r c e u s e and s e t t l e m e n t d u r i n g e a r l i e r p e r i o d s . S e v e r a l o f t h e e l d e r s have f i s h e d o r h u n t e d w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a ; i n some c a s e s , t h e y remembered who had owned r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s i n t h e p a s t . I a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e a s o n a l use o f some l o c a - t i o n s would be g a i n e d . A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d y a r e a i t s e l f i s n o t w e l l known f r o m p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t e t h n o g r a p h i c works a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e C a r r i e r . The w r i - t i n g s o f F a t h e r A.G. M o r i c e , i n c l u d i n g The H i s t o r y o f t h e N o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (1906) and N o t e s A r c h a e o l o g i c a l . I n d u s t r i a l , and S o c i o l o g i c a l on t h e W e s t e r n Dene (1893) a r e good s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a i s p r o v i d e d by J e n n e s s (1929, 1932, 1943 ) f o r t h e w e s t e r n C a r r i e r g r o u p s . D u f f (1952) has w r i t t e n on t h e C a r r i e r o f C h e s l a t t a L a k e , S t o n e y C r e e k , F r a s e r L a k e , and F o r t F r a s e r . The c u l t u r e o f t h e A l k a t c h o C a r r i e r was r e p o r t e d by Goldman (1940, 1 9 4 1 ) . More r e c e n t l y , Kew (1974) has 10 F i g u r e 2. The N e c h a k o R i v e r W a t e r s h e d S h o w i n g t h e L o c a t i o n o f F u r T r a d i n g P o s t s a n d C a r r i e r V i l l a g e s . 11 w r i t t e n o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e N a z k o - K l u s k u s a r e a . Hudson (1972, 1983) has s t u d i e d t h e Upper C a r r i e r o f S t u a r t L a k e . T o b e y (1981) has summarised t h e v a r i o u s e t h n o g r a p h i e s a v a i l - a b l e on t h e C a r r i e r . S t e w a r d (1970) w r o t e an a n a l y s i s o f t h e c u l t u r a l e c o l o g y o f t h e S t u a r t L a k e p e o p l e and B i s h o p (1979 ) w r ote o f C a r r i e r s o c i a l r a n k i n g w i t h i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . 6. I examined r e p o r t s o f o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w h i c h had t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r s o t h a t I m i g h t g e n e r a t e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h i s s t u d y a l t h o u g h , i t must be s a i d , v e r y l i t t l e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n has o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . The o n l y p r o f e s s i o n a l e x c a v a - t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f a s i t e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a was t h a t c a r - r i e d o u t by B o r d e n a t C h i n l a c V i l l a g e ( B o r d e n 1 9 5 2 ) . Magne (1984) examined t h e C h i n l a c c o l l e c t i o n more r e c e n t l y , a n d , i n 1981, I a l s o worked on t h e m a t e r i a l s ( n . d . ) . An a m a t e u r , J a c k S e w e l l ( 1 9 5 2 ) , a t t e m p t e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e r e g i o n . U n t i l my own i n v e s t i g a t i o n , no s y s t e m a t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y had been a t t e m p t e d , and few s i t e s were known. However, s t u d i e s have been u n d e r t a k e n i n n e a r b y a r e a s and some r e p o r t i n g has been done. As p a r t o f t h e p r o j e c t w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e e x c a v a t i o n a t C h i n l a c , B o r d e n (1952) e x c a v a t e d s i t e s on N a t a l k u z L a k e t o t h e s o u t h where he f o u n d e v i d e n c e t h e r e o f an e a r l i e r and a p p a r e n t l y n o n - A t h a p a s k a n o c c u p a t i o n . Helmer (1975a) s u r v e y e d t h e B l a c k w a t e r R i v e r V a l l e y , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75 km s o u t h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a , f o r t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y B o a r d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; he d e s c r i b e d s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n t h e r e and 12 p r o p o s e d t h r e e p h a s e s f o r C a r r i e r c u l t u r e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e p a t r i l i n e a l band and e n d i n g w i t h t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y (1977a: 7 7 ) . I n a n o t h e r work, Helmer (1977b: 90-97) s y n - t h e s i s e d c u l t u r e h i s t o r y f o r t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r . F u r t h e r t o t h e s o u t h and west, W i l m e t h e x c a v a t e d s i t e s n e a r Anahim Lake where he f o u n d a p r o t o h i s t o r i c o c c u p a t i o n and two o t h e r components ( Helmer 1977b: 63) A p r o t o h i s t o r i c A t h a p a s k a n o c c u p a t i o n was I s o l a t e d a t N a d s a l d a l i a C r o s s i n g by M i t c h e l l (Helmer 1977a: 6 4 ) . B a s e d on e x c a v a t i o n s a t T e z l i a nd U l g a t c h o , Donahue (1975) s u g g e s t s a c o n t i n u o u s c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n f o r t h e A t h a p a s k a n s b e g i n n i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2400 B.C. and e n d i n g In t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . O c c u p a t i o n o f t h e t h e Punchaw L a k e S i t e ( t o t h e e a s t and s o u t h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a ) f o r more t h a n 4500 y e a r s i s i n d i c a t e d by F l a d m a r k ( 1976) and b y Helmer and W i l s o n (Helmer 1975a: 6 5 ) . A t h a p a s k a n s i t e s where p r o t o h i s t o r i c and o t h e r l a t e o c c u p a t i o n s were f o u n d a r e o f most i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e y c a n be compared w i t h C h i n l a c . Hudson (1972) has examined a s i t e a t W e s t l a k e n e a r P r i n c e G e o r g e . T h e s i s O u t l i n e I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l a p p r o a c h , I w i l l d i s c u s s t h e C e n t r a l C a r r i e r a s t h e y a r e known e t h n o - g r a p h i c a l l y b e f o r e I p r e s e n t models f o r t h e h i s t o r i c , p r o t o - h i s t o r i c , and p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s ( i n t h a t o r d e r ). I have, t h e r e f o r e , o r g a n i s e d t h e t h e s i s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner . I have a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d t h a t I b e l i e v e t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between t h e l o c a l s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n , and r e s o u r c e > 13 d i s t r i b u t i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y , and s e a s o n a l i t y . I n C h a p t e r Two, I d e s c r i b e t h e l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n d e t a i l and c a t a l o g u e t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a r e a ' s human i n h a b i t a n t s , and I examine f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s a l m o n w h i c h may have c a u s e d p r o b l e m s f o r t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e a r e a . I n C h a p t e r T h r e e , I summarize p e r t i n e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s l a t e r u s e d t o g e n e r a t e h y p o t h e t i c a l models f o r t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s under d i s c u s s i o n , and I p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t more r e c e n t n a t i v e l a n d use w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , d e r i v e d f r o m my own I n t e r v i e w s w i t h C a r r i e r e l d e r s a t S t o n e y C r e e k . The s e t t l e m e n t and s u b s i s t e n c e a c - t i v i t i e s o f t h e C a r r i e r a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g p r a c t i c e s i s g i v e n ; house s t y l e s a r e a l s o d e s c r i b e d . A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f i n t e r g r o u p t r a d e a n d k i n n e t w o r k s i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . C h a p t e r F o u r e x amines s e t t l e m e n t and s u b s i s t e n c e d u r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d and c o n t a i n s a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f t h e f u r t r a d e on t h e C a r r i e r l i f e w a y s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . I a l s o s u g g e s t how l a n d use d u r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d m i g h t be r e p r e s e n t e d In t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . I p r e s e n t a model f o r t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d i n C h a p t e r F i v e and f o r t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d In C h a p t e r S i x , b a s e d on d e s c r i p t i o n s f r o m e l s e w h e r e and upon t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s who have a t t e m p t e d t o e x - p l a i n c u l t u r e change d u r i n g t h o s e t i m e s . S p e c i f i c a r c h a e o - l o g i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c h a p t e r s . 14 Chapter Seven c o n s i s t s of a re-examination of the Borden e x c a v a t i o n of House I I I a t C h i n l a c i n l i g h t of r e s e a r c h i n t o h i s t o r i c a l sources and environmental f a c t o r s . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l survey conducted as p a r t of r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Eight. I d e s c r i b e the survey r a t i o n a l e , methodology, and r e s u l t s , r e l a t i n g the l a t t e r t o archaeo- l o g i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s generated by the 3 models presented i n prev i o u s c h a p t e r s . The f i n a l chapter of t h i s work c o n t a i n s a summary of the t h e s i s , c o n c l u s i o n s , and suggestions f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . I d i s c u s s the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the h y p o t h e t i c a l models i n view of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence, and d i s c u s s a l t e r n a t e views. Summary In summary, a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the t h e s i s i s de- voted to the c r e a t i o n and t e s t i n g of a model f o r the p r o t o - h i s t o r i c p e r i o d but models f o r the l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c and h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s are a l s o developed and p a r t i a l l y t e s t e d . An important p a r t of the r e s e a r c h c o n s i s t e d of the archaeo- l o g i c a l survey of a s m a l l area which c o n t a i n s c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of a l l important C a r r i e r s u b s i s t e n c e items d i s t i n c t l y se- parated by l o c a t i o n and season. The models are f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t e d through a r c h a e o l o g i c a l , ethnographic, h i s t o r i c a l , and environmental r e s e a r c h . The e x c a v a t i o n r e s u l t s from C h i n - l a c are d e s c r i b e d so t h a t t h i s p r o t o h i s t o r i c type s i t e a t a salmon procurement l o c a t i o n w i l l be known f o r comparative 15 purposes, and a l so to test the proposal that the s i t e was seasonal ly occupied. The d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l approach and a c u l t u r a l e co log i ca l perspective provide the conceptual frame- work for these inves t i ga t ions . 16 CHAPTER 2 THE ENVIRONMENT I n t r o d u c t i o n An i m p o r t a n t f i r s t s t e p i n t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s e t t l e - ment and s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s i s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n h a b i t e d by t h e g r o u p u n d e r s t u d y ( J o c h i m 1979: 224; B e t t i n g e r 1981:158; B i n f o r d 1983:38 ) . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I p r e s e n t a o v e r v i e w o f t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a and d i s c u s s s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t r e l e v a n t t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , I d e s c r i b e t h e l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and t h e s e a s o n a l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s w h i c h were e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y i m p o r - t a n t t o t h e C e n t r a l C a r r i e r . In a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n , I examine t h e s a l m o n r e s o u r c e and d i s c u s s i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and i m p o r t a n c e . I make t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t many a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s w i l l be a c c e s s i b l e t o r e s o u r c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a t s p e c i f i c t i m e s o f t h e y e a r . W h i l e I do n o t a d h e r e t o O p t i m a l F o r a g i n g T h e o r y h e r e , some o b s e r v a t i o n s made by t h o s e who s u p p o r t t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a r e u s e f u l . F o r example, Moore (1981:200) s t a t e s , I n m o d e ls t h a t d e a l w i t h a h e t e r o g e n o u s e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e o p t i m i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y m a x i m i z e s t h e n e t e n e r g y r e t u r n b y f e e d i n g i n d e n s e r e s o u r c e p a t c h e s . . . Thus o p t i m a l b e h a v i o u r i s s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by t h e d i s t r - i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s i n t i m e and s p a c e . 17 The e n v i r o n m e n t under i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i d n o t p r e s e n t i t s I n h a b i t a n t s w i t h u n i f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . I n b i o - g e o g r a p h e r ' s t e r m s , t h e human/ e n v i r o n m e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s " p a t c h y " o r " c o a r s e g r a i n e d " ( K i r c h 1982: 1 2 4 ) . M o r e o v e r , as I hope t o show i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s , C e n t r a l C a r r i e r s u b s i s - t e n c e l a r g e l y d e pended upon a few s p e c i e s o f f i s h . Many minor r e s o u r c e s were e x p l o i t e d b u t t h e s e t e n d e d t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e major i t e m s . I n many a c c o u n t s and s t u d i e s , s a l m o n i s c o n - s i d e r e d t h e k e y r e s o u r c e and a l l o t h e r s a r e a n c i l l a r y ( S t e w a r d 1970:207-8; Hudson 1983: 5 7 , 5 8 , 8 4 ) . However, s a l - mon i s n o t a r e l i a b l e n o r a b u n d a n t r e s o u r c e most o f t h e t i m e i n t h i s a r e a (Hudson 1983:67) and i t s i m p o r t a n c e w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a may be e a s y t o o v e r s t r e s s . An a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e a b s o l u t e p r i m a c y o f s a l m o n may l e a d t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a h i e r a r c h y o f s i t e s r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r c e i v e d i m p o r t a n c e o f v a r i o u s s p e c i e s t o s u b s i s t e n c e w h i c h may n o t r e f l e c t r e - a l i t y . O b v i o u s l y , a c o m p r e h e n s i v e , u n b i a s e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s w a r r a n t e d . The N a t u r a l S e t t i n g The s t u d y a r e a i s i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l c e n t e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and i s s i t u a t e d on t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u a s d e s c r i b e d by H o l l a n d ( 1964: 6 8 ) . P l a t e a u t e r r a i n i s r o l l i n g ( r u g g e d i n many p l a c e s ) and has a r e a s o f low m o u n t a i n s and h i l l s . The T e l e g r a p h Range t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a has m o u n t a i n s w h i c h a r e i n e x c e s s o f 1000 m i n e l e v a t i o n b u t o v e r a l l t h e r e g i o n i s n o t t r u l y m o u n t a i n o u s . 18 T h e r e a r e r e g i o n s o f l o w - l y i n g p l a i n s and b a s i n s , o f w h i c h t h e most e x t e n s i v e a r e t h e F r a s e r B a s i n and t h e v a r i o u s components o f t h e Nechako P l a i n . The g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e s e a r e t h e r e m a i n s o f outwash p l a i n s and l a k e b o ttoms c r e a t e d as t h e l a s t o f t h e P l e i s t o c e n e i c e r e t r e a t e d ( T i p p e r 1 9 6 3 : 1 2 ) . The s t u d y a r e a encompasses b o t h h i l l y a r e a s and o c c a - s i o n a l a r e a s o f f l a t , l e v e l p l a i n . E v i d e n c e o f g l a c i a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f e s k e r s , m o r a i n e s , outwash p l a i n s , and k e t t l e l a k e s i s a b u n d a n t . The p r e s e n t d r a i n a g e i s p o o r l y o r g a n i s e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t swamps, s h a l l o w l a k e s , and wet meadows a r e common. D e p o s i t s o f g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l s a r e u s u a l l y deep and b e d r o c k i s n o t commonly e x p o s e d ( T i p p e r 1963: 6-15). T h e r e a r e no known l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a where t o o l - q u a l i t y b a s a l t may be f o u n d . The c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e S t u a r t and Nechako R i v e r s l i e s w i t h i n t h e S u b - b o r e a l B i o - c l i m a t i c Zone ( K r a j i n a 1959: 17,18,38-41 ) a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e v e s t i g e s o f C a r i b o o P a r k l a n d f e a t u r i n g D o u g l a s f i r ( P s e u d o t s u q a m e n z i e s i i ) and o t h e r p l a n t s b e l o n g i n g t o t h a t r e g i m e . A c c o r d i n g t o t e c h n i c i a n s w i t h t h e l o c a l b r a n c h o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , t h e s e s t a n d s seem t o have an age o f 300 y e a r s o r s o . T h i s may i n d i c a t e a warmer c l i m a t e a t a b o u t A.D. 1700 , a l t h o u g h i t s e f f e c t on n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t and s u b s i s t e n c e i n t h e r e g i o n i s unknown. The d o m i n a n t p l a n t s b e l o n g t o t h e S u b - b o r e a l Zone w i t h w h i t e s p r u c e ( P i c e a g l a u c a s s p . g l a u c a ) , l o d g e p o l e p i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a l a t i f o l i a ) , and Englemann s p r u c e ( P i c e a 19 g l a u c a s a p . e n g e l m a n n i ) b e i n g t h e p r e v e l a n t c o n i f e r s . The f o r e s t a l s o f e a t u r e s t r e m b l i n g aspen ( P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s ) . w i l l o w ( S a l i x s p . ) , n o r t h e r n b l a c k c o t t o n w o o d ( P o p u l u s t r i - c h o c a r p a ) , and w h i t e b i r c h ( B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a ) . S p e c i e s o f a l d e r ( A l n u s ) and t h e t a m a r a c k ( L a r i x ) a l s o o c c u r i n s p o t s ( L y o n s 1952: 1 6 - 4 2 ) . Many v a r i e t i e s o f s h r u b and l o w - l y i n g p l a n t s o c c u r and some o f t h e s e were u t i l i s e d by t h e C a r r i e r . The h u c k l e b e r r i e s and b l u e b e r r i e s ( V a c c i n i u m sp,. ) a r e common and so i s t h e s a s k a t o o n b e r r y ( A m e l a n c h i e r sp...) . Soap b e r r y ( S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s ) , r a s p b e r r y (Rubus s p . ) , and w i l d s t r a w b e r r y ( F r a g a r i a s p . ) c a n be f o u n d . The w i l d r o s e (Rosa s p.) and t h e s t i n g i n g n e t t l e ( U r t i c a l y a l l i ) a r e a l s o common. I n a d d i t i o n t o t r e e s and b u s h e s , many s p e c i e s o f g r a s s and f l o w e r i n g p l a n t s a r e n a t i v e t o t h e a r e a b u t few a r e m e n t i o n e d i n e t h n o g r a p h i c a c c o u n t s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e C a r r i e r . The c l i m a t e o f t h e C e n t r a l I n t e r i o r i s n o t o v e r l y s e v e r e b u t e x t r e m e l y c o l d d a y s may o c c u r i n m i d - w i n t e r . A l t h o u g h t h e summers a r e c o o l and l i g h t r a i n comes o f t e n , t o t a l p r e c i p i - t a t i o n i s n o t h i g h . Norman G r e e n o f V a n d e r h o o f who has k e p t w e a t h e r r e c o r d s f o r t h e town f o r many y e a r s has p r o v i d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a w h i c h have been c o m p i l e d o v e r a 65 y e a r p e r i o d b e g i n n i n g i n 1920. V a n d e r h o o f I s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 km f r o m t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e S t u a r t and Nechako R i v e r s so t h e d a t a a r e a f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c l i m a t e i n r e c e n t y e a r s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . 20 Table 1 - Climate Summary f o r Vanderhoof, B.C. Mean Temp Records P r e c i p i t a t i o n Days with P r e c i p . Yr. J a . Ju. H L Rn Sn Tot Rn Sn Tot 2.5 -13.1 14.5 40 -51.7 263 197 460 76 47 122 Note: Temperature i s gi v e n i n degrees c e l s i u s ; p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s i n m i l l i m e t e r s Temperatures are moderated o c c a s i o n a l l y by winds from the coast and c l i m a t e i s c l a s s i f i e d Humid C o n t i n e n t a l (Tipper 1963: 2). V a l l e y bottoms and n o r t h - f a c i n g s l o p e s are known to remain c o l d e r longer ( C h i n l a c faces n o r t h e a s t ) , although there are no l o c a l f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e to q u a n t i f y these phys- i o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the c l i m a t e was g e t t i n g c o l d e r i n l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c and e a r l y h i s t o r i c times. Hudson (1983: 45) s t a t e s t h a t the area was much c o l d e r between 1750 and 1850, which would presumably be an important time p e r i o d f o r C h i n l a c as I w i l l l a t e r e x p l a i n . John S t u a r t , an a s s o c i a t e of Simon F r a s e r and l a t e r s u p e r intendent of New Ca l e d o n i a , remarked i n 1822, ... but the c o l d I b e l i e v e i s f a s t i n c r e a s i n g ; In ( s i c ) 1806 ... to 1812, the winters were so very m i l d ( HBCA B.188/e/l f o . 2d-3) * As mentioned, the area i s not o v e r l y r i c h i n res o u r c e s 1 HBCA i n d i c a t e s Hudson's Bay Company A r c h i v e s , B . 1 8 8 / e / l i s a Hudson's Bay Company A r c h i v e c a l l number ( R e p o r t f o r New C a l e d o n i a : 1 8 2 2 - 2 3 ) , F o l i o ( f o . ) numbers r a t h e r t h a n page numbers a r e g i v e n , *d' i s t h e back o f t h e f o l i o 'page'. 2 1 although a number of s p e c i e s of w i l d l i f e i s pr e s e n t . Noting the g e n e r a l s c a r c i t y of land animals i n h i s Report f o r ig23 (HBCA B.188/e/l f o . 4) , John S t u a r t wrote There are few animals of the l a r g e kind to be met with i n New Caledonia nor are those of the f u r kind e i t h e r v e r y numerous and ... f o r so s c a r c e are the animals t h a t e x c e p t i n g a t the p u b l i c f e a s t s g i v e n i n honour of the dead, nine t e n t h s of the people do not t a s t e meat perhaps not once i n ten y e a r s . . . In h i s t o r i c times a t l e a s t , s u b s i s t e n c e depended upon f i s h with other r e s o u r c e s occupying a l e s s important p l a c e (HBCA 1822-23:B.188/e/l fo.3d-4d). Today, moose (Al c e s a l c e s ) i s the l a r g e s t animal i n the C e n t r a l I n t e r i o r and i s hunted by both whites and n a t i v e s . The moose was almost c o m p l e t e l y absent from the area p r i o r to 1920 (Cowan and Guiget 1973: 376). The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) i s r e l a t i v e l y common and i t s range appears to be expanding as a r e s u l t of i n c r e a s e d land c l e a r i n g which opens up new h a b i t a t . Caribou ( R a n g i f e r tarandus montanus) were f o r m e r l y found t o the south ( i n the C h e s l a t t a Lake area) and to the north of S t u a r t Lake but are no longer present nearby (Hudson 1983: 45). These were hunted by some i n d i v i d u a l s but, judging from comments i n post r e c o r d s , were never r e a l l y common (HBCA B.188/b/2; HBCA B.188/a/l). Both the black bear (Ursus americanus) and the g r i z z l y bear (Ursus h o r r i b i l i s ) were hunted (Morice 1893: 94). The porcupine ( E r e t h i z o n dorsatum) i s common. In r e c e n t times, a t 22 l e a s t , t h e c o y o t e ( C a n i s l a t r a n s ) has been f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n . The r e d s q u i r r e l ( T a m i a s c i u r u s h u d s o n i c u s ) i s w i d e s p r e a d and v a r y i n g h a r e s (Lepus amer i c a n u s ) a r e s e e n f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . The marmot (Marmota s p . ) i s f o u n d i n r o c k y a r e a s and t h e s e were h u n t e d by t h e C a r r i e r ( M o r i c e 1893: 9 3 ) . T h e r e a r e a number o f s p e c i e s o f f u r b e a r e r s w h i c h were i m p o r t a n t b o t h t o t h e C a r r i e r and t o t h e e a r l y E u r o p e a n t r a d e r s . Wolf ( C a n i s l u p u s ) and l y n x (Lynx c a n a d e n s i s ) a r e n o t uncommon. B e a v e r ( C a s t o r c a n a d e n s i s ) , m u s k r a t ( O n d a t r a z i b e t h i c a s p a t u l a t a ) , m a r t e n ( M a r t e s amer i c a n a ) , f i s h e r ( M a r t e s p e n n a n t i ) , mink ( M u s t e l a v i s o n ) . w o l v e r i n e ( G u l o l u s c u s ) , r i v e r o t t e r ( L u t r a c a n a d e n s i s ) . w e a s e l ( M u s t e l a s p . ) and f o x ( V u l p e s f u l v a ) a r e a l l f o u n d w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a and a r e l i s t e d by M o r i c e (1893: 9 1 - 9 2 ) . H i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s (HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l f o . 3 8 ) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e C a r r i e r k e p t s m a l l dogs ( C a n i s f a m i l i a r i s ) . A v a r i e t y o f b i r d s p e c i e s , b o t h r e s i d e n t and m i g r a t o r y , i n h a b i t t h e N e c h a k o / S t u a r t r e g i o n and many were i m p o r t a n t t o n a t i v e s u b s i s t e n c e . R e s i d e n t s p e c i e s i n c l u d e t h e r u f f e d g r o u s e ( B o n a s a u m b e l l u s ) , s p r u c e g r o u s e ( C a n a c h i t e s c a n a d e n s i s ) , and t h e b l u e g r o u s e ( D e n d r a g a p u s o b s c u r u s ) . The t r u m p e t e r swan ( O l o r b u c c i n a t o r ) , a s p e c i e s h u n t e d by t h e C a r r i e r ( M o r i c e 1893: 1 0 4 - 5 ) , c a n be c o n s i d e r e d r e s i d e n t a s f l o c k s o f t h e s e b i r d s r e g u l a r l y w i n t e r where t h e r e i s open water on l o c a l r i v e r s . The Canada g o o s e ( B r a n t a c a n a d e n s i s ) i s a common v i s i - t o r In t h e e a r l y s p r i n g and f a l l when f l o c k s p a s s t h r o u g h f o l l o w i n g t h e i n t e r i o r f l y w a y . A number o f s p e c i e s o f d u c k s 23 and t e a l n e s t i n t h e a r e a i n c l u d i n g m a l l a r d (Anas p l a t v r h y n - c h o s ) . t e a l t (Anas s p . ) , r e d h e a d ( A y t h y a a m e r i c a n a ) , a n d g o l d e n e y e ( B u c e p h e l a s p . ) . The l o o n ( G a v i a immer), g r e b e s ( P o d i c e p s s s p . ) and o t h e r w a t e r b i r d s a r e p r e s e n t and were i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o£ f o o d ( M o r i c e 1893: 107) The s a n d h i l l c r a n e (Grus c a n a d e n s i s ) and t h e b a l d e a g l e ( H a l i a e e t u s l e u c o - c e p h a l u s ) a r e two b i r d s w h i c h seem u n l i k e l y f o o d i t e m s b u t a r e m e n t i o n e d a s s u c h i n p o s t r e c o r d s ( HBCA B . 1 8 8 / a / l ) . I have n o t l i s t e d t h e many s p e c i e s o f s o n g b i r d s w h i c h f r e q u e n t t h e a r e a b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t a p p e a r t o have been r e g u l a r l y t a k e n f o r f o o d . T h e r e i s ample t e s t i m o n y t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e C a r r i e r d e p ended h e a v i l y upon t h e r e s o u r c e s o f r i v e r and l a k e . Salmon were e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l b elow. The s o c k e y e ( O n c o r y n c h u s n e r k a ) was t h e most i m p o r t a n t s p e c i e s b u t C h i n o o k ( O n c h o r y n c h u s t s h a w y t s c h a ) a l s o a s c e n d t h e S t u a r t and Nechako a l t h o u g h i n l e s s e r numbers t h a n t h e s o c k e y e ( M o r i c e 1893: 8 4 ) . W h i l e s a l m o n i s t h e p r i n c i p a l r e s o u r c e o f t h e Nechako and S t u a r t R i v e r s , o t h e r f i s h s p e c i e s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e a r e a . The kokanee ( O n c o r y n c h u s n e r k a ) i s f o u n d i n many i n t e r i o r l a k e s b u t i t seems t o have been a l a t e t r a n s p l a n t i n C l u c u l z L a k e ( s e e b e l o w ) . C h a r ( S a l v e l i n u s namaycush) i s fo u n d i n C l u c u l z Lake and r a i n b o w t r o u t (Salmo g a i r d n e r i ) and d o l l y v a r d e n ( S a l v e l i n u s malma) a r e common i n t h e r i v e r s and many l a k e s . The w h i t e s t u r g e o n ( A c i p e n s e r t r a n s m o n t a n u s ) o c c u r s i n t h e Nechako and S t u a r t R i v e r s . S u c k e r s ( C a t o s t o m a s 24 s p , ) , s q u a w f i s h ( P y t c h o c h e i l u s o r e g o n e n s i s ) , peamouth ( M y l o c h e i l u s c a u r i n u s ) , m o u n t a i n w h i t e f i s h ( P r o s o p i u m w i l l - i a m s o n i ) , l a k e w h i t e f i s h ( C o r e g o n u s c l u p e a f o r m i s ) and b u r b o t ( L o t a l o t a ) a r e a l l f o u n d i n l o c a l s t r e a m s and l a k e s . The D i s t r i b u t i o n and S e a s o n a l i t y o f R e s o u r c e s O t h e r Than Salmon 5> As I have i n d i c a t e d , t h e C a r r i e r depended l a r g e l y upon f i s h f o r s u b s i s t e n c e and i t i s f i s h w h i c h a r e most l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e a k e y t o r e c o n s t r u c t i n g p a s t s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . W i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , f i s h a r e f o u n d i n t h e Nechako and t h e S t u a r t and t h e i r t r i b u t a r i e s ( w h i c h a r e a l l v e r y s m a l l ) , and i n C l u c u l z and Cobb L a k e s and t h e i r t r i b u t a r y and o u t f l o w s t r e a m s ( a l s o s m a l l ) ( F i g u r e 3 ). F i s h a r e a v a i l a b l e i n l a r g e numbers i n t h e l a k e s and c r e e k s a t d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s t h a n t h e y a r e i n t h e m a j o r r i v e r s . As no s c h e d u l i n g c o n f l i c t w o u l d be p r e s e n t , t h e l a k e and r i v e r e n v i r o n m e n t s may be t r e a t e d a s s e p a r a t e u n i t s i n t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t / s u b s i s - t e n c e p a t t e r n s . W r i t i n g a b o u t n a t i v e f o o d f i s h e r y i n t h e G r e a t L a k e s , C l e l a n d (1982: 768) g i v e s what I c o n s i d e r t o be a good g e n e r a l i s a t i o n f o r n o r t h e r n l a k e s . A l t h o u g h d i s p e r s e d and u n a v a i l a b l e f o r most o f t h e y e a r , f i s h were a h i g h q u a l i t y f o o d a v a i l a b l e i n t r e m endous q u a n t i t i e s a t s p e c i f i c t i m e s . A v a i l a b i l i t y was r e g u l a r , p r e d i c t a b l e , and c e n t e r e d on t h e s p r i n g and f a l l s p a w n i n g p e r i o d s . T h i s c y c l e becomes t h e k e y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n o f s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s o f t h e u p p e r G r e a t L a k e s I n d i a n s . Of t h e two l a k e s m e n t i o n e d , C l u c u l z L a k e i s t h e l a r g e s t 25 and was t h e most i m p o r t a n t f o r s u b s i s t e n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s . I was t o l d t h a t s e v e r a l s m a l l l a k e s o u t - s i d e t h e s t u d y a r e a were v i s i t e d by t h e p e o p l e f r o m S t o n e y C r e e k b u t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e s e seem t o have been o f m i n o r i m p o r t a n c e . I n a n y c a s e , camps a t t h e s e l a k e s w o u l d p r o b a b l y be s a t e l l i t e s o f t h e C l u c u l z L a k e camps i n e a r l i e r t i m e s , a s I hope t o show. C l u c u l z L a k e l i e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 km s o u t h o f t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e Nechako and S t u a r t R i v e r s (where C h i n l a c i s l o c a t e d ) ( s e e F i g u r e 1, page 2) . The l a k e i s a p p r o x - i m a t e l y 16 km l o n g and i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 km a c r o s s a t i t s w i d e s t p o i n t . C l u c u l z Lake i s r e l a t i v e l y d e ep w i t h a maximum d e p t h o f 60 m e t e r s . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c r e e k s f e e d i n g I n t o t h e l a k e b u t t h e s e a r e a l l s m a l l ; t h e o u t f l o w i s t h e l a r g e s t s t r e a m and f l o w s o u t o f a l a r g e s h a l l o w bay on t h e n o r t h s i d e . G e n e r a l l y , t h e l a k e i s s h a l l o w e r on t h e n o r t h and w e s t , and d e e p e r on t h e s o u t h and west w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e b e s t l o c a t i o n s f o r t a k i n g s p a w n i n g f i s h a r e on t h e n o r t h s h o r e and a t t h e west end, a l t h o u g h c h a r p r o b a b l y spawn i n d e e p e r a r e a s on t h e n o r t h e a s t and s o u t h e r n s h o r e s ( B r e n d a D i x o n , p e r s comm). The l i s t below, p r o v i d e d by t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t i n P r i n c e G e o r g e , c o n t a i n s a l l s p e c i e s o f f i s h now p r e s e n t i n C l u c u l z L a k e . 26 rainbow t r ou t (Salmo g a i r d n e r i ) lake char ( S a l v e l i n u s namavcush) d o l l y varden char ( S a l v e l i n u s malma) lake w h i t e f i s h (Coregonus c lupea fo rm is ) mountain w h i t e f i s h (Prosopium w i l l i a m s o n i ) l a r g e s c a l e sucker (Catostomus macroche i lus ) longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) whi te sucker (Catostomus commersoni) r eds ide sh ine r (R ichardson ius b a l t e a t u s ) squawf ish (Py t choche i l us oreqonens is ) peamouth chub (My loche i l us caur inus) lake chub (Couesius plumbeus) burbot (Lota l o t a ) kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) p r i c k l y s c u l p i n (Cot tus asper ) A c c o r d i n g to Brenda Dixon, b i o l o g i s t with the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i n P r i n c e George, t h e r e i s reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t kokanee were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the lake about 30 Years ago and so might not have been a s u s i s t e n c e item i n e a r l i e r times. D o l l y varden are not common i n the lake a t the present time and s e t nets s e v e r a l years ago y i e l d e d o n l y one f i s h (Brenda Dixon, pers coram). The f i s h i n C l u c u l z Lake spawn i n the f a l l and i n the s p r i n g . With the e x c e p t i o n of char, as I p o i n t e d out, a l l s p e c i e s spawn i n s h a l l o w water. The most important spawning areas are i n the bay on the north shore of the lake and i n C l u c u l z Creek. A l s o , spawners tend t o congregate i n the bay before e n t e r i n g the creek (Brenda Dixon, pers comm). Some sucker and t r o u t spawning may take p l a c e a t the west end of the lake but no one seems to know f o r sure. I t i s almost c e r t a i n t h a t burbot go to t h a t end (Brenda Dixon, pers comm). I n c i d e n t a l l y , waterfowl do v i s i t the west end of the l a k e ; one might s p e c u l a t e t h a t the swampy areas there may have been s h a l l o w lake i n past times and more b i r d s may have been 27 F i g u r e 3. The D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Aquatic Animal Species U t i l i s e d By The C a r r i e r W i t h i n The Study Area, Showing L o c a t i o n s Where Species Are Concen- t r a t e d At Various Times Of The Year. 28 p r e s e n t . L o c a t i o n s where r e s o u r c e s a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d a r e shown on F i g u r e 3 . R e s o u r c e s A v a i l a b l e i n F a l l on C l u c u l z L a k e S e v e r a l f i s h s p e c i e s o f i m p o r t a n c e t o n a t i v e s u b s i s t e n c e spawn i n t h e f a l l i n c l u d i n g t h e c h a r w h i c h spawns i n O c t o b e r and November i n d e e p a r e a s o f t h e l a k e where t h e r e a r e s u b - merged r o c k s and l a r g e b o u l d e r s ( B r e n d a D i x o n , p e r s comm). The w h i t e f i s h a l s o spawn i n t h e f a l l and l a r g e numbers were n e t t e d b y n a t i v e p e o p l e u n t i l t h e government p r o h i b i t e d t h i s a c t i v i t y i n t h e 1950's. I t i s u n c e r t a i n i f b o t h s p e c i e s o f w h i t e f i s h a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e l a k e b u t t h e y p r o b a b l y a r e ( B r e n d a D i x o n , p e r s comm). The m o u n t a i n w h i t e f i s h ( P r o s o p i u m w l l l l a m s o n l ) spawns i n l a k e s h a l l o w s o r s t r e a m g r a v e l s i n l a t e f a l l and l a k e w h i t e f i s h ( C o r e g o n u s c l u p e a f o r m i s ) spawn i n November and December i n s h a l l o w w a t e r ( S c O t t and G r o s - sman 1975: 2 7 1 , 2 9 3 ) . L a t e r , when t h e l a k e f r o z e o v e r , t r o u t and o t h e r f i s h c o u l d be c a u g h t w i t h hook o r n e t t h r o u g h h o l e s i n t h e i c e ( M o r i c e 1893: 7 2 ) . R e s o u r c e s A v a i l a b l e i n C l u c u l z Lake i n S p r i n g I n t h e s p r i n g , s u c k e r s a r e more p l e n t i f u l t h a n a n y o t h e r f i s h . The t h r e e s p e c i e s p r e s e n t i n t h e l a k e a r e a b u n d a n t i n C l u c u l z C r e e k and i n t h e l a r g e b a y on t h e n o r t h e r n s h o r e o f t h e l a k e d u r i n g t h e s p a w n i n g p e r i o d . S u c k e r s were an i m p o r t a n t f o o d s o u r c e e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y (Hudson 1983: 64 ). Not a l l s p e c i e s o f s u c k e r s spawn a t t h e same t i m e . The 29 longnose appears f i r s t beg inn ing In m i d - A p r i l ; the whi te sucker f o l l o w s some days l a t e r ; the l a r g e s c a l e sucker comes i n t o the c reeks around the beg inn ing of May. In some streams 500 or more f i s h may pass a s i n g l e po in t i n a few minutes , so the resource i s s u b s t a n t i a l (Sco t t and Grossman 1975: 531-547) . The C a r r i e r used sma l l f i s h , c a l l e d 1 t h e l m e k 1 , as food (Hudson 1983:60) . The exact spec ies i s not known but i t i s l i k e l y t ha t the f i s h were chub or s h i n e r s . A l l spec ies of chub and sh ine r i n C l u c u l z Lake spawn i n the l a t e s p r i n g and e a r l y summer , p robab ly i n the bay on the nor th shore of the lake (Brenda D ixon , pers comm). The squawf ish (Pv tcho- c h e i l u s o r e g o n e n s i s ) . a l a rge s p e c i e s of chub a l s o spawns i n the same area a t around the same t ime . As I can p e r s o n a l l y t e s t i f y , char en te r sha l l ow waters to feed on sma l l e r f i s h as soon as the i ce i s out i n the s p r i n g . W h i t e f i s h a l s o tend to move i n t o sha l l ower waters du r ing the e a r l y s p r i n g (Scot t and Grossman 1975: 272) . The appearance of these two f i s h e s tends to compound the resource base. At the same t ime as other spec ies are i n the bay and i n C l u c u l z Creek, rainbow t r ou t are e n t e r i n g the creek to spawn and are present from l a t e A p r i l to Late June (Sco t t and Grossman 1975: 187) . Cobb Lake Cobb Lake l i e s approx imate ly hal fway between the C h i n l a c s i t e and C l u c u l z Lake (F igure 3 ) . The lake Is s m a l l (3 km long and 1.1 km w i d e ) , sha l l ow (approx imate ly 7 to 9 meters 30 deep) , and i t i s fed by one s m a l l i n t e r m i t t e n t s t ream and d ra ined by ano the r . There are on ly three s p e c i e s of f i s h p resent but one (brook t r o u t ) was in t roduced i n 1984. There seems to be a good sucker popu la t i on (exact spec ies unknown); F i s h and W i l d l i f e caught 1800 f i s h In four net s e t s a few years ago. Lake chub (Cousieus plumbeus) i s a l s o abundant. Both s p e c i e s spawn i n the s p r i n g i n the sha l l ow water a t the west end and near the i n f l o w and ou t f l ow of the lake (Brenda D ixon , pers comm). Cobb Lake i s a l s o v i s i t e d by water fowl and, l o c a l r e s i d e n t s say tha t both b lack bear (Ursus amer icanus) and g r i z z l y bear (Ursus h o r r i b i l l s ) f requent the a r e a . Salmon as a Resource As ment ioned, the S tua r t and Nechako R i v e r s are v i s i t e d by sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and chinook salmon (Onco- rhynchus t shawv tscha ) . Of the two s p e c i e s , the sockeye were e a s i l y the most important to subs i s tence (Hudson 1983: 168) . There are p r e s e n t l y two runs of f i s h i n t o the r i v e r ; the e a r l y run , which was not s i g n i f i c a n t p r i o r to 1894 (Hudson 1983: 169) , has entered the S tua r t as e a r l y as J u l y 12; the l a t e r run has entered the r i v e r as e a r l y as August 3 and as l a t e as Sep t . 8 . Between 1938 and 1975, the maximum number of f i s h produced by the e n t i r e Nechako system was 865,000 i n 1956. In 1957,the most p roduc t i ve year between 1938 and 1975, 531,000 f i s h entered the S t u a r t . Th is compares w i th a p p r o x i - mate ly 1500 f i s h In 1956 and 23,638 f i s h i n 1958 (Sockeye 31 salmon Studies on the Nechako Ri v e r 1979 : 5). I estimate t h a t t h e s a l m o n would be gone f r o m t h e lo w e r S t u a r t n e a r C h i n l a c b y t h e t h i r d week i n September ( M o r i c e 1 8 9 3 : 1 8 4 ) . The C h i n o o k e n t e r t h e Nechako i n A u g u s t and spawn i n t h e r i v e r s i n September. C u r r e n t p r o d u c t i o n (1983) on t h e Nechako s y s t e m i s 12,600 f i s h b u t i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e s t r e a m s c o u l d p r o d u c e 45,000 f i s h ( D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s and Oceans 1984: v ) . The C h i n o o k a r e l a r g e r f i s h t h a n t h e S o c k e y e . The s a l m o n have been g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by damage t o t h e F r a s e r w a t e r s h e d s t r e a m s i n t h e r e c e n t p a s t . I n 1913, a r o c k s l i d e b l o c k e d t h e s a l m o n a t H e l l ' s G a te , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h was n o t r e c t i f i e d u n t i l a f i s h l a d d e r was c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1945 (Hudson 1983: 1 0 8 ) . A l c a n ' s Kemano p r o j e c t has had s e v e r e e f f e c t s on s a l m o n p r o d u c t i o n . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d when t h e r e s e r v o i r c r e a t e d b y t h e Kenny Dam was b e i n g f i l l e d (1952- 1 9 5 7 ) , v i r t u a l l y no w a t e r was r e l e a s e d i n t o t h e Nechako a n d s i n c e t h a t t i m e , s a l m o n have been s u b j e c t e d t o a b r u p t , a r t i - f i c i a l , c h a n g e s i n w a t e r l e v e l ( D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s and Oceans 1 9 8 4 ) . I have i n d i c a t e d above t h a t i t may be e a s y t o o v e r g e n e r a l i s e a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f Salmon a s a r e s o u r c e . W h i l e t h e r e i s no d o u b t t h e f i s h was i m p o r t a n t a s a f o o d s o u r c e t o t h e C a r r i e r , i t i s s u b j e c t t o c y c l e s w h i c h make i t a l e s s t h a n p e r f e c t s t a p l e . As Sneed (1971: 234) has p o i n t e d o u t , 32 T h i s i r r e g u l a r i t y ( c y c l i c a l n a t u r e o f s a l m o n ) w ould n o t be s o i m p o r t a n t i n a r e a s l i k e t h e l o w e r F r a s e r V a l l e y where a l l f i v e s a l m o n s p e c i e s o c c u r , b u t i n t h e Nechako R i v e r V a l l e y where o n l y l i m i t e d numbers o f two s p e c i e s o c c u r , t h i s c y c l i c a l i r r e g u l a r i t y w ould be f e l t by human p o p u l a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , t h e n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e o f t h e v a r i o u s f i s h d e c r e a s e s a s t h e d i s t a n c e o f t h e r u n f r o m t h e o c e a n i n c r e a s e s . I n sum, t h e e c o l o g i c a l v a l u e ( i . e . t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y ) o f a g i v e n s t r e t c h o f s t r e a m s u s e d by a b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r m a n d e p e n d e d on t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f t h e s a l m o n r u n s and t h i s d e pended on l o c a t i o n , s e a s o n a l i t y , and c y c l i c a l f l u c t u a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Hudson (1983: 106) , t h e s a l m o n w h i c h go up t h e Nechako have peak r u n s e v e r y f o u r y e a r s on t h e 1902 l i n e whereas t h e S t u a r t r u n peaks on t h e 1901 l i n e . T h i s means t h a t a peak r u n would have o c c u r e d I n 1897, 1901, and 1905 on t h e S t u a r t . On t h e Nechako, t h e peak would have come i n 1898, 1902, and 1906. However, p o o r r u n s o f t e n o v e r l a p . I n 1822, t h e r u n s i n t o F r a s e r Lake and I n t o S t u a r t Lake were v e r y s m a l l and s t a r v a t i o n was common t h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s t r i c t (HBCA B.188/a/2 f o . 5 6 d ) . The e f f e c t s o f t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e r u n s a r e w e l l documented (Hudson 1983: 67-69,80) w i t h one r e s u l t b e i n g an i n c r e a s e d d e p e n d e n c e upon l a k e r e s o u r c e s , a p o i n t w h i c h has r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s t h e s i s . I s u g g e s t t h a t s u b s i s t e n c e w o u l d be much more d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e C h i n l a c p e o p l e i n l o w y e a r s , s u c h as 1822, t h a n i n peak y e a r s and t h a t l a k e r e s o u r c e s would be c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y more i m p o r t a n t . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s a l m o n c y c l e c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d f o r more r e c e n t t i m e s by p l o t t i n g t h e n a t i v e f o o d f i s h e r y . F i g u r e 4 . shows t h e d r a m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e numbers o f f i s h t a k e n f r o m y e a r t o y e a r . 33 10 - 8 — sz 6 — o O O o 4 — O 2 — 03 £1 £ c 0 OJ m F igu re 4 . Annual Nat i ve Sockeye F i s h e r y on the S tua r t R i v e r From 1952 to 1972. ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s Commission. 1979 :9 ) . I t i s c l e a r t ha t s e v e r a l f a c t o r s are present In the environment which might have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on se t t lement and subs i s tence p a t t e r n s . The f i r s t , and most impor tan t , of these Is tha t important resources occur i n two e s s e n t i a l l y separa te l o c a t i o n s . The Salmon are a v a i l a b l e on the Nechako and S tua r t R i v e r s and most other f i s h u t i l i s e d by the C a r r i e r are a v a i l a b l e a t the l a k e s . The separa te resources >must be taken a t the d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s a t d i f - f e ren t t imes but s i n c e d i s t a n c e between C l u c u l z and Cobb Lakes and the R i v e r s a t C h i n l a c i s not g r e a t , and s i n c e no Summary 34 schedu l i ng c o n f l i c t o c c u r s , t h i s would not be a problem. Lake f i s h are a v a i l a b l e i n the s p r i n g and l a t e f a l l ; Salmon are a v a i l a b l e i n the l a t e summer and e a r l y f a l l . As I hope to demonstrate i n the next chap te r , the C a r r i e r depended on both resources to a h igh degree. I have a l l u d e d to microenv i ronmenta l f a c t o r s elsewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s . By t h i s , I mean tha t some l o c a t i o n s may be b e t t e r s u i t e d to human h a b i t a t i o n a t c e r t a i n t imes and not so a t o t h e r s . I t may s imp ly be tha t one l o c a t i o n i s unpleasant f o r one reason or another and t h i s may be an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the cho ice of h a b i t a t i o n s i t e . In t h i s r e g a r d , C h i n l a c i s a c o l d e r p lace than the nor thern shore of C l u c u l z Lake, and the snow s tays a t C h i n l a c l onge r . Th is f a c t o r , i n combinat ion w i th resource s e a s o n a l i t y and d i s t r i b u t i o n , may f u r t he r he lp us to understand se t t l ement and subs i s t ence p a t t e r n s . 35 CHAPTER 3 ETHNOGRAPHIC SUMMARY I n t r o d u c t i o n An i m p o r t a n t phase o f many a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f a b o r i g i n a l l i f e w a y s w h i c h e x i s t e d w i t h i n t h e a r e a under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , i m p l i c i t f o r s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a l a p p r o a c h ( M a t s o n et_ a l . 1980: 1 2 ) . The s t u d y a r e a has b e en i n h a b i t e d by t h e C a r r i e r s i n c e b e f o r e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s b e g a n . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I p r e s e n t a b r i e f summary o f C e n t r a l C a r r i e r c u l t u r e , w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o s e t t l e m e n t and s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s . I depend h e a v i l y upon t h e work o f M o r i c e (1893; 1978) b u t r e f e r a l s o t o t h e i m p o r t a n t r e s e a r c h o f Hudson (1972; 1983) and o t h e r s . The h y p o t h e t i c a l models p r e s e n t e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e p a r t i a l l y b a s e d on t h i s summary. F u r company r e c o r d s c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s t o C a r r i e r a c t i v i t i e s and were u s e d i n my r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . I a l s o g a i n e d v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o e a r l i e r p a t t e r n s by i n t e r v i e w i n g C a r r i e r e l d e r s a t S t o n e y C r e e k . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f i n t e r g r o u p s u p p o r t and t r a d e n e t w o r k s w h i c h seem t o have been I m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s o f C a r r i e r l i f e i n t h e p a s t . The C a r r i e r The C a r r i e r a r e an A t h a p a s k a n s p e a k i n g p e o p l e who i n - h a b i t e d t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . They a r e 36 F i g u r e 5. The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S h o w i n g t h e I n t e r n a l D i v i s i o n o f t h e C a r r i e r , A c c o r d i n g t o t o Hudson ( 1 9 8 3 ) and T o b e y ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Map A d a p t e d F r o m D u f f ( 1 9 6 4 : 1 4 ) . 37 d i v i d e d on t h e b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n c e s o f d i a l e c t i n t o t h r e e r e g i o n a l g r o u p s ( F i g u r e 5 ) . The Upper C a r r i e r , o r B a b i n e s , l i v e i n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f t h e C a r r i e r a r e a ; t h e C e n t r a l C a r r i e r l i v e m o s t l y on o r a r o u n d S t u a r t L a k e ; t h e Lower C a r r i e r a r e f o u n d t o t h e s o u t h (Hudson 1 9 8 3 : 4 7 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o T o b e y ( 1 9 8 1 : 4 1 6 ) , t h e p e o p l e who o c c u p i e d C h i n l a c a n d t h e s t u d y a r e a w o u l d h a v e b e l o n g e d t o t h e C e n t r a l C a r r i e r g r o u p . I n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e p e o p l e o f C h i n l a c and t h e s t u d y a r e a a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be C e n t r a l C a r r i e r . The n e i g h b o u r s o f t h e C a r r i e r a r e t h e S e k a n i t o t h e n o r t h , t h e C h l l c o t i n t o t h e s o u t h , t h e B e l l a C o o l a t o t h e s o u t h w e s t , and t h e G i t k s a n t o t h e w e s t (Hudson 19 8 3 : 5 3 ) . V a r i o u s b r a n c h e s o f t h e C a r r i e r i n t e r a c t e d , i n one way o r a n o t h e r , w i t h a l l t h e s e g r o u p s b u t t i e s w i t h p e o p l e s t o t h e w e s t were p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g and f e a t u r e s o f C a r r i e r c u l t u r e w e r e d i r e c t l y b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e G i t k s a n a n d B e l l a C o o l a ( G o l d man 1 9 4 1 : 3 9 6 ; B i s h o p 1 9 7 9 ; 1 5 4 ; S t e w a r d 1 9 7 0 : 2 0 8 ; D u f f 1 9 5 2 : 2 8 ) . M o r i c e (1893 :184) s t a t e s t h a t t h e C a r r i e r were s e m i - s e d e n t a r y and t h a t t h e y i n h a b i t e d t h e i r p r i n c i p a l v i l l a g e s i n t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n . He a l s o s t a t e s t h a t t h e w i n t e r v i l l a g e s n e e d e d t o be moved e v e r y y e a r ( 1 8 9 3 : 1 8 4 ) . V i l l a g e s were e i t h e r on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f l a k e s "so a s t o have t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e s u n ' s r a y s f r o m t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e " , o r a t t h e c o n - f l u e n c e o f r i v e r s ( 1 8 9 3 : 1 8 4 ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , M o r i c e n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , t h a t p r e s e n t l y a l l t h e m a j o r v i l l a g e s n e a r t h e s t u d y a r e a a r e on l a k e s , i n c l u d i n g N a k a z l e h ( S t u a r t L a k e ) , S t o n e y C r e e k ( N u l k i L a k e ) , a n d N a u t l e h a n d S t e l l a k o ( F r a s e r L a k e ) . M o r i c e ' s s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e p r i n c i p a l v i l l a g e 38 b e i n g a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e r i v e r must be t r e a t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . I n e a r l i e r t i m e s , C a r r i e r v i l l a g e s w e r e o r g a n i s e d i n t o g r o u p s w h i c h were named a f t e r t h e l o c a t i o n t h e y o c c u p i e d on t h e w a t e r s h e d . The s u f f i x ' t e n n e ' m e a n i n g ' p e o p l e o f i s u s e d t o d e n o t e m e m b e r s h i p i n t h i s l a r g e r g r o u p . I n d i v i d u a l g r o u p s were named a l s o . The s u f f i x 'woten' p l u s t h e v i l l a g e name i d e n t i f i e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s an i n h a b i t a n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r v i l l a g e ( H u d s o n 1 9 8 3 : 4 9 ) . B e f o r e t h e a bandonment o f C h i n l a c , i t s p e o p l e w o u l d h a v e c a l l e d t h e m s e l v e s ' t a n o - t e n n e ' ( M o r i c e 1893: 2 5 ) , a n d ' C h i n l a c w o t e n ' i f C h i n l a c was i n d e e d t h e name o f t h e i r p r i n c i p a l v i l l a g e . The p e o p l e o f C h i n l a c were a l l i e d w i t h t h e p e o p l e o f L e i t ' l i a t F o r t G e o r g e , N a u t l i ( N a u t l e h , N a u t l e y ) on F r a s e r L a k e , and w i t h T a c h e k ( S y - c u z ) a n d N u l k i ( N u l k r e h , N o o l k y ) n e a r S t o n e y C r e e k . I n c i d e n t a l l y , a p e r s o n f r o m S t o n e y C r e e k s t i l l m a i n t a i n s a f i s h camp a t D'no ( T a n n o ) w h i c h i s j u s t down r i v e r f r o m C h i n l a c , s o t h e a n c e s t r a l name i s s t i l l p r e s e n t i n t h e a r e a , and t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s t u d y a r e a and S t o n e y C r e e k i s e v i d e n t . A l t h o u g h S t e w a r d b e l i e v e d t h a t p a t r i l i n e a l d e s c e n t g r o u p s had b e e n p r e s e n t a t one t i m e ( 1 9 7 0 : 2 0 8 ) , a p o s i t i o n s u p p o r t e d by H e l m e r ( 1 9 7 5 : 7 7 ) , t h e C a r r i e r had exogamous m a t r l l i n e a l d e s c e n t g r o u p s o r c l a n s i n e t h n o g r a p h i c t i m e s ( D u f f 1 9 5 2 ; Hudson 1 9 7 2 : 2 0 , Goldman 1 9 4 1 : 3 9 ) . The c l a n a p p a r a t u s was i m p o r t a n t t o s u b s i s t e n c e a n d s e t t l e m e n t b e c a u s e r e s o u r c e s were c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e c l a n s t h r o u g h f a m i l i e s a n d v i l l a g e s 39 ( H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 : 6 9 ) . W i t h i n t h e c l a n , a c t u a l r e s o u r c e l o c a - t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g s i t e s were owned by t h e n o b l e s ( c a l l e d ' d e n e z a ' ) . The f u r t r a d e r C o n n o l l y , i n h i s r e p o r t f o r t h e y e a r 1826 (HBCA B.188/a/5 f o . 1 4 1 ) s t a t e s t h a t " t h e c o u n t r y h a s b e e n p a r c e l l e d o u t a m o n g s t c e r t a i n f a m i l i e s t o whom i t d e s c e n d s by i n h e r i t a n c e " . The c l a n s h e l p e d t o l i n k l o c a l g r o u p s w i t h o t h e r s s u c h a s t h e B a b i n e s t o t h e w e s t . Hudson ( 1 9 8 3 : 71) n o t e s t h a t , . . . t h e c l a n s y s t e m p r o v i d e d a means o f m a i n t a i n i n g e x c h a n g e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n l o c a l g r o u p s w h i c h h a d c o n t r o l o f r e s o u r c e a r e a s w h i c h i n t u r n were s u b j e c t t o p e r i o d i c f l u c t u a t i o n s . Hudson r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e s a l m o n a n d e m p h a s i s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n t e r - g r o u p c o n n e c t i o n s t o s u b - s i s t e n c e ( 1 9 8 3 : 7 9 ) . He a r g u e s t h a t S u t t l e s ' c o n c e p t o f a " c o m m u n i t y " l i n k e d b y f a c t o r s s u c h a s i n t e r m a r r i a g e i s a p p r o - p r i a t e f o r t h e C a r r i e r . T h i s c o n c e p t seems a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e C a r r i e r s ; w i t h a p a t t e r n o f i n t e r v i l l a g e r e l a t i o n s b a s e d on t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a c c e s s t o s e a s o n a l l y a b u n d a n t f o o d s u p - p l i e s , a n d r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e c o a s t a l v i l l a g e s p a r t i a l l y b a s e d on t h e l a c k o f f u r - b e a r i n g a n i m a l s a n d l a r g e game i n t h e c o a s t a l a r e a ( 1 9 7 2 : 9 9 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , he n o t e s t h a t t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e " c o m m u n i t y " w o u l d s h i f t w i t h e a c h g e n e r a t i o n and r e l a t i v e t o e a c h v i l - l a g e , t h a t w e s t w a r d r e a l i g n m e n t w o u l d have i n c r e a s e d a s t h e f u r t r a d e d e v e l o p e d ( H u d s o n 1 9 8 3 : 1 0 0 , 1 0 6 ) , a n d he i n f e r s t h a t r e l a t i o n s w o u l d I n c r e a s e i n i n t e n s i t y a s one n e a r e d t h e c o a s t . W i t h o u t t h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s , s u r v i v a l w i t h i n t h e a r e a s o c c u p i e d b y t h e C e n t r a l a n d Lower C a r r i e r w o u l d have b e e n much more d i f f i c u l t . B i s h o p ( 1 9 7 9 : 1 5 1 ) a l s o makes t h i s p o i n t . 40 Hwotso' terme* (Hakviligat) Fraser Lake: Natlo'tenne* Natleh (Nautley) S t e l l a (Stellako) Babine & Francois Lakes: Nato'tenne* (Bablnes) Upper Stuart Lake: T'jaz'tenne* That'jah (Tachl) Sas-thut Kaztce Yakutce Nulki & Tachek Lakes: Nulklwoten Tachekwoten Sy-cuz (Stoney Creek) Lower Stuart Lake: Na'kraztli'tenne* (Necoslie) Pintce (Pinchi) 1 Nazko, Kluskus, & West Road Rivers: Nutca'tenne* Trout Lake Kluskus Pej'katcek Klatco Alkatcho? Fraser/Nechako, Stuart/Nechako Rivers: Tano'tenne* L h e i t l i (Fort George) Tcinlak (Chinlac) Fraser River: Nazku'tenne* Quesnel Blackwater Fraser River (southern?): Nasku'tenne* (Tsoelkwef's vi l l a g e ) established kin ties and/or a l l i a n c e established trade l i n k occasional antipathy or enmity Carrier septs (from Morice) non-Carrier groups by l o c a l i t y | | Carrier groups by l o c a l i t y F i g u r e 6. S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c R e l a t i o n s Between C a r r i e r Groups and O t h e r N a t i v e G r o u p s c . 1820.Based on I n f o r m a t i o n From M o r i c e 1893: 10-31, M o r i c e 1978 (19 0 4 ) : 4 - 3 2 , HBCA B.188/b/l-3,HBCA 8.188/ 3/1-13, HBCA B . 1 8 8 / e / l - 5 HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l . 41 When the f u r t r a d e r s a r r i v e d , a l l C a r r i e r groups seem t o have had trade and k i n l i n k s with west. In F i g u r e 6, I have sketched a rudimentary network which I have p i e c e d together from h i s t o r i c a l and ethnographic s o u r c e s . I t may be noted t h a t the Tanno-tenne have s t r o n g t i e s Immediately to the south and west. There are i n d i c a t i o n s t hat k i n t i e s e x i s t e d between the people of the Stoney Creek area and the Babines. I t may a l s o be , gi v e n the c l o s e t i e s between C h i n l a c and Stoney Creek, t h a t these t i e s i n c l u d e d the C h i n l a c people. House S t y l e s In a l a t e r chapter on the C h i n l a c s i t e , I present the f l o o r p l a n d e s c r i b e d by Borden and a second p l a n recon- s t r u c t e d from h i s notes. While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y the d w e l l i n g s t y l e from these p l a n s , i t i s worthwhile a t t h i s time t o d e s c r i b e the h a b i t a t i o n s documented by Morice (1893), f o r the purpose of f u t u r e comparison. I t w i l l be noted t h a t the s t y l e of the winter house i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the summer houses so t h a t i f the s t y l e present a t C h i n l a c c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d , the season of occ u p a t i o n might be b e t t e r d e f i n e d . Although Morice does provide f l o o r p l a n s , u n f o r t u n - a t e l y , he does not give p r e c i s e dimensions. Morice d e s c r i b e s two types of d w e l l i n g used i n the summer and e a r l y f a l l ( d u r i n g the salmon season). The f i r s t type i s the ceremonial lodge b u i l t as both a re s i d e n c e and f e a s t house by the 'deneza' (nobleman) (1893: 185). The main supports of t h i s b u i l d i n g are four l a r g e posts and con n e c t i n g beams (Figure 7 ) . Four a d d i t i o n a l posts , one a t each of the out s i d e corners,were placed to hold up the w a l l s and to 42 0 2 m 0 5 ft F i g u r e 7. C a r r i e r Summer C e r e m o n i a l House From t h e E a r l y H i s t o r i c a n d P r o t o h i s t o r i c P e r i o d s . F r o m M o r i c e ( 1 8 9 3 : 1 8 4 - 9 3 ) . 43 s u p p o r t t h e e a v e s . The r o o f was made o f s p r u c e b a r k t i e d w i t h s t r i p s o f w i l l o w b a r k , w i t h an a p e r t u r e b e i n g l e f t f o r a smoke h o l e , and t h e w a l l s were made o f s p r u c e s l a b s f i t t e d v e r t i c a l l y i n t o g r o o v e d l o g s l y i n g on t h e g r o u n d . T h e r e were two e n t r a n c e s , one a t t h e f r o n t and one a t t h e b a c k . The h e a r t h was s i t u a t e d i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e house and t h e f i r e was b u i l t on b a r e g r o u n d ; t h e r e were no p a r t i t i o n s o f a n y k i n d w i t h i n t h e house i t s e l f ( M o r i c e 1893: 1 8 5 - 1 8 7 ) . The s e c o n d t y p e o f summer house i s s m a l l e r t h a n t h e c e r e m o n i a l house and more h a p h a z a r d i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n ( M o r i c e 1 8 9 3:188). The main s u p p o r t s f o r t h e r o o f o f t h i s f a m i l y d w e l l i n g were two p o s t s s i t u a t e d a t t h e f r o n t and back o f t h e house ( F i g u r e 8 ) . The w a l l s were made o f s p r u c e b a r k s l a b s p o s i t i o n e d between p a i r s o f u p r i g h t p o l e s sunk i n t o t h e g r o u n d . M o r i c e a l s o m e n t i o n s a t h i r d summer d w e l l i n g w h i c h he c a l l s a " f i s h i n g l o d g e " . T h i s s t r u c t u r e was s i m i l a r t o t h e house j u s t d e s c r i b e d b u t was v e r y c r u d e l y c o n s t r u c t e d ( M o r i c e 1893: 1 8 9 ) . The C a r r i e r w i n t e r house was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e d w e l l i n g s u s e d a t t h e s a l m o n f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s . T hese were c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d s o as t o keep o u t t h e e l e m e n t s and had p i t c h e d " A - frame" r o o f s ( F i g u r e 9 ) . The r o o f was s u p p o r t e d by a framework o f beams r e s t i n g on f o u r p o s t s sunk i n t o i n t o t h e e a r t h . The p o l e s w h i c h formed t h e b a s i s f o r t h e r o o f were s p l i t and t h e ends o f t h e s e were a l s o d r i v e n i n t o t h e g r o u n d . The d o o r was an o p e n i n g b e n e a t h a s l a b o f s p r u c e w h i c h was c o v e r e d by h i d e s and b l o c k e d by a s e m i - c i r c u l a r " d o o r y a r d " w h i c h p r o t e c t e d i t f r o m t h e wi n d . T h i s was made o f p o l e s l a i d corner ridge pole support s u p p o r t wall supports ridge pole scale not known F i g u r e 8. C a r r i e r Summer House F r o m t h e E a r l y H i s t o r i c a n d P r o t o h i s t o r i c P e r i o d s . F r o m M o r i c e 1 8 9 3 : 1 8 4 - 9 3 . 45 entrance porch area nterior partition wall rafter 2 m _J 0 5 ft F i g u r e 9. C a r r i e r W i n t e r House From t h e E a r l y H i s t o r i c and P r o t o h i s t o r i c P e r i o d s . From M o r i c e 1893: 184-93. 46 a g a i n s t the peak of the roof and slo p e d to the ground. P a r t i - t i o n s made of planks were present w i t h i n the house ( Morice, 1893: 190). Resource E x p l o i t a t i o n The C a r r i e r used a v a r i e t y of methods t o e x p l o i t the food resources a v a i l a b l e to them. The p r i n c i p a l r e s o u r c e s were f i s h , as I have mentioned, but b i r d s and land animals were a l s o taken and p l a n t s were eaten or used. In t h i s s e c t i o n , I present a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of C a r r i e r r e source e x p l o i t a t i o n and the technology used. The C a r r i e r used p l a n t m a t e r i a l s f o r many purposes. I have mentioned the use of spruce as a c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l f o r houses but i t was a l s o used f o r other purposes. Black spruce bark was used to make canoes, b e r r y b o i l e r s , and baskets; s p l i t spruce r o o t , c a l l e d 'wat- tup' was used to sew baskets together (Morice, 1893: 120- 122,126). A v a r i e t y of baskets, boxes, and other c o n t a i n e r s were manufactured from b i r c h b a r k but th e r e i s no mention t h a t t h i s m a t e r i a l was used i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of houses or canoes. Many of the bark c o n t a i n e r s were used i n f i s h i n g - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the salmon season, and i n b e r r y p i c k i n g and p r o c e s s i n g (Morice 1893: 120-125). Morice (189 3:115-130) l i s t s other p l a n t s used by the C a r r i e r . A s p e c i e s of f e r n ( P t e r i d i u m a q u i l i n i u m pubescens ?) which was c a l l e d 'ah' was p r i z e d f o r i t s r o o t which was eaten f r e s h or baked In a p i t surrounded by smoldering a l d e r c h i p s . The bulbs of t i g e r l i l i e s (Li1iurn columbianum) were dug as soon as the snow was o f f the ground. The C a r r i e r a l s o a te the bulb of the w i l d onion (Al1ium cernuum) and the dogtooth v i o l e t (Erythronium g r a n d i f l o r u m ) and p a r t s of the cow p a r s n i p (Sium suave), oregon grape (Berber i s a q u i f o l i u m ) , and fireweed ( E p i l o b i u m a n q u s t i f o l i u m ) . The black t r e e l i c h e n ( A l e c t o r i a jubata) was p i c k e d , washed, and baked i n t o cakes. The cambium l a y e r of the lodgepole pine (Pinus c o n t o r t a ) was scraped from the t r e e i n l a t e s p r i n g and eaten f r e s h , or e l s e d r i e d f o r l a t e r use (Turner 1978: 58-59). The saskatoonberry (Amelanchier sp.) was an important shrub and i t s branches were used f o r w a t t l e , and f o r arrows and "rod" armour (Morice 1893:55,117). The b e r r i e s ( c a l l e d 'mai') were eaten f r e s h with a seasoning of bear or salmon o i l , or e l s e b o i l e d down i n t o cakes which c o u l d be s t o r e d (Morice 1893: 125). H u c k l e b e r r i e s (Vaccinium s p . ) , c r a n b e r r i e s (Viburnum t r i l o b u m ) . soapberry (Shepherdia c a n a d e n s i s ) , and k i n n i k i n n i k ( A r c t o s t a p h y l o s Uva-ursi ) were s i m i l a r l y t r e a t e d . Apparently, other b e r r i e s were of l i t t l e economic importance (Morice 1893: 128-129). Land animals were hunted by the C a r r i e r , although t r a p - p i n g and s n a r i n g seem t o have been p r e f e r r e d . Morice (1893: 94-104) d e s c r i b e s the v a r i o u s t r a p s and snares employed to take the d i f f e r e n t game animals. Beaver (Castor canadensis) and muskrat (Ondatra z i b e t h i c a ) , f o r example, were caught i n basket t r a p s s i m i l a r to those used to c a t c h salmon ( des- c r i b e d below). Beaver were a l s o taken with harpoons which had barbed heads made of bone (Morice 1893:67-8). Although a l l s p e c i e s of land animals present i n the area ( l i s t e d above) were hunted, there were some important r e s t r i c t i o n s . The 48 b e a v e r was t h e e x c l u s i v e p r o p e r t y o f t h e ' d e n e z a ' and c o u l d only be h u n t e d by him o r h i s designates. W i l l i a m Connolly (HBCA B.188/a/5 £o. 141) wrote i n 1826, t h a t t h e ownership o f s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y were i n h e r i t e d and t h a t "a number who have no l a n d s . . . a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d t o h u n t ( b e a v e r ) " . B e a r s were s o u g h t d u r i n g t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n when t h e y were came t o t h e r i v e r s t o f e e d on t h e f i s h ; t h e y were u s u a l l y k i l l e d i n d e a d f a l l s b u i l t on t h e r i v e r banks ( M o r i c e 1893: 9 4 - 9 6 ) . B i r d s were h u n t e d , n e t t e d , and s n a r e d whenever p o s s i b l e . Ducks and g r e b e s were sometimes s n a r e d w i t h s m a l l n o o s e s a t t a c h e d t o s t i c k s s t u c k i n t h e b o t t o m i n s h a l l o w s o f t h e l a k e s and ponds b u t more u s u a l l y t h e y seem t o have been c a u g h t w i t h n e t s . M o r i c e w r i t e s t h a t g r e b e s ( P o d i c e p s s p . ) were t a k e n i n l a r g e numbers i n t h e s p r i n g ( 1 8 9 3 : 1 0 7 ) . Geese ( B r a n t a c a n a d e n s i s ) and swans ( O l o r b u c c i n a t o r ) were a l s o h u n t e d (1893: 104-105); swans were c a u g h t d u r i n g t h e i r f l i g h t l e s s p e r i o d i n t h e summer (HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l f o . 3 2 ) . F i s h were h a r v e s t e d i n v a r i o u s ways a l t h o u g h , h e r e a g a i n , t r a p p i n g was e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . F i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s were i m p o r t a n t and camps and v i l l a g e s were u s u a l l y s i t u a t e d a t p l a c e s where w e i r s and t r a p s c o u l d be u s e d ( M o r i c e 1893: 184; Hudson 1983:57,58,63). O f t e n a t e c h n i q u e u s e d t o t a k e one s p e c i e s o f f i s h c o u l d be u s e d t o h a r v e s t a n o t h e r . Hudson s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e a l i m i t e d number o f f i s h i n g p l a c e s where w e i r s c o u l d be u s e d (1983: 79) The s a l m o n were c a u g h t i n t h e r i v e r s . S p r i n g s a l m o n were sometimes s p e a r e d w i t h a c o m p o s i t e h a r p o o n w h i c h had b a r b s 49 made o f bone. D i p n e t s and l e i s t e r s were u s e d f o r b o t h t h e s o c k e y e and t h e s p r i n g s a l m o n , b u t more u s u a l l y t h e f o r m e r were c a u g h t i n t r a p s . F i g u r e 10 shows a w e i r and b a s k e t t r a p s e t - u p ' k a m s t k a d a l s ' u s e d i n r i v e r s h a l l o w s and b u i l t o f p o l e s l a s h e d t o g e t h e r w i t h w i l l o w o r s p r u c e s a p l i n g s and s u p p o r t e d b y h e a v y p o s t s d r i v e n i n t o t h e r i v e r bed e v e r y 40 or 50 f e e t . The l o n g t a p e r i n g b a s k e t s ( ' n a z r w e t 1 ) , made o f s p l i t D o u g l a s f i r , were s e t i n t h e w e i r a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s w i t h t h e i r n a r r o w ends p o i n t i n g downstream. O f t e n , r e c t a n g u - l a r b a s k e t s were a t t a c h e d t o t h e 'nazrwet.'. The s a l m o n swam up t o t h e w e i r d u r i n g t h e n i g h t and t h e n i n t o t h e o p e n i n g s a t t h e w e i r end o f t h e ' n a z r w e t 1 . From t h e r e t h e y were f o r c e d back i n t o t h e n a r r o w end o f t h e b a s k e t and were removed by t h e f i s h e r m e n ( 1 8 9 3 : 8 6 ) . F i g u r e 10. C a r r i e r F i s h Weir . From M o r i c e 1893: 88. 50 A s e c o n d t y p e o f s a l m o n t r a p a l s o shown i n F i g u r e 10 f e a t u r e s c y l i n d r i c a l b a s k e t s c a l l e d ' k u n t z a i ' . T h e s e were a b o u t 15 f e e t l o n g and were 4 f e e t i n d i a m e t e r . The f i s h were d r i v e n i n t o t h e " c o r r a l " b y p e o p l e i n c a n o e s who s p l a s h e d t h e i r p a d d l e s on t h e w a t e r , and t h e n were f o r c e d i n t o t h e b a s k e t t r a p s . The ends o f t h e s e were l i f t e d o n t o t h e l o g " s i l l " a t t h e f r o n t o f t h e t r a p and t h e e s c a p e o f t h e f i s h p r e v e n t e d . T h i s t y p e o f t r a p was sometimes u s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e w e i r a n d v a r i a t i o n s o f ' k u n t z a i ' b a s k e t s were u s e d t o c a t c h o t h e r s p e c i e s o f f i s h , and f o r b e a v e r ( M o r i c e 1 8 9 3 : 8 7 ) . s t r e a m b o t t o m F i g u r e 11. C a r r i e r ' e s 1 F i s h T r a p . From M o r i c e 1893: 89. 51 T r o u t (Salmo q a i r d n e r i ) and b u r b o t ( L o t a l o t a ) were c a u g h t i n a b a s k e t t r a p ( c a l l e d 'es') w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d i n s h a l l o w and s l u g g i s h s t r e a m s and w h i c h i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 11 . A s i m i l a r t r a p ('we.') was a l s o u t i l i z e d i n s l u g - g i s h s t r e a m s and r e q u i r e d t h a t a w e i r be b u i l t a c r o s s t h e w i d t h o f t h e s t r e a m ( M o r i c e 1 8 9 3 : 8 9 ) . Hudson (1983:64) s t a t e s t h a t s u c k e r s were g e n e r a l l y c a u g h t i n w e i r s and t r a p s b u i l t on s m a l l e r s t r e a m s . The s m a l l f i s h ('thelmek') were c a u g h t i n d i p n e t s when t h e y s c h o o l e d on t h e s u r f a c e o f l a k e s i n t h e s p r i n g (Hudson 1 9 8 3 : 5 9 ) . F i s h were a l s o c a u g h t by t r o l l i n g and w i t h s e t h o o k s . M o r i c e (1893: 89) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e kokanee were c a u g h t i n t h e s m a l l e r t r a p s u s e d f o r s o c k e y e . W h i t e f i s h were c a u g h t i n t r a p s and n e t s and, a c c o r d i n g t o M o r i c e (1893: 7 4 ) , were sometimes f r o z e n by t h e t h o u s a n d s . Salmon were p r e s e r v e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. The f i s h was s p l i t l o n g i t u d i n a l l y and t h e backbone was s t r i p p e d o u t and e i t h e r d i s c a r d e d o r f e d t o t h e d o g s . The f l e s h was s c o r e d and t h e f i s h was p i n n e d open w i t h p i e c e s o f wood, a f t e r w h i c h i t was a i r d r i e d and t h e n smoked on r a c k s . Salmon heads were o f t e n a l l o w e d t o p u t r i f y and t h e n b o i l e d i n o r d e r t o r e l e a s e t h e i r o i l . Salmon r o e was wrapped i n b a r k and p l a c e d i n h o l e s i n t h e g r o u n d u n t i l i t p u t r i f l e d ( M o r i c e 1 8 93:92-93). C h a r were p r e s e r v e d t h e same way a s s o c k e y e . T r o u t and s u c k e r s were d r i e d on r a c k s (HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l f o . 2 3 ) . Food was s t o r e d i n r a i s e d c a c h e s b u t c a c h e p i t s were a l s o dug i n t o t h e g r o u n d f o r t e m p o r a r y s t o r a g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n ( M o r i c e 1893: 1 9 6 - 1 9 7 ) . 52 The S e a s o n a l Round As i n d i c a t e d , r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a a r e a v a i l a b l e a t c e r t a i n t i m e s o f t h e y e a r and t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e , f i s h , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s e a s o n a l . The C a r r i e r c a l e n - d a r , a s p r e s e n t e d . b y M o r i c e ( 1 8 9 3 : 1 0 6 ) , r e f l e c t s t h i s . s a t c o , b i g moon t s e z - s e l , ? t s e z - t c o , ? c i n - u z a , month o f t h e s p r i n g t e k e s - u z a , month o f t h e c a r p t a n x - u z a , month o f t h e summer k e z e l - u z a , month o f t h e l a n d - l o c k e d s a l m o n t h a l l o - z a , month o f t h e r e d s a l m o n p i t - u z a , month o f t h e b u l l t r o u t l o h - u z a , month o f t h e w h i t e f i s h p a n r e n - n e t ' s e k e i , ' d u r i n g i t s h a l f one n a v i g a t e s 1 s a t c o - d i n a i , 'next t o t h e b i g moon' By c o m b i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m h i s t o r i c a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c s o u r c e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e s e a s o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e C a r r i e r (shown i n F i g u r e 1 2 ) . H i s t o r i c a l documents u s e d i n t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e : P o s t J o u r n a l s f r o m F o r t S t . James (HBCA B.188/a) and F o r t F r a s e r (HBCA B . 7 4 / a ) , P o s t C o r r e s p o n d e n c e f r o m F o r t S t . James (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / a ) , and D i s t r i c t R e p o r t s f o r New C a l e d o n i a (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / e ) . These s u p p o r t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c a l e n d a r d e s c r i b e d i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s . J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y The C a r r i e r were n o t v e r y a c t i v e i n m i d - w i n t e r . V e r y l i t t l e h u n t i n g , e v e n f o r f u r - b e a r e r s , t o o k p l a c e a t t h i s t i m e (HBCA B.188 /b/1 f o . 2 0 d ) . S t u a r t w r o t e i n 1823 ( I b i d f o . 3 4 ) t h a t " t h o s e who know t h e C a r r i e r s , know t h a t t h e y h u n t b u t 53 b e o r b e a v e r , f u r b e a r e r s N | D I = = =4 h a r e s , r a b b i t s g r o u s e s w a n s d u c k s , g e e s e ^ 1- I- H I I I I I I I I I I I I I H- 1 I 1 1 1 c a r i b o u I- c h a r I 1 b u r b o t t r o u t k o k a n e e p e a m o u t h I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I s u c k e r s s q u a w f i s h w h i t e f i s h 1 1 s a l m o n 1= M | A | M | J | J | A | S | 0 | N | D m o n t h s I I lakeside =! r i v e r s i d e F i g u r e 12. P r i n c i p a l H u n t i n g and F i s h i n g Times f o r t h e C a r r i e r i n t h e E a r l y H i s t o r i c P e r i o d , b y S p e c i e s and G e n e r a l A r e a . From M o r i c e 1893, 1978 ( 1 9 0 4 ) , Hudson 1983, HBCA B . 1 8 8 / b / l - 3 , HBCA B . 1 8 8 / a / l - 1 3 , HBCA B . 1 8 8 / e / l - 5 , HBCAB.74/a/l. 54 l i t t l e i n w i n t e r " . J a n u a r y and F e b r u a r y seem t o have been months when p e o p l e went o u t s i d e as l i t t l e a s p o s s i b l e . G a m b l i n g and s o c i a l i s i n g were i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t i e s a t t h i s t i m e (HBCA B.188/6/1 f o . l l d ) . I n p o o r s a l m o n y e a r s , t h e a r e a seems t o have been d e s e r t e d e n t i r e l y by t h e C a r r i e r who went o f f t o w i n t e r w i t h t h e i r k i n i n t h e west (HBCA B.188/b/2 f o . l 4 , 1 7 d ) where s a l m o n was a v a i l a b l e . M arch The b e g i n n i n g o f March was an i m p o r t a n t t i m e i n t h e c a l e n d a r b e c a u s e t h e h u n t f o r b e a v e r and o t h e r f u r b e a r e r s began a t t h i s t i m e . C o n n o l l y (HBCA B.188/a/5 f o . l 4 d , 1826) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s e a s o n f o r b e a v e r h u n t i n g r a n f r o m March t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f June and f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f O c t o b e r t o t h e end o f November. T r o u t were c o n g r e g a t i n g t o spawn a t t h i s t i m e and t h e I n d i a n s s p e a r e d t h e s e t h r o u g h t h e i c e (HBCA B.188/b/2 f o . 2 7 d ) . C o a r s e f i s h , c a l l e d " c a r p " i n t h e p o s t r e c o r d s , were a l s o t a k e n a t t h i s t i m e ; t h e s e were p r o b a b l y s u c k e r s . Some f i s h s u c h as b u r b o t were c a u g h t by d a n g l i n g bone hooks and b a i t e d bone p i n s t h r o u g h h o l e s c u t i n t h e i c e ( M o r i c e , 1 8 9 3 : 7 2 - 7 3 ) . The C a r r i e r were p r o b a b l y a l l l i v i n g on t h e l a k e s h o r e s I n March; some were r e p o r t e d on N u l k i l a k e a t t h i s t i m e i n 1823 (HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l f o . 1 8 ) and o t h e r s were on S t u a r t and F r a s e r L a k e s . Some h u n t i n g o f h a r e s and g r o u s e i s i n d i c a t e d a t t h i s t i m e (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / a / l ) . 55 A p r i 1 - J u l y T h i s p e r i o d was o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t o C a r r i e r s u b s i s - t e n c e a s i t i s t h e s p a w n i n g p e r i o d f o r s e v e r a l s p e c i e s o f f i s h w h i c h were i m p o r t a n t e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y t o t h e f o o d s u p p l y . I n A p r i l , h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g began i n e a r n e s t . From A p r i l t o J u n e , g e e s e , c r a n e s , e a g l e s , g r o u s e , d u c k s , and g r e b e s were b o u g h t a t F o r t S t . James f r o m t h e I n d i a n s (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / a / l f o . 2 d - 4 d ) . M o r i c e ' s i n f o r m a t i o n (1893:159) a b o u t t h e C a r r i e r f i s h i n g f o r 1 t h e l m e k 1 w i t h d i p n e t s i s c o n f i r m e d b y J o h n S t u a r t (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / e / l ) who r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s c a u g h t " c a r p " and c o n s i d e r a b l e numbers o f a s m a l l f i s h " n o t above an ounce i n w e i g h t " i n t h e s p r i n g . The " c a r p " were p r o b a b l y s u c k e r s w h i c h , as m e n t i o n e d , spawn i n t h e s p r i n g and e a r l y summer. The t r a d e r M c d o n n e l l a t F o r t F r a s e r b o u g h t l a r g e numbers o f f r e s h and d r i e d " c a r p " i n May and June f r o m S y - c u z ( S t o n e y C r e e k ) (HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l f o . 2 3 , 2 8 ) . S y - c u z was on N u l k i L a k e a t i t s o u t f l o w , S t o n e y C r e e k , where t h e s u c k e r s spawn. J u l y was s p e n t f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g ; t h e g a t h e r i n g o f p l a n t f o o d s , w h i c h would have begun i n t h e s p r i n g , c o n t i n u e d a l t h o u g h most b e r r i e s would n o t be r i p e i n J u l y . Kokanee and t r o u t c o u l d be t a k e n w i t h a t r o l l a t t h i s t i m e and swans were k i l l e d . Some w h i t e f i s h were a p p a r e n t l y a l s o c a u g h t i n J u l y and so was t h e o c c a s i o n a l s t u r g e o n ( A n c i p e n s e r t r a n s m o n t - a n u s ) . Simon F r a s e r , however, r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s had no means o f t a k i n g s t u r g e o n p r i o r t o t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e E u r o p e a n s w i t h t h e i r s t r o n g e r n e t s (Lamb 1 9 6 0 : 3 2 1 ) . The C a r r i e r would p r o b a b l y r e m a i n a t t h e l a k e s i n t o J u l y , l i v i n g 56 on s t o r e s of d r i e d s u c k e r s , t r o u t , and sma l l f i s h (HBCA B ,188 /a /5 f o . 1 4 5 ) . August-October The l a t t e r pa r t of the summer and the e a r l y f a l l c o n s t i - t u tes the salmon season when a move to the r i v e r s was neces - s a r y . Weir c o n s t r u c t i o n began i n l a t e J u l y (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / a / l f o . 1 3 - 1 4 . ) and s p r i n g salmon would be speared wh i le the C a r r i e r awai ted the a r r i v a l of the sockeye . As ment ioned, some l o c a t i o n s are be t t e r s u i t e d to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a salmon wei r than o thers . C h i n l a c seems to be i n a good spot because the r i v e r i s s h a l l o w between the r i v e r bank and an i s l a n d i n the cen ter of the S t u a r t . I checked the depth of the r i v e r i n f r on t of C h i n l a c i n J u l y and August and es t imate the maximum water depth a t a meter or s o . Dur ing the salmon season , bears were taken and b e r r i e s were p icked and p r o - c e s s e d . Some beaver hunt ing may a l s o have occur red i n some areas (HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l f o . 4 2 ) . The C a r r i e r s tayed a t t h e i r salmon f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s u n t i l the run had f i n i s h e d . November-December October marked the beg inn ing of the f a l l fu r t r a p p i n g pe r iod which cont inued u n t i l the end of October . Th is i s a l s o the season when the w h i t e f i s h spawn and the C a r r i e r cou ld ca t ch the g r e a t e s t numbers. W h i t e f i s h spawn In lake sha l l ows and i t would have been necessary a t t h i s t ime to move from the salmon procurement l o c a t i o n s on the r i v e r s back to the 57 l a k e s i n o r d e r t o h a r v e s t t h e s e f i s h and o t h e r l a k e r e s o u r c e s s u c h as c h a r . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e w i n t e r camps o f t h e C a r r i e r were on t h e l a k e s . (HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l f o . 3 2 ; c f . M o r i c e 1 9 8 3 : 1 8 4 ) . The I m p o r t a n c e o f F i s h O t h e r Than Salmon t o C a r r i e r S u b s i s t e n c e A l t h o u g h s a l m o n was e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o C a r r i e r s u b s i s - t e n c e o t h e r f i s h were n e c e s s a r y t o s u r v i v a l . I have d e s c r i b e d t h e f i s h r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e and t h e means u s e d by t h e C a r - r i e r t o s e c u r e t h e s e . Comments i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , a n d i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e c o n d a r y r o l e a s - s i g n e d t o o t h e r f i s h may be m i s l e a d i n g , and t o g e t h e r , t h e s e may have been a s i m p o r t a n t a s s a l m o n i n some y e a r s . T a b l e s 2 and 3 r e p r e s e n t an a t t e m p t t o c o u n t t h e v a r i o u s f i s h s p e c i e s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l c a t c h r e p r e - s e n t e d b y f i s h o t h e r t h a n s a l m o n . T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y f a r f r o m s a t i s f a c t o r y b e c a u s e a c c u r a t e f i g u r e s o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d were n o t a v a i l a b l e . A l s o , I b e l i e v e , t h e f a c t t h a t s a l m o n were s o e a s i l y s t o r e d , and became a s t a n d a r d w h i c h c o u l d be c o n v e r t e d t o Made B e a v e r ( t h e u n i t o f e x c h a n g e f o r t h e HBC ), meant t h a t t h e y were p r e f e r r e d by t h e f u r t r a d e r s above o t h e r s p e c i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e t a b l e s do show a h e a v y use o f t h e s e c o n d a r y f i s h ; t o g e t h e r t h e s e e q u a l c l o s e t o 50 % o f a l l f i s h b o u g h t by F o r t S t . James i n 1823. T h i s may be i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f n a t i v e d i e t i n f i s h c o n s t i t u t e d by t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s , a t l e a s t i n low s a l m o n y e a r s . Hudson (1983:168) s t a t e s t h a t w h i t e f i s h and c h a r were s e c o n d i n i m p o r t a n c e t o s a l m o n i n t h e d i e t o f t h e p e o p l e o f S t u a r t L a k e . 58 T a b l e 2 - F i s h p u r c h a s e d f o r F o r t S t . James , 1811,1820,1823 Y e a r Salmon W h i t e f i s h T r o u t C a r p S t u r g e o n Kokanee 1811 25000 7000 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 1820 y e s 3000 + y e s y e s y e s y e s 1823 9600 2800 2000 3000 7 N.A. From: HBCA B . 1 8 8 / b / l - 3 ; B . 1 8 8 / a / l - 2 T a b l e 3 - F i s h p u r c h a s e d f o r F o r t F r a s e r , 1823 Year Salmon W h i t e f i s h T r o u t C a r p S t u r g e o n 1823 40000 Ye s * 150** 6000+ Yes From: HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l * L o a d s o f w h i t e f i s h were b o u g h t b u t no numbers were g i v e n . ** More t r o u t were bought-numbers a r e f o r one p u r c h a s e . C a r p a r e p r o b a b l y s u c k e r s . N a t i v e R e s o u r c e Use and S e t t l e m e n t i n R e c e n t Times L o c a t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a were u s e d f o r r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n by members o f f a m i l i e s f r o m S t o n e y C r e e k who seem t o have i n h e r i t e d t h e use o f t h e s i t e s . On F i g u r e 13, I have shown t h e a r e a s where t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t a k e p l a c e . One i n d i v i d u a l m a i n t a i n s a s a l m o n f i s h i n g camp a t D'no (Wedgewood) on t h e Nechako, a few k i l o m e t e r s d o w n r i v e r f r o m C h i n l a c . A n o t h e r f a m i l y u s e d t o f i s h a t F i n m o o r e w h i c h i s s e v e r a l k i l o m e t e r s u p r i v e r f r o m t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e S t u a r t and t h e Nechako. Two o f my I n f o r m a n t s had f i s h e d f o r w h i t e f i s h w i t h n e t s i n t h e l a r g e b a y on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f C l u c u l z L a k e . In t h e s p r i n g , t h e y f i s h e d f o r t r o u t and s u c k e r s i n t h e same a r e a . B o t h i n d i v i d u a l s f i s h e d f o r c h a r i n t h e l a k e d u r i n g t h e f a l l . 59 Figure 13. Locations Within the Study Area Ut i l i sed by the Carrier for Resource Exploitation in Recent Times, By Species. 60 The e l d e r s remember t h a t a member o£ a stoney C r e e k f a m i l y maintained a f i s h i n g camp on c l u c u l z creek. Another man s t a y e d on t h e s m a l l i s l a n d a c r o s s t h e l a k e f r o m t h e o u t f l o w w h i l e he worked h i s t r a p l i n e . Two i n f o r m a n t s i n - d i c a t e d t h a t some f i s h i n g t o o k p l a c e a t t h e west end o f C l u c u l z L a k e b u t t h e y s t a t e d t h a t t h e b e s t f i s h i n g was i n t h e bay a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d . One i n f o r m a n t has camped on Cobb Lak e and she f i s h e d f o r s u c k e r s t h e r e , and f o r a t i m e w h i l e h e r husband worked on t h e r a i l w a y a t F i n m o o r e , she b r o u g h t h e r l a u n d r y t o t h e l a k e f o r w a s h i n g . A n o t h e r p e r s o n s t a t e d t h a t t h e Cobb Lake a r e a was u s e d f o r b e a r h u n t i n g . A b o r i g i n a l T r a d e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a The I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a c a r r i e d on t r a d e and had i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h o t h e r n a t i v e s d u r i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c t i m e s . T h e y had c l o s e t i e s t o t h e p e o p l e s o f S y - c u z and L e i t ' l i , and t h e y p r o b a b l y c a r r i e d on t r a d e and were i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h more d i s t a n t g r o u p s , t h e r e b y b r i n g i n g o u t s i d e goods i n t o t h e a r e a . D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s c a n h e l p i s o l a t e I n f l u e n c e s w h i c h may have a f f e c t e d l o c a l s o c i e t y , and may h e l p d e t e r m i n e t h e o r i g i n o f some o f t h e m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e f o u n d d u r i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 61 Coast T l i n g i t furs, _hides, etc. grease, "luxuries etc. Inland T l i n g i t .furs, hides, etc. salmon products, luxuries, grease Coast Tsimshian grease, - luxuries, Gltksan dressed hides, marmot skins, furs, — etc. Bablne Upper Carrier luxury goods, food Bella Coola luxuries, grease, 'salmon products, dentalia hides, hemp, salmon p roducts hides, marmot skins, etc. Chi l c o t l n Shuswap salmon products, luxuries x luxuries include: feathers, woodpecker scalps, sea s h e l l s , bone and s h e l l beads, q u i l l s , s tone c e l t s , copper, tool stone, dyes, baskets-, etc. furs, / hides, an t i e r salmon products, luxury goods, / horses, etc. / dentalia, horses, skins, furs, hemp, luxuries, etc. Canon Shuswap salmon products, black t a i l skins, cedar bark, luxuries Valley and Coast Salish fat, dried food, goat -products,— luxuries, etc. dentalia, l u x u r i e s , — slaves, canoes, etc. fat, dried food goat products, luxuries, etc. dentalia, luxuries, slaves, canoes, etc. Upper L i l l o o e t Thompson dentalia, bark, — special woods, etc. / luxuries etc. horses, slaves, furs, etc. middleman group or trade centre F i g u r e 14. A b o r i g i n a l Trade i n B r i t i s h Columbia During the P r o t o h i s t o r i c and E a r l y H i s t o r i c P e r i o d s . From T e i t 1900, 1906, 1909, 1930; Jenness 1943; Morice 1978 (1904), 1893; Hudson 1972, 1983; Helm 1981. 62 F i g u r e 15. A b o r i g i n a l T r a i l s W i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a . F r o m M o r i c e 1978 ( 1 9 0 4 ) ; Dawson 1 8 7 8 . 63 some f e a t u r e s o f e a r l y t r a d e p a t t e r n s a r e d i s c e r n i b l e i n h i s t o r i c a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e . F u r seems t o have been t h e most i m p o r t a n t i t e m t r a d e d o u t o f t h e a r e a , and d e n t a l i u m , n e p h r i t e , o b s i d i a n , b a s a l t , : and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s were b r o u g h t i n f r o m o u t s i d e (Hudson 1983: 84). I n l a t e r t i m e s , a s I w i l l d e s c r i b e below, t h e s e t r a d e r e l a t i o n s worked a g a i n s t t h e f u r t r a d e r s . M c L e l l a n (1981:387-388) summarises r e l a t i o n s betweeen t h e c o a s t and i n t e r i o r . F i g u r e 14 shows a p a t t e r n o f t r a d e n e t w o r k s w h i c h I have r e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e s . F i g u r e 15 shows t h e l o c a l p a r t o f a n etwork o f a b o r i g i n a l t r a i l s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n e a r l i e r t i m e s . Summary The s t a p l e o f t h e C a r r i e r d i e t was f i s h . A l t h o u g h s a l m o n was t h e m a j o r r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e C a r r i e r , o t h e r r e s o u r c e s were n e c e s s a r y f o r s u r v i v a l . F i s h s u c h as w h i t e f i s h , t r o u t , c h a r , s u c k e r s , and s m a l l f i s h w h i c h were a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l a k e s and c r e e k s were v e r y I m p o r t a n t . The s e a s o n a l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s and t h e d i f f e r e n t a r e a s where t h e y were a v a i l a b l e seemed t o have i n f l u e n c e d s e t t l e m e n t . The C a r r i e r moved t o t h e l a k e s i n t h e f a l l t o c a t c h w h i t e f i s h and c h a r and t h e y were a t t h e l a k e s i n t h e s p r i n g t o h a r v e s t t r o u t , s u c k e r s , and s m a l l f i s h . Salmon camps w h i c h were s i t u a t e d a t good f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s were o c c u p i e d f r o m J u l y t o O c t o b e r . O t h e r r e s o u r c e s c o u l d p r o b a b l y be h a r v e s t e d f r o m e i t h e r t h e f a l l / w i n t e r / s p r i n g camp o r f r o m t h e s a l m o n camp. 64 I n more r e c e n t t i m e s , C a r r i e r s f r o m S t o n e y C r e e k , t o whom t h e C h i n l a c p e o p l e were r e l a t e d , c o n t i n u e d t o e x p l o i t t h e r e - s o u r c e s o f t h e Nechako R i v e r , Cobb L a k e , and C l u c u l z L a k e i n t h e i r s e a s o n . I n e a r l i e r t i m e s , t h e C a r r i e r had a v a r i e t y o f means f o r h a r v e s t i n g r e s o u r c e s and some were more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r one l o c a t i o n and s p e c i e s t h a n t h e y were f o r a n o t h e r . The o w n e r s h i p o f r e s o u r c e s b y t h e 'deneza' was a f e a t u r e o f h i s t o r i c C a r r i e r s o c i e t y . B e a v e r , i n p a r t i c u l a r , were an owned r e s o u r c e and c o u l d o n l y be h u n t e d by p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i - d u a l s who had i n h e r i t e d t h e r i g h t i n t h e m a t r i l i n e , and f i s h i n g a t w e i r s was a l s o c o n t r o l l e d by t h e s e p e o p l e (Hudson 1983: 5 7 ) . As a r e s u l t o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h c o a s t a l p e o p l e s , s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n may have o c c u r r e d and c o a s t f o r m s s u c h as house s t y l e s may have been a d o p t e d . The l a r g e c e r e m o n i a l h o u s e , d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , seems a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p o t l a t c h i n g and o t h e r r i t u a l s d e r i v e d f r o m e l s e w h e r e (Hudson 1972:45) . The c o n n e c t i o n l o c a l C a r r i e r s had w i t h g r o u p s t o t h e west a l s o e n s u r e d s u r v i v a l when t h e s a l m o n r u n f a i l e d . A t s u c h t i m e s , many C a r r i e r s seem t o have l e f t t h e a r e a . 65 CHAPTER 4 THE HISTORIC PERIOD I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I d e s c r i b e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e E u r o p e a n l a n d - b a s e d f u r t r a d e on C a r r i e r s e t t l e m e n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s . As a new e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e was i m p o s e d upon t h e r e g i o n , s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d i n C e n t r a l C a r r i e r s o - c i e t y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e power o f t h e ' d e n e z a ' , who had c o n t r o l l e d a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s , was u n d e r m i n e d a s t r a p p i n g became more a n d more i m p o r t a n t ( H u d s o n 1 9 8 3 : 8 6 ) . The f u r t r a d e had a d i r e c t e f f e c t on s u b s i s t e n c e b e c a u s e i t made demands on t h e n a t i v e s who were c a l l e d upon t o s u p p l y t h e p o s t s , a n d i t c r e a t e d s c h e d u l i n g p r o b l e m s by e n c o u r a g i n g t r a p p i n g a t a l l s e a s o n s . S e t t l e m e n t was a f f e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e t r a d e e n c o u r a g e d s m a l l e r f a m i l y g r o u p s a s o p p o s e d t o c l a n - b a s e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c u n i t s i n t o w h i c h t h e C e n t r a l C a r r i e r had b e e n o r g a n i s e d ( H u d s o n 1 9 8 3 : 1 0 3 ) . The p l a c e m e n t o f t h e f u r t r a d e p o s t s w o u l d a l s o d i s t o r t n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s b e c a u s e t h e y w o u l d t e n d t o d r a w p e o p l e t o them. A l s o , E u r o - p e a n d i s e a s e s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e f u r t r a d e c a u s e d a d r a m a - t i c d e c l i n e i n t h e C a r r i e r p o p u l a t i o n g e n e r a l l y ( H u d s o n 198 3 : 99) w h i c h must have c a u s e d c h a n g e s i n s e t t l e m e n t . A l t h o u g h a v i l l a g e a t C h i n l a c i s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , i t i s u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r i t was a t t h e same p l a c e a s t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e GaRv 1. C o n f u s i o n 66 a r i s e s b e c a u s e t o t h e f u r t r a d e r s , " C h i n l a c " was t h e name g i v e n , i n a g e n e r a l way, t o t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e S t u a r t a n d N e c h a k o R i v e r s . I n a n y c a s e , no p e r m a n e n t v i l l a g e seems t o h a v e e x i s t e d i n t h e a r e a i n l a t e r h i s t o r i c t i m e s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t p e r m a n e n t o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a c e a s e d e a r l y i n t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , a n d t h a t g r a d u a l l y a p a t t e r n emerged i n w h i c h some l o c a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d t o be u s e d by p e o p l e who had a c l a i m t o t h e r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h d e s c e n t b u t who had t h e i r homes e l s e w h e r e . D u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , c o n t a c t s b e t w e e n p e o p l e s t o t h e w e s t a n d t h e l o c a l C a r r i e r c o n t i n u e d t o be i m p o r t a n t . F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g S e t t l e m e n t D u r i n g t h e H i s t o r i c P e r i o d E u r o p e a n s d i d n o t a p p e a r i n New C a l e d o n i a u n t i l 1793 when A l e x a n d e r M a c K e n z i e p a s s e d down t h e F r a s e r t o t h e B l a c k w a t e r R i v e r and t h e n c e t o t h e c o a s t (Lamb 1 9 7 0 ) . I n 1 8 0 5 , James M c D o u g a l l , i n t h e e m p l o y o f t h e N o r t h w e s t Company, r e c o n n o i t e r e d t h e a r e a t o t h e e a s t o f S t u a r t L a k e , a n d i n 1806 he v i s i t e d t h e s i t e o f F o r t S t . James ( s e e F i g u r e 2, page 11) n e a r N e c o s l i e where he d i s t r i b u t e d a few p r e s e n t s t o t h e n a t i v e s he f o u n d t h e r e ( M o r i c e 1978: 5 5 ) . I n t h e e a r l y summer o f 1806, S i m o n F r a s e r a s c e n d e d t h e N e c h a k o a n d S t u a r t R i v e r s a n d b e g a n t r a d i n g w i t h t h e C a r r i e r a t t h e v i l l a g e o f N a k a z l e h ( N e c o s l i e ) a t t h e s o u t h e r n end o f S t u a r t L a k e ( M o r i c e 1 9 7 8 : 6 0 - 6 3 ) . F o r t S t . James was b u i l t n e a r t h e o u t - f l o w o f t h e l a k e , a n d l a t e r i n 1806, F o r t F r a s e r was e s t a b - l i s h e d a t t h e e a s t e r n end o f F r a s e r L a k e n e a r t h e v i l l a g e o f N a u t l e h ( F i g u r e 2,page 1 1 ) . F o r t G e o r g e was b u i l t a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e N e c h a k o and F r a s e r R i v e r s i n 1807, b u t was l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e o t h e r two p o s t s . I t was a b a n d o n e d i n 1808 a n d o n l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1820 when e m p l o y e e s o f t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company b e g a n t r a d i n g t h e r e (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / e / l f o . 3 d ) . The y e a r 1806 marks t h e r e a l b e g i n n i n g o f t h e h i s - t o r i c p e r i o d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . However, b e f o r e t h a t t i m e , t h e C a r r i e r were t r a d i n g w i t h c o a s t a l p e o p l e who had a c c e s s t o E u r o p e a n g o o d s (Hudson 1 9 8 3 : 8 4 ) . The o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e C a r r i e r t o t h e w e s t i s w e l l known ( S t e w a r d 1 9 7 0 : 2 0 8 ; T o b e y 1 9 8 1 : 4 1 8 ; B i s h o p 1 9 7 9 : 1 5 0 ; M o r i c e 1 8 9 3 ; D u f f 1 9 5 2 : 2 8 ; Goldman 1 9 4 1 : 3 9 6 ) . T h e r e i s , a s I h a v e p o i n t e d o u t , c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e t h a t c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h w e s t e r n g r o u p s e n a b l e d t h e C a r r i e r t o o c c u p y t h e e a s t e r n p a r t s o f New C a l e d o n i a , a n d t o m a i n t a i n a n o n - e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y . B o t h t h e N o r t h w e s t Company a n d t h e Hudson's Bay Company were c o n c e r n e d b y t h e c o a s t w a r d t r a d e b e c a u s e t h i s p r e v e n t e d t h e m f r o m m a i n t a i n i n g a m o n o p o l y . Of t h e t r a d i n g p o s t s e s t a b l i s h e d i n New C a l e d o n i a , a t l e a s t t h r e e - F o r t G e o r g e , F o r t K i l m a u r s ( F o r t B a b i n e ) , a n d l a t e r S t o n e y C r e e k P o s t ( n e a r t h e v i l l a g e o f N u l k r e h ) were s e t up t o m a i n t a i n f u r company m o n o p o l i e s ( F i g u r e 2 , F o r t K i l m a u r s n o t s h o w n ) . I n t h e c a s e o f F o r t K i l m a u r s , w h i c h was a t t h e n o r t h end o f B a b i n e L a k e , i t was h o p e d t h a t n a t i v e t r a d e w i t h t h e c o a s t , i n v o l v i n g m i d d l e m e n , w o u l d be i n t e r c e p t e d . S p e c i - f i c a l l y r e f e r r i n g t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n , J o h n S t u a r t w r o t e i n 1823 (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / b / l f o . l l ) , 68 . . . t h e y l e a v e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f November t o go o v e r l a n d t o a l a r g e r i v e r w h i c h f a l l s i n t o t h e P a c i f i c O cean ... h e r e t h e y f i n d t h o s e I n d i a n s who t r a d e w i t h t h e E u r o p e a n s o f t h e s e a c o a s t , w i t h whom t h e y t r a d e t h e i r p e l t r i e f o r s a l m o n , a n d s u c h a r t i c l e s o f E u r o p e a n m a n u f a c t u r e a s t h e y a r e most i n want o f . . . And l a t e r he w r i t e s ( I b i d f o . 1 2 ) , . . . e x p e r i e n c e h a s c o n v i n c e d me t h a t n o t o n l y t h e n a t i v e s o f e v e r y v i l l a g e where we have E s t a b l i s h - m e n t s , b u t a l s o t h o s e o f o t h e r v i l l a g e s f r e q u e n t i n g t hem, a r e a d v e r s e t o us g o i n g on t r a d i n g e x c u r s i o n s a n d w i l l f r e q u e n t l y c i r c u l a t e f a l s e r e p o r t s t o p r e v - e n t us a n d s e c u r e t h e t r a d e f o r t h e m s e l v e s . The C e n t r a l C a r r i e r must h a v e i n t e n s i f i e d t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e w e s t e r n g r o u p s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . G i v e n t h e d e p e n d e n c e upon t h e s a l m o n i n t h e S k e e n a d r a i n a g e , and t h e i r k i n t i e s w i t h t h e B a b i n e s a n d o t h e r s , t h i s must have b e e n r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o d o . The l a n d - b a s e d t r a d i n g c o m p a n i e s w o r k e d v e r y h a r d t o d e s t r o y t h e s e t r a d e c o n n e c t i o n s w h i c h must h a v e t e n d e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e 'deneza'who s e n t f u r s w e s t a n d r e c e i v e d t r a d e g o o d s f r o m t h e B a b i n e s a n d o t h e r s . I n l a t e r t i m e s , i t a p p e a r s a s i f t h e t r a d e r s had some s u c c e s s a n d some o f t h e C a r r i e r became more d e p e n d e n t upon t h e t r a d i n g p o s t s w i t h i n t h e i r a r e a s ( B i s h o p 1 9 7 9 : 1 5 5 ) . D u r i n g t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a c o n t i n u e d t o r e f l e c t t h e h i g h l y s e a - s o n a l a n d l o c a l i s e d n a t u r e o f i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e i t e m s . T h r e e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d t h e b r e a k d o w n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e was d i s e a s e w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n ( H u d s o n 1 9 8 3 : 9 9 ) . C e n s u s f i g u r e s o f a k i n d were 69 k e p t by t h e f u r t r a d e r s f o r r e a s o n s o f commerce, a f t e r 1 8 2 0 . I n 1 8 2 0 , S t u a r t w r o t e (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / a / l f o , 1 8 d ) t h a t a t F r a s e r L a k e "... t h e r e a r e f e w I n d i a n s t o work t h e s a l m o n , f o r s o many d i e d t h e r e l a t e l y " , a n d t h a t t h e r e s t o f t h e I n d i a n s had d e s e r t e d t h e v i l l a g e t o a v o i d t h e s i c k n e s s . I n t h e w i n t e r o f 1 8 2 3 , M c d o n n e l l (HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l f o . 5 4 ) w r o t e t h a t most I n d i a n s were s i c k i n N a u t l e h ( p r o b a b l y o f d y s e n t e r y ) and t h a t "7 o r 8 had d i e d s i n c e f a l l " . The e f f e c t s o f d i s e a s e a n d p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e a r e d i f f i c u l t t o g a u g e . Some I n d i a n s seem t o have come t o t h e p o s t s t o t r y t o g e t t r e a t m e n t f r o m t h e E u r o p e a n s b u t more o f t e n t h e band seems t o have d i s p e r s e d . As a r e s u l t o f p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e , some r e a l i g n m e n t t o o k p l a c e ; t e r r i t o r i a l i t y must have b e e n s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d . A l s o , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t s m a l l e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c u n i t s w o u l d r e s u l t ( R a y 1 9 7 4 : 1 0 8 ) . The p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e p o s t s i n f l u e n c e d s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s b e c a u s e t h e t r a d e r s o f f e r e d g o o d s w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s w a n t e d , and b e c a u s e t h e p o s t s d r e w on n a t i v e s u b s i s t e n c e . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e l a t t e r , s u p p l y i n g t h e p o s t s w i t h s a l m o n became a n i m p o r t a n t e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y among t h e n a t i v e s (Hud- s o n 1 9 8 3 : 9 5 ) . Hudson ( 1 9 8 3 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e C a r r i e r o f S t u a r t L a k e were a b l e t o c o n t r o l p r i c e s p a i d f o r f i s h f o r a t i m e b u t t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know w h e t h e r t h e f i s h w h i c h were s u p p l i e d t o t h e p o s t s were s u r p l u s t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e C a r r i e r . I t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o know how i m p o r t a n t f i s h t r a d i n g was t o t h e C a r r i e r economy b u t i t was c e r t a i n l y s i g n i f i c a n t . B i s h o p ( 1 9 7 9 : 155) r e p o r t s t h a t i n 1 8 2 5 , t h e 70 d i s t r i c t o f New C a l e d o n i a r e q u i r e d 36,450 s a l m o n t o m a i n t a i n i t s e l f , i n d e e d , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r o f t h e d i s t r i c t , F o r t S t . James c o u l d n o t p r o v i s i o n i t s e l f b u t had t o d e p e n d upon t h e g r e a t e r r e s o u r c e s o f F o r t F r a s e r (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / b / 2 ) . Among t h e I n d i a n s , s t a r v a t i o n was common t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s - t o r i c p e r i o d ( H u d s o n 1 9 8 3 : 9 9 ) . No d o u b t t h e demands o f t h e t r a d e r s c u t i n t o t h e f o o d s u p p l i e s o f t h e C a r r i e r a n d , p r o b a b l y , s c h e d u l i n g p r o b l e m s were a l s o c r e a t e d . The a c t i v i t y o f f u r h u n t i n g , w h i c h may h ave o c c u p i e d o n l y a f e w p e o p l e b e f o r e t h e t r a d e b e g a n i n e a r n e s t , may have come i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h f a l l a n d s p r i n g f i s h i n g w h i c h w o u l d have b e e n e s s e n t i a l f o r s u r v i v a l i f one l i v e d on t h e S t u a r t . I m i g h t a l s o a d d t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e f u r t r a d e r s may h a v e t r i e d t o p r e v e n t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a w e i r on t h e l o w e r S t u a r t a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s s u g g e s t i o n . O b v i o u s l y , i t w o u l d have been more c o n v e n i e n t f o r F o r t S t . James i f a l l t h e S t u a r t L a k e s a l m o n were i n t e r c e p t e d n e a r t h e F o r t where more c o n t r o l c o u l d be e x e r c i s e d , t h a n a t a r e l a t i v e l y i n c o n v e n i e n t l o c a t i o n d o w n s t r e a m . A t h i r d f a c t o r w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d s e t t l e m e n t was t h e e c o n o m i c ' p l a n ' d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f New C a l e d o n i a b y t h e c o m p a n i e s . I u s e t h e w o r d ' p l a n ' c a u t i o u s l y h e r e b e c a u s e w h i l e t h e g o a l s o f t h e c o m p a n i e s r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t - - t h e y w a n t e d t o g e t t h e g r e a t e s t number o f f u r s f o r t h e l e a s t e x p e n d i t u r e -- t h e means u s e d t o a c h i e v e t h e s e v a r i e d w i t h t i m e a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The c o m p a n i e s c o n s i s t e n t l y t r i e d t o 71 r e s t r i c t the movement o£ the Indians, however, and attempted to t i e i n d i v i d u a l hunters to the v a r i o u s posts through the use of c r e d i t and i n other ways (Hudson 1983: 92). T h i s was p a r t l y to prevent the Indians from t r a d i n g o u t s i d e the monopoly but a l s o to prevent c o m p e t i t i o n between the posts w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t (HBCA B.188/b/l f o . 2 9 ) . That the t r a d e r s c o n s c i o u s l y , or u n c o n s c i o u s l y , t r i e d to subvert t r a d i t i o n a l h e i r a r c h i e s to f u r t h e r t h e i r own ends i s w e l l known (Hudson 1983:84) and c o n s t i t u t e s another f a c t o r which would have caused r e p e r c u s s i o n s through the t r a d i t i o n a l systems. H i s t o r i c a l Accounts of C h i n l a c Morice (1978:15) s t a t e d t h a t C h i n l a c was abandoned i n 1745 a f t e r most of the i n h a b i t a n t s were k i l l e d by a C h i l c o t i n war p a r t y . However, as I s h a l l d i s c u s s below, Borden un- covered no c o n c l u s i v e evidence t h a t t h i s a t t a c k had r e s u l t e d i n the abandonment of the s i t e , and, i n f a c t , he found e v i - dence t h a t the s i t e had been occupied u n t i l the end of the 18th c e n t u r y (1952:34). Although, as I have s t a t e d , there i s no d e f i n i t e h i s t o r i c a l evidence f o r a permanent v i l l a g e a t C h i n l a c , there are i n d i c a t i o n s i n the post r e c o r d s t h a t the C a r r i e r u t i l i s e d the area a f t e r the beginning of the H i s t o r i c p e r i o d . The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e to Indians a t the confluence of the S t u a r t and Nechako was made by Simon F r a s e r i n 1806 (Lamb 1966:231). But i t not being the salmon time, we saw none of the N a t i v e s u n t i l the Forks (of the Nechako and S t u a r t R i v e r s ), b e t t e r than h a l f way up, where we saw about 30 men, who had Beaver Cat and Badger Robes f o r c o v e r i n g s - and a couple had b l a n k e t s of C l o t h . 72 E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l d o c u m e n t s t h r o w s more l i g h t on t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e C h i n l a c a r e a a n d t h e r e a r e a f e w r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e p l a c e . I n 1 8 2 2 , S t u a r t (HBCA B.188/b/2 f o . 1 8 ) w r o t e t h a t no I n d i a n s were a t t h e F o r k s ( o f C h i n l a c ) i n e a r l y November. I n h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / e / l f o . 5 ) , he s t a t e s t h a t t h e v i l l a g e o f " C h i n l a k " was d e p e n d e n t upon F o r t G e o r g e , a l o n g w i t h t h e v i l l a g e s o f " C l e e t - l e h , L i t t l e L a k e , a n d C h a l a - o o - c h e c k " ( C l e e t - l e h , I t h i n k , i s L e i t ' l i ( F i g u r e 2, page 1 0 ) ) ; C h a l a - o o - c h e c k was a v i l l a g e on t h e N e c h a k o n e a r F o r t G e o r g e ; I d o n ' t know where L i t t l e L a k e w a s ) . The c o m b i n e d p o p u l a t i o n o f a l l t h e v i l l a g e s was 113 i n d i v i d u a l s (39 men, 39 women, 35 c h i l d r e n ) w h i c h had i n - c r e a s e d b y 7 women a n d a c h i l d t o 121 p e o p l e i n 1824. ( I s u s p e c t t h i s may i n d i c a t e a n o u t b r e a k o f d i s e a s e e l s e w h e r e a f t e r w h i c h t h e women l e f t t h e i r own v i l l a g e s ; men seem t o have d i e d a t a f a s t e r r a t e i n o t h e r a r e a s , s e e R a y 1 9 8 1 : 1 0 8 ) ) . I n h i s c e n s u s o f 1 8 2 6 - 2 7 , h o w e v e r , S t u a r t (HBCA B.188/e/4) d o e s n o t m e n t i o n C h i n l a c o r L i t t l e L a k e ; one c a n o n l y g u e s s what had h a p p e n e d t o v i l l a g e r s . I n t h e F r a s e r L a k e J o u r n a l t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s t o C h i n l a c i n c l u d i n g some w h i c h i n d i c a t e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e p e o p l e s o f S y - c u z . M c d o n n e l l w r o t e (HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l f o . 2 5 ) , I d i d n o t r e a c h S y - c u z t i l l t h e a f t e r n o o n o f t h e 7 t h . . . t h e r e I f i n d . . . t h e c h i e f o f F o r t G e o r g e ; a n d a number o f h i s r e l a t i o n s a n d f o l l o w e r s a n d a l l t h e I n d i a n s o f C h i n l a c , N o o l a h , S y - c u z a n d N a t l e h a r e a s s e m b l e d , o f t h e l a t t e r , v e r y f e w o f t h e women were t h e r e , t h e men h a v i n g b e e n i n v i t e d b y Y a s s - c h o , t o a c o r v e e a s he i s b u i l d i n g a h o u s e . 73 M c d o n n e l l (HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l ) a l s o n o t e d t h a t a n I n d i a n w a n t e d f o r a k i l l i n g a t F o r t G e o r g e went t o s t a y a t C h i n l a c w i t h h i s f a t h e r ( i n O c t o b e r ) , and he r e c o r d s t h a t t h e I n d i a n s o f C h i n l a c b r o u g h t t h e i r p e l t s t o F o r t F r a s e r . R e f e r e n c e s t o C h i n l a c become f e w e r a s t i m e p a s s e s a n d i t e v e n t u a l l y became n o t much more t h a n a c o n v e n i e n t s t o p p i n g p o i n t f o r t r a d e r s on t h e i r way down r i v e r , a n d a p l a c e t o c a c h e g o o d s a n d f u r s . I n November o f 1 8 2 5 , C o n n o l l y (HBCA B.188/a 5 f o . 4 2 ) . w r o t e , ... o b l i g e d t o p u t a s h o r e a t t h e p o i n t o f C h i n l a c t o r e p a i r o u r damages ... we saw some r e c e n t m a r k s o f I n d i a n s b u t none a r e p r e s e n t . T h e y a r e , we s u p - p o s e , gone t o F r a s e r ' s L a k e w h i c h i s t h e p o s t t h e y f r e q u e n t . I , h a v e s t a t e d e l s e w h e r e t h a t t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d n o r m a l l y be f i s h i n g f o r w h i t e f i s h i n November on t h e l a k e s . I n 1828, t h e Company c a c h e d g o o d s a t C h i n l a c and f o u n d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s had n o t b o t h e r e d t h e c a c h e (HBCA B . 1 8 8 / a / 1 3 ) . The r e f e r e n c e may i n d i c a t e t h a t C h i n l a c was n o t h e a v i l y u t i l i s e d b y t h e C a r r i e r by 1828 b e c a u s e p r e s u m a b l y , t h e c a c h i n g o f Company g o o d s w o u l d n o t t a k e p l a c e i n a n a c t i v e l y u s e d I n d i a n encamp- ment. I f o u n d no r e f e r e n c e s t o C h i n l a c i n d o c u m e n t s f r o m l a t e r y e a r s . The P o p u l a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y A r e a i n E a r l y H i s t o r i c T i m e s As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f f o u r v i l l a g e s d e p e n d e n t upon F o r t G e o r g e ( C l e e t - l e h C h a l a - o o - c h e c k , L i t t l e L a k e , and C h i n l a k ( s i c ) ) was 121 i n d i v i d u a l s i n 1 8 2 2 . A s - s u m i n g L i t t l e L a k e i s n o t C l u c u l z l a k e , t h e a v e r a g e v i l l a g e must h a v e had a p o p u l a t i o n o£ 25 t o 50 p e o p l e i n 1824. As I m e n t i o n e d , two o f t h e v i l l a g e s , C l e e t - l e h and C h a l a - o o - c h e c k a r e n e a r F o r t G e o r g e , a n d I s u s p e c t L i t t l e L a k e i s n o t n e a r C h i n l a c s o , p r o b a b l y , f e w e r t h a n 50 p e o p l e o c c u p i e d t h e s t u d y a r e a i n 1824. By c o m p a r i s o n , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e v i l l a g e o f N a k a z l e h ( N e c o s l i e ) on S t u a r t L a k e was 72 p e o p l e a n d t h a t o f P i n c h i , a l s o on S t u a r t L a k e , was 74 p e o p l e (HBCA B.188/a/2 f o . 5 8 ) . M acLean (1 9 3 2 : 1 4 6 ) w r o t e o f N a k a z l e h t h a t , " t h e I n d i a n v i l l a g e . . . c o n s i s t s o f o n l y f i v e o r s i x h o u s e s b u t e v e r y h o u s e i s o c c u p i e d by s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s . . . . " A s s u m i n g t h a t t h e N a k a z l e h v i l l a g e was o c c u p i e d by 72 p e o p l e ( o r s o ) i n t h e 1830's when Ma c L e a n r e c o r d e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e a v e r a g e h o u s e must h a v e c o n t a i n e d 10 t o 12 i n d i v i d u a l s . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e a t GaRv 1, w h i c h h a d l a r g e r h o u s e s , must h a v e b e e n o c c u p i e d b y a t l e a s t 100 i n d i - v i d u a l s a t some t i m e a n d more a r e l i k e l y . B o r d e n ( 1 9 5 2 : 32) r e c o r d e d 6 i n d i v i d u a l h e a r t h s i n House I I I a t C h i n l a c . I f e a c h h e a r t h r e p r e s e n t e d a f a m i l y o f 5 o r 6 i n d i v i d u a l s t h e n t h e h o u s e was o c c u p i e d b y 30 - 35 p e o p l e a t some p o i n t . C h i n l a c may have b e e n o c c u p i e d b y t h r e e o r f o u r h u n d r e d p e o p l e i n e a r l i e r t i m e s . H o w e v e r , h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e s u g - g e s t s t h a t t h i s s i t e was n o t o c c u p i e d by s u c h numbers d u r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . As I w i l l d e s c r i b e b e l o w , t h e r e i s a s i t e ( F I R v T28) r i g h t a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e w h i c h m a t c h e s my p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e much b e t t e r . T h i s s i t e f e a t u r e s t h r e e h o u s e i m p r e s s i o n s w h i c h a r e s m a l l e r t h a n t h o s e a t GaRv 1. I f e a c h h o u s e were o c c u p i e d b y t h e same number o f p e o p l e a s t h e N a k a z l e h h o u s e s , t h e n 30 o r 40 p e o p l e p r o b a b l y l i v e d a t t h a t s i t e . T h e s e were p r o b a b l y t h e same p e o p l e who l i v e d on C l u c u l z L a k e f r o m November t o J u l y . A M o d e l f o r S e t t l e m e n t D u r i n g t h e H i s t o r i c p e r i o d I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e r e were m a j o r c h a n g e s i n s i t e u s e d u r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . H i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s do n o t s u p p o r t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a m a j o r v i l l a g e a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e N e c h a k o a n d S t u a r t R i v e r s , n o r a t C l u c u l z L a k e , f r o m 1806 o n . H owever, more e x t e n s i v e o c c u p a t i o n a t GaRv 1 must have o c c u r - r e d i n t h e p a s t a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e l a r g e s i z e o f t h e s i t e a n d t h e f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t . On t h e b a s i s o f e t h n o - g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e , one w o u l d a l s o e x p e c t a h e a v y u s e o f n e a r b y l a k e s f r o m l a t e f a l l t h r o u g h s p r i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l a k e f i s h t o t h e h i s t o r i c C a r r i e r ( H u d s o n 1 9 8 3 : 1 7 3 ) . I n l a t e r t i m e s , p e o p l e f r o m S t o n e y C r e e k camped i n t h e a r e a w h i l e h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , a n d t r a p p i n g , a n d s i t e s were o c c u p i e d f o r b r i e f p e r i o d s w h i l e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t o o k p l a c e . A t some p o i n t i n t h e p a s t , a f u n d a m e n t a l s h i f t i n r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d s e t t l e m e n t must have o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e f i n a l s t a g e b e i n g t h a t no s e t t l e m e n t s , o t h e r t h a n o c c a s i o n a l l y u s e d camps, e x i s t e d i n t h e a r e a . The c h a n g e i n s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s may be p a r t l y a t t r i - b u t a b l e t o a l o s s o f p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e a r e a . A f t e r p o p u l a - t i o n d e c l i n e d t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t , t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p e o p l e went w e s t t o j o i n t h e i r k i n a t N a u t l e h , T a c h e k , and S y - c u z . A t e n d e n c y t o go t o t h e w e s t may have a l r e a d y b e e n s t r e n g t h e n e d 76 by t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o£ a t r a d i n g p o s t on F r a s e r l a k e t h a t had t h e C h i n l a c p e o p l e a s c l i e n t s . T h e r e w o u l d n o t be a n y r e a l a d v a n t a g e t o r e m a i n i n g n e a r C h i n l a c i f t h e r e were t o o f e w p e o p l e t o b u i l d a n d m a i n t a i n a s a l m o n w e i r and t o b e n e f i t f r o m i t . I f t h e r e was a r a i d on C h i n l a c i n t h e l a t e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y , t h e p o p u l a t i o n may have b e e n l o w e v e n b e f o r e t h e E u r o p e a n s a r r i v e d . A s s u m i n g a l o w p o p u l a t i o n when F r a s e r came i n t o t h e a r e a , I w o u l d e x p e c t s e t t l e m e n t t o go t h r o u g h two p h a s e s . 1. I n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , f r o m 1806 t o 1825, a s m a l l number o f p e o p l e c o n t i n u e d t o o c c u p y t h e s t u d y a r e a a n d t o e x p l o i t t h e r e s o u r c e s i n t h e i r s e a s o n . T h e r e a r e no i n d i c a t i o n s i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t s o f l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t s . I n l o w s a l m o n y e a r s , p e o p l e l e f t t h e a r e a a n d went t o t h e w e s t . I f p o p u l a t i o n were b e l o w some c r i t i c a l number n e e d e d t o m a i n t a i n a w e i r , t h e n a t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d by a s m a l l e r g r o u p was u s e d . T h e r e w o u l d be l i t t l e a d v a n t a g e i n s t a y i n g a t GaRv 1 u n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e c a u s e t h e w a t e r f l o w s o v e r a b r o a d s h a l l o w a r e a and t h e f i s h w o u l d n o t be c o n c e n t r a t e d , a n e c e s s i t y i f t r a p s and n e t s a r e t o be e f f e c t i v e l y e m p l o y e d ( p r e s e n t l y , t h e C a r r i e r u s e n e t s on r i f f l e s a n d e d d i e s ) . B e t t e r l o c a t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e , a n d one i n p a r t i c u l a r , on t h e e a s t e r n bank o f t h e S t u a r t a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e , seems i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r t h e u s e o f s u c h t e c h n o l o g y . S i n c e t h e r e w o u l d be f e w e r p e o p l e i n t h e a r e a , one w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t l a t e r s i t e s w o u l d be s m a l l e r t h a n t h e y were i n t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . 77 The l a k e s i d e r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n s i t e s w o u l d p r o b a b l y be i m p o r t a n t a n d were i n h a b i t e d i n t h e l a t e f a l l a n d e a r l y s p r i n g b y a g r o u p o f 25 t o 30 p e o p l e who l i v e d i n two o r t h r e e h o u s e s o f t h e s t y l e d e s c r i b e d by M o r i c e ( F i g u r e 8 ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t r a p p i n g on t h e t e r r i t o r i e s b e l o n g i n g t o i m p o r t a n t i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t f r o m l o c a t i o n s a t C l u c u l z L a k e . I n t h a t c a s e , t h e s i t e s t h e r e w o u l d be o c c u p i e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w i n t e r a l s o . The w i n t e r h o u s e s t y l e d e s c r i b e d b y M o r i c e ( F i g u r e 9) was i n u s e d u r i n g t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d (HBCA B . 7 4 / a / l f o . 1 8 ( M a r c h , 1 8 2 3 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e may have b e e n an i n c r e a s i n g t e n d e n c y f o r i n d i v i d u a l s , g r o u p s o f m a l e s ( s e e Hudson 1 9 8 3 : 1 8 0 ) , o r i n d i v i d u a l f a m i - l i e s t o move i n t o a r e a s where some p r i v a t e ( i . e . n o t c o n - t r o l l e d b y ' d e n e z a ' ) t r a p p i n g c o u l d o c c u r . T h i s was a p p a r - e n t l y e n c o u r a g e d by t h e f u r t r a d e r s ( H u d s o n 1 9 8 3 : 1 0 3 ) . As t r a p p i n g became a more g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y , a n d t h e f u r t r a d e d e v e l o p e d , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t band members w o u l d d i s p e r s e t o i n d i v i d u a l t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r m o n t h s . S m a l l s i t e s on t h e n o r t h e r n s h o r e s o f s m a l l l a k e s w o u l d r e s u l t . I n g e n e r a l , o u t f l o w s i t e s w o u l d g e t s m a l l e r a s t i m e p a s s e d b e c a u s e t h e y w o u l d t h e r e were f e w e r p e o p l e u s i n g t h e a r e a I n t h e l a t e r h i s t o r i c p e r i o d t h e r e w o u l d be no y e a r r o u n d r e s i d e n t s a t a l l . The t y p e o f y e a r b y y e a r s h i f t i n g o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e w i n t e r v i l l a g e d e s c r i b e d b y M o r i c e ( 1 8 9 3 : 184) may a l s o h a v e o c c u r r e d a t C l u c u l z L a k e b u t I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t t h e v i l l a g e w o u l d be moved f a r f r o m t h e p l a c e s where t h e l a k e r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be most p r o f i t a b l y h a r v e s t e d . I n o t h e r 78 w o r d s , a l l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s s h o u l d be n e a r t h e o u t f l o w o f the lake a n d one could expect a h o r i z o n t a l d i s p l a c e m e n t of s i t e s a r o u n d t h e o u t f l o w o v e r t i m e . 2. P e r h a p s a s a r e s u l t o f r e p e a t e d o u t b r e a k s o f d i s e a s e , b u t f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s a s w e l l , t h e a r e a was v i r t u a l l y a b a n d o n e d a f t e r 1830 and f e w s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s t o o k p l a c e t h e r e . The owners o f r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s t o o k up r e s i d e n c e a t S t o n e y C r e e k a nd v i s i t e d t h e a r e a , w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s , f o r t r a p p i n g a n d some f i s h i n g a n d h u n t i n g . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n l a t e r t i m e s w i l l r e f l e c t t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y s o c i o - e c o n o m i c u n i t a n d be s m a l l i n s i z e . F o r a t i m e , t r a d i t i o n a l h o u s e s were b u i l t b u t l a t e r t e n t s w e re u s e d f o r s h e l t e r ( M o r i c e 1 8 9 3 : 1 9 3 ) . I n t h e r e c e n t p a s t , C a r r i e r f a m i l i e s f r o m S t o n e y C r e e k came t o C l u c u l z L a k e , v i s i t e d t h e i r a n c e s t r a l t e r r i t o r i e s , a n d f i s h e d on t h e l a k e . S o m e t i m e s , e l d e r s t o l d me, a n i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y w o u l d go t o camp on t h e l a k e b u t a t o t h e r t i m e s s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s went t o g e t h e r . I e x p e c t t h a t t h e s e g r o u p s c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f women a n d c h i l d r e n a n d c o n t a i n e d 10 t o 20 i n d i - v i d u a l s . Of c o u r s e , r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n d i d n o t c h a n g e a n d s i t e s c o n t i n u e d t o be n e a r t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d e a r - l i e r . The p r e s e n c e o f g l a s s , p o r c e l a i n , gun p a r t s o r f l i n t s , a n d t r a d e a x e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s i t e was u s e d i n h i s t o r i c t i m e s ( c f . W i l m e t h , 1 9 7 7 : 9 9 ) . Summary W i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d b e g a n i n 1 8 0 6 . As t i m e p a s s e d , n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s 79 were disrupted by the ef fects of the land-based fur trade. Subsistence was made possible in the area because of the connections, through the 'deneza 1 , with the Skeena drainage and i t s salmon resources, but af ter the trade began, the contro l of the 'deneza' was lessened and population decl ined r e s u l t i n g in a tendency towards smaller socio-economic u n i t s . The com- binat ion of these factors resul ted in a s h i f t away from use of a weir at GaRv 1 toward the use of traps and nets in f i sh ing which were more appropriate for small group use. This technology would be inappropriate at Ch in lac . Archaeologica l s i t e s from the h i s t o r i c period are smaller than those from the p r o t o h i s t o r i c per iod , and have fewer and smaller house depressions whereas s i t e s from the p r e h i s t o r i c period are s i m i l a r in s ize to those of the h i s t o r i c period as I s h a l l expla in below. The study area continued to be used throughout the h i s t o r i c per iod , although by fewer people, and ear ly in the period permanent settlement ceased. Nevertheless , people from Stoney Creek continued to v i s i t the area and t r a i l s passed through i t which l inked Fort George with Fort Fraser . Chinlac became a stopover for people t r a v e l l i n g downriver from Fort St.James to Fort Fraser , and a place where goods could be cached, although the forks region continued to be used for salmon f i s h i n g by small groups. 80 CHAPTER 5 THE PROTOHISTORIC PERIOD I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I d e v e l o p a m o d e l f o r t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d a t C h i n l a c a n d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a . The p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d i s t h e i n t e r f a c e b e t w e e n t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c a n d h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s . F o n t a n a ( 1 9 7 8 : 2 3 ) s t a t e s , T h e s e a r e a b o r i g i n a l s i t e s i n w h i c h t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f n o n a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e b u t w h i c h were o c c u p i e d b e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l o f n o n a b o r i g i n e s on t h e i m m e d i a t e s c e n e . S u c h s i t e s a r e p o s t - C o l u m b i a n ( a f t e r 1492 A.D.) b u t p r e - d a t e e i t h e r t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e o f n o n - I n d i a n s a t t h e s i t e o r t h e i r d o c u m e n t a r y d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l o c a t i o n . I n t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r , t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p r o b a b l y b e g a n i n t h e l a t e 1 7 7 0 ' s a s t h e m a r i t i m e f u r t r a d e d e v e l o p e d , a n d e n d e d i n 1806 when Simon F r a s e r came t o t h e r e g i o n . F o r t h e C a r r i e r , t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d was a t i m e o f i n c r e a s e d commerce w i t h t h e c o a s t a n d was p e r h a p s t h e t i m e when c o a s t a l f o r m s were a d o p t e d ( H u d s o n 1 9 7 2 : 3 3 ; Goldman 1940: 333; S t e w a r d 1 9 7 0 : 2 0 8 - 2 0 9 ; B i s h o p 1 9 7 9 : 1 5 1 ) . C h i n l a c (GaRv 1) ( B o r d e n 1952:34) was o c c u p i e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . The maximum p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y - c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a p r o b a b l y o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c a n d many a r c h a e o - l o g i c a l s i t e s a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h a t t i m e , a n d c a n be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p e r i o d . 81 S e t t l e m e n t P u r i n g t h e P r o t o h i s t o r i c P e r i o d As I s t a t e d In my i n t r o d u c t i o n , a s e t t l e m e n t system w i t h two p r i m a r y n o d e s ( b i n a r y ) i s a f e a t u r e o f t h e p r o t o h i s - t o r i c p e r i o d . A h y p o t h e t i c a l m o d e l o f t h e s y s t e m i s shown i n F i g u r e 16; e s s e n t i a l l y i t c o n s i s t s o f a summer v i l l a g e o c c u - p i e d f r o m J u l y t o O c t o b e r , and a w i n t e r v i l l a g e o c c u p i e d f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f November t o t h e e a r l y summer o f t h e n e x t y e a r . The m o d e l p r o v i d e s f o r o c c a s i o n a l camps t o e x p l o i t o t h e r r e s o u r c e s ( o r f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s ) , and f o r t h e move t o o t h e r w a t e r s h e d s i n s a l m o n - p o o r y e a r s ( d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ) . The b i g d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h i s s y s t e m a n d t h e one d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c i s t h a t t h e f o r m e r s u s t a i n e d a l a r g e r g r o u p o f p e o p l e t h r o u g h u s e o f a s a l m o n w e i r a t C h i n l a c r e s u l t i n g i n a l e s s m o b i l e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n . P e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e w h i c h o c c u r r e d among t h e C e n t r a l C a r r i e r s i n p r o t o h i s t o r i c t i m e s i s t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f w e s t c o a s t c u l t u r e s was s t r o n g e r c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e p r e c e e d i n g p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . B i s h o p has s t a t e d t h a t t h e C a r r i e r a d o p t e d h e r e d i t a r y r a n k p o s i t i o n s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d ( 1 9 7 9 : 1 5 1 ) a n d t h e r e i s t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l s a c h i e v e d management r o l e s w h i c h w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h e u s e o f communal w e i r s ( B i s h o p 1 9 7 9 : 1 5 0 ; Hudson 1 9 8 3 : 5 7 - 5 8 ) . Goldman ( 1 9 7 7 : 3 3 9 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e A l k a t c h o b o r r o w e d t h e c o a s t h o u s e s t y l e a nd c o n s t r u c t e d " c r u d e c o u n t e r p a r t s " o f i t i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . A c c o r d i n g t o J e n n e s s ( 1 9 2 9 : 2 3 - 2 4 ) q u o t e d i n Hudson ( 1 9 7 2 : 2 6 ) , C a r r i e r c u l t u r e c h a n g e d a s a r e s p o n s e t o c o a s t a l i n f l u e n c e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: 82 C l u c u l z Lake I salmon J u l y w h i t e f i s h char suckers trout October J u l y i g u r e 16. S i t e Use a n d t h e S e a s o n a l Round f o r C a r r i e r s W i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a D u r i n g t h e P r o t o h i s t o r i c P e r i o d . 83 1. R e o r g a n i s a t i o n of. t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m . 2. M i g r a t o r y h u n t i n g l i f e p a r t l y s u p e r s e d e d b y f i x e d h a b i t a t i o n s a t f a v o u r a b l e f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s . 3. Change f r o m a " l o o s e s t r u c t u r e " t o a " r i g i d c l a n s y s t e m " o f n o b l e s , commoners, a n d s l a v e s . 4. M u l t i f a m i l y c l a n d w e l l i n g s . 5. M a t r i l i n e a l d e s c e n t r e p l a c e d p a t r i l i n e a l . 6. S t a t u s o f women r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d . W h i l e J e n n e s s r e f e r s h e r e t o c h a n g e s i n t h e s o c i e t y o f t h e B u l k l e y C a r r i e r who a r e n e i g h b o u r s o f t h e G i t k s a n ( a n d s o w o u l d be more d i r e c t l y e f f e c t e d ) , some o f h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s c e r t a i n l y a p p l y t o g r o u p s f u r t h e r i n l a n d ( S t e w a r d 1 9 7 0 : 208- 211 ). Hudson ( 1 9 7 2 : 26) s t a t e s t h a t t h e S t u a r t L a k e C a r r i e r a d o p t e d ( m a t r i a r c h y ) a n d c o p i e d c r e m a t i o n a n d f u n e r a l p o l e s f r o m t h e G i t k s a n . A l s o , t h e ' d e n e z a ' e s t a b l i s h e d c o n t r o l o v e r f i s h i n g a n d b e a v e r h u n t i n g t e r r i t o r y a t t h i s t i m e . E l s e w h e r e , D u f f ( 1 9 5 2 : 28-29) s t a t e s t h a t t h e C e n t r a l C a r r i e r a s f a r w e s t a s P r i n c e G e o r g e b o r r o w e d t h e p h r a t r y o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e G i t k s a n a n d t h a t t h e y h a d c r e s t s , t i t l e s o f n o b i l i t y a n d o t h e r p r i v e l e d g e s w h i c h were i n h e r i t e d i n t h e m a t r i l i n e . T h ese c h a n g e s came a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f i n c r e a s e d t r a d e w i t h c o a s t a l p e o p l e s who were a c t i n g a s m i d d l e m e n b e t w e e n t h e i n t e r i o r a n d E u r o p e a n t r a d e r s . T h e y r e q u i r e d t h e f u r s t h a t i n t e r i o r p e o p l e s s u c h a s t h e C a r r i e r c o u l d s u p p l y a n d , i n r e t u r n , t h e y t r a d e d some E u r o p e a n g o o d s w h i c h were t h e n t a k e n i n l a n d ( B i s h o p 1 9 7 9 : 1 5 3 - 1 5 4 ) . I e x p e c t t h a t t h e s t u d y a r e a was o c c u p i e d b y more p e o p l e i n t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d t h a n i t was d u r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d when d i s e a s e a n d o t h e r f a c t o r s had begun t o t a k e t h e i r 84 t o l l . I m i g h t a d d t h a t d i s e a s e c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d f r o m t h e c o a s t e v e n b e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l o f F r a s e r i n 1806 ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 2 2 ) . I n t e r t r i b a l w a r f a r e ( t h e C h i n l a c " m a s s a c r e " ) a s s u g g e s t e d by M o r i c e ( 1 9 7 8 : 1 5 ) w o u l d p r o b a b l y be i n c r e a s i n g p o s s i b l y a s a r e s u l t o f c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e m i d d l e m a n r o l e ( F i s h e r 1977: 20; and s e e Ray 1 9 7 4 : 1 9 - 2 3 ) . A d e c l i n e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a c o u l d o c c u r a s a r e s u l t o f e i t h e r f a c t o r i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d ; M o r i c e ' s r a i d b y t h e C h i l c o t i n on C h i n l a c r e m a i n s a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y . W i t h a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n , t h e s i t e a t GaRv 1 was a n i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r a v i l l a g e b e c a u s e i t i s s i t u a t e d where a s a l m o n w e i r c o u l d be b u i l t . The r e m a i n s o f l a r g e , r e c t a n g u l a r h o u s e s a r e p r e s e n t a n d t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f a n o c c u p a t i o n b y a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f p e o p l e . W i l m e t h a t t r i b u t e s a r e c t a n g u l a r h o u s e t o t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d i n t h e C h i l c o - t i n ( 1 9 7 8 : 9 9 ) . An o c c u p a t i o n o f s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n s w o u l d o c c u r a t C l u c u l z L a k e d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r . The s i t e a t Punchaw L a k e ( F l a d m a r k 1976 :19-31) h a s some f e a t u r e s w h i c h may be e x p e c t e d a t t h e l a k e s i d e s i t e s . I t i s on t h e n o r t h w e s t bank o f a c r e e k a t t h e o u t l e t o f t h e l a k e ; i t c o n t a i n s a l a r g e number o f o b l o n g h o u s e p l a t f o r m s ; t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e h o u s e s were b u i l t i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s e v e r y y e a r ; t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y f e w c a c h e p i t s . I n d i v i d u a l h o u s e s a r e d e s - c r i b e d b y F l a d m a r k ( 1 9 7 6 : 26) a n d a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 m x 6 m. w i t h l o n g a x i s o r i e n t e d n o r t h e a s t - s o u t h w e s t a n d a number o f s h a l l o w p o s t h o l e s g i v i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f " l i g h t s e l f - 85 s u p p o r t i n g A - f r a m e s t r u c t u r e s , b a r k o r s k i n c o v e r e d , p a r - t i a l l y s u n k i n t o t h e s l o p e w i t h v e r t i c a l o r a p s l d a l down- s l o p e w a l l s " . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e Punchaw L a k e s i t e i s l a r g e a n d i t i s n o t n e a r a n y s a l m o n s t r e a m s ( 1 9 7 6 : 1 9 , 2 1 ) . I e x p e c t t h a t t h e w i n t e r v i l l a g e s o f t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d w o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e , much l a r g e r i n f a c t t h a n t h e w i n t e r camps o f t h e h i s t o r i c a n d l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s . M o s t o f t h e p e o p l e f r o m C h i n l a c p r o b a b l y moved t o t h e l a k e where t h e y l i v e d i n f a m i l y g r o u p s i n A - f r a m e h o u s e s s u c h a s t h a t shown i n F i g u r e 9 w h i c h w o u l d be s i m i l a r i n s i z e t o t h o s e u n c o - v e r e d b y F l a d m a r k a t Punchaw L a k e . The w i n t e r v i l l a g e c o n - t a i n e d a t l e a s t 10 h o u s e s ( l i k e C h i n l a c ) a n d may have s h i f - t e d a r o u n d t h e o u t f l o w o f t h e l a k e a s f i r e w o o d s u p p l i e s were u s e d up a t a l o c a t i o n , p e r h a p s e v e r y y e a r o r t w o . I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f m a t e r i a l s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c o c c u p a t i o n a t A n a h i m , W i l m e t h ( 1 9 7 7 : 9 9 ) s t a t e s , W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a n i r o n k n i f e b l a d e , a l l o f t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s a r e o r n a m e n t s a n d made o f c o p p e r . I n t h e h i s t o r i c u n i t s , i r o n o b j e c t s p r e d o m i n a t e , a n d a r e i n t h e f o r m o f u t i l i t a r i a n i t e m s : gun p a r t s , c o n t a i n e r s , t o o l s , n a i l s , e t c . I n a d d i t i o n , a r t i f a c t s o f o t h e r m a t e r i a l s make t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e , i n c l u d i n g g l a s s , c e r a m i c s , c l a y p i p e s , a n d b e a d s . . . I n t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , b e a v e r w h i c h had p r e d o m i n a t e d i n p r o t o h i s t o r i c t i m e s , d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y , w h i l e m u s k r a t showed a s h a r p i n c r e a s e . A t Punchaw L a k e , F l a d m a r k ( 1 9 7 3 : 30) f o u n d a p i e c e o f a t r a d e a x e , a p i e c e o f b e a t e n a nd r o l l e d b r a s s ( c o p p e r ? ) , a n d a f r a g m e n t o f i r o n . The E u r o C a n a d i a n a r t i f a c t s f r o m C h i n l a c w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 7. 86 Summary I s u g g e s t a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a i n p r o t o h i s t o r i c t i m e s t h a n w o u l d have b e e n p r e s e n t i n t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . A communal w e i r , c o n t r o l l e d b y ' d e n e z a ' who had t h e s u p p o r t a n d c o o p e r a t i o n o f v i l l a g e members, w o u l d be i n u s e a t C h i n l a c (GaRv 1) a n d t h e s i t e w o u l d be e x t e n s i v e l y u s e d a t t h i s t i m e , a n d s o w o u l d l o c a t i o n s on C l u c u l z L a k e . Summer v i l l a g e s s u c h a s C h i n l a c w o u l d show c o a s t a l i n f l u e n c e i n t h e f o r m o f c o a s t s t y l e h o u s e s , a n d a n i n c r e a s e d p r e s e n c e o f c e r t a i n t y p e s o f t r a d e g o o d s d e r i v e d u l t i m a t e l y f r o m E u r o p e a n s . Summer s i t e s w i l l a l s o e x h i b i t s i g n s o f i n c r e a s e d c o n s u m p t i o n a n d o f c e r e m o n i a l s w h i c h w o u l d i m i t a t e c o a s t a l f o r m s . W i n t e r v i l l a g e s w o u l d a l s o be r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e a n d t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e l a k e w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y f o r s u r v i v a l ; s m a l - l e r , f a m i l y - s i z e d A - f r a m e h o u s e s w o u l d be b u i l t on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f t h e l a k e . The p a t t e r n was m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d i n s p i t e o f t h e p e r i o d i c f a i l u r e o f t h e s a l m o n w h i c h w o u l d f o r c e many p e o p l e t o l e a v e t h e a r e a i n t h e w i n t e r s when t h e s h o r t a g e o c c u r r e d . The p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d p r o b a b l y d i d n o t l a s t f o r more t h a n 50 y e a r s . 87 CHAPTER 6 THE LATE PREHISTORIC PERIOD I n t r o d u c t i o n I t i s u n c e r t a i n how l o n g t h e s t u d y a r e a h a s b e e n i n - h a b i t e d b y t h e C a r r i e r b u t B o r d e n c o n c l u d e d t h a t C h i n l a c was o c c u p i e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 y e a r s b e g i n n i n g a t a b o u t 1700 A.D. w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e some o c c u p a t i o n i n t h e l a t e p r e h i s - t o r i c p e r i o d ( 1 9 5 2 : 3 3 - 3 4 ) . A l t h o u g h B o r d e n ' s e s t i m a t e o f t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e C h i n l a c was o c c u p i e d c a n be c h a l l e n g e d , s i n c e i t i s p a r t l y b a s e d on h i s b e l i e f t h a t a " f a i r l y l o n g o c c u p a - t i o n " i s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e s i z e o f t h e c l e a r i n g o c c u p i e d b y t h e s i t e , t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a t o o k p l a c e must be e x a m i n e d , a n d a r c h a e o - l o g i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h i s p e r i o d d e s c r i b e d . T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a h y p o t h e t i c a l s e t t l e m e n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e m o d e l f o r t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d b a s e d on d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e p e r i o d f r o m e l s e w h e r e , a nd on my own s p e c u l a t i o n s a b o u t l a n d u s e a t t h a t t i m e . S e t t l e m e n t P u r i n g t h e L a t e P r e h i s t o r i c P e r i o d H e l m e r ( 1 9 7 7 : 6 7 ) p l a c e s t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c a t 1300 t o 1700 A.D. f o r t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r a n d s t a t e s t h a t i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d a t N a t a l a k u z L a k e , A n a h i m L a k e , T e z l i , a n d P u n - chaw L a k e . C h i n l a c was o c c u p i e d a t t h e end o f t h i s p e r i o d 88 ( B o r d e n 1 9 5 2 : 3 4 ) . D i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t s i n c l u d e " s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s o f s m a l l s i d e - n o t c h e d p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s o f c o r n e r n o t c h e d p o i n t s , f l a k e d a n d g r o u n d s t o n e a d z e s , bone points'.' H i s t o r i c p e r i o d i n d i c a t o r s a r e n o t p r e - s e n t a n d t h e r e a r e f e w t r a d e i t e m s f r o m t h e w e s t ( B o r d e n 1 9 5 2 : 3 4 ) . As s t a t e d , H e l m e r (1977a; 77) has c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e f o r t h r e e s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n C a r r i e r l i f e w a y s a n d p o s t u l a t e s t h a t e a r l i e r p e r i o d s w o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y t h e c o m p o s i t e o r p a t r i l i n e a l b a n d , t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c a n d e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d b y a t r a n s i t i o n a l mat- r i l i n e a l - b a s e d p h r a t r y s y s t e m , a nd l a t e r t i m e s b y n u c l e a t e d f a m i l i e s e x p l o i t i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s . K o b - r i n s k y ( 1 9 7 6 : 201) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no d i r e c t e v i d e n c e f o r t h e c o m p o s i t e band s t a g e , b u t he seems t o a r g u e f o r r e g i o n a l b a n d s a n d a g a i n s t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f Dyen a n d A b e r l e ( 1 9 7 4 ) whi«ch f a v o u r e d a n a n c i e n t m a t r i l i n e a l s y s t e m o r i g i - n a t i n g i n t h e C a r r i e r h o m e l a n d . I t i s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s t h e s i s t o a t t e m p t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a ; how- e v e r , t h e r e seems v e r y l i t t l e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r l a r g e g r o u p s n e a r o r i n t h e s t u d y a r e a b e f o r e t h e p r o t o - h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , a n d t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o s u g g e s t t h e 'de ne z a ' - w e i r mode o f p r o d u c t i o n d e s c r i b e d b y Hudson ( 1 9 8 3 : 57) u n t i l l a t e r t i m e s . I p r o p o s e t h a t a s m a l l e r e c o n o m i c u n i t , p e r h a p s l i k e t h e c o m p o s i t e b a n d , o p e r a t e d i n l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s , a p e r i o d b e f o r e t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f t r a f f i c w i t h t h e c o a s t . The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a was l o w e r t h a n i n t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c 89 p e r i o d a n d s i t e s o c c u p i e d w i l l n o t show marked s i g n s o f c o a s t a l i n f l u e n c e . As v e r y l i t t l e a r c h a e o l o g y has t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e a r e a , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e s e t t l e m e n t s o f t h e p e r i o d b u t I e x p e c t b o t h t h e summer s a l m o n - p r o c u r e m e n t camps an d t h e f a l l / w i n t e r / s p r i n g camps were s m a l l a n d composed o f s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s . Of c o u r s e , one must d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n l a k e s i d e s i t e s a n d r i v e r s i d e s i t e s a n d i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t most e x c a v a t i o n i n t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r ( w i t h t h e n o t - a b l e e x c e p t i o n o f C h i n l a c ) has b e e n c a r r i e d o u t on s i t e s n o t c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s a l m o n f i s h e r y . A t Punchaw L a k e , w h i c h I b e l i e v e was o c c u p i e d f r o m November t o J u n e , F l a d m a r k ( 1 9 7 6 : 30) f o u n d e v i d e n c e o f o c c u p a t i o n s t o 4000 B.P., b u t i t i s u n c e r t a i n i f s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n h o u s e s t y l e s o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h t i m e . A p p a r e n t l y , t h e s m a l l A - f r a m e (8 m x 6 m) u n d o u b t e d l y u s e d i n w i n t e r p e r s i s t e d and p r o b a b l y were o c c u - p i e d by a f a m i l y g r o u p o f some s o r t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t , i n t h e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , more p e o p l e g a t h e r e d a t t h e l a k e s h o r e f o r f i s h i n g t h a n a t s a l m o n p r o c u r e m e n t l o c a t i o n s ( F Ladmark ( 1 9 7 6 : 21) f o u n d 43 h o u s e p l a t f o r m s a t Punchaw L a k e ) . P r e s u m - a b l y , l a k e f i s h h a r v e s t i n g c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l y p u r s u e d w i t h - o u t t h e c o n t r o l a n d o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e ' d e n e z a ' . On C l u c u l z L a k e , t h e p r i n c i p a l a r e a f o r l a k e f i s h i n g a n d s e t t l e m e n t d u r i n g t h e f a l l , w i n t e r , a n d s p r i n g was a t t h e o u t f l o w o f t h e l a k e . S m a l l camps u s e d f o r s p e c i a l p u r p o s e s ( p e r h a p s b y h u n t i n g p a r t i e s , t r a p p e r s , b e r r y - p i c k e r s , o r t r a p p e r s ) s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e f e r r e d t o f o r t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d ( i n C h a p t e r 5) e x i s t e d i n t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . 90 summer h o u s e s were p r o b a b l y a l s o s m a l l e r , a n d p e r h a p s o£ a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e , t h a n t h e y were i n t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c a n d e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s , a n d t h e y were s i t u a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y w i t h i n t h e s i t e t h a n h o u s e s were i n l a t e r t i m e s . T h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on summer h o u s e s t y l e s o f t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , a n d i t i s e a s i e r t o s a y what t h e y were n o t l i k e t h a n o t h e r w i s e . L a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r , m u l t i f a m i l y c o a s t - s t y l e h o u s e s a r r a n g e d i n l i n e a l o n g t h e r i v e r bank w o u l d n o t be a f e a t u r e o f t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c , a t l e a s t d u r i n g t h e e a r l i e r p h a s e o f t h i s p e r i o d . The C a r r i e r w o u l d n o t p r e f e r w e i r l o c a t i o n s on t h e S t u a r t a n d N e c h a k o R i v e r s , b u t w o u l d I n s t e a d c h o o s e p l a c e s where s m a l l e r t e c h n o l o g y s u c h a s t h e t r a p s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e c o u l d be u s e d . T h e s e l o c a t i o n s w i l l be p l a c e s where t h e r i v e r i s c o n s t r i c t e d , o r a t r i f f l e s o r e d d i e s . I t i s , I b e l i e v e , p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f l a t e r t i m e s , w h i c h f e a t u r e d t h e ' d e n e z a ' a s c o n t r o l l e r s o f f i s h w e i r s , d i d n o t e x i s t i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d ( s e e Goldman 1 9 4 1 : 3 4 8 ) . C e r t a i n l y , t h e i r power was c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r m i n e d i n l a t e r t i m e s when c a p i t a l i s m e n c o u r a g e d p a t r i - l o c a l r e s i d e n c e g r o u p s (Hudson 1 9 8 3 : 2 ) . K i n t i e s w i t h w e s t e r n g r o u p s may n o t have b e e n d e v e l o p e d a t t h i s t i m e , a n d t h e o p t i o n o f g o i n g w e s t i n l e a n y e a r s may n o t h a v e e x i s t e d , p o s s i b l y m a k i n g l a k e r e s o u r c e s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n s a l m o n i n e a r l i e r t i m e s . 91 Summary I n a way, s e t t l e m e n t d u r i n g t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c r e - s e m b l e s t h a t o f t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . B o t h l a k e a n d r i v e r r e s o u r c e s were u s e d b u t t h e s e were e x p l o i t e d b y s m a l - l e r g r o u p s o f p e o p l e t h a n was t h e c a s e i n t h e p r o t o h i s - t o r i c p e r i o d . L a c k i n g t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e ' d e n e z a ' and t h e numbers n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n a w e i r , t h e p e o p l e w o u l d t e n d t o go t o l o c a t i o n s on t h e r i v e r s where f i s h i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d s u c c e s s f u l l y b y s m a l l g r o u p s were e m p l o y e d . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s f r o m t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s w i l l be s m a l l e r t h a n s i t e s f r o m t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e s i t e was o c c u p i e d d u r i n g t h e summer. I t i s a l s o u n l i k e l y t h a t l a r g e , r e c t a n g u l a r , c o a s t - s t y l e h o u s e s were b u i l t i n e a r l i e r p o r t i o n s o f t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . F r o m November t o J u l y s e t t l e m e n t w o u l d o c c u r n e a r t h e o u t l e t o f C l u c u l z L a k e . I t i s p o s s i b l e , i n v i e w o f t h e r e l a - t i v e l y l a r g e s i z e o f t h e Punchaw L a k e v i l l a g e , t h a t t h e s e t - t l e m e n t s on t h e l a k e w o u l d a c t u a l l y be l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e on t h e r i v e r . T h i s u n e x p e c t e d s i t u a t i o n m i g h t o c c u r i f c o n t r o l by ' d e n e z a ' were n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e l a r g e r i v e r w e i r s were b u i l t . As s t a t e d , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e ' d e n e z a ' were a f e a t u r e o f t h e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . I f s u c h were t h e c a s e t h e n i n d i v i d u a l summer r i v e r s i d e s i t e s m i g h t be o c c u p i e d b y two o r t h r e e e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s who t h e n j o i n e d o t h e r f a m i l i e s on t h e l a k e i n t h e f a l l o f t h e y e a r . I t 92 i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t how l o n g a g r o u p w o u l d o c c u p y a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n b e c a u s e t h i s w o u l d d e p e n d upon f i r e w o o d a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d r a t e o f u s e . T h e r e i s , o f c o u r s e , e v e r y r e a s o n t o e x p e c t t h a t some a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n t h e a r e a w i l l be q u i t e o l d , s i m i l a r t o t h e s i t e a t Punchaw L a k e w h i c h d a t e s t o 4000 B . P . ( F l a d m a r k 1 976: 3 0 ) . 93 CHAPTER 7 THE CHINLAC V I L L A G E S I T E I n t r o d u c t i o n The r e c o r d s a n d m a t e r i a l s f r o m B o r d e n ' s e x c a v a t i o n o f C h i n l a c (GaRv 1) a r e e x a m i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . C h i n l a c i s a n i m p o r t a n t component i n t h e r e g i o n a l s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s a n d has b e e n p a r t i a l l y e x c a v a t e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s e a s o n d u r i n g w h i c h t h e s i t e was o c c u p i e d a n d t h e a r c h - a e o l o g i c a l p e r i o d when i t was most e x t e n s i v e l y u s e d ; t h e s e s u b j e c t s o r i e n t much o f t h e a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e c h a p t e r . T h e r e c a n be l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e s i t e i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s c o u l d b u i l d a s a l m o n w e i r a t t h a t p o i n t a n d t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e S t u a r t R i v e r s a l m o n r u n . The N e c h a k o , a r i v e r w i t h a b e t t e r s a l m o n r u n ( s e e C h a p t e r 2 ) , i s t o o s w i f t a n d d e e p f o r w e i r s t o be b u i l t a c r o s s i t i n t h e C h i n l a c a r e a ( M o r i c e 1 9 7 8 : 1 8 7 ) . The C h i n l a c V i l l a g e S i t e was e x c a v a t e d b y C h a r l e s B o r d e n i n t h e summers o f 1950 and 1952. The work was p r o m p t e d b y t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e A l u m i n u m Company o f Canada t o b u i l d K e n n y Dam a t t h e he a d o f t h e N e c h a k o R i v e r ( B o r d e n 1 9 5 2 : 3 1 ) . A l t h o u g h C h i n l a c was n o t t h r e a t e n e d b y t h i s p r o j e c t , B o r d e n d e c i d e d t o e x c a v a t e t h e s i t e s o t h a t he m i g h t b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d C a r r i e r p r e h i s t o r y , b e f o r e he d i d s a l v a g e work i n a r e a s w h i c h w o u l d be f l o o d e d b y t h e dam. A c c o r d i n g t o Roy C a r l s o n ( 1 9 7 9 : 2 3 4 ) , who t o o k p a r t i n t h e p r o j e c t , B o r d e n hoped t o " l a y t h e 94 f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e d i r e c t h i s t o r i c a p p r o a c h t o C a r r i e r p r e - h i s t o r y " . As a r e s u l t o f h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , B o r d e n was a b l e t o s t a t e t h a t C h i n l a c r e p r e s e n t e d " C a r r i e r c u l t u r e d u r i n g l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s a n d a t t h e p e r i o d o f e a r l y c o n t a c t " ( B o r d e n , 1 9 5 2 : 3 4 ) . The B o r d e n E x c a v a t i o n P a r t s o f t h i s c h a p t e r c o n s i s t o f e x c a v a t i o n r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h were n o t d i r e c t l y d e s c r i b e d o r s u m m a r i z e d b y B o r d e n . I b a s e t h e s e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s on B o r d e n ' s s i t e n o t e s a n d on my own a n a l y s i s o f t h e e x c a v a t e d m a t e r i a l s , w h i c h I u n d e r t o o k i n 1981 ( n . d . ) . L i t h i c s were a n a l y s e d b y Magne (Magne and M a t s o n 1984) a n d I d r a w on h i s r e s e a r c h i n t h a t a r e a ; B o r d e n ' s p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t ( 1 9 5 2 ) was a l s o u s e f u l . I t must be s t a t e d t h a t e x a m i n a t i o n o f s i t e r e c o r d s d i d n o t r e v e a l t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r some p r o c e d u r e s , n o r d i d t h e y p r o v i d e t h e r e a s o n s why c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s were made. T h e r e i s no way o f k n o w i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , why B o r d e n c h o s e t o e x c a v a t e House I I I . The s i t e was t r e a t e d a s a s i n g l e c o mponent s i t e a n d r e c o r d s o f t h e s t r a t i g r a p h y a n d t h e v e r t i - c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s a r e n o t c o m p l e t e . The s t r a t i - g r a p h i c p r o f i l e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e c h a p t e r a r e c o m p o s i t e s a n d r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s . I a l s o p l o t t e d t h e h o r i z o n t a l a n d v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s f r o m d e s c r i p t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d n o t e s . C h i n l a c i s l o c a t e d i n a s e m i - c i r c u l a r c l e a r i n g on t h e w e s t bank o f t h e S t u a r t R i v e r , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1000 m e t e r s f r o m 95 F i g u r e 17. The S t u d y A r e a S h o w i n g t h e L o c a t i o n o f t h e C h i n l a c S i t e . 96 i t s c o n f l u e n c e w i t h t h e Nechako ( F i g u r e 1 7 ) . S t i l l c l e a r l y v i s i b l e a r e 10 l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r d e p r e s s i o n s , w h i c h B o r d e n i d e n t i f i e d a s house d e p r e s s i o n s , and a s m a l l e r d e p r e s s i o n w h i c h seemed t o be t h e r e m a i n s o f a n a u x i l i a r y s t r u c t u r e (1950: s i t e n o t e s ) . The a v e r a g e s i z e o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n s i s 8 x 13 m e t r e s , and t h e y a r e i n a row a l o n g t h e r i v e r bank w i t h t h e i r n a r r o w ends f a c i n g t h e w a t e r ( F i g u r e 1 8 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e more t h a n 1800 c a c h e p i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s i t e . T h e s e a r e f o u n d a l o n g two low, s a n d y r i d g e s i n t h e f o r e s t t o t h e west o f t h e c l e a r i n g . The c a c h e p i t s a r e t y p i - c a l l y one t o two m e t e r s In d i a m e t e r , and a r e p r e s e n t l y one t o one and one h a l f m e t e r s d e e p . B o r d e n c o n d u c t e d t h e e x c a v a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. He l a i d o u t a p r i m a r y base l i n e r u n n i n g n o r t h / s o u t h and a s e c o n d a r y b a s e l i n e r u n n i n g e a s t / w e s t . House I I I was g r i d d e d i n t o 5 f o o t s q u a r e s w i t h t h e p r i m a r y b a s e l i n e as 0 f e e t w e s t . Seven " t r e n c h e s " were c r e a t e d w h i c h were e a c h 5 f e e t wide and were numbered 1 t o 7. The " t r e n c h e s " began a t 10 f e e t e a s t and ended a t 45 f e e t w e s t , making a g r i d 55 b y 35 f e e t . E a c h " t r e n c h " was e x c a v a t e d s q u a r e by s q u a r e and t h e n o r t h / s o u t h and e a s t / w e s t c o o r d i n a t e s r e c o r d e d f o r a l l r e c o g n i s a b l e a r t i - f a c t s . The a p p r o x i m a t e d e p t h b e l o w s u r f a c e was r e c o r d e d f o r many o f t h e f i n d s . M a t e r i a l s were s c r e e n e d t h r o u g h 1/4 i n c h mesh; d e t r i t u s , f a u n a l r e m a i n s , and e v e r y t h i n g n o t c l a s s i - f i e d a s a r t i f a c t s were p l a c e d i n bags f o r l a t e r s t u d y ( A s s o - c i a t e d M a t e r i a l s ) . F i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k was p i l e d t o one s i d e and n o t r e c o r d e d . The 5 x 5 f o o t s q u a r e was t h e main r e f e r e n c e u n i t . 97 moin datum 50 feet 15 metres contour intervaI= 5 feet F i g u r e 18. The C h i n l a c V i l l a g e S i t e ( F r o m t h e S i t e N o t e s o f C h a r l e s B o r d e n . U.B.C. L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o q y , 1 9 5 0 ) . y * 98 D e s c r i p t i o n o f S t r a t i g r a p h y As I have i n d i c a t e d , no c o m p l e t e s t r a t l g r a p h l c p r o f i l e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e s i t e . The s t r a t i g r a p h y d e s c r i b e d h e r e i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m s i t e n o t e d e s c r i p t i o n s . The l o c a t i o n s o f a l l t h r e e a r e shown on F i g u r e 19. P r o f i l e K F i g u r e 2 0 ) - T h e w a l l o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n a t 45 f e e t w e s t S t r a t a - The u p p e r m o s t s t r a t u m i s d a r k t o p s o i l w i t h a n a p p a r e n t l y h i g h c h a r c o a l c o n t e n t . A t t h e s o u t h e r n e n d , t h i s i s m i x e d w i t h f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k , a g r e y a s h , a n d r o o t s . A d i s c o n t i n u o u s l e n s o f c h a r c o a l u n d e r l i e s t h a t s t r a t u m b e t w e e n S.135 and S. 140. An i n t r u s i o n o f y e l l o w s a n d y s o i l m i x e d w i t h wood m o l d and r o o t s o c c u r s b e t w e e n S.140 and S.145, c u t t i n g i n t o a s e c o n d d i s c o n t i n u o u s c h a r c o a l l a y e r w h i c h l i e s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 i n c h e s b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e . T h e r e i s a n o t h e r t h i n l a y e r o f c h a r c o a l , w i t h b r o w n , s t e r i l e s o i l a b o v e and b e l o w , b e t w e e n S.155 and S.160 and y e t a n o t h e r b e t w e e n S.155 a n d S.160, 12 i n c h e s b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e . S t r a t a a r e d i s t u r b e d a t t h e s o u t h e r n end o f t h e w a l l and t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e m i x i n g o f c h a r c o a l , c r a c k e d r o c k , r o o t s , a n d o r g a n i c s o i l . M i x i n g a l s o o c c u r s a t t h e n o r t h end b u t l e n s e s o f y e l l o w s o i l , g r e y a s h , brown s u b - s o i l , a n d a c h a r c o a l - r i c h d a r k e a r t h c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . G r e y a s h u n d e r l i e s most o f t h e c h a r c o a l w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e t h i n l a y e r a t t h e b a s e o f t h e d e p o s i t s b e t w e e n S.140 a n d S.150. Maximum d e p t h o f t h e c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s i n House I I I i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 14 i n c h e s . P r o f i l e 2 ( F i g u r e 2 1 ) - a w a l l a t 25 f e e t w e s t S t r a t a - T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e m i x i n g o f d e p o s i t s a t t h e s o u t h e r n end o f t h e w a l l . A d a r k s o i l m i x e d w i t h c h a r c o a l i s t h e most common m a t e r i a l and a t l e a s t 2 s e p a r a t e l a y e r s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e a t S.165. B e t w e e n S.160 a n d S.165, h a b i t a t i o n f l o o r m a t e r i a l i s m i x e d w i t h g r a v e l and o t h e r d e b r i s w h i c h s u g g e s t s f i l l . T h e r e i s a n i n t e r e s t i n g s t r a t u m o f y e l l o w s o i l w h i c h u n d e r l i e s p a r t o f a d i s c o n t i n u o u s c h a r c o a l l e n s b e t w e e n S.145 and S.150. T h e r e a p p e a r t o be 3 d i s c r e t e c h a r c o a l l e n s e s b e t w e e n S.135 arid S.145. P r o f i l e 3 ( F i g u r e 2 2 ) - t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s o f House I I I S t r a t a - A t t h e w e s t e n d , 6 d i s t i n c t s t r a t a c a n be d i s t i n - g u i s h e d . T h e r e i s a l a y e r o f f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k and c h a r c o a l b e t w e e n W.40 and W.45, and a c o v e r e d p o s t h o l e i s e v i d e n t . S e v e r a l s t r a t a a r e composed o f a m i x t u r e o f c h a r c o a l a n d d a r k s o i l a n d t h e s e a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h l a y e r s o f a s h a n d b u r n e d 99 SI70 SI52.5 SI35 W45 W45 profile I prof i le 3 W25 E 10 W25 E 10 SI70 S135 F i g u r e 19. L o c a t i o n o f S t r a t i g r a p h i c P r o f i l e s F o r House I I I , t h e C h i n l a c S i t e (GaRv 1 ) . 100 k r I I F i g u r e 20 P r o f i l e 1. The W a l l o f t h e E x c a v a t i o n a t 45 F e e t West, House I I I , C h i n l a c (Summary on p. 9 9 ) . 101 102 F i g u r e 22. P r o f i l e 3. The L o n g i t u d i n a l A x i s o f House C h i n l a c (Summary on p . 9 9 - 1 0 0 ) . 103 m a t e r i a l . D e p o s i t s o f h a b i t a t i o n f l o o r m a t e r i a l s d e c r e a s e i n d e p t h f r o m w e s t t o e a s t . A h e a v y l a y e r o f a s h , up t o 4 i n c h e s d e e p , u n d e r l i e s a l a y e r o f d a r k s o i l a n d c h a r c o a l , a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y c o n t a i n i n g f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k . T h r e e p o s t h o l e s , c o v e r e d w i t h a s h a n d o t h e r m a t e r i a l s , a r e l o c a t e d b e t w e e n W.15 a n d W.30. T h e s e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r and one o f t h e h o l e s c o n t a i n e d s m a l l r o c k s . A t W.10 t h e r e i s a s m a l l d e p o s i t o f c h a r c o a l , s u r r o u n d e d b y r o c k s , j u s t b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e . C u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s a r e s h a l l o w a t t h e e a s t end o f t h e h o u s e b u t t h e r e a r e 2 p o s t h o l e s w h i c h a r e n o t c o v e r e d by a s h o r d e b r i s , a t t h a t e n d . P r o f i l e Summary a n d D i s c u s s i o n P r o f i l e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s i t e was r e - o c c u p i e d a number o f t i m e s d u r i n g i t s h i s t o r y . The p r e s e n c e o f some l e n s e s o f s t e r i l e s o i l , b u r i e d p o s t h o l e s , a n d p o s s i b l e p r e h i s t o r i c e x c a v a t i o n i n t o e a r l i e r d e p o s i t s s u g g e s t m u l t i p l e o c c u p a t i o n s a n d a t l e a s t 6 a r e i n d i c a t e d b y c h a r c o a l l a y e r s . A number o f p o s t h o l e s were b u r i e d by l a t e r d e p o s i t s b u t some were n o t . No s l a n t e d p o s t h o l e s were u n c o v e r e d ( B o r d e n U n p u b l i s h e d S i t e N o t e s ) , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h c a n be c o m p a r e d w i t h Punchaw V i l l a g e where p o s t h o l e s were a t a v a r i e t y o f a n g l e s ( F l a d - mark 1 9 7 6 : 2 6 ) . The r o c k s i n one p o s t h o l e may have b e e n u s e d t o s u p p o r t t h e p o s t . The p a t c h o f c h a r c o a l a t S.152.5 - W.10 i s p r o b a b l y t h e r e m a i n s o f a c a m p f i r e f r o m a l a t e r p e r i o d . The d e e p a s h l a y e r w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e i n t e n s i v e u s e o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d (one o r two b o a t - s h a p e d h e a r t h s ? ) ; h o w e v e r I n t e r r u p t i o n s o r d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e l a y e r were n o t d e s - c r i b e d b y t h e e x c a v a t o r s . B o r d e n ( 1 9 5 2 : 3 2 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t 6 i n d i v i d u a l h e a r t h s , i n 3 p a i r s , were p r e s e n t . 104 d e p r e s s i o n v. I """" F i g u r e 2 3 . The B o r d e n F l o o r p l a n f o r House I I I , C h i n l a c ( U n p u b l i s h e d S i t e N o t e s o f C . E . B o r d e n , 1 9 5 2 , U.B.C. L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y ) . 105 F l o o r P l a n s I e x a m i n e d t h e f l o o r p l a n d r a w n by B o r d e n f o r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t one o r more o f t h e h o u s e s t y l e s d e s c r i b e d by M o r i c e ( s e e C h a p t e r 3) m i g h t be r e p r e s e n t e d . I f o u n d t h a t t h e unpub- l i s h e d B o r d e n p l a n ( F i g u r e 23) was a c t u a l l y a c o m p o s i t e o f a l l t h e p o s t h o l e s u n c o v e r e d d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n a n d t h a t t h e p l a n was t o o c o n f u s i n g t o be u s e f u l . I n o r d e r t o s i m p l i f y t h e f l o o r p l a n a s much a s p o s s i b l e , I d r e w a s e c o n d p l a n ( F i g u r e 24) w h i c h shows o n l y t h o s e p o s t h o l e s w h i c h were n o t c o v e r e d b y a s h , c h a r c o a l , and d a r k s o i l ( d e s c r i b e d i n B o r d e n ' s s i t e n o t e s a s " h a b i t a t i o n f l o o r " ) . Where t h e r e was no c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s t a t u s o f a p o s t h o l e I c o n s i d e r e d i t a c t i v e and n o t c o v e r e d . O b v i o u s l y , t h i s i s f a r f r o m s a t i s f a c - t o r y b u t some f e a t u r e s emerge w h i c h may be s i g n i f i c a n t . B o r d e n ( 1 9 5 2 : 3 2 ) s t a t e d t h a t two l a r g e p o s t h o l e s a n d two s m a l l e r p o s t h o l e s ( i n l i n e ) were I n d i c a t o r s o f a c e n - t r a l r i d g e p o l e , and t h a t numerous s m a l l p o s t h o l e s r a n a l o n g t h e s i d e , g i v i n g h i m t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r h o u s e . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e n a summer r a t h e r t h a n a w i n t e r h o u s e i s i n d i c a t e d . The r e v i s e d f l o o r p l a n more c l e a r l y shows p a i r e d p o s t h o l e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e shown b y M o r i c e ( 1 8 9 3 : 188) on h i s f l o o r p l a n o f t h e C a r r i e r summer h o u s e ( F i g u r e 8, page 4 5 ) . The C a r r i e r w i n t e r h o u s e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , had f o u r p o s t s i n a r e c t a n g u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n w h i c h s u p p o r t e d s p l i t p o l e s s l a n t e d a n d d r i v e n i n t o t h e g r o u n d ( s e e F i g u r e 9, page 4 6 ) . The a b s e n c e o f e v i d e n c e f o r s l a n t e d p o l e s o f t h i s t y p e makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o 106 S | 4 ° • • , SI60 house corner Q post hole 0 5 feet I : I F i g u r e 24. R e v i s e d F l o o r P l a n F o r House I I I , C h i n l a c , S h o w i n g P o s t h o l e s W h i c h Were A p p a r e n t l y A c t i v e i n L a t e r O c c u p a t i o n s . P a i r e d P o s t h o l e s A r e Shaded- 107 e n v i s i o n a w i n t e r h o u s e on t h e l o c a t i o n . M o r e o v e r , t h e d o o r o f a h o u s e o r i e n t e d i n t h e same manner as t h e d e p r e s s i o n w o u l d f a c e a l m o s t due n o r t h , a p o o r c h o i c e f o r a w i n t e r h o u s e . The f l o o r p l a n s p r e s e n t a c o n f u s i n g a r r a y o f p o s t h o l e s and o t h e r f e a t u r e s s u g g e s t i n g a v a r i e t y o f s t r u c t u r e s a n d o f h o u s e o r i e n t a t i o n s o v e r t i m e b u t t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o i n d i c a t e y e a r - r o u n d o c c u p a t i o n . A r t i f a c t s I e x a m i n e d t h e a r t i f a c t s f r o m C h i n l a c f o r two r e a s o n s . I w a n t e d t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e p e r i o d o f most i n t e n s i v e o c c u p a - t i o n f o r t h e s i t e was t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c a nd I was h o p e f u l t h a t some a r t i f a c t s w o u l d be p r e s e n t w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e s e a s o n o f o c c u p a t i o n . I f o u n d i t u s e f u l t o work w i t h o n l y a f e w c a t e g o r i e s o f a r t i f a c t s i n c l u d i n g p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s a n d f r a g m e n t s , b i r c h b a r k r o l l s , a n d E u r o p e a n t r a d e - r e l a t e d ma- t e r i a l s , h o wever I do d i s c u s s o t h e r l i t h i c s b r i e f l y . B o r d e n r e c o r d e d o v e r 1900 a r t i f a c t s a n d many more h a v e s i n c e b e e n c a t a l o g u e d by M a t s o n and Magne. P r o j e c t i le_ P o i n t s The e x c a v a t i o n p r o d u c e d a l a r g e number o f p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s w h i c h M a r t i n Magne has a n a l y s e d a n d c l a s s i f i e d (Magne and M a t s o n 1 9 8 4 : 3 2 8 , 3 3 0 ) . I n a l l t h e r e a r e 127 p o i n t s a n d p o i n t f r a g m e n t s i n c l u d i n g 55 S i d e - n o t c h e d , 54 Stemmed, 16 K a v i k P o i n t s , a n d 2 C o r n e r - n o t c h e d P o i n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Magne an d M a t s o n ' s a n a l y s i s , t h e s i d e - n o t c h e d p o i n t s a r e w e l l i n a c c o r d w i t h what m i g h t be e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e P r o t o h i s t o r i c 108 A t h a p a s k a n p e r i o d i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (Magne and M a t s o n 1984: 3 2 8 , 3 3 0 ) . The p o i n t s were n o t e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x c a v a t e d a r e a a n d some c l u s t e r i n g i s n o t i c e a b l e . One g r o u p o f p o i n t s o c c u r s i n a b l o c k c o m p r i s e d o f 6 f i v e f o o t s q u a r e s i n t h e s o u t h c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n where 36 p o i n t s w ere f o u n d . A s e c o n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n o c c u r s i n t h e s o u t h w e s t c o r n e r a n d a t h i r d i n t h e n o r t h w e s t c o r n e r . T h e r e a r e f e w p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a o r i n t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f E u r o - C a n a d i a n a r t i f a c t s w h i c h were m o s t l y f o u n d i n t h e f r o n t c e n t e r a r e a ( F i g u r e 2 5 ) . Two a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e f e a s i b l e w h i c h m i g h t a c c o u n t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , one t h a t i t i n d i c a t e s m u l t i p l e o c c u p a t i o n s a n d t w o , t h a t t h e r e i s a n unnamed a c t i v i t y d i f f e r e n c e i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e h o u s e . M o s t p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s were f o u n d n e a r t h e s u r f a c e , w i t h 60 i n t h e f i r s t 5 i n c h e s o f t h e d e p o s i t . However, o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t h o u s e s have b e e n r e b u i l t on t h e l o c a t i o n ) make a t e m p o r a l d i f f e r e n c e most l i k e l y . Qth§?. L i t h i c s Magne h a s c l a s s i f i e d o t h e r l i t h i c s f r o m t h e s i t e . The p r e f e r r e d m a t e r i a l f o r t o o l m a k i n g seems t o have b e e n a f i n e - g r a i n e d b a s a l t w h i c h i s n o t l o c a l . M o s t t o o l s a r e made o f t h i s m a t e r i a l b u t some a r e made o f c h e r t , a n d some o b s i d i a n was u s e d . T h e r e a r e some f r a g m e n t s o f g r o u n d s t o n e a d z e s w h i c h were made f r o m a l o w g r a d e o f n e p h r i t e , a n d some r i v e r c o b b l e s seem t o have b e e n u s e d a s t o o l s . U n i f a c i a l r e t o u c h 109 XXX XXXX XX X X X X X XXXXX X X XX XXXXX ) XXXX XX 70' S = p r o j e c t i l e point 45' W 15' W 10' E 135' S + + + + + ++ ++ + + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + 45' W 170' S 30' W 15' W 0' 10' E 135' S + = 1 a r t i f a c t (includes a r t i f a c t s of native manufacture but European materials) N.S. - less Ch 1511 (22 caliber bullet, modem) F i g u r e 25. The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t s Compared t o t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E u r o - C a n a d i a n a nd C h i n e s e A r t i f a c t s i n House I I I , C h i n l a c . a - P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t s b - E u r o - C a n a d i a n a nd C h i n e s e A r t i f a c t s . 110 f l a k e s e a s i l y f o r m t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e a r t i f a c t g r o u p b u t l a r g e numbers o f u t i l i s e d f l a k e s a n d " m u l t i p l e e d g e " u n i f a c e s a l s o o c c u r . No m i c r o b l a o . e s , c o r e t o o l s , " s i n u o u s e d g e " u n i - f a c e s , o r s p a l l t o o l s were p r e s e n t . Wedges a r e w e l l r e p r e - s e n t e d a n d s o a r e f o r m e d b i f a c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Magne and M a t s o n , t h e C h i n l a c l i t h i c s a r e i n a c c o r d w i t h what c a n be e x p e c t e d f o r P r o t o h i s t o r i c A t h a p a s k a n i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (Magne and M a t s o n 1984: 3 2 8 , 3 3 0 ) . B i r c h b a r k _ R o l l s L a r g e numbers o f b i r c h b a r k r o l l s were r e c o v e r e d d u r i n g t h e e x c a v a t i o n . M o s t a r e l e s s t h a n 10 cm. l o n g a n d many have b u r n t o r c h a r r e d e n d s w h i c h l e a d B o r d e n t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y were u s e d a s t o r c h e s ( 1 9 5 2 : 33) o r t h a t t h e y a r e t h e d e b r i s f r o m t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b a s k e t s o r c o n t a i n e r s w h i c h was t h e n b u r n t i n t h e h e a r t h . B a r k c o n t a i n e r s were i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g t h e summer s a l m o n a nd b e r r y - p i c k i n g s e a s o n s ( M o r i c e 1 8 9 3 : 1 2 3 - 1 2 4 ) . T u r n e r ( 1 9 7 9 : 1 9 5 ) s t a t e s . t h a t b a r k was c o l l e c t e d i n t h e l a t e s p r i n g a n d e a r l y summer a n d A n d e r s o n e t a l ( 1 9 8 1 : 3 2 ) , w r i t i n g o f S t a r r C a r r , m e n t i o n t h a t C l a r k t h o u g h t t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f b i r c h b a r k r o l l s t h e r e i n d i c a t e d a summer o c c u p a - t i o n . M o s t o f t h e r o l l s were f o u n d n e a r i n t h e w e s t e r n h a l f o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n . T h e r e i s no s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e e t h n o - g r a p h i e s t h a t b i r c h b a r k was u s e d b y t h e C a r r i e r i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r h o u s e s . I l l A r t i f a c t s . Made, o f G r o u n d Bone, a nd A n t l e r A r t i f a c t s o f bone a n d a n t l e r may be i n d i c a t o r s o f s e a - s o n a l i t y . The s i t e a t Punchaw L a k e , w h i c h was p r o b a b l y n o t o c c u p i e d d u r i n g t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n , p r o d u c e d v e r y f e w bone a r t i f a c t s ( F l a d m a r k 1976:30) a nd none were f o u n d a t t h e W e s t L a k e s i t e b y Hudson ( 1 9 7 2 ) . Some g r o u n d bone o r a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s may a l s o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r s e a s o n a l a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s t h e s p e a r i n g o f b e a v e r o r s a l m o n ( M o r i c e 1 8 93:67-68) . Due t o t h e s c a r c i t y o f u n g u l a t e s i n t h e r e g i o n , bone was more commonly u s e d t h a n a n t l e r , a n d b e a v e r u l n a e a w l s a r e more common t h a n a n y o t h e r bone o r a n t l e r t o o l . M o r i c e s t a t e s t h a t a w l s were u s e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b i r c h b a r k b a s k e t s a n d c o n t a i n e r s ( 1 8 9 3 : 1 2 2 ) . B e a v e r i n c i s o r s (4 l o n g i t u d i n a l f r a g m e n t s ) were a l s o f o u n d a n d may have been u s e d a s t o o l s . The C a r r i e r u s e d b e a v e r i n c i s o r s a s k n i v e s f o r c a r v i n g ( M o r i c e 1 8 9 3 : 5 2 ) . T h e r e were s e v e r a l s l i v e r s o f g r o u n d bone w h i c h may be l e i s t e r b a r b s o r f i s h hook p a r t s a s d e s c r i b e d b y M o r i c e ( 1 8 9 3 : 7 1 - 7 2 ) . The m o d i f i e d s c a p u l a o f a d e e r was r e c o v e r e d a n d i s p r o b a b l y a s c r a p e r ( M o r i c e 1893 : 6 8 - 6 9 ) . A l s o f o u n d was a g r o u n d bone h a r p o o n p a r t , c u r v e d s l i g h t l y a n d a p p r o x i - m a t e l y 10 cm i n l e n g t h , s i m i l a r t o a n a r t i f a c t m a n u f a c t u r e d o f b e a t e n c o p p e r d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . I was u n a b l e t o f i n d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s a r t i c l e i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s b u t M o r i c e d o e s m e n t i o n t h a t h a r p o o n t i p s were among t h e f i v e k i n d s o f o b j e c t s w h i c h t h e C a r r i e r made o f c o p p e r ( 1 8 9 3 : 1 3 8 ) . T h i s p i e c e o f e q u i p m e n t was p r o b a b l y u s e d t o s p e a r b e a v e r , C h i n o o k s a l m o n , o r s t u r g e o n , a l l o f w h i c h w o u l d be s o u g h t d u r i n g t h e summer a n d f a l l . A n t l e r was u s e d f o r s e v e r a l s m a l l p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s a n d a p o i n t f r a g m e n t was b a r b e d i n t h e manner o f a h a r p o o n . M o r i c e s t a t e s t h a t b a r b e d bone h a r p o o n s were u s e d t o c a t c h b e a v e r ( 1 8 9 3 : 67-68) a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h i s a r t i f a c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y was c a r r i e d o u t f r o m t h e s i t e . B o r d e n a l s o r e c o v e r e d a number o f b u r n t and b r o k e n bone f r a g m e n t s , some of w h i c h were i n c i s e d . Summary Bone a n d a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s i t e was o c c u p i e d d u r i n g t h e summer a n d f a l l o f t h e y e a r . B e a v e r u l n a e a w l s were u s e d i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f b i r c h b a r k b a s k e t s and b i r c h b a r k was g a t h e r e d i n t h e e a r l y summer. The p r e s e n c e o f h a r p o o n a n d s p e a r p o i n t s o f bone a n d a n t l e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t Chinook, a n d p o s s i b l y s t u r g e o n , were t a k e n n e a r C h i n l a c . B e a - v e r h u n t i n g ( i n e i t h e r f a l l o r s p r i n g ) i s e v i d e n c e d b y a bone p o i n t t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d a s a p a r t o f a b e a v e r s p e a r . The p r e s e n c e o f some a n t l e r may a l s o be i n d i c a t i v e o f a f a l l o c c u p a t i o n . E u r o - C a n a d i a n A r t i f a c t s . T h i r t y a r t i f a c t s were r e c o v e r e d d u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n w h i c h were e i t h e r made by n a t i v e s f r o m E u r o p e a n m a t e r i a l s o r were u n a l t e r e d t r a d e i t e m s . T h e s e h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t a p r o t o - h i s t o r i c o c c u p a t i o n o c c u r r e d a t t h e s i t e , a n d a r e i n d i c a t i o n s o f a c o a s t a l t r a d e c o n n e c t i o n . The a r t i f a c t s f o r m a g r o u p w i t h some i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n d i s d e f i n e d i n p a r t by t h e c o m p l e t e a b s e n c e o f i m p o r t a n t h i s t o r i c p e r i o d i n d i c a - t o r s s u c h a s gun p a r t s , g l a s s , o r p o r c e l a i n . T h e r e a r e 6 a r t i f a c t s made o f c o p p e r ( e x c l u d i n g t h e C h i n e s e c o i n d e s c r i b e d b e l o w ) i n c l u d i n g 4 t u b u l a r b e a d s (Ch 237, CH 465, Ch 1639) o f a k i n d f o u n d e l s e w h e r e on t h e P l a - t e a u ( W i l m e t h 1978: 243; Quimby 1966: 2 9 - 3 2 ) . The b e a d s r a n g e i n s i z e f r o m s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n 2 cm t o 5 cm i n l e n g t h ( P l a t e 1 ) . T h e y seem t o be m a n u f a c t u r e d f r o m s h i p ' s c o p p e r , a t y p e o f s h e e t c o p p e r t r a d e d w i d e l y on t h e c o a s t d u r i n g t h e 1 8 t h a n d 1 9 t h c e n t u r i e s ( G e o r g e M a c D o n a l d , p e r s comm), and t h e y a r e n o t s o l d e r e d . O t h e r c o p p e r a r t i f a c t s i n c l u d e t h e h a r p o o n p a r t ( C h 774) r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e , a nd a l o n g (9 cm) p o i n t e d i m p l e m e n t made o f t i g h t l y r o l l e d m e t a l w h i c h may be a n a w l ( C h 809 ) . B o r d e n a l s o f o u n d a C h i n e s e c o i n f r o m t h e Sung D y n a s t y ( C h 6 0 8 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , c o i n s o f t h i s t y p e a r e n o t r e l i a b l e c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r s b e c a u s e t h e y r e m a i n i n u s e f o r c e n - t u r i e s a n d t h e same t y p e were o f t e n m i n t e d f o r a v e r y l o n g p e r i o d ( R i c h a r d P e a r s o n , p e r s comm). C h i n e s e c o i n s were t r a d e i t e m s a n d were u s e d b y t h e I n d i a n s t o d e c o r a t e c o s t u m e s , a n d a l s o f o r j e w e l r y . T h e r e i s some s l i g h t e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t s u c h c o i n s were on t h e c o a s t a s e a r l y a s 1750 ( B e a l s 1 9 8 0 : 5 8 - 7 2 ) . B e t w e e n 1785 a n d 1814, 152 B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n s h i p s f r o m t h e C h i n a t r a d e v i s i t e d t h e c o a s t ( G i b s o n 1 9 8 1 : 7 0 - 7 1 ) . 114 P l a t e 1. E u r o - C a n a d i a n a nd C h i n e s e A r t i f a c t s R e c o v e r e d F r o m House I I I a t C h i n l a c b y C.E. B o r d e n . F rom Top, L e f t t o R i g h t : Ch 608 ( c o i n ) , Ch 237 ( b e a d ) , Ch 465 ( b e a d , Ch 1639 ( b e a d ) . S e c o n d Row: Ch 233 ( b e a d ) , C h 2 3 9 ( b e a d ) , Ch 914 ( b e a d ) , Ch 610 ( b e a d ) . T h i r d Row : Ch 283b ( b e a d ) , Ch 283a ( b e a d ) . F o u r t h Row: C h 1809 ( a w l ) , C h 774 ( h a r p o o n ) , C h 1511 ( c a r t r i d g e ) , Ch 616 ( m e t a l l i c f r a g m e n t ) . 115 Some i r o n a r t i f a c t s were a l s o r e c o v e r e d , i n c l u d i n g a f i s h hook (Ch 336) o r a w l made o f i r o n w i r e a n d a n a w l o f pounded m e t a l (Ch 712) ( P l a t e 2 ) . S e v e r a l p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s (Ch 2 2 2 , Ch 343, C h 462) a n d a r u s t e d k n i f e b l a d e (Ch 221) were a l s o f o u n d a n d a p o r t i o n o f a " s t r i k e - a - 1 i g h t " ( C h 3 0 7 ) was r e c o v e r e d w h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o t h e "Hudson's B a y " f i r e s t e e l d e s c r i b e d b y R u s s e l l ( 1 9 6 7 : 3 5 0 - 3 5 1 ) . B o r d e n r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g a n i r o n n a i l a n d a p i e c e o f a f i l e b u t t h e s e a r e no l o n g e r i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n . S e v e r a l b a d l y r u s t e d f r a g m e n t s o f s h e e t a n d b a r i r o n ( C h 1 5 7 2 a , C h 1572b, C h 3 0 9 a , C h 309b, C h 285, C h 238, C h 2 1 9 ) were a l s o f o u n d . S e v e r a l t r a d e b e a d s were f o u n d b y B o r d e n i n c l u d i n g 2 s m a l l , w h i t e " s e e d " b e a d s ( C h 610, C h 2 8 3 b ), 2 " C o r n a l i n e d ' A l e p p o " b e a d s ( C h 233, Ch 2 8 3 a ) , a n d 1 and 1/2 B l u e V e n e - t i a n b e a d s ( C h 239, Ch 9 1 4 ) . A l t h o u g h K i d d a n d K i d d ( 1 9 7 0 ) have e s t a b l i s h e d a b e a d t y p o l o g y , no c h r o n o l o g y i s a v a i l a b l e . A r t h u r R a y ( p e r s comm) j u d g e s t h a t t h e b e a d s c o u l d have b e e n t r a d e d d u r i n g t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y , i n o t h e r w o r d s d u r i n g t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . S e v e r a l d e n t a l i u m s h e l l s were a l s o f o u n d ; M o r i c e r e p o r t s t h a t t h e s e were u s e d a s b e a d s b y t h e C a r r i e r ( 1 8 9 3 : 1 7 0 ) . F a u n a l R e m a i n s F a u n a l r e m a i n s a r e o f t e n i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r s o f s e a s o n a l i t y a t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . B o r d e n m e n t i o n e d i n h i s s i t e n o t e s t h a t f e w f a u n a l r e m a i n s were p r e s e n t b e c a u s e most b o n e s were b u r n e d i n t h e h e a r t h b u t he was a b l e t o c o l l e c t some l a r g e r b o n e s a n d bone 116 4 vJ i I J P l a t e 2. E u r o - C a n a d i a n A r t i f a c t s R e c o v e r e d b y C . E . B o r d e n f r o m House I I I a t C h i n l a c . F r om t h e Top, L e f t t o R i g h t : Ch 1572a ( i r o n f r a g m e n t ) , Ch 1572b ( i r o n f r a g m e n t ) , Ch 309a ( i r o n f r a g m e n t ) , Ch 309b ( i r o n f r a g m e n t ) , Ch 285 ( i r o n f r a g m e n t ) , C h 238 ( i r o n f r a g m e n t ) . S e c o n d Row: C h 219 ( i r o n f r a g m e n t ) , C h 222 ( p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t f r a g m e n t ) , Ch 343 ( p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t ) , Ch 462 ( p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t ) , C h 2 2 1 ( k n i f e b l a d e ) . T h i r d Row: Ch 336 ( f i s h h o o k ) , Ch 303 ( w i r e ) , Ch 281 ( s p r i n g ? ) , C h 712 ( a w l ) , Ch 307 ( f i r e s t e e l ) . 117 f r a g m e n t s . S a l m o n bones were n o t w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n methods u s e d b y t h e C a r r i e r 0 ( d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3 ) . The b o n e s o f b e a v e r ( C a s t o r c a n a d e n s i s ) were t h e most common o f a l l f a u n a l r e m a i n s ( A p p e n d i x 1 ) . Of t h e 72 i d e n t i - f i a b l e e l e m e n t s p r e s e n t , 37 a r e f r o m b e a v e r a n d a t l e a s t 6 o f t h e s e b o n e s a r e m o d i f i e d u l n a e w h i c h were p r o b a b l y u s e d a s t o o l s . The m a j o r i t y o f b e a v e r b o n e s a r e t h o s e o f t h e l e g and f o o t . E t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y , b e a v e r was u s e d f o r f e a s t s a n d was t h e p r o p e r t y o f c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s ( a s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3 ) . The p r e s e n c e o f l e g b o n e s , w i t h f e w r i b s o r o t h e r b o d y p a r t s , may i n d i c a t e some p a t t e r n o f meat d i s t r i b u t i o n b a s e d on s t a t u s . W i l m e t h ( 1 9 7 7 : 9 9 ) n o t e d t h a t b e a v e r bones were common a t A n a h i m d u r i n g t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . The h u n t i n g o f b e a v e r t o o k p l a c e i n O c t o b e r a n d November ( a s w e l l a s i n t h e s p r i n g ) a nd s o c o u l d have b e e n c a r r i e d on a t t h e s i t e b e f o r e p e o p l e moved t o C l u c u l z l a k e f o r f a l l f i s h i n g . The b o n e s o f s e v e r a l o t h e r a n i m a l s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f summer u s e . The b e a r ( U r s u s a m e r i c a n u s ) was h u n t e d d u r i n g t h e summer s a l m o n s e a s o n , and t h e swan ( O l o r b u c c i n a t o r ) was c a u g h t d u r i n g t h e summer m o u l t ( s e e C h a p t e r 3 ) . S i x s h e l l v a l v e s o f t h e f r e s h w a t e r m u s s e l ( M a r q i t a f e r a s p . ) were f o u n d and t h e s e c o u l d n o t have b e e n c a u g h t i n w i n t e r . A number o f o t h e r s p e c i e s a r e p r e s e n t i n c l u d i n g d o g ( C a n i s f a m i l i a r i s ) , p o r c u p i n e ( E r e t h i z o n d o r s a t u m ) , s q u i r r e l ( T a m i a s c i u r u s h u d s o n i c u s ) , a n d m u s k r a t ( O n d a t r a z i b e t h i c a ) b u t t h e s e do n o t seem t o be i n d i c a t o r s o f s e a s o n a l i t y h e r e . 118 Summary There were two p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n s why I c h o s e t o r e - e x a m i n e t h e C h i n l a c m a t e r i a l s . F i r s t , I hoped t h a t by e x a m i - n i n g t h e f a u n a l r e m a i n s a n d o t h e r s e a s o n a l i t y i n d i c a t o r s I c o u l d d e t e r m i n e i f , a s I s u g g e s t e d a b o v e , t h e s i t e was i n h a b i t e d d u r i n g t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n o n l y , o r i f B o r d e n ' s s u g g e s t i o n o f a y e a r r o u n d o c c u p a t i o n were more a p p r o p r i a t e . I a l s o h o p e d t h a t B o r d e n ' s s i t e n o t e s w o u l d c o n t a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t y p e o f s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h were p r e s e n t a t t h e s i t e . Of u s e h e r e were t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n M o r i c e ( 1 8 9 3 ) o f t h e h o u s e s t y l e s u s e d b y t h e C a r r i e r a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f t h e y e a r . A c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a w i n t e r h o u s e was r e p r e s e n t e d w o u l d p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r B o r d e n ' s c o n c l u s i o n s . The a b s e n c e o f e v i d e n c e f o r a w i n t e r h o u s e , t a k e n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s i t e a n d o t h e r f a c t o r s , w o u l d t e n d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e a l t e r n a t e v i e w t h a t t h e s i t e was s e a s o n a l l y o c c u p i e d and t h e i n h a b i t a n t s went e l s e w h e r e i n w i n t e r . S e c o n d , more d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s i t e was n e e d e d s o t h a t t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d i n C a r r i e r c u l t u r e h i s t o r y m i g h t be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d a n d d e f i n e d . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n v i e w o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s i t e t o t h i s s t u d y , a n d t o o t h e r s t u d i e s o f C a r r i e r p r e h i s t o r y . T h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e e v i d e n c e w h i c h , i n my v i e w , s u p p o r t s a y e a r r o u n d o c c u p a t i o n f o r t h e s i t e . The f u n c t i o n o f t h e s i t e i s r e l a t e d t o s a l m o n p r o c u r e m e n t a s e v i d e n c e d b o t h by t h e l o c a t i o n o f C h i n l a c on a s a l m o n s t r e a m , a n d b y t h e l a r g e 119 numbers o f c a c h e p i t s i n t h e woods b e h i n d t h e s i t e . C e r t a i n - l y , t h e r e a r e no o t h e r i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e a t t h e l o c a t i o n i n s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s . M o r e o v e r , t h e s i t e i s p o o r l y s i t u a t e d f o r a w i n t e r h a b i t a t i o n s i t e a nd t h e h o u s e d e p r e s s i o n s f a c e a l m o s t due n o r t h . I d i d n o t f i n d e v i d e n c e f o r a r e c t a n g u l a r p l a c e m e n t o f p o s t s i n House I I I o r f o r s l a n t e d p o l e s , b o t h o f w h i c h i n d i c a t e a t r a d i t i o n a l C a r r i e r w i n t e r h o u s e a s d e s c r i b e d b y M o r i c e . I n s t e a d , t h e f l o o r p l a n s show p a i r e d p o s t h o l e s w h i c h a r e a f e a t u r e o f t h e C a r r i e r summer h o u s e . I know o f no a r t i f a c t s o r f a u n a l r e m a i n s w h i c h w o u l d , i n t h e m s e l v e s , i n d i c a t e a w i n t e r o c c u p a t i o n and t h e r e i s n o t h i n g a t C h i n l a c t o s u p p o r t s u c h a c o n c l u s i o n . F a u n a l r e m a i n s a r e f r o m a n i m a l s w h i c h w o u l d n o r m a l l y be t a k e n i n t h e summer o r f a l l a n d i n c l u d e b e a r , s a l m o n , swan, b e a v e r , a n d m u s s e l . Bone and a n t l e r p o i n t s , t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d a s p a r t s o f b e a v e r o r s a l m o n s p e a r s were r e c o v e r e d , a n d t h e a n t l e r may i n d i - c a t e a f a l l o c c u p a t i o n . E v i d e n c e o f b i r c h b a r k c o l l e c t i o n a n d t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f b i r c h b a r k v e s s e l s i s p r e s e n t a t t h e s i t e a n d t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s were p r o b a b l y c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e summer. The s i t e was c e r t a i n l y o c c u p i e d by a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e g r o u p o f p e o p l e a t some t i m e i n t h e p a s t . The a r t i f a c t d e n s i t y a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e s a r e p r o o f o f a c o n c e n t r a t e d o c c u p a t i o n a n d l o n g d u r a t i o n . A l l e v i d e n c e , i n c l u d i n g l i - t h i c s , t r a d e g o o d s , a n d h o u s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p e r i o d o f h e a v i e s t use was t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c . I n f a c t , t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e E u r o - C a n a d i a n / C h i n e s e a r t i f a c t g r o u p 120 i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a p r o t o h i s t o r i c p h a s e i n t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t a communal s a l m o n w e i r was b u i l t n e a r b y , a n d was p r o b a b l y u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f ' d e n e z a ' , t h e i n h a b i t a n t s c o p y i n g t h e house s t y l e s , a n d p e r h a p s o t h e r f e a - t u r e s o f t h e c u l t u r e o f c o a s t a l p e o p l e s . A t l e a s t 6 o c c u p a - t i o n s a r e s u g g e s t e d by s t r a t i g r a p h y b u t c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e - m ents a r e d i f f i c u l t t o make. The f a c t t h a t E u r o - C a n a d i a n a r t i f a c t s a n d p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s have d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f o r m e r r e p r e s e n t a d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n t h a n t h e l a t t e r , o r may i n d i c a t e t h a t a d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s t o o k p l a c e i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f t h e h o u s e . T h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t g r e a t t i m e d e p t h f o r t h e s i t e a n d B o r - d e n ' s e s t i m a t e o f 100 y e a r s o f o c c u p a t i o n i s n o t u n r e a s o n - a b l e . 121 CHAPTER 8 THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I d e s c r i b e t h e r e s u l t s o f a n a r c h a e o - l o g i c a l s u r v e y w h i c h was u n d e r t a k e n t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I h a v e p o s t u - l a t e d t h a t s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s a t v a r i o u s p e r i o d s s h o u l d r e l a t e t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d s e a s o n a l i t y o f i m p o r t a n t r e - s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a a n d I a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a r c h a e o - l o g i c a l s i t e s w o u l d c l u s t e r a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e S t u a r t and N e c h a k o R i v e r s , a n d a t t h e o u t f l o w o f C l u c u l z C r e e k on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f C l u c u l z l a k e . I n a d d i t i o n , I p o s t u l a t e d c h a n g e s b a s e d on d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b s i s t e n c e a n d t r a d e p a t - t e r n s i n t h e h i s t o r i c , p r o t o h i s t o r i c , a n d p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s a n d I e x p e c t e d t o f i n d r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i t e s i n o t h e r l o c a - t i o n s on t h e r i v e r s a n d l a k e s a s p r e d i c t e d i n t h e m o d e l s d e s c r i b i n g s e t t l e m e n t d u r i n g t h e s e t i m e s . I have g r o u p e d s i t e s a c c o r d i n g t o l o c a t i o n a n d have c l a s s i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s a c c o r d i n g t o p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n a l t y p e . Remnants o f a b o r i g i n a l t r a i l s shown i n C h a p t e r 3 were l o c a t e d d u r i n g t h e s u r v e y a n d I have mapped t h e s e . The S u r v e v The s u r v e y b e g a n J u l y 9, 1984 and e n d e d A u g u s t 3 1 , 1984. The c r e w c o n s i s t e d o f 4 s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s u n d e r my s u p e r v i s i o n . The s t u d e n t s , w o r k i n g i n p a i r s , w a l k e d a l l t h e 122 s h o r e l i n e s d e s c r i b e d b e l o w and s e a r c h e d a r e a s b a c k f r o m t h e w a t e r t o 50 m e t e r s . Some p r o m i s i n g l o c a t i o n s f u r t h e r t h a n 50 m e t e r s f r o m t h e w a t e r were a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . A 14 f o o t b o a t w i t h m o t o r was u s e d a s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on t h e l a k e s a n d r i v e r s e n a b l i n g t h e c r e w s t o c o v e r more a r e a . I n a d d i t i o n , some s u r v e y f r o m t h e a i r a n d f r o m h o r s e b a c k was c a r r i e d o u t . C a r r i e r e l d e r s a n d l o n g - t i m e w h i t e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e a r e a were c o n s u l t e d a t v a r i o u s t i m e s d u r i n g t h e s u r v e y a b o u t t h e l o c a - t i o n o f s i t e s , a n d a b o u t t h e t r a i l s u s e d b y w h i t e p i o n e e r s and n a t i v e p e o p l e s . The c r e w s u r v e y e d b o t h b a n k s o f t h e N e c h a k o r i v e r f r o m H u l a t t ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 km w e s t o f t h e N e c h a k o / S t u a r t c o n f l u e n c e ) t o a p o i n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 km down r i v e r f r o m t h e c o n f l u e n c e . B o t h b a n k s o f t h e S t u a r t R i v e r were s e a r c h e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 km n o r t h o f t h e j u n c t i o n o f t h e S t u a r t and N e c h a k o . B o t h b a n k s o f C l u c u l z C r e e k were s u r v e y e d f r o m t h e L a k e t o t h e N e c h a k o . The e n t i r e s h o r e l i n e s o f C l u c u l z and Cobb L a k e s were s e a r c h e d b y t h e c r e w s a n d t h e a r e a a r o u n d Sob L a k e was i n v e s - t i g a t e d . The c r e w s w a l k e d a r e a s where n a t i v e t r a i l s were t h o u g h t t o have e x i s t e d , a nd t h e s h o r e l i n e o f H o g s b a c k L a k e ( t o t h e w e s t ) was s p o t c h e c k e d . The s u r v e y p r o d u c e d r e s u l t s w h i c h seemed t o p r o v i d e s u p - p o r t f o r t h e p r o p o s a l s made a b o v e . I n a l l , 38 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s were f o u n d a n d r e c o r d e d a n d a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e m were n e a r t h e o u t f l o w o f C l u c u l z L a k e ( F i g u r e 2 6 ) . T h e r e were 6 s i t e s , i n c l u d i n g C h i n l a c , on t h e S t u a r t R i v e r and 7 s i t e s on t h e N e c h a k o b u t f e w o f t h e s e c a n be c l a s s i f i e d a s a c t u a l 123 village site, extended occupation, with cache pits; Chinlac, FIRv T28 small special purpose site, with cache pits; FIRv 11,17, 25, T27, T34, FIRw 5,6, T i l , TI2 GaRv 4, T6 native fishing site, use in recent times; John Camp village site, extended occupation, no cache pits; FIRv I, 2, 6, 7, 8 small special purpose site, no cache pits; FIRv 5,9, 10, 13, 14,15, 16, 19,20,21, 22, 23, 24.T35, FIRw 1,4, GaRvTI. rectangular cache pits, no habitation; FIRv 26, GaRv 5 F i g u r e 26. The S t u d y A r e a S h o w i n g Type a n d D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A r c h e o l o g i c a l S i t e s D i s c o v e r e d D u r i n g S u r v e y , 124 h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s . T h e r e were 6 s m a l l s i t e s on Cobb l a k e , one on Sob L a k e , and one s m a l l s i t e on H o g s b a c k L a k e . The l a r g e s t s i t e s i n t h e a r e a , and t h o s e h a v i n g t h e d e e p e s t c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s , a r e a t t h e o u t f l o w o f c l u c u l z l a k e and a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e N e c h a k o and S t u a r t R i v e r s , b u t t h e r e a r e m e d i u m - s i z e d s i t e s ( i . e . s m a l l e r t h a n C h i n l a c ) a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e a l s o . I e x p e c t e d t h a t l a r g e s i t e s a t t h e c o n f - l u e n c e o f t h e S t u a r t and N e c h a k o w o u l d be a f e a t u r e o f t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d and t h a t r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r s i t e s a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e and on t h e r i v e r s , a nd m e d i u m - s i z e d s i t e s a t t h e o u t f l o w w o u l d be a f e a t u r e o f t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d a n d , t o some d e g r e e , o f t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d a l s o . I n g e n e r a l , c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s a t s i t e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a a r e s h a l l o w a n d a r e nowhere more t h a n 40 cm d e e p . S i t e G r o u p s a n d F u n c t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M o s t s i t e s c o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o f o u r g r o u p s b a s e d on l o c a t i o n a n d a f e w , w h i c h d i d n o t f i t n e a t l y i n t o a n y o f t h e f o u r , c o n s t i t u t e a f i f t h g r o u p . G i v e n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s d e s c r i b e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , t h e a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t t h e f i v e g r o u p s r e f l e c t s i t e f u n c t i o n and r e s o u r c e p r o c u r e m e n t . A d d i t i o n a l s i t e d a t a a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x 2. 1 . R i v e r s i d e S i t e s T h i s g r o u p i n c l u d e d C h i n l a c and o t h e r s i t e s a l o n g t h e b a n k s o f t h e S t u a r t and N e c h a k o R i v e r s . O n l y two s i t e s (GaRv 1) 125 and F l R v T28) show e v i d e n c e o f l o n g t e r m o c c u p a t i o n a n d c a c h e p i t s a r e t h e o n l y f e a t u r e p r e s e n t a t many r i v e r s i d e s i t e s . P r o b a b l y most o f t h e s e s i t e s a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h s a l m o n f i s h i n g . I n C h a p t e r 3, I d e s c r i b e d how n a t i v e p e o p l e c o n t i n u e t o f i s h f o r s a l m o n on t h e N e c h a k o . GaRv 1- T h i s i s t h e C h i n l a c V i l l a g e s i t e d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . I t i s l o c a t e d a t a p l a c e where a s a l m o n w e i r c o u l d be b u i l t . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s i t e a r e t h e more t h a n 1800 c a c h e p i t s w h i c h a r e s i t u a t e d j u s t w e s t o f t h e c l e a r i n g o c c u p i e d b y r e c t a n g u l a r h o u s e d e p r e s s i o n s . The c a c h e p i t s a r e on two l o w s a n d y r i d g e s . N a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s t o l d me t h a t c a c h e p i t s were u s u a l l y dug i n t o s a n d y s o i l n e a r s p r u c e t r e e s , a n d t h a t s p o t s w i t h h e a v y , o r p o o r l y - d r a i n e d s o i l was n o t s u i t a b l e . D u r i n g t h e s u r v e y , s e v e r a l c a c h e p i t s were i n v e s t i g a t e d . No c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l was n o t e d i n a n y b u t t h e y were p r o b a b l y u s e d f o r s t o r - age by t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f C h i n l a c , a nd p r o b a b l y b y t h e p e o p l e who l i v e d a t t h e s m a l l e r s i t e r i g h t a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e ( F l R v T 2 8 ) . F l R v T28- T h i s s i t e i s l o c a t e d on t h e e a s t bank o f t h e S t u a r t a t i t s c o n f l u e n c e w i t h t h e N e c h a k o . The most s i g n i f i c a n t o b s e r v a b l e f e a t u r e s o f t h e s i t e a r e 3 r e c t a n g u l a r h o u s e i m p r e s s i o n s w h i c h a r e e a c h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 by 7 m e t e r s i n s i z e ( c o m p a r e d w i t h 13 b y 8 m f o r h o u s e d e p r e s s i o n s a t C h i n l a c ) . C u l - t u r a l d e p o s i t s a t t h e s i t e a r e up t o 30 cm deep a n d a p p e a r t o be s t r a t i f i e d ( s a l m o n v e r t e b r a e were n o t e d i n e x p o s e d h a b i t a t i o n l a y e r s ) . The h o u s e i m p r e s s i o n s do n o t seem t o be e x c a v a t e d a s a t C h i n l a c . T h e r e a r e o n l y 7 c a c h e p i t s a t t h e s i t e e v e n t h o u g h t h e i n h a b i t a n t s were c e r t a i n l y f i s h i n g f o r s a l m o n a t t h e l o c a t i o n ; t h e s i t e i s s i t u a t e d on a d e e p n a r r o w c h a n n e l where n e t s o r t r a p s ( s u c h a s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3) m i g h t be u s e d . F l R v T27- T h i s i s a s m a l l s i t e a n d h a s 2 p o s s i b l e c a c h e p i t s , some s c a t t e r e d c h a r c o a l , f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k , a nd t h e odd b a s a l t f l a k e . The s i t e i s on t h e t o p o f t h e h i g h , r i g h t bank o f t h e S t u a r t a t i t s c o n f l u e n c e w i t h t h e N e c h a k o . A l t h o u g h t h e s i t e d o e s n o t seem i d e a l l y s i t u a t e d f o r s a l m o n f i s h i n g , t h e r e i s a d e e p e d d y a t t h e b a s e o f t h e r i v e r bank b e l o w t h e s i t e , a n d n e t s o r t r a p s may have b e e n u s e d t h e r e . 126 GaRv T8- T h i s i s a cache p i t s i t e on the west bank of the S t u a r t about 300 meters n o r t h of GaRv 1. The s i t e c o n s i s t s o£ 96 cache p i t s s t r u n g out i n a l i n e r unning r o u g h l y p a r a l l e l to the r i v e r , approximate- l y 100 meters from the bank. No other evidence of h a b i t a t i o n was found. The s i t e i s near a g r a v e l bar and a s m a l l i s l a n d i s sometimes exposed a t low water. A weir or t r a p set-up c o u l d have been used here to c a t c h salmon. GaRv T6- A s i n g l e cache p i t was recorded a t t h i s l o c a t i o n which i s approximately 2 km up the S t u a r t from i t s confluence with the Nechako. There i s a s m a l l i s l a n d a c r o s s the r i v e r from the s i t e and a channel where a weir might have been used, although there i s no evidence of any l a r g e s c a l e use. I t must be noted, however, t h a t some p l a c e s are not s u i t a b l e f o r cache p i t s because the s o i l i s too wet or heavy. FIRv 25- The s i t e i s l o c a t e d on the no r t h bank of the Nechako River approximately 800 meters eas t of the Stuart/Nechako c o n f l u e n c e , a t about 15 meters above r i v e r l e v e l . There are 6 cache p i t s present but no other evidence of h a b i t a t i o n was noted. No shallows or other r i v e r f e a t u r e were noted which might help account f o r the l o c a t i o n of t h i s s i t e . GaRv T l - T h i s s i t e was d e s i g n a t e d GaRvTl because the o r i g i n a l GaRv 1 ( C h i n l a c ) i s not w i t h i n the GaRv g r i d u n i t . The s i t e i s on top of the steep, no r t h bank of the Nechako R i v e r approximately 4.5 km from the Stuart/Nechako c o n f l u e n c e . Mary John's f i s h camp at D'no (Wedgewood) i s d i r e c t l y a c r o s s the r i v e r . The s i t e i s s m a l l and shallow. GaRv 4- The s i t e c o n s i s t s of 3 cache p i t s l y i n g i n a row on the north bank of the Nechako, approximately 3 km eas t of the S t u a r t / Nechako c o n f l u e n c e . There are no shallows or eddies nearby (at present) which might help e x p l a i n the l o c a t i o n of the s i t e . FIRv T34 - •„ Approximately 4.5 km down r i v e r from the Stuart/Nechako c o n f l u e n c e , the s i t e c o n s i s t s of 3 s h a l l o w cache p i t s a pproximately 100 meters east of Mary John's f i s h camp. GaRv 5- The s i t e i s l o c a t e d on the south, h e a v i l y - t r e e d bank of the Nechako about 3 km from the c o n f l u e n c e . I t c o n s i s t s of a s i n g l e , s t e e p - s i d e d , r e c t a n g u l a r p i t (2.5 m by 1.5 m by 1 m). 127 FlRv 17 - . . C o n s i s t s o f 21 c a c h e p i t s s i t u a t e d on a r a i s e d b e n c h 15 m e t e r s a b o v e t h e N e c h a k o , on t h e n o r t h b a n k . The s i t e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1000 m e t e r s w e s t o f t h e c o n f l u e n c e . B e l o w t h e s i t e t h e r i v e r i s d e e p a nd u n r e s t r i c t e d . F l R v 26- The f e a t u r e s o f t h i s s i t e a r e a r e c t a n g u - l a r c a c h e p i t (2 m b y 1.5 m b y 1 m) and 3 c i r c u l a r c a c h e p i t s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o u n d e l s e w h e r e . The s i t e i s on t h e s o u t h bank o f t h e N e c h a k o a b o u t 2 km w e s t o f F i n m o o r e . 2 . C l u c u l z L a k e O u t f l o w S i t e s T h e r e a r e 5 r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e s i t e s a t t h e o u t f l o w o f C l u c u l z L a k e . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s a t t h e s e s i t e s were a s d e e p a s t h e y a r e a t C h i n l a c b u t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e a r e a t h e y o c c u p y has b e e n b u l l d o z e d f o r c o t t a g e f o u n d a - t i o n s . I s o l a t e d p o c k e t s o f d e p o s i t r e m a i n a n d l o c a l r e s i d e n t s has f o u n d many a r t i f a c t s i n t h e i r g a r d e n s . The s i t e s a r e I d e a l l y p l a c e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f s u c k e r , t r o u t , a n d w h i t e - f i s h s p a w n i n g s . A t one ( F l R v 1 ) , t h e r e m a i n s o f f i s h t r a p s h a v e b e e n f o u n d ( i n C l u c u l z C r e e k ) w h i c h t e n d s t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e f i s h were h a r v e s t e d a t t h e l o c a t i o n a s p r e d i c t e d i n t h e m o d e l s o u t l i n e d a b o v e . A l l s i t e s a r e on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f t h e l a k e a n d have a s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e . F l R v 1- The s i t e i s l o c a t e d on t h e e a s t bank o f C l u c u l z C r e e k l e s s t h a n 1000 m e t e r s f r o m t h e l a k e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s i t e a r e a h a s b e e n b u l l d o z e d a n d t h e c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s c a t t e r e d . When I f i r s t saw t h e s i t e i n 1 9 8 2 , two s h a l l o w r e c t a n g u l a r d e p r e s - s i o n s , 10 by 6 m e t e r s , were n o t e d b u t one o f t h e s e h a s s i n c e d i s a p p e a r e d . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s i t e a r e t h e r e m a i n s o f 3 f i s h t r a p s w h i c h c o n s i s t o f s t o n e s p i l e d a c r o s s t h e s t r e a m ( P l a t e s 3, 4 ) . I n one c a s e , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a c o l l a p s e d s u p e r - s t r u c t u r e o f s t i c k s a n d b r a n c h e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e row o f s t o n e s . A c c o r d i n g t o W a l t e r G i l l , who w o r k e d f o r t h e F i s h a n d Game D e p a r t m e n t i n t h e 1 9 4 0 ' s , s u c k e r s were t r a p p e d i n t h e c r e e k i n a c o n t - t r o l p r o g r a m ; t h e s u r v e y f o u n d p a r t s o f t h e t h a t t r a p . 128 129 F l R v 2- T h i s l a r g e s i t e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e p o i n t a t t h e o u t f l o w o f t h e l a k e . T h e a r e a h a s b e e n b u l l - d o z e d b u t where v e s t i g e s o f t h e s i t e r e m a i n ( a t t h e b a s e o f l a r g e t r e e s , f o r e x a m p l e ) , c u l t u r a l d e p o - s i t s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 cm d e e p . Many a r t i f a c t s h a ve b e e n c o l l e c t e d h e r e b y l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . F l R v 6- The s i t e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f t h e l a k e , d i r e c t l y a c r o s s f r o m F l R v 2 . L a n d c l e a r i n g h a s b a d l y d i s t u r b e d t h e c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t b u t some v e s t i g e s a r e up t o 10 cm d e e p . F l R v 7- F i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k , c h a r c o a l , a n d b a s a l t f l a k e s were f o u n d t h i n l y s c a t t e r e d o v e r a n e s t i - m ated a r e a 1000 by 300 m e t e r s on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f t h e l a k e . The s i t e h a s b e e n d e s t r o y e d b y l a n d c l e a r i n g b u t a s i n g l e , s m a l l , r e c t a n g u l a r p i t (1 m b y 1 m) was f o u n d i n t h e e a s t e r n a r e a o f t h e s i t e . F l R v 8- The s i t e o c c u p i e s p a r t o f Norman p o i n t on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f t h e l a k e a c r o s s t h e b a y f r o m F l R v 2 . THe s i t e has b e e n d e s t r o y e d b y c o t t a g e o w n e r s who have c o m p l e t e l y a l t e r e d t h e s u r f a c e w i t h b u l l d o z e r s . A r t i f a c t s f r o m t h e s i t e have b e e n c o l l e c t e d b y l o c a l p e o p l e a n d some a r e s t i l l f o u n d i n g a r d e n s . E s t i m a t e d a r e a o f t h e s i t e p r i o r t o d e s t r u c t i o n i s 600 by 300 m e t e r s . F l R v 9 - T h i s s m a l l s i t e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f C l u c u l z L a k e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1500 m e t e r s w e s t o f Norman P o i n t . F l a k e s o f b a s a l t , f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k , c h a r c o a l , a n d a f e w s m a l l p o c k e t s o f i n t a c t c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t were n o t e d . F l R v 1 2 - The s i t e , a g a i n on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f t h e l a k e , i s 500 m e t e r s e a s t o f F l R v 2. The s i t e has be e n s o b a d l y d i s t u r b e d t h a t i t s e x i s t e n c e i s known o n l y b e c a u s e c o t t a g e o w n e r s have f o u n d a r t i f a c t s i n t h e i r g a r d e n s . F l R v T 19- T h i s s m a l l s i t e i s on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f t h e l a k e a b o u t 2 km w e s t o f F l R v 8 and has b e e n a l m o s t d e s t r o y e d . F l R v 1 5 - A n o t h e r s m a l l s i t e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e w e s t bank o f C l u c u l z c r e e k a b o u t 1 km f r o m F l R v 1. T h e r e i s no i n t a c t c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t b u t b a s a l t f l a k e s a n d o t h e r m a t e r i a l were t h i n l y s c a t t e r e d o v e r t h e s i t e a r e a . 130 3.West End o f C l u c u l z L a k e S i t e s T h e r e a r e 6 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f C l u c u l z L a k e a t t h e w e s t e n d . A l t h o u g h F i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t s i n P r i n c e G e o r g e were u n c e r t a i n w h i c h f i s h s p e c i e s m i g h t spawn a t t h a t e nd o f t h e l a k e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t r o u t , s u c k e r s a n d b u r b o t ( B r e n d a D i x o n , p e r s comm) u s e d t h a t l o c a - t i o n . T h e r e i s a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t n a t i v e p e o p l e f i s h e d d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g f o r s u c k e r s o r t r o u t a t t h a t end o f t h e l a k e , i n l a t e r t i m e s ( H a n c o c k 1 9 7 9 : 2 0 ) . C u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s a t t h e w e s t - e n d s i t e s a r e s p a r s e , c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y o f s c a t t e r e d f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k , some b a s a l t c h i p s a n d a r t i f a c t s , a n d c h a r - c o a l . T h e r e a r e a f e w c a c h e p i t s i n t h e a r e a . F I R v 1 0 - The s i t e i s on t h e t o p o f a s l o p e on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f t h e l a k e a b o u t 2000 m e t e r s f r o m t h e w e s t e n d . L a n d c l e a r i n g o p e r a t i o n s have v i r t u a l l y d e s t r o y e d t h e s i t e , l e a v i n g c r a c k e d r o c k , c h a r c o a l , a n d l i t h i c s s c a t t e r e d o v e r a n a r e a 45 b y 20 m e t e r s . F I R v 1 1 - T h i s s i t e i s s i m i l a r t o F I R v 10 a n d a p p r o - x i m a t e l y 1500 m e t e r s f r o m t h e w e s t end o f t h e l a k e . B a s a l t f l a k e s a n d c r a c k e d r o c k were f o u n d t h i n l y s c a t t e r e d o v e r a n a r e a 50 by 40 m e t e r s ; t h e s i t e i s much d i s t u r b e d a n d c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s were p r o b a b l y v e r y s h a l l o w . T h e r e i s a s i n g l e c i r c u l a r c a c h e p i t on t h e s i t e . F I R w T i l - A l s o b a d l y d i s t u r b e d b e c a u s e o f b u l l d o z i n g , t h e s i t e i s e v i d e n t f r o m c r a c k e d r o c k a n d b a s a l t c h i p s t h i n l y s c a t t e r e d o v e r a n a r e a 25 by 10 me- t e r s . Two s h a l l o w d e p r e s s i o n s n e a r b y were t e n t a - t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d a s c a c h e p i t s . F IRw T 1 2 - P o s s i b l y a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f FIRw T i l t h e s i t e i s o f s i m i l a r s i z e a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A c a c h e p i t was t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d . F I Rw 5- The s i t e i s a b o u t 1000 m e t e r s f r o m t h e w e s t end o f t h e l a k e on t h e n o r t h s h o r e a n d i s s i t u a t e d i n a n a r e a w h i c h was, a c c o r d i n g t o i n f o r m a n t s , u s e d by p i o n e e r f a m i l i e s f o r o p e n - a i r d a n c e s , t h e a r e a has b e e n b u l l d o z e d b u t b a s a l t f l a k e s , f i r e - c r a c k e d 131 r o c k a n d c h a r c o a l were t h i n l y s c a t t e r e d o v e r a n a r e a 150 b y 50 m e t e r s . S e v e r a l c a c h e p i t s a r e a t t h e s i t e . F l R w 6- T h i s s i t e i s o n l y a f e w m e t e r s f r o m t h e end o f t h e l a k e . A g r o u p o f 6 c i r c u l a r c a c h e p i t s was f o u n d . 4.Cobb L a k e S i t e s T h e r e a r e 6 s m a l l s i t e s on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f Cobb l a k e c o n s i s t i n g o f t h i n , s u r f a c e s c a t t e r s o f f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k , c h a r c o a l , a n d b a s a l t f l a k e s . T h e s e s i t e s do n o t seem t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e t o a n y r e s o u r c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n b u t I have m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e s u c k e r s a n d c h u b were c a u g h t i n t h e l a k e by n a t i v e p e o p l e i n r e c e n t t i m e s ( C h a p t e r 3 ) . The s i t e s a r e s o s i m i l a r i n s i z e a n d a p p e a r a n c e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d e s c r i p t i o n seems u n n e c e s s a r y . The Cobb L a k e s i t e s a r e : F l R v ( •19 to 24 i n c l u s i v e . A t F l R v 24, some b a s a l t f l a k e s a n d a c o r e were n o t e d i n d i c a t i n g p r o b a b l e m a n u f a c t u r e o f t o o l s a t t h e s i t e . I s u s p e c t t h a t Cobb l a k e w o u l d n o t be h e a v i l y f i s h e d b y many p e o p l e b u t p e r h a p s t h e p e o p l e o f C h i n l a c v i s i t e d t h e l a k e f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . I t may a l s o be t h a t Cobb L a k e was t h e p r o p e r t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y g r o u p who p e r i o d i c a l l y v i s - i t e d t h e l a k e . T h i s m i g h t a c c o u n t f o r t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . T h e r e a r e no c a c h e p i t s a t a n y o f t h e s i t e s . 5 . O t h e r S i t e s Some s i t e s were f o u n d w h i c h were o u t s i d e t h e 4 l o c a t i o n a l c l u s t e r s , o r g r o u p s . T h i s g r o u p i s h e t e r o g e n e o u s a nd s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n a l t y p e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d a s I s h a l l e x p l a i n i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . I d i s c u s s them t o g e t h e r h e r e . 132 F I R v 5- T h i s s i t e was f o u n d 5 km e a s t o f F I R v 2; t h e r e a r e no o t h e r s i t e s n e a r b y . The w a t e r n e a r b y i s r e l a t i v e l y d e e p a n d t h e c h a r may spawn t h e r e ( B r e n d a D i x o n , p e r s comm). The s i t e h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d b u t s e v e r a l a r t i f a c t s i n c - l u d i n g a p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t were p i c k e d up b y a c o l l e c t o r i n a l o c a l g a r d e n . F I R v 16- T h i s s m a l l s i t e i s on t h e s o u t h bank o f C l u c u l z C r e e k where I b e l i e v e a t r a i l c r o s s e d t h e s t r e a m . Some f l a k e s o f b a s a l t and o b s i d i a n were n o t e d on t h e s u r f a c e . F I R v 1 3 , F I R v 14- Two s m a l l s i t e s a r e on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f a s m a l l i s l a n d i n C l u c u l z L a k e j u s t s o u t h o f F l R v 8 (Norman P o i n t ) . The s i t e s a r e s i m i l a r i n s i z e a n d a p p e a r a n c e . I have m e n t i o n e d t h e u s e o f t h i s i s l a n d a s a t r a p l i n e camp b y a S t o n e y C r e e k n a t i v e i n r e c e n t t i m e s . C h a r may spawn n e a r t h e i s l a n d ( B r e n d a D i x o n , p e r s comm). FIRw 4 - T h i s s m a l l s i t e i s s i t u a t e d on a g r a v e l r i d g e on t h e w e s t s h o r e o f Sob l a k e . T h e r e i s a n o v a l - s h a p e d s m a l l d e p r e s s i o n (2 m by 1 m by 1 m) on t h e s i t e a n d t h i s c o n t a i n s c r a c k e d r o c k a n d c h a r - c o a l . A number o f b a s a l t f l a k e s a n d a t r u n c a t e d p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t were n o t e d n e a r t h e d e p r e s s i o n , a n d o t h e r b a s a l t f l a k e s a n d f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k s were t h i n l y s c a t t e r e d o v e r t h e s i t e . Sob L a k e may c o n - t a i n no f i s h b u t i t i s a g a t h e r i n g p l a c e f o r l a r g e f l o c k s o f w a t e r f o w l . F IRw 1- T h i s i s a s m a l l s i t e on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f H o g s b a c k L a k e . T h e r e a r e no c a c h e p i t s b u t b a s a l t f l a k e s , f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k , a n d some o b s i d i a n a r e t h i n l y s c a t t e r e d on t h e s u r f a c e . I do n o t know i f w h i t e f i s h o c c u r i n t h i s l a k e b u t t h e r e a r e t r o u t a n d s u c k e r s . A S i t e T y p o l o g y The c r e a t i o n o f a f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a n i m p o r - t a n t s t e p i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f s e t t l e m e n t and s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s . As F l a n n e r y s t a t e s , One o f t h e f i r s t s t e p s i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f a n y s e t t l e - ment p a t t e r n i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s i t e t y p o l o g y , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i z e , f u n c t i o n , f e a t u r e s , and o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s o f s i t e s d a t i n g t o t h e same p e r i o d ( 1 9 7 6 : 1 6 3 ) . 133 i n t h i s c a s e , t h e l o c a t i o n o f s i t e s r e l a t i v e t o r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n . The l a r g e r s i t e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a o c c u r a t two l o c a t i o n s w h i c h a r e t h e p l a c e s where r e s o u r c e s a r e most a b u n d a n t . S m a l l s i t e s a r e more p r o b l e m a t i c a l p a r t i c u l a r l y a s I have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c h a n - g e s i n s e t t l e m e n t w o u l d o c c u r o v e r t i m e . As none o f t h e s i t e s has b e e n d a t e d , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o know where t h e y b e l o n g i n t h e scheme o f t h i n g s . I s u g g e s t t h a t s m a l l s i t e s may be e x p l a i n e d i n a number o f ways, d e p e n d i n g upon t h e t i m e i n w h i c h t h e y were o c c u p i e d . 1. The s i t e s a r e s a t e l l i t e s o f t h e m a i n v i l l a g e s a t t h e o u t f l o w o f t h e l a k e and s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s t o o k p l a c e a t e a c h one d u r i n g t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . 2. The s i t e s a r e e v i d e n c e o f s m a l l g r o u p u s e b e f o r e a nd a f t e r t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . 3. The s i t e s a r e t h e r e m a i n s o f t h e camps o f o u t s i d e r s who came i n t o t h e a r e a f r o m o u t s i d e t o e x p l o i t r e s o u r c e s , o r f o r some o t h e r p u r p o s e . F o r c o n v e n i e n c e , a l l s i t e s c a n be a s s i g n e d t o one o f 3 g e n e r a l c l a s s e s b a s e d on l o c a t i o n . One c l a s s i n c l u d e s a l l r i v e r s i t e s , one c l a s s i n c l u d e s l a k e s i t e s , a n d one c l a s s i n c l u d e s c r e e k a n d i n l a n d s i t e s . W i t h i n t h e c l a s s e s , s i t e s a r e t y p e d a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e , d e p t h o f d e p o s i t , a n d o t h e r f e a t u r e s . 134 1 . C l a s s A z. R i v e r s i d e S i t e s Type Aa- L a r g e v i l l a g e s i t e ( w i t h a r e a 3000 s q m o r more) s i t u a t e d on a m a j o r r i v e r p r e f e r a b l y where a communal w e i r c o u l d be b u i l t . House s t y l e s r e f l e c t c o a s t a l I n f l u e n c e and a r e l a r g e e n o u g h t o a c c o m o d a t e s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s o r a k i n g r o u p . I f s o i l c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t , t h e r e w i l l be c a c h e p i t s n e a r b y . C h i n l a c (GaRv 1) i s o f t h i s t y p e . C u l t u r a l d e p o s i t may be r e l a t i v e l y d e e p . Type Ab- S m a l l v i l l a g e s i t e ( l e s s t h a n 3000 s q m i n a r e a ) . T h e s e s i t e s may n o t be a t p l a c e s where communal w e i r s c a n be b u i l t b u t h o u s e s w o u l d be s m a l l e r r e f l e c t i n g use b y s m a l l f a m i l y g r o u p s . S i n c e s a l m o n p r o c u r e m e n t w o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s i t e , c a c h e p i t s may be p r e s e n t , d e p e n d i n g on s o i l t y p e . C u l t u r a l d e p o s i t may be r e l a t i v e l y d e e p . F l R v T28 i s o f t h i s t y p e . Type A c - S m a l l s p e c i a l use s i t e s c o v e r i n g a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a a n d h a v i n g s h a l l o w c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s . C a c he p i t s may be t h e o n l y f e a t u r e a t t h e s e s i t e s a n d a l l a r e p r o b a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s a l m o n f i s h i n g i n some way. The r e c t a n g u l a r p i t s p r e s e n t a t some r i v e r s i d e s i t e s may be H u d s o n ' s B a y Company c a c h e s ( HBCA B.188/a/13 f o . 3 6 ) . S i t e s o f t h i s t y p e i n c l u d e : F I R v 26,GaRv 5,GaRv 4, GaRv T l , F l R v T 2 7 , F l R v 1 8 , F I R v 1 7 , F l R v 1 , F 1 R V 25,GaRv T28. C l a s s B- L a k e s h o r e S i t e s Type B a - L a r g e v i l l a g e s i t e s ( a r e a g r e a t e r t h a n 3000 s q m) on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f m e d i u m - s i z e d l a k e s s u c h a s C l u c u l z L a k e , n e a r s u c k e r , t r o u t , a n d w h i t e f i s h s p a w n i n g a r e a s , p r e f e r a b l y n e a r a n o u t f l o w o r t r i b u t a r y s t r e a m . C u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y d e e p r e f l e c t i n g u s e b y a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e o v e r a n e x t e n d e d p e r i o d . E v i d - e n c e o f w i n t e r - s t y l e d w e l l i n g s , a s d e s c r i b e d i n e t h n o g - r a p h i e s , may be p r e s e n t . The s i t e s F I R v 2, F I R v 7, F I R v 6, F I R v 1, and F l R v 8 a r e o f t h i s t y p e . F i s h t r a p s may be p r e s e n t i n s t r e a m s n e a r b y a n d , i n f a c t , some s i t e s o f t h i s t y p e may be s i t u a t e d on a s t r e a m c l o s e t o t h e l a k e s h o r e s u c h a s F l R v 1 . Type Bb- S m a l l l a k e s i d e s p e c i a l u s e s i t e s ( a r e a i s l e s s t h a n 3000 s q m) w h i c h were o c c u p i e d f o r a s p e c i f i c r e a s o n a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . T h e s i t e s h a v e s h a l l o w c u l - t u r a l d e p o s i t s a n d a r e u s u a l l y s m a l l . Some s i t e s a r e on t h e s h o r e o f s m a l l e r l a k e s and some may have c a c h e p i t s a s s o c i a t e d . The s i t e s o f t h i s t y p e a r e : F l R v 5, F I R v 9, F I R v 10, F I R v T19, F I R v 1 3 , F I R v 14, FIRw 1, FIRw 4, F I R v 1 1 , FIRw T i l , FIRw T12, FIRw 5, FIRw 6. 135 C l a s s C - C r e e k a n d I n l a n d S i t e s Type C a - T h e s e w o u l d be s m a l l i n l a n d s i t e s r e l a t e d t o h u n t i n g o r o t h e r a c t i v i t y . No i n l a n d s i t e s away f r o m w a t e r were f o u n d d u r i n g s u r v e y . Type Cb- T h e s e a r e s t r e a m s i d e s i t e s w h i c h c o v e r a n a r e a l e s s t h a n 1000 s q m e t e r s and may h a v e a f i s h t r a p f e a t u r e a s s o c i a t e d . C u l t u r a l d e p o s i t i s v e r y s h a l l o w i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s i t e was n o t a c t u a l l y l i v e d on f o r v e r y l o n g , o r o c c u p i e d b y v e r y many p e o p l e . The u s e r s o f t h e s i t e were p r o b a b l y f i s h i n g f o r t r o u t o r s u c k e r s . F l R v 15 and F l R v 16 a r e o f t h i s t y p e . A b o r i q i n a l T r a i l s As s t a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , I a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t some s e c t i o n s o f t r a i l s u s e d b y t h e C a r r i e r i n e a r l i e r t i m e s w o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d b y a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y . T h e s e t r a i l s were u s e d b y t h e C a r r i e r t o t r a v e l t o and f r o m l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d when I p r e d i c t t h a t t h e b i n a r y s e t t l e m e n t , s y s t e m I p r o p o s e d o p e r a t e d , a n d t o o t h e r a r e a s . S e c t i o n s o f t r a i l s were r e c o v e r e d b y t h e s u r v e y a n d t h e s e c l o s e l y m a t c h e d t h e t r a i l s mapped b y M o r i c e ( 1 9 7 8 ) a n d Dawson ( 1 8 7 8 ) ( F i g u r e 15, page 6 3 ) . L o c a l r e s i d e n t s a n d C a r r i e r e l d e r s a t S t o n e y C r e e k c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e s e t r a i l s were p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l s y s t e m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n . F i g u r e 27 shows t h e t r a i l s d i s c o v e r e d b y t h e s u r v e y . T h e y a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , v e r y c l e a r a n d e a s y t o f o l l o w . 136 F i g u r e 27. P o r t i o n s o f A b o r i g i n a l T r a i l s D i s c o v e r e d by A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y . 137 Summary A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a v a r i e t y o f s i t e t y p e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t two c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d s u b s y s t e m s a r e i n v o l v e d . L a r g e s i t e s a r e f o u n d i n t h e two a r e a s a s p r e d i c t e d e a r l i e r i n t h e t h e s i s a n d t e n d t o c l u s t e r n e a r t h e p l a c e s where r e s o u r c e s a r e most p l e n t i f u l a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f t h e y e a r . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f i n t e n s i v e use a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e N e c h a k o a n d S t u a r t R i v e r s where s a l m o n c a n be c a u g h t , a n d o f a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h e a v y use o f t h e a r e a a t t h e o u t f l o w o f C l u c u l z L a k e where s u c k e r s , t r o u t , c h u b , a n d w h i t e f i s h c a n be c a u g h t . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s i t e s f i t s t h e m o d e l p r o p o s e d f o r t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . A l s o , t h e r e m a i n s o f t r a i l s w h i c h l i n k e d t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h a t s y s t e m were l o c a t e d . S m a l l e r s i t e s w h i c h were l o c a t e d b y t h e s u r v e y t e n d t o be s i t u a t e d a t p l a c e s where r e s o u r c e s a r e n o t s o a b u n d a n t a s t h e y a r e where l a r g e r s i t e s a r e f o u n d . I h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s may be t h e r e s u l t o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g t h e b r e a k d o w n o f k i n g r o u p o w n e r s h i p i n l a t e r t i m e s , a n d o f t h e s h i f t t o f a m i l y - b a s e d l a n d u s e . I h a v e a l s o s t a t e d t h a t s m a l l e r s i t e s i n some l o c a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e r i v e r s , c a n be e x p e c t e d f o r p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t l a r g e r h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s w o u l d h a v e s a t e l l i t e s p e c i a l - u s e camps d u r i n g t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d when , I s u s p e c t , t h e r e were more p e o p l e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . The l o c a t i o n o f c a c h e p i t s i t e s may have more t o do w i t h s o i l t y p e t h a n r e s o u r c e a v a i l - 138 a b i l i t y . S i t e s a t Cobb L a k e a r e somewhat p r o b l e m a t i c a l g i v e n t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p e o p l e b u t t h e y were p r o b a b l y v i s i t e d i n t h e s p r i n g when s u c k e r s a n d c h u b spawn. 139 CHAPTER 9 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Summary I s t a t e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s t h e s i s t h a t a g o a l o f my i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o l o c a t e a n d d e s c r i b e e l e m e n t s o f s e t t l e m e n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e s y s t e m s I p r o p o s e d f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a . I s e t o u t t o t e s t t h e m o d e l o f p r o t o h i s t o r i c C e n t r a l C a r r i e r s o c i e t y , w i t h i t s h i s t o r i c a n d p r e h i s t o r i c v a r i a n t s b a s e d on e t h n o g r a p h i c a n d h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e , a g a i n s t t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a f r o m C. B o r d e n ' s C h i n l a c e x c a v a t i o n a n d my s i t e s u r v e y . An a n a l y s i s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s w h i c h m i g h t e f f e c t s e t t l e m e n t was a n e c e s s a r y s t e p i n t h i s i n v e s t i - g a t i o n , a n d I was l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i m p o r t a n t r e - s o u r c e s were a v a i l a b l e i n g r e a t e s t a b u n d a n c e a t two s e p a r a t e l o c a t i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f t h e y e a r . As I d e s c r i b e i n C h a p t e r 2, s a l m o n c a n be h a r v e s t e d f r o m J u l y t h r o u g h S e p t e m - b e r on t h e r i v e r s , a f t e r w h i c h f i s h i n g i s n o t a v e r y p r o d u c - t i v e a c t i v i t y on C l u c u l z L a k e , w h i t e f i s h a r e most e a s i l y c a u g h t i n November and December and t r o u t , s u c k e r s , a n d c h u b c a n be t a k e n i n l a r g e numbers i n t h e s p r i n g a n d e a r l y summer a t i t s o u t l e t . E l s e w h e r e on t h e l a k e , c h a r c a n be c a u g h t i n numbers i n t h e f a l l , b u r b o t c a n be c a u g h t i n t h e s p r i n g , a n d o t h e r r e s o u r c e s a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e . I p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s w o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s a n d t h a t t h e s e a s o n o f o c c u p a t i o n 140 w o u l d m a t c h t h e s e a s o n o f maximum a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e s p e c i e s p r e s e n t n e a r t h e s i t e , i t was a l s o c l e a r t h a t some s i t e s were n o t w e l l s i t u a t e d f o r o c c u p a t i o n a t c e r t a i n t i m e s o f t h e y e a r a n d I made t h e p o i n t t h a t C h i n l a c f a c e s n o r t h a n d w o u l d be a p o o r p l a c e f o r a w i n t e r v i l l a g e . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l e t h n o g r a p h i e s a v a i l a b l e on t h e C a r r i e r w h i c h p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on C a r r i e r r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a n d on a s p e c t s o f s e t t l e m e n t . I r e v i e w e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n C h a p t e r 3 where I l i s t e d r e s o u r c e s u s e d b y t h e C a r r i e r a n d t h e methods u s e d t o h a r v e s t t h e s e . I n p a r t i c u l a r , I d e s c r i b e d t h e methods u s e d i n f i s h i n g a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s . An i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f C a r r i e r l i f e i n e a r l i e r t i m e s was t h e ' d e n e z a ' - c o n t r o l l e d k i n g r o u p w h i c h owned r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s a n d o r g a n i s e d a c t i v i t i e s , a n d p r o v i d e d l i n k s w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s i n a r e a s where s a l m o n c o u l d be p r o c u r e d i n l e a n y e a r s ( Hudson 1 9 8 3 : 7 1 ) . I a l s o d e s c r i b e d t h e house s t y l e s t h a t one m i g h t e x p e c t t o f i n d i n u s e a t c e r t a i n t i m e s o f t h e y e a r a n d f o u n d t h a t l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r h o u s e s were u s e d a t summer v i l l a g e s . E t h n o g r a p h i e s a n d h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s h e l p e d r e - c r e a t e t h e s e a s o n a l r o u n d a nd t h e r e were d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t s a l m o n were n o t a s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y i m p o r t a n t a s o t h e r s had s u g g e s t e d . My own e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e d some i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e a r e a , a n d I f o u n d t h a t t h e S t o n e y C r e e k C a r r i e r had f i s h e d f o r s a l m o n i n t h e N e c h a k o a n d f o r w h i t e f i s h a n d s u c k e r s i n C l u c u l z L a k e i n r e c e n t t i m e s , c o n t i n u i n g , i n a l i m i t e d way, t h e r e c o n s t r u c t e d a b o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n . 141 I t was c l e a r f r o m t h e o u t s e t t h a t c h a n g e s had o c c u r r e d i n l a n d u s e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . The l a r g e s t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e , C h i n l a c , had b e e n i m p o r t a n t a t some t i m e i n t h e r e c e n t p a s t b u t i n h i s t o r i c a l t i m e s t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e s i t e had b e e n r e g u l a r l y o c c u p i e d by a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e . I n f a c t , t h e r e were many i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e s t u d y a r e a i t s e l f was o n l y s p a r s e l y i n h a b i t e d when f u r t r a d e p o s t s were e s t a b - l i s h e d i n New C a l e d o n i a . I c o n c l u d e d t h a t p o p u l a t i o n had d e c l i n e d n e a r t h e end o f t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , a n d t h a t some c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m w h i c h a r e s i t u a t e d where communal s a l m o n w e i r s c o u l d be b u i l t , s u c h a s C h i n l a c , were v i r t u a l l y a b a n d o n e d a t t h a t t i m e i n f a v o u r o f l o c a t i o n s where " s m a l l - g r o u p " t e c h n o l o g i e s were more a p p r o p r i a t e . I n t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , h o w e v e r , i t may be t h a t b o t h p o p u l a t i o n a n d o r g a n i s a t i o n ( ' d e n e z a ' - c o n t r o l l e d k i n g r o u p s ) f a v o u r e d t h e communal w e i r s i t e . A t t h e same t i m e , s i t e s on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f C l u c u l z l a k e were p r o b a b l y i n h a b i t e d b y many o f t h e same p e o p l e who had f i s h e d f o r s a l m o n a t C h i n l a c . T h e y w o u l d c h o o s e t o l i v e n e a r t h e o u t l e t o f t h e l a k e b e c a u s e f i s h a r e a v a i l a b l e t h e r e f r o m November t o J u n e , and b e c a u s e t h e n o r t h s h o r e h a s a g ood w i n t e r s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e . T h i s i s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e b i n a r y s y s t e m I p r o p o s e d a b o v e a n d w h i c h i s b a s e d l a r g e l y on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s i n t h e a r e a . P e r i o d i c s h o r t a g e s o f f i s h , i n c l u d i n g s a l m o n , n e c e s s i t a t e d a move t o t h e w e s t where l o c a l C a r r i e r s had k i n t i e s . I n my m o d e l f o r t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d ( C h a p t e r 5 ) , I l i s t e d t h e a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h h e l p t o i d e n t i f y s i t e s f r o m t h i s t i m e . L a r g e 142 r e c t a n g u l a r h o u s e s w h i c h w o u l d h o u s e a k i n g r o u p were u s e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and r e l a t e t o t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n d e s c r i b e d b y Hudson ( 1 9 7 2 : 1983) and o t h e r s . I n C h a p t e r 4, I d e s c r i b e d s e t t l e m e n t and s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a d u r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , a n d e x p l a i n e d how t h e f u r t r a d e had d i r e c t l y a nd i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d n a t i v e s y s t e m s . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e t r a d e w o r k e d t o u n d e r m i n e t h e c l a n g r o u p s and t o r e p l a c e t h e s e w i t h a f a m i l y - b a s e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c u n i t ( Hudson 1 9 8 3 : 8 5 ) . A l s o , o t h e r f a c t o r s , s u c h a s d i s e a s e , were d e s t r o y i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n b a s e n e e d e d f o r communal p r o d u c t i o n methods ( H u d s o n 1 9 8 3 : 9 9 ) . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y , t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d i s r e p r e s e n t e d , on s a l m o n s t r e a m s , b y s m a l l e r s i t e s w i t h s m a l l e r f e a t u r e s , r e - f l e c t i n g t h e c h a n g e i n t h e mode o f p r o d u c t i o n . Houses were b u i l t t o a c c o m o d a t e s m a l l f a m i l y g r o u p s , and w e i r s were p r o b a b l y n o t u s e d . H i s t o r i c s i t e s w o u l d a l s o c o n t a i n t h e t y p i c a l p e r i o d i n d i c a t o r s s u c h a s gun p a r t s , g l a s s , c e r a - m i c s , and E u r o p e a n m e t a l w a r e . I n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e p e - r i o d , a s m a l l g r o u p o f p e o p l e w o u l d m a i n t a i n t h e s y s t e m d e v e l o p e d i n p r o t o h i s t o r i c t i m e s b e c a u s e b o t h s a l m o n a n d l a k e r e s o u r c e s w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y f o r s u r v i v a l b u t v e r y l i k e l y c e r e m o n i a l s a n d o t h e r s u c h a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d become l e s s a n d l e s s a p a r t o f l i f e i n t h e a r e a i t s e l f . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t a n y i m p o r t a n t f e a s t t o o k p l a c e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i n h i s t o r i c t i m e s a n d i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t l o c a l p e o p l e b e g a n t o f e e l more a p a r t o f o t h e r g r o u p s s u c h a s t h e S y - c u z p e o p l e . I n l a t e r t i m e s , r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s became t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e 143 S t o n e y C r e e k C a r r i e r . I n C h a p t e r 6, I d i s c u s s e d t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a . R e c o n s t r u c t i n g s e t t l e m e n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e d u r i n g t h o s e t i m e s was l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y b e c a u s e t h e p e r i o d i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h fom t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c a t many s i t e s . However, i f t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c i s t h e p e r i o d when ' d e n e z a ' c o n t r o l o v e r r e s o u r c e s and communal w e i r f i s h i n g became i m p o r t a n t , t h e n s m a l l e r s i t e s a r e p r o b a b l e a t e a r - l i e r p e r i o d s . C h i n l a c may n o t have b e e n o c c u p i e d u n t i l n e a r t h e end o f t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . H e lmer ( 1 9 7 5 : 7 7 ) p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e e a r l y C a r r i e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c u n i t was t h e p a t r i l i n e a l band w h i c h , p r e s u m a b l y , w o u l d be composed o f 25- 50 i n d i v i d u a l s . W h i l e t h e r e i s no f i r m a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t f o r H e l m e r ' s p r o p o s i t i o n , some t y p e o f band r e m a i n s a p o s s i - b i l i t y . C h a p t e r 7 i s a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e C h i n l a c V i l l a g e s i t e b a s e d on B o r d e n ' s e x c a v a t i o n . The s i t e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e S t u a r t where a w e i r c o u l d be b u i l t a n d t h e 10 l a r g e h o u s e d e p r e s s i o n s and t h e d e p t h o f t h e c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t t e s t i f y t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s i t e . I t i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n t h a t t h e s i t e was o c c u p i e d d u r i n g t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d when i n - f l u e n c e s f r o m t h e c o a s t were s t r o n g . The s i t e was p r o b a b l y i n h a b i t e d d u r i n g t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n i n t h e summer an d f a l l . A r t i f a c t s a n d o t h e r e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s i t e was n o t u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y d u r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . I was a ware t h a t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y m i g h t s u p p o r t my a r g u m e n t b u t t h a t i t was u n l i k e l y t o p r o v e a n y t h i n g 144 c o n c l u s i v e l y . C e r t a i n l y , i f s i t e s were n o t f o u n d where I p r e d i c t e d t h e n my m o d e l s w o u l d have l i t t l e m e r i t . As I d e s c r i b e i n C h a p t e r 8 , t h e s u r v e y d i d f i n d s i t e s w h i c h c l o s e l y m a t c h e d my e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , a l t h o u g h no s i t e s c o u l d be f i r m l y d a t e d . S i t e s c l u s t e r e d n e a r p l a c e s where r e s o u r c e s o c c u r r e d i n q u a n t i t y a t c e r t a i n t i m e s o f t h e y e a r . A g r o u p o f l a r g e s i t e s was f o u n d a t t h e o u t f l o w o f C l u c u l z L a k e where w h i t e f i s h , t r o u t , s u c k e r s , and c h u b c a n be c a u g h t , a n d C h i n l a c a n d o t h e r s i t e s were f o u n d n e a r t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e S t u a r t a n d N e c h a k o R i v e r s where s a l m o n c a n be t a k e n . A g r o u p o f s m a l l , s h a l l o w s i t e s were f o u n d a t t h e w e s t end o f C l u c u l z l a k e and a n o t h e r g r o u p was f o u n d on t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f C l u c u l z L a k e . A g a i n , t h e l a r g e s t and d e e p e s t s i t e s a r e a t t h e o u t f l o w a n d a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e . C o n c l u s i o n I n g e n e r a l , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n t e n d e d t o c o n f i r m t h e p r e d i c t i o n s made i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e t h e s i s b u t I am a ware t h a t o t h e r m o d e l s may be d e v e l o p e d w h i c h m i g h t e x p l a i n e q u a l l y w e l l C a r r i e r s e t - t l e m e n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e a t v a r i o u s p e r i o d s . I h a v e j u d g e d C h i n l a c a n d t h e o u t f l o w s i t e s e q u a l i n i m p o r t a n c e d u r i n g t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d b u t I have n o t p r o v e n t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e . R a t h e r , b y d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f numerous o u t f l o w s i t e s , I showed t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h e m o d e l . I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o e n v i s i o n r e g u l a r w i n t e r o c c u p a t i o n s a t C h i n l a c b u t t h i s must r e m a i n a p o s s i b i l i t y u n t i l more d e f i - n i t e e v i d e n c e on s e a s o n a l i t y h a s b e e n g a t h e r e d . 145 I have i n d i c a t e d t h a t s m a l l s i t e s i n t h e a r e a a r e d i f f i - c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t a t t h i s t i m e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e r e s o u r c e s w h i c h c a n be e x p l o i t e d f r o m a l l t h e s i t e s , i t i s s t i l l h a r d t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s e i n t o s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s w h i c h e x i s t e d a t v a r i o u s p e r i o d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s I have p r e d i c t e d t h a t s m a l l - e r s i t e s w o u l d be a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f b o t h t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c a n d t h e h i s t o r i c p a t t e r n s . I n most c a s e s , how- e v e r , s m a l l s i t e s w o u l d be s a t e l l i t e s o f l a r g e r s i t e s on t h e r i v e r o r l a k e . Cache p i t s must be t r e a t e d w i t h some c a u t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y may a p p e a r i n a r e a s where t h e s o i l i s s u i t a b l e , a n d t h i s may be some d i s t a n c e away f r o m a r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a - t i o n l o c a t i o n . A l s o , c a c h e p i t s may n o t be f o u n d n e a r t h e l a k e b e c a u s e t h e g r o u n d m i g h t be f r o z e n when w h i t e f i s h were h a r v e s t e d , o r f o r some o t h e r r e a s o n s u c h a s t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n method u s e d f o r t h e s e f i s h . S e t t l e m e n t i n t h e s t u d y a r e a u n d e r w e n t c h a n g e s a s a r e s u l t o f a v a r i e t y o f f o r c e s . One m i g h t s p e c u l a t e t h a t i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , c o a s t a l i n - f l u e n c e had n o t y e t b e e n f e l t i n t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r , a n d s i t e s w o u l d be o c c u p i e d b y s m a l l b a n d s . I n t h e p r o t o h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , c o a s t a l f o r m s w o u l d be a d o p t e d a n d m a t r i l i n e a l k i n g r o u p s w o u l d e x i s t w i t h ' d e n e z a ' c o n t r o l l i n g r e s o u r c e s , e s - t a b l i s h i n g k i n t i e s w i t h w e s t e r n g r o u p s , a c t i n g t o c o n s o l i - d a t e s m a l l e r b a n d s , a n d f a c i l i t a t i n g g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s w e i r b u i l d i n g . T h i s w o u l d r e s u l t i n l a r g e v i l l a g e s i t e s w i t h l a r g e h o u s e s a s a t C h i n l a c . I n l a t e r t i m e s , u n d e r t h e , i n - f l u e n c e o f t h e f u r t r a d e , t h e power o f t h e ' d e n e z a ' w o u l d be 146 u n d e r m i n e d a n d t h e v i l l a g e g r o u p w o u l d f r a g m e n t i n t o n u c l e a r f a m i l y - b a s e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c u n i t s . S m a l l e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s w o u l d r e s u l t , a nd t h e s e w o u l d be s i t u a t e d where w e i r s w o u l d n o t n o r m a l l y be u s e d ( F l R v T28 i s a n e x a m p l e ) . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o u c h e d on a number o f a r e a s where f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d . F i s h i n g w i t h a communal w e i r has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n w h i c h a r e w o r t h y o f f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l work on t h e e f f e c t s o f c o a s t a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e C a r r i e r i s w o r t h p u r s u i n g s o t h a t a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a r e a c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c a n be r e a l i s e d . A l s o , p r e h i s t o r i c t r a d e n e t w o r k s m i g h t be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i f more a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l i n - v e s t i g a t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t . R e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e B a b i n e a n d t h e e a s t e r n C a r r i e r s h o u l d be r e s e a r c h e d and t h e n a t u r e o f C a r r i e r u s e o f B a b i n e r e s o u r c e s i n l e a n y e a r s s h o u l d be s t u d i e d . The l a t t e r i s a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f C a r r i e r s u b s i s t e n c e o f w h i c h l i t t l e i s known. I t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o g a i n s e t t l e m e n t a n d s u b s i s t e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m C a r r i e r e l d e r s who know much a b o u t l a n d u s e i n a n c e s t r a l a r e a s , b u t t i m e i s o f t h e e s s e n c e . H i s t o r i c a l d o c u m e n t s c o n t a i n a d d i t i o n a l d a t a on t h e C a r r i e r , a n d may p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e p a s t . A r c h i v a l s o u r c e s r e p r e s e n t a n enormous b o d y o f i n f o r m a t i o n , much o f w h i c h has n o t b e e n s t u d i e d . The w h o l e o f t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r n e e d s more a r c h - a e o l o g i c a l s t u d y , a n d a f i r m r e g i o n a l c h r o n o l o g y n e e d s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d . A s i t e s u r v e y i s o n l y t h e f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d a 147 more c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g y o f t h e a r e a ; s e l e c t e d s i t e s i n t h e a r e a s h o u l d be e x c a v a t e d a s p a r t o f a c o n t i n u i n g s t u d y . The p r e d i c t i o n s made i n t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d be more t h o r o u g h l y e x a m i n e d t h r o u g h e x c a v a t i o n ; some s i t e s may c o n t a i n e v i d e n c e o f e a r l i e r a n d l a t e r o c c u p a t i o n s t h a n a r e p r e s e n t a t C h i n l a c . The s i t e F l R v T28 a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e N e c h a k o and S t u a r t R i v e r s i s a p r i m e c a n d i d a t e . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o f i n d a n i n t a c t l a k e s i d e s i t e f o r e x c a v a t i o n s o t h a t b o t h c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n w i l l be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d . 148 BIBLIOGRAPHY A n d e r s o n , J o h n M., B.F. B y r d , M.D. E l s o n , e t a l . 1981 The Deer H u n t e r s : S t a r r C a r r R e c o n s i d e r e d . WorId A r c h a e o l o g y 1 3 ( 1 ) : 3 2 B e a l s , H.K. 1980 C h i n e s e C o i n s i n S i x N o r t h w e s t e r n A m e r i c a n S i t e s . H i s t o r i c a l A r c h a e o l o g y , 14:58-72 B i n f o r d , L e w i s R. 1983 W o r k i n g a t A r c h a e o l o g y . A c a d e m i c P r e s s , New Y o r k . B i s h o p , C h a r l e s A. 1979 L i m i t i n g A c c e s s t o L i m i t e d Goods: The O r i g i n s o f S t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n I n t e r i o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n The De v e l o p m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i s a t i o n i n N a t i v e N o r t h A m e r i c a , e d i t e d by E . T o o k e r , pp.148-161. P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y . B e t t i n g e r , R o b e r t L . 1981 E x p l a n a t o r y / P r e d i c t i v e M o d e l s o f H u n t e r - G a t h e r e r A d a p t a t i o n . I n A d v a n c e s i n A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Method and T h e o r y , e d i t e d by M i c h a e l B. S c h i f f e r , pp. 157-210. A c a d e m i c P r e s s , New Y o r k . B o r d e n , C h a r l e s E . 1952 R e s u l t s o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n C e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A n t h r o p o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V o l . 3: 31-43. V i c t o r i a . n.d. (1950,1951) U n p u b l i s h e d S i t e N o t e s f r o m t h e C h i n l a c E x c a v a t i o n . U.B.C. L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y . B u t z e r , K a r l W. 1982 A r c h a e o l o g y as Human E c o l o g y . C a mbridge C a r l s o n , Roy 1979 O b i t u a r y : C h a r l e s E . B o r d e n ( 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 7 8 ) . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of A r c h a e o l o g y . 3:233-236. C l e l a n d , C h a r l e s E. 1982 The I n l a n d S h o r e F i s h e r y o f t h e N o r t h e r n G r e a t L a k e s : I t s D e v e l o p m e n t and I m p o r t a n c e i n P r e h i s t o r y . Amer i c a n A n t i q u i t y 47: 504-525. Cowan, I . McT., and C . J . G u i g e t 1973 The MammaIs o f Br i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum Handbook 11. 149 Cranny, M ichae l W. n . d . (1981)A Re-examinat ion of the Borden Excava t i on of C h i n l a c , 1950-1951. U . B . C . Labora to ry of A rchaeo logy . Dawson, George 1878 Report on E x p l o r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia , C h i e f l y i n the Bas ins of the B lackwa te r , Salmon, and Nechako R i v e r s , and on F r a n c o i s Lake . G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada. Report on P r o g r e s s , 1876-1877 . pp .17 -94 . Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, Canada 1984 Toward a F i s h Hab i t a t D e c i s i o n on the Kemano Complet ion P r o j e c t - A D i s c u s s i o n Paper . January . Vancouver. Donahue, P a u l 1975 Concern ing Athapaskan P r e h i s t o r y i n B . C . The Western Canadian J o u r n a l of Anthropology 5_ ( 3 - 4 ) : 2 1 - 6 4 . Duf f , Wi lson 1952 Notes on C a r r i e r S o c i a l O r g a n i s a t i o n . Anthropology i n B . C . . V i c t o r i a . 2:28-34 1964 The Ind ian H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia : Volume 1, The Impact of the White Man. Anthropology i n B . C . , Memoir No. 5. V i c t o r i a . Dyen, I. and D .P . Aber le 1974 L e x i c a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n : The Case of the P r o t o - Athapaskan K i n s h i p System. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : London. F ladmark, Knut 1973 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t Punchaw Lake , North - C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Co lumbia . The Midden, V o l . 5, N o . 4 : 1 - 2 , 1 1 . 1976 Punchaw v i l l a g e : a P r e l i m i n a r y Repor t : Archaeology of a P r e h i s t o r i c Se t t l emen t . In R. C a r l s o n (ed. ) Cur ren t Research R e p o r t s . Dept. of Archaeo logy , Simon F rase r U n i v e r s i t y , Pub. No. 3 . pp. 19-32 F i s h e r , Robin 1977 Contact and C o n f l i c t : Ind lan-European R e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1774-1890. Vancouver : U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia . Fontana, Bernard L . 1978 On the Meaning of H i s t o r i c S i t e s Archaeo logy . In R . I . Schuy le r ( e d . ) , H i s t o r i c a l A rchaeo logy : A Guide to Subs tan t i ve and T h e o r e t i c a l C o n t r i b u t i o n s . pp .23 -27 . Farmingda le : Baywood P u b l i s h i n g 150 Gibson James R. 1981 Bos ton ians and Muscov i tes on the Northwest Coas t , 1788-1841. In W. Pe te r Ward and R . A . J . MacDonald, Br i t i s h Co lumbia : H l s t o r l e a l Read ings . pp. 66-96. Vancouver: Douglas and Mc ln ty re L t d . G l o c k , A l b e r t E . 1985 T r a d i t i o n and Change i n Two A r c h a e o l o g i e s . American A n t i q u i t y 50: 464-477. Goldman, I r v i n g 1940 The A lka tcho C a r r i e r of B r i t i s h Co lumbia . In R. L i n t o n ( e d . ) A c c u l t u r a t i o n i n Seven American T r i b e s , pp. 333-387.New York : App le ton - Cen tu ry . 1941 The A lka tcho C a r r i e r : H i s t o r i c a l Background of C r e s t P e r o g a t i v e s . American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 43: 396-418. Hancock, Lynn 1979 Vanderhoof. The Town That Wouldn ' t Wai t • Vanderhoof : Nechako V a l l e y H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . Harmon, Dan ie l 1903 A J o u r n a l o f Voyages and T r a v e l s i n the I n t e r i o r of Nor th Amer ica . New York : New Amsterdam Book Company. Helm, June, E d i t o r 1981 S u b a r c t i c : Handbook of American Ind ians 6.Washington: Smi thson ian I n s t i t u t i o n . Helmer, James 1977a S i t e D i s p e r s a l i n the Backwater V a l l e y : T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s and P r e l i m i n a r y S y n t h e s i s . In Annual Report f o r the Year 1975: A c t i v i t i e s of the A r c h - a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s Adv i so r y Board of B r i t i s h Columbia and Se lec ted Research Repo r t s . 46-108pp. B.Simonsen ( e d . ) . V i c t o r i a : Govt , of B . C . 1977b P o i n t s , People and P r e h i s t o r y : A p r e l i m i n a r y Syn thes i s of C u l t u r e H i s t o r y i n North C e n t r a l B r i t - i s h Co lumbia . In J . Helmer, S . VanDyke, F . J . K e n s e (eds. ), Problems i n P r e h i s t o r y of the Nor th American S u b a r c t i c : The Athapaskan Q u e s t i o n . pp .90 -97 . C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y of Ca lga ry A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Assoc - i a t i o n . Helmer, James, S . Van Dyke, F . J . K e n s e (eds . ) 1977 Problems i n the P r e h i s t o r y of the Nor th Amer i can S u b a r c t i c : The Athapaskan Q u e s t i o n . C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y of Ca lga ry A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . 151 H o l l a n d , S t u a r t S . 1964 Landforms of B r i t i s h Co lumbia : A Phys log raph i c Ou t l i ne 1 . B r i t i s h Columbia Dept. of Mines and Pet ro leum Resources . B u l l e t i n No.48. V i c t o r i a . Hudson, Douglas R. 1972 Report on the Westlake S i t e #1. Ms on f i l e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board of B r i t i s h C o l - umbia, V i c t o r i a . 1972 The H i s t o r i c a l Determinants of Carr i e r S oc ia1 O r g a n i s a t i o n : A Study of Northwest C a r r i e r M a t r l l l n v . M.A T h e s i s , McMaster U n i v e r s i t y . 1983 T r a p l i n e s and Timber: S o c i a l and Economic Change Among the C a r r i e r Ind ians of Nor thern B r i t i s h Co lumbia . P h . d . D i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a (Edmonton). Hudson's Bay Company A rch i ves 1820- 1856 F o r t S t . James J o u r n a l . Manitoba P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . 1821- 1833 F o r t S t . James Correspondence. Manitoba P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . 1821- 1834 F o r t S t . James D i s t r i c t R e p o r t s . Mani toba P r o v - i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . 1822- 1824 Fo r t F r a s e r J o u r n a l . Mani toba P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s Commission 1979 Salmon S tud ies on the Nechako R i v e r R e l a t i v e to the P o t e n t i a l Kemano II Power Development. 2 , 3 . New Westminster . Jenness , Diamond 1929 The Anc ien t Educa t ion of a C a r r i e r I n d i a n . Annual Repor t , N a t i o n a l Museum of man, B u l l e t i n 52, pp. 22 -27 . Ottawa. 1932 The Ind ians of Canada. N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada. B u l l e t i n 65. Ot tawa. 1943 The C a r r i e r Ind ians of the B u l k l e y R i v e r : The i r S o c i a l and R e l i g i o u s L i f e . Bureau of American E thno logy . B u l l e t i n 133, A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Paper 25. pp. 469-586. Washington, D.C. Joch im, M ichae l A . 1979 Catches and Caches: E thnograph ic A l t e r n a t i v e s fo r P r e h i s t o r y . In C- Kramer (ed. ) E thnoarchaeo logy : I m p l i c a t i o n s of Ethnography f o r Archaeology.DP 219-47 New York : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . 152 Kew, Michael 1974 Nazko and Kluskus: Social Conditions and Prospects for the Future (Paper Prepared for the Nazko- Kluskus Study Committee). Kidd, K.E. and M.A. Kidd 1 9 7 0 h Classification System for Glass Beads for the Use of Field Archaeologists, Occasional Papers In Archaeology and History. No.l : Ottawa Kramer, Carol (ed.) 1979 Ethnoarchaeology: Implications of Ethnography for Archaeology. New York: Columbia University. Krajina, V.J. 1959 Blocllmatlc Zones in British Columbia. Botanical Series No.l. University of British Columbia. Kirch, Patrick V. 1982 The Archaeological Study of Adaptation: Theoretical and Methodological Issues. In M.J. Schiffer (ed.), Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Selections for Students from Volumes 1 through 4.. pp. 101-148. New York: Academic Press. Kobrinsky, Vernon H. 1976 The Tslmshianization of the Carrier. In J. Helmer, S. VanDyke, F.J.Kense, Problems in the Prehistory of the North American Subarctic: The Athapaskan Question. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference, pp. 201-211. Archaeological Association, University of Calgary. Lamb, Kay 1957 Sixteen Years in the Indian Country: The Journal of Daniel Williams Harmon 1800-1816. Toronto: McMillan. 1966 The Letters and Journals of Simon Fraser 1806-1808. Toronto: McMillan. 1970 The Journals and Letters of Sir Alexander MacKenzie. Toronto: McMillan. Lyons, Chester 1952 Trees, Shrubs, and Flowers to Know in Br i t ish  Columbia. Toronto: J.M. Dent and Sons. McLean, John 1932 John McLean's Notes of a Twenty-five Year's Service in the Hudson's Bay Territory. B.Wallace (ed.) Toronto: The Champlaln Society. 153 McLellan, Catherine 1981 Intercultural Relations and Cultural Change in the Cordillera. In June Helm (ed.) Subarctic. Handbook of North American Indians. 6. pp. 146-158. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Magne, Martin, R.G. Matson 1984 Athapaskan and Earlier Archaeology at Big Eagle Lake, British Columbla. Report to the Social Sciences and Humanities Council of Canada. Matson, R.G., M. Magne, D.Ludowicz, D.L. Pokotylo 1980 The Eagle Lake Project: Report on the 1979 Season. Report to the Social Sciences and Humanities Council of Canada. Mitchell, Donald H. 1970 Archaeological Investigations on the Chilcotin Plateau. Svesis 3 (1-2): 45-65. Morice, Adrian 1893 Notes Archaeological, Industrial, Sociological on the Western Dene. Transactions of the Canadian Instltute 4:1-222. Toronto. 1978 (1904-)The History of the Northern Interior of British Columbia (Formerly New Caledonia). 1660-1880. Interior Stationary: Smithers. Moore, James A. 1981 The Effects of Information Networks in Hunter- Gatherer Societies. In Bruce Winterhalder and Eric Smith (eds.), Hunter-Gatherer Foraging Strat- egies . pp. 194-218.Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Quimby, George I. 1966 Indian Culture and Trade Goods. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Ray, Arthur 1974 Indians in the Pur Trade: Their Role as Trappers. Hunters. and Middlemen in the Lands Southwest of Hudson's Bay, 1660-1870. Toronto: University of Toronto. Russell, Carl P. 1967 Firearms. Traps, and TooIs of the Mountain Men. New York: Alfred Knopf. Scott, W.B., E.J. Crossman 1973 Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bulletin 184, Ottawa. 154 Sewell, Jack 1952 Archaeological Remains in Central British Columbia. Anthropology in B.C.: pp.28-32. Sneed, Paul 1971 Of Salmon and Men: An Investigation of Ecological Determinants and Aboriginal Man in the Canadian Plateau. Edited by A.H. Stryd and R.A. Smith, pp.229-242, University of Calgary. Steward, Julian 1970 Determinism in Primitive Society ? In B. Cox (ed.) Cultural Ecology. Toronto: McLelland and Stewart. Teit, James A. 1900 The Thompson Indians of British Columbia, American Museum of Natural History. Jesup North Pacific Expedition Memoirs. 2(4). 1906 The Lllooet Indians. American Museum of Natural History.Jesup North Pacific Expedition Memoirs. 2(5). 1909 The Shuswap. American Museum of Natural History. Jesup North Pacific Expedition Memoirs. 2(7). 1930 The Sailshan Tribes of the Western Plateaus. (F. Boas, ed.). Extract From the Forty-fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.Washington: United States Government. Tipper, H.W. 1963 Nechako River Map Area. Ottawa: British Columbia Dept. of Mines and Technical Surveys. Tobey, Margaret L. 1981 (The) Carrier. In J. Helm (ed.), Subarctic. Handbook of North American Indians. 6. pp. 413-432 Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Turner, Nancy J. 1979 Plants in British Columbia Indian Technology. Handbook No.38. Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum. Wilmeth, Roscoe 1978 Anahim Lake Archaeology and the Early Historic Chllcotln Indians. Archaeological Survey of Canada. National Museum of Man, Mercury Series 82. Ottawa Woodward, 1965 A. Indian Trade Goods (2). Portland. Oregon Archaeological Society 155 APPENDIX 1 Faunal Remains - Numbers of Identifiable Elements by Species Recovered By C.Borden at Chinlac (Cranny n.d. : 26-27). beaver (Castor canadensis) 37 deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) 9 salmon (Onchorvnchus sp.) 6 fresh water mussel (Margitafera sp.) 6 trout (Salmo galrdneri) 3 porcupine (Erethizon dorsaturn) 3 muskrat (Ondatra zibethlca) 3 bear (Ursus. sp.) 2 dog (Canis familiar la) 1 red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonlcus) 1 trumpeter swan (Olor buccinator) 1 Total Identifiable Elements 72 Faunal Remains - Numbers of untidentifiable elements by general type. Recovered by C.Borden from Chinlac (Cranny n.d.: 27). small mammal (muskrat and smaller) 12 medium-size mammal (e.g. beaver) 167 large mammal (e.g. bear) 103 medium-size bird (e.g. duck) 1 small bird 3 Total unidentifiable elements 286 156 APPENDIX 2 Ar chae o 1 oq ic a 1 Site Data z. Sites Recorded by Survey in 19 84 Site Designation: FlRv 1 Location: Section Lot 946. UTMG 10U DQ E614 N724. Geog- raphical Coordinates - 53*45'00"N. 123"35'00*W. Site is located on the east bank of Cluculz Creek just off Jardine Rd, .5 km from Highway 16. Drainage: Major - Nechako River. Minor - Cluculz Creek. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 20 m above creek. Vegetation on Site: trembling aspen, fireweed, grasses, lodgepole pine. Site dimensions: 200 m x 140 m- Condition of Site: badly disturbed by land clearing. Cultural Matrix: charcoal, fire-cracked rock, flakes of basalt and other l i t h i c material. Depth of Cultural Matrix: mostly surface, 10-15 cm in house depression on site* Non-cultural matrix: clay, sand, and gravel. Comments: One rectangular house depression (10 m x 15 m) remains. There are the remains of 4 fish weirs asso- ciated wth the site on Cluculz Creek. Site Designation: FlRv 2 Location: Section Lot 1417. UTMG IOU DQ E603 N 715. GC 53P53'42"N , 123* 36' 08 "W . Site is located on the point at the east side of the outflow of Cluculz Lake. Drainage: Cluculz Creek, Nechako River. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 1.5 m above lake level* Vegetation on Site: trembling aspen , lodgepole pine, wild rose, willow, grasses. Site Dimensions: 600 m x 200 m est. Condition of Site: Only 10 % intact. The site has been bulldozed for cottages. Cultural materials are scattered over the site area. Cultural Matrix: fire-cracked rock ,charcoal, basalt and other l i t h i c s . Non - Cultural Matrix: goravel, sand, clay. Comments: a few isolated pockets of intact cultural deposit to 30 cm deep remain. No cache pits or other features noted but many flakes of basalt were seen. 157 Site Designation: FlRv 5 Location: Sec. Lot 4971. UTMG IOU DQ E658 N713. GC. 53 53' 10' N, 123° 30' 50': Site is located on the north shore of Cluculz Lake just off Tapping Rd. Drainage: Cluculz Creek, Nechako River. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 3 m above lake. Vegetation on Site: lodge pole pine, spruce, wild rose, willow. Site Dimensions: 13 m x 10 m> Condition of Site: disturbed by gardening. Cultural Matrix: fire-cracked rock, flakes of basalt, chert, and obsidian, charcoal. Depth of CM.: 20 cm max. Comments: Artifacts have been collected in the garden area. No cache pits or other features were noted. Site Designation: FIRv 6 Location: Sec. Lot 946. UTMG IOU DQ E609 N 722. GC 53° 54' 00"N, 123°35'25"W. Site is on the north shore of Cluculz Lake at the out- flow. Drainage: Cluculz Creek, Nechako River. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 4 m above lake. Vegetation: willow, saskatoon berry, soapberry, raspberry, trembling aspen, spruce, lodgepole pine. Site Dimensions: 150 x 70 m. Condition of Site: badly disturbed by land clearing- Cultural Matrix: burnt earth, fire-cracked rock, flakes - of basalt and other l i t h i c s to a depth of 10 cm- Non - Cultural Matrix: sand, gravel, clay. Comments: artifacts were noted scattered over the area. Site Designation: FIRv 7 Location: Sec. Lot 945. UTMG IOU DQ E600 N728. GC 53* 54' 20" N, 123*36' 40*W. Site is located on the north shore of the bay at the outflow of Cluculz Lake. Drainage: Cluculz Creek, Nechako River. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 5 m above lake. Vegetation: willow, wild rose, saskatoon berry, soap- berry, trembling aspen, spruce, pine, grasses. Site Dimensions: 1000 m x 800 m- Site Condition: largely destroyed- Cultural Matrix: fire-cracked rock, charcoal, basalt flakes scattered over the site area. Depth of CM.: surface - Non-cultural Matrix: clay, sand . Comments: Cultural debris is scattered over a large area but no intact deposit was noted. A rectangular pit 2 x 1.5 x 1 m was noted. 158 Site Designation: FlRv 8 / Location: Sec. Lot 1142. UTMG IOU DQ E597 N712. GC 53'53 30''N, 123* 37'00* W. Site is located on the north shore of Cluculz Lake on Norman Point near the outflow of the lake. Drainage: Cluculz Creek, Nechako River. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 5 m above the lake- Vegetation: trembling aspen, willow, alder, lawn and other grasses. Site Dimensions: 800 x 500 m est. Site Condition: most of the site is under garden or f i l l , l i t t l e is intact. Cultural Matrix: many artifacts have been recovered by residents over the years; fire-cracked rock, charcoal, ash • Depth of CM. : to 20 cm* Non-cultural Matrix: sand, gravel, clay. Comments: apparently a large and rich site at one time, the area i t si t s on has been completely altered by the modern residents. Site Designation: FlRv 9 , Location: Sec Lot 1139. UTMG IOU DQ E587 N704. GC 53 52 55* N , 123* 37'40" W. The site is located on the north shore of Cluculz Lake off Meier Rd. Drainage: Cluculz Creek, Nechako River. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 3 m above lake- Vegetation: trembling, aspen, alder, lodgepole pine, douglas f i r , wild rose, juniper. Site Dimensions: 40 m x 20 m. Site Condition: virt u a l l y destroyed except for scattered cultural material* Cultural Matrix: ash, basalt flakes, fire-cracked rock Depth of CM.: surface scatter. Non-cultural Matrix: gravel, sand, clay. Comments: badly disturbed, no cache pits* Site Designation: FlRv 10 Location: Sec Lot 1145. UTMG IOU DQ E697 N581. GC 53° 52' 55"N, 123* 38'10 "W. On the north shore of the lake approx. 3 km from the west end* Drainage: Cluculz creek, Nechako River* Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 5 m above lake* Vegetation: trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, willow, saskatoon berry. Site Dimensions: 40 m x 20 m. Site Condition: cat work has scattered cultural mater- i a l s . No intact deposits. Cultural Matrix: ash, charcoal, cracked rock, flakes of basalt, chert, obsidian, other artifacts. Non- cultural Matrix: clay, sand* Comments: badly disturbed, materials scattered. 159 Site Designation: FlRv 11 Location: Sec Lot 1135. UTMG IOU DQ E578 N689. GC 53*52' 00AN , 123* 38' 30" W. On the north shore of Cluculz Lake approximately 2.2 km from the west end. Drainage: Cluculz Creek, Nechako River. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 5 m above lake- Vegetation: trembling aspen, nettle, spruce, birch,soapberry, grasses* Site Dimensions: 50 m x 40 m. Site Condition: somewhat disturbed by land clearing but 90 % intact, cultural materials are li g h t l y scattered over the site area. Cultural Matrix: fire-cracked rock, basalt flakes, char- coal- Depth of CM.: surface. Non-cultural Matrix: clay, sand, gravel* Comments: a single small ( l m x l m x l m ) cache pit is associated with the sit e . Site Designation: FlRv 12 . Location: Sec Lot 1417. UTMG IOU DQ E613 N714. GC 53 53 40 "N, 123" 35' 20*W. On the north shore of Cluculz Lake approx. 1 km east of FlRv 2. Drainage: Cluculz Creek, Nechako River- Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 12 m above lake- Vegetation: trembling aspen, spruce, willow, wild rose, grasses. Site Dimensions: 25 m x 40 m est. Site Condition: no longer intact. Cultural Matrix: Fire- cracked rock, l i t h i c s - Depth of CM.: unknown* Non-cultural Matrix: sandy clay and gravel. Comments: site is known from occasional basalt flakes and cracked rock noted in garden area, and because artifacts were recovered by residents. Site Designation: FlRv 13 # Location: Sec Lot 8902. UTMG IOU DQ E593 N696. GC 53*52 30"N, 123' 37'10"W. On the north shore of an island in Cluculz Lake, SW of the outflow of the lake. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 20 m above lake* Vegetation: aspen, spruce, Douglas f i r , soapberry, grasses* Site Dimensions: 10 m x 10 m. Site Condition: good. Cultural Matrix: a surface scatter of numerous basalt flakes. Non-cultural Matrix: coarse sand and gravel Comments: basalt flakes average 2 cm across, and 2-5 cm thick. 160 Site Designation: FIRv 14 Location: Sec Lot 8902. UTMG IOU DQ E595 N697. GC 53*52* 31" N, 123* 36'55" W. On eastern end of the island occupied also by FlRv 13. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 20 in above lake on a slope. Vegetation: as FIRv 13- Site Dimensions: 10 m x 13 m. Site Condition: badly disturbed, raked often by residents. Cultural Matrix: basalt flakes and chips scattered on the surface. Non-cultural Matrix: clay, sand, gravel. Comments: similar to FIRv 13. Site Designation: FIRv 15 ^ Location: Sec Lot 946. UTMG IOU DQ E613 N730. GC 54*54 15*N, 123* 35'15" W. On the west bank of Cluculz Creek 1.8 km from the outflow of the lake. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 7 m above the creek Vegetation: willow, grasses. Site Dimensions: 40 m x 15 m- Site Condition: uncertain - Cultural matrix consists of several basalt flakes were scattered over surface of site area. Non:cultural Matrix: clay, sand, gravel. Comments: very l i t t l e cultural material present- Site Designation: FIRv 16 , Location: Sec Lot 944. UTMG IOU DQ E604 N748. GC 53*55 20"N, 123*36' 10" W. On the west bank of Cluculz Creek approx. 2 km from the outflow of the lake. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 15 m above creek- Vegetation: willow, trembling aspen, grasses, spruce* Site Dimensions: 20 m x 10 m - Site Condition: uncertain,only a few basalt and chert flakes were found on site. Non-cultural Matrix: sand, gravel, clay- Comments: very l i t t l e on site. Site Designation: FIRv 17 Location: Sec Lot 826. UTMG IOU DQ E632 N835. GC 53 59' 30"N, 123* 33'35"w. Site is on the Nechako River approx. 2 km west of its confluence with the Stuart. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL.15 m above river level Vegetation: trembling aspen, spruce, Douglas f i r , juniper, labrador tea, birch* Site Dimensions: 50 m x 100 m. Site Condition: good - site consists of 21 small circu- lar cache pits ( l m x l m x l m ) only. Non-cultural matrix: sandy s o i l . Comments: no other cultural material noted. 161 Site Designation: FlRv 19 Location: Sec Lot 6455. UTMG IOU DQ E644 N789. GC 53*57' 40*N, 123*33' 20*W. Site is at the west end of Cobb Lake on the north shore. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 2 m above lake. Vegetation: lodgepole pine, spruce, red osier dogwood, willow* Site Dimensions: 10 m x 10 m. Site condition: apparently intact. Cultural matrix: basalt flakes, charcoal, fire-cracked rock scattered on the surface. Non-cultural matrix: forest duff, sand, gravel. Comments: a small site with no cache pits. Site Designation: FlRv 20 , Location: Sec Lot 6455. UTMG IOU DQ E637 N787. GC 53 57 40"N, 123*33'15"W. Site is on the^northh shore of Cobb Lake at the west end. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 2 m above lake. Vegetation: as FlRv 19. Site Dimensions: 20 m x 15 m . Site Condition: mostly intact- Cultural Matrix: fire-cracked rock, charcoal, flakes of basalt and obsidian scattered on the surface* Non-cultural Matrix: as FlRv 20* Comments: a small site with no cache pits. Site Designation: FlRv 21 Location: Sec Lot 4565. UTMG IOU DQ E644 N785. GC 53*57 17"N, 123* 32'50* W. On the north shore of Cobb Lake, approx. 1 km from the west end* Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 2 m above lake* Vegetation: as FlRv 19* Site Dimensions: 20 m x 15 m • Site Condition: vi r t u a l l y intact- Cultural Matrix: l i t h i c scatter, f i r e broken rock, char- coal is scattered on the surface* Non-cultural matrix: as FlRv 19. Comments: a small site with no cache pits or other features. Site Designation: FlRv 22 Location: Sec Lot 4565. UTMG IOU DQ E648 N784. GC 53 57 20"N, 123" 32'18"W. On the north shore of Cobb Lake 1.5 km from the west end. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 2 m above lake. Vegetation : as FlRv 19* Site Dimensions: 10 m x 15 m - Site Condition: intact*. Cultural Matrix: a surface scatter of basalt flakes* Non-cultural Matrix: as FlRv 19* Comments: no cache pits or other features. 162 Site Designation: FIRv 23 Location: Sec Lot 4565. UTMG IOU DQ E651 N786. GC 53^57' 40"N, 123*32'00"w. On the north shore of Cobb Lake approx. 1.7 km from the west end* Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 3 m above Cobb Lake. Vegetation: as FIRv 19* Site Dimensions: 15 m x 10 m - Site Condition: 50 % intact. Cultural Matrix: a surface scatter of fire-cracked rock* charcoal, basalt flakes . Comments: no cache pits or other features. Site Designation: FIRv 24 Site Location: Sec Lot 4565. UTMG IOU DQ E653 N790. GC 53' 57 '50* N, 123*31'40" W. On the north shore of Cobb Lake approx. 700 m from the east end> Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 1 m above lake- Vegetation: as Flrv 19* Site Dimensions: 5 m x 5 m - Site Condition: badly eroded by lake action. Cultural Matrix: a surface scatter of basalt flakes and fire-cracked rocks - Comments: no cache pits or other features* Site Designation: FIRv 25 Site Location: Sec Lot 830. UTMG IOU DQ E654 N826. GC 53 59' 38"N, 123" 31' 40"W. On the north bank of the Nechako River approx. .8 km east of the confluence. Elevation: 2100 feet ASL. 20 m above the river* Vegetation: trembling aspen, spruce, lodgepole pine, birch, willow, juniper. Site Dimensions: 20 m x 65 m est. Site Condition: good • Cultural Matrix: site consists of 6 small circular cache pits on a high sandy river bank. Site Designation: FlRv 26 Site Location: Sec Lot 1178. UTMG IOU DQ E580 N807. GC 53*58' 35" N, 123* 38' 20~W. On the south bank of the Nechako River approx. 2.5 km west of Finmoore. Elevation: 2100 feet ASL. 15 m above the r i v e r . Vegetation: cottonwood, willow, alder, spruce, lodgepole pine. Site Dimensions: 40 m x 20 m* Comments: site consists of a rectangular cache pit (2m x 1 l/2m) and 3 small ( lm x lm ) circular cache pits in a line. No other cultural materials were noted. 163 Site Designation: FlRv T27 Site Location: Sec Lot 826. UTMG IOU DQ E645 N824. GC 53 59'20''N, 123*32'30"W. At the confluence of the Stuart and Nechako Rivers. Elevation: 2100 feet ASL. 25 m above river* Vegetation: trembling aspen, spruce, lodgepole pine, grasses. Site Dimensions: 10 m x 20 m. Comments: site consists of a thin surface scatter of charcoal with some fire-cracked rock. A few basalt flakes were noted. There are two small, possible cache pits. Soil is sandy with gravel. Site Designation: FlRv T28 Site Location: Sec Lot 830. UTMG IOU DQ E648 N821 . GC 53"59'15"N, 123* 32'10* W. At the confluence of the Stuart and Nechako Rivers. Elevation: 2100 feet ASL. 10 m above river. Vegetation: trembling aspen, spruce, pine, wild rose, nettle, grasses. Site Dimensions: 110 m x 80 m. Site Condition: very good, very l i t t l e disturbance. Cultural Matrix: fire-cracked rock, charcoal, artifacts, etc to a depth of 30 cm. Non-cultural Matrix: clay, sand, gravel. Comments: There are 3 rectangular house impressions (av. size 10 m x 7 m )and several small circular cache pits on the s i t e . Site Designation: FIRv T34. Site Location: Sec Lot 4546. UTMG IOU DQ E69 4 N829. GC 53*59' 49"N, 123">27'46 W. On the south bank of the Nechako River approx. 4;5 km downriver from the confluence of the Nechako and Stuart Rivers. Elevation: 2100 feet ASL. 30 m above river. Vegetation: alder, spruce, lodgepole pine, birch* Site Dimensions: 8 m x 10 m. Comments: Site consists of 3 shallow cache pits. Site Designation: Chinlac ( Designated GaRv 1 by C. Borden) Site Location: Sec Lot 826. UTMG IOU DQ E641 N830. GC 53° 59' 50"N, 123*32'55*W. On the west bank of the Stuart River approximately 1 km from the confluence. Elevation: 2100 feet ASL. 30 m above the river* Vegetation on Site: grasses, juniper, lodgepole pine, spruce, labrador tea, saskatoon berry. Site Dimensions: the site is best divided into 2 parts. The habitation site 300 m x 200 m, and the cache pit fi e l d which is approx. 200 m x 1000 m in size. Comments: See Chapter 7 in this thesis. 164 Site Designation: GaRv 1 Site Location: Sec Lot 832. UTMG IOU DQ E695 N835. GC 54" 00' 0l"N, 123*27' 45"W. On the north bank of the Nechako River, near a log cabin, about 3 km east of the confluence. Elevation: 2100 feet ASL. 20 m above the river. Vegetation on Site: aspen, spruce, pine, juniper, rasp- berry, wild rose. Site Dimensions: 20 m x 10 m. Condition of Site: 50 % Intact. Comments: A shallow ( < 5 cm) deposit of fire-cracked rock, charcoal, and artifacts covered with forest duff, on sandy, gravelly s o i l . No cache pits. Site Designation: GaRv 4 ^ , Location: Sec Lot 832. UTMG IOU DQ E685 N839. GC 54 00 20"N, 123"29' 10*W. On the north bank of the Nechako about 2 km west of the confluence with the Stuart. Elevation: 2100 feet ASL. 10 m above the river. Vegetation: willow, grasses, alder, wild rose. Dimensions: 7 m x 3 m. Comments: 3 small (lm x lm x lm) circular cache pits in a row on the river bank, in sandy s o i l . Site Designation: GaRv 5 , Location: Sec Lot 912. UTMG IOU DQ E684 N838. GC 54*00 10*N, 123*30' 00"W. On the south bank of the Nechako River about 2 km from the confluence. Elevation: 2100 feet ASL. 10 m above river- Vegetation: spruce, pine, cottonwood, wild rose- Comments: site consists of a single rectangular cache pit in sandy s o i l . The pit is 1 1/2 m x 2 1/2 m x 1 m deep and is hiden in the trees. Site Designation: GaRv T6 „ Location: Sec Lot 5427. UTMG IOU DQ E632 N848. GC 54 00' 50"N, 123*33' 40"W. On the east bank of the Stuart River approximately 2 km north of Chinlac- Elevation: 2100 feet ASL. 10 m above river level- Vegetation: aspen, pine, raspberry, kinnikinnick, grasses. Comments: site consists of a single small circular cache pit ( lm x lm x lm) on a sandy bench near the river* 165 Site Designation: GaRv T8 Location: Sec Lot 826. UTMG IOU DQ E637 N837. GC 54 Ou' I O'N, 123*33'10*W. On the west bank of the Stuart about 1500 m from the confluence with the Nechako. Elevation: 2100 feet ASL. 10 m above the river. Vegetation: aspen, pine, wild cose, willow, red osier dogwood. Comments: the site consists of a group of 96 circular cache pits dug into a sandy gravelly s o i l , and covering an area of 200 m x 50 m along the river bank. Site Designation: FIRw 1 Location: Tp 10 Cariboo District Range 4. UTMG IOU DQ E455 N688. GC 53° 50' 55"N, 123*50'00"W. At the north end of Hogsback Lake. Elevation: 2600 feet ASL. 2 m above the lake. Vegetation: pine spruce, aspen, willow, labrador tea* Site Size: est. 30 m x 10 m. Comments: a surface scatter of fire-cracked rock, char- coal, some basalt and obsidian flakes, on sandy, gravelly s o i l . Site Designation: FIRw 4 m Location: Sec Lot 1167. UTMG IOU DQ E454 N678. GC 53 51 35* N, 123*44' 05AW. On the west side of Sob Lake Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 100 m above the lake. Vegetation: saskatoon berry, pine, aspen, spruce* Site Size: 40 m x 10 m. Comments: site is on a ridge above the lake and features an oval shaped depression ( 2m x 3m x 1 1/2 m deep), fire-cracked rock, charcoal , and l i t h i c s of basalt and obsidian. Site Designation: FIRw 5 Location: Sec lot 1169. UTMG IOU DQ E551 N670. GC 53*51 00"N, 123*40'55"W. On the north shore of Cluculz Lake about 500 m from the west end* Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 10 m above the lake. Vegetation: lodgepole pine, trembling aspen, spruce, wild rose- Site Size: 25 m x 15 m- Comments: site is a surface scatter of fire-cracked rock, charcoal, and basalt flakes, on gravel and sandy clay. No cache pits noted. 166 S i t e Designation: FlRw 6 a Location: Sec Lot 1169. UTMG IOU DQ E549 N668. GC 53 50* 55"N, 123*41'00"W. On the north shore of Cluculz Lake about 600 m from the west end. Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 20 m above the lake. Vegetation: as FlRw 5. Site Size: est. 100 m x 50m. Comments: the site consists of six shallow (presently 1 m deep) small circular cache pits in sandy s o i l (to 2 m in diameter). Site Designation: FlRw T i l , Location: Sec Lot 1134. UTMG IOU DQ E555 N674. GC 53 51 35"N, 123*40'30"W. On the north shore of Cluculz Lake about 1.5 km from the west end* Elevation: 2500 feet ASL. 20 m above lake level. Vegetation: as FlRw 5. Site Size: 30 x 50 m est. Comments: site is badly disturbed by a bulldozer and fire-cracked rock, charcoal, and basalt flakes are thinly scattered over the site area. Site Designation: FlRw T12 9 Location: Sec Lot 1134. UTMG IOU DQ E556 N675. GC 53 51 35"N, 123*40'35"W. On the north shore of Cluculz lake approximately 1.6 km from the west end. Elevation: as FlRw T i l * Vegetation: as FlRw 5* Site Size: 10 m x 20 m. Comments: the site may be connected to FlRw T i l . Fire- cracked rock, charcoal, and basalt flakes hawe been scattered over the surface by a bulldozer. 167

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Canada 38 0
United States 20 2
China 5 0
Japan 4 0
France 2 0
United Kingdom 1 0
Republic of Korea 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 25 2
Vancouver 10 0
Mountain View 7 0
Somers 6 0
Tokyo 4 0
Beijing 3 0
Ashburn 3 0
Mission 2 0
Kamloops 2 0
Shenzhen 2 0
Victoria 2 0
Sunnyvale 1 0
Prince George 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items